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■ •♦■ 

Christopher Marshall, from whose Diary, 
called by him a *^ Remembrancer," the following 
extracts have been made, was by birthright a 
member of the Society of Friends, being of one 
of the oldest families of English origin in the 
Province of Pennsylvania. His sympathy with 
the cause of American liberty caused his exclu- 
sion from the religious denomination to which 
he had belonged. This expulsion will explain 
and perhaps excuse the severity of his views 
respecting the political conduct of some of his 
fellow citizens. His associates were among the 
most prominent Whigs of the country, by 
whom, it is evident, that he was held in high 
esteem. I have been unable to ascertain the 
exact date of his death, but as his will was dated 
in 1796^ and proved on the 3d of May in 1797, 
I think that his decease probably occurred in 
the early part of the latter year. 

The portions of his diary omitted in the fol- 
lowing pages relate mainly to private matters, 
the state of the weather, &c., and possess no 

IV . Preface. 

interest at this day. It is believed that no im- 
portant entry has been omitted in the follow- 
ing pages. 

The early portion of these extracts was pub- 
lished in the year 1839, and extracts from 
another year appeared in 1849. 

William Duane. 

Philadelphia, December 1876. 




January 9. Very little news has transpired this week, 
except an observation on the conduct of the Bostonians. 
See Pinnsyhania yournal^ No. 1623. 

1 8. Sundry resolves were passed by our Assembly 
respecting the riots in the county of Northumberland ; 
also, some resolutions were laid before the House from 

20. This day was published a scheme for a Society 
of Innoculating for the Small Pox. 

March 23. Account of [the] destruction of tea in 
Boston reached London about [the] 20th of January, 
and our tea ship sent back arrived at Dover the 25th 
same month. 

April 25. Received by ship Concord, Captain Volans, 
from Bristol, eighty-four pamphlets from my friend, 
George Stonehouse. Great debates in the House of 
Commons. See Pennsylvania Journal^ No. 1 64 1. 

May 21. This day part of [the] Standing Committee 
met to consider the resolve of the town of Boston, sent 
here by express, but as they were uncertain what the 
Provinces of Maryland, Virginia, and Carolina would 
do, they appointed a suitable answer to be wrote back to 
New York and Boston, and at [the] same time wrote 
to other Provinces to know their minds on this alarming 
occasion, which was sent by express, and [they] wait 
till its return. The same day arrived the ship Prosperity, 
Captain M'CuUoch, from Belfast in twenty-eight days, 
with four hundred and fiftv passengers. 

30. A number of the inhabitants, composed of 

6 Christopher Marshals Diary [May 1774 

most of the diiFerent Societies in this city, met and agreed 
that it would be proper to express their sympathy for 
their brethren at Boston, by suspending all business on 
that day, viz. the first of June. 

June i. This being the day when the cruel act for 
blocking up the harbor of Boston took eiFect, many of 
the inhabitants of this city, to express their sympathy and 
show their concern for their suiFering brethren in the 
common cause of liberty, had their shops shut up, their 
houses kept close from hurry and business ; also the 
ring of bells at Christ Church were mufRed, and rung a 
solemn peal at intervals, from morning till night ; the 
colors of the vessels in the harbor were hoisted half- 
mast high ; the several houses of different worship were 
crowded, where divine service was performed, and par- 
ticular discourses, suitable to the occasion, were preached 
by F. Allison, Duffield, Sprout, and Blair. Sorrow, mixed 
with indignation, seemed pictured in the countenances of 
the inhabitants, and indeed the whole city wore the as- 
pect of deep distress, being a melancholy occasion. 

4. This being the birth-day of King George III, 
scarcely, if any, notice was taken of it in this city, by 
way of rejoicing : not one of our bells suffered to ring, 
and but very few colors were shown by the shipping in 
the harbor ; no, nor not one bonfire kindled. 

8. This day a petition was presented to John Penn, 
our governor (signed by near nine hundred respectable 
freeholders in and near this city), requesting him to call 
the Assembly, in order to consider the proceedings of the 
British Parliament towards America in their proceedings 
against the town of Boston, &c., &c., to which his Honor 
was pleased to return the following answer : " Gentlemen, 
upon occasions when the peace, order, and tranquility ot 
the Province require it, I shall be ready to convene the 
Assembly ; but as that does not appear to be the case 
at present, I cannot think such a step would be expedient 
or consistent with my duty." 

June 1774] of the American Revolution. 7 

9. A great number of mechanics met at the State 
House about six o'clock in the evening, in order to con- 
sider an answer to send to the tradesmen of New York, 
who had written to this city respecting what was neces- 
sary to be done. At this meeting, John Ross, Esq., 
opened the reasons for calling them together, read their 
letter, &c. ; upon which a committee amongst the trades- 
men was appointed, who are to answer the said letter, 
and communicate and keep up a correspondence with the 
committee at New York. 

10. There was a meeting held at the Philosophical 
Hall, and also the day after, consisting of the committee 
and a number of other inhabitants, called in from all 
Societies in town, to advise, consult and deliberate upon 
the propositions that were to be laid before the general 
meeting of the inhabitants on the eighteenth instant, near 
the State House, at three o'clock in the afternoon. 

18. A very large and respectable meeting of the free- 
holders and freemen of this city and county met in the 
State House yard, where Thomas Willing and John 
Dickinson were chairmen, when they entered into six 
spirited resolves, and chose forty-three persons as com- 
mitteemen to transact their affairs. 

22. This day twenty-nine of the committee met at 
the Carpenters' Hall, in Chesnut street, Thomas Willing 
in the chair, agreed and appointed three of their members, 
viz. Joseph Reed, John Nixon, and Thomas Whar- 
ton to wait upon the Speaker of the Assembly, requesting 
him to call upon the Assembly, and to give them a posi- 
tive answer whether he would or not, before they made 
their report to the General Committee that is to meet 
on Monday, the 27th inst. They also, at this meeting, 
appointed a number of their members to go to different 
parts of the city and suburbs to crave collections for poor 

July 11. This day arrived at New Castle, the ship 
Minerva, Captain Lindsey, from Newry, with four 
hundred and fifty passengers. 

8 Christopher Mar sbairs Diary [July 1774 

15. This day, about four o'clock P.M., met at the 
Carpenters' Hall, in* this city, the representatives ap- 
pointed to attend from the several committees of the 
different counties in this Province, viz. Bucks, Chester, 
Lancaster, York, Cumberland, Berks, Northampton, 
and Northumberland, to confer with the committee 
chosen by this city and county, and also to consult and 
consider what may be proper to propose to our General 
Assembly that is called by our Governor to meet the 
1 8th instant, respecting the critical situation of all the 
American Colonies. There appeared in this meeting 
great unanimity, and a set of resolves [was adopted] in 
general, declaratory of the sense of this Province on the 
present state of British America, and the peculiar suffer- 
ings of our brethren in Boston, in order to lay before 
our Assembly, the i8th. 

Arrived this day at New Castle, the ship Peace and 
Plenty, Captain McKinzey, with four hundred passen- 
gers, from Belfast. 

21. The delegates from the several counties of this 
Province have sat every day (First Day excepted) 
since the 15th inst., preparing a set of general resolves 
declaratory of the sense of this Province on the present 
state of British America, and the peculiar sufferings of 
our brethren in Boston, and as our Assembly have re- 
solved themselves into a grand committee, and appointed 
this day at ten o'clock for the consideration of the sundry 
letters from the committees of our sister colonies, they 
have given leave for our Provincial Committee to attend 
and hear their debates. 

22. The Assembly of this Province, taking into con- 
sideration the difficulties that had subsisted between 
Great Britain and her colonies, came into the measure 
proposed, that a Congress of Deputies from the several 
Colonies be held, as soon as may be convenient, [and] 
have appointed the following, viz., Joseph Galloway, 
Speaker^ Samuel Rhoads, Thomas MifHin, Charles Hum- 
phreys, John Morton, George Ross, and Edward Biddle. 

July 1774] of the American Revolution. 9 

25. Accounts from New Castle of the arrival of the 
Snow Charlotte, Captain Gafney, from Waterford, with 
one hundred and ten passengers, and the ship Hope, 
Captain McClanahan, from Newry, with two hundred 
and twenty passengers. 

August 6. The ship Renown, Captain Keith, arrived 
at New Castle, from Newry, with three hundred and 
fifty passengers ; as is also the ship Needham, Captain 
Chevers, at New York, with three hundred passengers. 

9. In the Charleston packet. Captain Wright, came 
passengers, the Hon. Henry Middleton and Edward 
Ruiledge, Esq's., two of the gentlemen who are nomi- 
nated to attend the Congress from the Colony of South 

10. Also arrived, the ship Hannah, Captain Mitchell, 
from Londonderry, with four hundred passengers, and 
Captain Jones, from London, with one hundred passen- 
gers, mostly tradesmen. 

22. Arrived, brig Sea Nymph, Captain Moore, from 
Charleston, South Carolina, with whom [came] passen- 
gers Thomas Lynch and Christopher Gadsden, two of 
the delegates from that Province. The latter end of 
this week came to town. Col. Nathaniel Fulson and 
Major John Sullivan, delegates from New Hampshire. 

29. Came to town, Hon. Thomas Cushing, Samuel 
Adams, Robert Treat Paine, and John Adams, delegates 
from the Province of Massachusetts Bay, with whom 
came in company, from New York, John Rutledge, 
delegate from South Carolina, who took his passage to 
New York. 

30. Arrived, the ship Alexander, Captain Hunter, 
with about six hundred passengers, from Londonderry. 

31. Also, this week, arrived the delegates from New 
York, New Hampshire, Connecticut, [and] Maryland, 
with sundry members from the lower counties*, and 
some from this Province. 

* The three counties now forming the State of Delaware. 

lo Christopher MarshalFs Diary [Sept. 1774. 

September 5. The gentlemen that arrived in town 
as delegates, about fifty-three in number, met at the Car- 
penters' Hall, when Hon. Peyton Randolph was chosen 
chairman, and Charles Thomson, secretary. 

12. The delegates from North Carolina viz., Joseph 
Hewes and William Hooper, Esq's., arrived this day, 
and Richard Caswell, Esq., the other delegate, is 
hourly expected. This same day and yesterday, the 
eight companies of the Royal Regiment of Ireland 
marched from hence, in two divisions, for Amboy and 
Elizabethtown, to be shipped for Boston. 

24. This same day began the Quakers' Yearly Meet- 
ing, and continued from day to day, until the first of 
October, from which meeting, they sent forth an epistle 
that has given great offence to the friends of freedom 
and liberty in America. 

October i. Election this day, when G. Gray, Henry 
Pawling, John Dickenson, Joseph Parker, Israel Jacobs, 
Jonathan Roberts, Michael Hillegas, and Samuel Rhoads, 
were chosen Representatives for this county. 

3. This day Thomas Mifflin and Charles Thomson 
were elected Burgesses for this county. 

4. Samuel Rhoads was chosen mayor of this city. 
20. This day the Assembly of this Province gave a 

grand entertainment unto all the delegates from the 
different Provinces at this time in the city, at what is 
called the New Tavern, in Second street.* 

November 7. Notice being given this morning of a 
meeting, to be held this afternoon at the State House, a 
number met, at which it was concluded that a new com- 
mittee, to the number of sixty, should be chosen, to 
manage public affairs for this City, the Southern and 
Northern Liberties, to be chosen by ballot, the 12th 
inst., and to continue in that station till the meeting and 

' The building above Walnut street, afterwards known as the Merchants* 
Coffee House. It was pulled down not many years ago. 

Nov. 1 774] of the American Revolution. 1 1 

sitting of the next Congress, and two weeks after the 
said Congress breaks up, and no longer. 

14. This day the Freeholders meet pursuant to 
agreement, at the State House, and chose, by ballot, 
sixty inhabitants for committee men, as was before 
agreed upon ; but as the Southern District complained 
that it was not fully represented,' they therefore re- 
quested that four of their District mignt be added to 
the sixty that were chosen, the which was granted them, 
and also three were afterwards added on the Northern 
Liberty account. Within the week past, sotne vessels 
are arrived from Ireland, and one from Holland, with a 
number of passengers. 

December 4. Arrived, the ship Jamaica, R. Graham, 
from London, with a great quantity of goods, upon 
which, the committee was called ; also arrived, the 

ship , from — : , with salt and coals. As 

these arrived after the time specified by the General 
Congress, they come under the regulation of Article the 
loth of the Association. 

5. The ship Friendship, Captain Jann, from Cork, 
is arrived at New Castle, with two hundred passengers. 

6. Arrived, the ship Pennsylvania Packet, Captain 
Osborne, from Liverpool, in seven weeks, said to be 
full of goods ; upon which there was a meeting of the 
merchants to consider what was necessary, and to wait 
on the committee with an application in order to hear 
their resolutions, the which were published in handbills, 
the next day, for their government. 

8. In the handbills published yesterday, the committee 
recommended to all importers of goods, a perusal of, 
and attention to, the nth Article of the General Con- 
gress, viz., '' That a committee be chosen in every county, 
city, and town, by those who are qualified to vote for Re- 
presentatives in the Legislature, whose business it shall 
be, attentively to observe the conduct of all persons 
touching this Association, and when it shall be made to 

12 Christopher Marshall! s Diary [Dec. 1774 

appear, to the satisfaction of a majority of any such com- 
mittee, that any person within the h'mits of their appoint- 
ment has violated this Association, that such majority 
do forwith cause the truth of the case to be published 
in the Gazette^ to the end that all such foes to the rights 
of British America may be publicly known and univer- 
sally contemned as the enemies of American liberty, 
and thenceforth, we respectively will break ofF all deal- 
ings with him or her. 

30. Debates in the Quaker Monthly Meeting this day 
which held by and with adjournment till ten at night, 
and then adjourned to the second day of next month. 

January 2. Which meeting held from six until near 
ten o'clock. The debates ran high respecting their 
conduct in these troublesome times that are expected. 
In regard thereto, their members were enjoined not to 
concern themselves in the public disputes, nor to interrupt 
any of the king's officers in the discharge of their duty, 
but to pay all humble and dutiful obedience unto the 
king or his ministers' mandates, from time to time ; not 
to join, nor to be in any of the city, county, provincial, 
or general committees, if so, whoever offends is to be 
dealt with as walking contrary to their discipline. 

6. A remarkable circumstance : — This day, about 
three P.M., a girl brought up by my wife, named 

Polly , about twelve years old, went out to slide 

or play, dressed as usual, without cap or bonnet, and did 
not return till about nine o'clock next morning, Al 
this space of time, she says that she was in no house, 
nor near any fire, but sat between two logs all that 
night, in an open lot, in Spruce street (as she says) yet 
received nor took no cold, although it was one of the 
coldest freezing nights this winter. 

18. This evening the city and suburbs committee 

Jan. 1775] ^f ^^^ American Revolution. -13 

met. Some of them waited on the Carpenters' Com- 
pany for the use of their Hall for the Provincial Com- 
mittee to meet in, and were answered that they might 
have [it] for paying ten shillings per diem.* Spokes- 
man, Joseph Fox. 

23. The committee from all the counties in this 
Province met (except from Bucks), to the amount of 
near one hundred, at the State House ; broke up the 
twenty- eighth, having finished all their business amicably. 

24. Meetings daily amongst the Quakers, in order, if 
possible, to defeat the pacinc proceedings of the Con- 
tinental Congress, calling upon their members not 
to meet the county committees, but entirely to with- 
draw from them, under the penalty of excommu- 
nication This day was also a paper published, 

called a Testimony of the People called Quakers, in 
which is contained such gross abuse against all persons 
that oppose their fallacious schemes, and stuffed with 
such false contradictions, that it will be a lasting me- 
mento of the truth of what Robert Walker, one of their 
public preachers, now here, often told them, and warned 
them to take care, because, says he, the Lord is de- 
parted from you, as he did from Saul, and has given you 
over to your own devices. 

27. This day John Dickinson attended the Provincial 
Congress in order to show and contradict the notorious 
lies promulgated in Rivington's paper, No. 91. 

At Dr. Chovet's Lecture." 

February ii. This day was published, in J. Hum 
phrey*s Ledger^ No. 3, a scandalous letter, said to come 
from Kent County, Delaware.^ 

13. Some cime last week arrived, from London, the 
ship Polly and Peggy, but brought no kind of merchant 

' Pennsylvania Currency — seven shiUings and sixpence of which were 
equal to a dollar. 
"See Appendix (B.) 
s See entry of April 29th. 

14^ Christopher Marsbair s Diary [Feb. 1775 

goods : in that time also arrived a brig from Madeira, 
having a (tw pipes of wine. The owner advised the 
committee, and declared his intentions to send away the 
said vessel and wines, agreeably to the direction of the 

28. This day a petition was presented by the Quakers' 
interest, requesting the suspending of our fairs in this 
city : also, a petition from our committee respecting no 
negroes to be any more imported liere. 

March i. Early this morning, departed these parts, 
universally lamented by the friends of slavery, but to the 
joy and satisfaction of the lovers of freedom, that bane- 
ful and detested weed. East India TEA, whose return 
is never desired or wished for by the true sons of Ame- 
rican liberty. 

9th, Yesterday evening, arrived, ship Chalkley, Cap- 
tain Spain, from Bristol, who brought account that his 
Majesty had received the petition of our American Con- 
gress, and promised to lay it before the Parliament, who 
were to meet, by adjournment, the nineteenth of January. 
In the interim, petitions are preparing by the body of 
merchants in London, Bristol,, and all over England. 
This news causes our Tories to be quite jaw-fallen and 

17. Yesterday an election was held at the Carpenters' 
Hall, for choosing officers for the new manufactory, set 
on foot for making woollens, linen, and cotton, when 
Joseph Stiles was chosen Treasurer, James Cannon, 
Secretary, and twelve managers, viz., Christopher Mar- 
shall, Jacob Winey, Isaac Gray, Samuel Wetherill, Jr., 
Christopher Ludwick, Frederick Kuhl, Robert Strettlc 
Jones, Richard Wells, Thomas Tilbury, James Popham, 
and Isaac Howell, for one year. 

21. Last night, nine of the managers met at Captain 
Stiles's school room, sent for William Smith, who came, 
of whom we took his house in Market Street, for three 
years, for forty pounds per annum. 

Mar. 1775] ^f ^^^ American Revolution. . 1 5 

22. The Pennsylvania Journal^ No. 1685, S^^es a 
succinct account of the proceedings of [the] New York 
and Elizabeth Town Committees respecting the state of 
the case of Messrs. Robert and John Murray, merchants 
of New York, who had landed goods out of the ship 
Beulah^ from Londonderry, contrary to the resolve of 

23. Account from New York yesterday, that Messrs. 
Murrays' house and store [were] shut up, and a seal put 
upon the latter. Thus may be seen the manly behavioi 
of the committee of New i ork, notwithstandmg the op- 
position they met with, both in their Assembly House 
and public proceedings, by the enemies of our country. 
The committee of the county of Cumberland, New 
Jersey, have also published the behavior of Silas New- 
comb, Esq., respecting persisting in drinking East [India] 
Tea, since the first of March, agreeably to the eleventh 
Article of the American Congress. See Pennsylvania 
Gazette^ No. 2413. 

April 13. This morning was published the Address 
of the Lords and Commons to his Majesty, on the ninth 
of last February, wherein they declare Massachusetts 
Bay in a state of rebellion, and countenanced and en- 
couraged by unlawful combinations in several of the other 
Colonies, and also, that all the Bostonians who signed, 
as they call it, a league and covenant, are declared by 
the crown lawyers, to have committed an overt act of 
high treason. Thereupon were ordered for Boston, to 
chastise them, thrfee regiments of foot, one of dragoons, 
seven companies of marines, a large train of artillery. 
Notwithstanding all this, some of our staunch friends in 
England beheld with horror the ministerial proceedings, 
and as proof thereof, and to their lasting fame be it re- 
corded, that the Constitutional Society stepped forth, and 
showed their dislike of those cruel proceedings by their 
resolving unanimously, that one hundred pounds sterling 
be sent by that Society to Dr. Franklin, requesting him 
to transmit the same for the relief of the town of Boston. 

1 6 Christopher Marshall s Diary [April 1775 

20. News brought by post this day, of the arrival of 
the Snow, Sir William Johnson, Captain Dean, at New 
York, the 19th, in thirty-one days from London. It is 
said his papers are to [the] 5th [of] March, and [he] 
says that '' Sixteen men-of-war and ninety-five transports 
are certainly coming out to America, to bring over eleven 
regiments and two troops of horse, he thinks, to New 
York," and that "a nobleman is ordered out to New 
York, in order to bring about a pacification," (I hope) 
and that " the city of London have subscribed thirty 
thousand pounds sterling for the poor of Boston." 

21. Went to the Manufactory before ten, stayed till 
eleven, in company and back with Frederick Kuhl, my 
attending partner each day for one week ; morning at 

ten, afternoon at three James Cannon came, 

brought the first and second Crisis^ read them, and stayed 
to supper. 

22. Under the London head, Feb. 7th, it is said, " The 
regiment of light-horse, destined for America, are all 
equipping with new accoutrements. On their caps is 
the following motto, ' Death or Glory,' and a death's 
head likewise embroidered ;" and it is farther said that 
" It is intended to put the refractory Colonies under 
military government, and to grant special charters and 
privileges to those of them who are obedient. This day, 
March the 7th, at noon, the two sheriffs and the hang- 
man attended at the Royal Exchange, in order to burn 
a periodical paper, called The Crisis^ No. 3, and the 
pamphlet entitled The Present Crisis with respect to Jme- 
rica. As soon as the fire was lighted before the Ex- 
change, it was immediately put out, and dead dogs and 
cats thrown at the officers. A fire was then made in 
Cornhill, and the pelting still continued." It is farther 
said, " there are at this time, between London Bridge 
and Lime House, more than three hundred vessels, with 
brooms at their mast-heads, as a token that they are for 
sale." Feb. 10— rit is said '* An eminent Quaker, at 

April 1775] ^f ^^^ American Revolution. 17 

the meeting of the merchants declared, however lightly 
and contemptuously their petitions were treated, he was 
fully satisfied that the Americans would, to a man, die, 
if the act in his hand, which he held up, was not re- 
pealed :'* to which add, in a paragraph of [a] letter from 
York, Feb. 13, it is said, ^^ A certain celebrated lady 
amongst the body of Quakers, waited on the king to 
address him on the times, and after promising her an 

audience, he abruptly withdrew." March lOth, 

It is said from London, that *^ Deputations are sent from 
hence to Boston, to try several persons in America," 
and that ^^ the twelve sail of frigates destined for Boston, 
have stores, and are completely victualled for twelve 
months. The Generals, MacKay, Howe, and Clinton, 
were to embark with the tr9ops, phe 12th of March. 

24. About five this afternoon, arrived an express, 
for the particulars of which see the printed piece 

25. Went to the manufactory with my partner. At 
four, he and I went to the State House, there being a 
meeting pursuant to public notice, which, by computa- 
tion, amounted to eight thousand, in order to consider 
the measures to be pursued in the present critical aflFairs 
of America. 

26. A second express came this afternoon, which see 
in printed piece annexed.' 

27. Another account, being several extracts of letters 
per post, from Boston, of the 19th and 20th, giving 
further account of the behavior of the troops, and of 
their precipitate retreat unto Charleston. See postscripts 
to Pennsylvania Journal and Gazette (No. 1690, and 
No. 2418). 

' The leaf marked A., an exact copy of liie original ilip. 

* The leaf marked B., an exact copy of the original ilip. The itatemsnt 
that Lord Percy was killed is erroneous. He afterwards became Duke of 

1 8 Christopher Marshall's Diary [April 1775 


An express arrived at Five 0^ clock this evenings by which 
we have the following advices : 

Watertown^ Wednesday Mornings near lo of the clock. 

To all friends of American Liberty, be it known, that 
this morning before break of day, a brigade consisting of 
about 1000 or 1200 men landed at Phipp's Farm, at 
Cambridge and marched to Lexington, where they found 
a Company of our Colony Militia in arms, upon whom 
they fired without any provocation, and killed six men 
and wounded four others. By an express from Boston, 
we find another brigade are now upon ► their march from 
Boston, supposed to be about looo. The bearer. Trail 
Bissel, is charged to alarm the country quite to Con- 
necticut ; and all persons are desired to furnish him with 
fresh horses, as they may be needed. I have spoken 
with several, who have seen the dead and wounded. 
Pray let the Delegates from this Colony to Connecticut 
see this, they know Col, Forster, one of the Delegates. 

J. Palmer, one of the Committee. 

A true Copy from the original, per order of the Com- 
mittee of Correspondence of Worcester, April, 1775. 

Attested and forwarded by the Committees of Brook- 
line, Norwich, New London, Lyme, Saybrook, Killings- 
worth, E. Guilford, Guilford, Brandford, New Haven. 

Fairfield^ Saturday^ April 22, 8 o'clock. 

Since the above was written we have received the 
following by a second express. 

Thursday^ 3 o'clock^ afternoon, A. M. 


I am this moment informed by an express from Wood- 
stock, taken from the mouth of the Express, then two 
of the clock, afternoon — That the contest between the 
first Brigade that marched to Concord was still continu- 

April 1775] of the American Revolution. 19 

inp this morning at the town of Lexington, to which 
said Brigade had retreated, that another Brigade had, 
said to be the second mentioned in the letter of this 
morning, landed with a quantity of Artillery, at the place 
where the first did. The Provincials were determined 
to prevent the two Brigades from joining their strength 
if possible, and remain in great need of succor. 

N, B. The Regulars, when in Concord, burnt the 
Court House, took two pieces of cannon which they 
rendered useless ; and began to tak^ up Concord bridge 

on which Capt. (who with many on both sides 

were soon killed) made an attack upon the king's troops, 
on which they retreated to Lexington. 

I am, £b. Williams. 

To Col. Obadiah Johnson, Canterbury. 

P. S. Mr. McFarlan of Plainfield, Merchant, has just 
returned from Boston, by way of Providence, who con- 
versed with an express from Lexington, who further 
informs, that 4000 of our troops had surrounded the first 
brigade above mentioned, who were on a hill in Lex- 
ington, that the action continued, and there were about 
50 of our men killed, and 150 of the regulars, as near as 
they could determine, when the express came away : it 
willing will be expedient for every man to go who is fit and. 

The above is a true copy as received per express from 
New Haven, and attested by the Committee of Corre- 
spondence, from town to town. Attest 

Jonathan Sturgis ^ 

Andrew Rowland I ^ 

•-nu J J' D r v^ommittee. 

Thaddius Burr [ 

Job Bartram J 

The above was received yesterday at 4 o'clock, by 
the Committee of New York, and forwarded to Phila- 
delphia, by Isaac Low, Chairman of the Committee of 
New York. 

Printed by W. and T. Bradford. 

ao Christopher Marshall's Diary [April 1775 

Philadelphia, April 26, 1775. 

Wtdntiday^ 12 0^ clock. 

By an Express just arrived^ we have the following. 

Waltingford, Monday morning, April 24, 1775. 

Dear Sir 

/^OL. Woodworth was over in this place yesterday 

^^and has ordered 20 men from each company in his 
regiment, some of which have already set off, and others 
go this morning. He brings accounts which came to 
him authenticated as late as Thursday afternoon. The 
king's troops being reinforced a second time and joined 
as I suppose from what I can learn by the party who 
were intercepted by Col. Gardiner, were then encamped 
on Winterhill, and were surrounded by 20,000 of our 
men who were entrenching. 

Colonel Gardiner's ambush proved fatal to Lord 
Percy, and one other General Officer, who were killed 
on the spot the first fire. ... To counterbalance this 
good news, the story is, that our first man in command 
(who he is I know not) is also killed. ... It seems they 
have lost many men on both sides. ... Col. Woods- 
worth had the account in a letter from Hartford. ... 

The country beyond here are all gone ofF, and we 
expect it will be impossible to procure horses for our 
waggons, as they have or will in every place employ their 
horses themselves. In this place they send an horse for 
every sixth man and are pressing them for that purpose. 
I know of no way but you must send immediately a 
couple of able horses, who may overtake us at Hartford 
possibly, where we must return Mr. Noy's and Meloy's, 
if they hold out so far. Remember the horses must be 
had at any rate. I am in great haste 

Your entire friend and humble servant 

James Lockwood. 

April 1775] of the American Revolution. 21 

P. S. Col. Gardiner took 9 prisoners, and 12 clubbed 
their firelocks and came over to our party. ... Colonel 
Gardiner's party consisted of 700, and the regulars of 
1800 instead of 1200, as we heard before. ... They have 
sent a vessel up the Mystic river as far as Temple's 
Farm, which is about half a mile from Winterhill. ... 
These accounts being true, all the King's troops, except 
4 or 500, must be encamped on Winterhill. At the 
instance of the gentlemen of Fairfield Just departed this 
copy is taken verbatim from the original, to be for- 
warded to that town. Isaac Bears 

The above is copied and authenticated by the several 
Committees through Connecticut, New York, and New 

♦*♦ ff^inter Hill is about two miles from Boston. Wat-- 
lingjford is fourteen miles from New Haven, 

Printed by W. and T. Bradford. 


29. Went and drank coffee at James Cannon's. 
He was not there, being gone to [the] State House Yard 
to help consult and regulate the forming of the militia. 
After coffee, I went back to [the] Factory by an appoint- 
ment of some of the managers, who had appointed to 

meet Gardiner, a committee man of New York, 

with whom we spent the evening. This day, about 

noon, Jabez F came by persuasion to the Coffee 

House, and there declared, in the presence of a great 
concourse of people, that it was Robert Holliday, of 
DuckCreek, that wrote and sent that letter to him, which 
he had caused to be published in the Pennsylvania Ledger^ 
No. 3, and no other person, upon which the people, 
with some reluctancy, let him go ; but the overseers of 
the poor interfered, by obliging him there to give security 

for the maintenance of his two bastard children. J 

and D had bonded a vessel for Newfoundland, and 

22 Christopher Marsbair s Diary [April 1775 

intended to slip away with her, but a number hearing 
waited on them. At first, they equivocated, but the 
people being resolute, they delivered up the ship's papers, 
and hindered her proceeding. That also prevented 
Samuel S from loading a vessel to the same place. 

May I. This day a number of the associators to the 
militia met in each of the wards of this city, to form 
themselves into suitable companies, and to choose their 
respective officers. 

2d. Viewed some companies learning the use of fire- 
arms This day, about noon, Thomas Loosly, shoe- 
maker, was brought to the Coffee House, and there being 
exalted as a spectacle to a great number of reputable 
citizens, he there very humbly and submissively asked 
and entreated their pardon and forgiveness for his 
illiberally and wickedly villifying the measures of Con- 
gress, the Committee, and the people of New England, 
sincerely promising that his future conduct should be just, 
true, and equitable, as should recommend him to the 
particular notices of all those whom he had so unjustly, 
falsely, and wickedly villified. On those assurances and 
promises, the company discharged him. 

3. There was a company of young men, Quakers, 
who this day asked leave of the managers to learn the 
military exercise in the Factory yard, which was granted, 
and they began this evening. 

4. This day account came that Mr. Hancock and 
Mr, Adams are arrived at New York, on their way to 
this city, to attend the Continental Congress. The 
Quaker company, Humphries, captain, about thirty, 
exercised in the factory yard, and such is the spirit and 
alacrity of them, that few, if any, of the companies will 
sooner learn the military art and discipline, and make a 
handsomer appearance, nor be more ready to assert, at 
the risk of their lives, the freedom of America on Con- 
stitutional principles. 

5. Visited two families that have left Boston govern- 

1Ia7 1775] ^ih€ American Rivobaum. 23 

the violent opprettive meafturet exercised 

... This afternoon arrived [the ship Penn- 

RKket,] Capuin Osborne, from London, in 

t passenger, Dr. Benjamin Franklin, to the 

of his friends and the lovers of liberty. 

6. After fimier, went to the Sute House Yard, from 
to the commons, seeing the various companies 

While standing there. Major John Sullivan 
John Langdon, Esq., two of the delegates from 
HaBpshire, with my son Benjamin, came, who, 
kegates, spoke to me very kindly. 

7. It's admirable to see the alteration of the Tory 
in this place, since the account of the engage- 

m New England. Their language is quite 
and many of them have so far renounced their 
sentiments as that they have taken up arms, and 
in the association ; nay, even many of the Miff 
QBakcrs, and some of those who drew up the Testimony^ 
are afhunrd of their proceedings. It is said that J . . < « 

P ^ who s^ned that paper, and had called thf p^o 

pie rcbds, now declares in fiivor of the opposition m4^#> 
to king and parfiamem. The Friends held a m€i#rlri|{ 
hs Fifth day afternoon, in order to consider how ^»t 
scad a aoppij to the Bostonians, it being a maf f^r ' hul 
before th^ had treated with contempt and r\Auu\>-. S 
pcticioohaB bceo presented to the Houne, pf^yttf^ ^Mm* 
to gpnt a sym, not lesa thao Fifty Thoii^r»d P'f^tnfU 
Sor the vseof the fVovioce at rhit cr\u<4\ utt**^, #^4 
another pcdtioo praying them to con^d^r ^K^ tv>**n***t 
of oar Cky, and reqoesting chem r/> a^rartf >4/a 'o ^*»*\f 
out navipcioo, by sinking some /<ft^t<( '4f Um i%4u\^ 
Both thae pctfciong were ^^fied -w zf'^.^f rM»^»r*/»^ '^f -•H 
the tfcreat ranks and sec» ^^ VHi4 " '/ ^ Kf« •-m 
donebstwrek. This dsiv, arr wf ^>^^a jfy,Mft4#^M; 
in [the] ship [SdkeyJ from L^iMon^ *% t»/ ^«*^>«-*, 'f^'* 
br ou gh t acraonr char che tifltt^rt#»^ *^* ^y^^^^/Vx^j, ♦f;4 
the ▼cweb sailed for Ir^M^i **> '^^ ''^^ v^/0^ * '*« 

24 Christopher MarshaUs Diary [May 1775 

board. He brought also a copy of the petition of the 
Quakers to his Majesty, and that the printers of the 
piece called the Crisis^ were had before the Ministry on 
account of finding out the author, who being interrogated 
and pressed hard, declared that one of the writers was 
the Duke of Gloucester. They immediately discharged 
them without any farther confession. 

8. Account from New York is that a general 
association was set on foot on the 29th ultimo, and 
signed by above one thousand of the principal inhabit- 
ants of the City, and it is to be transmitted to all the 
counties in the Province, when they make no doubt but 
it will be signed by all ranks of people. The purport 
is, that they will abide by and put into execution, what- 
ever measures may be recommended by the Continental 
Congress, or resolved upon by their Provincial Conven- 
tion. This they engage to perform under all the sacred 
ties of religion, honor, and love to their country. (See 
General Advertiser^ No. 185.) We hear also from 
Williamsburgh,* of Governor Dunniore's delivering to 
Captain Collins's party of men, in the night, out of the 
Magazine, twenty barrels of gunpowder, which they 
carried on board the schooner Magdalen. This was 
highly resented by the people, who addressed him on the 
occasion, and requested him to return it *, but instead of 
his complying, the locks were taken off the magazine, 
and the schooner put under the protection of the Fowey, 
man-of-war, in York river, and that the Governor had 
fortified himself in the palace, &c. 

9, This morning, arrived four of the delegates from 
South Carolina, in the brig Charleston Packet, Captain 
Barton, in four days passage, viz., Henry Middleton, 
Christopher Gadsden, John Rutledge, and Edward Rut- 
ledge, Esq's. Christopher Gadsden came to see me, 
and dined with me. In conversation, he expressed the 

' Then the capital of Virginia. 

May 1775] ^f ^^^ American Revolution. 25 

great satisfaction he had received in reading some of the 
books he had from me, when he went last home to 
Carolina from this City, particularly Paul Sigevolk's 
book, entitled The Everlasting Gospel^ and those two 
books, entitled The World Unmasked^ or the Philoso- 
pher the Greatest Cheats requesting, that if it should 
please God that he and I should live to see peace 
and harmony once more restored among us in these 
parts, I would promote a correction of the Ever- 
lasting Gospel^ and have it, with the two other volumes 
of the World Unmasked^ fairly and neatly printed, 
unto which he would subscribe largely, and, upon com- 
pleting them, I might draw on him to the amount of 
Sixty Guineas, which he would immediately pay. This 

conversation gave me great pleasure N. B. This 

day, arrived these sundry delegates, viz., Peyton Ran- 
dolph, George Washington, Patrick Henry, Richard 
Henry Lee, Edmund Pendleton, Benjamin Hairison, 
and Richard Bland, Esq's., from Virginia; Richard 
Caswell, and Joseph Hewes, Esq's., from North Caro- 
lina ; Samuel Chase, Thomas Johnson, and John Hall, 
Esq's., from Maryland ; Caesar Rodney and George 
Read, Esq's., from the counties of New Castle, Kent, 
and Sussex, on the Delaware. It is said they were 
met, about six miles from town, by the officers of all 
the companies in the city, and by many other gentle- 
men, on horseback, to the amount of five hundred. 
Within two miles of the city, the company of riflemen 
and infantry, with a band of music, met them, and con- 
ducted them through the City with great applause. 

10. This day about one o'clock, came into town these 
following delegates, namely : John Hancock, Thomas 
Cushinj?, Samuel Adams, John Adams, and Robert 
Treat Paine, Esq's., from Massachusetts Bay ; Eliphalet 
Dyer, Roger Sherman, and Silas Deane, Esq's., for the 
Colony of Connecticut ; (and Thomas Lynch, South 
Carolina, arrived in the evening.) Delegates from New 

0,6 Christopher MarshaWs Diary [May 1775 

York, James Duane, Francis Lewis, John Jay, Lewis 
Morris, Philip Livingston, [and] John Alsop. Dele- 
gates from the Jerseys, [ ] 

II. This afternoon, the delegates opened the Con- 
gess at the State House : began with prayer, in which 
officiated Jacob Duche. * There were also added 
to them by our Assembly, now sitting. Dr. Benjamin 
Franklin, Thomas Willing, and James Wilson, £sq's. 
The Congress this day elected Peyton Randolph, Esq., 
President, and Charles Thomson, Secretary. 

13. The Congress are daily sitting, but scarcely any 
thing transpires from them, saving the depositions taken 
relating to the beginning of the engagement at Lexing- 
ton and Concord. 

14. This morning, set ofFfrom this city, for Burling- 
ton, the Captains, Bradford, Pryor, and Melchor, with 
a number of others, on the report of a deserter from 
General Gage's being confined in prison there, for deser- 
tion, the which, upon their arrival at Burlington, they 
found to be true. They immediately went to the prison, 
took him out, and brought him to Philadelphia. 

15. This day, arrived the Hon. Samuel Ward, Esq.. 
one of the delegates from the Colony of Rhode Island. 
Within these two weeks past, sundry families have 
arrived in this city from the territories of Boston, whose 
relations of their sufferings and distress there, are very 
melancholy and afflicting to hear, and at present no pros- 
pect of any relief from under the hand of unmerited 
cruelty. A vessel this day arrived, which left Cork the 
4th day of April, says the troops were not sailed, but 
were taking their horses aboard, &c. 

17. In P. Journal^ No. 1693, is [a] copy of 
Robert Holliday*s recantation and acknowledgment of 
his misconduct, the which was accepted by their com- 
mittee in Kent county. In the Evening Postj No. 49, 

' Rector of St. Panrt Church, Philadelphia — author of the Letters of 
T. Caspipina. 

May 1775] of the American Revolution. 27 

is [an] account of Governor Dunmore's Proclamation, 
and an account of his paying for the gunpowder he had 
suffered to be taken away, to the amount of three hund- 
red and twenty pounds sterling, also the resolves of the 
committee of Kine William^s county on that occasion, 
with the New York General Committee's Circular 
Letter to the other Colonies. 

18. Account brought of the taking of Fort Ticon- 
deroga. See Evening Post^ No. 50, for particulars. 

20. The Congress sitting every day this week con- 
stantly, and the militia, light infantry, horse, and com- 
pany of artillery, exercising every day, and some of them 
twice a day. 

22. This day was published, in the Pennsylvania Packet^ 
No. 187, the Congresses advice in answer to the New 
York request, how they should behave in regard to the 
troops expected there. In said paper is the Address of 
the General Committee of Association for the city and 
county of New York, to Governor Colden. 

24. In the last Evening Post^ No. 52, is, it is said. 
General Gage^s circumstantial account of the attack on 
his Majesty's troops by a number of people of the Mas- 
sachusetts Bav, April 19th. In said paper is [an] account, 
via Liverpool, 30th [of] March, that the whole regi- 
ment of light dragoons had, to a man, refused to come 

over to fight against this country From there to 

son Christopher's ; stayed and supped with eight of the 
delegates. About nine, an alarm was spread by beat of 
drum, that our prison was beset by a number of men, in 
order to rescue two prisoners who were under sentence 
of death ; but by the interposition of Captain Bradford's 
company, they were prevented, and sooie of the ofFenderSi 
it's said, secured. However, this company, with the 
assistance of , watched the prison all night. 

25. Yesterday morning, Peyton Randolph, Presi- 
dent of the Congress, set off for Virginia, as his pre- 
sence was necessary in their General Assembly, that 

a8 Christopher Marshall's Diary [May 1775 

is called by their governor to meet on the first of next 
June, at Williamsburgh, of which lie is speaker, and the 
Hon. John Hancock was elected President. For the 
etymology of the word Yankee (alias Yankee Doodle) 

see Evening Post^ No. 53.* Part of two companies 

mounting guard at the prison, as I came home, in order 
to keep watch all night. 

27. After dinner went to the place j' drank Balm 
Tea ; from thence to a walk on ihe commons, near 
[the] Bettering Housc,3 seeing sundry companies of 
militia exercising, till past seven. 

28. This day, it is said, Mary Harris, a Quaker 
preacher from Wilmington, visited the three Quaker 
Meeting Houses in this city, in a very odd manner, viz., 
by walking through each of the preacher's galleries, then 
down, passed amongst the people backwards and forwards, 
seemingly in great affliction and distress, uttering, it's 
said, words to this effect — **See to your standing, for 
that thus the Lord was about to search and examine his 
camp," &c. &c., and then said, ** I shall have peace in 
having thus discharged and done my Lord's errand. So 

31. For several particulars of public remarkable oc- 
currences, see this day's Pennsylvania yournal^l^o. 1695. 

June i. Guards at [the] prison, as has been every 
night since the 24th of last month, kept by the militia. 

2. Account came that while Parson Stringer was at 
prayers with Andrew Steward, in the dungeon of^our 
prison, the said Steward took that opportunity to walk 
up stairs, go out at the several prison doors into the 
street, and without any ceremony, walked off with him- 
self, without bidding Robinson, the prison keeper, fare- 

'Sec Appendix (C.) 

■ Mr. Manhairs country place was in Moyamensing, between Broad 
Street and Irish Tract Lane. Balm Tea was probably substituted for the 
interdicted article. 

3 The Bettering House was the Philadelphia Alms House. It was on 
the south side of Spruce Street, between Tenth and Eleventh Streets. 

JuMB 1775J of the American Revolution. 29 

well, although he was sitting at the front door on the 
step, when he passed him. 

7. In the evening, arrived ship Prosperity, Captain 
McCulloch, with, it is said, about four hundred passen- 
gers, from Belfast : from London, ship Sally, in which 
came passenger. Major Skene, as Governor of Ticon- 

deroga and Crown Point Came home near eleven ; 

fine clear moonlight weather : a sentry at [the] New 
Tavern, over the above governor. 

8. Cloudy weather, and so continued all day. I rose 
before five, breakfasted, and went on the commons past 
seven. Came back past nine ; then by ten went again 
and staid till past two, viewing the parade of the three 
battalions [of] militia of the City and Liberties, with the 
artillery Company, fwith two twelve-pounders and four 
six-pound brass field pieces,) a troop of light horse, 
several companies of light in&ntry, rangers, and riflemen, 
in the whole, above two thousand men, who joined in 
one brigade, and went through their manual exercises, 
firings, and manoeuvres, &c., &c., in the presence of 
General Lee, the Continental Congress, and several 
thousand spectators, then all marched into town to the 
Coffee House. 

12. For public occurrences, see Pennsylvania Packet^ 
No. 190. 

20. Went to the Factory past eight ; stayed till 
twelve. Just then-about, the three battalions, with the 
troop of horse, train of artillery, and three companies of 
light infantry, rangers, &c., marched by the Factory, 
having been reviewed this morning by General Washing- 
ton and the members of the Congress. 

27. About eight, Brigadier General Sullivan set out 
from hence, to join the American army, near Boston : 
he was escorted by the light infantry of the three batta- 
lions, and by many other officers and gentlemen, a few 

miles An express arrived this day, with sundry 

occurrences, from the Boston camp, r or particulars^ 
see the Evening Post^ Nmub* 67. 

3© Christopher Marshal? s Diary [June 1775 

30. This being monthly meeting, it's said J... P... 
took much pains in endeavoring to persuade the auditors, 
and they their acquaintance, by no means to keep the 
20th of next month as a day of prayer and fasting, but 
to keep open shop and houses. This was, in plain terms, 
saying. You may frolic as much as you please on that 
day, but don't, by any means, suffer yourselves to be 
humble, or pray on that day, because it is appointed by 
the delegates for that service, to pray and worship God. 
This he pressed them to observe, that so they might 
not be like what he called the world's people. Here is 
another flagrant testimony to the decay of primitive 
Christianity, viz., " Pray without ceasing," — "In the 
time of trouble, call upon me," &c., &c. 

July i. My son Christopher sent me a present of a 
small keg of pickled oysters, and requested my coming 
to sup at his house this evening, the which I complied 
with, and spent the evening in innocent, cheerful con- 
versation with John Adams, Thomas Cushing, Samuel 
Adams,' and Robert Treat Paine, delegates from Boston. 

2. Afternoon, two o'clock, an alarm spread of a man 
of war, full of troops, seen at Bambay Hook, coming 
up. This alarmed the City, but it proved to be a false 

7. To Grace Hastings's ; stayed there till church was 
done, there being a sermon preached at Christ Church 
to the First Battalion of the City Militia, by Jacob 

9. It is said that some day last week, there was a 
meeting of the Quakers in thiis city, wherein it was 
agreed that a colTection should be set afoot in that 
society, for the relief of the necessitous of all religious 
denominations in New England who are reduced to 
losses and distresses in this time of public calamity, to 
be distributed among them by a committee of their 

' The name of John Adams is here repeated in the original. I have 
•uhttituted Samuel, which was doubtless meant. 

July 1775] of the American Revolution. 31 

brethren in New England, and to this, it is said, they 
recommended to their brethren in their several meetings 
in New Jersey, to subscribe for [thel said purpose. In 
the evening came Colonel Dyer, [Silas] Deane, and 

[John] Jay, three of the delegates, who all stayed 

and supped, and spent the evening very agreeably, till 
near ten o^clock, it being a fine serene night. 

14* The many and various accounts of the slain 
at Bunker's Hill reconciled, by an account of the return 
made to General Washington on the fourth instant — 
of the Provincials, viz., one hundred and thirty-eight 
killed, three hundred and one wounded, and seven miss- 
ing, and the best account he had received of the regulars 
was, that eight hundred were killed, and seven hundred 
wounded. See Evening Postj No. 74, and J. Hum- 
phrey's Ledger^ No. 25. 

16. After two, Charles and his wife, and daughter 
Betsey, came in the chair \ just stopped and bid us fare- 
well. They were going to Bristol, to try the water, on 

account of son Charles's health' After they were 

gone, Samuel and John Adams, two of the delegates, 
came ; stayed some time. 

17. Stayed at home till near six ; took a walk to the 
College yard, to see the Dutch butcher ask pardon of 
one of the companies for speaking disrespectfully of their 

' The mineral waters at Bath, near Bristol, Bucks Cottoty, Pennsylrania, 
did not go ont of vogue until within about sixty yean. 

'The following nodce from the Committee of Safety, was published 
about this time : 

Committee Chamber^ Pbiladclpbia^ July 17, 1775. 
The Committee of Safety do hereby recommend it to the good women of 
this City and Province, that they voluntarily supply the Surgeons or Doctors 
who have usually attended their respective families, with u much scraped 
lint and old linen for bandage, at they can conveniently furnuh, that the 
same may be ready for the service of those that shall happen to be wounded 
in the defence of their country. 

Signed by order of the Committee, 

William Oovxtt, CUrk^ C S, 

32 Christopher Marshall's Diary QfuLV 1775 

20. This being the memorable day in which an un- 
just and cruel ministry took away all our sea trade, as 
fsr as their inveterate malice could reach : the morning 
was pleasant ; fine sunshine, yet cool and agreeable 
weather, although a melancholy appearance presented, as 
all the houses and shops in our neighborhood were shut, 
and to appearance more still than a First Day produced, 
as there was no riding abroad visiting, as is generally on 

First Day Most families attended divine worship 

in the different churches and meeting houses of this city. 
I went to Christ Church, where an excellent sermon 

was preached on the occasion, from Psalm , unto a 

large and crowed auditory, amongst whom were, I pre- 
sume, all the delegates. It was an awful meeting, as 

numbers of wet eyes demonstrated their attention 

This afternoon, Robert Taylor called at my house, who 
said there was nigh two hundred of their militia came up 
this morning from their parts to church, in their uniforms, 
as he was. He is a lieutenant. 

?2. My wife and I took a walk to the place, and, 
awhile after, came there, Christopher Gadsden, [Roger] 
Sherman, and Colonel Dyer, three of the delegates, and 
my son Christopher. Soon after came Dr. Brown, 

Dr. (who was just come from Watertown, to get 

a th( rough insight intd making saltpetre. He was sent 
by the Provincial Congress), and James Cannon, who 
all stayed and drank coffee, &c. 

24. Accounts are that on the eighth instant, two 
hundred volunteers, from the Rhode Island and Massa- 
chusetts forces, had burnt and destroyed the regulars' 
guard-house, [and] brought ofi^ two muskets and ac- 
coutrements, with one halbert : this done without [the] 
loss of one of our men. This was an advanced post, 
ard gave the regulars an opportunity of discovering our 
operations at Roxbury. On the eleventh instant, a party 
of men from the Roxbury Camp went to Long Island, 
in Boston harbor, and brought ofi^ fifteen of the regulars 

July 1775] of the American Revolution. ^^ 

prisoners, between twenty and thirty horned cattle, and 
about one hundred sheep. The prisoners were sent 
from the head-quarters yesterday, to Concord. The 
same account savs that General Gage's troops are much 
dispirited ; that they are very sickly, and are heartily 
disposed to leave on* dancing any more to the tune of 
Yankee Doodle, and that General Gage had sent many 
reputable housekeepers in Boston, to prison, for refusing 
to work day's work on board the men of war, and the 

25. Account was brought last night, that a vessel 
from Hispaniola had brought and landed, for our use, 
seven tons of gunpowder, being about one hundred and 
thirty casks ; put under the care of the Committee of 

26. It's said that a person was sent to prison this 
forenoon, for attempting to spike the guns in the State 
House Yard. Account is arrived from Georgia that the 
people there, hearing of a parcel of gunpowder's being 
on board a ship just arrived from London, went, landed 
and secured it for their own use. It's said that it amounted 
to thirteen thousand pounds, and that the Georgians have 
appointed delegates to attend the Continental Congress, 
and [who] are daily expected. A gentleman who got 
off [from] Boston, July loth, says that the inhabitants 
were numbered, and amounted to six thousand five hun- 
dred and seventy-three — the soldiers, women and child- 
ren, to thirteen thousand six hundred. Three hundred 
Tories are chosen to patrol the streets, forty-nine ot a 
night. Very sickly : from ten 10 thirty funerals a day, 
but no bells allowed to toll. For further occurrences, 
and names of the officers killed and wounded, see Penn- 
sylvania Journal^ No. 1703. 

27. This day, was launched, up town, a [gondola,] as 
another of [the] same construction, was launched last 

week, down town, each of them to row with oars, 

to carry ^ cannon, , men, and small arms. 

34 Christopher Marshalts Diary QfuLY 1775 

29. This week, by accounts, we have received here, 
under safe custody, fifteen tons of gunpowder, and the 
same quantity [is] hourly expected, as also a parcel of 
small arms. Account is received of the Lexington af- 
fair's [having been heard of in England] by the return of 
Captain Darby, who carried it to England in twenty- 
seven days. See Pennsylvania Ledger^ No. 18 In 

this evening Post is the character of General Putnam, 
with some material occurrences. See No. 81. 

30. Yesterday morning, set out from this town to 
the eastward, six wagons, each carrying one ton of 
gunpowder, escorted by twenty-four of the light infantry, 
and some riflemen of the first battalion as far as Trenton, 
then the escort was to be changed by some others at 
Trenton, and so proceed. This morning, it's said a 
pilot boat came up to town, loaded with gunpowder. 

August 3. Yesterday, several of our delegates went 
out of town, by virtue of their adjournment to the fifth 
of next month. 

4. Accounts from Boston are of the distress of the 
inhabitants there, beef being at jj. 4^. per lb., butter u., 
and so in proportion 5 that the Provincials had burnt the 
Light House at the entrance of Boston harbor, pulled 
up the piles that were for marks for the shipping, &c., 
but they first took away all the furniture, fifty weight of 
powder, and several casks of oil ; that eight transports 
were arrived with about sixteen hundred men ; exceed- 
ingly sickly in the town, so that every soldier that now 
arrives seems to add to their distress. From Virginia, 
that Lord Dunmore had seized a ship, and ^£900 out of 
one of the custom houses, for his own use \ that there- 
upon the people had seized all the money in the other 
custom houses (amounting to about <£io74 145.) and 
treasury, and that the Provincial Convention had stopped 
all exports (except tobacco) from the 5th insi. With 
us, Michael Hillegas and George Clymer, of this City, 
are appointed Treasurers, and Dr. Franklin, Post Master 
General of the United Colonies of North America. 

Aug. 1775] of the American Revolution. 35 

These appointments are by the Hon. Continental Con- 
gress Called as I came home at Stephen Collins's, 

whose wife had just received a letter from her husband, 
but no material news except the extremities of the people 
in Boston, and of four deserters who had just come over 
[to] them, and the arrival of one hundred and six of our 

5* Accounts by the Constitutional Post yesterday are, 
that about 3060, being parts of nine regiments, were 
arrived at Boston, and that, by appearances. General 
Burgoyne is in a deep settled melancholy, walks the 
streets frequently with his arms folded across his breast 
and talking to himself, and that General Gage is often 
out of his head, and that he and Admiral Greaves had 
publicly quarrelled, so that he told Gage it was a cowardly 
action to burn Charlestown. 

6. Yesterday was published [a] copy of [the Address 
of] the Delegates of the United twelve American Colo- 
nies to the people of Ireland, dated July 28th, 1775, 
signed by John Hancock, President. There is also a 
rumor now propagated, that General Gage has resigned 
the command of the troops to General Howe, and that 
^50,000 sterling is remitted, in specie, to Boston, to pay 
and increase the wages of the soldiery, and that orders 
are [sent] to the Governor of Canada to attack our 

9. From Richmond, in Virginia, we hear that the 
convention sitting there has prohibited the exportation of 
grain and provisions of all kinds, after the fifth of this 
month, and [have resolved] to embody three thousand 
men, exclusive of officers, and three troops of horse, to 
be stationed in the lower end of the Colony, and that 
between four and five hundred men are to be raised and 
quartered at the difi^erent forts on the frontiers, &c., and 
that sixty young gentlemen are to be sent from that 
colony to serve as cadets in the army at Boston, &c. 

26 Christopher Marshall's Diary [Aug. 1775 

For Sundry material occurrences, see Pennsylvania 
Journal^ Numb. 1705.' 

II. About four, the Constitutional Post arrived ; also, 
about six, an express arrived from the camp, with sundry 
advices, among which were that the regulars were at* 
tempting to repair the light house that was burnt down, 
upon notice of which. Major Tucker was sent to com- 
mand three hundred men, who landed under a severe 
heavy fire, and then attacked them, killed the command- 
ing ofhcer, with ten or twelve of the others, on the spot, 
and took the remainder, about thirty-five in number, 
prisoners, and ten tory carpenters [and] demolished all 
their work. While he waited for the tide to carry them 
off, a large number of boats from the men-of-war came 
up to reinforce the regulars, on which ensued a smart 
firing. Our troops, however, got safe back with their 
prisoners, with the loss of one man killed and two or 
three wounded ; that the riflemen at the camp had picked 
off ten men in one day, three of whom were field officers ; 
that of six sail of transports sent to the eastward of 
Casco Bay, for forage, with one man-of-war, while the 
parties of them were ashore in the country, a number of 
the inhabitants possessed themselves of five of the trans- 
ports by making all aboard prisoners, to the amount of 

' The following advertisement was published at this time : 
To the Spinners in this City and County. 

Your services are now wanted to promote the American Manu^ctory at 
the corner of Market and Ninth Streets, where cotton, wool, Ylax, &c., 
are delivered out. Strangers who apply are desired to bring a few lines 
from some respectable person in this neighborhood. 

One distinguishing characteristic of an excellent woman, as given by 
the wisest of men is, that " She seeketh wool and flax and worketh will- 
ingly with her hands. She layeth her hands to the spindle, and her hand 
holdeth the distaff.** 

In this time of public distress, you have now, each of you, an opportunity 
not only to help to sustain your families, but likewise to cast your mite into 
the treasury of the public good. The most feeble effort to help to save the 
state from ruin, when it is all you can do, is as the widow*8 mite entitled 
to the tame reward at they who, of their abundant abilities, have cut 
in much. 

Aug. 1775] ^f ^^^ American Revolution. 37 

near four hundred soldiers and seamen, and secured the 
ships out of the reach of the man-of-war. 

12. Last night, arrived the Georgia Packet, from 
Georgia, in which came passengers the Hon. John 
Houston, Archibald Bullock, and Dr. Zubly, ' delegates 
appointed to represent that colony in the Continental 

Congress To the Coffee House to see Major 

French, Ensign , and ^ who were come from 

Dublin in the ship , Captain ■ , with 

suits of clothes for the Regiment, which our people 


16. For sundry particular and material pieces of news, 
both foreign and domestic, with the Congress's Petition 

to the King, see Pennsylvania fournal^ No. 1706 

Past five, took a walk to the State House, election beine 
held there for one hundred men for City, Southern and 
Northern Liberties. 

17. Accounts from Boston are, that the transports 
were returned and brought with them from Fisher's and 
Gardiner's Islands, two thousand one hundred sheep, 
about one hundred head of cattle, seven tons of hay, [a] 
parcel of hogs, one thousand pounds of cheese, &c. Oh 1 
shame on the tory party ! 

18. Past seven, to meet [the] Committee in the Phi- 
losophical Society's Room, where this evening were met 
forty-nine members, who proceeded to [thej choice of 
chairmen, when Joseph Reed, George Clymer, Thomas 
McKean, and Samuel Meredith were appointed to that 
service, Jonathan B. Smith, Secretary, Robert Strettle 
Jones and Peter Loyd, Assistants to him. Agreed that 
the stated weekly meeting be held on Tuesday evening, 
at seven o'clock, at this Philosophical Society Room, 
while convenient ; that all the members who are not 
present when the roll is called over, being twenty min- 
utes after the time appointed, pay sixpence, and if absent 

' A clergjman, aadYe of SwitserUnd. 

38 Christopher MarshalFs Diary [Aug. 1775 

all the evening, one shilling ; and if any member met 
leave the company before business is over, without leave 
of the chairman, such are to pay five shillings ; that in 
all future debates, no person be suffered to give his senti- 
ments on any particular but what is concluded in speak- 
ing twice on the same subject. 

19. There is account from Boston that General Gage 
has demolished Castle William and sent all his family to 
England, and that the whole of the army would evacuate 
Boston soon, but ft was thought his rage would carry 
him so far as to destroy it first ; that four captains of 
the regulars had resigned their commissions to General 
Gage, being ashamed of such base and cruel proceedings, 
and that several officers were gone for England ; that 
the Provincials had taken a number of prisoners on board 
several vessels that they had taken ; that several of our 
companies of riflemen were arrived at the camp, and, by 
the computation, there are twenty-five hundred of Gage's 
men killed and died since the Battle of Bunker's Hill, 

&c To the Committee, as there was a special 

meeting appointed to receive an answer from the Com- 
mittee of Safety, respecting the Soldiers' clothing that 
was imported in Blair McClenagan's ship from Dublin, 
in which, their answer, they assumed it was their pro- 
vince to detain [them] and had them now in their pos- 
session until the meeting of Congress to dispose of them, 
as they, the Congress thought proper, upon which a 
Committee was appointed to go and examine the said 
packages, to see that there was no other kind of goods, 
and report next Third Day meeting. Complaint was 
made by G. Schlosser of his having stopped a piece of 
linen of a pedler,' who thereupon applied to [Isaac] 
Hunt, the lawyer,' who issued out a summons against 

' On the 27th of September, 1774, the Congress unanimously resolved 
that from and after the First of December, 1774, there should be no importa- 
tions from Great Britain or Ireland of any goods, wares, or merchandise, 
and that they should not be used ofc purchased, if imported after that day. 

' Isaac Hunt was the father of Leigh Hunt, poet and essayist. 

Aug. 1775] rf the Awuricmm Rro^buim. 39 

him for the said piece, upon which a motion was made 
to send for the said Hunt, who after first notice refused, 
upon which a line from t|^e chairman brought him. He 
owned the doing of it, but insisted it was according to 
the rule of his profession, and could see no injury he had 
done. A good deal was said to him upon the impru- 
dence of such proceedings, upon which he reauested 
time to consult his client, and then he would give the 
Committee his answer whether he would proceed in 
carrying on the suit against C. Schlosser, or withdraw 
and discontinue the action, at the next meeting, which 
was granted him. 

21. Took a walk down town to see Beni. Betterton, 
who, last Seventh Day, in a jovial humor, jumped ovre 
a man's shoulders, but on taking the ground, a small stone, 
it's said, was there, which turned his leg so that he broke 
it about the small. When I thus visited him, he lay in 
great pain,*but pretty much composed and [with] but 
little fever. 

22. At seven I went to meet the Committee \ came 
home past ten, sundry debates detaining till that time. 
The one respecting Blair McClenagan's ship is referred 
to the determination of the Congress, as we could not 

overrule their resolve of June ; the other respecting 

[Isaac] Hunt, who would give no positive answer whether 
be would prosecute the suit against George Schlosser or 
no, but requested to have the minutes of this meeting in 
writing, with leave to give his answer in writins, the 
which was looked upon to be only evasive, so it was 
determined, nemim contradiantiy that his answer was not 
to satis&ction. 

24. Called by the way at the CofFee House, advice 
being brought that the man-of-war below had seized 
Capuin Mifflin's snow, from ■ , detained her, and 
had confined both captain and mate. He seemed to be 
insolent, his mild behavior, so much before applauded, 
was now all absorbed in ill-will and rancor ( he ex* 

40 ChriUopber Marshall's Diary [Aug. 1775 

pressed himself in conversation, it's said, respecting our 
Committee of Safety far from politeness, but in low, 
obscene language, and closed it with this speech as a 
specimen, ^^ That he did not value all their gondolas or 
Committee of Safety a — j " so much to show the 
mild, complaisant gentleman ! I went to the Manu- 
factory where we made a board, but before business, 
Thomas Tillbury spoke and behaved himself very 
wrathful and rude in his expressions, because it had 
been urged by some of the managers, that none of us, 
while in that station, should engage and set up a manu- 
factory for themselves, but if they had concluded so to 
do, they should have informed the other managers and 
declined acting as manager in this, from that time. This 
was the cause of his rancor and ill- will, which, at last I 
found, was chiefly levelled at me, because I had insisted on 
the impropriety ofserving two masters, self and this manu- 
factory, &c., &c. Came home past nine, T. Tillbury 
going away very wrathful before eight. 

25. Paid Crugillus Vanzening 485. for hauling twenty- 
four cords of wood.; paid Jonat. Malsbary for twenty- 
four cords of wood, at I2x. 9^/., and cording <£i5 ioj. 
Paid Robert Tompkins 51J. 3^/. for three cords of wood, 
at iij. bd,^ cording and hauling, &c., &c. Paid for 
carrying and piling the said wood, with rum, &c., &c., 
&c., 40x.» 

26. At five, I went to the Coffee House, being 
called there to meet the sub-committee on account of 
Isaac Hunt's case, and, after some conference, agreed to 
meet at said place next Second Day morning, at nine 
o'clock For several material pieces of news respect- 
ing Gloucester at Cape Ann, and the Asia man-of war's 
firing on New York, see Evening Post^ Numb. 93, &c. 

28. At nine, I went to [the] CoflFee House, met the 
Committee respecting Isaac Hunt ; went away at 

'These accounts were in PennsyWania Currency. $2.66} madet Pound. 

Aug. 1775] of the American Revolution. 41 

eleven After dinner went with William Rush to 

Kensington, to see the gondola launched. 

29. Past eleven, went to [the] Committee Room at 
[thej Coffee House, in order to enquire, with my other 
brethren, into the conduct of Captain Clay, who had 
brought in with him two officers as passengers of whom 
he had made no report to the Committee, before they 
were gone from this city to New York. Upon hearing 
what he had to offer, and finding things not clear in his 
favor, it was referred over to the weekly meeting this 

evening At near seven, went to the Committee 

Room -, stayed there till past ten. 

September i. Wagons loaded with flour and flax- 
seed almost constantly passing for this week past, in 
order to ship pff. 

6. For sundry public occurrences, respecting damage 
by [the] storm last week, and other pieces of news, see 
Pennsylvania yournal^ Numb. 1708. Between eleven 
and twelve this forenoon, about thirty of our associators 
waited upon and conducted Isaac Hunt from his dwell- 
ing to the Coffee House, where having placed him in a 
cart, he very politely acknowledged he had said and 
acted wrong, for which he asked pardon of the public 
and committed himself under the protection of the asso- 
ciators, to defend him from any gross insults from the 
populace. This, his behavior, they approved him, 
and conducted him in that situation, with drum beating, 
through the principal streets, he acknowle'lging his mis- 
conduct in divers places. But as they were coming 
down town, stopping at the corner where Dr. Kearsley 
lives, to make his declaration, it's said the Dr. threw 
open his window, snapped a pistol twice amongst the 
crowd, upon which they seized him, took his pistol, 
with another in his pocket from him, both of which 
were loaded with swan shot. In the scuffle, he got 
wounded in the hand, i They then took Hunt out of 
the cart, conducted him safe home, put Kearsley in. 

412 Christopher MarshalVs Diary [Sept. 1775 

brought him to [the] Coffee House, where persuasions 
were used to cause him to make concessions, but to no 
effect. They then, with drum beating, paraded the 
streets round the town, then took him back to his house 
and left him there, but as the mob were prevented by 
the associators, who guarded him, from tarring and 
feathering, yet after the associators were gone, they 
then broke the windows ?ind abused the house, &c. 

8. Past eleven went to the Committee at [the] Coffee 
House ; stayed till one. It appeared there in conversa- 
tion, that Samuel Rhoads, mayor, had on the sixth 

instant, called upon Major Bayard and Captain , 

to order out their battalion, in order to disperse the 
people assembled at the Coffee House on the said day,' 
&c., &c. 

9. This being the day appointed by the Congress for 
the shipping to depart this port, it's been a busy time 
with many of the merchants to complete their loading, 
but with their steady application and industry, they have 
complied with it, and it's computed that about forty sail 
went down with this evening's ebb. 

13. After my wife came from Market (she went past 
5), she ordered her girl, Poll, to carry the basket with 
some necessaries to the place, as she was coming after 
her, they intending to iron the clothes. Poll accordingly 
went, set down the basket, came back, went and dressed 
herself all clean, short calico gown, &c., said she was 

foing to school, but presently after, the negro woman, 
)inah, came to look for her, her mistress having mis- 
trusted she had a mind to play truant. This was about 
nine ; but madam took her walk, but where, she is not 
come back to tell. 

16. I arose before six, as I was much concerned to 
see my wife so afflicted on the bad conduct, as before, 
of her girl. Poll, who is not yet returned, but is skulking 
and running about town. This, I understand, was the 

' Sec entry of October 3d. 

Sbpt. 1775] ^f ^^^ American Revolution. 43 

practice of her mother, who, for many years before the 
death, was a constant plague to my wife, [and] who left 
her this girl as a legacy, and who, by report, as well as 
by my own knowledge for almost three years, has been 

always so, down to this time About eight, word was 

brought that Poll was just taken by sister Lynn, near 
the market, and brought to their house. A messenger 
was immediately despatched for [her«] as she could not 
be found before, although a number of times they had 
been hunting her. Brought home, I suppose, about ten. 

18. As I went down town, called at [the] Coffee 

House, an express being arrived from Ticonderoga 

Thence to my son's, and spent some time with Samuel 
and John Adams ; from there, I called at Christopher 
Gadsden's lodgings, spent some little time with him ; 
from there to the place and drank balm tea with my 
wife. Came home about dark, and spent the evening 

19. Some of our militia, in number , with 

wagons, money, and coarse clothing, set out for the 
camp, near Boston, commanded by Major Cooks and 
Capt. Cowperthwaite At two, I went to [the] manu- 
factory by invitation, to consult with some of the mana • 
gers respecting the employment of three, (it's said) com- 
plete spinners on the machine and cotton weavers, &c. 

20. Past three went to the place, where Samuel 
Adams, Governor Ward, John Adams and Christopher 
Gadsden and son came, drank coiFee, and spent the 
afternoon in free conversation. 

21. Went to the manufactory, where was a full board 
of managers. Business went on with temper and good 
humor, as Mr. Tillbury was absent. 

25. Past ten, went to meet [the] sub-committee at 
[the] Coffee House, where fifteen of the vendue masters 
attended, and were qualified agreeably to the resolve 
made by [the] Committee. 

44 Christopher Marshall* s Diary [Sept. 1775 


27. Past eleven, went to [the] Committee^ Room, at 
[the] Coffee House ; from there, went with last night's 
resolves to the Congress at the State House, in company 
with John Benezet. 

' 28. About one, went down to [the] wharf to see the 
gondolas sail by, the delegates being aboard, with a great 
number of others. Two of them, about Masters' 
wharf, each carried away a mast. 

October i. From New York, of Sept. 28th, "There 
is a report in town that two thousand Canadians have 
posted themselves between St. John's and Montreal, to 
cut off the communication between the town and 
Carlton's garrison." 

2. After breakfast, went to [the] State House. Elec- 
tion began past ten. 

3. Yesterday were chosen the following persons. 
Representatives for this county, Joseph Parker, 3077 
votes ; John Dickinson, 3122 ; Michael Hillegas, 3111 ; 
George Gray, 3107 ; Thomas Potts, 3103 ; Samuel 
Mills, 3098 r Robert Morris, 1882; Jonathan Roberts, 
1700. Sheriffs, William Dewees, 2985; John Bull, 
1602. Coroners, Robert Jewel), 2213; William Moul- 
der, 1602. Past three, I went to [the] State House. 
Election for two burgesses then-about wa§ begun. I 

stayed there till near five N. B. Samuel Powell 

was elected Mayor this day in the room of Samuel 

4. Yesterday were elected Burgesses for this City, 
Benjamin Franklin, 775 votes ; Thomas Mifflin, 724 

votes This afternoon, Benjamin Franklin, Thomas 

Lynch and Benjamin Harrison, three of the delegates, 
set out for Boston, being appointed to the service of 
consulting and advising with the gentlemen in the Pro- 
vincial army This day arrived, Ship Aurora, Capt. 

Reed, from London, as did the Ship Clementine, Capt. 
Brown, from Scotland, and Ship King of Prussia, Capt. 
Potts, from Rotterdam. The two last with passengers. 

Oct. 1775] of the American Revolution. 45 

6. About six, was called to [the] Committee Room, 
where were twenty-nine members, some of whom by 
information had been down to Chester after some letters 
which they were informed were going to England, in 
the possession of Christopher Carter, who had been 

partner with Spikeman, in Market Street, which 

said person they found, and then recovered [the letters] 
by threats of detaining and bringing him up to town, and 
after recovering said letters, in two parcels, one of them 
directed to Thomas Corbyn, and the other to Mrs. 
McCalla, and taking his qualification to the whole of 
them, and of whom and by whom he received them, 
they then discharged him, and brought the letters, which 
were now read, and as they appeared to be base and 
cruel invectives against the liberties of America, and 
calculated by wicked men to inflame the minds of the 
people in England against the Colonies in general, it was 
directed that three of the authors be immediately taken 
into custody, which was immediately put into practice 
by securing Dr. Kearsley, James Brooks, and Leonard 
Snowden (a Quaker), brewer in Pemberton Street, and 
they were confined under a guard in the State House 
until next morning. A seal was also put on the Doctor's 
desk, and a guard placed at his house. All this done 
by eleven o'clock. N. B. James Brooks was taken up 
at the Doctor's, and Snowden at the Doctor's street 

7. Notices called the Committee to meet at ten. 
According I went and met them, there being about 
seventy members. After some time being met, report 
was made that there was reason to apprehend that there 
was a great number of inimical letters on board the snow 
Patty, bound to London, upon which a sub-committee 
was sent down in a pilot boat to examine and bring them 
all up that were suspected, and also all persons on board 
that were suspected. This being done, a resolve was 
brought in by three of the Committee of Safety from 


46 Christopher Marshall's Diary [Oct. 1775 

the Congress, dated the sixth instant, ordering that all 
suspected persons that were found to act inimical to the 
rights and liberties of America that fell under our dis- 
cussing and notice, should by us be delivered over for 
trial of their offences to the Committee of Safety, they 
only being invested with that power and not we — we 
having no right to hear or determine any case of that 

This produced a warm debate for some time, and, at 
length, upon motion seconded, whether the present papers, 
relating to Kearsley, Brooks, Snowden and Ordale 
(Minister of Burlington in the Jerseys)^ should, by a 
Committee appointed, be carried to the Committee of 
Safety for their sole judgment and determination, the 
same motion was carried by a majority of the whole, 
except one and myself. Past two, the Committee broke 

8. About two, was brought to town, Christopher 
Carter with a number of letters from on board the brig 
Black Prince. He was put into prison, where the three 
before mentioned' were sent by the Committee of 
Safety, last night, till further examination. 

9. Went at ten o'clock to the Committee at the 
Philosophical ; stayed till twelve, in which meeting, 
fifteen members were chosen to assist the Committee of 
Safety in the trials of Dr. Kearsley, Leonard Snowden, 
J. Brooks, [and] Christopher Carter, whose trials then 
came on before the Committee of Safety and those fif- 
teen members, at the Lodge Room, and continued till 

just dark before finished N. B. The four persons 

before mentioned were conveyed from prison and back 
there again by a guard of associators, not less than fifty, 
with drums, fifes, &c., &c. 

10. Dr. Young called at my house, requesting me to 
endeavor to collect a small supply for Mrs. Cleamuns, a 
woman driven from Boston with several children, whom 

' Kearsley, Brooks, and Snowden. 

Oct. 1775] rf ^^^ American Revolution. 47 

they purposed to send and settle for the present amongst 
a set of his friends near Albany, if a small contribution 
could be made here for her, so as to convey her there, 
and to help her a little at first settling down. I accord- 
ingly set out and waited upon some who threw in their 

11. Past ten, I went out collecting for Mrs. Clea- 
muns, and collected, yesterday and to-day, with my own 
mite, the sum of £3 %s. 6d, which I paid unto her- 
self. Ship , Capt. Robison, arrived from Lon- 
don, brought account that Richard Penn was arrived at 
London, who carried the Congress's petition to the 
King, but that it was not delivered when he sailed, but 
was to be in a few days after. 

12. At six went to the manufactory; stayed there 
till near nine. We were pleasant and agreeable^ as 
sundry humorsome spirits were present For sun- 
dry pieces of news, see Evening Post, Numb. 113. 

14. Took a walk down town and spent some time, 

viewing two of the gondolas We have had many 

fears for a day or two past, respecting a piece of news 
from Boston, how that on the fourth instant, had sailed 
from there, a fleet, consisting of one sixty-four, and one 
twenty-gun ship, two sloops of eighteen guns, and two 
transports, with six hundred men — their destination a 
profound secret, but that they had taken on board two 
mortars and four howitzers, with other artillery fitting for 
bombardment of a town. This, we thought, might be 
to visit us. 

17. Near six, went to [the] Committee Room 
(Society Hall) ; came away past nine. In that time a 
petition from the privates, requesting this Committee's 
assistance respecting the General Association recom- 
mended by the last Assembly and adopted by the Con- 
gress. Upon motion, a Committee of nine were 
appointed to meet to-morrow, consider and prepare a 
draught by way of petition to the Assembly, now sitting. 

48 Christopher Marshall's Diary [Oct. 1775 

to enforce that resolve, but first to present it to this 
Committee, who are to meet the nineteenth, at this 
room, to consider the contents. At said time, a motion 
that a petition be also presented to the Assembly, pray- 
ing them to take the saltpetre works into their care. 
The same was then written, read and approved of, signed 
by George Clymer, Chairman, and delivered to Joseph 
Parker, to present to-morrow. 

18. Near twelve, went to the Committee Room, at 
the Coffee House, being on the committee for settling 
the conditions of security for vessels taking provisions 
from one colony to another. 

19. Near six, I went to [the] Committee Room at 
[the] Society's Hall, where news was brought by — — 
West, of the Jerseys, that a Transport ship was stranded 
at Brigantine Beach, near Egg Harbor, that some of 
the men had come on shore, said she was from Boston, 
and that, on her stranding, they had thrown all her gun- 
powder and small arms overboard. Now as this account 
was imperfect, the committee proposed sending an ex- 
press directly, but Major Cox and Captain Ash propos- 
ing to go, if agreeable, their proposal was readily accepted 
of, and although it rained hard, and [was] very dark, yet 
they intended to set off immediately, in order to send 
back a true account, and if needful, to stay and assist 
that part of the country. 

20. James Cannon visited me this morning, respect- 
ing a petition the Committee of privates intended to send 
to the Assembly. I gave as my judgment that no time 
should be lost, as I was apprehensive that the Assembly 
might soon adjourn, in order to prevent any application 
to them respecting a General Militia Law. 

24. Near six this morning, Dr. Kearsley and James 
Brooks, under a guard of eight of the Light Horse, left 
this City for the different jails allotted them in this Pro- 
vince To Ashton's Ferry, as fifteen, called recruits 

of Gage's army, that were on board the ship stranded in 

Oct. 1775] of the American Revolution. 49 

the Jerseys were brought, under an escort of the Jersey 
militia, and delivered to ours here, who took them to 

our prison Past two, went and met part of [the] 

Committee at [the] Coffee House ; from there went in 
a body to Carpenters' Hall, in order to attend the funeral 
of Peyton Randolph (who had departed suddenly, after 
dinner, last First Day, at the country house of Kichard 
Hills); then proceeded to Christ's Church, where a 
sermon was preached by Jacob Duche ; then to Church 
Burial Ground. 

25. At three, went to [the] Committee at Society 
Hall, being on the appointment of twelve members, to 
hear and examine Captain Hastings, and the mate of the 
ship Rachel and Francis, which was stranded at Brigan- 
tine Beach on her voyage from Boston to New York, 
respecting her cargo. 

28. About three, went down town ; called at John 
Lynn's \ from there to Benja. Marshall's ; stayed till 
near six in company with John Hancock and lady, 
Samuel and John Adams, [Thomas] Cushing,jrEliphalet] 
Dyer, Treat Paine, [John] Langdon, Silas Deane, and 
another delegate not known to me ; drank coffee there ; 
from thence, through the rain to the manu&ctory, by 
appointment, to consider a memorial to present to the 

29. Near six in the evening, went to meet the Com- 
mittee at the Philosophical Hall, being called to attend 
by ticket from the Chairman, in order to consider a 
" Memorial presented by the People called Quakers" on 
the twenty-seventh instant, to the Assembly now sitting. 
This Committee accordingly met (present seventy-two 
members) and, without one dissenting member, agreed 
that the said Memorial should be counteracted. Agree- 
ably thereto, a Committee of seven members, to wit, 
McKean, Clymer, Smith, Jones, Delany, Wilcox and 
Matlack, were appointed to prepare a draught for that 
purpose, to be brought to this Committee to-morrow 

so Christopher Marshal? s Diary [Oct. 1775 

evening at six o'clock, for their approbation, in order to 
be presented to the Assembly the thirty-first instant, in 
the morning. 

30. At six, went to meet [the] Committee at [the] 
Philosophical Hall, by ticket, where the Remonstrance 
to the Assembly in opposition to the one presented by 
the Friends, was read and approved of by the whole body 
that was there met, being seventy-four members, and 
we were ordered to meet in a body at this house, and so 
proceed to present it to the Assembly to-morrow morning 
at nine o'clock. 

31. Just before nine, went to meet the Committee at 
the Philosophical Hall. At ten, went, two by two, 
being sixty-six in number, to the State House. Our 
chairman, George Clymer, and Mr. McKean presented 
our Petition to the Speaker of the House, who ordered 
it to be read while we were all present, which was done 

November i. Near twelve took a walk to [the] 
Committee Room at [the] Coffee House ; came back 
near one, having come to a resolution by the sub-com- 
mittee then met to request the Chairman to call the 
Committee this evening, in order to know why the arms 
ordered to be made last June, were not done, nor yet set 
about, and strictly to inquire who is guilty of that omis- 
sion Yesterday arrived the King's Proclamation, 

dated London, 23d of August, 1775, wherein he haiv^ 
declared all the Colonies to be in open rebellion, and 
therein includes all his subjects within his realm th«t 
hold or maintain any correspondence with us by any 
ways. This day, authenticated accounts were brought 
of the burning and destroying of the town of Falmouth,' 
consisting of between three and four hundred houses^ by 
the man-of-war, which, it's said, fired three thousand balls 
into it, which set it a fire. 

3. Account just brought by express, of the surrender 

* Now Portland, Maine. 

Nov. 1775] of the American Revolution. 51 

of Fort Chamblee to Major Brown, on the Fourteenth 
of October, in which was a great quantity of ammuni- 
tion, provisions, warlike stores, &c., with the colors of 
the Seventh Regiment or Royal Scotch Fusileers, which 
were brought to the Congress. 

^ 6. Near five, son Benjamin accompanied me to Col. 
Hancock's lodgings, in order to see the ensigns or colors 
taken at Fort Chamblee ; found him and his lady at 
home, spent an hour or two with him very agreeably. 

7. Came back at one. News Just brought, by the 
way of Fairfield, of the taking of St. John's Fort by 
storm, with the loss of two hundred Provincials. 

13. This morning, set out from this city for Canada, 
Robert Treat Paine, Thomas Lynch [and] Philip Liv- 

15. Yesterday [an] express arrived, with the account 
of the surrender of the Fort of St. John's, on the Third 

17. Account just brought x>f four vessels' being just 
taken by our friends at the eastward ; one ship loaded 
with wood and hay, two with live stock, viz., cattle, 
sheep, hogs, geese, turkeys, ducks, &c., and some hay. 
One was a brig stranded, out of which were taken to 
the camp, one hundred and eighteen pipes of Madeira 
wine. It's said that this belonged to Philadelphia. 

21. In company with Sampson Levy, Thomas Combs, 
and my son Benjamin, we viewed the inside of the new 
prison ; ' thence into Chestnut Street, to view the ar- 
rival of Lady Washington, who was on her journey to 
Cambridge, to her husband. She was escorted into the City 
from Schuylkill Ferry, by the Colonel and other officers, 
and light infantry of the Second Battalion, and the com- 
pany of Light Horse, &c. 

24. After dinner, as I had heard some threats thrown 
out, that if the ball assembled this night, as it was pro- 

' Corner of Wtlnut tnd Sixth Street!. 

52 Christopher Marshall s Diary [Nov. 1775 

posed, they presumed that the New Tavern would cut 
but a poor figure to morrow morning, these fears of some 
commotion's being made that would be very disagreea- 
ble at this melancholy time, in disturbing the peace of 
the City, I concluded, if possible, to prevent, in order 
to which, I went to Col. Hancock's lodgings, and find- 
ing he was not come from Congress, and the time grew 
short, being three o'clock, I walked up to the State 
House, in expectation of meeting him. That failing, I 
requested the door-keeper to call Samuel Adams, which 
he accordingly did, and he came. I then informed him 
of the account received of a ball, that was to be held 
this evening, and where, and that Mrs. Washington and 
Col. Hancock's wife were to be present, and as such 
meetings appeared to be contrary to the Eighth Resolve 
of Congress, I therefore requested he would give my 
respects to Col. Hancock, desire him to wait on Lady 
Washington to request her not to attend or go this even- 
ing. This he promised. Thence I went and met the 
Committee at the Philosophical Hall, which was large and 
respectable, being called together for this purpose only to 
consider the propriety of this meeting or ball's being held 
this evening in this city, at the New Tavern, where, 
after due aud mature consideration, it was then con- 
cluded, there being but one dissenting voice (Sharp 
Delany), that there should be no such meeting held, not 
only this evening, but in future, while these troublesome 
times continued, and a Committee was appointed, imme- 
diately to go to inform the directors of this meeting, not 
to proceed any further in this affair, and also to wait upon 
Lady Washington, expressing this Committee's great 
regard and affection to her, requesting her to accept of 
their grateful acknowledgment and respect, due to her 
on account of her near connection with our worthy and 
brave General, now exposed in the field of battle in de- 
fence of our rights and liberties, and request and desire 
her not to grace that company, to which, we are informed, 

Nov, 1775] of the American Revolution. 53 

she has an invitation this evening, &c., &c. Came home 
near six. After I drank coffee, I went down to Samuel 
Adams's lodgings, where was Col. Dyer. Spent some 
time pleasantly, until Col. Harrison came to rebuke 
Samuel Adams for using his influence for the stopping 
of this entertainment, which he declared was legal, just 
and laudable. Many arguments were used by all pre- 
sent to convince him of the impropriety at this time, but 
all to no effect ; so, as he came out of humor, he so 
returned, to appearance. 

25. At half past eleven, went to the Committee Room 
at the Coffee House ; came away near two. At this 
time. Major Bayard, one of the four gentlemen appointed 
to wait on Lady Washington, reported that they had 
acted agreeably to directions, that the lady received them 
with great politeness, thanked the Committee for their 
kind care and regard in giving such timely notice, re- 
questing her best compliments to be returned to them for 
their care and regard, and to assure them that their sen- 
timents on this occasion, were perfectly agreeable unto 
her own. 

27. About ten. Lady Washington, attended by the 
troop of horse, two companies of light infantry, &c., &c., 
left this City, on her journey to the camp, at Cambridge. 

30. Near nine, called by invitation at Paul Fooks's, 
he having illuminated for the taking of Montreal. 

December 10. As to public occurrences, I refer to 
the weekly papers which I take, and [as] to what passes 
worthy of notice in sub-committee, the minutes of that 
board will relate, as will the minutes of the General 
Committee, and the minutes of the American Manufac- 
tory, to which records I refer the inquisitive. I ac-^ 
knowledge now, the receiving, a few days past, sundry 
presents from my friend Paul Fooks, viz., a neat window- 
blind for my library room, two quarts of old French 
brandy, and a plate of choice red herrings. 

21. Within a few days past, arrived several small 

54 Christopher Marshal? s Diary [Dec. 1775 

cargoes of gunpowder, Capt. , fifteen hundred weight ; 

Captain Walter Stevens, six hundred and eighty pounds, 
forty-nine muskets^ thirteen silver handled hangers ; two 
schooners, Rebecca, Captain Farey, the Ranger, Capt. 
Cruse, both from Eustatia, twenty-threeliundred pounds 
of powder in fourteen half barrels, and sixty-six quarter 
barrels, twenty-four neat swivel guns, and one hogs- 
head of different sized pistols Near four, went to 

meet some of [the] Committee members at Major Mor- 
gan's, in order to see to settle the price for some powder, 
and the twenty-four swivel guns. 

23. Lent Dr. Young an octavo volume, Salmon* s 
Collection and Paraphrase^ on the Works of the Philosophers^ 
Geber and Hermas^ No. 97. 

26. For public news, see Dunlap's General Advertiser^ 
Numb. 218. 

29. After dinner (half after one), went to the Carpen- 
ters' Hall to meet as many of the subscribers to the 
American Manufactory of Wool, Cotton, Flax, &c., as 
were pleased to attend, in order to settle sundry afl^irs 
relating to the said company. Came away from there 
about six. 

30. For public occurrences, see Pennsylvania Ledger^ 
Numb. 49, 

31. Sundry pieces of news last night in the Evening 
Postj Numb. 147. 


January 3. News brought to-day of a skirmish be- 
tween the Pennsylvanians and the Connecticut people ' 
in which Jesse Lukens was killed. 

6. At four, went to meet [the] Committee at [the 
Philosophical Hall (per notice sent). The business was 
to enquire respecting the conduct of Parson Smith and 

Tench F , they having, as reported, spoken and 

acted very disrespectfully of the Congress and all our 

' In the Wyoming country, then claimed by both provinces. 

Jan. 1776] of the American Revolution. ^$ 

proceedings. John M , who was [present] and had 

given notice of said Smith's conduct^ being called upon, 
used such equivocal and unmeaning expressions, beneath 
the dignity of a member of society, much less a member 
of this Committee and of Safety, in order to exculpate 
the said Smith, that no hold could, at present, be taken 
of him. The other was put off till next Third [day] 
evening, and six members appointed to make enquiry 
respecting his and other persons' proceedings in the pro* 

secuting of the contest at Wyoming News brought 

this evening of three tons of gunpowder arrived at Egg 
Harbor or Cape May, thirty-nine tons near the camp, 
and six tons at New York. 

7. It's said, an express arrived from Rhode Island on 
the Fifth instant to the Monthly Meeting of Friends in 
this City, the contents of which has induced their mem- 
bers to sit pretty constant for these two days past. What 
they may hatch or bring forth. Time will make manifest. 
By yesterday's post, [a] letter from [the] camp before 
Quebec, dated [the] sixth of last month, gives an account 
that Gen. Montgomery had joined Col. Arnold with 
some artillery and about three thousand men ; that our 
men were in high spirits, and were now well clothed with 
the regimentals destined for the seventh and twenty-sixth 
regiments, which were taken at Fort St. John's ; that 
they were making preparations to attack the enemy, who 
are in close garrison, but, it's thought, could not hold 
out long, as they intended, after they had summoned 
them to surrender and they refused, immediately to en- 
deavor to take it by a general storm. See Evening Post^ 
Numb. 150. 

8. This morning arrived, via New York, the King's 
Speech to both houses of Parliament, 27th of October, 
1775 ; also, account of three hundred large barrels of 
gunpowder landed not far from New York to the East- 
ward This afternoon, news came of the Schooner, 

Charming Polly's arrival at Chester, with sixty tons of 

56 Christopher MarshalFs Diary [Jan. 1776 

saltpetre and Sloop Trial with one thousand pounds of 

9. At breakfast, I was visited by Paul Fooks's house- 
keeper, who informed that their boy, Neal, had heard 
his sister Rosanna Thompson, who lived at [RichardJ 
Bache's, [say] that James Brattle,servant man to James 
Duane, one of [the New] York delegates, was employed 
by Governor Tryon, to collect and send him all the news 
he could find, on board the Asia, for which he should 
be well rewarded and also be preferred to some post, in 
consequence of which, he had written to him, and in 
particular the day our fleet sailed with their number, &c. 
On this information, I called upon some of our Com- 
mittee at [the] Coffee House. Joseph Dean went with 
me, but could gain nothing. We returned. Then John 
Bayard went with me to Joseph Reed's : he not at home ; 
thence to see him at [the] Committee of Safety : not 
there ; thence to [the] Court House ; found him. After 
taking his advice, went to Hall's* Printing Office ; took 
[Richard] Bache home with us ; called his maid ; exam- 
ined her. She seemed confounded, but, on the whole, 
denied it. From thence to [the] Coffee House, where 
consulting Major Cox, he joined us two. We went to 
[the] State House; called out Mr. Duane ; informed 
him ; he seemed confounded ; requested us to attend him 
to his house. We did. He called his man, examined 
him, took him up stairs and made search, all to no pur- 
pose. We then went, took him with us to Paul Fooks's ; 
examined the boy who persisted. We brought the boy 
back to the Duane's lodgings ; sent for the young woman, 
who, upon seeing her brother, confessed that what he 
had said was true. James was called and interrogated, 
but all to no purpose. Then Major Cox and Mr. Duane 
took him up stairs again, and while they were employed 
in that business, he slipped down stairs, out through the 

' Hall was first the partner, afterwards the successor of Franklin, in the 
printing business. 

Jan. 1776] of the American Revolution. 57 

yard, and [they] have seen no more of him. Major 
bayard and myself waited for them in the parlor. Thus 
he escaped. 

13. Went to Bell's; bought a pamphlet called Cbm* 
num Sense. 

15. By the New York Post, which arrived Seventh 
Day night, at nine o'clock, account that Admiral Shul- 
dam was arrived, and five hundred fresh troops at Boston, 
from Ireland, The regiments were the fifty-fifth and 
seventeenth ; that two regiments had gone to Halifax, 
and two had pushed into the River St. Lawrence to try 
for Quebec. An account, by a deserter from Boston, 
on the Third instant, was that a fleet consisting of nine 
transports, with three hundred and sixty men, was ready 
to sail under convoy of the Scarborough and Fowey men- 
of-war, with two bomb vessels and flat bottomed boats, 
said to be for Newport, Long Island, or Virginia \ and 
that five thousand militia had joined General Washington, 
and taken the places of those soldiers who would not 
stay beyond their time of service ; that they were good 
troops, and the whole army impatient for an opportunity 
of action. 

17. Near seven, Christopher Gadsden, and son came 
to take their leave, they being to embark for South 
Carolina to-morrow. 

18. Yesterday arrived an account of our forces' at- 
tempting to take Quebec, but repulsed with the loss of 
Gen. Montgomery, and some more officers of note, upon 
which the Provincial troops were immediately drawn oflF, 
but as the accounts at present remain uncertain as to the 
particulars, we are impatiently waiting for substantial ac- 
counts from that quarter. 

20. In the evening, met a few friends of America at 
Fountain Tavern, in Chestnut Street, in order to consult 
and consider of proper persons to be elected Committee 
men at the next election in this City for that purpose, 
as the time of this Committee expires the Sixteenth of 

58 Christopher Marsbair s Diary [Jan. 1776 

next month. From there, I visited some of the delegates, 
with Silas Deane, Col. Floyer, and the two new ones 
from Connecticut. 

22. About nine, I went to meet [the] Committee at 
[the] Philosophical Hall, by summons, in order to answer 
the request of Congress, which was to make application 
to the inhabitants of this City and Liberties, for a number 
of blankets to enable the battalions who are under orders 
to march for Canada, as none were to be purchased in 
the stores. This request was immediately complied 
with, and the members formed themselves into companies 
accordingly and set out on the business. 

23. Cold morning. Snow fell in the night. Went 
past eleven to [the] Committee Room ; came home 
before one ; took a walk to the barracks, as Capt. 
Dorsey's company marched out of town with their 

baggage this forenoon Near six, went to [the] 

Committee Room at [the] Philosophical Hall. Came 
away about nine. It was there concluded to break the 

lock that F and Sons had put upon their store door, 

take out their goods and sell them to-morrow at public 
vendue, the which I would have the Committee of 
Safety do, but it was overruled. 

24. After dinner took a walk down town to see our 
floating battery, man-of-war, &c. ; came home ; then 
went to John Bayard's vendue. 

25. Past nine, went to [the] Committee Room, at 
[the] Philosophical Hall, by notices, in order to consider 
of ways and means to provide arms for some of the 
marching companies for Quebec. 

26. Went to [the] Committee Room at [the] Philo- 
sophical Hall, by call per ticket ; left it at twelve, it being 
to consult who should be nominated as Burgess, in the 
room of Thomas Mifflin, at camp. Two were proposed, 
viz., Joseph Reed and George Clymer, but the first was, 

by vote, carried to be put At , went to the 

State House with my ticket. 

Jan. 1776] of the American Revolution. 59 

27. Joseph Reed, our Chairman, [was] elected yester- 
day one of our Burgesses, in the room of Thomas 
Mifflin, resigned. 

28. Notwithstanding the severe cold weather for 
some days past, yet several companies of our First 
Battalion have marched from town for Canada. By the 
Post, last evening, we learn that two large transports, 
laden with provisions and ammunition, bound for Boston 
from England, are taken and carried into Newburyport. 

30. After five, went to the Committee Room, rhilo- 

sophical Hall ; came away past nine At this 

meeting, complaint was made against John Drinker, 
hatter, for refusing taking Continental money, who, 
being sent for, acknowledged he did, and that in point 
of conscience, he refused it, upon which he was to be 
censured agreeably to the resolve of Congress published 
January nth, 1776], but to be referred for one week, 
in order for him to consider well of it.' 

31. Near six, went to [the] Committee Room at [the] 
Philosophical Hall, being called by ticket. At this 

meeting, Thomas and Fisher were sent for, upon a 

complaint of their refusing the Continental Money, to 
which complaint they made no objection, by acknow- 
ledging the complaint to be just and true, and said that 
from conscience's sake, they could not take it in future ; 
upon which they were ordered to be censured in the 
public papers next week. 

February 2. After dinner, spent some time writing 
something by way of Address to the Congress, to be 
laid before the sub-committee, this evening, for approba- 
tion, at the Coffee House Room Went and spent 

till near nine in conversation with Samuel Adams. 

* Congrets ordained that persont refusing to receive the Condnental Bill' 
of Credit, or who should obstruct and discourage the currency and circnU- 
tion thereof, should, on conviction, be deemed, published and treated at 
enemies of the country, and be precluded from all trade or intercourse with 
the inhabitants of the Colonies. 

6o Christopher Marshall* s Diary [Feb. 1776 

3. At eleven, went to Thomas Lawrence's ; signed 
the Remonstrance, to have it presented to Congress, but 
as they had adjourned to Monday, it was referred to be 
presented then. This morning, Capt. Mason arrived in 
town, having left his brig, loaded with arms, ammunition 
[and] saltpetre, off the Cape. 

6. News brought of General Clinton's arrival at Go- 
vernor's Island, near New York, with six hundred men 
and two men-of-war, and also of General Lee at New 
York, with fifteen hundred men. 

13. After dinner, I went to the State House Yard to 
see the volunteers for New York turn out of each of 
the four battalions of the Associators. 

15. This afternoon, came account of Gen. Clinton 
with the transports' sailing from New York and the 
Narrows. This prevented our Battalion of Volunteers 
from going hence to New York. 

16. Past six, went to [the] State House ; gave my 
vote for Committee men. 

19. Near ten, went to [the] Philosophical [Hall] ; 
met the Committee ; went from there to [the] State 
House. Past eleven, joined and went in procession with 
Congress, Assembly, Committee of Safety, Corporation, 
&c., to the Calvanist Church in Race Street, where a 
funeral sermon was delivered by Dr. Smith, on the death 
of Gen. Montgomery. 

22. Paid 3^. poor tax for the Northern Liberties. 

23. Past one, went to son Charles's and dined with 
Governors Hopkins and Ward, Silas Deane, Col. Lewis, 
Mr. Brown, Badcock, Paul Fooks, and a stranger. 
After dinner, spent the afternoon in conversation ; drank 
coffee there ; I then went to Col. Hancock's lodgings ; 
stayed some time with him and his spouse. I then went 
and met the Managers of the Prison Society' *at Armi- 
tage's came away past nine. 

' The Society for alleviating the miteries of prisonen. 

Feb. 1 776] of the American Revolution. 6 1 

26. Half past eight, went to [the] CofFee House by 
appointment from Ube] General Committee ; met Hoar, 
Mead, and Matlack ; after agreeing upon [a] Memorial 
to Congress, went with [it] to James Searle's, he beine 
one appointed ; found him at home poorly. After all 
signing the Remonstrance, the three before mentioned 
and myself waited upon Col. Hancock and delivered it 

to him, to present to Congress Took a walk to 

see the battalions Past seven, went to Samuel and 

John Adams's lodgings ; stayed till past nine. 

28. Went to [the] Committee Room at [the] Philo- 
sophical Hall and met. Committee, by ticket, in order to 
procure a Convention to be called, the which, after some 
debates, was agreed to, but the mode of doing it was re- 
ferred to a meeting to be called to-morrow evening. 

29. At past five, went to the Committee Room, Phi- 
losophical Hall ; came away past eight ; at which the 
time for the Convention's being called was concluded, 
viz., the Second of April next, to meet in this City. 

March 2. To [the] State House, they being choosing 
a Burgess in the room of B. Franklin.' 

4. Spent the afternoon at home, chiefly writing till 
five o'clock, when [I] went to meet [the] Committee at 
[the] Philosophical Hall (called by notices), in order to 
take into consideration the Report of the Committee of 
Correspondence respecting the propriety of suspending 
the calling of the Provincial Convention for a few days 
in order to see the event of sundry petitions now before 
the House of Assembly. Accordingly, the suspension 
was agreed to. 

5. My wife rose early in order to attend her servants 
at the place. Fine pleasant morning, but glooniy wind, 
southwardly. Breakfasted alone. Visited by William 
Clifton and William Bradford ; invited to attend the 
sub-committee at ten this forenoon, at [the] CofFee 

' David Rittenhottse was elected. 

62 Christopher Marsbair s Diary [Mar. 1776 

House, in order to consider of the powder, saltpetre and 
arms brought yesterday in brig Hannah, Capt. James 
Nealc, from Holland. 

6. Near seven, went to the Committee Room, called 
by ticket to consider means to prevent the high prices 
of* sundry kinds of goods, viz.. Rum, Sugar, Molasses, 
Coffee, Pepper, Salt, Cocoa, Chocolate, &c. Came 
home past ten, after passing sundry resolves. 

9. After five, went to [the] Coffee House ; stayed 

there till after the fight of Carson and Price in the 

street, first with sticks, then with fists, but parted. Past 
seven, the fire-flat was set fire to, which answered the 
purpose to admiration of the persons present, which were 
a great number collected on that occasion before the 
Coffee House and down to the wharf. From thence 
went to the Committee Room at Philosophical Hall, 
called bynotices to consult and consider the most expe- 
ditious way to collect hard money to send to Canada. 
The Committee, taking it into consideration, concluded 
to meet in each several district next Second Day at nine, 
and there appoint sub-committees to go through the City 
and try what sum they can exchange Continental money 
for into gold and silver for that service. From there, 
walked down Market Street to Front, and found the 
raft still burning. It was said it burned till one in the 
morning. This afternoon came to town, the Prussian 
General, as he is called, from the camp. 

13. After dinner, went to Dr. Young's. Stayed there 
hearing him read a piece as answer to Common Sense, 
called Plain Truth, but very far from coming up to the 

title Examined Cassandra's answer to Cato's two 

letters in Hall and Seller's Gazette this week. No. 2464.' 

15. Paid Bright, y, lod. for lamp and watch 

tax. Past five, went to James Cannon's. Drank 

' The Essays of Cassandra, which, I learn, were highly esteemed, were 
written by James Cannon. 

Mar. 1776] of the American Revolution. 6^ 

coflfee there with Timothy Matlack ; stayed in conver- 
sation till near seven. (Dr. Smith said these words in 
the presence of James Davidson, Timothy Matlack and 
Cannon — That Great Britain would mortgage Ame- 
rica for as much monev as would enable her to conquer 


17. For sundry pieces of material news, see Evening 
Post^ No. 180. 

18. After dinner, went down to Samuel and John 
Adams's lodgings 5 not at home ; I left there with the 
maid the works of George Stonehouse, neatly bound and 
lettered, viz.. Universal Restitution^ Scripture Doctrine^ 
iffcy Universal Restitution further defended^ Wf., Chris fs 
Temptations Real Facts^ Wf., as a present. From there 

I went and visited Governor Ward, in the small pox. 

Near seven, went by appointment to meet eleven of the 
sub- committee, who with me had before valued, at 
Jacob Winey's six hundred and ninety-four guns, bayo- 
nets, gunpowder, 4c., the which said Winey now ob- 
jected to, when after hearing his objections we confirmed 
our former settlement, to wit, that, the Committee of 
Secrecy pay the sum of £3 155. per piece, when they arc 
put in proper order by the Commissary, and buy the can- 
non powder, at £17 los, per cwt., provided upon trial 
it be good. The charge of repairing was what Winey 
objected to, being £80 5/. 

20. Went at nine o'clock to meet a Committee by 
appointment, to draw a Remonstrance to the Assembly, 

requesting to rescind their directions to our delegates. ' 

Then went to Paul Fooks's : stayed some time there 

with General Baron DeWeldke, the Prussian 

Near seven, went to [the] Committee Room, Philo- 
sophical Hall, called there by summons ; came away 
about nine. At this meeting, Benjamin Sharpless Tan- 
ner was complained of [forj refusing the Continental 
Money. He was sent for, and acknowledged the charge. 

' See potteaf note to June 8th. 

64 Christopher Marsbair s Diary [Mar. 1776 

He was requested to think and give his final answer 
whether he would recant or no, at our next meeting. 

23. Down town to see the Province Ship launched. 

24. For public occurrences, see Evening Post^ Numb. 


26. This morning, about two o'clock, departed my 
honored and worthy friend, Governor Ward, by the 
small pox, which he bore with manly and great patience. 
His loss will be deplored by all the true friends of liberty 

in these colonies, who knew his merits Dined at 

home with Thomas Paine We hear, that on the 

seventeenth instant, about nine in the forenoon, the 
Ministerial army evacuated Boston, and that the United 
Colonies are in actual possession of the town, and that 
they [the British] have left efFects by their sudden de- 
parture to between Thirty and Forty Thousand Pounds. 

27. At three, went to [the] Committee Room at 
[the] Philosophical, being appointed to meet there in 
order to go in a body to the funeral of Gov. Ward from 
his late lodgings in Lodge Alley. We went there and 
accompanied the corpse to the new building in Arch 
Street, where an excellent discourse, suitable to the oc- 
casion, was delivered by Samuel Stileman. After ser- 
vice, the corpse, in same procession, was carried to the 
Baptist Meeting House, in which he was interred. 

28. News brought of the defeat of the Ministerial 
party in North Carolina. See Pennsylvania yournaL 

31. A complete relation of the taking possession of 
Boston is in the Evening Post^ Numb. 186. 

April i. About three, went to James Cannon's. 
Spent good part of this afternoon and evening till eight 
there, in conversation with Thomas Paine, Dr. Young, 
James Wigdon and Timothy Matlack. Came away 
about eight, by the cry of '^ Fire " ; went home ; thence 
up town where the malt house, and new front house of 
Robert Hare was in flames. Went with Col. Rober- 
deau to the powder magazine, where a number of us 

ApRiL 1776] of the American Revolution. 65 

attended with an engine, which played upon the magazine 
and other buildings adjacent for fear of sparks. 

5. Dined at home with James Cannon. We then 
went to Paine's ; stayed some time ; thence Cannon and 
I went to Dr. Young's ; not at home. We went up to 
Kensington ; found him and several friends there at work 
on board the frigate building by Messrs. Eyre. We 
joined them in assisting what we could till night. Then 
came home. 

6. Near two, set off for Kensington, in order to assist 
with a number of fellow citizens in getting the lower 
deck beams on board the frigate building by Messrs. 
Eyre. I presume there came not short of one hundred, 
who stayed till they were all put on board (in which 
were included three parts of the Light Infantry of First 
Battalion, who came in warlike array). Came away 
just at dark. 

9. Near seven, went to [the] Committe Room at 
[the] Philosophical Hall ; came away before ten \ at 
which meeting, Townsend Spikeman attending, owned 
he refused and could not take the Continental money. 
He refusing to appeal, his case was ordered to be pub- 

II. After dinner, went to Kensington, where a number 
of inhabitants met, in order to assist in getting the lower 
deck beams in the ship that was building for man-of-war, 
by Bruce and Company. 

16. News confirmed of our fleet's arrival at New 
London, and of the arrival of Gen. Washington at New 
York. Some particulars. See in Evening Posty Numb. 

19^ Near seven, went to [the] Committee Room 

at [the] Philosophical Hall ; came home past ten. Great 
debate about rescinding the prices some time past affixed 
to sundry articles by the Committee. This debate arose 
from a Remonstrance, now presented by sundry citizens. 

18. Near seven, went to [the] Committee Room at 
[the] Philosophical Hall ; called by summons, where 

66 Christopher MarsbalT s Diary [April 1776 

the rights and powers of the Committee were discussed 
and prove to be invested in them by the votes of Con- 
gress and the call and nomination of the people at large, 
and that the regulations they had entered into were well 
founded. Yet in order to promote peace and harmony 
at this time, a vote was passed (contrary to mine and 
many others' present approbation) that a Remonstrance 
be sent to Congress requesting them to explain some 
former Resolves. A Committee was appointed for that 
purpose, to draught it and bring it to the next meeting 
for approbation. At this meeting, after Committee was 
over, many stayed and appointed sixteen members pre- 
sent to confer with the Committee of Privates and the 
Patriotic Society, respecting the candidates for Burgesses 
on the First of May next. Agreed to meet to-morrow 

19. Near seven, went to William Thorn's school 
room, Videll's Alley ; met a number of persons ap- 
pointed to consult upon persons proper to be returned as 
four Burgesses from this City, on the First of May. 
Came away past nine, having adjourned to seven to- 
morrow evening at same place. I was chosen Chairman, 
J. Cannon, Secretary. 

20. Went thence to James Cannon's. Past seven, 
went with him to William Thorn's school room, as by 
appointment last night. Came away about ten. 

21. Many, I understand, were the private meetings 
of those called moderate men (or those who are for re- 
conciliation with Great Britain upon the best terms she 
will give us, but by all means to be reconciled to or with 
her), in order to consult and have such men carried for 
Burgesses at the Election (First of May) as will be sure 
to promote, to accept and adopt all such measures. 
These are the schemes that are now ardently pursued 
by those men. 

23. Near eight, I went with J. B. Smith to Col. 
Hancock's, to deliver a Remonstrance from the Com- 

April i 776] of the American Revolution. 67 

mittee to Congress (we being appointed for that service), 
the which he received very politely and promised to 
perform and favor us with the result of Congress 

25. Went to Jacob Schriner's ; met sundry persons 
there ; went thence to the sign of Rotterdam in Third 
Street ; stayed till the ticket was settled for Inspectors, 
and three persons to put into practice the Resolve of 

Assembly for disarming Non-Associators Thence, 

to meet the Committee at William Thorn's school room, 
where we concluded and fixed the ticket for four Bur- 

g?sses, viz., George Clymer, Col. Roberdeau, Owen 
iddle [and] Frederick Kuhl, but to be kept a secret 
from the public till after our next meeting on Second 
Day night, at that place [at] seven o'clock. 

27. Past two, went to iCensington, where a number 
of persons, not much short of one hundred and fifty, 
were collected, in order to get the upper deck beams 
into both the frigates building there. The same was 
completed, without any accident's happening, by six in 
the evening. I then came away with Frederick Kuhl, 
James Davidson and James Cannon, to whose house I 
went and drank coffee. 

28. After supper, Joseph Lecond and myself took a 
walk down to Plumstead's wharf, in order to see what 
readiness the two ships of war were in, as they were 
under sailing orders, occasioned by an express, arrived 
about three this afternoon, who left Lewistown about 
six last night, sent by land from Henry Fisher, giving an 
account that the man-of-war, the Roebuck, pursuing 2 
vessel, had, that afternoon, run ashore on the Brandy- 
wine [shoals] and was then, to appearance, fast. The 
vessels were nigh ready, as we learned, and would sail 
in the morning. 

May I. At nine, A.M., went to William Thorn's 
school room by appointment ; from thence to my sons' ; 
thence to [the] Coffee House and so home ; from there 

68 Christopher Marshall* s Diary [May 1776 

down to [the] drawbridge ; thence'to the State House ; 
stayed till one ; went in company with Thomas Paine 
and dined at son Christopher's. Went back to the 
State House ; engaged till past five ; then went with James 
Cannon to his house ; drank coffee there ; then we re- 
turned to the State House ; stayed till eight ; then I 
came home, eat supper and went back. Stayed till past 
ten, the Sheriff having proclaimed to close the poll in 
half an hour. This has been one of the sharpest con- 
tests, yet peaceable, that has been for a number of years, 
except some small disturbance among the Dutch, oc- 
casioned by some unwarrantable expressions of Joseph 
Swift, viz., that except they were naturalized, they had 
no more right to a vote than a Negro or Indian ; and 
also, past six, the Sheriff, without any notice to the pub- 
lic, closed the poll and adjourned till nine to-morrow and 
shut the doors. This alarmed the people, who imme- 
diately resented it, flew to the Sheriff and to the doors 
and obliged him again to open the doors and continue 
the poll till the time above prefixed. I think it may be 
said with propriety that the Quakers^ Papists, Church, 
Allen family, with all the Proprietory party, were never 
seemingly so happily united as at this election, notwith- 
standing Friends' former protestation and declaration of 
never joining with that party since the club or knock- 
down Election. (Oh ! tell it not in Gath, nor publish 
it in the streets of Askalon, how the testimony is trampled 
upon !) About midnight, casting up the poll, it turned 
out thus, viz., Samuel Howell, 941 ; Andrew Allen, 
923 ; George Clymer, 923 ; Alexander Wilcox, 921 ; 
Thomas Willing, 911 ; Frederick Kuhl, 904 ; Owen 
Biddle, 903 ; and Daniel Roberdeau, 890. ^ 

4. Took a walk alone, down to the old fort, viewing 
the preparations making along the bank of our river, viz., 

* It thus appears that the Tories and Moderates elected three of their 
candidates, Messrs. Howell, Allen and Wilcox, the Whigs but one, Mr. 

May 1776] of the American Revolution. 69 

fire boats, building frigates, cheveaux de frises, &c 

Post from New York this morning. For news, see 
Evening Postj Numb. 201. This day, were executed on 
our commons, William Bales and James Jones, for street 
robbery, and John Woodward for the murder of his wife. 

5. This day arrived the Brig Lexington from her cruise 

of weeks; she having carried away her foremast in 

being chased by two King's ships for eight hours, who 
were convoy to [the] fleet of soldiers (where bound was 
uncertain). Upon this loss, he prudently returned, passed 
the man-of-war at our capes, who fired one gun at him, 
which he returned as he passed her. It's said a French 
vessel with twenty-four tons of saltpetre [and] thirteen 
tons of powder, from Port Orient, hearing of the man- 
of-war at our capes, put into Egg Harbor, and is there 
safe secured by our people. 

6. About twelve, alarmed by account of the men-of- 
war's coming up. Our alarm gun was fired, the flag 
hoisted; sundries much alarmed News just pub- 
lished of forty-five thousand English and Foreign Troops 
expected to be sent into America. 

8. Near two, went to [the] CofFee House ; the City 
alarmed with hearing a great number of heavy cannons 
firing down the river. The drums beat to arms, and a 
number of volunteers went down in boats in order to 
assist, as the report was that the Roebuck, of forty, and 
the Liverpool of twenty-eight guns, with tenders, were 
got above New Castle, standing up the river. 

9. After dinner, went to [the] CoflFee House, where 
various reports were circulated, how that the Roebuck 
ran aground, &c., that upon the whole, it appeared that 
little damage has been sustained on our side, but as no 
express has arrived this day, we are in suspense. Near 
five, I went and drank coffee at James Cannon's ; after- 
wards he and I took a walk to the State House Yard. 
There, we heard the fight was renewed by the constant 
discharge of heavy cannon. 


yo Christopher Marshal? s Diary [May 1776 

10. Various accounts of the affair down the river, 
between the men of war and our gondolas, but nothing 
that's certain, save our men conducted themselves 
valiantly, and obliged the men-of-war to fall down 
below New Castle, being handled very roughly. 

11. Little further accounts from below, but agreed 
that no person was killed or wounded by the enemy, 
that our officers of six of the gondolas have done their 
duty with credit, both officers and men having distin- 
guished themselves nobly and gained great reputation. 
The others not showing the same bravery and resolu- 
tion, I hope will be enquired strictly into. Great num- 
bers of families have moved out of town this last week. 

13. Then back to James Cannon's. Stayed there till 
past ten, in company with Paul Fooks, Thomas Paine, 
Dr. Rush, Benjamin Harbeson, Timothy Matlack, 
James Cannon, &c. Appointed to call upon sundry 
other persons, to meet to-morrow night, at Burnside's 
school-room at eight, to take in consideration and to 
concert a plan necessary to be adopted on the meeting 

of our Assembly, next Second Day This afternoon. 

Col. Thomas Mifflin, in company with his wife and 
attendants, arrived in town from New York. 

14. Went to James Cannon's ; spent some time in 
[the] College Yard with him and a person from Cum- 
berland county, respecting public affairs At eight, 

went with Paul Fooks [and] Thomas Paine to Burn- 
side's school room. Met several there agreeably to 
appointment. Agreed to draw up [the] heads of a Pro- 
test to be brought to-morrow night for approbation 

This day came an account, via New York that " the 
Assembly of Rhode Island in their May sessions have 
passed an Act absolving the inhabitants of that colony 
from their allegiance to the King of Great Britain." 

15. Part of several pieces of the men-of-war, beat off 
by our gondolas the other day, was brought to the Coffee 
House this day Past seven, went and met a large 

May 1776] of the American Revolution. 71 

number of persons at the Philosophical, by appointment 
(Col. McKean in the chair), where was debated the 
resolve of Congress of the fifteenth instant, respecting 
the taking up and forming new governments in the 
different colonies. Adjourned, past ten, till three to- 
morrow at said place. 

16. At ten, went to [the] Committee at [the] Philo- 
sophical Hall, by appointment, to consider what may be 
necessary respecting the Quakers on the next Fast Day. 
The same was maturely considered, and upon the whole, 
a handbill was ordered to be printed and dispersed, as 
also to be published in the Evening Posty Numb. 206, 
for all people to refrain from treating any Friend on 
that day, who should open their shops, with any kind of 

ill treatment whatever At four, to the Philosophic 

cal Hall, to meet a number of persons, to consider what 
steps might be necessary to take, on the dissolution of 
government, as published this day. It was concluded to 
call a convention with speed ; to protest against the pre* 
sent Assembly's doing any business in their House 
until the sense of the Province was taken in that Con- 
vention to be called, &c., with the mode and manner of 
doing these several things by or on next Second Day. 
Then adjourned to Seventh Day morning next, at six 
o'clock Dispersed a number of handbills, as pub- 
lished this day It's said by a letter from New 

York, that our people had possessed and destroyed part 
of the lower town of Quebec and made a breach in the 
walls of the upper town, about the Twenty-third of last 

17. This day is what was appointed for the Fast to be 
kept chroueh this Continent. Our neighborhood ex- 
tremelv quiet, observant and composed, in compliance 
with tne resolve of the Honorable Congress, yet there 
was some noise in some few other parts of the City. ...... 

Account just brought that one of our small vessels, called 
the Congress, has taken a prize, carried her into Sandy 

71 Christopher Marsbair s Diary [May 1776 

Puxton in Virginia, with three hundred half-joes, and 
that the Commissioners and the Hessians are arrived at 

18. About nine, the New York post came, brought 
account by letter from Albany that they had account 
dated the Fifteenth instant, that our forces raised the 
siege of Quebec upon the appearance of four men-of- 
war, leaving all their provisions, a number of cannon and 

two hundred sick and wounded men Went about 

seven to [the] Committee Room at [the] Philosophical 

Hall Came away past nine. The call of this 

meeting was to consider a letter from Joshua F and 

Sons, respecting a load of saltpetre lodged in the Com- 
mittees' store, it being shipped contrary to resolve of 
Congress in Dec. 1774, but as their letter now was a 
Jesuitical contrivance to impose upon the country and 
deceive the Committee, a true state of the case was or- 
dered to be published. A request was brought to this 
Committee, from a large company of the City and 
Liberties, that a general call be made of the inhabitants 
of the City and Liberties, to meet next Monday at nine 
o'clock forenoon at the State House, in order to take the 
sense of the people respecting the resolve of Congress of 
the Fifteenth instant, the which, after debate, was agreed 
to, only five dissenting voices.* 

20. At ten, went to [the] Coffee House, thence to 
[the] State House Yard, where, it was computed. Four 
thousand people were met, notwithstanding the rain, and 
then, sundry resolves were passed unanimously except 

^ On the Tenth of May, 1776, it was Resolved by Congress to recom- 
mend to the several Assemblies and Conventions of the United Colonies, 
where no Government sufficient to the exigencies of their affairs had been 
established, to adopt such a government, as should, in the opinion of the 
Representatives of the people, best conduce to the happiness and safety of 
their constituents in particular and of America in general. A preamble to 
this Resolution, agreed to on the Fifteenth of May, stated the intention 
to be, totally to suppress the exercise of every kind of authority under the 
British Crown. 

May 1 776] of the American Revolution. 73 

one, and there was one dissenting voice, to wit, Isaac 
Gray. Near twelve, all was completed quietly and 

peaceably Went to [the] Committee Room at 

[the] Philosophical Hall, where were confirmed the re- 
solves at the State House, and directions, with proper 
persons appointed to go with the said resolves to the 
different counties. 

22. N. B. Yesterday, arrived in town Major General 
Gates from New York. 

24. Yesterday, about two o'clock P. M., came into 
[town] from New York, General Washington, as did 
his lady, the day before. Past ten, went to meet [the] 
Committee at [the] Philosophical Hall, called by notices. 
Here was an Address to Congress concluded on, in an- 
swer to the Remonstrance that was, or is intended to be, 
sent from the Assembly, to counteract our proceedings 
last Second Day at the State House. This was to be 
delivered as soon as their Remonstrance was read in 
Congress. This paper or Remonstrance of their's was 
carried by numbers, two by two, into almost all parts of 
the town to be signed by all (tag, longtail and bob), and 
also sent into the country, and much promoted by the 
Quakers. See the copy in Evening Post^ Numb. 209. 

25. Thence to James Cannon's, who was gone out 
this morning with Tim. Matlack, Benjamin Harbeson, 
Lieutenant Chambers [and] William Miles to meet 
sundry county members at Norrington' this after- 
noon Account arrived by express of our privateer 

Franklin's taking and carrying into Boston a store ship 
of three hundred tons, having seventy-five tons of gun- 
powder, one thousand stand of arms, &c., &c. See 
Evening Post^ Numb. 210. 

26. Sundry material advices from England were pub- 
lished in Pennsylvania Journal^ No. 1746. 

27. Past two took a walk on the commons to see the 

'Then in Philadelphia county, now in the county of Montgomery, which 
was formed in I784f from the North Weitem part of Philadelphia coonty. 

74 Christopher Marshals Diary [May 1776 

review of sundry battalions of militia and the recruits, 
which were drawn up regularly with the troop of horse 
and train of artillery. The Generals were Washington 
(chief), Gates and Mifflin, with the Congress, members 
of Assembly, a number of clergymen, officers, &c., and 
a vast concourse of people, with between twenty and 
thirty of the Indians of the six nations. 

20. Past seven, went to the Philosophical Hall and 

met the Committee there. Joshua F and Sons' 

letter to us, respecting salt, was now referred to Con- 
gress for their determination. Three letters were 
appointed to be written by Committees appointed, viz., 
one to Cumberland county, one to Philadelphia county. 
Committees in answer to their's, one to the Managers 

of the Hospital respecting Thomas F 's being elected 


30, After dinner, went to James Cannon's. Stopped 
by the way by Humphrey Marshall. Spent near an hour 
with him in the street, with two or three of the House 

of Assembly, on the state of the times Dr. Young, 

being returned from Yorktown, came there to see 

me Heard his declaration of his expedition, read 

his letters from the Committee.' 

31. Past seven, went to the Committee Room at [the] 
Philosophical Hall ; came away past nine, having ap- 
pointed a Committee to settle the price of salt, find the 
quantity, &c. Also had sundry letters read from Com- 
mittee of Yorktown and Lancaster. Went from there 
to James Cannon's, found a select company of friends 
of the liberties of America. Stayed and supped. 

June i. Thence to meet [the] Committee at [the] 
Philosophical Hall, where the prices of salt and teas 
were settled for the present, and a determination to 
support the resolve of Congress, dated May 25th, at all 

» Dr. Young appears to have been one of the gentlemen sent into the 
different counties with the resolves of the town meeting of May 20th. 
Yorktown or York is the county town of York county, Penn. 

June 1776] of the American Revolution. 75 

hazards. A resolution was come to for presenting a 
Memorial to the County Court, requesting them to 
adjourn till the sense of the Province was taken. 

2. Visited this forenoon by Paul Fooks, who gave a 
relation of their meeting last night with seven of the 
Captains of the Gondolas by appointment, to which I 
had been invited, and [al relation of Captain Mueford's 

death. See Evening Posty Numb. 213 in the 

evening came Robert Whitehill, member for Cumber- 
land, raul Fooks, John Payne, who stayed and 


3. Went to [the] Committee Room at [the] Philo- 
sophical Hall, past nine, being by notices, to hear the 
Memorial read, that was ordered to be prepared to present 
to the Magistrates of the County Court to be held this 
day. The same was read and approved of, and Col. 
M!cKean was requested to present it. From there, 
sundry of us went to [the] Court House ; thence I went 
to [the] Committee Room at [the] Coffee House, where 
two vessels with drygoods and some military stores, oil 
and su^r, were entered, one from St. Martin's, one 
from Hispaniola. 

4. To [the] State House, in order to hear the ex- 
amination of [the] Committee of Safety and the captains 
of [the] Gondolas before the Assembly. 

5. This morning. General Washington, General 
Mifflin, Gates, &c., with their Aids de camp, left this 
city for New York. Past three, I went to Paul Fooks's. 
He went with me on the commons, where the Third 
and the Shirt Battalions * were exercising. 

6. This day arrived, it's said, at Capt. Craig's, in 
this City, from on board the Privateers Congress and 
Chance at Egg Harbor, Twenty-two Thousand, Four 
Hundred and jTwenty Dollars [and] one hundred and 
eighty-seven pounds of plate, taken by them from three 
Jamaica ships, those Privateers had taken. 

< Probably to called from wearing bundng tbirtt. 

76 Christopher MarshalP s Diary [June 1776 

8. This day, fresh instructions were given by our 
Assembly to their delegates in Congress, Yeas 31, Nays 
12.' Sundry pieces of intelligence see in Evening Post^ 
Numb. 216. This afternoon, came up to town, the 
ship Juno, Capt Saml. Marston, being one of the prizes 
taken by two of our Privateers. She was bound from 
Jamaica to London, with rum, sugar, molasses, &c. 

10. Near twelve, went to [the] Committee Room, 
at [the] Coffee House, where we entered Sloop Sally, 
from Saint Eustatia, with one thousand and twenty 
bushels of salt. Came away about one. Just about 
this time, part of the Fourth mttalion seized a Jew, for 
mal-practice, cursing the Congress, declaring his willing- 
ness to fight against them, &c., &c., but upon their 
treating him roughly [he] excused himself by informing 
against Arthur Thomas, a skinner, who, he said, in- 
structed him in those points. Now, as this Thomas 
was one [who] had been frequently complained of ever 
since Dr. Kearley's affair, and with whom it's said, he 
now corresponds, the mob flew to his house. Not 
finding him as he ran away on their appearance, they 
wreaked their vengeance on his house, furniture, cash. 

^ These fresh instructions rescinded those given in the previous Novem- 
ber (to dissent from and utterly reject any proposition that might lead to 
a separation from Great Britain), and authorized them to ''concur with the 
other Delegates in Congress, in forming such farther compacts between 
the United Colonies, concluding such treaties Krith foreign Kingdoms and 
States, and in adopting such other measures as may be judged necessary for 
promoting the liberty, safety and interest of America, reserving to the 
people of this colony the sole and exclusive right of regulating the internal 
government and police of the same/* 

The concluding paragraph of these instructions is as follows : 
"The happiness of these colonies has, during the whole course of this 
fatal controversy, been our first wish : their reconciliation with Great Britain 
our next. Ardently have we prayed for the accomplishment of both. 
But, if we must renounce the one or the other, we humbly trust in the 
mercies of the Supreme Governor of the Universe, that we shall not stand 
condemned before his throne, if our choice is determined by that overruling 
law of self-preservation, which hit divine wisdom has thought fit to im- 
plant in the hearts of his creatures.** 

June 1776 J of the American Revolution. 77 

skins, breeches, &c., &c., &c Down to where the 

First Battalion exercised ; stayed till the resolves of 
Congress, Fifteenth of May, and the resolves made the 
Twentieth at the State House were read, then [it was] 
proposed whether thev should support them at all hazards. 
The same was agreea to unanimously, except two officers 
in the Foot, two officers in the [Light] In&ntry and 
about twenty-three privates in the [Lieht] Innmtry. 
From thence to the Second Battalion, where the same 
was read and agreed to by all except two privates. The 
same I understand was done by CoK McKean's and 
Col. Matlack's [Battalions] to a man, this day. 

12. Past seven, to Committee at Philosophical Hall, 
called upon special business, viz. to settle the number of 
members to meet the country members on the Con- 
ference to be begun [the] Eignteenth instant. 

13. Rose this morning soon, a Committee of five 
being appointed to meet at seven at [the] Coffee House 
in order to pick out twenty-five members to be returned 
to the General Committee to serve in Conference. 

14. Yesterday an express came from Harry Fisher 
of a numerous body of Tories assembled in Sussex 
County,' who were intrenching and had cut off the com- 
munication by land to Dover Powder and ball 

were sent from here under escort of a company of Col. 
Matlack's Battalion. It's thought this trick of the 
Tories was concerted in this place in order to give dis- 
turbance and break our measures, but they will find, I 
hope, that the pit they dug, they themselves will fidl 

into At James Davidson's till past seven. Then 

went to [the] Committee Room, where the appoint- 
ment for the twenty-five members was settled by ballot, 
who were to attend the Conference as Deputies from 
this City and Liberties on the Eighteenth instant. The 
persons were, B. Franklin, Thomas McKean, S. Delany, 

* In the State of DeUware. 


7 8 Christopher Marshall's Diary (J unb i 77 6 

John Cox, John Bavard, G. Schlosser, C. Ludwig, J. 
B. Smith, James Milligan, B. Loxley, C. Marshall, 
SenioTy^ Joseph Moulder, F. Gurncy, T. Matlack, J, 
Schriner, J. Deane, J. Barge, Dr. Rush, S. C. Morris, 
William Coates, S. Brewster, J. Blewer, William 
Robinson, G. Goodwin, William Lowman. 

15. Yesterday, the members of the Assembly, to the 
number of thirty-three, adjourned to August the Twenty- 
sixth, sundry country members being gone out of town. 

17. Went to [the] Committee Room at [the] Philo- 
sophical Hall, at eight [A.M.] in order to consider the 
mode of opening the Conference, to be held to-morrow 
in this City by the Delegates appointed from the different 
Counties. Some proceedings proposed, but referred till 

to-morrow morning to be fully concluded Went 

to [the] sign of [the] Harp and Crown, Third street, 
being one appointed by [the] Committee to meet and 
consult with the Captains of the Gondolas respecting 
their complaints and intentions of resigning their com- 

18. Met [the] Committee at [the] Philosophical 
HalU agreed upon the mode to open the Conference at 
ten this morning, but to meet at nine in order to in- 
troduce some of the country members, who are strangers. 
Returned home till nine ; then went, as agreed, to meet 
the Delegates from the different counties at Carpenter's 
Hall, where Thomas McKean was chosen President, 
Joseph Hart, Vice-President, Jonathan B. Smith and 
Samuel Cadwalader Morris, Secretaries.^ Adjourned 

till three P.M Past three, to Carpenter's Hall, 

but as [the] Chester and Northumberland delegates were 

not arrived, adjourned till nine to-morrow morning 

Past seven, to [the] Committee Room, came away near 

* The writer of the Diary. 

" For the minutes of the Provincial Conference, see the volume on the 
Convention of Pennsylvania, published in 1825, at Harrisburg, by John 
S. Weistling, page 35 to page 45. 

June 1776] of the American Revolution. 79 

ten. Agreed at the meeting that George Bryan take 
upon him the coUectorship, as per resolve of Assembly, 
May . Account was brought of Thomas Light- 
foot, Myng, and two or three others, who were 

called to an account at Germantown by the populace 
for speaking and acting inimical to the Congress and 
American liberty in general. 

25. Went to meet the delegates at Carpenter's Hall. 
Broke up and finished the conference past one.' Went 
and dined with several of the Country and City mem- 
bers, with General Wooster, his Aide de Camp, &c.,. 
at the sign of the Indian Queen. 

27. Yesterday morning, Capt. McCutcheon was exa-- 
mined by our Committee on the information of James 
Steward, the Pilot, and by them sent to [the] Committee 
of Safety, who committed him to prison for his attempt- 
ing to eneage him for fifteen shillings sterling per day to^ 
go and pilot the Asia from the Narrows into our river. 

28. The declaration agreed in conference to be taken 
by those elected to sit in Convention' is highly censured, 
and as it's represented, and not unjustly, that I strenu- 
ously supported it, I am blamed, and was buffeted and 
extremely maltreated by sundry of my friends, as I 
thought, and who, I believed, were really religious per- 
sons and loved our Lord Jesus Christ, but now declare 
that no such Belief or Confession is necessary, in form- 

■ The Provincial Conference, besides calling a Convention <* for the ex- 
press purpose of forming a new Government in the Province on the au- 
thority of the People only,** made provision for raising 4500 militia in 
obedience to resolutions of Congress of the Third and Fourth of June 1776, 
for establishing a Flying Camp in the middle colonies. — See Weistling's 
Pennsyl'vania Conventions^ page 43. 

■ On the Twenty-first of June the Provincial Conference " Resolved 
that no person elected to serve as a Member of Convention shall take hit 
seat or give his vote until he shall have made and subscribed the following 

declaration, I do profess faith in God the Father and in Jesnt 

Christ, his Eternal Son, the true God, and in the Holy Spirit, one God, 
blessed for evermore ; and do acknowledge the Holy Scriptures of the Old 
and New Testament to be given by Divine Inspiration. 

8o Christopher MarshalFs Diary [June 1776 

ing; the new government. But their behavior don't 
afreet me, so as to alter my judgment in looking upon 
such a Confession to be essentially necessary and con- 

30. Sundry pieces of news are circulated about town, 
viz., that six or seven sail of men-of-war [are] at our 
capes with a large store ship, intending to proceed up 
our river ; that the brig , Capt. Newman, a Pri- 
vateer, lately from this City, was taken going out of our 
capes ; that General Howe, with sixty sail of vessels, 
was arrived at Sandy Hook and had landed a troop of 
horse ; that Governor Franklin of the Jerseys was sent 
prisoner to Hartford in Connecticut ; that most or all 
of our forces were killed and taken in Canada ; the re- 
mains were arrived at Crown Point ; that the Quakers 
in England had gotten a security and indemnification 
from the crown for all their approved friends' estates in 

^_. July i. Information was received from , a comb 

maker, of not less than four different clubs of Tories in 
this City, that meet frequently. Sundry names were 
also mentioned of some that attended those clubs. The 
four places mentioned were, one at Widow Ball's, Lom- 
bard Street, one at [the] sign of [the] Pennsylvania 
Farmer, kept by Price, another at Jones's beer house on 
the dock, and one at the sign of the King's arms. Past 
ten, went to [the] Coffee House 5 thence to [the] Court 

House ; the trial of the ships Juno and , which, I 

am informed, were both condemned. The said Jury in- 
sisted that the King's Arms in [the] Court Room should 
be taken down. The same, I am informed, was done.* 

2. Past seven, went to Paul Fooks's; spent some 
time with him (who says he is a relation to the present 
Chevalier, Charles) and the Engineer, who is going to 
build a grand battery and fort of thirty-six heavy cannon 

' The Historical Society of Pennsylvania has in its possession the Eng- 
lish Arms painted on wooa in the time of Queen Anne. 

July 1776] of the American Revolution. 81 

at Billingsport Past seven, to [the] Committee 

Room at [the] Philosophical [Hall] ; none been there ; 
went to John Lynn's ; stayed till near eight ; then re- 
turned ; broke up past ten. At this meeting, six besides 
myself, were appointed a Committee of Secrecy to exa- 
mine all inimical and suspected persons that come to 
their knowledge This day, the Continental Con- 

fress declared the United States Free and Independent 

3. Near nine [P. M.] went to meet the Committee 
of Privates with others at Thome's school room, where 
three speakers, viz., James Cannon, Timothy Matlack 
[and] Dr. Young flourished away on the necessity of 
choosing eight persons to be proposed to the people for 
their concurrence in electing them next Second Day for 
our representatives in Convention. The speakers expa- 
tiated greatly upon the qualifications they should be 
possessed of, viz., great learning, knowledge in our his- 
tory, law, mathematics, &c., and a perfect acquaintance 
with the laws, manners, trade, constitution and polity of 
all nations, men of independent fortunes, steady in their 
integrity, zeal and uprightness to the determination and 
result of Congress in their opposition to the tyranny of 
Great Britain. Sundry names were .proposed, out of 
which eight were collected to lay before the meeting to- 
morrow evening, — Joseph Moulder in the chair. 

4. Accounts from New York are, that, Friday last, 
one of General Washington's guard was executed in a 
field near that City for mutiny and conspiracy, he being 
one of those who had formed a plot to assassinate the 
staff officers, blowing up the magazines and securing the 
passes of the town on the arrival of the Tyrant George 
the Third's fleet before this City. It's said that the 
number of transports from Halifax now arrived at Sandy 
Hook, amounts to one hundred and thirteen sail. It's 

1 See Appendix (D.) 

82 Christopher Marshals Diary [July 1776 

thought General Howe's also in the fleet; that our 
troops from different parts of the country on their way 
and there arrived will amount soon to Twenty- five thou- 
sand men To the Committee Room at Philosophi- 
cal Hall ; came away past eleven [P.M.] An express 
was sent ofF from this Committee near ten o'clock by 
request of a Committee of Congress, with a letter to the 
meeting of officers at Lancaster, in order to request them 
to expedite the six thousand men appointed to compose 
the Flying Camp, and to march directly for Brunswick 
in the Jerseys, the place appointed for the rendezvous of 
those troops. The said Committee of Congress re- 
quested this Committee to meet a Committee of the 
members of New York, Jerseys, Lower Counties, offi- 
cers of the Five Batalions and Safety, at seven to-morrow 
morning, at [the] State House, to take into consideration 
what may be necessary to be done in this critical situa- 
tion. It's said that through the vigilance of our breth- 
ren to the Eastward, seven transports with Scotch rebels 
^oldiers) are taken and secured safely. See Evening 
Posty Numb. 227. 

6. Past ten, I went with Jacob Schriner, Boehm, 
Kuhl [and] Leamington to collect awnings to make tents 
for the militia, going into the Jerseys ; finished our dis- 
trict by one o'clock Near eight, went to committee, 

Philosophical Hall, vyhere eight members were voted for 
and carried by majority, some of whom I have no objec- 
tion to, but would not rise, nor agree to support at the 
election some others. Agreed that the Declaration of 
Independence be declared at the State House next 
Second Day. At [the] same time, the King's arms there 
are to be taken down by nine Associators, here appointed, 
who are to convey it to a pile of casks erected upon the 
commons, for the purpose of a bonfire, and the arms 
placed on the top. This * being Election day, I opposed 

> This is, the next Second Day (Monday). 

July 1776] of the American Revolution. 83 

the motion, only by having this put off till next day, 
fearing it would interrupt the Election, but the motion 
was carried by a majority. 

8. Warm sunshine morning. At eleven, went and 
met [the] Committee of Inspection at [the] Philosophical 
Hall ; went from there in a body to the lodge ; joined 
the Committee of Safety (as called) ; went in a body to 
[the] State House Yard, where, in the presence of a 
great concourse of people, the Declaration of Independ- 
ence was read by John Nixon. The company declared 
their approbation by three repeated huzzas. The King's 
Arms were taken down in the Court Room, State 
House [at the] same time. From there, some of us 
went to B. Armitage's tavern ; stayed till one. I went 
and dined at Paul Fooks's ; lay down there after dinner 
till five. Then he and the French Engineer went with 
me on the commons, where the same was proclaimed at 

each of the five Battalions This day, the eight 

members for this City, and the eight members for this 
County, to serve in Convention, were elected very 
quietly at the State House.' Fine starlight, pleasant 
evening. There were bonfires, ringing bells, with other 
great demonstrations of joy upon the unanimity and 
agreement of the declaration. 

10. For sundry pieces of intelligence. See Pennsylvania 
Journal^ Numb. 1753. Dined at home alone, as my 
wife was at the place. Past five, went and called at 
John Lynn's ; thence to Benj. Harbeson's about the 
soldier's camp kettles ; thence to James Cannon's ; drank 
coffee there ; stayed till past nine. There were John 
Adams, Paul Fooks, Dr. Young, Timothy Matlack, 

' For the City of Philadelphia : Benjamin Franklin, Frederick Kuhl, 
Owen Biddle, George Clymer, Timothy Matlack, Jamet Cannon, George 
Schlosser, David Rittenhouse. 

For the County of Philadelphia : Frederick Antis, Henry Hiil, Robert 
LoUer, Joseph Blewer, John Bull, Thomas Potts, Edward Bartholomew. 
William Coates. 

84 Christopher Marshall's Diary [July 1776 

&c. Thence home. Starlight and pleasant. There 
viras a small gust this afternoon ; blew hard, but little 
rain or thunder. (No Poll) 

11. Went this morning with Benja. Harbeson to Col. 
Cox's store ; ordered twenty four-gallon iron pots to 
William Rush's work shop to have bales put to them, 
to send for the use of our forces going into the Jerseys. 
Yesterday, several companies went from here by water 
to Trenton. 

12. Past six, I went down to Mulberry wharf. Num- 
bers of militia going upwards, as many have done this 
morning for Trenton. 

14. Yesterday, came to town, about eighty prisoners, 
taken at St. John's on their way, it's said, to Cumberland 
County. Three or four companies of militia gone ofF 
this morning for Trenton. Sixteen shallops, with Mary- 
land troops, going to Trenton, amounting, it's said, to 
eleven hundred. Two or three companies arrived from 
Cumberland County ; rest till to-morrow ; going to 
Trenton. The whole, it's said, in high spirits. 

15. Past three, took a walk to the State House ; 

thence to the causeway leading to Kensington. 

More of the militia, with the artillery, went for Trenton 
this day, and Col. Montgomery's men from Chester came 
to town and used part of [the] College as barracks. 

17. Past eight, I went to Benja. Harbeson's; we went 
^nd] called upon Captain Davis, then we waited upon 
Gen. Roberdeau, as by appointment at [the] Committee 
last night, respecting troops to be left to secure this City 
in the militia's absence. 

18. Account that our troops were marched yesterday 
from Trenton to Woodbridge, and that the men-of-war 
and tenders that passed New York up North River were 
roughly handled by our forts. It's said, they had above 

forty men killed Col. Roberdeau took his leave of 

me, going to set out for camp, about seven. (This night 
our girl was brought home. I suppose she was hunted 
out, as it's said, and found by Ruth, down Fassyunk Road. 

July 1776] of the American Revolution. 85 

Her mistress was delighted upon her return, but I know 
of nobody else, in house or out. 1 have nothing to say 
in the anair, as I know of nothing that would distress 
my wife so much as for me to refuse or forbid her being 
taken into the house.) « 

19. Near twelve, John Payne called and took his 
leave of me, being going to camp as Secretary to Gen. 
Roberdeau. Several companies of Col. Montgomery's 
Battalion from Chester left this City last night, to pro- 
ceed to Trenton on their way to camp. This day came 
letters to Congress from Gen. Lee at South Carolina, 

fiving an account of the defeat of Gen. Clinton and the 
eet in Charleston, June i8th, last. See Evening Posty 
Numb. 234. 

20. I went to watt upon Capt. Peters, some com- 
plaint being made to me as Chairman of [the] Com- 
mittee, of a company of negroes, that meet by the bar- 
racks^ in order to get a guard from him to attend some 
of the members this evening to try to apprehend some 

of them Waited on and acquainted some of the 

Committee that a guard would be ordered to attend them 

if wanted and called for The gentlemen appointed 

this day, in Convention, for Provincial Delegates in 
Congress, were B. Franklin, votes, 78 ; Robert Morris, 
74; James Wilson, 74; John Morton, 71; George 
Ross, 77 ; Col. James Smith, 56 ; Benja. Rush, 61 ; 
George Taylor, 34. 

21. Sundry more troops went out of this City yester- 
day for camp in the Jerseys Between twelve 

and two this day, two companies of our Artillery, with 
field pieces and baggage wagons, went out of town, as 
also went twelve shallop loads of the troops from Mary- 
land, with fair wind and tide for the Jerseys, and one 

company of Battalion came to town from Carlisle 

[and] went to our barracks. 

23. This day, the Convention chose and appointed 
the following persons as Committee or Council of Safety, 


86 Cbristopber MarsbaiPs Diary [July I776 

vim^i Samuel Morris, Sen.y Samuel Howell, Merchant^ 
David Rittenhouse, Samuel Morris, y«»., Thomas 
Wharton, 7«w., Joseph Blewer, Owen Biddle, James 
Cannon, Tim. Matlack, Jonat. B. Smith, Nathaniel 
^Falconer, Frederick Kuhl, Henry Keppele, y««., George 
Oray, Samuel Mifflin, John Bull, Henry Wynkoop, 
Btnja. Bartholomew, John Hubley, Michael Swope, 
Daniel Hunter, William Lyon, Peter Rhoad, Daniel 
£pgey, John Weitzel [andj John Moore ; a poor set 
for that important post at this time.' 

24 • For sundry pieces of news. See Pennsylvania 
Jfurnal^ Numb, 1755. Sundry papers to write and en- 
dorse for different persons from this City and from [the] 
Committee of Coecil County, Maryland, who were 
|oing to the Northward. 

25. I was called up by Jacob Schriner and Philip 
Boehm, to consider what steps will be necessary to take 
In order to apprehend a company of negroes and whites. 
It's said to the number of thirty or forty, who meet in the 
night near one Clynn's in Camptown," near the barracks. 
Alter some consideration, it's concluded that some persons 
In that neighborhood keep watch, and when they are 
met, come and give information to Schriner or to Boehm, 
who are to go to the main guard at [the] State House, 
for a file of their men, who have orders to attend when 
called upon such occasions. Near twelve, called upon 
to consult at [the] Committee Room at [the] Coffee 
House, measures to be taken respecting Mrs. Arrall, 
who left this City this morning, it's said, for New York. 
There being great reason to suspect that she is carrying 
on an intrigue between our enemies here and aboard the 
fleet, it was thereupon agreed by the members met, to 
•end an express to overtake her at Princeton, to-night, 
and bring her and her papers back, the which was done. 

s Mr. Marshall must be understood to speak of the Committee as a» 
unit i several of the persons here named being his particular friends. 

* Part of Kensington formerly bore this name. Kensington now com- 
potes a great part of the Eighteenth and Nineteenth wards of Philadel phia. 

July 1776] of the American Revolutitm. 87 

26. Called out of bed early, as some of our Committee 
got information last night that Mrs. Arrall, the person 
sent after by express, was not gone, but was to go in the 
coach this morning. Four of them attended, waited till 
she got in the coach, then requested her to walk into the 
house and to have her bundle brought in. They ac- 
cordingly detained her and broueht her to my house. 
Sundry of the Committee being called, she was examined, 
her bundle also, but no letters found. Upon the whole 
it appeared she had been a little unguarded in conversa- 
tion, and had no concern with Henry ShafF in the package 
of cambrics and lawns, found at his lodgings \ upon 

which she was discharged, about ten This afternoon, 

came to town and passed by our door to the barracks, 
two companies of clever fellows, one from [the] back 
parts of Lancaster, the other from York County, [under] 
Col. William Rankin. It's said that three or four 
shallops left this City to-day, with troops for the Grand 
Army at Amboy, Elizabeth Town, &c. 

27. Waited upon by sundry gentlemen going to the 
Northward. Gave a pass to John Spear, of Baltimore, 
on the recommendation of Brigadier General James 
Ewing and Col. Bartram Galbraith. 

28. Wrote two passes, one for the Rev. Henry Muh- 
lenburgh, Jun,^ and one for John Gartley, both having 
a desire to go to New York. 

29. About nine, wrote four passes ; for Henry Wood- 
row, for Gabriel Springer, William Hemphill [and] John 
Stow : these three last of Wilmington, New Castle 
County, on the strong recommendation of Andrew 
Tybout i the first by a written recommendation of sun- 
dry of his neighbors in the Northern Liberties. 

30. Three or four companies of militia came to town 
yesterday from [the] back parts of Cumberland, York, 
and Lancaster Counties ; went to barracks. 

31. Gave a pass to John Caruthers, he going to join 

88 Christopher MarshalTs Diary [Aug. 1776 

the army for three weeks, the time allowed for the 
masters to be absent from College duties/ 

August i. News to-day of the ship (sent out 

by Congress), 's being in the river, from Marseilles in 
France, with ten tons [of] gunpowder, one hundred and 
eleven stand of arms, thirty-seven and a half tons of lead 
[and] one tierce of flints. 

2. Yesterday, Arthur Thomas was brought to town, 
under a guard from Bucks County, he and his son (who 
made his escape), being, on information, concerned in 

helping Kerchland to make his escape out of prison. 

The information was given by Hale in Lombard 

Street, who was employed and did procure horses for 
him to go off with. Account last night was, that the 
Congress, Privateer, Captain Craig, of this port, has 
taken and brought into Egg Harbor a brig from Nevis. 
It's said to be worth near Twenty Thousand Pounds. 

5. Waited on by Capt. Hysham, Capt. Simpson, and 

John Leamington, who had thrown the twelve of 

Green Tea, as directed last Committee night, into [the] 
Delaware ; upon which, I copied the resolve, with 
direction to the printers to publish it and the affair in 
next newspapers. 

7. Yesterday, arrived here, the ship Friendship, Capt. 
McCoy, of four hundred tons, sent in by the Reprisal, 
loaded with sugar, rum, &c., bound from Granada for 

8. This day, came to town, the King's Speech, dated 
23d of May (also, near nine, our Poll returned home 
from her cruise). 

10. Wrote a discharge for William Carstins, servant 
to Speigel (Barber surgeon), confined in [the] work- 
house, for which, as there is a dispute between this 

' The teachers of Philadelphia appear to have been distinguished for their 
patriotism. We may add the name of Mr. Caruthers, about to spend the 
August holidays in camp, to those of Charles Thomson, James Cannon, 
and James Davidson. 

Aug. 1776] of the American Revolution. 89 

master and the former, Speigel gave bond to me, in be- 
half of [the] Committee, for this man's appearance when 
a proper Judicatory is settled. 

II. Several shallops, with troops for the camp, went 
from town yesterday, as [others] did also tliis morning 
[at] flood. 

15. Sundry vessels left this City with the flood with 
troops for the camp. 

15. Every day this week, numbers of soldiers going 
to the camp. 

17. Yesterday being the expiration of the time of the 
Committee of Inspection and observation, the Com- 
mittee, in obedience to the resolve of Convention of the 
Ninth instant, concluded still to act, agreeably to the 
said resolve.* See Evening Post^ No. 244, 

18. Yesterday were published three resolves of Con- 
gress respecting the return of the Associators from the 
camp in New Jersey, without leave. See Evening Pasty 

Num. 246. The same was printed in handbills 

About two o'clock^ about eleven or twelve sail of shal- 
lops, with soldiers for camp, went past. 

24. This evening were published, the Messrs. She- 
well, for breaking the rules of Congress and Committee. 
For that and some pieces of news, see the Evening Postj 
Numb. 249. 

26. Came home past nine. Moonlieht and pleasant* 
I met part of the First Battalion of Philadelphia Militia, 

just returned from camp in the Jerseys Yesterday, 

came to town, several companies of forces from the 
back counties, from Maryland, &c. 

27. Past eleven, the Second Battalion came to 
town Past seven, went to [the] Committee Room, 

' The term was extended upon the ground that the Anociatort, who 
compoied a great majurity of the Electors, might be absent at camp at the 
expiration of the Committee*! year, and it would be highly inexpedient that 
the City or Counties should be without Committees, or that they should be 
partially elected. 

po Christopher Marshall's 'Diary [Aug. 1776 

Philosophical Hall ; came home past ten [At] this 

meeting, Samuel G was sent for, to answer for his 

not producing satisfaction respecting two chests [of] 
green tea, which refusal he still persisted in, and as he 
had treated those members who before waited on him 
with great violence and contempt, and called the Com- 
mittee, robbers, and that he would prove them so, &c., 
&c., the same six members were to wait on [the] Com- 
mittee of Safety to-morrow morning Third and 

Fifth Battalions come and coming from camp. 

29. My wife rose early to visit the wharves for wood ; 
all bare. One vessel with twenty-three cords of hickory 
and oak just sold before she came, altogether for twenty- 
nine shillings for hickory, twenty shillings for oak 

An account brought of an engagement between our forces 
on Long Island and the enemy, in which our forces 
repulsed them, but many [were] killed on both sides ; 
General Sullivan and Lord Sterling among the missing. 
See Evening Post^ Numb. 251. 

30. My wife rose early to visit the wharves on account 

of winter's wood Yesterday, went from here a great 

number of troops for Trenton, on their way to the camp. 
It's said near three thousand. 

31. I rose past six, as our folks began to get in their 
winter's fire wood and were piling in the yard, as also 
my customers came soon this morning about salt, passes, 

disputes, &c , &c., &c Paid £10 for eleven and a 

half cords of oak fire wood. Paid for hauling, carrying, 

and piling, 42J. lo^d. News brought to-day of 

our forces upon Long Island's taking away all their guns, 
stores, &c., except some large ones, which they spiked, 
and left the Island in good order and went to New York ; 
Lord Sterling and General Sullivan prisoners. The 
enemy lost two Generals, supposed to be killed, as our 
people knew nothing of them when the flag came to 

September 2. At nine, went to [the] Committee 

Sbpt. 1776] of the American' RevoluHon. 91 

Room, Philosophical Hall \ came home past twelve, 
been fixing the quantity of salt to be sold to each county, 
being what was Messrs. Shewell and Joshua Fisher and 

3. At seven fP.M.] went to [the] Committee Room, 

Philosophical Hall^ came home near ten At this' 

meeting [it was] proposed to call an election for [a] new 
Committee for this City and Liberties, and reduced the 
number to fifty. 

4. Yesterday, high words passed at [the] CoiFee 
House, William Allen, Jr., declaring that he would shed 
his blood in opposition to Independency, and Col. John 
Bayard, in the support of Independency. Allen's be- 
havior was such that William Bradford immediately 
complained to Samuel Morris, Jr., as a member of the 
Commitee of Safety, of the abuse offered by Allen to 
the public. 

5. For public occurrences. See Pennsylvania Journal^ 
No, 1761. 

7. It was said yesterday by Livingston, that 

three members of Congress, viz., Benjamin Franklin, 
John Adams [and] Edward Rutledge [had gone] as 
Deputies to Gen. or Lord Howe, to hear what he had 
to propose to the Congress. Gen. Sullivan left this 
City yesterday, to return agreeably to his parole with 
Gen. or Lord Howe. Yesterday arrived a Bermudian 
vessel with twenty-five hundred bushels of salt. 

8. It's said that two more vessels are just come in with 
salt 'y quantity, it's said, two thousand bushels. 

9. A number of the troops, it's said, from the count- 
ry, went out of town yesterday. Those gentlemen, 

delegates, mentioned to go out on the Seventh, to con- 
verse with Lord and General Howe, did not go till this 
morning. It was General Sullivan that went then- 
abouts, from this City. 

10. For sundry public occurrences, see Dunlap*s Gen-- 
ral Advertisir^ Numb. 255. 

pa Christopher Marshal? s 'Diary [Sb pt, 1776 

II. Yesterday was published the proposed Plan or 
Frame of Government for the Commonwealth or State 
of Pennsylvania (Printed for consideration), in twelve 
small pages, folio, containing forty-nine Sections. For 
particulars of the engagement in South Carolina, see 
Pennsylvania GavutU^ Numb. 2490. 

13. As I stand informed, Samuel Morris, the Elder, 
resigned his office of Councillor of State, and as there 
were three before, who had not qualified, the Conven- 
tion appointed four new members, viz., John Bayard, 

John Cox, Francis Gurney and Cad. Samuel Morris 

Went to [the] Committee Room at Philosophical Hall, 
where William Wild appeared in support of his Memo- 
rial. Upon being' interrogated respecting the money, 

i which,] he had said belonged to the merchants in Eng- 
and, he now declared otherwise, and that the whole sum 
was his own private property, and in order to prove that, 
said his letter and cash books would show it, which he 
could fetch in one quarter of an hour, if requested. 
Upon this he was desired to fetch them, and the Com- 
mittee would wait. In about that space of time he re- 
turned and declared he had destroyed his letter and cash 
book and every other book, about ten days ago, which 
might publicly bring his employers into trouble. Re- 
ferred to next meeting. 

14. Past, or near, six, I went to Col. Hancock's to 
report William Wild's conduct, being requested to do 
so, by some members of Committee. 

15. Yesterday, Paul Fooks gave at [the] wharf, 
twenty-five shillings per cord for oak wood ; took three 
cords, and paid two shillings and six pence per cord [for] 
hauling. This he told me last night. Yesterday was 
published an Ordinance for punishing persons guilty of 
certain offences, particularly by speaking or writing against 
the United American States, in order to obstruct, or 
oppose, or endeavor so to do, the measures carrying on 
by the United States for the defence and support of the 

Sbpt. 1776] of the American Revolution. 93 

freedom and independence of such States, and also, an 
Ordinance to compel debtors in certain cases to give 
security to their creditors. See Evening Post^ Numb. 
258, with sundry pieces of public occurrences. Several 
companies have arrived in town this week, of stout able 
bodied men, from the lower counties, the back parts of 
this Province and some from Virginia. Also a number 
of recruits in this town set out for the camp to join the 
main arniy. 

17. Went to [the] Committee Room, Philosophical 
Hall ; came away past nine, having passed a vote to 
break up this Committee entirely, except eight members 
to settle Committee's accounts, and the six members 
that were appointed to see the salt for each county set- 
tled. William Wild's money was lodged in Hazlehurst's 

possession, and Samuel G 's tea to be put into the 

hands of [the] Committee of Safety This day, ac* 

counts arrived that the enemy had taken possession of 
New York on the Fifteenth instant. See Pennsylvania 
youmalj Numb. 1763. 

18. Accounts published to-day of the conference be- 
tween Lord Howe and the three gentlemen sent by order 
of Congress, and also an account that the enemy were 
in possession of New York, but no particulars. There 
is also an Ordinance for rendering the burden of the 
Associators and Non Associators, in the defence of this 
State, as nearly equal as may be. Pennsylvania Gaxette^ 
Numb. 2491. 

19. Accounts brought to-day of a skirmish, above 
New York, with the Forty Second Regiment, a Battalion 
of Light Infantry and three Companies of Jagers or 
German Riflemen, whom, after a smart engagement, 
our people drove under cover of the men-of-war's guns in 
East River. 

23. By letters by post from camp at Harlem, we hear 
that a fire broke out last Friday evening in New York, 
which has destroyed a number ot houses and two churches, 


94 Christopher MarshalT s Diary [Sbpt, 1776 

it is said. For sundry pieces of news, &c., raising eiehty 
battalions in the States, the proportion and method of 
procedure, counties, &c., the Declaration of the Dela- 
ware State in Convention, &c., the gentlemen appointed 
in the government of the State of New Jersey, &c.. Sec 
D, General Advertiser^ Numb. 257, &c. 

28. Dined at home with our Miller that supplies us 

with flour This day were published, three resolves, 

by the majority of the Assemblymen now met, dated 
[the] Twenty-sixth instant, against the proceedings of 
the Convention now sitting. See Evening Posty Numb. 
264, where is also the time, mode and form of election 
in this Province, fixed by Convention, same day. It's 
said that before the then members of Assembly (being 
twenty- six) broke up, fourteen against twelve passed a 
vote for the sum of Five Hundred, or a Thousand 
Pounds, to be paid our late Governor. The order was 
immediately drawn, signed by Morton, Speaker ^ sent and 
the cash received. 

30. This afternoon came to town General Miffin, L. 
Colonel Penrose and Major Williams, from camp above 
New York. 

October i. Account to-day of a great fire at Basse- 
terre, in St. Kitts, which, with hurricane, chiefly de- 
stroyed the town. Particulars not yet come to hand. 
Since come ; see particulars [in the] Pennsylvania your'- 
naly Numb. 1769. 

2. Accounts of a great number of prizes* being taken 
by our friends to the Eastward and arrived safe into 
port ; also a report that General Arnold had lately de- 
stroyed most of the enemies' boats at the North and 
Lake Champlaine, and made prisoners of six hundred 
English, Scotch and Hessian soldiers, on a small island 
on the lake. See Pennsylvania Journal^ Numb. 1765, 
Evening Post^ Numb. 265. 

4. Accounts brought that election was held in Chester 
and Bucks Counties, for Assemblymen, Sheriffs, Coro- 

Oct. 1776] of the American Revolution. 95 

ners, be on the First instant, and that some day this 
week, Joseph Fox and John Reynolds refused to take 
the Continental Money for large sums due them by 
bond, mortgage, &c., as it's said. Of Fox's, a record 
was made by Paul Fooks, from the person that tendered 
him £240 before two witnesses, due on mortgage. 

7. Son Charles came to invite [me] to dine at his 
house to-day with some friends from Boston, but havine 
an invitation from the owners of sloops Congress ana 
Chance on the Fifth, to dine with them at James Byrne's 
this day, I went near two, where were betweeen sixty 

and seventy persons. I came away before six A 

vessel arrived this day from Surinam with some powder^ 
lead, some stands of arms and some woolen cloths, mo- 
lasses, &c. ; a vessel from Bermudas, with salt. Arrived 
this day, his Excellency General Lee from the Southward. 

10. Prize ship in the river from Jamaica, with three 
hundred and ten hogsheads [of] Sugar, ninety casks or 
puncheons of spirits. She is called the Thetis, Capt. 
May, taken by [the] General Montgomery Privateer, 
Captain Hamilton. Also a private brig from St. Mar- 
tin's arrived yesterday. It's said that General Lee left 
this City to-aay for the army near New York, and that 
another reinforcement arrived last week from England, 
at Sandy Hook, consisting of Burgoyne's Light Horse 
Two thousand Hessians and one thousand British troops 
are on Staten Island. An account, also, from the West 
Indies of an insurrection of the negroes in the Island 
Jamaica, and that martial law was declared. See Penn- 
sylvania Gazette^ Numb. 2494. 

11. A severe Satire, by way of Dialogue, published 
in the Evening Post^ Numb. 269, on the proposed plan 
or frame of government of this Province.* Also a Re- 
solve of Congress of the Third instant for borrowing 
Five Millions of Continental Dollars for the use of the 
United States, at [an] annual interest of four per cent. 

'See a defence of it in the Evening Post, No. 279, November 2, 1776. 

96 Christopher Marshair s Diary [Oct. 1776 

12. By letter [through] yesterday Evenings Posty Paul 
Fooks received from Nantz, in Old France, from Mons. 
Permel, that he had loaded two vessels for Virginia with 
blankets, coarse cloths, linen, arms, ammunition, &c., 
also two of [the] same commodities for Rhode Island, 
and that he had another (besides this, that brought this 
letter, both loaded with the some commodities) that sail 
in a few days, which, I hope, will all arrive safe. I 
think this letter was dated Third [of] August. Two 
vessels with salt arrived within these two days past, and 
vet it's said some are selling it at Three Dollars per 
bushel (so inhuman are some of our citizens to poor 

people) A wonderful Ordinance published in Even" 

ing Posty Numb. 270, inviting all masters of vessels, com- 
ing with salt to sell it to them for fifteen shillings per 
bushel. O rare Council of Safety ! 

13. About eleven o'clock last night alarmed by cry 
of fire, which proved to be just above Pool's Bridge, 
near the Magazine, in a baker's shop, but it was soon 

extinguished The prize ship, coming through the 

chevaux-de-frize, got hurt, so that they were obliged to 
unload and keep the pumps going till arrived in town, 
then ran her ashore at Hodge's wharf and were busy un- 
loading her cargo this day on the said wharves. 

14. Took a walk to the place, stopping as we went 
to view part of the First Battalion exercise, this being, 
it's said, the last field day they are to have, as per 

Act of Assembly, for this year Two more vessels, 

it's said, with cargoes of salt. Various pieces of news 
circulating, but little to be depended upon except that 
the King's troops have entirely abandoned Staten Island, 
but where gone, or the reason is not known by the pub- 
lic. Major Keppele, just come home from Elizabeth- 
Town Point, which he left this morning, said he was on 
the island. 

16. Yesterday arrived the Continental Schooner 
Wasp, Captain Baldwin ; brought with her a large 

Oct. 1776] of the American Revolution. 97 

Guinea ship bound from Jamaica for Liverpool, having 
on board three hundred and five hogsheads of Sugar, 
fifty-one puncheons of rum and other goods. Letter 
from Harlem, where our companies [are] of the 
Thirteenth instant, says most of Howe's forces are got 
about six miles above King's Bridge, and were landed in 
order if possible to surround our camp, so that a general 
engagement may be hourly expected to be heard of. 
For further occurrences, see Pennsylvania Journal^ 
Numb. 1767. 

17. Another vessel, it's said, arrived yesterday with 

twenty-five bushels of salt from Bermudas Past six, 

went to Philosophical Hall, being called there by invita- 
tion in printed tickets, where met a large number of 
respectable citizens in order to consider of a mode to 
set aside sundry improper and unconstitutional rules laid 
down by the late Convention, in what they call their 
Plan or Frame of Government, where after sundry de- 
liberate proposals, some amendments were agreed to, 
nemine c. d, and ordered immediately to be printed with 
the reasons that induced this company to make such 
alterations, to be published immediately for the pe- 
rusal and approbation of the whole State at large, and 
that a general town meeting be held at the State House 
in this City, next Monday afternoon, the proceedings of 
which to be printed and immediately transmitted to all 
the Counties in the State. The whole of the meeting 
was conducted with great order and solemnity, and 
broke up past ten, in great union. 

1 8. Sundry pieces of news from about New York, 
but none confirmed, but that our people had landed 
upon Staten Island, and a heavy firing of small arms had 
ensued on last Third Day, and as all the Hessians had 
not left the Island, it was supposed to be an engage- 
ment betwixt them and the party of our army that went 
over. A person who left Head Quarters last Second 
Day, says that the detachment from Gen. Howe's 

98 Christopher Marsbair s Diary [Oct. 1776 

army that landed at Frog's Point, had been attacked by 
a party of Gen. Washington's, who obliged them to re- 
treat under cover of their ships, and that another de- 
tachment had also been beat off and prevented from 

landing on the banks of the North River This 

day, thirty-three Tories were brought from New York, 
and lodged in our New Jail. 

19. After breakfast, Anthony Benezet came to pay a 
friendly visit. We held conversation for near an hour, 
on religion and politics. 

20. In the Evening Post^ Numb. 273, is this remarka- 
ble extract of a letter, dated Dominica, Sept. — , viz., 
^^ Capt. Stout, of Antigua, told us that he had heard 
from Taylor and Bell of that island, that a house that 
does the government business there had poisoned two 
kegs of rum, which they shipped in the Creighton, Capt. 
Ross, and directed for Gen. Howe, in hopes that if the 
ship should be taken, the Americans would send those 
to the camp, on supposing them of an uncommon good 
quality." What a diabolical project ! He had it from 
their Own mouth ! Oh, dreadful ! 

21. To [the] Coffee House, where I stayed and saw 
fifteen prisoners (taken on Staten Island last week, viz., 
eight Hessians and seven English soldiers) come on 
shore. Thence to State House Yard, where it's thought 
about fifteen hundred people assembled, in order to de- 
liberate on the change of sundry matters contained in 
Form of Government, settled in the late Convention. 
Col. Bayard being seated in the chair, [we] proceeded 
to business, which was conducted with prudence and 
decency till dark ; then adjourned till nine to-morrow 
morning. Chief speakers, against [the] Convention, 
were Col. McKean and Col. Dickinson ; for the Con- 
vention, James Cannon, Timothy Matlack, Dr. Young 
and Col. Smith of York County. 

22. Went to the State House, as was appointed last 
night, where came on the consideration of the Resolves 

Oct. 1776] of the American Revolution. 99 

as begun yesterday, the which, after being maturely con- 
sidered and put, were carried by a large majority, except 
the oath appointed to be taken bv every elector before 
he could be suffered to give in his vote for Assembly, 
This was entirely set aside as it then stood. Committees 
were then appointed to go to each county, to carry the 
proceedings and request their concurrence &c. The 
meeting then broke up peaceably On the Twenty- 
first, arrived a schooner with twelve hundred bushels of 
salt fit's said]. The Twenty- second, was sent in here 
the Brig Sherburne, Capt. Burnell, with five hundred 
and eighty>three barrels of oil, being a prize to Brig 
Hancock, Capt. Newman. An account of an engage- 
ment on the lakes, the Eleventh instant, and as the 
enemy were vastly superior, our people retreated to 
Crown Point. See particulars, Pennsylvania Journaly 
Numb. '1758. 

25. Near twelve, I went to John Lynn's by desire of 
Major Keppele, who, upon account of his late marriaee 
had requested sundry persons to come visit, drink punch, 

wine, eat gammon, &c., &c. An account of a large 

ship from London to Quebec, loaded with Indian goods, 
viz., dufEelds, strouds, blankets, ammunition, &c., &c., 
taken by one of the Eastern privateers, and said ship 
was arrived at Providence. 

25. Near three took a walk to Camping town, where 
was to be a meeting for [the] Northern and Southern 
Districts, to consider how to carry on the election on 
the Fifth [of] next month. Sundries met and agreed 

26. Received this morning of John Nixon, by the 
hands of George Lehman, £353* 2r* 6^., on account of 
the Committee of Inspection and Observation for this 
City and Liberties. 

27. About one this morning, alarmed by the cry of 
fire, which proved to be the Prize Ship sent in here by 
the Privateer Wasp, which entirely consumed the same 

loo Christopher Marshals Diary [Oct. 1776 

with her valuable cargo of sugar, rum, &c., &c. A 
number of valuable prizes appear to be taken by our 
cruisers and safe arrived in sundry ports to the Eastward, 
among which are a ship and a snow, both bound to New 
York, loaded with 56,896 [weight of) bread, 8020 
[weight of] pork, 256 bushels [of] peas, 257 bushels [of] 
oatmeal, 16,000 weight [of] beef, 12,064 weight [ofj 
flour, 410 1 weight of raisins, 165 gallons of oil, 507 
gallons of vinegar, 3500 gallons of spirits, 460 dozen 
candles ; these aboard the snow ; ship, same sorts, but 
more in quantity. See Evening Posty Numb. 267, where 
is the following extract of a letter from Fort Lee, dated 
26th instant, viz., ^^ A deserter at head quarters informs, 
that the loss of the enemy on Friday last, must have been 
seven or eight hundred ; that in the cannonade after the 
battle. General Howe had his leg very dangerously 
shattered by a ball, which killed a soldier who stood near 
him. Last night, a party of rangers, under the command 
of Major Rogers, having advanced towards Mareneck, 
were attacked and defeated by a party of our forces, 
thirty-six were taken prisoners and the number of the 
slain is supposed to be greater, since sixty arms and as 
many blankets were found upon the field. As the corps 
are composed of Tories, this victory is the more glorious. 
Our army is in high spirits, having outflanked the 

^o. Yesterday arrived a Brig, being a prize, it's said, 
to [the] Hancock Privateer. Account also of some 
vessels of the enemy's attacking Fort Washington on 
the 28th, but repulsed with great damage unto two of 
the men-of-war. 

31. Past six, I went to [the] Coffee House, being 
invited by letter to meet sundry of our citizens to appoint 
Inspectors and to think of six suitable persons to represent 
this City in General Assembly. This meeting was con- 
ducted with great unanimity and concord, and the pro- 
ceedings referred to a larger meeting to-morrow evening 

Oct. 1776] of the American Revolution. loi 

at [the] Philosophical Hall To-day, were launched 

two ships of war, at Kensington. 

November i. Sundry pieces of news and intelligence 

are in the Evening Post^ Numb. 278 Past six, went 

to [the] Philosophical Hall, called by notices. Met 
about forty. I was appointed Chairman, but after some 
conversation on the intent of the meeting, it was con- 
cluded, as so few attended, to refer the full discussion of 
aflairs respecting the appointment of six members of 
Assembly for this City till to-morrow evening, at this 
place, in hopes a larger company would attend. 

2. Transcript from Order of Council of Safety, dated 
[the] Thirty-first [of] October last, viz : '* Complaint 
havine been made to this Council by Christopher Elliot, 
that John Baldwin, of this City, Cordwainer, had refused 
to receive in payment the Continental Bills of Credit, 
issued by order of Congress, thereupon, the said John 
Baldwin was ordered to appear before this Board, and 
being informed of said complaint, did acknowledge that 
he had refused to receive the said Bills of Credit in 
payment. The Council urged the pernicious and de- 
structive tendency of such conduct, and requested him 
to reconsider it, allowing him several days to form his 
judgment and fix his final resolution. This day, agree- 
ably to notice given him, he again appeared before the 
Council and declared that he was determined not to 
receive the said Bills in payment, whereupon. Resolved 
that the said John Baldwin is an ^ Enemy to his country, 
and precluded from all trade and intercourse with the 
inhabitants of these States :' Resolved that the said John 
Baldwin be committed to jail, there to remain without 
bail or mainprise until he shall be released by order of 
this Council, or some other person lawfully authorized 
so to do : Ordered that these proceedings be made pub- 
lic." Went to the Philosophical Hall, as appointed, 

where a large [and] respectable number of citizens were 
met, and also the following gentlemen were scratched for. 

loa Christopher MarshalTs Diary [Nov. 1776 

as members to be voted for on the Fifth instant as Assem- 
blymen in this State for this City, viz., George Clymer, 
Robert Morris, John Cadwalader, John Bayard, Michael 
Shubart, Peter Chevalier \ but some altercation happen- 
ing, and P. C. declining, Joseph Parker was chosen by 
voice. Broke up past nine, but, upon motion, it was re- 
solved to answer the request of the contrary party by 
appointing seven members to hear what they had to say, 
and draw up the proceedings of this evening and have 
them printed in handbills and distributed through the City, 
before or on Election Day, signed by Samuel Howell, 

Chairman for this evening (No news from camp 

as yet.) 

5. Went past nine to the State House, being appointed 
one of the Judges to superintend and conduct the Elec- 
tion, as is usual. Continued there till near two next 
morning, where all matters in general were conducted with 
great harmony and concord in the house ; two or three 
small buiFetings, I heard about the door in the street, but 
soon went over. Upon casting up the votes, they turned 
out thus : For Joseph Parker, 682 ; for George Clymer, 
413 ; for Robert Morris, 410 ; for Samuel Morris, Jr., 
407 J for John Bayard, 397 ; for Michael Shubart, 393. 
These six were the elected members. Those six follow- 
ing had votes, each, viz., David Rittenhouse, 278 ; 
Timothy Matlack, 268 ; Jonathan B. Smith, 273 ; 
Jacob Schriner, 269 ; Thomas Wharton, Junior, 268 ; 
Joseph Parker, as above, he being chosen by both parties. 
Votes " For No Councillors,'* 406 ; " For Councillors," 

6. The members chosen for [the] County of Phila- 
delphia, yesterday, were, Robert Know, 523 ; John 
Dickinson, 419; George Gray, 419; T. Potts, 407; 
Isaac Hughs, 282; Frederick Amis, 275. "For No 
Councillors," 370 ; " For Councillors," 133. Sheriff 
was William Masters, by [a] large majority. For Coro- 
ner, Robert Jewel. For sundry pieces of material intelli- 
gences, see Pennsylvania Journal^ Numb. 1770. 

Nov. 1776] of the American Revolution. 103 

8. Past six, went to the Philosophical Hall ; called 
there by notices, to consider a Set of Instructions to be 
handed to a Town Meeting, which was concluded to be 
called on Third Day next, nine o'clock, forenoon, at 
the State House, there to settle them, in order to have 
ready to present to the members of this City and County 
at their meeting in General Assembly on the Nineteenth 
instant.' Broke up about nine. 

10. A report prevails to-day that on the twenty-eighth, 
there were killed in that skirmish, of our Enemy, one 
Colonel, eight officers, and a number of privates ; and 
that thirty Hessian Chasseurs came over to our side, 
and brought with them a three-pounder brass piece ; and 
that Gen. Howe had drawn oiF Ten Thousand of his 
troops, in order to pass at Dobbs's Ferry, and so pene- 
trate through the Jerseys to this City, and that Howe's 
troops had indiscriminately plundered on Long Island 
both Whigs and Tories, in particular, Samuel Notting- 
ham, a noted Quaker Preacher and Rapelia, who 

now lies himseff in confinement for Toryism, m Con- 
necticut Government. 

13. For sundry pieces of public occurrences, see Penn- 
sylvania Journal^ Numb. 1771. 

14. hfews to-day of Guy Carlton's leaving Crown 
Point, on the Second [of] October, and returning to 
Canada' ; also of the enemy's leaving their lines at York 
Island and embarking, it's said, in three or four hundred 
sail of transports ; left Sandy Hook, steering for the 
Southward, and, it's expected, to pay a visit to this City. 
See Evening Post^ Numb. 284. 

15. Handbills were published last night by order of 
Congress and Council of Safety, requesting the inhabit- 

' The Constitution of September, 17759 secured to the people of Penn- 
sylvania ** The Right of Instruction ** in the following words, Chapter I, 
Section 1 6, The Declaration of Rights. ** That the people have a right to 
assemh/t together to consult for their common good, to instruct their Re^e^ 
sentativesy and to apply to the Legislature for redress of grievances by address, 
petition, or remonstrance.** 

I04 Christopher MarshalF s Diary [Nov. 1776 

ants of this State to put themselves in a martial array, 
and niarch by companies and parts of companies, as they 
could be ready, and march with the utmost expedition 
to this City. 

1 6. Past three, went below the Swedes' Church to the 

launching of one of the galleys called the 

No news respecting the enemy. 

]8. Account spread to-day of Gen. Howe's taking 
Fort Washington, last Seventh Day, in the afternoon, 
but this is not credited but by our enemies, and the 
timorous and faint-hearted amongst us. 

20. The reduction of Fort Washington is confirmed 
by intelligence received by Congress. For this and 
other pieces of occurrences, see Pennsylvania Journal^ 
Numb. 1772. 

21. Visited this morning by Frederick Kuhl, on ac- 
count of Capt. Moebale, a Danish Officer, in order to 
intercede with Col. Hancock for a Captaincy in the 

22. News last night of Sykes's new brig, and, it's said, 
two other provision vessels, taken and carried into New 
York by our British enemies. Four or five sea vessels 

came up to-day ; there is some salt in one of them 

Express just brought account of the enemy's taking Fort 
Lee on the Twenty-First instant, by surprise, our peo- 
ple being careless One of those sea vessels, arrived 

this forenoon, it's said, is a large ship, a Prize from the 
Montgomery Privateer, but from where did not learn. 

23. This was also the stormy day, raised through 
James West. 

26. On the twenty-fourth was brought in, a Prize, 
the Ship lately commanded by Samuel Richardson. She 
was taken on her voyage from Barbadoes to Liverpool, 
by the Continental Sloop Independence, Capt. Young ; 
^as mounted with four guns and had on board Twenty 
Thousand [Dollars], two tons and a half of ivory, one 
hundred bars of iron. 

Nov. 1776] of the American Revolution. 105 

27. News to-day is, that the enemy intends to make 
a push for Philadelphia. It's said, part of their force is 
embarked, either to go up the Delaware and make their 
attack at both sides at once, or else to amuse the Southern 
States and prevent their sending any assistance to Phil- 
adelphia. See Pennsylvania Journal^ Numb. 1773. 

28. This morning a large and respectable company 
met at the State House to consider the present alarming 
affairs of the State. It's said General Mifflin spoke ani- 
matedly pleasing, which gave great satisfaction. 

30. No news from camp this day, as I could learn, 
but there is an account of two very valuable prizes' being 
carried into some port to the Eastward. 

December 2. This City alarmed with the news of 
Howe's army's being at Brunswick, proceeding for this 
place. Drums beat : a martial appearance : the shops 
shut : and all business except preparing to disappoint our 
enemies laid aside. I went to [the] Coffee House ; 
then to children's ; then home ; then back to the Coffee 
House and other parts of the City ; then home \ dined 
there. Our people then began to pack up some things, 
wearing and bedding, to send to the place. After dinner, 
I went to [the] State House ; conversed with Jacobs, 
Speaker of Assembly^ with Robert Whitehill, J. Dickin- 
son, Gen. Mifflin, &c. To [the] Coffee House ; then 
home ; drank tea ; then down town. Accounts brought 
that General Lee was near our army with ten thousand 
men. Various but great appearances of our people's 
zeal. Came home near nine ; then went down again as 
far as the children's. Some gondolas gone up for 
Trenton and some companies marched. 

3. One gondola just gone past for Trenton ; some 

troops in motion; after dinner [The] Light Horse 

and some of the Militia went out of town. ITumbers of 
families loading wagons with their furniture, &c., taking 

them out of town Drank tea at home ; then wen 

with a number of deeds to son Christopher's ; pat the 

io6 Christopher Marsbair s Diary [Dec. 1776 

into his iron chest No news to be depended upon 

this day. 

4. Great numbers [of j people moving, and militia, 
with Proctor's company and two field pieces, wagons, 
&c. No news to be depended upon but that one hun- 
dred and fifty sail of vessels left New York last First 
Day, but not known by us whither, and that General 
Lee, with ten thousand men, was within a few miles of 
the regulars. 

5. After dinner, went in company with Paul Fooks, 
Thomas Smith, and Leonard Keassler, a begging for 
old clothes for the naked soldiers coming from camp. 
In the evening, sent for by Council of Safety. I waited 
on them. It was to request I would Join with some 
other citizens in providing necessaries for the sick and 
needy soldiers returning from the camp. I readily 

6. Dined at home ; afterwards went in [the] chair 
with my son to the Bettering House, having sent some 
of the sick there, in order to provide for their recep- 
tion \ thence to sundry places in the City, as the sick 
came in very fast this day. 

7. To sundry places with some of my brethren, to 
place the returning soldiers in separate houses and send 
the very sick and weak to the Bettering House ; provid- 
ing also fire wood and straw with sundries at the diiFerenc 

8. Went to our office, appointed in Richard Willing's 
house, in Second Street ; came home to dinner ; then 
went back to the said place in order to provide and give 
necessary directions for the sick soldiers, &c. News 
brought of General Howe's intentions of bringing his 
army by land through the Jerseys to this Citv. Martial 
Law declared, and Gen. Putnam constitutea chief ruler 
in this Province.' 

' See Appendix (£.) 

Dec. 1776] of the American Revolution. 107 

9. All shops ordered to be shut ; the Militia to march 
into the Jerseys ; all in hurry and confusion ; News that 
Gen. Howe is on his march ; attend at our office the 
sick soldiers, &c. 

10. Our people in confusion, of all ranks, sending all 
their goods out of town into the country. News brought 
that our army had sent their heavy baggage from Trenton 
[to] this side of the river ; the enemy advancing in great 
order, and was at Brunswick. This day, attended fore- 
noon and afternoon [at] the aforesaid office. Great 
numbers of sick soldiers arriving into the town. 

11. Further accounts of the rapid progress of Gen. 
Howe. Our Congress leaves this City for Baltimore. 
The militia going out fast for Trenton : streets full of 
wagotis, going out with goods. 

1 2. News that Howe's Light Horse were at Princeton, 
and that Gen. Washington, with aH his troops, had come 
over [the] Delaware. Attended forenoon and afternoon 

at [the] office; numbers of sick soldiers arriving 

We sent one wagon load of household goods to the 
Trap, as did my sons to a place near. 

13. Accounts of Howe's army's coming into Trenton, 
and part of them going [to] and received into Burlington 
by the Friends there. The Friends here moved but 
little of their goods, as they seem to be satisfied that if 
Gen. Howe should take this City, as many here imagined 
that he would, their goods and property would be safe ; 
other people still sending their goods. 

14. Alarming and fresh accounts of Howe's near 
approach ; people hurrying out of town. 

15. Accounts that Howe's troops had attempted to 
cross our river, at several places and several times, but 
always repulsed, so that he could not effect it. Our 
troops increasing and in high spirits. 

16. Much the same as yesterday, except an account 
that Gen. Lee was taken prisoner through treachery. 

17. Accounts that Howe's army were returning back 

io8 Christopher Marshal? s Diary [Dec. 1776 

to Brunswick, and that many of our citizens were in 
his camp, having deserted over to him. 

18. Great numbers of the Country Militia coming in 

to go to join Gen. Washington's army News that 

our army intended to cross at Trenton into the Jerseys. 

19. Numbers of Country Militia coming into town. 
A large number of our troops left this City to join some 
in the Jerseys, in order to pursue and attack a number 
of Hessian troops, who, it's said, had come as far as 
Moorestown, this side of Mount Holly, in the Jerseys. 
It's said that the Generals Sullivan and Gates had joined 
General Washington's army, and that the enemy were 
fortifying Bordentown. 

20. Waited on Gen. Putnam respecting firewood's 
being cut for the soldiery, as little came now by 
water No news stirring to be depended on. 

21. Past nine, went to our office, thence I waited 
upon Gen. Putnam ; then back to the office ; past twelve, 
waited upon [the] Council of Safety, respecting their 
sending hands to cut firewood for the troops in and 
about the city News brought that a ship from Eng- 
land, mounting eighteen guns, having fifty-odd officers 
and two Generals sent to replace all officers here in 
America that were Parliament men, who were sent for 
home, was taken by , Capt. , one of our Con- 
tinental ships and carried into . Great numbers of 

our Country Militia are daily arriving in this City. This 
day the American Crisis^ No. i, written by T. Paine, 
was published. 

22. No news I heard to day from camp (nor no ac- 
count of Poll as yet). 

23. With Dr. Allison to College, some of the Country 

Militia being quartered "there Yesterday, it's said, 

the Brig A redrew Doria, arrived from Saint Eustatia, 
with goods on account of Congress. It's said she has 
taken two or three prizes, not arrived ; that she ran 
through the several men-of-war now lying in our Capes. 

Dbc. 1776] of the American Revolution. 109 

25. This day, numbers of men came in from [the] 
back counties, and a detachment of Three Thousand, 
with Gen. Putnam, was agreed upon to leave this City 
and pass into the Jerseys to-morrow morning. The 
men were in high spirits. 

26. Waited upon General Putnam respecting some 
orders for sick soldiers ; thence to [the] Council of 
Safety, on account of the Commissary's refusing to grant 
rations to poor sick soldiers, coming to town without 
their officers. 

27. News brought this day of our troops under Gen. 
Washington's attacking Trenton yesterday morning, 
having beat the enemy and drove them out of town ; and 
that this day were landed in this Province from thence, 
Nine Hundred and eighteen Hessians ; one Colonel, twc 
Lieut. Colonels, Three Majors, Four Captains, Eight 
Lieutenants, Twelve Ensigns, Two Surgeon's mates. 
Ninety-nine Sergeants, Twenty-five drummers, nine 
musicians, five servants, seven hundred and forty-five 
privates ; One thousand stand of arms, and six brass 
field pieces, twelve six and four pounders, three standards, 
&c., with all the ammunition for the six brass field 

28. To [the] Council of Safety, in order to procure 
wood for the Associator's wives, gone to camp. Got 

an order for Wm. Coats, tanner, to supply them 

The news of yesterday confirmed, and that our militia 
crossed the river into the Jerseys yesterday, and that the 
Hessian prisoners are expected from Newtown, Bucks 
County, into this City to-morrow. This morning, 
Capt. Proctor's company, with two field pieces, ammu- 
nition and baggage, left this City for head quarters in 
Bucks County or elsewhere, as did some hundreds of 
country militia. It's said Three Thousand went for 
camp yesterday, headed by Gen. Putnam, all in high 
spirits and warm clothing. 

30. Near eleven, the Hessian prisoners, to the amount 

no Christopher Marshairs Diary [Dec. 1776 

of nine hundred, arrived in this City, and made a poor, 
despicable appearance. Numbers of the militia, with 
three field pieces, crossed our river from this City to-day, 
and maiiy of the prisoners taken on Long Island, returned 
to this City very poorly and weak. It's said they were 
allowed but half allowance by Gen. Howe during their 

3 1 . More of our poor prisoners coming into town 

More Hessian prisoners, with the officers, came to town 
this evening from the Jerseys. 


January i. More Hessians and their officers, with 
many of their wounded, brought to town this day and 

2. A number of sick soldiers arrived from New York, 
being discharged by Gen. Howe, after a tedious imprison- 
ment, being starved by the enemy To the office 

after presenting, by request, to [the] Council of Safety, 
a petition to them respecting a testimony put forth by 
the meeting of sufferings, the twentieth [of] last month, 
signed by J . . . . P. . . . 

3. News flying about of an engagement between our 
forces and those of the enemy at Trenton. This raises 
the spirits of the Tory party, who are in great expecta- 
tion of Howe's success, rublished this day the Resolve 
of Congress and Council of Safety, respecting the es- 
tablishing of the Continental Currency. 

4. The news of the day, and confirmed by express, 
it's said, just arrived at nine at night, is that Gen. 
Washington occupied part of Trenton, and Howe the 
other with the main body of the British army. Our 
General being informed of Gen. Howe's advancing with 
four thousand men, went privately at midnight in order 
to intercept Howe, and meeting with him at Maidenhead, 

Jan. 1 777] of the American Revolution. 1 1 1 

an engagement ensued early in the morning, when the 
enemy, standing a smart fire for half an hour, ^ve way, 
when Gen. Washington pursued them to rrinceton, 
when the Fortieth Regiment took refuge in the College, 
which our General summoned to surrender, or else he 
would fire the building and burn them in it ; upon which 
they all surrendered. They likewise took three hun- 
dred prisoners on the road with eight field pieces, &c. 
He also sent off two brigades to the relief of that part of 
his army he left behind him to amuse the main body of 
the enemy at Trenton, which decamped as soon as they 
heard of Gen. Washington's victory, and filed ofF 
towards Pennytown. Thanks to God for this victory ! 

5. Yesterday Gen. Putnam left this city for the camp 
with five hundred men, and Gen. Irving is to have com- 
mand of this city in his absence. It's further said that 
Gen. Washington is appointed sole dictator for the space 
of six months. 

7. The gondolas returned to this city, and brought 
some Tory prisoners with them, taken in the Jerseys. 
It was the severe freezing upwards that brought the gon- 
dolas down. 

9. This afternoon, were brought to town, between 
seventy and eighty English prisoners (among whom it's 
said were some of their Light Horse), who were sent to 
our new prison. 

ID. It's said that Col. Scott has taken sixty or seventy 
Highlanders with a great many baggage-wagons, and that 
part of Col. Smith's riflemen had taken twenty-seven 
Tories (killed seven) with four baggage-wagons loaded 
with plunder, part of which, to the value of Seven or 
Eight Hundred Pounds' worth, they sold at Burlington 
yesterday. The remainder was brought this day to the 
city with the prisoners. 

12. This morning all the officers and soldiers belong- 
ing both to the Continental army [and] the troops of 
this State or militia (Col. Fleming's Regiment from Vir- 

112 Christopher MarshalT s Diary Pan. 1777 

ginia excepted) now in this city, were, by order from 
the General yesterday, to assemble in the barrack-yard 
at ten o'clock, with their arms and accoutrements, under 
pain of being severely punished for neglect. The troops 
are to draw three days' provisions this day, which are to 
be immediately cooked. For what end this manoeuvre 
is intended, is a profound secret to the public. By 
accounts from the Jerseys, we hear that a body of militia 
of that State, under Gen. Maxwell, attacked and defeated 
one Regiment of Highlanders, and one of Hessian troops, 
at Spank's town on this day was a week. 

13. A number of Hessians, Waldeckers, &c., prisoners, 
came to town this evening. 

14. A number of sick soldiers coming in. Visited 
to-day by Dr. Shippen, Jr., who being chief physician 
for the army here, proposed the taking of the sick sol- 
diers from the sundry houses in this city, where they are 
now placed, into the House of Employment to-morrow. 
This proposal I communicated to the Council of Safety 
(who had requested me to take charge of the sick soldiers 
about a month past), in order for their determination, 
but received no answer this evening, as they were very 

15. To the Treasurer Nesbit's and Co. Received 
Five Hundred Pounds, by order of [the] Committee of 
Safety, for the relief of the sick soldiers. 

16. This morning marched out the Virginia Ninth 

Regiment for the Camp Just come to town 

a number of Light Horse from Virginia. I counted 
with officers seventy men, well accoutred. About noon 

was brought to town, a number of prisoners This 

afternoon, was buried from the City Tavern, Gen. 
Mercer (who died in Princeton of the wounds received 
there the third instant) with all the honors of war, on 
the south side of Christ Church Yard, his body having 
been brought to town the Fifteenth instant for that pur- 

* His body now lies in Laurel Hill Cemeterv. 

Jan. 1777] of the American Revolution. 113 


17. After breakfast, went to the office, where the 
members present last night, met and agreed to send two 
members with our application to the Council of Safetv. 
The members were Thomas Leach and William Ball, 
who brought for answer to us that we should proceed 
in our appointment as before, without paying any regard 
to Dr. Wm. Shippen's notices, &c., upon which we 
resumed our former care and regard to the sick soldiers 
and prisoners. This forenoon, Capt. Wm. Shippen was 
interred with military honors in St. Peter's Church 
Yard, he being killed in the engagement the third instant, 
with Gen. Mercer, and brought to this city with him 

to be buried here with his family Set to cut some 

sheets of Continental money as I had done some evenings 
before, for the convenience of having cash to defray [the] 
expenses of the office, and to supply, in part, the wants 
of the wives of the Associators of Captains Bower's and 
Brewster's companies, now in the Jerseys. 
* 18. This day sundry troops left the city for the canip; 
also it's said that fourteen hundred militia men arrived 
in this city from Maryland and our back counties, as did 
a number of sick soldiers from New York. Yesterday 
was published the second number of the American Crisis 
by Common Sense, author of the first. Sundiy pieces 
of news to-day, but none to be depended upon from the 
camp, except that Gen. Washington had his headquarters 
at Morristown, and Gen. Sullivan with his advanced 
guard at Chatham, about five miles distance, and that 
Gen. Howe was at Amboy and the heights of Brunswick 
with his army, and had sent Gen. .Lee' prisoner with a 
very strong guard, consisting of all his light-horse and 
in&ntry from the latter to the former, three days ago. 

19. This week past, went out of this city, three or 
four companies of the Virginia light-horse, commanded 
by sundry captains, for our camp at Morristown. 

* Gen. Charles Lee. 

114 Christopher Marsbair s Diary [Jan. 1777 

20. A number of the militia came to the city to-day 
from [the] country, as did some, say two companies, of 
light-horse from Virginia. In the evening were brought 
thirteen Tories, it's said from Crosswick's in the Jerseys, 
under a guard. 

21. Deal of floating ice in the river so as to prevent 
the plunder of a number of Tories in the Jerseys (part 
of which, it's said, to the amount of thirty-seven wagons, 
is arrived at Wm, Cooper's ferry, &c.), from being 

brought over to this city It's said that several 

hundred soldiers arrived in town from the lower parts of 
this Province and Maryland, and that several more Tories 
are brought in this day from the Jerseys, among whom 
is Col. Charles Read.' 

22. About twelve came into town from Morristown 
in the Jerseys, the Second Battalion of City Militia, 
commanded by Col. Bayard, with their baggage wagons, 

&c A number of troops from the back parts came 

to town this day, it's said, eight hundred ; as did also 
Gen. Thomas Mifflin from the camp. It is said that 
Gen. McDougall, with a detachment of about fifteen 
hundred New Englandmen, has taken possession of Fort 
Washington. The number of [the] garrison who are 
prisoners of war is trifling, but the military stores are 

23. Accounts from the army are that within these 
three or four days, there have been several skirmishes in 
the East Jerseys, in which our troops have always beat 
the enemy. About three miles up the Raritan from 
Brunswick, a party of our army attacked a large body 
of the enemy and took near six hundred head of cattle, 
upwards of fifty wagons, fifty or sixty butts and casks of 
oil, and a number of English horses of the dray breed, 
which were so emaciated that they were scarce able to 

* From the twenty -first of January to the early part of April, Mr. Mar- 
shall was confined to his house by a severe attack of illness. 

Jan. 1 777] of the American Revolution. 115 

24. Last evening, came from the camp, the Light 
Infantry of [the] First Battalion of City Militia, also 
were brought the remains of Ensign Antony Morris, 
Junr., who was killed at Princeton, bravely supporting 
the cause of Liberty and Freedom ; buried this afternoon 
in Friends' burial ground in a very heavy shower of rain, 
and without military honors, it being the request of his 
relations to the General that he should be so interred. 
This morning, came to town, three or four of our field 
pieces with the train. In the afternoon also arrived from 
twenty to twenty-iive of our City Light Horse, being 
dismissed from camp with the thanks of Gen. Wash- 
ington, as part of the Virginians had joined him, and one 
company of the said corps arrived in this city yesterday 

on their way to Gen. Washington's camp It is 

again asserted for a fact that New York was taken last 
Thursday night by the Continental army. 

25 . Great quantities of backwoodsmen coming to town 
this day \ so many that with what were here before, an 
order was issued for the billeting of them in the non- 
associators' houses, which was put into execution in our 
part of the City. This day, some companies of troops 
left this City for the Jerseys, as yesterday did the Vir- 
ginia Light Horse for the camp. This afternoon was 
interred in the [old Presbyterian] burial ground [Col. 
John Haselet of the Lower Counties] with military 
honors, attended, it's said, by great numbers of people 
of different ranks. This afternoon, set out for Easton, 
the Commissioners appointed to confer with the different 
tribes of Indians to be assembled there, on a treaty. 

28. N.B. The Lottery for these States began selling 
their tickets this day for the First Class. 

30. The accounts of the cruelty and wantonness of 
our enemies, the English, could scarcely be believed, 
were they not authenticated by proper witnesses ; another 
instance of which is the news of the day, that being in 
possession of Rhode Island (a town of about seven hund- 

ii6 Christopher Marshal? s Diary [Jan. 1777 

red houses), and which made no resistance, yet after 
plundering the inhabitants indiscriminately, Tory and 
Whig, [they] set it on fire and consumed it. Further 
particulars expected. 

February i. This day was published the King of 
Britain's Speech to both Houses of his Parliament, dated 
October 21st, 1776 (No Poll). For public occurrences, 
see Evening Posty Numb. 308. 

4. This day was published the Law of our Assembly 
enforcing the Continental Currency and the Bills of 
Credit emitted by Resolves of the late Assembly, mak- 
ing them a legal tender, and for other purposes therein 

6. The news of the day, as I am informed, is the 
electing of five members by our Assembly to represent 
this State in Congress. The gentlemen elected were 
Dr. Franklin, Robert Morris, William Moore, Jonathan 
B. Smith and Gen. Roberdeau. 

7. A number of troops from the back counties, Mary- 
land, &c., which were placed in Non-Associators' houses 
in different proportions, as to the fitness of their houses. 

19. Account is that six or seven sail of trading vessels 
are in the river, amongst which [are] two from [the] 
French West Indies with sundry passengers, &c. 5 one 
a prize from our Privateer Rattlesnake. 

20. Thomas Salter came and paid me, as I think, a 
religious visit, as our conversation turned upon that point 
calmly and soberly till near dusk. 

21. On the Fourteenth instant, the following persons 
were elected at the State House, Thomas Wharton, Jr., 
Councillor, and Col. Bull, Col. Moore, Major Lollar 
and Col. Coates, members of Assembly for Philadelphia 
County. It's said the Hon. John M'Kinley is appointed 
Governorand Commander-in-chief in the Delaware State. 

22. Gen. Farmoah, French officer, came to town 
some days past, and amongst other things informed P. 
Fooks, that some days past Gen. Howe sent a flag to 

Feb. 1777]?/^ ^*^ American Revolution. 117 

Gen. Washington, proposing a cessation of arms for 
three months. Gen. Washington answered he could 
not grant it, as he was prepared and ready to receive him 
in battle, when he pleased. 

23. I am informed that yesterday afternoon Major 

S and near sixty-six Tories were brought from the 

Jerseys into this City, under a strong euard fsome of 
them in irons) and confined in the New Jail. Our As- 
sembly have appointed James Wilson, Delegate to 
Congress in addition to our members, and George Cly- 
mer as Delegate in the stead of Wm. Moore, who 

27. This day, it's said, were brought to this City, six 
brass field pieces with their proper appendages, that 
were taken from the Hessians at Trenton in Decem- 
ber last. 

March 3 to 7. I was severely handled bv a pleu- 
ritic pain in my right side. This continued both day 
and night for the whole of this week. I was blooded, 
blistered on my side, some nights could not lie down, 
but obliged to sit up all night, yet to the praise of God be 
it spoken, his Good Spirit wonderfully assisted me under 
this grievous affliction, so that I comforted myself in the 
heavenly support, I now witnessed to be daily adminis- 
tered. Blessed be thy name. Amen. 

9 to 21. Exceeding weak, so that I was scarcely 
able at times to read. I was generally more or less 
visited every day by numbers of acquaintances, but in 
particular by Whitehill, Bonham, Thorn, Foster, and 
also by Paul Fooks, this being the first of his going out. 
Thus I have been visited by this disorder, which brought 
me on through length of time down to this day by weak- 
ness, so low, that death appeared at times not hx off, 
yet through the mercy of our great God, and throueh 
the vigilance, industry and care of my wife fwho really 
has been and is a blessing unto me) I still live, to his 
eternal praise, in hopes I may dedicate the remainder of 


1 1 8 Christopher Marshall s Diary £M ar. i 777 

life unto his honor and praise, who has thus preserved 
me, to whom be glory now and forever more, Amen. 

31. This day was hanged Molesworth, being con- 
victed of treasonable practices against this State.' 

April 7. Eat breakfast soon, as my wife was getting 
ready to go a journey with my son Christopher as far as 
Lancaster, in order to view a house and lot that were 
to be sold by Col. Cox, in order for me and my family 
to remove there as I am so poorly in my health, and to 
be out of the difficulties, should this City be invaded, as 
I was not capable of rendering any assistance. They 
went on horseback about eleven o'clock. 

13. Account came of Ship [Morris] from France's 
being chased by three men-of-war for a whole day. 
[The Captain] finding he could not get clear ran her 
aground and blew her up, after securing all her papers 
and crew. But Captain Anderson himself staying too 
long was lost with the ship. [Account by] express 
from Lewistown to-day, that left it yesterday, of the 
Roebuck and two other ships' standing up the Bay. By 
an order of Congress in conjunction with [the] board of 
war, a number of persons in each ward were appointed 
and went upon duty this day through this City to take 
account of all provisions of every sort, with rum, wine, 
sugar, spirits, &c. 

14. I had my books that I sent to College last fall, 
brought home this day. It's said that nine men-of-war 
are in the river. 

16. Near five came Paul Fooks, Dr. Phyle and Col. 
John Cox, who brought the Deeds for the house in 
Lancaster, and executed his to me, for which I then 
paid him, he then promising to acknowledge the same 
with his wife, when she came to town, of which he de- 
sired those gentlemen to take notice and remember this 
his promise. 

June 6. Paid John Whitehill ^48 for hauling five 

' See the Life of Gen. Joseph Reed^ for a full account of this person. 

J UNE 1 777] of the American Revolution. 119 

loads of goods to Lancaster ; two from Philadelphia, 
three from the Trap, 

9. This afternoon severe thunder struck the steeple 
of Christ Church ; carried away some parts of the orna- 
ments of the Crown on the top of the rods. 

16. All this day at Benjamin's Kitty and Charles 

both gone to town on the news of the enemy's march- 
ing from Brunswick in two divisions, &c. 

27. Arrived at our house in Lancaster near seven. I 
was really tired, the road so hilly and stony, and I being 
so poorly. 

July ii. Sundry Philadelphians, who moved here 
last winter to live, have returned back with their families 
this week ; not pleased. 

13. We have had some difficulties to encounter here, 
as the people here have taken offence against the Phila- 
delphians, who some of them, have not behaved pru- 
dently, so that at last the country folks would scarcely 
bring them anything to market. But I'm in hopes, as 
some are gone and some more going, that the harmony 
that once subsisted will return {again. I've not been 
able to get a load of hay or of wood, as yet,' nor pasture 
for my horse. Had not my wife bought a load in the 
spring, and we sent some bushels of oats stowed in our 
bacon, he must have suffered, but we have a lot adjoin- 
ing to us ; though small, it serves to turn him in just to 
stretch his legs. A bushel of bran or shorts can't be 
procured, but [I] am in hopes after harvest, we shall 
get supplied, as 1 intend to visit some of the farmers. I 
just give this note by way of memento, to remember 
some of our difficulties. Yet I must say that the peo- 
ple of note, that I have had the pleasure of seeing and 
conversing with, have behaved extremely polite and 
kind to me, and some of the females have come and 
visited my wife and more have promised. 

14. I went this morning and visited several of our 
Philadelphia friends, and at the same time in company 

1 20 Christopher Marshall s Diary [July i 777 

with our friend George Schlosser, reminded them, as well 
as some of our Lancaster friends, whom we visited, of 
the distress poor Dr. Young (deceased )'s family was left 
in, most of whom, to their honor be it remembered, gave 
me what they thought proper, in order for me to remit 
it for their relief, the which I accepted and kindly 

thanked them on the family's behalf. This day, 

Dr. Kennedy sent me two wagon loads of firewood, he 
calls them cords. I let him have two entirely new Oc- 
tavo volumes of Brooks's Practice of Physick^ for which 
he is to pay me when I settle for this wood and what 
more he brings me. 

26. At breakfast, received an affectionate letter from 
son Christopher, giving particular account of the situa- 
tion of all their families. The account afforded us comfort 
and satisfaction. In it [he] informed [me that] brown 
sugars were raised in town to X30 per hundred, request- 
ing that if I could at 41. per lb. I would get one hundred 
weight ; on which I went to town, but the news of the 
prices had reached some here. However, I got, after 
traversing about, a neat hundred at 4^. per pound, and 
thirty pounds extraordinary at 5^. per pound. 

29. After dinner, went to visit sundry town's people, 
also to hear what news from Philadelphia, as several 
persons from there this day or two past had reported that 
Gen. Howe with the English fleet was expected there 
daily, nay, that the fleet was really in the Delaware river. 
These reports gave great uneasiness respecting our friends 
there, but I could find nothing further as no express 
here was yet arrived. 

30. There has been for these two weeks past in agi- 
tation by the friends of the States of America in this 
place, a plan in order to form a Society under the name 
of the Civil Society, in order to assist the present plan 
of government, whereby each member will be called 
upon to take the Oath or Affirmation of Allegiance or 
leave the State. This meets great opposition from a 

July 1777] of the American Revolution. 121 

Junto, who call themselves Moderate men, and [main- 
tain] that no man should be compelled to be honest. 

31. Advice by express yesterday from Philadelphia, 
was that one division of the enemy's fleet was seen off 
our capes, steering for them ; that Congress had de- 
manded Four Thousand Militia from the States to join 
the Continental Army, which was marching towards 
Philadelphia in three divisions, one by Reading, one by 
Trenton ferry, but the main body with Gen. Washing- 
ton to Corryell's ferry, to join as occasionally. 

August i. I afterwards spent some time in religious 
conversation with a Meaonist Preacher at Dr. NeflF's. 
In the afternoon I was visited by another named Benja. 
Ereson, Jr., who brought me their Confession of Faith 

to peruse No news of any moment by the post 

last night, except that the enemy was seen off the Capes, 
that Philadelphia was pretty quiet, and the Militia all 

ready to turn out. Brown Sugar at yj. per pound 

News that some of the enemy s ships were got to Reedy 
Island ; whether true or not remains doubtful. 

2. Just heard from [a] passenger in the Stage Wagon 
arrived last night, who left Philadelphia Fifth Day morn- 
ing,' that the alarm guns were fired as they came away, 

and the citizens in great hurry and bustle Express 

arrived to-day for six hundred wagons to go directly for 
Philadelphia, and for the Lieutenant of the County to 
have the militia ready for marching, as two hundred and 
fifty sail of vessels were seen off our Light House, 
standing in for the Capes. 

3. It's said that news is come from Philadelphia that 
Howe's fleet has entirely left the Bay, and gone they 
don't know where. 

4. Came back before dinner. I was much disturbed 
after I came, our girl Poll driving her same stroke of 
impudence as when she was in Philadelphia, and her 

'Thursday, July 3itt. The Stage Wagon wat two dayi traveling 
tizty miles. 

122 Christopher Marsbair s Diary [Aug. 1777 

mistress so hoodwinked by her as not to see it, which 
gave me much uneasiness, and which I am determined 
not to put up with. 

5. No news but that in short, the Enemy on the 
Thirty-first was off our • Capes, but suddenly moved 
away ; that Gen. Washington with some of his troops 
was in Philadelphia, but most of them at Germantown 
and the Falls ; the militia in motion in order to give the 
enemy, if they came up the river, which had been sus- 
pected, a warm reception ; every thing of clothing and 
eatables extremely dear. In the evening I went down 
into town ; learned that the County Court was opened 
this day in a very regular manner, and the business con- 
ducted decently. 

8. Our Court broke up yesterday with great decorum. 

14. News from Pittsburgh by express this day from 
Gen. Hand, that the fort was like to be invested by three 
thousand Canadians, Indians, Regulars, &c., and that 
we had but eighty men in [the] fort, and about eight 
hundred could be collected soon. 

15. To writing, being engaged at times for this week 
past in correcting the Annals of the Brethren at Ephrata, 
left with me by Peter Miller and Obed when here to 
visit me. 

20. I gave to James Cannon, to carry to the Widow 
Young, the donations I collected in this place, which, 
with my own, amounted to Seventeen Pounds, six 

21. I was at Dr. NefPs, where James Webb, a mason, 
came for some medicine, who related that about four 
years ago, about six in the morning, he saw in the sky 
before the door the likeness of a great snake without a 
head, who shaking his tail made all about there to tremble, 
and that at [the] same time fiery balls were seen to fly 
about at Germantown.' This he interpreted was our 

' See Appendix F. 

Aug. 1777] of the American Revolution. 123 

present war, which we carried on without any head, and 
so we should come to nothing. This afternoon I finished 
my correcting of the manuscript or History of the 
Brethren at Ephrata, containing four hundred and eighty- 
eight quarto pages. N. B. The said Webb asserted 
that our present Assembly were not regularly chosen, as 
they were voted in by a parcel of soldiery and apprentice 
boys ; therefore, their laws were not worth regarding. 

22. Went and agreed with Joseph Walter, the barber, 
to call and shave me twice a week at thirty-six shillings 

a year This day, it's said, that Capt. McCuUough 

has taken upon him. to examine all strangers passing 
through here respecting taking the test, which several 
complied with and took the same, but John Hollings- 
head refused, for which he was committed to the Jail of 
Lancaster. No news yet from Howe. 

23. By express last night the militia on their march 
down were countermanded, on account of the Indians' 

breaking in on the frontiers In the evening came 

George Schlosser and Benja. Harbeson, who brought 
account of the defeat of Lieut. Col. Bern by Gen. Stark 
on the sixteenth instant, who commanded a body of 
mostly militia, who wholly routed his army and took a 
great number of prisoners. For particulars, see Penn-- 
sylvania Journal^ Numb. 1804. 

24. Sent our negro woman and girl Poll to Friends' 
Meeting. Wife and I stayed at home to keep the boys 
out of the orchard. After dinner I took a walk with 
Capt. Markoe to the barracks; stayed there till the 
English, Scotch and Irish prisoners, to the number of 
two hundred, marched out under a strong guard to 

25. To [the] barrack ; waited till our division of 
Hessian prisoners, consisting of three hundred and forty- 
five, marched out under a strong guard (with some 
women and baggage wagons, as the prisoners yesterday 
had done), for Lebanon. 

124 Christopher Marsbairs Diary [Aug. 1777 

26. News that Gen. Washington, with half his army 
and light horse, passed through Philadelphia [on] First 
Day morning, on their way for Wilmington, and that 
Howe, with his fleet, was seen off Eagle roint, but had 
not landed. On First Day morning [the] bellman went 
round this town, calling upon the inhabitants that had 
Hessian prisoners, to take them to the barracks and 
receive receipts for them, but very few obeyed. 

27. News this morning is that Howe has landed his 
men about eight miles from the Head of Elk. It's said 
that he sent one of his men to this town for a Hessian 
man and woman, by name -, that he found them last 
night, and they three set out for his camp this morning. 
Tnis made some people here uneasy, as they were not 
sent after, but as no horse could be found, Capt. Markoe 
lent his horse, without bridle and saddle. (It's from him 
I had this relation this morning.) A parcel of Hessian 
prisoners sent off this day under guard for Lebanon. 

28. News brought that the persons sent after, the 
Captain and the man, were overtaken and brought back* 
I then went into town just as Samuel Henry, William 
Atlee [and] A^ichael Hubley, were going to the j^rison 
to examine them. These gentlemen invited Capt. 
Markoe and myself to attend them, which we did, when 
on the examination, both Hewey, the pretended 
officer, and Wood, pleaded innocency, and as 
their examination was written and the reasons for appre- 
hending them also, the which was immediately sent to 
Gen, Washington at head quarters, their trial was post- 
poned till an answer comes from the General, and they 
were ordered in the mean time to be confined apart. 

2g. Yesterday there went from this town under guard, 
three hundred and sixty-five Hessian prisoners for Car- 
lisle and adjacent places. 

30. A great stir this morning in town, occasioned by 
some [men] of Col. White, of the Georgia Regiment's 
robbing him last night. They were pursued and taken. 

Aug. 1777] of the American Revolution. 125 

Part of the cash was recovered) but his trunk, with all 
his paperS) more money, his commission, &c., not to be 

found, though searched after all this day In the 

evening we again went into town to hear news, but none 
for certain, but that the enemy was in possession of 
Ccecil Court House and Head of Elk ; that our army 
was at Christiana, but that our Light Horse had been 
down to visit them, had a skirmish and taken some few 

31. News of the day, little; that Howe was getting 
his men on shore at Elk ; that thirty deserters had come 
over to us ; that in some skirmishes, our people had 
taken about forty prisoners ; that Gen. Washington was 

at Wilmington No further news, but that a number 

of wagons, with the Congress materials of printing, press, 
types, &c., were just arrived from Baltimore. 

September 6. This afternoon, the two thieves, who 
stole Col. White's cash and trunk, were marched about 
a mile and a half out of town, in order, it's said, to be 
hanged, but upon the Colonel's lady's intercession, it's 
said, they were pardoned from death, but received two 
or three hundred lashes each, well laid on their backs 
and buttocks. A great number of spectators, it's said, 
were assembled. 

8. News came yesterday of a conspiracy amongst 
some of the garrison of Fort Pitt, in conjunction with 
some of the settlers on Red Creek, to deliver up the fort 
to the commander of Detroit, who with some Indians, 
was invited to come ; but this discovery has, it's to be 
hoped, baffled their hellish scheme. 

10. Received two letters from Ed. Milne, covering 
newspapers and Remonstrance of sundry Quakers and 
other disaffected persons to the United States of America, 
to the Congress and to the President and Council of this 
State, one of them signed by three or four, the other by 
twenty-one. A written list was also handed about, con- 
taining the names of forty persons. News from the 


126 Christopher Marsbair s Diary [Sept. 1777 

army, viz : that Howe was advanced to New Garden,' 
and had taken a number of cattle. 

11. News was that the enem^ advanced towards the 
Concord road to Philadelphia ; that part of our army 
was gone to Chad's Ford ; that several deserters were 
gone for Philadelphia ; some, very few, come here ; 
that some of the Virginia forces coming to our assist- 
ance had crossed [the] Susquenannah to the amount of 
one thousand ; others on the road. From Fort Pitt 
that one or two persons were apprehended, coming there 
from Detroit, on one of them were found some papers, 
particularly one with the list of names of those in the 
fort and in the neighborhood, who had declared their 
allegiance to George the Third. One of the persons, 
by the name Wm. Gallaher, formerly a pedler, had 
made his escape, for whom a reward of six hundred 
dollars is offered. 

12. I went into town, an alarm being spread that 
some of Howe's Light Horse had been seen at Pequea 
Church, about eighteen miles from Lancaster. This 
set sundry people (by report) to pack up their goods and 
some sent them out of town into the country. As there 
were so many flying reports and no certainty, a subscrip- 
tion was proposed and carried immediately into execu- 
tion, for hiring three men to go as express to where the 
army was, to bring certain accounts, which was imme- 
diately put in practice, and three were dispatched 

Met Col. Calbreth, who was just come from Philadel- 
phia. By him learned that the news in the morning was 
the lie of the day, as he had traveled the road and saw none 
of the enemy, nor had they been there where reported. 
He had with him a ProPlamation published by the Execu- 
tive Council, inviting all persons to assist against the 
common enemy. This was read at Major Wert7's where 
many of us were collected. 

* Chester County, Pa. 

Sept. 1777] of the American Revolution. xori 

13. Came home in the evening. Just then, came to 
his ramilv, Capt. Markoe, who was present at the en- 
gagement on the eleventh instant, near to Concord Meet- 
ing or Chad's ford, between, as he computes, three 
thousand of our troops under the Generals Maxwell, 
Sullivan and Sterling, and eight thousand of the enemy, 
which began in the afternoon and continued until dark, 
in which great numbers were slain on both sides, but 
that our people behaved most gallantly, until ordered to 
retreat, as the ground would not admit of our troops* 
coming to a general engagement, as the enemy were in 
possession of an eminence that overawed our camp, so 
they rested for the night. The loss on either side was 
not as yet ascertained. 

15 Election this day for Burgesses for this borough, 
when Henry DehafF and George Ross, were chosen* 
News of the day is that the Friends sent out of town ' as 
prisoners werestopped at Pottsgrove by the Pottses there^ 
and they would not suffer them to proceed any further^ 
upon which a company of militia was ordered from 
Reading to take them in charge and convey them to 
their destined post. It's said that Gen. Putnam, with 
three thousand men, was expected to have been at 
Philadelphia yesterday ; that Gen. Smallwood with his 
forces, near two thousand, was at Nottingham meeting 
house yesterday, and was there to be joined by some 
more forces from the Eastern Shore ; that three thou- 
sand Jersey forces were to cross [the] Delware at 
Cooper's ferry, this day. 

17. Near twelve, express arrived from camp ; brought 
account that in the action last week, our people had be- 
tween four and five hundred men killed and wounded \ 
that our enemy, the English, had near two thousand 
killed and wounded, nine hundred of which were killed 
in the action ; that we had not one-half of our people 
engaged, but that the e^nemy had treble our numbers, and 

s Philadelphia. 

128 Christopher MarsbalF s Diary [Sbpt, 1777 

the flower of their armv, yet our people held them 
in play till dark, retreated about six hundred yards, and 
lost seven or eight field . pieces ; that they were in no 
wise intimidated but in high spirits, eagerly longing for a 
fair opportunity. It's said they have been joined since 
by four thousand troops, but from where could not learn* 
It's further said that four or five hundred volunteers 
from Virginia, were at Yorktown* yesterday, on their 
march to join Gen. Washington's army. It's also said 
that James Rankin, who ran away last week from his 
habitation in York county on account of his being ac- 
cused of forming a scheme to destroy all our magazines 
of ammunition, arms, tents, baggage, provisions, &c., in 
Lancaster, Carlisle, York, Reading, &c., was taken 
about sixteen miles from our enemies' camp, and se- 
cured, but where I could not learn. 

19. No post come ; supposed to be prevented by the 
enemy on the road, as it's said, they were near Downings- 
town, and our army near French Creek, yesterday. 
This morning numbers of people came out on the hill 
near our place, in order, it's said, to hear the firing of 
the cannon between our people and the enemy, but I 

could not say that I heard any After dinner, went 

into town ; saw two companies [of] Lancaster militia 
march forward towards the camp. One of our expresses 
came in ; brought a letter dated at Red Lion, yesterday, 
two o'clock, A.M., giving account that the enemy were 
on full march for Philadelphia, and that they intended to 
follow them in a few minutes, so that an engagement 
may be hourly expected. 

20. It's wonderful to hear and to see the progress and 
fertility of the lying spirit, that moves about in and 
through the different classes of men in this place, attended 
with such twistings, windings and turnings, that it seems 

impossible to fix any truth upon them Two letters 

from son Christopher and his daughter, letting us know 

> York, Pa. 

Sept. i 777] of the American S^evoluHon. 1 29 

that they were all well, but much terrified as the enemy 
were pushing that way towards Swedes' Ford, and that 
Gen. Washington had sent into their neighborhood and 
the Trap, about eight hundred wagons with stores and 
sick soldiers, &c., and [they] were then momently ex- 
pecting to hear the dismal sound of cannon, and were 
also at a loss what they should do on these momentous 
occasions We sat late, conversing on these melan- 
choly times. 

21. Near five, came and stood for some considerable 

time at [the] corner of B 's house, the said B 

and James W Sen'r, in a strong and zealous con- 
versation. The nearness of, and the harmony of, their 
two spirits, I was surprised with. The zeal that ani- 
mated them was powerful and strong ; gestures and 
motions, various and frequent ; love and attraction by 
shaking and holdine harids was conspicuous. Upon the 
whole, I was satisfied by their behavior that they were, 
though different in the principles of religion, by the out- 
ward profession, yet now animated by one spirit — the 
same that would enslave and reduce the freedom of 

22. News of the day is that the enemy have formed 
a design to surround and take prisoners Gen. Wayne's 
Brigade. For that purpose, about one in the morning 
of the Twenty-first instant, a number of them without 
noise till they entered our lines, then setting up a pro- 
digious hideous noise, attacked our people with swords 
and bayonets \ and as our people were some sleeping and 
off their guard, they were thrown into confusion, yet 
made a good retreat, losing neither cannon nor baggaee. 
It's said that we had about one hundred killed, wounded 
and taken prisoners, and that the enemy suffered equally 
with us, notwithstanding their number and the surprise. ' 

23. Just after dark visited by Col. Ross, who said he 

* Thb h«i aiace been known u the Paol Massacre. 

ijo Christopher Marshalt 5 Diary [Sept 1777 

had slept at my son's [the] night before last ; that thev 
were all well, but in trouble as the enemy were as nigh 
to them as six miles \ that they had no time to write, 
as they were sending some of their valuable goods further 
into the country, viz : over Oley Hills.' 

25. Visited by Capt. Hervey, who came to enquire 
after news, but none was stirring but the lie of yesterday 
(as I had heard), which was that Howe had crossed [the] 
Schuylkill and enterred Philadelphia, the twenty-third 
instant, without any opposition ; nay further, that the 
City was all in flames. This, Mrs. Taggert told me, a 
man had said before her door yesterday. Thus are 

many of the people in this place imposed upon 

Came into town President Hancock, and some others of 
the Delegates. 

26. News of the day was that Howe was got into 
Philadelphia ; then, no ; then he had crossed Schuylkill ; 
then that he had returned back ; so that there was noth- 
ing to be depended upon. 

28. News of the day is that three thousand of Howe's 
army, under G^ Cornwallis, entered Philadelphia last 
sixth day, in the afternoon. 

29. Took leave of sundry of the Congress, who were 

setting off for Yorktown Many of the inhabitants 

of Philadelphia came to-day and yesterday to this place, 
as did our President or Governor, the Executive Council 
and the members of Assembly, who met here this day 
in the Court House. News of the day is that Gen. 
Burgoyne and his army are defeated,^ himself wounded, 
and Ticonderoga retaken ; that part of Gen. Howe's 
army encamped on the commons facing the Bettering 
House ; 3 that Gen. Cornwallis had made his head 

' Berks County, Pa. 

' Burgoyne was defeated on the X9th of September. He intrenched him- 
self on the following day, and was finally defeated and compelled to sur- 
render on the 7th of October. 

3 This building stood upon the square between Spruce and Pine and 
Tenth and Eleventh Streets. It was taken down about forty years since. 

Sept. 1777] of the American Revolution. 131 

quarters at Widow Norris*s. The remainder of the 
British army encamped along the road to Germantown, 
and ours were behind them. 

30. News of the day is that last seventh day, four men 
of war came to anchor off our fort,' in order to take it, 
and the cheveaux de frise, hut were repulsed so as to 
leave their anchors behind them, and get away as fast 
as they could, being much mauled, &c., by the fort.' 

October i. It's said th^t Major Miller, with a party 
of men, had made an excursion from our army to the 
Rising Sun on [the] Germantown Road. On return, 
met some Hessian troops, engaged them, killed nine 
[and] brought oiF six prisoners with their accoutrements. 

2. Went into town with Col. McKean, who had 
just called at our house. I visited sundry Delegates and 
Assemblymen in Lancaster, having a desire that in con- 
junction with [the] Executive Council and the Assem- 
bly, some good regulations might be made here in order 

for our protection and for our comfortable living here 

R. Whitehill, Dr. Phyle and self, took a walk to view 
a number of Virginians encamped upon the com- 
mons, thence into the main street near the prison. 

Met a large number of prisoners just brought into town 
from Bethlehem, going to-morrow for Virginia. 

3. Spent some time in conversation with sundry per- 
sons, respecting a Dutchman called Motchs, who 
said he came from Philadelphia, had a printed pass from 
GK Howe, yet the Magistrates here, with the President 
and Executive Council, all suffered him to pass on his 

journey to York, and then to Philadelphia, as he said 

Three or four hundred Virginians left this place to-day. 

4. News of the morning is that [James] Brooks (the 
conspirator with Dr. Kearsley), who has been long con- 
fined in this jail, made his escape last night, and this day 
Caleb Johnson, a Friend and inhabitant of this place, 

* Fort Mifflin. 

132 Christopher Marsbaff s Diary [Oct. 1777 

was examined before the Council and sent to the prison, 

as being privy and accessory to his escape News 

of the day, to be depended upon, was that the day before 
G*. Howe entered Philadelphia, being the twenty-fifth 
[of] last month, a number of Tories, said to amount to 
four or five hundred, went out in parade to Germantown, 
returned and triumphed through the streets all the night, 
taking, securing and sending to prison all they could nnd 
that they looked upon or termed friends to the Free 
States of America, amongst whom, was and is the parson, 
Jacob Duche. My son Benja. writes on the First 
instant, that most of the Generals were viewing the hill 
near his house, in order, if occasion [required] to make 
a stand ; that they were moving down, and that part of 
our army and scouts were at Germantown ; and that 
the Generals, Read and Cadwalader, being out on a 
scout the thirtieth [of] last month, called at the house 
of Thomas Lewsley,* a miller, who not knowing them, 
told them that those two Generals were but a little way 
from there, and that if they (as he took them for two of 
[the] British Light Horse) would pursue, they might 
easily take them, for which end he gave them a very 
fine horse, which they brought away. My son on [the] 
back of his letter, dated First instant, says, just now a 
British Light Horse [man] passed here a prisoner, taken 
last night with despatches of consequence to G^ Howe, 
and is sent with them to G^ Washington. 

5. Viewed part of [the] Virginia Battalion, with col- 
ors flying, wagons, &c., marching for camp, and I am 
informed that a division of three hundred took the same 

route yesterday, via Reading About noon, another 

party of Virginians, amounting to near three hundred, 
with wagons, passed through here on their march to the 

6. Went into town ; spent chief [part] of the after- 

' Thomas Livezey, resided on the Wissahiccon Creek in Rozborough 
Township af « Livexey*s MiU.** 

Oct. 1777] of the American Revolution. 133 

noon there in conversation, respecting public occurrences, 
as the express had just come in ; brought account of a 
parcel of our army's moving in three divisions last Sixth 
Day night, eight or nine miles, and [that they] attacked 
our enemy near five next morning near Chestnut Hill ; 
threw them into disorder and drove their grenadiers with 
others into Germantown, where they took refuge in 
churches, houses and meetings, with their cannon (of 
which our people had brought none with them) and as 
the main body of the enemy advanced our little party 
retreated back to their former ground in good order, 
taking one piece of cannon with them, and all their 
wounded. Accounts say that we had killed, wounded 
and prisoners on our side about four hundred, and thar 
the enemy had nearly fifteen hundred in killed, wounded 
and prisoners. 

7. About twelve o'clock, marched out under a guard 
of one hundred and twenty militia men, one hundred and 
twenty-three prisoners of English, Scotch and new levies, 
for Virginia, with baggage wagons, &c The ac- 
count it's said, to-day brought from Philadelphia by some 
of the Friends from their Yearly Meeting, of the engage- 
ment last Seventh Day, is that we had two thousand 
men killed, wounded and taken prisoners, and that our 
enemies suffered in the same proportion ; further, that 
our late Governor, John Penn, is appointed Governor, 
and Andrew Allen, Lieut. Governor. Between two or 
three hundred Virginians marched through this town to- 
day for our camp Came to town, this evening, a 

company of Light Horse from North Carolina, near 
upon fifty, with their wagons, &c. ; put up their horses 
at the Continental stables. 

8. In my son's letter are many instances of the wanton 
cruelty they exercised in his neighborhood, amonest 
which is the burning of the house where Col. Reed did 
live, the house where Thompson kept tavern, with every 
thing in it, all the hay at Col. Bull's, fifteen hundred 

134 Christopher Marshall s Diary [Oct. 1777 

bushels of wheat, with other grain, his powder mill and 
iron works ; destroyed all the fences for some miles, 
with the Indian corn and buckwheat, emptied feather 
beds, destroyed furniture, cut books to pieces at Col. 
Bayard's ; at one place emptied some feather beds, and 
put a cask of yellow ochre, cask of Spanish Brown [and] 
cask of linseed oil, and mixed them all together. So 
brutal and cruel are all their steps marked, it would be 

tiresome tracing them with a pen Yesterday, after 

many day's waiting, a sufficient number of members of 
Assembly met, so that they have made a House and en- 
tered upon public business. 

11. News of the day is that the slaughter in Howe's 
army this day week was very great ; that the Generals 
Agnew, Grant and Erskine, are among the slain, and 
another General officer badly wounded ; these, by report, 
were principal officers in Howe's army ; that on the Eighth 
instant, Washington's army being refreshed marched 
downwards to Philadelphia, and that he was reinforced 
with four thousand men from the Northward, besides a 
number of Virginians, within the space of eight or ten 
days, so that an engagement may be hourly expected. 
Our Council and House of Assembly continue still sitting 
here, as does the Congress at York. 

1 2. News of the day is variously represented, viz : 
that our army was got to within nineteen miles of Phila- 
delphia ; that Gen. Lee was exchanged (for Prescott) \ 
was expected soon to be at camp ; that Sam^ Shoemaker 
acted as Mayor of Philadelphia, and had publicly declared 
in the Market Place, in order to inform the inhabitants 
by order of Gen^ Howe, that Congress money should 
not be received in any payments ; that sundry of the 
English troops had repassed [the] Schuylkill, but for 
what intent, it was not known ; that Gen. Putnam had 
retreated from Fishkill, as Burgoyne had received a 
supply of troops. 

13. News just come, via Readings that Fort Mont- 

Oct. 1777] of the American Revolution, 135 

eomery was taken by the enemy, with all its stores, and 
five hundred men made prisoners, and with a loss to them 
of one thousand men killed ; that they had burned two 
frigates that were unfinished in the North River. After 
dinner. Gen. De Kalb set out for the camp. The As- 
sembly broke up this day, having completed their session, 
having first appointed twelve Commissioners to act in 
conjunction with the President and Council, during [the] 
recess of the Assembly, and to the end of next session, 

unless ordered otherwise by the next Assembly In 

the above Commission, I was appointed one, but upon 
being informed, I went and requested another might be 
put in my room, which after some altercation was not 
granted nor put they any other in my place, as the law 
had been already passed for that purpose. 

14. I went into town, this being Election Day, as 
appointed by the Constitution. The following gentle- 
men were elected in Lancaster, viz : Wm. Brown, 
Alexander Lowery, Philip Mastiler, James Anderson, 
John McMullen[and] Ludwick Lauman. The election 

was conducted with great order and sobriety News 

was that our enemies had erected [a] small battery on 
Province Island, which our gondolas destroyed, took 
fifty four prisoners, and one hundred muskets, two 
officers, a captain and lieutenant, with the cannon that 
they had mounted. 

15. Bought this day (for and per order of my son 
Charles), of Adam Zantzinger, fifty-six pounds of 
Muscovado sugar, for which I paid him nine shillings 

per lb News of the day is, it's said, an express 

about noon, on its way to Congress, who also had 
despatches to our President and Council, giving them 
information of the total rout of Burgoyne's army ; great 
numbers of them slain, say three hundred, as many 
taken prisoners, with all their tents, baggage, &c., witn 
two twelve and six six-pounders, brass guns, and that 
they were in full pursuit of the runaways ; Generals 
Clinton and Arnold, both wounded, but not mortally. 

136 Christopher Marshals Diary [Oct. 1777 

By report of several, a most prodigious heavy firing was 
heard yesterday, great part of the day, account of which 
is impatiently expected by the honest hearts. 

1 6. I am informed that yesterday were brought to this 
jail, three or four persons from Chester County, two of 
them named Hunter, who, by receipts found upon them, 
appear to have been as suppliers of Howe's army with 
sheep, cattle, &c. The others are called Temple, who 
appear to have been concerned as directors of the roads 
to Howe's army, and informing against sundry persons 
to him as good friends to the United States, and other 
inimical practices. 

17. News by express from [the] Northward, confirms 
the above intelligence, and adds that it was Burgoyne's 
Aide-de-camp [who] was taken prisoner, with most of 
the Artillery officers and head officers of the Grenadiers 
with the Q. Mr. General, and a number of inferior 
officers. Among the slain is Gen^ Frazer. It's further 
said that the taking of Fort Montgomery cost abundance 
of blood on both sides. On the English side, were slain 
Gen. Camphiel, Major Stille, Major Grant, Capt. 
Steward, with many other officers ; and that our forts 
on [the] Delaware hold out bravely, the men in high 
spirits on the fifteenth instant. 

18. News of the day is that some of our militia under 
Gen". Smallwood and rotter, had taken a large drove of 
cattle near Chester, that was driven for the use of Howe's 
army ; that the enemy had entirely evacuated Wilming- 
ton ; that our river was yet in our possession, although 
daily cannonaded by the enemy's shipping, but as bravely 
repulsed ; that Lord Howe in a sixty gun ship was ar- 
rived at Chester ; that provisions were very scarce and 
dear in Philadelphia ; beef three shillings and nine pence' 
a pound, butter seven shillings and six pence,' no money 
passing but hard and Pennsylvania old money ; that full 

« Fifty Ccnti. 
• One Dollar. 

Oct. 1777] of the American Revolution. 137 

confirmation of Gen. Burgoyne's defeat was brought 
this day to Congress from Gen. Gates, who was thien in 
full pursuit of his flying army ; that numbers of them 
came into us with heavy complaints against Burgoyne's 
behavior, and that he had written a polite letter to Gen. 
Gates, requesting him to take care of his hospital. 

20. By letter from son Benja. by the express, is a full 
account of the surrender of Gen. Burgoyne and his whole 
army to Gen^ Gates, on the Fourteenth instant; to 
march out on the Fifteenth to a place appointed, with 
the honors of war, there to ground their arms, and then 
as prisoners to be sent to Massachusetts Government. 
On the Eighteenth a feu de joie was fired in our camp 
on this glorious acquisition ; at the same time an alarm 
was that the enemy under Howe was in motion to attack 
our army, who received the news with great joy and 
moved with great alacrity to receive them. It was re- 
marked that when Gen. Washington received the ac- 
count of Burgoyne's defeat, he stood silent for some 

small time As it was rainy weather, we all went 

to bed past eight. Wind blew fresh and stormy. Near 
nine, alarmed by Timothy Matlack, who came to inform 
me that an express [hadj just arrived ip town with the 
news of Howe's quitting Philadelphia, and that Gen. 
Washington was in full pursuit of his army.' This was 
joyful news indeed. I then went to bed, but had not 
lain long when Major Wertz came with boy, candle 
and lantern, on the same errand. I then arose and 
conversed till he went away ; then to bed. Not long 
there before Robert Taggert came with his lantern. 
After he was gone, I went to bed. Not being easy. 
Dr. Phyle arose. We dressed ourselves, went into 
town ; met with many heartily rejoicing ; then to Jor- 
den's ; stayed in large company till near twelve ; then 
home in the rain to bed, before one. 

* Thit newt was premature. 

138 Cbrutopber Marshall^ s Diary [Oct. 1777 

21. In the evening went into town, having first pre- 
pared our front windows with conveniency of fixing 
candles for the illumination this night, on account of 
Gen. Burgoyne's defeat. A further account came this 
evening, ana was read in the Court House room, where 
the principal inhabitants (with many others, strangers, 
&c)., were collected to spend the evening in [a] kind of 
festivity on the occasion, which was conducted with 

great sobriety and prudence There were many 

patriotic healths drunk, and a cold collation. The part 
of the battalion under arms, that were in the borough, 
paraded the streets, fired a feu de joie, with many ma-r 
noeuvres; drums, fifes, playing in the room. I came 
away with a great many others about nine ; fine pleasant 
night, but cool. The account read was that the prison- 
ers were, first, Lieut. Gen. Burgoyne, seven Brigadier 
Generals, two Majors, two Lieutenant Colonels, a num- 
ber of captains and inferior oflicers, five thousand privates, 
fifteen thousand stand of arms, forty pieces of brass 
cannon, ammunition, tents, all their baggage, &c. No 
further account from Philadelphia to be depended upon. 

22. This afternoon, were brought to town via Read- 
ing, thirty English and five Hessian prisoners, taken in 
the last skirmish at Germantown, brought by some of 
the militia and lodged in the jail, also three light horse 
and four jagers, who were out on a scout, who were 
also confined with the other prisoners. It's further said 
that a very heavy cannonade was heard on the outside 
of this town, most part of this afternoon. 

23. Our neighbors this morning remarked a constant 
heavy firing all this forenoon, which was distinctly heard 
near twelve. 1 listened and heard a heavy firing from 
E. S. E., as I apprehended it, to be platoon or broadside 
firing. There are just brought to town from Chester 
County, about forty of the men that were wounded in 

that affair on the Brandy wine (in seven wagons) 

Almost constantly engaged in my mind respecting the 

Oct. 1 777 J ofjhe American Revolution. 139 

situation of our good friends, relations and associates in 
Philadelphia, whose distress from the Tories I com- 

25. News of the day, it's said, is by two expresses, 
one the confirmation of Gen. Burgoyne's defeat ; the 
other that twelve hundred Hessian Grenadiers, under 
the command of Count Dunop, and sundry other princi- 
pal officers crossed [the] Delaware at Cooper's ferry, 
marched through Haddonfield down to Redbank, from 
there attacked our fort, nay, it's said, some got over the 
abattis, but were repulsed with a great number slain, 
many wounded, among which the above named officers, 
who were taken prisoners, and one hundred and eighty 
others (and twelve brass cannon), the rest dispersed ; 
and that our fleet had bravely repulsed the men-of-war, 
and that our fire rafts had set three of their men-of-war 
on fire, and two were thereby blown up and 'destroyed. 
One of said vessels, it's said, was the August, sixty-four 
gun ship, and the other the Apollo. This day was 
published a Proclamation, reciting part of an Act passed 
the Thirteenth instant, constituting a Council of Safety, 
and vesting the same with certain powers. The persons 
so named in said Act were John Bayard, Jonathan Ser- 
geant, Jonathan B. Smith, David Kittenhouse, Joseph 
Gardiner, Robert Whitehill, James Cannon and Wm. 
Henry of Lancaster. This day was published an 
Address from [the] said Council of Safety, to the inhab- 
itants of Pennsylvania, dated at Lancaster the Twenty- 
third instant. 

27. It's said that five hundred militia men marched 
this day for camp, notwithstanding the heavy rain, which 
continued till bed time. 

29. News to-day but little. It's said that our brave 
fellows still keep our fort and cheveaux de frise ; that 
our army is on the Skippack road, near Morris's mill. 
Letter from Reading to Col. Morgan says, that Dr. 
Potts wrote to his wife, confirming the defeat of Bur- 

1 40 Christopher Marshall s Diary [Oct. i 777 

eoyne's army ; that the person who brought said Potts's 
letter, writes that he saw Burgoyne with several Gene- 
als and other officers at Albany, as he passed through 

30. This day I paid Conrad Wold £117 for one hun- 
dred and seventeen gallons of whiskey, ordered by my 
son Christopher and Thomas Rees, and sent them. 

News of the day, as reported by Wm, Young, 

servant to Rob'. Erwine. He says he left Philadelphia 
last Saturday ; that our enemies report that they lost one 
thousand killed, besides a number wounded, at their 
attack at Redbank ; the inhabitants in Philadelphia in 
great distress for provisions, as the soldiers seized all 
that was in the market, and were also seizing and taking 
away out of people's cellars and yards all their firewood ; 
that the defence on the river was maintained with great 
vigor, having destroyed three of our enemies ships, viz : 
sixty-four, thirty-four and twenty-eight gun vessels ; that 
Gen. Howe had a bridge at Ogden's ferry, was fortifying 
this side [of the] Schuylkill, and for that purpose had 
two thousand men there. 

31. The news of the day is that the particulars of the 
surrender of Burgoyne and his army were gone by ex- 
press to Congress last night, but the account was not 
vet returned, though several accounts were handed about, 

but none authenticated An invitation made by the 

President at Major Wertz's, to which was invited 
scarcely any other but a parcel of Tories in this place, 
some of them inhabitants, and some who reside here 
from Philadelphia. Poor Dr. Phyle and some of his 
principles, were not counted worthy to taste of the dain- 
ties, and thereby they escaped being intoxicated and 
made drunk, and next day sick, &c. 

November i . A fter breakfast, I was engaged good part 
of the day in patching and mending the old out house, 
at this place, through the want of workmen, obliges me 
to be a jack of all trades, as the saying is, and good at 

Nov. 1777] of the American Revolution. 141 

2. I received a letter by the post, from my son Benja., 
dated yesterday, giving an account that both his and his 
brother's family were well, and had not, and hoped 
should not have, cause to remove from their present 
habitations by our enemies, as they were now in the en- 
virons of Philadelphia \ that there had been no firing on 
the river since the two ships were blown up, and that 
Gen. Washington had sent ofF a train and company of 
Artillery with three hundred men to reinforce the fort 
at Redbank (yesterday) ; that they had for several days 
the most violent storm of wind and rain scarcely known ; 
that the creeks were so risen that the water was up 
within a foot of Thomas Rees's parlor floor, &c., in 
which time of rain our poor soldiers suffered excessively 
by the storm, but were now recruited and in high spirits, 
and, it's thought, would move downwards to-day or to- 
morrow ; that the poor inhabitants of Philadelphia are in 
a dreadful situation for the want of provisions and fire- 
wood, and it's said that the gallery-men have got up a 
number (thirty) of cannon and other things out of the 
wreck of the ships, &c. 

5. Afterwards went into town, as our Quarter Sessions 
began yesterday, and were conducted with great order 
and decorum. This day, came to town on their way 

to York, the Generals Sterling and MifHin News 

of the day is, by letter from Dr. Shippen at Reading to 
Thomas Smith here, that last First Day, the ship Eagle 
of sixty-four guns attacked our gondolas, but ran aground, 
on which our people boarded her, got her off and took 
her, and also that they had taken fourteen boat loads of 
provisions and other goods, going to Howe's army, and 
that our people had retaken Rhode Island, and made 
eight hundred prisoners, with their stores and ammuni- 
tion, &c. Sundry .of our new Assembly came to town 
yesterday and to-day, but not sufficient to make up a 
house to do business. 

6. I have been favored with [the] sight of [a] copy 


142 Christopher Marshall' s Diary [Nov. 1777 

of Jacob Duche's letter to Gen. Washington, which the 
General transmitted to Congress. It's dated [the] 
eighth of last month, the which contains a panegyric 
upon himself, an applause of the General, then proceeds 
to the most illiberal, scurrilous, and invective language 
against the Congress [and] the supporters of the United 
States in every department of government, then proposes 
a total surrender of our all into the hands of Howe, and 
the other Commissioners that were formerly appointed 
by the King and Council ; then calls upon (jen. Wash- 
ington to pronounce this at the head of his army, as the 
only means that can be taken to preserve all America 
from utter ruin and devastation, and thereby the General 
would alone be the deliverer and savior of his country, 
&c. &c. &c. Yesterday came Mary Brown's son, who 
came the night before from near Germantown ; told me 
that he had seen his mother and Mrs. Owen there, who 
had come out of Philadelphia just before on parole, to 
procure some provisions, which, they said, were very 
scarce and dear in the city. Mrs. Owen told him to 
tell me, when he saw me, that the enemy had destroyed 
all my fence round the garden, at [the] country seat, 
put soldiers into that house and my dwelling house in 
town, and that Paul Fooks had taken away all my books 
out of my house before they took possession, and had 
them carried to his own dwelling house, and being found 
there, as if his own property, &c. 

8 . News to-day corresponds how that Gen. Cornwallis, 
with a number of his army attacked Red Bank, the sixth 
instant, where he was repulsed. His loss in killed, 
wounded, and prisoners amounts, it's said, to six hundred* 

10. A number of militia marched through this town 
for Gen. Washington's camp, as did likewise, it's said, 
near seven hundred on their return from camp to Virginia, 
their times being expired. The accounts from Phila- 
delphia are very distressing, on the many exercises the 
Whig inhabitants have to encounter with, being much 

Nov. 1777] of the American Revolution. 143 

pinched for wood and provisions, besides the inhuman 
behavior of the Tory crew in that City. Account is 
brought that two spies were detected in Ked Bank fort, 
and were hanged immediately, one of which confessed 
the fact ; said they were employed by Sam^ Shoemaker, 
Paul Reeves and Sam*. Garrigus, &«., to procure inform- 

II. News of the dav is that Col. Morgan's Regiment 
of riflemen was arrived at Gen. Washington's camp, and 
that part of Gen. Gates's army had crossed North River, 
at Fishkill, and may be expected to join our army in a 
few days, and that Gen. Clinton's army was expected 
to join Gen. Howe's. 

13. It's said that eight hundred Continentals and 
three hundred of the militia from Virginia, are now on 
their march to join our General Washington, besides 
five or six hundred from North Carolina, and Cumber- 
land County militia, just now passing by to head quarters. 
This [day] came to town and encamped in the woods 
near Conestoga Creek, Two hundred Continental troops 
from North Caroliha, on their march to Gen. Washing- 
ton's camp. 

14. News of the day is that Col. Morgan's Riflemen 
were sent down to Tinicum Island ; that Gen. Gates, 
with his army, had crossed at Corryel's ferry ; that several 
of our people, of the prisoners under Gen. Howe, that 
were confined in Philadelphia, had perished for want of 
nourishment, provisions being so scarce and Howe so 
cruel unto our people. This day some companies of 
militia men came into this town, on their way to join 
Gen. Washington. 

17. News of the day is that six thousand blankets, 
with watch coats, shoes and stockings, were arrived from 
the eastward at our camp. It's further said, that three 
thousand of Gen. Putnam's division crossed at Dunks's 
ferry last week on their way to Gen. Washington's camp 5 
that Dr. Kearsley, prisoner at Carlisle, died there some 

144 Christopher Mar sbairs Diary \lioy. 1777 

time last week, and was buried in their church, which dis- 
gusted many of the Church party in that place, so that 
they declared against going to that church any more. 

1 8. News of the day is that Fort Mifflin was evacuated 
after removing the guns and stores, last Seventh Day 
night ; and that Elizabeth Shipley, a public Friend, who 
fled from Howe's army, at Wilmington, said these fol- 
lowing words just before she died, " Hold out Americans, 
hold out Americans, your cause is good, and God will 
give you your country." 

20. Breakfasted with our standing family, James 
Davidson, who was going to set off on account of [the] 
Executive and Council of Safety, in order to examine 
their salt works in the Jerseys, and also to purchase salt 
in that State for the use of this State, if to be got on 
moderate terms. 

2T. I went to town, in company with Robert White- 
hill, to Council Chamber, where John Brown of Philada. 
was sent a prisoner from Congress, who, by his own 
confession, said at the request of Thomas Willing, he 
had received orders from Gen. Howe, to propose to 
some members of Congress', that if they would rescind 
Independency, he would withdraw his fleet and army, 
would put the States into the situation they were in [in] 
seventeen hundred and sixty-three, and grant them more 
than they have asked, and would establish the paper 
currency. With this verbal message, he said he came, 
by desire of Thos. Willing, and communicated the same 
to Robert Morris. The Council, having considered 
maturely the nature of the offence, unanimously agreed 
to commit him to the common jail of this county, under 

strict confinement, for the present Yesterday, our 

Assembly made a House [and] proceeded to business, 
after choosing James M'Lean, Speaker. This morning 
they, with the Council, elected Thomas Wharton, Presi- 
dent, and George Bryan, Vice President, for the en- 
suing year. 

Nov. 1 7 jy"] of t be American Revolution. 145 

22. About "half after seven, before I arose, hearing a 
great noise like an empty wagon going over a gutter. 
When Robert Whitenill arose, he asked if I had heard 
the earthquake ; he said it made the house shake to the 
foundation. The same was felt by Dr. Phyle. As they 
lay up stairs, and we below, they felt the shock more 
sensibly. This was felt by many, whom I heard talking 

of it in town News of the day, that Gen. Corn- 

wallis, on the sixteenth, with three thousand British and 
Hessian troops, marched from Philadelphia to Chester, 
there went on board [a] transport (having crossed [the] 
Schuylkill at [the] middle ferry) ; on the Eighteenth, 
went to Billingsport, disembarked the Nineteenth and 
proceeded to attack Red Bank Fort ; that Col. Procter, 
with artillery, had gone down to Province Island, and 
Gen. Greene, with three thousand of our troops, was to 
cross some days past, at Bristol. Potatoes in Philadel- 
phia, at sixteen shillings a bushel, beef seven shillings and 
six pence per pound, and a chicken at ten shillings, so 
great is their distress. 

23. News to-day that the English Ambassador, Stor- 
mont, had left Paris. On his arrival in England, stocks 
fell fifteen per cent ; that the King of Prussia had or- 
dered the Port of Embden to be open for American 

24. News of the day is that Gen. Burgoyne's troops 
had mutinied on their march, so that the guards were 
obliged to fire on them, killed several, which obliged the 
rest to be still and quiet. Near forty Light Horse came 
in from Virginia, on their way to head quarters. 

26. News of the day is that [the] fort on Red Bank 
was evacuated on the approach of Gen. Cornwallis, with 
his forces ; that our people destroyed great part of our 
fleet, fire rafts, floating battery, &c. ; that the enemy 
had burnt Woodbury, but that our gondolas had passed 
the City and got up the river ; that the enemy had burnt 
Isaac Norris's house, Jonathan Mifflin's, Peel Hall, and 

146 Christopher Marsbair s Diary [Nov. 1777 

sundry other houses ; that they had also destroyed Spring 
Garden ; that provisions still continued scarce and dear 
in the City ; [that] our people, who are prisoners, are 
cruelly used ; that part of Gen. Gates's forces had arrived 
at camp. 

27. Past four, I went by appointment of Council, in 
company with Col. Bayard, to confer with the clothier 
General respecting the clothing of the troops of this 
State ; then returned to Council. Came home at dusk. 

News to-day is that the Generals Washington, 

Sullivan, and some others had crossed [the] Schuylkill 
last Third Day on a reconnoitering over a bridge they 
had near Spring Mill ; that last Second Day a heavy 
firing was heard, which, by report, was an engagement 
in the Jerseys between our forces there and the enemy, 
but was not decided as both maintained their ground in 

order to renew the fight next mocning, that our 

out-scouts near Fair Hill, had attacked and driven the 
enemy's pickets into the City ; waited in hopes they 
would have been succored, and so have brought on a 
general engagement, as our army was ready to have en- 
gaged, had the enemy come out, but they contented 
themselves with remaining in their lines. 

30. This morning James Young, Esq., set out for 
camp, on a commission from the President and Council, 
he, with Col. Bayard, being appointed to enquire into 
the complaints made that the troops of this State are in 
a ragged condition, while the other troops are well equip- 
ped ; also to see sundry clothes distributed amongst them 
that are in real want, from a parcel now collecting in 
this county, some of which are sent and more going, and 
also to make a true report to Council of the state of our 
army, and of the reasons of the complaints made respect- 
ingthe scarcity of provisions. 

December 2. Yesterday were read in Council, the 
Thirteen Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union 
nf the United States; also a letter from Robert Morris 

Dec. 1777] of the American Revolution. 147 

to the President and Council, requesting the enlargement 
of John Brown, and proposing to be his security in any 
sum that they should require. The same was put to 
vote, and carried unanimously that he should Still be re- 
tained a prisoner. 

3. A letter was read in Council from G. Wood of 
Bedford County, dated [the] eighteenth of last month, 
giving an account of the inroads of the Indians in that 
quarter, which had so distressed them that numbers of 
the inhabitants had fled from their habitations. Account 
[that] seventeen thousand blankets are arrived in Virginia. 

4. After dinner I carried a few lines written to the 
Speaker of the House of Assembly, signifying my inten- 
tions of resigning my seat in the Committee of Safety. 
Now the doing [of J this arose from an information K. 
Whitehill gave me at dinner, that the House in his ab- 
sence this forenoon had passed a Resolve that they would 
desire the President and Council immediately to dissolve 
the Council of Safety. This was what induced me to 
take the start of them, and decline in time. 

5. Baron De HolczendorflP's Aide-de-camp; come 
from camp, but brought no news except that he thought 

that our troops were to go soon into winter quarters 

The beginning of this week, three Delegates, viz : 
[Elbridge] Gerry, Jones and Robert Morris, set out by 
order of Congress to head-quarters, in order to consult 
only with Gen. Washington, on the present critical 
affairs of the army, the commissaries and other officers, 

6. Visited early by Col. Roberdeau. Stayed in solid 
conversation till past ten. Gave him Seventeen hun- 
dred and five Dollars, left nie by my sons Christopher 
and Charles, in order to get them changed by Congress, 
if suitable and convenient, for the same number of Dol- 
lars, these having been defaced by lying in a damp 
place, which entirely took away all the names and 
numbers that were done with red ink. 

148 Cbrisiapber MarsbaWs Diary [Dec 1777 

7« Newt of the day, it's said, is that an express passed 
through thb town to Congress with despatches that 
Gen. Howe left Philadelphia [on the] Founh instant at 
eleven at night, with his army, consisting of ten thousand 
men, marched towards Germantown, attacked and drove 
[inj our picket guard, which being reinforced, returned, 
drove their advanced guard hack, killed near twenty, 
amongst which, a Brigadier General, Captain, &c. ; 
took sixteen prisoners ; that we lost Gen. Irvin, who 
was wounded and taken prisoner, one Colonel, one 
Captain, twelve or fourteen privates killed, and main- 
tained our post that night ; that next day a general en- 
gagement, it was thought, was unavoidable, as the two 
armies by in sight of each other ; and that the enemy 
had burnt Beggar's town in their front. 

8. Then came Norton Prvor, who brought a letter 

from son Charles, giving account that both armies 

were in sight of each other, Howe's occupying German- 
town, and Washington's Chestnut Hill, Whitemarsh, 
&c. (He and horse stayed all night, as he, after trial, 
could find no entertainment in the town.) Spent the 
evening in conversation respecting the difficulties attend- 
ing our friends in and about Philadelphia, till near ten. 

10. Yesterday, about noon, came into town, from 
the Northward, about four hundred soldiers of the regi- 
ment of Col. , in order to be innoculated for the 

small pox ; went into barracks. They brought with 
them, it's said, about one hundred English prisoners that 
had been taken at different times. 

11. News of the day, it's said, is that Gen. Howe, 
after giving out in Philada., that he was going with his 
army to drive Gen. Washington and his army over the 
Blue Mountains, after marching his whole army up to 
Chestnut Hill and staying there some days, last First 
Day night decamped and returned to Philada. on the 
Second Day, leaving behind him about two hundred of 
his men, in slain and taken prisoners. It's said they 

Dec. 1777] of the American Revolution. 149 

have pillaged and carried with them everything that 
came in their way that was portable and of any value, 
besides burning [and] destroying many houses and effects, 
also taking with them, by force, all the boys they could 
lay their hands on, above the age of ten years. Thus, 
this time, has the great boaster succeeded in this vain- 
glorious expedition, to the eternal shame of him and of 
all his boasting Tory friends. It's said that last week, 
Joseph Galloway was proclaimed in Philada. Governor 
of this Province, by the knot of Tories there ; that 
John Hall, cooper, is to be tried for his life for cursing 
George the Third, as is Robert Riche for writing to 
Gen. Washington (some say it was to Riche's wife) 
giving them an account of the fortifying of the City, &c« 
By some letters intercepted, there appears to be a com- 
bination between the Friends sent into Virginia by the 
President and Council and some inhabitants of Lan- 
caster, in order to depreciate the Continental currency. 
Some of the letters are from Owen Jones, Jr., to John 
Mercer, Matthias Slough and Matthias GraeflF. This 
discovery has obliged the Board of War to send all the 

8uaker prisoners to Staunton in Augusta County, and 
wen Jones to close confinement, without the use of 
pen, ink and paper, except in presence of the Lieutenant 
of the County or his deputy, and the other Friends to 
the same restriction, unless they take an affirmation that 
they will neither act, speak, nor write anything that is 
against the Independency of the United States of America. 

12. News of the day is that Gen. Howe is come out 
again from Philadelphia, with his army ; crossed fthe] 
Schuylkill at Middle Ferry, marched up Lancaster Koad 
to the Sorrel Horse^ thirteen miles from the City, and 
there rested yesterday. 

13. Some people pretended to have heard a firing of 

cannon this morning This is a strange age and 

place, in which I now dwell, because nothing can be 
had cheap but lies, falsehood, and slanderous accusation* 


150 Christopher MarshalTs Diary [Dec. 1777 

Love and Charity, the badge of Christianity, is not so 
much as named amongst them. 

14. Near twelve, came to pay me a visit the French 
Engineer, Baraset De Kermorvan, who came by my son 
Christopher's from camp, and is going to York Town. 
He brought me a letter from him of the twelfth instant, 
that gave us an agreeable account that all their family 
were in good health, but to counterbalance, mentioned 
that they had met with fearful alarms since the enemy 
left town, it's said with their whole army, in order to 
attack Washington's army at Chestnut Hill, but are now 
returned to town, finding his army too strong in that 
situation to engage him. This, Howe was informed of 
by a deserter from Col. Proctor's Regiment of Artillery 5 
that they had taken in with them some cattle, and it's 
reported, a quantity of forage, although our people pur- 
sued them ; and, by a person since come out of town, 
who says that twenty-five wagons, with killed and 
wounded, were brought in. 

15. Upon the rumor yesterday of Gen. Howe's army's 
being on the Lancaster Road, it's said that the papers 
and records belonging to the Executive Council were 
packed up and sent by wagons to York Town ; it's said 
that the English army is returned into Philadelphia and 
that our army is on this side of [the] Schuylkill. Our 
Assembly continues sitting here. It's said that a spirited 
letter is penned by them to send to Congress to-morrow, 
respecting the report of our troops' going into winter 
quarters, as the enemy are attempting to, and does, 
ravage the country for a number of miles' extent around 

16. The circumstances of affairs of [a] public nature 
make a very gloomy appearance. Our City, with its 
virtuous inhabitants that could not escape, in the hands 
of cruel taskmasters 1 the country around ravaged, 
stripped and destroyed, with houses, barns, &c., burnt 
and levelled with the ground by the same band of ban- 

Dec. 1 777] of the American Revolution. 151 

ditti worse than savages ; no priests nor prophets, but 
such as are delineated by Jeremiah in his Lamentations. 
The thoughts of these things, and having my children 
with their lovely offspring in the very jaws of these ene- 
mies, afflict me sorely, break my peace and disturb my 
est, but here I must stop, because the Lord is good and 
does not afflict willingly. The cause is of our side ; we 
have grossly offended ; yet spare us, O Lord my God 
Spare thy people and bless thine inheritance, for Jesus 
Christ's sake. 

20. Also came James Davidson, who brought me 
from Gen. Roberdeau the Continental Bills of Exchange 
for what he took from me of said specie, being de&ced 
with the damp. 

21. No news of any moment to be depended upon, 
except General orders from head quarters, encouraging 
the army to build huts and to content themselves where 
they are now. 

22. In [the] afternoon, returned the three men and 
two wagons from York Town, as went last. They 
called to get some sustenance, as they could get none on 
the road from York Town till here. After refreshing 
themselves, they set out for home just at dusk. 

25. Yesterday came to this town from York, Gen. 
Conway, on his way down to head quarters, and also to 

fropose two Brigadier Generals in the room of Gen. 
^otter [and] Gen. Armstrong, who propose to go from 
the army unto their own homes. No company dined 
with us to-day, except Dr. Phyle, one of our standing 
family. We had a good roast turkey, plain pudding, 
and minced pies. 

26. This evening Col. Proctor called, drank tea, 
stayed some time, giving a relation of the sufferings of 
the back inhabitants, through the inroads now making 
by the Indians and the soldiery from Fort Detroit. 

27. I spent the evening at home examining part of 
[the] History of Ephrata, brought me by Peter Miller 

15^ Christopher Marshall* s Diary [Dec. 1777 

for my inspection and correction. There appears to be 
no kind of news to be depended upon, but as for lies, 
this place is really pregnant and brings forth abundance 
daily, I might safely say, hourly. Caleb Johnston, that 
was sent to prison for aiding and assisting [James] 
Brooks to get out of our prison, as it's said, is just re- 
leased from confinement. 

28. Our affairs wear a very gloomy aspect. Great 
part of our army gone into winter quarters ; those in 
camp wanting breeches, shoes, stockings, [and] blankets, 
and by accounts brought yesterday, were in want of flour, 
yet being in the land of plenty ; our farmers having their 
barns and barracks full of grain ; hundreds of barrels of 
flour lying on the banks of the Susquehannah perishing 
for want of care in securing it from the weather, and 
from the danger of being carried away, if a freshet should 
happen in the river ; fifty wagon loads of cloths and 
ready made clothes for the soldiery in the Clothier Gen- 
eral's store in Lancaster (this I say from the demand 
made by John Mease to the President a few days past, 
when the enemy was expected to be coming this way, 
for this number of wagons to take away these stores) ; 
our enemies revelling in balls, attended with every de- 
gree of luxury and excess in the City ; rioting and wan- 
tonly using our houses, utensils and furniture ; all this 
[and] a numberless number of other abuses we endure 
from that handful of banditti, to the amount of six or 
seven thousand men, headed by that monster of rapine. 
Gen. Howe. Add to this their frequent excursions 
round about for twenty miles together, destroying and 
burning what they please, pillaging, plundering men and 
women, stealing boys above ten years old, deflowering 
virgins, driving into the City for their use, droves of 
cattle, sheep [and] hogs ; poultry, butter, meal, meat, 
cider, furniture and clothing of all kinds, loaded upon 
our own horses. All this is done in the view of our 
Generals and our army, who are careless of us, but care- 

Dec. 1777] of the American Revolution. 153 

fully consulting where they shall go to spend the winter 
in jollity, gaming and carousing. O tell not this in 
France or Spain I Publish it not in the streets of London, 
Liverpool or Bristol, lest the uncircumcised there should 
rejoice, and shouting for joy, say ^^ America is ours, for 
the rebels are dismayed and afraid to fight us any longer ! 
O Americans, where is now your virtue ? O Wash- 
ington, where is your courage ? " News to-day is 

that CoK Bull, on the twenty-fifth instant, made an ex- 
cursion into Fourth street in Philadelphia, with two 
thousand militia [and] alarmed the City by firing off 
some pieces of cannon ioto the air, whereby some of the 
balls fell about Christ Church. He then made a good 
retreat back to his station, without the loss of one man. 
It's further said that it alarmed Gen. Howe, who was 
then at Darby, so that he and his army posted imme- 
diately with all speed back to the City. It's further 
added that Gen. Howe has ordered all the fire buckets 
that can be found in the City to be put aboard his fleet. 

29. It's said that Gen. Sullivan, on the retreat of Gen. 
Howe's army on Christmas Day from Darby, on the 

alarm given by Cols. Bull, Antis and (in three 

divisions, instead of one under Col. Bull as above, but 
all militia), took thirteen provision wagons loaded from 

the enemy Visited in the evening by Dr. Yeard- 

well, who told me they had made a hospital at Ephrata, 
in which were near two hundred and forty-seven sick 
and wounded men. 

31. Visited by Jedediah Snowden and Benja. Harbe- 
son, for me to sign a petition they were carrying about, 
for the purpose of requesting the Assembly to call out 
the whole force of this State, immediately, while there 
is a prospect of this severe cold weather's lasting, in order 
to attack Gen. Howe in and out of our City, and thereby 
entirely ruin his army, and rid the Colonies of such cruel 
monsters. I then went to writing or, more properly, 
correcting the Annals of Ephrata, and so continued till 
bed time, near eleven o'clock. 

154 Christopher Marshall s Diary [Jan. 1778 


January i. Fine clear sunshine morning, and pleasant 
for the season, and still continues to freeze hard. Wind 
but little at southerly. Thus has the morning of our 
new year been ushered in. God grant that this serenity 
may be a happy presage of that longed for peace and 
tranquility that is promised in the scriptures, that ^^ nation 
shall not arise against nation, neither shall they learn war 
anymore." Finished correcting the Annals of Ephrata. 

2. Our Assembly, since they received the petition of 
the thirty- first,* are busily employed in conjunction with 
the Executive Council, in taking proper steps in order to 
grant the prayer of such petition. It's said that two 
Committees are appointed, one to prepare a Bill adequate 
to the Prayer, the other to draw up a spirited Remon- 
strance to send to Congress with the Petition and their 
Resolve ; these to be sent by express. It's said that 
fifteen wagon-loads of ready-made clothes for the Vir- 
ginia troops came and stay in town to-night. To- 
morrow they proceed for our camp. It's further said 
that ten other wagons loaded with [the] same commodity 
are come in here, going for our camp, but I could not 
learn from what port they came. It's said that our 
camp ' looks as large as Philadelphia, most of their huts 
being built, laid out in streets and are very warm, and it's 
said they seem quite contented to rest there and let Howe 
keep the city for this winter, but I am in hopes they will 
be mistaken, as our Assembly and Executive Council are 
determined to call out the strength of this State, and 
therewith make a bold push, and their resolutions, I hope, 

' The prayer of this petition was that the Assembly should *' call out the 
whole force of this State [Pennsylvania] immediately, while there is a 
prospect of this severe weather*s lasting, in order to attack Gen. Howe in 
and out of our City [Philadelphia] and thereby entirely ruin his army, and 
rid the colonies of such cruel monsters.** Diary for December 31, 1777. 

■ At Valley Forge. 

Jan. 1778] of the American Revolution. 155 

will be attended with the blessings of Heaven, the con- 
sent and approbation of Congress, joined with the zeal, 
fortitude and courage of Gen. Wasnington and his brave 

3. Before break&st fed the horse, bridled and saddled 
[it] to lend to Mr. McLean, Speaker, who was setting 
out for home, as the Assembly had adjourned to the 
Eighteenth of next month (Peb^^). His horse, he 
said, was about a mile from town. So he took a little 
boy with him to bring the horse back. Then came 

Vanchamp, who was also setting out for his home 

News that a brig from New York, driven ashore with 
the ice above Wilmington Creek, was boarded by Col. 
Smallwood and his men. She mounted twelve guns, 
but lay upon one side. The Colonel brought two pieces 
of cannon with him. It's said, before he boarded, a 
boat full of men and officers put oiF for the Jersey shore 
and got away. After our people's firing a few shots, the 
vessel struck her colors. It's said they found and 
brought from aboard her between fifty and sixty men, 
forty ladies, complete suits of clothes for four regiments, 
eight thousand seven hundred and fifty stand of arms in 
three hundred and fifty chests, twenty-five in each chest, 
the baggage for the officers of four regiments, a great 
quantity of clothes not made up, twelve pieces of cannon 
with carriages, some hogsheads of spirits, sugar, raisins, 
currants, oranges, several casks of wine, a quantity of 
baggage for different officers, ladies, &c., &c., &c., &c. ; 
that a number of the goods were landed at Wilmington. 
4. Soon after came Wm. Atlee's son and daughter, 
enquiring for the doctor. He was just gone out. The 
request was that he would go to our neighbor's house to 
take care of an English prisoner (but he turns out to be 
one of the new raised levies in [New] Jersey) that they 
had sent there to be nursed, he being very poorly, and 
his name Was Mrs. Atlee's maiden name, and this had 
induced her to take so much care of him. A poor ex- 

156 Christopher Marshall s Diary [Jan. 1778 

cuse when at this same time there are near upon two or 
three hundred of our State's soldiers in the greatest dis- 
tress and extremity for real want of common necessaries, 
even the want of a little straw to lie upon. O poor 
Pennsylvania ! how art thou fallen, so that thy very sons, 
who are daily maintained and nourished by thy posts of 
profit, are the very men that prey upon thy bowels, and 
who, under the show of friendship, are making deeper 
and ghastlier wounds than either Gen. Howe, the head 
of monsters and brutes, was, is, or ever will be able to 
make : for this reason [that] they come, as an army of 
banditti and savages, to steal, kill and murder, but you 
false, base and atrocious enemies, wound, steal [from] 
and murder your best friends, supporters and benefactors, 
even those who have raised and lifted many of you up 
from poverty and contempt. Yet this is now your re- 
ward to them, acting the cruelest of deceit and hypocrisy, 
in the same strain and in the same line, actuated by the 
tame spirit as Judas of old, ^^ and forthwith he came to 
Jesus and said Hail Master, and kissed him." Matthew, 
a6:49. Mark, 14:45. O ye false sons of Pennsyl- 
vania, be ye alarmed and look and behold the dreadful 
precipice over which you are standing ! Cease now 
while mercy is yet stretched out to you by the Almighty 
hand of Love, who sees and marks out all your hidden 
works of darkness. Now is your appointed time, now 
is your day of salvation, the which if overlooked your 
master in iniquity, whom you now so zealously and fer- 
vently serve, will, in the end, leave and forsake you, as 
he did your forerunner in hypocrisy and deceit, in which 
you have greatly exceeded him. Read his destiny as it 
Stands upon record, as an example to all the betrayers of 
God and their country. Matthew, 27 : 3, 4, 5. 

5, Various thoughts ran through my mind during this 
engagement, as being entirely alone, and as the times 
bear such a melancholy aspect and as the expectation of 
the poor inhabitants of the City returning to their habit- 

Jan. 1778] of the American Revolution. 157 

ations is now quite over, as our army is now gone into 
winter quarters, this makes their schemes to be all abor- 
tive, therefore blessed shall all those be who have their 
minds retired and fixed upon God alone, for these will 
have peace in the most violent commotions that nature 
can be agitated with, as their wills are subjected to the 
will of our heavenly Father. This is the state my soul 
longs to be an inhabitant of.' 

6. Spent some time in conversation with Capt. Markoe^ 
John Hubley and some others on the affairs of the times, 
which appear very gloomy. By accounts from the City, 
Howe lives there in great plenty. None of our people 
attempt to molest them. By two women who left the 
City [it is reported that] they have a great concourse of 
market folks from Bucks County, who attend the mar- 
kets constantly \ that this day week fifty or sixty men 
went inside of their works at Kensington, and after some 
time returned back without any interruption from the 
sentinels, they appearing to be very careless and not 
under any apprehension from our army ; they further 
said that three topsail vessels were set ashore by the ice 
between Gloucester and Cooper's Ferry, that it is said 
the Jersey people had pillaged what they could and then 
set them on fire ; that during this time there was a con- 
stant fire from the City and Kensington upon the people, 
but had not heard whether they had killed any or not. 

As I have, in this Memorandum, taken scarcely any 
notice of my wife's employment, it might appear as if 
her engagements were very trifling, the which is not the 
case but the reverse, and to do her that Justice which 
her services deserve by entering them mmutely would 
take up most of my time, for this genuine reason how 
that, from early in the morning till late at night, she is 
constantly employed in the affairs of the family, which 

> Oa Monday, Jtnuarjr 5th, 1778, the celebrated << Battle of the Kep ** 

158 Christopher MarshalTs Diary [Jam. i 778 

for some months has been very large, for besides the 
addition to our family in the house [is] a constant resort 
of comers and goers who seldom go away with dry lips 
and hungry bellies. This calls for her constant attend- 
ance not only to provide, but also to attend at getting 
prepared in the kitchen, baking our own bread and pies, 
meat, &c., but also on the table. Her cleanliness about 
the house, her attendance in the orchard, cutting and 
drying apples, of which several bushels have been pro- 
cured, add to which her making of cider without tools, 
for the constant drink of the family, her seeing all our 
washing done, and her fine clothes and my shirts, the 
which are all smoothed by her, add to this her making 
of twenty large cheeses, and that from one cow, and 
daily using milk and cream, besides her sewing, knitting, 
&c. Thus she looketh well to the ways of her house- 
hold, and eateth not the bread of idleness, yea, she also 
stretcheth out her hand and she reacheth out her hand to 
her needy friends and neighbors. I think she has not 
been above four times, since her residence has been here, 
to visit her neighbors, nor through mercy has she been 
sick for any time, but has at all times been ready, in any 
affliction to me or my family, as a faithful nurse and 
attendant, botb day and night, so that I can in great 
truth take the words of the wise man and apply them 
truly to my case, " Who can find a virtuous woman ? 
for her price is far above rubies. The heart of her 
husband doth safely trust in her. She will do him good 
and not evil all the days of her life. Many daughters 
have done virtuously, but thou excellest them all.'* 

Proverbs 31 : 10, 11, 12, 29. Dr. Phyleand I then 

finished correcting the Annals of Ephrata ..News 

of the day is various and whether true or not is uncer- 
tain. From South Carolina, it's said that a sloop is 
arrived there which had been bound from Granada to 
New York with seventy puncheons of rum and six 
hogsheads of sugar brought in by the mate and crew 

Jan. 1778] of the American Revolution. 159 

who had confined the captain ; that [by] Messrs. Otis 
and Andrews of Boston, agents for purchasing clothing 
for continental troops, upwards of five thousand suits 
with shoes, stockings, shirts, &c.) have been procured 
and are now on their way to camp. This with the other 
supplies from Virginia and other quarters, gives a pleas- 
ing prospect of seeing our whole army completely clothed 
in a small time. 

7. After tea, came George Bryan and Dr. Rush ; 

spent the evening ; near nine they went away Dr. 

Phyle gave my wife to-day twelve pounds of powdered 
loaf sugar of the Barbadoes kind. He sent, some days 
past, by William Bell, to deliver to my son Charles for 
him to convey to the Doctor's wife in Philadelphia, if 
practicable, four half Joes. He purchased them in 
Lancaster. He said he paid twelve Pounds apiece for 

By the conversation with those gentlemen to night, 
there appears to be a general murmur in the people, 
about the City and Country, against the weak conduct 
of Gen. Washington. His slackness and remissness in 
the army are so conspicuous that a general langor must 
ensue, except that some heroic action takes place speedily, 
but it's thought by me that G. W. must be the man to 
put such a scheme into practice. Notwithstanding, a 
cry begins to be raised for a Gates, a Conway, a De 
Kalb, a Lee, but those men can't attain it. Such is the 
present concern of fluctuating minds. 

8. While alone, the care of our Heavenly Father 
presented itself to my view in this that notwithstanding 
his judgments are visibly over this land and that although 
we the inhabitants do not learn righteousness, yet he is 
daily guarding and blessing us, an instance of which 
appeared to the view of my mind, respecting the capture 
of the brig run ashore near Wilmington, related in Dun« 
lap's newspaper of yesterday, wherein amongst the many 
things enumerated are three hundred and fifty chests of 

i6o Cbrisiapber MarsbalT s Diary [Jan. 1778 

arms, with twenty-five stands in each (is eighty-seven 
hundred and fifty ), clothing for four regiments with the 
baggage belonging to the officers of four regiments^ &c., 
&c. These appeared to me to have been ordered by 
Gen. Howe, in order to be ready for the troops of Gen. 
Burgoyne, for which, transports, it's said, are sent, under 
the pretense of carrying those troops for England, but 
instead thereof to fetch them into Philadelphia, as, by 
our enemy's behavior, it seems that no fisiith, respect- 
ing the law of nations, is to be kept with rebels. Thus 
has Providence again assisted us in a wonderful manner 
and defeated this deep laid scheme of our inveterate 
enemy, for which merciful fisivor my soul bless the 
Lord our God. Amen. 

9. I was visited by Dr. Newman, who arrived in town 
last night from Pittsburgh. He brings an account that 
the Indians in that quarter are pretty still during this 
cold weather, but are expected to be troublesome when 
the spring approaches. He says it's [a] fine country for 
provisions of all kinds, wild fowls, beasts and fish in great 
plenty, vast quantities of what's called sea coals for firing 
to be had with very little labor, but for all those blessings 
a monstrous spirit of infidelity and profaneness reigns 
through every department of men in those parts ; for 
which reasons, the blessings intended by Providence for 
our good, we prostitute to base purposes, so as to make 

them to be a curse This evening wrote a few lines to 

James Davidson to desire him to come and attend Council 

[the] beginning of next week One hundred and 

iifty Virginia Continental troops, it's said, went through 
here for the camp, this day. 

10. Soon after came Capt. Markoe, who said that 
John Benezet was just come to town, who had left Gen. 
Gates yesterday at Nazareth, who informed him that the 
Canadians had risen and taken all Gen. Burgoyne's bag- 
gage and the officers with theirs amounting, it's said, to 
one hundred and fifty thousand pounds ; the officers kept 

Jan. 1778] of the American Revolution. 161 

prisoners. By letter to Young from his wife's 

relations up [the] North River, it appears that an Eng- 
lish twenty-eight gun frigate (it's thought the Mercury) 
going up the said river ran upon the cheveaux de frise 
there and [in] about five minutes she sank and every 
soul perished that was aboard. 

11. This day arrived here from camp Col. Hartlyand 
his battalion ordered for Yorktown. 

12. After dinner received letter from Paul Fooks, 
dated twenty-fourth December, giving an account of the 
hardships he sustained during the space of ten weeks he 
was as a prisoner in his own house [in] Philadelphia ; 
that he had been but about three days out, was poorly 
and weak at Thomas Reese's house. 

14. News is that Gen. Gates went to Congress 

15. This day came to town Col. Morgan of the Rifle 
Battalion^ going home to see his family. Many Con- 
tinental troops in town» getting sundry clothes in order 

to go to the camp Just thereupon came Joseph 

Robins, French starch-maker, from Philadelphia. We 
then drank tea, while he gave a wretched description of 
poor Philadelphia, the destruction that has attended the 
diiFerent interests there, as well as some account of the 
havoc made of some of mine that he knew of. He had 

. brought some of Humphreys's newspapers' with him. 1 
set to peruse some of them which are so replete with 
lies and falsehoods that I am really astonished. 

17. My mind seems anxiously concerned on account 
of our distressed friends and acquaintance, with our 
brave Gen. Washington, as he and his army are now 
obliged to encounter all the inclemency of this cold 
weather, as they with hjm are living out in the woods 
with slender covering ; our poor friends in town, many 
of them in want of fuel and other necessaries, while our 

s The Puhlic Ledger. It expired May aS, 1778. 

1 62 Christopher Marshals Diary [Jan. i 778 

internal enemies, under the protection of that savage 
monster Howe, are revelling in luxury, dissipation and 
drunkenness, without any feelings for the distress of their 
(once happy) bleeding country. Here I must stop, as 
the theme is too melancholy and distressing Yes- 
terday was sent to prison by order of President and 

Council Dingee, of Chester county, for refusing to 

take the oath of allegiance, nor would he give security 
for his upright walking and good conduct. 

18. News is that the Jersey people have destroyed 
thirteen sail of English vessels that were put on shore 
in different places in our river by the ice, and plundered 
as many of them as they could before they burned them. 

19. News to-day that a vessel is arrived at Carolina 
from France. The captain brought the letters, but upon 
the letters to Congress from Franklin being opened, they 
were all a blank. In his to his son-in-law, Bache, he 
refers him for news to the members of Congress, as 
there he was very particular. This makes it to be pre- 
sumed that the messenger in France had suffered the 
letters to be taken away and those substituted in the 
room of them. Time will disclose this fraud and by 
whom it was transacted. It's said that Thomas Willing, 
with some others in town, had purchased a parcel of 
blankets for our prisoners there, but before they would 
deliver them applied to Gen. Howe, acquainting him of , 
their intention. He sent them for answer not to send 
them any, as they should receive no such donations but 
what were sent directly from Gen. Washington to them 
for their use. This message and answer, I understand, 
are transmitted to Gen. Washington. What his judg- 
ment on this singular affair is, has not yet transpired, as 
I have heard. 

21, News to-day is that the plan formed by Assembly 
and President, sent to Congress for their concurrence, 
is adopted ; sent by them to Gen. Washington, is ap- 
proved of and to be carried into execution as fast as 

Jam* 1778] of the American Revolution. 163 

22. This is a wonderful place for variety of sentiments 
and behavior. You may speak and converse with. some, 
whose sweet countenances will tell you that you are 
highly agreeable to them while you talk to them in their 
way, but change the discourse by asking them to spare 
you some hay, oats for horse, wheat, rye, wood, butter, 
cider for yourselves, &c., &c., to be paid for in Congress 
money ; or that the English army is likely to be defeated 
and our people to get the victory, oh ! then, their serene 
countenances are all overcast, a lowering cloud spreads 
all over their horizon ; they have nothing to say, nay 
scarcely to bid you farewell. I went into town to Wm. 
Henry's. While there [arrived] Hugh Hughes, wagoner 
from Philadelphia, who came with ten other wagons and 
three officers, as commissioners, with clothing for the 
English prisoners. These are permitted to travel where 
they please without any control, and to pay for what 
they purchase with Congress money, but our poor 
wagoners must not enter with provisions into Philadel- 
phia without a guard and that at night, and brought back 
directly [the] same way ; our Commissary with twenty* 
five head of cattle, taken in with a guard and not suffered 
to have a receipt for them, nor suffered even to shake 
hands with some of his acquaintances, nor to purchase 
anything but with hard money. The wagoner was John 
Moyer ; the Commissary with the cattle, John Chandler. 
O poor Pennsylvania, how you are imposed upon and 
suffer your children to be made dupes. Hugh Hughes, 
as above, was detected in passing forty -five shilling bills 
counterfeited, sundry being found on him, and was sent 
to our prison by Wm. Henry. No doubt some of the 
officers have of the same money. 

25. After dinner came back into town the eleven 
wagons with baggage that, it's said, was sent a few days 
post by Gen. Howe from Philadelphia, for the use of his 
people who are prisoners in this state, and which ar- 
rived here a few days ago and left it the day before, but 

1 64 Christopher Marshal? s Diary [Jan. 1778 

by order from [the] Board of War they were sent after, 
the goods put into our stores, the wagons and horses 
sent to '[the] Continental stables, the officers under re- 
strictions at Jordan's, the wagoners and some prisoners 
sent to prison and the women to ramble about the 

town It's said that John Brown is now discharged 

from prison, but not to go five miles from Manheim, 
and £500 security for his good behavior.' 

26. Just passed by near a dozen light horse, who had 
been at York, going to head quarters. Yesterday one 
hundred and fifty Virginians came into town. 

28. News is that the December mail was arrived at 
Philadelphia, but that Howe would not suffer any of the 
letters to be delivered. It's said Lrord Chatham is at 
[the] head of affairs at London and that Gen. Howe has 
ordered all the shipping in [the] Delaware to be got 
ready for sea ; that flour in Philadelphia was £5 per 
hundred in hard money, beef two shillings and six pence 
per lb.: fire wood [oak J £4 per cord, and other necessaries 
such as eatables, \n proportion ; great quantities of dry 
goods, but all to be paid for in hard money, but none to 
be taken out after being bought except by stealth. 

29. After dinner went down to John Dunlap's for the 
Supplement to the Pennsylvania Packet^ it containing 
the Resolves of Congress relating to the acts of retalia- 
tion upon Gen. Howe's prisoners agreeably to the usage 

that our people who are prisoners with Howe receive 

Passed through this town from camp to Yorktown this 
day. Gen. Conway and the Marquis de la Fayette. 

30. A person from York brought sundry letters from, 
I apprehend, some of our Tory Friends there and [in] 
Virginia to be forwarded, but upon conversation, he 
took them to some more suitable person to have them 
sent. By him was learned that John Parish and Isaac 

s John Brown was an emissary from General Howe. See the Colonial 
Rtcordsy vol. II, pages 344 Co 348 and the Fennsyl'vania Arcbivu^ vol. 6, 
|Higes 25, 30, 36 and 45. 

Jan. 1778] of the American Revolution. 165 

Zane the Elder with two or three other Friends were 
then at York with the Congress, soliciting the discharge 
of the Friends that were sent away by the President and 
Council of Safety into Virginia, but their request was 
not complied with when he came away, but they were 
politely received. 

31. Last night was a grand ball or entertainment, 
kept at the house [of] William Ross, the tavern keeper, 
which [it] is said was very brilliant, at which, it's said, 
were above one hundred men and women assembled, 
dressed in all their gaiety: cold collation with wine, 
punch, sweet cakes, &c., music, dancing, singing, &c., 
held till four this morning. Who were the principals 
in the promoting or in the expenses I did not learn, but 
[neither] the President nor any of his family was there, 
but Gen. Mifflin was. Account is brought that Mon- 
sieur Pliarne was drowned a few days ago, attempting to 
cross the River Potomac. He was a pleasant agreeable 
young gentleman. He visited our family here about 
three weeks ago. 

February i. My wife with me is much concerned 
respecting son Benja. as he was so poorly by the accounts 
the twenty-third, since which we [have] heard nothing 
from that quarter. This makes it more difficult for us, 
and the more especially as last night near ten o'clock, 
my wife went up stairs to a closet in [the] front room. 
When she came down she says, I believe nenny is dead. 
I asked why ? She said that she was shuddered when 
she went into [the] room respecting him, and had not 
been thinking of him but saw nothing. Now it is to be 
noted that she is not of a timorous disposition, so that 
she can go any way or stay in the house all night alone, 
being under no fear of apparitions. Just as we sat down 
to dinner, came Jacob Baker. When I saw him I was 
struck. I asked him no questions, but to sit down and 
dine. I wanted none. My heart was full. After 
dinner he gave me two letters from my two sons, which 


i66 Christopher Marsbair s Diary [Feb. 1778 

gave me an account of his illness and of his departure ; 
that without sighs or groan [he] departed this life about 
six o'clock on the evening of the twenty-ninth of last 
month. Thus I have lived to hear of the departure of 
my first born in the year of his age, and who will 
be much lamented not only by his own connections to 
whom he was near and dear, but also by his acquaintances, 
which were very numerous, occasioned by his kindness 
and hospitality, which was very large. 

5. My wife said at breakfast that before she came to 
bed last night, coming from [the] kitchen, she heard a 
most hard and uncommon noise in the elements, which 

appeared like the ice when [it] breaks up in the river 

My mind keeps thoughtful on the death of my son. 
Sometimes, I'm, as it were, satisfied ; then a damp comes 
over and carries it away ; so that I find nothing can 
settle or secure peace but an entire resignation to the 
divine will without any reserve. 

6. Yesterday morning went from here, who came [the] 
evening before from York, the Marquis de La Fayette, 
who was going forward for Canada. 

8. Some time past an Address was sent from the 
prisoners who were sent by [the] Committee of Safety 
into Virginia, to the Congress and also to the President 
and Council, the which was brought and presented by 
Alexander White, the lawyer of Winchester. He de- 
livered one to the Congress at Yorktown, the other he 
came with to Lancaster. They prayed that they might 
not only be kept from being sent farther into Virginia to 
a place called Staunton, but that they might be permitted 
to return home to enjoy that liberty [of] which they are 
unjustly deprived. It was set forth in the said memorials 
that they were willing to engage not to give any infor- 
mation of 2ny kind that came to their knowledge. The 
Council referred the matter wholly to Congress. They, 
after many debates, had not determined, so that after 
some days waiting Alexander White returned without 

Feb. 1 77 8] ?^ fbe American Revolution. 1 67 

an answer. Whether any has yet been obtained, I've 
not learned. Account brought yesterday, that Wm. 
Coates and two other officers were taken prisoners near 
Abington by some of Howe's parties. 

9. The roads [are] almost impassible, so that I'm 
afraid I shan't hear from my &mily at this distance, nor 
how our friends in and near Philadelphia fare. Thelse 

thoughts give us much uneasiness upon their accounts 

News to-day is that Dr.Franklin was assassinated in France 
by a person who had concealed himself in his lodging 
room, but not wounded so as to be mortal, but was 
thought to be so by the perpetrator. 

10. It's said that last night was a ball kept at Ross% 
as before, carousing, music, &c., till near five this morning, 
then [they] went a sleighing, &c. This ball, it's said, was at 

the expenses of Henry Kepler Jr Two companies 

of militia from Cumberland County passed through this 
town to-day for head quarters. 

14. My tender wife keeps diligently engaged and looks 
upon every Philadelphian that comes to see us as a person 
suiFering in a righteous cause and entitled to paruke in 
some degree of our hospitality, the which she administers 
with her labor and attendance with great freedom and 
alacrity. This is a great encouragement to me. 

15. Sat down to reading and writing. Upon opening 
the Bible, the twenty- third [chapter] of Jeremiah pre- 
sented. Upon reading I could not help taking notice of 
the similarity of that day with ours, the nearness of con- 
nexion between the behavior of their called Priests and 
Prophets with all those called Ministers, Preachers, Pro- 
phets in this our day. Visited by Tho* Urie, one of the 
Council. He brought me a book written by Thomas 
Blackwell entitled Schema Sacra^ printed by Francis 
Bailey, Lancaster, 1776, the tenor of which is for erect- 
ing and establishing the doctrine of absolute predestination. 
By my promise I was necessitated to read part of it, the 
which small doing soon convinced me that it would be 
time unprofitably spent to read the whole, so I laid it by. 

1 68 Christopher MarshaWs Diary [Feb. 1778 

16. It's said that accounts from Philadelphia are that 
the enemy has unpaved the streets, and that the Hessians 
were embarked on board the ships ; that sundry of our 
soldiers who had deserted and come into the city, Howe 
had ordered ropes round their necks, whipped them round 
the city and then turned them out ; that John Allen is 
dead, also that two hearty whigs had died in prison, viz., 
Robert Eastburn and John Hall, the cooper. 

18. An account of a fray at Pequea between some 
Virginia officers and our militia officers, in which a Vir- 
ginian was killed, upon which Col. Boyd came to town 
this day and surrendered himself up. Several Assembly- 
men came to town this day. 

19. I have often had to remember what David said 
that blessed is he whose God is the Lord and whose 
hope is in the Lord his God. Children can easily forget 
their parents, but the Lord never forgets his children 

21. In conversation with R. Whitehill, sympathising 
and lamenting the distressed state of this province, through 
the ill conduct and mismanagement of our chief officers 
in public stations, the indelicate and' profane conduct of 
the inferiors in every other department, the atrociousness 
of their public and private behavior, with the total 
neglect of religion, discipline and good order. These 
are the sappings that will undermine, and without a 
speedy return to the opposites in the course of virtues 
and heroic actions, we shall soon fall into irretrievable 

ruin and desolation It's said that eleven prisoners 

were brought to town yesterday from head quarters ; 
that many of our soldiers die in the different hospitals 

and also at camp Last night was a grand ball, this 

being the third held in town lately, notwithstanding the 
grievous sufferings that this state lies under and labors 
with. Last night, I understand, there was in Lancaster 
what is called a brilliant ball, to which assembled a great 
number of fops, fools, &c., of both sexes, old and young. 

Feb. 1778] of the American Revolution. 169 

It was kept at the house of Major Wertz, formerly a 
tailor who, some time past, and many others there met, 
made a pretense to religion and to be the followers of a 
crucified Jesus, but are declaring now by their wanton 
behavior that they will not have him to reign. 

23. News, it's said, is brought that Gen. Howe gives 
from Forty to Sixty hard Dollars for every Committee- 
man or officer in the state brought to him. Thus are 
we insulted by a parcel of poltroons, whom we are able 
either to take or to drive out of the country, would we 
but play the part of honest, upright men unto our country 
and our families. O Pennsylvania, where is your zeal, 
integrity, honor and heroism ? 

24. Eleven prisoners brought into town. 

25. I set about sorting some books that Paul Fooks 

brought up with his Paul Fooks gives us many 

affecting accounts of the inhabitants of Philadelphia. 
Account brought that the Tories had taken from New- 
town in Bucks County, in conjunction with Howe's 
Light Horse, the clothes and the workmen making them 
of Stewart's and carried them to Philadelphia. It's said 
by some come from Philadelphia that one hundred 
guineas, some say one hundred and fifty, were proflTered 
for apprehending me and bringing me into the city. 
This account is sent me in order to prevent me from 
going any way within the enemy's reach, as they are 
much enraged against me through my friends, the Tory 

26. Sundry Friends visited the Assembly yesterday 
and to-day. 

27. News is that there are now in Philadelphia one 
hundred and twenty-one new stores, amongst which is 
one kept by an Englishman, one by an Irishman, one by 
an American, the remainder, being one hundred and 
eighteen, by Scotchmen or Tories from Virginia ; Gen. 
Wayne is gone with his brigade and four pieces of can- 
non into Billingsport, and that Gen. Greene has taken 

1 70 ' Christopher Marshalfs Diary [Feb. 1778 

between the lines on [the] Schuylkill and Chester County 
four hundred horses and taken them to camp. 

March I. Visited by Thomas Uric, Councillor; 
stayed some time in conversation. It's to be remem- 
bered that those gentlemen who visit my apartment are 
worthy of double honor, because they generally deliver 
the sentiments of the department they belong unto, and 
sometimes listen to the sage advice given to them, which, 
I presume, often proves of singular advantage to them in 
their future conduct, as words of truth convey knowledge 
to the honest-hearted, and I have known sundry persons 
cried up as great wits in public affairs and councils, yet 
they themselves have been governed and ruled by foolish 
servants, and some men who have been applauded for 
their cunning, yet have been perpetually cheated. Few 
are qualified for Statesmen and Councillors, notwithstand- 
ing they may be called to that station. For this reason 
some men under the notions of weeding out prejudices, 
eradicate religion, virtue and common honesty. 

4. Last Sixth Day another Ball or Assembly in Lan- 
caster, where, it's said, cards were played at a hundred 
dollars a game. President' there. O poor Pennsylvania ! 

6. It's said that the people who keep the ball in Lan- 
caster allow the Hessian band of music Fifteen Pounds 
for each night's attendance. This, James Davidson 
told me he was able to prove and make good, if called 

7. Accounts to-day are that Gen. Wayne, in the 
Jerseys, attacked a foraging party of Gen. Howe's 
there, killed several, took a number of prisoners, two 
hundred and fifty head of cattle, which, with three hun- 
dred head he had collected, he sent unto Head Quarters ; 
that our General, Washington, had ordered one 
Worrall, a spy, condemned by Court Martial, to be 
hanged, which was done. 

«Thomai Wharton. 

Mar. 1778] of the American Revolution. 171 

8. Arose early in order to serve the horse, as Robert 
Whitehitl was going to ride him to Tobias Miller's, 
where his own horse was, in order to ride him to York- 
town, he being appointed with John McClean to wait 
upon Congress in order to confer and lay some matters 
before them from the Assembly and the Executive 

9. Breakfasted with us Fooks, Thorne [and] Payne. 
Came Hermon Husbands with a plan of his projection, 
respecting the sinking of our paper currency by a gene- 
ral tax, which, after his reading and considering, we ad- 
vised him to lay aside for the present A French 

spy from Philadelphia brought under a file of musque- 
teers by Capt. Lang to be examined by Paul Fooks. 

10. My wife's pain in [the] face much better. This 
gives me fresh spirits as her constant assiduity and pains 
are very extraordinary, and her tender regard and care 
of me are beyond description. To which may be added 
[that] her kind, humane and Christian behavior, unto 
all that fall under her notice, is worthy of remembrance 
particularly ; her daily and painful labor in the kitchen, 
providing necessaries for the hungry, her care for their 
sweet and comfortable lodging, her tender and com- 
passionate hand in procuring and applying suitable medi- 
cines, such as she can procure for inward or outward 
maladies. So that the afflicted of every kind that come 
under her notice meet with ail the ease, relief, and com- 
fort that's in her power or her reach to administer, for 
which I hope and am sure the great Lord of the House- 
hold will fully reward her in due time. 

11. It's said that Susannah Lightfoot and Val- 
entine, two women Friends, sent word yesterday to 
our Assembly, sitting in Lancaster, that they had a 
message to them from Heaven. This day near eleven 
in [the] forenoon, the House adjourned and attended in 
[the] Court Room to hear her, but I'm informed [it] 
had but little effect and weight with them. 

172 Cbrisiopber Marsbair s Diary |_Mar. 1778 

12. Hermon Husbands said news came to Assembly 
yesterday that the inhabitants on the sides of our river 
Delaware had, within [a] few days past, taken three 
ships bound up to Philadelphia. One of them mounted 
ten guns. They were loaded with rum, sugar, dry goods, 
ammunition, some soldiers and wheat flour. It's said 

those boats were commanded by Capt. Barry 

Several Committees of Assembly out on various bills 
this day. Great assortment of sundry goods brought into 
this place a few days past from several places, the per- 
sons paying no resard to the law requiring them to take 
out permits for selling, &c. 

13. Yesterday a Court Martial was held here, where 
four persons for being concerned in purchasing and steal- 
ins horses for the enemy were tried ; one of them ac* 
quitted, one to be imprisoned during the war, two to be 
hanged on the sixteenth instant (this as I am informed). 

1 6. This day about one, the two persons condemned 
at Court Martial last week were executed agreeably to 
their sentence. 

18. It's said that Henry Marson and Wendal Myer, 
the two men executed here this week, confessed at the 
sallows that they were guilty of stealing and procuring 
horses for Howe's army. Last night, it's said, forty of the 
sailors taken by Capt. Barry in the vessels taken by him 
near Reedy Island, came to this town under guard. See 
the particular account of the affair in the Pennsylvania 
Packet of this day. There is an account that a party 
of riflemen has taken four wagon loads of sundry goods, 
in which are four dozen silver table spoons, silver handled 
knives and forks, fifteen hundred weight of hams, butter, 
cheese, flour, with household furniture, &c., &c., [and] 
sixteen fine horses within one mile of the Middle Ferry. 
It's thought they were loaded in York and Lancaster 
Counties. Our people in the fray lost two men. It's 
said that Wm. Todd, the chairmaker of Philadelphia, 
was brought to Lancaster this day by an officer of the 

Mar. 1 77 8 J of the American Revolution. 173 

Light Horse, on suspicion of passing counterfeit monejr, 
but upon examination before [the] Town Major, be 
proved of wbom be bad received it, upon wbicb be was 

19. Yesterday, it*s said, news came tbat Howe had 
sent away, in a parcel of bis transports, near upon seven 
thousand of bis men. This I could not credit, yet that 
piercing grief thus to be so long banished from my children, 
city friends and relations caused some secret wishes that 
it might prove true, because my still dwelling so far from 
my connexions makes it a kind of banishment, which I 
do wish was happily removed by Howe's being obliged 
to abandon with his fugitives, either by flying for their 
lives, or by their being happily made our prisoners. 

20. Drank tea with us, Fooks, Whitehill, Thorne 
[and] Ramsay. This last brought me [a] letter from 
son Charles [dated the] nineteenth instant, letting me 
know that the diflferent branches of the families were 
tolerably well ; that daughter Sally was safely delivered 
of a fine boy on the seventeenth instant near twenty 
minutes past five o'clock in the morning. [They] have 
called his name Benjamin after his poor father who was 
the first fruit of mine and his dear mother's social happi- 
ness, whose memory ever will be sweet, pleasing and 
agreeable to me, and yhose sweet company I have de- 
plored since she has been taken away, and although her 
departure and loss has been wonderfully supplied and 
made up to me by the present happy blessing sent me 
by a kind Providence, yet I love and do revere her 
memory which is still and will be to me precious. 

22. Davidson bought and read the fifth Crisis just 
published this day. 

24. Near two hundred soldiers left our barracks for 

camp News is to-day that the British have burnt 

down great part of Germantown and that a number of 
trading vessels are arrived to the Southward, with several 
large ships with goods from France. Our house con- 


174 Christopher Mars hair s Diary [Mar. 1778 

tinues still to be much frequented by sundry persons from 
diflferent parts and many from Phi lad*. 

25. Granted permit to Alexander Nelson to sell by 
vendue twenty-two hundred and eighty pounds of Bohea 

tea, being part of the estate of Wm . Leidiel, deceased 

I set about sundry jobs, at one of which [I] broke the 
blade of a pocket knife, which at this time is a great loss, 
as none are to be bought but at a monstrous price in this 

place Yesterday and to-day, it's said, came through 

here on their way home to Cumberland County, where 
they belong, thirteen companies of militia, their time 
being completed at camp. The night before last and 
last night balls for the gentlemen and ladies of Lancaster. 

26. Visited by John Scotten, John Wigdon, Capt. 
Price, Col. Clarke, Capt. Lang, James McLean [and] 
William Duifield. Disputes ran high respecting the 
supplement to the Test Act. Agreed to have a meeting 
this evening in Lancaster, to reconsider it. Took a walk 
towards Lancaster Court House to view the New Eng- 
land troops who were to march for head quarters, but 
were obliged to postpone till to-morrow for want of 
wagons. After I returned, came Capt. Markoe, Benj* 
Harbison [and] Capt. Lang. Settled some preliminaries 
they went to execute, in warning sundries to meet this 

evening We went to Wm, Rose's Tavern, where 

we met some others to the numffer of thirteen. Spent 
the time in free conversation till near ten. ^ 

28. Afterwards came R. Taggert [and] B. Harbeson, 
who brought the Petition from the Country to the As-» 
sembly respecting the supplement to the Test Act, for 
me to sign, but upon consideration, it was thought most 
convenient to write another on the same subject to be 
signed by sundries in this borough, to be presented with 
the other, upon which one was written, which I con- 
cluded to show to sundry persons to-morrow morning 
and take their judgments thereon. 

29. Chris^ Ludwick from Yorktown brought news 

Mar. 1778] of the American Revolution. 175 

from there that a gentleman of veracity declared that the 
accounts from France were that the French, the Spanish, 
the Prussian, and Polish Courts had all declared for the 
Independency of America by declaring and acknowledg- 
ing them, and that a Treaty of Commerce was concluded 
by Dr. Franklin with jthe French Court for thirty years, 
upon which the Doctor was received and acknowledged 
at that Court as Ambassador from the Free and Inde^ 
pendent States of America, and that the ministry in Eng^ 
land was changed and Lord Chatham fixed in the place 
of Lord North ; that a forty gun ship was arrived at 
New Haven loaded with woolens, linens, &c. I then 
went into Lancaster and got the Petition signed by 

April i. News to-day tliat the Jersey militia had 
surrounded fifteen hundred English troops near Salem 
Creek, who had gone on shore to plunder, and that Capt. 
Barry near Reedy Island had taken twelve boats belong- 
ing to the English and some prisoners. 

2. Went to Lottery Office, took out three Lottery 
Tickets, one for Paul Fooks, two for the four children 
of Sally Marshall. These three were a present from 
Blair M^Clenachan, for which he gave me the cash and 
requested me to carry them through the different Classes, 
with assurance that should they come out all blanks, 

ht would pay me the cash for renewing them 

Assembly adjourned this afternoon till the thirteenth of 

4. About eight o'clock waited upon Gen. Read at 
Wm. Atlee's. He there wrote a polite letter to Gen. 
Washington on my application, in order to procure a 
pass for daughter Patience to go into Philadelphia, to 

secure sundries belonging to my three sons Then 

came Capt. Lang. Went with him to Wm. Henry's ; 
was qualified to serve as one of the Commissioners on 
the Forestalling Act. I then qualified Capt. Lang to 
act as Commissioner in procuring sundry clothing for the 

176 Christopher Marshal? s Diary [April 1778 

Army Some troops from Virginia came to town, 

it's said, this day going for camp. 

5. Came to town, it's said. Gen. Gates, Mifflin and 
another officer, and it's said that Gen. Lee' on his parole 
is come to camp. 

6. It's said that thirty-five prisoners were brought to 
town this day, one, the Lieutenant of the Roebuck, a 
Captain, with sailors and marines. 

7. About noon came into town Thos. M^Kean, Chief 
Judge, attended by Sheriff and sundry other gentlemen. 
We then came home. Dined with us those that break- 
fasted. Afterwards went to town, spent some time in 
conversation with sundry persons. When Court opened, 
went to Court. Stayed while the Commissions of Thos. 
M^Kean as Chief Judge [and] William Augustus Atlee 
as Second Judge were read, Magistrates [and] Constables 
called [and the] Grand Jury qualified. Then M*=Kean 
delivered an elegant and spirited charge on the nature of 
our government, suitable to the circumstances of the 

8. I went into Court, where John Evans, Third Judge 
had his cominission read. 

9. Went into town with Fooks ; visited Gen. Lee, 
going to Yorktown. Then went into Court, where 
was burnt in the hand for manslaughter. 

10. To-day and yesterday passed through this place 
near upon five hundred men from Virginia going to the 

12. This day Gen. Greene came to town from head- 

15. Breakfasted with us Fooks [and] Thorne. I 
then paid the latter on account of the Council of Safety, 
as per receipt in book, four hundred and five Pounds, 
twelve shillings. I then went down to [the] barber's, 
got shaved by his wife, thence to [the] Court House, 

^General Charles Lee, " The Englishman." 

April 1778] of ibe American Revolution. 177 

where I was qualified as Grand Juryman for Philadelphia 
and Chester Counties. 

17. Marched through this town, with drums, fifes, 
colors, wagons, &c., on their way to camp (without 
stopping here) above four hundred Virginians under Col. 

18. I went, got shaved by the barber's wife, from there 
to Court, hearing the trial of [the] Boyds, &c. It's said 
that thirteen English deserters came to town this day ; 
left Philadelphia last Second Day. 

19. Paul [Fooks] set about packing sundry of his 
things to go by the wagon to-morrow to Yorktown with 
the Lottery wheels from Reading, which stop here to-day. 

20. Paul Fooks set off this morning for Yorktown 

The prisoners tried last Seventh day and night, viz. Col. 
and Capt. Boyd, James Wilson, Archibald Henderson 
and Charles Caldwell, for the murder of Capt. Hammond 
at Capt. Wallace's the Seventeenth of February last, 
after a long trial, were acquitted, and Slcyles and Hastings 

were run away ; so not to be had this time A great 

many counterfeit Continental bills passing of the Eight, 
Six and Five Dollars Bills, neatly imitated. 

21. This forenoon a company of soldiers that had 
been sick here marched out of town for the camp. 

25. Most of the PViends from Virginia came to town 
this day. I gave some of them an invitation to my house. 

26. Our good friend in town, Grace Hastings, sent 
my wife by daughter Patience one pound [of] fine Green 
Tea and would not take any pay for it. Charles Darragh 
brought it here yesterday which was very acceptable to 
us, and this particular mark of esteem will not be readily 
forgotten, it being the only present made to us by friend 
or foe, relations or strangers. Thanks be to His blessed 
name. He has not left us without His daily blessings, 
administered to us in this our exile, though with difficulty 
sometimes in procuring, yet there has been and is a visi- 
ble hand of help continually stretched out, so that we 

178 Christopher Marshall's Diary [April 1778 

have never wanted. May our souls ever reverently 
bless and adore this glorous Deity. 

27. Dull sunshine morning, yet warm. The cooing 
doves in pleasing strain, to soothe their mates in plaintive 
strain. The blackbird and the mockbird sing, to welcome 
in the pleasing- spring. They chirrup, hop, from tree to 
tree. This raises thankfulness in me, to pay my God 
in hymns of praise, with cheerful heart through humble 

lays. Amen Then came Gen. De Kalb. He 

took his leave, being ordered to camp By the 

packet to Philadelphia, there is account of Lord North's 
Proposal to Parliament for passing an act to qualify 
sundry commissioners to come to America to treat with 

them upon conciliatory terms This evening the 

friends who were brought to town from Virginia last 
Seventh Day got a pass from [the] Executive Council to 
pass unmolested to Pottsgrove, and then to act agreeably 
to their own choice, for the present, in taking the test 
or to go into Philadelphia at their risk. 

30. News is brought that great part of New York is 
burnt down, and that Gen. Amherst is arrived there ; 
that our army increases fast, being joined by six hundred 
New England troops [a] few days past. 

May I. News from Yorktown that Gen. Lee is ex- 
changed' and ordered to camp. 

2. Yesterday afternoon arrived here Simeon Deane, 
brother to Silas Deane, with expresses from the Court 
of France, containing their declaration and acknowledg- 
ment of our Independency, and ratifying a treaty of 
alliance and friendship, acceding to us all the territories 
in America that were claimed and enjoyed by the English, 
unto which the king of Spain has acceded, &c. He left 
France, it's said, the Eighth of March in aTwenty-eight 
twelve-pounder-gun frigate [of] three hundred men, 
landed at Casco Bay, called at camp, had eight light- 
horsemen to attend him, left Lancaster in two hours for 

' For Gen. Pretcott. This General Lee was Charles Lee. 

May 1778] of the American Revolution. 179 

Yorktown About half after one, died the negro 

woman Dinah, without sigh or groan ; she had lain very 
quiet for a day or two ; scarcely any pain, as she, I heard 
say, told her mistress. She was between fifty and sixty 
years of age. I was engaged part of this day in [thej 
orchard and likewise in hunting out a proper person to 
lay out the negro woman, as all the poor women here 
are rich in imagination, so that it was with difficulty one 
could be procured at any rate. 

3. Some trouble to get persons to put [the] negro 
woman into her coffin. Oh ! what a wretched place is 
here ! full of religious profession, but not a grain of love 
or charity, except in words, in the generality of the Ger- 
man inhabitants Buried Dinah, having yesterday 

invited the negroes in Lancaster to attend the funeral 

Then came Capt. Lang and Col. Gurney ; said that 
Generals Gates and Mifflin were come from York to 
Lancaster [and] had brought a copy of the preliminaries 
settled with France to be published. 

6. By accounts received, about seven days before 
Simeon Deane sailed from France for this continent 
there sailed from Quiberon Bay in France for America, 
four sixty-four and four thirty-six gun ships, French, 
three American frigates with eight large deep-loaded 
transports for this continent, having, it's said, forty thou- 
sand suits of clothes complete for our army. The other 
parts of their loading are a variety of goods for the use 
of the public, for sale. 

10. Received a letter from son Charles giving account 
that all the different families were well. In [the] letter, 
is mention made that Lydia Darrah came out on the 
Sixth from Philadelphia. Little news, but that Howe 
was there then ; that the English troops were cutting 
down very fast the wood in the Jerseys opposite Phila- 
delphia for the transports, as also for fear that the Ame- 
ricans might come there and have the advantage of the 
woods to cover them Accounts are, as brought 

1 8o Christopher MarshalFs Diary l M ay 1 7 7 8 

{esterday, that, a few days past, about three or four 
undred of our militia, under General Lacey, near the 
Crooked Billet were surprised by seven or eight hundred 
English Light Horse and Foot, when after a close and 
sharp engagement our people gave way. [They] lost, 
killed, wounded and taken prisoners to the number of 
thirty. It's said that some of the wounded had eight 
or ten stabs with [the] bayonet and [were] badly cut 
with broadswords, and, what is worse, that the English 
threw some of those wounded into a parcel of buckwheat 
straw and then set it on fire. Oh the monsters ! Oh 
the human shapes worse than brutes ! 

II. Past eleven, by invitation to Thomas Cuthbert's 
(hatter) to eat gammon [and] drink punch, his wife 
being delivered of a fine boy a few days past. Re- 
turned home by twelve. News is that four thousand 
troops from Virginia are actually on the road, going for 
camp. Nine wagon-loads are arrived at Lancaster, 
loaded with linens of different kinds. By letter it's said 
that sugars are fallen at Baltimore from fifty to twenty- 
five per hundred weight, spirits from three pounds to 
twenty-five shillings per gallon and coffee to five shillings 
per pound ; that a fine vessel mounting twenty-six guns 
with men in proportion was fitted out at Antigua to 
cruise and take the Philadelphia Rattlesnake. They 
met and engaged each other for seven glasses, when the 
ship struck and was carried m with a brig taken by the 
Rattlesnake ; carried intoMartinico. Visited by Timothy 
Matlack to enquire for news, but as he never communi- 
cates or tells me any, I am grown as saucy, for I never 
ask him for any, he being too great a man. News just 
brought that the English in thirty-six flat bottomed 
boats went up the river near Trenton and burnt all our 
vessels that were lying there. Some say that the whole 
of our fleet was sunk by our people so that they could 
not burn then.* A number of men marched from here 

' The whole continental ^ttt was burnt. The state fleet, having been sunk, 
was saved. 

May 1778] of the American Revolution. 181 

this day for camp This evening the Court House 

was illuminated and some pieces of brass cannon fired a 
loyal salute of thirteen guns besides small arms, boniireS| 
&c., on account of the alliance concluded with France. 

13. News came this day from head quarters that war 
[is] declared by England against France. This was 
told in Lancaster by Capt. Jackson of Philadelphia, who 

leh head quarters yesterday about noon Several 

of our Assemblymen came to town this afternoon. 

16. I must say that the little that I do really tires and 
fiitigues me. What formerly was scarcely a play is now 
a burden. However, I and my wife, who has a large 
share of labor in and about the house, have our choice : 
that is, either to do the necessaries or to leave them 
undone, as there is no person, white or black, male or 
female, old or young, to be had at any price, as we can 
find, and I have taken a good deal of pains on that 

head A parcel of English prisoners sent off this 

morning into Virginia The officers that ran away 

and some privates [were] retaken and brought into the 

borough and closely confined By account from 

George Schlosser, in a letter from his daughter at Bus- 
tleton, it was seven of our wounded prisoners that 
the English burnt some davs past near the Crooked 

17.' Beautiful, pleasant morning, [a] little cloudy 
there having fallen in the night a refreshing shower. 
Our orchard and garden refreshed, the trees luxurious, 
the vegetables green, the sprightly birds skipping, chirp- 
ing and singing praises to the Giver With thanks 

to God for his kind favor in thus refreshing nature and 
blessing us, I retired to my little room as usual. I then 
received the York-town paper brought by Mr. Bullock, 

sent me by my old friend Paul Fooks I and wife 

took [a] walk, spent some time in [the] orchard and 
garden. They were both pleasant after last night's rain. 

* Sunday. 

1 8 2 Christopher Marshall's Diary [ M a y 1 7 7 8 

We were alone, as our Poll directly after dinner took 
her walk and was not returned. So we served [the] 
creatures, milked, made tea and drank it by ourselves. 
Spent the evening alone. I went to bed by ten. My 
wife sat up till near twelve, waiting for Poll, but no 

19. News this morning is that the French fleet, con- 
sisting of six men of war, three of our frigates and eight 
merchant vessels were safely arrived at Boston some 

days past News just brought me by Col. Davis, 

then came James Reed who confirmed it, that [the] ex- 
press just come says that the English at Philadelphia 
had embarked,* and that our army was gone down to 
take possession yesterday. We eagerly wait for the 

22. The news is a confirmation of the French fleet 
with some American frigates and eight or ten sail of 
merchantmen having arrived at Boston ; that the Mar- 
quis de La Fayette with three thousand men marched 
towards Chestnut Hill, that six or seven thousand of the 
English came out in order to take the whole ; that our 
people n)ade a retreat without the loss of one man ; that 
twelve English Light Horse came over to them ; six 
more were taken by our people, and it's said, that our 
Indians killed and scalped the last parcel, and further 
that whilst the English army marched after the Marquis 
de la Fayette, the remainder marched into the Jerseys 
in order to be ready when the army returned to cross 
[the] Delaware also and make a forced march for New 

York In the evening had some conversation with 

several of our Assembly respecting petitions being sent to 
them to take the Abjuration out of the Test of Allegiance 
and Fidelity. One of them was from the Moravian 
[minister], one from Tho* Barton, minister of the Church 
of England in this borough, both of which were rejected. 

23. Visited by George Schlosser ; brought account 

' This report wai premature. 

May lyjiJi of the American Revolution. 183 

that Thomas Wharton, our President, died last night of 
an inflammation, it's said, in his head ; been complaining 
for eight or ten days past. Breakfasted by ourselves ; 
then to conversation with the Moravian minister from 
Bethlehem on the abjuration of George the Third, but 
he seemed to be fixed that he could not, nor would not, 
do it, let the consequence be as it may. 

24. Preparations making, it's said, at [the] Court 
House for a grand interment of President Wharton this 
afternoon at the Lutheran Church. It's said the vestry 
of that church gave an invitation and permission to be 
buried there, which the vestry of the English Church 
neglected, and the Friends were not applied unto for 

leave to be buried in their ground.' In the afternoon, 

went to the burial of President Thomas Wharton, at- 
tended with military honors to the Lutheran church. 

25. Came to town and encamped this side [of the] 
ferry, between four and five hundred troops from Virginia. 

28. Visited by Tho*. Smith, who [had] received [a] 
letter from Col. Cox that left camp last night. The 
purport was that Gen. Howe had put all his cannon, 
artillery, baggage, women and children on board his fleet, 
except four wagons for each regiment, as it was thought 
the army intended to make a push across the Jerseys for 
Amboy. Further accounts [are] hourly expected. It's 
further said by an officer from Wilmington that a sixty- 
gun ship came down, sent ashore to Gen. Smallwood an 
officer requesting him to surrender the place or else [he] 
would demolish it. Gen. Smallwood returned for answer, 
he would defend it to the last man. [He] immediately 
dispatched [a] messenger to Gen. Washington who imme- 
diately ordered him and all his forces to come to camp, 
and he was apprised of Gen. Howe's manoeuvre, upon 
which they marched for camp immediately. It's further 
said, by undoubted authority, that Spain has acceded and 

' Mr. Wharton*! fkmily were Quakers ; hit father was one of the pertoni 
tent from Philadelphia into Virginia. 

1 84 Christopher Marshals Diary [ M ay 1 77 8 

declared us independent Drank tea with us Christo- 
pher Ludwick ;' left camp this morning ; said the army 
was almost ready to march, which was expected in a few 
days, as they were waiting upon the movements of Gen. 
Howe's army ; that old Christopher Sower" was prisoner 
at camp. Those who took him had shaved and painted 

29. C. Ludwick told me that our Indians at camp had 
killed three officers &y mistake owing to their being 
dressed in the English officers' uniform. (So much for 

June i. Visited by Topham, the potter, who has got 
released from a nineteen months' imprisonment in New 

York and Long Island It's said that two vessels 

are arrived at Baltimore from Marti nico, in twenty-one 
days ; that they have an account that war was actually 
declared at Port Royal in Jamaica, against France. It's 
to be remembered that the above news was freely com- 
municated to me by Timothy Matlack, which being so 
contrary to his constant practice, I make this memoran- 
dum in order that I may not forget this singular act of 
his friendship. 

2. Spent some time with Councillor James Adgar. 
He informed me that Parson Barton had petitioned 
Council for leave to sell his estate and leave the State 
agreeably to the Act in that case made and provided, 

which, he presumed, would be granted him Visited 

by Chrisley Musselman ; stayed some time in conversa- 
tion respecting the Test required to be taken by all the 
male white inhabitants of this State above the age of 
eighteen years. Dr. NefF and son John took it last 

3. News just come to Tho*. Smith from Col. Cox [at] 

* Ludwick was baker to the American army. In his will, he made 
provision for founding charity schools. 

> Sower or Sauer was a German printer in Germantown. He was 
attainted for treason to the American government. 

June 1778] of the American Revolution. " 185 

head quarters that the army of Britain were strengthening 
their lines in Philadelphia ; yet, nevertheless, that a great 
number of vessels had fallen down the river, and that 
three of their regiments actually crossed into the Jerseys 
yesterday at Cooper's ferry. 

4. A very heavy fog. I arose by four, as my wife 
had been up some time at work, cleaning house, and as 
she could not rest upon account of PolPs not being yet 
returned. This girl's frolics always afflict her mistress, 
so that to me it's plain, if she does not mend or her 
mistress grieve less for her, that it will shorten Mrs. 
Marshall's life considerably ; besides, our house wears a 
quite different face when Miss Poll is in it (although all 
the good she does is not worth half the salt she eats). 
As her presence gives pleasure to her mistress, this gives 
joy to all in the house, so that, in fact, she is the cause 
of peace or uneasiness in our house. I received a letter 
by James Searles from Paul Fooks, letting me know that 
since he wrote his of the second instant, Congress had 
sent for him and appointed him their interpreter with a 

salary of One Hundred Dollars per month A day 

or two past, Thomas Barton, Missionary, petitioned 
Council for leave to sell his estate and to remove out of 
this state, which was granted under the limitations con- 
tained in the said Act Twenty-five prisoners, 

brought from camp, came here, it's said, to-day. 

5. Just going past nine wagons loaded with provisions 

for camp from Carlisle In the evening came Paul 

Fooks and his boy in [the] wagon from Yorktown. 

6. Arose early. Sent Paul's boy to G. Schlosser's, 
who was to buy us [a] quarter [of] meat of [the] Phila- 
delphia butcher, and as the market is soon over and G. 
S. an early riser, he did it to oblige us, and he purchased 
a lovely hind quarter of veal, weight seventeen pounds 
at two shillings, for which we were highly obliged to 

him P. r. breakfasted with us. He then went to 

[the] Lottery Office, where the managers attend, settling 

1 86 Christopher Marshall s Diary [June 1778 

the Prize list for the press News of this day by 

William Cox of Philadelphia and letter from Dr. Shippen 
to the President,' is, it*s said that Co). Loring' came out 
with flag on the fifth to Col. Morgan of the Riflemen 
and let them know that Gen. Clinton intended to evac- 
uate the city ; that therefore an exchange of prisoners 
should be immediately made. Upon this Mr. Boudinot 
was sent into town, and, by his letter out, it appeared 
they intended for New York, and that the city might 
be clear of the enemy by First day next. 

8. After [I had] gone to bed, came [an] express with 
a letter requesting I would send to the President of Con- 
gress, Henry Laurens, the particulars I had relating to 
the surrender of Gen. Burgoyne, with the list of prisoners, 
stores &c., the which I complied with, sending [a] copy 
of what I had on that subject back by the said express. 

9. It's said that the Commissioners from England are 
arrived at Philadelphia. This, it's said, has retarded the 
English troops from evacuating Philadelphia, but that 
there is a large detachment with their flat bottomed boats 
at Cooper's Point in the Jerseys. 

10. I arose pretty early, as my wife is much engaged, 
having no person to assist her, nor will she agree to have 
any body, except her beloved Poll is sent for to camp 
and brought back. This I cannot agree to, so as to be 
the acting person. If she does it herself, I don't forbid 
her, but for me to offer a reward for a common w.... 
to be brought to my house I cannot consent, so as to be 
the active person. Here wife and I differ widely in 

12. Wife and I set about our little concerns in our 
little family ; as to the human species none but ourselves. 
So that with this and the other little concerns we seem 
to be fully employed for some time in several parts of 

' Upon the death of Thomas Wharton, George Bryan succeeded to the 
Presidency of the Executive Council of Pennsylvania. 

' The husband of Gen. Howe*s mistress, mentioned in the Battle of the 

June 1778] of the American Revolution. 187 

the day, but my poor wife almost constantly, and thus 
she verifies that old saying that ^^ woman's work is never 

done/' Dined with us Peter Swart and his wife; 

had a good deal of conversation respecting taking the 
test. A day or two past, it's said, that ten of the M en- 
onists were brought from [the] back part of this county 
to this jail, refusing to take the test ; committed by 
Curtis Grieb. 

13. Visited by John Carry le, a Menonist j spent some 
considerable time in religious and political conversation 
respecting the test required to be taken throughout this 
state. He went away seemingly pleased and satisfied. 

14. Took a walk to view the Eighth Pennsylvania 
Regiment marching through the town with their baggage 
wagons, women, &c., for the back counties in order to 
protect them from the incursions of the Indians there. 

15. A good number of horses went through this place 
for camp to-day. 

t6. Dined, Jane Cannon, Mrs. Callison, James David- 
son and wife, several children. Came also Robert 
Whitehill. All but [the] last mentioned set ofF after 
dinner with two wagons with their goods for South Ca- 
rolina. My dear wife was extremely hurried, having 
nobody to assist her, yet she provided nobly for them 
and dispatched them with great alacrity and satisfaction^ 

17. Got this week's newspapers; then I returned 
home, read the news. News from Dr. Shippen from 
Moor Hall of yesterday that the enemy might be expect- 
ed to leave Philadelphia I sat for some time in 

[the] orchard, reading Hartley on the Millenium. 

18. Then to some other jobs; then into my room. 
I seem now soon tired ; ^^ the grasshopper seems to be 

a burden." Timothy Matlack called, said the 

Congress to a man had rejected the proposals made by 
those conciliators from Britain, viz. the Earl of Carlisle 
(with his three doxies), William Eden, Esq., Capt. 
Johnstone Esq., formerly Governor of West Florida, 

1 88 Christopher Marshals Diary [June i 778 

Lord Howe and Gen. Clinton, who, it is said, are arrived 
at Philadelphia, as, it's said, that Lord Cornwallis is also, 
without any troops. A number of Hessian prisoners 
marched from here this day to the number of four hun- 
dred in order to be exchanged. Part of Col. Hartley's 
regiment from Yorktown marched through here for head 
quarters to day, past eleven. News just brought that 
eleven deserters came in from [the] city the sixteenth 
instant ; that the enemv's baggage, they say, was princi- 
pally gone on board ships, that an evacuation of the city 
was hourly expected, and that the city was very sickly. 

19. Past seven [A. M.] Timothy Matlack, just come, 
says accounts are arrived that Capt. John M^Lane,' 
with about fifty light horse [and] one hundred of the 
foot troops, took possession of Philadelphia yesterday 
morning [at] three o'clock. Further confirmation 

hourly expected Past twelve, the morning news 

[is] confirmed by letter to [the] President of Council 
from Gen. Washington, letter from Col. Cox to Thomas 
Smith, by expresses, &c. Benja. Harbison, Thomas 
Smith, John Dunlap with several others set off for 

Philadelphia Signed some permits in order for my 

setting out for Philadelphia. Dr. Phyle * waited upon 
me, preferred his company in driving me in my chair to 
Philadelphia. Agreed to set off as soon as convenient. 

20. Visited by Capt. Lang and Commissioner Craig. 
We went together to see Capt. Markoe, who came from 
Philada. He, being upon the lines, entered the city, on 
the notice of the enemy's being gone from there. He 
confirms the account of M^^Lane's taking possession of 
it, as it was said, with this addition that the aforesaid 
captain kept so close on their rear that he took sundry 
prisoners^ and some wagons, but as to the route the 

I A mistake for Capt. Allen McLane, who commanded the American 
<iivanced guard. 

' Originally a German Redemptioner ; the ^ther of the late wealthy 
Mrs. Stott of Philadelphia. 

3 Col. Allen McLane stated that these prisoners were taken at the corner 
of Ninth* and South Streets. 

June 1778] of the American Revolution. 189 

enemy intended to take, any further than the Jerseys, 
was not known. 

21. Accounts just come that the Indians to the west- 
ward are making sad havoc of the inhabitants. 

22. Breakfasted with us G. Schlosser and Dr. Phyle. 
We then set out for Philada., Dr. Phyle riding with me 
in the chair ; George Schlosser and his son-in-law in a 
chair ; Timothy Matlack and daughter in another ; 
Daniel Wistar by himself in a four-wheeled carriage. 
Baited at [the] sign of [the] hat ; then proceeded to the 
sign of [the] wagon ; dined there ; from there they 
went to [the] sign of the white horse ; the Doctor with 
me to John Jacobs's* (where was David Rittenhouse) ; 
drank tea and soon went to bed. 

23. Got up soon, but so likely for rain, we stayed 
breakfast ; then set off for town near eight. Stopped at 

[the] Union, at [the] Black Horse, baited Set oS 

for the city. Within a mile or two was presented a 
poor prospect, houses ruined and destroyed, fields of fine 
corn without fences, &c. We crossed the bridge at the 
middle ferry.* I put up [the] chair at Charles's stable, 
horse at Stephen Colli ns's (whose little son attended him 
while I stayed in town), drank tea and slept at Capt. 

24. Rose early ; sauntered about ; breakfasted at 
Stephen Collins's ; dined at John Lynn's ; attended at 
CoflPee House; then viewing the desolation, with the 
dirt, filth, stench and flies in and about town, scarcely 
credible. There was a large quantity, but some very 
ordinary meat in market, great quantities of vegetables 
and some fish. 

25. Took a walk by myself to our once rural, beautiful 
place (near barracks) now nothing but wanton desolation 
and destruction, that struck me with horror and detesta- 
tion of the promoters and executors of such horrid deeds. 
My mind was so pained I soon returned into the city. 

* At Market street, where there was a floating bridge. 


ipo Christopher Marshal? s Diary [June 1778 

26. Breakfasted and dined at Stephen Collins's with 
my children. In the interval, engaged in viewing some 
of our and others* houses with wonder and amazement 
on the scenes of mah'ce and wanton cruelty, yet my late 
dwelling house was not so bad as many others, yet grief 
seized me in beholding the ruins, viz., houses quite de- 
molished, of which ours near [the] Bettering House [was] 
quite gone with the brick-walls, chimneys, &c., the doors, 
cases, windows and cases, etc., either destroyed or car- 
ried away entirely. 

27. Set out for the country near eight, in company 
with son Charles, his wife, Nancy Parrish, Daughter 
Sally and her daughter Hannah, Dr. Phyle, etc., in dif- 
ferent chairs. Stopped at Levering's ; ' at Plymouth * 
burial-ground, viewed the grave of my dear Benny ; 
stopped a few miles farther by the side of [a] house, for 
the horses to rest, it was so melting hot. (It's said that 
some horses died on the road with the heat.) Got to 
Sally's past four, drank tea and the Doctor and I supped 
and slept there. 

July i. Near nine returned Thomas Rces from town 5 
said he had been twelve hours coming, occasioned by the 
heat ; that near four hundred Hessian deserters with 
English prisoners were just brought into the city. 

2. Wm. Henry and wife called ; showed [a] copy 
of [a] letter from Gen. Washington to Gen. Arnold 
giving an account that an engagement was last Monday 
near Monmouth Court House in Jersey, where our army 
beat the English grand army off their ground and en- 
camped upon it that night, in which time the English 
made so silent and forced [a] march that they were six 
miles ahead next morning. Many killed on both sides 
and many perished with the heat. 

4. It's said that seventy deserters came to Philadel- 
phia this day. 

' In Roxborough Township, Philadelphia County, still existing. 
>I n Montgomery County, Philadelphia. 

July 1778] of the American Revolution. 191 

7* After dinner Charles and wife went home with 
Sally in order to see whether proper or no for Sally to 
move her family to town, as they had made an hospital 
of the Presbyterian meeting-house facing her. 

8. It's said that thirty-nine English grenadiers came 
in a body to Gen. Washington's camp. 

15. I arose early. We break&sted. My horse in 
chair ; son Christopher on his horse, with his overseer 
on another (Joseph Thomas). After my taking a very 
solemn and affectionate farewell of my dear children, and 
their sweet lovely offspring, we set out. The overseer 
accompanied us over the Schuylkill and then returned 
home. We proceeded on (through several miles [of] 
badly cut roads by the wagons last winter and spring). 
Near eleven reached John Jacobs's, who kindly received 
and entertained us. After dinner (David Ritienhouse 
dined with us. He was going with a wagon load of his 
goods from Lancaster to Philadelphia), about two, we sec 
out ; stopped at [the] sign of [the] ship (met with Jacob 
Deitrick and his wife, going from Philadelphia to his 
house at Lancaster, with whom we kept company till 
we got home very agreeably). Near thirty-eight mile 
stone, waited till some wagons that were behind came 
up with us, as we were creditably informed that sundry 
persons had been stopped and robbed thereabouts, but we 
were preserved. We reached [the] sign of the wagon, 
where we rested and stayed all night. Fine starlight, 
here we slept with our great coats on top of the bed 

16. We arose early, geared our horses, with the friend 
and his wife and proceeded to Hopkins's Tavern (sixteen 
miles from Lancaster) ; breakfasted plentifully, being 
both clean and good (the people having some compla- 
cency attending them) ; set off for Lancaster, where we 
arrived safe (but I was really tired, though I had rode 
Kitty's horse from the wagon to Hopkins's) and was 
very heartily and kindly received by my dear and most 

I pa Christopher Marsbair s Diary [July 1778 

aflFectionate wife. Yesterday we met with many persons 
and their families moving into Philadelphia ; the same 
to-day, with a great number of women, children, cattle 
and horses (but few men) who, they said, were driven 
away from their settlements on the North East branch 
of the Susquehannah by the Indians, supported by the 
garrisons of Detroit [and] Niagara, and who are joined 
by numbers of the Tories and disaffected party in those 
parts. The sight was truly affecting and distressing to 
me (and I have great cause to praise and to adore Infinite 
Wisdom who has been so graciously pleased to preserve 
me and my tender families in so wonderful a manner. 
May the solid sense of such gracious mercies never 
leave me but live and remain with thankful praises in 
my soul forever and forevermore ! Amen). 

17. We arose early, being a fine morning. Mamma 
got breakfast for son Christopher, who set off for home 
by five o'clock, after taking an affectionate leave of us, 
and our recommending him to the kind and providential 
care of our great Lord and Master, Jesus Christ. 

18. Some Continental troops came into the borough 
this day. People from the back woods come down and 
coming in great numbers so that the county of North- 
umberland* will be laid quite waste by the English and 
savage barbarians, except the Almighty in his goodness 

prevent We then sat down, my wife and I very 

comfortably ; drank a dish of tea with great satisfaction. 
John and wife with their child came [and] received their 
portion, as did a poor little girl, who, with her father, 
mother and two more children, fled for their lives and 
brought little else with them from [the] back woods. 
[To] these we gave the key of [the] house [which] 
Thomas Smith moved from, in order to cover them for 
a while from the inclemency of the weather, and to 
partake of some small hospitality. 

' This county at that time extended to the northern boundary of Penn- 
lylvania, embracing territory now divided into sixteen counties. 

J VLY ijy si of the American Revolution. 1 93 

19. Col. Hartley's Regiment marched through here 
on their route for the back woods. Accounts of heavy 
firing last Sixth Day near New York. No particulars. 

21. My dear wife meets with but little respite all 
day, that proverb being verified that ^^ woman's work is 

never done." It seems a little discouraging to have 

no help about us, besides living in a neighborhood of 
lumps of mortality, formed in shape of men and women, 
but so unpolished, so hoggish and selfish, that no good, 
kind sociability makes any impression upon their boorish 

nature News that fourteen sail of large and small 

prizes are sent into Egg Harbor [and] Morris River* 
by the French fleet off Sandy Hook. 

22. Visited by James Farran [a] poor man and family, 

fled from [the] back woods Visited by William 

Bonham, who, with his wife, brother and family, was 

driven away from their homes in the back woods 

Then dined, my wife, as usual, sending some portion to 
the afflicted and distressed. I then, after dinner, visited 
Mrs. Bonham and children at Rob'. Taggert's. 

24. This morning, It's said, there passed through here 
near two hundred head of cattle ; and about one hundred 
and fifty horses stopped here, for tbe use of the Light 
Horse. These came from Virginia. 

26. Fine sunshine ; clear, pleasant morning. I arose 
past seven ; wind eastwardly. I took my walk in [the] 
orchard and observed the little concerns on our rural 
plantation. A general stillness now from the noise of 
drums, fifes, &c.' The little birds, with their mates, 
chirping from tree to tree ; the fruits and vegetables, 
plenty and gay ; the harvest got in, having been blest 
with fine crops of grass and grain, and fine weather. 
Thus has kind Heaven blest and [is] blessing us ! Oh ! 
saith my soul, that a universal hymn of praise and thanks- 
giving may arise and spread in and over our soul to our 

* Maurice River in the southern part of New Jeney was probably meant* 

* This was Sunday, and the soldiers had removed from Lancaster. 

194 Christopher Marshall s 'Diary [July 1778 

great and blessed Benefactor ! Amen. In [the] after- 
noon I went to the Dutch Presbyterian Meeting House, 
where a suitable and good discourse was delivered on this 

text, Cor. ii, Chap. 4 : 1 7, by one Fifer, minister of the 

Church of England living at Frederickstown or Freder- 
icksburgh, I did not learn [which]. Returned with Ed. 
Shippen, who pressed me to stop at his house, and drank 

[a] glass of beer of his own brewing A ft^r drinking 

tea, past seven, took [a] walk to Robert Taggert's, from 
there to the above mentioned meeting house, where the 
aforesaid parson preached to [a] large collection of people 
on this text, Eccles., 12:1, which held till past nine. 

27. Account brought that our Poll was living in York- 
town at a tavern kept by Rob. Dunn Drank tea; 

half after seven, went to the aforementioned meeting. 
The said person that officiated last night preached on this 
text, Deut. 32 : 29. 

28. I went into town ; spent some time in conversa- 
tion with sundry persons at Wm. Henry's store on the 
news of the day, that is, that another French fleet of 
seventeen sail of the line is arrived off Sandy Hook ; have 
taken a number of prizes ; that provisions at New York 
were exceeding scarce ; at Philada. very plenty and the 
prices moderate. 

30. Passed forward to Wm. Henry's store, met sundry 
Lancasterians there, where was read the Third Day's 
Philada. newspaper, in which is said under the Boston head 
that the French fleet under Admiral d'Estaing was gone to 
Rhode Island ; had taken twenty-seven sail of English 
vessels ; whether part of the Cork provision fleet or not, 

was not told I went and borrowed Capt. Hervey's 

horse for Charles to ride with my wife to-morrow to 
Yorktown in order to find her Poll, as she was informed 
that she lived at one Rob'. Dunn's, who kept tavern 

31. Fine pleasant morning. My wife rose near four ; 
I near five ; sent for Capt. Hervey's horse. Charles 

July 1778] of the American Revolution. 195 

fed them, saddled them ; eat his own breakfast as my 
wife could not eat anything (as indeed her daily fatigue 
is quite too much and, at present, no help, as I can find, 
is to be had, which gives me great uneasiness, yet I have 
some hopes that the Good Hand will open some way to 
relieve us, though at present I see none). They got 
equipped and set oflF from here about six o'clock. 

August i. Visited this morning by Adam Zantzinger, 

but brought no new news Near three, afternoon, 

my wife returned with Charles and Poll, that she found 

at Yorktown Afterwards came R. Taggert and 

B. Harbison, who by a person just come into town, 
brought account of an engagement between our army 
and the English, on the thirtieth, at the White Plains, 
when the latter left three thousand killed and wounded 
on the field of battle, but no further particulars. Many 
people in and around Lancaster speak of a very heavy 
firing of cannon being heard the same day by them and 

6. Spent some time in conversation with some of the 
Justices and Assemblymen respecting the Menonists in 
prison in order for their enlargement and respecting the 
signing of two petitions that were intended to be pre- 
sented to the Assembly. 

9. Soon after came Ed. Milne from Philad., brought 
me a letter (and newspapers from son * Christopher with 
six papers of the patent snufF) giving me an account of 
the health of their fiimilies, &c. He also brought a 
letter (and two newspapers) from Father Paul,' request- 
ing I would send him his clothes, books and sundries 

that he had left here We drank tea ; then Ed. 

Milne went away into town to enquire after the wagon 
to carry away a large trunk of plate he had sent here in 
the spring for security, with P. Fooks's goods. 

12. News of the day is that there has been, last week, 
a great fire at New York, in which, it's said, one hund- 


1 96 Christopher MarshalFs Diary [Aug, 1778 

red and thirty houses were consumed with two of the 
principal King's stores, with all their contents. It's 
further said that many of the inhabitants, engaged in 
endeavoring to save the dwelling houses, were by the 
English and Tories cursed as damned rebels and many 
of them cast into the flames and there perished ; it's 
further said that a large English magazine-ship, near 
New York, was blown up about the same time. The 
same officer who tells this says he left the city of 
Philada. yesterday ; saw an officer from head quarters 
just arrived there, who said, an express arrived as he 
came away, with the account of the surrender of Rhode 
Island to the French Admiral, who had landed four 
thousand of his troops on the island, to cooperate with 
our army. Thus stands the report for the present. It's 
said that a Dutch and Spanish ship is arrived at Balti- 
more, loaded with merchant's goods. 

16. Arose early, eat breakfast ; then went in our 
chair to Dr. Kennedy's. Sent Charles back with [the] 
chair ; stayed till the Dr.'s carriage was ready, in which 
with his negro man (past nine) we set out for Philada. 
Stopped at the sign of the Hart -, served horses ; then 
proceeded ; stopped on [the] road ; eat some gammon, 
drank some toddy ; so went forward through a heavy 
rain to the sign of [the] Wagon, not much wet, as the 
carriage had a very good covering. I slept here, or, I 
would say, lodged. 

17. Got up early, fed horses and set off in company 
with Capt. Nicholas Brown Seabrook of Richmond 
Town, of Henrico County in Virginia (in a sulky without 
any covering. So he traveled yesterday with us). I paid 
for Dr. and self twenty-five shillings and ten pence (the 
Dr. brought oats with him). Near where Capt. Fitz* 
the robber infested, we were joined by one man and two 
women on horseback, who seeing us coming, waited in 

' See an interesting account of this celebrated freebooter in Mr. Lewis's 
History of Chester County. 

Aug. i 77 8 j of the American Revolution. 1 97 

order to have our company over those hills. Hereabouts 
the rain abated. We rode on to Capt. Weed's at 
Downing Town, where we fed ourselves and horses. 
Afterwards set off and stopped at Ed. Jacobs's tavern 
near [the] White Horse, where we dined ; from there 
to the tavern near [the Sixteen Miles stone, where we 
lodged. In the nignt Dr. Kennedy was taken violently 
ill with purging and vomiting. Capt. Seabrook, self and 
negro man assisted, as the people of the house gave 
themselves no concern. 

18. In the morning early the Capt. set oflFfor town. I 
waited till near ten (he, the Dr. being so poorly). We 
rode to the Widow Miller's ; there we dined and fed 
horses (here I paid for Dr. and self twenty-seven shillings, 
at Ed. Jacobs's twenty-eight shillings). Then set off 
and arrived at Philad* near five. The Dr. put up at the 
Indian Queen.' I lodged at son Charles's house (the 
Dr. so tired that he could not walk down there). Drank 
tea at Timothy Matlack's ; went to see Paul Fooks ; 
not to be found ; so I went to bed early. 

24. Rose early. Went to D. Rittenhouse to get him 
to change some old money for a poor honest man. 
Breakfasted there. Weather cold ; wind northwardly. 
From there to J*. Jones, whom we had left in our house, 
to search for sundry goods taken away, viz., fine iron 
grate, Scotch stove, corner cupboard with glass doors, 
all the iron backs, cranes, etc., etc., etc. Visited at 
Blair M^Clenachan's [and] Dr. Chovet's. I was then 
waited upon by the aforementioned Spanish gentleman' 
and the chaplain to him and the French Ambassador,' 
with whom I went and dined. 

26. Received [a] letter from James Cannon, with 
account of his wife and James Davidson's fiimily's arrival 
at Charleston, South Carolina, the twenty-sixth [of] 
July, all well. 

' At or near the south east corner of Fourth and Market Streeii. 
' Don Juan de Meralles, the Spanish Ambassador. 
1 M. Gerard. 


198 Christopher Marshalt s Diary [Aug. 1778 

a7« Sent son's cart and horse to Dr. Chovet's and 
brought what books he had saved of mine at two trips to 

ion's shop; left them up stairs there Went and 

drank tea with Parson Duche, his father, mother and 
wife \ then to son's, where Jona' Sergeant came [and] 
requested [leave] to give up our house he had taken, to 
which I consented (as it was not grand enough for him). 
Went to Grace Hastings's, who had spoken before and 
wanted it for a gentleman named Tim^ Pickering. 

28. I got up early. Walked to Campingtown in quest 
of my cupboard, but found none j to Wm. Rush's for 
my cranes, but none there. Breakfasted at Grace Has- 
tings's } let the gentleman have my house on the same 
conditions [on which] Sergeant had taken it, viz : at 
Fifty Pounds per year, and to repair it fit and tenant- 

September 2. Then to Coffee House ; waited till 
Lieutenants Lyons, Ford and Wilson and John Wilson, 
gunner, were brought on board two government vessels 
off Market Street wharf, where the two first suffered the 
law and the other two [were] reprieved.* The number 
of spectators was very great ; from [the] end of the 
market house, where I stood upon a bench. 

5. Near nine set off; reached Levering's ; fed horse 
and [had] some drink for John F. and self ; paid eight 
shillings and three pence ; then proceeded to Charles's, 
where we got safe near four. 

11. Just after came Major Loxley ; brought [a] letter 
from town to my sons in which was mentioned that a 

! gentleman from Lancaster had called at their house to 
00k for me, who said that my wife was very ill ; had 
kept her bed for three days. This gave me great concern 
and I immediately concluded for home. 

12. I got up at four [in the] morning. Cloudy with 
small rain. We got breakfast, the horses served, the 

^ They had deserted to the enemy during the attack upon Fort Mifflin. 
See the Colonial Records and Pennsylvania Archives. 

Sept. 1778] of the American Revolution. 199 

phxton made ready. Kitty went with me and t6ok John 
Darragh to be as company on his return. We set off 
near six. Rained pretty smartly till after we had passed 
[the] Schuylkill, then moderated. Proceeded over [the] 
bridge at French Creek ; came to Potts's ; fed our horses ; 
then proceeded and reached Jones's tavern, where we 
dined [and] fed our horses (cost twenty-five shillings) ; 
then set forward ; reached Capt. Reese's tavern at [the] 
Blue Ball by dusk. Here we took up our residency for 
the night. Upon the whole, we had middling good 
weather, yet both we and horses were tired as the roads 
were so exceedingly hilly and stony, I think longer and 
worse than the great road is over the Valley Hills. We 
scarcely met any travelers on this road, but saw plenty 
of squirrels. We drank coffee for supper and slept in 
our great coats, stockings, &c., for fear of fleas and bugs. 
13. We rose early, fed our horses ; I paid [the] reck- 
oning, thirty-eight shillings and ten pence. Set off for 
Lancaster, passed through New Holland, in which were 
many but indiflPerent and some good houses, built in the 
Dutch fashion, on both sides of one long continued 
street. The men, women and children seemed to be 
plenty, mostly Germans and of the middling sort. The 
roads here were in general good, fine woodland and many 
fine plantations, with a great quantity of wild pigeons 
and squirrels, regaling themselves in the fields and in the 
woods, with some flocks of partridges. We reached 
Lancaster past ten ; found my wife abed and very poorly, 
yet nevertheless she arose. Polly got us breakfast of 
good coflPee, gammon, &c., of which we partook cheer- 
fully, as we had by that time got a good appetite 

Just at dinner time came John McLean, Robert White- 
hill and William Duffield on their way home from the 
Assembly at Philad*., which had broke up on the 
eleventh. They stayed and dined ; then set off for their 
respective houses. After dinner my son Kitty prepared 
and set oflF for home with John Darragh, taking the 

20O Christcpher Marsbalts Diary [Sept* 1778 

candles that I had bought for him. In the chair-box 
by him I put P. Fooks's warming-pan and Cunningham's 
book on Bills of Exchange and the Deeds, Mortgage, 
Bond and Judgment of Rob^ Taylor, as the man had 
requested me to send them in order that he might dis- 
charge the debt. 

16. I paid unto Daniel Strieker, Collector of [the] 
Continental Tax, Ten Pounds fifteen shillings and nine 

18. Mamma seems quite cheerful and will be indus- 
trious, for all that I can say or do ; the reason is her girl 
Poll is a very ordinary lazy hussey. 

19. Spoke to a person just come from Philadelphia, 
who said the news there was that war was actually declared 
between the French and English. 

22. I received [a] letter from P. F. dated [the] nine- 
teenth. The news is that war against Great Britain 
was declared at Martinique the fourteenth of August \ 
that the courts of Spain and Portugal had ordered all 
British ships out of their ports in the space of six days 
or to be seized ; that the British fleet that was cruising 
off Boston is returned to Sandy Hook ; that the Packet 
was arrived and brought orders for the Commissioners 
to return home, and to the fleet and army to evacuate 
N ew York, but [it] was not said where they were to go 
[as it] was not known, but some think, and it's probable, 
they will go to Halifax and the West Indies. Ten regi- 
ments, it's said, will go to Jamaica. It's further said 
that a large ship mounting twenty-two guns has been 
allotted to the Tories and is now full of men, women 
and children of that tribe bound to Halifax. 

24. News to-day is that the English fleet has left New 
York and Sandy Hook. 

October 3. This morning, I presume. Parson Barton 
moved ofF the last of his eflFects, in two covered wagons. 
This morning and last night came to town, it's said, 
about Scotch, English [and] Hessian prisoners. 

Oct. 1778] of the American Revolution. aoi 

who stayed to recruit themselves on their inarch to the 
Eastward from Virginia to be exchanged. They had 
not the appearance of our poor emaciated countrymen, 
discharged by the English tyrants. Ours were reduced 
to the utmost extremity ; those, hearty, plump and fat, 
with wagons to carry their baggage, women and children ; 
ours so stripped as hardly [to have] rags to cover them. 
So disproportionate are those circumstances, but Heaven, 
I hope, will protect us from their future cruelty and 

5. It's said by private hand that there are fifteen or 
sixteen sail of vessels with salt in [the] Delaware river, 
some of them from France, &c. ; that John Roberts, 
miller, was tried for High Treason and convicted, as was 
Abraham Carlisle, carpenter. 

6. Past one, the English, Irish and Dutch prisoners 
marched out of town to go where they are to be 

9. Accounts from Philadelphia are that the Friends 
took up the body of Moles worth in the night time [and] 
transported it somewhere, but the public are not satisfied 
and say it should have been done in the day in a public 
manner.' It's said they have taken him out of one hole 
and put him into another in the same ground. It's 
thought to have been the greatest and largest yearly 
meeting for a long time past. 

13. Accounts from town are that a number of English 
landed at Morris' river and Egg harbor last week and 
destroyed several vessels, rigging, cargoes, &c., with a 
good deal of other mischief and then decamped ; that 
Abraham Carlisle was put into the dungeon. . 

14. It's said that John Roberts, miller, is condemned 
and confined in the dungeon. 

' James Molesworth was hung for High Treason. His oflfence consisted 
in endeavoring to hire men to pilot the British fleet up the Delaware. 
See the Life of General Joseph Reed, Pennsylvania Archives^ vol. 5, 
pages 270 to 282, Colonial Records of Pa,, vol. ii, page 197, and DunUp*s 

' Maurice ? 

ao2 Christopher Marshall s Diary [Oct. 1778 

15. Paid Shaffer Five Dollars for bringing a barrel of 
sugar from Philadelphia some time past. Paid seven 
shillings and six pence to [the] stageman for sundry 
pamphlets from Stephen Collins entitled J Serious Ad" 
dress to the fakers, 

17. We arose early; breakfasted. Wife got ready 
against the wagon came, in which went Wm. Bonham's 
wife, three children and servant girl, with some of his 
furniture, my wife and Wertz's sister-in-law for Philad*. 
Set off about half after ten [in the] forenoon. Bonham 
rode on horseback, as he had three cattle to drive, and 
another horse led at the tail of the wagon. 

20. Just heard that on First Day, about twelve o'clock 
noon, my wife and her companions were all safe and 
brisk at '* the Wagon," This, Rob^ Taggert said, he 
had from Judge Atlee who saw and conversed with 

21. Fine delightful morning. I got up early, yet our 
Poll was gone. This is her trade, morning, noon and 
night, or any time of the day for hours together. I talk 
and advise her but all to no purpose. It would not be 
a small sum that would induce me to encounter with the 
difficulty, but my desire of keeping her until her mistress 
returns keeps up my care and attention. 

22. (Poll behaves herself exceeding well this morning.) 
Charles sent every morning since Mrs. went away to the 

baker's for three sixpenny loaves of bread Had fire 

made in [the] lodging room. There I supped and 
Charles and I spent the evening till near nine. Miss 
Poll out all this time. I sent Charles to hunt for her 
and also to enquire of the neighbors, but no intelligence 
to be got ; so we fastened house, kitchen, &c., [and] 
went to bed. 

23. Cloudy. I roused Charles up by day light. 
Found Miss Poll in the straw-house. She came into 
the kitchen ; talked away that she could not go out at 
night, but that she must be locked out. If that's the 

Oct. 1778] of the American Revolution. 203 

case, she told them that she would pick up her clothes 
and go quite away ; that she would not be so served, 
as her Mistress did not hinder her staying out when she 
pleased, and the kitchen door to be opened for her when 
she came home and knocked. The negro woman told 
me, as well as she could, what she said. I then went 
and picked up her clothes that I could find. I asked 
her how she could behave herself so towards me when 
I had conducted mysejf so easy towards her, even so as 
to suffer her to sit at table and eat with me. This had 
no effect upon her. She rather inclined to think that 
she had not offended and had done nothing but what her 
mistress indulged her in. I told her before Betty it was 
not worth my while to lick her, though she really deserv- 
ed it for her present impudence, but to rememoer I had 
taken all her clothes I could find except what she had on, 
which I intended to keep ; that if she went away, Charles 
with the horse should follow her and bring her back and 
that I would send the bellman round the borough of 
Lancaster to cry her as a runaway servant wicked girl, 
with a reward for apprehending her. 

24. I arose early to send to B. Landiss's for butter j 
got [the] horse fed \ just them came Catty ; brought 
two pounds [of] butter. I kept her to breakfast ; paid 
her twenty-four shillings for this time and the last. I 
also sent by her to give her master one Moyadore, one 
English guinea and one English shilling to pay him for 
the load of first crop hay that he sent me while [I was] 
in Philadelphia. 

27. Charles arose near daybreak and I soon after, in 
order to find my nightly and daily plague, as she took 
her walk again last evening. Charles found her. We 
turned her up stairs to refresh herself with sleep. 

29. After breakfast let our Poll down stairs, where 
she has be?n kept since her last frolic. 

30. Fastened Poll up stairs last night ; let her be 
about [the] house this morning, pretty handy. 

204 Christopher Marshall s Diary [Oct. 1778 

31. I arose early as I have done for some time. Did 
I not, they would lie till nine o'clock, as some of them 
have done. 

November 2. I think that my old enemy Satan is 
much concerned in the conduct and behavior of that 
poor unfortunate girl, in the first place to bewitch her so 
after the men that she seems to have no rest when away 
from them, the which must in the end, except grace pre- 
vent, prove her utter ruin : in the second place he knows 
that her actions give me much anxiety and indeed at times 
raise my anger so that I have said what should have been 
avoided, but I for the future hope to be more upon my 
guard and thereby frustrate him in his attempts 

5. Breakfasted \ then to picking some apples left in 

Ethe] orchard, as the wind blew so fresh and I had turned 
the] cow into the orchard, for as she was in such fine 
order I was apprehensive some of our ordinary butchers 
might make too free and take her to their homes. I pre- 
sume that yesterday while I was [at the] burial, some 
persons got into the orchard and took away most of my 
pears though not fully ripe and I had kept them there to 

6. News brought last night that John Roberts and 
Abraham Carlisle were executed [on the] fourth instant. 

8. Spent part of [the] forenoon in conversation with 
Levy Marks, who called to see me and kindly invited me 
to come and dine with him, and this I should remark that 
none of my friends in Lancaster have paid me that com- 
pliment since my wife went to Philadelphia but himself, 
and with whom I dined the day after she went from 

here Our house has been pretty quiet these two or 

three days that I have kept Poll up stairs. 

10. About eight my wife came home in [the] wagon 
to the door. 

19. Little to be done but to eat, drink, make fires and 
sit by them, except my wife who keeps constantly em- 
ployed in providing, directing and doing for self and 

Nov. 1 77 8 J of the American Revolution. 205 

family, so that she is both the first and the last where 
there is any thing to be done of labor and care. 

20. I saw yesterday's paper just come from Phila- 
delphia, that gave an account in a letter from Boston that 
in a late storm on the third instant the Somerset man-of- 
war of sixty-four guns was lost to the southward of Cape 
Cod, forty men drowned and five hundred made prisoners 
and then on the road to Boston ; further that for ten 
days before fifteen English men of war had been cruising 
in that latitude, supposed to be Commodore Byron's fleet 
looking out for the French fleet at Boston, [which] ex- 
pected to sail but did not till the fourth, the day after the 
storm. Another letter from Elizabethtown, of the 
eleventh, says that one seventy-four gun and two other 
large men-of-war were seen going up to New York, 
having lost all their masts, &c. 

21. After dinner took [a] walk to the barracks to see 
part of Col. Bland's regiment of light-horse going to 
their homes in Virginia. 

24. ToWm. Henry's store ; stayed some time hearing 
that Sebastian Graff and John Whitemore had assaulted 
the sentry at Henry's store, taken away his gun from 
him and beat him. 

29. Sundry recruits enlisted here marched for camp 
this morning. 

December i. This day, going down town I saw Wm. 
Henry and , Commissary, go into a slaughter- 
house. I followed. They were killing, by order of 
[the] Commissary. The cattle were so young, little and 
poor that Squire Henry with me concluded that if the 
Commissary would sell them to farmers, or give them 
away« it would be a saving to the country [of] the 
butchers' wages, the salt, the packer, and the casks, be- 
sides the hauling, because after all that was done, the 
meat was not good or fit to be eaten. Thus is our state 
imposed upon, for the want of conscientious, upright 
men's being put into offices of such moment. 

ao6 Christopher Marshall* s Diary [Dec. 1778 

2. Visited by Francis Bailey, [who] came to bonow 
Saturday's Dunlap's paper to transcribe some articles into 
his paper. 

8. Visited by Capt. Pedro, who told us [the] news 
from Philadelpnia, that the French fleet under Count 
D'Estaing had taken Halifax and released three thousand 
of our people who were prisoners there; that Joseph 
Reed, Esq., was elected President, and George Byron 
Vice President of this state. 

A great number of wagons have been about this 
borough from different parts of this county. Nothing 
for them to do, after waiting many days, so [they] re- 
turned back. Some of those wagons came from thirty 
to forty miles. Such fine work our Commissaries make, 
being both ignorant and careless of their duty. 

9. To Anthony Weltze [the] butcher's ; there agreed 
with Jacob Snyder, miller, for a fat hog to be delivered 
some time in a month at four pence per pound hard 
money. Borrowed two silver dollars from friend Weltze 
and gave [them to] him for earnest. Coming here met 
Esquires Hogg and Harrison, Assemblymen, going home, 
the Assembly being adjourned on the fifth to the first 
day of second month, February. Spent some time with 

them [A] large drove of cattle went through here 

this day for the camp. 

IT. I had a restless, painful night with my old dis- 
order, head ache, noise in my head, &c. These exer- 
cises are like the sounding of the trumpet, in order to 
alarm us by letting us know that this is not our rest or 
place of abode, but no other but as different stages or 
removes to pass through in order to reach that happy 
resting place where the wicked one shall cease to trouble 
and where the soul that's longing for Redemption will 
find that blessed port and haven of rest that's situate in 
the presence of its beloved Jesus. 

13. I went before dinner down town, it being reported 
that Burgoyne's army taken prisoners had crossed Con- 

Dec. 1778] of the American Revolution. 207 

nestoga Creek, but it was a mistake. Returned home, 
wrote [a] letter to Paul Fooks, sent it and his floor-cloth 
by Frederick Shaffer, who was going to Philada. with 
his wagon, by whom my wife sent one barrel of cider 
and one barrel of apples to Grace Hastings, she being so 
exceedingly kind to my wife wheii she was last in 
Philada. Spent [the] evening by ourselves. Our Poll 
goes and comes where and when she pleases. 

14. Went to the barracks. One division of Bur- 
goyne's troops, said to be seven hundred and eighty-one, 

came to town James McLean, from Philada. 

going home, called ; stayed [and] drank tea ; said [that] 
flour in town [was] Nine Pounds per hundred weight, 
beef, prime pieces, five shillings per pound, salt got 
down to five pounds per bushel, but no news of any 
moment stirring. 

15. The division of the artillery, grenadiers and light 
infantry, including Lieut. Col. Nulling's detachment and 
the Ninth Regiment, all British prisoners, amount to 
seven hundred and eighty-one ; came to town yesterday, 
marched out this morning. In [the] afternoon, came 
to town the Second Division of British, consisting of the 
Twentieth and Twenty-First Regiments, amounting to 
Eight hundred and seventy-three with their women and 
children. Came home to dinner ; then walked to bar- 
racks to see the troops come in. 

J 6. Visited by an inhabitant of Lancaster, a tin man, 
[who] brought home the things he had mended. Paid 
him fifteen shillings. He stayed some time in religious 

17. Notwithstanding such heavy weather over head 
and exceeding dirty under foot, Poll after breakfast went 
to see the soldiers that came as prisoners belonging to 
Burgoyne's [army] j returned by two o'clock (fine and 

dirty trull) Yesterday came to town, the Third 

Division of the British, consisting of the Twenty- 
fourth, Forty-seventh and Sixty-second Regiments, 
amounting to Nine hundred and twenty-three prisoners. 

2o8 Chris tapber Marsbalts Diary [Dec, 1 77 8 

19. Kept Charles digging, he being very careful not 

to work too hard nor too long at a time The 

three divisions of English prisoners left the barracks this 
morning to proceed on their journey. In [the] afternoon 
came to the barracks the First Division of Germans, 
consisting of the Dragoons, Battalion of the Grenadiers, 
Reeiment of Rhite and Regiment of Rush", amounting 
to Nine hundred and forty-seven, besides women and 
children A great many of the Dutch round Lan- 
caster came in to-day, I presume to wait upon the German 

20. The second division of Germans consists of the 
Regiment of Speehts, Battalion of Hanoverians and 
Hessian Artillery, amounting to Nine hundred and thirty- 
five, besides women and children. 

21. This morning the First Division of Germans 
here marched away. 

22. The divisions of Hessians or Germans set ofF 
from our borough. 

24. After breakfast went down town to Wm. Henry's ; 
got qualified by him to act as Commissioner. I also 

Qualified Wm. Henry agreeably to the Act of [the] 
Jeneral Assembly of this State, passed [the] Fifth 
instant. From there by invitation to Bush's house 
to drink [a] glass of wine [and] eat sundries that were 
provided to regale the principal inhabitants of the borough, 
occasioned by his daughter's being married last night to 
Simon Solomon, shopkeeper. 

26. Our trull returned this morning before I arose. 
Her mistress gave her a good sound whipping. This 

latter was a rarity A number of Col. White's 

Light Horse (said [to be] two hundred and fifty) came 
to-day, it's said, to be quartered this winter. A parcel 
of the German prisoners returned back, as they could 
not cross the Susquehannah for ice floating, etc. 

28. This morning, one of the Light Horsemen re- 
ceived forty-eight lashes, it's said, in the barrack-yard, 
for insulting one of the inhabitants James Farran 

Dec. 1778] of the American Revolution. 209 

came and spent part of [the] evening in his Astronomical 

29. The Germans that returned back set out as the 
river was frozen hard. 

30. After dinner, my wife, James Farran and wife 
with Charles [being] in my room, I read to them a 
Thanksgiving Sermon, formerly preached by Dr. Sher- 
lock before Queen Anne. Paid two shillings and six 
pence* for twopence worth of yeast. 


January i. The Dutch kept firing guns last night 
and to-day, it being, it's said, customary. 

2. I had all our little jobs to do, as our man Charles 
without any notice, was, he said, for setting out for 
Baltimore. I accordingly paid him his wages for five 
months at Four Pounds per month, which amounted to 
Twenty Pounds. Paid him the balance due to make 
up that sum. He then took his clothes [and] walked 
off without bidding me or any one about [the] house 

6. Visited by Major Count Montford ; drank tea 
with [us] ; just come from Philada ; brought several 
letters and newspapers from Paul Fooks, dated Dec. 20, 
24 : Jan. 3 ; one from James Cannon dated November 
22d ; one from Thomas Hale. 

7. About ten, our Miss Trull appeared in the kitchen. 
I had been engaged serving creatures and mending [the] 
front fence where she and the dog had broken to come 
in and go out at, at times. 

8. Gave [a] sharp charge to our Poll for her mons- 
trous behavior. 

9. Visited by Major Montford. Lent [the] first and 
second volumes of the History of Sumatra during the 
sieges of Amurath ist, 2d & 3d, and a volume entitled 
GentUmarfs Calling by the Author of the Whole Duty of 

Man Our Poll stayed at home all this day. I 

can't remember when it was so before. 

' In Cont'menul money. 

2IO Cbristapber Marshall s Diary [Jan, 1779 

io« One of my neighbors, James Farran, told me 
his girl had been for flour, the price Eight Pounds, and 
at [the] same time, most or all of last year's crop not 
yet threshed. It appears to me that our rulers are only 
engaged about matters of public dispute respecting them- 
selves and some few individuals, at [the] same time 
neglecting the public utility and prosperity of the State 

in general} thus are we now situated As Poll had 

behaved tolerably yesterday, she had, upon asking her 
mistress, her best clothes to go to church, as she said. 
While we were eating part of [a] good roast turkey for 
dinner, and had given her a good portion, she dressed 
herself and packed up all her clothes, new and old, clean 
and dirty, took them with her and away she went and 
[we] have seen no more of her, as yet. 

13. Yesterday afternoon Dr. K rode up to my 

door, asked in his polite way how I and my family did } 
was there anything he could serve me with he had ? I 
thanked him, told him when 1 wanted, I might call upon 
him ; invited him in, but he was in a hurry with his 
man. So I got shut of his blarney. 

21. Wheat, ten dollars per bushel ; Flour from eight 

pounds to nine pounds per bushel [Paid] half a 

crown for fourpence worth of yeast ; two shillings and 
sixpence for a sixpenny broom." 

23. It's said that about seven this morning there was 
an exceeding great redness in the sky ; then appeared a 
large rainbow, that seemingly reached from north to 
south and remained for some time. Last night came 
Robert Whitehill ; stayed some time in political conver- 
sation ; said ^^ that the people in Cumberland and York 
counties were generally displeased with our Assembly 
^or their taking upon them to call a Convention at this 
Jme, and are preparing a Memorial that will be signed 
by some one thousand, to be sent down against their 
next meeting in opposition to their proceedings on that 

' Theie payments were in Continental money. 

Jan. 1779] of the American Revolution. 211 

and some other of their actions.*' He further said ^^ that 
the feast or entertainment given by the House on the 
election of Gen. Reed for President of this state cost 
Two Thousand Three Hundred and Five Pounds and 
fifteen shillings, Seventy Pounds of which was spent by 
the three members, viz, Robert Morris, Gen. Mifflin 
and Jonathan Potts who were appointed to get the same 
prepared and met two nights for that purpose at the City 

24. Last week was brought here President Reed's 
Proclamation for the discharge of all those persons 
throughout the State confined in prison (they first pay- 
ing all prison fees incurred by their confinement) for 
their pertinaciously refusing to take the several oaths 
or affirmations required by the laws of this State, dated 
Philada. 29th Dec^ 1778, Signed Joseph Reed, Presi- 
dent. Spent this day at home. In the afternoon, visited 
by James Farran, my poor neighbor, yet a sensible 
man, but talks abundance on the aflairs of England, his 
native country, where he made some figure in astronomy, 
of which he has a complete knowledge, as appears from 
letters and some pieces he published in the Leicester 
newspapers on that subject. 

26. Gen. Phillips, second in command to Burgoyne, 
in town, going after his fellow prisoners to Virginia. 

February 4. A report just come, [it is] said, from 
Philada., that the enemy had landed near Elizabeth 
Town and that Gen. Washington had left Philadelphia 
last Third Day in order to join the army and had ordered 
all his officers immediately to repair to their different 

5. Two men stood in [the] pillory this morning 
(horse stealing). 

8. News of the day is that Gen. Arnold has left 
Philada., and gone over to the English.' 

' This rumor is very remarkable. Arnold went over in September, 
1780, nineteen months afterwards. 

2 1 a Cbristapher MarshalTs 'Diary [Feb. i 779 

9. News that Capt. Lang carried [a] parcel of shirts, 
as Commissary to our camp, but they proved to be so 
little (it's said but two and a half yards in [a] shirt) that 
they returned him the shirts and all, to return back as a 
cheat to the public. 

II. Took a walk with R. Taggert to see Col. 
White's regiment of Light Horse exercise. 

13. News from Philada. is, by report, that Col. 
Bannister of Virginia is detected in Virginia with a 
laree sum of counterfeit money concealed, and those 
[whose] names [are] here following are said to be con- 
cerned with him in that affair \ that he (Bannister) is in 
jail there in irons. Whether this be founded in fact, I 
can't say : (viz.) Col. Edward Walker, Charles Wil- 
liamson, Capt. Ephraim Leipels^ Churchill, Anderson, 
Sterling, Harris, Thomas Woodford, Samuel Morgan, 
Henry Wright, Joseph Bond, Horvlet Williamson, 
Drewry Bordge, [and] Benj. Alfrund.' Account just 
brought that a Spanish vessel with dispatches from the 
Havanna is arrived at Philada. 

14. To Righteousness my spirits raise 
And quicken with thy life and love. 
That I may walk here to Thy praise 
And aiter live with Thee above. 
Grant I in glory may appear 
Clad with our Resurrection vest, 
When thou shalt lead thy flock most dear 
Up to the mansions of the blest. 

15. Heard Seventh Day's paper read. No news, 
but disputes between Gen. Arnold and proceedings of 
Council and a second letter in support [of the] resolve 
of Congress respecting taking the sense of the people to 

have a new Convention. It's said that one hundred 

Continental Dollars are given for one half-Joe 

Delivered James Lang One Thousand Dollars remitted 
me some time past for public services. 

20. It's said that half-joes within these few days have 
fallen from Twenty-Four to Eighteen and sundry goods 
lowered fifty per cent in Philad*. 

story. See the BUud Paptrt, 

Feb. 1779J of the American Revloution. 213 

22. After encountering with violent headache, towards 
morning I got a little sleep ; took [a] pinch of Patent 

snufF which purged my head greatly Visited by 

CoL Clark, going home from Philada., he could not 
stay, as he had heard his ftmily were poorly. Scarcely 
any news stirring, but a spirit of dissension amongst the 
people, blaming and traducing, he said, [the] President, 
Speaker of the House, &;c. 

26. Last evening a drove of several hundred head of 
fine cattle went through here towards our camp. Just 
received [a] letter from daughter Sally, with some garden 
seeds, Thursday's newspaper and [a] pamphlet entitled 
^' Consideration on the mode and terms of a Treaty of 
Peace with America. London, printed 1778. Phila- 
delphia, reprinted by Hall and Sellers, 1779 ;'' also [a] 
letter from P. Barker, mentioning part of [the] news 
said to be come from Congress, viz : that the Spaniards 
have acceded to the Independency of America and 
[are] to assist France with thirty sail of [the] line of 
battle ships and to lend the United States of America 
Thirty Millions of silver dollars, and that the Dutch 
have agreed to supply the Americans with a considerable 
loan to be guaranteed by France, &c., &c. 

March i. Yesterday came Pame Palasky's' Regi- 
ment of Light Horse and Yager Infantry. Last night 
a quarrel ensued between some of them and Col. White's 
Light Horsemen, but was soon quelled, yet some of the 
men were wounded, but not dangerously. 

3. No news stirring that I heard except [that] Pal- 
asky's Regiment of Light Horse and Yagers went out 
of town for the southward — a parcel of thieving fellows. 

7. Be it remembered that my good wife constantly 
milks the cow night and morning, and, besides her daily 
house work, makes us cheeses, besides supplying our 
family with plenty of good cream and two poor femilies 
with milk. Here is prudence and industry. 

• PulaskjT ? 


214 Christopher Marshals Diary [Mar. 1779 

II. Yesterday nine of Col. White's Light Horsemen 
were whipped at [the] Continental stable and barracks, 
it's said for mutiny, because their provisions were not 
good, and their pay detained for some months. 

27. It's said, by packet to New York, " the States of 
Holland have agreed to lend the Independent States of 

America One Million of Money." Yesterday and 

to-day, it's said that a number of ship carpenters came 
here on their march to Middletown, Pittsburgh, &c., in 
order to build some kind of vessels on the lakes for the 
ready transportation of troops into the Indian country, 
Detroit, &c. 

April 8. Some Assemblymen passed through here 
to-day on their way home, as the Assembly broke up 
[on] the Fifth ; adjourned to the Thirteenth [of] 

10. Visited by Capt. Joy, going to Virginia. With 
him saw the Act of Assembly dated April, 1 779, crying 
down the use of hard money in the purchasing of any 
kind of commodities in this State. 

11. News brought to-day by one Berry, who, he 
said, left Philadelphia [on] Fifth day last, that Proclama- 
tion was made by order of Gen. Washington, for such 
of the inhabitants as would not assist in defending the 
city, immediately to leave it, as the English army was 
expected to be there ; that numbers, upon that, were 
moving their effects out of the city, and he among the 

rest was come away Antony,' with John Jones, 

went to Quaker's meeting today, where Antony preached, 
as he called it, although he was requested to desist, but 
would not, so they by consent broke up the meeting 
sooner than they would have done, as he would not obey 
James Webb, who ordered or desired him to be silent 
and not to disturb them. 

17. Visited by Dr. Newman who said a number of 

' Antony Taborro, a new servant who came to Mr. Marshall on the 
tenth of April from his son*8. 

April 1779] of the American Revolution. 215 

pistols from Philadelphia were carried through here 
yesterday for CoL Hartley's regiment at Shamokin, and 
that the honest inhabitants in Philadelphia were much 

displeased at the acquittal of G and S as their 

behavior had been so atrocious while the enemy were 
in the city. 

20. News from Philadelphia that eight or ten vessels 
were arrived from [the] West Indies with sundry kinds 
of dry goods, &c, 

21. Gen. Lee,' it's said, with his dogs and doxey went 
through here for Virginia [on] Second Day. Gen. 
Mcintosh passed through here [on the] same day for 
[the] back woods. News to-day that sugar was fallen 
in Philadelphia to fifteen shillings per pound, coffee to 

thirteen shillings within these few days I'm told 

half a Joe sold for Sixty Pounds to-day. 

23. Fine clover, now black ; peaches, cherries, many 
of the garden vegetables all killed. We cut off the tops 
of our peas to see whether they will put forth afresh. 
I fear our apples have suffered greatly : their beauty is 
exceedingly marred. O Lord, thou givest and at thy 
pleasure takest away. Blessed be thy name. Visited 
by Charles Hall, to whom I gave papers relating to the 
Constitutional Society, to take to a meeting of many of 
the inhabitants of this county, who are to meet this day. 

24. Visited by Philip Thomas (carpenter in this 
borough), I think the most sensible, resigned Christian I 
have conversed with in this place ; stayed some time. 
Lent [him a] book called TTye Everlasting Gospel. 

25. Visited by Charles Hall, who has Just received 
[a] letter from Squires Thorne and Masterlett, acknow- 
ledging the receipt of our Constitutional Letter and their 
approbation of the proposal made them of calling a meet- 
ing in their neighborhood this week, the result of which 
they would communicate as soon as possible afterwards. 

May I . News that the Indians have killed twenty- 

' General Charles Lee. 

2 1 6 Cbristapber MarsbaWs Diary [M ay i 779 

three persons and taken one of our Assemblymen prisoner 
above Sunbury. »— Delaware Indians came here this 
day on their way to visit Congress and the French Am- 
bassador at Philad*. 

2. Just before breakfast received a letter of [the] 

twenty-sixth with two newspapers from Paul Fooks 

Paul's letter says *' This morning [the] French Ambassa- 
dor and Mr. Moralez,' escorted with our Light Horse, 
set off to pay a visit to our worthy Gen. Washington at 
camp. A French frigate is arrived at Boston. The 
express arrived this morning after the ambassador's de- 
parture with the packets and is gone after him. It's 
said that this vessel has had only eighteen days' passage. 

3. News is that [a] very large ship [bound] from 
Jamaica to London came to Philada. [on] Seventh Day 
morning, prize to Capt. Douglass. After dinner took 
[a] walk by myself and attended upon the exercise per- 
formed by the Light Horsemen. There were a great 
number of spectators. 

4. News came yesterday confirming the account of 
the seven prizes being arrived at Boston. [They] 
found, it's said, on board the Jason, one cask of sundries 
and in specie forty thousand English guineas. 

6. After dinner took [a] walk down the streets ; very 

quiet, it being the fast day appointed by Congress 

In the evening came son Kitty with the carriage. 

8. Arose early ; breakfasted half after five ; set off 
in Kitty's carriage with him." Reached Hopkins's 
tavern \ baited [the] horses ; proceeded from there to 
the sign of [the] Ship ; (we eat some victuals we had 
with us on tne road as we came along) baited the horses 
there. About four p.m. set off; crossed [the] Schuyl- 
kill about dusk, reached Kitty's soon after dark, pretty 
well tired. 

10. Set off for town ; reached there before night. 

12. This day [a] prize brig arrived, taken by Capt 

' Don Juan de Morales, the Spanish envoy to the United States. 

May 1779] ^f ^^^ American Revolution. 217 

Collins with one hundred and sixty-three hogsheads of 
molasses [and] some sugar. 

15. Went and visited Wilson Peale's pictures, a 
curious collection 

17. Saw our Poll, but [she] flew away, so could not 
speak [to] her. 

20. Col. Proctor's regiment marched out of [the] 
city for [the] back woods. 

21. Signed [a] petition to Congress respecting our 
Continental money, 

22. Went to B. Harbison's ; went with him to the 
Constitutional Society. After they adjourned, a number 
of citizens being there voted me into the chair, where 
[upon] sundry proposals were moved respecting our 
present situation and a town meeting agreed to be called 
next Third Day [at] four o'clock at [the] State House 
Yard. Six persons were appointed to draw up an ad- 
dress to be delivered. Near eleven, broke up. 

24. In the evening, went to Nancy Clark's, as the 
militia, after being reviewed, marched by her door and 
through part of the city to [the] Coffee House. Com- 
puted Horse, Fort and Artillery [to] amount to three 

25. Took [a] walk to our late beautiful place, now 
desolate ; to my old place in Moyamensing, where I 
dined \ returned ; Town Meeting in the State House 
Yard ; Daniel Roberdeau in the chair ; all as peaceable 
as could be expected ; drank tea at Charles's with some 
members of Congress. I omitted to mention my meet- 
ing [a] few days past with sundry of our magistrates and 
requesting them to be out of the way, if possible, on this 
day, on account of the meeting. The same I requested 
of our President, Joseph Reed, for reasons I mentioned, 
and they, I have good reason to think, complied with 
my desire, for a town meeting was greatly in my mind 
for some time, and I came from home with that inten- 
tion, used all my influence to promote it and was happy 

2 1 8 Christopher MarshalTs Diary [May 1779 

to see it completed so amicably. This paid me for all 
my trouble, and I am in great hopes that it will be of 
infinite advantage to the whole State. Amen. 

27. Visited by Roberdeau, who went with me to 
some of the Committee, complaining of the illegal pro- 
ceedings of Dean, who, being one of the Committee, 

had, nevertheless, joined with some others in purchasing 
a parcel of molasses just come, contrary to their own 
resolutions, for which transaction we requested he might 
be expelled their board, in order to pacify the minds of 
the public, who were irritated. 

28. Accounts from Gcrmantown that one thousand 
bushels of wheat [were] seized in a mill near there, con- 
cealed. Four or five wagons [were] stopped [and] 
brought back to the city last night, loaded with rum, 
sugar, tea, coffee, salt, &c., the invoices charged as rated 
by [the] Committee, but advanced on casks, boxes, &c., 
as Fifteen Pounds per hogshead, barrels at Ten Pounds. 
A schooner [was] brought back after gone from [the] 
wharf, [it is] said with three hundred barrels of flour 
covered over with street dirt. To such mean shifts are 
the disaffected driven since the Committee has been 
elected. Many suspected persons [have been] taken up 

and sent to prison, in which number are Richard W 

Thomas S y, M , B. H ,Levi H , 

&c., &c. Peter K n, had three and a half hogshead, 

of rum seized this morning by the Collector, not being 
entered. Flag of truce from Santa Cruz. Sundry 
persons and goods came this day from Baltimore [for] 
fear of the English. 

2Q. Visited, as I have been, I think, since in town 
every day, by Paul Fooks, who shows me the utmost 
kindness and respect in his power. Dr. P-hyle came to 
us at Charles's ; says accounts from Charleston are that 
the enemy were repulsed by our people so as to fly before 
them, leaving fourteen hundred on the field killed and 
wounded. This is great news, when fully authenticated. 

May 1779] of the American Revolution. 219 

30. Butter yesterday in market sold for Two to 
Three Dollars per pound, meat of different kinds from four 
shillings and six pence to ten shillings per pound, flour 
(little in market) Twenty Pounds a hundred, green peas 
from twenty shillings to twenty-five shillings the half peck, 
radishes from two shillings and six pence to three shillings 
and nine pence [a1 bunch, good best spirits Seven Pounds 
five shillings [the] single gallon, molasses, sold by [the] 
hogshead, from Four Pounds to Four Pounds ten shillings 
per gallon, oak wood at the wharf Sixteen Pounds per 
cord, Hickory up to Twenty Pounds, house rent risen 
from Fifty Pounds per year to Five Hundred Pounds, 
from Eighty Pounds to One Thousand Pounds, Twelve 
Hundred Pounds, &c.* 

June i. Went and paid Fox for two pairs of shoes, 
one for self, one for negro woman. Fifty Dollars. 

2. Paid Grace Hastings Eighty Dollars for two silk 

3. Paid Polly Garrigues Five Pounds five shillings for 
wrist banding eight shirts and thread ; paid Betsey Hallo- 
way Five Pounds two shillings and six pence for hem- 
ming six neck-cloths. 

6. Having taken leave of my children, grand-children, 
friends, &c., set oflF with Kitty in his carriage with grand- 
daughter Hannah about six in [the] morning. We 
reached Levering's tavern, baited horses, proceeded for 
Kitty's, which we reached safely past twelve, thanks to our 
Great Benefactor and Preserver. Found the &mily well. 
When Providence mpeting was over several Friends 
came and dined ; spent [the] afternoon ; after tea went 
away. They were pleasant and cheerful. 

7. Just out of bed, received [a] letter from Dr. Phyle, 
giving account of six French ships (four of them with 
goods, two armed ships) arrived at Baltimore. Spent this 
day walking, reading, &c., at Kitty's. In [the] evening 
came negro Moses from town ; brought further account 

< See Hazard* t Roister ^ Tol. 3, p aoi. 

aao Christopher Marshall' s Diary [June 1779 

of the defeat of the English at Charleston, with this cir- 
cumstance that the English were repulsed, returned to 
the charge, such as to push bayonets, then beat off leav- 
ing seven hundred on the field. It's hoped this would 
prove another Burgoyne, &c. 

11. After dinner had horses and my things put into 
Kitty's carriage and past three Charles and I, after taking 
leave, set off for Lancaster. Reached John Jacobs's 
near sunset, where we stayed, supped and lodged, they 
receiving us exceedingly kind and friendly. 

12. Arose early, breakfasted, put on great coats, being 
cool, wind northwardly, set off about six, reached the 
sign [of the] Wagon, baited our horses, then proceeded 
to the sign of the Hat, baited our horses, got a gill of 
best spirits at both places with some water. Victuals 
we brought with us •, stopped and eat on the road. We 
then set off, reached my home in Lancaster near six. 

14. Visited by sundry of my Lancaster neighbors ; 
informed me of a town meeting they held the eleventh 
instant, at which I was elected a member, requesting me 
to act and to attend at the Court House this after- 
noon At dinner, [came a] messenger requesting 

my attendance at [the] Court House Eleven mem- 
bers besides myself attended out of the fifteen chosen ; 
proceeded to the first business \ chose a chairman, which 
unanimously fell to my share. We next proceeded to 
settle [the] prices of eatables (excepting flesh and vege- 
tables) on a similar plan with Philad' and as [there were] 
some complaints respecting hard money, it was thought 
proper to refer that and the prices affixed to a Town 
Meeting to be held next Fourth Day. 

16. To the Court House ; took the chair by appoint- 
ment at four, addressed the people, read the prices affixed 
by [the] Committee, who then entered into sundry resolves 
(as printed in the Lancaster newspaper, June 19th). 
After the meeting was over, met in committee ; report 
made by the chairman of the proceedings to the com- 

June 1779] of the American Revolution. aai 

tnittee, who sent to the printer in order to have them 
published. They adjourned to Second Day morning, 
ten o'clock. 

18. After dinner met the Committee ; broke up, after 
directing circular letters to be written to the ten Colonels 
in this county enclosing the proceedings of the Town 

meeting agreeably to the resolve Wrote [a] few 

lines for Circular Letter, carried it to two- of the gentle- 
men appointed who approved of it and ordered it to be 
copied [and] when the letters [were] completed [to] 
bring them to me to be signed. While I had been at 
home, they told me that Lady Washington, accompanied 
by sundry light horsemen and her menials, passed through 
the borough on her return home. Returned home with 
me Ed. Shippen, who for this week past has been pretty 
closely engaged in reading Wm. Law's works [with] 
which I have furnished him (he says, to his great satisfac- 

20. I wrote a few lines enclosing two German papers 
[containing the] proceedings of the Committee in Phila- 
delphia, received last night, requesting some of our 
committee, if they thought proper, to fix them up under 
the care of [a] sentry on Mr. Henry's store door this 

26. We have long waited but yet have no official ac- 
counts of the repulse of the enemy in their attack upon 
Charleston, yet the accounts coming so many different 
ways leaves no doubt of their defeat, with me, which is 
related thus, that the enemy lost near one thousand men 
in killed and wounded before the town ; this happened 
the eleventh of May, commanded by Gen. Provost, the 
troops in the town commanded by Gen. Moultrie. The 
enemy retreated up (he neck, between Ashley and 
Cooper rivers. It's said that Gen. Pulaski, at the head 
of his legion had reached Charleston a few days before 
the enemy, and that^ tallying briskly out of the lines, 
[he] took one hundred and eighty of their advanced 


222 Christopher Marshall s Diary [June 1779 

guard, forty of whom, being Tories, were hanged for 
attempting to rise during the attack upon the town, so 
that by all iiiformation received, it's expected the main 
body must surrender themselves prisoners, though per- 
haps the troops that retired to James Island might escape 
away in their boats. 

27. After breakfast, I planted a number of coxcombs 
(although there is a number [of] two footed ones in and 
about this borough). 

28. After dinner went and met committee at their 
room in [the] Court House. Sundry affairs were brought 
before them, amongst the rest, a poor man complained 
that John Hopson, a committee man, chosen but [who] 
never attended, charged two shillings and six pence per 
pound [more] for coffee than was stipulated. He, being 
sent for, attended, confessed the fact and [said] that he 
would sell no more without he was suffered to sell at his 
price. The behavior of Hopson satisfied the whole com- 
mittee that he was no more a friend to the country than 
his interest led him, that being his ruling passion, it's said. 

July 4. Mamma went to meeting, where Antony 
spoke and was forbid, but [it] had no effect. He ap- 
peared to be most consumately bold and ignorant in his 
way of speaking there, and about [the] house Pm obliged 
in a stern manner to order him at times not to say one 
word more, which kind of resolution, though disagreea- 
bly, I am obliged to make use of in order to silence him. 

[5. After breakfast went into town, where preparation 
was making for Col. Jacob Glotz's regiment to march 
about a mile out of town this afternoon, to celebrate the 

nniversary of our Independence.* Notice of this was sent 
me by billet this morning and [I was] afterwards waited 
on by the aforesaid Col. and George Hoffs with a polite 
invitation to accompany them. Near two o'clock went 
down to the Court House, where, after some little time, 

* The Fourth of July fell on Sunday thii yeas 

July 1779] of the American Revolution. 223 

having joined Col. Jacob Glotz's battalion of militia, 
placing me at the head of [the] Committee who walked 
two by two, then the corporation, the Colonels, one and 
two, with their battalion, colors flying, drums, fifes and 
band of music, [we] went in procession down Queen 
street to a spacious piece of woodland, adjoining Con- 
estoga Creek, with [a] fine spring, where, after some 
time spent in sociable cheerfulness, the men having 
grounded their arms, they then formed in order, where- 
upon the following healths were drank, I being Toast 
Master, viz : 

1st. The true Independent and Sovereign States of 

2d. The Great Council of America. 

3d. His most Christian Majesty, Louis i6th« 

4th. His Excellency, Gen. Washington. 

5th. The American Army and Navy, may they be 
victorious and invincible. 

6th. The Nations in Friendship and Alliance with 

7th. The American Ambassadors at Sovereign Courts. 

8th. The Memory of the Officers and Soldiers who 
have fallen in defense of Ameriea. 

9th. Pennsylvania. 

1 0th. May only those Americans enjoy freedom who 
are ready to die for its defense. 

nth. Liberty Triumphant. 

1 2th. Confusion, Shame and Disgrace to our Enemies : 
May the foes of America, slaves to tyranny, humble and 
fall down before her. 

13th. May the Rising states of America reach the 
summit of human power and grandeur by enjoying every 

Each of these toasts was attended by a discharge of the 
musketry that would have done honor to old veterans. 
After which, they all returned under the same regularity, 
walked through some of the principal streets and drew 

224 Christopher Marshall's Diary [July 1779 

up in front of [the] Court House where they discharged 
three regular v*»lleys of musketry [and] received every 
man some cool drink. I then went into the front, 
thanked the officers and privates, in the name of the 
Committee, for their great zeal shown in the support of 
the Freedom of Independency in general and for their 
manly prudence, good conduct and sobriety on this 
memorable occasion, for which they returned me thi^ir 
hearty thanks. The Col. then dismissed them and they 
deparated in great good humor, peace and harmony. 
The Committee broke up and I returned home completely 
tired, yet pleased with our conduct^ 

6. Last night, or rather this morning, I was awakened 
by the sound of music. I got up, went to [the] front 
door, found our band of music, [who] made an excuse 
for their coming by saying they did it purely to show 
their regard and respect they owed for my prudent and 
good conduct shown to the Borough of Lancaster. I 
thanked them very kindly, told them I had nothing else 
at this unseasonable time. They answered it was all 
they required, played a few more tunes, then retired, 
exceedingly well pleaised. I then went to bed, it being 
about one o'clock. 

Ci the morning, visited by Sundry of our Committee 
men ; informed me that the other company came in 
about half an hour after ours broke up, behaved them- 
selves as drunken madmen, cursed the Committee, called 
them rebels and all the Whigs that took their parts, 
paraded round the Court House, many of them, and 

went to Reigart's, such as the G s, H , S , 

Z , B , P , P and many others. 

Some of our people got angry, by the repeated abuse and 
kept as quiet as could be expected, though as some of 
them were struck at, they returned the compliment, so 
that a few blows passed and our people passed it by for 
the time. What may ensue, I know not. Wrote a 
few lines to be published respecting our proceedings on 

July 1779] of the American Revolution. 22 j^ 

7. Simon Levy, I heard, called upon B , [to 

desire him] to ask bis pardon for his ill behavior, which 
Barton said he would not to the best man in the country, 
upon which Levy down with [and] gave him what he 
thought sufficient with promise to serve him so when- 
ever he met him till he asks his pardon. Most of them 
that offended Col. Glotz have ackngyy {edged that they 
were drunk and asked his pardon pubiiclyv 

8. Visited by , harnessmaker, who put [a] few 

stitches in our chair-harness, &c. Paid him two shil- 
lings and six pence. He stayed some time and spoke 
feelingly of the inward work of Christ in the soul in order 
to be the true Christian in deed and in truth. He departed 
in a sweet frame of spirit. 

9. Before breakfast, engaged in [the] garden with our 
nonsuch gardener. Mammy weighed her cheese that she 
has made this season, weighed eighty-eight pounds, be- 
sides two that have been used in the family ; twenty- 
four pounds of butter. John's family have their milk 
every day, besides some others who have a share and 
our own cream twice a day, besides our cow, except at 
her first calving, don't give but between three quarts and 
a gallon at milking, so that I can say no woman in point 
of industry in these parts can equal her in the dairy. 

13. Gave a certificate to Josiah Lockart, as Chair- 
man of [the] Committee of Lancaster to Wm. Henry, 
Chairman of [the] Committee in Philadelphia, in order 
to permit him to bring up such goods as he may purchase 
in Philadelphia. This afternoon, a negro man from 
Cecil County, Maryland, preached in [the] orchard op-^ 
posite to ours. There were sundry people. They said 
he spoke well for near an hour. Afterwards Antony 
spoke, but the people left him and the boys were like to 
be rude. 

15. Visited this morning by Major Wertz and Simon 
Snyder [who] brought Dunlap's newspapers [of^ June 
29th and July 13th, containing the regulating resolves 

226 Christopher Marshair s Diary [July 1779 

of our army, of [the] Boston and Philadelphia county 
Committees, highly spirited and comprehensive. Ac- 
count of three valuable prizes [brought] last week to 
Philadelphia, one a vessel of one hundred and ninety 
hogsheads of Jamaica spirits [and] six pipes of Madeira, 
another of three hundred tons burden loaded with three 
hundred hogsheads of molasses and sugar, the third with 
rum, sugar, salt, &c. After dinner visited by Ludwick 
Laughman, just come from Philadelphia. Brought a 
letter from son Charles of [the] thirteenth instant, in- 
forming they were all well, with some newspapers and 
some papers from [the] Committee in Philadelphia. 
Stayed some time in conversation. I distributed some 
of the Philadelphia papers in order to inform our country 

folks of their proceedings Gave certificate to John 

Messencope, as Chairman of the Committee in the 
borough to deliver to Wm. Henry, Chairman of the 
Committee in Philadelphia, in order to permit him to 
bring out such goods as he may purchase there in order 
to sell here. 

16. John Jones brought me word from Peter Mus- 
selman that he could supply me with all my winter's 
fire wood. This, I think, is a favor from heaven, as 
he is so upright a man, and will prevent my applying to 
sundry self-righteous persons for that commodity, whp 
will take every advantage in ordinary wood and short 
measure, besides looking that I am greatly indebted to 
them for supplying me. 

17 Visited by Wm. Henry; brought me [a] letter, 
enclosing two or three newspapers from Paul Fooks, 
dated the sixteenth ; stayed some time. He said that it 
was said in Philada. that the French king had made a 
present to the States of [a] forty-gun frigate which B, 
Franklin called Poor Richard.* 

' The name '* Le Bonhomme Richard/* was given by Paul Jones, he 
having obtained the vessel by following a piece of advice in Poor Richard*t 
Almanac } '* If you wish your bu Jhess done, go ; if not, send/* 

July 1779] of the American Revolution. 227 

20. Account this day of Gen. Wayne's taking the 
English fortress at Stony Point, last Friday morning {at] 
daybreak by surprise, without firing a gun, with the loss 
of four men only ; he himself wounded in the check. 
The garrison consisted of five hundred men, Sixteen 
pieces of cannon and a large quantity of baggage and 
stores [were taken]. 

21. Visited by Col. Glotz and Wilton Atkinson, 
Esq.^ of Sunberry, to whom I gave sundry papers of the 
proceedings of [the] Committees of Philada. and Lan- 
caster in order for their government in forming Com- 
mittees in Northumberland County. News of yesterday 
confirmed through another channel with this circum- 
stance that it was three o'clock in the morning. Our 
people after securing [the] prisoners, turned the guns of 
[the] fort upon the English shipping, which obliged 
them to fall down the river. 

23. News brought of the enemy's burning the towns 
of I^irfield, Bedford and East Haven.' 

August i. [For] returns of the prisoners, baggage, 
stores, ordinance, &c., at Stony Point, taken by Gen. 
Wayne, see Pennsylvania Gazette^ No.. 2563. 

2. Came John Garrigues, Jr., said he ran away from 
the British army near Charleston ; had a pass from Gen. 
Moultrie ; supped and stayed all night. 

3. After dinner, met [the] Committee at [the] Court 
[House] ; elected Chairman of the Committee by an 
unanimous vote. 

4. The officers, prisoners taken at Stoney Point, came 
into the borough this morning. 

6. Just going to bed, favored with Thursday's news- 
paper, sent by Major Wertz, by his son in the rain, 
giving account of D'Estaing's taking [Grenada], beating 
the English fleet so that they were obliged to go to 
different ports to refit. [The] French took in the fort 

' In Connecticut. 

228 Christopher MarshalPs Diary [Aug. 1779 

seven hundred men, [six] Colonels, [thirty-four] Cap- 
tains, [three pairs of] Colors, [one hundred and two] 
Cannons [sixteen] Mortars : obliged them to surrender 
at discretion as they took [Grenada] by storm. This 
paper contained [an] account that our friends carried the 
election in Philad* for the Committee. 

7. Wrote the rough draught of an Address to the In- 
habitants of this County. 

9. It's told me that two fellows from New York were 
detected at Small, the tavern-keeper's, with large quan- 
tities of counterfeit money, [it's] said. Fifteen Thousand 
Dollars, and committed to jail. There was a third, 
but he escaped. 

II. The two persons taken for passing counterfeit 
bills, being pursued from the Jerseys, were taken away 
in irons. 

13. I was favored with four American Magazines, 
[for] April, May, June [and] July from Robert Taggert 5 
took the pains and time to go through them. 

14. News of the day is that Spain has declared these 
States independent ; that a fleet of twenty-six men-of- 
war had sailed from to Corunna ; joined there by 

twenty-four ships of the line ; had taken on board twenty- 
five thousand land forces ; had sailed for Ireland ; that 
Ireland had revolted and the French had retaken Pon- 
dicherry in the Bast Indies ; that a fleet had sailed from 

for America, in which was a new Ambassador 

coming in order to replace the one here, who was to 
return home. 

20. Roused out of bed by [a] person at [the] door, 
with [a] letter from Paul Fooks, dated the seventeenth 
with newspaper of that date, giving account of the 
[arrival of the] new French Ambassador, Chevalier de 
Luzerne, with his Secretary and John Adams Esq., late 
Commissioner from the United States, in a French frigate 
of thirty-two guns. 

22. News is that Spain has declared us independent ; 

Aug. 1779] of the American Revolution. 229 

that war was declared at Porto Rico against England 
[on] the fifteenth [of] July. [For] particulars of several 
interesting pieces of intelligences, sec Dunlap's Advert 
tisery Tuesday, August 17th instant. 

23. Past five met [the] Committee, where John Moor 
appeared, acknowledged that he acted impudently in 
not coming when sent for in the morning and promised 
to behave more prudently in future. This acknowledg- 
ment was accepted and ordered to be published. 

26. Buried my poor cat this morning, that was sick 

sometime past. I set great store by her To Major 

Wertz's ; heard Tuesday's Dunlap's paper, August 24th, 
read, giving account of Major Lee's surprising the gar- 
rison at Paulus Hook with four hundred men, and taking 
the whole garrison, that were not killed or wounded, 
prisoners, with the loss of about four or five, after a 
march of eighty miles. 

28. Visited by two English officers, prisoners, to 
know if I would let them part of my house. I received 
them politely yet let them know my sentiments so fully 
that they will not make a fresh enquiry, I think. 

September 4. To writing, after I had shaved myself, 
which I had not done, I think, for twenty or thirty years 
past, but our barber was got so impertinent and extor- 
tionate it was time to try. Received [a] letter and 
newspapers with [the] King of Spain's Declaration 
against England, from son Charles. 

6. Near noon our Poll returned ; came in [a] carriage 
with some of Sam^ Morris's family, two brothers who, 
she said, were g;oing to York Town. It was that 
Morris who had married Amos Strettle's daughter (and 
Samuel his brother). She was going with him. 

7. Account just come from Gen. Sullivan of his giv- 
ing the Indians a defeat, that were under Butters and 
Brant, near Chemung or Newtown, on the thirty-first 
of last month. 

8. Near nine, went to [the] Committee room ; came 

ajo Christopher Marshall* s Diary\SzvT. 1779 

away about twelve ; came home, wrote [a] copy of [aj 
circular letter to the ten Colonels ; took it down ; ap- 
proved of 4 copies ordered to be written to send to them 
by some of [the] members ; finished and broke up the 
County Committee by adjourning to the first Tuesday 
in October next. 

ID. Walked to the Continental stable to view a parcel 
of old wagon and cart wheels perishing there. 

13. Gave mammy going to Philada. ninety dollars to 
:>ear her expenses and John and Debby's to Kitty's. 

16. Miss Poll arose with calling, past eight ; eat break- 
last ; dressed her head in tip-top fashion ; went down 
town to look out for passage ; came back while I was 

5 at] Committee, took her things [and] was gone before 
\ returned from Committee past twelve. 

19. In the evening came Dr. NefF, Ed. Shippen and 
Rob* Taggert ; brought account of the French fleet under 
Count D'Estaing being off Sandy Hook. 

26. Antony went to meeting I kept engaged, 

helping to cook [the] pot against master came home. I 
may in some sense say so, as he gives himself no trouble 
about the place. He comes and goes as he pleases. If 
he is spoken to, it breaks his peace. He loves quietness 
and stillness, yet he is all the while a talking, so that Pm 
obliged to command him to be silent, and, with great 
reluctance sometimes he will obey. 

27. Letter from Charles of the twenty-fifth 

He adds, ^^ I am just informed an express is arrived from 
Georgia with account of the French fleet's [having] 
arrived there and that they were to make an attack on 
Savannah. It is also reported that the Experiment of 
fifty guns, commanded by Sir James Wallace, and several 
other vessels were taken. 

30. John Jones, just come, brought [a] letter of [the] 
twenty-eighth, informing that Mammy was hearty and all 
their families well, with deal of love. 

October i. Antony keeps still pottering. While 
quiet its bearable. 

Oct. 1779] of the American Revolution. 231 

3. Lent Robert Thornburgh a book entitled The 

Marrow of Divinity by Thomas Boston Visited 

by Robert Taggert ; brought yesterday's paper, where 
under the Boston head there was an account of the 
English fleet's being blockaded in Torbay by a fleet 
of fifty-four ships of the line, French and Spaniards. 

7. Letter from son Charles, with two newspapers. 
His family poorly with colds ; Mammy brave and hearty ; 
no news of her return but that there had been a great 
disturbance in the city [on] Second Day afternoon, at 
which several lives were lost. No further particulars. 

9. Came Jacob Seachrist Jr. ; paid him One Hund- 
red Dollars for three cords [of] oak wood, hh brought 

16. Four Dollars for two loaves of bread. 

17. I arose past seven ; had our gentleman to call down 

stairs. I spoke to him for not serving the cow; 

He began in his way of all's being right, &c., &c. I 
set about serving our family and let him, as in common, 
do as he pleases. I think I have hired a plague to my 
spirit, for, after all my resolutions to bear with his pride 
and impertinence, I am overtaken and though I scold or 
talk sharp to him, it answers no end. He is still the 
same Antony ; as he says, complaisant, careful, industri- 
ous, thoughtful, &c., so that, in his conceit, no person 
can exceed him. In the evening came my wife in [the] 
chair and son Charles [on] horseback. 

22. Kept pottering about sundries ; Antony grunting 
and stowing away a few potatoes. 

26. After dinner, visited by Ludwick Lauman \ 
brought me the news of Count D'Estaing's seizing most 
of the English vessels in Carolina and Georgia, both men« 
of-war and transports, with two Generals and a large 
body of troops, and that Gen. Lincoln was gone to the 
Savannah after the remainder, account of which [is] daily 
expected. It's said this engagement was obstinate for 
two hours and forty minutes ; great numbers killed on 
both sides. 

23a Christopher Marshall's Diary\^ Nov. 1779 

November 6. Paid Captain Pcdree, Collector of 
Tax, Fifty-seven Pounds, eight shillings, being State, 
County and old man's taxes. 

II. Lent Judge Atlce, Belisarius; received Churchill's 
volume of Poems I had lent him some time ago. 

24. To Wm. Henry's, who was writing [a] letter to 
the President of the State, acquainting him that he was 
informed that John Mercer had purchased part of the 
manor in this county that belongs to the Delaware In- 
dians for the sum of Hundreds, hard money, of 

the late Governor, Penn, who had obtained their Reserve 
Deeds from the Sheriff of Lancaster in and about the 

year •, who had the remainder of that tribe then in 

prison, from whom he received those Deeds. 

25. Two letters from Paul Fooks. One of them of 
[the] twenty-second says, '* I have just heard from [a] 
member of Congress by advice from Martinique of the 
combined fleet's beating the English under Sir Charles 
Hardy in the channel ; took one ninety, two seventy- 
four gun ships ; that twenty sail of French and Spanish' 
men-of-war with one hundred transports had an engage- 
ment with the English under Peter Parker in the West 
Indies ; sunk four, took two men-of-war with them to 
Martinique ; that Count D'Estaing was going home to 
France in [a] frigate to be cured of his wound ; had left 
five of his frigates for the protection of Charleston, with 
the Experiment of fifty guns, three sloops of war [with] 
copper bottoms [and a] twenty gun ship that came from 
Liverpool, with one of thirty-six guns from Glasgow. 
These were his prizes. Some of his ships are come to 
Chesapeake Bay to land some sick and wounded, take 
in provisions and proceed after the rest of the fleet to 
the Islands. News of yesterday, that government had 
taken up at New York more than twenty-eight thousand 
tons of transports, which are more than necessary to 
carry every thing from there." 

' English in the original ; a slip of the pen. 

Dec. 1779] ^f ^^^ American Revolution. 233 

December 23. Gen. Gates went through here, going 
home to his family in Virginia. 

24. Came Robert Whitebill, stayed and dined. He 
was going to Philadelphia. I requested him to use his 
influence with the Trustees of [the] College, newly 
chosen, to send an invitation to James Cannon [andj 
James Davidson to return and become again tutors in 
the College. 

29. Sent [a] letter to the Rev. Dr. Ewing, under 
cover to Paul'Fooks, to whom I wrote res|>ecting the 
same subject of getting J. Davidson and J. Cannon 
places in the college of Philadelphia. 

3 1 . We went to bed but not before we had a 

fresh encounter with Antony, who had taken upon him 
(although I had before charged him not to concern liim- 
self with her, but if any thing was amiss to acquaint her 
mistress therewith) to abuse the negro woman as she had 
not made his bed, as he said, fit for him to lie in. I in- 
terfered and desired him to go to bed and not disturb 
the house. This rather inflamed him so that I took 
him by the arm to put him up stairs. He started from 
me, went out in the yard, said he would not be thus 
abused ; he would not be insulted. I accordingly shut 
the door. After a considerable space of time, he came 
and requested I would let him in. I did so and spoke 
to him to this purpose, Antony, thy behavior is such 
that I cannot have thee about house, except thou wilt 
behave thyself in another manner, and thou must re- 
member that a good while since I ordered thee away 
upon such an occasion, but thou, as now, promised to 
behave better and saidst that thou wouldst be contented 
to stay if I paid thee no wages, but would give thee 
some necessary clothes and what else I thought proper, 
as thou didst not desire to go away from here. To this 
he readily assented and said he was still of the same mind, 
and he hoped he would in future be more still and quiet, 
as that was the state he loved to live in and it was in 

234 Christopher Marshall's Diary [Dec. 1779 

hopes to live so retired that he left my son Christopher's 
to come tnd live here. He said abundance in his way 
on this topic. Upon the whole he went to bed still and 
quiet, as we did to ours [it] being near twelve o'clock, 
we being so disturbed and detained by him. 


January 2. Near six, came Dr. John Morgan, in 
order to get my testimony respecting Dr. William Ship- 
pen Jr.'s conduct in Philad* when I with others had the 
care of the sick soldiers, that had been prisoners at New 
York, the flying camp, &c. Drank tea ; stayed all night. 

3. The Doctor went down town; came back with 
Charles Hall Esq. who qualified me respecting some 
transactions of our Committee in Philad* for sick soldiers, 
some time past. 

4. Came to town this day, a number of English pri- 
soners under guard from Philadelphia. Most desperate 
traveling through the snow. 

5 Heard in Lancaster that Richard Penn's fine house 
in Market Street was burnt, where John Holker lived, 
the second instant. 

6. Favored with two newspapers sent me by Ludwick 

Lauman giving account of the Spaniards' actually 

beseiging Gibraltar and having taken Pensacola and that 
a fleet was sailed from Sandy Hook the twenty-third of 
December of one hundred and forty sail, with six 
thousand English troops, said to be for South Carolina ; 
that Gen. Washington had detached from the grand 
army a body of three thousand Virginia and North Car- 
olina troops for the better defense of that important place, 
and that a body of twenty-five hundred North Carolina 
militia were preparing and a body of militia from Vir- 
ginia, both going to [South] Carolina ; and that the 
English were completely routed, lost four thousand, and 
six thousand surrendered prisoners at discretion in the 

Jan. 1780] of the American Revolution. 235 

East Indies between Bengal and Poonah to an anny of 
the natives {Penna, Packet^ Dec. 30th^ and Jan. ist). 

8. It's said that the prisoners that came the other day 
were sent away this morning. 

10. Visited by Esq. Shippen ; stayed some time in con- 
versation ; informed me that he just heard it reported in 
Lancaster that [a] ship, it's thought [the] Roebuck,' and 
a twenty-gun frigate in the last storm there was, [were] 
lost oiF Middletown Point, near Shrewsbury, and the 
crews of which mostly escaped in boats to New York. 
The forty-gun ship was driven ashore near Egg Harbor; 
one hundred of the crew found dead on board, the re- 
mainder, sixty in number, were happily relieved by the 
generous Americans. P, Journal^ Num. 1321. 

F2. It's said that part of two regiments of Virginians, 
five hundred men with ten wagons, came to town this 
day on their route to Carolina. Excessively bad roads 
with snow, and cold with wind fresh [from the] North 

16. It's said the five hundred troops of Col. Ball or 
Hall that come the other day, marched this morning ; 
would have gone yesterday but for [a] Court Martial's 
being held on three soldiers for robbing a man here, for 
which they were whipped. To-day arrived Col. Nevil's 
regiment of five hundred men, on the same route as the 
others for Virginia and South Carolina We re- 
quested Antony, if he went to meeting, not to attempt 
to preach ; if lie should, I expected they would pull him 
out and probably duck him in the creek. He said that 
he was not afraid of man, if his father bid him, but they 
were blockheads. He did not go, but told [the] negro 
woman, that they were wicked, bad people and he would 
pray no more for them. 

18. Oak wood^ [it is] said [sells for] Sixty Dollars 
per load, and hickory, Eighty [Dollars], notwithstanding 

' It was the Mermaid. — Ed. 

236 Christopher MarshalF s Diary [Jan. 1780 

G. R. employs the Continental teams to haul it, for 
which he don't pay one single penny, either for the driver, 
horses or wagons. O poor State of Pennsylvania. 

21. Learned that there was a splendid Assembly last 
night at [the] Court House, Lancaster ; twenty-one 
ladies, double quantity of men, band of music, dancing, 
singing, gaming, drinking, carousine, &c., &c. It's said, 
every subscriber is to pay Three Hundred Dollars, any 
interloper of assembly nights admitted upon paying Thirty 
Dollars, each night. Gen. Woodward with his attend- 
ants left Lancaster yesterday on his journey to Virginia. 

22. I went down to Wm. Henry's store ; stayed till 
past twelve, in which time marched out of town Col. 
Nevil's regiment for Virginia, with six fine brass cannons 

and a number of wagons Butter, one shilling per 

pound hard money. ...•• A set of Lancastrians sleighing 
about ; went about three miles from town. A few days 
past, it's said, a company numbering thirteen, had a col- 
lation, afternoon and evening. Their expenses amounted 
to Four hundred and fifty Pounds. Jovial Times ! 

25. It's said that yesterday came into town, the Third 
Division of the Virginia troops, five hundred men, Col. 
Guest, on their route for S Carolina. 

28. Came Gasper Singer ; brought a hog which 
weighed one hundred and twenty^four pounds ; paid him 
Three Pounds in gold ; three bushels of Indian Corn ; 
paid him Thirty-six Pounds, paper money. He stayed, 
dined with us. He tells that five of our soldiers that 
went last week from here for Virginia died of cold on 
the road. 

February 2. Dined with us, William Bispham ; 
bought of him three and a half yards [of] yard-wide tow 
linen ; Paid him thirty-eight continental dollars ; lent him 
the second volume in folio of Bishop Burnet's History 
of his own time. 

1 1 . Waited upon by Myner and Mercer, col- 
lecting for repairing the engines and ladders. Gave them 

Feb. 1780] of the American Revolution. 237 

three Pounds Fine assembly and collation last 


14. After breakfast, I took [a] walk to [the] vendue 
of Cornelius Land's household goods, where they were 
sold extravagantly, as per a specimen here annexed to 
show that the people here in general set no store by our 
Continental paper money ; viz. : A frying pan, Twenty- 
five Pounds ; A wood saw. Thirty-seven pounds, ten 
shillings ; Three split bone handled knives, three ditto 
forks, rusty. Twenty-two pounds, ten shillings ; An old 
mare of eleven years old for Eight hundred and five 
pounds ; One gallon stone bottle of the bead sort. Seven 
Pounds, ten shillings ; one common razor without a case, 
with hone for setting. Twenty Pounds; one pair of 
common spectacles in case, Eighteen Pounds ; small 
Dutch looking-glass, six inches by four, no ornaments, 
but worse by age. Eight Pounds, ten shillings ; fifty 
sheaves of oats for Eighty Pounds ; an old eleven inch 
square face eight-day clock, walnut case. Two hundred 
and ten Pounds ; an old straw-cutting knife, box, &c.. 
Fifty Pounds; and so, in general, throughout the sale, 
the which so amazed me that I told them it was high 
time for a Bedlam to be built in Lancaster. 

15. Last night, it's said, there was a great entertain- 
ment for the English officers (prisoners) at Peter Hof- 
naeer's ; grand supper, with music, dancing, &c. 

March i. Last night much disturbed by Antony, 
who had got into one of his crazy fits, differing with the 
negro woman. At these times he is very violent in his 
complaints to us, in order that I might punish the poor 
creature, but, as latterly I've kept quiet in myself, he 
rages terribly, uttering a number of the most out of the 
way wicked expressions, yet not downright swearing, but 

mammy says it [is] cursing in the Popish way A. 

in tantrums all day. I lighted him to bed at night. 

3. Antony cleaned [the] stables ; seemed disordered 
in his mind ; talked a good deal ; I gave him no answer. 


238 Christ opber MarsbalFs Diary [Mar. 1780 

Mammy thinks he was calling for vengeance upon some 
persons, but in the Popish dialect, being at [the] same 
time, he thought, very devout and very holy. 

6. News to-day, it's said, is that the frish have [beaten] 
three thousand English soldiers in Ireland and all the 

10. Past ten came into town two companies of light 

horse, commanded by Capt' ShafFner and Markom 

It's said there have been two balls this week for the 
youth here, one at Slough's, the other at Peter HoflFnager's 
and one for the elders at the Court House [on] Fifth 
day night. 

12. Accounts that the sick prisoners of Burgoyne's 
[army], above one hundred, were moved towards Vir- 
ginia yesterday The light horse that came here a few 

days past marched away this morning for S. Carolina. 

13 [For] a remarkable piece of cruelty in the English, 
see i)unlap's Pennsyhania Packet^ Thursday March 9th, 
1780. Quite [the] reverse treatment of the French, 
see Pennsylvania Gazette^ March 8th, Numb. 2593. 

17. Hamilton, Purdies, Capt. Doyle and Thomas 
Cuthbert bound over for assaulting a German that would 
not acknowledge St. Patrick. 

29. Visited by Ludwick Lauman ; brought the re- 
solves of Congress [and] the resolution of our Assembly, 

respecting the depreciation of our money In [the] 

evening came Robert Whitehill, Esq He informed 

me [that] Dr. Cooper, Carter, and Wm. Story 

were proscribed and banished the state ; that James Da- 
vidson and James Cannon were appointed to their former 
tutorships in college and invited to return as speedily as 

31. News of the day that a French fleet, eight men- 
of-war with convoy, was arrived at [the] Capes, with 
^a] large quantity of goods for the states ; that two Eng- 
ish frigates were off our Capes, who put out to sea and 
were chased by two French men of war. Confirmation 


Mar. 1780] of the American Revolution. 239 

expected. Gave One Hundred Dollars to Sus. Thorn- 
berry to pay Caleb Johnson for writing [the] Deed of 
[the] house on paper and Ten Dollars to pay Charles 
Hall for his trouble [in] going three miles to have the 
Deed acknowledged. 

April 12. After breakfast, went by my wife's desire 
to the drum-maker, to try to get two rims for cheese- 
vats without bottoms. Returned without them, as he 
had no stuff to make them of, nor would the farmers, he 
said, sell him any timber without hard money, so must 
remain idle in his business. 

13. Visited by Ed. Shippen and Ludwick Lauman ; 
spent some time in discourse on affairs of government ; 
near dusk, took [a] walk to the barracks ; a company 
of artillery just come from Philada., going to Fort Pitt. 

15. It's remarkable that two Whigs, namely Wm. 
Henry and Ludwick Lauman, both brought up lately 
gold from Philada. for the English officers, prisoners 
here, and delivered it safe, gratis : the first one hundred 
and fifty guineas, the latter, one hundred and seventeen 

22. It's said that Congress passed [a] resolve on the 
eighteenth that the holders of Loan OfEce certificates 
shall sustain no loss thereon by any depreciation of the 
bills loaned subsequent to the respective dates of the said 
certificates ; further, that last week was brought into 
Philada. Port, the Letter of marque ship Needham of 
fourteen guns from Jamaica, bound to New York. 
[The] cargo consists of four hundred and fifty hogs- 
heads and thirty tierces of rum, taken by the sloop Active^ 
Capt. Day, belonging to Philada. This day the first 
tree in blossom, I've seen this season, was in Mercer's 
garden facing us, an apricot. 

25. Visited by George Inglis, to whom I paid four 
pounds, ten shillings for the hatchet and chisel, I bought 
at his vendue. 

27. It's said that the Assembly usually held here every 

1240 Christopber MarsbaWs Diary [April 1780 

Fifth night is dissolved last week. The excuse for it 
.was, that the weather was grown too warm for the ladies 
to dance. 

28. Just going to bed, past ten, came Dr. John Mor- 

fin and the Under Sheriff, who had been after him to 
phrata, having a writ against him in the suit of Dr. 
Houston for slander of him, it's said, in the time of the 
flying camp. I proposed that if the officer would leave 
him here, I would deliver him up in the morning, but 
the Doctor chose to go down to Adam Reigart's. So 
they went away before eleven. 

29. Returned to dinner. In the interim Dr. Morgan 
called ; said he had been bailed for ten thousand [dollars]) 
by Col. Atlee ; thanked my wife for our civilities with 
his compliments to me, he being just going to pursue the 
cross-examination with Dr. Shippen in the sundry dif- 
ferent places. At dinner, came Dr. Houston. By his 
coming and conversation, I thought he was conscious 
that his conduct with Morgan was censurable, which, in 
conversation, I let him know was mine and many others' 
judgment on this occasion, it appearing to them as a 
scheme of Dr. Shippen to prevent his proceedings and 
therefore altered the minds of sundry of Dr. Shippen's 
friepds, who were in his favor and interest before this 
action, being so glaring and fraught with malice and ill 

May 3. Came Col. Lowry and L. Lauman to advise 
about forming [a] petition to our Assembly respecting the 
resolve of Congress relating to the Congress money of 
forty for one ; having settled some preliminaries, re- 
turned into town to consult some of the principal men. 

4. [A] great holiday with the Dutch, called Ascension 
Day. Near noon visited by Col. Lowry and L. Lauman ; 
got me to draw a petition to be signed by the people at 
large in this county to the Assembly at their next sitting, 
praying them to rescind the vote of Congress for suffer- 
ing one silver dollar to be equal in paying taxes to forty 

May 1780] of the American Revolution. 241 

Continental^ and 2(lso [praying for] their enacting to 
strike the sum of one hundred thousand pounds in paper 
currency and that one dollar of that be equal in value to 
the silver dollar. I dined, then wrote [a] rough draught 
which they soon called for and took with them to copy. 

5. Served the creatures with scanty allowance and 
poor cut straw scalded for the cow. Mammy milked 
her; gets but little. A. cleaned [the] stable, but 
little dung to what used to be. This gives me great 
concern at present and uneasiness of mind on the poor 
creature's account. To this added A/s impudent be- 
havior would be too much for me were it not sweetened 
by my dear wife's moderation and consolation upon those 
occasions •, as to the scarcity, we can't prevent, and his 
folly and insolence are not to be prevented except by 
turning him out of doors, and this I a'n't free to do, as 
the poor creature has no place to resort to. I bear with 
his imperious conduct for the present. Whether he 
takes the advantage of the scarcity of hands and thinks 
we will bear with him sooner than turn him away and 
have nobody, I can't say, but I think he is afraid to try 
the experiment by going away when I have ordered and 
desired him to go and never to return. 

6. Yesterday, it's said, three men were whipped and 
pilloried [and] one of them cropped ; this day, two 
whipped and pilloried *, all of them, it's said, for horse 

8. Took a walk near [the] magazine, our militia 
companies being out to be reviewed ; near four hundred ; 
no fire arms. 

10. Went down to court ; spent some time ; a trial 
of a person for [passing counterfeit money ; brought in 
guilty ; three others from Virginia tried and acquitted, and 

one Leech, who keeps tavern near the Gap, also 

acquitted by the jury, though, it's said, proof was strong 
against him. Numbers of people are displeased with this 
last verdict, as they say this is not the first time he has 
been concerned in such base practices. 

04^ Christopher MarshalTs Diary [May 1780 

11. News to-day that our people in the Jerseys lay 
in ambush for a party that came down from the English, 
of which they had information, killed several and took 
eighty prisoners ; that the Marquis de La Fayette in the 
frigate — , a thirty gun ship, was arrived at Boston 
from old France. In the afternoon, we were visited by 
the three Judges, McKean, Atlee and Bryan with John 
Smith, lawyer of Yorktown ; stayed in conversation, 
viewed our garden and drank tea. 

12. Thomas Cuthbert, just come from [the] lower 
counties,' said an express went through Wilmington last 
Tuesday who informed that before he left Charleston a 
sixty-four gun ship and two or three transports, in at- 
tempting to go over the bar, struck ground, the tide 
failed them, on which our people from some of the bat- 
teries or fort beat them to pieces. 

13. This was a remarkable day for the German men and 
women bleedine at Chrisley NefPs. So many came 
that I presume he must work hard to bleed the whole. 
Strange infatuation ! 

15. I went nowhere from home this day although it's 
a very high holiday in this place, and as it was a most 
pleasant, agreeable, fine day, numbers were diverting 
themselves abroad, some riding, some walking, others 
playing long bullets, &c. 

16. In the evening received [a] letter from my sons, 
of the thirteenth, with three newspapers up to that time. 
Under the Boston head, April 27th, saith " Last Tues- 
day, arrived at Salem a large letter of marque ship of 
about twenty guns, having on board one thousand barrels 
[of] pork and beef, seven hundred and fifty barrels of 
flour, eight hundred firkins [of] butter and a quantity of 
dry goods to the amount of fifteen thousand Pounds, 
bound from London to New York. She is prize to the 
ships Franklin and Jack." Under the same head is said 
** Tuesday last arrived here Capt. Brown in twenty-four 

> Now the tute of Delaware. 

May 1780] of the American Revolution. 243 

days from Guadaloupe, who brings advice that five sail 
of the line had gone from Martinico to join eight Spanish 
ships of equal rate at St. Domingo, whence, it is said, 
they were going to Georgia. 

18. It's said that the Marquis de La Fayette arrived 
at Philadelphia from Boston [on] the fifteenth. He left 
France, the twentieth of March. Capt. Paul Jones, 
with his squadron, was to sail in fifteen days after. 

20. Pretty long conversation with Councillor Ham- 
bright on the different and, as I apprehend, the impolitic 
movements of our rulers in the affairs of government 
and especially on the account of the depreciation. 

27. Arose early ; breakfasted near six ; took leave of 
wife and set out ; stopped at Wm. Bispham's, fed our 
horses ; from thence to the sign of the Wagon, fed 
horses there; proceeded to Downingstown, drank tea 
there, fed horses ; from thence to the widow of John 
Jacobs's ; supped and stayed all night. 

28. Breakfasted ; set out past six ; rode to [the] sign 
of [the] Buck ; fed our horses ; thence proceeded to 
Philada., where we arrived near three. Roads very 
dusty, weather very warm. 

June i. Visited by G. Schlosser, with whom I wenw 
to wait on the Commissioners at [the] Court House 

respecting my taxes News that the ship Aurora 

from this port [was] taken just as she was out of [the] 
Capes by a frigate from, and carried into New York ; a 
vessel retaken by our people, the prisoners brought to 

2. To [the] Loan Office : received bills on France 
for interest due. Four hundred and fourteen Dollars. 

5. To [the] Loan Office ; received certificates for 
interest due Two Thousand Dollars, in cash Nineteen 
and a half Dollars and two shillings and six pence, as 
they complained they had no cash to pay off the interest 
due on the former certificates. Poor encouragement to 
us Whigs who had confided and trusted our all in the 

244 Christopher MarshalTs Diary [June 1780 

public fiinds ! Paid R. Fleming, [for] cutting my 

hair, shaving three times and setting two razors on the 
hone. Sixteen Dollars. Five vessels arrived yesterday 
from Port au Prince with sugars, coffee, molasses, cotton, 

6. News that Charleston was in our possession [on] 
the eighteenth [of] May, brought by James Gray, the 
rider, who came [from] but a few miles from there. 
There came ten or eleven vessels, chiefly from St. 
Eustatia, to-day. News in the afternoon that Charles- 
ton surrendered [on] the twelfth [of] May ; this again 

8. News brought by a delegate, its said, via Baltimore 
that Charleston was safe [on] the nineteenth [at] four 

P.M A report just spread that the ship Iris was 

taken by the ship Hermione and the privateer Trum 

9. News by express that the enemy landed in the 
Jerseys near Springfield [on] the night of the seventh ; 
some horse, the others, foot ; it's said their numbers 
from five to ten thousand. Skirmishing began with loss 
on both sides. News again for certain, it's said, that 
Carolina was safe [on] the nineteenth of May ; that the 
English had made no impression on the garrison of 

10. Drums beating to call the militia ; Major Lee's 
corps of light horse left this city for the camp last eve- 
ning Dined with P. Fooks, Town Major' and 

J*. Davidson at Col. Timothy Pickering's. This morn- 
ing* by proclamation of the President and Council, 
martial law was declared, in consequence of which a 
number of horses were pressed for the use of the army, 
from those, first, who had not taken the test, viz : for 

instance, Wm. A 's two coach - horses, four from Jer. 

W , three from Joshua H , two from Sam^ E , 

three from P , two from Wm. G , one from 

' Col Lewis Nicola. 

June 1780] of the American Revolution. CI45 

John P , two from James P , &c., &c. News 

again to- day that Charleston surrendered the eleventh 
of May, but not believed ; great anxiety amongst the 
virtuous Whigs. A prize in the river to the Fair Ame- 
rican, bound from London to New York. 

11. This day arrived four French Ships, one of them 
said to mount twenty-eight guns, one Polacre, two 
other brigs, our own, with a prize brig and schooner. 
It's said that there are on board these ships seventeen 
hundred hogsheads of sugar, besides rum, cofFee, salt, 
cotton, &:c. ; and that the English under Gen. Knyp- 
hausen are fortifying themselves at Elisuibeth Town. 
A number of horses [were] sent ofF to-day for Gen. 
Washington's camp. It's further said that account is 
that the French have taken Barbadoes, beaten the 
English fleet [and] killed Admiral Rodney, and that 
the Spaniards have taken Gibralter. 

12. Some prisoners, brought from aboard the prize, 

sent to prison Drank tea at G. Hastings's; paid 

her Three hundred and thirty-four Dollars for stufF for 
petticoat and [a] small piece [of] blue worsted bind- 
ing To [the] CofFee House, where was reading 

Rivington*s newspaper, containing the capitulation of 
Charleston, but, as this came through the Tory line and 
[was] by force extorted from John Mercer, who, when 
taxed about this paper, absolutely denied it until by con- 
fronting him with Daniel Wistar and Owen Jones Jr., 
and by threats [they] recovered it from him, as was re- 
lated to me by Paul Fooks, who was one of them that 
attended him till delivered, numbers did not believe the 
authenticity of it. 

The tax-gatherer having taken a pair of choice and^ 
irons that Charles or his wife had lent to Wm. Brewer, 
I had to attend the having them restored. At first the 
tax-gatherer behaved, I apprehended, a little insolently, 
but he, perceiving that I intended to interest myself, 
relinquished them, went and picked out a time-piece to 


246 Christopher MarshalVs Diary [June 1780 

supply their place. As that was really Brewer's property 
and seemed to be almost his all, as he has, through his 
persisting not to pay taxes, suffered most of his goods and 
furniture to be taken from him and sold, and this, he 
apprehends, is suffering for the testimony of truth, &c., 
and as I had received some money I went in the evening, 
paid the collector the sum assessed, namely Ten Pounds, 
and saved him his time-piece for another opportunity. 

13. Strong dispute about Charleston. 

14. Six or eight vessels said to come up from St. 
Eustatia, St. Martins and Santa Cruz Visited to- 
day, as I was once or twice before, by Samuel Hunting- 
ton, President of Congress To [the] CofFee-House^ 

where accounts are brought that Gen. Lincoln's first 
Aide-de-camp was arrived with a capitulation of Charleston 
on the twelfth [of] May, with sundry circumstances 
that attended that unfortunate transaction.' This unex- 
pected account was to me and many others exceedingly 
painful and grating, but so it was and must be borne 
with It's said an embargo was laid on to-day. 

15. Breakfasted at Charles's, but much chagrined with 
the accounts of yesterday, as it seems to appear that our 
General, Continental troops, ship's stores, &c., were 
given to Clinton in exchange for Charleston, in order to 
save their houses [and] effects, [the loss of] which in case 
of a storm and being overcome might be the conse- 
quence, but as they did not intend to dispute with 
Clinton any longer, the inhabitants and militia refused to 
fight, which so enraged the Genera], as it's said, that he 
almost came to the resolution to fire upon them and force 
his way with his troops, if practicable, but was overper- 
suaded from such a rash attempt, as he would have both 
them in the town and the English out to encounter with. 
Under these perplexing, interesting circumstances, they 
obliged him, the general, to capitulate, contrary to his 

' It will be observed that he was a month and two days on the way. 

June 1780] of the American Revolution. 247 

judgment or intention, as his whole force of Continental 
troops, by accounts, did not exceed fifteen or sixteen 
hundred men ; and by letter of confidence to Dr. Phyle 
from Gen. De Kalb, that came with the express from 
Fredericksburg, [he] says that he *'can find no faith, 
dependence or virtue in the state of Virginia, but hope 
that the French fleet and army will reh'eve us. For my 
part, I expect a most fatiguing campaign, being now and 
having been detained for the want of wagons, &c." * It's 
said that the first four classes of the Philada., with four 
classes of Bucks and Chester county militia, are ordered 

to hold themselves in readiness to march Drank 

tea at Christopher's. Thomas Cuthbert [and] James 
Cannon, with Lieut. Col. Tennant, Aide-de-camp to 
Gen. Lincoln, came ; spent some time in conversation 
respecting Charleston. 

16. News from the Jerseys that our army was well, 
but wanted rum ; that on the engagement, fourth day 
was a week, our people had nothing but water to drink, 
yet they had behaved well [having] taken sixteen pri- 
soners [and] killed and wounded many. This I re- 
ceived from Dr. Glentworth, who said he left head 
quarters two days ago. Dined at Christopher's, took 
[a] walk to the wharf, as eight sail of small vessels, 
prizes to the sloop Comet, were then in sight. 

17. It's said that three prizes and [the] retaken brig 
with load of tobacco came up last night ; sent in by the 
Holker [To the] Loan Office, got some bills on 

' Extract from a letter from Patrick Henry, Governor of Virginia, dated 
1779, and to be found in the Memoir of Richard Henry Lee, volume i, 
page 195. " Public spirit seems to have taken its flight from Virginia. 
It is too much the case; for the quota of our troops is not half made up, 
and no shame seems to remain for completing it. Great bounties are offered, 
but I fear the only effect will be to expose our State to contempt, for I be- 
lieve no soldiers will enlist, especially in the Infantry. Can you credit it ? 
• No effort was made for supporting or restoring public credit ! I pressed it 
warmly upon some, but in vain. This is the reason you get no soldiers. 
Let not Congress rely upon Virginia for soldiers. I tell you my opinion, 
they will not be got here until a difierent spirit prevails.** 

248 Christopher MarshalTs Diary [June 1780 

France for interest due Patience and Betsey bought 

fifty pounds of coffee [at] Eight Dollars per pound ; 
sent it as their present to the collecting ladies for the 

19. News that Cornwallis had put two men on each 
horse, a sufficient number who surprised a post of our 
people to the amount of four hundred, massacred the 
whole that fell into their hands without any mercy or 
compassion ; that Col. Washington and one or two 

others made their escape Great murmurings 

amongst the people in general, occasioned by the ill 
conduct and management of respecting the de- 
preciation of the money, heavy taxes, militia fines, 
enlisting men, dearness of commodities, through the 
large quantities imported on which the greater prices are 
affixed. Dined at Christopher's. Charles went with 
me to see after spirits, wine, cofFee, salt, &c., and bought 
none, as the great quantities just imported had raised 
the prices considerably. Wortdcr of wonders, never 
known before ! 

21. This day Lady Washington came to town from 
camp ; met by our Light Horse and escorted by them, 

22. Account that Col. Knox is at Trenton with orders 
to put the stores on board the flat-bottomed boats. 
Three flags of truce at Chester, arrived from Charleston 
with prisoners on their parole. Gen. Lincoln came up 
to town. No women but one, it's said, are come with 
those vessels. 

23. One pound of Souchong Tea, sent by Daughter 
Sally as [a] present to Mammy cost two silver dollars, 
sold to Cornelius Barns four French certificates. 

Dated June 17th Number 500 for 300 Dollars 
" " 1st " 497 " 300 " 

u cc ist u 2153 " 30 " 

u u jsj u 2154 " 30 " 

at 46s for one, amounting to 30,360 Dollars. 

JuNB 1780] of the American Revolution. 249 

This day forty English prisoners brought into town. 

24. The City Light Horse set ofF for head quarters 

Arrived a vessel from Cales,' fifty days passage, said 
that the French fleet for America had sailed. Came up 
also a ship and brig, prizes to the Fair American, the 
ship from Charleston to New York with the rigging, 
anchors, guns, &c., of a sixty*four gun English ship that 
was lost. 

26. News of a skirmish at Springfield in the Jerseys 
last Sixth Day. It's said our people under Gen. Macks- 
field withstood the British, came to push bayonets and 
kept the field. Accounts from Virginia say that the 
French fleet off Cape Hatterass fell in with the Russell 
man-of-war of seventy-four guns, two frigates and twelve 
transports with Hessian troops on board from Carolina 
for Halifax ; took the whole of them. This news, 
whether true or not, has made many long faces. 

29. Drums beating for the militia to go out on the 
commons. Yesterday our light horse returned to camp 
and, it's said, some of the Jersey militia, having been 
dismissed by Gen. Washington for the present and re- 
ceived his kind thanks, for that the English left the 
Jerseys on their repulse at Springfield, after burning most 
of the houses, and precipitately went ofF in the night 
with their cannon, and that our people leveled their works 
next morning. George Wallace, formerly a respectable 
inhabitant of Philadelphia, now of or near [New] 
Brunswick in the Jerseys, told me at the CofFee House 
that a reputable neighbor of his, and who had been in 
that affair, assured him that he counted nineteen wagons, 
loaded with wounded and dead, carrying off in their 
retreat, and many wounded got away as well as they 
could, as no more wagons could be got, so that many 
were left dead and wounded. Just brought in, fifteen 
prisoners and four or five deserters. This day Lady 

> Cadi% was formerly to spelled by the English^ bnt probably Calaii is 

250 Christopher MarshalVs Diary [June 1780 

Washington, with many, gentlemen and ladies, was 
regaled in barges on our river, in viewing the wharves, 
shipping, &c., whose various colors [were] displayed and 
their decks and yards manned. Visited by Gen. Lincoln, 
who was very solid and polite. He is a plain, familiar 

30. Thomas Pultney and wife came to town ; said 
they had seen my wife. She was bravely, busy in the 
garden, &c. This was very agreeable for me to hear, 

as they brought me abundance of love verbally I 

took much pains to find pieces of green broad worsted 
binding and at last completed it by thirty-six yards ; cost 
me one hundred and forty Dollars. 

July r. Breakfasted at Charles's; soon after came 
Joseph Warner the elder (boat builder) who gave the 
following relation, viz : ^^ that this day week, in the 
afternoon, his son Joseph, coming to town for him in a 
horse chair, being near unto Coates's brick yard, Wissa- 
hicken road, there came on, he supposes what is called a 
whirlwind, which immediately took up horse, chair and 
him in it, so high, he thinks ten feet, as that the top of 
the chair being overturned with the horse came first to 
the ground with the bottom of [the] chair uppermost, 
and [they] were carried, he supposes, the space of one 
hundred feet. The fall broke the chair, hurt the horse 
badly, but the young man, his son, in the chair received 
very little damage, except the fright this accident occa- 
sioned." News of the day at ten o'clock a.m., " that 
West Point was taken by the English three days ago ;* 
that Gen. Cornwallis had conquered South Carolina as 
far as Chatham [and] returned with great trophies to 
Charleston ; that the French and Spanish fleets were 
met by the English in the Channel, which had destroyed 
both the French and Spanish, and in consequence of 
which the states of America would be fully subdued by 
the last days of next September," &c., &c. 

' A false report. 

July 1780] of the American Revolution. 251 

2. It's said that Governor Rutledge and [the] late 
President Laurens, of Charleston, arrived here by land. 
They brought, it's said, letters to Congress that Gen. 
DeKalb, with seven thousand men, was on the march 

for South Carolina Arrived a vessel from Boston 

with continental sugar. From Baltimore by letter 
[dated] St. Eustatia of the thirteenth of June [we learn] 
that twelve Spanish ships of the line, with four of French 
and twelve thousand land forces, were arrived at Mar-* 

3. Paid Benj. Betterton one hundred and thirty Dol- 
lars for [a] handsaw, drawing knife and some little 

4. Commencement began at [the] Philadelphia Col- 
lege this forenoon, at which many attended This 

being the anniversary of our freedom from English 

bondage, sundry vessels saluted the town The 

company of Artillery and Invalids' Regiment marched 
to the State House, where the Congress, President of 
the State and Council with a number of officers at- 
tended ; bell ringing, guns firing till the evening and 
until numbers were so drunk as to reel home. As m^ 
sons had declined paying their quota for the raising [of 
two men in their districts, and Capt. McLane calling, ' 
snatched up some money of theirs and paid him, being 
Four hundred and eighty Pounds. 

I queried why the City Vendue was not farmed out, 
as it appears to be a valuable branch of business and, as 
I'm informed by John Cling, vendue-keeper formerly, 
would rem for near Five Hundred [Dollars] in specie per 
year, and by the sales there to-day which were exceed- 
mgly large and valuable, with household furniture and 
many damaged casks of nails, seemed to satisfy me of 
that truth. Nails sold from forty to fifty shillings per 

pound, &c In [the] evening visited President 

Samuel Huntington with son Christopher [and] Paul 
Fooks. Some company there, but went away. Stayed 

25^ Christopher MarshaWs Diary [July 1780 

in close conversation with him some time. He re- 
quested to see me again before I went home and behaved 
very friendly and politely. This day were brought to 
town from thirty to forty prisoners. A person told me 
that had seen them; 

7JfDined at Charles's ; paid for him on account of 
his not mustering on militia days, for which he was 
fined, Two hundred and fifty-five pounds, thirteen shil- 
lings and six pence, unto John Jacobson, Collector. —Hi. 
I made a present to Sally and Hannah Empsons of Two 
Hundred Dollars. News of the day is that the French 
fleet, so long expected, was arrived at St. Martin's, hav- 
ing twelve thousand land forces on board in good order. 
This comes by a vessel into Baltimore, in a short pas- 
sage from St. Martin's and adds further that the French 
and Spanish fleets in [the] West Indies amount to fifty- 
five sail of the line and thirty-six hundred land forces. 

8. Arose early ; packed up my clothes, &c. ; got 
shaved at Robert Fleming's, unto whom I now paid 
thirty Dollars. Gave Charles's three maids twenty-four 
Dollars ; negro man, five Dollars. Sally's negro, four 
Dollars ; Christopher's white maid, eight Dollars ; his 

white man, boy and negro girl, twelve Dollars 

Great plenty of peas, beans [and] various kinds of vege- 
table, but high priced ; rum, sugar, salt [and] coflFee 

plenty, but rising daily Near eleven, took leave of 

my children, relations and acquaintances present. In 
Christopher's carriage with him in it and Charles [on] 

horseback left Philada. Reached Thomas Reese's 

in good time Drank tea, supped and lodged there. 

10. We equipped our carriage, took leave of Charles, 
who was for returning home, and Polly, as Joseph rode 
with us over Schuylkill, where we took leave of him and 
proceeded for [the] sign of [the] White Horse, where 
we arrived past three. The weather was warm ; the 
road really bad with ruts, hills, stones, &c., yet it was 
beautiful to behold the blessings of kind heaven visibly 

July 1780] of the American Revolution. 253 

displayed in the fields of wheat, rye, oats, Indian corn, 
barley, flax [and] hemp. After feeding our horses with 
hay [andj six quarts of oats [and having] drunk [a] gill 
of spirits and water, for which Christopher paid seven- 
teen Dollars, we set off near five, reached Downing^s 
house in Downingtown, where we put up, drank [a] bowl 
of sangaree [andT drank coiFee. 

11. Arose early, got our horses, gave them six quarts 
of oats, fixing our sundries ; paid reckoning by Christo- 
pher, one hundred and twenty dollars. Proceeded to 
the sign of [the] wagon, where we gave [the] horses 
hay [and] six quarts of oats ; eat breakfast ourselves on 

coffee, for which Christopher paid twenty dollars 

Reached home past six ; found my wife in good health 
and spirits, who received us very afFectionately, for 
which great blessings and favors, great thanks and ac- 
knowledgments are due to our great Lord and wonderful 
Benefactor, both now and forever, saith my soul. Amen 
and Amen. 

12. Just came Robert Taggert and wife in [a] chair, 
having left Philada. yesterday morning ; brought news 
that ^^ Ireland had formed a Bill of Rights and deter- 
mined to support it ; that the Russians and Dutch had 
declared a neutrality and that a prize ship was arrived in 
Philada. with sugar, coffee, &c." 

14. Came Sam^ Boyd, who in conversation related 
that some of the English prisoners, being down at the 
river, talked very impertinently, so that James Wright 
resented it ; came and informed Judge Atlee, who is 
Commissary of Prisoners, who sent for him, but he show- 
ing no signs of remorse, he committed him to prison, as 
also another who had behaved insolently so as to come 
and deliver up his parole ; he was also committed. 

15. Orders came this day from [the] War Office that 
all prisoners should wear their regimentals. This has also 
offended those gentlemen prisoners. 

16. I served [the] horse and kept him in, as there are 
bad folks on First Day that want to be riding. 

254 Christopher MarsbalVs Diary [July 1780 

18. Reading Saturday's paper left me by L. Lauman 
last night ; confirmation of the arrival of [the] French 
and Spanish fleet, with twenty -four thousand land forces 
at Martinico ; that the French fleet was oflF the Capes 
of Virginia some days past, as an English frigate barely 
escaped by throwing over her guns, spars, &c., and by 
that means got into New York. Blessed time for getting 
in [the] harvest, which by accounts, there has not been 
such a plentiful one for twenty-four years past. Bless- 
ing and praise be rendered to the great Giver, who alone 
is worthy. Paid Henry Lechler, Collector [the] Con- 
tinental tax for Dec, Jan., Feb., March and April, One 
hundred and fifty-three Pounds, fifteen shillings. 

19. Visited by Wm. Henry ; took a walk in the 
garden [and] stayed some time in conversation ; said 
[that] three soldiers from the camp, going after deserters, 
related to Judge Atlee that four thousand French troops 
were landed on Rhode Island ; that part of their fleet 
was off Black Point, some cruising off Long Island [and] 
the Narrows, and bad chased in the Guard Ship ; that 
Slough, he said, had acted very imprudently, as he 
heard ; that he had caused the gold, before he paid it 
away, to be clipped very close, and thereby procured a 
large sum by this, his depreciation, very unjustly. 

20. I'm told that this week and the [last] two hun- 
dred horses have been sent from this place, that were 
purchased for the use of the French army by Matthias 

21. News from Philada., dated the fifteenth, says, 
*' there arrived here with an account of the arrival of the 
French fleet and troops under Monsieur Ternay at 
Rhole Island the tenth instant in good order." From 
New York on Saturday says, " Admiral Greaves has 
fallen in with Admiral Ternay, and that Greaves had 
lost a seventy-four gun ship, sunk ; that Admiral Ter- 
nay had arrived at Rhode Island in a shattered condi- 

July 1780] of the American Revolution. 255 

22. News from Freehold, New Jersey, dated July 
[the] seventeenth, says that ^^ yesterday afternoon there 
came to, ofF Long Island, six ships of Admiral Greaves's 
fleet, I presume some of them of eighty guns, none 
under sixty. I observe that Arbuthnot had augmented 
Greaves's fleet to thirteen ships. Ten of these appear 
to be of sixty guns and upwards, three of them large 
frigates. Arbuthnot's ship and others from the west 
line, immediately to cover the entrance into Sandy Hook \ 
that they were exerting themselves at New York to 
complete their complement of men on board their ship 
of war ; every volunteer that will enter on board, for 
this exigency, is to be discharged from all duty by land 
or sea for three years." From L'Orient, of May the 
twenty-second, '' By a vessel from Isle Dieu, we learn 
that two English privateers have cut out five Dutch 
vessels that were at anchor there." 

24. Orders came up last week for one hundred wagons, 
to be sent to camp. Letter answered that as the horses 
were going down to the camp for [the] use of [the] 
French troops, they might have orders to put them in 
the wagons, [to] the which, as no answer was returned 
but to press, if no way else, it's taken for granted that 
the farmer is to be deprived of his horses at this busy 
time of ploughing for winter's grain. O wretched 
rulers ! O monstrous directors of our State ! At this 
time an officer confined for ill behavior, with orders to 
[the] jailer not to suffer him to converse or hold commu- 
nication with any of his brethren here, but upon an 
officer's applying to converse with him and this bein[ 
refused, the prisoner wrote [a] letter, threw it out of [the^ 
window to the other who received it. Upon complaint 
made by [the] gaoler's wife to the magistrates, none of 
them would talce any notice, as Judge Atlee was out of 
town. O glorious Whigs for magistrates ! Poor Penn- 
sylvania ! It's said that the proceedings of this county, 
with what other news concerns the public, are collected 

2^6 Christopher MarshalPs Diary [July 1780 

and sent by those officers to New York and return with 
newspapers [which] are duly received here by them, and 
no notice taken of their proceedings. 

25. The horse race that was begun yesterday, but 
not ended, was completed this morning. The wager, 
it's said, was Twenty-five hundred Pounds, won by 

Gasper Dull's black horse A brigade of wagons 

left this borough to-day. More horse racing this after- 
noon Had our government by their officers exerted 

the authority that they have used with some degree of 
cruelty on the poor farmers by taking their horses out 
of their ploughs, &c., they might have collected a great 
number of useless yet valuable ones to-day and yester- 
day on the race ground. This would have been praise- 
worthy by showing they were true friends to govern- 
ment, by j&'J/, suppressing the breakers of the law of the 
state, and secondly by supplying our friends the French 
army who are [in] want of that necessary creature at so 
cheap and saving a rate, as they were brought to their 
hands on so illegal and dissolute [an] use. 

27. News by a gentleman of veracity from Virginia 
that a number of Scotch and disaffected people in N. 
Carolina collected in force in order to distress the well 
meaning inhabitants, many of whom they pillaged and 
obliged to take the oath of allegiance to the tyrant 
George, in their march into Virginia, where they ex- 
pected to perform great feats, but our people collected 
and were joined by [a] small part of the army. They 
made a stand on the borders, where a sharp engagement 
ensued, which turned out in our favor. It's said they 
killed forty, took eighty prisoners, fifteen hundred horses, 
many negroes, cattle, sheep and a quantity of baggage, 
which, by this informant, they were selling from day to 
day by public |iuction, for the benefit of the suflFerers 
and the soldiery. Yesterday, sixty horses were sent 
from here, it's said, for the use of the French army. 
Visited by Sam^ Boyd, who related the above and that 

July 1780] of the American Revolution. 257 

there was a handbill come to town printed by B. Town, 
giving an account of an enjzagement between the com- 
bined fleet of France and Spain and the English in the 
West Indies, in which, it's said, " the latter lost two 
seventy-four gun ships and two taken ; that the fleet of 
nine sail of ships under Admiral Greaves with two regi- 
ments of Hessians has sailed from New York but don't 
say where." 

August 5. Got Wm. Shuttleburgh to examine and 
new leather our pump box, paid him Thirty Dollars. 

6. I went to Friend's Meeting, where were fifteen 
menkind and eight womenkind, among which were in- 
cluded four strange men and one woman, likewise Polly 
Dickinson, who with Tho*. Vickers, spoke for some 

8. Called and stayed to breakfast Wm. Hardie and 
Patrick Martin, going from Northumberland to Philada., 
who gave me this relation, viz : that a person there, 

going under the denomination of Col. Montgomery, 

who said he left Philada., the thirtieth ult., reported 
that no French fleet was arrived ; the report of their 
arrival arose from this, that on Admiral Greaves's arrival 
oflf Rhode Island, the Commander there took them to be 
the French fleet, and, according to signals agreed upon, 
hoisted his flag, which was answered by the English 
Admiral with the same flag agreed upon. This caused 
the express to be sent oflF for head quarters [and] from 
there to Philada. To this effect Patrick Martin said he 
heard Wm. Hamilton (clerk to one of the three Com- 
missaries at Northumberland, don't know which), tell 
in his presence unto Col. Cox, Commissary at Cox's 
town near Harris's ferry,* and Wm. Hardie said he heard 
partly the same thing related at sundry places, and gave 
the said Montgomery for the author, to which they 
added that they perceived it to have a bad eflFect upon 
the country people, who before seemed elated with the 

> Now Harritburg, Pa. 

258 Christopher Marshals Diary [Aug. 1780 

account of the French fleet's arrival, and discouraged 

them from enlisting Bought one bushel of rye \ 

cost seven shillings specie. 

9. Arose early, being a warm night and some of our 
neighbors too free in the orchard. 

10. Antony in [the] orchard to watch [the] boys. 
As I was doubtful, sometime, whether, if any came for 
apples, Antony would prevent, I took a walk to the 
back fence, made [a] noise [by] pounding as [if] I would 
break the fence, with other noise, this convinced me 
Antony sat in the chair. [He] took no notice until my 
wife, Debby and old Rachael, who were alarmed as they 
knew nothing of me, came to him, roused him and 
scolded him for neglect. His answer seemed to be that 
he thought it his duty to be still and not disturb them^ 
as by so doing he should have peace in himself and a 
blessing would attend him, with a deal of such ignorant 
and trifling say so. He continued till it was proper to 
command him to be silent, which was very difficult for 
him to comply with. 

11. Many new recruits for seven months, say twenty- 
six, left this place for camp. 

13. Last evening Rob^ Purdie called; stayed some 
time giving us a relation of the conduct at times of Daniel 
Whitelock, when half or quite over (in the seaman's 
term) and particularly with sundry dialogues that passed 
between him and his wife on those occasions. Purdie's 
relation of their behavior on the night of [the] Fourth 
[of] July, being the Anniversary, was really humorous, 
but too long to write down in this place ; but the result 
was that he would in future pay his taxes to the state as 
other good people do. 

15. Towards evening I caught Antony giving a quan- 
tity of our only best ripe apples in the orchard through 

the fence to Dr. N and some of his grandchildren. 

This I thought exceedingly mean and below the cha- 
racter of a man of honor and a neighbor (and who had 

Aug. 1780] of the American Revolution. 259 

about a week past collected what he had upon such a 
Uke tree and stowed them away. Upon my seeing them 
collected, he being at his door, I asked the reason as 
they were not yet ripe. He said some of them had been 
stolen as that night, and he did this to have some for 
themselves). After Antony came in, I queried how he 
could serve me so in giving what was not his own. He 
justified himself by saying the Doctor was a good 
man. Talked kindly to him, upon which the negro 
woman said. Why Antony, you did so yesterday when 
Master and Mistress were out. I talked to him but to no 
purpose, as he still justified himself in so doing and de- 
sired me not to use him ill, as looking upon himself to 
be the person offended by my calling him to an account ; 
so in order to keep my temper I let him pass for this 
time, with a severe charge not to do the like again, as I 
had before reprimanded him for handing over apples at 
the back fence to the boys and some officers, prisoners 

16. This morning, nigh about one hundred horses 
were sent from here towards our or the French camp. 

19. Last evening were brought from Philada. Capts. 
Campbell of [the] forty-fourth regiment, Mure of the 
eighty-second regiment, Lyman of [the] Prince of 
Wales's regiment, Murray of Wentworth's Dragoons, 
and Wollop of Kniphausen's regiment, all prisoners, 
taken coming from England in the packet. 

23. Came also Rob* Whitehill, going down to Council ; 
stayed and dined. He gave this account, received by a 
gentleman lately from New York, who called at his 
house, viz. This person dined at New York with Sam* 

S his wife [and] an English officer. At dinner, 

which was homely and scarce of vegetables, Mrs. S 

with grief saith, oh the quantities that I have thrown 
away ! how glad I should be to have some of them to 
eat. He answered. My dear, don't be disheartened, we 
shall soon have plenty again. When ? she said. Why, 

a6o Cbrisiopber Marsbair s Diary [Aug. 1780 

said he, as Charleston is in our hands, we shall soon, that 
is the kingly government will be established and we re- 
turn to our own homes. She sighed [and] said. Ah, thou 
mayest return and stand the chance of being hanged, 
for I see no other prospect for my part. Don't despond, 
my dear, he said, I see better times approaching, for the 
Royal army must and will prevail in a short time and we 
shall then be happy in spite of the rebels who now rule. 
She opposed and requested him not to talk so vainly, as 
she saw no prospect of returning but under the fear of a 
halter. After some more altercation, the officer replied. 
Sir, your wife seems to have a true sense of your situa- 
tion, and, believe me, I'm of her mind that you, sir, may 
return, if you please, and take the chance of a halter : 

but for my part, I've no expectation, and I'll be if 

any of our officers will go there if they can help it, or 
our soldiers either, nor see I any prospect of any other 
return you are likely to be favored with, as there appears 
to be no great probability at present of subduing the 

25. It's said that sixteen prisoners in our jail broke out 
last night, chiefly servants to the officers confined for mal- 
practices. Yesterday there were sundry accounts from 
Charleston (said to be by flag to Philadelphia with women, 
&c.), giving relation of the success of our troops in seve- 
ral skirmishes, in which the English have sufl^ered greatly j 
that the Continental flag was flying at Camden and 
Georgetown ; that Cornwallis was retreating towards 
Charleston, but Gen. Gates had thrown his army between 
him and the town, and Gen. DeKalb with his army 
pressed him hard in the rear ; six hundred of our people 
who were with him had deserted to our side and that 
great sickness prevailed in his army and in the town. 

26. Enclosed were three Dunlap's newspapers of the 
fifteenth, nineteenth and twenty-second, the which gave 
sundry accounts of the prodigious mobs that were as- 
sembled in London [in] the beginning of the month of 

Aug. 1780] of the American Revolution. 26 1 

June and had continued for several days with great havoc 
and destruction.' 

29. Michael Schriner and son brought twenty-six 
sheaves of rye straw ; paid him twenty-four paper dol- 

30. It's said that three classes of this county's mili- 
tia are ordered to hold themselves in readiness to march 
on very short notice. 

^^PTEMBER I. A complaint in town by the men en- 
listed in the back parts and detained here till orders come 
for their marching to the camp, that the meat allotted, 
stinks so badly that they cannot eat it, so throw it about 
the streets] to which add that information was given to 
Judge Atlee by Christian Wertz of a report propagated 
by John Whitemore the elder that the second division 
of the French fleet was totally defeated by Admiral 
Greaves off Rhode Island, but that [neither] the Judge 
nor Michael Hubley, who was present, paid any regard 
to it. 

13. In the newspaper enclosed is [an] account of poor 
Gen. DeKalb's being killed in the late engagement to 
the southward. 

16. A great number of young men, Menonists, met 
at Kap's tavern, as usual, to play sling bullets, &c., early 
in the afternoon. 

20. Paid Henry Lechler, Collector, four months' 
Continental tax due [the] first instant. One hundred and 
ten Pounds, ten shillings, and the County tax. Two 
Pounds, ten shillings. 

24. Last evening Samuel Boyd was in the yard with 
us ; in came Stephen Wells, shoemaker, and in a loud, 
boisterous manner said to me. How came you to say 
that you let me into the house to live for charity ? I 
can prove it. I endeavored to pacify the man, but to no 
purpose, by telling him I said no such thing. He said 

> These were the <* No Popery** rioct instigated by Lord George Gordon^ 
a lunatic Scotchman. 


a6a Christopher MarsbalTs 'Diary [Sept. 1780 

he had overpaid me the rent, &c. I then told him if he 
could not behave himself to walk out or I would turn 
him out, for, said I, you have never paid me one penny 
of rent in your life. He said he had overpaid me. 
Upon my asking how, he answered, mending shoes for 
my man. I then let him know I had never sent him 
and I had nothing to do with it, upon which he declared 
he would send the sheriiF for him to-morrow. As to 
that, I said he might do as he would, but if he did not 
know how to behave himself better 1 should soon teach 
him. Upon this S. Boyd took him away and I have 
not seen him since. Pm pleased that I was preserved 
to keep my temper so well as I did. 

29. Visited in the evening by L. Lauman ; brought 
the account, said by express to Philada., last Fourth 
Day, that two English officers, spies, were taken at West 
Point, upon which Gen. Arnold made his escape to the 
English at New York. Further particulars expected. 

October 3. Antony went into town and did what 
he pleased, but I think he is far from pleasing us ; that 
he IS never content except acting in the line of contra- 
diction, not only in his small employment but in and 
about the house, a few instances will demonstrate. When 
we have no fresh broth, he wants some ; when we have 
it, he can't sup it ; when we have lean of bacon, he 
wants the fat ; when the fat, he can't eat it without 
spreading salt over it, as, without it, it's too heavy for 
his stomach ; if new milk, he can't eat it till it is sour, 
it curdles on his stomach ; when sour or bonnyclabber, 
it gives him the belly ache ; give him tea, he don't like 
such slop, it's not fit for workingmen ; if he hasn't it 
when he asks for it, he is not well used ; give him apple 
pie above once for some days, it's not suitable for his 
belly, it makes him sick ; if the negro woman makes his 
bed, she don't make it right ; if she don't make it, she's 
a black lazy jade. Thus he would, and has been ex- 
ceedingly troublesome, until Mammy found out that by 

Oct. 1780] of the American Revolution. 26^ 

indulging him, he greve past bearing, and she came to 
this resolution and, I hope, will keep to it, that is, to 
give him plenty of such provisions as she judges suitable 
for him, and if he eats it, it's well, if not, he must leave 
it, as he will get no other, and by this method she has 
eased herself and negro of a deal of trouble which he 
formerly gave them. This night he could not eat ex- 
ceedingly good apple pie, but after we went to bed, he 
boiled some crusts of bread in water and eat that, as he 
could not drink cider to-night ; it griped him. This the 
negro tells, as she sat up in the kitchen till he went to 

6. Took a walk to Daniel Whitelock's ; bought of 
him [a] very large cedar tub for making soap ; paid him 
for that and cutting box with two knives Two hundred 

and fifty Dollars A. in his tantrums, while I was 

out \ used Mammy very impertinently and treated me in 
the same manner before he went to bed, so that he was 
then, as he has often been before, requested to leave the 
house, as we cannot for pity's sake turn him out, as he 
has no place to go unto. 

7. Engaged about sundries, as A. was the gentleman 

9. Took sundry walks in the orchard ; boys stealing ; 

12. Smith, the cooper, hooping several casks; paid 
him thirty-five Dollars. 

16. We have now particulars relative unto Arnold's 
treachery, viz : that Arnold was gone over to the enemy ; 
that Col. Andr6, General Clinton's principal Aide 
and confidant, was apprehended in disguise in our camp ; 
that West Point, where Arnold commanded, was to be 
the sacrifice, in which was to be the Commander-in-chief, 
with the Marquis de la Fayette, who were to lodge 
there on Monday night the twenty-fifth [of] September, 
but the plot, by the hand of Providence, was timely dis- 
covered. Upon full proof. Col. Andre was hanged as a 

264 Christopher Marsbalt s Diary [Oct. 1780 

spy at the camp at Tappan [on] the second instant. See 
Pennsylvania Packet^ Sept. 30th and October 3d ; Penn- 
sylvania Journal^ October 4th and nth. 

\l8. About two o'clock the first class of militia left 
this town, going towards the frontiers against the inroads 
of the Indians ; John Hubley, Captain ; Dr. Newman, 

21. Took a walk into town ; profFerred Forty Dollars 
for a bag of potatoes, said to be two bushels, but rejected. 

Bought of Simon Snyder, miller, thirty pounds [of] 

butter ; paid him one shilling per pound ; gave him a 
euinea ; he had no change ; he owes me five shillings, 
bard money. 

23. Bought twelve yards of tow linen at two shillings 
hard money per yard and gave two pounds [of] rice in 
the bargain. 

25. This evening [there] was [a] bonfire at [the] 
Court House, firing guns, drums beating, fifes playing, 
&c., and continued some hours on account of some great 
news received from the Congress. 

27. Breakfasted with us Peter Bowman, who brought 
[a] hind quarter of veal, twelve pounds at three pence, 

old price, say three shillings hard Bought of Peter 

Bowman twenty bushels of new wheat for which I am 
to pay him eight shillings per bushel, in specie, and he 
is to keep it until I give directions where [it is] to be 
taken unto. 

28. Got our kitchen chimney swept, cost fifteen 

29. This afternoon Antony in his way preached at 
the English Presbyterian meeting in this place. It*s 
said that most of the hearers laughed at him, but he was 
highly pleased. 

30. Dined with us Abraham Hare to whom I gave 
One Thousand Continental Dollars and four half Joes 
in gold to purchase as many bushels of wheat as he can 
procure for that money and keep it at his mill to grind 
for us^ as we shall give directions. 

Oct. 1780] of the American Revolution. 265 

31. Dined with us Caspar Singhauser for eight 

and [a] half bushels of new wheat [I] paid [a] half Joe 
in gold and half a dollar \ two bushels of Indian corn 
for which I stand indebted to him ten shillings, specie. 

November 7. Bought seven pounds of beeswax at 
eighteen pence specie per pouud. 

10. One hundred and fifty [of] Lee's troop [of] light 
horse and one hundred and fifty foot soldiers came to 
Lancaster this afternoon on their way to the southward. 

11. Breakfasted Peter Bowman ; brought [a] load of 
wood, this makes eight loads, for which I paid him in 
specie. Five Pounds, twelve shillings. I paid him also 
for twenty-four bushels of wheat, I had agreed with him 
for. Nine Pounds, twelve shillings, and for two bushels 

of Indian corn, nine shillings I paid him for three 

bushels of buckwheat nine shillings and for [a] quarter 
of veal we had received before, three shillings. 

12. It's said that the Susquehanna and Conestoga 
rivers through the long drought [are] so low that people 
may walk over them by stepping from stone to stone. 

14. The foot troops left Lancaster this day. 

15. Bought a side of beef, hind quarter, one hundred 
and twenty pounds at five pence, fore [quarter] one hun- 
dred and fifteen pounds at four pence half penny, say 
Four Pounds, thirteen shillings in specie Bought 

fa] loin of mutton [which] our butcher sent, at Five 
)ollars (say Forty Dollars). 
1 8. Bought [a] hind quarter of beef, weighed one hun- 
dred and forty pounds at seven pence per pound, Four 
Pounds, one shilling and eight pence specie. Bought 
a] hind quarter of pork, weighed forty-five pounds, at 
tix Dollars, say Two hundred and seventy Dollars. 

20. Paid Smith the cooper thirty dollars for coopering, 
making head for the cask of antimony to send to Philada. 
Many of the officers that were prisoners here went off 
to-day for New York, being exchanged. 

23. News to-day that Gen. Cornwallis, with three 

266 Cbrisiapber MarsbaSs Disaj [Nor. 1 780 

hundred horse and two hundred foct^ was wayhid 
Reed's bridge, defeated and he and most of his troops 
that escorted him taken prisoners.* I then went to 
Caspar ShafFner's ; staved in settling the accounts till after 
dark. Then Caspar ShaflFner, Daniel Whitelock, Jacob 
Miller and self went to John Franks's [and] drank three 
pints [of] Madeira wine. Jacob paid for it One hundred 
and nfty Dollars. Both he and Daniel were pleased 
with the settlement. 

27. By accounts from [the] West Indies, it appears 
that there was [a] violent hurricane that began [on] the 
eleventh [of] October and continued about ten days. 
The same destroyed about two-thirds of their principal 
town with three thousand of the inhabitants. The island 
of Nevis almost all destroyed. St. Eustatia sustained 
damages, it's said, to the amount of One hundred thou- 
sand Pounds sterling with great loss of vessels and [a] 
great number of people belonging to them, as some were 
seen to founder, others blown ashore, &c. 

28. Bought [an] old jacket ; cost seventy-five dollars. 
December 5. Near noon came Isaac Taylor ; brought 

three fat hogs [which] weighed four hundred and ninety- 
two pounds \ paid six pence per pound in specie, say 
Twelve Pounds, twelve shillings. 

8. It's said that sixty light horsemen, who had served 
their time out, left their horses here, in order to go home 
to Virginia, as they could not get their pay in the army 
for [aj considerable time past. So they went away 

10. Went to meeting that consisted of six men and 
self, four boys, three women [and] two girls. At this 
meeting Daniel Whitelock was disowned for excessive 
drinking and joining with the company that celebrated 
the Independency of America on the fifth of last July, 

14. Came Michael Gross j bought twenty-five bushels 

' This was a fiilie report. 

Dec. 1780] of the American Revolution. 267 

of oats ; paid three shillings per bushel in specie, (say 
Three Pounds fifteen shillings). Came likewise Michael 
Finicune [with a] load of green hickory firewood, Three 
Dollars specie (say twenty-two shillings and six pence). 

16. Two bushels of turnips three shillings specie. 

23. My wife rose early, having some things to do ; 
made a fire in my room ; called her negro woman, which 
affronted her so that she behaved very saucy to her mis- 
tress. Hearing the noise in the kitchen I arose, went, 
found Madam very impertinent. This obliged me to 
give her sundry stripes with a cowskin, but as she 
promised to behave better in future I was pacified for the 

30. John Huber sent us five bushels [of] buckwheat 
ground into fine meal at three shillings specie per bushel, 
say fifteen shillings. 


January 5. This day Major Wertz was bound over 
before Wm. Henry for refusing to take the state money 
at the value of gold and silver. 

6. (fi!eport brought here that the Pennsylvania line of 
troops mutinied on the first instant, in which some lives 
were lost, had left their camp and were marching for 

II. News that the Pennsylvania line halted at Prince- 
ton, where our President, with Gov. Livingston' and [a] 
Committee of Congress met them, promised them their 
pay, clothes, &c., on which they returned after deliver- 
ing up two men, who came to them to persuade the 
army to go to New York with them, making them 
great promises- which they rejected with contempt. It's 
farther said that the army had committed no violence of 
any kind, either before they set out or on the road, as 
was represented in the first news that was brought here^ 

•Of New Jcnqr. 

268 Christopher Marshall s Diary [Jan. 178 i 

14. I went to meeting that consisted of eight men 
and self, two women, two boys and two girls (silent). 
At the close Caleb Cope stood up and read a paper of 
excommunication against Alice Harry (maiden name) 
for marrying James Ramsey, who and she are constant 
attenders of this meeting. I thereupon got up and came 

15. News to-day of the English under Benedict Ar- 
nold, landing in Virginia, going to Richmond and 

17. A. still the same idle, saucy, impertinent old man, 
never seemingly contented or happy. Here is one of 
our daily crosses in bearing with his unpolite and proud 

29. Henry Huddlestine with me being appointed \ 
fixed the tax for providing a soldier in the fourth class, 
my tax being One hundred and fifty Dollars, which I 
paid to Wm. Burkett, the captain, who was collector of 

February 5. I visited Dr. NcfF, very poorly; pre- 
scribed and mixed a julep, gave him. Although he and 
son [are] so cried up for skill, &c.,my judgment is th at 
they are quite Ignoramuses in preparing and administer- 
ing physic with any degree of sound judgment. 

6. Paid One hundred and twenty Dollars for red- 
wood, madder, indigo, &c., for Mammy's counterpane, 

10. A piece of news was sent me up from town by 
Joseph Hubley, viz : '* General Morgan against Lieut. 
Colonel Tarleton. Action on the seventeenth January, 
1 78 1. Our loss twelve killed and sixty wounded. The 
enemy, ten commissioned officers and one hundred men 
killed, two hundred wounded, twenty commissioned 
officers and five hundred privates taken prisoners, with 
two standards, two pieces of artillery, eight hundred 
muskets, one travelling forge, thirty-five baggage wagons, 
seventy negroes and one hundred dragoon horses with 
their music ; our force eight hundred against eleven 

Feb. 178 i] of the American Revolution. 269 

hundred of the Seventh and Seventy-First British Regi- 
ments. This happened at a place called the Cowpens, 
near Pacolet River, about sunrise, the seventeenth of 
January.- The above account may be depended upon, 
was brought to Philada. by Gen. Morgan's Major of 
Brigade. P. S. The King's Speech is also [in] town. 
I hope this is an agreeable dish of news from your hum- 
ble servant J. H.*' 

12. At breakfast received likewise the express 

from Gen. Morgan to Gen. Greene dated at camp near 
Cain Creek, JanuftX^ 19th, sent by express to Congress. 

(See above) ^S^ent and attended the evolutions of 

the Light Horse and company of the militia in their ex- 
ercises and street firing till near dark ; left them at that 
employment, bells ringing, drums, fifes, trumpets, &c. 
They afterwards had bonfires, carousing at all or most of 
the taverns, as there was a collection made to treat the 
soldiery, who it's said behaved orderly, manly and plea- 
santly agreeable. No quarrels, as I have heard, although, 
as I'm informed, many drunken heads, before twoo'clock 
in the morning^ 

15^ It's said' that one hundred and eighty prisoners 
were brought from Fort Frederick, going to Philada. 
These were part of those Scotch taken at sea a year or 
two ago. 

17. This morning the Scotch prisoners that came [a] 
few days past marched towards Philadelphia. They 
don't appear to be those that were taken at sea, but 
part of those that were taken in a hospital about seven or 
eight months past. 

20. Received the keg of five and a half gallons of 
wine sent by my sons in the wagon under the care of L. 
Lauman Jr. Freight thirty-seven and a half dollars. 

21. Visited by Michael Mercer; says there's account 

of Paul Jones's arriving at Philada. from Europe 

Ball held this night at Barge's Tavern. The young 
woman that attended with coffee, &c., had two hundred 


ayo Christopher Marshall s Diary [Feb. 1781 

24. A., as commonly, saws [a] little firewood, suffi- 
cient for the present, cleans [thej stable, sits by [a] good 
fire, pretends to mend his breeches, stockings, clothes, 
&c., visits his neighbors, &c., &c. ; thus he employs 
himself from the time he arises between seven and eight 
in [the] morning to between nine and ten at night, as he 
never makes [aj fire in the house, cleans knives, forks, 
with other little occurrences that other men servants 
about house do and should do. 

28. News that the French fleet under the Count 
D'Estaing met the English fleet bound to America oflF 
the Western Islands, ten men-of-war, six frigates and 
one hundred sail of transports. The French engaged, 
took seven men-of-war and three frigates with forty-five 
transports out of the hundred. This in Town's Evening 
Packet^ it's said, just brought from Philadelphia. I 
waited on Edward Shippen with this news. 

March i. We have an account that the Confedera- 
tion was signed and ratified by the delegates of Maryland 
in Congress this day and announced publicly. See Hall 
and Sellers' s Gazette^ No. 2647. 

7. Dined with us James Shields, light-horseman ; gave 
an account that some prisoners in the barracks, refugees, 
had some conversation amongst themselves on the prac- 
ticability of blowing up our magazine. I went with him 
to Wm. Henry's, and Wm. Atlee had the person who 
told him sent for and examined, who related what he 
knew of the conversation. Atlee said he would send 
for the persons and send them to prison. 

8. Visited by Shaffer. Account, he says, from 

Philadelphia that the English fleet has taken St. Eusta- 

tia It's said that fifteen hundred French troops are 

at the head of Elk, going to join our troops in Virginia. 

17. Viewed near upon thirty of what's called St. 
Patrick's men, with effigy, drum, &c., parading the 

18. My wife and I went to meeting, that consisted of 
eight men, seven women, five boys, three girls (silent). 

Mar. 1781] of the American Revolution. 271 

As we returned homeC C was got home before 

us, where at his door which we passed, he, with three refu- 
gee officers who board there, was standing. One or 
more of the officers began to sing aloud out and so con- 
tinued while we could hear. The others with C ■ 
highly delighted. O wretched Toryism ! 

21. After [we] breakfestcd, [visited] by Wm Henry, 
who said that account was just brought from Philada., 
that the English had taken St. Eustatia, Curacoa with 
all the shipping and had declared war against the Dutch 

and taken vessels in the Texel ; particular and 

fiirther accounts expected. 

23. Called at Henry's store ; a large number there on 
the news brought of the defeat and surrender of Lord 
Cornwallis and his troops after a bloody engagement on 
the ninth instant, in which it's said several thousands 
were slain on both sides. Confirmation hourly expected. 

28. News from C C that Gen. Greene 

was defeated by Cornwallis with the loss o^ three hun- 
dred of his men killed upon the spot. 

30. News that Gen. Greene and Lord Cornwallis had 
an engagement ; that Greene retreated one mile and [a] 
half, with [the] loss of three hundred men, but intended 
to attack Cornwallis [the] next morning but [a] heavy 
rain in the night prevented. It's observable that Corn- 
wallis did not attempt to pursue Gen. Greene. An en- 
gagement, it's said, happened off the capes of Virginia 
between the English fleet and [the] French, the former 
thirteen ships, the latter nine, and not such heavy ships 
and metal, but were forced to run and got all safe into 
Rhode Island, but the English did not pursue them but 

put into Chesapeake Bay. Great trophies of victory ! 

Bought of Christy Snyder, nine pounds of butter at nine 
pence (say six shillings and nine pence, specie). 

31. After breakfast took a walk to Wm. Burkett; 
paid him forty Continental dollars for fixing [a] small 
glass case for Ed. Milne of Philada. to send him. 

27 2 Christopher Marshals Diary [ A p ril 1 7 8 1 

April 4. Visited by Mrs. Cunningham ; tells me 
there's news of a second engagement between [the] 
English and PVench fleets ; that two seventy-four gun 
ships of the former were towed into the Bay. 

5. Received a letter from sons of the third instant 

also acquainted [me] with the death of Paul Fooks last 
sixth Day ; buried next day. 

10. News from Gen. Greene of [the] seventeenth 
[of] March says, he waited three days at the Ironworks, 
expecting Lord Cornwallis would have followed him in 
order to renew the action, but, by accounts. Lord [Corn- 
wallis] was so galled in the former [of] the fifteenth, 
though he kept the ground and we lost our artillery, yet 
they of a sudden took their departure, leaving behmd 
them evident marks of distress. All our wounded at 
Guilford who had fallen into their hands and seventy of 
their own, too bad to move, were left at New Garden. 
There is not one of the officers of the Guards, that 
formed the column of his army, but is either killed or 
wounded. Among the latter is Gen. O'Hara, mortally.* 
[Among the] killed is Lord Bute's son. Col. Stewart, 
&c., &c. 

12. I am retired to my front room, going no where 

from home this week Indeed the behavior and 

conversation of most here on the nature of the times 
gives me pain. Men in words assuming to be hearty 
Whigs, but in their behavior rank Tories and enemies 
to Independency, there being but a small number of the 
true, sincere hearted Whigs left here at present to mourn 
for the abomination of the times, and of such there is 
great need, as so great a number are engaged in mono- 
polizing, gaming, drinking, dancing, swearing, idleness, 

1 8'. Yesterday, it's said, came to town on his journey 
to head quarters, Gen. Gates, with two Aides de camp 

^ He survived this wound and was one kA those who surrendered at 
York town. 

April 178 i] of the American Revolution. 273 

and two baggage wagons. There came last week one 
hundred prisoners from Winchester, &c. 

20. Near six, returned from [the] barracks, where I 
went to see, it's said, between five and six hundred pri* 
soners, just brought from Virginia, among whom may 
be one hundred refugees or tories, whose appearance 
was the picture of human poverty and want, both in 
clothes, flesh and meager looks. 

21. A. and Diana had had a scuffle, but as she made 
no complaint to me of his strilcing her in the face, I took 
no notice to her of it, though she complained to her mis* 
tress of her head's aching where she said he struck her ; 
but in order to make up with her, he said, Diana, I will 
do anything for thee, but why does thee wear that 
handkerchief yesterday and now about thy head ? thou 
shouldst wear a pretty cap and then I would love thee, 

&c Paid eighty dollars for mending sundry pewter 

tea-pots, &c. 

25. A. got into his airs with the negro woman, and 
as I could not venture out, he triumphed for the space 
of near two hours, I think, without interruption, with 
vile ribaldry, papist swearing, cursing, &c., incoherent, 
scurrilous language that imperious pride, vanity and folly 
could invent or express. 

26. Mrs. Cunningham at breakfast, who is very in- 
telligent, says, News in town is that twenty sail of 
armed merchant ships in [a] few days had arrived in 
Philada. from [the] French West Indies ; that Portugal 
had acceded to the neutrality [and] had joined the com- 
bined fleets ; that on the fourth of January the important 
post San Juan was retaken by the Spaniards ; that 
twenty-five English merchant ships are arrived at St. 
Lucia and that a fleet of French and Spanish had in- 
vested Pensacola Four hundred prisoners came, 

it's said, to-day. 

30. Some time now about, three or four (as called) 
refugee oflicers being exchanged, there accompanied 

274 Christopher Marshall* s Diary [April i 78 i 

them, from C C 's, where they lodged, several 

of our light-horse officers, who, with C , escorted 

them in grand order some miles out of town. 

May I. Received [a] letter from Samuel Wetherill, 
Jun^, with an address to the disowned of the People 
called Quakers where [ever] dispersed, dated [the] twenty- 
fourth [of] Fourth Month, signed by SamX Wetherill, 
Jr., Clerk. 

6. Received [a] letter of the fourth, with two news- 
papers [and the] resolve of Council fixing exchange this 
month at one hundred and seventy-five per cent. 

7. After breakfast went down to Wm. Henry's store ; 
great debates there as the collector by Henry's order re- 
fused to receive the tax as [it] was laid by [the] Com- 
missioners, which gives great uneasiness Went 

down town on public concerns ; spent some time with 
Judge Atlee and sundry others, but to little purpose. 
[The] train of Artillery of [the] Pennsylvania line, under 
Major Eustace arrived here yesterday on their route to 
the Southward. 

8. Mammy went to the potter's ; bought eight hundred 

dollars' worth of earthenware The train of Artillery 

marched away this morning towards Wright's ferry.* 

9. News just brought by Capt. Carson [who] left 
Philadelphia yesterday that a packet arrived in [a] short 
passage to New York with orders to Gen. Clinton to 
proceed to England with all the forces he can master, as 
rebellion had broken out in Scotland ; upon which all 
our American prisoners there were discharged on their 
parole to the amount of three hundred, as they kept fifty 
sailors to help to navigate their vessels to England, and 
that many of the refugees in New York were determined 
to throw themselves on the mercies of the States from 
which they had run away, in consequence of which, it's 
said, many were arrived in the Jerseys, &c. It's further 

' Now Columbia, Lancaster county. 

May 1781] of the American Revolution. 275 

said that [there has been] an engagement between the 
combined fleets and the English, in which the latter were 
defeated. Confirmation looked for. 

12. Counting Continental money to know my 

stock Paid John Jones's tax, forty-five dollars. 

Paid Peter ShafFner my Continental two months' tax 
and county tax. Two Hundred and Eight Pounds. 

15. Gen. Wayne with his suite came to town last 
evening, on his route to the southward. Near nine, 
attended [the] Grand Jury, where bills were found 
against Abraham Behm, Jacob Barkman [and] John 
Thompson for [a] high misdemeanor against the State, 
in aiding, abetting and encouraging the enemies of the 

17. Went down to [the] Court House, where [the] 
Grand Jury found a bill against Josiah Brown for giving 
money, say three silver dollars, to Francis Steel and 
Peter Dill, two evidences against Abraham Behm, John 
Thompson and Jacob Barkman, in order to evade' their 
evidences Lent John Jones yesterday three hun- 
dred Continental dollars to pay Jacob for four 

State dollars at seventy-five for one. 

18. Gen. Wayne with his suite left here yesterday 

19. About noon George Robinson, light horseman, 
went to the barracks in order to rescue his comrade, a 
prisoner for abusing one of the militia. The sentry, 

one ^, refusing, he cocked his pistol, which the 

sentry observing, nred and killed him on the spot. 

20. After breakfast came to town a number, say three 
hundred, of the Pennsylvania Line, on their route to the 

21. Account that last night, some of [the] light horse 
intended to assault the militia upon guard, on account of 
revenge, they said, for the murder of their comrade upon 
Seventh Day, but by the vigilance of the guards and 

' Get rid of. 

^76 Christopher Marshals Diary [M ay 1781 

the careful intervention of the officers of [the] light 
horse, [it] was timely prevented without any hurt to 

either side In the afternoon a small shock of an 


27. Arose early \ breakfasted, set off with Christopher 
in his carriage ; baited at Samuel Hopkins's ; proceeded 
to Thomas Downing's ; reached it near sundown ; roads 
extremely muddy ; supped and lodged there in Downing 

28. Arose early ; breakfasted -, fine pleasant morning; 
set oiF with Hambright ; the roads so bad, by his advice 
left [the] Great Road ; crossed John Baldwin's place 
into the Boot Road ; baited at [the] sign of [the] Boot ; 
thence to the Square ; dined there ; set off, went through 
Derby, got to Philada. by sundown. The roads were 
good this way. 

29. Viewed the City Militia under arms in Market 

31. Paid tax to Robert Gather, Eighty-two pounds, 

eleven shillings, class tax for High Street Ward 

Paid tax to Christopher Barthing, One Hundred and 
fifty-two Pounds, class and county for Mulberry Ward. 

JUNE 3. Account that the Holker, with three other 
vessels, arrived here and that the French fleet was arrived 
in the West Indies, had engaged the English fleet, &c. 

4. To monthly meeting of Friends held at Sam* 
WetheriU's house ; very solid and weighty ; adjourned 
near one to four o'clock ; dined at Christopher's ; re- 
turned to the meeting, that broke up near seven o'clock, 
at which several weighty rules were adopted in the same 
line on the same principles that Friends first established.' 

5. With John Hopson, engaged in preparing Bills 
regular for the Loan Office. Last Seventh day [the] 
Committee of the whole House of Assembly [met] to 

' From these meetings sprang the society of Free Q^izktTt^ formerly 
worshiping in the building still standing at the S. W. corner of Fifth and 
Arch streets. The Whigs of Philadelphia contributed to its erection. 

June 1781] of the American Revolution. 277 

last month ; that 
on the French at 

consider the repeal of the Tender Act ; adjourned to 

9. News of the day is that the Spaniards had taken 
Pensacola [on] the twenty-fifth [of 
all the conquests made by the Englis 
the time when they took rondicherry are now retaken by 
Hyder Aly Kan, an Indian King, and offered by him to 
the French nation ; that the English were beaten in the 
country of Arcot ; their armament in India inferior to 
that of the French there under the command of Mons. 

12. Three vessels arrived this afternoon from the 

14. Spent some time at Francis Bailey's with S' James 
Jay, a writer in Bailey's paper under the signature of 
the Independent Whig, Plain Truth, &c. 

22. Visited by Col. Bayard and S^ James Jay ; spent 
some time in conversation on the publications going to 
the press respecting the conduct of [James] Duane, &c. 

24. To Friends' Meeting at [the] Academy, where 
Sam^ Wetherill and Jehu Eldridge spoke. After dinner 
to meeting [at the] said place, when the aforesaid per- 
sons spoke. After worship over, a few of us had a con- 
ference relating to future proceedings. 

30. I went in chair to my old pasture house, where 
associated twenty-two men, women and children. Drank 
tea there, came back in the evening. 

July 2. Went to the monthly meeting held at Sam^ 
Wetherill's ; consisted of sixteen men, who very amica- 
bly adjusted sundry weighty matters. Adjourned to this 
day week ; James Howell, Tim. Matlack and self ap- 
pointed to draw up a paper to Friends of this city against 
that time for their approbation. 

4. This being the anniversary of [the] sixth year [of] 
Independency, bells rung, guns fired, a cold collation at 
the State House. I went not to partake of it, but went 
in the evening to see some fireworks played off. There 

ay 8 Christopher MarsbaW $ Diary [July 1781 

was a great number of people but no accident happened, 
as I've beard. 

6. Went to Tim. Matlack by appointment in order 
to frame an address to the Frienas of the three monthly 
meetings in Philada. in order to communicate our senti- 
ments respecting our right to the use of the meeting- 
houses o\ this city in common with them, and also to 
their burial ground. Adjourned to six this evening to 
meet at the house of Sam*. Wetherill, where we accord- 
ingly met. The address [was] read, with some small 
alterations agreed to, [a] copy of which is to be presented 
at the three next monthly meetings in this city. 

8. Yesterday arrived a flag [ship] ; brought a number 
of the distressed, virtuous inhabitants of Carolina. This 
is, I think, the third vessel come from there, in a few 
days, on that account. 

Q. I went to Friends' monthly meeting at Sam* Weth- 
erill's house, where the sundry affairs relating to the 
good and orderly conversation of Friends was amicably 
settled in brotherly love and condescension, the three 
copies for the three monthly meetings to be signed by 
the clerk, and Moses Bartram, Peter Thompson and 
Timothy Matlack appointed to attend and deliver one 
of them at each meeting-house, after meeting of worship 
is finished and the proceeding to business. 

1 1 . Butter in market [is] said to sell from eighteen 

pence to two shillings and six pence per pound 

Bought one pound of green tea ; cost forty shillings, 

14. President Huntington came, took his leave of me 
very politely, as he with his family was leaving this state 
for his own home. 

20. A flag [ship] from Carolina with many of the 
virtuous, unfortunate inhabitants, few men, but many 
women and children. 

22. Set off in Christopher's carriage with son Charles 
and grandson Charles about six ; stopped and baited 

July 1781] of the American Revolution. 279 

about fourteen miles from town ; thence to the widow 
of John Jacobs ; dined there ; in the evening went to 
Thomas Downing's, tavern keeper, Downing Town ; 
supped and stayed all night. 

23. Breakfasted, set off; baited at the sign of the 
wagon, from thence to Wm. Bispham's ; dined there ; 
thence home. 

24. Visited by Dr. NefF, Dr. Houston, Ed. Shippen 
and sundry neighbors. I returned the visit to Dr. NefPs, 
as his daughter Esther was married while I was from 

25. Within two days the prisoners encamped here on 
the commons, being part of Burgoyne's [army], to the 
number of five hundred men and near the same of 
women and children, marched from here to their en- 
campment near Little York. 

29. I was obliged to rise soon, as our A. had his 
humor, so that he did not so much as turn the cow 
out. He was up, up stairs *, seeing me about, came 
down. I said, A. why did you not turn the cow, &c., 
out ? thou deservest to be turned out as well as she. He 
turns about in his usual manner, says. What ! are you 
beginning again to trouble me ? I stopped or I should 
have had a set down. He went up stairs again. 

31. Paid George Burkett thirty shillings, hard, fourth 
class tax. 

August 6. [A] countryman brought two pecks of 
potatoes ; paid him eighteen pence, hard. 

9. A. has been so much indulged that he can't cut 
[a] bit of grass for [the] cow without great uneasiness, 
yet eats and drinks quite hearty ; can clean himself and ' 
go abroad, and stay from after dinner till late in the 

afternoon, and must be asked no questions Indeed 

we have the most lazy, impertinent, talkative, lying 
fellow that, I think, ever any family was troubled 

with News for sonoe days past of the English's 

landing at [the] head of Elk, in order to pay Lancaster 

2 8o Christopher Marshall s Diary [ A ug. 1 7 8 1 

a visit. Some people, I understand, talked of moving 
their goods and families. The militia were ordered to 
hold themselves in readiness upon call, kc. 

II. A. gone into town for a considerable space of 
time. No account to be received from him for his pro- 
ceedings, for, as he says, he is a righteous, good man \ 
every thing he does is right. 

74. A. went out, I was told, to preach to some people 
that asked him. 

16. Last night my wife had some trouble with A. to 
get him to bed (as I was gone to bed) ; she got [him] 
up at last ; whether he came down again don't know. 
For at these times he sets a talking such monstrous, 
foolish ribaldry to the negro woman that she has been 
afraid to go to sleep for fear, as he tells her, that the 
devil will come and fetch her away, &c. How that may 
be last night, I can't say whether he had frightened her 
or not, but this morning she is not to be found. I have 
hunted round about the place and neighborhood, but to 
no purpose ; her clothes are all left except an old petti- 
coat and jacket over her shift. By all our enquiry no 
news as yet of her. A. says she went out about day 
break, but there is no dependence upon any thing he 
says. He adds that she told him some dreams some 
time past and he had told her the interpretation, right, 

true, &c In the afternoon account brought [that] 

our negro woman was about two or three miles from 
town. Got Jeremiah Mosher and John Jones who 
brought her home. 

1 7. When I arose, had the prospect of Antony cutting 
my carrots ; had cut up one bed and would soon have 
served our whole little stock so. I was really put out 
of humor, as but a few days before he had stripped a 
parcel of my fine colderoe cabbage and destroyed great 
part of our potatoes under the notion of making them 
grow better. 

26. Went to meeting; consisted of six men and self; 

Aug. 178 i] of the American Revolution. 281 

five women, three boys [and] one girl. Two of the 
women spoke by way of exhortation. The recruiting 
party here on Seventh day [had] possession of the meet- 
ing place, but left it during the meeting and behaved 
civilly. The Friends had moved all their chairs in the 
part locked up, but left our large chair that held four 
of the women, to take its fate. I remark this to show 
the little esteem and regard they have for our family, as 
this large garden chair was taken there for the use of the 
women Friends. 

31. Engaged about sundry occurrences, as A. is still 
the sick, religious, wise and goodnatured, obliging man, 

September i. Visited to-day by Joseph Montgomery ; 
stayed some time in conversation ; he had got leave from 
Congress on account of his health. Received [a] letter 
from sons of the thirtieth (with some newspapers) giving 
an account that Gen. Washington and Count Rocham- 
beau had arrived that [day] in rhiladelphia, on their way . 
to Virginia ; that from five to seven thousand troops were 
on the road after them, and most of the small craft was 

fone to Trenton to forward them down to the head of 
«Ik, &c., as it's not doubted that the French fleet are in 
Chesapeake Bay. 

2. A. still in his wicked humors A. after dinner, 

though so poorly, he said, as not able to pull [a] few 
weeds for [the] cow, yet after eating a hearty dinner 
went abroad ; returned by evening, but, as it was First 
Day, said it would not suit to pull weeds for [the] cow 
or cut grass for [the] horse, so I served them with hay. 
He was really very provoking this day, but as I had 
purposed, I said but little unto him, except requesting 
him to pack up his clothes to-morrow morning and be 
gone from here. 

3. Afterwards came into the orchard, Antony; ad- 
dressed himself to me by saying, Mr. Marshall, I am 
very sorry that I should give thee any trouble. It 

282 Christopher Mar sbalT s Diarj [Sept. 1781 

troubles myself, and if thee will pass it by, I shall g^ow 
better and that every day. I answered him to this effect, 
Antony, thou hast so often misbehaved thyself, I can't 
tell what to say, but remember thee that long ago I 
would have turned thee away upon account of thy be- 
havior : then thou desired me to pass all by, that thou 
didst not desire I should give thee any wages but such 
clothes as I thought convenient and thou wouldst strive 
to behave well for [the] time to come. [To] this he 
consented and said [it] was true, and desired that I would 
try him once more, in the same way, as he knew of no 
dlace to go to and would be contented with such neces- 
saries as we thought suitable for him, upon which I took 
him again into favor. 

5. My wife arose early ; went to market. Loin of 
mutton, six and a half pounds at four pence ; two shillings 
and two pence. 

7. Various pieces of news but none I find to depend 
upon, as what is reported as yesterday [is] contradicted 

8-. Last night a feu de joie in Lancaster, firing guns, 
bonfire, &c., on account of the news. 

10. A. little or nothing to do, yet still grumbling. 
He could not [eat] bread and butter with his tea this 
morning ; he must and would have toast, and^ as we had 
none ourselves, my wife thought he might do without, 
which offended him, so that he left it very much affronted. 

11. A. little to do, but don't seem to be pleased ; in 
[the] evening, gave me a set down by saying we fed 
every body else well but him, and he could be hearty 
and well if we gave him better victuals, &c., with a deal 
of such stuff that was becoming a man that had lost his 

15. Attending on A., who is now got into a fit of 
stillness which is very desirable. 

19. News just verbal by Capt. Simmons [who] said 
[he] left Philadelphia yesterday at eleven a.m. Ex- 

Sept. 1781] of the American Revolution. 283 

presses just arrived with accounts of [an] en^gement 
between the English and French fleets near [the] Chesa- 
peake \ that the latter had taken from the former three 
Tships of] seventy-four guns and two smaller and were 
m possession of the bay, as the English returned to New 
York. By deserter from Lord Cornwallis (come, I think, 
yesterday) that Lord Cornwallis had put his garrison upon 
naif allowance, and the negroes obliged to eat horseflesh, 
&c. From Pittsburg it's said the English and Indians 
from Detroit, on the eighteenth [of] last month, took 
possession of the Moravian settlement between North 
Carolina and Virginia on the Muskingum River, took all 
the whites and Indians prisoners, carried them bound to 
Detroit, say two or three hundred. 

21. The artillery recruits marched for Philadelphia. 
News just come by Richards's son for the Lieutenant 
to call the militia, as it's said that Clinton has embarked 

five thousand troops to invade Philadelphia In the 

evening came Christopher Gadsden ; stayed some time 
in conversation. I went with him to the tavern ; stayed 
some time with him and his companions. 

22. Past eight, came Christopher Gadsden, his son, 

Thomas Ferguson, Hutson, Cattill, 

Beresford, Roberts, Wilson and Phillips ; 

breakfasted with us. These were on their journey towards 
Charleston. I afterwards accompanied them to the 
tavern -, waited till they departed in high spirits. Re- 
ceived [a] letter from my sons of the twentieth, with some 
newspapers. Their letter informed [that] all our families 
were well, but there was a rumor of the English's em- 
barking five thousand men at New York to destroy their 
city. This to some gave great uneasiness. This day 
the light-horse here marched for Philad*. and orders 
came for calli ng the militia. Passed through this afternoon, 
one hundred and fifty-three recruits from York, but 
raised at Reading, for Philad*. 

24. A. the most pleasant and obliging of any time I 

284 Cbrisiapher MarsbalFs Diary. [Sept. 178 i 

can recollect for these two years past Bought [a] 

loin of mutton, weight eight and a half pounds, cost two 

shillings and eleven pence hard No person, that I 

know of, had affronted A., as he eat his dinner just at 
dark, yet he took an opportunity, something passed in 
the stable, that he really paid me most severely with his 
tongue. I desired him to be quiet and behave himself. 
I had not asked where he had been spending his time, 
so that he might be quiet, as I was. This rather en- 
couraged him to talk the more. Susanna heard him, 
came to the stable to quiet him. All to no purpose. 
He said he was [a] quiet, still, good man and he loved 
to be quiet. I at last told him A. it is quite uncivil and 
unmannerly to serve me so. I will, thou mayest depend 
upon it, give thee a good whipping if thou goest on in 
this manner. I can not nor will not put up with it and 
I desire thou mayest in the morning pick up thy things 
and go somewhere else, for I cannot bear it. So I left 
him, and I went, served and put up the creatures. 
Afterwards in [the] kitchen he got to preaching in a 
strange manner to the negro woman, so that my wife 
was obliged to interfere upon his saying he would strive 
to please no man, for he acted as the Lord bid him. 


•♦ »■ 


At the close of the First Volume of Mr. Marshall's 
Remembrancer are the accounts of the Overseers of the 
Poor (Christopher Marshall, James Eddy, George Mor- 
rison and Hugh Forbes) for the year commencing in 
March, 1 758. Many of the entries are curious as throw- 
ing light upon the manners of the time ; others, as fur- 
nishing us with the prices of that day. A few are sub- 
joined. The accounts are in Pennsylvania currency. 

City of Philadelphia for the Poor^ Dr. 

1758 £. s. d. 

May 7. To two negroes, wheeling 

Cath. Shannon to Alms 
House I 6 

8. To turning an old beggar out 
of town, IS, His coffee, is. 
6d. 2 6 

15. To Saml. Crispin for Margt. 

Grant's child's coffin 5 O 

18. To Granny Ganderwit for 

laying Mary Mackinary 

19. To Mary Mackinary, lying in 
JujLY 7. To John Wallace's bill for 

wood, being twelve cords 
14. To amount of Pension Book ^ 
from March 30 to June 25 
Oct. 3. To amount of Pension Book 

from June 30 to Sept. 22 

* For the out-door poor. 












286 Cbrisiopher Marshals Diary 


Oct. 23. To cash, quart of rum for 

tailor I I 

3 1 . To Hannah Pearson, for part 

curing Mary Carter's scald 

head I 10 O 

Nov, 18. To Capt, Campbell foryr«^A/ 

for Rachael Maguire and 

children to Carolina 170 

25. To William Young earthen^ 

ware for a horse I 3 to 

Dec 1 6. To poor woman to pay for 

lodging 004 

29. To amount of Pension Book 

to the 15th inst. 57 13 1 1 

** To cash to Granny Pawling 

for laying Peg Neal 10 O 

30. To cash to taking man to 

workhouse and conveying 

him thence to Charleston 3 6 


Jan. 4. To two pairs of breeches 6 8 

27. To cash gave John Burden, 

his family very sick 5 O 

Feb. 15. To cash for four yards Osna- 

brigs for a shift for Rachael 

Glover S 4 

27. To cash for ferriage of Alice 

Holland to the Jerseys o 4 

1758 £ s. a. 

Apr. 10. By cash, of Robert Strettle 

fining a woman for swearing 5 o 

July 22. " " of Capt. Mitchell 

for expenses in burying of 
John Lindsey I o I 

" " " of Capt. Mitchell, 

of the American Revolution. 287 

1758 his fine for swearing three 

oaths 15IS ^ 

Aug, 2. ** " of Widow Woman 

for restoring a little black 
pig, taken to the Alms 
House 10 ^^ o 

8. " " of Ed. Shippen, 

for five fines, viz. Aquila 
Jones, Geo. Bryan, 
Thomas Smith, John Jones, 
and John Jennings, for re- 
fusing to serve as Consta- 
bles, at ^5 each 25 o o 
28. " " of the Mayor, for 
a fine, received of Mary 
Zebulum, for entertaining 
negroes 100 

Oct. 7. " " of Mary Chesnell, 

for entertaining a strange 
woman 10 o 

Nov. I. " " of the Mayor, a 

fine he received of Capt. 
Gash, for refusing to enter- 
tain the officers billeted on 
him 300 

9. " ** of James Coultass, 

late Sheriff, being a fine paid 
by Laughlane McClain for 
kissing of Osborn's wife 
(after his commissions and 
writing bond were deducted) 24 5 O 


Jan. 6. '' ** for a poor sailor, of 

Capt. Farris 10 o 

The totals for the period embraced in these accounts 

(from March 29, 1758, to March 26, 1759) are 

288 Christopher MarshalFs Diary 

Receipts £1189 ^* ^' 
Expenditures ^1103 41 0} OI 

Commissions at 3f 
per c. on XiiBq 44 h 9 

.£1147 16 7J 

.£41 4 2j 
To which add for sum short in one of the 

duplicates 9 i 11 

£50 6 ij 
There appear in these accounts no receipts of taxes 
for the support of the poor. There is no mention of any 
money spent for segars, wines, liquors, &c., for the over- 
seers, the charges for which, swell up Alms House ac- 
counts in these more modern times ; nor does the word 
** sundries " once occur. 

On the 20th of August, 1759, Thomas Lawrence, the 
Mayor of Philadelphia, directed the overseers to pay the 
above balance to their successors (Robert Towers, 
William Faulkener, James Stevenson, and James James). 
The receipt of Mr. Stevenson is endorsed upon the order. 


Dr. Chovet's Lectures were on Anatomy. The fol- 
lowing was his Advertisement. 

'' At the Anatomical Museum 
in Videl's Alley, Second Street, on Wednesday, the 
Seventh of December at six in the evening 

Dr. Chovet 
will begin his course of Anatomical and Physiologica. 
Lectures, in which the several parts of the human body 
will be demonstrated, with their mechanism and actions, 
together with the doctrines of life, health and the several 
effects resulting from the actions of the parts ; on his 
curious collection of Anatomical wax-works, and other 

of the American Revolution. 289 

natural preparations ; to be continued the whole winter 
until the course is completed. 

As this course cannot be attended with the disagree- 
able sight or smell of recent diseased and putrid carcases, 
which often disgust even the students in Physick, as well 
as the curious, otherwise inclined to this useful and sub- 
lime part of natural philosophy, it is hoped this under- 
taking will meet with suitable encouragement. 

Tickets to be had for the whole course at Dr. Chovet's 
house in Second Street, Philadelphia." 

A writer in the Neiu Tork Gazette in 1828, over the 
signature of " An Old Philadelphian," speaks of Dr. 
Chovet as follows : 

" Dr. Chovet, a most eccentric man, full of anecdote 
and noted for his propensity for what is now termed 
quizzing, resided in Race above Third Street. The 
Doctor was what was termed a Tory ; was licensed to 
say and do what he pleased, at which no one took umbrage. 
He one day entered the Old Coffee House, corner of 
Market and Front Streets, with an open letter in his 
hand. It was twelve o'clock, change hour ; the mer- 
chants all assembled. On seeing the Doctor they all 
surrounded him, enquiring what news he had in that 
letter, which he stated he had just received by a king's 
ship, arrived in New York. In reply to this inquiry, he 
said that the letter contained information of the death of 
an old cobbler in London, who had his stall in one of the 
by-streets, and asked the gentlemen what they supposed 
the cobbler had died worth. One said £5,000, another 
£10,000, and another £20,000, sterling. No, gentle- 
men, no ; You are all mistaken ; not one farthing, gen- 
tlemen 9 running out, laughing at the Joke at the expense 
of the collected mercantile wisdom of the City. 

^^ Another time, having been sent for to the Spanish 
Minister, Don Juan (I forget bis name) who resided in 
old Mr. Chew's house in Third Street, between Walnut 
and Spruce Streets, the weather being rather unpleasant, 

^90 Christopher MarshalTs Diary 

the Minister ordered his carriage to the door to convey 
the Doctor home. The Doctor, full of fun and joke, 
directed the coachman to drive by the Coffee House, 
which, as he approached, was perceived by the mer- 
chants, who immediately drew up in order, hats off, to 
pay their respects to Don, as minister from a friendly 
power. The Doctor kept himself close back in the 
carriage until directly opposite the Coffee House, the 
gentlemen all bowing and scraping, when he pops out 
his head — good morning, gentlemen, good morning ; I 
hope you are all well ; thank you in the name of his 
Majesty Kine George ; and drove off, laughing heartily 
at having agam joked with the Philadelphia Whigs. 



(From the Evening Potty No. 53.) 

When the New England colonies were first settled, 
the inhabitants were obliged to fight their way against 
many nations of Indians. They found but little diffi- 
culty in subduing them all, except one tribe, who were 
known by the namcof Yankoos, which s\gn\fits invincible. 
After the waste of much blood and treasure, the Yankoos 
were at last subdued by the New Englanders. The re- 
mains of this nation (agreeably to the Indian custom) 
transferred their name to the conquerors. For a while 
they were called Yankoos, but from a corruption com- 
mon to names in all languages, they got through time to 
the name of Yankees, a name which, we hope, will soon 
be equal to that of a Roman or an ancient Englishman. 

of the American Revolution. 29 1 



Philadelphia, June 16, 181 7. 
Messrs. William McKorkle and Son. 

Gentlemen : Several applications having been re- 
cently made to me, to state the errors which I had 
observed and often mentioned in the publication of 
the names of the members of the Continental Con- 
gress, who declared in favor of the Independence of 
the ITnited States on the 4th day of July, 1776 — I 
have not at present sufficient health and leisure to 
reply severally to each application. There can be 
but one correct statement of facts ; one public state- 
ment, therefore, through the press, will serve the purpose 
of the gentlemen who have made the request, and may 
also give satisfaction to the minds of others, who have 
turned their thoughts upon the subject. If I am correct 
in my statement, it may be of use for future historians ; 
if not, my errors can be readily corrected. I wish, 
therefore, by means of your paper, to make the following 
statement of the facts within my knowledge, relative to 
the subject of enquiry. 

On Monday, the First Day of July, 1776, the argu- 
ments in Congress for and against the Declaration of In- 
dependence having been exhausted, and the measure fully 
considered, the Congress resolved itself into a Committee 
of the Whole ; the question was put by the Chairman, and 
all the States voted in the affirmative, except Pennsylvania, 
which was in the negative, and Delaware, which was equally 
divided. Pennsylvania at that time had seven members, 
viz., John Morton, Benjamin Franklin, James Wilson, 
John Dickinson, Robert Morris, Thomas Willing, and 
Charles Humphreys. All were present on the First of 
July, and the three first named voted for the Declaration 
of Independence, the remaining four against it. The 

29^ Cbristopber MarsbalTs Diary 

State of Delaware had three members, Caesar Rodney, 
George Read, and myself. George Read and I were 
present. I voted for it ; George Read against it. When 
the President resumed the chair, the chairman of the 
committee of the whole made his report, which was not 
acted upon, until Thursday, the Fourth of July. In the 
mean time, I had written to press the attendance of 
Caesar Rodney, the third delegate from Dehware, who 
appeared early on that day at the State House in his 
place. When the Congress assembled, the question was 
put on the report of the Committee of the Whole and 
approved by every State, Of the members from Penn- 
sylvania, the three first as above, voted in the affirmative, 
and the two last in the negative. John Dickinson and 
Robert Morris were present and did not take their seats 
on that day. Cassar Rodney, for the State of Delaware, 
voted with me in the affirmative, and George Read in the 

Some months after this, I saw printed publications of 
the names of those gentlemen, who had, as it was said, 
voted for the Declaration of Independence, and observed 
that my own name was omitted. I was not a little sur- 
prised at, nor could I account for the omission ; because 
I knew that on the 24th of June preceding, the deputies 
from the Committees of Pennsylvania, assembled in Pro- 
vincial Conference, held at the Carpenters* Hall, Phila- 
delphia, which had met on the i8th and chosen me their 
President, had unanimously declared their willingness to 
concur in a vote of the Congress, declaring the United 
colonies, Free and Independent States, and had ordered 
their Declaration to be signed, and their President to 
deliver it into Congress, which accordingly, I did, the 
day following ; I knew also that a regiment of associa- 
tors, of which I was Colonel, had at the end of May 
before, unanimously made the same declaration. These 
circumstances were mentioned at the time to the gentle- 
men of my acquaintance. The error remained uncor- 
rected until the year 1781, when I was appointed to 

of the American Revolution. 293 

publish the laws of Pennsylvania, to which I prefixed 
the Declaration of Independence and inserted my own 
name with the names of my colleagues. Afterwards, in 
1797, when the late A. J. Dallas, Esqr.,then Secretary 
of the Commonwealth, was appointed *to publish an edi* 
tion of the laws, on comparing the names published as 
subscribed to the Declaration of Independence, he ob- 
served a variance : and the omission in some publications 
of the name of Thomas McKean ; having procured a 
certificate from the Secretary of State that the' name of 
Thomas McKean was affixed in his own hand writing 
to the original Declaration of Independence, though 
omitted in the Journal of Congress, Mr. Dallas then 
requested an explanation of this circumstance from me, 
and from my answer to this application, the following 
extracts were taken and published by Mr. Dallas in the 
Appendix to the first volume of his edition to the laws. 

^' For several years past I have been taught to think 
less unfavorably of skepticism than formerly. So many 
things have been misrepresented, misstated and erro- 
neously printed (with seeming authenticity) under my 
own eye, as in my opinion to render those who doubt of 
every thing not altogether inexcusable. The publication 
of the Declaration of Independence on the 4th day of 
July, 1776, as printed in the Journals of Congress^ vol. 
2, page 242, &c., and also in the acts of most public 
bodies since, so far as respects the names of the delegates 
or deputies who made that declaration, has led to the 
above reflection. By the printed publications referred 
to, it would appear as if the fifty-five gentlemen, whose 
names are there printed, and none other, were on that 
day, personally present in Congress and assenting to the 
declaration ; whereas the truth is otherwise. The follow- 
ing gentlemen were not members on the 4th of Julv, 
1776, namely, Matthew Thornton, Benjamin Rush, 
George Clymer, James Smith, George Taylor, and 
George Ross, Esquires. The five last named were not 

294 Christopher Marshals 

chosen delegates until the 20th of that month ; the first 
not until the 1 2th day of September, following, nor did 
he take his seat in Congress until the 4th of (fovember, 
which was four months after. The Journal of Congress 
vol. 2d, pages 277 and 442, as well as those of the As- 
sembly of the State of Pennsylvania, page 53, and of the 
General Assembly of New Hampshire establish these 
fiicts. Although the six gentlemen named had been 
very active in the American cause, and some of them, 
to my own knowledge, warmly in &vor of its independ- 
ence previous to the day on which it was declared, yet I 
personally know that none of them were in Congress on 
that day. 

*^ Moc^esty should not rob a man of his just honor, 
when by that honor his modesty cannot be offended. 
My name is not in printed journals of Congress, as a 
party to the Declaration of Independence, and this, like 
an error in the first correction, has vitiated most of the 
subsequent publications, and yet the fact is that I was 
then a member of Congress for the State of Delaware, 
was personally present in Congress, and voted in favor 
of Independence on the 4th of July, 1776, and signed 
the Declaration after it had been engrossed on parch- 
ment, where my name in my own band writing still 
appears. Henry Wisner, of the State of New York, 
was also in Congress and voted for Independence. 

^^ I do not know how the misstatement in the printed 

{'ournals has happened. The manuscript public journal 
las no names annexed to the Declaration of Independ- 
ence, nor has the secret journal ; but it appears by the 
latter that on the 19th day of July, 1776, the Congress 
directed that it should be engrossed on parchment and 
signed by every member^ and that it was so produced on 
the 2d of August and signed. This is interlined in the 
secret journal in the hand writing of Charles Thomson, 
Esq., the Secretary. The present Secretary of State of 
the United States and myself have lately mspected the 

of the American Revolution. 295 

journals, and seen this. The journal was first printed 
by Mr. John Dunlap, in 1778, and probably copies, 
with the names they signed to it, were printed in August 
1776, and that Mr. Dunlap printed the names from one 
of them.** 

Your most obedient servant, 

Thos. McKean. 


The following Proclamations and General Orders 
were issued shortly after General Putnam's assuming 
the command in Philadelphia. 

Philadelphia, December 12, 1776. 

All officers of the Continental army who are now in 
this City by furlough or order (those only excepted who 
are in the recruiting service or who may have leave of 
absence in writing from the Commander in Chief) are 
hereby required to join their respective corps before to- 
morrow evening. 

Officers who have the charge of sick soldiers in or 
near the City, and who are included in the foregoing 
order, are directed to make returns to Dr. Jonathaa 
Potts, at Mr, John Riddle's in Market Street, of the 
numbers and places of residence of their sick, that pro 
per care may be taken of them. 

The late advances of the enemy towards this place 
oblige the General to request the inhabitants of this City 
not to appear in the streets after ten o'clock at night, as 
he has given orders to the picket guard to arrest and 
confine all persons who may be found in the streets after 
that hour. Physicians and others, having essential busi- 
ness abroad after the hour, are directed to call at Head 
Quarters for passes. 

Israel Putnam. 

296 Cbristapber Marshall s Diary 

Head Quartbrs, Phila., Decembir 13, 1776. 

The General has been informed that some weak or 
wicked men have maliciously reported that it is the de- 
sign and wish of the officers and men in the Continental 
army to burn and destroy the city of Philadelphia. To 
counteract such a false and scandalous report, he thinks 
it necessary to inform the inhabitants who propose to re- 
main in tne City, that he has received positive orders 
from the Honorable'Continental Congress and from his 
Excellency General Washington, to secure and pro- 
tect the city of Philadelphia against all invaders and 
enemies. The General will consider every attempt to 
burn the city of Philadelphia as a crime of the blackest 
dye, and will, without ceremony, punish capitally, any 
incendiary who shall have the hardness and cruelty to 
attempt it. 

The General commands all able bodied men in the 
city of Philadelphia who are not conscientiously scrupu- 
lous against bearing arms, and who have not been known 
heretofore to entertain such scruples, to appear in the 
State House Yard to-morrow morning, at ten o'clock, 
with their arms and accoutrements. This order must be 
complied with ; the General being resolutely determined 
that no person shall remain in this City an idle spectator 
bi the present contest who has it in his power to injure 
the American cause or who may refuse to lend his aid 
to the support of it, persons under conscientious scruples 
before mentioned, only excepted. 

All persons who have arms or accoutrements which 
they cannot or do not mean to employ in defence of 
America, are hereby ordered to deliver them to Mr. 
Robert Towers, who will pay for the same. Those who 
are convicted of secreting any arms or accoutrements will 
be severely punished. 

Israel Putnam, Major General. 

of the American Revolution. 297 


Head Quarters, Phila., Dee. 14, 1776. 

Col. Griffin is appointed Adjutant General to the 
troops in and about this City. All orders from the Gene- 
ral through him, either written or verbal, are to be strictly 
attended to and punctually obeyed. 

The General, to his great astonishment, has been in- 
formed that several of the inhabitants of this city have 
refused to take the Continental Currency in payment for 

[roods. In future, should any of the inhabitants be so 
ost to public virtue and the welfare of their country as 
to presume to refuse the currency of the American States 
in payment for any commodities they may have for sale, 
the goods shall be forfeited, and the person or persons so 
refusing committed to close confinement. 

In case of an alarm of fire, the city guards and patrols 
are to suiFer the inhabitants to pass unmolested at any 
hour of the night, and the good people of Philadelphia 
are earnestly requested and desired to give every assistance 
in their power with engines and buckets to extinguish 
the fire. And as the Congress have ordered the City to 
be defended to the last extremity, the General hopes that 
no person will refuse to give every assistance possible to 
complete the fortifications that are to be erected in and 
about the city. 

Israel Putnam, Major General. 


From JlirFm^tf/, lines 1 274-1 301. 

Hath not Heaven warned you what must ensue 
And Providence declared against you ; 
Hung forth its dire portents of war 

298 Cbrisiopber MarsbalTs Diary 

By signs' and beacons in the air ; 

Alarmed old women all around, 

Bv fearful noises under ground, 

While earth for many dozen leagues 

Groaned with her dismal load of whigs i 

Was there a meteor hr or wide 

But mustered on the Tory side i 

A star malign that has not bent 

Its aspects for the parliament, 

Forboding your defeat and misery, 

As once they warred against old Sisera i 

Was there a cloud that spread the skies 

But bore our armies of allies ? 

While dreadful hosts of fire stood forth 

Mid baleful glimmerings from the north ; 

Which plainly shows which part they joined. 

For North's the minister, ye mind. 

Whence oft your quibblers in gazettes 

On northern blasts have strained their wits ; 

And think ye not the clouds know how 

To make the pun as well as you ? 

Did there arise an apparition 

But grinned forth ruin to sedition ? 

A death-watch but has joined our leagues 

And clicked destruction to the Whigs ? 

Heard ye not when the wind was fair 

At night, our or'tors in the air. 

That loud as admiraltv libel 

Read awful chapters from the Bible, 

And death and deviltry denounced 

And told you how you'd soon be trounced ? 

I see to join our conquering side 

Heaven, earth and hell at once ally'd. 

' Such stories of prodigies were at that time indostriously propagated by 
the tory party in various parts of New England, to terrify and iatimidatt 
the superstitious. 

of the American Revolution. 



Abstract from the return of the number of houses and 
inhabitants in the city of Philadelphia, Northern Liber- 
ties and the district of Southwark, delivered to Lord 
Cornwallis by persons appointed for that purpose soon 
after the British troops took possession of the City* 

Occupied Empty 

Dwellingt. Dwellingi. 

City, .... 3,480 383 

Northern Liberties, . i)i5i 135 

Southwark, . . 764 72 



Total number of dwellings, 5,985. 





City, • • • • .116 


Northern Liberties, 






Total number of Stores, 356. 

Males Males 


under 18. over x8 

& under 60. 

City, . . .3,4" 3>359 


Northern Liberties, . 1,254 1,034 


Southwark, . . 670 603 


5.335 4.996 
Total number of Males 

under 60, 


Tottl, 23,734 

300 Christopher Marshals 


At Lancaster. 


Aug. II. A quarter of lamb, per pound, •• .. 90.80 

" " A pint of yeast, 0.50 

Oct. 19. Butter, per pound, 4.00 

27. Two pence worth of yeast, 0.50 

Nov. II. Rye, per bushel, 37-33^ 

Potatoes, per bushel, 32} 

Turnips, per bushel 2.00 

A load of wood, 35-^^ 

^^ 18. Butter, per pound, 5.00 

Dec. 8. Milk, per quart, o.66f 

^^ ^^ Oak wood, per cord, 44.00 

^^ 10. Hogs, per pound, * 2.0O 


u cc 


u cc 

Mar. 24. Shingle nails, per pound, 45*33^ 

Apr. 13. Butter, per pound, 6.00 

" 27. Pine boards, per foot, i.oo 

" " A pound of large nails 12.00 

May 26. Butter, per pound, 8.00 

At Philadelphia. 

June 3. A peck of green peas 38.00 

Butter, per pound, 7.00 to 10.00 

10. Green peas, per peck, 10.00 to 15.00 

Veal, per pound, 5.00 to 7.00 

17. Coffee, per pound, 8.00 

22. A piece of bobbin, 22.00 

TenerifFe wine, per gallon, 85.33 

23. A pair of shoes, i20.oo|> 

An iron bound painted barrel, 120.00 

A pound of thread, 87.75 

24. A pair of razors (at auction), 29.00 

cc cc 


cc cc 



cc cc 


cc cc 

cc cc 






































. I. 













> * 1* 





of the American Revoiution. 301 

Currants per pound (at auction), $16.00 

Tamarinds per pound (ditto), 20.00 

White lump sugar, per pound (ditto), 20.00 

Figs, per pound, 20.00 

Bohea tea, per pound, 80.00 

Butter per pound, 12.00 to 18.00 

Coarse tape, per yard, i.ii 

A pair of shoes, 120.00 

Butter, per pound, I2.00 to 16.00 

A quarter of lamb, 50.00 

At Lancaster. 

A Bushel of oats, 21.00 

Hind quarter of mutton, per pound, 4.00 

Whortleberries, per quart, 3.75 

Butter, per pound, 7.00 

A dough trough, 55*00 

Butter, per pound, lO.OO 

Fore quarter mutton, per pound,.. 3.00 

Sixpenny nails, per pound, 14.00 

Hoops for barrels, hogsheads, &c., 

each,.... 2.00 

Oats, per bushel, 18.00 

Butter, per pound, 12.00 

A hickory broom, 4.00 

Loin of mutton, per pound, 4.50 

Tenpenny nails, per pound, 11 .00 

Loin of mutton, per pound, 4.00 

A broad ax, 20.00 

A skein of thread, 2.00 

Butter, per pound, 15.00 

A loaf of bread, 4.00 

Hind quarter of beef, per pound, 4.50 

A dozen of horn jacket buttons, 10.00 

Chestnuts, per quart, 3.00 

Loin of mutton, per pound, 5.00 

joa Cbristapber Marsbalts Diary 

Hind quarter of pork, per pound, $3.00 

Eightpenny nails, per pound, 20.00 

Madeira wine, per pint, 50.00 

Butter, per pound, 12.00 

A straw bread basket, 8.00 

A peck of white beans,... 23.00 

Butter, per pound, • 12.00 

Eggs, per dozen, 6.00 

Butter, per pound, 12.00 

Tow linen, per yard, 20.00 

Butter, per pound, I2.00 






" 23. 


Feb. 2. 














From the Pennsy/vatiia Freeman's yournal^ September 4, 1782. 

On Monday, the 26th ultimo, died at Lancaster, 
in the 6ist year of her age, Mrs. Abigail Marshall, the 
late admirable consort of Christopher Marshall, Esq., 
and on Wednesday, the 28th, her corpse was interred in 
the Friends' burying ground, attended by a numerous 
and respectable concourse of people both ft'om town and 
country. The character of this truly virtuous woman 
is beyond all panegyric ; to enumerate the various in- 
stances of her benevolent and charitable actions would 
far exceed the bounds usually allotted for this purpose 
in a newspaper ; sufficient be it to say that in her was 
united the amiable manner, the heart of tenderness and 
sensibility, and every Christian and social virtue. Her 
surviving partner has lost in her a most prudent and 
affectionate wife ; the necessitous and the stranger by 
he rdeath are deprived of a most humane, hospitable and 

of the American Revolution. 303 

generous benefkctress, and her relations and acquaint- 
ances of a religious, faithful and steady friend. 

Onward she moyed Co meet her Utter end. 
Angels around befriending virtae*s friend j 
Sunk to the grave with unperceived decaji 
While resignation gently sloped the way { 
Saw all her prospects bright*ning to the last 
And heaven commencing ere the world waa put. 


■ »■ 

A., *4i» »fi3» »fi8» *70, a73» »79i 

280, 281, 283, 284. 

A ..., Wm., 244. 

Abington, 167. 

Active, sloop, 239. 

Adams, John, 9, 25, 30, 31, 43, 49, 

^»i 63* 83, 91, 228. 
Adams, Mr., 22. 
Adams, Samuel, 9, 25, 30, 31, 43, 

49» S»> 53» 59i ^h 63. 
Address, an, 228. 

Adgar, James, 184. 
Advertiser, Dunlap*!, 229. 
Agnew, General, 134. 
Albany, 47. 
Alexander, ship, 9. 
Alfrund, Benj., 212. 
Allegiance, oath of, 120. 
Allen, Andrew, 68 ; lieut. gov., x 33. 
Allen family, 68. 
Allen, John, 168. 
Allen, William Jr., 91. 
Allison, Dr., 108. 
Allison, F., 6. 
Alms house, 28. 
Alsop, John, 26. 

Ambassador from the Free and In- 
dependent States of America, 

Amboy, xo, 1x3; troops for the 

army at, 87. 

Amherst, Gen., X78. 

America, X53f friends of, 57; 
French, Spanish, Prussian and 
Polish courts declared for the 
independency of, 175} Great 
Britain would mortgage, 63 { 

America. Independentitatetof,2i4| 

invectives against the liberties 

of, 45 ; troops expected to bt 

sent into, 69. 
American, X69} ^^my, baker to^ 

184$ congress, X5; Crisif, X089 

X 1 3 ; magazines, 228 $ mano- 

^ctory, 36 ; of wool, etc., tub- 

scribers to, meet, 54. 
Americans, X53, X79, 2x3. 
Amurath, sieges of, 209. 
Anatomical museum, 288. 
Anatomy, Dr. Chovet*s lectorei 0% 

Anderson, 2x2. 
Anderson, Captain, xx8. 
Anderson, James, X35. 
Andr6, Col., 263 $ hung, 263* 
Andrew Doria,brig, xo8. 
Andrews, Mr., X59. 
Annals of Ephrata, X53, X54, 1581 

of the Brethren at Ephnta, X2l. 
Antigua, 98 ; vessel fitted out at, 

Antis, Col., X53. 
Antis, Frederick, 83, X02. 
Antony, 222, 225, 230, 233, 135, 

237, 258, 259, 262, 264, 281, 

Appendix, 285-303. 
Apollo, the, 139. 
Arbuthnot, 255. 
Arcot, English beaten in the country 

of, 277. 
Armitage, B., 83. 
Armstrong, Gen., 151. 
Arnold, 263. 



Arnold, Benedict, %6t. 

Arnold, Col., 55. 

Arnold, GeneriO, 94, 190, 21 1, six, 

Arnold*! treachery, particulan of^ 

Arrtll, Mrt., 86, 87. 
Articles of confederation, etc., read 

in council, 146. 
AKcnsion day, 240. 
Ash, Captain, 48. 
Ashley river, 221, 
Ashton*s ferry, 48. 
Asia, the, 56, 79. 
Assembly, the, 6, 7, 8, xo, 47, 48, 

50, 78, 199- 
Assembly, act of, 214. 
Assembly, petition to, 174, 182, 240. 
Associators, return of the, 89. 
Atkinson, Wilton, 227. 
Atlee, 242. 
Atlee, Col., 240. 
Atlee, Judge, 202, 232, 253, 254, 

255, 261, 274. 
Atlee, Mrs., 155. 
Atlee, William, 124, 155, 175, 

Atlee, Wm. Augustus, 176. 
August, the, 139. 
Aurora, ship, 44. 

B , 129, 224, 225. 

Bache, 162. 

Bache, Richard, 56. 

Badcock, Mr., 60. 

Bailey, Francis, 167, 206, 277. 

Baker, Jacob, 165. 

Baldwin, Capt., 96. 

Baldwin, John, loi, 276. 

Bales, William, executed for street 
robbery, 69. 

Ball, Col., 235. 

Ball, William, 113. 

Balls, Widow, 80. 

Balm tea, 28. 

Baltimore, 87, 125, 185, 209, 218, 
244, 251 ; French ships ar- 
rived at, 219; ship arrived at, 
196; sugars fallen at, 180. 

Bambny Hook, 80. 

Bannister, Col., 212. 

Baptist meeting house, 64. 

Barbadoes, 104; sugar, 159. 

Barge, 269. 

Barge, J., 78, 

Barge*s tavern, ball at, 269. 

Barker, P., 213. 

Barkman, Jacob, 275. 

Barley, 253. 

Barns, Cornelius, 248. 

Barry, Capt., 172, 175. 

Barthing, Christopher, 276. 

Bartholomew, Benjamin, 86. 

Bartholomew, Edward, 83. 

Barton, Captain, 24. 

Barton, Parson, 184, 200. 

Barton, Thos., 182, 185. 

Bartram, Job, 19. 

Bartram, Moses, 278. 

Basseterre, St. Kitts, fire at, 94. 

Bath, Pa., mineral waters at, 31. 

Battle of the kegs, 157, 186. 

Bayard, Col., 98, 114, 134, 146, 

Bayard, Col. John, 91. 
Bayard, John, 56, 58, 78, 9ft, I09^ 

Bayard, Major, 42, 55, 57. 
Bayonets, 63. 
Bears, Isaac, 21. 
Bedford, 227. 
Bedford Co., 147. 
Behm, Abraham, 275. 
Belfast, 29 \ ship arrived from, 5, 8. 
Belisarius, 232. 
Bell, 57, 98- 
Bell, William, 159. 
Benezet, Anthony, 98. 
Benezet, John, 44, 160. 
Bengal, 235. 
Benjamin, 119, X32, 137, 141, 165, 

173; death of, 165. 
Benny, grave of, 190. 
Beresford, 283. 
Berks Co., Pa., 8, 130. 
Bermudas, vessel from, 95. 
Bern, Lieut. Col., 123. 
Berry, 214. 



Bethlehem, 131 ; Moranan minitter 

Troniy 183* 
Bettering House, 28, 106, 130, 

Bettertofi, Benjamin, 39> 251. 
Beulah, ship, 15. 
Betsey, 248. 
Betty, 203. 
Bible, 167. 
Biddle, Edward, 8. 
Biddle, John, 295. 
Biddle, Owen, 67, 68, 83, 86. 
Billingsport, 81, 169. 
Bill of rights, 253. 
Bills of credit, 116; of Exchange, 

Cunningham*s book on, 200. 
Bispham, William, 236, 243, 279. 
Bissel, Trail, 18. 
Black Horse, the, 189. 
Black Point, 254. 
Blackwell, Thomas, 167. 
Blair, 6. 

Bland, Col., 205. 
Bland, Richard, 25. 
Bland Papers, 212. 
Ble'wer, J., 78. 
Blewer, Joseph, 83, 86. 
Blue Ball, the, 199. 
Blue mountains, 148. 
Board of War, 164. 
Boehm, 82. 
Boehm, Philip, 86. 
Bohea tea, 174. 
Bond, Joseph, 212. 
Bonham, 117. 
Bonham, Mrs., 193. 
Bonham, William, 193, 202. 
Boot, sign of the, 276. 
Bordentown, 108. 
Bordge, Drewry, 212. 
Boston, Thomas, 231. 
Boston, 5, 6, 7, 8, 15, 16, 17, 18, 

19,21,22, 26,29,30, 33, 34, 

35. 37. 38, 43> 44. 46, 49. S7> 
73. I59>200> 243 > committee, 
226 ; delegates from, 30 ; fri- 
gate arrived at, 216 5 harbor, 
32; Light house at entrance, 
burnt, 341 letter from, X05; 

Boston, transport! bound ibr, 

vessels arriyed at, 182. 
Bostonians, 5, 15, 23. 
Boudinot, Mr., 186. 
Bowers, Captain, 113. 
Bowman, Peter, 264, 265. 
Boyd, Sam*l, 253, 256, 261 %6%. 
Boyds, 177. 

Bradford, Captain, 26, 27 
Bradford, William, 61, 91. 
Bradford, W. and T., 19, 21. 
Brandford, 18. 

Brandywine, the, 138$ shotls, 67. 
Brant, 229. 
Brattle, James, 56. 
Brewer, 246. 
Brewer, Wm., 245. 
Brewster, Captain, 113. 
Brewster, S., 78. 
Brigantine beach, ship stranded at, 

48, 49- 
Bright, 62. 

Bristol, 153; ship from, 14; Pa^ 31. 

Britain, 185, 187. 

British, America, 8 ; army, 227 j 

fleet returned to Sandy Hook, 

200 ; Parliament, proceedings 

of, 6; story, 212. 
Brookline, 18. 
Brooks, J., 46. 

Brooks, James, 45, 48, 131, 152. 
Brown, Capt., 44, 242. 
Brown, Dr., 32. 
Brown, John, 144, 147, 164. 
Brown, Josiah, 275. 
Brown, Major, 51. 
Brown, Mary, 142. 
Brown, Mr., 60. 
Brown, Wm., 135. 
Bruce and Co., 65. 
Brunswick, 114; news of Howe*s 

army at, 105, 107, 108$ 

heights of, 113. 
Bryan, 242. 
Brysji, George, 79, 144, 159, l«6. 

Buck, sign of the, 243. 
Bucks county, Pa<^ 8, 31, 88, IS7S 

election in, 94 $ militia, 147., 



Bockwlieat dcstroyedy 134. 
Ball, CoL, 116, 133, 153. 
Ball, John, 44, 83, 86. 
Bullock, 181. 
Bullock, Archil»tld, 37. 
Bunker*! hill, 31, 38. 
Burden, John, i86. 
Bnrgettet, candidates for, 66. 
Burgoyne, Gen., 35, 95, I30» 134* 

»35> »36» «37f «3«» «39» «4o, 
145, 160, 188, »o6, »07, an, 

aio, 138, 179. 

Borgoyne't army, 135, ao6, 007; 

defeat, 137, 138 $ Light horM, 

Burkett, George, 179. 

Burkett, Wm., 171, 168. 

Burlington, 16 ; minuter of, in the 

Jerwyi, 46. 

Burnell, Capt., 99. 

Burnet, Bishop, 236. 

Burniide, 70. 

Burnside*t school room, 70. 

Burr, Thaddius, 19. 

Bush, ao8. 

Bustleton, 181. 

Bute, Lord, 27 a. 

Butters, 229. 

Byrne, James, 85. 

Byron, Commodore, 205. 

Byron, George, 206. 

v*. • • •, ^« • • ••» ^7'» *7t* 

Cadiz, 249. 

Cadwalader, General, 132. 

Cadwalader, John, 102. 

Cain creek, 269. 

Calais, 249. 

Calbreth, Col., 126. 

Caldwell, Charles, 177. 

Cales, vessel from, 247. 

Calleson, Mrs., 187. 

Calvinist church, 60. 

Cambridge, 18, 51 : Lady Washing- 
ton goes to camp at, 53. 

Camden, continental flag flying at, 

Campbell, Capt., 259, 286. 

Camphill, Gen., 136. 

Campingcown, 99, 198. , 

Cunptown, 86. 

Canada, 58, 59, 10) s fov. U, 

Canadians, 44, ift». 

Cannon, 63. 

Cannon, J., 66. 

Cannon, James, 14, 16, fti, 3S»4S» 
62, 64, 65, 67, 68, 69, 70^ 73, 
74, 81,83, «^"» 9«» "»f 

«39f »97» «>9» *33f *3»f 


Cannon, Jane, 187. 

Canterbury, 19. 

Cape May, 55. 

Carlisle, 124, 128, 143. 

Carlisle, Abraham, xoi, 104. 

Carlton, Guy, 103. 

Carolina, 25, 162, 231, 244, a49» 
286; flag ship from, 278 ) pro- 
vince of, 5. 

Carpenter's Hall, 79; electkm at, 
14 ; funeral at, 49 ^ meeting at, 

Carryle, John, 187. 

Carson, 62. 

Carson, Capt., 274. 

Carstins, William, 88. 

Carter, 238. 

Carter, Christopher, 45, 46. 

Tarter, Mary, 286. 

Caruthers, John, 87. 

Caruthers, Mr., 88. 

Casco bay, 36, 178. 

Cassandra, essays of, 62. 

Castle, William, 38. 

Caswell, Richard, 10, 25. 

Gather, Robert, 276. 

Cattill, 283. 

Catty, 203. 

Cecil county, Md., 225. 

Chad's ford, 126, 127. 

Chalkley, ship, 14. 

Chambers, Lieutenant, 73. 

Chamblee, fort, surrender of, 51. 

Champlain, Lake, 94. 

Chance, privateer, 75, 95. 

Chandler, John, 163. 

Charity, 150. 



Charley 1x9, 135, 147, I4t» 159, 

«73» «79f »*9> »90» »9«» «94f 
195, 196, 197, 198, »o», aoj, 

fto8, 209, 2 1 7, zi8, sso, S16, 

»»9, »30, »3i, 245, 246, 248, 

250, 252, 2781 letter from, 

226, 230, 23 X. 

Chirlet, ChcTalier, 80. 

Charleston, 9, 17, 197, 2x8, 220, 

»»7» »3*» a44» »83. *86 5 
attack on, 221 ; Comwallis re- 
treating towards, 260; dispute 
about, 247 \ flags of truce 
from, 248 ; Packet, brig, 24. 

Charming Polljr, schooner, arriTet 
at Chester, 55. 

Chase, Samuel, 25. 

Chatham, XI3. 

Chatham, Lord, X64, 175. 

Chemung, 219. 

Chesapeake bay, 232, 27 x | engage* 
ment near the, 283 ; French 
fleet in, 281. 

Chesnell, Mary, 287. 

Chester, 45, 55, 84, 85 5 flags of 
truce at, 248. 

Chester Co., Pa., 8, X26, X 36, 138, 
162, 170, 177; election in, 
94 ; militia, 247. 

Chestnut hill, 133, 182; Washing- 
ton's army at, 148, 149. 

Chevalier, Peter, 102. 

Chevers, Capt., 9. 

Chew, Mr., 289. 

Chocolate, 62. 

Chovet, Dr., 197, 198, 288,289; 
lecture, 113. 

Christ Church, 30, 32, 49, X53{ 
bells muflled, 6; yard, XX2. 

Christian, the true, 225. 

Christiana, 125. 

Christianity, badge of, X50. 

Christopher, 120, X28, 140, 147, 
X50, 191, 192, 195,234, 247, 
248, 251, 252, 253, 276, 278. 

Church, 68 ; burial ground, 49 { of 
England, X94 ; minister of the, 

Churchill, 2X2, 232. 


City militia, xtt battafioa, 

preached to^ 30. 
City TaTern, XX 2. 
GtU society, the, I so. 
Clark, Col., 2x3. 
Clark, Nancy, 2x7. 
Clarke, Col., X74. 
Clay, Captain, 4X. 
Cleamnns, Mrs., 46, 47. 
Clementine, ship, 44, 
Clifton, William, 6x. 
Cling, John, 25 x. 
Clinton, 246, 283. 
Clinton, Arnold, X35. 
Clinton, Gen., X7, 60, 85, X35, X43, 

x86, 188,263,2743 defeat off 


Clymer, 49. 

Clymer, George, 34, 37, 48, 50, 58 
67, 68, 83, X02, 117, 293. 

Clynn, 86. 

Coates, 250. 

Coates, Col., XX 6. 

Coates, William, 78, 83, xo9,x67. 

Cocoa, 62. 

Coecil county, Maryland, commitCet 
of, 86 ; court house, X25. 

Coffee, 62 ; House, the, 29, 37, 39, 
40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 48, 49, 50, 
S3, 56,61, 62, 67, 69,72,75, 
76, 77, 80, 86, 91, 98, 100, 
X05, 189, 198, 2X7, »45» *49- 

Colden, Govtrno , 27. 

College, part of the, used as barracka, 
84; yard, 31. 

Collins, Captain, 24, 2x7. 

Collins, Stephen, 35, 189, x 90, 202. 

Colonial Records, 164, X98; of Pa., 

Columbia, Lancaster co., 274. 

Combs, Thomas, 5X. 

Comet, sloop, 247. 

Commissary of prisoners, 253. 

Commissioner from the U. S., 228. 

Committee, 19 ; called to meet, 451 
o( inspection, 83, 89, 99; of 
privates, 66 j of Safety, 31, 331 

4Sf46, 5S»7S. 83»90f9«»93f 
XX2, X47, x66. 


^fc ^^PBW^P^^P0 

I tlorvy aakpcCff* lod(c4 


ente, 57, 113. 
Goocord, 189 19, %6f 331 { meeriftg^ 

117; road, the, is6; Cowt 

Hoote, bttrat, 19; ship, 5. 
Coocito ta creek, 143 ; riTcr, 165. 
Coafieaiiofli of faith, 121. 
Concreaa, 9, 14, 26, 27, 29, 39, 44t 

46, 47t S*» 54» 5«> 59» ^ ^ 

^» 7*» 79» 9"» 93» «o«» «47. 
148 ; committee of, 82, 267 ; 

kandbiUi poblbbed by order of, 

103 ; lettert to, from Gen Lee, 

85; money, 163; ofdepudea, 

8{ petition to the king, 37, 

47 ; priTateer, 75, 88 5 resolve 

of, 95, no, 164; tloop, 95} 

Teasel, takes a prise, 71. 

Connecticut, 9, 18, 21, 58, 227; 
colony of, 25. 

Connestoga creek, 207, 223. 

Considerations on the mode and 
terms of a Treaty of Peace with 
America, 213. 

Constitutional, Letter, 215$ Post, 
account by, 35; arrived, 36; 
society, 15, 215, 217. 

Continent, ^t to be kept through 
this, 71. 

Continental, army, 115, 121 ; bills, 
counterfeit, 177; of credit, re- 
fusal to receive, loi ; of ex- 
change, 150; congress, 13, 

*4» a9» 33» 3S» 37» 8o> a9« 5 
flag, at Camden and Yorktown, 

260; fleet burnt, 180; money, 
prices in, 200; refusal to take, 
59. 63. 65, 9S, stables, 133, 
164; tax, 275 J collector of 
the, 200; paid, 261 ; troops; 

Convention of Pa., 78. 

Conway, 159. 

Conway, Gen., 151, 164. 

Cooks, Major, 43. 

Cooper, Dr., 238. 

Cooper river, 221. 

Cooper, Wm., 1x4. 

Cooper's fery, 1*7, 139^ 157. 

Cope, Caleb, 26S. 

Corbyn, Thomas, 45. 

Corinthiam, 194. 

Cork, 26; ship frooi,anmd, ii. 

Comwallis, 24JI, 260, 265. 

Cornwallis, Gen., 130, I4S» 1459 

Cornwallis, Lord, 188, 271, 27% 

283, 299} swreadcr ci^ S71. 
Corryel*s ferry, 143. 
Conmna, 228. 
Coultass, James, 287. 
Council of safi^, 103, 106, toS, 

109, no, 112, 113, 147, 165, 

176 1 transcript from order o^ 


County court, 122; mcmorinl to^ 

Court House, bonfire at, 204. 
Court martial, held, 172 ; spy con- 
demned by, to be hanged, 

Cowpens, action at, 269. 
Cowperthwaite, Captain, 43. 
Cox, Colonel, 84, 118, 183, 184, 

188, 257. 
Cox, John, 78, 92. 
Cox, Major, 48, 56. 
Cox, William, 186. 
Craig, Capt., 75, 88. 
Craig, Com., 188. 
Creighton, the, 98. 
Crisis, 16, 24, 1735 the Present 

with respect to America, 16. 
Crispin, Saml., 285. 
Crooked Billet, the, 180, l8z. 
Cross wick*s, 114. 
Crown Point, 80, 99, 103 5 gOT. of, 

Cruse, Capt., 54. 
Cumberland Co., 84, 87, 167, 174, 

210 ) militia, 143. 
Cunningham, 200. 
Cunningham, Mrs., 272, 273. 
Curacoa, 271. 

Cushing, Thomas, 9, 25, 30, 49. 
Cuthbert, Thomas, 180, 238, 242, 




D , SI. 

DalUt, A. J., 293. 

Danish officer, 104. 

Darby, Captain, 34. 

Darby, retreat of Oen. Howe*t army 

from, 153 
Darragh, Charles, 177. 
Darragh, John, 199. 
Darragh, Lydia, 179. 
DaTidson, 173. 
Davidson, Jane, 63, 67, 77, 88, 

144, 151, 160, 170, 187, 197, 

a33» *38, 144. 
Davis, Captain, 84. 

Davis, Colonel, i8a. 

Day, Capt., 239. 

Dean, 218. 

Dean, Capt., 16. 

Deane, J., 78. 

Deane, Silas, 25, 31, 49, 56, 58, 

60, 178. 
Deane, Simeon, 178, 179. 
* Death or Glory, motto, 16. 
Debby, 230, 258. 
Declaration of independence, 82, 

83 ; letter respecting, 291-295 ; 

of rights, the, 103. 
DehafF, Henry, 127. 
Dei trick, Jacob, 191. 
DeKalb, Gen., 135, 159, 178, 247, 

251, 260, 261. 
DeKLermorvan, Baraset, 150. 
Delaware, 9, 94, 105, 116, 292, 

2405 the, 25, 88, 107, 127, 

164; Indians, 216, 232; river, 

120, 172; vessels in the, 20X. 
Delaney, 49. 
Delany, S., 77. 
Delany, Sharp, 52. 
De Meralles, Don Jnan, 197. 
D*£staing, 227. 
D^Estaing, Admiral, 194. 
D*£staing, Count, 206, 230, 231, 

232, 270. 
Detroit, 125, 214, 283; fort, 151 ; 

garrison of, 192. 
Deuteronomy, 194. 
Dewees, William, 44. 
De Weldke, General Baron, 63. 

Diana, 273. 

Dickenson, John, 7, 8, lo, 13,44, 
102, 105, 291, 29a. 

Dickinson, Col., 98. 

Dickinson, Polly, 257. 

Dill, Peter, 275. 

Dinah, 42, 179; died, 179. 

Dingee, 162. 

Dobbs*s ferry, 103. 

Dominica, 98. 

Dorsey, Capt., 58. 

D*Orvis, Mons., 277. 

Downing, Thomas, 276, 279. 

Downing*8, 253. 

Downingstown, 197, 243, 253, 276, 

Douglass, Capt., 216. 

Dover, 77 ; tea ship arrived, 5.. 

Doyle, Capt., 238. 

Drinker, John, 59. 

Drinker, Thomas, 59. 

Duane, James, 26, 56, 277. 

Dublin, 37, 38. 

Duche,Jacob,26,27,30,49, 132, 142. 

Due he. Parson, 198. 

Duck Creek, 21. 

Duffield, 6. 

DufHeld, William, 174, 199. 

Dull, Gasper, 256. 

Dunks, 143. 

Dunks^s ferry, 143. 

Dunlap, 159, 206, 225, 238, 280. 

Dunlap, John, 164, 188, 295. 

Dunlap*s Advertiser, 229; Gen. 
Advertiser, 54, 94, 95 ; news- 
paper, 159,201, 206, 225, 260. 

Dunmore, Governor, 24, 27. 

Dun more. Lord, 34. 

Dunn, Robert, 194. 

Dunop, Count, 139. 

Dutch, 208, 209, 213, 253} and 
Spanish, ship arrived at Bald- 
more, 196; butcher, 31; dis- 
turbance among, 68; ^hion, 
houses built in the, 199; holi- 
day, 240 ; Presbyterian meeting 
house, 194 J prisoners, 201; 
vessels, 255 5 war declared 
against, 271. 


^B ^^PSW^^^P 9 

Djrtr, Colond, 31, jt, 53. 
Vjtr^ EliphaleCy 25, 49. 

S y SamL, 144. 

Eagle Poiaty 114. 

Zagle, the sLip^ 141. 

Eaftbora, Robert, z6S. 

£attoii, 115. 

East HaTen, 2x7. 

Eaat India tea, 14, 15. 

Eatt Indict, si8, 235. 

Eatt Jeneyt, 114. 

Eatt river, 93. 

Ecdetiaitet, 194. 

Eddjr, James, 285. 

Eden, William, 187. 

Egg harbor, 48, 55, 88, 193, aoij 
French Tettel putt into^ 69. 

E. Ouilfbrd, 18. 

Eldridge, Jehu, 277. 

Election <uy, 1 35. 

Elisabethtown, 10, 15, 87, 211, 
245 ; letter firom, 205 } point, 

Elk, head of, 270, 279, 281 $ Howe 
getting his men on shore at, 

Elliot, Christopher, loi. 

Embden, port of, 145. 

Empsons, Sally and Hannah, 252. 

England, 14, 15, 34, 38, 92, 160, 
229, 274; advices from, 73; 
commissioners from, arrived at 
Phila., 186; ministry in, 
changed, 175; war declared 
by, against France, 181. 

English, 115, 196,218, 232, 257, 
^77} ^^3) ambassador, 145; 
and French fleets, engagement 
between, 270, 271, 272, 183 j 
arms, 80; army, 163; bond- 
age, anniversary of fi-eedom 
fi-om, 251; church, 183; de- 
serters, 177 J engagement with 
militia, 180 ; fleet, 120; beaten, 
227 ; frigates, 238 ; sunk, 161; 
guinea, 203 ; light horse, 182 ; 
magazine ship blown up, 196; 

Ea^iik, meo-o^war, S05S 
1 14} officer, 2<9i a 
lor, 2371 Tmted by, %%9% 
Pretbjtariaa meeting, S641 
pritoaert, ill, 123, 200^ soi, 
249, 253 1 tent into Va^ »8t | 
rooted, 2341 thOIing, noji 
toUiert,94| troopt, 17^, ft34{ 
cvtcinf down wood in thn 
Jeneyt, 1791 tyrantt, noii 
Teitelt, tetsed by Connt D*- 
Ettalng, 231. 

Englithmaa, 169 ) ancient, n90{ 
the, 176. 

Ephrata, 240 { hotpital at, 153. 

Eptey, Daniel, 86. 

Ereton, Benja., Jr., 121 

En&lne, General, 1 34. 

Erwine, Robt., 140. 

Ettayt of Cattandra, 62. 

Europe, arrival of Paul Jonet from 

Enttace, Major, 274. 

Eustatia, 54. 

Evant, John, 176. 

Evening Packet, Town*t, 270. 

Evening Pott, 26, 27, 28, ^9, 31, 

40, 47» S4> 55i ^4> 65* ^» 
7"» 7a» 7S» 76, 82, 85, 89, 

90* 93» 94, »90- 
Everlasting Gospel, the, 25, 215. 

Ewing, Brig. Gen. James, 87. 

Ewing, Rev. Dr., 233. 

Executive Council, 150, I54> X7>i 

of Pa., 186} pass from, 178$ 

proclamation by, 126. 
Expenditures, 288. 
Experiment, 230, 232. 
Eyre, Mestn., 65 ; building frigate, 


F. . . ., Jabez, 21. 

F., John, 198. 

F. . . ., Joshua, 72; and sons, 74. 

F , Tench, 54. 

F. . . ., Thomas, 74. 
Fair American, the, 245. 
Fair hill, 146. 
Fairfield, 21, 51, 227. 



Falconer, Nttluuiiely 86. 

Falmouth, town of, barned^ 50. 

Farey, Captain, 54. 

Fannoah, Gen. 116. 

Farran, James, 193, fto8, ^09, ft 10, 


Farrif, Capt., »87. 

Father Paul, 195. 

Faolkener, William, %%%. 

Ferguson, Thomas, 283. 

Finicune, Michael, 267. 

Fire, cry of, 64. 

Fisher, 59. 

Fisher, Harry, 77. 

Fisher, Henry, 67. 

Fisher, Joshua and Sons, 91. 

Fuher*s island, 37. 

FishkUl, 134. 

Fits, Capt, 196. 

Flax, »53. 

Fleming, Col., III. 

Fleming, R., 244. 

Fleming's, Robert, 251. 

Floyer, Col., 58. 

Flying camp, 79, 82. 

Foolcs, 171, 173. 

Fooks, Paul, S3, 56, 60, 63, 70, 75, 
80, 83, 92, 95, 96, 106, 116, 
117, 118, 142,161, 169, 175, 

176, 177. »8ii «8S» »9S» «97f 
200, 207, 209, 216, 218, 226, 

228, 2E2, 233, 244, 245, 251, 


Forbes, Hugh, 285. 

Ford, 198. 

Foresulling act, 175. 

Foster, Col., 18. 

Fort, Chamblee, 51 ; Lee, 1 00, 104$ 
MifAin, 131, I44» 198 $ Mont- 
gomery, 134, 1365 Pitt, 125; 
Washington, 114; taken by 
Gen. Howe, 104. 

Foster, 117. 

Fountain Tavern, 57 

Fowey, man-of-war, 24, 57. 

Fox, 219. 

Fox, Joseph, 13,95. 

France, Zi8, 153, 162, 179, 201, 
213, 243 \ court of, 178 I fleet 

France, of, 257) goods from, 1731 war 
dwlared against by£a|^and,i8l. 

Franklin, B., 61, 77, 85, 226. 

Franklin, Benjamin, 44, 83, 91, 

Franklin, Dr., 15, 34, iz6| 167, 

Franklin, Dr. Benjamin, 23, ft6. 

Franklin, Got., 80 ; sent prisoner to 
Hartford, Ct., 80. 

Franldin, privateer, 73 ; ship, 241. 

Fredericksburgh, 194, 247. 

Frederick, fort, prisoners brought 
from, 269. 

Frederickstown, 194. 

Freehold, N. J., 255, 

Free Quakers, 276. 

Free states of America, 131. 

French, Major, 37. 

French, 227, 228, 231,2771 ad* 
miral, surrender of Rhode 
Island to the, 196 ; ambassador, 
197, 228 ; and English fleets, 
engagement between, 270, 27 ly 
272, 283; army, 254} horses 
for, 254; brandy, 53; cer* 
tificates, 248; court, 175} 
creek, 199; fleet, 182, 205, 
206 \ at St. Martins, 252 $ off 
Cape Hatteras, 249 ; off Sandy 
Hook, 193, 194; gone to R. 
I., Z94; reported defeated off 
Rhode Island, 261 j frigate, 
216; king, 226 ; ships, arrived, 
245; spy, 171; West Indies, 
ships fi'om, 273. 

Friends, from Va., 177; meeting, 

5S» «»3f»76> *77> »78| •«« 
out of town, 127. 

Friendship, ship, zi, 88. 

Frog*s point, 98. 

Fulson, Col. Nathaniel, 9. 

Furniture destroyed, Z34. 

O f aiSi *»4- 

G , Samuel, 90, 93. 

G , Wm., 244. 

Gadsden, Cliristopher, 9, 24, gs, 
43» 57» »83. 



OaAwy, CapC, 7. 

Otfe, Oencnl, a6, 17, 33, 35, 38. 

Oalbraith, Col. Bartrmin, 87. 
OaUaber, WUliam, is6. 
Galloway, Joseph, 8, 149. 
Oanderwit, Granny, ^85. 
Gardiner, — , 21. 
Gardiner, Col., xo, si. 
Gardiner, Joseph, 139. 
Gardiner's island, 37. 
Garrignet, John Jr., 227. 
Garrigues, Polly, 219. 
Garrigues, Sam. Sr., 143. 
Gartley, John, 87. 
Gasp, Capt., 287. 
Gates, 159. 
Gates, General, 74, 75, 108, 137, 

i43f «45» »^f «"i «76, I79» 
232, 260, 272. 

Gates, Major General, 73. 

Gasette, the, 12. 

General Advertiser, 24. 

General Assembly, act of, 208 ; 

committee, 7 ; Congress, 1 1 ; 

Orders, 295, 296, 297. 
Gentleman*s Calling, etc., 209. 
George, 256; III, king, 6; king, 

290; the third, 126, 149, 183 ; 

the third *8 fleet, 8x; the ty- 
rant, 256. 
Georgetown, continental flag at, 

Georgia, 33, 38, 230, 231 ; Packet, 

37 J regiment, 124. 
Georgians, 33. 
Gerard, M., 197. 
German men and women, 242; 

redemptioner, x88; riflemen, 

93 > papers, 221 j printer, 184 j 
Germans, second division of, 208 j 

first division of, 208. 
Germantown, 79, 122, 131, 132, 

I33> 138,14a, 148, 1845 part 
of burnt by British, 173 5 wheat 
seized near, 218. 

Gerry, Elbridge, 147. 

Gibraltar, Spaniards beseiging, 24. 

Glasgow, 232. 

Olentworth, D., 247. 

Gloocetter, 157. 
Gloucester, Ehike of, 24. 
GloTer, Rachael, 286. 
Glots, Col., 225, 227. 
Glots, Col. Jacob, 222, 223. 
Gondolas, captains o^ 75. 
Goodwin, G., 78. 
Gordon, Lord George, 261. 
GoTernor*s island, arriTil of Oca. 

Clinton at, 60. 
GoTett, William, 31. 
Got. of Canada, 35. 
Graeff, Mathias, 149. 
Graff, Sebastian, 205. 
Graham, R., 11. 
Granada, 88, 158. 
Grant, General, 134. 
Grant, Major, 136. 
Grant, Margaret, 285. 
Gray, G., 10. 

Gray, George, 44, 86, 102. 
Gray, Isaac, 14, 73. 
Gray, James, 244. 
Great Britain, 8, 38, 63, 66 1 king 

of, 70; opposition to tynumf 

of, 81. 
Greaves, Admiral, 35, 254, ^55, 

257, 261. 
Greene, Gen., 145, 169, 176, 269, 

271, 272. 
Grenada, 227. 
Grieb, Curtis, 187. 
Griffin, Col., 297. 
Gross, Michael, 266. 
Guadaloupe, 243. 
Guest, Col., 236. 
Guilford, 18. 
Guinea ship, 97. 
Gunpowder, 63 ; landed aetr New 

York, 55. 
Guns, 63. 
Gurney, Col., 179. 
Gurney, F., 78. 
Gurney, Francis, 92. 

H , 224. 

ri. , • . ., B., 218. 

H. J., 269. 

H , Joshua, 244. 



H yl^n^iiS. 

Haddonfieldy 139. 

Hale, 88. 

Hale, Thomas, 109. 

Hali^ 57, xoo, 249; commis- 

tionen and Hettiani arriTe at, 

72 ; taken by French fleet, zo6 ; 

transports from, 81. 
Hall, 56. 

Hall, Charles, 215, 234, 239. 
Hall, John, 25, 149, 168. 
Hall and Sellers, 213 ; Gasette, 62, 

Hallo way, Betsey, 219. 
Hambright, 276. 
Hambright, Councillor, 243. 
Hamilton, 238. 
Hamilton, Captain, 95. 
Hamilton, Wm., 257. 
Hammond, Capt., 177. 
Hancock, brig, 99, 100. 
Hancock, Col., 51, 52, 60, 61, 66, 

92, 104. 
Hancock, John, 25, 28, 35, 49. 
Hancock, Mr., 22. 
Hancock, Mrs., 52. 
Hancock, President, 130. 
Hand, Gen., 122. 
Hannah, 190, 219; sh-p, 9. 
Hanoverians^ battalion of, 208. 
Harbeson, Benj., 70, 73, 83, 84, 

«»3> «S3> «74> 188, 195,217. 
Hardie, William, 257. 
Hardy, Sir Ch arles, 232. 
Hare, Abraham, 264. 
Hare, Robert, new house burnt, 64. 
Harp and crown, sign of the, 78. 
Harlem, 93. 
Harris, 212. 
Harris, Mary, 28. 
Harris's ferry, 257. 
Harrison, 206. 
Harrison, Benjamin, 25, 44. 
Harrison, Col., 53. 
Harrisburg, 78, 257. 
Harry, Alice, 268. 
Hart, Joseph, 78. 
Hart, sign of the, 196. 
Hartford, 20, 80. 

Hartley, CoL, 161, 188, 193, 215. 

Hartley on the Milleniom, 187. 

Haselet, Col. John, 115. 

Hastings, 177. 

Hastings, Captain, 49. 

Hastings, Grace, 30, 177, 178, 
207, 219, 245. 

Hat, sign of the, 189, 220. 

Hatteras, French fleet oflT cape, 249. 

Hazard's Register, 219. 

Haslehurst, 93. 

Head of Elk, 124, 12$. 

Hemp, 253. 

Hemphill, William, 87. 

Henderson, Archibald, 177. 

Henry, Mr., 221. 

Henry, Patrick, 25, 247. 

Henry, Samuel, 124. 

Henry, William, 139, 163, 175, 
190, 194, 205, 208, 225, 226, 
232,236, 239, 254, 267,270, 
271, 274. 

Hermione, ship, 244. 

Hervey, Capt., 130, 194. 

Hessian band of music, 170} chas- 
seurs, 103 ; grenadiers, cross 
the Delaware, 1 39 ; prtsonen, 
109, no, 123, 124, 200 1 
soldiers, 94 ; troops, 108, 249 ) 
defeated, 112. 

Hessians, 108, 168, 257. 

Hewes, Joseph, 10, 2$. 

Hewey, 124. 

Highlanders, taken by CoL Scott, 
III ; defeated, 112. 

High treasQn, Molesworth, hung 
for, 201 ; John Robeitt tried 
for, 201 ; Abraham Carlislt 
tried fer, 201. 

Hill, Henry, 83. 

Hillegas, Michael, 10, 34, 44. 

HUls, Richard, 49. 

Hispaniola, 75 ; vessel from, 33. 

Historical Society of Pa., 80. 

History, Bishop Burnet*s, of his own 
time, 236; of Chester county, 
Lewis's, 196 ; of Ephrata, 151 ; 
of Sumatra, 209 ; of the Breth- 
ren at Ephrata, 123. 



Hmr, 6i. 

Hodge, 96. 

Hodge*! Whirf, 96. 

Hofi, Col., %%%, 

Hofii, George, %%%, 

Hofnager, Peter, 237, ^38. 

Hogg, Eiqaire, 106. 

Holker, John, Z34. 

Holland, Alice, a<6. 

Holland, 11 1 states of, 214} Testel 
ROin, II. 

Holliday, Robert, si, a6. 

Hollingshead, John, 123. 

Holtsendorff, Baron De, 147. 

Hope, ship, 9. 

Hopldng, 191, SI 6. 

Hopkins, Governor, 60. 

Hopkins, Samuel, 276. 

Hopkins's Tavern, 191. 

Hopson, John, 22s, 276. 

Horse racing, 256. 

House, of Assembly, still sitting, 
134; of commons, debates in, 
5; of Employment, 112. 

Houston, Dr., 240, 279. 

Houston, Hon. John, 37. 

Howe, 105, III, 123, 124, 125, 
126, 130* 134, 136, I37» I4»» 
I44» 154, 162, 167, 168,172, 
173, 179. 

Howe, Gen., 17, 35) 80, 82, 91, 
97, 98, 100, 103, 104, 106, 
107, no, 113, 116, 120, 131, 
132, 140, 143, 148,149* >50» 
»5»> i53» ^S^j 160,163, 164, 
169, 170, 183, 184, 186. 

Howe, Lord, 91, 93, 136, 188. 

Howe's light horse, 126. 

Howell, Isaac, 14. 

Howell, James, 277. 

Howell, Samuel, 68, 86, 102. 

Huber, John, 267. 

Hubley, John, 86, 157, 264. 

Hubley, Joseph, 268. 

Hubley, Michael, 124, 261. 

Huddlestine, Henry, 268. 

Hughes, Hugh, 163. 

Hughes, Isaac, 102. 

Humphreys, 161. 

Hmnphfcyty Chailet, 8, ft9i. 
Homphrey*!, J., Ledger, 13. 
Hamphrqrt*s newspapers, i6l. 
Humphries, Cape., ss. 
Hunt, Isaac, 38, 39, 40, 41. 
Hunter, 136. 
Hunter, Daniel^ 86. 
Huntington, 278. 
Huntington, Samuel, 246, 251. 
Husbands, Hermon, 171, X7S. 
HutsoB, 283. 
Hysham, CapC, 88. 

Independence, celebration of thm 
anniversary of, 222, 223 1 cob* 
tinental sloop, 104. 

Independency, sixth year o^ syy. 

India, 277. 

Indian, 68 $ com, 253 ; dettroyed 
134; country, 214$ cmtooiy 
290; king, 277; 12^een, tlie, 

79» «97. 
Indians, 115, 122, 125, 147, 1899 

192, 215, 283, 290; i n r oadt 

of, 264 ; news of a defeat, 229 } 

pretty still, 160. 
Ingles, George, 239. 
Ireland, 11, 23, 38, 57, 228, 2535 

Royal regiment of, 10 ; Tessela 

arrived from, 11. 
Iris, ship, 244. 

Irish, 238 ; prisoners, 123, 20X. 
Irishman, 169. 
Ironworks, the, 272. 
Irvin, Gen., 148. 
Irving, Gen., in. 
Isle Dieu, 255. 

J. . . ., 21. 

Jack, ship, 242. 

Jackson, Capt., 181. 

Jacob, 275. 

Jacob, John, 191. 

Jacob, Israel, 10. 

Jacobs, 105. 

Jacobs, £d., 197. 

Jacobs, John, 1 89, 220, 243, 279. 

Jacobson, John, 252. 

Jagers, or German riflemen, 93. 



Jamaica, 76, 95, 97, »oo, si 6, 239 ,• 
•hip, 11,75. 

J aim, Capt., 11. 
ames island, 222. 
James, James, 288. 
Jay, James, 277. 

Jay, John, 26, 31. 
ennmgs, John, 287. 

Jeremiah, 167. 

Jeney, militia, 175$ people, 157; 
shore, 155. 

Jerseys, 26, 48, 49, 80, 82, 84, 85, 
89, 106, 107, 108, III, 112, 
114, 170, 183, 186,244, a74i 
English troops cutting down 
wood in, 179; ferriage to the, 
286 ; minister of Burlington in 
the, 46 ; news firom the, 247, 
249 ; salt works in, 144. 

Jewell, Robert, 44, 102. 

John, 192, 225, 230. 

Johnson, Caleb, 131, 239. 

Johnson, Col. Obadiah, 19. 

Johnson, Thomas, 25. 

Johnston, Caleb, 152. 
ohnstone, Capt., 187. 
Jones, 49, 80, 147, 199. 
Jones, Aquila, 287. 
Jones, Capt., 9. 
Jones, James, 69, 187; executed 

for street robbery, 69. 
Jones, John, 214, 226, 230, 275, 

280, 287. 
Jones, Owen, Jr., 149, 245. 
Jones, Paul, 226, 243, 269. 
Jones, Robert Strettle, 14, 37. 
Jorden, 137, 164. 
Joseph, 250, 252. 
Journal of congress, 293, 294. 
Joy, Capt., 214. 
Juan, Don, 289. 
Judas, 156. 
Junto, a, 121. 
Juno, ship, condemned, 80. 

K , Dr., 210. 

K n, Peter, 218. 

Kan, Hyder Aly, 277. 
Kap, 261. 

Keassler, Leonard, 106. 

Keanlcy, Dr., 41, 45, 46, 48, 76, 

Keith, Capt., 8. 

Killingworth, 18. 

Kennedy, Dr., 120, 196, 197. 

Kensington, 65, 67, 84, 86, 1571 
ships of war launched at, loi. 

Kent Co., Delaware, 13, 25, 26. 

Kepler, Henry, Jr., 167. 

Keppele, Henry, Jr., 86. 

Keppele, Major, 96, 99. 

Kerchland, 88 

King, of Britain's speech, 116 ; con- 
gress's petition to, 37, 47; of 
Prussia, 145; ship, 44; of 
Spain's declaration, 229. 

King William's county, 27. 

King's. Arms, to be taken down, 80, 
82; taken down, 83; sign of 
the, 80; proclamation, 50$ 
ships, 69 ; speech, 55* 88 ; in 
town, 269; stores, burnt, 196. 

Kitty, 119, 191, 199, 216, 219, 
220, 230. 

Kitty's horse, 191. 

Kniphausen, 259 ; raiment, 259. 

Knyphausen, Gen., 245. 

Know, Robert, 102. 

Knox, Col., 248. 

Kuhl, 82. 

Kuhl, Frederick, 14, 16, 67, 68,. 
83, 86, 104. 

Lacey, General, 180. 

La Fayette, Marquis de, 164, 16^, 
182, 242, 243, 263. 

Lancaster, 86, 118, 119, 126, 128, 
159, 167, 168,171,178,179, 
180, 181, 191, 195, 198, 199, 
203, 204, 207, 220, 235, 265, 
279, 282, 300, 302; ball in, 
170, 174; borough of^ 224$ 
clothier general's store in, 152 $ 
com. of, 225,227 ; county, 8, 87, 
172$ Court House, 1 74 ; fHendt, 
II, 20 ; jail of, 123 ; letter read 
from com. of, 74 ; road, 149^ 
1 50; ioldiert removed from, 193. 



194, s|6. 
Iirf, Curadras X37. 
fjiU^t, By 2C3. 
I^»*C,Capc^ 171. 174, 175. 179, 
Its, £11. 
Lufdoi^ J«lui, X3, 49. 

*^^ *^ft#^ A^^^ A^PS» 

L. Jr., 169. 
I^amaa, Ladvick. 135, S|l, s}4, 

Lawd HillCemccrj, iia. 

Lmdcm, Hesiry, 186. 

Laorciit, Proidcat, 151. 

Lav of Aaemblj, 11^ 

Law, Wm^ 1X1. 

Lawrence, Thninas, 60, iSS. 

Leach, Thomas, 113. 

Lcamiiigtoci, 8a. 

Leamington. John, it, 

Lebanon, 113, 1x4. 

Le Bonhomme, Richard, xs6. 

Lechler, Henry, 154, x6l. 

Lecoad, Joseph, 67. 

Ledger, J. Humphrey*!, 13, 31. 

Lee, 159, i65. 

Lee,ibrt, loo; taken by eaemy, 104. 

Lee, General, 29, 60, 85, 95, 105, 

107,113, 134, 176, 178.115; 

letters to congress from, 85. 
Lee, Major, 229, 244. 
Lee, Richard Henry, 25, 147. 
Leech, 241. 

Legislature, representatives in the, 1 1 . 
Lehman, Geor^, 99. 
Leidiel, Wm., 174. 
Leipcls, C^pt. Ephraim, 2X2. 
Lereiings, 198, 219. 
Levy, Sampson, 51. 
Levy, Simon, 225. 
Lewis, Col., 60. 
Lewis, Francis, 26. 
Lewis, Mr., 196. 

Lewises History of Chester Co., 196. 
Lewistown, 67, 118. 
Lewsley, Thomas, 132. 
Lexington, 18, 19, 26, 34 ; brig, 69. 
Life of Gen. Joseph Reed, 1 18, 201. 

Ligkt Hone, Ila«c\ 107. 

<5««-. *3"» M^ *47f «4«» 

r, Joha, aS6. 
Linle York, cacaMpacat aor, ay^. 
Liici po ni, 69, 97, 104, 153, SfSi 

ship fioa, II. 
Lhcacj't aaiily 132. 

umm, 13*. 

Gar., 267. 
Lmag^ina, Philip, 26^ 51. 
Lockait, Jogiak, 225. 

LoOar, Maior, iiIl 
LoUer, Robert, 3g. 

'-M'**^ 5t Hf «4. »^ »3» *7» *9» 
33. 44t 45» 47f 7^ W, 153, 
164, 2i6» 242, 245; bridge^ 

Loadoadcrry, 9 ; ship froai, 15. 

Loag Islaad, 32, 57, 90, 103, 1(4, 

»54, »55- 
L*Orieat, 255. 

Loody, Thomas, 22. 

Lord of the Household, 171. 

Lords and Commons, addren of the, 

Loring, CoL, 186. 

Lottery Office, 175, 185'; tickcta, 

Louis 1 6th, 223. 

Love, 150 ; Almighty hand o^ 156. 

Low, Isaac, 19. 

Lowery, Alexander, 13 5. 

Lowman, William, 78. 

Lowry, Col., 240. 

Loxley, B., 78. 

Loxley, Major, 198. 

Loyd, Peter, 37. 

Lodwick, Christopher, 14, 174, 184. 

Lad wig, C, 78. 

Lukens, Jesse, 54. 

Lutheran church, 183. 

Luseme, Chevalier de, 228. 



Lyman, Capt., 159. 

Lyme, 18. 

Lynch, Thomas, 9, 25^ 44, 51. 

Lynn, J[ohn, 49, 81, 83, 99, 189. 

Lynn, sister, 43. 

Lyon, William, 86. 

Lyons, Lieutenant, 148. 

M ,si8. 

M , John, 55. 

MacKay, Gen., 17. 
Mackinary, Mary, 285. 
Macksfield, Gen., 249. 
McCalla, Mrs., 45. 
McClain, Laughlane, 287. 
McCIenahan, Capt., 9. 
McCIenachan, Blair, 175, 197. 
McClenagan, Blair, 38, 39. 
McCoy, Captain, 88. 
McCullough, Capt., 123. 
McCullock, Captain, 5, 29. 
McCutcheon, Capt., 79. 
McDougall, Gen., 114. 
McFingal, 297. 
McFarlan, Mr., 19. 
Mcintosh, Gen., 215. 
McKean, 49, 242. 
McKean, Col., 71, 75, 77, 98, 131. 
McKean, Mr., 50. 
McKean, Thomas, 37, 77, 78, 176, 

291, 293, 295. 
McKinsey, Captain, 8. 
M*Kinley, Hon. John, 116. 
McKorble and Son, 291. 
McLane, Capt., 251. 
McLane, Capt. Allen, 188. 
McLane, Capt. John, 188. 
McLean, James, 144, 174, 207. 
McLean, John, 171, 199. 
McLean, Mr., 155. 
McMuIlen, John, 135. 
Madeira, brig arrived firom, 14; wine, 

51, 266, 302. 
Magdalen, schooner, 24. 
Maguire, Rachael, 286. 
Maidenhead, no. 
Malsbary, Jonathan, 40. 
Malt house 4>ttrnt, 64. 
Manheim, 164. 

Markoe, Capt., Z23, 124, 127, 157, 

x6o, 174, 188. 
Markom, Capt., 238. 
Marks, Levy, 204. 
Marrow of Divinity, the, 231. 
Marseilles, France, 88. 
Marshall, Benjamin, 23, 49, 59. 
Marshall, Betsey, 31. 
Marshall, C. Sr., 78. 
Marshall, Charles, 31, 60, 95. 
Marshall, Christopher, 14, 27, 30, 

32, 68, 105, 118, 285, 30X. 
Marshall, Humphrey, 74. 
Marshall, Mr., 86, 1x4, 281, 285. 
Marshall, Mrs., 185 ; death of, 302. 
Marshall, Sally, 175. 
Marson, Henry, 172. 
Marston, Capt. Samuel, 76. 
Martin, Patrick, 257. 
Martinico, 180, 184. 
Martinique, advice from, 232. 
Maryland, 9,25, 113, Z14, Il6{ 

province of, 5 ; troops, 84, 81. 
Massachusetts Bay, 1 5, 25, 27 1 

delegates from province of, 9 1 

forces, 32. 
Masterlett, Squire, 215. 
Masters, William, 102. 
Mastiler, Philip, 135. 
Mason, Capt., 60. 
Matlack, 49, 61. 
Matlack, Col., 77. 
Matlack, T., 78. 
Matlack, Timothy, 63, 64, 70, 73, 

81, 83, 86,98, 102, 137, i8oy 

184, 187, 188, 189, 197, 277, 

Matthew, 156. 
Maurice river, 193, 201. 
Maxwell, Gen., 42, 127. 
May, Capt., 95. 
Mead, 61. 
Mease, John, 152. 
Melchor, Captain, 26. 
Meloy, Mr., 20. 

Memorial to the county coort, 75. 
Memoir of Richard Henry Lee, 247. 
Men-of-war, French, 238 } and 

Spanish, 232. 



Menonitts, 187, 195; preacher, 

Mercer, 236, 239. 
Mercer, Gen., lis, 113. 
Mercer, John, 149, 232, 245. 
Mercer, Michael, 269. 
Merchants* Coffee Houte, 10. 
Mercury, sunk, 161. 
Meredith, Samuel, 37. 
Mermaid, 235. 
Meuencope, John, 226. 
Middle ferry, 149, 172. 
Middleton, Henry, 9, 24. 
Middletown, 214 ^ Point, ship lost 

off, 235. 
Mifflin,. Captain, 39. 
Mifflin, Col. Thomas, 70. 
Mifflin, fort, 198. 
Mifflin, General, 74, 75, 94, 105, 

114, 141, 165, 176, I79f»"- 
Mifflin, Jonathan, 145. 
Mifflin, Samuel, 86. 
Mifflin, Thomas, 8, xo, 44, 58, 59. 
Miles, William, 73. 
Millenium, Hartley on the, 187. 
Miller, Jacob, 266. 
Miller, Major, 131. 
Miller, Peter, 122, 151. 
Miller, Tobias, 171. 
Miller, Widow, 197. 
Milligan, James, 78. 
Mills, Samuel, 44. 
Milne, Ed., 125, 195, 271. 
Minerva, ship, 7. 
Ministers, 167. 

Missionary, Thomas Barton, 185. 
Mitchell, Capt., 9, 286. 
Moderates, 68. 
Moebale, Capt., X04. 
Molasses, 62. 
Molesworth, 118 ; hung, 118 ; body 

of, taken up by Friends, 201. 
Molesworth, James, 201. 
Monmouth Court House, 190. 
Mcntford, Major, Count, 209. 
Montgomery, Col., 84, 85, 257. 
Montgomery, Gen., 55, 57, 60; 

sermon on the death of, 60. 
Montgomery, Joseph, 281. 

Montgomery, county, 73 ; priTttccr, 

Montreal, 44, 53. 
Moor Hall, 187. 
Moor, John, 229. 
Moore, Capt, 9. 
Moore, Col., 46. 
Moore, John, 86. 
Moore, William, 1x6, 1x7. 
Moorestown, xo8. 
Morales, Mr., 216. 
Moravian minister, 182, 183 $ 

settlement, 283. 
Morgan, Col., X39, 143, x6i, 186. 
Morgan, Dr., 234, 240. 
Morgan, General, 268, 269. 
Morgan, Major, 54. 
Morgan, Samuel, 2x2. 
Morris, X39. 

Morris, Cad. Samuel, 92. 
Morris, Ensign Antony, Jr., 115. 
Morris, Lewis, 26. 
Morris river, X93, 20X. 
Morris, Robert, 44, 85, xos, 116, 

X44, 146, 147, 21 X, 291, »9». 
Morris, Samuel, 92, 229. 
Morris, Samuel, Cad walader, 7S. 
Morris, Samuel Jr., 86, 91, X02. 
Morris, Samuel, Sen., 86. 
Morris, ship fi'om France, 1x8. 
Morrises mill, 139. 
Morrison, George, 285. 
Morristown, 113, 114. 
Morton, John, 8, 85, 94, 291. 
Moses, 219. 
Mosher, Jeremiah, 280. 
Motchs, 131. 
Moulder, Joseph, 78, 81. 
Moulder, William, 44. 
Moultrie, Gtn,^ 221, 227. 
Mount Holly, 108. 
Moyamensing, 217. 
Moyer, John, 163. 
Mugford, Captain, 75. 
Muhlenburgh, Rev. Henry, Jr., 87. 
Mulberry wharf, 84. 
Mure, Capt., 259. 
Murray, Messrs. Robert and John, 




Mutcovtdotugar, 135. 
Museum, anatomical, z88. 
Muskingnm river, zSj. 
Muaelman, Chrislejr, 184. 
Myer, Wendal, 172. 
Myng, 79. 
Myner, 236. 

N , Dr^ 258. 

NanU, letter firom, 96. 
Narrows, the, 60, 79, 254. 
Nazareth, Gen. Gates at^ 160. 
Neal, 56. 
Neal, Peg, 286. 
Neale, Capt. James, 62. 
Needliam, 9; letter of marqoe ship, 

NefF, Chrisley, 242. 
NefF, Dr., 121, 122, 184, 230, 

268, 279. 
Neff, John, 184. 
Negro, 68$ woman, 123. 
Nelson, Alexander, 174. 
Nesbit and Co., 112. 
Nevil, Col., 235, 236. 
Nevis, brig from, 88 ; island almost 

destroyed, 266. 
New Brunswick, 249. 
Newburyport, 59. 
New Castle, 69, 70 ; ship arrived at, 

7,.8, 95 county, 25. 
Newcomb, Silas, 15. 
New England, 22, 23, 30, 31, 298 ; 

colonics, 290; troops, 174. 
New Englanders, 290. 
New Englandmen, 114. 
Newfoundland, 21. 
New Garden, 126, 272. 
New Hampshire, 9, 23. 
New Haven, 18, 19, 21; ship ar- 
rived, 175. 
New Holland, 199. 
New Jersey, 21, 31, 94, 155, 193, 

New London, 18$ arrival of fleet 

at, 65. 
Newman, Capt., 80, 99. 
Newman Dr., 160, 214, 264. 
Newry, ship firom, 7, 9. 

New Tavern, the, 10, 29, $%, 

Newtown, 109, 169, 229. 

New York, 5, 7, 9, 16, 19, so, ftl, 
22, 24, 26, 27, 44, 49, 73* 81, 
82, 84, 87, 93, 94, 97, 99, 
106, 113, 115, 158, 184,232, 

»34» a39» »4»i »4S» »S7» a67» 
283, 294; arrival of Washing- 
ton at, 65 ; brig from, driven 
ashore, 155; fire a^ 195 i 
Gazette, 289} Gen. Clinton 
sails from, 60; part of, bnm% 
178; Post, 57; provisions at^ 
scarce, 194; refugees in, 274. 

Niagara, 192. 

Nicola, Col. Lewis, 244. 

Nixon, John, 7, 83, 99. 

Noy, Mr., 20. 

No Popery riots, 26 1. 

Norrington, 73. 

Norris, Isaac, 145. 

Norris, Widow, 131. 

Northampton Co., Pa., 8. 

North Carolina, 10, 25, 143, 283 ) 
troops, 234. 

North, Lord, 175, 178. 

North river, 84, 135. 

Northumberland co., 58, 227. 

Northumberland, duke of, 17. 

Norwich, 18. 

Nottingham meeting house, 127. 

Nottingham, Samuel, 103. 

Nulling, Lieut. Col., 207. 

Oats, 253. 

Obed, 122. 

Ogden*s ferry, 140. 

0*Hara, Gen., 272. 

Old France, 96. 

Oley Hills, 130. 

Ordale, 46. 

Osborn, 287. 

Osborne, Capt., ii, 23. 

Osnabrigs, 286. 

Otis, Mr., 159. 

Overseers of the poor, accounts o^ 

Owen, Mrs., 142. 



P , 2*4, S44- 

P...., J...., 43, J0> no. 

P. . . ., Jamet, 145. 

P. . . , John, S45. 

Pacolet riTer, 169. 

Paine, 65. 

Paine, Robert Treat, 9, 25, 30, 51. 

Paine, T., 108. 

Paine, Thomas, 64, 68, 70. 

Paine, Treat, 49. 

Palaiky, Pame, si 3. 

Palmer, J., 18. 

Paoli massacre, 129. 

Papists, 68. 

Parish, John, 1 64. 

Parker, Joseph, 10, 44, 48, los. 

Parker, Peter, 132. 

Parliament, Lord North's proposal 

to, 178. 
Parrish, Nancy, 190. 
Passyunk road, 84. 
Patience, 175, 177,248} pau for, 

Patrick, St., 270. 

Patriotic society, the, 66. 

Paul, Father, 195. 

Paulus Hook, garrison at, surprised, 

Pawling, Granny, 286. 

Pawling, Henry, 10. 

Payne, 171. 

Payne, John, 75» 85. 

Peace and Plenty, ship, 8. 

Peale, Wilson, 217. 

Pearson, Hannah, 286. 

Pedree, Captain, 232. 

Pedro, Capt., 206. 

Peel Hall, burnt by the enemy, 145. 

Pendleton, Edmund, 25. 

Pcnn, Governor, 232. 

Penn, John, 6, 133; appointed 
governor, 133. 

Penn, Richard, 47, 234. 

Pennsylvania, 156, 163, 291 ; Arch- 
ives, 164, 198, 301 ; conven- 
tion of, 78 ; Weistling's, 79 ; 
currency, 285; Farmer, sign of 
the, 80; Freeman*8 Journal, 302; 
Gazette, 92, 93, 95, 227,238 5 

Penn., Hbt. Soc., 80 ; Joomal, 5, 

«5> »8, 33, 36, 37, 41, 64, 

73, 83, 86, 91, 93, 94, 99, 

102, 103, 104, 105, 264 S 

and Gasette, 17; Ledger, 21,34, 

54 5 Packet, 27, 29, 164, 17a, 

*3S» »38fa64; »1"P» "» »3 5 
plan of government for, 9a; 

troops mutinied, 267. 
Pennsylvanians and Connecdcut 

people, skirmish between, 54. 
Pennytown, iii. 
Penrose, L. Colonel, 94. 
Pensacola, 234; invested by fleet of 

French and Spanish, 273 $ 

taken by Spaniards, 277. 
Pension book, amount of^ 285, aS6. 
Pepper, 62. 
Pequea, account of a fray at, 1 68 } 

church, 126. 
Percy, Lord, 17, 20. 
Permel, Mons., 96. 
Peters, Capt., 85. 
Philadelphia, 19, 26, 51, 86, 105, 

119, 121, 122, 124, za6, 

127, 140, 141, 142, 148, 149, 

»SOi «53. i54> i59» 160,161, 
163, 164, 168, 169, 172, 174, 
178, 181, 185, 186, 203, 204, 
205, 206, 211, 214, 215, 220, 
221, 233, 234,249, 253, 257, 
260, 262, 267, 269, 274, 277^ 
281, 282,283,285, 292; alms- 
house, 28 ; assembly of, broke 
up, 199$ committee of, 225, 
226, 227; city^ 83; county, 

73» 74> 831 '77 5 La Fayette 
arrived at, 243 ; college, com- 
mencement at, 251; ft'iends, 
X 1 9 ; number of houses and in- 
habitants in, 229 ; Rattlesnake, 
180; militia, 89. 

Philadelphian, 167; an old, 289. 

Philadelphians, 119. 

Philosophical Hall, 78 j committee 
at, 49, 50, 52 } meeting at, 7. 

Phillips, 283. 

Phillips, Gen., 211. 

Phipp*s farm, 18. 



Phyle,Dr., xi8, 131, 137, 140, 145, 

ai8, ai9, 147. 

Pickering, Tim., 198, 044. 

Pit^ fort, 239. 

Pittsburgh, 214, 283 ; Dr. New- 
man arrived from, 160; newt 
from, I XX. 

Place, the, z8, 32, 61. 

Plainfield, 19. 

Plan of government, 97. 

Pliarne, Monsieur, 165. 

Plumstead*s wharf, 67. 

Plymouth, burial ground, X 90. 

Polish court, 175. 

Poll, 42, 43» 84, 88, 108, X 16, X2X, 
123, 182, 185, 186, 194, 195, 
200, 202, 203, 204, 207, 209, 
2x0, 217, 229, 230. 

Polly, 12, 199, 252. 

Polly and Peggy, ship, X3. 

Pondicherry, 228, 277. 

PooKs Bridge, 96. 

Poonah, 235. 

Poor Richard, 226 ; almanac, 226. 

Popham, James, 14. 

Popish dialect, 238. 

Port au Prince, 244. 

Port Orient, French vessel from, 

Porto Rico, 229. 

Port Royal, Jamaica, 184. 

Portland, Me., 50. 

Portugal, 200, 273. 

Post master general of the United 
Colonies of North America, 

Potter, Gen., 136, 15X. 

Potts, 140, 199. 

Potts, Capt., 44. 

Potts, Dr., 139, 2XX, 295. 

Potts, T., 102. 

Potts, Thomas, 44, 83. 

Pottses, X27. 

Pottsgrove, 127, 178. 

Powder, arrival of, 56. 

Powell, Samuel, 44. 

Practice of Physick, Brooks's, X20. 

Preachers, X67. 

Presbyterian burial ground, XI5{ 
meedng house, X9X. 

Prescott, 134. 

Prescott, Gen., X78 } Gen. Lee ex- 
changed for, X34. 

President and council, letter to^ 

Price, 62, 80. 

Price, Capt, X74. 

Priests, 167. 

Princeton, 86, 107, ixx. 

Prisoners, England Scotch and Irith^ 

Prison Society, 60. 
Proclamation, 295; Gov. Dun- 

more*s 27; President Reed*Sy 

211; published, X39. 
Procter, Col., 145. 
Proctor, X05. 
Proctor, Capt., 109. 
Proctor, Col., X50, X5X, 2x7. 
Prophets, 167. 
Proprietary party, 68. 
Prosperity, ship, 5, 29. 
Providence, X9, 99. 
Province ship launched, 64. 
Provincial conference, 78, 79, 292 ; 

congress, 32; convention, 24. 
P. Journal, 26, 235.' 
Provincials, loss of, 5X. 
Proverbs, 158. 
Provost, Gen., 221. 
Prussia, king of, 145. 
Prussian, the, 63 ; court, 175. 
Pryor, Captain, 26. 
Pryor, Norton, X48. 
Public Ledger, i6x. 
Pulaski, Gen., 22X. 
Pulasky, 213. 
Pultney, Thomas, 250. 
Purdie, Robt., 258. 
Purdies, 239. 
Putnam, General, 34, xo6, xo8, xo9y 

XXX, 127, 134,143, 295. 
Putnam, Israel, 295, 296, 297. 

Quaker, monthly meeting, X2; 
preacher, 28 ; visited meeting 
houses, 28 \ prisoners, X49. 



Q«ftkcrt| 68, 1741 in En|lafid, 180 } 
InterM^ peodon bf, 141 me- 
morial procnted bf, 49 } meet- 
ing of, 301 testimony Oif tlie 
people called, 13 } yeariy meet- 
ing, I o I terioot addreit to, soi. 

Quebec, 57, 58 \ letter from camp 
before, 551 lower town, 71. 

Qttiberon bay, 179. 

R., O., 136. 

Racbael, 258. 

Rachel and Frandt, ship, stranded, 

Ramsay, 173. 
Ramsey, James, 168. 
Randolph, Peyton, 10, 15, 16, 17, 

Ranger, schooner, 54. 

Rankin, Col. William, 87. 

Rsnkin, James, 118. 

Rapelja, 103. 

Raritan, the, 114. 

Rattlesnake, privateer, 116, 180. 

Read, Col. Charles, 114. 

Read, General, 132, 175. 

Read, George, 15, 291. 

Reading, 127, 128, 132, 134, 138, 

"39. a83- 
Rebecca, schooner, 54. 

Receipts, 288. 

Redbank, 23, 139, 140, 141, 142 j 

fort, 145 ) spies hanged in, 143. 
Red creek, 125. 
Red Lion, 128. 
Reed, 266. 
Reed, Capt., 44. 
Reed, Col., 133. 
Reed, Gen., 210, 211. 
Reed, James, 182. 
Reed, Joseph, 7, 37, 56, 58, 59, 

206, 2x7. 
Reed*s bridge, 266. 
Reedy island, 121, 172, 175. 
Rees, Thomas, 140, 141, 190. 
Reese, Capt., 199. 
Reese, Thomas, 161, 252. 
Reeves, Pau,i43. 
Regulars, 122. 

Reigart, Adam, S40. 

Reigart*s, 224. 

Reprisal, the, 88. 

Remembrancer, Mr. Marshall^ ftS5. 

Remonstrance, 73 ; to congreM, 66 1 
signed, 60 1 to the assemblyy 63. 

Renown, ship, 9. 

Reynolds, John, 95. 

Rhoad, Peter, 86. 

Rhoads, Samuel, 8, 10, 42, 44. 

Rhode Island, 55, 115, 141, 194, 
271$ usembly of, 70; colonj 
of, 26} forces, 32; French 
troops landed on, 254 j report 
of surrender of^ 196 { that 
French fleet defeated off, 261. 

Richard, 283. 

Richardson, Samuel, 104. 

Rich6, Robert, 149. 

Richmond, 35, 268. 

Richmondtown, Henrico Co., Va.^ 

Right of instruction, the, 103. 

Rising Sun, the, 131. 

Rittenhouse, David, 61, 83, 86, 
102, 139, 189, 191, 197. 

Rivingtoo, 245. 

Rivington*s Paper, 13, 245. 

Roberdeau, 218. 

Roberdeau, Col., 64, 67, 84, 147. 

Roberdeau, Daniel, 68, 217. 

Roberdeau, Gen., 84, 85, 1 16, 1 51 

Roberts, 283. 

Roberts, John, 201, 204. 

Roberts, Jonathan, 10, 44. 

Robins, Joseph, 161. 

Robinson, 28. 

Robinson, Captain, 23. 

Robinson, George, 275. 

Robinson, William, 78. 

Robison, Ca^^t., 47. 

Rochambeau, Count, 281. 

Rodney, Admiral, 245. 
J<.odney, Cssar, 25, 292. 

Roebuck, the, man-of-war, 67, 69^ 
118, 235; lieut. of the, 176. 

Rogers, Major, 100. 

Roman, 290. 
Rose,Wm., 174. 



ROMy 167. 

Rosty Capt., 98. 

Ross, Col., 129. 

Ross, George, 8, 85, 127, 293. 

Ross, John, 7. 

Ross, William, 165; ball at house 

of, 165. 
Ross*s, ball at, 167. 
Rotterdam, 44$ sign of, 67. 
Rowland, Andrew, 19. 
Roxborough township, 131, 190. 
Rozbury, 31 ; camp, 32. 
Royal Scotch Fusileers, colors of, 

brought to congress, 51. 
Rum, 62 ; poisoned, 98. 
Rush, Benjamin, 85, 293. 
Rush, Dr., 70, 78, 159. 
Rush, William, 41, 84, 198. 
Russians, 253. 
Ruth, 84. 

Rutledge, Gov., 251. 
Rutledge, Edward, 9, 24, 91. 
Rutledge, John, 9, 24. 

S ,215,224. 

S , Major, 117. 

S < Mrs., 259. 

S , Samuel, 22, 259. 

S y, Thomu, 218. 

Saint Eustatia, 76, 108, 244, 246, 

251, 270 ; account that English 

had taken, 27 1 ; damaged, 266. 
St. John*s, 44; fort, 55; news of 

the taking of, 51; prisoners 

from 84. 
St. Lawrence river, 57. 
St. Lucia, English merchant ships at, 

St. Martin*s, 75, 246$ French fleet 

at, 252. 

St. Patrick, 238 ; men, 270. 

St. Peter's church yard, 113. 

Salem, ship arrived at, 242 ; creek, 


Sally, I73i 190. «9»» a48, aS*! 
letter from, 213; tea from, 
2481 ship, 29; sloop, 76. 

Salmon's Collection, etc., 54. 

Salt, 62. 

Salter, Thomas, 11 6. 
Saltpetre, arrival of at Chester, 56. 
Samuel, 229. 

Sandy Hook, 80, 103$ fleet sailed 
from, 234; French fleet ofi^ 

'93> >94» '30$ »c^^ ^<^^ 
English fleet left, 200. 

Sandy Puzton, Va., 72. 

San Juan, retaken by the SpaniardSy 

Sanu Cms, 246; flag of truce 

from, 218. 
Satan, 203. 
Saul, II. 
Savannah, 230. 
Saybrook, 18. 

Scarborough, man-of-war, 57. 
Schema Sacra, 167. 
Schlosser, C, 39. . 
Schlosser, G., 38, 39, 78, 83, 120, 

123, 181, 182, 185, 189, 243. 
Schriner, Jacob, 67, 78, 82, 86, 

Schriner, Michael, 261. 
SchuykiU, 140, 145, 146, 149, 

150, 170, i9»i»99> ai^aS»J 
ferry, 51. 

Scotch prisoners, 125, 200; manhed 
to Philadelphia, 269 $ soldien, 
94 J stove, 197. 

Scotchmen, 169$ a lunatic, 261. 

Scotland, 44 ; rebellion in, 274. 

Scott, Col., III. 

Scotten, John, 174. 

Seabrook, Capt., 196, 197. 

Seachrist, Jacob Jr., 231. 

Sea Nymph, brig., 9. 

Searles, James, 61, 185. 

Sergeant, Jonathan, 139, 198. 

Shaff, Henry, 87. 

Shaffer, 202, 270. 

Shaffer, Frederick, 207. 

Shaffher, Capt., 238. 

ShafTner, Oaspar, 266. 

ShafTner, Peter, 175. 

Shamokin, 215. 

Shannon, Cath., 285. 

Sharpless, Benjamin, 63. 



Sherburne, brig, 99. 

Sherlock, Dr., 209. 

Sherman, Roger, 25, 31. 

Shewell, Messrs., 89, 91. 

Shields, James, 270. 

Shipley, Elisabeth, dying words of, 

Ship, sign of the, 191, 216. 

Shippen, 235. 

Shippen, Capt. Wm., 115. 

Shippen, Dr., 141, 186, 187, 240. 

Shippen, Dr. Jr., 112. 

Sliippen, Dr. William, 113. 

Shippen, Dr. Wm., Jr., 234. 

Shippen, Ed., 194, 221, 230, 239, 

270, 279, 287. 
Shirt battalion, 75. 
Shoemaker, Saml., 134, 143. 
Shrewsbury, 235. 
Shubart, Michael, 102. 
Shuldam, admiral, 57. 
Shuttleburgh, Wm., 257. 
Sigevolk, Paul, 25. 
Simmons, Capt., 282. 
Simpson, Capt., 88. 
Sing6r, Guper, 236. 
Singhauser, Caspar, 263. 
Skene, Major, 29. 
Skippack road, 139. 
Skyles, 177. 
Slough, 238, 254. 
Slough, Matthias, 149. 
Small, 228. 
Small Pox, society of inoculating for 

the, 5. 
Smallwood, Col., 155. 
Smallwood, Gen., 127, 136, 183. 
Smith, 49, 55, 263, 265. 
Smith, Col., 98, III, 177. 
Smith, Col. James, 85. 
Smith, Dr., 60, 62. 
Smith, James, 293. 
Smith, John, 242. 
Smith, J. B., 37, 66, 78, 86, 102, 

116, 139. 
Smith, Parson, 54. 
Smith, Thomas, 106, 183, 184, 188, 

193, 287. 
Smith, William, 14. 

Snow, Charlotte, 9; Sir Willinm 

Johnson, 16. 
Snowden, Jedediah, 163. 
Snowden, Leonard, 45, 46. 
Snyder, Christy, 271. 
Snyder, Jacob, 206. 
Snyder, Simon, 225, 264. 
Society Hall, committee at, 49. 
Solomon, Simon, 208. 
Somerset, man-of-war, 205. 
Sorrel Horse, the, 149. 
Souchong tea, 248. 
South Carolina, 9, 24, 25, 57, 85, 

158, 187. 
Southwork, district of, 299. 
Sower, Christopher, 184. 
Spain, Capt., 14. 
Spain, 153, 183, 200, 228 ; fleet oi^ 

257 J king of, 178. 
Spaniards, 213, 231. 
Spanish ambassador, 197 $ conr^ 

175 J envoy, 216 j fleet, arriTal 

at Martinico, 254$ minbter, 

Spankstown, 112. 
Speaker of assembly, 105. 
Spear, John, 87. 
Spechts, regiment of, 208. 
Spiegel, 88, 89. 
Spikeman, 45. 
Spikeman, Townsend, 65. 
Spring Garden, destroyed by the 

enemy, 146. 
Spring mill, 146. 
Springer, Gabriel, 87. 
Springfield, 244 ; skirmish at, 249. 
Sprout, 6. 

Stage wagon, the, 121. 
Stark, Gen., 123. 
State House, congress at the, 26; 

meeting at, 7, 10 ; attempt to 

spike the guns in, 33. 
Staten Island, 96, 97, 98. 
States of America, /i-iends of, 1200. 
Staunton, Augusta co., 149. 
Steel, Francis, 275. 
Sterling, 212. 

Sterling, General, 127, 141. 
Sterling, Lord, 90. 



SteTeiM, Capt. Walter, 54. 

Stevenson, James, 288. 

Steward, Andrew, 28. 

Steward, Capt., 136. 

Steward, James, 79. 

Stewart, Col., 272. 

Stonehouse, George, 5, 63. 

Stony Point, 227. 

Story, William, 238. 

Stott, Mrs., 188. 

Stout, Capt., 98. 

Stow, John, 87. 

Stileman, Samuel, 64. 

Stiles, Capt., 14. 

Stiles, Joseph, 14. 

Stille, Major, 136. 

Strettle, Amos, 229. 

Strettle, Robert, 286. 

Strieker, Daniel, 200. 

Stringer, Parson, 28. 

Sturgis, Jonathan, 19. 

Sugar, 62, 121. 

Sukey, ship, 23. 

Sullivan, Brigadier General, 29. 

Sullivan, General, 90, 91, 108, 113, 

127, 146, 153, 229. 
Sullivan, Major John, 9, 23. 
Sunbury, 216, 227. 
Surinam, vessel from, 95. 
Susanna, 284. 
Susquehannab, 126; flour lying on 

the banks of, 152$ low, 265. 
Sussex Co., 25, 77. 
Swart, Peter, 187. 
Swedes* church, 104. 
Swift, Joseph, 68. 
Switzerland, 37. 
Swope, Michael, 86. 
Sykes, 104. 

Taborro, Antony, 214. 

Taggert, Mrs., 130. 

Taggert, R., 137, 174, 193, 194, 

195, 202, 212, 228, 230, 231, 

Tappan, Andre hanged at camp at, 

Tarleton, Lieut. Col., 268. 
Taylor, 98. 

Taylor, George, 85, 293. 

Taylor, Isaac, 26^. 

Taylor, Robot, 31, 200. 

Tea, East India, 14$ green, 88, 177. 

Temple, 136. 

Templets Farm, 21. 

Teneriffe wine, 300. 

Tennant, Lieut. Col., 247. 

Ternay, Monsieur, 254. 

Test, Act, 174} of allegiance, etc., 

Texel, vessels taken in the, 271. 
Thanksgiving sermon, 209. 
The Everlasting Gospel, 215. 
The Marrow of Divinity, 231. 
Thetis, prize ship from Jamaica, 95. 
Thomas, Arthur, 76, 88. 
Thomas, Joseph, 191. 
Thomas, Philip, 215. 
Thompson, 133. 
Thompson, John, 275. 
Thompson, Peter, 275. 
Thompson, Rosanna, 56. 
Thomson, Charles, 10, 26, 88, 

Thornberry, Sus., 239. 
Thornburgh, Robert, 231. 
Thorn, 117. 
Thorn, William, 66, 67. 
Thorne, 81, 171, 173, 176. 
Thorne, Squire, 215. 
Thornton, Matthew, 293. 
Ticonderoga, 43; fort, 27 \ governor 

of, 29. 
Tillbury, Mr., 43. 
Tillbury, Thomas, 14, 40. 
Timmons, Capt., 189. 
Tinicum island, 143. 
Toasts, 223. 
Todd, William, 172. 
Topham, the potter, 184. 
Torbay, Engl'ish fleet blockaded in, 

Tories, 68, 196; chosen to patrol 

the streets, 33 \ confined in new 

jail, 117; lodged in jail, 98} 

plundered, 103. 
Tory prisoners, ill. 
Towers, Robert, ftSS, 296. 



Town, B., 157. 

Trap, the, 119, 128. 

Treaty of commerce, 175. 

Trenton, 34, 84, 85, 90, 105, 107, 
108, III, 117,180,181 ;Col. 
Knox at, 248 \ newt of an en- 
gagement at, no. 

Trial, sloop, 56. 

Trumbellon, privateer, 144. 

Troops, English and foreign, 69. 

Try on, Governor, 56. 

Tucker, Major, 36. 

Tybottt, Andrew, 87. 

Union, the, 189. 

United American States, 91 \ Colo- 
nies of North America, pott- 
master general of, 34. 

United States declared firee and in- 
dependent, 8 1 . 

Universal Restitution, etc., 63. 

Urie, Thos., 167, 170. 

Valans, Captain, 5. 

Valentine, 171. 

Valley Forge, 154. 

Valley hills, the, 199. 

Vanchamp, 155. 

Vanzening, Crugillus, 40. 

Vessels, taken by the British, 104. 

Vickcrs, Thos., 257. 

Virginia, 24, 27, 34, 57, 112, 114, 
128, 142, 143, 147, »59> '93> 
201, 214, 233, 249, 266, 268, 
270, 283 J Col. Nevirs regi- 
ment leave for, 236; conti- 
nental troops, 160 ; engagement 
off the capes of, 27 z ; Friends 
from, 177; light horse, 113, 
115; letter from gov. of, 247 ; 
news from, 256 ; prisoners from, 
273; province of, 5; troops 
from, 176, 180, 183, 234, 236. 

Virginian, killed, 168. 

Virginians, 2 3 5; came into town, 164. 

W , James, Sr., 129. 

W , Jcr., 244* 

W. M. . . ., Richard, 218. 

Wagon, sign of the, 189, 191, 196, 
aoa, »2o, 243, »53» »79- 

Waldeckert, 112. 

Wales, Prince of, 259. 

Walker, Col. Edward, 212. 

Walker, Joseph, 123. 

Walker, Robert, 13. 

Wallace, Capt., 177. 

Wallace, George, 249. 

Wallace, John, 285. 

Wallace, Sir James, 230. 

Wallingfbrd, 21. 

War, declared, between French and 
English, 210; against Great 
Britain, at Martinique, 200. 

Ward, Governor, 43, 60, 63, 64$ 
fVineral of, 64. 

Ward, Hon. Samuel, 26. 

Warner, Joseph, 250. 

Washington, 134, 150, 153, 216. 

Washington, Col., 248. 

Washington, fort, taken by Gen. 
Howe, 104. 

Washington, Gen., 28, 31, 57, 65, 
73. 74, 75> 81, 98, 107, 108, 
109, no, 112, 113, 115, 117, 
121, 122, 124, 125, 128, 129, 

i3»> 137, I4«. H*. i43» »46, 
147, 148, 149, 155, 159, 161, 

162, 170, 175, 183, 188, 190, 

191, 211,214, 223,234,245, 

249, 281, 296. 
Washington, George, 25. 
Washington, Lady, 51, 53, 221, 

248, 250. 
Washington, Mrs., 52. 
Wasp, continenul schooner, 96, 97. 
Waterford, 9. 
Watcrtown, 32. 
Wayne, Gen., 129, 169, 170, 227, 

Webb, James, 122, 214. 
Weed, Capt., 197. 
Weistling, John S., 78. 
Wcitzcl, John, 86. 
Wells, Richard, 14. 
Wells, Stephen, 261. 
Weltze, Anthony, 206. 
Wentworth, 259; dragoons, 259- 



Wcrtx, 202. 

WertZy Christian, 261. 

Wertz, Major, 126, 137, 140, 169, 

225, 227, 229, 267. 
West Indies, 200, 215,232, 257; 

French fleet arrived at, 276 ; 

hurricane in, 266. 
Western islands, 270. 
West Point, 250, 263 ; spies taken 

at, 262. 
Wetherill, Saml., 276, 277, 278. 
Wetherill, Samuel Jr., 14, 274. 
Wharton, Thomas, 7, 144, 170, 

183, 186; death of, 183$ 

burial of, 183. 
Wharton, Thos. Jun., 86, 102, 116. 
Wheat, 253. 
Whigs, plundered, 103. 
White, Alexander, 166. 
White, Col., 124, 125, 208, 212, 

2x3, 214. 
WhiteHorse,signof the, 1 87, 1 97,2 5 2. 
Whitehill, 117, 173. 
Whitehill, John, 118. 
Whitehill, Robert, 75, 105, 131, 

139. '44. i45»H7i 168, 171, 
187, 199,210, 233, 238,259. 

Whitelock, Daniel, 258, 263, 266. 

Whitemarsh, 148. 

Whitemore, John, 205, 261. 

Wigdon, James, 64. 

Wigdon, John, 174. 

Wilcox, 49. 

Wilcox, Alexander, 68. 

Wild, William, 92, 93. 

Williams, £b., 19. 

Williams, Major, 94. 

Williamsburgh, 24, 27, 28, 268. 

Williamson, Charles, 212. 

Williamson, Horvlet, 212. 

Welling, Richard, 106. 

Willing, Thomas, 7, 26, 68, 144, 
162, 291. 

Wilmington, 183; brig run ashore 
near, 159; creek, 155 j evacu- 
ated by the enemy, 136 ; Gen. 
Washington at, 125; goods 
landed at, 155; New Castle 
CO., 87. 


Wilson, 198, 283. 

Wilson, James, 26, 85, 117, 177, 

Wilson, J^hn, 198. 
Winchester, 273. 
Winey, Jacob, 149 63. 
Winterhill, 20, 21. 
Wisdom Infinite, 192. 
Wisner, Henr)*, 294. 
Wissahicon creek, 132. 
Wissahicken road, 250. 
Wistar, Daniel, 189; 245. 
Wold, Conrad, 140. 
WoUop, Capt., 259. 
Wood, 124. 
Wood, G., 147. 
Woodbridge, 84. 
Woodbury, burnt, 145. 
Woodford, Thomas, 222. 
Woodrow, Henry, 87. 
Woodward, Gen., 236. 
Woodward, John, 69 ; executed for 

murder of his wife, 69. 
Woodworth, Col., 20. 
Woodstock, 18. 
Wooster, General, 79. 
Worcester, com. of correspondence 

of, 18. 
World Unmasked, the, 25. 
Worrall, 170. 
Wright, 274. 
Wright, Capt., 9. 
Wright, Henry, 212. 
Wright, James, 253. 
Wynkoop, Henry, 86. 
Wyoming, 55; country, the, 54. 

Yankee, 28 ; etymology of the word, 

Yankee Doodle, 28, 33. 
Yankoos, 290. 
Yager infantry, 213. 
Yeardwell, Dr., 153. 
York, 141, 128, 129; county, 8, 

86, 87, 98, 172, 210. 
York island, 103. 
York river, 24, 
Yorktown, 74, 128, 130, 150, 151, 

i6i, 171, 178. I79» '88,2295 



Yorktown, letters read from com. of, 
74 } paper, received,! 81 ; Poll 
living in, 194. 

Young, 161. 

Young, Capt,, 104. 

Young, Dr., 46, C4, 6a, 64, 65, 

74i 81, 83* 9»» '»o- 
Young, Jamet, 146. 

Young, Widow, 122. 
Young, William, 140, 286. 


Zane, Isaac, 165. 
Zantzinger, Adam, 135, 195. 
Zebulum, Mary, 287. 
ZuUy, Dr., 37. 

Sl):^'::-^^ •• nh