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FI^SIDENT OF TSE HieHLAITD ^AGHICUITIIRAl SOCIETY 1841,-1844 



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PUBLISHED BTROGERSOIvr & TirXEORD. MARK LAW. EXPRESS OIEICE, 
246, STRAND, LONDON. 
1866. 



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BEiicaf 3©i 



TO 

JAMES DOUGLAS, 

OF ATHELSTANEPOED, 

IN REMEMBKANCE OP THE TIME WHEX HE LED 

THE "red, WHITE, AND ROAN " TO VICTORY OVER THE BORDER. 

THIS BOOK IS DEDICATED BY HIS FRIEND, 

THE AUTHOR. 



b (S) 



P i E P a C E 



©HE object and the mode of my journey have been 
so fully explained in the preface to part "NortV 
that I need not recount them here. It was my 
original intention to have compressed the whole of 
my notes into one book,, but on further consi- 
deration it seemed that it would be for the interest 
both of myself and my readers to make two parts^ 
which could be purchased separately. '^ Highlands^^ 
and ^^ Lowlands^^ were the natural divisions, but I 
eventually decided to call them "NortV^ and 
" South," and take the Frith of Forth as nearly as 
possible for my line of demarcation. Without en- 
tering at any length into arable matters (which Mr. 
Stephens in his "Book of the Farm," and other 
writers, have handled so ably), I have endeavoured, 
as far as lay in my power, to make these two parts 
a reflex of that Scottish country life which I enjoyed 
so heartily for three successive summers. There may 
be errors, but still there is not a page in either part 



J5 PREFACE. 

bat \vliat lias been submitted^ not to one, but often 
to two or tbree men of the liigbest experience in that 
particular subject. That ^' doctors will disagree" is a 
truth which I have too often felt in the course of my 
labours, and I can only hope that in divers difficulties 
I have pinned my faith on the right ''doctor" at 
last. 

10, Kensington Square, 
August 1, 1865. 



CeiTEITS. 



EH£FfSE L 

Mr. Harvey's Glasgow Dairy — Tlie Easterliill Pigs — Merryton — Tht 
Duke of Hamilton's Clydesdales and Ayrshires — The Prize Clydesdales 
at the Highland Society — Mr. A. Graham of Capellie; his Parm, 
Ventilation, and Coursing Career — Scottish Coursing Cracks and 
Grounds — Barrator at Biggar — Waterloo — A Visit to the Eenfrc-\v- 
shire Kennel. . . . . ' . 1 — 30 



SaAFflE II, 
fMMM 

The Lanark Tryst — Dealings of leading Salesmen — Scenes on the ^loor 
— The Dealers of Other Days — Pate of the Greenhorns— Jhe Myste- 
rious Visitor — Among the Drovers — Driving and Shoeing Beasts — His- 
tory of the Palkirk Trysts— The other Sheep and Cattle Pairs in 
Scotland — Poreign Supplies — Linlithgowshire — Tom Rintoul — The 
West Lothian Kennels— Mr. Waldron Hill and his Otter Hounds 

31—64. 



11 CONTENTS. 

EiiiraKsii TO f Hi MMm mm. 

Arrival in Edinburgh — ^Professor Dick's " Constitution Hill" — Messrs. 
Girdwood's Wool Stores — Origin of the Highland Society — Its En- 
couragement of Gaelic — Its Early Aims — Original Members — Its 
Agricultural Education — Gradual Development — Bagpipe Contests — 
Cheese, Cured ]\Ieat, and Ploughing Prizes — Resume of the princi- 
pal Cattle Shows — Present Competition Rules — Agricultural Statistics 
Inquiry — The Council Chamber of the Society — Pictures of Winners 
The Museum — White Crop Samples . . 65 — 104 

Coursing at the Roman Camp — Woolmet — Dirleton Common — The 
Lothian Ram Sales — Camptown — Wood Pigeons — Stock in East 
Lothian — The Grave of Phantassie — "WTiittingham — The Athelstane- 
ford Herd— The East Lothian Hounds . . 105—143 

ITIIEiS«ii«B ?§ CSLiSfRili. 

Ride across the Lammermoors — The Highland Society's Show at Kelso 
— A Sketch of it in 1833— Kelso Race-com-se — Kelso Ram Fair — 
Scenes in the Sale Yard — Lord Polwarth's Sale — The Border Leices- 
ters — The Yetholm Gipsies — The Earl of Wemyss's Hounds and 
Hunters at Coldstream .... 144—166 



CONTENTS. ni 

The Hawick "Lads" — Messrs. Oliver's Auction Sales — The Hawick Ram 
Sale — Dr. Grant's Otter Hounds — His Dandie Dinmonts — Robin's 
Education — Sandy and Billy — Mornings with the Doctor on the 
Teviot, Ale, and Jed .... 167—201 

GHAFflE ?HL 

umm w loss paul. 

The Links of Linhope Lea — Moss Paul Inn:— The "Wisp Club and its 
Objects — Scott of Priesthaagh — Old Lymecleuch — His Weighing 
Match — His Opinion of an Orator's Attitude — Sheep and Shepherd 
Losses — Mr. Aitchisou on Mountain Hay — Sheep INIanagement — 
Davie Kyle — Yeddie Jackson — Dandie Dinmont . 202 — 213^ 



P^ M k •-> * *';"• '"•< \'y ^ * <i 

"Will "Williamson's Early History — His Opini?)n of a few Old Sportsmen — 
The Buccleuch Hounds — Opening-up the St. Mary's Loch Country — 
The Buccleuch Country — "Will's Best Horses — A "Walk thi-ough the 
Buccleuch Stables — Moultan, "Wyndham, Paymaster, Marottc, and 
Star— The Great Marlfield day— The Moor and his Stable Conii-ades 
—The Brood Mares— Will Shore and the Hounds . 214—232 



IV CONTENTS. 



ffiliFfll II, 



A Peep at Faldonside — The Landseer Gallery at BowLill — Over Minch- 
moor — The Ettrick Shepherd — Sheep in Ettrick Forest — Points of 
Blackfaces — Crossing with Cheviots — Lanarkshire Breeders and Pairs 
— The Clad Score — Curling Enthusiasm — A visit to Dalgig — Scotland 
Yet and Canaradzo .... 233—266 






Ayr — Cow Districts — Rearing, and Points of Ayrshire Cows — Colours — 
Vessel — Beef — Milking — Show Dodges — Ayr Milking Prize — Bowers 
Cheese-making — Dunlop and Cheddar — Mrs, Jane Dunlop — English 
Pm-chasers of Ayrshires . . . 267 — 287 



Eglinton Castle — The Races at Bogside — Scene of the Tom-nament — 
The Foxhounds — Bowls, Rackets, and Curling in the late Lord's time 
— The Ardrossan Coursing Club— Waterloo — A Peep at Picton and. 
Cardinal York— A Visit to Mr. Borron's Kennel . 288—304 



CONTENTS. 



GHAFSll Zll 



Ayr Eace-course — Kilkcrran — The Dairies of Galloway — Captain Ken- 
nedy — Stranraer — Galloway Points — A Day at Meikleculloch — Ride 
to Southwick — Mr. Stewart's Shorthorns — The Dumfries Pork Trade 

305—332 



mMWE HE. 

fmwMJB mwm m mMMimm. 



Tinwald Downs — The New and Old Race Courses — Mr. "Wilkin's Blood 
Stock — Stable Scenes — Jamie Heughan's Discipline — Bob .Johnson's 
Tumble off Saucebox — Drumlanrig Castle — The Duke of Buccleuch's 
Stock at Holstane and Tibbers — Vendace at Lochmaben — The late 
Mr. Andrew Johnstone — Blood Stock at Hallheaths . 333—354 



The Churchyard of Old Drumgre — Lockerby Lamb Fair — Breeding in 
Dumfriesshire — Sale of the Moodlaw Tups at Beattock — Ericstane — 
The Shaw— Eskdale ]Muir— A Day at Moodlaw— Annals of the 
Moodlaw Flock .... 355—368 



VI CONTENTS, 

• lieiLiW T® £HiLET©fl 

From Moodlaw to Langholm — The late Sir Frederick Johnstone — 
Langholm and its Bye-laws — Langholm Lodge and its Bard — Hunting 
— The late Lord John Scott ; his Racing Stud — A Crack with Terrona 
on Cumherland Border Sires — Terrona's Poet — Mr. John Jardine and 
his Greyhounds .... 369—384 

£iii©i3E fi iiiSilEfei. 

"VVoodhouseleea — The late Miss Rachel BeU — Ecclefechan — A Day at 
Knockhill; its Horses and Greyhounds — Hoddom Castle — Hunting 
Recollections of Joe Graham — The Dumfriesshire Kennels — Blood 
Royal in his Barn — Mr. Beattie and his Stake Nets — The Solway 
riow — The Red Kirk Herd — From Holme Eden to Kensington 

383—409 



EiEiEiiies. 



HIS GRACE THE LATE DUKE OF RICHMOND, K.G. • Fl'Untisi.iece 

■WILL NIGHTINGALE . . . , . Vifjnette 

DR. GRANT AND " SANDY" .... P^^e 184 

A SCENE AT KNOCKHILL, 1864 . . . Pctrje 300 



(s) 



FiM nil PEil, 

OR, 

SCOTTISH 
FLOCKS AKD HERDS. 

" An i what a sweep of mountains grand, 
From Goatfell, Arran's Pride, 
To Northern ' Bens' and Eastern * Tops,' 
And your own ' Pad' beside !" 

A. Gkaham. 

]Mr. Harvey's Glasgow Dairy — The Easterhill Pigs — IMerrytou — The 
Duke of Hamilton's Clydesdales and Ayrshires — The Prize Clydesdales 
at the Highland Society — Mr. A. Graham of Capellie ; his Farm, 
Ventilation, and Coursing Career — Scottish Coursing Cracks and 
Grounds — Barrator at Biggar — Waterloo — A Visit to the Renfrew- 
shire Kennel. 

'^ TIRED man will struggle hard to get home." 



Such was the reasouing of Captain Barclay^s 
father, when he began his planting at Ury as far 
from the house as possible ; and some such idea pos- 
sessed us_, when we made a special point of finishing 
our journey North of the Erith of Forth before we 

2b 



2 FIELD AND FERN. 

attempted tlie Lowlands. "We had done, to our 
boundless joy, ■with " the deep-sea sailings" at last ; 
but there was nothing we specially cared for in 
Glasgow, except the monster dairy. It lies among 
a frowning forest of chimneys, and was reached 
through mud and mire, now over a tram-road, now 
across a canal, and finally past a manufactory where 
horses are boiled into glue by the score. 

Mr. Harvey's byres are distinguished by different 
names— '^The Parlour,'^ '^ The . Thistle," "The Hal- 
low-een," ^^The Waterloo/' "The Malakhoff," and 
so on. There were some 1,700 cows and queys in 
all, and about 1,000 of them in milk, and feeding on 
turnip, cut straw, and distilled grains. The bulls, 
which stand with them, are mostly shorthorns, and 
so are 800 of the milch cows ; the rest are Ayrshires, 
with the exception of a few polls and recently a sprink- 
ling of Dutch. They stand in long ranks tail to tail, 
and the scourings fall into the gutters behind them, 
which are duly flushed down. Hence each beast has 
to be very accurately told off, on her arrival, into a 
byre, whose stallage exactly suits her length. In 
some of the byres there is only one line of cows, and 
the calves are in small partitions opposite them. 
About fifty of the queys are kept each j^ear, and go 
as yearlings and two-j^ar-olds to Parks down the 
Clyde, and the rest are dismissed as "slink veal'^ (to 
adopt the term of the trade) to the butcher soon after 
they are calved. Thirteen cows are allotted to each 
milker, seven of whom live on the spot, and the rest 



GLASGOW TO CAPELLIE. 3 

arrive at milking hours from Glasgow. The dairy- 
is under the Thistle emblem, and is furnished entirely 
with wooden vessels. Turke^^s were picking their 
dainty way round the manure tank, and casting 
longing eyes at the offal in the abyss, whose contents 
are discharged through pipes for miles to the thirsty 
meadows, and return to the fountain-head once more 
in the shape of succulent grasses. 

Easterhill, the Carrhead of Scotland, is reached 
from Glasgow through Bridgetown, and lies about 
four miles out on the road to the Clyde Iron Works. 
The owner^s tastes speak for them^selves, as you drive 
up the beech and oak avenue, and see " Nelly"' and 
four other sows routing in the meadow close up to 
the iron railings. This has always been the Carr- 
head system, and it has been the fruitful mother of 
many a litter. They are mostly tenderly waited on 
at Easterhill when they do come ; and we found a 
woman with her fire and her bed in a small room 
adjoining the piggery, and in attendance on two sows 
which had just farrowed. Mr, Findlay began, about 
nine years ago, with Windsors, two sows and a boar, 
and got a Jonathan Brown boar from Cumberland 
to cross the produce. The small breed was very 
successful at local shows, and he consolidated it by 
using Lord Yv'enlock^s breed with its short broad 
face, pointed ear, great jowl, and fine quality, upon 
his Windsors and Windsor-Browns. His large breed 
had their origin in a Harrison boar and sow, and in 
a short time he came second with '' Nelly^' (the dam 

2 B 2 



4 FIELD AND FERN. 

of Sally, alias the Spotted Lady, and some other 
capital sows) and "Bob" of his own breeding, in tlie 
boar and sow classes at Kelso. Nelly has yielded 
up her ham and bacon, and the only addition since 
our visit is a boar of the large sort from Mr. Brown^s 
of Kirkbampton, near Carlisle. Tlie middle breed is 
a simple combination of the two others. Glasgow 
Green in May (where Mr. Findlay won firsts 
in the large and small classes this year) is the 
great local pig show, and there the " Improved 
Easterhill" pigs have done uniformly well. The 
sows are generally ready to pig a fortnight after, so 
as to be in nice trim for the Highland Society. Ten of 
the small and large, and two of the middle breed com- 
pose the Easterhill breeding sow lot ; and many 
young pigs have gone to the West Indies and Ame- 
rica, as well as all over Scotland, at very high prices, 
from the teat. 

Their owner rather enjoys "pig-racing," which, as 
a country squire once said to us, " is quite as good 
fun as shorthorn-racing, at one-fourth the expense.'^ 
The sister sport also profits, as another breeder made 
it his boast "that he had three days a week hunting 
out of two breeding sows.^' The best pig joke w^e 
heard in Scotland was at the expense of a man in 
charge. His beloved sow had won, and some by- 
standers would tell him that he had no right to the 
prize, as she was not so good in her girth as the se- 
cond. Through good report and evil report he was 
bound to support her ; and this he did most effec- 



GLASGOW TO CArELLIE. " 5 

tually, after a fashion : ^^ Girth, indeed'! we donH like 
'em to girth oiver much doon at our place' ^ — an ex- 
pression ^?hicil ran round the yard like wikl-fire- 
Except when the Society was at Newcastle^ Mr. 
Pindlay has never sent any pigs to the English 
iloyal. He there took his stand on the small whites, 
and was second with George 1st to Mr. Mangles^s 
Brutus^ and third to Mr. Wainman^s Silver Branch 
and Mr. Steam's Victoria 2nd, with his Lady Emily. 
The latter and Silver Branch met again at Stirling, 
and the Scottish Bench reversed the Royal decision. 

Mr. Findlay and his brother Major Findlay breed 
Clydesdales at their farm of Kenmuir, two miles 
further on, from which their father sold Briton' to 
the late Piince Consort, some nine years since, at 
250 gs. We found there the three-year-old sire 
which vv'as second to Mr. Stirling's Baronet in a good 
field at Kelso, the third-prize two-year-old filly at 
Stirling, and some local winners, to say nothing of 
Eabula (dam of Lord of Linne), an old Knockhill 
acquaintance, with her Warlock foal. 

Merryton, the home-farm of Hamilton Palace, was 
the next on our list, and was reached by a v/alk of 
two miles from Hamilton. Except when we chanced 
to be toiling along, carpet-bag on back (and intended 
to stand whisky to give it a ride, and follow on *' the 
cow and calf principle'^), we didn't look much at the 
carts, but here we were bound to note that they were 
all green, with red wheels — a fashion which extends 
from Tinto to Greenock, when the red and all 



FIELD AND FERN. 



red begin again. The Clyde ^yinds along to our 
left, and the dome of the family mausoleum, where 
the late Duke sleeps, just peeps above the Palace 
woods. For many years his Grace took no great in- 
terest ill stock; but when the Battersea Meeting 
drew nigh, and many exhibitors grew faint-hearted 
a.bout the distance, he contracted a great wish to 
see the Scottish ranks well filled, and Mr. Drew was 
accordingly directed to get together a strong force 
of Clydesdales and Ayrshires. 

The task was exactly to his mind, and right well 
executed, although he had only three days^ notice 
before the last day of entry. Sir Walter Scott was 
bcfught from Mr. David Riddell of Kilbowie. He had 
won at the Highland Society's Meeting at Dumfries, 
and 400 gs. was the figure. It v/as his Grace's de- 
light at his pony paces and the number of times he 
had him trotted up the Battersea rows after his vic- 
tory, which did much towards bringing about a 
proper Boyal parade at Worcester the next year. 
Maggie, the second-prize brood mare, also came from 
Mr. Park of Balquanharan, near Dalmuir. The 
Ayrshire bull Sir Colin was bought from Mr. E. 
M^Kean, and vras first; and Brockie, the second- 
prize cow in-calf, and Airblaes, the first-prize cow 
in-calf, were selected with some seven other cows and 
heifers, two of which were highly commended, out 
cf Mr. Drew's own Merryton herd. Merryton had 
other collateral honours, as Colly Hill, who beat 
Brockie, and had been sold out of its stalls, and Lord 



GLASGOVv' TO CAPELLIE. 7 

Strathmore's second and third prize cows in-calf had 
also been bred there. The seven Hamilton Ctydes- 
dales made np a great arraj^, and four firsts, t\YO 
seconds, and a third were their spoils. This success 
worked his Grace up, and made him wish for the 
home-farm, and he accordingly bought all Mr. 
Drew^s stock. His interest in them never faltered 
to the close ; and during his last and very brief visit 
to the Palace in the May of ■'63, he hardly missed 
an afternoon among them."^ 

Sir Walter had forgotten none of his beautiful 
hock action ; and Uosy, Jean, Jane, Sally, Maggy, 
and a number of other fine mares, were in the stalls. 
Rosy and Jean had been pitted three times against 
each other vnth the same result ; but still, at the sale 
Jean made 81 gs., or three guineas more, as being more 
durable and with better action, while Eosy had more 
size. There w^ere 150 Ayrshires, young and old, and 
eighty or ninety of them in-calf. Brockie was there, 
as full of quality as ever, and so was Airblaes, who is 
much the bigger cow of the two. She has been first 
at Maryhill since her visit to Battersea, and she re- 
versed her second at Hamilton when she and the 
winning cow met on Glasgow Green. 

Mr. Marshall of Airblaes sold her to Mr. Drew 
originally for £60, and as onQ of her calves has 
made £30, and she has won £38 worth of prizes, 
her purchase-money has come back with interest. 

* An account of tli3 nevr farm buildings ttlII he found in Tke Scottish 
Farmer, April, 186^!. 



8 FIELD AND FERN. 

The byre is 80 by 60 feet, and well pa^^ered with prize- 
tickets. Seven of them are Coilyhiirs, and all of 
those firsts; in fact_, she never was beaten but once, 
and then almost immediately after calving. No 
butter or cheese is made here, but the cream goes to 
Glasgow with sweet and skim milk. The calves, of 
which his Grace rears 30 or 40 and seldom sells bulls, 
are always brought up with sweet milk for two or 
three months ; they then get on to oilcake and grass, 
and gradually to cut hay, steamed turnips, boiled 
barley, and barley-meal twice a day. 

At one time the late Duke used to breed West 
Highlanders at Arran, but Mr. Allan Pollok so 
invariably beat him at the Highland Society that 
he did not persevere. His Grace began again in the 
heat of the Breadalbane sale, and bought four or 
five lots. They went, like the rest of his stock, to 
Kelso, in order that the wish of his life — never to see 
the West Highland, Ayrshire, or Clydesdale ranks 
bare at the Highland Society — might be fulfilled in 
his death, and were sold on the ground to his 
Breadalbane opponent, the late Duke of iVthole. 

We are quite in the county of Clydesdales here, 
but still there is no great stud of them, and some of 
the best have been bred by farmers keeping four or 
five work mares. The Clydesdale is well suited for 
the cold climate, and except for breeding milk ponies, 
the thorough-bred horse is very little used to cross 
them. Judging from the Barrhead Society prize- 
list, there is a distinction even in this class of dairy 



GLASGOW TO CAPELLIE. 9 

labour. The prize drawer of the butter-milk cart is 
to be a " horse not above fifteen hands, *^ and of the 
sweet-milk ditto a ^' pony not above fourteen-two/^ 
Many farmers fancy that Clydesdales are getting too 
lofty, but breeders will keep the high prices of 
the lorry market in their eye. For this business the 
buyers never look at anything under sixteen-two and 
17 cwt., and they must have capital feet, "good 
either for frost or fresh." liarge ears, a fiddle-case 
rather than a Eoman or ''^Cheshire Cheese" head, 
a good eye, broad flat legs, nicely feathered like a set- 
ter's, straight-away equal action, and a good mottled 
bay or brown are all very cardinal points."^ 

The Giasgovf meetings in 1826 and 1828 were the 
first at which the Highland Society ofi'ered Clydes- 
dale prizes, and since then they have gone on steadily. 
With the excention of one vear, tlie entries have of 
course always been best in the Glasgow district, and 
rose there in 1857 to 21^0. There were sixteen rare 
mares at Perth in ^29, when a black oue of Mr. 
Adarn Curror's, and bought from "Sammel Graham," 
won; and the Kingcausie people, who were very con- 
fident with one of their greys, had to take the second 
card. Mr. Fram of Bromfield, on the old road 
from Edinburgh to Ayr, was soon well known 
among Clydesdale men v>'ith his Glancer, who was 
never beaten till he was twelve. The scene of his 



* All the learning on the subject of Clydesdales is collected in the pam- 
phlet published a few years aero by Mr. Charles Stevenson, editor of the 
" North British Agriculturist,"' in reply to tao queries on the subject which 
Avere sent to him from France. 



10 JFIELD AND TERN. 

downfall was at Haddington^ when he met Mr. 
Steedman of BoghalFs Lofty. They were led by two 
brothers, and Glancer^s arrival -was so unexpected 
that when Lofty^s man heard of it, he soared into 
the indignant latitudes, locked up his stable and 
would not show his horse to his brother, and would 
not in fact speak to him for years. At Aberdeen in 
^34 the Clydesdale men had no high opinion of some 
Lincolnshire horses which had been brought into the 
neighbourhood, and thought them soft and greasy- 
legged, and not likely to stand the climate; and in 
the following year, the damp climate of Ayrshire was 
given as the reason why the Ayrshire horses, old and 
young, had bog-spavins and thorough-pins. The 
judges were divided over the first-prize horse, and 
the decision was so much canvassed that when one 
of them who was in the minority gave effect to 
his dissent at the dinner, and quoted one of his col- 
leagues in confirmation, he was received with '^ loud 
and long-continued cheering.^^ 

The greys were in the ascendant at Dumfries in 
'37 ; bat there was a good struggle between the win- 
ning one and Mr. Steedman^s black Champion, for 
which Professor Dick stood out manfully. The grej^ 
mare had The Peacock at her foot, perhaps the 
largest foal ever seen in Scotland, and the sire of a 
very capital stock, many of them greys, in his time. 
Champion beat everything quite easily at Glasgow 
the next year ; and no one was more delighted than 
the Professor, as three or four times he had hobbled 



GLASGOW TO CAPELLIE. 11 

liim^ and then begged him off. His owner was sorely 
anxious to see the judging, but the rules did not 
allow of more than one attendant. Accordingly he 
bluffed his black, and took hold of one side of his 
head, while his groom took the other, and, by met- 
tling him up a bit, persuaded the policemen ti:at he 
had such a savage in charge that they fell back in 
mortal terror. When he was once in his stall the 
bandage Avas still left on, and " BoghalP^ slipped 
down the ranks and ^' got a pig to wait on.^^ With 
such advantages he obtained as extensive and as accu- 
rate an insight into the judges^ proceedings as he did 
into Parisian life and customs, when he crossed the 
Channel in 1856 as charge d'affaires of the Scottish 
stock under Mr. Hall Maxwell. At the right moment 
he signalled the man to take off the bandage, and out 
came the Champion, stepping like a pony, and well 
might the Marquis of Tweeddale say *' He wins in a 
canter/^ 

The Show at Aberdeen in ^40 confirmed the an- 
ticipations of six years before, that there Y»^ould hardly 
be a good horse, and they were well tried on the 
granite. In ^44 the show was again at Glasgow, not 
in the cattle market, but on The Green. This was 
the year of Loudon Tarn, a very Blair Athol among 
Clydesdales, with his beautiful bone and silky hair. 
There was also a very good four-year-old mare, but 
not equal to Mr. Frames mare in ^48. It is well 
known that their coats are washed with butter-milk 
till they look all glazed and painted ; but this mare 



12 FIELD AND FERN. 

had been, it was said, in the fullest enjoyment of two 
cows' milk for two months before. Cumberland fur- 
nished her grey Merry Tom to the Glasgow show of 
^50, and the oldest judges agreed that they had never 
seen a better for his age. Clyde, v/ho was not 
then Mr. Stirling's, won as a three-year-old, and four 
very rare ones headed the old class. But for knuck- 
ling over slightly, a Fife horse would have got it, and 
even the one which was placed third was sold for 
£350; but the amount of the luckpenny — sometimes 
an enormous per-centage — did not transpire. An acci- 
dent in his stable which prevented his shovring so well 
destroyed Clyde's chance against a " gay cocky little 
horse'^ of Sam Clark's of Kilbarchan in '52 at Perth, 
where Merry Tom was cast. He won at Glasgow 
soon after, and a newspaper controversy raged as to the 
Perth ^Svhy and wherefore." The judges were not men 
to flinch when they had given an opinion; but 
neither of them, although they corresponded on the 
point, could remember why he was put aside. One 
of them had " lost sight of him for two years ;" but, 
as "Boghall" happened to sit at dinner the day 
before the show at Bertvick-upon-Tweed, the grey 
went past, and though he only saw him through 
the wire blinds, he put down his knife and fork, 
and exclaimed, without any preface, to the astonish- 
ment of a crowded coffee-room : '' I see Ids fault 
now ; his thighs are too light.'' Clyde was against 
him that year ; but though the bay was rather lame, 
Mr. Gibson would not give him up, as he consi- 



GLASGOV/ TO CAPELLIE. 13 

dered him a far truer type of a ('lydesdale than 
the grey. 

It was grey again at Inverness in ^56^ when 'Mr. 
Wilson showed Comet, and brought him to the 
show, not sheeted and by easy Avalking stages, but at 
a good swinging trot in his dog-cart iovty miles from 
Durne. Since then he has won the gold cup three 
years in succession at Aberdeen, where in ^58 an 
'^oversman^^ was called in to decide betv/een Black Lea' 
and a grey. The bay was quite one of the Loudon 
Tam stamp, and no one could crab him, ex- 
cept to say that '^ his leg^s painied.^' Next year Mr. 
Steedman offered £400 for him, and he finally went 
to Melbourne, it vras said, for another .€100. The 
leaders both of the young and old ranks were re- 
markable at Dumfries in '60. Sir Walter Scott and 
his second exactly foreshadowed their Battersea 
places ; and most of the younger horses left the 
country at about €300. At Battersea the young 
horses were bad, and the mares, of which four out of 
the first five were Mr. Stirling's of Kcir, a remarkable 
lot. It was quite a Hamilton Palace year at Stir- 
ling, as the stud won three firsts, two seconds, and a 
third, against a strong competition ; and the very 
clever first-prize mare in-foal had the first Sir Walter 
Scott of his Grace^s breeding by her side. Still, 
Stirling, where Mr. Kcir^s Peggy was such a bay 
belle, had the best show of Clydesdale mares ever 
seen in Scotland; and "'Boghall,'^ who is quite the 
walking Peerage of the breed, was so smitten that he 



14 FIELD AND FERN. 

bouglit a dozen mares and stallions at all prices from 
<£40 to £200 on the spot, for England and the Con- 
tinent. Among the four or five greatest breeders of 
Clydesdales are Mr. Samuel Clark of Manswrae, 
Kilbarchan, and Mr. Peter Crauford of Dumgoyack, 
Strathblane. The latter had Black Leg, and sold him 
at £500, the greatest price that was ever given for a 
Clydesdale stallion in Scotland. 

From Glasgow we started for Capellie near Barr- 
head, to see Mr. A. Graham. We had a long climb 
after " The Emperor of Coursers" over the Eereneze 
range, and found him at last with Curds and Cream, 
Analough, and General Bragg in the sheets, and the 
smooth Editor and the rough Tassan in the slips. 
Both of them strain back to Gilbettfield, who, 
though rough himself, generally begot them smooth. 
His own brindle was so peculiar, that, according to 
the shade imparted to it by his condition, the judge, 
on deciding for him, shouted "Brindle !" or "Blue /" 
or " Grey /'^ It is now forty years since Mr. A. Gra- 
ham began public coursing, and tv»^enty-seven since 
he became the annual chairman at the Waterloo 
dinner. Earming has made him indifPerent to 
greyhound breeding and training, but not to the 
business of the field. He is still there, as Mr. 
Nightingale was wont to say of him in old days, 
" with his eyes always open to make the most of the 
game, and never wanting at the finish, so that I had 
always some one to ride home Avith." 

We kept beating away over Capellie heights, with 



GLASGOW TO CAPELLIE. 15 

that glorious prospect of the Scottish hills in the dis- 
tance^ and the clear-bottomed surface drains at our 
feet. These are made with a plough constructed for 
the purpose, eighteen feet apart and five to ten inches 
in depth. A man with two horses can drain five 
acres a day ; and the muirland bite has been im- 
proved not a little for the blackfaced ewes, which are 
crossed with Leicesters for early Glasgow lamb. 
Along the middle of the sheep-walk is an excellent 
rifle range of twelve hundred yards ; and the sheep- 
walk itself is a great rural amphitheatre, where the 
West of Scotland sham-fight took place in '64, with 
8,000 volunteers, in the valley, nearly 50,000 
spectators on Capellie top and Killoch height, and 
the '' Field Marshal of the Waterloo" in the double 
character of a Major of a Battalion and Lord of the 
Manor. 

He is at pretty constant drill, both with rifle, 
tongue, and pen. As "A Public Courser," he first 
gave life and nerves to the dry bones of coursing 
literature. " Sic itiir ad asira,'' said a rapturous 
lover of long-tails, when he read the beautiful scenery 
and character setting of his Cup victory in The Life ; 
and in one sense the writer has now glided into '' the 
milky-way," as he follows up sport with practice, as 
^^A Renfrewshire Dairyman.''^ Be it as chairman or 
lecturer, there is always the same eloquent flow and 
dainty choice of language, which might go from 
his lips to the press without altering a Vv^ord, com- 
bined with the power of staying any distance, on any 



16 PIELD AND FERN. 

subject^ at any hour of tlie day or night. As Captain 
Heys saidj in proposing his health as chairman of 
the Barrhead Agricultural Society, " whenever any 
of the good boys of Barrhead attempted to enter the 
ring, he had the happy tact of appealing to the 
feelings of the model little man, v;ho lied before the 
Major could finish his address." 

Much of the Capellie farm is from 600 to 700 
feet above the sea-level, and many shook their 
heads when Mr. A. Graham took to it. The green - 
crop land is dressed, before it is drilled, with hot liiiic 
mixed with kelp-salt, or common salt, which has been 
found to be very efficacious against finger and toe, 
as well as grubs, worms, and, as a matter of course, 
moles. With this view, as well as to give strength 
to the straw, the land sown v/ith cereals is dressed 
with salt at the rate of 4 cwt. per acre ; and he 
informs us that he has every reason to be satisfied with 
the result, both in his corn, root, and grass crops. 

The little farm steading, with its water-wheel 
which is painted mail-coach colour and its ventilation 
processes, has made many an agriculturist observe 
that ^' Mr. Graham is all air and water.^' The stables 
and cow houses are effectually ventilated, and abun- 
dance of water is Laid on for drink, and for cleansing 
within the byres, where a large number of Ayr- 
shires contribute their quota, morning and evening, 
to the voracious Glasgow milk-cans. 

The very hay- slides are so managed as to pre- 
vent the stable being cold or warm just as 



GLASGOW TO CAPELLIE. !7 

the rack is empty or full; and the ventilators are 
remarkably simple. Every three yards along the 
ridge the roof is cut out. and one of them is in-^ 
serted^ rising two feet in the air with openings on the 
two opposite sides, protected from rain and snow by 
boards which overhang at an angle of 45 degrees. 
It is divided in the middle within by a thin board 
which descends six inches lower than the line of the 
ridge, and a horizontal board is fixed three inches 
below like a tray, to spread the descending air, and 
intercept it from falling directly on the cattle. Ac- 
cording to the direction from which it blows, the 
wind enters at one side or the other, strikes the in- 
ternal dividing-board, and descends, thus supplying 
fresh air, and pressing — one might say pumping — the 
used or heated air np the other or sheltered side 
of the dividing-board into the outer air. Mr. A. 
Graham considers it most efiicacious against smells or 
draughts, or, as he puts it in his terse way, "no cough 
heard in the stable, no pleuro-pneumonia seen in the 
byre.^^ The thrashing of cereals, the cutting of hay 
and straw, and the sawing of wood, are all done by 
water power, which is supplied by a long canal acrosti 
a hill-side, fed by the drainage of some hundreds of 
acres. His irrigated meadows yield from three to 
five tons of hay per acre to one cutting ; and when 
not cut a second time, they are pastured without in- 
jury, as the land has been thoroughly drained, and 
is perfectly firm. 

Amid all his improvements and experiments at 

2 c 



18 FIELD AND FERN. 

Capellie^ the love of the leasli will peep out. There 
is an open heart in the centre of the book-case in 
his farm-office, and of course a greyhound, and not a 
ventilator, is embossed on it. He wears greyhound 
(rough or smooth we conclude, as they come) skins in 
the shape of waistcoats; and at Fereneze House, where 
he has latterly resided with his elder brother John, 
the old white horse, on which for well nigh twenty 
years he led the coursing-field, is buried under a 
sycamore. He was by Caleb Quotem, fifteen hands 
sharp, and not a very pleasant one to ride till he was 
seven or eight years old. A statue of the greyhound 
Oscar, from which envious Time has stolen the tail 
(which was turned round, and carried high in life), is 
over the front-door. It is the work of Greenshields, 
the self-taught sculptor, not from measurement, but 
simply from looking at the animal of v/hich it is a 
perfect image. Mr. A. Graham took Oscar over 
himself to that little, quiet cottage by the side of the 
Clyde, and let him play about while " the fine hale 
mason, with a countenance like a book,^^ noted every 
attitude, and then *^'fixed^^ him in stone from the 
self-same rock from which he had hewn the stone for 
his Sir Walter Scott. 

Oscar always went from a loose slip, and used to roll 
his tongue strangely from side to side, while the beaters 
were looking for a hare. " Studying Oscar,^' said a 
great judge, '^^is studying coursing.^^ He placed 
himself right in his harems line, and realized the old 
saying that ^^a cunning. dog will throw you over, but 



GLASGOW TO CAPELLIE. 19 

that it takes some sense to win a great cup/^ Thus 
Mr. Nightingale was wont to say of Ladylike that she 
"had just sense enough not to be cunning; if the 
hare went down hill_, she would follow her just far 
enough,, and not too far, so as to stop herself ; but if 
she did miscalculate, she went like a shot/'' Mr. A. 
Graham^s British Lion had this faculty to a nicety, 
as he would stop in two yards on the side of a hill. 
He and Greenwich Time were both Fereneze cracks, 
but British Lion was the best of them all. He was, 
according to Mr. Nightingale, " a dog who would 
run every day, and with a constitution against the 
world — fine smooth action : even his failings were 
respectable ; and if he was beaten, he ran well and 
worked hard. Still, as a killer there was nothing 
like Cerito for safety and science. Her measure was 
perfection. She would never make a flying kill, but 
draw herself back and be ready for the turns, and 
kill them just on the bend or the broadside. Mocking 
Bird threw herself at her hare farther off than any 
greyhound I ever saw. Biotas was a very straight 
and steady style. Both she and Wicked Eye were 
wonderfully full of pluck; but, like Judge, they 
would throw out a wild turn now and then.^^ 

Mr. A. Graham has several greyhound pictures. 
There hang on his walls (althoagh.the greater part 
of them and the coursing cups are at Limekilns), the 
companions of many a proud and happy day — Gil- 
bertfield and Black-eyed Susan (the sire and the dam 
of Goth and Vandal), and Oh Yes ! Oh Yes ! ! 

2 c 2 



20 FIELD AND FERN. 

O Yes ! ! ! with his brother Cacciatore^ who ran 
up with Empress for the Caledonian Cup. It was a 
very memorable cup, from the fact that the winner 
and Lord Douglases black dog Kent were so ex- 
hausted in one of the ties that they were obliged to 
lie down ; but there were not nearly so many dogs 
as in Camarine^s year, when more than a hundred 
w^ere in it, and it took above a week to run it off. 
Screw was another of Mr. A. Graham^s early cham- 
pions, and he put the screw on with her to some pur- 
pose, as she won the Altcar Purse in England one 
week, the Caledonian Cup in Scotland the next, and 
the Prince Albert Stakes in the South of Ireland, 
the one after that, long before there Y*^as easy trans- 
port by railway. 

Mr. A. Graham began as a young man at Dirleton 
and Danskine, East Lothian, and then extended his 
circuit to the Lanarkshire, Henfrew^hire, and Ayr- 
shire Clubs. Sandy Robinson, so well known in 
every coursing field by his enormous hat, quite a 
covering from the heat by day and the dews by night, 
was his trainer at first ; and when his trainer days 
were over, he followed the meetings witli a violin. As 
a walker Sandy had few peers in his prime, and he 
thought nothing of the 87 miles to Danskine and 
home again with his dogs. After some days' rest, he 
would go to Dirleton, which was nearly the same dis- 
tance. 

The dogs were collected, each from the farmhouse 
where it was reared, and these walks were almost 



GLASGOW TO CAPELLIE. 21 

the only artificial training they got.* Gilbertfield 
or 'Hhe clog with the rough beard/^ was still the one 
to which, in coursing phrase, !Mr. A. Graham always 
"belonged'^; and it was on his great rival Major 
that he wrote the epitaph, at Lord Eglinton^s re- 
quest, ^' Major quo non Mrjor.'' They ran in the 
same thirteen public prizes, and each of them 
won six. Gilbertfield was a very fast turner 
going down-hill, and, as is the manner of rough- 
haired dogs, closed with his hare at the fences. His 
son Stewartfield was a finer dog to look at, and rough 
like himself, and he never had an opponent more 
worthy of him than Mr. Geddes^s " Go," who made 
with Glory, one rough and the other smooth, the 
fastest dog and bitch brace in any Scottish kennel. 
Their owner was as good a courser as he was a shot. 
He always wore a shawl handkerchief, vvhite bird^s- 
eye on a green ground, and walked all day wet-shod 
with a pair of low thin shoes. 

To a Lowlander the spots where great coursing 
cups have been run off are invested with as deep a 



* " Sandy was in the Graham family at Limekilns-House, in Lanarkshii-e 
for the last sixty years of his life, teaching boy afier boy of them to fishj shoot, 
and ciu-1 — a model of uni^ladgred temperance, tea his beverage and a CremonA 
his evening companion. In Scotch reel-playing he handled his bow after the 
manner of his instructor, Neil Gow, so as to enchant the late Duke of Hamil- 
ton, then Marquis of Douglas, who was the best reel-dancer of the North, and 
at whose request it was that the old man's figiu'e and broad-brim were im- 
mortalized in the Caledonian Coursing Picture. A great hiimorLst, full of 
anecdote, and an utterer of no end of shrewd sayings or maxims — such as, 
"Maister Alexander, whatever you lose in the dancing be sui-e to make up in 
the turnm' aboot" — he would have been worth thousands to the Great Un- 
kno^vn as the backbone of a novel. And then the world would have been 
fascinated with descriptions of coursing such as the graphic one of fox- 
hunting by Dr. Chalmers in his sermon on " Cruelty to Animals," wherein he 
defended the sporting spuit of "the assembled cliivalry of half a county." 
— A.G. 



22 FIELD AND FERN. 

significance as Doncaster Moor or Ascot Heath to 
an Englishman. The watch-towers yet stand on 
the hill from which Sir John Maxwell of Pollok 
used to watch the coursing, and enjoy the sport, all 
the more if "half Glasgow" shared it. Once he 
was ready mounted on Ambush, with his gamekeeper, 
slipper, beaters, and his own stud of greyhounds be- 
hind him to receive all comers at 12 ; and wherever 
the fixture was to be, the hares had been carefully 
netted out of the adjoining covers. Neil Cairnie 
was there on his sheltie, enthusiastic about " Susan" f 
James Crum on foot, with his constant friend " The 
Dock," in chronic raptures about Charles James Fox ; 
and so was the indefatigable quaker, who took charge 
of the cards on prize days, and Avas sure to have them 
headed, " He ivlio runs may readJ' Never was there 
such patronage of coursing. But the old baronet is 
dead and gone, and no greyhound now twists and 
twines over those fine old pastures, except when Mr. 
A. Graham and a few others wake the old echoes 
with the So Ho ! and the Halloo ! Then there is 
Ardrossan, with its nice ten to twenty acre en- 
closures. Biggar has a great variety of ground, 
much of it near Abington rough and chancy, and 
some very good, generally sloping sheep pasture 
deep in autumn, and with a Black Hill as great a 
choke jade as the Newmarket rise from the dip in 
the Two Thousand or the Beacon Hill at Ames- 
bury. The old Biggar Club runs there no longer, but 
was merged with the Caledonian Club into the 



GLASGOVr TO CAPELLIE. 23 

Scottish National^ when the C. C. lost the Pettir- 
nane ground near Carstairs junction, which was 
leased from Sir Wyndham Anstruther, and was 
then one of the best coursing places in Scotland^ 
It furnished many a good trial from the mea- 
dows by the side of the Clyde, up-hill to cover, but 
now it is intersected with wire fences, and no longer 
available. Carnwath, the property of Sir Norman 
Lockhart, is a combination of lowland and muirland, 
and well adapted for testing the merits of the long- 
tails. 

The Scottish National Club flourishes under the 
management of its honorary secretary, Mr. Blan- 
shard, and is limited to sixty members. It has the 
j)rivilege of coursing over the extensive Douglas 
estates, &c., of the Earl of Home in Lanarkshire, 
which combine all sorts of ground, including Pepper 
Knowes, always so celebrated for its stout, racing 
hares. The iron fences are so constructed as to be 
hooked up during the coursing, and the tenants vie 
with his lordship in giving the Club a welcome, at 
their three meetings in October, December, and 
March. The last-named is the grand wind-up or 
open champion meeting of England and Scotland^ 
at which old Kebe won the cup this year. 

Carnwath has many spring and autumn me- 
mories of the Duke of Hamilton's Drift and 
Driver, and (although Arran was painted in as the 
background) the Great Caledonian Picture meeting, 
for which Mr. A. Graham acted as honorarv secre- 



24 FIELD AND FERX. 

tary^ was held there. It was open to one hundred 
and twenty-eight dogs named by any member of a 
coursing club in the United Kingdom. They were 
;first classed in eight sixteen-dog stakes^ each of 
■which was named after a celebrated painter. The 
Snyders Stake and the Landseer Stake had each 
two representatives among the last four. In the 
former the struggle was between two black dogs, the 
Marquis of Douglases Drift and Mr. Wardlaw Ram- 
say's Rector, and in the latter, between Mr. Gib- 
son^s Violet and Mr. G. Poliok's Hawthorn ; and 
then the blue Violet, " the small, the pretty, the 
strong," who was bred by Mr. Adam Carror, beat 
Drift in the decider. Nothing was thought of Violet 
at first, and till she had beaten two English dogs 
handsomely, Mr. Nightingale " never noticed her 
much." Mr. Gibson bought the renowned Sam spe- 
cially for her, but she died in pupping. " Muirland 
Meg," the Chief Justice adds, " fell on some grass, 
when she had quite the pace of Drift in the Boat 
Hoime." 

In connexion with Abington, Mr. Nightingale has 
always a good word for Mr. Patterson^s Susan White- 
head, when she won the Puppy Stakes against Bold 
Enterprise ; and it was also the scene of one of the 
finest courses between Barrator and Ladylike, who 
afterwards divided the stake. Still, Barrator's se- 
verest Scottish course was run with one of Toll 
"Wife's pups, at Crawfurd John, close to the village, 
through fold-yards and over wails, through gateways. 



GLASGOVtT TO CAPELLIE. 25 

across the road and up the road, and finally tip the 
hill over some very deep ground. ^^It was just the 
one for him, as he was the cleverest dog in England.^^ 
Omniscience was his forte, and his owner, a veteri- 
nary surgeon at Selby, knew how to foster it. In 
fact, he trained him by taking a second-class ticket, 
and making him follow the train. A more serious- 
looking dog was never whelped, and with head 
enough for a litter. He would play at leap-frog 
with his owner, walk in a field Avith hares on every 
side and not look at one, raid stop at a word if he 
was running a course. He would lie on a dinner- 
table, and ask for nothing, and he would have wor- 
ried a man out of hand if he got the office. In fact, 
'' Barrator at Biggar'^ was quite a character, and be- 
tween the courses, if he was not distressed, he might 
be generally seen with a ring round him going 
through his various performances. He did a very 
clever thing at Lytham, so clever, in fact, that Mr. 
Nightingale always goes to look at the place for his 
sake. He pressed his hare to a gate, jumped over 
her, and went round as if on a pivot, turned her 
back, and killed her in his second jump. It was 
done so instantaneously that the dog seemed to throw 
a back somersault in the air, and he had her before 
the other dog reached the gate. 

The great Eden and Dusty Miller match for 250 
sovs. aside, the best of three, quite agitated the Glas- 
gow Stock Exchange on the day it was run off near 
Eeattock. It arose out of Gilbertfield defeating 



26 FIELD AND FERN, 

Eden for the Eaglesham Gold Cup^[and as Mr. A. 
Graham would not accept the challenge,, Mr. Geddes 
took it up with Dusty Miller ; and Mr. Nightingale, 
who first judged at Lyme in the November of ^32, 
made his Scottish debut in the scarlet that day. 
Eden the black dog was the fastest of the two, and 
led in the first course till they crossed the Great 
Northern Road ; but he was out of form, and Dusty 
Miller did all the work when they reached the hill, 
and won still farther the next time. 

Cambuslang has some very severe ground near 
Gilbertfield on the slope of Dechmount Hill, half 
way between Glasgow and Hamilton. It is famed 
for its big and good hares, but they are hardly equal 
to those at Eaglesham, which in point of antiquity 
is quite the Ashdown of the West. It has a great 
variety of ground and plenty of hill, and the big, 
red-legged hares, whieh have a long way to travel for 
food, played havoc with Waterloo, who was always a 
bad killer. It was here that he won his match with 
Young Carron, who led him over the grass. Then came 
a bit of stiff plough, which was the yellow-and-white^s 
great forte ; and Mr. Geddes, who made the match 
for Young Carron, threw up his hands, and said, 
" It's all over noio /" The conqueror had a terrible 
course here, with the Marquis of Douglases Driver, 
up and down one large field, Mr. Nightingale sitting 
on his horse in the centre. Driver was fairly beaten, 
and too glad to be picked up ; and Waterloo just 
stumbled into the next field, and lay down. It was 



GLASGOW TO CAPELLIE. 27 

in the fourtli ties, and Waterloo was drawn, and lie 
never fairly got over it. The crowd stood just like a 
pillar of stone where the hare wanted to come, and 
no persuasion could get them back. Seeing Water- 
loo do his work right under their noses was a thing 
which the Caledonians, however right-minded gene- 
rally on these matters, could not forego. 

INIalleny ]Moor, sis miles from Edinburgh on the 
Lanark road, was another great Scottish meet. 
Many of the courses were run off on the arable, and 
the hares vv^ere driven for it out of the field at the back 
of the Kirk of Curry. The severe hill behind the 
farm of Kinleath was what the coursers most dreaded, 
and it was accordingly a great thing to be drawn 
low dov/n on the card. If the hare raced across the 
fiat and put her head for the hill, it was death to the 
dogs, as when they did reach the top they were pretty 
certain to divide on a fresh hare in the whins. It 
was here that Neville won a great hundred-dog stake, 
and Leven Water ran up. '^Neville," says Mr. 
Nightingale, " was very smooth and fast, and opened 
the pace from t]ie slips, and, for a big dog, a good 
worker. Bennett^s Rocket was the fastest I ever 
saw ; J udge, who had magnificent forelegs, and 
Neville next, but perhaps Neville was the fastest of 
the two." Jamie Forrest also won a stake of equal 
amount over The Moor, and he too was " a rare dog, 
and the best of his day.^^ 

But a truce to old leash times. We slipped 
down from Fereneze past Paisley, which alone keeps 



28 FIELD AND FERN. 

up the custom of racing for '^The Silver Bells/^ to 
have an afternoon with John Squires at the Lanark- 
shire and Eenfrewshire Kennels_, which are three 
miles from the Houston station on the Greenock rail- 
way. The country is very open and nearly all grass 
and moor, intersected with stone walls about five feet 
high. Bogs are especially plentiful round Duchal, 
but Squires has "kept pretty well out of them so 
far.'^ There are a few good gorses, and five or six 
have been planted, one of them at Fereneze, but the 
covers are generally small and thin for plantations, 
and foxes do not dwell a minute after the hounds 
are in. The cub-hunting is generally done in the 
great Lanarkshire glens about the Duke of Hamil- 
ton's, where rocks and trees and underwood abound. 
A large burn runs at the bottom of each, and it is 
often asmuch as the hounds can doto hear one another, 
besides which they frequently fall over the cliffs and get 
terribly lamed. The foxes lay up their cubs in rocks or 
old coal and limestone mines, and therefore a find is 
often very doubtful, and earth-stopping a very heavy 
item in the accounts. Every meeting involves eight 
or nine stops, and Houston still more. In his first 
season of 1862-63, Squires had seventeen blank days, 
hunting twice a week, but last season there were only 
two days without a challenge. " Weeping skies" are 
the rule ; and he told us, in quite a martyred tone, that 
during his first eight weeks he had only two dry days. 
It is also a hilly, heavy country, and " horses up to 
their hocks and knees the greater part of their time." 



GLASGOW TO CAPELLIE. 2^ 

Colonel Buchanan lias been the master for fifteen 
seasons, and succeeded Mr. Merry, who in his turn 
succeeded Lord Glasgow. There are from fifty to 
sixty in the field generally^ and nearly half of them in 
pink, and some very hard riders amongst them. 
Saturday is the great day on the Caldwell and Loeh- 
winnocli side of the county, as it is within reach of 
the Eglinton Hunt men, and the Glasgow men are 
at leisure. 

The greatest difficulty that a huntsman has to con- 
tend with are the bogs and the roe deer. The hounds 
enjoy the scent so much that they will change from 
fox and go off for a mile or two, and the bogs 
make it very difiicult riding to head them. Old 
hounds are nearly as bad as the one-season hounds 
under this temptation, but they are more easily 
stopped. Left to themselves they would cut up a 
roe deer in about twenty minutes. There were about 
31t^ couple of hounds in kennel, principally drafts 
from the South Oxfordshire, the Pytchley, and the 
Cheshire. About twelve to fifteen couple of puppies 
arc sent out each year, and Squires has now 5^ couple 
in kennel of his own breeding. Governor, Stream er> 
and Dilio'ence amonsr the five-season, Pvtchlev Fear- 
less among the four, and Chaser, Amazon, Welcome, 
and Lictor, the last-named by North Staffordshire 
Comus, are leaders among the three-season hounds, 
while a one-season entry of five by Pytchley Marplot 
from Nightshade have " taken to it like old ones.^' 
The kennels were rather humble-looking; but a new 



30 FIELD AND FERN. 

house has been built for Squires, who concluded a 
fresh engagement, at a considerably increased salary, 
for three seasons, at the end of his first — no slight 
testimony to his talent and popularity with the 
hunt. The hounds come to Houston on May 4th, 
and stop till September 19th ; then they go to Drum- 
pellier, the master^s seat, for five weeks ; then back 
to Houston till the middle of February, and then to 
Lanarkshire, to wind up. " November 1st, — 
The Kennels" opens the ssason either in Mr. 
Spiers^s woods or Barrachan Wood and Gorse, the 
property of Miss Fleming, one of the strictest pre- 
servers in the Hunt. The half-dozen horses are all 
Irish, and a very useful lot they seemed. White- 
nose is Squires^ Tuesday horse ; and a white nose 
poked over a loose-box to greet him, told that 
Return had been confederate with him on many a 
hard-fought Saturday. 



FALKIRK TO EDINBURGH. 31 



" The sheep farmer thought a little, snuiFed, sipped his toddy, and replied : 
' The Duke of Wellington was, na doot, a varra clever man — vaiTa clever, 
T believe. They tell "me he was a good soger; Imt then d'ye see, he had 
2'easonable men to deal with — captains, and majors and generals that could 
understand him every yen o' them— both officers and men ; biit I'm no so 
sm-e, after all, if he could manage, say 20,000 sheep, to say nout of black 
cattle, that could na tmderstand one word he said, Gaelic or EngUsh, and 
l>ring eveiy hoof of them to Fa'kirk Tiyst ! I doot it. But I ha' done that I' " 

The Lanark Tryst — Dealings of leading Salesmen — Scenes on the IMoor 
— The Dealers of Other Days — Fate of the Greenliorns — The Myste- 
rious Visitor — Among the Drovers — Driving and Shoeing Beasts — His- 
tory of the Falkirk Trysts — The other Sheep and Cattle Fairs in 
Scotland — Foreign Supplies — Linlithgowshire — Tom Rintoul — The 
West Lothian Kennels — ^.Ir. VCaldron Hill and his Otter Hounds. 

T\ T was ten o'clock on the second day of the Falkirk 
^ Tryst. Whole lines of trucks were already laden 
with beasts, the shorthorn crosses bound to the 
North, and the West Highlanders South. The road 
to the moor was one struggling mass of Norlands 
and Irish calves, and ankle deep in mud ; and Mr. 
Adderley and Mr. Stirling, as they tucked up their 
trouser-bottoms, and trudged sturdily along, were 
a type of those " Faithful Commons,^' who had once 
to leave their coaches and walk half their time, 
through still more deep and miry ways from Scotland 
to St. Stephen^ s. 

The sheep had come, and more than two-thirds of 



32 FIELD AND TERN. 

tliem liad departed on the Monday; and '^ Yes ! 
theyWe tarring ^em" was the constant response, when 
we asked if certain lots of cattle were sold. The 
sheep sales had been very large, and, in fact, for the 
last five-and-twenty years, many proprietors and far- 
mers, who were wont to sell by character at Inver- 
ness, have been gradually changing their tactics, and 
sending ewes and v/edders direct to the September 
and October Ealkirks. Mr. John jNInrray, who w^as 
in early life a sheep manager for six years on the 
estate of Glengarry, had sold on this occasion forty- 
three lots from twenty-two different farms in his 
wonted strongholds of Inverness -shire, Ross-shire, 
and Sutherlandshire. At times he ^Yill pass some 
24,000 through his hands at these two trysts ; and 
being always employed by farmers and proprietors, 
who are breeders of stock, and do not buy on specu- 
lation, he confines himself here, as at Inverness, 
strictly to selling. From 1843 to 1860 he bought 
very largety at Inverness, principally for the late Mr, 
James Scott, of Hawick, wdio did by far the largest 
business on the ^^ plane stones.^^ He has few cattle 
transactions ; and the chief occasion of his buying 
largely is at Melrose, where he selects Cheviot 
wedder lambs on commissions for his clients in the 
North, who send them back to him at Falkirk after 
three years' keep. The great majority of his Falkirk 
lots are Cheviot ewes and wedders ; about a tenth 
of them are crosses, and a still smaller proportion 
black-faced. No sheep come to the August tryst. 



FALKIRK TO EDINBURGH. 33- 

and he very often sells twice as many at the October 
one as he does at the September. Last October his 
three largest consignments were from "LochiePs" 
farm of Locharkaig in Lochaber, Captain Donald 
Colin Cameron of Talisker, Isle of Skye, and Messrs. 
Elliot and Scott of Drynoch in the same island. No 
less than 3,679 of LochieFs were divided between the 
two trysts, and 2,378 of them were sold in the Oc- 
tober, with 3,437 from Captain Cameron^ and 
1,673 from the Drynoch farm. 

The Swans, father and two sons, are flitting about 
not in white swanks-down, but white linen coats, and 
note -book and pencil in hand. One son makes 
sheep, and the other cattle, his specialty. They 
had nigh ten thousand sheep on sale yester- 
day^, and many thousand pounds' worth of cattle will 
have passed through their note-books before the sun 
goes down. Then we are told that Daniel Kennedy 
has sold the Corrynafarm wedders at 38s., and that 
"Walter Smith has shaken hands with Kerr of Liver- 
pool, w^ho never saw Falkirk more, for 650 black- 
faced wedders at one-and-thirty. Buist had also been 
busy with his auction; and they told of Walter Brydon 
of Burncastle's black-faced tups fetching from £16 
downwards. 

The larger money transfers are generally managed 
by the bankers, who pitch their little " green-back^^ 
tents, and deal in more sterling currency. Liverpool, 
Yorkshire, and Cumberland men are their leading 
customers, an-d if any hitch arises about a cheque or 

2 D 



34; FIELD AND FERN. 

a banker's letter, a messenger slips away from the- 
muir, and telegraphs to head quarters for in- 
formation. A Union Jack generally waves over the 
Union Bank ; the Royal glories in the white and 
blue Prince's Feather ; the National goes in for blue 
and yellow; but the Clydesdale makes no sign. 
Horse dealers also come out strongly with their 
Clydesdales, whose tails they plait with an art which 
Dunstable might envy. Kopes, straw, and tape are 
all in vogue for such adornments, and so are ribbons 
of every hue. A mule is pressed upon us in vain for 
^3 10s., with an assurance that he is "varra corney,'^ 
which he illustrates in one sense by backing into 
corners among tents and potato-kettles, and stead- 
fastly refusing to leave them. There are ponies, too, 
of divers kinds, fat and unshoed, or standing in 
melancholy- eyed Shetland droves, from one of which a 
purchaser took five at haphazard for £17, luck-penny 
unknown. 

A donkey from the Bridge of Allan was always on 
parade, and announced for sale ^' because the season 
is over, ye ken.'"' There was no lack of conjurors. One 
of them said, ^'^ I'll sivellij the sword, if I fa' clown deed 
on the spot ;'^ but as we were quite proof against his 
appeal to us to enter the ring and stand by him for 
the honour of pulling it up when it was swallowed, 
he winked at us pleasantly, worked "the West Riding 
telegraph," as a relief to his feelings, and proceeded to 
business. For a really brisk trade there was nothing 
to equal the merchant who sells his packets for " a 



FALKIRK TO EDINBURGH. 35 

shilling and a bawbee/^ and warrants bis gingerbread 
to "drive a nail in tlie dark/-' In tbe tents^ whisky 
and mashed potatoes were the great circulating 
media ; and with meat and mnstard to aid it, a 
stomach must be cynical indeed which cannot break 
its Falkirk fast. As you sit waiting for your turn, 
you hear hard bargains and harder slaps all round 
you, and see piles of greasy one-pound notes pulled 
out of breast=pockets and paid away by the smaller 
men, to whom a cheque-book is only a dream of 
the future. 

There was a time when no shorthorns were seen on 
the muir, and Aberdeen runts and West Highland- 
ers, and a few Ayrshire stots, formed its sole army of 
occupation, llobert M^Turk was a mighty buyer in 
old days, and was known to strike hands for seventy 
score of West Highland stirks at £S each one 
Michaelmas tryst before he got off his pony. The 
Williamsons and the Thoms were also very compre- 
hensive in their dealings, and so was old M'^Combie, 
whose family mark below the near hock was known 
at Falkirk for sixty long years. It was only for the 
runts, as the West Highlanders were burnt with 
gustrils in the horns. Big Paterson was a mighty 
sheep seller from Caithness, and would sometimes 
bring nine thousand Cheviots. It ^ was the boast of 
Cameron of Corrychoillie that he was the greatest 
stock owner in the world except Prince Esterhazy. 
He won the prize for buck goats when the Highland 
Society met at Inverness in ^31, and he was not 

2 D 2 



^6 FIELD AND FERN. 

averse to liair on his own face. None knew better 
than himself and his retainers how to punish all can- 
didates for the high ground at Falkirk. He had 
most wonderful ponies, and would ride six or seven 
times a year from Skye, a journey which he did not 
shorten by his circuits to save the turnpike — '^ not 
for pence, but for principle.^^ " EoghalF^ ouce 
bought a Highland grey pony, not highly fed, from 
him for thirty shillings; and passed everything on 
the road with it when he drove a friend from Edin- 
burgh to the Berwick show. 

'' A sharpish bit of work" on the part of another 
old dealer was long remembered on the moor. 
He could not get rid of sixty beasts the first 
day; and the next morning found him hard at it 
with Kobert Nichol of Fife, who offered him £8 
12s. 6cl., and was then within half-a-crown of 
him. At this juncture, a little red-faced man on 
a white pony rode up, and asked the price. " Tze 
come doon to thirteen guineas,'' was the reply. " What 
will you give ?" " Eleven/' said the man, thinking 
he had done a very clever thing; but the re- 
joinder of ^^ They're yours, sir!" and the hard clap 
of the hand came so quick that he began to smell a 
rat. The case was referred to a leading dealer, who 
thus delivered judgment : " They're good groivers — 
you'll soon mak them worth it — you just need to tak 
them." And so he did, as the seller was not the man to 
pass him. Another of this helpless stamp once came 
for draft ewes, and fell in with a dealer who furnished 



FALKIRK TO EDINBURGH. 37 

him with double-milled ones at 27s. a head. Some 
one overheard them winding up the bargain in a tent, 
and the colloquy was on this wise : ^^ Come aiva, man, 
Fse had bad ivark to keep them nice fowre year old 
yows for ye] there was so mony customers, they wad 
hae them on mej" Thus encouraged, the buyer con- 
sented, and paid. The seller then rose to the occa- 
sion. There'' s a sovereign for you/' he said, '^ because 
yoiCre a gentleman ; and there's another sovereign for 
you because Fse a gentleman'' And so they parted, 
the one to have his laugh out, and the other to hear 
from his neighbours that lieM ^^ better tak a sheep 
dentist to t']Muir next year." 

There were some wonderful night scenes at the 
grieve of Carron's, and for many a long year the 
dealers sat round the fire, and talked of their myste- 
rious visitor. He wore top-boots, a long blue coat, 
and buckskins, and was as clean as a new pin. The 
Man in the Iron Mask could not have created more 
speculation. He appeared about nine o^clock, and 
said that he had been looking at the cattle in the 
fields, that he was an ex-major in the army, and that 
he wouldn't stir a peg that night. All further at- 
tempts to '^ draw'^ him he parried, by simply saying : 
" My nephev.) has more money than brains. I've corns 
to buy a few things for him." Eefore lying down for 
the night, he became a trifle more talkative. "I've 
never had a sick head or a sore breast ; Pm eighty-two, 
and when I go, I go at once." He repeated the ^^at 
once'' so impressively, that they thought he was a 



38 FIELD AND FERN. 

Warlock or deranged, and were glad to see him un- 
dress and lie down in the mifldle of the floor to 
sleep, with a blanket above him, and his waistcoat 
folded under his head. At breakfast he was quite 
lively upon hunting and racing topics, and then he 
bought twenty score of the best middle horned beasts 
with good judgment on the Moor. He did not want 
to be asked for his money, but off" came his coat and 
waistcoat, and out came his pen -knife, and in a very 
short space he had ripped Bank of England notes to 
the amount of .€4,400 out of his waistcoat-lining. 
He did not breathe his name, and he was only seen 
once more, at the next tryst, when he bought 120 
more at rather a higher figure. 

No men lead a more anxious life than the dealers. 
If it is a dewy morning, and the cattle cannot eat and 
come round and fresh on to the Moor, it is a certain 
loss of ten shillings per head. Sometimes a whole 
lot will get hoven with clover, and whisky or tur- 
pentine and water have to be used, and perhaps they 
have to be " stabbed" at last. Drawing and lotting 
before the tryst is also a job of especial nicety, and 
the great knack is to make the first lot the biggest 
if you can. If an experienced grazier had 100 beasts 
to sell, he would put 60 of the best and only 40 of the 
worst together. There are no drovers to be compared, 
for natural talent, to the Irish, either for drawing or 
making cattle go sweetly along a road. A good 
steady man goes with two or three in front, to stop 
the pace ; but the second man has the most respon- 



FALKIRK TO EDINBURGH. 39 

-sible post, and it depends more upon liim whether or 
not the drove " goes weaving away as canny as pos- 
sible/^ The drover's cry always tells an old crafts- 
man down wind if anything is wrong, without ever 
seeing the cattle. If they are going ^^ sweetly/^ they 
should be two or three deep, the same thickness all 
along, and streaming away like a flock of wild geese. 
If once they take a panic and run off, they might go 
for miles, and never settle, and even the clatter of 
a little burn might do it. 

Some very good drovers come from the Western 
Islands, and none were better known to fame at Fal- 
kirk than " Willy liun-her-outj^ but only three or 
four of the true old sort are left. Willy got the name 
from running down a quey at Aikey Fair of Old Deer ; 
but he was so weary after his performance, that a light 
which was applied for a bet to the sole of his feet 
quite failed to awaken him. The droves generally 
travel about twelve miles a day, with a break of two 
or three hours about noon. Once the drovers only 
got 2s. or Is. 6d. a day, and no watching-money, but 
the better ones earn 3s., and Is. for watching at night 
till September, and Is. 6d. when the nights are 
longer. 

Many used to buy meal, and carry it on their backs ; 
and an unpopular one, who was called " Talavera, '' 
from his constant allusions to that passage of his 
soldier life, had his supply very freely salted by his 
comrades. Being of a penurious disposition, he would 
■mot throw it away, and went through three remark- 



40 riELD AND FERN. 

able weeks of excruciating thirst and unlimited suc- 
tion at every roadside spring. 

The bullocks were generally shod on the inside of 
the fore-hoofs, but very rarely behind. Holding the 
leg was a science of itself; and only one man, a 
blacksmith at the Bow of Fife, ever made nails that 
suited them. No other man^s seemed to " drive/^ 
and large dealers kept supplies ot them at points, 
and sent a bag with each drove. When the roads 
broke up after frost, it was terrible work for cattle, 
but shoes well put on might last for six months, 
though not as a rule. One " Rob,^' who was killed 
last year by the train, was a wonderful slioer, and 
once shod seventy cattle for Mr. M'Combie in a 
forenoon. He knew well, too, what people meant 
when they asked him if he had got any silk handker- 
chiefs or Hallow five-pound notes to spare, and when, 
he dressed last like a minister. 

Such were a few of the leading characters at Fal- 
kirk, whose season begins with the August tryst. It 
is principally for West Highlanders, of which from 
five to seven thousand are shown. Most of them are 
bought to go South into the Midland Counties, or 
to gentlemen^s parks round London ; but a few go 
to Cumberland, Northumberland, and Cheshire. 
Cross-bred cattle are sent from the neighbourhood ; 
as well as Irish two years old and stirks which come 
over in the spring, and are sold off grass to put on tur- 
nips in Fife and East Lothian, The September tryst 
brings with it the first drafts of hill sheep from the 



FALKIRK TO EDINBURGH. 41 

North of Scotland, and blackfaces and Cheviots 
are pretty equally divided. Many of them have 
been bought on speculation at the Inverness Charac- 
ter market, and forty thousand will sometimes be 
pitched. It is principally a wedder market, as the 
draft ewes do not come out in force before October. 
The best Cheviot wedders go into Cumberland, and 
the black-faced to Ayrshire, Wigtownshire, Edin- 
burgh, and the West Lothian. The highest price that 
the Messrs. Swan ever got for Cheviot wedders was- 
42s. 6d. for 758, bred by Mr. John Hall, of Sei- 
ber^s Cross, and sold for Mr. Wallbank, who had 
purchased them at Inverness. Within seven or eight 
years they have risen 10s. a-piece, but they range 
from 34s. to 40s., and blackfaced wedders which 
have touched 33s., from 31s. to 27s. A lot of cast 
Cheviot ewes from Mr. Mitchell's of Kibigill in 
Sutherlandshire went as high recently as 31s. 6d. 

The Kelso September fair has been very lecently 
established. It is made up principally of shorthorns 
from Yorkshire and Cumberland, which are bought 
to fatten in the district. The cast ewes are mostly 
three-parts or half-bred, and are bought for York- 
shire and the East Lothian, the half-breds at from 
35s. to 40s., and the three -parts at half-a-crown or 
3s. more. East Linton, which is the centre of a 
capital locality, comes between the two autumn Fal- 
kirks on the first Thursday in October ; and although 
it has only been established for six or seven years, it 
averages higher per head than any lean market in 



42 FIELD AND FERN. 

Scotland. Nearly all the cattle are Englisli-bred, 
and the two and three year old shorthorns are gene- 
rally of the best class, and readily picked up by the 
Pife and East Lothian farmers. The latter are very 
fond of '' the Hempton beasts," which are sold at 
Carlisle at the '' Three Hemptons'^ after the grass. 

About fifteen to eighteen hundred head of cattle 
generally come to Falkirk October, and are bought 
up as straw treaders. At the September tryst seve- 
ral cattle are bought for early beef, and put into 
reeds or covertings, and get cut grass. Scarcely any 
Angus beasts come, and the best of the Galloways 
all go to Norwich fair. The great majority are West 
Highlanders from the Northern and Western coun- 
ties and Skye, and, since so much land has been gra- 
dually given up to deer forests, they have risen very 
much in price. Three year old bullocks of the breed 
have fetched j£14 10s., but they vary from £14 to 
<£9, and tivo-year-olds from £10 to £6 10s., while 
queys may be generally quoted from 30s. to £1 less ; 
and stirks of both sexes from .€5 to J3 10s. These 
figures apply to all the other markets where High- 
land cattle are sold, snch as Dumbarton, Doune, &c. 
The shorthorn crosses have a sharp tussle to hold 
their own with the Irish, which are quite as well 
bred, and come principally from Meath and Ferma- 
nagh by ship and steam to Glasgow. They have 
improved immensely of late years ; and a half-bred 
poll, which was purchased in ^63 by Mr. Crawfurd of 
Perth in a lot of twenty-two at .€10 17s. 6d., came 



FALKIRK TO EDINBURGH. 43 

out SO completely from the rest_, that, after being sent 
along on cake and corn, it was sold for 76s. per cwt., 
and left ^844 for eighteen months' keep. No sales 
were more spoken of last year than this bullock^s, 
and the dozen three-year-old shorthorn crosses of Mr. 
Harris's, which were lifted at =£48 all round in Forres 
Christmas market. 

Calves also come to Falkirk in large lots from 
Craven and the dairy districts of Yorkshire and Lan- 
cashire, and are purchased by feeders and graziers 
north of the Forth, and principally from Forfar- 
shire and Fife. Their horns are generally taken out 
by the buyers, that they may take up less room, and 
not be troublesome in the yards, and some of the 
Dutch purchases have theirs extracted at a still riper 
age. For cross-bred shorthorns, threes, twos, stirks, 
and calves, £18 to J13, £15 to £11, £12 to £7, and 
£6 to £4 are the general prices ; and the Irish-bred 
ones range about £1 lower. Cast ewes come out in im- 
mense strength at this October tryst, and as many as 
80,000 ewes and wedders, fxve-eighths of them Che- 
viots, will change hands, while blackfaced '^ High- 
land or HilF' wedders will muster 800 to 1,000 in 
a lot. 

The principal buyers at Falkirk are the Cumber- 
land, Dumfries, and Wigtownshire men, many of 
whom take large lots varying from 3,000 to 4,000, 
and divide them with their brother farmers. In this way 
some of the Cumberland ..men will have as their por- 
tion 400 to 500 Cheviot wedders, and half as many 



44 FIELD AND FERN. 

cast ewes. Young and Butterfield of Penritli bring 
arge lots of cattle to the Falkirks, Dalkeith, Linton, 
Hallow Fair, and Big Wednesday markets. They 
are also extensive buyers at the Falkirks of sheep, 
which they either turnip on their own account, 
or sell to the Cumberland farmers when the price 
rises. They deal very largely in fat stock, attend- 
ing the Manchester market -weekly, and have very 
considerable transactions as store cattle dealers. 
Bowstead and Nelson, on the contrary, are entirely 
sheep men, and take turnips. The}^ are to be found 
principally at Inverness, and the second and third 
Ealkirks. Nelson, perhaps, does more at Inverness, 
and Bowstead at Falkirk ; and the former has gene- 
rally a show at the BulFs Head, Plumpton, near Pen- 
rith, where the Cumberland and Westmorland farmers 
draw up and meet the lots. Maxwell of Carlisle attends 
the Falkirks and Inverness, and turnips about 2,500 
wedders, chiefly Cheviots, round Carlisle and up the 
Yale of the Eden; and Richard Pattinson, another of 
the Cumberland '^ grey-coats,-"' goes to Falkirk with 
a large commission from his brother farmers for Che- 
viot wedders, and divides them at home. 

John Martindale, of Manchester, unites the grazier 
and butcher business, buying up the best cast Cheviot 
and blackfaced ewes at the September and October 
Falkirks, and taking a lamb off them at his farms near 
Manchester. John Gibbons has been well known 
for these thirty years at Inverness, where he takes 
many of the best lots, principally wedders, for his 



FALKIRK TO EDINBURGH. 45 

customers in Cumberland and Dumffies-sMre ; and 
Yorkshire has no greater buyer tha.n Jonas Walbank 
of Keighley. In fat stock, sheep, and store cattle, 
he does a great trade from February to June, and 
sends them all over England. After the Falkirk 
trysts, he takes very large supplies of cast Cheviot ewes 
to the York market, and Berwickshire and Roxburgh- 
shire have also a strong levy made on them for half- 
bred ewes, which he brings down to Yorkshire and 
the Midlands. Joseph Ruddock of Berwick not only 
buys up stores about Durham for Falkirk, and fat 
cattle in Roxburghshire and Berwickshire, but does 
a very large sheep-carcase trade with London. 
The Swans do nothing on their own account, but 
simply as salesmen, and guarantee the money for 
their commission. They have sold in one year as 
many as 65,000 Scotch and English sheep, as well 
as 12,000 Foreign ones. To this we may add 
about 20,000 cattle, of which a fourth are foreign 
and Iiish. At one October Falkirk they passed 
through their hands 10,000 sheep, and 1,400 cattle. 

Despite these large supplies, farmers have of late 
years found it so much more profitable to make their 
corn-sacks walk to market in the shape of beef and 
mutton, that they have often hardly known where to 
look for store beasts. Time has, indeed, verified 
what Mr. Aitchison of Linhope said in one of 
those glowing periods which used to '' bring down 
the house,^^ when he returned thanks for "The Tenant 
Farmers'^ at the Highland Society^s banquet—- 



46 FIELD AND FEIIN. 

'^ Steam is your Highland drover" And so it was, 
in verity, a few months since, when a dealer, finding 
himself left short for Ellon, set off from Aberdeen on 
a Wednesday, and returned with a large lot of Here- 
fords from England on the Saturday. 

A Denmark beast trade is being opened up with 
the direct steam navigation from Copenhagen to 
Leith, and fully 5,000 " Dutchmen ^^ are passed 
through the hands of the Swans between May and 
October, and sold to the Forfarshire, Fife, and Lo- 
thian farmers at £5 to .€8. They are small blacks 
and whites, and very like the Ayrshires in size and 
marks. The Holstein cattle, on the contrary, which 
are poured in from Hamburg and Oldenburg are 
not unlike the Fife breed, and of all colours, black, 
spotted, and red and white. ]Mr. Smith, of Ley 
Shade, near Dundee, imports about 500 or 600 of 
them annually, and puts them into the farmers, and 
then buys them back at a profit of from 25s. to 30s. 
a month for a few months^ keep. The smaller 
butchers hwj them up very readily, but the leading 
men do not take kindly to anything but British-fed 
beef and mutton. Still when the beasts have been 
judiciously selected off ship-board, and fed for a time 
in the country, they come out well, and command a 
ready sale, as they carry both flesh and fat, and are 
generally good killers. Between the middle of 
March and the first of November, Hamburg ships 
fully two thousand of these cattle, and fifteen 
thousand sheep to Leith. Some of the cattle are 



FALKIRK TO EDINBURGH. 47 

^^as old as a roan/^ and with strong marks of 
the collar ; and many of the Merinoes are most vener- 
able wool producers. They are generally four and 
five years old wedders, and suit the second-class 
Glasgow butchers_, at all figures from 22s. to 30s., 
while the Holsteiners will fetch from £18 to £23. 
These sheep are the incarnation of ugliness, with 
long tails and Avhite noses, and most of them with a 
strong dash of Merino blood. When they do not 
come over clipped, as a large proportion do, their 
skins make 7s. Plenty kill at only 71bs. to 81bs. per 
quarter, but the better class scale twice as much. 

The Dalkeith fair is on the Tuesday after the last 
Ealkirk tryst. No Highland cattle attend it, and from 
5,000 to 7,000 shorthorn crosses, Irish, and Gallo- 
ways, several of which have been grazed in the dis- 
trict, are the staple of its supplies. Mr. Dudgeon, of 
Almond Hill, gave £600 for a prime lot of thirty 
Galloways, but the general run of prices for the three 
kinds is for threes, from £17 to £13, for twos from 
£13 to £10, and for stirks from £8 to £6 ; and these 
quotations apply to all markets at that time of the 
year. Cumberland (more especially its Penrith dis- 
trict) and the country round Yarm send shorthorns, 
with a good sprinkling of calves; and the supply is 
strengthened by home-grazed beasts, some of which 
are bought here or at Hallow fair the previous year, 
and are now replaced. 

The first Doune market, which begins on the first 
Tuesday in November, is principally devoted to 



4S FIELD AND FERN. 

blackfaced ewes, two years old wedders, and double- 
milled ewes. Some of the blackfaces from Argyle- 
shire and Perthshire are very good indeed ; cast ewes 
have made as high as twenty-two shillings, and the 
two-year-old wedders are picked np principally for 
the coarser hill land in Cumberland and Yorkshire. 
The blackfaced ewes go to Derbyshire and Lanark- 
shire, and many of them to West Lothian, to 
be crossed Avith a Leicester. The cattle come on 
the Wednesday ; and what with sm^all West Iligh- 
landers and country-cross breds, there will some 
years be little short of twenty thousand. They are 
mostly yearlings and two-year-olds, and are spread 
all over Scotland (move especially Dumfriesshire), 
Yorkshire, and the Midlands. The second fair, or 
" Snowy Doune,^^ comes off on the last Wednesday 
of November, and is simply for cattle culls and sheep 
shots, which go to Perthshire and the North. 

Sheep are very seldom shown at Hallow Fair, ex- 
cept w hen business has been slack at the first Doune, 
but the show of cattle will sometimes range from 14,000 
to 12,000, nearly all shorthorns. Once upon a time, 
the Angus men used to sell here; but now they, as 
w^ell as other farmers south of Aberdeen, are fain to 
come and make up their Avinter lots from the two- 
year-olds and stirks, for which this fair rather enjoys 
a specialty. The trade at the Big Wednesday is very 
much governed by the Hallow. This fair was for- 
merly held at Gorgie farm, near Edinburgh, but last 
year it was on the Fat Cattle Stance. It is not 



FALKIRK TO EDINBURGH. 49 

attended by more than a sixth of the cattle which, 
come to Hallow (and these are rather of the cull 
order), and scarcely any sheep whatever. By this 
time the farmers' yards are full, and only a few stores 
are required for the poorer land in the higher districts. 

The blackfaced wedder mutton is specially sought 
after for the higher Edinburgh tables ; and the speci- 
mens which come up for the Christmas market are so 
good that a Kincardineshire pen of five, which won 
Messrs. Swan's Sheep Cup in 1863, sold for £6 10s. 
each, and one of them made 34i lbs. per quarter clean 
w^eight. The Glasgow market is of course much larger 
than the Edinburgh, and is very freely supplied by 
the Fife feeders from March to June ; while the in- 
ferior mutton of the Hamburgh sheep meets with a 
ready sale. 

The regular Scottish sheep markets of the year 
may be said to begin with the House of Muir, near 
Penicuick, on the first and second Monday of April. 
Rough half-bred and three-parts-bred, Cheviot, and 
cross-bred hoggs are brought out, with Cheviot and 
blackfaced ewes in-lamb. Those with the Leices- 
ter blood go mostly to the Lothians and Fife for 
fattening off grass, and the Cheviot hoggs to the 
higher districts for turnips ; the Cheviot ewes are 
principally bought for the Lothians^ and the black- 
faced for Lanarkshire and the West. The St. Bos- 
w^ell's lamb fair begins about July 18th, and at 
times 10,000 to 25,000^ feeders and breeders in 

* Vf e find the greatest difference of opinion as to the niimber. 

2 E 



50 PIELD AND FERN. 

the shape of half and three -parts bred lambs are- 
gathered there from all the Lowland districts. Fifty 
years ago only rough Cheviot hoggs and black-faced 
three-year-old wedders and wedder lambs came; 
but time has wrought wonders in this respect. The 
ewe and wedder lambs are generally sold mixed at 
from 21s. to .29s.; but one lot of six or seven 
score^ three-parts bred, was quoted last year at 
35s. 6d. 

The clipped ewe and wedder hoggs are all similarly 
bred, but they seldom muster above two thousand. 
Northumberland, Eifeshire^ and Berwickshire men 
are all great buyers both here and at Melrose, which 
is nearly a month later, and brings out Cheviot as 
well as half-bred lambs. Many of the latter have 
trenched on the high lands once used for Cheviots, 
and it is these higher lands which furnish the chief 
Melrose supplies. Once it was only a mart for 
the shots of the St. BoswelFs lambs, and there were 
not more than two or three thousand of them. Now 
70,000 to 80,000 Cheviot, half-bred, and three-parts 
bred may sometimes be found there, besides Leicester 
shots, whose tops, as well as those of the three-parts 
bred, have been sold at St. BoswelFs. Both it and 
Melrose are early markets, and the lambs are on the 
ground by sis o^clock. St. BoswelFs is more of a 
mixed fair, and a great place for settling guano and 
other accounts. The lambs have generally left the 
ground by ten o^ clock, and a horse, cattle, and wool 
fair fills up the day till four o'clock. Of Lockerby,, 



TALKIRK TO EDINBURGH. 5i 

Lanark, Callow, as well as some minor fairs, we liave 
spoken in their places. 

And so we leave Jb'alkirk, and all the fair lore of 
which it is the natural text, and taking onr mare 
once more from her snug Keir quarters, we passed on 
through Linlithgowshire tovrards Edinburgh. This 
county is not an especially interesting one, and, 
with the exception of the high farms, is mostly under 
tillage. Bare fallovrs are quite given up, and 
what turnip land there is generally grows yellow 
globes, and the Fosterton hybrid or big yellows along 
with swedes for spring. As a county it is rich in 
old grass parks, and none of them richer than liope- 
toun and Dalmeny. The farmers go for feeding 
rather than breeding, except in the West, about 
Bathgate and Linlithgow, where they princi- 
pally keep Ayrshires, and do a little in the cheese, 
and very largely in the butter and milk line for 
Edinburgh. Falkirk is their great cattle mart, and 
if they have a leaning it is rather for Irish, and occa- 
sionally Galloway stores, which are bought as two- 
year-olds, and kept for six or twelve months in 
yards. 

Mr. Melvin of Bonnington is the top Leicester 
breeder, and his tups are generally sold to cross with 
Cheviots and a few Southdown ewes for the fat-lamb 
market. Mr. Hill of Carlowie has 100 Leicester ewes, 
and sold two score of his tup hoggs for good prices in 
March ; while Mr. Melvin parts with his at the Edin- 
burgh sales. Mr. Peter M'Lagan of Pumpherstown 

2 E 2 



DZ FIELD AND TERN. 

lias done well with his Dorset ewes ; but Mr. Dud- 
geon of Almond Hill (who was the first to introduce 
furrow draining into Sutherland and Caithness-shire, 
where he held large farms in succession) did not suc- 
ceed w^ith his merinoes, as the ewes were too delicate, 
and although he sold some 401b. lambs at a shilling 
per pound live weight, he did not care to renew the 
experiment. 

The system of blackfaced Ochil ewe drafts on the 
higher ground is ra,ther going out, and instead of 
"breeding the greyfaced mules, the farmers are nearly 
all turning to half-bred ewes and Cheviots. They 
sometimes keep the lambs for sixteen or eighteen 
months, but they are generally sold off before clip- 
ping. Mr. Dudgeon of Dalmeny, near Kirkhston, 
got 56s. last year for 100 highly-corned and caked 
ewe and wedder hoggs ; but this was in the golden- 
fleece era, and in ordinary seasons 46s. to 48s. was 
not to be despised. Those farmers who do not 
breed, buy half-bred lambs, generally tops, at Mel- 
rose and Lockerby, and sell them off fat about home 
<j>ut of the fleece in June. They will buy these 
lambs at 28s., and pay 38s. for Cheviot wedders the 
next month, and with eight months^ high feeding 
they can bring the one up as high as 52s. to 56s., 
and the others to 56s. or £3, and hence the balance is 
against the wedders, which some also consider to re- 
quire more food. With such a heavy opposition 
from young mutton, it seems more than probable 
that the Cheviot wedders will have shortly to sink a 



FALKIRK TO EDINBURGH. 53 

year, as five to six shillings for a fleece on a liili farm 
will not pay the year's rent and risk. Very few 
hunters are kept, and hardly any farmer has bred 
more than a couple of foals a-year since the horse 
prices became low. 

Tom Rintoul bade us welcome when we reached 
the hostel at Linlithgow. His career began in the 
racing stable along with Tom Dawson, under Daw- 
son, senior, about the time when John Osborne was 
hunting groom to Mr. Taylor of Kirton. Tom was 
never " put up,^' and therefore his life was not like 
that of the well-known Scottish rider about that 
time, whose difficulties in wasting were so great that 
he travelled from Ayr to Carlisle, leading a mare, on 
four half-penny biscuits and two-pennyworth of 
Epsom salts. His career with hounds began in 
1817, and he came to Linlithgow in 1826 as first 
whip to Kit Scott. Mr. Ramsay was true to his 
family tastes, and kept stag-hounds at nineteen, a? 
his father had done at Golf Hall. The latter had 
also hunted the Linlithgowshire and Stirlingshire 
country along with Lord Elphinstone and Colonel 
Murray of Polmaise ; and he was wont to ride from. 
Barnton to Hamilton, hunt all day, and back again 
at night, by changing hacks at Cumbernaud. His 
son^s country extended at one time pver Lanarkshire, 
Carnwath, Linlithgowshire, Stirlingshire, and the 
West of Fife and Forfarshire as well. Once they 
had eleven Aveeks in Forfarshire, and killed twenty- 
one brace, hunting four days a week, and accounted 



54 FIELD AND FEF^N. 

for nine brace more to ground. From one end of 
tlie country to tlie other ",vas fully eighty miles^ and 
it is a precious memory with Tom that one ■\veek 
they ^' hunted it down^^ and killed four brace. The 
hounds were generally of Beaufort and Lonsda^le 
blood- Bracer by Bedford^ by Beaufort Brusher 
from a Isiichol bitch, was quite one of the best ; and 
Chalon, who once lived nearly a year at Barnton, 
made him one of his chief hound studies. Lonsdale 
blood was Mr. Ramsay's delight,, and he bought \7h 
couple of them at the Cottesmore sale. He had six- 
teen horses for his men, and as many for himself, and 
yet some seasons he was not out five times. 

His heart was in the Defiance and the Tallyho ; 
but when he did get a lead over a strong country, he 
was very bad to beat. '^ Sim" Templeman Avould be 
down occasionally after the Caledonian meeting, and 
rode some of his hunters for him ; and so did Harry 
Edwards in '37, a few months after he had won two 
Liverpool Cups in one week on Inheritor in his very 
finest style. Will Noble would also help to whip in, 
and William FAnson bore a hand when he had 
brought the race-horses from Gullane to Barnton for 
the winter. Tom Cleghorn's old horse Davie was a 
permanent resident at Barnton. The grooms might 
well say that he had seen a vast of sport, as he began 
when he was about three, and died at 35, quite white 
on his head, but still "able to enjoy himself with 
hounds.'' Tom rode in shoes and black stockings 
and a mealy-brown suit, and whatever his hat might 



FALKIRK TO EDINBURGH. 55 

have been in the morning it was invariably " a cocket 
one^'' at the finish. If there had been a very good 
run^ he would stop at Winchborongh with David 
Brown for two days to discuss it. When the two 
days were out, his attendants came with a cart and 
blankets, and took him peacefully to his farm, with 
his hunter tied behind the cart. Dr. Liston was a 
capital sportsman, both on this and the Buccleuch 
side of the country, and '' knew Tom fine.^^ Tinker 
was his best horse, but he turned a roarer, and the 
operation on his windpipe availed him nothing. Eor 
nine seasons the Rocket horse was Tom RintouFs 
crack, and he rode him three times in one day over 
the Lead Hills near Tinto, and killed three foxes. 
He had one of his finest runs from West Craigs, be- 
yond Bathgate, eighteen miles straight, and killed 
in a wash-house near Denney. Craigie Hill and 
Barr Hill were once grand places to work up the 
young* uns; but never a whimper is heard among 
their gorse and whins now. Lee Castle had also 
strong covers in those days ; but now, as Stracey 
says, " you might as loell run through this room ; you 
can see every rahbit in it.'' Once on a time, Tom 
gave fourteen couple of the entry such a lesson in it 
for twelve hours that they required no more teaching. 
There had been some disagreement between the 
keepers and one of them as a safety-valve for his 
wrath, opened the earths as fast as the other stopped 
them, and upwards of seven brace of foxes were 
about. 



56 riELD AND lERN. 

Now there is no cub-hunting, except they have 
a turn or two at the Corstorphine Hills, which 
are all rocks and braes and brambles. They gene- 
rally began there, and the gardeners and keepers 
light fires and net the rocks in some places, and 
even then the foxes will not be forced away, but 
make wild dashes at the nets. There are generally 
a litter or two in the rocks, but cubs are very seldom 
found in the country, and on the south side the chief 
dependence is on hill foxes. Macbie Hill is a great 
rendezvous for old Peebleshire foxes, which go back 
at the lambing time, and generally faster than they 
come. Morton covert is a capital cover, about three 
miles from Midcalder, and gives many a fine run 
over the Cairn Hill. It is almost always a sure find, 
and the fox is as surely a stout one. There is another 
famous whin half-way between Uphall and Mid- 
calder, whose owner, Mr. Peter M^Clagan, is a most 
staunch game-preserver. Houston Gorse was also a 
favourite find in the late Mr. Ramsay^s time, but 
now, alas ! it is almost a desert. 

There are miles of moss both about Cairn Hill and 
in the Carnwath. country, and a huntsman has to ''pick 
and creep and screw" to keep near his hounds at all, 
and even when Stracey is on North Briton he is often 
in sad tribulation. In fact, it is a regular choker 
over such country, and the hounds do it pretty much 
by themselves. As Stracey graphically puts it, "ihey 
have a turn at the Pentland Hills from Malleny, and 
face the hills np wind a mile as hard as they can 



TALKIHK TO EDINBURGH. 57 

rattle; then they sink the wind: they never care 
which way the wind blows, and Fm blowed if you 
can tell what to do with them, it would puzzle mor- 
tal man, up hills four or five miles from the bottom, 
and you tearing after them — that^s the way they 
work you, and so they nail us." 

East to west, from Corstorphine Hill to Lee Castle„ 
tlie country runs about forty miles. The Carnwath 
covers are all fir plantations on the hills, and the best 
of them belong to the Earl of Home, at Stone- 
hill, near the Tinto boundary. The covers are 
very middling, the fir plantations are scarce and 
grown out, and there are very few gorses. The best 
are round Wall House, nice and dry fir plantings on 
the side of a hill, Avith heather and rock. Near 
Wall House the country is generally old grass, and 
mostly plough near home. The home country is not 
spoilt by wire, which is a perfect pest in Carnwath 
without the alleviation of telegraph-posts to the 
bunting-gates, as in the Buccleuch country. In the 
Dechmount country, about nine miles from the ken- 
nels, the ground is sound and good, and all on old 
grass. The crack gorse of the country is Riccarton 
Hill, and Champflurie laurels have had a great re- 
pute. Ever since Mr. Ramsay's death '^ the white 
collars" have been under the mastership of his brother- 
in-law, the Hon. James Sandilands, witha subscription 
which was very nominal. His nephew has taken to 
them on coming of age, and the subscription has been 
fixed for the present at £900 a year. The land- 



58 FIELD AND FERN. 

owners generally hunt elsewhere^ bufc tliey are very 
fair preservers of foxes^ of wliicli twenty brace are 
generally brouglit to hand in a season. On the 
Edinburgh side_, a prospect of something good over 
the grass from Dechmoiint^ Champflurie^ and Ban- 
gour will bring out the Edinburgh^ and Glasgow gen- 
tlemen as well, and swell the field to fifty. Potts, 
Purslow, NasoU; and Jack Jones followed Tom Rin- 
toul as huntsmen ; and then Stracey, who had two 
seasons as first whip with Jones (to whom he also 
whipped in with the Warwickshire), went np, and 
has now held the horn for five seasons, which makes 
his tvv^enty-third with hounds. 

There are generally about 45] couple of hounds in 
kennel, and two dozen couple of puppies are put out 
among the Barnton tenants. The strength of the 
kennel comes from the Yarborough and Fitzhardinge 
drafts, of which some ten couple have been sent from 
England for four seasons past. The Yarborough dogs 
and the Eitzhardinge bitches have done them most 
service, and Bedford and Auditor among the former, 
and Bertha and Songstress among the latter have been 
the mainstay. The Eitzhardinge (late MorrelFs) Baja- 
zets have " proved themselves good workers and fine 
constitutions,*^ and the old dog was put away in his 
eleventh season at the kennels, which are at Golf Hall, 
five miles from Edinburgh, The Cromwell nose, which 
helped Harry Ayris over many a dry fallow, also bids 
fair to be perpetuated in his son Waterloo. In his 
very first season he was the only one that would 



FALKIRK TO EDINBURGH. 59 

speak to it through a dry fir plantings in a capital 
thing of fifteen' miles straight from Macbie_, in fact 
'' such a nipper that it could never have been one fox, ^^ 
Mr. Sanclilands does not care for a hea^y-boned 
hound^ as they get quite beat at the hills, and the 
leader at present is Yarborough Bedford, aspayeddog, 
light and narro\r and high on the leg, but he finds 
" no country too heavy and no hills too high/^ On 
Tuesday they take the east side by Dalmahoy and 
Ormiston, on • Thursday they generally train it to- 
wards Linlithp^ow, and Saturday finds them on the 
Wall House side, which holds, with Dechmount and 
Bangour, the best scent. The Carnwath time is 
from the loth or 16th of March till about the end 
of April. They have killed a May fox there, and an 
eight -and-twenty miles trot finds them again in this 
hill country for nearly as long in the autumn. 

Yv^hen the Yv^est Lothian are not at work, the men 
of Edinburgh and the Lothians have had many a 
good river run with Mr. Waldron HilFs otter hounds. 
They are kept at his residence at Murrayfield House, 
about two miles out of Edinburgh, on the West 
Lothian side. Their owner never rides, but always 
runs with foxhounds, and sees as many foxes broken 
up as any man in the Hunt. Some years ago he 
had a pack of otter hounds in Monmouthshire of the 
"Welsh breed, smooth and white with yellow ears ; 
for the last five years he has had black and tans, a 
cross between the bloodhound and rough Lancashire 
hound, which is used in that county for otter and 



60 FIELD AND FERN. 

foulmart. Their nose is nearly equal to the Lanca- 
shire hound, who are unrivalled in this respect, and 
never disposed to be - tonguy. The bloodhound 
cross also makes them more savage in their worry, 
but they are often very unpleasant to manage in 
kennel. Mr. Hill has found the foxhound fail in 
working up to his otter in a cold drag, but excellent 
on the line when the game is fairly started. With 
him the southern hound has only failed from lack 
of constitution, which is injured by too much 
swimming. 

The Murray field terriers are descended from the 
pure Welsh breed of Mr. Ramsay Williams, vdio lived 
near Carnarvon. He died eight years since, and his 
hunting journal testifies to a most wondrous medley 
of sport with fox, otter, marten, foulmart, and hedge- 
hog. For twenty-five years did Mr. Hill long for 
his terriers, but never succeeded in getting any 
until the old man^s death. They weigh about 151bs., 
and have no cross of the bull- dog in them ; their 
length of leg enables them to scramble out of 
any rocky cairn, where a fox can climb ; and they 
are always bred as flatsided as possible, so as to 
squeeze into the smallest compass. To looks they 
have no pretensions, but they stick to the water 
most resolutely, and one of the best of them died 
last October, after swimming an otter for hours on 
the Lyne, near Drochil Castle, in Peebleshire. She 
sternly refused to leave it, and foiled every effort 
to get at her, till she sank fairly frozen by cold. 



lALKiaK TO EDINBURGH. 61 

They worry and teaze the otter, but do not fasten on 
him and kill him in the earth; and Mr. Hill has 
found that half-a-dozen of them will go into an earth, 
and never quarrel, but that if two of a bull-dog cross 
get together, there is sure to be a row directly. Wini- 
fred and her dauojliter Dinah are the flower of the 
terrier stock; and among the hounds Bangor, who 
" never tells a lie,^' and his sister Brenda are great 
on the drag, and Fairfax is unequalled as a marker 
to ground. 

Mr. HilFs principal river is the Tyne, which runs 
through Haddingtonshire. It is well preserved for 
him, but far too full of drains, which are being gra- 
dually grated, especially in the town of Haddington, 
which is a great resort and stronghold of game. In 
some places the Tyne is deep, but there are very few 
rocks ; it is more like an English river, and but for the 
drains one of the best he has. The Avon in Linlith- 
gowshire has furnished great sport, and, strange to 
say, although the paraffin-oil Avorks are situated on 
a tributary of it, and have effectually driven away 
the fish, it is always a sure otter find, and there have 
been more kills on it than any other river. Mr. 
Hill also hunts the North and South Esk, which 
rise in Peebleshire, join at Dalkeith, and run into the 
sea at Musselburgh. On the South Esk the sport 
has been first-rate. It is not deep, but very rapid and 
rocky; its banks are well lined with wood, and there 
is not a drain on it. Last August it was the scene 
of a very remarkable run, as the otter only touched 



62 FIELD AND TERN. 

the water twice for a few minutes tlirouglioiit a run 
of eiglit or nine miles, and was eventually pulled 
down in the heart of one of the East Lothian fox- 
whins. Bangor distinguished himself greatly in this 
run, and so did Dinah, a small but very fast terrier. 

The Water Company^s reservoirs on the Pentiands 
sometimes furnish a good otter. In ''62 the hounds 
hit upon one at the Clutby Dam reservoir on the 
north side of the Pentiands, and hunted him through 
the sheep-drains right over the Pentiands, down to 
the reservoir at St. Catherine's. He had gone 
through it on the north side, and from there dov\^n 
the Glencorn burn, nearly to the North Esk. Leaving 
this for another burn across the country, he headed 
back to the reservoir at St. Catherine's, where, on 
account of the water being too high, he could not be 
moved. This otter must have travelled nearly twenty 
miles during the night, and it was well for Mr. 
Hill that his terriers were longlegged, and that he 
himself is always in condition summer or winter, or 
he would have seen nothing of the fun on that hot 
and very wet September morning. 

A fortnight after, they went back for their revenge, 
found him at the old spot, and, after three hours 
without a check, fairly swam him down. In putting 
him out from the rock under which he was lying, 
one of the terriers (Caroline) had one side of her 
face, from the eye to the nose, completely scalped, 
and the otter came out holding her fast ; but still, 
when he Avas run into on the public road, she 



FALKIRK TO EDINBURGH. 63 

attacked him as if she had never had a bite in her 
life. 

On the Lyne and Forth in Peebleshire there has 
been good sport ; but the first is small, and both are 
uncertain. The upper part of the Clyde is good, and 
also the South jSIedwyn in Lanarkshire, which runs 
into it. Mr. Hope Vere of Craigie Hill, on the 
Almond, is a staunch preserver of the animal, al- 
though he is very fond of fishing. He kept otters 
very strictly for the late Duke of A thole, and his 
part is still the surest find on the whole river. It 
was there that a large dog otter cut up Dinah and 
the terriers so fearfully in a drain last year, that they 
had to be carried home. In Fife the Eden is the 
best river, and has always otters upon it ; but the 
numerous drains render it very difficult to kill, ex- 
cept by a mere chance. On the Leven, which is 
very deep and very dirty, owing to the mills, there 
has been good sport, and especially with a vixen, otter, 
which lived before the hounds for o h. 10 m. without 
any intermission, and then saved herself under an 
oak tree, which must have been cut down for blood. 
The upper part of the Whiteadder in Berwickshire 
furnished a fine run last year ; but its rough and 
rocky banks make it very difficult to keep up with 
the dogs, when they are running a fresh drag. Wini- 
fred, the terrier, backed up Bangor, Fairfax, and 
Potiphar last October in a run which Lord Wemyss, 
the owner of much of the property on its banks, 
would have rejoiced to see. There was a capital 



Gi FIELD AND FERN. 

scent, such as is rarely met witli previous to such a 
storm of rain as came rattling down almost at the 
very moment the otter was killed. In all these 
forays Mr. Hill has never got heavily bitten himself; 
but many years ago, when he was hunting on the 
Kenvy near Abergavenny, the otter came out of the 
water just before it was killed, made straight at the 
whip, who was a few yards off his master, shook him 
savagely by the trousers, and then passed on. 



EDINBURGH TO THE ROMAN CA5IP. 65 



-fs ^?»7 r ^-K-^V rev '""i •'? " •■* 

wiMMiWwiiia ua i/crt iWaj im wW m 

ESilB-iJHeil TO f HE MiM C«P. 

*' A hoary ridge of ancient to-wn 
Smoke-wreathed, picturesque and still, 
Cirque of crag, and temple hill, 
And Arthur's lion coitching down 
In watch, as if the news of Flodden 
Stirred hira j^et — my fancy flies 
To level wastes and moors imtrodden, 
PurpKng 'neath the low-hung skies. 
I see the bm-dened orchards, mute and mellow, 
I see the sheaves ; and girt by reaper trains, 
^•Vnd bluiTed by breath of horses, tlrrough a yellow 
September moonlight roll the swaggering wanes." 

Alexaxdee Smith. 

Arrival in Ediuburgh — Professor Dick's " Constitution Hill" — Messrs. 
Girdwood's Wool Stores— Origin of the Highland Society — Its En- 
coui-agcment of Gaelic — Its Early .Vims — Original jNIembers — Its 
Agricultural Education — Gradual Development — Bagpipe Contests — 
Cheese, Cured Meat, and Ploughing Prizes — Resume of the princi- 
pal Cattle Shows — Present Competition Rules — Agricultural Statistics 
1 nquiry — The Council Chamber of the Society — Pictures of "Winners 
The Museum — White Crop Samples. 

^T seemed quite strange to be in Edinburgli at last, 
y with the mare quietly drinking at the Sinclair 
fountain; but our reverie was broken rudely enough by 
the boom of the one o^clock gun, and away she went, 
best pace, down Princess-street, and it took *' a long 
pull and a strong puU^^ to stop her. " Dick's Con- 
stitution Hill,'^ as it is called by all the sporting men 
and the faculty, would have been most opportune, 
and we passed down it later in the day when we 
went on our way to Tanfield. It is fully a quarter 

2 F 



66 FIELD AND TERX. 

of a mile on a very steep incline from tlie bottom of 
Dublin-street up Duke-street, to St. Andrew^s-square. 
Professor Dick, whose first connexion with the Higli- 
land Society dates back to '24, tries horses there, 
which are sent to him under suspicion of roaring or 
disease of the heart. "They seldom require a second 
turn, except it is on a windy day, or people are par- 
ticular/^ and the Professor is often glad to get the 
man off their backs, when they have come through 
at a sharp canter. ''Run him against the hillj gentle- 
men, and you'll find him a roarer !" was the trenchant 
phrase in which he once opposed a public appoint- 
ment ; and the candidate merely observed, in reply, 
that he was open to run the Professor. The Veteri- 
nary College in Clyde-street, over which the Professor 
has presided for eight-and-forty years, is close by ; 
and we found him in the lecture-room with the skele- 
ton of the blood mare Miss Foote at his side, the 
hind leg of a horse fresh from the Grass Market in 
his hand, and seven dozen students in front of him. 

Edinburgh has gradually become a great empo- 
rium for wool. In 1853, the system of public sales 
for home-grown wools in Edinburgh was established 
by Mr. Kobert Girdwood, and after combatting for 
three years the prejudices both of growers and consu- 
mers, it was accepted as '^''a great fact,^' and he opened 
stores in Glasgow as well. Adams and Macgregor, 
Crauford and Cree, and one or two other firms in Lcith 
and Granton have followed suit, and a very large 
business is done. Mr. Girdwood has his Edinburgh 



EDINBURGH TO THE ROMAN CAMP. 67 

stores at Tanfield, whicli has gone through many dif- 
ferent phases in its day. The premises were originally 
built by the Portable Gas Company^ which sent out 
its gas compressed into malleable-iron bottles^ but 
the speculation was a losing one, and the firm was 
very soon wound up. Sir Walter Scott was the 
designer of the original building, with its two gaso- 
meter towers, its halls, and large apartments, after 
the style of a Moorish fort. 

The towers of five fiats (of which one flat serves 
for the luncheon-room on sale-days, and the others 
for skin stores) are still left to tell of the strange 
scheme which gave birth to that building. It was 
afterwards sold to some wholesale grocers and wine 
merchants ; and it was there that the Free Kirk 
ministers, with Chalmers, Candlish, and Cunning- 
ham at their head, first marched, after the disruption 
of 1843, from St. Andrew's Church, and held their 
meetings for fourteen years. What is now the "West 
Hall" had acquired before that a political renown. 
Those walls had echoed back the voice of O'Connell, 
as, with all that " action v/hich completes speech,^' he 
talked to Edinburgh of Erin. He had canny Scots 
to hear him; but it held them in a spell. 

*' To the last verge of that wide audience sent. 
It played with each wild passion as it went ; 
Now stirred the uproar, now the mupmur stilled. 
And. sighs and laughter answered as it willed." 

An East Hall has now spruug up where "once a 
garden smiled ;" in 1861 the North Hall, covering a 
space of from 1,500 to 2,000 jards, was added, and 

2 F 2 



68 FIELD AND FERN. 

m 1864 a large three-storeyed building. There are 
thus about 10,000 yards of floorage, which are capable 
of storing 20,000 to 30,000 bales of wool for the 
sales. 

When you have passed through the office, and 
perhaps paused to look at the photograph of one 
of Mr. Girdwood's earliest supporters, the late Mr. 
Giinn of Glendhu, you enter the room, where sheets 
and bags stand in piles all ready to send out. Above 
£2^000 is invested in them alone. A few are of 
Dundee manufacture, but they principally come from 
Jameson of Hull, and are made of hemp, as being 
most profitable, and very seldom of jute. The bags 
begin to go out in April, and so on till the very end 
of the year. Ten to forty sheets are sent out for 
clips in the Lothians, &c., &c. ; but for big High- 
land clips from ten to two hundred bags are re- 
(|uired. A sheet generally carries 300 to 5001bs., but 
English and Irish ones will go as high as 6 cwt,, when 
intended for exportation. A bag will carry ten to 
tiwelve Scotch stones (241bs. to the stone) of laid 
wool, and eight stone of white wool, in fleeces ; and 
Ihe Highland wool generally comes this way. It 
was once a very common practice with the Scottish 
farmers to weigh in lots of 2 stone, and thus in a bag 
uf 10 stone the turn of the beam was against them 
fiye times, and they perhaps lost 5 to 10 lbs. ; but 
to obviate this, 1 lb, per cwt. of draft is allowed. 
Sutherland shire, Ross-shire, Inverness-shire, Argyll- 
shire, and Perthshire generally send their clips in 



EDINBURGH TO THE ROMAN CAMP. 6^ 

bags, wliich carry 2 cwt. for the facility of carrying 
and shipping, while the south country Cheviot and 
half-bred wools mostly arrive in sheets. 

The centre building has a great variety of home and 
foreign skins, principally from Buenos Ayres, in bales 
bound with steel hoops. The wools pulled from them. 
are classed into three sorts, according to the part of the 
sheep they belong to. The fellmongers get the skins, 
and pull them after sweating, and sell the wool, and the 
skin is converted into parchment or leather. About 
100 bales of New Zealand wool were lying there. It 
is very pure and white in its colour, finer than. 
Cheviot, and shorter, although some is long and. 
suitable for combing, and it is in demand both for 
tweeds and hosiery. The contents of the Round 
Towers of five fiats are more various. Lamb skins 
figure as "morts,^^ and sell from IJd. to 2d.; and 
Shetland pickings lie cheek by jowl with German 
flipes, seal skins from Orkney, otter skins from Mullj 
and calf skins from everywhere. 

The North Hall is full of the finest specimens of 
bred and half-bred"^' wools, from Caithness, the 
Lothians, Berwickshire, Roxburghshire, Peebleshire. 
Morayshire, and Fifeshire. Early in 1864?, on^ 
sample fetched 2s. 5|d. per lb., the highest price, 
known since 1818; but since then one or two 
others have reached as high as 2s. 7Jd. The wools 
are all reclassed after examination by the buyers, 

* Bred = Leicester ; Half-bred = Leicester and Cheviot ; Half-bred Cr&s-s — 
Blackface and Leicester ; Cross = Blackface and Clie\'iot. 



70 FIELD AND FERN. 

W/lio come to look over them two days before the 
sale, and the men refill the hags, which are hung 
from the roofs during the process. The red clay of 
the East Lothian, like that of Gala water, slightly 
colours its wool, and one clip retained an oil-dip so 
much that it might as well have been smeared. Mr. 
Girdwood stands on his "Meiossoon dip," and several 
tin jars and casks of it, hermetically sealed and 
marked with the Highland ram^s head, occupy the 
floor of the East Room. Butterate and White Smear 
are his other preparations ; the latter is intended to 
supersede tar and butter, but Time, ^''who knows 
nor friend nor foe," will be the judge. 

The public sales were announced in April, 1853, 
and the first was held on July 14th of that year. 
There were 3.20 bales, principally half-bred wools ; 
and by the end of the first decade we find 7,000 
bales or 1,364 lots in the catalogue of the corres- 
ponding sale. The first supply was principally from 
the Lothians and Fife, with part from Perth and 
Argyllshire; a,nd the Highland and Highland-district 
wools came later in the season. There was a 
large assembly that day, and the absence of the 
Halifax men was made up by a strong body of the 
Bradford for the half-bred and other combing^ wools, 
of which Mr. Baines especially was a large buyer. 
Charles Fox from Dewsbury was also there for 
clothing wools ; the Wilsons of Hawick, and Paton 



* Combing' wools = breds, lialf-breds, blackface, and hi.crMy-fed Cheviot 
hoggs ; Clothing wools = hill-fed Cheviots, crosses, and Southdowns. 



EDINBURGH TO THE ROMAN CAMP. 71 

and Son of Alloa^ for lialf-breds and Cheviots for 
hosiery and Alloa stocking yarn ; Abercromby and 
Co. of Stowe Mills, near Galashiels, for Southdown 
and Cheviot for tartan shawls; Charles Yfilson and 
Sons of Earlston were looking after Cheviot, crosses, 
and blackfciced for blankets ; and. local dealers for 
all sorts, and a bargain if it could be had. 

"Lot 1, 3 sheets f first picky markj b — Skin Wool C./' 
"was the opening entry of the maiden catalogue. The 
first biddings were not up to the reserve price, 
and tbe lot was withdrawn, and sold that afternoon 
at Is. 4d. to Mr. Joshua Hall. For Lot 2, " Fliped 
Hogg C," Mr. Baines of Bradford drew first blood, 
and at the same price. At the second sale, Mr. 
Varley of Stanningley bought largely of all kinds, and 
the result convinced Mr. Girdwood that half-bred 
crosses, which had been sold hitherto at a price half 
way between Cheviot and Blackfaced wool, would 
come close up to the half-bred, as they have done. 

To master that catalogue and all its phrases is no 
light effort. " Smyrna Britch" speaks, in a measure, 
for itself as skirts, or the coarse hairy parts of Smyrna 
fleece, and "-B A Bonne f as fine dark Buenos Ayres ; 
while " Capes " are from the Cape of Good Hope. 
There is more significance in "Brokes/' or broken 
wools of all kinds ; " Fallen^' are fl,eeces gathered on 
the hills from dead sheep ; and " Burrs'' are wool- 
balls adhering to that prickle. After that our troubles 
begin, and it does require some effort of pencil or 
memory to master that " Noils" signify sbort wool 



FIELD AND FEllN. 



left iu the teeth of wool-combs, and that it goes to 
the blanket manufacturer ; that " Cotts" are cotted 
or matted fleeces ; that " Picklocks'' are divided into 
best and second, or fine and coarse pick, from the 
skin, by fellmongers; that ^' Haslock'^ is subject to 
the same classification, but applies generally to the 
coarse skirts of Cheviots, half-breds, &c., and the best 
part of blackface ; that -'Fine Greif is equal to Has- 
lock of that colour, and taken principally from black- 
face for carpet yarns and blankets ; and that " Coai'se 
TV/lite" comes from the shanks of the sheep, and 
ranks in the social wool scale cilong with " Coarse 
Grey/' and even below '' Common Haslock." 

The sales take place eight times a year, beginning 
in May; and in September, which is the height 
of the season, they last from four to six days. Shet- 
land sends very little native wool to public sales, 
but, like Orkney, contributes some Cheviot. The half- 
bred wool from Caithness is of a beautiful quality and 
fine fibre, with a peculiarly pure colour, all of which 
delight the Halifax men. The judges saw this at 
the International ShoAV, and both Sir George Dun- 
bar's bred and Mr. Swainson's half-bred fleeces had 
certificates of merit. In fact, it is a hard race for supre- 
macy between them and the East Lothian men, among 
whom Major Hunter of Thurston, who farms about 
five miles from Dnnbar, stands very high with his 
half-breds, Southdowns, and Soathdown crosses. The 
east-coast have an advantage over the west-coast men, 
owing to the feeding, which causes the wool to be 



EDINBURGH TO THE ROMAN CAMP. 73 

rather brighter and stronger in the staple. Sutherland 
wools^ v/hich principally come up in Jnlv, are excel- 
lent for stockings, tweeds, pilot-cloths, blankets, 
and blue flannels. Ross-shire sends good laid Che- 
viot and blackface, and the sheep-farms of Easter 
Eoss some of the best bred and half-bred wools. 

The Highland smearing system extends through In- 
verness, Argyllshire, lloss-shire, and Perthshire (ex- 
cept in the agricultural parts) ; and these counties, with 
Morayshire, parts of Banffshire and Aberdeenshire,^ 
Forfarshire, Fife, Kinross, and the agricultural parts 
of Stirlingshire, nearly all send white wool. Skye is 
faithful to laid, TV'hich is principally Cheviot, and very 
fine in the staple. South of the Forth, the public 
feeling has gone against smearing for some years past, 
and the flock -masters chiefly apply dressing which v.ill 
not stain the wool. Peebleshire is great 1)oth in Che- 
viot and Blackfaced, and the pastures of Ayrshire bor- 
dering on Galloway, and Galloway itself, produce a 
closer and finer growth of wool, which the clothiers 
love. Wool is sold at character fairs, Inverness, Fort 
William, Oban, Inverary, Crieff, and Tyndrum, which 
are all held in July. St. Boswells unites a wool cha- 
racter and pitched sheep fair, and so does George - 
mas ; Jedburgh, Peebles, Biggar, and Kelso sell, but 
never pitch ; and Hawick has reg^ilar pitched wool 
sales of its own. 

The Highland Society was formed in 1784, at a 
small meeting in the Cowgate. Lord Karnes had 
given the times a wrench by his writings, and " Sir 



74 I'lELD AND FERN. 

John, of projects rife" was beginning to '^ stand 
ibrtli'^ and make his voice heard from John o^Groat^s 
to Gretna. It was not, however, until July 30tli, 1 787, 
that the Society was incorporated by royal charter, and 
was known, '' per nomen et titulum in vulgari," as 
" The Highland Society of Scotland at Edinburgh.'^ 
John Duke of Argyll (its first President) and the 
night Honourable Elizabeth Countess of Sutherland 
were tlie first and second " original constituent mem- 
bers^^ under the charter ; William Macdouald of St. 
Martin's was its first secretary, and David Maclean. 
its first piper. 

It proposed to examine into the Highlands and 
Islands, to establish towns, villages, and harbours 
therein — to open communication byroads and bridges, 
to extend and promote fisheries, to encourage agricul- 
ture, and to introduce manufactures. The preservation 
of the language, poetry, and music of the Highlands 
was also its care. It was to this end that it paid 
teachers of Gaelic, that it gave prizes for the best per- 
formers on the bagpipes, and instituted ^''inquiries into 
the authenticity and history of the poems of Ossian/^ 
Henry Mackenzie, " The Man of Feeling j" was quite 
the knight of the Gael in council. Year after year 
he kept the subject alive, and never bated one jot of 
heart and hope during that weary delay, which arose 
out of the difficulty of finding an editor really fit 
to cope with Gaelic manuscripts. It was long before 
he could fairly report progress, and his last sickness 
was on him Y*^hen the completion of the Gaelic die- 



EDINBURGH TO THE ROMAN CAMP. 75 

tionary, in two volumes of 776 and 1,015 pages each, 
was officially announced by the lips of another. 

With the new century the Society extended its care 
in a measure to the Lowlands, and laid great stress 
on essays and reports. In 1824, its original hundred 
members had swelled to 1,461, and when the jubilee 
dinner was held in ^34, with the Duke of Buccleuch, 
who was then President, in the chair, they numbered 
1,900. The Duke of Wellington had been made an 
honorary member, and wrote his thanks from Cam- 
bray in the spring of ^16, and a letter in acknowledg- 
ment of the same honour was received from Marshal 
Blucher at Carlsbad the next July. Sir Walter 
Scott took no very active part in its proceedings, and 
the last mention that we find of his name was at a 
half-yearly meeting in 1824, when he proposed that 
the ballot should be dispensed with in the case of 
Lady Gwydir and Baroness Keith. Eifty years had 
reduced the original members to four on the day of 
the jubilee — the Earl of Glasgow (who survived them 
all). Sir William M'Leod of Bannatyne, Sir John 
Sinclair of Uibster, and General Campbell of Lochnell. 
They were all there to support the Duke, and were 
welcomed with the old, favourite strain of " Owre the 
muir amang the heather J^ 

New ones sprung up as they went down ; and be- 
teen ^45 and ^65, which represents the secretaryship 
of Mr. Hall Maxwell, the numbers have increased 
from 2,569 to 4,055. Independently of the national 
feeling, which makes every young farmer anxious t o 



76 



FIELD AND FERN 



see his name on this great Scottish bede-roU of agri- 
culture, the terms* upon which he can enter do not 
encourage that mere membership for a year, when the 
Society comes to his own locality, which is fostered by 
the roving English pound. His Majesty Napoleon III. 
heads the list, and the oldest member on the books 
is ^' Mr. Robert Campbell of Sonachan, Inverary, 
1802" ; and the Marquis of Tweeddale, K.T., v/ho 
was a constant judge at the earlier shows, dates from 
1809. The Presidency has been held by sixteen 
dukes. John fifth Duke of Argyll was elected in 1 785, 
and died when he had held office for two-and-twenty 
years. All the others, with tlie exception of the late 
Duke of Gordon, who also died during his term cf 
office, have presided for four years, and none of 
them but the late Duke of Hamilton (who went on 
for another year by virtue of a bye-law) have been 
elected twice. 

The cardinal object of tlie Society is, by means 
of district competitions under committees and con- 
veners, to throw out its fibres all over the country, 
and to keep all the local societies in communion with 
head-quarters at Edinburgh. Hence there were at 
least 211 districts during ^64 in the receipt of money 
or medals under the Society's conditions, quite irre- 



* New members are admittocl at tlio amiiial meetiiip: iu January, and the 
summer general meeting in June or July. The ordinary subscription is 
^1 33. 61. annually, which may be redeemed by one payment, varying from 
£12 12s. to £7 li., and regulated by the number of previous annual payments. 
Tenant-farmers, secretaries, and treasurers of local Agricultiu-al Associations, 
resident agricultural factors, and jjroprietors farming the whole of their own 
lands, whose assessment on the valuation-roll does not exceed £500, are ad- 
mitted on a subscription of 10s. aimually or £5 5s. for hie. 



EDINBURGH TO THE ROMAN CAMP» 77 

spective of those whicli were comprehended iu the 
August Show district of the year. Agricultural edu- 
cation was provided for by a supplementary charter 
of 1856, hj which diplomas were granted, and £100 
is laid out annually in prizes according to the report 
of the Board of Examiners, which comprises, along 
with Professors John Wilson, Ba^lfour, Anderson, 
Allman, Dick, &c., the well-known agricultural 
names of George Hope of Fenton Barns, Robert 
Russell ofPilmuir, John Wilson of Edgington Mains, 
and Peter M'Lagan of Pumpherston. As far back as 
1824, we fmd Professor Dick^s name as lecturer to the 
Society on '^ the diseases of black cattle -/' and money 
was then voted to set up a forge at his Veterinary Col- 
lege, in order to teach the young farmers shoeing. 
In 1849, Dr. Anderson was appointed Consulting 
Chemist, and gives his advice from '^ complete ana- 
lysis of a soil, including determination of Alkalies 
and Phosphates, £3," down to "letters asking 
advice on subjects within the department of the 
chemist, 5s.," on a regular scale sanctioned by the 
Societ}^ 

From the first, the Society's intellectual activities 
have been boundless, and have extended even to bee 
husbandry. Was it locomotion ? They were looking 
after the improvement of the Highland ferry-boats ; 
they were resisting the attempt to get rid of the 
ancient drove-roads, and confine the cattle to turn- 
pikes; and as far back as 1818 they proposed a 
50-guinea prize essay on railroads. Was it cropping ? 



78 FIELD AND FERN, 

They were giving prizes for barley or bigg of the 
greatest weight ; they were guarding against smut in 
wheat, and encouraging turnips in Orkney and Shet- 
land, as well as sowing arable land with red clover 
and rye-grass; and Mr. Boswell of Balmuto was 
their Holker ambassador to see the drill system as 
practised by Mr. Coke, and to report whether it or 
broadcast answered best with barley, after a bare, 
and a turnip fallow. Was it the reclaiming of land? 
Sheep-drains were fostered, and prizes given for the 
effective execution of not less than 6,000 roods, and 
attention was drawn to the extirpation of ferns from 
hill pastures. The blowing sand was combatted in 
all the Northern Isles, and one of the first gold 
medals was given to Mr. Drummond of Blair Drum- 
mond, for " floating an extreme track of moss in 
Perthshire, and settling one hundred people on it, 
who in '92 had been compelled to leave the High- 
lands on account of sheep-farming.^' 

Was it the improvement of implements or machi- 
inery ? They were offering a premium for a steam 
plough in 1837, which was competed for by Mr. 
Heathcot, and they awarded it to Mr. John Fowler, 
in 1857. Mr. Smith of Dcanston was always secure of 
a trial from the Society, when something new in earth- 
tormenting was evolved from that teeraing brain, and 
so was BelFs reaping machine. Thanks to their 
bounty, Andrew Meikle, the inventor of a thrashing 
machine, was enabled to pass his later years in com- 
fort ; but when watches and a revolving battery were 



EDINKUllGH TO THE ROMAN CAMP. 79 

pressed upon them, they were fain to admit that they 
were not just in their line. Mr. Elackie, the 
" Armourer to the Lanarkshire Militia/^ seems to 
have read the meaning of the Society better, when he 
entered their temple of industrious peace^ rot Avith 
a new buckler or a helmet, but with a model of a 
reaping machine ; and in 1825, two young Flemish 
farmers were brought over, with an amateur inter- 
preter, to instruct the districts in the use of the 
Hainault scythe. 

Still, the Society never lost sight of their earliest 
mission, and the newspapers were specially requested 
to take notes of the probable ripening time of the Low- 
land harvest, so as to prevent miscalculations on the 
part of the Highland shearers and the public begging 
which followed. The social questions which it grap- 
pled with were not always strictly agricultural, as 
the state of the Friendly Societies was looked into, 
and the average was struck of health and- sickness 
specially dividing bedfast and walking sickness. In- 
door labour was not passed over; and spinning 
hemp, making herring-nets, knitting worsted stock- 
ings not less than twenty-four pairs, and worsted, not 
less than twenty -four spindles and spun in the Hio-h- 
lands, all formed subjects of competition. Eaising 
the pile of wool on cloths, and spinning the greatest 
quantity of Merino v/ool into broad-clotli not less 
than 600 lbs. weight, originated with Sir John Sin- 
clair, who had a flock of them within five miles of John 
o^ Groat's, and once held quite a shepherd and shep- 



^0 FIELD AND FERN. 

herdess /e/e in costume on a shearing-day. Not con- 
tent with '^ an abstract of all that is knoAvn in wool- 
stapling/^ the directors proceeded in after-years to 
give practical effect to the essay they proposed, by 
offering 100 gs. to any woolstapler who would settle 
by a certain day in a situation approved of by the 
Board. Besides then* general researches into the 
larch and other Scottish trees, the}^ inquired into 
the causes of the difficulty of raising trees at all 
on the eastern coast, and drew attention to the uses 
of brushwood and other underwood, which had been 
'' unduly neglected by owners and the public/^ They 
encouraged the growth of osiers for baskets, and 
willows for barrel-hoops, under restrictions as to age 
and acreage ; and, aided by Mr. BoswelFs report of 
his Italian tour, they strove to introduce a straw- 
plait imitation of Leghorn, from common rye sown 
thick on sandy gravell}^ soil, and cut when it came 
into ear. 

The marine portion of the earliest charter was 
never overlooked, and they took the breeding of 
salmon fry under their charge. " The adventurers in 
the herring fishery at Greenock^^ had every facility for 
" communing with the Society,^^ when they repaired 
to Edinburgh to beg them to persuade Parliament to 
put the fishing bounties on a better footing, and to 
prevent foreign herrings from coming in. They 
laboured the point as to whether the "sea-grass" 
might not become a good proxy for horse-hair in 
stuffing mattresses, and more especially fostered the 



EDIXBURGII TO THE ROMAN CAMP. 81 

production of kelp as a substitute for barilla, as '^tlie 
earlier stages of the process were calculated to en- 
courage a seafaring life, and breed up seamen for the 
navy/' Any attempt on the part of the Chancellor 
of the Exchequer to increase the duties on soap was 
therefore watched with an especially jealous eye ; 
but beyond an attitude of defiance on herrings and 
barilla we find hardly any trace of political action. 

The contests for the prize pipe took place in the 
Theatre E-oyal at Edinburgh each July, '^'^irame- 
xliately after the race.'^ The judges wore their na- 
tional garb ; and on one occ:ision_, when Mr. James 
Moray's piper won the prize pipe and forty merks to 
boot, there were forty-five competitors, and upwards 
of £150 was taken at the doors. The notation of pipe 
music was carefully attended to, and it was a cardi- 
nal rule that each candidate should deposit six ancient 
pipe tunes with the Society. Those, too, who could 
" produce tunes set to music by themselves, and sing 
or recite ancient Gaelic poetry or lines not generally 
known or published," were informed that they would 
^^racet with due encouragement." Sometimes Strath- 
spey or ^^Twasomc" was danced as an interlude; 
and both it and the playing were so keenly relished, 
that more than once Sir John Sinclair had to warn 
the company that if they encored the performers so 
often the dinner-hour would lind^ them only half 
through their work. Sir John quite gloried in being 
chairman of the musical jury, and the Peninsular 
war gave him great scope when lie distributed the 



82 " FIELD AND FERN, 

prizes. His eye glistened wlien he told them that 
Wellington heard no sound with more delight, or 
Napoleon with more dismay, than that of a High- 
land pibroch ; or when he pointed out that, as the 
waists of Brussells belles were tied with Scottish rib- 
bons, ^^ such an example should not be wasted on the 
belles of our own country/^ He could tell the 
pipers, too, how one gold medallist had, since their 
last merry meeting, forgotten all about the surgeon, 
and continued to play on his pipe, when he was 
severely wounded at Vimeira, and how one who had 
gained a second pipe had been wounded four times. 
The 42nd, the 71st, the 79th, and the 92nd regi- 
ments had all a magic sound for his audience ; but 
still, the Scots Greys v/ere first favourites, and the 
roof rang longest and loudest at the mention of their 
name. 

The dairy claims were substantially recognized in 
^24, Avhen the expediency of sending sweet milk to 
market in spring-carts and locked vessels was insisted 
on, and prizes were proposed for Dunlop or '' Mild 
Ayrshire,^^ and imitations of Double Glo^ster. No 
competitor was to send in less than 10 stone of 
IGlbs. and 16oz. to the pound. Fifty-two cheeses 
competed at the first show^ which was held in Edin- 
burgh on December 22nd, and Mr. Sanderson of the 
Black Castle, Lanarkshire, was first with Dunlop, 
and Mr. BellofWoodhouse Lees, Dumfriesshire, with 
the Double Glo'ster. Prizes for North Wiltshire 
cheeses were given the next Christmas ; but the 



EDINBUKGH TO THE SOMAN CAMP. 83 

judges observed that their pine-apple shape was not 
accurate^ owing to the faulty nets, and advised that 
better patterns should be got. From the statement 
of Mr. Sanderson,, who seems to have been with Mr. 
Nichol of Easterhouse quite the cheese champion of 
the day, the only difference between them and the 
Double Glo^ster was in the shape and size. In ^27, 
Mr. Sanderson won with Stilton, but the imitations 
of Cheshire failed. Prizes v/ere also given for the 
curing of butter, no competitor to send in less than 
10 fir]?ins, and in due time Sir John Sinclair (who 
was as enthusiastic upon this point as he was upon 
salting beef or salving sheep, to say nothing of his 
Vienna cabbage) was enabled to report that the 
butter from Aberdeen no longer classed with the 
fourth-class Irish, and that the difference of 30s. per 
cwt. between it and the best Dutch had been gra- 
dually reduced five-sixths. 

Deacon Milne of that town seems to have had a 
monopoly of the salting prizes. Sometimes we read of 
him curing 262 tierces of 3001bs. each of beef, and 
38 tierces of pork, with rock or bay salt ; and later on 
he shipped his 90,C001bs. weight of beef at Aberdeen, 
drawn solely from Aberdeenshire, Banffshire, and 
Kincardineshire. Veal, too, was not overlooked, and 
there was a prize for the breeder who brought the 
greatest weight of calves to market, which had been 
fed on milk for not less than six weeks, and had been 
carried to the fleshers on spring-carts or by canal. 

The ploughing matches formed no small local 

2 G 2 



M> FIELD AND FERN. 

feature in the earlier history of the Society, and in 
a report of one held in 1819^ in the Kincardineshire 
district, where twenty-four ploughs were drawn by a 
pair of horses, and three by oxen, ^' a small sum of 
money was allotted to each unsuccessful candidate/' 
Gradually the system was given up, or confined 
bo a silver medal to the best ploughman " on the 
report of one or more members of the Society;" 
and competitive implement trials were annexed 
to the programme at each of the meetings. These 
were abandoned after ^61, and the implements 
are not now arrayed in sections as they once were, 
but exhibitors group exactly what they like at their 
stands. A committee send in a report, and select 
new inventions or important implements for trial, 
and at Athelstaneford last year some reaping ma- 
chines were tested. The withdrawal of the prizes 
has rather increased the number of implements ex- 
bibited. The Kelso entry was very much larger than 
the Perth one, and stood at 1,101 as against 11 at 
Edinburgh in 1827. 

Their earliest premiums were given for *' black 
cattle,''-' or rather Argyllshires, and the expression still 
lingered out of courtesy at the head of the list long 
after the other breeds were acknowledged, and had 
distinct classes. The maiden show seems to have 
been one for bulls at Connel Kilmore in Argyllshire, 
on October 20th, 1784; and the directions to the 
judges were "to attend to the shape of bulls, and 
not to the size, as we encourage the true breed of 



EDINBURGH TO THE ROMAN CAMP. 85 

Highland cattle/^ For a time^ the favoured bull- 
districts were Lorn, Mull, with the Island of ColL 
Morven, ^nth Ardnamurchan, Kinj^erloch, and Ard- 
gower. Then three-year-old queys received prizes as 
well as bulls ; and when Argyllshire ceased to have 
a monopoly of the Society's cattle attentions, a prize 
of ^5 was given to the man, either in that county, 
Inverness-shire, Perthshire, or Ross-shire, "who 
spaves most queys with success/^ In 1816, there 
w^ere prizes for the improvement of work-horseSy 
and by degrees a distinction was drawn between 
Clydesdales for heavy and Clevel an ds for lighter land. 
An attempt to encourage the breeding of chariot 
horses ended in one pair being shown, and one of 
them being disqualified for over age. At Kelso the 
£50 blood-horse competition was nearly as un- 
satisfactory; Captain Anstruther Thomson and 
Captain Percy Williams threaded the ranks in vain 
for anything worthy of the name of a hunter, and 
so the Clydesdale has slowly and surely swallowed 
up every other breed. 

Short- wools as well as long- wools were recognized 
soon after ^16; and the Duke of Athole, Lord Lyne- 
doch, and Mr. Smith of Methven judged them in 
Perthshire, with instructions to " have regard both 
to wool and carcase." Things had ripened by '21 
into twelve district competitions for " black cattle,'' 
two for horses, and three for sheep; and Donald 
Ilorne of Langwell and John Hall of Seiber^s Cross 
were showing their hands as Cheviot winners. 



86 FIELD AND FERN. 

The first sliow was held at Queensberry Barracks 
in. 1822, the verj^ year that England began her 
Shorthorn Herd-Book. Fifty-nine oxen and eight 
sheep were entered, and it was expressly stipulated 
that the oxen were not to be fed on '^oilcake or dis- 
tillery wash and grains,^' and that particulars as to 
the distance they had travelled and the time they 
had been put up to fatten should be specified in the 
certificate. The '^ Teeswaters or Shorthorns were the 
favourites with the Border agents/'' says a local 
chronicler, who adds that " Baillie Gordon, his Ma- 
jesty ^s carpenter, put up the sheds /^ The show was 
kept open for 2h days, and sixty-five new members 
were added to the Society. Rennie, the younger, 
showed twenty-two shorthorns, and v^'as first of all 
with one, which was sold for 60 guineas. This 
success routed up the champions of the national 
breeds. T'he Dumfries Courier as the time again drew 
near, exhorted the Galloway men to send ^*^your hairy 
representatives to the great annual congress of 
beeves/^ but Rennie was first again, and again when the 
show-yard had been, removed next year to the Portable 
Gas premises at Tanfield, and " 9s. and iOs. per stone 
was the ordinary rate of agreement for cattle.^' One 
of them, '' Fat Charlie,^^ bred at Monreith, fetched 
the highest of the twain ; and it is recorded that 
" more would have been got, if the show-man who 
exhibited him had not wanted to sell the caravan as 
well.^^ All the oxen were shown in pairs, and Short- 
horn, Fife, and then Aberdeen was the order, when 



EDINBURGH TO THE ROMAN CAMP. 87 

the winning pairs were drawn and placed for tlie 
Plate. Both cattle and sheep mustered stronger 
than ever in '24, when a West Highland ox made 
lis. per stone,, and an 160-stone ox arrived in a van. 
Well might an Edinburgh paper ^'^not wish to boast^^ ; 
^' but yet we have no hesitation in expressing our wil- 
lingness to compare notes with our friends at Smith- 
field.^^ 

Store cattle had been admitted the previous year, 
but even that advance and the opening of the classes 
to England and Ireland did not help the show in ^25 
(at which Mr. Stirling's Shorthorn- West-Highland 
played first part), and in the following year it 
was determined to talve it to Glasgow, and have 
classes for horses as well. Change of scene brought 
with it a complete revival. The Duke of Montrose 
kept up the honour of the district with his oxen 
Romulus and Riva, and nineteen Clydesdale brood 
mares were in the ranks. Glasgow has always stood 
highest in the entries. In its ^44 show there were 558 
cattle, in its '57 show 240 horses and 112 swine, and 
it has only been beaten by Berwick-on- Tweed in 
^54, and Edinburgh in '48, for top place with the 
sheep. 

The first decided symptom of the impetus which 
had been given might be seen in the announce- 
ment that the Highland Society were directing 
their attention to the habit of letting bulls and 
rams, and that "all who had paid attention to 
the selection of individual animals, native or im- 



88 FIELD AND FERN. 

ported, were requested to communicate witli the Se- 
cretary/^ The straw had begun to stir at last ; and 
when Edinburgh had held another poor meeting, and 
Glasgow a good one, it was decided to give up the 
biennial rotation of Edinburgh and Glasgow, to 
erase the conventional term "black cattle^' from the 
list, and to accept the invitation to Perth on the first 
October Wednesday of ^29. Gradually the Society 
has fallen on to regular circuit towns, Inverness in 
the North, Aberdeen in the North-east, Perth in the 
centre, Edinburgh as the capitol, Glasgow in the 
West, Dumfries in the South-west, and Kelso in the 
South-east. Dundee was once the venue in '43, and 
Stirling in ^64, after an interval of one-and-thirty 
years, while Ayr has been given up by common con- 
sent for very nearly as long. 

The second Glasgow was another success, only 
marred by the rule that Clydesdales should be " bay, 
black, or brown bay all over," which prevented any of 
the forty-two from claiming a prize, and made the 
Society tolerant of white-legs and blazes for the 
future. Then the regular country meetings began at 
Perth, with J357 worth of premiums, and among the 
192 in the cattle ranks nothing was more looked at 
than the West Highlander, which was said to be the 
fattest that had ever been fed at Keir. Thirty short- 
horn bulls came to Dumfries in '30, and " Old Mood- 
law^' began his prize raid with the " five best Cheviot 
gimmers.^' For many years the winning history of 
these classes was interwoven with his name, as well as 



EDINBURGH TO THE ROMAN CAMP. 8i 

Young and Craig's^ Aitchison^s^ and Donald Home's, 
and then his nephew young Moodlaw took up the 
running with Elliot, Borthwick, and Patterson of 
Tereggles. Among the blackfaced classes, on the 
other hand, we meet with Blacklock of Minnygap, 
Dryfe, Watson, Alexander Denholm, ^Murray of 
Eastside, Wilson of Crosshouse, and Aitken of Liston- 
sheils. 

The Caithness and Sutherland men with Hous- 
toun of Kintradwell, amongst them, brought their 
forces well up at Inverness in ^31, when ]\Iac- 
pherson of Belville swept four blackfaced prizes, 
and Corryhoyiie descended from the mountains with 
his buck goats. Mr. Blamire, who had just been 
elected as the colleague of Sir James Graham in East 
Cumberland, and whose white horse '' Cappy^' had 
carried him to all the fairs and markets of Scotland 
for many a year, when he slept in the saddle and 
never dreamt of St. Stephen^s or the Tithe Office, 
judged his beloved shorthorns with the Marquis 
of Tweeddale, at Kelso. Stirling in ^33 witnessed 
the intellectual activity of Mr. Smith of Deanston 
in every detail down to the arrangement of the hall 
for dinner, a ceremony which was so well observed at 
Aberdeen in ^34, that deputations kept moving be- 
tween the three rooms, to inform the respective chair- 
men that their healths had been drunk, and the 
chairman who sat the longest proposed " the health 
of the departed.^' Captain Barclay was in force with 
his cows, and so was Lord Kintore with his '^ ox ;'-^ 



90 FIELD AND FERN. 

and Mr. Guerrier^, the London salesman, was received 
most cheerily when he said he had been the first to 
receive an ox consigned by water to London. Ellman 
sent Southdowns to Perth in'So, and Hugh Watson 
refused .€100 for a Leicester tup, one of those cele- 
brated three from Keillor, of v/hich, as we have be- 
fore mentioned, each judge got one. Sir John 
Campbell confessed himself fairly beaten over cattle 
and sheep points, and told his audience, when he 
spoke at the dinner, that ''^ he should not have much 
chance of being raised to the (show-yard) bench.^^ 
Next year the steam plough succeeded once in 
moving three hundred yards in 3^ minutes, and then 
it stuck fast in Lochar Moss, although Mr. Parkes 
and his men had been in strict attendance on it for 
three weeks before. Sir James Graham worked up 
his audience with one of his finest speeches, which he 
concluded by repeating, in reference to ^' The Buc- 
cleuch^^ — 

" Constant still in danger's hour" ; 

and the battle between Aitchison and Brydon waxed 
hot over- the Cheviots, the one winning with his tups 
and the other with his ewes. Glasgow had one of its 
great meetings in ^38, when Sergeant Talfonrd 
spoke to a toast, and 16,920 people paid to go 
on The Green. Inverness in ^39 was marked by a 
crusade in the discussions against the shorthorn 
crosses, which were fast creeping in and making the 
Highlanders very jealous; but the voice of Mr. 
Wether ell was heard on the other side, and he met 



EDINBURGH TO THE E.OMAN CAMP. 91 

the assertion that Earl Spencer's cattle were " fed, 
groomed, and clothed like race-horses/' with a flat 
negative, and another English breeder indorsed him. 
The Buccleuch Shorthorns and the Richmond 
Southdowns were very distinguished at Aberdeen the 
next year, and M'Combie won his maiden prize 
with an ox, and showed two fonr-year-olds of " great 
merit.'' Booth with Bracelet, Bates with his Oxford 
cow, and Crofton^s heifers were in the shorthorn ranks 
in '41 at Berwick-on-Tweed ; and Elhot of Hind- 
hope fairly vanquished Sutherlandshire on his own 
ground. At Edinburgh, Crofton's Provost was first 
for the fifty-sovereign prize in a field of twenty-four 
bulls ; and the Duke of Buccleuch's were first, second, 
and third in the cow class ; while the blood horses In- 
heritor and Little Known were among the extra stock, 
as Dardanelles and Patron had been at Berwick. 
Jonas Webb's shearlings, which had been prevented 
by stress of weather from coming to Berwick, were 
winners at Dundee, where Watson of Keillor and 
Aitchison of Linhope made a brilliant finish to a 
great show career. Glasgoiv had one of its monster 
meetings in August, but the time was not steadily 
fixed yet, and the Society were at Dumfries in the 
October of the following year, and fell in for the fes- 
tivities of the southern race meeting. " The Belville 
year" of '46 (of which we spoke "in another place") 
preceded the Aberdeen year, when M'Combie began 
in earnest with four firsts, the Brothers Cruickshank 
and Hay of Shethin kept the head of the Shorthorn 



92 riELD AND FERN. 

classes pretty well against all comers^ and the 
laird of Langwell swept every premium offered for 
Cheviots. 

At Glasgow, in ^50, Maynard^s Crusade was the 
Voltigeur of the Shorthorns ; and Belville reappeared 
with four more years on his head, and very little 
patchiness in proportion, as the winner of a sweep- 
stakes with twenty entries. Booth, Wilson, and Towne- 
ley fought hard in the female classes, and even Fife 
sent forty-three of its blacks. It seemed an expiring 
county effort, as only fourteen came to Perth in ^53, 
and they were seen in the lists no more. Booth's 
Windsor was at Berwick-upon-Tweed, and Douglas- 
was there with his Captain Balco and Rose of Sum- 
mer to meet Booth and all comers. With Invernesfi, 
in ^56, the biennial system, which had gone on ever 
since M<8, gave way once more to the annual. At 
Glasgow, the next year, it is well remembered how 
the Duke of Athole mustered his clan, and marched 
to meet the Queen of the Netherlands ; how closely 
Elliot and Brydon contested the Cheviot classes ; 
and how John o^Groat, the first of Mr. Stirling's 
three Royal roans, came from Keir with his Salis- 
bury honours on his head. In ^58 the Granite City 
had its fourth visit. It was a grand sheep year at Edin- 
burgh when the Richmond Southdowns were in front, 
and Cockburn beat Wiley in the Leicester tups, and 
then had to go down before those rare Brandsby gim- 
mers. "The Duchess twins'' came to Dumfries in 
^60, to be beaten by Douglas's Clarionet, and thus. 



EDINBUUGH TO THE ROMAN CAMP. 93 

tlirough Perthf Battersea, Kelso, and Stirling we 
reach our own times. 

The winter show of fat stock was renewed at Edin- 
burgh in the off j'car of ^53^ with .£300 of prizes^ but 
with entries not much greater in extent than they had 
been thirty years before. A West Highlander kept 
up the old Keir charter, and both Mr. Stirhng and 
Mr. Knov/les had rare oxen at Glasgow the next year. 
With these two efforts, v/hich entailed a heavy loss 
on the Society, it fell through once more, but 
was taken up again by the Messrs. Swan on their 
own account at Edinburgh in 1855. Last Christmas 
there were twelve well-filled classes for cattle, and 
five for sheep, the winner in each receiving two-thirds 
of the entrance-money, and the second one-third. 
The Cattle Cup of 10 gs. was won by Messrs. Martin 
of Aberdeen with their cross-bred ox, and the five- 
guinea Sheep Cup by Mr. Thorburn of Juniper 
Bank, Inverlethen, for his pen of Cheviot .wedders, 
which sold at 95s. all round. There were also classes 
for dairy cows fed in Edinburgh, some of which made 
c€25 each ; while M'Combie's blacks, and not his 
best, went for 75s. the hundred-weight. 

The vrhole framework of the Society is condensed 
into its annual book of premiums. Taking that for 
1865, we find Class I. given up to reports. These are 
subdivided again into sections ^' On Subjects con- 
nected with the Science and Practice of Agricul- 
ture,'^ " Woods and Plantations,^^ " Land Impj'ove- 
ments,^^ and ''^ Agricultural jVIachinery," i.e., ^^In- 



94 riELD AND FERN. 

vention or Improvement of Implements of Hus- 
bandry/' The reports in the last section are re- 
warded by medals or sums of money not exceeding 
fifty sovereigns ; and in the former, the prizes range 
from thirty sovereigns to a ^^ gold medium medal 
or five sovereigns/^ Class II. is devoted to District 
Competitions. All grants in aid for any year must 
be applied for by the 1st of November previous, and 
on the '65 list fourteen districts were down for cattle, 
two for draught horses, three for entire colts, three 
for Leicester sheep, two for swine, and five each for 
Cheviots and blackfaced. "The Society's premiums 
are granted to each district for three alternate years, 
on condition that the district shall, in the two inter- 
mediate years, continue the competitions by offering 
for the same description of stock a sum not less than 
one-half of that given by the Society ; and at the 
intermediate competitions a silver medal is placed at 
the disposal of the committee, to be awarded to the 
best lot exhibited.'' The money premiums are 
restricted to tenants, factors, and small proprietors, 
farming the whole of their own lands. Proprietors 
generally can only compete for silver medals ; and a 
bull or tup, for instance, belonging to a tenant, factor, 
or small proprietor cannot enter into competition for 
these medals, unless it has gained a first money pre- 
mium at a previous show. The competitions take 
place between April 1st and October 10th, and 
are open to all parties within the district, whether 
members of the local Association or not. In some 



EDINBURGH TO THE I105IAN CAMP. 95 

districts a silver medal is given to the best sheep 
shearer_, provided the district gives £2 in premiums, 
and there are three competitors. 

Class III. takes in Dairy Produce, and allots, under 
similar distinctions as to proprietors, silver medals and 
money prizes for the best couple of sweet-milk cheeses, 
and cured butter in samples not less than lllbs., but 
for three consecutive years, from dairies v^hich have 
produced not less than 1 cwt. of butter and 2 cwt. of 
cheese during the season. The Ayrshire Association 
is specially marked out for honour, and two gold 
medium medals are annually given at its Kilmarnock 
Show — one for the best lot of Cheddar, and the other 
for the best sweet-milk cheese of any other variety — 
but in either case the cheeses must have been made 
in Scotland. 

Exhibitors of seeds — not less than three-quarters 
of each variety of grain, or two quarters of 
beans or grass seeds — and the best ploughman at 
ploughing competitions of not less than fifteen 
ploughs, and the best servant manager where there 
are four reaping machines at work, are the principal 
medal claimants under Class IV., or ^^ Crops and 
Culture.^^ It, however, includes a number of silver 
medals in aid of local societies not on the list of the 
district competitions; and stock, wool, the best- 
managed farm, dsarVj green crop and hay crop, the 
best sweet-milk cheese and cured butter, the best- 
kept fences, and the best collections of roots and 
seeds, all share its favours. 



96 FIELD AND FERN. 

The most expert Ledge -cutter can be a medallist^ 
if the club in his district apply for such a decoration^ 
rind so can the labourer most expert and efficient in 
opening, lajdng, and filling drains, and otherwise 
.executing the works necessary in thorough draining. 
Tenants of well-kept cottages and gardens are 
also rewarded by money as v/ell as medals ; and the 
societies or individuals Avho establish such premiums 
at their own expense receive a silver-medal acknow- 
ledgment. The improvement of the greatest number 
of existing cottages, the erection of the greatest 
number of improved cottages of not more than j€5 
rent, inclusive of the garden, by any proprietor, 
within a certain number of years, and the erection 
of the most approved farm buildings in reference to 
the proper accommodation of farm servants, are all 
acknowledged by gold medals. 

In short, the energies of this venerable octogena- 
rian Society lia.ve only ripened with its years, till 
it m^y well be said to hold Scotland in one univer- 
sal network. Shorthorns, West Highlanders, Polls 
(Angus, Aberdeen, and Galloway), and Ayrshires are 
the four pure cattle breeds at the August Show ; 
and the Galloways have generally separate classes 
and premiums. Fat stock, either pure or cross, 
have seven classes to themselves, with :t63 and 
seven bronze medals. All cows must have had 
calves previous to the show ; if in-milk the birth. 
of the calf must have been certified within nine 
months of the show, and if in-calf, within four 



EDINBURGH TO THE HOMAN CAMP. 97 

months after. Tlie shorthorn bull no longer gets his 
fifty sovereigns ; but the aged Clydesdale stallion is 
in the post of honour with thirty sovereigns and a 
silver medal for the breeder. Leicester, Southdo^YnJ 
Cheviot, and Blackfaced are the four acknowledged 
sheep breeds ; but ^-'other" long, and short wool classes 
let in tlie Cotswold and Shrop. All the ewes must 
have reared lambs that year ; and the pen of five ewes 
not above four-shear in the Cheviot and Blackfaced 
classes must be in-milk, and have lambs at their 
foot — a plan which greatly adds to the difficulty of 
sending up a level pen and of judging. Shep- 
herds' dogs of both sexes, and not above six years old, 
have their place at last ; and the artificial colouring 
of fleeces, in which all exhibitors were beginning to 
follow the lead, in self-defence, of a great Cheviot 
winning flock, have been abolished at last by an 
order in council. In the swine classes there is no 
colour distinction, and the middle breed is not recog- 
nized ; and capons are not forgotten in the poultry 
list, which also gives the black Norfolk turkey & 
class of its own. 

The Agricultural Statistics Inquiry for Scotland 
was commenced in 1853 by an experimental trial in 
three counties at an estimated cost of j8900, whicli 
exceeded the outlay by £228. Itwas undertaken for 
the Government by the Highland Society, and con- 
ducted by its Secretary, ^Ir. Hall Maxwell, and 
enumerators in the diff*erent counties. The enume- 
rators and members of committee were all practical 

2h 



98 FIELD AND FERN. 

farmers of Ligli standing, the former receiving a small 
fee for their superintendence, and the latter no pay- 
ment whatever except for their travelling expenses, and 
no further acknowledgment but a dinner when they 
met to strike the " Estimates of Produce." In 1854 
the Inquiry was extended to the whole of Scotland, and 
annual returns were made for 1855, 1856, and 1857. 
It was managed with such tact and economy, that 
the total outlay fell short of the <:€1 4,900 estimate by 
j82,778. Owing to difficulties with the Commis- 
sioners of Audit, v/hose requirements were consi- 
dered by the Directors as " inconsistent with the 
voluntary character of the Inquiry, and of the ma- 
chinery employed, as well as Mr. Hall MaxwelFs 
position as Secretary of the Society," it was not con- 
tinued after 1857 and the rank of C.B. was given 
by the Government to Mr. Maxwell for the services 
he had rendered. 

The returns were so accurate, that when the head 
of the Ordnance survey, wishing to try how far Ord- 
nance maps might be made available for statistical 
purposes, caused the area of the grain and green 
crops in Linlithgowshire to be ascertained, the 
estimates of acreage in the two returns were only 
found to differ by 316 acres on 29,599. This varia- 
tion was quite accounted for by the minute official 
allowance for roads and fences. 

The Society's return gave 43,432 as the number 
of occupants, and 3,556,572 as the total acreage 
under rotation of cropping in the thirty-two counties 



EDINBURGH TO THE ROMAN CAMP. 99 

of Scotland,, ranking Bute and Arran as one^ and 
Orkney and Shetland as another. 

In wheat (of which Shetland had 3 acres), Fife and 
Perth were a long way a-head^ and Forfarshire third ; 
and in barley the same counties came to the fore, 
but Forfarshire had second place. Aberdeenshire 
was an easy first in oats (165,275 acres), Perthshire 
and Ayrshire close together, while Lanarkshire well 
up. In rye, Fife was first, and Elgin second ; and 
in bere the struggle was a close one between Aberdeen 
and Orkney, while Caithness and Argyllshire were far 
behind. Stirlingshire, Perthshire, Fifeshire, and 
Ayrshire, in order, were the only ones which exceeded 
3,000 acres in beans, and Berwickshire and Aberdeen- 
shire had it respectively in peas and tares. The latter 
county was some 50,000 acres a-head, in turnips, of 
Forfarshire and Perthshire, which made a very close 
race of it for second, while Berwickshire, Roxburgh- 
shire, and Dumfriesshire finished well up. Perthshire 
and Fifeshire had nothing near them for potatoes ; 
Ayrshire beat Wigtownshire in mangolds ; and Wig- 
townshire returned the compliment in carrots. Ayr- 
shire (1), Lanarkshire (2) was the cabbage return ; 
Dumfriesshire was first for rape, and Fifeshire for 
summer fallow ; and for grass and hay under rotation, 
"the Ayes had it," or rather Aberdeenshire and Ayr- 
shire. These returns were, of course, subject to the 
absolute acreage ; and when the proportional acreage 
is taken into account, Haddingtonshire is first for 
wheat and barley, Caithness for oatSj Orkney for rye 

2 H 2 



100 FIELD AND lERX. 

and bere^ Clackmannanshire for beans and peas, 
and Roxburgh sli ire for turnips. 

Aberdeenshire leads in horses, calves, and other 
cattle, but Aj^rshire beats it in cows ; and in the cattle 
total it is a sharp thing between Ayrshire and Perth- 
shire. Both in the sheep total, as well as in sheep for 
breeding and feeding, the order of Argyleshire, In- 
verness-shire, and Perthshire is maintained; but 
Dumfriesshire, which is fourth as regards the two 
first, resigns its place to Koss-shire, and comes very 
low in the last. In lambs, Argyllshire is still ahead, 
but Dumfriesshire gets the better both of Roxburgh- 
shire, Perthshire, and Inverness-shire, and beats 
every county, save Ayrshire, clean out of the field 
for pigs. Sutherlandshire is tenth in the sheep total, 
but in sheep for feeding it stands fifth. 

Having thus investigated the earlier history 
of the Society, we refreshed ourselves with a stroll 
through the Museum and the Council Chamber. 
The old museum was once a little room at the 
bottom of the Secretary's garden in Albyn-place, but 
this very different building arose in 1840 in the 
old town, and combines in itself a museum, a 
council-chamber, and committee-rooms. The first 
picture that Ave read of, in our ransacking the So- 
ciety's files, was presented by the present Mr. Ram- 
say of Barnton's grandfather, but we could not iden- 
tify it in the collection. In the committee-room, 
where we worked for four days (with occasional visit- 
ors in the shape of Mr. Gourlay Steell, Mr. Duncan, 



EDIXBUllGII TO THE IIOMAX CAMP. 101 

and the beadle), t^A^o Argyll blacks, Rliyneberg 
and Cruib, bred by Colin Campbell of Jura, and of 
^' Host, tron each, sinking offals,'^ represent the So- 
ciety's earhest " black cattle'^ love ; and a group of 
Alpacas served to recal the show at Glasgow in 1840, 
and made us think, every time we looked up at them, 
of the Poll Herd Book, and its Grey-Breasted 
Jock . 

William McDonald, the earliest secretary, in 
buckles and powder, with the charter in his hand, 
by Baeburn, faces you as you enter the Council 
Chamber. John fifth Duke of Argyll in his robes as 
a peer hangs behind the President's chair; and 
opposite him is the bust of another secretary, Gilbert 
Innes of Stow. Much of the remaining wall space 
is taken up b}^ portraits of early stock winners, but, 
one by one, the venerable antiques, both in breed 
and drawing, disappear and a Gourlay Steell 
succeeds. One of the Duke of Buccleuch's Leices- 
ter tups is there, and quaintly described as " A full 
Thomson/^ There, too, are Cheviots, black-faced, 
and an old breed from Brae Moray, with roan face 
and legs, hairy wool, and as wild as a roe-deer, and 
with lambs which are always yeaned with a red spot 
on the shoulder and the tip of the tail. Jonas Webb's 
Southdown does not lack a place, neither do white 
Berkshires, or a Western boar with a nose like an 
ant-eater. The Hereford is leggy enough ; the Fife 
bull, with his white black-tipped horns, looks ready 
either for the knife or the plough-share ; Walker's 



102 ?IELD ANI> PEUN. 

Angus cow is white on the shoulder and sparky be- 
low, and Belville and Bracelet represent the Short- 
horn interest. Duntroon and Whitestocldngs have 
gone up as king and queen of the West Highlanders, 
and Sir Colin Campbell and Colly Hill of the kjr- 
shires. A dark Suffolk chesnut still lingers on the 
walls, and so does Splendour, the most beautiful of 
Clevelands, although his breed is not in honour ; and 
Sir William Wallace and the Perth mare stand boldly 
out as the Clydesdales of the present. 

In the Museum every Scottish root and vegetable 
is modelled in wax, from the mangel-wurzel down to 
the tiniest pods. Disease has its specimens as well 
as health. One turnip has borne out the "loves of 
the plants," and though it cannot exactly be said to 

" Eye with mute tenderness its distant dam. 
And seem to bleat a vegetable lamb," 

it bears a strange affinity to a ram's head. Finger- 
and-toe has converted a potato into such a natural 
hand, that you begin to think that man may throw 
back to a vegetable as well as to an ape. A kohl- 
rabi has taken the more airy form of a purple but- 
terfly. There is also a section of the bole of every 
Scottish tree, and a case of worsteds to illustrate 
vegetable dyes. In the gallery there hangs a por- 
trait of the Dunearn ox, a spotted shapeless moun- 
tain, half Fife and half Shorthorn, with some West- 
Highlanders flanking it; but the stuffer's aid has 
not been invoked, save in the case of one huge 
horned head of the "Ovis Ammon.^' A sheep- 



EDINBURGH TO THE ROMAN CAMP. 103 

washing apparatus lies on tKe floor, with some 
model-cottage sections; and in one corner rests 
the '^old originaP^ plough, which might have 
been used in the days of Hilpah and Shalum^, 
and is still said to be seen in Skye. Eight models 
of modern ploughs are in array on the window-seat^ 
the East Lothian swing, Howard's, Ransome's, the 
turnwrestj the subsoil, and the Cunningham, with its 
long mould-board. Of wheat there are upwards of 
200 specimens, one of them the "Eenton,^' just fresh 
from Fenton Barns. Thirteen or fourteen specimens 
of the blithe and lusty barley belong to the Chevalier 
sort. Clover boasts of its nine varieties, and oats of 
its forty at least. There is the Fly-oat, more sug- 
gestive of the fish-kettle than the kail-pot ; the Sandy^ 
which ripens four or five days before the Potato ; 
Tartarian (white and black), Early Angus, Tarn 
Finlay, Blainslie, and Kildrummie, all of which the 
beadle has " heard, most highly spoken of." 

Mr. Hope, of Fenton Barns, has kindly furnished, 
us with the following synopsis of these specimens : — 



"There is a numerous collection of the various grains. The specimens of 
wheat in straw, in the npper gallerj', miniber upwards of 200, and there are 
ffO more in cases below, besides nimieroiis varieties, of which only two or three 
heads are shown, with a small sample of tpie grain of each. The varieties 
now generally cultivated in Scotland are Hunter's, Fenton, and Hopetouii. 
The first of these has long been a great favourite with the Lothian farmers. 
Of late years the Fenton has rivalled it, and perhaps now exceeds it in the 
quantity sown. This arises from its wonderful productiveness, where the soil 
is in high condition, though the quahty is barely equal to that of Hunter's. 
The Fenton, being short and stiff in the sti*aw, is not easily lodged, and it has 
been known to yield eight quarters per imperial acre, which is a great crop 
for white wheat. The Hopetoun wheat is taU in the straw, and has a beauti- 
fol appearance when growing, as it has a large square head, and the crop is 
perfectly level when it approaches maturity. The quality is also excellent. 



104 FIELD AND FERN. 



and it generally fetches Is. per quarter more than Hunter or Fenton. There 
are several specimens of woolly-eared wheats, some of which stand um-ivalled 
for milling puri)oses, and are often successfully cultivated on soft soils, but 
in iintoward seasons they suffer more than some other varieties. Gregorian, 
Brodie's, Ai'cher's Prolific, and Chidham are kinds all more or less sown. 
The last is often of great weight per bushel, and invariably sells well, but 
fi'om the smaUness of its produce it is not generally a favourite. Both Grego- 
rian and Brodie's are also noted for qiiality, and are found to be suitaljle for 
spring sowing. Red-strawed white is always in demand for seed in autumn, 
and is sent in considerable quantities both to England and Ireland; but 
though frequently highly productive and a fine sample, it has not increased 
in popular favour. Amongst the red wheats, Spalding's and Lammas Red are 
those most extensively cultivated: the fii-st is one of the most productive 
wheats known, while the last produces flour of the finest quality. 

•' There ai-e upwai'ds of 40 difierent specimens of oats in straw, besides those 
merely showing the heads with small samples of grain. In the best districts 
the Potato oat is the most extensively cultivated, as under favourable cii-cum- 
stances it stands uni-ivalled for produce and quality combined. It has Vjeen 
known to yield 12 quarters per imperial acre, weighing upwards of 441bs. per 
bushel. Its greatest drawback is its liability to shake as it approaches ma- 
nirity, and there is always a loss in harvesting it, even before it is quite ripe. 
Of late years the Sandy oat has greatly increased in favour in all high and 
fate districts, from its earliuess, the superiority of its straw, the excellent 
mealing properties of its grain in propoition to the weight per bushel, and 
its being much less liable to suffer from wind than any other variety. 
The Early Angus oat possesses some of the qualities of the Sandy, but the 
straw is shorter and comparatively inferior. The Late Angus is suitable for stiff 
and second-rate soils in tolerably' early districts, as it grows freely, and is not 
liable to tulip-root and other diseases, which sometimes overtake the Potato and 
finer varieties when sown under such circiimstances. It was a great favoiu'ite 
in the Lothians, when the land was imdi-ained and the use of artificial manm-es 
tmknoAvn. The Shu-reff oat is the earliest oat known ; the produce is fi-e- 
quently large, but from the weight per bushel being very light it is not exten- 
sively sown. The Hopetoun oat— another excellent variety, which agricul- 
rurists owe to that indefatigable improver of the cereals, :Mr. Patrick Shirreff, 
Haddington— is extensively cultivated; its (juality is about etjual to Potato 
oats, while it is much taller in the straw. The Black Tartarian is growing in 
favour, from its enormous jjroduce, and being suitable for horse feed ; but it 
is light in weight, and very easily shaken ; and the colom- is also against it. 

" There are some 36 or 38 samples of l^arley in straw, but of these the 
Chevalier is the only variety extensively cultivated. It wasnotmitil some 
lime after the introduction of this barley that the Edinburgh brewers would 
purchase it, but now they will have nothing to do with any other kind." 



ROMAN CAMP TO ATHELSTAXEFOIID. 10^ 



mum mm m mmMmmsm, 

" Yonder the coast of Fife you saw. 
There Preston Bay and Berwick Law ; 
And l)road between them rolled, 
The trallant Fi-ith the ej'e might note, 
^\'~hose islets on its liosom float. 
Like emeralds chafed in gold." 

Scott. 

Coursing at tlic Roinau Camp — "Woolmet — Dirleton Commoa — The 
Lothiau Ram Sales — CamptoAvn — Wood Pigeous — Stock in East 
Lothiau — The Grave of Phantassie— Whittingham — The Athelstane- 
ibrd Herd — The East Lothiau Hounds. 

^^ pT made no matter if the coursing was a little 
^ dull at times, there was ahA'aj^s the view, ^' 
said " Will Nightingale," when he spoke to us of the 
days when he went judging at the Roman Camp. 
You reach this fine hanging slope of plough, grass, 
and seeds, which faces the Pentland range, on one 
side, b}^ the road behind Dalkeith. It lies only 
two miles from the town, and rather less from the 
Duke^s kennels ; and yet not once within the me- 
mory of man was Will Williamson seen on the 
field. The village of New Battle lies at the foot 
of the coursing ground. Many of the best courses 
began near the present site of the coal-pits ; and 
the hare would make through Mayfield Farm to the 
iirs of the Roman Camp (that favourite Runnymede 



106 FIELD AND FERN. 

of colliers on the strike), and away by Camp Meg's 
cottage. 

The Mid-Lotliian Club, which was quite an upper- 
house among Scottish coursing clubs, held its meet- 
ings here. No betting was allowed, under divers 
pains and penalties. Every member who purposed 
attending sent his own dish to the ordinary at the 
Cross Keys. The Duke of Buccleuch furnished 
venison, Sir Graham Montgomery a haunch of black- 
face. Major Hamilton Dundas black puddings 
and haggis, Mr. Sharpe ducks of eight or nine 
pounds weight, Lord Melville pork, Mr. Cal- 
lender beef, Mr. George Wauchope perigord pie, and 
so on ; so that it was no Barmecide business. 
In fact, many of the members kept no dogs, never saw 
a course, and only appeared at dinner-time. The 
meeting came off, frost permitting, on the first Tues- 
day and Wednesday in November, and again in 
February; and Mr. Nightingale judged at twenty- 
nine in succession. He was so fond of the place 
that even w^hen the meeting clashed with the 
Waterloo he gave it the preference. Of course, 
the Waterloo card came down, and the Chief 
Justice was requested to advise upon it. He ran 
it over, and gave, we believe, the result of all the first 
courses correctly, save that between the brother and 
sister. War Eagle and Wicked Eye, on which he would 
not hazard a guess. His summing-up was still more 
remarkable. " The ground should suit Cerito and 
Neville best'^ ; and they were the winner and the 



ROMAN CAMP TO ATHELSTANEFORD. 107 

runner-up. On another occasion frost came on^ and 
Mr. Gibson initiated him into the natural mysteries 
of curling. Johnny Rogers, the livery-stable keeper, 
always horsed him ; and ^' the Chief Justice" remem- 
bers well how a boy galloped up to him on his first 
appearance, with some sort of confused message in 
his head that '^ Mr. Wauchope has sent me to tell 
you, sir, which way the hares go" ; and how that 
green courier stared at the reply, '^ I shall soon find 
that out for myself.'^ 

Mr. Sharpe, with Will Carfrae as his man-at- 
arms, was always in great force with his jokes ; and 
it was remembered for many a long day how he and 
his pony were bogged at Crichton. The hares were 
very good, and on the occasion when Mr. John 
Wauchope^s Claret v/on the Tureen, there were 
more than ninety dogs, with Monarch among them. 
The meetings were given up on the death of Mr. 
George Wauchope, who had long officiated as honor- 
ary member ; and the Champion Cup, to which eYerj 
fresh holder added a little shield with an in- 
scription, was presented to his wddow. The Club 
died rich, and the members devoted themselves to 
dining the funds away, and have not finished yet. 
Many of the fields have been divided with double 
rails, and hardly a " So -ho I" is. heard there now. 

After our tour of inspection which Mr. Sharpe, 
ever loyal to old friends and old times, charged us to 
make or never speak to him more, we harked back 
to Woolmet, where Mr. Gibson is equally fond of 



108 riELD AND rEllN. 

his farm, his poultry, his greyhounds, his flowers, his 
Shropshire Downs, and his Cotswolds, let alone the 
old sorrel mare and her line. Dorkings and Rouens 
have always been his feathered favourites ; and it was 
with the Woolmet, the Mellerstain and the Comiston 
lots that the Edinburgh January poultry sales began. 
He has bred Cotswolds to cross with half-bred ewes 
for these eight or nine years past, and raised 
his flock in the first instance from Lane, Hewer, and 
Handy. The fat lambs have made high prices in the 
Edinburgh market, and Mr. Gibson hopes ultimately 
to see both them and the Shrops (which jNIr. Randell 
selected for him) holding their own with the Leices- 
ters and the Southdowns. Lord Wemyss has also a 
small Cotswold flock, and so has Mr. Scot Skirving ; 
and a tup and twelve ewes of Mr. Beale Browne's have 
come to Mr. Reed's of Drem ; but it is to his lord- 
ship, Mr. Skirving, and Mr. Gibson that the High- 
land Society competition has hitherto been confined. 
At Woolmet there are one hundred and sixty 
ewes in the Cotswold, and eighty in the Shrop- 
shire flock, which is of much more recent date ; and 
so far Mr. Gibson has been enabled to get £3 or ^4 
for his tup lambs, and £6 to o€14 for his shearling 
tups. 

He has been a courser for more than thirty 
years ; and the Caledonian coursing picture by Ans- 
dell, which hangs over his side-board bears its 
silent record to many a good comrade passed 
away. His trainer Robert ^Murray's talk is more 



ROMAN CAMP TO ATHELSTAN EFORD. 109 

of dogs than of men. He is full of Violet, who 
won that picture^ and her sire Victor to boot ; 
of Stanley of Dirleton and Malleny St. Leger 
memory ; of Shepherdess^ who ran a decider with 
Blue Light ; of Grasper^ who was never beaten in 
his first season^ and killed fifty-four out of his fifty- 
six hares by "just nipping 'em in the rump'' ; of 
Lassie by Jacobite out of Sister to King Lear^ and 
the bitch which beat Clive in the run-up for the 
great Caledonian St Leger the only time that 
Waterloo crack ever was beaten ; of Barman^ who 
was carted back by mistake (when his leader had 
been seized with a fit), instead of being brought out 
for the deciding course at Amesbury ; and of Ayr- 
shire Laddie, Caledonian, and Nimrod, '^ all by old 
Sam, and all much about it ! '^ Sam was after Mr. 
Nightingale's own heart, " with a beautiful style of 
running — so true that you might ride miles after him 
without ever seeing his nob — and with quite a grey- 
hound face like Sunbeam's" ; and the veteran 
loves to tell how astonished Squire Osbaldeston 
was when he ran clean away from his dog at 
Amesbury. Bobert/s old bay, with some five-and- 
thirty years on his head, still occupies the stall in the 
kennel, where Snowflake,aud old Oscar — both spotted, 
ones, and one of them suckled by a cat to begin with 
— Golden Dream, the game old white, Coorooran, and 
the black Agility, once first favourite for the Water- 
loo Cup kept him in company. The two blacks — Gun- 
ner and Gunboat, bv Jacobite from Cazzarina — were 



110 FIELD AND PERN. 

only saplings then. The latter, a very racing-like^ 
strongbacked dog;, was walked by Mr. Tom Welsh at 
Ericstane, and he has proved himself a high-class one 
by the style in which he has run forward in three or 
four great stakes. Manganese was rejoicing in 
the paddock, and a lot of Beacon puppies, one 
of them old Frolic to the life ; while Mary Mor- 
ton had ten rolling over her, all white, with brin- 
dled spots on the head and ear, and a double cross 
of Wigan. 

Next morning we were eighteen miles " from 
Edinburgh town," among the great Lothian arables 
— " good land," according to Carlyle, " now that the 
plougher understands his trade," and, in fact, ^^ fit," 
as Mr. Randell exclaimed, when he first saw it, ^' to 
grow potatoes for all England." In that grand dis- 
trict to the left of Drem, and stretching away towards 
North Berwick Law and *' Bass among the Waters," 
the well-filled stack-garths and chimneys of Hope of 
Fenton Barns, Deans and Handyside of East and 
West Fenton, Todd of Castlemains, Begbie of Queens- 
ton Bank, Gray of Kingston, Hay of Chapel, and 
Sadler of Ferrygate dot the landscape, and tell of the 
richness and fatness of the land , in spite of wheat at 
forty shillings a quarter. Within that four-mile area 
there are no less than five private steam ploughs, 
none of them verifying their sarcastic welcome to the 
district, that they " would require an engineer at one 
end and a banker at the other." 

But coursing, and not corn, was our mission ; and 



ROMAN CAMP TO ATHELSTANEFORD. Ill 

crossing over the village green hard by the ivied 
ruins of Dirleton Castle, and so past the lodge 
gates of the lord of the soil, the Hon. Nisbet Hamil- 
ton (at whose steam-plough banquet in the Castle 
garden Richard Cobden, in the autumn of '62, 
made his last Scottish speech), we were on Dirleton 
Common with the dogs at last. It is a pleasant spot, 
almost within hail of Gullane, w^here Lanercost once 
cleared his pipes in good air, and Philip broke in 
Terity the heart of Ballochmyle ; but the green 
woods of Dirleton fringe it on the left, and lure 
many a hare to cover. There are sixty members of 
the Dirleton Club, to which there is a two-guinea 
entrance, and nothing more. Mr. Callender, the 
honorary secretary, who is ever constant to Lytham 
and the Waterloo and all the Scottish meetings, "has 
the happy knack of holding a meeting twice in the 
season, never asking for annual subscriptions, and yet 
having money in hand.^^ 

There are very few bad hares on the Barony, 
and the memory is still green of one of 11 libs, which 
was found on a stubble, and killed, by Mr. Gib- 
son^s Pruth, a daughter of Sam, and then carried in 
triumph to Mr. Begbie's to be weighed. The stub- 
bles (whose hares pleased Mr. Nightingale best) are 
very good in October, but the common has fallen 
off, and become a prey to the rabbits and the moles; 
and the state of Coorooran-'s head after a trial, which 
decided that he and not Golden Dream would go for 
the Waterloo Cup, was a bleeding protest against the 



112 FIELD AND FERN. 

Avire fences round it. Kingwater onh^ arrived from 
Longtown in time to try a puppy in one of the large 
Woolmet stubbles ; and Clasper by Clansman, fresh 
from running up to Dunoon at the Border meeting, 
was the illustrious stranger. He had at least 61bs. 
too much flesh on him, and was led by a most en- 
thusiastic boy, who was overjoyed when neither 
Ivy nor Golden Horn was able to cope with his 
red. 

Leicesters, which are used for crossing half-bred and 
Chevi'ot cast ewes from the upper and middle districts 
of the Border counties, as well as Selkirkshire, and 
the farms at the foot of the Lammermoors, are the 
tups most in demand in East Lothian, though 
Southdowns hold their own pretty well, and Cots- 
wolds and Shrops are creeping gradually in. Once 
there were a few Bakewells at George Weirds of 
Scoughall, but the breed wore out. He once met with 
old Bob Barford of Foscote, and there was a joke 
that, after dining together and exchanging minds 
upon " the original Bakewells," they embraced, and 
agreed to share the philosopher's stone. The East 
Lothian men go for the true Border type, high on 
the leg and big in the lug, and lay against the blue- 
faces and the bare-bellies as heavily in the Edin- 
burgh as the Borderers do in the Kelso ring. Open 
coats are also a great point with them, so as to keep 
clear of the Cheviots. Blue-faces, they maintain, do 
not travel so well, and are not so hardy; and in this 
the Skipton men bear them out. Against bare- 



ROMAN CAMP TO ATHELSTAXEFORD. 113 

bellies they may well wage war, as they have to fold 
their sheep on heavy clay land, which becomes so 
wet by the end of November that they are obliged 
to shift them to the stubbles or old grass (if they have 
any), and cart the turnips on. Unfortunately there 
is far too little old grass in Haddingtonshire ; and 
independently of there not being a permanent bite 
on it for the stock, the seeds cannot resist the sum- 
mer heat nearly so well. 

Mr. Lees of Maringston, Mr. Smith of Steven- 
son Mains, Mr. Hope of Fenton Barns (the chairman 
of the Scottish Chamber of Agriculture), and Mr. 
Balfour of Whittingham, who bought Sam Wiley's 
first-prize pen of gimmers at Edinburgh, and won 
the second shearling prize when the Highland Society 
met at Kelso in '63, are the only Leicester tup 
breeders, so to speak, in East Lothian, though Mr. 
Ainslie of Costerton (the owner of Duke of Tyne, 
and a shorthorn winner of late years) may be said 
to ^^ march'' with it. The ram sales, which have 
been such a hit at Kelso, have been gradually ex- 
tended to Edinburgh, under the auspices of the 
" Lothian Ram Society." Some even of the Kelso 
breeders prefer sending there, and the two rings of 
1863 became four last September. 

On that day there were .twenty-four lots of 
Leicester s, and the highest average was £9 14s. for 
twenty-eight of the Duke of Buccleuch's. His Grace's 
prize shearling of the day was at the head of them, 
and was sold for £50. A score from IMr. Ain- 

2 I 



114 FIELD AND FERN. 

sie^s, of Costerton, who had the second-prize shear- 
ling and the first-prize aged ram, averaged £1 18s. 
9d. ; but none of them made more than j£,22. Mr. 
Watson of Esperston, who was second for aged tups, 
stood third, with an average of £7 5s. lid. for thirty. 
Mr. Gibson beat the Earl of Wemyss in the Cotswold 
competition, and his sixteen averaged £1 10s. 6d. 
The highest-priced sheep in the Gosford and Woolmet 
lots made c£13 5s., and just one other lot of Cotswolds 
was exposed. There were only two lots of South- 
downs, a class of sheep for which no prize was given, 
and the prices ranged from :€6 to ^3. 

Mr. Moffat of Kinleith was first and second for the 
shearling Cheviots, and an average of <:€8 for twenty- 
seven, with <£14 10s. for the premier, was the signifi- 
cant commentary upon his success. In the blackfaced 
class, the first and second prizes were awarded to Mr. 
Wilson of Crosshouse, whose average of .£7 for twenty- 
seven, with .€.20 15s. as the top price, was far beyond 
any of the seven lots "with the curly horn .^' 

The Duke of Buccleuch keeps from seventy to 
eighty Border Leicesters, and for nine years past 
has used Lord Polwarth's tups. The shearling tups 
are sold generally at Edinburgh, and the draft ewe 
hoggs go to Ireland. His Grace also keeps a large 
flock of half-bred ewes, which he crosses with the 
Leicesters, and sells the lambs. The pure shorthorn 
stock at Dalkeith numbers some iive-and-twenty 
head, and Booth blood is followed with the bulls. 
At present the cows are in-calf to Royal Errant by 



ROMAN CAMP TO ATHELSTANEFORD. 115 

Mr. John Booth^s Knight Errant, dam by Booth's 
Cardigan. This bull has rather revived the days 
when the Duke was wont to be so often in the van 
of the Highland Society^s shorthorn classes, as he 
beat the second- prize Royal Nev/castle bull at Stirling 
last August. It is also well worthy of notice that 
he and another first-prize winner, Mr. Mitchells 
Blue Belle were both from Cardigan cows bred by 
Mr. Wood of Stanwick Park, near Darlington. A 
good many crosses of all sorts are also fed off in the 
Park, and a dairy of from twenty-five to thirty Ayr- 
shires is kept to supply Dalkeith House. In and 
round it his Grace keeps about 500 acres of old grass 
and arable in his own hand. Mr. Black, who brought 
out so many Highland Society winners, is dead, and 
has been succeeded by Mr. James Deans, brother to 
Lord PolwartVs factor. 

Mr. Aitchison of Alderson, Mr. Scot Skirving of 
Camptown, Mr. Sprot of Spot, Major Hunter of 
Thurston, and Mr, Nisbett Hamilton, all breed South- 
downs ; and Mr. Skirving has had a pretty fair share 
for some years past of the Highland Society prizes. 
Forty years ago, his late father began at Camp- 
town with a small lot of Southdowns, selected 
by Mr. Giblett, the well-known London salesman. 
Then came a high-priced tup from Lord Jersey, for 
which his lordship had given £90, at a time when he 
had a flock of 1,100 ewes. In those days their wool 
was worth 2s. 6d. per lb., and was very much sought 
rafter by the makers of hats. Other tups succeeded 

2 J 2 



116 riELD AND FERX. 

from Hugh Watson of Keillor, and for twenty years 
past none have been used except from J onas A¥ ebb's 
and the Duke of Richmond's flocks. For a long time 
the Camptown flock did not catch the judges' eye at 
the Highland Society. Two seconds at Paris, where 
Mr. Skirvinghad also a prize for wheat, were the pre- 
cursor of better things ; and at Aberdeen and Stir- 
ling alone his winnings were very little short of 
jBIOO. At the Royal Irish Belfast show, one year, he 
had also all the first and second prizes. He bought 
twenty-five ewes at the Babraham sale, and with 
that exception the flock were bred at home. It 
averages four score, and about three hundred half- 
breds are kept to be crossed with Leicesters or South- 
downs for earh^ lambs or hogging. Each year he 
sells about twenty- five Southdown tups, the majority 
of which are bought at home for crossing or sent to 
the colonies. The recent price of wool has not 
helped the sale, but it has revived again of late. 

No one has spoken more eff'ectively with his pen, 
than he has done in the Cornhill and elsewhere, against 
the abuses of the bothy system, or stated the real 
position of the Scottish labourer, from more close 
and searching observation. He has thrown him- 
self with equal energy into the wood -pigeon crusade, 
where, unlike the Christian Advocate at Cambridge, 
he has not annually to beat the air and confute an 
imaginary sceptic. The case for the wood-pigeon has* 
been stated as follows : '^ They cannot dig with their 
beak and feet : thev remove beans and other seeds 



RO:tIAN CAMP TO ATHELSTAXEFORD. 117 

wasted by careless and slovenly farming : they eat 
wild mustard, charlock, silver-weed^ goose-grass, and 
other seeds which would become weeds, as well as the 
roots of tanzy in limestone ; and they divert atten- 
tion from the melancholy cry of the cuckoo." 

Mr. Skirving considers that the ^'balance of power" 
of which the wood-pigeon was said to be so conserva- 
tive has been completely destroyed, and thus argues 
the point : ^' In the first place, it is only since im- 
proved cultivation introduced its clovers and early 
spring crops that the wood-pigeon has been attracted 
in such numbers from more northern districts ; and, 
in the second place, the ^ balance of power^ was de- 
stroyed when game preservators almost extirpated 
our birds of prey, and in particular the magpie. 
Those writers who think that because the wood- 
pigeon feeds on wild seeds as well as grain it is there- 
fore innoxious are entirely in error. The bird is an 
epicure as well as a glutton, and its weeds bear the 
same proportion to its corn that Falstaff^s half-penny 
worth of bread did to his intolerable amount of sack. 
As illustrating the wood-pigeon^s powers of destruc- 
tion in winter, I may mention that some years ago I 
had twenty acres of rape- seed, Avhich was attacked 
by such multitudes that, though the man sent to 
watch it killed twelve hundred in one week, yet the 
pigeons won the battle, and ate up every particle of 
the crop. Then in summer, though each bird has his 
crop crammed with corn till it resembles a cricket- 
.ball, the food consumed bears no proportion to the 



118 FIELD AND FSRN. 

food destroyed. They fix on a part of a wheat-field 
where the grain inclines to one side ; they trample it 
flat, and beat out the corn with their strong wings, 
and leave nothing but broken and blackened straw." 

The rook he considers to be " quite an agricultural 
sainV^ by the side of the wood-pigeon, and thus 
points out the extenuating circumstances in favour of 
" the gentleman in black," whom the Ettrick Shep- 
herd defended in mole shape ; " The rooks, while 
following the plough, may, indeed, by some rare 
chance pick up a stray grub, but they are there for 
the purpose of feeding tipon the earthworm, one of 
the best, if humblest, auxiliary cultivators we have ; 
while the presence of crows among the turnip-fields 
in early summer indicates the existence of grub; 
they are then never disturbed, as their operations are 
wholly for good." 

The East-Lothian men, more especially those 
who farmed near the sea, were once very fond of 
using the Southdown tup, and selling early lamb. 
Then the Irish lamb competition was so strong in 
the Edinburgh market, that hogging seemed likely 
to pay best. Gradually the inferior quality of the 
Irish lamb has told against it, and some breeders are 
again resorting to the Southdown and half-bred cross. 
Mr. Peter M'Clagan^s recent success with Southdown- 
Dorset iambs, which were dropped in December and 
sold well in January, one of them as high as 54s. for 
501b. live weight, is making the Dorset ewe fashion- 
able, and Mr. Skirving, among others,has boughtsomCc 



ROMAN CAMP TO ATHELSTANEFOllD. 119 

Most East Lothian farmers liogg and shear their 
lambs, and sell them fat in spring and early summer. 
When the breeders do not hogg them, they sell them 
for that purpose to feeders in the county about the time 
of St. BoswelPs fair; and the cross-bred lambs from 
the Lammermoor farms go up then to the little East 
Lothian fair of Oldhamstocks. On the low farms 
cast half-bred ewes bougjit in from 38s. to 40s., 
from Gala Water and all the district through which 
the North British runs from Edinburgh to Hawick, 
are in a majority of ten to one over the Cheviot, 
The cast Cheviot ewes at about 28s. greatly prepon- 
derate on the higher farms. They come for the 
most part from Peebleshire and the Lammermoors. 
where they graze on the braes and the best of the 
hill land, while the blackfaces hold the muir ground 
on the summits ; and some farmers go to Falkirk for 
them. Mr. Douglas speaks of them as good nurses^ 
not perhaps so prolific as the half-bred ewe, but 
rearing their lambs to a greater weight when kept 
till they are wedders, and feeding nearly as well. It is 
always desirable that the lambs should be dropped in 
April. If they are sold fat off grass, they are gene-- 
rally gone by Midsummer, and then the ewes get 
cake and corn, and are turned off fat before the end of 
July. If ewes stay on the farm for eleven months they 
pay about eight-pence to nine-pence a week, including 
the lamb, but the lack of young grass prevents their 
being kept to any great extent. Efforts have been: 
made to supplement young grass by mangold, but;. 



120 FIELD AND TERX. 

to use the words of Mr. Sadler (who introduced the 
iirst steam plough to East Lothian, and came second 
with a capital sow at Stirling), ^' mangold is a perfect 
hoax in our climate/^"'^ 

Haddington — where the East Lothian Farmers^ 
Club hold such animated discussions, and differ so 
widely on some points of sheep practice — is becoming 
a great fat market, and on June 1st of last year a 
lot of Southdown-Cheviot lambs made 34s. at the 
weekly public auction. If farmers are short of lambs 
they often buy rough hoggs or hill-tails at the House 
of Muir. Near " the grim, old honey-combed Castle 
of Dunbar," where the "red soil potatoes*^ have no 
London market compeers, and along the higher dis- 
tricts of the country where the arables die away into 
the Lammermoors, some of them keep blackfaced or 
Cheviot wedders, which they buy or bring down from 



* This gentleman gave the following, in a recent speech at the Haddington 
Fanners' Club, as his exijeiience of the ditferent kuids of sheep introduced into 
East Lothian : "In 1859 he was in the south of England, and he was very 
much struck with the prices which they were getting for the Hampshire Down 
sheep. He bought thhty ewes at 50s., and a ram, but they rather disappomted 
him. Each ewe had not a lamb; and they had also less wool than his half- 
Ijreds. He kept them as hoggs, and they had brought five shillings more than 
his half-breds, Imthewas certain these beasts ate 10s. more than the others. 
They were very easily fattened, bvit they wei-e tremendous consumers. He 
saw the ewes getting lat upon his pastm-es in the summer months, and he sent, 
tbemoff. He haiipenedto meet his landlord at the Lincoln show, who told 
him the immense i)vices that were got for Lincoln hoggs, and also for Lincoln 
wool. He bought furty Lincolns in 1861 at 54s., but he was disappointed with 
them also. Thty were long-necked, and the wool in wet weather seemed to 
lie hke silk on then- backs. He took a notion that they were also great con- 
sumers, and not very ready fatteners, and he put them away ]>ecause they did 
not bruig a higher piice than his half-bred hoggs. He had not had any expe- 
rience as to the effects of crossing the Lincoln sheep with other breeds. He 
also tried the Cots wolds, but he did not find them very prolific. The Cotswold 
had a lamb each, but were veiy liad milkers ; but the Cotswolds might come 
ap in spring. He thought these sheep requu-ed extra crops, and he could not 
grow a crop of winter tares [in consequence of the hai-es. He thought that, 
with theii' high rents, they could not afford to keep large breeding stocks of 
sheep; and if they were to increase the number of sheep, they must do so 
merely by pui-chase." 



ROMAN CAMP TO ATHELSTAXEl OKI). ]2l 

their own hill-farms^ and put on turnips. The latter 
are also bought by the low-country farmers, and are 
kept on turnips with cake and corn all winter. In 
fact, all through the winter, feeding as in Fife goes 
on to a great extent, and in 1853 Mr. George Hope 
sold off a farm of 653 imperial acres, 1,200 sheep, 
90 cattle, and 100 pigs. Major Hunter of Thurs- 
tonfield farms on a large scale at Thurston, Thurs- 
ton Plains, and Woodhall, at the edge of the Lam- 
mermoors. and breeds both pure Cheviots, South- 
downs, Leicesters, and half-breds. His crosses are 
Southdown tup Avith half-bred ewe, and Leicester 
tup Avith Southdown ewe, and last year the return of 
ewe and wedder hogg prices, at his annual fat and 
store sale of cattle and sheep in June, showed an ad- 
vantage in favour of the former cross. 

Shorthorns, Polls, and Shetlanders are all on the 
Major^s sale-list, and some of the latter averaged at 
the last sale £16 5s. a head. The cattle buyers in 
East Lothian principally go to Jedburgh, Linton, 
Dalkeith, Berwick, Hallow, and the Falkirks in 
September and October, and to Hallow Fair in No- 
vember for six-quarter and two-year-old stirks. 
They give them turnips and oat-straw in the yards, 
and finish them off with six weeks^ cake and bean- 
meal, for Newcastle and the Southern markets in the 
spring. The younger ones are kept, and soiled with 
clover, grass, and tares, and sold oft' after six weeks of 
turnips. The more moderate beasts, as a general 
rule, go to Edinburgh, and the heaviest to London, 



122 FIELD AND FERN. 

Manchester, Wakefield, and Newcastle. Many men 
will feed from fifty to a hundred, all shorthorn 
crosses. 

A few West Highlanders and Shetlanders may creep 
in, but scarcely any polls. There is no induccDaent 
to tie them up, as the climate is good, and they are 
mostly kept in small open courts with good sheds, 
and very seldom in boxes. As regards oat-straw, 
horses get the preference, and the cattle have to fall 
back on barley, wheat, and bean straw as it is 
thrashed out. The straw is very seldom given 
chopped and, if there is enough to spare from the 
horses, the cows get next turn. 

" Of the softer turnips, the white globe occupies 
the largest space, but it has been to some extent dis- 
placed by the Greystone, a species recently intro- 
duced, which produces the heaviest crop of any 
variety. Being very soft, and liable to injury from 
the frost, its use is restricted to the early part of the 
season, a circumstance which must always tend to 
circumscribe the extent of its cultivation. Skirving's 
purple-top succeeds the earlier turnips, whilst green 
and yellow varieties follow as the food of the farm 
till Christmas, when the Swede becomes the reliance 
of the farmer for all animals, save breeding ewes, for 
which white or yellow turnips are reserved. An an- 
nual sweepstakes, which is held under the auspices 
of the local agricultural society, shows the following 
as the highest weights on the best five acres of 
turnips of different sorts — Swedes 31 tons 18 



ROMAN CAMP TO ATHELSTANEFORD, 123 

cwt., yellow 36 tons 10 cwt., white 45 tons per 
acre/^* 

We were hardly likely to pass through East Lothian 
without visiting the resting-place of Rennieof Phan- 
tassie^ the friend of Lord Leicester and Christian 
Curwen, and of all the first breeders of his time, and 
perhaps the man who did more than any other to 
encourage a pure shorthorn taste in Scotland. Two 
other noted men lie in Preston Kirk. Hugh Ram- 
ad ge, the faithful servant of " Phantassie^^ for eight- 
and-fifty years, was the first to go. He died in ^28^ 
and only a few months after his old master had placed 
a stone ^^ in testimony of respect to his memory/' he 
himself had his summons on the verge of eighty. 
His hard-working Boswell, Brown of Markle soon 
followed him, and left behind him two very 
sombre-looking volumes, with mottoes from Pliny 
and Thomas a Kempis, and dedicated to Sir John 
Sinclair. The volumes are hardly such a record of 
the Northern Bates as we had hoped to find them ; 
but they tell how, in 1811, he assured his incredu- 
lous countrymen that the beasts which would ere 
long become their beef staple " were wider and 
thicker in their form or mould" than the ones they 
cherished, " and cousequently feeding to the most 
weight, and yielding the greatest quantity of tallow." 

Young Phantassie was of a more dashing turn, and 
bought cows at high prices from Wetherell and 



* " Ten Years of East Lothian Fanning," by Mr. Soot Sldrving (" Eoyal 
Agiicultnral Society's Jwzroal," :LIarch, 1865). 



124 FIELD AND FERN. 

Mason. His most noted feat was coming direct 
North when wheat had risen 8s. in London, getting 
oiF the mail at Belford, where the bags were shifted 
and sent on in a mail gig, beating the post by two 
hours into Edinburgh, and buying very largely for 
the rise. His last speculation was to bring a ship 
•load of cattle from Shetland ; but it sunk, with him- 
self and all hands on board. Every trace of the 
primitive steading at Phantassie has disappeared, but 
the shorthorn spirit still thrives at Whittingham^ 
since Mr. Charles Smith came there in 1852 from 
Hill Head, and Prince Loth and Great Seal have 
been the leading evidences. 

The King Loth of antiquity lived near North 
Berwick, and had a daughter who " made sheep^s 
€yes" at a swineherd. Any little parental obstacle to 
OurtVs happiness, on the score of blood or settlements, 
was promptly overcome by his shooting the King in a 
morass. The Dryasdusts cannot tell whether he 
married the daughter, but they dug like ghouls for a 
fortnight at the edge of the Whittingham property, 
in the hope of discovering the royal sepulchre, and 
didn^t. A live bull proved better than a dead king to 
Mr. Balfour, who did not care for the bones, but sold 
his King Loth to New Zealand. Great Seal went to 
a Sunderland butcher when his show days (during 
which he beat Forth at Perth) were over, and his 
216 stone of 141bs. nearly rivalled the weight of the 
Durham ox. One of the family. Lady Seal, was left, 
and The Belle tribe, as well as the Lady tribe, were 



IIOMAN CAMP TO ATHELSTANEFOKD. 12^ 

all crossed hy liim ; wliile "Rose of May by Sir James^ 
the Rose, and Lady of the Manor were put to Royal 
Standard. 

Mr. Balfour, whose father died nine years since,, 
in the very prime of life and usefulness, owns nearly 
seven thousand acres round Whittingham, of which six 
hundred belong to the home-farm. It is principally 
on the red sandstone, and has taken many prizes for 
grain and roots, more especially on its loam. At 
the steading, where the turkeys and poultry betoken 
a fancier's care, we found some Great Seal bullocks,, 
many of them from the dozen dairy cows. The calves- 
all get milk from the pail and a little oilcake the first 
winter, they are grazed the next summer, and then 
gradually carried on with turnips, cake, and corn till 
they are shown at the United East Lothian or Had- 
dington in the spring, where hitherto they have 
had the first and second prizes for lots of five. Great 
Seal left four crops of calves behind him, and the 
last were j ust being dropped. Prince Loth, who was 
second both at Newcastle and Stirling in his class 
last year, is very much of the same lengthy, thick- 
fleshed type as his father, and likely to be as good in 
his generation as a steer- getter. His dam, Rose of 
May by Sir James the Rose, a fine big cow, with 
the regular family horn, stood side by side in the- 
byre, with Lady of the Manor opposite Northern- 
Belle and her calf, those relics of Hill Head ; and 
Lady Blanche, a cow of no great pretensions her^ 
self, but the dam of the prize heifer Lady Windsor^ 



126 FIELD AND FERN. 

was with the dairy lot. This good heifer was highly 
commeuded at Newcastle, and third at Stirling, where 
she, at all events, beat all the Scottish lot ; and a 
double cross of her Lady Blanche blood had told 
well on British Standard. 

There are from 100 to 120 Leicester ewes, and 80 
half-breds in the home flock. The former are princi- 
pally bred from Cockburn of Sisterpath, Hardy of 
Harrietfield, and Simson of CourthiJl : and some of 
their own prize tups have been used as well. We 
found them in a glen of old grass of thirty years' 
standing, which has made many a shorthorn man's 
mouth water with honest envy. The Wbittingham 
burn flows along it, among the elm and beechen 
shade for miles. Still, we hardly took in its real 
beauty till we had scaled the ruined tower of 
the old Wbittingham Castle, and looked away to 
the vast arables, which no longer keep their 
"fallow sabbaths^' round Traprain and Berwick 
Law. 

Below were the Wbittingham gardens, rich in the 
rarest trees, the dark shade of BothwelFs yew, with a 
still darker story annexed, and the grove in which 
a solitary monument stands to record that it was 
once the burial-ground of the Drumelzier family. 
Tlie laurel and the bay wear the glossy sheen, which 
the red sandstone fosters, and which no frost can 
blight ; and beyond, towards the Lammermoors, and 
towering above still lochs which we wot not of, are 
the oaks and larches on the hill which make up the 



ROMAN CAMP TO ATHELSTANEFORD. 127 

sure find of Presraennan, The eye wanders coast • 
wards along the glen_, over wooded masses^ to 
Tyningham and Newbyth, dear to old Meltonians 
for Sir David^s memory^ and so away to Dunbar, 
and the Pass of Dunglass^ where Cromwell foiled 
the foe on that fearful nighty when the " sea and 
the tempests are all abroad, all asleep but we_, and 
there is One who rides upon the wings of the 
wind/^ 

A drive of eight miles across country brought us 
to Mr. Douglases homestead at Athelstaneford. It 
lies at the foot of the glen, down which the Cocktail 
Burn — whose wa.ters are connected, in Scottish his- 
tory, with a bloody day between Athelstane and the 
Picts — flows from the Garlton Hills. On the highest 
point of the latter stands the Hopetoun Monument, 
to te]] of valour in a more glorious field. In modest 
contrast to it is the obelisk, just rising from the 
centre of the village green, which the zeal of the 
present minister, Mr. Whitelaw, has reared to the 
memory of Blair, who, like the author of '' Douglas,^^ 
was one of his predecessors at the manse, and sleeps 
in the kirk-yard. 

Traprain Law is on the right, and running gra- 
dually out near Dunbar is the bold range of the 
Lammermoors, which Mr. Pusey skirted on his 
second agricultural visit to East Lothian; while 
below you is the deeply-wooded valle}^, which seems 
to reach for miles, from Gilmerton House to that 
'' grim niched barrier of whinstone" which shelters 



128 FIELD AND FERN. 

this fertile land from '^ the chafings and tumblings 
of the big, blue German Ocean/^ 

Mr. Douglas occupies a farm of three hundred 
acres at Athelstaneford, belonging to Sir David Kin- 
loch ; and he also holds Muirhouses, of two hundred 
and fifty acres, under Earl of Wemyss, about a mile 
and a-half from it. The pure-bred short-horns were 
kept entirely at Athelstaneford, where Mr. Douglas 
resides, and the store-cattle at Muirhouses. The 
whole is principally dry-field land, with, in some 
places, a large admixture of clay ; and, with the ex- 
ception of six acres, there is no old grass. The sys- 
tem is the six-break one : about seventy to eighty 
acres are annually sown in turnips, and from eight 
to ten in mangels, of which, in his prize -cattle days, 
he preferred the orange globe variety. 

There is much to remind one of the old love. The 
heads of Sir James the Rose and Rose of Summer are 
sculptured on the garden vases, among some scores of 
other roses of every kind and hue, and they live again 
from the head to the hocks in painted glass windows. 
Still, botany has quite supplanted bull-calves, and 
useful farm buildings with a clock replace those 
ancient tenements and the rocky fastness from which 
Sir James the Rose used to sally. 

Lalla Rookh's, Ringlet's, and Rose of Summer's are 
the only heads preserved. Lallans wore the rosette 
at the Highland and the Yorkshire shows ; but she 
was jammed against a wall by a cart, and died after 
breeding one calf. " The Rose'^ is also in a picture 



RO:SIAN CAMP TO ATHELSTAXEFORD. 129 

with Captain Balco (12546), tlie sire of her calves 
Rose of Athelstane and Sir James the Rose; and 
Water Lily shares her canvas honours with Snip 
the Clydesdale mare who gained the Royal Eng- 
lish prize at Carlisle. The silver medals are not 
to be sought for in a cloud of cases, but they have all 
been melted up, and form a tree, with the old down- 
horn family group at its base, and twenty-eight gold 
medals hanging like the apples of the Hesperides 
from its boughs. 

The Provost (4846), from a daughter of Colonel 
Cradock^s old Cherry, and Melrose by Gainford 
(2044), one of her sons, first attracted Mr. Douglas 
at the Highland Society^s Show at Edinburgh in 
1842, and his improved shorthorn impressions date 
from that day. Still, it was not until 1846, when 
the Royal Society met at Newcastle, that he made 
any extensive purchases. Bellevillp (6778) was then 
all the rage, and it was with two yearling heifers by 
him that he won the second and third prizes in their 
class at Aberdeen, the following summer. In that 
year he also bought Florence of the Booth's Fare- 
well tribe, and Lalla Rookh at Mr. Carruthers of 
Dormont's sale, the former of which he parted with 
to Mr. Bolden, senior. His early prize winnings 
were not confined to females, as;^ in 1848, when his 
name was fairly established in Scotland, he not only 
got the second cow prize at the Royal Irish, but won 
with his Red Rover in the yearling-bull class, beating 
the Hon. Mr. Nugent's celebrated Bamboo. 



130 PIELD AND FERN. 

When he determined on having a sale in 1852, he 
hired Mr. Maynard^s prize roan bull Crusade 
(7938), whom he still holds to have been far the best 
in England of his day, in order to have his cows all 
served by him. Among them was Rose of Autumn, 
which he bought at the sale of Mr. La Touche, in 
Ireland, into whose possession her dam Pelerine, and 
Polka, those celebrated Killerby twins by Bucking- 
ham (3239) from Mantalini had passed by private 
contract. Her first calf at Athelstaneford was Rose 
of Summer by Velvet Jacket (10998), which pleased 
Mr. Douglas so much, that he determined to reserve 
her along with her half-sister Lady Like by Stars and 
Stripes (12148), Scottish Blue Bell by Captain Shafto 
(6833), Marchioness by Belleville, Purity by Crusade, 
and Second Queen of Trumps by Belleville, which 
he purchased from Mr. Unthank of Netherscales for 
120 guineas, as, the nucleus of a second herd. 

Up to the time of his sale, he had won fifty-nine pre- 
miums and eight commendations for cattle, and Rose 
of Summer and Scottish Blue Bell, who were on more 
than one occasion first and second to each other, 
^^took up the running'^ right gaily in the new era, 
till the latter went to Mr. Corwin of Ohio. Rose of 
Autumn and Village Belle were parted with at the 
sale, with leave to exhibit them at the Highland 
Society the following week, where they won the 
prizes in their respective classes ; and then the former, 
who was nursing Rose of Summer, went with 
Brenda (in-calf with Lord Raglan by Crusade) to 



ROMAN CAMP TO ATHELSTANEFOHD. 131 

their new owner, Mr. Stewart of Southwick. Lord 
Raglan was purchased back by Mr. Douglas, and 
the produce of Rose of Autumn who broke to Cru- 
sade, and was served by Heir-at-Law (13005), came 
back to Athelstaneford in Rose of Sharon . 

With that admiration for the Booth blood, which 
made him once bid Mr. Richard Booth 500 gs. in 
vain for Charity, and 550 gs. in later years for Nec- 
tarine Blossom, Mr. Douglas went to the Killerby 
sale in the autumn of ^52, and bought Birthright, a 
grand-daughter of Bracelet, in-calf to Hopewell 
(10332), as well as Officious, a calf by the same bull, 
and of the same tribe, which he dipped into still deeper 
by the purchase of Spicey and Ringlet. Warlaby 
also furnished him with Extasy from Isabella Exqui- 
site, which was re-registered, with Mr. Booth's per- 
mission, as Isabella Hopewell. Along with Rose of 
Sharon, there came a 600-guinea lot, in the shape of 
Hawthorn Blossom, Heather Bell, and Cherry Queen 
from Cherry Blossom, a daughter of Old Cherry, and 
Imperial Cherry (the dam of Lady Bigot's prize 
winner Cherry Empress) from Cherry Blossom's 
daughter Rose of Southwick. It was quite a case of 

" Cherry ripe ! cherry ripe ; cheap I crj-. 
Full and fair ones — come and l)uy ;" 

and the yearnings which had sprung up in Mr. 
Douglas's mind, as he conned his two favourites in 
the yard at Edinburgh, fourteen years before, had at 
last their fulfilment. Three out of the four were by 

2 K 2 



132 FIELD AND PERN. 

Col. Towneley's Hudibras (10339), an own brother 
to the famous Alice. 

His greatest bull bit was made when he bought 
Mr. Ambler's Captain Balco (12546) byBalco (9918) 
from Cowslip, a shabby little cow, by Upstart. He 
considered " The Captain^' to be the best Bates bull 
he had ever seen, and he had not only Rose of Sum- 
mer's two crdves by him, but the Third from the 
Second Queen of Trumps, which vied with Hose of 
Athelstane, in sweeping the three National prizes in 
one year, as Rose of Summer had done before them. 
Captain Balco, after winning several prizes as a year- 
ling in 1854, was second at the Royal Dublin Show 
to Master Butterfly, the nearest thing that the " un- 
beaten one'' ever had, and Richard Coeur de Lion 
(13590) and Cadet (12521) ranked next. The Society 
of Shakers, who farm 1,000 acres of the finest land 
in Ohio, gave 400 guineas for him, among the 
twenty which they purchased from Mr. Douglas in 
the course of two years, and his son Sir James the 
Rose (13290), whose very first calf was Maid of Athel- 
stane from Ringlet, took his place, and was long 
the main prop of the herd. 

In the same year (1855) that Captain Balco went 
abroad, Mr. Douglas bought Hymen (13058) by the 
Duke of Cambridge (12742) from Bridecake, as a 
calf at the Springfield Hall sale; but he scarcely 
used him, as his senior did not leave England till 
nearly the end of the season, and after v/inning the 
county prize with him against bulls of all ages, he 



ROMAN CAMP TO ATHELSTANEFOllD. 133 

sold him for 200 guineas to M. de Trehonnais at the 
Paris International Show, the following year. This 
sale, which seemed a good one at the time_, was a 
sonrce of some regret, when two out of the three 
calves he left behind him appeared in the show 
yard. One of them, The Lamp of Lothian, a strong, 
line-loined but rather short bull, from Isabella 
Hopewell, beat 132 yearlings at the Royal Dublin 
Show, besides getting the gold medal as the best 
bull in the yard ; after which he was sold to Mr. 
Crosby of Ardfelt Abbey, Tralee, for 250 gs., and 
proved himself one of the best prize-heifer getters in 
Ireland. The other. Lady of Athelstane, from Play- 
ful, not only won well herself, but was the dam of 
Pride of Athelstane, the second-prize calf at Batter- 
sea, and the first-prize heifer in-calf at Newcastle 
last year. 

Playful by Fourth Duke of York (10167), a cow 
of considerable sweetness, nicely-covered huggins and 
neat bone, introduced the pure Bates blood into the 
herd, and Cambridge Rose and Britannia by Prince 
George (12938), a Son of Lord George, are combina- 
tions of it with Booth^s. The Hawthorn Blossom tribe 
also came from Warlaby, through Venus de Medicisby 
Harbinger (10297), who goes back to that celebrated 
dam of Nectarine Blossom, through Bloom ; but 
this beautiful white never bred, and died at Southwick. 
The Princess tribe from Mr. Trontbeck^s of Blen- 
cowe included Polly Gwynne and her daughters. Prim 
^nd Priscilla, and her bull-calf Omega ; and it was 



134 FIELD AND TEEN. 

witli Clarionet from Mr. Wood^s in Ireland that the 
Gunter twins, which had to give away a great deal 
of age, "were beaten at Dumfries. 

In 1858 the herd was at its height. At the York- 
shire Show at Northallerton, Queen of Trumps, 
Kose of Athelstane, and Maid of Athelstane, all took 
firsts ; and Lady of Athelstane and Venus de Medi- 
cis were honourably mentioned. It seems but yes- 
terday that they were walking down the streets 
of the quaint little town ; and well might the short- 
horn Yorkshiremen joke and call them " Scotfs 
loty^ as they were all stabled and fed below the Grand 
Stand while waiting to be trucked. Others were not 
so well up in the matter, but quite as free to com- 
municate. ^^ Those belong to my friend Mi\ Richard 
Booth," said a fussy little man on the steps of the 
inn, and he began checking them off on his fingers : 
^^ That's Queen Mab, or Nectarine Blossom ! — I don't 
exactly know which, but Pve often seen them — That's 
Queen of the Isles I'' while he was really indicating 
Queen of Trumps and '^ The Rose/' till at last a 
Northumbrian struck in, and said he^d ^' better shut 
lip/' as they all belonged to a Scotchman, and 
" none of your grand Mr, Booths,'' 

It w^as indeed a wonder how a plain tenant- 
farmer could have brought such a lot to the post, 
and fight single-handed against all the experience, 
talent, and outlay that could be arrayed against 
him in England. It Avas a fearfully hazardous busi- 
ness, under the present artificial show mode, as only 



KOMAN CAMP TO ATHELSTANEFORD. 135 

Ihigli feeding enabled him to put his animals along- 
side such competitors, and pains and penalties duly 
folloAved. In one year alone he lost two Cherries, 
a calf from Playful, and the grandest calf he ever 
had, a roan heifer by Sir James from Rose of Sharon. 
Let another Scot go in and try to fight the English 
breeders successfully at such fearful odds, and he 
will find what ^' nights of weariness and weary days^^ 
mean, when he has had a month of travelling in 
steamers and railway trucks, of lingering in show- 
yards and of waiting at stations with his cattle, to 
say nothing of the expense, and the risk of accidents 
or of feeble judges. A few prizes, and an assurance 
on the part of the agricultural papers, while his mind 
is racked with anxiety and his eyes bloodshot with 
fatigue, that he is " taking the grand tour,*' prove 
but a very small compensation. All this Mr. Douglas 
went through, without flinching, for two-thirds of the 
fifteen years, from the era of his first-prize bull Red 
Rover down to Crown Prince of Athelstane, the last 
he ever bred from Queen of Athelstane. 

A few words upon his cracks. Rose of Autumn 
had not the perfection and form of Rose of Summer, 
but was rather light in her fore quarter. Her 
daughter Rose of Summer was a perfect type of the 
Athelstaneford mould, and was, in fact, a true square, 
with her legs so well under her. Well might the 
Herd-J3ook editor express his delight, when he saw 
Mr. Douglas lead her, as fit and as ripe as a Derby 
favourite, out of her truck at Lincoln ! As a calf 



136 FIELD AND FERN. 

she was small, but thick as a cow, and with one of 
the finest fore quarters ever seen. Still, Mr. 
Eichard Booth^s Bridesmaid, who had nearly a 
yearns pull, was too much for her at Carlisle in ^55, 
where she was obliged to meet her in the cow class. 
Paris proved fatal to her, and when she was un- 
trucked at Drem Station she could only crawl to a 
shed near Muirhouscs, and despite the highest care 
and skill she died after a few days^ illness. The loss 
can hardly be estimated, as upwards of 500 guineas 
had been refused for her at Paris, simply because 
Mr. Douglas considered that the continued success 
of the herd depended on her and her tribe. 

Her calf Rose of Athelstane was able to get IJ 
miles further to Atheist an eford, and lay there for two 
months, more dead than alive. Still, she took heart 
of grace at last, and defeated Mr. Booth's Queen of 
the May in the struggle at Salisbury. She travelled 
about 5,000 miles by land and sea, and won some 
twenty premiums ; but she v/as not a lucky cow, a& 
all her calves were sadlv delicate, and none of them 
were reared. She had great substance, with hair 
and quality, and was at least two sizes larger than 
Rose of Summer. Third Queen of Trumps Avas a 
dark roan, with all the Captain Balco marks, a rare 
quarter, and loins as level as a table. There was 
more gaiety about Rose of Summer, but she was 
not nearly so deep-fleshed. " Third Queen's" end was 
a tragical one, as, when a storm blew great guns, 
seventy miles from New Orleans, the sailors threw 



ROMAN CAMP TO ATHELSTANEFORD. 137 

lier overboard, with some Clydesdale horses, and the 
400-gmnea Koyal winner rendered up her sirloin to 
the sharks. Venus deMedicis had alovelv leg and snug 
neck vein, and a wonderful tendenc}^ to lay on flesh. 
In fact, save a slight contraction near the tail head, 
there was hardly a blot to be found in her, and hence 
once in their five public trials she was placed over 
Third Queen of Trumps. Lady of Athelstane was a 
compact, buxom, little body, with very fine flesh, and 
always a favourite with the English and Scottish 
bench, and if she had been only a size larger she would 
have been exceedingly dangerous. 

The Maid's masculine head and upright horn 
spoilt her_, and as a calf she was a trifle Aveak in her 
loins. Mr. Douglas knew this so well, that when she 
met Duchess 77th and the immense calf field at 
Northallerton, his orders to his man were not to keep 
her always in the judges^ eye, as many clever showers 
do, but to hold her head tight, and keep touching 
her up perpetually with a little switch in the flank. 
Mr. Robinson w^as not to be deceived even if the 
judges were, and he slyly congratulated Mr. Douglas 
on her being "shown so Avell.^^ The Queen of 
Athelstane from Ringlet was a perfect beauty, and 
she and Rose of Cashmere were a rare pair of year- 
lings while they were doing the, first and second 
business at the Highland and Northern Shows. In 
his own mind Mr. Douglas could never whip her 
apart from Rose of Summer, and bracketed her as- 
head of his red, white, and roan tripos, with Third 



138 FIELD AND FERN. 

Queen of Trumps next^ and then Rose of Atbelstane. 
Lady Pigot could not resist her even at five 
hundredj and the Branches herd never had a heavier 
blov/ than when she died unbeaten and in prepara- 
tion to meet The Duchesses at Leeds. Second Queen 
of Atbelstane was also a good one^ and in that won- 
derful box with the top-lights, and the walls papered 
with prize-cards, she looked, with the roan ^' Gem^' 
as her lusty foil, pretty nearly invincible. Still, she 
was never a public favourite. Nothing improved 
more than Pride of Atbelstane from ''^The Lady'^ 
as a yearling, and she was well worthy, as a two- 
year-old in-calf to win a first prize for Mr. Douglas 
at the Newcastle Royal, in a class where Rose of 
Summer, Third Queen of Trumps, and Rose of Atbel- 
stane had all showed the way. 

Captain Balco, for form and style, fine quarters and 
loins, was quite the bead bull at Atheist aneford, 
though he was hardly so deep-fleshed as Sir James 
the Rose, a bull of great sweetness, but a little slack 
behind the shoulders and a trifle soft in his handling. 
Hiawatha, another son of Playful, was not so good 
as Sir James, but he was a clever winner, and beat, 
among others, the great Lord Garlics j and two 
whites, Preemason, who was pretty nearly all Booth, 
and Next-of-Kin, who was second and then first at 
the Highland Society, closed wdth Lady of Atbel- 
stane the history of a very remarkable Shorthorn 
career. 

The kennels of the East Lothian, of which Mr. 



ROMAN CAMP TO ATHELSTANEFORD. 139 

Kinlocii is a joint master with Sir David Baird, are 
at East Saltoun^ a mile from Pencaithland. Will 
Williamson was born a few miles from here, and they 
clo say that in later years he carried the green collar 
out of the country. They hunt the whole of Had- 
dington and Berwickshire up to Ay ton Castle, and 
go as far as Dalkeith, White Hill, and J\Ielville 
Castle in Edinburghshire. The Stone country, which 
is twenty miles away, has been recently given up to 
the Duke. Mr. Hope is the secretary, and they 
hunt three days a week, and about two-and-forty 
scarlets have been mustered at times. There are 
sometimes eight or ten officers, and the farmers are 
beginning to come out more and more every season, 
and well mounted to boot. 

Arniston country holds the best scent, and is, in 
fact, the only grass country. The res'c is nearly all 
under plough, and its drains, sheep, and manure 
militate sadly against scent ; while the v/ild goats of 
many colours on the Lammer Law are often as 
tempting to the young hounds as roe deer. In the 
Gladsmuir country, which extends to Blackshiels, 
they get on to the Lammermoors for those fine wild 
runs which Williamson loved, and carry a great 
head over the heather. There are a few good gorse 
covers, Whitbury, li miles from .^altoun, the Hope- 
town Monument, Shilling Hill, and KilldufF, which 
consists of fifteen acres fenced in at one corner of this 
grand nursery for foxes. The seventy or eighty acres 
of Killduff Wood bear an immense amount of sifting 



J 40 FIELD AND FERN. 

during the season ; but Saltoun, Long Tester^ and 
Eckyside Hill have all become very hollow. 

The hunting begins early in September, with '^^the 
wliole fleet'^ at The Hopes, that great juniper cover 
of the Lammermoors, and goes on one day a week 
at Newbyth, Tyningham, and Coalston Wood. 
Newbyth and Tyningham often furnish four or 
five litters, but the greater part of the foxes are laid 
up in old coal mines near Elphinstone Tower and 
Ormiston Hall. Atkinson, the huntsman, who is 
now in his sixth season, has had an exploring journey 
for miles under them, and heard the cubs scam- 
pering in all directions. 

The hill-jumping is entirely confined to walls ; but 
in the low ground, it is hedge and ditch, and the 
ditches and burns are most unpromising about Drem. 
Both the masters are hard riders, and the Hopes, 
Scot Skirvmg, Innes of Phantassie,"^'" Tweedie of The 
Coates, Ford of Harding Green, and Primrose of 
Lauchland are also among the first flight. Sir 
David^s well-known chesnnt Crimea was shot last 
autumn, and Strand, Hope, a chesnut who had 
been extensively "repaired," and Purvis, whose 
ugliness does not interfere with his goodness, are 
Atkinson's best. 



* An old friend has ndded the followhig to oiu* prev-ions remarks on the late 
Mr. Rennic of Phantassie : " He was an extremely shrewd man, and farmed 
Phantassie exceedinglj^ well ; hut he never was a breeder of shorthorns, so to 
speak. He had an extensive whisky distillery at Linton, close by Phantassie, 
imd with ' the dxough and dreg,' as the Scotchmen call it, he ' bred up and 
fed off in sheds from three to four hnnch-ed head of cattle all the year round. 
He was an excellent judge of shorthorns, but his son, -iWth whom I had many 
transactions, knew very little about them." 



ROMAN CAMP TO ATHELSTANEFORD. 141 

In kennel tliey have about 33^ couple, Tvith eight 
couple of young ones, principally got by their own 
Harmattan of Rufford Helpmate, Wynnstay Romeo, 
and Rufford Dreadnought blood. They have had 
drafts these last five summers from Lord Middleton, 
the Bramham, and Brocldesby, and latterly from 
Lord Henry Bentinck. When the ten couple were 
destroyed by poison in Killduff, Sir AYatkin, Lord 
Fitzhardinge, the Vale of White Horse, and Lord 
Doneraile all helped out. As usual, some of those died 
which could have been least spared, and among them 
22 brace of the best puppies, including Render, the cup 
puppy Roister, which had also entered so beautifully, 
and Yarboro' Handmaid, the best bitch in the pack. 
They are now running the dogs and bitches separate, 
and for choice they like to find at Bolton j\Iuir, and 
go straight to the hills v.ith a traveller. Seaton 
Gorse, near Gosford, some eighty yards from the 
sea, is a sure find, and the foxes run along tlie v.est 
to Archerfield, and are killed or more generally lost 
on the Law. Sometimes they get on the ledges of the 
rocks, and the hounds run great risks if they get a 
view, and if they go over near St. Abb^s light- 
house, they are seen and heard of no more. 

The puppies are judged every year in Mr. Hislop^s 
coach manufactory at Haddington, and Primate and 
Priestess, brother and sister, one bred by Mr. Wood and 
the other by Mr. Kinloch, and both by Harmattan, 
won the cups in '64. The old d og, v/ho has one eye cut 
clean out, and his brother were in kennel with their 



142 PIELD AND FERN. 

great thoughtful heads. Herald has most pace, but 
is too often silent when he is wanted. Funny, Laven- 
der, and Comical are quite a little trio, and the 
badger-pie Comical has many peculiarities about her. 
She has never been in season, and she '^ can beat the 
big ones through a hedge when they are thinking of 
it/^ and she struggled through the poison. Nearly 
thirty couple were out on the day of that fatal find, 
and many of them show the effects jQt, if they have 
had a very severe day. Eanter and Raffle are both 
of the Middleton brand, and although he has lost an 
eye and is as deaf as a post, there is no guide-post 
like Ranter when they come to a road, and no one 
to carry it over a dry fallow like RafHe. Petulant is 
another of the low-scented ones; and Banker, with his 
rather bitchlike head, is generally seen some lengths 
at the head of affairs. Helpmate and Hermit are 
two trimmers of the big-headed Harmattan sort, but 
they don^t come to hand well after a hard day. 

Hermit is a very savage breaker-np ; and one of 
the kennel curiosities (along with the head of the 
Tester Fox, which the woodmen looked upon as a 
sort of " Old Mortality^^) is the two- ounce shanks 
bone of a fox, which he swallowed at Newbyth. 
Ringwood has only one draw of it, and won^t try 
again till the fox is found, and then he will hold the 
line like Fleecer, whose cocky stern and peculiar cha- 
racter soon tempted us to ask Atkinson, ^'^ Who's 
yoiu' friend V Lucifer was called up, and we heard 
how he dared to cheer him his maiden morning at 



ROMAN CAMP TO ATHELSTANEFORD. 143 

Weatlierham Steps, as he had done his dam Bracelet 
before him. Travellerj too, hunted his first day, and 
he is by Tonic, a name of Will GoodalPs, who had 
to use all his skill to get him over the distemper. 
Bounty had nearly been put away for this cause, but 
Atkinson persevered, and kept her entirely on eggs. 
She rewarded him one day by stopping short at a 
wall, and hitting it down the dyke, in a fast thing 
over the muirs from Ealingshaw, when the body of 
the hounds flashed over it. Rally wood has also his 
good mark for picking it up in a dry furrow when 
the fox had lain down near Gladsmuir. The Burton old 
draft of 13J couple were still dark, and what was 
contained in the sweet heads of Fashion, Phillis, and 
Proserpine was still a weighty and anxious problem, 
both for masters and men. 



144 FIELD AND FERN. 



ifMiLSfIiEF0Bi f8 CSLBSfiEii. 

" Mr. DoxkijST, fully sensilole of the especial favoui- that has been conferred 
npon him, by having placed in his hands this commission of Sale, and no less 
<;onscioiis of the responsibilities which such a tnist imposes upon an Auc- 
t.ioneor, considers it his duty to avail himself of those Channels thi'oiigh which 
tidings of deep interest are conveyed to the Agricultm-ists of the United 
Kingdom, to call attention to an oi^portunity about to present itself for the 
purchase of Farmmg Stock of Surpassing Excellence and to the infusion of 
rJie best blood of the Shorthorns, the Leicester Sheep, the Cart-horse, and 
the Bacon Swine into districts now laudably emulous of an eminent niche in 
the Temple dedicated to the manes of Bakewell and Collings, of Cully and 
Ba.iley ; Avhile to the Agiicultm-al Student fresh from the Arcadian Acade- 
mies, and about to commence on his own Account the tranquilizing iDursuits 
■of a Farmer, the means are here placed within his grasp to lay the solid fomi- 
dation of a breeding flock that will relieve him from the Sacrifices attendant 
'ipon a correction of those deformities in Animals, which pubhc opinion now 
<Ieclares shall no longer be tolerated in om- markets. Upon a closer inspec- 
tion of the stock upon Farm, however well the Draught horses maintain 

the character of the blood that has for generations run in their veins, and 
though tiiie to the texts of the Herd Book are the aristocratic portion of the 
■cattle, yet commentators must allow that the Leicesters will form the most 
prominent featm-e of sale." 

Ride across the Lammcrmoors — The Highland Society's Show at Kelso 
— A Sketch of it in 1833 — Kelso Race-course — Kelso Jlani Fair — 
Scenes in the Sale Yard — Lord Polwarth's Sale — The Border Leices- 
ters — The Yetholm Gipsies — The Earl of "Wemyss's 1 founds and 
Hnnters at Coldstream. 

:^wo sliirts and three pairs of stockings proved but a 
^ slender segis against 16 degrees of frost, as we set 
our mare's head before daylight straight from Athel- 
staneford over the Lammermoors. We began the 
ascent beyond Tester, the residence of the Marquis 
of Tweedale, one of the very best farmers and '' all 
round'^ judges in Scotland. The wind cut us 



ATHELSTANEFOIID TO COLDSTREAM. 145 

to the cheek-bone like a knife, and we thought ^' the 
mules^^ or greyfaces happy in their thick-set fleece 
when Ave were descending by flinty ruts and ice- 
bound burns, on the welcome Kelso side. As their 
breeders say, " they come as big as you like, and the 
turnip comes out on the wool" ; seeing that with extra 
feeding the best of the hoggs will often clip 81bs. 
They are very fond of them in some parts of York- 
shire, and the farmers of the Askrigg district buy the 
shots of the blackfaced ewe hoggs solely to breed 
them. 

The hill farmers burn their heather on a regular 
rotation, and Mr. Clapperton gave it as his opinion 
recently, at one of the East Lothian Farmers^ 
Club meetings, that "when properly burned it 
would feed blackfaced sheep better than any young 
grass in East Lothian." Under a thousand feet, at 
least, Mr. George Hope considered that "more 
money had been made by converting heather into 
arable land than by any other system of farming in 
Scotland, potatoes and altogether," provided the land 
was taken at a heather rent, and landlords gave some 
assistance in fencing and draining. 

Carfrae Mill had not the attraction for us which 
it has for the Duke^s field two or three times in the 
season, and at Lauder, nearly every stall was full 
of horses whose riders had gone to the rink. It was 
aright cheery ride by Mellerstain and Smailholm, and 
Mr. Usher (as ardent a curler as he is a hunter) was 
just returning from the ice on Benvoirlich when we 

2 L 



146 FIELD AND FERN. 

reached Stodrig. He might well congratulate us on 
the punctuality with which we had done our two- 
and-forty miles^ and promise us as our reward a 
night with ^' The Northern Angler/^ who was in his 
finest form, and, stirred by our host^s good songs, 
delivered " the Gaelic sermon/^ 

It was not just the season to realize the rich pas- 
tures and warm turm^) soils of the Vale of Tweed, but 
we had seen them some months before, on a sunny 
August morning. Then, as we passed the ley where 
Howard was at work with his steam plough, and 
farmers were following the furrows like rooks, and 
saw for the first time " the ruined central tower'^ 
of St. Mary's Abbey, with Floors Castle amid its 
deep green setting in the distance, and the Tweed 
and its latest tributary rolling along past vale and 
cliff together, we could hardly wonder that the Duke 
of Argyll should have confessed that, looking back 
through the vista of a quarter of a century, he did 
not remember one foot of the road between Edin- 
burgh and " merry Carlisle," save that view from the 
Bridge of Kelso. In his boyish rapture he visited 
it five or six times that night ; and we, too, cherish 
our glimpse of the bridge, as the stately Clydesdales 
were filing over it from the showyardinto the town, 
and little Hotspur was caracolling in the centre, as 
if the memory still stirred him of the days when he 
itretched the neck of the Eglinton crack through the 
mud at Epsom, and sent the heart of Scotland into^ 
its shoes. 



ATHELSTANEFORD TO COLDSTREAM. 147 

The sliow-ground was by the river-side^ and the 
Spring wood Policy woods sheltered it south and east. 
TreeSj too^ occasionally broke the uniformity of the 
shed avenues, and between the Ayrshires and the 
busy horse-ring they clustered still closer within the 
low palisades of the ancient burial-ground of three 
parishes, where the grey headstones lay strewn in 
wild disorder among the rank nettle crop — a cheru- 
bim here and cross-bones there. Nine acres were 
devoted to the stock ; and the great implement in- 
terest, which has grown so surely and so well, occu- 
pied seven. The horse-ring — not exactly our grand 
English oval, but still 140 feet in diameter — was 
there, for the morning and afternoon parade ; and not 
unfrequently a goodly assembly of dukes and mas- 
ters of hounds stood in the centre, watching the 
Clydesdales at their long steady trot, and looking out 
for hunting action among the blood sires and the 
half-bred geldings ; while the poultry classes proved 
to sceptical henwives that a noble AI.F.H. can take 
a delight in breeding foxes and first-prize coloured 
Dorkings as well. 

There stood in one grand line a century of sturdy 
Clydesdales, most of them with white stockings almost 
to the hocks ; the red-ilecked Ayrshires, with their 
clean expressive heads and wedge -like figures ; two 
first-prize roans from the Royal, ^' The Pride^' vic- 
torious, and "The Duke" defeated; the sires and dams 
of " heavy blacks,^^ round which the London butchers 
bold their earliest parleys with the salesmen, at the 

2 l2 



148 FIELD AND FEllN. 

great Christmas fat market ; the West Highland- 
ers_, black, dun, and red, and fierce- eyed, even in 
their subjection ; the Border Leicesters, which can 
keep both Cotswold and Lincoln at bay ; the blackface 
from whose three-year-old veins " the gravy runs out 
like brandy" ; and the ruddle-coated, game-headed 
Cheviots, part of that great Clan Hornie wdiich Bry- 
don, like a Lowland Chieftain, will lead in due 
season to the links of Inverness, and invite Suther- 
landshire to the wager of battle. 

The contrast between it and its humble prede- 
cessor of ^32 was brought most vividly before us in 
a public-house ingle near Coldstream, where w^e 
waited, deep in oatcake and ale, for the train. Our 
informant had seen " baith Kelseys," and was all 
for progress. " First one,^^ he observed, "was like 
a bit of a country tent pitten up ; nothing round 
aboot it — -same kind of thing, bless your heart, but 
not gitten up in tlie same style. Things are varra 
much improved since yon ; feeding^s gat up to a dif- 
ferent pitch. I saw a lot of bad Ayrshire coos among 
them, but varra nice pigs ; I canna mind on whose 
they were. It^s drawn a deal of money noe doot. 
He's a varra clever body, they tell me, that Mr. Hall 
Maxwell." 

Now that great congress had vanished, the park was 
green once more, and the gateways built up. Hence 
we strove to revive the memories of Lanercost and 
Beeswing on Berry Moss to which " oval course of 
exactly a mile and a quarter, with a straight run of 



ATHELSTANEFORD TO COLDSTREAM. 149 

half-a-mile up a slight ascent/^ which General Chasse 
would have loved, the Kelso meeting was removed 
from Caverton Edge. Thanks to the Duke of Rox- 
burghe, and the untiring clerk of the course, Mr, 
Usher, the meeting has never faltered. The obelisk 
monument of the poet of " The Seasons^^ faces you. 
above the turn for home, but it would puzzle the 
gentle philosopher to define the length of the racing 
season now. The middle of the course seems to be 
quite a workshop for the moles ; and wild- ducks and 
sea-gulls rise from its ditches. Along the back 
stretch it is very deep going in autumn, and it is no 
wonder that 9st. lllbs. should have told on Bees- 
wing, or that Sim Templeman should have found 
Songstress tire to nothing. As for Benvoirlich or 
Beef and Greens, half-brother to Blink Bonny on 
his dam's side, his and Mr. Usher's appearance was 
always as keenly looked for, in the Hunting Plate, as 
Bob Johnson's and Dr. Syntax's on a Preston Cup day. 
He won it three years running ; and if he did not 
show in '62, he renewed his strength the next autumn 
with his owner up in the yellow with green hoop and 
cap, making all the running and hugging the rails at 
the turn, to the old tune from the farm lads, of " Had 
awa\ Ben!" On the Turf he did not care to be 
asked the question too often, but with the Baccleucli 
hounds he was endless. 

We do not advise a quietly-disposed person to be 
in Kelso on the last night of December : for what with 
the wake of the dying year, and the celebration of s: 



150 FIELD AND FERN. 

birthday, it is, for flags, music, and cheering, un- 
equalled. The New- Year greetings in the Corn 
Exchange next morning were a hushed whisper by- 
comparison, as we sauntered round its chocolate 
stands, looked at samples, mouse-traps, oilcake, and 
turnip-cutters, and pondered the thrilling query, 
" Have you tried Thorlieshope IhneV 

But we must go back to September and the rams, 
which make visitors throng the borough, and gladden 
the innkeepers^ hearts. The small plant has slowly 
and surely waxed into a great tree, and sheep- 
breeders from Ireland, Yorkshire, and Wales now 
come to sit under its shadow. Seventeen years ago 
there was only a slight sprinkling of rams on The 
Knowes, a small green near the Abbey, from one or 
two breeders who let them for the season. Then 
the show was commenced, whicli last j«ear rose to the 
dignity of six auctioneers, fifty-seven sellers, and 
2,300 tups. The prizes of the Union and Highland 
Societies had been given the day before, and Stark 
of Mellendean, Simson of Courthill, and Purvis of 
Burnfoot had been winning with Leicesters, and Elliot 
of Hindhope, whose sheep have not exactly the 
Brydon glint, but excel in fleece, as all the hill sheep 
of the East Border do, had left but one Cheviot 
prize for ten gimmers to Shortreed of Attonburn. 
Mr. Oliver had also been busy among the half-bred 
tups, and Mr. Gibson, from that most bleak-sounding 
place Windydoors, had finished with ^9 per head for 
twenty-two, and £13 5s. for ^'^the top yen.^-* 



ATHELSTAXEFORD TO COLDSTREAM. 151 

It was^ in fact, " tlie great autumnal assize of the 
Union Agricultural Society, held at Kelso, before 
the most profound bucolic jurists of the age/^ 
and Messrs. Donkin had "solicited the attention of the 
elite of Border Society to this golden opportunity of 
embellishing and enriching their Dairies with the 
Poetry of Cream and Butter/^ from a consignment of 
Alderney and Guernsey cows. When we add that 
*^ symptomatical of superexcellence/^ "a jewel for 
the lawn/^ " the Darling of the Dairy/^ were mere 
" remarks" in the sale-bill, on the grey, smoky, and 
mulberry fawns, we have given but a faint specimen 
of the powerful stimulant which this Robins of the 
North apphes weekly to his clients in " the little king- 
dom of Scotland and Northumberland," 

The ram sale has outgrown its doorway ; but that 
sturdy borderer, Tom Gibbons of Burnfoot, is a good 
man to follow in a crowd, and joining sixpences we 
shoved in together. The lots vary from a hundred 
to five, and are divided among four rings. The 
Messrs. Donkin have at present the lion^s share of the 
business ; and Messrs. Fairbairn and Penny, Mr. 
OHver of Hawick, Mr. Shiel, and Mr. Embleton duly 
take their turns with lots, whose precedence of sale is 
decided by ballot. Up to two o'clock business is brisk 
enough; but, except it be Lojd Polwarth's, an 
average will suffer severely if the lot is not put up 
before that hour. Buyers begin to tire, and want to 
be away, and some breeders from round Kelso have 
sent their sheep to Edinburgh in consequence. The 



152 FIELD AND FERN. 

sheep are duly ticketed, and tlie names of tlie flock 
labelled on the pen. Some auctioneers can sell eighty 
in an hour, but a ram a minute is the general cal- 
culation. It is very hard work to begin at ten 
with only four rings, and to sell off by five. Bid- 
dings beyond .£5 are all by five shillings, and they 
quite reverse the line, " I^d rather have a guinea 
than a one-pound note." 

The different styles of the auctioneers are most 
delightful to a stranger, and after we had been once 
or twice among the pens, the spirit was ever moving us 
to make tours of inspection, simply for comparison. 
The dramatic, the impulsive, the crisp, the melan- 
choly, and the homely styles, all had their interpreters. 
We heard no home-thrust like that once delivered by 
the late Mr. Fairbairn, when he had sold a topper : 
" Now, Sir ! your flock has been fallinxj off for some 
years : you've got the sheep to suit you'' They did 
not rise beyond, "Look at that sheep, and waken 
up /" and some such antidotes to sloth, or assurances 
that he was " clipped in June as bare as a vegetable 
board; and look at him now I" Then the word went 
round that the Polwarth lot, which is as keenly 
looked for here as Mr. Cookson's at Doncaster, was 
going to be put up, and the audience at rings 2, 3, 
and 4 begin to thin rapidly. The few remnants of 
the preceding lot only acted as a whet. " A £5 note 
for a start of him," says the auctioneer, a sterling- 
looking fellow, with a little switch for a hammer, and 
a supply of good, sound Border Doric, which falls quite 



ATHELSTANEFORD TO COLDSTREAM. 15S 

pleasantly on our Cumbrian ear. " There^s a good un, 
there^s noe doot of it ;" but even this eulogium is 
not quite to his mind, and he adds apologetically, 
'' I canna spak oot for this wind.'^ " Here's a good 
skinned yen.'' " Sic a sheep again there, gentlemen^ 
— j85 for a start of Jam sure-ly.'' 

Then comes the Polwarth prelude, but the speaker 
is equal to it, and no wiud interferes with the glowing 
assurance that their ^' heads, rumps, and skiyis are the 
wonder of the world'' The tall and limber-looking 
shepherd, Andrew Paterson, in drab leggings, and 
with a handkerchief in his hand for the final polish^ 
brings the first of the thirty-five into the ring, and 
" Ten pounds ten times over" was the first auctioneer's 
remark on him. ^^ Look at him. Oh dear! I'll 
get £20 for him in a minit, I'm sure o't ;' and Mr. 
Wilson of Hay mount drew first blood at twenty-four. 
Bidders went much sharper for No. 5, and it was "36 
ten times over ;" and when it was at 60, with a good 
round of Border music, the seller had only this dry 
eulogy for his audience, that they had " taken a ter- 
rible deal of time.'" One pound more, and it was Mr. 
Wilson^s again. " Here's a better yen," said the 
shepherd, mantling with delight ; but the bidders soon 
discounted his speech for him. As for No. 10, " It's 
no use wasting any time. Come! Jwenty for a start," 
and he got it; and the £60 top finish of last year 
bet^veen Mr. Purvis and Sir George Dunbar^s agent 
was converted into a £71 between Torrence of Sis- 
terpath and Douglas of Eoss-shire. As Mr. Usher 



154! FIELD AND FERN. 

professionally observed, " The home stable won again J^ 
And so the average went steadily on, till it was only 
3Jd. short of £27, or £6 12s. 9d. beyond the average 
for the same number in ^63, no small rise on the 
£\0 8s. all round of ^60. The ring cleared out after 
the closing lot, 35, just like the House of Commons to 
the smoking-room, when a great speaker is down, and 
who shall we say gets up? and "£3 2s. 6d., gie 
us a bit stiffer than that, Mr. Swan,'' were the last 
words that were audible in our reporter's gallery. 

In the course of the day £57 (as well as £9 Os. 6d. 
for 48) and £51 were made respectively by Mr. 
Stark and Mr. Calder. "Sisterpath^^ kept up its old 
prestige with £10 10s. Sjd. for 49, and Mr. Purvis 
Avas there again with £9 7s. 9id. for a hundred. 
The Simsons were pretty close, " Blainslie" with £7 
10s. 9d. for 80, and " CourthilF' with £7 17s. 8d. for 
70; but there is no fair comparison of averages unless 
the time of putting up is stated as well. 

Lord Polwarth has fine old grass and very beauti- 
ful shelter and climate for his flock at Mertoun, four 
miles from St. Boswells, and he sets the fashion as 
completely as Mr. Sanday did in England, and never 
buys tups at Kelso. In fact, the other Border 
breeders declare that it is a perfect Caucasian mystery 
where he does get his tups from . The uniformity of 
his lordship's sheep is very marked, from their gay looks, 
flat backs, round ribs, and slight deficiency about the 
scrag. In size and wool some of the other flocks 
are their equals, and in the two-shear competition 



ATHELSTANEFORD TO COLDSTREAM. 155 

his lordship was beaten by Mr. Stark of Mellen- 
deaUj and has by no means always the best of it in 
the show yards. Only some six score ewes are kept 
at Mertoun, but some of the very best go on to a 
great age, and the greatest caution is used in ascer- 
taining what sort of stock a tup gets before he is 
dipped into. The ewe and gimmer draft have been 
sold for many years to the same farm in Fifeshire. 
Nothing but the highest tact, combined with advan- 
tages of situation, could give them such a long lead. 
They have been put up to auction for fifty-eight years, 
and whereas in 1820 thirty -five of them only ave- 
raged £3 15s., in 1864 the same number reached 
£27. The Cotswold element, which was once fancied 
on the Border, has never been introduced amongst 
them."^ 

The Border can show its Leicester title almost as 
far back as the beginning of the century, . and Mr. 
Bobertson of Ladykirk and Mr. Cully of Wark 
began it. Mr. Purvis has been at it for full fifty 
years, and has crossed with the flocks of Lord Pol- 
warth, Compton of New Learmouth, Smith of 



* "This celebrated flock, which has long commanded top prices at the 
great Kelso sales, and whose strain is disiinctly traceable in the flocks of 
almost all the best breeders of pm-e Scotch Leicesters in the country, origi- 
nated in 1802, when 80 ewes were purchased, at £2 15s. each, from a well- 
known Northumberland breeder, Mr. Jobson of-Hidgley, near Chillingham 
and 140 ewes from Mr. Waddell (also, we beheve, a Northumbrian breeder)' 
at £2 14s. Where the rams were obtaiaed fi-om, it is now somewhat difficult 
to ascertain. At that time, however, the most reputed breeders chd not care 
to dispose of their rams, and it is probable that these were hh-ed from the most 
famous Border flockmasters, of whom Mr. Robertson of Ladvkh-k was one. 
Two yeai-s after Lord Polwarth had purchased the flock from Mr. Jobson he 
commenced a sale of rams at Mertoun, and from that time (ISOi) continued 
them every year at that place until 1S52, when he sent his rams down to Kelso 
where they have ever since been sold." — Scottish Farmer. ' 



156 FIELD AND TERN. 

Marldown^ Cockburn of Sisterpatli (who was ouce 
quite at the top of the tree), Calder of Kelloe Mains 
(who gets Mr. Simpson^s of Court HilFs ewes); Chrisp 
of Hawkhill, kc, and thus theperpetual interchange of 
blood with all the crack flocks goes on. The Highland 
Society, the Northumberland Society, and the Union 
are the only local shows the breeders attend, and the 
latter holds its spring show alternately at Kelso and 
Coldstream in March, for those who have young 
bulls and cart stallions, and two and three-year-old 
cart colts and fillies, in the district. Independently 
of their public sales, Yorkshire and Northumberland 
are great customers, but the latter county is falling 
into the radical English error of having their Leicesters 
a little too fine. The Border breeders contend 
that the big sheep are hardier than the small, and able 
to live and thrive at a great height ; that near the foot 
of the Cheviots the Leicester-Down and pure 
Leicester (particularly the former) cannot live 
in a storm, and require far more keeping up 
before lambing. The very high feeders calculate 
on five fleeces to the 2 stone or 481bs. for tup hoggs. 
Some also dislike swedes for their tup hoggs, as they 
are too nutritive, and apt to crook the pasterns, and 
never give them to their ewes till after lambing, when 
they are off to the grass. They generally begin w^ith 
Skirving's Purple Tops, and have their hoggs on 
them or Greystone and White Globe all the winter, 
and the breeding ewes are put on the same by the 
end of January. Australia is beginning to fancy the 



ATHELSTANEFOKD TO COLDSTREAM. 157 

sort^ and this year Mr. Purvis got .£10 for ewe 
hoggs and £20 for tup hoggs out of the wool, to go 
over. These were not the pick of his lot, as he 
alwaj^s takes care to have 100 of his best tup hoggs 
for Kelso, when they ought to weigh 501bs. per 
quarter. 

The farms, partly hill and arable, of Roxburgh- 
shire, Berwickshire, Selkirkshire, and Peebleshire 
are mostly farmed on the principle of bringing Che- 
viot ewes from the hill, keeping them to five or six 
years old, and taking half-bred lambs from them 
each year. This system generally obtains in every 
district not more than seven hundred feet above the 
sea; and the small half-bred ewe shots are 
made quite as good as top Cheviot wedder lambs. 
Those who follow it regularly buy from the 
hill farmers two-fifths of their Cheviot ewe lambs 
each year, in order to keep up their stock. It ascends 
Teviotdale, five miles above Hawick, up Kale and 
Bowmont Water, to the foot of the Cheviots, all along 
the banks of the '^^shallowbrawlingTweed,^^ Gala, and 
Leader beyond Peebles, and nearly to Lanark. 

" Drj'grange with the milk-white ewes," 
• 'Twixt Tweed, and Leader standing," 

is faithful to it ; and in the Vale of Yarrow every- 
one breeds half-bred s, if his land is low enough, and 
he has winter keep. In the Bowmont Water district 
the farmers go a step further, and use Border Leices- 
ter s to the four or five year old Cheviot ewes, which 
arc then in the very height of their milk, in order to 



158 FIELD AND FERN- 

breed Kelso half-bred sale tups, and so keep up the 
Cheviot hardihood. Still, although half-bred on 
half-bred has been a good deal tried, yet Leicester 
on half-bred has done best. They are very particu- 
lar about the dams of these tups, and some farmers 
go to Sutherland for picked ewes. Regular breeders 
vrill buy half-bred lambs from another birsel, and pay 
as high as 28s. 6d. for them. All who breed half- 
breds give the ewes six to eight weeks of turnips in 
winter, or they could never nurse their much -heavier 
lambs. It is therefore no wonder that half-bred 
lambs increase so much for Melrose. There have 
been as many as 90,000 there, with ewes and 
wedders always separated, whereas twenty years 
since fully half of them were Cheviots. 

We did not step aside to see the gipsy Scone at 
Kirk Yetholm. King Charles Blyth slept with his 
fathers on August 19th, 1861, and Queen Esther, or 
Esther Faa Blyth (the widow of "Jeddart Jock''), who 
reigns in his stead, holds levees daily in her neat 
little cottage. We might have heard more from her 
of Will Faa her kinsman, with his " eye as keen as 
a hawk and as black as a sloe,'' and who handled his 
leister on the Tweed with the eye of an Indian,'^" but 

* We extract the follo-\vin?r from an annual flysheet entitled " Present State 
of the Gipsies in Yetholm :" " It is noticed that their circmnstances, humble 
as they are, are somewhat declinins: ; their potteiy wares are becoming less 
abundant, and a greater number of indi\'iduals depend upon the making of 
besoms, baskets, &c., than formerly. Only two families regularly keep horses 
and carts, the others who aspu-e to such a dignity being occasionally obhged 
to sell theirs to relieve themselves from pressing difficulties. Dm-ing the last 
two smnmers many have made a. considerable amount (it would be impossible 
to saj^ how much) from wool. They buy the ofial of the folds from the farmers, 
and, after much labour in cleaning, sell it at a high price ; yet winter finds 
them, as usual, badly prepared for it, and at present several are niiserablj' fed 



ATHELSTANEFORD TO COLDSTREAM. 159 

■we cared more for Coldstream and the Earl of 
Wemyss^s kennels. 

His lordship first hunted Berwickshire and East 
Lothian from ''34 till ^43 " beginning from all ken- 
nels/'' Transport^ an eight-season hunter of Sutton 
and Beilby blood, Alfred of Musters and Tavistock, 
Chantress of Osbaldeston, Rainbow of Sutton, Vola- 
tile of Belvoir, and Sensitive of Shropshire were his 
leaders and counsellors. Out of eighty couple of 
waifs and strays forty- nine were drafted, so that his 
lordship and Joe Hogg, late of The Four Burrows 
and now of Calabria, had a hardish time of it. Tom 
Bance's brother whipped in for a season there. 



and clothed. Theii* hardships make them m.ore anxious to keep their children 
from following theu" footsteps ; and hence all the young men and women, with- 
out exception, strive to become farm-servants, and aU who are of age have 
striven successfully, except thi-ee girls who are stiU at home. At present there 
are 13 families numbering 61, of wliich 21 are childi-en, and of these 18 attend 
school. The gipsy school, which is so great a boon to the village of Kirk- 
Yethohn, continues to be weU attended, and the system of giving each child a 
certain quantity (half-a-stone) of meal weeklj^ in smnmer to encourage at- 
tendance has succeeded admirably. A subscription in behalf of the gipsies 
would be thankfullj' received by the Rev. A. Davidson, Yetholm Manse, Kelso." 
His late Majesty Charles I. was hardly every inch a king, and looked 
very wretched, though a noble lady for many years eked out the royal tabls 
with 3 or 4 lbs. of mutton and a loaf of bread weekly. He was one of the 
electors as weU as chainnan of the assembly when he was chosen king, and 
made a speech narrating his many personal virtues. The present Queen is his 
daughter, and she pm-chased the Palace for £20 when it was sold by the parish. 
a few months since. She has no salary or emolument of any kind, and did not 
attend her own election. A more trutiifvd or honourable man never lived than 
the first king " Wm Faa," and he kept a pubUchouse for years. The farmers 
and proprietors all tacitly gave liim a ticket of leave to fish when and where he 
liked. He was a grand football player, and gained several matches, and w.is 
quite a tei-ror with his fists to the Northumberland tinkers. .The hardest fight 
lie ever had was, duruig a journey for gin, with two excisemen, one on foot and 
the other on horseback and armed with a sword; while WiU had only a wiUow 
wand. The exciseman worked roimd him in a circle, clipping a bit off the 
willow wand at every sword-stroke, and at last, as Will would not give in, he 
reached his hand, and left it dangling by the flexor muscles. The woimd was 
dressed at Alnwick, but the hand was useless ever after. His Majesty was up- 
wards of 84 when he died, and suffered much from dropsy at last. For further 
information as to.gipsy habits we must refer our readers to the third volume of 
Mr. Alexander Jeffrey's very learned and elaborate work on " The History and 
Antiquities of Roxburghshire." 



160 FIELD AND FERN. 

but unfortunately died of a broken leg and typlius 
fever combined. Unweaned from the Chase by 
Philip^s and Gondolier's Turf success, his lordship 
took to the Berwickshire and Northumberland 
country in 1843, when Mr. Robertson gave it up, 
and Talisman's blood did best for him out of the 
eighteen couple of that old Lambton pack, which he 
decided on keeping. This gave him seventy couple, 
and he hunted six days a week with three packs. 
He now hunts five days up to February, and four 
after that time. The country is not picked up for 
the dog and bitch pack, but the latter go to the 
outlying meets simply because they are lighter in 
the van. 

Channing came to his lordship in '39. His father 
hunted Mr. Yeatman's, and he himself had ten sea- 
sons with the Blackmore Vale, under Mr. Hall, 
afterwards of the Heythrop, Lord Portman, and Mr. 
Drax, before he moved North. He then served for 
twelve seasons under Joe Hogg, and the last was 
his fourteenth as kennel huntsman. 

The Amisfield kennels, near Haddington, where the 
horses and hounds go for the summer, were built ori- 
ginally for the Duke of Buccleuch. The move is made 
to Coldstream the fij-st week in October, and they leave 
again on April 3rd or 7th. During that time they 
so for a fortnisiht to Belford. They enter from 14 
to 17 couple, and walk 40 at least every year in 
Peebleshire, Perthshire, East Lothian, and the coun- 
try. Sutton's Albert and Trueman, Burton Contest, 



ATHELSTAXEFORD TO COLDSTREAM. 161 

Eufford Playmate, and Drake^s Duster, all died at 
Amisfield; for as Charming says, "If we get good 
blood, we never let it away again;" and he 
points out with pride that Trueman, Drake's Tarquin 
and Duster, and Osbaldeston Furrier blood are all 
combined in the Fencer and Heroine entry of last 
season. Albert was a very closehunter, with a rare nose 
and stout, and Trueman had grand ribs with capital se- 
cond thighs. Contest was full of drive, and was used 
for three seasons, and 5| couple are still left by him. 
Folj ambers Hazard and Herald were both here, and 
the latter won the scarlet cloth in the private sweep- 
stakes. Beaufort Primate got some good hounds, 
and the stern placed far into the back makes the 
sort good to know. Pilot came from the Oakley, 
and Hermit and Harbinger, two of the leading stud 
hounds, are from one of his daughters. 

Among the bitches we noted Rumina, a puppy 
prize-taker with Rhoderick, and the hare-pied Rarit}^, 
bred by Captain Percy Williams, and once con- 
demned for her love of hare. Old Relish from Rally 
by Highflyer stands beside her, with her grey head 
and short and straight legs ; and old Ptuin, a capital 
one-eyed, sixth-season bitch, still challenges time, 
and runs at the top of them in difficulties. Blue 
heads may not be popular in a Leicester shape, but 
Blowzy and Buxom were two good ones, as they 
took ofi:' from Mr. Grey of MillfiekVs, and ran their 
fox ten miles in couples to Thrunton Crags, and so 
came ready entered. Welcome throws back to the 

2"M 



162 FIELD AND FERN. 

Contest light tan, which mixes with her Albert and 
Trueman blood, and is still the top of the ^63 entry; 
and she and her sister Dainty led alternately in the 
two runs, on one of the last days they were out on 
the Lammermoors. Heroine, the old black and white, 
was grouped for us with her fine Fencer litter, of 
which Heedless, Hebe, and Harmony were the fore- 
most; and there was old Costly, a grand-daughter 
of Drake's Chaplet, one of the EarFs especials in her 
xime. 

The 24J-inch Galiiard, ^'^ one of the finest big dogs 
I ever saw,^' according to Lord Henry Bentinck, 
came out first of the dcg hounds, and his sire, the old 
smutty-faced Frederick, '^^who brings the fine skins,'^ 
stood beside him with his sister Gaudy ; but Gold- 
finch was not there. Frederick came from Sir Wat- 
kin's, and has not quite the style of his stock ; but, 
asChanning says, '^'he never did anj^thing wrong to my 
knowledge.'^ Against Galiiard he has only to urge 
that his fine deep kennel note never rises beyond a 
falsetto squeak in cover. H azard was a glorious dog, 
and those who savr him on the flags for the Cleve- 
land Cup could never forget him more. There, too, 
were Ringwood, ^' Drake's Duster about the quar- 
ters;'' Khoderick, '^'' one of the best sires we have ;^^ 
Banker and Rubicon, part of the Cup three couple, 
but the former minus an eye since that pleasant 
Guisboro' day. There, too, were grouped Hotspur, 
a grandson of the Belvoir Bally wood ; Hector, who 
is quite " the Furrier of the kennel ;" Trimbush, 



ATHELSTANEFORD TO COLDSTREAM. 163 

a clean little Irish dog ; and Eoyal^ " old Contest 
all over, but a little darker in tlie coat/^ and better in 
his thighs as well as 31 inches round the heart and 
7| round the arm. Right well does he carry out 
Mr. Campbell of SaddelPs aphorism, that '' hounds 
are never illnamed, be they Mischief or Madcap, or 
anything else.^^ 

The country extends from the Mill Knowe under 
the Lammermoor Hills to Thrunton Crags. Mr. 
Gray takes it up there with a scratch pack, and then 
the Morpeth come in by Rothbury and the river 
Coquet. They have but little cubbing, and the hounds 
are generally blooded in Twizel and Kyloe woods 
near Belford, or in Polwarth woods, and the great 
chain of plantations from Greenlaw to Dunse. His 
lordship does not go with them to Dunse, but only 
meets them by train, and he mostly goes to the 
hotel at Belford (half-way between Berwick and 
A'lnwick) for the fortnight. There are some good 
gorses both in Berwickshire and Northumberland, 
those in the former chiefly ranging from ten to 
twenty acres, and with a belt of trees round them. 
In character the countries differ essentially, Nor- 
thumberland having more grass and single fences, 
and being more open, while Berwickshire is stiffer 
and more confined. November^ and December are 
much the best months for the latter, as after Feb- 
ruary it is all under plough, and the dust files in 
clouds. The great drawback to Northumberland is 
the difficulty of stopping, and from Ford to Twizel, 

2 31 2 



164 FIELD AND FERN. 

and so on to Alnwick, it may be said to be '' all 
under ground." There are also some very craggy 
streams, and many a gallant couple have died at the 
Blue Braes on the banks of the White Adder. Arti- 
ficial manures and sheep smears, whose patentee, 
Avhoever he is, may take notice that they can be 
" smelt a mile off," are answerable for many a check. 

The stud is very grand, and owes much to Sun- 
beam and Turnus, the former of which was only just 
dead. Bob Carlyle, his lordship^s head groom, and 
one of the best known men among horses in Scot- 
land, bought him, in one of his voyages of discovery, 
at the Lucan steeple-chases, and his lordship rode 
him for eight or nine seasons, and never knew him 
tire. He was a dark chesnut of fifteen-two, and got all 
his stock great natural jumpers, bigger than himself, 
and generally chesnuts. Bob liked the sort so much 
that he picked up his own brother another year, but 
he died early. The Turnus blood is very strongly 
represented, thanks to Bob^s constant pilgrimages to 
Knockhill ; and the premier, a six-year-old chesnut 
of immense substance, very fast and great at his 
fences, bears that name. There, too, are his bay 
brother, and Hoddom, a very sweet one, Tom of 
Linne (half-brother to Lord of Linne), and The 
Eriar, quite " the boy for the hills." 

Old Dumfries, on which his lordship is painted, 
bears in his drooping back the mark of nine sea- 
sons ; Wellesbrookis a long and smart brown Irish- 
man of about half as many ; and the Glasgow horse 



ATHELSTANEFORD TO COLDSTREAM. 165 

by The Raslier has fine style and stride. Of his half- 
sister Governess, Channing avers that he never saw 
her off her feet — a fact which he cannot exactly 
allege of Glasgow, as in a fast thing from Cranshaw^s 
" he fell ten yards, ani I fell ten further. '' Garibaldi 
is a horse of great power, and The E-oan is of four 
seasons' standing, with a wonderful arm and sub- 
stance, and like the Marotto mare, a clipper in a 
close country. For five seasons Channing rode The 
Pig, but of late he has been more on The Bird, a 
rare hill horse, as he proved in a day from Copeland 
gorse over the Cheviots ; and Banker by Chanticleer, 
who won the East-Lothian steeple-chase, possesses 
the same faculty. Marden is a very knowing old- 
fashioned horse by Little Known, and goes back to 
Rocket and Little Thomas, " the last of the Mohi- 
cans /^ at least so said Lord John Scott, who knew 
and loved the sort. 

Jemmy Twitch er, who won seven steeple- chases, 
has gone, and so has the beautiful grey Pallinsburn,* 
who was more at home in a stiff country than on the 
hill, and one of his lordship's best for five seasons. 

Bob Carlyle, who never broke arm or leg till last 
season, has been with the Earl for thirty-eight years, 
and is not only photographed beside his lordship and 
the grey, but appears in Mr^ Gourlay SteelPs pre- 
sentation hunt picture on Wellesbrook. He can go 
back to Prince Le Boo, Cannonball, Bob Gibb, and 



* The portrait of this horse arjTDears in the grour) entitled "A Glimpse of 
Xnockhill, 1864." 



166 FIELD AND FEIIN. 



Little Phoenix of his lordship^ s hard-riding Leices- 
tershire days^ as well as the grey half-brothers Re- 
former and Canteen. Once he whipped in with 
Joe Hogg, and portraits of Waverley and Ringwood, 
the hounds of his fancy, form part of his collection 
at Amisfield. He was also playing in the same cha- 
racter from ^29 to ■'34, when the Earl kept harriers 
at Kelso to fill np the two days that the Duke^s did 
not hunt, and when, with Lord John aiding and 
abetting, they would " go like the mischief^ with a 
fox over Cessford Moor. Bob^s picture gallery of 
man, horse, and hound is a pretty extensive one ; and 
Mr. Hay of Leatham Grange and Mr. Hunt of 
Thornington are not forgotten, as men from whom 
the Earl has bought many a good horse. The stuffed 
fox^s head has also a peculiar reminiscence. ^^ We 
killed it/' says Bob, '^ thirty -five miles from this park ^ 
the very last day that I was a bachelor, '' 



COLDSTREAM TO HAWICK. 167 



fflSAfflE ¥L 

" For til from his den the otter drew ; 
Grayling and trout their tyrant knew, 
As between reed and sedge he peers 
With fierce round snout and shariiened ears ; 
Or prowling by the mountain cool, 
"Watches the stream or swims the pool." 

Scott. 

The Hawick "Lads" — Messrs. Oliver's Auction Sales — The Hawck Rara 
Sale — Dr. Grant's Otter Hounds — His Dandie Dinmonts — Robin's 
Education — Sandy and Billy — Mornings with the Doctor on the 
Teviot, Ale, and Jed. 

AWicK is not the prettiest ; but there is a sturdy ;, 
industrial independence about it which gives it 
a hi^h rank among Border towns. It reroonstrated 
in good set terms with Manchester for rejecting 
Milner Gibson and John Bright; it plumes itself 
on being peopled by the descendants of heroes who 
fell at riodden ; and one of its poets has packed its 
greatness into this couplet — 

" Spite of lawless fraud and pUlage, 
Hawick rose by trade and tillage." 

The last trace of their martial ardour is to be found 
in the selection of a '' cornet" annually. Garlick 
Jock^ Black Wat, and '^Adam Hart (carter)" are all on 
the roll, and two of them flourished when the " town 



168 FIELD AND FERN. 

clerk headed the horsemen armed with swords, and 
pedestrians witli clubs/^ to race on the Muir the first 
day, and to ride the ancient marches, beginning at 
the Commonhaugh, on the second. 

It doesn't take much to wake up the " lads" now. 
An otter, or even a foulmart, will do it most effect- 
ually, let alone a meet of the Duke's at Grundiston 
or Chapel Hill, so that summer or winter they are 
pretty well '^ up to their cruppers'' in sport. We 
found fully five hundred of them waiting at the sta- 
tion to meet a local hero, "The Gover," who had 
been trained near Bradford for a mile race. One 
grim cynic growled out, w^hen w^e asked for informa- 
tion, " They're only a set of daft bodies — it's just this 
foot-racing'^ ; but, daft or not, if ^' The Gover" 
and his trainer had been the Premier and Mr. Glad- 
stone they could not have been received more reve- 
rentially. 

At present, however, we have to pluck up the 
ancient landmarks, and look upon Hawick as the 
great sheep and cattle centre of Upper Teviotdale, 
extending from Denholm on the East to Mosspaull 
on the west. There is a half-yearly market for cattle 
and hiring of servants, but the cattle department has 
of late years been entirely superseded by the weekly 
auctions of the Messrs. Oliver. This firm, which was 
the first to establish such auctions in Scotland, be- 
gan some twenty-five years ago with a monthly one. 
Gradually this mode of selling came into favour with 
the farmers, and now a weekly one is held, at which 



COLDSTREAM TO HAWICK. 169 

the greater part of tlie fat and other stock reared in 
the neighbourhood is sold. 

The store sales in spring and autumn are in a measure 
a transfer of yearlings from the hill to the arable far- 
mers ; but the hill breeding is not on an extensive 
scale, and the supplies are principally from England 
and Ireland, and from Red Water and the West 
Country between Jed and Liddesdale. Kelso and 
the Eood Day Fair at Jedburgh both help to fill the 
yards with two and three-year-olds, principally short- 
horns, in September, which are gradually sold off 
from December to May, either privately or at local 
sales to dealers, who take them to Leeds, Manchester, 
Newcastle, and the South. The turnip crop has in- 
creased twenty-fold in as many years in Roxburgh- 
shire, and the number of cattle fed in a very large 
proportion, whereas it once sent its stores to the 
south. Finger-and-toe bears heavy on the mangels, 
and East Lothian is relied on for potatoes. 

The late Mr. Andrew Oliver also began the public 
wool sales before 1840. They were the earliest in 
Scotland, but not exactly on the Girdwood system. 
Catalogues of clips were published, and buyers went 
round and examined them, and then met at Hawick 
or Jedburgh and bid. Now the wool is warehoused, 
and there are three or four sales, a year. The stock 
sales, which began about this time, were at first a 
mere name ; and now Mr. Oliver sells as many sheep 
and cattle weekly as he did monthly, even when the 
neighbourhood warmed to the scheme. Inde- 



170 FIELD AND FERN. 

pendently of the regular Monday ones^ three or four 
special sales are held for half-bred lambs in August 
and September^ and two principally for draft Che- 
viot ewes in October, and occasionally extra ones 
for cattle. Mr. Oliver's new sale-yard will hold ten 
thousand sheep and lambs ; and after the last Melrose 
fair it was full, and a contingent of a thousand were 
billeted in the adjoining space. Liddesdale, Teviot- 
dale, and Ewesdale all send Cheviot and half-bred 
Iambs; Fifeshire, Perthshire, and Forfarshire come 
for the latter to feed off, and the English dealers 
principally for Cheviot and half-bred ewes. Mr. 
Penny has similar sales at Kelso, they also thrive 
under Mr. Oliver at Galashiels, and Mr. Davison 
at Melrose, There are plenty of other outlets for 
sellers, and flock-masters on the Jed and the borders 
of the Cheviot hills take their lambs to Pennymuir. 
on the old drove road to Newcastle, in July, and their 
cast ewes in October. Those in Gala Water, the 
lower parts of Roxburghshire, and the upper part of 
Berwickshire, who have a half-bred stock, sell their 
three-parts-bred lambs at St. BoswelFs and Melrose, 
and buy half-bred ewes to keep up their flock of 
breeding ewes on the improved land or parks. The 
Cheviot lamb buyers from the Highlands generally 
come after the wedder tops, and the ewe lambs (of 
which flockmasters will only sell the seconds) are 
dispersed round the district, while the cast Cheviot 
ewes are invariably Cumberland and Yorkshire 
bound. 



COLDSTREAM TO HAWICK. 171 

The Hawick ram sale is of old date^ and at one 
time fat sheep,, tied by the legs^ were shown along 
with them in the street. The Highland flockmasters 
very seldom come now, but do nearly all their business 
through commission agents, like Murray, the Swans, 
and Kennedy, &c., of Edinburgh, who have quite 
superseded the dealers. Once all the business was 
done by private sale, till Mr. Eiddellof Hindalea 
sold the " Calroust Rams '' by auction in Ha- 
wick Market a wholesome innovation on the private 
system, which must have dated back to the Union. 
Hawick and Moffatt are now the Cheviot capitals, to 
which Ettrick, Yarrow, all the Dumfriesshire districts, 
and the dales journey once a year for interchange 
of stock and good Border fellowship. At Hawick 
alone, from 1,500 to 2,000 rams are sold, at all prices 
from £21 to .€2 10s. In exceptional cases they will 
range as high as £50, and Linhope, Hindhope, 
Hopesrigg, Georgefield, and East Middle have gene- 
rally carried the day. The sale of Leicester rams has 
also much increased, and the principal Hawick dis- 
trict supplies come from East Middle and Spittal. 

To pass through Hawick without having an intro- 
duction to Dr. Grant and his Dandie Dinmonts was 
not to be thought of. We first met him in the outskirts 
journeying professionally towards Teviotdale, with 
three of them in his dog-cart. Greyhounds, terriers, 
otters, and a good practice form his quadruple tie to 
the district, and he has almost ceased to think of his 
native Highlands. His house is a faithful reflex of 



172 FIELD AND FERN. 

himself. There is an infant badger stuffed on tlie 
staircase, and an otter of 25lbs. on the landing. The 
spotted skins of some sixteen puppies by the otter 
hound Pibroch, from Dowager, of the Duke^s breed- 
ing, constitute a colony of mats. You wipe your 
feet at the bottom of the stairs on all that is now 
mortal of the black-and-tan Merryman, Avho made 
merry with w^ater-rats when there was sterner work 
to do, and was put down as a trifler not w orthy of 
his salt. Billy and Bobby are the only dogs which 
enjoy bed and board in the house. They dress each 
other^s wounds most devotedl}^, after a hard morn- 
ing's work, and share the doctor's bed. Their pre- 
sence is his only soporific. He takes his rest with these 
martial retainers at his back and legs, and dreams 
of the glories of the Jed and Teviot, and the covered 
drains on the Ale. During the past winter he has 
used up most of his spare minutes after nightfall in 
designing and building a drag, which is drawn by 
Bobiu and a thorough-bred. The iron part is a 
blacksmith's handiwork, but the wood and the paint- 
ing — claret picked out with red — are strictly his own. 
It is on four wheels, and built for twelve couple. 
The driving-box is placed on two tiers, one for 
hounds, and another for terriers, and there is plenty 
of scope for hounds beneath the seats of the car 
behind. 

The Doctor's best affections have always been, not 
so much with the clan Grant, as with his Dandie 
Dinmonts, and his back-yard is quite a Charlieshope. 



COLDSTREAM TO HAWICK. 173^ 

Nettle and Pepper, from Paul Scott, of Jedburgh, 
were the first arrivals ; and Sir George Douglas's 
keeper gave him Shamrock, who had recently devoted 
himself to worrying collies. " Shammy" is of the 
Birsieslees branch of the Dandie Dinmont family re- 
ferred to by " Stonehenge on the Dog.'' He was 
bred by Mr. James Scott, of Newstead, from Vixen 
by brown Pepper, or Pepper or ''Tepper the Second." 
In short, the Doctor believes in no other blood than 
that which is derived from JamesDavidson, ofHindley 
and almost primaeval Pepper and Mustard renown. 
He had bought many things in Dandie shape 
before he cast in his lot with this breed, but his 
trials were too high for them. They vrere entered 
with rats, and mounted the scale to cats, as age and 
performance might warrant. Too many of the pup- 
pies stopped there, or did not get any further than a 
muzzled fox ; and then if age gave them solid con- 
fidence, they took their B.A. degree with the 
badger. This species of culture tends upwards to the 
otter, in which Tom and Teddy (the sons of Sham- 
rock and Nettle) have become quite Eegius Profes- 
sors. Teddy gains in pluck what he loses in style. 
He goes quietly up to the *' fish-slicer," and gets 
almost bitten to death on the head without a mur- 
mur, while he surely does the deed ; but Tom dashes 
in with all the elan of a Zouave, and has it by the 
neck before it can get home with its " clinches.'-* 
" A retreat for purely strategic purposes" is a thing 
they wot not of. 



174 FIELD AND FERN. 

For the first two seasons that the Doctor was 
Master of the Teviotdale, he and Shammy and Wil- 
liam Broadwith (a very plucky little fellow, with, 
alas ! an iron hook for a hand), who hunted Sir 
George Douglases for many years, were ^^ almost the 
only otter hounds." The Doctor might, in fact, have 
never become an M.O.H. at all, if he had not yearned 
for even a higher " trial horse" than his badger, and 
set out in quest of one on the banks of the Ale. The 
hard-bitten trio were not long in fin ding an "aged river 
poach ei^^ (as the Haioick Advertiser puts it), and 
bolted him into a sack. He was borne home ten- 
derly by the Doctor; but he did not relish a mena- 
gerie future, and in less than twenty-four hours he 
had climbed up a wall eight feet high, worked a hole 
through the slates, and given his new medical attend- 
ant leg-bail for his pains. Nothing more was seen 
of him that season ; but one of 25]bs., by four-feet- 
two, and very like him, was found in the Denholm 
Pool the next summer, and the chase was so long and 
the dog punishment so heavy that the Doctor and 
Teddy were the only ones up. The waters of the 
Teviot never witnessed a more bloody fray than when 
the former tailed him, and the latter held him by the 
throat, and the three rolled over and over in the 
death grip together. Walter was a rare adjutant 
on these occasions. He was with the Doctor at 
thirteen, and then became a herd laddie ; but he 
"returned to nobler pursuits," and held this staff 
appointment for some years. His master's great 



COLDSTREAM TO HAWICK. 175 

anxiety was to see him well bitten^ and lie quite 
grudged him all his narrow escapes. Indeed, the 
principal clause in the Grant articles of war ran 
thus : '' If the otter breaks your arm, Walter, you 
are not to let him go/^ 

It has not been our fate, as yet, to see the Doctor 
engaged in one of these great water wrestles ; but 
we have a keen recollection of him in a stirring: 
tableau on a certain February night, holding up his 
badger by the tail, and casting the gleams of the 
lantern on its aldermanic paunch, to show the happy 
results of a three years^ captivity. Its condition and 
knowledge of " the noble art of self-defence^^ are 
undoubted ; but still the doctor considers it, intellec- 
tually speaking, quite a dull-witted brute. He has 
tried hard to touch, one by one, the finer chords in 
its nature; but it won^t have him at any price. 
Perhaps it has learned to suspect him and his 
honeyed words, and knows his mission far too svell, 
as he goes bending almost double into its cell. Hence 
it burrows day after day in the straw-tub, eats en- 
ormous rations of bread, meat, and milk, and sternly 
refuses to reciprocate on any terms whatever. 

The voice of the charmer has never failed before. 
He attributes this remarkable cynicism to his 
badger^s advanced age when it was dug out, and he 
secured one of tenderer years. They are the first 
creatures he ever failed to educate. As for his fer- 
rets, he taught them nothing but affection; but his 
^' performing rats^^ got quite a step beyond that, and 



176 FIELD AND TERN. 

would sit on their hind legs and beg like a dog. He 
has tried his hand on eleven foxes (one of which bred 
three cubs) ; bat except a brace of vixens,, which 
did a little in the acrobat way, and an old fox, which 
had the freedoai of the borough, and would occa- 
sionally return thirty miles an hour down the High- 
street and its area bolt-hole, pursued by ^'^the 
allied armies" of Roxburgh and Selkirkshire collies 
on a sheep-market day, their mental culture was not 
high. " Eoxie^' had been trained from cubhood till 
he became a perfect Robert Macaire. He would sit 
up for half-an-hour at a stretch, with the Doctor's 
spectacles on his eyes, a pencil-case balanced on his 
nose, and a gold watch hanging by his canine teeth. 
For a change of performance, he vfould wink with 
one eye, and then roll over, and, shutting them both, 
pretend to be dead. Teddy and he had been fast 
friends in youth; but a coolness sprang up between 
them about some porridge, and those fearful jaws 
sealed his death-warrant. 

Dowager, from the Duke of Buccleucb^s kennel, a 
couple from the Cumberland, with Tom Johnston's 
assurance that " they would tackle aught,'' Malak- 
hoff and Fairplay from the Dumfriesshire were, of 
course, all " slape-haired ones" ; and Pibroch, from 
Mr. Keir, of Whithaugh, in Liddesdale, with Royal 
and Ringwood, composed the rough interest when 
the Teviotdale otter pack was first formed. This 
season it was at its full strength with three foxhounds, 
eight otter hounds, nine terriers, and the redoubt- 



COLDSTREAM TO HAWICK. 177 

able ^^ Sanderson^s Biily^' to take the general super- 
intendence. "^ Ringwood was the biggest blackguard 
of the lot." He cost 30s., and arrived late one 
night. Before breakfast next morning, he had bitten 
a friend of the Doctor's, the Doctor, and the 
Doctor's servant-girl, and it " wasn't homoeopathic 
biting either.'' The Doctor was bitten again after 
breakfast, and at intervals during the first week on 
every conceivable part of his person ; and if he had 
not kept the dog tied up in his bed-room, nothing 
short of a charwoman in chain-armour could have 
ventured Avithin his doors. At length, being wearied 
out of this fierce ivory bondage, he dragged the rebel 
down-stairs, and fought a most bloody Aliwal, 
Moodkee, and Ferozeshah with him on three succes- 
sive afternoons in a loose box, which ended in a 
Ringwood treaty for peace, and the entire devotion 
of his young life to otters. It must be in token of 
this vow of submission that the Doctor has had him 
photographed for us at his feet, with the handle of 
the hunting-whip across his neck, and in the illus- 
trious fellowship of Billy, " Shammy," and Royal. 
He is the sire of Bugle, from one of Sir Harry Vane's 
sort, vv^iich inherits his grand qualities, and took to 
the drag at thirteen months. There is still some of 
the old leaven in him, and he was the only one that 
refused to come out of his prescriptive corner when 
the kennel huntsman was sent into the Van Amburgh 
sort of cage where they reside. The suggestive 
tones of the Doctor (who never uses a whip to any of 

2 N 



178 FIELD AND FERN. 

them) were enough, and he rendered a surly 
obedience at last. 

A lot of black-and-white puppies by him, from 
Eally, were in the compartment below, where Ruler, 
^^ about the last living drop of old John Peel's blood," 
lay curled up. He was just alive, and that was about 
all ; but he recovered after some months of the most 
tender nursing ; and he will leave behind him a rare 
character as a dragger, fighter, and marker. He 
still requires a good deal of care ; and he, Koyal, 
Collier, and MalakhofF are all fed by the Doctor^ s own 
hand. Collier has also seen a good deal of fun, as well 
as trouble, in his time. He once returned from a 
trip with what proved under the microscope to be 
mange in three forms — disease at the root of the hair 
bulb, the vegetable parasite, and the scab animal- 
cule ; but the Doctor fell back promptly on his pro- 
fessional resources, and the enemy was smitten hip 
and thigh. 

The descent of the pack from the cage, one by one, 
down a narrow gangway, with Ringwood growling 
like a ratepayer in the rear of all, was the scene of 
the evening ; and the white Malakhoff made us rub 
our eyes to be quite sure that it was not Mr. Mor- 
relFs old Trumpeter come back from the gorse of 
shadows. Like him he is nearly perfect at every- 
thing, and with quite as deep a tongue. He and 
Ringwood both went down in ^63 with special retain- 
ers to Carlisle, and distinguished themselves highly 
before Mr. Justice Carr by their eloquence on Bre- 



COLDSTREAM TO HAWICK. 179 

con Flatts, and their method of dealing with knotty- 
points in the rocks near Kitty Straits. Fairplay, a 
'^ quiet, sensible dog/^ but *'' unfortunately with a 
smooth skin," and deep in seal or sprint mysteries, 
scuffled down from " the cage," with Royal, who is 
quite a water '' philosopher and friend,^^ to the 
Doctor, and gifted with a remarkable Southern skull, 
and a bell-like tongue, which has discoursed rich music 
in many a drag. There is a strange psychological 
sympathy between them, as neither of them can touch 
a bite of anything on a hunting morning. Bellman, 
who came with Billy, and began dragging the very first 
morning with the old dogs at Ancrum Crags, is not 
easily overlooked, from his gay style; and little Randy 
was there, too, ^"^the last bitch of the Bowscale blood," 
yellow with a white ring round her neck, and quite 
" a devil to worry." Thunder, her daughter by the 
Carlisle Thunder (a great hound in his day), is like 
her, but bigger ; and Pibroches " cage" substitute is 
Fanny by Lochinvar, which is neither more nor less 
than a greyhound bitch in sheets. She eventually 
broke her back at Borthwick Brae, on the very spot 
where, seven seasons before, she ran her first 
trial. Pibroch, who occasionally looks lost in 
thought, and does not care now to get too much in 
the otter^s way, always sleeps by himself before the 
horses ; and he and Sarah Sibbald by Canaradzo, and 
a Gordon setter, seem to have tickets of leave in the 
yard. The terriers cast in their lot with the pack, 
and are a "most brave and affectionate family." There 

2 N 2 



180 FIELD AND FERX. 

is only one son of Bobby (from Teddy's dam) in the 
kennel, and a regular clinker for mischief, whose 
chief amusement out at quarters was to hang on to 
the pigs^ ears. Hence he came back in disgrace ; 
but they soon " desired him vehc^mently^^ when the 
rats increased and multiplied once more. 

Of course we were introduced in due form to 
^' Shammy by Sir George Douglases Pepper III., by 
his Pepper II., by his Pepper I., by old Stoddart's 
Dandie II., by his Dandie I., who was, perhaps, the 
best dog of the breed that ever lived." He " has 
always been hard wrought ;" but his sire did not die at 
Springwood Park till he w^as upwards of 16, and Sham- 
my looks wonderful for one only three years younger. 
His sons Teddy of the wonderful jaw, and Tom, a 
regular Yellow Dwarf, can scuffle along ten miles in 
the hour, and have wind for a battle-royal at the end 
of it. Any one w'ho dares to say that the Dandie is- 
cross-bred, must gird up his loins then and there for 
a vigorous course of polemics. Not only has the 
Doctor looked into the whole thing in a most learned 
note, but he can quote several lines from the Greek 
poet Opianus, who flourished in the second century, 
to prove that the '''crook-limbed and blackeyed'' 
breed were natives of Britain at the time of the 
Koman invasion. As for his rapture when he 
looked on Land seer's otter and cub in the Bowhill 
gallery, and recalled " the bonny beast" in the flesh, 
and how he had " heard it whistling" to its mamma, 
it was truly touching. His spirit has communicated 



COLDSTREAM TO HAWICK. 181 

itself to the stable. The little thorough-bred black 
and Prince Augustus by Teddington certainly know 
nothing as yet of the sport, but the Birdcatcher ches- 
nut E/obin has been duly initiated. He waits for the 
Doctor on the bank ; but once upon a time, animated 
by the same spirit which makes him pull so hard 
with the foxhounds, he became deeply interested, 
and walked up to his hocks in the middle of the 
Teviot. When there, he essayed to encourage his 
master with a playful dig in the back ribs, which 
nearly floored him just as the fight was at the hottest, 
and the injudicious bottle-holder Aras dismissed with 
the whip about his hips. This cured him of all active 
participation in worries for the future, except strictly 
as a spectator. On land he is in a far higher 
state of tuition than the rats : he kneels to 
be mounted ; he kicks with both legs or one, 
as he is directed ; he curtseys ; he Avill spar at 
his master with the science of a Mace; carry his 
whip along the streets ; or execute with liim, in more 
festive moments, a species of Polonaise. And yet 
the groundwork of this training was simply ^^ riding 
him blindfold for two months till I got into his 
favour .^^ 

Robin's antecedents are frightful to think of. Some 
one got him in exchange for a itiare at Musselburgh 
races, and couldn't ride him home. In fact, his antics 
were so peculiar, that it is still an " historic doubt" 
whether he entered the army in early life, or cast in 
his lot with the foot-lamps and the sawdust. After 



182 FIELD AND FERN. 

Musselburgh, lie was through the hands of half the 
cadgers of Edinburgh, and landed at last in a great 
terrier-home at Birsieslees. The Doctor had a fearful 
character with him, and as, after buying him, he 
declined to pass a cart on any consideration, 
a few half-crowns would have parted them. Once in 
Hawick be declined to leave his stable for a fort- 
night, and, when he did consent to go a mile out of 
the town, he suddenly desired to return. The 
Doctor was glad to let him come, though he did go 
shopping all the way ; and then an eye-shade or 
a pistol were the two last alternatives. 

Ancrum Bridge, where the Doctor may be often 
seen sitting and waiting for the dawn and a sprink- 
ling of the Border chivalry as well, and the Abbey 
Bridge, near Jedburgh, are the favourite meets. The 
Jeddites are especially keen of the fun, and somehow 
or other they always seem to have the office. Three 
hundred will often turn out to see the otter " die a 
natural death,^^ and the Doctor finds no crowd so 
accommodating and manageable. The late Duke of 
Athole and Lord John Scott hunted a great deal in 
these streams, and the Leader as well; and therefore 
with such tutors, past and present, it is no wonder 
that many of "the lads^' have the winds of 
Arabs both for running by day and recounting by 
nio'ht " the great worries in the water" ; how Billy 
brought him out from under a root, and how Teddy, 
Tom, and Shammy are always getting drowned, and 
coming up again like a cork. Each hound hunts 



COLDSTREAM TO HAWICK. 183 

with a strap round his neck, so as to be taken up 
when the terriers have an "in-go" on their own 
account. 

The Doctor's hunting costume consists of boots, 
Tweed breeches, and a thin pink Shetland shirt over 
a woollen one, and he is armed simply with a pole. 
He seldom speaks to his hounds except with his horn, 
and never by any chance uses anything but his fist 
to fight them off from the otter, or to correct them. 
Twice over he knocked Malakhoff nearly silly with it, 
in that terrible struggle near Sandiestones, which he 
kept up for fully twenty minutes, single-handed, 
against the whole of his pack. He wanted a live 
otter as a school of puppy instruction for the natural 
drag j but their blood was up, and he was fairly 
beaten, and dragged out nearly exhausted, part of a 
dead and living chain — Hawick Lads, oo The 
Doctor f GO the otter, go Teddy. As for Teddy, he 
had been "drowned three times, nearly worried 
under the water by ]\ialakhoff (of course strictly 
under a misapprehension), and yet he still held on. 

Billy and Bobby may hunt in dreams ; but the 
Doctor's eyelids knew no rest the night before a 
meet, and it goes hard with him if he is not in his 
dog-cart and away soon after three in summer. The 
country people say that they h^ve known him '^tak 
a notion three days running when he's lying in bed,-"^ 
and of course execute it. Such instances are, how- 
ever, rare, and he is seldom out more than twice 
a fortnight. He is generally back about ten ; and 



184 FIELD AND FERN. 

when every hound has been rubbed dr}^^, he changes 
his clothes, jumps into his gig, and away on his 
rounds, and '' sleeps at night without rocking/^ His 
season extends from April to September, and per- 
liaps on the average he may be out thirty times, kill 
five brace, and let nearly as many off on the thirteen 
rivers of which he has the liberty. The Jed, with its 
" rugged rocks'^ and eternal tree-roots, and the Ale, 
which Sir George Douglas fitted up with such a fine 
eye to otters, may be said to be his woodland coun- 
try ; and it was on tlie latter that he had his '' Billes- 
don Coplow run^^ of fully ten miles. It joins the 
Teviot, or rather reaches the open at Ancrum Bridge, 
where they are generally pretty safe of a long burst 
with a "traveller." The meet is at Kelso Bridge 
when they hunt up the Teviot ; but the pack is not 
large enough to attempt the Tweed, and if they did, 
the velveteen order of the Trappists have been there 
pretty often before them. 

" Sandy,^"* or Willie Sanderson, a young butcher 
from Carlisle, has been a tower of strength to the 
Doctor since they met on the Annan in the May of 
^63. He was entered under Willie Bobinson, who was 
then the huntsman of the Carlisle pack, and learnt all 
his dodges. " The merrie city" has loved the sport 
since Dr. Hildebrand^s day. From Cliff Bridge up to 
Wrack Bridge is their favourite hunting ground on the 
Lyne. The Caldew is always drawn blank, but the 
Eden hears the music of their twelve couple " from 
Cargo right up till Armthwaite." Irthing Foot is a 



2 ® 










COLDSTREAM TO HAWICK. 185 

sure find;, and " varra smittle for lying/^ and a wake- 
ful passenger by the north mail may catch a glimpse 
of them at work between Southwaite and Carlton^ in 
the bosky glades of the Petterill. As it fell out, after 
the Doctor^s first interview with Sand}^, the Teviot- 
dale pack " rather lost heart, and wanted a dog for 
creeping.^^ In short, the post of " a good grounding 
tutor" to the Grant terriers was vacant, and San- 
derson^s bull terrier Billy, and the very apple of his 
eye, seemed (as his owner put it) " just the dog to Hice 
them inJ' He was 221bs. weight when in condition, 
and about two years and four months old when he 
was booked by the North British and entered on the 
duties of his office. 

Sandy thus sums up his varmint history with all 
the terseness of a Cresswell : " Billy played with his 
first foulmart ; his second bit him at seven months, 
so he killed it ; he won^t fight with a hound, or kill 
a hare or rabbit, and he won^t notice a rat without 
orders.'^ His early promotion was thus strictly the 
result of high training and continual self-denial. He 
was not long in being entered to the otter, and he 
had accounted for one on the Lyne (near which 
Mr. Scott, a joiner, bred him) when he was only 
twelve months old. His second had decidedly four 
or five pounds the pull of him in weight. It had 
been driven out of the Lyne into the woods the day 
before, and but for a bloodhound belonging to Mr. 
Standish^s keeper it would have beaten them all 
again. However, they worked up to it when it was 



186 FIELD AND FERN. 

crossing a turnpike-road near Bracken Hill, and Billy* 
looked, after the '' clinching^^ finish, just as if lie had 
been shot with peas through the head. 

Sanderson was so impressed with the master of the 
Teviotdale, after they had exchanged minds, that he 
at once presented him with Billy — as a touching 
tribute to his gameness. Still his separation from 
Billy is only nominal, as he sometimes goes over, and 
takes the horn when theDoctorhas a Wednesday meet, 
or any urgent case on his hands. Cheered by his old 
master's presence and the Cumberland dialect, Billy 
soon got to work in his adopted country, and Eing- 
wood recognised him at once as a most able and 
business-like adjutant on the first day they were out. 
The old dog, who has had about enough of the wor- 
rying business, marked the otter under a root, 
pricked his ears, and "stood back for battle.^' Billy 
tunnelled up to the otter in a jifi'ey, and pulled it out 
by the under-jaw ; but it was only 191bs., totally 
without a tail, and not unlike a stoat about the face. 
The Doctor flew to the cry, and fished frantically in 
muddy waters for the tail. He is not to be trifled 
with at such a crisis ; and yet " Sandy'' would keep 
telling him that it was " only a diving pig,'^ and that 
he saw (which was true enough) by the air bells 
on the water that an otter had just slipped down 
stream. At last he fished it up bodily, and held 
it quite fondly in his arms ; but although he 
invoked the crowd all round, there was no plaid 
at hand, and so it was dropped among the terriers 



COLDSTREAM TO HAWICK. 187 

once more, and they finished it. On another occa- 
sion, when he was not in full costume, an otter fairly- 
pinned him by the heel, and he never even felt it had 
hold of him till it tore his trousers right up to the 
knee. 

After meditating on it all the winter of ^63-64, 
and being assured by his friends that he never could 
do it, he succeeded in taking an otter alive ! It was 
bolted from under a tree root, on the banks of the 
Ale, with Teddy hanging to its throat. The Doctor 
took his resolve in an instant, and plunged the pair 
beneath water to hide the otter from the hounds, 
and drown Teddy off. Just as he took hold of the 
otter hy its neck with the left hand, it caught hold 
of him, and pinned him like an English bull-dog for 
some minutes. The pain seemed nothing in that 
hour of victory. He shouted to Walter to strip off his 
coat. Walter was in the water and his shirt- sleeves 
in an instant, and after delivering his " one, two^^ in 
the regular Grant style, on the heads of three old 
hounds, he wrapped the eoat round and round the 
otter in his master's arms, and the deed was done at 
last. It was a very pretty dog otter of ISlbs. weight, 
and offered battle for a time whenever they looked 
into the box. On the seventh day it took fish from 
the hand, but it died soon after, the victim of its ap- 
petite. The Doctor's fingers were rather numbed 
and powerless after the bone-mill process, and he 
was tremendously bitten in other parts ; but what 
was that to such a long-coveted trophy, fairly 



188 FIELD AND FERN. 

won in the teeth of a whole pack of infuriated 
hounds ? 

In his code of hunting rules he is inflexibly merci- 
ful to the hunted. He will not have the dogs aided 
by any cudgel play, and the man who loosed a fresh 
dog in the middle of a general engagement on the 
Jed was pretty speedily '^ pronounced in contempt.'^ 
On one occasion the field begged him in vain to let 
them see a kill in a mill sluice. Nothing would 
move him. He tied np the hounds, and chased out 
the otter over the bank with the terriers into the 
Teviot, and when it took to a stronghold there, he 
would not dig it out. Let the " dry-shodded ones^^ 
also beware how he offers them a back for the future* 
In short, as his Boswell observes of him : '^ He^s sic 
a man. I can hardly tell you what he is : he^s here, 
theer, and a' roads ; always moving — he^s likest a 
dog through the water of aught ;" and then, throwing 
all his cumulative force into the simile, ^' He^d think 
nought, wad Doctor, of swimming across the Solway, 
clicking an otter's tail.'^* 

* Impurity lias been hinted at in the ease of the Dandie Dinmont terrier 
bitch " Meadow," so I send you this genealoprical note. " Stonehenge" says 
Sir George H. S. Douglas's Pepper was the sire of Meadow, and Schann her 
dam. I fear there is rlifficulty and error here. Besides others of the same 
name. Sir George had //; ree Peppers of fame in succession, at Birsieslees. Which 
of them Stonehenge means I cannot say, but it matters httle, as neither was 
the sire of Meadow. Her sire was a " young dog" which Sir George Douglas 
got from Mr. Brisbane. He afterwards gave him to a clergyman in York- 
shu-e. His name, I think, wa.s Mustard, certainly not Pepper. This dog was 
bred by a " mud student" in the Coldstream or Cornliill district, and had for 
his sire a dog Dandie, bred by Mr. Frain of Trows. The dam of Mustard (that 
is the paternal gvand-Am. of Meadow) belonged to the said "mud student," 
hat where he ffot her or how xJie was bred has oiecer heen satisf actor II i/ determined, 
and it is solely on this point that the imjnded impurity of Meadow rests. I am 
satisfied that the bitch was pure. I have a great-grand-daughter of Meadow's 
at this moment, and it is the greatest beauty of its age and species I have 
•ever yet seen. My Shami-ock was by Sii- George's Pepper III. (from Vixen), 



COLDSTREAM TO HAWICK. 189 

After this '' evening with the Doctor/^ we longed 
for the summer and the Avaterside, and July found us 
at Hawick once more. Sandy, with his white flan» 
nels, his red cap, and his brass-tipped pole, had come 
from Carlisle by the train, and was seated snugly on 
one side of the fire-place, discussing the science and 
swagger of his darling Malakhoff, and the courage 
of " old John Peel/^ The little fellow quite warmed 
up as he told how the old white was always ^' a rock 
hunter on stones and likeliest places,^^ and how of 
all dogs he most fulfilled his wish to "see them 
swagger and hunt with natur.^^ Of course we ad- 
journed to the kennel, to see what was drawn for the 
morning. Bobby, the ex-pugilist bull-terrier, never 
goes out, as, if another dog comes among the pack, 
lie cracks it up like a nut ; and then there^s a row, 
which the Doctor, who knows the full advantages of 
conciliation, hates of all things. 

So, like the grim but " liberal-hearted dog^^ that 
he is, Bobby stops to keep house ; and if any of the 
young dogs are to be entered at the badger (which 



he by Sii' George's Pepper II. (from his Schann, bred at Bowhill by the Duke 
of Buccleuch's ''old grey Pepper"), he by Sii- George's Pepper I.' (from Mr,^ 
Lang's bitch), he by old Stoddart's Dandie II. (from Schami, Iwed by Scott of 
Hindley, successor to James Davidson), he by Stoddart's Daudie I., Tvho was 
the vw)<f 7-eiiowned sire of kin day, and pea"hapsV/(e hest dog of the breed that ever 
lived. This dog was out of James Davidson of ^Hindley 's Gyp (G.^qosie), but. 
his sire is unkno-v^-n. Vixen, the dam of my Shamrock, was by Mr. James 
Scott's Sharm-ock (from Spice), he bj' Mr. Brisbane's Dandy, which came 
from Amisfield, and was In-ed by Lord Elcho, who got |his terriers from the 
late William Eeid of Jedburgh, one of the gi-eatest breeders of the race at an 
early period. Eeid obtained his ten-iers from James Da\'itlson of HuitUey, 
Mr.'Dun of Whitelee, the Bells of Hindalea Mill, and others. Spice was Ijy 
Mr. Brisbane's Shem, which leads us back (patemalhi) to Mr. Svminer's Shem, 
Mr. Todd's Charhe, and again to the renowned " old Dandie" of old Stoddart 
of Selkirk.— J. G. 



190 FIELD AND FERN. 

once got under the kitchen- floor_, and gave the Doc- 
tor two hours of hard digging), he is always ready, 
as resident professor, to instruct them in the art. A 
little white bull-terrier, which thinks nothing of a 
badger three times its weight, is equally troubled 
with the bump of combativeness, so it stops at home. 
Eilly was of course ripe for duty ; and even old 
Shammy was to have a treat. There must have been 
four more Dandies, Teddy, Tom, and Piper — which 
latter was Walter's peculiar charge — and a most re- 
markable fossil called The Dwarf, which never tired 
in its life. Add to these a black-and-tan English 
terrier — Nettle — which was there on a visit after its 
rabbit coursing labours, and followed the Doctor in 
the most implicit faith over stone and scaur, won- 
dering what it could all be about. Billy never goes 
with the hounds, but conducts them with a patronizing 
" confide in me" air about a mile out of the town_, 
and then trots back to accompany his master. No 
dog has a higher sense of his position in the Cabinet, 
and it is a " moraF to see him come home with the 
pack, swelling with self-importance if the otter is at 
the doctor's saddle-bow, or if he is generally satisfied 
with the sport. In the town he is most popular, and 
considering the number of houses where he is on 
visiting and luncheon terms, it is well he can hold 
his condition as he does. 

^^Only two houy^s and a-half, mind F' said the Doc- 
tor, before we went to bed ; and at two o'clock pre- 
cisely he appeared, '^ stern as Ajax' spectre," in his 



COLDSTREAM TO HAWICK. 191 

boots and Garibaldi shirt, and ordered us up forth- 
with. It had been a busy night in Hawick. Mem- 
bers and followers of the Buccleuch Hunt had arrived, 
§ome from a radius of thirty miles round. The sup- 
ply of hacks was exhausted, and about a score of men 
had been scouring the country for horses, and made 
nothing out. Some had got horses, and failed to get 
saddles, though they had spoken with many a night- 
capped agriculturist at the lattice. One of the latter, 
as the story went next morning, was " pat up five 
times," till he wished Malakhoff and all the concern far 
enough. An unhappy man who did come out with 
nothing but his handkerchief on a sharp back-bone, 
and thereby laid the basis of erysipelas, rued the day 
he was born. A certain lender was most magnani- 
mous, as he sent his black pony specially for our- 
selves, and a pair of spurs with it. There was a 
good watch kept on the Doctor by the Hawick 
lads all night, to see that he did not steal away 
before them ; but the lights in the bed and break- 
fast-room windows reassured their vedette. 

Even the police lent a hand, and kindly took their 
station at the head of ^^ Walter^s Wynd,^' while the 
Doctor quietly slipped the most noisy of his pack, one 
by one down it, to AYalter, at the river side, before 
he brought out the body. And- now, by twos and 
threes, the hunters, horse and foot, came dropping 
down the street, in the misty morning, through which 
the illuminated clock struggled faintly to tell of 
twenty to three ; and still some would not believe 



192 FIELD AND TERN. 

Sandy^s assurances^ as lie issued forth with liis pole, 
that the Doctor was "not forrard/^ He is such. an 
early bird that they are never quite sure of him. 
Catch him lingering among the blankets or near the 
coffee-pot at dawn ! A mile-and-a-halPs walk, and 
we v/ere on the Knoll at Haughhead, with nearly 
half-a-hundred horsemen round us ; and up came the 
Doctor, on Robin, at last. It was all Walter could 
do to prevent his being greeted hj a regular " As- 
sheton Smith^^ chorus, w^hich would have sent the 
otter flying down-stream, if he had heard it. The 
moon was still up, and the mist- wreaths were curling- 
far too heavily along the river to permit of action ; 
but it " lifted^^ about half-past three, and the Doctor 
peeled, and, tying his coat, with the scarlet lining 
outside, behind his saddle, as a token, set out to look 
lor " my old friend, which has beat me these three 
years.^^ 

At last we stood on the north bank of the Teviot, 
and the deep bell of Malakhoff, who was whiter than 
the mist, in winch he Avas working, rung out the 
maiden note of the drag, when they were scarcely 
over the first stretch of shingle, near the Trow Mill. 
They were so busy and musical for a minute or two 
by a willow-bed close to the dam, that some thought 
he must be at home, or that the Doctor would again 
have to prefer his celebrated request to be allowed to 
crawl under a mill-wheel after an otter, because 
'^ Pm smaller than a dog ; and I dursnH let them go 
thereT That is even going beyond Admiral Ex- 



COLDSTREAM TO HAWICK. 193 

'moutVs principle, ^^ Never tell a man to do what you 
dare not do yourself/^ He did it once this season 
after Royal, and very nearly got drowned. 

Then came a regular rattling burst over a very 
rocky part of the river, the non-mounted straggling 
along as they could over scaur and shingle, through 
"deep copses or oat crops, which left the dew-point 
from the waist downwards, over meadows and along 
the turnpike, sometimes in the water and sometimes 
out of it, tailing off farther and farther, and so up to 
Midshiels. Sandy and his pole ran well into the 
front rank of course ; and Walter on his bay pony 
Meg Merrilies, with a great bunch of couples behind 
him, had been sent forward to the dreaded drain. 
Poor Mr. Morrell delighted to tell how Jim Stracey 
took his celebrated four-miler to the head of earths 
at Wood Hill, on the Milton Hall day, and ^^ just 
beat the fox by thrice the length of his boots — not an 
inch farther.^ ^ Walter was not so lucky, as the old 
one had " lapped up^^ his fishing for the night, and 
scuttled down stream the two miles post-haste, 
leaving his kind regards for Ringwood, in the shape 
of his damp seal on the stones at the drain entrance. 
As for taking up the drain in any part, and putting 
in the terriers, it was hopeless. When Sir Wilfred 
Lawson and Mr. Hilton Wybergh used to come from 
West Cumberland to touch up these rivers with Tom 
Johnstone, they were very fond of this fastness, and 
opened it in the middle, to make a lying-up place for 
otters out of the water level. ''It's guiles long^' said 



19i FIELD AND FERN. 

the Doctor, " we had best draw on,^ and on Ave went 
once more. 

Mr. Edward Maxwell was with ns now, from Teviot 
Bank, and in the full spirit of the thing, with two 
hunters out, a grey, and Flibberty Gibbet, the winner 
of a Berwickshire steeple-chase. The mounted field 
had swelled to seventy- six, and very disgusted Will 
Williamson was when we told him about it that after- 
noon, and how, of course, we all looked out for him 
to drop on us through the Minto Woods, on The 
Kaffir. He would not have known what to make of 
it, as the river was fearfully low, and the Doctor 
on his chesnut was hunting his hounds, or rather 
watching them hunt (for he had trained them to do 
it all themselves) ; while Walter waited down-stream, 
to see if the varmint slipped over the shallows. Some 
of the weavers got so anxious here that they tally- 
hoed a water-hen ; but there was good hedging for 
the mistake, as a few minutes after, the Doctor was 
cheering "Old John Peel.'' ''That's the right stuff r 
said little Sandy, as the old dog spoke again; and 
then Ringwood, the Palmerston of the pack, came 
fairly to the front, took the water at Denholme 
Cauld, and swam the drag right down the pool. This 
was a very finished bit of hunting, and the foxhunters 
sat down in their saddles quite enraptured, as the 
old dog leant in his stroke from side to side, throwing 
his deep bass tongue as the air-bells, with the rich 
hot scent in them, floated down to him. Then a 
loud tally-ho was heard at the weir, and the wild 



COLDSTREAM TO HAWICK, 195 

Indian dance of some foot people, who had gone ter- 
ribly forward and got the hounds^ heads up, told that 
the otter was away. " He^s over ! Lift 'em — lift 
'em I" was the cry from the infantry. " Lift them, 
indeed !'' said the Doctor, who had kept his patience 
wonderfully, and only made one address, and that in 
the quietest tones, from the centre of the stream — 
'^ Leave my old dog ivhen he's swimming the drag all 
by himself — not for fifty otters!'' "You ivon't kill 
them tuhen you can," was the excited retort ; but the 
Doctor is far too fair by dog and otter to do such 
unsportsmanlike things, and the foxhunters were 
quite with him on the point. 

It was lucky for his credit that he was so firm, as 
the sport would have been in another minute quite 
a burlesque on a fox-chase, and he would have fairly 
split up his otter in the open. The otter saw that 
he was headed, and short of water ; and crawling out 
at that point, he went through a bolt-hole in the 
hedge, and away over the oats. In a few minutes^ 
Hassenden Bank Haughs were all alive with the 
melody, Walter and the Doctor riding to points, and 
Sandy lobbing away close by the tail hounds, cheek- 
by-jole with old Shammy, who shambled along like 
a young'un in his glee. The riug was fully a mile^ 
but the white crops and the glen- were no protection 
to him, with three foxhounds running the drag. It 
was no use facing the open any more ; so he worked 
back to the Teviot at Spittal Ford, swam another half- 
mile, and was out of it again, and cut off a corner 

2 o 2 



196 FIELD AND FERN. 

across the fields once more^ to get to the Kule. They 
marked him to a stronghold at Bedrule ; but the 
gamekeeper told the Doctor that they might dig till 
Christmas, and be no nearer to him. Then we drew 
Wells, and there was music once more for a few 
minutes ; but it was only the remnant of an over- 
night drag, and we were glad to take refuge from the 
heat under the canopy of the giant beeches. The 
world was now up and doing once more, and the 
turnip-women leant on their hoes, and looked in 
wonderment at the posse comitatus as it swept by. 
We were so hot and parched, that it seemed as if 
w^e had been at work for hours, but it was only six 
o^ clock. 

Then we sauntered back down the Rule, over 
trunks of trees and amongst boulders and through 
farmyards, till we were in the Teviot once more ; but 
the fan of the day was over. The horsemen stuck 
on well, and there was a ceaseless splash, as at least 
forty of them followed the Doctor up-stream. There, 
too, was a lad on the bare-backed donkey, who had 
been in front all day ; but we looked in vain for the 
brave trio who hunted in the gig, and were so great 
at Spittal Ford. The sun got up, and our spirits went 
down. Ringwood, Teddy, and Billy would have no- 
thing to do with it at Lanton Cauld or Manselaws 
Hutches, a perfect Mamelon of otters, when they are 
not away fishing at the lochs or getting into traps on 
the Tweed. At Spittal Bank they spoke to it but 
very feebly, and Billyhs depressed manner, when lu 



COLDSTREAM TO HAWICK. 197 

had completed his observations^ decided the Doctor 
not to persevere^ even after his second whip had gone 
for a spade. And so there was a conclave in a mea- 
dow, and the word was given for home ; and be- 
guiling the way with a most welcome breakfast at 
Teviot Bank, we left the Doctor to thirty miles of 
practice, and like Sandy, who was fairly wearied out 
with three otter hunts in four days, we turned into 
bed. Sleep would have been all the sweeter if we 
had killed an otter. They will not come, like spirits 
from the vasty deep when you call them, and like 
many other things they are often there when they 
are not wanted. AVe remember Mr. Gallon having 
a blank week, and on the Sunday, when he was 
walking in a friend^s grounds, one of them "like an 
eagre rode in triumph o^er the tide,^-' and surveyed 
him patronisingly as it passed. Those who know 
him may "phanzy his feelinks.^^ Another of our 
friends, who hadn^t found one for some time, stum- 
bled across what he thought was his leviathan black 
cat, at the edge of a corn field near his house, in the 
moonlight, and for some moments kept objurgating 
" Simon^^ for his lack of friendliness, till he glided 
into the stream. 

The hounds were well looked to, and had six hours^ 
rest before they were sent on, and next morning we 
followed them to hunt the Ale. They were waiting 
for us on the bridge at Ashkirk, an hour after sun- 
rise, and a right pleasant morning we had, watching 
them quest at their own sweet will among its co- 



198 FIELD AND FERN. 

vered drains and up its rocky sides, steady as a rock 
amongst hundreds of rabbits^ without any crowd to 
press thera. Half the village were out at Lilliesleaf 
— the baker who seemed the spokesman^ and as 
learned on otters as quartern loaves ; the shoemaker 
with his thumbs in his apron armpits of course ; the 
carpenter^ with his rule peeping out of his pocket — 
all members of the great council which sat on the 
whereabouts of the brace of otter cubs_, which had 
been in the drain. Alas! it was all to no purpose; 
we opened the drain in the middle, but Teddy and 
Billy soon said "Not at home/^ and on we drew 
again, sending the horses for a short space round by 
road. 

The old white house with the trellises looked out 
from the quiet, deep-wooded park, as we skirted 
K/iddeli, and anon we v»^ere over the palings, and 
among the roses and rhododendrons of Lint Hill, 
which Sir Frederick Graham once had for his hunting- 
box. We did not linger among these calm delights. 
On we went, and the hounds went up with a rush to 
try every place where there had been an otter before, 
but the streams were far too low, and the game were 
off to far happier fishing-grounds among the bul- 
rushes. Then Sandy ^ — who has ridden for " four- 
mile saddles^' at Kiugmoor, besides winning several 
foot-matches — mounted behind the Doctor on Robin, 
and gave up his pole to "Young Druid,^^ and Walter 
brought up the rear with Shammy on his pommel, and 
old Malakhoff came as he could, shambling be- 



COLDSTREAM TO HAWICK. 199 

hind everyone, and so we reached the Teviot once 
more in procession by a four-mile cut, down by the 
Minto covers. Walter longed to pluck a fox-glove 
for Sandy^s cap in honour of that celebrated find ; 
but Sandy was true to his Border love — '' Give me 
the blooming heather /" Spittal Bank was blank 
again ; but the drag of our first friend, who had evi- 
dently revisited the glimpses of the moon, and dwelt 
quite leisurely on some stones, to eat and digest his 
trout, was most satisfactory at eleven, and ten 
minutes of beautiful music closed the day, and 
atoned for hopes once more deferred and drains 
blanked on the Ale. 

The Jed remained, and on a cold September eve- 
ning we stole away fourteen miles with the Doctor 
among the hills to Mr. Scott's of Merving^s Law, a 
most hospitable farmer, on its banks. Three miles 
to our right, and marching with Liddesdale, was 
Hindley, the " Charlieshope'' of Sir Walter Scott, 
near which the Bule and the Jed have their rise, but 
there is not a terrier on the place now. At six next 
morning we were all up and breakfasting. A lassie, 
who had known Royal as a pup at walk, was one of 
the principal features of the meet, with a bit of bread 
in her pocket for him, and then she revealed a wealth 
of information about Newcastle -and its otter hounds, 
which at once charmed and puzzled the Doctor. We 
did no good dragging up the river, and the loch to 
which we wandered a full mile in the Sheriff^s 
grounds was vocal with no challenge. So we turned 



200 FIELD AND FERN. 

down the Jed ; but the mill-dam, and the deep black 
pools under rocks which are tenanted with countless 
wood-pigeons, knew him not that morning, and the 
horsemen who rode for points and met us, got fairly- 
wearied out. Seven miles were over, and Ringwood 
began to fancy there that he " smelt a Lollard in the 
wind^' at last. Into the water he went to complete 
his commentaries, and tried for a broken air-bell, but 
in vain. The whole pack took the hint without a 
word being said to them, and for half-a-mile they 
were feeling for the drag by the river side. Malak- 
hoif^s great white stern went waving like a banner, 
and yet he dare not speak, 

" There was silence deep as tleath, 
And the Doctor held his breath 
For a time." 

It was quite agony not to cheer Bellman, as they 
turned short, and the young dog went to the front;, 
led them to a gate in a clover field, but not one yard 
beyond, and then back to the river, where one loud 
burst of melody round a tree-root proclaimed the 
marking to groun d. Billy was of course field-marshal^ 
and a very grimy one with his exertions, while Malak- 
hoff stood like a white statue on the root-top, with one 
eye on Billy and the other down-stream. It was 
pretty close quarters, as Old John ^' received on the 
nose.^' In vain did the Doctor dash into the stream, 
and call off his dogs by a feint ; in vain did " did 
the darlings follow me just like a hrood of young 
ducks'' ; in vain did Walter stamp on the earthy 



COLDSTREAM TO HAWICK. 201 

while otliers watched the bolt-holes. As the school- 
boy said of .27 in his quadratic equation, we had "run 
him to ground under a root, and never could get 
him out again ;" and Walter wore no otter cravat 
through Jedburgh streets that day. 



202 FIELD AND FERN. 



nmm n i-oss pml 

" And we will pu' the bell sae blue, 
And the gowan opening free, 
Wi' the red, red tinge aroun its fringe 
On the links o' Linhope lea." 

Scott Riddell. 

The Links of Linhope Lea — Moss Paul Inn — The Wisp Club and its 
Objects — Scott of Priesthaugh — Old Lymecleuch — His Weighing 
Match — His Opinion of an Orator's Attitude — Sheep and Shepherd 
Losses — Mr. Aitchison on Mountain Hay — Sheep Management — 
Davie Kyle — Yeddie Jackson — Dandie Dinmont. 

^^1 et's awa' and see the tups/^ is the unvarying 
^ watchword on *^the wild green links" of 
'' The Dales/' and we cheerfully obeyed it when 
Malakhoff was once more only marking in dreams. 
Our route was up Teviotdale, with The Doctor and 
^' The Dwarfs to beguile the way, past meadows blue 
with wood-pigeons, and Borthaugh, dear to Will 
Shore and '^ the Bold Buccleuch/^ ^neath the beeches 
of Branksome Tower, where " The Gover" won 
and his foeman fell a few yards from the post. At 
Branxholm Bridge, there opened on us the wide, rich 
meadows of the Teviot Valley, in which lies Johnny 
Armstrong, the great Border Heiver, happily un- 
conscious of the dairy herd and half-bred sheep all 



HAWICK TO MOSS PAUL. 203 

round him. Once at Frostley Brook, '^ that uncom- 
monly cold name/^ and we are among the Cheviots at 
last, and the somewhat variable pasture changes into 
the uniformly hard and sound lea of far-famed Teviot- 
dale. It ascends with a slight gradient as far as 
Moss Paul Inn, whose post-boys were therefore said 
to follow the Teviot to Hawick and the Ewes to 
Langholm. 

" The braw braes of Linliope 
And lofty Moss Paul" 

have long been linked in song. Mr. Aitchison^s 
ewes crop the Linhope Lea, and nothing but a peace- 
ful knoll of that name is left to remind the Bor- 
derers how " Jeannie HalPs tongue^^ was wont to 
wake the echoes, when she spied Jemmy Telfer on 
another of his raids. Like that watchful wife or 
spinster, the inn is a tale of the past. Peacocks 
scream in those ancient silences, and there is no relic 
of the old regime save Jemmy Ferguson, who has 
been ostler, man and boy, " eight- and-forty years 
come Martinmas." The very stables of his heart 
have been unroofed before his eyes, ^^ forty-two 
stalls," as he says so mournfully, "for bye loose- 
boxes, and sic grand hay -lofts." Gowanlock, the 
landlord, lived to see the last of the posting, ten 
miles to Langholm and twelve, to Hawick, and to 
hear the last horn tune of the mails and the Locomo- 
tive, but he was gone before the Engineer took its 
final journey in the June of ^62. Black-cocks still 
club on the heights behind the house, where the 



204 FIELD AND FERN. 

cocks of the district were wont to meet and feast 
each Martinmas tide. 

The Wisp Club, as it was called, began in 1826, 
but it was given up about the time of Gowanlock's 
death, as Mr. Aitchison and one or two others had 
outlived nearly every one of those jovial comrades, 
who discussed punch after dinner, and settled, after 
many an animated debate and division, the average 
prices of cattle and sheep stock, white and '^tarry ^oo." 
In its earlier days, when newspaper information on 
these heads was so ill marshalled, the list of prices, 
which was regularly registered in the Club books, 
had an especial value, and they were often referred 
to both by landlords and tenants, when a lease was 
to be renewed. No paper reported its proceed- 
ings till the late James Steel, whose statue stands in 
the Carlisle market-place, came over with twa 
friends, and took one of his terse and pithy reports 
home for the Journal. 

Gowanlock was the treasurer, and always returned 
thanks at these Club festivals, as we read in a record 
quite yellowed by time, 'Svith his usual simplicity and 
readiness of manner." Scott of Priesthaugh was one 
of its choicest characters. If he wanted anything 
down to a horse to ride to Stagshaw Bank Fair, it 
was " only for a minute." He was also a good man 
with hounds, and the best jumper of the lot. When 
he was regularly put up, he had jumped twenty-four 
feet at one bound on the haugh by the side of the 
Moss Paul Burn. One of the Club was so pleased 



HAWICK TO MOSS PAUL. 205 

■with the performance, that he vowed then and there 
— '^ Jf I could do it like Priesthauyh, I would not envy 
the author of ' Paradise Lost/ ^' Like the old school 
of the Regency, Priesthaugh was not averse to the 
Fancy. Oliver v. Carter, at Gretna Green, was 
quite " a leading case" with him, and he could illus- 
trate Tom S averts style most accurately, when he 
had seen him put on the gloves at Carlisle. 

Elliot of Lymecleuch was known far and wide as 
a Cheviot breeder and dealer from Falkirk to Stag- 
shaw Bank, and round by Settle and Rosley Hill. 
A great spirit was old Lymecleuch, "very quaint, and 
a famous plucked one/^ Free Trade never had a 
sterner advocate, and it and " Sailors^ Rights'^ com- 
prised his political creed. Why he took up the latter 
topic no one could ever tell, as he lived inland, and 
hardly knew a jibboomfrom a shoulder-of-muttonsail. 
Gowanlock surveyed him, as each club day blenched 
his locks, and did not decrease his waist-band, with 
increasing admiration and silent awe. At last he 
could hold out no longer. '^ If I had a stable full of 
horses/^ he said, ^' ivith that man's constitution, in 
these days of opposition coaching, Pd run Croall and 
the whole lot of them clean off the road." 

Peter Brodie of Clarielaw, who drew 23 stone, once 
upbraided " Lymey" with being a '^ toom hemlock.'-' 
At this Laidlaw of Falnash bristled up, and although 
it did not just look like ^'^a good thing,'-' he backed him 
then and there for an even sovereign against Peter 
on the scales. It was not recorded in the club 



206 FIELD AND FERN. 

minutesj but Lymecleucli got the turn of the beam^ 
and won with a pound to spare. In his light-weight 
days, when " the herds" fought the '^ weaver bodies" 
of Hawick, and Dandie Dinmont was said to have 
been quite competent to lifting two of the enemy, 
smashing their heads together and then dropping 
them, Lymecleuch was a most able lieutenant. 
Sheep and cattle dealers at that time were all very 
handy with their fists, and the muttered menace 
was common enough between the dances in the ball- 
room, " You and Pll square up that little bit of busi- 
ness some day,'' and they invariably did. Lyme- 
leuch, when occasion served, was as sharp with his 
tongue as his fists. When Sir Robert Peel's portrait 
after Lawrence had appeared, one of the leading de- 
baters rose to address the Club, with his left hand 
resting majestically like the great statesman's on his 
hip, and heard Lymey's hoarse whisper inthe midst 
of his finest passages : " Has that guff gat a sai?^ 
hench ?'' 

William Aitchison of Linhope, Menzion — 

" Hiin with the nut-brown hair and hollow voice, 
My kindest, warmest-hearted friend the Borderer,'* 

as sang the Ettrick Shepherd — was one of the chief 
speakers, and is still the Sellars of the Lowlands, 
with about twelve thousand Cheviot and blackfaced 
sheep in the three counties of Selkirkshire, Roxburgh- 
shire, and Peebles, and hoggs on turnips in Cumber- 
land as well. Sheep-farming, both in the Highlands 
and the Lowlands, has been a weary business at times. 



HAWICK TO MOSS PAUL. 207 

In 1772 much more than half the sheep in Scotland 
died; in January, ^94_, there was hardly a farm 
without a dead shepherd, and twelve were laid one 
Sunday in Moffat churchyard, after the week of 
the ^'Goniel Blast/' Beattie of Muckledon lost 
seventy score of sheep, and the mouth of the Solway 
was literally dammed up with carcases. The Ettrick 
Shepherd has told of those gloomy days, and so has 
the late Lord Napier of Thirlstane Castle. Black 
frost did the deed in 1816 and 1837, but '60 was a 
still more fearful year, and in Ewesdale one farmer 
alone had to spend ^1,500 extra to keep his stock 
in life at all. The value of the sheep which did not 
die was fearfully deteriorated, and the mortality 
helped to prove that of late years a larger-boned 
but softer sheep has been introduced to the Cheviot 
sheep-walks. In spite of the corn, lentils, and hay, 
from a fourth to a sixth perished in the South of 
Scotland. A great deal of Dutch hay w'as used, 
but it was sadly deficient both in weight and quality. 
It was generally found that in such adversity no 
flocks throve really well, except such as had stores of 
mountain hay to fall back upon; and in a paper 
which Mr. Aitchison read before the Farmers' Club 
at Hawick, after the disaster, he dwelt most earnestly 
on its value. " Sheep," he said, '' make up nearly 
half the rental of Scotland, and yet landlords are 
sadly remiss, and very little is done for them. Sheep 
drains, sheep stells, and March feuces have done much; 
but more is exhausted on forty acres of wet lowland as 



208 FIELD AND FERN. 

would put a sheep-walk into form/^ Hay-feeding 
was not practised before ^99, but nothing can supply 
its place in a fierce winter. " Partial feeding is worse 
than no feeding, as the sheep listlessly wait on it, 
and no longer, in the absence of fresh weather, search 
after regular food. Giving it in handfuls may do 
for calm weather, but sheep hecks will alone prevent 
the wind pilfering, and save one-tliird of the hay. 
Corn, beans, and bran, with hay, may enable the 
flockmaster with a heavy purse and willing heart to 
tide through the dreary time till verdure begins 
again, and nature dethrones art on the hills ;" but 
still, mountain hay must be his sheet-anchor. Mr. 
Aitchison^s recommendation was that every hirsel 
of thirty score should have four enclosures of a few 
acres each (with sheep-houses and hecks), which 
should be properly limed and cut, two and two, 
in alternate years. " Go in for mountain hay,^^ he 
concluded, " and the storms of winter may drift up 
the valley, and tempests whistle over the hills in 
vain.^^ 

Till after New-Year^s Day the Roxburghshire 
flockmasters never dreaded storms, but between 
Candlemas and the middle of April the heavy pinch 
comes. Land that abounds in every variety of keep 
of course makes the heaviest fleece. Towards Slet- 
rig Head it is very good, and so it is towards Jed 
Head and Rule Water Head. When you get to the 
range of the Cheviots there are very few mosses to 
be found, and the fine lea grass does not afl'ord 



HAWICK TO MOSS PAUL. 209 

aionrishing pasture to sheep during the early spring 
months. The consequence is that the sheep are re- 
duced lower, and shed their fleece more freely, when 
the abundant herbage of spring returns. The mosses 
of the other part of Roxburghshire prevent the sheep 
from being so reduced in condition, as they do not 
grow so high up the hill, and are therefore available 
in a severe spring. Sheep in Teviotdale are espe- 
cially subject to foot-rot; but the iouping ill or 
trembling between the old and new grass is not 
known on the Cheviot Hills, or near the source of 
the Tweed and the Clyde. 

Smearing the sheep with tar has been given up for 
years_, and fish oil is objected to as gilding the wool, 
and hence Gallipoli or olive oil is most used, except 
■where poisonous dips have to be resorted to. The 
gimmers are generally put to the tup_, but many of 
them do not nurse their own lambs, and the cast 
«wes after four crops are for the most part passed 
over to Cumberland or Yorkshire through dealers. 
Teviotdale is rather higher than Evresdale in its 
sheep rent, and the Roxburghshire sheep-farms 
generally vary from £200 to £1,500, at from 7s. to 
10s. 6d. per sheep. In the North of Scotland it is 
computed to take 2 to 2^ acres to keep a sheep, 
whereas li to II will suffice in Roxburghshire and 
Selkirkshire. 

The Lowlands are not a wedder country, and save 
Elliot of Hindhope and Pringle of Hindley, nearly 
everyone parts with his wedder lambs. The High- 

2 p 



210 PIELD AND FERN. 

landers once liked to buy tlieir tups as shearlings, but 
now they have taken more to two-year-olds. They 
used also to pay higher prices for them, but of late 
years the supply has quite exceeded the demand. 
There was a reaction in favour of the black- 
faces when the winter of ^60 sent the Cheviots 
to par ; but still, there are very few in Roxburgh- 
shire, and the Cheviots have not yielded up their 
Selkirkshire heights. In the upper walks of Lanark- 
shire, Dumfriesshire, Selkirkshire, and Peeblesshire 
the half-breds are found as high as 600 feet above sea- 
level on partly cultivated and partly hill holdings. 
Higher up, taste rather than elevation decides the 
Cheviot or ^^ curly-horn character of the flock," un- 
less land be very bleak indeed. Sometimes black- 
faces are surrounded by Cheviots, and even grazed 
at lower elevations on inferior lands. 

Davie Kyle of Broad Lee, beloved of Lord John 
Scott, could not be called, like Scott of Singlee, " a 
singular grand divine among sheep," but he was 
quite a shepherd^s friend in his line, and though he 
might be led at first in the hunt, no shepherd could 
live with him till the close of day. He would not 
keep a shepherd who could not hunt, and his brother 
Arthur was nearly as keen. Kyle once ran against 
Routledge, laird of The Flatt at Christenburj^ Creggs, 
near Newcastleton. He never met a better man, ac- 
cording to his own confession, but Routledge thought 
himself as good, "bar louping the hags." Davie had 
no great hound language, but he loved to have all 



HAWICK TO MOSS PAUL. 211 

the dogs round him when he had a dram, and then 
he was highly colloquial^ both with them and his 
friends. He lived at the head of Hermitage Wateiv 
and as a stock-farmer he had one peculiarity — his 
tups must all be horned. Liddesdale and Teyiot 
Head were the cream of his country _, and from New- 
Year's Day till the middle of April he would be 
there with a dozen or fifteen shepherds at sunrise^, 
each provided with a pocket pistol and a lump of 
bread and cheese. 

Old Kyle was a good wrestler and fighter for his 
inches. In early days he was entered to hare, but 
he changed to fox after thirty, and killed nearly 80O 
brace in his fifty years. Cauldcleuch and North Tyne 
furnished some of his best foxes, which were all of 
the greyhound breed, and took a world of catching. 
He always knew them again, or said he did, and 
spoke of them confidentially as old acquaintances. 
The drag was generally hit off from certain syke 
heads, and when the foxes did go to ground they were 
always " spaded^^ and never smoked. Bolting them 
for "an afternoon fox^' was not the custom of his hunt. 
His terriers were of the Dan die Dinmont breed, 
and latterly, as the neighbours said, he looked like a 
terrier himself. They were high and leggy, with 
wiry coats of a red-grey, and black points on their 
ears, tail, and feet, and got well over the bogs. The 
smaller ones with their out- turned toes did a deal of 
business, lying flat and working like a share plough, 
when they were tunnelling up to " Charley.^' Kyle's 

2 p3 



212 FIELD AND FERN. 

hunting mantle fell on Ballantyne of The Shaws, and 
his old dog Ringwood, the sire of nearly all the good 
ones about, not only ^Yon a first prize at Bellingham 
Show, but was running still in the spring of ^64 as a 
ten-season hound. Kyle himself died in 1861, but 
he did not lack the sacer vates, as his memory has 
been sun^ in eloquent strains by the son of Chris- 
topher North. 

Adam or Yeddie Jackson of Fairloan, at the head 
of Liddle, was also quite a king of the hunters, and 
had been, as Tom Potts, a brother shepherd, said, at a 
"vast 0^ banes breaking.^' His opinion about whisky 
was that he should like to be " a whaup and live by 
suction," and he did live into his ninety-eighth year. 
He was quite deaf at last, and wore spectacles, and 
when they drew Deadwater Fells he would hobble to 
the house end with his grand-daughter to take a look 
at them, and told her to nudge him whenever there 
was music. 

Davidson of Hindley or " Dandie Dinmont" did 
not care for a pack of dogs, and with a shepherd or 
two to help him, two hounds and the terrier bitches 
Tug and Tar, he was about a match for any Liddes- 
dale fox. Be it foulmart, cat, or even a collie dog, 
he had a turn at it. He always went over to Ab- 
botsford, and met Hogg, Laidlaw, Captain Clutter- 
buck, &c., at the annual coursing meeting, when Sir 
"Walter, with Maida at his feet, watched from a hill 
the doings of what the latter evidently considered an 
inferior race. It was a merry night at Selkirk, and 



HAWICK TO MOSS PAUL. 213 

the Club mull went round with Sir Walter^s own 
inscription, " May the Foresters never want a friend 
at a pincli/^ Tom Potts, than whom there was no 
hunting shepherd of "stronger bone and firmer pith/' 
always said that Dandie " never hunted with the same 
glee after he brought the wife hame/^ Still, he kept 
Nimrod, a cross between a greyhound and a fox- 
hound, to the last ; and he rose from a sick chamber, 
mounted " Dimple,^' and, with Nimrod at his heels, 
obeyed the summons to see a bagman from Dead- 
water Fell turned out for him at Burnmouth. This 
was in the year '19, and on the first Sabbath of '20 
lie died. 



214 FIELD AND FERN. 



ffiHAFSlE Till 



"Charley, rest! thy warfare's o'er, 

You died the death, and bore the breaking ; 
Dream of chicken poults no more. 

Hunting-day, nor bugle waktug ! 
In the gorse no more you'll lie, 

No more you'll roam the fields of barley ; 
John Musters' horn and Ringwood's ciy 

No more shall wake thee, gentle Charley ! 

Aanesley, Oct., 1843. The late R. B. Davis. 



Will Williamson's Early History — His Opinion of a few Old Sportsmen — 
Tke Buccleucli Hounds — Opening-iip the St. Mary's Loch Country — 
The Buccleuch Country — Will's Best Horses — A "Walk through the 
BQC-cleuch Stables — Monltau, Wyndliam, Paymaster, Marotto, and 
Star — The Great Marlfield day — The Moor and his Stable Comi-ades 
— T?ie Brood Mares — "Will Shore and the Hounds. 

IIell Williamson had never joined " those 
"^ rare fellows^^ at the grey dawn_, but' he had 
fraternized with them at other times, and the above 
was his professional opinion. We found him at St. 
BoswelFs in his old spot by the kennels, and still 
liearty at 82, and often riding fourteen miles to see a 
good draw in the Kelso country. He gave up the 
horn in 1862, when he had completed his sixtieth 
season with hounds, and during all his huntsman life 
iie had only varied from nine-stone-seven to nine- 



HAWICK TO ST. BOSWELL's. 215 

stone-ten. Eildon^s Hills tower behind his home; 
but he did not speculate with us on 

" The words wliicli cleft Eildon's Mils in twain, 
And bridled the Tweed with a curb of stone :" 

and that ^^ triple height^' only brought out the story 
of how wonderfully a first-whip's mare crossed them 
one day, and how she surprised them all by throwing 
tmns at night. Will's mind has always been of 
an essentially practical rather than a poetic turn. 
He has never visited Abbotsford or Melrose Abbey, 
hut he has once or twice run his fox up and down the 
Tweed banks, and into the ivied ruins of Dry- 
burgh. With Sir Walter he communed very little, 
except in the pages of " Old Mortality," and had 
merely a passing word when the baronet came out on 
the road to see the hounds passing to cover. Scraps 
from the lonely tombstones of the Covenanters in 
the covers about Dreghorn and Woodhouselees on the 
Pentland Hills have been his favourite out-a-doors 
reading; and at home, a Delme Radcliffe and Beck- 
ford,'^ " with the Latin interlined," serve as his 
hunting classics. 

He was not born, but " bred up from a month old" 
at Pencaithland, six miles from Haddington. His 
father was groom to Colonel Hamilton, and his only 
brother, a major-general in the Bengal army, died 
five or six years since. The Colonel and Mr. Baird, 
grandfather to the present Sir David Baird, had a 
joint pack, and hunted East Lothian. They were 
both good^men with hounds ; and when Mr. Baird 



216 FIELD AND FERN. 

was on Bounty or the '^Eclipse chesnnt/' and 
Colonel Hamilton on Ben Yalder, Yery few, if anVy 
could go before them. When little Will, who took 
messages on a pony for the Colonel, and then rose 
to be pad groom, first knew that country, the 
"great corn and potato garden^^ was only yellow 
with gorse from Dunbar to Soutra Hills, and held 
many a '^^ traveller," who had stolen down from the 
rock and heather of the Lammermoors to the low 
country for meat. Dirletoh and Gosford were 
barren links bound down with sea-bent, and tenanted 
by rabbits and sandpipers. Haddington Hill Park 
and Amisfield were in the centre of a wild moor, with 
whins high enough to hide Phantassie^s horses when 
his lad went to seek them. The country adjoined 
Berwickshire on the Dunglass property in the east^, 
and touched Midlothian at the Elphinstone Tower 
grounds. When the joint mastership was given up, 
Henry Duke of Buccleuch united the East and 
Midlothians, and hunted them three days a week. 

Will's father, who was one of the whips, 
then laid aside his scarlet, and became head 
pToom at Pencaithland. His son still rode after 
the Colonel, but the chase lure was too much 
for him when he was on duty one day near Had- 
dington. The Colonel was speaking to a farmer 
at the turn of a road, as th(3 Duke^s brought their 
fox across it, carrying a great head to Saltoun Wood, 
and when he looked round, after his colloquy, 
lad, horse, and coat were gone, and were well 



HAWICK TO ST. BOSWELL^S. 217 

up at tbe finish when they ran to ground in Or- 
miston Wood. The Colonel told the boy^s father 
not to be angry with him when he got home, and 
things went on as usual till a few months after, when 
Mr. Baird became commander of the East and West 
Lothian Fencible Cavalry, and in 1799 went " soldier- 
ing through England.^^ Sudbury and then New- 
market were the head-quarters of the regiment when 
Hambletonian and Diamond were all the talk ; and 
in one of WilPs rambles on The Heath he saw Sam 
Chifney and Will Edwards ride their maiden race as^ 
feather-weights* together. Old Chifney had passed 
his zenith; but between his son Will and the 
Scottish stranger there sprung up a fast friendship. 
The former sealed it at parting with a pair of braces, 
the buckles of which have done duty on generation 
after generation of straps to this hour; and the 
latter in later years, when the great days of Priam 
and Zinganee were in the dim distauce, reciprocated 
with a suit of Scotch tweed. 

Another two years brought these military wander- 
ings to a close, and at twenty Will became second 
whip to the Duke, with John King as huntsman and 
Erank Collisson as first whip. His second and 
first whip probation lasted for fourteen seasons, and 
in 1816 he got the horn. The first fox he ever 
killed was from a meet at Armadill4oll-bar, and they 



* Will EdvrardB won this race over the last three miles of the^.C, on a 
two-jear-old colt of the Hon. C. Wyndham's, which was afterwards second 
for the Derby. Will was fetched from school behind a Ijoy on a pony, and 
was returned in the same fashion after the race. 



"218 FIELD AND FERN. 

pulled him down after seven or eight miles before he 
could reach Callender Woods. Mr. Baird managed 
the hounds for his Grace. They were still a subscrip- 
tion pack, with kennels at Dalkeith, East and Mid 
Lothians, and part of East Berwickshire as their 
country, and Pencaithland and Newbyth as out- 
lying kennels. Mr. Bailey of Mellerstain, " as good a 
racing as he was a hunting man,^' hunted Roxburgh- 
shire and part of Berwickshire, as far as Eoggo Moor 
in the Dunse country; and Will always speaks of 
him most reverently as " an old Boman, polite to 
all and bow to none.^^ Mr. Hay of Dunse Castle 
joined Mr. Bailey for a season; and ten years after 
he had the Dunse country for himself, and, joining 
it with the West Lothian, moved backwards and for- 
wards. 

There was a Hamilton pack, with Holy Town 
as its kennel, before Will became a Buccleuch " colt," 
and its Wild Irish huntsman, Merton Bourke, " rode 
over everything in Lanarkshire. Stars and ribbons 
were wont to cluster in those days of the E-egency 
round the Newmarket cockpit, and there were mighty 
Scottish "■ Gillivers" as well. Occasionally a car- 
riage full of cocks would come from Lanarkshire to 
the East Lothian, which paid return visits. A cele- 
brated in- go took place at the " George" at Hadding- 
ton, and it was long remembered how one of the 
cuckoo sort had knocked a black-breasted red clean 
out of the front window, and how the town fully ex- 
pected to see a brace of bulldogs tumble out next. 



HAWICK TO ST. BOftWELL^S. 219 

The Duke of Hamilton was a tremendously hard 
rider, and the groom^s horse died following him on 
his trotting chesnut from Edinburgh to Hamilton. 
It was bought at Longtown, and Mat Milton 
offered his Grace one thousand guineas in vain on 
behalf of the Prince of Wales. "I can ride a 
thousand-guinea horse as well as his Royal High- 
ness^^ were the proud terms of the refusal. The Earl 
of Lauderdale, then Lord Maitland, kept harriers at 
Dunbar, and " understood horses and hunting well.^^ 
The late Lord Minto was also '' a good rider, and 
all the sons more or less met with my approba- 
tion in the field." The Hon. John Elliot kept good 
harriers near Hawick, and was the " best judge of 
hunting of them a\" Will, in fact, often looks back 
lo " my three best heavy weights^^ — Elliot, Tweed- 
dale, and Saddell. The first Lord Melville, says 
this^ inexorable and impartial historian, '' was always 
knocking horses up." He was a heavy weight, and 
Lord -Advocate and Treasurer of the Navy, and an 
earlier generation would speak with awe of the 
waggon-loads of guineas which went to pay the 
sailors. He got WilFs brother the cadetship, 
and Will retains his East Lothian silver hunt buttons 
in memioriam to this day. Lord Elphinstone of Cum- 
bernauld was also *^ a great authority'^ ; and Major 
Maclean of Ardgower, on his '''very grand mare," and 
Mr. Wallace of Kelly " had nothing to beat them.^' 
The Major gave Will five shillings to buy his first 
pair^of spurs ; and the other, an ''^ awful Radical, but 



220 FIELD AND FERN. 

first-rate sportsman/^ stood him his first tip of a 
guinea. 

Earl Moreton of Dalmahoy was also "a good 
sportsman and rider /^ and Lord Kennedy would 
'^follow all things, ride occasionally, and catch as 
many grouse as another man shot, at least so they 
said when they joked him. ^' Mr. Campbell of 
Saddell, "so full of his fun," was often one of 
the field ; and so was Mr. White Melville, " a first- 
rate man from Fife." Sir David Baird, who once 
hunted Ayrshire and Renfrewshire, had manj^ a day 
with the Duke; and Mr. Hay mounted Will in the 
only season that he ever accompanied Captain Baird 
to Melton, and saw Tom Sebright and Dick Burton 
at work. 

About this time he caught a glimpse of " Gen- 
tleman Shaw." His only comment on him is more 
curt than scientific — that he "got well into his boots ;" 
but there is a world of hidden meaning in it. Will 
Crane of the Fife he considered "a devil to ride and 
fall ; he'd seen more of the world than all the hunts- 
men in it." Lord Campbell he never saw but once, 
when the hounds met at his place near Jedburgh. His 
lordship came out on to the lawn to see them, 
and the veterans of the English wool-sack and the 
Scottish pig-skin shook hands. Mr. Listen " nearly 
as good a horseman as he was a surgeon," was also 
seen as much on this side of Edinburgh as he was on 
the other. Will always says that much of his good 
health " was owing to having him to look after me," 



221 



■and ''' there was always room for me at his house if 
I went to Edinburgh or London/^ 

With the exception of Mr. Train of Kelso, Will 
was never painted by any one except Mr. Frank 
Grant. Of him and his early studies in Edinburgh 
he retains one precious memento in Ruby and Blue 
Maid, Y/hich went in from Dalkeith to be drawn, 
and " had a narrow escape for their lives/^ ''^ There 
were hounds," he observes, " in that studio, and all 
over the place — hounds from Fife and all places, till 
the mistress said she would have them hanged/^ 
These two, were only sketched in by the young artist, 
and Mr. Watson Gordon finished them. Darling^s 
head is by Mr. Grant, and a present from the late Sir 
David Baird ; and the silver fox^s head testifies to Mr. 
Campbell of Saddell's recollection of the hunts, in 
which they had ridden side by side. With all these 
relics and reminiscences of the grand old school, we 
can hardly wonder at one great article of WilFs 
belief: "The young^uns are a deal mair consequence 
in their ain opinion, and we don^t ken if they^re 
so much better. Faith ! it^s quite true." 

As to hounds. Pleader began him from Mr. 
Bailey^s kennel in 1816, and for this slice of Lons- 
dale Jester andYarboro^ Tidings he gave the huntsman 
^1. Saladin, the sire of Osbaldeston^s Furrier, was 
very old Avhen he came, and did no good; whereas 
Lonsdale^s Javelin, a bigger dog and a capital hunter, 
did a great deal. Harewood Merlin came in a young 
draft, and had a wall-eye like a hawk, to which he owed 



222 FIELD AND FERN. 

Ms name. Lonsdale Harper brought in blindness, 
and as Will observed in italics, " Mark that doion 
as a beacon ."' Drake's Bajazet, Sykes^s Trick- 
ster, "a capital finder/' and Yarboro' Dasbwood, 
the sire of Driver, all did well, and even Eoljambe's 
Vanlter, ^^a great fiat- sided soft brute,'' got rare 
stock. He was the only hound that Will ever left 
on the road home, as he tired to nothing in the 
Hirsel country, and had to stop at the schoolmaster's 
near Blinkbonny. Still, his Viner and Yesta (whose 
brother Yictory was drowned in a conduit) he consi- 
ders " the very best I ever saw." Rutland's Bertram 
he dismissed in his own quaint way : "He was not 
knocked on the head, but sent to me ;" Rutland's 
Fervent was "a wild flyaway beast — W^ill Goodall shot 
flying about him a bit ;" Rutland's Rocket was " well 
enough ;" Rutland's General " was sent here as a good 
asylum, but his sou General was a capital finder^ 
and in look and disposition a thorough foxhound 
— that was my best hit from the Rutland kennel."" 
Assheton Smith's Senator was used a great deal, and 
was "varra weel ;" York and Ainsty Tarquin, "a plain 
dog but a good stallion,'^ was the sire of Trywell, 
" who would do her best to knock over her fox, and 
then would never join in breaking it up. " Lunar — 
"that's a sort of astronomical theory — when Lord 
John Scott saw this name in the entry, he 
dropped heavily on to me about being among 
the stars. The}^ chaffed me about everything. 
Lord John and all the rest of them. No one rode 



223 



a fast run better than Lord John — quite a master 
at it." 

The Fitzwilliam Feudal crossed well with the Mar- 
quis blood, and his daughter Helen was the dam of 
Hector. Monitor of this sort was a great hound, 
and Driver, his sire, a wonder. In the best run 
that Will ever had, and the only one he ever wrote 
an account of, they had very nearly lost their fox, 
owing to a very large sheep fair. Driver picked 
up the scent, and almost knocked Will's horse 
down by the crash with which he came through his 
forelegs, and at last pulled his fox from below a con- 
duit near Carfrae Mill. The run was over a rough 
and wild country; and the rougher and wilder the 
country, and the more liberty for a wild fox, the 
better Will liked it. Finding on the Lammermoors 
or the Cheviots was his delight : " There were my best 
foxes; that^s my taste — it's not a common one." 
Penicuick of course suited him, and he was quite in 
his element opening up the country by St. Mary^s 
Loch, "an outlandish place," where none but 
Willie Tweedie, a few old hounds, and "all and sun- 
dries that could fire a gun" had ever been before. 
" Mercy ! no one else would ^o near it. I got away 
from the Edinburgh rattle, deil a one would ride in 
it. One of them had such a tupable on the Pent- 
lands ; he put his hand to his face and felt the blood — 
^ Mercy on us, Williamson ! Vm spoilt for the imrties' — 
deil do I care about the country, so tliat the hounds 
and the fox have their liberty." 



v224 FIELD AND FERN. 

The hounds do not go higher now than Bowhill, 
where the Duke lives during the hunting season. 
His Grace's ardour for the sport speaks best through 
the fact that on the last day of the 1863-64^ season 
he rode forty miles to cover, and as many back after 
hunting. Twelve miles is the average distance of the 
meets from the kennel, but at times they go more 
than twenty, and nearly up to Coldstream. The 
Kelso country is the biggest, with the hedges, banks, 
rails and doubles below, and stone walls higher 
up : wire fences have increased and multiplied on the 
hills; but there are plenty of hunting gates, with 
posts eight or ten feet high as beacons, at the Hunt's 
expense, so that the " iron age" here is no symptom 
of foxhunting decay. " Faldonside — one of the 
flyers of our hunt — you may put that down Mr. 
Druid" — twice over made himself independent 
of them, by hanging his coat over the wires, and 
then jumping them — "a fact for Scottish his- 
tory," as Williamson observed when he heard 
of it. The Hawick, Chapel Hill, and Drink stone 
-side, and from Wolf Lee to Yetholm, are quite the 
" Turkey carpet country," " all grass and no fear of 
bogging." Most of the foxes lie in the heather at 
the bottom of young plantations, and the earth- 
stopping account is a pretty heavy one. There are 
some good ones at Mellerstain and Bow Hill, and 
EUer Bank Wood, and many others along the Tweed. 
Gala LaAV is a great gorse, and Chapel Hill, Wilton 
Bourne, and Grundiston, all made covers, with a belt 



HAVnCK TO ST. BOSWELL^S. 225 

of trees round them to bring them within the arson 
clauses. Cessford is, after all, the great cover of the 
hunt. It is a grand wild moor in Roxburghshire, with 
rare foxes, and nothing but grass hills on their inva- 
riable line to Bludie Laws. The sport is generally 
best in the spring, and February is a capital month. 

On Monday they hunt the west side by Riddell 
and Mount Teviot, on Tuesday the Jedburgh, on 
Thursday the Kelso, and on Saturday the Leader 
Water. Will always says that he never had a 
greater treat than seeing his Grace ride Paymaster 
over the walls in the Riddell country, and he adds, 
" If the country was half up to his knees he would 
go as well as ever, and still make good his fence.^^ 
In fact, he thinks the brown quite the best he ever 
saw, and for ten seasons he never gave his Grace a 
fall. The grey racer Richmond, Stuffie Major, and 
Stuffie Minor were all WilPs particulars, and so were 
Sam Slick and Snip, which figure respectively in the 
Grant and Train pictures ; but the roan mare Sofa 
was his delight, and ^' lost neither pace nor pluck for 
twelve seasons. '^ 

Mr. Hodge, the stud groom, succeeded Mr. Marshall 
six years ago, and has just completed thirty years of 
service in the Buccleuch family ; and Charles Sharpe, 
brother to Teddy Sharpe, the Newpiarket jockey, is 
the " Dick Christian^^ of the stables. The horses 
move with the hounds between St. BoswelFs and. 
Dalkeith, and generally leave the former place about 
April 25th. The stables are beautifully kept, and 

2^Q 



226 FIELD AND FERN. 

everything except the horses is ont of sight. Every 
new horse is measured for his Cuff saddle, unless 
there is one in the collection to fit, and the names of 
the wearers are all labelled above them, and in purple 
morocco under the flap. "Moultan's" and '^'^ Wynd- 
ham^s'^ labels still hang as escutcheons, and so does the 
bridle which his Grace used when he was a fellow com- 
moner at Trinity. Y\^yndham was bred in the Berwick 
country, and served the Duke for eighteen seasons. 
His Grace did not ride him so much latterly, and he 
was such a perfect fifteen-three model, both in mouth 
and temper, that he was more a sort of all-comers' 
horse, carrying ladies or any visitors by winter, and 
acting as Captain Bowman^s charger at Dalkeith in 
summer. Lord John rode him at times, and revelled 
in him over the stone walls on the moors, and skim- 
ming over the fine turf of Drinkstone and Chapel 
Hill. His Grace rode Moultan once a week as his 
first horse, and he broke down with him over a stone 
wall near Alton in his fourteenth season. He v/as 
l)rought home to be painted by M'Cleod, and then, 
he was shot, and buried with Paymaster, who was 
also twenty-three. He was very handsome and 
fast, and fencing no object, and as Mr. Hodges says 
rather despairingly, "I may ride a dozen hacks to 
death, and never find his equal again. '^ He was by 
Wintonian, from his Grace^s celebrated Rosa Mar 
by Springkell out of Helen Mar by Viscount. This 
^rand combination of Caledonian Hunt winner blood 
was bought at Mr. Bailey of Mellerstain^s sale, and 



HAWICK TO ST. BOSWELL^S. 227 

had seven foals at Dalkeith, sixof wliicL. were ridden 
by his Grace. Marotto by Valparaiso was her half- 
brother, and did the Duke good service for seven or 
eight seasons. Still, he was never very canny with 
hounds, and Williamson was always "jealous of 
him^^ on this head. He was a short-legged, dark ches- 
nut, of greater power than Moultan, and generally 
got his stock bay with short legs, and very good the 
Midlands thought them. 

A big grey skin, which Mr. Hodge preserves 
along with the feet of Moultan, was all that we saw 
of Star. During eleven seasons he had shown no 
symptoms of failure, but in the March of ^64 his 
Grace found the field riding away from him in a sharp 
forty minutes from Minto. The old horse seemed 
as willing as ever, but nature could do no more, and 
the second horse, Paddy from Cork, was called up. 
The grey was bought, "pedigree unknown,■'^ from 
Mr. Kench in the Dunchurch country, and stood 
nearly sixteen- two. Just three years before, his 
Grace had ridden him and hunted the hounds in one 
of their hardest days, with a second fox from the 
little whin at Marl field by March cleugh across the 
old Roman road, without touching Bludie Laws, past 
Kinneartonand straight over Bearhope Hill, pointing 
to the Horse Shoe plantation. Here^he was headed, 
and bent towards Gateshaws, where the hounds got 
to slow hunting, and were stopped near Moor Battle 
after 3i hours. Only four or five were up beside his 
Grace, young Hope of LufFness on another grey, 

2 Q 2 



228 FIELD AND FERN. 

'^ The Indian/^ Elliot of Clifton^ Swan on his ches- 
nut, and David Henderson. 

The hunters and hacks are all washed over with 
tepid water when they come in. Fonr of them are 
brought into the place together, and two grooms are 
occupied about forty minutes over each. They are 
clothed and left quiet for an hour and a half, and 
then dressed over for the night. They also get lin- 
seed tea when they come in, a pail at twice, and have 
their feet stuffed with linseed, fore and aft, twice a 
week. The linseed is always bruised at the mill just 
before the stones want setting, and then mixed with 
w^ater. It leaves a fine oily mixture in the hoof when 
it is picked out next morniug. But for this care the 
feet would often be very much bruised, although 
the blacksmith, who always accompanies the horses, 
bevels out the inside of the fore shoe, to try and 
prevent them from picking up flints. 

There are fifteen servants^ horses, and "Will 
Shore, who has just fmished his third season, 
has five. Rebecca by Isaac of York, a game light 
mare, goes into the light-grass and moor country on 
Tuesday, Ilston does the hilly w^ork on Saturday, and 
either Chesters, Titus Gates, or Tipperary is certain 
to be told off for the stitf fencing on the Kelso side 
each Thursday. Ilston is one of the best in the 
stud, and was bought by Lord Walter in Essex, and 
Williamson's comment on Chesters hits him off to 
the life : " There^s a multiim in parvo, quite a contra- 
diction to the Paymasters — he's so short-legged. The 



HAWICK TO ST. BOSWELL^S. 229 

Duke's Chamberlain bought lihn.'^ " Old Terrona'^ 
has furnislied a couple of Eavenhills, and they and 
^lilsington by Russborougli, who can stride away 
nearly as fast on the moors as his sire did when he 
stole up to Voltigeur at the St. Leger finish, are the 
cream of the whips^ horses. The Duke^s twelve are 
all thorough-bred; and Earl Dalkeith and Lord 
Walter have each six or seven. Young Paymaster 
is a little on leg like all his sort_, and great in a 
light country ; Barnton by Barnton is a little plain 
in the quarter, but not in the head, and strips deeper 
than he looks. 

There is a nice, airy, and yet wear-and-tear 
style about the chesnut Baron by Bolingbroke, 
who is up to much more weight than Kate, a pretty- 
looking little Jericho mare. Birdcatcher claims 
Birdsnest, a fast daughter from the dam of Bride- 
groom, whom his Grace has ridden for six seasons 
past, principally among the heavy fencing on the 
Kelso side, for which Pale Ale, who was bred by the 
late Sir Tatton Sykes, has always had a standing 
retainer. Lord Stamford bought him from the old 
baronet, and he was sold for 160 guineas at the 
Quorn sale, and was, in fact, the only lot that Mr. 
Hodge bid for. There is an old-fashioned look 
about him, which would make him unsuitable 
for a flying Midland countrj^ He seems well up to 
15 St., and therefore his Grace rides with some 
2i stone in hand. Paddy from Cork by Blight, and 
the only stallion in the stud, was just out of Sharpens 



230 FIELD AND FERN. 

hands ; and Newton sliowed all the fine old fashion of 
the Belzoni blood, with arms, shoulders, and hind legs 
moulded for jumping, but he is a little gone in 
his back, and is the only one of the lot that had a 
bar sinister. The Fawn was a light sherry bay, and 
a little shy about the ears ; and Dandy, a little quality 
bay, and Undergraduate, an appropriately-named 
Birdcatcher hack from Simmonds^s of Oxford, stood 
in the same stable with The Moor. To our eye this 
dark-brown^ with the game, lean-fleshed head, was 
the nicest and handiest horse in the stable, not up to 
the same Aveight as some of them, but looking, as 
Templeman said of Cossack, " as if yoti could place 
him anywhere for the asking." Lord Walter^s 
" Mugger" was by Marotto, and so was Earl Dai- 
keith^s Garotter, "a right stamp,'^ as Williamson 



Canteen, Scarboro^, Marotto, Wintonian, Oakley, 
and Valparaiso have all famished their contingents 
at one time or another to the Buccleuch stable, and 
the present young stock are principal^ by Leaming- 
ton, Kingfisher, and Sir John Barleycorn. There 
are four mares and their produce at Dalkeith ; and 
" the old old blood" is handed down in Flirt, a nice 
short-legged daughter of Rosa Mar. Pearlin Jean 
is there as a remembrance of Cawston paddocks, and 
Songstress by Birdcatcher, which would have been 
an annuity to many a Yorkshire shower. In car- 
riage horses his Grace is steady to bays, as the 
Earl of Wemyss is to blacks. 



HAWICK TO ST. BOSWELL^S. 231 

We saw the hounds again in the mornings as 
Shore on Laaykirk and the whole pack accompanied 
us along the hard frozen road for the first five of our 
one hundred miles straight across Scotland. Among 
our party of '^ Guides^^ was the old slate-coloured 
Marquis, rather down in his toes, but still a stand- 
ard hound with his Grace, and handing down 
his Assheton Smith Senator blood through some 
very useful stock. Shore summed him up best as 
^' good when he^s there, but he can't always get to 
it/^ The nice topped Trimmer by Hector is of the 
same season as Marquis, but a harder runner, and 
there is no need to look beyond old Trywell to see 
whence he and his neat sister Tempest derive their 
spigot noses. Barring this little defect Tempest's head 
and neck are very neat. There are no harder and 
honester workers than Comus and Chanticleer by 
the Grove Duster from Belvoir Comfort ; and ucder 
rather a shabby black guise we have old GuUiver, 
" the lowest-scented of the lot.^^ Harriet was one of 
the good Yarborough Dashwood sort that "William- 
son is so sweet on for their own and Driver's 
sake, and he has always been puzzled to think why 
she should be his " lady with the pig-mouth.-'^ Victor 
cannot be said to be pig-mouthed or mouthy, as he 
never has a word to say in cover or out, but in a road 
difficulty there is no better counsellor. Selim, whose 
stern seems never at rest, and Splendour are good 
ones of the Harlequin sort ; Old Susan is another 
rare bitch at a road, and she and Tempest one day 



232 riELD AND FERN. 

lield tlie line and helped each other for a mile and a 
half, near The Bellion in the Jedburgh country, 
when nothing else could speak to it. But we had 
gradually got round the side of the Eildons past the 
three small ridges of gorses which so often hold a 
fox, and wishing Will as satisfactory a season as his 
first, we bent away to the right for Faldonside. 



FALDONSIDE TO DALGIG. 233 



" Was it absolute trutli, or a di-eaming 
Which the wakeful day flisowns. 
That I heard something more in the stream as it ran 

Than water breaking on stones — 
Now the hoofs of a fljong moss-trooper, 
Now a bloodhound's bay half-caught. 
The distant l)last of a hunting-horn. 
The bui-r of Walter Scott?" 

Alexander Smith. 

A Peep at Paldonside — The Landseer Gallery at Bowhill — Over !MincIi- 
moor — The Ettrick Shepherd — Sheep in Ettrick Forest— Points of 
Blackfaces — Crossing with Cheviots — Lanarkshire Breeders and Fairs 
— The Clad Score — Curling Enthusiasm — A visit to Dalgig — Scotland 
Yet and Canaradzo, 

^^ fJT^s a regular NoaVs Ark/' said Will Williamson, 
^ when we told him that we were bound for 
'' Faldonside/-' Mr. Nicol Milne lives in this snug 
eyrie on the banks of the Tweed, just above the Ab- 
botsford ferry. Wood and valley backed up by "a 
Cheviot hilF^ compose a pleasant landscape from the 
front door, and the swans and wild-ducks besporting 
themselves on the lake gave proof of the incisive cha- 
racter of WilFs simile. There is a considerable 
extent of grass land, on which pure shorthorns 
have been settled for fully thirty years. Mr. 
Milne has always sworn by the St. Albans blood, 
and his two tribes, The Prendwick Princess by 
Bachelor (1366) and The Rosebud by Emperor 



234 FIELD AND FERN. 

(1784), liave both got it in their veins. The former 
came from Crisp of Doddington, and Mr. Milne went 
to pluck the Rosebud from Holywell whenCrofton was 
in his zenith_, and winning everything with his Gain- 
ford heifers. He used Trctter^s Dusty Miller (9055) 
and E-aines's Lord Stanley (18277) ; and in Ettrick 
(14518) by Tarn Glen (10780) by Ethelred (5>)90) 
he combined a treble Gainford dash. The Princesses 
and Rosebuds are closely crossed in ; but their short 
legs_, fine hair and general robust stamp show that 
when you have made a really good foundation, you 
need not heed the popular cry against in-breeding. 
Mr. Milne has now adopted the Towneley plan of 
prefixing the bulFs name, and thus "Wolviston 
Rosebud^^ and "Napier Rosebud" were both among 
his herd-book dames. 

The Cheviot ewes on his hill hirsel are kept up 
each year by lambs from the Menzion flock, and 
he takes three crops of half-bred lambs from them. 
His flock of half-bred ewes are kept below the hill_, 
and the lambs of both by a Border-Leicester 
go annually to St. BoswelFs fair. The three-parts- 
bred lambs made 32s. 6d. last year for Fife, and the 
cast half-bred ewes 42 s. for Mid- Lothian. This 
system of breeding prevails between Galashiels and 
Edinburgh, where there is a great deal of artificial 
grass. Three-parts bred ewes are very rare, and only 
one farmer in the district h asadopted half-bred 
tups. 

The pigs have been pretty nearly as long about 



PALDONSIDE TO DALGIG. 235 

the place as the shorthorns_, and came originally from 
Mr. Nutt, a solicitor in York_, who fled in his mo- 
ments of leisure from calfskin in the smooth to pigskin 
in the rough. It was to Yorkshire that '' Faldon- 
side" also looked for a cross_, and found it in one of a 
prize pen of Lord Wenlock^s. 

A bull "with a fine deep forehand, and of course 
with a dash of St. Albans, thrust his head over the 
rails for a word, as we passed to the stables. There 
we found George Goodfellow_, who would remind us 
of a celebrated ex-jockey grown a little older, as 
cicerone to three hunters, and a grey pony " as good 
as she's bonny.'' There Y\'as Empress by Mar otto, 
the heroine of the wire-fence feat once on the Che- 
viots and again in the A^ale ; but George was not 
surprised at it, as she '' always goes as straight as an 
arrow'' The Falstaff mare has not been tried as yet 
in this high art jumping, but she seemed to have 
quality and cleverness enough for anything, as you 
stand behind her and look at those hocks and 
quarters, and the pleasant white reach head with 
which she was always saluting the terrier " Dunny" 
below the manger. 

Pepper and Jock are two more of the Dandie breed, 
and in direct descent from the ^'^Charlieshope" terriers. 
Greyhounds live only in stone on each side of the 
door ; but John Jardine, an old class-mate at Gala- 
shiels, and the sharer of many a lioliday with the 
gun and bag, fell back on his Faldonside recollec- 
tions for a name for one of his Judge-Ladylike litter, 



236 FIELD AND FERN. 

and took care that the bearer of it should be a good 
one. Still, if there are now no long-tails, '^The Ark" is 
rich in liver-and-white pointers, with beautiful heads, 
and a ^^Gordon setter'^ shared the yard with a blue- 
mottled '^Culley,'' or a "Belton Blue/' Tame 
wild -ducks are tenants in common of the pond with 
Aylesburys and Rouens; Lauderdale and speckled 
Dorkings seemed to start from every laurel bush at 
their master's tread, but the pheasant sort had nearly 
died out from the lack of a suitable cross, which Mr. 
Milne cannot find. As for the Russian dog with 
a three years' clip on him, we shunned, and with 
good reason, him and his hole in the wall, and then 
set the mare's head westward by Peebles, Biggar, 
and Douglas for Ayr. 

There was no help for us by rail, even if we had 
desired it, as the line only runs to Selkirk. In one 
respect it is unique as far as it goes. A woman was 
waving the safety-flag at Galashiels, and at Abbots - 
ford a woman was station -mistress, and, as a pas- 
senger observed, ^^ ringing her bell like anything." 

We halted for an hour at " Sweet Bowhill," which 
was now under the influence of a nipping frost, to 
see Mr. Grant's picture of Williamson on Sam Slick, 
with Hannibal, Falstaff*, Dainty and Destiny round him. 
A beautiful likeness it is of a loyal, old family ser- 
vant, who is painted, by his special desire, raising his 
cap for a covert-side salute to his master. He also 
figures on a grey in a fast thing, from the same hand, 
in which Sir David Baird, Mr. Campbell of Saddell, 



TALDONSIDE TO DALGIG. J>67 

and other crack Scottish " green collars/' dead and 
gone, are all stealing away, and on which the Duke 
of Buccleuch and Earl Wemyss can look and renew 
their youth. The Inlliard room is quite a Landseer 
gallery. Its prints are '^ artist's proofs" in the very 
highest sense of the phrase, as Sir Edwin had been 
over them with his chalks. It was delightful to trace 
his sense of Avhat points the engraver's art had been 
unable to reach ; how vigorously he dashed his broad 
touches into '^A Distinguished Member of the 
Humane Society/' the reaper lass's kerchief, and 07ie 
of the interiors with the baby and the keery ; how he 
stayed his hand from the hound and terrier troop in 
the " Otter Spearing /' and just played with the 
ripples and the waterfall in the Otters' Fishing; 
how reverently he touched the pall in the " Shep- 
herd's Mourner/' and how he just glazed the eye of 
the dead standard-bearer and his horse in " War/' 
and faintly heightened the smouldering of the 
shell. 

We had no time to go round by Yarrow, and we 
cared less to see it in its wintry garb. Williamson 
had told us that he " knew nae mair" about the 
country we were going through than he did of Nova 
Zembla. W^e did Avell enough as long as we held 
on past Newark's Tower, over whose ruined gables 
a hawk was hovering; but when we gave up all 
thoughts of Yarrow and " still St. Mary's Loch," 
and struck to the right up a bridle road, among 
deeply-frozen ruts over Minchmoor to Peebles, it was 



238 FIELD AND FERN. 

worse than a weary way. Large floes of ice stretclied 
across the path, and, mare in hand, we had to chmb 
the hill to get round the syke head, and more than 
once we were all on our sides together. After this 
rough experience of sheep-walk solitudes, it was like 
enchantment to look down into a rich vale once more 
among woollen manufactories, half-breds, and holly 
standards, macadamized roads like iron, and rusty 
iron gates, inscribed with 1745, leading np an avenue 
to the ancestral grange of the Earls of Traquair, that 
breathed of old family portraits and English quarter 
sessions. "The shallow brawling Tweed^^ was ice- 
bound, and there were hundreds of torch-light 
skaters upon it as we cantered past, and fairly groped 
our way to Biggar among such shady ways by Stobo 
Castle, that the very darkness, as at Belvoir, might 
be felt. It lingered, in one sense, at Biggar, as the 
landlady, after going into committee with her hus- 
band and the waitress on the point, sent up the 
latter as a deputation to inquire if the muffins we 
had asked for were " a kind of pickle." 

We own to a little twinge at having been so near 
Ettrick without seeing it ; but the mare had done 
her two-and-forty miles as it was, and not even a 
winter's tale was to be got out of the spot now that 
the " Shepherd" was gone. His old associates speak 
of him as a good runner at weddings till he was well 
on to middle life, and he certainly acted up to the 
spirit of the lines, 

•' Nae wooer like the ladclie 
Who rows me in liis plaidie," 



FALDONSIDE TO DALGIG. 239 

as lie would go thirty miles over the hills when he 
was courting. One who knew him well says that 
"^^some called him a sloven, and some called him 
dressy ; but, at all events, he shaved every day/^ In 
his manner he was very familiar with every rank, 
and social, though not a drunkard. "^Twixt the 
gloamin and the rairkin, when the kye come 
hame,^^ was a great song of his, and he gave it with 
^remarkable spirit about the Gordon Arms and at 
Selkirk festive meetings. At thirty Sir Walter 
Scott noticed him, and then Professor Wilson, and 
^^he was lionized in London, and never did any 
good as shepherd or sheep farmer after/^ A pre- 
sent of £100 from Sir Robert Peel, and £50 a 
year for giving up his farm of Mount Benger, kept 
him from want, and then he lived near the Gordon 
Arms, and "just whistled and sang his life away." 
Sir John Malcolm presided at the public dinner to 
him in London, and he only lived till the next sum- 
mer. He was buried in Ettrick churchyard, and 
Professor Wilson was at the funeral with two 
of his sons, and let down one shoulder into the 
grave. 

Ettrick Eorest, and its old glories when it was a 
hunting station of the kings of Scotland, are a theme 
to which his enthusiasm has given an edge. To 
Henry Duke of Buccleuch he accorded all the 
honour of improving the Forest ; but still, he never 
could forgive him for being a catcher of moles, "those 
innocent and blessed little pioneers who enrich our 



240 FIELD AND TERN. 

pastures annually with tlie best top-dressing dug with 
great pains and labour from the fattest soil beneath/^^' 

* TheBanffghire Journal fm-nishes the following pleasant sketch of "Old 
Moley of Nethermmr" : — 

"Deceased was the first professional molecatcher that ever practised his 
trade north of Aberdeen. Bom in "Westmoreland, he was apprenticed to a 
i'e,^ilar molecatcher, who, in the course of his calling, traversed the southern 
counties of Scotland, and then penetrated as far north as Forfar. Here 
"William Irving (for that was Molej^'s name), impelled by his love of adven- 
ture, and a prjring disposition, deserted his master, and determined to start 
on his ovn\ account. Journeying north, when near Stonehaven, he got intc> 
conversation with, as he supposed, a superior farmer. After a few miles' •* 
walk, this person invited him to his house. He proved to be the celebrated 
Captain Barclay, then rising into fame. He stopped at Ury a week, and 
many a story did he afterwards tell of that memorable \dsit. 

" William afterwards turned up at Old Deer, causing a considerable sensa- 
tion. His fame reached the ears of the late Mr. Crombie of Phesdo, who sent 
for him and appoiuted him molecatcher to the Earl of Aberdeen, which office 
he held for forty years. The Earl never passed him when in the grounds of 
Haddo House without saying a few words, but they seldom went beyouii 
' Well, I see you are there.' Moley had the highest admiration for this good 
and distinguished nolaleman. 

" Having l^een employed by the Earl, William was soon sought for by the 
lairds of the (listrict, far and wide. His abilities in his trade were great ; and 
although molecatchers are now mimerous, it is questionable if an equally ex- 
pert one could now be found. Few moles could ' trick' him ; but he had 
other qualifications, which rendered him not only agreeable, l)ut almost 
necessary to them. He was a great antiquarian, and came to acquire an in- 
timate knowledge of the famiUes of the proprietors. He was a botanist, 
and had an excellent knowledge of the cultm-e of trees. He was a first-rate 
marker of game, and in slipping a greyhoimd had not a rival. At the Turrifi' 
Com-siug Club Meetings he Avas in his glory. Several of the lairds in the d\:<- 
trict neai-ly fought for the possession of Moley on the 12th of August. His 
herculean strength enabled him to cany fabulous bags of game any dis- 
tance. It was no uncommon thing in those days for the sportsman to walk 
ten miles to the moor and the sanae back, with Moley carrjdng twenty brace 
of o-rouse and half-a-dozen hares on his back. It is true he swallowed as 
much whisky as he could get to assist him on the road. 

" WilUam went to Nethermuir in the year 1802, and, as the place suited 
him he remained, there ever since. This was his head-quarters, Ijut he was 
often months absent, plying his trade far and wide ; but Haddo House, Bruck- 
lay, Aberdour House, Pitfour, and Troup, with a rare excursion to Dufi" House 
and Gordon Castle, were his principal hamits. Everywhere he was a wel- 
come A-isitor to the lairds ; bitt not so to the servants, who sometimes rebelled 
en masse against his admission, as he was accustomed to find many flaws in 
the establfshment, which he was sm-e to communicate to the astonished 
master. Moley was very fond of Gebbie of Troup, the last professional fool iu 
the north, and retailed many of his wise sayings. 

" Moley is supposed at his death to have been 85 years of age. He retained 



FALDONSIDE TO DALGIG. 241 

The Duke secured royal rights over the Forest,, and 
stocked it with 20,000 blackfaces, which some will 
have it came from Fife. It was not until 1785 that 
Cheviots crept in. The old shepherds raved against 
them in their death-throes, and called them ^^white- 
faced shilpit things,^' which had been attended to like 
"fine leddies,-'-' and, as the Shepherd adds, "the 
blackfaces sought the heights in disdain.''^ They 
had to stay there like moody Jupiters till ^60 ; but 
that fearful time, added to the barren spring of ^64, 
produced a reaction in the higher sheep-walks, and 
Lead Hills, the birth-place of Allan Ramsay and the 
highest inhabited village in Scotland, had "its ain 
again." 

In Lanark market, blackfaced ewe hoggs, which 
could be had once at from £1 to 25s., have lately 
ranged from 28s. to 35s. ; and in the upper parts of 
Peebleshire and Lanarkshire the Cheviots have had 
to retire. Still, with the exception of Mr. Aitchison^s, 
there are hardly any Cheviot wedders in these two 
counties. Mr. Denholm, who has a large flock, both 
of blackfaces and Cheviots, in the upper ward of 
Lanarkshire, has quite given up the idea which many 



Ills vigorous faculties of mind to the last g-asp of life. For the last twenty 
years he had been a pensioner of Mr, Gordon of Nethermuir, to whom he 
bequeathed his album, composed of two large, thick volumes of extracts of 
newspapers, containing accounts of the Aberdeen races, murders, executions, 
TurriO" coursing meetings, comings of age, aud other remarkable events in 
the northern counties since the commencement of this century. It is a most 
unique, instructive, and amusing album, though not weU adapted for the 
drawing-room table, as its leather covers and soiled pages are nearly black 
from tobacco-smoke and peat reek, the combined odour of which not all the 
perfumes of Arabia could overwhelm." 

2 R 



242 FIELD AND FERN. 

flockmasters cling to — that the Cheviots are as hardy 
when they are well turniped as hoggs. With him the 
winter of ^60 did comparatively little damage to the 
blackfaces. They can fight their own battle, and do 
even better than the hay-fed Cheviots. They work 
up the hill and hunt the country fair for their food^ 
under difficulties ; whereas the Cheviots (which are 
straighter behind and not so free in the hock for hill 
climbing) will lie at the foot and lose courage in the 
snow. The " curly horns" have another advantage, 
that they will thrive on high mossy land, whereas the 
Cheviots require much lower quarters. If the two are 
kept on coarse wild land, four Cheviots eat as much 
meat as five blackfaces ; but if the land is superior, as 
in Roxburghshire, you cannot increase them to the 
same extent. Others, on the contrary, think that, 
instead of keeping a score more blackfaces for every 
five score of Cheviots, you should read for every fif- 
teen score. They will also eat coarse stuff which the 
daintier Cheviots won't touch, but the price of wool 
and their slower maturity will be always against 
them. 

A three-year-old Cheviot v/edder will make 36s. or 
o7s. by his carcase, and 9s. by his wool; whereas 27s. to 
30s., and 4s. 6d. for wool, is all that can be set down 
for a blackface. The difference is strikingly seen in 
this, that a Cheviot shepherd can get £48 for the 
wool and lambs of his 46 ewes on a hirsel of 38 score, 
whereas a blackface shepherd can only get £SS. 
Again we have the comparison, 23s. for the 24lb. stone 



FALDONSIDE TO DALGIG. 243 

of blackfaced wool unwashed, and 40s. for Cheviot 
washed. Comparing well-fed wedders at three, the 
average of blackfaced will be from 15 to 171bs., and 
of Cheviots from 17 to 211bs. The blackfaces " grow 
like mischieF^ the first year on pasture, and after that 
they slacken, but still they are the daintiest morsel 
to set before a club, with currant jelly in aid. 

The larger-boned ones are always better growers, and 
hardier, and flockmasters like them with a long neck 
and a short face, if they can get it. The head should 
be broad between the eyes, and free from wool ; the 
nose full and Eoman, the jaw broad and strong, and 
the eyes not too near the root of the horns, which 
should be flat and well apart, not too large, and 
coming away free from the head. Rams whose horns 
grow upwards from the same root invariably get their 
lambs with those lumps on the crown, which are so 
fatal at lambing time. The horn grows stronger 
in deep boggy land, and as, unlike the hart, they 
cannot 

" Hang their old head on the pale," 

and leave it there each April, some of the heavy- 
headed ones grow sadly weary, rest it Hstlessly on a 
stone or dyke bank, and are careless about the ewes. 
Many have their horns sawn oif at the first bend, or 
cut close and fired at the end of the flint, to prevent 
them bleeding to death. The roundness at the 
root of a horn will often indicate in a tup 
lamb that he will get them with soft bloody horus, 
which will grow into the head. These bloody horns 

2 R 2 



244 FIELD AND FERN. 

suffer very mueli in cold weather, as they get frosted 
to the flint (or bone in the centre of the horn), and 
the sheep sink in condition. 

Upon the colour of the faces there has been much 
diversity of opinion among the learned. Some of the 
flockmasters, and the Watsons of Culterallers among 
them, liked them very light, under the idea that it 
indicated faster feeding and more wool. This point 
was so steadily kept in view in choosing rams that 
the sprittle-faced began to lose their clear white and 
black markings, but now the dark sprittles have 
taken the lead again, and seem generally allowed to 
be hardier. Dark legs are an essential point, and 
no one seems to dispute that; but how to get the 
faces light and the legs dark is as hard as the solu- 
tion of the riddle v/hich the late Archbishop Whate- 
ley propounded and would never divulge : 

" When from the ark's capacious round 
The world came forth in pairs. 
Who was the first to hear the sound 
Of boots upon the stairs ?" 

The great Cheviot farms are above Ewan foot 
Station, and now there are nothing but Cheviots to 
Muirkirk, where twenty-five years ago they were all 
blackfaces. The Gillespies of Douglas Water began 
the Cheviots, and they go on to Glenbuck. Seven 
miles from Douglas, the blackfaces take it up again, 
and spread over the hills round Carnock, Sanquhar, 
and Kirkconnel. In Ayrshire they are chiefly black- 
faces, but in the North the Cheviot is creeping in 
fast. Erom Abington Station the black-face district 



FALDONSIDE TO DALGIG. 245 

bends away by Carnwath to the Pentlands_, and 
towards the head of Tweed. They still hold the Dal- 
melzies and Stanhope hills, but they are gradually 
being put out of Nithsdale at the back of the Luther 
Hills. About the head of Clyde, at the summit of 
the hill from Beattock, the Che\dots have been crossed 
in with the blackface for the sake of stamina, till at 
the third cross the lambs look full Cheviot, and are 
sold as such. The last farm that did it was Crooked 
Stane, ten miles above Beattock, and nearly the 
highest land in Scotland. It kept to the blackfaced 
as long as it could, and then it silently followed in 
the wake of the fashion. The first cross has as little 
horn as the second, and a third or fourth brings the 
colour right ; but still, the grey legs are obstinate, 
and the kemp will sometimes linger obstinately 
in the wool for years, and "fly away on the machinery 
when they try to work it.^^ A great many mules 
are bred in Lanarkshire. Dealers bring the rough 
Leicester rams direct from Yorkshire, and take back 
ewe hogg shots to put to the Leicester there. 
The mules bred in the district are sold at four 
months for 15s. to 18s., and generally go South. 

Coultar parish, and ten miles round it, is the 
great centre of the Lanarkshire blackfaces, and 
Lanark is their market. The Watsons of Coultar, 
Murray of Pentland Hills, Fryer of Knowhead, on 
the Campsie Hills, Sandy Denholm of Baitlaws, 
Dryfe from the Sanquhar Hills which range between 
Ayrshire and Dumfriesshire, Blacklock of Minny Gap, 



246 FIELD AND FERN. 

and Craig from the heights of Black Craig in Ayrshire 
are all there, vying with each other for sweetness and 
strength of face, and weight of carcase and wool. 
The Cheviots are all sold " bare" south of Falkirk ; 
whereas the clad score is always adhered to in the 
case of the blackface, which are supposed to be " the 
inferior clergy." The breeders made a stand about 
twenty years ago, but the buyers checkmated them, 
by sending the drum round Lanark to say that none 
would be bought except they were double clad, and 
the breeders had to put up with the double injustice 
that year. Tups are never sold by the clad score, 
and on Lanark Muir they seldom get as high as 
£20 nett. 

The show of tups is in June, and the High- 
landers are the best customers, but do not care for 
shearlings. They range from £S upwards, but for 
the leading sellers jg4 to £5 is about the average. 
The Watsons of Culterallers and Watson^ of Nesbitt 
are the heads of the profession, and sell some six or 
seven score between them. Once they were great 
exhibitors, but they have given it up, and Dryfe took 
it on, but won principally with tups not bred by him- 
self. There are three markets in Lanark annually. 

The rough blackfaced ewe hoggs (of which breeders 
sell fully half their store) are brought out on June 
3rd in their wool, and are bought up by dealers for 
crossing in England. At the next market in the 

* This name was omitted by mistake from the list of the Highland Society 
whmersinp. 89. 



FALDONSIDE TO DALGIG. 247 

beginning of August nothing conies out but the 
wedder lambs, sometimes 10,000 strong. They are 
dropped in April, and generally average about £10 
the clad score, and go into Forfarshire, Perthshire, 
and Argyleshire to be wintered, and sold to the hill 
farmers in the spring. They are kept to three years 
old, and then come out as " hill sheep'^ at Callow or 
Falkirk, at all prices from •'4s. to 24s. At the end 
of August, the ewe lambs and the mid (shot) wedder 
lambs come out to the number of eight to ten thou- 
sand each. The Northumberland and Cumberland 
men buy them up, and many go down to Askrigg, 
from which Yorkshire supplies itself. Part of the 
shot lambs go north, but they are generally win- 
tered in the neighbourhood. The ewe lambs are all 
wanted for mule dams, and some of the lots will fetch 
17s. 6d. There are a few double flocks in Lanark- 
shire, and Mr. Denholmhas one of the largest — sixty 
score of blackface and fifty score of Cheviots. The 
most extensive blackface proprietor is Mr. Lindsay 
of Stanhope, Peeblesshire, who has 3,000 ewes and 
ewe hoggs, and Mr. Paterson of Eirthwood, in 
Lanarkshire is not far behind him. 

From Biggar we passed on our way through 
Lamington, where the hand of the proprietor, Mr. 
Baillie Cochrane, M.P., may be seen in its neat cot- 
tages, and a small English cliurch and lich-gate, 
which Pugin would not have disdained. The Ayr- 
shires began to come thick when we had crossed the 
Caledonian line, and *^ Ayr forty miles^^ met our eye. 



248 FIELD AND FERN. 

near those Douglas sheep-walks for whose cup days 
Sunheam, Sea Gull, Patent, and Rebe were not 
pupped in vain. It was an exhilarating ride through 
the windings of the hills, with ice ponds in deep ravines, 
made vocal by the curlers, and then through the iron 
country among an infinity of dark sprites wearing 
lamps upon their foreheads — in fact, " the roaring 
rink'^ by day, and the roaring furnace by night. 

People who talk about the Scotch as phlegmatic 

would alter their note if they saw them at curling 

time. We have no conception of the mysteries of 

" chap and lie^^ and " outwick," and all that sort of 

thing, but it was grand to see the enthusiasm of the 

players of every degree. Corpulent farmers, whom 

we couldn^t have believed capable of it, crooked their 

lusty knees; and the lads swept the ice frantically 

as the smooth grey stone came gliding on towards its 

fellows. Inn stables near the favourite ponds were 

so full that it was a mercy we could get a stall for our 

mare at all. If we passed a cart about 10 a.m., we 

generally found it full of the paraphernalia of the 

game instead of ordinary farm produce, and stalwart 

men and boys strode gaily along every turnpike and 

bye-lane with whin brooms of a delicious green under 

their arms. At night we heard desperate discussions 

on the events of the day, and orations fully ten 

minutes long on the glories of some particular rink. 

It once seemed strange to see a Yorkshire and a 

Lincolnshire breeder of blood stock draw their chairs 

close one evening, put their hands on one another's 



FALDONSIDE TO DALGIG. 249 

knees^ and fight out inch by inch the stud merits of 
Stockwell and Orlando ; but the Old Cumnockites 
went beyond that. They disregarded their ale and 
their toddy, they stood up and held each other by the 
coats, and cross-pumped into each other^s sys- 
tems their curling observations and criticisms. Al- 
most from daybreak telegrams were flying about as 
to the state of the ice, and the very farm lads looked 
as if they contemplated suicide when the thaw came 
softly stealing from the south. 

A six-mile ride over the hills from Old Cumnock 
brought us to Dalgig, which Ivie Campbell and his 
Canaradzo have made so famous both in Scottish and 
English leash annals, and our first notions of the 
place were gathered from a distant view of Mr. 
Campbell and his renowned white, surveying a rink 
of curlers. The group on the bank was completed by 
a slashing (May 3) son of Canaradzo and Snowdrop 
(who died after pupping), a red bitch by him out of 
Butterfly by Judge, and a very small white by Daring 
from Canopy. They may not, perhaps, like Milton^s 
hibbar fiend, have "earned their cream-bowl duly 
set '^^ but still the life of saplings at an Ayrshire 
dairy farm is a right royal one ; and we found them 
invariably curled together, basking in all "their 
hairy strength'^ on a rug by the kitchen fire, and 
complacently surveying and levying a capital per- 
centage on whatever kail and porridge were flying 
about. We remember a lady once telling us that 
she never could get her servants to treat the foxhound 



250 FIELD AND FERN. 

puppy with due consideration, till the huntsman 
called one day, and asked, in severely important 
tones, '^ Do you give that puppy his exercise regu- 
larly ?" and that ever after it became the subject of 
the deepest respect and solicitude. The bump of 
reverence is equally developed among the domestics 
at Dalgig. 

None of the above three had received a name. There 
were many deep searchings of heart, countless brown 
studies, and endless dislocation and collocation of 
syllables in connexion with the standard initial letter 
C, in prospect, before Mr. Campbell would get that 
point settled. We have a floating notion that we 
found many learned exercises of this nature not 
only on the fly-leaves of his books, but on stray enve- 
lopes and the margin of old Ayrshire Advertisers. 
In fact, his evenings are one series of strenuous phi- 
lological wrestles. His coursing friends have often 
a joke with him about his taste for nomenclature, 
and one of them had the temerity to infringe the 
patent, and call his dog " Dalgigaradzo.'^ Some 
of them will have it that he keeps a lucky-bag of syl- 
lables atDalgig, and draws them out at haphazard; but 
luckily there is that telling title, *^Canaradzo,^^ to con- 
fute such impious cavillers. One energetic and specu- 
lative stranger at the Waterloo had rummaged every 
dictionary and gazetteer that he could lay hands on, 
and, failing in his search, reverently approached Mr. 
Campbell on the ground, and, with a preface 
to the effect that " it sounds well,'' begged to be 



FALDONSIDE TO DALGIG. 251 

informed where it came from^ and what it 
meant. 

"Excuse me addressing you, sir j but Johnson's Dictio7i- 
ary does not hint at such word.'^ "Doesn't it ?'' replied 
the proud author of its existence ; " if the dog wins 
the Cup to-day, you'll find it in the next edition I^' 
And with that the querist subsided into himself. 
Still Mr. Campbell seems to think " Coodareena'^ 
and " Carabradzo" quite as happy inspirations ; and 
he has been dreadfully bothered by the way in which 
the outer world persisted in pronouncing another pet 
name " Ci-ol-og-a/' in strict contravention of the 
Dalgig canons. Twice over we were pulled up, and 
told that it was Chi-o-Zo-ga; and yet such was the 
force of habit that we "went and did it again .^' 
Cups and photographs are a great point with Mr. 
Campbell. On the piano there stands the goblet 
which Coodareena won at Lytham, separated from 
her Brownlow cup by one which Canaradzo gained 
at Islington last year. 

The chimney-piece can also boast of two similar 
Canaradzo trophies; one of them the first at Bir- 
mingham, and the other the second at Leeds — a de- 
cision, by-the-bye, which "no fellah can understand/' 
and at which Mr. Randell, who bred the first-prize 
dog, and Mr. Nightingale^ as well, raised their hands 



* The latter thus speaks of him : " He has the particular point which set- 
tles all dispute, in my mind, as to a fast v. a slow greyhoimd, viz., the proper 
description of loin. A broad, thick, vulgar loin denotes to a dead certaiaty 
the slows, that worst of all complaints in a greyhound. What is wanted ii 
a well-developed loin, not heavj', nor too long or weak, but growing finer and 
narrower from the middle to the couplings, just as you see it in him." 



252 FIELD AND FERN. 

in dismay. There^ too, is Mr. Borron^s Ardrossan 
Cup, whicli was brought to Dalgig by Highland 
Home ; and the Kyle Club Collar, with its wreath of 
name-medals, was not long in its sideboard lair. It 
is dated 1852, and bears, among other winning names, 
those of Brighton, Picton, and Baron Garnock ; and 
Calabaroono and Cadazooro, brothers by Cardinal 
York out of Canopy, were its joint holders on Mr. 
CampbelPs behalf. Their dam, and their grandam 
Scotland Yet, hang on the walls; and Canaradzo 
and Ciologa join partnership in the slips, with young 
Mr. Campbell holding them. We have read in 
Becher Ward of "the short, hot glitter of a rat^s 
eye," but it is nothing to a bench of sixteen terriers, 
whose gaze and grouping the photographer has 
managed with wonderful tact. The stuifer^s art has 
also been called into requisition for a black-cock and 
a squirrel ; and there, too, is the head of a small 
Boman-nosed hare, the identical one which was the 
humble instrument of deciding the Biggar St. Leger 
of 82 dogs, when Hippograif ran up to Condolorado 
by Bedlamite out of Swallow. 

Dalgig derives its name from Dal-gig, or The vale 
with the rise. It seems to be in the middle of a sort 
of rough grass moor, which suits Ayrshires, as Mr. 
Campbell has a perfect heap of medals to attest the 
victories of his bulls Clarendon and Cardigan, and 
has twice over beaten the whole county for the best 
lot of milch cows. There are plenty of stone fences 
and ditches about, and not many hares. The grouse 



FALDONSIDE TO DALGIG. 253 

and blackcock lead the wliite division many a hard 
gallop ; and the smaller trials are sometimes brought 
off on a big moss two miles away. Still, when — as 
John Wilson alias '' Jock O'Dalgig" the trainer (and 
a very quaint little character) expresses it — ''We 
want to ken the Watterloo boys; ive tak them eight 
miles doon the country, to the BuWs land at Kirk- 
connel or Dahnellingto7i.'' The hounds have only 
once come that way, and John almost speaks under 
his breath to this day, when he tells how he had just 
time to couple up his charges before they threw up, 
scarcely three hundred yards from him, and his deep 
thankfulness that his kennel was not eaten up bodily 
that day. Not a man was within miles of them, and 
when they had discovered and discussed two dead 
calves which had been thrown into a pit, they con- 
centrated their attention on a cade lamb, which had 
been left in a shepherd^s plaid, and it soon departed 
to the Happy Pastures. Cox, huntsman, had re- 
turned to Eglinton Castle without his pack, and a 
teleo-ram next mornin£r informed him of their where- 
abouts, and requested his immediate presence, as no 
one cared to go near such cannibals when they were 
once coaxed into a stable. 

So much for the local traditions of Dalgig, where 
Mr. Campbell was born shortly before the present 
century. Strange to say, he cared no more for a 
greyhound than he did for an opposum until 1849, 
and he never attended a public meeting until what 
racing men still fondly call " Voltigeur^s year.^^ He 



254 FIELD AND FERN. 

then began at some private coursing days for half- 
crown stakes with Dido, and inflamed his ardour 
considerably by beating Wigan at Kirkconnel. 

This future stud hero was bred at Bank House, 
near New Cumnock. Mr. Pagan had him as a pre- 
sent from Mr. Heslop, and not caring for the respon- 
sibility, and being deeply impressed by the Dido de- 
feat, he arranged with Mr. Campbell to become his 
confederate. It was settled that they were to share 
the expenses and winnings, and that Jock (a Wig- 
townshire man who used to lead the prize-bulls to 
the ground, and helps still with the cows), aided by 
Mr. Ivie Campbell, junior, were to combine their 
forces, and train the brindled-and-white, who was 
then in his second season^ and generally ran at 
63 lbs. He was a sweet-tempered dog, but his two 
preceptors had rather a tough job getting him fit. 
When they did, he won the Douglas Cup twice in 
succession at Biggar. As time went on, Mr. Green- 
shield^s Veto (by Marquis of Douglases Dux out of 
Tileside lass) arrived to Wigan, and Mr. Campbell 
stipulated for two pups as the price of the wooing. 
They were suckled and sent in due course; the dog 
puppy turned out a complete idiot, and was handed 
over to a local Calcraft, and the bitch was neither 
more nor less than Scotland Yet, that kernel of all 
Mr. Campbell's fame. Wigan just won £80 a-piece 
for the confederates, and was sold some time after 
for " a pony,'^ to a gentleman over the Border. He 
left another great Scottish pledge behind him in 



FALDONSIDE TO DALGIG. 255 

King Lear^ the winner of the first 64-dog Waterloo 
Cup. 

Jockos principal comments on Scotland Yet seem 
to be confined to an entry on our notes, that " she 
ivas varrafast and of a varr a jumping sort ; Ah ! she 
ivas a grand bitch,'' In the slips she looked one net- 
work of veins, and all her litters have inherited her 
beautiful skin. She was beaten in her first course at 
Biggar, but she afterwards ran up in a 64-dog stake at 
the Caledonian meeting, to Mr. John Jardine's Baron, 
and won the Caledonian Cup ; and she seemed to 
excite quite a furore among the Scottish division, 
when she did so well at the Waterloo of ^54. We 
were not there the next j^ear, when she ran up to 
Judge for the cup, but Mr. Campbell still declares 
that it was "Noe course avar,^' as the hare only- 
weighed 4 lbs. Mr. Nightingale says of this course : 
" She killed her hare too soon. Judge went a tre- 
mendous pace, and went round and turned his hare 
to the bitch, who killed before she could get into 
good solid work, which was her great forte.^^ Bar- 
ring her colour, which was pure white, she was to 
Mr. CampbelPs eye more like her daughter Cooda- 
reena than anything he has had in his kennel. Her 
light was nearly quenched before she became a 
brood bitch : as she was seized with dropsy or some 
such ailment, and became such a swollen object about 
the head more especially, that she was within an ace 
of being put away like her brother. However, Mr. 
Campbell tucked up his sleeves, and summoning the 



256 FIELD AND FERX. 

whole strengtli of the establishment, placed her three 
or four times a day in a warm bath, and swathed her 
in flannel so effectually, that he gradually brought 
her round. Ranter by Bedlamite was her first love ; 
but the puppies, nearly all of which were black, came 
at a bad season of the year, and were wrong in their 
legs as well. In short, none of them ever gained any 
note of admiration or even an entry in *^^Stone- 
lienge's" Coursing Calendar. She had another trial 
of the Bedlamite cross through Jacobite, but except 
Mr. Begbie's Blitz (who ran up to Canaradzo in a 
32-dog stake at the Caledonian Meeting), they all 
died as puppies. The blue strain of Bugle Avas tried 
next; Mr. Marfleefs Beacon, who had just been 
purchased from Mr. Borron for 60 gs., was chosen as 
her consort; and Canaradzo, Crested Locbiel, Caz- 
zarina. Canopy, and Harvest Home formed that 
memorable litter. 

Canaradzo was always the best looking of the lot, 
but Crested Lochiel had the most bone. Respecting- 
the merits of these two brothers. Jack spake thus : 
'^Crested Lochiel was about a neck the faster of the 
twa, but Canaradzo always wrought the inside of 
him.^^ The former was a very game dog, and a 
rare fencer, but unfortunately in his third course for 
the Caledonian St. Leger, he spiked himself striking 
at his hare, between the breast and the shoulder, and 
wrenching himself loose with a great effort, killed 
the hare after all, and lay down ruined for life. 
Canopy was very fast, but not so close in her work 



FALDONSIDE TO DALGIG. 257 

as some of the rest. She divided the Caledonian St. 
Leger with Mr. Ewing^s Lucknow^ an eight-dog stake 
at Biggar^ with Cazzarina, and a stake at Southport 
with Mr. Jones's Jeopardy, but never won anything 
outright. She was also second at the Birmingham 
Show, and has had three litters of puppies. Cam-ye- 
-by Athol was one of her first litter of young Jacobites, 
of which Mr. Campbell presented one to Lord Eglin- 
ton. Cadazooro and Calabaroono (which the papers 
would persist in calling Calabaroono) are the cracks 
of her second litter; the saplings are by her first 
cousin Daring, " a nice little dog/^ who is making his 
way at the stud, and she is about to visit Cardinal 
York again. We may note that Cam-ye-by- Athol 
was sold for £80 before he was ever slipped at a hare, 
to Mr. Johnstone, who changed his name, without 
applying to any privy council, into Jock of Dalgig. 
This compliment Jock felt deeply, but alas ! his 
namesake died soon after winning the North Lan- 
cashire Stakes at the Pddgway Club — in a wire fence 
near Blackburn. Cazzarina was sold for £dO to Mr. 
Gibson, after winning a Caledonian and a Clifton 
Cup, besides running up for the latter to Sea E,ock, 
and is the dam of Gunboat by Jacobite. 

But we must hark back to Scotland Yet. Nothing- 
came of her Condolorado litter of whites and blacks, 
which arrived on the New Yearns morning of ^59, and 
Mr. Campbell was in a mood to realize when the 
second Beacon litter were ready for action. Sea 
Pink, late " Coorareena," and Sea Foam, late "Co- 



258 FIELD AND FERN. 

looxardo'^ (a very clierished combination of syllables 
in Mr. CampbelFs eyes), produced c€100 and £120 
respectively. Then there was Coorooran ^50, and 
Ciologa £85, or £355 for one litter, and one of them 
with a broken leg ! Coursers shrugged their shoulders 
when Mr. Campbell stuck to it that he had a better 
at Home than either Sea Pink or Sea Foam, which 
he sold to Mr. Spinks after they had been defeated at 
Biggar, and had divided two Puppy Stakes at Aber- 
gele. It was, however, a true bill, and unbelievers 
began to think so when they saw Ciologa win the 
Vernon Cup and gold watch, and her brother, Coo- 
rooran, the sole companion of her journey from Dal- 
gig to Derbyshire, follow suit with the Sudbury 
Stakes as well. Of course she was jealously kept for 
the Waterloo Cup, and Mr. Spinks offered £200 in 
vain. Three hundred would not have tempted '^old 
Dalgig^' to forego what he considered an all but 
Waterloo certainty, after seeing her beat Coorooran 
in a trial. She was very smooth in her style, and 
almost as great a favourite with Mr. Warwick as 
Kiot was with Mr. M*^George. 

The Beacon litter No. 3 included Dixie, who was 
presented to Mr. Dun] op, and won the Biggar St. 
Leger, and Great Gun (both of them brindles), 
Caroola, Jessie the Flower of Dunblane, Coodareena, 
and Carabradzo (another composition triumph). Ca- 
roola, a white with blue spots, had quite a tragical 
end, as she broke her neck in her Waterloo trial 
course over Kirkconnel^ where she had shown herself 



FALDONSIDE TO DALGIG. 259 

a trifle faster than Coodareena. It was a sad sight 
for Jock and his master, as she lay with the hare 
beside her, her eyeballs starting out of her head, 
and her mouth full of grass. There were still a fourth 
and a fifth litter by Beacon from the old bitch, who 
never trusted her progeny to wet nurses. The first 
was a very early one, and out of it nothing, save 
Mr. Gibson^s Ivy, and Jeannie's Bawbee (sold for 
£45 at five months), were worth their keep ; and the 
last pupping scene of all culminated in a heap of five 
dead ones. The old matron was a perfect wreck, 
and soon after that she was put away, and buried 
honourably in the garden ; and a veterinary surgeon 
in Kilmarnock, stimulated by the account of the 
Eclipse and Elcho skeletons, begged Mr. Campbell 
for her bones in vain. 

Canaradzo had not seen a hare for two seasons 
past ; but he was quite emancipated, to the immense 
improvement of his temper, from kennel control, and 
seemed " always watching to get ben,'^ and specially 
improving his opportunities at meal times. He is a 
beautiful dog, especially in his ribs and the outline 
of his back, and with his tail set on so well, A din- 
ner, but more especially tea and toddy, derive an 
additional zest, when you have a Waterloo Cup win- 
ner stretched on the hearth-rug,^ dreaming of Will 
Warner and the hares. He vv^ent by the name of 
"Rector^^ but not a soul in the house could tell "the 
reason why.^^ April 12th, 1858, was his birthday, and 
his maiden essay was dividing the Biggar St. Leger 

2 s 2 



260 FIELD AND FERN. 

witli Lord Jolin Scott's Terrona ; but after that, the 
hard ground at Abergele, where he was second to Tipsy 
Cake, gave him a dressing which he did not forget in a 
hurry. Then he won the Western (32-dog) Stakes 
at the Caledonian Club Meeting, and made his 
score up to £220 before he went for the Waterloo of 
*61. Mr. Campbell would have sold him for £150, 
after he won his two courses ; but Mr. Ran- 
dell would not give more than £100 at first. Still, 
but for some telegraphic bungle, they might not im- 
probably have come to terms. He ran rather wild 
in his first Waterloo course with Gilbert, and had 
the first turn given against him ; but Mr. Nightin- 
ga,le, who was on the ground, marked his style with 
Faldonside, and assured his friends pretty decisively 
that they must take no liberties with him. Faldon- 
side, Bude Light (the most teasing opponent he had). 
Seventy Pounder, and Ingomar, all met him in turn, 
and he finally disposed of Sea Rock, and got through 
his six trials without one ^^ No go." He was 
a patient dog in the slips, always carrying his tail up, 
and never straining till the game was fairly before 
him. 

At home he was never led to his hare except by Cio- 
loga ; and although he had virtually retired, and some 
litters were becoming due, he was obliged to come 
out and do battle again, when she broke her leg a 
fortnight before the Waterloo on the sands at South- 
port. He beat Coorooran in an Altcar trial, and did 
the same for Sea Pink and Jetsam, both favourites, in 



FALDONSIDE TO DALGIG. 26i 

his two first Waterloo courses. "Wliat with Sea Rock 
one year and Sea Pink the next^ he was quite a thorn 
in Mr. Spinks^s side ; and Jock lays it down as un- 
doubted law, that his defeat of Sea Pink, after his 
stud service, was the best thing he ever did. King- 
water led him in his last "Waterloo course, and both 
stumbled on the plough ; and Kingwater not recover- 
ing himself so quickly, Canaradzo jumped over him, 
and killed his hare. He had one more course at 
home, and that was with Colossal, who jumped 
against a peat hag and killed himself, and got con- 
founded by the newspapers with Canaradzo in his 
death. Pace and smoothness, as well as great clever- 
ness with his teeth, were all combined in him. He 
begot some puppies the season he won the Waterloo, 
as Camden Town was sent to him in pursuance of 
an ofi'-hand promise; but the produce — Canopy^s 
Niece, &c. — proved no great wonders. In his first 
regular season he began rather late, but he had fifteen 
winners, and so far he may be credited with forty to 
fifty winners and runners-up, with a winner and a 
runner-up for the Waterloo among them. During 
his running and stud career, he brought about 
jB1,500 to his owner, and he became Mr. Knowles^s 
this spring for another £100. 

The Scottish National, the Co^quetdale, the Eidg- 
way Club, the Waterloo, and the Sudbury were Mr. 
CampbelPs coursing grounds, so that Jock was on cir- 
cuit nine times a year. He has only been twice to 
Ireland, but was in great force with Coodareena and 



262 FIELD AND FERN. 

Calabaroono when he did go. Abergele is quite out 
of favour with both master and man, and the latter 
observed that '^ its stubble and grass are as hard a& 
the frost is now." Since he won the two best stakes at 
the Scottish National with Canaradzo and Cazzarina_y 
in their first season, Jock has had a leaning towards 
Biggar, but regrets its relentless hills. He likes 
Southport quite as well as " that level mossy kind of 
spot," Lytham, which is ^^ too heavj^ ground for 
Ciiardona." He thinks it has far better hares than 
Altcar, but against the sloping sides of its ditches he 
decidedly ^jrotests. As for Sudbury, " it is all grass 
— sort of meadow — well enough ; but I don^t like 
them big hedges, theyVe no fit to loup, and its hard 
to get through ^em." 

Such were the preliminary commentaries of little 
'^ Jock o'Dalgig," as we sat with him and Mr. Camp- 
bell in the bothy, which is turned into a kennel. A 
splendid fire blazed there night and day ; and if we 
looked in at the window when Jock was off with the 
key, we might occasionally see the whole clan of 
Scotland Yet sitting or lying gravely round it, and 
holding a far more peaceful communion than any 
common council, London or provincial. The bis- 
cuits were in a rack above their heads, the muzzles 
and brushes formed a bristling array, and the 
"canopy" idea "wa'. carried out by the graceful tres- 
ses of the sheets. The bitch of that ilk was at Mr- 
Campbell junior's house, about a mile distant at 
Craigman, with two other matrons. Miss Julia by 



FALDONSIDE TO DALGIG. 263 

Judge^ and Highland Home. Farther away across 
the hills at Knock Dunder, were two saplings 
one (of Jan. 25) by Canaradzo from Di Vernon 
and another by Canaradzo from Annoyance, a bitch 
which won a 32-dog stake at Bridekirk. This brought 
the whole strength of the stud up to about seventeen* 
Eight were on the benches in the bothy kennel ; and 
while the wind whistled shrill outside,, Jock called 
them up one by one in that cozy little shop, and 
fought his battles over again, as he showed their 
muscle. 

*'They are all good-tempered," he observes, "ex- 
cept to collies and terriers, and they can't abear the 
sight of them; and what's better still, they're all 
winners or runners-up." Two brothers who divided 
the North Lancashire Stakes, at Lytham, lay on the 
nearest bench, and had precedence in his call. 
" //ere, Tom /" he began, and doAvn jumped Cada- 
zooro, by Cardinal York, out of Canopy, a black and 
white dog, with a grey face, and a slight family 
resemblance to his uncle Picton. Then it was a case 
of " Come on, Macclujf !" and down came the blacky 
with white toes, Calabaroono, at that inspiring kennel 
call. He is not such a worker, but has rather more 
pace, and was drawn, after an injury in a severe bye, 
for the great Scottish National St. Leger. Still, if 
he only got third honours, Skedaddler, by Canaradzo, 
was the right dog in the right place ; and j\Ir. Camp- 
bell found much comfort accordingly. On the fourth 
day of that meeting, 15 out of 91 were left in, and 



264 FIELD AND FERN. 

7 of them were in Jockos lot, which was only 8 strong 
to begin with. The cry, "Mirth, come Mirth!" was 
promptly responded to by Coodareena, and her owner 
embraced her on the spot. This "little blue gir?' 
has great length from the stifle to the hock, and with 
plenty of pace and working power, and it was quite 
evident that Mr. Campbell thought of standing upon 
her again for the Waterloo, as he did this year, and 
won three courses. "Bugle /" brought down, as in 
duty bound, a blue in the shape of the flashy-looking, 
handsome Carabradzo, who divided the Douglas Cup 
with her and Gilderoy. 

Like his sister, he has lots of drive " always waving 
them forward,'^ as Jock puts it. He runs at 701bs., 
and is " far war to keep down than ony yen of the 
lot/^ A little black spot on the near cheek was the 
only mark on the white " Snov\'," or " Cararando,^^ 
who headed the Canaradzo quartet. He is out of 
Young Camarine by Jardine^s Baron, and depended 
more on working than pace for his victories at 
Coquetdale and the Scottish National. His own sister, 
called by Mr. Campbell, ^'Calmaroona/'' and ^'^getting 
nought but ^ Fly^ from Jock,^' was a sweet-looking 
and fast, but rather unfortunate bitch, and got un- 
sighted in her first Waterloo course. " Venus,^' 
alias " Ciorardeena/^ out of Resolute, a daughter of 
Kestless, and fourth at the Scottish National, had 
gone on improving. She was '' beaten early on by 
Tom, and yen we put away,^^ and they thought her 
slow till she ran up v/ith Silver Rays at Lytham, and 



FALDONSIDE TO DALGIG. 265 

then they quite clianged tlieir minds. She was a nice 
bitchy but there should have been a transfer of names 
between her and " Veto/' or '' Cliardona/^ in order 
to render them strict poetical justice. This daughter 
of Avalanche, a Welsh bitch, was quite the beauty of 
the kennel. She had never run badly yet, and she 
got first turn from Silver Rays at Southport (where 
she was third for the Bitch Puppy Stakes) and di- 
vided a stake at Sudbury, with Mr. Steel's Schweppe. 

There have been great changes since then. Calaba- 
roono won a Waterloo Purse and the Brownlow Cup, 
and was sold to the late Lord Uffington for c€200, who 
won the Sundorne Cup with him, and had the morti- 
fication of seeing him put out in his first tie for the 
Waterloo. He was always a very beefy difficult dog- 
to train, and from this cause he had been beaten in 
Mr. Campbell's hands for his first Cup course the 
year before. Cadazooro has also gone, and in fact 
only Coodareena and some puppies remain. 

Mr. Campbell has other specialities besides grey- 
hounds, and his herd are well known through 
Ayrshire. Cardigan, his best bull, won about JlOO 
in Highland Society and other prizes, and that sum 
was refused from Sir James Ferguson, M.P., who 
wished to take him to Paris. Many medals, one of 
them a <£10 gold one for the reclamation of waste 
land, and a silver one twice over for the best stock 
on the Marquis of Bute's estate, under Sir James 
Stuart's guardianship, when nearly a hundred stocks 
were shown, have also come to Dalgig. Cardigan 



266 FIELD AND FERN. 

was bred by Mr. Parker of Broomlands who has 
a very celebrated winning stock, and most of the 
cows are by Clarendon, a half-brother of Cardi- 
gan on the sire's side, who was first at Glasgow. 
But it is difficult to regard a man from two distinct 
points of view, and we like best to think of " Dalgig" 
as we are wont to see him on that glorious da}^ 

" When north of Tweed and south of Tweed 
Jom hands at Waterloo," 

with a quaint good-humoured repartee ever ready 
for those friends who will crack a joke over him, and 
leaning on his gnarled and polished black oak staff 
the while, as he scans the style of his cherished 
Canaradzoes. 



DALGIG TO AYR. 



" Through Camwath he bounded fast. 
By Douglas ]Mill rode he ; 
But weary, weary was the steed 
AVheu he passed Ochiltree." 

Scott. 

Ayr — Cow Districts — Rearing, and Points of Ayrshire Cows — Colours — 
Vessel — Beef — Milking — Show Dodges — Ayr Milking Prize — Bowers 
Cheese-making — Dunlop and Cheddar — Mrs. Jane Dunlop — English 
Piu'chasers of Ayrshires. 

THAAV had followed frost-, to the dire confusion of 
the curling interest, and then a frost had set in 
again. There was nothing for it but to get np in the 
dark at 5 a.m., to encounter the blast furnaces once 
more, and skate pretty nearly all the way on horse- 
back between Dalgig and Ayr. This cheese capitol 
of Scotland looks quite a pleasant city of the plain, 
with its steeples, cupolas, and towers. The Wallace 
Memorial " contrives a double debt to pay," and 
has a dram shop below, and in the hostel, where 
Tam O'Shanter met Souter Johnnie, the green- 
moulded thatch has not yielded to slate. Our fur- 
ther Burns' homage consisted not only in walking 
by the sea-side, and home by the monument, but 
took the more practical turn at night, of looking hiia. 



288 FIELD AND FERN. 

through from end to end for mottoes, and feeling 
most thankful for " Ca^ the yowes to the knowes.-'^ 

The " Puir Mallies'^ have been silently encroaching 
on the county. South of Carrick, especially, the 
Galloways have had to yield to the sprittle-faces, 
and " Galloway for ^oo" becomes a truer saying than 
ever. On the subject of the best cow districts there 
is much diversity of thought ; and some will have 
it that Cunningham, Cumnock, Dunlop, and Kil- 
birnie rank highest. "It^s a Kilbirnie cow^^ is a 
passport at once ; but still, many lean to the notion 
that the best are to be found between Kilmarnock 
and Paisley, Largs, and Kilmalcolm, and West down 
Clyde on the Mearns. 

A calf sucking would spoil the county theory as 
to the shape of the " vessel,^' and hence all calves, 
however promising, are pail-fed. The great majority 
scarcely ever touch new milk after the first six 
weeks, and then get a very scanty allowance of skim 
milk or hay gruel for six weeks more. They are, in 
fact, " dragged up^^ rather than reared to queyhood, 
and are put on a rough damp bite at six months. 
This treatment keeps the horn fine and the paunch 
big, whereas sweet feeding would do precisely the 
opposite. At six months their value will be about 
j82, and at fourteen months they seldom fetch more 
than £^ lOs. to o€5, as no estimate can be formed of 
their future milking properties until they are two 
years old, and therefore a buyer would work in the 
dark. Some few are put to the bull at fifteen months. 



DALGIG TO AYR. 269 

to the infinite detriment of their size. From the 
middle of June to the end of August, in their third 
year, is the best time, and during the winter they 
are gradually brought into the byre. Twins with 
them are of rare occurrence, which their hard bringing 
up may in some measure account for. Many of these 
" tidy queys^' in-calf are sold off grass in October or 
November to English commissioners, for £J7 to ^12, at 
Kilmaurs, near Kilmarnock, at the beginning of No- 
vember. The cows are in " the right tid ye ken''^ a 
fortnight before calving, or two weeks after ; and the 
bloom is fairly off them at the end of July, unless 
they are fed very highly. They are on the grass^ 
from ]\iay to November, but after they calve they 
get bean-meal, and boiled chaff' and light corn for a 
time. Their most general winter diet is bran and 
bean-meal, cabbages and early turnips, and steamed 
swedes wdth chaff and cut hay. 

They should be short in the head, wide arid free in 
the jowl, broad in the forehead, with a large full, gentle 
eye, totally free from a Eoman nose, and with a 
tapering expressive muzzle. Many dislike the hair 
to be shaded off with tan up to the nose, from a be- 
lief that it betokens a wild, roving disposition, which 
will operate against the milk-pail in both ways; and 
a yellow muzzle is all the fashion. If possible, the 
head should be set on with a slight arch, the neck 
should be light, and the ear large and fringed. The 
horn should neither be heavy nor sappy, nor have the 
sweep of the West Highlander (who is said to have 



270 FIELD AND FERN. 

ferouglit in the action and broad forehead^ centuries 
back), but should come away from the head at firsthand 
then go upwards with a gentle rise. If it is an enam- 
elled white, it is liked much better than the waxy. 
Well-laid shoulders are always a very great point, 
and a cow should be thin through the heart, with 
a nice straight top line to keep her plates up. 
Light bone below the knee and hock is another great 
essential, and so is a good flank curtain to the vessel. 
A curl along the edge of the belly is a capital sign 
for milk, and the tail should be as "thin as a 
rat^s,^^ with a nice brush at the end of it. As a gene- 
ral thing, they have not enough hair, and those that 
carry it are quite the hardiest. Too fine feeding is 
always found to spoil the pile. Whites (of which Mr. 
Ivie Campbell had once some very good ones) are 
not generally popular, and the shorthorn love of roans 
has no place here. The breeders like best to see 
them dropped dark red, flecked with white, and dark 
brown, provided they have no tan muzzle, as they 
are then sure of a good sale. 

Ayrshire is always *^a colour market.^^ The Here- 
ford or brocky-faced ones are the remains of an old 
Ayrshire breed (in Dunlop, Dairy, and Kilbirnie), 
and they are always mellow handlers and very 
good milkers, but generally with crummy horns. 
Blacks are rare, and at a premium when they can be 
got ; and the blues and whites, which are rather liked 
in some parts, carry a peculiarly short tail as their 
€rest. Mr. Craig of Polquaise was celebrated for 



DALGIG TO AYR. 271 

them, and his herd dates from Jock the Laird. Mr. 
Greenshields of West Inn, near Douglas, goes a good 
deal for white with blue spots, and finds them very 
excellent milkers. The light fawns, with a pure-white 
nose and light about the eyes, are not such milkers ; 
but, after all said and done about colours, it is the 
orange skin and the orange tint at the root of the 
tail which betoken butter and cream. An eminent 
dealer assures us that he has knoAvn ^^crummies'^ give 
12 lbs. and 14 lbs. of butter per week of 16oz. to the 
pound, and that thirty-six cows near Maybole once 
produced .€14 a head, not to the bower but to the 
owner, who sold the milk to go to Glasgow. There 
must have been no weed or blind pap there. 

The teats, to satisfy the mathematical eye of fanciers, 
should be at distances of one third of the vessel on 
the side, and of half the vessel across. The vessel 
should be oblong, with plenty of loose skin hanging 
straight down, flat at the bottom, and extending well 
below, so as to draw sustenance from the very belly, 
and to keep its shape with age. The orthodox shape 
of the vessel and teats is propagated in the tribes, and 
in one respect the Ayrshire men may be said to 
'^milk the buU,"^ as they look most jealously to his false 
teats that they be small and round and well 
apart before they use him. Both bull and cow, to 
ensure a milking tribe, should have large veins along 
the belly ; but there is no milking creed of thirty- 
three articles like the Guernsey, extending to the 
direction which the feather should take on the twist 



272 FIELD AND FERN. 

and vessel. To constitute a first-class vessel, the teats 
should also be no bigger than a good large thimble. 
Still, very often, perfectly-formed vessels are by no 
means the best for milk, and many a cow who would 
have won on every point would have failed if the actual 
pail test had been applied. Still, the fashion is as 
rigorous as ever in public, though nearly every one 
jeers at it in private. 

The English buyers never care for an orthodox 
vessel, but like a bad one with large teats, to prevent 
the dairymaids or milkers from grumbling, and to 
ensure more careful stripping. An Ayrshire lassie 
would think it treason to murmur, and gradually she 
gets into the habit of squeezing it with her fingers, 
and merely working from the elbow. In England, 
it is drawing with hand and shoulder, up and down, 
like a peal of marriage bells. There is a good deal 
of music in the more quiet Scottish elbow mode, and 
we were amazingly amused once, when a narrator — 
who seemed quite to agree with the lines that 

"Lads on lasses love to call. 
And lasses whiles are kiming" — 

broke out over his toddy : ^'When I was a young man, 
I've seen me dance to it like playmg the 'piaiio, if I fancied 
the dairymaid." Later in the evening he warmed to 
his subject, and said : " / could have married her for 
nothing else than her milkhigj' Of course, we felt 
bound to put more milk into our whisky (we never 
could take it with water, hot or cold), and to assure 
him that it was a most laudable sentiment. The cows 



DALGIG TO AYR. 273 

also repay a gentle dairymaid "vvitli their love, as tliey 
sometimes answer to their names, and we have seen 
them follow and fawn upon her, just like dogs, in a 
field. 

In warm weather there is more cheese from the 
milk, but the cream does not come up so well. One 
cow will generally make about 10 stone of 241bs. • 
but if forced with 2 or 3 lbs. of bean-meal, even on 
grass she will go as high as 13 stone. About Kil- 
marnock they give this stimulant all the season, after 
milking in a little whey. In very rare instances, 
when she has been " milkit to the bone^^ on bran 
and bean-meal, a cow has gone as high as thirty 
quarts a day, three weeks after calving. A heifer 
can be got as high as eight to twelve quarts with her 
first calf j still she is not in the sv-ing of her milk till 
she has had a third or, fourth calf, and all good 
managers contrive to have her at least six weeks or 
two months dry. 

If the vessel slips avray, the system is evidently 
failing, and the milk becomes poorer. They will last 
up till eight or nine, and we have known them to go 
on to fifteen and upwards, if they do not take a weed in 
one of their quarters (of which cold shivering is one 
of the first indications), as very few people will work 
a cow with three teats. Mr. Harvey of Glasgow 
generally buys cows at six years old and upwards, as 
they stand the byre confinement better.* The im- 

* The following details of this leviathan daii-y have recently appeared in 
the Agricultural Gazette : — " There are several Glasgow distilleries, Mr. 
Harvey's among the number, and the spent malt (draff) and spent liquor 

2t 



274 FIELD AND TERN. 

pression at a distance is that they will not feed; 
but the prettiest sight that ever loomed on us on a 
Scottish road, was a barren heifer of the breed, fed as 
level as a pea-pod, and beef to the very cheek. We 
were almost sorry afterwards that we had seen her, 
as it made it so very difficult to shake off a notion of 
beef points in Ayrshire, and stick to the purely milk 
ones. But it is nearly the same with all English- 
men, until you get a Colly Hill and an Airblaes well 
into your eye, and then you will not often find their 
marrow in Ayrshires. In fact, you do not see many 
crack things among the Ayrshire breeders, as the 
fancy buyers always know what is going on in the 



of the stills (pot-ale) are good cow food. There has thus gradually grown 
up in this locaUty under Mr. Harvey's energetic management, one of the 
largest dairies in the kmgdom— probably in the world. Cow byres some 
56 yards long, and from 12 to 24 feet wide, according as one or two rows of 
cows are to be accommodated, stand closely packed, the whole surface of 
the ground being thus covered by a roof; and from 900 to 1,000 cows are 
pretty constantly in milk. They are fed during Avinter partly on steamed 
turnips, seven tons being steamed in order to give one meal daily to 900 
cows ; also on coarse hay, of which, as of straw, they get between 20 and 
301bs. a day apiece ; also on draff, of which they receive half a bushel daily 
each ; also on Indian Corn-meal, of which they have 31bs. daily each ; also 
on pot-ale, of which they receive three times a day nearly as much as they 
will take, from about 6 to 10 gallons daily. During the summer they are 
let out, a byreful at a time, for half a day to grass, and come in to receive 
their spent malt and still liquor, and hay in addition. They are managed, 
cleaned, and fed by two men to a byre holding about a hundred cows ; the 
milking is done three times a day, by women who take charge of 13 cows in 
full milk, or double that number in half-milk, apiece. Between four and 
five o'clock (taking the whiter management) the bj-res are cleaned out, and 
the cows receive a "big shovelfid" of draff a-piece, and half their steamed 
turnips and meal, and a " half-stoupful," probably 2 gallons, of pot-ale. 
They are also milked thus early. At 7 they receive their fodder straw or 
hay. At 10 they get a '• full stoupful" (probably 3 or 4 gallons) of pot-ale. 
They are milked at noon. At 2 iJ.m., or thereabouts, they are foddered 
again, and at 4 p.m. receive the same food as at the morning meal. They 
are again milked at 5 to 6, cleaned out and left till morning. The average 
produce is stated to be 2 gallons a day over the whole herd." 



DALGIG TO AYR. - 275 

herdS; and swoop down like vultures, with cheques 
from 50 to 120 gs., or more, if a crack is heard of. 
It is a very great thing to have this fancy demand, 
as there is always a sufficiency of good blood left, 
and it serves to stimulate private energy, and keeps 
the breed well up before the world. 

If a ballock has been forced well on with bean- 
meal and bran or cake, it will fetch as much as £15 
at two years old, and about two-thirds of that sum if 
only oil grass. Aberdeen feeds Ayr, as the county 
roasting pieces are not large enough, and the Ayr- 
shire bullocks and heifers go to Edinburgh, where 
their beef is popular at the first-class tables. 
Bullocks rising five have been sold there as high as 
j£30. A heifer is easiest to feed off after her first 
calf, and 28 stone of 241bs. is very good for a dairy 
cow. Some dealers make a trade of buying up these 
'' furrow cows,^^ keeping them for four or five months, 
and selling them by roup at the end of the time. The 
bull-calves from common cows are killed soon after 
their birth, and when the rennet has been taken out 
for cheese, the carcase is scuffed with straw and packed 
off to Glasgow and Edinburgh for 7s. or 8s., to some 
of the beef-pie men. A well-fed bull-calf should get 
his four quarts of new milk morning and evening 
for three months. They are scarcely ever used as 
yearlings. 

The show dodges of the Ayrshire men are inex- 
haustible, and not unattended with danger, as one 
man in his last twenty-four hours of a "strong prepara- 

2 T 2 



276 * FIELD AND FERN. 

tion^^ fairly burst his bull. A great deal depends upon 
the jockeying during that time. A cow is generally 
kept sharp set till four or five hours before the show. 
If she had been on too fine food, her paunch would 
be drawn up, and the vessel would lean forward, and 
the teats not in position ; whereas if the paunch it^ 
gradually filled in these few last hours, first by giving 
her common food, and then by coaxing her into 
quantity by bettering it at every supply, she is filled 
to repletion, and the vessel hangs taut and square. 
She often gets her pound of salt at night, and be- 
tween the two agencies she should be turned out 
qiiite the thing in the morniug. Cows are also kept 
well up to " tid" during the show season with gruel 
made of linseed-meal, oat-meal, and flour, diluted 
with their own milk, and sometimes as much as 31bs. 
of treacle in it. The shape of the vessel is also as 
carefully looked to and adjusted as the Spanish cock's 
comb, which was, w^liile the fashion set that way, 
kept up in pasteboard splints, till just before going 
into Bingley Hall. A board is put beloAV the vessel 
with holes for the teats, and tied with strings round 
the cow's back, so as to keep it in position, and the 
vessel is laved with cold water all night, to make it fiat 
and contracted and give it consistency. 

They are also washed over v.'ith butter-milk, and 
the finer lights put in with soap and gum. Sometimes 
the cow barbers use butter-milk for the legs, and take 
to hair-oil, and the horns are rubbed with charcoal or 
hawthorn ashes, in accordance with an old supersti- 



DALGIG TO AYR. 277 

tion. In short, the day and night before the show 
are in many instances quite as important as an artistes 
glazing-day at the Royal Academy. The judges are 
all well up to " the little game/^ which extends to 
scraping rams^ horns almost to the quick, and then 
japanning them, and is on all -fours with that artistic 
clipping to hide weak points, against which old Val^ 
Barford, K.C.B. (Kuight of the Clipping Board) 
struggled so long, till the Royal English Society 
issued its ukase. 

Ayr begins the show season on the last Friday of 
April,, and brings many bull buyers from Dumfries 
and some Lancashire and London men to look up 
queys. Then follow L^vine on the first Tuesday in 
May, and Kihnarnock, Mauchline, and Maryhill, all 
in May. There is another Maryhill in November, 
imd with June come Tarbolton, at which there is a 
good display of bulls and late-calving cows, and also 
East Kilbride, near Glasgow, vvdth its great trio of 
prizes for the best Ayrshire cow in-milk, aged bull, 
and farm mare. In 1860-61 the late Duke of Athole 
gave a cow-in-milk prize at Ayr, and photography 
has preserved the scene. The average result of the 
milkings was as follows : 

Mr. Wallace's Glengall, 261b. 5|oz Agnes Wyllie 1 

Mr. Reed's Cherry, 24J13. 7oz Janec M'Mainter li 

Mr. J. Hendrie's Bell, 221b. lOoz ^ Kate M'Kail 3 

Mr. A. Hendrie's Ochiltree, 221b. loz ? Charlotte Himter 4 

Mr. A. Hendrie's Lily, 221b Eliza M'Craith 5 

The dresses were a sudden thought of the Duke^s 

* Called " Bob" by mistake at p. 112. 



278 FIELD AND FERX. 

the night before, and were all made under Mrs. 
Andrew Hendrie^s superintendence, and each of the 
five lassies, when they were called in to don them, 
received half-a-sovereign from his Grace. Brown 
stockings, white crazy {Aiir/lice, sun-bonnet), light- 
grey drugget petticoat, grey-striped apron, dark and 
light alternately, and hlue-and-white-striped short 
gown, were the pretty combination. Messrs. Dren- 
nan, Telfer, and Smith were the milking judges. To 
look at, Glengall was the coarsest cow of the lot, and 
although the above was her average at lOlbs. to the 
gallon for ten milkings, she was not nearly up to 
what she achieved in the Duke^s hands at Athole."^ 
His Grace gave £26 for her that day, and he also 
bought Ochiltree and Lily, at £1 for each pound of 
milk. 

Not more than a fourth of the Ayrshire farmers 
have bowers, whereas in Dumfriesshire and Galloway 
the management is fully half and half. The bowers 
pay from .£6 or 10 st. of cheese and upwards, accord- 
ing to pasture, climate, and soil, which is considered 
best on a freestone bottom. Many ploughmen look 
upon it as their highest promotion to marry dairy- 
maids and be off to a bowing. They generally find the 
milkers and herdsmen, and the owner the food. If a 
farmer finds bean-meal and green-cut corn for his 
bower, he expects more cheese, and, in fact, the quan- 
tity of cheese always depends upon the style of 
feeding. There is sharp watching for fodder on the 

* See part " North," page 290. 



DALGIG TO AYR. 279 

one side and for cheese and accurate information as 
to the whole crop on the other, and it often hap- 
pens that a referee has to be called in. The ori- 
ginal engagement is for twelve months, but some 
bowers have gone on for 17 years, and there is a re- 
newal of the lease every year, varying according as a 
better or worse field comes into the rotation. Many 
farmers get as high as 15 stone of 241bs. for a cow, 
and it has been known to reach 20 stone ; and gene- 
rally 2 stone discount is allowed for bringing up a 
quey calf. The bower's profits are eked out by feed- 
ing a few pigs on sweet milk, whey, and bran, and 
making skim cheese ; and if a cow calves a few weeks 
before the cheese season begins, he gets the advan- 
tage of the butter. Of course an owner has to look 
out pretty sharp that the cheese is not starved during 
the year, so as to embroil him with the cheese factor, 
and therefore bowers, who do not keep their places 
and are perpetually working up to a leaving, soon 
get a bad name. 

The Ayrshire Agricultural Association was the 
permanent result of the Highland Society's visit to 
Ayr in 1835 (a period of scum cheese and salt butter), 
which it has never carecl to repeat. The new 
local Society moved about till 1851, and since then 
its meetings have been regularly held in Ayr. The 
introduction of the Cheddar mode of cheese-making, 
and its extension throughout the south west of Scot- 
land, havebeen its chief triumph. The Dunlop or "full 
milk cheese'^ system (so called because made from 



280 FIELD AND FERN. 

the milk of one day) began near Dunlop, eight miles 
from Kilmarnock ; and Kilbirnie, Beith, Lochwin- 
noch, and Stewarton were also its strongholds. Still, 
there was no general mode followed, and most of it 
would not have been saleable in England. From 
time to time the Highland Society offered prizes for 
the best imitations of Cheshire and Gloucester ; 
but it was not, we believe, until Mr. Eobert Mac- 
adam, and his brothers James and Alexander, turned 
tlicir attention to the improvement of Dunlop cheese 
in Wigtownshire that there was any marked advance. 
Mr. Caird, who was then at Baldoon, took up the 
thing with his wonted spirit, and sent his dairy- 
man to England to learn ; and afterwards Mr. 
Robert McAdam came to Baldoon as bower, and 
introduced the Cheshire mode. Mr. Caird had at 
this time a hundred cows, and his account of his 
success induced the directors of the Ayrshire Asso- 
ciation to send two special commissioners to the 
English cheese districts. They reported in favour of 
the Cheddar syst^em, on account of the lightness of 
labour, ease and simplicity of management, and high 
price of produce, and the result was that beginnings 
were at once made in 1854 on several Ayrshire farms, 
and at last Stewarton has adopted it. 

The Association did not leave the farmers to grope 
among mere printed rules, but engaged Mr. and Mrs. 
Joseph Harding from Somersetshire as public in- 
structors. They set up their apparatus in barns at 
five or six places in turn, and bowers and dairymaids 



DALGIG TO AYR. 281 

flocked to them from Galloway and elsewhere. Mr. 
Robert McxA.dam (who is now, we believe, near 
Newcastle-tmder-Lyme) was one of their most strenu- 
ous pupils, and turning from Cheshire he intro- 
daced the Cheddar practice so successfully into Gallo- 
way that they were making their 73s. per cwt. when 
Ayrshire was only equal to 60s., and they have never 
been quite caught yet. Their strong, old land and 
cleverer keeping give them an advantage over the 
Ayrshire cold clays. The farms are generally larger 
and the milk and cream richer ; in fact, the wilder 
the country the richer the milk, like an egg laid in 
the muirlands. Still even these natural advantages and 
strength of feeding, when not aided by science in the 
making, produced a very strong and bad flavoured 
cheese. 

The first Ayrshire Association Cheese Show was 
held at Kilmarnock in 1856, and Kirkcudbright- 
shire, Wigtownshire, and Argyllshire have all figured 
in the lists. Draining, green-cropping, careful stock 
selection, and better house feeding have largely 
swelled the cheese produce of Ayrshire ; and al- 
though thirty may be called the average both in it 
and Galloway, there are dairies with eighty to a 
hundred cows, and one farmer will occasionally 
have ty,o or three sets. 

The cheese season begins in May, and lasts 
till the end of September. Cheese made late, be- 
tween harvest-home and Martinmas (Nov. 22), is 
seldom good, and the great bulk of bowers give up 



282 FIELD AND FERN. 

with September^ and make fresh butter and skim- 
milk cheese all the winter. Very little of the latter 
is sold, except in the crannies of the Highlands, 
Oban and Tobermory, and perhaps in the dram- 
shops of Glasgow. Temperature is the very key- 
stone both of making and keeping. In summer the 
heat is kept up from 66 to 70 degrees, and at the end 
of September hot water and stoves come in. In 
Ayrshire many of the Marquis of Bute^s tenants 
have capital making places, and cheese -houses heated 
with pipes ; and in Galloway a few farmers make all 
winter. It is pretty good, but stiff and of a peculiar 
flavour, and does not pay for keeping. Cheese of 
six weeks old will sell in Glasgow, which has, in con- 
tradistinction to Edinburgh, "stomach for anything.^^ 
It is in proper condition for using three months after 
making, and of course it ripens sooner if it has been 
kept warm by artificial heat. Eleven years ago the 
Dunlop system was universal, but the progress of 
Cheddar has been so rapid that in '63 it had quite 
got the lead, and now half Ayrshire and Dumfries- 
shire adopt it. A Cheddar cheese is sometimes made 
as big as 961bs., and it averages 6s. to 10s. per cwt. 
more than Dunlop. The curds of a Cheddar are plot- 
ted with warm whey, and it is made up a little dryer, 
and is a little sooner ripe. It also takes rather 
longer making, and is steeped colder, and the milk is 
not so warm when the rennet is put in. Cheddar is 
more carefully worked out, whereas Dunlop is more 
hit-or-miss or rule-of-thumb. By the Cheddar mode 



DALGIG TO AYR. 283 

more curd is got to work with, and the whole 
strength of it goes into the cheese. Plence the whey 
is far poorer than the Dunlop, which, not only fattens 
pigs well, but even yields cream and butter at a 
pinch. Fine Cheddar quite holds the London and 
South Wales markets, and the demand makes the 
farmer pretty stiff with the factor, through whom the 
shippers generally purchase. Still, Glasgow regu- 
lates the cheese prices of Scotland, and its bazaar 
on Wednesday during the season is a great sight. 
Some people have a prejudice in favour of Dunlop, 
and therefore Cheddar is generally made on the 
Dunlop chessels, and keeps the old shape, instead 
of starting one of its ovv^n. Dunlops range from 
six to nine inches in depth and 20 to 5Glbs. in 
weight. Even small Cheddars measure from a 
foot to sixteen inches, and beginning where the 
Dunlops leave oil, reach as high as 901bs., but 
they are still GOlbs. short of some of the ''^ factory 
made" Americans. To obviate the retail difficulties 
in slicing them, the grocers cut Cheddar horizon- 
tally through the middle. It is naturally whiter, on 
account of the warm whey, and therefore annatto is 
very freely used. The Glasgow people do not 
care for colour, but the Edinburgh factors always 
stipulate for it. 

Cheese factors always go round with their piercer 
in September, and begin getting in at the end of 
September and throughout October. English, factors 
have different prices for the first lift, and the second,^ 



284 FIELD AND FERN. 

(\yliicli is generally softer)^ and the Scottisli ones are 
gradually beginning to insist on it. Some of the 
largest dealers will have at times as much as 15^000 
stone (of241bs.) in stock, and he under engagements 
for more, which the farmers send in by turn, al- 
though they all like if possible to clear their 
cheese-houses in October. All the lots are paid for 
in ready money, as the farmers could very ill afford 
to give credit. Once there was lib. given in every 
241bs. of cheese, and a fleece to every 12 stone of 
wool — " a pun to the stane and a fleece to the pack'^ 
— but the factors are *^kind of beat out of it now,'^ 
and of tliese hoary customs only the clad score is 
left, and that in a very mutilated shape. 

A newiy-madc cheese should be turned once a day 
for six weeks, and then once a week for the rest of 
the twelve months, in order to prevent the rot of the 
skin. Messrs. R,ichardson of Edinburgh and a few 
others adopt the English system of putting elm 
boards between the rows so as to keep the skins apart. 
A factor who chooses to keep for a twelvemonth, and 
observes all these precautions, can sell occasionally 
as high as 16s. per stone, but that is the highest 
point Cheddar has ever reached. Cheddar, which is 
iiner and sweeter in flavour, keeps better than Dun- 
lop, and the latter generally becomes too strong in 
flavour after nine months. For very first-rate keep- 
ing, a fire is preferable to a stove^ as the heat is too 
severe at times. A stone of cheese kept with the 
greatest tact will waste ten per cent, in a year. 



DALGIG TO AYR. 28S 

Mr. Campbell, of New Cumnock, attempted to mak& 
an Old Parr of one, but at the end of nine years it 
bad turned quite dark, and was so completely ex- 
hausted that it wf,s hardly eatable. 

Jane Dunlop of Stewarton is the largest dealer in 
Ayrshire cows, and may be seen in the Glasgow mar- 
ket every Wednesday. She will bring as many as 
170 to a leading fair, and they are to be found in a 
great field at Strathbungo, near Glasgow, or behind 
the Black Bull. The May and June fairs of Buther- 
glen are also great places with her. As a judge there 
are few to equal her, and she does her own bus'iness, 
driving up and down the country in her gig. The 
business is now conducted principally by her son 
Gabriel, and is still as extensive as ever. The 
trade in Ayi^hires is immense, and a dealer once 
passed 2,073 through his hands in one year, and not 
a few of them for France, Australia, Austria, and 
Belgium. The dealers begin the first week of Feb- 
ruary, and go round to all the markets, Ayr, Glasgow, 
Biggar, Kilmarnock, Renfrew, Kutherglen, Stirling, 
Dumfries, Carluke (the largest of all on May 21), 
and buy them as threes and fours. Before the days 
of railways, they paid five visits in the season, but 
now they are seldom avray. 

The English, who are not fond of black-noses but 
of large flecks, give all prices from £8 to £18. 
Some leading English dealers ^ill advertise the 
colours before hand, and then make a point of getting 
cows to correspond. Many farmers breed on pur^ 



286 FIELD AND FERN. 

pose for the market, and in November the dealers 
will buy up late-calving heifers, and disperse them 
over different farms, and 2s. 6d. in the pound is taken 
off if they do not prove in-calf. 

The styles of the six men who hold the Eng. 
lish trade are so well known that the experienced 
breeder can tell, if he goes into the market, pretty 
nearly what each will take. Cotterill of Worcester 
goes in for little short-legged beauties, fawns and 
flecked reds or "leopards,^^ with spots like half- 
crowns all over them. Broad backs and coats " that 
can^t be too smooth" and up -horns are also great 
requirements in the " Here's one for CotterilW In 
fact, he must have neatness and no self-colour like red 
or black, but the shape of the vessel is no considera- 
tion. 

If they^re only big enough, they^ll do for Ben- 
nett from Cheshire, who likes large papped ones, with 
a view to his dairy customers. Much of the import- 
ance of the Dumfries market has depended upon him 
for many years. Jackson of Lancaster buys the best 
young heifers chiefly rongh in the coat and good 
growers. Hodgson and Parkinson from Stafford- 
shire also like them strong and useful, and the 
latter especially buys the oldest and roughest for the 
Potteries. Bough rumps, bad backs, and thick horns 
are all the same to him, as there is no respect of age, 
quality, or colour with the miners, as long as they 
have a four-legged milk machine. These dealers 
will sometimes take two to three hundred from 



DALGIG TO AYR. 287 

Dumfries market eacli week soutliward. Bur- 
rell of Essex has often taken eight score in a 
lot, and would always rather give £20 for a 
^ood than £7 for a bad one. And so ends our 
^' milky way.^'' 



(^^) 



288 FIELD AND FERN. 



SlAffll S] 



*' Will Shakespeare, I wist, could never resist 

The glance of a pet ' long-tail' ; 
He'd down -witli his book, and up with his crook. 

To find him a hare on Cotsale. 
Queen Bess and her court, ^n their love of the sport. 

To A. Graham himself didn't yield ; 
And she bade no churl, but proud Norfolk's Earl, 

Draw up coursuig laws for the field." 

SposTiN-a Magazine. 

Eglinton Castle — The Races at Bogside — Scene of the Tournament — 
The Foxhounds — Bowls, Rackets, and Curling in the late Lord's time 
— The Ardrossan Coursing Club — Waterloo — A Peep at Picton and 
Cardinal York — A Visit to Mr. Borron's Kennel. 

fflHE vane at Eglinton Castle faced south at last, and 
® the curlers had been duly notified that they need 
not come to the garden ponds, unless they wished to 
play up to their ankles in water. Eighteen hunters 
were still walking round and round the straw 
ride, in those dark-green plaid sheets which Eng- 
land knew so well; and the colour of the dark- 
brown E/Ocket, who was last in the string, seemed to 
bring back all those grand old days of Fobert and 
Charles Marlow — The Dutchman and Van Tromp. 
The Chase is the present EarPs delight, and for three 
seasons his untiring enthusiasm has kept together 
that Ayrshire country which has made other good 
masters droop and turn aside to more hopeful hunting 



AYR TO ARDKOSSAN. 289 

grounds. Both his lordship and Cox are hght- 
weights_, and the stud is in keeping, and principally- 
made up of horses which Mr. Napier^ the stud 
groom, purchased in Ireland. Warlock was there , 
and he and Cox had been out thirty times already 
that season. Conqueror was the first that the Earl 
ever rode to hounds when he came back from sea 
and the nice-topped Bloxham, The "Witch, the sweet - 
headed Mutiny, and Shamrock, who is second horse 
twice a week, were among his lordship^s especials ; 
while Deceiver, Lyons by Yellow Jack, Eed Hart, 
and the grey Chicken by Bantam, all take their turn 
with Cox and the whips. 

No race-horses have been trained here since Mat 
Dawson had Dr. Caius and The Potentate in charge. 
It was here, too, that he bred and broke Aristides, 
whom he sent to his brother Tom, when he had Blue 
Bonnet and the other horses at Middleham, with an 
assurance that he could ^' do what he liked if he 
liked /^ Dr. Caius was a very perfect little fellow, 
and there was never a finer finish up Snaker^s Hill, 
the " Choak Jade^^ of Irvine, than when he beat St. 
Lawrence a head for the EgUnton Park Cup. Mr. 
William Hope Johnstone also won a great stake 
here with his rare weight- carrier William Le Grros, 
as he took all the money he could get about the 
Irvine Cup and the Stewards' Cap, and landed the 
double event. There was some rare gentleman-riding 
at this Bibury of the North, and the neat and yet 
vigorous finishes of Sir Frederick Johnstone, and the 

2 u 



290 FIELD AND FERN. 

fine patience of Captain Pettat — both long since gone 
to their rest — won them many a race out of the fire. 
The steeple-chase course went out from the bottom 
towards Kilwinning, as far as the river Garnock, and 
included several banks, a brook, and a wide ditch, as 
vrell as a stone wall in front of the stand. Sir David 
Eaird, on his clever little Pioneer or his cocky little 
Dr. Syntax, was alike dangerous over it, and the 
Marquis of Waterford fairly " skinned the lamb" by 
winning thrice in succession in one afternoon on his 
great, raking Blueskin. Lord Eglinton did not care 
much for the flag-line ; but when the Marquis 
thought that Multum in Parvo (13st. 71bs.) was not 
so good as his Saladin (13st. 121bs.), his lordship took 
him for 500 gs. ostensibly, but it was said for 1,000 gs. 
a side, and, thanks to his own steady riding and John 
Napier's training, beat the great Irish pair in a 
canter. 

There have been no races since ^52; but a stick 
cover has been made for the foxes in the park, and 
thus one sporting interest rose when the other waned. 
Major, Waterloo, and the beautiful Blackbird, "whose 
eyes seemed starting from her head with life," are 
all gone, and their monuments with them ; but there 
are a few greyhounds still at the Castle, and the 
Earl won the Waterloo Plate with Eainbow in '64, 
when both the Purse and the Plate winners were 
Ayrshire-bred, and King Death by an Ayrshire dog. 
There is no special trace of the tournament ground 
among the oaks, elms, and beeches at the back of the 



AYR TO ARDROSSAN. 291 

Castle, where six-and-twenty years ago tlie present 
Emperor of the French looked on through the three 
wet days, and the Duchess of Somerset was the Queen 
of Beauty. 

Thither came among the rest Sir Francis Hopkins, 
the Knight of the Burning Tower, on a bay; the lord 
of the tournament, with his golden armour, on a ches- 
nut; Lord Waterford, in steel armour, with six 
esquires ; Lord Ailsa, Knight of the Dolphin ; Cap- 
tain Fairlie, Knight of the Golden Lion; Mr. Camp- 
bell of Saddle, of whom Tom Ingoldsby would aver 
that he was 

" Somehow knocked out of his family seat ;" 

and Lord Glenlyon, as Knight of the Gael, with 
fieventy-two Highlanders, who guarded the tilting- 
ground, and, with boundless beef and ale under 
their belts, still sighed for their wonted porridge. 

The foxhounds are made up of purchases from the 
Southampton, Mr. Drake's, and the North Warwick- 
shire packs, and drafts from the South Warwickshire, 
the Doneraile, and the Yarborougb. There are 58 
couple for three or four days a week, and they always run 
them mixed. We noticed the smutty-faced Frantic; 
the short-legged Heroine; Tempest, with a head 
telling of Drake's Duster; Cheerful, with all the 
Belvoir quality; a nice Dainty; Duchess, sister to 
Dashaway ; and Dauntless, with some of the Baker 
blood about her, and a great taste for roe deer. 
Doneraile's Transit was another of the Drake's 

2 u 2 



292 FIELD AND FERN. 

Duster sort, whicli huntsmen set such store by ; 
and there, too, were the deep-bodied Wary, Care- 
ful, a very nice mover, and a neat little couple 
Chantress and Carnage. North Warwickshire Prat- 
tle wears well, and Drake's old Milliner sits apart 
with Skilful. 

The dog pack are principally of the Doneraile, 
Southampton, and Drake blood. Four couple of them, 
with Tapster, Trouncer, old grey Seaman, and the 
stout-boned Oppidan, compose the Drake lot, while 
seven couple have the Southampton and twelve, 
with Challenger amongst them, the Doneraile brand. 
North Warwickshire Damper earned his benison 
from Cox as "full of head;^' and Squires^s pet 
Launcelot is full of action. Old Chieftain is also from 
the North Warwickshire, and Young Seaman, the 
only one they have had from old Milliner, sits near 
him, as if gathering thoughts of wisdom. 

It is a great open country for the foxes, with deep 
gills and a bad cold scent, which lies best by Dunlop, 
Caldwell, and Ardrossan. It is thirty miles from 
north to south, and the plough country on the Ayr 
side is the heaviest and coldest part. Tarbert Gorse 
is a great find, with a rare scent over the grass ; and 
Caldwell is also a crack meet, with a fine country, 
up to Kilbirnie. There were a few roe deer at Dal- 
rymple AYood, but it has been cleared out with two 
couple of draft hounds, who made some fine melody 
over the job. The bottoms of the cover are all sedge, 
which is down after November. There are eighteen 



AYR TO ARDROSSAN. 293 

or nineteen litters in the country every year, and his 
lordship has put down several brace as well ; but 
still, despite all his exertions, there has been a " fox 
famine,^'' and they have once or twice left off before 
their time. Many of the gorses have only been 
planted within the last three seasons, and there is 
very little good lying ; and if the foxes are driven 
out of the country, there is no outlying pack on the 
hills to bring them back. Sourlie Wood, near the 
kennels, is generally a sure find, and so is the stick 
cover of three acres, which they draw with the ter- 
riers. The trains suit them well enough, and the 
hounds are also vanned for the long distances, and, 
in fact, never did master struggle harder to deserve 
success. 

The late Earl seldom hunted here even in Sir 
David Baird^s day, and for the grouse shooting he 
went to Cleuchearn, beyond Eaglesham. Curling, 
bowls, golf, and rackets were his delight; and his 
racket player, Patrick Divitt, and the Hon. 
Mr. Montgomerie were making the tennis-court 
rattle again when we looked in. The late earl did 
not begin rackets till he was 35 or 36, and 
then Sir H. H. Campbell and all the county 
gentry came and had great matches at Christmas. 
In summer, his example set all the Ayrshire farmers 
off bowling. He would come down in the beginning 
of July, and play matches every week till nearly the 
middle of October. Hugh Conn, John Napier, and 
Walter Smith, V.S., played in his bowling, and 



294 FIELD AND FERN. 

Koberfc Brown, one of his farmers, took Smithes place 
in tlie curling rink. He gave a 120-guinea Cup to 
be bowled for annually between tbe Ayr and the 
Glasgow men, and a ten-guinea medal for every club 
on his estate. On the bowling days when the great 
^^jug" was played for, an immense table was laid out, 
and all the ladies bowled with their kirtles up to their 
knees. 

When he challenged the clubs for twenty miles 
round at bowling or curling, the stakes were always 
a boll of meal for the poor. One year no less than 
J40 worth was distributed this way through the 
Minister of Kilwinning. He also made three artificial 
curling ponds with wooden bottoms or asphalte and 
polished ashlar. Two of them were fifty yards by 
thirty-six, and the other sixty by sixty, and he would 
have twenty rinks going at one time. Napier played 
the 501b. stone. Brown the 461b., Conn the 441b., 
and his lordship himself directed the rink, and played 
last with the 401b. one. No one was cooler in action 
and understood better all the subtle generalship of 
chap and lie, and outers, and yet he was always 
learning. He would be at the ice to a minute on 
a dark winter's morning, and keep himself warm by 
sweeping till it was light enough to begin, and then 
he would curl all day. If one curling rink was 
better than another, he would never rest till he 
played it, and Sir James BoswelFs was one of the 
defeated. 

He and his leading players had each three or four 



AYR TO ARDROSSAN. 295 

pairs of curling stones, and none of tliem better than 
Sir Thomas Moncrieff's, which were very quick and 
pohshed. They were made ol' granite called "bur- 
noch/^ which was got near Sir James BoswelPs 
estates,, and spotted white and black like a starling's 
breast. His lordship did not neglect golf, which 
he first learnt on the links near Stevenson. Some 
of the best men from St. Andrew's and Musselburgh 
came to Prestwick, near Ayr, to play with him; 
and he died on a return visit to St. Andrew's, 
when he was very little past his prime. No man was 
better known or more loved throughout the three 
kingdoms. 

The "view house" still stands at Bogside, and 
one's sense of the desolation is not dissipated by that 
dreary spot, Kilwinning. In a vault beneath its 
kirk, which is a curious appendix to the ruined 
tower of the old abbey, his lordship lies with his two 
wives. He was erst the very life of the spot, when 
the archers of Kilwinning met once a year to shoot at 
the green papingo with the golden heart, on the 
summit of that tower. He who winged it got a 
broad ribbon for his prize, and the ribbon-men drew 
after dinner for the honour of the first shot for the 
Captaincy, which is conferred on liim who first 
knocks it off its perch, and was twice won by the 
Earl. 

Mr. Ewing's greyhounds, or rather a pack of fif- 
teen or sixteen couple, passed us in the town. He 
has had far more, and when his Leven Water ran 



296 FIELD AND FERN. 

second to Neville for the Malleny St. Leger, lie had 
fourteen among the 100 in the stake, and eleven of 
them were left in on the first day. " Leven Water/' 
says Mr. Nightingale, '''was not nnlike British Lion 
in his work, a plucky good laster, of great strength 
and symmetry ; he always ran well, but he never 
came to England." Many of the Ewing kennel were 
of Dr. Brown's blood, a well-known Ayrshire cha- 
racter. His dogs were kept by farmers, who got 
half their winnings, and some of them were very 
fast. The Doctor was a big man, with a perpetual 
scarf round his w hite hat, and an umbrella under his 
arm, and so nervous that he never looked at a course 
while his own dog was running. There were few faster 
than his Chance in Scotland ; and Spot was one of 
six left in out of 178, when Read's Sultan won the 
great stake at Southport. He had also Whistler, 
and a good bitch Cantrip, and place them out 
where he might, they came in well and fit to run on 
their trial days near Stewarton. 

Ardrossan lies some seven miles coastwards from 
Kilwinning. Its beautiful slopes which skirt the 
coast, where Arran holds its silent watch among the 
breakers, are dear to all Scottish coursers. The old 
Club livery was silver-grey with silver buttons, black- 
velvet waistcoat, dark-blue silk handkerchief, white 
cords, and Napoleon boots ; and Mr. Borron and a 
few more are still faithful to these dress traditions of 
more than forty j'^ears' standing. The meetings are 
far more for sport than pelf. Every farm on the 



AYR TO ARDROSSAN. 297 

Eglinton estate sent dogs, and members lent 
dogs to the farmers who bred them. As many as 
a hundred dogs would be entered, and sixty courses 
would be run ofif in a day. As Mr. Nightingale 
(who judged thirty-three times) says, "It was just 
like going from Lytham when you left the town end 
— rare quarters, and a happy, pleasant time of it.^^ 
Lord Eglinton was always there, a leader in reality, 
never aspiring to be one, but always with delicate 
courtesy supporting those in authority, and ready to 
help in taking up a dog or in any other way. His seat 
on horse back was peculiarly stiff and upright, and he 
was never pale and anxious except when Waterloo 
ran. His Blackbird was small and strong, and won 
the Caledonian Cup, and a more beautiful puppy was 
never brought up at Eaglesham. Frolic by Waterloo 
was a great delight of the first Lady Eglinton's, and 
well she might be, as she was a very resolute, low 
runner, and won the Great Wiltshire Puppy Stakes 
at fourteen months. 

It was at Ardrossan that her sire first ran. Old 
Baird Kirk, the keeper, would maintain that his 
brother Eingall was better, and they had one spin, and 
Waterloo beat him. The latter was by Dusty Miller 
from Exotic, for whom Lord Eglinton gave £50 to a 
South Lancashire breeder. "His head was always held 
high like Black Cloud's; he never pulled a yard 
from the slips, and was never in a hurry. In the first 
100 yards he was not fast, and then he went harc'er 
and harder. His shoulders were beautiful, his fore- 



298 PIELD AND FERN. 

legs nice and short, his tail long and curiously curled, 
his thighs very long, his ribs remarkably good, 
his hocks turned in a little, and he was made like 
Cerito about the loins. He was not only very great 
on plough, but a wonder to climb a hill, which 
helped him not a little when he beat Gracchus at 
Ashdown. Killing was his weak point; he would 
get possession of his hare, and put in some beautiful 
wrenches, but beyond that he was not clever with 
his teeth. Cacciattore once just beat him in a 
trapping course, and he was thrown out at Waterloo 
by a very bad little hare, which came short back 
when he reached it half a dozen lengths first, instead 
of jumping the ditch, and met the other dog in the 
face. He was in form then, as he won the .€100." 
Such is Mr. Nightingale's " winter tale'^ of him. 

Before calling at Mr. Borron's we walked four 
miles by the shore almost to Tarbert Gorse, in search 
of Picton and Cardinal York. Mr. Richmond was 
pursuing his daily labour, and six or seven of his 
charges were playing in the meadow near the mill. 
Duchess, by Ptarmigan from Di Vernon, was good 
to know from the burn on her blue skin, and had 
made np for her Waterloo defeat by winning the 
Douglas Cup. Marshal Forward and Silver Rays were 
there ; and '' York ! York I" brought the yellow- 
and-white sire of Calabaroono out of a mysterious 
straw hut behind a door, and soon three v»^hite-and- 
yellow daughters were grouped round liim. He and 
Picton, Di Vernon, and Trip the Daisy made up the 



AYR TO ARDROSSAN. 299 

Jacobite and Forest Queen litter, so well known in 
Walshes Calendar. The Cardinal was " a fine steady- 
working dog, a sticker, and. with a great share of 
pace/^ There was very little affinity in look between 
him and Picton, who has less length, and ran a few 
pounds lighter. They had a very strong trial once, 
when The Cardinal stayed the longest, but did not 
show such speed. Jacobite their sire was '' a little 
shabby sort of a dog, who commanded and met his 
hares at the turn. He had great pace for his size, 
and, like his sire Bedlamite, he was rather impetuous. 
He was the best puppy in England ; and then he 
began to rush and run as wild as a deer.^^ On his 
dam^s side he inherited the rough-tailed Violence 
blood, which goes back to Mr. Fox^s Fairy. The 
sort were very fast, and therefore just suited the Duke 
of Gordon. 

Two white greyhounds in stone guard Mr. Borron^s 
avenue. He is of an old Lancashire family, and the 
blue greyhound on his shield, quartered with the 
lamb and banner, is inherited from General Brad- 
dock, who fell on the British side in the War of In- 
dependence. Coursing has been with him a life- 
long passion ; at nineteen his name was in the Altcar 
and Ridgway lists, and more than thirty years ago 
he brought down greyhounds to Scotland, starting at 
4 o'clock a.^m. on the mail. His first good stake was 
won at the Lanarkshire and Renfrewshire Club, then 
held at Pollok. At Lytham and Altcar he has often 
carried off a leading stake ; but in the Waterloo Cup, 



300 FIELD AND FERN. 

even if he has had a first favourite, he has never got 
through more than two courses. He won the Purse 
with Black Cloud, but his nomination has been more 
generally among the sixteen Plate unfortunates, 
who "take nothing by their motion.^^ However, 
this has been the fate of many; and David, for 
instance, went head over heels into the first 
ditch. 

Scotland and England have cross obligations in 
the shape of sheets and slips. The Hon. Hamilton 
Dundas first brought the former from Newmarket to 
Scotland ; and Mr. Borron, who had been struck 
with the swivel slips of Marsh, a Paisley gunsmith, 
took back the idea to Lancashire, which had pre- 
viously only followed the Newmarket fashion of two 
ends of a strap coupled or parted with a wedge, or 
like the Oldfield Lane Doctor on Chat Moss, 
" started the whole fleet" for a St. Leger. Still, 
greyhounds do not monopolize Mr. Borron^s hours of 
idleness in his new sea-home, as a grey mare and a 
chesnut were in his stable, waiting for their turn 
with the Eglinton at Tarbert Hill or Southennan. 
He has always adopted the plan of gilt electro-plating 
his bits, and considers that when horses have carious 
teeth it does not make them so fretful, or engender 
so much saliva. His horses are not bedded on straw, 
but on pine shavings, which he finds very efficacious 
in keeping off the plague of fleas. He has also taken a 
good deal of trouble to ascertain the right tempera- 
ture of greyhound kennels, and first tried corrugated 



AYR TO ARDROSSAN. 301 

iron ones, lined with felt and wood, but thej were 
too cold in winter and too hot in summer. 

Three black pensioners. Black Flag, his sister Black 
Belle, and Bold Enterprise, were in the first one. Old 
grey-faced Black Flag won the Puppy Stakes at Ly- 
tham, and was great on every ground. He was a cotem- 
porary of Black Cloud, Skyrocket, and Beacon, and 
is by Blue Light out of Wicked Eye, and one of the 
only litter of hers that ever did any good. Four of 
them died of distemper, and only Black Flag and 
Black Belle were left. Bold Enterprise by Beacon 
out of Judy (sister to Judge) is a lofty sort of dog, 
and carries his head well up. He was very good for 
the flats of Lancashire, but, like The Judge blood, 
failed at a hill. Mr. Borron bought Judy on purpose 
to put to Beacon, as there was a great deal of the 
Streamer blood in Judge, and he wanted to unite it 
again with the Bugle. Bold Enterprise shows his 
teeth, and is as savage as a tiger. In his running 
days they dare not keep him with the other dogs, as 
he was a complete lunatic; and the grave of Ivy, 
near the flower border, proclaims his latest victim. 
His victories have been varied ; he once beat Cana- 
radzo at Southport, and he killed a terrier, although 
he was muzzled. His sister Bit of Lace was away at 
Glasgow, and so was Billet Loux, both of them fast, 
and known at Altcar in their day. Mr. Borron is 
crossing the blood carefully, and has some saplings 
by Bloody Heart (brother to Bold Enterprise) out of 
Black Belle. Thus Black Belle is put to Bloody 



302 FIELD AND FERN. 

Heart, and Black Flag to Bit of Lace. Brighton 
went seven times to Altcar, and won six prizes and ran 
up for the seventh. Archibald Cook, Mr. Spinks^s 
present man, trained him, and Mr. Nightingale said 
of him : " He was a wonderful dog ; he ran the 
truest of any dog I ever saw — true as a puppy to the 
last.^^ Curler, his sire, was a grand dog, a great 
worker, and of rare bottom, and, being by Jason out 
of Rosebud, he combined Lord Stradbroke's blood 
with the old Ayrshire. Brighton was bought from 
a doctor at Kilbirnie, near Dalgig. The doctor was 
leading him, and Mr. Borron had Brightness in hand, 
when they went down to the slips to meet in the run 
up for the Dairy St. Leger, and it was arranged that 
the doctor should have first and second money {£70), 
and that Mr. Borron should take Brighton. He was 
sold at London for 50 gs., and went to Mr. Kendall 
of Brigmerston, near Amesbury; but he was no 
good at the stud, as he got his puppies far too fine, 
and he became a parlour dog at last. 

The most wonderful hit that Mr. Borron ever 
made was buying Blue Light for thirty-five pounds, 
and old Lancashire reminiscences. He came in the 
middle of the season, when he had run twice and won. 
twice at Altcar, and was then sold by Beale, 
the late Lord Sefton^s trainer, who received him as a 
present, on account of his being worsted in his trial 
by Senate. In his looks he was rather insignificant, 
and weighed, like Brighton, 561bs. He was got by 
Monsoon out of Stave, full sister to Bugle ; and like 



AYR TO ARDROSSAN. 303 

Bugle, lie was blue with black hairs, and espe- 
cially bare on the quarters. The blood has always 
been more calculated for the flat than the hill. He 
won 25 out of 26 courses, and was only beaten by 
Craigieburn, whom he paid off; and then he cut 
his back sinews on a bit of glass, and broke down. 
Eeacon and Black Cloud were the results of his 
cross with Frolic ; his Black Flag was from Wicked 
Eye, Bright Steel from Scotia, Blackness from 
Nettle (a sister to SteeFs Japhet), and Skyrocket 
from Syncope of the Streamer blood, which was 
generally red with a little white. Skyrocket was 
given to Lord Sefton by Mr. Borron, and thus the 
Bugle blood came back to the Sefton Kennel with 
another cross of Streamer in it. 

Frolic, the dam of Beacon and Black Cloud (who 
ran at 681bs. and 701bs. respectively), was by Water- 
loo out of Dr. Brown's bitch of Ayrshire and Biggar 
blood ; and Bright Idea and Bonfire were of the same 
litter. The old bitch died, and they were brought 
up by bull-bitches, or " lady bulls,^^ as Frank Buckle 
would have called them. In Black Cloud and Beacon 
the Streamer and Bugle strains are united with the 
old Douglas or Greenshields blood, and through Ex- 
otic with the Newmarket. Black Cloud beat Beacon 
in his trial the first season, and two years after Beacon 
had the best of it. Beacon was a good average 
dog, a regular runner and not brilliant, but so 
hardy that he v/on the Caledonian, Altcar, and Irish 
Challenge Cups within a month. He was sold for 



304 FIELD AND FERN. 

60 gs._, and came back at 6J gs. five years after, very 
fresh for a dog of ten seasons. 

Black Cloud drove his hare, and kept her to him- 
self like his daughter Belle of the Village, but he, 
too, went into a ditch in his second Waterloo course. 
His greatest performance was beating Mr. RandelPs 
Ranter in an Altcar Produce Stake. He was a rare 
turner, and Judge^s pace was never shown to greater 
advantage than when he just outpaced him down 
the hill near Carstairs ; but his sister Bright 
Idea avenged him on the Cumberland red, after 
two undecided courses. This was in 1855, and 
Judge had won the Waterloo Cup a month before. 
Mr. Borron always thought Bright Idea better than 
either brother, and she was never beaten in public. 
She only ran twice as a puppy, and was drawn for the 
fifth course of the Biggar St. Leger of sixty-four in the 
spring. In her first course the next season she broke 
her leg over the rocks, and it gangrened, and her 
sister. Bonfire, died in a wire fence near Biggar. 



AYR TO DUMFRIES. 305 



GSiPflE SIL 
h^U f© iiiPPJES, 

*' They spied a soldier -vvith a Scotch kim on his head. Some of them had 
"been purveying abroad, and had found a vessel filled with Scotch cream : 
bringing tlie reversion of it to their tents, some got dishfuls and some hatfuls ; 
and the cream being now low in the vessel one fellow would have a modest 
drink, and so lifts the krm to his mouth, but another canting it up it falls over 
his head, and the man is lost in it ; aU the cream trickles do-wn his apparel, 
and his head fast in the tub. This was a meiTiment to the ofB.cers, as Ohver 
loved an innocent jest." 

Caeltle. 

Ayr Race-course — Kilkerran — Tlie Dairies of Galloway — Captain Ken- 
nedy — Stranraer — Galloway Points — A Day at Meiklecnllocli — Ride 
to Southwick— Mr. Stewart's Shorthorns— The Dumfries Pork Trade. 

E saw Ayr in its sunniest guise one morning, 
as we sat on the race-course stile, and combined 
our "silk^^ recollections of Lanercost, Philip, and the 
other heroes of the Gold Cup, with the ^^scarlet,^^ as 
Lord Eglinton's men on a bay, grey, and chesnut, 
trotted past to the meet. Some Ayrshires grouped on 
the banks of the mill-stream, as if for a ^^sun picture,^' 
pulled us back to curds and cream, and the thoughts 
of how on earth we were to grapple with such a sub- 
ject as cheese. We might wander off in the spirit 
for a time to the days when wolves j)reyed on the red 
deer of the Grampians; when "The Returning Hugh^' 
established the first barley mill north of the Forth, 
and died in his bed and his yellow wig at the age of 
112 ; when the old carrier drove his white ponies with 

2 X 



306 FIELD AND FERN. 

packs on their backs and bells on their beads over 
the rough muirland road ; when Madge Wildfire with 
her crook and her plaid wandered through Ayrshire ; 
and when old '^Keely Bags" supplied all Galloway 
with sheep ruddle ; but still, cheese, wool, and bacon 
were ghosts that would not be laid, and fairly em- 
bittered our life. 

Of the route to Maybole we knew little enough, 
as we rode it by night, striking, as it would seem, 
inland, as there was no sea roar for company. Next 
morning the scene opened on the Girvan Valley, with 
Kilkerran House to the left. The hills are covered 
with fern and heather^ and go by the name of 
"The Burning.-" They are so called from a seam 
of coal, which once took fire on the Kilkerran pro- 
perty. It has been extinguished for many years, 
but one at Dalquharran is still burning. On 
the opposite side of the valley, the open freestone 
subsoil of Kilkerran is admirable for silver firs, 
spruces, and beeches. Mr. Fleming rents it at pre- 
sent, and as for animals it was quite a NoaVs Ark 
No. 2. His residence in India gave him a taste for 
Arabs. A bay and a black mare were at exercise in 
the park, and a grey horse, a much better specimen 
than either of them, and an H.C. at the Islington 
Horse Show, was leading gallops for Brewtey^s string 
at Newmarket. One of the Clydesdale mares was 
the prize mare Rosie, a purchase from Merry ton, and 
had a fine partner at rather a lower figure from Dum- 
friesshire. Of sporting dogs there was also quite an 



AYR TO DUMFRIES. 307 

array, black and tan Gordon setters,, three or four of 
them prize winners, and liver-and-white pointers for 
the Kilkerran muirs, which stretch miles away be- 
hind from Barr to Straiten. The late Duke of 
Athole's herd of West Highlanders, which were 
displaced at Blair Athole by the Breadalbanes, wan- 
dered in dun, red, and cream array among the mea- 
dows on one side of the river Girvan, and as many 
Ayrshires on the other. Among the latter is Arabell, 
one of the nrst-prize takers at Battersea, and bought 
for 57 gs. at the first Merryton sale, along with the 
red- and -white Beauty. The dairymaid was uncom- 
monly sweet on her, and drove up the more Here- 
ford-coloured Blossom, to show what a neat pair they 
made. The first-prize bull at Maybole, and the first 
prize one at Kelso, also stood side by side in the byre, 
while a group of Bretonnes outside lent their tiny 
aid to the dairy. 

Between Kilkerran and Girvan we rode through 
rich bean and wheat land, in the midst of which is 
" the ga,rden farm,^' as it is called, of Girvan Mains, 
which owes not a little to sea-wrack manure. As we 
pass the ruined church of Old Dailly, and the way- 
side stone which tells where John Aikin died, we 
may well revert to Old Mortality or Edie Ochil« 
tree laying aside his stafi" and wallet, and calmly 
yielding up his spirit. After this it was quite a 
rocky sea-coast route past the gates of Ardmillan with 
the hooded eagles, where Lord Ardmillan passes his 
learned leisure. Half-bred lambs and Ayrshires 

2x2*^ 



308 FIELD AND FERN. 

were in the Yale, and sprittle-faces on the heights ; 
and as the Highlands of the south-west began to 
flank the coast, we saw Galloways or rough crosses 
from them browsing on their sides. Forty years ago 
there was not an Ayrshire in Ballantrae, and nothing 
but these stunted blacks as far as Whithorn in 
Wigtownshire ; but Ayrshire dairies have gradually 
overspread the Stewartry of Kirkcudbrightshire, and 
away to the Mull of Galloway and Burrow Head. 
The wild hard pasture gives it its pre-eminence as a 
dairy country; but it was long before this faculty' 
was properly brought out, and twenty years 
ago an Ayrshire would have been almost a raree- 
show. 

The farmers hated their neighbours' spotted kine, 
» and would not allow their hinds or "bondagers" to 
keep them for fear of the colour effect on the blacks. 
Mr. M^Clue of Din Vin is one of the earliest Ched- 
dar men, and keeps as many as 140 cows ; and Col. 
M^Dowall has a beautiful dairy at Logan House. 
Ayrshire men found the price of land cheaper, and 
crowded into Galloway, and so the idea has spread 
on. In one respect the dairy management differs from 
Ayrshire, as there are fewer bowers, and every year 
lessens the number. 

There are not many sheep till you reach the east 
of the county. Half-bred lambs are on the holme 
land near the river, and all the mountain district is 
stocked with sprittle or brocky faced sheep, more 
especially in the south-west, on the Minnigaff hills. 



AYR TO DUMFRIES. 309 

Once sheep were preferred much blacker in the 
face j but thirty years since the farmers thought that 
the lighter-faced wedders had most "tops^^ among 
them, and were quieter to boot, and held to rams of 
that shade. New Galloway is a great stronghold of 
the breed, and about Kells, where it is flanked by the 
MinnigafF and the Carsphairn hills, it is as wild as 
Westmoreland, all rocks and cairns, and with blacker 
heath. 

Many blackfaced wedders and half-bred lambs 
are turniped in Galloway. There is nice and 
kindly dry land by the rivers Dee, Urr, and Ken 
(which divides Balmaclellan from Kells), and half- 
bred hoggs are not sent to Penrith now in such 
numbers, but kept on during a part of the summer. 
In fact, some of them are put on turnips a second 
winter. The breeding of half-bred lambs and grazing 
them as hoggs on arable ground is a practice of only 
recent growth. Many Clydesdales are bred and sold 
at three, after a year in the harrows. It does not 
pay to breed any other kind of horse, and for a road- 
ster farmers fall back on Rosley Hill. 

We struck rather more inland from Ballantrae to 
reach Finnart, through what seemed in the gloom 
to be a mountain glen, with natural oak, birch, and 
hazel on its sides. We can well give this Glenapp 
credit for all its summer beauty ; but it was a time 
of rain and snow and mist, which half-shrouded the 
grand deep-sea anchorage of Loch Ryan, at the foot 
of the glen. Captain Kennedy, a distinguished 



310 FIELD AND FERN. 

grazier of sprittle-faces and Galloways^ and a fre- 
quent judge at the Highland Society^s shows^ grazes 
a considerable portion of the hill and valley 
ground at Finnart. He does not breed Galloways ; 
but his flock of sprittle-faced ewes number thirty 
score. Ayrshire Laddie of his breeding won a 
first prize in Mr. Dryfe's hands at Battersea ; and 
the Captain has shown and won at Ayr^ Glasgow, and 
Aberdeen sometimes with his rams, but more fre- 
quently with ewe hoggs. He generally buys his 
Galloway stores in September, and keeps them for 
one-and-a-half years. They are bought when they 
are nearly that age as " caddaghs,^^ in September, at 
Dumfries, and up and down the Stewartry. The 
sky and the hills of the glen are their only winter 
shelter; and however deep the snow may be they are 
kept out in the field, with oat straw, turnips, and 
hay. In Dumfriesshire yard-keeping is generally 
adopted ; but the Captain's experience is to the eff'ect 
that unsheltered bullocks come to hand quicker in 
the spring than if they have the shed option. 
Messrs. M'Combie and Heath, the great Aberdeen 
and Norfolk feeders, have been his leading cus- 
tomers. For many years Mr. M^Combie took forty 
at a time, and in his lot of 1859 he got the Smithfield 
and Birmingham prize-bullock, which was bred by 
Mr. Martin of Braco. Mr. Heath has dealt very 
largely with him of late. 

Stranraer was of all towns the most dreary on a 
wet morning ; and watching the oyster-boats iu the 



AYR TO DUMFRIES. 311 

bay, reading most ancient newspapers, and looking^ 
at Flying Childers, Eclipse, and King Herod — tlie 
last testimony to its races, whicli have now been dead 
and buried for more than forty years — on the walls 
of a coffee-room, beguiled the weary hours, till we 
could start once more to Dumfries by Newton 
Stewart, and New Galloway, on that most sodden 
and " most immemorial day/' 

" The merchant rain, which carries on 
Kich commerce 'twtxtthe earth and sim," 

was never at rest from sunrise. We went past endless 
muirs and moss hags full of dark-grey boulders and 
small lochs, on which wild-ducks were sailing, as if 
proud of the general suction. Still, after all, there was 
certain grandeur an>o^it that damp desolation, and 
when you thought of it in connexion with many a 
dark episode, Avith the tales which linger still in the 
western Lowlands, ^^ of the black charger of Claver- 
house, of the strange encounters with the Evil One, 
of the cry of the plover and the peewit round the en- 
campment on the hill-side,^' you might well allow 
that it was " more instructive than many books.'' 

Cumberland has done much for Galloway stock. 
It is true that, before George Graham of Riggfoot 
began to breed them forty years ago, there were good 
bulls bred in Johnstone, Dumfriesshire, and equally 
true that he began with a cow from Sproat of Renton, 
and a bull from James Welch of Deaths ; but still, he 
was the "Black Booth'"' of Cumberland and the 



312 FIELD AND FERN. 

Border counties, and none attended so systematically 
to the beef points. The late Sir James Graham had 
at one time a herd of thirty cows at Croft Head, 
which were purchased by Mr. Yule, his steward, and 
Mr. Wilkin, one of his tenants. They went to Gal- 
loway to choose them, and instead of medals or 
money, bull-calves were given as prizes to the 
Netherby tenants who showed the best lots of five 
yearlings and as many two-year-olds. Gibbons of 
Moss Band had once the best herd on the estate, and 
John Johnson of Pedder Hill was very close up with 
him. The showers of Galloway cattle at the High- 
land Society are comparatively small, and it is quite 
of late years that they have come up in sufficient 
force to bring the rule into play — that if there are 
more than three of the breed in a class, they are to 
be judged separately from the Angus. 

In Wigtownshire they have no Highland Society 
men among them. The Earl of Galloway used to 
exhibit, and so did Mr. Stewart of Glasserton ; and 
now James Gifford of Bladenoch, M^Whinnie of 
Milton, and Agnew of Balscalloch are generally fore- 
most at the local shows. Kirkcudbrightshire gets 
most prizes at the Dumfries Union. The Earl of 
Selkirk had once a herd at Grange of Kirkcudbright, 
but it is now kept at Canee, and is not in its old 
form. The Sproat stock was once most celebrated, 
but he has not been steady to his early love, and 
crossed them with Anguses, and then with short- 
horns. He was the breeder of Borness or Cumber- 



AYR TO DUMFRIES. 313 

land Willie, who was the first to make the fame of 
George Graham so fast and sure. 

Graham of Meildeculloch has quite gone to the 
front with his females, and Semiramis, Harriet, 
and Hannah, all first-prize Highland. Society cows, 
stood in his byre at one time. Wellwood Maxwell of 
Glenlee had the first yearling heifer at Kelso, and 
Clark of Culmain the best Galloway bull at the ^62 
Union Show. Shennan of Ballig keeps more cows 
than any man in Galloway, and owns the Nestor of 
black bulls, Bob Burns (235) by Geordie (234), whose 
failing back only just beat him out of the first place 
when he was shown at the Newcastle Royal in his 
tenth year. Biggar of King's Grange, Thompson of 
Blaiket (who bred the second prize yearling heifer 
Queen Mary at Battersea), and Cunningham of White 
Cairn, with his well-known Kate, all show either at 
the Boyal or at the local show at Dalbeattie. Cun- 
ningham of Dunrod Mill only owns three or four, 
but Mr. Jardine won with his stock at Lockerbie, 
and he bred Sir William (222), who was the first 
two-year-old in Thompson of Blaiket's hands, when 
Bob Burns headed the aged-bull class at Edinburgh, 

*^ Black and all black^^ extends into the Dumfries- 
shire dales, but not higher up Nithsdale than a few 
miles above Thornhill. Rae of Gaterslack, Stobbo 
of Halliday Hill, William Irving of Brandennoch, 
and David Martin of Braco, are all loyal to it. 
Graham of The Shaw shows good heifers at Loc- 
kerby, and the Kirkhill stock was in its prime when 



314 , FIELD AND FERN, 

the late Walter Carruthers had ' Jock (66), own 
brother to The Squire (18), and whea his Eanger 
was second to Wellington (22) at Carlisle. 

Lockerby first introduced the G alloway bull sales on 
April 17th, 1851, and Castle Douglas followed its lead. 
Fifteen bulls and eleven queys were sold at the first 
Lockerby sale, and.£16 was the highestfigure. Twenty 
years ago as many guineas was thought very high for 
a black yearling bull, but prices have soared upwards 
since then, and now twice as much can be got from 
the Kirkcudbrightshire and Wigtownshire men when 
they '' tak a notion," and an odd one goes at a good 
price to Cumberland. The bidders are not much 
guided by the prize positions, and this year the third 
fetched £11 5s. more than the first. The price of 
females has also gone up, and good queys will fetch 
jg20 to £30 for Canada and Ireland, where they are 
crossed Aberdeen-fashion v/ith a shorthorn bull. 

The United Society of Dumfriesshire, Kirkcud. 
brightshire, and Wigtownshire, which must not be 
confounded with the Dumfries Union, meets once iu 
five years at Dumfries. Shennan of Balig won well 
in ^57, and '62, and so did Cunningham in the last- 
named year. There is a great annual sale at Castle 
Douglas in March, at which Kirkcudbrightshire 
generally fits itself with bulls for the j^ear, and has 
gone as high as £60 rather than be foiled. Still, the 
best local show for Galloways is at Dalbeattie. 
Graham^s Hannibal was twice first here, and that 
eminent breeder drew out his whole strength^ with 



AYR TO DUMFRIES. , 315 

Semiramis, Dinah, Matilda, Harriet, and Maud 
when he was first in the five-cow sweepstakes. 

Galloways look best in October, as their brown- 
calf hair generally returns each spring. The head 
should be short and Eoman, like a Cheviot sheep, 
with a full expressive eye (a point very difficult to 
get), a round bold forehead, and a good robust muzzle. 
The poll should be broad, and the ears large, with 
broad fringes inside, active in their movement and 
standing out at angles from the head, instead of lying 
back like the Angus. The sweetness of the head and 
bone, the finer skin, and the lighter hind quarters 
and thighs distinguish the Angus aristocrats from 
their Galloway brethren, and, in fact, the Angus 
may be called " Galloways with shorthorn treat- 
ment/^ Graham of Riggfoot laid great stress on 
short legs, and a good rough coat with wool amongst 
it, which sticks on till the new hair comes. It is 
said that Galloway men look too much to great 
length of hair v/ithout reference to softness, and that 
they are satisfied if the coats are as wavy as bears. 
They say, on the contrary, that they like long coats 
to throw off the water, but that there should be 
plenty of v/ool below, and that to be wavy from light- 
ness is an Angus vice. Once the Galloway tail was 
much too high, but that point has been amended, 
and the tops have become straighter and the loins 
less slack. A thin rat tail is looked upon with sus- 
picion, lest there should be a thin skin with it, which 
will not suit the climate. Ead thighs are nearly as 



316 FIELD AND FERN. 

rare as a horn or scur. Once tliey had white backs, 
and were brindled and horned as well, and some few 
were " belted," or white in the middle. For some 
years an advocate of this peculiar branch of " sparki- 
ness" gave special prizes at South Tyne, and candi- 
dates came from up the Tyneby Gilsland, Stapleton, 
and Kingwater. Scarcely a belted or a brindled 
one is to be found now, but sometimes one with a 
white forehead. General Sharpe was fond of a sort 
which were " black with white facings/^ and were 
sometimes spotted under the eye or mottled on the 
face, exactly like a Hereford. The General was 
never without a bull of this sort, and a small herd of 
them was kept on his Tower of Repentance farm when 
he died. Many Ayrshires have been put to Galloway 
bulls, and the calves come with black smooth skins 
and narrow heads, which seem to grow narrower 
with age. 

The best old grass in Galloway is supposed to be 
in the parishes of Kirkcudbright and Borgue -, and 
Milton Parks in the former, cannot be excelled. 
The great majority of cattle in Kirkcudbiightshire 
get hay and straw, with a few turnips under sheds. 
In Wigtownshire the farmers feed higher, and use 
turnips and cake more freely, to push them on for 
the Liverpool market. The softer climate of Dum- 
friesshire suits the winterers best, but there has been 
very little loss from disease in Kirkcudbrightshire 
since the farming became higher. Poor land not 
broken up makes them very liable to red-water, and 



AYR TO DUMFRIES. 317 

young cattle also suffer if they are brouglit in spring 
on to the granite. The queys are generally put to 
in their third spring. Galloway calves, which are 
dropped early with a view to the Highland Society, 
which dates from New-Year^s Day, suck five or six 
months, as crack showers say it is " the cheapest 
thing, after all, to let them have their OAvn rights.^" 
A great proportion of them are sadly sacrificed to 
the sale of milk and butter, if they are dropped near 
a town. After nursing a calf at the teat, £2 to £3 
is often made in a black cow dairy. They are not re- 
markable milkers ; but still, the faculty runs in 
some strains, and it seems pretty well settled by 
those who have kept bol h, and speak from no party 
spirit, that they give more butter for less milk 
than the Ayrshires. There is no better and finer 
mottled beef in the world than the Galloway and 
Angus, and so the Smithfield prices show, and per- 
haps the daintiest morsel is a three-year-old heifer 
that has never had a calf. 

The Dumfries Wednesday is a great market for 
Galloways from May to November, and then it falls 
off before Martinmas. During this period yearlings 
and two-year-olds are dispersed all over the Stewartry, 
and then they are bought up again two years after 
for St. Faith's and Brough Hill. Woolpit in Suffolk 
is a great fair for them, and so are Penrith and Car- 
lisle- The last Wednesday of September, which falls 
on the week before Brough Hill, is one of the largest 
Dumfries markets, and so is the October Wednes-^ 



318 FIELD AND FERN. 

day wliicli precedes St. Faith's, the chief Galloway 
gathering in Norfolk. Once the " St. Faith's cattle'^ 
were bought up under that name all over the 
Stewartry, but much fewer go there now^ and they 
are kept and fed olF in the district, where every store- 
keeper expects to get at least £7 a. year for the two 
years he keeps them. Stewart's Auction Mart in 
Dumfries does a great business at 3d. in the pound 
for every sheep, and 4d. for cattle, and its proprietor 
also gives prizes at Christmas for fat stock. 

We stopped at Dalbeattie with a view to going 
round by Southwick, and also specially to have 
another view of our old Kelso friend Semiramis, in 
her home at Meikleculloch. Mr. Graham's farm is 
about 2-2- miles from Dalbeattie.. He came here in 
1843 from Cubby Hill, and began to build up a herd 
from eight cows. A sort of Roman encampment be- 
hind his house, and fully 460 feet above the sea 
level, was a tempting object for a climb, and, only paus- 
ing to look at a young bay Wattie ©'Harden, of that 
old genuine Stitcher blood which has won in many 
a Border ring, we soon planted our M'^Combie hazel 
staff on the summit. Meadow, moss, and arable, all 
struggle for the lead in the valley, which tapers away 
towards the little V-shaped opening in the distant 
hills, which tells of the road to Dumfries. Ayrshires 
and Galloways seem to have a divided empire. Half- 
bred hoggs and blackfaced v/edders were folded on 
the turnips, and a powerful Dollond might have re- 
vealed in those woolly groups some Cheviot and 



AYR TO DUMFRIES. 319 

blackfaced ewe hoggs sent down from the neigh- 
bouring hills. The Cheviots are principally on the 
hill range towards CrifFell^ and beyond the Solway 
Pirth we catch the faint outline of Skiddaw, Saddle- 
back, and the Cumberland hills — the first home 
beacon in our journey. The engine sounds the knell 
of Mosstrooper raids and feudal days, as it rushes up 
the valley and calls at that dreadfully matter-of-fact 
Dalbeattie, with its corn, its saw, its paper, its bone 
and its bobbin mills. Its Craignair granite also 
helped to build the Liverpool docks, and is now laid 
under contribution for the Thames embankment. 

The evening sun was just slanting over the distant 
hills of Kirkennan, and tinging the quiet waters of 
Edingham Loch. There, too, in the panorama were 
Torr Katrine, Culmain, Blaiket, and Whitecairn, 
which have always rallied under the black banner ; 
but not so Meikle and Little Firth Heads, where 
they keep the Ayrshires, at which Mr. Graham's 
Modesty by Guardsman gazed too fondly over the 
hedge, and brought a red calf thrice in succession. 
Bess, the dam of Freebooter and Modesty, was then 
the queen-mother of the Meikleculloch herd. Her 
lineage is undeniable, as she is by Fergy (19), who 
was only shown once, and was then first at the High- 
land Society. He was by The Squire (16) by Cum- 
berland Willie (160); and it was to The Squire, 
bred by Graham of Eiggfoot, that " Meikleculloch''^ 
owes his show rank. Fergy's dam Eiggfoot was 
bought along with The Squire, who v/as not only 



320 FIELD AND FERN. 

first at Edinburgli in ^48^ but was never beaten in his 
home circuit of Dumfries^ Lockerby^ and Moffat. 
Good hind quarters came in with him, and so did 
that nice docile eye (through Belle, the dam of Bess), 
which Galloway men so much prize if they "really 
ken a countenance/^ Three seasons were the limit 
of The Squire^s stay at Meikleculloch, and then 
Walter Carruthers of Kirkhill and Graham of The 
Shaw used him. Two strains of Cumberland Willie 
united in Freebooter (203) through Bess, who was 
sent to Beattie's Mosstrooper, the bull which 
won so much both for him and Gibbons of Moss- 
band, who purchased him as a yearling. He was of 
E/iggfoot breeding, with rare thighs and ribs, and 
rather slack behind the shoulders, but, as the Bat- 
tersea judges said, "a bull first-rate of his kind.^' 
Mr. Beattie bought Maggy from " Meikleculloch,^^ 
and beat him with her at Carlisle, and then Hannah 
paid " Newbie^^ ofiP at Glasgow. Harry and Welling- 
ton both came to Meikleculloch from Adam Corrie 
of Cairnie Hill. One went to the Emperor of 
Russia, leaving a capital daughter, Jess, behind, to 
die of pleura; and the other was not only a first 
Royal bull at Carlisle, and a first Highland Society 
one at Glasgow, but made £60 in prizes from first to 
last, and was sold for £80. His was not mere ring 
prowess, as he left Dinah, Harriet, and Agnes ; and 
Harriet's prizes were within £12 10s. of his own. 

Mr. Graham^s love of showing has not been an 
unthrift one. The Squire won him the first prize he 



AYR TO DUMFRIES. 321 

ever tried for at Dumfries ; and since then the money 
total has been very considerable, plus two clocks, two 
salvers, a sugar-bason, goblet, and inkstand, and a 
medium gold medal for Hannah, This cow came 
" fra the fell side" in Cumberland, and was bred by 
James Thompson of Saughtree Gate. She gave 
twenty quarts a day when she was being ^' caked" 
for show, and went on nearly at that rate for seven 
or eight months, after calving. Her first calf, Dinah^ 
■was by Wellington (22), and her Semiramis and 
Hannibal (201) by George Bell of Minsca's Guards- 
man. 

Semiramis and Lord Southesk's Quadroona were 
quite the black queens at Kelso, and Poet Close, 
the laureat to the sable King of Bonny might have 
been better employed singing their praises than 
making such delicate disclosures about Bonny^s 
queen, as that she w^eighs 17st. with her parasol and 
crinoline, and that she liked the eating so well on 
board The Athenian as to make it necessar}^ for 
the ship^s crew to coax her out of the cabin, and then 
lower her by gentle violence over the ship^s side into 
the long boat. As his rapture was lacking, we may 
say in sober prose that she is a long, low cow, with 
beautiful thighs and twist, and very snug in front, 
and nicely turned about the bosom ; but still Mr. 
Graham has always a saving-clause for ^' Hannah at 
two years old." Cunningham^s Kate beat both her 
and Harriet at Dumfries, but it was a case of table- 
turning when she met them separately — Semiramis 

2y 



322 FIELD AND PEllN. 

at Kelso (with M'Combie as Chief Justice) , and Har- 
riet at Kirkcudbright and Dalbeattie. Semiramis 
also beat her at Newcastle and Kirkcudbright in ^64. 

Galloway cows are generally very safe breeders, 
and there was a singular proof of it at Meikleculloch, 
as twelve out of thirteen had live calves^ and another 
was shortly due. Galloway twins are of rare occur- 
rence, and, curiously enough, five-sixths of the 
Meikleculloch calves were heifers. They were all by 
Thompson's Sir Walter, a son of Bob Burns, a bull 
to whom Mr, Graham has always been faithful. We 
found his blood (through his son Sir James) in 
Second Hermione from Dinah, and Hose of Gallo- 
way from Semiramis ; and there, too, just ready to 
depart to the Duke of Buccleuch's herd at Drum- 
lanrig, after her Newcastle victory, was Harriet 2nd 
by Clansman, son of Harriet. The byre was full of 
other prize winners — Emma the first Battersea two- 
year-old, Matilda a second at the Highland Society, 
Semiramis, and old Bess, fourteen years old, and quite 
gone in her vessel. 

It was a seven miles' ride from Dalbeattie to South- 
wick, first among peat bogs and then among the 
heather, and the granite boulders which Dr. Chalmers 
spoke of on his visit as " the riddlings of the earth." 
At last we got over the brow, and turned by Bore- 
land side into the wooded vale of South wick, with its 
warm farm steadings, and its silver firs and beeches, 
and so on to the home where Rose of Autumn spent 
the autumn of her life, and Pride of Southwick was 



AYR TO DUMFRIES. 32S 

born. It is a fine early climate for cattle, sheltered 
as it is from the cold North, and with two hundred 
acres of good old pasture, enough to set some short- 
horn breeders^ teeth on edge. Mr. Stewart delights 
in his garden ; but we cared for none of those things- 
save the Cryptomeria Japonica, or Chinese cedar, and 
the Taxodium Semper Virens from New Zealand. 
They may be forest trees elect, but the price is at pre- 
sent prohibitive. 

" Southwick^s sunny vale^^ lies about a mile and a- 
half from the Solway, just opposite Allonby. Grouse 
bags can be made on the hills behind ; the partridges 
scurry away under the feet of the shorthorns ; and 
foxes wage their wonted war against the roe-deer 
calves, among the weeping birches and the richly 
tangled undergrowth of oaks. There are harriers 
but no foxhounds in the Stewartry, and in vain do 
the Commissioners of Supplj^ propose a premium of 
ten shillings on a fox^s ears, and seven shillings for 
a cub's, as " they are quite outbidden by the Eng- 
lish countries." Trees grow down to the sea shore^. 
where the sheldrake with its chocolate breast and 
broad ring hatches many a brood. The herons have 
their fishing stations on the Solway, and build in 
the silver fir near the ivy and holly-covered mill^ 
wheel, and patiently draw the burn for hirlingg^ 
which come up from the sea in the second week of 
July, and cause such doughty controversies among 
the savans as to whether they are trout or salmon. 

Two or three Alderneys were grouped under the 

2y 2 



3^4 FIELD AND FERN. 

beechen shade. The Five Sisters and the white 
heifer from Hoddom did not disdain the company of 
the " cream stainers/^ and formed our introduction 
to the herd, which is, with the exception of a small 
one at Kirkchrist, the only one in the Stewartry. It 
was commenced twenty-one years ago with Cherry 
Blossom by Ronald, a daughter of Old Cherry by 
Pirate. This tribe crossed Avith Heir-at-law (13005) 
has made more money than any, and it went steadily 
on to Cherry Flower and South wick Cherry. Cherry 
Blossom was bought from Colonel Cradock at New- 
castle in ^46, and it is a rare testimony to that ster- 
ling old breeder and his honest scorn of all bidding- 
up tricks, that when he refused Mr. Stewart^s pri- 
vate offer of 150 gs., and said that she would be 
shown at Newcastle, and sold, win or lose, she went 
for 80 guineas. There were also several cows from 
Watson of Walby, which, as well as Brilliant and 
Victoria by Gainford, and bred by Crofton, nicked 
well with the Baron of Ravensworth (7811). Cru- 
cifix came from General Sharpe, and Pride of South- 
wick goes back to her in straight descent through 
Yanity, Hoddom, and Abbess of St. Mary. 
Emily by Kossuth (11646), and a descendant of 
Crofton's Emilj^, was bought by Mr. Unthank, and 
went into Colonel Towneley^s hands, where she bred 
Emma. Fennel, for which Mr. Atherton has always 
stood up, and Polly Hopkins by Premier (2449), 
also founded tribes ; Rose of Autumn was bought at 
the Athelstaneford sale ; and her Rose of Promise by 



AYR TO DUMFRIES. 325 

Heir at Law made 283 gs. at the Soutliwick. As re- 
gards buUs^ Jobson^s Adam (2920), Whitaker's Fitz- 
maurice (3807) of the Fairfax sort, Lax^s Baron of Ra- 
vensworth (7811), who gave good shoulders and 
bosoms, Colonel Towneley's light red-and-white 
Hudibras Heir at Law (13005 by Hopewell, who 
brought more money than any of them, and Ambler's 
M'Turk, a great useful bull with a dark horn, were 
all used in turn. 

Mr. Stewart had many dealings with Mr. Douglas, 
and Brenda, Volga, Rose of Autumn, Rose of Cash- 
mere, and the two whites. Clarionet and Venus de Me- 
dicis, both speculative bargains, were among his prin- 
cipal purchases. At the sale in 1860, seventy-eight 
cows and heifers and nineteen bulls were disposed of, 
and Rose of Autumn returned in her old age to Mr. 
Douglas, who had bought her daughter. Rose of 
Sharon, and at one time or another, Baroness Brenda, 
Heath BelLby Hudibras, Lord Raglan (13244), &c., 
all bred at Southwick. M^Turk (85 gs.j fell to Mr. 
Ambler, Heir of Killerby (157 gs.) to Mr. Stirling of 
Keir, and Pride of Southwick (70 gs.), then a year- 
ling, to Lady Pigot. Hence, looking at the short 
and simple annals of those sixteen years, it would 
seem that there were plenty of plums. Lady Pigot 
had espied the merits of " The Pride'^ at a glance, as 
she grazed in the fifty-acre holme in front of the 
house. Her ladyship was then on her way to Mr. 
Douglases, to conclude a purchase for the hapless 
First Queen of Atheist ane, and decided to take hen 



326 FIELD AND FERN. 

TDecause, much as she liked the Eose of Promise, 
she could not then pass over the darkness of her 
horn. First Fruits and British Flag from Warlaby 
and Red Bates were used in the next herd, which 
came to the hammer last autumn. Mr. Ather- 
ton was there for the Cherries, and Southwick 
Cherry Flower (100 gs.) and Southwick Cherry (61 
gs.) went back with him to Speke. A heifer, Eliza 
(60 gs.) changed hands for Broadholm, and Clarionet 
and Bose of Cashmere went with good reason for 
merely butcher^s price. 

Joe Graham shall tell hereafter of the fun he had 
with the late Marquis of Queensberry among the 
Criffel foxes; and therefore we must merely wind 
round the foot of it past New Abbey and " The 
Durham Ox Inn^' — a pretty plain proof that we are 
drawing near English soil — to the heart of that great 
pork centre, Dumfries. 

There is not a farmer in Dumfriesshire, Galloway, 
and a great part of Ayrshire who does not feed pigs, 
not for ])ig-racing, but solely for the curers. Car- 
cases also come to Dumfries from Annan, Fife- 
shire, Stirlingshire, and Perthshire. Cumberland 
feeds many more pigs than it used to do, especially 
in the east ; and its Brown and Watson boars have 
done much towards keeping up its bacon charter. 
Dumfriesshire and the Stewartry have a never-failing 
supply ; but in Ayrshire the pigs get so much milk 
that they groAV beyond " Cumberland Bacon^^ size, 
and are consumed round Glasgow. The skins are 



AYR TO DUMFKIES. 327 

taken off, and the bones taken out, and, after being a 
few days in brine, they are sold as salt pork or ham, 
and eaten in the coal mines or the jerry-shops. The 
Ayrshire people have an eye to the hide market in 
feeding them so large, as every inch above four feet 
considerably advances the price. Small pigs from 
the lower parts of Ayrshire meet with a good sale, if 
they can weigh-in at from 9st to 14st of 141bs. Once 
500 or 600 pigs were bought out of the town of Dum- 
fries, but none are allowed in it now. Some farmers 
in the Stewartry feed sixty, and nearly every cottar 
keeps one or two. The curers' agents go about and buy 
them up everywhere, and send them to the depot either 
alive or with their head and feet off, and unskinned, 
which is contrary to the Belfast fashion. Very little 
is done in " Bath chaps,^^ as farmers keep them for 
home consumption, especially when meat is so dear. 
The pigs are from six to twelve months old; and 
although Irish bacon is sometimes in the market two 
or three weeks after the cure, genuine ham and 
bacon cannot be made under three to eight months. 
The bacon term opens on Nov. 22nd, curiously 
enough when the cheese one closes, and then the curers 
are in full work, both in the workshops and the mar- 
kets, till the second week in April. On Wednesday 
they will be at Dumfries, on Monday at Lochmaben, 
and at Lockerby once a fortnight on Thursdays. Cope- 
laud of New Abbey, Provost Bell of Dumfries, and 
Maclaren of Dalbeattie, are large curers, especially the 
latter^ who throws out his hooks all over Galloway. 



828 FIELD AND FERN. 

Provost steel and Son, W. and R. Graham, W. A. 
Roxburgh of Annan, and Sib son and Irvine of Mary- 
port, are also leading men in this line at the Dum- 
fries markets. Annan has a good market every 
Thursday, and so has Carlisle on Saturday, but the 
Scottish dealers are seldom found on its " Sands.^^ 
George Graham is a very extensive curer, and Max- 
well and William Bell are the largest ham and bacon 
dealers in the north of England, and have large 
London transactions."^ 

At Dumfries the market begins at six, and in a win- 
ter's morning the dealers will sometimes go to meet 
the carts. They have been known to be three miles 
out on the Glasgow and Galloway roads, and ^-a great 
runner has a great chance.'^ A large amount of the 
carcases are in the hands of the jobbers, but they are 
not in such request as those which come direct from the 
farmers ; and the " Hae ye sold ?" is most generally 
directed to him. The difficulty in the dark is to 
guess the weight of the pigs, as it is no joke paying 
6s. lOd. per stone for " fine light pigs,'^ and finding 
them over 7st. Hence, as people don^t like " to go 
back with their finger in their mouth,^^ and as those 
who have heavy pigs never know the weight, it is rather 
a " pig in a poke^^ afi'air. Thirty to forty carts also 
arrive filled with porkers from six weeks to two 
months old, for which all prices are paid from 16s. to 
35 s. There is so much competition that porkers in 

* At page 332, line 4, for "William Bell's" read "Maxwell's." 
At page 238, line 9 (North), for " Bii-dcatcher" read " Emilius," 



AYR TO DUMFRIES. 329* 

embrj'o are sold off, and porkers in esse sold and 
AYeiglied_, and paid for as well, long before 12 o'clock. 

At least twenty pork markets are held at Dumfries 
during tlie season. We find from The Dumfries 
Courier that the quantity and value of pork sold 
during the Dumfriesshire and Galloway season of 
1864-65 was, as nearly as could he ascertained, 
22,050 carcases, or 313,002 imperial stones of the 
value of £108,321 Is. Compared with the previous 
year, this shows a decrease of 1,715 carcases, or 
37,505 stones of pork, and (although prices ranged 
from lid. to 2d. per stone higher) of £7,113. There 
is probably no season on record during which pota- 
toes and oatmeal have been so cheap, and yet pork 
so dear. 

A 17-stone pig furnishes hams of from 25 lbs. to 
261bs., which wonH fetch the top price. From about 
lOst. to 13st. is the favourite size, and 161bs. to 201bs. 
is quite big enough for hams. Eor the London 
market they vary from 121bs. to 181bs. ; but they 
have gone as high as 801bs., and those of Mr. Wain- 
man's sow Fresh Hope weighed 951bs., and were quite 
" sandwich ham." During the past season, if hams 
were between 121bs. and 20lbs. they made from 80s. 
up to 100s. a cwt., and if they were between 201bs. 
and 301bs. at least 8s. to 10s. less.. 

Cumberland hams between 161bs. and 181bs. weight 
have been sold at 112s. and 114s. in October. The 
bacon rise began in 1834, and the stone of 161bs. in- 
creased suddenly in value from 3s. to 6s. In '35^ 



330 FIELD AND FERN. 

the 141b. stone came in, and, beginning at 5s. 9d. 
has varied ever since from 3s. 9d. to 7s. 6d. In 
Dumfries, during the Peninsular war, at least lis. 
was made for the 161b. stone; and in the season 
before last such was the competition that the same 
quality of pork ruled a shilling dearer there than it 
did at Belfast. 

Cutting up is a great science, and the flitches must 
be made to fit and lie level, and then the hams are 
built on them by layers of three, two, one. Lump 
salt from Liverpool is chiefly used, and a great weight 
of it is made on the Cheshire side of the water. The 
first day they are done in salt only to extract the 
water, and then in salt and salt-petre. After eight 
days, they are turned again and dressed with salt 
simply, and then after lying for another thirteen days 
they are ready for hanging, or else they never will 
be. Cumberland curers pursue the same mode, but 
never allow it to lie in salt more than sixteen days. 
In America they are apt to oversalt, and they cannot 
help it, as they must do it immediately. The pork 
corrupts in a w^arm season, and it stiff'ens in a cold. 
Here the lard comes out in lumps as soon as it is 
split, and is melted and put into bladders, and there 
it is frozen like a board, so that they cannot get a saw 
into it. Keeping off the brine insures the bacon 
being mild, and ham is better after eighteen months. 
To suit the London market and show its ripeness 
there must be mould on it, but on a four-year-old 
ham there is no profit. The hams are closed up in 



AYR TO DUMFRIES. 331 

the houses to keep off the fly and make mould, and 
are kept dry by a current of air at the top. For 
the first fortnight the heat is kept at 100 degrees to 
make the salt come out of the meat. Twenty-one 
days after it has been hung a good ham will dry, and 
be firm in fibre, whereas a bad ham swells and feels 
flabby. Some of the Scottish and Cumberland curers 
smoke their hams, which the Yorkshire men rarely do. 
On all hams and bacon there is a regular 
allowance to the buyer of 21bs. in every 20 stone. . In 
curing there is not so much loss on bacon as on ham, as, 
if the shoulder misses, the rib part generally stands. 
Sometimes a considerable per-centage is lost in 
warm weather ; but the loss is never so great in the 
country as in the town, on account of the air being 
less murky. The pig most to the curer's mind is one 
not fat or short or big, or over-driven, but a lengthy 
one of 14i stone of 14lbs., and generally from eight 
to twelve months old, which has been fed on oatmeal 
and potatoes. Ten months is the best age, and some 
curers maintain that- no "Perfect Cure^^ can be 
eff'ected sooner. There will be a difference of 5s. to 6s' 
per stone in pigs according to food and age. In fact, 
two hams which the salt has run through in twenty- 
one days will be put to hang in the same house and 
on the same tier, and both look equally well, and yet 
the one has not condition to stand the fire, and will 
turn " as yellow as mustard,^^ and the other will be 
" as white as snow, and all right.^^ Movable cinder 
fires in iron barrow-shaped stoves are kept in many 



332 FIELD AND FERN. 

of the houses, which are all duly ventilated, to pre- 
vent the heat at the top acting unduly. The great 
ham and bacon dealers^ houses are fullest in March ; 
and in William Bell's, who sends an immense weight 
of bacon to Yorkshire and Newcastle, and of hams 
to London and Edinburgh, we have seen from 4,600 
to 4,800 hanging up at one time in March, tier above 
tier, of which there are seven. His calculation is 
that a stone of lard should come out of a 14-stone 
pig j and sometimes he has in "a very throng time" 
melted 600 stone of lard a day. He cures on the 
average 2,500 to 3,000 pigs in the season, princi- 
pally from Nichol Forest and the Longtown parts 
of Cumberland. Provost Steel of Annan has done 
more ; but Beattie of Shillie Hill is generally supposed 
to have the largest business in Scotland. 



TINWALD DOWNS TO HALLHEATHS. S33 



fwuLD wwm n ummmm. 

"Mr. Kirby had an order for two cows, 'one for a nobleman, and the 
other for the Empress of Russia; but the imperial cow died on the pas- 
sage, and the Avorst had to be led to the Palace for inspection. ' Why,' 
asked the Empress, 'are three teats so large, and one so small f 'It's all 
correct, i^lease your Majesty,' said the ever ready Luke Xott,' three are for 
the milk, and the little one for the cream.' ' Indeed !' said the Empress." 

Silk ai^d Scaelet (p. 149). 

Tinwald Do\\tis — The New and Old Race Courses — Mr. Wilkin's Blood 
Stock — Stable Scenes — Jamie Heughan's Discipline — Bob Jolinson's 
Tumble off Saucebox — Drumlanrig Castle — Tbe Duke of Buccleuch's 
Stock at Holstane and Tibbers — Vendace at Loclimaben — The late 
Mr. Andrew Johnstone — Blood Stock at Hallheaths. 

^NE road from Dumfries to Tinwald Downs lies 
^ past the station gardens^ whose lavender-coloured 
borders, yellow calceolarias, and scarlet geraniums 
still attest the Scottish love of flowers in the very 
teeth of that arch leveller, Steam. There were 
plenty of " stinking violets" in the Carnsalloch woods, 
which furnish many a grand ring to the Dumfries- 
shire hounds, among their deep heather lying, and 
round by the Burnt Firs, a noted cub harbour, at 
the north end of Lochar Moss. The Moss is an 
eight-thousand-acre tract with twelve feet of outfall ; 
the peats ai'e being fast cut away, but it has held 
for eight-and-twenty years the debris of the unhappy 
steam plough, and not even a team of eight or ten 



334 FIELD AND FERN, 

horses doing their best could prevail to part them."^ 
Once through the woods, and the old and new race- 
courses were right and left of us. In summer time the 
road is fragrant with sweet-brier and wild roses, to 
the memory of ^^ Gilbert Glossin,^^ who was agent 
from Netherby to Port Patrick, and who did not for- 
get the wayfarers, while he was laying out his own 
Garden at Tinwald Downs. 

The old race-course was nearly a mile round, and 
it was here that Charles Marquis of Queensberry 
trained with John Smith. It was a dead flat, and 
when the word was given to cross the road, 102 
ploughs pronounced its doom. The somewhat im- 
posing gates are still left to the new course, but no 
racer has passed through them since ^47, and the 
Southern Meeting is ended. The tents were not 
pitched of yore in the plain, but confined to an emi- 
nence at the west end, and the course, which is 
level, with the exception of a slight dip at the far 
side — as useful in its day as the Cantley hill at Don- 
caster — measures one-and-a-half miles round. Mr. 
Wilkin^s Leicester flock feed there now, and of course 
the blood mare and foal are as faithful to it as the 
Dryad to the oak grove, or the '^ Water Baby'^ to the 
stream. Once Mr. Wilkin determined to breed no 
more blood stock, and actually gave away Barbara 
Young out of Eryx^s dam, the last of the old sort. 

* I see from the Dumfries Courier that the dam which obstructed the flow 
of the Lochar to the sea has just l:)een removed, and that " if the upper pro- 
prietors only clear and straighten the course of the stream, the present 
generation may yet see the wilderness converted into smiling corn and 
grass land." 



TINWALD DOWNS TO HALLHEATHS. 335 

However, Fate and the first Mrs. Fobert were against 
him, and the moment the former heard what her 
old friend had done, she wrote to say most decisively 
that it was not to be, and that she and her husband 
were so determined on that point that they were just 
sending off another brood mare to him. And so Mr. 
Wilkin yielded to their decree, and Merrywing by 
Irish Birdcatcher came down, and in after-years a 
cheque of 150 gs. was offered by Mr. Blenkiron in 
vain, for this little remembrance of one of the kindest- 
hearted women that ever passed to her rest. The ches- 
nut had bolted as a two-year-old at the Carlisle turn 
for home, and had been seen no more in public, and 
there she was last year the dam of Merrythought 
by Mandricardo, and with an Underhand filly at her 
foot. 

Mr. Wilkin sells some fifty shearling tups a year, 
and he is satisfied if he can make £5 all round. 
He brought down tups thirty years ago from the 
York, Masham, and Thirsk districts, and still runs 
upon the Yorkshire sheep as most " calculated to fill 
a glutton^s eye."'^ He does not go for the blue heads, 
and makes a great point of good hard hair on their 
crowns. The open coat is most essential, as they are 
used almost entirely to cast Cheviot ewes, as, in fact, 
there are hardly any half-bred .ones in the county. 
The half-bred lambs come out at Lockerby and Car- 
lisle in August and September, and at Penrith (or 
" Peerith'^) as hoggs the next spring. A^ery few com- 
paratively are turniped in Cumberland, but on the 



536 FIELD AND FERN. 

dry knolls up the water of the Urr in Galloway^ where 
forty years ago you would hardly see one Ayrshire cow 
or a hundred sheep in a day. 

There is quite a history in connection with the 
hovel in the corner of the Dumfries race-course. It 
adjoins the little paddock into which Joe Graham 
jumped when his hounds were carrying a good head 
towards Torthorwald^ and lay " due east," not ex- 
actly stretched many a rood (for there never was, and 
never will be, much of him) in " the heaviest fall I 
ever had in my life." Within those humble walls 
Ballochmyle by Peter Lely was foaled, and so were 
Modesty from Theresa and Abraham Newland from 
Rachel by Amadis, both of them by Malek, and 
in the self-same year. Idleboy by Satan was another 
of Rachel's, which were nearly all cliesnut except 
Wee Willie, the first of the Liverpools. She was 
bought from Mr. Knapton of York, and had an end- 
less spring of it, as when she was twenty-four she 
threw a colt and a filly, and excited the admiration of 
a visitor so much when she was in foal for the last 
time, that he called her " the chesnut filly in the 
park," and dwelt at intervals on her suitability for 
his carriage. Venus, the dam of Vulcan, came from 
" Jupiter Johnson's," with Vulcan at her foot, and 
bred Eryx soon after. Lord John Scott gave £100 
for the old mare and her foal Wanderin' Willie when 
she was twenty-two ; and the latter brought back 
the purchase-money and " something more" at Don- 
caster Spring. Mr. Wilkin never bred a St. Leger 



TINWALU DOWNS TO HALLHEATHS. 337 

winner, but Eryx and Abraham Newland, each, of 
which was sold for £150 and a .£500 contingency, 
were third and second for that race. It was only 
through Young Sam Day^s desperate rush on Mango, 
in which, at the expense of his own boot-tops, he 
" split^^ the Doctor and Abraham when they were 
running locked together twenty yards from home, 
that the chesnut failed to land it. Next year there 
was, in one sense, a more memorable finish of 
three, as '' Abraham,^^ Wee WiUie, and Clem o' the 
Cleugh, all sons of Kachel, met at Dumfries, and 
racing past their little birth-place, where their dam 
was shut up with her foal for the day, finished first 
second, and third ; and at Manchester in ^37 Wee 
Willie, Modesty, a very steady enduring mare for 
heats, and '^ Abraham" won five races between them. 
For many years Tinwald Downs was the head- 
quarters of the best blood sires in Dumfriesshire. 
Monreith by Haphazard, own brother to Filho du 
Puta, and a strong and flashy dark chesnut, who got 
some of his stock a little soft, was the first arrival, 
at a fifty-pound hire, from Sir William Maxwell. His 
successor was Viscount by Stamford, who got good car- 
riage horses, hunters, and hacks, and especially good 
mares. The grey was the St. Leger trial-horse for 
Filho, and therefore his coming to run at Dumfries, 
with Croft in charge and young Bill Scott to ride 
him, marked in Mr. Wilkin^s mind the year 
1817, when he entered on the Tinwald Downs 
farm. 

2 z 



338 FIELD AND FERN. 

Peter Lely was hired from Mr. Knapton of York ; 
he got good dark bays and browns, and, like Satan, he 
just stayed for one season. Satan^s son Idle Boy from 
Kachel, with his Arab quarters and rather peacocky 
carriage, was kept mneh longer, and distinguished 
himself as the sire of Paphos and Urania. Corinthian 
by Comus was hired from the late Mr. James, M.P., 
who once owned Saucebox, and was a capital 
gentleman-rider when Sir Tatton Sykes wore the 
Sledmere blue and orange ; but this champion ches- 
nut of Cumberland did very little for Mr. Wilkin 
beyond Clem o' the Cleugh, an honest £50 Plate 
horse, and much beloved of Tommy Lye, when the 
lads had to be dodged in heats. The beautiful dark- 
brown Vulcan by Voltaire from Eryx^s dam did long 
and good service, and the county was full of his 
daughters. Both his horses and mares were very capi- 
tal and compact dark-browns or blacks, generally 
with a crown-piece of white on one of their heels. 
General Sharpens Malek, with his big mealy ches- 
nuts, and Mr. Johnstone^s St. Martin, the sire of 
many a hardy, brown hunter, gave the county a great 
chance ; but, although The Era is popular, there is 
not much enthusiasm for horse-breeding now, and 
Vulcan would have to forge on a different anvil. 

It is upwards of forty years since the new race-course 
was opened. On the occasion of the meeting in Oc- 
tober, the yard of Tinwald Downs as like a training 
stable for nearly a fortnight. Every cart- shed was 
boarded up and extempore stalls invented, and thanks 



TINWALD DOWNS TO HALLHEATHS. 339 

to spare stables and hovels^ seven-and-twenty horses 
stood there at one Caledonian Hunt. " The Mar- 
quis's Stable/' with a racing plate nailed to the 
door, and '^ The Shadow — loon 57 races'' still legible 
within its circle, is now a byre with Ayrshire cows 
and a tortoise-shell bull, not to mention the occa- 
sional presence of a tortoise-shell tom-cat, which was 
offered by an old woman to Sir Charles Phipps for 
^50, and, on the utter failure of that royal negotia- 
tion, to Mr. Wilkin, junior, for one. The three-stall 
stable was the stage upon which General Chasse 
appeared in. one of his finest sensation dramas, car- 
rying his boy George Gilchrist about by the hand, 
and shaking him, as a tiger would a Bengalee, till help 
arrived and they were forced asunder at the point of 
the pitchfork. The lads slept in the granary, and 
Jamie Heughan, who has been forty-eight years with 
Mr. Wilkin, and three with his father before him, 
slept there also with a stout cudgel. He was just 
the man, as they say, in Scotland to " gar kings ken 
they had a lith i' their necks /^ and being " a mad 
sort of body,'^ if any lad talked at unhallowed hours 
or tried to put upon him, he came down so hot and 
heavy on the beds that, as Mr. Wilkin has it, ^'plenty 
of your eminent trainers, Derby and Leger men, ivill 
mind Jamie as long as ever they live.'' 

The principal course was '' once round from the 
garden gate,'^ and year after year Mr. Wilkin might 
be seen on his garden terrace with quite a troop of 
friends. He was never at the St. Leger in his life^, 

2 z 2 



340 FIELD AND FERN. 

and only once on the TinAYald Downs course during 
the running. This was when Bob Johnson had that 
terrible tumble off Saucebox, after which he was 
never quite the same man. Mr. Wilkin ran to the 
house for a brandy bottle, and then galloped up the 
road and through the gates to him. He was lying 
helpless and fainting in the middle of such a dense 
ring, that the bottle had to be passed over their heads. 
It fell into the hands of a thirsty cobbler, who could 
not resist " a wee drappie,^"* and took a most pro- 
tracted sack at it before he could be made to pass it 
on to poor Bob. 

lianercost was fond of this course, but, for very 
good reasons, he and St. ^lartin did not meddle with 
each other either in the Buccleuch Plate or the Cup."^'" 
Next autumn he accommodated St. Bennett and 
Malvolio separately, and in 1840 he took a terrible 
revenge on Charles XII. for his Doncaster Cup 
defeat. " Charles'' then talked over for and 
won the Cup, and with this double Goodwood Cup 
winner that race died out. The Caledonian Hunt 
Meeting was last held here in ^44, Avhen Alice Haw- 
thorn and Brevity won nearly everything. Next 
year Mr. Merry swept all save the portion of The 
Shadow, and in ^46 there were only a dozen horses. 
Then it sank down to six horses and one day ; and 
old Annandale was second for the handicap to Marian 
Ramsay^ who also won the last race, a Give-and- 

* See " Scott and Sebright," p. 188. 



TINWALD DOWNS TO HALLHEATHS. 341 

Take Plate, by half-a-neck. Oddly enoug;h_, a lad 
called Wilkin rode tlie loser, and then Mr. Wilkin's 
mares Kackel and A'enus were left with the Leices- 
ters in undisturbed possession. 

Such were the experiences of our saunter out of 
Dumfries, and once more we were in the saddle, and 
away towards quite a different point of the compass 
up the Valley of the Nitli. There is very little wheat 
in the valley, which opens up after Auld Garth. Dun 
ponies seemed to be most plentiful, and a boy 
informed us that " they were a^ strippit doon the back 
— King o' the Country always gat them that way : 
ye^ve heerd tell on Mm surely V' which indeed had 
not. They seemed a good sort, though perhaps not 
a model for the flying horse which surmounted the 
town cross in the centre of the long lime avenue of 
Thornhill. The loam and the gravel vary all the 
way along the valley of the Nith ; but on referring 
to a map at Holstane, we found that after pur- 
suing the east side we were ^' in an oasis of the new 
red sandstone, in the midst of a huge bed of lime- 
stone extending from Port Patrick to Dunbar,^^ and 
slept none the less soundly for the discovery. The pos- 
session of the hills which began to flank us on the 
right, fivemiles outof Dumfriesis pretty evenly divided 
between the black and "the pale faces'^ or the Che- 
viots. The latter hold Closeburn Town Head, which 
dies away in that arable valley below Low Garth, 
where half-bred lambs are got ready for Lock- 
erby. Blackfaces wander over Bellybucht, which 



342 FIELD AND FERN. 

has an old Roman road on tlie face of it, and they 
hold " more than Roman sway^^ on the loftier Gar- 
roch as well. From Bellyhucht the range stretches 
away by Scatlaw Mains, where 

" Last May a braw wooer 
Cam doon the lang glen," 

and past the little bnrial-place of the Queensberry 
family, when they dwelt at Durisdeer, till it is at 
last lost in the great neutral sheep heights of the 
Louthers. 

Drumlanrig Castle is in the valley three miles from 
Thornhil], close by the burn side, and backed up 
on the south by a chain of woodlands. There is no 
foxhunting here, and the cubs are strictly gathered 
up for England. The rams' horns staircases to the 
entrance were in course of alteration at Drum- 
lanrig Castle, and the gardens, over which Mr. 
Macintosh (brother to the James Macintosh who 
did with his pen for Scottish trees what Parson Gil- 
pin did with his pencil for English) presides with a 
staff of a hundred men, were of course not in their 
bloom. In fact^ there were only the gravel com- 
binations left, to make us realize autumn, when (as 
we afterwards proved) the scene from the terrace 
almost forbids a sigh after " sweet Bowhill.^^ 

The Duke of Buccleuch has 2,500 acres at Tibbers 
and Holstane, under the management of his farm 
steward, Mr. Johnstone. Twenty years ago, the 
Galloways were the only stock on the farms; but 
since then Ayrshires have been introduced, and 



TINWALD DOWNS TO HALLIIEATHS. 343. 

are kept at Holstane, where Mr. Jolinstone re- 
sides. His Grace rather haugs to Galloways; but 
still, he has bought a few Anguses, for the sake of 
trying the cross. The young cows and heifers are 
principally by Freebooter (203), and among them 
were the first, second, and third in the yearling class 
at Kelso. Mr. Graham of MeiklecuUoch bred 
Freebooter, as we have already stated, and sold him 
to Mr. Birrel of Guards, who sold him back after he 
was second at the Carlisle Royal, and so he found 
his way to libbers, like his nephew Knight of Lid- 
desdale, the present chief of the black harem, and 
others of the MeiklecuUoch cracks. The calves are 
generally dropped in January and February, to be 
ready for the Highland Society, and are suckled 
twice or three times a-day for six months, Agnes 
Waugh has led a vestal life among them for nearly 
thirty years. She " was no' at Battersea^" a^ she 
observes, ^' wl' the kye ; but I ivur at Kelso, and we 
made grandly out wV the heifers there.'' We had 
met nothing so genuine since old Hannah at Lord 
Feversham^s. Second Agnes, or Agnes Locker- 
bie, her assistant, was quite a second edition of Ea- 
venscroft's Polled Herd-Book, in a kirtle and bare 
feet ; and two such able field-marshals soon put the 
Freebooters and all the rest- of them in array 
for us. 

There was a curious union of Herd--Book numbers 
in M^Gill by BalsaUoch (92) from Halliday (92), 
the second cow at Battersea, where her daughter 



344 FIELD AND FERX. 

Miss M'Gill was the first yearling heifer. ^' Come out, 
Small Bones !" and out she came^ true to her name, 
and Gordon as well,, with Scroggie Hill and Beauty. 
'' Thafs Young Mary the Second, or London Mary 
we ca' her,'' says one of the Aggies, and so stimu- 
lated she went away at score, with the narrative of 
how " Original Mary hung herself P Still, there was 
an old Mary left in the land, with a good deal of 
shorthorn character when you stood behind her. 
There too were Sproat, Keir Lass from Barndan- 
noch, and Graham, a business-like little cow, and 
with not more sweetness, but more Galloway charac- 
ter than Brown Lugs. Queen was a trifle more on 
leg than some of them, and Beauty of Drumlanrig. 
Halliday 2ncl, and Agnes, all owed much of their 
nice forequarter and good thighs to Freebooter, 
Knight of Liddesdale was roaming in his paddock, 
and came quietly at Mr. Johnstone^s call to his loose- 
box, with as blithe a step as the bay of thirty-two 
summers, who was just backing a cart on to the 
green manure-heap. 

About fifty "bacon swine'^ are reared each year at 
Tibbers, and then finished off near the dairy at Hol- 
stane. His Grace has kept to whites, and began by 
crossing a white Sussex with one from Lord Sefton. 
"With good feeding the sort would reach about 32 st. 
at twelve months ; but of course they go off to the 
curers when they are much lighter weights. One boar 
struck us as having a peculiar head, and we found 
that it was only a copy of his sire's, which was 



TINWALD DOWNS TO HALLHEATHS. 345- 

embalmed in consequence at Dr. Grayson^ s Thornhill 
Museum. 

About 160 Highlanders with a slight admixture 
of Shetlanders were grazing in the Park, and as they 
stood on its banks or plunged into the Nith to drink, 
they composed a cattle group which made us yearn, 
for the third and last time in Scotland, for the 
camera. The West Highlanders are bought up at 
2h years at the Falkirk September and October 
trysts, and are kept two years, and then sold at about 
a £10 profit at 40 to 44 stone of 141bs. to the London 
and Liverpool butchers. The flock numbers 1,200 
Cheviot ewes, whose annual cast is replaced by 
seconds at Lockerby, and crossed with a Leicester- 
tup from Mr. Wilkin^s or Mr. Beattie^s, and the 
lambs are sold off at 22s. to 28s. Two hundred black- 
faced ewes are also put to the Leicester for mules, 
which sell well about home to the feeders at from 
16s. to £1. Many of them go to be turniped in 
Galloway, and find customers from the South in 
spring. 

The ewes were sharing with the Ayrshires the 
great 125-acre meadow by the Carron side, in front 
of the Holstane Mains, which lie snugly under Castle 
Hill, one of the green outspurs of the Louthers. It 
was milking-time, and the "little- white ivories^^ were 
left in possession while Prince by Tower led in his 
fair and flecked followers. He won the gold medal 
at Sanquhar, and we found in him a good correc- 
tive to those shorthorn points which it had been often 



346 FIELD AND FERN. 

SO difficult to shake off in Ayrshire. Among the 
COWS; which had some trouble to follow him in his 
gay trot to the stalls, were Miss Harper, the blood- 
like Nightingale, first at Hamilton in '63 ; Miss 
Eingland, with a very engaging countenance, and 
second, as she well might be, at Sanquhar, in a ring 
where sometimes forty yearling heifers have to stand 
together, and fight it out upon shape alone before 
the vessel can prophesy of itself. Stately had a de- 
lightful vessel; Charlotte^s horn and middle-piece 
were equally true-shaped; and Kate we remarked 
on more for her neat bone. Beauty's vessel has gone 
now, and Mr. Heslop's '^brilliant ruin,'Vho has walked 
out of the ring with many a card in her time, kept 
quite away, as if she knew that she had no part or 
lot with the ducal thirty-four, of which the best are 
occasionally shown at Sanquhar, Thornhill, and 
Dumfries. The Holstane dairy deserted with the 
times from Dunlops six years ago, and it is now 
making Cheddars of 56 to 601bs., and getting 14s. 
the 241bs. 

It was now " Bock agin, Sandy ;" but the Valley 
of the Nith will well bear riding twice. There was no 
shorter cut, and with another call at Tinwald Downs 
for a stirrup-cup, and a long look with young Mr. 
Wilkin at his capital black Spanish fowls, we set the 
mare's head over the hill for Annandale. We had 
to skirt Lochar Moss, and pass Torthorwald Tower of 
murderous '' Pllmaksiccar (sure)" fame. Then King 
Robert de Brus's elastic, and '' the Castle Lochs and 



TINWALD DOWNS TO HALLHEATHS. 347 

a' the lochs — nine of 'em" glistened before us, and 
transformed Lochmaben, which we had only thought 
of as a pig market, into quite a fair " City of the 
"Waters/^ Herons from Hallheaths and wild-ducks 
pause there in their flight to the Solway, and pikes 
and vendace seem to be the fish tenants in common. 
These vendace are said to have been originally brought 
from Italy by the monks. They are less than three 
ounces, and have a black heart-shaped transparency 
at the back of their heads, through which the brain 
may be seen. Thus they keep their hearts not ^' for 
daws to peck at,^' but for the Vendace Club, when 
they meet at Lochmaben early in August, to fish and 
dine together, with Sir William Jardine in the chair. 
Fried in bread-crumbs they are quite the white-bait 
of the North, and a ten-dozen basket is a good 
day's sport. 

A half-bred Arab by Minuet from a Telemachus 
mare, in the breaking bits, showed that we were ap- 
proaching a spot where other " good things have 
been landed.^' In a few minutes the clock cupola 
rose above the thick laurel approaches to Hallheaths, 
once the home of the owner of Charles the Twelfth. 
St. ^lartin, Annandale, Verulam, Mentor, and Tele- 
machus have all been stabled under that cupola 
since the late Mr. Andrew Johnstone came back 
from China, great in the faith of a blood horse,* and, 
curiously enough, the two last died from broken legs, 
caused by the kick of a mare. St. Martin has also 

* See " Scott and Sebright," pp. 171-72. 



348 FIELD AND FERN. 

"been dead for some years,, but his name endures with 
the Dumfriesshire Hunt. The grass here is three 
weeks later than it is at Sheffield Lane; but the few 
yearlings that go up to join the "Lane lot" at Don- 
caster can hold their own in the average. Old 
Nugget by Melbourne is in residence, and she sent 
up Emigrant (410 gs.) last year; and Vagary byVol- 
tigeur and Jungfrau roam in the holme by the Annan 
side with their foals. The Derby was denied to An- 
nandale, horse and district;, as the St. Leger was to 
Nithsdale with Abraham Newland, and in both in- 
stances by South Country riders and outsiders. Old 
Annandale looked well, but his back was beginning 
to sink beneath the burden of three-and-twenty sum- 
mers. Still, that tough old boy " Terrona" looked at 
his grand ends when he met Defiance at Lockerby 
that spring for the J40 Hunt Prize. In vain did his 
colleagues on the bench ask him to let it be a unani- 
mous decision in favour of the younger bay; but 
'^ Unanimous ! no, never /" was all they could extract 
from such an emphatic Andrew Marvel. This was 
the third year of the struggle, and Houlakin and The 
Era had won it before, and in his turn Defiance has 
had to yield to a younger horse, Warmanby by 
Mountain Deer. Mr. Andrew Johnstone loved An- 
nandale next to Touchstone, and felt sure at one 
time, that whenever the old horse died, his blood 
combined with that of Alice Hawthorne^s dam must 
bring his son to the front. With Clydesdale it once 
seemed as if it was to be, but his legs gave way 



TIXWALD DOWNS TO HALLHEATHS. 349 

before the Derby. Still, Balrownie, Johnny Arm- 
strong, and One Act are something for one horse, 
and the dams of Stampedo and Haddington are also 
by hira. It is now four or five years since he left 
Sheffield Lane, and he has scarcely seen two blood 
mares a season since. 

The three white legs of his hardy little chum 
Minuet have done good service in India. He be- 
longed to Mr. Smollett, M.P. (then of the Madras 
Civil Service), and so did The Child of the Islaads, 
who was faster, but rather delicate. When ^' The 
Child" went wrong. Minuet took his place as second 
horse, and (as there was no Merry Monarch to drop 
from the clouds) he won the Calcutta Derby of 7,000 
rupees for three, four, and five year old maidens, 
"pegging away in his old cricket-ball style from end 
to end.'^ Ridden by the lanky John Hall, he carried 
off the Civilians^ Cup at Madras, and as it was a 
2\ miles handicap against all comers, it may be 
said of him, as Lord Westbury did from his 
marble chair of the proposed rifle match between 
Lords and Commons, that he "would meet" the 
Arabs " at any place and with any weapon." He 
was brought over in ^50 along with the famous Elepoo, 
who was 15h. Oj inches, or just an inch beyond his own 
standard. Minuet has carried his owner, who rides 
over 13 stone, to the finish in a capital run with Sir 
"Watkin, and as he can screw and creep or have a 
fence any way, he has been used to hunting mares in 
the district. The stock have been generally bold 



850 FIELD AND FERN. 

wide jumpers^ but a little hot, and one of them, a 
four-year°old from a St. Martin mare, won the Hunt 
prize of jglO for the best four -year-old colt or filly 
at Lockerby. Hence the late Mr. Tattersall, whose 
grandfather's most successful blood-stock venture 
was his trip to buy an Earl of Eglinton's brood mares, 
proved a little out when he joked Mr. Johnstone and 
said he '^ might do to get mules with.'' 

Mr. John Johnstone followed the horses from 
India. As the portrait and memoir in the Cal- 
cutta Spo7^ting Magazine prove, he was a mighty hog 
hunter in his day, and, as " Josto King of Spears," he 
was known '' in the field of Kushnaghur," as well as 
in the Calcutta Tent Club. For two seasons he 
hunted the Calcutta Hounds, which ran the jackal, 
in default of foxes. They had a supply of draft fox- 
hounds out each year from England, and generally 
thirty- five couple in kennel. Throwing off in the 
grey dawn, and finding in a dry nullah or a grass 
jungle was very difi*erent to a climb up Rammer- 
scales hill, or a fast thing from the Duke's cover 
to Castle Milk ; but Joe Graham is " Josto" now^ 
and, as Joe says, " Mr. Johnstone's a clipping secre- 
tary, and one of our first flight." The J's, to wit 
the Jardines, the Johnstones, and Joe, keep the game 
well alive in Annandale. 

Hallheaths is not occupied at present, but there 
are vestiges of the quiet, earnest sportsman who died 
there in '57. Herring, senior, came here with his 
son Charles to paint hunters, and we also found 



TINWALD DOWNS TO HALLHEATHS. 351 

his masterly hand in Charles XII., Beeswing, the 
Arabs, Elei^poo, Minuet, and Telemachus, a very 
neatly-mouided horse, and all shot with grey hairs. 
The mare with her sweet form and light hlood-like 
neck carries her ears well forward, while the mighty 
Charleses are screwed back as if he would like right 
well to have a nip at somebody. Amid all his re- 
verses when his back had become quite hollow and 
his tail was cut, he retained some faded notions of 
royalty, and he would not pass through Balby toll- 
gates, the southern portal to the scene of his St. 
Leger, and Cup victory against Lanercost, Beeswing, 
and Compensation, till both the gates were opened. 
When he got there, Tom Dawson, who had trained 
him when he left John Scott^s, did not know him in 
the sale ring, and, although he was the sire of some 
capital hunters, no one would venture on him at 
^^ a pony.^^ He went to Ireland after that, and was 
eventually put down at Sheffield, when quite a shadow 
of his old self, and a carving-knife and fork were 
made from his cannon bones. 

Mr. Andrew Johnstone began breeding at Hall- 
heaths with Theresa Panza by Wagtail, Proserpine by 
Ehadamanthus, Marchioness by Velocipede, Morsel 
by Mulatto (the dam of The Cure), and Grimston by 
Verulam, and eventually a Goodwood Cup winner, 
was the first foal he bred. For a time he stuck to 
Verulam, a fine crested horse, who spread many rich, 
bold-fencing bays over the Yorkshire hunting fields. 
He commenced training with Kalph Scott from Tom 



3j2 field and fern. 

Dawson^ s, in the big field in front of fhe house at 
Hallheaths^ and by dipping into the holme, and so 
back again into the park, they made a very good 
IJ miles out of it. There was also a gallop for hard 
weather on Thorniethwaite Moor, where he used to 
freshen up the decayed thoroughbreds, which Tom 
Dawson picked up for hira, when he horsed the mail 
between Hanginshaw and Gretna. One of the best 
-and fastest wheelers he ever used was by an Arab he 
bought at TattersalFs. He was always at the great 
race meetings, and no one delighted more in seeing 
the early gallops at Chester, or, if it was wet, watch- 
ing them from his window in Paradise Kow. Good- 
wood was his delight, and we used to see him pacing 
slowly up and down the esplanade, with his hands 
behind his back, considering whether "Charles'-' 
and the "crimson, and green cap'^ would win the Cup 
next day. Young Job Marson had already con- 
founded Newcastle by just beating Beeswing with 
the long striding brown over their own Town Moor ; 
but it was not until he beat Frank Butler a head on 
Hyllus over Goodwood, after a tremendous finish in 
which "the maiden bay''' tried to savage Charles, 
that he fairly won his spurs with the public. He 
was up again the next year, in the thousand-guinea- 
aside match, and Kobinson, who had a hundred- 
guinea retainer, rode Hyllus. Nothing could 
alter the '41 form, and Job was mortified enough 
when the first call of Lord Westminster for Sleight 
of Hand forced him to give up his cup mount to 



TINWALD DOWNS TO HALLHEATHS. 353 

'^ Our Jim" on tlie Thursday. Mr. Johnstone never 
had a great horse again, but he stuck faithfully by 
Touchstone when his own sires failed him, and not 
only bred Lord of the Isles, but a 1,800-guinea year- 
ling. Lord of the Hills, by him. Three colts were the 
produce of the four mares which he sent to him 
in his very last season. About two years before his 
own deatli, ]Mr. Johnstone talked of clearing out all 
his sires, and bidding for Stockwell at Lord Exeter's 
sale, as the legitimate successor of the "Eaton 
Brown ;'^ but he changed his mind, and did not live 
long enough to regret it. 

It was no slight difficulty crossing the ford to 
Broadholm; but Mr. John Johnstone on Queensberry, 
the winner of a Dumfriesshire steeple-chase, was 
quite a Trinity House pilot, and we got well across 
near a weir, which Robinson Carr and "Sandy" had 
done their very best to pull down, to get at an otter. 
Arabs have quite a colony here. We had left a Minuet 
over the water at the foot of a hunting mare, as well 
as a yearling in a shed ; and here the cross was taken 
the opposite way, and a grey Arab mare had an Era 
foal, which was to be entered in the Oaks. Two 
half- Arab ponies were also trotting away to Lockerby 
•station, on their road to Mortlake, and Mr. John- 
stone changed Queensberry in the evening for a 
grey of the same cross. Shorthorns are a new 
love; but he was not off with the old greyhound one, 
and among a leash of seniors there were saplings by 
Canaradzo and puppies by Master Blue Hat, But 

2 A A 



354 FIELD AND FERN. 

t 

we could Jnot linger long to run over the ^^coltisli 
chronicle/^ in that little office where Racing Calen- 
dars are the ledgers, and Oppressor, Gretna, Caterer, 
and all the other Sheffield Lane winners, were named 
before the fatal second Tuesday in July ; and " For- 
ward to The Shaw !" was the watchword of the 
night. 



LOCKERBY TO MOODLAW. 355 



LOCEEEBf f© SiOeiiLaW. 

" Ca' the yowes to the knowes, 
Ca' them \yhere the heather gTOws, 
Ca' them where the burnie rows — 
My bonnie dearie ! 

" Hark the mavis' evening sang 
Sounding Cluden's woods amang ! 
Then a faulding let us gang, 
■ My 'bonnie deai-ie." 

BUKXS. 

The Cliuix-hyard of Old Drumgre — Lockerby Lamb Fair — Breedina; in. 
Dumfriesshire — Sale of the Moodlaw Tups at Beattock — Ericstane — 
The Shaw — Eskdale Muir — A Day at Moodlaw — Annals of the 
Moodlaw Hock. 

UR remembrances of Annandale are very mixed 
ones, and drawn from visits at two or three 
different periods of the year. We had the finest 
view of it from the hill above " Hebbie Renwick's^' 
where there is a shepherd's burial-ground in con- 
nection with the churchyard of old Dumgre. " The 
graves are the graves of our ain folk'^ in that lofty 
solitude, and the sheep browse over them at will ; 
and when you have scraped away the moss from one 
deep sunken stone, you read the proud epitaph, 
^^ Here lys the corps of ane honest man.'' "Oh ! what 
a beautiful clearing it would make,^^ said an Austra - 

2 A A 2 



356 FIELD AND FERN. 

lian, as he looked down on that vale, so thickly 
wooded that we tried in vain to trace out our route 
— where we had seen Bonnie Dundee snorting round 
his paddock at The Heuk, and stretching his 
battered old legs for another hunting season^ and 
where the fallow deer hadflitted across the road, as 
we came back at dark from Raehills. 

We caught the same dale from a different point 
when we looked over it from Lockerby hill at the 
time of the great August lamb fair. Dreary little 
places often have the magnetic power of becoming a 
great fair focus, and so it is with Lockerby. "The 
Ewe and Lamb^' sign tells its simple story. August 
brings the lamb fair; September creeps up with 
Galloway cattle and cast ewes, and "fetches the 
greatest weight of money with it ;" and tail lambs, 
cast ewes, and store cattle conclude the year in Oc- 
tober and November. There is also the show of 
Galloway bulls, fat cattle, and hoggs, in April, when 
the Dumfries Hunt give blood-sire and hunter prizes ; 
and'ir September the local show extends its favours 
even to Savoy cabbages and canaries. 

The town was full of holiday lads and lasses ; and 
" Ai'e ye gan up the hill ?'^ was the challenge of the 
hour. The lads sometimes fail to climb that hill 
quite peaceably, with their ladye loves on their arm. 
One had a fit of heroics half-way up, and was going 
to " smasV somebody, but the crowd gathered round, 
with the cooling query, " What ails 'urn P" and his 
Phillis hung on to him, and implored him, for her 



LOCKERBY TO MOODLAW. 357 

sake^ not to do a deed — which he had no intention of 
doing. Of course we stopped at the foot, to hear the 
prospects of the leather plating, next day, from 
the clerk of the course, a most communicative black- 
smith. " There will be three fra Peerithy^' said he, 
"one or two fra the Langholm, and Joe Graham's 
tied to have yen in.'' The sheep Nestors ascended 
the hill soon after day-break. In the very first 
group we hailed there were Graham of The Shaw, 
"Moodlaw,^' Tom Welsh, and our active-minded 
friend John Irving, who had laid aside his Municipal, 
Silloth, and True Blue cares for the day, and, being 
no sheep among men, had arrived from Carlisle to be 
a man among sheep. Upper and Mid Annandale 
were all in that hill landscape. AYe looked across, 
with Mr. Graham as our geographical guide, to 
Torthorwald and Rammerscales hills, and traced 
the Annan as it wound along from Moffat, bear- 
ing four or five ''^ waters^' in its bosom. 

The sheep are in diff'erent divisions on the hill. 
Blackfaced and cross-bred lambs are on the west side ; 
Cheviot lambs in separate ewe and wedder lots on 
the north ; and half-bred s on the south. Pens are 
still the exception, and the lots are of all sizes from 
three to twenty score. No picking is allowed, and a 
lot must be run off by the crook with a steady hand 
and a straight eye. It is a great art to swirl them 
round, so as to mix up tops and seconds, and then to 
make a steady cut ; and it is given to few men to 
count off a lot on the spur of the moment, as 



358 FIELD AND FERN. 

they scour past six or seven thick. Generally three 
or four buyers club together^ and take a lot subject 
to the ruling price of the day, and, in case of a dis- 
pute, a referee settles it by a trial lot. Some 
wretched half-bred queys were the beef accessories, 
along with a few Irish and Ayrshire; and there were 
gipsies in abundance at the edge of the hill, and 
cheap jacks, who would fit you up with a coat and 
vest of Tweed, '' all wool,^^ in the twinkling of an eye. 
The number of lambs was by no means up to our 
hopes. More than a third are picked up every year, 
and never reach the hill at all ; as dealers come about 
ten days or a fortnight before Langholm fair, which 
was once the main market of the country. It is said 
that 52,000 lambs, "be the same more or less,'^have 
been pitched at Lockerby, and that the propor- 
tion of Cheviots to half-breds is fulh^ three to 
one. 

Still the half-breds are spreading fast over all the 
arable lands of Dumfriesshire. There is little wheat 
or barley in the county, and oats out of lea, turnips or 
potatoes, oats or barley, grass seeds and rye-grass, is 
the rotation, and the latter pastured or cut for hay is 
most valuable for half-bred lambs. The Moffat and 
Langholm road is the half-bred boundary ; and the 
Roxburghshire plan of putting half-bred ewes to a Lei- 
cester tup* is never followed. The breeders will have 

* The following, wliicli arrived too late for insei'tion in its proper place, is 
the pedigree of one of the rams (which girthed upwards of 5 feet, and measured 
45 inches from the hack of the head to the setting on of the.tail, when he 
was shown at Kelso) that Lord Polwarth has used a good deal of late : 



LOCKERBY TO MOODLAW. 359 

very open wool, and large masculine heads very clear 
of wool on their Leicester tups, so as to keep up the 
half-bred character as much as possible in the lambs. 
The mules, too, with their grey faces and grey legs, 
are gradually coming into favour. In early maturity 
they hardly touch the half-breds, and their wool is 
coarser, but they clip quite as heavily. Crossing black- 
faces with the Cheviot tup to produce them has been 
tried, but has never yet brought a profit. The preju- 
dice against Cotswolds has always been strong, as the 
iambs were thought to be too coarse. Some tups 
were brought to Moffat in 1850, and were led out in 
halters like ponies, and sold for £6 or £7 each, but 
they have not been tried since. The Leicester holds 
his own for crossing, and a great many Dumfries- 
shire farmers buy five and six year old Cheviot and 
blackface ewes at Falkirk October, and send them 
as '^ grit ewes" to stock turnip land in Galloway, and 



His sii*e was bred by Mr. CockbiuTi of Sisteiioatla,t 
g. s. — iilr. Cockbum of Sisterpath, J 
g. g. s. — Mr. Taylor of Presson, 
g. g. g. s. — Lord Polwarth, 
g. g. g. g. s. — Lord Pohvarth, 

g. g. g. g. g. s. (1th Prince Albert) — Lord Pohvarth, 
g. g. g. g. g. g. s. (3rd Prince Albert) — Mr. Thomson of Haymouut, 
g. g. g. g. g. g. g. s. (2nd Prince Albert) — Lord Pohrarth, 
g. g. g. g. g. g. g. g. s. (1st Pi-ince Albert'l) — Lord Polwarth, 
S- S- g- g- g- g. g. g. g- s, (Taylor's big sheep) — Mr. Taylor of Presson, 
g. g. g. g. g. g. g. g. g. g. s. — ilr. Taylor of Presson, 
g. g. g. g. g. g. g. g. g, g. g. s. (out of a ewe got by a Compton sheep) — 

Lord Polwarth, 
g. g. g. g. g. g. g. g. g. g. g. g. s. — Lord Polwarth, 
g. g. g. g. g. g. g. g. g. g. g. g. g. s. — Mr. Jobsbn of Hezehif. 

t Fii-st-prize ram at Edinburgh, 1858, and bought by Lord Polwarth for 
35 guineas. 

t First-prize shearling and tsvo shear at Kelso in 1S55-56, and taken Ijy Lord 
Polwarth, for the season of 1855, for 25 guineas. 

li Got by Mr. Taylor's champion sheep, which beat eleven of the same age 
at the first Northumberland Show. 



360 FIELD AND FERN. 

then sell them at the House of Muir and elsewhere 
in February. 

Moffat fair, at which about one thousand rams, 
three-fourths of them Cheviot and the rest Leicester 
and blackfaces, are annually sold, clashed with the 
Kelso ram sale ; but " Moodlaw's" sale came off on 
the day before it. For a long time this sale and 
^'^KirkhilFs" have been on alternate years. The old 
inn hard by the bridge which spans the Evan Water 
looked quite bright that day, Avith tables spread 
in the coach-houses, and union-jacks floating 
from the hay-loft. "Ericstane" was in the chair; 
and as visitors dropped in, table after table was 
added, till at last the coach-house " threw out skir- 
mishers" with knife and fork, half-way across the 
yard. There was no music save the drone of a bag- 
pipe in the distance, and no blackface on the field 
save a negro who sold sweetmeats, and treated 
each Cheviot breeding sahib to a most reverent 
salaam. Fully a hundred shepherd- dogs lay about 
or under the platforms, and amid the plaided crowd 
there walked an Edinburgh horse-dealer with his 
hands in his pockets, and trying hard to appreciate 
that cock of the lug and glint of the eye for which 
the Moodlaw flock is so famed. All the tups had 
been collected two or three days before at Mr. Bry- 
don's farm, Kinnel Head, and therefore most of the 
breeders knew them by heart. " Skelf Hill" and the 
sheep men from the Hawick side mustered strong ; 
and while the young Brydons, in the absence of their 



LOCKERBY TO MOODLAW. 361 

father, marshalled the tups outside the ring, the 
lusty manhood of Tom Welsh was master of the cere- 
monies within. There, too, sat Linhope, with his 
catalogue clasped to his breast, as he eyed the first 
lot, and the still more portly form of " Baitlaws" in 
his brown gaiters, with his two hands resthig on his 
stick — as moderators of that Cheviot assembly. 

Then ^^ Linhope" broke silence. *' Old Duke, what 
age is he T^ " Five shear," says Mr. Oliver ; ^' he 
won at Perth, Battersea, Langholm, and Thornhill." 
However, his age was against him, and 22 gs. was the 
figure. '' Thorley by The Earl by The Duke by 
Old Pal ley — who^ll give twenty guineas ?" " Twelve," 
says the cautious Baitlaws. " Fifteen — twenty," 
says Tom Welsh; and away they went, Mofi'at of 
Craig going to the cry, and fall of drive. At fifty 
there was a pause, and Tom Welsh " was in." 
Then " Linhope," Mofi'at, and Archibald ran to 
head once more. " Linhope" was in at sixty, and 
again at sixty-two ; but he would have no more of it,. 
and Archibald received the Oliverian benediction, 
"You^llget into a good stock." Ben Lomond then 
gave us a turn. He trotted round the ring, made 
for a bolt-hole, and in an instant our form was tilted 
up, and ourselves and a companion bit the sod. Loud 
and long was the laugh against us, and there was 
nothing for it but to move mentally that his "name 
be taken down," and into our note-book it went. 
We did not wait long for revenge. With a rigid 
impartiality beyond all praise. The Idiot fiew at 



362 FIELD AND FERN. 

higlier game; and just missing Tom Welsli, and all 
but scattering Mr. Oliver, he made straight to the 
judgment-seat, and in an instant '^ Linhope^^ and 
" Eaitlairs'^ were flying heels upwards ; and ere they 
"rose to order," he had found a bolt-hole near "Skelf 
HilF' (who was enjoying the scene most cruelly), and 
was off with Mr. Graham's ^30 on his head. Going 
to The Shaw, he jumped the dykes like a wild goat, 
and took a world of driving, but proved well the 
next lambing " for a^ that and a' that.'-' The spirit 
was not knocked out of the seniors by their down- 
fall, as one bought Jonathan for 32 gs., and the other 
a horned one for 34 gs,, after a jocular complaint 
that '' a guinea had been missed,^' which only made 
the hearers bid harder. It was a great day for the 
Old Hornie blood, as 52 three-shears averaged £9 
13s. 

" The DeviFs Beef Tub,'-' that strange mountain 
hollow, at the head of which the old mail-road used 
to run, took us slightly north again from Moffat. 
The name of " Beef Tub'' is a delusion and a 
snare, and we fell back on Mr. Tom Welsh's snug 
steading of Ericstane, two miles away. Here the 
Cheviot and Ayrshire elements blend most harmo- 
niously. In the entrance there hangs the fine Roman 
head of Brydon's Wellington ; and a bower in his 
blue blouse was hard at cheese work, with his wife and 
family, behind. The Aj-rshire idea has been spread- 
ing eastward apace during the last ten years, and 
Dutch barns with metal pillars have spread with it. 



LOCKERBY TO MOODLAW. 363 

Mr. Jameson of Kirkbank an Ayrshire man, first 
started it in Dumfriesshire^ and in 1835 he was fol- 
lowed up by Mr. Miller at Balgray. The Dumfries- 
shire supplies of kye come from the Biggar and 
Ayrshire districts. They buy them principally in 
April, to calve at three on the grass. Dalziel of 
Whitcastle and Stoddart of B or eland are among the 
largest dairymen, and do it on their own account 
with about seventy cows each ; and Miss Hope 
Johnstone (who took the second prize for yearling 
heifers in a class of tvv^enty at Kelso) has also a model 
dairy. 

From Martinmas to Whitsuntide the milk and 
cream are generally sent separately to Edinburgh, all 
along the Caledonian line. Each day^s produce goes 
on the following, but at no period is more than 8d. 
a gallon got, the consignee paying the carriage. 
The majority of the Dumfriesshire dairies are 
managed by bowers, and the average rent is £S 
to £9 10s. a cow, except in Nithsdale, where they 
generally adopt the Ayrshire mode of working by the 
stone. They have many intricate bargains — so many 
acres of turnips for so many cows, and so many queys 
to bring up, &c. In another dairy it will be reckoned 
by so many cartloads of turnips to each cow, and the 
bowers to pull them with the shaws ; or so many 
acres of turnips and tares and a ton of bean-meal 
may be items in the account. 

The Liddesdale hounds never get as far, and at 
times they are sorely needed. Black Hope up 



364 FIELD AND FERN. 

Moffat Water was once a great foxhold^ and on 
regular field days the shepherds turn out with car- 
bines. Once thirty-two couple of Mr. Murray of 
Broughton^s hounds were over the scaur_, and only one 
was killed ; and a farmer spoke of it to us as his 
special crown of rejoicing that he was held over 
that scaur by his heels to keep him steady^ and pelted 
the fox off his half-way house ledge at last. 

Moffat Water and Whamphray Water are both 
crossed ; and the steep brow near the little church 
of Whamphray, with the pillar which speaks to the 
memory of Carruthers of Kirkhill, is scaled at last, 
and we are once more back at The Shaw. It had its 
small pack of harriers in the late Mr. Graham^s time, 
but his son has no divided love except between Gallo- 
ways and half-bred lambs. The house lies on a little 
eminence on the high road from Lockerby to Lang- 
holm, and the waters of the Caudle burn and the 
Dryfe flow down the pleasant glade. 

Mr. Graham^s Galloway herd is never large, as he 
sells both bulls and females; and his principal strains 
are from the Blind Bull (brother to Black Jock and 
Moss Trooper), who was bred by the late George 
Graham of Riggfoot, and was first at Edinburgh in 
^48. The present bull is from Mr. Halliday^s of 
Molock. His Cheviot ewes, whose cast is replaced 
annually Avith second ewe lambs from the adjacent 
fiockmasters, are put to Leicester tups, either of his 
own breeding, Mr. Bell Irving^s of Whitehill, or 
Yorkshire ones at a pinch, and the top lambs go off 



LOCKERBY TO MOODLAW. 365 

about the time of Lockerby fair, while the seconds 
with a month^s more keep bring nearly as much. 

Our onward route was past Boreland, where Mr. 
Stoddart has his dairy, through large sheep parks, and 
so over Eskdale Muir, where the Cheviot and curlew 
are monopolists. The homestead of ^^ Twiglees'^ own 
brother to " Terrona,'^ and a great Highland Society 
winner at one time, is a little to the left, and at last 
a turn and a dip in the road reveal Eskdale church. 
Young Thomas Brydon was laid there soon after. 
He was in a very failing state at the last Beattock 
sale, and a winter spent, with a very devoted friend, 
between France and Torquay quite failed to restore 
him. Few young men gave higher promise as a 
flockmaster, and his death was a very deep sorrow 
to those who knew him best. There, too, stands a 
pillar to the memory of the Rev. Dr. Brown, who 
laboured summer and winter for forty years in that 
quiet spot, where " the pedlar was murdered down 
yonder," and where the shepherds still assemble in 
a " Cameronian meeting-house.'^ 

A ford has to be crossed, and then in the distance 
beneath the fir-capped scaur we catch our first 
glimpse of Moodlaw. Tliree counties meet just above 
the steading at Cracksmuir Hill ; but really, what 
with eternal heather and sheep parks, we had long 
since lost all county distinctions. Mr. Brydon has 
four farms in all, two of them in Selkirkshire ; and 
Moodlaw, with its moor, moss, bog, and lea, is about 
the best pasture in the south of Scotland. Eskdale 



366 FIELD AND FERX. 

Muir belongs principally to the Duke of Buccleucli^ 
and is rented at 7s. to 9s. 6d. per sheep. The best 
land is clay, with mossy bogs, and black at the bottom. 
The drains are eighteen inches deep, and placed eight 
to ten yards apart, and renewed every four or five 
years at the tenant^s expense. Where the pick 
does not " come in to pick your pocket," the making 
generally costs about nine shillings per hundred rods 
of eighteen feet. As for the old '^penny pie con- 
cern,''^ of twelve to thirty yards apart, it has gone 
quite out. 

The Mawkey ewe was in the paddock near the 
house with her twelfth set of lambs ; and two fawn 
greyhounds, coupled to keep them out of mischief, 
were the first to give us greeting. The flock has 
been in the family for nearly eighty years, and 
the Cheviot pedigree goes back for fully half that 
time ; but save an occasional grey-leg, no trace of 
the primitive blackface comes out. Mr. Brydon^s 
uncle showed sheep at Stirling about 1830, and won 
a tea service for the best Cheviot ; and in 1840 Mr. 
Brydon came to Moodlaw. 

His great object has been to get them shorter and 
thicker, especially above the knee, or " the butcher's 
grip,'' wide between the forelegs, with hard white hair 
on the crown, deep in the girth, well-woolled below 
and on the arms and thighs, with a fine park-ranging 
neck, light and clefty in the bone, white on the legs, 
and black on the nose. A flat crown and too pointed 
ears are points he has always struggled against ; and 



LOCKERBY TO MOODLAW. 367 

\ 

a fine Roman head_, with a full and daring eye^ is quite 
his coat of arms. He also prefers the coat rather open, 
as the closely-planted ones are disposed to shed 
their wool in the spring when the new and the 
old coats separate. The wool calculation is five 
fleeces of ewes and hoggs, and three of hill-ranging 
tups to the 241b. stone. If a ewe nurses two lambs, 
she has one-third less wool, and if she is in the cast 
she is generally among the shots. From Martinmas 
until the beginningof April, about 3,000 brats are used 
for the ewe hoggs, as the woollen cloth prevents the 
wet from settling on the fleece. This is, however, a 
plan which few, except Mr. Brydon, observe, and he 
does not recognise the objection that it prevents the 
wool from rising properly. There are eight thousand 
ewes in the flock, which have generally five crops of 
lambs, and the cast has gone for years to farmers 
in the district. The wedder lambs are all sold in 
August, and 120 tups are kept each year. Eight 
sales have been held so far, with about nine score in 
each of them, and, as a general rule, the two- 
shears sell best. 

Since Mr. Brydon succeeded to the flock, he has 
been a steady shower, both at the Highland Society, 
Mofi'at, Thirlstane, Langholm, Dumfries, and Thorn- 
hill. Old Stirling won eleven prizes. He was a 
sheep of grand style, and sported! a 131b. coat as 
a four-shear. Old Palley was alsoT/^ all gaiety and 
life," with a very special coat and a head which was 
thought worthy of stuffing. Roughie was of the 



368 FIELD AND FERN. 

Sampson l\ind, and a very useful sheep^ but Sampson 
himself was " not of an ofif-hand show appearance." 
He was the largest Mr, Brydon ever bred, and weighed 
nearly IDJst. of 141bs. even when his season had 
sunk him 5 or 6 stone. As a ewe-getter, there was 
none to compare with "The Rigglin," for which 
Mr. Borthwick of Hopesrigg gave £100. Robson, 
from whom many of the best ewes are descended, was 
a horned one, and for staple and quality of wool he 
was unequalled among the tups, aud brought £75 at 
Beattock. Horned Cheviots are generally more 
hardy and coarser in the coat, but Eobson^s was a 
complete contradiction of the rule. Hornie was sold 
for 55 gs. to Mr. Patterson of Twiglees, and Mr. 
Elliot of Hindhope got his sire, who, like Old Tom, 
was more of a ewe getter. The Captain (95 gs.) by Old 
Palley went as a three-shear to Mr. Borthwick ; and 
Mr. Graham of The Shaw had the remains of " Heb" 
in a present, when he had been used for five seasons. 
The old Mawkey ewe thrice shared first-prize 
honours in a pen of five ewes, and gimmers, and she 
had twins every year but two. Out of her twenty-two 
lambs, one of them was Lord Clyde (the wdnner of 
8 prizes) by The Duke, and another Sir Colin by Heb, 
who won five prizes. But as we were pondering over 
this Eskdale matron, the rain came down in such tor- 
rents, and swelled the brook to such an extent, that 
further progress was impossible. There was no Lang- 
holm that night, and we resigned ourselves to a 
most pleasant captivity. 



MOODLAW TO ARKLETON. 369 



" yes ! a,nd that's e'e time ; O yes ! and that's twa times; O yes ! an:I 
that's theu'd and last time : All manner of pearson and pearsons whatso-e'ei* 
let 'um di-aw near, and I shall let 'em kenn that their is a fair to be held 
ftt the niuckle tomie of Langholm for the space of anght days ; wherein :i 
any Hnstrin, Gastrin, Land-conper, Dnb-skimper, or Gang-the-gate-swinger 
shall head anj'Urdain, Durdain, Rebblement, Brebblement, or Sqnebblement, 
he shall have his lugs tecked to the muckle Trone with a nail of twal-a- 
penny until he be doun of his hobshanks and up with his muckle doups, and 
pray to Hea'n neen times, God bless the King, and thrice the muckle Laird 
of Relton, paying a gi'oat to me, Jamie Ferguson, Baily of the aforesaidManor. 
So you've heerd my proclamation, and now I'll awa' haam to mj' damier." 

Gentleman's Magazine. 

Fi'om Moodlaw to Langholm — The late Sir Frederick Johnstone — 
Langholm and its Ej^e-laws — Langholm Lodge and its Bard — Hunting 
— The late Lord John Scott ; his Racing Stud — A Crack with Terrona 
on Cumberland Border Sires — Terrona's Poet — Mr. John Jardine and. 
liis Greyhounds. 

HE Esk was down again by noon^ and, crossing it 
once more, we followed it on the south side as 
far as Langholm. There is more bent, and therefore 
less feeding quality, on the hills beneath which it 
flows than at Moodlaw ; and the valley, which occa- 
sionally opens out into a series of holmes, is fringed 
with plantations of beech, oak, and. fir, which steal at 
intervals almost to the hill tops. With the exception 
of a few West Highlanders and Galloways, we saw no- 
thing but the shorthorn once more. Many of them 
were Irish-bred stirks, which are gradually driving 

2 B B 



370 FIELD AND FERN. 

out the blacks. Bilham, the farm of one of " Chris- 
topher North^s" sons, lies in a hollow to our right, 
and we pass close by the steading of Borthwick of 
Hopesrigg, who has fought and won at the High- 
land Society, and sells forty to fifty of his tups at 
Hawick each September. The spur and wings on a 
sign tell that Westerhall is nigh ; and tying our mare 
to the gate, we saunter up the plantation walk lead- 
ing to the pillar which was erected to the memory 
of Sir Frederick Johnstone. 

"Waterford/' ^^ Greene," "Moore," Musgrave,'^ 
" Macdonald," and many an associate of his merry 
Melton days have gone, like him, to the land of 
shadows. The villagers told us, in their simple way, 
what a man he was, and, with an emphasis that three- 
and-twenty years had not deadened one whit, that he 
was '^sair likit in the country-side" — "like a gallop- 
ing horse with his harriers ;" how he ran on foot, 
and hunted all Eskdale, Ewesdale, and Annandale 
as well, and how he used to van the pack from 
Westerhall to the meet, before he got the Falford 
kennels. The evening sun was just lighting up the 
shadows on Whita, the hill of the monument, as we 
emerged from quite a shady alcove on to the "muckle 
toune" of Langholm, or rather of Malcolm Brothers. 
The statue of Sir John, one of the foremost minds 
in the Indian Council, looks down its greeting from 
the bleak hill above to Sir Pulteney in the market 
place. They were honoured with high confidence 
from strictly opposite quarters. The one was the 



MOODLAW TO ARKLETON. 371 

trusted friend of Wellington^ and the other had, on 
the authority of Napoleon, ^' the true face of an Eng- 
lishman/^ Hard by him there hangs the mostDraconic 
code of bye-laws on the clock-house that ever town- 
clerk penned or provost pondered. Swine-scalding, 
bull and "furious animal driving,^^ carpet-beating, 
water across foot-paths, ashes, cart driving, are all 
regulated by it. If your chimney is on fire you're 
fined, and if you're a parent you're answerable for 
your child, and for each oifence you may be fined 
20s., or have twenty-four hours in quod. The spirit 
of Jamie Ferguson's "proclamation" does, indeed, 
linger in that terrible edict. Before we had been 
there two minutes, we had all but broken a bye-law, 
as you " mayn't attach your animal to a house," and 
we had hung ours for a minute on the statue-rails, so 
we thought it high time to decamp down Ewesdale, 
and consult " Terrona" as to the consequences. 

Had it been race-time, the Langholm Lodge 
meadow would have been a sure find for him, either 
at the cords or the wrestling-ring. Tom Sayers 
came there to watch the science of the " Cumber- 
land chip," with a view to its use in his own more 
bloody fray with Heenan, and received divers atten- 
tions from his newly-found " Uncle." Scott, Ivison, 
Ben Cooper, and Dick Wright have all been cham- 
pions on this velvet sward. It is said that in the 
New Forest the married women play the lasses at 
cricket, and deliver " shooters" and " run like mad" 
between the wickets to the shout of '^ Well hit, mo- 

2 B B 2 



372 FIELD AND FERN. 

ther V from the lads ; but Langholm saw another 
sight, when a Cumbrian mother arrived to see her 
lad wrestle, and not only laid odds on him, but ex- 
horted him to " iak a good hold," with other scien- 
tific and strictly local directions. All descriptions of 
Langholm Lodge pale before " Old Davy the Mins- 
treFs." It isnowfiftyyearsormoresincehewent about 
with a cuddy, and not only ground knives, but com- 
posed verses, which he recited on the smallest provo- 
cation, and with extra emphasis for ale or a bit of 
baccy. A call for " your verses on Langholm Lodge, 
Dslyv/' was answered on this wise, and if the bard 
was on the cuddy at the moment they were thought 
to be all the more impressive : 

" Oh ! Langholm, thou art beautiful, 

Where three fine waters meet,* 
In view of a large country hall, 

A great lord's country-seat; 
Which he hath called after thee. 

For to augmeut thy fame, 
And in record will stand and be 

The Langholm Lodge by name." 

Decidedly the finest Langholm minstrels of the 
present age are the scratch pack which are hunted 
by the Duke's gamekeeper. Sometimes they join 
the Liddesdale, with whom Ballantyne of Shaws, 
Graham of Broadlee, Elliot of Twisselhope, Kei 
of Whitehaugh, and Jamie Smith of Harwood 
Mill are the Hard-riding Dicks. Jamie is "tar- 
rible keen,'' and when he is not foxhunting with 
Ballantyne, he may be seen following his two fox- 
hound bitches (either solus or with quite a large field), 

* Ewes, Esk, and Wauchope. 



MOODLAW TO ARKLETOX. 373 

and a straight-backed Liddesdale hare in front of 
them. On one occasion Lord John Scott brought 
Williamson and the hounds^ and they drew towards 
Cannobie. Will didn^t care for such house-side hills, 
and Lord John was always for getting him into the 
flows. However, he knew what they were up to, 
and escaped their wiles pretty well, and delivered 
himself pretty smartly when he was safe back at St. 
EoswelFs : '• Good my lud^ did ye ever ken the like 
6' that ? — men and muirs a' alike. Pve been in the 
flows, and they've never been in bed — they^refou yet ; 
there^s something else than a fox in their 'ee" Lord 
John loved this wild Langholm hunting, and spared 
himself no fatigue. He once rode some thirty miles to 
Langholm the day before a hunt, from Spottiswoode 
and found at Cannobie, through the Wauchope country 
and over Eskdale and back to Langholm, and then 
to Thirlstane Castle, forty miles away in the heart 
of Berwickshire. The quiet dalesman might well 
run out to look, as he swept past like the storm, 
catching up his hacks of yesterday at points on the 
road. 

It was well said of him that he was a " Scotch- 
man of the Scotch,^^ and that '' in the days of Border 
chivalry he would have been the hero of many a 
ballad." He leistered about the Ettrick and the 
Tweed, and he and the Duke of Athole vied with 
each other, in their otter-hunting bouts, who should 
tunnel farthest into the fortress when it had gone 
right under the bank, and who should come out from 



374 FIELD AND PERN. 

helping the terriers with most sand in his hair. 
He had a racehorse or two in Scotland, but never 
regularly settled to the sport till he had purchased 
Phryne and hired Pantaloon; and engaged Mat 
Dawson in ^48 to train for him, first at Newmarket, 
and then at Compton. He sold Elthiron, the first 
of "the PP stocV to Lord Eglinton, to his own 
sorrow, for 250 gs. ; and he stuck to the remainder, 
except when the £6,500 for Hohbie Noble tempted 
him. His sister Miserrima was then tried high 
enough to have won five out of six Oaks ; but Frank 
Butler, on the roaring Iris, waited and outstrode her. 
George Whitehouse, a very quick man at a T.Y.C. 
post, and then Marlow, rode for the stable. Hobbie 
Noble was a slug in his work, and The Reiver very 
awkward to do with in the stable ; and Cannobie was, 
perhaps, the best horse his lordship ever had. He 
gave up racing a few years before his death, as his 
health was not strong enough to bear the excitement. 
Mr. Merry took the stud in a lump at last, and 
had two foals from Phryne. The old mare died at 
Hasketon, very near her time of foaling a colt by 
Alice Hawthorne^s son Oulston, to whom she had 
been sent for the sake of getting collaterally at 
another Thormanby.* 

Lord John, who named a race-horse after him, and 
British Yeoman, are ever on old '^ Terrona's^' lips. 
He was quite in his glory when be repaired to the 

* For a further accotmt of Lord John's Cawston stud, see "Scott and 
Sebkight," pp. 222—226. 



MOODLAW TO ARKLETON. S75 

field near tlie house, with the hound " Yeoman" at 
his heels, to show us the Giraffe mare with the last 
drop of the old horse at her foot. It had been duly- 
named '*^Terrona/' and bids fair to be a Border 
gallant in days to come. With a view to showing 
its paces he rattled on his hat like a tambou- 
rine, and then called up the rest of the Yeomans 
from the long meadows with quite the chest-notes of 
a Mario. The Cheviot gimmers which came second 
to the Moodlaw pen at Kelso were in the field, but 
his son John looks to them. " Terrona^s^^ heart is 
in the horse-ring and the saddle ; and, as he observes 
with much seeming satisfaction, he has ''' been left 
twenty-two times for dead with strange horses." 
Being once safely beyond the clad score, it seems 
quite reasonable that he should now '' put in for two 
dozen." 

Somehow, he always recovers in a most marvellous 
manner ; and his reel with the late Marquis of Queens- 
berry at ^^ The Crown" — when Joe Graham was quite 
theBeauNash of the evening, and in that capacity kept 
the two fiddlers so ably up to the mark that they 
played '^ Bonny Dundee" one-and-thirty times — ^is 
talked of yet in Langholm. His spirits never fla^, 
and a peep at his face when a blood-horse is the 
theme is like a sunbeam on a frosty day. What 
a crack we had that night of every Cumberland 
or Border horse we had ever heard of or seen 
going down Stanwix brow each Saturday in our 
schoolboy days. He gave us them all, from Bang- 



376 riELD AND FERN. 

tail down to Laughing Stocky intermingling his dis- 
course with Yeoman elegiacs. 

First it was blood-horses ; and " first and foremost 
came Bangtail^ with his dark whole-coloured stock. 
He ran some four-mile heats with Pleader, and each 
Avon a heat, and then they had a dead heat. Outcry 
by Camillus got great and good horses, roarer as he 
was. Mr. Blamire, the member, brought Gregson 
and Grand Turk the coacher into the country from 
Tommy Swan of Bedale's. Gregson got great, fine 
greys, when to own a grey was to have i^iO extra in 
your pocket. Ben Ledi had good action, but curby 
hocks. The Corinthians had all bad tempers, and 
light back ribs ; and Boyalist was a cock-thropple- 
necked horse, short and sound, but with no action or 
power. The Earl was a little curb}^, and had an ugly 
head ; but he got sound, good stock, and not very 
handsome. Grey carriage-horses were Grey Wigan- 
thorpe's forte. Mr. Ferguson w^anted a grey, but Sir 
Tatton couldn't sell him one under four hundred, so 
he dealt with Mr. Garforth. They were good car- 
riage horses, but, like him, they were short of speed. 
Phoenix was quite unsound when he raced, just like 
all the Cobwebs. He was an elegant horse, of a su- 
perb colour, but he wanted bone and fore-feet, and 
the stock put out curbs perpetually. The Yeoman 
(and here he was most emphatic) has done a deal in 
sixteen years ; three-fourths of his foals were colts. 
There are some rare mares by him; and Charley 
Boy, that was a high lifter and slapping character 



MOODLAW TO ARKLETOX. 377 

of a horse. The Yeoman nearly always got bays 
and browns, and generally whole-coloured ; if he did 
get a chesnut even off a brown mare with not a speck 
of white on her, it w^ould have stockings up to the 
knees and hocks, and it was generally a good \\u. If 
The Yeoman had a fault, I grant you, it was rather 
light fore-legs. The Galaors w^ere a bit long in the 
back, and short in the quarters. Mr. Ferguson 
never had a better ; great, fine, slapping weight car- 
riers^ there are some grand mares by him, generally 
browns, and speedy too. The E-avenhills had much 
better forelegs than he had himself, and he got them 
good dark browns, but a trifle high-tempered. 

"Candidate was not thorough -bred; his mares threw 
good hunters, and he crossed remarkably well with 
the Clydesdales. He was the first that came to 
Harker Lodge. Lord Selkirk imported him when he 
was four years old from Yorkshire for his Kirkcud- 
bright tenants ; and then Mr. Ferguson and Mr. 
Fawcett of Scaleby and one or two others bought 
him. He had navicular disease and contracted feet, 
but still his stock were pretty sound, and had grand 
action. Grand Turk had rare ribs and quarters; he was 
a rich bay with no white hairs, and got as good, in 
fact better, mares than Candidate. He was a flashy- 
looking horse, and got them all bays, but " somehow 
he didn^t put his rib on them.^^ " The Turk mares" 
were terribly run upon, as their action was so showy ; 
he laid a great foundation for carriage-horse bays. 
Bay Chilton was no use to him in the show-yard. 



378 FIELD AND FERN. 

Nimrod was by Muley out of a ^^ Turk mare/' and 
had all tlie family action. Monarch was a great bay 
horse, far too big, and put them all unsound in the 
Penrith district. 

'^ There have been a great many good cart-sires. 
Young Clyde had fine action, and a light middle. 
Blythe did wonders. He had won at the Highland 
Society and at a great many other places, and they 
picked him up to go South. He was kept there three 
or four years, and then they said he was too big, and 
exchanged him with Mr. Fawcett of Scaleby for a 
coacher. Then Wilson of Eurgh got him, and he 
made him pretty well. He had him more than eight 
years, and he took the Carlisle prize five years run- 
ning. The Stitchers were the old sort, bays with 
short legs, and wide and sound. Mr. Ellis of Ne- 
therby brought Stitcher to the Bush Inn, and began 
the new sort forty years ago. Scotch Miracle was 
one of his sons, and Young Clyde was off that tribe. 
The Scotch Miracles were square, well-set horses, 
great at a dead weight or on a farm. Mr. Borth- 
wick's horse was a thick one by Stitcher; and 
Glancer was smaller than some of them, but very 
good in action and everything else.^' 

The Terrona, or rather the Flask Wood pheasant 
covers, stretch down the Ewesdale valley, which we 
had now entered again on the south side, after riding 
nearly three hundred miles across and down Scotland 
from Hawick. We found disease busy among the 
larches, first attacking those between ten and thirty. 



MOODLAW TO ARKLETON. 379 

and then their seniors. Rising above Flask Wood is 
tlie rich green of Arkleton Crag, the hill which 
separates the Ewes, and the little stream of 

" Tarrass for the good bull trout, 
If it be ta'en in time." 

Carlisle may be seen from the Crag on a clear 
summer day, but the rival hills above Muckledale are 
a more lofty theme for " Terrona/-' We cannot say 
that he loves the Muses, but we do know that he gave 
Lady Florence Cust a lead after the Eskdale fox 
hounds down a brae which no woman^s steed had 
ever trodden before. He vowed on the spot that he 
would "commemorate the deed for ages yet un- 
born,^^ and looked up a poet from the dales, who did 
his spiriting well. The stone was inscribed and con- 
veyed on a sledge, and duly toasted in whisky ; and 
there it stands, with this inscription, in fulfilment of 
the VOW' — 

" Reared by a veteran sportsman's hand. 
In sunshine and in mist I stand. 
To tell the time and mark the place 
Where hisrh-ljred beauty led the chase, 
And gentle lady's graceful steed 
Gained fi-om the field its hard-earned meed: — 
I mark the spot on this wild fell, 
That fathers to their sons may tell 
How once a youthful Enghsh briae 
Taught the rough Borderers to ride." 

A ford to the right, a little farther on, leads to 
Arkleton past the gardens, which are Mr. John Jar- 
diners delight. The bowling-green and everything 
about the house, which overlooks a little wooded 
burn flowing down from the hills above, are alike 
trim and tasteful, and the painted glass windows and 



380 FIELD AND FERN. 

the statues are true to the love of the leash. Mr. 
Jardine has a flock of about 1,400 ewes and ewe 
hoggs, and uses Aitchison, Brydon_, and Borthwick 
tups. After the fourth crop of lambs, they are 
brought from the heights on to the improved pasture 
for a crop of half-bred lambs, which feed far quicker 
than the Cheviot, although all have not the rich 
o-razins: of Minsca and Torbeck Hill. The half-bred 
system begins at Burnfoot, and branches when it 
reaches Langholm, not only six miles down Ewes- 
dale, where it stops and is resumed again nearer Ha- 
wick, but away by Cannobie, one of the five kirks of 
Eskdale, into Cumberland. The Cheviot wedder 
lambs are sold at Carlisle, and the seconds and the 
shots of the ewe lambs go to Lockerby and Melrose 
fairs, to be used as dams of half-breds in flocks where 
not a Cheviot is bred. 

We bad to sit a short time, waiting for the grey- 
hounds ; but with the help of a telescope we sighted 
Willie Keddie coming down from the Crag, with 
the short-tempered Owersby following meekly at 
heels. Willie was once a shepherd with Mr. Elliot 
of Hindhope. He was quite a noted sheep -clipper, 
and in the greyhound training profession of later 
years he has clipped the wings of a few when they 
least looked for it. There was quite a troop behind 
him that morning, and among them "Fly''' or Old 
Border Union by Jeff'rey from Ladylike, " a good 
steady one, who placed herself well to the game like 
her dam, but was short of pace for the flat." 



MOODLAW TO AllKLETOX, 381 

Sam and Toll wife's picture hangs in tlie drawing- 
room, and, as Mr. Jardine says, "they began me." 
She was by King Cob, and had three successive litters 
to Sam. Miss Hannah, who was never beaten in her 
puppy season, was one of five with Marmora. Toll- 
wife's dam was ^Matilda Gillespie, who was slow, and, 
like Tollwife, could live a long time. Mr. Nightin- 
gale begged Mr. Jardine to send Matilda Gillespie 
to King Cob, as his stock ran so stout and kept 
their heads so well down. Motley, the sire of 
David, Avas an own brother to Marmora and Miss 
Hannah, and a first-class dog at Amesbury, Ash- 
down, and Market AVeighton. He was a fast-driving 
dog, and, per Mr. Nightingale, " he could use a hare 
fastest, and put in more work than any greyhound 
of his day." This Willie Keddie cordially endorses 
with ^' he could strip 'em up without bending in Lid- 



The Tollwife stamina has never been lost in this 
kennel ; and be it at Ridgway, Biggar, Kelso, Teviot- 
side, Coquetdale, Broughton, Brampton, Brougham, 
or the Waterloo, " if the Jardine dogs live through 
the middle of the course they live to the finish." 
They are always kept well all summer — a great 
secret of success in coursing — for there is no more 
determined man than their owner^ or one who suc- 
ceeds better in everything he takes in hand. The 
Baron by Kentish Fire from Linnet, '^a strong, 
steady dog," is peculiarly associated with his name, 
and showed what he was made of by beating Scot- 



382 FIELD AND FERN. 

land Yet at Carstairs, after an undecided course. 
The hare durst not take her fence, and swerved 
down the brae, and the dog rushed in and used 
the point. It was in a sixty-four dog stake, and 
Scotland Yet^s merits in the middle of the course 
wiped off the first and last work, and brought 
out the red and white flags. His daughter, Lady- 
like, was one of a litter from Bella. She was a 
good winner at Brampton and Lowther, and very 
clever about not going too far downhill, which gave 
her a great pull on the steep ground at Biggar. 
At the stud she made a hit Avith Barrator, and one of 
the litter was Selby, whose Waterloo honours were 
shared by Clive, another of Mr. Jardine^s breeding, 
by Judge out of Moeris, and of the same litter as 
Jeffrey. 

There were six of them; and Mr. Majori- 
banks's trainer, who had his choice, left Jeffrey 
and Clive, the latter on account, as he said, of her 
white feet, but really because she Avas the worst 
looking puppy. There were two dogs and two 
bitches among the four he selected, one of which 
was for Lord Stradbroke, but none of them were 
good. Mr. Jardine had always a great love for 
Jeffrey ; he sent Ladylike to him when he was sold, 
and Faldonside, Crerer, Ingomar, and Border Union 
confirmed this choice. " Selby,^^ says Mr. Nightin- 
gale, '^ was not handsome, but with great power and 
bone, always stealing away up to his game. He was 
rather leggy for his length, clever, and turned well 



MOODLAW TO ARKLETOX. 383 

for a big dog, and always ran with 'fire. He fairly 
galloped over and ran down Portsea in the last 
course but one for the Waterloo Cup, for which 
Mr. Hedley, a relation of Mr. Jardine^s, trained 
him. Clive had not his brilliant dash. She was a 
low-running bitch, and went clean away from 
Antipas in the fourth ties for the Waterloo.^^ 

In a private trial before the Cup, Selby beat her, and 
carried the money of the party. Clive only lost one 
course out of twenty-two, and that was with Mr. 
Gibson^s Lassie in the Caledonian St. Leger. She 
was very easily prepared, and ran at 591bs. ; and at 
Biggar she divided the St. Leger wdth Mr. Borron^s 
Black Knight, who got the bye when she met Cardi- 
nal York. This was once a great stake with Mr. 
Jardine, as his dog Terrona^ divided it the next 
year with Canaradzo ; then his Faldonside and Crerer 
divided; and on the following year his Otterburn 
was beaten in his fourth course by Sea Foam. Mr. 
Jardine has been a courser for twenty years, and 
yet he was never near a Waterloo Cup except when 
he divided it with one of his own breeding. Since 
then he has been second for the Plate with Faldon- 
side and Owersby, and his Miss Hannah won it for 
Mr. Marjoribanks. 

And so we hied on our way back through Ewes- 
dale, viewed " Terrona^^ once more at the distance 
as happy as a cricket among his mares and foals, and 

* This clog was lent to Mr. Jardine by Lord Jolin Scott wlien he ran at 
Biggar, and his lordship left especial directions before his death that ilr. 
Jardiae should keep him. 



384 FIELD AND FERN. 

got safely through Langholm without violating a 
single bye-law. The road from there to Cannobie — 
with thick nut-copses on one side_, the Esk 
murmuring over rock and chasm on the other, 
and the deep, silent shade over head — is one of the 
sweetest sumaier rides in Scotland, and not a cheer- 
less one in winter. The " Cross Keys" Hotel seemed 
almost on English ground ; achesnut, with a species 
of " Happy Tom" on a donkey at his side; called up 
'^ Terrona^s" lecture of the overnight ; and the long 
green Lomax holme across the river " marched with 
Cumberland" at last. 



CANNOBIE TO KENSINGTON. 38, 



/rr>F-v% p.. r-K- VT "^^ »1^ S^i^K-Sv" 

CiiiOBiE f8 EEiliiGfOi. 

"If you will pass your life with birds and Sowers, try to raise the finest 
turnips and breed the largest fowls." 

Dk. Jonxsox. 

Woodliouselees — The late Miss Rachel Bell — Ecclefechan — A Day at 
Knockhill; its Horses and Greyhounds — Iloddom Castle — Iluntin^^ 
llecollections of Joe Graham — The Dumfriesshire Kennels— Blood 
Royal in his Barn — Mr. Beattie and his Stake Nets — The Solway 
riow — The Red Kirk Herd — Prom Holme Eden to Kensington. 

?^||e stopped short of tliose double turnpikes on each 
*^^ side of the Border boundary, which try the 
traveller's patience so sorely, and renewed our ac- 
quaintance with Woodhouselees. The farm, which 
belongs to the Dukeof Buccleuch, iiasbeen occupied 
by successive generations of the Bell family since 
1707. ^Tith the century the present Mr. James 
Bell's father entered on it. He was a leading agri- 
culturist in his day, and an active director of the 
Highland Society for several 3'ears. After his death 
in 1832, his son George held the farm for four 
years, and then transferred it to his sister Bebecca, 
who inherited all the eountrj^ tastes of the family, 
and who occupied it until her death in July, '61. 
James Little, the grieve, v.'hohnsbeen nearly forty 

2 c c "^ 



386 FIELD AND EERX. 

years about the place, and " took Miss Rebecca in 
tow" wlien her father died, was in the road listening 
to the rambling recital of a Cumberland cart-sire man 
— how " we worn't beaten but we wor cheateu" in 
the ring at Carlisle — and then dismissing him in our 
favour, with the comforting but rather general as- 
surance that his horse was "a weeli-comed ^un." 
He quite waked up when, we reminded him of his 
dear old mistresses times, and asked after the mares 
which had such choice foals by Ravenhill and British 
Yeoman. We remembered how she would be about 
everywhere with her blue sun-bonnet, and with her 
6g» basket on her arm, now snipping off the dead 
roses in her dainty flower-garden, now sallying into 
the pastures to have a look at the last fall of half- 
bred lambs, or '' a word with James" at the head of 
the turnip-hoers, and then joining her sister Isabella 
at their own girls^ school, which many a village lass 
has had good reason to bless. 

There never was a more spirited disciple of Ceres 
and Christian Curwen, but her heart lay more in the 
farmyard than the arable land. Her small pure 
Y/hites and middles, with their strong dash of 
Brandsby blood, used to go off ten in a cart, three 
times in the season, to the Annan pig market. She 
crossed her Ayrshires Avith shorthorns, and made 
Dunlop cheese. The prize rosettes were to be 
found on her pens of Dorkings, Spanish, Golden 
Spangles, Bramah Pootras, and Hamburghs at Edin- 
burgh, Glasgow, Manchester, and Liverpool; she 



CANNOBIE TO KENSINGTON. 387 

could command ten guineas for her prize pens of 
Rouens^ from such judges as Mrs. Ferguson Blair 
and Mr. Gibson of Woolmet, and as much for her 
Aylesburys ; but as James says, " We never fashed 
the turkeys/^ Both Leicester and Lincoln rams were 
used to the Cheviot ewes, and the latter answered 
well. Half-breds abound all the way from Langholm, 
but they are not bred on *^ the flying stock^^ or cast 
Cheviot ewe principle, and '- middle" Cheviot lambs 
are bought to keep up the ewe stock. James often 
tells, in connexion with these purchases, of the 
astonished look of a Southron visitor, who heard 
him say to his mistress, " If nine score lambs be o^er 
mony, we can just shoot a few on ■'em.''^ Things go 
on under the management of Mr. James Bell (who 
spends his time between Liverpool and Cannobie) quite 
in the good old way. It is a six-course rotation, 
oats, turnips, oats sown down to pasture, and three 
years' grass, and now fully 100 pigs are fed off each 
year. 

From Cannobie we cast back once more past Gil- 
nockie and one or two more Border towers, and by 
rather a dreary cross route to Ecclefechan, that won- 
derful little town which prides itself on its manners, 
and requests all those who are short of that article to 
come for '' half a Saturday'^ when soap-suds are rife. 
It has always been impressed on our minds from 
Sylvaniis Urban's story of the lady near there, who 
used to ride round and rqund her barn on a sheltie as 
she read novels, and declare that it was the only 

2 c c 2 



388 FIELD AND FERN. 

mode of enjoying a circulating library. Burnswark or 
those two hills united by a rampart, and Woodcockair 
were our beacons, and on we went past the little 
church where one of the monuments seemed to have 
made itself legs and walked clean out of the wall, and 
where a husband, who had not been burdened with 
''^my spouse Nancy,^^ writes: "And to be short to 
her praisp, she was the wife Solomon speaks of." 
Despite this hint, celibacy still exists about here to 
very^great extent. 

Old Pallinsburn looked well as we met him in 
sheets for a morning's walk, and everything was 
thriving at Knockhill. The swallow had come back 
and built in the porch once more; the brood mares 
were ; all in-foal, the spotted sheep were all in- 
lamb, and the burning of Aurora in her stable, which 
happened the only year the swallow was away, seemed 
in a fair way of being forgotten at last. Birkie^s 
bark was heard of course, as we rode up, and so was 
WilFs reproving voice to her and half-a-dozen more 
behind. The Ayrshires, with one or two beauties 
among them, were having their morning's run in the 
sloping meadoY.^ The black ducks were on the pond, 
and the white crow on the tree; the Dorkings were 
strolling in and out of the laurels, or standing on 
one leg under the Irish yews ; and an aviary was full 
of the choicest fancy pigeons, principally blues and 
purples. There had been American turkeys, but they 
were no sooner let out of their hamper than they 
winged their flight straight to Woodcockair, and Will 



CANNOBIE TO KENSINGTON. 389 

and Bob^ like Lcrd Ullin^ -^'ere " left lamentiiig^^ for 
nearly a fortniglit. 

Inside the house there is the same ever fresh va- 
riety. The late General Sharpens grey mare hangs 
near '^ TJphorn/^ the Ayrshire; and Hughie Graham 
shares his canvas with Maid of Islay, both of them 
'- family fawns.^' jMyrrha by Malek is there with " a 
frame like a cart-horse ;" and there too, from Robert 
Harrington^s hand, is Leda with her pistol tail, and 
'^ Simmy" on Philip — a pair, ais the Ayrshire lasses 
used to say, " worth all the men and horses to look 
at.'' 

Lord Yv^emyss hated waiting, and if " Simmy" 
said to him, ^' We\'e won one heat, my lord — let them 
have the next to themselves," he shook his head, and 
wouldn't have it. Lamps were tied to the posts when 
Leda ran her five two-mile heats, with all the endur- 
ance which the Voltigeurs (when they can undergo a 
strong preparation) inherit from her and Mulatto ; 
and "Simmv" and she misrht have brouo-ht it off if she 
had not hugged the bank and lost two lengths by 
slipping. The darkness also told on Mr. Sharpe, as 
he had his pocket picked during the fourth heat, for 
the only time in his life. Leda was byFilho da Puta 
(who walked from Newmarket to Monreith when he 
was five weeks old) out of Treasure by Camillus. For 
fifteen years Mr. Sharpe never visited Doncaster 
without buying a horse fromt he Houldsworths or 
Sammy King, and he got her for £50, because her 
hip was down. She first ran at Dumfries, and 



390 FIELD AND FERN. 

cut up SO badly that she v/as put into a straw yard, 
and the farmer's sons rode her to school. After that, 
she won two fifties in Lord Elcho^s name, and Sir 
James Bos well offered .€250 for her, but Mr. Sharpe 
did not care to part v/ith her, and said "A thousand 
or nothing.^^ To use his own expression, '^Iwas 
crazy on Mulatto /^ but it proved very methodical 
madness, as her produce Martlia Lynn became the 
dam of A^oltigeur. All the old mare's stock found a 
purchaser in Mr. Ramsay, the colts at £100 and the 
fillies at £80, and soon after Martha had been 
swapped away to Mr. Stephenson, Leda herself died 
while foaling a colt to The Doctor. Hazard by Black- 
lock was another of Mr. Sharpens Doncaster pur- 
chases, and so was Dan by Catton. To win the 
Maiden Plates at Edinburgh was his great aim, and 
when he was confederate with Lord Wemyss (then 
Lord Elcho) in Philip, Brunswick, and Gondolier, 
his sphere was considerably extended. Beagle by 
Whalebone was his first stallion ; and Brunswick, 
whom he bought more out of charity than fancy at 
Perth, because the party had lost every half-pennj^, 
and did not know how to get home, was his second. 
Sister to Jerry was also in his hands when her black 
brother won the St. Leger, and she died visiting 
Brunswick.^ 

Of later years, hunters have been a great point 
with him. Knockhill, the present crack of Lord 
"Wemyss's stable, was by Turnus out of a roan mare, 

* See " Scott and Sebright," pp. 152 and 234. 



o N 






p 0=3 




CANNOBIE TO KENSINGTON. 391 

wliose dam did credit to lier Tarn O^Shanter trotting 
blood, in Mr. Sharpens brother-in-law's Sir Thomas 
Kirkpatrick of Closeburn^s drag, and then ran in the 
"Defiance/^ and finally in nn Edinburgh cab. His 
half-brothers Tom Linne and The Friar both fol- 
lowed Knockhill after a Derby and St. Leger forfeit 
had been paid for Tom, and two more own brothers 
joined them at four years old. Gubaroo, bought 
from his breeder, Captain Archdale, was another of 
Mr. Sharpe's selling, and, great as he was at stone 
walls, he nearly killed himself over one in Amisfield 
Park. Mr. Tinning of Tinwald owned Dumfries, 
and when Mr. Sharpe sent for the horse, wdio v/as on 
sale, and bid Bob Carlyle get on him near Repentance 
Tower, Bob never repented more. 

Our stroll round the house was soon over, but the 
outlyers had to be seen. The old Ayrshire cow Meg 
is fully sixteen years old, and still milking superbly. 
She was a model in early life, when she won four 
prizes, and there are scarcely any marks of age on 
her now, except the prodigious length (15 inches) of 
her horns. The brood mares and sheep were sharing 
the cattle-field pasture. There roamed Johanna 
Wagner, who had won two or three things in her 
day, with a foal, Ravenshoe, by Mr. Sharpens own 
horse Maudricardo of Mr. Greville^s breeding, Cora 
Linne, a full sister to Montrose, who belongs to 
Will and Bob, and was due, like Trip the Daisy 
(Butterfly's own sister), to Chevalier d^Industrie. 
Both Trip and Cora were winners ; Trip scored the 



S92 FIELD AND TERN. 

Cumberland Plate and sundries, but Cora beat her 
easily in a trial at Airdrie. The latter was tried to 
be better than the Heir of Linne, but before tlie 
money could be got on for the Goodwood Nursery 
the secret got wind, and the maiket was forestalled. 
The ewe flock, which all wear bells, began from some 
spotted Cheviot ewes, with a touch of Shetland in 
them, and they have been crossed with a Leicester 
and a Southdown. Still, the primitive magpie 
colours come out, and only grow a little lighter with 
exposure to the weather. It wants no dyeing, and 
some of the lads have had coats made from it. Carle 
Time and Talc Tent were at the kennels, and so w^ere 
Cut and Dry (^' one of the old style who never leaves 
his hare^^), Fly with her sv/eet head. Black Agnes and 
her Carl Time puppies, and What Care I, the dam of 
Cut and Dry. Mr. Sharpe runs very little in public, 
except there is a meeting in the neighbourhood, and, 
unlike their forefathers, who were stripped at Mal- 
leny and the Eoman Camp in the brave days of old, 
his greyhounds are not named after the heroes of 
the Border minstrelsy. 

Monarch, by Mr. (now Lord) Gibson Craig^s Count 
from Lord Torphichen^s Fly, was Mr. Sharpens first 
great dog, and he it was who began "the family fawn.*'' 
'^ He was square and thick, and with less fire to his 
game than either Hughie Graham or Mercury.^' 
His blood is in all the Scottish kennels, as it goe^ 
through Driver to Drift, the second for the Caledonian 
Picture, and, curiously enough, Violet, the winner^s 



CANNOBIE TO KENSINGTON. 393 

dam^ was from a daughter of Monarch, which Mr. 
Sharpe gave array. His grandson Jason also took 
the hlood South. The most beautiful he ever got 
was Mr. Sharpens ovrn What from Captain Wynd- 
ham^s Whisk. Monarch won three times at the 
Koman Camp, and Mercury four times. The 
brothers were widely different in their styles, as 
Mercury was " a desperate rusher, very clever with 
his teeth, but not very fond of a young fence which 
required a double effort." It was in one of these 
fences at the Koman Camp that Hughie Graham got 
stuck. "Hughie" was by Liddesdale, a son of Bowhill 
(who was bred at the Duke of BuccleucVs) from 
Queen of the May. There were four dogs and 
two bitches in the litter, with Bell the Cat and 
Bonnie Scotland amongst them, and Mr. Sharpe 
challenged the Wiltshire men in vain to run five 
puppies of one litter for j€50 the course and £500 
the main. Queen of the May had black hairs 
in her fawn, and so Mr. Daintree hated her. He 
had got some puppies from Lord Stradbroke for 
the use of King Col), and as he wanted the i\Iinerva 
black, he sold "The Queen" for 25 gs. at Aldridge^s. 
Like all the King Cobs, she "ran heads down and 
backs up, as they ought to run," and when Mr. Night- 
ingale saw her style at the Mid-Lo^thian Meeting, he 
said at night that until she was fairly in her stride 
he did not believe that there was a King Cob in all 
Scotland. 

Bell the Cat was •''a flying rusher," and Bonnie 



394 FIELD AND FEllN, 

Scotland "had not the pluck of Hughie when 
lie got to his game ; he had too many hares in 
his youth_, and let them live too long/^ Still_, he 
was third in the North v. South match at Amesbury 
Avlien Welcome ran up to Mocking Bird. As ill 
luck would have it; he had a " No go^^ both with 
Mocking Bird and Wicked Eye, and beat the latter 
with only one eye. Despite this drawback, Mr. Night- 
ingale considers his course with Wicked Eye " one of 
the finest I ever saw; he beat her in working, and went 
so straight and just from his turns; it was so true 
worked ; each dog had her in turn." Dalton was 
the dog who gave Hughie Graham most trouble, and 
they divided the Broughton Cup after two no-goes. 
He won the Plate the year Hughie Graham won the 
Waterloo Cup as a puppy. War Eagle (who broke 
running down with Wee \¥ee) , Mocking Bird, Japhet, 
Staymaker, and Cerito were among the Cup 
thirty -two ; and '^Hughie" killed all his hares except 
the first. He never ran after his second Water- 
loo Cup, in which he won one course with Cricketer 
the Plate winner. " Hughie had great pace, and was 
very close in his work ; he could drive and command 
himself, fairly smother his hare, and frighten her to 
death.'" 

He never " hit " well with anything of Mr. 
Sharpens, but Wicked Eye, and their son Norman 
Hunter divided the Cup at Lytham, but Mr. 
Blanchard's Baffle was by him out of Wild Duck. 
However, he did his duty, as he won £700 in all. 



CANNOBIE TO KENSINGTON. 395 

About the end of his fourth season, he was brought 
out of his kennel up to the house to pay his respects 
to ]Mr. Nightingale, and in the course of his gambols 
he dashed up against a tree and broke his thigh, and 
was put down not long after. Will and Bob buried 
him in old Mercury's grave, close by the spot where 
he met with his accident. He began the Waterloo 
Cup luck of Dumfriesshire, which has now won two 
and divided another with Selby. King Lear, the 
other winner, was a "flying, merry dog, and vron 
— the first year it was a sixty four dog stake — solely 
on his merits.^^ Mr. Knovrles had seen him win at 
Abington, and got a good stake on when others 
looked elsewhere. 

Some Fazzoletto two-year-olds were in the pad- 
dock, and Pam^s Mixture and Pallinsburn in their 
sheets were the last stable features in the landscape, 
as vre looked back to Knockhill. We crossed the 
bridge where Sandy and the Carlisle pack swam 
an otter for three hours last summer before they 
killed it, and so up the long avenue of Hoddom 
Castle. It is now twenty years since the General 
died, and it has had no inhabitant save the stalwart 
keeper, who looks after the pheasants. On a sum- 
mer's evening, when beech and laurel are in all their 
glory below, there is no pleasanter watch-tower. The 
Annan winds round the holme below the terrace, 
and Mr. Sharpens horses have a gallop of fully a mile 
and a quarter along the river side, and across the 
turfed bridge, and a good sobbing finish up Re- 



398 PIELD AND FEllN. 

pentance Hill. The course is nearly the same as the 
General had when he trained P&rlet, and Messalina 
from old Myrrha. He also kept beagles and har- 
riers, and sold the latter to Mr. Ramsay, along with 
Myrrha, who was heavy in-foal with Midlothian, 
for J300. The cream of the Dumfriesshire country 
can be seen from here, and our companion indicated 
the geography of a great run, how they found at 
Castle Milk, came over Bar Hill through the Duke's 
cover and Brown Moor, and hov/ he died honourably 
in the meadow below the castle. Eepentance Tower 
to the right, and built by an ancient lord of Hoddom, 
to atone for the souls he had sunk in the Solway^ 
almost flings its shadow over the birth-place of 
Thomas Carlyle ; and farther on is 

" That wooded hill 
Far kenned as Woodcockair." 

It has always been a great harbour for foxes, and it 
is recorded that after the Revolution the Hoddom 
men ran their curate, Timothy Thomlinson, to ground 
or to tree in it, across the Annan, and never lieard 
of him more. 

Mr. Sharpens hares were trotting about near the 
March fence betwixt the lairds of " Hoddom" and 
'^Dormont," on Ronald's Hill, above the Dum- 
friesshire kennels. Joe Graham put on his Cumber- 
land clogs, and came with us as guide ; but scenery 
was as nothing to him, mdcss ^^ the noble science" 
was blended with it. , He had no eyes from that 
coicjn of vantage for the silver line of the Sol way and 



CAXXOBIE TO KENSIXGTOX. 397 

the breakers at the mouth of the Nith, but he could 
tell of the Kinmount Woods. If your eye came to 
slow hunting over the Vale of the Annan_, he lifted 
you at once to Castle Milk, and told how " the Duke^^ 
and the Jardines v»^ere '^ the soul of the hunting/' 
'''Castle Milk's our meet/' he says ; ''^ most like an 
English meet of any — regular Badininton-lawa busi- 
ness, and everything for all. Lockerby side," he 
added, "is muirland and the best scent, and here 
we can always run with an east wind, ''which they 
cannot in some countries." 

Mr. Hay of Dunse Castle hunted the country before 
Mr. Murray of Broughton, and then ]Major Colomb 
came from the Inglewood, and kept it for a season or 
two, with Joe Hogg as his huntsman. There was then 
a long drearyblank, until Joe appeared upon the scene 
in 1848. He is the son of a farmer at Newtown, near 
Carlisle, and '' still fond of a bit of hunting from a 
lad." The taste in his case seems to have become 
chronic, as he indulged it first with the Carlisle foul- 
mart hounds, and then with the harriers, and he was 
finally gazetted to be first whip under Bob Cowen of 
the Inglev/ood. The kennels were at Tarn Wadlin, 
and Sampson was the head of the pack. They took 
out the old dog merely to find for them, as he knew 
every inch of the biggest covers, and was never known 
to leave a fox behind. He was a very mute hound 
himself, after he had once flung his deep-finding note, 
and yet his best son Cumberland lost his life in a very 
curious Avay, for ^'making an orailon.'' Mr. Boag 



398 FIELD AND FERN. 

succeeded Bob Cowen, and then the Inglewood were 
broken up^ and Joe was engaged to go under the late 
Charles Treadwell to the Berwickshire. However, 
he was taken ill, and never went, and settled near 
Holm Hill, to hunt stag for Mr. Salkeld, with fif- 
teen to twenty couple of the Inglewood. For the 
first year Coweu hunted them, and Joe only rode 
to save the stag, and then he took the horn, and has 
never been without it for five- and- twenty sea- 
sons. 

Lord Galloway did the leading stag business, and like 
her Majesty^s The Doctor, who always runs to Wind- 
sor, he might be turned out at Kosley Hill, or Penrith, 
or Warwick, but go he would to visit the county 
member at Barrock J^odge. In fact, Joe was kept sa 
hard at work among the Barrock shrubberies, hour 
after hour, that his knowledge of plants grew perfectly 
Paxtonian. His lordship lived a curious life. Once 
he crossed an arm of the sea, and was never found 
till they slotted him a week after among some tur-- 
nips at Burnfoot, and took him finally at Annan. 
Then Cumlogan wa« mislaid at Lowther for a time^ 
and when he was brought back he kicked out the 
side of his car, to Joe's amazement, on Broadfield, 
and there was another bye day for him. One way or 
another, they had a deal of sport, and Lord Galloway 
was still so full of j)luck when Mr. Salkeld gave 
up and sent him to Baron Eothschild's, that he lay 
out all night in the South after an excellent run, 
and, according to Joe's Southern correspondent. 



CANxVOBIE TO KENSINGTON. 399 

"^the Master of the Queen's Buckhounds asked if 
they could get him any of the sort.-'' 

About the close of Mr. Salkehrs season (1847-48), 
the Dumfries men got so Aveary of their winter idle- 
ness, and missed the good old days of Mr. Murray so 
sorely, that they begged the loan of the hounds for a 
week. Accordingly Joe came over, and had three 
capital days, and finished up with a clinker to Castle 
Milk. The fox, the hounds, and three of the hardest 
riders were all in the river together below Rockhall ; 
but they unfortunately changed in the whins, and 
the rear men met the run fox stealing back. There 
was of course a great dinner that night at Lockerby 
to wind up the week, and in his speech after dinner 
Joe proposed to devote himself and his sixteen couple 
to the country two days a week at £240 for the first 
year. His visit had lessened the foxes by a brace. 
A third of the few which were in the country were 
at Kinmount, and Mr. Johnstone"^ and some of the 
Jardines were still in India and China. Matters 
progressed very well, although the Blue Bell Yard at 
Lockerby was the most primitive of kennels ; but the 
Marquis of Queensberry took the command next 
season, the subscriptions w^ere doubled, kennels 
were built at Seafield, and the hunting was increased 
to five days a fortnight. 

Besides the covers we have mentioned, they some- 
times go to Waterhead, an outside cover on the 

* The late Mr. Andrew Johnstone's first blood, mares are not stated cor- 
rectly at page 351. For " Theresa by Wag-tail" read "Theresa Panza by 
Cervantes, Wagtail by Whisker," and add " Royalty by Enulius," 



400 FIELD AND FERN. 

moors near the Moffat hills, for a day, and find 
most capital foxes. Tinwald Downs, Cumlogan, 
Brown Moor, and Waraphray are always good for 
cubs, but they don't place much reliance on litters. 
"As for the fences,'^ says Joe, " there are not two of 
them alike, banks and timber, and walls and ditches. 
The Marquis was a terrible loss ; he was always at 
the head of his column and never looking for weak 
places.^^ His cheery " Hark to Pallafox /" his fa- 
ourite hound, as he rammed the spurs into Little 
John or Bonnie Dundee (so called in honour of the 
fiddlers' feat), and came crashing out of cover for 
a start, seems to ring in their ears yet. He had a 
wonderful voice ; they could hear his halloo any dis- 
tance down wind, and Woodcockair used to ring 
again when he tallyhoed him away for Kinmount. 
He liked the wildest hunting, and a day on Criffell 
T)leased him beyond measure. '^ Joe,'' he used to 
say, " if I could only get some of the Melton men up 
here, we'd give them a dusting /" and then away he 
went, among bogs and sheep-drains, and perhaps six 
or seven foxes " coOring" along the walls together. 
For three seasons he opened the hunting with a week 
at Langholm, and, what with hunting by day and 
fiddles by night, the little town had quite a convivial 
vreek of it. It maybe that some enthusiast kept it as 
a memento ; but it is certain that Joe lost his cap on 
one occasion, and returned gracefully at the head of 
his hounds, in a straw hat borrowed for the occasion. 
He was much worse off on another occasion, as he and 



CANNOBIE TO KENSINGTON. 401 

the Marquis lost tlie liounds entirely. The find 
was at the Bar Hill, and they saw the last of them 
near Thornhill. The kennel door was left open, and 
some stragglers arrived on the second night, and the 
remainder in a third-class carriage of which the 
Marquis and Joe guarded the doors. 

On the death of Lord Queensberry, Mr. Carruthers 
of Dormont came to the front at the request of the 
members of the Hunt, who increased the subscrip- 
tion. He at once built new kennels, and has gone 
on steadily improving the hounds which belong 
to the Hunt. Perhaps the best run yet was on the 
last day of his first season. After drawing all the 
Lest covers blank, the hounds were going home at 
half-past three over Rockhall Moor, when a travel- 
ling fox was viewed, and the scent proving some- 
thing wonderful, they regularly raced the fox over 
HartAvood, Thorniethwaite, Ryemuir, Skipmire, 
Shaw Hill, through the holding cover of Dalfibble, 
where he disdained to hang, and over the wild Kirk- 
land Hill, Glenkiln, and on to Burance, where Joe 
Oraham, Mr. John Johnstone, and Jack Roberts, 
the whip, the only ones up, saw the fox and hounds 
all on the side of a hill. The ground was so soft, and 
intersected with moss bogs, and the horses so well 
pumped that the riders had to get off, and giving 
theirs into Roberts' charge, Joe Graham and Mr. 
J ohnstone footed the fox and hounds over the snow on 
thfe top of Queensberry, where they separated after 
a serious consultation, Joe to follow the traces of the 

2 D D 



402 FIELD AND FERN. 

hounds, and Mr. Johnstone to find a shepherd to 
give Jack a line to follow Joe. The distance gone 
over was not less than twenty-six miles. All the 
people in the fields shouted as they passed, " Go on ; 
the fox is no a hundred yards aheedP Well might 
Joe vow, when he parted with Mr. Johnstone, ^^ I 
never want to see another fox like thisP But for a 
little whisky which he begged at a shepherd^s hut, 
Joe would never have got to Thornhill at all, but he 
reached it in his boots with a few tail hounds, while 
the rest went on with their fox to a strong breeding 
place, near Dame's Deer, and cast up again in 
twenty-four hours. There was another grand run 
last season from Brovv^n Moor to Wester Hall, where 
they killed, 

'When old Jolly Boy and all the Cumberland 
hounds were worked out, the Atherstone, Ruiford, 
Durham County, and Rhug drafts came in. Monitor, 
with his serious features, and Matchless, his sister, 
are the pick of the pack, and of the Ehug sort, a 
great many of which come white like Marshal, and 
old MalakhofF, whose low. scented qualities convinced 
Joe that he would be '^ quite a waterman^^ for Dr. 
Grant, when he grew too slow for the Castle Milk 
business. Talisman and Touchstone are the only 
ones left by him. There are also one or two 
black and tans throwing back, like Mr. Baker's, to 
the bloodhound. Myrtle and Triumph have always 
a good word from Joe ; " little Rally is as good a one 
as ever ran before a stern — the best I ever bred in 



CANNOBIE TO KENSINGTON. 405 

Cumberland or Dumfriesshire ;^^ and Damsel and 
Daphne are his delight. The former gravely gave 
him a paw, in testimony of their eight seasons toge- 
ther. " She never ran a hare in her life, and when 
the young'uns are taking a tour, she sits down and 
lets them rattle away." Merrylass, sister to Malak- 
hoff and dam of Matchless, had been down south to 
Mr. Parry^s Sultan, but had only whelped a contribu- 
tion of a couple towards the twenty couple which are 
sent out annually among the Marquis of Queens- 
berry^s, Mr. Hope Johnstone^s, and other walks. 

Joe^s horse Captain came with him from Cumber- 
land, and lasted for six or seven seasons. Horses do 
last with him, and they say in the county that he 
picked up one for 7s. 6d., and that it was se^n 
ridging up turnips on his farm six years afterwards. 
His mind must be quite torn between the advan- 
tages of artificial manures and sheep dips, and their 
effect upon scent, as he has five hundred acres in 
hand, and twenty score of sheep, as well as four 
ploughs going. He also kills some twenty pigs a 
year, and was therefore fully qualified to ride in 
the farmers^ race at Ayr. Ever since he was at 
Tarn Wadlin he has had a fancy for leather flap- 
ping, and his white jacket and black cap, and his 
small 9st. 51b. figure inside them-, have been seen 
blazing av*ay at Hawick, Langholm, Lockerby, 
Whitehaven, Paisley, Blaydon, and sometimes at 
Carlisle, where he won the Citizens^ Cup on Lizzy of 
Brampton. 

2 D D 2 



404 FIELD AND FERN. 

The Fawn was in the hunting stable, and so was 
The Veteran by Rataplan ; but we had to toil over 
the fallow to see Blood Royal, his winner of the last 
Caledonian Cup. He was in a barn, and guarded, as 
far as we could see, by a game-cock. The brown was 
bred at Hallheaths, but Mr. Johnstone thought he 
showed the white feather, and got rid of hira. At 
first it seemed no catch, as he hit his leg, and was fired 
and stopped in his work for nearly a year and a 
half. 

With care and patience he was got fit enough 
in Hoddom Holme to come out at Carlisle, and Joe 
scored his first legitimate race. He ran again next 
day, and showed the most sovereign disregard of posts, 
and was, in fact, all over the course the moment he was 
"pinched" at the river turn. At Ayr he turned sulky, 
and could hardly be got on to the ground until Joe 
mounted him; andSkipjack^s party, seeingthe humour 
he was in, sent their horse along the three miles to 
break his heart. However, the lad obeyed Joe^s 
orders not to hustle Blood Royal, and to catch them 
up the straight, which he did cleverly enough. And 
so the Caledonian Cup winner returned into barn re- 
sidence for the winter and spring, and then perhaps, 
after another yearns retirement, he may go flapping 
again. As Joe says, " It's something to look at a Cale- 
donian Cup winner ; but he^s got no heart in him for all 
that:' 

The shore of the Solway became a reality at last, 
and when we reached what was once the sea- side 



CANNOBIE TO KENSINGTON. 405 

home of Mosstrooper 3rd, we found that Mr. Beattie 
vras almost off with his old love, and in a most spirited 
attitude of defiance on the subject of salmon. From 
a mound near his house you see seven counties and 
and seven miles of salmon nets. He considers this 
shore '^the mother of trap or stake nets/^ and he is 
lessee of the coast from Lochar Foot to about three- 
quarters of a mile east of Annan. He defies Par- 
liament, the Carlisle Journal, and every other 
"proud invader" ; and leans his back, like a man 
and a Briton, against his " chartered rights of fish- 
ing beyond time immemorial" 

Get him on that subject, and he is as diffuse 
as a Blue Book. At all events, he still holds 
his trap nets against the world, as he told us he 
should, and so far he is the winner. The best fish 
come up mth the tide and the south-west breeze. 
They feed along the beach in warm and cloudy days, 
and then return into the deep beyond Eobin Bigg. 
In fact, "the speckled monarch of the tide" now 
reigns supreme at Newbie. Still, the greyhound. 
Baron Solway, once a great favourite on the Bor- 
der, and the winner of £144?, runs about the 
yard ; the shorthorn cow, Roan Cherry by Booth^s 
Cardigan, was in the stalls with Captain Marshall 
from t he Howes ; Belted Will, one of the last 
of the "black Brunswickers," w^s on the ruined 
keep near the old castle garden, and Brides- 
maid and Bridal Bed had not yet quitted the 
spot. 



406 FIELD AND FERN. 

As a Galloway winner at the Higliland Society- 
Mr. Beattie has had few marrows, and many photo- 
graphed prize-winners hang on his parlonr walls. It 
was with Palmers old cow that he first began; but 
his great hit was with Mosstrooper (296), whom he 
purchased at six years old, from Gibbons of Moss- 
band. He won fifteen first prizes, and was never 
beaten, but he had an accident on board ship, that 
fearful night (when Mr. Douglas was within an ace 
of being washed overboard) as he returned from the 
Paris Show, and was sold to the butcher when they 
reached the London Docks. He left a very good one 
behind him in Mosstrooper 3rd, who was first at the 
Highland Society in ^60, and first at Battersea as 
well. At Dumfries he beat all the polls for the gold 
medal, and Messrs. Hugh Watson and Graham re- 
ported him to the Royal English Society's Journal as 
" a bull first-rate of his kind, who gained the first 
prize against three good animals.'' He was out of 
Lady, bred by Mr. Beattie from Lady Keir of Mr. 
Keir's breed at Potholm. His daughter Bridesmaid 
was also first in the cow class, beating the Duke of 
Buccleuch's M'^Gill, and she can be traced back 
through two generations to the Palmer cow. Mr. 
Beattie is still well known as a tup breeder, and keeps 
from five to six score of ewes, and sells his tups pri- 
vately into Ireland, Cheshire, Lancashire, and Cuui- 
berland, as well as in Dumfriesshire. He has used 
Polwarth ranas, and a half-brother to Mr. Sanday's 
first prize at Carlisle did a great deal for him. 



CANNOBIE TO KENSINGTON. 407 

It was not the market day, and Annan had no in- 
terest for us save what centred in its old church. 
"When we had last ridden through its streets one-and- 
thirty years before, men were still talking of Edward 
Irving^s protest before the ministers and elders of 
the Presbytery, and telling how in the twilight of that 
March night he '' went forth from the church, where 
he had been baptised and ordained — from the Church 
of Scotland, the Sanctuary of his fathers — never 
more to enter within walls dedicated to her worship, 
till he entered in silent pomp to await the resurrec- 
tion and advent of his Lord/^ 

Redkirk'!^ was not very far from Gretna, and a 
few miles from it on the left of our route was the 
scene seventy years ago of the great Solway Flow. 
The moss rose and floated a mile or more over road 
and field on the north side of the Esk, and accord- 
ing to the Shepherd's Calendar it smothered in its 
course " 2 men, 1 woman, 1,840 sheep, 9 cattle, 3 
horses, 4 dogs, and 180 hares," and it took three 
or four summers to put matters at all right again. 

* Mr. Syme has a tliree-liimdred-acre faiin at RedMi-k, about tvro miles 
from Gretna Green. About a fourth, of it is bad moss, and the re.^t veiy ad- 
hesive clay, and good free land. He has farmed for nine-and-i^^ enty years 
on his owTi accoimt, and kept pure shorthorns nearly all that time. Forcing- 
for shovrs has not been his object, and in fact he has hardly e>iiibired above 
a dozen times, and always been first or second. When the Highland Society 
came to Dumfries in 1845, he was second both with a cow and a heifer. His 
herd has generally numbered from forty to fifty, and he has had a regular 
trade for them with Messrs. Miller, Armstrong, and others, near Toronto, 
Canada West, where they have been remarkably "Successful in taking prizes. 
Some of his bulls have also gone to Austraha, and one to Singapore, to cross 
with the native heifers. Mr. Stirling, M.P., has had a few of his blood, and 
Rosy did good ser\dce at the last Keir roup. The Canadian market was vir- 
tualiy closed to him three years ago, and this led to the sale of his herd by- 
Messrs. Wetherall in May last. He, however, retains two old cows and two 
heifer-calves as the germ of a new one. 



408 FIELD AND FERN. 

We should have hked to linger on the Border, hut 
the Waterloo was at hand, and we had a sovereign- 
even with " Stonehenge" that we would have the 
patience to ride from Carlisle to Kensington. Taking- 
Knells, Holme Eden, and Corby Castle on our way, we 
rattled along in a hard frost up the Vale of the Eden, 
and over Shap Fells at night, with nothing but the 
dreary w^histling of the wind through the telegraph 
wires to bear us company. The lights at Kendal 
were a pleasant beacon at last ; and Settle, Skipton, 
and Skibeden was our line of country next morning. 
Had we read Admiral Fitzroy more closely, we might 
have avoided that heavy storm which swept down 
the valley for nearly an hour between Skip ton and 
Burnley. There was no friendly Horse or Lion,, 
Red, White, or Blue, which abound in those parts, to 
receive us ; and there was nothing for it but to fight 
it out, get on with the mare^s head at an angle of 
90 degrees when she would go, and get to leeward 
of a hedge when she wouldn't. 

The Towneley roan and chesnut. Royal Butterfly 
and Kettledrum were duly visited, and the last we saw 
of our Scottish friends was at the Waterloo, where 
" Dalgig" and Mr. A. Graham were very sweet after 
two courses upon King Death. It was all mud next 
day beyond Stockport, and hard frost at Buxton, 
mist and rain at Ashbourne, and snow at Derby. 
Then we passed through Quorn, and into the heart 
of Mr. Tailby's country, and bent away through the 
big Pytchley pastures to Fawsley. Another hard 



CANNOBIE TO KENSINGTON. 409 

day, aud the towers of St. Albans were in view at 
last, looking down on "The Jolly Maltsters/' "The 
Post Boys/^ and " The Trumpet'* signs, which still 
linger in its streets. On we went the last eighteen 
miles, with sleet and snow for onr portion as the 
lights of the great city began to glimmer through 
the mist, and the thoughts of how to deal with 
bacon, wool, and cheese, those triple Furies of our 
note-book life, pursuing us grimly to 



-^^ '^t £± 



^^ 



Printed by Rogerson and Tuzford, 243, Strand, Loi 



k 'in M m 
I S (Jl i'^ ^ 



SCOTTISH 

FLOCKS AT^D HERDS. 
(N R T H.) 



WITH STEEL PORTRAITS OF MR. HUGH ^YATSON AND 
PROFESSOR DICK; 

AND A WOOD-GUT HEAD OF "DUNDROON," AFTER 
AIR. GOURLAY STEELE, R.S.A. 



CaiTEifS 



mmsm fo the SMETLaiBS. 

Depai-ture from Aberdeen — Voyage — The ShetLtods— A Lively Passenger 
— Catin Councils — Arrival at Lermck — ^A Peep at the Town — Walk 
^Q Yoe — The Lonely Muirs — The Cows — The Ponies — Pony Life in 
the Coal IMines — The Sheep — Wool Manufactures — Improved Stock 
in the Shetlands— Back to Kirkwall. 



11 CONTENTS. 



Orkney Nicknames — Shapinsey — Defence of Hellersay — Orkney Pano- 
rama — Mr= Balfour's Shorthorns and Shetland Ponies — The Legend 
of " Spunky" — Orkney Sheep Crosses — Sheep Marks — Devon and 
West Highland Bulls — " Fishing Pork" — Orkney Garrons — The Por- 
tescue Harriers — Swanbinster —Postal Difficulties — A. Sea Sick 
Horse — The Message from the Tee — The Hoy Parmer Consoled. 

SMPfSH III. 
TMUfiSO TB BELiSiUlE. 

The late Sir John Sinclair— Caithness Sheep Farming — St. Mary's 
Mass — Georgemas Tryst — Shorthorn Crosses — Barrogill Castle — 
Barrock Plantations — Shorthorn and Galloway Crosses — Bringing-up 
of Calves and Yearlings — Sir George Dunbar's Leicester Flock — Mail 
Journey along the Coast — A Night Kide on Horseback. 

A "Walk down Kildonan — The Cheviot Flocks of Old— Foxes on the 
Gibbet — Mv. Hadwin's Stags' Heads — Gideon Rutherfurd — Kildonan 
Churchyard — Sutherlandshire Flockmasters — Shows in the County — 
Sheep Farming — Heather Burning — Sporting in Sutherland — Strath 
Brora — The Dunrobin Herd — The Museum and Kennels — The Dun- 
robin Dairy — Climbing Ben Vraggie — The Meikle Ferry. 



CONTENTS. Ill 

TOii TO SiMEHIESS. 

The Black Dog of Tain — A Jockey Club Wanderer on Moricli Mhor— 
Ross-shire Tod-hunters — The Crofters — Flocks in Easter Eoss — From 
Tain to Dingwall— Coiil Cottage — The Black Isle — Belmaduthy — 
The Muir of Ord — The Caledonian Boots — Highland Society's ShoAVs 
— Inverness Character Fair — Hugh Snowie's — Stags' Heads — Laggan 
Cottage — Nairnshire — Lord Cawdor's Old Scotch Ilock — Kildruinmie 
and Lochdhu— The late Ilillhead Herd— The Witches' Heath. 

The haunts of St. John — Morayshire Sellers — "Homed Beasts" — 
Lack of Breeders — Feeding Stock — Mutton for London — Sheep 
I'arming — Morayshire Feeders — The Forres Fat Show — Altyre Stock 
— The Balnaferry Herd — From Forres to Elgin — Pluskardene Abbey 
Bargains — ^^Vester Alves and Ardgay — The Story of the Buchan 
Hero — Elgin — The Spey Fisheries — The late Duke of Richmond — 
Gordon Castle — Its Breed of Setters — Its Flocks and Shorthorn 
Herds. 

A ride from Fochabers to Aberdeen — Back to Orbliston — A Shooting 
box— The Mulben Herd— The Pig Trade pf Banffshire— The Port- 
soy Cartsire Stud — Clydesdales — Banffshire Shorthorn Beginnings — 
The Rettie Herd— Mr. Rannie's Leicester Flock — The Montbletton 
Herd— The late Mr. Grant Duff— His Catalogue Notes— The Forglen 
Breed of Cows — Mr. Lumsden's Herefords — Hereford Crosses — The 
Kinnellar Herd — The Sittyton Herd — Udny and Jamie Fleeman. 



IV CONTENTS. 

ffilAFSIE ¥0L 
S3f?ff©i TO ABEEiEEi, 

The Aberdeen Fat Cup— Mr. Stewart's Cracks— Tke Tarty Herd- 
Mr. Martiu's Show Beasts — Aberdeenshire Feeders — Early Days of 
Feeding — The Original Horned Doddies — Aberdeen INIeat Supplies — 
The Cattle and Dead Meat Trade with the South— The M'Combie 
Family — Easter Skene — A Day at Tillyfour. 






eiAFfis I 

The Royal departure from Balmoral — Up the Deeside — Kincar- 
dineshire Sheep-feeders — The Portlethen Herd — The last of Fox 
Maule — Colour Conception — The late Mr. Boswell of Kingcausie — 
His Highland Society Essay — From Bourtree Bush to Stonehaven — 
The late Captain Barclay — The Old Days of the Deliance. 



Sf8illlil£i T© CSETOCm 

The Weathercocks of Stonehaven — The Sea Coast Road and The Mearns 
— Stock of the District — ]3ulls at Fernyflatt — Yorkshire Calf Trade 
— Angus Commentaries — The Kinnaird Valley — Old Montrose — 
Black Herds — The Kinnaird Castle Steading — Druid and Cupbearer 
— The Great Forfarshire Covers — Cullow Fair — Cortachy Castle — 
Highland Crosses — Laying down Permanent Pasture without a Crop 
— The Cortachy Herd and Dairy. 



CONTENTS. V 

SlAFflE I!- 

mmmm w ?mm 

Mr. AVatson of Keillor — His Show-yard Career — Old Grannie — 
The Polled Herd Book — Experience of Southdowns — ^A Judge cf 
Distance — Mr. Bowie's Herd — Dr. Murray of Carnoustie — The Story 
of The Cure — Major Douglas — Salmon Fishing on the Fife Coast — 
Speedie v. Seals — The Shark and her Whelps— Cock and Hen Salmon 
— The Carse of Gowrie — Rossie Priory — " The Scottish HenAvife." 

fwm m wmmm. 

The late Lord Lynedoch — Net Pishing at the Lynn of Campsic — ]Mr. 
Speedie's Ice House — Salmon Prices — The Scone Steading — Mr. 
Paton's Gun Shop— The Caledonian Hunt Club at Perth— The Cluh 
Rules — Its different Places of Meeting — Porty-five Years of Racing. 

imiELB f9 Emm mmiE. 

The Athole Larches— The late D^^ke of Athole— His Love of Otter 
Hmiting— The Athole Forest— The Dunkeld Ayrshires— Milk Sta- 
tistics — The Duchess Dowager's Farm at St. Colme's — Pitlochry— 
The Castle and Burial-place at Blair Athole— The West Highland 
Herd. 



VI CONTENTS. 

.. -PERfll fO lEie. 

The Strathallan Castle Herd — AValk to Rob Roy's Grave — Fern Tliatcliing 
— The Braes of Balquhidder — Points of West Highland Cattle — Black- 
laced Sheej) — " M'Claren's Cow" — Recollections of Deanstown — 
Keir — The Steading — Clydesdales, Shorthorns, and Garden. 

mm n we miiiels. 

Alloa— i\rr. Mitchell's Herd— To Kea^dl— The Keavil Herd— A word 
with Mr. Easton — The Old Fife Breed of Cows — Fifeshire Feeders — 
Old Days of the Fife Hunt— A Visit to the Kennels. 

eSAFf SI S?L 

The Wood of Caledon Bulls— The Duke of Montrose's Herd— Sail to 
Skye — Products of Portree — Ride to Duntulm — Cattle and Sheep in 
Skye— Skye Terriers— A Pig Hunt— Symptoms of Falkirk— The Pol- 
taUoch Herd. 



Webster Family Library of Veterinary Medicine 
Cummings School of Veterinary Medicine at 
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200 VVsstboro Road 
Nortli Grafton, JiylA 01536