UMASS/AMHERST lllllllllllllllllllllllillllllllllllllllllilllllll m 31EDbbDDfi'^5Db37 ,0^-M45.^ ■ifi63 DATE DUE UNIVERSITY OF MASSACHUSETTS LIBRARY F 74 F5E6 O s o F iTGHBaR' MAssACHasErrs PasTanb Present BY WILLIAM A,||I^|SON AUTHOR OF EMERSON'S HAND-BOOK OF W003 ENGRAVING, AND HISTORY OF THE TOWN OF DOUGLAS, MASSACHUSETTS. * _ ' ' ILLdSTRATED FITCHBURG: PRESS OF BLANCHARU k. I'.ROW'X 1887. ^1? LIBRARY CONTENTS. CHAPTER I. Descriptive. Location — Situation and extent — Boundaries — Attractive features — Natural and other advantages — Churches and schools — Fitchburg as a railroad center. ..... 17-21 CHAPTER H. Fitchburg of the Past. Its appearance in 1830 — Tn 1835 — Main street in 1800 — Description of the town in 1764 — Early settlers — Capture of the Fitch family by the Indians — Their ransom — Question of the town being named for John Fitch settled — Earliest Indian episode — Mrs. Rowlandson's account. ..... 22-29 CHAPTER III. City Government. Administration of municipal affairs — Present officers — Sketches of mayors — Sketches of present officers — Police depart- ment — Fire department — Highway department — Poor department — List of aldermen and common councilmen from the time the city was incorporated. . . . . . . . 3o~5^ CHAPTER IV. i' Educational. Schools — School committee — Teachers — High School as- sociation — Principals of the High School — Superintendent of schools — History of the Fitchburg Public Library — Description of the Wallace Library and Art Building. . . . . ; 59-75 CHAPTER V. Professional. Sketches of Fitchburg doctors, past and preseftt-i- . Sketches of present lawyers — Medical organizations. . . '_ ,' 76-96 CHAPTER VI. Literary and Artistic. Sketches of Fitchburg authors and artists. 97-118 CHAPTER VII. Military. History of the Fitchbui-g Fusiliers — Washingtoij Guards — Si.xth Regiment Infantry, M.' VT \l. — Fitchburg in the Rebellion — Incidents — In rebel prisons — Close of the war — Soldiers' Monu- I 19-152 CHAPTER VIIL Organizations. Fitchburg Military Band — Edwin V. Sumner Post 19, G. A. R. — E. V. Sumner Relief Corps, No. i — Clark S. Simonds Camp, No. 28, S. of V. — E. V. Sumner Building Association — Sketches of past commanders Post 19, and department commanders — Taylor Union, No. i — Secret and benevolent societies — Other orders — Temperance societies — Worcester North Agricultural So- ciety — W. C. T. U. — Y. M. C. A. — Benevolent Union— Agassiz Association — Home for Old Ladies — Union Aid Hospital — Fitch- burg Clubs. ....... 1 53-180 XII CONTENTS. CHAPTER IX. Paper Making. Crocker, Burbank & Co. — Rodney Wallace— Wheel- wright and Falulah Paper Mills. .... 1S1-192 CHAPTER X. Manufacturing. The Parkhill, Cleghorn and Orswell Mills — Fitchburg Cotton Mill — Fitchburg Duck Mill — Berwick and Baltic Mills — The Wachusett, Fitchburg Worsted and Star Worsted Mills — Shoe and Shoe Tip manufacturing — Walter Heywood Chair Manufactur- ing Co. — Fitchburg Carbonized Stone and Pipe Co. — E. A. Good- rich Brick yard. ....... 193-205 CHAPTER XI. Iron Industries. Putnam Machine Co. — Fitchburg Machine Co. — Geo. F. Simonds, Simonds Manufacturing Co. and Simonds Rolling-Ma- chine Co. — Fitchburg Steam Engine Co. — C. H. Brown & Co. — Burleigh Rock Drill Co. — R. A. Leonard — D. M. Dillon — Heywood, Wilson & Co.'s Foundry — Rollstone Iron Foundry — M. J. Perault's Iron Foundry — William A. Hardy's Brass Foundry — Fitchburg Manufacturing Co. — Other Fitchburg inventors and machinery manufacturers. ....... 206-227 CHAPTER XII. Commkrciai.. National Banks and Savings Institutions of Fitchburg — Post-Office — Insurance Companies — Fitchburg Gas Co. — Wachusett Electric Light Co. — Fitchburg Street Railway Co. — Board of Trade — Grain Mills — Opera House — Business houses. . . 22S-259 CHAPTER XIII. Journalism in Fitchijurg. A history of newspapers and magazines that have been published in Fitchburg. .... 260-279 CHAPTER XIV. Biographical. Sketch of Ivers Phillips — Stephen Shepley — Goldsmith F. Bailey— C. H. B. Snow— L. H. Bradford— Charles A. Priest. 280-289 CHAPTER XV. Churches and Homes. History of Fitchburg churches and sketches of their pastors — Homes of Fitchburg. .... 290-312 LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. portraits. Alvah Crocker. Frontispiece Horace M. Kendall, opposite page 40 46 46 46 46 46 46 52 52 52 52 52 52 98 Amasa Norcross, opposite page 31 Henry A. Willis Eugene T. Miles, " " 32 Henry Jackson, " Hiram A. Blood, " " 34 Walter A. Davis, " David H. Merriam, " " 36 Chas. H. D. Stockbridge, " William H. Vose, " " 36 John D. Kielty, Eli Culley, " " 36 Edward P. Pierce, Alonzo Davis, " " 36 Henry F. Rockwell, " Frederick Fosdick, " " 39 John E. Kellogg, " Frank A. Wood, " " 40 David W. Tinsley, " David M. Dillon, " " 4° S. S. Holton, fohn Parkhill, " " 40 John J. Sheehan, " James F. D. Garfield, " " 40 Aaron F. Whitney, " Henry M. Choate, " " 40 Mrs. Caroline A. Mason, " PORTRAITS. XIII Col. A. J. H. Duganne, oppos te page io6 Col. Henry G. Greene, " " 127 Surgeon Chas. H. Rice, " " 127 Maj. Thos. H. Shea. " 127 Capt. Tristram W. Sheldon, " 127 1st Lieut. Walter F. Page, " 127 2d Lieut. Frank A. Greer, " 127 Col. Edwin Upton, " .< 127 Capt. John P). Proctor, " " 127 Capt. J. H. Kirby, " " 127 Rev. G. R. W. Scott, D.U., " 128 P"itchburg Military Pand, " 154 Charles H. Foss, " " 160 T. L. Barker, " 160 Walter A. Eames, " " 160 R. O. Houghton, " " 160 Edward B. I\Lacy, " 160 S. B. Farmer, " " 160 Geo. E. Goodrich, " " 160 Sidney .Sibley, " " 160 John F. Bruce, " " 160 fames Cuthbert, " " 160 Ira G. Wilkins, " 160 Edward P. Loring, " " 160 John W. Kimball, " .67 Daniel C. Putnam, " " 168 J. A. Battles, " 172 Dr. A. W. Sidney, " 176 Rodney Wallace, " " 188 E. M. Dickinson, " " 201 Walter Heywood, " " 202 Salmon W. Putnam, " " 2C6 George F. Simonds, " " 213 C. H. Brown, " 219 C. H. Brown, Jr., " 219 F. E. Brown, " " 219 J. F. Brown, " " 219 Charles Burleigh, " " 220 Ebenezer Torrey, " " 229 Henry Allison, " " 230 O. H. Lawrence, " " 232 Fred A. Currier, opposite page 239 Albert S. Pierce, " " 240 George M. Bowker, " " 240 Patrick B. Purtill, " " 240 Charles E. Wallace, " " 240 John F. Shea, " " 240 Eugene Forest, " " 240 Charles F. Lamb, " " 240 P>ank J. Dwyer, " " 240 Festus C. Currier, " " 244 Dr. George Jewett, " " 246 Joseph Gushing, " " 248 Henry A. Goodrich, " " 250 L. J. Brown, " " 253 Col. I vers Phillips, " " 280 Nathaniel Wood, " " 286 Goldsmith F. Bailey, " " 286 Stephen Shepley, " " 2S6 Dr. Peter B. Snow, " " 286 Dr. Alfred Hitchcock, " " 286 Rev. George Trask, " " 286 C. H. B. .Snow, " " 286 L. H. Bradford, " " 286 Charles Mason, " " 286 John Lowe, " " 286 George Keed, " " 2S6 .Samuel Burnap, " " 286 Charles A. Priest, " " 2S8 Rev. W. H. Pierson, " " 294 Rev. S. L. Blake, D. D., " " 294 Rev. Frank Rector, " " 294 Rev. W. W. Colburn, " " 294 Rev. P. J. Garrigan, " " 294 Rev. F. O. Hall, " •' 294 Rev. H. L. Jones, " " 294 Rev. C. S. Brooks, " " 294 Rev. F. T. Pomerov, " " 294 Rev. W. W. Baldw'in, " " 294 Rev. J. L. Tarpev, " " 294 Rev. C. Beaudoin, " " 294 VIEWS. Residence of O. H. Lawrence, The Boulder, Rollstone Hill, Monoosnoc Brook, Residence of Rodney Wallace, Residence of James Phillips, Jr., Union Passenger Depot, Map of Fitchburg in 1830, Location of the four roads, Garrison of David Page, Reuben Gibson House, Joseph Spofford House, Fitch Monument, Ashby, Inscription on the Fitch Monument, Elevation of City Water Works, . Old Academy Building, High street High and Grammar SchooLs, 17 18 18 19 19 20 23 25 25 26 26 27 27 51 62 63 XIV VIEWS. Wallace Library and Art Building, Interiors, Wallace Library and Art Building, Group of Relics, .... Residence of Charles T. Crocker, . Residence of Mrs. Salmon W. Putnam, Residence of Charles Mason, Badge of Co. F, 25th Regiment, The Court House, .... Monument Square, .... Christ Church, .... Grand Army Badge, .... Grand Army Cottage, Home for Old Ladies, .... Office of Crocker, Burbank & Co., Crocker, Burbank & Co.'s Brick Mill, Crocker, Burbank & Co.'s Stone Mill, Crocker, Burbank & Co.'s Hanna Mill, Crocker, Burbank & Co.'s Lyon & Whitney Mill, Fitchburg Paper Co.'s Mills, . Parkhill Manufacturing Co.'s Mills, Circle street, Parkhill Manufacturing Co.'s Mills, Factory Square, Cleghorn Mills, .... Orswell Mills, ..... Fitchburg Worsted Co.'s Mill, E. M. Dickinson's Shoe Factory, Works of Putnam Machine Co., Works of Fitchburg Machine Co., Works of Simonds Manufacturing Co., Works of C. H. Brown & Co., Rollstone Iron Foundry, Crocker Block, ..... Fitchburg Savings Bank Block, Board of Trade Seal, .... Cushing Mill, .... Washburn & Woodward's Mill, Interior of H. A. Goodrich & Co.'s Store, Stiles' Block, ..... L. T- Brown Block, .... Webber's Block, .... Proctor's Block, .... Emory's Block, ..... Fitchburg Hotel and Printing Oltice, Sentinel Building, .... First Baptist Church, , New Methodist Church, New Universalist Church, . Rollstone Congregational Church, Residence of Mrs. Eugene T. Miles, Residence of John Parkhill, (Vose estate,) J. Holland's Residence, 1840, Residence of Henry A. Goodrich, Residence of Dr. Thomas Palmer, Residence of Henry Allison, . Residence of Dr. A. W. Sidney, Residence of Dr. Charles H. Rice, Cottage of E. E. Howard, . Twin Cottages, Charles street. 69 70 72 90 90 100 151 151 151 156 158 177 182 183 184 185 186 191 194 195 196 197 199 200 20S 21 1 214 218 224 231 246 248 248 251 252 254 257 259 259 261 269 293 296 299 302 306 306 307 308 309 310 310 310 311 3" TO THE READER. It should be borne in mind that mention of present time refers to the fall of 1887, at which time the manuscript was revised and read}^ for publication. In the preparation of this volume the compiler has relied to some extent upon previous publications, and in addition to the acknowledgment of their use would mention the Fitch- burg Sentinel, the files of which have furnished, editorially or otherwise, what are believed to be reliable and impartial statements relating to the varied interests of the city and its representative men. His labor has been also very materi- ally lightened by the cheerlul and ready assistance of per- sonal friends, and by having free access to the Public Li- brary at all times, through the kindness of the librarian, P. C. Rice, and his assistants. In this connection he would also refer with pleasure to Edmund Barton, librarian of the American Antiquarian Society, Worcester ; to James F. D. Garfield, who furnished the chapter on journalism entire ; and to Lewis H. Bradford, Henry A. Willis, Joseph G. Edgerly, Frederick A. Currier, Eben Bailey and John W. Kimball, who have in various ways rendered him most valuable ser- vice. To these and all others who have in an}- way contributed to the advancement of the work, he would tender his grate- ful acknowledgments, and in conclusion would say that an honest effort has been made to obtain information from au- thentic sources, and to give without partiality or favoritism the part that each in his own way and in his own special department has contributed to the general prosperity and wealth of the community. UJ cr h- co cr LU UJ o < o Ll. O o CO UJ cc CHAI^'EK I. DESCRIPTIVE. HE city of Fitchburg is situated in the north-eastern part of Worcester county, on a branch of the Nashua Ri\'er and at the junction of the Fitchburg, Cheshire, Fitchburg & Worcester, and Old Colony Railroads. It is about forty-seven miles north-west from Boston, twenty-four north from Worcester, and thirty west from Lowell. The township is in form almost a parallelogram, being about six and one-half miles long b}' four and one-half miles broad, and contains a little less than eighteen thousand acres. It is bounded on the north by Ashby, east by Lunen- burg and Leominster, south by Leominster and Westminster, and west by Westminster and Ashburnham. The general surface of the township is extremely uneven, there are spurs of hills running in all directions, seemingly thrown up at random by the hand of nature, many of which are very abrupt and of considerable magnitude. These hills and corresponding valleys alibrd much picturesque scenery to the observer from the highlands. The finest view of the cit^• and surrounding country can be obtained from the top of ''Rollstone," a hill of solid 18 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. granite rising three hundred feet above the river to the south-west ; on the very summit of this hill, standing out in bold re- lief against the sky, is the boulder, a round mass of rock forty-five feet in circumference. The view from the top of Rollstone is well worth the trouble taken in makino- the ascent ; at the feet of the observer lies the city, forming almost a semi-circle, wooded hills arise on all sides, Wachusett seven miles distant rears its imposing pile in the south-west, while big AYatatic over- tops its brethren in the north-west. Nearly opposite Rollstone is Pearl Hill, a very considerable elevation, one side of which rises abruptly in the form of a precipice. The Pearl tlill road furnishes one of the many pleasant drives around the outskirts of the city, and is thoroughly appreciated by citizens and visitors. Whitman's River and Nookagee Brook enter the town of Fitchburg from the west, but soon unite and form the Nashua River, which winds through a rocky valley, "flanked by steep and rugged eminences, to the city, and then by a southerly course leaves the city near its south-eastern corner. Monoosnoc Brook in the southern borders of the town, with its cascades and falls, swollen by the spring rains, pre- sents an appearance both wild and picturesque. The farms of Fitchburg are most of them located on the outlying hills, and although there are scarcely any meadow- lands to be found in the limits of the town, yet there is very little poor or waste landy In general the soil is excellent, both for tillage and grazing. RESIDENCE OF RODNEY WALLACE, PROSPECT ST. RESIDENCE OF JAMES PHILLIPS, JR., MAIN ST. DESCRIPTIVE. 19 The most level land is alongside the Nashua River, which runs through the thickly settled portion of the city, and upon which its principal manufacturing establishments are located. ^--The city is well and compactly built on or in the vicinity of one principal street or thoroughfare extending along the valley of the Nashua River, and called Main street. The city tends to increase along the course of the valley mainly, although now the surrounding slopes are fast becoming cov- ered with dwellings. There are many handsome residences and fine estates in and around the city, a few of which are represented in the concluding chapter. "— In the heart of the city are three parks, the upper and lower commons, with their band stands for evening concerts during the summer months, and Monument Park, directly opposite the Wallace Library and Art Building, in the centre of which stands the handsome monument dedicated to the fallen heroes of the Rebellion. In the outskirts of the city, at the eastern terminus of the horse railroad, are the fair grounds and adjacent land, recently bought by the Park Company, to be improved and beautified as a public park. ^—Fitchburg is fortunate not only in natural location and surroundings, but is kept inviting and health}^ Its streets are well lined with shade-trees, the water supply is pure and abundant, the police force prompt and efficient in enforcing the laws under a prohibitory city government, and the fire department thoroughly organized, and supplemented by the fire alarm telegraph and telephone furnish protection to property. The streets are well lighted with electric lights and gas. The letter-carrier system is in operation, and con- venient means of transit to the extreme limits of the city is furnished by the street railway. The churches and schools are numerous and flourishing. ^' •Tn addition to its local advantages, Fitchburg is an im- portant railroad centre, and is located on the Hoosac Tunnel Line. More than fifty passenger trains daily arrive at the union depot, and the traveler who desires to reach New York, Boston, Providence, Fall River and New Bedford, or 20 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. local stations between the points, may take trains almost any hour in the clay. The Fitchburg railroad runs eleven pas- senger trains to Boston every week-day, and five to Green- field and North Adams. Through trains leave Boston via Fitchburg and North Adams for Saratoga Springs, this route being twenty-five miles shorter from the "Hub" to the famous Spa than any other route. Fast through trains are also operated by this line to Chicago, St. Louis, and all points West. The Cheshire Railroad is operated between UNION PASSENGER l)Er\)T. Fitchburg and Bellows Falls, Vt., and in connection with the Fitchburg and Central Vermont ofiers a through line to all Canadian points and all points in Vermont, and is the shortest line iVom Boston to Lake George. The Northern Division of the Old Colony Railroad terminates at Fitchburg, and furnishes tour daily trains to Boston and also to the principal cities of Southern Massachusetts. The Fitchburg and Worcester Division ^aftords ample means of communica- tion between the shire towns of the county, -^y DESCRIPTIVE. 21 The union passenger station used by all these roads in common is a commodious building and an ornament to the city. Among the other public buildings may be mentioned the City Hall, a large brick structure, the whole upper story of which is devoted to a hall — the largest in the city, the first floor to the citv offices and the basement story to the police station ; the county Court House, a stone building of noble proportions, in the rear of Monument Square, built in 187 1 ; the American House, opposite the depot ; the Fitchburg Hotel and Rollstone House, are prominent landmarks on Main street; Whitney's Opera House, the only theatre in town ; the countv Jail in South Fitchburg ; the High Sciiool on High street, built in 1869 ; the Post-Oftice building, a neat and substantial brick edifice, opposite the Baptist church, the post-office occupying the lower floor and the upper portion devoted to the Board of Trade, Park Club, and offlces. The finest public edifice in the city is the Wallace Library and Art Building, the gift of Hon. Rodne}' Wal- lace to the city ; it occupies one of the best locations on Main street, looking out upon Monument Park. The principal business buildings are the Fitchburg Sav- ings Bank Block, Rollstone National Bank Building, Wa- chusett National Bank Building, the L. J. Brown, Coggs- hall & Carpenters, Belding's, Dickinson's, Holgate's, Cushing's, Hatch's, Crocker's, Knights of Honor, Wixon's, Stiles's, Emor3^'s and Proctor's all on Main street, and Union, Goodrich's and the new Cushing block (not yet completed) on Dav street. CHAPTER IT. FITCIIBURG OF THE PAST. AVING given a verbal description of the citN' of Fitchburg in 1887, let lis for a moment glance at the village as it appeared but a little more than fift}^ years ago. No better idea of its transformation since that time can be conveyed than that given by Eben Bailey in his pen picture of the village of Fitchburg in 1830, which appeared in the "Worcester County History," in w^hich he says, "There were quite a number of houses on West and Mechanic streets, but not a single house on the north side of Main street, between a point just below the present residence of Ebenezer Torre}' and the house owned by Oliver Fox, Esquire, near the corner of Main and Prichard streets (this latter not then being laid out). There were at that time in Fitchburg 325 dwelling houses, two meeting houses, one academy, twelve school houses, one printing office, two woolen mills, four cotton mills, one scythe manufactory, two paper mills, four grist mills, ten saw mills, three taverns, two hat manufacto- ries, one bellows manutactory, two tanneries, two window- blind manufactories, and one chair manufactory." "In 1835 ^^^^ appearance of the village was somewhat as follows : We should find a store on the corner of Main and River streets, and lurther down, not far from the common, the Baptist church, in the basement of which was a book- FITCHBURG OF THE PAST. 23 Store and bindery. Near the head of the common was the Unitarian church, used for town meetings and public pur- poses. On the corner of Main and Rollstone streets was the orthodox church, and just below a grocery store, over which was the tailor shop of Daniel Cross, while further down was the tavern, situated on the site of the Fitchburg Hotel. Just beyond the tavern was a store and in the rear of it the printing office. On the other side of the street, where the store of E. M. Read now is, was the store of Benjamin Snow^ & Son, and just above, in the building where is now the barber shop of D. W. Hilton, was a hardware store. Above was the Fitchburg Bank and a tavern on the present site of the Rollstone House. There were perhaps forty dwellings in the upper portion of the village. There was a cotton mill where is now the mill of B. M. Pitts and the woolen mill in Factory square was substantially the same as is the present factory of the Fitchburg woolen mill company (recently sold to the Parkhill manutacturing company). In Newton Lane there was a cotton factory. In the Old City there was a store in the rear of the present store of I. C. 24 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. Wright, and there were about a dozen dwelling houses. There was also the stone cotton mill on Laurel street, and a paj")er mill on Water street. There were a number of stone bridges and a dozen dams on the Nashua. There was stage communication daily with Boston, Keene and Lowell, and stages left three times a week for Springfield and Worcester. There were mail-stages which answered to our express trains and there were also accommodation stages between Fitch- burg and Boston. Those were halcyon days for hotel keep- ers and the stage driver was a man of importance." For the follow^ing brief description of Main street, as it appeared in 1800, we are indebted to Mrs. Harriet Kimball, widow of Alpheus Kimball and mother of A. P., William and Gen. J. W. Kimball, and Mrs. Richard H. Torrey. Mrs. Kimball is now in her 98th year and is the oldest person in Fitchburg, having resided here about 90 years. Her memory and mental faculties are remarkably well pre- served and she remembers the location of the buildings along Main street at the beginning of the present century. She says, "at that time the tirst house on the main road west of the Lunenburg line was situated on what is known as the Dr. Palmer place, nearly opposite the residence of E. A. Goodrich, on that part of the road which is now called Summer street. The next house occupied what is now the American House corner and there were no houses, now standing, between that and the Safety Fund Bank (Crocker Block). An ancient soap shop occupied the present site of Crocker Block, and was known as 'Old Potash.' West of that there were no other buildings until near where the Rollstone House now stands. The street was unpaved and there were no sidewalks and very little fence on either side of the street." Going still further back in the history of the town to the time of its incorporation in 1764, the people subsisted chiefly by farming, using the crudest implements of husbandry. The population at that time was about 250. The roads were few in number and poorly constructed, many of them merely bridle paths, and most of the travel was on horseback. The FITCIII3URG OF THE PAST. 25 Nashua river was considered a curse to the place, and the valley through which it run was shunned by the early settlers. The art of construct- ing durable bridges was not understood in those days, and it was generally thought that Fitchburg could never be a flourishing place on account of the destructive freshets and con- sequent expense of maintaining and keeping in repair the roads and bridges. The accompany- ing engraving is given, showing the location of the four principal streets leading through the town at that time. Following still further back to the first settle- ment of the town we tind that the lirst settler within the limits of Fitchburo- was one David Page, who lived in the vicinity of Pearl street. His dwell- inty was built of log's and surrounded by a stockade of sticks of timber driven closely together as a protection against the incursion of savages, and to add to its convenience and safety in case of siege he made a covered channel by which a small brook was con- ducted for quite a dis- tance underground and '^, through the garrison, sup- -^aaiiaimiga^ ^^gj^ plying it with pure water. Torrey's History refers to David Page as one of a large family of children of Governor Page, and states that he after- ward removed to the northerly part of Vermont. An elderly gentleman of Lunenburg, from whom the I'acts were obtained 20 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. in 1835, I'clates the following: "This Page, having a roving disposition and a speculative cast of mind, took it into his head, when quite young, that he could make more money by trading with the Indians, than by cutting down forest trees and cultivating the soil. Accordingly, he directed his course towards Canada, and com- menced purchasing bea- ver and otter skins of the ignorant natives upon this principle, — that his foot weighed justy^;?^;' pounds and his hand one pound. This they seemed to doubt, but were soon satisfied by his making the declaration that it was as fair for one party as the other, since he weighed off to them, by the same weights, his powder, tobacco, shot, etc. This grand field for making an honest living was, however, soon closed ; for some other traders coming that way, explained the trick to the Indians, and the Old Governor's speculating son had to decamp very suddenly — weights and all — to save his lite." Soon after Page located other settlers began to come in, until in 1748, there were at least five other garrisons within the present boundaries of Fitchburg. The owners were Samuel Poole, Samuel Hunt, Isaac Gibson, Joseph Spofford, and John Fitch. The latter lived in the northern part of the town, since set off to form a part of the town of Ashby, and it seems certain the town of Fitchburg was named for him, as he was prominent in se- curing its incorporation. In 1748, Fitchburg re- ceived a visit from the In- dians and on the 5th of July, the garrison of John Fitch was attacked bv them. The two soldiers who were with him were killed, but he kept up the defence of the garrison for some FITCHBURG OF THE PAST. 27 time, his wife loading the guns and he firing them. They finally surrendered, however, being told that their lives would be spared it' they would do so, and the family, consisting of Fitch, his wife and five children, the youngest a babe, were taken to Montreal. The following day Deas. Goodridge and Amos Kimball were fired upon by Indians, -=^ but escaped to Page's garrison. The alarm jjl being given, soldiers started in pursuit of the Indians, but finding a ark stuck on ^"-l a tree, on which Fitch had written a request =aF-r^4s^.'^i^ra for them not to follow ^^^it^:^,;£i:iri=^^ them turthcr as their captors would kill him if overtaken, the}^ gave up the pursuit. The following fall, the Fitch family were ransomed and all returned safelv, with the exception of Mrs. Fitch, who died on her way home. For years after John Fitch was a prosperous and influ- ential citizen in Fitchburg- and afier- ward in Ashby, where his neighborhood was set off" in 1767 to form a part of x==:.-^-=^^-^ - == that town. He died April 8, 1795, aged 87 years, at the house of a rela- tive in x\shby, and a monument com- memorating these events was afterward erected to his memory. There has been ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^ a diflerence of opinion in the past regarding the vear of tlie Indian raid and also doubt expressed as to the town of Fitch- burg being named in honor of John Fitch, but these questions have been set at rest by the researches of the late Stephen 2.S FITCIIBURG, P'AST AND PRESENT. Shepley and Henry A. Willis. Mr. Shepley's investigation fixes the time of the Indian raid in July, 1748. This ac- count differs from Peter Whitney, Rutus C. Torrev and the monument dale, but these last authorities differ from each other and are not fully substantiated. The statement made at different times, that the town receiv^ed its name from a cer- tain large landholder by the name of Fitch, was found (after a thorough search of records in Boston and Worcester by Mr. Willis) to have the slightest possible foundation, the person referred to being a non-resident and having only an indirect interest in a small piece of ground. The earliest account of any visit of the pale faces within the limits of Fitchburg, as well as the only other Indian epi- sode connected with the history of the town, dates back to the iith of February, 1676. On the day previous the Indians attacked Lancaster, destroyed the settlement by burning the houses, murdering many of the people and taking the rest with them into captivity. Among the number spared was Mrs. Rowlandson, wite of the minister of the place, who on her return from captivity published an account of her jour- neyings through the wilderness. From her description it would seem that she passed the night of Feb. 11 within the limits of Fitchburg and on Rollstone Hill. Let us for a moment imagine the scene, surrounded by a band of merciless savages, exulting over the destruction of her home and the murder of those near and dear to her. Overwhelmed by the loss of her husband and children and exposed to the wintry blasts, with a prospect of hope- less captivity in view, what torture of mind and body might she not have endured. It was but one case of many in those days of hardship and danger. Mrs. Rowland- son's description of the massacre at Lancaster and suc- ceeding events is as follows : (Forty-two persons sought shelter under her roof and after a hot assault the Indians suc- ceeded in setting the house on fire.) "Qjiickly,"' Mrs. Row- landson says, "it was the dolefullest day that mine eyes ever saw, now the dreadful hour is come some in our house were tii'htinsf I'or their li\es : others wallowing in blood; the FITCHBURG OF THE PAST. 29 house on tire over our heads and the bloody heatliens ready to knock us on the heatl if we stirred out. I took my chil- dren to go tbrth but the Indians shot so thick tliat the bullets rattled ap-ainst the house as it" one had thrown a handtul of stones. We had six stout dogs but not one of them would stir. The bullets tl3-ing thick, one went through my side and through my poor child in my arms." The brutalities of an Indian massacre followed. Mrs. Rowlandson was taken captive with one poor, wounded babe. She adds, "Down I must sit in the snow, with my sick child, the picture of death, in my arms. Not the least crumb of refreshment came within either of our mouths from Wednesday night to Satur- day night, except a little cold water.*' How little do the mothers of the present day, surrounded by the comtbrts and blessings of civilization, know of the sorrows of the women of a tbrmer generation. CHAPTER HI. CITY GOVERNMENT. The administration of municipal affairs is committed to the hands of a Mayor, Board of Aldermen, and Common Council. The annual election is held on the first Tuesday in December and the city govern- ment is formally organized on the tirst Monday of the following Janu- ary. Six Aldermen — one from each ward — compose the Board, and the Common Council consists of eighteen members — three from each ward. Meetings of the city government are held on the first and third Tuesdays of each month. The officers of the city for the present year are as follows : Mayor : Frederick Fosdick. Aldermen : Ward i — Frank A. Wood ; Ward 2 — David M. Dillon : Ward 3— John Parkhill ; Ward 4— James F. D. Garfield ; Ward 5— Henry M. Choate ; Ward 6— Horace M. Kendall. Clerk of the Board of Aldermen: Walter A. Davis. Common Coiincihnen : Ward i — Michael D. Crimmins, Frederick Ryan, Joseph A. Fuller; Ward 2 — George S. Coggswell, James Hanna, Francis A. McCaulifi'; Ward 3 — William H. Goodwin, Benjamin G. Bagley, Henry F. Rock- well ; Ward 4 — Willard Dennis, Joseph C. Moulton, William Edwards : Ward 5 — Alvin E. Battles, Charles P. Washburn, Clarentine E. Ferson ; Ward 6 — Thomas H. Doherty, ■Ci^f -y-i' ALVAH CROCKER. -«8*l*v-* Metro DoliLanTullislimo &:Engramg Co lewToiK CITY GOVERNMENT. 31 Michael Whalon, James II. McCarty. President of the Comnwii Council: Henry F. Rockwell; Clerk: J. E. Kellogg, elected by the Common Council. The following named well known citizens have filled the office of Mayor since the incorporation of the city : Amasa Norcross, from formation of the City Government to Jan. 1875 : Eugene T. Miles, from Jan. 1875 to Jan. 1876; Hiram A. Blood, from Jan. 1876 to Jan. 1877; L)'ivid H. Merriam, from Jan. 1877 to Jan. 1879: William H. Vose, from Jan. 1879 ^^ J'^^^- 1880; Eli CuUey, from Jan. 1880 to Jan. 1882 ; George Robbins, from Jan. 1882 to Jan. 1883 ; Alonzo Davis, from Jan. 1883 to Jan. 1886, and Frederick Fosdick, trom Jan. 1886 to the present time. AMASA NORCROSS, first Mayor of Fitchburg, was born in Rindge, N. H., Jan. 26, 1824, he received an excellent academic education, first in the academy of his native town and subsequently in a sim- ilar institution at New Ipswich, N. H. Selecting the profes- sion of law he became in 1844 a student in the office of the Hon. Nathaniel Wood in Fitchburg, and in 1847 was ad- mitted to the bar, since that time he has pursued his professional labors in this city and is to-day the senior mem- ber of the Fitchburg bar. In 1858-59 and 1862 Mr. Norcross was a member of the Massachusetts house of representatives, elected on the republican ticket, in 1858 he was a member of the committee of probate and chancery of which Gov. An- drew, then a member of the house, was chairman, and in 1859 '^^^^ 1862 he was a member of the judiciary committee. In August of the last named year he was appointed by Presi- dent Lincoln United States assessor for the 9th Congressional District of Massachusetts, serving for ten years and until the office was abolished by act of congress. In 1862 the authori- ties of Dartmouth conferred upon him the degree of Master of Arts. In the session of 1859 ^^^'- Norcross was appointed a member of the joint committee of the senate and house of representatives to examine and amend the report of the com- 32 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESBNT. mi.ssicjners appointed ti; codity the laws of the state. Upon this committee were several distinguished lawyers, amono- whom were Gen. Caleb Gushing and Gen. Benjamin F. But- ler. In 1874 '^^ ^^'^^ '^ member of the Massachusetts senate and chairman of the judiciary committee of that body, also chairman of the committee on federal relations. To him was assigned the honor of drafting the report which recom- mended rescinding the resolutions of censure upon Charles Sumner which had been passed by the legislature of Massa- chusetts. The rescinding resolutions reached Senator Sumner at Washington a few days before his death and doubtless contributed materially to soothe his last hours. In the fall of 1876 Mr. Norcross was elected representative to congress and re-elected in 1878 and again in 1880. Local atiairs always received a proportionate share of Mr. Norcross' attention. On the organization of the City Gov- ernment in 1873 he received the honor of first election to the Mayoralty of the new city ; he was re-elected the following 3^ear. With financial and other public organizations he has been for mauN' vears prominentlv identified. He is a director in the Rollstone National Bank, president of the Worcester North Savings Institution and of the Fitchburg Fire Insur- ance Company. He took an active p'art in organizing the Fitchbm-g Benevolent Union, was its first president and is now one of its life members. For tifteen years he has been a trustee of the Lawrence Academy at Groton : by an act of legislature was made one of the original members of the or- ganization known as the Cushing Academy at Ashburnham, of which he is now a trustee, contributing largely to the or- ganizing and building up of this now flourishing academy. EUGENE T. MILES, second Mayor of Fitchburg, tamiliarl}- known in Fitchburg as Captain Miles, was born in Framingham, Aug. 26, 1826. His parents resided in Shrewsbury but were temporarily stopping in Framingham. He was educated as a business man in Worcester, \\iiere lie beuan as clerk in Kinnicut's (^ /. /<^^>^^c^^ yT /th^iyCc^, CITY GOVERNMENT. 33 hardware store. In 1856 he came to Fitchburg and was associated with A. G. Page in business ; Mr. Page sold his interest to Mr. Augustus Whitman. The partnership with Mr. Whitman extended from 1856 until the death of Capt. Miles, in 1876. He was one of the corporators of the Whit- man & Miles Manufacturing Co., in 1864, of which company he was president at the time of his death. He was connected with a number of other manufacturing companies of this city and also at Akron, Ohio. He was prominently connected with the municipal affairs of Fitchburg for many years, was a member of the board of selectmen in 1864, '65, ^66 and 1872, and Mayor of the city in 1875. He was one of the directors of the Fitchburg National Bank and one of the trustees of the Fitchburg Savings Bank. He was also president of the Worcester North Agricultural Society, and a member of the State Board of Agriculture and one of the vice-presidents of the Fitchburg Board of Trade since its organization. Capt. Miles was an earnest supporter of the Union army during the late war, ever ready to aid the soldiers and their families. He finally concluded to go to the front, but the health of his partner failed, which left the sole management of a very extensive business entirely to his care, compelling him to resign his commission as captain of Company A, 53d Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers, before the regiment left its quarters in New York for active service in the field. At the close of the war he was captain of the Fusiliers one 3'ear. He also did a large share of the work of the committee on the soldiers' monument. In the very meridian of his manhood and in the midst of usefulness he was called from the scenes of this life. He died very suddenly at his residence on Blossom street, June 26, 1876. Better known to all of the citizens of Fitchburg, both rich and poor, than almost any other man, and bound up as he was with so many of our mercantile interests, his loss was severely felt. His characteristics were a devotion to the wel- fare of his adopted city, honesty of official life as well as integrity in business affairs of every description, and the 3 34 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. exercise of those estimable qualities that go to make up the companion and friend ; and it may be truly said of him that in his death the poor man, the soldier, and the soldier's family lost a sincere friend. HIRAM ALBRO BLOOD, third Mayor of Fitchburg, was born in Townsend, Mass., Feb. 3, 1833, where he received an academical education. He was first elected Mayor by the board of aldermen and common council, Nov. 2, 1875, to fill out the unexpired term of Eugene T. Miles, and at the subsequent annual election in December he was elected mayor by the people and was inaugurated January, 1876, and filled the office of Mayor for one year and two months. At the age of twenty he entered the commission house of Bliss, Sutton & Co. in Worcester, Mass., as a clerk and be- came a member of the firm in 1854, at which time he opened a branch house in Fitchburg, and came here to live and has resided here ever since. In 1857 he dissolved his connection with Bliss, Sutton & Co., and entered into a co-partnership with William O. Brown of this city, under the name of Blood & Brown, which existed until i860, when Mr. Brown with- drew to enter the United States Army, becoming a major of the 25th Regiment, and a new firm w^as formed under the name of H. A. Blood & Co., which continued to carry on the business. In 1865 Mr. Blood withdrew from all mercan- tile pursuits and became entirely interested in railroads, to the construction and operation of which he has ever since t^iven his time and attention. In 1865 he became connected with the Fitchburg and Worcester Railroad company, as a director, and as its super- intendent and general manager. He afterwards built or was largely instrumental in building, the Boston, Clinton and Fitchburg, the Framingham and Lowell, the Mansfield and Framingham and the Fall River railroads, of which he suc- cessively became superintendent and general manager, and afterwards united and consolidated them together with the CITY GOVERNMENT. 35 New Bedford and Taunton, and the Taunton Branch rail- roads into one system under the name of the Boston, Clinton, Fitchburg and New Bedford Railroad Compan}^ reaching from Fitchburg and Lowell in the north, to Mansfield, Taun- ton, New Bedford and Fall River in the southern part of the state. This system of railroads was for a time operated by Mr. Blood as general manager and was afterwards united and consolidated with the Old Colony Railroad Company, of which it now forms an important part. In the construction of these railroads, and in their subsequent operation and con- solidations, Mr. Blood was the moving and directing spirit. In 1875 he procured the Charter for the Wachusett Na- tional Bank of Fitchburg, obtained all the subscriptions to its capital stock, established the bank and became its first vice- president. He is now chiefly interested in railroads in the state of Ohio, being the president of The Cleveland and Canton Rail- road Company in that state, which position he has held since May, 1884, but he still retains his residence in Fitchburg, where he has an office, as well as an office in Boston, Mass. DAVID H. MERRIAM, fourth Mayor of Fitchburg, was born, July 3, 1820, at Essex, in the county of Essex and state of New York, was one of seven children of Josephiis and Betsey Merriam. His father died when he was eight years of age, his mother moved to Fitchburg in July, 1829, with her seven children. Fitchburg at that time contained about 2,000 inhabitants. He carried on the carriage and harness business five years, from 1842 to 1847, he then commenced studying law with Hon. Nathaniel Wood and Ebenezer Torrey. In 1850 was appointed Assistant Marshal of Massachusetts, by the President, to take the census of this district. In 185 1 was admitted to the bar at Worcester, at the April term of the su- preme judicial court, and in 1858 he was admitted to practice in the United States court by the Hon. Judge Sprague upon examination, he being the first person ever admitted to 36 FITCIIBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. practice in the United States court from Fitchburg. In 185 1 he was appointed a Justice of the Peace for the county of Worcester by Gov. George S. Boutwell, which office he has held thirtv-six years. In 1861 he represented the district, in which Fitchburg was a part, in the Massachusetts house of representatives, and was a member of the judiciary commit- tee, and a member of a joint committee of a special session to prepare for the families of the soldiers by passing the state aid laws and other acts of like nature. Was one of the se- lectmen of Fitchburg in 1861. In 1863 was appointed Provost Marshal of the 9th District of Massachusetts by President Lincoln and held the office during the war, and was honorably discharged, Oct. 15, 1865, having served until the close of the war. In 1868 he was appointed Special Justice of the police court of Fitchburg by his Excellency Alexander H. Bullock, governor, which office he now holds. He was elected Mayor of Fitchburg in 1877 and 1878, and has held the office of Commissioner of Insolvency for the county of Worcester for eighteen years and has practiced law in Fitchburg thirty-six years, and holds a commission as Notary Public and Justice of the Peace and Qjiorum lor the Co m m o n w e al t h . WILLIAM H. VOSE, fifth Mayor of Fitchburg, was born in Leominster, Nov. 5, 1808. His early life was spent on the farm, but at the age of 14 he entered a woolen mill to learn the art of linishing cloth. In 1828-29 he was employed in the Fitchburg Woolen Mill. At 21 years of age he went to Royalston and was em- ployed as overseer in the mill of Rufus Bullock, father of the late Governor A. II. Bullock, till 1846, when he moved to Winchendon" and formed a partnership with George S. Coffin, which continued about two years, the firm being en- gaged in the manufacture of woolen goods. In 1848 Mr. Vose bougiit an interest in the Fitchburg Woolen Mill ; soon became manager of the company and continued in that posi- tion until the time of his death, which occurred Oct. 27, 1884. David H. Merriam. Wm. H. Vose. ^m H^ iSISi' Eli Culley. Alonzo Davis. CITY GOVERNMENT. 37 For several years Mr. Vose was a valued member of the directors' board of the Fitchburg National Bank and a trus- tee in the Fitchburg Savings Bank. He also served on the board of selectmen for two years, from April 1862. He rep- resented the district of which Fitchburg formed a part in the legislatures of 1863 and '64. In 1873 and '74 he represented Ward 3 in the board of aldermen and was chairman of the important committees on highways, water and education. Those who served with him on those committees know with what fidelity to the best interests of the whole city he investi- gated every matter brought before the city council. His time and valuable business experience was always freely given to city afiairs to bring the greatest good to the greatest number. In December, 1878, he was elected Mayor and served one year — declining an unanimous renomination. In all the relations of public and private life he was most exem.plar}' and few men who have held positions of trust en- countered so little adverse criticism as Mr. Vose. His spot- less integrit}^ and sincerity inspired perfect confidence and it seemed impossible for him to deceive or dissimulate. He weighed questions carefully and deliberately and arrived at conclusions slowly but with sound judgment. He was cheerful even under depressing circumstances and inter- course with his hopeful spirit was an excellent remedv for despondency. While freely expressing his convictions he treated with uniform courtesy all who came in contact with him and was always ready to listen and give due weight to the opinions of those who differed from him. He contributed in many ways to the prosperit}^ of the city, but his most valuable contribution was the influence of his character and example on the rising generation. ELI CULLEY, sixth Mayor of Fitchburg, was born, Feb. 4, 1840, near the city of Bath in the west of England. At the age of fifteen came to the United States and located in Massachusetts. He was livinfj in Boston at the time of the war and enlisted in 38 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. Compan}' K, 43d Massachusetts Regiment. On liis return from the army, being in poor health, he did not actively en- gage in business for some time ; but later on began the man- ufacture of hies in Weymouth, Mass. In the spring of 1868 he removed his file business to Fitchburg, at first occupying a building near the Rollstone Machine company's works on Water street, and later moving to his present place of busi- ness at Newton lane. He was president of the Common Council in 1875, member of the board of Aldermen in 1877 and 1878, and Mayor in 1880 and 1881, and is the only Ma3'or who has served as president of the Common Council and on the board of Aldermen as well. He was representa- tive to the Legislature in 1880. GEORGE ROBBINS, seventh Mayor of Fitchburg, is a native of Leominster, where he was born, Dec. 5, 1827. At sixteen years of age he was apprenticed to learn the trade of plate and sheet iron worker. In 1854 ^^^ came to Fitchburg and started in his present gas fitting and plumbing business. He served the town in the capacity of selectman prior to its incorporation as a city, and was a m.ember of the committee who drafted the city charter. ALONZO DAVIS, eighth Mayor of Fitchburg, was born Nov. 15, 1817, in Gardner, Mass., where he learned the chair business. In 1845 he removed to Fitchburg and in company with Augustus Rice started a chair manufactory in "Newton Lane," continuing the chair business with Hiram Wood, John D. Pratt, Henry T. Pratt and Charles E. Pratt, as partners, at different periods of time, until 1855 when in company with Henry T. Pratt a new brick factory was con- structed on "Tuttle Flat" — so called — of the following dimen- sions : 150 feet long, 40 feet wide, four stories high, where the chair business was continued under the firm name of A. Davis & Co. until 1864, when Mr. Davis purchased of his FREDERICK FOSDICK CITY GOVERNMENT. 39 partners their interests and became sole owner, continuing the business to 1877. A Httle later Mr. Davis sold his factory to the Parkhill Manufacturing Company and retired tVom the chair business, which he had carried on for thirty- two consecutive years. Mr. Davis served as member of the city government for eight successive years, commencing in 1878 ; two years as common councilman ; three years as alderman, and three years as Mayor. FREDERICK FOSDICK, ninth and present Mayor of Fitchburg, was born in Groton, Mass., April, 1850, came to Fitchburg in 1870, and was in the office of the Burleigh Rock Drill Company thirteen months, then went to Pennsylvania coal mines for the pur- pose of setting up some pumping machinery for New Bedford parties, returning to Fitchburg in 1872, and taking the posi- tion of draughtsman for the Haskins Machine Company. Upon organization of the Fitchburg Steam Engine Company took the position of Treasurer and Business Manager, which he still retains. He was three years on the school committee by election, two years president of common council and ex- officio on school committee, and two years Mayor, cx-officio on school committee, making seven years on the school board. He is also a trustee in the Worcester North Savings Institution. The other members of the present city government are as follows : ALDERMEN. Frank A. Wood, was born in Westminster, February, 1844, li'^'ed there until the beginning of the war, when he en- listed in Company A, 36th Regiment, at expiration of his term of service returned to Fitchburg and has been in busi- ness here most of the time since ; for the past fourteen years has been engaged in the provision business on Water street. Was on the city council in 1877. 40 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. David M. Dillon, was born in St. Johns, New Bruns- wick, in 1843 ; w^ent to learn the boiler makers trade at the age of fourteen ; left his native city and came to Boston in i860, where he continued to w^ork at his trade. In 1863 he was employed by the United States government as a boiler maker and stationed at Port Royal, S. C, where he re- mained for over a year. Coming North he finally located at Worcester where he started the boiler business in 1865, con- tinuing in the business for four years. He sold out in Worcester and came to Fitchburg in 1870. John Parkhill, was born near Glasgow, in Scotland ; he came to this country and located in the city of Provi- dence, R. I., in 1848, where he remained for three years. From Providence he removed to Adams and afterwards to North Adams and was actively connected with the manufacturing of cotton goods in these tw^o places for more than twenty-five years. He came to Fitchburg in 1879 ^"^ in 1880 established the successful gingham industry which bears his name and of which corporation he is president. James F. D. Garfield, is a native of Langdon, N. H., where he was born Aug. 14, 1828. He came to Fitchburg at the age of seventeen and from that time till twenty-one worked at printing in the office of the Fitchburg Sentinel — attending school at intervals at the Fitchburg Academy and at Lawrence Academy, Groton. The next three years were divided between school at Leicester Academy and working at his trade in Worcester. In September, 1852, he returned to Fitchburg, bought one-half interest in the Fitchburg Sentinel office, and con- tinued the publication of that paper in company with his brother Elisha Garfield, till October, i860, when he sold out, his brother, the senior partner, taking the entire business- After an interval of one or two years, which was passed in Boston and in Pawtucket, R. I., Mr. Garfield in April, 1864, entered into partnership with John P. Sabin, for the purpose i Frank A Wood. mh ^H «^< John Parkhill. James F. D. Garfield. Henry M. Choaie BOARD OF ALDERMEN. CITY GOVERNMENT. 41 of carrying on tlie coal business. At the end of one year William O. Brown succeeded Mr. Sabin and in April, 1866, George N. Proctor purchased Mr. Brown's interest. From that time to the present the firm has continued under the name of Garfield and Proctor, doing business at the old stand. No. 23 Water street. At the municipal election in 1881, Mr. Garfield was elected a member of the school com- mittee of Fitchburg for three years and in 1884 received a re- election for the same length of time. At the city election in December, 1885, he was chosen alderman from Ward 4, and the Ibllowing year was re- elected to the same ofiice, during the latter term serving as president of the board. In November, 1886, he was chosen to represent the city of Fitchburg in the general court for the session of 1887, his associate being Joseph S. Wilson. Henry M. Choate, was born in Jamaica, Vt., Nov. 17, 1836. Spent his early life on a farm, until the spring of 1858, when he removed to Baltimore, Md. He was there salesman in a wholesale bakery for one and a half years. In September, 1859, he came to Fitchburg and engaged in the grocery business with his brother until May, 1882, when poor health compelled him to abandon the business, and he has engaged in no special occupation since that time. Served on the commo*n council two years, 1881 and 1882. Horace M. Kendall, was born in Dunstable, Mass., June 6, 1848. His boyhood days were spent at home on the farm. In October, 1867, he went to Manchester, N. H., to learn the machinist's trade at the Manchester Locomotive Works and worked there four years. In November, 1871, moved to Fitchburg and was in the employ of the Fitchburg Machine Works from that time until April, 1885. He is at present employed at the Simonds Rolling Machine Com- pany's works ; was a member of the common council of Fitchburg three years, 1882-83 and 1884. 42 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. The city clerk is the otEcial clerk of the board of alder- men. There have been but two city clerks since the incorporation of the city, the veteran town and City Clerk Henry Jackson, who served the town nearly six years and the city until January, 1887, and his successor, now in office. CITY CLERK. Walter A. Davis, the present city clerk, is a native of Fitchburg, the only son of ex-Mayor Alonzo Davis. He fitted for college at the high school and entered Williams in 1865, graduating four 3'ears later. He was afterwards for several years associated with his father in the chair business. From 1880 to 1887, he was in the employ of the Fitchburg Railroad Company, as freight clerk, night clerk and ticket clerk. His education and experience in transacting business with all classes of people have admirably fitted him for the office he holds. COMMON COUNCIL. Michael D. Crimmins, was born June 5, 1847, in Ire- land, came to America and located in Orange, Mass., in i860, moved to Fitchburg in 1867, is an iron moulder by trade and employed by Heywood, Wilson & Co. Frederic Ryan, was born in Westminster, Mass., 1855 ; at the age of five years came to Fitchburg and has resided here since ; is a carpenter by trade. Joseph A. Fuller, was born Sept. 14, 1841, in what was then the town of Cumberland, R. I., now Woonsocket. At the breaking out of the Rebellion he enlisted in the ist R. I. Cavahy, Troop C, served during the war, was slightly wounded twice — a buck shot scalp wound and a sabre cut. Since returning from the service he has travelled over the United States, Canada and Chili, South America, setting up woolen machinery. He came to Fitchburg in 1881, and has since been in the employ of the Putnam Machine Company. CITY GOVERNMENT. 43 George S. Coggsw1':ll, was born Jul}^ 12, 1857, at Pascoag, R. I., afterwards resided in Westerly, R. I., five years, moving to West Fitchburg about 1873, is overseer of the weaving department of the Fitchburg Worsted Company, West Fitchburg. James Hanna, was born Nov. 25, 1858, in West Fitch- burg and with the exception of eleven years in New York state has lived here since. He was for a long time over- seer of spinning at the Fitchburg Woolen Company's mills, but since the woolen business was discontinued has engaged in the coal business with Edward McElroy, under the firm name of McElroy & Hanna. Francis A. McCauliff, was born January, 1848, is a native of the Province of Qjiebec and came to Vermont in 1867. He has resided in Fitchburg about seventeen years, most of the time engaged in the granite business. William H. Goodwin, was born in Sterling, Jan. 2, 1827. As a contractor and builder has since resided in various places, Fitchburg, Bolton, Clinton and Worcester, returning to Fitchburg in 185 1. Since which time he has probably built five hundred houses and public buildings in this city, besides rebuilding nearly every dam on the Nashua within the city limits. Is the present Inspector of Buildings. Benjamin G. Bagley, was born in Clinton, Maine, Feb. 16, 1845, removed from that place to Waltham and afterwards to Fitchburg, where he has resided for the past ten years. Is a carpenter by trade and a member of E. V. Sumner Post 19, G. A. R., having served in Co. F, Unat- tached Maine Infantrjs during the war. Henry F. Rockwell (President), was born in Fitch- burg in 1849, and received his education in the public schools of his native town. In 1864 he went to Boston as an appren- tice in the Pharmacy of S. H. Woods, 51 Tremont street, and from that time has made the drug business his occupa- tion. He returned to Fitchburg in 1877 and engaged in business at 401 Main street, where he is still located. 44 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. WiLLARD Dennis, a native of Barre, Mass., was born March 30, 1825, removed to Fitchburg and was engaged in manufacturing and mercantile business here for the past thirty years, although he was a printer by trade. He was a member of the firm of George Robbins & Co. He died Oct. 9, 1887. Joseph C. Moulton, was born in Sandwich, N. H., Jan. I, 1824, Left home at 21 years of age, came to Massa- chusetts in 1848, and three years later became a resident of Fitchburg, engaging in the daguerreotype business, out of which has grown his present extensive photograph business ; was chosen the first president of the Y. M. C. A., serving three years and declining a re-election ; superintendent of the Rollstone Sunday School for thirteen years. William Edwards, is a native of Wales where he was born Dec. 3, 1846; came to New York in 1868; to Fitch- burg in 1870 to engage in the business of slate roofing. This is his third year on the common council. Alvin E. Battles, a native of Fitchburg, was born June 28, 1837, has since resided in Fitchburg, w^ith the ex- ception of a few years in Millbury, Mass., and Manchester, N. H. Is a moulder by trade ; has been connected with the Fitchburg fire department for a number of years. Charles P. Washburn, was born in Middleboro, Mass., Dec. 11, 1856, with the exception of a short resi- dence in Boston, lived there until 1881, when he engaged in business and removed to Fitchburg ; is at present associated with F. F. Woodward in the firm of Washburn & Woodward, grain dealers. Clarentine E. Ferson, w\as born May 19, 1845, in Francestown, N. H. His parents went to Lowell, Mass., when in his infancy ; lived there until he was thirty years of age, with the exception of three years' service in the Union Army and one year in the western country. In 1875 '"^^ went to Greenville, N. H., wdiere he resided four years, then came to Fitchburg, in October, 1879, and has lived here since. CITY GOVERNMENT. 45 His military service was in Co. L, ist Regiment Massachu- setts Artillery, enlisting as a private at sixteen years of age, and was sergeant at the end of his term of service. Thomas H. Doiierty, was born in Lowell, Mass., Oct. 26, 1853 ; has resided in Fitchburg since 1863 ; is in the em- ploy of Alderman F. A. Wood, in the provision business, on Water street. Michael Whalon, was born August, 1839, in Dayville, Conn. He came to Fitchburg at the age of seven and has lived here since ; is an iron moulder by trade. James H. McCarty, is a native of Fitchburg, was born, July 18, 1862, is engaged in the provision business at the cor- ner of Water and First streets, where he has always resided; has represented his ward in the common council three years, and was the youngest man ever elected councilman in this city. clerk of common council. John E. Kellogg, clerk of thef common council, was born at Amherst, Mass., July 2, 1845 ; graduated at Willis- ton Seminary, Easthampton, in '65, and Amherst College in '69 ; since been engaged in journalism — two years on Spring- field Republican, two years with New York Associated Press, a few months with the Taunton Gazette, and since 1873 with the Fitchburg Sentinel. He has been clerk of the common council since May, 1880, and a member of the school committee since January, 1887. city auditor. Henry Jackson, city auditor, is a native of Leominster, Mass. When five years old he removed to Fitchburg where he has since resided most of the time. He attended the academy at Framingham and Fitchburg, has been employed as bookkeeper in various positions in this city, Aug. 25, 1866, was elected town clerk, acting as town and city clerk until January, 1887 ; clerk for the board of selectmen to 46 FITCIIBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. January, 1873 ; water register from 1872 to 1885 5 librarian of the public library from September i<s66 to January 1873; member of the auditing committee from 1867 to 1873 and city auditor from 1873 to the present time. CITY TREASURER AND COLLECTOR OF TAXES. Henry A. Willis, was born in Fitcliburg, Nov. 26, 1830 ; has lived here the most of his lite, engaged in banking, and is now president of the Rollstone National Bank. He was president of the first common council in 1873, elected city treasurer and tax collector for 1874 ^^^ annually since ; has been a trustee of the public librar}^ for about twent}' years ; was a member of the legislature in 1866. He is or has been connected with various Fitchburg corporations in official ca- pacity. Ebenezer Torrey, w^ho was treasurer and tax col- lector the first year, 1873, had served the town in the same capacity for many years. CITY SOLICITOR. Edward E. Pierce, was born in Templeton, Mass., Dec. 28, 1852; came to Fitchburg about i860; graduated at the high school in 1873 ; entered Harvard University in 1873 ; graduated at the law school, Harvard University, in 1877, with the degree of L. L. B. ; is a member of the law tirm of Pierce & Stiles. The following named lawyers have tilled the office of city solicitor : George A. Torrey, 1873 ; David H. Merriam, 1874-75-76; Harris C. Hartwell from 1877 to 1886. CITY PHYSICIAN. John D. Kielty, was born in Fitchburg, June 17, 1858, educated in our public schools and at the Gushing Academy, Ashburnham, Mass. ; graduated from the College of Physi- cians and Surgeons, Boston, May 24, 1883, and from the Henry A. ^A/lllls. Walter A. Davis. C. H. D. Stoekbridge. John D. Kielty. Edward P. Pierce. CITY GOVERNMENT. 47 Bellevue Hospital Medical College, city of New York, Mar. 13, 1884; ^"^^ appointed city physician January, 1887. The past city physicians are Charles H. Rice, 1873-74- 75; Alfred O. Hitchcock, 1876; F. H. Thompson, 1877; E. P. Miller, 1878 ; D. Sidney Woodworth, 1879-80-81 ; Alfred O. Hitchcock, 1882-83 ; E. P. Miller, 1884 ; D. Sid- ney Woodworth, 1885-86. DEPARTMENTS. POLICE DEPARTMENT. /"There are few cities in the United States where there is greater safety to life and property than in Fitchburg. The pleasantest relations exist between the different departments of the city government, and as a consequence, the}^ work to- gether for the public welfare. The city has been remarkably free Irom crimes of a serious nature, and few disastrous fires have occurred. We have, moreover, been singularly blessed in this age of labor agitation, by freedom from labor troubles and strikes, with all their attendant miseries, showing evi- dent consideration on the part of employers and a reasonable and contented spirit on the part of the employed. The police force of Fitchburg is not large as compared with the size of its population. The force at present consists of a chief, captain, sergeant and thirteen patrolmen. It is in an excellent state of discipline and a credit to the city. The small number of arrests for drunkenness, disturbance of the peace and other misdemeanors, usually committed in public places, is something remarkable when we consider the rapid growth of business and population in our citv. This happy state of things is due in part to the faithful pertbrm- ance of duty by the officers of this department and in part by the law abiding character of our citizens. The officers in their endeavors to suppress the sale of in- toxicating liquor have had the support and encouragement of the city government, and a pronounced temperance senti- ment on the part of the people, a decisive majorit}' of our 48 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. citizens having voted that no licenses for the sale ot" intoxicat- ing liquors shall be granted in our city and elected a mayor and aldermen in harmony with this vote. The officers and members of the police department are appointed by the mayor and aldermen in January, and are tor the present 3'ear : Charles H. D. Stockbridge, chief; Russell O. Houghton, captain ; Thomas Connor, sergeant ; and Patrolmen W. H. Shattuck, Benjamin A. Young, John Flannagan, Joseph T. Battles, Joseph Shepard, Charles H. May, Frederick E. Raitt, Michael M. Connor, Milan G. Twichell, Ephraim E. Farrar, James F. Roy, Charles A. Kendall, Ira F. Legrow. Charles H. D. Stockbridge, the present chief of po- lice, was appointed in January, 1886. He is a native of Dix- iield. Me., but came to Massachusetts when quite young and was in the employ of the Waltham Watch Company until 1885, when he was appointed chief of the Waltham police by Mayor Johnson. Just betbre the close of the war, when only lifteen years old, he enlisted in the 42d Massachusetts Regi- ment, but owing to the close of the war the regiment was not called into active service. He was connected with the mili- tary for eight years after the war, and at one time was captain of Company F, 5th Regiment, M. V. M. Those who have served as chief of police previous to 1886 are R. O. Houghton, 1873-74 5 A. P. Kimball, 1875 ; William Gilchrist, 1882 ; Aaron F. Whitney, 1876-77-78- -79-80-81-83-84-85. FIRE DEPARTMENT. The fire department is efficiently organized and is always kept in good working condition, ready for instant and zealous service. It is managed by a board of engineers who have charge of a good set of new and modern equipments, consist- ini; of three steam fire engines, one hook and ladder com- pany, also hook and ladder truck manned by West Fitchburg hose company, and four hose companies, with three hose car- riages in reserve. CITY GOVERNMENT. 49 The board of engineers are chosen in November by the city council in convention and are as follows : D. W. Tinslev, chief; G. H. Kendall, ist assistant ; B. Parkhurst, 2d assistant; J. N. Whiting, 3d assistant; G. E. Wellington, 4th assistant. J. W. Rand, superintendent tire alarm tele- graph. Steamer Wachusett No. i — is located at 28 Oliver street. Steamer Rollstone No. 2 — is located at 28 Oliver street. Engineer, W. H. Dows fireman, Charles T. Cook. Steamer Wanoosnoc No. 3 — is located at 108 Wachusett street. West Fitchburg. Engineer, Thomas May. Franklin Hook and Ladder Co. No. i — is located at 30 Oliver street. Foreman, George Jefts ; clerk, J. W. Fogarty ; driver, H. H. Beard; thirteen men. Rollstone Hose Co. No. i — is located at Steamer House, 28 Oliver street. Foreman, F. C. Foster: clerk, J. T. Ken- dall ; driver, S. Poland; thirteen men. Wanoosnoc Hose Co. No. 2 — is located in No. 3 Steamer House, 108 Wachusett street, West Fitchburg. Foreman, Calvin Beer; clerk, George Pethybridge ; driver, W. W. Marston ; thirteen men. Mazeppa Hose Co. No. 3 — is located on Factory square. Foreman, W. A. Pearce ; clerk, F. P. Burrington ; ten men. Niagara Hose Co. No. 4 — is located on Day street. Foreman, T. F. Murnane ; clerk, J. H. Fogarty; ten men. David W. Tixsley, has been at the head of the fire de- partment for the past three years. He is a native of Hing- ham, Mass., where he was born Aug. 18, 1848. At the age of 23 he came to Keene, N. H., and was there for about a year connected with the fire department as a member of Phoenix Hose Co. No. 4. He came to Fitchburg in 1872 and about a year after joined the Fitchburg Fire Depart- ment ; w^as a member of Hose Company No. i, until 1878; was on the board of engineers until his election as chief of the department in 1884. Mr. Tinsley was for nearly ten years foreman of the lum- ber, door, sash and blind manufactory of C. A. Priest, but in 4 50 FITCIIBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. March of the present year, tinding his heaUh was being af- fected by too close apphcation to business, gave up his position, and has since been regaining his heakh ; working a portion of the time on architectural and mechanical drawing at his residence. Those who have served as chief of the fire department, since the incorporation of the city, are Lucius Aldrich, George H. Manchester, A. J. Green and George Reed. Mr. Reed, in speaking of the fire department, refers with pleasure to the temper of the organization during all the time he was connected with it. He joined the department in 1848 as a member of Washingtonian Engine Co. No. 2, which was located on Day street, and in 1857 joined the only Hook and Ladder company ; was on the board of engineers twelve years, the last seven of which he was chief. He served under Kilburn Harwood, John H. Wheeler, James B. Lane, A. P. Kimball, Capt. E. T. Miles and Francis Sheldon, be- fore the incorporation of the city, and under Lucius Aldrich, George H. Manchester, and A. J. Green, since. No one is better acquainted with the department or would speak more truthfully of its management, it is therefore an uncommon tribute to such an organization for their tormer chief to refer to his associates without a single unpleasant recollection and without the remembrance of an unkind word or act during the long time of active service. It is hardly necessary in this connection to say there exists a sincere friendship and respect for Mr. Reed, not only with the entire department as it is at present organ- ized, but with all who have ever been associated with him, either as his superior, equal or subordinate in rank. WATER DEPARTMENT. Every part of the city is supplied with an excellent quality of water, abundant in quantity and furnished to the inhabi- tants at reasonable rates. The first board of water commis- sioners was appointed in 1870, the town having accepted a charter from the legislature. Full plans and estimates were CITY GOVERNMENT. 51 presented and adopted and the works constructed in 1871-2. The water supply was taken from Scott and Shattuck brooks, tributaries of Falulah brook, with four reservoirs, Scott, Overlook, Marshall and Falulah. Water for the high service is taken from Scott and Overlook and for the low service from Marshall and Falulah. The four reservoirs have a ca- pacity of about 300,000,000 gallons. Scott is 450 teet above the track of the Fitch- burg railroad. Overlook 405, Marshall 216, and Falulah 236. The mode of supply is by gravitation and it is gratifying to know that the supply of water for lire ser- vice, as well as for do- mestic use, will doubtless prove sufficient for the next ten years. ' The water commissioners chosen in January, by the city council in convention, are Charles H. Brown, Thomas C. Lovell, Samuel D. Sheldon. Superintend- ent of water works, Thomas C. Lovell ; water registrar, A. W. F. Brown. CITY ENGINEER AND SUPERINTENDENT OF WATER WORKS. Thomas C. Lovell, is a native of West Boylston, born March 21, 1846; spent his early life in his native town; studied civil engineering with Phineas Ball of Worcester ; 52 FITCH BURG, PAST AND PRESENT. came to Fitchburg in 1869 and opened an office as civil en- gineer ; was elected superintendent of water works in 1875, as water commissioner in 1879, '^^^ "^^^J engineer in 1880, w^hich position he still holds. There have been but two city engineers previous to Mr. Lovell, George Raymond in 1873-4, ^^"^ Thomas C. Shel- don 1875-6-7-8-9. WATER REGISTRAR. A. W. F. Brown, was born in Chelsea in 1864, April 4; lived afterwards in Greenfield, Mass., and moved to Fitchburg in 1872 ; was elected water registrar in Janu- ary, 1885. HIGHWAY DEPARTMENT. The highway department of Fitchburg has many obstacles to meet in the faithful carrying out of its work, by reason of the demand for new streets, sidewalks, etc., occasioned by the marked growth of the city, and the difficulty of making effective and permanent work on our hillside streets. Thomas Larkin, Jr., the present superintendent of streets is a native of Fitchburg, where he was born June 24, 1852, and has resided here since. George W. Holman was superintendent of streets in 1873 and 1874; Jo^l Davis, 1875-76-77; F. W. Aldrich, 1878- 79-80-81-82 ; Abram G. Lawrence, 1883-84-85-86. POOR DEPARTMENT. The overseers of the poor chosen annually in January by the city council in convention are, this year, the Mayor ex officio, (chairman). S. S. Holton, John J. Sheehan, Aaron F. Whitney and the president of the common council ex officio. S. S. Holton, a native of Northfield, Mass., was born Nov. 16, 1818 ; represented his town in the legislature one year; removed to Montague in 1857, and came to Fitchburg Heiiiy F. Rockwell. Johxi E. Kellogg, '4 <2K> David W. Tinsley. John J, Sheehan. Aaron F. Whitney. CITY GOVERNISIENT. 53 in March 1872 ; elected an overseer of poor in 1883, and has been an assistant assessor for several years. John J. Sheehan, was born in Ireland, Feb. 5, 1844: settled in Lowell, Mass., in 1848; has been a resident of Fitchburg- since July, 1864 ; served five years on the city gov- ernment ; placed on board of overseers of poor in 1884 ; is a member of the civil service examining board ; is a member of the firm of Sweeney & Sheehan at 238 Water street. Aaron F. Whitney, is a native of Westminster, and came to Fitchburg in 1852 ; was superintendent of the chair manufactory of Alonzo Davis for twenty years previous to 1876, when he was appointed chief of police, in which capacity he served for nine years ; one year under Mayor Blood, two under Mayor Merriam, one under Mayor Vose, two under Mayor Culley and three under Mayor Davis, after which, in 1886, he was elected by the common council to his present position on the board of overseers of the poor. The poor farm, situated in South Fitchburg, is a model institution of its kind and a credit to the city ; it is in charge of N. B. Stone, superintendent, and Mrs. E. T. Stone, matron. Trustees of Public Library, and School Committee, are given elsewhere. trustees of public burial grounds. M. W. Cummings, Joel Joel, Daniel B. Whittier. assessors of taxes. David F. Mclntire, Elliot N. Choate, Charles K. Sa\\'yer. civil service examiners. John J. Sheehan, Francis Buttrick, Walter A. Davis. BOARD OF registrars OF VOTERS. Leander Sprague, D. A. Corey, Z. F. Young, Walter A. Davis, clerk. 54 FITCIIBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. INSPECTOR OF MILK. C. H. D. Stockbridge. INSPECTOR OF PETROLEUM. Henry G. Greene. SEALER OF WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. E. E. Farrar. INSPECTOR OF BUILDINGS. William II. Goodwin. BOARD OF HEALTH. The Mayor and Aldermen. The names of those who have served the city as Alder- men previous to 1887 are : 1873. Ward I, Elijah M. Dickinson; 2, Charles T. Crocker; 3, William H. Vose ; 4, Ezra B. Rockwood ; 5, Benjamin Snow ; 6, John Q^. Wright. 1874. Ward I, James Goodrich; 2, Edwin D. Works; 3, William H. Vose; 4, Ezra B. Rockwood; 5, Benjamin Snow ; 6, Festus C. Currier. 1875. Ward I, James Goodrich ; 2, Edwin D. Works ; 3, Leander Sprague ; 4, Alfred R. Ordway ; 5, Andrew B. Sherman ; 6, Festus C. Currier. 1876. Ward I, James Goodrich; 2, Daniel R. Streeter : 3, Leander Sprague; 4, George Robbins ; 5, Andrew B. Sherman ; 6, Isaac C. Wright. 1877. Ward I, Charles F. Putnam; 2, Harrington Sib- ley; 3, Charles T. Crocker; 4, John W. Kimball; 5, Eli Culley ; 6, S3'lvanus Sawyer. 1878. Ward I, Charles F. Putnam; 2, Harrington Sib- ley ; 3, Francis Sheldon ; 4, George Robbins ; 5, Eli Culley ; 6, S. A. Webber. CITY GOVERNMENT. 55 1879. Ward I, William A. Foster; 2, Harrington Sib- ley; 3, Francis Sheldon; 4, Lucius Aldrich ; 5, Asa S. Lawton ; 6, E. A. Goodrich. 1880. Ward I, Henry L. Rice; 2, George F. Fay; 3, Alonzo Davis; 4, James L. Chapman; 5, Asa S. Lawton; 6, Scott A. Webber. 1881. Ward I, Salmon W. Putnam ; 2, George F. Fay ; 3, Alonzo Davis; 4, Lucius Aldrich; 5, Asa S. Lawton; 6, Festus C. Currier. 1882. Ward I, Salmon W. Putnam ; 2, John F. Bruce; 3, Alonzo Davis; 4, Lucius Aldrich; 5, Jacob H. Fair- banks ; 6, A. B. Lawrence. 1883. Ward I, Henry O. Putnam ; 2, George E. Waite ; 3, William E. Wallace; 4, James L. Chapman; 5, Joel Joel ; 6, A. B. Lawrence. 1884. Ward I, Henry O. Putnam; 2, George E. Waite; 3, Gardner Farrar ; 4, John Burney ; 5, Joel Joel ; 6, Henry G. Morse. 1885. Ward I, Henry O. Putnam ; 2, George E. Waite ; 3, Gardner Farrar ; 4, John Burney ; 5, Joseph S. Wilson; 6, Henry G. Morse. 1886. Ward I, L. H. Goodnow ; 2, David M. Dillon; 3, John Parkhill ; 4, James F. D. Gartield ; 5, Henry M. Choate ; 6, Henry G. Morse. The names of the Common Councilmen previous to 1887 are as follows, president of Common Council in small capitals : 1873. Ward I, Henry J. Colburn, Harrington Sibley, Franklin Lvon ; 2, Cornelius Bogart, Samuel D. Sheldon, Daniel R. Streeter ; 3, Samuel E. Crocker, Francis Sheldon, Leander Sprague ; 4, Henry A. Willis, Thomas C. Upton, Charles H. Brown; 5, Winchester Wyman, James A. Person, H. B. Rice ; 6, Charles L. Fairbanks, John Barnes, Henry McGrath. 1874. Ward I, Henry J. Colburn, Charles Mason, Henrv L. Rice ; 2, Cornelius Bogart, Samuel D. Sheldon, 56 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. Daniel R. Streeter ; 3, Samuel E. Crocker, Francis Shel- don, Leander Sprague : 4, L\'man Patch, Thomas C. Upton, Charles II. Brown; 5, John R. Farnum, A. B. Sherman, Lorenzo Barker; 6, John J. Sheehan, Edward Dwyer, E. P. Young. 1875. Ward I, William A. Hardy, Harrington Sible}' Henry L. Rice; 2, Cornelius Bogart, Stephen W. Dole, Daniel R. Streeter; 3, Charles Brigham, Francis Sheldon, Gardner Farrar ; 4, Lyman Patch, Z. F. Young, E. A. Brown; 5, Eli Culley, J. A. Person, Lorenzo Barker; 6, John J. Sheehan, John Barnes, S. W. Putnam. 1876. Ward I, H. L. Rice, E. P. Kittredge, Samuel Stevens ; 2, Cornelius Bogart, Samuel A. Wheeler, Jr., John Phillips ; 3, Gardner Farrar, Charles Brigham, Francis Sheldon ; 4, E. A. Brown, George D. Colon\-, J. R. Has- kell ; 5, J. A. Person, John Lowe, G. H. Kellogg; 6, Ed- ward Dw^•er, Edward Knapp, James B. Sargent. 1877. ' Ward I, E. P. Kittredge, WiUiam A. Hardy, F. A. Wood; 2, Cornelius Bogart, William M. Pride, William Woodbur}' ; 3, Francis Sheldon, S. A. Wheeler, Jr., Moses G. Lyon; 4, George D. Colony, Lucius Aldrich, L. D. Bartlett; 5, George H. Kellogg, Asa S. Lawton, Joel Joel; 6, Edward Dwyer, Scott A. Webber, John J. Sheehan. 1878. Ward I, B. D. Dwinnell, Daniel A. Chaney, James Daley; 2, William Woodbury, William Baldwin, Jr., J. F. Bruce; 3, Moses G. Lyon, Richard A. Leonard, Alonzo Davis; 4, Lucius Aldrich, Jonathan R. Haskell, Joseph A. Tufts; 5, George H. Kellogg, Joel Joel, Asa S. Lawton ; 6, John J. Sheehan, John Linnehan, P. B. Purtill. 1879. Ward I, M. F. Sweeney, M. W. Cummings, N. B. Sleeper; 2, Wm. Woodbury, Wm. Baldwin, Jr., John F. Bruce; 3, R. A. Leonard, Alonzo Davis, H. E. Huntley; 4, J. A. Tufts, E. Foster Bailey, Charles A. Priest; 5, Joel Joel, Albert N. Lowe, E. B. Macy ; 6, Edward Dwyer ; G. N. Green. M.J. Sparks. 1880. Ward I, M. F. Sweeney, Henry O. Putnam, Joseph T. Battles; 2, John F. Bruce, Cornelius Bogart, CITY GOVERNMENT. 57 John Q^. Peabody ; 3, Richard A. Leonard, Francis F. Farrar, W. E. WaUace ; 4, E. F. Bailey, John Burney, Ed- ward P. LoRiNG ; 5, Joel Joel, Edward B. Macy, Georire H. Wheelock ; 6, Edward Dwyer, M. J. Sparks, William L. Bartlett. 1881. Ward I. Henry O. Pntnam, James B. Shannon, A. Cuthbertson ; 2, Cornelius Bogart, John Q^. Peabody, Joseph Butler: 3, Henry G.Morse, William E.Wallace, Charles Brigham ; 4, E. F. Bailey, Frederick Fosdick, Charles A. Priest: 5, Henry M. Choate, Alvin O. Sdckney, George H. Kellogg; 6, John J. Sheehan, Edward Dwyer, Georp-e N. Green. 1882. Ward I, James B. Shannon, Alexander Cuthbert- son, William A. Hardy ; 2, John Q^. Peabody, James Pearce, John McNamara ; 3, William E. Wallace, George B. Wood- ward, R. A. Leonard ; 4, Frederick Fosdick, Charles A. Priest, John Burney; 5, Henry M. Choate, John H. Parker, Albert A. Buxton ; 6, Charles Smith, Winchester Wyman, Horace M. Kendall. 1883. Ward I, George W. Luke, Alexander Cuthbert- son, Bern/ird H. Flaherty; 2, John Q^. Peabody, A. H. Proctor, James Pearce; 3, Francis Sheldon, John Parkhill, A. B. Haskell; 4, Charles A. Priest, John Burney, W. A. Macurda ; 5, Charles H. Glazier, Joseph S.Wilson, John H. Parker; 6, Horace M. Kendall, Henry Concannon, Henry McGrath. 1884. Ward I, Bernard H. Flaherty, George W. Luke, Joseph T. Battles; 2, James Pearce, Bela W. Blood, A. H. Proctor; 3, John Parkhill, John H. Daniels, Uriah E. Cleve- land; 4, George H. Spencer, William A. Macurda, Carmi M. Parker; 5, John H. Parker, Charles H. Glazier, M. A. Holton; 6, H. M. Kendall, Henry McGrath, Henry Concannon. 1885. Ward I, Patrick Donlan, Bernard H. Flaherty, Raymond J. Parker; 2, James Pearce, Bela W. Blood, Augustus H. Proctor; 3, John H. Daniels, Uriah E. Cleve- land, Harlan P.Tyrrell; 4, George H. Spencer, Carmi 58 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. M. Parker, William Edwards; 5, Hiram H. Lamb, Henr}^ A. Hatch, J. Dudley Littlehale ; 6, Henry J. Lewis, Michael J. Hogan, James H. McCarty. 1886. Ward I, Raymond J. Parker, Patrick Donlan, Andrew Connery ; 2, George W. Weymouth, George S. Coggswell, George Wilmott ; 3, Benjamin G. Bagley, Wil- liam H. Goodwin, Henry F. Rockwell ; 4, William Edwards, Charles Fosdick, Willard Dennis; 5, Hiram H. Lamb, Alvin E. Battles, C. P. Washburn; 6, James H. McCarty, Henry J. Lewis, Michael J. Hogan. The tbllowing named persons have served as clerk of the common council: 1873, Sullivan W. Huntley; 1874-5, Henry A. Hawley ; 1876-77-78, George E. Clifford ; 1879- 80, Thomas C. Sheldon; 1880 to present time, J. E. Kel- logg- CHAPTER IV. EDUCATIONAL. S to educational advantages, Fitchburg is equal to the demands of the advanced sentiments of the times. The schools consist of what are denominated the High ikfy] School, Grammar, Intermediate, Prim- bi' ary and Ungraded Schools. The ar- rangement is designed to furnish a gradation of schools and regular system of instruction. Scholars from all parts of the city possessing the requisite quali- fications are admitted to the Hig-h School. This school affords the scholars the means of acquiring a systematic and thor- ough education, or, if they desire it, of fitting themselves for college. There are four grammar schools — one on High street, one on Day street, one on South street, and one in West Fitchburg. The schools are kept forty weeks in the year, one term of sixteen weeks and two terms of twelve weeks each. A school committee, composed of three citizens from each ward, is elected by the people, the mayor being ex officio chairman, and the president of the Common Council a mem- ber. A Superintendent of Schools is intrusted with direct supervision. The present Superintendent of Schools is Joseph G. Ed- gerly. The School Committee for 1887 are : Ward i — Lyman H. Goodnow, J. Warren White, Henry O. Putnam ; Ward 2 — ^James H. Fairbanks, Charles K. Sawyer, John E. Kellogg; Ward 3 — Herbert I. Wallace, William E. Henry, Edward P. Downe ; Ward 4 — ^James F. D. Garfield, Charles S. Hayden, Charles H. Rice ; Ward 5— Joseph M. R. Eaton, no FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. Nelson F. J^jond, Stillman Haynes ; Ward 6 — Peter McDon- ough, John Gallagher, Edward Lennon. The teachers are as follows : HIGH SCHOOL. Herbert W. Kittredge (Principal), A. Eugene Nolen, E. Adams Hartwell, Martha Keith, Irene C. Cowles, Lizzie A. II. Sleeper, Dora T. Pierce. GRAMMAR SCHOOLS. High Street — George H. Hastings (Principal), Mary B. Johnson, Clara A. Woodbur}-, Ella F. Caswell, Emma L. Lane, Mary E. Fairbanks. Day Street — George Winch (Principal), Mary C. Smith, Harriet Chaft'ee, iVdelaide Goodrich, Mary S. Bingham, Ger- trude L. Davis. South Street — Clara D. Hosmer (Principal), Mary A. Barnes, Sara J. Barber. West Fitchburg — Shelley K. Townend (Principal), Emma J. Bennett, Clara B. Cutler. INTERMEDIATE SCHOOLS. High Street— (A), Clara L. Tenney ; (B), Nellie F. Livermore. Day Street — (A), vacancy; (B), Jennie A. Goodrich. Maverick Street — Mary E. Gallagher. Rollstone Street — Adeline Damon. South Street — ^Jennie M. Hills. Middle Street — Lizzie M. Nolan. South Fitchburg — Carrie L. Baldwin. Clarendon Street — Phebe M. Blanchard. Rockville — Rose A. Cullen. Wachusett — Lillian A. Rose. PRIMARY SCHOOLS. School Street— (A), Stella B. Lowe ; (B), EttaF. Willard. EDUCATIONAL. '>! High Street — (A), M. Lizzie Kimball; (B), Josephine Reynolds; (C), Carrie E. McMaster. Day Street— (A), Lizzie M. Glazier; (B), Minnie L. Merrill ; (C) , vacancy. Highland Avenue— (A), M. Eldora Jones ; (B), Edna A. Spring. East Street— (A), Kate A. Gallagher; (B), Jennie R. Rice. Maverick Street — L. Frances Jones. Rollstone Street— (A), Jeanette Y. Wright ; (B), Minnie E. Bemis; (C), Mary A. Connig. Middle Street— (A), Kate F. O'Brien: (B), Eva M. Barnes; (C), Lizzie A. Daly. South Fitchburg — Nellie A. Dvvyer. Clarendon Street— (A), Harriet M. Delahanty ; (B). Lilla M. Marble; (C), Alice E. Welch. Rockville — Sarah L. Sawyer. Wachusett — Annie M. Bagley. UNGRADED SCHOOLS. Mt. Elam — ^Jessie E. Worster. Woodbur\- — Helen E. Woodbury. Kimball— Mary A. Bartley. Dean Hill — M. Lizzie Sullivan. Page — Annie L. Maynard. Caswell — Ida M. Austin. Pearl Hill— Addie M. Corey. SPECIAL TEACHERS. Laura F. Smith (Singing), William Briggs (Drawing). EVENING DRAWING SCHOOL. William Briggs (Principal), Julia A. Perkins (Assistant). Evening common schools are open each year, generally from November to March. This year there are schools at High Street, Day Street, and West Fitchburg. (12 KITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. Parochial schools were opened two years ago on Water street and the number of pupils at Middle street and South Fitchburg were diminished thereby to such an extent that two schools at South Fitchburg were closed. THE HIGH SCHOOL ASSOCIATION. AbcHit 1830 some of the citizens formed an association called the High School Association of Fitchburg, which was an important supplement to the educational powers of the town. The directors were Benjamin Snow, Francis Perkins and Dr. Charles Wilder. Dr. Jonas A. Marshall was secretary and — treasurer. A building called the Acad- "^W emy was erected at a cost of $1,200 on land given for the purpose by Capt. Zackariah Sheldon and situated just in front of the present High School. The academy building was rented to individ- uals for school purposes until 1849, when the town voted to establish a public High School, and purchased the academy of the fligh School Association. Afterwards the old academy build- ing was used for various purposes. It was here that Mr. E. Butterick started in the business of making shirt pat- terns, was successful, and removed to New York, establish- ing the business of E. Butterick & Co., one of the largest fashion establishments in the world. In 1869 the academy was moved and the present high school building was built. The academy is now a part of the Rollstone House. m^dmrnim PRINCIPALS OF HIGH SCHOOL. The first principal of the Fitchburg High School was Anson Southard Marshall, a native of L^me, N. H., where he was born Dec. 3, 1822. He fitted lor college at Thetford Academy, Vt. ; graduated at Dartmouth College 1848 ; was principal of the High School 1849-51 ; studied law with EDUCATIONAL. 63 Wood & Torrey and later in Concord, N. H., with President Franklin Pierce and Hon. Josiah Minot ; admitted to the bar 1852 : assistant clerk of the New Hampshire House of Rep- resentatives 1853 ; U. S. District-Attorney for New Hampshire during Buchanan's administration ; chairman of Democratic State Central Committee 1867 ; from 1870 clerk and counsel of the Concord railroad. On Jidy 4, 1874, while enjoying a picnic with his family in the grove near Pennacook Lake, ac- cidently shot by a militia compan}^ engaged in target practice. HIGH STREET HIGH AND GRAMMAR SCHOOL BUILDINGS. His superior qualities as a teacher and his solicitude for the welfare of those under his charge are well remembered by those now living who were his pupils. Enoch Gibson Hook, A. B., was principal in 185 1. Martin Heald Fiske, A. M., 1852. Rev. Ezekiel Hale Barstow, A. M., 1852-53. Jonathan Clarkson Brown, A. B., 1853-54. Rev. Milan Hubbard Hitchcock, A. B., 1854. Eli Andrews Hubbard, A. M., 1854-57. Hanson Leland Read, A. M., 1857-62. (>4 1' ITCH BURG, I'AST AND PRliSENT. Francis Huntington Snow, 1862-63. Edward Dorr Pritchard, A. M., 1863-64. Rev. Walter Whitney Hammond, A. M., 1864-1865. RuEL Baxter Ceark, A. B., 1865-1875. Ray Greene Ruling, A. M., a native of Providence, R. I. , where he was born Oct. 15, 1847 ; fitted tor college at Prov- idence High School and at Movvr}' & Gotl"s English and Classical High School ; graduated at Brown University 1869 ; assistant in Fall River High School 186^-1875 ; visited Europe in 1875 ^^^^ ^'^'^^ principal of the Fitchburg High School from 1875 until 1886, when he accepted the position of Principal of the New Bedlord High School. Herbert William Kittredge, A. M., son of Russell H. and Laura F. (Holmes) Kittredge, of Jaffrey, N. H. ; born in Nelson, N. H., Nov. 18, 1858; fitted for college at Keene, N. H. ; graduated at Dartmouth College 1879; studied methods at Qiiincy, Mass., fall of 1879; Master of Grammar School, East Bridgewater, Mass., 1880; Principal of Brandon Graded School, Brandon, Ct., 1880-84; North Brooktield, Mass., High School, 1884-85; Dover, N. H., High School, 1885-86; Fitchburg, Mass., High School since 1886; married July 14. 1885, Marion Thatcher; visited Europe in 1887. SUPERINTENDENT OF SCHOOLS. Joseph Gardner Edgerly, son of Samuel J. and Eliza (Bickford) Edgerly; born Oct. 12, 1838, in Barnstead, N. H. ; moved to Manchester, N. H., in 1845 ; worked on a farm in Dunbarton, N. H., and in the mills at Manchester, during his bo\hood, attending school a part of the year ; iitted for college in the Manchester High School ; began teaching in a district school in New Boston, N, H., in the winter of 1857-58, "boarding round" according to the custom in those days : the next winter taught in one of the suburban schools of Manchester ; principal of West Manchester Grammar School from September, 1859, EDUCATIONAL. 65 to March, 1862 ; entered the postal service at Fortress Monroe, April, 1862, but obliged to return North in July of the same year on account of his health ; resumed teaching after regaining his health ; principal of the Manchester Street Grammar School in 1863 ; sub-master Maverick School, East Boston, one term during college course ; entered the sophomore class of Dartmouth College in the fall of 1864, graduating in the class of 1867 ; elected superintendent of schools in Manchester the day after graduation, and held the position eight years ; superintendent of schools in Fitchburg since 1875 ' rnarried, 1877, Mary J. Graves, of Groton, Mass. HISTORY OF THE FITCHBURG PUBLIC LIBRARY. The history of this library is similar to that of other institutions of like character. Its growth has been gradual. It has developed from small beginnings. The Fitchburg Philosophical Society w^as organized, about the year 1828, for the purpose of maintaining lectures and debates. It was before this society that Hon. Nathaniel Wood delivered a series of lectures on the history of the town, the manuscript of which is now in the public library. From these lectures most of the material was obtained that was used in the prep- aration of Rufus C. Torrey's History of Fitchburg, published in 1836. The society soon after its organization purchased Rees's Cyclopedia in forty-seven volumes, including six volumes of plates. These books were intended to be the basis of a library, but the project was not a successful one, and in 1838 the six volumes were transferred to the Fitch- burg Library Association, the successor of the Philosophi- cal Association. These books are now in the public library. The new organization was apparently more successful than the former one, and quite a collection of books was made. The library of this association was kept in the store of Mr. Phineas A. Crocker, in a small building which stood where the Stiles building now stands. In 1853 the Fitchburg Athenamm was organized, "to 66 FITCIII5URG, PAST AND PRESENT. furnish facilities for intellectual, moral, and social improve- ment, by the establishment and maintenance of a library, reading room, and lectures." The Fitchburg Athenceum was not a public institution. It loaned books to its mem- bers. The subject of establishing a public library was dis- cussed from time to time but no decisive action was taken till 1859. The warrant for the town meeting of that year contained the following article: — "To see if the Town will appropriate the amount allowed by law for the establishment of a Free Town Library or act anything thereon." The sentiment of the citizens seemin<j to be in favor of a free library the shareholders of the Athenaeum held a special meeting previous to the town meeting to consider the ex- pediency of presenting their library to the town, but after some discussion it was decided, by a vote of twenty-five to fourteen, not to make such a disposition of the books belong- ing;' to the association. The town meeting that year was held April nth, and the citizens at that time voted — "To appropriate the sum of $1,831 for the establishment of a Free Town Librar}^." A board of trustees was chosen at this meeting, consisting of Goldsmith F. Bailey, J. W. Mansur, James R. Wellman, Jabez Fisher, Thomas R. Boutelle, Thornton K. Ware, Hanson L. Read, Moses G. Lyon, and John J. Piper. The annual meeting of the shareholders of the Fitchburg Athenaeum occurred May 10, 1859, ^"^ ^^ ^^^'^^ meeting it was voted : — "To instruct the president and treasurer to sell all the property of the institution, aside from the money in the treasury (about $75 ), to the town of Fitchburg for $400." The town subsequently authorized the purchase ot this property and thus came into possession of about 1,600 volumes. There was also, at that time, another collection of books in the tow^n, about 200 volumes, belonging to the Agricul- tural Library. These books were purchased by the trustees. It was decided to use tor the library, the room that had EDUCATIONAL. ()7 been occupied by the Athen;eum. This room, correspond- ing very nearly to the room now used lor the mayor's office, was enlarged by the addition of the room adjoining in the rear. The library was opened for the delivery of books December i. December 23, after the library had been open three weeks it was stated in the Sentinel that accounts had been opened with over i, 200 ■ persons, that 2,775 volumes had been taken, and 1,937 volumes returned. It was also stated that the library hours as announced were insufficient, and it was deemed advisable, while the urgent demand for books continued, to keep open every evening excepting Sundays and holidays. The library remained in the rooms first occupied until December, 1879, when it was removed to more commodious quarters in the extension of the city hall building, where it remained till July, 1885, at which time it was transferred to the Wallace Library and Art Building. The librarians have been : Daniel Stearns, appointed November, 1859 ; B. P. Todd, April, 1861 ; J. M. Graham, April, 1862 ; C. N. Fessenden, April, 1865 ; Henry Jack- son, September, 1866 ; P. C. Rice, January, 1873. The present board of trustees of the public library are : Louis D. Bartlett, Lewis H. Bradford, George D. Colony, Joseph G. Edgerly, Phillip J. Garrigan, George Jewett, James Phillips, Jr., George H. Spencer, Charles H. Rice, Herbert L Wallace, Thornton K. Ware, Henry A. Willis. Chairman, Thornton K. Ware ; secretary, Joseph G. Edgerly; treasurer, Lewis H. Bradford; committee on books, Messrs. Ware, Bartlett, Colony, Edgerly and Phil- lips ; committee on library, Messrs. Garrigan, Rice, Spencer and Jewett ; Committee on finance, Messrs. Bradford, Phil- lips and Willis ; committee on art, Messrs. Wallace, Ware and Willis. Librarian, Prescott C. Rice : assistants, Flor- ence Russell Dwinnell, George E. Nutting. The following description of the " Wallace Library and 68 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. Art Building-'" will give some idea of the beauty and elegance of the library apartments : The spot selected for the building is the best possible for the purpose in the city. With Monument Square, upon which the city has expended $75,000, directly in front, and the court house beyond, the view from the new building is attractive, and there is no spot in the city where tasteful architecture could have a better effect. The location is central, conven- ient to the post-office, and several of the costliest buildings in the city are in the immediate vicinity. The exterior of the building is built of Trenton pressed brick, with brown sandstone trimmings from the Kibbie quarry at Longmeadow and is in the Greek classic style of architec- ture. The foundation is dressed Rollstone granite and the basement is dimension ashler. The cornices, gutters and hips on the roof are of copper. The roof is covered with Brovv'n- ville slate. The building has a frontage of seventy-four feet, and a depth of sixty-five feet, with a central front projection six by twenty-five feet. The front entrance is approached by a walk of pressed brick and a flight of twelve dressed granite steps between ornamental buttresses of the same material as the steps. The front doors are placed in a recess eleven feet wide and six feet deep. The wall above the recess rests on a heavy double arch, supported on each side by two columns of polished red granite with carved capitals. Above the arch are three square-headed, single light windows, and the name of the building appears in raised letters — the word "Wallace" above the middle window and" Library' and Art Building" just below it. The sandstone trimmings above the two outside windows of the three are ornamented with fret work. Over these win- dows are three circular windows set in sandstone and at the sides of each window are round sandstone columns with carved foliage capitals. The whole is surmounted by a gable with modillion and dentil cornice, all of copper. In the frieze of this cornice the date of erection, "1884," is inscribed with scroll work each side of the inscription. The pediment is of brick. EDUCATIONAL. 69 The second floor is lighted by narrow windows arranged in groups, there being two groups of five each in front. On each side is a group of eight windows, to the right and left of which are double windows separated from the group by chim- ney piers. The rear is lighted by one group of four windows and three of two windows each. The basement is lighted by square-headed mullion win- dows, four in front, five on each side and four in the rear. The windows of the first floor which are directly over those in the basement are circular-headed, and are trimmed with heavy molded Voussoirs with two lights of plate glass. The top of the building is surmounted by a large sky-light, thirty by thirty-nine feet, with side lights beneath this part of the building. In the window over the door of the main entrance is the city seal upon a plate of Venetian and antique glass five feet in diameter. In the lower corner of this window are panels of glass emblematic of art and literature ; the glass is of two thicknesses. Outside the building the effect can be seen only when the hall is lighted. From this hall one flight of marble stairs leads to the rooms above, another flight to the base- ment ; at the left is a door leading to the ladies' retiring room and directly opposite are the large swinging doors leading to the library proper. The floor of the entrance hall is of Italian marble and the wainscotting of Italian, Knoxville and Tennes- see marbles, relieved by rosettes of French Red ; the ceiling is frescoed in oil, the design being a delicate tracing upon a gold background, and the frieze is a scroll design in gold upon a deep red background. The hall is lighted by a large brass chandelier with two burners. The waiting room, which is separated from the entrance hall by swinging doors, is finished in oak and frescoed in neutral tints, and around the sides, tor the use of persons waiting to receive books, are placed oak seats upholstered in brown leather. The delivery counter is directly beneath the arch which opens into the main room for books. This book room is twenty-six feet by seventy feet, and sixteen feet in height, and 70 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. at either end are larger fireplaces of brick, sandstone and marble. Connected with the main book room at one corner is a small room with wash bowl, etc., for the use of the librarian, and next to the librarian's room is the elevator which runs from the basement to the upper story. On the left of the waitingr room is the room for books of reference. The book cases, chairs, table, and mantel in this room are of oak and there is at one side a large fireplace for wood. On the right of the waiting room is the reading room for magazines. The ceiling of this room is panelled with heavy carved oak cornices and beams, and the ceiling, frieze and walls are frescoed. There is also a heavy oak mantel with a plate glass mirror over it. The room is furnished with two large tables and a reading desk and chairs, all of oak. This room contains a fireplace. In the basement there is a public reading room in which a large number of daily and weekly newspapers will be kept on file. Here are also the boiler room, and two large rooms which are to be used for work rooms and for storage purposes. The upper vestibule is large and high. The style of the room is varied, being Gothic, German and Italian. The arched ceiling is frescoed in sombre hues with a frieze of subdued gold and in the cove above are paintings of natural flowers upon a dark background, while the flat surface has the same design as the hall below. Directly over the stairway is a large panel in blue with oak branches interwoven across. This vestibule is lighted by a magnificent chandelier of eight burners made of brass, copper and oxidized silver. On the right of this room is the Trustees' room, which is beauti- fully frescoed, carpeted and finished in mahogany, and heated by an open fireplace. The furniture consists of a mahogany table and chairs of the same wood. Next to it is a toilet room for the use of the trustees. From the vestibule a door leads directly into the Art Gallery. The Art Gallery is thirty-three feet by forty-four feet, and thirty-two feet in height, and is lighted entirely from above by corrugated glass panels in the ceiling, and windows of the INTERIORS— WALLACE LIBRARY AND ART BUILDING. » EDUCATIONAL. 71 same glass on the four sides of the monitor roof; the wood work of the ceiling is frescoed in dark olive and bronze. The fresco painting of this room is remarkably rich and harmo- nious in color effect, the style being the pure German Renais- sance. The dado is a dark olive relieved by a band of gilt ; the walls for the pictures, a Pompeian red, surmounted by a frieze of rich design and color, representing conventional pomegranate leaves and fruit. The general effect of the cove is a gold scroll upon a light blue background. In the cove are four large paintings, one upon each side of the room. There is one, "Arts and Sci- ences," directly opposite the main entrance. It represents Vulcan at his forge — Apollo as God of Music surrounded by the Muses representing painting, poetry, music, astronomy, history, etc. Above the main entrance, directly opposite "Arts and Sciences" is "Apollo Musagetes," in which Apollo is rep- resented as driving his chariot through the clouds, while he is surrounded by the Muses and pursued by the Fates. At one end of the room is a smaller painting called "Old Masters." In this picture a child is seen standing upon the edge of a staging, in an old cathedral, swinging a burning censer, out of the smoke of which arises the nude form of a woman, and over the woman an artist is bending with the palette and brushes in his hand. The conception of the picture is, that the old masters received their inspiration from the church, the child with the censer representing the Catholic church. The picture at the other end of the room, a companion painting to "Old Masters," is called "Modern Art," and rep- resents a female artist painting from a living model, the idea being that modern artists paint directly from nature. Around the Art Gallery are four small rooms, each twelve by twenty-three feet. All the wood floors in the building are of southern hard pine, and all the finish, with few excep- ceptions, is of oak. The doors are all made of oak and are heavy and substantial. The works of Art which are now in the Art Gallery, as well as the collections of engravings, photographs and relics in the adjoining rooms, are a source of much profit and 72 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. enjoyment to our citizens, and a great attraction to strangers who may be sojourning in our city. At the time the Art Gallery was opened to the public, the main room was set apart for oil paintings, the west side room for photographs, the east side room for engravings and water colors, the south-east corner room for "relics," and the south- west corner room for exhibition of art work from the schools or such as might be required. The library was already in pos- session of a valuable collection of photographic copies of works of art in the galleries of Europe which were properly arranged, and to which some additions have been made by gift and purchase. A very good number of oil paintings have been received and also several large, fine steel engravings and photographs. The following is a list of the various pictures and articles thus far represented : Oil Painting, "Headwaters of Owens River," artist, W. Keith ; presented by Thomas Mack. Water Color, "Gathering Sea Weed, Pacific Coast," artist, F. A. McClure; presented by D. B. Whittier. EDUCATIONAL. 73 Oil Painting-, "Sentinel Rock," artist, G. Andrews; pre- sented by H. F. Coggshall. India Ink Portrait of Anson Marshall, artist, J. C. Moulton ; presented by H. A. Goodrich. Oil Painting, "Gleams of Sunshine," artist, R. M. Shnrt- leff; presented by H. I. Wallace. Oil Painting, "A Qiiiet Nook," artist, J. Appleton Brown ; presented by H, A. Willis. Oil Portrait of Charles Sumner, artist, Edgar Parker : pre- sented by James Phillips, Jr. Oil Portrait of Alvah Crocker, artist, Edgar Parker; pre- sented by the family. Engraving, "Haydn returning from England," presented by George F. Simonds. Engraving, "The Jersey Beauties," presented b}' Henr}' Hale. Engraving, "Departure of the Mayflower," presented by Rodney Wallace. Engraving, "First Sunday in America," companion to '^Departure of the Mayflower," presented by Rodney Wal- lace. Oil Painting, "The Christening," artist, A. Bodenmuller ; presented by Rodney Wallace. Four large and twelve small photographs of Colorado scenery, presented by Ivers Phillips. Four extra large photographs of "St. Peters," "The Coli- seum," "The Forum," and "The Castle of St. Angelo," pre- sented by Rodney Wallace. Fifty photographic copies of works of art in the Corcoran Art Gallery, Washington, D. C, presented by the Corcoran Art Gallery. Oil Painting, "Thunder Storm in the Rocky Mountains," artist, W. G. Beaman ; presented by the artist. Oil Painting, "On the banks of the Seine," artist, Jules Scalbert ; presented by Robert Graves. Oleograph, "Henr}' III. and his Court;" presented by John Parkhill. Engraving, "The Bathers :" presented by John A. Lowell. 74 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. Oil painting, "Twilight," and fifteen etchings; artist, R. Lovevvell ; presented by the artist. Etching, "Courtship of Miles Standish," artist, C G. Turner; presented by H. C. Howells. Oil portrait of Rodney Wallace, artist F. P. Vinton ; pre- sented by the trustees of 1885. Oil painting, "Sunrise in the Rocky Mountains," artist, W. L. Sountag ; presented by Thomas Mack. Pastel, "Woodland Solitude," artist, E. H. Rogers; pre- sented by Rodney Wallace. The value of the reference and reading room of the Li- brary cannot be computed ; it is certainly one of the most im- portant features of the institution as an educator not only of the general public, but of the rising generation. For the benefit of those who are not yet aware of the peculiar advan- tages it affords, the practical and timely remarks of Superin- tendent Edgerly are here quoted. Speaking of the reference room in particular, he says : — " This collection of books is growing in public favor every dav, because the people are learning more and more how to use it. Persons from all parts of our city, and from the ad- joining towns, and sometimes from distant localities, come here to consult these books, which they cannot find in places nearer their homes. " In some libraries, none under eighteen years of age are allowed free access to the reference room. With us, the pupils of the grammar schools are freely admitted and as far as time can be so assigned, assistance is given to them in their search for required information relating to their studies. "Many of our teachers at the present time are receiving valuable aid from the library. A teacher is allowed to take nine books for use in the school. There are to be found in the library many books containing information bearing di- rectly upon the subjects concerning which certain schools are studying. Here is an opportunit}' to teach the pupils the value of a public library, to encourage them to make a care- ful study of good Books. This plan tends to bring the public school and the public library into close relation. The pupil EDUCATIONAL. 75 needs to be impressed with the thought that lie can have free access to the library after his school life is ended, that the library is to be a help to him in all the relations of life. Our young people need aid in the choice of reading matter. They should be taught not only how to read, but what to read. A catalogue — like the one now in use — carefully examined at home or in school renders efficient aid to the pupils in the selection of books. An interestinof article in a mao;azine con- taining allusions to the works of certain authors frequently in- duces a person to read more of those authors. "Constant use is made of the reference room. It is not always desirable nor convenient to carry iVom the library the volumes that a person wishes to consult in order to obtain in- formation upon certain topics, but books can be consulted in the reference room and much valuable time gained thereby." CHAPTER V. PROFESSIONAL. O one class of our citizens are more highly esteemed and honored by the community than our family physicians, not only those in active service, but those who have passed ot^' the stage, have endeared themselves to many now living to whom these brief sketches will be interesting. In response to this sen- timent of the people, and the desire also on the part of resident physicians tor an extended sketch of Dr. Alfred Hitchcock, a considerable portion of this chapter is devoted to the preservation of the names and labors of FitchbursT doctors. We are indebted to the late Dea. L. H. Bradford for sketches of the early physicians. In the re- maining portion of the chapter are given brief sketches of present members of the legal protession. DOCTORS. A few years previous to the Revolutionary war, a young man, Dr. Thaddeus McCarty of Worcester, the hrst settled physician, supposed, came to this town. He married the dauo-hter of Landlord Thomas Cowdin, the ancestor of some of our best citizens, and to whose memory the Hon. John Cowdin of Boston, has erected a fine granite monument on the brow of Mount Laurel cemetery in this city. Dr. Mc- Cartv "•ained great skill as a physician and previous to his death removed from town. PROFESSIONAL. 77 Dr. Jonas Marshall, grandfather of Abel Marshall, settled here after the revolution, in the east part of the town, on the identical farm now occupied by his grandson. He continued practice and died here venerable in years and hon- ored as a physician. Dr. Peter Snow, one of the earliest physicians in Fitch- burg, came here in 1782 from Lunenburg, having studied medicine with Dr. Abraham Haskell in that town. Dr. Snow succeeded Dr. Thaddeus McCarty, who had removed the pre- vious year to Worcester. He located in the Gen. James Reed house situated on the lot now occupied by the city hall. He was the principal magistrate and also the leading physician in the town for over forty years. From 1801 to 1808 and from 1817 to 1820 he was a member of the board of selectmen of Fitchburg, and from 181 7 to 1824 he was town clerk. He died Nov. 22, 1824, aged 65 years. Dr. Peter Stearns Snow, the eldest son of the above, w'as a licentiate of the Massachusetts Medical Society and commenced practice in connection with his father in 1815, and at his father's death was chosen to succeed him as town clerk from 1824 to 1829. He continued the practice of his profession until 1831, when on account of poor health, he re- tired from active practice. For many years he was a val- uable member of the school committee, and up to a late period was secretary of the board. He died Nov. 25, 1884, aged 91 years and 11 months. Dr. Charles Snow, the youngest son of Dr. Peter Snows graduated in Brunswick, Me., in 1824, and practiced in this town with his brother. Dr. Peter Stearns Snow, two years ; he then removed to Tuscaloosa, Ala., to join his broth- ers, Henry and Boylston, who had established themselves in mercantile business there. He continued to reside there until his death, wdiich occurred January 15, 1884, aged 80 years. Dr. Chester J. Freeland graduated at the Berkshire Medical College in Pittstield in 1825 ; he practiced in the towns of Becket and Worthington 25 years. He came to this town in 1855, and from that time until his death, April 78 FITCIIEURG, PAST AND PRESENT. loth, i860, practiced as a homoeopathic physician in Fitcli- burg. Dr. James C. Freeland, homceopathic physician, son of the last named, graduated at the Clevehmd Homoeopathic College in Cleveland, Ohio, in 185 1, settled in Fitchburg in 1855, and died April 23, 1871, aged 39 years. Dr. William B. Chamberlain came to this town in May, 1863, and formed a co-partnership with Dr. James C. Freeland ; he left Fitchburg in November, 1864. Dr. Charles Wellington Wilder, son of Dr. Charles Woodward Wilder, graduated at the Medical Department of Dartmouth College in 1849 ; he commenced the practice of medicine in December of that ^ear in4he dwelling house on Main street, lately removed from the lot on which the Wal- lace Library and Art Building is erected ; he died at the in- sane hospital at Worcester. Dr. James Preston Cummings graduated at the Medical Department of Harvard University in 185 1, and commenced practice in Leicester; he removed to this town in 1854. ^^^ died August 27, 1858, aged 29 years, and was buried with Masonic honors. Dr. David D. Otis graduated at the Medical Department of Harvard University in 1856; he also commenced practice in Leicester and came to this town in the autumn of 1852, but soon afterwards removed to Providence, R. L, at which place he died in 1858. Dr. Thomas W. Wadsworth graduated at the Medical Department of Dartmouth College in 1851, and that year commenced practice in Fitchburg. During Dr. Hitchcock's absence in Europe, perfecting himself in surgery in the hos- pitals on the continent. Dr. Wadsworth took charge of his patients. He was a prominent member of the Baptist church in this town. He died in Petersham in March, 1854, ^^^^ was buried here among those to whom he ministered and loved, aged 35 years. On his monument is the quotation : "He wrought all morning and rested at noon." PROFESSIONAL. 71) Dr. William W. Godding, of Winchendon, graduated at the Vermont Medical College in 1857. He was assistant physician in the Asylum for the Insane in Concord, N. H., from 1859 ^^ 1862, and in July of the latter year he removed to Fitchburg, and commenced practice. In 1863 he received the appointment as assistant physician in the United States Hospital for the Insane in Washington, D. C, and accepted the same in September, relinquishing practice here. Dr. Osmyn L. Huntley graduated at the Vermont Med- ical College in 1841, and the next year came to this town and commenced the practice of his profession. In 1853 he purchased the mansion house on Main street previously owned and occupied by Rev. Calvin Lincoln, in which he died in February, 1856, aged t,^ years. Dr. James Ripley Wellman graduated at the Medical Department of Dartmouth College in 1855 and succeeded Dr. Huntley on Main street in 1856. Dr. Wellman was one of the most promising 3'oung physicians — modest, scholarly and learned in his chosen profession, and sincerelv mourned by his friends when he died in July, 1861, aged 32 years. Dr. Alfred Miller graduated at the Vermont Medical College and commenced practice in Ashburnham in 1845. He removed to Fitchburg in 1863 and located at the same place on Main street in which the two last named physicians had resided — the same location on which George F. Fay has lately erected the most costly residence in the city of Fitch- burgi Dr. Miller was one of the most popular physicians in Worcester North, and for several years was a member of the school committee, and a representative in the General Court from this city. He died universally regretted by the citizens of Fitchburg, Nov. 15, 1877, aged 62 years. Dr. Josiah Norcross graduated at the Medical Depart- ment of Harvard University in 1846 ; in August of that year he formed a co-partnership with Dr. Thomas R. Boutelle and settled in this town. In 1849 he removed to South Reading and relinquished practice. 80 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. Dr. Artemas Farwell removed to Fitchburg in 1842 from Providence, R. I. He was in business in that city witli Dr. Brown, who was so prominent in the Dorr war, and it was in their office that the incipient stages of the Rhode Island rebelHon in 1841 and 1842 were planned. Dr. Elijah Darling, of Westminster, removed to this town in the year 1828, and in 183 1 he purchased the business of Dr. Peter S. Snow. After a short time he sold out to Dr. Otis Abercrombie, a graduate of the medical department of Yale College. In 1829, Dr. Abercrombie came to Fitchburg from Ashburnham, having practiced in that town about two years, and was in partnership for a while with Dr. Jonas A. Marshall ; his health failing, he relinquished the business of his profession in 1838 and removed to Lunenburg, and died in that town Jan. 24, 1851, aged 49 years. Dr. Abercrombie came from the well-known family of that name in Deerfield, Mass., and his own family are now residing in Lunenburg. Dr. Charles Woodward Wilder, graduated in the medical department of Dartmouth College in the year 1817 and commenced practice in Leominster, in partnership with Dr. Abraham Haskell, Sr. ; in 1820, he removed to Templeton, where he remained until 1828, when, in consequence of im- paired health, he sold his business and returned to Leom- inster. In 1830 he removed to Fitchburg, in 1833 he returned to Leominster, changing business with Dr. Thomas R. Boutelle. Dr. Wilder is remembered by many of our citizens for his apt sayings and genial humor, always full of good nature and proverbial kindness. For several years he was a director in the Fitchburg and Worcester railroad com- pany. He died in Februar}-, 185 1, aged 60 years. Dr. Thomas R. Boutelle, graduated in the medical de- partment of Yale College in 1819 ; the same year he settled in New Braintree ; in 1824 he removed to Leominster, succeed- ing to the business of Dr. Abraham Haskell, Jr., and in 1833 removed to Fitchburg, changing business with Dr. Charles W. Wilder. In 1853 and 1854, ^^ ^^''^s president of the Worcester District Medical Society; in 1856 and 1857, rROFp:SSIONAL. 81 president of the Worcester North Agricultural scK'ietv' ; in 1857 and 1858, vice-president of the Massachusetts Medical societ}^ ; from 1862 to 1864, a member of the board of trus- tees of the State Industrial School for Girls at Lancaster ; in 1864 aijd 1865, president of the Worcester North District Medical society. During the war of the rebellion he was chairman of the relief committee of the town, and their meet- ings were held at his office every Saturday evening during those long dreary years, and his labors never ceased in caring for the comfort of the families of the soldiers in the lield. He died July 13, 1869, aged 74. Dr. Alfred Hitchcock, in his day by far the most re- markable member of the medical profession in Fitchburg, was actively engaged in the practice here for thirty-seven years. He was a graduate of Dartmouth Medical College, Nov., 1837, ^^^ subsequently received a diploma at Jefferson Med- ical College, Philadelphia. In December, 1837, ^^^ settled in Ashby, but removed to Fitchburg at the written request of many of the prominent citizens in April, 1850. He was a member of the board of overseers of Harvard University from 1857 to 1865. An earnest seeker after knowledge in whatever sphere he might labor, an acute observer, his mind naturally turned to the sciences with an interest which seemed to constantly increase with his years. To enlarge his sphere of observa- tion in his profession, he visited Europe in 1851-52. His general culture, legal mind, sound judgment and scientific attainments eminently qualified him as a counsellor in his profession ; and his medical brethren far and near sought his services in surgery and other important cases of a dangerous or doubtful character. Governor Andrew early recognized his attainments and ability, and at the opening of the war ap- pointed him brigade surgeon in Burnside's expedition, a posi- tion which he finally declined for other duties. During the three years of the war, he spent one-fifth of his whole time in the interest of the sick and wounded of Massachusetts soldiers in the field and at home. In 1847 he first entered the State legislature, and was three times elected to the executive 6 82 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. council of the State — in 1861-62-63. His letter accepting his renomination in 1862 is as follows : "If the nomination is again ratified at the polls, I shall cheerfully bear the incon- venience and sacrifice which in my own case the office entails in obedience to the democratic idea, that while no man has a claim for public office, so no man has a right, especially in time of public calamity, to decline the responsibilities of office when tendered by the public suffrage. The national life is in peril ; bloody treason is rampant and defiant and it is no common nor idle thing to live to vote., or to hold office in this momentous era. I heartily deprecate the attempts in certain quarters to fan the embers of party strife, and even amid the thunders of war to stir the seething cauldron of party politics. For myself, old party ties sit loosely, save only those which bind me to an unconditional, loyal and unchanging support of all the war measures of the State and National governments. In the coming State election, but two classes will vote, and whether consciously or unconsciously, one will be to sustain and strengthen the executive arm in its efforts to preserve the national life and put down the slaveholders' rebellion, and the other to weaken or paralyze that arm, and thus give aid and comfort to traitor foes." Such was his personal character as a citizen, and all of his acts as a man and a citizen entitled him to the respect he received, while his professional skill was recognized not only by his tellow-townsmen, but by very many persons throughout the State and in other parts of the country. One of the most eminent physicians of Massa- chusetts once said that he regarded Dr. Hitchcock as " the peer of the best practitioners in the Commonwealth." He was utterly free from dogmatism, or the pride of the schools, but full of gentleness, courtesy, judgment and decision. While he felt a commendable pride in the triumphs of his art, he was always ready and indeed earnest to acquire infor- mation from whatever source it might come. He was one who never ceased to learn and was constantly willing to accept truth whether from the highest or humblest. Dr. Harvey D. Jillson studied medicine in Worcester and at Harvard University and commenced practice as an PROFESSIONAL. 83 eclectic physician in Leominster in i860, continuing- there four years ; he then practised four ynius in Ashburnham and came to Fitchburg in 1868. For two years he was president of Worcester North Eclectic Medical society and eleven years its secretary ; for one year he was vice-president of the National Eclectic Medical Society, and died September 25th, 1877, aged 43 3^ears. Dr. James P. Foley studied at St. Mary's College in Baltimore, also at Holy Cross College in Worcester and the St. Joseph's Provincial College at Troy, N. Y. He grad- uated at Dartmouth College in 1872, and commenced practice in Fitchburg ; he was a member of the Worcester North Medical Society. He died September i8th, 1S81, aged 41 years. Dr. Andrew^ J. Flagg, a native of Royalston, was a graduate at the Philadelphia Medical College and commenced practice in Claremont, N. H., and a few years previous to his death removed to this city and made a specialty of chronic diseases. He died January 24, 1883, ^ged 49 years. Dr. Jonas A. Marshall, born March 26th, 1800, was for over tort}' years a practising ph^'sician in Fitchburg. He was chosen town clerk for twenty-four years in succession. He died in Charlestown, Mass., February 25th, 1887. Dr. Edward Liston Pillsbury, the oldest son of Dr. Levi Pillsbury, was born in Fitchburg in 1844 ' ^^^ grad- uated at the medical institution of Dartmouth College in 1865, and practised in Fitchburg until 1868; he then re- moved to Boston, where he was in active practice until his death in 1880, aged 36 years. Dr. Levi Pillsbury graduated at the medical institution at Dartmouth College in 1842, settled in Fitchburg May ist, 1844^ and is the oldest practising physician in the city. Ex- cepting for a little more than a year in 1861 and 1862, on account of ill health, he has been in the active practice of his profession for more than tbrty years. 84 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. Dr. George D. Colony graduated at Dartmouth Col- lege in the class of 1843 ; he studied medicine with the late Dr. Amos Twichell, of Keene, N. H., a prominent and well- known surgeon in his day, and attended lectures at the Med- ical Department of the University of Pennsylvania and re- ceived his degree at that institution in 1846. He commenced the practice of medicine in Athol the same year and con- tinued in active practice there until his removal to Fitchburg in May, 1861. Dr. Jabez Fisher graduated at the Medical Department of Harvard University in 1846 ; he settled in Fitchburg in 185 1 as a hydropathic physician and surgeon, and in 1855 retired tVom practice and engaged in horticultural pursuits, on what he named "Pomoland," in the north part of the town. He at once took the first rank in fruit culture, and is authority, especially in all that pertains to the raising of grapes. In 1855 and 1856 he was chosen senator for Wor- cester Northeast Senatorial District. In 1857 and 1858 he was president of Worcester North Agricultural Society. From 1857 to 1863 he was an influential member of the State Board of Agriculture, and has since filled several positions in Fitchburg, with credit to himself and the city of his adoption. Dr. George Jewett graduated at the Berkshire Med- ical College in Pittsfield, Mass., in 1847, at the age of 22 years. He continued his studies at Harvard Medical Col- lege, and was a pupil of the late Dr. Jacob Bigelow ; he practised six years in Templeton and five years in Gardner, and came to Fitchburg in 1858. In Januarys 1862, he en- tered the army as assistant surgeon, was soon promoted to surgeon of the 51st Regt., and was honorablv discharged with his regiment. He visited Europe in 1867 and 1868 ; was president of Worcester North Medical Society in 1876-77 ; has been examining surgeon for pensions since 1864, and was president of the Examining Board of Pensions in this city. He was also president of Worcester North Agricultural So- ciety in 1878 and 1879, and a member of the State Board of Agriculture from 1881 to 1884. He is a trustee of the Public PROFESSIONAL. 85 Library, president of the Hospital Cottage corporation, Baldvvinville, director in the Fitchburg Fire Insurance Co., president of the Board of Trade, and was councillor of the Massachusetts Medical Society- Dr. Hubbard H. Brigham, eclectic physician, came to Fitchburg in 1845 ; he graduated at the Eclectic Medical col- lege in Worcester in 1855, and is active in his profession at this time. Dr. Sarah C. Brigham, wife of the above, graduated at the Eclectic Medical College in Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1856, and has since been in the practice of her profession here in connection with her husband. Dr. Daniel Brainard Whittier, was born in Goffs- town, N. II., October 21, 1834, being of Scotch-Irish descent by his maternal parent and of English by his paternal. He pursued an academic course at the New Hampshire Confer- ence Seminary receiving his medical education at Harvard Medical College and at the New York Homoeopathic Col- lege, from the latter of which he graduated in March, 1863. Since that time Fitchburg has been his home and place of the practice of his profession. He has served the city as a member of the school board ; has been president of the State Homceopathic Medical Society, as well as the Worcester County Homoeopathic Association. Dr. Hollis K. Bennett, was born in Warren, Vt., in 1838 ; received a common school education ; took his medical degree at the Pennsylvania Medical University ; began practice in Hartford, N. Y., afterwards in Whitehall, where he was examining surgeon tor pensions ; came to Fitchburg in October, 1872 ; is a member of the New York State Homoeopathic Medical Society, American Institute of Homoeopathy since 1869, and a member of the principal Homoeopathic societies in Massachusetts. Dr. a. W. Sidney was born in Westminster, Feb. 27, 1824; attended the public schools of that town and the West- minster Academy ; graduated at Dartmouth Medical Col- lege ; began practice in Sterling in i860 ; came to Fitchburg 80 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. in 1866 and has been in the practice of his profession here since ; he is a member of tlie Massachusetts Medical Society, the American Medical Association and the Ninth Interna- tional Medical Congress: is also president of the corporation of the Home for Old Ladies. Dr. Charles H. Rice, was born in Ashburnham, Mass., in 1843 ; resided in Ashby from the age of two till sixteen and attended the public schools of that town ; entered Appleton Academy at New Ipswich, N. H., and graduated there in 1862 ; studied medicine at Harvard and Dartmouth Medical Colleges, graduating at the former in 1865 and the latter in 1866 ; began the practice of medicine and surgery in Fitchburg in the spring of 1866, where he still continues to reside and continue the practice of his profession ; is presi- dent of the Worcester North Medical Society ; surgeon of the 6th Regiment M. V. M. ; member of the school commit- tee and one of the trustees of the public library. Dr. F. H. Thompson was born in New Salem, Franklin county, Mass., Aug. 5, 1844; educated at New Salem Academy, Phillips Exeter Academy, Amherst College and Harvard Medical School ; graduated from the latter May 1870; began practice in Fitchburg, May, 1874; was city physician in 1877, a member of the school committee from 1875 to 1878 and from 1878 to 1881 ; a trustee of the public library from 1882 to 1887 ; is a member of the Massachusetts Medical Society, joining in 1870; was surgeon on the staff' of General Kimball in 1877-78. Dr. D. S. Woodworth, was born in Greenfield, Mass., Sept. 3, 1 85 1. His parents moved West when he was quite small, and he attended the public schools of Fremont, Ohio. His father having died in Ohio, the rest of the family moved East again ; he going to Boston, where he entered the employ of C. F. Hovey & Co., and remained with them several years ; came to Fitchburg and began the study of medicine with Dr. H. H. Brigham, Jan. i, 1873; graduated from the College of Physicians and Surgeons, Medical Department, Columbia College, New York, March i, 1876: is a member PROFESSIONAI.. 87 of the Massachusetts Medical Society ; has practised in Fitch- burg since ; was city physician in 1879-80-81-84-85-86 ; president Worcester North Eclectic Medical Society, 1878 ; on school committee in 1879-80-81-82 ; medical director Massachusetts Mutual Aid Society for several years past ; past master C. W. Moore Lodge F. & A. M. ; past com- mander Jerusalem Commander}-, K. T. ; past grand Roul- stone Lodge ; past chief patriarch King David Encampment, and Assistant Surgeon General Division of the East Patriarchs Militant, L O. O. F. ; member of O. U. A. M. and A. L. H. ; past chancellor of Alpine Lodge, K. of P., and is at the pres- ent time grand chancellor of Massachusetts K. of P. Dr. Ernest P. Miller, son of Alfred and Elsie L. Miller of Fitchburg, was born Jan. 4, 185 1, in Ashburnham ; fitted for college at Fitchburg high school, graduating in 1868; a student in Amherst College, 1868-70; teacher in Fitchburg, 1870; graduated at Harvard College, 1872; teacher in Fitchburg high school, 1872-4 ; graduated at Har- vard Medical School, 1876 ; medical examiner from 1877 ; city physician, 1880 and 1883. Dr. Herbert H. Lyons, was born at Miltbrd, Mass., Sept. 24, 1855 ; graduated from Milford high school, June, 1874 ' graduated from Boston College in 1878 ; began the study of medicine at the Harvard Medical School, Septem- ber 1878, and graduated theretrom in June, 1881 ; began the practice of medicine in Fitchburg, September, 1881, where he still continues to reside and practise medicine and surgery. Dr. Atherton P. Mason, is the son of Charles and Caroline Atherton (Briggs) Mason and was born in Fitch- burg, Sept. 13, 1856. He was educated in the public schools of this city, graduating from the Fitchburg high school in the class of 1875. In the fall of 1875 ^^^ entered Harvard Col- lege, where he remained four years, taking the degree of A. B. at his graduation in 1879. ^^ October of the same year he entered the Harvard Medical School and took the full medical course of three years, graduating with the degree of M. D. in June, 1882. He remained in the vicinity of Boston, 88 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. having an office in Somerville and attending exercises in the Boston City, and Massachusetts General Hospitals, until February, 1884, when he returned to Fitchburg and located permanently in his native city. Dr. Mason is a member of the Massachusetts Medical Society and secretary of the Worcester North District Medical Society. Dr. John D. Kielty, (sketch as citv phvsician, chapter III.) Dr. C. W. Spring, was born at Salmon Falls, N. H. ; graduated from Dartmouth, 1880, and from Har\-ard Medical School in 1884 ; began the practice of his profession in Fitchburg in the spring of 1885. Dr. J. Everett Luscombe, received his degree in 1885 at the Boston University School of Medicine, and set- tled in Fitchburg the same year, where he still continues the practice of medicine and surgery. He is a member of the Worcester County Homoeopathic Medical Society. Dr. H. W. Pierson, a practicing physician, recently lo- cated in West Fitchburg. LAWYERS. Ebenezer Torrey, (sketch as president of the Fitch- burg National Bank in commercial chapter.) Charles Mason was born in Dublin, N. H., June 3, 1810. In 1829 he entered Phillips Exeter Academy, where he was fitted for college ; graduated at Harvard in 1834. From 1835 to 1839 ^^^ ^"^'^^ ^ tutor in the University in the Latin department. He read law at the Dane Law School and received the degree of LL. B. in 1839. ^^ September, 1839, 1^^ ^^'^^ admitted at Boston to practise law in the courts of the state and in the circuit and district courts of the United States. He remained in Boston till May, 1841, when he opened an office in Lancaster, Mass., and in September, 1842, moved to Fitchburg where he has since resided. In June, 1842, he was appointed one of the standing commis- sioners of bankruptcy for the Massachusetts district under the PROFESSIONAL. . 89 United States Bankrupt law; in August, 1845, master in chancery, an otBce which at that time had jurisdiction in in- solvency proceedino-s, and in July, 185 1, a commissioner of insolvency for the county of Worcester. He was a member of the house of representatives of Massachusetts in 1849 and '51. In the latter year was one of the one hundred and ninetj'-three members w'ho succeeded after a struggle of more than three months and on the twenty-sixth ballot in electing Charles Sumner to the United States senate. Mr. Mason was also a member of the constitutional convention in 1853. He married, Aug. 9, 1853, Caroline Atherton Briggs ; and in 1857, built the residence on Laurel Hill where the famih has since resided. Mr. Mason has always been deeply interested in the education of the young, and has had much to do with the public schools of Fitchburg, especially during the earl}^ portion of his residence here. For several years he was an active member and chairman of the school committee of the town. He also took an active part in getting up the "Fitch- burg Athenaeum." From 1864 to 1869 he was secretary of the Fitchburg Mutual Fire Insurance Company. Since that time his health has been impaired, at times so much as to compel him to seek a change of scene, and he has pursued no stated business. T. K. Ware, a native of Cambridge, Mass., graduated at Harvard College, 1842, and at Harvard Law School in 1845 ; studied in Sidney Bartlett's office in Boston ; admitted to the bar in 1846, and has been engaged in the practice of his profession in Fitchburg since; married Jan. 22, 1852, Lucy A. A. Marshall, daughter of the late C. Marshall of Fitchburg ; was a member of the Massachusetts house of representatives in 1849 "^^^^ ^^54 ^^^ ^^^^ been justice of the police court since it was established ; from Sep- tember, 1864, to September, 1875, was in partnership with Charles H. B. Snow in the firm of Ware & Snow, which was dissolved upon the death of Mr. Snow ; from Novem- ber, 1875, to July, 1879, ^^^s associated with George A. Torrey, in the firm of Ware & Torrey ; trom July, 1879, 90 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. to July, 1887, it was Ware, Torrey & Ware, by the addition of his son C. E. Ware as junior partner. The tirin is at present T. K. & C. E. Ware. Mr. Ware was con- nected with the Fitchburg Hbrary as trustee from the start, and has been chairman of the board since the death of its first president, C. H. B. Snow; is president of the Fitchburg Savings Bank and a director in the Fitchburg National Bank. Amasa Norcross, (sketch as Mayor, Chapter III.) David H. Merriam, (sketch as Mayor, Chapter III.) George Arnold Torrey was born in Fitchburg, May 14, 1838, and is the son of Ebenezer Torrey and Sarah Arnold Torrey ; was educated in the schools of Fitchburg, Leicester Academy and Harvard College, graduating from the latter in 1859. ^''' Torrey received his legal education in Harvard Law School, graduating in 1861 ; was admitted to the bar and commenced practice the same year; June, 1861, was married to Ellen Malibran Shirley of Boston; in 1875 became a member of the firm of Ware & Torrey, with T. K. Ware for a partner; in 1879, Ware, Torrey & Ware, by the addition of C. E. Ware, and July, 1887, gave up prac- tice to become corporation counsel for the Fitchburg Rail- road, with an office in Boston. Stillman Haynes was born in Townsend, Mass., April 17, 1833 ; son of Samuel and Eliza (Spaulding) Haynes ; at- tended common and select schools of his native town and afterwards Leicester Academy and the Normal School at Lancaster. He was for some time at New Ipswich Academy an associate teacher and a student with Elisha F. Qiiimby, later professor of mathematics and civil engineering at Dart- mouth College. Mr. Haynes graduated at Kimball Union Academy, Meriden, N. H., in 1859; ^^ 1^59 ^^^ entered the law office of Bonney & Marshall at Lowell as a student of law ; was admitted to the Middlesex bar in 1861 ; commenced practice in Asburnham in 1862, but in 1863 returned to Towns- end and opened a law office, remaining there till 1868, when he removed to Fitchburg. While in Townsend he was a RESIDENCE OF CHARLES T. CROCKER, PROSPECT STREET. RESIDENCE OF MRS SALMON W. PUTNAM, WALNUT STREET. PROFESSIONAL. 91 member of the Board of Selectmen, and for several years served on the School Committee of the town. Since his removal to Fitchburg, he has devoted himself exclusively to the practice of his profession. He has been elected for several terms on the School Board of which he is a member at the present time. Mr. Haynes married October 8, 1863, Hattie M. Kimball, of Temple, N. H. Charles S. Hayden was born in Harvard, Mass., Nov. 10, 1848 ; son of James G. and Lncretia B. Hayden. He attended the public schools of his native town and the Groton High School ; graduated at the Fitchburg High School in the class of 1869 ; read law with Wood & Torrey, and then entered the Harvard Law School, where he graduated with the degree of LL .B. in 1871 ; admitted to the bar in August, 1871. June 13th, 1879, Mr. Hayden was appointed Special Justice of the Fitchburg Police Court. He married January 23d, 1873, Miss Mary E. Lawrence, of Fitchburg. Harris C. Hartwell was born in Groton, Mass., De- cember 28, 1847 ; son of Benjamin F. and Emma W. Hartwell. He graduated at Lawrence Academy in 1865 and then entered Harvard College, graduating there in 1869 ; read law in the office of Hon. Amasa Norcross, and was ad- mitted to the bar in 1873 ; in 1874 ^^ entered into partnership with Mr. Norcross, forming the well-known legal firm of Norcross & Hartwell. He was a member of the Massa- chusetts House of Representatives in 1883-84-85, and of the Massachusetts Senate in 1887. He was chairman of the judiciary committee in the House in 1885 and of the same committee in the Senate in 1887. For ten years (1877-1886) Mr. Hartwell was City Solicitor of Fitchburg. He has been a member of the School Board. As a member of the Fitchburg- Harvard Club, he has tor some vears served most acceptably as its president. He married, October 23d, 1877, Effie M. F. Needham, daughter of Col. Daniel Needham, of Groton. Samuel L. Graves was born in Groton, Mass., July i8th, 1847; son of John J. and Lucy Graves ; graduated at •92 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. Lawrence Academ\', Groton, and then entered Amherst Col- lege, where he graduated in 1870 ; then came to Fitchburg and read law in the office of Wood & Torrey for three years, and opened an office of his own. Though often urged to be a candidate for public office, Mr. Graves has always refused such offers, preferring to devote himself to the practice of his profession. He has been a member of the School Board ; was married in 1878 to Mary E. Lane, daughter of Abbie E. and the late James B. Lane, of Fitchburg. Harrison Bailey was born in Fitchburg July 12th, 1849; son of E. Foster and Dorothy S. Bailey; educated in the public schools of Fitchburg and fitted for college at the Fitchburg High School ; graduated at Amherst College in 1872 ; Harvard Law School 1874 ; read law with George A. Torrey and was admitted to the bar in September, 1874. ^^ immediately afterwards opened an office on his own account and has since continued in the practice of general law bus- iness ; is one of the commissioners to qualify civil officers. Charles F. Baker was born in Lunenburg, Mass., Dec. 4, 1850; son of William and Olive R. (Boutwell) Baker; graduated from the Fitchburg High School in 1868; Harvard College 1872 ; read law with Norcross & Hartwell ; was teacher in Fitchburg High School 1872-74; admitted to the bar in 1875, ^"^ ^'^'^^ x\ssistant District-Attorney for Wor- cester county at one time ; has been in the office of Norcross & Hartwell since admission to the bar and became a member of the firm of Norcross, Hartwell & Baker, January i, 1887 ; has been a member of the School Board; married April 24, 1879, Henrietta Woods, of Winchester, Mass. James H. McMahon was born in Tulamore, Kings Countv, Ireland, Feb. 4, 1850; son of John and Sarah Mc- Mahon. His parents came to this country a lew months after his birth and located at Shirley, Mass. Mr. McMahon attended the public schools of Shirley and also had private instruction in Boston. He read law with E. B. O'Connor, of Boston, and later with James M. Woodbur}-, of Fitchburg. He was admitted to the bar in September, 1877. In November, 1877, he opened an office where he has since continued in PROP^ESSIONAL. 03 the practice of general law business. Mr. McMahon has been a member of the School Board. Edward P. Pierce (see sketch in the City Government chapter.) Thomas F. Gallagher was born at Lvnn, Mass., Dec. 27? 1855 ; son of Thomas and Anne N. Gallagher; educated in the public schools of Lynn ; graduated at the University of Notre Dame, Indiana, in 1876 ; read law with Hon. William D. Northend in Salem ; admitted to the bar in October, 1878 ; had an office in Lynn till December 15, 18S1, when he came to Fitchburg and opened an office, and continued in bus- iness for himself till September, 1886, when he entered into partnership with the late John W. Walsh. Charles E. Ware was born in Fitchburg. July 17, 1853 ; son of Thornton K. and Lucy A. A. Ware; educated in the public schools of Fitchburg during early youth ; entered Rox- bury Latin School, where he graduated in 1872 : graduated at Harvard College in 1876, and Harvard Law School in 1878 ; July 1st, 1879, t^^^ ^^^"^ ^^"^ o^" Ware, Torrey & Ware was founded, he being junior member of it ; July i, 1887, the firm became T. K. & C. E. Ware on account of Mr. Torrey be- coming corporation counsel for the Fitchburg Railroad Co., and being obliged to give up other practice. Mr. Ware mar- ried June 30, 1881, Harriet P. Long of Roxbury. James A. Stiles was born in Fitchburg, Sept. i, 1855 5 son of James F. and Ann M. (Works) Stiles. He was ed- ucated in the public schools of Fitchburg, graduating from the High School in the class of 1873 ; entered Harvard Col- lege and graduated in the class of 1877 5 read law with George A. Torrey and Harrison Bailey, of Fitchburg, and was admitted to the bar in August, 1880; in May, 1882, he formed a partnership with Edward P. Pierce and opened an office of the firm in West Gardner, Mass., where he has since continued; was appointed. May 4, 1884, Trial Justice, and June II, 1884, Senior Special Justice of the First District Court of Northern Worcester count}'. Mr. Stiles married, June 9, 1887, Miss Mary L. Emerson, of Claremont, N. H. 94 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. John W. Walsh was born at Leominster, July 22, i860, and was the second of a family of ten children of James and Bridget Walsh. He was an apt scholar and made rapid progress in the public schools of his native town. While pur- suing his studies in the Leominster High School he com- menced reading law in the office of Hamilton Mayo. After graduating at the high school in 1876, he entered Holy Cross College at Worcester, intending to take the full course, but about the end of the first year his health was impaired by a severe attack of lung fever. As soon as his health was suf- ficiently restored he entered the Law Department of Boston University, where he graduated in 1880 ; he was admitted to the bar in Suffolk county the same year, and very soon after he had attained his majorit}^. He came to this city in the latter part of the same year, and in partnership with John W. Corcoran, of Clinton, commenced the practice of law. The partnership lasted till 1886, when, September 6, Mr. Walsh and Thomas F. Gallagher formed a copartnership for the practice of law. Soon after he came to Fitchburg he de- livered an address on Robert Emmet which showed that he possessed much ability as an orator. In 1882, he was invited by Post 19, G. A. R., to deliver the oration at St. Bernard cemetery on Memorial Day, and performed the duty so admirably that he was invited to be the orator at the same place on a similar occasion in 1884 and again in 1886. Mr. Walsh was always deeply interested in political affairs, and frequently spoke at Democratic campaign meetings, both here and in other parts of the State. He was a candidate of his party for representative in 1885, and led his ticket in this city. In 1883 he was elected a member of the school com- mittee from Ward 2 for three years, and did good service on the board. He was also a leader and president of the local branch of the National Land League, and did much to arouse the sympathy of his fellow-citizens for Ireland's cause. He was also for a time 2d lieutenant of the Washington Guards, (Co. D, 6th regiment) and always took a deep interest in the success of the company. Mr. Walsh died Aug. 12, 1887. Few young men have made so rapid progress in their chosen PROFESSIONAL. 95 profession as Mr. Walsh, and few lives have been so fnll of promise of nsefulness and attainment as the one just closed. He was a verv genial companion and his social qualities made acquaintance friendship. David K. Stevens was born in Fitchburg, August 12, i860; son of Samuel and Sarah Stevens; educated in the public schools of Fitchburg, graduating trom the high school in 1877 ; studied law in the office of Henry R. Start, Bakers- field, Vt., at the Boston University Law School and in the office of Bennett & Fuller, Taunton, Mass. ; admitted to the Bristol county bar in April, 1882 ; in 1884 formed a partner- ship with Charles H. Blood and took charge of the Boston office of the firm, where he has since continued. He mar- ried November 24, 18S4, Jennie E. Waite, of Cambridge, Vt. Charles H. Blood was born in Fitchburg, Dec. 10, 1857 ; son of Hon. Hiram A. and Mary M. (Person) Blood ; educated in the Fitchburg public schools ; graduated at Fitch- burg High School in 1875, Harvard College 1879; i"ead law with Attorney-General Marston, of New Bedford, and at- tended Boston University Law School during 1882-3 ; admitted to the Bristol bar August, 1883 ; soon afterwards opened an office in Fitchburg ; also had an office in Boston. In 1884 he termed a partnership with David K. Stevens, of Fitchburg. MEDICAL ORGANIZATIONS. Fitchburg Society for Medical Improvement. — Or- ganized July, 1874. President — H. H. Lyons; Vice-Presi- dent — D. P. Richardson; Secretary and Treasurer — ^J. D. Kielty. Members — Levi Pillsbury, George Jewett, Ernest P. Miller, George D. Colony, Charles H. Rice, Frederick H. Thompson, Herbert H. Lyons, Austin W. Sidney, Atherton P. Mason, J. D. Kielty,"^ C. W. Spring : D. P. Richardson and E.J. Cutter, Leominster; Dr. Stimson, Lunenburg. Worcester North District Medical Society. — Em- bracing Fitchburg and towns in the northern part of ill') FITCilBUKG, PAST AND TRESENT. Worcester county. President — Levi Pillsbmy ; Vice-Presi- deni, C. II. Rice; Secretary — A. P. Mason; Treasurer^ E. P. Miller; Librarian — F. H. Thompson. Worcester North Eclectic Medical Society. — Or- ganized July, 1861. Meetings held on the last Tuesday of each month. Annual meeting on the last Tuesday in July ; held in Fitchburg. President — Dr. Gleason, Townsend, Mass. ; Secretary and Treasurer^ Dr. N. Jewett, Ashburn- ham ; CoiinciUors — Drs. H. H. Brigham and G. W. Garland. Worcp:ster County Homcp:opathic Society. — Meet- ings held quarterly at Worcester. Annual meeting the second Wednesday of November. President — O. W. Roberts, Ware; Librarian — E. L. Melius, Worcester. CHAPTER VI. LITERARY AND ARTISTIC. OMETHING akin to local pride may be considered pardonable in the people of Fitchburg while reviewing the list of workers in the field of literature and art, who are, or have been, closely identified with the place and in whom the city feels a peculiar ownership ; for there is scarcely a legend of all the region round that has not been woven into song, and there are very few of the many picturesque or fa- miliar haunts that have not been repro- duced by those who are pleased to be numbered among the sons and daughters of Fitchburg. A reference to the life work of each, however unimportant it may seem in their own estimation, wull be warmly wel- comed and cannot fail to be an inspiration and incentive to others. LITERARY. Caroline Atherton (Briggs) Mason, the subject of this sketch, though not a native of Fitchburg, has resided here over thirty years and has been identified, on man}' occa- sions, with the recent history of the place. She was born in the patriotic old seaport town of Marble- head, and was the youngest daughter of Dr. Calvin and Rebecca (Monroe) Briggs, and granddaughter of Rev. James Briggs of Cummington. Her grandfather on the maternal 98 FITCHBURG, PAST AND I'RESEAT. side was Dr. Ephraim Monroe, born and educated in Scot- land and a surgeon in the military service. Dr. Briggs was a graduate of Williams College and received the degrees of A. M. and M. B. from Harvard in 1807, and of M. D. in 181 1, being one of the first to receive the degree of M. D. from Harvard. He was a physician of large practice and high standing in Marblehead and neighboring towns and cities. He died in 1852, and soon afterward Mrs. Briggs and her family removed to Fitchburg. Marblehead has been considered by some who have no correct means of judging, as altogether an illiterate town. Such is not the fact. At one time it was second only to Bos- ton in wealth and population ; but the Revolutionary War and the War of 181 2, with the embargo preceding it, depopu- lated and reduced it. There were still left, however, wealthy and aristocratic residents, who, together with the professional part of the community and other families of standing and education, made up a society equal to the best to be found in any of our cities and larger towns. It was under the ad- vantages of such intellectual and social surroundings that Mrs. Mason passed her early years. She, as well as her six older sisters, was educated at Bradford Academy. Before reaching the age of twenty she had begun to de- velop her poetical talent. Under the signature of "Caro" she contributed regularly to the Salem Register, and it was under that signature and in that paper that appeared verses which were soon known throughout all English speaking countries — the words of the song "Do They Miss Me at Home?" These words were set to music, both in this country and in England, and a handsome sum was realized by certain parties in the operation ; but Mrs. Mason never received anvthing — not even the credit of the authorship. A few years ago, however, there appeared in The Literary World a sketch of Mrs. Mason in which her authorship of these words was affirmed and substantiated. This sketch was copied by numerous papers and one result w^as that she re- ceived letters from all parts of the country asking for her CAROLINE A. MASON. LITERARY AND ARTISTIC. 99 autograph together with a stanza or two of the song. Qiio- tations from the sketcli will be used later by the writer of the present article. Besides the Salon Register she early contributed to the National £ra, Anti-Slavery Standard and the Common- wealth : and, just previous to her marriage, she published, through Phillips, Sampson & Co., Boston, a volume of verses to which much favor was accorded. Soon alter removing to Fitchburg she was married to Charles Mason, Esq. Since then they have resided here, and for the last thirty years in their present residence, Laurel Hill, one of the sightliest and best located situations in town. They have a son who is a practising physician in Fitchburcr. Mrs. Mason has been a welcome contributor to most of the leading magazines and many religious and secular papers. "Her w^ork in prose has been slight, embracing an anony- mous Sunday-school story, 'Rose Hamilton,' published in 1859, a serial, 'Letty's Pathway ; or Following On,' which appeared in the Boston Recorder in 1866, and occasionally short stories and sketches appearing in leading periodicals. But her work in verse, w4iich has been graceful and, in didactic elements, true and strong, has been considerable. Whatever she writes is inspiring. Her poem, 'Waking,' which begins with 'I have done at length with dreaming,' was the means, early in its career of transforming at least one young woman from a butterfly to a thoughtful character. Of more recent productions, a touching bit for mothers, called 'Only Me,' has received the widest editorial favor. Mrs. Mason has written some of the best hymns of this century, as recent Unitarian praise-books and other religious compila- tions show. The sonnet form is a favorite with her of late, and has been used to fine purpose, especially in her series of pieces on the months." That her standing as a poet is fully appreciated is amply attested not only by occasional appreciative notices from the 100 FITCIIBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. press, but also by letters written to her by individuals promi- nent in learning and literature. Among such voluntary evi- dences in her possession are two which she prizes highly, — one, a graceful note written by Alfred Tenn\'son, poet laureate of England, thanking her for her sonnet entitled "Tennyson and the Violets,'" (lines embellishing an incident related by James T. Fields) ; the second, a note from Charles Sumner, expressing his sincere appreciation of a poem written by Mrs. Mason. This poem was prompted by the reading of that grand speech which Mr. Sumner intended to deliver in Faneuil Hall, Sept. 3, 1872, but which, owing to his illness, was given to the public in print. In this speech he made a noble defence of his fearless, self-sacrificing atti- tude toward the great questions of the day, and re-aflirmed that unswerving fidelity to the principles of justice, truth and right, for which he was ever distinguished, — a speech which efi^ectually silenced the howling mob that was endeavoring to pull him down from his well-deserved pinnacle of honor and fame. Another poem w^ritten by Mrs. Mason on the occasion of his great Emancipation Speech delivered at Worcester in October, 1861, was so highly esteemed by Mr. Sumner that he caused it to be printed in connection with the speech, and it may be found in his published works. Mrs. Mason has, for many years, promptly and willingly responded to the numerous calls made upon her talent to fur- nish poems for occasions, both public and private, in Fitch- burg ; and the poems she has written relating to Fitchburg and its citizens would almost make a volume. She has published none of her poems in book form since the volume referred to earlier in this sketch, though repeat- edlv urged to do so. A volume of selections from her later productions would certainly be appreciated, and it is to be hoped that such may appear ere long. Among the best of her poems are : "The Lost Ring,"' an unpublished narrative poem of some length, "Eureka," "Heir- ship," ''En Voyage:' "Be Like the Sun," "Waking," "We Three," "Not Yet," ''Dernier Ressort" "Nature and Poet," and "Sonnets of the Months."' RESIDENCE OF CHARLES MASON, ESQ, Laurel Hill. LITERARY AND ARTISTIC. 101 Among the most popular have been : "A Memory," "Waking," "Sonnets of the Months," "En Voyage:' "Only Me," "Do They Miss Me at Home?" and "Be Like the Sun." Mary Caroline Dickinson was born in Fitchburg. With no early advantages of education except what its common schools afforded, Mary C. Underwood began her lite as a teacher as soon as she was fifteen 3'ears of age and continued it until her twent3'-tourth year with no in- terruption except that of her marriage to George Preston Lowe, whose early loss, which occurred during his ab- sence abroad while she was yet in her teens, was the great shadow upon her early life. These years of teaching proved two things — one known to other people, and one to herself. The former was the tact that she possessed the true teacher's gift, which is born and not made ; the latter the fact that her so-called education had furnished no proper training for the work of an educator ; hence those earlier years of imparting knowledge became also the time of real study. Without the advantages she resolved to have the acquirements which, or- dinarily, are won through the best schools and colleges, and from that day to this she has not ceased to be a student, keep- ing herself abreast of the most advanced movements in the education of women. From Fitchburg, where few teachers have been more warmly remembered by the boys and girls once under their care, she passed to the head assistantship of a grammar school in Boston, and thence to the Hartford Fe- male Seminary. From the latter place she went abroad, hoping for oppor- tunities to continue her education, in which, however, she had already made such progress as to be favorably considered for assistant lady principal of V'assar College, which opened about this date. She went to Europe with the family of one of her pupils, supplementing her constant work by writing for the New York Trihune and other journals, con- tributing at one time regularly to no less than thirteen pe- riodicals, and, aside from this excessive labor, continuing 102 1 rrciiHURG, past and present. her pursuit of studies denied her in her youth. At the end of one year, her pupil having married, she transferred her ser- vices as teacher to a family from Chicago, toward whom she has ever since retained rather the relation of daughter than a friend, and with whom she remained during their stay, return- ing with them to this country in the autumn of 1867. A few months later saw her installed as acting lady principal of the Van Norman Institute, at that time one of the most flourish- ing schools of New York city. Here she remained until her marriage with Mr. John B. Dickinson, a prominent banker of New York, whose failing health took them again abroad in the winter of 1871-2, on which occasion they re- mained away nearly three years, travelling in the summer, and living in Italy in the winter, with the exxeption of the winter of 1872-73, when they passed three months in their Dahabeah on the Nile. During this long absence the pen was not silent, but many a bright sketch and tender poem found its way to the public, almost invariably, however, with- out the author's name. A bit of verse called "If we had but a day," written on the Nile with an overturned soap box for a desk, drifted from Maine to Texas in the columns of numerous journals, but it was only one of many that had been coming all along through the years from the time when the teacher made amends tor having accused her of borrowing her composition bv having it printed in the columns of the Fitchburg Scut/'ncl. Still, notwithstanding much fugitive w^ork, the writing was largely dropped until after the death of Mr. Dickinson and the subsequent loss of Ibrtune which followed within two years after this event. All her Hfe long Mrs. Dickinson had ranked herself among working women, only laying down the implements of one line of work to take another in social or philanthropic fields. Now she took them up again as a bread-winner, making no claim to genius or even to marked talent, and al- ways doubting if she had any unusual gifts. "Talent uses us," she used to say ; "If I had had a spark of it, I could not have waited for circumstances to force me to use it." Hence she never had any hope of literary reputation, but went to LITERARY AND ARTISTIC. 103 work resolved to accept no task, however great, that would not do good, and to turn away from nothing, however small that would, and never using her name except when necessary to insure publication. Yet, with this resolution rigidly kept, she soon drifted into regular lines of journalistic work. She wrote leaders for dailies, editorials for weeklies, serials, short travels, poems, articles on education and j-)hil- anthropy, and Sunday School lessons, never free enough to work in any favorite line, but always shaping her work to suit the demand of the hour. A little collection of poems reprinted by Dodd, Mead & Co., of New York, from the various period- icals in which they first appeared, found much favor. The novel published by Carleton & Co., New York, called "Among the Thorns," is too well known to need comment here, and two stories, "The Amber Star" and "A Fair Half Dozen," first printed in England, have been re-issued in this country by Phillips & Hunt, of New York. Charming as all this journalistic work is, showing in its wide range unusual versatility and strength that gives the writer an undoubted rank in fiction, it is as a critical and biographical essayist that Mrs. Dickinson's strongest power lies. Her reviews of the life and work of Harriet Martineau, Madame George Sand, Madame de la Rochefoucauld, Charles Kingsley and many others, are a valuable addition to literature and show a power of anah'tical discrimination that has met with cordial recognition from most critical minds. But busy as has been this "working woman's" pen, she has never been weaned from her real work as an educator. Soon after the death of her husband she took charge of the depart- ment of literature and composition in a school in Brooklyn, resigning in order to give herself more fully to private stu- dents, young and old, who desired to place themselves under her guidance. The simple little home opposite Central Park is not only a favorite spot with busy workers in every field, but during the morning hours of every winter it is a studio for women who come to be helped to a finer culture, a wider knowledge, or larger possibilities of life. Having known the double experience of both how to abound and how to suffer 104 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. need, few women have been better prepared to be a strength to other women, and especially to those who suffer and those who toil. Earnestly interested in every problem for their ad- vancement or prosperity, when she could no Ioniser give money, she has unsparingly given herself. Ample use has been found for her best powers from time to time, as the secretary of the Female Bible Society, the oldest charity of New York city ; one of the vice-presidents of the W. F. Missionary Society; National Superintendent of the Depart- ment of Temperance in colleges and schools of higher educa- tion ot the W. C. T. U. While in this post she originated the "Student's League,*' which binds not only to Temper- ance, but to Purity, and Chivalry, and Truth. Her interest in the cause of temperance made her for two years one of the editors of the National Refo^-iner. In the interest of the Shut-in Society, she edits their mag- azine for invalids, called The Open Wiiidozv, and in the in- terest of general philanthropy she has been associated with Edward Everett Hale in the editorship of his magazine. The exactions of such a life, of which a sketch like this atlbrds only the faintest outline, have left their marks upon health and vigor, causing the abandonment of much work in which the worker would gladly remain ; but she still retains enough to rob literature quite too largely of her time. As the general secretary of the new order called the King's Daughters, so rapidly spreading over the country, an organization that binds every woman to do some work tor others, she finds ample opportunity to reach and inspire thousands of women, rich and poor, to join the ranks of workers and make their lives a ministry of good ; while as the president of the Women's National Indian Association, now oriranized and at work in two-thirds of the States in the Union, she is enabled to widen her circle of service until it includes also the women and children of the plains. In a life like this, literature must necessarily be an incident, but her literary work is of a style so pure and a character so vig- orous as to make one wish it might have made the If/c itself. Such as it is, it keeps the flavor of the winds that blow over LITERARY AND ARTISTIC. 105 the pine woods and the granite hills of New England and is not unworthy of the Fitchburg that is to be. Martha Dowxe Tolman, is a native of Fitchburg, daughter of Deacon Nathan and Mary Downe Tolman. Both parents were of English ancestry traced to colonial days. Miss Tolman was educated in the public and private schools of Fitchburg. Her first published verses appeared in the. Wc/l Sfj'ing, a Sunday School paper published in Boston, for which little rhyme, entitled "Sabbath Bells,'" the editor sent her three dollars, the first money received for any literary work, and consequently magnifying its value a hundred fold. Her first book, entitled "Fabrics," was pub- lished in 187 1, by Messrs. A. D. F. Randolph & Co., New York. Miss Tolman was exceedingly unfortunate in the printing of this book. Owing to the inability of the publish- ers to attend to the proof reading personally at that time, it was left, with three similar books, in the hands of the printers. Each book shared a common fate, receiving a generous sprinkling of typographical and other errors. Two years later a second book, "Finished or Not,'" was published in Boston by Messrs. D. Lothrop & Co. Other editions of "Fabrics" were also published by this house, and the book was reprinted in London by Messrs. Ward, Lock «& Tyler. Aside from these books. Miss Tolman has from time to time written verses and articles in prose for papers and magazines. In all of her writings the style is pure and racy, at tb.e same time instructive and profitable ; it touches the finer sensibili- ties, appeals to one's better nature, and inculcates the lesson of loving and living for others. In "Fabrics" we have her thoughts on great themes em- bodied in the form of a story. It impresses one in a solemn yet pleasant manner with the great aim and end of life and inculcates those excellent moral precepts which all would do well to imitate. In "Finished or Not"' the author portrays most truly and touchingly what benevolence and culture may accomplish for helpless humanity. ion FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. Tlie writer is never feeble or doubtful in her moral teach- ing, her evident aim being to do good to every reader; and for thoughtful, reflective and appreciative young people, these books must have a special charm and value. In addi- tion to her literary work Miss Tolman has devoted a portion of her time to local philanthropic work as a member of the Fitchburg Benevolent Union and secretary of the corporation of the Old Ladies' Home. Colonel Augustine J. H. Duganne was born in 1823. His father was Assistant Charge de Affairs at Constantinople, Turkey. His mother was the only daughter of wealthy par- ents residing in France, where she met this dashing young officer, who obtained her consent to a secret bethrothal and clandestine marriage. By this act she so wounded the pride of her parents, that she was disowned both as daughter and heiress. Finding the parents unrelenting, and seeing no prospect of being recognized by them, she accompanied her husband to Qjiebec, in Canada, he for some unexplained reason not wishing to return to Constantinople. As a result of this union two children were born to them — one a daughter, the other a son, Augustine Joseph Hickey, the subject of this sketch. In 1823, the parents removed to Boston, and it is supposed that Augustine was born on board ship during the passage. Being reduced to poverty, the mercenarv motives of the husband became apparent, a separation took place, followed soon after by the death of the mother. The children were then placed in an orphan asylum, of which Alvan Simonds, a native of Fitchburg and cashier of the Merchants' National Bank, in South Boston, was a trustee. At the age of fifteen he was taken from this institution by John Garfield, of Fitchburg, then proprietor of the ScnfiucL and was duly installed in his office to learn the printing business. It was soon discovered by Mr. Garfield that his protege had a fondness for books, which sadly interfered with the progress of type-setting, it being no uncommon occurrence to find him on a cold winter's day snugly wrapped in a buf- "^^^^..^cy^^^^ LITERARY AND ARTISTIC. 107 lalo robe and completely absorbed in a book or in some out- of-the-way corner remote from the case engaged in scribbling verses. After the first year in the printing office he began to write for the Sentinel. These contributions in the early numbers, beginning in 1839, were all anonymous, and so completely did he surround his articles with m3'stery that not more than three or four persons, and those his most trusted friends, knew who wrote them. The tirst of his articles that attracted public attention was " An Acrostic to Education." This was followed soon after by a poem entitled " Slander," which was prefixed by a Latin quotation and signed "Julian." This article had the appear- ance of having been written by a person of education, and from certain significant allusions the authorship was accred- ited to a teacher in the academy. About this time one Pat- terson, an employe in the woolen mill, under the signature of "Syphax," criticised "Conrad," another local literary light, for misquoting Byron ; whereupon "Julian" took a hand in the discussion, creating an unusual interest for several weeks. (It is exceedingly unfortunate that the papers con- taining these early efforts are not preserved.) All these communications were written by young Hickey and copied by his intimate friend, the late Goldsmith F. Bailev. who took charge of them, and, awaiting his op- portunity, dropped them in the postoffice unobserved. In this way no one in the Sentinel office, not even the proprietor, suspected the real author. The late Charles H. B. Snow also took a warm interest in him and appreciated his genius. From Fitchburi>; he removed to Boston, hired an office where he made a business of proof-reading, and such literary work as came to hand. His hand-book of patriotic poems and songs, entitled " Hand Poems," was published at that time — 1844, he being about twenty-one years of age. About this time it is related of him that on a cold winter's day he chanced to come across a little negro boy on the street who was crying piteouslv from cold and hunger. Without hesitating to con- sider how he should provide for the little waif in addition to his own maintenance, he took him to his office and fed, 108 FITCIinURG, PAST AND I'KESENT. clothed and lodged him for some time. This arrangement was, however, brought to an abrupt and unpleasant termina- tion. It happened something in this wise : The little fellow, grateful beyond measure and aching to do something to show his gratitude, hnding the y«;;//7v coal-bin empty, generously filled it trom the adjoining bins without the knowledge or consent of his benefactor, who was soon called upon by the irate owners either to make restitution or submit to arrest. From Boston he removed to New York, and there had his name changed by an act of the legislature to Augustine J. H. Duganne, — in compliance with his mother's dying request for him to assume her maiden name, — the signature over which his writings usually appeared thereafter. He soon became prominent in politics in New York city, and was one of the founders of the American Know Nothing party. He subsequently became a staunch republican, which political faith he held to the end of his days. He was at one time connected with the New York Tr/hitiic and held olficial positions under the city government. His experience while serving on a committee for investigating the moral condition of the city furnished material for his book "The Tenant Houses ; or Embers from Poverty's Hearth." His best known work was his "History of Government," showing the progress of civil societv, and the structure ol ancient and modern states. His last was a satire on Ingersol called "Injure Soul." His contribution to our national literature has been considera- ble both in poetry and prose ; of the former he published "Home Poesies," "The Iron Harp," "The Lydian Queen" (a tragedy produced at the Walnut Street Theatre, Philadel- phia), "MDCCCXLVIII" or "The Year of the People," "Parnassus in Pillory" (a satire) , "A Mission of Intellect" (delivered at Metropolitan Hall, New York, 1852), "The Gospel of Labor," "The True Republic," and "Poetical Works," the first complete collection of his poems. Of his prose writings a series of critiques on contemporary- authors appeared in Sartain's Magazine , under the title "Revised Leaves." He also wrote several dramas and twenty or thirty novelettes and romances as well as a large number of papers LITERARY AND ARTISTIC. 109 upon a variety of subjects, under various noui dc fliinic in the different magazines and journals of the day. During this period of his life, his marriage took place. His wife was the daughter of a West India man of great wealth, who re- sided in Philadelphia. She was the daughter of the then reigning belle of that city, remarkable for her beauty, and as good as she was beautiful. Their tastes were congenial, and with ample means at command, nothing happened to dis- turb the happiness of their married life until the breaking out of the Rebellion, when with patriotic enthusiasm' Mr. Duganne entered into the work of recruiting soldiers for the army. He succeeded in raising several regiments and, in response to what he considered an imperative duty, left the pleasant associations of home and entered upon active service at the head of the 176th New York Regiment, accompanying it to the front. In one of the engagements in which the regi- ment participated. Colonel Duganne was taken prisoner and held for a long time at Camp Ford, Texas, in the hands of the rebels, the story of which was rehearsed in his book "Camp and Prison ;" or "Twenty Months in the Department of the Gulf." "The Fighting Qj^iakers," a true story of the war for the Union, was published by authority of the New York Bureau of Militarv Records. Another of his books is entitled "Sound Literature,"' the safeguard of our national institutions. The following criticism from the pen of William H. Bur- leigh is considered just and impartial, by those who are most familiar with his works. He says : "Colonel Duganne's lyrical powers are characterized by a nervous energy, a gen- erous sympathy with humanity, a w^onderful command of language, and an ardent hatred of wrong and oppression in all its forms. His poems have a distinct character of their own, and are evidently the strong, unrestrained and indignant utterances of a bold spirit, deeply penetrated with a love for its kind and intolerant of all despotisms." x\ny analvsis of the character of Colonel Duganne \^■ould fail of completeness were we to omit what might be termed the imperfect side of his nature, a peculiarity which is often 110 KITCIIliURG, I'AST AND PRESENT. the accompaniment of genius, but which in the eyes of his friends only served to intensify the purity of his character, and reveal to them that childlike simplicity \\ hich the changes of fortune and circumstances were powerless to effect or modify. From a business point of view he was un- successful, never being able to comprehend the value or need of money. While yet a young man and struggling with poverty he refused the ample fortune offered by his mother's brother, who had inherited the estate of his grand- parents in France, and would have shared the inheritance with him, but lie could not be induced to accept as a present what he considered belonged to him by right. After the close of the war Colonel Duganne resumed editorial and lit- erary work on The New York Tribune. April 5, 1869, he delivered an oration on the "Heroic Succession," at Cooper Institute, it being the second anniversary of the death of Lincoln. Upon the death of his wife Colonel Duganne arranged his aff'airs in New York with the intention of at once return- ing to Fitchburg, there to spend the remainder of his days, for through all these busy years he still retained a strong at- tachment for his early home and boyhood friends. These plans, however, were never realized. He died at his home in New York, Oct. 20, 1884, surviving his companion only a few months. Rev. William Cushing, A. B., a tbrmer well-known resident of Fitchburg, was born in Lunenburg, May 15, 181 1, attended school there, and fitted for college at Cam- bridge; graduated at Harvard University, 1832, and was a student in Harvard Divinity School in 1832-3 ; removed to Fitchburg and was a teacher in the x\cademy for seven terms and was editor, for a short time in 1834, '^^ ''^ weekly religious paper called the "Christian Messenger ;" was engaged in teaching in various places until 1837, when he completed his studies at the Harvard Divinity School, graduating in 1839; was ordained as an evangelist, June 10, 1840; was engaged in preaching and teaching until 1857, removing that year to LITERARY AND ARTISTIC. Ill a farm in Clinton, where he remained ten years, occasionally supplying pulpits; from thence he removed to Medford, in 1867, and to Cambridge, in 1S68, where he has since resided. He was employed until 1878, as assistant in Harvard Col- lege Library, since which time he has been engaged in literar\- work for himself. In 1878, he published an "Index to the North American Review," and in 1879, ^^ "Index to the Christian Examiner." He spent several years' work on his "Century of Authors," which, however, was not pub- lished. The material has been purchased by Appleton & Co., of New York, to be used in the preparation of their "Cy- clopaedia of American Biography." His "Initials and Pseudonims," a dictionary of literary disguises, comprising a collection of twelve thousand initials and pseudonims employed from the beginning of the eighteenth century to the present lime, with eight thousand real names of authors, represents a vast amount of labor in their preparation, for Mr. Cushing does not confine himself to the bare bones of the initials and pseudonims which he ex- plains, but adds interesting notes explanatory of the writers ; and in the second part we find the real names of the authors followed by initials and pseudonims and short biographical notices. He is now preparing a supplement which will be readv for the press in the fall, this will contain six thousand additional initials and pseudonims. A companion volume to these two is the book of "Anonyms," comprising the titles of some twenty thousand books and pamphlets with the names of the authors, followed by brief biographical notices. The "Publishers Circular," London, ranks Mr. Cushing's "Initials and Pseudonims" beside x\llibone's great "Dictionary" and Cowden Clarke's no less famous "Concordance to Shaks- peare," for good, honest workmanship. It is indeed difiicult to decide which of the three books will prove the most useful to the librarian and the student of English and American lit- erature. James Ripley Wellman Hitchcock, who signs him- self simply Ripley Hitchcock, was born in Fitchburg, July 112 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. 3, 1857. He prepared for college at the Fitchburg High School, entered Harvard in 1873, and was graduated in 1877. For the next two years he pursued special post-grad- uate studies in Cambridge and at his home. During this time and also while in college he wrote articles which were published in various minor periodicals, and in 1879, when he took up his residence in New York city, he began to occupy himseh' regularly with literary work, contributing many arti- cles to magazines and newspapers. In 1880, he accepted a position on the staff of the New York Tribune. Early in his college course he had begun a special study of art, which he continued after graduation, and his interest in the subject, upon which he had already written, was utilized in his selec- tion to perform the minor work of the Tribune's art depart- ment. In 1882, Mr. Hitchcock became the art critic of the Tribune and he remains at the head of this department. In the summer and autumn of 1882, Mr. Hitchcock travelled through the southwest, Northern Mexico and California as the correspondent of the Tribune. He also wrote a series of letters for the Boston Herald. In 1883, he went through the southwest and noi'thwest, visiting British Columbia, and making a journey to the glaciers of Mt. Tacoma^on Puget Sound, afterward described in a magazine article. Since 1883, Mr. Hitchcock's journalistic work has consisted almost entirely of art criticism, with some book reviewing. His connection with the daily press has become rather that of the special contributor than that of the regular journalist, and a large portion of his time is occupied with literary work out- side of daily journalism. His books and a considerable pro- portion of his magazine articles have naturally treated of art. He is the author of "'Etching in America," a book published in New York early in 1886, which received favorable reviews in this country and in England. He is also the author of the text of "Some Modern Etchings," published in 1884 ; "Recent American Etchings," published in 1885 '■> "Notable Etchings," published in 1886; "Representative American Etchings," published in 1887, and of a monograph upon George Inness, N. A., published in 1884. Mr. Hitchcock, who is a keen LITERARY AND ARTISTIC. 113 lover of out-door sports, usually spends his summers in salmon and trout fishing in New Brunswick and Qj.iebec, and articles by him upon these topics are included in the Century Company's "Boys' Book of Sports." Among his contributions to monthly magazines have been articles for the Century, St. Nicholas, the Popular Science Monthly, Out- ing, the Art Review, the Art Amateur, the Book Buyer and others. The list includes some half dozen articles each for St. Nicholas, the Art Reviezv and Outing, those for the last named magazine dealing with fishing and incidents of travel. An article in the Century magazine entitled "The Western Art Movement" was translated into French and re- published with comments in L'Art. It was also re-published in pamphlet form in Nova Scotia. Some of the w^eekly pub- lications for which Mr. Hitchcock has written are the Chris- tian Union, the Youth'' s Companion, Puck, and others. In addition to the work of his department of the Tribtine he has for some years contributed occasional letters upon artistic and literary topics to the Boston Herald. Although. Mr. Hitch- cock's writings have dealt chiefly with art and literary criti- cism, and out-door life and travel, he has done a little in fiction in addition to critical and descriptive work. In 1885 he was chosen a trustee of the National Society of Arts and served as long as the organization lasted. In 1886 he visited Washington, in an unofficial capacity, to examine into the possibility of securing a modification of the tariff' upon works of art. Mr. Hitchcock is a member of the Authors' Club. For the year 1887 he is a member of the executive council and of the committee on membership of this club. Charles Mason, A. M., for a little more than forty-five years a resident of Fitchburg, and connected with its educa- tional interests, has written more or less on education, and since he has been in town has preserved a large amount of material (probably as complete a collection of reports, docu- ments, etc., as can be found in the city) relating to the his- tory and progress of Fitchburg. His position in educational and parish affairs has brought him in contact both personally 114 FITCHHURG, PAST AND PRP:SENT. and by correspondence with prominent men in educational, political and ministerial circles, and his collection of letters received trom men of that stamp, many of whom are now dead, is both interesting and valuable. In 1852 Mr. Mason was invited to deliver the address at the centennial celebra-- tion of his native town, Dublin, N. H. He prepared and de- livered the address, which was printed in the history of Dub- lin, N. II. His book on "The National and State Govern- ments'" has been used as a text book in schools and acade- mies. At the time of its issue it received the approval and commendation of eminent educators, lawyers, and the press. Rev. S. Leroy Blake, D. D., was born in Cornwall, Vt., Dec. 5, 1834; fitted for college at Burr and Burton Seminary at Manchester, Vt. ; entered Middlebury, Vt., Col- lege in the autumn of 1855, and graduated in 1859; taught at Rovalton, Vt., Lancaster, Mass., and Pembroke, N. H. ; entered Andover Theological Seminary, May, 1862, nine months after his class entered, and graduated in 1864. He was ordained and installed at Pepperell, Mass., Dec. 7, 1864 ; in 1869, was settled over the South church in Concord, N. H. ; came to Fitchburg the first Sabbath of April, 1880, after a short pastorate in Cleveland, Ohio, and was installed over the C. C. church in Fitchburg, Sept. i, 1880, remaining until March 27, 1887. The degree of Doctor of Divinity was conterred upon him by Iowa College in 1883. While in Fitchburg, Dr. Blake published a volume entitled "The Book," which has attracted the attention of thoughtful people and received the indorsement of some of our most scholarly Biblical commentators. In this volume Dr. Blake has given to the world a convenient summary of the evidence upon which the canon of Holy Scriptures rests, and the authorship of its several books. He brings together the testimony of the apostolic and other fathers, the historians and doctors, and from it draws his conclusions, as to the time and authorship of the books and what books have from the first comprised the Sacred Canon. Instead of beginning with the apostles and working down, Dr. Blake has pursued the even more convincincr method of workino^ back to them from the time LITERARY AND ARTISTIC. 115 when there is admitted to have been an accepted Canon. "The Christian Union" says : "Such books as these are needed just at this time when the wave of unbelief is reced- ing, and many need to have the proofs that sustain the Word of God freshly presented to their minds." Dr. Blake has also published during his ministry several sermons and pamphlets. Asa Thurston. Among those in the past who have a name for literary work may be mentioned Asa Thurston, who compiled a dictionary and grammar of the Hawaiian language, which language he also spoke fluently. He was no doubt the most remarkable man Fitchburg ever produced. He was born in 1787, on one of the hill farms on Ashby west road. As a young man he was athletic and given to sports, having no high aim in life, but meeting with a change of heart he became an earnest christian ; prepared himself bv a course in Yale College and Andover Theological Seminary, for his life work as a missionary to the Sandwich Islands, the natives of which were then in the deepest darkness and deg- radation. In 1819, he set sail for the Sandwich Islands and remained until the time of his death. He died at Honolulu, March 11, 1868, living to see more than fiftv thousand con- verts to Christianity and a corresponding progress in civiliza- tion. The value of his life work for humanitv can never be estimated. RuFUS Campbell Torrey was born in Oxford, Mass., Feb. 13, 1813 ; fitted for college at Wrentham in 1833 ; spent the next lour or five years in Fitchburg, engaged mostly in teaching and editing a newspaper ; was a teacher in the Fitchburg Academy ; wrote the well known History of Fitch- burg in 1836, which was reprinted in 1865 ; removed to Mobile, Ala., in 1838; studied law and was admitted to the bar in 1840; practised his profession at Grove Hill and Clai- borne, Ala. ; was judge of county court, 1844-48 ; prominent officer in the Masonic Fraternity ; was state senator, 1876- 1880, and retired from the practice of the law in 1879; ^^^^ at Claiborne, Ala., Sept. 13, 1882. In the preparation of Mr. Torrey's History the manuscript of a series of lectures w^ritten by his friend Nathaniel Wood, Esq., was freely used and a 116 FITC1I15URG, PAST AND PRESENT. full acknowledgement of its use made in the preface. This original manuscript is now preserved in the public library. Among the local writers whose services have been most valuable to the city may be mentioned : Henry A. Willis, author of Fitchburg in the War of the Rebellion, published in 1866. Eben Bailey, writer of the Sketch of Fitchburg, in the Worcester County History, published in 1879, ^J ^* •^• Jewett & Co. Ray Greene Huling, a book entided The Teachers and Graduates of the Fitchburg High School, 1849 ^^^ 1^83 preceded by Some Mention of Teachers in the Fitchburg Academy, 1830 to 1848. The Fitchburg Agassiz Association have prepared valuable essays from time to time on various subjects, its members having interested themselves in the study of the plants and minerals of this region. "The Flora of Fitch- buref," which has received hia-h commendation from eminent naturalists, and the unpublished essa}"s on Rollstone and Pearl Hills, being especially worthy of notice here. artistic. S. Herbert Adams, son of Samuel Minot and Nancy A. (Powers) Adams, was born at West Concord, Vt., Jan. 28, 1858; came to Fitchburg in 1863. At the early age of nine years his entreaties for a teacher to instruct him "to make pictures" were unceasing. A teacher being procured he was gratified with two terms only of instruction m draw- ing. Again, when he was eleven years old, the slumbering propensity for "making pictures" burst forth in the demand for another teacher. He was put under the tuition of Miss M. Louisa Haskell (since Mrs. Dr. Alden Sylvester), who was his teacher in drawing until it was introduced into Fitch- burg public schools in '71. Miss Haskell being the teacher of that department of education, she still held her connection with him, and by her influence and encouragement may have LITERARY AND ARTISTIC. 117 done much to siiape his life work. He entered Fitchburg High School in '74, where he remained but two years ; en- tered Worcester Technical Institute in '76, with the intention of graduating therefrom, and then attending the Massachu- setts Normal Art School in Boston. Before the expiration of the first year he became convinced he could not obtain as much of artistic knowledge there as he had expected, and deemed it wiser to relinquish the education he could there gain in other branches, and turn his whole energies to what he intended as a life work. Accordingly in 1877, he entered the Massachusetts Normal Art School. After successfully passing class A in '78, he took the supervisorship of drawing in Fitchburg public and evening schools. Here he labored for nearly four years, ever impatient that he must relin- quish his art work, and always availing himself of any little opportunity to continue it. In the spring of '82, he re-entered the Normal Art School and passed the examinations of class B — the painting department — at the end of the school 3'ear ; and in '83, graduated from the school with high honors, havincr done the work of the mechanical and modelling- classes in one year, in a most satisfactory manner. In September of the same year he went to Baltimore, Md., as first assistant in the Maryland Institute of industrial and fine arts. Here he had charge of the modelling, and instructed in other depart- ments. After two years, increase of salary, or offers of laro-er remuneration iVom other localities, could not hold him in America. But with his prominent characteristic, to over- come all obstacles, he determined to carry into execution his long cherished plan of giving his undivided attention to sculpturing. He arrived in Paris, June, '85, and almost im- mediately entered the Julian school, soon to learn he could not make the progress he desired among so many pupils. Consequently he began work under the instruction of the eminent sculptor, M. Antonin Mercie^ ; also attending even- ing schools under efficient artists. In '86 and '87, he had portrait busts accepted at the Salon. Of the last it has been said by competent critics, "it would do credit to an older artist." He is still in Paris, studvinij, and also enirao'ed in original work- in his own studio. 118 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. S. Augusta Fairbanks, birthplace Fitchburg, daughter of C. P. Deane, educated at Kimball Union Academy, Meriden, N. H., and Worcester Academy, Massachusetts; was a teacher for several years in the public schools of this city. She received private instruction in drawing and paint- ing of J. J. Enneking and F. Childe Hassam, also attended the famous Julian School in Paris in 1883 and '84 ; is at present in Fitchburg, giving private instruction in drawing and painting at her studio, 238 Main street. Eleanor A. Norcross, a daug-hter of Hon. Amasa Norcross, is a native of Fitchburg ; graduated at Wheaton Seminary ; taught drawing one year in the public schools in Fitchburg ; studied painting two winters with Alfred Stevens in Paris, exhibited a portrait in the Salon, 1886. Miss Nor- cross w^as intrusted with the selection of photographs for the Fitchburg public library, and a similiar collection for Wheaton Seminary, together with five oil paintings of copies from old masters, which were of her own execution. Martha Medora Adams, daughter of Samuel Minot and Nancy A. (Powers) Adams, is a native of Concord, Vt. ; graduated from the Fitchburg High School in 1879 ' studied with her brother Herbert for a tew months ; in the spring of 1880, entered the Normal Art School, Boston, leaving at the end of the school year in 1882, having passed classes A and B ; gave private instruction in drawing and painting for one year in Fitchburg; in September, 1883, re-entered the Normal Art School in the modelling class ; January, 1884, went to Baltimore, Md., where she was for a short time a de- signer of ornament in Chesapeake pottery ; in the following spring became a teacher of painting in the Maryland Insti- tute, where she successfully taught until the close of the school year in 1885. She then returned to Massachusetts resumed private teaching, and studied with Vonnoh ; has also been a pupil of T. O. Longerfelt and Juglaris ; since September, 1886, has taught drawing in the girls' High School, Boston. CHAPTER VII. MILITARY jHE oldest military company now in exist- ence in the city, received its charter in 1816, and was known by the name of the Fitcii- BURG Fusiliers from the time of its organ- ization. By petition of Ephraim M. Cun- ningham and forty others the company was formed from the "Old South" Company be- longing to the 4th Regiment, 2d Brigade, 7th Division, M. V. M. This militia com- pany, as far back as 1807, was under good discipline and, so far as the records go to show, was well officered. The commission of Isaiah Put- nam, (grandfather of J. E. and Lieut. Daniel C. Putnam,) as ensign, is now in existence, dated 1807, May 5 ; his resignation taking place two years later. From that time, in common with the militia generally, it gradually became de- moralized, was poorly uniformed and undisciplined, but was usually on hand at "general muster*' and was designated bv the boys as the "Slam Bangs." The charter was granted to the new company, Dec. 14, 18 16, and the organization was perfected at a meeting, Feb. 3, 1817, at which John Upton, (uncle of Colonel Edwin Upton,) was elected captain; Alpheus Kimball, (father of General John W. Kimball,) lieutenant, and Walter Johnson, ensign. These three officers were of equal height, a trifle over six feet, and otherwise well htted to command. The uniform adopted by vote of the company consisted of a blue coat trimmed with bell buttons and lace, pantaloons of the same color as the coat, made to button over the boots, and 120 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. trimmed with bell buttons from the bottoms to the hips, the caps were bound with red morocco and varnished and other- wise "ornamented as a committee chosen might think proper." The officers of the company were chosen a com- mittee for that purpose. In the first constitution and by-laws adopted by the com- pany appears the following : "Article XII. In order to en- force the principles of military subordination the senior of- ficer present at any meeting of the company shall be mod- erator, and strict obedience shall be paid to his command, in debate as well as in military manoeuvres, and the members of the company do pledge themselves to support their officers in the discharge of their duty on all occasions, and to dis- countenance all improper conduct that any member of the company may discover towards either of them or any of the members ; and as this company has associated not merely for the purpose of parade and ostentation, but to form a corps at all times prepared to resist sudden invasions and repel in- ternal commotion, it is expected that every member will hold himself ready at a moment's warning ; and whenever ordered that he will instantly repair to the rendezvous appointed by his commanding officer, with a heart resolved to support at all hazards his country and the government which protects him, and that unless commanded he will never quit his standard till freed from it by an honorable death." That there was something more than sentiment in taking this pledge is proved by the fidelity with which it has been kept. The first public appearance of the Fusiliers in their new uniforms was July 4, 181 7, on the occasion of the presenta- tion of a standard by the ladies of Fitchburg. The presen- tation speech was made by Miss Sarah Richardson, and replied to by Ensign Johnson. The account of the celebra- tion, together with the pair of white kid slippers w^orn on that occasion by Miss Richardson, has been presented to the rehc-room of the Wallace Library and Art Building by her son, Mr. R. W. Kendall of Boston. On the occasion of a muster at West Boylston, Oct. 7, MILITARY. 121 1841, the company on its return marched through Lancaster and Lunenburg, and, according to the records of the com- pany, "upon entering the latter viHage, about five o'clock in the afternoon, they met with a warm reception in the persons of some of their own townsmen, who had hastily formed themselves into a company and come down for the purpose of taking the Fusiliers, and marching them in triumph to Fitchburg. Although they fought valiantly, like men, yet like the heroes of Bunker Hill, being out of ammunition, they were compelled to surrender; hut uii/ikc them, they re- tired more covered with mud than glory. The company voted not to go home till morning and were accommodated with hot coffee, and so forth, by Captain Putnam."' Some of our present substantial citizens, who were then little boys, who had voluntaril}' escorted the company down, well re- member their return from Lunenburg, late that night, through the dense woods and drenching rain, ivithout the military escort they had so confidently anticipated. About a week previous to attending the muster, the Fusi- liers, then under command of Captain James Putnam, were presented with a new standard, purchased by the ladies of Fitchburg. The presentation speech was made by Miss Louisa Beckwith, for the ladies, and Ensign Edwin Upton responded in behalf of the company. After the reception of the banner the Fusiliers escorted the ladies to the Fitchburg Hotel, where a collation was prepared, at the expense of the company, by Landlord Mclntire. The banner bore upon one side the motto : "United by duty, to defend the right ; presented by the ladies, September, 1841." Upon the same side stands the goddess of liberty by the side of a bust of Washington, with her extended hand holding a wreath in the act of placing it upon the immortal hero, who rests upon a monument upon which is engraved the majestic eagle protecting the emblem of union. On the other side is "Fitchburg Fusiliers, Instituted, Dec. 14, 1816," with a bold representative of the aborigines of our country standing in the centre, dressed in his native costume, resting one hand upon his bow and holding in the other his chosen 122 FITCHHURG, PAST AND PRESENT. arrow, while upon one side is exalted the horn of plenty and above rests unsheathed the sword of Justice. On the statTis mounted the eagle, with his folded wings, in wakeful com- posure. After the exercises the Fusiliers in the evening, by re- quest attended a lecture, in the Second Parish meeting house, by John Hawkins, the celebrated temperance lecturer. The commanding officers of the Fusiliers previous to the close of the Rebellion were John Upton, elected Feb. 3, 1817 ; Alpheus Kimball, Sept. 20, 1819 ; Levi Pratt, May 15, 1823; Robert Sampson, Jr., March 27, 1826; Stephen T. Farwell, July 5, 1827 ; Levi Downe, April 16, 1831 ; Dr. Jonas A. Marshall, Jan. 21, 1832 ; Horace Newton, May 12, 1838 ; John Caldwell, Sept. 14, 1839 ' J^n'ies Putnam of Lunenburg, July 5, 1841 ; Edwin Upton, March 11, 1843; Alfred White, Feb. 28, 1849; ^- R- Ordway, April 13, 1850; Joseph Wood, April 19, 185 1 ; John W. Kimball, Feb. 24, 1855 ; James A. Cunningham, Feb. 3, 1858. Captain Cunningham when in the Fusiliers lived in Lunen- burg. After the close of the war, Dec. 17, 1866, he was com- missioned major general ; was adjutant general of Massa- chusetts from Dec. 17, 1866, to close of 1878, and is at present governor of the Soldiers' Home at Chelsea. John W. Kimball, elected Jan. 7, i860; Clark S. Simonds, appointed Aug. i, 1861, killed in the battle of An- tietam, Sept. 17, 1862; John Markland, appointed Sept. 18, 1862, killed at Gettysburg, July 4, 1863 ; Charles H. Eager, appointed Oct. 15, 1862 ; James May, appointed May 22, 1863 ; Eugene T. Miles, elected May 10, 1862 ; George G. Nutting, elected March, 1863, killed at Fort Bisland, La., April 13, 1863; George H. Bailey, elected May 21, 1863, wounded May 25, 1863, during the siege of Port Hudson, died May 27 ; Jerome K. Taft, elected June 10, 1863, wounded in the assault on Port Hudson, June 14, died July 3, 1863. As will be seen the Fusiliers lost live commanding offi- cers during the war, and it is rather a remarkable fact that the last three named, Nutting, Baile}- and Taft, were each in MILITARY. 123 turn killed before their commissions as captain reached them. The history of the Fusiliers, from 1861 to 1865, is given in the "sketch of Fitchburg in the War of the Rebellion." It may not have been generall}^ known that the Fusiliers and the Leominster Co. A. were designated to be attached to the 6th Regiment for the purpose of going to Washington, but the Stoneham Light Infantry and one other company were for some reason assigned their places in the regiment. After the war the Fusiliers were reorganized, with John W. Kimball as captain, and called the 50th Unattached Com- pany of Infantry. They were afterwards attached to the ist Battalion Infantry, ist Brigade, and designated Co. B, the same as before and during the war. The commanding of- ficers of the company, since the war, have been John W. Kimball, elected April 12, 1865 ; G. E. Goodrich, II. G. Greene, G. E. Goodrich, George Burford and T. W. Shel- don. The ist lieutenants, E. T. Miles, G. L. Lawrence, R. O. Houghton, H. E. Caswell, A. R. Fitts, H. A. Willard, G. A. Bailey, W. F. Page; 2d lieutenants, Merrill Carleton, H. S. Hitchcock, H. C. Cheeney, Orlando Wetherbee, J. L. Peavey, F. E. Bruce, B. G. Bagley, F. A. Greer. The present ofiicers being Tristram W. Sheldon, cap- tain ; Walter F. Page, ist lieutenant, and Frank A. Greer, 2d lieutenant. THE WASHINGTON GUARDS were organized in July, 1855, on petition of Charles H. Foss and fitty-nine others. The first meeting for the choice of officers was held at the American House Hall, Thursday evening, July 19. The following officers w^ere elected : Captain, John B. Proctor; ist lieutenant, Hiram P. Minot ; 2d lieutenant, Charles FI. Foss; 3d lieutenant, Oscar A. Battles; 4th lieutenant, Varius Stearns. July 25, the by- laws drafted by a previously appointed committee were adopted, and July 26, the name of Washington Guards was adopted. A committee on uniforms, consisting of T. B. Choate, John B. Proctor, Charles H. Foss, H. P. Minot, I. 124 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. C. Wright and O. A. Battles, was chosen and after several weeks' consideration a uniform was adopted by the company. The cap was of cloth, smaller at the top than at the base, and surmounted by a blue pompon ; pants and coat dark blue, with epaulettes : patent leather body belts and webbing cross belts. The first muster attended by the "Guards" was held Sept. 12, 13, and 14, in West Brookfield. In February, 1859, ^^^ company purchased seventy bear skin caps and in x^ugust following a supply of fatigue caps. After the opening of the war, in November, 1862, they removed their armory to the American House Hall, where the last recorded meeting was held, April i, 1864. There seems to have been so few mem- bers remaining at home that the meetings were given up and the compan}^ lost its organization. The bear skin caps, which had originally cost the company nearly four hundred dollars, were left, practically, without owners, in the garret of the American House Hall, and were after a time ajiprofri- atcd and made up into sleigh robes by outside parties. Soon after the close of the war, August 23, 1866, a company was formed largely through the efforts of Richard Tucker, whose name appears frequently on the records of meetings in 1862 and 1864. This company was composed entirely of members of Taylor Union and was called the "Union V'eterans ;" Hiram P. Minot was captain. Sept. 11, 1868, by a vote of the members, the name of the company was changed from "Union Veterans" to "Washington Guards," the present organization, and designated Co. D, loth Regi- ment, M. V. M. The commanding officers of the "Guards" have been as follows : At the organization of the compan}-, Captain John B. Proctor, who was succeeded by Captain Jonas Corey, Dec. 13, 1856. May 5, i860, Colonel Edwin Upton, who had previously commanded the old 9th Regiment Mass. Vol- unteer Militia for several years, was elected to succeed Captain Corey and was captain of the "Guards" at the break- ing out of the war, when he was commissioned the first colonel of the 25th Regiment, Massachusetts Volunteer In- fantry. MILITARY. 125 The "Guards" formed the nucleus of six companies for the war and their captains were as follows : Theodore S. Foster, Co. D, 21st Regiment, Massachusetts Volunteer In- fantry ; Charles H. Foss, Co. F, 25th ; Thaddeus L. Barker, Co. A, 36th ; Jonas Corey, Co. B, 53d (9 months regi- ment) ; Levi Lawrence, Co. F, 57th; Eben T. Hayward, Co. H., 4th Massachusetts Heavy Artillery. As before mentioned Hiram P. Minot was captain of the "Guards" when the name was restored and the permanent organization effected in 1868. Sept. 7, 1869, George A. Whitcomb was elected captain; Aug. 14, 1873, William Ewen ; March 22, 1875, Frank W. Bigelow ; May, 1876, Henry McGrath ; April 16, 1877, John H. Kirby ; 1882, T. H. Shea; 1885, F. S. Lynch; 1886 to present time, John H. Kirby. The present officers of the company are : captain, J. H. Kirby; ist lieutenant, James F. Shea; 2d lieutenant, John Kingr. Captain John B. Proctor, the first commissioned captain of the Washington Guards is a native of Charlestown, Mass., where he was born in 1824. His parents moved to Lunenburg in 1826, where he lived until 1844, when he was appointed purchasing agent of the Vermont and Massachu- setts railroad, with his office in Gardner. In 185 1, he en- gaged in the wholesale flour and grain business in Fitchburg. In 1858, he was elected superintendent of the Middlesex railroad in Boston; in 1873, was • appointed by Governor Washburn a justice of the peace for all the counties in the state. In 1864 he was appointed by the president a commis- sioner to examine the Union Pacific railroad, which required making several trips across the plains to California. He engaged in the real estate business, as broker and auctioneer, in Fitchburg in 1868, and remained in that busi- ness until he removed to his present home in Jaftrey, N. H., in 1881. He was at one time president of the Worcester North Agricultural Society. He is now proprietor of the Proctor House, situated on the pleasant southern slope of Monadnock Mountain. 12() FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. Colonel Edwin Upton, commissioned the first colonel of the Massachusetts 25th Volunteers, was born in 181 5, in Fitchburg, Mass. By trade he was a mason, but for a number of years before the breaking out of the war was largely engaged in the lumber trade, in which he accumu- lated some property. Under the administration of President Lincoln he received an appointment in the Boston Custom House, which he held and surrendered at the time of receiv- ing the commission as colonel. For twenty-five years he had been actively connected with the Massachusetts Militia, receiving regular promotion from a private to the rank of colonel of the Old Ninth Regiment. He had held that com- mission with great credit to himself for a number of years, bringing the regiment to a high degree of military perfection, until it ranked as one of the best militia organizations in the state. At the breaking out of the war, he was captain of the "Washington Guards." Before leaving for Worcester, to assume his command. Colonel Upton received a valuable testimonial from his townsmen, in the shape of a fine horse and set of equipments, and was subsequently presented by his brother officers at the Custom House, with a complete set of regimentals as an ex- pression of their regard. On account of his health Colonel Upton was obliged to tender his resignation on the 28th of October, 1862, much to the regret of his command, and all who had the welfare of the regiment at heart. On his retir- ing he was presented by the enlisted men of the regiment with a beautiful sword, belt and sash, costing one thousand dollars. After the recovery of his health he was again appointed to the Boston Custom House, as storekeeper of the ap- praisers' store. He resigned that position that he might accept appointment as keeper of the jail at Fitchburg. In the discharge of his duty, while superintending the blasting of rocks upon the jail grounds, a premature explosion occa- sioned such injury that he has since been totally deprived of siirht. Col. H. G. Greene. Surgeon, Chas. H Rice. Maj. Thos H. Shea. Capt. T. W. Sheldon. 1st Lieut. W. F. Page. 2nd Lieut. F A. Greer. Col". Edwin Upton. Capt. John B. Proctor. Capt. J. H. Kirby. MILITARY. 127 SIXTH REGIIMENT INFANTRY, IM. V. INI. The "Old Sixth" Regiment needs no other eulogy than its history. From the time when it received its baptism of blood in the streets of Baltimore, to the end of its second campaign, the same spirit of patriotism pervaded its ranks, and ever and alwa3^s it could be depended upon for prompt and efficient service. The headquarters of the regiment are in Fitchburg and our city is well represented in the list of its officers. The companies arranged in battalions are as follows : F, Marl- boro ; I, Concord; L, Boston; M, Milford ; E, Ashburn- ham ; B, Fitchburg; D, Fitchburg; K, Clinton; G, Lowell; C, Lowell; H, Stoneham ; A, Wakefield. The officers of the regiment are Colonel Henry G. Greene, Fitchburg ; Lieutenant-Colonel Henry Parsons, Marlboro ; Majors — Charles F. Woodward, Wakefield ; Thomas H. Shea, Fitchburg; George H. Chaffin, Grafton; Adjutant (rank ist Lieut.) George Burford, Fitchburg; Quartermaster (rank ist Lieut.) Ambrose M. Page, Marl- boro; Surgeon (rank major) Charles H. Rice, Fitchburg; Assistant Surgeon (rank ist Lieut.) William M. Hoar, Lowell; Paymaster (rank ist Lieut.) Lewis G. Holt, Law- rence; Chaplain George R. W. Scott, Fitchburg ; Inspector, Rifle Practice, F. H. Parker, Ashburnham. Colonel Henry G. Greene, present commanding of- ficer of the 6th Regiment, has for several years been connected with the state militia, having been present at nine- teen successive annual camps of the state militia. In July, 1862, he enlisted from Southbridge as a private in the 34th Massachusetts Regiment and received his discharge in February, 1864. For a year following his discharge from service he had charge of the dispensary of the Readville Hospital in this state, and in 1865, went into a drug store in Fitchburg, where in 1868, he succeeded to the business. In 1867, he enlisted as a private in the Fitchburg Fusiliers and was afterwards promoted to corporal, sergeant and first 128 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. sergeant. He was commissioned second lieutenant in 1871, first lieutenant in 1873, captain in 1875, ^"^ was elected major, Dec. 10, 1878. That year the militia was re- organized and the loth regiment was swept out of existence and Major Greene was transferred to the 6th Regiment as major, and upon the election of Colonel Smith M. Decker he was chosen lieutenant colonel. May 16, 1884 he was elected colonel. In 1878, Colonel Greene received the appointment of deputy sheriff' from General A. B. R. Sprague, which office he still retains. IN THE REBELLION. Fitchburg has a war record of which every citizen may justly be proud. A community which sent nine companies into the field during the war, which promptly filled its quotas under all calls, and then had seventy-five men to its credit, above all demands upon it, has a record well worth preserving and it is gratifying to every patriotic citizen to know that such a work was undertaken and most faithfully written while the scenes and events of the war were yet fresh in the minds of all. We refer to the book entitled "Fitchburg in the War of the Rebellion," by Henry A. Willis, adjutant of the 53d Regiment, from which volume we select, by permission, some interesting facts and incidents for this chapter. The opening scenes of the Rebellion are well remem- bered by those of us who were living at that time. The secession of the southern states, the attack upon Fort Sumpter, its gallant defence by Major Anderson and the call of President Lincoln for seventy-five thousand volunteers opened all eyes to the fact that war, so long feared, so much to be deplored, so uncertain in its duration and consequences, was at last upon us. Who will ever forget the excitement of that memorable day ; the prompt response of Governor An- drew to the president's call and his order ^or several regi- ments to proceed at once to Washington. We had at that REV. G. R. W. SCOTT, D. D., Chaplain 6th Reg., M. V. M. MILITARY. 129 time two companies of militia in town : the "Fitchburg Fusi- liers," Captain John W. Kimball, and the "Washington Guards," Captain Edwin Upton, both of the old ninth regi- ment, which had but three other companies. The com- manders of these companies reported their commands ready to go forward at once, if called upon. All was excitement; little business was done ; people gathered on the street cor- ners with saddened hearts, but with determined looks, discussing what might next occur. Tuesday, Wednesday and Thursday passed and Friday, the ever memorable nine- teenth of April, came. Late in the afternoon the wires flashed the news of the attack in Baltimore, as follows : "The sixth Massachusetts regiment is now fighting its way through Baltimore, four men have been killed, many wounded, and the fighting is still going on." What a shock it gave us ! What patriotic heart does not remember its impulses as the terrible truth burst upon him that our own Massachusetts soldiers had indeed become the first victims of this wicked outbreak. Next morning's papers gave full particulars, and a meeting was held, that same afternoon, to see what this town would do towards sustaining our government in its hour of trial. Alvah Crocker, Esq., presided, and opened the meeting with a few eloquent and patriotic remarks and was followed by several other gentlemen, after which resolutions were presented to meet the emergency and unanimously adopted. The excitement had become intense and almost painful. All felt that there was now one duty above all others de- volving upon every loyal man ; to give personally a full and hearty support to the government by all means within our power. The next day was Sunday, the first Sunday in war time. The services in the churches were of a patriotic nature, but the day was not altogether a quiet one. Notes of preparation were heard, and many of our ladies were busy in preparing clothing for the brave men who stood ready to go at a moment's warning. On Saturday, the twenty-seventh of April, the town voted unanimously to appropriate ten thou- sand dollars for the benefit of the soldiers. The "Fusiliers" 9 130 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. and "Guards" had recruited their companies and they had a grand parade and drill. The Leominster company marched up and joined in the exercises. The preparations went forward. The ladies took hold of the sad but patriotic work and held meetings at the armories of the soldiers to pre- pare bandages, clothing, etc. The physicians of the town met and voted to tender gratuitous professional services to the families of the soldiers of the town while engaged in the war. Only two of their number are now engaged in the pursuit of their profession, to-day, Drs. Jewett and Colony. Thursday, May i6, was a great day in Fitchburg. The High School and Day street schools had procured flags which were thrown to the breeze amid booming of cannon, music and the shouts of the people. The same evening wit- nessed an interesting scene in the town hall, which was densely crowded. Hon. J. W. Mansur, who was one of our leading manufacturers at that time, presided. He opened the meeting with a few well chosen remarks, defining our duties as citizens in the crisis. At the close of his remarks one of the school girls stepped forward with one of the flags, and ad- dressing Captain Kimball of the "Fusiliers," presented it to his compan}', expressing the hope that if called upon to bear it to the field, they would stand by it to the last. Captain Kim- ball responded eloquently on accepting it for his command. He caused his men to swear that it should nevcj' trail in the dust, while a single arm was left to uphold it. He spoke of the scenes through which the banner had passed in the Revo- lution, and of the defeats and victories of that and subsequent wars. "Emblem of liberty ; if struck down now, the hope of men for free government would be forever extinguished." Another school girl then, in a clear voice and appropriate language, presented the other flag to Captain Edwin Upton, who received it tor his command with a lew appropriate remarks. On the eleventh o^' May the "Fusiliers"' voted to volunteer tor the war. The "Guards" also began filling up for the same purpose. At last the "Fusiliers" were ordered into camp at Worcester. They left on the twenty-eighth of June MILITARY. 131 and their departure was the occasion of quite a demonstra- tion. They were escorted by a company of "Old Fusiliers," men from forty to sixty years of age, who had served in its ranks in bye-gone days. At half-past ten the procession marched into the town hall where their friends had met to bid the "boys" good-bye. Speeches were made by Hon. Alvah Crocker and others, and each member of the company w^as presented with a copy of the New Testament by the clergymen of the city. The soldiers were then vaccinated gratuitously by Drs. Jewett and Hitchcock. Prayer was of- fered by one of the clergymen, after which the company was escorted to the Fitchburg Hotel to partake of a dinner which was provided for them by the citizens, subsequent to which the procession was again formed and marched to the Wor- cester railroad depot, followed by an immense crowd of citizens. Here many affecting scenes took place, the tender parting of the soldiers with their friends, (alas ! to many the last on earth) the final starting of the train amid the huzzas of the multitude, made the scene one long to be remembered. As the train moved slowly away, the band played sadly and slowly the old lamiliar air "Auld Lang Syne." And so left us our first company of Fitchburg men for the w^ar. Did it occur to any of us that this noble company of young men, the pride of our hearts and homes, were leaving us for three long years of hardship and suffering, and, that ere their return, should see thirty-three of their number killed or dead from disease contracted in the service, while two-thirds of the remainder should have been wounded, many maimed for life? Such was the tale, and such is cruel, heartless w^ar. The first company actually raised and accepted from this town, under the call of the president, for three years troops, was recruited by Captain James Savage, Jr., of Boston, who was well known by many of our citizens. His company was attached to the second regiment. His. record is a short but noble one. He was promoted to major, in June, 1862, wounded at Cedar Mountain, Aug. 6, and died in a Rich- mond prison the nineteenth of September following. His 182 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. company was always known as the Fitchburg company, although the most of the men came from adjoining towns. We have not the space in this book to give even a brief history of the different organizations which followed this one to the seat of war. Fitchburg was largely represented in the 2d, 15th, 2ist, 25th, 26th, 53d, 57th, 36th, 4th heavy ar- tillery and on board sixteen ships of the navy, and there were but few of the great battles in which Fitchburg men did not participate, and the record of the organizations to which they were attached are among the most brilliant of any of the war. After the great battles of the war in which our boys were engaged, the town sent committees of prominent citizens to the tront to look after the dead and wounded as well as the sick, taking with them articles of wearing apparel and com- forts in every form. The ladies of the town formed a "Sol- diers' Aid Society" and carried out a systematic plan for assisting in the patriotic work. With the enlisting of the first Fitchburg men, the labors of the Fitchburg women began. They prepared and sent to the soldiers in camp, such things as would best contribute to their comfort, and by frequent visits made them feel they were not forgotten while away from home sharing the dangers and hardships of a bloody w^ar. For greater method and efficiency they organized on the sixteenth of May, 1861, ''The Ladies' Soldiers Aid Society." The second article of their constitution read as follows : "The object of the Societv shall be to furnish to the soldiers en- gaged in the present war of our country such aid as may be in our power," and trom that day till the w^ar closed and the troops were mustered out, most nobl}- did they carry out the provisions of that article, as many a sick and wounded sol- dier bov has, and will gratefully testify. Of the residents of Fitchburg who went to war, one was brevet brigadier general, two were colonels, two lieutenant colonels, two majors, two surgeons, four brevet majors, seventeen captains, twenty first lieutenants, seven second lieutenants, three navy officers and sixteen seamen in the navy, 693 non-commissioned officers, musicians and privates. MILITARY. 133 Of this number sixty were killed in battle, sixty-eight died from wounds or disease or Irom starvation in rebel prisons, while eighty-four received wounds from which they recov- ered, twenty-five were taken prisoners. The unwritten history of these brave men, the dangers they encountered, the hardships and privations they patiently endured, the hair- breadth escapes and instances of individual heroism, would fill many large volumes. They never faltered in their love for the old flag, nor in their determination that it should be maintained unsullied, and their memories will ever be held dear and cherished in the hearts of their grateful country- men. ON THE FIELD OF BATTLE. We are glad to record in this connection a few of the many instances of heroism on the field of battle and in rebel prisons : THE 25TH MASS. VOLS. AT COLD HARBOR. Of the fighting qualities of the 25th as shown in this battle, we shall quote from a narrative of the battle published in one of the Philadelphia papers, Jan. 31, 1885, ^^y Gen. P. D. Bowles of the Confederate army, who commanded im- mediately in our front and who was an eye-witness to the gallant charge made by the 25th in that engagement, he says : "We were not long waiting. Soon the woods in our front resounded with the cold mechanical huzza's as if from a myriad of voices, and a general advance was made along the whole line. They came out of the woods directly in my front and their lines extended as far to the right and left as the eye could reach ; first one, then two, three, four, five, on they came until the eleventh line was in full view. I ordered my men to hold their fire until they came within seventy yards of our works. This command was so well executed that the first, second and third lines of the enemy looked like one. The Federals were advancing all this time without any 134 P'lTCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. caps on their guns, and not a shot had come from the Union lines save those from the six-gun battery in my front, which was bursting shells high over our heads and in our rear. Our artillery was not idle, but firing double-shotted canister from the two rifled guns, and at the distance of one hundred yards was cutting wide swaths through their lines at every fire, literally mowing them down by the dozen, while heads, arms, legs and muskets were seen flying high in the air at ever}' discharge. "We were not long in discovering that there was no child's play awaiting us. We were opposing a determined and gal- lant foe. The wide lanes made in their columns were quickly closed, while on, on they came, swaying first to the right, then to left, -1 like great waves of the sea, -^ until one upheaval from the ^rear would follow another, %4 hurrying them nearer and nearer each moment to the murderous fire from our works. There was a ra- vine with a marsh in Gen- eral Anderson's front and just at the edge of the woods. Here the enemy would surge to the right to obtain shelter from my men, only to be raked by the artillery and the leaden hail from Anderson's Brigade. At this point the dead were piled upon each other five or six deep, and the blood ran down the branch or gully until it flowed past our line. At times the smoke was so dense that nothing could be seen, but as the wind carried it away the solid blue mass could be observed reforming in the old orchard in our front. "About this time the excitement ran so high with my men that the surgeon of the regiment quit his litter corps and was in the line firing before I discovered him. Some of the MILITARY. 135 officers, with hats in hands, went up and down the Hne, feel- ing so much ehited that they would strike the men over the heads and faces and shout with all the joy ever expressed at a camp-meeting by a new convert. "Here for one hour and a half a solid mass of humanity had charged and charged again like a flock of sheep against a stone wall. Such invincible resolution I never saw before or since. They would advance to the charge again and again, only to be shot down without any shadow of resist- ance, until the ground was blue with the dead and wounded. Finally the Federal columns passed back out of sight in the deep smoke. I then had a good supply of ammunition brought into the line and everything made ready for the third attack. After waiting some twenty or thirty minutes we again heard the old huzza, but in such a feeble manner and from so few that it caused surprise. Then it was that the videttes called out: 'They are coming again.' "On looking over the works I discovered what I supposed to be one regiment with a single flag and an officer in front with sword raised hi<jh in the air, callincj on his men to charge. I ordered my command to place tlieir guns on the works and wait for orders. When the advancing line reached within seventy yards I ordered my line to fire, when the whole of the Federal regiment lell to the ground save one man, who ran back to the edge of the woods and at- tempted to hide behind a white oak tree, but was completely riddled by fifty balls in less time than it takes to write it. "The regiment that made this gallant charge was the 25th Massachusetts, which was the only regiment that obeyed or- ders to advance. This we learned from the twenty odd offi- cers and men who fell down among the dead and wounded at the first fire. The balance of the brigade had refused to go forward, and not since the charge of the three hundred at Balaklava has a more heroic act been performed. "Up to this time not a man in my command had been scratched, and no one in our brigade except our brigadier general, E. M. Law, who was struck by a fragment of a shell early in the engagement. It was the most sanguinary 136 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. charge of our civil war, and no more heroic act was per- formed by either side during that unhappy struggle than that on the part of the Federals which I have just described." While the battle was in progress the following inci- dent occurred : Corporal Orlando P. Boss, with Privates Aldrich and Battles of his own compan\', was in a rifle pit half way between his brigade and the enemy. The Union troops were behind a breastwork from which the enemy had been driven, and the enemy from one hundred yards away kept up a tremendous tire. A number had been shot en- deavoring to return over the breastwork to get back into the lines. The call of a wounded man attracted the attention of the party in the rifle pit, and they discovered Lieutenant W. F. Daley of Co. E of their own regiment, badly wounded. He was lying on the ground some fifteen paces in front of the breastwork and directly in line of fire. Mr. Boss crawled back and threw his canteen to the wounded man, who was crying for water and then taking Aldrich, who was wounded, on his shoulders, crept back through the enemy's fire and over the breastwork. He was determined to rescue the unfortunate lieutenant, if possible, and with Privates W. D. Blanchard — now living in Leominster — A. F. Bartlett and W. O. Wilder — now Councilman Wilder of Worcester — prepared to make the at- tempt. While the others began to undermine the breast- works from within, Boss and Blanchard crept back over the works and up to where Daley lay. The enemy observed their motions and directed their fire upon the daring men, but by lying low and digging a small trench they escaped injury. They got Daley upon a blanket and dragged him back to the breastwork. There they also began to dig, and finally met their friends from within, and bore their wounded oflicer through the hole to the lines. He was mortally wounded, however, and subsequently died in the hospital. In the battle of Cold Harbor Fitchburg lost another of her brave bo3's. Lieutenant James Graham, a kind and genial comrade, a brave and tearless oflicer, beloved by his MILITARY. 137 associates and worthy the promotion he had so recently re- ceived, and, like young Upton, he had the confidence and esteem of his superior officers. In connection with the death of Graham the order was given "Forward, double quick, charge." Captain Foss fell with a shot through his right thigh, saying to Lieutenant Graham : "Go on, Jim, I have got one of them." Graham replied, "I will tell Captain Tucker he is in command of the division," (Foss being in command of the second division at that time.) Graham leaped over a low breastwork, and in so doing he was shot dead. Captain Foss being severely wounded remained on the iield under a severe fire for about two hours, but was finally carried from the field by four of his company, who volunteered to risk their lives to save their captain. INCIDENT OF THE ENGAGEMENT AT ARROWFIELD CHURCH. On the ninth of May, 1864, occurred the engagement at a place called Arrowfield Church. It was in this engagement that a singular coincidence occurred, in connection with three Massachusetts regiments. The regiments engaged in this battle were the 25th, 23d and 27th Massachusetts, and on the opposite side were the 25th, 23d and 27th South Carolina — Massachusetts versus South Carolina — "Mudsills"' versus "Chivalry." The rebels came rushing forward, lour lines deep, with their own peculiar yell. They presented a bold front and charged with an impetuosity worthy of a better cause until within fifteen or twenty yards of our line, when their column began to waver, a few arrived within ten yards of our line, but few of that number ever got back to tell the tale. At a distance of less than fifty yards our two regi- ments, the 25th and 27th forming the front line, opened a deadly fire on them at "right and lefi: oblique" and literally piled up the dead and wounded. A counter charge was made and the audacious foe were put to rout. During this engagement the 25th lost a brave and patriotic voung officer from this place. Lieutenant Charles E. Upton, son of Thomas Upton and a nephew of Colonel Upton. 138 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. INCIDENT OF THE BATTLE OF BALL's BLUFF. It will be remembered that at the terrible defeat at Ball's Blutl", our men were driven into the Potomac, and obliged to escape by swimming the river. Colonel Devens of the 15th and Lieutenant Eager of our Co. B, could neither of them swim and were taken across the river by four of the mem- bers of Co. B, Walter A. Eames, George L. Boss, Fred II. Sibley, Alvan A. Simonds. This gallant action on their part was duly acknowledged by Lieutenant Eager in the fol- lowing extract from a letter of his which was published at the time : "You asked me for an account of my escape from the "sacred soil of Virginia" on the night of the 21st of October. I must say I feel decidedly delicate in furnishing any items relating to myself, but it will give me pleasure to put on record the acts of those four brave fellows (God bless them I) who took me safely across, at the risk of their own lives, and but for whom, I might now have been confined in some Southern prison. After the order had been given to retreat, we rallied in a kind of bridle path, under the Bluff, and near the river, when Colonel Devens ordered us to throw our arms into the river and take care of ourselves as best we could. There were a good many of the company who said they could not swim, or did not dare undertake it. I told them I could not swim but we would keep together as much as possible, make our way up the river, and perhaps find a boat in which we could cross. George L. Boss, upon hear- ing me say I could not swim, said two or three of them could take me across, and soon appeared with Corporal Fred H. Sibley and Alvan A. Simonds, who insisted upon my going with them. I told them I might be the means of drowning them all, and they had better go without me, but they still insisted, and seemed so confident of success, I told them if I could find anything that would float I would make the at- tempt. Upon going to the river edge, we found a limb some six inches through at the butt and perhaps ten feet long, and in pulling that out, pulled up a common Jloo?' jo/s/ about the MILITARY. 139 same length. Upon seeing that I told them I could "make the trip" with it on my own hook, and not endanger their lives, but they would not hear a word to that, and said that I must go with them. At this point Walter A. Eames offered his services in assisting us across, and which proved to be very valuable. I certainly think without his help we should have had hard work to have reached the opposite shore. Just as we were about to embark, Colonel Devens came to the water's edge, stripped of his equipments and clothing, when Eames asked him if he could swim. He replied that he could not. Eames said to him, "Hop on to our craft and we will take you across, too." After satisfying himself they were all swimmers but me he zvaded in. In spite of all our efforts, we drifted quite a distance down stream, the current being strong, and finally landed on a small island, separated from Harrison's Island by a stream some twenty-five yards wide, which proved to be fordable, only about waist deep. When we arrived at the old barn., we learned that no soldiers would be allowed to cross as they were very busy getting the wounded from the island to the Maryland shore. We found our overcoats and blankets, which we had left there in the morning, wrapped ourselves up and laid down by some wheat stacks till there was an opportunity for us to come over. We reached Poolesville about twelve o'clock at night, some barefooted, others bareheaded, and some with nothing but shirt and overcoat." CAPTURE OF NEW ORLEANS BY FARRAGUT's FLEET. Perhaps no event of the war carried greater consternation to the hearts of the rebel leaders at Richmond, and the people of the South, than the capture of New Orleans by Farragut. All their fears were centered in Admiral Foote's operations above Island No. lo, where they made a most de- termined stand ; and there was good reason for this belief. The obstructions in the river between Forts Jackson and St. Philip were of the most formidable character, consisting of hulks of sailino- vessels anchored in a row across the river 140 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. with heavy scows between the vessels, and bound together by heavy chains and with long spars alongside and pointing down stream to make it more difficult for gun-boats to approach them. It soon became apparent to Admiral Farragut that nothing could be accomplished until these ob- structions were removed. A council of war was held on board the flagship "Hartford," and Lieutenant Commander C. H. B. Caldwell, the brave and intrepid captain of the gun- boat "Itasca," volunteered his ship for the dangerous service, and his ofler was accepted. The story is most graphically told by our genial letter carrier George M. Bowker, who be- longed to the Itasca, and was therelbre not only an eye witness to the gallant exploit, but took an active part in it. He says : "Accordingly we ran alongside the Hartford and had our masts taken out and our smoke stack covered with mud from the river. The ship was painted the color of the muddy water of the river and every precaution was taken to prevent splinters from flying, as these always cause more wounds on board a ship than shot and shell. The bags in which the men's clothes were kept, with the hammocks, were secured to the side with rope netting, and everything movable on deck was put down in the hold or secured, the air ports were darkened though no lights were burning except those which lit up the magazine and shell rooms, and those were in places made for the purpose, below the deck and the water line. "Everything being in readiness we got under way at nine p. m. of April 20, and started up the river. The order was given that not a word should be spoken above a whisper and every man was to keep a good lookout and report any- thing unusual that might be seen. We were followed by the gunboat Tinola' with fleet Captain Bell on board, and they were to render any assistance we might need. The orders from the admiral were to 'cut the chain at all hazards' and it was thought if it could be accomplished even with the de- struction of the ship and the whole ship's company, we should be justified in making the attempt, and Captain Caldwell MILITARY. 141 promised it should be done if he lived long enough to do it. We steamed along up the river till we got to the hulks and were trying to find a place where we could push the bows of the ship between one of the scows and a hull, and had just begun to congratulate ourselves that we were not observed, when a musket shot was fired by a rebel picket which proved to be the signal for a terrific fire which was opened upon us by the guns of Fort Jackson. These were immediately re- plied to by the mortars which were discharged as rapidly as possible, and which served to materially check the fire from the fort, but I counted fifty-four shots which passed over us just above the hammock nettings. The scene was a re- markable one, the night was very dark and after the mortar shells had passed a certain distance from the piece, we could readily see the course the}- were taking by the burning fuse until they reached their height and began to descend and I counted seven of them in the air at one time. The first time we attempted to make fast to the hull we failed, the current in the river being so strong we drifted back and the grapnell we threw aboard the hull having caught the light rail which ran round her quarter, it pulled away ; but the next time we put on all steam and our vessel forced her way up between the scow and hull and we made her fast there. The captain, first lieutenant and half dozen men then climbed over the side of the hull and went forward to see how the ciiain was se- cured. An order soon came from the captain to the powder division, of which I had charge, for a half dozen barrels of powder which were quickly placed on board the hulk with a quantity of fuse. But before it could be placed in position for use, the men, who were trying to cast ofi'the chain from the capstan to which it was fast, succeeded, and the chain re- leased from its terrible strain, fell with a crash and snapped asunder like a piece of twine, and each section of the ob- struction swung down the river like an immense gate. The hull, to which we were fast, swinging against us we were soon fast in the mud. We were trying our best to get ofi' when the 'Pinola' came up and Captain Caldwell explained the situation to him as best he could amid the din and roar of 142 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. those heavy guns in that narrow space, and the shriek of the great projectiles as they went flying over us. He told us to stay by her, do our best to get her afloat, and if we did not suc- ceed by the time the moon came up, to blow her up and get down to the fleet every man for himself. But Captain Cald- well sent the first lieutenant, with the first cutter's crew, down to Farragut, who, after learning the situation, promptly sent the 'Pinola' back to tow us off'. After two or three inef- fectual attempts we succeeded in floating oft' into deep water and got down to the fleet just as the moon came up, at half past one. It had become known among the ships of the squadron what our errand had been, and that we had been successful, and as our red light passed each vessel as we proceeded to our anchorage abreast the 'Hartford' we were greeted with deafening cheers. We had not been long at anchor before an immense fire-raft was set afloat and came down to us, sending its lurid flames, from its load of pitch pine knots, high in the air and lighting up the river for miles up and down. She drifted lengthwise between the 'Hart- ford' and 'Itasca' and we could see the men of the 'Hartford' working away at hand force pumps, trying to keep the sides and rigging of the ship wet, and in case of fire to quickly ex- tinguish it. The onl}' damage this fire-raft did was to raise great blisters on the sides of both ships. She drifted to the opposite side of the river and burned up. All hands were called to 'splice the main brace,' the anchor watch was set, the rest of the men were 'piped down' and comparative quiet again rested over the river, a shot from the mortars being discharged every half hour through the night. And so the weary six days and seven nights wore on. A doubt being expressed by some of the commanders that the river was clear from obstruction, Captain Caldwell took the admiral's barge and a boat's crew from the 'Itasca' and on the eve of the twenty-third went up the river where the obstructions had been, and with a 'deep sea lead' sounded all the way across. He went so close to the shore the voices of the rebel pickets could be plainly heard. Satisfied that our work had been completed, he returned to the fleet and made his report to MILITARY. 143 Farragut, who immediately ordered the ships to prepare for action, in accordance with plans he had arranged. "The main features of this great battle are matters of his- tory, but an article appeared in the Century magazine which reflects so severely on his own comrades-in-arms that those who are living to read it, will do so with a smile of scorn and with feelings of indignation at its manifest injustice. But Farragut's soldiers who read it will regard it as an outburst of Southern braggadocio. It was written by Beverly Ken- non, commander of the rebel gunboat 'Gov. Moore,' and in it he says, in substance, that his ship, which he calls an old tinder box, defied the whole squadron and did nearly all the damage to the 'Varuna" which caused her to sink. When the truth was, that while he was keeping quiet in the dense smoke of the battle, the gallant Boggs in the 'V^aruna' was fighting the half-dozen rebel gunboats on the west bank of the river, among which he found himself after passing the forts, and four of which he blew up and sunk before his ship went down. Again he says he kept such a good look out that no movement of the Yankee sailors could by any means escape his notice, when the fact was, the 'Itasca' was near the obstructions some time before being observed, and the 'Varuna' was past Fort Jackson before a gun w-as fired, and the second division was well up to the forts. Unfortunately for us the 'Itasca,' which was in the third division, was de- layed by getting afoul a raft, and before we got past the fort our boiler was exploded by a forty-tvvo-pound solid shot, which prevented us seeing the most of the battle with the rebel gunboats above the forts. We could only drift back and run ashore near the mortar boats, from which place we saw the 'turtle ram' swing round the bend of the river with the smoke issuing from her port holes, a victim to the terrific broadsides of the old 'Mississippi' frigate, and finally with a fearful lunge sink beneath the muddy waters of the river never more to rise. And more, Beverly Kennon will never succeed in making the sailors of Farragut's squadron believe he is guiltless of the charge of inhumanity which was pre- ferred against him at that time and which caused the gov- 144 FITCIIBURC., PAST AND PRESENT. enimcnt lo keep him contined in one of our forts ior a long time, showing that the government also believed them. But the men on both sides will wonder that the man, even after the lapse of half a century, could have the audacity to pub- lish such an article as that was, for both sides know that a more gallant foe was never met in deadly strife. They fought with a desperation worthy a better cause. They were sim- ply crushed by a superior force, and not many days later saw ship load after ship load of blue coated soldiers landed on the levee at New Orleans and go marching down the street with the band of the gallant old 26th Massachusetts Regiment at the head playing that old tune so familiar thirty or thirty-five 3'ears ago, Ticayune Butler has come to town.' " IN REBEL PRISONS. During the war but few comparatively of our citizens were so unfortunate as to be held prisoners in the hands of the rebels. Seven only, as far as we have been able to learn, died victims to the systematic devilish treatment of the rebel authorities. Their names are John H. Prichard, died Jan. 18, 1865, grave identified and numbered 12,475 in the Andersonville cemetery. Charles E. Goodrich died in the "prison pen'" at Florence, S. C, in October, 1864. William T. Peabody, died Sept. i, 1864, his grave in the cemetery at Andersonville, numbered 7,556, Henry K. Hill, buried with the multitude of other unfortunates at Florence, S. C, his grave unnoted and unknown. George P. Cotting went through the horrors of Andersonville, reduced to the point of starvation, and exchanged was too weak to proceed further than Annapolis, and died before his friends could reach him. William H. Hay den, enlisted in the navy, was captured to- gether with the rest of the crew^ of the "Granite City" while cruising up the bayous of Texas, imprisoned at Galveston, Texas, where all the systematic cruelty of Andersonville, Salisbury, Florence and Belle Isle was practised. He soon fell a victim to disease brought on by the miserable quality of the rations issued to the prisoners, was removed to the hos- MILITARY. 145 pital, little better tluin u slaughter pen, where the "let "em die policy" was carried out to the fullest extent. After untold suffering he died, Sept. i6, 1864, at\er an imprisonment of a little more than four months. Cyrus Putnam was taken to Richmond, subjected to the miseries of rebel imprisonment, which, with the neglect of his w^ounds, soon carried him to his grave. The horrors of the prison pens of the South Jiavc never been, can never be half told. In the case of each of the vic- tims of rebel barbarity here mentioned, death was caused bv the slow, deliberate process of starvation, a barbarity that savages would scorn to practise. Miss Clara Barton who was known in the army of the Potomac as the "angel of the battlefield" and whose name is a "household word" in many a soldier's home, visited Andersonville soon after the close of the war, and caused the graves of soldiers buried there to be identified and properly marked. In her report addressed to the people of the United States, she says : "But after this whenever any man, who has lain a prisoner within the stock- ade of Andersonville, would tell you of his sufferings, how- he fainted, scorched, drenched, hungered, sickened ; was scoffed, scourged, hunted and persecuted; though the tale be long and twice told, as you would have your own wrongs appreciated, your own woes pitied, your own cries tor mere}' heard, I charge you listen and believe him. How-ever defi- nitelv he may have spoken, know that he has not told you all, however strongly he may have outlined, or deeply he may have colored his picture, know that the reality calls for a better light and a nearer view than your clouded, distant gaze will ever get. And your sympathies need not be con- fined to Andersonville while similar horrors glared in the sunny light and spotted the flower girt garden fields of that whole desperate, misguided and bewildered people. Where- ever stretched the form of a Union prisoner, there rose the signal for cruelty and the cry of agony, and there, day by day, grew the skeleton graves of the 'nameless dead.' "Thousands of our brave fellow-citizens were thus cruelly murdered. As their trials and sutTerings were great, so shall 10 14() FITCH BURG, PAST AND PRESENT. these memories be precious and a grateful people shall ever hold their names in fond remembrance." THE ESCAPE. An account of the adventures of A. A. Simonds and Roland E. Bowen, two soldiers of the 15th Regiment, who escaped from the enemy was written for Mr. Willis' History by Mr. Simonds, who was a native of Fitchburg. The rem- nant of the 15th was captured June 22, 1864. Mr. Simonds and Mr. Bowen were taken to Petersburg, Libby prison and Belle Isle, and were on the way to Andersonville when they made their escape. The first night out they were on the watch to make their escape but no opportunity was offered. The second day the line of prisoners had got well strung out and the head of the column was halted in a road leading through a piece of woods. It being very hot and dusty every man made for the shade. It was planned so as to have a guard about a rod in front and none for several rods in the rear. The two men then slipped into the woods, ran for half a mile or more until they came to a brook where they quenched their thirst and had a good wash ; they rested here a short time and then started for the Blue Ridge of the Alleghany mountains, taking the sun for a guide, travelling northwest as near as they could calculate. The second morning they came suddenly upon a man dressed in gray, with brass buttons upon his jacket and a gun over his shoulder ; as they could not avoid him they walked up to him and were greatly relieved to find he was not a rebel picket but was out hunting squirrels. They travelled nights by taking the North star for a guide. When obliged to get sup- plies of food they were seldom refused. At one house a woman, whose husband was in the rebel army, gave them bread, thinking they were going home on a furlough over the mountain ; a young lady at a large farm house, with two children and a negro servant, gave them half a loaf of bread, a pie, some bacon, and some milk, also a copy of the Rich- mond Examiner. One day they overtook a negro with a MILITARY. 147 wooden leg out picking blackberries, who asked them to his house, where his wife cooked them a johnny cake. They rested two hours and the negro went with them a short distance, telling them about the country for several miles. He gave Bowen a canteen, which proved very useful to them, as they did not have to hunt up water so often. He also gave them some meal and pork. Near the close of their journey they narrowly escaped being recaptured. They were nearing Manassas Gap, while passing through an open field and within a few rods of the woods, when looking up they saw a squad of thirteen rebel cavalry men in the road. They ran into the woods, and looking round found the rebels had not seen them. The next day they passed Snicker's Gap ; just as they were in the middle of the road two of Mosby's men came around a bend in the road and saw them. While they were running for the woods the rebels put spurs to their horses, sending a pistol shot after them. As the ball whizzed by their heads Mr. Simonds stumbled and fell ; his companion, thinking he was wounded, cried out, "we surrender;" "no we don't," Mr. Simonds cried, and getting up they ran until out of breath, and then laid down in the bushes. They were not discovered and the next day arrived at Harpers Ferry and were once more among friends. It was twenty-three days after they made their escape before they reached the Union lines. They had travelled four hundred miles, were footsore and weary, but thankful enough to have escaped from the horrors of a rebel prison. CLOSE OF THE WAR. The following clear and interesting account of the sur- render of Lee's army was given in a letter from Mr. Frank H. Snow of this place (an agent of the Christian Commis- sion.) Sunday, April, 19, 1865. The most brilliant page in the military history of our na- tion has been written to-da}' in characters that shall never be effaced. The Rebel Napoleon has surrendered his entire 148 FlTCll]iURG, PAST AM) PRESENT. coniniaiul to the Wellington Grant, and the rebellion is virtu- all\' brought to a close. The entiiusiasm of our troops to- nii^ht knows no bounds. The air is tilled with the sound of glad huzzas as the great news spreads like wildfire from regi- ment to regiment. All along the lines hundreds of military bands are discoursing martial music and naught seems lacking to complete the happiness of all. For the lirst time since the opening of the war, a hundred thousand Union soldiers lie down to rest with the certainty that the}' will not be summoned to arms before morning. [After describing the movement of the two armies he continues.] The circle, some six or seven miles in diameter, was now complete. Its circumference con- sisted of a hundred thousand Northern veterans and the Rebel army was in the centre. Three hundred and eighty pieces of artillery were in position, ready to concentrate a tire of an- nihilation upon the Confederate host. Lee's only alternative was — surrender or death. Under the circumstances he deemed it best to choose the former course. The articles of capitulation were made out by General Grant and signed by General Lee at the house of Wilmer McLean, who, singularly enough, is also the owner of the lirst Bull Run battle held. The negotiations were completed at twenty minutes to four o'clock this afternoon. At that time the two generals-in-chief came out trom the house and rode away, each to his own army. I was so for- tunate as to be within a rod of General Grant wiien he dis- mounted trom his horse. Some traces of satisfaction were visible, even upon his usually inflexible countenance. He tilled a tin cup wath water from a pail near by and allayed his thirst, then, cutting oti' a twig trom a little bush at his feet, he sat down in General Gibbon's camp chair and be- gan to w^hittle. In about half a minute he coolly turned to Major General Gibbon and remarked "General, I think we'll begin to go home to-morrow." Gibbon replied with enthusi- asm and the conversation became general. The whole impression of Grant's character conveyed by his conduct on this remarkable occasion was that of a great military genius whom no reverse could discourage, no victor}'' MILITARY. 149 • unduly elate, and no obstacles deter from the successful ac- complishment of his plan. Amid the general rejoicings which followed the announcement of the surrender, an inci- dent occurred which deserves to be recorded. When the good news tirst came in, Mr. G. S. Chase, the agent of the Christian Commission of the Fifth Corps, remarked to Brigadier General Gregory, by whose side he chanced to be standing, that no event in American history demanded more hearty thanksgiving to Almighty God than this glorious ter- mination of the great Rebellion. General Gregory immedi- ately ordered his brigade to be drawn up in solid column, and then those scarred and bronzed veterans, the heroes of a score of battle tields, sung together and with impressive effect, that familiar doxology — "Praise God from whom all blessings flow." Such was the litting termination of the bloody scenes which for four years have been enacted on the soil of Virginia. God grant that the sword need never again be drawn in defence of Liberty and Union. THE FITCHBURG SOI.DIERs' MONUMENT. After the close of the War of the Rebellion, which took place virtually in April, 1865, having continued for more than four years, the people of Fitchburg began agitating the question of the erection of some suitable monument, memo- rial hall, or other structure, dedicated to the memory of our fallen heroes. April 9, 1866, the town voted to appoint a committee of five to report the names of seven to constitute a committee to take the subject in hand. This committee was L. H. Brad- ford, Ebenezer Torrey, William H. Vose, Amasa Norcross, and George F. Fay, who presented the names of Alvah Crocker, George E. Towne, Captain Eugene T. Miles, L. H. Bradford, Alpheus P. Kimball, Stephen Shepley, and Henry A. Willis, and these gentlemen were constituted the Soldiers' Monument Committee. 150 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. April 9, 1868, it was voted to add to the committee, General John W. Kimball, Colonel Theodore S. Foster and Walter A. Eames. Later on a committee was appointed to investigate and report upon a Memorial Hall, and action re- lating to the monument was suspended. The members of this committee were F. F. Woodward, A. A. Simonds, David H. Merriam, Gardner S. Burbank, Jabez Fisher, George Robbins, E. P. Monroe, Hale W. Page, and Edwin Upton. This committee's adverse report was accepted and the com- mittee discharged. The Monument Committee was then al- lowed to proceed with their plans. April 28, 1868, the town voted to purchase the property of William W. Comee and Isaac Hartwell lying contiguous to and bounded by Main, Hartwell, Elm and Church streets, for the sum of $40,000. The purchase was made and in the summer of 187 1 the lot was graded, fenced and improved, substantially as it now is. October 2, 187 1, the plans for a monument were accepted and the committee instructed to carry out the designs and plans at a cost of $25,000. On the fifteenth of November, 1871, the contracts were made with S. A. Wheeler & Son for the construction of the foundation to receive the granite superstructure and the bronze statues ; April I, 1872, with Martin Milmore of Boston for the execu- tion of the bronze work, including the statues and tablets; on the eighth of the same month with Messrs. Runels & Davis of Lowell, Mass., to erect the superstructure out of Concord granite. Messrs. Wheeler & Son's contract was completed in May, 1873, Messrs. Runels & Davis' with equal promptness. Messrs. David Damon & Co. of Fitch- burg executed the work of the granite base for the fence and steps at the openings. The iron fence surrounding the inclosure was erected by J. L. Roberts of Boston. Although the contract for the bronze statues was made with the designer, Mr. Milmore, it is but justice to say that they were made by the Ames Manufacturing Company under the supervision of M. H. Mossman. The four tablets were made by Samuel Hooper & Co. The inscription on the first not only being a tribute from a grateful public to the memory MILITARY. lf)l of those who tell on the battle field, but equally recognizes the sacrificing services of thousands now in our midst who went out and fought as bravely as did the fallen heroes. The other three are inscribed with the names of one hundred and thirty-five of the citizens of Fitchburg who fell in the War of the Rebellion. The expenditures which have been made upon the monu- ment and sji'ounds are substantiallv as follows : The cost of the lot, $40,000; granite base for fence, $3,600; iron fence, $3,000; foundation for monument, $2,000; granite super- COURT HOUSE. CHRIST CHURCH. MONUMENT SQUARE. structure, $9,000; bronze statues and tablets, $15,400; which with the grading and miscellaneous expenditures make the total cost at least $75,000. By an accident in casting the central or prominent figure, "America," a delay of four months was occasioned, and the dedication was postponed until June, 1S74. T'fi<^ seventeenth day was selected, it being the ninety-ninth anni- versary of the battle of Bunker Hill, but circumstances again intervened making further postponement necessary. Finally on June 24, 1874, ^^""^ dedication took place, a full account of which may be Ibund in the committee's published report in 1.52 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT, tlie public library. The grounds in the inclosure were after- wards seeded with lawn grasses and the walks finished with paved gutters. Four brass field pieces, secured to Fitchburg from the national government through the efforts of the chairman of the committee, Hon. Alvah Crocker (then mem- ber of the United States congress,) were mounted, regulation style, and placed on the four corners of the square equi- distant from the base of the monument. CHAPTER VIII. ORGANIZATIONS. EFORE the civil war, for many years, there was in Fitchburg a musical or- ganization kno\A'n as the Fitchburg Brass Band. The last mention that we can find 'of this band is in Willis' "Fitch- burg- in the Rebellion." "When the Fitchburg Fusiliers left for the seat of war on the twentv-ei^jhth of June, 1861, they were escorted to the depot by the Old Fusiliers. These veterans presented a very creditable ap- pearance, being accompanied by a portion of the old Fitch- burg Brass Band, composed of the following : Jonathan Farnsworth, Cyrus Thurston, Ebenezer Thurston, Jeremiah Kinsman, Charles Derby, J. K. Gibson, the first three of whom paraded with the company at its first appearance, forty-five years before." From this time to 1868 there was no regularly organized band in Fitchburg. The present Fitchburg Military Band was born Jan. 4, 1868, when eight gentlemen met in an un- finished room in Belding & Dickinson's new block, and or- ganized "The Musical Club." This club held several meetings, adopted by-laws, and purchased a few instruments, but never appeared before the public. Starting with the club as a nucleus, on March 26, 1868, the Fitchburg Cornet Band was organized with thirty-three members, and George Rich as leader and director. Their first public appearance was with the Fitchburg Fusiliers on May 27, of the same 154 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. year, and during that year they tilled thirty-one engage- ments. Mr, Rich left the organization on Jan. i6, 1871, and the band was without a leader until March 11, of the same year, when Ira W. Wales of Abington was elected leader, but he only held his position for about one month. On April 19, 187 1, owing to some trouble and disagreement among the members, a vote was passed to discharge their leader, disband and close up affairs entirely ; but on the third of May, nine members met together and re-organized, taking the property and paying the debts of the old band. George Rich was again chosen leader and held the position until the last part of the year, when, owing to a general feel- ing of dissatisfaction with the way things were going on, the band narrowly escaped utter extinction, but five of the most plucky members met and determined to keep up the organization if possible. Through the efforts of the members, Mr. Warren S. Russell was secured as leader. January 11, 1872, the band was again re-organized and under his faithful and skilful management attained almost the highest rank among the musical organizations of New England. It was during Mr. Russell's term of service that the name of the band was changed to "The Fitchburg Militar}' Band," which name it has retained to the present time. Mr. Russell was a most estimable man, of rare musi- cal abilit}-, and his death in March, 1884, was a sad blow to the members of the band and to the citizens of Fitchburg as well. At his funeral, March 18, 1884, the floral tributes from many musical organizations in New England, the pres- ence of Mr. D. W. Reeves, always a warm friend of Mr. Russell, with the American Band of Providence, R. I., whose members voluntarily tendered their services for the occasion gratuitously ; the great concourse of citizens and the general suspension of business throughout the city showed better than words the estimation in which he was held. After Mr. Russell's death the general management of the business of the band was placed in the hands of a committee of five, chosen annually by the active members, Irom both active and honorary members. In June, 1884, the committee ORGANIZATIONS. 155 were fortuitate enough to secure as leader and director Mr. G. A. Patz, formerly leader of Gilmore's celebrated organi- zation in Boston. They have furnished music for the past thirteen years at Lake Pleasant, and tilled engagements in many other places. They are also the regimental band of the 6th Regiment, M. V. M. They now tarnish music for the new Carnival Club at Cottage City, Martha's Vine- yard. Connected with the band is an orchestra of high standing, which, out of respect to their former director, is known as the Russell Orchestra. The library of the band is very large and complete, containing the works of Donizetti, Meyerbeer, Suppe, Rossini, Lachner, Strauss, Lumbye, Gungl, Wiengarten, and all the noted composers. There are now more resident musicians in the organiza- tion than ever since the band was first started, and never before was the band in such excellent condition in all re- spects as at the present time. The ofiicers of the band are : Executive committee — H. I. Wallace, president; C. E. Ware, Jr., secretary; T. S. Mower, C. A. Dadmun and D. F. Manning ; agent and treasurer, C. A. Dadmun ; agent for honorary members, C. H. Wyman. Active members: G. A. Patz, conductor; Tafley Mauch, solo cornet; Thomas Kivlon, ist cornet; J. Keough, 2d cor- net; I. P. Osgood, 3d cornet; C. E. Goodwin, piccolo; D. F. Manning, Eb clarinet; A. GeoftVion, solo clarinet; C. E. Webber, ist clarinet; A. Da Costa, 2d clarinet; Fred Clapp, 3d clarinet; Carl Jasper, oboe; William Putnam, ist horn; A. A. Holt, 2d horn ; Fred Latter, 3d horn ; R. N. Davis, baritone ; Albert George, solo trombone ; A. Maynard, 2d trombone ; W. E. Locke, bass trombone ; C. A. Dadmun, tuba; J. B. Rockerfellow, tuba; J. L. Miller, bass drum; E. B. Roncarti, snare drum ; Edward Weston, cymbals. The Fitchburg Military Band has become one of the per- manent institutions of the city. It is held in the highest esti- mation by our citizens, and by their generosit}' it has been possible to keep up the high reputation of the organization. i5r> FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. THE GRAND ARMY OF THE REPUBLIC. This organization is composed of honorably discharged soldiers and sailors of the army and navy of the United States, who served during the late Rebellion, uniting to es- tablish a permanent organization of these veterans and comrades-in-arms based upon the principles of fraternity, charity and loyalty. Fi'atcriiitv : To assist and strengthen those kind and fraternal feelings which bind together the soldiers, sailors and marines who united to suppress the late Rebellion and to perpetu- ate the history and memory of the dead. Charity: To assist such former comrades-in-arms as need help and protection, and to extend needful aid to the widows and orphans of those who have fallen. Loyalty: To maintain true alle- giance to the United States of America, based upon a paramount respect for and fidelity to its constitution and laws, to discountenance whatever tends to weaken loyalty, incite to insurrection, treason or rebellion, or in any manner impairs the efficiency and permanency of our free institutions ; and to encourage the spread of uni- versal liberty and equal rights and justice to all men. EDWIN V. SUMNER POST I9, G. A. R., of Fitchburg was organized by George M. Woodward, assisted by Adjutant Brown of Post lo, at Room 2 in the American House, Aug. 16, 1867. Tiie charter members were Eben T. Hay ward, Charles H. Foss, T. S. Foster, Gilbert Thompson, T. L. Barker, George E. Goodrich, James May, George B. Proctor, J. Myron Goddard, William H. Wheeler, Henr}^ S. Hitchcock, George F. Merriam, John Sullivan, Calvin A. Bigelow, John or(;anizations. 157 Kemp, Hiram P. Minott, George L. Lawrence, James Daley, P. Charles Connor, Henry F. Monroe, Samuel W. Harris, Alonzo Parker, and James F. Bartlett. At the first meeting Charles H. Foss was elected com- mander; T. L. Barker, S. V. C. ; E. T. Ha\'ward, J. V. C. ; George E. Goodrich, adjutant, (that office then being elective, and George B. Proctor having the same number of votes on the first ballot;) George F. Merriam, Q^ M. Ad- journed to meet in Wood & Torrey's block. The organization was called an Encampment and not a Post. The second meeting was held Sept. 2, and all the mem- bers were present. At the third meeting, a photograph of George B. Taylor was presented as that of the first soldier from Fitchburg to fall, and that hangs to-day over the chair of the J. V. C. September 19, elected as delegates to first Department con- vention, T. L. Barker, E. T. Ha3'ward and Calvin A. Bigelow\ November 7, 1867, Charles D. Nash, present department commander, was mustered. May 30, 1868, was the first celebration of Decoration Dav, (Colonel Lorino- was the orator). At first officers held for only six months. June 25, 1868, Henry A. Willis was elected commander and declined. T. L. Barker was then chosen commander. September 8, 1868, the name E. V. Sumner w\as adopted for the Post. The design for a seal was adopted at about the same time. March 26, 1869, lecture committee reported re- ceipts from lecture course, $366.00. With this monev a sinking fund was created. It was voted to deposit this money in the bank, for charitable purposes onlv, to be drawn out by unanimous vote of the relief committee, or by vote of tlie Post. Here was the foundation of that magnificent fund trom which has been drawn the means to do their noblest work. October 25, 1877, a committee w^as appointed to consider the matter of inviting the ladies to organize a Relief Corps. A favorable report was made ; and Nov. 22, 1877, it was re- ported that a Corps was formed after the plan of Bosw^orth Post in Portland, Me. ; and in January, 1878, the E. V. 158 I rrcniJURG, past and present. Sumner Relief Corps, No. i, was organized, and it has since proved itself on many occasions an efficient helper to the Post. Its officers are: President, Mrs. Emma L. Littlehale ; S. V. P., Mrs. Carrie S. Bagley ; J. V. P., Mrs. Martha Ham- let; treasurer, Mrs. Marcia S. Crowfoot; chaplain, Mrs. Martha M. Jaquith ; conductor, Mrs. Carrie A. Whitcomb ; guard, Mrs. Olive A. Cille}-. CLARK S. SIMONDS CAMP, NO. 28, SONS OF VETERANS, was organized in July, 1883. Its present officers are : Captain, D. W. Colburn ; first lieutenant, F. W. Eager; second lieutenant, H. L. Damon ; camp council, N. C. Upham, I. F. Legrow, E. M. Tennant. Meetings first and third Tuesdays of each month. December 6, 1877, voted to look for other quarters, and after a struggle of six years moved into the present elegant and commodious rooms in Rollstone Bank block, whence it is not likely to re- move till it occupies that ideal Grand Army building which is to be erected, sooner or later, on some eligible and appropriate corner of Main street. The Post have had all told upon their roster about five hundred and thirty names. They have in their ranks, to-day, two hundred and fifty-three comrades. In their hall hang the portraits of twenty-six comrades who have answered to the roll-call above, and recently two others have been gathered in. THE G. A. R. COn-AGE. ORGANIZATIONS. 159 The amount expended as relief to old members and to families, to Aug. 28, 1887, was $8,091.39 ; sick benefits from April I, 1885, to Aug. 28, 1887, was $772.50; contributed to Soldiers' Home, $1,083.18; total, $9,947.07. And this charity is bestowed as silently as the dew falls from heaven. It is dispensed by a relief committee whose left hand knows not what its right hand doeth. In order to raise funds for this work of charity the Post has often ap- pealed to its friends in Fitchburg and vicinity, and has never appealed in vain. It has given fairs, lectures, con- certs, plays, and what not, to raise money. It gave more than any other Post, in proportion to its numbers and means, to the Soldiers' Home at Chelsea, $1,083.18. It has become a corporation for the purpose of holding real estate and owns a house in the citv. The following are the officers of the E. V. SUMNER BUILDING ASSOCIATION : Directors — E. P. Loring, H. A. Willis, Ira G. Wilkins, N. F. Bond, C. H. Glazier,^]. W. Abbott, John W. Kimball ; president, E. P. Loring; vice-president, I. G. Wilkins; treasurer, Sidney Sibley ; clerk, Moses Hoyt ; executive committee — H. A. Willis, C. H. Glazier, N. F. Bond. The rating of the Post at department head-quarters has been high, they have always had their share of the honors of the department and of the national encampment. Three de- partment commanders have been taken from their ranks ; John W. Kimball, past commander department of Massachu- setts ; Charles D. Nash, present commander department of Massachusetts ; Daniel C. Putnam, commander department of Ohio. Names of the commanders of Post 19 G. A. R., from organization, August, 1867 : Captain Charles H. Foss, 25th Massachusetts Infantry ; Colonel T. L. Barker, 36th ; Ser- geant Walter A. Fames, 15th; Colonel John W. Kimball, 15th ; Captain Russell O. Houghton, 26th ; Corporal Edward B. Macy, 36th: Corporal S. B. Farmer, 53d; Captain George E. Goodrich, 34th; Private Sidney Sibley, 21st; 1(')() llTCnnURG, I'AS-J' AND 1'RESI:N'1". Corporal J- F. Bruce, 53d ; Private James Cuthberl, 441)1 ; Captain Ira G. Wilkins, nth New Hampshire Infantry; Colonel E. P. LorinL^, loth United States Heavy Ardllerv. Charles H. Foss was born in Scarboro, Me., Oct. 18, 1828 ; received a common school education in Portland, Me. ; at the age of seventeen went to Boston and served an ap- prenticeship with Otis Tut^'ts, steam engine builder ; May, 1852, came to Fitchburg and entered the employ of S. W. Putnam & Co., (later Putnam Machine Co.,) remaining with them until the breaking out of the war ; was second lieuten- ant of the Washington Guards at date of organization (July, 1855) ; resigned as first lieutenant, December, i860; enlisted as a private in the same company when the war broke out. The 9th Regiment, M. V. M., of which the Guards formed a part was not called upon by Governor Andrew for the "three months service" as was expected, and when the enlist- ment of three years troops began, b}' request of the colonel of the 25th Massachusetts Volunteer Infantry, Mr. Foss raised a company for that regiment and was commissioned captain of said company, (Co. F, 25th Massachusetts Volun- teers,) Oct. 12, 1861 ; received a gun shot wound through the right thigh, at the battle of Cold Harbor, June 3, 1864; mustered out at expiration of service, Oct 20, 1864 ; was chosen first commander of Post 19, G. A. R. ; worked for C. H. Brown & Co. during ten years after the war; ap- pointed on the police force, Sept. 20, 1882. In making an arrest, Aug. 17, 1886, the main bone of his left leg was broken near the ankle, and he was discharged from police force, Jan. 4, 1887. T. L. Barker was born on the se\enteenth of June, 1826, at Nelson, N. H. ; came to Fitchburg in July, 1855, and entered the employ of J. & S. W. Putnam. He enlisted Aug. 19, 1862, and was commissioned captain of Co. A, 36th Regiment Massachusetts Volunteers, and served through the war, holding and serving under the commissions of major, lieutenant colonel, and colonel ; was mustered out June 25, R. O. Houghton. mi Geo. E. Goodrieh. Edward B. Maey. Sidney Sibley. NA/^aller A. Eames. S. B. Farmer John F Bruce. James Cuthbert. Ira G. Wilkins. Edward P Lorin PAST COMMANDERS, POST 19, G. A. R. ORGANIZATIONS. 1 (i 1 1865, when he returned to Fitchburg and was again em- ployed at the Putnams ; joined Post 19, as a charter member, and was elected senior vice commander and commander in 1868; was also on board of selectmen the same year; re- moved to Montreal, Canada, in 1874, ^"^ "^ 1880 to Waltham, Mass., and entered the employ of the Waltham Watch company, residing there since. Walter A. Eames was born in West Cambridge, Mass., Sept. 30, 1841 ; came to Fitchburg in 1858, and engaged in the granite business with the old firm of S. A. Wheeler & Co. He enlisted in 1861 in Co. B, 15th Massachusetts Volunteers, (Fitchburg Fusiliers,) and participated in all the service, marches and engagements of the regiment up to the battle of Fredericksburg, Va., December, 1862, in which en- gagement he was severely wounded (at the time thought mortally) and disabled from further service. He was one of the early members of Post 19, filling the various offices, and w^as elected commander, Dec. 28, 1869. In 1872 he was commissioned inspector of customs at Boston, which position he now holds. John White Kimball was born in Fitchburg, Jan. 27, 1828. He was educated in the public schools of Fitchburg, and learned the trade of scythe making with his father and worked at this business up to the time of the war. From 1858 to 1872, with the exception of the three years he was in the army, he was constable ; fire engineer, i860 and 1861 ; selectman in 1865, assessor in 1864 and 1865 ; tax collector from 1865 to 1872, inclusive; alderman in 1877 5 representative in 1864-65-72 ; has been a trustee of the Worcester North Savings Institution and of Fitchburg Sav- ings Bank; was deputy constable from Feb. 10, 1866, to July I, 187 1, and from that time until Jan. 20, 1874, '^^^^ police commissioner of the commonwealth. He filled the of- fice of United States pension agent for the Western District of Massachusetts from Dec. 19, 1873, to July i, 1877; cus- todian of rolls, dies, plates, etc., used in the printing of 11 1()2 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. bonds, National Bank and United States Treasury Notes, and the securities of the United States in the Bureau of Engraving and Printing of the Treasury Department, Wash- ington, D. C, from Nov. i, 1877, to Feb. 17, 1879. He was postmaster from March i, 1879, ^^ March 16, 1887. General Kimball's military life began in 1846 as a "marker boy" in the Fitchburg Fusiliers, and, passing through the different grades of non-commissioned and commissioned officers, was made captain of the Fusiliers from Feb. 24, 1855, to Jan. 7, 1858; adjutant of the 9th Regiment Massa- chusetts Volunteer Militia, from May i, 1858, to Jan. 7, i860; captain of Fusiliers from Jan. 7, i860, to Aug. i, 1861, and took the company into the United States service June 28, 1861, joining the 15th Massachusetts Regiment Infantry at Worcester. He was the senior captain in this regiment, major from Aug. i, 1861, to April 29, 1862, and lieutenant colonel from April 29, 1862, to Nov. 10, 1862 ; from Nov. 10, 1862, to Sept. 2, 1863, was colonel of the 53d Regiment, Massachusetts Infantry; March 13, 1865, was made brevet brigadier general, United States Volunteers, "for gallant and distinguished services in the field during the war;" from April 12, 1865, to Oct. 7, 1866, was captain of the Fusiliers, then called the 50th Unattached Company of Infantry and attached to ist Battalion Infantry, ist Brigade, and designated Co. B, same as before and during the war; engineer, on the staff' of Major General Benjamin F. Butler, Massachusetts Volunteer Militia, from Aug. 15, 1870, to April 28, 1876; colonel of loth Regiment Infantry, Massachusetts Volunteer Militia from Aug. i, 1876, to Sept. 21, 1878. General Kimball served as commander of E. V. Sumner Post 19, G. A. R., 1871-1872; senior vice-commander of the department of Massachusetts G. A. R., from January, 1873, to January, 1874; commander of department of Massa- chusetts from January, 1874, to January, 1875. Russell O. Houghton was born in Boxboro, Mass., Oct. 7, 1835 ; went to Lunenburg with his father in 1840, and lived in that town until he was sixteen years old, when ORGANIZATIONS. 163 he came to Fitchburg and learned the bkicksmith trade of A. S. Dole; after finishing his trade in 1857, went to Cali- fornia, remaining two years ; at the breaking out of the war, enlisted in the Massachusetts 6th Regiment for three months as a private. After the sixth regiment was discharged, Mr. Houghton assisted in raising the 26th Regiment for three years, and entered Co. B as orderly sergeant; while in this regiment was promoted to all of the grades in his compan}^ and left the service as captain in October, 1865. At the close of the war settled in Fitchburg ; was appointed on the board of lire engineers in 1872 ; in 1873, when the tirst city gov- ernment was formed, was appointed chief of police, holding the position for two years ; in 1877 ^^'^^ appointed on the po- lice force again and has held the position until the present time, filling the office of night and day patrolman and captain of police ; was commander of Post 19 in December, 1872. Edw^\rd B. Macy was born Aug. 25, 1843, at Nan- tucket ; removed to Boston and was for several years in the dry goods business there; Aug. 25, 1862, enlisted in Co. F, 36th Massachusetts Volunteers, serving until Nov. 24, 1863, when he was discharged on account of a sunstroke which disabled him for further service ; returning to Boston he soon afterwards came to Fitchburg, and engaged in the dry goods business here. In 1875, after ten years as a dry goods mer- chant, he embarked in his present wholesale and retail fruit and provision business. He became early connected with the G. A. R. Post here, held the various offices, and was elected commander, March 5, 1874. S. B. Farmer was born in Nashua, N. H., Dec. 31, 1832 ; came to Fitchburg at age of twenty-one and went to work for the Putnam Machine Co., where he remained until the war; enlisting in Co. B, 53d Regiment, in September, 1862, participated in the service and engagements of the reg- iment, returning to Fitchburg at expiration of term of service and again entered the employ of the Putnams, continuing there until 1876, when he bought a farm in Windham, N. 164 FITCIIliURG, PAST AND PRESENT. H., and removed to that place, where he has since devoted liis time to farming. He joined E. V. Sumner Post 19 while in Fitchburg, held the various offices in the Post and was made commander in 1874. George E. Goodrich was born in Stow, Mass., April 29, 1838. His parents removed to Fitchburg the same year, where he has resided ever since. In 1855, when seventeen years of age, he joined the Washington Guards at the time of its organization, and at the commencement of the war of 1861 and 1865 entered the United States service in that com- pany, which was known as Co. D, 21st Massachusetts Regi- ment, and, with his two younger brothers, was mustered into service July 19, 1861. After one year's service in the 21st Regiment he was promoted to second lieutenant, and as- signed to Co. I, 34th Massachusetts Regiment, Aug. 6, 1862 ; promoted to first lieutenant, Co. A, 34th Regiment, Sept. 6, 1863, and captain of Co. C, 34th Regiment, Oct. 18, 1864. Captain Goodrich was discharged, with his com- pany and regiment, at the close of the war, receiving final payment, July 6, 1865, having been in the United States ser- vice within a few days of four years. He was on every march and in every battle or skirmish in which his regiment was engaged, more than twenty in all. He was at the capture of Petersburg and the surrender of General Lee and his army at Appomattox Court House, Virginia, April 19, 1865. Since the war he has taken an active interest in mili- tary aftairs, joining the Fitchburg Fusiliers, Co. B, loth Regiment, M. V. M., in May, 1867, serving as captain of that company eleven years ; major of the loth Regiment one year ; lieutenant colonel three years, and colonel one year, making a service in the militia and United States service of twenty-six years. Mr. Goodrich was postmaster of Fitch- burg from Nov. i, 1866, to March i, 1879, and now works at his trade as machinist for the Putnam Machine company ; was a charter member of Post 19, G. A. R. : has held various offices in the Post and was its commander in 1876-77. ORGANIZATIONS. Ifi5 Sidney Sibley was born in Barre, Mass., Oct. 9, 1843 ; mustered into the United States service in Co. K, 21st Massachusetts Regiment, Aug. 18, 1862, and was discharged therefrom. May 23, 1864: joined the Grand Army during the winter of 1867 at Paxton, Mass. ; became one of the charter members of Post 50 at Barre, Mass., in 1868 ; came to Fitchburg in April, 1872, and joined Post 19, May 28, 1872. He was commander of the Post from Jan. i, 1878, to Jan. I, 1880. John F. Bruce was born at Lempster, N. H., Aug. 10, 1833 ; moved to Fitchburg in 1851 ; worked for A. A. Beck- with, manufacturer of doors, sashes, blinds, etc., until Aug, 26, 1862, when he entered the service as a corporal in Co. A, 53d Regiment, M. V. M., serving a little over one year; was discharged Sept. 2, 1863, being very much disabled by chronic diarrhoea and fever and ague ; after one year he en- 2ao;ed in the manufacturin^j and lumber business with his former employer, Mr. A. A. Beckwith, as a partner; sold out his interest in the business in 187 1 ; in 1872 he engaged in the grocery and mineral water business, which he still continues. He became a member of Post 19 in 1867 ; served in minor offices and was commander of the Post in 1880 and 1881 ; served on the council of administration, department of Massachusetts, G. A. R., in 1879 ^^^ 1880, and on the national staft' in 1884. James Cuthbert was born in Tilacoultry, Scotland, April 19, 1842 ; came to this country and settled in North Andover, Mass., July, 1852; removed to Lawrence in 1856, and to Queechy, Vt., in the spring of 1858. The spring of 1861 found him in Bridgton, Me., making army blankets for the boys at the front, and thinking that his duty also lay in that direction started for home for the purpose of enlisting ; passing through North Andover, was prevailed upon by Mr. Davis, (of the firm of Davis, Wiley & Stone,) to learn the machinist's trade; he, however, enlisted in 1862, in Co. A, 44th M. V. M., and, after his term of service expired, 166 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. finished his trade in Windsor, Vt. : came to Fitchburo- in 1866 ; became a member of Post 19, G. A. R., in 1868 : has filled various positions in the Post and was commander in 1882-83 ; was elected in 1883 o"G of three trustees of the Post, which position he now holds. Ira G. Wilkins enlisted at Manchester, N. H., Aug. 21, 1862, in the nth Regiment, New Hampshire Volunteers ; was promoted in May, 1864, to second lieutenant, and in November, 1864, to first lieutenant ; served on staff" of Brigadier General S. G. Griffin from Ma3% 1864, till the close of the war; wounded April 2, 1865, in the assault be- fore Petersburg ; appointed captain United States Volunteers by brevet to date from April 2, 1865 ; mustered out June 4, 1865. He came to Fitchburg in May, 1880, with Messrs. Parker & Co., furniture manufacturers; joined Post 19, G. A. R., Aug. 5, of same year, and became its commander in December, 1883, holding that office two years. E. P. LoRiNG was born in Norridgewock, Me., March 2, 1837 ; graduated from Bowdoin College, August, 1861 ; entered 13th Maine Regiment in October, 1861, as first lieutenant of Co. B ; went to Ship Island with General Butler in March, 1862 ; August, 1863, was made captain of Co. A, ist Louisiana Heavy Artillery, colored; August, 1864, pro- moted to major, loth United States Colored Heavy Artillery ; same 3'ear on staff' of General T. "W. Sherman as assistant inspector general; was mustered out Feb. 22, 1867, as brevet lieutenant colonel ; graduated at Albany Law School, 1868, and settled in Fitchburg in April of that year ; went to house of representatives in 1872 and 1874, and to the senate in 1883 and 1884 ; was chairman of the somewhat famous Tewksbury committee ; was for several years clerk of the district court and is now comptroller of county accounts ; was commander of Post 19, G. A. R., in 1886 and 1887. The present officers of Post 19 are : Commander, Charles H. Glazier; S. V. C, J. W. Abbott; J. V. C, Andrew Connery ; quartermaster, Sidney Sibley; surgeon, F. M. JOHN W. KIMBALL, Commander Department of Mass., G. A. K., 1 874. ORGANIZATIONS. \C)1 Peckham ; chaplain, Ernest Schragle ; O. D., J. N. Cutler; O. G., B. Parkhurst ; adjutant, Charles W. Gale; sergeant- major, J. A. Fuller; Q^ M. S., F. H. Whitcomb ; hall trustees, C. H. Glazier, J. C. Bruce, James Cuthbert. John W. Kimball, commander department of Massa- chusetts, sketch already given. Charles D. Nash, commander department of Massa- chusetts, is a native of Abington, Mass., and was born Dec. 4, 1842 ; enlisted as corporal in the 38th Massachusetts Volunteers, July 24, 1862 ; moved to Fitchburg, March 24, 1867, and joined Post 19 in 1868 ; has held the following of- fices in the G. A. R. : Q^. M., adjutant, surgeon, J. V. C, commander, aid to department commander and commander in chief, J. V. department commander, S. V. department commander and department commander of Massachusetts. Daniel C. Putnam, commander of department of Ohio, is the son of the late James P. and Abbie S. Putnam, and was born at the old Putnam farm on the Pearl Hill road, March 10, 1844. His early life was spent upon the farm and in the schools of the country and town until his eighteenth birthday, when he went to Washington, D. C, and there enlisted on March 21, 1862, in Co. F, 25th Massachusetts Volunteers, at that time commanded by his uncle. Colonel Edwin Upton. The regiment was at this time in North Carolina, and he joined it at Newbern on April i, 1862, and, at once, shouldered his musket, and as a private participated in all the services and campaigns of his regiment until May 23, 1864, when he was promoted to regimental commissary sergeant, and on May 16, 1865, was made regimental quartermaster sergeant. On May 17, he was commissioned second lieutenant. He was discharged July 29, 1865, having served a little more than three years and four months. He removed to Ohio, and settled in Clark county in 1868, and was engaged in clerking for one year, when he commenced teaching and taught six years, the last two years being 108 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. superintendent of the public schools at Yellow Springs, Greene county, Ohio. During this time he completed his education, which he had dropped at the time of his enlist- ment. In 1873 he graduated from the Ohio Central Normal School at Worthington, Ohio. During the year 1875 he took up some special lines of study at the Ohio State Univer- sity at Columbus, Ohio. In January, 1876, he went into business at Springfield, Ohio, and is now a member of the house furnishing establishment of Andrews, Wise & Putnam. This firm has the largest and most profitable business of its class in central Ohio. Mr. Putnam joined the G. A. R., Feb. 18, 1881, as a charter member of Mitchell Post 45, de- partment of Ohio, and was elected its first commander, and re-elected for a second term. He was district mustering ofiicer in 1883, and served tor three years as a member of the council of administration. On April 29, 1887, at the twenty-first annual encampment of the department of Ohio, G. A. R., he was elected its commander. The Springfield Sunday News, in speaking of his election to this position, says : "It is universally claimed a well deserved honor. Not only is Commander Putnam one of the most eminent and de- voted G. A. R. men, but he was, also, a good soldier, and is one of the best and most accurately informed military men in Ohio as to history, work, and tactics. TAYLOR UNION NO. I, ARMY AND NAVY VETERANS. One evening in the latter part of May, 1865, five veterans of the army, W. A. Hardy, S. W. Harris, W. S. Hersey, Robert Elliott and Richard Tucker, having met casually on the cross-walk at the junction of Mill and Main streets, were discussing military matters. One of this party suggested that it would be well to form an association to care lor dis- abled comrades like their then deceased Comrade Greene. To make a long story short they voted to hire a hall, and made Sam Harris a committee of one to make arrangements for a meeting. The next day Washington Hall was secured and posters put out for a meeting at which a temporary or- v//, '^f^>mr^^^^^^^;^'^M^ DANIEL C. PUTNAM, Commander of the Department of Ohio, G. A. R. ORGANIZATIONS. 10!) ganization was formed, and on tlie following night there was a permanent organization of the "Army and Navy Veterans' Union." At a subsequent meeting the name was changed to that of "Taylor Union No. i, Army and Navy Veterans," in honoi' of George C. Taylor of Co. B, 15th Massachusetts Volunteers, killed at Ball's BlutT — the lirst volunteer from Fitchburg who gave his life to his country. The early records were kept in a memorandum book and have all been lost except the financial secretary's book, now in the hands of Comrade Harris. From the charter, now in the posses- sion of Richard Tucker, we copy the following list of the charter members: Walter A. Eames, William S. Hersey, P. H. Fletcher, Williarii A. Hardy, Edwin H. Minot, William H. Green, Samuel W. Harris, Aaron G. Buttrick, Patrick Lennon, Warren P. Boutwell, Joseph L. Moody, Richard Tucker, George B. Proctor, Henry L. Sheldon, Charles R. Briggs, Charles M. Billings, Abner G. White, John Sul- livan, Amos C. Plaisted, Cyrus Nickerson, Timothy S. Marsh. The charter was dated the second day of January, 1866. Afterwards a Dorcas Union w^as also instituted, out of which also may have grown the present Relief Corps. Sept. 28, 1865, the Leominster Union was formed with one hun- dred members — the members of the Taylor Union assisting at the installation. Soon after, Unions were formed in Gard- ner, Templeton and other places to the number of seventeen or eighteen. A grand lodge was organized in December, 1865, the seal bearing these words : "Grand Arm}^ and Navy Veteran Union." Comrade Harris says a purchasing agent from Illinois was in Fitchburg at about that time ; that he became inter- ested in the Taylor Union, and procured a copy of the by-laws of the Order, took it West, lost it and sent for an- other, that live copies in all were sent, and in February, 1866, Dr. Stephenson of Illinois suggested the formation of the G. A. R., and published the first draft of a constitution for the same. From the Grand Army and Navy Veteran Union, it would be easy to form the title, Grand Army of the 170 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. Republic — the name of a society which will live while the Republic itself shall stand. All the correspondence and records, except as stated, were burned up by a good wife in her annual house cleaning, and we can only say that it was not wholly -a success, having been organized on an extensive basis, and naturally gave way to what promised to be a more successful association of veterans, the G. A. R. SECRET AND BENEVOLENT. The large number of beneficial, secret and similar socie- ties that are in successful operation in Fitchburg indicate a very social and philanthropic spirit on the part of the people. Masonry is represented by four bodies. Aurora Lodge, F. and A. M., the oldest, instituted June 9, 1801, at Leom- inster, and removed to -Fitchburg, March 17, 1845. Regular communications are held the first Monday of each month : annual communication in September. Charles W. Moore Lodge, F. and A. M., instituted Oct. 9, 1856. Regular communications third Tuesday ol each month ; annual communication in September. Thomas Royal Arch Chapter, instituted Dec. 21, 1821, at Princeton; removed to Fitchburg, Nov. 13, 1847. Regular convocation second Wednesday of each month : an- nual convocation in September. Jerusalem Commandery, K. T., instituted Oct. 13, 1865. Regular conclaves third Thursday of each month; annual conclave in September. The Masonic Hall is in the upper stories of the Fitchburg Savings Bank building, and comprises some of the finest rooms in the state. The Odd Fellows' organizations are also four in number. Mt. Roulstone Lodge No. 98, L O. O. F., instituted Dec. 12, 1845. Regular meetings on Friday evenings. Pearl Hill Degree Lodge No. 47, D. of R., L O. O. F. Meetings first and third Tuesdays of each month. ORGANIZATIONS. 171 King David Enca.mpment No. 42, I. O. O. F. Reg- ular meetings second and fourth Tuesdays of each month. Grand Canton Hebron No. 4, Patriarchs Mili- tant. Regular Cantonment first Thursday evening of each month. The Odd Fellows' rooms are in the upper story of the Rollstone Bank block, 129 Main street. The Knights of Pythias are represented by two bodies. Alpine Lodge No. 35, K. of P., insdtuted March 12, 1879. Meetings Thursday evening in each week. Red Cross Division, Uniform Rank, K. of P., in- stituted January, 1887. Meetings every other Monday evening. The Knights of Pythias rooms are in Crocker block, 234 Main street. other orders. Fitchburg Lodge No. 797, Knights of Honor ; Roumania No. 312, Knights and Ladies of Honor; Overlook Council No. 972, American Legion of Honor; Castle Fitchburg No. 195, Knights and Ladies of the Golden Rule; Local Branch No. 390, Order of the Iron Hall ; Council No. 777, Royal Arcanum ; Shakespeare Lodge No. 121, Sons of St. George ; Wachusett Council No. 21, O. U. A. M. ; Fitchburg Asso- ciates No. 22, N. M. R. A. ; Wachusett Division No. 191, Brotherhood of Locomotive Engineers ; Guard Latayette ; George Lodge No. 538, German Order of Harugari ; W. A. Foster Lodofe No. 216, Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen ; Railroad Men's Relief Association ; Fitchburg Lodge No. i, Brotherhood of Section Masters ; Firemen's Relief Associa- tion ; E. A. Smith Division No. 146, Order of Railway Con- ductors ; Ancient Order of Hibernians ; Societe St. Jean Baptiste de Fitchburg ; Ancient Order of Red Men ; Rail- road Men's Christian Association ; Fitchburg Woman's Suf- frage League. temperance societies. Fitchburg Reform Club ; St. Bernard's Total Abstinence and Mutual Aid Society ; Wendell Phillips Division Sons of 172 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. Temperance ; Monadnock Temple of Honor No. 17 ; Aqua- rius Council No. 10, Select Templars ;. Silver Spray Temple of Honor No. 3 ; Falulah Lodge No. 11, I. O. of G. T. ; Henry A. Reynolds Lodge No. 81, L O. of G. T. ; The Woman's Christian Temperance Union ; The Young Woman's Christian Temperance Union ; Unity Temperance Society. WORCESTER NORTH AGRICULTURAL SOCIETY. (liu'orporatetl in 1S52.) Licluding the city of Fitchburg, towns of Leominster, Sterling, West Boylston, Princeton, Lunenburg, Ashburn- ham, Westminster, Gardner, Templeton and Royalston in Worcester county, with Ashby in Middlesex, though persons from any part of the state may become members. The annual exhibition is held on the grounds of the Park Company on Summer street, on the last Tuesda}' and Wednesday of September, in each year. These grounds comprise about thirty acres of land, well fitted up with half mile track, stable, cattle sheds and a large building contain- ing two halls for exhibition purposes and the annual dinner, with several smaller rooms for other purposes. The annual meeting and election of officers takes place on the first Fri- day in December. The present board of officers are : Presi- dent, J. A. Battles, Fitchburg; Vice Presidents — L. C. Albee, Fitchburg, George Cruickshanks, Lunenburg ; Sec- retary, C. S. Keith, Fitchburg; Treasurer, F. C. Currier, Fitchburg. Delegate to state board of agriculture, George Cruickshanks, Fitchburg. The board of trustees from each of the towns is made up as follows : Ashburnham, three ; Ashby, two ; Leominster, seven; Lunenburg, five; Princeton, five; Westminster, three; one from each of the towns of Greenville, N. H., Oakdale, Sterling, Templeton, Winchendon, Groton ; and twenty-five from Fitchburg. Joseph A. Battles, president of the society, is a native of Fitchburg, where he was born April 5, 1835, on a farm at the foot of Monoosnoc mountain. His early days were spent JOSEPH A. BATTLES. ORGANIZATIONS. 173 on the tarm, remaining there until he was tvventy-tive years of age, when he entered the employ of P. Smith & Co., bakers, and was afterwards admitted to partnership. In 1866 he started in the livery business at the Rollstone barn with only three horses and the necessary outfit ; after- wards removed to Oliver street, and in the spring of 1869 to Day street, where for a few months he was associated with Mr. L. M. Wheeler, in the firm of Battles & Wheeler, and since carrying on the business alone until in the spring of the present year, when he decided to go out of business perma- nently, selling his livery propert}^ at public auction ; finding, however, that he needed some active employment to take up his mind he has gradually worked into his accustomed busi- ness, although not so extensively as before. Mr. Battles began with very little capital, but his genial ways and accommodating spirit insured popularity, and prosperity as well. He was the first owner of a hack in Fitchburg, and anticipated the needs of the public by adding hacks and barges as they were needed, until his investment in livery property, after twenty years in business, amounted to twenty-five thousand dollars. THE WOMANS CHRISTIAN TEMPERANCE UNION. This organization, the outgrowth of the "crusade work" in Ohio, begun by christian w^omen, who felt they could no longer keep still under the terrible burden which the liquor traffic was laving upon them and upon the whole nation. The first meeting of the Fitchburg W. C. T. U. was held the third Tuesday in January, 1875. The first practical work was the circulation of the pledge throughout the town, a work in which a large number of ladies were engaged, thus bringing this question very plainly before many, who had given it but little thought before. Since then petitions to the legislature have been presented, again and again, to the people for signature, with other Unions of the state, to secure better legislation on this subject. Conventions have been held, almost as many as years have gone by. A large 174 FITCIIBURG, I'AST AND PRESENT. number of public meetings and the best lectures that could be secured, have been given to the people to influence public sentiment. For the same purpose thousands of pages of lit- erature have been distributed in public places, as well as given quietly by the visiting committee. Early in the work an invitation was extended to Dr. Reynolds to \isit the Union, and through his influence the Reform Club was formed, and for some time meetings were held with the Club. The treasury of the Union has never, with one exception, lacked the funds necessary to meet the obligations at the close of the year, and then was only two or three dollars lacking. Some fifteen hundred dollars have passed through the hands of the treasurer during this time, aside from that used by the relief department. The watchword of the organization has been "Prayer," but working has gone hand in hand with praying, and the time, thought, patience and faith expended have brought forth fruit none the less real and lasting because of the quiet, unostentatious methods employed. THE YOUNG MEN's CHRISTIAN ASSOCIATION as now existing had its origin among the young men of the First Baptist church, in the fall of 1886. Two preliminary meetings were held at this church by a number of young men. A third meeting resulted in the organization of the Association in October, 1886, with George Winch as presi- dent. Following the organization a parlor conference was held at the residence of J. Parkhill. Twenty-three of the leading business men of the city were present, and the conference was conducted by Russell Sturgis, Jr., of Boston, and R. M. Armstrong, state secretary. A citizens' committee was ap- pointed to solicit funds for the year's work, in union with the finance committee of the Association. The citizens' commit- tee consisted of Dr. George Jewett, J. H. Daniels, H. M. Francis, Dr. C. II. Rice, and E. N. Choate. The sum of ORGANIZATIONS. 175 $1,425 was raised. Two rooms in TwichelTs block were opened, Dec. 27, 1886, and four others added in July, 1887. The Association is now, (November, 1887,) in possession of a reading room well equipped, a comfortable parlor, a game and recreation room, a room for boys, and a hall for social and religious gatherings. The membership is nearly two hundred and fifty and is constantly growing. A course of entertainments of high order, practical and medical talks, educational classes, boarding-house register, emplo3ment bureau and many other privileges are open to members, though most of these privileges are free to any young man. The work is mainly dependent for support from the busi- ness men — $2,000 will be raised for the year 1887-88. On July 25, 1887, William P. Taylor, a graduate of Yale University, entered upon his duties as general secretary of the Association, and under his charge the work has shown a rapid increase in growth and usefulness. The publication of a monthly organ, "Beacon Light," has been one of the re- cent additions to the work. THE FITCHBURG BENEVOLENT UNION was organized as a society, March 6, 1876, and incorporated Feb. 10, 1886. Its object is to have one comprehensive, un- sectarian organization, which, as far as possible, shall distribute charity wisely and endeavor to help the poor to help themselves. The board of managers are : President, Ebenezer Bailey; Vice-Presidents — Rodney Wallace, Mrs. A. Crocker, Sen., Lewis H. Bradford. E.xectUive Committee — Mrs. George D. Colony, Miss Mattie D. Tolman, Mrs. B. D. Dwinnell, Mrs. S. W. Put- nam, Miss Anna S. Haskell, Amasa Norcross, James Phillips, Jr., Dr. Thomas S. Blood, Mial Davis, Dr. D. B. Whittier. Secretary^ Rev. J. M. R. Eaton ; Assistant Secretary, Mrs. B. F. Wallis ; Treasurer, Albert C. Brown. I^i/e Members — Amasa Norcross, Benjamin Snow, C. T. Crocker, Rodney Wallace, Mrs. William B. Wood, Mrs. G. 176 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PR?:SENT. S. Burbank, Mrs. James Phillips, Jr., Mrs. C. T. Crocker, Mrs. Rodney Wallace, Mrs. A. Crocker, Sen., David Bou- telle (deceased), Gardner S. Burbank, George F. Fay, Miss Eleanor A. Norcross. Annual meeting last Monday in September. Meetings of the board of managers on last Monday in December, March and June. Meeting of relief committee second Mon- day of each month, at 4 P. M. Headquarters of the Union in the office of Mrs. A. Crocker, Sen. THE FITCHBURG AGASSIZ ASSOCIATION, Chapter No. 48 of the National Association, was formed in January, 1886, bv the consolidation of four chapters of the Agassiz Association and the Young American Industrial Society. It is doing much to promote the personal study of nature by the young people of the city. The officers are : President, W. G. Farrar ; Vice-President, George B. Hitch- cock ; Recording Secretary, William B. Page ; Correspond- ing Secretary, Frank A. Marble ; Treasurer, E. iVdams Hartwell ; curator, C. E. Burnap. Executive Committee — W. G. Farrar, George B. Hitch- cock, G. V. Upton, H. C. Patch, C. E. Burnap, Nellie M. Silsby, Mary L. Garfield, Cora P. Blanchard. THE FITCHBURG HOME FOR OLD LADIES. IncoriKiratca Sept. 4, 1««3. The project of establishing a home for aged women in Fitchburg originated in a society of benevolent ladies, who had organized in the autumn of 1879, under the name of the "Ladies' Union Aid Society," chiefly for the purpose of aid- ing young girls, teaching them to sew and kindred employ- ments. The lirst annual meeting was held Dec. 6, 1883. In January, 1884, the corporation received a generous gift from Dr. A. W. Sidney of a deed of land lying on Marshall street, to be used as the managers might think best for the benefit of the home. Soon after this the society was called ORGANIZATIONS. 177 upon to part with their friend and generous supporter, Mr. L. J. Brown, the first president of the corporation. Whose faithful services and generous support had been most cheer- fully given and to whose unfailing interest and substantial aid the early success of the enterprise was mainly due. Upon the death of Mr. Brown the society elected as his successor Dr. Sidney, who has been spared for active labor in that position until the present time. In August of 1885 occurred the death of Mrs. Elizabeth Boutelle Robinson, a life member of the corporation, and one who had given her cordial interest to the establishment of the ->^ Home. Mrs. Robinson left a legacy to the Home which was amply suffi- cient to warrant the pur- chase and the opening of a Home at an early day. This bequest was a signal assurance of God-speed to the work which had been progressing through two years of corporate existence. Accordingly, after due consideration, and after weighing the relative advantages of several places available, the estate lo- cated on the corner of Summer and Beacon streets was secured, as best adapted, both for situation and household convenience, to the requirements of the Home. Through the generosity of friends the Home was furnished and ready for opening in June, 1886. The present officers are : President, Dr. A. W. Sidney ; Vice-President, Mrs. C. W. Wilder; Treasurer, Mr. B. Y. Wallis ; Secretary, Miss M. D. Tolman. Executive Committee — Mr. I. C. Wright, Mr. William M. Leathe, Mr. H. A. Willis, Mrs. I. C. Wright, Mrs. Laban Gushing, Mrs. Lowell M. Miles, Mrs. M. C. Crocker. Matron, Mrs. Z. A. Rich ; Physician, Dr. A. W. Sidney. 12 HOME FOR OLD LADIES. 17y FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. UNION AID HOSPITAL OF FITCHBURG. The question of the establishment in this citv of u hospital for the care of the sick or injured, who are without the means of suitable treatment elsewhere, has been raised from time to time among benevolent and philanthropic persons and the medical profession for several years. Recently such an in- stitution came to be regarded as more and more a necessity and the eighth of January, 1885, a few persons deeply inter- ested in the matter associated themselves to^rether for the purpose of forming a corporation to be known as the Union Aid Hospital of Fitchburg. The first meeting of the sub- scribers was held on the nineteenth of January. At this meeting by-laws were adopted, directors chosen, committees appointed, and all necessary steps taken in compliance with the laws of the state to obtain incorporation. A certificate of incorporation was issued on the twenty- sixth day of March. Monthly meetings of the board of managers have been held since, and all persons chosen for diflerent positions entered upon the work with a readiness to commence active measures for the achievement of their pur- pose. The object sought to be accomplished, the relief of suffering, especially the distress of the unlbrtunate, is one that appeals to the noblest instincts of our nature, and one that is entitled to tlie most cordial sympathy from the com- munity at large. The officers of the incorporation are : Prcsidcn/, Dr. George D. Colon}-; Vice-Presidents, Mrs. D0II3' Marble, E. R. Turner, A. F. Whitney ; Secretary and Treasurer, S. W. Hundey; C/erk, H. E. M. Young.' Directors — Dr. George D. Colony, E. M. Dickinson, George E. Waite, J. W. Kimball, Dr. F. H. Thompson, Mrs. W. O. Brown, George E. Clifford, Walter A. Fair- banks, Charles F. Putnam, George F. Simonds, Mrs. H. J. Putnam, Mrs. L. O. Allen, W. R. Deering, Dr. C. H. Rice, H. G. Morse. ORGANIZATIONS. 171) THE PARK CLUB was organized Jan. i, 1881 ; having for its object the promo- tion of social intercourse, the cultivation of a better acquaintance among business men of the city. The otBcers are: President, Dr. E. P. Miller; Secretary, Herbert I. Wallace ; Treasurer, C. E. Ware. Directors — R. Wallace, James L. Chapman, L. Sprague, G. H. Spencer, O. H. Lawrence. Executive Coinniittee — Leander Sprague, George H. Spencer, Eli Culley. THE WINDSOR CLUB was organized with the same social features as the Park Club, but its membership is principally made up from the younger business men of the city. The officers are : Presi- dent, J. W. Palmer; Vice-President, W. M. W. Spring; Secretary, W. E. Sheldon ; Treasurer, F. D. Page. Directors— C E. Wallace, J. H. Scott, C. A. Hubbell, J. W. M. Brown, O. F. Lord. Executive Committee— V>x. O. F. Lord, W. M. W. Spring, J. W. ^L Brown. THE CHAPIN CLUB is a social and literary society connected with the First Universalist church, organized the first of Januarjs 1884. Its officers are : President, Edward A. Brown ; Vice- President, N. B. Stone ; Secretary, Mrs. E. A. Brown : Treasurer, H. A. Damon. Executive Committee — Mr. and Mrs. Sidney Sibley, Mr. and Mrs. A. J. Litchfield, H. A. Sargent, Walter Hardy, G. H. Carter, Mrs. W. L. Humes, Misses Kate Chaffin, Hattie Dudley and Lucy Brown. 180 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. THE ARLINGTON CLUB was organized Jan. i, 1886. Its membership is limited to married men under thirty-seven years of age. It is a bene- ficial as well as a social organization and has a fund from which a benefit of fifty dollars is paid upon the death of a member, or twenty-five dollars upon the death of the wife of a member. Frederick Ryan was instrumental in securing the organization of the Club and was its first president. The present officers are : Presidents Thomas H. Doherty, Vice-Presidents, Charles Smith, J. F. Ward ; Rccordiiig Secretary, William Ryan ; Financial Secretary, Joseph Flynn ; Treasurer, Frederick Ryan. Board of Directors — T. H. Doherty, John Screenan, Bernard H. Flaherty. Sick Coinniittce — Michael Kennedy, John Mally, Michael Lynch. Sergeant-at-Arnis, Michael Kennedy. THE PINE TREE CLUB held its first meeting- at the office of Colonel E. P. Loring on the evening of Nov. 30, 1886, at which time thirteen per- sons gave in their names for a permanent organization. It was quite a surprise party, as friends and neighbors met that had known each other for years in this city and learned for the first time that they were not strangers in their native state of Maine. The following persons were present on that occasion : E. P. Loring, Norridgewock ; B. G. Bagley, Clinton; Mrs. H. M. Francis, Skowhegan ; Dr. Francis B. J03', Starks ; Seth E. Brigham, Bridgeton ; Joseph T. Goodwin, Dresden ; William R. Deering, Saco ; Sumner E. Bo^^■man, Norridge- wock : James M. Appleby, Canaan ; John A. Whitcomb, Biddeford ; Samuel T. Johnson, Windham ; Henry M. Saunders, Wiscassett ; Henrv B. Dyer, New Sharon. CHAPTER IX. PAPER MAKING. Si^ ^C^ ^H^i ^ "^■M w^^^ ifm 1^ l^^^^^P^lkl 1^:%^1^.gf|^ APER-MAKING, which is one of the most vahiable industries of Fitchburg, was commenced in a mill built by Thomas French, on the site of the Rollstone Machine Company's works on Water street, and was owned by Gen. Leonard Burbank. It was after- ward owned by Crocker and Gardner, ^ and later by Alvah Crocker. The second paper-mill was built by A. Crocker & Co., in West Fitchburg, on the present site of the Rodney Wal- lace middle mill. Being successful, Alvah Crocker began to increase his business and took Gardner S. Burbank into com- pany with him. The firm of Crocker, Burbank & Co. was formed in 1850. They soon began to enlarge their business, building and purchasing new mills until, at the present time, the firm owns six large mills : The Cascade Mill, built in 1847 ; the Upton Mill, on the road to William Woodbury's, built in 185 1 ; the Hanna Mill, built in 1852 ; the Lyon Mill, in Rockville, built in 1853 ; the Whitney Mill, also in Rock- ville, built in 1847 ; and the Stone Mill, below the Snow and Cascade Mills, built in 1854. Mr. Crocker's native place was Leominster, his parents poor, his father being a vatman in the Nichols and Kendall paper-mills, and there at the age of eight years, Alvah was put to work. His habits of industry and economy, and de- sire for knowledge were early manifested, and his plans per- sistently carried out in spite of difficulties. His employer's 182 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. library furnished the first source of book knowledge, and his inquiring turn of mind led him to make the most of his sur- roundings for the acquisition of practical ideas. At the age of sixteen, he had saved fifty dollars with which he entered Groton Academy, and remained until he was obliged to leave to obtain more money. Not receiving encouragement from his father, he gave up all ideas of get- ting a college education, and made the most of his limited opportunities, managing in one way or another to obtain OFFICE OF CROCKER, BURBANK & CO. books and continue his studies outside of his regular hours of labor. In 1820, he went to work in a paper-mill in Franklin, N. H., and in 1823, removed to this city and entered the em- ploy of Gen. Leonard Burbank, the pioneer paper-maker of Fitchburg. Three years later, becoming dissatisfied with working for wages, and impelled by his active and ambitious spirit, we find him embarking in business for himself. Se- lecting a spot of land, in West Fitchburg, he built, with the PAPER MAKING. 183 aid of borrowed capital, his first paper-mill, its location be- ing in a birch swamp, and not easily accessible as the river road was not then built. In addition to the natural disadvantages of location, soon after starting, changes had to be made from hand labor to machinery, in order to compete successfully with other mills, and to add to his difficulties, the mill building was injured by a freshet, calling for expensive repairs. The times were hard, threatening financial disaster, but through it all he worked on with untiring energy, hopeful and determined. C.F- THE "brick" mill. and finally weathered the storm. Some idea of the obstacles he encountered at this time may be learned from the fact that he then owed twelve thousand dollars on his original invest- ment, and an expenditure often thousand dollars had to be made for machinery, beside the amount due his commission agents. Up to this time, he had sent his product to a com- mission house in Boston, as an offset to rags and chemicals used, and the returns made by them showed that some of his paper had been sold, but much of it had not, and they in- formed him "they had concluded not to guarantee," having against him a balance of $4,000 in their favor; this, although not due, was loudly and unscrupulously called tor. There 184 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. was but one course open for him to pursue. He began to sell his paper directly to consumers, opening accounts, with yearly settlements onhs for what stock he wanted, through- out the country, working month after month by day, and frequently taking his product to Boston by night, working incessantly to pay back debt and interest. In 1834 Mr. Crocker was employed by the town to get a road further up the Nashua river, but meeting with opposi- tion by the landholders, he bought the whole Nashua valley to the Westminster line, gave the land for the road, and by THE "STONE MILL. this investment laid the foundation of financial success. All the mills of Crocker, Burbank & Co. have since been located in this valley. In all of the interests of the city with which Mr. Crocker became identified, he exhibited the same rare business sa- gacity and foresight shown in the management of his private aflairs. He saw that whatever would increase the business facilities of the city and build it up would benefit the individ- ual as well, and pay for all the effort necessary to its accom- plishment. At this time Fitchburo- was without railroad communica- tion with the outside world, and Mr. Crocker bent his ener- PAPER MAKING. 185 gies to tlie t^ecuring of a railroad from Boston to Fitchburg. In the prosecution of this work, he went, in 1836, to tlie leg- islature and began to publicly advocate the measure. His first idea was to secure a branch road either from Lowell or Worcester, but later, in 1842, he came out boldly in favor of a direct line from Boston to Fitchburg, and in spite of all op- position and ridicule, the Fitchburg Railroad was built. March 5th, 1845, Mr. Crocker rode into Fitchburg on the first locomotive, and was the first president of the road. The first (stone) depot was built on land owned by Mr. Crocker. THE "HANNA" mill. It was thought by many who favored a difl?erent location, that the railroad could not be extended farther west on ac- count of the heavy grade, but three years afterwards, the Vermont & Massachusetts Railroad was in running condi- tion, with x\lvah Crocker tor its first President. Mr. Crocker was afterwards actively engaged in railroad operations, es- pecially in the Troy & Boston, and in the completion of the Hoosac Tunnel. In 1847 and 1848, he delivered several hundred lectures in their behalf, doing probably more than any other man in the state, to insure the completion of the Tunnel, and was one of the commissioners when the work was put into the hands of the state. 18G FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. In January, 1872, he was chosen Representative to Con- gress from the ninth district, was afterwards re-elected, and was a member at the time of his death which took place Dec. 30th, 1874. Beside the railroad enterprises to which so much of his public life was devoted, a greater work was undertaken at Turners Falls, which however was left unfinished at his death. The magical rise and growth of that place was due to his sagacious energy and enterprise. While searching for a more direct railway route between Millers Falls and THE "LYON AND WHITNEY Greenfield than the one pursued by the Vermont & Massa- chusetts railroad, he saw the magnificent water powder possessed by the Connecticut river at Turners Falls and rightly concluded that nature had thus furnished the means at hand for a great manufacturing city. He entered at once, with his characteristic promptness, upon the prosecution of his scheme, w^hich, to the exclusion of nearly every other in- terest, took possession of his mind at that time. In company with other capitalists the Turners Falls Company was or- ganized for the purpose of controlling and utilizing the water power at that point. They purchased largely of land lying on the river front near the falls, and a dam having a fall of PAPER MA KINO. 187 thirty feet and a capacity of 30,000 horse-power was built. From that time until the close of his life, the daring projector worked hard for the prosperity of the enterprise, spending large sums of money in promoting its interests. It was his ambition to make Turners Falls not only rival Lowell, Holyoke and other large manufacturing centres, but to pass by and above them. What he would have accomplished for the place, had he been spared to test his energies to the full, no one can say, but estimating the probable results of the future trom the great attainments he had effected in the few years he was permitted to devote to the task, it cannot be denied that he would have left Turners Falls as a splendid monument to his greatness. While directing his energies to the consummation of this great work, he was not unmindful of his own city and labored steadily and persistently to secure needed improve- ments, being largely interested in getting a w^ater supph'. During the war for the preservation of the Union Mr. Crocker was a staunch patriot, a strong S3'mpathizer with the national government, and a liberal donor of time and monev to the triumph of the great and good cause. Governor Andrew entrusted him with the honorable duty of caring for the wounded Massachusetts soldiers, and more than one patriot can testify that when the funds were not available for the relief of his need, the money of Mr. Crocker was at once and judiciously drawn upon to convey the aid desired. RODNEY WALLACE PAPER MILLS. In 1853 Rodney Wallace came to Fitchburg and entered upon his business life. He formed a co-partnership with Stephen Shepley, known as Shepley & Wallace. They were wholesale dealers in books, stationery, paper stock and cotton waste. This firm continued under the name of Shepley & Wallace, and R. Wallace & Co., till July i, 1865. On this day the firm was dissolved and the business was divided. Mr. Wallace took the department of paper stock and cotton waste, which he still carries on. To what pro- 188 FITCIIBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. portions it has grown under his management, may be judged from the fact that the business done amounts at least to $200,000 a year. December 31, 1864, Stephen Shepley, Benjamin Snow and Rodney Wallace bought the Lyon Paper Mill and the Kimball Scythe Shops at West Fitchburg, and began the manufacture of paper, under the name of the Fitchburg Paper Company. Stephen E. Denton was taken into the firm as a partner soon after. He had charge of the business at the mill. In July, 1865, Rodney Wallace and Benjamin Snow bought the interest of Stephen Shepley ; and the Fitch- burg Paper Company was then Wallace, Snow and Denton. Mr. Denton died in June, 1868. January 7, 1869, Mr. Wallace bought the interest of Mr. Snow, and Jan. 23 of the same year, he bought the interest of Mr. Denton's estate of his widow, who was at that time residin"; in New York. From that date till the present the Fitchburg Paper Company is Rodney Wallace. He retains the old firm name. His two sons, Herbert I. Wallace and George R. Wallace, are associated with their father in the management of his busi- ness. The former is a graduate of Harvard in the class of 1877. The latter of the Institute of Technology in Boston. Since becoming sole owner Mr. Wallace has added largely to the original property. A neat village has sprung up around his mills. He has put in a substantial stone dam at great expense and in 1878 he erected a new brick mill, with all the modern improvements, doubling the capacity of the establishment. Just across the Nashua river is the Fitchburg railroad. He has a freight station of his own, where he re- ceives all his freight and ships all his paper. During the past year he has completed another large mill in West Fitchburg, greatly increasing his facilities for business. The present capacity of the mills is from thirty to forty thousand pounds per day of hanging, coloring and lithographing paper. Aside from his own business, which makes large drafts upon his time, strength and thought, Mr. Wallace has been closely identified with numerous other corporate and mone- '^2:^^^ ^^a.^^^6C^^ PAPER MAKING. l<Sil tary interests. He has thus had a large share in contributing to the growth and prosperity of the city. Since 1864 he has been president and director of the Fitchburg Gas Company ; a director of the Putnam Ma- chine Company since the same year ; a director of the Fitch- burg National Bank since 1866 ; a partner in the Fitchburg Woolen Mills since 1867 ; a trustee of Smith College since 1878. He is a director of the Fitchburg Mutual Fire Insur- ance Company ; a trustee of the Fitchburg Savings Bank ; a director of the Fitchburg Railroad ; a director of the Park- hill Manufacturing Company. Besides these he has had the settlement of large and important estates. We would especially note the large estate of the late Ephraim Mur- dock, Jr., of Winchendon, and that of the late Hon. William H. Vose, of Fitchburg. In 1873 he was representative to the General Court, to which office he was elected in the fall of 1872, by nearly every ballot cast. He was re-nominated the next year, without dissent or opposition, but declined a re-election on account of ill-health. While a member of the legislature he was on the committee on manufactures, a position which his ability and experience fitted him to fill. The most conspicu- ous political office he has held is that of Councillor. While holding that position he represented one of the largest and most important districts in the state. In it are included the thriving city of Worcester and the sister city of Fitchburg, which, with their varied industries, needed a man of large and ripe judgment to represent them. He served three years, during 1880, 1881 and 1882, or throughout the entire administration of Gov. Long. While in the Council he was, a member of the following important committees : On par- dons, on harbors and public lands, on military affairs, and on warrants. At the close of Gov. Long's administration he refused to allow further use of his name for the office he had so ably filled for three years, and celebrated his retirement from this position as a servant of the public by a brilliant reception tendered to Gov. Long, in the city hall, Fitchburg, Decem- ber 7, 1882. VJO FITCIIBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. Largely through the influence of Mr. Walhice, various iinjirovements have been made in Fitchburg which contribute to its attractiveness. Prominent mention may be made of the beautiful union railway station at Fitchburg, in securing its erection and in planning which he was largely instru- mental. But the most conspicuous act, by which he showed his public spirit and generosity of purpose as a citizen, was his gift to the city of Fitchburg of the beautiful public library which by vote of the city government is called by his name. This act of beneficence secures to the city for all coming time a "people's college,*' where the child of the poorest as well as of the richest, the toiler as well as the man of leisure, may get a very important education. No one knows better the educational needs of the people, and the gift therefore seems all the more appropriate, coming from Mr. Wallace. His early life was spent among the hills of New Hampshire. At twelve years of age he started out to make his wav in the world. He let himself to a farmer for forty dollars tor the first year, with the privilege of attending school eight weeks in the winter. That first forty dollars he earned was the beginning of a large fortune, and the eight weeks of schooling of that winter on the farm was the be- ginning of a knowledge gleaned here and there as opportu- nity offered, which has fitted him for prominent positions of trust and responsibility. At an early age (sixteen) he was charged with the responsibilit}' of driving freight teams from Bellows Falls, Vt., and Rindge to Boston, returning with loads of merchandise, taking his first lessons in the school of business, in which he proved an apt scholar. In 1843, at the age of twenty, he entered the employ of Dr. Stephen Jevvett. The energy which young Wallace had already shown induced Mr. Jewett to put the whole business of selling his medicines into his hands. In selling these medicines he traveled over five of the New England states, becoming acquainted with the topography of these states and the location of all their important places. Such were the beginnings of a business career of great prosperity. It was in these ways that he got his start in life, and in these lesser 'lui,. '"ll 192 FITCIIBURG, PAST A.ND PRESENT. employments he proved himself worthy of and equal to the greater tasks yet before him. THE WHEELWRIGHT PAPER COMPANY MILL. The paper-mill of George W. Wheelwright & Son was built in 1864, and the manufacture of paper commenced the same year. The mill is located on Fourth street and has a capacity of 10,000 pounds of book paper per day. The office of the company is in Boston. Officers : George W. Wheel- wright, president; H. T. Page, vice-president; T. E. Blake, treasurer. THE FALULAH PAPER COMPANY MILL. The mill of the Falulah Paper Company is located in South Fitchburg, on the site of the old scythe manufactory of A. P. Kimball and John Chandler, which was built in 1848, and where Edwin Richardson commenced his scythe business in 1852, continuing for twenty-five years. The present mill was built by the Snow Paper Company and passed into the hands of the Falulah Paper Company in October, 1886. The capacity of the mill is about six thou- sand pounds of manilla paper per day. The members of the firm are S. L. and A. N. Lowe. CHAPTER X. MANUFACTURING. [li|Mip'^i.™=:~''Ni|HE starling of the Parkhill Manufacturing ■jMpliill iiiiiil Company marks an era in the History of 5^^iS==^il Irl^li^,, ritchburfj and its industries, it brouoiit ■■■11 liSilili '^" entirely new enterprise to the place, IJili'J'i'BJlli'yPi ^jH? lor, previous to this, cotton manufacturing ■lil iiliH iiliMliliyili was not a leading industry, although one ■■illlBilBll^iBBIi r ,^ r. , ,, -u • i r 01 the hrst cotton mills m the country was built in Fitchburg. The Parkhill enter- prise brought in a new class of workers "~"~' and stimulated the growth of the place to a remarkable extent. Its success encouraged the starting of the Cle<yhorn mills and later the Orswell mills. At the time the Parkhill mill was put in operation it was unusual to start mills for weaving only, and many predicted the failure of the experiment, notwithstanding the fact that it was customary for weaving mills in England to buy their yarns. The success of this concern has been closely watched by many who are interested in the cotton industry. The firm was formed in the fall of 1879 '"^^^ ^^'^'^ composed of John Parkhill, Thomas R. B. Dole and Arthur H. Lowe. Mr. Parkhill, having had practical experience in cotton manufacturing, assumed the position of superintendent of the mill. Mr. Dole was at the time connected with the Fitch- burg National Bank and he was made treasurer and broker. Mr. Lowe, who had had an extensive business experience, assumed the business management. They bought of Alonzo 13 194 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. Davis (who rendered valuable encouragement to the new enterprise) his chair shop property on Circle street. New machinery was put in to the extent of thirty looms, and the mill was started as a colored cotton weaving mill about the middle of February, 1880. The company continued as a co-partnership until January, 1882, when a corporation was organized with $100,000 capital. With increased capital the business was enlarged to meet the demands for its products, an addition was built, 135x35 feet, two stories. The next season this was made three stories and additional looms PARKHILL MANUFACTURING COMPANY'S MILLS, CIRCLE STREET. were put in. Another building, 150x55 feet, three stories, together with a new engine-house, was built, and this season, 1887, a new dye house, 140x55 feet, two stories, and a new steam chimney have been added. In addition to what has been done on Circle street the company have bought the Fitchburg woolen mill property and have converted it into a cotton mill, thus restoring- to the lirst mill built in Fitchburg its original industry. These improvements and additions show^ the continuous growth and enterprise of this concern. By November i the company will have grow-n from its small MANUFACTURING. 195 beginning to have about one thousand looms, will employ about four hundred and lifty hands, and annually pay its employes about $250,000, with a production of about 9,000,000 yards of cloth. They make the justly celebrated Toilc du Nord goods, and their success attests the care, per- severance and enterprise of its management. A sketch of John Parkhill, president, will be found in the city government chapter. Arthur H. Lowe, treasurer and general manager, is a son of John Lowe, and was born in Rindge, N. H., in 1853. At the age of about two years he came to Fitchburg, where PARKHILL MANUFACTURLVG COMPANY S MILLS, FACTORY SQUARE. he has since made his home ; was educated in our public schools, leaving the high school before graduating to assist his father. At majority he became partner, with his brothers, in the firm of L A. Lowe & Co., and continued with them till he became connected with the mill business. He was foremost in starting the Cleghorn mills, and at its organiza- tion, he was made treasurer and general manager. In 1S86 he became a partner of Lowe Bros., and is also a director of the Fitchburg National Bank and a trustee of the Fitchburg Savings Bank. 196 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. CLEGHORN MILLS is an incorporated company having a capital stock of $100,000. Its officers are Andrew Cleghorn, president and superintendent; Arthur H. Lowe, treasurer. The directory consists of Andrew Cleghorn, Arthur H. Lowe, George F. Fay, John H. Daniels, D. M. Dillon, George Crocker and George R. Wallace. The mills are located in the western part of the city, and embrace a substantial brick structure 170 by 60 feet, four stories, and an annex of wood 170 by 60 feet, two stories. The mills began operation in December, CLEGHORN MILLS. 1885. The product is fine dress goods, and about 225 per- sons are employed. A spur track connects the mills with the main line of the Fitchburg railroad and Hoosac Tunnel line. The product of Cleghorn Mills embraces the most recherche novelties, entirely different from the product of most any other manufacture. Mr. Cleghorn, the superintendent of the mills, has been engaged in manufacturing since boyhood, and understands every detail of the cotton business. He was born near Glas- gow, in Scotland, came to this country and located in MANUFACTURING. 197 Adams, Mass., in 1848, where he remained until he removed to North Adams in 1862. From there he came to Fitchburg in 1885. THE ORSWELL MILL is the latest addition to the industries of Fitchburg, its loca- tion is on River street, bordering on the Fitchburg railroad. Ground was broken lor the mill May i, 1886, and a sub- stantial brick building 346 by 78 feet, four stories, built. The product is tine numbers of cotton yarn. The capac- ity ot the mill is 20,000 spindles ca- pable of producing 24,000 pounds of yarn per week. The capital is at present $150,000. Its officers are ORSWELL MILL. Warren M. Ors- well, president and general manager; W. F. Stiles, treas- urer. Mr. Orswell has long been engaged in the manufacture of cotton yarn elsewhere, and with his practical knowledge of the business and executive ability has already made the Orswell mill one of the leading industries of Fitchburg. THE FITCHBURG COTTON MILL, located on Main street, better known as the Pitts Mill, is used for the manufacture of cotton and carpet warps, batting, twine, etc. This enterprise was founded in 1867 by Mr. H. W. Pitts, who, on the fourth of February, 1882, was suc- ceeded by his son, the present proprietor, Mr. B. Marshall Pitts. The plant comprises five buildings, the main one being a four story brick structure 50 by 100 feet in dimensions. The machinery is operated by w^ater power, and an engine 198 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. and boilers, each of one hundred horse power, are brought into service when the water supply proves deficient. The mill has a capacity for producing sixty thousand pounds of warp per month and ninet}- hands are needed to carry on the operations of the concern. THE FITCHBURG DUCK MILL, near Water street, South Fitchburg, is engaged in the manu- facture of cotton duck. The mill is owned by David Nevins. Samuel Clough is treasurer, and Thomas H. Clark, agent. James McTaggart, Jr., began the manutacture of fancy cassimeres at the Berwick mills, in West Fitchburg. This plant comprises three buildings, the main one being a three-story frame and brick structure, 40x100 feet in dimen- sions and equipped with the necessary machinery. The driving force is furnished by water and steam. The demand for the product of his mill induced the pro- prietor, in January, 1886, to increase his facilities for pro- duction. He accordingly acquired possession of Baltic mills, located about a quarter of a mile from Berwick mill. The product of these mills embrace a tine line of fancy cassimeres for men's wear. The leading representative of the woolen business is James Phillips, Jr. Mr. Phillips is the owner of the Wachusett Mills, in West Fitchburg, which were built in 1864 and purchased in 1872 by Rockwell & Phillips. At this time the mills contained but twelve looms. In 1875 ^I'*- Phillips became sole proprietor, and the business has steadily grown until now the mills give employment to nearly four hundred hands and contain one hundred and fifty broad looms, w^eaving worsted coatings and suitings, the annual product amounting to over $1,000,000. MANUFACTURING. 199 The Fitchburg Worsted Company, at South Fitch- burg, was incorporated, in 1880 with a capital of $250,000 — James Phillips, Jr., president, and George N. Proctor, treasurer. This concern manufactures worsted suitings, operating two hundred and fifty narrow looms, turning out $1,000,000 worth of goods per year, and employing three hundred and seventy-five operatives. THE FITCHBURG WORSTED COMPANY S MILL. The Star Worsted Company began operation in 1882 and occupy a mill on West street — ^James Phillips, Jr., presi- dent, and George N. Proctor, treasurer. They employ one hundred and twenty-five hands in the manufacture of worsted yarn. Six Noble combs are operated, the product aggre- gating $400,000 annually, which is all used by the Fitchburg Worsted Company and James Phillips, Jr. The cloth of these mills is all of high grade and is considered equal to any manufactured in the United States. 200 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. The first establishment in Fitchburg for the manufacture of shoes, by machinery, was that of E. M. Dickinson & Co. Mr. Dickinson was born in Northfield, Mass., Aug. i, 1816 ; was educated in the public schools and worked on a farm until he was twenty-two, when he went to Marlboro, Mass., in 1838 ; commenced making shoes in Marlboro in 1842. In 1854 ^^^ removed to Fitchburg and continued the same business, on the corner of Main and Laurel streets. Soon after he built a shop on Oliver street, where he remained for six years. During this time but little machinery was used, most of the w^ork being done by hand. About i860 he moved into S. F. Atherton's building, in Newton lane, and commenced the use of machinery. Here he remained about ten years making ladies', misses' and children's pegged shoes, and then moved into the building owned by the Simonds' Manufacturing Company, on Main street, where he continued to manulacture until 1881 when E. M. DICKINSON & CO. S SHOE MANUFACTORY. he built the four-story brick factory, corner of Main and North streets, which the company now occupies. The firm is composed of E. M. Dickinson and his son, C. P. Dickin- son, who has been associated with him for ten years. They manufacture a grade of misses' and children's fine boots and shoes, which are sold principally in the west and northwest. The capacit}' of their present factory is fifteen hundred pairs per day, and they employ from one hundred to one hundred and fifty hands. E. M. DICKINSON. MANUFACTURING. 201 The Messrs. Dickinson are also owners of the Sole Leather Tip Company, located in the same building with their shoe factory. This business consists in the manufac- ture of sole leather tips, the tip which is most universally applied to children's shoes to-day. They are the only parties who produce tips from the rough leather, and are the largest manufacturers in the trade, sending their goods to shoe manufacturers all over the United States and into Canada. Their product is several million pairs annually, cutting up over fifteen thousand sides of leather. Mr. E. M. Dickinson, the senior member of the firm, has for more than thirty years been identified with the various^in- terests of Fitchburg. He was on the first board of aldermen when the city government was organized in 1872, and a director in the Safety Fund National Bank from its organiza- tion. THE FITCHBURG SHOE TIP CO., incorporated in 1884, with a capital of $30,000. Henry A. Willis, president; treasurer and manager, E. F. Belding. Manufacture sole leather tips for youths', misses' and chil- dren's shoes. They do an extensive business in these specialties and sell to many of the leading shoe manufacturers in New England, Southern and Western states. Mr. Beld- ing was one of the first manufacturers to introduce these tips to the trade, and for over eight years has been engaged largely in the manufacture and sale of them. The company own valuable patented machinery built ex- pressly for the manufacture of these tips. The leather from which the tips are made, and of which they use many thousand sides a year, is all finished expressl}^ for them. The Boston office of this company is at 112 Summer street. E. F. BELDING & CO., manufacturers of misses', youths' and children's boots and shoes, 106 Water street. Mr. Belding is the only one in this company. He commenced manufacturing shoes in 202 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. Fitchburg about ten years ago ; was associated as a partner with others tor eight years and Nov. i, 1885, started a shoe factory at 106 Water street, where he is making a fine grade of misses' and children's shoes. He employs from 75 to 80 workmen and makes about 700 pairs of shoes a day. His business is growing rapidly and he intends building a factory which will double his present capacity. He has an office at 112 Summer street, Boston. THE WALTER HEYWOOD CHAIR MANUFACTURING CO. works, located on River street, comprise three main build- ings, two of which are 300 feet by 50 feet, and one 300 feet by 40 feet, each factory being two stories with an attic. There is also a building for office and store rooms, a boiler house and sheds. The premises of the company extend over an area of about nine acres. A railroad track, belonging to the company, a quarter of a mile long, connects the premises with the main track of the Fitchburg railroad, every thing is arranged for convenience and economy in doing business. The corporation was originally the Walter Heywood Chair Co., but in order to settle the estate of Walter Heywood in 1885, the company sold out to the Walter Heywood Chair Manufacturing Co., the business continuing as before, with all the old members remaining in the firm, and is at present conducted by L. Williams, president, and George H. Spencer, treasurer. Walter Heywood, founder of the Walter Heywood Chair Co., was one of the pioneers in the chair business of the country. He was born in Gardner, Mass., where he early began the manufacture of chairs. In 1841 he gave up his business in Gardner and removed to Fitchburg. In com- pany with Leander P. Comee he, in 1842, built the block on Main street, more recently known as Sprague & Comee's block, and in 1842 the firm opened a store for the sale of dry goods, groceries, hardware and other merchandise at the sales rooms now occupied by L. Sprague & Co. In the fall of 1844 the firm hired a part of the "Old Red Mill" on West / -• Nvdtv^% MANUFACTURING. 203 street, afterward used as a cotton factory by H. W. Pitts & Son, and commenced to manufacture chairs employing about ten hands. In 1846 the chair business was removed to the upper story of a new building which Alvah Crocker had erected on Water street on the spot now occupied by the Fitchburg Steam Engine company's shop. This shop was burned Dec. 7, 1849, and the firm lost heavily by the fire. The partnership was then dissolved and Mr. Heywood di- rected his whole attention to the manufacture of chairs. Mr. Crocker erected a new building 130 by 40 (eat, and three stories high, on the site of the burned shop and Mr. Hey- wood hired the whole of the new building. In 1852 he received as partners Alton Blodgett, who had entered his employ in 1833 and who continued a member of the company, till his death, Sept. 19, 1878 ; Lovell Williams, still a member of the company, and George E. Towne, who continued with the company till 1874, when he disposed of his interest to H. A. Blood. G. H. Spencer the present superintendent of the works, was admitted to the firm in 1864. Soon after the new company was formed they erected two large buildings in the rear of the shop, on land leased of Mr. Crocker and with increased facilities they greatly en- larged their business. In 1856 the firm opened a foreign trade which eventually extended to England and the conti- nent of Europe, the West Indies, South America, Australia, New Zealand, Africa, China and Japan. The Walter Heywood Chair Co. was organized as a stock company under a special act of the legislature. May 31, 1869, with a capital of $240,000. On the night of July 21, 1870, the most destructive conflagration that ever visited Fitchburg laid the entire establishment in ruins. Fortunately the loss on the chair company's property was fully covered by insurance and preparations were made, shortly after the fire, to rebuild the works. A lot of land on River street was at length purchased, and the present commodious buildings were erected. As the result of close application to business Mr. Hey- wood accumulated a handsome property. He m.ade large 204 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. investments in tlie manufacturing interests of the city, and his counsel was sought in the management of concerns in which he was interested. He was formerly one of the largest stockholders in the Putnam Machine company and a director from 1867 to the time of his decease. In 1866 he purchased an interest in the Fitchburg Iron Foundry and at his death was senior member of the firm of Heywood, Wilson & Co. He was a director of the Fitchburg Machine Company from 1870 until his death, and a partner in the Fitchburg Machine Works from its organization in 1877. He was a director of the Burleigh Rock Drill Company from its organization in 1867, a director of the Fitchburg State or National Bank for thirty-seven years, a trustee of the Fitch- burg Savings Bank from its organization until June, 1877. He was also town treasurer of Gardner from 1834 till his removal to Fitchburg in 1841. His success in business was the growth of patient years of toil rather than any series of brilliant exploits. He was no adventurer in doubtful projects, but his energies and his counsels were always in the line of discretion and prudence. If ever his judgment was waived in business matters, it was generally observed, in the end, that his views were sound and reliable, and would have yielded the largest measure of success. He was plain and unostentatious, solving his problems by a careful process of reasoning, rather than by jumping at conclusions. He was conservative, persevering^ yet ener- getic and thorough in everything he undertook. From the one horse load of chairs which he made in 1824, his business grew until he was president of one of the largest chair manu- facturing establishments in the world. Mr. Heywood was fortunate in calling around him a class of men who rendered great assistance in the management of the extensive business. His associates, with few exceptions, grew up with the busi- ness under his training. MANUFACTURING. 205 FITCHBURG CARBONIZED STONE AND TIPE COMPANY, located oh North street, near Main, was incorporated in 1882, with a capital stock of $5,000, for the manufacture of artificial stone and brick for building purposes, drain pipe, vases, paving stones, carriage blocks, etc. This compan}^ furnished material for the Knights of Honor and Dickinson's blocks, new Universalist and new Methodist churches, residences of E. N. Choate and U. E. Cleveland, and many other public and private buildings in the city. The officers are A. N. Lowe, president; S. S. Law- rence, vice-president, and A. B. Peck, treasurer and super- intendent. EDWIN A. GOODRICH, BRICK MANUFACTURER, owns and operates three brick yards in Fitchburg, — one lo- cated at South Fitchburg, one on Summer street, and the other in the northwesterly part of the town, and known as the Pound hill brick yard. During the present year, 1887, owing to the increase in building operations, the production of the three yards is greatly in exxess of any previous year. Outside of his manufacturing business, Mr. Goodrich has been for several years an active member of the Worcester North Agricultural Society, and was at one time its execu- tive officer. He also served the city as alderman in 1879. CHAPTER XI. IRON INDUSTRIES. x\CHINERY manufacturing was first begun in Fitchburg in 1838 by two brothers, Salmon W. and John Putnam, their business being mainly in repairs and only furnished work for the two brothers, but important changes were brought about in the construction of their machinery which soon created a demand for their productions and increased their business accordingly. While in the midst of a growing business the machine shop with all its contents was destroyed by lire on the seventh of December, 1849, occasioning a loss of $12,000, without insurance. Notwithstanding the severity of this loss the debts were all promptly paid and the next year the shop w^as rebuilt and put in running order. In 1858, Salmon W. Putnam secured the organization and incorporation of the Putnam Machine Company of which he was chosen president and general business manager. From the first he showed himself thoroughly competent to guide and control the affairs of this large business. He w^as not only an enterprising business man, but was naturally en- dowed for this business, being in the third generation of iron and steel workers. He was early schooled in a life of self- reliance, beginning as he did at eight years of age to earn his own living, as "bobbin boy" in a cotton factory, and ob- taining his education of three terms schooling with money_he ^-^^^^-z IRON INDUSTRIES. 207 had contrived to save from his small earnings, jind afterwards devoting what he could afford to the purchase of substantial and useful books, such as would best contribute to his ad- vancement and success. At the time of the incorporation of the company, the cap- ital stock, which was originally forty thousand dollars, was increased to one hundred and sixty thousand dollars, after- wards with a surplus of three hundred and twenty thousand dollars. The business having outgrown the capacity of the old shop of the Putnam Machine Co. on Water street, they were forced to locate elsewhere. Accordingly having pur- chased sufficient land, amounting in all to some twent3^-six acres, they began, in July, 1866, the building of their present extensive works at a cost of over two hundred thousand dol- lars. The arrangement of the buildings and machinery was devised throughout to ensure facility, effectiveness and econ- omy of operation. The main machine shop, in which the working tools are located, is a building of brick, one story high, running north and south, six hundred and twenty-five feet long and forty-eight feet wide, supported in the centre by thirty-five iron columns upon which the main line of shafting for driving the entire machinery is fastened. The building is devoted to seven different departments of w^ork but is with- out partition or obstruction to the sight from end to end. It is lighted by two hundred and eighty-four large windows, five hundred gas burners, and heated by over six miles of steam-pipe, and has a floor room of thirty-seven thousand square feet. From its west side extend seven wings, six of them being fitty-two by thirty-six feet and one fifty-two by forty-lbur feet, each of these being devoted to the setting up and delivery of machinery made in the corresponding department, and are all furnished with powerful cranes for handling the heavier articles, while between the wings are spaces for the tempo- rary accommodation of castings used in each department. Extending from the east side of the main building are five small wings, twelve feet square, suitabl}^ fitted up as offices 208 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. for the foremen of the various departments. The hirge wings are furnished with folding doors opening into a road- way which extends the whole length of the shops to the main line of the Fitchburg Railroad and Hoosac Tunnel line which passes by the southern end of the company's works, so that a machine, when complete, can readily be transferred to the cars and freighted without delay to its destination. At the extreme south end and connected with the main machine WORKS OF THE PUTNAM IMACHINE COMPANY, shop is located the blacksmith shop with its forges and heavy hammers. The power used in driving the machinery of the works is three large, powerful, automatic cut-off steam-engines, of their own manufacture. Parallel with the main machine shop, and divided from it by the roadvva}' on the west side, are located the several iron and brass foundries, pattern and box shops, store-house, and other buildings for various purposes, all arranged systemati- cally for the saving of labor and convenience of supervision. IRON INDUSTRIES. 209 The classes of machines manufactured are known and termed machine shop and special railroad tools. It may be mentioned as an indication of the extent of their business, that the first two fully equipped machine shops in China w^ere furnished throughout by them with engines, shafting and hangers, lathes, planers, drills and other tools complete. For fourteen years after its incorporation, until his death, Feb. 23, 1872, Salmon W. Putnam continued to conduct the affairs of the company with signal ability, and such was the place he held in the estimation of his fellow-citizens that on the day of his funeral business was generally suspended. Since the death of the lather the four sons who survive him have been actively engaged in the business of the com- pany. Charles F. Putnam was elected as president and financier, to succeed his tather in the general management of the company; Salmon W. Putnam, Jr., as superintendent designer of the company, having in charge the pre-arrange- ment, designing and mechanical construction of the different kinds of machinery made by the company ; Henry O. Put- nam, as superintendent of that department of manufacture devoted to the building of special tools ; and George E. Put- nam, the youngest son, engaged in the office affairs of the company in connection with his brother, the president. Under the management of the sons the business has con- tinued to prosper, and, with the exception of the short period of business stagnation in 1873, the company has run its entire works with nearly its full complement of men. In 18S2 the Putnam Tool Company on Walnut street was founded, with Salmon W. Putnam, Jr., as president, and George E. Putnam, treasurer. Four years later, March 18, 1886, the Putnam Machine Co. and the Putnam Tool Co. were consolidated under the title of Putnam Machine Co., a controlling interest being vested in the four brothers and their mother. The works now have a capacity for over 500 hands. A New York house is maintained at 115 Liberty street, as an exhibiting and distributing establishment, by the company. The Putnam Machine Co. is officered as follows : Ch'Urles F. 14 210 FITCIIBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. Putnam, president; S. W. Putnam, vice-president; Henry O. Putnam, treasurer; George E. Putnam, general superin- tendent; Henr}' Allison, secretary. Directors — Rodney Wallace, Henry Allison, Frank Leighton, Henry O. Putnam, S. W. Putnam, Charles F. Putnam and George E. Putnam. THE FITCHBURG MACHINE COMPANY. The works of this company are located near the foot of Main street, opposite the Brown Engine Works. Every class of iron working machinery designated as machinists' tools is manufactured by them, including engine lathes, wagon axle lathes, iron planers, drill presses, shaping ma- chines, and so forth. Mr. J. L. Chapman is superintendent and treasurer of the company, and upon him devolves the general management of the works. Mr. Chapman came to Fitchburg in the spring of 1864, and commenced the manufacture of tools in Atherton's block, so called, in Newton lane, in company with S. C. Wright, under the firm name of S. C. Wright & Co. This was a most untavorable time for the starting of such an enterprise, there being a great scarcity of machinery, while the price of labor and material was much increased by reason of the war then in progress. The outfit of the shop consisted of the fol- lowing tools to start with : An old chain lathe, bought out of the Old Stone Cotton Mill, (now owned by Joseph Cush- ing,) and of which Jonathan Gill was then superintendent; an old chain planer, from out of a country blacksmith and machine shop in Townsend ; a second-hand Gould shaping machine, bought in Newark, N. J. ; an old pattern maker's lathe, and a second-hand engine lathe, out of an old shop in Newton lane, which was remodelled before it could be used. This list of machinery included everything that could be purchased at that time. The firm then employed but four men. They immediately went to work and made their own patterns and tools. After remaining about a year in Newton lane they moved 212 FITCIIBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. in 1865 into the building on the corner of Main and Laurel streets, now occupied by I. C. Wright as a hardware store. Here they employed thirty men, taking into partnership with them Hale W. Page and Artemas R. Smith, the firm name remaining unchanged. February 22, 1866, they removed to their present location, occupying the easterly half of the building, a little later on they bought out Sylvanus Sawyer, who occupied the westerly half of the same building, and Jan. I, 1867, formed a stock company, under the firm name of the Fitchburg Machine Company, with the following stockholders: S. C. Wright, J. L. Chapman, A. R. Smith, Hale W. Page, Augustus Whitman, Eugene T. Miles, Low- ell M. Miles, Jared Whitman, Jr. ; and officered as follows — S. C. Wright, president; J. L. Chapman, secretary; Augustus Whitman, treasurer. Out of this list of stock- holders but three are now^ living, J. L. Chapman, Lowell M. Miles and Jared Whitman, Jr. In 1867 Mr. Chapman became both secretary and treas- urer, remaining in that capacity until the closing up of the company's afiairs in 1877, when the Fitchburg Machine Works was formed under the laws of general co-partnership, the firm consisting of S. C Wright, superintendent; J. L. Chapman, treasurer; Walter Hey wood, Harrington Sibley and Joseph S. Wilson. Since its organization, Mr. Wright and Mr. Hey wood have both died, and since the death of Mr. Wright, in December, 1880^ Mr. Chapman has acted as superintendent and treasurer, having the full management of the business. THE UNION MACHINE CO. was incorporated in the year 1867, with a capital stock of $60,000, the officers being Francis Sheldon, president; G. S. Burbank, treasurer; S. S. Dow, superintendent. They commenced business by manufacturing machinist tools and doing general repairs, after which wood working machinery was added. The manufacture of the "Jucket" steam-engine was intro- duced in 1870, and carried on for about two years, when it ^iO X ^Uyy-Lcry^^y\ J&tropelilmiliumiiv.'Lg -iu^ngra^ins Co rcrT" IRON INDUSTRIES. 213 was given up and the manufacture of paper-making machin- ery of all kinds was commenced, which business is the spe- cialty at the present time. In the year 1869, S. E. Crocker was elected treasurer, to fill the vacancy caused by the resignation of G. S. Burbank ; the following year S. E. Crocker resigned the position, in favor of R. R. Conn, who held this trust one year, and was succeeded by Geo. F. Fay who retained the office until 1876, at which time the company wound up its affairs, transferring all stock, etc., to Messrs. Crocker, Burbank & Co., who re- tained the services of S. S. Dow as superintendent, added new machinery, and continued the building of paper machin- ery, under the old name of Union Machine Co., in connec- tion with their paper business. In 1882, J. E. Morse was called to fill the position of superintendent, owing to the death of S. S. Dow, which position he held until October, 1887, when a stock company was again formed, with the fol- lowing officers : John Burney, president ; S. E. Crocker, treasurer ; and Emmons Crocker, secretary. This company again added new and modern machinery and continued the manufacturing of paper machinery, and to-day ranks among the best establishments in this line of business. Their machines are shipped to all parts of the United States, Canada, Japan, etc. Mr. Burney, the president, has been for a long time iden- tified with the machine business of Fitchburg. George Frederick Simonds was born in Fitchburg, Jan. 12, 1843. He was educated in the public schools of Fitchburg, and between his sixteenth and twenty-first birth- days, (with the exception of his eighteenth year, when he was in the army,) he was engaged in his father's office and works and during this four years he familiarized himself practically with every department of the business. His father was a manufacturer of scythes, pickaxes, etc. When twenty-one years of age he organized the firm of Simonds Brothers & Company and rented his father's old works and commenced the manufacture of mower and reaper 214 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. knives and sections, and planing machine knives, since which time he has been actively identified with the manu- facturing interests of Fitchburg. Three companies, the Simonds Manufacturing Company of Fitchburg with a capital of $150,000, the Simonds Roll- ing-Machine Company of Boston with a capital of $400,000 and the Simonds Steel and Iron Forging Company of Lon- don with a capital of $750,000 are the result, mainly, of his inventions and energy. He is a director of the Fitchburg National Bank, and a trustee in the Fitchburg Savings Bank. THE SIMONDS MANUFACTURING COMPANY was incorporated by an act of the legislature in 1868, with a capital of $150,000. Their extensive works in Fitchburg are located on the corner of Main and North streets. They have also branch works in Chicaao and San Francisco. WORKS OF THE SIMONDS MANUFACTURING COMPANY. The officers of the company are George F. Simonds, president ; Daniel Simonds, vice-president and treasurer ; Edwin F, Simonds is manager of the Chicago Branch and John Simonds that in San Francisco. The products of this company are machine knives of every description and the well known Simonds' saw. The founder of this industry was Abel Simonds, who was born in Fitchburg, Dec. 10, 1804, and commenced the man- ufacture of scythes in 1832. He was well versed in the manipulation of steel, which knowledge he handed down to his sons. IRON INDUSTRIES. 215 In 1864, when Mr. Simonds went out of business, the firm of Simonds Bros. & Co., was formed, consisting of George F. Simonds, A. A. Simonds and Benjamin Snow, their works being located in West Fitchburg. The new firm that year began the manufacture of machine knives and mower and reaper sections, building up a large and flour- ishing business. The present company organized, as above, in 1868, and moved from West Fitchburg to the location now occupied by them where the manufacture has been continued until the present time. A consolidation of all the western manu- facturers engaged in the manufacture of mower knives and sections having been effected in 1878, this company sold to them that department of its business and commenced the manufacture of saws by an entirely new system of tempering and straightening, which produced results superior in every respect to what had before been accomplished. The company also have valuable patents covering radical improvements in the adjustment of circular saws and in cross- cut and changeable tooth saws. The company has in its employ about two hundred men and its goods are sold in every state in the Union, while many are exported. A somewhat remarkable result has been obtained by this company in entering a field long held by old established concerns, and building a large and flour- ishing trade, at prices in advance of all competitors. THE SIMONDS ROLLING-MACHINE COMPANY. Adjacent to the works of the Simonds Manufacturing Company on Willow Street, is the plant of the Simonds Roll- ing-Machine Company, of Boston, Mass., erected in the Spring of the present year. This Company, incorporated in November, 1886, with a capital of $400,000, acquired by purchase all of the patents for the United States and Canada, which have been granted to Mr. Geo. F. Simonds, relating to the forging of metal articles by rolling, a new process of metal working which had attracted wide-spread attention, 216 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. patents having been secured in the principal countries throughout the world, and a company known as the Simonds Steel and Iron Forging Company, Limited, with a capital of £150,000 having already been organized in London earlier in the same year by some of the leading manufacturers of England. Near the commencement of the year 1884, an incident at- tracted the attention of Mr. Simonds to the possibility of moulding metal articles, circular in cross section, to any given form, while rotating them on their axes between oppo- sitel}^ moving surfaces, and experiments were made with putty as a material, betw^een wooden surfaces, with results that warranted the construction of a substantial machine by which were successfully rolled various small articles such as spheres, small projectiles, machine handles, etc., etc. At the works in this city, which were built for experi- mental purposes, development has been continual, and it would seem that the scope of the machine and the variety of articles that can be made to advantage by it, are practically unlimited ; the productions are turned out with wonderful rapidity, with an accuracy and of a quality superior to those made by any known process. Companies are at present being organized to manufacture under these patents in several cities of the United States, as well as Canada, and it is believed that it will effect a com- plete revolution in the manufacture of many articles as to- day produced. Some sixty skilled workmen are employed at the shops in this city, engaged in experimental work and in develop- ing the scope and efficiency of the machines which are to be supplied to the various sub-companies in the United States and Canada ; while incidental to the work of development there is undertaken, to a limited extent, the manufacture and sale of a few articles such as armor piercing projectiles, axles of different kinds, spindles, etc. The officers of the company are George F. Simonds, president; Thomas L. Livermore, of Boston, vice-presi- dent; Edward Sawyer, of Boston, treasurer; and George E. Downe, secretary. IRON INDUSTRIES. 217 FITCHBURG STEAM ENGINE COMPANY. This plant was founded in 1871 and was known as the Haskins Machine Company's Works. In 1876, the Fitch- burg Steam Engine Company, composed of Hale W. Page, president, Frederick Fosdick, treasurer, and Charles Fos- dick, superintendent, purchased the entire plant and good will of all the interests of the Haskins Machine Company, and changed the name to the Fitchburg Steam Engine Com- pany. The works are situated on Water street and have a capacity for sixty hands, the greater number of whom are skilled mechanics. The engines manutactured by this company find a market in all parts of the United States, South America, Germany, Holland, and throughout the western continent. The suc- cess of this company has been largeh' due to careful super- vision and close attention to the details of the business by the active members of the corporation, the Fosdick Brothers. Mr. Page held the position of president up to the time of his death. May 17, 1887. He is remembered by many in Fitchburg as one of the pleasantest of men, genial, warm- hearted, enterprising, always ready to aid others, thoroughl}- honest and reliable. The present president, Frederick Fosdick, is also mayor of the city. Charles Fosdick was born in Groton, Mass., in March, 1848 ; came to Fitchburg and was in the Burleigh Rock Drill Company's office a year ; then went to work in the machine shop, at the west shaft of the Hoosac tunnel, where he was employed about a year, returning to Fitch- burg in 187 1 to take the position of superintendent of the machine company, organized by John Haskins ; when the Haskins Machine Company was succeeded by the Fitchburg Steam Engine Company in 1876, he became the superin- tendent of the latter company, which position he still holds ; in 1886 he served as president of common council, declining a re-nomination. 218 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. C. H. BROWN & CO., STEAM ENGINE BUILDERS. C. H. Brown, the founder of the steam engine business in Fitchburg, was born in Blackstone, Mass., March 9, 1820. He removed with his parents to Lewis county, N. Y., in 1828, working at farming summers and attending school winters until 1835, ^^'liei^^ liis parents returned East. In 1836 he commenced to learn the machinist's trade near Greenville, R. I., and afterwards worked on cotton machinery at Blackstone, Newton Upper Falls, Providence, R. I., and Whitinsville, Mass. In 1845 went to Northford and Water- bury, Conn., and worked on machinery for the manufacture WORKS OF C. H. BROWN & CO. of solid-headed pins. From Waterbury he went to Boston and was employed by Otis Tufts in the manufacture of steam engines until 1849, when he removed to Fitchburg and pur- chased one-third interest with J. & S. W. Putnam in the machine business, the new firm being called J. & S. W. Put- nam & Co. A new industry was now commenced in Fitchburg, the manufacture of steam engines, of which Mr. Brown had the ^, A ^^^ Wr "^ "•4 r / V C. H. Brown. C. H. Brown, Jr F. E. Brown. J. F. Brown. IRON INDUSTRIES. 219 entire management. In 1855 a new engine was brought out and patented in 1856 by Mr. Brown and Mr. Charles Bur- leigh, then in Mr. Brown's employ. The patent was assigned to the Putnam Machine Co. and is now known as the "Putnam'* engine. This engine was built under Mr. Brown's supervision until 1859, '^vhen his health became so much impaired by too close application to business that he was obliged to give up the active duties in the shop and soon after disposed of his interest in the Putnam Co. After a rest of about four years he commenced business in a very small way in Newton lane. Business soon in- creased to such an extent that more room was necessary and in 1866 one-half of the second story in Sylvanus Sawyer's brick block was leased of S. C. Wright & Co. In 187 1 he invented what has since been known as the "Brown Auto- matic Cut-ofT Engine," and so great was the demand for this engine that he was obliged to largely increase his facilities in order to supply the demand. In April, 1873, a building lot was purchased of Jacob H. Fairbanks on the corner of Main and Willow streets, and in Mav a new brick buildincr was commenced. In 1875 ^^^^ company moved into their new and commodious quarters. The present firm of C. H. Brown & Co. is composed of C. H. Brown, C. H. Brown, Jr., F. E. Brown, and J. F. Brown, father and three sons, who manufacture the "Brown" engine exclusively. They are made in a great variety of sizes, both large and small, and are now in use in all parts of the United States. BURLEIGH ROCK DRILL COMPANY. Charles Burleigh, founder of the Burleigh Rock Drill Co., one of Fitchburg's most ingenious mechanics and most competent business men, died May 28, 1883. Mr. Burleigh was born at Waterville, Me., Aug. 30, 1824 ; when eighteen 3'ears of age he left his native town and was on a whaling voyage three years, visiting all quarters of the globe, and penetrating nearly to the northern limits of navigation. He returned to Waterville when twentv-one 220 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. years of age, and soon after went to East Boston, where he was employed for several years by Otis Tufts, a pioneer en- gine builder. He was married in 1850, and in October of that year came to Fitchburg, where he afterward resided. He commenced working as a machinist for J. & S. W. Put- nam at their shop on Water street. When the Putnam Machine Company w^as organized, in 1856, Mr. Burleigh became a stockholder and was elected a director, holding that office more than twenty years. He was superintendent of Department Number 4 of the Putnam Machine works for several years previous to 1869, when his large business enterprises outside the works commanded his whole attention. About 1865, Mr. Burleigh at the request, it is said, of the late Alvah Crocker, applied himself to the diffi- cult work of perfecting a power drill, for the primary pur- pose of making the completion of the Hoosac Tunnel practi- cable, all previous attempts had failed. The large am.ount expended upon the Tunnel was wasted unless the enterprise could be finished. The work was prosecuted at a discour- agingly slow rate with hand drills and its completion seemed more remote than when it was first commenced, before the difficulties were appreciated. Mr. Burleigh's drill proved a practical success and its invention enabled the Shanley Brothers to push the work to its completion. It was the first successful power drill invented and its features have been copied in other drills. Mr. Burleigh also invented a com- pressor, which is an essential accompaniment to the drill, as well as various other styles and kinds of mining machinery. In 1867 the Burleigh Rock Drill Company was organized, with a capital of $150,000, to make and sell these two machines, since which time they have found a ready market in nearly every quarter of the globe, the product of this company in the aggregate forming no small item in the ma- chinery business of Fitchburg. These inventions have carried Mr. Burleigh's name wherever great engineering feats have been accomplished. They were used at the Hoosac Tunnel, the Brooklyn Bridge, along the line of the Union and Central Pacific railroads, in CHARLES BURLEIGH. IRON INDUSTRIES. 221 removing obstacles at Hell Gate and in various works of lesser magnitude. Mr. Burleigh made many valuable in- ventions and improvements in other departments of mechanics and took out a large number of patents. He was a director of the Boston, Clinton, Fitchburg and New Bedford railroad for several years previous to its con- solidation with the Old Colony railroad, and after the disasters of 1877, '^^ rendered signal service in saving the common stock from wreck and in placing the preferred stock on a basis which secured to the creditors who accepted it more than the full amount of their claims ; was one of the promoters of the New York & Boston inland railroad. He was a charter member of the Wachusett National Bank and a director from its organization in 1875. ^^ ^^^ '^ director in several mining companies in the West, and was interested in various railroad and manufacturing companies. The present officers of the Burleigh Rock Drill Company are: Henry A. Willis, president; John Burney, treasurer: C. R. Burleigh, superintendent. The Burleigh Tunnel Company was organized in 1869, with a capital of $50,000. Lowell M. Miles is president, D. A. Corey, clerk, and C. R. Burleigh, treasurer. ROLLSTONE MACHINE COMPANY was organized in 1867, for the manufacture of wood-working machinery, and dealers in all kinds of tools, saws, belting, knives, emery wheels, etc. The business of this company has largely increased the past few years, and now machines of their manufacture can be found in operation all over the continent. This company control the manufacture and sale of the celebrated Hodge's Universal Angle Union, for plumb- ers' use, in connection with steam, water or gas works. They are also manufacturers of the C. F. Smith system of ice-making and refrigerating machines ; also the E. N. Gates' system of hot water heating for private houses, fac- tories, etc. The company, as at present organized, consists of H. F. Coggshall and C. T. Crocker, proprietors, and George L. Stearns, manager. 222 FITCIIBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. Richard A. Leonard, manufacturer of agricultural im- plements and packing boxes, West Fitchburg. For upwards of thirty years Mr. Leonard has been connected with the mowing machine industry, and was one of the first salesmen to introduce them into New^ England, when the business was in its infancy. Born in the towm of Raynham, Mass., Oct. 5, 1830, and his early years were spent on his father's farm. His ancestors were iron workers — the first in his line in this country having settled in that town and established a forge in the colonial days. In 1858 John P. Adriance, who first introduced the two-wheel mowing machine into New Eng- land, secured the services of Mr. Leonard as travelling agent. In 1861 the business had increased to such an extent that it was found necessary to divide it — one-half being moved to Poughkeepsie, and again, in the season of 1864-5, another division w^as made, and one-half of the business transferred to Fitchburg, Mr. Leonard acting as general agent. The manufacturing of horse rakes and laundry machinery was also carried on in connection with the mowing machine business here. In 1876 Mr. Leonard bought out the business in Fitchburg and began the manufacture of the Leonard mowing machine, and packing boxes, and for a time made creameries. In February, 1886, the works were totally destroyed by fire and the same season his present factory, opposite the site of the old shop, was built, and he commenced again the manufacture of packing boxes, the mowing machine business, in which he still retains an interest, being removed to Worcester. Mr. Leonard served the city in the common council in i878-'79-'8o and '82, and as representative to the legislature in 1886. The works of David M. Dillon, boiler manufacturer, are located on Crocker street, below Rollstone foundr^^ on the line of the Fitchburg and Old Colony Railroad. The business was started in 1870, at the corner of West Main and River streets, where he remained two years. The neighbors not being accustomed to so much noise circulated a petition for the removal of the works. Not having shop room IRON INDUSTRIES. 223 enough, and wisliing- to accommodate a long-suffering public, Mr. Dillon built a shop and removed to his present location on Crocker street, where he continues to do business and make quite a noise. You will hnd boilers of his make in nearly ever}' state of the Union, and he has exported quite a number to foreign countries. Mr. Dillon was the pioneer in making steel boilers and was laughed at by other boiler builders and called a crank for attempting to make a boiler of steel, but did not have long to wait to find the public calling for steel boilers. HEYWOOD, WILSON & CO. FOUNDRY. This industry was started at the old Greene foundry on Water street opposite the Union Machine Company's works. The business was started by Asher Greene who was after- wards associated with David Ware. The business was car- ried on afterwards by Waldo Wallace until 1866, when Geo. Wheelock and J. S. Wilson bought a one-half interest with Waldo Wallace, and upon the death of Mr. Wallace the same 3ear, Walter Heywood and Harrington Sibley bought his in- terest, and the firm was known as Heywood, Wheelock & Co. About the time the present foundry, adjoining the Fitchburg Machine Company's works, was built, Mr. Wheelock sold out his interest to Hale W. Page, and the style of the firm was changed to Heywood, Wilson & Co. Mr. Page retired from the firm in 1875, and since the death of Mr. Heywood, Aug. i, 1880, the business has been owned and carried on by Mr. Wilson and Mr. Sibley, but retaining the old firm name. Mr. Wilson is a native of Dover, Mass., born Jan. 29, 1827. At the age of nineteen, he went to Waltham, where he learned the trade of iron moulder. After serving his ap- prenticeship, he went to Boston to work, and in 1861 and '62, was employed at the Charlestown Navy Yard, making shot and shell for the Government, after this, removed to Nor- wood, and in 1866, came to Fitchburg to engage in the foundry business. Mr. Wilson has served as councilman 224 FITCllBURG, TAST AND I'RESKNT. and alderman, and the past two years represented the city in the legislature. Mr. Sibley is a native of Sutton, Mass., where he was born June 4, 1814. At two years of age, he moved to Troy, N. H., where he remained until 1841, having learned and worked at the scythe maker's trade. He came to Fitchburg in 1841, living here since with the exception of three years when he resided in Troy and Littleton, N. H., and Athol, Mass. He was employed by Farvvell & Co., Abel Simonds, and Whitman & Miles, on scythes, mowing machines and farm implements, until he became, in 1866, a partner in the foundry business. Mr. Sibley has for the past seven years been a director in the Wachusett National Bank, and has served the city five years, two years as councilman and three years as alderman. THE ROLLSTONE IRON FOUNDRY. under the proprietorship of L. H. Goodnow, was established here in 1867, for the manufacture of all kinds of machinery THE ROLLSTONE IRON FOUNDRY. castings, such as fly-wheels, pulleys, gears, segments, en- gine work of all kinds, and wire drawing machinery. The works are thoroughly equipped with improved machinery, tools and appliances for heavy work, and furnish employ- ment to from fifty to seventy-five hands. Prominent among the list of products of the foundry is the great variety of fl}^- wheels and pulley patterns, ranging from three inches to IRON INDUSTRIES. 225 twenty feet in diameter, any number of inches in width of face, and any weight required, made whole or in halves, turned, bored and slotted ready for the shaft. Particular at- tention is also paid to getting up iron fronts for buildings, and everything adapted to the use of milhvrights and man- ufacturers. Mr. Goodnow is a native of Northboro, moving to Worcester when eight years old, learning the iron trade, and was in that business until moving to Fitchburg in 1875, ^^^ which time he entered into co-partnership with Hale W. Page in the foundry business, and remained with him some two years, at which time he assumed control of the business himself alone. He was connected with the city government as alderman in 1886, and has been on the school board tor the past six years, and is a director in the Wachusett Bank. M. J. perault's iron foundry. This industry located opposite the Union Machine Com- pany's w'orks was started in 1883, by Marshall & Farnsworth, for the manufacture of fine castings. It was carried on by them only about ten months, when in July, 1884, ^' J- P^" rault succeeded to the business. Mr. Perault has been in the foundry business for the past thirty-four years. He is a native of Canada, at the age of four years removed to New- ton Upper Falls, afterwards went to Waltham, where he began work in the Davis foundry, removed to Worcester in 1861 and was employed in the foundry of the New York Steam Engine Company. In 187 1 he came to Fitchburg and took the situation of foreman in the Smith & Page foundry, continuing in that position after Mr. L. H. Good- now became proprietor until the year 1884, when he started in business for himself. WM. A. HARDY S BRASS FOUNDRY, located opposite the Union Machine Company, has been under the present management for a period of thirty-four 15 220 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. years. A specialty is made of machinery castings ; the pro- prietor has also secured a large railroad patronage, and his trade relations extend to all parts of the United States and Canada. Mr. Hardy is the inventor of the Hardy Patent Car Axle Boxes. He is also associated with Mr. Charles Pinder, under the style of Hardy & Pinder, manufacturers of patent cast metal screen plates used in the manufacture of paper. Mr. Hardy is a native of Pepperell, Mass., but has been a resident of Fitchburg since 1854. ^^ ^^^ served the city as common councilman three years, 1875, '77 and '82. He was a member of the last board of selectmen of Fitchburg previous to its incorporation as a city, and served as school committee three years. FITCHBURG MANUFACTURING COMPANY, Incoi'porated, 1886, with capital stock, $125,000. Managing director, F. L. Woodward ; treasurer, Charles E. Kirby ; superintendent, H. F. Hodges. In addition to the foregoing may be mentioned the follow- ing individuals and firms who by their inventions, improve- ments or enterprise have contributed more or less to the building up of the machinery business in Fitchburg : Sylvanus Saw^yer, the inventor of machinery for pre- paring cane or rattan, improvements in rifled cannon projectiles, self-centering lathes and chucks for jewellers' use, and other ingenious inventions. Louis D. Bartlett, inventor and perfector of the Bartlett automatic cut-oft' steam engine. A. D. Waymoth, inventor of the Waymoth self-adjusting and self-centering lathe, which worked a complete revolution in wood turning. Charles W. Wilder, inventor of Wilder's patent lathe. C. H. Cowdrey, who secured improvements on the original Waymoth lathe. IROxN INDUSTRIES. 227 Horace F. Hodges, inventor of special machinery, Hodges' Universal Angle Union and a large number of other ingenious devices. George E. Bowers, inventor of Bowers' dynamos. Irving W. Colburn, designer and manufacturer of electrical machinery. F. S. LovELL, manufacturer of cotton, special and elec- trical machinery. C. A. Sawyer, James F. Sullivan and Wright How^ard, improvements in water motors. Manufacturers of or dealers in special machinery : C. S. ToLMAN, H. p. Tyrrell, W. C. Johnson, Fitchburg Manufacturing Company, Fitchburg Novelty Works, A. W. Hubbard, Alexander Thompson, Fitchburg Spirit Level Company. Fitchburg Pipe Covering and Stove Lining Co., manufacture a non-conductor as a covering to apply to steam pipes, boilers, locomotives, furnaces, etc. President, J. H. Fogarty ; superintendent and treasurer, J. H. Knowles. Eli Culley, manufacturer of files. EzEKiEL Davis, West Fitchburg, manufactures machine knives of every description. Henry J. Colburn, for several years superintendent of the Rollstone Machine Works, at present of the firm of Herbert Baker Machine Co., Toledo, Ohio. Mr. Colburn was the designer of the Fitchburg city seal. CHAPTER XII. COMMERCIAL. S a commercial center Fitchbiirg exerts a wide influence, attracting trade for many miles. The business blocks, many of them, are substantial, and the stores large and attractive. The financial institutions of the city are seven in number — four of them are national banks and three savings. THE FITCHBURG NATIONAL BANK is the oldest, having been chartered in 1832 under the state banking laws. It was reorganized in 1865 under the national banking act and has a capital of $250,000, with a surplus of $140,000. Its first president was Francis Perkins, and Ebenezer Torrey, cashier. After the death of Mr. Perkins, in 1859, '^^ ^^^^ next annual meeting which occurred in a few months, Ebenezer Torrey, who, until this time, had been cashier, was elected president, and Charles J. Billings chosen cashier. The first banking house was a small granite building, which was succeeded in 1853 by a new brick building built on the same spot, now occupied by Crocker, Burbank & Co. as an office. In 187 1 the bank moved into its present quarters in the Fitchburg Bank building. Its officers are: Ebenezer Torrey, president; Charles J. Billings, vice-president; B. N. Bullock, cashier; H. G. COMMERCIAL. 229 Townend, teller; William Kimball, book-keeper; H. A. Damon, clerk; Thornton K. Ware, solicitor; directors, William D. Peck, Ebenezer Torrey, Timothy S. Wilson, Gardner S. Burbank, Charles J. Billings, Rodney Wallace, George F. Fay, Charles T. Crocker, Joseph dishing, Henry F. Coggshall, Thornton K. Ware, Carmi M. Parker, George F. Simonds, Arthur H. Lowe. Ebenezer Torrey — born in Franklin, Mass., Aug. i6, 1801. His parents were John and Sally (Richardson) Torrey, both natives of the same town. His preliminary education was received in the academies of Leicester and Lancaster. In 1818 he entered at Harvard and graduated in 1822. After graduation he entered upon the study of law in Fitchburg, in the office of John Shepley, an eminent lawyer, who subsequently removed to Maine. In 1825 he was admitted to the bar and for two years was engaged in the practice of his profession alone. In 1827 he associated him- self in business with Nathaniel Wood. The firm of Torrey & Wood lasted for nearly half a century and its members ranked with the acknowledged leaders of the legal fraternity in Worcester county. Several Fitchburg lawyers of present prominence began their career under the tutilage of these two men whose firm relation was dissolved in 1873. While active in his chosen profession Mr. Torrey, from the time of his enrollment among the members of the bar, almost always held offices of trust and honor. For thirty successive years he was treasurer of the town of Fitchburg, serving for one year after its incorporation as a city, declining further ser- vice. In 1832 he became one of the incorporators of the Fitchburg Bank. In addition to his connection with the banking business he was elected in 1829 one of the trustees of the Worcester Mutual Fire Insurance Company and has ever since sustained the same relation to it. Mr. Torrey was chosen a member of the Massachusetts house of representa- tives in 1832, and again in 1847. In 1849 ^^ served in the senate and was chairman of the committee on banks and banking. In 1853 he was a member of the council of Gov- ernor Clifford and in 1854 ^^ ^^^^^ ^^ Governor Emory Wash- 230 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. burn. In 1825 Mr. Torrey was married to Frances Hough- ton of Fitchburg, who died in 1831. In the following year he was married to Sarah Arnold of Uxbridge, Mass. THE ROLLSTONE NATIONAL BANK received its first charter in 1849 ' ^^^'^ re-incorporated in 1865 ; its capital is $250,000, with a surplus of $140,000. Moses Wood was the first president and Lewis H. Bradford the first cashier. Upon the death of Moses Wood, in 1869, Alvah Crocker succeeded him. Mr. Crocker was succeeded by Henry A. Willis, as president, which office he now holds. L. H. Bradford served as cashier until 1856, when he was succeeded by William B. Wood, who resigned in 1858. Henry A. Willis was then chosen cashier, and upon his ap- pointment to the office of president, January, 1873, John M. Graham was chosen in his place. In 1881 Wilbur B. Tenney was made cashier. The first banking-house of the Rollstone Bank was a small granite building, which stood where the Rollstone Bank building now stands. This latter building was erected in 1869. The bank is officered by Henry A. Willis, president, (sketch and portrait in Chapter III); Wilbur B. Tenney, cashier; W. J. Stearns, teller; Charles W. Spinney, clerk; Amasa Norcross, solicitor; directors, Henry A. Willis, Amasa Norcross, Louis D. Bart- lett, E. Foster Bailey, I. C. Wright, Charles H. Brown, George H. Spencer, James Phillips, Jr., Edgar F. Belding, H. T. Page, M. D. Haws. SAFETY FUND NATIONAL BANK. authorized by Comptroller Knox, June 9, 1874. T^^'is was before free national banking, consequently the first ninety thousand dollars of circulation was purchased from another National Bank. The stockholders paid in twenty thousand dollars, in addition to the capital, to offset the premiums paid on United States bonds and circulation, which enabled the bank to declare a dividend, at the close of the first year's COMMERCIAL. 231 business, from the earnings. Since then the bank has paid regular semi-annual dividends. The bank commenced busi- ness July I, 1874, i" t^^ second story of Belding & Dickinson's brick block, and removed to its pres- ent location in Crocker block, March, 1875, the building having been erected by Hon. Alvah Crocker, under an agree- ment for a twenty years' lease of the banking rooms to the Safety Fund National Bank. Present capital, $200,000 ; own" $200,000 United States four per cent, bonds ; sur- plus, $31,000. The first president was Henry Alli- son and the first cashier F. F. Woodward. In crocker block. 1883 Mr. Woodward resigned to engage in other business and George K. Tapley, of the John Hancock National Bank of Springfield, was elected his successor. Joel G. Tyler, book-keeper, has been identified with the bank since Septem- ber, 1882. Mr. Allison is a native of Rome, N. Y. ; came to Fitch- burg in 1858 to take a clerkship in the post-office, under the Hon. J. W. Mansur, entered the old Fitchburg State Bank, April, 1864, continued there, with Fitchburg State and National Banks, until April, 1874, '^^ which time he was elected the first president of the Safety Fund National Bank, in which position he has continued until the present time, this being his twenty-fourth year in banking. The present board of directors are R. R. Conn, E. M. Dickinson, Lyman Patch, George Hall, Charles F. Putnam, Wilder P. Clark, Frank Leighton, J. F. D. Garfield, F. F. 232 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. Woodward, George R. Wallace, Myron B. Damon, Henry Allison. WACHUSETT NATIONAL BANK was incorporated May 20, 1875, with a capital of $500,000, which has since been reduced one-half, leaving the present capital $250,000, and surplus fund of equal amount, $250,000. This bank was opened for business June i, 1875, ^" Belding & Dickinson's block and continued in that loca- tion until Jan. i, 1876, at which time the present banking house, corner of Main and Day streets was completed. Its first otficers were A. W. Seaver, president ; H. A. Blood, vice-president, and George A. Seaver, cashier; but the latter being removed by death before the bank was opened for business, Henry L. Jewett was elected his successor. The present officers are O. H. Lawrence, president; William O. Brown, vice-president; George E. Clifford, cashier; W. G. Corey, teller; H. G. Morse, book-keeper; E. B. Farrar, messenger. Directors — William O. Brown, H. A. Hatch, O. H. Lawrence, George N. Proctor, Harrington Sibley, A. B. Sherman, W. A. Fairbanks, L. H. Goodnow, John Burney, J. S. Bradley, Thomas Rice, George F. Morse, S. K. Pierce. THE FITCHBURG SAVINGS BANK w^as incorporated Feb. 12, 1846, and went into operadon the first of June following. Francis Perkins was the first presi- dent and Ebenezer Torrey the first treasurer. On the death of Mr. Perkins, in 1859, Nathaniel Wood was chosen presi- dent Aug. 15, 1859; Ebenezer Torrey, June 27, 1876; Thornton K. Ware, Sept. 26, 1877. In 1 87 1 the bank erected one of the largest and cosdiest business buildings in the city, in which they now have their rooms. The officers are : President, Thornton K. Ware, (sketch in Chapter V.) ; vice-president, Samuel E. Crocker; ^ ^ , ^^(^6^/.^^ COMMERCIAL. 233 Ebenezer Bailey, clerk ; Charles J. Billings, treasurer ; An- drew Jewett, assistant treasurer. Trustees : Thornton K. Ware, vSamuel E. Crocker, William D. Peck, Ebenezer Torre3s Justin Stearns, Timothy S. Wilson, Jacob Haskell, George F. Fay, Rodney Wallace, Charles T. Crocker, Gardner S. Burbank, Leander Sprague, FITCHBURG SAVINGS BANK BLOCK. Daniel Cross, Henry F. Coggshall, Joseph Cushing, Albert L. Fessenden, John W. Kimball, Carmi M. Parker, George F. Simonds, R. R. Conn, Henry G. Morse, B. D. Dwinnell, Arthur H. Lowe. THE WORCESTER NORTH SAVINGS INSTITUTION, incorporated May 26, 1868; organized June 13, 1868; com- menced business July 6, 1868; deposits Jan. i, 1887, $2,488,327.22 ; location, Rollstone National Bank building. The first officers were Moses Wood, president; David Boutelle, vice-president; H. A. Willis, treasurer; L. H. 234 FITCIIBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. Bradford, clerk. Upon the death of Moses Wood, Augustus Whitman was elected president and held the office until 1880. He was succeeded by Benjamin Snow, who resigned in 1883 ; followed by Lowell M. Miles, who resigned in 1886, when Amasa Norcross was elected. The present officers are : Amasa Norcross, president, (sketch and portrait Chapter III.) ; H. C. Hartwell, vice- president; H. A. Willis, Treasurer ; B. F. Wallis, clerk and assistant treasurer; A. C. Brown, book-keeper. Trustees — Amasa Norcross, George Robbins, E. N. Choate, L. D. Bardett, E. F. Bailey, Henry A. Goodrich, I. C. Wright, John Upton, S. Haynes, A. B. Sherman, Edwin Upton, E. B. Rockwood, S. A. Childs, J. L. Chap- man, James Phillips, Jr., Frederick Fosdick, Asa S. Lawton, Mial Davis, Fitchburg ; William Baker, Lunenburg ; Anson D. Fessenden, Townsend ; Walter R. Adams, Ashburnham ; Charles O. Green, Ashby ; M. D. Haws, Leominster. THE FITCHBURG CO-OPERATIVE BANK was incorporated Oct. 27, 1877, under the name of the "Fitchburg Co-operative Saving Fund and Loan Associa- tion." The name was changed July i, 1883, by legislative enactment, to the "Fitchburg Co-operative Bank." Its objects are the periodical savings of money paid in by the shareholders, which money is at once invested by loaning it among the shareholders only, secured by first mortgage on Massachusetts real estate, or by pledge of the shares them- selves, or by both. One dollar for each share held is paid in by the holder at meetings held every month, and these dues, together with all other accumulations, are put up at auction to the highest bidder as soon as the amount on hand is ascertained. These monthly payments continue until each share attains the value of $200, when it is said to mature and no longer participates in the profits, but is withdrawn by the holder. The shares are issued in series six months apart, and all the shares in each separate series have the same value and mature at the same time, while the different series COMMERCIAL. 235 mature in the order of their issue. Each borrower, by pay- ment of dues on his shares, is laying by a sinking fund to meet his mortgage at maturity, and he receives his mortgage cancelled instead of the cash, which is paid to the non- borrower. The influence of this institution has been very marked, for through its workings many persons have been induced to commence the acquirement of wealth in a small way. Others have been able to secure a homestead at a cost of monthly payment but little above that of necessary rent. It tends to encourage industry, economy and thrift, and opens an easy way for every person whose income exceeds his ex- penses, by which something tangible may be laid aside against adversity or old age. The following persons have held their offices during the life of the bank, with the exception of the treasurer, who was preceded by George E. Clifford for the first lour years : Jabez Fisher, president ; Henry L. Rice, vice-president ; Joseph F. Simonds, secretary, and Charles F. Baker, treas- urer. A board of directors, consisting of the above, with fifteen additional names, constitute the management. Its office and the office of its secretary is at room No. 5 Roll- stone Bank block, 129 Main street, and its meetings tor busi- ness are held on the third Thursday evening of each month. THE FITCHBURG POST-OFFICE. In 1827 David Brigham, Esq., as postmaster had his office for a time in the "Abram Dole house," on West Main street, but soon removed to the dwelling house now in Wesleyan Place, in the rear of the Methodist church, but which then stood on Main street, and which even now show traces of its former use in the letter drop in what was the office room. All the equipment used was a wheel about two feet in diam- eter provided with divisions of the several letters of the al- phabet. Mark Miller was the next postmaster, being appointed by President Andrew Jackson, in October, 1834, ^"^^ removed the 236 FITCIIBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. office to a frame building adjoining the Fitchburg House, located about where the Emory House now stands, and the building is now removed to Oliver street. He occupied the first floor as a book-store and the second floor for the printing office and publishing office of a weekly news- paper ; but on his failure in business after holding the office only a few months, the Hon. Nathaniel Wood was appointed by President Jackson, early in 1835 5 ^^ moved the office to the building standing nearly opposite the present Sentinel office, and during his term the first attempt at use of call boxes in aiding in the delivery of the mail was made. His principal assistants were his brother and after- wards Charles and Stephen Shepley. The office was re- moved, about 1841, to Wood & Torrey's brick block, in the store now occupied by Davis & Rogers' market, and at that time and until the completion of the Savings Bank block oc- cupied by Shepley's book-store. He was succeeded, in 1849, by his partner, Hon. Goldsmith F. Bailey, who was ap- pointed by President Taylor, and who retained the office in the same location and Mr. Stephen Shepley as his assistant. The postage in those days was 5 cents, 6^^ cents, 12^ cents, 18^ cents, and 25 cents, according to the distance, and was very seldom prepaid. The letters for every towm were done up in a wrapper, and the destination written thereon, and a way bill sent for amount of postage due, re- quiring a large amount of work for the business transacted. At the arrival of the stage, which would only wait about five minutes, rapid work was required to open the mail bag, take out mail for the office, and substitute the outgoing mail. In 1853, John Todd, Esq., was appointed by President Franklin Pierce, and soon after removed the office to the new town hall building just erected, a considerable increase was made in the number of boxes and other facilities for trans- acting the business. He had as his assistant, (and acting postmaster in fact,) Martin Giles, now of Westminster. In 1859 Mr. Todd resigned on account of removal to New York, and J. W. Mansur, Esq., was appointed by President COMMERCIAL. 237 Buclianan. He retained Mr. Giles as assistant, who was succeeded by Henry Allison. The salary of the office as re-established in January, i860, was $1,727.26. About i860 the post-office was burglarized, but an en- trance to the safe not being effected, the loss was very small. Mr. Mansur was removed by President Lincoln in September, 1861, and Judge T. K. Ware appointed, who had as his assistant General John W. Kimball. Judge Ware was removed by President Johnson and Colonel George E. Goodrich appointed in 1867. His assistants were Albert A. Marshall and Charles E. Wallace. On Nov. 18, 1872, the office was moved to its present loca- tion, corner of Main and Church streets, in the old Trinitarian church building, which had been remodelled for the office, and room that was imperatively needed by the rapid growth of the city was secured. On the expiration of Col. Goodrich's third term, in 1879, Gen. John W. Kimball was appointed b}^ President Hayes, and retained as his assistant Charles E. Wallace, during his entire term of eight years. In 1882 the post-office building was greatly improved by alterations that brought the office down to the level of the street and secured tor the office all of the first story. During the repairs the office was temporarily removed to Spaulding's building, corner of Main and Grove streets. In November, 1884, the free delivery service was com- menced with five carriers, all of whom still remain on duty. And the office was again altered by the removal of a large number of the call boxes which were no longer needed. The special delivery service was commenced Oct. i, 1885. On the expiration of General Kimball's second term in February, 1887, the present postmaster, Frederick A. Cur- rier was appointed by President Cleveland, after a spirited, but good-natured contest by four candidates. An additional carrier w^as secured Sept. i, 1887, and Frank J. Dwyer was appointed and carriers' limits somewhat extended, an in- creased deliveries of business mail provided for, and addi- 238 FITCH BURG, PAST AND PRESENT. lional street letter boxes added. He retained as his assistant Charles E. Wallace, and nearly all of the other employes and carriers. The present office force consists of Charles E. Wallace, assistant postmaster; Frank H. Damon, Albert H. Harris, D. Irving Damon ; Miss Elizabeth F. Delahanty, money order clerk ; Miss Mary P. Arnold, stamp and registered letter clerk. The six letter carriers are Albert S. Pierce, George M. Bowker, Patrick B. Purtill, Eugene Forest, Charles F. Lamb, Frank J. Dwyer. Special delivery messenger, Walter F. Oxford. There are now about hft}- street letter boxes, distributed so as to accommodate as large a number of people as possi- ble, taking into account also the convenience of the carriers in making collections. The business of this office as shown by the returns for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1887, was : Receipts from sales of postage stamps and stamped envelopes $22,709.67 ; 2,533 reg- istered letters and packages forwarded and 2,433 received and delivered; 830 special delivery letters delivered and 1,142 special delivery stamps sold ; 3,798 domestic money orders issued, amounting to $37,814.11 ; 2,553 postal notes issued, amounting to $4,777.17 ; 641 foreign money orders issued to points in England, Ireland, Scotland, France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Switzerland, Canada, etc., amounting to $7,756.38; and 2,868 money orders and 3,476 postal notes paid, amounting to $38,995.30. The letter carriers deliv- ered 431,542 letters, 94,548 postal cards, 299,484 newspapers and packages ; and collected from street letter boxes, 333,174 letters, 85,913 postal cards, 33,560 newspapers and pack- ages; showing a total of 1,278,221 pieces handled for the year. FP.EDERICK A. Currier, the present postmaster, son of Festus C. and Joanna M. Currier, was born in Worcester, December 24, 185 1, but his parents removed to Holliston when he was about a year old and he received his early edu- on^ )\WW5^ COMMERCIAL. 239 cation in the public schools of that town. He removed to Fitchburg, in January, 1869, and entered the insurance agency of his father, and at the time of his appointment was a member of the firm F. C. Currier & Son, insurance, rail- road and steamship ticket agents. He was connected with Whitney's Opera House for three years as treasurer, and afterwards for three years as business manager. He was for four years secretary of the Worcester North Agri- cultural Society, and declined a re-election. He has also assisted his father, who is secretary, in the work of the Massachusetts Mutual Aid Society. He is a firm democrat but has never been an offensive partisan or active politician. He received the endorsement of the business men irrespec- tive of party. Charles E. Wallace, assistant-postmaster, was born in Clinton, Mass., Sept. 3, 1847; removed to Fitchburg in the fall of 1861, where he was employed in the store of Waldo Wallace, corner of Main and Laurel streets, and was also employed as clerk in various places until Jan. i, 1872, when he entered the post-oflice in the city hall building under Postmaster George E. Goodrich. He has served as assistant-postmaster under George E. Goodrich, J. W. Kim- ball, and F. A. Currier, the present postmaster, to date. Albert S. Pierce, carrier i, was born in East Jaftrey, N. H., March 15, 1845, and lived at home on a farm until seventeen years of age, when he enlisted, Aug. 11, 1862, in the 14th N. H. Volunteers for three years, or during the war ; he remained in the regiment during its entire term of service of nearly three years, and was discharged at the close of the war. After returning home he learned the machinist's trade, and followed that occupation until Nov. i, 1884, when he was appointed letter-carrier. George M. Bowker, carrier 2, is a native of Fitchburg and educated in its public schools. He has a good war record, having served five years in the United States Navy, participating in the great battles fought by Admiral Farragut in the Gulf of Mexico and on the Mississippi river. Since 240 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. the war he has travelled extensively in Europe and Africa. When the free delivery system was given the city he was appointed to the service by Gen. Kimball, as a veteran of the war. Patrick B. Purtill, carrier 3, was born in Ireland in 1846, came to Fitchburg in 1864, and commenced working for the Putnam Machine Company, learned the machinist's trade and remained in the company's employ until 1879, when he began work for the Fitchburg Steam Engine Com- pany, continuing with them until his appointment as letter- carrier in 1884. Eugene Forest, carrier 4, a native of St. Bock, P. Q^, was born in 1850 of French parentage. He was educated in the St. Viatem school and graduated in 1866. He came to Fitchburg in 1868 and has been a resident since, with the exception of four years when he was in the employ of W. F. Whitney, chair manufacturer, at South Ashburnham,'^in the cane work department. He received his appointment as letter-carrier in 1884. Charles F. Lamb, carrier 5, was born in Phillipston, Mass., Nov. 6, 1856, and named in honor of John C. Fre- mont, the first Republican candidate for the presidenc}^ He was brought up as a farmer and lumber man until April, 1879, when he came to Fitchburg to enter the employ of Sylvanus Sawyer as gardener; in 1880 began work for the Putnam Machine Co. and remained about three years ; re- ceived his appointment as letter-carrier when the system was first adopted here. Frank J. Dw} er, carrier 6, a native of Fitchburg, was born Dec. 3, 1859; employed by E. M. Dickinson & Co., shoe manufacturers, from 1877 to 1887 ; was warden in Ward 6 from 1882 to 1886, and appointed letter-carrier Sept. I, 1887. John F. Shea, postmaster at West Fitchburg, was born in Fitchburg in 1840 ; is a machinist by trade and worked for the Union Machine Co. until November, 1885, when he was appointed postmaster at West Fitchburg. C E \A/-allaee, Assistant P. M. J. F. Shea, P. M., W. Fitrh 1 lurci Eugene Forest. Chas. F. Lamb. Frank J. Dwyer. COMMERCIAL. 241 THE FITCIIBURG MUTUAL FIRE INSURANCE COMPANY was organized June 29, 1847. Nathaniel Wood was the first president, serving in that capacity tor over twenty-six years and as treasurer for twenty-four years. The first secretary was Ivers PhilHps, who was succeeded by Abel Thurston in 1850. Mr. Thurston held the office of Secretary for upwards of fourteen years. He was succeeded, on his death in 1864, by Charles Mason, and he by L. H. Bradford, who was made president on the resignation of Nathaniel Wood. E. P. Downe, the present secretary, was then elected and upon the death of L. H. Bradford, Ainasa Norcross was made president. The present board of officers are : Amasa Norcross, president ; William Baker, vice-president and treasurer ; E. P. Downe, secretary; directors, William O. Brown, Amasa Norcross, Daniel Cross, Gardner S. Burbank, Rodney Wallace, George H. Spencer, George Jewett, H. G. Morse, William D. Peck, Orlando Mason, S. R. Merrick, John M. Lockey, Simeon W. A. Stevens, William Baker. The company has a fine suite of rooms in the savings bank block. From the beginning it has been prospered and now carries insurance amounting to $15,800,000. Nathaniel Wood, the first president of the company, for nearly fifty years one of the most prominent citizens of Fitch- burg, was born in Holden, Mass., Aug. 29, 1797. He graduated at Harvard, in 1821, and was an instructor in that college and also in the academy at Lancaster after gradua- tion. After studying law and being admitted to the bar in Boston he came to Fitchburg, and in Feb., 1827, formed a partnership with Ebenezer Torrey, under the well known name of Torrey & Wood, remaining in partnership until the latter became too infirm to attend to office duties. Mr. Wood was an able lawyer and especially successful as a conveyan- cer. He had not only agreeable qualities of disposition but was endowed to an unusual degree with sound, sterling qual- ities of mind and character. One who had known him inti- 16 242 p'lTCIIBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. mately for more than fifty years, and who for more than forty years was associated with him in business, spoke of him as " being characterized during the whole period of his business career for an unswerving integrity and honesty." This is no sHght eulogy coming from a business associate of so many 3'ears who must have known him so intimately, and have watched him in the midst of those crises of temptation which happen in the career of every business man. He was a firm believer in the power of religion to make men better, and so long as his powers lasted took an active part in the word of the church and Sunday school. We will not attempt to give a complete list of the offices filled at dif- ferent times by Mr. Wood ; the records of the town of Fitch- burg show that he was one of our most active and conspicu- ous citizens. He was moderator of many of the town meet- ings from 1830, a member of the school committee for many years, selectman, president and director of the Fitchburg Mutual Fire Insurance Compan}' from its organization, di- rector and solicitor for the Fitchburg National Bank, and president of the Fitchburg Savings Bank. He was a life- long democrat and often the candidate of his party. He was in the lower branch of the legislature in 1839, 47 ^"^^ '5*^' and was also once elected senator, and was the candidate of his party for congress in 1841. Mr. Wood was an industrious man. He believed in hard work, and loved to the last to keep to that regular routine of labor and duty which characterized him in his earlier life. Probably the hardest thing he ever did was to relinquish ac- tive duty, and it was only the irresistible force of infirmity and disease that could compel him to surrender. After a sickness lasting some two years, he died of paralysis, Aug. 3, 1876, in his seventy-ninth year. THE MASSACHUSETTS MUTUAL AID SOCIETY of Fitchburg was among the first of the mutual benefit socie- ties organized in this state, having been incorporated Feb. 17, 1879, ^"^^ '^^^ ^^'^^ certificate was issued March 26, 1879. Its object is to furnish protection and relief, such as is sought COMMERCIAL. 243 in life insurance. It is founded on the mutual co-operative plan, and is a purely mutual association, the members having full control of all its business. It is established on the prin- ciple of mutual aid and assistance, so that the husband and father, or wife and mother, whose income may be limited, can through its means easily provide for their dependents in case of their death. The law of the state requires the estab- lishment of an emergency tund, (one assessment from each member) which now has reached the sum of $5,000, and will constantly be enlarged by the addition of new members and its own accumulations of interest. There are now upwards of 2,400 outstanding certificates in force, representing an in- surance of nearly $5,000,000, and it has paid out on account of death claims, more than $150,000. Most of this large sum has been paid to the widows and children of its deceased members, whose entire future support is dependent upon this money, a relief that in their condition in life could not other- wise have been secured for them. It has a steadily growing membership, no institution of this kind in this state has a better record for promptness and square dealing, and it already has obtained a high standing in insurance circles. The board of managers are nearly all residents of this city, and most of them have continued in office from the begin- ning. The first president was Henry A. Willis, president of the Rollstone National Bank, who served in this office for five years. Henry F. Coggshall, secretary and manager of the Fitchburg Gas Company, was his successor and served three years, when Henry A. Goodrich was elected as its third president and is now in office. The other officers are as follows: Harris C. Hartwell, vice-president and solicitor; Ezra B. Rockvvood, treasurer; D. S. Woodworth, M. D., medical director ; F. C. Currier, secretary. The board of managers are H. A. Willis, H. F. Coggs- hall, L. Sprague, A. S. Lawton, George Robbins, H. A. Goodrich, H. C. Hartwell, D. S. Woodworth, J. P. Farns- worth, Aaron F. Whitney, F. C. Currier, C. W. Goss, J. H. Putnam, H. A. Currier. Festus C. Currier, secretary of the society, was born in Holliston, Mass., Oct. 6, 1825, and resided there for many 244 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. years, engaging in mercantile and insurance business. He removed to this city in 1868 and engaged in the insurance business and built up a large insurance agency in this vicinity. He disposed of this business in 1875, ^^<^ was soon after appointed by Governor Gaston on the state detectfve force, proving a very successful officer. He was especially detailed and placed in charge of the inspection of manu- factures and public buildings and visited nearly every manufactory in the state. His extensive insurance experi- ence particularly fitting him for the work. On the expiration of his commission he did not ask for a re-appointment, but again entered the insurance business in company with his son (Fred A.) and has also done a large business in railway and steamship tickets, foreign drafts and investment securities. In 1879 he was the principal mover in starting the Massa- chusetts Mutual Aid Society, and was elected secretary-, which position he has retained, and as the active business manager has built up a large and prosperous society. He served as alderman in 1874 and '75, and was again elected in 1881. He has served as treasurer of the Worcester North Agricultural Society for the past six years and has been a director of the Fitchburg Co-operative Bank for several years. He has been active in politics and has always acted with the democratic party : has been honored by nomi- nations for various offices, having been the candidate for county commissioner in 1874, coming within a few hundred votes of an election for representative to the legislature in 1880, also was on the Cleveland electorial ticket for this state in 1884; and as candidate for congress in 1886, received a verv flattering vote, reducing the majority of Mr. Whiting, his successful opponent, by about forty per cent over his pre- vious election. THE UNITED STATES MASONIC ACCIDENT INSURANCE COMPANY, incorporated Sept. i, 1887, insures only Masons over twenty- one and under sixty years of age. President, ex-Mayor Eli COMMERCIAL. 245 Culley ; vice-president, General John W. Kimball ; secretary, C. S. Perry; treasurer, J. G. Tyler. Directors — Eli Culley, Gen. J. W. Kimball and Charles F. Baker of this city, George F. Morse, Joel G. Tyler, Dr. H. R. Brown and Charles S. Perry of Leominster. The office of the company is at Room 14, Savings Bank block. WORCESTER NORTH UNDERWRITERS ASSOCIATION. President, J. M. Lockey ; treasurer, F. A. Currier; sec- retary, C. E. Kirby. THE FITCIIBURG GAS COMPANY was incorporated under the laws of the state of Massachu- setts in 1852, with a capital of $60,000. Rodne}' Wallace is president, and H. F. Coggshall, treasurer. The board of directors are Rodney Wallace, Charles T. Crocker, G. S. Burbank, T. K. Ware, and Francis B. Shepley. The com- pany's plant is located on the Old Colony and Fitchburg rail- roads, in the southern part of the city, and consists of the necessary w^orks with two gasometers, one having a capacity of 65,000 and the other 28,000 cubic teet, with twelve miles of street mains. The company's office is located at 331 Main St. THE WACHUSETT ELECTRIC LIGHT COMPANY was incorporated in 1883, with a capital of $100,000. The first officers were L. J. Brown, president, Geo. E. Clifford, treasurer. The central station is located on Water St., and is equipped with a 275 horse-power engine and the usual ac- companiments. The capacity is about 140 Thompson-Hous- ton arc lights. The company are about putting in the Thompson-Houston svstem of incandescent lighting, which is specially intended for residence and interior lighting at a 240 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. long distance from the station, or in any part of the city. The company are also making arrangements to furnish electric power for mechanical purposes. The officers are Walter A. Fairbanks, president, Geo. E. Clifford, treasurer, O. H. Lawrence, James L. Chapman, directors, A. H. Kimball, superintendent. The company's office is located at 162 Main St. THE FITCHBURG STREET RAILWAY CO. was incorporated April 10, 1886, with a capital of $60,000, and is officered as follows : President, H. A. Willis ; vice- president, H. I. Wallace; treasurer, B. F. Wallis ; clerk, H. C. Hartwell ; superintendent, W. W. Sargent. Directors— H. A. Willis, H. I. Wallace, H. C. Hartwell, J. Phillips, Jr., E. F. Belding, G. W. Weymouth, G. H. Spencer. Th.e road commenced business July i, 1886. It is three and one-half miles in extent, from Sanborn road to the Fitch- burg park and the Lunenburg line, extensions have been authorized to Waite's corner and city farm. The road is supplied with lirst-class equipments, horses, cars, etc., and has done a very successful business for the one year it has been in operation. THE FITCHBURG BOARD OF TRADE. The principal mercantile organi- zations of the city are the Board of Trade and the Merchants Associa- tion. The Fitchburg Board of Trade, the oldest organization of the kind, is an association of busi- ness men that has made itself felt in public as well as commercial affairs. It was organized in May, 1874. In 1876 the board moved into its rooms in the Post-Office and Board of Trade building. Its officers are: President, Dr. George Jewett, (sketch in Chapter V.,) rf^^-^-^^l MetropoIitauM-lxstaip ScEngtrvuig Cc.lTwToTlr COMMERCIAL. 247 vice-presidents, H. A. Goodrich, C. H. Greene ; directors — Charles T. Crocker, Rodney Wallace, James Phillips, Jr., Joseph G. Edgerly, Jabez Fisher, H. C. Hartwell, H. A. Willis, T. C. Upton, George H. Spencer, B. D. Dwinnell, W. A, Macurda ; secretary, E. P. Loring ; treasurer, Eben Bailey. THE MERCHANTS ASSOCIATION includes in the list of membership nearly every merchant in the city. The first officers elected, March 24, 1886, were : President, Daniel Cross, the oldest merchant in Fitchburg, whose business career covers a half century ; vice-presidents, H. A. Goodrich, Walter P. Guy, W. C. Emory; Secretary, H. E. Jennison ; treasurer, D. H. Pierce. Regular monthly meetings are held on the first Wednesday of each month. The present executive officer, Henry A. Goodrich, lias been in business thirty-two years. He was born in Fitcii- burg in 1830, entered the Fitchburg Academy in 1841, worked in a factory during his vacations, left the High School in 1849 to take a position as overseer in a woolen mill, where he accumulated enough to start in business with his own money in 1855. Like many other active and ambi- tious men, he has met with reverses, but by industry, energy and perseverance has quickly overcome them and is to-day at the head of one of the finest and best reg-ulated clothino- and furnishing establishments in New England. He has twice represented the city in the state legislature, and is now president of the Massachusetts Mutual Aid Society and one of the trustees of the Worcester North Savings Bank, The other officers of the association are : Vice-Presidents, A. R. Ordway, S. G. Frost, W. S. Harris; directors — W. P. Guy, D. G. Wallace, F. A. Wood, C. M. Parker, J. F. Bruce, M. W. Fitz, J. F. Stiles; secretary, J. P. Farns- worth ; treasurer, D. H. Pierce. In 1868 Joseph Ciishing took the stone mill on Laurel street, formerly occupied as a cotton mill, and converted it 248 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. into a flour and grain mill. He is now doing a large busi- ness there in flour, grain and feed. The premises are con- veniently fitted up for the 'i5i business and are connected 1^^ b}- a turnout with the ^!^^ main line of the Fitch- ^'^ burg railroad. There are in addition to the main mill two larfje building's for storage purposes, also an extensive saw mill and lumber yard on the opposite side of the river. Mr. Cushing is a native of Ashburnham, Mass., and has been a resident ot Fitchburg for nearly fort}' years. He was first engaged in the livery business, afterwards in the lumber business, and in 1858 opened a flour and grain store under the American House, where he remained until he bought the stone mill and started his present business. In 1 881 Charles P. Washburn bought the flour mill and elevator formerly owned by the Fitchburg Flour Co., WASHlJUKN W OODWAKD S INIILL. and converted it into a corn and grain mill. In 1883 Frede- rick F. Woodward bought a half interest, since which time it has been operated and managed by the firm of Washburn & ^^^^'c^a<) i^U^^ COMMERCIAL. 249 Woodward. The premises are admirably iitted up for doing a large wholesale and retail business. In 1884 '^ storehouse 100 feet long and thirty feet wide, was built to accommodate their increasing business. Mr. Washburn is a native of Mid- dleboro, Mass., where, before remo\ing to Fitchburg, he was engaged in the coal and grain business. Mr. Wood- ward is a native of Fitchburg. He was a member of the 53d Regiment during the Rebellion ; afterward in the hard- ware business, and for ten years cashier of the Safety Fund National Bank of Fitchburg-. Whitney's Opera House, the only place of entertain- ment in the city, is centrally located at 208 Main St., and was built by Andrew Whitney, the largest owner of build- ings occupied for mercantile purposes in the city. It is sub- stantially built of brick, and in its arrangements will com- pare favorably wath houses in cities of equal size. It has a seating capacity of about one thousand. It was managed by Mr. Whitney during its first three years, having been opened to the public Oct. 20, 1881. In 1884 the management was assumed by Fred. A. Currier who had acted as treasurer of the house, for Mr. Whitney, from its first season, and during Mr. Currier's management, which continued ibr three years, (until his appointment as postmaster,) many of the leading musical and dramatic attractions made their first appearance in this city, and the reputation of Fitchburg for good "paying houses" was established. During the last season, ninty-two evening and eight matinee entertainments were presented, with total receipts of nearly $25,000. Mr. John W. Ogden is the present manager, having been connected with the house for several seasons. The house draws a large patronage from the neighboring towns, and an established attraction is always sure of a large attendance. In referring to the business houses of the city no effort is made to give a directory of all who are engaged in the ditlerent branches of trade, but simply to make mention of 250 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. some of the representative lirms, or individuals, who have been a long time in business. GENTS' FURNISHINGS. Daniel Cross, the veteran merchant tailor, is also the senior merchant in active business in Fitchburg, at the present time. Mr. Cross was born in Swanzey, Cheshire county, N. H. ; served his apprenticeship in Keene, N. H. ; came to Fitchburg in 1833, and established himself in busi- ness in a small building, where the city hall now stands. The following-named merchants were in business at that time : Kimball & Farwell kept drv goods and gro- ceries ; E. F. Bunnell kept a dry goods store on the corner of Central and Main streets, now occupied by E. M. Read. In the same building was a jewelry store, kept by Silas H. Goodnow^ Mr. Cross remained in his first location only about a year; after this, for about eight years, he carried on business in a two-story building, over Kimball & Farwell's store, which building is now the two lower stories of the present Sentinel othce. From there he moved across the street, into Heywood & Comee's block, where John F. Bruce now is, remaining there for about thirty years, when he removed to his present quarters in Stiles' block. Henry A. Goodrich, senior member of the firm of H. A. Goodrich & Co., commenced to sell gentlemen's furnish- ing goods in 1855. For fifteen years his familiar sign was over the door of the store now occupied by J. C. Sanborn, under the Fitchburg hotel. In 1867 he removed to quarters in Belding & Dickinson's block, and in 1885 moved into the new building erected by Mr. E. M. Dickinson. Among the many clerks and salesmen who have graduated at Mr. Good- rich's establishment may be mentioned E. H. Spencer, the hatter, in Central block ; J. R. Wood, now furnishing sales- man in Chicago, 111. ; A. J. Litchfield, afterward with Farns- worth Bros., now Litchfield & Stebbins ; E. B. Sears, now ^^^f^hu^i^t/^^ COMMERCIAL. 251 in the fur business, on Sumner street, Boston ; Robert Brooks, head salesman with Max Stadler & Co.; New York ; H. E. Taylor, late United States Revenue Collector at Brat- tleboro, Vt. ; Charles Smith, now bank cashier in Minne- apolis ; Elijah Stebbins, Jr., of Litchfield & Stebbins ; L. A. Smith, salesman for J. J. Ray, Boston ; Foster E. Beaman, book-keeper at Hook & Hastings' organ factory, Boston. E. Stebbins, Jr., was in the employ of Mr. Goodrich eleven years; F. E. Beaman, as partner and salesman, thirteen years, and W. L. Humes, now the junior partner, has been INTERIOR OF H. A. GOODRICH & CO. S STORE. with him most of the time tor twelve years past. The other leading gents' furnishing houses, in the order of their estab- lishment are, E. H. Spencer, Farnsworth Bros., Albee & Lyons, Edward Connor, Litchfield & Stebbins, U. E. Cleve- land, the Globe Clothing Store, and H. E. Goodere. DRY GOODS. James F. Stiles commenced the dry and fiincy goods business in 1845, and is now the senior in that branch. He 252 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. is a native' of Cavendish, Vt., and came to Fitchburg in March, 1841, and entered the employ of T. C. Caldwell, who kept a country store, lie remained with Mr. Cald- well three years, when he started in business for him- self, in the room now occu- pied by R. R. Conn as a jewelry store, in the build- ing known as the Torrey & Wood block. After two years he removed to where Warren Upton's market now is, then across the street to what is now the Emory mar- ket, under the Calvinistic church ; here he remained tor some ten years, remov- siiLEs' BLOCK. \ng to Central block, where he remained until he built the Stiles block, in 1875, moving into his present store on the first of January, 1876. L. Sprague & Co. established their business in 185 1. The members of the firm are Leander Sprague and F. H. Colburn. A. B. Sherman started in business in Fitchburg, Feb. 15, 1855, in the building one door below his present location, the Rollstone Bank building, into which he moved as soon as it was completed, February, 1870. The L. J. Brown Store, for several years past the leading dry goods house, is now ow^ned and managed b}' Nichols & Frost, the individual members of the firm being F. I. Nichols and W. A. Frost. It has been under the management of the present firm since Oct. i, 1884. Luther J. Brown, the founder of the establishment, was born at Eden, Vt., Dec. 31, 1827, and w^as the oldest of .'^m '^ .^..?akis&,. COMMERCIAL. 253 three children of Luther H. and Bersheba (Shattuck) Brown. He was educated at the schools of his native town, at an academy at Johnson, Vt., and at Appleton Academy, New Ipswich. His tirst experience in mercantile business was at Eden, Vt., where he was engaged in the dry goods and grocery business with his father. He soon after went to Hyde Park in the employ of Noyes Bros., who kept a large countr}' store; afterwards to Manchester, N. H., where he was employed in a mill. When twent3'-three 3'ears of age he went to Boston, and was employed for several years by Brett & Ellis, at that time wholesale and retail dealers in dry goods on Federal street. In 1853 the firm placed him in charge of a branch store at Natick, where he remained about a 3^ear. Mr. Brown came to Fitchburg in August, 1855, and soon after formed a partnership in the dry goods trade with A. B. Sherman, which continued nearly three years. The firm of Sherman & Brown occupied the store next to the Rollstone Bank block. He married Jan. 13, 1856, Miss Sarah P. Harding of East Medway, who was a most efficient helpmate in building up his large business. In i860 Mr. Brown formed a partnership with Charles Kimball of Haver- hill under the firm name of Kimball & Brown, which con- tinued about a year and a half, at the store which Mr. Brown afterward occupied, but which was very much enlarged. In April, 1862, Mr. Brown commenced business for him- self, and his energy and business tact soon developed a large and thriving trade. In 1865 his increasing business required a large addition to his store, and five extensions were made, at various times, till two large stores in front were occupied and the space between Main and Crescent streets mainly de- voted to mercantile purposes. Mr. Brown commenced with dry goods and cloak-mak- ing, but dressmaking was added. In 1882 the carpet department was established, and the millinery parlor a year later. Mr. Brown leased the store for several years, but ac- quired the property by purchase. The store front has been rebuilt twice since he owned the block. In 1882 the tasteful brown stone front was erected, making it one of the finest 254 FITCIIBURG, PAST AND TRESENT. blocks in the city. In addition to this he also had a branch store at Shelburne F'alls for three 3'ears. Mr. Brown was thoroughly alive to the interests of the city and made invest- ments where they would increase its prosperit}\ He was a director in the Wachusett National Bank from its organiza- tion in 1875, vice-president of the Worcester North Savings Institution and trustee from the time the bank was incorpo- rated, president of the Wachusett Electric Light Company from its organization. He was also a vestry-man of Christ church, and a member of Jerusalem Commandery, Knights Templar, a prominent Odd Fellow and first president of the Old Ladies' Home. Mr. Brown represented the city in the legisla- ~ ture in 1878 and '79, ^ serving on the impor- tant committee on fi- nance. His active interest in whatever tended to ^/^fipH^S;^ promote the growth of ^^Ul the city and his willing- ^^ ness to aid worth}' ob- jects, and his business capacity, made him a most valuable citizen, \\ hile his social qualities made for him many THE I,. J. BROWN BLOCK. wami pcrsoual friends. His hall was freely open to meetings, whether political, religious, or in the interests of temperance. For several years he furnished the hall, warmed and lighted, for meetings of the Railroad Men's Christian Association. The death of no citizen could have produced a profounder sensation ; his had been a busy and a useful life and his loss was deeply felt in this city where the best part of his life was spent. On the day of his funeral the city was draped in mourning ; the stores and post-office were closed and business COMMERCIAL. 255 was generally suspended throughout the city. Business men very generally expressed the universal sorrow at the loss the community had sustained, by placing the emblems of mourn- ing in their windows. The dry goods, millinery and clothing stores were most prominent in this public expression of feel- ing, recognizing in Mr. Brown, an active but honorable rival in his department of trade, whose energy and skill had brought trade to counters other than his own. Among the later dry goods establishments may be men- tioned : E. G. Stowe's, M. W. FiTz & Co., Boston Store, L. U. Hammond, Girard & Irish, E. J. Moore & Co. GROCERIES. The grocery store of Warren S. Harris was estab- lished by T. C. Caldwell in 1835 ; that of S. D. Baldwin by J. Baldwin in 1837. The store of H. J. Lacey in West Fitchburg, known as the "old Baldwin store," has also been long established. H. A. Hatch & Co., are the oldest es- tablished grocerymen now in active business. The senior member of this firm, H. A. Hatch, has been in the business since 1844. He first started in the old Rollstone block, in that portion now occupied by George H. Chapman as a shoe store. In 1870 he built Hatch's block, at the corner of Main and Prichard streets, a portion of which the firm has since occupied. Of the thirty or more now engaged in this line of business the following have been the longest established : W. P. Guy, C. A. Cross, (wholesale,) J. A. & E. A. Jos- LiN, Josiah Spaulding, John F. Bruce, Daniel Boyle, M. N. Benjamin, John D. Morrill, G. H. & T. Cutler, Hiram A. Goodrich, Charles R. Conn and E. M. Read. Cobb's Boston Branch, A. L. Williams & Co. proprietors, although more recently established, is one of the largest in the city. MEAT AND PROVISIONS. The oldest meat and provision house in the city is that of the Lowe Brothers, which was established by John Lowe, 25() FITCHliURG, PAST AND PRESENT. whose ancestors were among the early settlers of the town of Fitchburg, and whose father was David Lowe. Of this large family only four sons are now living, two worthy citizens of their native city, one in Michigan, and one in California, while one died at the close of the war, having served three vears' time in the army. John, the eldest of these boys, by his early marriage, was brought into connection with A. & O. W. Mead, now wealthy commission dealers in Boston, but then neither of the three had any capital. Thev suggested that he should ride through the country in this vicinity and buy whatever produce he could find for sale among the farmers, and they would sell, and divide the profits. The business suited him ; the rapid drives about the country, the meeting with all classes of men, developed his powerful will and wonderful perseverance, which were con- trolled b}' strict integrity and honesty of purpose. He soon conceived the idea of supplying his own towns- people. Like all new ventures, the idea was ridiculed and opposed ; but believing in the law of supply and demand, he pushed on, and soon had a market established in Guy's block. Leaving his brother in charge, he moved his family to Rindge. For the next few years he could not be said to live anywhere, for his days were spent between scouring Cheshire county for supplies and looking after the store here, sending his supplies to Boston, and spending most of his nights in driving from one place to the other. His brother leaving for the West, Mr. Lowe bought a place and removed his family to Fitchburg again. In the financial crisis of '57 he lost all he had. It was a crushing blow. So many years gone, and nothing left but an honest name and what the "law allowed." Meeting W. C. Emory one day, they talked over the situation. Putting their money together — between seven and eight dollars — Mr. Lowe said : "I will go and buy something and you may sell it." Then came the reward of honest dealing. It was won- derful how the fiirmers, with whom he had dealt, sustained and trusted him. The business steadily increased, he sup- plying most of the markets with dressed beef at wholesale, COMMERCIAL. 257 the amount of wliich was many thousands annually during and since the war. He was always his own cashier and book-keeper, carrying every account with him in a pass-book (or memorandum) . Having established a flourishing and successful business he sold out the same in tavor of his sons, whose long training as "helps" had fitted them to be worthy successors of the father. They had greatly increased the business, having added the manufacture of pork products, when a disastrous lire occurred, completely destroying all their works, and as such supplies can be obtained direct from Chicago it is not Hkely that they will soon be rebuilt. FURNITURE DEALERS. Eugene W. Willis is proprietor of the oldest furni- ture house, which was established by his father, S. D. Willis, who commenced the manufacture of coffins and mattresses in 1845, occupying, for thirty years, the store adjoining the present National house, at first alone and later with his son, Eugene. His health failing he retired to a farm among the New Hampshire mountains, but, with health restored, he re- turned to the furniture business, at 306 Main street, with his son and errand-son. Martin Webber, a resident of Fitchburg tor twenty-four years, has been engaged in the furniture business in his present location, 221 Main street, for the past eleven years. Mr. Web- ber is a cabinet-maker b}' trade, and was employed by F. A. Beckwith. man- ufacturer of doors, sash and blinds, for eleven years, previous to pur- chasing his present busi- ness of R. I. Lawton. 258 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. FiTCHBURG Furniture Company. — (Mr. C. M. Par- ker) succeeded J. K. P. Wood, in the retail furniture business, 335 Main street, in 1884. Mr. Parker had been, however, for a long time, connected with the furniture business as a manufacturer. He was born in Merrimac, N. H., in 1835, where he commenced manufacturing. In 1880 he removed to Fitchburg and has since conducted the business, under the name of Parker & Co. The manufactory is located in Newton Place, comprising a fac- tory, with engine and boiler-house adjoining. Employment is given to about forty hands, nearly all skilled workmen, and the product includes house and office desks, secretaries, hall stands, etc., in mahogany, walnut, cherry, oak and other popular woods now in use. Mr. Parker is a member of the New England Furniture Exchange. Upon coming to Fitchburg he took a lively interest in town affairs ; was rep- resentative to the legislature for two years, and held various offices of trust ; has served the city in the common council ; is a director of the Fitchburg National Bank, and a trustee of the Fitchburg Savings Bank. Hartwell & Reed. — This is one of the oldest estab- lished marble works in the country. Its origin dates back to a period of fifty-six years ago, and was founded by Mr. Isaac Hartwell, and conducted by him alone, until 1848, when he formed a partnership with Mr. George Reed, under the style of Hartwell & Reed. Mr. Hartwell has since died, and the surviving partner is now the proprietor. T. S. Blood is the oldest established dentist. He was born in Sterling, June 23, 1810; began the practice of his profession in Worcester, in 1837, ^^^^ afterwards moved to New York City; came to Fitchburg in 1840; since 1852 has occupied his present office. Thomas Palmer began the practice of dentistry in Fitchburg in 1844. For the past fifteen years his son, Joseph W. Palmer, has been associated with him in business, under the name of Palmer & Palmer. COMMERCIAL. 259 J. C. MouLTON is the oldest established photographer in the cit}', having been in business here since 1848. R. R. Conn, watchmaker and jeweller, is the oldest in his line of business, commencing Aug. 24, 1855. W. A. Macurda, apothecary, began business in 1868. PROCTOR S BLOCK. EMORY'S BLOCK. The following are also seniors in their respective lines of business: Charles Mason, insurance; S. A. Childs, real estate; J. F. D. Garfield (Garfield & Proctor), coal; F. A. Beckwith, lumber ; G. B. Knowlton, hardware ; Baker Bros., booksellers and stationery ; George H. Chapman, boots and shoes; S. G. Frost, harness maker; Peter B. Howard, hair dresser. Charles G. Giles, referred to in the post-office sketch as M. Giles, died of paralysis at Westminster, Dec. 3, 1887, at the age of sixty-nine years. CHAPTER XIII. JOURNALISM IN FITCHBURG. The first printing-office and newspaper in Fitchburg was estab- lished in October, 1830, by J. E. Whitcomb & Co. It is to be re- gretted that no tiles of the early volumes of papers printed here have been preserved, and that only a few scattering numbers are now to be found as memorials of the in- troduction of printing into the town. Jonathan E. Whitcomb was a son of John Whitcomb, a farmer then living in the south part of the town. Young Whitcomb had served a year at the printing business in Greenfield, and in the fall of 1828 went to Boston, where, after working a year, he purchased a small office and com- menced the business there. In the autumn of 1830, being then but twent>-one 3'ears of age, he moved his office to Fitchburg, and, in connection with John Page, started the Fitchburg Gazette, the first number of which was issued on or about the 19th of October. Mr. Page was a son of Enoch C. Page, of Lunenburg, and had served his apprenticeship to the printing business in the office of Col. Edmund Cushing of that town. He was younger than his partner, Whitcomb, being at that time only twenty years of age. The size of the Gazette was what was called super-royal (about 22 by 28 inches). The paper was manufactured by JOURNALISM IN FITCHBURG. 201 Mr. Alvah Crocker, at his mill at West Fitchburg. The first number was issued to one hundred and twenty-five sub- scribers, — the price being one dollar and filty cents a year, or a dollar and twenty-five if paid in advance. The printing- office was in a wooden building just below the entrance to the Fitchburg Hotel. The driveway to the hotel stables FITCHBURG HOTEL AND PRINTING-OFFICE. passed through between the printing-office and the hotel en- trance, the dance hall of the hotel being over the driveway, and connecting the two buildings. The second story was used for the newspaper, and the lower for printing Bibles from stereotype plates, for Col. Edmund Cushing, of Lunen- burg, and for a small circulating library and book-store. In March, 1831, only four months after the first issue of the Gazette^ Mr. Page left the firm, and Whitcomb carried on the paper till December following, when he sold a half interest to Beniah Cooke, then principal of the academy. The firm of Whitcomb & Cooke continued as publishers till March, 1832, when Whitcomb disposed of his remaining in- terest to Cooke, but continued to edit the Gazette till Septem- ber following, when he left town and the paper was edited for three months by Nathaniel Wood, Esq. Whitcomb's last issues were decidedly outspoken in opposition to the princi- ples and policy of the Jackson administration. During the political campaign of 1832 tiie Gazette^ under Mr. Wocxl's 2G2 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. editorial care, supported Levi Lincoln for Governor of Mas- sachusetts and Henry Clay for the presidency, — candidates of the "National Republican" party. Among the local advertisements in the Gazette, in Au- gust, 1832, were the following: Cyrus Thurston, singing- school ; William Torrey, high school ; Marshall & Aber- crombie, drugs and medicines ; Julian & Safford, carriage and harness making ; M. Sawyer, Abel Thurston and Cyrus Thurston, assessors' notice ; Elbridge Wright and Horatio Fairbanks, blacksmithing ; B. Cooke, book-store, circulat- ing-library, book-binding and printing ; Fitchburg Fusiliers' notice, Rufus C. Torrey, clerk ; Boston and Keene line of stages, and Fitchburg and Lowell accommodation stages. Just before Whitcomb & Page's dissolution, in March, 183 1, a new publication appeared trom the Gazette office, — a monthly literary magazine, entitled The Albnvi; o?', A Pan- aeea for Eumii. The first number bore the imprint of J. E. Whitcomb & Co., publishers ; the second and third were pub- lished by John Page ; but Whitcomb is understood to have been the moving spirit in the enterprise. He was the editor, as well as principal contributor to its pages, and after the third number his name alone appeared in connection with it. The first six numbers each consisted of sixteen octavo pages, with fancy covers, after which the work was enlarged to twenty-four, and premiums were offered for contributions, viz. : For the best moral tale, a set of Byron's works, in eight volumes, elegantly bound in gilt ; for the second best, a volume of the Gazette and Album; for the third, a volume of the Album; — each tale to occupy at least eight printed pages. The Albiivi was "devoted to the cause of virtue and refinement," "dedicated to lovers of light reading," and was to be " furnished to subscribers at one dollar a year in ad- vance." The contents were largely original, and manifested a good degree of ability ; but the experiment proved an ex- pensive one, and the publication was suspended at the end of nine months. In October, 1832, the name of the Gazette was changed for a time to the Fitchbtirg Gazette and Weehly Advertiser ; JOURNALISM IN FITCHBURG. 263 and the heading was embellished with a wood-cut of the printing-office and Fitchburg Hotel — then a wooden struc- ture ; — but sometime during the following year the original heading was restored, and the wood-cut omitted. The sub- scription price was raised to two dollars, or one dollar and fifty cents in advance. The Gazette started as a neutral paper, but under the ed- itorial management of Mr. Cooke, took an active part in the political campaign of 1833, in support of the democratic party. During its first two years the heading of its editorial column w^as ornamented by the cut of a flying angel — represented with an open book bearing good tidings earthward — which by a stretch of imagination might be taken lor Mercury, the messenger of the gods. The cut was accompanied by the Shakspearean quotation, "I, from the orient to the drooping west Making the wind my post-horse, Still unfold the acts commenced on this ball of earth." Not long after the paper took its political stand the winged messenger was displaced by the American eagle, and Shak- speare gave way to the famous declaration of General Jackson, "The Union ! it must be preserved." In January or February, 1834, Mark Miller of Peter- borough, N. H., purchased a part or the whole of Cooke's interest in the Gazette, and continued its publication as a democratic paper. The general appearance of the sheet was changed on passing into Miller's hands, being enlarged by the addition of a column on each page, and having plain Roman capitals substituted for the old English or black letter of its former heading. Mr. Miller's name appeared as editor and publisher, but Mr. Cooke retained, wholly or in part, the ownership of the printing-office. Within three months after Miller assumed the editorial chair the publication of the Gazette was discontinued, having led a precarious existence of three and a half years. In the Gazette office during the first two or three years there worked as apprentices, George D. Farwell, son of Daniel Farwell of 264 FITCIIBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. Fitchburg, John Garfield, who was afterwards prominently identified with the printing business in the town, and two brothers by the name of Chapman. One of the latter after- wards went to Indiana, where he became famous in the presidential campaign of 1840, as the man who was requested to "crow." In April or May of this year (1834) Miller and Cooke separated. Dividing the office. Miller, with his portion, moved into the attic of the building opposite the Fitchburg Hotel, now owned by George N. Proctor, where he com- menced the publication of a new paper entitled the Afassa- chusetts Republican * the first number bearing date the i6th' of May. This was also devoted to the interests of the demo- cratic party. In size and general appearance the Republi- can was similar to the Gazette, being printed on a sheet 22 by 31 inches, and having six columns to a page. The price of the paper was a dollar and fift}^ cents a year, to which twenty-five cents was to be added tor every six months delay. Miller at the same time published a weekly religious paper called The Christian Messenger, edited by William Cushing, and devoted to the dissemination of the doctrines of the Unitarian denomination. Mr. Cushing was a son of Col. Edmund Cushing of Lunenburg, and was at the time princi- pal of the Fitchburg academy. The Messenger was started in April, 1834, ^""^ ^^^ issued in octavo form, eight double- column pages to each number ; price seventy-five cents a year. The heading of the paper was ornamented with the *According to the recollection of some of our older citizens there seems to have been a paper printed here at one time called the "■Star;'' and we find an article in the daily Sentinel, in its first issue, May 6, 1873, which states (on the authority of the late Charles H. B. Snow, Esq.,) that the Fitchburg Gazette was bought out and converted into a democratic weekly called the "National Republican and Worcester County Star.'" This statement tallies with an item in the Massachusetts Spy, of May 28, 1834, referring to the Worcester County Republican, then just started, as an ad- vocate of whig principles, which adds — " In this respect it contrasts favorably with the leetle tory Star that twinkles so lugubriously in the same neighborhood." Pos- sibly the name Worcester County Star may have been an appendage to the title of the Republican in its earliest issues ; but if so its name was very soon changed to simply " Massachusetts Republican.'" JOURNALISM IN FITCHBURG. '265 cut of a flying angel, bearing in one hand a book and in the other a scroll, with the words, "Behold I bring you good tidings — the Everlasting Gospel." After the eighth number the name of William Gushing as editor disappeared, and Rev. Jonathan Farr of Harvard assumed the editorial charge. The Messenger lived less than three months. After dividing with Miller, Mr. Cooke sold the remaining portion of the Gazette office to George D. Far well, who had served an apprenticeship in the office, and in May, 1834, Farwell printed the first number of a new paper called the Worcester County Courier, William and Rufus C. Torrey, editors and proprietors. The Courier was started as a whig paper, in opposition to the politics of the 3fassachusetts Re- publican; and was similar in size and general appearance to that paper ; was published weekly, terms two dollars per year, one dollar and seventy-five cents if paid in advance. At this time there were three papers published in the town, — two political and one religious. Of course the three were but feebly supported. Up to this time, for a series of years, David Brigham, Esq., had been postmaster of the town ; but through the influence of political friends Mr. Mil- ler obtained the appointment to the post-office, with the reasonable expectation, no doubt, that the income therefrom would materially aid in the support of his paper. But finan- cial difficulties were already upon him, and he very soon resigned his position as postmaster and left the town — under a cloud. With his departure, the MassacJiiisetts Republican came to an untimely end, leaving the Courier the sole sur- vivor of the field. The career of the Republican covered a period of not far from six months. Miller's appointment to the post office having occurred in September or October. The Worcester County Courier was continued two full years, to June 28, 1836, when its suspension was announced. At this time the paper was conducted by George D. Farwell as publisher and proprietor, Mr. William Torrey, one of the former editors, having died a year previously, June 12, 1835, while the name of his associate, Mr. R. C. Torre}', had also disappeared as editor, he having succeeded William Gushing as principal of the academy. 266 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. The suspension of the Courier was but for a single week, the office being then purchased by Mr. John Garfield, who resumed its publication as a neutral paper. It was reduced in size to 22 by 28 inches, having five columns to the page instead of six, but was improved in its general appear- ance. The name was changed to Fitchbiirg Worcester County Courier, the old English, or black letter, dis- placed the plain Roman capitals in the title, and the price was reduced to $1.25, in advance. One year later the name of the paper was made to read simply The Courier, and under it, as a motto, were the words ^'free discussion.''' Soon after purchasing the Courier Mr. Garfield em- ployed Mr. Wm. S. Wilder as editor, and under his manage- ment the paper was continued till the w'inter of 1838, when, during the absence of Mr. Garfield, the editor changed the character of the paper from a neutral to a democratic sheet. Party feeling was running high at the time, and the two political parties were about evenly balanced. Mr. Wilder's course in running up political colors, created a sensation, and resulted in a suspension of the Courier, the final issue being under date of March 9, 1838. In announcing the suspension Mr. Wilder says ; — "We are no less convinced than ever that a paper might and ought to be well supported in this place, yet such are the sectional party feelings that w-e despair of seeing it done, unless some one can be found to conduct it who is more capable of the task than ourself. * * We know^ that some felt to regret that a political stand was taken. We appreciate their motives but do not admit the justness of their reasoning. We believed that the times loudly called for political decision and political action. * * We believed that the means which were used to secure the re-election of Governor Everett, by representing him as favorable to the views of the abolitionists, were basely hypo- critical ; and the circumstances of some special efforts to this effect served to hasten our departure from neutral ground." The suspension of the Courier was immediately followed JOURNALISM IN FITCHBURG. 207 by the appearance, from the same office, of a small sheet, half the size of the Cou7'icr, called T/ic Times. This appears to have been designed chiefly as an advertising medium, and was printed by Garfield for Mr. Wilder, though no name appears as publisher or editor. For want of patron- age the Times was discontinued after two or three months, and for a period of four or five months no paper was pub- lished in the town — Mr. Garfield, in the meantime, continu- ing the business of job printing. On the twentieth of December, 1838, the first number of the Fitchburg Sentinel made its appearance — J. Garfield, printer, Ezra W. Reed, editor, — neutral in politics. With the starting of the Sentinel a new era commenced in the journalism of Fitchburg. The paper was destined to live and become one of the established institutions of the town. In its initial number the intention was announced of making it a family newspaper, "devoted to the interests of the farmer, the mechanic and the manufacturer, and also to the interests of the common schools." At first the size of the sheet was 19 by 26 inches, but at the end of two months it was enlarged to 20 by 28, and otherwise improved in appearance; the price was $1.25 per year, in advance, or, if payment was delayed, "twelve-and-a-half cents to be added at the end of every three months." Mr. Reed con- tinued to edit the paper about one year when, owing to fail- ing health, he gave up the position. He died Jan. 9, 1840. During the first two or three years the columns of the Sentinel were enlivened by frequent contributions, both of prose and poetry, from a coterie of local contributors, some of whom developed decided literary talent. Among the more prominent of these writers were — Henry C. Whitman, then a law student with Torrey & Wood — afterwards judge of the Supreme Court of Ohio, who wrote a series of articles on education, over the nom-de-plume of ^^Puhlins T Franklin Reed, a brother of the editor, who wrote on moral, historical and society matters, over the initials "i^. N. Z". ;" Miss Louisa Beckwith, later Mrs. Leander P. Comee, whose poetical contributions were signed ''Louisa;''' William C. 268 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. Elleck, a harness maker, later editor of the ^'Cold Water Cup,'' who wrote under the nom-de-plume of '^Conrad ;''' one Patterson, an operative at the Fitchburg woolen mill, whose articles, both poetry and prose, were over the signa- ture of '^Svp/iax ;'' and a young man by the name of Augustine Joseph Hickey, then about sixteen years of age — an apprentice in the Sentinel office — whose contributions bore the pseudon3'm of '"jfulian.'"' It was during this period that a spicy controversy arose between the three writers last named, in which the articles of ""Julian''' (whose identity was unknown to either of the other two, and, in fact, to any- body sa\'e one or two confidential friends,) were wrongly attributed to different individuals of protessional or classical education, and were least of all supposed to come from the printer's devil. After leaving Fitchburg Hickey assumed the name of Duganne, and became well known in literary circles as an author and poet. The Sentinel prospered and continued to be published by Mr. Garfield till March, 1841, when William J. Merriam purchased the office and continued the paper. In Januar}', previous to Mr. Merriam's purchase, William S. Wilder again took the editorial chair, "with a full assurance that the management of a neutral paper is a task replete with diffi- culties and trials." He retained the position during the year, but in January, 1842, Mr. Merriam assumed the entire management. The paper was now enlarged to 21 by 30 inches, and a new engraved heading of fancy letters super- seded the plain Roman capitals which had been in use from the first. The town had now taken a start, and was fast increasing in population and importance. The subject of railroad com- munication with Boston was beginning to be agitated. The first public meeting to consider this subject was held at the town hall on the evening of Nov. 12, 1841, pursuant to a notice in the Sentinel of the nth. The Sentinel columns were freely opened for the discussion and furtherance of the project. The railroad was completed from Boston to Fitch- burg in February, 1845, and opened for use on the 5th of the following month. JOURNALISM IN FITCHBURG. 269 The paper was again enlarged in August, 1845, to 24 by 34 inches, by adding a column to each page. The suppres- sion of the liquor traffic and the promotion of the cause of temperance in the town was then agitating the public mind. The Sentinel took strong ground in favor of legal measures against the traffic, and its editor, by this means, brought upon himself the wrath of the dealers, one of whom threat- ened to publicly horsewhip him for articles published con- cerning liquor prosecutions in which he, the dealer, was defendant. About the time the Sentinel \\?lq started the printing office was moved to the second story of a wooden building, a little to the rear of the old office — about in the present driveway to the hotel stables. Its entrance was through an alley, and by a flight of outside stairs, between the old office and the present Emory House. The room vacated was used for vears afterwards as a lodge room by the Masonic fraternity. In February, 1849, the office was moved into the present 6'^;///;/r/ building, then owned by Crocker & Caldwell. Pre- paratory to re-build- ing the hotel, in 1850, the old office buildings were re- moved, the Gazette building to the lot now known as Mon- ument square, where it was fitted up for tenements. It was afterwards removed SENTINEL BUILDING. to OHvcr strcct. Cor- ner of Adams, and is now owned by Marraton Upton. The old Sentinel building was moved to Central street, between Brook and Vine, w^here it still stands. In December, 1850, Mr. Merriam sold out to Elisha and John Garfield. The Sentinel now appeared with new type, the heading was changed to a text, or old English shaded letter, and the amount of reading matter was considerably 270 FITCIIBURG, PAST AND PRESEIviT. increased. About' this time the project of a new county, with Fitcliburg as a shire town, was being pushed, and the Sentinel entered into the discussion with a Hvely interest in its favor. In September, 1852, J. F. D. Gartield bought John Garfield's interest, and in connection with his brother, Elisha, continued the business eight years, to October, i860. At the commencement of 1853 the paper appeared in a new dress ; it was somew^hat enlarged, and had seven columns to a page instead of six. From October, i860, through the war period, the Sentinel was conducted by Elisha Garfield alone. In April, 1864, John Garfield again became a half- owner, and in September, 1865, sole owner of the establish- ment. Mr. James M. Blanchard became a partner with him, from April, 1866, to March, 1867, when Mr. Charles C. Stratton succeeded Mr. Blanchard as partner. In Janu- ary, 1870, Mr. Bourne Spooner took a third interest in the concern, and the st}'le of the firm was Garfield, Stratton & Co., until January, 187 1, when Mr. Garfield sold his interest to Messrs. Stratton & Spooner. In March, 1873, Mr. John E. Kellogg was admitted a joint partner, the new firm taking the name of The Sentinel Printing Company. In July, of the same year, Mr. Spooner withdrew, and Mr. Thomas Hale of Keene, N. H., a former editor of the Keene Sentinel, purchased Spooner's interest and became associ- ated with Messrs. Stratton & Kellogg in the editorial man- agement. Two years later Mr. Hale retired from the firm, and from that time to the present, Messrs. Stratton & Kellogg have constituted The Sentinel Printing Company, and had the entire management of the paper. In May, 1873, the Fitchburg Daily Sentinel w^as started, the first number being issued May 6. It was an evening paper, in size 21 by 30 inches. The Daily Sentinel has been well conducted, and has continued vigorous and healthy to the present time. In October, 1881, the paper w^as enlarged to 23 by 35, and again in September, 1885, to 25 by 39, and in October, 1886, to 27 by 44 inches, both the daily and weekly being now of the same size. At different periods in its history the col- umns of the Sentinel have had the benefit of valuable editorial JOURNALISM IN FITCHBURG. 271 services from different individuals, among whom ma}' be mentioned Hon. Joseph W. Mansur, WiUiam B. Town and Charles H. B. Snow, Esqs., and Col. E. P. Loring. In February, 1842, a small sheet, 13 by 20 inches, was started, christened the Cold Water Ctip and Fitchhurg Washingtonian. It was issued weekly, devoted to the cause of temperance, edited by William C. Elleck, and printed and published, at the office of the Sentinel, by W. J. Mer- riam. With the twelfth number the Cold Water Cup was discontinued, and its list of subscribers transferred to the Waterfall^ a similar sheet then recently started at Worcester. In January, 1845, a new paper called The Wachusctt In- dependant was started by William S. Wilder and E. R. Wil- kins. Wilder was formerly editor of the Courier, and for one year edited the Sentinel. Wilkins was a printer. The paper was devoted to the "working-men's cause, genuine de- mocracy, anti-slavery," etc., published weekly, terms $1.25 per year. The office was at first located in the attic of Snow's building, opposite the Fitchburg Hotel, now owned by G. N. Proctor ; but was soon moved to the building at the corner of Main and Laurel streets, now known as the Citi- zens House. This was the first printing-office in that part of the village then known as the "old city." The Indefendant was discontinued at the end of six months, and its subscrip- tion list transferred to the Sentinel. The Voiee of Industry, a weekly paper devoted to the cause of labor, was started May 29, 1845, "by an association of working-men ;" W. F. Young, editor; terms, one dollar in advance; the size of the sheet being 21 by 28 inches. The printing-office was opposite the Fitchburg Hotel, in the quar- ters vacated by the Wachusett Independant. As stated un- der its editorial head, the Voice professed to "labor for the abolition of idleness, want and oppression — the prevalence of industry, virtue and intelligence." The editor was a harness maker by trade, had practiced the profession of a dentist, and could do a "good job" at either; as demonstrated by his labors, daily, while carrying on his editorial work. The shares in the Voice "association" were placed at five 272 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. dollars each, and a goodly number of working men were in- duced to invest in the enterprise ; but when the original in- vestment was exhausted, and an attempt was made to assess the shares, there was trouble in the camp. The Voice con- tinued to be published here five or six months, and was then transferred to Lowell, where its publication was continued for a time. In February, 1847, a paper called the Fitchlnirg Tribune made its appearance from a printing-office located in Roll- stone block ; George A. White, publisher and proprietor. The size of the sheet was 23 by 34 inches, published weekly, at $2.00 a year. It was well printed and its editorials well written, but it failed to receive the patronage necessary to become firmly established, and was discontinued in May fol- lowing its first appearance. Its editorial department was for a while in charge of Charles C. Haswell, Esq., of Concord, an experienced journalist, though his name did not appear. In January, 1852, The Fitchburg Nezvs^ a weekly paper, made its appearance. Its size was 23 by 34 inches, price $1.25 a year in advance, and was printed in Rollstone block, the former office of the Tribune. The Neivs was edited and published by Dr. Charles Robinson, afterwards Governor of Kansas, and was at first announced as "neutral in politics and religion ;" but its editor was a man too decided and posi- tive in his ideas to remain long on neutral ground, and the paper soon took a stand in support of the Free Soil party. It was spicy in its criticisms and newsy in its treatment of local affairs. Dr. Robinson continued the publication of the Nezvs one year, to January, 1853, when he sold out to Rol- lins & Knowlton, publishers of the Winchendon 3/irror, which latter paper was discontinued. Under its new man- agement, the JVews took a rapid decline, and in June follow- ing, it died a natural death. The Fitchburg Reveille., the first number of which ap- peared March 30, 1852, was a political paper, established to advocate the principles and policy of the old whig party. It was published semi-weekly, on a sheet 23 by t^t^ inches, the terms being $3.00 a year in advance. Mr. John J. Piper JOURNALISM IN FITCHBURG. 273 was the editor and proprietor, and the office was in Central block, (third story,) next west of the city hall. Mr. Piper was not a practical printer, but had had experience as a newspaper editor and manager previous to his coming to Fitchburg, having been for some years connected with the Semi-weekly JVcras, published at Gloucester, Mass. He conducted the Reveille with marked ability, during a period of nearly seventeen years, to the time of his death, which oc- curred on the 3d of February, 1869. An interesting sketch of his life appeared in the Reveille of the nth of that month. Mr. Piper was a fluent and forcible writer, and at times tipped his pen with a raciness and keenness of satire that caused his paper to be frequently quoted, and made his columns the tield for many a sharp skirmish with political opponents. In the presidential campaign of 1856, the Reveille es- poused the cause of the republican party, advocated the elec- tion of Fremont, and was thereafter a staunch advocate of the principles of that party. The paper was enlarged in April, 1859, to ^4 ^y 3^ inches, and continued to be issued as a semi-weekly till October, 1861, when it was changed to a weekly, and the price made $2.00, or $1.75 in advance. In October, 1866, it was further enlarged to 26 by '^^ inches, and again in April, 1869, to 27 by 41 inches, having eight columns to the page. x\fter the death of Mr. Piper, in 1869, his brothers, Joseph L. and Henry F. Piper, continued the publication of the Reveille^ and soon removed the office to Rollstone Bank building. J. L. Piper retired from the concern in May, 1874, "^"^^ ^^^^ paper was conducted by Henry F. Piper alone till Frank L. Boutelle became a part- ner with him in May, 1875. On November 24, 1875, Piper & Boutelle started a new daily paper in connection with the Reveille^ entitled the Ritchbtirg Daily Press. It was an evening paper, in size 21 by 31 inches, and was announced as a campaign paper to discuss the issues of the then pending municipal election. It favored the election of H. A. Blood lor mayor, who was elected. The Press was continued after the election till Au- 18 274 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. gust following, when the firm of Piper & Boutelle disap- peared as publishers of the Reveille^ and the Daily Press dropped out of existence. The suspension of the P^css was immediately followed by a new daily from the same office, called the Fitclibiirg Evening C/ironiclc, the first number appearing August loth, with the name of Mr. Ezra S. Stearns as editor and mana- ger. The Chroniele was republican in politics, was neatly printed on new t3'pe, and ably edited ; but the enterprise was started during a period of general business prostration, and the time had not fully come for tw'o daily papers to be suc- cessfully carried on in the place. Soon after the C/iroiiicle was started, the printing and publication offices were re- moved from Rollstone Bank building to Rollstone Block, over the office of Norcross & Hartwell. Here the two pa- pers, the Reveille and Chroniele^ were continued to Febru- ary 15, 1877, when they were both merged in the weekly and daily Sentinel. Thus closed the career of the Reveille, which had had an existence of a quarter of a century, and occupied a prominent position in the journalism of Fitchburg. Mr. J. J. Piper, its tbunder, had at the time of his death wielded the pen of a skilled journalist for a longer period in the town than any other person. In January, 1881, Mr. William M. Sargent commenced the publication of a weekly paper called The Fitchburg Tribune. It was a good looking sheet, 26 by 40 inches, and was issued from an office in Goodrich block. Day street, at $1.50 per year. In March, following, ?i Daily Evening Tribune was started from the same office, on a sheet 18 by 25 inches. It was a penny paper, the yearly price being three dollars. In the summer of 1881, the Evening Tribune was enlarged to 22 by 30 inches, the price remaining the same as before. In Jul}', 18S2, Mr. Sargent disposed of his interest in the Tribune to J. W. EUam of Clinton, w4io con- tinued it, daily and weekly. In April, 1883, Mr. Ellam retired, and the name of E. A. Norris appeared as "mana- ger." In September, 1884, Albert G. Morse became the publisher, and continued the paper to February, 1885, when JOURNALISM IN FITCHBURG. 275 the daily was discontinued and the weekly Tr/'hunc became the Fitch/nirg Weekly News. A. G. Morse was the printer, and J. H. White business manager. The Nczus was issued in quarto tbrm, on a sheet 26 by 40 inches. In May, 1885, Mr. White became the publisher, and continued the Nczvs to February, 1886, when he changed the name to the Monthly Visitor. The Visitor has continued to the present time, un- der the same management ; the name, however, having been changed to Ladies' Home Visitor. The FitcJibiirg Enterprise was started in December, 1880, by Thomas C. Blood. It has been published three to five times a year, is a well patronized advertising sheet, and still lives. Each number contains some original as well as some selected reading matter of interest. The United States MontJily., a sixteen page paper, de- voted to the cause of temperance, good health, right living, intelligence and industry, and advocating especially prohibi- tory measures against the liquor traffic, was started in June, 1885, by H. C. Bartlett; price, 50 cents a year. It is a neatly printed and well conducted paper, the size of the pages II by 14 inches, and has continued to the present time, doing valiant service in the cause of temperance and prohibition. In February, 1887, the price was reduced to 25 cents a year, the size remaining the same. The Beacon Light, organ of the Young Men's Christian Association, is a small eight page paper, published monthly. Its first issue was in September, 1887. The Parish Helper is a neat little monthly published in the interest of the parish of Christ Church. It was started in October, 1887. A sixteen page monthly entitled Good Luck has recently made its appearance. It is largely devoted to advertising. Millard F. Jones is manager, at 155 Main street. In looking back over the period of journalism noticed, we find the way strewn with the wrecks of numerous enterprises that were from time to time launched upon the waters, weathered the breakers for a brief season, and passed to the inevitable. In 1854 ^ I-^^"- R- P'^vi'ker came to Fitchburg and offered 276 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. his professional services to the citizens. In August of that year he commenced the pubhcation of a monthly paper called the Fitchburg Iloiiuvopat/i/'c yoiinial. It proposed to treat of the medical science of homoeopathy "and many other things of importance to every family, whether they believed in honicvopathy or not." It was in octavo form and lived three months. In October, 1854, ^ small sheet appeared entitled The Fitchburg Daily ^ printed and published by Plaisted & Bax- ter, at the office in Rollstone block. This was the first at- tempt to start a daily paper in Fitchburg. Its size was 18 by 24 inches ; in politics it inclined strongl}' to native Ameri- canism ; and it survived just three days. Wm. A. Plaisted and John Baxter had been printers at the Sentinel office, but the editor was an adventurer who represented himself to be a doctor, and as having funds enough to "stand it" should the paper not pay for the first few months. The fact was he had little if any money, but obtained credit more than he de- served, and very suddenly decamped, leaving his printers to explain in a parting editorial, that "the human heart is de- ceitful above all things and desperately wicked." In May, 1855, the Country yoiirnal, a literary paper for the home and fireside made its appearance from the office of the Fitchburg Reveille^ J- J- Piper, editor and publisher. It was a large, handsome, well printed sheet, issued weekly, — made up largely of original contributions by well known writers of ability, whose services had been engaged for the purpose, — and bid fair to become a most desirable family paper ; but it failed to receive sufficient encouragement, and lived but three months. In 1857 a small sheet appeared called The Inkstand. It was published monthly as an advertising sheet, by "Captain Sidnev'," at the furniture store of Sidney D. Willis, and run from March to October. It was a combination of comicali- ties and quaint conceits, characteristic of its editor. It was well patronized and at the end of two months had to be en- larged, and was re-christened Inkstand and Reporter. It was the pioneer of all the advertising papers. Of its two JOURNALISM IN FITCHBURG. 277 editions monthly, the first was on sale at "one cent a copy,"' while the second, a week later, was distributed gratuitously. In November, 1869, Rev. George Trask published the first number of The Anti-Tobacco "yotirnal. It was octavo in form, with 24 to 48 pages to a number, and was issued quarterly and as much oftcner as funds came in to enable him to do it. It professed to be the organ of the "one man society" in the anti-tobacco crusade, and was filled with spicy, pungent and readable matter in the editor's own pecu- liar style, against the "use of the weed in all its forms." It was never issued very regularly, but was kept up at inter- vals for twelve or fifteen years. The first few years the printing was done in Boston ; but during the latter part of the time it was printed at the Fitchburg Reveille office. In December, 1865, the Rolhtone Mirror, a sheet 20 by 25 inches, started oft' with a flourish as a weekly local paper from an ofiice in Washington block. It was too spicy to last, and only survived a few weeks. No names of printer or publisher given. In June, 1881, a new illustrated paper appeared called the Church and Home, published monthly at West Fitchburg, at 30 cents a 3^ear. It was edited by Rev. F. T. Pomeroy, then pastor of the West Fitchburg Methodist Episcopal church, each number consisting of eight or ten pages, 11 by 16 inches. It was continued through the year and disap- peared. Among the many advertising sheets of greater or less pretension, that have run for a brief season and then gone "the way of all the earth," may be mentioned the Trade you ma/ issued monthly, in 1867, by L. J. Brown ; the IVel- come Visitor, in 1872, by O. H. Perry and M. T. Doten ; the Pioneer Pictorial Adve? tiser, in 1872, by J. E. Man- ning; The Railzvay Globe, started in 1874, issued monthly for distribution in the railway trains ; Charles B. Dennis and Charles E. Kirby were the publishers as late as 1878 and '79; t\\& Ritchbtcrg Monthly Gazette, started in April, 1879, by L. J. Brown, C. E. Kirby manager, continued a year or two ; the Commercial Advertiser, started April, 1879, '^"^^ 278 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. published monthly by John W. Ogden, was continued eigh- teen months. Some amusing amateur papers have been issued from time to time : The Pioneer by Charles Shepley in 1841 ; The Old Bachelor in 1842 ; The Mt. Rolls! one Star in 1848, all by boys in the Sentinel office ; The Manifesto in 1850, b}' the "Junto," at the office in Rollstone block. The pioneers in journalism, whose names are associated with the papers here during the first twenty years, have near- 1}' all gone to their reward. William Gushing still remains doing good service to literature at his home in Cambridge. J. E. Whitcomb left Fitchburg in 1832, changed his name to James E. Wharton, and located in Wheeling, Va., where for some twenty years he successfully conducted the Wheeling Gazette and Times. He removed to Ohio about 1856, and for a year or two published the MassiUon Nexus ; and in 1859 started in Brooklyn, N. Y., a new paper called the Brooklyn Daily Transcript. He was born Sept. 2, 1809, and died in Portsmouth, Ohio, November 2, 1881, at the age of seventy-two, leaving a son who is a physician, and a daughter. John Page went to Norwich, Conn., in 1832, and started a new paper called the Independent Republican. He spent the last years of his life in New York working at his trade as compositor ; and died there in October, 1856, at the age of forty-six years. A letter in the Fitchburg Sentinel of Aug. 31, i860, gives some interesting particulars of his history. Benaiah Cook went to Keene, N. H., where he published for some years the Cheshire County Republican, and about 1846 started The Philanthropist, and in 1850, the American JVezus, both temperance and anti-slavery papers. The latter paper he conducted to the time of his death, August 8, 1852, at the age of fifty-one. Mark Miller went to Albany in the autumn of 1834, where he engaged in wood and copper engraving, which occupation he followed in that city and at Rochester till 1848, when he removed to Racine, Wis., and published the Wisconsin Parmer till 1854. In 1862 he removed to Des- JOURNALISM IN FITCHBURG. 279 moines, and started the Homestead, which he edited till 1870 ; then he established the Western Poniolog/'st which he continued till his death, April 9, 1874, '^^ ^^^ '^&^ ^^ sixty- four. He was a clear and fluent writer, was thoroughly versed in the practical knowledge of horticulture, and being a skilful engraver was able to illustrate as well as write, which gave to his contributions to the literature of horticul- ture especial value. George D. Farwell, Mr. Cooke's successor, on leaving Fitchburg gave up printing and engaged in mercantile busi- ness at St. Louis, Mo., in connection with steam-boating on the Mississippi river. He died at St. Louis, Sept. 12, 1850, from the effects of cholera, at the age of thirty-five. Rulus C. Torrey, after leaving the Courier, turned his at- tention to teaching, and while thus engaged wrote the His- tory of Fitchburg, which was published in 1836. In 1838 he went to Alabama, read law and engaged in the active practice of the profession. He filled, from time to time, various positions of honor and trust ; was state senator, state solicitor, and judge of the county court. He died at Clai- borne, Ala., Sept. 13, 1882, at the age of sixty-nine years. John Garfield came to Fitchburg in 183 1. He was a na- tive of Langdon, N. H., where he was born April 10, 1815, and died in this city August 19, 1885, aged seventy years. William S. Wilder, after retiring from editorial labor, was for a time assistant postmaster of Fitchburg. He left here in 1846, and thenceforward was largely engaged in mission work in the city of New York. He died there, April 18, 1887, at the age of eighty-two years. William J. Merriam, after disposing of the Sentinel, turned his attention to the law ; but after a few years gave up that profession and engaged in the drug business, which he con- tinued till his death. He died in this city, October 7, 1887, at the age of seventy-two years. The facts and figures in the foregoing sketch are a mere outline of journalism in Fitchburg. It remains for the histo- rian to clothe these bare details with a life and interest which the importance of the subject demands. CHAPTER XIY. BIOGRAPHICAL. N the history of Fitchburg for the last half-cen- tury there are those who have been identified with the manufacturing and other business, who have not been mentioned in the preceding pages. Some of this number have retired from active business, while others are not now living. Several have passed away during the present year. Colonel Ivers Phillips, now a resident of Boulder, Colorado, was for many years connected with the manufact- uring and other business interests of Fitchburg, as well as the railroad interests of Worcester county. Both of his parents were natives of Fitchburg, but about the time of their marriage moved to Ashburnham, where on the twenty-eighth day of July, 1805, their son Ivers was born. At the age of seven 3'ears he came with his parents to Fitchburg, remain- ing until 1837, when he removed to Worcester, but returned to Fitchburg in 1844. In i860 he once more made Worcester his home, giving up business there in 1873 and going to Colorado. After spending the greater part of nine years in travel he built a line residence in Boulder and settled down, probably for the remainder of his life. Mr. Phillips first became interested in the manufacturing business here in 1844, buying two mills at public auction. These he operated one year, in company with A. L. Ackley, BIOGRAPHICAL. 281 when he sold his interest in the stone mill to Mr. Acklty and bought the latter's interest in the Rockville Mill, which he continued to operate until the flood ot^ 1850. During the six years previous to 1850, Mr. Phillips built two mills, with stone dams, the brick house now occupied by E. D. Works, and (with one or two unimportant exceptions) all the houses north of Mr. Works' on both sides of Phillips brook, besides sev^eral other houses. In May, 1850, a reservoir dam in Ashburnham gave way and the flood came rushing down through the valley, carry- ing ever3^thing before it. One of the mills recently built, together with a portion of the dam, was made a total wreck, and the other mills badly damaged. Mr. Phillips' Rockville Mill, one dwelling house and store were totally demolished. The flood came so suddenly that Mr. Carter, the clerk in the store, had not time to secure the money in the drawer, but seizing the books upon the counter "ran for dear life.'" He reached the door none to soon, for the books were swept from his arms and he only succeeded in saving his life by springing into a tree and remaining until the flood subsided. For several years after the flood Mr. Phillips continued to invest in manufacturing propertjs buying, building or sell- ing, but did not confine his operations to that alone. As president of the Hotel Company he had charge of the build- ing of the present Fitchburg Hotel, and as contractor built the present city hall ; as president of the Fitchburg & Worcester Railroad Co., took down the four wooden bridges on the road and replaced them with substantial stone arch bridges, also built the Old Colony freight house in Fitch- burg. For more than twenty years Mr. Phillips was continu- ously employed in railroad positions. He was an early advocate of the Vermont & Massachusetts railroad and a director, also a director of the Fitchburg & Worcester rail- road and the second president of the board. Subsequently he was a director and president of the Agricultural railroad, now a part of the Old Colony, and also of the Boston, Barre, & Gardner railroad, now operated by the Fitchburg railroad. 282 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. Upon taking charge of the Fitchburg & Worcester raih^oad in 1849, the debts of the corporation amounted to more than one-half the cost of the road. After the first year regular semi-annual dividends were paid and when Mr. Phillips left the road in 1866, there was but one debt outstanding amount- ing to $2,000, and money enough in the treasury to pay it. In military affairs Mr. Phillips was an enthusiast. In 1827 he was commissioned a lieutenant, in 1834 he was colonel. Declining further promotion, he resigned May 26, 1835, having been an officer eight years and not yet thirty years of age. In 1853 he was a member of the Massachusetts senate and from 1862 to 1869 assessor of Internal Revenue of the Eighth Massachusetts district, also for several years a trustee in the Fitchburg Savings Bank and a director in the Fitch- burg National Bank. For ten years past he has been a director in the First National Bank of Boulder, and its presi- dent for a portion of the time. Stephen Shepley, son of Stephen and Amelia Shattuck Shepley, was a native of Shirley, Mass., having been born in the south part of that town, Dec. 29, 1818. His early ancestors came from York, England, and settled in Groton, Mass. Of one branch of the family. Chief Justice Shepley of Maine was a distinguished representative. Mr. Shepley came to Fitchburg in 1844, ^"^ during the winter of that year and of 1845 taught school in the brick school-house, which stood on the corner of Blossom and Crescent streets. Soon after, he entered into partnership with his brother Charles Shepley, in a wooden building, nearly opposite the Sentinel office. Here they kept a book- store and also took charge of the post-office. In 1846 the firm of S. & C. Shepley moved into the Torrey & Wood block and occupied the store which is now used as a meat market. Here Mr. Shepley remained till 187 1, when he moved into the savings bank block, then just completed. On Jan. 15, 1848, Charles Shepley (who was a popular and promising young man) died, and Stephen continued BIOGRAPHICAL. 283 alone until 1852, when he sold the business; but the next year he formed a partnership with Rodney Wallace, then of Rindge, N. H. The}- bought back the business from Mr. H. R. Phelps, the gentleman to whom Mr. Shepley had sold it, and opened the store as wholesale and retail dealers in books, stationer}^ paper and paper stock. This business was a successful and increasing one. Mr. Shepley and Mr. Wallace continued in partnership for twelve years, when they dissolved, Mr. Shepley taking the book and stationery business and Mr. Wallace that of paper stock. Afterwards Mr. Shepley took as partners, successively, Mr. B. W. Eddy, Mr. Henry W. Stearns and George W. Baker. June 3, 1879, within seven months of his death, he severed his con- nection with the store, on account of ill-health. In 1864, in compan}^ with Rodney Wallace, Benjamin Snow and S. E. Denton, he entered into the business of paper-making, but retired from it in about a year. He died Jan. 18, 1880, of heart disease, from which he had suffered tor some years. Mr. Shepley was an active business man and was pros- pered in his private affairs ; but not only in business, in every department of public life he was equally active, and was honored by his fellow-citizens with many offices of trust. He served on the school committee, and as a representative to the legislature in 1853, as a trustee of the public library, trustee of the Fitchburg Savings Bank, as a director of the Fitchburg National Bank, as a member of the State Board of Agriculture, and of the Massachusetts Genealogical and Historical Society, as well as in other places of responsibility. He took great interest in historical subjects, especially in town histor}^ and many valuable facts in the History of Fitchburg have been obtained through his researches. In 1876 he read a paper on John Fitch, in the town hall in Lunenburg, which was carefully prepared and very valua- ble. In agricultural matters he also took great interest, and was a valued member of the Worcester North Agricultural Society. He added greatly to the interest of the meetings of the Fitchburg Board of Trade by reading papers at vari- 284 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. oLis times, prepared by himself, and full of new facts and useful information. He was a social, genial, practical man, well read upon almost all subjects, and a most agreeable acquaintance. Goldsmith F. Bailey was born in East Westmoreland, N. H., July 17, 1823. When he was three years old his widowed mother removed with him to Fitchburg, where his early education was obtained. At the age of seventeen he began an apprenticeship as a printer in the office of the Bellows Falls Gazette, of which paper he afterwards became publisher. In 1845 he commenced the study of law^ in the office of William C. Bradley of Westminster, Vt., but com- pleted it in the office of Torrey & Wood in Fitchburg. In the year 1848 he was admitted to the bar, and in the same year he became a partner in the law firm of N. Wood & Co. In 1856 he was chosen representative from Fitchburg to the legislature, and in the years, 1857 and 1859, respectively, he was elected to the state senate, where he served first as a member and then as chairman of the judiciary committee. Through these early years of life he was constantly rising in the respect and confidence of his fellow-citizens, and in the fall of i860 he was chosen by the republicans of the ninth congressional district to represent them in congress. Thus, at the earl}^ age of thirty-seven, he tbund himself on the threshold of an apparently brilliant future, with an enviable reputation as a lawyer, a legislator and a citizen. But now it was that he found himself in the grasp of that fatal disease, consumption, and nothing could stay its prog- ress. He visited Florida for his health, and returning, took his seat in congress during the extra session, and again went to Washington in December ; but was soon obliged to resign his seat and return to his home, where he died May 8, 1862. Mr. Bailey seems, in an unusual degree, to have won the confidence and esteem of all who knew him. He was a witty, agreeable companion and a true-hearted, generous man. In business he was thorough, in thought clear and rapid, with almost intuidve perception of the motives of men. BIOGRAPHICAL. 285 The Boston Advertiser said of him at the time of his nomina- tion to congress : — "The republican convention in the Ninth, or Worcester district, yesterday nominated for congress Goldsmith F. Bailey of Fitchburg. This is a strong nomination. We have witnessed with pleasure Mr. Bailey's course in active service in both houses of the legislature ; quiet and unob- trusive, he has made his influence widely felt. Indefatigable in the committee room, with a mind well stored with the principles of law and of justice, in debate quick to appre- hend the points of argument on all sides, impartial in form- ing his own opinion, lucid in its expression, he is the sort of man who makes the most useful legislator." Other Boston and Worcester papers spoke of the nomination in a similar vein. In our cemetery, overlooking the village, stands a plain marble shaft, erected to the memory of Goldsmith Fox Bailey by his friends. Upon it is inscribed the Latin word, rcsurgam (I shall rise again). It is a touching tribute to his memory, for it shows that the instinctive, consoling thought of his friend was that a life of such promise, so cut short, must be rounded out and completed where disease and death have no home nor abiding place. C. H. B. Snow, son of Dr. Peter B. Snow, was born Aug. 7, 1822. A native of Fitchburg, as was his father, and here he spent his whole lite. He was a graduate of Harvard College, in the class of 1844, and commenced the practice of law in 1848, having studied with Messrs. Wood & Torrey. For several years he was a law partner with Hon. Amasa Norcross, but for the last eleven years of his lite he was connected in business with Judge T. K. Ware, under the firm name of Messrs. Ware & Snow. At the time of his death, Sept. 18, 1875, he was state senator from this district. For many years he was a prominent member of the board of school committee and board of trade, chairman of the board of trustees of the public library, and clerk of the vestry of Christ church. His social standing, 286 FITCIIBUR(;, PAST AND PRESENT. his gentlemanly bearing, his courteous and affable demeanor, all combined to endear him to his fellow-townsmen, beside a large circle of acquaintances throughout the state. As a lawyer "he was learned, sagacious, faithful and honest; he won and retained the confidence of his clients, and the re- spect and esteem of parties to whom he was opposed. In the performance of his various duties, both private and offi- cial, in his native city and in the senate of the state, he was actuated by a conscientious regard to the trusts committed to him, uninfluenced by any considerations of personal benefits or partisan objects." Lewis Hoppin Bradford was a lineal descendant of the eighth generation of Governor William Bradford, who was governor of Plymouth colony from April, 1621 — four months after the landing on Plymouth Rock — till 1633, and whose vigorous treatment of the "Indian Question" doubtless saved the infant colony from extermination. He was also a lineal descendant of the second Governor Bradford, son of the preceding governor. He also counted among his an- cestors John Alden, the "Scribe of Plymouth" whom all readers of Longfellow recall as having brought the "Court- ship of Miles Standisli" to an abrupt termination. Deacon Bradford's later ancestors follow^ed Roger Wil- liams to Providence, where he was born March 5, 1808. He was educated at the public schools of his native city, and while a young man was in the wooden-ware business in Providence and New York city, a member of the firm of Child, Viall & Wood. He moved to Gardner about 1845 and was for a time interested in the South Gardner Chair Company. He was also interested in a store at South Gardner in compan}^ with S. W. A. Stevens and William Hogan. He served on the board of selectmen in 1848 and was moderator at the annual town meetings in 1848 and '49. When the Rollstone Bank was organized in June, 1849, he was elected a director, and in October of the same year he was chosen the first cashier and resigned the position of director — the state law not allowing a person to hold both of- Nathaniel Wood. Goldsmith F Bailey. Sf> jlioii Shepley. Dr. Peter B. Snow. Dr. Alfred Hiteheoek. Rev. George Trask. John Lowe. George Reed. Samuel Burnap. BIOGRAPHICAL. 287 fices at the same time. He removed to Fitchburg about that time and was cashier till December, 1856, when he resigned to engage in other business. In 1859 ^^ '^'^^ again elected director and held the office till his death. At the organization ol^ the Fitchburg Mutual Fire Insur- ance Company June 29, 1847, he was chosen a director and has been re-elected every year since the organization. He was elected secretary Sept. 25, 1869, and succeeded the late Nathaniel Wood as president and treasurer Oct. 22, 1873. Deacon Bradford was early interested in the movement which culminated in the abolition of slavery, and in 1853 he, with the late Stephen Shepley, represented Fitchburg in the legislature. He was a staunch supporter of the government during the war, and, though too old to enter the ranks, his time and means were freely given. In 1862, soon after the battle of Roanoke Island, he and the late Hale W. Page were sent by the town to look after the sick and wounded soldiers. Their mission was faithfully and successfully accomplished, and they returned north with a number of disabled soldiers, among whom was Dr. James S. Green, assistant surgeon of the 2 1 St Mass. regiment, who was lying very sick near Hat- teras Inlet. Dea. Bradford rode for several miles in a heavy gale to rescue Dr. Green. For several years before becoming secretary of the insur- ance company he was U. S. assistant assessor of internal revenue in the office in this city. He was president of the Worcester North Agricultural Society in 1862 and ^6^, and secretary of the same society in 1864, '67, '68 and '69. He was a prominent member of the Baptist church in this city, and has been a deacon since May 5, 1865. He was also clerk of the Baptist church from July 27, i860, to Dec. 18, 1883, when he resigned. He was for fourteen years the church treasurer, and treasurer of the Wachusett Baptist As- sociation from its formation, and the first president of the Wachusett Baptist Sunday School Convention. He has also been treasurer of the Baptist Vineyard Asso- ciation since its incorporation Jan. i, 1876, and was one of 2(S8 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. its most faithful supporters. He was also treasurer of the Hospital Cottages for Children at Baldwinsville, and has always taken a deep interest in its work. He was a trustee of the public library from April 9, 1866, till his death, Aug. 23, 1887, and was treasurer of the board most of the time. He has been a trustee of the Worcester North Savings Insti- tution since its organization in 1868, and was secretary of the board till 1880. Dea. Bradford's character needs no eulogy. Faithful to every trust, honorable and kindly in all his relations with others, charitable in his judgment of motives and acts, cour- teous to all, he attained to a rounded Christian manhood and leaves the record of an irreproachable life. Charles Adams Priest was the third child of Benjamin and Nancy Coolidge Priest. He was born in the town of Hillsboro, N. H., May 3, 1832, and at the time of his death was fifty-five years, four months and sixteen da3's old. He received his early education in the common schools of his native town, supplemented by a short course at the Washing- ton and Francestown academies. About the time of his majority, he engaged in trade in his native village. In 1854 he married Miss Emily Baily of Brookline, N. H., whose acquaintance he formed while at school. In November, 1865, he removed to Brookline, and engaged in the lumber business, at the stand of his deceased father-in-law, the late Ensign Baily. He remained in Brookline until February, 1870. Mr. Priest came to Fitchburg in 1870, and was after- wards engaged in the lumber business most of the time. He was superintendent for the Fitchburg Lumber Company in 1872 and '73, and succeeded the company at the yard on Water street after they closed business. In 1878 he leased the works on Rollstone street, formerh' occupied by the Beckwith Lumber Company, which he subsequently pur- chased and which he enlarged and improved. He was a member of the common council in 1879, '^^' "^- ^"^^ "^3' ^^^ rendered the city valuable service on the committees on high- ^ (ZU^ly? BIOGRAPHICAL. 289 ways and city property the lirst two years, and on the committees on fire department, city property and elections the last two years. He was president ot^ the Worcester North Agricultural society in 1885, and declined a re-election on account of im- paired health. He was a leading member of the Masonic fraternity, having been Eminent Commander of Jerusalem Commandery, Knights Templar, in 1882, '83 and '84. He was also a member of Aleppo Temple of the Arabic Order of the Mystic Shrine of Boston. Mr. Priest was a leading democrat and, though strong in the party faith, he was courteous to political opponents and had the respect of men of all political creeds. He was the democratic candidate for senator in 1884 and '85, and polled more than the full party vote. He was a kind and consider- ate employer, honorable in all his dealings, and had built up a prosperous and increasing business. 19 CHAPTER XV. CHURCHES AND HOMES. ITCHBURG does not lack earnest and etRcient church organizations and attractive houses of worship. The First Congregational Church (Unitarian) was formed Jan. 7, 1768. The present Unitarian church edifice at the head of the upper common was erected in 1837. The first settled minister. Rev. John Payson, was ordained Jan. 27, 1768, and remained until May, 1794- His successor. Rev. Samuel Worcester, was ordained a pastor in September, 1797. Dur- ing the interval between the two pastorates the pulpit was supplied by Rev. John Kimball, Rev. John Miles, Rev. Mr. Noyes and others. Rev. Samuel Worcester's relations with the church were dissolved in September, 1802. About this time the church was divided into two societies and the parochial powers of the town dissolved. The First Parish held the church property, and in 1804 ordained the Rev. William Bascom as their minister. In 181 2 at his own request the parish granted Mr. Bascom a dismissal and the societies were temporarily re-united. This union existed until 1823, with Rev. William Eaton as pastor from 181 5 to 1823, when a final separation took place. Rev. Calvin Lincoln, the first Unitarian pastor, was then ordained in 1824 and remained setded over the parish until 1855 ; Rev. Horatio Stebbins, his colleague, from 185 1 CHURCHES AND HOMES. 291 to 1854; Rev. William P. Tilden, 1855 to 1862 ; Rev. Jared M. Heard, 1863 to 1864; Rev. Henry F. Jenks, 1867 to 1870; Rev. Charles W. Emerson, 1871 to 1875 5 Rev. James T. Hewes, 1875 to 1880; Rev. William H. Pierson, from 1881 to the present time. The officers of the church and Sunday School are : Pastor, Rev. William H. Pierson ; moderator, George H. Spencer ; assessors, Edwin A. Goodrich, John F. Bruce ; Deacons, A. R. Ordway, T. S. Blood; treasurer, Joseph P. Farnsworth ; sexton, Nathan C. Upham ; organist, A. S. Belding. Sabbath school held in the vestry, superintend- ent, Emory A. Hartwell. The Rev. William H. Pierson, the present pastor, was born at Nevvburyport, Mass., Jan. 12, 1839. ^^^ January, 1851, at the age of twelve years he went into the printing office of the Newburyport Herald, where he remained six years, when he entered the Brown High School of his native city to fit for college. He was admitted to Bowdoin College, Brunswick, Me., in i860, graduated in 1864 and then entered the Theological Seminary at Princeton, N. J., where he completed his course in 1867. From January, 1868, to July, 1872, he was pastor of the South Parish at Ipswich, Mass. From August 1872, to January, 1881, he was pastor of the Winter Hill Congregational church, Somerville, Mass. During his pastorate of nearly nine years in Somer- ville, his religious opinions slowly undergoing a change, he felt called upon to resign. In June, 1881, he was ordained pastor of the First Parish (Unitarian) church in this city, Rev. Dr. Bartol of Boston preaching the installation sermon. THE CALVINISTIC CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH. The early history of this church previous to its separation from the First Parish has already been given at the begin- ning of this chapter. October 31, 1823, it was voted "that this church remove its connection from the First Parish and unite with the Cal- vinistic Congregational society formed this day in the town 292 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. of Fitchburg." At once the churcli, to the nuiiiber oi" I02, removed to the small house of worship on the spot where the present Calvinistic church now stands, on the corner of Main and Rollstone streets. This church was built during the pastorate of Rev. Titus Theodore Barton in 1805, it was en- larged in 1828 and used until the present brick building took its place in 1844. "The pastors since 1823 have been as fol- lows : Rev. Rufus A. Putnam, from February, 1824, to March, 1831 ; Rev. John A. Albro, May, 1832, to December, 1834; Rev. Joshua Emery, May, 1835, to June, 1837 ; Rev. Eben- ezer W. Bullard, July, 1838, to June, 1852 ; Rev. G. Buck- ingham Wilcox, June, 1853, to August, 1856; Rev. Alfred Emerson, June, 1858, to June, 1870; Rev. Henry M. Tyler, December, 1872, to December, 1876; Rev. Samuel J. Stew- art, April, 1877, to September, 1880; Rev. S. Leroy Blake, September, 1880, to April, 1887. Pastor, Rev. Clarence R. Gale. Sabbath school held in the chapel on Rollstone street, superintendent, D. B. Silsby ; assistants — I. O. Converse, C. A. Phillips. Parish Officers — Clerk, Edward P. Downe ; treasurer, Eben Bailey; assessors, Charles P. Dickinson, Arthur H. Lowe, Daniel Simonds. Church Officers — Deacons, John Parkhill, J. Calvin Spaulding, David B. Silsby, Artemas F. Andrews, Henry M. Francis, Irving O. Converse ; clerk, Edward P. Downe ; treasurer, William K. Bailey ; organist, Mrs. Holgate ; chorister, William Knowles. Although without a setded pastor the C. C. church has extended a unanimous call to the Rev. Clarence R. Gale, assistant pastor of Memorial church, Springfield, who ac- cepts to begin his labors here Jan. i, 1888. FIRST BAPTIST CHURCH. In 1831, at their request, live persons in the town of Fitchburg, members of the branch Baptist church in Leom- inster, were set apart as a branch church in Fitchburg. On CHURCHES AND HOMES. 293 the eighth of June it was organized with the powers and privileges of an independent church, and public religious ser- vices were for some time held in Academy Hall. In the summer of 1833 a house of worship was built on West street, and on the fourteenth day of November the branch church was separated from the parent stock. On the FIRST DAPn^iT CHURCH. same day Samuel Crocker and Samuel A. Wheeler were set apart as deacons. The independent church now consisted of sixty-two members, and in the next twenty years 226 persons w^ere baptized into its fellowship. The increasing congrega- tion demanding a larger house of worship, the present 294 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. edifice on Main street was built at a cost of $25,000 and dedicated March i, 1854. The audience room of the church is a standinfr memorial to the good judgment and architectural skill of the building committee. There is not a pillar anywhere in the way, the pews are circular, and the acoustic properties as nearly per- fect throughout as could well be. A whisper can almost if not quite be heard across it. Within the present year the growth of the Sunday school and the general prosperity of the church demanded more room and improved facilities for church work. Plans of en- largement that had been long considered were fully matured, and through the very generous offer of Mr. Samuel E. Crocker the society was encouraged to proceed. The entire space in the rear of the meeting house was covered by a chapel building ; thus securing a spacious, well ventilated room for the school and social meetings, also class rooms, primary department, library, pastor's study, a more conven- ient baptistry and dressing-rooms. The old vestry was utilized for ladies' parlor, dining rooms and kitchen. The auditorium was at the same time thoroughly renovated, fitted with stained glass windows, the singers' gallery changed to the rear of the pulpit and provided with a magnificent Hook & Hastings organ. The entire property is one of the best to be found within the denomination in this part of the state. The pastors of the First Baptist church have been settled ; Nov., 1833, Rev. Appleton Morse; resigned Nov., 1834. Feb., 1835, Rev. John W. McDonald; resigned Oct., 1835. Jan., 1836, Rev. Lorenzo O. Lovell ; resigned Feb. 1837. April, 1837, Rev. Appleton Morse; died Oct., 1838. March, 1839, Rev. N. W. Smith ; resigned Feb., 1841. March, 1841, Rev. Oren Tracy; resigned Oct., 1845. March, 1846, Rev. Stephen Remington; resigned Nov., 1846. Nov., 1846, Rev. Edward Savage; resigned Oct., 1851. Nov., 1851, Rev. John Jennings; resigned April, 1855. Dec, 1855, Rev. Kendall Brooks; resigned May, 1865. Aug., 1865, Rev. Samuel A. Collins; resigned Aug., 1867. Nov., 1867, Rev. Sdllman B. Grant; died Dec, 1874. April, Pev. W. W Balclw Rev. J. L. Tarpey. Rev. C. Beaudoin. FITCHBURG CLERGYMEN— PAST AND PRESENT. CHURCHES AND HOMES. 295 1875, Rev. Isaac R. Wheelock ; resigned May, 1885. Oct., 1885, Rev. George W. Gardiner, D. D. ; resigned, June, 1886. Nov., 1886, Rev. Frank Rector. Church Officers — Pastor, Rev. Frank Rector ; Deacons, E. G. Stanley, Mial Davis, M. W. Cummings, C. K. Saw- yer ; superintendent Sabbath school, George M. Bow^ker ; assistant superintendent, H. C. Hastings. Parish Officers — Assessors, Dr. A. W. Sidney, W. A. Macurda, John H. Daniels ; clerk, J. C. Sanborn ; treasurer, W. G. Hayes; singing committee, S. E. Crocker, L. M. Davis, A. W. Sidney ; organist and director, Charles Smith ; sexton, Henry Ames. Rev. Frank Rector, the present pastor of the First Bap- tist church, was born July 20, 185 1, near Parkersburg, Wood county, W. Va. His father, one of the pioneer Baptists of that state, was a native of the Old Dominion, and his mother was born in Vermont. At the age of seventeen he made public profession of religion and united with the church of which his father was at that time pastor. The early years of his life, including the turbulent days of the war, were spent on a farm on the banks of the Ohio river. In the autumn of 1872 he entered the preparatory school at Granville, Ohio, and two years later, in the same town, en- tered the freshman class of Denison University, and was graduated from that institution in the class of '78. The fol- lowing summer was spent in travel through the two Vir- ginias, and in the fall of that year he entered the Theological Institution at Newton Centre, Mass., and was graduated from that school in the spring of 1881. During the next four months he acted as supply for the Second Baptist church of Newport, R. I., and at the end of the time was invited by that people to become their pastor. The call was accepted, and Sept. 6, 1881 — known throughout New England as the "yellow day" — Mr. Rector was ordained. After a pastorate of five and one-half years he was called to succeed Rev. George W. Gardiner, D. D., in the pastoral office of the First Baptist church of this city, which position he now holds. 296 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. FIRST METHODIST EPISCOPAL CHURCH. This church and society was formed in March 1834, and the church edifice which stands near the foot of the common was built in 1840. In October, I885, the society purchased from Thomas S. Blood a lot of land on the corner of Fox and Elm streets, and in July and August, 1886, laid the founda- tion of their new church edifice. In April, 1887, work was resumed upon the building, and it is now nearly completed. NEW METHODIST EHISCOPAL CHURCH. Jan. I, 1888, being the time set for its dedication. The in- terior comprises a large audience room, vestry, ladies' parlor, infant Sunday school room, pastor's room and kitchen. The church organ was built by Holbrook. The first pastor of the church was Rev. Joel Knight ; in 1841-2, the Rev. Mr. Whitman ; Rev. Luman Borden, 1843-4; Rev. Amos Walton, 1845; Rev. D. K. Banister, 1846-7 ; Rev. A. D. Sargent, 1848-9; Rev. C. S. Macread- ing and Rev. Daniel Steele, 1850; Rev. J. W. Lewis, 1851-2; Rev. Samuel Tupper, 1853-4; Rev. George M. Steele, D. D., 1855; Rev. W. A. Bramon, 1856; Rev. CHURCHES AND HOMES. 297 Burtis Judd, 1857-8; Rev. D. K. Banister, 1859; R^v. H. M. Loud, 1860-1 ; Rev. A. O. Hamilton, 1862-3 ; Rev. George M. Steele, D. D., 1864; Rev. L. D. Barrows, D. D., 1865; Rev. William H. Hatch, 1866-8; Rev. Joseph Scott, 1869-70; Rev. J. S. Barrows, 1871 ; Rev. D. D. Hudson, 1872 ; Rev. W. W. Colburn, 1873-5 ; Rev. C. T. Johnson, 1876; Rev. J. O. Knowles, 1877; Rev. Fred Woods, D. D., 1878-9 ; Rev. J. H. Twombly, D. D., 1880-2 ; Rev. William J. Pomfret, 1883-4; Rev. T. Berton Smith, 1885-7. The present officers of the church and Sunday school are : Pastor, Rev. T. Berton Smith; Trustees — President, Henry O. Putnam ; treasurer, E. N. Choate ; John Putnam, Lyman Patch, Charles A. Morgan, James Puffer, C. S. Merriam, William E. Henry, Charles Oliver, C. C. Stratton, Charles W. Putnam ; stewards, James Phelps, Edward F. Lincoln, Edward Newitt, J. H. Potter, George E. Watson, Fred A. Hale, David C. Sleeper, J. E. Luscombe ; recording stew- ard, Charles A. Morgan. Superintendent of Sabbath school, A. E. Joslin ; assistant, Charles Oliver ; collector, Edward Newitt; treasurer, Charles Oliver. TRINITARIAN CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH. In 1843 the intense feeling on the slavery question caused a portion of the Calvinistic Congregational church to secede, and a new society called the "Trinitarian Congregational" was organized. They erected the building now owned by J. M. Carpenter and known as the Post- Office block, at the corner of Main and Church streets, in 1844. They were active and earnest workers in the slavery controversy and it was known as one of the so called stations on the Under- ground railroad to Canada, in the flight of the slave to freedom. It is a noticeable fact that the slavery question was their only uniting force, and that when the freedom of the slave was secured, the society began to lose its cohesive power and its last sermon was preached on the day that the equality of the negro, before the huv, was guaranteed. And 298 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. on the fifteenth of November, 1871, the church building was sold at auction to John M. Carpenter for $14,300. Largely through the efforts of the Rev. George Trask, of "anti- tobacco fame," who was for several years the pastor, the proceeds of the sale were disposed of by presenting the Rev. Elnathan Davis, a former pastor, $2,000 as a token of appre- ciation of his earnest labors for the society, and the balance was given to the Freedman's Aid Society. The first officers of the Trinitarian church were the Rev. George Clark, pastor ; Timothy F. Downe and Nathan Tol- man, deacons. The other pastors were Rev. Foster Petti- bone, Rev. Charles Bristol, Rev. George Trask and Rev. Elnathan Davis. THE FIRST UNIVERSALIST CHURCH. This church and society was organized Oct. 9, 1844. Their first church upon the corner of Main and Rollstone streets, was built in 1847. For some years past it had been felt the church was not well located for the convenience of worshippers, and that a new and more modern church building, more centrally located, would tend to enhance the material and spiritual prosperity of the organization. In pursuance of this idea a lot of land on the corner of Day and Union streets was secured, and the present attractive and fine edifice was built. The doors were thrown open to the public in February, 1886. The pastors settled over the societ}' since its organization have been as follows, the dates given being the close of the several pastorates : Rev. Mather E. Hawes, spring of 1849 ' Rev. Charles Woodhouse, fall of 1852 ; Rev. Josiah Marvin, spring of 1856 ; Rev. A. W. Bruce, spring of 1859 ' Rev. A. J. Weaver, spring of 1864 ; Rev. E. A. Eaton in charge, spring of 1865 ; Rev. J. G. B. Heath, spring of 1866; Rev. Joseph Crehore, July, 1870 ; Rev. Frank Magwire, spring of 1879 ; Rev. R. S. Kellerman, January, 1884 : Rev. Frank O. Hall, from June i, 1884. The church and Sunday school officers are : Pastor, Rev. CHURCHES AND HOMES. 299 F. O. Hall; deacons, Horace Damon, Joseph S. Wilson; standing committee, Henry L. Rice, J. D. Littlehale, F. S. Lovell ; clerk, J. Frank Fisher; treasurer, Walter A. Davis. Sunday school in church ; superintendent, J. S. Wilson ; assistant, Herbert A. Damon ; sexton, Thomas W. Reynolds. NEW UNIVERSALIST CHURCH. The present pastor, Rev. Frank Oliver Hall, was born in New Haven, Conn., March 19, i860. He resided in Cali- fornia and Georgia through the greater part of his boyhood, but in 1877, his parents having removed to Maine, he entered Nichols Latin school at Lewiston, with the purpose of fitting for college. He entered Tufts College, Divinity School, in 1880, was graduated in 1884 ; took charge of his present pastorate immediately after graduating. 300 FITCIIBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. ST. Bernard's roman catholic parish. Religious services were held in Fitchburg for the Catholics as far back as 1842, but it was not until 1848 that the society had a church and a resident pastor, Rev. M. F. Gibson, with 800 souls. Rev. Edward Turpin succeeded Father Gibson in 1856 and remained ten years. He was succeeded by Rev. C. M. Foley in 1866. Father Foley built the present church edifice, one of the finest in the city, in 1869. Rev. P. J. Garrigan took charge of the parish in 1875, 'i'^'^^ embellished the interior of the church and dedi- cated it 1879. ^^ ^^•'^o purchased land and built the present church in West Fitchburg, which is now a separate parish and sustains its own pastor. He also built the present parish house, a neat brick edifice on Water street, and the parochial school and Convent on First street. The number of souls in this parish is estimated at about 4,000. The church has a Sunday school of 900 children taught by some eighty teachers, young people of the parish. There are three temperance societies here, one for men twenty vears of age and over ; one for boys from fifteen to twenty years of age, and one for boys from ten to fifteen years ; the member- ship in these three societies, over each of w'hich a clergyman has special care, is about 500 men and boys. There is also a Christian Doctrine societ}', whose object is the difiiision of knowledge of Christian Doctrine and the establishment of a library for the Sunday school and members. Then there is a society of the Holy Name with about 100 men ; the Sodality of the Sacred Heart for young (unmarried) ladies, and the Rosary Confraternity for all ages and both sexes. These last three have for object, growth in virtue and fidelity in the service of God. Finally there is a Conference of St. Vincent de Paul whose object is the care of the poor of the parish. The members meet weekly, have a perfect system of assisting the poor, and they spend annually in charity about $600. CHURCHES AND HOMES. 301 CHRIST CHURCH (EPISCOPAL). This church and society was organized Oct. 7, 1863, with the Rev. H. L. Jones, of New York city, as the first rector. Their church, which is a fine stone building, was built in 1867, and consecrated in April, 1868. It is situated on Main street, between Hartwell and Fox streets, and ad- jacent to Monument Square, (as shown in the view of Monu- ment Square in the military chapter.) In February, 1875, the Rev. H. L. Jones was succeeded by the Rev. T. Logan Murphy, of Newport, R. I., who re- signed Nov. 9, 1876. The Rev. Emilius W. Smith, of Mc- Keesport, Penn., accepted the invitation of the church in August, 1877, and resigned June 2, 1884; from this time the parish was supplied by the Rev. G. W. Porter, D. D., until June 1885, when the present Rector was settled. The officers of the church and Sunday school are : Rector, Rev. Charles Morris Addison ; wardens, Dennis Fay, George D. Colony; vestry, George F. Fay, John Upton, James L. Chapman, Charles T. Crocker, Henry T. Page, A. B. Haskell, Alvah Crocker, C. A. Cross, Eli CuUey, J. W. Ogden ; treasurer, George F. Fay; clerk, James L. Chapman; organist, William H. Gerrish ; sexton, William Wood. Sunday school held in the church. Charles Morris Addison, the present Rector of Christ church, was born in Charlestown, Mass., July 16, 1856. His early life was passed in Washington, D. C, where he was educated at the Preparatory Department of Columbia College. He was prepared by tutor for the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute at Troy, N. Y., where he studied civil engineering. In 1878 he went to Cambridge, Mass., and prepared at Harvard College and the Episcopal Theological School for the ministry. Graduating in 1882, he was called to the Rectorship of St. John's church, Arlington, Mass., and appointed missionary at Winchester. In 1885 he was called to his present parish and assumed charge June i, 1885. 302 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT, ROLLSTONE CONGREGATIONAL CHURCH. In 1868, owing to the insufficiency of the Calvinistic church I0 accommodate the increased congregations, and the evident need of a church in the easterly section of the vilhige, a division took place, and the Rollstone church and society was formed. ROLLSTONE COXGRLGATIOXAL CHURCH. Rev. Leverett W. Spring, a graduate of Williams Col- lege and of Hartford Theological Seminary was engaged as pastoral supply for one year. The first public services were held in the hall of the American House, March 8, 1868. CHURCHES AND HOMES. 303 The church was organized on the sixteenth of the following month, comprising 150 members. Oliver Ellis and J . A. Conn were appointed deacons fro tempore. On the same day Mr. Spring was ordained, and installed as pastor. Soon after this the society was incorporated, and steps were imme- diately taken to raise funds for building a church. A site was secured at the intersection of Main and Snow streets, ground was broken for the foundation in August, 1868, and the corner stone laid Oct. 5, of the same year. The church was dedicated Feb. 24, 1870. The first deacons of the church were Samuel Burnap, Oliver Ellis, John A. Conn, S. Newell Weston, David Boutelle, William L. Bullock. The pastors have been Rev. Leverett W. Spring, from April, 1868, to March, 1875. The Rev. G. R. W. Scott, D. D., entered upon his duties as pastor in the fall of 1875, continu- ing in active service until December 1885, when he was obliged to give up his work for a time and seek needed rest. In the winter of 1886 he went abroad, the Rev. W. S. Alex- ander, D. D., supplying in his absence. Dr. Scott finding that his health would not warrant his return, the people of his charge reluctantly accepted his resignation, and May 11, 1887, his successor, the present pastor, was installed. Charles S. Brooks, the present pastor of the Rollstone Congregational church, was born in New Braintree, Mass., Jan. 19, 1840. He graduated at Williston Seminary, East Hampton, in 1858, and at Amherst College in 1863. After engaging in teaching over two years as principal of the high and grammar school in Rockland, Mass., he pursued a course of theological study at Andover Seminary, from which he graduated in 1869. He was pastor of the Congregational church in Tyngsboro, Mass., from September, 1869, to August, 1872 ; of the Congregational church, South Deer- field, Mass., from January, 1873, to April, 1877 ; of the Sec- ond Congregational church in Putnam, Conn., from May, 1877, to February, 1887. He was installed pastor of the Rollstone church, May 11, 1887. The present officers of the church, society and Sunday school are : Pastor, Rev. C. S. Brooks ; church committee, 304 FITCHMURG, PAST AND PRESENT. in addition to pastor and deacons — Ezra B. Rockwood, R. R. Conn, Dr. D. B. Wliittier, Charles W. Wilder, S. N. Weston, D. C. Harrington ; church clerk, S. Newell Weston ; church treasurer, W. E. Clifford ; executive parish committee — R. R. Conn., S. N. Weston, C. H. Doten ; par- ish clerk, Frank E. Fairbanks ; parish treasurer, E. R. Farnsworth ; sexton, T. R. Lawrence; Deacons — J. C. Moulton, Frederick Fosdick, Cyrus S. Tolman, H. S. Hitch- cock, C. H. Doten, F. E. Fairbanks. Superintendent of Sunday school, J. C. Moulton; assistant superintendent, D. C.Harrington; organist, Lucy Conn Potter ; chorister, J. H. Potter. WEST FITCHBURG M. E. CHURCH, as an organization, was established Nov. 17, 1881, with twenty-two members and six probationers. About the time of its organization there was unusual religious interest, and several persons were converted and joined the church. The accommodations of the chapel, which was built in 1874, as a mission chapel, were inadequate for the increasing congrega- tion, and the present church was built, and dedicated May II, 1883. The first pastor. Rev. F. T. Pomeroy, was returned by the New England Conference, after three years' service, for a fourth year, at the earnest request of the church. This action was rendered possible under the mission rule, there having been no church organization during the first 3'ear of Mr. Pomeroy's appointment. The second pastor, Rev. William Wignall, succeeded to the pastorate of the church April, 1884; Rev. Elias Hodge April, 1885; and April, 1887, Rev. W. W. Baldwin. The present officers of the church are : Pastor, Rev. W, W. Baldwin ; stewards, James Sheppard, George J. Pethybridge, Charles Taylor, Henr}^ K. Tucker, Edward Pickwick, Hugh Irving, George S. Coggswell, George Pierce, Robert Beer, William H. Craig; trustees, Charles Taylor, David McTaggart, George S. Coggswell, George J. Pethybridge, Edward Pi ckwack, Cal- vin Beer, James Sheppard, George Pierce, James Pearce ; sexton, Fred S. Hedenberg. CHURCHES AND HOMES. 305 The Sunday school has been in existence since Nov. 15, 1874. ^- ^- Whiting, superintendent, and Moses Coggs- well, assistant, were its first officers. From the time of its organization to April 18, 1875, when it was re-organized, the average attendance was about forty-five. The attendance has gradually increased, and is about 130 at the present time, with an enrolled membership of nearly 200. The West Fitchburg Social Circle, an auxiliary society, was formed in February, 1876, its object being to bring the people together and help in enlarging the circle of ac- quaintance. It has been a help to the community, socially, and to the church, financially, and still exists as the "Ladies' Sewing Circle." During the first 3'ears of holding meetings, several gen- tlemen having large business interests in that part of the town, by their liberal donations of land and money, provided and furnished a suitable place of worship, and have since generously contributed to the support of public worship. The mission chapel thus erected forms the chapel part of the present church edifice. The church membership is fifty-six, with twelve probationers. Rev. W. W. Baldwin, at present pastor of the West Fitchburg M. E. church, was born in Blenhiem, N. Y., May 30, 1837. He was educated at Union College under the celebrated Dr. Nott. In June, 1862, he graduated in the- ology from w^iat has since become the School of Theology of Boston University. He was licensed to preach in the Methodist Episcopal church in August, 1859, ^^ Seward, N. Y. In May, 1862, he joined the Maine Conference, and was sent to mission work in Gorham, Coos County, N. H. He organized the church at that place and built the church edifice during the first year. His fields of labor since then have been in Maine, Colorado, Michigan, and Massachusetts. Three years ago last April he was transferred, without his solicitation, into the New England Conference, to fill the pulpit of the M. E. church in North Andover, which had become vacated. After three years of service there he came to the West Fitch- 20 30() FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. burg church, in April last. His present efforts are directed toward intensifying the religious life of the church, and gradually placing the church on a surer financial basis. In his preaching he intends to be catholic to an extent that peo- ple of all denominations may find themselves benefited, while in his pastoral work he strongl}^ advocates "organized Christianity." CHURCH OF SACRED HEART (CATHOLIC,) WEST FITCHBURG. This church was organized in 1878. Its first pastor was the Rev. James Canavan, who was succeeded by Rev. James Donahoe, followed by the Rev. J. L. Tarpey, the present pastor, in June, 1886. Connected with the church are the Sacred Heart Total Abstinence and Literary Society, for young men ; the Young Ladies' Sacred Heart Sodality ; Society of the Holy Name, for bovs ; and Children of Mary, for young girls. The superintendents of the Sunday school are Michael Lee and Mary O'Brien ; organist of the church, Miss Lizzie McCann. FRENCH CATHOLIC CHURCH. This church was organized in 18S6, with Rev. C. Beau- doin as pastor. In December of the same year 52,000 feet of land and a dwelling-house on Walnut street was purchased and a chapel with basement erected, the house being remod- elled and used as a parsonage and temporary school. It is expected that a church, will be built within the next two or three years, when the chapel will be used as a school building. HOMES OF FITCHBURG. The changes in Fitchburg are nowhere more noticeable than in the style of building. In the early days of the town the settlers located round on the hills for better protection from the Indians, or for other good and sufficient reasons, and little thought was given to the architecture of their dwellings, which were for the most part rude log houses, VOSE ESTATE, PROSPECT ST., RESIDENCE OF JOHN PARKHILL RESIDENCE OF MRS. EUGENE T. MILES, BLOSSOM STREET. CHURCHES AND HOMES. 307 either stockaded or garrisoned, and the interiors furnished with onl}^ the phiinest articles of necessary use. After this came the one and two story framed farm houses, with their enormous stone chimneys and fireplaces, suggestive of corn bannocks, pumpkin pies and kitchen dances. The timbers in these houses, huge beams of the toughest oak, were well calculated to stand the ravages of time, and it is therefore not at all strange that some of the first of these old landmarks remain with us until the present day. One of them was built by Amos Kimball, on the Samuel Hale farm, and is nou' a portion of the old house in the rear of the -wSi^^SiSS _ J. Holland's residence, 1840. present residence. Later on we find an improvement in the style of building, with a greater variety in outward form and a sensible reduction in the size of chimneys, but with the same unnecessarv strencrth of beams and rafters. A house of this class is now standing on the corner of Charles and Linden streets. It was originally a parsonage, occupied by the Rev. John Payson, and stood on the site of the present residence of Samuel Burnap on South street. Mr. Burnap purchased this house and a large tract of land of Mr. C. Marshall, in 1838, and removed the old house to where it is now located, to make room for his present residence. Then 308 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. came the more modern houses built according to the taste or fancy of the owner, and with better interior finish and fur- nishing ; among these were the square cottage, plain but homelike, the octagon, and the story and a half cottage, with projecting chamber, supported by turned posts, thus forming a front piazza. The transition from the latter to the more RESIDENCE OF HENRY A. GOODRICH, HIGHLAND AVENUE. pretentious structure, the classic mansion, with its heavy columns'was most natural. The Mansard roof was popular for a time, as well as the Gothic and Italian style ot archi- tecture. Many of these residences, probably more than five hundred in number, w'ere built under the direction of William H. Goodwin, our present inspector of buildings. For the picturesque and attractive architecture of later 3ears, the city is largely indebted to Henry M. Francis. Many of our CHURCIIKS AND HOMES. 309 modern public buildings were built from his plans, as well as a large number and variety of private residences. This variety adds greatly to the general appearance of the city and while many costly and elegant dwellings have been con- structed, in many instances the reasonable cost of land and DR. THOMAS PALMER S RESIDEN(.'E, buildincT material has induced individuals of moderate means CD to build, and it is gratifying to know that the great propor- tion of dwellings are being built by individuals as permanent homes, rather than by capitalists for an investment. Such a condition of things indicates a healthy and natural growth, 310 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. and will serve as a permanent founda- tion for the Fitch- burg of the future. To every young man thinking of settling down, to middle- aged men with fami- lies to bring up, who contemplate making a chanoe and want RESIDENCE OF HENRY ALLISON. to find a place where there is good air and pure water, the best of schools and churches, the best society, the fewest rum- shops, not necessarily the most aristocratic town, but the one which is suited to the great middle class, who pay their way as they go and either own RESIDENCE OF DR. A. W. SIDNEY. or intend to own a home of their own, to such Fitchburg offers a stand- ing inducement. Furthermore a de- scription of the advan- tages and attractions of the community may be supplemented by a refer- ence to the people. You will find them a substan- tial and energetic class, residence of dr. charles h. rice. CHURCHES AND HOMES. 811 ready to welcome new comers to share the advantages they them- selves enjoy. Many of them are well-to-do mechanics, mostly na- tive born citizens, and generally owners of their homes. According to the census of 1885 the number of inhabitants was 15,375, and at the present time, judging from the usually accepted bases for calculation, it has reached at least 18,000. In this busy, thriving little city, the seeker for a home will find all IWI^J LOU'^GES, CH^^RLES STREET c^ E. E. Howard's cottage, MILK street. the elements vitally essential to its estab- lishment, and may, if he choose, par- ticipate with others, ^^ who, having- chosen Fitchburg for their abiding place, know the truth through a personal experience. FITCHBURG. BY MRS. CAROLINE A. MASON. Nested among her hills she lies, — The city of our love ! Within her, pleasant homes arise ; And healthful airs and happy skies Float peacefully above. A sturdy few, 'mid hopes and fears, Her fair foundations set : And looking backward now, through years Of steady gain, how small appears Her old estate ! — and yet, 312 FITCHBURG, PAST AND PRESENT. She dons no autocratic airs, In scorn of humbler days, But shapes her fortunes and affairs, To match the civic wreath she wears And justify her bays. Honor and Truth her old renown : Conservative of both, The virtues of the little town She holds in legacy, to crown The city's larger growth. Nor ease nor sloth her strength despoil : Her peaceful farmers till, With patient thrift, th' outlying soil. Her trained mechanics deftly toil, Her merchants ply their skill ; Her ponderous engineries supply A thousand waiting needs ; Her wheels revolve, her shuttles fly, — And ever where the prize hangs high. Her foot, unfaltering, leads. Her sympathies are large and sweet : And when, at Freedom's call. The war flags waved, the war drums beat, She sprang, responsive, to her feet, And freely offered all ! Alert in War, she emulates The Arts of Peace, as well : Religion, Order, guard her gates ; Wealth, Culture, Thrift, like happy Fates, Her destinies foretell. So, through the round of years, she keeps Advancing on her past : Her old-time vigor never sleeps, — And even as she sows she reaps. God bless her to the last ! C^' 4^'^^'