Skip to main content

Full text of "Gardeners chronicle, the horticultural trade journal"

See other formats


Google 



This is a digital copy of a book that was preserved for generations on library shelves before it was carefully scanned by Google as part of a project 

to make the world's books discoverable online. 

It has survived long enough for the copyright to expire and the book to enter the public domain. A public domain book is one that was never subject 

to copyright or whose legal copyright term has expired. Whether a book is in the public domain may vary country to country. Public domain books 

are our gateways to the past, representing a wealth of history, culture and knowledge that's often difficult to discover. 

Marks, notations and other maiginalia present in the original volume will appear in this file - a reminder of this book's long journey from the 

publisher to a library and finally to you. 

Usage guidelines 

Google is proud to partner with libraries to digitize public domain materials and make them widely accessible. Public domain books belong to the 
public and we are merely their custodians. Nevertheless, this work is expensive, so in order to keep providing tliis resource, we liave taken steps to 
prevent abuse by commercial parties, including placing technical restrictions on automated querying. 
We also ask that you: 

+ Make non-commercial use of the files We designed Google Book Search for use by individuals, and we request that you use these files for 
personal, non-commercial purposes. 

+ Refrain fivm automated querying Do not send automated queries of any sort to Google's system: If you are conducting research on machine 
translation, optical character recognition or other areas where access to a large amount of text is helpful, please contact us. We encourage the 
use of public domain materials for these purposes and may be able to help. 

+ Maintain attributionTht GoogXt "watermark" you see on each file is essential for in forming people about this project and helping them find 
additional materials through Google Book Search. Please do not remove it. 

+ Keep it legal Whatever your use, remember that you are responsible for ensuring that what you are doing is legal. Do not assume that just 
because we believe a book is in the public domain for users in the United States, that the work is also in the public domain for users in other 
countries. Whether a book is still in copyright varies from country to country, and we can't offer guidance on whether any specific use of 
any specific book is allowed. Please do not assume that a book's appearance in Google Book Search means it can be used in any manner 
anywhere in the world. Copyright infringement liabili^ can be quite severe. 

About Google Book Search 

Google's mission is to organize the world's information and to make it universally accessible and useful. Google Book Search helps readers 
discover the world's books while helping authors and publishers reach new audiences. You can search through the full text of this book on the web 

at |http: //books .google .com/I 






) 




Jane 2^ 1808.] 



I. '1 



,«^. 



THE 



GARDENERS' CHRONICLE 



a Wittklis. Jllustrateb 30utttal 



OP 



HORTICULTUKE AND ALLIED SUBJECTS. 



(ESTABLISHED IN 1841.) 



VOL XXIJI.-THIRD SERIES. 



JANUAEY TO JUNE, 1898. 






• • •» • ••• ••• ••• ••« • • I • 

• •••• •♦••••» •••••• 



• •• • * • • 
•* • • ••* •• 

• • • • • • • 

• • • • • • 



LONDON : 

41, WELLINGTON STEEET, COVENT GAEDEN, W.C 

1898. 



V- 









— L. \y .x_ , ^ 



\ 



' y 



I ■ 



~ »^ ■ 



-^ '■ 



.. / 



»i 



^. *\ 



.1 



K 



i 






^ 



r 






^r 



r 



•■ . 



•O i 



V / 



{J 



ft 









BRADBURY, AGNEW, AND CO. LIMD., PRINTERS, 
LONDON AND TON BRIDGE. 

1 '• ' • / 



14:^1*^.7 



t>" 



no 



/ X 



.-•■.r/ 



r 



j '• 



• • ; • 












« • • • • 
• • • • 






• • 






••• 



• • 












• • • 






The Oardenorii' Chronicle J 



[June 2B, 18N. 



INDEX OF CONTENTS. 

JAI^UARF TO JUNE, 1898. 



Abbotsbuby, early flowen from, 127 
Aberdeeo, a botanio garden lor, 250 
AbDomul Cattleya Triaosei /plomoea, 

94 
Abutilon intigne, 229 
Acteoa glabra, 28 
AcsBoae, 45 

AoanthoeoDohufi Bpinosut, 28 
Aoeras Bolleana, 365 
Acidantbcra tubolon, 818 
Aookaothera BpeoUbilia^ 293 
Acrophjllum venocum, 316 
AdaptatioD, the origin of ipeciea by, 

152 
^Eioului Hippooaetanum, 228 
Agricoltore in Aberdeen Unirereity, 25 
Albuca prolifera, 396 
Allotments, at Eynsford, 128 ; in tbe 

county of Surrey, 26 
Aloe ooncinna, 226 ; A. Scbweinrurtbi, 

197 
Alpine garden, the, 28, 50, 89, 111, 

170, 283, 322 
Alaine juniperina, 28 
Alstromerias, 205, 220, 237, 244 ; aapot 

pluita, 187 
Amateur gardeners, 216 
America, Potato* in, 142 
American Cowilips, new varieties of, 

317 

American Notes, 31, 52, 95, 202, 326 

Amonlum hemitphoricum, 312 

AoalysiB, asb, and the manuriug of 
phmts, 322 

Androsace lanuginosa, 112 

Anemone blanda atro-coerulea, 140 ; 
A. fulgens and A. borteosif, sowing 
seeds of, 856 ; A. japonica Queen 
Charlotte, 234 ; A. rubra, 28 

Angrseoum leonis, 306 

Annuals, spring- flowering, pot, 299 

Anoigantbus breyifloms, 79 

Anthracite coal burnt in grates, 1 2 

Antigua, the Sugar-cane industry in, 
371 

Antirrhinum glutinosum, 23 

Apiary, the, 55, 183, 215, 270, 311, 
343, 377 

Apogamy, and the development of 
sporangia upon Fern prothalli, 201 

Apple, a twin, 174 ; Blenheim Orange, 
205; at Ruxley Lodge, 117 ; blossom, 
the ornamental qualities of, 39 1 ; Bors- 
dorf Reinette of Doberao, 70 ; crop 
of Tasmanian, lOi^ ; culture, some 
ctufes of failure in, 257 ; Dumelow's 
roedliog, 141, 157 ; Gascoigne's 
Scarlet, 221, 236 ; Gloria Mundi and 
others, 286 ; Newton Wonder, 221 ; 
Lord Sudeley, 221 ; Rojal George, 
129, 142, 172, 204, 236 ; Royal Snow, 
11, 28 ; the Got atbeirj-, 157 

Apple and Pear-tree pruniug, 13, 30, 
45, 60, 74, 104 

Apple-trees, tbe growth of, f)9 

Apple", cold storage of, and other 
fruits, 377 ; from Nova Scotia, 1:02 ; 
late-keeping detsert, 156 ; seedling, 
145; valuable late, 116; why not 
platt them according to aflBnity of 
blossom ? 391 

Aquilegia formoea, 28 

Araucaria imbricata, 188 ; ripening 
seed atl'etwortb, 205 



Arbutus Mendesii, 373 

Arctotis'Tirgata, 808, 348 

Aristida setacea forming a ball, to 
obtain seed-dispersion by wind, 211 

Arthropodium cirratum, 2i35 

Artichoke, the White Jerusalem, 171 ; 
Globe, oonsjant bearing of Lombardy, 
221 

Arum, a two-spathed, 119 

Arums, two and three-spathed, 174 

Ash analysis, and the manuring of 
plants, 822 

Asparagus, the cultivated species of, 
122, 147, 178 ; A. comorensis, 179 

Asparagus industry, the French, 226, 
288 

Aephodeline, the genus, 111 

A^eniom nddas var. multilobatum, 20 

Aster Amellos, 28 

Asters, Frepob, 165 

Astrantia minor rosea, 50 

Auricula AbM Listz, 285 ; A. Snow- 
drop, 830 ; A , the Yellow Dundee, 
375 

Awards, the, of the Royal Horticul- 
tural Society, 115, 129, 141, 171 

Ayrshire, market-gardening' st Loans, 
392 

Azalea indica out-of-doors at Clyne 
Castle, Siransea, 392 ; A. linearifolia 
in Belffiam, 258 

Azorea, &e botany of the, 133 



B 



Baltet, C, Russian decoration for, 

115 
Banks, Sir Joseph, the portraiia of, 140 
Barberry and Wheat mildew. 45 
Baron*s Holt, Twickenham, Orchids at, 

306 
Bauhioia varie^ta, 178 
Beans, canker m French, 293 
Beech, edible fun^^us oo, 62 
Bees, early swarmiDg of, 91 ; in a block 

of stone, 91 
Begouias, diseased leaves, 318, 398; 

giant fringed, 234 
Belfast Botanical Gardens, the, 50 
Belgium, notes from, 128, 290 
Belgrove, notes from, 316 
Belvoir Castle, the mildness of tha 

season at, 130 . 
Benefit ai^ Provident Society, United 

Horticultural, 30 
Benevolent Inatitution, Gardeners' 

Royal, 29, b%, 70, 73, 89, 126, 141, 

157, 172, 205, 234 ; annual dinner, 

367; Victorian Era Fund, 219; 

Devon and Exeter auxiliary of the, 

399 ; Worcester branch of tbe, 10 
Beisaba, notes of the district of, 364 

Books. Notices 0F:~A Flower- 
hunter in Queensland and New Zea- 
land {Hn. Jtotoan), 140 ; Aquatic 
and Bog Plants ( WUk, Mdnkemeyer), 
10; Botanical Magazine,^ 42, 102, 
152, 238, 812, 380 ; BotaJbal Obser- 
vations (i>r. Trtleau), ll3 ; British 
Flora {iUv, E. P, Linton) (announced), 
154 ; Cobbett's Engliah Gardener, 
209 ; Die Sumpf nnd WHS'(rpfl«Dssn, 



Ihre Beschreibung, Kultur . and 
Verwendung {Wilh. Monktmeyer), 
10 ; Flowers of the Field {Jolmi), 
new ed. (announced), 152 ; Flora of 
Tropical Africa, Rejuvenescence of^ 
10 ; Flora of Tropical Africa, 281 ; 
Flora Pyrensea per ovdinea Natnrales 
gradatim digest a, vol. L (0. Pengig), 
11 ; Flower Fa?ottritsa : their legends, 
symbolism, and significance {Lime 
Deaa), 818 ; Garden Notes for the 
Colonies and Abroad (James Carter 
A Co,\ 69 ; Herbals, Early, 133 ; 
Home Gardening {W, D, Drury), 
297 ; Hooker^s Icones Plantarum, 
846 ; Icones Bogorienses, 154 ; 
Journal of Kew Guild, 878 ; Kalen- 
dsrium Hortense {Eve^*a, pub- 
lished m 1664), 187 ; Kew Bulletin, 
115, 126, 297, 380; U Maison 
Rustique (Carolus Stepkanoe and 
Dr, Ckas, Stevens), 229, 275, 825 ; 
La Question de la Protection dea 
Oiaeauz en Europe, 154 ; LaSemaine 
Horticole, 115 ; lies V^^taux et lea 
Milieux Cosmiq«9a(^>^* Ganetantin), 
152; Nature Notes, 169; Osbeck^s 
China, 241 ; Palmenauoht und Pal- 
menflege (Propagation and Cultiva- 
tion of Palma), {Dr, Udo Dammer), 
77; Publications Received, 11, 26, 
58, 71, 102, 115, 140, 154, 219, 250, 
267, 282, 829, 863, 380, 395; 
Report of the Michigan Board 
of Agriculture, 394 ; Revisio Spe- 
cierum Generis Oatsegi imprimis 
earum qua) in Hortus DanisB ooluntur 
(Hawthorns), (/. Langt), 261 ; Rosa- 
riaB*s Year-Book, 42 ; The Advertisers' 
A B C, 58 ; The Australian Kitchen 
Garden {Prank Pmedon), 86; The 
Cactus Journal, 169 ; The Chemistry 
of the Garden (Herbert Couaens), 153 ; 
The Culture of Vegetable and 
Flowers from Seeds and Roots 
{Sutton d: SoTis, Beading), 71 ; The 
Culture of Yegetaoles for Prizes, 
Pleasure, and Profit {Toogood), 380 ; 
The Fern Bulletin, 250 ; The Flora of 
Berkshire ((?. C. Dnice,M. A.),155 ; 
The Flora of the Azores {Dr. Tre- 
lease), 133; The Fruit Growers' 
Annual, 344 ; The Geous Cjcla- 
men {Dr, F, Hildebrand), 169 ; The 
Illustrated Bouquet, 282 ; T)ie New 
Flora Britannica, 840 ; The Origin 
of Plant Structures by Self-adaptation 
to the Environment, 307 ; The Rota 
Garden (Supplement), {W* Paul), 
169 ; The Silva ot,^, America {Prof, 
Sargent), 378 ; Toogood's Treatite 
on Pastures and Pasture PUnts, 380; 
Transactions of the New Zealand In- 
stitute, 821 ; Treatise on Pastures and 
Pasture Pknts {W. Toogood), 169; 
Who's Who, 216 

Boron food-preservatives, 395 

Boronia megastigma, 293 

Botanical diacoveries, recent, in New 

2^aUnd, 321 ; gardeoa, Belfast, the, 

50 
Botany in echoolv, 328 
Bougainvillea glabra at Moatlands, 

Paddock Wood, 168 
BouquetPt water, 105 



Broccoli, fatciated, 139; sprouUng, 178 ; 

white, 816 
Bulb garden, the, 4, 392 
Bulb-mite, preventions and cures for, 

896 
Bidbs, relative merit of, 362 



Cabbaob, pitcher on leaf of, 394 

Cabbages for market growing, 134 

Cahro, the Ezbekieh Park at, 26 

Caladenia alba, 140 

Calanthe Yeitchi, 116; abnormal 
flowering of, 104 

Calanthe Yeitchi splendens at Weston- 
birt, 83 

Calcutta, Royal Botanic Gardens, 43 ; 
appointment of surgeon-major D. 
Prain as superictendent of, 267 

Callicarpa purpurea, 80 

Callii Court, Peach and Nectarine 
trees at^ 116 

Calochortus Purdeyi, 394 

Calypeo borealis, 227 

Camellias out-of-doors, 373, 396 

Campanula mirabilis, 50 

Canker in Cocoa, 344 ; in French 
Beans, 293 

Csnnamois virgata, 308 

Cannas in Stutt^;art 80 ; the Italian or 
Orohid-flowenng, 2 

Cantua dependens, 136 

Cape, fruit from the, 185 ; orchards 
and vineyards at the, 219 

Cape Town, a view in Mr. Ardeme*s 
garden at, 233 

Carnations, disease of, 200 ; Queen of 
the Fancies, 375 ; Harrow Weald 
Beauty, 349 ; manuriog and wire- 
worms, 382 

Carnations and caterpillars, 119 

Came, near Penzaoce, 298 

Carnivorous slogs, 12 

Carrots, early, 82 

Cartridge, artificial manure, 264 

Csryota urens, the home of, 193 

Catasetum splendens x var. Grignani, 
94 

CatUeya, WUliam, 116 

Cattleya, a malformed, 362 ; C. aurea, 
94 ; C. Candida, 78 ; C. x Cecilia, 
226; C. citrina, 306 ; C. Hardyanax 
var. Fanyauiana, 94 ; C. x var. Re- 
gion, 226; C. Mendeli, Empress 
Queen, 226 ; C. Trianni var. albids, 
161 ; C. Broome's var., 134 ; C. 
Chard war var., 134 ; C. varieties, 
148 

Cattleyas, and other Orchids, the culti- 
vation of, 268 ; a paper on the culti- 
vation of, 195 ; the culture of, 210 

Ceara Rubber, 344 

Cedrus Deodars, varieties of, 229 

Celandine, the growth of the, 267 

Celastms artioulatup, 28 

Celerisc, 82 

Cereal, Soudaoese, 232 

Cereals, the mildews of, 282 

Ceylon, botanic gardens, tea, ooflfee, 
rubber, ^c, at, 260 

Cejlon, rubber cultivation in, 221 

Charities, gardeners, and Uieir wager, 

* 298, 383, 897; canvMssiug in the 
garden, 104 






. 



» 




VI The Gardener*' Chronicle,! 



INDEX. 



fj 



Plant Portraits.- AcimidU kolo- 

mikta, 71 ; JEohmea cylindraU, 
103 ; Aerides onuNofoIiuiD, 162 ; 
Alberta magna, 863 ; Allium Schu- 
berti, 233 ; Anemone vernalis, 102 ; 
Apple Reinette de Ceplet, 71 ; Ar» 
meria cssspitosa, 360 ; Anthemis tino- 
toria» pale yaiiety, 71 ; Bojlea Schro< 
deriana, 34; Bomarea Carderi, 170 ; 
Boretta cantalnioa, 363 ; Camoenna 
maxima, 42; Camptosema plnn%tum, 
152 ; Canna M. Yidal, 170 ; Gatase- 
tum splendens x ^ar. Grignani, 94 ; 
Cattleya aurea, 94 ; G. Dowiana var. 
aurea alba, 162 ; a Fowleri, 162 ; G. 
granulosa, 34 ; G. Hardyana x var. 
Reginse, 226; G. Hardyana x var. 
Fanyauiana, 94 ; G. labiata, Trey- 
eran's var., 370; G. Leopoldi, 34; 
G. Mendeli Empress Queen, 226 ; 
G. Parihenia x , 34 ; Gelastrus arti« 
onlatus, 380 ; Ghionodoia Luciliae, 
304 ; Glematis Nellie Moser, 363 ; 
Grinum Woodrowi, 380 ; Groous 
Malji, 233 ; Gymbidium pendulum, 
226 ; Gjpripediam Beeokmannl x L. 
Lioden, 94 ; C. bellatulum, 34 ; G. b. 
var. album, 162; G. Harritlanum 
yar. inperbum, 870 ; G. Niobe, 
370 ; G. niveum, S70; G. Young- 
ianum, 34 ; Daphne Blagayana, 
102; Dasyatacbys Drimiopsis, 102; 
Dendrobium formoaum, 162 ; D. 
hefcerocarpum, 370 ; D. Sobroderi- 
anum, 170 ; Dicentra formoea, 170 ; 
Dracsdna Qodseffiana, 152 ; Epiden- 
drum ciliare, 370 ; E. radiatum, 162 ; 
E. xanthinum, 152 ; Erigeron apecio- 
Bua, 71 ; Erjtbronium Hartwegi, 
152; Qrevillea Fobieri, 71; Hac- 
queUa Epipactis, l52 ; Hibisoas 
Manihot, 170 ; Hedysarum mul- 
tijugum, 363; Hyacinth Hadyn, 
103 ; H. Ring of the Blues, 304 ; 
Ipomoea Perringiana, 71 ; Iris atyloea^ 
304 ; Juglans regia var. rubra, 363 ; 
Kalanohoe flammea, 380 ; Lsdiia oris- 
pilabia, 162; L. glauca, 34; Lselio- 
Gattleya '' Pallas " var. inveras, 226 ; 
L.-G. Ridolfiana x var. Armain^liers- 
cDsis, 94 ; Lapageria rosea var. Ilse- 
manni, 71 ; I^ithyrus splendens, 42 ; 
Lavatera trimestris, 108; Lilium 
Buperbum, 71 ; Maedevallia Gourt- 
auldiana x , 370 ; iiiltonia Binoti, 
370 ; M. Candida, 34 ; Moriaia hypo- 
gfea, 380 ; Myosotis disaitiflora var. 
Dyerse, 233 ; Narcissus, varieties of, 
103 ; Odontoglossum Albertianum 
X Jules Hye, 162; 0. bictonense 
var. idbum, 94 ; 0. grande, 162 ; 0. 
Krameri, 1G2 ; 0. ^hlieperianum, 
34 ; 0. Thibautianum, 226 ; 0. 
triumphans var. latisepalum, 370 ; 
0. Wilckeanum, 34 ; Oncldlum 
Batemannianum, 226 ; 0. bsemato- 
chilum X , 162 ; 0. pulviaatum, 34 ; 
Orcbis monophylla, 380 ; P^ony 
tree, Madame Qustave Groux, 103 ; 
Paphiopedilum (Gypripedlum) Gham- 
berlainianum, 102; P. Victoria* 
Marise, 42 ; Pear Beurr^ Mont6cat, 
71 ; P. B. d*Hardenpont, 304 ; P. 
Eleanore Liefmannp, 363; P. Rend 
Dunan, liO ; P. Triomphe de Vieune, 
394 ; PhiladelphuB mexicauus, 380 ; 
PleurotbaUia Boezli, 370 ; Pinua 
Jeffreyi, 71 ; Plum, myrobalan, 304 ; 
Polygonatum biflorum, 363; Primula 
oboonica var. Mdlle. Lucienne de 
Hirsch, 71 ; Rheum Ribis, 233 ; 
Richardia Elliottiana, 102 ; Rosa 
altaica, 170 ; R. lutea, 71 ; R. seti- 
gera, 363 ; R. totneutoHa Woodsuina, 
170 ; Rose Caprice de Vick, 304 ; R. 
Crimson Rambler, 170 ; H. Gillemot 
(Tea), 170 ; Saccolabiuu giganteuui 
var. Petotiana, 226 ; Scilla sibirica, 
304 ; Sievekingia Reichenbachiana, 
42 ; SophroDitia Rossiteriana, 370 ; 
Stephanandra Tanakse, 380 ; Stro- 
biUnthea Dyeraniia, 42 ; Symphy- 
aodra Wanoeri, 380 ; Tillanisla 
Lindeui tricolor, 304 ; Tulip, varietiea 
of, 103, 304 ; Vanda coerulea, 34 ; 
V. var. Peeteraiana, 162 ; V. x Miss 



Joaquim, 226 ; Y. snavis var. Ram> 
bonnetiana, 162 ; Y. tricolor, 84 ; 
Wanoewiosella cochlaarii, 34 ; W. 
Waileaiana, 370 

Plants, causes of changes in, 847 

Plants, New or Noteworthy:— 

Acalypha Qodseffiana, 241 ; A. 
Sanderi, 241 ; Alooasia Wavriniana, 
241 ; Gattleya Triansdi, Broome's var. , 
134 ; G. T. var. albida, 161 ; C. T. 
Ghardwar var., 184; Geratolobua 
Mieholitsianas, 243 ; Girsiom oandi- 
distimom, 161 ; Goriaria terminalis, 
110 ; Gypripediom Grawshayse, 18 ; 
Deutzia corymbiflora, 121 ; Didiera 
mirabilis, 110 ; Doratenia arabioa, 
354 ; FurcrsBa Watsoniana ap., 242 ; 
Qeonoma Pynaertiana, 258 ; Huer« 
nia Bomalica, 353; Kssmpferia 
Ethelfl), 94 ; Lilium nibellum, 321 ; 
Leea sambucina, 242; Livistona 
Woodfordi, 177 ; Odontoglossum 
epidendroides, 146 ; Panax Master- 
sianum, 242 ; PandaJiusSanderi, 248 ; 
Pasfliflora Im Thumii, 305 ; Pinat 
Thunbergii aoreo-variegata, 243 ; 
Ptychoaperma Warleti, 242 ; Restio 
sps. F. W. Moore, 243 ; Senecio 
HanburianuB, 354 ; Sophronitis 
grandiflora, Swinburne's var.» 77 ; 
Sternbergia macrantha, 94 

Plants under glasp, 6, 28, 38, 54, 68, 
83, 98, 113. 124, 137, 151, 166, 183, 
198, 215. 230, 247, 262, 279, 294, 
211, 327, 342, 359,876, 398 

Plants under troes, or naturalisation, 
203 

Plantations, degrees of thinning, 97 ; 
treatment of, without regular thin- 
ning, 358 

Platy cerium angolense, 155 

Pleurothallis RoezU, 870 

Plum-trees with Silver-leaf disease, 898 
' Plums, Japanese, 52 

Polygala chamsbuxus, 111 

Poplar cuttings, early rooting of, 364 

Potato-seti for the Irish peasantry, 250 

Pot-suspending clip, Lawton*s patent, 
105 

Potato tests in Gheshire, 132 

Potato experiments, 281 

Potato Syon House Prolific, 157 

Potatos, early, 13 ; in America, 142" 

Primrose, the Qiant, Evelyn Ark- 
wright, 277 

Primroses, hardy, 187 

Primula denticulata and its varieties, 
322 

Primula Trallli ? 383; P. obconica$ x 
sinensia, 119 ; P. ainensis, the 
double-fiowered, 289 ; P. verticil- 
lata ainenais, 294 

Primulas, hardy, 318 

Propagation, methods of, ^^^ 164, 213, 
315, 371 

Protea cjnaroidee, 94 

Protecting Peach-trees when in flower, 
286, 300 

Pruning Apple and Pear-trees, 13, 30, 
45, 60, 74, 104 ; of fruit-trees, the, 
116; researching in, 289 

Prunus Amygdalus vsr. persiooide?, 
143 ; P. Davidiana, 78 ; P. D. alba, 
107; P. cerasifera, 229; P. Simooi, 
230 ; P., some American species of, 
notes on, 203 

Pyrus floribunda, 289 ; P. salicifolia, 
373 



Queensland, C«»ffV;e-growiug, 323 ; 
forest, a, 351 ; Nepenthes, 26 ; notes 
from, 186 



Radish, the history of the, 389 
Radishes, early, 296 
Raiofall, &c., for 1897, the, 142 
Raising cuttiugp, 348 
Ranunculus myssamia? from Mr. van 
Tuberghem, 368 



Rating of gUsihouses, the, 201 ; extra- 

ordmtry, 295 ; in nkarket gardens, 

168 ; of nuneriee in Ireland, 264 
Renanthera Imsch'ootiaiia, 42 
Restio subvertidllatiis, the hardiness 

of, 366 
Retrospeofe of the past year, 8 
Bevolving cultivator, a, 73 
Rhododandron altadereote, 78 ; R. 

danrioom, 78 ; R. Falconeri, 283 ; R. 

kewenae, 290 
Rhododendrons, Himalayan, 65, 80 
Richmond Hill, threatened disfigure- 
ment of, 312 
Rockeries, new and rare plants for, 28, 

50, 170, 288 
Roaa gigantea, 875; blooming in 

Gannea, 284 
Rosary, the, 18, 46, 142, 149, 168, 259, 

324, 388 
Rose Abb6 Miolan, 91 
Rose, a red-flowered Ifar^chal Kiel, 

58, 220 
Rose Gloth of Gold, 18 
Rote, exhibitiuns, 869 ; garden in May^ 

the, 324 ; prospeeta, 259 ; R. Psyche, 

281 ; show fixtures in 1898, 118, 

170, 288 
Roses, Gsroline Tcstontaad others, 204, 

220 ; pruning; 142 ; the Dog Rose 

as a stock for, 115 
Royal Horticultural Society's Gom- 

mittees* awards, 115 ; medallo- 

maniaat the, 126 
Rubber cultivation in Geylon, 221 ; 

sources of conmiercial, 271 
Russian winter flower and Grape traie, 

153 



Saccolabiom bellinum, 161 ; S. gi- 
gmteum var. PetoUana, 226 

St. Annea, Glontarf, oo. Dublin, 202 

St. Helena, plants of, 1 78 

St. Yalentine^s Day, plants in bloom in 
the open, on, 130 

Silix, the weeping varieties of, 305 

Sandringfaam House, 94 

San Jos^ scale, the, 114, 139, 154, 164, 
219, 267, 326 

San Joe6 sctle and Ganada's precau- 
tions, 329 

Saxifraga oppoaitifolia) 171 

Scale insects affecting the Pear-tree, 260 

Scientific Committee :— Apple, a 

twin, 1 74 ; Arum, a two-spatbed, 

119 ; Arums, two and three-spathed, 

174 ; Azaleo-dendron, a Botanical 

Gertificate awarded to, 174 ; Begonia 

leaves diseased, 318, 398 ; Broccoli, 

sprouting, 173 ; Gamations and 

caterpillars, 119 ; Gurrant-bnd mite, 

the, 119 ; Gineraria hybrids, 318 ; 

Gy press, diseased, 174 ; Cypripedium, 

monstrous, 14 ; Cypripediums with 

fungus, 119; Cjtisus Adami, 398; 

Evolution Gommittee of the Royal 

Socletv, 119 ; Preesia bulbs, arretted 

growth of, 318 ; Fungus, edible, on 

Beech, 62 ; Hszel, Phytoptus on, 

173 ; Hellebores, diseased, 14 ; Holly 

with red And yellow berries, 15 ; Ivy 

sports, 206 ; Ivy stem, a large, 174 ; 

Malformation in Scots Fir, 173 ; 

Morchella species, 318 ; Orchid roots 

' with fungus, 206 ; Pseonies, decayed, 

287, 898 ; Palm leaves discoloured, 

206; Peas, decaying, 318 ; Pbytoptas 

ribis, 174 ; Pines, diseaaed, 119 ; 

Primula oboonica ^ x sinensis, 119 ; 

Kibes coccinea, growth of, 237 ; Silver 

leaf disease, 398 ; Tbuya, fungus on, 

398 ; Tuberous growth on Vines, 1 4 ; 

Yiue browning, 206; Viae leives 

with gummy exudation, 287 

Scilla campanulata vara, compacta alba 

and rosea, 329 
Scilly, gathermg flowers of Narcissus 

for market in, 186 
Scilly Isles, the Dracaenas in, 187 
Scion on stock, the effect of, 348 
Scotland, Lilies in, 890 ; market gar- 
dening in, 392 



SooUand, notes from, 61, 302 

Sflssonol 1897, ths, at IsUwortb, 96 

Sedum Semperfivam, 18 

Ssdums lor osvpeting flowsr-bsds, d4S 

Seedling Apples, 145 

Seedlings end cuttings, dampiog-oiff of, 

360 
Seed-crop, the, 27 
Seeddispsrsioo, 211 
Seeds, the gsrwinsHoo of, 3^ 
Sinningia ooncinna and other specisa, 

388 
Snallp, to destroy, 30 

80CIETIC8 : Agricultural Seed Trade 
Association, 829 ; Ancient Society of 
York Florists, 68 ; Beckenham Hot- 
licnltural, 107» 239 • BoanemootlL 
and District Gardeners', 131 ; 
Brighton and Sussex HortienlttmJ, 
207 ; Brussels Orohid^enne, 128 ; 
Gsrdifi Gardeners', 68 ; Gardiff and 
Goun^ Horticultural, 181 ; Oieioi*- 
foid Hortioaltural, 148; Chestsr 
Paxtoo, 114, 148, 159^ Ghatter. 
Society of Natural Seienea, 256 ; 
Ghesterfield Ghrysanthomum, 271 ; 
Ghippenham and Gains HortiouHufs), 
119 ; Ghiawiok Gardenera,47,76,d99 ; 
Gomwall Da£fodil, 206 ; Devon and 
Exeter Oardenera', 15, 46, 143, 174 ; 
Durham, Northumberland, and New- 
castle Biotanical and Horticultural, 
271 ; Ealing Oardenera*, 175 ; Edin- 
burgh Field Naturalists*, 91, 850, 
898; Ghent Quinquennial ExbUu- 
tion, 24, 216, 248, 251, 297, 
816 ; Highgate and District Chcja* 
anthemum, 107, 139 ; Horaforih 
Qjrdenera', 119 ; Horticultural GluH, 
114, 170, 297, 394 ; Isle of Wight 
Gbrysanthemum, 63 ; Isle of Wight 
Horticultural, 159, 819 ; Kew Guild, 
the, 189 ; Lancaster Horticultural, 
143 ; Linnean, 114. 143,174, 223, 328, 
886.398; London Wholesale Fruit and 
* Potato Trades and Qrowers' Benevo- 
lent, 71> 170 ; Loughborough and Dis- 
trict Gardeners', 115; If andieater and 
North of England Orchid, 63, 131, 
191, 223, 255, 287, 398 ; Manchester 
Hoyal Botanical and Horticultural, 
350 ; Market Oardenera', Nuraery- 
men and Farmera' Associa^on, 223, 
272, 282, 828, 344; Metropolitau 
Public Gardens Association, 127 ; 
National Auricula and Primula 
(Northern Section), 803 ; National 
Auricula and Primula (Southern Sec- 
tion), 270 ; National Carnation and 
Picotee, 174 ; National Gbrysanthe- 
mum, 9, 75, 90, 115, 127, 138, 
185, 190 ; National Dahlia, 191 ; 
National Tulip, 318 ; Newcastle and 
District Horticultural, 15, 119, 818, 
399 ; Northtmpton Gbrysanthemum, 
15; Notts Horticulturaland Botanical, 
159 ; People's Palace Horticultural, 
71,223.271 ;ReadingandDiatrtct Gar- 
deners' 15, 47, 75, 119, 131, 159, 191. 
224, 2r.5, 319,399; Richmond AUot- 
mentsA(sociation,91;Richmondiiort , 
328 ; Royal BoUnic, 47. 119, 207, 
302; Royal Galedonian Horticultural, 
127, 139, 239; Royale d'Agricultoro 
de Botaoique de Uand, 251 ; Royal 
Horticultural, 46, 106, 119,158,189, 
238, 269, 287, 801, 318, 350, 334 ; 
H. H. S, (Committee Awards), 115 ; 
R. H. S. (Report of), 62; R. H.S. (Tem- 
ple Show), 830; Royal Meteorological, 
75 ; Scottish Horticultural, 15, 47, 
91, 159, 174, 303, 850 ; Shirley and 
District Gardeners*, 63, 127, 206, 255, 
399; Shrop^'hire Horticultural, 115 ; 
8oci^t^ Fran^aise d' Horticulture de 
Londres, 63 ; Society of Arts, 255, 
271 ; Southampton Horticultural, 
2U7 ; Sunderland Qarileners', 31 ; 
Swansea Horticultural, 63 ; Torquay 
District Gardeners*, 206 ; Ulster 
Horticultural, 75 ; United Hort. Ben. 
& Prov., 174; Ware and Disthict 
Hort, 191 ; Winchester Gardenera', 
143 ; Yorkshire Gala, 147, 386 ; 
Yorkshire Naturalists', 329 



The Oardenen' Chronicle,] 



INDEX, 



• • 



[JoqaSS. 18083 YU 



Seeds, tbe nitiDg of, 177 

Seeds, when resting, experiments 

witli,8 
Senedo Hanburiinos, 854 
Shade, plants that will grow under, 29 
Shade trees, thinning the number of, 

850 
" Sherwood " Cup, the, 114 
Shoreditoh, open space for, 818 
Siamese Kalungton Chang, 85 
Sinningia conoinna growing at Cam- 
bridge Botanic Qardent, 861 
Slugs, oamiyorous, 12 ; tobacco-dust aa 

a remedy for, 1 03 ; worm-eating, 87, 73 
Soils, lecture on, 189 
Solanum Wendlandi, 108, 222, 227; 

S. muricatum, fruits of, 227 
SophronitiB grandiflora, 104 ; " Swin- 
burne's var.," 77 
Soudanese cereal, 232 
Sparrow, usual food of the, 153 
Sparrows, and Crocuses, 204, 286 ; and 

flowers, 268 
Spathofflottis x aurec-Viellardi, 809 
Spiranuies colorata var. maculata, 112 
Sporai^gia, the development of, upon 

Fern prothalli, 201 
Sprajing plants in houses, a new 

method of, 292 
Spring flowers and sunshine, 243 
Stanhopea ebumea, 194 
SUphjIeas, 874 
Stercalia neo-caledonica, 1 78 
Stereum hirsutum, artificial cultivation 

of,' 281 
Sternbergia macractha, 116, 129 
Stock Pnncf 88 Alice, 237 
Stock, the effect of scion upon, 348 
Stock-taking, 42, 102, 154, 284, 298, 

863 
Stoneleigh Abbey, fan-trained Morello 

Cherry-trees at, 315 
Straits Settlements botanic gardens, 

222 
Strawberry-Raspberry, Japanese, 139 
Strawberry Royal Sovereign, 13, 830, 

884 
Strawberry, the, planted in barrels, 

167, 140, 172 
Strawberries at Hatfield, 338 
Sreli'zia Regioo?, 50 



Subscriptions to gardeners* charitiee, 
and the wherewithal to pay them, 
268 

Substitution branches, 267 

Sulphuring Vines, 13, 28 

Sundries, horticultural, 141 

Sunningdale Fsrk, Orchids at, 370 

Surrey, allotments in the county o^ 26 

Swamp, treatment of a, at Combe 
Abbey, 277 

Swedes and Turnips, finger-and-toe 
cUsease on, 281 

Sweet Briars, hybrid, 149 

Sweet Peas, some, of recent introduc- 
tion, 816 ; the dwarf, 95 



Taoetbs lacera, 855 

Tasmanian Apples, 170, 185 

Technicil laboratories, work at the 
Ef sex, 862 

Temperature, abnormal, 14 

Temple Show, the lack of ventilation 
in the tents at the, 867 

Temple Show of the Royal Horticul- 
tural Society, 328 

Tennis Court, how to make, 120 

Terminology, 184 

Testaoellas, 12, 87, 73 

The Cliff, Sbanklin, view in the con- 
servatory at, 184 

Then and now, 220 

Thermometers, the Simplicity Holder 
and Indicator for, 221 

Thinniog, degrees of, 212 

Thinning kitchen - garden and other 
crops, 867 

Thunbergia hiurifolia, 236 

Thuya, fungus on, 898 

Thuya plicata, 26 

Thjrsacanthus Schomburgkianut, 883 

Timber supply of the world, 377 

Titmice, 96, 185 

Tobacco^ust as a remedy for slugs, 103 

Tomato Conqueror, 286 

Tomatos and Cucumbers, 817 

Tomatos, forcing, 6 

Torenia Foumieri, 197 

Torquay, the mild winter at, 201 



Tortrix viridana, 884, 396 
Traehelium ccoruleum, 197 
Transplanting Violets and Marguerites, 

293 
Tree-Ferns in the Botanic Gardens, 

Brusiels, 246 
Tree-planting on Hampstead Heath, 

128 
Trees and shrubs, 6, 143, 202, 229, 

262, 873, 392 
Trees, at Mottesfont Abb^, 60, 73 ; 

changes that occur when the terminal 

shoot is destroyed in, 267 
Trellis-wire, in market^gardens, 194 
Tresoo Abbey grounds, Soilly, 152 
Trifacial Orange, a, 58 
Trinidad, a tropical glass-house in, 168 
Trinidad Botanic Gtfdens, 871 
Truffaut's system of feeding plants, 

264 
Tuberous growths on Vines, 14 
Tulips pulehdla, 213 ; T. Sprengeri, 

from Mr. VanTubergen, 362 
Tulips, relative merit of varieties of, 

362 
Turnip-flea (Haltioa nemorum), 268 
Tomipy, to force, 36 



U 



Utrecht Bjfanic Garden, 169 



Vaocinium glanco-album, 115 
Vanda x Miss Joaquim, 226 ; V» Rox- 
bnrghi, 161 ; V. teres at Gunners- 
bury Park, 78, 282 
Variation, culture and, 847 
Vegetables, 83. 105 
Veitch Memorial Trust, the, 70 
Ventilating glass-houses, 118 
Veronica AiMersoni variegate, 286 
Viburnum macrocephalum, 318 
Victoria medal of honour, 90, 141 ; how 

it must not be used, 42 
Victoria, orchards in, 118 
Viaw in Mr. Ardeme's garden at Cape 
Town, 312 



Vine, browning of the leaves, 206 ; ths 

effects of gralting upon the, 865, 397 
Vines, inarching and grafting, 205 ; 

sulphuring, 18, 28 
Violas, 45, 60 ; the best varieties of, 

74 
Violet, Mrs. J. J. Astor, 71 ; Princess 

of Wales, 293 
Violets in frames, damping off, 61 
Vitis Coignetiss, 13 



W 



Walu, state of vegetation in southem, 

61 
Walmer Castle, 121 
Walton Grange, Orchid sale at, 813 
Water-bouquet, a, 73, 105, 220 
Water, microbes in, 882 
Watkins k Simpson's, fire at Messrs., 

282 
Weather, the, and the fruit-trees, 24 ; 

vegetative reiulti of the mild, 116, 

127, 130 
West Indian plantations, 185 
Weitonbirt, Calanthe Veitchi splendens 

at, 84 
Wheat mildew, the, 45 
Whitethorn, untimely blossoming of 

the, 80 
Wilhelmsbohe, Germany, 201 
Williams' Memorial Medal, 71 
Willows, the weeping, 305 
Window-plant eumvatioo, 268 
Wireworm, ravages of, 244 
Witch Hasds, the, 78 
Withania origanifolia, 79 
Witte, H., retirement o^ from the 

Leyden Botanic Garden, 329 
Wood-ashes ; its value as a manure, S26 
Wood-pulp in floor-e^oth and for paper, 

185 
Worm-eating slugs, 37, 73 



X-BATS, influence of, on ths vegetation 
of seeds, 219 



yiil The Oftrdenan' Chronicle, 



INDEX. 



(Jnna IS, Vmt. 



LIST OF ILLUSTBATIONS. 



AoALTPHA Godfefi&ant, 242 ; A. Siii- 

deri, 248 
Acens BoUeaoa, gpike of flowers of, 865 
Albuoa prolifera, aho wing flower, rootiog 

bulbilr, and bulb with bulbils, 397 
AUotmeDt holder, W. Howard, 129 
Alocaaia WavrinisDa, 243 
Aloe ScbweiDfurtbi in flower at La 

Morfcola, 197 
Anthracite coal-grate, an, 18 
Apple blossom, a double, 400 
Apple, Daroelow's Seedling, 141 ; Rojal 

Snow, 11 
Aristida setaoes, awns of, 211 
Arthropodium oirratani, 235 
Asparagus comorenais, 181 ; A falcator, 

123 ; A. f . showing stem, 178 ; A. 

laricinos, 122 ; A. plumosuf, 146 ; 

A. raoemoaus tetragonus, 147 ; A. 

earmentosuB, 179 
Asphodeline fialanssB, 111 ; A istbmo- 

carpa, 117 
Aspleniom nidus var. mnltilobats, 21 ; 

A. Mayi, 871 
Aulopoma helicinum, portion of the 

tongue of, 87 
Aorioola Abbe Lists, 285 
Awns of Aristida setaoea, 211 



B 



Bban, French, canker, 293 

Belfast Botanic Gardens, Tiews in, 51, 

53, 57 
BirdVnest^em, crested, a, 21 



Calochortus Purdeji, 395 

Canker in French Beaoe, 293 

Celastrus articulatus, 29 

Ceratolobus Micholitaianuff, 251 

Cherry'tree, a fan-trained Morello, at 
Stooeleigb Abbey, 315 

Clip, Lawton's sotpending flower-pot, 
105 

Colchicum dlioicum, 85 

Coombe House, Creadon, a fine plant 
of Dendrobinm nobile at, 341 

Cordyline australis in the Abbey 
Grounds, Tresco, 153 

Crassula columnsria, 66 

Crocus Bonatus growing in the Cilician 
Taurus, 85 

Cultivator, a reyolving, 73 

Cyclamen cilidcum growing in the Cili- 
cian Taurus, 81 



Cyclamen latifolium, a Tariety of, 
shown by M . de Langhe, Bru asels, 173 

Cyclamens, showing varioua modifica- 
tions in the flowers of, 135 



Davalua ^iensis effufs, 323 
Dendrobium nobi*e at Coombe House, 

Croydon, 841 
Dendrobium nobile Ashworthianum, 

203 
Didiera mirabilis, 110 
Downer, The, Hayle, 217 



EcLiisB of the ton, as seen by a 

botanist^ 161 
Kpi-Cattleyaradiato-Bowringisn*, ^91 
Encryphia pinnatifolia, seed-?ectel of, 

15 
Enlophiena Peetaniana, plant of, khow- 

bg habit, 200 



Fbbv, Crested Bird*s-nest, 21 
Fruit-trees in pots, group of, from 

Qunnersbury House, 383 
Fry, Mr. Geo., portrait of, 87 
Forcneagigantea, 227 ; F. Wstsoniana, 

243 



Galamthi 8 cilieicus, 79 

Qeonoma Pynaertiana, 258 

Ghent Quinquennial Exhibition, views 

of eshibitsat the, 261, 263, 265 
GI»osporium Lindemutliianum (French 

Bean-canker), 293 
Grapes, a bunch of Black Alicante, as 

grown at Fitoullen, 72 ; a bunch of 

Coopei^s Black, grown at PitcuUen, 

67 ; a bunch of Gros Maroc, grown . 

at PitcuUen, 69 
Grate for burning anthracite-coal, 13 
Oymnogramma tfirysophylla vsr. grili- 

diceps snperba, 373 



KiBMPFBBiA Ethelse, 95 
Kew, Nepenthee-house at, 3 
Kew Palaoe, recently given to the 
public use by the Queen, 43 



LAcncNALiA pendula var. Aurellona 

195 
Lnlia Amesisna, Crawsh«y*s var., 59 ; 

L. •nceps Waddonienais, 125 
Lielio-Catlleya x Digbyano-TriaoaBi, 8 
Larix Lyalli in the Rocky lionntainr, 

365 
Lawton's (uspeLding flo iter- pot d'p, 

105 
Leea sambuoina, 215 
Lettuee-forcbg house in Boston, U.S.A., 

299 
LUium nibellum, 385 
Lily of the Valley, a large- flowered, 

149 
Lindeo, Jean, the late, 40 



M 



Magmolia Campbelli, flower of, 89 
Mottiafont Abbey, Urge Plane tree at, 

25,27 
Morray^s patent Orchid-stand, 159 
Mushrooms, a large duster ci, 381 
Blyrmeoodia eohinatf , 5 



N 



Nabcirsub X Lady Margaret Bofcawer, 

275 
Nepenthes-house at Kew, 3 
Nepenthes ventriooss, 379 



Odomtoolobsum criapum "Baroneaa 
Schroder," 165 ; 0. c Prince of Walea, 
390 ; 0. Wilckeannm, PiU*s var., 274 
Opuntia papyraoantha, 339 
Orchid-stand, Murray's patent, 159 



Panax Mastersianum, 242 

Passiflora edulia, fruits of, 131 ; P. Im 

ThumU, 807 
Pbalsdoopia x John Sedeo, 171 ; P. 

Schrodersd x , 259 
PitcuUen, bunches of Grapes grown at, 

67, 69, 72 
Plane tree at MotUsfont Abbey, 

a htfge, 25, 27 



Platycerium angolente, 155 

Primroee, Gian», Eveljn Aikwrig^t, 

277 
Pceris cretica var. SummersB, >70 ; P. 

serrolaU var. gracilis multioe^, 875 
Ptychosperma (?) Warleti, 244 



Radisubb, a market bunch of, SOS 
Renaothera Imaobootiana, 40 
Itestio aps. F. W. Moore, 251 
Rhododendron Kewensex, flow«riBf 
at Kew, S91 



S 



SoALB, San Jos^, on Pears, Ac , 103 
Scilly, gathering Nardasui blooms i»i 

187 
Sednm Sempervivum, 19 
Sinningia condnna, 861 
Slugs, worm-eating, 37 
Spathoglottis aureo-Viellardi, 809 
SternbsffBa maorantha, 97 
Stondd^ Ahb^, B Cu-traiiMd 

Morello Cherry-tiee at, 815 
Strawbenj Royal Sovereign, 881 



Taobtes lacers, 355 

Temple ahow, photographs of exhihitB 

at» 345, 847, 349 -m ^ 

Testacellas haliotidea, scntulum, and 

Maugd,87 , , 

Thermometers, the Simplidty-holder 

and indicator for, 221 
Tresco Abbey, GordyUne BostraliB in 

the grounds of, 153 
Trinidad, a glass-house in the BotBnio 

Gardens, 163 
Tulipa pulchella, 213 



YiBW in the conservatory et "The 
Cliff,** Shanklln, 192 



W 



WoBM-eating duga, 87 



SUPPLEMENTARY ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Adiantum Hbmbletanum, May 28. 

AsPBODRUNB BALAMSiB OBOWIHO IN THB CiuciAM Taubos, February 19. 

Azalba AJKXirA, Mikado, May 28. 

BOUGAIKVILLBA OLABBl, IN TBB CONSBBVATOIIT OF T. BeAVIB, EbQ., MoAT- 

LANDS, Paddock Wood, March 10. 
Cabnr, nbab Penzanob, May 14. 

CllBYSANTBBMUM, A TBAINBD JAPANESE VlBIBTT OF, AS GBOVVN IN TUB 

iMPBBiAL Gabdbns AT ToKYO, March 5. 
Datoba buaybolbns, in TBB Gabdbks of W. Long, Ecq, Thelwall Heys, 

January 29. 
DBACiiNA Bbooufibldi, April 23. 

EULOPIIIELLA PbBTEBSIANA, FlOWIBINO FOB TBB F|B8T TlME IN EOROPB, AT 

Bubfoed Looob, April 2. 



Hydbanoba uobtensia stbllata vab. fimbbiata, May 28. 
Hydbangba UOBTENSIA VAB. Mabiesii, May 28. 

ISOHABUM EXIMIUM, GbOWINO IN ITS NATIVE LOCALITY IK ClLIOU, 

February 27. 
Pandanus Sandbri, April 23. 

PUILADBLPHUS CORONABIUS BOULE D'ABGENT, May 28. 

Phlebodium glaucdm Mayi, May 28. 

Rose, Hybrid Polyantha *' Psycue," May 7. 

View in Mr. Ardebne*8 Garden, Cape Town, April 16. 

View of tuk Pond in Mr. ApvDbenb'b Gabden, Clabbmobt, Capb Town. 
May 21. 

View in tbb Conservatory at **The Cliff," Shanklin, Mwch 26. 
Zenobia 8PEC10BA 0AS8INEFOUA, May 28. 



J 



[Supplemeat to the " Gardenen* Chronicle, " Jaiiiury 1, 1896. 



] rxr\ HVT-IT^ A T O 0_ A TKT A Tir^O FOR EXCELLENCE OF HORTICULTURAL SPECIALITIES 



I 



33 MEDALS & AWARDS 



TO WM. WOOD & SON. LTD. 




ROYAL HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. M ■MITIfir ROYAL HORTICULTURAL SOCIETY. 



GRAND FRUIT SHOW, o5:«°«r«. CRYSTAL PALACE, 



THE JTTDaES 
AWABDED 



224 FIRST AND OTHER PRIZES TO 28 



8X700B8SFI7L 
EXHIBITOBS. 



A RECORD for "LE FRUITIER!' The above Prize Winners are users of our Specialities. 



" LE FRUITIER, 



NO GARDENER ••I H' H^KIII'I^IHiK THE PRIZE MEDAL 
SHOULD BE WITHOUT JJ iJ X XL Li X X X JU X L^ ARTIFICIAL MANURE 

THE OELEBHATED 7BI7IT KANX7BE. THE PEEFEOTION OF PLANT FOOD. 

CARRIAGE PAI D ^ Seftl^a and Branded Bagi, dO/- per Cwi., to any Station in Obbat Bbitain. Sample Bagt, 2/6 and 6/- each. 

SPECIAL QUOTATIONS FOR BULK AND SHIPPING ORDERS TO ANY PART OF THE WORLD. 



BONES and MEAL 

Spwjially P&bpabxd for Vi:^B BORDERS. 



aTJAHANTEE ANALYSIS. 

21*23 per Cent. Phosphobio Acid, eqoal to 
46-32 y, „ Tbibabtio Phosphatb of Limb 
4'38 f, ft NiTBOOBNs5'SS Ammonia. 



LOAM, Surrey and Kent. 

Carriage-piid Qaotationi to any Station. 



: 



"LE FRUITIER" AT CAPE COLONY. 

SHIPMENTS CONSTANTLY INCREASING. REPEAT ORDER FOR 5 TONS JUST DESPATCHED. 



IS THE MARKET GROWER'S 



((TV VnTTTTTrD" IS THE MARKEI Ul 

Ln rliUliil!iIl FAVOURITE. 

The following, from Mr. Fbathbrby, Gilliogham, Keat, is a sample of 

Repeat Orders:— 
JV«M». 9^A— " Please tend me 5 TONS of *Lb Fbuitibb.*" 



Our SOLUBLE MANURE is niiicli led. 

12 TONS sapplied to Mbssbs. Guiveb Bbothbes & 

Lawson. 



Mb. Camm writes : — ** I have much pleasure in adding my testimony to the value of your • Lb Fbttitibb.' After 
Un Ai tS AND two years* use in the Yineries a very marked improvement is evrideat. I never saw finer berries, they were well col oured 
Q-rn AiainrpnirQ and in bunohas of 10 fco 13^1b. weight. For pot Strawberries I shall use it exclusively in the future: our Strawbemee 
O I nMf f DCnnlLOi ^^ March were the admiration of every one who saw them."^THE Gabobns, Battle Abbbt, Sussex. 



INVENTORS AND SOLE MANUFACTURERS OF 

"LE FRUITIER" |^ T^T^^ TTT^ I" SUCCESS" 

The Celebrated Orape and Fruit Manure. ^y \-^ f\ I /a Fj POTATO MANURE. 

" The Perfection of Plant Food." BONEINITRIC COMPOUND. 

SOLUBLE LIQUID li/T A W T T R ]7 ft "VERDANT VELVET V 

MANURE POWDER. ^'^ ^^ ^^ ^^ A E A^l W^i LAWN MANURE. 

WOOD & SON ape NOTED fop all GARDEN SPECIALITIES. 

Send Postcard for our NEW ILLUSTRATED COMPENDIUM, SIXTH EDITION. 

EVERY GARDENER SHOULD BE IN POSSESSION OF THIS VALUABLE BOOK OF INFORMATION 



llfM llf^^^ O O^M I Contractors to Her Majesty^s Government, 

If If UUU Q( uUNy LTD. Managing Director-JAMES L WOOD, F.R.H.S. 

HORTICULTURAL IMPORTERS, INVENTORS, MERCHANTS, MANUFACTURERS, 

NORTH BRITISH WHARF, WOOD GREEN, LONDON. 

ESTABLISHED 1830. 





•0 

n 
n 


fit f 1 ■ f II ?r 


1 


agssiisss £ !i !3 s s s £ = s s : ;: 5 =s,m-,^=..« » _ 




s»"=^^a^ SCO " "^g a ? s» " ■« s a ^KBa^^ga?* » ■= 

fsrinrifi If lut III ffii i f 

iUffp H iip ip i 1 

mm ip'^s-imrs 

1 ^r 1 f 


o 

o 
w 
m 

w 


1 


BI2SSSSSSSS8ES 3 5 SSSS S5 » .— =.. - « _ 




asiKi»»''gas»B""« 3 a gxa" 'S a ?so »» s as 




filEll till i ^ 

1 r 1^ ri ifi ffiii i;r ; 

' iil liSiiii f rill 11 


z 
o 

■s 

s 
w 
a 
w 


1 


2SS8SS3S8KSSS Sg E S3 ;; S K S5So-.« =, » . » » - 


D 

o 

3 

n 


"'iSaSEWS ag SOI ■'OS a ^sw-s-ja ?em «^3 


B a ESS."? ss?s Kg- ? ¥5 s- ? if?E? 

= iil|iilinHlil}!li 
fffil tlilrtU [[I'!! 

1 r 1 Sr a 



2gSS Sg SESS2_S5S=5;IS E = 

^Koo^ -^H 3;?Koa'^ oga gEM'"'^ g a 

"rsff 11^ ills? ?i t n 
= i||li III f ? ' -' 

I" C* '^ S 

I I- s S 

. f ri if 



s ;i 



gl8_!S^S_8SJS 

ga gEP 



ag E I 



If Ifi II 1 1 I E 

Bii^r*ir i I il I 

W.8 tog a ■ F s 9- 



5 r o p s ' 

||i f I i 

sl S 1 

I* I 5 



f 



I'! i ri H 



sss ss sssss 



g a gEM" 






agE»« 



g a 






,- t;a ^ 

ft ?i ' llili 



I s 
I I 






^S its"- ?i 



agsb""=g ags 



r*S§'r' s .,3'r' = » 






I t^fy 









:o '"■ " s'^SKV 


3 
> 


■t § S ? 1 s 

til 
if 


1 




c 

z 


g flHso -"igs 


% 1 

!- r ■ 


1 






f 1=1 HJ? 
f it III 

ill fP 

1 If i : 


c 
r 

•< 


1 


fsa'-'Si g * 


> 
c 

o 

c 


? S4 ? ? f ? 

f If! iflfi 

? J^? s 1 . 
' l^i If 1 

- rf If ^ 



KW '■ ' S 

'f*?i: 

Uli ... 



si"- 

itff 



ii = 



LEJ 






•«g ^gBW" 



I 4 



'fi 



4^ 



= I 
—5 I 
11 - 

'I? 
5;. 
1^ 












if 

si 



? K 






■Ill 

y 



fi- 
ll 



!? ? 



^^K oa '^^ g ^ g sw 



fipHfi^Sriri 

- "_ s tS"- f r.' I g, 8 

Hi 9 Ik i=r|-" 

f Hi' II 



III 
Sis 

if 



I ? ' 

of? J 



IIP 



^U 



IF 
I'. 
If 



? I I- 



t i 






S !Sil!38S£!3 



g < gga'"'g« g»w°"?s<g »m ' 



' 3 a g ac 



"III ■ 
Ifglik I! 






? sas >■? P ^ s !p a 1? 

s :;s8 §i| 1 1 Is s- 

rMi ? t-- -s'l^rf 

."?=.? s sslt» ? 

■ S « s »''bJp 

„ a P ?■ o » 



it 



s » i ? 1. 1 

I ^r ■' 

f '^ 



?? 



I'l 1 1 






s 
> 

o 

X 



■"sgagaoi""' g«g a 



la's < psi^sffrff |?».a iS'f^Ji.jC^j 

2:1== ■ ^qTS'hFS £ 2 2 |^_ » *? „.^?a.= ^; 



? la 



:6 



B »■ Is"?'' S S 






3 j; 

r r 



E i' ? f 

I ft S a 

1 3. i i 






00 
CO 
00 

'I' 



Supplement to the "0«r<lenen' Chronicle,** January 1, 1898.] 



1898. Farther Extension of our Textile -Fabrics Department. 1898. 



GOSSAMER SHADINGS 



AND 



SON BLINDS 



OF EVERY DESCRIPTION. 



SELECTED TEXTURES. 

LATEST IMPROVEMENTS. 

NEWEST DESIGNS. 




We shall be pleased for our Foreman in this 
Department to wait upon^you to take measure- 
ments, free of charge* All Fixing executed at the lowest 
possible price. 



We pecommend fop shadlnsr supfaces 
exposed to vepy stponsr sunlisrht, oup 

VERT ^^ Green Rot-Proof Scrim" 

(Dense-Medium) ; 

and fop supfaees whieh ape not subjeet to 
extpeme solap conditions oup speciality, 

ALBA White-Wove, "A. White" 

(Semi-Tpanspapent). 

A RECENT TESTIMONIAL 

Sirs, — The Shadings have arrived safely and give 
every satisfaction ; the workmanship in making being 
all that could be wished. 

Thanking you for your promptness in executing 

my order, 

I am, yours very truly, 

Th$ Gardens, c rnr r? 

Ashby SL Udgers, nr. Rugby. A. o. COLE. 



BOOK OF PRICED SAMPLES FREE BY RETURN OF POST. 



STRINGS, TWINES, &c., 
CUBA BAST. 



Roll of 60 assorted and prieed 
varieties f^ree on application. 



Just clearing a very fine pareA 



CONTINENTAL WHITE WOOD-WOOL Silky. Scentless 



ORCHID PEAT OUR SPECIALITY. 



RHOOO. PEAT, 15/- PER TON, F.O.R 



IMPORTERS OF 

BAMBOO OANBS, aU sorto and siaes. 
BUSSIAN 3£AT8. 

OONTINBNTAL WHITB WOOD-WOOL. 
8ULPHUB. PBBTTVIAlf QUANO, &o. 
QEBMAK PLOWBB STICKS. 



EXPORTERS TO 

OONTINBKT and 
OOLOiriBS, 

BT MOST DIBBCT BOUT] 



MANUFACTURERS OF 

FIVB PBIZB MEDAX MAIHTBBS. 
OBCHID BASB:BTS, New Improved. 
INSBOTIOIDBS. 



FBBTILIZIKa MOSS. 



OUR ILLUSTRATED CATALOGUE {Seventh Edition), of over 500 Specialities for 

the Garden, Free by return of Post. 

Telegraph: ^' WOOD, WOOD QREEN.^' 

Managing Director: 
, JAMES L. WOOD, F.R.H.S. 



Telephone: ''10 TOTTENHAM.'' 



W WOOD & SON, Lto 



CONTRACTORS TO HER MAJESTY'S GOVERNMENT ; THE LONDON COUNTY COUNCIL ; ROYAL PARKS AND GARDENS ; AND THE 

PRINCIPAL BOTANIC GARDENS IN THE COUNTRY. 

NORTH BRITISH WHARF, WOOD GREEN, LONDON, N. 

m^* CARRIAGE PAID QUOTATIONS TO ANY DISTRICT IN THE UNITED Kingdom. 



111? 



Januaky 1, 1898.] 



THE GARDENEB8' CHBONICLE. 




THE 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 1, 1898. 



NOVELTIES OF 1897. 

IT is interesting to turn oyer our notes of the 
DOW plautsof the year that is past, as, in doing 
|o many facts become evident which were only 
fuspected at the time from cursory observation. 
Do the present occasion, the most striking fact 
gleaned from a study of the records of last year 
18, that the hybridist, who of late years has 
been plodding on with increasing confidence, 
may be said to have at last fairly over-reached 
the importer, for in every department of gar- 
dening, the majority of the novelties are 
home-made productions, and the outcome of the 
ikill and perseverance of the gardener himself, 
[t is to be hoped, however, that the present 
taste for garden hybrids will not render the 
9iTorts of the plant-collector and importer too 
unremunerative an occupation to pursue, the 
hybridist himself being dependent to a great 
degree on the importer. But a review of the 
introductions of tiie past year shows that the 
number of new species of plants are very few, 
and their introduction to our gardens is not of 
much consequence, and that they are chiefly 
noticeable by reason of the fine varieties among 
them which have flowered, and have in many 
iostanoes doubtless saved the importer from 
luffering a loss on an importation. 

Orchids. 

This applies more especially to the Orchids, 
Imong which the hybrids and the phenomenal 
rarieties seem mainly to rivet attention ; and, 
eommercially considered, perhaps the rarer 
rarieties of imported species, such as the more 
beautifully blotched Odontoglossums, Oypri- 
pedium callosum Sanderso, and similar things, 
bold their own against the hybrids, high 
though the prices asked for the latter may 
^metimes be. Certain it is that whenever any 
rare old species, which has disappeared from 
gardens for many years, flowers, it receives as 
iiuch attention, and is as interesting now as 
Iver; as, for example, one of the greatest 
novelties to present-day cultivators which 
towered during the year is a very old plant, 
HZ', Grammatophyllum speciosum, with its 
Hgantio 7-feet inflorescence of large yellow and 
brown flowers borne above the Palm-like foli- 
age of the plant, which flowered in the gardens 
of Sir Trevor Lawrence, Bart., at Burford 
>dge, in August last, and was awarded the 
fold Medal and a I^lrst- class Certificate of 
ae Boyal Horticultural Society. In the same 
iamous gardens many plants of as great merit 
kave bloomed during the year, and among the 
numerous hybrid Orchids may be mentioned 
the fine Yanda X Miss Joaquim (teres X 



Hookeriana), some good Cypripediums, of 
which the most singular-looking one is 0. X 
hirsuto-Sallieri, a large, glossy, pallid flower, 
distinct in appearance ; the pretty Brasso-Catt.- 
Ladlia X Lindleyano - elegans [Phoebus, what 
a name ! ] ; and among the showy hybrid 
Oalanthes raised at Burford, whidi graced 
the last meeting of the Boyal Horticultural 
Society, some eight or nine new forms, 
of which C. X sanguinaria, with dark blood- 
red flowers: C. x Burfordiensis, rich car- 
mine-crimson; and 0. X Yeitohi splendens, 
received awards. There also flowered in this 
garden the natural hybrid Cattleya x undulata, 
and the pure white Stenoglottis longifolia alba 
was shown. Many now plants, of botanical 
interest, have flowered at Burford during 
the year, and an attempt has been made to estab- 
lish the singular Trevoria Chloris, named in 
honour of Sir Trevor Lawrence by Mr. F. 0. 
Lehmann. 

Baron Sir H. Schroder is getting more 
carefal about risking his fine plants in 
public, and hence the difficulty in doing justice 
to the many novelties which have flowered at 
The Dell, examples of which were, however, 
seen at the great International Horticultural 
Exhibition at Hamburg, and at that held in 
the Temple Gardens. Odontoglossums always 
take the lead, and among those from Baron 
Schroder's collection certificated in 1897 were the 
magnificent O. Wilckeanum var. Queen Empress, 
which for size of flower, richness of the dear 
yellow and reddish-brown tints, excels all in its 
class ; as does the fine, large, white O. crispum 
magnificum, also shown at the Temple in it<8 
own section. O. proestans Dayanum, also be- 
longing to The Dell collection, is a charming 
white and cinnamon-brown flower ; Coologyne 
Dayana, " The Dell var.,'* a great advance on 
the type form ; and Cattleya Loddigesii superba, 
the finest example of its kind. Several cross- 
bred Calanthes and other Orchids have flowered 
at The Dell, but none surpasses the robust, 
handsome, and richly-ooloured Oalanthe x 
Baron Schroder. 

Most of our important amateur oollectiouR 
have produced good things during the past 
year. From the Bight Hon. Joseph Cham- 
berlain's garden towards the latter part of the 
year there have been exhibited groups of good 
plants, either raised at home, or specially well- 
grown plants of the productions of others. Of 
the former, Cattleya x Mrs. Endicott (maxima x 
Loddigesii) has charming flowers, with the 
pretty purple veining seen in the lip of C. 
maxima; and of the latter, Cattleya x Fabia, 
and Mr. Cookson's LaDlio-Cattleya x Clive, 
appeared in better form than they had ever 
been seen before. 

The Hon. Walter Bothschild, who is great in 
** botanical" Orchids, has flowered several ex- 
traordinary Bulbophyllums and Cirrhopetalums, 
of which the wonderful B. Ericssoni, and the 
rare B. megalanthum may be noted. Also the 
new crimson Mormodes badium, and its dear 
yellow form luteum, and the pretty hybrid Cjrpri- 
pedium x Enid (beUatulum x Spicerianum). 

E. Brooman-White, Esq., of Ghirelochead, a 
specialist in Odontoglossums, has received the 
Boyal Horticultural Society's awards for three 
grandly spotted forms of 0. crispum, viz., 0. o. 
heliotropium, 0. c. Starlight, so much admired 
at the last Temple Show, and O. c. Sunlight. 

W. Thompson, Esq., of Stone, another admirer 
of the Odontoglossums, showed the beautiful 
O. excellens, Thompson's var.; O. eceptrum 
aureum, 0. crispum Annie, and 0. Buokeria- 
num ooellatum. 



Fred Hardy, Esq., Ashton-on-Mersey, has to 
be credited with three very fine novelties ; viz., 
Cattleya Schilleriana, Hardy's variety, the 
largest and best of the species; Cattleya x 
Hardyana magnifica, and the nearly white 
Lselia pumila albens. 

Norman C. Cookson, Esq., from his abundant 
collection at Wylam, flowered the very singular 
looking Lselio-Cattleya x Juno (C. Moesise x 
L. majalis) ; Cypripedium x Nansen (selligerum 
majus X Morganifie) ; and Phaius x Norman 
(Sanderianus x tuberculosus), which excels the 
fine P. X Cooksoni; for a specimen plant of 
which Mr. Cookson was awarded a Silver Flora 
Medal at the Boyal Horticultural Sodety last 
year. 

De B. Crawshay, Esq., also a lover of Odonto- 
glossums, has found favour with the very 
handsome Odontoglosstim crispum, Mrs. De B. 
Crawshay, the large yellow purple-spotted 0. 
Andersonianum Bogaerdianum, and the brilli- 
antly tinted Lselia-anceps Mrs. De B. Crawshay. 

Joseph Broome, Esq., of Llandudno, flowered 
Cattleya Warscewiczii gigantea fine in colour, 
and one that holds the record in size, viz., 
more than 11 inches across without unfair 
manipulation; and the handsome Lselio- 
Cattleya x Broomeana. 

Elijah Ashworth, Esq., Wilmslow, received 
awards for the handsome Lselia purpurata Mrs. 
E. Ashworth, with broad rose-veined petals; 
the pearly-white Cattleya Warscewiczii Mrs. E. 
Ashworth, Lselio-Cattleya x elegans Sohroder- 
iana, and one of the first hybrids of Cypripe- 
dium Chamberlainianum, i.e., C. x Haynaldo- 
Chamberlaini. 

Thos. Statter, Esq., showed among other 
good things Cypripedium x Conco-bellatulum ; 
the handsome C. x Bolfei, and Dendrobium 
Victoria Begina, the blue Dendrobe. 

G. W. Law-Sohofield, Esq., in LsbHo- Cattleya 
X Tyntesfieldiensis staged at the Temple Show, 
had one of the best things of its class. 

B. I. Measures, Esq., of Camberwell, one of 
the best Orchid growers in the ndghbourhood of 
London, made a good show with the noble 
Cypripedium x Chapmani magnificum; the 
roee-pink veined Leelia purpurata Mrs. R. I. 
Measures ; a violet-tipped Rhyncostylia 
coBlestis, Cambridge Lodge variety; Lselio- 
Cattleya x Andreana, and Miltonia x 
Peetersiana. 

Messrs. J. Veitoh & Sons, Ltd., of Chelsea, 
again take a leading place for the fine quality 
and quantity of the plants they bring out. The 
number of their novelties that flowered during 
the year is so great that we are compelled to con- 
fine our remarks to those which have received the 
Boyal Horticultural Society's awards. Of these 
specially acceptable are the number of autumn 
and winter-flowering Cattleyas and Lselio-Cat- 
tleyas which it has been Mr. Seden's special 
endeavour to produce. Thus, in the last four 
months of the year we find of Messrs. Veitoh's 
plants that were certificated Cattleya x Empress 
Frederick var. Leonata (MossiaD x Dowiana), a 
richly-coloured form of the original white- 
petalled variety; Cattleya x Melpomene (su- 
perba X Warscewiczii), a very showy hybrid, 
and, like that previously named, very fragrant ; 
C. X Melpomene (Mendeli x Forbedi), and C. 
X Olivia (intermedia x Triansei), both of 
moderate size, but having very distinct features ; 
Lselia x Olivia (xanthina x orispa), a pretty 
flower with yellow sepals and petals; and 
several fine hybrids of Ltelia Perrini have been 
ahown which are very desirable by reason of 
the brightness of their flowers. 

In February the handsome Leelio-Cattleya x 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Jakitabt 1, 1898. 



Violetta (0. GkiekeUiana x L. puipuniU) 
flowered ; and at different periods thronglioat 
the year Ladlio-Oattleya x Digbyano-Trianaai, 
a dose rival of L.-O. x Digbyano-Mossifle, and 
now in Sir Frederick Wigan's oolleotion ; L.-C. 
X Eudora superba (0. Mendeli X L. pur- 
purata) ; L.-O. x Oanbamiana albida (L. pur- 
purata yar. x 0. Mosaifie) ; Dendrobinm x 
Ainsworthi intertextnm, with primrose-yellow 
flowers, and porple disc to the lip ; Spathoglottis 
X anreo-Yeillardi, a perfect gem, with yellow 
flowers, charmingly marked with crimson; 
Pbalsenopsis x Hebe (Sanderiana X rosea), a 
fine companion to P. X intermedia Portei ; 
Zygopetalnm x Perrenondii superbnm (inter- 
medium X mazillare Gantieri), with yiyid 
dark bine labellum ; Oypripedinm X Aeson 
gi^ranteum (insigne x Dmryi), 0. X mines mag- 
nifionm (Spiceriannm X Arthorianum), and 
other good Cypripedinms. Of special interest 
are the deriyatiyes from hybrids of Epi- 
dendrum radicans raised by Messrs. Yeitoh, 
and which disclose unaccountable leaning 
towards that species, eyen when the seed- 
bearing plant has been of totally different 
growth and flower. Of these are EpilseliaX 
radico-purpurata (L. purpurata x E. radicans), 
Epicattieya X matutina (0. Bowringiana x E. 
radicans), and Epidendrum X radico-yiteOinum 
(yitellinumX radicans), all in some degree bear- 
ing resemblance to the finescarletEpiphronitis X 
Yeitchii. 

(21b i« ODHlilMMCi.) 



CANNAS. 



The "Italian** oa "OBOBm-rLownuHo" CAniAs. 
— No raoe of omameDtsl pUote in recaot yesn hss 
mwakened loch a wide-spresd interest at its introdno- 
tion as the new and distinct type Tarioualj known as 
''Italian," "Orchid-flowering," or "giant-flowering,** 
Canna*. The fint variety announced was Jtalia> 
produced by Mr. Sprenger, of the Arm of Dam- 
mann k Co., in Italy.* The Tariety Austria followed 
soon, however, and these have now been widely 
dlMeminated. 

It was a remarkable coincidence that, at almost 
precisely the same time when these strange varieties 
were produced in Italy, Mr. Luther Burbank of GaU- 
fomia should have prodooed the variety Boibank 
very much like them, and by crossing tlie sdf-same 
parent forms! This peculiar race thus had two 
perfectly independent tiiough simultaneous origins. 
The most striking and important cha r acte r s of these 
new Cannas are these :— Blossoms of immense siie, 
often from 5 to 6 inches in diameter (some of the 
advertisements say 7 inches and more, but this is 
improbable) ; flowers broadly opened ; the petal-like 
staminodia very broad and full, giving a flower of 
magnifieeDt form hitherto quite unapproached in 
Cannas ; usually much-reflezed corolla lobes ; pecu- 
liarly rich and clear colours ; an unfortunate so ftn es s 
and fragility of the blosioms which, in our eBmsts^ 
seldom spares them for an entire day ; large, broad, 
toui(h, Musa-Uke foluige ; generally tall growth. 

The breeding of this raoe is somewhat remaricable. 
The so-called ''French dwarf" Cannes, which have 
become lo popular in America in recent years, have 
been crossed and hybridiied " in and in " untU all 
the poaribilitiee of the several parent species have 
become quite exhausted. In this condition an out 
cross with a species not before used was the evident 
part of wiidom. Thii out cross was made, both in 
Italy and California, upon the well-known variety 
Madame Crosy , and with the pollen of Canna flaocida, 
a species growing wild in the southern United States. 

* The first unMranoeiiieot of these planta in the horti- 
cultural prest seems to be that of Revut HortieoU (Paris) 67, 
p. 81 (Jan. Id, 1805X The first general account of the race 
was published in Rttnu fforticole 67, p. 516 (Not. 16, 1806). 
Additional notes and a chromo-litho^i^n^ appeared in the 
same journal for Feb. 16, 1896. 



Hie soft, siauwomi blossoms of Ouma flaooida 
have been impa rtsd to all the uromas thos &r ssenred, 
bat the raee has besa dislinotly re^invigocated, and 
there have beea developed striking and dsiirahle 
chaiaolacs tin BOW wikDown. 

It wooH be of eoosidegable theoretical and practical 
oonseqnenne eoold we, ia this coonectioo, Imow the 
full pedigree of Madame Onosy, the seed-bearing 
pamt in these erosssi. Unfortonately, thii pedigree 
is only a matter of specalatino, and seems likely to 
remain so. Hie general opinion among students in 
this branch of hortieultaie, aeeoM to be that there 
are two groups of the " Fiendi dwarf" Cannes, the 
red-flowering ones, inchuting Madame Oroay, having 
originated by crossing Ouma Ehemsnni irith Canna 
WarsoewicBi, while the yeUow-flowering varieties are 
thoogfat to have sprung tnm cro ss f s of Csnna 
Khemanni with C. ^anea.* If this view is taken of 
the origin of the " Oiefaid-flowering *' Oannas, their 
complete pedigree wiU be approziniately ux p r eaw d 
in the diagram. 

Antohie Crosy, tiie originator of Madame Crosy, 
and many leading varieties of that class, is, however, 
quoted in a recent interview as saying that he began 
by croanig Canna Warwewiom and C nepslensis, 
snd that his yeDow-i^otted varieties were secured by 
snbesquent crosnig with C. anreo-pieta, which is 
probably a hortieuHaral form of C. indioa, the old* 
fiMluooed " Indian shot'* 

This station has found opportonify in ite green- 
house and on ita ornamental grounda to grow sevenl 
of the new "Ordiid-iowAring'* varieties, and to 
compare them in flower and fohsge with the best of 
the older standard varieties. Our opinion of them 
is, in genersly that the varieties thus far introduced 
cannot become so widely nsefol as the" French dwarfi," 
and that tl^y in no sense sopersede the older 
varieties ; that they are neverthdess a highly valn- 
Me addition to the list of ornamental plants ; that 
they will be abondantly attractive to flower lovers, 
and useful to plant breedera aa the basis for further 
crosses. We are especially pleased with the form of 
the flowers, which ii peculiarly full, gmceful and 
satisfactory, and with the colours, which have a 
velvety richness rarely equalled in nature or in art. 

The following varieties have blossomed on our 
grounds, and the deecriptiona rep r esent the plants 
as tbey develop here. We have several other 
varieties which have not yet blossomed : — 

/Cflaodda. rCiridiflora. 

\ (0. Khemanni-t ^ 



Orchid Flower- 







C. Warsoe- 



wicaiL 



tng" Cannas, Italia, 9 
Austria, Burbank,] M adame 
*o. f Croaj. 

\ I wicsU. 

Jtalia.— 8 to 4 feet high, foliage broad, bright glaucous 
green ; flowers very large, exceptionally well opened, with 
very broad and graoefolly rounded staminodia (looking like 
petals) ; ooloor, a bright canary yeDow, with dark cherry- 
red filling the centre, and running oat in. blotches upon the 
petal-like staminodia, 

^lutria.— Plant like Italia ; flowers lenM»-yellow, lighter 
than Italia, marked only with faint dots of pink in the 
throat The flower does not expand so well as in Italia, and 
the form is not quite so good; but the colouring is vwy 
deUcate and desirable. 

Burbank. —TlMat like Italia; ilowers laige, much like 
Italia in form, and like Austria in ccdooring ; rich canary* 
ysQow, with Ught red dots and markings in the throat 

Awuriea.—Vd\iag9 dark bron^-red, with irregular dsahee 
of dull green ; flowering stem tall ; flowers of the form and 
sixe of Italia; brilliant apricot-red, faintly spotted with 
darker salmcm; the centre is canary-yellow, marked with 
the apricot-red of the body colour. The blossoms of this 
variety, in our opinion, exceed in liohneos of colouring any 
of the others which we have seen. 

ProJeMor ffaugk, ta Tenth Annual Report ^ Vermont 

Experiment Statwn. 

* In this oonnectioa the following extract from a private 
letter from the eminent horticulturist, M. Henry L. de ^• 
morin will be of interest :— " It is the current belief in this 
country (France), and it seems confirmed by experiment, 
that the new breed of floriferous Cannas (Le., the ' French 
dwarfs'), originated by the crossing of Canna Ehemanni 
with C. Warscewiezii and with C. glauca, the former pro- 
ducing the red fiowera, and the Utter specially yellow- 
flowered varieties. Both original crosses intercross readily, 
and in latter years I hare had many crosses made every 
year, and raised and named several dozen new seedlings 
using the bsst varletiee of my own and Crosy's raising, 
without introducing n w blood into the breed." 



KEW NOTES. 

Thb Dats Plum.— This plant has fmited in the 
snocnlent-honse at Kew annually for the last five 
years. The fruits are as large aa a Valencia Orange, 
and ooloored bright orange searitt — a colour tbey 
aisume about September. The fruits usually baqg 
on the plant till about Christmas --long after the 
leaves have £dlen, and are most palstohle when 
Uetted, like the Medh»>. The plant is planted oat 
in the gravelly border of the house among the 
Agaves, where it gets no shade in summer; it u 
heavily mulched annually with cow-dung. Tbs 
branches are pruned in spring in the same manner m 
Pears. There is also a plant in fruit in the Mesicsn- 
honae. 

CaMOBHSIA MAXIMA. 

The Kew plant of this African leguminous plant 
is again in flower, having set about a dozen hasdi % 
few weeks sgo, several of which have withered, wkikt 
the others have developed. There are six fine flowrn 
open to*day (Christmas-Bve). 

Abuvduiaria Hookeriaha. 

Plants of the Himalayan Bamboo were sent to Kfv 
last year by Dr. King, along with other speciea from 
the same region, and they are likely to prove snttsble 
for the large new house. They have all grown fndy 
and are now an attractive feature of that hoosi, 
forming elegant tufia from 12 to 15 feet high. i. 
Hookeriana resemblf s A. lalcata in habit and general 
characters. The Kew examples are 10 feet higih, and 
consist of numerous barren leafy stems, and tin 
newer flowering stems, which bear loosely- laecicled 
panioleB of green flowers, with purple-brown antbf rs. 
According to Qamble, wild specimens are 15 to 20 ft. 
high, and the stems are about an inoh in diameter, 
snd striped green and yellow ; at Kew they are of a 
bluish-green colour, ss also are the leaves^ which are 
inohea long, and five-eighths of an inoh wide. The 
flowering of these plants will probably terminate their 
lives. One sent from Kew to Qlasnevin is also in 
flower. It would be interesting to know if the plaoti 
in India are also now in flower. The spcoiee wai 
described by Munro in 1868 from specimens collected 
in Sikkim by Sir Joseph Hooker, who states that the 
natives make cakes and beer from the seeds, if, W. 

Niw Neputtues Hoosk, Kiw. 

Our illustration (fig. 1), affords our readers a good 
idea of the new structure recently erected in the 
Boyal Gardens, Kew, for housing the extennve col- 
lection of Nepenthes. The building ii connected 
with the group of glass-houses usually designated the 
T range, and ii a low, span- roofed houee, witb 
moveable upper sashes. As the Nepenthes are au* • 
pended from iron rods attached to the roof, bench 
space is not required, and consequently it is not 
provided. The space on each side of the path is 
utilised for the cultivation of plants having stm'^ar 
requirements to the Nepenthes. 



THE DATE PALM IN INDIA. 

Iv the Oardenen* Chronicle of November 27, 1897, 
you notice the Annual Report of the Sahamnpore 
Botanic Garden (India), and state that '' Mr. Qollam 
does not report favourably on the Arabian Date Palm.** 

Having been — with the active help of the Gk>vem- 
ment of India— the fether of this experiment, will 
you allow me to say a few words on the "great 
miicouception of the whole business " with which the 
reporters on the Date Palm in India deal. 

Mr. Ridley, of Luoknow, writes to meinthesame uq- 
favourable strain regarding the Date-trees there. Tbey 
seem to hive run away with the idea that the objeet of 
the introdnction largely of the cultivated Date Palm 
into the p ains of India was to compete with the 
delicious sweetmeaty Dates that find their way into 
the London shops, and those of other great cltiev, 
from the Persian Gulf, Tunis, and other Date-ivro- 
dudng countries, and to supply a delightful dry 
fruit for the palates of the higher clasees of India. 

Let me say, that this was not at all the object I had 
in view when I suggested the experiment to the 
Government of India. The object was to supply a 



THE GABDENEBS- CBBONIOLE. 



THE GABDENERS' CERONICLE. 



[JaKiTjUiT 1 1898. 



fruit daring famine timet, if the Date tree were 
eventuilly largely diateminated throughout India. 

I believe it impoeaible, excepting io Mooltan, 
Sindh, Rajpntana, and ether similar dry coimtriee, 
for (he Date- tree to tipen ita fiuit, asaaweetmeat, 
in the plaina of India, where, daring the ripening 
time, (he rain ia exceaai^e. It rota, and theie ia an 
end of the aweetmeat I 

But what of that ? The Date ia perfectly edible 
and nooriahing aome time before it ripens to the 
aweetmeaty stage. It has the oriapneas of an Apple, 
a nutty sweetacas, and some asiiingency. This 
astringency is due to tannin, which, in ripening, seems 
to ehsDge into sugar, jast aa the add of other fruits 
in ripening changes into sugar. 

There ia no fear whaterer that the nativea of India 
would not eat it in its unripe state, for I have seen 
the native children eat the naatieat wild fruita 
imaginable ; and it was reported to me that the Dates 
of Pertabqueh (if I remember rightlj) had no chance 
of ripening, for the children of the place ate them all 
up before they came to the mature atage. Moreover, 
there are certain kinds of Date -trees which never 
ripen their fruit to the sweetmeat stage. In the 
Venian Gulf the fruit of these ia boiled, and thus the 
tannin is waahed out of it, and afterwurds it is dried 
in the aun. The Dates so treated are very nice, but 
they require good teeth to m aiticate them. If kept 
diy, [they will laat for a whole year or more. All 
those that are brought to India by A^han merchants, 
under the name of cAoA^ra, are ao treated, and I 
believe they are grown in aome parte of Baluchistan. 

In Spain the Date-tree is largely grown in the dia- 
trict of Elche, and thia kind of Date is there pickled 
in vinegar. 

In Mooltan, the conditions for ripening the Date 
are different from those of the other and more 
rainy parts of India. Some of the trees ripen their 
fruit in that diatrict, and aome do not, and the 
latter are fried in oil, and ao keep for a long time. 

I tried to ascertain the origin of the Mooltan Date 
plantations, but they told me that the tradition was 
that they grew after the invaaion of Alexander the 
Great The atonea of the Dates that hia aoMiers had 
brought with them from the plaina of Persia were 
acattered about, and ao the Mooltan Date trees, from 
which the present local government derives a certain 
revenue, came into being ! 

I took infinite trouble to collect information about 
the Date plantations of the Persian Gulf, through the 
British resident there, and embodied the whole, with 
my own experiment*, in a little book entitled, The 
PMtMre of the DaU Trte in India. 

When I retired firom the Indian Service, I collected 
information about the Egyptian Date-trees through 
the Director of Irrigation there ; and also about the 
Date induatiy of Tania and Algeria through the 
Britiah Gonsul-General. The ktter wrote to say that 
he had sent Tunisian Date seeds to the Government 
of India, enouc^ to plant the whole of India ! I dare 
say most of them were wasted, or eaten by goats 
after germination. 

I also odUected information about the Date-groves 
of Elohe, in Spain, through the Secretary of the 
British Embaasy in Madrid, and forwarded the whole 
to the government of India. Not improbably, it may 
be snugly kept in some pigeon-hole ; but of this, I 
know nothing. The rule is, " If you want a thhig 
done, do it yourself ; * but it is obvious that, after 
returning from Indiai I could not plant the plains of 
India with Date trees. It is impossible for another 
person to get up the same enthusiasm—the vif a iergo 
lor action— as the atarter of the idea. Will anyone, 
however, undertake to declare that if, during the 
recent famine, there had been a hundred million 
Date trees in India, they would have been of no 
value whatever ? 

The wUd Date-tree grows all over India, and ripens 
its amall fruit ; and it is my firm belief that where 
the wild Date grows, the ctiltivated tree, with some 
attention, will also grow, but somebody must plant 
it, and attend to it. 

There was a notion formerly that Date trees grew 
in deserts. Nothing of the sort occurs. In the 
African desert it is only hi oasss^ where there are 



openings, that the tree can grow. In the Peraian 
Gulf it is irrigated regularly, and ao it ia in Egypt. 
But the aweetmeat (toge requires a dry atmoa|^ere. 
It ia also a mistske to suppose that a bunch of Dates 
ripena all over at once, like a bunch of Grapes. The 
dates ripen one st a time, snd sre collected and 
spread io the aun (o dry. 

I took aome trouble to collect aome Dates of the 
Luoknow trees which Mr. Ilidley kindly aent me, 
and also of the Mooltan Datea, which the Depu^ 
Commiaaioner there favoured me with. I lent them 
all, pickled in bottles, to the Director of the Boyal 
Gardens, Kew, to ahow the size of the Lucknow snd 
Mooltan cultivated Dates. They ars to be found in 
the smsU economic museum (No 2) of the Boyal 
Gsrdens, Kew. B. Banavin^ MJ), 



The Bulb Garden. 

FRBBSIAS. 

It is, periiaps, some twelve or fourteen years since 
my attenticm was first called to these lovely winter- 
blooming bulbs. Faaaiog along Market Street, 
Manchester, and gaang into the well-flUed ahc^ 
window of Messrs. Clibran h Son, a new and beau- 
tiful cluster of flowers filled me vrith such curiosity 
and admiration, that I immediately went in and 
enquired of the head ahopman the name, class of 
plant, and any hints to its culture I could pro- 
cure ; of oourse, not enquiring for any secrets, nor 
expecting any. Freeaiaa ever after came in the liat 
of my winter* flowering subjects ; and though, 
perhaps, at first my succeas waa not altogether 
of the beat, ainoe then I think I may say I have 
suooeeded aa well, and perhaps better, than many 
who have endeavoured to grow them. I should jutt 
like to bear teatimony to the admirable manner in 
which they are grown by Mr. A. Sturt, gr. to 
N. Cohen, Eaq., Englefield Green, and the aucceas 
that haa followed when he exhibited a quantity at 
the Royal Horti coltuial Society's meeting laat apring. 
From a photograph, I should say it was a very 
remarkable exhibit. Among a laige collection of 
plants recently disposed of here, I had sixty, 5-ioch 
pots, in three diffe rent stsges. The first two dosen 
were pushing up their apikes of bloom, and by this 
time I should say are a maaa of flowers. I had hoped 
to have a nice lot for Christmas, but others have 
them instead. I invariably potted the first batch 
about the firat week iu Augu»t, loUowiog other batchea 
at atMut three weeks or a month. Five* inch pots were 
used, and a doson or fourtesn bulbs placed in each. 
The soil, amount of crocking, Ac, was just similar to 
that we used for Roman Hyacinths, Tulipa^Ac. Whilst, 
however, these latter were stood outaide, and a good 
layer of aand apread over them, the Freeaiss were 
placed in a cold frame, carefully watered, never 
allowed to get dry ; if aunshine waa too atrong, a 
bit of ahade waa placed over the pota, air being given 
and other attention, aa though they were growing 
plants. In a week or two the blades of leaves soon 
began to appear, and, keeping them in this positioUf 
the growth became strong, sturdy, standing up like 
Dafbdils. By the middle of October the first batch 
were placed in a frame where more light and air 
could be given. Then, by the middle of November, 
they were placed on a ahelf in the greenhouae, four 
stakes being placed round them, and a atring of 
matting keeping the whole together. In the latter 
■tages some manure and soot-vrater were given about 
twice a wed^ bringing increasing colour into the leaves 
and vigour in the spikes. 

The spikes in almost every instance produced one 
or two laterals, which latter ususlly opened their 
flowers a little later than thoee on main stem. After 
flowering, the pots were placed again in cold pits, a 
little water at flrst being given, but gradually with- 
held, 80 that for three montha at least the bulbs 
^ere in the pots, the soil of which was quite dry. 
During May the pots would be shaken out, the 
best bulbs placed in one box, lesser ones in another. 
Th^ vrould then be kept in the dry till about 
August or September, when the same or similar 
UrocsBsas would again be carried out 



By this msans I slways had a good lot of fine 
bulbs, stout and plump, for the principal batches ; 
whilst the very small ones would be made up in p<*De 
and boxes veiy thickly, to grow on and inereaae for 
another sessnn's cultures 

The ease of their culture, the attraetiveneaa of the 
plaota, and aweet scent of the flowers, combine 
to make these one of the most toceptible things in a 
conservatory, or for houae decoration. fT. 5i0a«, 
UUe ofByetock, BxmmUK 



India. 



OAEDBNINQ UNDER DIFHCULTIBS. 

Thb wild i^ still give a great deal of trouble. It 
is quite sstoniihing how they manege to get into the 
gardens. They have no fear for the watdiman what^ 
ever, and just simply charge them, so that they have to 
bolt for their live s or tske refuge upon a tree, when 
Mr. Pig helps himself with impunity to eveiTihing 
good~Sogar«ane, Indian Com, and any other 
palatable food in season. I sm sorry to say they 
attacked the grafted Mangoes this year. The apread- 
ing brandies of these trees bear their delidoaa fruift 
near the ground, forming an easy prey to the 
pigs. To prevent further destruction, I had all the 
branches tied up so Isr aa I could with aafetj, ssrf 
was able to disappoint these nightly visitors. I aa 
glad they cannot climb trees. I am sure if tWj 
could find sny means of doing so they vroald. T^ 
pig is considered to be a rather stupid animal, but 
I am not of this opinion. If they would saaist is 
ploughing up plots that required the plough, perhaps 
they might be of aome aasistinoe. They do not 
seem to understand that their serrioes would be 
required in this way ; their chief amusement is 
rooting up the flower-beds and knocking over flower- 
pots. During Isst March a lovely plot of Amaryllis 
was simply cut down through wanton mischief, 
cutting the flower-stems right through the middle. 

There are other visitors. Monkeys, too, are very 
destructive, and visit the gardena fluently. They 
are also dangerous, and the watchmen are afraid t * 
interfere with the large males. Their risitiars during 
the day, but it is not so difficult to keep them awaj ; 
once perched in a laige tree it is difficult t') dislodge 
them. A huge flight of locusts visited the gsrdens in 
June, and did much damage. The top of the Inga- 
dulds arbour was completely destroyed ; for the 
time there waa not a leaf left on the whole of thi« 
lovely avenue. I was glad their atay waa abort ; thr 
men with noiay inatrameot^ made a great 
noise, which caused the dreadful and destructive 
inaect to take wing and fly off*. The flyiog- 
foxei do much damage in the fruit garden, 
fruits of all kinds they devour greedily. When 
fruit is not to be had, they esgerly devour the 
foliage of the Ficus religiosa. They are extremely 
fond of sll the Ficus fruits, espedally Ficus glomerata 
and Ficua indica ; and also fond of Guavas in all 
stages of ripeness. There im a colony of them out- 
side the gaidens in SabratBilas. Fruit-growing in 
this part of India is very expensive, on aeoount of 
the double watches night snd dsy. Grapes, too, suffer 
when just getting ripe by black and red anka. I had 
ashes put in line all along either side of the sterna to 
prevent the ants running up to them. I regret to 
say the Millingtonia avenue has been destroyed by 
the leaves being attacked by caterpillars, whidi have 
eaten off the leaves and are now busy in weaving 
webs, which I had to get brushed down from the 
undmr branches. The insects seem to keep floatii^ 
about in mid air, which made it almost impossible 
to get along this drive in the morning. I am glad to 
notice the insects have not all their own way, flocks 
of insect-devouring birds are to be seen bnsilj 
engsged in devouring these insects. When the 
insects have been quite satisfied they cuii the leaf 
up round them somewhat like a Tea-leaf, and thua 
making it difficult for the birds to detect them ; and 
I have no doubt the insects weave those tough 
webs to prevent the birds attacking them. The white 
ants devour superfluous outer dead, cork-like, bark of 
this tree, which I think does the tree good by its 



Ianvast I, ISM-I 



TEE OARDENEBS' CSBONICLE. 



mnonL Th« anti iko uritt in nmoring (he iratar 
b*A of Viuji, whioli 1 think ii tha odIj udatanoe 
gtvao by thtM peata In tlis uaidan. It ii well koown 
how dectruotif e the aati mm to all dead wood, luoh 
u label*, atake*, and poats of all kinds. In hot, thaj 
derour anjtiiing, Wooden garden-eeaU, and (he 
root of the pottiogehed Huffer«d badly, and the latter 
had to be re'roofed dariog the year. The ants work 
their way up through the muonry [dllan, and 
doTOnr ararythiDg on the rooT with the exception of 
tilaa. Seed-boiea oannot be left on the ground for 
one night withont being attaoked and eaten up in thi* 
way. They leemto haTe an instinct to find out dead 
wood, no matter where placed. I wm Mtoniahed to 
find tbem disooTer and oomplstely eat the wooden 



tributed orer oartain parts of the host In retom 
far tUa the ants defend the plants against all aorta 
of enemies, rushiag out of their hi^ag-places In an 
aatoniahing number as soon as say interfsrenee 
with their home makes ilaalf notioMble. In another 
dlreetloti the anta contribute markedly towards the 
maintenance o( the eplphyttoal spedee, inssmuoh, 
tiie plentiful detritus carried op by then is made use 
of SB nourishment by the host plant. 

Such obearratloBs on motuallsm or symUotio 
sppeaiBooes haire shown that this kind of plant it by 
no means limited to groups ot plants systematically 
cloaaly related, but that we Qnd them represented 
in Tsrious Natural Orders whose alBnity ii far apart 
from oQe another. This has caused not only the 



MBCXtDU ECHIMATA; ah ANT-HAHSOtrRINa ? 



abela I had plaoad on (he timber traei, notwltil- 
atandingin msuy instances 8 feet from the ground. 
I oonolude by stating that the white ants are one of 
the most deatructire garden-pests in India. T. H, 
Storey, St^ptrinUniUmt 0/ (As Oardtna of H. B. 

MtAamn* Patok Singhji, Oodeyport. 



structure of th« host to show rarioua dlffbrentiations, 
bt also the morphological podtlon ot the organs 
inhabited. Uyrmeoodia and Hydnophytum, shrubby 
plants of the BuUsoew, possess the greateat number 
of ant-plants, the much-widened portion of the plant 
contains numbers of hollows, a msie of psassgea (or 



MYRMECOPHILOUS PLANTS. 

Oklt in the latter half of thi* oanluty bas special 
attention been p^ to this interesting olaai of plant*. 
They exhibit in oertain parte very peonliar atructuial 
developments that are tpedally adapted for oflbring 
shelter and a boms for whole ooloida of living ants ; 
also othsn (hat aSbrd at the asnw time and to a 
eartaln degree food, in the shape of sufpry excretions 



1 In the UrtioaoBie, BuphorbiaosB, HjiistigBOBn, 
VerbenaosH, Iisgumlnoan, and in the PalnuB. 

Host striking, howsver, are the two genera of the 
RubiaoeEB, with whioh this charaotaristic development 
is most remarkable ; oanuquently, they have been 
moat snbjected to the study and examination regard- 
ing (he peculiar habit. They are of epiphytieal baUt, 
with opposite^ leathery leavsa, and prodndng amall 



illustration, la a nativa ol Java ; it la a f"^]!'^'' plant, 
perhaps never exceeding 1^ toot in height. The 
hypocotyl (eauUole) part of the young seedling ewelU 
up into a remarkably-alsed tuber-like stem, which 
awes UiB plant in its natural state when exposed to 
diy and atrial atmospherle oonditione, aa a store of 
malatuie ; it is fumishod with a oontidarable number 
otqilnes (modified roota), which extend along the 
stem up to its top. The flowers are fleshy, white, 
tianslucent, about halt an inoh long, and of short 
duration, lasting from tour to six days. During this 
time they do not open, but keep clotted till the 
flowers bll oSthe stem without being tmotifled, sa 
obeervad on planta under oultivatton. 

The part inhabited by ante in this osse is the flssby, 
muoh'thiokened portion, wbioh stands originally 
below the cotyledons. Its curious development of 
the interior was fohaeriy attributed to the action of 
ants, ss was the production of the opening of the 
tuber (the passage connecting the interior with the 
outside). Under cultivation they have proved thia 
not to be tfaa ease, both being developed spon- 
taneously, wholly independently of the worii and 
wounding! of the anta. 

Thespeoimen il]ustrated(flg.2)IaaHttie over three 
year* old, and grown from seeds, wliioh is naturally 
wrapped up in a stieky Integument, that enables it 
to adhere to any branch it may happen to fall upon, 
where germinatian aoon takes plaiie. The plant bas 
been gniwa In a stove, in a very moist atmosphere, 
along with Nepenthsa, In clean peat, and hung up 
oloae to the glass in a basket. The illnstntion will 
afford ample proof that those surroundings suit Its 
requirements. S. B. B., BerHn. [There la a large col- 
lection of young plant* at Kew, the seeds germinating 
with great ftwUity ; some are in tiie nme stage of 
growth aa represented, end others are larger. En. } 



Hjnaeoodi* eehlnata, Jack,, the subject of 01 



FLORISTS' Flowers. 

SBASOHABLB KOTES ow CHRYSAHTHBHUMS. 

In a oold frame oul-of-doon, cuttings will atrike 
rsadily and oonlinae sturdy. If we could be oertsin 
of the abaenoe of frost so sersre sa to chsck the 
groarth for weeks at « time, a* U tometimea the 
caae, I should more often be inclined to strike the 
□uttlngs in oold frames. Frost, I know, does not 
kill the cuttings of the Chrjsanthemnm ; but whilst 
they an faaea they are not progreaaing, henoa the 
advantage of a oool bouse whanoe frost is eiclDded. 

I proter to insert each cutting in a flO-Bied pot, 
for the reason that the plants are eamly transferrad 
(o larger pots withont any check. Whan hslt-a-doaen 
cuttings are placed around the side of a flawet^pot, 
the check given by disentangling the roots when 
potting-off is not good (or them. The compost pot 
Into tha outting-pots m«y oonidst of equal psrts 
loam, leaf-mould, and aharp sUver-sand. Hake it 
moderately firm, sprinkle a amall quantity of silver- 
Mnd on the surfsce, whioh will be carried to the 
base of the outting* with the dibber used, and Uus 
aids the formation ot roola. ABbrd the outtinn a 
gentle watering to settle the soil about them, and st^td 
them aside to let the foliage get dry, but not (o flag. 
nie ll^ite must be kept oloae till the roots form, with 
the exception that they may be taken oflT an hour in 
the morning to permit of the di«lpation of eio^ 
of moistore, and in the evening the gla«ca should ba 
wiped dry. If these simple rules be carried out, the 
toes of cuttings firom damping, so often ezperienoed 
at thia time ot the year, will be prevented. Shading 
will not be required, unless the glasses stand in a 
vet; sunny spo^ then a nawipaper thrown over the 
lights for *n hour or two in the middle of the day will 
snffloe. In about a month the strong-growing varie- 
ties will be rooted, and a small amount of ventilation 
should be sdmittsd by tilting the lights slighUy 
at fltat, inoreaung the quantity until they can be 
safely removed. If pott ul* of rooted cuttings can be 
removed to other luuid-lighta, the unrooted cutting 
will ba the bettor for being kept oloee. The soil 
must be kept auffidenUy moist for the aopport of the 
euttinp or plaota. E. Ifotj/ntitx. 



THE GABDENEBS' CHRONICLE. 



IJanuary 1, 1898. 



Trees akd Shrubs. 



ERICA MBDITEEIRAKEA HYBRIDA. 

In the oolleotion of Ericaa at Kew, there hus 
flowered daring the last two or three wmters m 
singularly pretty heath bearing this name, under 
whioh it ifl catalogued by Messrs. Smith, of Darley 
Dale. It bears some resemblance to E. caroea, and 
if a hybrid (aa the name would suggest), that species 
is no doubt one of the parents. Messrs. Smith may, 
perhaps, know its origin. Its great charm and value 
consists in its coming into bloom three or four weeks 
before Christmas, and thus considerably in advance 
of E. camea. It is of neat, tufted habit, at present 
15 inches or so high, and crowded with erect spikes, 
3 to 5 inches long^ of nodding, pitcher-shaped flowers 
of a pale clear rose. The blossoms are very like 
those of E. camea, but the plant is a taller, stronger 
grower. There is nothing out-of-doors among hardy 
flowering shrubs at the present time so bright and 
pretty as this. It remains in good condition up to 
February or later, 

Fatsia japonioa. 

I havo never seen this shrub flower so well outiide 
aa during the past autumn. The flowers are borne 
on laige, branching panicles, 1 to 1) foot long, at the 
ends of the branches, each division of the inflo- 
rescence ending in a spherical umbel of pure milk- 
white flowers. Against the deep lustroas green of 
the laige, boldly-outlined, palmate leaves, the panicles 
are vezy effective, especially when they are as large 
and as freely produoed as those just past. In the 
Bamboo garden at Kew there is a group of some 
half-dozen plants, which, owing to their exceptionally 
sheltered position, and possibly also to the mildness 
of the last two winters, are now really handsome 
evergreens. It is, of course, only in such places, or 
in especially favoured localities, that this Araliad can 
be grown outside with any satisfaction. But where 
the conditions are suitable, it ought certainly to be 
grown, not only for the beauty of the flowers and the 
season at which they appear, but also because the 
foliage is of a type distinct from all other hardy ever- 
greens, and essentiaUy tropical in character. W, J, B, 



the plants in the pots, the growth is checked, and 
this results in earlier fruitfulness. The results show 
that the ordinary method of planting is equally 
satisfactory, except that in some cases plants that 
were plunged in pots and trained to single-stems gave 
a little larger yield than similar plants not in pots. 



American-blight insect often hybemates at roots of ihm 
trees, just under the surface of the ground, and search 
should be made for it in that direction also. 



FORCING TOMATOS. 

Tbk hitest bulletin. No. 125, from the New York 
State Agricultural Experiment Station, is on the 
subject of forcing Tomatos in the greenhouse. While 
the bulletin treats of special problems in training 
and benching, the novice in greenhouse management 
will find many useful hints as the various steps in 
growing the crop are given incidentally but in detail 
to discussing the problems under investigation. 

The question as to how Tomatos should be trained 
when forced as a winter crop in the greenhouse has 
long been a disputed one. In order to gain some 
light on the question, the difierent methods of train- 
ing Tomatos have been under investigation at the 
station for the past two winters. The question of 
checking the growth of the plants in order to 
produce earlier fruit was also under investigation at 
the same time, and was carried on in part with the 
same plants that were included in the training 
experiments. 

A comparatively large number of plants were 
included in these experiments and the results of 
each season's work agree, therefore the conclusions 
drawn are regarded as conclusive, at least for the 
variety of Tomato that was used in these tests. 

In the training experiments plants grown to single 
stem were compared with plants trained to three 
stems. There was but little difference in the 
average size of the fruits of the two lots of plants, 
but the results show a gain for the single-stem plants 
in that they give a larger yield of early ripening 
fruit as well as a laiger total yield. 

In the benching experiments, plants planted in the 
soil on the benches in the ordinary manner were 
compared with plants that were not removed from 
the 2-inoh pots, but were plunged in tlie soil on the 
benches. It is claimed by some that by plunging 



The Week's Work. 



THE HABD7 FBIIIT GABDEN. 

By W. H. DtvKBS, Oftrdoner, Belvoir Castle, Orantbam. 

Apples and Pears, — Trees which from age and other 
causes make weak growth or fail to bear unpresentable 
fruits, and whose leaves are small and pale in colour, 
are the first that call for attention from the gardener. 
Let the soil be removed down to the feeding-roots, 
carefully digging it out with steel forks, without 
destroying or injuring the larger roots. If the 
surface consists of turf, this must be put on one side, 
to be returned when the job is finished. If the trees 
are not cankered, it may not be necessary to lift any 
of the luge 1. roots; but after the smaller roots are 
foimd, a g^od dressing of chemical manure, rich in 
potash and phosphoric add, should be mixed with 
the staple, and a small portion of new loam — 
only a sxnall amount of nitrogen is necessary, 
as this is best applied later in the season, when growth 
is active, and above the manure named, put a half-inch 
layer of charred garden-refuse, lightly pointing it in 
with the fork, and then follow this with a 6-inch layer 
of half-rotted farmyard manure, and above this return 
the soil that has been thrown out. The addition of 
these new materials will raise a mound round the 
stem of the tree, but as the manure decays the soil 
will settle down to its former level. A mulch of 
strawy litter should be put on to keep out frost, and 
maintain moisture in the soil. If canker affects 
the trees, lifting the roots may effect some good, 
but the real cause of canker is now traced to a fungus 
which penetrates the wood through a wound in the 
bark, which may be got rid of by the use of the 
knife. Let an affected tree be gone over carefully, 
cutting out the cankered parts down to healthy 
tissue, and coating the wounds thus made with some 
thick paint made from clay and cow-dung, which 
will remain till the new bark grows and prevents the 
entrance of the fungus spores. All prunings should 
be burnt, or buried deeply. If a tree is to be lifted, 
the directions given above will hold good, exeeptr- 
ing that all the roots as they are got out should be 
covered with damp Utter till they are again laid in 
the earth. With full-grown pyramid or bushes 
whioh may not have been disturbed for years 
it is better to go only half-way round a tree 
one year, leaving the remaining half till the fol- 
lowing year. When all the roots are free, make 
the bottom of the hole slightly convex ; and if the 
subsoil be wet and unsuitable, put in rough stones, 
brickbats, &c., 6 inches deep as drainage ; over these 
place a layer of thin turf, and then proceed to fill in, 
if possible, with loam that has been stacked for six 
months, and one-sixth part of charred refuse, as it fur- 
nishes potash and keeps the soil sweet. . The roots 
must be replaced careftilly and regularly as the work 
of filling-in goes on, and when the soil is returned, 
afford a mulch of strawy-litter or half-decayed leaves, 
and see that the tree is secured against the wind ; . 
those that are much exposed, and have been 
lifted, having three guy-wires fastened to them at 
two-thirds of their height, and the ends fiistened to 
stout stumps, firmly fixed in the ground at a suitable 
distance from the stems. To prevent these wires 
doing injury to the bark, place a cushion of 
cloth, or a bit of india-rubber hose, round the 
stem, making it secure in its place. After 
replanting, thoroughly cleanse the stems and 
branches from moss, doing this in mild weather. 
Before beginning, spread a piece of canvas under 
the tree to catch the scraping?, which can be 
removed with an old table-knife on the small 
branches, and a lioe on the »tems* and big branches. 
The cleaning finished, take up the canvas and bum 
the scrapings forthwith, thus destroying the eggs and 
larvseof injuriousinseots,a8 well as themossand lichen. 
The stems may then be washed with a mixture of 
soft-soap at the rate of 6 oz. to one gallon of water, 
applying it warm, working it into all the crevices of 
the bark where American-blight harbours; and if 
1 oz. of ordinary brown carbolic acid be added to the 
mixture, which must be kept stirred up during its 
use, and applied agtiin at intervals during the 
summer, this will keep the American- blight in check, 
and the wounds made by the aphis will heal up. The 



PIiAKTS UNDBB GIiABS. 

By W. ME98ENOER, Gardener, Woolveratone Pork, Ipswich. 

Winter-flowering Begonica. — For decorative work 
at this time of the year, this beautiful class of fibrous- 
rooted Begonias is extremely useful, and late batches 
of B. Gloire de Lorraine wiU continue in flower for a 
length of time, being followed by B. Qloire de Sceaux, 
B. socotrana, and B. manicata. Water must be care- 
fully afforded, in order to maintain the plants in 
health, and weak manure-water twice a week with 
beneficial effects. A medium sort of temperature, 
and a position where they receive all the light pos- 
sible, yet slightly shading them from bright sunshine, 
suit them welL Plants of B. Oloire de Lorraine 
which have flowered should be cut down to afford 
when they break shoots, suitable for cuttings. 

Sericographis Ohicsbreghtiana, — The most forward 
plants, being in flower, should be planted in a cooler 
house for a few days, in order to prepare them for 
employment in the house or the conservatory. They 
associate well with Begonia'manioataand Palms ; and 
they make light and elegant display for sfnall 
groups and jardinieres. The later-blooming plants, 
and those infested with mealy-bug, should be Uio- 
roughly cleaned, using methylated spirits of wine 
appUed with a soft small brush, which is certain death 
to them. 

Euphorbia ptUcherritna, — Plants from which the 
bracts have been removed may be gradually hardened 
off, and then kept quite dry ; but those plants which 
still retain their heads of bracts in good condition 
should be kept in a cooliah house, water being 
sparingly afforded them, and they will then continue 
in good condition for some time longer. If the heads 
are removed after the plants have been hardened off*, 
the former will keep fresh for a considerable length 
of time. 

CJtrysanthemums.^The cuttings inserted towards 
the end of the month Of November and during 
December should be closely inspected, making good 
any losses. The present is a good time to put in 
cuttings for forming bushes, which, if left to 
a later period, when there is a considerable 
pressure of work, do not always receive the 
necessary attention. The soil for filling the cnttiog- 
pots should be of a rather light character^fresh 
loam with a fair amount of leaf-mould and sand 
answering very welL The pots used should be quite 
clean, otherwise in turning out the ball it is apt to 
stick, and this is damaging to the roots, and checks 
growth. For striking cuttings to form bushes, small 
shallow boxes answer admirably. Before putting in 
any cuttings, see that they are free from green-fly ; 
dipping them in some liquid insecticide. Plunge the 
cutting- pots in coal-ashes or cocoa-nut-fibre refuse; 
and, if a light or two, in a cool pit where heat can be 
applied when required can be utilised, so much the 
better, as the cuttings can then be brought close to 
the glass, which ensures a short sturdy growth when 
the cuttings commence to grow. If the striking of 
cuttings is carried out in tall glass-houses, boxes deep 
eoough to allow sheets of glass being placed over the 
cuttings when plunged therem should be used. The 
shading of the cuttings must be closely attended to 
when me sun is bright in order to prevent flagging of 
the leaves. Afford the cuttings one good application of 
water, and dispense with fire-heat as much as possible, 
only making use of it to prevent the temperature 
falling below 45°, or to disperse excessive moisture. 

Rickardias. — Those plants from which the spathes 
have been cut should be rested for a short time in a 
cool green house ; but those which are growing freely 
and showing spathes require liberal treatment. If 
aphis be found on the plants, fumigate or vapoorise 
ttiem on two successive eveoiogs, afterwards syring- 
ing the plants thoroughly. 



THE KITCHEN GABDEN. 

By J. W. MiUattik, Oardener, Strath lieldaoye, Hants. 

3f<t5Aroom-A<m5c.— Let fresh beds be made up as 
often as may bo required to maintain the supply, and 
keep the temperature at or below 60% and the air 
moitt. 

Cauliflower and Lettuce plants in cold frames will 
need plenty of air during mild weather, to keep 
them aturdy. 

French /?^afif»-^Sow seed frequently, using 8-inch 
pots, half-filled with rich light loam, pressed mode- 



January 1, 1898,] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



lately firm, eight to ten seeds being plaoed in a pot, 
with an inch of aoil lightly put above them, and 
place the pots in a Cuoumber-house or Pine-stove. 
The varieties that are good forcers are Ne Plus 
Ultra, Bjon Houee, and Osbome'b Forcing, and bear 
inmiud the proverb '*The more hurry the less 
speed." Keep the temperature equable at from 60" 
to 70** by uight, to 70* to 75" by day, or a littlo 
higher if the sun shines. 

General JRemarls, — If weather permits, lot all 
spare ground bo dug or trenched, and get a plot of 
ground in readiness for sowing early Peas and Broad 
Beans. The soil for these early crops should be rich 
but light, and woU drained, so that water does not 
accumulate in it and rot the seeds before germination 
has taken place. During hard frost, prepare to go 
on with tronching snd digging, by turning the 
manure-heaps and getting the decayed portion set 
aside for wheeling on to the vacant plots in readiness 
for being spread when wanted Stable-litter and 
tree-leaves shouLld be collected for the making of hot- 
beds for the forcing of early vegetables ; and turn 
over, prepare, and lay up the various composts to be 
used in the frames. Protect Parsley by placing cold 
frames over it^ and cover these with mats during 
•evere frost, but affording plenty of air during mild 
weather. Dry fern worked between the rows is a 
great protection during hard frost when frames cannot 
be afforded. Lift, pot, or box-up roots of Mint or 
Tarragon, and place the same in gentle heat ; also 
roots of Seakale, Asparagus, and Rhubarb may be 
lifted in mild weather and placed in a cool-house 
which frost cannot enter, in readiness for forcing in 
batches, always aiming at keeping np a constant 
supply of these much-prized vegetables. 



always beneficial, and should be permitted. On cold, 
bright mornings the tempei'atureB of each division 
should be raiMd by small sharp fires, so that by the 
time the sun makes its appearance the fires will be so 
low as to send forth but little heat. At such times, 
if the furnaces are kept full of fuel, the pipes become 
so hot as to cause the atmosphere to become more 
than ordinarilyj dry, and injury to the plants 
resulting from a oontinuanoe of this state of things 
would soon show itself. If is very essential that 
Orchid-houses should be well ventilated at the top 
and bottom, so that whenever the external air is 
calm and mild, it may be admitted, as all Orchids 
delight in fresh air when afforded with care. 



THB OBCHLD HOUSES. 

By W. H. Whits, Orohid Gkowtr, Borford. Dorking. 

OenejrcU JUmarks, — Although our knowledge of 
Orchid cultivation has made considerable progress 
during the past few years, there yet remains a great 
deal to be learned, and every grower should be on 
the alert to pick up useful hints that are likely 
to be of use in the cultivation of this interesting 
order of plants. I will endeavour to give such 
methods as I have found to be suited to their 
requirements under cultivation. The proper and 
safe road to success is by close observation. 
Much con be learned by visiting the collections of 
other persons, ascertaining, if possible, the mode of 
culture employed, and noting the positions occupied 
by the healthiest plants. The various structures in 
which Orchids are cultivated are the East Indian or 
hottest house, the intermediate and cool or 
the Odontoglossum • house, in which, providing 
the ordinary requirements of the plants are attended 
to, almost every Orchid from tropical countries can 
be grown ; but where large numbers of any parti- 
ouliur species have to be grown, it is advisable to 
provide a separate house for them. For instance, 
besides those mentionedi there are at Burford a 
Cattleya-house, a Mexican-house, and a Masdevallia- 
house. The Cattleya-house is kept at an interme- 
diate temperature, the Mexican-house containing 
such plants as Ltelia anoeps, L. albida, L. autum- 
nalis, L. Gouldiana, Odontoglossum oitrosmum, 
Lniiias, Cattleya maxima, Epidendrum atro-pur- 
pureum, B. nemorale, Broughtonia sanguinea, &c., is 
without sun-heat a trifle under the temperature 
of the intermediate-house; and the Masdevallia- 
house is a degree or two above that of the 
coolest division. Such a structure as the last- 
named is a very convenient one in which to grow 
Colax jugosus, Maxillarias, Ly castes, Odontoglossum 
pulchellum, 0. Uro-Skinneri, Miltonia Warscewiczii, 
Dendrobium Jameoanum, D. intundibulum, D. Watti- 
anum, D. longicornu, D. oamulum, Anguloas, Cypri- 
pedium insigue, Epidendrum vitellinum, Pleuro- 
thaUs, Bestrepias, Zygopetalum maxiUare, various 
Oncidiums, ko. Where no such abundant accommo- 
dation exists, the warmer part of the cool-house, or 
the coolest part of the intermediate-house, should be 
utiliied, as tho case may need. The present time being 
about tho middle of the resting and slow-growing 
period, which extends from November to February, the 
following night temperatures should, when maintained 
by fire-heat, range as follows : —East Indian-house, 60° 
to 65"; Cattleya or intermediate, 55" to 60^; Mexican, 
about 5^"* ; Odontoglossum-house, 50" ; a few degrees 
less is beueficial during exceptionally cold nights 
when the air in the houses, owing to the unusual 
amount of fire-heat used, is comparatively speaking 
dry. The day temperature should be several degrees 
i^ve those indicated as maintained by fire-heat 
alone, but a rise of a few degrees by sun-heat is 



FBUITS UNDEB aiiASS. 

By G. NOIUI4N, Qardeaor, Hatfield Hoose, llert«. 

Grape Vines, — About the New Year many gar- 
deners commence forcing Vines, either in the first 
or succession vinery. ^The Vines for starting at 
this time should have been pruned and dressed, and 
the vinery otherwise prepared at the least six weeks 
previously. Examine now the soil of the border in 
which the Vines are growing, and if it ii found to be 
only slightly moist, i^ord a good application of tepid 
water ; and if the Vine-roots are in an outside 
border, place a covering of Oak-leaves, sufficient in 
bulk to generate a slight degree of warmth, which 
will keep out the frost, and xnaintain warmth in the 
soil. Tho temperature, when commencing to force 
Vines, should be about SO"" at night, 55** by day with 
fire-heat, with a rise of 10** to 15° by sun-heat. Put 
on air by degrees as the temperature rises, in 
accordance with the amount of heat in the hot-water 
pipes, and the condition of the atmosphere outside. 
The syringing of the rods and damping of the floors 
and walls of the vinery may be done once if 
the day be damp, and on a fine day three times is 
not too many. Those Vines that were started in 
November, if conditions have been ^vourable,' will 
have now started into growth ; and as soon as it can 
be seon which shoots are showing for fruit, those not 
required may be removed, always bearing in mind to 
leave plenty of bunchee for a crop, and shoots to cover 
the trellis without crowding them together. Before 
the young shoots reach the glass tie them downwards 
with broi^ strips of bast a little way at a time ; the 
shoots on early Vines are not, however, so liable to 
be broken in tying them down as are those of late 
Vines, but still it is safer to deal tenderly with them. 

Late Vines, — If the fruit is still on the Vines, it 
should now be removed with sufficient wood attached 
as will go into bottles filled with water, in which 
they will go into the Grape-room. Of cour«e, a shoot 
should not be cut so severely as to take away the bud 
required to produce the bunch next season, two buds 
at least being loft in front of that one. All the late 
Vines should now be pruned, cutting the laterals to 
the most prominent bud that is near to the rod, 
the length of the leading shoot being according 
to requirements, but 3 to 4 feet is a sufficient 
length to retain in one year, if there be space 
for so much. In the case of young Vines, if the 
leader be left longer, it does not always break 
along its entire Isogth. By proning early, time is 
given for the wounds to dry before tihe sap begins to 
rise, and bleeding is then not likely to occur. Remove 
as many of the long snags and spurs and all the loose 
bark tlutt comes away with a rub, and afford a good 
washing with soft-soap and water, at the rate of 8 oz. 
of soap to the gallon ; and dress them with a mixture 
of 8 oz. of soft-soap, i pint of XL composition, and 
i lb. of flowers-of -sulphur to 1 gallon of water, made 
of the consistency of paint with dav and a small 
quantity of cow-dung. This should be well worked 
into all crannies, and especially round the spurs, with 
a painter's brush. Having done this, thoroughlv 
wash the glass and the w(K)d-work, and whitewash 
the walls of the vinery, adding | pint of petroleum to 
every 2 gallons of whitewash. The surface soil of 
the border should be pricked off carefully down to 
the roots and carried away, replacing it with eight 
parts good loam, lime rubbish one put, charred soil 
one pa^, with an 8-inoh potful of bone-meal to each 
wheel-barrowful of soil. From this time until the 
Vines are started, the vinery should be kept cool. 
In frosty weather no harm will occur to the Vines if 
the temperature in the vinery sinks 4° to 6** below 
freezing-point ; but at such times circulation should 
be slightly maintained in the heating apparatus. 

The Orape-room should be dr^, and provided with 
a small amount of hot-water piping, a ventilator being 
fixed at the top. There should be racks for holding 
tho bottles at an angle of about 45"*, so that the 



bnnches nuy hang dear of them, and the bottles 
should be almost filled with rain-water, with a littlo 
bit of charcoal in each. About 60^ is a suitable tem- 
perature for this room, and it is advisable to keep a 
slight degree of warmth in the pipes, and to open the 
ventilators on every fine day, from about 9 ▲.M. till 

4 P.M. 

THE FLOWSB GABDSN. 

By H. WALxeas, Gardener, Bastwell Park, Ashford. 

Changes in Flower Gardening, — ^That inevitable 
destiny of mundane things change has within the last 
few years greatly altered the stjle and aspect of the 
flower garden. And still there is room for further 
alterations and improvement. The laying out and 
beautifying of a flower garden does not only consist 
of planting masses of bedding plants grouped together 
in geometrical designs, but it indudes, or should so 
do, the use of ornamental trees and evergreens and 
deoiduons shrubs planted in a manner both as regards 
position and variety, that will give added charm to the 
whole, and being so arranged and designed that the 
beauty'of the other portions of the garden is enhanced, 
and at the same time the latter blends harmoniously 
and gradually with the surrounding landscape. If it 
be the intention of the owner or his gvdener to carry 
out the planting of trees and shrubs tms year, no time 
■hould be lost in pushing on |with the needful prepa- 
rations, weather permitting, with expedition. In 
large beds and shrabberiee nothing looks better, 
especially in the former, than standard trees of 
Prunus Pissardi, planted at intervals in number 
according to the size of the bed, the remaining space 
being filled with dwarf plants of Acer Negundo varie- 
gate. The effect of this style of planting on a luge 
scale, if not overdone or to the exclusion of other 
shrubs, especially when the bed is on an expansive 
lawn, is very fine, the dark purple leaves of the 
Pnmus standing out in bold relief above the green 
and white variegation of the Aoer. Yellow-leaved 
Elder and Privet are likewise telling plants when 
placed in groups towards the firont of a shrubbery. 
The former, when planted in this manner, to be 
pruned in the spring months, for the plant grows 
with great rapicUty, and its foliage is of a much 
brighter hue if pruned than when allowed to grow 
at will. 

Hosa rugosa, — ^This species, and its variety alba, 
lend themselves to tMs st^le of planting witii good 
effect. They flower contmnoudy throughout the 
summer; and in autumn the bushes are covered 
with the scarlet-coloured haws, while the leaves 
change to a beautiful golden-yellow tint. There are 
many other beautiful deciduous and evergreen 
shrubs too numerous to be mentioned here, which 
if planted with discretion as to sdection and variety 
will add gi-eatly to the charm of a garden. In planting 
trees and shrubs it is important to take care that the 
holes are of sufficient size to enable the roots to 
be extended to their full length before filUng-in. 
When the planting of choice shrubs is performed, 
unless the land has been trenched and manured in 
the autumn, it is good practice to use some prepared 
soil of a 6drly rich nature, mixing it with the staple, 
and covering the roots with a layer of it, at the U ast, 
4 indies thick. American plants should be planted 
either in peat that has been in stack for one year, or 
in light fibrous loam. With these plants no stronger 
manure should be employed than leaf-mould, and 
with peat even this is not needed. When a shrub 
has had its roots covered partially with soU, water 
may be applied heavily to wash the partides of soil in 
among the roots ; the rest of the soil being then 
returned to the hole and made finn. A muldi may 
be used over the roots, and a stake placed so as to 
secure the plant firmly. 

The Rose Garden, — The planting of Roses should 
not be delayed if the weather keeps open, planting 
them firmly, and mulching with strawy manure. 
The standards should be stued forthwith, fastening 
the stems with loose ties, to allow of the roots sink- 
ing. Tea Roses may be covered li^tly with bracken. 
Attend to the nailing-in of the long shoots of oUmb- 
ing Roses, and put me walks and grass veigea in good 
order for the season. 

General Work, — Let the fidlen leaves be collected 
from the fronts of shrubberies, where they are likely 
to blow out and litter the garden. Afford the Uwu 
and the walks a rolling as time and weather permit. 
Examine Dahlia tubers, removing any tmU are 
unsound ; also the tubers of Begonias. Pay* particular 
attention to the bedding Pehugoniums^ affording 
them but little water, but as much air as possible 
in mild weather ; keep the glass clean, and remove 
decayed leaves frequently. 



8 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Jakttart 1, 1898. 



APPOINTMENTS FOR THE ENSUING WEEK. 



SALES. 



(Jaraneae Lilies, TuberoiM, Con- 
tinental Plants. Roses, Palm 
Seeds, &c., at Frotheroe A 
Morris' Rooms. 
Rose and Fruit-trees, Shrubs. 
Border-plants, Bulbs, Ac., at 
BteTens Rooms. 

{Continental Plants, Dutch Bulbs, 
Roses, Herbaceous Plants, Ac., 
at Protheroe * Morris' Rooms. 
Border-plants, at StoTens* Rooms. 

I Important Sale of Odontoglossum 
,.„ wj orispum and Cattleva aurea, by 
^^^' ^\ order of Mr. T. Bochford, at 

I. Protheroe and Morris' Rooms. 



THURSDAY, 



FRIDAY. 



AvsRAOB Tjcmpcraturb for the ensuing week, deduced tma 
ObservatJoas of Forty-three years, at ChiBwiek.-~S6*4^ 
Actual Tbmpkraturbs :— 

London.— Decenibsr 29 (6 p.m.) : ICax., 55°; Min., 40". 
FBoviKCBs.-'i)««ffi6sr 29 (6 p.m.): Max., 54', south- 
weHt Ireland ; Min., 43?, Orkney. 
Weather mild, wet, and stormy. 



Retrospect : ^^^ 7®^ ^ ^^^ ^^^ ^^ advanced 

The Jubilee yet to preclude 118 from alluding, 
Year. \yy ^^y of retrospect, to its pre- 

decesBor. One word, and one word only, might 
serve to characterise the year that has passed — 
** Jubilee.*' Our thoughts, our work, our 
engagements, our flower-shows, were all largely 
affected by this most memorable occasion. For 
our own parts, while providing for the present 
body of workers, we considered also the work 
of our predecessors, and the claims of the gar- 
deners of the future, and thus it was that our 
columns were largely filled, even to the end, 
with articles relating to the progress of horti- 
culture in the Queen's reign. For statistical 
and historical purposes, this retrospect, ranging 
over almost every department of horticulture, 
can scarcely fail to be of use, whilst the student 
of evolution and progressive change will find a 
wealth of material placed at his disposal. Those 
concerned in the history and development of 
horticulture and of cultivated plants, would do 
well to preserve the two volumes containing, as 
we believe, a fuller and more varied retrospect 
than has ever before been got together. 

In addition to the general articles, we 
published three special commemoration numbers 
one containing views in Buckingham Palace 
Ghardens by the special permission of Hbb 
Majesty. It is thirty years since any similar 
views were taken, and even then they were 
not made public. Londoners must have been 
astonished at the beauty of the grounds in the 
rear of the palace, and in the heart of the great 
city with its ceaseless roar. 

Our list of the trees planted by Her 
Majesty in various localities, with the 
dates of planting and other interesting oircum- 
stanoes, is we believe unique. In its construc- 
tion we were assisted by Mr. Malcolm Dunn, 
and other good friends. 

Of exhibitions, that at Hamburgh, or rather 
that series of exhibitions held during the year 
on the banks of the Elbe, takes foremost rank, 
and was, all things considered, the finest and 
most representative exhibition ever held. 

Our own exhibitions are constantly increasing 
in number, particularly those devoted to the 
Chrysanthemum. The great shows at the 
Temple and at the Crystal Palace, held under the 
auspices of the Boyal Horticultural Society, 
were admirable. 

Among the meetings we must not CeuI to 
allude to the very agreeable gathering of all 
the committees at Chiswick. This meeting was 
so much appreciated that we hope it may be at 
l9aBt of annual recurrence. The progress and 
development of Qhiswick are matters Qf the 



very foremost importance to the Society and to 
horticulture genmlly. 

The Society has also attempted, and suooeas- 
fully attempted, a very delioite and difficult 
task in the conferment of Medals of Honour by 
the express consent of Her Majesty, on sixty 
recipients. The matter is too recent to need 
further reference now, but as the weeks pass 
we have increasing evidence that the allotment 
of the Victoria Medals of Honour gives general 
if not universal satisfiEustion. 

Manchester, Shrewsbury, Edinburgh, Belfast 
have all been in the front rank, and York would 
have been so also, save for the disastrous cyclone 
whidi ruined its prospects, and entailed a loss 
to the Society of £600. 

The crops were fairly good, except in the 
case of fruit, Apples and Plums being especially 
deficient. 

Horticultural literature has been enriched 
by some remarkable books, such as the Duke 
of Bedford's History of a Oreat AgricuUural 
Estate, and the first annual report of his Grace's 
fruit farm, near Wobum. The completion of 
the Flora of British India has been recently 
alluded to, as well as the very welcome re- 
appearance of the Flora Capensis, and of the Flora 
of Tropical Africa, All these will be of great 
value to horticulturists. Dr. Lowe's book on 
the^ Yew Trees of Britain is one that will not lose 
its interest as time goes on. The Life of Babing* 
ton is of interest as a record of many things 
relating to British botany and botanical affairs 
generally. Prof. Qoff has published an excel- 
lent litUe elementary treatise on Vegetable 
Physiology, as applied to gardening ; and the 
reference to book notices in our indexes show 
that much has been done in the domain of 
literature. 

Had we to speak of pure botany only, we 
should allude to the remarkable discovery by 
two Japanese botanists of spermatozoids in the 
pollen-cells of Ginkgo and Cycas as the most 
epoch-making botanical discovery for many 
years. The bridge between the Ferns and 
the Conifers and Cycads, formerly separated by 
a great gap, is thus established. At present, it 
has no bcMuing on practical horticulture, but 
we never can tell how soon, or to what extent 
the discoveries of science may be pressed into 
the service of practical work. 

The old notion of the integrity of each plant- 
cell — an article of faith successive generations 
believed in — ^has been upset by the discoveries 
of Mr. W. Gardiner at Cambridge. The con- 
tinuity of protoplasm — that is, the passage of 
minute threads oi protoplasm from cell to cell — 
was discovered a few years since, but it has 
received additional confirmation this year. 
The result is, we must look on the plant as a 
connected whole, and not as a series of detached 
fragments, with little or no direct intercom- 
munication. This view of plant-life, it is 
evident, has a very important bearing on 
practical horticulture. 

The death-roll is heavy, and our losses severe. 
We have lost Bobsrt Hooa, Trevor Clarke, 
and James Batemak, a trio never to be re- 
placed. In addition, we may mention the 
names of Alfred Suttok, one of the founders 
of the house of Sutton; Mr. Charles 
Sharfe of Sleaford, who did so much to secure 
the passing of the Seed Adulteration Bill; 
Baillie of Chester, James Webber of Covent 
Garden, Head ot the Crjrstal Palace, Owen of 
Maidenhead, Cooker of Aberdeen; Stiles, 
the sympatiietio and power-yielding Acting- 
Editor of Garden and Forest; LODBHANir, 



the young withnsiaat, fren w lwui so muck 
might have been expected ; PocHnr, of roeuiaa 
fame; Pfau, and Pabish, the well-known 
Orchid collectors ; and many others whom, we 
need not name, but who will be held in pleasftnt 
reverent memory for many a year to come. 
Perhaps in this connection we may meiitioii 
the death of the Duchess of Tbck as of one 
who took great interest in flowers and in the 
work of the horticulturist. Her genial presence 
at our shows will be much missed. 

The gardening charities have been fairly well 
supported during the year, and the gardening 
community ought to feel under great obliga- 
tions to the committees and others who work 
so disinterestedly on their behalfl The beet 
way of showing such obligations is to send 
cheques to the secretaries, and so do something 
to alter that distressing statement annually 
made, that the number of worthy and approved 
candidates is always in excess of the namber 
that can be elected. The beginning of the 
year is a time to frame good reeolutions, 
and, better still, to put them into practice. 
We append the address of the Secretary of the 
Gardeners' Royal Benevolent Institution — 
G. J. Ingram, Esq., 50, Parliament Street ; aad 
A. F. Barron, Esq., Chiswick, the Secretary tf 
the Boyal Gardeners' Orphan Fund — the latter, 
it will be remembered, founded in the first 
Jubilee Year, and growing favourably in the 
last celebration. 

L^LIO - CATTLEYA X DlQBYANO • TRIAN>CI 
(CATTLEYA TRIAN^CI ? , LCUA DlQBYANA ^ )-— 
Our illiutratioD (p. 9) repreaeata the baautiftil Laslio* 
CatUeya x Digbyaoo-TriMai, which the rataera, 
Meisn. Jas. Veitoh k Sons, of Chelsea, exhibited aft 
the Royal Horticoltural Society on April 13, 1897, 
when it received a Fint-cUsa Certifioateb It is one of 
the finest nofeltiea of the paat year, and it paaaod into 
the ooUectioQ of Sir FasDiBioK Wigak, CUre Laws. 
East Sheeo, Richmond (gr., Mr. W. H. Toang). lu 
beautiful flowera are white, tinted with various 
ahadea of bright roae-colour, and like ita handaomo 
ally, L.-C. X Digbyano-Moaai», it is very fra^^nat. 
While we are atroogly of opinion that the pedigree 
ahould be recorded in all these oases, we do not think 
it ahould form part of the name, a ahort arbitrary 
deaignation being far more oon?enient. 

The Royal Society.— In the current number 
of the ** Proceedings of the Rojnl Society " is contained 
a p^per by Dr. Brown. The experimenta were 
undertaken for the purpose of determining whether 
any change whatever goes on under ordinary con- 
ditions in resting seeds. There were three cases to 
consider : respiratory changes, intra - molecular 
respiration, and changes not attended with the 
evolution of gas. With reference to the first, it had 
been shown long ago that no gas was given off when 
the seed waa kept for a year in vacuo. Their vitality 
waa retained also when the seedi were kept for nine 
months in the vapour of ether and in hydrogen. The 
existenoe of intra-moleoular respiration was disproved 
by keeping the seeds for several months in Oeissler- 
tubes, the absence of nitrogen and carbon dioxide 
being shown by the spectra. To attack the third 
question the autiiors had subjected the seeds to extreone 
low temperatures, with the idea that if any activity 
existed in the seed its vitality under these conditions 
would be destroyed. About eight or ten species, 
taken from five or six families^ had been treated. 
After being kept for 110 consecutive hours at a 
temperature of about — 190**, the seeds were care- 
fully thawed and set to germinate by the side of 
untouched seeds of the same samples for comparison. 
In all oases the frozen seeds grew as well as the others. 
Similar results were obtained by H. 0. Di Caiidolle. 

Royal Gardeners* Orphan Fund. — a 

meeting of the Executive Comoiittee waa held at 
the Horkieultural Club on the 22nd ult., Mr. Wiluam 
MABsqatii in the chair, whea the following specie 



Jasdjut 1, 189S.] 



THE GARDENERS* CBRONIGLE. 



Mutotl 1 



mn ■nnonnoad :— AltrlDohuD Gird«nen' 
iproTemsnt SooM;, prooMdi of coDOtrt, 
£1S 6i. ; Rogby ChrTMatiiamiiii) Sodetr, pw Mr. 
W. Erjuat, £7 ; Ur. C. Hon, the Oirdtiu, WaUoid 
Puk. Hawburj, £6 lU ; Mr. J. B. VkIIuob, Brittal 
ChfjnnthamuBi Shoir, £5 Ht. ; Peiuhant OuiletiBra' 
' ~[>u, £3 5&; Ur.H. Herbal,! 



7<. eJ. ; Hr. J. I^ne, CbUahnnt, 7i. ; Ur. F. Doddi, rspDrtod, in rebranoa to the deEMtlri ligbtiiig at 

HerriiipweU, MUdenha&.boi, 9f. ; Wkteand Dlitrwt the NoTambor Show ftt tha Rojal Aqnirium, thnt it 

Qanltnan' Socie^, di. ; Youiig Hen at Oordoii waa canied bj a darangemctit ot the lightiag appa- 

Caatla.Faohaben, per Hr. C. Webater, Bt. ; Kr. A. H. ntui, and that the dtreaton hid doae their beit to 

Palmer, TiTaiton, 61. TheSaoetarfaiuiouDoed tbat aupplj the Ulure on the part of thi contraotar. 

the un ot £42! 7». id, htd been raodTeA aa Uie That w the raptira oeoceiary before the weatera 

amonnt ol tha J. W. Thotnpaon beqiuat. Appli- gdlerjoonld be lifhled bjaleotriaUj would oooQpy 



Fir. 3.— hybbid catti.kva = c. 



I ASD c DioBYASA. (fee r. 8.) 



mood, box, £3 li. ; Chiilehnnt Gaidenen' HuCual 
ImproTemciit Soeietf, per Ur. H. Y(}sll, £2 17i. Sif. ; 
Ton bridge Oordeaen' AMOciatlon, per Hr. Q. 
Feaaell, £i lOi. ; Mr. J. Uilei, DudUj ViUa-, South- 
MHptOD, £2 3«. erf, ; Un. U. BulUr, per Hr. O. 
Bolaa, Wirt«>fortll, £2; Mr. J. Hellend, Newton 
Abbot, bos, lOi. ; Hr, T, Wilkini, Inirood Owdaoi, 
Hmtildge, lOi. ; Hr. Q. Hmod, HoiAMik. K»hm, 



oationa wen reoaiTsd in the inlerait ot eiKhtean 

WDual geneni meeting on V*hn$rj IS next. 

National Chrvsanthemum Soqiety.— a 
■Heating ot the (general aommittca took pUce kt 
Aodarton'i Hotal, F1m( etratt, oo Hwufaj, tbt aottk 
nit, Ur. T. W, Bun>na pnddlog. Tbe Mvrttvf 



•ome daj>, the diiaatore had added new and powerfu 
oirboD buraen, and tbe light at the December ahow 
h>d been giaittj improved in ooneaquence. It waa 
agreed that two of tbe dataa publiibed ea meatint;* of 
tbe Ftorsl Conunittae in ISaS, vli., November SS 
uid Deoembet 12, ahould ba withdrawn from the 
Uih Tba Swiieliarj bionglit up tbs report 
tbg Sobtdsle BevliisD BulwomBitUte , in which 



10 



THE GARDENERS* GHR ONIGL E. 



[Jakuabt 1, 1898. 



it wiB propoMd to flveafte a ntw dan at the 
November Show— lor twelve vaies of spedmen 
Japanese duTaftnthemama dMnet, five Uooma of 
each, £50 at least to be given in priaee. It was reported 
that the president, Sir Edwin SAUNDna, had offered 
to give as the 1st prise the sam of £15. The 
secretary also r e por te d that in oommemorstion of the 
f sot of the National ChrysuithemQm Sodety having 
hdd their exhibitions at the Royal Aquariam for the 
space of twenty-one years, the directors had voted the 
sum of £30 as special prises in the class for twenty- 
four Japanese, £S5 of that sum being divided into 
money prizes ; the Ck>ld Medal of the society, suit- 
ably engraved, being added aa an additional 1st prize. 
Special priaes from Mr. H. Devibill, Banbury ; Mr. 
R. Stdbnham, Tenby St, Birmingham ; from Mr. 
W. J. GoDFBiT, Bzmouth ; and Mr. J. T. Suinoir, 
were aooepted; also the schedule of prises for 
September, somewhat modified in regsrd to the 
Chrysanthemum classes, for October somewhat 
extended, and for November with added money. 
Eighteen members were deoted, including four 
fdlowa ; and the Dundee Chrysanthemum Sodety 
admitted to affiliation. 



DONATIONS TO GARDENING CHARITIES.— The 
result of two oonoarts hdd in Altrincham on'Wednesday 
and Thursday, 1st and 2nd ult, under the auspioes 
of the Altrincham Gardeners' Improvement Sodety, 
showed a balance in hand of £39 5«., which sum has 
been divided between the Gardeners' Royal Bene- 
volent Institution and the Boyd Gardeners' Orphan 
Fund. 

National Dahua Society.— The following 

is a revised ideoted list of Cactus varieties of the 

Dahlia for the year 1898 :— 

Alfred Vu^ 

Aimie Jones 

Annie Tonier 

Arachna 

Bettrioe 

Bertha Mawley 

Brltftnnla 

CSapetftD 

Chas. Woodbridge 

Cinderella 

OounteM of Goefbrd 

Cycle 

Daffoda 

DelioaU 

Earl of Pembroke 

O. J. Deal 

Fantasy 

FusOier 

Olorloaa 

Harmony 

Hony Btredwiok 

lona 

Island Queen 

J. E. Prewer 



JuareaU 

Keyne's White 

Lady Penzance 

MaiyHillier 

Mary Senrice 

Matchless 

May Pictor 

Miss A. Nightingale 

Mrs. A. Beck 

Mrs. A. Peart 

Mrs. Barnes 

Mrs. Gordon Bloone 

Mrs. H. Connell 

Mrs. JohnGoddard 

Mrs. Leopold Seymour 

Mrs. Montefiora 

Mrs. WOson Noble 

Night 

BmtuIus 

Robert Cannell 

Btarflsh 

Tillie 

Violet Morgan 



WiNDMILlA— Mr. Thomab Chbistt kindly draws 
our attention to the manifold uses to which the 
prindples of the windmill can be put. An illustrated 
sheet drcnlated by the Adrmotor Company, Chicsgo, 
oontsins figures of forty-eight adi^tations of the 
machinery as exemplified in deep wdl-pumps, pumps 
for ddivering water in large or small quantitiea from 
rivers and Ukes for household and ^manufiMturing 
purposes. Mschineiy is likewise shown attached to 
aermoton for turning a feed-outter, grinding com, 
turning grind-stones, and various kinds of Ikrm 
work. In this country the use of wind-motors seems 
to be mostiy confined to milling purposes, and 
for little else ; still, in a windy country, no oheaper 
driving method can be found than the air in motion. 

"Aquatic and Boo Plants" (Die Swmpf A 

Waaserpflanssm^ Ihre Besdirdbung, Kultur and Yer- 
wendung: Von Wilh. MdVKBMKTEB; Veriag Von 
OusTAV SoHxiOT, Berlin, S.W.). — In addition to the 
American WctUr Oarden, a publication has appeared 
in the German langusge, written by Mr. Movke- 
MBTXB, the well-known curator of the Ldpzig Botanic 
Qarden, who has not only proved himself to be a 
successful gsrdener, but also a botanist of ability. 
The above-named work, treating of a subject the 
literature of which is scanty, and only to be found 
dispersed through various journals, supplies a long- 
fdt want for amateurs in this branch of gardening. 
Of late years, especially, condderable attention has 
been pdd to the cultivation of this interesting dais 
of plants, so that the work now issued will be very 



wdoome. It oomprisos 190 pages* with 196 iUnstra- 
tions, drawn lor the moat part bf the writer himsdf , 
iriiioh greatly add to the value of tiie book. Not 
fewer than 74 Natural Ordera of flowering plants ars 
found to possess r e p tesentatives amongst water and 
bog plants; in faet, the oomi^ler appears to have 
overlooked few that mi^t be used for decorating 
naturd waten and their maigins, as wdl as those 
aquatic plants which will readily thrive in a living- 
room. Study and observation during many yeara 
have enabled him to bring together much materid 
worthy of oondderation. The book can be recom- 
mended to all who take pleasure in growing aquatic 
plants, and who are able to read Qerman. It it very 
deariy written. 

Some Items Concerning 1808.— As much 

information reapecting horticulturd meetings and 
eihibitionsfor the year just bom as could be obtained 
before going to press will be found in the Almansok 
whidi is presented as a Supplement to our preeent 
issue. Most of the important events have been thus 
announoed, it being customary in the case of in- 
fluentid societies to compile thdr programmes and 
schedules as early as possible. We give bdow a few 
particulars in addition to what are given in the 
almanac that may be interesthig : — 

THK MaBKBT OABpSHSBS', NUBSBBTMEM, AND 

Farmebs' Association, 82, King Street, Covent 
Qarden, will hdd thdr annud generd meeting at a 
date to be fixed in July, and the executive will meet 
upon the first Tuesday following the quarter-days. 
Aa there have been frequent enquiries for Uie address 
of this Sodety, our readers will please note the above. 

The Fabninobam Rose Socibtt (writes Mr. 
Edmonds, the Hon. Secretary) will hold its annud 
exhibition upon the last Wednesday in June, or the 
first in July. ' 

Mr. B. A. Newman, secretary to the Eastbourne 
HoBnouLTUBAL SooiETT, statea that meetings will be 
hdd on the second Tuesday in each month in the 
Naturd History Society's Kooms, Lismore Boad, at 
8 pjc. There will be a competition among the mem- 
ben at each meeting. The date of the annud 
Chrysanthemum show has not been fixed. 

Tbm Botal Scottish Arbobioultcjral Sooibtt 
will hold its annud meeting on January 26. A generd 
meeting and annud excurdon will take place at the 
end of July or beginning of August. The council 
will meet once in two months. 

The National Pink Sooiett (Midland section) and 
the WoBKBOP Rose and Hobticoltubal Sooibty are 
in abeyance. 

The annud show of the South Shields and 
NoBTHEBN Ck>UNTm Chrtsanthemum Sooiett will 
be hdd (writes Mr. Bernard Cowan) in the middle 
of November. 

The annud meeting of the National Carnation 
AND PioOTBB Sooutt (Northern section) will be held 
on January 29, when the date of the forthcoming 
exhibition will be probably fixed for the second 
Saturday in August. The secretary is Mr. T. Lord, 
Hole Bottom, Todmorden. 

The exact date of the Annud Exhibition of the 

ROTAL HOBTIOUIAUBAL SOCIETT OF AbEBDEIN lias 

not been fixed, but it will probably take place on 
August 18, 19^ and 20. 

ThB SCOmSH HOBTIOULTURAL ASSOCIATION wiU 

hold meetings on the first Tuesday in esch month, 
when papers will be read and exhibits made of new 
or rare plants, fruits, flowers, to, Mr. R. Laird, tbe 
secretary, also informs us that this sodety will hold 
its great Chrysanthemum show on November 17» 
18, and 19. 

Mr. E. J. Ashelford, secretary of the Sooiett of 
Jbrsbt Qardinsrb' writes^ that his Sodety will hold 
monthly meetings on the second Thursday in the 
month, and the Council will meet on the fourth 
Thursday. The Fiord F^te has been fixed for July 
14, and the Chrysanthemum Show for November 9 
and 10. 

The Rot^l NATiONAii Tuup Sooiett will hold au 
exhibition in or near Manchester, and another one in 
London, but the dates have not yet been fixed 
(Secretary, Mr. Jas. W. Bentley). 



Thb Matkmial Aubicula Bootsn (Hortbam 
Section) will meet at the Old BuU'a Head, Market 
Pkce, Mandiester, on Wednesday next, when the 
place and date for Uie annud exhibitioa will be 
dedded. 

The Gbbskan Rose Societt'8 Annud Exhibition 
will be held at Cologne at the.end of June. Novdtics 
of Oerman and foreign origin sre sdidted by the 
secretary, P. Lambert Frier. 

The Rinfrbwsbire Qardener*b Mutual 1m* 
protkment Sooiett will hold meetings on Jan. 12, 
26, Feb. 9, 23, and March 9. 

The Wakefield Paxton Socibtt will hold wetkly 
meetings at the Paxton Room, Woolpad: Hotel, on 
Saturdays at 8 P.M. until March 5, when the annud 
generd meeting will take place. 

Tbe Manohebter Hortioultubal Impboykmrbt 
Society will meet in the Memorid Hall, Albert 
Square, Manchester, at 7 p.m. on Jan. 13, 37, and 
Feb. 10, 24. 

The Atbshibb Qaboenexs* Mutual Impbovb. 
MENT Association will hold fortnightly m ee^ ng i 
until May 6 in the Garrick Street Hall, Ayr, at 
7.30 P.M. on dtemate Thursdaya. 

A Diamond Jubilee Oak.— PrinoessCHBisnAs 

haa planted in Windsor Park a tree to be known as 
the '*QuKEN*s Diamond Jubilee Oak, ** the off^Hsng 
of the Queen's Jubilee Oak, pUnted in 1887. A 
tablet will bear the inscription, <*ThiB tree, raised 
from an acorn of the Queen's Jubilee Oak* 18^7, 
was planted, 1897, by H.R.H. Princess CBBUsriAa 
(Princess Helena of Qreat Britain and Ireland) in 
commemoration of the sixtieth year of the reiga of 
her Majesty Qoeen Victoria." 

Flora of Tropical Africa.— It vras only in 

our last number that we adverted to the publication 
of a pert of the Flora Capensit, and in this week's 
number, the first of the year, it fsUa to our lot to 
have to mention the rejuvenescence of the I^lan of 
Tropical J/rica, Three volumes were issued up to 
1877, and then the woriccame to an abn^it stop. 
How much the area and the materid have incresad 
since then it needs no research to discover. This a 
one of the reaaons why the resumption of tho work 
begina with vol. 7, in which the Orohida and the 
grasses, with other orders speeidly interestiBg to 
practical men will be comprised. The present part 
will be specially interestiog to Orchid growers, in that 
it contains a large instdment of the Orohida from the 
pen of Mr. Rolfe. The publication of the Indian 
Orchids by Sir J. D. Hookeb, of those of S. Africa by 
Mr. Bolus, and of Tropicd Africa by Mr. Rolfb, will 
afford us a most vduable addition to Orchid lore, and 
do much to remove the perplexity and uncertain^ in 
which we have been plunged. 

The Worcester Branch of the Qardeneis 

Boyd Benevolent Institution recently held its annud* 
generd meeting at the Quildhal), Worcester. The 
report of the committee was adopted as very satis- 
factory, new officers were elected, and thanks 
accorded to Earl Bbauohamp and others who have 
materially assisted the Fund during the psat year. 
During the past two years of the existence of the 
Worcester Auxiliary it has been able to provide the 
parent sodety with the condderable sum of £227 l&s. 
The auxiliary nominated one candidate at the last 
election of penuoners, and the committee wss pleased 
to announce that this gentleman was dected. Mr. 
J. Hill White wss re-dected Hon. Sec. and Treasurer. 

Raspberries on Christmas Day.— a cor. 

respondent in oo. Meath informs us that he not only 
gatiiered Roses, Violets, and Primroses in his garden 
on Christmas Day, but a small dish of Raspberries. 

Publications Received.— The Weekly BttciyH 

and the Weekly Budget Supplement for December 25, 
cootaining a store of seasonable literature for home or 
foreign readers. — EitglUh Illustrated Magazine, 
January, 1898. — AnnvMl Report of the SmithsoniaM 
Inttitution (1), to June, 1893 ; (2), to June, 1894.— 
Two bulky volumes, full, at usud, of interesting 
information on scientific and generd subjects; 
ethnologicd papers have a prominent place. 



THE GA RDENER S* CHRONICLE. 



APPLE ROYAL SNOW. 

DuBiHO • Tiait to the Smlthfield Cattle Sbow, held 
rMsntly, we ranurked the Bbo*a Apple upon % itud 
belonging to Hr. W. Home, Perrj Hill, CliSe, 
Rocheiter ; and mbiequetitly Mr. Borne hai obliged 
ua b; placing apcdmeiu at our aarrice tor illiutra' 
tioD (fig. 4). Koy^l Bdow ia ft CanadiHl Apple, and 
we are informsd tbat one of Her Hajeaty'i Jabilee 
Commeiiiontive ptta wu a Dumber of the Iraita, 
aent bj aome Oanadlui fruit gntreia, ifho regard the 
vAriet; with the highert favour. The fruit ia above 
TiiediuTD-aiEe, being about 3 inahaa high, and nearly h 
wide, the halfea unequal ; colour iateaaa but bright 
rod, except on the ahaded aide, where the red atreaka 
orgrapale jellowgroondareahUDdant, Thewholeof 
the exterior of the fruit ia marked with amall wbltiah 
ipote. Eye cloead, and est in a rooderately deep and 
wide cavity ; italk aleoder, quite an inch long, and 
set in B deep funnel-ahiiped cavity, which, together 
with the baaa of the fruit, i* ooTored with ruiaet. 



Seholai^ antiqnariana, nom«ieUtariita (pardon (bo 
word) will all find interat, information, and aome 
amount of amuMment in these pagaa. Buhini waa 
bom in 1S06, studied at the Univendty of Bologni, 
managed to gat involved in political dlaturbanoee, 
and Id coneequanco waa compelled to migrate from 
place to place, ultimately aettUng In UontpalUer, 
where he enjoyed the frieodahip ol Diuwl, and flnt 
bacMne imboed with hii love for the Fyreneee and 
their fiora. After a time he weut back to Itelf , but 
liiii native ooimtry proved no home lor Um, and 
he returned to the Fyreoeet, and oMnplated hie 
Son, reviling it from time to Ume. 

Death overtook him in 188B, before he had the 
Batisbction of seeing hia work in type. Now, owing 
to the pious care of Profeaaor Penitg, the flrat 
volume Me* the light It is elaborated with painfully 
Diiinute detail, and ia praoeded by ■ long LaUn 
preface. In it the PyimieM are divided into three 
botanical regioDi— the AtUntlo, the Uediterranean, 
and tli« alpine ra^ov, tlia alopea of wbleh face in ttie 



Boo k Not ice, 

Flora PvreniCa per or dines natural eb 

ORADATIMDIQEBTA.— Oputpoathumumeditum, 

ouisnte 0. Penzig. YoL i. HDccouiO. Hedio- 

lani (Milan), Ulcic Hoepllua. 

This ia a book that will appeal to nuy Intereeti. 

An authentic and carefully compiled liet of the |>Unt« 

conitituting Uia Pyrenean Flom ia a boon that 

botaaiite and gardenera will cordially welcome. 



The Beah it normally firoi, jniey, criap, ol a pecu- 
liarly aweet, vlnoni flavour, and the fruit may be 
termed a flmtclaaa deaiert Apple for Cbriatmu and 
the New Year. It ia Ur. Home's intention to intro- 
duce the variety into this country, and we ah^ be 
interested to aae bow tar it may prove adapted to our 
climate and methods ot culture. The specimena we 
have seen, however were grown in Canada, and the 
appearanoe and quality of the fniitH muat tbsrerore 
not be taken to repreeent what fniiti grown in this 
cnuntrj may bo expected to be like at t^ii lata season 
of the year, though tbia xatg posmblj prove to be the 



direction of both oceana. Otber aub'diviuons are 
founded on the character of the •oil—calcareoua, 
saline, or otherwise. 

Lung disquiaitiona on nomenclature and ayuonymy 
tallow, which are vary intareetlDg \o tho profeaaed 
botaoiat, but not so much so to the amateur or to 
him who wants to know aometbing aboat the ptanta 
themaelvee rather than the opinioca of Ihla or the 
other botanist on technical detnils of nomenclature. 
Tlist Kyatem wliich enables the student to God what 
he wanta with the greatalt faoUity la ths moat 
generally useful. Ths name found, tlie student can 
arriuige hia details aooording to wbatarer syateni he 
prafBTS \ and whilst anxious, as all ahcnld be, to avail 
themselves of the newest and best results of scienoe, 
tl»y need not waste their time on vrrangles aa to 
priority and tdblicgr^hj — unlaaa, indeed, their 
studies and predilections lead them to indulge in 
these rnsnnrrb na To mix up history with nonenola- 
tore more than Is abeolutely neeesaary I« to confound 
two different thingt. 

Bubani gose back to the clisiica, In the case of 
Ulmus, for instsnoe, he quotas Homer, or, ratfaer, 
Ulmn* vuigaria ia attributed to Homer as the autho- 
rity, and Tbeopbnatua ia made n^ootibla fee Uinuu 



montana. Most botaniata would be a 
tb^ wouUl aaj they did not know prsoiseiy what 
the authors in question meant. Th^ dsaoiiptions 
ara not adequate, and they have left no plates, still 
less any authentio speoimena, so that veriBcation of 
references is impoaidble. A botaniat tike Dr. Bubani, 
who attributes any particular plant to them, must, It 
would aeem, break that eassnUal rule of nomen- 
clature which forblda oa from attributing to anyone 
U»t which he haa not aaid. 

But Bubani Is not content with the Bauhins and 
Osanen of the renaiaaance, nor with the clasaioal 
writera of Oreeoe or Rome ; he goea book to Holy 
Writ Itself, and ^vaa aa the botanical authority 
for Juniperoa oiycedrua, " BibL Saer." We 
are not Iconversant with Hattrew, but we are 
quite certain that " Juniparun oiycedrua " la not 
msntioned In Holy Writ Bubani, however, hare, ss 
alwaya, scrnpnlously careful in his rclerenoes, cite* 
ch^itar and verse a* follows — "Job, c SO, t. 4." 
We torn to the authoriaed veraion, and we find, I.e., 
"Who out vp Hallows by the buahes, and Juniper 
roots for their meat." A diet of Joniper roots does 
Dotsound sppetiaing. We consult the revisad version, 
and there we God the paasage rendered :— "Ilwy 
pluck Saltwort by the bushes, and the roots of the 
Broom are their meat," the marginal readering being, 
"to warm them," which seems much more likely. 
Bubani, io all probability, did not oooault either of 
theae verrions of the Bible, but whatever version he 
consulted, it is at any rate clear that it is not 
judicious to wrest biblical names from their context, 
and apply them as they were never intended to be 
used. We do understand Juniperusoxycedros.L. Sp , 
and we have the means ot verifying the reference, 
bnt we can have no certainty as to the exact 
identity of the plant mentioned without any descrip- 
tion, or figure, or specimen, ',by Job. Nevartheless, it 
la so oonvenient for the student to have these refer- 
enoes ready to hand that it would ill become the 
erilic to grumble because thsy ore put out of Iheir 
proper order. 

No descriptions of apedes are given, but a full 
synonymy Is supplied, together with details oou' 
osming the time of flowering the nature of the soil 
upon which the plant growa, the localities where it 
has been found, and even the dates when particular 
Bpedmens were collected. Votes and commanta on 
the structure and affinitiea of the species are added, 
which reveal the aoeurate obaervatlon of the botanisL 
Tbe student will be startled at the new names 
applied to old genera, or at the reviviQcation of old 
namee ; for iostsnoe, on the authority of Flicy, 
Viscum album becamas Stelin album. As a full 
Fynonymj is givaa, and it Is to be hoped a full index 
will alas be fortiicoming, theae eooontricities may he 
psrdiuied, the more fully, as we are Informad that tbe 
book was Snlahed on December 15, lS7d, about 
2 o'clock in the anernoon, and therefore before the 
appearance ot De Candolle's " Lois," or tbe pubUca- 
tioo ot the Knc Indez. Moreover, no one need follow 
Dr. Bubani'a example. 

One entry in the preface we caQQOt rorbear quoting 
in the original. It tells how, on the afternoon in 
question, having finished his manuacript, he, with a 
full heart repeatedly embraced his daughter, that 
lUnghter who bore the name Felicia in coumemora- 
tion of the friendship that existed between tbe author 
nod Felix Dunal : — " Dlioo eo peracto gloriosua ad 
dilectinimam Gliam Feliciam accasit (eui magiatri et 
umici mei Dunal nomen Imposui), eomque quam 
aoavisaime, jucnodo corde itenim ac terCio oseulatus 
bum." ThU was in 1S73. In 1S;g, snd in 1880 
(July 26) the revision of ths whole was repeated, 
and probably the osculation. Till the day of bis 
death, in 1888, thia procsaa of rsvision awl addition 
waa oarried on. It has fallen to ProEaasor Peoiig's lot 
to see the completed volomea through the preea ; ha 
was preolnded from "VfUng any change in the text, 
bat the loaro mechanical labour of supervising the 
imprsaion of snoh a vtdume meat have hem axoep- 
tionally great A volume of such leamhig and 
erudition, and one so aoountely compiled, must. In 
spita of its eooantiteitjea, ha*s a warm welooma in tba 
botaoiat's lUnwy. 



12 



TBE ^AltDENEliS' CBttONICLE. 



[Jakcakt 1, 189& 



A FRENCH GARDEN IN 1646. 

(Con/HiiMcf from, vol, xzii , p. 425.) 

Aria Outoru.— Thiioontainstirobedi,the''SaUd" 
and the << Condiment ;*' fint, the Salad-bed, Palvinua 
aoetariua: Laotuca, Lettaoe; of this, some are aea- 
aiU, aome criap, andothen headed, called "Apple- 
Lettuce." The wild Lettuoe some take to be the 
Endive, though *' the Lettaoe baa the leaf of Chiooiy, 
yet it ia broador, whiter, and Iom inciaed.'* Seria 
(in Grk.), Intjbom (in Lat), Scariola of the Italiant, 
baa two oulttTated kinda, viz., the broad-leayed, 
Ciohorion domeiticum, and the narrow-leaTed, or 
''Endive." The wUd is called Gichorion, Le., 
" Chicory ; *' the Pioria of the Qreeka beoauae of its 
bittemeta. 

Hieracia fnaJoTf called ''yellow Chicory/' At the 
aathor deecribea thia as haying a rough atom briatliog 
with little apinea, it would seem to be a Sow- 
Thiatle, perhaps Sonchua aaper ; but he deecribea the 
garden Sow-ThiaUe under the name of Cioerbita (Lat.). 
which he aaya ia commonly called "Da laceron," 
Hieracia minor, the author obaervea, the common 
people call Chicory, or Wild Endive ; for it baa leavee 
divided at intervals, tender little stems, green, on 
which yeUow flowers are borne. It ia not clear what 
thia really ia. 

Malva, Mallows.— Theae were grown more for 
medicinal uaea, on account of their emollient pro- 
perties. He also desoribea the Tree-mallow " Roae 
d'Cultre Mer/' i.e., the Hollyhock. Biamalva, " Dea 
Ouimauvea," i.e.. Althaea ofBoinalis, or Marah- 
mallow. He aays of this, that it grows aa high aa the 
topa of the houaea in Oermany, and shepherds use its 
pliable atemt as whipe fbr Uie aheep! Acanthus, 
called mollis, becauae of the emollient nature of the 
root ; and, though not a true " Aoetarian," or Sslad- 
plant, he asaociatea it with the Mallowa. 

Oxalit, Wood-sorrel; PortuUca "Punier;*' Bipin- 
nella, " De la Pimprenelle," Poterium Sanguiaorba, 
or Salad Burnet ; Crithmum maritimum, Samphire ; 
Olua cordum, or cultivated Samphire, batia of 
Columella ; it waa called Empetrum, and the common 
people corrupted thia name to " Sanpetram ; *' thence 
it come to called St Peter'a Herb. 

Aapar€tgui.—There are two kiudS) one the " fat " 
(altilis), or the garden aort "It ia very quickly 
ooked, then steeped in vinegar and oil ; hence aroae 
the proverb of anything which can be done very 
quickly, one aaya—' More quickly than Asparagua can 
be cooked.* The other kind ia the wild, woody, and 
spiny speciea ; " perhaps, A. horridus of the European 
rocky ground. 

Cwdamum (Qrk ), Nasturtium (Lat), "Du Cresson 
alenois," i.e., 61oign^, Garden Cress ; N. aquaticum, or 
cardamina, because the taste reaembles that of Car- 
damoms, called by Latins, laver, or Sion ; in Fkvnch, 
" berle,** by a tranapoaition of the letters, thua — Later 
becomea verla, then verula, hence Fr. "berle.*' 
Modem dictionaries render this " the Celery." (Thia 
reminda one of the word Bevalenta^ i.e., Erva lenta, 
firamed from Ervum Lena, the Lentil). Sisymbrium, 
abo called Cardamina, is another water-plimt, which 
the aathor calla " Da creason,** but saya there has 
been a great contention over it. It appears to bo 
WaterKsreaa ; Bruca, " De la Roquette," E. aativa, X. 

SeneoiOf "Du Senecon," Qroundaell, "ia most 
pleaaant in aalada." The flower, he says, vaniahes 
into a pappoa, which the people call " barbe dieu." 
It may be noticed that Ion Gardener alao incladea 
the Oroandael aa a garden plant (A FifUeeiUk Cm* 
twry Treaiiie on Oardening^ by Hon. A. Amherat). 

Lapatkum, "Pa^elh^" or "De la Parelle, or 
Patience,*' Rumex Patientia, L. — This ia called 
Hippolathium sativum, or " Monk*B Rhubarbe,** by 
Qerarde {Herb,, p. 313). His figure resemblea Rumex 
Hydrolapathum, though our aathor deecribea the 
Hippolapathum of the Greeka as a distinct apedeo. 
Wilson*s (PV. Diet) gives Hydro-lapathum as 
Patience. Lindley deecribea R. alpinus aa the speciea 
in question. Of other kinds of Lapathum, our author 
mentions Sorrel, R. aeetosa; and L. aoatam« ie., 
Rumex acutos, called in Piccardy " Surelle.*' 

Borago, Borat/e, ot which he says : " We use the 
blue flowers in the more refined salads.** Cera- 
phyllam " Cerfueil ;'* Anthriacua oerefoliami Chervil 



Taroo, "Du lirgoo,** the aathor doea not know the 
plant, but aaya it haa leaves like Hyssop. It ia, of 
coarse, Artemisia Taragona, "Taragon;** and 
FnniculaB, Fennel This completea the liat of aalad 
planta. 

Thi Covdimeht Bid.— Cramben or Brasaica, the 
Cabbage, of which there are many kinda, red, white, 
green, thick and thin-leaved aorta. 

AtripUx, "Dea Arrochea,** white and purple. 
Theae were apeoiea of Chenopodium and Atriplex as 
figured by Gerarde. 

Mclockia and AtripUx marmum MaurUanis, a shrub 
like Halimus, of whioh the leavee were cooked. 
Gerarde describee Molooliia aa a kind of Baail, called 
"Fiah Basil/* the aeeds being received from Spain 
(Berit., p. 549). Beta, •'de U poree,*' the red kind 
waa called Sicla, a second ia white, and n third black. 
Blitum, deaeribed aa the moat insipid of herba ; it is n 
plant reaembling Sphiaoh, and caUed "dea eapinars," 
fh>m its spiny seeds, probably Amaranthna Wtam. 

laaione^ of Theophraatus, is a wild pot-herb, with 
a milky juice, bearing a white flower. Commonly 
called "Da liaeron.*' This ia Convolvulua arvenaia. 
Bindweed. 

Sdimm (OriL), Apitm (Lat), "Da peraU Mace- 
doine.*' Thia altogether reaembles garden Parsley, 
but the scent is a little pleasanter. It was called 
Petroaelinum macedonicum in the London Pkarmm- 
copaea until about 1760, when the nae of it was 
dropped. Under Selinon the aathor adda Atmm 
olua, i.^, Smymium dusatnun, Alexanders ; and 
Petroeelinam, Le., oreoselinum, or Mountain Seli- 
num, garden Paraley. 

CroeiUf probably Crocus aativua, cultivated for 
Saffron. Sinapia, Mustard, white and black, the aeed 
being called * Seneu^.*' Tliis waa the name varionaly 
spelt in the Middle English, e.g., fourteenth oentury. 

Parri, — ^Two kinds. The Leek and the Ampelo- 

praaod, "because it grows among the Vines." It ia 

Allium Ampeloprasum, L., our wild Leek. Qeorge 

ffenilow. 

(To he oorUinuedJ) 



ANTHRACITE COAL. 

Thkrb was published in our issue for October 23 
lait a letter from Mr. Thos. Christy, which gave some 
interesting particulars relating to Uie uae of anthra- 
cite coal in grataa. The style of grate to which 
allusion waa then made may be aeen on referenoe to 
fig. 5. It haa upright bars, and a pull-out firame at 
the bottom, the latter intended for oae when more 
than ordinary draught is desired. It haa n atone 
back, and probably many of our readera have seen 
similar onea. In this case, it was found that even 
when the damper at the bottom is quite cloaed, the 
draught ia a very strong one. Wishing to turn this 
to aeoount, Mr. Christy tried a quantity of anthracite 
ooal, and it burnt perfectly, there being very little 
aah remaining when the fire is exhauated. Anthra- 
cite is moderate in price, la capable of producing 
intenae heat,aad lasts longer than any other ooal If 
certain grates ensure sufficient draught to oauae thia 
fuel to bum satis&ctorily, its nie will effeot a con- 
aiderable economy. Like coke, it will be found to 
bum with greater freedom in gratea when broken into 
pieoea aboit the siae of a walnut 



Home Gorrespondenoe. 

THE QALE.-^Thi8 moming'a gale (Deoember 27). 
haa blown down half of a bsau^ful Cedar on my 
lawn. One bough is about 18 inchea in diameter, 
and a good length. Is it worth cutting into planks ? 
ff. N, SUaeombe, BiUon. 

A WELL-TRAVELLED FLOWfiR.—Georgina Pitcher 
is a pretty and a melodious appellation. It may 
originally have been, and perhaps still is, the name of a 
very charming lady. It has, however, ahready become 
somewhat public property, aa the appidlation of a 
fine fiower. Chryaantbemum Geormna Pitcher ia a 
new yellow Japanese incurved, and ia aa good aa 
aolid. We heard the other day of the travela of 
flower Georgina, which was out on November 8, was 
exhibited in a priie collection at the Weatminster 



Aqoarium lor thvse days, waa next shown at Edio- 
bmr^ then on the 27th at the Weatminater DriU 
Hall, and still oame up amiling and fireah ni the 
National Chryaanthemqm Soeie^'a December aiiow 
ontheTthinat lanotthatareoordshowattandaiice 
for one bloouL Evidently Georgina*a " pitohmr " m 
not easily broken. 2>. 

CARNIVOROUS Stuoa.— Sinee the appeannca of 
my note on the above, nnmecoua ooReapondeota 
from difEofent locaKtiea have given varioua opiaioiML 
There seems to be little doabt they are strietly cnr- 
nivoroua, and I think there are few gaideners vHio 
would be inclined to destroy aluga they knew to be 
camivoroas, thai they might enoounge earth< 
worms, great aa the part la they ondoubcedlj 
have pUyed in Nature, aa drainen and sSinfsis 
of the soil. Their presence is not el no nmeii 
importance where land ia artifleiaUy drained and 
under cultivation, being oonatantlv broken xxp by 
trenching, limeing, kc ; under wank oonditlona, it is 
A qoestion if the good they are able to do can com- 
penaate lor the misehief of trying to get anything 
and everything into their burrows. Surely there 
can be no question about the preeenee of worms oo 
lawna and tennie-ooorts, and it la my intentioo to 
transfsr some firom the kHohen garden to ^ bnrixm " 
but not ''cast" It doea aeem atrange, that daring 
alteratlona oarriad out hers fbr aeveral yean b 
various parts of the grounds, we have never foaai 
any except In the kitchen garden, where they ars 
very numeroas, and always In the soil I am aasoied 
the variety is the true TestaceUa haliotidea. Maj 
not those found so freeh" on the sur&ce by some d 
your correspondents be T. scutellam, or T. Mangei ' 
There are numy theories aboat the sheU nod ifei 
position— is it not simply rudimentary f So fw 
Uttle seems to be known of the life-histoiy of Ihate- 
ceUsi even by students of the Mouses. Yet It is 
generally acknowledged by all that they are strietly 
oamivoroua, aa the radula (or tongue) clearly indi- 
cates, by the complete rows of incSor teeth, as com- 
pared with the central molar teeth of the berbivoioaa 
aection. The all-important question to hortiooltoristi 
is, do they live entirely upon earthworma or not f 
An authority on the subject writes me—'* I sm with 
you in believing that they are useful, and do not lor 
a moment suppose that they feed exduaivriy on 
worms, but believe that they also feed on the larvw 
of many obnoxioua insects." I have muoh pleasore in 
ssndingyou living spedmensof T.haliotidea, abophoto- 
miorogn^ba of the " radulaa *' of oamivcrons and her- 
bivcrons slugs. M, ITeftsfer, Bechmkem, [We shall 
shortly pubUahanUlustratedartieleonthesabje^ Ed.] 

^-— This species is common here— ] 

although Mr. Webster said that he never 

across any in South Wales, or saw one of them 
out of the ground (see Qwrdenen CkronioU, p. 814, vol 
xxii). For my part, I can state that I have founi 
more of them on the surfaoe of the ground ^ h^^ 
below it, and I could flnd one any day ill sought for 
it It waa only last week that I came aoroas one of 
the alogs with its head thrust into a live snail, and 
I have often seen them devouring worms, but not 
snails. IF. OaviU, Penally. 

FRUIT JUOQINa— There is one point in ** Ayr- 
shire Lad's " note (p. 404), which well deeervea to 
be considered by judgee of fruit, vis., that of ripe- 
ness when shown. When the schedule distinctly 
says it is necessary that the fruit ahown ahall be 
ripe, judges have no choice in the matter ; but the 
preference for ripeness (even when out of sesaon) 
is carried to excess in many cases where it Is not 
demanded by the tehednle, and where ripenem is a 
pomtive delect I need only instsnce the single-dish 
clssses at the fruit ahow hdd under tiie aunioea of 
the Royal Horticultural Sodety at the CrystdPslnoe. 
Time and again I have aeen fruita that were ripened 
out of season placed before others that were in every 
way of better qualify but not ripe. Which is tlie 
most valuable dish, say, of Marie Louise Pear, dead 
ripe in September, or a similar dish at the end of 
October or in November T We have plenty of good 
summer Pears, but not so many aa the jemr 
advances, and to turn a late variety into an early 
one ia doing quite the wrong thing. It ia generally 
known, too, that the best-flavoured Marie Louise 
Pears are those grown in the open, where they have 
no artificial aids to ripening. It may be said that to 
lengthen the season of a good fruit is a gidn, and I 
grant that, but do not think that this is a point 
which should weigh with judges. I have only 
instanced one variety, but It is not for want of 
others ; the circumstance is common, and I mi^t 
just as well have selected the variety Pitmaaton 
Duohesi. Oornubian, 



Jantabv 1 1888,] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



PfHINim APPLE AND PEAK TREE8. — Mr. 
KstUs haTiiig ini*re)>r«Mntcd (p. 448) mj renurki 
made oa tba pruning ol Applet uid Fotn, I beg Iha 
editor'! permiMOU to reproduoe them. The cul- 
tural diniclioDa which Ur. Kettle hu miirepre- 
■enteil, u)d then uwd u a bMii tor > (omewhkt 
Icngthj ciitioiBm are :—" Upon the muiner in which 
tilia rimple though important operation u eirried 
out dopenda almoat entlrelj the building up of 
fknltfol and oonaequeDtlf profitable ipedmeni, 
whrther they b« itauiianla, pjnuuiiii, bnibee, or 
capalian. However, it would be better to let 
tha trari go unfruntd than to truit an onakilral 
nun with the pruning — that ii, to allow a min 
luvlng no olear objict in liew in oiKir«tia& on 
jroang or maiden trcde. The formation of Urge iruit- 
Maring tTMii, of whatarer kind, in ae abort a time a> 
poadUe, la the «Uh of all who poMoM froit-treaa; 
tbarafon, the jonng leading ^oota of alandard 
Pfiamid irea and biubet, ahould bepmned-bMk to 
Within from fi to ft inches ; aaoh of theae pmned- 



beiof; ftimiiihed with three wood-buda, and thcM 
banng puabcd into fi«e growth were pmned 
back to from 6 to 8 ioohet luC winter, eadi pmoad- 
bacli iboot producing from three to fire srowtba (hb 
year, thus giving na individoal traea witk troin nine 
to BCtaen growth* troai "IiM year's ent-baek 
maidnu ; " and the only pruning which I adviaed to 
be done to tbne tree* waa, " Where likely to beoome 
crowded, or to oroaB each oUier in growth, to cut 
back to within 2 inchee of Uat year'a wood.* H^deu 
fmit-traea, of whatever kind and ihape, moat be 
proned-ba^ in the manner mentlonad above, in 
order to lay tha foundation of well-balanoed, fruitful 
apnimene "in u short a time aa poatible.'' Mr. 
Kettle nye, "if you have out buk either itandarda 
or budiea, Ihey will have at leaet nine to twelve 
growlhai" adding "it Ihej are pmned back to 
6 or S inehea, and mike three to five more 
growlbi, you will get from twenty-aevan to aixty 
braochea within G to 9 iochea of the main atem," 
whkh in bia humble oplaloa ia far too many. 



the few leading ihoobi 
1 the ground before they 
Mr. Kettle aaya in con- 
cluding bia note that " root-pruning ia on operation 
entirely nnneceaaary (F) *o loog s> the tree baa room 
to extend ita btincbea." The revene of thla being 
the caae, I am inclined to think that the norde 
"ao long as the tree has room to extend its 
branches," muat be a misprint for, ao long aa 
tha tree yield* latiafactory enpa of fruit. (No.) 
Hr. Kettle cannot have rrad bia Gardrnen' Chrmide 
carefully during the past twenty yiats, or he vrould 
have known that T have been an advocate of the 
" extanalon syatfm " of pruning and traioing frult- 
Irera during that period of time. In pruning hori- 
Eootally-tnined wall or eepalier-treee of the Apple, 
Pear, and Plum, after the Bnt pair of branchea— 
eilanding right and lelt from the tree— ia aecured, 
the leading uprigbt-oenttal shoot ahould be cut* 
back to within 12 or IE inobea of the pair of 
horftontal branches of the current year'a make 
at pruning time every year, until tha top of the wall 
or espalisr wires ia raached, in order to obtain a new 
pair of braochea every year. I have tried to secore 
two pairs of horiiontal braochea annually, but only 
with partul sucoeaa ; aa aonie yeue only three buda, 
two on one tide and one on Uie other, would puib 
into growth, thereby rendeijtig the inBsrtioii of a 
"bud" in the main atem, clote to tbe dormant bud, 
nee salary, in order to prevent a blank occurring in 
the buUding up of the tree, JT. IT. IPonf, Xagltish, 



VITia COIONETiiC,— At Culford Hall, near Bury 
St-Edmunda, is growing a floe young Tine under the 
above name, which is the same way aa that illultiated 
in your issue for October 30 <p, 30S}. It was planted 
out during tha past spring to cover a portion 
ot a wall facing west, and close to the north 
wall of the garden, ao that it ia well ahet- 
tered from eaat and north. Here it haa grown 
vigorously, having made eight or ten yonng roda, 
each aa strong aa an ordinary pot- Vine prepared for 
fruiting, and about 10 feet long. At the time of my 
viait a few weeks ago, the large elaret-^oloured leaves 
were very efitctiva, and the canes were well 
ripened. The Vine will become a vary abriking 
object in autumn, and the coloured leavea renuin 



FlO, 6.— ANTHEACITK OOAL OKATE. (SSE P. 12.) 



baek ahoota will produoa from three to five growtba 
next ipring. Theae—ailumiDg that wo have last 
jaar'a oat-back maldena to deal with now^where 
Bkely to beoome crowded, or to croaa each other in 
growth, should ba ant faaok to within 2 inches o( laat 
year'a growth. This will result in the fomiation of 
frnit-buoa, in addition to promoting a aymmetrioal 
shi^ in tbe individual treea. Onoa- young treea of 
tbiadeaoription have borne a fair crop of fruit, they 
will require very little annual pruning beyond the 
enttlng out of a branch here and there where likely 
to oroaa each otiier, repenting tbe uperation 
more or leea every year as puj be called 
for, until the treea acquire the deaired aiie." 
Any r«sder who may take tlie trouble to read tbe 
above in connection with Ur. Kettle'a oommenta 
thereon will eaaily lee that he haa quoted certain 
sentMiaaa tharerrom without giving the context. 
Ur. Kettle appear* to forget that " tnaiden treea " are 
not fomiebed with " six to eight growths to the 
m^D atem." Let oi inppOBB that maiden treea^ ia., 
■lodta gntltad in the apring ot lS9fl, each asloti 



Having made the above pM eunlra 
which Hr. Kettle himself is solely reepondble, be Is 
willing, however, to "grant that the badly-plaoad 
shoots oan ba taken off," adding, " but tlie writer 
does not, advise this, but to out baek (aneh mit- 
plseed growtiia) to within 3 inobea." What ia thia 
but taking ofTt Moreover, any ahoota (two at the 
moat) prooeediog from the said 2 inabaa of lateral 
growth, should be pbohed hard back tiie following 
summer, with a view to producing frnlt-bod*. Hr. 
Kettie goes on tossy " ha has yet to see a decidnous 
tree made shapely and firoitful by asvere pruning." 
WflU, be must be very young, and ao&aeqnently 
inexparianoad I I have frequentiy adviaed thta 
in tha case of neglected trees in orchards 
and gardens, in order to secure afaapdy and 
fruitful treea. If a young Apple, Pear, or 
Flum-trae is left to itaelf. I.e., not pmned at all, 
the pushing into growth ot the buds or the upper 
portions of the individual shooti at the expanse ot 
tboaa lower dourn will ooonr until tiie exuberanoe of 
growth Is checked by tha treia bearing a good crop of 



, .. 1 pits; then 

toUow thoee from colder fiunea. Succeeding theae 
will be thoce grown at the foot of a soath wal), and 
then those on n warm, south border, between the 
rowi of Peas, the stakes used for the latter forming a 
capital shelter for the Patatoa. I used to grow tor 
the Grat crop the old Myatt's AshlMf in pots ptscad 
in a nenly started Feochhouse. Some time previous 
to potting, the tubers ware placed in single layers in 
■hallow boxes conlaining a litUe leaf-mould. The 
Iioxea were then placod in slight warmth, and occa- 
Moually sptayad over with water. When growth bad 
commenoed, all the weakest were rubbed ofT, leaving 
Uiree of the best aod strongest to each tuber. Tbe 
lO-inch or 12-inch pote were then drained and halt 
BUod with a rather light, modeiately rich soil, and 
three tubers planted in each. They ware then lightiy 
watered, and afterwords placed in aa light a poaition 
as could be given them. Tho plants should be 
earthed-up when the tope have grown S inehea, n«ing 
soil that boa previouoly been warmed to the aama 
temparatnre as that of the house in which they are 
growing. Qreat oare shoold be taken not to over- 
water them, for if the Boil be kept too wet, hilnra 
an sore to follow, and a eloaa atagnant atmoapbere 
wUl be equally injurious. //. M, 

ROYAl. SOVEREIQM STRAWBERRY.— This variety 
did very badly with me last spring as a fotver for 
market supply, and was nowhere aa against Laitou's 
Noble and BIr Joseph Poxton. It had long strsggting 
fruit-Htalks, and enough leavsa on one plant to serve 
for two. Oat-of doors it was the same. I got my 
plants from a trustwortliy Brm, snd I should b* glad 
if some market oultivaton would record their expe- 
rence of this much vaunted variety, ir. Canll, 



aULPHURINQ VINEa—Having repeatedly read la 
"Answers to Correspondents " your caution against 
burning flowen-of-aulphur in vineries dut have been 
pmned, I take the libarty ot informing them that 
thia may be dona with poAot safety. I have been 



14 



TBE GAB DE NEB 8* C BR ONI CLE. 



[JANTAmr 1, 18M« 



in the habit of burning solphnr in mjTinoriM for iho 
pMt fifteen yeers, and have aeTcr seen one single 
matance of injury to the Vines, although the quanUtj 
of sulphur ii never weighed, or the cubioal area of the 
house measurad. Our yineriee are all about one 
length, bat they Tary in height ; in a house with area 
of about 6000 cubic feet we use a 32-sized potful of 
sulphur (should suppose this would be about H lb.), 
but I do not believe any injury would be done to the 
Vines if double the quantity were used. Bxperiencc 

ABNORMAL TEMPERATURE.— It mav be interest- 
ing to your readers to know the unusually high tern- 
perature reoorded here on Saturday, 18th mt. On 
a small post, at about a foot from the ground, and 
quite in the open, a thermometer showed 74** at 
11.30 A.!!., and remained so for half-an-hour. H. L. 
WqJU^ Bosdands Nunery, Eattboume, 

A FRENCH GARDEN IN 1545.— The plant re- 
ferred to as a Hollyhock is Tagetes patiUa. It is still 
known in France as " (Eillet dlnde,** and is men- 
tioned in Xa Maison JRustique aa'* (Eillet d'Inde ou 
Turquie,** which The Country Farme (1600) trans- 
lates " Indian Qilloflower,** giving at the same time 
the Latin names, "Flos Petillius "and << Ocellus 
indicus.'' " Ck>quelourde " includes "Flos Jovis," 
*' Fleur de Jupiter,*' or " lychnis Flos Jovis." See 
Vilmorin*s publications, where Anemone Pulsatilla is 
referred to "Anemone," and the other to '*Coque- 
lourde,'* which is practically synonymous with the 
English " Co<^e " aa applied to flowers. Jt P. B. 

DI08PYR08 KAKI. — Mr. Burbidge suggests, 
Oard, Chron,, p. 441, last vol., that in the souw and 
west, near the sea, the plant might thrive and fruit 
in the open air. I have had it here for more than 
ten years, and it has often ripened its fruit ; and 
three years ago I had over forty fruits on it, most of 
which ripened welL It has also fruited at Tortworth 
on quite a young tree. I wonder it is not more 
grown. It is quite hardy, and even as a foliage^ 
plant it is weli worth growing. fT. K, SUacombe, 
BitUm, 

A HALL FOR HORTICULTURE. -^ I do not 
remember ever having seen It stated by anyone 
but Mr. Divers that we National Chiysanthemum 
Society "could not succeed apart from its music-hall 
assooistions.** I have gone the length of stating that 
the National Chiysanthemum Society cannot possibly 
carry on four flower-shows in a year^oovering the 
whole of the Chrysanthemum season — without soma 
such assistance as that rendered by the Royal 
Aquarium. One fact cannot be disputed — that it 
was not until the Borough of Hacknev Chrysanthe- 
mum Society became associated with the Royal 
Aquarium that it developed from a local society into 
one of national importance. Its £px>wth without 
pause during the entire {>eriod of that association has 
been and is still phenomenal. Despite the large 
space the building affords, I find Mr. Divers and 
others complaining of its crowded condition, 
and of the difficulty experienced in seeing the 
flowers, and they suggest as a substitute a horti- 
cultural halL It would require to be as large 
as St Paul's Cathedral to meet the requirements 
of the NaUonal Chrysanthemum Society. The 
people go to tiie Aquarium despite its associations, 
and it is gratifying to notice an increase in the 
attendances at tiie September, October, and December 
exhibitions. Mr. Divers and others overlook the fact 
that hundreds who attend the Aquarium seci probably 
for the first time, fine displays of flowers, and in this 
way a new-bom interest is aroused in many who are 
thereby inducAd to cultivate. I get substantial proof 
of thii in various wava I am further convinced that 
if the rank-and-file of the membership of the National 
Chrysanthemum Society were polled, there would be 
an overwhelming vote in favour of continuing the 
shows at the Aquarium. The entertainment, so much 
denounoed by some, is a great source of attraction to 
numbers in the gardening profession. They meet 
friends there, they can talk together, and amoke, and 
drink if they please ; there is warmth, and light, and 
life— and these are to them sources of enjoyment 
The practical man notices these things ; the sentimen- 
taliat and the theorist overlooks them. It is true the 
Edinburgh Chiyianthemum show was a great success, 
so was that at Birmingham ; but at Mancheater and 
other large centres they were diamal fkilures. Let 
Mr. Diver* consider what has been the fiite of large 
flower-ahows in London during the past twenty years. 
The Crystal Palace is held to be a model place in 
which to hold a flower-show ; the exhibitiona formerly 
held there, with other attractions thrown in, failed to 
pay. Whm are the great showa oi the Royal Botinio 



r Did the ventore of the Royal Her- 
ticnltniml Society at the Agrionltural Hall a few 
years sgo answer! The raply is, they have 
not ^e there ainesi All the prtttufe of the Royal 
Horticultural Soeiety cannot induce the people to 
go and tee a show in their Chiswiok gardens ; they 
cannot set their FeOowa to the Drill Hall meetinn* 
The ssriea of fine exhibitions held at Earl's Court la 
1392^93 faaed to draw ; as did thoss at Olympia 
two years ago. The National Rose and the National 
Dahlia Society would in all probability ooHapse were 
it not for the sebsidiea furnished by the Crystal 
Paboe Company. Let the National Rcae Society 
run a ahow in Loodon without any outside flnanciM 
a ws ta n oe— I should predict fln a nci a H ailure. London 
cannot, and must not, be placed on a level with 
Edinburgh. There is a social homogeneity about the 
latter city laokii^ in the former. There is in London 
a vast variety of counteracting entertainments, not 
on^ in the centre, but all round the circumference ; 
and there is aoaroely aa important suburb but has 
its ovn society and annual exhibition of Chrysanthe- 
mums in November. Apart from the diOiculty of 
flnding a place largs enough to hold a ahow like that 
the N. C. S. holds in Novembsr, the cost of it would 
be enormous, the risk very great The best expe- 
rience which could come to Mr. Divers would be in 
taking charge of the details of a large flower ahow in 
London, and 1 am confident he would see things in 
their true light, and understand better why I, who 
have had a great deal to do with London flower 
ahows in the paat, have been led to think an 
exhibition held by the N. C' S. anywhere else but at 
the Aquarium would be incurring a heavy floandal 
risk, I for one shrink from undertaking. (The flgures 
4000, third line, centre column, p. 449, should read 
5000.) Richard Dean, Ealinj, W. 



Law Note. 



COOKSON V. SAMSON. 

A OASi of considerable interest to bee-keepers was 
heard before His Honour, Judge Sir D. L. Selfb at 
the County Court, Romney, Kent, on August 19 
hMt, in which the plaintlfl; Mr. 0. D. Cookson of 
Blean, Canterbury, sued the Rev. G. H. Samson of 
New Romney for damages for misrepresentation, or 
in alternative for breach of warranty. Mr. Percy 
Maylam, solicitor, Canterbury, r e presented the 
plaintiff ; and Mr. F. C. Drury, barriater, instructed 
by Mr. Bracher of Maidstone, defended. 

In view of its importance to the beeinduatry generally, 
and the more or leas conflicting reports of the case 
given in the daily preas, we have been at acme trouble 
to aeoure a special and reliable account of the pro- 
oeedings (from the reporter's notes) for the benefit of 
our readers, which will be found below. This expla- 
nation is mide in order to account for the delay in 
publiahing particulara ; not fbom lack of intereat, but 
aa dCimrdlng a reason why Wi» did not acknowledge 
the scores of preis-cuttlngs kindly sent by various 
readers for insertion in our pages. 

In opening the plaintiff's case, Mr. Maylam stated 
that the plaintiff had purdiased of the defendant twelve 
atocks of bees, which defendant had offered for sale 
in the Britisk Bu Journal for October 22, 1896, as 
bein|^ *'atrong stooks of healthy aelected grain blaok 
bees,** the amount of purchaae-money for the twelve 
atocks, and oertain bee-keeping accessories, being £16. 
The pUintiff had bought the boss on the strength of 
the representation that they were hiealthy, as stated 
in the advertisement, and confirmed by subsequent 
verbal statements ; whereas they were infected with 
foul brood, a bee-disease of a very serious kind, as 
being extremely destructive and infectious. Mr. 
Maylam explained the nature of the disease, and quoted 
from the leaflet issued by the Board of Agriculture 
on the subject. As a oonaequence, the whole of the 
stocks bought had died a abort time after the par- 
chase, having previously infected with the diseaae 
beea which had belonged to the plaintiff, and were 
healthy before the purchase in question from the 
defendant He submitted that Uie defendant was 
liable, in the first instance, in contract, aa the adver<' 
tisement and representaUon amounted to a warranty, 
and argued that a bare representation or asse r 



tioo as to the qaality of goods mighi anHwwt 
to a warranty. Seooadly, he (Mr. Maylam) aob- 
mltted that the defendant waa liable In toct 
for misrepresentation, on the ground that, being 
a osrtiflcated expert, he must have been awmra 
of the state of the bees when he repreaentad 
them as. healthy^ and evidence would be produced to 
show that he had been warned that fbul brood 
existed smong his bees belors (he sale took place. 

His Honour the Judge, in giving his deeiaioo, 
said : I am of opinion that no case of misrepreeeota- 
tion has been ma de out, and am surprised that it bae 
been brought It appears that the defendant had no 
knowledge that the bees were infected with fool 
brood, and being an expert he conaidered his opinion 
as good as that of Mr. Hamlyn-Harria. With 
to the question ol w ar r anty , it la plain that the 
were described as he althy in the advertisement, and we 
have the statement of the plaintiff that they were de- 
scribed as healthy to him, and he bought them relying 
on that assurance. On the first oocaabn the plaintiff dkl 
not exambue ; on the second he did ; but only to the 
extsnt of ascertaining how many frames were eov ei ed 
with beea. It appears to me that the defoidant did 
BsU them as healthy boss, and that the pUdntiff rdled 
on the misrepresentation of the defendant thai tke 
bees were healthy ; therefore there has been a war- 
ranty. Now, we have seen they were aerioosly 
infected, therefore there hss been a breach of war- 
ranty, and the verdict will be for the plaintiff for thi 
amount claimed, with ooets. 



Obftttarfi. 

Mr. James Brown.— It is with much ragrst 

that we record the death, in the aixty-fiftli year of his 
age, of Mr. James Brown, gardener to Capt D. Moray, 
of Abercaimey, Perthshire, on December 22, after 
over forty years' service there. The deesased waa one 
of the beattknosm gardeners in Sootland, and ha was 
for many years a keen and socoeaiful exhibitar of 
vegetables and hardy fhiits at the leading hoftioQ^ 
tural ahows at Perth, Dundee, Rdinbuigb, and 
Qlssgow ; and owing to his extensive knowledge 
and to his weH-known cons den tiousneas in awarding 
prisea, he was frequently asked to officiate aa judge 
at such shows. His work at Abercaimey and hia 
devotion to his employer's intereets, were duly appre- 
ciated by hia gallant employer. Mr. Brown auooeeded 
his father-in-law, the late Mr. James Amot Absr- 
eaimey waa the home of the Mclntoahes of DalkeM 
and Drumlanrig Qardeos, and ia one of the moa 
beautiful of Scottish seats, if. TempU, Camn^ Hf.A 
[The gardener's cottage waa figured in our issue far 
Fcbruuj 17, 1894. Ed.] 



Societies. 

■ • 

BOTAL HOBTIOULTUBAL« 
Scientific Committee. 

Dkckmbbr 14.— Prwmf ; Dr. M. T. Masters (In the c^iair) 
iCr. Michael, Rev. W. Wilks, Mr. Botton, Prof. Church, and 
tint. O. Henslow(Hoii. Sec). 

CfpriptdiuM^ MoMiroua.—Vfith reference to the specimen 
sent to the U«t DieeUng by Mr. Veltch, Dr. Masters reports 
that the Up was waotlng. but the dorsal and Tentral •epala 
as well as the lateral peUls were normal ; both stamens 
were present, but only two eaipels, standing In an antero- 
posterior position. 

TiiherouM OrouHks on Fiius.— Mr. S. T. Wright sent sotne 
gall«IIke structures taken from Vines in the large Tiaerjr at 
Chiswick. He observea that ** many of the old and joax^ 
rods are similarly malfbmMd at their base. It doee not 
appear to afTeot the health and vigour of the rods. In all tlie 
malformations grubs or maggots are present ; but neittier 
moths nor weevils hare been seen in the house.** Mr. 
Michael pronouuodd the grubs to be coleopterous^ but they 
were not likely to have been the erase. Professor Church 
undertook to examine them chemically. There wae no 
apparent structure In them beyond a mus of oellalar-tiaaae 
with a corky exterior surface. 

HetUbarei DUeaaed.^Sam^ badly diseased plants were 
reoelTed from Mr. F. W. Burbidge. Botanic Gardens, Dublfa. 
They were submitted to Kew for examination. The rspoct 
was as follows :— " Phoma effoaa, Desm., Is the nana of tKe 
fungus attacking the HeUebonm The diseased portiooa 



THE GABDENERS- CEBONIOLE. 



■hauldtwismondiDdtiuniail. Hint thli Hunn the fimgua 
la producing mrriiJa of uporn, wbkb I[ro u «prapbyt» od 
humiu in tbg kU for nnu tlma boturs thtr ■» o&pabK nl 
noting u pmiiltu. Tbg Hgllshors sbooti of ncit yur will 
bg iaf«ct«d by tb«ia npdren, Tbo Hbavg oltflmaUon tram x 
pwltio to a lapTopbytlc loodB or lira gUMbUd tbo fuoguB 

to tldi DTsr the period clixrinir which lU hut-pUntli hoc 
KtiTelf irowlDg. Bpnyliig with > tolutEon o[ pataalum 
■iilpblde (1 oi. to 9 kbL of watw) whsn the Iibtw Snt 

■PPMT [ 



KttloD rnm 



Jfolly wil* Antnn 



IP ur follow uid that at tbo 
mitloD dadnit. Tbl* Mr. ' 



NOBTHAHFTONBHiaE CHBYSAH- 

IHEUUIC. 
Db:iiiheii is. — Tho HDDiul nwotlDK o( (hia Soclaty wu 
held at tlin Ranhona Inn, Ablugdon Sqmin, Nortbampton, 
on tha nbnie data, undor tba proildaDc; of Mr. ¥ Parlciiu. 
icolpti fur tha yoar wen itated 1 



on tha JCU-. Tha raport w«a adoptod, j 
at oOcara wu pmcaodad with. Kr. L 
ohoaan pmident, and tbe whole of thi 
la.Blactwl (I ht-r. wlUi the addition < 
wood Road. Mr. E. Drapar w*a ratlaclad 



ieeof£i«j. 1 
,hgn tha eloctl 
Shan. 1I.P.,< 
.praildenta w 



NEWCASTLE AND DISTBIOT HOBTI- 
ouLTiTBAL mmrAi. IMFBOVEUENT. 

DacuBiB ll.^Tbo monthly meallnEr o( thla Soolatr wu 
bald at U, Wetlgat* Rood, NawcaeUa-on-Tyso, on tha aboTo 
dUa, Mr. Bullock pmridlog. 

Thla bolns tha Arat of > ear 





atand ol 




owanof Japana* 








antflai. «i\ of which wai 


er aioaptJDii 


I tnwtl, Tha 




wflra .hown by Mr. Huf 


... Rnn 








-Tyna, 












uda 


to Mr. Lari 














: «d 1 


Mr 














A laneral dtocuailon took 


pUcoo 


tha 


■Cultlv.illoao 


th 






'thatbirty-nTemon 


ban 


pnuwot look part. 











Cfaryaanthemum 



held li 



Edln 



i hArrsat-bomf 

lars-a. Alter all n 
ca of £2M. They 1: 
irmary parlllon aoh 



fr, Ch. Turaar, SloiiBh. 
a, " Thoy are cut (tom 
two yean. Thaberrlee 
i to red In the aooond 
rilahabia botweoo tha 



dlgaatloal 

which, thr 

and by It to tha plant Itaelf . Wh( 

tha leaf haira worn eitaiidad M b. 

Vdlaius, baring c 



.tmctlnff and abaorblog the food, 



wptanti 



laiad to ha uied for feeding the plant, 
ja plant wjm fed by nltnganona nuanra 
\a rootd. Ita ln«aat-Batliig propaaaity became lan^id and 

Tg'by they llTod. It waa aaaumod, and held by many 
inlflla. that Homo pUnta bad out-lived tha uuectlvoToue 
«. and bid beuoina root-reedera ; PamaHl&paliiitrJa baing 

iwed. BfTeral good aposlm'aa ware on the tabla ts 



SOOTTISH HOBTI(mi.TTmAL 
ASSOCIATION-. 

DKUIBERSI.—AannrHiriaiu. attended by about laoladlee 
and genUemen. wai held Id tha Royal firltUb Hotel, Edin- 
burgh, on Tiieaday oreabig- December 31, by tba Scotllih 
tlortlcnltunl Aeaodatlon. The giieiti w^re reeelvad by the 
PraaldeBt<Mr. Todd), who wae aocompanlad byMra. Toid. 
in tha new dlBlng-Toam. the caDIra table of which wai 
dODDTitt^ with CliryaantbHmumt. The chief purpoia of MA 
gathnfng waa the anBOUDonmsnt of tha allocation of the 
BurplUB Innda derived from tha retwit aueoaaaful Chryaan- 
tbemuai ihow held In the Waiarley Market, whlcti, it had 
bean rptolvad, ihould be devoted Co charitable purpoaea. In 
the oourao of the eTeninK tha Prealdent Intimated the Aiao- 
inatlon> dacLalDD. AddrsHlnA the jfatbarlng, ha eaid they 



depended largely for Iti 
the kingdom. £«) would 
1, and £90 to the Oarden 



FLAX PRODUCE IN IRELAND. 
It U intanatiDg to learn that a nota of improTe- 
mmt hu baan •oauded in tha (liter iaia. Thua we 
are told th>t capital ii finding ita opportunitj up and 
down the country ; niln; mllinj-atoak is being 
^I^trf iheL^' ft«™t wlthTche^Qe [wlnoofor the ("Bi-haul«d and brought up-to-date i hotela are belpg 
iDflnaary paTllion Khama, and alao handed a cheque for either imprOTAd, extended, or built, on likalj rontei 
CBO to Mr. Cook, C.A., Troaaurar of the Sick Cblldiun'a Hoe- for tOuriaU ; and, thougli lut, not leut, attOnUon ia 
pital. The donstlwu woto aultihly a,.k.io»lcdged. j^i^ p^j ^ improvementa in Flax culture, with the 

' view ot raduoing tho amount ituportad from abroad 

DEVON AND BXETEK OASDENESS'. — extending an induatry which ia of prime importance 
niciiuBER I'?.— An intereating lecture un " Insectlroroua to the North of Ireland more espaeially. In thla 
Flanta" wu raid by Mr. Nohh.h Oili, gaidener at connection we are told by an authority that amoag 
Tntnough, Pcnryn, Cornwall, on tho oeoaalon of the the Flal shown at Belfaat the Other day waa aome 
masting on tho abort date. Su uld that while theaa planta from Dromore, CO. Down, grown under the auper- 
viaion and direotion of an expert Flax farmer, 
brought from HoUaad by Maaars. William Birbour 
k SoQi, of Hilden— the lirge-Ilnan thread msnu- 
facturen, whoae ■erriooa bad been plaoed at the 
diipoeal of some of the farmarA in the Dromore and 
Dromata distriota who ware in tha habit of growing 
Flax every year, and who could be prevailed Bpoa to 



attention vaa not dlraotly called to tha peculiar propertlea of 
Bundewi, Butterworta. and BUdderworti, until Du-wId, 
In conjunction with HIr J. D. Hookor, awakened an Interna 
In the aiibjoct. We could only muator t-ralTe IndlKOOoua 

mora notable Nepenthe*, Harraeonla, £c.. coming from foreljpi 
landa. The Suedew, howeier, wa a good type, and ahowad 



try for themsalvea if there waa any advant^e to U 
derived by followinR the cuatoma adopted in other 
oouQtriea Id referenoe to Flax-growing. The expati- 
manta show that by greater care and attention on tha 
part of the farmer and the aontoher, Flax would be 
grown at a muoh more remunsrative rate than at 
preaant, and that it would not be neoeaaary to import 
BO much every year from the Contlneoh Heaven 
helps thoae who help themaelvee, trulf. The Cork 
butter market ha* fhlt all thia— other folka may 
(afely follow the example ; and ao, by-and-by, the 
■tght of ao-oalied " plctoraaqne baggan " InfeaUng all 
popular routea and " ahow plaoea "may become oa 
rare aa it at preaent hna to be deplored. Work la a 
fioe bumaniaer and breeder of content. 



AEADINa AND DISTBIOT aAB- 
DENEBS' anrCUAL IKPBOVEMENT. 

The laat fortnightly meeting for the aaaaon I^IT waa held 
recently la the Abbey Hall, and waa prealded uTorby tha 
Prealdent. Mr. C. B. STitKBi. A vary large number of 
mambera attended, to hear a paper entitled " A Uhat about 
ChryaaDtbomunia." by Mr. E. J. Jonea, of LawUhain, the 
wall-known eihlbllor and grower. 

Tha paper was glian In a vary IntsreaUng and "racy" 

iUuitntlona. Tha paper waa dlilded Into aaTeial aeotlDaa. 
auoh ai propagation. compoaCa. potting, manuring watering, 
InaeoU. houaing of tha planta, enhlbltlng, Ac. 



EUCRYPHIA PINNATIFOLIA. 

Tbib very haodaome htrdj ahinb ia not to well 
known a» it ahoald be. Perbapa now that It haa 
ripened ita frulta it may become more oommon. T^a 
oapaulsa illustrated (Sg. S] oame from the garden of 
Ham Breton, of Bandhont, Berka, a lady, who by her 
love of planta, enablea them to overcome the diiad- 
vantagea of a aita that ie not in all points an ideal ooe 
for gardeoing. The fruit it a cnpaole, buraUng along 
tha partitiona (aaptioidally), and Moh of tha ten or 
twelve oavitiea oontaim two rowa of pendaloui aredi, 



Orchid Notes and Gleanings. 

CYPEIPEDIUM mSIONK VAE. SANDER& 
A FLAKT of thla variety, a amaU portion of the 
Pickering Lodge plant, la now ocming into flower in 
the Tjntcafield collection. Hr. Biu4y intaoda lu 
exhibit it at the oext mrctiug of the Royal Hortioul. 
turol a^dety, January 14, ao parhapa Uie writer of 
laat year, who knew m«re of our pbntx than we do 
ouraelvei, will hava ao opportnnity of eiplaloiiig the 
diffetenee between thi* and the true varie^. T. S. 



The Weather. 



OJunad : and thin oomblned raeuJt Is eipi 
degreea— a " Day'degrae" algnifylng 1 



apland Id exhibit of flowera, he, by tha mambera greatly 
ed to tho Interoat of the meettng. Meiara. 3UTT0a A 
a (ant aorae beautiful Bpuimeui of Cy^mana, inctnding 
«n'a Salmon Queen, Vulenn, White ButtarBy, kc. Mr 
'NAKifD. Bondhunt Lodge Gardana, atogad aome grand 

7. H. Lincoln Cbryaanthemum. ahowlnjE tha dacontiva 
ifl of planta grown In 3-lnch pota; and Mr. BkAOLEV, 

na, and a faaakat of Muihrooma. Mr. WooLroBD, Eaat 
rpa Gardeni, contribuCsd beautiful plauti ol Bsgonla 



The dlilnota Indicated by onmbar Id tha nnt oaloma are 
the rallowiog :— 

0, Scotland, N. PHitipH iniiaf-muliicliu JMMrfctt-^ 
I, Scotland, B. ; I, Bngland, N.B. : S. Knaland. K. ; 
i, Midland Oountlea ; i, Bn«laud. LuclDdlng London, B. 



DMHcU — e 
I.W.: S, Bnaland.e.W. 
; * Ohannel falanoa. 



SoeUud. W. ; 



16 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Janxtaby 1, 1898. 



THB PAST 17E1K. 

Tab following vuamMsy record of the weather throoghoot 
^le Britlih laUnde for the week ending December 85, to 
fumtohed from the Meteorologlcel Office \— 

"The waUur during thto week wm generally fine, dry, 
and cold, orer Great Britain ; a good deal of fog proTailed at 
times over the inland parte of Bngland. Over Ireland the 
oen d i t ionii were, aa a whole, fine, dry, and mild. 

'*The Umftroturt waa below the mean in Scotland, 
and nearly all porta of England, but Just equal to it 
in * Bngland. S.,' and *&W.' In the north and east 
of Sootland the deficit waa as much as SP, Orer Ireland the 
aTerage for the week varied from f to 4** abore the normaL 
The highest of the maTima was reoorded on the 19th over 
Engisnri, but oo the 25th in most parts ot Ireland and Soot* 
land ; they ruiged from 55*^ in the ^Channel Islands' and 
51« in ' Ireland, &,' to 47® in * Bngland. B.' At some of 
the northern Sootoh stations the daily maiima were on 
several oooasions below 88®. The lowest of the minima were 
registered between the Slstand S4th, and ranged from 12® in 
• Sootland, B.' . (at NainX l^"" in * Scotland, N.' (at lAirg), 
and 19®in the ^Midland Counties' and 'Scotland. W.,*to 
38® in the * Channel Islands,' and 34® in * Iretend, S.' The 
mean of the minima was as low as 17*4® at Nairn, and 10*8® 
at Lairg. 

" The Bainjdll was entirely absent from most districts, bat 
slight amounts wore measured at some of the western and 
northern stations towards the end of the week. 

'* The Bright SunaMm exceeded the mean in all districts 
exoepting'*Englaud, N.E ,' and < Scotland, W.,' the excess 
being very laige in the south and south-west The per- 
centage of the possible duratUm ranged from 47 in the 

Channel laUnds' and 46 in * England, S.,' to 86 in 
' England, S.W.,' 85 or 2« in IreUnd, 15 in 'Scotland, N..' 
and to 14 in 'England, N.W..' and 'Scotland. W.' The 
highest percentages reoorded at any individual station were 
70 at Jersqr, 01 at Westboume, and 50 at Hastings." 



Markets. 

m 

OOVBNT QARDBN, DBOEMBER 30. 

[We cannot accept any responsibility fbr the subjoined 
reports. Th«y are furnished to na regularly every 
Thursday, bv the kindness d several of the principal 
salesmen, who revise the Est, and who are reeponsiDle 
for the quotaliona. It mxiat be remembered that these 
quotaUona do not lepresent the prices on ua paiiieular 
oay, but only the general averagee for the week preceding 
the date of our report. The prices depend upon the 
quality of the samples, the supply in the market, and the 
oemand ; and they ma^ flttomate, not only from day to 
day, b«it often several tunea in one day. Bd.! 



Out Flowkbs.— AvaaAOB WsoLiaaLB Puocs. 

ff. d. t. d. ff. d. ff. d 

4 0-00 Mignonette, da. bn. 80-40 
00-16 
0-08 



4ruas, IS blooms... 
Axalea, dox. sprays 
Bonvardlaa, pr. bun. 
Oamations, pr. doa. 



(Chrysanthemums, 
p. doa.blooms . 
— p. dox. bunohee 
Bucnarls, per doaen 
Qerdenlas,doa.bms. 
Hyadnth, Roman, 

doaen apravs ... 
LQac, French, per 

bu n ch ... ... 

liliumHarrlsl, per 

doa. biooma 
li&oC the Valley, 

aoisp sprays ... 
MaldenhMr Vsm, 

per 18 bunchaa ... 
Marguerltea, per IS 

bunc es m* 



10-30 

06-8 6 
80-6 
40-6 
8 0-50 

6-10 

8 (^ 4 

4(^00 

10-80 

4(^80 



... 8 0-40 



Mignonette, da. bn. 

Orchids >• 

Cattleya. 12 bms. 

Odontopossum 

crtopnm,lSbm. 

Pelargoniuma, soar* 

let, per 18 bun. 

— per 18 sprays... 
Fyrethrums, per IS 

bunohee 
Bosee, Tea, per doa. 

— yellow (PeartoX 
per dosen 

^ pink, per doa. 

— Safruio, 



00> 9 
2 0-40 



5 0-9 
6-0 

16-8 
6-1 

2 0-4 
16-8 



A 
9 




A 
6 



1 0- S 



p. doa. 
Stephanotis, doaea 
spraya ... ... 4 0-60 

Tuberoses, 18 blms. 8-04 

Violets, 18 bunches 16-80 

* Parme, French 3 0-46 

White Nardss, 

French, 12 bun.... 10-80 



OnoBiD-BLooai tn variety. 
Flahts ui Pots.— Avbbaob Wbolsuo.! Paicas. 



Adiaatnns, p. doai 
Aspldlstrsa,perdoa. 



Anlea, per doaen . 
(Thrysanthemums, 
p. doa. pota ... 
■» specim e n, or 



ff. d. ff. d. 

4 0-lSO 
18 0-80 

5 0-lSO 
30 0-4S 

60-00 



large plaata,ea. 
Cineraria, per dox. 
Cyclamen, per dox. 



— various, p. doai 

Brioaa, various, per 

dose n M. ... 



16-8 
9 0-15 

12 0-18 
10-7 

18(^84 



0-18 



Evergreen shrubs, 

in variety, doa.... 
Ferns, smaU, doa. ... 

— various, doai 
Fious alastlca, each 
Foliage plants per 

dosen ... ... 

LUiums, various, 

per doxea 

Mign o net t e, p. dox. 
Pahns, vailoua, ea. 



ff. d. ff. d. 

6 0-84 
10-8 
6(^18 
10-76 

18 0-86 



18 0-18 
60-9 
40-6 
S 0-10 A 

10 6-64 









Faurr.— AvaaAOB WHOLasAUi Paiois. 



ff. d. ff. d. 
Apples (Blenheim 
Orange), se- 
lected, per 
bushel 7 0-10 

— (Wellingtons), 
selected, bush. 0-11 

Ch«pes, Oros (M- 

mar, per lb. ... 8 0-26 

SndquaL.lb. 19-20 

~ Alioantee, p.lb. 19-20 

— — 2nd quality 

per lb, «. 16 — 



B.d.$,d, 

(}rapes. Muscats, se- 
lected, per lb... 4 0-50 

Nuts, Oobs, per 

100 lb. ... ... 21 0-22 

Pine-applee. Bt. Ml- 
chaeUoases con- 
taining 6 to 8 

eaoh» 8 6-66 

— eases contain- 
ing 10 to 18 
each 16-26 



VaoRABLBi.— AvsaAOK WaoLBSALS Paicia. 



Artichokes, Qlobe, 
per doa. ... 

— Chinese (Sta- 
ohystuberifera), 
per VtK 

Asparagua (Paris), 
Oreen, p. bdle. 

Beans (Madeira), 
per bask, (about 
6 lb.) ... ... 

— French, Chan- 
nel Islands, lb. 

Beetroots, p. bush. 
Qipsktum, Chili, p. 

100 ... 
Cauliflowers, per 

doaen m. ... 
(JooumberSy home " 

grown, selectby 

per doa. ^ ... 
OarUc, per lb. 
Honeruiah (€}er- 
manX per bundle 



ff. d ff. d. 

2 6 — 

3-04 
4 0-5 



8 0-30 

10-13 
18-16 

16 — 

19-20 



ff. d. ff. d. 
Muahrooms (Indoor) 

perlb. ... ... 6 — 

Onions (pioklingX 

per pocket ... 8 0-30 

— Dutch, per bag 8 0-86 

— AlbaniaJi, per 
beg ... ... 

Radish (long scar- 
let), Coannel 
IdfUids, per 12 
bunches ... 

Rhubarb (forced), 
per doa. bundles 

Baud, assail, per 
doa. punneta... 



4 0-46 

6-08 
16-19 

1 6 ~ 




lb.) 10-18 

Mrlb. ... 8 — 

Sprouta,per|-buah. 9-10 
9 0-12 Tomatoe, Canary 
OS— Islands, per 

case, 40 lb. ... 10 12 

sl — _14lb. ... 8 0- 3 6 



POTATOa. 

Holidays have interfered with trade aa usuaL Second-class 
Potatos have again advanced a shade : — Up-to-date, 95ff. to 
115ff. ; Maincrop, 85«. to 110s. ; Saxona and Bruce, 85*. to 
lOOff.; Dunbar Mahicrop, 180ff.; Blaoklands, 75ff. to SOff. 
per ton. Belgian and Dutch Ware, Be to 8«. 6d. ; Oerman 
do., Sff. 6d. to Sff. per bag of 50 Idloa. JoAn Baikt 82 amd 
84, WtllmgUm Strt^, Oofmi Qardm, W.C. 



I ^ ^l 



LoHOOM : Dteembtr 29.— Messrs. John Shaw 4 Sons, Seed 
Merchants, of Oreat Mass Pond. Borough, London, S.B., 
write that to-day's market, as is always the case at the 
turn of ithe year, presented quite a holiday i^ipearance. and 
quotatiins all round are consequently without any material 
alteration. The abeence this past autumn of the customary 
speculative dealings in (Tlover and Qrnss seeds naturally 
leaves a laige consumptive towing business to be done in the 
approaching spring. Full prices sie aaked for Mustard and 
Rapeseed. Blue Peaa and Haricot Beans also keep very firm. 
In Birdseeds there is but litUo doing. Linseed steady. 



ntUZT Am> VaaBTABLBS. 

Glasgow : December 29.— The following are the averagea of 
the pricea at thia market during the past week :— Pears, Sd. 
to 8d. per lb. ; Applee, 2d. to 4d. do. ; Plums, 4d. to 6d. 
do. ; Tomatos, (luemsey, 4d. da ; do., Scotch, 5<l. to 7d. 
do^; (}rapes, home, 2ff. to 3ff. do. ; do., foreign, 4dL to 6d. 
do.; Oibbsgee, Sootoh, 6d. per doxen; do., late. Is. to 
lff.,Sd. per dosen ; (Cauliflowers, Iff. to2ff. per dox. bunches ; 
Parsnips, 4«. to 4ff. 6d. per cwt. ; Herbs, assorted. 
Id. to 2d. per bunch ; Leeks, Iff. 6d. to 3ff. 6d. 
per doaen bunohee : Mint, 6i. per bunch ; Onions, 
Dutch, 2ff. 9d. to 3ff. per bag; do., Portugal, 5ff. to Off. 
per case ; Parsley, 9d. to U. per stone ; Potatos, beet, 8d. 
to9d. stone ; Carrots, 2s. dd.fto Sff. 3d. per bag ; Artlchokee, 
Sff. ad. per] sieve ; Cucumbers, 8ff. to 0*. per doxen ;Lettuces, 
round, 6d. to 1<. do. ; do. Cos, 6d. to Sd. do. ; Radishes, 
8d. to Od. per dosen bunohee ; Horseradish, Iff. 6d. to 2ff. per 
bundle ; do., French, 4<. 6d. per stone ; Mushrooms, Iff. to 
Is. 2d. per lb. ; Bedaroot, 6d. to 7d. per bunch ; Bnisseb 
Sprouts, Iff. 6d. per stone ; Spinach, 2ff. da ; Turnip-Swedes, 
Iff. Sd. per bag; do., Scotch, 2<. 6d. to Sff. per doxen 
bunches; Celery. Scotch, Iff. per bundle; da, KngUsh, 
Sff. da ; Red Cabbage, !«. 6d. to 2ff. per doxen ; Savoya, Iff. to 
Iff. 3d. per doxen. 

Lrvx&POOL : December 29.— Average of the prices at under- 
noted markets:— St. John's: Potatos, lOd. to 1«. 2d. per 
peck ; Cucumbers, esch lOd. to Iff. ; Qnqies, Bnglish, 2ff. to 
Sff. perlb. ; da, foreign, 6d. to Sd. da Fine-apples, BngUsh, 
4ff. to 7ff. each ; Mushrooms, Iff. 6d. per lb. Birkenhead : 
Potatoe, Iff. per peek ; Grapes, Bnglish, Sff. 6d. to 3ff. 6d. lb. ; 
ditto, foreign, 6d. to 8d. ditto ; Pine-applee, Bnglish, 7ff. to 
lOff. each ; ditto, foreign, 4ff. to 7ff. each ; Muahrooms, Iff. 6d. 
to 2ff. per lb. North Hay : Potatoe, per cwt. Giants, Sff. 6d. 
toSff. 9d. ; Main Crop, Sff. 9d. to 4<. 6d. ; Bruce, Sff. 8d. to 
4ff. ; Turnips, 6d. to lOd. per dosen bunches ; (Carrots, 4d. to 
6d, per bunch; Onions, Bnglish, 8*. 6d. to 4ff. 8d. 
per cwt ; do., foreign, 2ff. 6d. to Sff. da ; Parsley, 6d. to 
8d. per doxen bunchee; (Cauliflowers, Iff. to 8ff. per doxen; 
Cabbages, 6d. to Sd. da ; Celery, 6d to Iff. 4d. do. 



oo&v. 

AvsBAoa PniOM of British Ocm (per imperial qr.X for the 
week ending December 25, and for the corresponding period 
of 1896, togetlier with the difference in the quotaticna. These 
fignrss are baaed on the (MBdal Weekly Return :— 



Deaoriptlcii. 


1806w 


1897. 


Difference. 


wrneaa ... m* m. 
Barley 

OMB •• eee »e •«• 


ff. d. 

80 9 

84 1 
16 1 


ff. d. 
84 4 

86 11 

17 


ff. d. 

•f 3 7 

-f 2 10 
+ 11 




Gornip&ruimU 




Book: W, Y, "Table Decorating." There is no 
luoh book published. Miaa Aniae HMsard's k ont 
of print, and may only be met with at the aeoood- 
hand book-Bhopo. 

CoRRicTiON.— P. 480, ooL a, line 18 from tiia top. 
for Chryaanthemum Leonie Service, read Seinoe. 

Hulbebry: Bwrttm, Secore, if poaaibla, airught 
branofaea, 1 inch to 2 inehee in diameter, and 3 
feet to 4 feet in length ; cut off the bait end 
aquare, and^rim off the lateral ahoota ; then mab 
a hole with a crowbar 1( to 2 feet deep, in ruk 
aoil ; drive down the Mulberry atake to that devti 
In the fint year a few roots and leaves will ^ 
emitted. 



Nambb of Fbditb: P. C. P, 
seem to be Cider varietiea. 



Apples unknowB 



Names of Plants : (\>r respondent* not aHxtcrmi 
in this is*u^ are requested to he mo gottd tu t^ 
eansnlt the follomiiuf nvmber.—C, W", No. 5, 
Qleditschia ap. Cannot name other treea frem 
material sent. — 0» 0. 1, Lonioera brachypoda; 
2, Viburnum Tinua yar.— if. K i?.— The Cypri- 
pedium insigne flower sent certainly ia peculiar in 
the particulara you mention, but it is not a ahowy 
fbrm.— ^. C. ff, P. Youia ia the onl^ true pure 
white form, and it ia called Dendrobium Phala- 
nopaii hololeaca, to distr^g"**^ it from the aerex^I 
varieties, with a very lOight trace of pink on the 
lip, which are called ** alba " in gaidens.— -P. C. P. 
We cannot undertake to name hybrid Yerooicaa.— 

E. M. P. The biooma were past reoQgnitioo ; sead 
freeh ones to a Chrysanthemum specialist. 

PonisBTnAB : ff. J, C, The brMta are fine onea, and, 
as you imagine is the case, the colour is inclined to 
crimson rather than to the usual scarlet — a dif* 
frrence doubtless due to something in the soil in 
which they grow, or to the sort of manure applied 

Tomatos amd MAinrRiNo: Perplexed, Aaamniiig 
that your land is poor in those ingredients the 
plant requires, omng to its being repeatedly 
OEX>pped with Tomato plants, you should apply tbt 
following : for every 100 lb. of fruit taken from 
the soil approximately, nitrate of aoda, 14 «.; 
dissolved bone black, 5 oz. ; muriate of potaab, 
10 OS. 

Tomatos fob Fbuitqio undeb Qlabs for HABccr 
Perplexed, Chemin Rouge, Duke of York, Htc 
Qieen Favourite, Haokwood Park, Yonng'e E^ifat 
the last an extraordinary prolific variety. 

TouFS : r. Dodd, The bulbs should have hi 
potted in September and October, and kept ^ 
and in the dark till plenty of roots formed, «^ 

* some amount of top-gnywth showed. They o»^ 
grown planted thiduy in b jxes filled with soil, tte 
early single-flowered and early double-flo««f«d 
being kept separate, and late ones also by then* 
selves, bottom-heat is a help, but it ia not emea- 
tiaU The best you can now do with the bulbe is to 
plant them in the open, take them up when the 
foliage turns brown, and make an early start next 
autumn. 

OoMMUVicATioiiB RaoBivBn.— H. R, W., Stuttgart — D. T. P 
_W. C— A- G., Grenada.— Ashelford ii Bon, JeriKy.— 
J. A.-W. T. T. D.-J. W. H., Trinidad.-C. W. K— H C- 
B. D. J.— Dobble A Co.— J. 0*B.— B. P., Ghent.— K. W.- 
B. W. B.— M. H. 8.— A. Praucbet, Paris— H. W. W - 
Valentine & Sons. — R H. P., Penzance. — K M- - 
T. CampbelL— B. C— J. Mayne.— D. T. P.— R, L. h 
— M. D. — H. M. — H. R.. Hayle.— D. R. W.— F. C, E 
— C. W. 8. — H. W. — B. W. B. — O. H., California. — 
W. M. W.— D. J., Floreeta, Buenoe Ayrea.— G. Farmer.* 

F. B.— Borough Engineer, Cholteuham.— A. R. 8., U.8.1. 
— W. 8. 

pHoroGaAPHa, BpacniKsia, btc., Rsocivkd. — J. H. H. 
Trinidad.— D. J., Buenoe Ayrea. 



CONTINUED LARGE INCREASE in the CIRCULATION 
of the '^GARDENERS' CHRONICLE." 

Important to Advertiaera.— r^ Publiaker hat the MniUfof- 
lioikofanwoviwcing that the circiitotioa of the **Gard^H*r^ 
Chronide" hoe, since the reduction in the prioe of the paper. 

KORB THAN DOITBLBD, 
and that it continuea to increaae weekly. 

Adoertieere are reminded that the " Chronicle" eircukUea amonf 
OouNT&Y GcirrLBMBir, ako all Olasubs or QAaoBKcaA 
AND GAaDKN-LovKRS ot \9iiM, thot U hos a epecioU^ larye 
Poaaioa avo Oolonial Gibcdlatioit, and thai U ie 
Tpretervtd for r^erfiw in oil the principal Librariee, 



JANVAJIT 8, 189d.] 



THE GARDENERS' CBRONIGLE. 



17 



fifi^tfffL 



^:** 



^'01 



k?.v':'Aui.mt;y 



. Y?^A- 



% Nv 



THE 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 8, 1898. 



OLD ORCHARDS. 

OFFICIAL returns give a total exceeding 
112,000 acres as devoted to orcliards in 
tlie counties of Herefordshire, Devonshire, 
Somersetshire, Gloucestershire, and Worcester- 
shire, this being considerably more than half 
the acreage occupied with ordiards in the whole 
of England. At first sight this total looks very 
encouraging, for all who believe that no better 
Apples are grown than those produced on 
British soil ; but unfortunately it is misleading, 
and, like many bare official statistics, requires 
investigation before a correct idea can be formed 
of the true meaning. A survey of the counties 
named gives a different aspect to the question, 
and I have no hesitation in saying that one- 
half of the acreage recorded is occupied with 
worthless trees, or with those that are rapidly 
approaching this condition. This opinion is 
not the result of a cursory examination, but 
has been formed after some years of observa- 
tion and repeated journeys through the chief 
districts of the five counties mentioned. The 
subject has been impressed upon my mind most 
forcibly by recent opportunities for studying 
the matter, and it seems to me of such import- 
ance that I have submitted this brief review of 
the subject to the Editor of the Oardener^ 
Chronicle, in the hope that he may be able to 
find space for it in its widely*read pages. 

When the general extension of orchard 
planting in England took place, in the begin- 
ning and towards the middle of the seventeenth 
century, the principal object in view was the 
production of cider. It is recorded that Lord 
SoudamiOTe, when ambassador in France during 
the reign of Charles I., obtained from Normandy 
large numbers of scions of the best cider Apples, 
which were introduced into Herefordshire and 
distributed throughout the county. 

When Dr. John Beale published his treatise 
on the Hereford orchards in 1667, he considered 
them ''a pattern for the whole of England," 
and there is abundant evidence from his and 
other's writings that in these early daysoonsider- 
able and careful attention was given both to the 
selection of varieties and to general cultivation. 
But Herefordshire seems to have been well in 
advance, though, in later years, both Somerset- 
shire and Devonshire became equally celebrated, 
and for a period, the last-named county was 
pre-eminent for its cider production. Certainly, 
when Hugh Stafford's Treatise on Cider 
Making appeared in 1729 it was an important 
industry there, and had been so for many years. 
In the course of the seventeenth century, many 
writers contributed greatly to the extension of 
Apple ooltore, and it must be said that the 



methods advocated in the majority of cases were 
very dosely in accord with the best practice of 
modem times. The varieties were, however, all 
primarily selected for their qualities as cider- 
fruits, enormous quantities of this beverage 
were manu f actured, and for a time the best 
brands are said to have effectually taken the 
place of the French and German wines amongst 
the higher classes ; while it was also the 
labourer's constant drink. In the latter case, 
after a time, fermented malt liquors gradually 
superseded the lighter cider, and to this end, 
probably, less careful methods of preparation 
had contributed. As the cider industry 
declined, so the interest in the orchards waned ; 
and as large nimibers of the trees were ' of 
varieties matted for other use, the fruit was of 
little value for sale, and the plantations were 
simply left to themselves. 

What is too painfully evident in the minority 
of the old orchards at the present time is not 
the result of ten or twenty years' neglect, it is 
the effect of a decadence of interest which must 
in many instances date back to or beyond the 
beginning of the nineteenth century. It has 
been variously estimated that an Apple-tree 
will live to an age of 200 to 1,000 years, but 
there is little doubt the most profitable period 
in the life of a standard Apple-tree on the crab 
stock is from twenty to sixty or eighty years ; 
at least so for as my experience and observation 
extend where the age of the trees is definitely 
known, this appears to be the time when the 
greatest crops are borne, though in regard to 
healthy trees the period may be prolonged to 
100 years or more. This of course is assuming 
that the best cultivation has been consistently 
followed throughout, as even with neglect the 
Apple will "exist" for many years, but only 
occupying ground uselessly, serving as a harbour 
for insects innumerable, and the germs of 
diseases that may infect other trees. A very 
short time suffices for a tree to get into a bad 
state by neglect ; it is astonishing how quickly 
the evil is done, and unless very promptly 
remedied by improved treatment the tree can 
never become a source of profit. The worst 
results are occasioned by neglect in the early 
stages of the tree's existence, because when once 
thoroughly stunted very little can be done to 
alter it, and the best treatment seems lost. By 
far the most serious neglect is in the want of 
attention to cultivating the soil over the roots 
and around the trees. The older writers gene- 
rally agreed in advocating tillage for the soil 
in orchards, and the general experience of 
fruit growers is in favour of this at the 
present time, both here and in America; yet 
we find nearly the whole of the orchards in 
the counties named at the beginning of these 
notes, planted in grass. The chief arguments 
I haye heard in support of this system are poor 
indeed, and one is in itself a proof of the care- 
less methods adopted in gatiiering fruit. A 
farmer who has an extensive orchard of Apples 
on the borders of Devonshire, the trees in which 
are more remarkable for their clothing of 
oryptogamio plants than for their healthy 
appearance or crops of fruit, says the '* Apples 
don't get mucked up with dirt when knocked 
or shook off the tree on to grass." The other 
reason is, that the grass affords a useful grazing- 
ground for stock. This has some force when 
the orchard is attached to a cottage or small 
holding where there is possibly no pasture ; but 
on an ordinary farm, with the usual proportion 
of feeding-ground, it is not worth consideration 
in the face of the injury resulting to the trees. 
That permanent injury does result from growing 



trees in grass, unless a space is kept clear round 
the stems, has been repeatedly proved, the 
continual competition between the roots of the 
grass and those of the trees for plant food and 
moisture in the soil is greatly to the disad- 
vantage of the trees. Close cropping with all 
its risks of root iigury is preferable to this, as 
can be seen in almost any of the market 
gardens around London, where fruits are grown 
in conjunction with vegetables or flowering 
plants. 

Attempts have been made at times on the 
part of the land-owners or tenants to renovate 
some of the orchards, but it has generally been 
done in such an unsystematic or half-hearted 
manner that little good has resulted. A few 
old trees have been felled, the roots partly 
removed from the soil, and the young trees 
planted in the same places. This in itse^ is bad 
enough ; but to complete the mischief, the trees 
have often been left unprotected until seriously 
barked by hares or cattle, or tied so securely 
to stakes that in a year or two the bark has 
been as effectually *' ringed" as if that opera- 
tion had been the object of the planter. When 
the results have been seen at the end of five 
or ten years, it has been rightly assumed that 
money and labour had been thrown away in 
such '* renewals," and so the neglect has gone 
on again unchecked. 

It is a serious matter, for it represents in the 
five counties alone something like 50,000 acres 
of good land worth an average rent of at 
least £1 per acre if well cultivated, and 
capable of being made to yield at the lowest 
estimate a total profit of a quarter of a 
million sterling to the occupiers, which under 
present conditions is little better than waste 
land. Nothing but a thorough system of 
renovation will ever effect any permanent good, 
and this will necessitate a considerable expense. 
To restore the majority of exiBting trees to 
healthy fruitful condition is almost impossible ; 
the simplest and most satisfkctory way would 
be to destroy them and provide for new planta- 
tions. In some cases, the present orduurds are 
in very unsuitable situations, and new sites are 
desirable ; but apart from that, it is preferable 
in every way where practicable to select fresh 
ground. If this is not possible, the plan I 
practise and recommend, where a proportion of 
the trees afford some fruit, and it not wished to 
sacrifice the whole at once, is to grub up one 
half at a time, clear the ground thorougUy of 
roots, give a heavy dressing of manure, dig or 
plough it in, and crop with vegetables for a 
year, then plant with standard and dwarf 
Apple-trees, and at the end of five years serve 
the other half in the same way. But in an 
ordinary way, if the plan is adopted of including 
dwarf trees on the Paradise with the standards, 
the whole of a worthless orchard can be treated 
in this manner at once, as the dwarf trees in a 
short time will give the supplies needed for 
present use. 

The great question here comes, who is to 
bear the expense of the work P and this has 
been the great obstacle to improvement, and is 
likely to continue so, unless some understanding 
is effected between landlord and tenant Where 
land has depreciated so much in value, and 
income proportionately decreased, it is scarcely 
reasonable to expect the owner to bear it alL 
On the other hand, the tenants regard it as an 
improvement to iko property, in the advan- 
tages of which they may have only a tempo- 
rary share. Perhaps the best way is Ibr the 
landlord to take the initiative, and endeavour to 
make an agreement that shall be equally fair 



18 



THE 0ARDENEE8' CHRONICLE. 



[lAKtlART 8, 1898. 



and satisfactory to both sides. This has been 
done in the following ways, and either of the 
first two might well be extended : 1st, the 
landlord finding all the trees, and the tenant 
undertaking the labour of land-preparation, 
planting, and subsequent attention; 2nd, the 
tenant providing both trees and labour, but 
with an agreement that at the termination of 
his tenancy he shall receive compensation based 
on valuation from the incoming tenant or land- 
lord ; and 3rd, the tenant supplying trees and 
labour, but the former remaining his own pro- 
perty, to be disposed of as he may determine, but 
the land- owner not to be liable for compensation. 
The last is the least satisfactory, and has in 
some cases resulted in very harsh proceedings, 
for if a difference should arise between the 
landlord and tenant, the latter, unless he holds 
a lease, may be compelled to quit without 
realising any return for his labour and expense. 
On the other hand, a careless tenant may allow 
his plantation to become a disgrace and danger 
to neighbouring orchards. In the other cases 
the landlord has some control over the culti- 
vation, as it is part of the contract that the 
trees shall be properly attended to. 

Thoughtful men who are interested in horti- 
cultural or agricultural questions of the day 
cannot but recognise that with the enormous 
demand for Apples there is ample room for 
increasing our own supplies — but these must 
consist of good fruit only ; and wherever planting 
is undertaken, proved varieties only should be 
selected. The poor and damaged fruits being 
constantly put on the markets from neglected 
orchards bring down the prices, injure the trade^ 
and convey very erroneous ideas of the returns 
to be realised from good fruit. A Planter. 



New or Noteworthy Plants. 

CYPRIPEDIUM CRAWSHAW^, n. «p. 

Some time ago, Measrs. J. Charlosworth k Co., of 
Heaton, Bradford, received from the Shan States a 
few plants of a qoite new Cypripedium, which after 
the manner peculiar to many good thingi, did not 
readily bear travel. The plant which I have seen 
somewhat resembles C. Farishi in growth, but the 
leaf and sise of the plant are more those of C. 
CharlesworthlL The leaves are, however, much more 
fleshy than those of that species, and bright green 
above, and entirely greyish-green beneath, the plant 
in no part exhibiting the purple maxkings usually 
seen on C. CharlesworthiL The collector's letter and 
a fine dried flower have now been forwarded. The 
collector says: "It is an entirely new Cypripe- 
dium. The flower-stalk is pale green and hairy ; 
the flower is shaped like Cypripedium Charles- 
worthii, but it is larger, and the purple markings are 
entirely absent. In this the upper sepal is pure 
white, with a pale greeniah blotch at the base, and a 
very slight tinge of the same colour at the tip. The 
petals, lip, and lower sepal are entirely of a pale 
greenish-yellow colour— my natives describe this as 
" wa-pyan-byan " — a soft yellow. The whole flower is 
very glosay, and I consider it a much finer thing than 
C. Charlesworthii." The dried flower sent seems to 
bear out the collector's statement exactly. It may 
roughly be described as resembling C. insigne Sandens 
in colour, but with more of the form of C. Charles- 
worthiL In sise, however, it is superior to both. 
Mr. Charlesworth wishes it to be dedicated to his 
sister. JametiyjSrten, 



Orchid Notes and Gleaninos, 

♦ 

ODONTOGLOSSUM IN5LEAYI. 

This plant greatly resembles 0. grande in it^ 
pseudo-bulbs and foliage, the leaves being longer^ 
The scape rises from the base of the leavei, and is 



erect A plant now in flower, at the Botanic Gar- 
den, Edinburgh, is carrying fourteen flowers, the 
sepals and petals being pale yellow in colour, with 
chestnut-brown blotches and markings the lip of a 
bright yellow, with reddi«h spots, while the 
column bears the distinguiihing pur of horns of 
reddish-chocolate colour. It enjoys a position at 
the cool end of the Cattleya-house, and, flowering 
late in the season, is decidedly attractive. Several 
varieties of this species are in cultivation distinct 
from the type in their broader sepals and petals, or in 
their colour, the best known of which is perhaps O. 
Insleayi splendens. It is a native of Mexico, and was 
first introduced by Mr. BariLsr in 1839. JL L, H, 

LSLIA ALBIDA. 

This pretty winter-flowering Orchid seems to have 
been flowering with exceptional beauty this season, 
if we may judge by the fine examples sent by various 
correspondents. From Joseph Broome, Esq., of Llan- 
dudno, comes a grand inflorescence, the flowers of 
which were unusually large, the sepals and petals 
cream-white, the apex of the lip light rose, central 
keels orange colour. From Walter C Walker, Esq., 
Winchmore Hill, the fine L. a. var. Stobartiana, with 
the sepals and petals tipped with rose-purple ; and 
L. a. var. Walkeri, a still finer flower in the same way. 
Another fine form, with rose-^ted sepals and petals, 
is sent by Mr. M. J. Watts of Clifton. L. olbida is a 
very floriferous plant, and with f roper management 
it may be grown in an ordinary greenhouse or 
conservatory. 

The Rosary. 

CLOTH OF GOLD ROSE. 

" Wild Robe '* did well, in a recent issue, to call 
attention to this hitherto unexplained mystery once 
more. Before the advent of Rose Mardchal Ntel, Cloth 
of Gold was comparatively common. I made many 
pilgrimages to see notable specimens in East Anglia, 
huge specimens, many of Uiem covering gable-ends 
and sides of mansions, and other bare spaces. The 
variety was also met with at times in the open, as 
large bushes. Occasionally, too, it was allowed to 
climb up the stems of trees, or to form tangled 
thickets in warm nooks in woods. But whether as 
cause and effect, or by a mere coincidence, scarcely had 
the Mar^chal Niel made his dibut in our gardens, 
than the planting of Cloth of Gold became less fre* 
quent, and now this Rose seems to bo in danger 
of extinction. Certain it is that the climate of this 
country is unchanged, whilst all this curious and 
mysterious change was taking place, and our admira- 
tion for golden Roses has not become less ardent, 
but the one has paled before the rising popularity of 
the other. And the probability is, that where the 
Cloth of Gold grew and bloomed in years long ago 
it would do equlQly well to-day. 

The old veteran Cloth of Gold Roses perished often 
through reckless slaughter, as pointed out by ** Wild 
Rose," or through inadvertent cutting-baok, severe 
pruning, or firost iqjury. Possibly your correspondent 
was in error in describing a doth of Gold Rose 
with a stem 15 inches in diameter. [Circumference 
was intended. Ed.] But a point should be made of 
the size and age of the Cloth of Gold or other golden 
or other Rose, as showing their capabilities of with- 
standing severe weather for many years. It is largely 
true that the bigger, the older a Rose-tree, and the 
hardier, and also the more floriferous. Hence, in 
many cases, no sooner was the veteran Cloth of Gold ' 
cut down, by design or accident, than then its glory 
departed, either by slow degrees or suddenly. The 
concentration of vital force into the few new growths 
sent the Ross shoots off into fishing-rod lengths, 
sappy, and full of pith, and these ripening imperfectly 
would easily be injured by frost 

The stupid practice of cutting back old Tea or 
Koisette Roses almost to the ground-line is re 
sponsible for the loss of many a venerable plant ; 
and even when that does not immediately follow, the 
plants are shorn of their beauty. On the heels of 
such a practice follows a struggle for life, rather than 
a revival of health ; and the younger and smaller 
shoots being more tender than the ancient stems that 



were out away, hence a general decline in vigour sets 
in. This useless destruction of the aged Roses left 
the more tender parts of the plants several feet 
nearer to the ground, thus probably reducing them U% 
more degrees of cold than prevails 10 to 20 feet 
higher. Hence, after severe pruning, natural or 
artificial, it takes some of tho tenderer Roses ycara to 
regain their normal degree of hardiness. This fact 
is evident by the losses among Marshal Niel as w^ 
as Cloth of Gold and other Roses. The effect, too, 
of altitude on the hardiness of Roses has not received 
the attention it deserves, for thousands of plants of 
Mar^ohal Niel have been killed to the ground line : 
while tall standards, and those worked high on Dog- 
roses, The Olory, Bsnksian, or climbing Roses on l"g*» 
walla or up trees, have escaped unhurt D, T. F. 



SEDUM SEMPER\TVUM. 

This new introdaction from Asia Minor, found by 
Mr. Siehe of Mersino, is a pretty Sempervivum-Uke 
Sedum. possessing cochineal red flowers, which are 
produced in great abundance, see fig. 7, p. 19, which 
shows the plant of its natural size. It is a.' plant 
well adapted for carpet-bedding, and ev<*ryono who 
has seen it is surprised at tho boauty of tho plmU 
U, Dammer. [This can hardly be called now. It is 
described at length by the Editor in our volume for 
December 14, 1878, p. 750.] 



NOVELTIES OF 1897. 

(Continued from p. 2.) 

MB8BB8. F. Sakdkb & Co., 8t. Allans, out 
of their importations hayo flowered Erio|^« 
Helense, a pretty species with yellow and piirpl» 
flowers; Luddemannia Sandoriana, a rerr 
distinct novelty; Maxillaria elogantula, yelloir 
and purple; M. dichroma; the singular 
looking Lycaste Mooreana, and the fine L. 
Skinneri puloherrima, and L. S. rubeDa; 
also Leptotes nana, the singular white Dendro- 
bium Gratrixianum, and the floriferous IK 
Bancroftianum, said by some to bo a form of 
D. speciosum, but quite a slender plant. Of 
fine varieties of showy species, Messrs. Sander 
flowered Oattleya Mendeli fimbriata, C. Shro- 
derso ** Queen Empiess," 0. Mossia) ** Empress 
of India," and C. M. rubens. Of their hybrids, 
the best are Oattleya x Dominiana ** Empress/ 
and L.-O. x ** Our Queen," shown at the Iton.' 
Horticultural Society on June 15; and amofig 
their introductions to the Oypripediutns an 
C. X Mrs. D. Solomon (Lathamianum aureum x 
Spicerianum) ; C. x Mrs. E. Uihlein (villosran 
aureum x Leeanum giganteum) ; 0. x conco- 
villosum, C. X Oakes Ames (Rothschildianum 
X ciliolare), 0. X Clement Moore (Dauthieri 
X Leeanum), C. x Bodolflana (Harrisianum 
X insigne Sanderae), and a number of others. 
Also in Messrs. Sander's list for the year are 
Lcelio-Cattleya x **Fire Queen,'* Odonto- 
glossum grande var. Pittianum, Phaio-Calanthe 
X Brandtise, Sobralia Holfordi, Laalio- Oattleya 
X amoena, Gk>ngora Sanderiana, Zygopetalum 
venustum, Warrea grandiflora, &c. 

Messrs. Hugh Low & Co., Clapton, have boon 
specially fortunate in flowering good novelties 
during the past year, the best of theirs being 
Odontoglossum X excellens Lowioo, and O, 
crispum ** Queen Victoria," two grand varieties. 
Oattleya Mossii©, " In Memoriam Richard Our- 
now," perhaps the largest and host 0. Mossin? 
of the year ; C. Hardyana, Low's variety, very 
richly coloured; Cypripedium x Mrs. E. V. 
Low, a chaste novelty; Ltolia pumila, Low's 
variety, lavender-blue tinted; and Calanthe 
Yeitchi alba. 

Messrs. W. L. Lewis & Co., Southgate, have 
made a specially good mark this year through 
the number of grand varieties which 
have flowered out of their superb strain of 



Januahy 8, 1S88.] 



THE GAHDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



LtoUa {mmila, standa of wMdi, 'witti diatia- 
guiahed fine Vkrietiai, luTing been showa b^ 
tham on Mvenl ooouiona. The beet Urge 
coloured vuieties are their L, pumila nwgni- 
fica and the L. p. saperba, shown b; R. W. 
Biokarde, Esq., of Usk, at Uie last 
meeting of the Koyal Horticultural Society ; 
the most remarkable waa the blue-tinted L. p. 
Qatton Park variety, for which Jeremiah 
Colman, Esq., secured a First-class Certifioate ; 
and some pretty white, or nearly white, forms 



being of a yellow instead of a gteentah hue ; 
and Cattleya labiata Emperor, a gigantio and 
finely-ooloored variety. Of hia hybrids Lfelio- 
Oattleya x Cypheri (purpurata x Porbeaii) is hia 
prettieet novelty of the year. Mr. Jaa. Douglas, 
of Oreat Bookham. at the meeting of the Eoyal 
Horticultural Society, December 14, ebowed 
the pale yellow L»)lia x Brieeis (harpophylla x 
purpurata). 

Mr. Thoe. Kochford, of Tumford Hall Nur- 
aeries, from whoee great atores of Orchids grown 



FlO. 7.— SBDUM BKMPKBVIVOM : H«WKM 



have also appeared. Ueesn. tiewis & Co. are 
credited wiHi the delicat«ly-tinted Cattleya 
Meadeli Madonna, and the pure white petalled 
0. labiata Lewiaii. Mr. Jamea Cypher, of 
Cheltenham, famed for the high culture of hia 
plants, received recognition at the Manoheater 
Great Show for Lailia purpurata Ihompaoni) 
L. p. Scbofieldiana, and Cattleya Uendeli 
grandiflora, all fine examples of favourite 
apeoiea ; and at the November Show for Oypri- 
pedium insigne, var. Dorothy, a fine yellow 
fonn; C. x Leeanum aurenni,Tar. gigantemn, 
diflteing only from tbe original giganteum in 



for market parposea many fine thinga may be 
expected, flowered the charming Taoda cccrulea 
Boehfordiana, a pure white variety, with pale 
pink labellnm ; the firat wholly whit« Deudro- 
biura nobile, D. n. virginale, and eome good 
white and bluah-white varietieB of Lcolia pnmila. 
Of other good thing* oertificated and shown, 
mention must be made of LebIIb x Lnoy In- 
gram (purpurata x Perrini), and Liolio-Oat- 
tleya x Vonua (L.-C. x elegans x 0. Perd- 
valiana), raiaed by Mr. C. L. N. Ingram ; 
the fine LtoHo- Cattleya x Lady Wigan, of 
Uesars. J. Charleaworth & Oo. ; Iricho- 



pilia brevia, shown by Sir Frederick Wigan; 
Gjpripedium x Lilian Oreenwood, and the 
0. X bellatulo-vezillarium of Mrs. Briggs- 
Bary; C. x Leeanum magnificum of Mr. O. 
Shorland Ball; C. X callo • Bathsohildianum, 
of J. Oumey Fowler, Esq. ; Lmlia pnmila, 
Qatton Park variety, of Jeremiah Colman, Esq.; 
and L. p. auperba, of B. W. Biohards, £aq. ; 
La>Iia X Hippolyts, Dulcote var., andZygop^ar- 
lum Jorisianum, of Walter Oobb, Esq. ; Den- 
drobium nobile, Hutchinson's var., of QenentI 
Hutchinson; Odonteglossum Pescatorei, Sli- 
gachan var., of J. Wilson Potter, Esq. ; 0.x 
ezoellena "Biohard Ashworth," O. x Ander- 
Mnianum, Danehnrst var, ; the singular natural 
hybrid Vanda x Uoorei, of Mr. Moore, of Brad- 
ford ; and, among oUier fine varieties, the 
Odontegloesum crispum aureo-marginatum, of 
Messrs. B. S. '^miiama & Son. 

C<mtintnlal Jffovdliei have been fairly repre- 
sented by fine exhibits of Messra. Linden of 
Brussels at the Boyal Horticultural Society. Of 
these the phenomenal Odontoglossums, for which 
the fii'm is noted, gave the wonderful 0. criepum 
Lnciani, aaid to have been sold for 12,000 franca 
(£480), the highest price ever fetched by an Odon- 
toglossum; O. crispum Kegeljani, and O. o. Ami 
Charles, both very fine; and 0. Pescaterei 
Imperati, richly spotted with purple. Their 
grand strain of Cattleya Trianmi has yielded 
many fine noToltiee, of which the two finest are 
C. T. Imperator and C. T. eximia, though those 
named Lindenite, illustris, dilecta, priacops, 
and Miss Linden, ate likewise grand flowers. 
Their Vanda x amoona is a pretty natural hybrid 
of T. ctsmlea; Cattleya Mossiai, Queen 
Empress, and C. M. Moortebeekiensis, two splen- 
did things; and Uypripedium X Lebandy- 
anum, and C. x Bedunanit, two fine aoqni- 
aitions. 

U. Chaa. Uaron, Orchid-grower to U. Four- 
nier of Marseilles, a great raiser of hybrids, 
announces among others, Cattleya x Astrea 
(Skinneri X Loddiguaii), 0. x Fernand Denis 
(AoklandiiB x Warscowiozii), C. x Feutillati 
(Leopoldi x superba), C. x Br6suteana (Loddi- 
geeii X auperba). C. x Oaudi (Leopoldi x 
Loddigesii), C. X dubia, of doubtful paren- 
age ; and several new forma of La-lio-Cattleya 
X Canbamiana and L.-C. x colliateglossa, 
obtained by selection of the parente used. 

M. A. Peetere, St. Qilles, Brussels, flowered 
many good things, among the beet being the 
Odontoglossum crispum Peetersii, a handsomely 
blotched variety ; 0. c. Mrs. I'oeters, a charm- 
ing novelty, with distinct red-brown blotches 
and pretty flush of rose; Uiltenia vexiUaria 
Hyeana, and M. v. virginalis, all shown at the 
last Temple Show. 

New or tare Orchids illnatrated in the Oar- 
•lenert' CkronicU in 18!>7 are ; — 

Balbophyllum Ericaaoni, Jumsrj 23, p. 61. 

Bnlbo^yllum Keduwn, JaniiMy 9, p. 25. 

Cattleya x Entpieas FVedorlek var. Leooati, 
Deoember 18, p. i2\). 

Cattleya HobIm Qnaen-Smpren, Juno IS, p. 379. 

Cattlgya HohIs) Rqipaitiana, July 10, Supplanteat. 

Cattleya Sohofleldlana gisantea, October 9, Sapplo- 

Cattleya WanoewictU "Kn. E. AhK worth," Sep - 
tambar 4, p. 19S. 

CoTyanthes Fieldingi, Jtily 17, pp. 31, 33, 39. 
Cypripediam x Chapmanai mtf^iSoum, June S, 

p. see. 

Cyptlpedlum I^wrenceanum Hyeanmn (CaokMn'e 
varioty), Jnmiaiy 16, p. 37. 
Dendrobiam x Konnoth, Fabmary 27, p. 135, 
Dnidiobium Viotoria Regma, Augort 31, p. 121, 
Epi-sattlaya x HatDtinu, April 10, p. 333. 
Ei«.l»lia X radiaa-purpurata, Aogast 7, p. 83. 



20 



THE GARDENEBS' CBHONICLE. 



[^AHtJAnY 8, 1898. 



Grammatopbyllam apeoiooam August 28, p. 145, 
147. 

Lsclia pumilft alba " K Ash worth/* January 2, 
p. 11. 

Lsolia pumila, Gatton Park variety, October 16, 
p. 262. 

Lselio-Cattleya x Decia alba, February 20, p. 121. 

Lselio-Cattleya x Olive, December 18, p. 427. 

Lselio-Oattleya x Roaalind, January 2, p. 3. 

LycMte Denningiaoa, October 2, p. 231. 

Mazillaria elegantula, December 11, p. 420. 

OdontogloflBum crispum " Queen Victoria^" June 12, 
p. 879. 

Odontoglossum orispum Lindeni, April 24, p. 269. 
. Odontogloisum crispum Luciani, April 24, p. 268. 

Trevoria Ohloris, Lehm., BCay 29, Supplement 

Vanda x amosna, October 2, p. 289. 

VandaxMiM Joaquim, June 26, p. 425. 

{To b€ MfiKaMrf.) 



Market Gardening. 

WHERE AND HOW TO START A MARKET- 
GARDEN. 

Tiru market • garden industry has attained to 
enormous dimensions and importance during the 
last ten or twelve years. This is not to be wondered 
at, seeing that the cultural skiD, energy* and business 
of the market-gardener are exclusively directed to 
the task of growing produce in sufficient quantity to 
meet the growing demand of the ever-increasing 
millions living in our cities and towns for wholesome 
food in the way of choice and ordinary vegetables, 
both in and oat of season. Indeed, so largely has 
the demand been annually increasing in this direction, 
that the area of land under vegetables, such as Aspa- 
ragui, French and Runner Beans, Beetroot, Brussels 
Sprouts, Oabbages, Celery, Cauliflowers, Cucumbers 
and Tomatos, Lettuces, Peas, Rhubarb, Seakale, 
Spinadi, and other things, including fruit and popular 
flowers, exceeds 100,000 acres. As a large per* 
centage of the readers of the Oardenertf Chranide 
consist of the market - garden fraternity, who, 
like horticulturists generally, refer to its psges 
weekly for practical and helpful information, 
and seeing that the ranks of maiket-gardeners are 
recruited from the rank and file of gardeners, it will 
not be out of place here to insert a few general 
remarks, for the .benefit of those who may be about 
to commence buiioees as market-gardener& 

The following are points that should be carefully 
considered before the field of one's operations is fixed 
upon, and a considerable sum of money risked — per- 
haps a life*s savings in the venture :— 1, proximity of 
the spot to a railway-station, and towns in which the 
productions raised can be sold ; 2, texture, 'depth, 
and fertility of soil ; 3, water-supply ; 4, situation 
and aspect of the land as regards exposure to the 
south and west, and protection from the north and 
east windsy and evenness of surface of such portions 
upon which it may be the gardener^s intention to 
erect span-roofed glasshouses, and which should run 
north and south. Should the ground rise two or 
three feet in 100 or 150 feet in this direction, it 
does not matter in the least so long as it is level, or 
nearly so in the oppomte direction— otherwise, heavy 
expenses will have to be incurred in removing and 
levelling soil. Particular attention for each site 
should be paid to the underground water-level ; 
inattention to this point may result in the sub- 
mergence of the fioors, stokeholes, ^, at any time. 
(6) The adaptability of those about to embark in the 
business of a market-gardener for the work ; and (7) 
bearing in mind in selecting a favourable spot in 
which to commence, that the nearer the scene of the 
market-gardener's operations is to the outer oirde of 
the smoke-laden atmosphere of large and populous 
towns the less money will be swallowed up by the 
carriage of goods. In support of the assertion that 
market gardening is a paying industry, we need only 
refer to the fact that land in the vicinity of large and 
populous towns is always devoted to raising crops of 
vegetables, thus prpvipg conclusively that the land is 
considered much too valuable by the owners to be 



cropped with cereals or roota Moreover, there is 
abundance of evidence of the truth of the old law 
" Small beginnings often grow into big endings,*' ss 
many of the laifcer market-gardeners of the present 
day began in a small way with, in some eases, only 
their own pair of hands to do the work, and by well- 
applied skill, industry, and perseverance, and sound 
judgment in considering the requirements of their 
local public,' and the public demands generally, have 
gradually, and, in some cases rapidly, succeeded 
in building up and extending their respective 
businesses t^ large dimensions— a circumstance 
which goes to show what may be accomplished with 
a moderate amount of capital, and well-directed skill, 
industry, and energy. 

Those who intend entering upon the business of 
a market-gardener should select land dose to the 
outskirts of a large business town in which there 
are but few market-gardens established. In the 
matter of glasshouses, low, narrow, span-roofed ones 
with sunken paths are to be preferred, and these 
should be efficiently heated with hot-water pipes 
lor forcing Asparagus, Seakale, Chicory, Frendi 
Beans, Rhubarb, Radishes, Cucumbers, Tomatos, 
as well as foliage and flowering plants, including 
Hyacinths, Narcissus, and other bulbous plants 
These, when well grown and sent to market at the 
right time, realise remunerative prices. In connec- 
tion with the sum total thus turned over, the cost of 
production, sudi as the cost of ooal and coke deli- 
vered, and the securing of a good supply of water, 
must not be overlooked when selecting land. 

Before proceeding to erect glasshouses, their 
number and character, and the purposes they will 
serve, must be well thought over, and a plan of the 
ground and the intended glasshouses should be pre- 
pared, this plan being adhered to, even should all the 
houses not be erected at one time. If two or more 
houses be required for early, mid-season, or late 
Grapes, for Melons, Cucumbers, Peaches, Tomatoey 
or any other plant requiring the same temperature, 
the only walls that need be built, whether five or 100, 
are the two outnde ones, in addition to the end. 
walls. Brick piers, of 9 inches square, built on con- 
crete footings, at about 7 feet apart, for supporting 
planks of pitch pine, on which the wall or gutter- 
plates for supporting the rafters are nailed, will afibrd 
completb stability to the block of houses thus built. 
The wood employed in the construction of such 
glasshouses should consist of beet well-seasoned yellow 
deal, excepting the valley-plates, whioh, as already 
stated, should be pitch {nne, this being 12 inches by 
1) inch, and tarred on both sides. The other items 
ot wood necessary to the erection of houses of the 
description mentioned above, are as follows : — Wall 
and end-plates, 3 inches by 4 inches; end-rafters, 
3 inches by 4 ioches ; bars or intermediate rafter?, 
1 i inch by 3 inches ; end and division-bars, 1^ inch by 
8 inches ; ridge, 1} inch by 6 inches ; capping, 1 indi 
by 4 inches ; drip, 1 inch by 8 inches ; door-frames 
8 inches by 4 inches, with osken dUs of the same 
sise ; doors, 6 feet 6 inches by 2 feet 8 inches, the 
doors being either all wood, or they may be made 
of one half glass ; and if purlines are deemed neces* 
sary, they should be 2} inches by 8^ inches, 
beveUedy the vertical supports being 2 inches by 
8 inches. If the briokworiL (walls) are from 2) feet 
to 8 feet high from the ground-line of house, and the 
latter is 12 feet wide, 8-feet rafters will afibrd ample 
space and angle for Cucumbers and Melons. For 
Grapes, Peaches, Tomatos, and Figs, houses 25 feet 
wide, with 14-fbet or 15-feet rafters, will be suitable 
in every way. Purlines should be used in this class of 
house, and iron side-ties should be employed in all 
the houses. These, consisting of i inch by 1 inch 
bar iron, and about 4 feet long between the two 
cranks, should be secured to the wall - plate 
with coach -bolts at intervals of about 15 feet, the 
bottom-end being let into the border in holes 
sufficiently deep to take a good-sised bucket of 
concrete, consisting of two of finelj -broken bricks 
to one of cement in each. The neoessary number of 
it>of ventilators should be worked throughout with 
Harris's or similar gear; the woodwork should 
receive two coats of paint before being fixed, and 



one more afterwards. The glasing may be done 
with glass 81 OB. to the foot, this being bedded in 
the best white-lead patty, and sprigged on the top, 
putthag four brsss spriggs to each square of glsM. 
Of course, the several glass structnres should be 
eifficiently heated with hot- water, using 4 -inch pipes 
for the purpose. Readers who may contemplate 
going in at once for market-gardening on the lines I 
have set forth, should lose no time in placing tlieir 
orders in the hands of a builder having a good repu- 
tation for erecting glasshouses of the kind indicated, 
who would probably be in a position to erect from 
half-a-doaen to fifty houses of the dimensions given 
above, and SOO feet long each, within a month or 
six weeks from the time of receivuig the order ; the 
hot-water engineers following closely on the heels of 
the painters and glaiien. if. W. Ward, Ro^igh. 

MaBUTT CHBTSAVTHBICnifS. 

The season just past has been far from a happy one 
for Chrysanthemum growers. Althou^ the qualitj 
of bloom has perhaps never been higher, prices hAve 
never been so low, and that the mild weather has 
been largely responsible for this is amply evidenced 
by the fact that salesmen in even some of the most 
northern centres have declined to receive supplies on 
the ground that such a quantity of " outdoor stuff** 
was coming in. Indeed, the mere fact that whilst but 
indii!erent blooms last year fetched 4t. M, to 6«. per 
dosen bunches, specimen blooms have this autumn 
frequently realised only one half those prices, is 
suffident to prove that it ia not growers who have 
been wholly at fault. 

Nevertheless, there are lessons to be learned from 
this season's disappointm«>nts, which Chrysanthemiim 
growers should take seriously to heart before pre- 
paring for their next campaign, and of these perhaps 
the most important is that, if the mild season haa 
been the main factor in recent disastrous results, the 
extensive— and apparently still extending — produc- 
tion of early varieties has had much to do with bad 
prices. Those growers — and, unfortunately, they are 
in the majority • who pinned their fiuth on sudi sorts 
as Selbome and Source d*Or, probably, as offering a 
crop which could be got in without the use of fire- 
heat, have been the greatest sufferers from the 
general glut in the markets. As a proof of this, ooe 
has only to remember that whilst fine Selbomes were 
sold with difficulty at a few pence per doisen blooms, 
and smaller onss were practically unsaleable at any 
price, late November and December whites of not 
nearly such good quality, in some instances sold 
readily at treble the price just indicated. The 
"average grower" of Chrysanthemums, as of every- 
thing else for market, is he who clings to old 
i^stems, and it cannot be expected that he will alter 
his methods entirely even after the sharp teaching of 
this season. Still, it is obvious that it is the up-to-date 
grower who spreads his supplies over all the period 
available who has reaped the most satisfactory reward 
for his labours. It may be argued that the more 
growers produced later blooms, the lower the price 
would be ; but what we want to guard against is a 
universal output of a thing at a given time, and a 
glut later in the season can never be so keenly felt as 
it is in October, when the weather is usually fairly mild, 
because prices could not, at any rate, be influenced 
by any heavy arrivals of outdoor blooms, other blooms 
as well as those of Chrysanthemums, be it remem- 
bered, helping the competition when the early- 
flowering varieties are placed on the market 

Again, if the avenge grower of the Chrysanthemum 
suffers, and makes others suffer, by his extravagant 
output of early varieties, he sins also in the monotony 
of the varieties chosen. Going the round of the 
florists' shops in October, what do we find in every 
one? Nothing whatever but one dull routine of Selbome 
and Source d*Or, with hero and there perhaps La 
Triomphante. That every grower turns out the 
same stuff, and that every shop-keeper but repeats 
his neighbour's display, is astonishing in itself ; but 
it is the more amaxing when proofs are not wanting 
that the public is heartily sick of the system. It is 
part of this class of growers* method to hdd his hand 
after his heavy output of these two varieties for a 



Jamuabt S, ism.} 



THE OABDENEBS' CHRONICLE. 



n«ca«Mi]j*aMl]er output oE " Cfariitmiui *tuir ; " but 
hare igun wa find tlia nanui moDOtoof, only aom, 
insteid of the wnteDeM of whila ami bronia, it U 
tlia ntnentu of irtiil« and jalloir — 1^7 Lawranco, 
L. Cuming, asd W. H. LiDOoln. 

It ia gsDMnltr admitted th«t S«lboraa ia the beat 
wbita at ita own pwtioular leaaon, and Canning ii 
•quallj indiapeoMbie, not beoauaa it ia vsrj good, 
but beCBuae there ia nothing to replace it at alL The 
Indmtry of raiaerB of new kinda ia ao deTotad to the 
introduction uf thoae which will bring them fame at 
the tforember ihowi, that the neede of the grower for 
the Chiiattnaa and New Yaai'a nuidMta baie lieen 
lanotieally ovsriooked, and there still await) plentjr 
of mooer for the man who can intraduce a reallj 
reliable Ute white — one more oertain than Frlnceaa 
Tietoria, which often oomee a WMhy pink or dbtjr 
yellow, uf better build than Caiming, »nd dwarfer 
than bd; Ltwrenoa. But for nristj in oolonrsd 
aort*, either early or lair, we are not m handicapped. 



flnannal reault to that from growing Sonroe d'Or and 
Lincoln. 

The newer Tarietiee of any market ituff are oft«n 
objeoted to on tbe ground that th«lr initial ooat ia 
too great. The grower reflecta that he hai plenty of 
hia own cuttingt of Selborna, Canning, Source d'Or, 
and Lincoln; that the blootna "(btoh eomething," 
ftnd ha aaki why should he go to the eipewe of 
buying freah etock I It ta a ihortaighted policy. 
T^a Souroe d'Or, fbr initance : to realise a really 
good price, • plant of thia variety could not carry 
more than eiz or eight blooms ; it requires a tot of 
feeding even to obtain these of requisite quality, and 
throughout ila saaaon of growth It wants continual 
tying. Now. compare this with one of the newer 
sorts jnat named. This will perfect twelre to 
ei(;hteen blooms, each of which will sell for mu^ 
more than tbe beat blootn of Source d'Or ; it require 
next ti no feeding, and a ooupls of ties keep iti stiff, 
dwarf stems up until it is ready for bousing. It is 



of lai^ge Isnceolate bright-green fronds, which are 
sometkue 4 feet or more long, and a foot wide. 
Aooording to J. Smith {FtrM, Sriluk and Fortign), 
it aametinee grows eren larger than this, a corro- 
spondent In Fonang biTiog told him of two fine 
■pecimena, each with from forty to Sfly perfaet lesTSf, 
the sTerage length of whioh was fl feet, and from 13 
to 1( fnohei wide, and looking in the diatanos not 
unlike American Aloes. 

The speciea is widely dulributed In the Old World 
tro[nog, and leTeral vuieties of it are known, all. 
however, with entire fronds. A new variety, remark- 
able for the divlsinn of the upper part ol the frond* 
into numerous lobes, some of them a foot long and 
lobed again, hu lately bean added to the Saw 
oollcotion through the kindneas of Ur. P. U. Bailey. 
F.L.S., Colonial Botanist, Brisbane, who comiau- 
nioatsd tbe following infcrmaticn, together with 
the photogiaph which is here reproduced (Qg. 8), 
to tlie Director at Kew:— "While at tbe north 



P)o, s.-~<:fiEsna Kwi't-vvr fevn; aspmnicm nidits vab, Mui'TiLODATt.'H, 



Here among the newer sorts we shall find as many 
shades and ahapes, even of the taTourite bronie and 
yellow, as will satisfy the moat ardent seeker for 
ohange. Ko grower could be expected to grow new 
sorts because they are new ; there are plenty of sorts 
whioh wise men ha.i« " let others try," and of thoM 
one can easily name a few nhioh, in Ameriosu 
parlance, have " come to stay." For example, there 
is a msgnlfioent Ttristy of II. Calvat's recent intro- 
duotion which unfortunately bears the name of an 
old unsatiafaotory aort, Boule d'Or. Tliis is catalogued 
ns " raUier ewly i ' but, u a matter of faot, ita grand 
incurring blooma can be had good at Christmas. 
They have been very fine thia Christmas. Thia 
variety may be elted •■ what a really good market 
plant ahould be ; it has good blooms, it reuila 
mildew, sod ita strong stiff sterna require litUe tying. 
Then there are La Houcherotte, good till February ; 
Le Bhone, AustraUan Qold, Modiitum, New Phcsbus, 
Bnnstone, I^y HtnhiT", and many other*. But two 
or thne dt theaa lorti oolj would lOon ilto* > diftoent 



nnlikely that Chryasnthemnm blooms, however well 
finished, will ever fetch the high prices they used to 
do ; therefore, it behove* grower* to prodnoe them at 
the lowest possible expense, and a way ia certainly 
open to do this by studiously seleoting tba newer 
sorts, whioh . naturally large-Bowered, and dwarf, and 
■turdy, quickly save twenty times any extra coit in- 
curred In the purchase of fr«h stock by the savlog 
of labour in tying and feeding, not to mention the 
advantage of better blooms at the end of the grower's 
t-n months' toilaod anxiety. A. C. Jonta, ThomhUI, 
BUltmt, ntar BoulhampUn. 



CRESTED BIRD'S-NEST FERN 

(&8I>LEinciH NIDUB TAB. MDllUOBATUM, 

F. M. Bailty). 

Ttficil k. nidusli a well-known Fern in gardens, 
luge spedmena of it being not uDoommon. It forma 
a dense mas* of mow-like roots, and ultimately ■ 
abort, thiok iMin lupporUDg ■ TMt-Uke ■n>>>B*iQWt 



lUy, I found that Ur. C. J. Nugent, who has 
oted msny plant speetmens for me, b»d brought 
bum the top of the Trinity Bay Range a very 
beaulifhl and remarkable qpeoim«i of Aaplenium 
nidui. Thia I arranged with him for, and have much 
pleaaura in forwarding it to you in a Wardiaa-case. 
.... I hive an idea that sporea taken from the 
multilobad fronds might havs % t«nd*noy to form 
similar plants to the parent, tor the spores of Ferns, 
being ssexua], in someraapscts approach togenunaior 
bulbils, and thay may reproduM plant* similar to 
those kwn which th^ were taken. 1 will call thia 
variety multilobatnm." 

Spores have already been sown at Kew ; and aa 
sporea of the type v^state readily, a batoh of young 
plants having recently been raised, we shall probably 
soon have a big stock of the new variety, which is in 
many ways a meat remvkable Fern. 

A. nidus is one of the few Fsms that have beeit 
Bgurod in tlu BOviiieaL Magatiiu [••• t. 8101, 1831). 
It ii tlwrq Oiter^twd H % puidta on Qu truki ot 



22 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONIGLE. 



tJANPARY 9, 1898. 



trees. The mode of growth of ihii pUnt, its fronds 
fonning a cirole, hollow in the middle, would alone 
justify the specific name given by Linnsus ; but it 
seems to have arisen from another oiroumstanoe. 
" The root," he says, " fixes itself upon the lofty 
trees, whence the leaves rise erect, and arrange them- 
selves in a cirole, like an umbel, in the hollow oentre 
of which the birds are frequently accustomed to 
build their nosts." Mr. Hart, Superintendent of tho 
Botanical Department, Trinidad, has lately sent to 
Kew a photognph of the variety known as mus»- 
folium, in which the plant is i^own to be about 
9 feet in diameter, and to have about fifty fronds, 
each 6 feet by 1 foot. Mr. Hart says it has stood in 
the same position in the same tub for over eUven 
yearsL W. W. 



Plant Notes. 



GABDENIA DEVONUNA. 

Tbxb species is remarkable on account of its long 
trumpet-shaped flowers, which appearing during the 
wintOT months, make the plant valuable for the 
decoration of our stoves. It has a shrubby, compact 
habit, and grows to a considerable sise, and is ever- 
green. The branching is dichotomous, while the dark 
green leaves are clustered near the apex of the shoots. 
In manner of flowering the plant resembles Randia 
maoulata (Gardenia Stanleyana), figured from this 
garden in Qardenertf Cknmicle of October 3, 1896. 
Like that one, the flowers are terminal and solitary, 
but they obaoge from white to a creamy colour a 
short time after expanding. They are 9 or more 
inches long, and if the plant is well flowered it 
certainly presents an uncommon ^pearance. Being 
a native of Sierra Leone, a tropiod temperature is 
required. It is figui«d in the Bot, Meg., vol xxxii., 
t. 63, and is named in compliment to the Duke of 
Devonshire, being collected by Mr. Whitfield, the 
collector of so many fine flowering plants of that 
district. R, L.H., Boyal Botanic Oardiiu, Edinburgh. 



The WEEK'S Work. 

THB OBCHXD HOU8B8. 

By W. H. Whits, Ordhid Grower, Borford, DorUng. 

PkUgdinii (Dendrochihm) glvmacea, dh:.— Any 
plants which are showing young growths may be 
removed to the coolest part of the East Indian-house, 
and in order to produce strong flowering breaks, the 
plants should bo rused to the roo^ in a very light 
position short of actual sunshine, and when the 
growths are grown to about two inches in height, they 
commence to emit roots, and this is the best time to 
repot it if repotting should be required ; otherwise 
the plant should wait till the flowers fade. A 
compost consisting of good fibrous peat and sphagnum 
moss, intermixed with a moderate quantity of clean 
orocki suits the plant Till growth is completed 
the plant should be afforded plenty of moisture at 
the root ; and on bright days the under sides of the 
leaves should be syringed in order to keep red spider 
in check. P. filiformit and P. uncata, although 
quite distinct, require nearly the same kind of 
treatment; and all three species deserve to be 
more commonly grown. As table plants, and 
especially where tall vases are used, their pendu- 
lous, slender, racemes make them pretty objects. 
P. uncata, now flowering abundantly from its half • 
mwn breaks, will require abundance of water. It 
thrives luxuriantly if suspended in a light part of 
the intermediate-house the year round; and P. 
filiformis flourishes under the same conditions. This 
plant has just completed ite growth, and will conse- 
quently require less water at the root ; but although 
it is at rest the compost should be kept slightly 
moist— and in order to avoid saturating the materiali, 
my practice is to take the plant down two or three 
times a week and, according to the state of the 
weather, give it a thorough syringing overhead, and 
by this means keep the pseudo-bulbs plump, and the 
iMves fre«h-coloured. P. Cobbiana is another pretty 
species that has just gone out of bloom, and will 
require to be well supplied with water till growth is 
fully made up, after which the treatment affbrded to 
P. filiformis will suit it. 

Sohralia fMcrantha, S. Wartcemczii, S. virginalis, 
8. albo-violacea, S. leucoifantha, and tome others 



are making growth fast, and Sn order to afford the 
new stems space, thoee which have flowered should 
be cut off at the ground-level, and the growths staked 
out dear of each other. All ipeoies of Sobralia 
succeed under intermediate-house conditions the 
whole year. The plants will not require nearly so 
much water at the root now as during the heat of 
summer, too much water at this time of yesr beinff 
likely to cause the leaves to beoome spotted, and 
their points to turn brown. 

The OatOepa-houic—FUiifM of Gattleya labiata 
Wameri, with growths now starting, should be raised 
to an airy part of the roof at tho warmer end of the 
Bast Indian-house, keeping them there till growth is 
finished, then returning them to the Cattleya-house 
to flower. While gro^i^ is being made, the plante 
should be carefully afforded water, the compost 
being kept moist only. The proper time to repot 
the plant is as soon as the flowers mde. 

DendrobiwM Clio x , />. BurfordienMe x , D. Wardia- 
num, D. micans x , D. Juno x , D. Wiganse x , and 
D. Wardiano-japonicum already starting into growth 
should be afforded water at long interals of time, 
and not subjected to a hi^ temperature, or the 
breaks that are showing at the bMe of the pseudo- 
bulbs will grow too rapidly and prevent the flower- 
buds coming to perfBction. Tnese growths will 
remain almost stationary fbr a long time if the plante 
are kept in tho resting-house. When the flower- 
buds begin to open, the plante should be removed to 
a light position in Uie Oattleya-house. Dendrobiums 
that do not generally start into growth when their 
flower-buds £ow, nunelv, nobile, anreum, monili- 
forme, tortile, Ainsworthii x, splendidissimum x, 
Dominianum x ,endochari8 x , Vlrgmso x ,Leechianum, 
Ac., may be brought from their resting-house into a 
somewhat warmer one, Uie intermediate - house 
being a suitable one for a week or two, after which 
they should be put into the Best Indian-house in a 
light part These plante require at this season but 
littie water at the root, just as much as will keep the 
pseudo-bulbs from shrivelling, and £ivour the slow 
advance of the buds. The species D. Parishi, D. 
albo-sanguineum, D. crepidatum, D. oretaoeum, D. 
transparens, D. Pierardi, D. primulinum, &c. are still 
at rost, and should be kept rather dry till the flower- 
buds show, when some degree of moisture and more 
warmth are required. Dendrobium Gambridgeanum 
ii now starting to grow, and should be removed to 
the cool-house, whero it should remain till the 
growths show for flower, when the plant may be 
gradually inured to the East Indian-house conditions. 
Plenty of water should be afforded after the breaks 
have started to grow. 



THJB FIiOWEB QARDBH. 

By H. Waltkrs, Gardiner, KwBtwell Park. Aahfdrd. 

Shady places under Trees, — ^The sides of shady 
walks and the ground underneath large-headed trees, 
where most kinds of shrubs fiul to do well, can be beauti- 
fied by planting Ferns, Periwinkles, Primroses, bulbs of 
Crocus, Snowdrop, Daffodil, Scilla, Winter Aconite 
and Chionodoxa, increasing the area planted 
gradually year by year. Growing as the bulbs do at 
different periods of the spring, these often otherwise 
negleoted and uninteresting portions of the garden, 
can at a very small expense, and with little trouble, 
be rendered very attractive, and onbe they are 
planted needing but littie further attention. 

Primrose roots gathered from the woods and 
downs, if planted on the edges of shrubbenias, in any 
available nooks and dells, will help to brighten and 
enliven the garden in early spring. 

Sumner Bedding BequiremetUs, — ^AU arrangemente 
as to the number of plante required to be raised from 
cuttings and seeds for summer bedding, should be 
forthwith decided upon. Where large quantities of 
Altemautheray are required in carpet beds, pro- 
pagation should now be ooramencod. I^et the cuttings 
be mserted in 48's, filled with sandy soil. Place these 
in a brisk bottom-heat in a hot-bed frame, or tho 
propagating*house. 

Cannas, — Seeds of those which are to be made use 
of in the beds should be sown without delay in pans 
or pote plunged to the rims in strong heat. The 
seed being very hard, germination will be helped if the 
seeds are soaked in luke-warm water for some hours 
before sowing them. Some of the plante will be 
some weeks longer than others incoming up, and the 
best way, or at least the safest, is to count the seeds 
sown in each pot or pan, and lift those which come 
up when ready for pottiog-off out of the seed-pan 
with the point of a label, teking care not to disturb 



the ungsrfflinated seeds, and retain the seed-psn in 
the hot-bod till the other seeds are germinated. 

HoUyhoek'Seed if sown at this date will pro- 
duce ijante that will flower during the fint summer. 
Let plenty of sand be used in the soil with which the 
seeds-pota are filled, and place these in a mild hot-bed 
or warm-house, potting off the seedlings ss soon im 
they are large enough to handle into amall pota. 
Afford water veir carefully to the seod-pots, the seed- 
lings being very uable to damp off. Continue to repot 
the plante as fast as they fill the soil with roots, 
decreasing the temperature as the spring advances; 
and harden mg them off properly before plttiting thetn 
oat. If the plante are in 48*s or SS^s when planting- 
out time arrives, the more satialaotorily will thoj 
flower. The end of April or the bsQ^nningof May 
form a suitable time for plAn<iing seedlings, the gar- 
dener bemg, however, guided by the sort of weaUiar 
prevailing. The soil for the Hollyhock should be 
rich, and the stotions deeply trenched. 

Fibrous-rooted Begonias, — If these are required for 
bedding purposes, seed should be sown this month. 
The plsnte make very effective bedders, and some of 
the newer varieties have very dark-tinted ornamental 
foliage, which makes the plante useful as edgings to 
beds of variegated-leaved Pelargoniums. 

AntirrhinumM, — If seeds of the Tom Thumb varie- 
ties be now sown, the plante will be avalUble for 
bedding-out this season. The yellow varieties of this 
section bids fair to supersede the CalceoUria as a 
summer bedder, it is entirely independent of the 
weather, and continues to flower till quite late in the 
autumn. The seed may be sown very thinly in pans, 
which may be placed on a shelf in a warm house till 
it has germinated, when cooler treatment must be 
adopted. 

jratUITS TnSTDJSBL GLASa 

By 0. Nor'^an, Qardener, Hatfield Hoom, Herta. 

Stravbetries. — Certain varieties appear to force 
with better resulte in some plsoes than others. For 
starting at this date, Royal Sovereign has been the 
best here for several years past. Strong plante vrith 
well ripened crowns if started now may be relied 
upon to produce good crops of fruit in ApriL A 
Strawberry-house is a great convenience, and the 
plante' requiremente can be satiysfied without con- 
sideration of other species. But Strawberries may be 
forced with success in other properly-ventilated 
houises if given light positions, near to the glass. 
A newly started Peach-house is a suiUble one for 
them. Before placing the plante in warmth, remove 
the dead leaves, and examine, and make good the 
drainage in each case. The suriQftoe of the soil should 
be made firm also with a potting-stick, taking care to 
use it effectively near the aides of the pote, ao 
as to make good any space there may be, through 
the soil having shrunk. As a preventative of 
mildew, it is well to dip each plant in water con- 
taining about half a pint of sulphur to 2 gallons of 
water. When commencing to force, the temperature 
at night should be about 50**, and by day with fire- 
heat 55% with a rise of 10** by sun-heat Every alter- 
nate day is usually frequent enough to examine thorn, 
and tepid water should be given to all those which are 
in onlv a slightiy moist condition. Each 6-inch pot 
should have an mch water4|>aoe at the surface, and 
this should be filled each tune water is given. The 
soil must not be allowed to beoome dry at any time. 
Syringe the plante once on fine days only, especially on 
the under-side of the leaves. When the weather is dull 
and the air in the house dry, merely damp the floor. 
Before the plante have made young leaves, choose a 
calm afternoon to fumigate tiiem, to destroy green- 
fly. Ventilate during the forenoon in degree as the 
temperature rises, snd in the afternoon reduoe it also 
gradually. If any of the earlier pUmU have oom- 
menced to open their flowers, discontinue syringing, 
and keep a somewhat dry atmosphere until the fruite 
are set, allowing as much- ventilation at the top of 
the house as the weather will permit, and 6** more 
heat during the day than advised above for later 
plants. 

Cucumbers, — Strong plante raised from seed, or 
cuttings in the autumn, may now be ])lanted. To 
provide bottom-heat, there should be a chamber 
furnished with hot- water pipes. Over this chumber 
place about 9 inchee of well- prepared hot- bed manure, 
and over this small mounds of soil, about a yard apart, 
along the front of the house, sufficient in quantity to 
cover the roote when planted. This soil may consist 
of three parte turfy-loam, to one of old Mushroom- 
bed manure. Allow this to become warm, and then 
put in the plante, and secure each one of them to a 



January 8, 1898.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



23 



stick, one end of which ahonld be mierted into the 
soil, and the other fastened to the trellis. After 
plantini;, afford a thorough soaking of water, and 
maintain a bottom-heat of from 80° to 85^ The 
temperature of the house should be 65^ to 70"* by 
night, and 75*^ by day, with fire-heat, allowing a rise 
of 10° by sun-heat. Cucumbers require much moisture 
at the roots, and in the atmosphere. Examine the soil 
twice a week, and if found to be approaching dry- 
ness, afford it a soaking of tepid water. Keep the 
surface of the soil damp by occasionally sprinkling it 
through the rose of a watering-oan. Syringe the 
plants once on fine days, but more frequently as the 
season advances. When the plants have made 
growtli, tie the leading stems loosely to the 
sticks, and pinch off the side-shoots until they 
reaoh the trellis. A sowing of Cucumber-seed 
may be made now. Sow the seeds in fine light 
loamy soil, eight seeds in a 5-inch pot, and cover 
with about quarter-inch of soiL After sowing, give 
them a gentle watering, plunge the pots in the bed 
between the Cucumber plants, place a piece of glass 
over eaoh pot in case a mouse find its way into the 
pot. Kemove the glass as soon as growth has com- 
menced, and pot off when the second leaf can be seen. 

MeUmi. — Seeds may now be sown for the first crop, 
and treated the same manner as that recommended 
for Cucumber seed. 

Peach Houses, — Go over the blooms in the early 
houee about noon each day with a camol-hair pencil, 
or rabbit a tiiil, to assist their setting, and for the same 
purpose the trees may be shaken slightly. Keep the 
atmosphere rather dry and buoyant, by having extra 
heat in the pi{ es in the daytime, with as much venti- 
lation as the weather will permit. The temperature 
may be kept at GO"* during the day, or 10° higher 
with sunheiit From dusk it may gradually recede to 
riO" at daybreak. Damp the borders and paths once 
ou fine days while the blooms are open. 



THE KITCHEN QABDEN. 

By J. W. McHattie, Oardonor, StrathOeldsaye. Hants. 

Forcing Potatos, — The best results are obtained 
from hot-beds made up of stable-manure and tree- 
leaves, the latter forming the larger proportion ; 
and while the material is imdergoing preparation 
and fermentation, place a sufficient number of tubers 
of some early kidney in boxes or on the floor of a 
Cucutubor-houso, or some other warm-house, placing 
some soil of a light kind or leaf -mould among them, 
and being careful to place the end in which are the 
** eyes" uppermost. When tho shoots have grown 
1 in. in length, and they have been reduced to two, the 
tuK'rs are ready for planting in the hot-bed. A 
hot-bed for forcing Potatos should be erected 2} to 
3 feet in height, and 1 foot widor than the frames. 
When the frames are placed on it, a layer of light 
mould 4 inches thick should be put inside, and when 
thi4 h.is got warmed throughout, plant the tubers 
9 iuches apart, proceeding in thi<i manner till the 
frames are planted, and cover the tubers with light, 
dryish mould, nearly up to the lowest leaf on the 
sprouts. It is an economical practice to sow seed 
of some early kind of Kadish between the rows, these 
roots being ready for use before the tops interfere 
with the Potatos. Afford water when the soil indi- 
cates dryness ; cover the frames at night with mats 
and litter, according to the state of the weather, 
removing all covering as soon as it is safe to do so, 
and afford air in small quantities in mild weatJier. 
The day temperature may be anything between 65° 
to 70°, and that of the night 65°. 

Carrots. — A mild temperatnre only is wanted to 
foroo this useful and much- prised root, and the 
forcing may be done in pits or hot-beds, as made for 
Potatos, the depth of materials being a little less. 
Let a layer of sandy loam 7 inches deep be put into 
the hut- beds, and when this has got warmed, sow the 
seeds thereon, after levelling and forming it. Let 
the seeds be lightly covered to the depth of a quarter 
of an inch with light soil pressed firmly. Keep the 
fra lea close till the seeds are up, when air shoald be ad- 
mitted freely in mild weather, and maintain the warmth 
of the bed by securely covering the glass at night. 
Top heat may at the first be kept up by placing a 
lining of litter roimd the bed if it be an ordinary 
frame hot- bed made above the ground. But this 
may not be necessary if it bo a brick pit. If the heat 
of tho be«l det^lines sensibly, stronger linings of fer- 
menting dun*^ and leaves must be employed, as no 
good results will follow if the bed gets cooler than 
70*^, antl this holds good for all sorts of hot-bods for 
vegetables. The night warmth should be kept 
between 55" and 58^ for the present, and this needs that 



the frames be suitably oovered at night, as wellfas 
slightly ventilated. 

AMcCroom.— Nowisthe time to make an examina- 
tion of all the seeds left over from last year, saving 
those that are likely to afford a large percentage with 
germinative power. The extreme time during which 
seeds of certain vegetables and herbs retain their 
germinating power is as follows : — 

Angelica 

Badl and Lettuce 

Cauliflower 

BrooooH 

Beans, Kidney 

Marigold 

Carrot 

Chicory 

Coriander 

Endive 

Pea«, nnaU round 

„ Marrowfat 
Tarragon 
Cucumber 

Kohl-rabi , 

Cabbage and Brussol and Thyme/ 

Sprouts 4 to 5 

Before old seed be made use of, its germinating 
power should be ascertained by sowing some of it in 
pans placed in a mild hot-bed, counting the seeds 
sown, and noting the percentage of those which 
grow. The whole of a pu-oel of seed may be older 
than the gardener assumes it to be ; or a portion of it 
may be old, and the rest a part of the last harvest 
but one, and this fact should not be lost sight of. 
Having sorted out what is to be kept, wash and 
otherwise dean drawers, cupboards, and every part 
of the place. 

Buying Seeds. — Look carefully over the list of 
seeds you purpose ordering from the seedsman, study 
the requirements of the establishment, and order 
no more than is necessary. Let some novelties bo 
tested, but grow the more popular varieties for the 
main crops, and buy the best 



Tears 




Yearn 


1 to3 


Lavender 


4to5 


4toG 


Marjoram and Sage 
Soft Kale 


StoS 


StoS 


1 


3 to 4 


Melon 


5 to 8 


3to4 


Parsley 


StoS 


3to7 


Leek 


StoS 


3to4 


Beans. Broad 
Radish and Turnip 


4to6 


Gto8 


5to6 


4to5 


Soorsonera 


2 


4to5 


Onion 


StoS 


3to4 


Spinach, ordinary 


4to5 


StoS 
2to3 
8to8 


Celery ) 
Oeleiiaof 


StoO 


6to7 


Bosemary \ 


9fA » 



FIiAHTS UlTDBB OIiASa 

By W. MBssENOEa, Qardener* Woolrerstone Park, Ipewich. 

Hippeastrvm {AtMurylliaYl — Carefully shake out 
some of the largest and longest-rested bulbs, and 
repot them in moderately moist soil, and withhold 
water till growUi begins, plunging the pots in a 
gentle bottom-heat, and keeping each in it till the 
flower-scape is well advanced, when jthe pot may be 
gradually withdrawn, and finally reihoved to the 
greenhouse when the flower is expanded. 

Lily of tlu Valley. — Let a succession of flowering 
plants bo kept up by putting a batch into heat at 
fortnightly intervals, or according to the demand. 
Cover the crowns with wood-moss till growth com- 
mences, afterwards removing the moss, shading 
slightly for a time, so as to draw up the leaves and 
flower-spikes, gradually hardening off the plants as 
the bells open. 

Spirceas, — Afford these plants the same kind of 
treatment as tiiat advised for Lily of the Valley. 
Plants which are growing freely and are well rooted 
require frequent applications of manure-water, in 
order to ensure strong flower-spikes and good foliage. 

Deutzias. — Place plants in gentle heat for succes- 
sional flowering, syringing them freely, but affording 
root-moisture in moderation till leaf and shoot- 
growth commence, when more may be afforded, also 
manure-water occasionally. 

Rhododendrons, — Some of the early-flowering va- 
rieties should be brought into heat, and where 
house-room is ample, large plants may be lifted from 
the beds, not tubbing or potting them, but placing 
them in flat hampers, or in boxes, or on the floor, and 
simply covering the roots with soil and affording a 
good soaking of water. It is very necessary to guard 
against lack of water at the root at any time, other- 
wise the flower-buds of Rhododendrons fail to open 
saturfactorily or they drop. 

Azalea moUis.^ThB same kind of treatment as that 
advised for Deutzia suits this section of Azalea. 

Lilium longiHorum var, Harritii, — The plants 
should be kept near to the glass, and care taken that 
they do not suffer from lack of water at the root, and 
be afforded a temperature of 40** to 45** at night, with 
plenty of air during the day, but avoiding cold 
draughts. 

Frcesias, — Red-spider is the worHt enemy of the 
Freesia, and if these acari are once allowed to take 
possession of the leaves, the latter are soon spoiled, 
puny flower-spikes being the resuR, Let the potf ula 
of bulbs be placed in a ^ntle heat, thoroughly 



syringiDg them onoe a dav till the flower-spikes are 
well above the soil, when tney should be removed to 
cooler quarters ; manure-water may be oocasionally 
aflbrded well-rooted potfuls, 

Dutch Bidbs.^The stock of these bulbs that is 
plunged in coal-ashes out-of-doors, will in many casos 
have filled the pots with roots, and be growing more 
freely now, rendering an examination advisable. 
Those that are w^-rooted, should be placed in a cold 
frame for a few days, and shaded, until the leaves 
have changed to a green tint. Batches of the bulbs 
thus prepared may be removed to a warm*house or 
fordng-pit, in order to complete their growth. 

Pektrgoniuma which are growing freely may be 
shifted into their flowering-pots, nsiog a compost of 
good friable loa m and sand, with a sprukling of bone- 
meal ; pot flrmly, to ensure a short, stocky growth. 
Plaoe close to the gkss, m a temperature of 45^ at 
night, giving air at every suitable opportunity, fumi- 
gating on Uie first appearance of green-fly. The 
shoots should be suitably staked out as they extend. 

THE HABDY FBUIT OABDEN. 

By W. H. Dnrsas, Gardener, Belvotr Castle, Orantbam. 

Planting of fruit-trees should be continued during 
mild weather, and when the soil is in a fit con- 
dition. The soil may be lightly trodden, but do not 
make it too hard when moving it in the winter. Ko 
manure should be used when pUmting, but if the soil 
be poor, ropUce part of it with some good turfy- 
loam from an upland pssture, preferably from one 
that is resting on red sandstone. Exatpting Cherries, 
all fruit-trees do well in such loam, and it will keep 
sweet for a long time. Cherries require more lime 
than is contained in a sandstone soil, and it can easily 
be added in the form of mortar-rubbish Or broken 
chalk. These substances are also of great benefit to 
all stone fruits. When the trees have been planted, 
fasten them securely to prevent them from being 
swayed by wind or other cause. Trees against walls 
should only be temporarily fastened to allow for the 
soil sinking after heavy rains, but Peaches, Nec- 
tarines, land Apricots, must be kept closely to the 
walla until all danger of severe frost is over. Give to 
all recently-planted trees a mulch with stable-manure 
or half-decayed leaves, and extend it 1 foot wider 
than the extremities of the roots ; Uiis mulch will 
hinder frost from penetrating, and encourage an early 
root-action. Where protection from cattle will be 
necessary, it should bo supplied at once, and the iron 
and barbed wire-protectors are superior to the old- 
fashioned wooden cradle, being practically indestruc- 
tible. Some Kentish growers make a protector from 
the smaller portions of old Hop-poles, which are cut 
off in about 6-feet lengths, and then bored through 
about 18 inches from each end ; a piece of wire is 
threaded through each of these holes, and the ends 
are joined when enough poles are fixed around the 
tree, thus forming a long tube, which lasts for 
several years, and forms a protection against rabbits 
and hares, as well as Urger animals, and also shades 
the stems from hot sundbine. 

Boot-pruning is sometimes necessary in the cases of 
bush and pyramid Pear and Apple trees, and Pear 
and other fruit-trees on walla. ShouJd the trees be 
growing vigorously year after year, and remain 
unfruitful, it is useless to continue pruning above- 
ground, for thereby growth is encouraged instead 
of restricted, and the remedy will be found 
in the discontinuance of pruning entirely, or 
by cutting off some of the roots. Li cases 
where the tree has to be confined within a 
certain space, 4;he latter remedy is the only 
one I possible. Small trees not more than 5 feet 
in height may be lifted entirely, and if the 
fibrous roots are carefully preserved, they will con- 
tinue their growth in a modified manner, and form 
fruit-buds the first season. This operation causes so 
great a check, that it is best to prune half of the 
roots one season, and the remainder twelve months 
afterwards. Take out a trench 6 feet from the stem 
of the tree upon one side, and make it 2^ feet deep^ 
then work towards the centre with steel forks, pre- 
serving the fibrous roots, and cutting off all strong 
ones having a downward direction. When the roots 
have been exposed, trim all jagged ends, and if 
the quantity of roots is excessive, reduce them 
by removing tho coarsest ones. In replacing the 
soil, lay out all tho roots in regular order, and <lo 
not allow the points to trend downwards. An 
admixture of charred garden refuse — one part to five 
parts of the soil — will be beneficial, and when all 
IS filled in, mulch the surface with strawy litter of 
half decayed leaves, and secure the tops with wires. 



24 



THE GABDENEB8' CHRONICLE. 



[Janitart 8, 1898. 



EDITORIAU NOTICES. 



Ltttora for PublloUlon, <u ««U <u ipteivieiM aiut plaMte /br 
«Mmiii9,ilk<mUbtaddrftMdtoai EDITOR, 41, Welling- 
ton StTMl; Covent QArden, London. OwwmwtortioM 

XkOHM bt WAITTMII OH OHS UDB OVLT OF THB PAPXR, 

fcml <u Mrlif i» At witk cu potHMi, ond duly ti^Md by 
M#i9Hl0r. iydMir>d,agtiy>tatw»f <»Ci«ott«|»riiirtd,di>l 
IwpCcua^iMHtMilMq^^ood/iUIL 3%iJMilordoM«ol«MKbr- 
lofecto jMqr /E>r any OMOrAuMMif, or to rtlmikWMmdwm' 
■MMilflalipM or iOiiieraltoiu , milat by ajp^dUA ommgnunt 



APPOINTMENTS FOR THE ENSUING WEEK. 



8 A L E 8. 



MONDAY. 



TUESDAY, 



Jiftn 



.loi 



Border Plants, at Mr. Bterena' 
Rooma. 

iCkmtinental Plants, Herbacooua 
Plants. Boaos, Gladioli, ^., at 
Protheroe A Morris' Booms. 

/Japanese Lilies, Asaleas, Roses, 
SpiraE'as, dec., at Protneroo ii 
Morris' Rooms. 



. 



WEDNESDAY, Jan. 1 3 ^ jj^,^^ p^j^ ^^ Shrubs. Palms. 

I Asaleas, Border Plants, and 
\ Bulbs, at Mr. Steycns lioom. 

TBUnSDAT, J«. M'^U'^^ei^^'iT^'-'"- 

Dnrn i jr T.» 1 1 / Importedand Established Orchids, 

FRIDAY. Jan. M < ^^ Prothertie di Morris' Booms. 



AvxRAOi Tkmpbbaturb for the ensuing week, deduced from 
Observations of Forty-three years, at Ghiswiek.— 86*5*. 

Actual Tkmperatvrss :— 

London.— Januorjy 5 (6 p.m.): Max., 54°; Min.. 48^. 
FBorxvcEB.— January b (6 V.U.): Max.. 54", south-west 
Ireland; Min., 38^. north-east Scotland. 



So far as we know at present. 
The Ghent the QaiDquennial to be held 

Quinquennial. ^^ ^y^^^^ ^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^ ^^ 

24th April next, promises to be the great horti- 
cultural event of Uie season . Unlike the brilliant 
series of shows held last year at Hamburgh, the 
great display at Ghent lasts but nine days — a 
nine days wonder ! It is, nevertheless, so ' feur 
as British horticulture is concerned, a more 
important meeting than that at Hamburgh, and 
it is still one of great moment, though the 
volume of trade from Belgium to England is 
less than it used to be before our cultivators 
found out that they, too, could grow on a large 
scale, plants which were formerly thought 
to be a monopoly of the Belgians. How many 
hundreds of nurserymen there are around 
Ghent we cannot compute. Many of them are 
our very good friends, their establishments 
are always very well worth seeing, and their 
hospitality — especially at the quinquennial 
periods — ^is only too overpowering. Moreover, 
there is a school of horticulture to which, in 
default of any of our own, our nurserymen 
are wont to send their sons. One of our 
English nurserymen, Mr. Sander, has estab- 
lished in the neighbouring town of Bruges, a 
nursery on a large scale, which, together with 
those in Ghent and Brussels, will attract many 
visitors from this country. 

The exhibition itself will be a reflex of the 
horticultural activity of the kingdom. There 
will be seen the noble Palms, Cycads, Tree 
Ferns, for which there seems to be so little 
relative demand in this country. There will 
be the Camellias, all but extinct here (save for 
the fine collection at Waltham Cross, and some 
few others). Azaleas, both of the indioa and of 
the muUis sections, will be in profusion ; and 
besides these staples, something of everything. 

It is to be hopad that our own exhibitors will, 
as in former yeard, show what they can do. 
Orchids, Cyclamens, Chinese Primroses, Cine- 
rarias, and oth^r things, can be sent from this 
side of the water without much risk of being 
burpasscd. The show, we may mention, ie open 
to all nationalities, to amateurs, and to the 
trade. The jury is international and consti- 



tutes a true ''concert of Europe," which does 
know its mind, and how to act as one 
body. The applications for space should be made 
not later than March 19, to M Fierens, the 
Secretary. In the programme before us there 
are 28 groups, containing 716ola6see. first, second, 
and sometimes third prizes being allotted to each 
class. New plants constitute the group to 
which most interest attaches. Next oome 
Orchids, stove plants, foliage and floral ; 
Aroids, always a feature at these shows ; Palms, 
usually shown splendidly ; Cycads, Pandanads, 
Tree-Fems, greenhouse plants, foroed speci- 
mens, hardy plants, bulbs, trees and shrubs, 
pot-Vines, forced Strawberries, and miscel- 
laneous exhibits far too numerous to mention, 
but which may be found in the programme, to 
be had from M. Fierens, Casino, Ghent, as 
before said. 

We shall keep onr readers informed as to any 
further particulars that may reach us. 



The Weather ^^^ vicissitude of the Weather in 
and the Fruit, these islands is proverbial, and 
*"®*' to scarcely anyone is this of so 

much importance as to private gardeners and 
fruit cultivators, and especially to those who 
have extensive walls planted with fruit-trees of 
all kinds, which are naturally expected by the 
owners to furnish full supplies of the finer fruits 
for dessert purposes. The chief danger to be 
feared this mild season is the excessive forward- 
ness of growth and flower, and the nipping 
frosts of late spring. In the case of wall fruit- 
trees, it is evident that the timely unfastening 
of the branches from the wall, and the postpone- 
ment of the pruning till the latest possible 
period, would have the eflect of keeping flower 
and wood-buds dormant, whereas early pruning 
and nailing would be followed with exactly oppo- 
site eflects ; and having started the basal dormant 
buds into growth, no further relays are obtain- 
able. Hence we advise delay this season, and 
the concentration of the labour, unfortunately 
not too abundant in any garden nowadays, on 
the carrying out of all seasonable operations, in 
tree-planting, digging, trenching, and manuring 
land, and genersdly in bringing work of aU 
kinds up to date and beyond it, if possible. 

Where the complete detachment of the 
branches and shoots from the wall can be 
carried out, the more will the tree be removed 
from the exciting influence of the sun's heat, 
and the longer the period of bursting into 
flower and growth be delayed. There is still 
another method by which rapid advance can be 
checked, and that is to leave the pruning un- 
touched, and to cover the forwarder kinds of 
fruit-trees thinly with Spruce Fir branches, 
nailed to the wall ; or to make use of the ordi- 
nary blinds and coverings during the day ; and 
so long as the trees are not in bloom, to 
roll these up during the night, however cold 
it may chance to be. Having done these things, 
we must trust to Fortune, and hope for the best. 

With orchard and free-standing trees and 
espaliers, little can be done either in preventing 
growth, or in retarding it after it has begun. 
Certainly, in the case of espalier Pears and 
Apples, a broad board fastened on the top of 
the fence forms a capital protection against 
frost after the bloom has burst forth, and 
the branches of Spruce Fir. Laurel, or Yew, 
stuck into the soil on eith3r side of an 
espalier would help to screen it from the sun*s 
warmth ; on the other hand, they afford shelter 
against the cold by pi eventing radiation from 
the plant, so that the advantages ate pro- 
blematical at the best. In sonje casef we 



might adopt American and Continental methods, 
and light smoulder-fires on the windward side 
of an orchard or a iruit-plantation when frost 
is imminent, the dense smoke f^om the fires 
acting like the clouds in hindering the radia- 
tion of warmth from the ground, and givin^p 
out, moreover, a slight degree of heat. 

Earthenware A CORRESPONDENT at Cheltsu- 

Hot- water ham forwards, for our inspection, 
Pipw. j^ photograph of a span-roofed 
pit at Pittville, in that town, heated by means 
of glazed earthenware pipes, resting on bricks 
laid at short intervals apart on the ground. 
The method is not new, although the manner 
in which they are put together exhibits a novel 
feature. The usual mode of joining the lengths 
of pipe is to put in a thin luting of clay at the 
point where the end of a length of pipe abuts 
on the bottom of the socket of another, and then, 
having placed the pipe in its proper position, 
to pour in Portland cement, so as to form a 
watertight joint. The pipes used are made 
without sockets ; and the joints are formed of 
two cast-iron rings, each of which fits the pipe 
at one end, and the larger diameter of one is 
of such size that it exactly fits into the larger 
diameter of the other. A piece of tape wound 
round the junction of the two pipes prevents 
anything passing into the interior. After the 
rings are in place, Portland cement is poured 
in so as to fill the space between the iron rings 
and the pipes. 

Amongst other advantages, the economy of 
using stoneware instead of cast-iron pipes is 
considerable, the difference being, says our 
correspondent, about 50 per cent., in addition 
to the fact that the joints can be made by an 
ordinary garden labourer. 

Pipes of this kind are practically everlasting, 
provided they are out of the way of blows from 
falling pots, bricks, and the various objects that 
seem to be always lying in wait, as it were, to 
bring about the destruction of fictile wares. 
They would, however, answer admirably as a 
means of affording bottom-heat to Cucumber, 
Melon, and Pine-beds, warming tanks in 
aquaria, imparting heat to Asparagus-beds in 
the open-air ; and in other positions where 
accidents to them are but little likely to happen, 
or where, from excessive moisture, the life of 
cast-iron pipes is of short duration. We have 
iised earthenware glazed pipes of 8 to 10 inches 
in diameter as hothouse flues with satisfactory 
results, these being remoTod from chance of 
breakage by beingplaced beneath the plant-stages 
and benches. They are much to be preferred 
to the brick or tile-flue which, however well it 
may be constructed, is a source of danger to the 
plants from its liability to emit smoke and 
other products of combustion into the glass- 
house through some of its many joints. By 
having pipe flues constructed with close-fitting 
soot-doors every 15 or 20 feet, it is an easy 
matter to clear them of soot. 



A Grand Plane Tree, and other Trees, 

AT MOTTISFONT ABBEY.— The two different views 
(6g8. 9. 10) of a very large Platanus orientalis (Common 
Plane) were kindly sent ue by Mr. G. Mkinertz- 
HAOEN, in whose garden at Mottiafoot Abbey, 
Romsey, the tree is gro wiug. In the note accompany • 
ing the photograph of the trees. Mr. Meinertzuagbk 
says : —"The re-rooting of the braoches is very marked. 
The Plane-tree is, I belieTe. the largest in England, 
measuring round the trunk at 4^ feet from the 
groaud 29 feet 8 inchea. From tip to tip of the 
branches it covers 129 feet. There is only one 
branch allowed to take root, the others being 
propped up to keep the space open nnder the tree. A 



JxmiAxr S, I89S,] 



THE OABDENEBS' OHEONICLE. 



tTM of SproM Fir growing In tha Mma gturdoa, ha* 
produced tram k bnuch, a tree tlirae-qiiarhaa o( tha 
liaight o( the parent teae, which Mama now to ba dy- 
ing, the Qfbhoot baingatrongandTigonius. Two other 
atami of ttii* aame tnw have hftd the iDtarraning 
tomch esTered for aome jeara, and are now growing 
wall. A Cheatout-tna [of which a photograph was alio 
lent. Bd.] haa taken root in nine i^mm, each bnirah 
produolDg quite a good^iied tree, tha whole oovering 
a lai^ (Tea of groond." 

RovAL Horticultural Society.— The flnt 
tDeeting of tha DOmmitteee ot the BojbI Hortieultunl 
Socialy in ISSS wiU be held, aa iiaual, in the DriU 
Ha]], JamcB Street, Tiotoria Street, Weetmioatsr, on 
Twedaj next, January 11, 



Qaroineiis- Orphan Fund.— Sotna comphJnta 
hare reaahed ua to tha effeot that cards aolidting 
Totet, aod mentioning the name* of certain nib- 
(oriben as nominatore, haxe been iaiued beforn any 
offlolal annooDoement from the oomndttae has bean 
eirenUtad. We anapeot the nominators are within 
their rig^ta, but it la a right tlutt it were better not 
to eierdee — in order to avoid tricttOQ and ua- 



Horticultural Club.— The ummI monibly 
lUnner and eomertaaane will take plaoe on Tueeday, 
the 11th inat., at fl P.M. The aubjeot for diiooedon 
will b^ "The Baasona of 1896-97 ; thor Leaaoni 
and EfiMa on tha Fruit Crop* and Treea." To be 
opened by Hr, QioHai Bubtabd, Y.lf.H. 



The Cumate of Bute and or Kent.— 
At thia eaaaon of the year it ia customary (or the 
great trade bouaei— and the litUe one* ton, for that 
matter — to gather together thmr emptogit at a eocial 
gathering, when the uixiatiet of basineu are for a 
few hours diamiaaed, and reciprootl goodwill and 
enjoyment take preoadence. We reoeire numeroas 
repcnta of auoh gatheringe, whloh oar spaoa forbid* 
US to Insert, They are naturally prinoipally at * 
panonal oharaotar, and not of public interest ; while 
to make adrertising capital out of such mattert Is to 
spoil their eaaenUsl oharaoteristio. Korerthelen, at 
seine ot these gatheringt aome interesting facts are 
etldted. Thus, at the gathering' of Dobbie k Co., it 
was stated that Ur. Dohrce begao busineaa with half 
an acre of ground— a piraUsl to the s-nall cabiott 



FlC, 9. —PLANE TBEB SUO^flHO O.fE OIU-NCil RE-UJOTKD, AI aOTTlSFO.M i 



The Gardeners' Royal Benevolent Insti- 
tution.— The committee bus decided to hold the 
annual friendly eupper of the membera of thil Ineti- 
tution and their frieads, at Sinipaon'a, 101, 
Strand, on Thursday, January SO, nt 6 p.m., 
after the Anuual Meeting, when Artbuh W. 
SuTTOV, Eh|., of Keiding, will preaide. Friends 
who lire de^ous of being praaent at tbii, tho SQth 
Annual Ueeting, are requested to Intimate their 
tntantiDD to Mr. Okoroe J. Inuham, Secretary, SU, 
Parliament Street, S.W. 

We haTe much pteasuru iu announcing that 

His Qrace Ibe Dv^a or Poktlaho has kindly pro- 
uiaed to preaida ut Ibn flIKh AiiniTerMry Festival 
Dinner of Ibe Oardenera' Royul Deuevotent Inatitu< 
tion to be held, it is hoped, iu Juneceit, but the 
d*tfl i* not yet Sxed. 



The Most Eminent Order of the India 
Empire. -Botanials and horticulturiata wUl rejcdoe 
to hear that Brigade-Snigeon-Lleatensnt-Coloiiel 
QBaKQE KiMc, Superintendent ot the Calcutta 
Botanic Uardeu, baa baeu promoted by Her 
HsJiBTt to be Knight -Comma uder, and will henoe- 
forlh be knowu at Sir OaonoK Kisa. 

Chemistry of Horticulture.— it le reported 
that the Koyal Horticultural Society ia about to appoint 
m piofeeeed chemist, whoae duty it will ba to fumiah 
analyses of soils, watera, manurea, &c., at a relatively 
low price, to Fellow* of the Society. We butieve Dr. 
VocLCKEB, who holds a aimilar poiition iu the Koysl 
Agricultural Society, witl in the future act also as 
Consulting Chemist to the Boytl Horliou1tur«l 
Society. 



that was the germ of tha great firm oF Sdttom's. 
The contrast between the clitoste of Weat Kent 
and that of South-west Scotland wai strikingly illus- 
trated by Ur. FirE, «rho said that their exjierieucea 
in the aouth had been very varied. They bad hid 
variations in climatic couditiooa which he believed 
they rarely experienced ia Bute. Iu the Liat three 
jeara he had been privileged (u be iu the coldeat 
climate he had ever FiperieoDed, with a teuiperature 
at leaet 8° or 10* below sera ; and he had ulao been in 
the hotteet climate be bod ever endured. He had 
seen it rain as be lud never seeu it rain iu Scotland, 
and he bad seen a druuglit with the laud ao dry that 
DO uue in Bute >:ould realise. 

AORICULTURE IN ABERDEtN UNIVERSITY.— 
Short oauiMS in agriculture and allied aubjieti. 



26 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Januaby 8, 1898. 



intaoded fpeoially for young men who would not think 
of taking out a full univenity coune, but who oould 
conveniently attend a month's courae of ingtrootion 
in the depth of winter, when work is tlaokest at 
home, are to open in Aberdeen UniTerrity, on 
January 10. In addition to lectures on subjects 
likely to be uaeful to agrioulturists in the north- 
east of Scotland, instruction will be given in the 
laboratory in the chemistry of manures and soils, and 
also with regard to the identification of grass and 
other seeds, and with practice in germinating seed. 
Saturday visits are also oontemplated to farms in 
Aberdeenshire and Forfarshire. 

Thuya pucata (qiqantea).— A portrait of 

the base of the trunk of a remarkable specimen of 
the so-called Red Cedar of the north-west ooast (Thuya 
plicata or gigantea) is published in a recent issue of 
The Pacific Rural Preis. This tree stands near 
Snoqualmie Falls, on the Seattle and International 
Railway, and the circumference of the trunk at the 
ground is given as 100 feet 7 inches. As this is 
one of the slowest-growing of the western Conifers, 
this tree has probably lived for mors than a 
thousand years. Garden cand PoreU^ November 17, 
1897. 

Cairo.— M. DjcLcnBVALKRiK has published in the 
French language an account of the Ezbekieh Park at 
Cairo, in which the orig in and progress of this park 
are briefly sketched. The area is about 8 hectares, 
and it has been simply and effectively laid out by M. 
DiLOHBVALEBU and the late M. Barillbt. In the 
present pamphlet an enumeration of the more 
remarkable trees and shrubs planted if given. Among 
them are Balanites segyptiaca, a native of the Sou- 
danese desert, which requires no artificial water- 
ing ; Dalbergia melanozy Ion, from Abyssinia, has 
flowered and ripened fruit ; the Banyan, Ficus ben- 
galensis, is at home ; Bauhinia purpurea and Poin- 
dana regia embellish the gardens. The boulevards 
are planted with Albizzia Lebbek, the most elegant 
tree for the purpose, and easily transplanted, seeing 
that the bole alone is necessary, the head and the 
roots being cut away far off in Lower Egypt, and 
transported ^to Cairo— once planted, they speedily 
throw out new roots and new folisge. 

ME88R8. HUQH LOW & CO.— One by one thn 

old-established suburban nurseries are being ousted, 
and compelled to seek other quarters. We have 
been familiar with Low's, of Clapton, throughout 
our lives. Now it appears that it is, or soon will be, 
a thing of the past, and we shall have to speak of 
Low's of Enfield (Bush Hill Park). The locality is a 
secondary consideration. Messrs. Low k Ca will 
take with them their reputation, and that is of the 
highest. 

William PLUMa— The newly-elected President 
of the New York Florists' Club, says the American 
Ploritt, was bom in Huntingdonshire, England, in 
the year 1850. In early youth he was apprenticed at 
Sevenoaks, Kent, and his capability and fondness for 
his profession quickly brought him forward as a gar- 
dener of recognised ability. As a journeyman at 
Qreenroyd, Halifax, he won many awards at the local 
exhibitions. The first place he had full charge of 
was Swinton Ptek, Manchester, where he remained 
two years, and then oame to America (he having 
visited thisfcountry for a brief time previously), and 
took charge of Robert Colgate's place, and later on 
S. D. Babcook'b estate, and several other large places 
at Riverdale, N.Y. He now superintends the fine 
estate of C. P. Huntington at Tbrogg's Neck. Mr. 
Plumb has been for years an enthusiastic worker in 
the New York Florists' Club, also the S. A. F., and 
there is no man more popular among his fellow- 
members in both organisations than he. Fault- 
finding or contrariness find no place in his sunny dis- 
position ; he is uniformly cheerful under any and all 
circumstances, and always ready and willing to render 
a service when opportunity presents. No president 
ever came to the chair in the Now York Club with 
more friends and fewer critics than President-elect 
Flu MB, and there is no doubt that a year of pros- 



perity and advancement b assured during the ooming 
adminiatmtion. 

JadoO.— The Report of the Agri- Horticultural 
Society of India mentions that Tea-plants in Cachar. 
grown in Jadoo-fibre, are taking a decided lead of the 
others in height, and a similar occurrence has been 
noted in the Society's garden. Mr. Helts reports 
that Orchids show splendid roots when grown in this 
material. 

VlNTON'8 AGRICULTURAL ALMANAC — "A 
Year-Book for Farmers and Landowners." — This is 
the successor to a similar publication issued by our 
late friend and colleague, John Morton. In addi- 
tion to tables and calendars there are some very 
readable and useful articles, such as Mr. Clabb 
Snwsll Rrad*8 reminiscences of farming in Norfolk, 
and such a mass of information that the *' almanac " 
may be called eneydopsddic. 

Queensland NEPENTHEa— Mr. F. M. Bailit, 

the Colonial Botanist of Queensland, figures and 
describes in the Queensland AgricuUural Journal two 
species of Nepenthes, vis., N. Kennedy!, F. v. M., and 
K. Bemaysii, BaiL Four Australian species are now 
known, and will doubtless soon make their appear- * 
auce on our exhibition tables. 

Allotments in the County of Surrey.— 

The Technical Education Committee of the Surrey 
County Council seem desirous of doing much more 
than has hitherto been done by that enlightened body, 
to give additional interest to allotment cultivation, 
and also to have all the principal groups federated, to 
some extent, so as to secure for them, as frequently 
as possible, oversight and " pointing," on the County 
County Council basis, by the recognised instructors 
and experts. Hitherto, these horticultural teachers 
have been empowered to visit such groups of allot- 
ments as they may be invited to do so by the local 
committees. These groups have been pointed according 
to the recognised scale, and in that way their progress 
or otherwise oould be determined yearly. The Tech- 
nical Education Committee, as the result of this 
judging, have occasionally granted Certificates of 
Merit to the best plots, although not twice to the 
same person ; and distributed useful elementary 
books on gardening. These awards have, so far, 
been much appreciated. The energetic chairman 
of* the County Council, Mr. £. J. Halset, is now 
anxious to have all groups of allotments in the 
county brought under the same supervision for 
ideiktical purposes, believing that a considerable 
impetus to allotment cultivation and expansion 
would result. Mr. Halsbt hopes even to obtain 
eventually a federation of all the various district 
or parochial cottage-garden or similar societies 
in the coimty, and ultimately to have annually 
in one part or other of the county a coun^ 
exhibition of allotment and cottage-garden produce. 
Circulars inviting acceptance of these proposals 
have been issued to all known societies in the 
county. What the result will be, time will show. 

ACCIDENT TO Mr. C. C. HUR8T.— We are 
sorry to hear that Mr. C. C. Hurst, junior partner in 
the firm of B. Hurst k Sun, Burbage Nurseries, 
Hinckley, met with a rather serious accident while 
hunting with the Atherstone Hounds, on Friday last. 
Mr. Hurst's horse, in taking a fence, jumped into a 
*' blind *' ditch, turned right over, and fell heavily on 
Mr. Hurst's hoid. Mr. Hurst who is suffering from 
slight concussion and general shock, is progressing 
favourably. It will perhaps be remembered that 
Mr. C. C. Hurst recently read a paper before the 
Royal Horticultural Society on ** Somo Curiosities 
of Orchid Breeding** (see Oardencri Chronicle, 
(Oct 16., p. 278). 

''Garden and Forest.'— We greatly regret to 
learn that one of the foremost horticultui'al journals 
of the world, and one for which advaoced horticul- 
turistb and botanists had the greatest respect, has 
collapsed for want of adequate support ; it was too 
good. — ** With the present isuue, which completes 
the tonth volume, the publication of Garden and 



P&rtfl ends. For ten years an experiment has teen 
tried of publishing a weekly journal devoted to 
horticulture and forestry absolutely free from all trade 
influences, and as good as it has been poanble for ue to 
make it This experiment, which has cost a large 
amoont of time and money, has shown conclusively that 
there are not persons enough in the United Statae 
interested in the subjects which have been presented 
in the oolunms of Garden and Porett to make a 
journal of its class and character self-supporting. It 
is useless, therefore, to sink more time and money in 
a publication which cannot be made fi nan ci a l ly 
successful, and must, therefore, sooner or later 
oease to exist" 

Publications Received. — Parming Wo/rM 

Year Book. — Oyclatnent, and How to Grow Them, a 
practical treatise, by F. C. Edwards, Sholebroke 
View, Leeds; a useful little treatise that may be 
commended to beginners. — Transactions of tJiei 
English ArboricuUural Society, vol iii., part ilL, 
gives details as to the excursion of the Society into 
Norfolk in August, 1897. — Journal of the Royal Uor- 
ticuUurul Society. — The Journal of the Board of 
Agriculture. — De VEmpUn Populaire des Plante* 
SoMvages en Savoie^ par le Dr. Alfred Cbabert — 
Tijdsehrift voorTminbouw. 



A FRENCH GARDEN IN 1515. 

(Ctmeluded/romp. IS.) 

Abka ksoaRIa. — In this there should be two bedg, 
one for such vegetables of which the fruit is eaten, 
the other being for root crops. 

PoLViNDS Fbdotuarium. — ^Tho fruit-bed has Pepo. 
numerous kinds of Gk>urds, the Cucumber, and 
Melons, and the citrullus or colocynth of medical men. 
The author also alludes to the large Maltese Gourds, 
which are still cultivated there; and mentions a 
practice of watering Gourds with sugared water, by 
which the taste is improved, such being called 
** Pompons succarins," or Sugar- Melons. Of the 
Cucumber, there is the cultivated and wild, or 
Cucumis asininus. This last is the Ecbalium agreste, 
or Squirting Cucumber. 

Mala intana, or fruit of the Mandrake. — This was 
eaten with oil, salt, and pepper. He also describea 
a sort with prickly stems aud foliage. This would 
probably be Solauum sodomaeum. He also describes 
the "male" aud *' female" Mandrake; of course, 
imaginary distinctions. 

Strawberry. — The fruits, of tho size of a nut, were 
eaten with cream ur sugared witie. There was & 
mountain form, probably Fragraria vesca, var. 
alpina. 

Jiubus Idaua. —Both white and red Raspberries. 

Coriander. —A new plant in French gardens ; and 
Anise, used as a stimulant for the appetite. 

Cinara. — *'A kind of cultivated Thistle, the top 
of which, as it were a fruit, we eat.*" 

Papaver. — Though often grown in a kitchen 
garden, it is not edible, but the seed is used to 
encourage sleep. Imagination must have efieoted 
this, for Poppy-seed, it is now known, does not 
contain the opium I 

PuLviNUS RAOiCARias, or the root-bed. 

liadicula. Radish. The root raw, cut up small, 
with water and salt, provokes the appetite. He says 
some kinds are sweet, others acrid, but does not 
mention different forms. Another Raphanus, which 
the Romans call Armoraoia, has leaves like those of 
the cultivated Radish. A third Radicula the Greeks 
call Struthion, used for cleaning wooL *' It is a spiny 
herb, with a woolly stem, a handsome flower, without 
odour, ko,'* This plant has been thought to be Gyp- 
sophila struthium, or Reseda luteola ; but the above 
description (taken from Pliny) is inapplicable. Pliny 
adds, "it grows upon rugged rocky sites;" and 
describes it as au umbellifer. Mattbasus Sylvaticus 
gives several opinions, but decides nothing about 
it. He wrote in IISO. lu 17t>0 an umbellifer was 
cultivated for medicine under the name Struthium 
(Lewis, Mat. Mid,). 

Rapwn or Xapum. — Fr. '* Naveau." Used for 
flavouring soups. The author compares the shape of 
the root to the conn of the Cyclameo. There were 



Janvart 8, 189S,] 



THE GARDENERS- CHRONICLE. 



two (orU, one grlt^ to Gi» taatb, the othor vory 
■weet inA yellowiih. 

Rapttwudiu or JVapHneuIui.— Hub has a bins 
Soir«r. Tha root ii to be leen on tha tafalM of thr 
rich luid loiurioui. Some call It " Looait," at 
" Locu>t'i-foot," from & UksneMin the root, "whsDce 
Bven tbef thought it to hiTs been the food of John 
Bftptiit ID the deent, tor It growl in unoultivated 
pUoea." It ii CampuiuU lUpuaaulus. 

" Screftdaria major hu a root roiembling the Ra- 
pnnoolaa, moat pleuut to the taate and ecent." 
Oinrde Bgurei this t > apeeiea of aoropbuUria or 
Flgwort. 

rannip, Carrot, and epeoisi of Fanaz, a foreign 
tTtnbellifer, with jetlow flowen, and entire lub- 



mander. It la Tenoiliim Soordium or Water Qsr- 
mandar. Ot other bulb* ha mmtioni AMalonjtoi, 
"Doeeaebalottea," Le., Alliiun Mcalooieiuu. Bnlbui 
agraitii, " dea Oignona uuvages," probably Allium 
uialniim. "The moat nobis of bulbii* the Soilla," 
"De* Sqnlllea," Urginea Bcijla, the medicinal iqnill; 
Panoratfon, probably P. maritimnm ; Asphodelns, 
oiUed Uaitnla regia and Albaooi, Aiphodelui 
ramoiua of aonth Europe. From lOth to IGth oen- 
tniy, Haatnla regia WM the Woodruff. 

SiUnUm, BUcampane, ii the Iwrt pUnt manttoned 
bj our author. The book oonoludea with a ahort 
liaatlwi, De onltn at Mtione hortorum libeling, et 
antlquoTum agrioolamm Matentia ptwilpne ooUectna. 
OwyeBtntleK. 



have the largeat oropa ; from both oountriea offering* 

have already bean teel; made in large quaotitiee ; 
the State* leeda are olean, but lack uze. Tha north of 
France aamplea ore the beat we have aean from there 
lor tome jeara, large-giainad, and of gM>d ofaaraotor. 
Aa uaual, there will be oonaiderable quaotitioa of tho 
vary weedjimall-grained leed from the badly-farmed 
diatrieta of the aouth of Fianoe. Canada haa not at 
preaent plooed muoh on the marketa, and neither 
Qerinany nor Ruada oSen with tha fraadom they 
have done for aereiml acMoni. 

White Clover. — A fair Bngliah crop, but fine 
■ample* will be aoaroe. Tha large American aupply 
that oluraoteriaedlaat year's tradelcaoDob be repeated ; 
but tbe QerDUM oSwiu^ are plentiful, eapaoiaUy of 



Fib. 10. — UBOB FLAKBtTRXE AT M0TTISr0I<T ABBKY, BOMSBY : TKOKK S3 FSBT 7 INCaia ; COVEBS 139 FKET 01 



oordate, obliqme laaTea, wltli a juuM IJ 
and grow* baat abont water. Aa other kiiida ot 
Panax, tha author inolndea Aaolepinm, Chirontum, 
Liguitloum, and BphoailylLon (ot Qraeki) ; Fr., 
" Paoati aauTiige." 

Sitarm (Ork.), Siaar (Lat), Fr., "dea oberuiU," 
now apelt " ohtrvii ; " Eng., Skimta. 

Siter tiiarum waa introdaoed from China into 
EngUod in 1S4(J ; Daubeny {Rrman Bmbandrg) 
auggaata that tha liter of the onoianta waa nun nodi- 
fiorum. Thit, however, doea not agree with Oerarda'a 
figure. Pliny aayi the beat grew in Qeimany. 

Cepa, many variatiea of Ooion, white, red, large 
and amsll, or " oignonattee." 

Allium, Fr., "dea null," Scorodoproson (Allium 
deeoendeni, ate. to Daubeny), and Scordion, lately 
intittdnoed. Thia plant tha author deaoribes aa only 
having the odonr of Qarlic. It wai culled Triugo 
paluatria by the Latina, and baa learw |ika the Qvt- 



CLOVER AND GRASS SEED 

CROPS. 

Hbsbb. Hunt t Son, Honndaditoh, London, 
forward far pnblioaCion the following aatimate ot the 
stock of graM and CloTer, and other agrioulturil 
aeeda, of laat year's hamating ;— 

AifftuA Sed Ohvtr and Cotn-grau will Tsry nsore 
in qnali^ and oharaoter than thny usually do, and we 
are of opinion that tha superior grades will be very 
aoaroe. The eaatam oonntiea hsTe by br the largeat 
crops, the aouthern, western, and midland cauntle* 
have in the aggregate a largish acreage, but the 
aamplea from these diatrictn that wo liave already 
aeen show inferior quality, not well-ripened, and the 
yield per acre unoaually email. Yearly, or rather 
two-year old, aeed, for there wee only a small 
quantity sared in 18EIS, is nnw almoat eihaoated. 

Single Out Cma-grtui—It in smalt supply. 

ftirrign Sed CUntr.—Vrtact and America leem \fi 



thelowwgndss. The ftneat aamplea am undoubtedly 
aoaroo everywhere. 

Aliike — Seems to be in much smaller oompasa tbia 
yaar. Far several seaaona it has been abnormallT 
plentiful, Canada aendiag ua hea*y suppUae ; ao far 
this aeaaon the offerings are on a rerj raelriotad 
Bcala, and the aamplea lack good colour. The Oerman 
crop we hear U an avemge. 

TrefoiL — A smaller crop of English than uaual ; 
and although tha Continanial cropa are not up to an 
average psrhape, the very large quantities ot yearling 
seed still held in thIa country will prevent prices being 
bigh. 

Ltcernt. — Short craps both in f rauce and Aoieriea, 

£ain/oiii. — English Oiant an under-avange orop ; 
a lair anpply of Eogliah common. Frenoh Oiant ia 
reported scarce, and ot generally inferior quality. 

Ilafian Bye-gnuM. — The French crop is nnder 
qvenge, and Hne Hsfenne doee not offer fteely ; the 



28 



THE GAB DENE RS' CHRONICLE. 



[ZjkXSVkXt a, 189!. 



re-cleaned qiulitiea will be Yerj seoroe towirds the 
end of this aeasoD. Irish crop agtin Urge, and of 
good qualitj. KngliBh quite up to avenge. 

Perainial Ege-gmaset. — Not quite such large crope 
u for seTeral yean past, but still plentiful Th? 
natural weight per bualiel lower than last year. 

Natural Graase^ — ^Vary as usuaL Co^sfoot is in 
fair supply from New Zealand, but we are not getting 
offen from America. Timothy still plentifoL 
Crested Dogstaii in laiger supply than for seYeral 
years. Meadow Fescue very fine, but not so |^en> 
tiful ss last year. The Poaa in short supply ; this 
applies also to Sheep's and Hard Fetoua 



Alpine Garden. 



NEW AND RARE PLANTS FOR 
ROCKERIES. 

Ths genus Acsena includes some very intereatiog 
little species, some of which are new introductions, 
and prove very hardy here at Geneva. For instance, 
the beautiful, small-growing A. Buchanani, Hook. 1, 
nearly allied to A. microphylla, Ib a gem in rock- 
gardens. It is a very slow-growini; shrub, csespitose, 
spreading over the soil, with a very pretty foliage of 
a light, almost sky-blue colour in the sunshine, and 
hardly at all green. The leaves (eleven leaflets 
generally ) are delicately incised and crenate, and the 
whole tuft is exceedingly dainty. The flowers are not 
worthy of mention, being like those of the other 
Acsooad, which are all inconspicuous. We received 
the seeds of this plant from Mr. Cockayne in New 
Zealand, who found it in the mountains of the Otago 
country. 

Aeana glabra^ Buchanan, is another newly-intro- 
duced species, for which we are indebted to Mr. Cock- 
ayne ; the stems are erecti the leaves brownish-green, 
seven to eleven leaflets. 

A Russian botanist, already well known for his 
discoveries in the Csucasus, Mr. N. Alboff, is now in 
La Plata, and has made some botanic excursions in 
* ' Tieira del Fuego *' and " Msgellan,'* whence he sent 
us last year a fine collection of seeds, from which 
already some results have been obtained. This has 
particularly been the case with a very good form of 
Acaena adscendent, with glaucous foliage, quite bluish, 
which seems to be very hardy, and easy of cultivation. 

While speaking of Acseoas, it might be sud that it 
is an ioterestirg genus for foliage, which ii in all 
specimens good, and sometimes very omamentaL 
But I know few genen more polymorphous than 
thif . A good little mouQgnph upon them has been 
lately published in Paris by Dr. P. Citeme of Nantes.* 
Although their flowen are not attractive, Aosenas 
can be recommended for the rock-gardens for 
their foliage, and for the long and graceful ear- 
mentose branches many of them produce, especially 
the so-called " Bidi-Bidi " of New Zealand. A. San- 
guisorbad, YahL, which is called eometimes Firi-Piri, 
Huty-Waij, or Puri-Kahu. 

They are, I believe, all hardy in England, but in 
Geneva some of them have to be kept in a frame or 
conservatory for the winter. Fourteen species are 
now cultivated in Europe ; Dr. Citerno enumerates 
forty- two species ; and Mr. Alboff, ;last year, pub- 
lished t two new kinds— A. tencra, Alboff, and nudi- 
caulis, Alboff. Their cultivation ii essy ; they like 
sunshine, but a fresh atmosphere. 

AcanikototucJuu spinosutt Forek. (Sonchus spinosus, 
D.C. ; Lactuca spiooaa, Lam.), is ^ very small and 
thorny shrub, not more than 3 inches high, forming a 
Liliputian bush, with a few small leavet, and some 
little yellow headf, very similar to those of the 
common Lettuce, the whole beio^ hidden by 
numerous short, spiuois, and erect branches, which 
give the plant a very curious appearance. It grows 
betweon the rocks in North Africa, tha Canary 
Islands, and Arabia. It is not hardy in Qeneva, and 



never seeds. I never nw this abrub in coUeetioni 
BO I think it is very rare. 

Alsine jmniperina, Fenzl, is a pretty little caspitote 
plant growing in the dry rocks of Greece, Syria, and 
Palestine. The little brandies s p r e ad over the soil, 
are prostrate or erect, and bear numeroos fine and 
spiny leaves, fssciculated, and sometimes bear very 
numerous little white flowers from June till autumn. 

Anemone rubral Lam., is a very good form of the 
conMnonPulsatills, which grows in the Deighbourhood 
of Lyons, and of which the flowen are as laige as 
those of A. Halleri, of a deep, velvety, ganei-rsd. 
It is a beautiful {dant, essy of caltivatloo, reqoiriag a 
soil destitute of lime, as the plaot is a saod-loviDg 
species, which does not thrive on ealcareoos soil. 

Antirrhinum gtuUnonm, B(»ss. et Bent, is one of 
the best plants for the deooration of old walls or 
sunny perpendicular rocks. It is a good Snapdragon, 
of free growth. Its large white or pinkish-white 
flowen an very numerous, and open from June till 
the winter. I gathered to-day (November 26) a 
bouquet of the flowen from my wall, when two good 
planta have been estabUshed for the past five yean. 
Some people in England to whom we seat it wrote 
that it cannot be considered as hardy in England ; 
but this is an error, as the plant is very hardy here 
when the wintera are more severe. I believe that 
the EngUsh fog or the dampoev of the air must be pre- 
judicial to it, and so I recommend it to be {Wanted in a 
wall expoaed to the full sun. Boissier found this plant 
fifty yesn sgo in the rocks of the alpine regions in the 
sierrasof South Spain. It has been cultivated in his 
gardens at Yalleyres since that period, but I believe 
that the plant is very rsn in gaidens. 

AquiUgia /ormoea, Fisofa. — Under the name A. 
arctics, Hort. Loudon, the Flore de Serree et da Jardku 
de V Europe^ Van Houtte, t. viil, published a ooloured 
plate of the ran and fine A. formosa. Its stems an 
slender, and 2 to 3 feet high, almost naked, and 
bear at the base two or three leaves with narrow 
segments, glaucous beneath, and of a deep green 
above. The flowen an not numerous, but very 
pretty, long, narrow, with long and thin spun, of an 
intense cinnamon-red, with green spots on the 
extremities of the spurs and petals. It flowen late, 
in July and August, and is quite distinct from all other 
Columbines. It has been siid that this plant is the 
true A. Skinneri of Hooker, and corresponds to the 
No. 1182 of Pringle in the Kew Herbarium ; this 
I cannot verify. The A. formosa (true) is ran in 
gardens, and De CandoUe (Prodromu$t voL i., p. 50) 
says it is a native of Kamtschatka. But it has been 
found in the far north of America, and certainly 
grows in Alaska and other parts of Russian America, 
and of Canada. It belongs to tne same group as 
A. canadensis. 

Atter AmeUui albm was found four yean ago in 
Jurs» and was introdnoed into cultivation through 
our garden. It comes true to seed. All the fruit 
harvested gives the white form, and not one returns 
to the type. if. Cwrevon^ Cfeneva, 

(TVbtamNaiMd.) 



* " Du Genre Ac«eu«," par le Dr. P. Citerne, dans Revut 
dca Sclencts NalureHis de C Quest, 1897, Nos. 1, 2, et 8. 

t *'Conttibutlonea & la Flore de la Terre <l9 Feu," dani 
BiViita Ad Museo de la PlatOt t vll, 



JAPANESE TREE - STRANGLER, 

OR STAFF TREE (CELASTEUS AR- 
TICULATUS). 

Celabtrus Bcandens from North America has 
long been known, but is not very commonly seen in 
our gardens. Our present plant ui a smooth leaved 
and very free growiog climber, juit now covered with 
clusters of orange>yellow berries or capsules, which 
bunting open roveal the orange red seeds, as shown 
in the sketch sent henwith. The gnoefully inter- 
twined stems covered towards their upper extnmity 
with fruits in all stsgea of colour and ripeness, make 
up a pntty little pictun at Newry, when I lately 
saw this species for the fint time sprawling about 
over some low-growing trees. 

Planted near to any tree of no particular value or 
interesti tuoh as a Creb or a gnarled old Hawthorn, 
and a most interesting and unique featun would 
«Qpn b^ formed ; or it nUgh); be tri^d on wood icnena 



and palingp. Its growth ia ao rampant {grimfnk 
the Freooh call it, I believe), that only thi na 
vigorous of living trees would be able to endure l 
double ooOed and intertwined embrace. 

To those who an on tho look-out for a dimW i 
the most luxuriant type, I ahould recommend tbait 
being even mon so in its tree-atrangling propeoatji 
than is Periploca gneca, or onr own ^'TiiTeUa 
Joy *' (Clematis vitalba). For covering pergolai, « 
gasebos in the garden it might prove oteful, esp«dill} 
so in thoee peculiar sites in most gsrdtui * vben 
nothing frill grow.'* 

A closter of scaflbld poles, with their lower tak 
charred and set in ooncnte, might be emplojei 
instead of sscriSotng a living tree. Such ss perj^ 
or "polarg** planted with this timber, Peripioa 
Bridgesia, Tnvellen* Joy, and tha Commoo H^; 
plsnt oould not fsil to become ooTered with vegaUbit 
tracery, in a very short time. 

Hy sketch (6g. 11) was made at Newry, cql Don, 
in October Isst ; the only drawback to the fniHft. 
beauty of the plant is thst the birds seem extraac; 
fond of its ripe seeds, and attack its fruits ss iom» 
they burst open. Probably spraying with ooppc 
and lime solution would save the fruits of Pynoaitfb 
Cotonesster, Mountain Ash, aod of this CeltftniM; 
applied at the right time. F, fV, Bmrbid/e. 



Home Correspondengl 



*'THe R06ARIAN8* YEAR-BOOK : ** A COR«& 
TION. — ^Tbsn is an error of some importance in t^ 
article entitled *' Roses hi the South- West of Set 
land,*' contributed by myself to the Kooariani Yv 
Book, for whidi I do not hold m^ self respoonU 
and whioh I oertainly did not observe wbeo I e^ 
reoted the proof. If I did not ti^e the opportoKO 
of correcting this typographical mistake (which ooctn 
on the last psge of my oontribution), it raigtit l^ 
supposed by the readen of the Roaariam* Year-^f* 
(most of whom an capable of detecting focb u 
error), that I had included Turner's Crimson Kambier 
and Faurs Carmine Pillar among the Hybrid T«* 
I need hardly say that such vrna very fiir from 07 
purpose. David R, WilUamaon. 

8ULPHURINQ VINEa— The oaution re^tectis^ 
burning flowen-of-sulphur in vineries is neceus? t" 
the inexperienced ; rtill, sulphuring can be 6ob»^ 
judgment be used. When living at BUirqodto 
Carae Oardent, forty-nine yean ago, the tha> ^ 
doner, Mr. Qeorgo Hunter, used annually to b^ 
flowers-of -sulphur in the vineries after they had ^ 
started a week or ten daya. He wiahed to nviv^ 
insects that might be on the Vines, and tha^ 
them. Of course, the buds of the Vines ha^"^ 
pushed out sufficiently to be injured. I never «* ^ 
harm done to the Vines, but some of the fumeiof ^ 
sulphur escaping through a partition into a gneahs^ 
laid their mark on a Banksisn Rose trained od ^ 
top and igsinst the back walL I have never tiiej 
this meth^ here, as our vineries are never frw « 
plants in leat I have, however, found sulphur to be 
of great use in vineries. ThirU-five yean sgo «• 
had Vme-milde-v hen very Udly. I used snlpb^ 
with the sulphunts on the leaves, as reoommeodw 
in the Oardanen* ChronioU of thoee days, whtet 
checked it a good deaU I also put a nther lu»*7 
dutting on the flues, and made them very wans •> 
as to csuse the sulphur to bubble on them, but not t" 
bum. This would cause a mist in the hooae, to* 
sulphur evaponting. Vine-leaves within 3 feet of »* 
flue would not be injured, but the mildew eotire/ 
dissppeved. This requires great caution, or dsotf^ 
may be done ; indeed, it should not be attempt 
while the berries an small ; they must be st \^^ 
halfgrowp. John Bamett, Dtdctr Hill, Skifr^ 
[Our readers, alter conning the above, will be wtM * 
they use sulphur in vineries with the utmost osatioo> 
Ed.]. 

APPLE ROYAL SNOW. —I was plessed to Wf ^ 
nmarks respecting this Apple in your last i^^ 
For some yean I gnw the variety on my fruit-^u^ 
at Stoney Creek, Ontario, Canada, where ^^ ^^ ^ 
abundant beanr, and the perfume and flavour o( ui^ 
fruit was excellent. Since commencing fruit-gro^/'^ 
in Kent, I had decided to introduce it into tbu 
country, and now I see that Mr. W. Home ii *^^ 
about to do so. I shall anxiously await the eoiit«f( 
that will come between Royal Snow and Cos*i Oitfg* 



Janitary g, 1698.] 



TBE GABDBNEBS' OEROmOLM. 



Pipi^, mt Ibe R071I Hartionltoral Sociaty'g fruit 
thaw. It ii the oidy Berioai rinl UiAt Coi'a Onnge 
I^ppln Is likaly to hkrg for eome tima. C, ii&», 
■ Pryut-Ormotr, Orpington, 

THE QAfrOENERfl' ROYAL SENEVOLCNT INSTI- 
TUTE.— B«nd«fl electiai; uoder Rule 3 do tawer thui 
tcD applinmta forprniiona, lU of whom hare been mb- 
neriben or life raemban of tbe imtitatioa for flfteen 
jemn and apwxda, the oommittae lUo Invite *Dte« 
from mbaaribera to enable niae othan to be elected 
by ballot, and tlie; inua a1iitotfort;-foilTappliaant* 
for penaiona from which tboas nine are to be lelaoted. 
OoioK over that Itot earefullj, I have no donbt eTory 
case ia a deierving one, aod [ find that vhiUt (WMitj- 



;ear. It ia indeed pitiful to find hoir mnnj diiitreaB- 
ing oasBi there are in the ranka of gardening, but alt 
tbe more fordbl; do thef ahow the neoeadty at 
making tietter proviuon towards old age than mnnj 
sremtn bate dooe. Rren of those aatnoHberB up for 
eleclJon, tLe greater notnber aeem to have deferreil 
aubtoribiug nntil aiitj jeara of age and upwards. A 
Sid»eriber. 

PLANTS THAT SUCCEED UNDER THE SHADE 
OF TREES- — Kindly allow me to add a few names of 

Etaata to Mr. Hemn'a list, wbioh I Snd stow well 
ere in DeToDBblTe, planted beneath the ihade of tall 
ooDiferoua or decidaous trees that have loet their 
under branehea. Host of the bushy Varotiicss 



f(ardener) to oooTej out flowtrs of border Carnations 
CO a proiincinl show. I am a ribecriber to four up- 
to-duCa BociatisB, although I have not taken any 
actlie part in ^air management for Mime jeara paat ', 
nerettholesi, mf Iots for all appartainiDg to my long- 
cheriahnd prafeesioa bums with the same vigour u 
la the daf ■ of Auld-Iang-Syns, when tbe vast and 
grand githeringa used to take plaae at Chiswick, 
Sorrey Gardens, Cremome, Stoke Mewington, and 
manj other localities, at wbioh placea I have met 
hundreds o( exhibitore and frfenda, who liaTe long 
rince been ooniigned, with the loTel; plan ta ifa own, 
to mother earth, and who bave left reoorda beliind 
that axbibitora may do well to imitate and follow. 
I am ted to believe that all thoee who have the 
welfare of the National Chr^lanthemom Society at 
heart will do wall to read thoroughly and attentively, 
and digwt all that has from time to tima been 
advanced by your correspondent, Hr. B. Dean, the 
indefatigable lecretary of the National Chryeantfa«- 
mum Society. I am fully in accord with all he stated 
Id your isiue of laat we<^ (p. 14), a« I am oonvincea 
from past aiperienoe tbat it is not always wise to put 
a oertain limit to entertainment when it is sought to 
gratify the various tsstea of tbe general public. I 
bavB bad on many occasions exhibits in spaoioiu balls 
and tent*, when those who had taken great puna to 
provida a good display bid for their disintereetcd 
psinatalung (be most dtsoouraging reaultej and it ia 
patent tbat it is Been that not only in the mstropolia 
but in very many large proviiicial towna, villages, and 
hamlets, an amoiing advance has been made to in- 
struct and antertBin visitora with a cheerful and varied 
entertainment If we nre oonttantly looking upon ex- 
hibits of a similar description and umrncter, the mind 
beooTDeB tired and satiated, and to dwell upon stands 
and tablea of cut Chrysantbemums, very much of a 
aimilar character, tieoomes tiresome, hence it is a 
wholesome change to be led to an exhibit such a< 
Heana. H. Cannell diaplay with their grand oolleotion 
of Etmal Pelargoniums, in my aetimation one of the 
leading features in tbe whole show. Then, again, 
how grandly ore fruits and vegatablea shown — 
dispense with these extras, and the aeductivo atraina 
from the band engaged, and the varied meaoa 
employed to make ua feel our blood tingling through 
our veins in full zest of innooent eDJoymsat. It is 
wall to pause, as it may happen that to leave a com- 
nuktively wiitable home may lead to vary unaatia- 
raclory results. 0. P-, F.R.H.3., Uviiham. [The 
writer, to whom we ofCer our compliments and con- 
gratulations, has been a subscriber to tbe Gardcyurt' 
CkronieU mnoa its foundatioD in 1911. Ed.} 

Hr. Dean disagrees with my statements, see 

p.<4S. I need only refer liim to letters written by him- 
■aU In recent numbers of The JounuU of BartkuUiure. 



Flu. II.- 



threa of the number have been, or their repreaanta- 
tivaa have been, subecriber* for vaiying po'iods, of 
' the remainder no fewer than tweatj<ona have no 
such qnaliflcBlionB. In fooe of theae facts, may I 
SDgjteat tbat tho rules wera so far altered as to 



be faoed, snd U it not well to &ce it early T A list of 
forty-lbur appUoanta ia at onea an immense vid 
bewildering lilt. In marking my paper I hare voted 
for •ubscribare only, and tar Ukose who, baring 
alresdy got into four Egurse, aeam to have some 
obonca ot alecliOD ; many have no ohanoa whatever 
of being eleetod for sstmbI jean. A oonacolra- 
tlon of votes to anbsoriben wonld help to place 
Umm not elected Into a baiter pomtimt aaotber 



BSKDii VELLOW. (SKB I-, as.) 



thrive in such dry positions, and triiere fairly ahal- 
tared from cold winda. I am well aware thoaa do not 
prove hardy in every county, but I can strongly 
recommend them for this purpose whsre they thrive 
outdoors. Another ^ood dwarf plant is Hypericum 
paafontum [f oalycmum. En.], an evergreen that 
Ineraaaes rapidly in size, and Howsra well under the 
shade of trees. I have also found Berberis aoni- 
[olium, B. Darwinii, and B. najpalensls do remarkably 
well in suoh situaUons, eapecially the first two. J, 
Maynt, Bittoit, iJcron. 

A HALL FOR HORTICULTURE.— It bat bten my 
privilaga In some way 01 other to have been aiBo- 
oiatad with hortiaumiral and floricultural soaieties 
sisoe 1S82 or 18SS, when I waa employed (■■ a boy. 



knowledge been qnesldoned, and Hr. Dean rays Uiia 
baa happened aiooe its associaUon with tbe Hoyal 
Aquwtuin, Westminster ; the fact of the Aquarium 
Compaire reaping much of the benefit from the abowa 
cannot have helped tbe progress of the National 
CbrjaanUiemum Society ; the Aquarium Company 
pockets the profits, the coutributions of the 
membeiB thua go towsrds providing shows for its 
banefit instead of forming a reaerve fund for the 
National Chrysanthemum Society, and the further 
encouragement of CbryianUiemum culture. As to 
Uie entertalnmenta provided, I have nothing to aay 
egunst musio-balls as such, they are doubtleea 
□eoesssry for a certain class of people who cannot 
^tpreoiote anything better, but Chrysanthemum- 
growers do not go hundreds of miles specially to 
enjoy miscellaneooa axliibitionB, although Hr. Dean 
s^B that those at tbs Aquodam form a source 
of attraction to members of the gardening 
profession. I cannot, however, agree with him ; and 
1 think that gardemni has no conoeotion witli these 
things. Thoae few who wish for muaic-halls can get 
them nearer home or at ottier placea in I/iadm ; we, 
on the other hand, desire to see the Sowers under 
the IiesC possible conditious, to otwarre tbe newest 
and the finest varieties, and the highest points of 
beauty to which these varieties attam. To tatk of 
mutual oonverae, warmth, light, and life is only 
attempting to ttu-ow dust in the reaiier's eyes. Could 
not all tbsie thing) be got in another building, and 
tn greater perfection ) At present, the lieautiful 
flowera are simply degraded by their snnoundings, snd 
have no field for eieraiiiog the iuQuence peculiar to 
them. Uoreover, a better class of visitors who would 
pa&onise the ahowa it held under better oonditious, 
is kept aw^r- Aa to other shows Uiat have failed, 
reasons could easily be given for most of thoae 



30 



TBE QARDENERS' GHHONICLE. 



[January S, 1898. 



Mr. Dean mentioiiB, but they do not apply to tho 
National Chrysanthemum Society ; wiUi many of 
them it would have been more surpriaing if they had 
succeeded. W, H, Divers, 

CALUCARPA PURPUREA.~ThiBold Indian atove- 
plant waa prominent in a collection of decorative, 
foliage, and flowering-plants, with which Mr. W. 
Howe, gr. to H. Tate, Esq., Park Hill, Straatham, 
won the lat prize at the recent exhibition of the 
National Chrysanthemum Society, at the Royal 
Aquarium. Long shoots beariug (^ymose clusters of 
deep violet- tinted, glossy berries, were prominent, and 
being imusual, attracted much attention, many 
enquiriea being made as to the name of the plant. 
Cuttings made from the ahoots put forth in early 
spring from cut-back plants, strike as readily in a 
briak bottom>heat as do those of the Fuchaia ; and 
frutting-plants can be obtained in a season with 
careful culture. M, D, 

UNTIMELY BL0880MiNQ OP THE WHITE- 
THORN. — I am Bending a few sprays of the White- 
thorn (May in December), as an instance, among 
many, of Hhe mildness of the season. The bloom ia 
quite expanded, and young leaves appearing on some 
trees of the same at this place. The tree from which 
the sprays were taken is growing quite in the 
open, facing north [The Glastonbury Thorn. Eb.]. 
0. Farmer, BecJ^ord HaU Qardcna, Teiekesbury, 
December 22. 

FRUIT JUDOINa — I do not agree with the remarks 
made by ''Comnbian*^ in last week's Oardenera* 
Chronicle, p. 12. He says, where ripeness is specified 
in the schedule, "judges have no choice in the 
matter/' adding, "but the preference for ripeness 
(even when out of season) is carried to excess in 
many cases where it is not demanded by the schedule, 
and where ripeness is a positive defect** Over-ripe- 
ness is a defect, but ripeness, i.e., the fruits being 
fit for table at the time they are being judged, is 
certainly not a defect. *' Cornubian ** says : ** Time and 
again I have seen fruits that were ripened out of 
season placed before others that were in every way 
of better quality, but not ripa*' How could the 
unripe fruits be "better** in every way than the 
specimens *' ripened out of season ** which the judges 
preferred ? i^uming the fruits shown to be of the 
same variety, equal, or nearly so, in siee and shape, 
the preference undoubtedly should be given to the 
ripe fruit "Cornubian " asks, ''which is the most 
valuable dish, say, of Marie Louise, dead ripe in Sep- 
tember, or a aimilar dish at the end of October or in 
November ? •* If both lots of fruit are " dead ripe '* 
at the respective dates, one dish is about as valueless 
as the other. But a dish of well-developed fruits 
of Marie Louise artificially ripened in September 
is of more value by reason of its earline^s than a dish 
of the same variety ripened on the shelves in the fruit- 
room a month or two later. Not only this, the 
Pears laid between layers of cotton or wood-wool in 
a shallow box, with the lid tied down, and placed on 
the trellis over the hot-water pipes in a vinery or 
Melon-house as the fruit is approaching maturity, 
will excel in colour those which ripen in the fruit- 
room ; while the flavour, owing to the dry and buoyant 
atmosphere and warm temperature in which the fruit 
was ripened, is quite equal or superior. This I can 
vouch for from many years* experience in the matter. 
H, W. W. 

CYPRIPEDIUM IN8IQNE 8ANDER>C. — Kindly 
allow me to reply to the remarks of " T. S." in your 
last issue. He tells us that part of the Pickering 
Lodge plant will be exhibited at the Royal Horticul- 
tural Socie^s meeting on January 1 1, and invites me 
to ]K)intout the difiPerenoe between it and the true 
one. I may reasonably infer from this invitation that 
the variety I questioned has now developed into the 
true one, so there is little need for me to look at the 
original form, as I have seen it often enough. If the 
plant to be shown on this occasion is part of the plant 
they exhibited at Manchester Chiysanthcmum show, 
in November, 1895, which was the Pickering Lodge 
plant, and named insigne Sanderes, it will, indeed, be 
very interesting to learn how it evolved from that 
variety to the true one. If such is the case, perhaps 
" T. S." will kindly treat us to a short history of this 
fine science, as enUghtenment on such points is much 
needed at the present time, seeing that several very 
curious coses of evolution has recently taken place 
among the more aristocratic forms of Orchids. I 
have already disdaimed any knowledge of their col- 
lection beyond what they show publicly— the Cypri- 
pedium in questbn excepted. 8. &, January 3. 



UNITED HORTICULTURAL BENEFIT AND PROVI- 
DENT SOCIETY.— The advantages offered togazdeners 
by this Society were described to the members of 
" The Beckenham Horticultural Society,'* at its last 
meeting by Mr. Burge of Oakwood Gardens. It 
transpired that few of those present knew much of 
the Society's work, although living, not more than 
ten miles from the metropolis. Mr. Burge in tho 
eouTse of his remarks, pointed out that the 
Society consisted entirely of gardeners, and care- 
fully explained the "Balance Sheet" — the 
"Benefit Fund," "Benevolent Fund," "Voluntary 
Convalescent Fund,'* and Uie ** Blanagement Fund. 
The statement of accounts of liabilities and assets 
(the latter amounting to considerably over £11,000) 
caused some surprise, as did also Mr. Burge's state- 
ment that there is actually more money added to his 
account than he has paid into it Having been a 
member for a number of years, his " Best Fund " had 
accumulated until the hiterest amounted to more 
than the annual working expenses. Members can 
withdraw ** Rest Fund '* at the age of seventy Tears, 
" Lapsed " members at sixty years. In case of death, 
the sum passes to the person nominated by the 
member. M. Webster, The Gardens, Keisey Park, 
Beckenham, [The ignorance our correspondent alludes 
to in above note is not due to any lack of svmpathy 
on the part of the Horticultural Preas, which has 
always accorded the buviness of the Society the 
publicity it so well deserves. Ed.] 

THE PRUNING OF APPLE AND PEAR-TREES.— 
Mr. Ward, on p. 13, charges me with misrepresen- 
tation, and he has in no way substantiated his asser- 
tion. I contend that pruning-back leading growths 
to 5 or 9 inches is a very slow process in making a 
large fruit-bearing tree ; and further, that many 
varieties of Apples and Pears will make far larger, 
handsomer, and more fruitful specimens in a shorter 
time, if left to themselves, than if subjected to such 

J>runing. Then again, can you expect early fruit-bud 
brmation, if these said 5 to 9 inch growths make 
three to five additional growths next year? In a 
good healthy young tree the buds should be 1^ 
to 2 inches from each other (excepting undeve- 
loped ones at the base) ; therefore, all those 
bud| that would have developed into fruit-buds 
if longer leatling growths were left, have been forced 
unnaturally into growing shoots. The pruning of 
"misplaced *' shoots back to 2 inches, is far too close 
for strong growing Apples and Pears, the said 
2 inches would only have undeveloped buds, which 
experience has shown me make growths instead of 
fruit buds ; whereas if they were left a longer length 
the buds would be more fully developed, and only 
one (seldom more) would miake wood, the buds 
behind such being fruit-buds. The fore-part can 
afterwards be pruned back to the said fruit buds. Mr. 
Ward advises hard pinching in summer. I cannot 
agree with him, because in light soils it tends to keep 
the trees longer in growth in autumn when they 
should be maturing or ripening the growth made. 
In the case of varieties that fruit on the ends of the 
shoots, the 2 inch pruning would clear off the greater 
part of the crop, such, for instance, as the Irish 
Peach and Yellow Ingestre. Again, if the 5 to 9 inch 
system be practised, it will be years before you get a 
dosen f ruito, and many more before you gather a gross. 
I prefer long growths and fruit — long spurs and 
fruit, rather than trees dwarfed with 5 and 9 inch 
pruning. In conclusion, may I be allowed to inform 
Mr. Ward that a great part of my horticultural 
education (which I admit is meagre) was learned from 
the Qardenen* OhronicU, and much from his own pen. 
J, KeUle, 



Colonial Notes. 



TO DESTROY SNAILS. 

Among the liberal contributions Australia has re- 
ceived from England have been sparrows and shell- 
snails. It may not be generally known that the 
latter may be destroyed by spreading a thin circle of 
Tobaceo-dust, 3 to 4 inches wide, around the plants. 
Naturally those plants the snails most affect would 
be chosen for the purpose. The snails in crawling 
over the Tobacco-dust may be found next morning 
JQst outside the circle, and in the course of a few 
days become dried up. 

I am aware there may be some difficulty in Britain 
in obtaining the material, as the Tobacco maau- 
faoturers return it all to thtf excise department 



nominally for export but really for destructioo. I 
do not see, however, why it should not be obtainable, 
as it is in these colonies, after the addition of my a 
little kerosene or superphosphate of potash, which 
would render it unusable for consumption. 

The only material I have used so far for the pur- 
pose has been the fine dost, something like coarse 
snuff, but I think also the fine^ut Tobacco-stema 
which aro returned to the Department in quite large 
quantities, might also very effectively be used. It ia 
also in itself a splendid manure. It should be used 
preferably in dry weather, as its effectiveness is sooo 
destroyed by rain or other watering. Hugh Dixaam^ 
MiMabetk and Park Streets, Sifdney, N.8. W. 

BeRBBRIS V0L0AB18. 

Your issue of September 11 last, which has juat 
come to hand, contains a paragn^h on the subject of 
Barberry and mildew on Wheat It seems that in 
consequence, as it is supposed, of the oonmion Bar- 
berry serving as the host-plant of the mildew of 
com (Puocinia graminis), the Boyal Swedish Agri- 
cultural Academy in Stockholm, and other authori- 
ties, have requeated the railway directors in Sweden 
to grub up all the Barberry bushes within a oertafai 
distance of corn-fields. Nurserymen, too, are told to 
notify in their catalogues that Berberis vulgaris 
should not be planted in the vicinity of arable land. 
Now, the question arises whether the mildew found 
on Wheat is the same as the mildew to which the 
Barberry is subject ? This is a matter which very 
much concerns many districts of New Zealand, as of 
late years the common Barberry has been planted by 
millions for hedges. It is admitted to be the best 
all-round hedge -plant that has been tried in 
northern districts. Bat if it is about to prove a 
nuisance to groweri of Wheat, in fostering the 
development of an injurious parasite, then a great 
mistake has been made in planting so large an extent 
of Barberry. The possibility, however, is, ^that the 
Swedish authorities have made a blunder in regard to 
the particular mildew. On referring to Stephens' 
Book of the Farm, I find the following statement 
about mildew on Wheat, a statement that upsets the 
common notion existing, that the mildew on Bar> 
berry is the same, species: — "A notion prevails in 
England that the Barberry -bush (Berberis vulgaris) 
has the power of causing mildew in Wheat, probably 
from the well-known circumstance that the Barberry 
itself is very subject to mildew. But the mildew of 
Barberry is occasioned by the Erynphe berberidi^ 
whereas the mildew of Wheit arises from a Puo- 
cinia, and no possibility exists of transforming the 
one fungus into the other.** We have thus two 
opposite teachings on the subject ; and I should be 
glad to have the opinion of a competent expert as to 
who is correct — Mr. Stephens or the Swedish autho- 
rities ; and especially a^ it is a matter in which the 
settlers of New Zealand are deeply interested. 
WilUam Morgan, Pukekohe, A ucklami, New Zealand. 
[It has been proved beyond dispute that the wheat- 
mildew is a stige of the ^cidium of the Berbery. Ed. J 



THE FRUIT TRADE.* 

I pHAPuflK contrasting the fValt trade at the present day 
with what it was in tho momory of many of ua forty or fif^ 
yoftm ago. Tho chief cause that haa led to its development has 
boon railway and steamship communication. Fifty years ago 
tho only supply was homo grown, and of limited extent, the 
carriage from a distance to any of the local oe n te e a being 
difficiUt and expensive. Tho importation of foreign fmit, 
with the exception of Oranges and Nuts, was also on a 
small scale, irregular and uncertain. Occasionally, a few 
hundred barrels were sent from America In sailing. voaaola 
by private individuals, and the trade in fresh produce, wltix 
the exception of a few Peara grown in Normandy and Brit- 
tany, was exceedingly smalL The prices that had to bo 
paid for fruit put it out of the reach of all but the 
well-to-do, except in the months of June, July, August, 
and September, when our home-fruits were found in all the 
marked in tiie immediate vicinity of the centres of pro* 
ductLon..- I am quite safe in saying that during eight months 
of the year fruit to the multitude was practically an 
unattainable luxury, except when Oranges happened to be 
plentlfuL Tho districts whence Oranges came to this 

* Paper read by Mr. M. J. Oarda before the Horticultural 
Club, on Tuesday, December 14. 



jANUAnY 8, 1898.] 



TEE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



31 



market woro Bt MichaelB and Uflbon. They were aent in 
sailing ships, which were at the mercy of the winds, and it 
was no uncommon occurrence for the London market to be 
without Oranges for two or three weeks. I can well 
remember ofton seekig a fleet of ton or twelve saillng'TeaseU 
mourod outaido the wharf at London Dridge. Since that 
time the south of Spain has taken to growing Oranges, and 
I can call to mind tho tint few boxes of Yalenoias that 
arrived in Govent Garden Market. Thoy woro packed and 
owned by Robt. Mc Andrew and Co., who were then the groat 
poople in the St Michaels' trade. In the first season certainly 
not more than aOO oases came to Great Britain, and in o<mtrast 
with this, I may mention that last year the growth in the 
provinco of Valencia alone exceeded 3} million cases. Tho 
cultivation has increased to such an eatent that a box of 
Oranges can now bo bought in the months of November, 
December, and January, at a price not exceeding 0«. f.o.b. 
Valencia, and throughout the season they are being sold here 
in Great Britain at as low a price as in the towns of Spain 
where they are produced. Oranges are now being grown in 
a new district, the province of Murcia ; they promise to 
fturpaa.') in quantity, as they certainly do in quality, those of 
the provinco of Valencia. The Cauaries also are in the field, 
and whereas six or seven years ago a supply of 200 or SOO boxes 
during the season was all that was produced. I hear on good 
n\ithority that last year 6000 boxes were shipped, and that 
this year the output is more thtn double. These Oranges, 
which are of exooijtional quality, will have to compete with 
those fVom Jamaica, Florida^ and California. Florida Oranges 
occupy a pre-eminent position both in America and 
hero. The frost some seven years ago nearly killed all the 
trees, and this will be tho first season that there 
liaii been any crop to speak of. As regards Call- 
fomiA, the fruit is cultivated there with the greatest 
care trndor tho meet favourable conditions, and It is only a 
question of time for it to supplant all thu rest grown in 
America. St. Michaels' Oranges, on the other hand, have 
doturiurated, su much so, that nil tho trees have been cut 
down and Piueapplos planted instead. Palestine and 
Movico are also now in tho field .with Oranges, and it is 
probable that tho growth in JafTa will attain such large pro- 
portions OS to form a serious opposition to the best frtiit that 
come front either America or Spain. Efforts have been 
made to introduce Jamaican fruit, but up to the present, 
with very disastrous results, tho loss of one compauy olo&o 
being at least .6:^1,000. The money, however, has not been 
thrown away, as great experience has been gained, and hox)es 
are yet entertained of tho mother country being able to 
assist in the consumption of the fruit of one of her 
colonies that has suffered most severely through Jtheenltivation 
of sugar not being remunerative. As regards Pines, they 
aroin St Michaels grownundorgla4S,andare of unexceptional 
quality and siao. Tho average weight is from 2 lb. to 8 lb. 
I'hey are nearly all of the Smootb-leaved Cayenne variety, 
and I am quite within the mark when I state that there are 
brought to London oach year between 400,000 and 600,000 
Pines. These, on accoimt of their sir.e and quality, ha wo 
entirely supplanted the English growth. Canada la fully 
idivo to tho consumption of foreign fi^t in England, and 
the Canadian Government have organised a department for 
the development of tho trade. Cool chambers have been 
ntted up in the regukr .steam-ahip linos to London, Liver- 
pool, Itristol, and Gla^ow ; and tho consiguraents that have 
arrived this sooson lead us to hope, now that America is 
pructioally closed to British fruit, that we shall be able to 
assist Canada by being customers for all kinds of her produce. 
Turning now to — 

BNdUSH FftUIT, 

the production fifty yean ago was very small, except in the 
months of June, July, August, and September. Hot-house 
Grapes commenced at about 80«. per lb., and the lowett 
price, unless in imtuiual circumstances, was 28. per lb. Tho 
month of November brought us to tho and of English hot- 
house Grapes, and I can well remember when my grand- 
father, who lived in the Poultry, in Cheapslde, had an order 
for Grapes for the Liord Mayor's dinner, the only person that 
could supply them was Mr. Crawshaw, of Colney Hatch, and 
this gentleman used to allow 60 lb. to be cut specially for 
this purpose, I have myself sold common Lisbon black 
Grapes in March at S0«. a lb. The only others that were then 
obtainable were a few from Almerla, and of theso the supply 
was limited, tho average quantity being .about 80,000 to 40,000 
barrels, and the price 205. to 0Ot. a barreL At the present time 
the average supply of this one variety is about half a million 
barrels, and they realise from 8«. to 20«. Tho cultivation of 
Grapes and Tomatos under glass is a matter that you arc 
better acqtialutod with than I am ; but if the amount of care 
given to this particular branch had been devoted to the 
growth of Apples and Pears in England. I cannot help 
thinking that the trade in the latter would be much more 
profitable than it is to-day. French fruit with the excep- 
tion of Poars, was almost unknown fifty years ago, but now 
the demand is so great, that the cultivation in the south, 
whore Cherries and Green Gogos are grown, has been 
increased solely on account of the consumption in Great 
Britain. The quantity consumed in Great Britain is 
extmordinuy, and although prices may seem dear, the 
freight in Franco Is so high as almost to preclude anyone, 
with the exception of tho French railway companleH, from 
m iking a profit The French Government, which has the 
monoijoly of tho railway syatom, throws all sorts of obatacles 
in tho way of the carriage of fruit by fast French trains ; and 
although these are no qtdckor than our ordinary higgage 
Imina, tho freight is higher than any of our railway com- 
panies charge for conveyance of similar goods by express. 
All fruit that reaehes us firom tho south of Francois charged 



at tho rate of li<2. to l}d. por lb. Chiefly English capital is 
now used in tho development of this trade, and the largest 
firm in France, when desirous of turning their business into 
a limited liability company, had to come to England to 
obtain the capital necessary. I have left to the lost the con- 
slderation of tho enormous strides made in the 

American Applb Trade. 

Tho result to tho farmers in America always depends on 
the crop wo have in the United Kingdom, and every year 
they are as anxious to obtain information as to the outlook 
here as we are to learn of the prospects on the other aide. 
Tho business, which commenced with tho shipment of 
a few hundred barrels fifty years ago, has now assumed 
gigantic proportions. In 18S0 there were aboat 1,260,000 
barrels shipped from America ; for tho next eight years the 
number varied from 8 1,000. to 800,000; whUo in 1890, when 
the crop was beyoad aU precedent, over 8,000,000 barrels 
were sent to Great Britain. This season the crop in 
general is poor throughout America. In the States the 
carriage of fruit is evidently much loss expensive than here. 
The bulk that is now arriving is being shipped 2000 miles 
west of New York, at a coat i>er barrel that certainly does 
not exceed 15«. to lOf., everything included. If England is 
to compete with foreign coiintries, she will have to adopt 
methods similar to those in use in the country which has 
made a specialty of the growth of produce for foreign 
markets. California has certainly set an example as regards 
trouble taken in the growth of fruit, and in the development 
of the trade, and there are one or two facts which have oome 
to my knowledge from reliable people which I may venture 
to place before you. Fruit-growing in America is a very 
important business, and the Government spares no pains in 
acquiring all possible information on the subject, distributing 
it in pamphlet form broadcast to all those who are directly 
or indirectly interested in agriculture. Fruit trees in Cali- 
fornia, as well as throughout America, are planted at a 
distance of 24 feet ajiart, and it has been ascertained from 
many years' experienoo that the trees bear more fruit and of 
bettor quality in this way than if planted closer. Except 
during the first few years, no grass or other vegetation 
is allowed to grow between the trees, and all that 
Nature and science can do is brought to bear on their 
development Some Calif omian gentlemen have devoted 
\ hemselves to the culture of fruit in other countries, and one 
of the m>8t iutluontlal has ostablishod himself in Cape 
Colony, 260,000 troos having been sent there four years ago. 
and this year some of tho first produco will reach England. 
Thoy have decided to send not only to their own, bat also to 
the English markets, and they hope that in a few years. 
Pears, Plums, and Apples, pqual to the best grown in 
California, will be Khipped to arrive here during tho months 
of April, May, and June. On one farm alone 90,000 fruit 
trees were planted last year. 

I certainly think that, as regards the production of Apples 
in England, the nurserymen are to some extent to blamo for 
advocating the growth of new sorts, for. as I have already said, 
tho old kinds of good eating quality sell well, whOe, on tho 
othor hand, many of the new varieties are difficult to dispose 
of, and loss prolltable. The same system that exints in 
America should be followed here, namely, particular atten- 
tion should bo paid to the cultivation of well known varie- 
ties, so that deolora here will be able during the season to 
depeod on a good supply of particular sorts, such as Ring of 
the Pippins, Blenheims, Cox's Orange Pippin, and others 
equally appreciated by the British public. Although the 
production of English soft fruit has increased in proportion 
to the population, foreign has not caused it to depreciate in 
value, as thirty to forty yours ago, Cherries, Plums, Currants, 
&c., in plentiful seasons were sold at lower prices than under 
similar conditions at the present day. Thirty-five years 
since Bigarroatt Cherries were cold as low as 6«. to 7<. per 
bushel of 48 lb., a figure hardly ever experienced in the 
present day ; while 2d. per lb. for Black Currants was 
considered a high price. 



American Notes. 



FERNS, 



CoHMBROiALLT Feros are used as much in the 
United States as in any part of Europe ; but " Fern- 
fanciers," or "cranks,'' as lovers of any special hobby 
are called in this coontry, are " few and far between/* 
But in the markets Ferns are a prominent featore, 
being exteoslTely used all over the States. Adlantom 
Farleyense is hi^y thought of, and is grown in 
astonishingly large quantities. The late firm of 
Pitcher k Manda alone had nine houses entirely 
devoted to them, contsuning from 14,000 to 15,000 
plants, in sises from 2 inch or thumbs, up to 12-inoh 
pans, forming a display of much beauty, and one not 
to be soon forgotten. The plants are sold to retailers 
all over the States, but chiefly in New York, Wash- 
ington, Baltimore, and Boston — New York being by 
far the largest buyer. ' A. Farleyense is a sur- 
prisingly good shipper, better than the majority of 
plants. We once had occasion to despatch a case of 



plants to Denver, Colorado, which was delayed on the 
road ; and when it did finally reach iti destination, 
the sole survivors were the A. Farleyense. 

About the middle of the month of August, all 
double*orowned and unsaleable plants are divided, the 
fronds and roots being cut off, leaving the crown 
quite clean, and breaking or cutting them into pieces 
about the sice of a large Pea, preserving a single eye, 
such always making the best plants. These are sown 
thickly on chopped peat, and covered lightly with the 
same. WiUiin five weeks they are up 3 or more 
inches, and ore ready for potting. This requires more 
care than at any other stage. The soil used consists 
of loam, leaf>mould, and sand, equal parts, and at the 
next shift they go into 3*inch pots, and this timt) 
rotten manure is mixed with the compost. After 
this pottiog, the hose is used in applying water* 
liquid cow-manure being applied by the same means 
by the aid of the "Kinney Pump." 

The summer is the most trying time of the year for 
A. Farleyense on account of the dry heat, but this is 
overcome by throwing plenty of water about, 
especially overhead. English gardeners would, no 
doubt, consider this a very dangerous proceeding, but 
we find the plants grow luxuriantly under it. Plants 
started in August are ready for sale in 6-inch and 
7-inch poti by November of the next yeai*. Por 
large specimens we put three or four 5iQch in a 
12 inch pan. The prices ore, Sinch, 75 c . about 3*. ; 
6 inch, 125 c, or bs. ; and large 12-inch pans, 
3dols. 50 c, or 14«., there not being much sale for 
sisses above that. A. cuneatum is also extensively 
grown, some firms handling many thousands. 

Next in importance are what are termed small, 
or, mixed Ferns,'* these being used for making up 
Fern dishes for table decoration, only the hardier 
varieties being used. Aspidium amabile, Lastrea 
opaca, L. lepidota, L. aristata var., Pteris chinensis 
palmata, P. Mayi, P. erotica albo Uneata, and Blechnum 
occidentale being among the most used. These are 
raised in countless thousands, and sell for thirty 
to forty dollars per 1000, or three and four cents 
each. One Fern I must not leave out, and one that 
is grown largely, is what is known aa the Boston 
Fern, which is tho drooping variety of Nephrolepis 
cultrata, called here N. c. Bostoniensis, after the city 
of Boston, where it first came into prominence. Alfred 
T, Btmyardf IVai'crlcij, Mats., U.S.A. 



Society. 

♦ 

STXKDEBLAND AND DISTRICT 0AB* 

DENEBS' ASSOCIATION. 

Drcembbr 2U.— Tbo above flourishinj? society held their 
eventh Annual Dinner at the Palatine Hotel, when uptvurds 
of sixty persona were present, the president, Councillor 
W. M. Koche, in the chair. 

The membership, said Dr. Randell, Increased yearly, and he 
noted the fulfilment of the hope expressed last year, that 
there should be an interchange of visits and papers between 
the Sunderland Society and that of Newcastlo-on-Tyno ; and 
he thouA;ht this might possibly be extended to other 
neighbouring towns. 

Ur. T. W. Bolam, who has taken an active interest in the 
work of the society since its formation, has been unani* 
mously elected chairman— six times out of the seven years 
of its existence. 



CATALOQUE8 RECEIVED. 

Kbyvks. Williams t Co., Salisbury— Cactus Dahlias. 

Robt. VKrrcn ft Som, M, High Street, Exeter -Flower and 

Vegetable Seeds. 
Kkht a Drvdov, Dariington— Garden Seeds. 
O. P. Dfxon & SoKs, Hull— Garden Soeds. 
DioKRONS Ltd., Chester -Seeds, Ac. 

B. Webb ft Sows, Wordsley, Stourbridge -Seed • and Snndtlea. 
Brown ft Wilson, 10, Market Place, Manchester— Seeds. 
Wm. Samson & Co., Kilmarnock— Sooda. 
Jas. Dickson ft Sons, 32, Ilanovcr Street, Edinburgh - 

Seeds. 

Louis Van Hoottk PfcRx, Ghent. Rolgium— ?eods, Begonias, 

Gloxinias. Cahtdiums, and other Planta. 
Wm. Paul ft Sons. Waltham Cross, Herts— Seeds and Bulbs 

for Spring Phiuting, ftc. 

S. F. OiMBTT, The Nurseries, Ossett, Yorks — Chrysan- 
themums. 

John L\in(j ft Sons», Stanstcad Nursories, Forest Hill. 
London, S.E.— Vegetable and FIowot Seeds, including 
Begonia Novelties and Sundriea. 



TBE GASDENEBS' OBSONIOLE. 



llAtrvxar S, 1898. 



Notices to correspondents. 



term " ucnmalitad twnpantun" Indlala ths tggn- 
itt uBanDt, u mil u tlw duntlon, of digns of 
iinponittm tttott ot balaw 4Z> Fahi. for the pertod 
. . „. .... 1....^ ,^ .. ,j^,-- - "-- 

DvortelT nmmrtional di 



0, ScotUnd, S. Prlodnl WlUat-milMlmf DiMrieU- 
1, Bcotlud. B. ; 1. BOBlind, N.B. ; t, Knaluid, 1.1 
4, MIdUail OoDDtlH ; t>, Kngluid. Including London, B. 

Pri»e^al Ontiita, An., DUti ----- 

T, Xiullnd, N.W. ; B, Bngla] 
10. InUnd, S. ; * Chuncllili 



Bngluid. 1: 
. DWrt(H— -. 
~iigland, B.W. ; 



THB PAST WBBS. 
Tbi IoUowIdc luumu; murd oI thewMthar thraaghoa 
tha Brttlah Idindi tor tha w«k eodlnt; Jutury I, I 
lurntmbtd from tha MstooTalogfcil 09o* -.-^ 

'• Ttu woUtr wtt vurj uuetCled, w)lli fnqiwnt rain t 
nsu-l;r ■" parU of tho Klu^dum. Otar flootUnd tnd In moi 
rtbaweataradlnrlotathertilnriUIinuTaiyluHTT. Thnnda 
and Utfhbilng wara aiperlancad at ■orae of tha matar 



In altaoat aU tha Boillib 



o C Id 'Hcntlond. W. 
diitrisla. The hlghait 

dlrtricta. rind on Uaoembor X at rooit ol ths EcgUah atatloaa 
thaj rnagvd from tXT ia 'England, N.W. (at Llandudno), and 
JS° In ■ Ireland, &,' to M° In ' Sootland, N. and W., Iralaiid, 
N.,'andaevsTAlpartaaf Bogland. Tha lowqat of tha minima, 
Tare Fwsrded on Docenabar 26 In Bo^^Und, but on nther 
Irn^alar d^taa In Ireland ind Scotland ; ^j Taiiad In^m 
tr In -Bigland, E.,' &■> in the ' Midland Cwmtlea and 
EngUnd, S..' and H°ln 'Kngland. N.K. and a.W.,' to 11° lu 
Bootlud, S.; and to S«> in tbo ' Chaonal Iilanda.' 

" Tbg niafatl na leai than tho maan In ' England, IT.E., 
and onlj Juit aqua! to It la 'Englaml, S.;' In all othar 
dlitrlcta, howaiar, than waa an aioaaa. that In ' Scotland, 
Inland, Iho H^W. and S. of EngUod, and tha Chaonsl 
lalaadi ' Iwing veTf gnat Tha largsat amoiinta nglatarad 
at any of tha individual utaUou vsro S-D Inobea U KDlanuy, 
SHglaflhuatOlanlea, Giainchea at Port WlUIam, (-Sflinahaa 
i^I^ndale, and t'OSincheaat Valanola, 

" Tha h'tflil nnaUiu waa Isia than Iha nomal o*ar tha 
Kingdom aa a whols, but allghtir oieaWtad it In ■ Inhud, H. 
and England, S.Vi-' The panantaga of tho poaalbla durmtloii 
nngad fnm 31 la ' Inland, S. and tlio Ohannsl lalanda,' to 
Tin 'England, a.,' «hi ■BcoUiuid, B,'aiid41n'Soatland, N." 



aABDBNZHa APPOINTlCEHTa. 

H. Oeo. Stewiht, for the lait Uiree yoan Poniaan In the 
Oardana, Alloa Houae, Alloa. N.B., aa Qardanar to CapL 
W. H. Piri, Langton Hall, NnrthalloHon, Torkohlre, 

I. OEonoE HcBiur, for tha laat Hftsen van Oanloiiar to 
P. H. Booth, Bait, to F. B. Wikd, Eki., ItiSprlagbnak. 
MaoDingham, Bradford. 

:r. Lawia Chabtncv, lata Ponnun at Sfaotaaham Park 
Oarjena, Norfolk, aa Oardansr to Hra. A. A. HaBKIoOH, 
Tha Bhrubbar;, Bonthlown, tiraat Yannouth. 



I lulmg tGit, jm might gat a CotiQi^ ^^ 



Ardh LtLm DunouBU : Umadarjud, Tha Injury 
is doa to oome looml oinniiiutMMe ia the oiilti- 
TaUon. Then ii no tungiu or othor diaoM*. In 
■uoh ■ mtroi atmoaphan, nmllar efbcti maj follow 
an ezoaedi^ Buotuating t«mpBiatiir«, or onttlD^ 
drau^t. fSinuB from tha itokehold maj ba 
■uapeoted. 

Catcletis: Vtiitwt. In Cattla^ tha flowor ihcath, 
irith, ot ooune, a flower-apike eBvalopnd in i^ 
ilna from ths top of tha paaado-bolb or dnivlihe 
■tan, A Sower^idke maf oontain from adght to 
thirty flown*, ir Dew arriTal* powaM immatun 
gtowtha (paaudo-bolba) or flower-thMth^ made 
perfaapa dniing tnn^ theae maj ramain II not 

DsirDBOiiiuiis : Verila*. Moat i>f the ipede*, being 
nstlTea of the trojuco, would not BDOoasd in the 
Cattlajra-hotwa all the jear roond, and Daarif 
all of them would nqmre a greater depee ot 
heat in their growinx period, and whifat matar- 
ing tbrir grewtbi. D. nobilak D. Ugibbumi 
D. anperbiena, D. Goldlei, and D. Fbabnu^ala, and 
moat of the Anibaliao ipoeiM will •neeaed under 
moderately warm traatment. D. apacjoeain and P. a. 
HilU (Doewd nndar a like Und of onltlTBtion. 

BHOAaKUiST : A, F. If yon pawmi a written 
engagement you may be able to obtain oompenea- 
ttit, - ' •■ ■ '- 



_„- .. .1 perqoiaitea, and traTelUng ■ , 
Wl^ not ooMult a lawyer, it might ba cheaper in 
the end. 
Fia.nn -. D.J. All fraita larger than email Faai 
ahoald bare been taken off, aa they will oome to 
nothing. Ton may bo^ f '' '" ' 

Study _ 
ionmaL 

aaaKaPuB: X, Probably the railarearoae {him tha 
bUdder or cover not beinK anffldenUy tight, and 
the bottle* not being ■afSciently Qlled ao a« to 
leaTe aa little Intenpaoe aa poaidble between the 
Peaa and the oork. 

Hoio-iiaiia OoAmiia-wAX : Flannwntia^ Take 1 lb. 
of beeiwai, diMolTe it in a ^oe-pot, and gradually 
add mntton«iet or laQow, till It loeea at mneh M 
iti ttiokineM •■ will pennit It to be readily manl- 
polated, and yet gat MHy hard on drying. When 
__-. 1 .,-?, ^^ jj jjj^jj y^ ^^ j„ ^ 

•ana of a anall ^rit-lamp placed 

git. ttUbaaffierlhan 

ainazolmling 

• aa a large quantity of tha fbrmer, 

BTaBOHRKR: 0. fTkHfitld fiajr.— The hygrometer 
mentioned on p. 430, which ti la nee at BurFon), 
ooniiita of two fine carefully giadnated tubea, oon- 
taining mereury, the bolb of one being ooiered 
with thin mualin, and ratuid the neok the 
muilin ibould be twieted hxaely, m tied in a looao 
knot, a eonduotiog thread o( lamp-wiok, or eome 
eimilar material, whioh pa»oi into a ToNel oontain- 
ing water plaoed at about 3 iqchea below the bulb, 
and a litUe on one aidu of it, ao that eTapontion 
from ths water may not affeot the reading of the 
dry bulb by it* too oloee proximity. Hi* hygro- 
meter jnat deacribed ia leaa eoopliuated and eipen- 
dve than tlioeein whioh tha daw'fdntia aaeartamed 
by the D*a of other, ko. Tha inrtmniant lanaatnl 
in all the Orohid-bonBeo, eepedaUj during the 
winter montha and dull damp weather. When the 
readinge on the aoalee of the two thenoometen are 
equal, that ia the eatuntlon point. During the 
middle honra ot tha day, from 0° to 8° of evaporation 
ahoold ba allowed. At other time*, about a* for 
the FbalBnonda-bonie, and 1° tor the oool-honae, 
aatuiation point nerer being m^mtained. W.B.W. 

Nanh or FBOim : C. P. Awl» Dumelow'i Seed- 
ling (Wellington), one of the very beet long- 
kae[dng kitonco Tarietlaa. 

Names of Plants : Corrapoitdetai *ot antaered 
in thU une are requeited to he iti good lu to 
eontult tke/ollovring number. — ff. T. 1, Retino- 
■pora piatfera ; 9, prob^ly a fcnn of Cupreaaus 
Lawioni ; S, Cupreaana nootkatenai* ; 4, Thuya 
oceidentalia, far. ; G and 6, Tarioty ot Thuya 
orisntalJa ; 7, Batinoapora piaifera ; 8, Jnnipenia 
not recogniaad ; B, JuoiperuB ainaiiiia ; 10, 
CiatBsgui Pyracaatha.— f . >. Irla ((BtidiMtaut, 
eonmuKi ai a wild plant in aome plaoea in Qreat 
firitain._£. S. Tlie Oidild U LkU* aMtonmalii ; 



the other plant Caebum (Rabrothamnui) fJaaci- 
eulatum.— 0. ff. W. L. 1, Aralia Ouilioylai ; 2, 
Begonia nitida roaea ; S, Croton anKurtiroUna ; 4. 
Croton TariegUua ; S, Croton irregulariii ; 6, Croton 
Evaoaiannii— /. P. K. Hazillaria punctata. — 
W. O. ff. 1, Pteria aarruUta, cieatad-tonn ; 2, 
Qarrn aOipticB ; 3, Ceotmm taaoioulatum ; 4, 
PhyUootetna ip. 

SHRDBe AMD TSKIa AMD RlBBtn ! A. N. 0. Wo ksoW 

of bat faw planti that tabblta will not bark irhan 
driven to do eo by hunger. Hie Yew, Skvln, R«d 
Cedar, Thnia borealia, Bntehan' Broom, Irjr, 
Periwinkle, Berbnia aqoilblia, Ooiaa, FriTet, 
Oanya olliptica thoy will larely touch. 
Stooe vob Cluatib Grarb; FUmmnta. Th« 
(took ooumooiy employad ia C. vitalba (TrmTal- 
Icr'a Joy), tha aeed of which nan be purdwaed *t a 



Clay or 
gralUng-wax are need, and but little ot either, the 
puint of union ooning below the groond-toreL 
Vavsa HAsaAiABA : H. J. P., Pog^ Ofurardf. 
We thank yon fbr the drawing, and alao for your 
Intxaitiiig latter on tha tabjaot We hare no 
knowledge of "Tanila Wutnititn.'' ~ ~ 



. . bnt If your plant ii diflerent from 
that ipeoie* In the habit of ila growth, it may oot 
be that ^edae. The paouUarity of the bsnl flow 
•nt in colour, and in other partiealara, 
n faatare in eomeof theai "' ~ "" 
nmatopbyll 
le amall-growing Orchtda, 



pbyllum, < 



Uaoi 

ropda, Araehnanthg^ Qraamj 

dead, even in aome ot the ■ „ „ - - . 

nanally dealgnated " botamcal," inch a« Bulbo- 

phyllum hirtom, B. aorioominm, Aa, the eaote 

peoaliari^ ia aeon. We will andeavour to cat 

information about Vanda Mimaiiiii. and com- 



ViOLn Plarts lit Fhamr Danriaa an : D. J. 
Your planta damp olT beeauae the fratna ie 
IniufKciantly vantUated. The aea air bw nothing 
to do with il^ and ia &ronrabla rather than othar- 
wiee, aa being milder than far inland, rendwing 
Dovwing up the frame with litter, fto, not ao 
neceeeary during the winter, and the opMing of tha 
frame at the baek in order to alTord tb from 
10 AJi. till 2 or 3 r.K. eafe almoat daUy. Give aa 
much air aa ponible with Mfet; ; apply no 
BrtiSdal heat, bat keep oat froM by meana at 
Ihiok linlngi of atrawy litter built up to tiia top ol 
the frame, and alwaya keen theee at that baiKfat; 
pre** the ioil flrmly ronnd eaoh plant, oorar the 
BoIl with a layer of ooeaa-nnt fibre refnee, or half 
decayed ieavea ; and U the top* of the plants are 
further than 8 inohea from the %ht* aink the 
frame. If you oan, in order to bring them up to that 
diatanoe Mm the glaei. 

Waih for THi Stcmb Ot Fruit TRIffl ; J. B 
4 SoM. Clay, oow-dung, and lime, mixed with 
eoaliauda to uie oonaiatency of thick paint ; wben 
wefl mixed add half-pint <rf ipirita of tar to 3 gal. 
Let the etuCr be implied twice during the winter. 
It naad not be applied higher up the atam than 
4 f^t, exoept in diitriot* where ths Euowfoll U 
u«uaU; heavy. 



[. K,— B. 1 

. _ -irall.— B. _. _., 
InAlmanacL— Prc<. aunot, 
"■ ■ — 0. B. B,— W.V — 



rt Scapalhom (tha 

about a jeai ags),— O J.— Han A. W.— _. , . ., , 

ball (ahortl;^— O. W.-J. It., Blirton.— O. Robatta.— 
Smlgiut'i Intonnatlon Offloa.— A. C. P.— H. W. V.— 

R C-UoUougal. 

Pkmiao.^^^Thalirall Haya.— J. B. D. 

CONTINUED LARGE INCREASE In th» CIRCULATION 
of tha "GARDENERS' CHRONICLE." 

Important to Advertlaera.— Tb Publulttr >mi Ot nK^he. 
Uon o/amoimeinf IXat Ou dmtalbm e/Uw "Oardnin' 
CarBBlnl*" Au. iliui tti mlacitkni (ft Ua ]>ria q/IAafujifr, 

MORS THAH DOVBLBS, 
aitd that it oontlnuea to inoraaae woekly, 

Ad—rHmn an mCailai Ual Ih •' ChronicU " dnwlalai Mua; 
Oooimi OairTLBHu, ahd all Ouaaci or Ounnriaa 
am QaaDan-LOTBaa ol ktrnt, Oat U laia ipietaUf taT^t 
VoaaiaM am Ooumu. Daoounoii, and Oal it it 
ynttnmd for n/miHa in aUOtprtitcltcilLaTarUi. 

(for ifartoi m p. xiil.) 



Jakuabt 16, 1898.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



33 




THE 



SATURDAY, JANUARY \o, 1898. 



A LITTLE CORNISH GARDEN. 

^r^HE garden whose oliTonicle I both keep 
-^ and partially make is no realisation of 
Baconian ideal. Its *' contents *' fall very, very 
far short of "Thirty acres of ground. . • . 
Foure acres being assigned to the greene, six 
to the heath, foure and foure to either side, 
and twelve to the maine garden." Quite other- 
wise, my little plot is materially but a small 
piece of ground enclosed by low walls on all 
sides ; and, when I took possession of it two 
years ago, a more hopeless, irregular, poyerty- 
struck patch, ooyered as it was wiUi bind- 
weed, couch-grass and other weeds, it would 
tax the utmost patience and ingenuity to 
discover. 

My predecessor took no interest in gardening, 
and considered the possibilities of the situation 
not such as to merit much expenditure of labour 
or money. And truly it did look a hopeless task 
to extract much beauty from it. But I thought 
of VirgiVs contented old Oorycian, who acquired 
possession of a few acres of waste land which 
was not worth ploughing, of no value for pas- 
turage, and quite useless for vine-growing ; yet 
by steady perseverance and hopefulness Uiis 
genuine old gardener made things grow every- 
where, and was enabled to cover his supper- 
table with dainties of his own growing. He 
was always able to pick the earliest rose 
in spring and the first autumn fruit ; and, 
even when gloomy winter cracked the ground 
with hard ftrosts, he still had flowere in shel- 
tered nooks with which to cheer himself and 
nourish his bees. 

Unfortunately, I had come into a few acres 
of neglected land, and I saw that, if I were 
to maintain my interest in gardening, and 
show myself to be a worthy descendant of the 
veteran of the Qeorgics, I must make the best of 
what I had until such time as Fate should give 
me the garden which my mind has ever imaged. 

So, first of all, I thoroughly broke up the 
ground, cleaned it of weeds as iar as possible, 
and incorporated a heavy dressing of manure. 
I saw that it was useless to hope tibat the weeds 
were oonquered, and so I decided to grow 
nothing for a season but vegetable crops, which 
would necessitate the ground being dug and 
cleaned a few more times. I took time by the 
forelock, however, and planted a number of 
pyramidal fruit-trees in the autumn. Those 
have now developed, and will, I hope, yield me 
a good crop next year. Continual forking, 
digging, manuring, and weeding, have now 
made the soil such as will produce fruit and 
flowers. Paths have been xnade, and borders 
have naturally been produced ; seeds have been 



sown, and bulbs planted; a small greenhouse 
and frame have been built, and the little waste- 
plot looks like an actjunot to a human dweUing. 

As the garden is entirely overlooked by every 
passing train — the railway arching over the 
valley on whose slope my garden Ues — ^I have 
planted some standard fruit and other trees to 
cut off that view as far as may be. You see, I 
am English, and like to ply my hobby in pri- 
vacy. For I hold that a garden is a place 
whither one should be able to retire from the 
profanum vulgua — like a private study, like even 
silence itself, in that we may thence defy the 
outside world. This, then, is an aim whi(^ the 
true gardener should bear ever in mind, for no 
garden can afPord a substitute for the beauties 
of unsullied Nature. The grandeur and glory 
of the forest the hill and ^e plain are quite 
other than anything which the garden can give. 
This is as certain as the truth that no library 
can serve as a substitute for the world of men. 

The profound emotion that we term melan- 
choly, which grand scenery produces, is absent 
from the garden effect. Ghudening, on the 
other hand, is calculated to breed in its devotees 
a feeling of quiet content, mainly — ^we may 
suppose — because it is oonstantly telling the 
gardener of his power in obtaining desired and 
beautiftd results. Tet, full as much as angling, 
gardening is truly " the conten^>lative man's 
recreation." Baising giant flowers for compe- 
tition at flower-shows is scarcely the kind of 
thing I mean. The gardening which attracts 
me is on a footing with old Isaac Walton's 
fishing. I like to be my own gardener, and I 
take an interest in my plants as individual 
living things, as well as bits of beautiful colour 
and form. I like to see a plant grow and develop, 
to study its distinctive features and thmr 
causes, and to read about it and so learn what 
others have observed. A small, convenient and 
healthy house, a large and well-situated garden, 
a good library gradually accumulated, a small 
competency — and what more in the way of 
physical possessions can the contemplative man 
require? 

Hardy plants alone possess much interest for 
me. Plants in pots savour too much of the pet- 
bird idea. Keeping a loose domestic dog or cat 
is one thing, but keeping a lark or even a canary 
is quite another. Besides, I like my plants to 
establish relations with definite spots in the 
garden. It is pleasant to feel that the fading 
Crocuses will come again in the same spot next 
year ; that the Snowdrops may be expected to 
brighten the base of the Pear-tree each spring 
witib increasing effect. Therefore I have 
planted my garden with Boses in great variety 
of the best kinds (not Hybrid Perpetuals 
and Teas only, but also the sweet old 
summer Boses, and many of the single 
species such as alpina, acicularis and brac- 
teata), with all kinds of Daffodils. Narcissi, 
Irises, Anemones, Primulas, Oydamens, Cro- 
cuses, Tulips, Gladiolus, Snowdrops, Aconites, 
Colchicums, Columbines, Campanulas, and the 
like. I hope to have flowers out-of-doors the 
year through, except perhaps in the very heart 
of winter. Yet I am inclined to think that 
December and January are among the gar- 
dener's happiest months. It is then that he is 
enabled to practice *' L'Artde se rendre heureux 
par les Songes," as the title of an old book 
runs. For, after all, however successful may be 
our gardening, realisation is realisation, and 
can only give the joys which appertain to itself; 
whereas, in the apparently dull months of 
winter, we have all the pleasures which expec- 
tation and the conception of infinite possibilities 



can give. Although, when I drag my friend 
into my garden, he reports that be can see little 
but bare earth, and levees trees and shrubs, 
I can soaroely understand it, for I can see here 
a mass of glowing Escholtria in every shade of 
orange, white, and yellow, there a dump of 
Daffodils in bloom, here a bed of Tulips, there 
a galaxy of beautiful Boses. I see all the 
flowers of every month, and they are almost as 
real to me as they will be when they are visible 
to all. Harry RoherU, 



Orohio Notes and aiEANiNGs. 

L^LIO-CATTLETA x LUCY INGRAIC 
(pwrpnarata^ , Perrini^). 

Equal in beauty to a good JjsAm purpunta,and 
poeseniog the advantage of flowering in winter, 
thia fine hybrid givea a good example of the naeful 
work done by the raiser, Mr. T. W. Bond, gardener to 
C. L. K. Ingram, Eaq., Blatead Honae, Qodalming, 
who haa anoceeded in obtaining a laige number of 
fine LsBlio-Cattlejaa and other showy hjbridi. It 
was first ahown at the meeting of the Rojal 
Hortiooltuial Society on January 18, 1897, receiving 
an Award of Merit. The plant is again in bloom, 
and ahowa inereaaed vigour. Another plant haa alao 
bloomed, which ia laiger than the original inaiae, and 
alightly dariur in colour. The fiower meaaurea 
7 inohea acroaa the petala, and therefore equala a 
good L. porpurata. It alao approachea that apeoiea 
in the shape of the bloom, though the unmistakable 
trait of L. Perrini, aa aeen in the peculiar form of 
the fix>nt part of the lip, ia very erident The 
aepala and petala are white, in the lighter variety 
alighdv, and in the darker more decidedly, tinged 
with lilac The base of the lip in both caaea ia 
bluah-whitc, yeined with purple in the interior ; the 
front and edges of the side-lobes being of a ridi 
violet-purple colour. Jamea (yBrien. 

LJBLIA ▲QTOMlffALIB VABIITltS. 

Fbwera aent from various correspondents prove 
the extraordinary variation which exirts ^«»"»*flF^ 
pbnts of this beantilul winter-flowering speciea. 
There eziat undoubtedly two or three diatinot typea, 
each with ita set of varietice, which ared<)rived from 
dilferait localities in Mexico. FIrat, there is the 
oldest tjype, which waa quite eclipsed by the larger 
and more richly-coloured L. autumnalis atroruben% 
introduced for Uie first time by Measra. Baekhouaeof 
York hi 1879 ; and kter by Messrs. F. Sander k Co. 
Thia ^pe haa the richer colours, and ahowa the 
leaet variation. Some fine flowers d L. a. atrorubens 
ha?e been received from Mr. J. Cypher of Chelten- 
ham, and the only apparent variation, a bluah-white 
form of it from Mn. Ida Brandt of Zurich. The 
third distinct type is tolerably abundant in gardena, 
and moat ot the white and Uuah-white flowered forma 
belong to this typs^ the deepercoloared onea not 
being oomparahle to L. a. atrorubena, although they 
are naeful aa flowering In the winter. The beat puie 
white form comea from G. F. Moore, Eaq., Chardf 
war, Bourton-on-the- Water, The flower ia likewise 
larger and better than oUier white varietiea which we 
have obaerved. Two distinct forma of thia claaa are 
aent by Mr. W. Qould, Roae Bank, Hayfidd, near 
Stockport. Botii belong to the narrow-petalled dasa, 
the one with a white base to the lip and other aeg- 
msnta, the outer halvea of which are rcae-coloured ; 
the other with clear white lip, the frtmt lobe of 
which and the sepals and peiala are bright light- 
porple. Another flower aent by Captain Holford, in 
its broad aegmenta and broad front lobe to the lip, 
very closely reaemUea the fine L. a. yenusta of 
Meaars. Backhooae. 

LMUL AVOBfS PBOTRtROllNA. 

A few years ago there appeared a very briUiantiy- 
coloured form of Lnlla anoeps^ which waa named in 
honour of Mr. W. H. Protheroe, of the well-known 
firm of auctioneers of Chea p side. Its fiowera are of 



34 



THE GARDENEB8' CHRONICLE. 



[ZMMuCt 16, 1898. 



fine size, of much Bubetance, and of a warm, g^wing 
colour. A fine flower of it la aent by James Dayid- 
Bon, Esq., Somer?iIle, Dumfriea. The aepala and 
petaLi are of a bright porpllah'roae colour ; the broad 
labellum yellow at. the base, with dark purple lines 
running on each aide of the orange-coloured oentiml 
keela. The firont lobe of the lip and the conspumoua 
tides of the basal lobef are of a brilliant ruby- 
crimson, which appears all the brighter by contrast 
with the small white area in firont of the crest 

Calanthi X Vbitobi splbndens ahd otbbe 

Plants. 
A grand infiorescenoe of over forty 'brilliant car- 
mine-rose flowers is sent by Mr. A. Chapman, gr. to 
Gaptam Holford, Westonbirt, Tetbury, and it ki 
specially noteworthy on account of the history 
attached to ii The plant was selected from some 
unflowered seedlings which the late Mr. James 
Veitoh let the late Robert Stayner Holford haTC 
many years ago, which have supplied the stock irom 
whidi the fiiie specimens seen every winter at 
Westonbirt have been raised. Two fine varieties of 
Lelia anceps and L. autunmalis, a handsome form of 
Dendrobiimi Plialsonopsis delicatnm, and a superb 
large white Odontoglossimi crispum are also included. 

OmOHID PRIOIS. 

According to the Semaiiu ffartieole, the highest 
price for an Odonto^ossum yet given is 12,000 firanos 
(£480), for Odontoj^osaam crispum] var. Luoiani ; 
7500 francs (£300) for 0. crispum var. Lindeni ; 
5000 francs (£200) for 0. crispum Moortebeekienae. 



ORCJHID PORTRAITS. 

BoLLKA ScHBODKRfAKA, Witiur lUuttHrU Oarten-Zeilung, 
January. 

Cattucva ORANUL09A, LIndL, Cbffniawc, Diet. loan, Orckid,, 
CatUeya, 1. 14. 

Cattlbya Lkopoldi, Versch., Cogniava, Did, Icon, Orchid,, 
Cattleya, t. 1ft. 

Cattleta PABTHnnAX» Bleu, ftom a calummata by 

Eolloa of C. MoasiiB, Cogniawe Diet. Icon, Orchid,, Cattlara 
yb. 4. C. calummata Is itself a hybrid out of C. intermeala 
by p(dlen of C. Aclandto. 

Oypripediom bellatulum, Bohb. f., Cogniawc, Diet, Icon. 
OrcAtd., Cypripedium, t 9. 

Ctpripkoiux Tounoianumx, Rolfo, a hybrid from taoer* 
bieoa by pollen of C. Roebelini, Cognimix, Diet, Icon. Orchid., 
Cypripedium hyb., 1. 10. 

LiBUA OLAUCA, Bonth., Cogniaux, Diet. Icon. Orchid., 
L»lia,t.l«. 

MiLTOWiA GAHDiOA, lindley, Cogniaux, Did, Icon. OrehuL, 
MUtonIa,t.5. ^ y ^ 

Odoktoglossum Scrlikpsrianum, Rchb. f ,' Cogniaux, Diet, 
Icon. Orchid, f Od(Mito((loMum, t 12. 

Odoktooloshuv Wilokkahuk X var. albbhb, OogM^Mx, 
Did. Icon. Orchid,, Odootoi^oasum hyb., t. 2a. 

ONciDitTU PUI.VINATUM, Llndloy, Cofpiiaiix, Did. Icon. 
Orchid., Oncidium, t. 10. 

Vaitda oocrulba, Griffith, Cogniauje, Did, loon. Orchid., 
Vanda. t. 6. 

Vanda tricolor, Lindley, Cogniaux, Did. Icon. Orchid., 
Vanda, t. 6. 

Warscbwiczvlla ooohubaris, Bohb. f., Cogniaux, Diet, Icon. 
Orchid,, 1. 1, 

COLCHICUM CILICICUM. 

AoooRDiNa to Boiisier this is synonymous with 
C. byzantinum ; but Mr. Siehe, at Mersina, who 
found it in large quantities, writes to me, that it ia 
quite a different species. The colour of the flowers 
is a rich rose, somewhat tesselate. Mr. Siehe 
writes, that strong bulbs produce as many as twenty- 
five flowers, which are of the largest and broadest of 
the whole genus ; but the flowers may remain in a 
fresh state without water for a period of five or six 
days — so this species will be one of the best for 
decorative purposes. Our illustration (fig. 12) was 
taken from a photograph sent by Mr. Siehe ; it shows 
a mediimi-sized plant of half the natural eiae. 
I/. Dammer, 



PLANTS AT LA MORTOLA. 

Commendatobi Hanbobt sends a list of over 400 
species of plants in flower at La Mortola in the open 
border on New Tear's Day. He adda that thus far 
there has been no frost, but the nights are cold, and 
large quantitiee of snow are visible on the maritime 
Alpa. 

The past year has been a very bad one for the 
peasants and small cultivators in this district; the 



Olive crop was » total lailnrsb and although tha 
vintage was good near the ooaat, the ravages of the 
phylloxera were dissatrous in the hi^^ier landa. 

The price of Lemons ia so low that their oulture is 
unremunerative ; while the new industry of flower* 
growing seems in great danger of being overdone, 
those engsged in it complainiiig loudly of not being 
able to eiSeot sales, till odder weather coupled with 
the increased denumd for Christmas improved the 
situation. 

Lastly, the Qovemment has chosen this particularly 
unpropitiouB Inoment for increasing in the most 
ruthless and arbitrary manner the valuationa on 
which the income-tax {richezza mofrtZe) is based, until 
many hard-working and honest peoj^ are almost in 
despair. 



Abelia ohfnensii 
Aboria oaffra 
Almis precatorius 
Abutllon DarwinI 

„ indioum 

„ moffapotanicum 

„ atnatam 
Aoada nUax)botrys 

„ nariifolia 

„ obUqna 

„ retinodee 

,. mhgtuk 
Aohania mollis 
Aeonium arboreum 
AgaUysa eoBlastla 
Agave geminiflora 

„ aofdymufl 

„ yuooBfolia 
Ageruum conysoides 
Albiuda lophantha 
Aloe arboreeoeas 

„ oillaria 

„ purpuraeoens 

„ SchweinfurtUi 
Alyasum argenteum 
Andropogoa pubeeeeos 
AnthriaouB Tulgaris 
Antirrhinum majos 
Aponogeton distadaymn 
Aralia papvrif em 

„ Sbboldii 
Arbutoa Aadiaohne 

„ Unedo 
Arctotis arboraeoens 
Arisarum vulgacB 
Aristoloohla aempervlrena 
Asaleaindioa 
Rank s(a amtralia (T) 
marceseena 



n 



„ marglnata 
B^ponla anrvrostigma 

Aichitoidea 
Lyncheana 
macrophyUa 
manioata 
metallica 
Rex 

riolnlfolia 
aemperflorens 
■empertlorens x Bdimidt- 



ft 
ft 
*» 
»* 
1} 
»* 
t» 



t* 



*i 



Weltonlendfl 



Beilia sylveetrU 
Berberis asiatica 

,. e^uca 
Didena fenilcefoliA 
DignonlaJaamlnoideH 
B<»ago offioinalia 
Boucerooia Ouaaoniana 
BougalnvUlaa glabra 

„ Tar. Haniutriana 

„ apectabilis 
BouTardia leiantha 
Buddlela americana 

„ aurlculata 

„ ***^**^gT>ifwrifiniifl 
CiMalpinia eohinata 

„ aeplaria (Blanoaca soan- 
dena) 
Calendula agyptiaca 

,, arvonaia 
Callitrla ouadriTalvia 
Campanula rapunculoidee 

„ nmmidalia 
Oananna campanulata 
Cannalndica 
Oantua dependens 
CaaalA coquimbenais 

». tomentoaa 
Oaensrina equiaetifolia 

„ atricta 
OathaeduUa 
Centaurea cyanua 
OentraDthua ruber 
Oeefanmi aurantiaoom 
el^gana 
Paiqui 
tttberosom 
veepertinum 
Warscewiozil 
hybr. mortolenae 
Cheiranthua Cheiri 

,. mutal^lis 
Chimonanthua fhigrana 
Chlora perf oliata 
Chiyaanthemum fniteeoena 

„ gracUe 
(^irtua criapua 



» 
If 
>» 

i» 
*i 
I* 



Cltma aurantium 
H tt dewimana 
„ Medioa 
„ myrtifolia 

Clerodendron fragrana 

Cluytia Richardiana 

Oobna aeaadena 



»• 



ti 



>i 

ft 



CoUetia oomuta 
eradata 
horrlda 

,. aerratifoUa 
OonTolTuhia Hermanniw 
Coronilla Emerua 
Oorrea eardinaUa 

M lAwreneiana 
Co^ledon gibblflora 

„ mafenmtha 

„ Faohyphytum 

„ retuaa 
Crssaula mmtioda 
apathulata 
tnchyaantha 
Ouphaa eminena 

„ pli^centra 

„ prooumbeoa 
Cupreswia califomiea 
Cynogloasum glochldiatum 
Cyperua alternif oUua 
Cypripedium insigne 
Cyrtanthera magniflea 
Dahlia Maximiliana 
Daphne indioa 

„ ,, marginata 
Datura arboroa 

„ aanguinea 
DaucuaCarota 
Dlanthua arboreua 

„ CaryophyUua 

„ ■uperbua 
D^^daoua glutinosua 
Diplopappua fllifoliua 
Dodonfloa triqaetra 
Echeverla imbricata 
Behium fkatuosum 
Bbeagnua reflexa 
Epaoria impreaaa 
Ephedra altlaaima 
Epiphyllum truncatum 
Eri^arborea 

„ blanda 

„ mediterranea 

„ multiflora 

„ polytriohifoUa 
Ertocephalua afHcanua 
Brodium malachoidea 
Eucalyptua globulua 
EupaUmum WeJnmanniJ (?) 
Euphorbia Charadaa 
dandeadna 
neiiifoUa 
Pephia 
aegetalia 
bigUnduloea 
Fourcroya gigantea 
Vragarla hybr. hortena 
Frandacea eximfa 
Frerlinta ceetroidea 
Fuonaia arboreecena 

„ globoaa 

„ macroa te mma 
Fumaria capreolata 

„ major 

„ oflBdnalia 
Oalllardia arlaUta 
Gaateria brerifolia 

„ diatidia 

„ aubverruooea 
Oeoiata monoaperma 
Geranium canarienae 
Oerbera Jameaoni 
Globularia alyaaum 
Gom^ocarpu;^ phyaocarpua 
Grevlllea Preiadi 

„ longifolia 

,1 roamarinifoUa 
Grewia ooddentalia 
Hakea adonlaria 

„ eucalyptoidea 

„ pugiottuformia 

„ gigantea 

„ auaveolena 
Halleria ludda 
Haplocarpha LdchtUni 
Hardenbergia Comptontana 

„ monopbylla 
Haworthia mirabiUa 
Hebedinium **ft^**inTim 
Uedera Helix 
Hdianthemum pottfolimn (?) 



If 

ft 
ft 
, If 



If 
f» 



ff 
If 



ft. 



HeUebonia niger 
Hermannia oandirans 
Heteromorpha arboreeoens 
Hezacentriti cooolnea 
Hyadnthua romanua 
Iberia (gibraltarica) aempar- 

Tirana 
IriaalaU 

„ unguiottlaris 

»f fi ■iba 
Jaaminum fhitloana 
grandiflorum 
nndiflorum 
officinale 
revdutum 
fambftc 
Jochroma coodnea 
Justida adhadota 
Kalandioe marmorata 

„ rotundifoUa 

„ thyrdflora 
Kldnia artioulata 

„ fioddes 

,, pteroneura 
LaehenaUa p fv^uH 
Tantann tS ^ M^ r^ 

„ nlTea 

„ Sellowiana 
Lardiaabala bitemata 
Laaiandra »w*<r^f*t h ^ 
Laurua ttobOia 
Lavandula pubeaoena 
Lecmitia Leonuma 
LqiCodermia lancedata 
libaala floribonda 

„ penrhodendi x 
liaomaMcanum 

„ trigynum 
lippla chanuedrif olia 
Lobelia Srinua 
Lonioera Peridymenom 
Looeaia miniata 
MalTa oriapa 
Malvaatrum limenae 
Mammfllaria gladiata 
MathSola Incana 
If aurandia aem p er fl ore n s 
If eUanthua Trlmenianua 
Mereurlalla annua 
Mesembrrantheoivm barba- 

H eormfoUum [turn 

M echinatum 
felinum 
linguiforme 
ihomboideum 
rubicaule 
apeotafaUe 
Minalobata 
H jnnina obtuaif olia 
Moricandia anrenaia 
Miihlenbeckia complexa 
Nardaaua papyraceua 

M italicua 
Nkotiana glauca 

„ kmgmora 
Olea undulata 
Opuntla aubulata 
Oreodaphne cdiforalca 
Oreopanax capitatum 

„ BpremesniHanum 

,. ThibautU 
Oamanthua fragrana 
Oateoepermum moniUferum 
Othonna Alhinad 

„ oamoaa 

„ trinerda 
Othonopaia ohdrifdia 
OxaUacemua 

„ pubeaoena 

„ purpurata 
Paaaerina hirsuta 
Paadflora alata 

„ hybrida 
PaTonU apinifex 
Pelargonium akhemilloii' a 

„ odoratiadmnm 

„ peltatam 

„ aonale 
Pentatemon oampanulatua 
Pentaia Tli)pita 
Petadtea fhigrana 
Petunia Tiolaoea 
Peumua Boldua 
Fhastdx oanarienaia 
Phygeliua capenaia 
Phylica ericoldea 
Phyaalia Prandietl 
Pileamuacoaa 
Pilocarpus pinnatifoliua 
Piaum aatiTum 
Pltheooctenlum buccina* 

torium 
Plaiitago spoc.from Macedonia 
PlectraothUA fruticoeua 

,, tomentoeua 
Plumbago capenaia 



»f 
tf 
»i 
»f 
fi 



11 



fi 

ff 



»f 



t* 
f» 



It 



ft 
»» 



If 
»» 



fi 

If 



ft 



Polygala myrtUoUa 

,, TlrgaU 
Polygonum oapitatom 
Poterium apinosum 
Primula oboonica 

„ dn«*naia 
Pdadia glutinosa 
Raphlolepla indlca 
Reinwaratia tetragyna 
Reaeda odorata 
„ Phyteuma 
RIdnua communia 
RoaaBankaiat 
,, borbonioa fulgida 
,» ,f Tiridiflora 
Roaadnica 

„ Thea(lndica) 
Roamarlnua offidnalls 
Royena pubeaoena 
Ruaoua hypogloaaum 

„ hTpophyllum 
Ruaadia junoM 
SalTia oacaliwroUa 
cooeinea 
c<mferttflora 
diacolor 
geaneneflora 
Grahami 
Ooudotii 
Heerii 
inTduonta 
leonuroidea 
leuoanfcha 
mexioana 
paniottlata 
pulchdla 
purponaoena 
aemiatrata 
Seaad 
aploMlens 
Saxifhiga craaalf oUa 
Bcabioaa maritima 
SohinuaMoUe 
Ucutellaria dUaaimt 

„ cordifolia 
Seneoio angnlatos 
ddtouieua 
grandifbliua 
Haaburyanua 
loogifoliua 
maorogloaaua 
., oxyrlasfoUuB 
Sdanum acanthocarpam 
betaoeum 
giganteum 
iaaminoldea 
lanoeolatum 
maivinatum 
Seaforthlanum 
torvum 
Waraoewicaii 
„ nigrum 
Sonchua oleraceua 
Sparmannia af ricana 
Spluerdoea umbelUta 
Stapdia grandiflora 

„ Tarlegata 
BtreUtda Regins 
Btreptoaolen Jameaonl 
Tacsonia manicata 
Tagetee corymboea 
Tecoma capenaia 

,, Stana 
Templetonia retuaa 
Tetranthera japonica 
Teucrium frutioana 
Thea ohinenaia dridia 
„ „ osaamlca 

TropeBolum majoa 

M pentaphyllum 
Ulex euronwua 
„ parviflorua 
Uroapermvm Dalechampi 
Verbena tenera (?) 
Veronica Anderaoni 
„ cymbalaria 
„ aalidfolia 
VidaFaba 
Vinoa media 
„ minor 
Viola odorata 
Vittadenia triloba ( * Biigeron 

mucronatum) 
Weatrlngia roamariniformia 
Yuoea aldfolia 
„ apec(?) 
innladegana 
Uaageana 



If 
»f 
»f 
ft 
«i 
•f 



ff 
ft 
If 
f> 
ft 
ft 
ft 
If 
ft 



If 



AIocTirena 
Anagyria ftetida 
Centaurea I 



II 



tn 



Juniperaa Oxvoedrua 
Ononia minutuaima 
8tephanophyaum longirolium 



NOVELTIES OF 1897, 

{Omdudedfromp. 20.) 

StoVx and Qbebnhousi PLAinis. — Looking back to 
the time when the greater part of the plant-houaes in 
gardens were filled with specimen Heaths, Spacria^ 
Boronias, ftc., so far as the cold-houses were oon- 
cemedy and with ponderous AUamandas, Stephanoti^ 
Clerodendrons, and such-like subjects in the warmer- 
houses, we see what great changea the altered habits 
of their ewnetB, brought about by the alterad eon* 



jANnAKT It, ISM.] 



THE GABDENEBS' CHBONICLE. 



ditiona of lodkl lih, h>T« wrought. Formerlf the 
plftot-bcni*Biirare sspectedlo gtreplauunonlynbeD 
thdr Dwnon wen itkTing at thair country houiu. 
Now tha &dUli«a for quick ds1iT«i7 ol pukigaa 
makae thair prodaoe aniUbla whether tlis ownsn be 
in tb* n^hbonrhood or not, and th«ra li »a inoreaa- 
iog daaira to gat full Talus out of the gardani. C<iQ- 



the paM fear, the coDUnnatioD ol tha winter-flower- 
iog BagonJM of tha Hn. Haul daw bare rsmlted in 
aareiml ohanniug, piofuuly-flowsring, oanuine-ro>« 
oolour«d noveltlai, of whioh the two bait are Begonia 
Joliua, whioh 1* quite a new departure in the wintar- 
flowering aaotioD, having rery double earmiDV-roaa 
flowan, whleh ara nrj p«raiat«nt, each ilowrr luting 



a varydaA erimaon; Ignimta, a (plandld white, vdoad 
with roaa etAttax; Topai, whiles atrlped with ro^r- 
acariat ; and Franolaoa, onago^sarlat, with whtte 
oye, In tha Cbalaa* ttnin ol Streptooarpua, found to 
useful ingardena,iaeontiiined,imprcivem«iittnkda,aiid 
a new lat of hf bride of great beau^ haa been produoed, 
and named Streptooarpua aohimaniBoTa. CWadiimu, 



FlO. 12. — COIiCHIOCM 



IB'CUT^10RED. (dKE 1-. 34.} 



■equantlf, in place of the large gpecimeni formerly 
f^wn, qoantiliaa of plants userul for decoration in 
Uie bouMs or for auppljing cut flowere, tn b rery 
great meaaure take their placee. Hence, the nuraery- 
man hai to work up noveltlM which can be grown 
eaiily and in quantity, and which form neat and 
Horiferoua pUnta, 

Meura. Jaa. Veitoh & Bone huTe worked carefully 
on many iiiitable subjeoU, and o( their noTeltiea of 



quite Ihiee weela before fading ; and the equally 
huideanie B. Winter Cheer, shown at the meeting ol 
tha Royal Horticultural Society, held on December 14, 
Both thete are ao floriferoua that they show more 
flower* than leavee when well grown. Of the 
aplandid (train of llippeaatrumi (AnurylliB) evolved 
by Mann, Veileh, many new one* have appeared, 
those certificated being Fer^ a flne flower of a reddiah- 
■oarlet tint, mottled, and banded with wlute ; ThunbeiK 



eapeoially with a view to Kcure dwarf compact 
babit, have also been worked, nnd the best noveltiee 
oat of them are C. Lady Stafford Northoote, with 
rilvsry-white foliage ; G. Mrs. KoLeod, brif^t mhnon- 
red ; and C. Silver Queen. Other fine noraltiea 
■hown by Keaan. Teitch are Nepentfaea x TfnTi, 
one ol the finest and moet diitincL Rhododeodron 
■upo-Uimmum, tha flneet pare white of the Himalayan 
Motion ; Phyllooeetua Adonn and P. Syrenue, both 



36 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



(jAklTABY 16, 1898. 



fine, tnd of a new tint of roie and lalmon-nMe ; 
Marattia Borkei, a noble Fern ; and in this aection 
may be mentioned Disporum Leeehenaultiannm 
Tariegatnm, and the elegant Apera amndinaoea, both 
of which, alihough tolerably hardy, will be more 
uaefttl grown as deoorative planta under gUhH, and 
new for that porpoee. 

Meiiri. F. Sander k Co., St. Albans, in Petunia 
Mrs. Fred Sander, staged at the Temple Show, had 
the Tery finest novelty of its class, the very double 
flowers being abundantly produced, prettily fringed, 
and of a delicate roee-pink and white colour. Nothing 
like it has been seen, and as a plant for general deoo- 
rative purposes, it will be largely grown. Their 
Petunia Mrs. John Jeflbries, and others of the same 
strain, are also quite noveL The Coleus, too, 
are favourites at St. Albans; and among the 
new and good are C. Bladc-bedder, C Mrs. 
Fred Sander Improved, C. Gaiety, and C. 
tricolor iindulata. Of Caladiums, the best are C. 
albaneose, C. spedosum, and C. venosum ; and of other 
new or rare plants at St. Albans may be mentioned, 
Anthurium bogotense, PhUodendron imperiale Lanch- 
eana, Davallia hirta plumosa, AriasBma Bakeriana, 
Canna Sander^s new variegated, Mapania pandani* 
folia, Begonia peristegia, and the fine set of Palms 
exhibited at the Hamburgh Show — Cyphokentia 
Kirsteniana, Licuala Jeavenceyi, L. Leopoldi, Areca 
llaemanni, Ptycho-areoa Worteliana, Dnmonoropa 
Julesiana, Kontia Sanderiana, and Thrinax iava* 
nense. 

Of novelties noted before, but only just now 
getting properly appreciated, should be mentioned 
Draoflsna CKidseffiana, one of the finest decorative 
plants of our times, its durable, entire, bright-green 
foliage vividly nuAed with clear yellow, making it 
eflRsotive either as a lai^ or small specimen, and its 
out sprays for fiorists' purposes are greatly in demand 
already. 

Messrs. B. S. Williams & Son, Holloway, sent out 
in 1897 the new form of variegated Agapanthus — 
A« umbellatus aureo-striatus ; several new Amaryllis, 
particularly fine being Holloway Belle, The Hon. 
Maurice Qifford, and Lord Brassey ; Canna (flower* 
ing) Antoine Vallot, Crimson Banner, Eldorado, and 
Prince of Orange ; two very fine Gliveias, Queen 
Victoria and Holloway Belle ; Impatiena Magenta 
Queen and Salmon Queen ; Groton Johannis gracilis, 
one of the most elegant of Codisdums ; and a fine 
set of eight new and distinct Qlozinias. 

Among other worthy novelties exhibited and 
certiflcated during 1897, may be mentioned the fine 
set of Amaryllis exhibited by Captain Holford, of 
Weatonbirt (gr., Mr. Chapman), at the Royal Horti- 
cultural Soeiety, on April 13, and of which Chim- 
boraao, the Cnr, and Duke of York, all of intensely 
rich colour, secured Awards of Merit ; the useful and 
pret^ late-fiowering Kerines, ndsed by H. J. Blwes, 
Bsq., out of whoae e£fective group shown at the 
Royal Horticultural Society, on October 26, seven 
received awards. The pretty Anemia rotundifolia, of 
Mr. Wm. Bull; Sonerila Lady Burton, and a Leo« 
pold XL, of Sir Trevor Lawrence; Lomaria dliata 
nandis, and L. c Migor, of Mr. H. B. May ; Richardia 
Pentlandi maculate, of Messrs. John Laing k Son ; 
and the fine Bongainvillea Cypheri, for which Mr. 
John Cypher, of Oheltenbam, secured the gold 
medal at the last Shrewsbury show as the best plant 
exhibited. 

Begonias are justly as great favourites as ever, 
though there is increasing diflioultyin finding dis' 
tinct novelties in the older classes of the tuberous^ 
rooted kinds. Early though it was for Begonias, ther 
last great Temple Show brought forth a grand dis« 
play of tham. Selections made in the fine group 
shown by Messrs. John Laing k Son were Duchess 
of Marlborough, a fine double^ rose*pink ; Lady 
Hamilton, single white ; Clio and Diamond Jubilee, 
double yellow; and Doctor Jim, double red. Li the 
atand shown by Mr. J. R. Box, of West Wickham 
and Croydon, fine things were ^Qneen of Wurtemb^ig, 
doable yellow ; and Queen of Queens, aprioot-yeUow. 
In Mr. Canneirs (of Swanley) group, the best were 
Mrs. W. B. Milner, cri^nson; Mr«. Leopold de 
Rothschild, and Lord Sherborne, grand flowers. 



Mr. H. J. Jones displayed his fine improvements well, 
and among them were noted B. H. J. Jones, one of 
the most brilliant scarlets; LaSVanoe, pink and prim- 
roee yellow. In Mr. Thos. Ware's group, very fine were 
Jubilee Beauty, carmine-scarlet ; Samuel Pope, and 
JubUee Queen. Mr. W. Baylor Hartland, of Cork, 
has also given much attention to the tuberous 
Begonia, and his a Mrs. W. B. Hartland is, perhnMb 
the finest double white. 

Messrs. Sutton k Sons, of Reading, also do good 
work in the perfecting of their fine ssnin of dwar^ 
floriferous, and showy, fibrous-rooted Begonias, in 
which they have attained something like peribotion, 
as demonstrated by the fine display they made with 
them at the Temple Show. Sutton's Snowflake, 
Crimaon Qem, and Coral Qem may be taken as good 
examples of a race of plants good for all purposei, 
sudi as bedding, basket-work, conservatory, and 
indoor decoration, and for cutUnfr. In Qloxinias, too, 
the Sutton strain stOl pres er ve ^eir hi^ chanoter ; 
and it is generaUy admitted that it is infinitdj better 
and more satisfkctory to grow firom soch s ee ds than 
to trouble to propagate by old tubers or leaves, as 
finer flowers are seciued without the risk of disease. 

Chrysanthemums have been so well and numerously 
recruited during the year as to demand a special notice. 
Suifioe it therefore fcr the present purposes to say 
that among the foremost of the introdueers of iUie 
novelties are Messrs. H. J. Jones, Owen, Wells, 
Qodfrey, Cannell k Sons, all of whose productions, 
together with those of others, have frequently been 
remarked in the columns of the Qar d tnt rif ChronicU 
during the past year. 

Hardy Pknts.— Of these during 1897 Mem. 
Jas. Veltch k Sons have received awarda for Eseal- 
Ionia X Langlsyensis, Celmisia Mooroei, Hibiscus 
ocalestis, H. totua alba, Veronica La Seduisante, 
v. Silver Queen, Libocedrus decurrens aurea, and 
Cedrus atlantica aurea, the last-named not new, but 
yet very rarely seen in gardens. 

The KaroisBus, which, together with the Iris, may be 
regarded as on a par with the Orchids among bulbous 
plants, have lor diief novelties the handsome N. Ellen 
Willmot, Lattice Harmer, Snowdrop, and Southern 
Star, of the Rev. G. H. Engleheart ; and the K. 
Beauty, Odorus, Hermione, Samson, Viotoria, and 
Snowflake of Messrs. Barr k Son. 

Martin Smith Esq., Mr. Jas. Dongas, Mr. C. Turner 
and others, have produced noveltiei in Carnations. 

Messrs. Kelway k Son, of Lanjport, atiU pursue 
the rairing of the Qladiolut, Iris, AmarylUs, 
Gkiillardias, iPyrethrums, Delphiniums, Pseonies, and 
other flowers for which they are noted, with success. 

Messrs. Wallace k Co., of Colchester, have again 
by their good culture brought under notice the 
beautiful race of Caloohortus, or Mariposa Lily, and 
they have secured awards lor three new or rare 
species during the year. 

The Dahlias^ Roses, and other great classes of 
florists' flowers, have been well recruited by those 
who make the culture of them a special feature, 
and generaUy speaking the year's work has been 
satisfactory. 

Among the novelties or rare plants illustrated in 
the QardeJuerB* Ohroniele in 1897 are^ 

Alberta magna, December 11, p. 411. 

Apera arundinaoea, October 28, p. 283. 

Angelonia grandiflora alba, October 30, p. 807. 

Aristolodhk x hybrida, August 21, p. 127 (the flrst 
hybrid recorded in tUs genus). 

Aristolochia Goldieana, May 22, p. 846. 

Asphodeline taurica, Wmk 13, p. 176. 

Begonia Duchess of Marlborough, ICay 29, Sup- 
plement. 

Begonia Lady Hamilton, May 29, Supplement. 

Begonia Mrs. W. B. Hartland, November 20, p. 367. 

Begonia, crested, September 18, p. 203. 

Begonia, Sutton's fibrous-rooted. May 29, Sup- 
plement. 

Campanula Balchiniana x , July 10, p. 17. 

Carnations, new varieties, September 11, p. 175, 

177. 
Ceropegia Woodii, November 20, p. 885. 
Oaladium aljbanense, May 29, p. $46. 
Caladium spedosum, May 29, p, 346. 



GaUdium Thomas Peed, May 29, p. 852. 
GaJadium Roneador, May 29, p. 352. 
jChionoseilla x AUeni, March 20, p. 191. 
* Chrysanthemum Mra. Chat. Birch, Decembmr 4, 

p. 405. 
CyoUmeo psrsioum, fringed, January 20, p. 71. 
Cyclamen periioum. May 22, p. 331. 
Divallia hirta plumosa, May 29, p. 355. 
Dracasna Qodseffiana, May 29, p. 347. 
Bchiaocystts bbata, October 16, p. 271. 
EicaUoniaxLangleyenais. JulylO, p. 15. 
Ficui radioans varie^^ata, September 11, p. 185. 
Fritillariapluriflora, April 10. p. 231. 
Gloxinia Her M%je«tr, June 12, p. 330. 
Qloxinta Prince of Walesa May 29, Sapplemeat. 
Hydraogei Hortensia, Veitch's var., June 5, Sapple- 

ment. 
Leptoiyne Sbillmani, Nov. 6, p. 838. 
MarAttia Murkei, December 13, p. 435. 
Mapania pandanilolia, May 29, p. 349. 
Megaoaryon orientale, October 2. p. 226, 2 i7. 
Miehattxia Tchihatchewi, March 20, p. 183. 
Myoeotis patustris, Tom Thumb, October 20, p 

307. 
Nagelia amabilis, December 11, p. 418. 
Narcissus Victoria, June 12, p. 380. 
Nardssua Ellen WiUmot, April 8, p. 228. 
NareisiUf Southern Star, April 3, p. 223. 
Nepenthes x Tiveyi, September 18, p. 200, 201. 
Nymphsjk Laydekeri, April 3, Supplement. 
Nymphiea Marliacea albtda, January 30, p. 77. 
Passiflora pruinoaa, December 4, p. 401. 
Petunia Mrs. Fred Sander, June 26, p. 415. 
Philadelphus Lemoinei, Avalanche, February 6, 

p. 89. 
Primula TraiUu, October 16, p. 263. 
RMpbarry-Blaokberry, October 2, p. 235. 
Salpiglossis Emperor, November 20, p. 363. 
Spinea argota x , July 3, p. 3. 
Strawberry, Veitch's Perfection, July 31. 
Tulipa Kauffmanni, April 3, p. 217. 
Violets, new types, April 17, p. 249. 



TO FORCE TURNIPS. 

Good Tumipe can be obtained by forcing, pro- 
viding the heat be moderate, and the pUnta are 
grown in a healthy atmosphere, firee from rank Btnam, 
For years I deplored the scarcity of freah sweet 
Turnips in March, April, and May. I am aware thai 
from a late sowing in August good roots may bo M 
through March, but as soon as new growth oom- 
mences they lose quality. 

To force Turnips successfully, no draught should 
be permitted, but more air is required than ia uaoally 
given in the case of other vegetables, and ample 
moistore, with very little top-heat, for if the top 
growth be too much in advance of the root, they 
may "bolt" We rely laigely upon fresh loayee 
wherewith to make the hotbed for our eariy Tumipa, 
thou^ they are slow in giving the necessary warmth ; 
the leavea afford a genial moisture. The present ia a 
good time to prepare lor forcing, and about twelve 
or thirteen weeks will suffice to produce fine roots. 
Framea are preferable to pits or houses for forcing 
these roots, as the planta grown in framea are ao 
much nearer the glass, and, consequently, the light. 
The plant does wdl in a &irly light compost, if it 
be made firm ; and I find a liberal amount of wood- 
ashes much better than rich manure, which ia beat 
omitted. 

Tumipa can be grown in much less time than I 
have advised, but my remarks concern a full crop. 
Foroed slowly, one can secure m good roots as 
those in the open garden, and of first-rate flavour. I 
used to get early roots of this vegetable without the 
aid of ^b»s merely with leaves and mats, bat the j 
were later, and that was in a northern locality. 

I think the Extra Early Mihm type, of which there 
are two varieties, the red and the white, are fiar 
anperior to the Eariy Paris Market The fint-named 
varietiea are much flatter, and more precociouB then 
any I know of, being quite ten daya earlier, and less 
Ukely to run to seed during forcing. Of the two 



JAMUARV 15, 18BB.] 



THE GABDENERS- CBBONIGLE. 



37 



vaiMiM, I preTar the purpls-toppad, but, of oonrM, 
neithsr ia oMtuI for keapiiif; puq)oMa. At 1cm t 
6 inchd ot M>il ihould b« girtn the raoti, uid they 
■hculd never Uok moUtura from tha time the pbati 
■hov abore the aoiL Bartr thianlDg ia adTtaable, 
and the wed* ahouM be aown tfalol/, m under gUM 
oveiy seed genninate*. Plentj of Teotllation in Sqb 
waaUiar ahould be giTen, and it ia far better to ooTtr 
the glaM at night in aevere weather than give mndi 
added heat ; GS* at night ia ample, and ID* higher by 
day. In mild weather, gi*e a little ventilation 
during the night. When growth ia aotiva, weak 
manure-water may be given ; and ahnuld the plant* 
out bulb qniohly, it will bo well to keep them a 
little cooler. Q. Wylha. 



botwcL It ia hardly neoeaaaiy to piunt out that it 
la Hr, a H. Boyle himaelt (atUe. p. S49] who 
ia wrong ai to the food of theae oraatorea, the 
davonring ot raith-worma by them having been 
raoorded by many obaerron, from du Qui In 1740, 
onwarda. The aooonnta given by a number of 
previouB authoia warn diaouieed by the preeent 
writer in the light ot aome fraah axperimenta mada 
by him, in the Zaolagat for Augnat, 18)3. The 
moat ramarkable part of the perfonnanoe ia the way 
In wbieh the "tongue" (radula or Imgual ribbon], 
wbioh la borne upon a apoon-ahaped oartilags, ia 
ispidly ihot out ftom the month ot the hungry alug ; 
the "tongue" (Sg. S) brialle* with many barbed 



WORM-EATING SLUGS. 

ioamva from the oorre^wndenoa which hu 
reseatlj appeared in these oolnmna, one would my 
that the worm oating alnga atUl oontinna to reoeiva 
their (air ahare ot attontion from thote in whoae 



oertainty than in tha atpatimenla, wonld eonUime to 
irritate the auriaoe of the ilug, aeeking the gioova 
above the alug'a mouth — in aoma ooaat null woma 
aoboally manage to loioe their proatomia (ooaaa) into 
the oral apertora— and would be eaught in the grip 
ot the radula m It waa attot oat, and bald leonraly, 
the alug maintaining bj ita broadened body ■ flm 
hold on the walla ot the burrow. Thia method oE 
prooeduK would not, ot oourte, prevent tha Testacalla 
from a'tampting to aaeuie wormi in tba open, ita 
Btoaltby mavementa not alarmtng the latter in any way ; 
but it would not be ao ocrtain of a meal, aa tbe 
chanoa* of a suooeaaful bit with tha ladula ani by no 
mean* ao great." In tbe qnotatlon, it ia aaaunud 
that dia worm ia ariaed by the anterior end, at leaat 
when underground, and m aplte of Hr. Pari^'a atate- 
meat (a>i<<, p. 404), one bi rtill inoUnad to bold the 
opinion that thia method ia the one intended to ha 
adopted, for the rouoaa given below, though when 
the aoimala ara on tha aoriace aa hinted above, it 
probably ia a caaa of auaing any poinbla part 



(jr ^-P^i ; Ta 



war they oomo, but that, at tha aame time, there ara 
aUll aome pointt for ona to learn with regard to 
tbrir peculiar habita. It na apparently a notioa 
which the Editor of the QardentT/ ChronUU kindly 
pnblithed, in the hope of helping the preeent writer 
in hia work on theae animala, which gave rtie to tha 
lottan alluded to, and, under tha oircanutaitoea, aoma 
obaervationi which the latter may be able to oBer 
upim pointi wblcb have cropped up or upon the 
Bubject ganerally, may t>o found to be ot intareat, 

Aa the bulk of owreapondent* to whom one ia 
indebted tor inrormatloD and for apeoimena oonaiata 
ot hortioulturiati, it may be aald that the alo^ in 
qneation are known to a fkir number of gardeneri ; 
but, on the other hand, it ia impotuble to diaagree 
with Mr. M. Webater (aalc, p. 314) when he aaya 
that the majority are unaoqnainled with them. The 
qoeatlon ot dietributioo, raiaed by the aame oorre- 
apondant, will ooma in more aptly whan aomathiog 
hiu bean nid about tha apadea ooourring in tha 
Britlah lalea. The atatement that TnCaoelln, like 
aU)er anbterriuiean animala — aarth- wornii tor inatanoe 
—•re aometlmBa to be found abore-grouad, oan ba 
sndonad by tha wiltar, who baa often found (ban 
nndar loga during awly q^ring and autuno, nod %\ 
tlur tin« on tlH nriiM ot tbt kU !» ■ bei^ 



" teeth " Taking backwards, and ita adgeaoloaa Inwarda 
a* it oomra to ita point of fulleat extenaion, thua 
aeizing anything that may be within its graap 
(fig. 4), while the bariied " teeth " can piaroe and 
hold any pray with whiob they may ooma into oon- 
tact. In connecUon with ** W. T.'a" letter (aatc, 
p. 386) it may ba pointed out ttiat than ia no " jaw " 
prewot in thia or in any other genoa belonging to the 
family Teilaaellida!. In the paper referred to nluvB, 
the matter of feiidlng ia aummed up aa followa : — 

" It will be laen that Taataoella i> particularly well 
adapted for oabching ice prey, ahould it meet tlum In 
the mouth or other portion* ot thalr tunnela. Tha 
Jug on cominit into oontaot with the head ot an 
adranoing earthworm, appaario^ above ground or 
what not, would oonlraol, and ahrlnklng baek would 
aoUnly btook tha way wllh lt« now awoHen body, 
Va» vonn In iDdnrQWiDg tg pnmtd, wl^ q)on 



U) The m^ority of obaerveia mention the anterior 

(!) In all experimental oaaai it waa found that 
worma aeized by the middle, eeoaped. 

(3) Withalugewormit WDuldbediScnltOTeven 
iropoarible for two thiokneeiaa of worm to ba 
awallowed at oeoa. 

(4) In the only caae {and thia in a tin box) whom 
the writer found a slug iritioh had aeiaed a worm by 
the middle, the latter waa erentnally dropped even 
though held for more than twelve hoora. 

There are three apeciea of Taataoella which ooenr 
on theae lalanda, one of whiob T. mangel mentioiiad 
by"W. T."(ait(r. p. S3S] ie easily diatingniahed by ita 
comparatively large shell from the other two, T. 
haliotidea and T. aeutulom, both of which ara alluded 
to in the oorreapondaaca under tbe former name. 
Ur. H, Webatar'a deacription leemi to fit T. acntulum, 
and while apecimana received from Qledatooe Hall 
belong to thia apeeiaa, thoae from Stourbridge (ante, 
p. 349) am T. haliotidea. It ia only daring the ImI 
taw yeaia that oar natnraliata have raoogniaed aa 
diatinet, tha two apeoiea with imalUr and tatter 
ahalla, whiob diDbr very markedly iotamtlly, and dir 
ba dlitiDguIihad in moat oaaai ^{faeiit d^Qwil^ 



THE OARDENER8' CHBONICLE. 



[Jahuabv 16, 1888. 



Ths (oUowlog labU, tekan in emjniiotioii with (he 
llg«TMl,S, 3, will ba found mafulbythow who hkva 
» irith to Identi(j onr ipedw : — 



1 

1 


1 ml 


1 

.1 


if if 


illsl 1 |J3|- 2 Ills 1 




i i n ,i 1 



K.D.— llUno «p«lTBe[ui o( w Iwry-whlta oolour occur on 

tfafl OoadDBDt, tfaoiigb up to tha preaant they hava not 

been found In thli oounCry. For othar dUTgrancea In the 

anlmAla, BiCended and oantnAted. »e the Journal ^ 

Ualnealogr, toL It. (1S>&), p. TS, platai U. and 111. 

With Tagtrd to the diilribution of tha ilngi, it mty 

bo Mid thftt DD* specia or another has beeik noordod 

aa ocaarring in ■ majority of tha Engliah oountiea. 

Of tliaae, T. maugei is ooniBDad to tha more aoutheni, 

or, r*th«r, south-western conntie*, apreading alao 

iiilo Sonth Wales, while ths other (wo are fair)/ 

wallipcead orer England, though, as far aa the writur 

is aware, tfaer* are no reoorda far Wale*. All the 

■pedea have beau found in Ireland, but only in one 

or two localities in each oaae, while a like number of 

habilata are known for T. baliotldea aodT. aoutulum in 

Sootlaod. In eoncluaioD, the writer might mj that he 

would alwaja be pleased to receLve and to name apeoi- 

inena, or to hear of any fttots or obierrations beuing 

upon the bablta or distributiou of the Teataoalln. 

ffOfrtd Mark WdA," EOerU,' BrtMiBood, Dte. V, 

18D7. 

[We are indebted to ths kiodneasof a oorreapondent 
at Corfe Caatle for the photographa of the tooth-bear- 
ing ribbon of a canuTccons and a herbivorous slug, 
from which our iUuatrationi (fi^*. 14, 16) were pre- 
pared, T««taoe!lm Haugd from Corfe Caatle and 
Aiiloporna helioinutn from Ceylon — the latter Lerbl- 



The WEEK'S Work. 

THS HABDY r&ITIT aABDBN*. . 

Br V. H. Divias, Oardanar, Balrotr Caitla, Oraotham. 

PnUctiim frun ftnb.— BullBnolifle sad Tarlous 
other birda during frosty weather attack the fmlt- 
buds of Qooaeberry, Damson, and Plum treei. They 
will be greatly hindered from this if Unea of white 
oottOD be passed from some of the prominent 
branches, giving one twiat round eaoh to hold the 
cotton in its place ; the lines may be 3 feet apart, and 
should orosa eaoh other occasionally. [The various 
Titmioe are great huoten for iniectM harbo'jring in 
the buds of fruit trees. I^D.| A pasaaga between 
the Riwa of buaheemust be left clear in onedireetioo, 
so (hat hosing and other work required early io the 
feason ma; be conveniently carried cut 

J!<i|pien^si.-;;-The abooCa should nour be thinned 
out and the tamainder faateued socurely. Do not 
■horttD the nnee until all danger of severe frost is 



past; the modeof tauniogmay varyMoordlog to tb* 
itmngtli of the plant. If the young eanea attain a 
lengu o[ 6 feet and upwards the beat ayataot ia aa 
foUows ;. Rant the atools 7 feet apart, and at a 
distance of 2 feet on eaoh side of the row place larch- 
poets 4 feet abota the ground and IS feet aparL On 
the top of the poats stnUn a stout wire tightly, and it 
welldonatUawilllastforserenlyean. Tbepoiotaof 
til* oaoee will need to be tied to this wire annually 
with |strong matting, half of thi canee bom a row 
going up either aide, and at fl Inches apart A apace 
will thna be left ia the oentre for the young oanea to 
grow up and become thoroughly matursd. The 
fruit ma7 be eaaily gathered if a 3 fact wide path- 
way be left betweoa tbe rows, On poor, light 
BoUi wbere tha eanee grow Ism atrong, one row o( 
poets 4 feet high will suffice lor each raw of plants. 
Place these near to the row. and fasten two lioea 
of wire looaely throughout the length by means of 
staples, one at 2 feet and one at 3^ feet finm the 
ground, eaoh fitted with a raiduMtur at one end for 
tightening. Canea of various lengths may be aeound 
in this way, When all that are imocsmtt have bean 
tied in, out away the remaining growtha and dig Out 
all suokers. These suckais will furnish good planting 
canes for another seaeon if planted in nursery lines 
until required. The old syatflms of aeparsle stoola 
with a cluster of oanes around a central stake, and of 
plaiting ths oanes together and forming arobee, are 
piaotically auparsedsd, but many growers for market 
shorten the canes to 3 feet, anil afford them no 
support whatever. When the work hai been com- 
pleted, give tbe ground a good drewing ofbnn-yard 
manure sad leave it exposed to the weather for a 
time beforo it is lightly foiled. 

Planting may atiU be done during mild weather. 
Cbooee a moist, deep soil where poesibln, and have it 
thoroughly trenched and manured before planting is 
done, aa deep dinging should not be prantiied aftet^ 
wanli. Where the soil ia light and ths lituation drj, 
it is well to place ths Raspberries behind a north 
wall. Select young caoes with many Sbrou* roots, 
and plaoe them 1 foot apart in tbe rows. r>0 not 
shorten them at present, but before the end of March 
they may be out down to * inches from the ground. 
Newly-planted stools should be given a mulching 
with iuif-deuyed iearsa, or strav-licter. Superlative 
is by far ths best variety for ordinary purposes. 

Propagating BiiAFruiU. — Cuttings of Currants and 
OaoaBberrieamaybepreparedwheo tbe weather is wet ; 
cutting them IS inches long, aud taking off the buds 
from tbe lower 9 inches, with the eicepljon of Blaok 
Currants which sbould have all the buds left. 
Place (he cutting in pans of wet and as soon as 
made, and transfer them to the nurssir without 
unneoesaary delay, putting them in rows I toot apart, 
and tha outtiugt i ioohea asunder. The ground will 
require to be made aa firm aa possible. 



FLAITPB UNDSB QLASa 

Br W. llBsgrj«)»i, OatdMur, WoolTgratona Park, Ipiwlch. 

Cinerarioj. — Afiord tbeae |llai]ta water oarefully, as 
atint, equally with eioeai, is injurious, resulting in 
ysllow foliage and a generally unhealthy appear- 
anoe, usually asaooiatod with an early atteok of aphia. 
Much benefit will accrue from using manure-water, 
made from scot alone, or ibeep-droplrings, put into a 
tub with water, and allowed to stand for a few dv* 
before uae. This should be applied at iatarratt. 
Keep the pUnts on a oool base, and aa tar as pOMible 
removed from the hot-water pipes. 

Stooe Plantt.^Ail the inmates of the store should 
he thoroughly olmued preparattay to being repotted. 
For Crotoni a mixture consisting of good freah 
loam, sand, and leaf-mould is suitable, the latter 
being half decayed only, aud rubbed through a 
fine sieve. It may here be stated that the aral 
in which the plants are plaoed should he warmed 
to the sime temperature as that of the stove, and. 
It possible, the potting should be done in the 
same houae to prevent any check being given from 
exposure to the cold air. Do not disturb the 
root* more than is noceesary in removing the spent 
' ' ■ 1 large a shift at 



: ths orooks, or adord t 



foliage ; pot firmly, and pUce the repotted planla in 
a strong, moist beat, lynaning them freely, but 
affording but little water pivvioug to freeh growth 
comiiieucing. Any plants which have lost their 
bottom leaves may bsvn ths main stem notched and 
mossed above ths bsre spota, adding a amalt quantity 
of Band to the moss. Any small aide-shoots ;nd tops 
may be struck in small pots filli'd with sandjeoil, 
plunging these in a moist bottom-beat under bell- 
glassee or hand-lights. Old plants which hav# been 



out down may be i iaa r rad to far^ah oottiiigi Uter 
on. The following rarietiss of Crotona are aaitahle 
for house or t^le deooratioo : — Aigburthcmns, 
Disraeli, Qoldon Bing, Hit, Dortoan, 
J, iuperbns, and WsrrenL 



and older planb which hare been used for decoratire- 
work in the houae and become shabby may hare their 
tope taken off and inaerted in bottlee filled with T«in- 
water, at the stem* may be noased aa dtrestad for 
Crotona. Stout itams of aged plant* should ba oat 
into lengths, laid in eoooaant-fibre or leaf-mould juat 
bttneath the surface, and placed in brisk beat, wtit^a 
nearly everyone will start into growth. The aoduls- 
like portion of the roots of old plants always mak* the 
beet planta. The soil for Oracnnaa should be of a 
li^tar ohaiaeter than that advised tor Crotona, vaA it 
must not be nunnud rery hard. 



may be eererelyoDtbHk,eapeolal1y those planla that 
are trained on the roof of the stors, the eoil beiug 
kept dry after pruning for a few weeka. 

SlephanoHi Jtoribwvia. — After keeping this pUot 
moderately oOOl and the growtha fully eipoeed to the 
light, thin out idl weekend unriprned growths, it boiog a 
nuatake to crowd the shoots, as when growth reoom- 
mencBB they then rery soon make a dense eotkoglad 
mass, from which then it is very difficult to dialod^ 
mealy-bug. Train therefore thinly, and thoroughly 
syringe the shoots with petroleum-emuliion oooe a 
week. Plants which do not require more root spice 
should have the surface-soil remored. replacing it 
with fresh Icam, sand, and manure, and the drainage 
put in good order. 

Salfiai and Bupalaritniu. — Theae, if intended for 
qiriog-flowering, require liberal treatment in a light 
position in a oool greenhouse. A few of (he old 
plants of the summer and autumn-fiowering mriatiea 
of Salvia! should be put into warmer quattara io 
order to furnish shoots suitable for making onttioK*. 



THS OBGOU} HonasB. 

By W. H. WniTS, Orohld Orawer, Boiford. DorUns. 

CattUfOt and Ltsiiai.— Plants of Cattleya Law- 
renceina which have completed their new pseudo- 
bulbi should be kept dryer at tbe root, and if the 
■nrfaoo oF the soil becomes rerr dry, no heavy appli- 
cation of water is needed, but only a ili^t aprinkling 
with a fine-roee watoriog-can. C. PertdvalUana, C 
chocoeosis, C Triantei and its rarietiee, now oom- 
mencingto develop their flower-e]Hkes, may be alBirded 
a little more vrater at the root, withholding it again 
when the blooms have become fully expanded. A 
few of the rare hybrids, as Lwlio-Cattlsya Kudois 
auperbi. L.-C. eximia, L,-C. Caohamiana and ib 
variety aiba, also Uelia Ameaiana, L. crisps, and L 
eospatha are now growing, aud ahould be kept at a 
light and warm end of the bouse, affording them aaf* 
Dcient water to keep the oompost moist, but not wet. 
The beautiful C. Hendeli, now paaung through its 
resting season, must be watered with groat oare ; the 
plants should hare no moro root-moisture than will 
keep ths tiulbs and leaves from aioesaire ihrirelling. 
This plant la l*«a suoooafully grown generally than 
other apeoie*, and I tUiik it is dus to the planta not 
obtaining suffloient sunlight during the growing and 
ripening P^iod, anil in getting too much water when 
at reat. The same remark* apply also (o C. ""trm 
Lielia Diglmaa having staitad to grow, should be 
plaoed in a u^t ponbon in (he Cattleya or Uexioan- 
house, and water afforded each time the Dompoot 
becomes dry. Cattleya gigaa, C. Hex, C Dowiaaa, 
and its ranaty auna ahould be kept at net aa long 
a* pouible. 

Inlemudiate -liouMe. — The weU.knowti Hiltonia 
reiillaria is in full growth, and may be given con- 
siderable root-moisture until the flowering period 
arriree. The plant grows rapidly, and owing probably 
to tha acint sunlight, tha young leavea&equently 
aJbere tu each other so firmly that it causes them to 
become crumpled, great cire being neoesaary to 
liberate tkem. Frequently examine plants of M. 
Bleuona and its variety nobillor, in case they should 
become attackrd by small yellow tbrips. H. Endresil, 
once known ss Udontogloasum Watsoewieiii, ia tha 
finest ot the genus. It ti now in bloom at Burford, 
and after the floweri fade we shall keep tbe plant* 
•omawhat drier, aud place them in the cooler pirt ot 
the house. H . Schroderiana, now growing freely in m 
warm part of the intermediate-house, will bo 
abundantly watered at the root, provided the ipeci- 
m'eoB are well rooted. By the aide of (hia MiltcHii« 
the lorely little EpideodrvmKndreeiilkrireaeapltaUr 



January 15, 1898*] 



THE GABDENER8' CHBONICLE. 



39 



duriog the winter months, but in summer it prefers 
a more damp and shady position. At the pre- 
sent time the dower-bads are formin^r at the apex 
of the newly-made growths, and the {dant should 
be well supplied with water until the flowers fade. 
The small lesTos of this species must be guarded 
against red-spider. My practice is to take the plants 
down two or three times a week and hold them head 
downwards in tepid rain-water, then with finger and 
thumb gently wipe the under«sides of the foliage. 
When £e plants have flowered, growth soon oom- 
xnences, and, if necessBry, the plants may be repotted, 
but the roots must be disturbed as little as possible. 
The rooting material should consist chiefly of sphag- 
num-moss with a few pieces of fibrous peat, and below 
this good drainage. Cypripedium Spioeriannm and 
C. Cmfflesworthi thrive well in a oool, shady corner 
of the intermediate house. HsTing flowered, the 
plants may be repotted, if this be necessary. Neither 
■pedes require much rooting space, but it is advis- 
able to raise them well above the rim of the pot. 
The pots used should be three-fonrths filled with 
drainage materials. Above tlus the compost may 
consist of rough peat and dean-picked sphagnum- 
moss in equal parts, a few crocks or broken pieces of 
limestone about 1 inch square being mixed wiUi it. 
When well rooted into the new soil, both species may 
be given abundanoe of water both at the root and 
overhead. 

TBCB FIiOWBB QAItDBN. 

By H. WALTKRa, Gardener, Bast well Park. Ashford. 

Creeping and Climbhtg PlafUs.—ThB fastening of 
these plants on walls and trellises should be attended 
to in mild weather, carrviog out first the necessary 
pruning, bearing in mind when performing the last 
to distinguish between plants which bloom on last 
year's shoots and spurs, and those that flower on the 
new growths ; climbing plants that bloom on the 
previous year's wood being better left unpruned till 
the flowering season is past, and merdy, at this 
season, removing redundant and weak or flowerless 
shoots, and topping those that have attained the 
limit of allotted space. Whereas, the latter may be 
pruned mudi after the manner of stone fruit, leaving 
long and short flowering-spurs when it is the habit of 
the plant to produce these. Avdd crowding the 
shoots, make Uie main branches thoroughly secure, 
and do not ^ten every shoot close to the wall, rather 
allow some of the shoots to hang somewhat unre- 
strained. A heavy mulching of rotten-manure should 
be placed over the roots of climbing plants, covering 
it with firesh mould. In selecting climbers for a new 
border it is well to give a thought to those whose 
flowers are useful in a cut state. For general 
purposes the following are very useful : — Ampelopsis 
Veitchi, this variety needs no nailing, as it clings to 
tiie smoothest substance with great tenacity; A. 
purpurea, a dark foliage variety ; A. hederacea, the 
common Virginian Groeper; and A. Hoggi, the 
largest leaved variety; Qarryaelliptioa,Kerria japonica, 
the different varieties of Lonicera, Passlflora ocsrulea 
the common Passion Flower, and its white progeny, 
Constance Elliot ; Pyrus japonica, and for late 
autumn, the yellow-flowered Jasminumgrandiflorum ; 
and for winter bloom, J. nudiflorum. Wistaria 
ainensii, and its white variety. Of Rosea, Dundee 
Rambler, the white and yellow Ranksian Rosss, Paul's 
Carmine Pillar, Blairii No. 2, Fdidt^Perp^tue, and 
Bennett's Seedling, and the many spedea and varieties 
of Clematis, not forgetting the earlv and abundant 
fiowsrer C. montaua. In planting cumbers sgainst a 
wall it ii advisable to keep the roots of the plants as 
fiir away from the set-off of the wall as posdble, 
otherwise the plants will suffer severely from lack of 
moisture in the summer unless Isrge quantities of 
water are afforded the borders. The soil should be 
deeply dug and liberally manured, and dtowed a 
• few weeks to settle down before the plants are 
fastened to the walL Large tree-roots can be made 
efifootive by covering them with Clematis, Honey- 
suckles^ and Rosea ; as saay also the stumps of trees, 
without removing them from their places. 

Oamationt. — The layers planted in October have 
made some amount of growth, so mild has been the 
weather. A careful watch should be kept for grubs 
of various kinds, especially those of the weevils, and 
for vrireworms, which are very active just now. For 
the last-named, sliced Carrots and stumps of Cabbage 
stuck in the soil form attractive baits. Afford water 
carefully to Carnations in pots, and remove dead and 
decayed foliage, affording air in abundance when it is 
not raining or it is very frosty ; and let the ground 
be got in readiness for planting them in the month of 
Msroh, liberally manuring it with rotten-dung and 



leaf-soil, and if the soil is retentive, use plenty of 
sharp sand or road-grit, and throw the soil up 
rougnly for the elements to pulverise. 



FRUITS TJTSfDER GLASB, 

By O. Norman, Qardenor, Hatfield Hooae^ Herts. 
Tomaios, — Plants established in 4-inoh or 5-inch 
pots may now be planted at a distance of 15 inches 
apart in lines in shdlow borders in a house pre- 
viously prepared and deaned. Only a small quantity 
of soil need be given at flrst, as additions can be 
made afterwards as the plants require it Use a 
porous soil, such as one oonsirting of three parts loam 
to one of old lime rubbish, or burned earth. After 
planting afford the soil water, repeatii^ the applica- 
tion as often as it becomes dry. The temperature 
should be about 60° at night, and 65° in the day, 
with a rise of 10° by sun-heat. Keep a little ventila- 
tion open at the top of the house whenever tbe weather 
is favourable. The plants wUl produce ripe fhiit in 
May, and continue to bear throughout the summer, if 
they have sufficient space in whidi to grow. The one- 
stem system is the best mode of tnuiing Tomatos, 
therefore all dde-shoots must be pinched off ; and for 
this purpose look over them twice a week. Another 
sowing may now be made. 

^a Jiainng of Vines from Eyes, — The general 
method of propagating the Qrape-vine is by means 
of " eyes,** that is lengths of matured one-year-old 
shoots furnished with one bud or *' eye," and the 
present is a very suitable period to strike them. 
When propagating Vines, connderation should be 
given to the purposes they will be put to, whether 
for planting in the vinery border, or fruiting in 
pott when <me or two years old. The best varieties 
for general use when fruited early in pots are the 
Black Hamburgh and Foster's Seedling. The best 
eyes are those from the lower part of last year's 
latMal dioots. In preparing the eyes, cut the vrood 
sliffhtly slanting J inch above the eye and 1 inch 
below it. Some growers plaoe the ejm in small 
squares of turf, and some in laige 60-d8ed flower- 
pots, and I think the latter is the more convenient 
method. The pots should have one crock over the 
hole, and be filled to within \ inch of the rim with 
loam mixed with about I of its bulk of silver-sand, 
one eye being placed in the middle of each pot with 
the point of the bud slightly beneath the surfece of 
the sdL Press the soil firmly into the pots, and 
doady round the cutting. Plunge the pots in a li^ht 
part of a propagating-pit, or in a dung-bed firame with 
a bottom neat of about 80"* ; and keep the surface of 
the soil dightly moist until growth commences ; then 
treat them as rooted plan£, affording water when 
required— that is. when the soil is approaching dry- 
ness. When well rooted, and before they get root- 
bound, shift them in 48's, and continue warm vinery 
treatment. 

Vine Borders, — If young Vines are going to be 
planted later in the year, the needful preparations 
may now be carried out-, which- may consist of re- 
moving the soil and drainage, and replacing the latter, 
and filling in with the new compost. The depth of a 
border may ranse from] 3A- feet to 4 feet, allowing 
1 to lifr foot in depth for orainage, and about 2} feet 
for soil. A layer of 4 to 6 inches of concrete should 
Im spread over the bottom, upon which the drainage 
rabble may be Idd ; and for a '\^e-border indde 
the house the slope of the floor should be towards 
the back of the vinery, and for an outdde one, 
towards the firont wdl of the border, in both cases, 
ontlet drains being provided. The fidl of the con- 
crete floor inude is applicable to a lean-to vinery, but 
for a qiao-roofed house it should fidl from the dde 
to the centre^ and again from the centre to the ends, 
the place for the outlets. The oonorete should be 
allowed to set before putting in the drainage mate- 
rials. Broken bricks form a good kind of drainage if 
placed on their sides and ends by hand, oommendng 
with the larger pieces at the bottom — half 
bricks — and finishing with the smdier. A suit- 
able soil for Uie Qrape-vine consists of eight P>fte 
middling heavy loam, cut from 4 to 6 inimes thick 
from an old pssture-fidd, charred soil one part, and 
Ihne-rubble one part, with a 5-inch potful of bone- 
meal to each wheelbarrow load of sou. Prepare the 
lime-rubble by sifting it in a half-inch sieve, to 
deprive it of the dust, the coarse siftings being the 
only part used. These aid the percolation of water 
through the soil, furnish a food when dissolved by 
rain needful for the Vine, and tend to keep the 
soil porous and sweet for a great many years. Before 
filling in the' soil, place fredi sods over the drainage, 
grass dde downwards. The soil should be put in, in 
layers, well treading or ramming lisditiA filled in ; 



consequently, it must not be in a wet condition* I 
advocate the pieoemed method of xnaking a border, a 
piece the lexigth of the border and 4 feet in width 
Mng suffident for one year, additions being made 
each year when found necessary, but completing the 
inside border the first. Be particulsr in allowing 
nothing of a woody nature going into 'he borders, 
such as the roots of trees, which are apt to come in 
with the loam, as these cause the growth of fungus 
in the soiL 

THB KITCHBN GABDEN. 

By J. W. McHattus, Oardenor, Btnithneldsaye, Hants. 
Rotation of Oops.— This ii an important siibject, and 
should be practised in every garden. Cabbages, and 
all crops of that kind, should not follow eadi other 
upon the same land. Nor should Peas and Beans 
occupy the same ground year after year. A complete 
change of crop is a comparative rest to the ground. 
If a crop has nom any cause to be followed by a like 
one, then trench deeply, and expose the soil as 
much as possible to the weather by pointing it 
several times before sowing or planting the next crop. 

Early Peas, — Let the varieties for forcing be of 
dwarf habit and early podders, sowing the seeds in 
pots filled with good rich soil not too findy broken 
up, so that the soil will cling to the roots when trans- 
planting is performed. If boxes be employed, place 
strips of freshly-cut turf grassy-side downwards in 
the boxes, and on these sow the Peas in shdlow notches 
cut in the turves, covering them with some finely- 
sifted soiL If the boxes are made 2 feet long, 
18 inches wide, and 4^ inches deep, and fitted wiSi 
movable bottoms, they are very convenient for trans- 
porting to other houses, or to Uie open ground. Place 
the pots or boxes in a cool Peach-huuse, pit, or frame, 
afford no arcifldd heat unless there is every fidlity 
for the early production of pods at command. Most 
persons wish to have early dishes of Peas, but this 
cannot be resfised unless care be bestowed on the pre- 
paration of tiie soiL Let trenches ss for Celery be 
thrown out» digging plenty rotten manure into the 
bottoms, and return most of the soil to the trenches. 
According to the locality, the boginning of March, if 
it be mild, or later in that month, is a good time to 
plant out the Peas in the trenches in bunches of four 
or five plants, set out 6 inches apart in a strsight row 
made down the middle of eadi trench, the stems 
being covered to a depth of 2 inches with fine soU, 
dther consisting of the staple, or potting-bench 
refuse. A small ridge of soil may be drawn up to 
the rows on either sids^ but not quite touching the 
plants at this time. This done, stick small shoots of 
Laurel, Yew, or Fir dong the rows as a protection 
against frost and wind. Qood varieties for early 
work are American Wonder, 10 inches high ; and 
Chdsea Qem, 16 inches high; both good fiavoured, 
and excellent early^Peas. 

Large Onions. — ^A. sowing may now be made in 
warmtii of 50* to 55° of Aiua Craig, or other variety 
tk large growth, sowing the seed in pans or boxes 
fiUed wi^ rich light sdl, first presdng it firmly down, 
and covering the seeds lightly, using the hand to make 
the surface quite firm. Afford the soil tepid-water 
with a fine rose-can, and place sheets of paper over 
iht boxes, ko,, so as to dieek evaporation, as the less 
water applied before the seeds come up the better. 
On the appearance of any of the seedlings, plac« the 
pan or box near the glass, and afford dr in small 
amount in mUd weather, the chief danger to ffuard 
agdnst being* drawing. When large enou^ to 
handle, prick the plants out into boxes filled with 
two>thirda rich turfy loam, and half-rotten leaf-mould 
one-third, and grow them on in a warm pit or green- 
house without check till April, then h^den-o^ and 
plant out in a sunny j^ition, in soil prepared early 
m the winter by trenohmg and heavy manuring. The 

Slants may stand at 9 inches apart in the rows, the 
ttter bdng 18 inches apart. 

Tomatos, — ^At this date seed may be sown in well- 
drained pots, filled with light soil barely covering the 
seeds wiui findy-sifted mould, and placing the pots 
in a temperature of 60** to 70*", a bit of glass bdng 
put over each. Varieties suitable for early cropping 
are Early Ruby, Frogmore Selected, Conqueror, and 
Hackwood Park. 

Chneral Eemarks, — The stores of Potatoe, Onions, 
Carrots, Beet, and other roots and bulbs, should be 
examined in bad weather, removing all that are 
beginning to decay^ Attend dosdy to the various 
hot-beds, affording dr in small amount when the 
ni{^ts are mild, so as to strengthen the plontti 
therein, and allow the redundant moisture to escape ; 
and in order that this can be done, the linings must be 
kept up, and changed when they have become oool. 



TBE GABVENEBS- CBBONICLE. 



[JAITOAKT IS, IBM 



EDITORIAL N0T10E8. 




APP0IHTMENT8 FOR THE ENSUING WEEK. 



THUB8D&T, JtE. M- 



•pits of th» OMUj d«iig«n to whiob ba wi> ezpowd 
bj the mrlika coDdition of thii UDfortoiuto Re- 
pnbUo. He *wt«d the Atuhiue pUteko, tiu Tolnao 
PopoMtapeU, tfae prak of OiintM, uid k11 the 
•utani ilopei of the Keiloui Cordillerva. Alter 
two jean of looMMot trtvsl tad meet fruitful 
neesreh In Ihlt lioh oornet ot the Teget»bU king 
dom, he ambarked at Yen Crux lor Campeachj, 
«h«aee ba attended hie oheemtiona to Yocitaii. 
It wiB <Ki one of theea expedition! to the lagnna 
of TamuDoa that ha cootraoted a levere attack 
at yellow few, troia whi«h he reooTered aa b; 
a miiaole, but it wa« ft^wed bj a piinfnl oon- 
Taleaceooe, lactiiig three loog mootha. Hs iraa 
aoucely restored to health when ha journajed b; ua 
into the Tabaaoo State, than explored the high r^ooa 
ot Chiapu, peoeliated into North QuatemaJa, then in 
TSTOlution, and Tatumad aloDg the Gulf ot Hexioo. At 
the end of 1840 fcvw detained him at Goadaloapa de 



It may be noted tliot white at Bogota b« Ml ii 
with Habtweo, then collecting tar the Hinti- 
oaltnnl Society of Loadoa ; and when on u 
exouTnon with him to Paoho in 1841, % 
lighted apon OdontogloMum eriapnni. thamciit 
popular of Orchids, but one which wu dA 
generally introduced into culttvatiou till IS&i. 
Little was known then of the extreme nrii- 
bility of this ipeciea, and hence it naani th 
names of Alexandra and Blunti, namea vhid 
are now tacitly discarded in favour of tlit 
original appellation. 

"From Caracaa, H. Lihdbh tniraUed weMnri 
in the daligbtFa] vallay of Aragna, paaaing bj Sa 
Hatco, where Bolirar, the emancipator, wm bon 
From Valeotia ha proceeded northwaid, and biiif 
again climbed the moDntains, he daacaaded to Facnr 
Cabello, whence ha left fbi Barqoiaimeto, puiii^ tj 



BcTil BeDSToIaBt ImUtatlaD. 
3r.it. 

SALES. 

woKn*v lu. IT i Bordw PUdI«, Il«a>, Bulba, Ac, 



WIDHB8DAT, Im. IB. 



OreonbouM Flanta, SplfiBM, 
OUdlDll, kc, it Protbnvg A 

(Mo nil' Roomi. 
RoHi, rnilt IVssh Shniba. Fluta, 
Ad., KtMr. Btamu' RoomB. 

a. Hudr Cl'lmUng 1 
MS> •»ri«tj. 4o.. >t 

tUiflRM A Korrii' Roodu. 
Bordar PUnCi. LtUumi, Bulba, 
ac, mt Mr. SUian.- Rwmi. 
.,/ Import*) and BiUbllghwlOnihldi 
-' > ai Pmtbanw 4 Morrla- Boonu. 



^KAoi ICHraRATDBi Ibr the coxnliis veek, dadnnd fms 
ObMrrMkHU of FM^r-thraa jmn, at OUiwMi.— Srr . 

HAL TncpaaiTnan :— 

Unnww.-VaiHiarii I2{8r.ii,): Max., M": HhL, W. 

r 1! (fl P.K.): Max, if, BcfUjr: 



The year has hardly opened 
Jdbk Lurks, before we are called on to record 

the loae of ao intrepid traveller, 
a keen botaniet, an entiinaiaatio ooUeotor, one 
who has probably been the means of intro- 
dooing a larger number of intereeting plants 
to ooltiTation than any of his ooUeaguei, and 
a man of well-nigh unrivalled information on 
matters horticultural. Jkait Lifsem died 
peacefully on the 12th inst., in his eighty-first 
year. 'Uxa death had, we believe, been antici- 
pated for some little time, but for thoee of us 
who remember his military bearing and active 
habits, his removal oomes as a shock. Jean 
Linden was born at Luxembourg in 1S17, but 
removed to . Belgium, and was one of the very 
first students at the Faculty of Sciences in the 
newly founded Univernty of Braasels. His 
subsequent career was sketched in outline by 
himself at a complimentary banquet ofi'ered to 
him and his son LnoiEN by the Society known 
as the Orohid^enne. From that account we take 
most of the following details. In 183G he was 
entrusted by the Belgian Qovemmeut with a 
scientific mission to South America, ia com- 
pany with FuNCK and OHiBSBRsauT, two men 
who also achieved note in the field of horticul- 
tnie and botany. The party landed in Bniil 
in December, 1635, afler a voyage of three 
monthe— a journey now accomplished in little 
over a fbrtnight. 

"He (Lindac) explored the provinoeaorfflo, Spiritn 
flanto. Hint*, Oeraai, and Ban Paola The eoIlseUom 
brau^t by him from Brazil In 1S3T were pabliely 
qblUtfld In BiQwli, la Daonvber. 1S8T, ha 
travarssd the nortli aod waRt of Caba ; (Im Ibllowhif 
ywr Iw pesHnrted iotv th« lutwior of UssiWi la 



Aoaten, wfaenoe be Tiaited the United State In paaaing 
by Campeaoh J and Hannna. In 1 841 ba retained to 
Bdgium, where ha took some weaka' reit, prapariog 
(or ■ long voyBga whioh he propoaad to make to 
Columbhk Bj a happy ohaaoe he waa put into earn- 
munication with the illuatrioua Alezandac von Hum- 
boldt. ... On Dec. 27, 1841, H. Linden arrived 
at Ouan. Diisotly he landed he explored the aides 
of the Cordilletaa of tbe TenesuaUn coaals, the 
biaa of which are washed hj the wavae of the Carib- 
bean .Saa, and wbo«e areata sre hidden in eloud. 
Ha travtlUd the elevated alopee of the Carro do 
Avilo, oacendsd the 8111* ot CsnoM, and then 
devoted three montha to exploring the province of 
Caracas. During these sicurHiona the travellar waa 
more eapaeUlly occupied wilh mcertaining the poa- 
aibility of growing Orchida in cool temperaturei. 
To an eipediUtti on one of the highait sammita of 
ths Cardilleni, he f^und Orohlds in bloom in a 
Ngioi} wbwe thp temperature fal|a (a ftwsiqj-point 
•Tsry nontio^ Tbe proof ww found, Asd 1|« wuld 
tofAiuMj latett Vvtut," 



a pauaga at theN* 
HI wbieb had t*- 



the forest ot Snn-Felipe, tba morbid emauationa Bt« 
which are greatly dreaded. Be oroaaed the ilepp" * 
Quibor. Atthafoot of tbe Gntatapea oftha Aula 
hewai atopped by the Rio Tocnyo, which the niul^ 
changed into a torrent, Hefcrcedapa 
of ftome mulea, and tbe oolleetioni <■ 
amaaaed aince leaving San-Faljpe. He _.. 
Ktle thoslopea of the CordilUnw, and atoppa^*" 
■' ranoha" aituated at about 9000 feet {27S0 ai^*! 
altitude, when in apite of tha cold morniogi ( '■ 
he found a rich moimtain flora. At these e''*^ 
be mure tbm Once found tbe ground bard with fj*' 
but in apite ot that gathered abundant b"^' 
Ha aroawd tbe radoubtoble Paramo de Uacucbi^ 
«itu«teJ 13,000 feet (4012 mitres) aboYe •»■'"* 
and arrived at Horldu, tba chief tonn of tbe pnvuia 
ot that uwne. He devoted aaveial moatbi *f* 
fruitful exploration of thia provinoe and of Trajij^ 
Ba aroaaod tbe Rio Taahira and panetiatad inlo W 
provinoe of 8«nteBdar in New Orauada, to™*' 
■outhward., and travaraed tha proriD<i"i et 8*' 
Booorro, and Velss, arrlvinf at Bogota ia OeM"* 



jiMAKY 15, 1MS.1 TBE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



42 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE, 



[Jakuart 15y 1898. 



1842. He Tinted the high plateaa Aod the lairoond- 
iDg mountaim. In December he detoended from the 
cold regions towirde the beein of Rio Magdalena, 
which, opposite Melgar, 350 leagues from the mouth, 
is slresdy 325 feet (100 mdtres) brosd ; he crossed 
this river by swimming, traversed the great 
plains of Espinal, and stopped at Ibogud, chief town 
of the province of Mariquita, situated at the foot of 
the mountains of Quindiu and the majestic peak of 
Tolima, the snowy summit of which towers above all 
the Eastern CordUlera of New Qrenada. Ue ascended 
Tolima, reaching the snow limit, where he camped 
on January 5, 1843, at an altitude of 15,000 feet 
(4930 mdtres). During many weeks he explored 
these high latitudes, then penetrated into the vast 
foreets of Quindiu, and from there into the low 
regions of the Cauoa Valley, which extends to the 
coasts of the South See. On August 17 he returned 
to Caracas ; he left on November 16 from Quayra for 
Puerto Cabello, whence he went to Rio Hacha, beside 
New Grenada, to explore the mysterious Sierra 
Nevada of Santa Marta, which he traversed tho- 
roughly. After innumerable dangers he reached 
the summit of Neveda, 14,766 feet (4800 metres) in 
altitude, seeing from this culminating point the 
Carribean Sea, the lake of Maracaybo, all the penin- 
sula of Goajira, the high mountains of the province 
of Ocaiia, the river Magdalena, and the low forests 
of Darien. He then made a not less perilous excur- 
sion into the interior of Goajira, inhabited by fero- 
cious and cannibal Indians. He embarked at Rio 
Hacha for Jamaica, and thence went to Cuba, of which 
the eastern part, covered with high mountains, bad 
not yet been scientifically explored ; for six months 
he explored these coasts, which he left after the 
terrible storm which devastated this isle in October, 
1844 ; he returned to the United States, and to 
Europe finally, after ten years of travel, in October, 
1845." 

Linden was for several years director of the 
2iOologioaI Gardens at Brussels, and consul for 
Luxembourg. 

After the death of Ambroise|Yeb8Chafellt, 
Linden established himself as a nurseryman at 
Ghent, but eventually returned to Brussels, 
where in conjunction with his son Lucien, he 
established the model establishment known as 
the Uorticulture Internationale, His great 
knowledge of plants and of the localities in 
which they grow naturally, was of great service 
to nimierous collectors sent out by him, or 
under his auspices. Linden's contributions to 
Horticultural literature have also been very great 
and su bstantial. The lUustratian Horticole, the 
Lindenia, and other illustrated works carried 
on for a series of years form very valuable con- 
tributions to our knowledge of plants. Linden 
received very numerous marks of honour from his 
own and from various continental governments. 



Ren ANTHER A IM8CHOOTIANA. — Renanthera 
cocdnea, the oldest known apedes of the genus, is 
always admired when it fiowers, but two things are 
generally urged against it, vis., its rambling habit of 
growth, and the difficulty of flowering it. The Assamese 
species, R. Imschootiana (fig. 17), however, is a plant 
of dwurf and neat habit, and so far as can be judged 
by the limited experience of it in gardens, a [most 
floriferous one. It first fiowered with Mr. A. Van 
Imschoot, of Mont St. Amand, Ghent, in 1891, and it 
was named in honour of that ardent lover of rare and 
curious Orchids. On June 11, 1895, the specimen wo 
here illustrate was exhibited by E. H. Woodall, Esq., 
of St. Nicholss House, Scarborough (gr., Mr. Huqhbs), 
at the Royal Horticultural Society, when the Orchid 
Committee voted it an Award of Merit. It is one 
of the prettiest introductions which Messrs. F. Sandbr 
k Co. have made, and au additional circumstance in 
its favour is that it thrives well in a tolerably cool 
intermediate house. The prevailing colour of the 
flowers is a brilliant scarlet-crimson, with a slight 
trace of orange, the broad lower sepals being of that 
colour. The narrow upper sepal and the petals are 



white, changing to yellow, the lower halves bearing 
some small, and the outer halves larger crimson 
spots. 

Royal Horticultural Society. — The 

Council having been consulted as to a proper mode 
of the use of the Victoria Medal by members of the 
trade, have decided that the only permissible method 
is by the [use of the] letters y.M.H. foUowing the 
name of the holder of a MedaL No other mention of 
the Medal can be properly made in any application 
pertaining to horticultural trade, or relating thereto. 
By order of Council, W. Wilks, Sea 

Linnean Society of London.— On the occa- 

sion of the meeting of this Society on Thursday, 
December 16, Fbank Cbup, LL.B., Treasurer and 
Vice-President in the chair, Mr. W. Cabbutbsbs, 
F.RJ3., exhibited and made remaiksupon a fungus 
(Roasellinia ligniaria) which had been found to 
attack living Ash-trees, eventually causing the death 
of the tree. Additional observations were made by 
Mr. GxoBGB MuBRAT and Professor Fabmbb. Messrs. 
H. and J. Groves, F.L.S., communicated a paper on 
some CharaoesD collected by Mr.;T. B. Blow, F.L.S., 
in the West Indies, one of which appeared to be new 
to science. Specimens of the plants described were 
exhibited. 

The next meeting of the Society will be held on 

Thursday, January 20, at 8 p.m., when the following 
papers will be read :— Dr. W. G. Rioewooo, B.Sc., 
F.L.a, "On the Larval Hyobranchisl Skeleton of 
Anurous Batrachians, with special reference to the 
Axial Parts ; ** and Mr. R. H. Bubne, '* On the ' Abdo- 
minal-pore ' in the Myxinidss.** (Communicated by 
Professor Ho wis, F.R.S,. Sec. Lin. Soc) Exhibi- 
tions:— Mr. J. £. Habtrtg, F.L.S.- a series of 
photographs of the Grey Seal (HalichoBrus grypus) 
at various ages, taken from life on the Isle of Jurs 
by Ifr. Hbnrt Eviirs. 

Ghent Quinquennial.— The ordinary saloons 

of the Ghent Casino, laxge and numerous though 
they are, do not suffice to contain the myriads of 
plants which are sent for exhibition. An annexe has 
therefore to be erected, and the plans for the struc- 
ture are, according to the Revu€ de VhorticnUurt Bdge, 
just decided on. It will be of wood, and will com* 
prise an area of 3105 square metres (a square m^tre 
= 1*19 yard). The glkss roof will be shaded by a 
light velarium, which is well adapted to allow the 
plants to be seen imder the most &vourable conditions 
as to light. 

GARDENERS' ROYAL BENEVOLENT INSTITU- 
TION.— We learn that the Duke of Pobtland baa 
fixed Wednesday, June 8, for celebrating the fifty- 
ninth Anniversary Festival Dinner of the (Hr- 
doners' Royal Benevolent Institution at the Udtel 
Mdtropole. 

LOUQHBOROUQH AND DISTRICT GARDENERS' 

Mutual Improvement Association.— The 

opening meeting of the above Association was held 
on January 4.* The lecturer, Mb. J. Lahsdell, of 
Barkley Hall Gardens, Leicester, giving on this 
occasion a lecture on *^ Soils." A very interesting and 
instructive lecture, over which Mb. A. Hamshrbb 
presided. 

Botanical Magazine : The fbllowing pknts 

are figured in the January number : 

Camoensia iR<msia, Welwitsch. — The noble West 
African climber figured originally in the Tram, Linn 
Society (1866), vol. xxv., and in the Gardenera* 
ChronieU, 1896, p. 596 (figs. 105, 106). It was, it 
seems, discovered as long ago as 1816 by Christian 
Smith, a botanist attached to Capt. Tuckey's Expedi- 
tion to the Congo, and whose specimens are preserved 
in the British Museum ; t. 7572. 

Paphiopedilum Victoria-Maria, Rolfe, in Orchid 
i2e^vi€io,iv.(1896,p.364).— '< The time has comc'^saysSir 
Joseph Hooker, for separating generically the tropical 
from the temperate species of Cypripedium, and 
adopting for the former the name Paphiopedilum, 
proposed by Dr. Ffitser. Besides the wide difference 
of geogr^hical distribution, the true Cypripedia 



being all natives of the cooler temperate regions, tod 
the Pftphiopedila of tropical Asia and Australis, the 
following characters distinguish them. InCypiipe- 
dium proper the leaves are oauline« thin, and pliotte in 
vematioo, the perianth marcesoent, and lepali 
valvate in aestivation. In Paphiopedalum the Isstm 
are rsdical, coriaceous and conduplioate in vemstioo, 
the perianth deciduous, and the sepals imbrieste in 
aestivation, the dorsal enfolding the lateral" We 
must receive this pronouncement with the grssteit 
respect and deference, but we are sorry the old gsooi 
was not retained with such sub-divirions as might be 
neoessary. P. Yictoria-Maria> is a native of Somitn 
whence it was imported by Mevrs. Sander ; 1 757S. 

StrobUanthes Djferianui, Hort. Sander. — Qardcncn 
CknmicU, 1898, p. 442. Burma ; t. 7574. 

Zatkjfrut $pUnden$, Kellogg. — See Oardeuri 
Cknmide, 1893, vol L, p. 258 ; and 1897, vol i., p. 
315 (fig. 106). 

Sievekimffia Mehmbaehi ana, Rolfe, MSS-Goi]go- 
glossum Reichenbachiana, Lehmann, Oard, Ckrm,, 
1897, L, 346. A curious genua of the sub-tribe 
Onddieso with clustered ovoid pseudo^mlbs, esch 
producing a single stalked, oblong lanceolate, multi- 
oostate leaf; flowers racemose pendulous, eachaboat 
H inch across, with three greenish ovate acute 
sepals, two lateral petals as long as the sepals bat 
deeply fringed and covered with golden hairi. The 
three-lobed lip is similarly fringed, its disc marktd 
with purplish spots. It is a native of Ecuador ; t. 7576. 

STOCKTAKINQ: DECEMBER, 1887.— We subjota 
our customary remarks on the trade of the coun^ 
■o fiur as it affects horticulture. Imports — 

these are placed at £41,332,284, against, for the lami 
monthin 1896, £43,618,851— a decrease of £2,286,567. 
Here may fittingly be given our usual extracts fnm 
the '* summary " table of imports : 



Impobtb. 



Total vslue 



1896. 



43,618,851 



(A.) Articles of food 
and drink — duty 
free 14,964,089 

(a) ArtielM of food 
and drink— dutiabla 



1897. 



lUw materials for 
textile manufao- 
tUTM 



3,601,614 



41,332,284 



14,338.976 
2,621,078 



DiflRBreooSi 

£ 

— 2,286, W7 



-625,00 
+119,449 



10.3&2,4»9 I 8,257.787 -2,W*.Tl! 



Baw materiaU for 
•undrj induatriea I 
and manufacturen 3,521,583 

(A.) MiMelhmeout 
articles ' 1,560,380 1,593,153 

(B.) Parcel Pint .. 62,358 59,257 



8,794,260 +272.«:T 

432,711 
+«,8»!> 



Kow, as to fruit, &c., take the following explaottory 
and suggestive figures : — 



Impobts. 




1896. 


Fruits, raw :— 






Apples ... 


...bush. 


1,186,464 


Cherries ... 


** ,, 


• • t 


Plonu ... 


... ,, 


• a» 


Pears 


... ,, 


8,091 


Grapes „. 


... ,, 


7.43 2 


Unenumerated 


... ,, 


63,734 


Onions 


... ,, 


462,285 


Potatos 


... owt. 


32,147 


Vegetables, raw, 
merated ... 


unenu- 
... value 


£64,465 



1897. 



DUrereiio«< 



410,964 



-776,510 



604 


4604 


11,892 


48,201 


1,684 


-5,7SS 


8,827 


425.093 


435,079 


-17.IW 


472.867 


4440.720 



+£»,5ii 



Those interested in the festive season consumption of 
Oranges and Lemons are informed that the import of 
the former during December amounted to 1,816,013 
bushels, against 1,773,134 busheU in the previous 
December, being an increase of 42,879 bushelB ; 
Lemons foot up at 139,129 bushels in the past montbt 
sgainst 211,452<-or a decrease of 72,323 busbelB as 
compared with the same period in 1806. In casusUy 
glancing at our market reports, the prices attached ^ 
Pineapples in all markets will be found to be well mtio* 
tamed, notwithstanding the fiict that the imports of 
recent days have increased by many thousands lo 
number, owing to the fsct that Orange-culture hts 



Jakvaky 16, 1SS8,] 



THE GARDENERS' CHR ONICLK 



bMn gino up in nrioiu littutioiu, FiiiM taking 
Uudr [dioB ; tha homs-grown trtiole gansrUlj bringt 
Um UfhBft priocL Taming now to 

it ii onpleuuit to rsoord ■ fall of £I,0in,5TS, eom- 
pued with Demmber, 1896. The totd axporto wara 
£19,802,181 ; in ISSStho BsurM ilood £30,SlT,7d9. 
The pvtiil reoonttniotiMi of tlia Amaricui tariff, and 
oar trada diaputaat homa.aronisjioQaiblB farnracli of 
this dacnate, apart from tlw dinturbliig poHtioal alv- 

Kew Palace.— In ons of our Jubilae numben 
wa ipiTa an Uloatntioa of tha old Palaca at Kaw, and 
wa ara now asablad to i^dtbAt'HiB Uunri ha* 
damdsd tliat thia building ihall be opened aa a 
puUio moMoin undar the «ame maaagsmant ai Kew 
Oardaw ; and by bar wub the granndi belongliig to 



Fiu. IS. — KBw rkUMn 

(Lataly opened for publtc m 



wbat la known as the *' Quaan'a Cottage " will alto ba 
utiliaed in oonnectlon with the Rojal gardena. The 
palace it eloee to ths northern eutnooa to the 
eardcou, and wat ■ lavaulite retidence of Ororoe Itl., 
and of Cbablotti, Fringe** of Wale*, daughter ol 
QiOBOi IT., who afterward* married Leopold I., 
King of the Balgian*. Princeia Crarlottk, then 
Queen Chabuhtij, died there la 1817 in childbirth. 
It moat be rememliersd that the cetaioa for publio 
uta of the whole of the Rojal garden* It due to the 
generodtj of Hih HAiiari'. The Queen'* oottage la 

. a piotureaqua thatehad building in a aequettered nook 
•t ths Itleworth end of the gardena, turroundtd bj 
plantationa and, in their aeaaoa, the wild Hyal^intha 

.form a fluah ol colour than which nothing oin be 
more beautiful. 

PfPREBENTATJON AT CHELTENHAM.— Tlie cm 
flnyii of Mr. J. CiffBjtB, of Chaltenham. were 
entertained b; him at a dinner on the Tth ioat., in 
one of tilt glatahoiiiei on Ihe pteoiiie*, partlj in 
oeltbiaUoa of Mr. CTPBBR'a teventittb biithdaj. 
Thia auapiciouB ocaaaioa WM t«ksi\ adiant*^ of ob 



tba pKt of the tmpUiiitt to uaka two pmentaUoa* 
-_ona traa the indoor ataff, to Mra. J. Cxpbeb, and 
another from the oaUkIa ttaff to MIm Ctpbeb, both 
of whioh vers inleudad to mark the appreciation b; 
the meQ ol many Undnataa* they had reoiirad. Tba 
plaaaant hovn that foUowtd fuiaitbed erldance al 
Vb» happj relationa that eiiat between the proprietor 
of thia aatabUahnmt and liia workmen, 

Chester Paxton SocjETr.—Tbe opening 
meeting of the above Booletj't annual winter ttaalon 
wat held In the Oroavanor Huaaum, Chaatar, on 
Saturday erenlng laat, Bth intt, under the pratidenoy 
of Ur. BiBnia, of Eaton Gardeat, and the opportunity 
wat embraoed of preaentlng Ur. G, P. Hilx, the Hon. 
Secretary for ttie patt eight ysais, with a gold watch 
and obala aa an eipreitlon of the Society'a thanka 
for the Taloable aerricet be hag ill along rendered to 
the Boclety. 



, eiKDBHit, KKW.' 



PREKHTATION TO MB, J. W..WILKINBOW.— A 
oonaiderable gathering of thoae aaaoeiated with Ur, 
J. W. WiLUHOOH, the Secretary of the Royal 
Aquarium and Summer and Winter Qardening 
Society, in carrying out the Tarioua exhlbitioni held 
in that boilding, lua oolleDguea in admitil*t«ring ita 
atbirt, and of peitonal friends, took place at the Weat- 
mintter Palace Hotel, on (he lltli intt., on thaoociuion 
of a preaealatioa to liim on Iiia approaching maiTiaga 
on tha 20th intt. The teatimonial conuitad of 
a maaaiTely-framed illuminated oddraaa, warmly appre- 
ciative of Mr. Wilehtsonk work u the aeoretary oF 
the Royal Aquarium Co., and of the eataam in which 
he it hold. A pnraa of 100 aoTereigna waa alao 
preaented him. In the unavoidable absence of Hr. 
C. J. Noble, the ohurman of the Teatimonial Com- 
mittee, Ur. R. Dean, the aacrutary of the National 
Cbryaantliemum Society occupied thu chuir, 

"Revue Horticole."— M- H. UAOTuwaY ia 
now aasociated with Ur. Ed. Anouk in tho cditiag of 
the Ream Horliooli, a journal which for uearly tbree- 
quartec* of a oeatnry hue iiald the forenoat plaoe in 
Ftanoe, and baa amply daaerved it. 



late orWiQHT Horticultural Improve- 
ment A8SO0IATI01«.-ThU eneTgetiobodyof gar- 
danera and amataiuv aeem by their balanoa-aheet to 
be deaorredly proaperout ; but it is acaroely juat to 
meatore ita uaeFulnoea by ita monetary atatsmcnt, 
much good to hortloultare in the garden laleaceruinj;, 
the T»lae of whioh it ia impoagiblo to eatjmate. The 
■;^bu* of lectures for the ourraat year l.i a variud 
one, the namo* of ssvsral good cultivator* being found 
atnong the contributorB of paperi. 

" The Horticultural Directory and 
Veab-BoOK for 18S8 " ia now before oa, and we 
waleame it a* an Indi^ensable lxM>k of reference, that 
ia daatlned to beooma well thumb-marked before the 
year ha* run ita ooutM. Beaides being aa complete a 
IHreotory ia tioarible of the principal garden and 
nBTMry ettabUshmenta in Oreat Britain, tha book 
containa mnoh information to which a gardener baa 
frequently cooaaloo to refer. In ita thirty-ninth year 
it baa beeome larger than ever. The book it pnb- 
llehed at the Office of the Journal of HottifMUiut, 
19, Uitre Court Cfaambere, Fleet St, London, E.C. 



-'My Garosn Diary for 1898." publiaiied 
by Hraara. Sutton of Reading, i* ons of the ueateet 
luid pretUsat thing* of the kind we have seen. The 
informaUon ttivea ia moat tervioaable, and couveyed 
in the aimplatt language; whiUt the oommeruial 
element ia wliere it ia wanted, and nut where it ia Id 

Royal Botanic GAROENa, Calcutta.— 
The magnifictnt gardenn acres* the Hoogkly River 
have been ruled over b; a long line of Uluttriims 
bolanitt* — botaniata wheat reputation* have twen 
world.wide. Walliob, Roxbuigh, QriEBtb, nre naiaei 
which reoall the early Btrugglet of a acienco to 
eatabliah ita roota in the E«at and apraad ita bianehex. 
Sir Oeorga King, tlie retiring Superintendent, h**, 
petfaap*, done more to popnlariae and extend the 
uaefulneaa of the Royal Botanie Oardent, Calcutta {or 
Seebpore, to be more exact), thananyof hitilluatriou* 
predeceiaora. He has ruleil over ita deetmiea for 
many yean. Sir Oeorgo Eiri(( will be aucoeeded 
by Dr. David Prain, who has, for aeveral year* held 
the poet of Curator of the Elerbariuia of the Royal 
Botanic Garden*, Seebfiore, where he lia* done eicel- 
lentwork. KobettersalectioacDuidhave been made, 
and we oongiatulatq Dr. Praia on hia ^puintment, 
and the Oovercmtnt of India oa their tagacity in 
putting the tquure man ioto the aquart hole for ouco. 
Dr. Prain ia an erudite tcbolar, and a high authority 
aa'a botanist. He it the author of aaveral teamed 
butanioal monograplit, and we have every eonfidance 
that under hit rule tha Botanio Gardena wUI oontinue 
to extend their uiefulneM in tlia future at they have 
in Lthe^ peat under the guidance of the geoial aad 
learned gentleman whom Or. Prain suooeeda. 

"The Garden."— Ttie monthly part, ending 
Deoember, ha* reached us. It containa among other 
tbingt effective caloiuwl illuttrationa of aome of 
Hakliac'* hardy Watar-liliar. The plate of Erigaron 
(pedoaus givea an eioallent idea of the plant aa a 
whole, though detail* are wanting. It it to be hoped 
that the figures of HibiBcua syriaou* may lead to the 
more frequent oultivation of theae tieautiful autumn- 
flowering ihrub*. 



Marriaqe OF Mr. Bernard Cowan.— The 
marriage of Hr. Bernard Cowan, Superintendent of 
the South Shirida Burial Board, with the widow of 
the la(e Hr. Peter Uarabnll, of South Shielda, which 
took place on the 18th ult., may be matter of intiTeat 
to many of our readera in Durham and Nortbumber- 
kud. Hr. Cowan i* an accredited lecturer on 
horticulture for the Durham County Council, and ia, 
we believe, tho only lecturer for tbia year. He wat 
the first ahairm^LU of the Newcastle and Dittrict 
Horticultunl Uutusl luipruvemeot Aaaociatiou. and 
is one of the vice presidents of the EIngliab Arbori- 
cultural Society, He ia alio aeoretary of the South 
^etdi and Noithsra Countis* Chryaanthemun 
Society. 



44 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Janua&t 16, 181^8. 



PRESENTATION OF AN ADDRESS 
TO ME. HUGH DICKSON, OP THE 
EOYAL NURSBBIE8, BELFAST. 

A NOMBRons company of the friendf of Mr. Hugh 
DiokBon, of the Royal Nimeriea, at Belmont, Bel&tst, 
assembled recently in that city to do him a well* 
merited honour as their guest at a oompUmentarj 
dinner, and to present him with a handsomely 
illuminated address, mainly in recognition of his 
invaluable senrices to the Ulster Hortioultoral 
Society. Mr. Dickson, who is so widely known and 
popular among roaarians in the United Kingdom, is the 
youuKw son of Alexander Diokson, a Scotchman, 
from Midlothian, who, after being employed for some 
years as a gardener, esfcablished himself as a nursery- 
man, in 1886, at Newtownards,co. Down, where Hugh 
first saw the light, and reoeiyed his early training. 
A well-earned success in business had not absorbed 
all Mr. Dickson's time and energies, and none has 
been more ready and wilUng to lend a helping hand, 
when such was required, to promote the interests of 
horticulture in all its branches among his friends and 
neighbours in the north of Ireland or elsewhere. 

Chiefly at the inspiration of Mr. Dickson, the 
Ulster Horticultural Society was started afresh at 
Belfast about ten years ago. Since then its progress 
has been a continued and marked success, in all of 
which he has been the moving spirit. The compli- 
mentary dinner was presided over by Thomas Shaw, 
Esq., J. P. who in proposing the toast of the even- 
ing, *' Their GKiest," said he warmly congratulated 
their guest on the thorooghly representative character 
of that largo assemblage of his friends. 

The 1 oast having been cordially responded to, Mr. 
Dickson, who was enthusiastically received on rising, 
expressed his heartfelt thanks to bis many friends 
for that marked expression of th^ goodwill. He sras 
conscious of the fact that the compliment paid to him 
that evening was initiated by the Horticultural 
Society, and he rejoiced to see so many members of 
that body present. It was unnecessary for him to 
speak of the success with which that society had 
carried on its operations. It was, however, right for 
him to say that a more united body than the com- 
mittee of the Ulster Horticultural Society it hid 
never been his privilege to work with. 



NURSERY Notes. 

A "NEW YEAR'S SHOW AT HEADING. 

LvAVCNO LfOndon soon after 8 xm , early in the pre- 
sent month, there was no snow, nor hoar-frost ; no 
hard, clear roads — ^not a circumstance, in any decree 
suggestive of January, but rather of April. When 
Reading was reached the air^was clear, and the sun 
bright and warm, but Messrs. Buttons' " flower show " 
commanded our admiration for all that. Previous to 
this we made a call at the establishment in the MaiA:et 
Place, where the rogueing and cleansing of seeds, by 
hand as well as by the wonderful nuMshines, was in full 
progress. There appeared to be Peas snffioient to sow 
the empire over, and we watched the women as they 
hand-jjcked these and other seeds, as French and 
Broad Beans, Scarlet Runners, &c., each on the out- 
look for *' wastes ; " for, in proportion to the nnmber 
they found, so would their earnings be. 

Following our guide to another room, half-a-dozen 
men were weighing and putting Peas into quart, 
pint, and half-pint paper bags, as if for a wager. We 
will omit to give figures of the quantities par day so 
dealt with, lest we be suspected of ex«g§;eration ; and 
further, interesting as these items were, we had 
come to see the new year*s show at the nursery, and 
to enjoy it. What a picture of Flora in wiQter it pre* 
sents ! filling each house, and overflowing, so it seemed, 
until the effect was Qoticed as soon as the entcance 
to the nursery was gained. The dii^lay was profuse 
enough, sufficiently bright and many huedf to 
impress the visitor with the uto^ost seqiie of satlsy 
faction, notwithsU^ndiug ovary house was filled with 
bright sttushioe. From the ** ppsot ocular *' point of 
view the success wa< unqa^Ufled. We venture ^ 
thiok «l«o^ that if the vijitor \m ever studied the 



capacity Katore possesMs to efieot change in a plani, 
something we have grosmto de se r ibe a* ev^dntion, he 
will be sure to do so a* he admirei the beaotifnl and 

Highly Coltivatid Pbuculas, 

in which di£Rneooes In leaf and flosrer and 
habit have been induced by selection, and by 
excessive cultivation from the species P. siaensis. 
In foliage alone, the types knoim as Fern-leaved, 
Palm or plain - leaved, and moss curled - leaved, 
are very distinct firoai each other, not to mention 
minor differences exhibited by the plants, such as 
larger or lesser-sixed leaves, and the average number 
of leaves to a plant. Flowers are tingle and double, 
and in colour there is exceeding variety, embracing, 
so it would seem, all tints but yellow and true 
blue. In regard to the last-mentioned colour, although 
the ideal blue Primula has yet to be raised, sre appear 
to be gaining ground in that direction, and a variety 
we shall mention presently is a pleasing, if not a 
" true ** shade of that colour. In the case of the Reading 
Primulas they have been the care of a cultivator irho 
has spent the greater part of his life in a stody to 
improve and cultivate a Uw species of plants of which 
the Chinese Primrose is one. In the pursuit of this 
work, he has learnt much of the power the cross- 
fertiliser may yield, and he has learned more, and 
that is, that there are limits to his field of influence. 
For a long time it is possible that nothing but sue- 
ceis follows the efforts he may make to improve a 
type or to '*fix " a chira^teristic, but there comes a 
time, sooner or later, when he reaches the limit 
in that direction, and further steps he may take 
are backward rather than forward. In his own words 
— " If we only knew when to stop ! " But apirt 
from the koonrledge that ccnes from intimacy with 
certain priodplei, anl from actual observation during 
many years (which is not conclusive in any ctse), 
there is no certain indication ; and in seeking to 
further improve a flower that h«s responded to 
previous coaxing, miy be sterility is reaehed, which 
is one of the troubles that the cross-breeder of florist i* 
flowers has to guard against, particuUrly if the stock 
has to be increased from seeds, as Primulas are. But 
the cross-breeder may see qualities of leaf, of flower, 
and of habits in several different plants, and by 
successive croisings conducted on the principle that 
"like begets like/* he may subsequently succeed in 
embodying these characteristies in one plant 

High cultivation, too, plays its pirt, and to this 
should be ascribed the variations that occur, and 
that cannot be traced to cross fertilisation. We 
were intirested to hear Uiat the strain known as 
''Oiant Primulas'* svas not obtained by intelligent 
crossing, bu^ firit appeared unexpectedly. Its 
characteristics are chiefly these : the plants pro- 
duce fewer leaves and fower flowers, but the flowers 
are laiger, and the habit of the plants is stronger, so 
much so, that they are easily identified when not in 
bloouL Of oourse, there are many varieties of the 
Qiant strain now, and various oolours, but if one of 
them be crossed back again to an ordinary Primula, 
its influence is not perceptible, and the older type 
seems to exert exclusive potency. Just so did die 
variations in the foliage of the Primula originate, 
being due to the effects of cultivation, and a parsUel 
may be seen in the variations that have occurred in 
the leaves of the Brassioas. 

In colour, perhapi, the florist can achieve m')st, 
and so far as the Primulas are concerned, the msle 
parent is thought to be most potent in effecting 
change. It is interesting, also, to study the time 
that may elapse between the cross being made, and 
any visible effect arising therefrom. Our attention 
was drawn to several cases in which two plants with 
well-marked characteristics h^d been msl^, and the 
issue from seed showed but little evidenoQ of the 
fsQt. Experience, however, has taught the cultivator 
that this variation he luis sought may appear in the 
second or third gei^eration of the seedlings. The 
oroBS has be^n effected ; the white or the pli^k PrimuU 
has b3ea wedded with the '* Carnation-flaked ; *' and 
though the infiuenoe of the latter is latent for a time, 
it will be extremely likely to appear subsequently. 

Hiring been tempted to irrite thus f» rigsidiiig 



the oroas-breeder*B part in Primula development, m 
srill briefly refer to some of the varieties thaA are ia 
commerce^" fixed," of whidi seed may be pgr nhae e rt . 
and some of them have been favourites for a loa| 
time. 

Taking the single -flowered ones first: Roef Qnesa 
is an instance of a variety raised ^ixtMO josa 
ago, and still a valued ooe; it svas the first Fsra- 
Isaved variety srith pink or roee-ooloured flosvcn. 
The foliage is light green, and the flowan largr, 
of a very beautiful rosy -pink, and aboDdaotlj 
prodaosd. Sboe 1879 the variety Pearl fais 
been oooetantly good, and has improvel ; its 
lacge white flowers aoquire a delicate pink with afrr. 
and it is well known and popular. Purity, another 
srfaHe-flowered one, but irith beautifnl dark gra 
Fem-Uke fbliage^ is one of the very best mki-eeasoB 
varieties. The floivers are large and pure white, witk 
crimped margins ; stems very dark eoloored. A 
grand bte-flosrered one is BriUiant Ruby, one of the 
very first-olass red Mmolas, of dsrarf and capital 
habit. It has superseded Ruby King. There are tvo 
excellent svhite virietiss in Snowdrift and Royil 
White. The former is exceedingly early, and is i 
perfect Primula, bearing abundance of jrare whtu 
flowers over pretty Fern- lik) fali^e. By reason of 
its large stigma, the bloom i do not readily shake o& 
Royal White has pare white flowers of large one, gooA 
substanoe, beautifully fringed, and the foliage is dart 
green and pkin. Reading Blue is most preiaesr^rthy, 
and if not so decided a ** blue" as that afforded bj 
some other species of floiren, it is nevertheleea a tot 
that should be ireloome in any greenhooee in January. 
Reading Scarlet, Brilliant Roee, and Oypaj Qoeei 
are included in the spscialties of the single-AosreitiJ 
type. 

Turning to the double flowers : in CSamatioe- 
flaked we have p erh^^ the strongest habited of so; 
of the varieties. The foliage is strong and dark, sod 
it flowers abundantly, being pure white, more or lea 
flsked with bright carmine. A good i^nk ie Donli' 
Pink, and very free. Donble Blue is remariBabUfa 
its fine trusses of flowers of decidedly pret^ la 
or pale blue colour — we strongly reoommend it 
Double White is a very floriferous early, pore whit* 
Tariety, that should be useful as decoraUve pknti 
or for proriding flowers for cutting. Double s2li« 
magnifica, srith mcsscuried foliage, haa pr^ti/f 
fringed flowers, and may be recommended. Dosld< 
flowers in bright scarlet, and effective crim8je,in 

also equally good. 

{To te eolUUiMef.) 

Pakadisi avd Viotoeia Nubskrdbs. 

The changes that are quickly taking pUoe, avi 
which few gardeners and horticultural 
whose memories carry them back a doaen 
fail to note in the species of plants cultivated it 
nurseries, are particularly noticeable in MesKa. B. S. 
Wflliams' osUblishment at the loot of HighgaU Hill 
Orchids and Palms still form the backbone of the col- 
lection of jdants grown there, and veiy saeeeesfully 
are the plants cultivated under the adverse conditiom 
of the atmosphere, aad the relative lack of sonligfat 
due to fog at times during the autumn and sHatw, 
and to coal-smoke at almost all s e a sons . 

A visit recently msde^ revealed aad evidences ol 
the effdot of fog, in the absence of expanded bloom 
or even haif-opened flower buds, and in the aboadanot 
of yelloir and withered flowers and buds and oM 
leavei, the latter especially noticeable on Cattleysi 
and Lselias. 

A few sunny dayp, srill, however, put a mort 
cheerful aspect on the plants. Plenty of flowe^ 
spikes just making themselves visible, could be obeerved 
on OdontogloBsum crispum, of which the norsery 
can boast of many very superior forms, on Ccelogyoe 
cristate, C. alba, Lnlia Oouldiana, numerous Cypri* 
pediums, end Lnliaanoeps alba. We remarked ^ 
old greenhouse in which laige plants of Camellia used 
to be grown, to veiy small advantage to the ownen, 
is now filled with spedes of Palms suitable for oitfi. 
nary decorative uses. This is a change for the better, 
itlthoogh many persons srill deplore the Ices of the 
Camellias, which are, pity be it said, lees fhebicm's 
fftvoiirit0soowtha«ofyore. SimiUrl^iliute^dolBped* 



Janoart 15, 1898.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



45 



men AnlM indioa, tmall staff, 1^ foot in height, 
•bundMitly farnbhed with flower, filled ad adjoining 
gUflehouie ; the former evidently made in Belgium. 
Asdea mollie in quantity, and maaaes of Tulips and 
Hyadntha grown in bozea in a wholesale manner for 
the purpoeea of fumiahingTaiea, jardinidrea, &c, were 
notioed in houaes that only a few years ago teemed 
with hard-wooded plants hi Tariety. 

The handiome Tariegated, narrow-ieaved DraosBna 
I>oaoeti was notioed in aome quantity, an excellent 
deooratiye plant that atanda uninjured in rooms for a 
length of time ; Crotona in useful aisas ; Aspidistra 
wiUi clean unhlemiahed foliage were obaenred in large 
numbers ; alao Cyperus altemifolius graoillimus, 
a very alender habited form, good aa a table plant, 
and plenty of healthy Palms, such as Kentiaa, 
livistonaf, Rhaphis, &o.. At for deooration, are 
mmong the more prominent part of the stock. 



Home Correspondence. 

WHAT 18 0YCLAM8N PER8ICUM ? — This la, I 
know, a question which haa often been diaeussed, and 
on which competent botanlata haye probably made 
up their minda long ago. We are told« on the 
authority of Index Kewentis, that C. persicum of 
Miller— the greenhouse Cyclamen of Bngliah gardens 
— is pyclamen latifolium of Sibthorp. My attention 
haa again been directed to thla queation, because in 
an article on the Persian Cyclamen recently pub- 
lished in the Royal Uortioultural Society's Journal 
(December, 1897, p. 270), I find this statement:— 
"Laat aeaaon my memoty (concerning the poomeaa 
of the early atraina of Persian Cydamen) wan rafreshed 
by a sight in Measrs. Sutton & Sons* Reading 
Kurseriaa of a batch of C. pexaloum, which had been 
imported direct from Persia.** Now, the best 
authority on the flowers of Western Asia I have 
alwaya found to be B. Boisaier. He tells ua in his 
Flora OrimkUia that C. latifolium (of whieh he says 
C. psnicum of Miller is the garden form), though 
oonamon in A«a Minor and Palaatine, is not found in 
Persia in any of ita formt. The only Cyclamen 
which E. Boissier mentions as found in Persia is 
C. Coum (Miller's). So if the Cyclamens mentioned 
aa aeen at Reading really came from Persia, they 
belonged to C. Coum (Miller), which haa nerer been 
identified with any form of florist'a Cyclamen. 
Another Cyclamen, C grsscum (Lin.), oommon in 
Qreece, but not found anywhere In Aaia, was called 
C. peratoum (Miller) by Sibthorp, who aeema to have 
oonfiiaed it with C. ktlfoUum. Neither C. grsscum 
nor C. latifolium is hardy in Engliah gardeni. 
0. WoUey Dod, Edge ffaU, Malpai, 

AC>CNA8.— One is pleased to see these mentioned 
by M. Correvon in the Oardmcrs* Chronicle, p. 28. 
It Is to be hoped that his valuable note will li^ to a 
little more attentbn b^ng paid to the Aoenaa, 
because of their value in the Alpine garden, and na 
oarpec-pluits for covering the ground under tall 
plants. A. miorophyUa haa few ri vala aa a pUnt for low, 
molat apota in pea^ soil, especially when it is in fmit. 
I would aapsoially refer to the two newer >PMiea 
which are mentioned in M. Correvon'a note. These, 
with some others, Irish rsaders will be able to aee at 
the Botanic Qarden, GUsnevin, and they and others 
who may chance to see planta elsewhere, will agree 
with mt in aaying that the beauty of A. Buchanani 
ia not exaggerated in the article to which I refer. 
I aaw it first in the rock-garden at Qlaanevin, being 
much struck with its colour, and the beauty of its 
leavea, snd of its habit A. glabra I have in my 
garden here, but it is, although pretty, not to be 
compared with A. Buchanani. One is glad to know 
that there ia now a proapect of the new Acesnaa being 
readily obtainable from the ordinary aouroea of 
Bupply. 8, Amottf Oarsethorn, by Damfriei, N.B, 

HAMAMEU8, OR WITCH HAZELS.— Thia small 
genus of hardy-flowering shrubs is little known in 
gardens, consisting, as at present, of only , three 
species. One, a native of the United States, and the 
other two from Japan, and all are deaefving of culture 
in the ahrubbeiy, flowering, aa they do, at this time 
of the year, when little else ia to be aeen in flower, 
the whole of thdr leafless branches being covered 
withthecuriousandprettyflowera. Theoldeatandcom- 
moneet species in tola country is H. viiginioa, which, 
as its name impliesy hails from Vixglnia, from whence 
itwaa hitroduotd ao far back aa 1730. It flowera 



fipom October to March, with the flowerj>, being of a 
deep yellow odour, and disposed in dusters. After 
the petals fall, the cdyx remains till the leaves H>peir, 
in April and May. Thia speciei was described in 
BoUuUoal Magagime, 6684, and it is sometimes met 
with under the name of H. macrophylla. H. art>orea, 
introduced in 1862, is veiy rardy met with in this 
country (see Masters in QardmerB^ Cfhronniete, 
February 1, 1874, fig. 47). It is the best of the 
Witch Hssds aa* regards the beauty and aiae of the 
bloasoms, and makes, in its native country — Japin— a 
BQoalljfcree firom 16 to 20 fbet high. A plant is now in 
flower at the Woking Nuraery, having dear yellow 
flowers, with deep dtfet cdyzes. This was, I believe, 
erroneously described in BoU»nieal Magazine^, 6659, as 
H. japonica, which di£fera gi^eatly, having paler flowers, 
and partaking more after the habit of H. virginica. 
Tlds spedes, H. japonica, according to Nieholson*8 
DktUmary, has an allied form, known as H. Zacca- 
riniana, with pder flowers and greenish-brown calyxei, 
but this I have never seen. [It was shown at the 
kst meeting of the R. H. a by Measrs. Veitch. Ed.] 
All are deserving of extended culture. They will 
flourish in any good giuden soil, espeoidly so in a 
moist sandy boUi such as we have at Woking. S. ff,, 
Woking. 

A HALL FOR HORTICULTURE.— Mr. Divers U 
Borely out of his depth when he refers to the 
" profits ** of the Aquarium Company. He can have no 
peraond knowledge on thia pointy and he repeats the 
imaginings of others. Mr. Divers also knows nothing 
of the heavy expense the Royd Aquarium Society 
ia pnt to in proving for the Nationd Chrysanthe- 
mum Sodety's exhibitions ; dl the neceesar^ staging, 
labour, lighting, cleaning, &o., saying nothmg about 
printixig and posting thousands of bills, advertidng, 
sandwidi men, paragraphing the press, entertaining 
the repreaentativea or the papers (!), and many 
other waya. Nor does he think of the many free 
ainussions to the ahows, which swdl the attendance ; 
an army of thdr own servants and attendants ; 
vrUtUi and thdr attendants, aa well aa thoee at the 
aide shows, shareholders, seaaon-ticket holders, the 
nomerousrepresentativeaof thepress. 1600 passesof the 
Nationd Ch^aanthemnm Society carrying the privilege 
of free admisdon on the three davs of each aho w, and on 
the oooadon of that held in November, some 300 
exhibitors* pasaes. Further, there has to be deducted 
the avera^ attendance on ordinary days, and then 
the iiuffgin has to defray the aum of money 
given to the Nationd Chrysanthemum Society, and 
the heavy expense of each exhibition. Then, 
among the further advantagea enjoyed by the 
Nationd Cliryaanthemum Sodety ia tbe privilege of 
purchasing one«shilling admission-tickets at hdf- 
prlce, a privilege which, during 1896, brought to the 
exchequer of the Society the sum of over X50. In 
addition, is enjoyed the privilege of letting laige 
portiona of the building durmi; the ahows, and taking 
payment for the same. In 1896 this reaUaed foe the 
Society over £100. Accommodation ia prorided for 
dl the meetings of tUe Fiord Committee, and all 
memberi have free admission to these; there 
is also furnished gratis a great ded of storsge- 
room, for which the Society would otherwise 
have to pay. Whether the gardening commu- 
nity ia interested in the entertainments is a 
matter of opinion. The contributions of mem- 
bers go but a short way towards defraying the 
working expenses of the Society ; and the aum of £55 
was added to the Reaerve Fund at the end of 1896. 
As to the " further encouragement of Chrysanthemum 
culture," Mr. Divers would never have made such a 
statement had he thought about the matter. No 
other Bpecial society can show such a record of work, 
furthermg the cultivation of the particular flower it 
takes in hand« aa the Nationd Chrysanthemum Society 
furnishes in the case of the Chrysanthemum : its four 
annud exhibitions, its Floral Committee, its Clasdfi- 
cation Committee, ita Conference Meetings, its 
invduable catalogue, its 150 affilii^ed sodeUes, iti 
very extendve helpful correspondence, &o. ; what are 
all these but a most vduable catalogue of helps in 
the cultivation of the ChrysanUiemum ! Hia 
deliberate statement that a '* better class of persons 
would patromse the ahows if hdd under better 
conditions'' is falsified by the fact that such do 
attend, and in large numbers. I, who have had 
something to do with the arrangements of many 
London diows, can assert that the prime cause of 
fidlure was, that the public did not attend them, and 
in London no organization, not even the Royal 
Horticulturd Society, can afford to hold exhibitiona 
which do not pay. Let Mr. Divers, and thoee who 
sympathise with him In hii attitude towards the 



Aquarium, tiy a show in some place In London, 
depending upon the gate-money to re-imburse them 
for their outlay. The reault would be disastroua, 
even if they made thdr attempt with the November 
exhibition of the Nationd Chrysanthemum Society 
at the Agrioulturd Hdl, or Earl's Court. Richard 
l>ean,EaUng, W. 

VIOLAS. — In my opinion. Dr. Williamson does 
not do justice to the subject. In my garden on the 
date he mentioned I had 200,000 planta in full 
bloom, and exhibited on the 10th as fine a lot of 
Pannes and Violas as one would wish to see, all 
grown in the open. To-day (January 1, 1898). I 
ooald pick a large quantity of fine blooms. My 
Violas start to bk>om in March ; in April I could 
exhibit them, and in the following month they are in 
perfection, and continue to flower profuiely till tbe 
end of October. Many of those Mr. Williamson 
mentions I condder aa bdng quite out of date, and 
I would very much like to know his opinion of 
Britannia, a magnifi oent blue ; Mrs. J. Donndly, 
Blanche, white ; Pembroke; a ydlow Kitty Hay, 
ueither of which he mentiona. Then, agdn, the 
variety Mrs. Richard Hare, a greatly improved 
Countess of Kintore. How many can grow a good 
bloom of A. J. Rowberry ? It is a beautiful flower 
when well grosrn, but how very little uac it is for 
bedding. wmch,.in my opinion, is the proper object 
of a Viola. I trust Dr. WilliamBon will vidt me 
during the coming seasons, my garden bdng open on 
Saturdafa to' lovers of the Viola, when I think ^e 
Violas will oifer many aurprises. Wm. Sydtnham, 
TamwotHh. 

APPLE AND PfxARTREE PRUNINa— Pressure of 
work has pre?eated me remarking earlier upon Mr. 
Kettle's criticism of Mr. Ward's advice on pruning 
(p. 448). Perhaps Mr. Kettle will be good enough to 
answer the; follow ing questions. He asserts that a 
great many trees would be far more ahapdy and 
fruitful if not pruned at all during the first half- 
doaen years of growth, atd after that time he is sure 
they would need but little. Will mdden-treesof them- 
sdves form shapdy specimens ? How is the tree to 
make the necessary m dn branchea t Will they form 
in a proper manner, ev only and at the right places or 
podtiona, and if ao will they be of uniform strength ? 
What does Mr. Kettle mean by spreading varieties such 
as Quarrenden and *' rigid ones, as Blenheims I" I most 
certainly have found the latter much more apreading 
than Quarrenden, in fact one of the most spreading of 
any kind I know, and if not pruned, it will throw long 
horizontal branchea without a break, whereas Quar- 
readen ia much more erect. I know trees will bear 
more quickly if Idt done, but then there ia 
Boon an end of the growth, and I would rather have 
branches first and fruit afterwards. Mr. Kettle would 
teach " old hands " to throw away the knife becauae 
others do not know how to use it properly. In Corn- 
wall here, there are too many inatancee of auoh 
practice^ and hundroda of pounda have been wasted 
because old trees have not received the necessary 
pruning during the first six years. Charles Hott, Uart, 
InU, ComwaUCCf Truro, 

BARBERRY AND WHEAT MILDEW.— It podtivdy 
makes one feel quite young again to hear any person 
expressing a doubt about the connection between 
(Ecidium Berberidis and Pucdnxa graminis. Mr. 
Morgan speaks of the oommon Barberry being planted 
by millions for hedges in many parta of New Zedand. 
Whether tlie Barb«ny plant will act differently in New 
Zed and to what it does in Europe, ourfrienda upon 
th^ other dde of the ^obe will soon see for them- 
adves. It is just possible, however, that the tdeu- 
tospore of the Puccinia may not germinate so freely 
with them as th^ do with us, owing to thdr " winter^ 
temperature not b' lug sufficiently low. I have tried 
on two occadona to get the tdeutospore of Puccinia 
graminis from Australia to germinate in England, 
but I have not succeeded. The first attempt waa 
made nine years ago, when Mr. D. Maodpine waa 
good enough to send me material, but I waa quite 
tmsuccessfuL Last year he waa kind enough to aend 
me a further supply ; but dthough I kept the straw 
out-of-doors during the latter part of last winter and 
the spring of 1897, I was equally unsucoessfuL Is it 
probably like the seeds of some of the higher vege- 
tables, the teleutospores require not onl^ a period of 
reit, but also an exposure to a oertam degree of 
cold ? Perhapa one should not be too podtive because 
of having had two fdlures, bat the point is certainly 
one worth attention by the numerous practicd 
botaniats who are npw to be found in all quartera 
of the dobe. CharUt £. Plowright, M.D.^ King's 
Ljfnn^Jan, 9. 



46 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[jAKtTABT 15, 1698. 



PEAR DUCHE88E D'ANQOULEME. — Your oor- 
rospoodent << H. H. R/' (p. 448, voL zxil) sayi, *' The 
remarkable experienoe giyen in your issue of Deo. 11 
last ooQceming the above Pear as grown upon a wall 
seems to indicate that there is no complete con- 
nection between the treatment described and the 
splendid results obtained." How does <'H. H. R," 
arrive at this condusion ? My own opinion is, and 
I think fruit-growers generally will agree with me in 
saying, tiiat there is "a connection between the 
treatment described and the splendid results ob- 
tained/' when coupled with other circumstances. 
(I) The tree in question bore no fruit in 1896 ; (2) 
it was root-pruned in the September of that year 
in the manner indicated in the Qardeners* Chronidt 
for Dec. 11 last (p. 419), the old and, perhaps, sour 
soil being replaced with a mixture of good loam and 
rubble, m the proportion of four parts of the former 
to one of the latter. (3) The tree thus operated on 
was already fairly well provided with fruit-buds, and 
these concurrently with the emissien and pushing 
into the new toil of a host of young roots had con- 
siderably increased in site and solidity befme the tree 
shed its leaves in November, with the result that 
clusters of strong, well-developed flowers appeared on 
the tree the following spring, which set fntHv, and 
in due time attained the dimensions set forth m the 
note and illustration given in the ivue of the Oar- 
denert' Chronicle referred to above. (4) The tree 
thus operated on having thoroughly established its^ 
in the compost mentioned above, and being kept well 
supplied with water at the roots during the period of 
active growth, combined with the tropical-like weather 
which prevailed the whole time of the fruit's growth, 
go to show a '* complete connection between the treat- 
ment, and the splendid results obtained '' from the 
tree in question. And (5) to the £ivourable situation 
of Stradey Cnstle-gardens and their nearness to the 
sea, when taken in connection with the skilful and 
generous treatment which the gardener (Mr. Thomas 
Lucas) bestowed upon the tree and the exoeptiona 
heat of the sun during the summer and early autumn 
months may be attributed the high quality of the 
fruit " H. H. R." says ** The particular variety of Pear 
is hardly one of merit as grown in this country, as in 
good fruit-shows it is usually conspicuous by its 
absence, or very moderately represented compared 
with other varieties, or to the splendid examples sent 
us annually from France,*' adding,*' The crop described 
is thus even more''remarkable, and in contrast to the 
statement in the catalogues of the well-known Saw 
bridgeworth firm to the efFeot that this variety 
is usually insipid from a wall.*' The above remarks 
only go to show that all the more credit ia due 
to the gardener who produces such remarkably 
fine fruits — not only "remarkable*' in siee, but 
also in appearance, being grandly coloured, and 
fine in flavour. The absence of good examples of 
Duchesse d'Angoulome Pear from good fruit-shows 
must not be looked upon as being the fault of this 
variety, but rather as failure on the part of culti- 
vators to stage creditable examples of it " H. H. R." 
unwillingly speaks most &voarably of the Duchesse 
d*Angoul6me Pear in referring to the "splendid 
examples of it sent us annually from France," un- 
mindful of the fact that a few lines higher up in his 
note, he says •* it is hardly one of merit," — " remark- 
able " reasoniog this I All the same, it serves to 
show Uiat the variety is "splendid" when grown 
under favourable conditions as regards soil and 
climate ; and when grown under conditions the 
reverse of these, it " is hardly one of merit ; " the 
conditions under which the fruit was produced being 
at fault in the latter case, and not the variety, I 
candidly admit being unable to understand the 
validity of the extract from the Sawbridgeworth 
catalogue, to Uie effect *' that this variety is usually 
insipid from a wall ! '* How is this ? The flavour of 
Pears and other hardy fruits gathered from trees 
occupying positions on walls having south and west 
aspects being invariably superior to that possessed by 
fruits of the same kinds and varieties obtained from 
trees growing in the open, whether they be standards, 
pyramids, or bu^es. "H. H. R.*' is quite right in 
saying that the district (Llanelly) in whic^ the 
Stradey Castle Pears were grown resembles more the 
conditions of France than this (Forest HUl) part of 
the Idngdom. I may here say that Llanelly and 
Bournemouth (where the second-best examples of 
the Duchesse d'Angouldme Pear coming under notice 
were grown) are about the same distance from, and 
pretty close to the sea, Bournemouth being about 
one degree farther south. In reply to your Cor- 
respondent's questions ; root-pruning, as already 
stated, was done in September ; the tree was growing 
in ordinary garden-soil, but the Carrot-shaped rooti 



bad pushed £sr down into stoney and heavy soil ; the 
tree is grafted on a Pear stock, and it had not 
actually failed in fruitfolneafl excepting in 1896,a Ibw 
fruita having been taken from the trees every antnmn 
with the ttxoeptioo indicated, these being of ordinaiy 
aiae and appearuce. The tree whieh wis roai-9nu>ed 
in September, 1896, is now (Mr. Lucas infonna me) 
well-funiished with large solid frnit-bode. if. W, 
Ward, BayUigk. 



The Rosary. 



"THE ROSARIAN*S YEAR BOOK." 

Tbis little volume opens with a portrait and a 
sympathetic notice of the life and career of the Rev. 
Joseph Pemberton. Miss Muriel Orahame's account 
of a Rose show betokens observation, and a keen 
sense of humour. Mr. Foster-Melliar*8 articles are 
always full of matter, and trustworthy — his article on 
yellow Roses is no exception. The editor sketches the 
progress of the Society in 1897. Mr. A. Piper gives 
numerous iUustrations of Rose sports, which will be 
valuable for evidential purposee. Mr. George Paul 
discusses the question of showing "trebles" at Rose 
shows. Ifthetreblemeant a truss of three Rose^ one 
in advanoe of the other two, we should uphold the 
practice. If it be taken to mean, as it geneially doeS| 
three fully deve-loped but separate blooms of the 
same age, we do not see the special advantage attaching 
to the number three. Mr. Mawley has no fault to 
find with the weather, recording the season as one 
exceptionally free from detrimental influences. 



SOCIETIES. 



BOYAL HOBTIOXTLTXTBAL. 

January IL— What may bo tormed the New Year's 
Meeting of the Committees of the Royal Horticiiltoral 
Society took pUoo on Tuesday last lu the Drill Hall, 
James' Stevet, Westminster. A beginning for the year was 
made, and a satlsfactorj one, for it was not expected 
that the capacity of the boilding would be tested on 
this occasion, though this may very possibly be the 
case at the next meeting. The display on Tuesday last 
was made up in large measure by two extensive collections 
of Chinese Primvoees, and two groups of Cyclamens, all of 
which were commendable fhnn the 8tan(^;K>intof quality, and 
they presented a Teiy gay picture indeed. OnAiids and other 
plants were not numerous, but a pretty group of ornamental 
foliage and flowrering plants was present Not a single 
Certificate or Award of Merit was recommended by the Floral 
Committee, and but one by the Fruit Committee. There 
was a coUectioa of Apples from an amateur, and a number of 
dishes of Apples in competition for the prises for flsTour. 
Three Certificates were awarded by the Orchid Committee. 
At 8 o'clock a meeting was held for the election of new 
members to the Society, when a largo number of names were 
submitted and duly elected. 

Floral Committee. 

Pr<«ent.'— W. Marshall, Esq. Chairman, and Messrs. Jno. 
Lfthig, H. B. May, R. Dean, Chas. T. Druery. J. H. Fitt, J. 
F. McLeod, Jas. Hudson, Jas. Walker, J. T. Bennett-Pod. 
J. D. Pawle, Chas. B. Shea, Chas. E. Pearson, Oeo. Gordon, 
Edwin Beckett, Chas. Blick, Hany Turner, Oea Paul, and 
Jno. Frsser. 

Messrs. Jas. VfiirCB & Som, Royal Exotic Nursery, Chelsea, 
exhibited sprays of the Witch Hasel (Hamamelis arbinrea), 
and a paler coloured flowered one name H. Japonica 2Succarl« 
niana ; also beautiful sprays of Oarrya elliptioa, and a lovely 
collection of flowers frtmi their hybrid greenhouse Rhodo* 
dendrons. 

A ooUection of Primulas from Messrs. H. Oktxveia. A Sohs, 
Swanley, Kent, quite flUcd a side of one of the large tables, 
with nice plants in B and 6-inoh pots. Bynsford Rod and 
Cannell's Pink, both well-known and popular varieties, were 
shown. Duoboss of Fife, with Fern-like foliage^ and fine 
pink flowers, with yellow eye. is Teiy pretty. Swanley 
Yellow is a variety in which the yellow eye extends unusually 
over the flower, and Is as near being yellow aaany we have 
noticed. Distinction is a good rosy-cnmson flower. Emperor 
Improved, a magnificent (»mnine*plnk, vrith plain foliage. 
Swanley Blue, also with plain foliage, very prettily serrated, 
is eflTeotive among the other oolours. White Perfection was 
well flowered, and the blooms stood b<ddly above the strong 
Fern-like foliage. My Favourite is a pink variety, as is 
Pink Queen. The colours in all of thotn were bright and 
pure. In addition to the above, Messrs. Cannell showed 
some fine plants of the old double varieties, such as EaH 



Bea c o ns fi el d, Annie HilUer, King of Purplss, Mrs. R. Cnbbi, 
MarchionMs of Bxeter, itc. (Silver Flora MedalX 

Mr. Jmo. R. Box^ West,Wickham and Croydon, audei 
great display with Chinese Primulas, furoishijig at )w 
half of one side of a long table with a ooBeetioa el ospitiB;- 
grown plants, most of them In C-hMAi pots, and each csirjiBi 
a couple of doaen or more strong leaves. The first show i 
blooms were Just developed. Borne of the different cokm 
were named as follows : Carmine Queen, a Fern-leaved phat 
with moderately deep oarmlae flowws ; Tbe Queea, tim i 
Fern-leaved type, with strong flower-spikes, flotren opaniBj 
white, afterwards assuming a |rfnk-bluah ; Margartt, apfn- 
rently a giant strain, with large, crimped flowers — wh^ 
shaded mauve, and a dlsdnct eye. Marquis of LoriM, Tn- 
leaved type, rosy-magenta flower ; OanaeU's Pink, s fawt 
tif ul variety, with abundance of pretty flowen ; Empae. 
Fern-leaved, with carmine-pink flowers ; White Perfecti<m, 
fern-leaved, abundantly flowered, the petals crimped ccb- 
sidorably ; Wkkham White ; Roeamood, deep pink ; Q«ea 
of Frimulai^ whlta-flowered, and plain foUago; Pini;. 
having rather small flowers of deep crimson; Wkkhot 
Beauty, one of the beat shown— it has plain folisge snd Lirft, 
beautiful fldwers, of delicate blush ; Surprise, a Fem-learcd, 
carmine-flowered variety ; and Princess Mary, white, vm 
induded. The cultivation was good, but the develo|mMit 
of the f<diage excessive, and ttie ootours of the flowen vm 
not so bright as when grown in the oountiy (SilTer Fkn 
Medal). 

Messrs. Scttoh & Sors, Reading, showed strafais o( Cj^ 
men perskmm QetifnUmnX whkh made a very g^^dl^ihr 
indeed. The plants were well flowered, and the bkan 
appesred wdl above excellent and prettily-marbled folii^ 
All the plants were raised from seeds sown twelve moatlii 
ago, and no supports were needed. Vulcan, the dirkol 
coloured of those stsged, and Salmon Queen, attndej 
much attention ; and a few blooms of Purple Queen, not- 
bling a colour frequently occurring In Sweet Peai, nee 
equally remarkable. A f^ monstrosities shown ty Utm 
Sutton may be the beginnings of greater varfatloB aaai 
Cyclamens than was expectel, Ouod these hsd so muijs 
ten petals (SUver Flora Medal). 

Another collection of Cyclameus was exhibited by Um% 
Hugh Low A Co., Bush Hill Park Nurseries, EnHeld. Tk 
strains exhibited' a nice variety of oolourn, all of them br%ki 
and distinct, and the flowers were of good form a&d bep 
(SUver Banksian Medal). The very bright Carnation Wiotff 
Scarlet, which we have noticed before, was sgaia shuwibj 
Messrs. Low. 

Messrs. Jwa Laiho A Som, Forest HiU Nurseries, lm^% 
S.B., contributed a very pretty group of mlsoellaaeotti f«Hif* 
imd flowering'plants, among which was noticed a pliato' 
Nepenthes mixta x, with fine pitchers. Th« plaBto 
generally were bright in appearance, well'grown, and ii 
choice speciee (Silver Flora Medal). Messrs. J. Lamo k Sou 
also exhibited a few plants of Cordyline (Dracnma)exodlaM,> 
green-and-white-leaved variety, the variegation foDovinf 
the margins of the leaf, which is obout 3 inchet wideii 
broadest point, and IS inches or more lung ; also a [red; 
narrow-leaved Draetena named Distinotlon. 

Marsnta Wingfleldiana, shown by Mrs. VfaanvA 
Ampthill House, Ampthlll, Is an effeotlve decorative pint 

Mr. T. 8. Waaa, Halo Fsnn Nurseries, Tottonhuu, tho*fi 
several pansfol of Narcissus monophyllus (Curbolirii) ^ 
bloom ; also Fritillaria oranensis. 

F. W. MooRK, Esq., Botanic Garden, Qlasnevin.*^ 
sprays of ChimonanUius fragrana ; also flowers of lrii< <;■* 
var. BmiM-ess Ellxabeth. 

Orcliid Oommittee. 

PrtsetU: Hsrry J. Veltoh, Esq., in the chair : and l(etf«- 
Jas. O'Brien (Hon. SecX Do B. Crawahay, H. Bdl»fl»»» 
W. H. Young, Hehiy little,* H. J. Chapman, T. SUttff.T 
W. Bond, B. Hill, J. Douglas, and 8. Courtauld. 

The uncertainty about the weather keeping mild, djulitlt*' 
influenced some ptospeotive exhibitors, with a conseqao^ 
falling off in the number of entries. 

Captain Holtord, Westonbirt, Tetbury (gr., Mr. A. Cbsp 
manX exhiUteda very Intereeting collection, more thss vtJ 
varieties of Cypripedium, testUying alike to their usefuliK* 
as winter flowers, and to the good methods of coltin^ 
followed at Westonbhrt Of some varieties there were sereni 
flowers. We noted Cypripedium x Statterianum (Spx^ 
lanum x vexillariumX with its large bright roae-colour* 
upper sepal quaintly folded back ; a flue variety ^ ^- 
radiosum, a very handsome set of forms of C. X LesAO^'''' 
C. X Niobe, and 0. X Niobe superbum, the Utter hs^inf 
very fine rose-pnrple-vdned upper sepal ; a diowy set o>^ 
rieties el GL Insigne, remarkable among which wereC. ta«if"' 
Unique, a very distinotly msrked flower ; and G. L ci^°^ 
with clear yellow and white flowers of the C. i. 8»<^<^7^ 
claw ; C. X Pltcherianum Williams' var., a massivo ■»<* '^ 
formed flower ; a pretty hybrid between C. X insigoe. C^ 
tin! and C. BoxalU, some very handsome C. CJharle»wof«^^ 
C. X oenauthum superbum, a X SaUleri Hyetnum, »« 
in addition several brightly coloured Selenipodiom*. *jJJ 
eome fine sprays of richly-coloured Lielia •otunu^ 
ehown. The stand was awarded a savor Bsnksian Hod«- 

Messrs. F. SaSDem A Co., St Albans, showed ww 
TriawBl Sandeiw, a diarmiag vsriety with ^^7^ 
flowers, the sepals and petals of adelicate peiurlwbK«- ^ 
front of the Up of a rich, dark, velvety purple i^^^^^ 
Merit); also Lwlia aoceps atro-nibene, a rather «»**j^^ 
Very dark aoao-crimsou variety, of distinct ^''*'"*? |i«fli. 
DawsonI, L. a. Sandoriaoa, L. a. HlUl, varieties ol '►Ji" 



Jakvabt 15, ISdS.] 



THE GARDENEB8' CHRONICLE. 



47 



pedium x Calypeo, and l4rcMio SkinneH, I>«ndroblum 
JohnsonUa, and D. x Dulco. Oakwood variety. 

Meaara. Hcob Low t, Co.. aapton, ataginl a group in 
which the central plant waa the new Cypripedium X F. 8. 
Roberta, a hybrid of C. niTeum, but the other speoiea naed 
ia not known. In general ajypearanoe it lomewhat resembled 
C. X Cowleyanum (niToum x Gurtiali). The flower is white, 
xvith roae-coloured fluah, and dotted lines on the upper sepal 
and petals, and a clear roee-purple tinge on the face of the 
lip (Award of Merit). Measrs. Low also showed a light form 
of Odontoglossum Wilckeanum, aome good O. oriapom, O. 
Halli, O. Anderwmianum, Cypripedium X Tiithamiannm, 
C. X BeUono, Ac. 

Da B. Crawshat. Esq., Boaefield, Sevenpaks (gr., Mr. S. 
CookeX showed Lodia anceps Ameslana, Orawsbay'a var., 
distioguishod from the original by its broader potals ; tho 
whiter bases, and Inighter purple tips to tho sepals and 
petals, and especially by the side-lobes of the lip being 
marked with similar dark olaret^rimaon colour to the front- 
lobe (Award of Merit). 

O. L. N. UroRAM, Eaq., Blatead Houae, Oodafaning (gr., 
llr. T. W. Bond), showed Cypripedium x Magnet (inaigne 
Ghantini x Roiialli). a fine flower of the C. xnitens class, the 
upper sepal being handsomely spotted with chocolate-browxi 
in the lower part, and purple in the upper half, the tip being 
pure white. 

Fred. Habdy, Esq., Tyntesfield, Aditon-on-Meiaey (gr., Mr. 
T. BtaflbrdX sgmin ahowed a plant of Cypripedium inslgne 
Sanden^ about which some doubts had been raised. The 
committee agreed that it waa the true variety. Mr. Hardy 
also ahowed Cypripedlimk x Calypso, and Odontogloasum 
Andersonianum. 

Isaac Cabr, Esq., Poolemeade, Tiverton-on-ATon, showed 
aome darkly •coloured hybrid Cypripediums ; and F. A. 
RniDKR, Esq., The Avenue, Oipsey Hill (gr., Mr. Morris), 
ahowed C. x Rehderianum fSavageanum superbnm x pur- 
ptiratumX a very neat flower, in which the lUie rose-purple 
colour of the upper sepal waa very attractive. 

F. W. MooRB, Bsq.,Qlasnevin, sent outflowers of Masdevollia 
Bchroderiana ; and Frau Ida Brandt, Zurich (gr., Mr. 
Bchlecht), cut spikes of Lielia autumnalis and Aiirides 
Vandarum, the latter being grown in a cold house. 

At the meeting, the coloured drawings of the Certificated 
plants of 1807 were submitted to the scrutiny of the members 
of the committee, who expressed their approval, and passed 
a reaolutifm to continue the work. 

Fruit Oommittee. 

Prtmd .—Philip Crowley .^Esq., Chairman; and Messrs. Ceo. 
Bunyard, Jos. Cheal, A. F. Barron, T. J. Saltmarsh, Alex. 
Dean, J. W. Bates, W. Farr, C. Herrln, W. J. Empson, Cleo. 
Wythos, H. Balderson, F. Q. Laiie, 0. Norman, J. Willard, 
Robt. Fife, and Jas. H. Veitcb. 

A collecUon of Apples and Pears embracing thirty dishes, 

was shown by Mr. W. J. Empson, gr. to Mrs. Wimofisld, 

Ampthill House, AmpthiU. This was a praiseworthy exhibit, 

and some of the varieties were very well preserved. Of 

Apples we noticed Lord Derby, Mbre de Mfoage, Oox's 

Pomona, Warner's King, Beauty of Kent, Laxte's Prince 

Albert, Ribston Pippin, King of the Pippins, Oaaooignos' 

Scarlet, Brownloe's Russet, Cox's Orange Pippin, ko. (Silver 

Knightian Medal). 

A magnifloent exhibit of Grapes was made by Mr. J. Burt, 
Petersham Vineries, Byfleet, Surrey, iacludlng six baskets 
as packed for transit to market, the Grapes being attached 
uround the sides of croas-handled baskets, and the surface 
protected by bent shoots. Altogether there were about 
nixty bunches, representing the varieties Muscat of Alex- 
andria, Alicante, and Gros Cdmar. The Allcantea were 
especially well coloured (Silver Knightian Medal). 

A large boxful of excellent Mushrooms from Mr. J. Miller, 
fH'* to Lord Foley, Ruxley Lodge, Claygate, was awarded a 
Oultural Commendation. 

In the Vettchian class for competition in flavour there 
vrere again a good number of Apples shown. The beet 
Apple was Margil, shown by Mr. J. C. Tallack, gr., Llvermere 
Park, Bury St Bdmunds. The fruits were taken from 
an old orchard tree, growing in a aandy loam. CU^gate 
Pearmain was awarded 2nd prize, and it was shown by CoL 
Brymkr, M.P., Ilsington House, Dorsetshire. 

The best Pear proved to be Josephine de Mallnes, shown 
by Capt Oarstairs, Welford Park, Newbuiy (gr., Mr. C 
RosaX The fruits in ^is e ase were taken from a tree thirty- 
six years old, growing agttnst a wall with south-west 
aspect ; soil, a light loam or graveL 

Messrs, T. F. Rivkrj} & Son, Sawbrldgeworth, showed their 
now black Grape Dirocteur Tisserand, a bunch oi well-pre- 
served Mrs. Pearson Grapes, and feur very large Cftroo fruits. 

A let Class Cer^cato was awarded to Pear President 

narabe,from Mr. W. Allan, Gunton Park Gardens, Norwich. 

t will bo remembered that on the last occasion an Award of 

Merit was rooommended to this Pear, and it obtained Ist 

prifse for flavour. 

Mr. Tuos. Rocmford. Tumford Hall Nurseries, Broxboume, 
showed a new black Grape, said to be a sport ttom Black 
Alicante. The berries are large like Gros Colmar, with skin 
more like Alicante. The Grapes had very little flavour. 
The Committee would like to see the variety again after tho 
sport has been got upon its own roots. 

BEVOir St EXETER aABBENEBS'. 

jANitART 7.— The annual supper of this Association took 
place on the above date at the Castle Hotel, Exeter. Mr. W. 
CuARLKY, gardener at Wonford House, in tho chair. The 
company, consisting of members and friends, were rather 
niunerons. 



The chairman, in piopoaing ** Prosperity to the Association 
and its work," spoke of the high level of excellence to which 
manyoftheessi^ given had reached, and the instructive 
discussions which generally followed thehr readbigs, thereby 
not only bringing out the different methods of ciUtivatlon 
practised, but, by comparison and inferences drawn from the 
results, pointing out which was the best Mr. W. Maokay 
(Hon. TreasurerX in replying for the Society, said the mem- 
bars had good reason to be pleased with the work done in 
years past and good grounds lor hoping that yet better work 
would be done in the future. 



0HI8WICX aABDENEBS' mJTUAL 

IICPBOVEMENT. 

January 6.— A meeting was held in the Council Chamber 
of the Royal Horticultural Society's Gardens of the above 
society, when Mr. A. Dcan gave a lecture entitled '* Edible 
Stem Plants.'* There was a large attendance of members 
Most of Mr. Dean's remarks alluded to were of a practical 
nature, and proved very interesting to bis listeners, dealing, 
as they did, by the aid of diagrams, with Asparagus, Celery, 
Seakale, and others of that type, and giving f\ill instructions 
as to cultivation. A good discussion followed, taken part in 
by several gentleman present 

GRAND YOSKSHIBE GALA. 

Annual Meeting. 

January 7.— The annual meeting of the guarantors and life 
members of the Grand Yorkshire GaU was held at Barker's 
Hotel, York. Aid. Sir Joseph Tkrry occupying the chair. 

The Chairman, alluding to the gala in June, said that 
circumstances had prevented the public witnessing the usual 
beautiful floral exhibition. He believed tbe flower-show 
would have boon of an exceptional character, and one which 
would have been immensely appreciated. A strong wind, 
however, on the morning of the fite wrecked the flower 
tents, and rendered all the perfected arrangements but work 
in vain. The damage done amounted to about £(}00, a 
catastrophe which had never been preriously oxperienood. 
On every hand the circumstances had created regret 
Expressions of sympathy had been received from several of 
the exhibitors, and one gentleman — Mr. Atkinsox, of 
Sheffield— had sent a donation of five guineas to the Society. 
As regarded the coming /fM, they had again made satisfoctoiy 
arrangements with the Bootham Asylum authorities. 

Aid. Sir CHRisTOPncR Milward proposed tho re-election 
of Sir Joseph Terry as chairman of the council. The other 
oflioers appointed were :— Treasurer, Mr. Joseph Wilkinson ; 
secretary, Mr. C. W. Simmons; and auditors, Messrv. 
Pearson and Tiylor. The usual committees were also 
elected. 

The following grants were mode for the ensuing gala :— 
Floral arrangements, £650 (including i^50 as a Victorian 
commemoration prise, offered last year but not awarded) ; 
music, £200. 

AkL PuRHBLL proposed the health of Sir Joseph Terry, 
and congratulated him upon having attained his seventieth 
birthday. No gentleman, he said, was more esteemud in the 
dty. Aid. Sir JoBKPH Tkrry suitably responded, and the 
proceedings terminated. 

[Since this report oame to hand, we greatly regr«t to have 
received intelligence of the death of Sir Joseph Terry, on 
Wednesday, the 13th inst The deceased gentleman was for 
many years a aealous patron of the society, and of horti- 
culture generally, j 



BOTAL BOTANIC. 



Jaxuart 8.^A meeting of the Fellows of this society was 
held in the gardens at Regent's Park on Saturday last, Mi^or 
Cotton presiding. Two new Fellows were elected. The chair- 
man stated that he w«fl pleased to be able to congratulate 
the Fellows upon tiie excellent position in which the 
society now stood as compared with its position at the open- 
ing of last year. At that time the outlook was gloomy, for 
the lease of the gardens was about to expire, and an 
accumulated balance of some thousands of pounds stood on 
the wrong side of the accounts, and waa not only in itaelf a 
source of some uneasiness, but also prevented Uie society 
from giving prises at the various fitt» and shows as liberally 
as it is desired. The position, however, had been resolutely 
fiiced, and he was pleased to say that with the oo-operation 
of the Council and some of the leadiug Fellows, the society 
was now perfectly solvent, and the accumulated debt which 
had so long been a souroe of trouble and anxiety hod been 
swept away. A new lease for tho maximum term of thtrty-ono 
years had been promised by the Commisrionera of Woods and 
Forests. Not oDlywerethegmrdeusopenfM* study to thepupUe 
of tho various medical aohoola, but a soho<4 of practioal gar- 
dening had been started with the concurrence and aid of tbe 
London County Coimcll. The Middleeexand Herts County 
Councils had approached the Society with a view to sending 
stu jents to the new school, and it was believed that to ladies 
also such on opportunity of learning gardening would be 
most agreeable. The Cotmcil of the British Astronomical 
Association, too, were taking steps to erect and equip an 
observatory in the gardens. Reference was made to tbe 
great increase in the number of Fellows elected in 1897, 
there having been move than eighty above the average 



numbers of the last ten years. The receipt of a large 
number of donations to the library and museum was 
recorded, and a vote of thanks to the doaors having been 
passed, ttie meeting terminated. 

BEADING AND DI8TBI0T GAB- 
DENEB8* KUTXTAL IMPBOVEKBNT 
ASSOCIATION. 

Jaitdary lO.^The annual general meeting of the Reading 
and District Gardeners' Mutual Improvement Association 
was held in the Club Room, ** British Workman," on Mon- 
day last, when Mr. C. B. Stevens presided over a good 
attendance of members. 

The report and balance-sheet read by the bon. secretary, 
Mr. James Pound, Jun., were of a very satisfactory nature, 
both showing that the Association was in a very flourishing 
condition. The conunittee regretted the death of Mr. Alfred 
Sutton, who bad always taken a great interest in the work 
of the Association, and had since its formation in 1888 pro- 
vided gratuitously the Club Room for their meetings. They 
also record tbe death of Mr. Geoige Palmer, who was an 
annual subscriber fttmi the commencement of the Associa- 
tion. The meetings during the year had been well attended, 
on some occasions upwards of eighty members being present 

A beautiful group of weU*grown Cyclamen was abown by 
Mr. W. Townsend, Tbe Gardens, Sandhurst Lodge. 



SCOTTISH H0BTI0ULTX7BAL. 

Jaxuary 11.— Thel annual buaineas meeting was held at 
Edinburgh. Mr. M. Toon, the president of the Association, 
in-esido over a large attendance. The report of the secretary 
spoke of the success which had attended the efforts of the 
Assouiatioa, both in its literary work and the influence it had 
brought to bear in cultivating the tastes of the general 
public in a love for horticulture in its higher branches. 
From its foundation in 1877, tbe Society each year had shown 
a largo increase in membership, which had been the means 
of Qstablishing the Association on a sound financial basis. 
The first minute of ttie Association showed a membership of 
100, whOo at present there were 600 members, 150 new 
members having been elected during the past year. The 
report concluded by referring to the Chrysanthemum 
show which had boon held under the auspices of tbe 
Association. Tbe surplus profits of the show (£250 
had been allocated to charitable puiposes, as follows :— £100 
to the pavilion fund of the Edinburgh Royal Infirmary, £50 
to the Sick Children's Hospital, £50 to the Gardeners' 
Orphan Fund, and £50 to the Oardenera* Royal Benevolent 
Fund. The treasurer's report, which was lUso submitted, 
showed that the income from Uie Chrjrsanthemum show had 
been £1204 7«. 8d., and the expeneitnre, £1189 6s., giving a 
balanoe to the Association's Recount of £75 1«. 6(t, to which 
had to be added the income of the Association proper, 
£88 19«. 2d., giving a total of £164 0«. lOd. The foUowlng office- 
bearers were elected for the ensuing year :— Honorary Pre* 
sident, Hfa Grace the Duke of Bucdeuch ; President, Mr. M. 
Todd; Vico-Presidents, Mr. D. P. Laird and Mr. James 
Grieve ; Secretary, Mr. R. Laird, 17a South Frederick Street ; 
Assistant Secretary, Mi. Murray ; and Treasurer, Mr. Alex- 
ander Mackenaic. 



®bftaat|i« 

Michael Laurence.— The death u Aonounoed 

of Mr. Michael Laurence, who since 1847 has been 
the head of the flower gardens at Tostook house, 
Suffolk, the charming seat of Mrs. William Qilbert 
Tuck. Although more than eighty- two years of age, 
he remained hale and active until the last, and was 
rarely absent for a day from his work. No matter 
what season, wet or dry, he always had a wonderful 
display of hardy flowers in spring, summer, and 
autumn. Only last November, when looking round, 
we noticed over 100 plants of various kinds in bloom. 
He WIS no lover of formal beds of glaring colour 
and prim form, but delighted in the better class of 
annuals and perennials to relieve the more formal 
class of bedding-plants. Perhaps as a grower of 
Pansies, Auriculas, Primulas, and Dahlias, he had 
few equals, and as a good all-round man, his employers . 
have certainly lost one of the best. A large number 
of persons from all parts of East Anglia attended 
his funeral on Friday last at Tostock Church. 

Max Deeqen.— Many Dahlia cultivators in this 
country will learn with regret of the death,at Kdstrits, 
in Thilringia, of Herr Max Deegen, at the age 'of 
fifty- six years. He was the second son of the Dahlia 
raiser, Christian Deegen, of Kditrits. M. Deegen 
followed his father's profession, at first in his nursery 
at that plaoe ; and afterwards travelled in Bearoh of 
knosrledge and experience. He returned after several 
years, and took over the management of his father's 
nursery, and in 1S70 he started an independent 



Tae OAHbENtHiS' csaomcis. 



[jAinFAXT II, KM. 



bkumcn u iorirt, bat ehteflf ■■ > niMT of DahliM, 
uid it U to bii efforta In tbU dinotion Uwt we owe 
mmj at our moat bawitlAil vuietiN. Th* biurioeaa 
will ooDtiDue to be otnied oa by bie eldelt Mu, 
AdoUDergen. 





■Il<» 




Dnmln 


ofhov.) 










T«.™ut™. 


B-™- 


"C" 




ill 


AcmnouTxD. 


l,§,i 


/^ 


1 


1 

ii 


1 


jliilli 


la 


11 


i 

1 




1:; 




tui 






:;r!;r 


iS 


3 


S 


js 




M 


i 


|il|ill» 


i 






F 












































« + 






+ ■ 


- bo™ 




1-1 


M 


M 




t + 






+ : 














t + 


ID 


11 


+ 1 


- a 


1 + 




0-7 


U 


II 




« + 


15 




+ 1 


- « 


s + 












a 4. 


If 


14 


+ !■ 


- s 


1 + 




01 


tt 


13 




1 + 


98 




+ 1: 










w 






4 -f 


11 


11 


+ 11 


-- » 


t -t- 




IS 


11 


n 




s + 


tl 




+ 1- 


- 31 


11 + 




11 


IT 


IT 




* + 






+ 11 


- 2 


» + 












4 + 


tl 


11 


-I- 11 


- ll 


s + 




I 


It 


IS 


1 


4 + 






+ 11 


- > 


' + 












1 + 


" 




+ ra 


- 11 


a - 




O's 


le 


M 



Tha dLstricla indlatad bj 
tha roUowlag :— 

0, Bcotliod, M. PpIi 



D Iba nnt BOlnmD 1 






■ ■In] 



Enquiry. 



'• St Out tMaHoMa awdt ilUl tan muA'—SAom. 
Will u; readar of thli Jounul kindly tell 
''H. C J." Uie ntme and addnaa of the makera oE 
tbe Chetteuhsm Garden Engine (Page'a Patent). 



"aomoiDlited tanparatora" [ndieatea tha »egn- 

„ nonst, ai veil u Iba dontlon, of dtgraaa d( 

Ismpgntora abOTa or boloa *V Falir. for tha period 
named: and thia oomhinad reaolt la axpnaaad In Dtf- 



aAADBinVG APPOZHmHT. 

r. Thomab PHiUjrg, for naarly thna nan Haad Gardanar 
with the lata F. Litdiil'HI. R«i., at BeUaiue, DelganT, 
DO. Wlcklow. haa bean a^aliit«l Beul Oanlmwr ta 

Ir. TauutJi K. BiHDiLL, lor the urt UTsntean ^ean Oar- 
dBon al Iwigton Hall, NorUuUanaB. and Hendler, 011- 
llDgbam, Donalablta, aa GardanaT to B. O. IdiTHAM, 
Eiq., Bemiworth BoU, near Wskeflald. 

'. Culidoh. tela Oardenec to Oaptala Joujn, Heath Hoow, 
Fetunneld, Haata, aa Haad Oardeiur ta llalcrr Qvinmiv, 






CATALOQUES RECEIVED 

HiaLaa Hbakf* A Co., Ltd., tHeatoft, Uacolnahln—Seada. 
jiiaa&BciiMiirr. Eifurt. Gemunj— Saada and PlantL 
300000 A Som, HouthamptDo— Saeita. 
. Back Hooai * Hon. Tca-k-Sesd*, An 
RumoE Baoa , Ltd.. Nottlaghafa-Seedi, BidbK and 
rianta (or Spring Plantbig. 

"■ "---IDS A Bona, ChilweU Nunerlea, Nottinihau— 1, 
3« Chryaanthaninraa. 
H, VeoTll Nururica. Somenet— Bago&laa. 
IIoou b BonEBTSOH, 11:1, UwT Street, Dublin— Beaia, ke. 
Uekd Bhob.. FeuHtb -Seodi and Bundri««. 
Ephoktok liiUH., 10, Dame Street, DubUa— Heed*, Me. 
W. Sbanh, The OreiiTes Nunerlea, I*ncaater— Saeda, tt. 
Austin « JI0A111.1H. W, Mitchell ati«at, aiuWDir-.B«>da, Me. 
M. CuTHaiRnaii. Rotheaar. N.E — Seeda, " ' 

Plant!, Roaea, Vlolu, ie. 
Bahh a Sous, King BCreat, Corent Garden— Sei 
RoBT. SiniiHiK, Tenbf Bt., Blrniinglum— Saei 



Seeds. Ac. 

■ICMOK & Co., Waterloo Placo, Edinburgh— Beeda, fte. 
'h. BATLoa HiiTi^no, PAtrIck ainat. Cork-Se«li, ka. 
Lix. LiSTH & 3oN. 13, High Street. KathHa; -Seeda. 
iiLHAT A 8o>, Ijingport, Saniimet— Oarden Seada, Paren- 

nial HarbaceouiTlaaCa, Fmntea, 01-dloll, he. 
: MiLLU t Co., iB7. Fiilham Road, Landoa— Seedi. 
rM. Cltbhah a Box, ID and 11, Market Street— Beada. 
uaK Bboi. * Co., K, Scotih Stieat, Carllile-Bwdi, Ac. 
ru, CirraotH b BoHa, HlRfagate, Londo ' ~ 



kmiiod, M. PHiuipat rkaat-prodwlM DWrld 
Scotland, B.i I, SngUnd, N.B.; S, Bngland. ] 
. Uldland Ooontlea ; G, Boglaad, laoludlng London, 
rlaetiiaJ Omiiiu, 4t., DlatHdi — 0, Bcatland. W. 
T, England, N.W.; B, England, B.W. ; >, Ireland, N. 
It. Ireland, & ; * Obaiuel IiUndi. 



(umldisd fran tbe Metsonjhjglca Offlea :— 

" The tuailur during thli period waa Tsry nnaattted and 
mOd over the Kln^m aa a whole, with frsquoot and con- 
aldanble falli ol rain la all the weatem dEitrtoCa. Ofer tha 

aa a nils, lea frequent and heavy, and aever*! Interrala of 
clear Mgbt weaUier were experienced. 

" Tbe InnptTotwrt waa abovo the mean, tha exoeea ranging 
tram 1° In 'BooUand, H.,' and 1° In 'Scotland. B.,' to 9° In 
>maat tvtta of ■ England,' and to {° la ' England, B.' The 

tbe week, nod rinied frDBi fiS^ In ' BngtaBd. E.,' and tf" 
In 'England, H. and Ireland, B..' to 4«° In 'Scotland, N.' 
Tbe lewaat of the minimn, which were raglatered on ratber 
rregular datei, ranged fnim 13° In ' Scotland, K. and B.," 
andS8°ln ' EngUnd. E aiidS.W.,' ta3&° lD'BBf[land,E.W., 
andSO-ln tbo 'Channel lilanda.' 

"The rniV'l eioeeded the mean In all tha -GiuIng 
dUtilota, aa waU aa in ' England. H.E and E, and the Mid- 
land Counttaa,' the eiceaa being ver? large In 'England. 
M.W. and Ireland, B.' In ' Sootland, E, England, B., nnd 
the Channel lalanda,' it waa laai than the mean value. 

*' Tbe tn'iiiM luiialiv waa aomewhat in eiceaa of tbe megu 
In moat of the northern, eaatam, andaoulhem diatrlcta, but 
balow or ]uat equal to It In the weat The peroentage of the 
pcaaible dunUoB riUiged from M in ' Xng^d, B, and the 




Books : 0, Bivad, Jurtr. A muutl on tbe cultln- 
tion oF tbe Dkhlia in laid by Dobbi* k Co., 
Rathe*«]', N.a, ilao by Hcnn. UacmillH ft Co., 
London. 

CcFsraus luwsoRiAir* A no C. (Ritikosfoka) 



o diatinguiah. OroerAlly 1 
are more suddenly and abraptly afdne-tipped, nod 
flatter than in C. l^wrcnlaDa. The conei in tbe 
Utter aboK tbe tipa at the braota more oleariy than 
do tboee of the Retinoapora. But it yon are bwodling 
them ererj day you will aoon set to know them 
much better than thoae who only aee them occa- 
aionallT- 
EurBOBBiA JAOqniHixrLOBA : Anxioiu. Cut np tbe 
ripened parta of tha itema into lengtha of to 12 
inohei. Thii abonld be dons whan tha plaata bSTe 
gone out of Soirfr, and bare been kept dry for ten 



Trade Notice. 

Hh. Hekbt Woixcook, u Manager at Po«brooke 
Qaidttt^ TitchOeld, Haota, 



- twelve daya. Tbey may be itruok unglj in 
well-drained pota fltled with aandy-peat ; or, better 
■till, balf-a-dozen tugather in a 48, In bottom<heaL 
Thene potf ola of rooted enttinga may be planted out 
in a border in a stove, or repotted wiibont eepanitiog 
tbetn one from tbe other, tbe eSeot ol tbe whole, 
when in flower, being luperior to that afforded by 
aingle ^tlanta. It ia a plant that waota a good deal 
of rootmg-apaoe, and a bat, lunny place in wblob to 

atopping the poii 
there wul then be more flower apraya, tbeae will be 
amalL The beat kind of sail fur Euphorbia Jacquioiw 
flora ii a ricb, aandy peat -, and aa ■ good aeal of 

water it required by < 

■ufflcient ipttoe ahoold I 
plenty of c 



GMuacruciL Drawiro : Bucit. A manual ii, ■• 
believe, published by Mr. Upeott Oill, BamarOfia, 
171, Strand, W.C. 
NAMia or FxDiia: ^. O. SpaeimeQ not a good ow, 

bnt probably Coz's Pomona. 
Names of Plants : CormpondeiUt twt aiutmi 
IS thu itnt are requeued to be ta go«i 11 
to eontnU the /oliowing ntimber. — II. t ,V. 
Probably a leedling Qoareua Ilex.— />. M. M.. 
JJHiRAarMa. The Onihid ia Onoidiam JaoNtuHia 
Tbe plant ii found generally to thrive bert mii 
bare block or raft, and ita natural habit of gmlli 
it for the tbiok terete tbliage to hang donwn^ 
When making new growths, 70a ean scarody ^n 
ittoomocbbeat and moiatnra ; bnt while Bawaii| 
a OMler hooee enite tbe plant better, and prolisf 
the dnialion ot tbe floweia. Tbe hooae yoo hia 
ll in will probably auit tt Ibr tbe greater paili 
the year.— v. M. Uypeticnm Aiidroaxiniun. - 
0. B. 1, Fteris oretioa alba lineata; 2, Pbn 
•arrulata ; 3, Pteria Oavenrdi ; 4, Fterii tan 
lata erUlata ; fi, Pteria orelioa ' ~ 

tmnla.— i. D. L. 
PsTDnas FBOM SuD Sows Ol A Cou> Tnui: 
J. f. 8. The plant! oan be laiaed in a cool lioa;, 
pmrlded the teed be town tbinb in pots or ■> 
filled with Ugfat, sUf^tly (andy aoU, aodoonnjli 
gennlnation bai taken place with a tile ut piaatf 
glass. Whea the aeedliogs are abova-grouDd. bti^ 
tbe seed-pot oloae to the glass, affording it 1 ili(tl 
amount of shade when the jud is shining. Fnd 
out the pUala when tbay are balf-an-inob hi^ 
PoiHgRTlA FULOKEBRIHA : Anxiout. From i* 
prsaent time, or when the flowers fade and ttt 
foliage bagiiia to toni of a yellow ooloor, withkU 
water, bnt atUl ke^ the planta In a nuktenlel} 
warm boaaa, and when quite at reat, ston ll» 
In any dry abed out of rtaoh of frott. Cuttiif 
may be nude of tbe leafless ripe ahoola cnl 'iM 
6 to 9-inob lengths, and stmck singly or nwnl 
together in wall-diained pots filled with very sail 
lo«n, and than afforded a gentle watarint Tu 
pota may be stood in a hot-hooaa till rooted, baif 
careful not to aObrd them much water till n>A 
form. When potted 0% the plants should be pu 
Into a warm pit near tbe glasa, and shidtd Ii 
estabtiahed, but not aftermnla. Vary Uttlt uii- 
flclal heat to required during tbe aummer jcxb.Oa 
Old planta may be started into growth sAsr SovO' 
ing^ without afibrding them any nat, tbs jvH 
•boots being taken off with a beel. and u«d ■ 
onttings. Thaoe may be 6 Lnchea long, Tor 
Tcot bleeding, plaoe the cuttings round theilD 
of a deep pot, the butt onda upwards just n^ 
above the rim, fill with damp warm und. u>< 
leave them therein for twenty-four houn >» ' 
warm house, by which time tite milky JaieM*!' 
have hardened where exuded. Tbey mort <* 
struck in propagating-pit or hot-bed, ■''^ Vj* 
olose, the' learee being tied up to small ■!■<>* 
Tha treatment alter rooting ia tbe asms m bH 
given above. 
Pbikola OBoomlA ; 0. M. 1. In the abaeDn of "f 
particnlar* of ooltivation wa cannot account tw '■* 
browning of the edges of the leavea. It iadoabU* 
soma little point in culture ; and we notatlialt" 
leaves are defUdent la aabstanoe. 
Tubs ahd Sbbdbb : G, W. For ezoeptiom m ^ 
what rabbiu will not eat, see " Anawer* W ^ 
reapondents " in Qarxieiiert' Ckfonid€, for JV' '- 
OoiaffDTicATion REoaiTnn. — J. V. A Bon. — G. S. A-Hj 



J. J. ' 

W. J. B,- 



TL— F. H.-D. R. 1 



[. T.— D. T. T. -W. W.— M. C 



thankaj.-T. B.— W. Q. B.— W. W— R P. H-I'Ji, 
Jadco.— B. H. DO.— J. F., WickhanL— n. H.^>'"J*, 
—A. D.— F. W. B.— T. D,— H. M.— FL D.—V. B.-O- >■ 






d be Irit lor affording it, and 



CONTINUED LARGE INCREASE in the CIRCULATlOl' 
of tht "GARDENERS' CHRONICLE." 

Im orient to Advartlaara.— rika PaUiiiUr Itoi If "<'*^ 
lioa i/aaHniacIaf Oat l*< itrcatoiioa 0/ 1** "*"*"; 
(.'ftroali^" 4u, ilui Ut< TulMlica <> (*! prln o/lf^' 

XOBB THAN DOVBI.BD, 

and that it ooatlnnea to laoreass waekiT' 

AdmrUtm art maladad Uiat tSt " ChrvnicU" circa'""' """I 

Oommv OanuHM, uid ai.1, Ouaan or O""*?^ 

un OAADan-wvaaa at horn; Oat it »«»1*^'T!i 

ToBUas AID OOLOMIAI, Ol aCO LATIOB, oad *" " 

Fra«n«l /«■ n/»r«jto« *« att ttt prlaiilpBi t*»™*V^ 



(At Mmkeli « 



ii.) 



Januakt 22, 1898.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHR ONI CL E. 



49 




THE 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 22, 1898. 



DO ORCHIDS DEGENERATE? 

O INGE the very interesting article appeared 
^^ on the above subject in the pages of the 
OardenerB* Chronicle of September 18 last, I 
have been somewhat disappointed in finding 
the hope expressed by the writer that the 
readers of the Gardeners* Chronicle might be 
" able and willing'* to give their version of a 
matter of such great importance has been but 
partially realized, only a limited number of 
contributors ooming forward with their ex- 
periences. The few papers that have appeared, 
however, are valuable, the most so, I venture 
to think, in partly affording a direct answer 
to the question, being the plain unvarnished 
list of Orchids furnished bv Mr. W. H. White, 
from Sir Trevor Lawrence's collection, which 
appeared in the Oardenera* Chronicle of Oct. 2 
last. Surely this list tends to prove that, under 
prox>er treatment, Orchids in this country do 
not degenerate. 

It is something to say that out of some 250 
species enumerated more than fifty of the plants 
have been in cultivation for the past twenty 
years, and considerably over 100 for the past 
fifteen years, and all are, presumably, at the 
present moment in robust health. It must also 
be remembered that many of the species in this 
list fall under the heading of the ** unmanage- 
ables." In putting the question : Do Orchids 
degenerate ? I take it that what is meant is, do 
the plants gradually, and year by year, decline 
in vigour after importation, even when treated 
in a rational manner, and when grown under 
conditions as nearly as possible similar to those 
under which the plants are found flourishing 
in their various natural habitats. I have never 
had the pleasure of inspecting Sir Trevor 
Lawrence's famous collection, yet I am inclined 
to the belief, that in its cultivation attention is 
paid to the reproduction, as far as possible, of 
those natural conditions under which the plants 
flourish in the various climes from which they 
are procured, and therein, to a very great 
extent, lies the secret of success. If this be so, 
then, I think, it may be said that we are 
approaching, at least, the final answer to the 
question, Do Orchids degenerate P 

Mr. T. Simcoe, in Gard. Chron,y Oct. 16, 1897, 
p. 275, gives two causes for degeneracy in 
Orchidi grown in England, viz., the ravages of 
yellow thrip, and our trying British winters. 
Some winters are trying, no doubt, but at the 
worst they can only check the growth and 
vigour of Orchids for a limited period, and a 
style of house may yet be invented to put an 
end to this drawback. Besides the above, 
numerous other causes might be assigned for 



degeneration in Orchids of a like character, but 
is it not idle to take these matters into con- 
sideration at all ? It* we are to consider them, 
then it may in truth be said that nearly the 
whole of our cultivated plants are in a state of 
degeneracy, as nearly all suffer more or less 
from the attacks of insects and the vicissitudes 
of our climate. 

I take it, however, that all this has nothing 
to do with the question at issue, namely, ** Do 
Orchids degenerate in England when cultivated 
under circumstances most favourable to their 
health and longevity, and in consideration of the 
natural conditions under which they are found 
to flourish in a wild state P " It is obviously 
a waste of time to write about yellow thrip, 
crowding, unsuitable potting - material, &c., 
as causes of degeneracy, because all these are 
inimical to the health and longevity pf any plant 
in cultivation. In conversation lately, I was 
given the familiar example of the Potato ; but is, 
after all, the frequent failure of this crop to be 
attributed to degeneracy P Let those who wish 
an answer to this query remember that the 
Potato has been in cultivation in Britain for the 
last three centuries, and now at the end of that 
long period, witness the displays of the different 
varieties of the tuber, and then say if the 
Potato has or has not degenerated P methinks if 
the exhibition examples of the present day 
could be compared wiUi the first importation of 
the tuber by Sir Walter Baleigh, the question 
of degeneration would very soon be lost sight of. 
Disease is not degeneracy. The first can be 
combated, the second cannot I may be told 
that but for the raising of new varieties from 
seed the Potato would, at the present day, be 
unknown in England. Possibly, but the battle 
has been fought against disease, not against 
degeneracy. I therefore consider that most 
excellent and valuable advice has been given 
in that part of the paper in the Chrdenera* 
Chronicle of September 18, in which the writer 
says, " The question is, then, would it not be 
wise to raise uncrossed, or true, many of the 
finer varieties of Cattleyas, Lselias, and other 
popular Orchids, and thus while increasing the 
plants wished for, get also the better constitu- 
tion which comes with the seedling plant raised 
in the country in which it has to grow P " 

I am strongly of the opimon that failure in 
Orchid-growing results, in most cases, from a 
total lack of knowledge of the various dimatio 
conditions which prevail in the regions from 
which the imported plants are drawn, and the 
conditions under which they flourish and blos- 
som in their native wilds. To one who has 
seen Orchids growing in their native wilds it 
is a grievous thought to know of the vast num- 
bers of these plants that are annually torn 
from the Orchid forests of the world, brought 
to the hammer in England, and from want of 
knowledge and other causes, allowed to perish 
and be thrown to the rubbish-heap. Let any 
one look at the weekly notices of auction sales of 
Orchids which appear in the Oardenera' Ohnmide, 
and then ask the question, What becomes of 
all these plants of which the jungles of the 
world are robbed year by year, and sent like 
ordinary merchandise to our markets? Are 
they all cared for, and do they all find suitable 
quarters for the reproduction of that beauty and 
sweetness erst so lavishly wasted '<on the 
desert air P " Perhaps, if all the truth were 
known, the answer would be — ^not a tithe of 
these are ;given a chance to renew that beauty 
and fragrance, but are doomed to decay and 
death at no distant date from their first arrival 
on our inhospitable shores. If ever it be found 



necessary to legislate against the indiscriminate 
and wholesale destmotion of any plant, let that 
plant be the Orchid. I am aware that England 
is not mistress of all the Orchid-producing 
countries of the world, but many of her colonies 
and possessions abound in these plants, not a 
few of which are of the rarest beauty and value, 
and which she has the power to protect and 
save from total extinction. 

To my mind, the most interesting and sugp- 
gestive passage in the article in the Oard, Chron. 
of Sept. . 18 last, already referred to, is that 
in which the writer says that to redeem many 
evergreen Orchids from the hst of nnmanage- 
ables, probably more attention must be paid to 
the all-important matters of rest and moisture, 
for "an excess of heat and moisture at a 
season when, though evergreen, they require, 
in the same manner as the deciduous plants 
coming from the same districts, a resting season, 
though not necessarily a drying-off.*' 

A more valuable suggestion than this, I 
venture to think, could hardly be offered, and 
in support of it, I may be allowed to give my 
experience of the conditions under whid^ 
Orchids both evergreen and deciduous are 
found growing in their native habitats, which 
though circumscribed, may yet be of some 
littie value to the reader. 

The following observations are confined to 
what I noticed on the plains and hill-tracks of 
Malabar, in Southern India, where I sojourned 
for several years. I have no experience of 
other districts or coontries, so that whether the 
conditions under which* the two typical plants 
are found in other quarters of the globe are the 
same I will leave otiiers to say. 

Evergreen Orchids in Malabar are generally 
found from the coast level up to an elevation of 
say 3,000 feet ; f^m 3,000 feet up to 5,000 feet 
deciduous Orchids are found, and from 5,000 
feet up to the summit of the highest mountains 
evergreen Orchids are again found. There are 
thus three distinct zones, the plants of the one 
never encroaching upon that of the other. Of 
course there must be a cause for this, and so Ux 
as I am able to judge it is as follows. J, Lowrie. 

(To ht eonHiMtad.) 



KEW NOTES. 

Lobelia iNrntnxTA, Bsker.—This is a new spedes 
of Lobelia which has ktely been reoflived from 
Britirii Centrtl AfHoa, where it grows at an elevation 
of about 2000 feet on the Zomba. hills, and is 
described aa " a very pretty spedes, wonderfully free- 
floweriog, generally at its best nndor the shade of 
rocks." It has the habit of L. erinui, the beddbg 
Lobelia, but is looser, the stems and under-side of 
the leaves are purple and hairy, the latter being 
spatulate^ crenata^ and half an indi in diameter. 
The flowers, whioh are in loose terminal raeemes^ 
are on slender stalks 1 inch long, and they are of the 
usual shape, half an inch in diameter, ooloured bright 
lilao-blne, with a white oentral area, and a pair of 
eye-like spots on the lower segments. The Kew 
planta were raised from seeds sown kst spring, and 
they have flowered freely and contfamously ^*i^ 
Nofember, the poisonous fogs experienced about 
Christmas time having no apparent effect upon them. 
I beUe?e this will prove a useful pot-pUnt for the 
greenhouse in mid-winter, and it is also likely to be 
uieftd as a bedder. A flgure of it has been prepared 
for the BoianictU Magatine, 

Kniphofia paiMOLiaiA. 
Plants of this handsome new yellow-flowered 
spectes are now flowering freely in the tsmpstate- 
house at Kew. It was reoei?ed from Herr Max 
Leichtlin in November, 1894, who wrote ** I big to 
send you a new Kniphofia whieh eame fW>m Kalal, 
and is a winter-bloomer. The leaves are 8^ to 4 feet 



50 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



tJANTARY 22, 1898. 



long, tnd the feapei are a yard hi^i^ It is a graoaCal 
plaat. Perfa^^n Mr. Baker will be good enough to 
name it when it flowera." In the following apring it 
was planted in the Bamboo garden, where it grew 
freely, but did not show for flower till Norember, 
conaeqaently the flowers did not develop. Next 
year the plant was grown in a pot outside, and taken 
into the temperate-house to bloom. This it did in 
January last year, when Mr. Baker named it as above, 
and desoribed it in the new yolume of the Flora 
Captnns, Several examples of it are in flower now, 
and as the spikes are as strong, and the flowers as 
numerous and large as those of K. aloidee, whilst 
their colour is a clnar primrose-yellow, it will be 
seen that this is a useful addition to winter-flowering 
plants for the greenhouse. The flowers were uninjured 
by fog. 

OXAUS ORIR ATA. 

This plant has been reoommended, and, I bdieve, 
tried as a substitute for the Potato in oountries where 
the climate is unfie^vourable to the latter. It has 
fleshy stems about 2 feet long, and from the base of 
these in the autumn stoloniferous stems are de- 
veloped, upon which are Potato-like tuben in large 
numbers. Plants grown in a bed in the open air at 
Kew produced a large crop, the largest being 
2 oz. in weight. Baw, they are of a bright red colour, 
but when with cooking they change to a pale amber 
colour, they are quite as palatable as the Jerusalem 
Articoke. Those I tried were boited twenty minutes 
in water containing a pinch of carbonate of soda. 
According to Yilmorin, this is the "Oka" of the 
Peruvians, and is hi^y esteemed in Peru and Bolivia 
as a vegetable. The tuben when gathered are expoaed 
to the action of the sun for a few days. They are planted 
in rows S feet apart, and are not dug until alter Khe 
frost has destroyed the tops. Two varieties ase 
cultivated in France, the yellow and the red. In my 
opinion this plant is worth a trial in the wanner 
parts of thia country. The tubers are being distri- 
buted from Kew to likely stations in the colonies and 
India. 

Stbblitzia Rkqinjb. 

There are two large healthy examples of this plant 
now flowering in the Mexican-house at Kew, where 
they are planted in a sunny position in a kind of 
rockery. One of the plants has eight and the other 
five spikes, each about 4 feet long, and bearing an 
orange-yellow and dark blue flower 6 inches long. 
For 8u<di houses as that named — indeed, for any warm 
or tropical stove of large aise, this is an excellent 
plant, whether grown in a pot or planted in a border. 
In the same house with S. Reginse, and also in flower, 
is a large specimen of S. augusta, which used to be 
iu the " Paimanim " at Olympic before it oame to 
Kew. The nearly-allied spedei/ 8. Kioolai, is in flower 
in the PlUm-house. W, W. 



Alpine Garden. 



NEW AND RARE PLANTS FOR ROCKERIES. 

{fiontiaiued frtm p. 2a) 

AtiriuMia m^jor rosea is common in the mlpine 
pasturages above Montreux, and in the Alps of 
the Rochers de Naye. The involuore is pink, 
often carmine, and very showy. I transplanted some 
plants here into our oonmion garden ooil, and they 
kept their colour very well. 

Oampanmlm mirabUis, Albo£^ was found by Mr. 
Nicolas AlbofiT, September 2, 1894, in a creviee of a 
limestone rode in Abchasia (Caucasus). He foimd 
only one plant of this marvellous Campanula, and 
we were fortunate enough, when he Ivought it 
to Geneva, where the dried , specimen was placed in 
the Boissicr Herbarium, to find some ripe seeds in 
two carpels, so that the species has been intro- 
duced into gardens. It is a beautiful plant, and 
M. AlboiF WIS very enthusiastic in speaking of his 
discovery. It grew in a chalky soil, exposed to 
the full sun, and the one plant bore more than a 
hundred flowers. These flowers are very latge, and 
belong to the group of the Campanula medium ; they 
are of a very good lilac or light reddish-blue colour. 



Tke peonliarity of th« plant is in iti root, whidi is 
very thidc, and Gairot4ike. The leaves are thid^ of 
a very daep green ooLoor, ahining^ glabroos, and very 
strongly eUii^ ct tha maigin. ThBj are 4 to 6 in. 
long, li to 1| inoh broad, and of a leathery taxtura. 
It has not yet flowered with us, but it flowered with 
my Mend Mr. Max Leiohtlin, at Baden Baden, who 
says it was a glorious thing. A good plate of it 
appeared in the B^UHm de VHerbier BinMner, t. UL, 
iHiere it was first desoribed, and in the rare volume 
by Mr. Alboff, Prodromut Fhrm Cdekieee. 

Clemaiia heraeletfoUa, D.O. , is a distinct and curious 
■pedes, of whidi we got seeds from the University 
garden of Tokyo (Japan). The planta from theee seeds 
are very similar to those of an old Clematis wfaiofa 
was in this garden, then belonging to Mr. Paris, for 
more than thirty years without anyone knowing what 
it was, or being able to identify it. The pknt is 
sannenioee, bat not climbing ; ita braadiea 4^ to 6 
feet long hang from the roeks, or creep over the soiL 
The leaves are large, 9 inohes long, and 8 broad, 
eompoaed of five leaflets, of vHiich the terminal is 
much laiger than the others. They are dentate^ and 
of a deep green tint, somewhat shi^y. The flowers 
are very numerous, borne in large panides, rather 
small, of the same form and sise as those of C. 
vitalba, but of a light blue. They seed rarely here, 
and we have seldom gathered any ripe seed from our 
old plant ; but the spedes can be easily increased by 
grafting. The profusion of the little bluish flowera 
in immense racemee from August till November 
makes the plant very deoorative in the rock-garden. 
It growa in a ahady or aunny portion, and in any 
good soil. 

Copnmwta Pekei, Ch. [?]. ia a flne little Rubia- 
eeous shrub creeping over the sdl, and of the same 
appearance as Asale* proeumbens. The seeds were 
sent to me from New Zealand, and gathered there 
2200 feet up the mountains. The plant is hardy, 
but although our spedmens are four years old, they 
have not yet flowered. I do not find any mention 
of it in the Index KewentU, 

Corokia CoUmeatter, Raoul, is another New Zealand 
shrub, which has proved hardy here, and of which we 
got seeds from the Southern Alpe of New Zealand at 
2000 feet altitude. Curious hi growth, erect, with 
few and small cuneate leaves, white underneath, of 
spiny aspect, the ahrub is more curious than beautiful, 
but suitable for rookeriea. 

Ooiida Bqualida, Hook, i, and C. pyrethrffoUa, 
Hook. £— The former came from Otira Valley, 
Westland, in Hew Zealand (1100 feet) ; the aeoond, 
from Mount Rolleston, Westknd (4500 feet). Two 
nioe little Compoaitea, of which M. Cockayne 
sent us «eads five yean ago, and which are very 
har^y. Th^ are quite dwarf, creeping, growing 
exceedingly rapidly, spreadiog everywhere over the 
soil, and covering it with their pretty foliage, like a 
little Fern (iUplenium fbntanum), although muoh 
smaller. The flowers are without interest^ but the 
growth of the plants and their charming foliage give 
them value. 

Vianthut BoUeierif WiUkomm, was discovered by 
Boissier in the Sierra Morena (Spain), and ia a large 
and curious form of D^ sylvestris. The stem is oftmi 
2 feet high, and the flowers large and of a good 
carmine tint. It requires a sunny position. 

D. gremUicutt Jordan, from the south-weat of 
France, il a very dwarf variety, growing hi the 
fissures of rocks and aandy ledges of granitic forma- 
tion in the OUve region. Flowers soUtary, small, of 
a very good red colour. It requires a sunny podtion. 

D. ditUinuSt Kitaibel, fh>m the Transylvanian 
Alps and the Banat, is a very rare plant, 16 inches 
high, with glaucous foliage, and a head of flowers 
of a very good pinkish-carmine tint. 

D, gracUUf Sibthorp, is a small-growing plant, 
wHh thin and narrow leaves, with sturdy and sweet- 
smdling flowers, of a light rose colour. It requires 
a sunny habitat. It grows on Mount Athos, and in 
the Balkans. 

D. microUpiSf Boisder, has been found by Frivaldsky 
in the alpine regions of the Mounts lUlodagh and 



Kalophir in Thrace, at an altitude of 7700 feet 
grows in Bulgaria, and I have got sesdi of it 
Rhodope. It is a very distinct speeiss, quite d 
a kind of Dianthus gladalis in miniitars. 
flowen are of a good oarmine-rsd, and we hiTe 
white-flowered variety. 

Dimthmt pinifoliut, Sibthorp et Smith, from 
mountains in Turkey, Greece, and WaUadiift. 
seeds of it we have from Rhodope, tad 
yidded a very curioua Dianthus, with nirrov 
of deep green, with email flowers in duiten, 
borne on long atema. The corolla is pile 
or rather lilaa 

DUmUkut epinoauSf Desfontaines (D. Fontu^ 
Boiss.), is a little bushy plant, very densalyceipitB 
glaucous, forming dense tufts, and not ipin7--iMi 
the name apinoaua aeema incorrect — ^bnt tpinn 
appearance and bearing wtiite flowen, piok4 
ag^merated into small heads. It is a DitiT<> oil 
higher Persian Alps, ff, Corrtvom, Oenev%. 



THE EOYAL BOTANICAL 
GARDEN, BELFASr 

iRtLAHD is not particularly rich in pablie ^ 
and girdens, but those actually in ezisteooe e 
remarkable for their quality, and for the richiwic 
luxuriance of their hardy and exoUo vegeUtioiL A' 
the head and front of such Irish gardens isQlsnin 
and no park in Europe can rival the Plicenix Piii 
Dublin, in ita natural beauty, its primsefd groiei' 
Hawthorn, and ito ezoeUent keeping. In ^>^ 
itself we have the St Stephen*s Graeo Visi, '^ 
noble gift of Lord Aidilaun. with its grMniwariifi- 
pools, its plants, and ita treea, and ita timqa«<^ 
tion of choice water-fowl, a veritable ouii iat^ 
midst of a great city, to which all have a mt)\cMf» 
free access, be they peers of the realm or a groof 
city arabs from the Coombe and otber popol^ 
purlieus, bent on enjoying a tumble oa the ^ 
grass, a frugal picnic with thdr tioy ^-^ 
sisters amongst the birds and the flowfn. rr% 
Dublin to Cork is a fSu- cry, but the Queen'* roi**' 
dty Oardena at Cork are rich in chdoe plaati, iQ6l« 
ing a collection of apeoies, varieties, and by^* 
the genus Brownea, not to be aeen so well gro«»*^ 
flowered and fruited perfaapn elsewhere ^ "* 
treat to aee the creeper-laden walls, and tbsp^ 
there, where sweet Baya or Laurels flowflcaodN 
aa luxuriantly aa in Italy ; and many exotiei n 
usually aeen are to be found in the ptaot-honaa; 
even in the genial, open-air garden of this beiiC^ 
Bouth country. 

Kot many weeks ago I paid a vldt to " Oa^] 
black, north - of Ireland with a gArden.loviogJ&J« 
who took me to Belfast, and someof its pretti»<° 
publie and private gardens. I had been previo»l 
under the erroneous impression that the ^^^^ 
Otrdens at Bel&st ''wen going down,** ^^^ 
many years back this had, I learned, really b*»tt| 
ease ; but there is now a vigorous and o*^ 



and the Belfast Botanicd <^^^^ 
Park promiaa soon to rival those of other *o^ ^ 
more fiivourod pkoee. The beneficial '^•'^^ 
which I refer b^gan when the Corporation of o» 
acquired the garden on behalf of tbe citi>"^ 
who now flock to it by the thousand and ten* 
thousanda on high days and holidays. . ^ 

Although a town-garden in every ^^^ J. j^ 
word, it is nevertheleis a most attractive and^ 
etthig place, with broad bieadths of r«*^ 
floe ahade-treee, gay flowera in quantity at dj ■«* 
and wdl-stodLod and artistically-arranged P 
houses to boot ^ 

Bedde the main walk leadhig fh>m the en^^ 
the oonaervatories are good exampla> o^ ^" 
nex in varied, and other Oak-trees, inc^^^^JJjJi, 
q[>edmen of Querous suber, Q. •""^^''•'^fj'Srd 
yirens, and one or two rare kinds, such •■ ^ 
and Q. fulhamenris. ^^ j 

On my first visit, when looking at the tr^ 
Smith, of Newry, pointed out to me on w« ^^ 
near the rockery, an old apcoimen of *"*j^-( 
leaved Pyrus (Aria) majeatica— perhaps ^^Jzll 
leaved and most effective of all the geog^I* 



THE aARDENEBS' CHRONICLE. 



'rtUUom ot ths " White BtMU " tree. BetOh pnpu- ■Ithough odIj reoently oomKleted. Tben h« rocka gneu ; bat it ia more thu n dre«m, for the worken 

UoIiA pandnla ii uother nn ud dlitmot tree hen, andb<nilder«inalIpiidtioiu*iidupeeti,aiidtheplM>ti in the fBOtoriea kod dookjarda o( B«1fMtuv •livenow 

ind growi fraaly, M one might utanUy npMt in an doing weU upon or new tliem. There U * drip- to the gentle ipirit of the garden, 4od, » we hare 

LhU northen lutd of Birdi and Willow*. Ai one well and LUj-pooli for theee and other aquatioe, and wd, flook here with (helc children and their wivea 

kpprMobea Bellkat, no tne-loTBT oan tail to be etnidt there u also an extenuve pond or Uks, the baoka of toeea theSowan, or toitroU oaths green turf under 

with admintiDn at tbe graoeftil, iilTei7-atamined wbioh ars to be gnoed with Japueee Buubooi and the treea, or to maaadsr quietlj through the ooncer- 

Birahea, and the grey Willowa b; the bumi or Va^lMi wt^ ^'^ *^ V**'^ " PrioU; Shubarba," Tatoriea, and to peep into what i* oertainl; one of 

■trcnmi. or Onnneraa, of Chili and Peru. Betwean the rock- the ftnaet and moat artivticall; arranged ot all the 

On tit* broMl gns-plot taolDg the old Sower- gardui and the Uw thore la a Datorallj-ooatriTed Fera-houaNln Europe, or in the world. I have oar- 

EB.rd0n and Doatemtoriai, than i* one of the Bnaat " proapeot • noond,' an old end chanoterittlc lainly oenr seen lo fine mod aatijrfjing a oolleoHon 

old White Willowa (fialix albt) I etor uw in a town feMore, well worth ntalnlng ot raprodaoing In ot Penii, Bamboos, mosaa, and oUmbtog or trailing 

or pubKo gaidan ; it almort lomindi one of the gardeDi, whueta hen there ia re«Ilj a nas, or rsMon plut* under a glaaa roof before— and I have Men » 

gigantio BUek Poplar in the tiBie-hoaound old tobeinitataTOor. Lylog ai the garden doet down the good maiv gl^wroofed gardaniand oonaemtoriea, 

Botkniatl Qirden at Dijon, although now only a (ids of a ilope, thia "Pn^peoC Hoaod" teoorea and faraariea, and wlntar gaxdeo* In my time. 



FlO. ig.'-CONBIKVATOallM A 

tithe of ita top growth or ombrage remaina. Tlie mia; pretty peepa or vlewt, not enlf ot tba Qoeen'a I ma; be wron^ but I think then la a '*f"lTsg 

alanting trunk or bole U over IS Teet In oiroumterenoa,' College, Blmwood, and other apirea or towen, bnt bit of peraonality about Uiia oool ternecr- Wbas 

and ereti atUl doea not appear very diapropoitionate alao of the "Black Uouatain," and of the domdn our good and tone fallow-ata ftama n. Dean Hcda 

when ita brancbca are clothed with iu ailnr gro;, or and wooda balongiug to Lord Derrrmore. The (no* of Rooheatar) tben of OaantaB, Natt% wrote that 

oliTe-like leafage. Standing nlone in its glory on the tower of Queen'a College, aa aeen through the traaa olaoioal book on Roaaa, he naed, or implied bia 

olote-ahaTen lawn it la popular In mora waja than one, la a channing feature, and nealla to mind, though finllng* aa to Boae onltore in worda aniititliinf 

and in lummer-time it ia the brourite rmiioiwiu for In reality *«Tj diOcrenl^ the dear old Botaoieal Oarden like theae: — "He who would grow beaatifol Soaaa 

tba ohildren who tit, or play and chatter beneath ita at Oafnd, with ita laafy (ora-groand to tlia tower in hia garden mutt Snt of all have bfAntifnl Bobm 

abide. It ia well.cnlled " The Children'a IVee," and of Hagdalen Oollega. To tbink of Oxford and in Ua heart." By the aame token, I feel aura that 

long mar it flouriah aa a memento ot the paa^ and at a Ita gardcna and walla, and cloiatera, ite " obeokered tlie oourteoua dinator of the now moat enjoyable 

beautiful example of the baan^ and appropriatanew DaflbdHa," or Fritillariea in the meadows, ita river BeUaat gardao moat bare bad very dainty ideaa of 

and uiefolDOB of a native tree. In what t* now a vary walka, and ita aong-birda, heeded by that Qoeen Fam baantj In lua mind bafim he oonld poariUf 

popular- and enjoyable public gaideo. of the night and of aong the oi^tingale, aeem* ba*e planned and cairied out nndar dlttoollia*— or 

An eiten«va and thoughtfnlly-plannad rodi-garden like a dream in tliia ol^ ot towering ohimneya and "tlirou^ tl» Are," m he espreaaed it— auoh an 

tamplyworth notlsa, and la already well atookadi wkirrlnglooma— 8nrrpandadbyFlai4eldaaDdblaaal^ axqu l aita l y>*rdant,rookyglaBaahahaadonaln"tha 



52 



THE GAS DENE US' cnHONICLE. 



[JaxtabT 22, 189«. 



gtrden that he lovea ** (with all clue apologies to the 
Poet Laureate). I am not a geologist, but the neigh- 
bourhood of Belfast Is a geologist*s paradise, 
iod there Is a good deal of geology in Ur, Ohas. 
MeKlmm's paradise of Ferns. The major portion of 
the rookj side-walls, banks, and borders on which the 
Femsgrow is soft red sandstone ; there Is limestone 
also for such spedas as delist in its influence, and 
there are sundry masses of quartzite, or sUioa shaped 
like pears, but like in the size to the old howitser 
sheUs used at SebastopoL There are rooks of msny 
kinds— a charming, pm^t column of basalt beside 
the door that is delightful to enter by, but depress i ng 
to leave, so fresh, cool, and delightful is the fairy- 
like Fern glades within. Our photograyures, figi. 19, 
20, iod 21, give an excellent idea of the place from 
their respective points of view ; but there are twenty 
points of view, and nothing short of an album of 
photographs would give any adequate notion of the 
place io all its phases ol lights shade, and colour. 

Amongst the Tree-Fems are Dicksonia antarctica, 
and D. squarrosa, Cyathea dealbata, and C. petblarls, 
or C. meduUaris, and othen, the names of which I 
foiget There is a dense green bank of '* Killamey 
Fern ** measuring about 9 feet' long by 8 feet broad, 
and as fi«sh and healthy as one could desire. I 
suspect that Mr. McKimm has more Triohomanes 
radioans now growing in the Belfast Garden than 
could be now found at Killamey. Beanttful and 
tranalucent as this choice and popular Fern is, and 
ever will be, I saw a charming pale green, crapey- 
textured variety here tliat I have never seen else- 
where. It is more crisped, and its pinnie are more 
frilled than in the type, and the pale, almost trans- 
parent pea or ^>ple-green hue of the leather-like 
fironds lends to them a most exquisite sppMranoe. 
To see the didnty filmy Ferns growing near or around 
the black velvety trunks of the Dicksonias was most 
effective, and an experie nee I shall not soon forget 

The great Tree-Fem stems were clustered all over 
with a warm brown fur-like growth of green-tipped 
living rootf, and the effect of these was heightened by 
feathery Retinosporas, or by the alender wands and 
grassy leafiuie of Bamboos ; while from the roof 
depended the rich crimson flowers of that best of all 
the Tacsonias—T. exonieosis x . On all sides aremosBBS, 
Lycopods, creeping flous, Tradescantia, and Bego- 
nias, revelling in a temperature and an atmosphere 
that must be delightful to them in all ways. 

Folisge-plants and Feins are quite a specialty, and 
Mr. McKimm having at times a large amount of 
decorathre-work on hand, has adopted the use of 
moveable screens, made of wood-framework fioed 
with cork and fresh green moos, either hypnnm or 
sphsgnum, in which Ferns and other small-growing 
or creeping plants are effectively grouped and planted. 
On ordinary occavioni these screens hide the hot- 
water-pipes in the plant-stoves or oooservatories, but 
th^ can be removed anywhere at a few moments' 
notice. The idea was a novel one to me: hence, I 
mention it here for the benefit of all whom it may 
happen to concern. 

Another little wrinkle in Fern-culture adopted by 
Mr. McKimm is not only to give suitable stimulating 
manure to his plants, but now and then a good 
soaking of lime-water is given, and is found to exert 
a very beneficial effect on Ferns generally, but espe* 
daUy on the Adiantnms or M^Hfi^K^lr Ferns. 

Beautiful and satisfying as is the femecy, wv 
must push on to the other houses, and in passing 
admire two fine ma«es of roey-plumed Fampaa- 
grass in the flower-garden. There is an extenaivv 
range of iron-houses filled with healthy and well' 
grown stove and greenhouse flowering and foliage' 
planhk The Chinese Banana is fruiting freely, and 
there are plants of economic interest, such as African 
Rubber (Landolphia), Oooa (Krythroxykm Coca), 
Grotoo, Ridnua, Sttyohnca, Arabian and Libe* 
rian Ck>ffee, Tea, Coca, Cuba Bast, Amatto^ 
(Bixa orelbum), Uie "Upas-tree** of Java and 
Borneo, and many other interesting things. In 
one of the private plant-stoves I saw a strong and 
healthy plant ot Mr. BUis's ** Water YaQ^*' of Mada- 
gascar (Ouvirandra fenestrallB),and a healthy specimen 
of the graceful Asparagus comorensii had some of 



Its feathery branehleta weighted down by a p ro fu riwi 
of dark chocolate or blackish-brown berries. As 
planted out and grown vigorously, this species is very 
ornamental with its glaucous-green stems and white 
bracts or spines. 

Before leaving the garden with Itt cool fernery, 
rock garden, line trees, and charming views, I was 
introduced to a charming young lady-gardener of six, 
who does a good deal of the machine-mowing on 
the kwns. <* Miss Jeannie," the garden donkey, 
is quite an important personage, and a great pet with 
the children to whom she looks for a shsre of their 
cakes, biscuits, or sweets, In quite a sisterly manner. 
As I saw her with white Japanese Wind-flowers in 
her bridle, she looked very coquettish and attractive, 
and it was no detractioD from her good looks to hear 
from Mr. McKimm that she is quite as ussful and 
willing to do her best as are some of the less 
attractive members of her fkmily. 

I could say much more of the Belfsst Botuiioal- 
Qarden-Fsrk, as it is now called, but I could not 
feel more keenly than I do as to Its great and far- 
reaching importance on the garden taste and artistic 
training of the young and old— "young men and 
maidens, old men and ehfldreo "— of a great and 
thriving dty ; and I may add my earnest conviction, 
vis., that if garden-loving people visit Belfast without 
seeing Its public garden, they will have miseed much 
that it is a pleasure anda privilege to see and admire. 
F, W. Bmtiidge. 



Market Gardening. 



HEATING FORCING HOUSES. 

Wx will now oonsiderthe heating of Uie deicriptjon 
of forcing houses described on p. 20. The Melon and 
Cucumberhouaes for eariy fbroing should be nro- 
vided with three 4-Inch hot-water-pipes on either side, 
two of them being flows, placed one above the other, 
running alongside and close up to the piers or 
division walla, and one return close to the pathway ; 
the flows hting suspended by hooks made of bar- 
iron i inch by 1 incb, and screwed on to the wall- 
platea, thereby confnrlng additional stability to 
the whole of the structure thui attached to the 
hot-water pipes. All things considered, I think Joints 
made of cement are the best. Theee are easily and 
quickly made. White yam is cut into lengths 
eufllcient to go round the 4-inch pipe three times 
when placed in the socket. Two rounds of this are 
driven with the caulking tools into position round 
the end of the pipe doee down to the socket^ the 
two ends of the remaining round of yam being 
brought together at and a little out firom the top of 
the socket, so as to form an aperture. Several jointa 
having been operated on in this manner, flll a half- 
pound coffee<sani8ter with Portland cement^ made 
to the oonsiBtency of thick paint, and empty 
the contents through the sperture in d icatad Into 
the joints prepared for he reception, so at 
to completely fill the vacuum between the second 
and third round of yam, tapi^ each joint with the 
caulldng-iron as the work proceeds to asoeitain that 
no empty space remains in the joint being made. 
After tne cement has partly set, the third round of 
yam should be driven home, and the several jointa 
faced with stiff cement, and so on until the pipee are 
all fixed, including, of course, the neosasary connec- 
tions and valvea. If the ground inside tne several 
houses gradually rises horn the boilerend of the 
house alTUie better, as the suspension-hooks (which 
should have half-inch of the top of eaoh bent to the 
aogle of the wall-plate in order to grip the latter), 
«an be made all one length, the pipes following a 
partioular course of brioka a little distance from the 
fioor-Une the entire length of each house. Athrottie- 
Wve ahould be put in each of the fiow-plpes in 
vveiy house to regulate the circulation of heat. 
Diaphragm valves should be fixed in flow and return- 
ptpes of any house or housee that are not lik^y to 
require heat during mid-winter, as, for instance, 
^vineries and peadieries, but which will be connected 
with a heating apparatua that will be in use through- 
•out the year. This will permit of the water 
being drawn from the pipes to prevent h^jury 
:from frost The same number of hotwater-plpea 
Yeconmiended above will be sufficient forwarming the 
larger houses provided for the growing of Grapes and 
tPeachee, and they should also be fixed and suspended 
by hooka. Thva si^ported ihen la no fear of the 



phMa shifting In any way, a^ is sometimfli tS« 
when supported by bricks. A thrse-qasrtw 
brass drsw-off-t^ should be a crew ed into one o< 
flow-pipee in each house at the warmest end ; pul^ 
one In both flow and retum-pipe4 (lowest nd) 
housee provided with diaphragm-valves for tbe 
pose of^ emptying the pipes when neoesapry. 
making stokeholes, providon (in the way of a 
of S-inch earthera-pipes) should be mads, if p< 
to carry away any water that might at idj 
accumulate. H. W, Word, RayMgk, 



Ameri can N otes. 

SUSPENSION OF •'GARDEN AND F0RE8I 

It is a^ once a public calamity and a p^ 
disgrace that (hrdet^ and Fwed should baTeli 
forced to leave the field. We still have lomai 
gardening pepera left, and several joamili S| 
general agricultural character which devote mas, 
less space to horticultural matters ; but the ia|| 
sion of Qairdok amd Foreti leaves America 
without any publication which may stsad fori 
real advancement of the knowledge of hortioi] 
without any horticultural journal of 
editorial dignity to attract contributions of 
research, or of permanent value. The hortioDlt 
who has now a new species of plant which li« 
to publith must send his MSS. to a botaiilcsl joq 
If he has a well-studied critic of some 
question, he must file his notes and wait 
Qarde^ and FonM had a reputation for real Ir 
excellence which commended it to the tnttf j 
educated people ; and it was always felt t» 1 
authoritative, bo as to be safely relied on by acUd 
and praotioal horticulturist alike. But with all i 
" there are not enough persons intsrestad in ^ 
things to which (ktnUn and ForeU wa« devoted I 
make it a paying venture.*' That is whst pm 
such a disconcerting view of ourselves. We tboa(! 
we were getting to be students of horticolton 
America. It is hardly likely, however, thit tl 
verdict of the pubUshers will be accepted for Ion 
It is more probable that we ahall soon h^r* loa 
sort of a cmdidste for the vacant p^aoe. MeonvtL 
with our regrets for Oarden and Forat, we mtngl* ^ 
hope that there will not be too many competiUM' 
ita inaufficient dtent^ but that there will bi ^ 
worthy succeesor. 

Japanbsb Plums aoaiv. 

There is hardly a subject within the Kopi 
horticulture which elicits such sure and ^ 
interest In this country ss anything regarding ^ 
Japsneee Plums. Public attention does not aeeai 
be abated even by the growing certainty that the 
fruita are not at all likely to suppUnt the Europe 
and native varieties. Professor Bailey of Cornell v 
has given theee fhiita special studv since tb 
introduction, has just published his third report 
which he says, he is still convinced that the J«ptt< 
Plums have come to atay. The nomenctstore 
these Plums Is wonderfully and terribly mixw, 
spite of their recent hitroduction, and Profe> 
BaUey has spent considerable pains in its simpliS 
Uon. While it will be very difficult to leoi 
anything approaching a unanimous cooseot 
Professor Bslle^*t eomewhat radical treatment 
synonyms, still it is very much to be hoped ttist 
publications will be taken as the standard of nom 
dature In thia group as fiur as posssible, for tl 
represent by ikr the beet study vet given to t 
subject, and even an imperfect standard is better U 
none at alL When the variona Japanese Plum* 
introduced in Europe bv way of America it woi 
save a repetition of much of our confusion if '^ 
definite eystem of nomenclature could be follow 
and Professor Bailey's will naturally receive ee 
attention. F. A. fTam^ 



FRUIT OF PASSIFLORA EDUU 

Fob many years I grew this firuit hi quantity to 
am rather puszled with the editorial remark tt 
dose of Mr. W. Swan'i note, via., that P. edoUi 
delidously frsgrsat, but there is nothhig to est lo 
¥niy, I have sent bushels of P. edulis [ofgsidsM. D 



JANUAUY 'U, 1808.] 



THB GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



he daaort - Ubie, ud few fruiu wwe more 
^^iilj devourad. Tbey ware oflaii wrNd In iUtw 
^. lupi.ttM topcoat off, andtlisnaliomigKnloond 
^ takoo oat of tbslr purple diellt with the help of 
1 r ■poonl. The whole frui^ Inoloding the eee^ 

eMftat eating, uid as the rind i> apeoUUj thin, 
. .g ii BO maoh found to eat that f^w, unleM gonr- 

- :ds, earo to oat mora than two at a time. The 
■ ur ia dutinot, refraahing, and with a doih of 
* tj eomewhat reMmbling Oiangea, though uolika 
=:a>ther fruit. 

I . I to fn^raoce, I awuoie jou are nHupariug tlia 
a Dot the flowen,ai oF eourie P. alata, qiudran- 

- lis, tnaorooaiiw, Mpahiii^ and all of Uwt familj', 



fruit, of Mhieli yoa give aooh a good illiutratioa in 
Oardentri' Ghroitkle for Daoeinber 2S. The leal 
giTon M alata, however, ii fiw too email for well- 
deraloped fbllige in a plant-atore of thia tne 
OnuudiUa. The leaf teema haidl; bigger than 
that of ^Mifloim ednlit. Bo hr aa the qoalitj 
of thoae Ug Puaion-fruita go, I wai neror able to 
Had mueh diSannoa, If any, betweao the three moat 
popular onei, or one apeoiei under aereral formi or 
name*, via., quadraogalaria, mMroou-pa, and aUta. 
Formertj parte of gluabouaea, «od •omstimai entire 
faouaaa, ware dsTotad to the oultuie of thaia baakat 
I^taitoa-Boweia, tor dinner-table deoorationi and (or 
the trait f'lr deaiett. The formar, if pat oo at the 



with ita golden prottf fruit depanding In quantity 
from roola. D. T. J'M, 13, Pctta Sow, Bdinlitrgk. 
[The froita of qnadraagularia and ita alliei arefleahj, 
like a Melon ; io ednlla than ia aomething tn vaA, 
bnt little or nothing to eat. Ed.] 



The Week's Work. 

THB KTFCHBir OABDBZr. 

By J. W. VcBiTTii, Ouilanar, BtmUiHalilHTa, Hubk 

BtakaU. — Where it !■ prupoaed to oorer lome roota 

of Seakale with pott and litter, inatead of lifUng and 

toning them, it maj now be eoouoiaioaUy done, the 



Flu. 20.— CASCADE JtND FOOL IK THE KOCK-FEBNEKY, BB1.FAHT DOTAKtCAL OARDIU:, (BEE V. SO.) 



'or nfaead of P. edulis in the fiagtaoM of their 
iiacent bloaoma. But in the mattur of the 
Atio fragrano; of their palp^ Fawflora edoUa 
lain BD eaa; foA. . In (iflt, after man; yean' 
rieaoa with the true qoadrangnlarla, or Qianadilta 
le tropioa, I atill ooodder P. edulla aa the only 
^on'frult we grow in Britain really worth eating ; 
u.lw> that thoae who know how to eat it will 
plenty to eat 
you jiietly lay, P. ednlia and P. qaadrangalana 
d b«i and are Twy ditferanr. Hot on^ do the 
B, flowsn, fruita vary ao widely in thrm, ooloor, 
1>ut adolia thrive* beat in a cool greenhonae. 
rauiKflaria naeda atore temponture to derelop 
r ita Aae blooma, and parfeet ita huge 



ait moment, will go throngh the dimar with more 
or leas wide^pen eyea, and ataap the room in fr^tanoe, 
and the fhuta will oomplete tha tropical oaat of the 
dinner : wUle P. adoUi will genenlly be oaten raw, 
or be in urgent donand for loaa, jelUea, and preaerraa. 
A* mare gomitare for the doaaert tabla^ the oomioon 
blue Paaaion fruit (P. ocerulea) whioh ripena of a 
rkh golden or aoft yellow eolour abont the titKfo and 
*jie of a bantam'a egg, ia highly omameotal, but aa 
iaaipid u beautiful. P. sdulia I repeat ii [the only 
Panion fruit worth eating in onr olimate. It alio 
deserrea ita apedSo nams, ii it fruit* protoiely under 
oool greenhouse traatment without tha double of 
apecial eultuM or the artiflmal aettlng of tha blooma. 
F. cwrulea alao becomaa a n«w plant tor DRUKDent 



roota starting into growth mora niadily now than 
earlier. The beet method ii to provide proper Snhala- 
pota, with moToable eoTera for pUoiDg orer tha oniwna, 
and failing thcie, targe flowai^pota may be uaed, wall- 
prepared tomenUng trse-learea and atable-Utter being 
placed between and above tha pota la to produoe a 
temperatuia ol G&* to 80*. To prodnee the planp 
and delicate heads that are ao much appreciated, the 
blanching must be thoroughly done, an examination 
of the growing heada being made occaiionally after 
tha lapec of three or four weeks In order to aaoertain 
their condition. When the ihoot) are 6 inobe* low, 
then ia the right time to take them, in doing me 
taking a amall portion of the woody part of the root- 
atook ; and covering up anugly aa bafore, if more 
ahoota are coming np. Whan tbi> whole of the heads 
on a bod are gatbtred, r«nioTe the Utter, and ooTar 



54 



THE GABDENEB8' CHRONICLE. 



[Jakvabt 22, 1898. 



the crowDfl with just enough of it m will protect them 
from audden expoeare to cold. 

Horte-raduk. — For thii crop chooie % piece of 
ground in the open away from trees, trench it deeply, 
placing a heavy dre«ing of decayed manure in the 
bottom of the trenches. Select young straight roots 
from 9 inches to 1 foot long, eadi having one crown 
only ; niant them 12 inches i^>art eadi way. It is a 
good plan to plant a fresh bed eveiy year m a new 

r» of land. In this way good haiidsome roots will 
obtained with but littfe expense in time and 
labour. 

Spring Cabbages. — Owing to the continued mild 
weather, the autumn-planted, Cabbages are in a very 
forward state, and there is danger of them being 
injured by late frosts. If weather permits, plsnt-out 
some of the young plants remaining in the seed* beds ; 
also examine the autumn plantations, cutting any 
that are hearted. 

Barlg Candifiower and CaJthagt, — Seed of early 
▼arieties of Snowball Cauliflower, and Cabbage may 
be sown on a gentle hot-bed, or in V^^ plaMd in a 
warm greenhouse. When the seedlings are up, be 
sure to afford them air in sufficient quantity, and as 
much light IS possible, as will prevent a spindling 
growth. If left long in the seed-box, pan, or bed, 
they are apt to damp-o£( therefore prick them off as 
soon as they are large enough to be easUy handled. 
Let the plants be well hardened before planting 
them out at the end of March or in April. 

Broad Beam, — A sowing of early Masagan may 
now be made in deeply-dug soil that has been weU 
manured for some previous crop. Brosd Beans trans- 
plants with good results, aud some seed of this 
variety or Eany Longpod may be sown in boxes and 
afforded the same kmd of treatment as that needed 
by early Peas. 

MiseeUaneouM, — Proceed rapidlj with digging and 
trenching ; keep up the suppUes of salading by 
sowing, or planting, or blanching; as in the case of 
En&ve or Chicory — a little at a time, and often. 



JTBUITS T7NDXB aiiASB. 

By O. NoaMAV, Gardener, Hatfield Hooee, Herts. 



Peachei and NeUarvMi. — The older varieties of the 
Peadi — Royal George, Orosse Mignonne, Noblesse, 
Bellegarde, and Barnngton— and Blruge Nectarine, if 
started now to be forced, will be ripe in June ; 
whereas the newer ones, as Early Alexander, 
Waterloo, Amsden June, and Hale*s Eariy, Peaches 
Early Bivers, Lord Napier, and Nectarines, will be 
a month before those. The temperature of a Peach- 
house at the commencement should range from 50^ 
at ^ight, to 55* in the daytime, with fire heat alone, 
with a rise of ten degrees at the sunshine. In severe 
frosty weather about 45** at night will be preferable, 
the use of much artificial heat at night being injuri- 
ous to the trees, and pr o gr ess can always £9 made 
by day in sunny weather. Let the houses be dosed 
soon after noon, syringing the tsees once or twice a 
day, and damping borders and paths, &a, more or 
lesi frequently accordingly as the weather is sunny 
or the reverse, and affording ventilation by the top 
sishes or ventilators gradually. At the time of start- 
ing examine the soil, and if this be found to be only 
moderately moiit, afford one good application of 
water, and do not afterwards allow the soil te get 
into a dry state. 

Figs.— Trees, the forcing of which it commenced 
at ^is date, have a long season before them, and 
which is necesssiy if the best results are to be 
obtained from them, as it allows of a second crop of 
fruits maturing. Previously to starting the troes, 
wash them with an insecticide, to remove scale, and 
well scrub the woodwork and hot-water pipes, and 
limewash the walls. If the trees are in a fruitful 
condition, and the border is filled with their roots, 
it will suffice to clear off the surface-soil and rephice it 
with turfy loam, mixed with one-sixth part old mortar- 
rubble, one-twentieth wood-ashes, and one-fiftieth boue- 
meaL If the soil is approaching dryness, afford a 
thorough application of tepid water. A suitable 
deg^ree of warmth at first is 50" at night, 55° by day, 
with fire-heat alone, but allowing a rise of 10** if tho 
sun should shine. When the wood-buds begin to 

£ush visibly, increase these temperatures about 5*. 
ict the house be ventilated in the morning whenever 
the outside conditions make it desirable or safe, and 
close the house at an early period in the afternoon. 
Syringe the trees at the commencement once only on 
tunny days, and at other times, if the atmosphere of 
the house should be dry, let only the floors and the 
border be damped. Earlier-started trees having begun 



to make growth maj be kept at 55* to 80* at night, 
85* by day with fire-heat^ and 75* by sun-heat, 
allowing a rise after being shut early of f*. 'Venti- 
lating must be cautioiis^ dooe^ in order that cold 
air be not admitted in a dnmghty ftwhion, but 
increasing the amount a little at a time at the ^p of 
the house as the tempenture rises by sun-heat, bear- 
ing in mind to cloee the house early. In nul^ 
weather a trifling amount of ventilation may be given 
at dusk, to remain through the night, except during 
snowstorms or in very severe weather. Let the 
minging be dene early in the aftemoco, in order 
that mowture mi^ diy up befbre night, and always 
plj the water on the lower sidea of the leaves. 
Diabud and remove superfluous shoots; and before 
any of the young ^ooto reach the glass, let them be 
tied to the treUis. 

Earlp Fruiting Fig$ which may be growing in pota 
plunged in mild bottom-heat^ unlesi this is afforaed 
by hot water* will require ficeah material .added 
oocssionaUy, in order to maintain a bottom-heat of 
about 75*. 

PeooAet .— The trees tat fhmishing late fhiit should 
be kept very cod, short of allowhig the water in the 
hot-water j^pes to freeie. The praning, drsasnig, 
and secunng of the trees to the treDia should be 
carried out forthwith ; and any that show signs of 
weakness should be top-dreesed, alter tsking away 
the soil down to the roots. The same kind of soil as 
that recommended in a previous Calendar for Vine- 
borders is very suitable, with the addition of a 8-indi 
potful of bone-meal instead of a 5-inoh one. 



THB l^LOWJBH QARDTHN. 

By H. Waltbbs, Otrdener, BaetweU Park, Aehford. 

^niMKi^f Suitable far Bedding.—Ot theee ^Umta I 
will mention a fow, giving methods of'raiang and 
treatment in general. The Tom Tliumb varieties of 
Antirrhinum may be obtained from the seedsman in 
three distinct colours — ^white, yeUow, and red or 
crimson, the height of the plants being between 
8 inches and a foot ; and lor forming the edginn to 
large flower or shrub-beds, or filling smaller onee, theee 
Antirrhinums can scarcely be surpassed. The seed nuy 
be sown this month or next in slight heat, and the 
plants pricked out in boxes at about 4inehse i^art when 
iaigeenough to handle, using a small quantity of half- 
rotted manure at the bottom of the hixm, into which 
the roots will penetrate, and keep the soil from fiJling 
away from the phmt when planting them. The plants 
can be planted with safety in the early part of May, 
providing they have previously hardened-oft The 
best of the white Antirrhinims is Queen of the 
North, the flowers being large and pure white ; the 
plants grow from 12 inches to 18 mches high, and 
the flower-spikes stand erect above the foliage; 
for filling large beds, and as a pure white-flowwed 
variety, it has no equal Calendula offidnalia, in its 
several varieties, is another fine annual for bedding- 
out, flowering continuously all the seeaon. The 
finest varieties of this plant are Orange King and 
Lemon Queen : the names Indioate the oolours. The 
flowen are large and well formed, and the plants 
grow 1 foot hiffh. The same kind of treatment in 
raising the seedlingi is required for this ai for the 
Antinhinums, excepting that they may be pricked- 
out into a frame, and planted out a lit^e eariier in 
the season ; they are exoellent subjects for planting 
in dry or poor soil. Annual Chrysanthemuma are 
very useful plants for filling large beda. The varie- 
ties vary in height from 18 inches to 2 feet, and the 
oolours of some of the species are very pretty. 

C. carinatum has a whiteHmd-yeBow band, with a 
brownish centre; C. carinatum Purple Crown is a 
dwarf-growing variety, ^wing 8 inches in height, 
and the flowers are a mixture of purple and soanet, 
and that of the foliage a bright yellow. The seed 
should be sown in February or March, broadcasting 
it thinly in a fkmme^ or in boxes, and planting out in 
May. Dianthus Heddewigi, the Japan Pink, and 

D. chinensis, the Indian Fink, are plants whoee 
beautiful colours of varioua shades lend themselves 
to bedding purposes with good effect. The planta 
vary in height from 8 inches to 1 foot. If SMd be 
sown in February or March, and the seedlings 
pricked-out as advised for Antirrhinums, the plants 
will be ready for the beds in May. This plant 
succeeds better if treated as an annual than as a half- 
hardy biennial. OodetJai have been greatly im- 
proved in recent years, and for filling beda in flower- 
gardens they are very fine. The varieties vary in 
height from 8 inches to 18 inches. The dwarf 
variety of Lady Albemarle, with its bright crimson 
flowers, ii well adapted for the edging of beds con- 



taining white-flowering plants ; Duchess of Albany 
ia pnie white, and ia also very osefbl ; Oloriosi 
has very daric-rsd flowers ; and Bridesmaid^ white 
ones, which are striped with rose; aU of whieh 
are very effeelive pkols. Thev are of buahy hsbit, 
and this should be home in mind in pkntantg them. 
Nemesia strumosa : thia, as a beddiog annual, wv 
to have had a great future. There are many varie- 
ties, bat the meet eflitotive is a ridi orange, iod the 
beauty of a bed of this one is not essily forgottee, 
possessing, as it does, a colour that is peculiarly its 
own. The end of January is the time to aow sesdi 
of Nemesins in beat The eeedlings lOioukl be potted 
oflT iuto small 8</s, aa 4he plant* require a gxadusSy 
haideninffHoff befose planting them tA the baddingH)at 
season, rhlox Dnimmondi is a well-known annual, 
but not 80 extensively used as a bedder aa the rich- 
nesa and variety of its flowers would warrant It ii 
nther long in coming into flower, but after it does so, 
it con t inues with mat profusion Uie whole of the 
eotumn. The bhief secret in managing PMox Drum- 
moodi is not to let the plants get any eheck to 
growth before planting-out time, for ahould tiie 
growths get woody in the least degree, growth ii 
slow, and the flowers few. Marigold Lemon of 
Honour, for ribbon-borders, small beds, and as ss 
•dging-plant. haa no equal among annwala It, 
grows 9 inches in height, and has flowers of a briglit * 
yellow tint, with a brown blotch on the floreta. It 
IS a variety always coming true fromseed, snd the plaoti 
m a int ain an uniform sixe. No other annual flowen 
more freely, or suffers leas from drought Sow 
the seeds in February or March in mild heat, prick 
out the seedlings in a cold-frame, or into boxes, and 
it will be resdy for bedding-out at the usonl seasoo. 

Oinerai TTorl^— Take up and reUy turf on uneveo 
lawns and much-worn and reduced verges ; re-gra?el 
end turn walks that are much worn or very dirtf , 
and all grass edges and vergea. In mild weather 
box-edgings may be relaid. Keep the brooms in 
frequent use; and during wet weather get all the 
neceesarr quantity of pegs, Ubels, Dahlia and Holly- 
hook-stekes prepared. Newly-planted trees and 
shrubs should be examined, and if they lukTe become 
looeeoed bvwind make the ground firm aboutthe 
stem, effbrdhig stskes where reqmred. Keep all bedi 
and borders dear of weeda by hand-weeding, snd 
where it is the practice to employ shoots of ever* 
greees in the flower-beds, remove the worst looking 
filling the gape thus made with frssh ones. 



FliAim UNDXB auksa 

By W. llB9SKiraKR, gardener, Woolventoiie Pvk, Ipewich. 

(Tlotciniej.— A few tubers nuy now be placed in-a 
box or pan, in a mixture of leaf-mould and mod, and 
placed in a warm house to start 

Caladiumi may be aimtUrly treated to the 
Gloxinias^ or th^ may be potted in small pota in a 
compost consisting of loam two-thirds, kaf-moold 
one-third, and plenty of sand, plunging the poti in a 
alight bottom-heat, and afford water sparing^. 

Anthmrtum Sehfiraerianmm, — Planta that have been 
rsmoved for some weeks from the stove msy again 
be introduced into the stove ; they delict in plentj 
of heat and moisture, and in being syringed wrse or . 
four times a day if plenty of heat U at command. H 
a large number are grown thc>y can be flowered in . 
suooesaion. . 

SmaU Edging Planti, amd SubjecUfor Haute Dtoo- 
raUon.—U it be deeirsd to incrsase such pUnts ai 
Ptoioum vari^gatum and Tradescantia lebnna, sad 
young plants are better as edging than old ooei, 
cuttingi may be put thickly in 64*s and Huge 80-pot8, 
ushig a compost of two-thirds loam and one-third leaf* 
mould, with auffieient sand as will keep the v^ols d 
the soil porous and sweet, and the drainage sound, 
the plants requiring a c^ood deal of water when in fall 
growth. Let the cutthigs be placed in a dose, moist 
heat, and shaded fkom £e sun. Sdaginella dentiou- 
lata cuttings, or rooted bits of this plant, should now 
be inesrted in the same riaed pota and adl as advised 
fbr Psnioum. If the Sdaginella be used to cover the 
pots and bare parts of the stems of plants employed 
in the dwelling, or as table decoration, shallow pane 
are well adapted for rooting it in, or a foot wide 
border of it may be planted at the back of a vinery. 
It will grow in any moderately warm house, plscisf 
the pots in a coal-aah bottom, and shading then 
from bright sun. When struck, remove the pans, ^ 
to a ood-house or pit Piles musoooa and P. m. nana 
may now be propagated by inserting three cattiiig> 
round the side of a large 80's pot using a small^ 
siae pot for Piles m. nana ; they soon strike if placed 

1> 



JAHirABT 22 1898.] 



THE GABDENEBS' GHBONICLE. 



55 



in hmif and should Uimi be removfd to the gjnwr 
houMi 

ifaroiUaiL— ThoM pUnto which haya been aflEbrded 
a period of reat, and are in need of repotting, ahould 
reoeive immodiate attention. If a pit or frame with 
a good bottom-heat ia at command, plnnge the pbnts 
half or fully, and they will atari freely into growth. 
Strong^obuat-growing apeoiaa and wiettea do well 
in a flhroni loam, one-Be?eath of manure^ and a liberal 
addition of aharp sand and charooaL Some varietiea 
do best if a certain proportion of lumpy peat be 
mixed with the oompoat. If the pknta do not 
require hurger pota, reduce the ball oonaidaial^y. 

The /^orvifi^p-Adyae. — Batches of lilaca, Deutna 
gracilis, AnOea mollis, Kalmia ktifoUa, Stafi^ylea 
oolohioa, and Rhododendron hybridum should be 
brought from the cold pits into tfie forcing-house, 
washing the pots^ and resurfiioing where neeSuL 

Mtscellaneaua, — ^Petunia cuttings mav now be put 
in ; plants of Aealypha which haye become leggy 
may be cut back, and the tops employed as cuttings, 
inaerling theee in amall poti^ and plunging in 
moderate bottom-heat Dieffenbachiaa which haye 
loat their bottom leayes may be out down, and the 
tops inserted as cuttings, the stems being cut 
into short lengths, and pkoed in pans filled with a 
light compost, or laid in cocoa-nut fibre in a propa- 
gaung-box, and afibrded a close moist heat. Plants 
of Libonia floribunda now coming into flower may be 
transferred from the stoye to a warm greenhouse. 
Laohenalia blooms will require to be securod to neat 
sticks in good time, and the plants liberally manured 
n order to ensure good flower-spikes. 



THB OBOHID HOU8B8. 

By W. H. Whits, Orohid Grower, Boifocd. Dorking. 

JSridet^ Jkc, — The present is a suitable season for 
the Examination of ^Erides and other purely epiphytal 
spedas. These plants are yery liable to be InMed by 
scale on the upper and lower surfaoesof the leaves, and 
low down in the growths. If much infested, freeing 
them of scale requires great care, so as to do it with- 
out injuring the leayes. brides Fleldingii, A. Lar- 
pento, A. Houlletianum, A. suayissimum, A. crispum, 
A. expansum Leona, A. ai&ne, A. yirens, A. Lobbii, 
A. odoratum, A Sayageanum, A. Lawrenoead, and A. 
Banderianum, grow best in the East Indian-honse« 
and these species should be taken first in hand, the 
increasing light and warmth causing them to start 
early into growth, at which time no disturbance of the 
roots may take place. After cleaning the plants of 
insects, those that are unsightly from loss of leaves, 
or which haye not enoum root-space, should be 
repotted. Those growing m pots that are sufficiently 
laige, if the plants are healthy, will have many roots 
adhering to the sides of the po(^ which are difficult to 
dislodge without mutilation, and such plants should 
be laid on their sideSf and have all the old material 
picked out, dead roots removed, and the whole mass 
washed out with the syringe and tepid water. After 
doiog this, replace the drainage, and fill up amongst the 
roots with fn9shly-pioke4 sphagnum moss^ squeesing 
it moderately firm. When it is necessary to repot a 
plant, it should be removed from the pot with but 
Uttle disturbance to the roots. Tall specimens when 
repotted should be secured to strong neat stakes, and 
thus hindered from swaying about^ that mi^t cause 
loss of leavea. Air roots when long enou^ should 
be pegged down to the moss, which they wm in time 
root into. Let repotted plants be stood in a group 
at the warmer end of the house, and protected from 
strong sunshine independently of the other occupants. 
Damp well between the pots twice or thrice daily for 
the apace of a few weeks, but afford no more water 
at the root than will enable the sphagnum to grow. 
Flower-spikes appearing on the plants that have been 
disturbed, or are in a weakly condition, should be 
pinched out as soon as observed. 

Ccdia bella, C. macrosiachya^ and C. Baueriana, 
now starting into growth, may be repotted should it 
be required. In repotting, half fill the pots wiUi 
dean crocks, and employ as the rooting material 
peat and sphagnum mots in equal propcrtiona, and 
a moderate quantity of crocks. The i^anta reqtdre a 
very light place in the Bast Indian-house, and water 
to be liborally afforded till the pseudo-bulbs attain 
their full sixe. 

Dendrobium Dtarei, now growing freely here, is 
often found difficult of cultivation ; and after repeated 
experiments, I have found that it will thrive when 
suspended near the roof on the north side of the 
warmest house, where there is plenty of subdued 
light Although §(rowth has begun, the plants 



will not be heavily watered before new roota 
emerge from the young growths. The younger 
leaves being liable to attack from red spider, should 
be often cleansed with a bit of sponge, hid warm soft 
soap-suds. 

OcUeandra Dwoniana^ a plant of which is now in 
bloom here, ia alao a troublesonie spedea under culti- 
vation. It thrivea treated as advised fbr Dendrobium 
DeareL 

Thrixpermum BerkeUjfu—i.,pntiif^Unt when in 
flower, but care must be taken not to afford much 
water to the plant, or the fldwer-spiksa now* appear- 
ing may decay. It soce oo ds at Burfbrd low down on 
a BtBgeinavery8hadypartoftheSsBtIadhm«hoaBB. 

Odontoqlot$nm'h4fuae, — Plants of Oncidium super- 
biena and O. undulatum are now showing their flower 
spikes ; and owing to the rambling habit of these 
spikes, which often grow to 8 or 10 feet in length, 
some amount of training is a neoesdty, and in doing 
this the tips of the spikes should be kept well up to 
the root The plants need an abundsooe of water 
until the flowen open. 



THB SABD7 VBUIT OABDBN. 

By W. H. DiVBBs, Oardsnor, Bslyolr Castle, GrantbAm. 

ApriooU, — It will be neooesary to prune these now, 
aa owing to the mild weather thia aeaaon, the treea 
will probably flower earlier than uauaL Prune in 
such a manner that the growths will be kept as close 
to the wall as possible, and thus be the better pro- 
tected. Owing to its stiff, short-jointed habit of 
growth, the Apricot does not form such regularly 
ahaped treea aa Peaohea, but the bnmohea ahould be 
kept aa atraight as possible. Train in young growths 
wherever there is room for the treee to extend, and 
between the older branches, shortening also all the 
spurs that project 4 inches or more horn the wall, 
and if an jr apura have no buda at the bascb remove 
them entirely. Unless very carefully pruned, spurs 
upon old trees are very ^>t to get into such condition, 
and when this is the osse, renovation most extend 
over four or five seaso ns, by removing a few of the 
loQgest apura each year, fie very careful that no old 
naila press the branches too closely, aa gamming and 
canker are eaaily provoked in thia tree. Old wsUa 
that have become dilapidated through fSrequent nail- 
ing ahould be repaired, in order to prevent damage 
by woodlice and earwigs, both of which are especiaUy 
fond of this fruit, and would harbour in the crevices. 

Protecting Material must be in readiness, but do 
not put it over the treea until the flowera ahow 
colour. Qlaas copings fitted on iron brackets are the 
best, or deal-booras may be used ; either should be 
so arranged that they may be easily removed when 
not required. From |the front edge of the coping 
double fish or other netting should Im hung to within 
11 foot of the ground, and may be tied to Bean- 
sUcks placed in a sloping direction sgainst Um waU 
at distances of 16 feet apart with the lower end made 
firm in the ground. If Frigi-domo or aimUar mate- 
rial is used, it will be necessary to remove it on fine 
days, which will be best acoompliahed by having 
ringa fitted to the blind at topand bottom to work on 
wires, one to be fixed on the edge of the ooping^ and 
another on short posts at the bottom, l^root from 
the ground, and 4 feet from the walL The bUnda 
may thus be moved backwards and forwards hori- 
zontally, and muat be moved to a freah poaition each 
time ; branohea of Spruce Fir and Tew also make a 
good protection against frost, if fixed to the wall at 
mterveds, but are not so readily removed as nets, and 
are apt to exclude air and the nees. 

Seiom for graf thig must be removed from the trees 
before growth commences. Select firm, well-ripened 
shoots of moderate strength, attach a label to each 
varie^, and heel them in firmly doaeto a north wall 
or a auxkilar moist plaoe, where no sunshine can reach 
them. If dry weather occurs, give them enough 
water to keep them fresh. 

Lahds. — All newly-planted trees should be pro- 
vided with permanent Ubels as soon as planted. 
Metal labels naving the names in raised letters may 
be easily obtained, and should be nailed to the waU 
about 1 foot f^m the centre of the tree ;' or in the 
case of pyramid and bush trees, may be secured to 
one of the main branches with oopper wire. Metal 
labels may also be made at home during bad weather, 
if a set of ^inch type be obtained— each letter 
should be fitted on the end of a punch for impression 
by means of a hammer ; a set of numbers should also 
be got to record the year of planting. Use sheet- 
lead |-inch thick, cut into stripe 5 inches bv 2 inches, 
and print the names on these. Thciy can be secured 



to trees in the (^n by bringing the two ends 
together over a branch that can be easily reached, 

THB APIABT. 

By ExrsaT. 

SurpliLt C<mbi and Framet. — To work successfully 
by the " extracting " method, a good supply of sur- 
plus combs or framea will be required, and there ia 
no reason why these should not be of the most 
convenient size for tiering up with, and kept solely 
for that special purpose. Nor do we see how there 
can be any great objection to their use for that pur- 
pose, even by those who consider the standard frame 
the moat suitable for the brood nest My point is 
this : — Judging frt>m the signs of the times, it may be 
assumed that by far the greater portion of our surplus 
honey will in the future be got by tiering or *'stori^- 
ing, and we are quite sure that any bee-keeper (wno 
knew what he was about) having lua choice between 
a box of oomba 5} inches deep, or a similar one in 
which tixey were 8} inches deep, would unhedtatingly 
choose the former for tiering up with. Having used 
tbeee shallow frames many years for storing surplus 
honey intended for " slinging," I greatly prefer them 
to deeperjones. The combs are not so easily fractured 
in the extractor, they are more quickly sealed over 
by the bees, and more readily uncapped. I get my 
fimmes more solidly filled with honey, and by the 
judidous use of foundation we get at least 80 per 
cent of them worked with comb down to and all 
along the bottom bar. Other obvious advantages 
will suggest themselves to the bee-keeper without 
my qiedfying them in the detaiL If standard framee 
be purchased in the flat, they are readily reduced to 
our ideal of a tiering frame by sawing off 3 inches of 
the side bars before nailing up. 

EoKluden* — ^Another point I would emphasise, and 
that is the imperative need for the use of exduders 
made of sine when tiering. Many object to this 
because it hinders a free passage to and fro on the 
part of the bees, but after testing hives aide by side, 
with or without zinc, I find Uie difference in the 
amount of honpy gathered to be infinitesimal. Now 
if the expenditure of time and labour is to be 
minimised, we must keep our surplus boxes free from 
brood — we do not want to be '* always anxious '* as to 
whether the queen has got into them or not — and as 
to queens pushing their way through the sine, the 
chances according to my own experience are so much 
sgainst it, that I never give a thought to such a con- 
tingency. At all events I can safdy say that not 5 
per cent of ordinary normal queens will deposit 
brood in surplus boxes if zinc be used. 

Sxiracttd Eoney. — It is certain that extracted 
honey in bulk is a more valuable commerdal com- 
modity to have left on hand, then that which is 
stored in the comb ; indeed, I.may sa^ the latter ia 
almost unsaleable— after it hiis crystallised or become 
solid — ^unless it be mdted down and the wax 
extracted from it Those who have a quantity of 
eadi kind by them, will readily realize the difference. 
The bee-keeper can keep his extracted h^y till 
prices improve, it may be in good demand before the 
pfesent year is out, at a much higher figure than it 
would fetch if sold now, and it wiU take no hiffm by 
keeping, provided it was fully ripe when extracted. 
One of the advantages of tiering with shallow framee, 
is their suitability for regulating the amount of 
storsge room as the honey income fluctuates. It is 
sn exceptionally poor season in which one box of 
fblly-sealed combs cannot be secured, and if, after 
addmg a second box under the first, the income 
suddenly fiuls, leaving the latter only partly filled, 
the contents may be extracted or left for the bees* 
consumption, at Uie pleasure of the bee-keeper, while 
the first box is found to be in ]prime condition. Since 
it is of importance to economise time and labour in 
every direction to enable us to produce honey cheaply, 
I de not advocate the constant or even firequent use of 
the extractor in the height of the working season. 
It is hard work and a July temperature, coupled with 
the excitement inseparable from it, makes it hot 
work, while the evils resulting from a rough-and- 
tumble method of doing it may be better imagined 
than described. Besides, if surplus honey is'safe (that 
is. if it ia aealed over) it is fkr best left in that finest 
id all places for ripening it^ Le., the top of the hive 
where it hssbeen gathered. As the season doses 
these boxes full ot ripe honey can be taken indoors, 
to be extracted en bloc, or as required. I used to 
think that honey would not pay the producer if it 
was sold for less than Is, per lb. ; and the only way 
to make it remunerative at present prices is to reduce 
in every possible direction the labour and cost of 
securing it 



56 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



(jAinrABT 22, 1898. 



EDITORIAL NOTIGE8. 

■ • 

llliittnitlon8.~7k« Ediior «Htt Oonk/WZy tveeiM «md tOedt 
pKotagrofhi or dramii^, mtikM* for rtproduOUm, ^ 
gardtnt, or i^f rmnarkabU planto, fiow^n^ tnu^ 4e,: Imi 
Moemnot h* rttpomibUM Um or U^wry. 

HBwtpmpuru.'-OorrmpondonU $tnding %§¥mpap§ n aftowld U 
eanm to mark th^pant^raphM they wish tfu Editor to «ee. 



APPOINTMENTS FOR THE ENSUING WEEK. 



SATURDAY. 
WB0NB80AT, 

MONDAY, 
TUESDAY, 



Jan. 22-f^y*^ Botanic Society: General 
\ MeetiDg. 

Tam m J Annual Meeting of Royal Scottish 
J AH. ») ^ AriwrioultOTid Society. 

SALES. 

\ Stevena' Rooms. 

{Azaleas, Roses. Greenhouse Ferns, 
American plants &c., at Pro* 
theroe & Morris' Rooms. 

/Japanese LiUes, Contdnental 
m^^^^-cr..^ , I Pl«»t8i Tuberoses. GladioU, 4c, 

WEDNESDAY. Jaw. «J^ at Protheroe AMorrls' Ro<Ans. 

I Rose and Fruit Trees, Shrubs, Ac., 
V at Stevens' Rooms. 

(Hardy Perennials, Fruit Trees, 
Azalias. Hardy Climbing Phuits, 
Ac, at Protheioe A Moiris' 
Rooms. 
Border Planto. Shrubs, Rosea, 
Climbers, Ac., at Stevens' 
Rooms. 



THURSDAY, 



FRIDAY, 



\ at Protheroe & Morris' Rooms. 



Avxiuas TxMPBRATURs ftw the ensuing week, deduced troax 
Observations of Forty 'three years, at Chiswick.— 88'6". 
Actual Tkhperaturxs:— 

LoNOON.-Wanuary 19 (6 p.m.): Max., M'; Min.. 49'. 
Provwcbs.*— Jttnttary 19 W p.m.): Max.. 54», west, 
south, and east of England ; Min., 42°, north-west 
Scotland. 

Weather mild, dull, and foggy. 



I, !«>.,, ^^^ documents recently re- 
^^?^ty p«ived show that the Society is 
in a very flourishing and active 
condition. The first is the Eeport of the 
Council to be presented to the annual meetbg 
on February H, of which we reprint the sub- 
stance in another column. To it is attached 
the balance-sheet, which is satisfactory, and 
the list of Fellows and affiliated societies. The 
second document contains the arrangements for 
the year 1898, comprising the details relating to 
the meetings, shows, and publications, an account 
of the garden at Ohiswiok, and of the trials to be 
therein conducted during the present year^ the 
regulations for the examinations, and a state- 
ment of the privileges now accorded to Fellows 
in the way of chemical analyses of soils, manure, 
water, &c. The (Council in this new depar- 
tuxe have secui-ed the services of Dr. J. A. 
VoBLCKER. 22, Tudor Street, New Bridge 
Street, E.C., as Consulting Chemist. The rules 
for the use of the Library are given in detail, 
and much has been done to improve the collec- 
tion, and render it more accessible to Fellows 
and others. The names of the members of the 
several committees are added, and a statement 
given of the regulations affecting each com- 
mittee. A mon g the new arrangements, we notice 
the oflTer of a Silver Cup by Mr. N. N. Sher- 
wood, the Master of the Worshipful Company 
of Oardeners. This Cup, of the value of 
10 guineas, is to be awarded to the exhibitor 
** who shall obtain tho highest total number of 
marks at the meebiugj iu June, July, August, 
ard September 6** for collections illustrating 
the suitability of annuals and biennials as cut 
flowers for decorative purposes." 

Wo may here adJ that the Rev. George 
Henslow, V.M.II., has bseii appointed Pro- 
fessor of Botany to the Society, au appointment 
which, though lon^ delayed, will give great 
satisfaction to the Fell'iWi*. Messrs. Norman 
CooKsox, J.^^Es Douglas and Thomas 
Gajjriel retire from the Council by rotation, 



and it is proposed to fill the vacancies so caused 
by the election, if the Fellows see fit, at the 
annual meeting of Sir Frederick Wigan, 
Bart., J. GuRNBY Fowler, and James 
Hudson, V.M.H. 



Horticultural ^ frequently receive enquines 
TrainiogatKew. '^^ Correspondents as to the 

facilities offered to the young men 
employed at Kew for improvement in practical 
horticulture. Some are under the impression 
that the training is morebotanioal than practical, 
whilst others appear to think that " influence," 
or a "premium" are needed to get a yeung 
man in there. Many of our readers, of course, 
know as well as we do that Kew is open to all, 
and that ability is the only "premium'* re- 
quired. It may, however, serve a useful pur- 
pose if particulars are famished as to the 
character of gardeners employed, and the 
nature of the work done by them whUst at Kew. 

The garden staff consists of curators, fore- 
men, sub-foremen, and journeymen. Labourers 
also are employed, chiefly for outdoor work, 
and are practically permanent. The journey- 
men gardeners, numbering about fifty, are 
employed principally under glass. Their term 
is limited to two years (a year in the case of 
foreigners). Sub-foremen are promoted young 
men who show exception tl ability, and they 
usually remain until they obtain an appoint- 
ment either in India, the colonies, or at home. 

The terms of employment are stated in the 
following form of application : — 

"Applicants for admission as gardeuerd into the 
Koyal Gtardens are furnished with a copy of this 
paper, which, when filled in, must be higned by thrir 
present or list employer, and returned to the Curator, 
nooompanied by a letter in applicant's own hand' 
writings and with testimonials from employers or 
prsotical gardeners. 

The wages are 21«. per week, with extra pay for 
Sunday duty. 

• Applicants must be at least twenty, and not more 
than twenty-five years of sge, and have been employed 
not fewer than five years in good private ganlens or 
nurseries. They must be healthy, free Irom physical 
defect, and not below average height. 

No application will be eutertaiued from men who 
have not had ezpoienoe in the cultivation of plinU 
under glass. 

The applicant will be informed if hi« name has 
been entered for admission, and, on a vacancy occur- 
ring, he will, if appointed, receive notice to that 
effect. Should there be no vacancy within three 
months froo^ the date of .the application, it must be 
renewed if employment at Kew is still desired. If 
not renewed, the name will be removed from the 
list of applicants. 

Gardeners whose conduct is satisfactory, will be 
eligible, as vacancies arise, for the positions of sub- 
foremen at Kew, and for such fknployment at home 
or abroad, as may be at the disposal of the Director. 

Name 

Age 

Employer's signature " 

The duties of these men are the care and 
cultivation of the collections of plants under the 
direction of the foremen, each man having a 
definite charge for which he is responsible. 
They are moved from one department into 
another periodically, so that a man who does 
the full two-years* course usually has a certain 
amount of experience in every department. 
Daring the day his work is practical gardening 
pure and simple. He is encouraged to take au 
interest in maintaining the collections in the 
best possible health, whilst habit i ot' tidiness, 
finish, order, economy of materials and smart- 
ness generally are insisted upon. For about 
ten h'jurs every day he is therefore employed iu 



potting, cleaning, training, watering, &c. T\» 
men employed in the houses to which the pnbhc 
have access, keep watch on the behaviour of 
visitors. 

Courses of lectures are given by stipendiary 
lecturers for the benefit of the gardeners in the 
evening after working hours, in a lecture-ioom 
provided by the authorities. The subjects dealt 
with are Systematic Botany, Economic Botany, 
(Geographical Botany, Chemistry and Physics. 
Certificates are awaked to men whose note- 
books show satisfi&ctory study. A Field Botany 
Club is also formed, and prizes as well as certi- 
ficates are awarded for collections of dried, 
mounted and named British plants. A Mutual 
Improvement Society holds weekly meetiuga 
during the winter, essays and discussions upon 
professional subjects being contributed by the 
men themselves, one of t^e officials acting as 
chainnan. Prizes for the best essays are given 
by Sir Joseph Hookeb and others. 

A well-stocked library is provided for the use 
of the gardeners, who have access to it every 
evening until ten o'clock. It will be seen that 
the young men at Kew are not " coddled," and 
that skill in practical horticulture is a sine qad 
non in their training t>oth before and after their 
arrival at Kew. The Director has said :—" We 
treat our young men as ' men,' and expect 
them to work out their own salvation. We 
wish them to be manly, self-respecting, and 
strenuous ; we put, with the aid of the Govero* 
ment, what help we can in their way, and leave 
them to make an intelligent use of it." 

Five years' ago a Guild or Association of 
Kew gardeners, past and present, was formed, 
and it has since published annually a Journal 
in which there is a list of all the members with 
their positions and addresses. From this it 
appears that there are about 500 "Kewites" 
distributed all over the world. The majority of 
these are still professional gardeners, but a 
considerable number fill positions of rasponsi- 
bility either as curators of Botanical Gardens, 
superintendents, &c., no fewer than fifty-three 
hold such positions in the Colonies and India, 
whilst the curators of all the Botanical Gardens 
in the United Kingdom were trained at Kev« 
Many are head-gardeners, and some are oofr 
nurserymen. 

There is here evidence sufficient to show that 
the system in practice at Kew is on the right 
lines. Of course, a great deal depends upon the 
intelligence and zeal of the man; but given 
these to commence with, the progress made in 
professional knowledge from a two years* course 
at Kew is most marked. 

It cannot be too often insisted that horticul* 
ture is an art which can only be learnt by actual 
practice, like the making of boots or the build- 
ing of a ship, and he who has had much 
practice in good gardens is a better gardener, 
other things being equal, than he who has had 
less. Education, both of a scientific and of a 
general character, has the same effect in a hor- 
ticultural calling as in any other. The conten- 
tion of those who take what is termed the 
practical side, in opposition to the theoretical 
side, so-called, is simply this — that the man 
who is taught in the class-room how to culti- 
vate Orchids, or Peaches, or Peas, has a poor 
chance against the man who ha? learnt this work 
in the garden. Such, at any rate, is the lesson 
that is taught by what one sees at Kew ; at the 
same time, the man whosi brains are trained 
as well as his hands, can learn his lesson the 
more quickly, and turn it to account when the 
mere practical man has, in this respect, no 
advantage over his forefathers. 



Janvabv 2:2, 18BS.] 



THE 6ABDESERS' CHBONIGLE. 



Royal Gardenuw Orphan Fund. — Ws 
IiB*s tha plcum* to uiDoiuKie that Charlh B. 
KiT«iB, Esq., li« Uudlr promiaed to tak* tb« Chair 
at tha Annual Featival DiDoar of tha Royal Gardaaan' 
Orphan Fund, on Wadoaadajr, th« SOth ol AprilaKt, 
at Uw HAMl Hdtnpola. 

KEW PaLACK.— a pangnph, aant ui by a nawa 
agetKij, of Trhioh we mada uae lait waak, adding aone 
aomneDta of onr own, oonlalned kodb anoojiDg bluD' 
<tenwhlehaao^)ed ournotioBatthatiinfl. "Prinoaai" 
GB*iiLOTTr, ofooniae,wa«nB»er''Qnemi"€!Himuirti 
It waa the Queen whn dint at Kaw Palaae; tha 
Prinoaaa dl«d aft«r ohiM-hirtli, at CUremoqt, 



randarad good aarrioa to hia natiTe ODuntiy oa 
important oeoaaioiUk The arm; alao paid to H. 
Lindea'a mamoiy that tribute to which hia rank aa 
CommMtder in the Order of Leopold anHlted him. 
Dataohmente of varioua infantry regimanta greeted 
with a T(dlaj tha bodj of tha dapartad at tha aitt 
froni the mortuurr chapel and at the enbaaoe to 
tha Dhnroh ; the Sing aanthla piivatabudof Ooidaa, 
who played faoenl marohaa from the Bus BeUiard to 
tha dhurch of SL Joaaa-ten-Noode. Tho acientiBi^ 
hortioultura], literary, and arUitio world, and the 
magiatmtfll ware largely repKiGiitad, A number 
of tha horUonltural aocieUej oF the cnuntry were 
uaooiat^ for the occisim. A oamber oE telegranu 



botany and hortiaultme by H. Linden, M. Panl 
Hymana apoke a* the rapraMatative of the old 
■tudenta of the BruseU Univeraity ; and H, Em. 
Iiebmn, In tha name of tha ataff oF L'Uortiaultura 
Intemationile, bora taatimony to the reapeet and 
admiration in whioh their late ohief waa held, and 
eipretaed (ympatby with the •urvitiog membata 
o( the family. 

We omitted to mention that the detail* of H. 

Lindan'a eareer that we publiahid lait week were 
reprinted from an earlier Tolame, and were origlDally 
derired from an nrtiole in the lUtUmtUm Hortieolt, 
by H. RodigM. In an advinoa >heaC of tho forth- 
ooming number of the Bitlktbu d'ArboricMiat, Ac., 



Fill 21. — COOL FER.SEKV IN THE BELrAST BOTANICAL CABDIKS. (su P. 50.) 



FUNBRAL OP M. Jean UNOEN.— The raapeot 
(■bown to the memory of tha lati Jean Limdin on 
bha ucoiaion of bia fuoa'al bore teitimwi; to the 
.Mtcem in whiah the daoeaaed wa« held. Tne Kimo, 
on receipt oI the newa of the death eaniad hia 
Marfabal de la Cour to (ipraai to the bereaved 
titmlly hia ajnipathy with their Io»a. Tha King 
■aaa alao officially rapreaented at the tunaral by one 
of hia Ueneralii. The Oorammrnt of the Grand 
Oucliy ct Luiouihourg saot a meaaitge of condolenoe 
to M. LucJen Linden, and inttnioied the Comte 
d'Anaembourg, the Charge d'ABairei, to repreawit 
-them at the funeral. Jean Linden had bean Conaul- 
Oeneral of Luztmbonrg, aod in that eapaoity, whtn 
that diatrict had no minlatar in Bd^uio, ha 



of oondoleoca, wrisatha nad croatei oF natural flow> ra 
ware aant The eMajulU ardmU wrw Gllad with fiae 
Palma and with Sowora. among vh'ch atood the Uer. 
Among the Orehida, Cattleya TViantai and Odonto- 
gloMum oriapnm were con*piauou*, bring apadei 
partlonlBTly eateamedby H. Linden, There waa alao 
a branch of Ualpighia llioifolia, tba firat plant brought 
home from liia Toyagaa by U, Linden in ISSil, and 
a i)l in axiitanoe in the houwi of L'Uortioulture 
Internationale. At the gnve-aide, Tarioua ontioo* 
were pronounoed. H. Kageljan, *a old and vaload 
friend, paid an eloquent tributa to the deaeaaad ; 
H. Em. RodldM, in the name of the Eoole d'hortl- 
cultureani the Chambra ^ndlcale dea Horticulteun 
Belgea, apoke of the valiuble Mrrios* rendered to 



with which we have been favoured, we Bod that in a 
■peeoh dalirered by H, Kodigaa, on the ocoadon ol 
the funeral, U. Linden ia credited with having 
introduced no fewer than 230 Palma, and SSQ new 
apeclea of Orchidi to our garden* I Two cloaely 
printed oolumna of the Stnaiiu HorticoU are derotad 
to a liat of the namea of tha planta diaoorared or 
introduoed by him. It ia probable, howaTer, that 
thia liat hu been drawn up without opportuoity fur 



Retarding Flowers of Orchids— It la wel 
known to gardanara, that the flowering period of the 
Lily of the Valley may be retarded by keeping the 
' 1 ioe-oellar tor Mraral moBtha, In thia 



58 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[JAinrAJiT 22, 189a 



>««- 



way, th* lovely M Aj-flowor may be had in Augiiat and 
September. It it certainly the wish of many an 
Orohid-grower to induce kia plants which flower in 
the dead season, to bloom at a later time, when their 
cut-flowers are of higher valne. That this is not 
impossible was shown, says our Berlin corre- 
spondent^ Dr. Dammib, at ibe December meeting of 
the Berlin Horticultural Societ7,by Mr. oi Coemi at 
FrsmoaiMh-Buchhols, near Berlin. Odontoglossum 
grande flowers here under normal conditions at the 
beginning of October. At this season the flowers are 
of little value, bat th^ woold fetch a modi higher 
price if they could be had at Christmas the New 
Year, or in Jannaiy. With this aim, Mr. nit Oonn 
cultirated his plants. He kept them dry until Uie 
beginning of June, and that the state of rest of the 
plants mig^t be as perfect as possible, he took the 
plants with their roots out of the pots. In the month 
of June he allowed the plants to grow, and this they 
did so well, that the bulbs became quite strong and 
the flowers were partially open at Christmas. At the 
meeting on December 30, half a doaen strong plants in 
full flower were exhibited, whilst a good many other 
plants in the nursery were still in bud, and will open 
their flowers during January. If this mode of cultiva- 
tion proves practicable with other species, and it is 
no doubt that they will be so, then a good many 
Orchids will be of higher value than hitherto. It 
would be interesting to learn whether tins cultivation 
has been already applied to other Orchids. 

The Surveyors' iNrriTUTiON. — The next 

ordinary general meeting will be held on Mooday, 
January 24, 1898, when a paper will be read by Mr. 
BCr. A. A. HoueoN (Associate), entitled " Surveyor* 
as Arbitrators." The chair will be taken at 8 o^dock. 
The adjourned discussion on the paper read by Mr. F. 
PuHOHARD (Fellow), at the last meeting, entitled, 
" The Royal Commissioners' Suggested Amendments 
to the Agricultural Holdings Act, 18889** was resumed 
and concluded. Notice is given that the Annual 
Dinner of the Institution will take place at the 
Holbom Restaurant (King's Hall), on Wednesday, 
February 9, 1898, at half-past 6 o'clock precisely. 

ROOFINQ FELT&— Messrs. D. Ardbrsof, of 
Belfast, have submitted to us specimens of their 
roofing felt, which is well adapted for roofing out- 
houses or sheds, or for lining slate<roo& or wooden 
structures. When exposed, the felt requires an 
occasional coating of tar to keep it in good condition. 
Their marginal hair febrio for covering exposed pipes 
will save many a '* burst.'* 

North Peckham Amateur Chrysanthe- 
mum Society.— The annual dinner of tiiis Society 
will take place on Thursday. January 27, at the 
Bridge House Hotel, London Bridge, with W. Biaji, 
Eiiq., President of the Society, in the diair. A 
numerous company is expected to attend the function, 
especially gentlemen connected with the publishing 
and printing trades. 

A Red-flowered Mar^chal Niel Rose.^ 

Our Rose-gardens are to be enriched by a red Msr^ohal 
Kiel, the flower of which, it is said, is very large, 
wellshaped, fuU, and in form of bud and flower 
like the yellow M. Niel. It is likewise very sweet- 
scented, and blooms abundantly on the one-year^ld 
wood; grows strongly, but less so than its yellow 
namesake. The colour is carmine-red. It is a 
seedling from Pierre Netting and M. NieL 

The ADVERTISER'S "A. B. C."— This useful 
directory, compiled and published by Mr. T. B. 
BnowMB, of 168, Queen Victoria Street, London, 
E.C., consisting of 1051 folio pages of lette r press and 
illustrations, is almost indispensable in the offices 
and counting-houses of merchants and tradesmen. 
The volume commences with an advertisement 
picture-gallery that includes many of the more 
■trikiog pictorial advertisements of the day. This is 
followed by a directory in brief, and indices givbg 
the names of all newspapers, magazines, and reviews 
published In the United Kingdom and Ireland ; and 
succeeding it are lists of those published in the 
metropolis, and those of the provinces in extended 
order, with much information concerning each of 



value to the intending advertSssr or subecriber. 
Lastly, we have the colonial press direetory, with 
scales of charges for advertisements appended to the 
notices of the various newspapers, and specimen front 
pages in the smalleet tfpe^ filled with advertisementi 
of most of the more important onea. The imports, 
or the aggregste trade of the various colonies for 
either the year 1897, or a series of years, form a part 

of information aflbrded. 

« 

TRiFAClAt Orange.— M. Dklchevalkbib, in 
his account of the Pare Public de VEabekiek^ Cairo 
(Qhent), p. 11, already notioed in theee colunms, 
gives the following particulars regsrding the tri&cial 
Orange : " Citrus Rig<iradis» has long, pointed, often 
woolly leaves; the petiole is in some cases winged, in 
others notso. The flowers are white, bnt tinged with 
violet outside. When this tree was raised at Florence 
it was propoeed to graft it, but the stock having 
grown out beneath the graft, it was noticed that the 
tree bore two sorts of leaves. It was therefore left 
to fruit. It was at first supposed that two branches, 
one of the Citron, the other from the Orange^ had 
been grafted simultaneously, and had become united, 
but, as has been said, the tree produced shoots 
beneath the graft. Whatever the reason, the foliage 
showi thii peculiarity, that the brandies were inter- 
mixed. At Paris, at Huward*s, there was formerly 
a specimen sixty years old bearing fruits partly 
Citron, and partly Orange. At Cairo, in the garden 
of v. R. dE Choubiah, formerly the residence of 
Mehsmit Ali, was one of these eccentric Orange 
trees from which we have gathered fruits of a three- 
fold form and nature, one third of each being Orange, 
one third Citron, and one third roogh-skinned Citron." 

British Nurserymen and Enterprise.— 

A week or two ago, in referring to the number of 
foreign seed and plant catalogues received at this 
office, and printed in En^^ish for circulation in Britain, 
we remarked that so fkr ss we were then aware, few, 
if any, of our home nurserymen took the trouble to 
print the catalogues intended for circulation on the 
Continent in the language the recipients could best 
understand. We have now received two copies of 
Messrs. Ooopbb, Tabbb ft Co.'s seed catalogiib, one 
of which is printed in the German, and the other in 
the French language. We congratulate the firm, 
and ahall be pleased to receive testimony that other 
houses sre equally alive to the importance of being as 
up-to-date in their methods as are their competitors. 

The Gardeners* Royal Benevolent In- 
stitution. — This excellent Institution held its 
annual gsneral meeting (H. J. Vkitch, Esq., in the 
Chair) at **Simpaon*s»'* Strand, London, on 
January 20. The business was of the usual routine 
description, consisting of the presentation of the 
committee's report, and the accounts of the Institution ; 
the election of officers for 1898, and the elec- 
tion by ballot of candidates to become pen- 
sioners on the Fund. The various resolutions were 
\ assed with unanimity. The report stated that during 
1897 eighteen pensioners had died, four of whom 
left widows, and three of these have been placed on 
the pensioo list, at £16 per annum, in iuooemion 
to their late husbands. The names of two pen- 
sioners whose circumstances had changed during the 
year had been removed from the Hst The total 
number of pensioners was 167. Owing to a 
legacy left by the late J. W. Thompson, at one time 
gardener to Kiug George III., for the benefit of 
a widow or widows, it was resolved to put 
on the pension list the name of the widow 
who received the highest number of votes 
among the unsuccessful candidates. Including 
this widow there were thirty - five ^pUcants 
over and above the numbw elected to the funds, 
which was fixed at nineteen. In consequence of 
John BatterBby, of Carrington, Nottt, aged 73, 
annual subscriber of £1 Is. for thirty-five years ; 
John Betrj, of Prestwich, Manchetter, aged 7i, 
annual subscriber of £1 1«. for fifteen years ; 
Dsniel Boreham, of Rydes Hill, Guildford, sged 71, 
annual subscriber of £1 U. for seventeen years ; 
George DanieUs, of Alfretoo, Derbyshire, aged 62, 
annual subscriber of £1 U. for eighteen years 



WiOiatt DavidMn, of Oslelotd. Okraceater, aged 72, 
annual aubseribef of £1 U, lor thirty^wo yaara ; 
niomaa FioaUns, of Kewowtle, Stafibiddiirs, ac^ 70, 
annual aubaeriber of £1 It. for fif t ee n years ; John Mit- 
chineon, elTruroi aged 76, annual subscriber of £1 Is. 
for twentf'three years ; Jchn Perkins, of Tliomhain, 
Suffolk, Sfad 78, blind, life member for fifteen yearv, 
also cottlribnted £00 ; John Rolfe, of Heme ffiD, 
aged 6df annual sobsoriber of £1 1$, for thir^-aix 
years ; and SUm Warr, of Woolston, Korth Cadboxj, 
aged 71* snnnal sahseribsr of £1 It. for minetoen 
years — being in distraa^ and having in every wmy 
complied with the rules and regulations, the Com- 
mittee recommended that these ten applioaata be 
placed on the Penaion List without the trouble 
or expense of an election, in aoooidanoe with 
Rule nL a. 5. The above ten candidates having 
been elected unanimously, a ballot took place for the 
remaining nine. The following are the namoa of the 
suocessfol eandidates, and the number of rotee 
recorded for each : — 



HENBT ELUS 
THOS. BUNOar 
ROBT. BBOBIB 
JAS. BAKBR ^ 
WM. WOOD .. 
DAVID CORNELL 
GEO. HEWITT„. 
EDWIN THOMAS 
LTDIA ROSB ... 



4t49 
SHOO 
8878 

ases 

37f0 
3d6S 
9651 
3560 
SSM 



ELIZABETH McCULLOCH (J. W. Thorn- 

•on bequest^ 30S1 

The Annual Friendly Supper is being held, under 
the chairmanahip of Abthub W. Sutton, Esq.. of 
aa these pages are in the preea. 



PUBUCATION8 RECEIVED.— ^n/Ze^m qf the Bo- 
tanical Departnicnl, Jawutda, October to November, 
1897, contains, among other articles, papers on Move- 
ments of Planti^ and Kl em eqtary Notes on Jamaica 
Plants. — Bulletin ^ MiMeeUameaue Information^ Royal 
Botanic Gardens, Trinidad, January, 1898 ; devoted to 
descriptions of the Ferns of the West Indies and 
Quiana (by G. S. Jenman), and dealing with Qenua 1, 
Hymenophyllumand 2, Trichomanes. — Tki Canadimn 
fforiieuliuriMt for December, 1897. Thia number 
indudea a paper by F. W. Bubb on the Loganberry, 
a new fmi^ of the trials of which satisfsotory results 
are reported. It is said to resemble a red Blackberry, 
and to have the habit of the Dewberry. —Jbttmo/ of 
the Board of AgricuUare, December, 1897. Among 
other artidee is one on an Orohid-bug, Phytoooris 
militaria, to which Dendrobium Phabenopsts is 
particularly subject. The insect is imported with 
the plants and spraying with quassia and soft-sosp 
have proved more efficaciooa sgatnst it thsa has 
tobacco-powder.-^. Davbmpobt k Sena, brswers, 
Bath Row, Birmingham, Pocket IHariee, in cloth and 
leather binding, handy, durable, and provided with 
mudi useful information for every-day use. 



THE GROWTH OF APPLE-TREES. 

Ah outcome of the frequently-recurring agitation 
on the subject of British fruit is, that method in 
pruning ia claiming more attention, with the reeult 
thai Um old-fsshioned rule-of-thumb practice of hard- 
pruning for fruit is giving way to a more sensible 
treatment of trees. Those who see clearest are being 
persuaded that the over-use of the knife has much to 
answer for in the matter of (mitless and unhealthy 
treee. Pruning ia at its beat but an artificial way of 
attaining certain objects, such as adapting the trees 
to a lisdted ^aoe, or reducing them to some un- 
natural form, bnt it has been indulged in so long, 
and so commonly, and the knife ii such a fosd- 
nating instrument, that it has long been a part of the 
gardenen' creed to prune and prune, as if Dame 
Nature deserved no consideration. 

From the time a scion becomes estabUshed on its 
stock till the tree is worn out, it is frequently pruned 
with severity, although it may show all the while by 
the thickets of Willow-like shoots that it is a practice 
rssented by Nature. To curtail the spread of a tree, 
and to produce a symmetrical form of the crown, 
much labour must be expended in summer and in 
winter, and from a productive point of view this 
labour is wor'e than lost. I grant that fruit*trees 



Javtabt 22, 1898.) 



TBE GABDENEBS' CHBONICLE. 



muit oooMionrily be thinniHi ftid Uwt Sw radnotioa 
oTlBiigtli In % bnnoli han and tben twqr ba dboo- 
•ry loaieUinM, bat U«m growo m nearij h piNribla 
" g to NatonE 



littla t«adaa<7 1« n«ka redundMMT of bcMMheB, ooDw 
qa«nt^ but Uttla thimiliig of meh tran is iH* DMdMl. 
OinD ■ aUrt of » luGBciont nombw of bntiofaw to 
form tiM mdn srnu of a ti»a, thB 1«M thsM in 



•oniB of tlia Tny bcrt frnit-bnd* {"and.lwtma Umh and In a yatr or two tbe growth made annually 

thia, tha bod* lower down tbeifaoott develop thereby beaomeilga andleaa, an'd fi fruitful. Iha*Bdarotad 

into groM fruitlan growthi, inataad of fniib-tpara. aoma <«re to tha raUing of Beedling Apples, and am 

Onepleafor iluHrteniDg bnochaa muit notbeorer- pleaaadao far witli therMiilt,iD r^jvd toabapalinaa 

looked, and that ia, that it UnaoeaMiy for atrangtluo- and promiae in laedlingtnow uxyaaiaofage. Theaa 

ioK weak onaa ; bot 1 bold that if one qnartar of tho have neTer bean tDOohed with the knife, and yet they 

time DOW (pent with tha knife in a harmful wq ware bristle with truit-bndB and apnn. I oan aay with 

darotad to aecoring (hoot* that ahow abnonnal w«ak- oonfldeDoe that no more ihapsly or evenly tialanaed 

traea than the majority of thaia aeedllnga oan be 

produced under any method ofbaid pnining. Ifthia 

is BO with teedlingi, why not with grafted or budded 

treea r J, C. TaUaei, Livcrmerc Park Gardent, Bury 



TiQ. 22,— LjOlu ambsuna, obawhiuv's vametx. 



L-ELIA AME8IANA, CRAWSHAY'S 
VAEIETT. 
Taa flower of Hr. CrawHhay'i varioty of L. Ameai- 
ana (eee Qg. 22) diflsra tram the arigiDal in poama- 
Ing petals of greater breadth, and lapali that are 
whiter at the baie, and of a brighter purple tint at 
the tlpa, HI are aleo tha tipi of the p«t^. The aide- 
lobaa ot tbe Up are marked with a diak oloiet^rimaon 
oolour like the front-loba. It waa ihown by the 
owur at the meeting of the Bojol Hortiai^tural 
Sodaty on Jtnuatjr II thlt year (aee report in 
•* CAnHHcb for January le, p. 47). 



ibortaned Uie aoonar will bait apun develop, but 
aoootnpauied by very taw luperfluoui ihoota. Any- 
one may prove for himaelf what an effeot the omiiajon 
to prone liaa on production ot froit apim by leaving 
the leading young growtha intaot fur two year*, aa in 
the eeoondyear tliey become atudded withapura from 
the baaa (o the tip, but, and thia point ahould be 
Dotad, the largeat and earlieat apnla to mature Into 
Hnaioiniiig and fraJthilneM are tbund near Imt not 
qi^ up to the tipa of these ihoota lo that even the 
•o-oalled moderate shortening ot branohea outa away 



nam into place, trath alrength and fiuit woold oome, 
and that two years before a tree, treated to an annual 
•bortaning of two-thlrdi ibi growth, would give a 
buit Uany varietiea of the Apple which are noted for 
not afibrding buit wbilat young, do not require half 
tbe time tbey uaually take, U they are allowed to 
grow in die qnickly. One thing whioh may deter 
aome gardener* from aUowiu; the development for 
whioh t plead, ii the great length of the ahooti toade 
the first year after the shortening ot ihooti haa been 
given up, but this excess ot growth ia eoon moderated, 



Home Co bbesp ohdenoe. 

THE KAKI, LOTI. Oil DATE-PLUMB (moaPVROS 
KAKI V/MB.).~1 am venr 1^ to hear Uwt the KaU 
haa fmitad at Kew under glaai for Ave year* or ao. 
and I am alaa very pleaaed indeed to hear that at 
Bttoo. in "aOlouoeatenhlre garden," Canon Ella- 
aombe be* inooeaded in fruiting tt in the i^n air. 
I Willi that Chnon Ellaoombe would telt n* what 
treatment hi* tmiUnic apaaimen has reomved, how 
loME it haa grown at Bltton, and alao dve na soma 
notion aa to the nie and Sanor of tfaa fniita. Than 
are now in oulHvatiem in South Europe and Amerioa, 
aa well as in J^an, a numnnii aariai of varietiea 
larsa and small, aome of the kinds being aaedlea, 
while otbeia prodoos from four (o eight laedi, not 
mlika Bat Dataitones ; henoa.no doubt, the popular 
name ot Dala-Plnm. The United Btatai Department 
id Agiioaltare IDiviiiom of Pomolo^, AUtfta So. 6) 
has reoently publlihad a oatalogue of fa^ta recom- 
mmdad for enltivalatm in the variona leetioni of the 
United State* by the American Pomolopcal Sooietir, 
and on p. S3 of thia eatalogna an aaalytical liat ii 
given of eleven varietiaa oif Dioapyroa Kaki, all 
eioapt the nriety ooatata, having J^iainae namea. 
So tar Iheee variatiga ira imly reoommanded for the 
wanniat aontham itatea, sueb aa Florida and tbe 
Oulf COaat of Alabama, MiiaiBdppi, Lonidana, and 
ttam below 100 teat elamtian. In North Carolina, 
South Ovolina, and Georgia, below 1000 feet eleva- 
tioa and in Alabaroa, Loniiiisa, ind UiadanppI, 
betwern 100 and ,600 feet alevatioti, and in warm 
parte of other etatea luoh aa Texas, 8.E. Arkanaa*. 
8.E. HMKNui, & Dllnais. W. Kantuoky, and 
TiiinaMKi. tialow 600 feet elevation ; of the eleven 
vaiietiM nuMd only one reaches tbe higfaeat nomber 
of tenpcHntaforqudity.vi*., "TaneKai^" Tarietiaa 
Mll*d"Okame,""T*do-iohi,"and "Kurokoma," are 
next higbeat with five to lii pointa eaeh, and tlien 
oome ooatata, Baoblya, and "Tabar 139," eaeh with 
fbor to five p<nnta i tlie ramaJning varietiea beiui 
" HtftAnnM^" "Tiuru," "Yemon," and "Zsara," 
iriiidh only loared three to tour point* eaoh. The 
eetonra an given aa being black, brown, oartnine, 
dark enrage red, and aalmoa, and in ilie these aorta 
vary hvat \\ inob to nearly S inchee in diameter. 
The common or wild Feratramoa (Diaapyra virginica) 
haalongbaenoneof the wild fmil* of the United Btatea 
edible only after tbe fiiat froete, and even thm nut 
liked bv everyone who eate it ; and by the nnme 
token there are vary diverse opinioni u to tha edible 
qualitiea of tbe Japanew kioda. WrilJcg from Nice 
lately, Hr. Woudall says, that there, Dioapyrce Kaki 
tua becoma a popular fruit in tho miirket, and that it 
is moat eETective on the diah, or aa piled up in heapa, 
OT in baaki^ta on the atalla. He further adds, that. 
" when quite soft and traQsparent itisadelicioua fruit, 
buttbatitisnotj;iTBQ to evaryoneto be patient enough 
to wait for that happy moment ; benoa, fooUsb people 
call it rough and aatrinicent, while to tboae whuVait. 
it is like a hitge Aprioot, melting and deleotabla. ' 
As to hardloess. there is no doubt but that tha 
Diospyrol.iCaki will withstand our hardeet w inters on 



60 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Jauuabt 22, 1898. 



a wall ; but it does not follow that it will ever prove 
a satisfactory fruit-tree as grown in the open air. 
Mr. O. F. Wilson, years ago, fruited it in a orchard- 
house, and as n fruit>tree it will, I believe, only be a 
saccesa with us as grown under glass for at least part 
of the season. The fruits are so handsome, however, 
and DS Mr. Woodall says, so '* melting and delect- 
able '* when perfectly i-ipened, and they come in, 
moreover, at such a dull time of our year, that they 
are doubly welcome, and will I am sure soon recom- 
mend themselves wherever fruit-culture under glass 
is carried on. P. W. Burbid{fe, [We received some 
lately from Algiers ; one caught at the right moment 
was delicious, the others formed an unsavory rotten 
miss. Bo.]. 

TREES AT M0TTI8F0NT ABBEY.— I observed 
the recent illostrationa of noble trees at this fine old 
place with particular pleasure, having seen the 
original two or three tunes, some thirty years ago, 
when viaitiDg the late Mr. Jones there, in the days 
when Lady Baskerville was alive. Huge as the great 
Plane-tree vras then, it is certain to have increased in 
bulk and size of crown during the intervul. No doubt 
the vigour of the tree is very much due to the fact 
that it has ample space, and that its roots have 
obtained access to the vraters of the river Test, 
which flows somewhat sluggishly along the edge of 
the lawn, and near to the tree. With respect to the 
rootiog of the lower branches, I think there are few 
more interesting trees so affected than is the huge 
Uorse-Chestnut at Ruzley Lodge, Esher—a tree ss 
handsome in culture as it i^ noble in dimensions. 
Several giaot branches of this tree havA become em- 
bedded in the mossy lawn, an 1 it is evident they ard 
deeply rooted in the soil. The interesting character 
thus presented is all the more noticeable in winter, 
when the tree is bare of leaves. It is, I fear, much 
too large a tree to get fooufsed into one picture. 
No doubt these rooting« have been aided by the 
bark of the branches being abraded by friction 
with the ground, then, becoming buried, they have 
readily rooted. I should very much like to hear 
whether the ancient pollard Oak that thirty years 
ago stood on the river-bank some half mile above the 
Abbey at Mottisfont is still existing. It was then 
one of the patriarch trees of the kingdom, and I think 
its hollow trunk at 3 feet from the ground was 36 ft. 
in circumference ; and ail about the ground there 
was an exudation of bark-growth like to an eruption 
of lava. Such patriarchs of the forest merit all pro- 
tection and preser ration. A. D, 

VIOLAS. — Tour correspondent. Mr. William 
Sydenham, of Tamworth, ought to be an authority 
u[>on the subject of Viola cultivation, coo»idering the 
varit number of plants whose culture he soporintends 
so successfully. I am obliged to him for his obser- 
vations regarding my recent cantribution to the 
OardencTi* Chronicle, Any article upon such a 
theme must necessarily be incomplete ft»r the 
number of new Violas (each, of course, infinitely 
superior to its immediate predecessor !) is such as to 
be utterly perplexing, if not absolutely distressing, 
to the most conscientious cultivator of Violas. I 
am glad to learn that Violss bloom for so long a 
period at Tamworth ; it must indeed be very sratifying 
to Mr. Sydenham to have them flowering so late as 
January, and so early as March. I regret that, as I 
do not poteess the special varieties to which he 
alludes (Britannia, kc.), I am not in a position to pro- 
nounce any opinion regarding their merits. Yet of this 
I feel assured, that many of the more venerable varie- 
ties which are still universally cultivated and admired, 
will not soon be superseded. " A thing of beauty is 
a joy for ever." I have flnally to exprees my grati- 
tude to Mr. Sydenham for his kind invitation to 
visit bis garden, which must. I imsgine, be very 
attractive when his 200,000 Violas are in bloom. 
David R. Williamson. 

PRUNINQ APPLES AND PEARS.— Tour cor- 
respondent, Mr. Kettle, still misconstrues my remarks 
on the pruning of xnaiden, standard, and bushes 
of Apples and Pears. If Mr. Kettle will be good 
enough to concentrate practical ideas into such a 
form as to indicate clearly to readers of the Qardenertf 
Chronicle wherein my practise is at fault regarding 
the " building up of large fruitful trees in as short a 
time as possible," and at tbe >ame time make clear a 
better or more practical method of doing this, he 
will be doing them and myself a great service which 
we shall all of us appreciate. But the running from 
one point to another of the subject, firing random 
shots by the way which fail to hit i£e mark, 



does not commend itself to your r^ader4, or tend 
to elicit sound information thereon, ts I feel 
sure your correspondent is desirous of doing. 
Mr. Kettle says, in reference to the pinching of the 
summer growths resulting from the pruning of 
** misplaced "shoots back to 2 inches, <* the said 2 
inches would only have undeveloped buds, wbioh in 
effect," he says, "are all wood-budr," adding, 
** whereas if they were left at greater length the buds 
would be more fully (?) developed, and only one 
(seldom more) would make wood, the buds behind 
such being fruit-bods.*' How does he arrive at this 
conclusion ? Are not the buds on restricted growths 
more plump, more developed, than those on unre- 
stricted growths? Mr. Kettle would allow the 
"misplaced'* surplus shoots to remain at their full 
length, Le., to become crowded, rather than siorifioe 
the terminal fruit-buds by the 2-inch pruning 
method.*' And he goes on to say, " If the 5 to 9-inoh 
system be practised, it will be years before you get a 
dozen fruits, and many more before you gather a 
gross ; *' adding, * * I prefer long growths and fmit — long 
apursC!) and fruit, rather &«i treea dwarfed with 
5 and 9inoh pruning." The words " 5 and 9-ineh 
and 2-inch pruning," appear to have had a magical 
effect on the mind of your correspondent, seeing that 
he has mixed them up, and repeats them so 
frequently irrespectively of the meaning which their 
application by me dearly conveyed. The remarks of ^ 
mine on Pruning Apples and Pears, misinterpreted 
and criticised accordingly by your correspondent, 
apply solelv to maidens, as stated at the time, which 
I practically recommended to be pruned once, with 
the result that stocks which were grafted in the 
spring, say of 1896, each sdon being furnished with 
three wood-buds, and Ithese having pushed into free 
growth, were pruned back to from "5 to 9 inches** 
the winter following; each pruoed-back shoot pro- 
ducing from three to five growths this year (1897). 
thus giving to each tree fifteen ahoots from last year's 
(1896) cut-back maidens. I shall be much obli^ to 
Mr. Kettle if he will kindly state, in these pages, a 
quicker and better mothod of establishing laige 
fruitful trees, ff. W, Ward. 

A HALL FOR HORTICULTURE.— This discussion 
has drifted away to a side issue, owing to a remark of 
mine which Mr. Dean contested. His last contribu- 
tion to the controversy shows plainly the helpless 
bondage of the N. C. S. to the Royal Aqusrium Com- 
pany — a most huroilisting condition for a society 
that caUs itself a '* National " one. The title should, 
I think, be altered to tbe Royal Aquarium Chrysan- 
themum Society. Mr. Dean says I have no personal 
knowledge of the profits which the Aquarium Com- 
p my derive from the N. C. 8. . and goes on to mention 
various items of cost to them that the ahows occa- 
sion ; but no figures are given by him whereby one 
may judge of the aggregate amount. Surely Mr. 
Dean« as an oflidal of the K. C. S., has examined this 
matter and could give a mor«s convincing answer 
than he has dono on p. 45. Staging would only need 
paying for once, and deal-boards are cheap. Labour 
and as^iatance at shows figure largely in the balance- 
siieet of the N. C. 8., eo it is not all supplied by the 
Uoval Aquarium Company ; only a portion of the 
lighting oan be speciijly called for by the N. C. S. 
But I need not go through the list. Mr. Dean has 
probably enumerated everything (but without any 
figures), and has advocated the cause of the Royal 
Aquarium more strongly than the N. C. S. But if 
the Aquarium Comnany is put to a heavy expense over 
these i>hows, the N. C. S. is also, as 1 find £839 for 
prizes, and £503 for other expenses, mainly connected 
with the shows and sub«criptions in 1896, making a 
total of £1347 expended ; for this magnifioe^it expen- 
ditare (which is a credit to the N. C. 8.) it is allowed 
by the Royal Aquarium Company the sum of £300 ; 
the rent of space amounts to £120 ; tickets sold, 
£51— a total of £471, which 'is given back to the 
N. C. S. If, as Mr. Dean oontends, the Aquarium 
Company derives no profit from this arrangement. I 
can only add that it certainly ought to do so. Mr. 
Dean appears to entirely mistake my meaning in the 
sentenoe referring to uie further enooursgement of 
Chrysanthemum culture, and I assure him I did not 
make the statement, as he buggests, *' without think- 
ing about the matter." It is not always advisable to 
write all that one thinks, but my contention wai 
this :— '<If the N. C. 8. had all the profits arising 
from its shows, it would be able to do far more work 
than it hss done hitherto. I willingly admit thit it 
has done much valuable work in the past, and those 
members who have assisted S3 conspicuously and 
gratuitouily deserre the thanks of aU — more espe* 
cially as regards the valuable catalogue. But I would 



ask, Does nothing more remain to be done? sod 
would not the Society be able to do much more if it 
had a good reserve-fund, and reaped all the benefit 
derived from its shows f Mr. Dean mentions £55 
being added to the reserve-fund in 1896; if tbe 
profits of the foor days' show in November had goss 
into the fnnda of the Society, this aum woald pro- 
bably have been hundreds of pounds. The totsl 
reserve and balance of tbe National Chrysanthemum 
Society at the commencement of 1897 wu 
£116 St. 10<i. I could mention a small Chryianthe. 
mum Sodety in a country town of about 10,000 
inhabitants, which {has joat oompleied its fifth ysir, 
and has alrsAdy nearly half as much balance ss tbs 
National Chrysanthemum Sooteiy. W. if. JHvers, 

«— — > I have read the correspoodenoethafchaasppssnd 
on the subject of a ball for horticulture in the (?s^ 
dcnert^ OhronkU, I should like to see one ersctsd, 
bat to have such as one we have at Peokbam, and to 
make it pay its way is another matter. I have osrs- 
fuUy read the correspondence, and I am of ths 
opinion of Mr. R. Dean — that is, there mmst be some 
extra attraetions of some kind or another, or tbe 
visiton, after having examined the flowen, will not 
know what to do to beguile the time. None but 
enthustasts will linger over the blooms. I can aisure 
you, as an assistant-secretary of the North Peokhsm 
Amateur Chiysanthemum Society, and the bos. 
secretary will bear me out, that at our exhibitioD, 
after the public have examined the blooms, tb^ at 
once adjourn to the oonoert-room, or go down to tbs 
ballroom, which ia crowded. These facts will, 1 
think, bear out Mr. R. Dean's sUtements. that tbe 
visitors like variety for their money ; and fbr London 
the most suitable show place is the Royal Aquarium, 
Westminster. I feel sure that if we had nothing 
beyond flowers as an attraetioo, our endeavours to 
hold a flower ahow would have ended in fiulurs. We 
had more than 4000 visitors in the four dsys tbe 
exhibition lasted, and now we require a Uiger hsll 
inCamberwelL WiUiam NichoU, 

Mr. Dean has attempted to prove that tbe 

Aquarium Company is put to an enormous expesM 
in connection with the exhibition, ka. of the Nstioui 
ChrysauUiemum Society, and he quotes priotmg, 
sdvertising, posting, and " many other ways." Tbeit 
items are to be found in the balance-sheet of hit 
year, where it will be seen that about £700 waa 
swallowed up by expenses,and paid for by tbe NsUooal 
Chrysanthemum Society, this amount being quite 
independent of tbe prizes awarded. Will Mr. l>ean 
kindly inform us why the National Chrysantbemom 
Society requites »uch an enormoua expenditure, tbat 
is far m excess, by comparison, with the sums speot 
by many of the most important Provincial Societies. 
In the balance-sheet we have Luncheons £30, Aonaal 
Dinner £18 (by whom are the invitations sent out f), 
banquet £93, atationary £28, stamps, kc, £37,ape(»l 
JubUee ditto £30. show expenses £51 (are not var'7 
all show expenses?), dericallassistanoe £75, dSlto 7 
commiesions (to whom?) £11, sundries £11 ; allowing 
fur extra labour, gsa, firin/, &c, JubUee show ^A 
and Royal Aquarium chaige fbr ticaets and ooomiiMKA 
on subdcriptions £53. Bearing in mind tbat Mr. 
Dean has iLformed us that there are 1,500 free panes 
issued, and the Royal Aquarium Company fiodafaa 
and light, are not these items to the toU of £75 
rather peculiar ? Mr. Dean reoommends Mr. Diven 
to try a show in some place in London, depending 
upon the gate-money to reimburse the outUy* ^^ 
sane perton would attempt such a scheme ; hot to 
some extent, such show should depend upon aab- 
scriptions, which in the case of the National Chrysan- 
themum Society amounted to about £300, to nj 
nothing about the handsome profit made from tbe 
affiliated Societiea. A, M, N. C. S. 

EU0NYMU8 IN THE ISLE OF WIGHT.— I b«'«' 
with send for your inspection a few sprays of Eaosy* 
mus. During upwarda of farty ywurs th*t I bjw 
been here, I think I have never seen the bosbes 
flower and fruit so fireely as they have dona tbj 
present season. The bushes from which the enolosea 
were taken are srowing within a few yards of tbe 
seashore. David Smith, Oard'mer, Itlc of frig^ 
College, Ryde, LO.W., Januarg 17. 

FRUIT-TREE LABEL8.^Mr. Ward's remarks upon 
such labels in the Hardy FVuit Calendar for Decem- 
ber 25 lead me to mention that ordinary roofing or 
guttering lead is very suitable materal where they can 
be nailed or wired on. It should be cut into pieces m 
long aod as deep as is necessary to take the na^ 
r. quired, and two smaU holes should be punctoeo. 
through which to pass the naili or wizs. i^o 



J AN V ART 22 1898. 



THE GARDENERS* CHRONICLE. 



61 



letter-pnnchos are necf ssary, and each punch should 
have 3 inchM of spare iron attached, lo that it can be 
held by the hand while tho imprint is being strack 
oQ the lead. Each letter is then painted whita Such 
labels last almoet a lifetime. The first cost may be 
oooaiderabie, but I think they are most economical in 
the end. I enoloee a sample label, but 1 do not sug- 
gest the oontrivanoe is a new one, for it has been in 
nae here a nomber of years. J, MajfnBf Bieton, [The 
label encloeed, which bears in umnittakable distinct- 
nest the words "Keswick Codlin," is similar to those 
we have seen in um in many gardens for naming 
trees Main«t walls, the labels being nailed to the 
wall, ft is an exo^lent and simple device, and Mr.' 
M ayne does well to call attention to snoh an imperish- 
able type. It is one which has been in use from 
time immemorial Ed. 

STATE OF VEQETATION IN 80UTHERN WALEa 
— I hare recently commenced taking my spring 
roonda in the counties of Camuurthen and Pembroke, 
and bare been surpriaed at ^e vary forward state 
of vegetation, e^Mcially in Pembrokeshire. The 
wild ^mroees va^ing in colour f^m pure white to 
dark rose and yellow adorn the hedgerows, giving 
them quite an April appearance ; one could gather 
baMkettuls in a few yaids. I have gathered Snow- 
drops daily since Christmas Day, and carried home 
laat Monday a bouquet of wild flowers conaisting of 
yellow Nipplewort, Wild Stimwberry, Herb Robert, 
and the Chrysanthemnm leucanthemum. On Tues- 
day, I picked two blooms of the Tenby Daffodil, just 
opened firom a shady lane in Pembrokeshire, and in 
the same spot many Dtffbdils are just ready to borst 
open. The flower most common, however, just now 
ia the Heliotrope scented Tuasilsgo fragraos, and 
patobes of the plant several yards in extent c«n be 
MOO all about Pembrokeshire, filling the air with 
fragrance. J, H, Maton, Oarmartken, 

VIOLETS IN FRAMES DAMPINQ OFF.— I notice 
in yoMr "Answers to Correspondents "that you attri- 
bute insufficient ventilation as the cause, but it is not 
necessarily so. Our Violeta used to suffer very muck 
from damp, although I never had the frames olosed 
in fine weather, and on a very fine day would have 
thn lights pulled quite off the plant«. We are near 
tne sesi lie very low, and have a lake a mile and 
a-half long, so that our situation ia naturally a damp 
one, and sometimea, during dull and foggy weather, 
everything is saturated for two or three days together. 
I find the best preventive against damp, with careful 
ventilation, is to have the plants well establiahed in 
their winter qoarten early. If possible, plant them 
there in apring, but failing this, plant early and oare- 
fully with a good ball, ard keep the crowns well up. 
I have always found late and deeply-planted plants 
suffer most. Last April I planted runnere in a frame 
rather closelv, kept them close, moist» and shaded 
for a ftw days until growth commenced ; then 
gradually hardened off, planted them in iramea for 
winter eatly in August, and keptahaded and syringed 
for a few days. The results will lead me to do it 
agam. During the summer I kept them well watered 
snd syringed occasionally with clear soot • water. 
T. Down, \faM9and, Seaton, HuU. 

FRUIT JUDQINa— In criticishig my notes on the 
above, " H. W. W.** (p. 80) ignores the fact that I 
especially alluded to the Royal Horticultural Society *s 
great autumn fruit shows, my reason lor selecting 
which was, that the varietiee to be exhibited in the 
single-diah classes at theae shows are arbitrarily set 
down in the schedule, and include both Apples and 
Pean that should cover the season from the date of 
the show until the following May or June — the latest 
▼Arietiea, in fiMt, that are grown being among those 
selected, and rijzhtly to. If my critic's dictum as to 
ripeness out of sesson beins a merit is to stand good 
in such olsssss, it means noting short of having a lot 
of good fruits spoiled; and I should like to know 
where the line ia to be drawn. Possibly " H. W. W." 
would like to see such Pears as Bergamot d'Esperen, 
Eaftter Beurr^, Josephine de Malines, Winter Nelio, 
and the lika, shown in a ripe state in September ; also 
that the same thing should follow in the case of 
late Apples. If so, I certainly dissgree with him, 
and I doubt very much if any gardener who has 
to supply ripe fruit through Uie season could be 
found to sgree. All that is wanted is to show fine 
fruits of the particular variety selected ; and if it is 
one not yet in season* ripeness should be considered 
no merit. For instance, let na take Joaephine de 
Malinea Pear. It ia well known that this mav be had 
in a ripe state in November, but then what aboat the 
dishes for the dessert in Februoiy? In assuming 
that the fraiis shown "of the same variety" are 



M 



equal, or nearly so, in size or shape," " H. W. W.*' 
assumes too mooh ; for in the oasea which I ventured 
to criticise it was not so, the fruits selected for prises 
being decidedly smalL I remember acaaein point last 
year, where the judges were spparently undedded in 
their action. The 1st prize went to a dish of small 
and ripe fruit; the 2nd to much larger, equally 
shapely, but green fruits; and the Srd again to 
a dish of ripe fruits. The dish here seled^ for 
2nd prise was abaolntely faoltiess, and nothing bat 
the attractive ripeness of those placed Istgidned them 
their position. Again, taking exMbita of collections 
of Apples or Pean^ I should like to ask your corre- 
spondent which would be of most value to the private 
gardener, a dozen dishes of Pears which would cover, 
say, six months' supply, or as many dishes all ripe at 
the same time ? The best collection of fruit is the 
one which coven the longest season, provided the 
quality is of the best throughout, sod the sooner 
judges oeaae to be senaible to the glamour of mere 
ripeneaa, the better and less artificial will be the 
methods of exhibitors. I am sorry that my use of 
the words " dead ripe *' needs explainiDg to 
'* H. W. W. ; " I thought that term was well known 
to convey the meaning of full ripeness, and not the 
rottenness he suggeets — that, at leaat, was my 
meaning, and I must apologise for having led him 
astray. Oomubian, 



Nursery Notes. 

A **NEW YEAR'S SHOW" AT READING. 
(Confiniicii from p. 4 .) 

Thi Oukt Primulas.— After all, these are the' 
most handsome strains, and will repay any extra atten- 
tion they may require. They are later-flowered than 
I he othera, and were not in full bloom when we saw 
them. Messrs. Snttons* Oiant White is procurable 
with plain or with fern-leaved foliage. The plain- 
leaved one has flowers quite 2| inches aeross, and 
they have a pretty orange centre ; the flowers of the 
fam-leaved variety are less flat, and more fimbriated. 
Both are excellent Primulas in any respect Oiant 
Pink is an extra good strain, blooms early, and for a 
long time continuously, the colour being full and 
pleasing, and the habit vigorous. One of the latest 
to flower perfectly is Oiant Crimson, rich in colour 
when at its best, having a dark eye, aod borne on 
stoat stems, well above the foh'age. 

Our attention was also attracted by varieties of 
Primulas that must be termed — 

KOVELTICS, 

there Ibeing insufficient seed obtainable from them 
to catalogue such at present. Some of them are 
sent out in the "mixture" packets, with others 
not regarded as fixed, and termed "hybrids," the 
word being used in this instance to describe varieties 
only. The darkest coloured double or single 
flowered Primula at Beading is known in each caae 
as Black Prince. The double variety may only ba 
seen at present with plain leaves of moderate sise and 
very dark purple in colour, but the single flowered 
appeared with plain and fern-leaved foliage in different 
batches. The flowers are bright velvety crimson- 
maroon, and have a purple ring around the disc 
that appears to cast a halo over the flower. Such 
dark -flowered Primulai will be certain to becoiue 
popular very speedily, as they are so distinct, 
and the tint so rich. A few plants there were of 
another strain also, with plain leavea, and a flatter, 
better flower than the preceding, but were just as 
intensely coloured, and will probably be known by 
the same name. A novelty exists, too, in the only 
bluish • flowered variety, possessing light • coloured 
stem»-Hdmost white ; it has plain foliage, and with 
its very pretty lavender-tinted flowers the plant has a 
decidedly fascinating and delicate appearance. 

But we shall only stay to mention two others of the 
newer ones, and the first is Qiant Scarlet, a variety 
that will be sure to please, as it produces large, 
beautiful flowerr, that vary in tint according to their 
age and the amount of sunlight, but are always 
bright. Qiant Lavender ia the other pretty novelty. 
We have yet to mention the— 

Starbt Primolas, 
that made such a beautiful display at Reading; 



one need not enquire why such a type is beiug 
received with favour. One good -fixed span-roofied 
house was filled with plants just coming into full 
flower. As decorative-plants they are mora efiective 
than any other Primula, and the abundant flowers of 
star-Uke form (by which we mean that the petals do 
not overlap or meet each other) are exceedingly 
pretty. Some are white, with yellow eye, others 
are lavender tinted ; and, again, there ere rose 
or pink flowers, in which a coppery hue may be 
detected. They are upright in growth, both flowers 
and foliage have deep purple stems, and the fiowers 
grow tier after tier until a perfect and graceful 
pyramid is formed. 

Primula obconica was represented by some very 
healthy lookiog plants in a frame, but we believe 
the spedea has still reftised to cross with others, and 
the variations that exist sre from its own seed only, 
or from cultivation. 

In several other houses we hastened to admire the 
beautiful display made by the — 

Vabiouslt Ck>LOUBBO Gtolambvs, 

for capital strains of which Messrs. Sutton k Sons 
have long since acquired a merited reputition. 
It may be doubted which is best known, White But- 
terfly or Qiant White ; but each is equally good. The 
former has a dwarfer habit, the pure white flowers are 
more spreading, and the foliage ia elegantly marked. 
Giant White hts a handsome, bold appearance, 
upright in growth, Isrger leaved, and the flowerp, 
which are 8^ inches across, and of great substance, 
of pure florists' form, are produced higher above the 
foliage. Other strains in every respect praiseworthy, 
include flowers of crimson, purple, salmon, pink, rose, 
chfrry-red, crimson-and-white, &c. The crimson-and- 
white flowers are extra fine, and cleariy and brightly 
coloured. The most noteworthy "fixed" novelty 
was Salmon Queen, a strain that attracts attention at 
once by its lovely and distinct salmon-pink flowen ; 
the foliage, too, ia handsomely marbled, and moderate 
in size. Vulcan is strikingly effective l^ reason of the 
extre dark ruby-red colour of its flowers, it being the 
deepest-coloured one in the collection. A curiously 
tinted one named Purple Queen is noteworthy as 
showing a shade of colour similar to one almost 
peculiar to Sweet Peas. The Cyclamen plants of all 
strains are but a year or so old, have small foliage, 
BOUMtimes veiy prettily marbled, and the flowen ate 
of erect growth that require no supports^at any rate, 
when cultivated as they are at Reading. The coloura 
also being bright and distinct, the strains would be 
superior ones for market growers. 

We saw other planta at Reading: Herbaceous 
Calceolarias, and Cinenrias in frames ; all of them 
well grown, stocky plants that are certain to flower 
welL A visit during the next week or two will be 
sure to amply repay in interest aod knowledge thoae 
who may make it, and every plant seen will present 
a perfect picture of cleanliness, skilful cultivation, 
and uncommon finish. 



Scotland. 



OSWALD HOUSK, EDINBURGH. 

A VISIT to the gardens of this esublishment, the 
town-house of J. Buchanan, Esq., is always of interest, 
tho houses at all seasons of the year being bright aod 
attractive with flowering plants, while among the 
Orohids some novelties are sure to be found. Chrysan- 
themums were almoet finished, yet some good 
blooms were still in evidence at the time of my 
vifit of the beat varietiee. Mr. Q. Wood, thu 
gardener here, was the winner of the 1st prise for 
the group of Chrysanthemums at the last exhibi- 
tion at Bdinburgfa. Leaving the fruit-houses, which 
were receiving their annual deaninf^ we come to the 
Orchid aod flowering-houses, where Primulas oboonioa 
and sinensis are in force ; the variety Sntton's Star 
being a favourite one for cutting, on account of Hi 
lightoeas and durability when cut Zonal Pelaigo- 
nioms, Heaths, and Hyacinths combine to make 
quite a gay appearanoa In the house eontahiing 



62 



THE GARDENER 8* CHRONICLE. 



[JaxvabIT 22, 1898. 



these plants are the celebrated ipeoimeiie of Bpideii- 
drum (Nanodet) Medusee, grown so well here, and 
which are being increased as fast as thej wiQ grow. 
Of other Orchids, to the growth of which four houses 
of a span-shape are set apart, those in flower com* 
prised Sophronitis grandiflora, Masdevallia toTarensis, 
C. Massangeana in litge baskets, with Teiy strong 
spikes ; Lnlia anoeps robra, a good dark Tsriety. 
In one house some good examples of AngrsBonm see- 
quipedale are grown, in a temperature which Mr. 
Wood informs me sometimeB fidls to 60* during the 
winter, end is seldom abore 60*. In this house a 
specimen of D. speciosum Hilli was pushing up a 
large number of spikes ; Brassia macnlata, and a batch 
of Aerides and Vandas in excellent health. Some 
pretty plants of D. Cassiope bore a large crop of 
flowers, forming one of the most useful of winter- 
flowering Orchids. 

Stove plants look in a vigorous condition, and the 
foliage generally well coloured. Some good plants of 
Bucharis smasonica are among the most showy ; 
Crotons in numerous varieties are grown in quantity, 
while Palms of large and small size are in favour 
here ; Ferns, including DavaUias, 4 and 5 feet in 
diameter ; Dracsenas and other pUnts necessary 
where indoor decoration is carried out, were noted ; 
and throughout an air of cleanliness and good 
iirraDgemeot is observable. H. 

Ladt Belhaven's Residential Seat in 
Lanarksbibr. 

Some of the flneit pieces of tree^Iad demesnes are 
situated in and around Bamilton, and have been vastly 
ioDproved since Sir John Watson, Bart., acquired his 
extensive holding. Tree and shrnb-plantiDg has been 
t he order of the day. Remodell ing the foreground has 
taken place with great judgment, and the emerald 
lawns form a fine foil for the designs of arboreal 
subjects dotted down, and for the wavy furniture of 
evergreen and deciduous tree and shrub life. Tbe 
] riocipa] trees are Oak, Beech, and Sycamore, which 
will girth 3 feet from the ground over 3 feet, and 
all show a vigour th%t is telling among the subsidiary 
and lesser subjects of evergreen-tree life. The 
ground-work is covered with the finest named Rhodo- 
dendrons, and they are going along with a vigour 
that is pleasing to the eye, and are studded with 
flowering buds that give promise of a wealth of bloom 
in the return of the flowering season. These, along 
with Azaleas, and many other now leafless shrubs, will 
cover with floral beauty, and give a charming tone to 
tbe various shades of greenery which spring revives. 
Tbe fine drives which have been put down are lined 
with grand groups and specimena of variegated 
Hollies, and tbo whole dress-grounds fronting the 
mansion are so furnished as to please the critical eje 
of the best landscape gardener. 

The kitchen garden reminds one of the one at 
Wiahaw House, the original property of Belhsvea 
and Stenton. A new raage of glass-houses is in course 
of erection, covering 400 feet ; the chief lean-to houses 
are to be planted with Peache.^, Nectarines, and 
Vines ; and tbe span-roofed houses are to be filled 
with plants for furnishing flowers for general decora- 
tion. There are various specimens introduced, and 
the houses are all commodious, such ss will provide 
both an abundant supply of fruit and flowers for the 
needs of the family. 

The new trees introduced sre largely of the coni- 
ferous tribe. I was glad to see the Douglss Fir in 
fine order, and covering considerable breadths, as 
also the Crimean Silver Fir (Abies Nordmsnniana), 
as also Abies nobilis, which is growing freely among 
other associates. Altogether it is a charming spot, 
and will prove a welcome auxiliary to Sir John 
Watson's estate of Eamock, which lies into and 
round about it. 

£arnook Hall, Hamilton. 
This estate was acquired by Sir John Watbon, who 
Las turned it to the greatest advantage. 1. By open- 
ing up the mineral wealth, putting down such shafts, 
and lighUng-up passages and areas so ss to enable the 
workmen to work the mineral out with ease and 
economy. In this way the great industry of Lanark- 
ahire, Ayrshire, Dumbartonshire, and other con* 



tigoous counties have baeo fed, and the needs of the 
people supplied at reasonable prices. The pits in 
opmtion hsTs increased, and the turn-out keeps the 
railways very busy for 100 miles round. His suceesi 
in this way won him the title of Sir John Watson, 
Bsrt, of Eamoch, which was a very popular title in 
this neighbourhood 

Eamock House has been added to, considerable 
wings have been constructed and finished in the most 
approved style, and the house is fit for any nobleman 
or cou n try gentleman that aspires to take the lead in 
the locality where he fixes his abode. The rssidantisl 
portion is situated on the banks of the river Cadsow, 
and is a land for the poets to discourse upon ; the 
scenery is more than delightful, and flocks of the 
people tske advantage of the free access to the 
charmed spaces. Its owner is a poet of the pac^le. 
He has retained the idiom of the Scotch dialect, and 
it is a treat to hear him toss off some of Robbie 
Bums' lamed pieces, such as *'The Snadrop," " The 
Cottar's Saturday Nicht," and other pieces which tell 
best in Bum's Scots' pure rendering. He hss reached 
the borders of the eighth decade, and long m^ he 
be spared to preside at his hospitable table and gi^er 
round him a lot of experts, such as he had at the 
dinner- table on December 11. J, A, 



SOCIETIES. 



&OYAL HO&TIO0LT0&AL. 
Scientific Oommittee. 

Javuart 11.— Presm!: Mr. Mlobael (In tbe chair): Dr. 
MiUler, Dr. RuaseU, Bev. W. WUks, aud the Bev. Prof. 
Henslow (Hon. 8eo.)> 

Funffiu on BeuK^k box of fhn;i wm roeeived from Lviy 
Cava, Cleve naU» Downend, near Briatol. They were for* 
warded to Kew, whence It was reported that they were 
Pie <roui« oatreatofl, Jacq., " one of th« heat and safest nf 
edible fangl." The spednieus were taken from a very old 
Beech in the gardens of Glere Hall. They were growing on 
the wood about 12 feet from the ground. 



Beport of the Council for the Year 

1897-98. 

Thb year 1897 will long be re nembered w the Diamond 
Jubilee year of Her Moat Oradnna Majeaty, Patron of onr 
Society— remembmred, too. for the Innumerable projeeta act 
on foot In celebration of the erent. 

In the Beport for 1896 the Oounoil announced that they 
had no Intention of adding to the number of projeeta by 
starting any ambitious horticultural celebration, which 
would lay any atratn upon the reoouroea of iodividuil Fel- 
Iowa. They stated that they propoaed to establish a Medj&l 
of Honour In Horticulture, and that they h id obtained the 
sanction of Her Majesty to call It the Victoria Medal. 

This proposal has been duly carried out; the Medal has 
been prepared, and conferred on sixty recipients dis- 
tinguished In various ways in our Art and Science ; and it Is 
belleTsd to be the only Medal associated with Her Majesty's 
Diamond Jubilee, wiUi the eiceptlon of the one founded by 
herself. It Is, moreorer, tbe only horticultural distinction In 
this country that is conferred for personal merit only, and |4 
eutiraly unconnected with priza-wlnnlng. 

By theilr action in this m%tter the Council oonsitler that 
they have commemorated Her Gracious Mt^esty's Jubilee in 
a beoomlag and end'iring manner ; In a manner absolutely 
distinct fspm all other celebrations ; in a manner that lays no 
tax upon the Fellows of the Society ; In a manner distinctly 
to the advantage and encouragement of horticultural akIU 
and ethrt ; and lastly, In a manner which will cany down to 
all future generations of horticulturists the memory of Queen 
YiotoTla's long and happy reign. 

Under the head of ordinary expondltare at (}hiawl.1c 
£1860 haa been spent on the general work and malntenanoe 
of the gardena. Amongst other wodc. House Na 11 has been 
partially, and Na 10 entirelj, rebuilt ; whUat No. 6, devoted 
to Peaches, haa been raised in height, and a new roof put on. 
Allthia work has been done by the Society's own staff of 
men. The receipts \tj sale of surplus produce amount to 
£367, making the net ordinary coat of the gardens £1403. 

At Westminstw, twenty fruit and floral meetings have 
been held In the Drill Hall, Jamea Street, Victoria Street, and 
fifteen committee meetings have been hell at Ohiswiok, 
besides the larger shows in the Temple Oazdens on May 20, 
27, and S8 ; and at the Cryatal Palace on September 80, 
October 1 and 2. Lectures have been delivered at seventeen 
of the meetings, exclusive of those given at tbe Orystal 
Palace. The number of Awards granted by the Oouocil, on 
the recommendaUon of the tarlons committees, has been as 



follows : >At piovinolal shows, 36; attlUted sooktisi, U; 
Fruit Committee, 119; Floral Oommittee, 50S: Orchid Con 
mittee, S61 ; Nardssus Oommltcea, 90; total, 1008. 

The Coonoil must again express tiieir opinion thst tbcrt 
stUl appears to be a tendency to multiply ondnly the swirdi 
recommended, and thef earnestly request ^e setenl vm- 
mittees to oonaid«r seriously whether there Is not a rail 
danger of tmpalitag the value of theaa dletlnotions by loA 
Inersaae of their Bomber ; and w hether it wnnld not bipii. 
Bible, as wnU as poUtlo, to he somewhat toss ganerom in tb 
reoommendation of awaida during th« ansolngyesr. Tlii 
is a question which the Couneil oannot bat regard witb 
soUsitods, and thsy hope that every member of ttis oon- 
mittees will consider that he has a real Individoal rifpoB. 
slbili^for&e welfare of the Society In thla matter. 

On WednoMlay, July 14, the Oounoil invited sU At 
members of the several committees to luaoh wl& themii 
Chiswiok, and to examine the gmrdena. After tbe hmdMta 
an addreea was delivered by Dr. Mas well Masters. 7.B.8., 
on the poesibilitiet of an extended usefulness of the gsrd«Bi. 
A full account of the proceedings wi 11 be found in theyovM/, 
vol. xxL, p. 100. 

The Oounoil desire to draw the attention of all FBUowid 
tbe Society to the more extended use which the Sdsotilc 
Committee might be to them II they availed themaoha 
more freely of their pr ivilegea in submitting inataooes d 
diteaaes of, or Injuriea to planta, caused by insects or iXoa- 
wise. The Seientlfic Committee is composed of gsntieoMB 
qualified to give the best advice on all such sul^ects, dtbtr 
in rmpttct to tbe prevention or cure of disease, The eost* 
mittee is also gUd to rsoelve speclm ens of any su^ecU d 
horticultural or botanloal Interest 

The Council wish to sxpreis their thanks to the Director 
of ^e Royal Gardens, Kew. for allowing them to oodmII 
Mr. Maasee, F.Ua, on the fungoid diaeusss, &c., broockt 
before the SoieutiAc Committee, and to that gentlasunfer 
his readiue&a in girlng them the advantage of his knowkdii 
and adrice. 

That FeUowa, whetiier near or at a dJstanre, may deiiri 
as much boneflt as poaslUe from their oonnectton with Ibi 
Society, the Council have recently appointed Dr. J. AoguMni 
Voelcker, M. A., Oonaulting Chemist to the Society, and Inn 
entered Into an amusement with him whereby all Fellosi 
who are amateurs or hond fide gardenera. may ohtaiu, st i 
very small cost, analyses of manuree, soils, l(c, or sdrit* 
an to what description of chemical nunure will bo m«t 
suitable and profitable for applicttion to any partioulsr aH. 
The Council wish t > draw paitlcular attentioo to two poisb, 
vis, : — 

(L) That Fallows desiring an analysis ma 4 foU-^ 
explicitly and exactly the directions hOd down In tbe 
book of arrangements, 1898, and 

(ii.) That Fellows who are in any way oommercitliy 
Interested in an^ artlAoUl manure trade or bortiail- 
tiiral bus'nesa cannot claim Dr.^ Voelcker's saisus^ 
as Fellows, but If they wish to consult him must do 
so in the ordinary way of business. 

The Sjeie^s Oreat Show, held (by the continued klndiffi 
of the Treasurer ani Benchers) In the Inner TSmplsOanlai** 
waa aa sucoeasfiil a* ever, and it is a matter of latyKt^* 
to the Coimoil to find that this meeting Is now univen*)'^ 
acknowledged to be the leading horticultural exbibitit«« 
this country. The best thanks of the Society are (ii»>»J 
who kindly brought their p'anU for exblblUon, orotb<r«i« 
contributed to the success of this show. 

The exhibition of Britisb-grown fruit Iteld by tbeBo<^ 
At the Crystal Palace on September SO. October 1 mA i. *^ 
coosidering the seaaon. eminently satlafi4Ctory. 

A certain amount of dissatisfaction has ariseo Iron Ui 
fact that whereas classes have been provid^-d speciAlIf**^ 
amateurs and gentlemen's gardeners, and also iof ^^^ 
men. there have been noclansei in whioh growers for mir<« 
could property exhibit This wiU In future be svoide4 bf 
the addition of a division for growers for market only. 

As an objeot-lesson in British fruit cult'vaUon. thU t«o^ 
nhow stands narivalled. and i« of national importance Tb> 
Council iuvlte Fellows and their friends to support it, l« ° 
imunot be too widely known that the continuance oMW 
fihow Is absolntely dependent on at least £100 being rwn 
hy subaeriptkm each year towards the prise fund, '^'f!' 
involves the Society In a very ki«« exipenditure ^'ithoutB' 
)K>9sibIUty of any return. The OouncU havs^ theicW 
esUbllshed the rule that they will not conthiae it tmu^ 
auffident intereet In it Is taken by Fellows and their m^ 
to raise £100 towards the prise fund. Subscriptions for tv 
purpose should be sent at once to the Secretary, »• 
Victoria Street, Westminster; and if ths list prove ^ 
factory, the schedule win be iasued in April, and the »»• 
held on September SO, 80, and October 1, 180& 

A deputation waa sent by the Council, at thelnritstlM^ 
the local authorities, to attend the greet boctfoon^ 
gathering at Shrewsbuiy In August Ths O®"***^*?^ 
embtaoes this opportunity of oongratnlatlng ^'^''^'''""^JLu^ 
the magnifioent dbqtUy of hortiotUtural skUl vA «n**^ 
made at their ahow, and of recording the very iT|| 
I'easure which this visit gave them, and theh- a|>prec>**r 
I r the great courtesy and hospitality with which they w 
received. ^^j 

An hiviUtion has been received and accepted for s "^ 
deputation to viait a show, to be held at NewosstfejnjWj; 
on July 13, U, and 15, 1898, by the Bolanlcal •"" "j^ 
tural Society of Northumberland, Durham, and Keww*^ 
on-Tyne. ^ 

The Journal of the Society has been cootlnned, » «■ 



Jakitart 22, 1896.] 



THE OARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



63 j 



en*ble Fellow* at a dlstiaioa -to enter more ivIXtf l&fto, and 
rmtup the benefite of the atudy and work of thoee actively 
engaged at head-quartere. 

Axk eyemhiatton in the prindplee and practice of horticul- 
ture wae held on April 6, oononrrently in different parti of 
the United Kingdom, a centre being eatabllBhed whererer a 
magietrBte, clergyman, echoolmaater, or other responsible 
penon accustomed to examinations wou*d consent to 
tiTiperintend one on the Booiety^s behalf, and in aecordance 
with the rulee laid down for its conduct No limit sa to the 
age, poeition, or prerioas training of the eandidatee was 
impoaed, and the examination was open to both sexes. 
One hundred and eighty-one oandidatea preaenbed themselvee 
for examination. 

It is proposed to hold a similar examination in 1898, on 
Tueeday» AprU 5. Candidates wishing to sit for the oxamina- 
tion should make appUcstion during February to the 
Secretary, RH.8. Office, 117, Victoria Street, Westminster. 

The Council have heard with much pleasure that G. W. 
Borrows, Esq., a Member of the Court of the Worshipful 
Company of Gardeners, has most kindly offeree^ in con* 
nection with the Society's 1898 oxArolnation, a scholarship of 
£35 a year for two years ; full particulars of which wUl be 
found in the Society's arrangements for 1898, lately Issued to 
all Fellows. Another similar scholarship has been promised 
for 1609, by the Right Hon. the Lord Amherst of Haekney, 
through the same Worshipful Company. 

Acting in conjunction with the Llndley Tnisbeas, the 
Cooneil have devoted oonidderable attention to the Ltbrary. 
All serial publications have been kept up to date, a large 
number of valuable volumes have been bound. 

The hearty thanks of the Society are due to all the mem* 
hers of the Standing Committeea-^via., the ScientlAc, the 
Fruit and Vegetable, the Floral, the Orchid, and the 
Narcissus Committees, for the kind and patient attention 
which they have severally given to their departments. 

A special and very hearty record of thanks is also due to 
N. N. Sherwood, E«i., and to C. J. Orahamo, Esq. The 
former gentleman has intimated to the Council his intention 
of placing a 10-guinea Silver Cup at their disposal annually, 
and the latter has enabled the Coimoil to very largely increase 
the prices offered for Roses on June 28. 

The best thanka of the Society are also doe to all thoee 
who, either at home or abroad, have to kindly presented 
books to the library, or plants or seeds to the gardens. 

Tlie Ooottcil wish to expreas, in their own name and in 
that of the FellowB of the Society, their great indebtedness 
to all who have so kindly contributed, either by the exhibition 
of plants, fruits, flowers, or vegetables, or by the reading o( 
IJApers, to the success of the fortnightly meetings in the 
Drill Hall. They are glad to find by the Increased and 
increasing number of visiton that the Society's fortnightly 
meetings are becoming better appreciated by the Fellows 
and public in general. In their Judgment, these ahows, 
which take pl^oe at short intervals throughout the year, 
famish horticultural dispUys and teach horttoultural 
lewons which cannot be obtained elsewhere in the kingdom. 

The Council arc glad to be Able to annoimoe that they have 
appointed the Rev. George Henslow, M.A., V.M.H., F.L.4., 
Ac, to be Professor of Botany to the Society, end Professor 
H«Bslow has kindly undertaken to give addressee al a num- 
ber of the 1898 meetings, drawing attention to interesting 
points connected with some of the plants. Ac., eslkibited. 
The Couneli are confident that these ** demonstrationi ** will 
be greatly appreciated by the Fellows. 

The Council have the sad duty of reoordlog the death of 
lifty-three Fellows during the year, and among them they 
regret to find the n%mee of Dr. Robirt Hogg, one of the 
most staunch and energetic supporters of the Society, and 
the leaiing authority in fruit nomenclature; James Bate- 
man, the pioneer of Orchid culture in this country, and 
author of the Orehidautt cj^ Mexico and OuaUm9la; Col. 
Trevor -Clarke, William Head, Robert Owen, and James 
Cocker, Ac. 

The numerical increase of Fellows after dedncUoos is S25. 

A scheme for the sfflliation pf local horticultural societies 
was put forward in 1890, and ninety-one local socletfes have 
availed themselvee of it. The Council express the hope that 
Follows will promote the sfflliation of local horticultural and 
cottsge garden sooieties in their own immediate neighbour- 
hood. 

At the request of some of the Fellows, the Council have 
arranged to send a rembider of every show (in the week 
preceding It) to any Fellow who will send to the R. H. 8. 
Office, 117, Vfetoria Street. Westminster. 31 halflpsnay post- 
oardSf'fuUy addressed to himself, or to whomsoever he wishes 
the reminder sent 

The Council recommend that the salaries of the principal 
offlcers of the Society— the Secretary, the Cashier, the 
SuxMirintendent, and the Asilstant-Superlntendent, should 
continue as heretofore. 

The balance-sheet shows a credit balance of ASK 7a. id. 
The expenditure on Chiswlck was £1851 6$, Id. 



he eouldnot do biniisir Justlee without congratulating the 
society upon having such an able and energetic Hon. Sec. as 
Mr. A. K. Drummond. He, Sir John, was most anxious that 
the society should go on and prosper, and be the means of 
doing a great deal of good in Swansea and the surrounding 
district, for he felt sure that they had in the society the 
nucleus of a very important movement 



OABDIFF OABDBNBBS'. 

Jakuart 11.— a meeting of the above Society was held on 
January 11, when the President, ALmsn Tbomab, M P., 
oeeupi»d the ohsir, and an interesting lecture wss given by 
Mr. F. W. B. ShrlveU, F.Ii.8., to an audienoe of upwards of 
fifty members. His discourse was based on the reaolts of 
four yeara' experiments in the culture of vegetsbles, with and 
without chemical manures. The lecturer gave the quantities 
used for different kinds of vegetables, and exhibited illua- 
trstlons showing good results from the chemicals. Mr. 
ShrlveU stated that he hsd no connect*on with any manure 
sgency. 

ANCIENT SOCIETY 07 YO&K 

7L0BIST8. 

Janvakt ll.--The members of this society held their 
annual meeting in the Agricultural Club Chambers, Pave* 
ment, York, on the above date. Mr. Counoillor J. E. 
Wilkinson preeided, and there was a good attendance. 

The Secretary (Mr. J. Luenby) read the yearly report, 
which stated that during the past twelve months the work 
of the society had been sitisfactory. Financially, It was 
satisbetory to note that at the close of the year's working 
there was a balance in hand of £180 llf. llrl. as against 
£177 17<. Id. twelve months ago. On the motion of Mr. F. W*. 
Halliwell, seconded by Mr. J. 0. Mtlburn, the Report, and 
al9o the biUnoe-sheet, which wi9 taten as read, wer» 
unanimously adopted. 



SWANSEA HO&TICULTXTEAL. 

Jamuary 7.— The second annual dinner of the above Society 
was huAd in the Shaftesbury Hsil, Swansea, on the above 
date. The praeldent of the society, Sir Joutr LiiRWaLvir, M.P. , 
in* the chair ; the Mayor of Swansea sitting on his right. 
The company present, numbertng between seventy and 
eighty, included most of the le.\ding gardeners tn the 
district. The president in proposing the toast of the evening— 
'• Pcosperity to horticulture and the Swansea AssodaUoir," said 



SOOIETE FBAN9AISE D'HO&TICUL- 
TUBE DE L0NDBE8. 

January 15.— On Saturday evening last the ninth annual 
dhmor of this Society was held at the Imperial Restaurant. 
Strand. Mr. HsaBBRT Cutbush occupied the ch^r, being 
supported by a goodly number of gentlemen representing 
Kngiah horticulture, among whom we noticed Mr. J. 
Weathers, Mr. W. Cutbush. Mr. Harry Liing. Mr. H. J. 
Jones, Mr. Harman Payne, io. 

The dinner being over, Mr. Geo. Schneider formally intro- 
duced the ch Urmin to the assemSled oompiny. re narking 
th«t the position he ocoapled in the horticultarAl world and 
th) intarest he took in tike work of the Society eminently 
qtialified him for the post of honour which he had kindly 
consented to fill. In reply, the Chairman complimented the 
Society on Its continued prosperity, which was duo in a large 
msasure to th ^ admirable manner in which it was managed 
by iti preeident, Mr. Schieidor, and the other officers. 
Founds i in 18i8, the Society hts gmlu\lly increased in 
nao^Mrs and In ite floan^li^ raevurces Its members are 
now distributed all over Europa. and there are sorao 
occupying important pwltions In Am^ric^ Algeria, the 
Congo, and other diatmt plaoea, and from theie valuable 
itiformttion can often b3 obtiined when occasion arises. He 
was pleased to find that the balanoa in himd was much larger 
than at the beginning of last year, and the library which 
formi one of the principal features of the Society had 
received mmy additions. He theroforo proposed the con. 
tinned success and prospjrity of th? society, coupling witli 
the toast the name of Mr. Schneider. 

That gentleman repil3d in suitable terms, thaikiog the 
m mbers for the excellent spirit of comradeship thst existed 
ammget the members, and tlto good feeling of their Bngllsh 
friends who wwe always ready to find pieces for thise yonng 
foreigners desiring to perfect their knowledge of Bngllsh and 
horticulture by a residence in thii country, and oondu 'ed by 
proposing the tosst of the visitors. Mr. Harmui Payne 
replied. At this juncture Mr. Ctch lin m ide a presentation 
on behalf of the new members to Mr. Sjhnelder for his 
kind services to them during the past ycir, which wis duly 
acknowledged. 

The t «st of the offii^rs was responded t • by Mr. Friedrlch. 
Music both vocal and instrumental filled up the remiinder of 
the evening ; " God Save the Queen," aul the '* Marselllaiso " 
bringing the meeting to a close. A vote of thanks was 
accorded to Messrs. Cutbush, of Hijligate, for the floral 
decorations. 

XANOHBSTBB AND NOBTH 07 
BNOLAND O&CHTD. 

jATn7ARY 19.— The January meeting of the above Society 
was held in the Coal Exchange, Manchester, on the above 
date. Memberj of the committee present wore Messrs. 
W. Thompson (chairman), O. S. Ddl (vice-chairman), S. 
Orotrlx, A. Warburton, J. Leemsnn, J. Backhouse, E. Side* 
botham, H. Bolton, W. Stevens, R. Johnson, W. A. Gent 
(Hon. iecX H. Greenwood, O. W. Ltw Soh'yfield, J. Cypher, 
p. Weathers. 

Each meeting of the Society brlags forth quite a wealth of 
plante of great beauty and rarity. 

On this occasion Mr. O. a Ball (gr., Mr. Hay), dlspUyed 
a superb lot of choice Cypripediums, the best of which was 
undoubtedly C. x to4umphans, a handsome hybrid, shosrlng 
a dorsal sepal of unrivalled oolouring, and remarkable else 
(first-class Certificate). A good form of C. bdlatulum album, 
with large snowy-white flowers, was also awarded a First- 



class Certifloata. C. vennstum Measureslanum, a lovely 
little gem— too rarely seen—and which may be dMcrlbed as 
the albinoof C. venustum received an Award of Merit A'well- 
grown plant of C. Leeanuum giganteum, with four fiowers 
expanded, received an Award of Merit. C. Swinbumei mag- 
nificum is a plant vrell worthy of its name, end when seen 
in such a good form as that shown by Mr. Ball, it cannot 
fail to find admirers (Award of MeritX C. nittns magni- 
ileum also proved to be of the very finest type, and it la 
doubtful whether such a superb form as that shown exists 
elsewhere. The committee were certainly too carefhl In only 
voting this idant an Award of Merit Oendrobium John- 
soniss, or Macfarlanei, from the same exhibitor, showed a 
spike of nine well'doveloped flowers, which spesks well for 
the successful cultivation of tUs not too easy species (Award 
of Merit). 

Mr. John Lbkmanv (gr., Mr. Edge), exhibited a qwdmen 
plant of Lycaste Skinneii alba, fh>m which, however, some 
of the flowers had been removed. Six good bold flowers 
were displayed. Odontoglossum crispum var., a good form 
of the Paoho type, received an Award of Merit 

Mr. A. Wakburton (gr., Mr. l4)fthouse), exhibited a 
insigne Sandefee, which showed a sUght variation in the 
tiny spots peculiar to this variety on the dorssl s^nU (Award 
of Merit) ; also C. X Mrs. Geo. Truflaut, a peculiar produo- 
tion, having for Its psrents C. Stonai x C. Morgauias. It 
therefore hss traces of C. Stouei in it twice, and resembles 
C. Morgsniie in shape and mark ings, except thst it has more 
"nigger "blood in it 

Mr. W. THoapsuv (gr.,Mr. Stevens) staged a few good 
plants, among which were Odontoglossum. odoratnm var., 
deltoglossum Stevensll (Rolfe^ a charming variety with a 
ground colour of creamy white, and bordered for about an 
eighth of an inch in depth with a sulphur>ydlow, the sepals 
being spotted with chocolate (Award of Merit). C. x Calypso, 
Winn's var., came from the same owner, and is remarkable for 
the profuse claret-colouring in the dorsal sepals, making it a 
very striking variety (Award of Merits Cypripedium Sallieri 
also gained an Award of Merit 

Mr. Thomas Stattke (gr., Mr. Johnson) exhibited a good 
form of Cypripedium x Niobe, vrith a good bold dorsal petal 
well-marked (Award of Merit). 

Mr. S. Oratrix (gr., Mr. McLeod) exhibited a fine h>brid 
Cypripedium, named "F. H. Bolierts," the parentsge not 
recorded, but evidently C. niveum had been used in its 
production. The colour of the flower waa white and densely 
cjveredwith tloy purplish markings (A First-class Certificate 
WAS awarded). From the same coUtction raroea plant of 
Lycaste Skinneri altw. showing evidenoe of good culture, and 
bearing fine flowers. As In Mr. Leemann'a case, no award 
wss made. 

Mr. O. O. Wriolkt exhibited C. inslgno var. exqulsitum, 
for which lie obtained an Award of Merit ; the marking of the 
dorsal sepil was distluct, the spots being })eculiar^ placed, 
and, what is seldom seen, violet markings were apparent 
around the white margin of the dorsal sepaL C. Argus from 
the same collection received an Award of Meric 

Mr. D. Lord received an Award of Merit forC.Lathamlanum 
giganteum. but which was not particularly gigantic. Mr. H. 
Grkrnwooo exhibited Dendroblum x "Harold" fFindlsy- 
anum x Linawianum), only one flowering being open on the 
pUit ; it la a pretty hybrid, and when seen ha a more advanced 
staje should be very attractive. Mr. Frso Hardy exhibited 
the C. insigne Smdew about which then has been such a 
groAt deal said. It is a fine form, and quite equal to anytldng 
else bearing the same name. Mr. John Bobsoh obtaiui-d an 
Award of Merit for tbe reverse cross of C. X Pollettianuu), 
which doos not differ greatly from the original; snd a 
Cultural OertlPcate far a Urge well-flowered piece of C. 
liuxulli. P. ly. __^ 

SHIBLE7 AND SOBBOUNBING DIS- 
TRICTS GABDBNSBS' AND AKA- 
TEURS' MUTUAX IMPBOVEMENT 
ASSOCIATION. 

January IS.— A meeting of the above society was held at 
the Parish Room, Shirley, Southsmpton. on the above date. 
The president. W. F. O. Spranger, presiding over a fair 
attendance of members. 

Toe Lecture " Fungi, their mode of life and reproduction, 
WAS given by Mr. B. T. MeUor, B.Sc. London. Lecturer in 
Biology at the Hartley College. A Urge number of Untem 
sUdee ware used to illustnte ths subject, and added much 
to the value of the lecture. The method of reproduction was 
very fully iilustratod, and the immenw numbers each pUnt 
was capable of produohig shows bow neoeasary it is to teow 
how to deal with them to stop their ravages. 

A hearty vote of thanka to the lecturar and to the 
president eloeed the buslnees of the meeting. The sutjeot 
of Fungi will be oontiauod next meeting, and *' Injurious and 
Beneficial Fungi " is the title of the lecture. 



ISLE OF WIGHT CHBYSANTHBJlCaM. 

Janoart 15.— The anniul meeting of this Society was 
held at Newport on the above date, Dr. Groves in the chair. 
The report and balanoe-sheet were adopted on the motion of 
the chiirman. The balanoa in hacd is over £18. which U 
about £4 less than Ust year. Prerious to the eiectlcn of 
oflBcers a long disctisslon took place on the desirability of 
fbradng an Isle of Wight Championship Prise, which was 
aftorwanls entrusted to a sub-eommittee to discuss and 
report to the Society. Sir Charies Seely was reelected 
President, Dr. Groves, B.A., J. P., ohalmianf and Mr. 0. H. 
Cave, Hon. Secretary. 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[jiiTOART 22, \m. 





UlD 




nnmberofhon™. 










TnifE«*rtn»«. 




BmaRT 




1 




II 




1 

1 


?l|. 


1 


a 


a 


jlilli 


1 


1 




II 


^ 


|ll||l| 


I'i 






1 






n»T- 




I1.T- 


Iter- 


im.)» 




































!S 




+ 1- 




).T« 




s-i 








• + 


34 


lu 


+ 11 


- M 






0« 




It 




G + 


SI 


1L> 


+ !l 


- K 






7 




11 




a + 




ta 


I- 1 
















» + 


8 


« 


+ !■ 


- Gl 


ft - 




0( 


ID 


IT 




3 -1- 






+ « 








04 








• + 


M 




+ M 


- Bl 


8 - 


11 






11) 


1 


« + 






+ « 




S - 




S( 








» + 


W 




+ ii 


~ 41 


_ 




1-! 


SI 


ti 


• 


« + 


B 




+ 21 


- 11 


« - 




1! 


It 


11 


« 


* + 


SO 




+ H 








11 


n 


M 


i 


1 + 


n 




+ « 


- SO 


'- 




O's 


M 


N 



The dlMdct* Indlcattd _ 

thB fiiUowIiig :- 

0, ScMlMid, K. Prliutpat mci^prnliiebv BlKrloto— 
1, Scotlud. K.; 3, Knglud, H.K. ; t, Bsgluid, H. ; 
4, IfldliDd Caantlia ; 9, EngUnd, iDaladlng Londoii, B. 
Prtmeipal Onttnf, *i., DtafrWi — e, BootUnd. W. ; 
7, KngUnd, K.W. ; g, Eoilud, B.W. ; 9. InUnd, M. ; 
10. InUnd, B. ; 'Ohaiuil IiUnda. 



TBI PAST WEIK. 



IngdniD. In til the guEem sod 



^umtlrfofgyqridljty ; 



•nerally, ilUKngh •llgbtfiUi of nln wsr 



IT Matom. ooatnil, 



-wsMom Knglud, mi 

-' -■ 1 SeotlRnd. Tha highont o 



od during tha middle of tho wee!., . 

ioiland,l<.,'toIJO°lD*Eoglud,B.' Tbclow 



■" Id ' BDglnnd 



aa° li 



"TllB 



It eqiullsd ths mM)i In 'BsatUnd, N.,' 
"ui -u. i.iucu wH oluirhgn. Id ill ths aulsni lai cantnl 
p«tii of Gnat Britain thu foil wu HsrcdT uppnelible. 

•"Tlia briflu iHuAJM «■ dcBdsot in mort put* of ths 
UDgdora, liutgicsedad tbsiD«nlniamgaftlifl»Bgtamdis. 
Wot., uirsllulD 'ScoUund, R.-ontheonohmd, mnd Iho 

poislbla dunliaa nnged from M in the 'CliMiiiel liUndi,' 
ud Iroroai In 'IrgUnd, B.,'to T In 'EngUnd. N.W.,' B In 
'naatland. R. and W.,' nodi In -EngUnd, N.E.' Tlig smount 
rgcorded«t Jorsej on Thmwtajr "" " l»'gg — 7"', which 



Enquiry. 



•luu mm muh.'— Bicow. 
Bbonze oh M«tai. Smtom, Will any reader 
kindJr tumiih A. U. with tbe uuiifla and HldrBaM 
o[ Dukan of braue or other mcta! atattiaii niitabia for 
flowBT gardeo dworalion t 



Notices to Gorrespondehts. 



Books -. S. B.8. LoDdon prdniDg bH no tptoU 
(wtum, ud «« know of iw book <li«liq( witb Ik 
Thera U ft littla woHi pnblubwl at tha Atnica 
ofBM, Sontliampt'm 8tre«t, eotitlad IHe liomlon 
Market Gordon.- /'frnvn, iVuiCt, and Vt^OaJbUt. « 
Otnrit /or Jfaritf, by C. H. Shaw. 

CiBBiTiom: JTalaaum. Frobiblr, •al-wonni in 
tfaa Imtfi ; but ira hava not axaminad thain with 
the MioKiaeoiie. Wa advba jov to bun all tha 
aSiMited plaati. 

CAUItTOHODa AMD HtHBITOBODa SlOOS IRQ ShAIU t 

Our corrtapoDdent, Mr. U, Webb, dniraa to rap- 
plament oar ramu^ in oar laat uaoa with tha 
information, that ba reoeirad tha iiucro-photi>- 



from Mr. P. Tayloi, _., 

F<v Aulopoma raad Aulopoma. 

CiLMkT: J. A. P. Tha laad having baao ion in 
Haroh, no pbnt under propsr oonditionB of 
onltiTation would have " bolted." ItlMd,aaTou 
ansgeatv], auBared frcquantlr Crom lack of 
noiitara at the root, hence the crooked and aoull 
heada. Earth ing-up wu perfonnod at, probabl;, 
an earl; part of the aatumn ; and CeWj that hai 
been bhnchad (or so kmg a period of time ia wry 
liable to deca;. CoTering the heart-leaves in the 
act of mouldiog-up ii a more rapid wa; of satting- 
up deoa;. 

CaaraaM'HBHini.BDaT : W. W. Then are variona 
mathodi o( doding with tUa, bat wa think roar 



all the aflbetad plants 
CLiMBma Firm : W. H. KHrt. Tha plant b pro- 

babl; Imodium acMdena. Can roil aetid a frond 

tbr ideDlOaaUai) r 
Crowm ahd TSRMiirai, Bddb \m CeKtuBTHKMm: 
WiUulm Uma. toai aappodtiDD ia quite 

jo^USad i the -flgara maiked <9 ihenld have 

GaBDBHUio PBEtoDiciLs: £• &wmw Bortteole, 
publiahed b; H. L. Lindan, in Bnuaali, b to be 
irereired to tha one anggeatod. 

OLaaaHODSi HiAnHa : J. A. Staam-haatinf ia not 
injurioua to planta, il no more be unplojad than 
will raiae the tanixnture to tha desired degree of 
wamth. The tfrjing efieola wUoh the ■aper- 
heated pipea have upon the air ia raadilv obviated 
by dandling the Boon mora or Im. Tou night 
anpplemant Uie hot-water {npea by raoaing a flow 
and retom rt«am-pipe along^e of them, not 
through them. Care ihould be taken to employ 
either malleable iron tubing, or vary rtroug cast- 
iron [ripaa witb flange jointa, well packed with 
voloaniaed rubber, and run in with hot lead. One 
expuiaion ineca of aocurately-tumad and poliabed 
pipe ahould be iiuertad in some part of the ^stem, 
I of i?ait-iroa [upas, ■ rupture might 



OiurriNO ViNis : Vine. You miriit plaoe FoeUr'a 
Seedling, or evaa Black Hatoburgfa, on Un. Fear- 
eon Vine and Alnwick Seedling, or Black Alienate 
on tha White Tokay Vine. Yoa may graft b; 
approach, aaing the old wood, or young green wood 
on greea ibooti. 

SURaaBBiTm : 0. F. If by "maggoty" the laaf- 
mioing gruU are intended to be andentood. Uiare 
ia DO ramed; that equals pinching them witb the 
tbomb-nail whan obierved. The plants should be 
cloaaly watched ao that thagruba do not apoil alot 
of ttie leaves before the; ara killed. Sprinkling 
'"" i-*'"TnUyiag its eggs 






er deters Uia fly froi 



HiOHOSCXiPB ; a. H. We do not know your qnaliflca- 
tiona. If you have not already had aome inalruo- 
tioa in the UBS of tha microeaope, of are not Ukel; 
to obtain it, than it would be onwiaa to q>end 
muoh money on an imtrament ;ou could not use. 
Your taaoher would ba able to advise yoa ; mean- 
while, any good optician in Kdinboigh would 
furnish you with a stodant's mioroaoope for £E or 
£A. Leas eipeusivB initmmenti are of no use. 

IfAUsa OF Plant* : CorretpondeMi not antwered 
IH thii iuug are rtquetted to be lO good a* 
to eonnUt the fellmoing nnmber. -~ E.T. W. I 
Acaola Rioeana ; 2, A. dealbaU ; S, Sequoia 
aemperviran*.— AtiKriier. Chlonphytain Btem- 
bergianom.— C P., ArbnaOi. I, Adiantom es- 
eisou; 2, Adiantom eioiium mnltlfidiun ; a. 



Adianttim deeenwi ; 4, OievtUaa (nest wetk)' 
S, Cymbidiam siMnae ; 6, Salafdnella MerteesiL-. 
J: JL The plant ia lUnia latiloSa ; tha Itewn A 
Odonl • " *- ■ 



lontorioMiun 



J. . 

ing at an nonaoal lim^ and lighter In eotottr |g 
oonaequanee. — SotB). ScIanamcqiaieMframof tht 
variety which bean oval asoeDding benie^ by tbt 
appearaooe of tha damaged apaoinMO reoijTei~ 
W. T., Cardif. So Ikr as we can judge wiUioiH 
aeaing flowera, ;our plant is Jaamintua humilt 
figorad in But. Reg., L 350.— X C. Epidsudnw 
oUian.— ^. T. L., Bet/an. The iln^ loav ii 
Epideodrum oochleatani ; tha small spray, Oiti. 
aetum barbatum. — B. J. R. Wa thnnk you for tba 
letter cantaloiiu remarks about Staaropais, isd 
tor prooiin of photographs of the two in qtnstios. 
^la Cypripedinm jonaoidisoertalnlyC. iraaUu 
The hybrid maob reaemblee C. x Hanisisnmi 
R)aanin,« variety obtained by ereatdngCbaiUtmi 
Wameri with C vOkMum.— (7. B. I, Adiistia 
ci4>illa*Taneria i 2, oannot be deUnalnsd wUhooi 
seeing a natoN iMtile faond ; 3, Cyrtaaiinni F<r 
toaei; 4, Venmlea Andanoni varii^ath Tbe 
oUmt i* Jnnipema rinanaia. 

O acHiiM , Tnii or FLOWBSiaa ; Fcniw. Epdai' I 
dram Oodsefflanum, early amamo'; Onddiaa 
Oravntanum, gummar ; Zygopetalum Ifscksyi, 
during tha winter ; Labs riauca (BrssMvob), 
Fafarnary and March ; TmSi (Bsmenlda) Sti ' 
deriana, Saptanber and Oetober ; Udia msjilis, 
aprlogmontha iOneidium unguiculatamiasntumt- 
flowwing. These planta may flower at etiw 
times, aoeordmg to Uia trslmeot aflbided. 

Ruam BAuma Laboh : E. M. We should aa- 
tainlyusatha aame eompogition aeaMtegusid,* 
was recommended in our laaue for January 3 li« ' 
for fruit trees. 

SiTCAnon TaOAKT, ka.: Q.B. Wa most adhete U 
oar role not to insert artletea from nnknowa o«- 
renondents when sent under initials only. Kindl; 
send full mma and addrtat, not neoMssrily let 
publiostion, but to aatablish your botuijtda, 

Sfavm CoHTAitnNa CeoTam, Dhacjbhab, Eccsiii^ 
Caudidms, ako Usrd also roK FoBcna Lili- 
or-THK-VALUir, ko. : If. S. L. The tenpen- 
torea given are too hi^ In the winter moalk 
by S- for the atovs plante, although thi? mlgkt 
answer for fondng Tulipa, LUy-of-tbs-TslUiri 
Aisleaa, and other subjeota dedred in bkran ool ol 
seaaon. A temperature of 60'— 4IS° at mght, lb 
loirer reading In very oold or windy weatber ; ud 
1ff—7ir b; day, tha higher d^ree ol wwdA 
when the sun diioes, would bo mora soitibh i» 
thase and moat other subjeota used in c( 
LUy-of-the-Valley will stand 8G°-! 
Sowar-steins are 2 to 3 ihohea high, (Nmb ■» 
crowns and clumps shonld be tJan fno t^* 
darkness in which they have been grego, »d 
gradually inured to the light, sod to a wBro>k°l 
70*, and eventoally to DO"— fiS* or less wbei '^ 
bells are fully open. 

ViMM AMD HoT-wATD-PtPn : A. P. No lajuiT "'^ 
be done to either. 

Watir (Showik I) BoonDET : W. P. We kmw i* 
no work in die English lsnf{aage which sfiiKdi 
instructions in bouquet-making, nm* of any iUoi' 
trationa ot a shower-bouquet, exeapUng one fouinl 
in our eolnmna, p. SS8, September SI, 189G. 



' nit If 



— R. ^ 






B.dgV,,!^'- 
.B,J.-" 



If. W.— B. A.-W.W.-J.R-BWP''* 
■.-W. K.-J. Cfa«lL-W. R H.-). U- 

w. H.— w, a.— J. R.— D. a w.-^L. 



— B. H. R.— B. D- 

—J. Oookei A Bong. 

PaonnBArai, Brscunss, mj., BaoBtvsnL — I 

Witt thanks.- J. liedlg; Wood, Nalal, vlth 



COMTIHUED LAUGE IMCREASE in thi ClftCULATIOS 
of the "GAROENERa' CHRONICLE." 

Important to Advert l>MV.—nii PatlWHr- luu lU •'«*r 
Kfs a/aniumciitt Hal Ui dnWolisa i/ !*« "Oai^'-" 
OktmUU- kof. liM UM ndiKlion ia tlupriaafailV- 

ICOSB THAH D017BI.SD, 
knd thkt it oontiaiMa to incraaae weaklT' 

AtmrU-n an mfitilkl UnlUf" OJmiaWf' eIrtaW" ■•"^ 
OooRTaT aanLuw, in all Olassbs or Ou»"'^' 



(Ar JTarbU ms p^ sli.) 



Jantary 29, 1898.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



65 



^(kAm^^ 



^, 1* ■ .;■ -^ - 



r^-'Aij-rtTvir 



%N> 



THE 



SATURDAY, JANUARY 20, 1898. 



HIMALAYAN RHODODENDRONS.* 

TTI\[ALAYAN Ehododendroii culture in 
-*--■- Great Britain may be said to haye had 
birth concurrently with the publication of Sir 
J. D. Hooker's Journals, Until this intrepid 
explorer returned from his memorable trayels 
in 8ikkim, Bhododendrons were the exeeptiou 
rather than the rale in our conservatories, and 
few persons seemed to haye thought that this 
beautiful class of plant was adapted to outdoor 
work. 

The peculiar climatic advantages which the 
south-western counties offered for the cultiva- 
tion of a tender vegetation were either not 
understood in those days, or, if understood, did 
not inspire sufficient confidence to induce 
horticulturists to introduce into their grounds 
many subjects which are now almost universally 
cultivated. Only within recent years has the 
barest justice been done to the favoured condi- 
tions under which gardening can be carried 
out ; and it must be confessed that, in spite of 
what has been done during the past quarter of 
a century, much has yet to be accomplished 
before we can claim to be folly in league with 
Nature, or to have appropriated a tithe of the 
opportunities which our insular position and 
climate offer. 

To eay that the introduction of many of the 
tenderer forms of Bhododendrons instituted a 
new era in outdoor operations, is to assert what 
every student of the subject knows to be a fact. 
After a few of these noble plants had passed 
through half-a-dozen of our winters with but 
little or no injury, the scales fell from the eyes 
of the profession, and in an amazingly short 
time not only were most parks and gardens 
stocked with Bhododendrons, but the startling 
manner in which they evidence<l the mildness 
of our winters led our gentry to carry the 
experiment to still more astonishing issues. 
Side by side now with the forests of Bhododen- 
drons which are grown on many a south 
country estate, may be seen a sub-tropical 
flora embracing such children of a sunnier 
clime, as CoboBa scandens, Daturas, Lapagerias, 
Cassias, Niootianas, the Citron, the Orange, the 
Banana, and a host of others which the gardeners 
of fifty years ago regarded as the aristocracy 
of the glasshouses. 

To be frank, it must bo confessed that it is 
only in the southern counties of England and 
Wales that such sub-tropical work can be 
carried on with anything like satisfaction, and 
that Bhododendrons find those requisites of 

* A paper rend at the Devon and' Exeter Oardeners' 
AMOoUtlcm, Jan. 13, by Rlobard OiU, Tremough, Penryn, 
CorawalL 



soil and climate which are so essential to their 
healthy growth. Nor is this surprising, when 
it is known that meteorological observations 
go to prove that the two westernmost counties 
have a climate in many respects superior to 
that enjoyed by the Biviera, and that plants 
which have been known to be killed off in 
severe winters in South France, pass through 
our own almost unscathed. In developing 
Falmouth as a winter resort, much importance 
has been attached to meteorological statistics. 
While admitting their value, it does seem to 
the writer that the evidence of the vegetation 
should carry a greater weight. Shy as the 
public ever are of figures, they cannot get away 
from the testimony of the flora ; and of Nature's 
several ways of showing the geniality and equa- 
bility of a climate, this is, by all the difference, 
the most reliable. To walk through some of 
our Cornish gardens from January to April, 
when our sweeps of Bhododendrons are tricked 
off in the most ^gorgeous of colours, is, for the 
time, to forget that one is in a small country 
where scarcely a winter passes without from 12° 
to 20° of frost being registered in some of the 
northern counties. Anything more beautiful 
than such collections of Bhododendrons as can 
be seen at Tremough, Tregothnan, Scorrier, 
Oarclew, and Killiow, in Cornwall, can scarcely 
be conceived. Whether regarded from the 
standpoint of landscape gardening, valued for 
the length of their blooming season, or con- 
sidered for the beauty of form and variety of 
colour of the individual flowers, we are obliged 
to confess, after a close acquaintance with these 
plants in Cornwall and South Wales, that 
they more than repay the time and money 
lavished upon them. The pity of it is, that in 
many places which might be named as admirably 
suitable for their cultivation they arc relegated 
to a very subordinate position. 

It is often urged as an objection against the 
culture of Himalayan Bhododendrons^ that the 
earlier blooms are liable to be destroyed by the 
sharp frosts which are all too prevalent during 
the early spring. While granting the risk, it 
does seem like bolstering up a case with sham 
evidence to exclude the Bhododendron on such 
a pretext. If a few blooms are destroyed by 
frost, surely the display which follows later is a 
sufficient recompense for the labour ; while the 
fact that, even in the severest weather, our Bho- 
dodendron walks are rarely without bloom from 
the middle of January onwards, is an ample set- 
off against the few buds that fall victims to the 
frost. 

As far as Devon, Cornwall, and South Wales 
are concerned, it is, I think, quite probable 
that, in addition to the mildness of the climate, 
the humidity of the atmosphere greatly favours 
the Bhododendron. To the majority of them 
an over-dry atmosphere seems almost as fatal as 
a parched soil. This observation, which has 
been growing on me for years, finds plenty of 
evidence in its support in Sir J. D. Hooker's 
Himalayan journals. 

Experience has taught me the wisdom of 
selecting a site fairly elevated but sheltered 
from high and cutting winds. In any case, 
low-lying and damp situations must be sedu- 
lously avoided, as they invariably spell ruin to 
the early flowers by their susceptibility to frosts. 
Northern aspects^ where they enjoy a minimum 
of sunshine, and the shelter of a wall with a 
north exposure, have given us good results at 
Tremough. 

While it is somewhat of a fallacy to say 
Bhododendrons will only flourish in a peaty 
soil, the fact remains, as anyone who has had^ 



much to do with them can aver, that they are great 
lovers of peat in some form or other. If this . 
is liberally administered to the soil when plant- 
ing, the plants make a vigorous start at onoe. 
Granite sand in the proportion of one- third may 
be added to the peat with beneficial results. 
What they do not like is a limey or chalky soil^ 
or a stiff water-logged clay. In our well-drained, 
gravelly loam at Tremough they root freely and, 
luxuriantly, but I have known tiiem grow almost 
as well on a properly-drained day bottom. 
Being surface-rooting plants, it is obvious they 
will not stand prolonged droughts, so that in a 
very dry season the hose must be freely used in 
the shrubbery. Equally important is it to 
prevent the accumulation of superfluous and 
stagnant water around the roots. By way of 
protection against drought, the natural habit of 
Bhododendrons must be encouraged. Their 
lowest branches have a predilection for bending 
down so as to cover the roots ; and if these 
branches be carefully preserved, and are en- 
couraged, by the shade they offer, they wHl 
keep the soil around the roots comparatively 
moist in the driest season. Plants which fall 
the easiest victims to a dry summer are almost 
invariably those which have lost their lower* 
most branches, and whose roots are exposed to 
the full play of the sun. 

Pkopagation. 

When we come to propagation, we touch a 
much-discussed problem, and here, again, I 
shall only speak from experience. While 
budding may commend itself to some, graft- 
ing to others, and layering to a third class, 
the raising of plants from seed, although 
confessedly a work requiring patience, has 
always been my own favourite method. In 
addition to the general interest connected with 
this process of stocking the garden, species 
raised from seed have the twofold advantage of 
being true to their kind, and of possessing 
robust constitution. Tremough maybe cited in 
evidence thereof, the majority of the older 
plants there being raised from seed sent to my 
late employer, William Shilson, Esq., by Sir 
William Hooker. Of course, hard-and-fast 
lines cannot be laid down. Oftentimes one has 
to comply with temporary exigencies, when, if 
he is an advocate of raising seedlings, he will 
be obliged to have recourse to budding, graftings 
or layering, and vice verad, 

PLAjrriNG. 

The mode of planting-out which I have fol** 
' lowed for nearly thirty years is to place the 
shrubs in specially-prepared pits, and to sor-* 
round the ball of roots with a lining of peat and 
sand, to which I frequently add one-third of 
decayed leaf-mould. A surfieuse-dressing is 
given as occasion may require. A good mulch 
of decapng leaves — ^Nature's own method of 
manuring — is a wonderful help to keeping the 
roots cool, but in kept beds and borders this 
cannot at all times be carried out, because o( 
the untidy appearance it gives. In such cases, 
peat or fully-decayed leaves must be resorted, 
to as a surface-dressing. In a paper read 
before the Bojral Horticultural Sooiety on 
Jane 6, 1893, Sir John T. D. Llewelyn, Bart., 
stated that a good top- dressing was to be foand 
*' in the dead last season's bracken Fern, which, 
if dry and well forked in, will be found very 
beneficial to the roots, and the stiffer the soil 
the more advantageous will it be, for it acts 
mechanically, as it were. Each stick or stem of 
Fern is a little hollow pipe forming a miniature 
subterranean tunnel, in which the delicate 



THE GARDEKEBS' CHBONICLE. 



[JAKrAiir 2(1, 189S. 



Bbododendron rootlets can travel, and vhich 
nftenraHl*, rotting down, affords natriment to 
the growiofc root." Sir Jolin may be oorrect 
when speaking for etiff soils, bat, while 
admitting certain mannrial TirtiiM in the 
braoken, I ahonld be drireD to direst extremities 
before using it on ordioaiy free soils, fearing 
the Tcsalts of this increased porosity in a dry 
season. In the application of top-dressing and 
in cleaning operations, the hoe and spade most 
be nsed with extreme oantioD. The best roots 
of the Bhododendron are near the sni^we, and 
to injure these is to damage the plant, in some 
oases irretrierably. 

m bt tontlmiad.) 



CRASSULA COLUMNARIS. 

This 'i» rns of four ipeciea or CranuU which 
comprire tba sseUon PjnmidalU. PUat* of it ware 
flnt lant to Caw io 1S8C by Hr. C. J. Dunn, of 
Clomnont, Capa Towd, the di>oav«rer of Strapto- 
nrpiii DuDoi. Tha photograph, of which an an- 
targed raprodnction iagiToD (Sg. 23), ww tant to Kew 
by Mr. A. J. Fuller, of Caoe Toitd, who irritM that 
the plant eama front KotjasfontaiD, in th« Karroo 
IHatrlct, The acUt* plant does not eioeed 3 inchn 
to haight. The ifam ii erect, and the fleahy orhi- 
onlar obtuia imbrieatjag; lesvea give it a quaint 
^ipaaionce, the whole plant reaambling ona of the 
Balooophoio. The Sowen are borne in danaa capitate 
eyme*, and ore purs white. 

Anothai oloael;-aIlied apeoiea ii C. pyramidatia, ■ 
figora of which waa pnbli>had in the OltrdaitTi' 
t^renieU in 1885, whan there ware planta of it in 
Bower io the Cape-bome at Kew, also racdved fron) 
Mr. Donn. Thii apeciea hu clowly imbrioating 
laavai arranged in a rour-aogled pHim of Dearly eqoal 
diameter tiiroiighout. The longest etemi are about 
9 iochea, but ueuallj they do not eioaod half thai 
length. The flowen, whiah an dull onnga-rel, are 
borne in terminal heada, and on atroog atems ; they 
•re alio produced laterally. These two apadea 
deserve a place in colleot'ooi of quaintly -al ' 
•uoonleot planU. They raqnlre greenhou 



ing the eeed widely. Who has not etood on a Oorae- 
oovered oommon on a Btill worm day in autnino, and 
heard the poda of the uaefal oovert ihrnb bnrttiDg 
00 all aidaa like the crock of fairy-nfleal The 
Broome, Gone, Cairagana, Amorpho, Blodder.SMUia 
(Colutea) and other well-known Fes-flowering ahruba, 
ore propagatfld ^m their aaedi aown in b.)UB, pita, 
or the open border ; tbeee, like all the genue, quickly 
germinate, and being pricked out iu the bordera, aeon 
make naafnl plants, bnt in all easea the tap-root 
ahonld be taken out, leaving only the fllirona lateral 
rootleti, whiob nndeia the Bnal tiaaaplinting both 
•My andaafe. 

Shrub leedt are catalogued and sold by most aaeda- 
men, but it moeC be admitted that the lale, being 
limited and uncertain, fraih aaad ia rarely obtainable, 
and thia mars aucceai ; therefore aave your own, and 
low a* fresh oa you oan manage. This caution 
appliea more oogentty to the next clan of labjocla, 
namely, Che beiutiFul Hrotb tribe (E^riceEo), em- 



The BnddleM oan both be rauwd from Mei in tbe 
aame waj, ai aUo the Carolina Allspice (Calycantbaat, 
the fragrant Chimoaanthua, the European CalU*. 
and all the elegant-leaved Sumsoha (Ithus). 

The Japanese Quinoe* (CTdonia) are beat increaaed 
by allowing the fruit to decay, and then taking oa^ 
the ppa and sowing tham in pons, allowing the plant 
to grew from 6 to inohea higti, and then cutting off 
the taf -root, potting singly, or quartering ont ia the 

There are many mcM evergreen ehmba I have not 
specially mentioned, bnt all of tham may be faeated 
in one or tha other ways I liave endaavoDzed to 
indioats. 

One final canlicn : never allow the soil covering 

any of these abmb-aeeds to get dry, or just as the 

little redidc and plnmula begin to push, they will 

parish, and your labour will be all in vain, f 

(TDteonillMHd.) 



METHODS OF PROPAGATION. 

(Ctuthntd^vmp. 4!7, Ml. icii.) 
BEBKi-BianiKO Pl*bt8. — The Auoubo, Cornui 
(Dogwood), Cotoneaater, Pjiaoanthi, the Date-Plum 
(Dioapyroe), the Privet, and the handaomo-lenved 
Fllaria, are all nuaed from seed, either mbbed clean, 
pitted, or directly from the shrab when dead-ripe, or 
gathered and atored till the ear); spring, and then 
Bown in boxea or pons, or even in beda in a cold pit, 
kept uniformly moist, tha lights being oloaed at 
night, bnt open during the day. When the seedlings 
are large enough to handle, the; may be olther potted 
singly in small eo'i, or five to ten in a 48, grown-on 
one seoBon in shelter, and then lined up in tbe 
noraery beda ■ 

Tilt Lamrd Fribt, being all Cherriee, should have 
the pulp and skin cleared off the stones, or if tine is 
no object, they may lie pitted, and sown when the 
enveloping Cherry has daoayed and left the stone 
clean. It muat not be forgotten, however, that the 
finer vorietiea, as Bertinl, rotundifolio, cancaiica, &c., 
and some other broad-leaved hybrid forms, cannot be 
depended on to reproduce themselvea true from seed, 
especially when tbe berries have been colleoted from 
a mixed shrubbery, ss being hybrida, their tendency 
is to revert to Oa original type, therefore it ie safer 
to layer or raiae these trata cutting Tliia same 
eaution alao applies to tha useful Aucuba, tha 
varieties of whkb now nnmber more than twenty 
distinct nnd nsaful sorts. 

Leguminoui fUmli, among which we find some 
very bandsooM i hruba, are eadly increased by their 
small bean-like seeds, gathered just as ripe, and sown 
in the open border, or if in only small quantity, in 
bcies, pans, or pots. Many of theie, however, have 
a trick of suddenly bursting their poda, and acatter- 



braoingthe Aialaa.RbododeDdron, Kalmls, Uentieaia, 
ai well as the Heatba proper. 

These are beat raised in pooa or boxes, wiih just 
enough crocks at tha bottom to ensure proper drainage, 
oovered firat with a layer of fibroun paat, and filled 
up within an inch of the top with a See aifted mixture 
of peat, loam, and aand. Thia ahould be pressed 
firmly down and welt watered, then sow your seed 
evenly over the sorfaee, covering over with fine 
sand, and cover over with a small square of glan, 
resting on the rim of the poo or box. Allow plenty 
of time for the seed to germinate, keying a sharp 
look-out for any intmsion of insects, or what la 
more iosidioni, mossy or fungoid growtha Prick 
off tha BOedliogs when they have made three leaves 
or more. 

The brilliant Aialea mollii is an easy plant to 
incresas thas, and gives ns extraordinary variation in 
oolour from aeed, the Bbododeodrao in all ita 
handsome varietiet the aame, but the other uieaiben 
of the genus an more conatant from aeed. 



DO ORCHIDS DEGENERATE? 

(Omhniwl fnm f. 49.) 

Tbe province of Ualabar being well within 
the influence of the south-west monsoon, the 
rainfall, in consequence ia very heavy, and the 
seaaonB are very distinctively marked. From 
Hatvh tali June a few showers fall ; about the 
lath of the latter month the monsoon b^ins, 
continuiDg till about the I5th of September, and 
from the Utter date till Uarch comee round again 
the sky is olear and olondless. In addition to 
the burning sun, a withering east wind prevails 
during the day from December to Uarob, aoorch- 
iog all vegefaition on the grassy hills and in the 
demdnoua fbrests, which culminatee in their 
being swept by fires before the advent of the 
first spring shower. The middle, or deciduous 
Orchid Eone, being fully exposed to those trying 
cUmaiio oonditions, the Dendrobiunu are soen 
hanging from the leafloss trees on tlie hill-rides 
like dead things, and to the uninitiated it re- 
qnires some exercise of imagination to believe 
that any effort of Nature oould ever ooax them 
into life again, Tbe upper and lower, or ever- 
green Orohid zones, are no better off in the way 
of rainfall than the middle zone i bat a wou- 
derful compnn sating power prevails in Nature 
ia the shape of heavy nightly mists or fo^ 
during the hot months, yielding the neoaesary 
moisture, whioh is donbtlees the cause of these 
planta choosing this sons as their natural home, 
where they can have the required amount of 
rest without any " drying off." It is curious 
to see in the same district Saccolabiam gutta- 
tnm clinging to the branch of an evergreen 
tree with leaves succulent and fresh, and then 
view the contrast at a very little distance and 
higher elevation of the pseudo-bulbs of the 
Dendrobinm album withered and dangling in 
the hot east irind with relaxing root-hold, and 
in Meming danger of tumbling to the ground. 

The fog, or watery vapour alluded to above, 
which is so much in evidenoe during the dry 
months of the year in the upper and lower 
belts, is a very beautifal sight when seen at day- 
break morning after morning from on elevatod 
point clear of its influence. The ooontry from, 
the fhot of the Western Ghauts, extending to the 
Neilgherry mountains and across the Uysora 
frontier as far as the eye can reach, is covered 
with a mantle of fleecy clouds of the purest white, 
with the dark Bamboo-crowned topsof numerous 
oona-shaped little hills or elevations, peering 
out like BO many fury islands in a fairy sea. It 
is a right, onoe seen, never to he forgotten. 
Underneath this fleecy pall flonrish the ever- 
green Orchids, nigbUy reoeiving thrnughout 
the hot esMon at Nature's hands that gentle 
spray which speaks of showers to oome, and 



January 20, 189S.] 



TEE GABDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



whieh Tafr«ahes them witkont diBtnrbiDg their 
net, wliich, in foot, supplies the neceeMur 
moiatiiTe they reqnin to pnvent a "drjing- 
off." Tbeeefogsare wonderfullf defiaed. They 
h&ng along the base or the middle-zone in a 
bsAatifolly distinct line, leaving the middle- 
belt clear; whilst higher up may be eeen clouds 
of the same fleecy natnre rolling up the raviaes 
and gorges of the mountains, and disappearing 
gradually as the sun gains power. 

Nov, supposing for a. moment that a ool- 



that the recipient of each a oonaigiunent, in the 
abaenoe of information of such vital importance, 
would make onltural mistakes resnltiiig, per- 
haps, in the death of a large percentage of the 
plants. It would seem therefore, that a great 
responsibility raets with the oolleoton, and it 
might be well for the future of Orobid culture 
in Bnglaud, and oontribnte to the checking of 
that deplorable annual mortality which un- 
doubtedly takes place among imported Orobide, 
ware employers to insist upon oolleotors 



r COOPBR S BLACK C 



< OBOS CQLMAN. 



leotor entering such a district similar to tliat I 
have been attempting to describe, and forwarding 
to England a consignment of Orchids gathered 
indiscriminately, with a statement in general 
terms that the plants were procured from a 
certain district possessing a certain climate 
cbarBOterised by so majiy months of dry weather 
and the other months of the year showery and 
wet, with no other information whatever regarding 
the lees noticeable climatic peculiarities, which 
probably are as numerous and various all over 
the world as the districts troia which Orchids, 
■re drawn. In such a ease the probabilities are 



sending with each oonsignmsnt the fullest 
particulars regarding the climatic conditions 
under which the plants were found growing in 
a state of nature. Oolleotors are men of 
undoubted intelligence, so that there would be 
difficulty in the way of their affording such 



That cultural miatakea are made at the 
present day even with Orchids and other plants 
that have been in England for a great number 
of years, is a &ot that shonld not eeoape 
comment. J. Lowrie, 

<Xb U MnMiisal.) 



THE DEGENERATION OR 
DEATH OP OEOHIDS. 

Ha visa of lata bean oos>nllinj[ old reoord* in 
letenmae to bjbrid Oi«hidi, it aocarrad to m« that 
man; uunei leamed to be now only names, the planta 
that bora them have gone ; it aayiate we rarely if evar 
bear of many whoee namee 1 impend. J have there- 
fore made ■ list of aome thai are not laas rither in 
the notioea in the hortionltunl Pieta, noither do we 
see tbem at the Royal Hortloultaral Society. It may 
be that many are yet aliva ia quiet oollectiona where 
Orohids are grown like other plants, becaUES they 
have beautiful blooms that are uied ai eut-flower* 
only. If thU oommunication does unearth aome of 
them it will have attained ita and. CatUeya Adandi 
X [«ddigeail, C. k Brabantis, C. x Domhtyana 
alba, C. X D. hitea, C. x hjbrida (C. guttata x C. 
Loddigaaii}, C. x piota (C gnttata x C. intennedia), 
C. X piotuiata (C. guttata x C. intermedia}. C. i 
Oaveola (C, guttata x C, intennedia), C. labiate 
leoeophtM, C. Mendali Lendjaoa, C. Hoasim MarianM, 
C M. HoUorlaadl, C. lalnata Pitoheri, C. Trianmi 
Cleopatra, C. T. lo, C. T. Juno, a T. Vanui, 
C. T. aplendidiMlma, C. Lindeni, C x Loirryana, 
C, X Hangleiii, C. x Uitcheli, 0. x qninqneeolor, 
I«liB albida Stobartiana, L. a. anlphnrea, L. anoepa 
Paraivalliana, L. a. Calvertdana, L. a. obaoon, L. a. 
lanooriiota, L. a. radians, L. a. Leeana, L. a. Telteh- 
iaa^ L. a. holoobila, L. flammaa, L. pnrpofacea, L. 
pnrpniata nobllia, L. x Piloheriana, L. x Pilaberiana 
■Iba, L. X Sedeni, I«I!o-Cattlaja x Devomensis. 
Odontogloetum aorao-purpnreum, 0. crispum ajucu- 
latom, O. o. aureum, 0. o. a. magniflonm, 0. a. Bow- 
maniannm, O. a pendulum, 0. o. Ferrini, 0. o. Kn. 
G. Donnaa, O. o. Ragina, O. o. Rothaohildianum, 0, 
blaphariiMnthnm, O. einnamomaum, 0. Denniaonie, 
0, engenes, O. flaveeoeni, O. hjatrix Deniaoniv, O. 
intermedium, O. Lowryannm, O. macroapilnm, O. 
Inteo-pnrpureum iUtiatra, 0. mnloa Bockett's vsr., 
0. maculoaum anperbum, O. Feacatorri Jaokson'* var., 
0. P. melanooentnim, 0. P. Un. Q. W. Palmer, O. P 
TUgate tar., 0. Roasii T, L. Amaa, O. SootUi, O 
triamphana HarahallJI, 0. t. nigreaoena, O. t IFiluaii, 
0. Roebllogianum, 0. WUek^nnm Cooksonlanum, 
O. Weadlandianum, O. rigidum, O. retnnmu 

1 have only taken threa genen^ and ware the liat 
amplifinl byspeeialiataiii CypHpedium, Dendrobinm, 
and othw genera, it would be in larger. In addition 
to these, there were a great many planta named by 
Heiohenbaoh that one never hean of now. Where 
are they? All thsae orlginala had their d^ and 
made thair stir, each at ita time, now the majoiity 

Doea eaoh a list sojtgeat tha broad fiwt that Orchids 
pavad tram hand to hand die oaing to various 
oultlvatora treating th«m in dlilbrent ways, going 
from place to place, and having to exist under lastly 
different oondiUons T Planta grown for many years 
In one pUoe and atwafs aultjvatad by the nme han^s 
can be found all over the oonntry, in lome oaaas 
gohig back for twanty^iz yean, dt B. OaintAay. 



The W bek-s Work. 

TiU HABD7 7RniT QABDEN. 

BtW. H.D[VEaa, Omrdsner, BglToIrCwtla, Onothiun. 

Ptaehn and N'tetarina.—The pruning of thaae 
frnita, now that the buds are swelling, ahould be 
oofninanaad, for iF the weather ooDtiouea mild, the 
trees will aoon be in flower. Tha tmit being borne 
on wood of last saoson's growth, tbe bn-systam o( 
training ii the best, much of the growth not reqnired 
for eztensioo biing raoM*ed before it has got laige 
eoongh for eitenaive wonnda behig oaused by ita 
remoral, which rarely haoL The young ahootaahonld 
always start from the upper aide of the old braoohea, 
it is then an eaay matter to All up gape when thaae 
oeeur, a* the other branches can be pulled down- 
wards, and ahoota encouraged in the oentre. This 
arrangement depends very mnoh on the sort ol 
sammsr-pruning pursued ; but if the young shcota 
have been lald-ln on the underaide of the bnnchea 
tlMse shoota should be removed when they can be 
spared, and thus, hi two or three esMona, tha fuil^ 
ajatem of laying-in on the under cr both aide* can be 



68 



THE GABDENER8' CERONIGLE. 



[Jakttary 2«, 1898. 



corrected. Any unripe shootfl should be shortened 
back to ripe wood, always letting triple buds termi- 
nate the shoots. Well-ripened shoots may be trained 
in at full length if there is space, especially at 
the extremities of the branches if further extension is 
allowable. Bearing 'wood should be laid-in at not 
less than 4 inches apart. 

Oleaning. — Before the trees are nailed or tied, let 
them be thoroughly syringed with a solution of soft- 
soap, at the rate of four ounces to a gallon of rain- 
water, dissolyed in boiling water and diluted to the 
aboye strength. Every part of a tree and the sur&oe 
of the wall must be wetted with the soapsuds and 
allowed to dry on. If brown scale should exist, let 
it be remoyed by means of a thin strip of wood from 
the older branches, and with a sponge from the 
tender rind of the young wood, the latter requiring 
great care, the scale insects being small and not 
easily seen, and the buds are easily rubbed off. The 
syringing of the trees with soap-suds may only be 
carried out during mild weather. 

Training. — ^When nailing or tying, leaye space for 
the younger branches to swell, for most of them 
will be double their present sisse by next autumn ; 
and look carefully after the old ties and shreds 
that they are not so tight as to cut into the rind. 
Tying is perhaps more dangerous in this way than 
nails and shreds ; moreoyer, the latter, by securing 
the trees closer to the wall, enables them to obtain 
more protection from the wall, and is therefore better 
suited for gardens in the Midlands and the North. 

Protection. — ^The remarks on the Apricot (p. 66) 
apply also to the Peach and Nectarine, and need not 
be repeated here. 

The Fruit-room, — Such late yarieties of Pears as 
Beurr6 Ranee, Olirier de Serres, Bergamot d'Esperen, 
and No Plus Meuris, are much improyed in qualily if 
placed in a temperature of 56*" for a few days before 
consixming them, putting them in boxes with a little 
wood-wool or paper shayings beneath and between 
them. Apples, on the contrary, should be kept as 
cool as possible this mild weather, being careful to 
remove eyery decaying fruit as soon as obseryed, and 
to guard against a sudden rise of the temperature, 
which would cause moiBture to be deposited on the 
fruity and in that way hasten decay. 



THE OBCHTD HOUBBB. 

By W. H. Wbits Orohid Qrower, Buxford. Dorking. 

AngrcBcums and ZygopeUdwrM. — Plants of AngrsB- 
cum sesquipedale that haye done blooming should 
now be repotted or top-dressed, as preriously adyised 
for the Aerides. Angrsoum obumeum, now in 
flower, may be similarly treated after the spikes are 
cut. A. pellucidum, now producing its long drooping 
flower-spikes, that haye a tendency to push them- 
selyesdown into the compost, should be examined 
daily, it being sometimes necessary to assist the spikes' 
over the surface by placing a piece of tile or crock 
under them. This plant should always be proteoted 
from sunshine, or the foliage quickly changes 
colour ; keep the plant well supplied with water untU 
its flowers haye opened. The rare terete-leayed A. 
Scottianum, being of semi-scandeot growth, succeeds 
best when trained to upright rafts or cylinders, the 
stems tied firmly to the rods, so that the small roots 
may haye something substantial to cling to. Whilst in 
active growth, the plant should be syringed once or 
twice daily. A. Leonis, now sending up its flower- 
spikes, should be watered moderately only. Instead 
of dipping the plant in the usual manner, it is better 
to use a flioe-rose watering-can and to lightly sprinkle 
the surface of the moss and around the side of the 
basket occasionally. Plants of Zygopetalum Mackayi 
and its variety crinitum, that have recently passed 
out of flower, may be repotted or top-dressed should 
they require it A mixture of fibrous loam, 
chopped moss, and plenty of broken crocks weU 
mixed together is a suitable compost. Place the 
plants on the shady side of the warm-house, and take 
the usual care not to over-water newly-potted plants. 
Z. maxillare extends its creeping rhisome several 
inches annually, sa that it is useless to try to subject 
it to pot-culture ; it grows naturally upon the stems 
of Troe-Fems, and it is usually imported so. In the 
case of plants which have overgrown these stems, a 
fresh piece of Tree-Fem should be wired on to the 
original, and the plant will soon take hold of the 
added portion ; this should be attended to at 
once, as the plant will be starting into growth. Water 
must be freely given at all times. Z. maxillare 
should be grown in a moist, shady comer of the 
Odontoglossum-house ; when grown in a warmer 
temperature it is generally injured by insect-pests. 



Oypripediuwu, — Any plant of the following, C. 
purpuratum, C. Schlimii, C. Leeanum x , C. ArSiuri- 
anumx, C. venustum, C. Mastersianum, C. Wil- 
liamsii x , C. Amesianum x , C. Croasianum x , C. 
Sallieri-Hyeanum x , C. insigne and its varieties, that 
have become potbound, should be repotted as they 
pass out of flower. Strong, healthy specimens may 
be shifted into pots at least two sisee larger than they 
are in at present. The pots should be one-third 
filled with drainage, secured by a layer of sphagnum. 
Lumpy peat and sphagnum-moss in equal parts, and 
pieces of crook or broken limestone mixed with it, 
will grow to pwfeotion any of the above varieties. 
All of them thrive luxuriantly in a shady part of the 
intermediate-house. When the new roots are in full 
aotivity, abundanoe of water must be afforded. C. 
Schlimii is a plant that does not appreciate strong 
light, under which its foliage turns to a sickly hue, 
but a piece of tissue-paper spread over the leaves will 
protect them from hann. Plants of C. Boxalli and 
C. villosnm are producing their flower-spikes, which 
should be guided through the foliage, or they may be 
distorted through the opposition of the heavy leaves. 
Both spedee require the temperature of the inter- 
mediate-house. 



FXiABTTB UlTDBft QIiABS. 

By W. MsssiKacR, Gardenar, Woolreratone Park, Ipswich. 

BcugaiiwUlea glabra and Varieties, — After a period 
of rest in a cool-house, any which are now shedding 
their foliage may be somewhat severely pruned back, 
removing all weak shoots, and very strong ones if 
these be not required for furnishing the plants. The 
strong shoots needed for building up the plants 
should also have the unripened wood removed from 
them. Keep the plants dry at the roots till they 
start into growth, taking care the wood does not 
shrivel from over-dryness of the soiL 

Clerodendron £alfourianum,-^Tlui\M which have 
been rested may now be started in a brisk heat, 
applying slight blottom-heat if possible. If the plants 
are grown in large pots, it will suffice for several years 
if the surface- soil bo replaced with a rich compost, 
making it firm. If repotting be necessary, the plants 
should first be started into growth. Care must be 
taken of the fibrous roots, and as a potting-soil use 
fibrous loam two-thirds, leaf-mould and coarse sand 
one-third, and well-rotted manure one-seventh. The 
plants should be kept rather on the dry side before 
and for some time after repotting, syringing them 
Ull root-action commences, when a liUle more water 
will be r^uired, increasing the quantity as time 

C grosses. Plants at rest must not be placed in a 
ise having a lower temperature than 66*, or they 
may UH to start. 

Plumbago capensit, — These are plants secured to 
pillars and walls in tiie conservatory or greenhouse ; 
the annual shoots may be pruned back to two or 
three buds from the base, and where space can be 
afforded for extension, a less severe cutting back and 
shortening of the stronger growths will suffice. 
Plants growing in pots may be cut back, and then 
placed in heat to yield cuttings for next year's stock. 
If the plants are infested with thrips, let them be 
deansed with an inaectidde before growth begins. 

Asalea indiea. — ^The early forced plants of Deutsche 
Perle which have gone out of flower should be placed 
in an early vinery or Peach-house, and syringed 
freely to encourage growth. Any that require re- 
potting may have immediate attention. Later 
flowering plants require to be kept cool, and to- be 
thoroughly syringed when the weather will allow, 
fumigating the house if thrip be present on the plants. 
Water must be afforded with great care, and only 
when it is really wanted ; on the other hand, dryness 
at the root is fatal to these fine hair-rooted plants. 

Carnation Miss Joliffe. — If there is a deficiency of 
this variety, than whidi few are more useful in the 
winter, cuttings may be inserted forthwith, taking 
young growing shoots from plants ^wn in a oool- 
house, which must be cut close to a joint with a very 
•harp knife, and inserted rouud the side of a smaU 
pot to the number of two or throe, using sandy soil, 
affording a thorough application of water, and placing 
the pots under a hand-lljght or bell-glass, giving them 
bottom-heat of 76** to 80% and top-heat of 66*. Other 
▼arieties may be treated in a similar manner. Last 
autumn layers that were placed in small pots will now 
be well rooted, and they may be potted into small 
60*s, and stood in a cool-house or frame, protecting 
them from firost. 

Oardenias, — Those plants which are showing 
flower-buds should have the shoots which are pusbing 



out near the base of the flower-bud removed The 
plants delight in abundanoe of heat and moisture, and 
the syringe should be freely employed till the flower- 
buds commence to open, when atmospheric moisture 
should be oonsiderabiy reduced. If mealy-bug infest 
the plants, petroleum emulsion or methylated eplriti- 
of-fnne should be applied, the latter with a tmaU 
brush. 

Cannas, — Those plants that are required for deco- 
rative work and have had a thorough rest maybe 
divided, and the bits placed in pots according to 
thoir size, when, if plunged in a fairly brisk bottom- 
heat, they will soon begin to grow, and in about i 
month may be removed into cooler quarters. If a 
good number be cultivated, they should be dirided 
into batches, to form a suocession. It is not a mi» 
practice to prolong the drying-off period over three 
months. 

THE KITCHEN G-ABDEN. 

By J. W. McHattiic, (hardener, Strathfleldsaye, Hants. 

Leeks. — In order to obtain large well-blanched, and 
mild flavoured stems, a sowing of The Lyon, Suttoo^i 
Prizetaker, and Debbie's Champion, ^ould now be 
made in boxes or seed-pans, filled with rich, light 
soil, scattering the seeds thinly, and covering them 
with ^inch layer of fine soil ; and afford a tempera- 
ture of about 50°. When plants appear, keep the 
boxes, &c., near the glass till pricked off ; metnwhDe 
the boxes for this purpose should be got in readinen 
by filling them with a compost consisting of equil 
parts loam, leaf-mould, and spent Mushroom-doDg, 
also adding sharp sand, pressing the compost firmly, 
and placing the boxes where the soil may get warai. 
When the plants show two leaves is Uie time to 
transplant them at 2 inches apart. Do not admit 
much air to them before they have begun to grow, 
and afterwards the same kind of treatment as thit 
advised for the raising of big-bulbed Onions will luit 
the plant in its early stages. 

Winter Spinaeh.-^Let the ground be stirred with 
the hoe between the rows, choosing a day when the 
soil is dry for doing the work. Seeds of round or 
of the prickly-seeded Spinaches may now be sown on 
a south border, affording the plants pretection doriog 
frosty and cold weather by means of spare inm 
lights, dry bracken, or litter. For early sowings the 
drills may be drawn flat and shallow at 15 inches 
apart, and the plants singled out to 4 inches from 
each other, a greater distance being unnecesssry with 
so short-lived a plant. 

Parsnips, — A piece of deep, rich land, which 
should have been trenched in the autumn, sod oo 
dressing of manure afforded, may now be got io 
readiness when the land is in a comparatively drj 
state. After forking it over a few inches deep, tod 
scuffling it so as to obtain a fine tilth, and rekiagso<i 
levelling it, divide it into beds 5 feet wide, sowing 
the seed in drills 1 inch deep, and IJ foot apirt for 
big sorts, and 1^ foot for smaller ones. As FftWupB 
require a long season of growth, the seed should be 
got into the ground in February. The HoUow 
Crown, Student, and Debbie's Champion are the beiti 
the first two for exhibition. 

Petis, — The early sowings of Peas and Broad Betn«. 
when the tops are above the ground, should have 
small hve pieces of Spruce Fir or other evergreeni 
stuck into the soil close up to the rows, and trap* 
should be set for mice, which are in some gardeni 
de«tructive to early Peas and Beans. As a furthfr 
protective, damp all seeds of Peas and Beans before 
sowing, and coat them with dry red lead, or scatter 
Furze-tops passed through a chaff-cutter along the 
drills before closing them. 



FRUITS UKDEB QIiASS. 

By O. KORM4K, Qardener, Hatfield Hooee, Herts. 

New Borders. — Continuing my remarks on Figa ^ 
last week*s issue, I now give some brief directiona on 
making indoor borders. If it be the intention to 
plant Fig-trees in the spring, the border may now w 
prepared for their reception ; and as the Fig is ^^^ 
fruitful in borders of limited size than in large oD«h 
a border 6 feet wide, with 1 ft of drainage matenfl«i 
and a depth of soil of IJ ft., is sufficiently large to 
enable good size trees to flourish. The bottom 
should be concreted, making it ftOl to a point, wb«^ 
a drwn may take away the water that P^^J*** 
through the soil. The front or the back-wall of tw 
house may form one side of the border, and a ^ , 
brickwork or concrete 2J ft. high the o^^.,"!,! 
built at the edge of the concrete bottom. A emUDie 



JiHDARV 29, 1898.] 



TEE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



kind of loil for a Fig-border oonsiati of Bt« parta 
turfj old pAHtuTB lOHiD, Cut about i iiiahei tbick, aud 
ono of lima rabbuh, old pluter, ka., with the Sua 
part lifted out of it. At the bottom, place a layer of 
brickbat*, ftc.,to form tbe drainag?, and over tbia placa 
graM aoda, tbe brrbn^e dovuwanla, and above tbif 
put the soil, makiog it 
Bod allovr for ehriDking 
• iderable m n fear or two. 

CKtrritt. — It ia agaiuit tbe Datura of hardy fruits 
tooomneDce to force tbem at a bigh temperature, and 
Donn dialike tbe praotico more than Cberriea. To have 
tip* Cherries in May, the forcing of tbe treea abould 



Earli/ Tnles. — A* oFteo aa may be required, the 

yuiiDg ahoota should be gradually bruught down bf 
meatiB of broail atripa of oonimoD boat to tbe wins. 
It aannot be done in all cauea at one attempt, the 
aboota beiag very brittle, but needa to be done in 
twice or tfarioB. Tbe abooti ahoold allnt aligbtlr 
upwards, and not be crowded together, ao that the 
leaves have not full apace to develop. Etoh ahoot 
abould have the point nipped off at two joints bejond 
tbe best bnnob. and the Haooodoiy shoots or small 
laterals that spring from ths leading buds on thtae 
rhootaat tbeBivt joint Tendrils should be removed. 
The fasteniog of Uie shoots and the atopping of tbe 



weather, ao as to prevent tbe temperature of the 
Charry'boiue falling below 10° alnigbt, or goingabove 
no* in thedaf ; bjsunhaat it may however rise to 60°. 
Continue this Ireatmeot till tbe buda ahow aigna of 
bursting, then increaaa the temperature, a degree or 
two at night ^lod 5" b; [day, syringing them fand 
affording the trtatmont recommended in fordng the 
Peacb. Before tbe blooma begin to open, fumigulo 
tbe house in order to dastrof green or block Hy, aa 
one or the other, or both, are sure to be present OD 
tbe shoota. 

Plumt. — The treatment of forced Plums ia klenUoal 
with that recommended for Cherries. 



aatoe ahould be in ea complete a state as posaible 
before tbe flowera begin to open ; and if red-apidf t 
is likely to be present, oSoid the Vines a thorough 
syringing with tepid water. To aaaiat the totting of 
tie flowers, let tbe air be dryish and warm, par- 
ticularly during the daytime, in order to allow the 
pollen to become dry by noon, at which hour give 
each Vine-red a gentle tap, and in that way diitribate 
tbe pollen. The temperature may range from 60* to 
eb° at night, and 70° to 73° on dull days, with a rise 
of 10° on bright days, and 5° beyond Ibis after the 
vineiy is closed early in the afternoon. By day 
BuCGcientwsrmth should be maintained by mean* of 
the apparatus aa will allow of air beiug afforded at 
the top of tbe vinery in amount according to the 



■tataot the weather, without causing draughts. In 
tfas morning, when the wamith io tho vinery has 
reaobed 70°, let tbe ventilators be opened a small 
apace, and increaae it aa the temperature rises. The 
bordera and floor abould be damped once on fins 
daya in the afternoon at cloeing time, and at duak 
open the ventitators a triflini; space, and so let them 
remain through the night if there be no 
of frost, high wind, or atorm*. 



THB TltOWBR aABX>XIIi'. 

By H. Waltibs, Oardaner, KaatwoU Park, iihleii. 

Pdargoniwmi a* Sedding-planlt. — Amldat the 
onangea wrought in the laat twenty-five years in tho 
specij* of plants employed for beddiog-out purposes, 
which were formerly unknowo, it ia a matter far 
aurprise that the Pelargonium, in its man; types and 
vanetiea, aurvived to tbe prjient diy. A great deal 
of the gardener's lime ia occupied in taking the 
cuttiugs in tho autunm. and much glaaa of one aort 
and the other ia occupied with the stock of plants and 
rooted cuttings during the winter and spring monlhi, 
which could be more advantageously made u>H of, to 
say nothing of beating. The result ia, that we are 
provided with plants wherewith to form masses of 
colour in the flower-prdeD, whose beauty is often 
marred t^r a fortnight or longer by a thunrter- 
atorm or a hailsrorm in tbe months oF June 
or July. In moist summers tbe plants run 
to leaf ohleBy, and the blooma are Bcarce. Now 
there are many species of annuals wbiob, raiaed 
from seed in the early apring, treated in the manner 
required by ordinary bedding- plants, without much 
of tbe labour aud eiptnae incurreil in Polaigooiuin 
culture during the winter, whoao Sower* are not 
spoiled by rain or wind, commence to flower in 
early summer long before ihe PBtargonlums, continue 
right throughout to the end of autumn, and afford 
great divertity of colour to the flower-garden. 

Perennial Lbbeliai.— The atock plants which have 
been wintered in frsmea will now bs making growth, 
and if any increase is required, the young growths 
may be taken with a few root* sod potted in GO'e, 
when, if placed ia a temperature of ii°, they will 
Boon become established, and may than be removed 
to s cold frame, ths protection of a mat being sufB- 
cient to keep out frott. Water must be carefully 
afforded, and that, with ventilation in fine weather, 
will be all the oire they require previous to bedding 
tb<m out. L, cardiTialia Queen Victoria ia a very 
useful variety, fspeiially for mixinit in I eJa with any 
light or white flowering plants ; tbe crimaon mstalliu 
foliage i* very effective when the planta ore not in 
bloom, bub Uieie are (eveisl others with urimion, 
carmine, pink, and other tinta. 

Lobelia eanfaclii. — Wheie a large number of these 
planle in vaiiety is naad for beddiog, and the stock 
of ihtm ia raised from oultmgs, the present ia a 
Buitable time to b^in. Let ths cutting*, after 
denudiog tbem of a few of tbe lowtr leaves, be 
dibbled-in thickly in boxes or an a bed of (and iu ths 
t ropsgaling-pit, affording a top-heat of Sfi". and 
bottom-heat of 80°. The cutting^ root nadily in 
ulversind or cocos-nut Aire, without any loam, if 
kept moiat with plenty of moisluro in Ibe air. Tbe 
out tiuga will be lufficiently rooted for potting-offor 
boxing in a fortnight. Theae early plants will, in due 
coune. ^ve plenty of cuttings. 

Vtrbtnai. — Where these pittty plants ate atill 
employed, and the stock is railed from cuttings, the 
mtae tteatment as that afforded the Lobelia com- 
pacta will suit tbsm. If tbe foliage ia attacked 
by mildew, dust tbem with Bowers of sulphur, 
delaying the taking of the cuttings for a fen daj B. 



Irei 



—The 



I of ■ 



- - ' propaeatio 

begin, taking the Ijpa of the shoota ai „ . _. 

the plants ore infested with apUa, fumigate them 
before the cuttings are taken of£ 

" Garden Notes for the Colonies and 
Abroad." [Jaueh C^HTkH t Co., High Holbom,) 
The second edition ofamosCvaluablelittle handbook, 
giving notes of the climatic and other conditions of 
the principal foreigo and colonial stations, and of the 
seeds and plants most suitable for oultlvatiDn Iberem. 
We note that the former edition of tht* work was 
acquired by one of the colonial govemmeuta for 
distribution ; tMn being an excellent teetimony to its 
usefuhleaa. We recommend it to all propoeing 
emigration to places whote exact aoil and olimate are 
unknown to them, and also to more exptrienced 
aettlera who are doubtful of the auccees likely to 
attend cultural eiperimenta with atranes or with 
familiar plants and crops under nsw condiUons. 



70 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Jakvabt 29, 1898. 



APPOINTMENTS FOR FEBRUARY. 



THURSDAY. 
TUESDAY, 

SATURDAY, 
THURSDAY, 
FRIDAY. 

THURSDAY, 

SATURDAY, 



Feb. 

FSB. 



3 — Tifatnwm Society. 

|./ Royal HortUmltand Sodetj't 
^\ CommitteM. 

Botanic Sodaty't Genanl 



Feb. 17— Unxieui Sooloty't Meeting. 

Pkr. 1ft } -^nuAl General Meeting of Royal 
' ^ ***t Gardeners' Orphmn Fund. 

Feb. 24/^^^^"^^^^^ ^' ^*^ Guild at 

^ o P.M. 

Royal Botanic Society's General 



Feb. 36^ 



Meeting. 



TUESDAY, 



Feb. 1/ 



SALES FOR THE ENSUING WEEK. 

/LQiea, Aialeaa, Roeee, ChreenhooM 
Feme, &o., at Protheroe ii Mor> 
ris' Rooms. 
ClearsQce Sale of Plants, Garden 
Tools, ^., at The Priory, Wtm- 
btedon Oaaantm, by order of 
R. S. Dean, Esq., by Protheroe 

\ & Morris. 
Great Clearanoe Sale of well-grown 
Fruit Trees, at Lee's Nursery, 
Hiffh Road, Ealing Dean, 1^ 
order of Messrs. Cnas. Lee h 
Sons, by Protheroe ii Morris 
(three daysX 

/'Japanese LiliM, Continental Planta, 
Hpinuas, Ghkdloli, Roses, Ane- 
mones, Ac, at Protheroe 4 
Morris' Rooms. 
Clearanoe Sale of Nursery Stock, 
Carts, Tools, Ac, at the hX. 
Martin's Nursery, Canterbury, 
by order of the Executors of the 
aXit Mr. J. Kennet, by Protheroe 
4 Morris (two days). 
Rose and Fruit TVees, Shrubs, 
Plants, Palms, Bulbs, Ac., at 

V. Mr. Sterens' Rooms. 

Miicellaneous Bulbs, Carnations, 
Lilies of the Valley. Roses, Ac., 
Fe^. 34 at Protheroe A Morris' Rooms. 
TilHums, Border Plants, Ac., at 
Mr. Stevens' Rooms. 
n<«B ^/Imported and Established Orchids, 
'^"- * \ at Protheroe A Morris' Rooms. 



WEDNESDAY, Fbb. 2 ( 



THURSDAY. 
FRIDAY, 



AvsnAOE TcMFBRATUBs fot the ensuing week, deduced firom 
Observations of Forty-three years, at Chiswiik.— 19*2*. 
Actual TEMpsnATumw:— 

LoimoH.— Janvary 26 (« p.m.): Max., 48<*; Min., 44^ 
PBOvnfcis.^ January 26 (6 p.m.): Max., 61^ south- 
west Ireland ; Min., 48", north-east Scotland. 
Weather dull, mild, and foggy. 

The annual meeting of this Jn- 
^^SllSJSr^ ititution [was in progress as we 
wenfc to press last week; never- 
thelees, we were enabled to lay before our 
readers the substance of the report, and the 
results of the ballot. Brieiiy it was stated that 
the *' Diamond Jubilee*' year had proyedthe 
most suocessfnl on record. The total number 
of pensioners up to the end of last year was 167, 
and the amount of money bestowed is, in 
round numbers, £3000 yearly ; but withal, 
thero wero as many as twenty-nine unsuccess- 
ful candidates at the preceding eleotion, and on 
the present occasion thirty-four. 

Success and practical experience may be held 
to justify the existing methods of proceduro 
with regard to the distribution of votes, the 
moro so as measures have been lately devised 
in the interests of those candidates who do not 
happen to have influential friends, and conse- 
quently have less opportunity of accumulating 
votes than their more fortunate, but probably 
not moro deserving, competitors. 

A legacy left by the late W. J. Thomson, a 
well-known gardener, formerly of Kew, and lately 
a nurseryman, was also devised on the same 
lioes, and came into operation on this occasion 
for tiie first time. Mr. Thomson, it appears 
left a sum of money to be so applied, that the 
widow who obtained the highest number of 
votes among the wMtuxesB/xU candidates at any 
election shall be admitted to the benefits of the 
Society. We could wish now that some legator 
would now provide theans for the election of 
the lowut on the list. 

The allotment by the' committee in certain 
cases of a number of votes, and the establish- 
ment of the Victorian Era Fund show that the 
Committee is alive Ito the evils of the present 



system, and is desirous to mitigate them as fax 
as possible. 

In fitvour of the plan now practised, with all 
the expense and trouble it entails on tiie candi- 
dates or their friends, and the unfair profer- 
enoe shown to non-subscribers, it is alleged 
that the subscribers set storo upon the privi- 
lege of voting, and would think themselves de- 
prived of thou* rights if some other plan wero 
introduced. Two oiroumstancee tell against 
this view, one, that the accidental income, if we 
may so call that derived from, or in consequence 
of the annual dinner is greater than that derived 
fnun the gardeners for whose benefit the Society 
exists! This is a most lamentable and dis- 
creditable state of things, and we venturo to 
say no sode^ can be in a satisfiActory state so 
long as it exists. 

The second indication is shown in the fiMst 
announced by the scrutineers, that moro than 
1100 votes wero spoiled because the voters cared 
80 littie about ^e matter that they did not 
sign their names to the voting papers, or omitted 
to comply with some other formality. 

We aro thankful to say that the invested 
sums amount to no less than £30,000, a sum 
which the Treasurer spoke of in somewhat 
deprecatory terms, as if it were too large ; but 
80 long as thero is this disquieting disproportion 
between the amount contributed by ann "^^ 
subscribers — gardeners, and that raised by 
other precarious means, so long is a large reserve 
fund absolutely necessary to meet contingencies 
which may arise, however much we may desiro 
that they may not do so. 

Thero aro considerably moro than six thousand 
head-gardeners in the British Isles. Let us 
suppose that these six thousand contributed ten 
shillings each, the amount so obtained would 
about pay the amount now annually distributed ; 
and the donations of the friends of the Society, 
and the contributions of younger gardeners 
according to their means, would allow of a 
considerable reduction in the number of unsuc- 
cessful candidates each year. 

As we have said, some further arrangements 
aro needed to securo the most equitable distri- 
bution of votes. The Society has staunch friends, 
and an able committee imbued with but one 
thought— the benefit of the disabled gardener 
or his widow. Already they take great responsi- 
bility — a littie moro would not add materially 
to their trouble. Let the Committee, who 
know so much moro than any one else of the 
necessities of each case, select each year the 
names of candidates they suggest for election, 
and submit them for approval or rejection to 
the general meeting. Personal canvassing and 
dronlation of cards should be discouraged as 
much as possible ; but each subscriber would 
have the right to object to all or any of the 
names selected by the Committee, and to sub- 
stitute other names from the list of approved 
candidates according to the amount of his dona- 
tions or subscriptions as at present. 

Datura SUAVEOLENa— The fine-looking sped- 
men reprooeented in our illuatration (fig. 26), is a 
species that has long been an inhabitant of our 
girdens, and one that requires but simple treat- 
ment The plant was photographed in September, 
as it stood in the centre of the conaervatory at 
Thai wall Heja, the reeidenoe of W. Long, Esq., 
near Warrington. Mr. Poulton, the gardener, 
aent along with the photograph the foUowing par- 
tieolars in regard to the plant : The Ferns and Palms 
were arranged aroand it in order to hide the tub in 
which it was growing. The height of plant from the 
top of the tub was 5 feet, and the number of blooms 
open at the time was 300. For the space of about 
a fortnight it was a very fine bight^ especially of an 



evening^ when its pore white flowers were foDv 
expanded, and gave off a delicious firagranoe, whidi 
was strong enough to be perceptible at some distsoce 
away from the oonaervatoiy. This species of Datma 
does well if afforded one good shift esch year, aod an 
oooa«ional top-dreaaing of rich oompoat, and it should 
never be allowed to suffer from lack of water during 
the growing aeaaon. After blooming, it is pruned 
severely, stored away in a Peaoh-hoaae, keeping it 
oool and dry till growth re-oommenoes in the spring. 

Unnean Society. — On the oooaaion of the 
evening meeting, to be held on Thursday, Febraaiy 3, 
1898, at 8 r.M., the following papera will be read, 
viz., 1, *'0n the Huacular Attachment of the 
Animal to ita Shell in some Fossil Cephalopoda 
(Ammonoidea),'* by Mr. G. a Cbiok, F.aa. F^Z^a ; 
2, *' The Comparative Anatomy of certain genera of 
C^roadaoese," by Mr. W. C Worsdkll, F.L.a 

Veitch Memorial Trust.— At a meetiog ot 

the trustees, held on January 19, Dr. Maxwsll 
MabTEBS in the ohair, it was unanimously reaolved 
that medals for objects to be hereafter determined 
should be allotted for the present year, at ezhibitionB 
to be held at firistol, Leicester, and Cardiff respec- 
tively. A sum of £20 was voted to the trustees of 
the Lindley Library towards the preparation of the 
catalogue now in progress. Medals were also allotted 
to M. Mabliao, in recognition of his sucoeas as a 
hybridiser ; to M. £a Andr^ of Ptfis; and to M. 
le Comte ni Kbbohovs, of Qhent, President of the 
Royal Agricultural and Botanical Society of Ghent, 
for their respective services to horticulture. 

Royal Botanic Society.— a meeting of the 

Fellows of the Royal Botanic Sodefy was held oa 
Saturday afternoon in the musuem at the Society's 
gardens. Regent's Park. Mr. C. E. Layton presided, 
and there was an unusually large attendanoe. Four 
new Fellows were elected, including Dr. CoLLtS6, 
Chairman of the London County Council, and nine 
were nominated for election at the next meeting. 
Professor Hem slow read a paper on ** Plant Varia- 
tions," which he illustrated by means of a larg« 
number of photographs reflected upon a screen. He 
described the various monstrosities, or departures 
from the normal structure, of different plants, and 
traced in many cases the gradual transition from 
the original to the '* sport," showing how the 
character of the latter had become fixed or hereditary, 
and was now looked upon as quite the normal form. 

BORSOORF ReINETTE OF DOBERAN.— Under 
this name, says Dr. Dammer, a new variety of the 
well-known Borsdorf Reioette was shown by Oarten- 
bau-director Mathiku the doyen of Qerman pomology, 
at the last meeting of the Berlin Horticultural Society. 
The plantwas raised from seeds of the common Borsdorf 
Reinette by Count Fink at Doberan in Meoklenbor^ 
It resembles the mother plant perfeotiy as regards the 
fruit, taste and flavour, whioh, as well aa aiae, are quite 
the same, but there is more red colour upon its sur- 
face. The genuine form of the Borsdorf ReinHte has 
one fault : it begins to fruit veiy late ; the trees are 
20-25 years old before they begin to flower. But 
what fruit-grower can wait ao long a time in our 
epoch of ateam and electricity ? Oartenbau-director 
Matbibu has proved the now variety, and upon 
his authority, it may be said, that it is an early -fruiting 
ona That it is a very fine acquisition for our orchards, 
ss the Borsdorf Reinette is esteemed ss the best apple 
ofaU. 

British Seeds Abroad. — Messrs. Jamks 

Cabtkb & Co., of 237, High Holbom, write on this 
subject as follows :~'* On p. 58 you inrite testimony 
as to the work of British seed houses abroad. We 
may 6tate that we have published catalogues in 
French for over forty years [with metrical weights, 
&c. ? ]. aod on various occasions have issued 
special lists in German, Russian, Swedish, and 
Spanish. Our own travellers go regularly to 
every part of the world where seeds are in dem<uid. 
In respect to seeds going to outiandish places, we 
may state that we have lately sent a quantity to the 
Island of Tristan d'Acunba, a lunely spot in the 
South Pacific Ocean ; and we also send at reigular 
intervals to Pitcaim Island, where both vegetables 



;8l '6S J^iivnuvfi ..lioiHOtiMO .suaHMHVQ,, itu oi utiNiiddne 



January *>9, 1898.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



71 



and flo were m g. Mkly appredated b j the deeoaodtnto 
of the mutmeen of the Bomty. Only hut week we 
were oomminioned by the officer oommandiDg the 
military expedition now in Uganda (Central Afrioa), 
to prepare a large aaeortment of seeds for growth it 
the headwatere of the Kile, when th^y reach there. 
A box of our seedi for cultivation in the Virgin 
Islands formed one of seventeen parcels receiyed by 
the Post-office during the last twelve months. On 
another occasion recently we were required to forward 
some seeds to a country not included in the Postal 
Ouide, and had several formalitieB to go throu^ 
before the PostH>ffice would take charge of the 
package. From these items it may safely be said 
that our seeds go to the uttennost parts of the 
earth as pioneers of civilisation. We believe we 
are the only seed house that issues a work on gar- 
dening giving world-wide information, the second 
edition of which has just been issued, all avaiUble 
copies of the first print having been bought up by a 
Colonial Government.'' 

Messrs. Hurst k Son, of 162, Houndsditch> 



£., remark: — ^* Referring to your note on British 
seod catalogues for foreign droulation, permit us to 
say that we have for the last twenty-five years not 
only issued catalogues in foreign languages, but have 
sent out a ropreeentative, who has travelled regularly 
between Norway and Sweden and the extreme sontb, 
even to Algiers. Latterly the French Government 
have done their utmost to destroy this trade by 
impoaing a heavy duty, and by refusing to accept any 
evidence of the English origin of such seeds as Peas, 
even declaring that no Peas are grown in England, 
deapite sworn testimony to the contrary. Other 
oountries— Norway, Sweden, and Dennurk — demand 
a heavy license- fee from foreign oommeroial traveller*, 
endeavouring by that means to prevent oompeUtion." 

Dr. Huun, who acted as president of the party 
of Belgian horticulturists when they favoured us with 
a visit in 1883, has recently died at Ghent at the ripe 
age of 86. Belgian papers speak of him as the friend 
of the poor and of the labourer. 

New York Botanical Garden.— One of the 

last events of the old year was the beginning of actual 
conatruction-work upon the Now York Botanical 
Garden, an event which cannot but be fraught vrith 
importance, and we hope productive of incalculable 
good. On December 31, 1897, Presiden^ McMillan 
of the Department of Parks, on being presented with 
a new pick and shovel by Messrs. Pabkee & 
PABSHLEr, of the Jobn H. PABasB Company, con- 
tractors, formally started the first work on the 
museum building. There were also present Dr. N. 
L Bbittom, Director-in-Chief of the New York 
Botanical Garden ; Mr. John I. Kanjc, of the Board 
of Managers ; Dr. John K. Small, of Columbia 
University ; Mr. Lionaed Baebon, Editor of iime- 
rican Gardening ; Profesaor A. ij. Dundon, of the 
Normal College; Mr. Samoel Hensbaw aud Mr. 
Gbo. Y. Nash, of the staff of the New York BoU- 
nical Garden ; and others. The pick and shovel used 
un this occasion will in due course be deposited in 
the museum building. 

Garoeninq in Eqypt.— Mr. Waltkb Deapeb is 
about to publish a book devoted to gardening in 
Lower Egypt, and treating of the climate, soil, laying- 
out of the garden, suitable trees, shrubs^ climbers, 
Roses, Palms, succulents, vegetables, &a 

A European Forsythia. — Dr. Antonio 
Baloacci has discovered in Albania a shrub differing 
but little from the Chinese F. suspenss, save in the 
shorter petioles. We shall hope shortly to see living 
specimens at Kew ; for however interesting may be 
the fiict from the point of view of botanical geography, 
it is still more so to witness the " bird in the hand " 
at Kew. 

NEW8VENDOR8 BENEVOLENT AND PROVIDENT 
Institution. — The fifty-ninth auoual general 
meeting will be held at the Memorial UaII on Tuesday, 
February 15. President, the Right Hon. Lord 
OLEKEdK, will take the chair at 7 o'clock precisely. 
The annual leatival dinner will be held at the Hotel 



Cecil on Wednesday, May 11. Mr. CioilB. Haems- 
WOETH will preeide, and his brothers, the Mcmts. 
Alfbbd and Haeold Harmswobth, with many 
other friends of the Institution, have promised to 
attend this gathering. 

Newcastle-on-Tyne Flower SHOwa— We 

have received a copy of the schedule of the above. 
The spring show will be held in the Olympia on 
Wednesday and Thorwilay, April 20 and 21, 1898. 
The summer show will be hold in the Recieation 
Ground, in cougunction with the Korthumberland 
Agriculturjil Show, on Wedneedsy, Thursday, and 
Friday, July 13, 14, and 15, 1898. The Royal Hor- 
ticultural Society*s Council, as has already been 
noticed in those pages, have accepted an invitation 
to be present, and will send a deputation with full 
powers to make awards. The attendance at the last 
joint show in the year 1893 was enormous, and the 
financial result was a very successful one. Copies of 
the schedule may be had from the Secrtrtary, 54, 
Weetgate Boad. 

The London Wholesale Fruit and 
Potato Trades* and Growers* Benevolent 

Society. — The annual meeting of the Society will 
be held at the Tavistock Hotel, Covent Garden, on 
Tuesday, February 1, 1898, at 6 p.m. The Society is 
still in its infancy, but has a balance in hand of £231, 
investments to the amount of £2492 11«. \d^ and 
distributes in pensions £138 10s. 

Fruit from the Cape.— The authorities at 
African House, Bishopsgate, E.C., inform us that 
fruit from the Cape, per Union line of steamers, aro 
now on their way here, and may be expected to arrive 
in about a week's time. It is to be hoped that an 
improvement may this season be shown in the 
samplee submitted to auction. 

PEOPLE'S Palace Horticultural Society. 

— Another of the series of popular lectures on gar- 
dening was delivered at the People's Palace, Mile 
End, on Saturday Evening, the 22th inst., by Mr. 
BiOHABD DiAM, y.ll.H., on " The Life History of a 
Flower," illustrated by the florist's Tulip. Then 
was as usual a large attendance of members, coloured 
diagrams being employed, while all the technical 
terms wero plainly written on a black-board and 
explained. After a brief history of the flower, and a 
passing allusion to the Tulipomania, a diagram of a 
flower waa ahown with its seminal organs, and the 
process of fertilisation explained ; a diagtam of a seed 
waa shown, the method and time of sowing given, 
with illustrations of that singular characteristic of the 
seedling Tulip, the production of " droppers." 
Coloured illustrations of the breeder stage were 
shown, then the flamed and feathered characters, 
with other characteristics of the flower, the lecturor 
winding up with an account of the procedure of a 
Tulip-dhow in Cheshire. Details of culturo were 
supplied, and an effbrt was made to intereat the 
audience in a flower which was at one time grown for 
exhibition in several parts of the east of London. A 
hearty vote of thanks was passed to the lecturer. 
The first of four flower-shows during the year will 
take pUce on March 31. 

"The Culture of V^qetables and 
Flowers from Seeds and Roots : " Sutton 
& Sons, Reading. (Simpkin, Marshall, Hamilton, 
KsNf h Co., London.) The seventh edition of an emi- 
nently practical hand-book, wherein, in reasonable 
compass, are directions for the culturo of vegetables 
and flowera in the garden, with instructions for the 
year's work therein. There are alao chapters on the 
chemistry of garden crop*, on lawn and tennis- 
grounds from seeds, on the pests of garden-plants, 
fongus-pests of garden-plants, and those of certain 
flowers. The principal parts of the book are alpha- 
betically arranged, and the addition of an index 
renders the desired information still more easy to 
find. Of the reliability of the cultural and other 
directions it is scarcely necessary to speak. 

Viola Mrs. ASTOR.— The managers of the 
Hood Gardens, Totoes, enclose a few blooms of Mrs. 
J. J. Astor, a new American Violet, The colour, a 



reddish-lilac, is novel and pretty, being darker than 
Madame Ifillet, and the plants aro, we are told, more 
vigorous than that variety. It is very free-flowering, 
and seems to be an early bloomer. We cannot say 
much in favour of the perfume. 

Robert BEQBIE returns his heartfelt thanks to 
those subscribers to whom he is indebted for having 
placed him by their votes on the pension-list of the 
Gardeners* Royal Benevolent Institution on the 
20th inst. 

WiLUAMS' Memorial Medal.— At a recent 

meeting of the Williams' Memorial Trustees, Dr. 
Masters in the chair, it was decided to offer two Silver 
Memorial Medals at the summer show of the Royal 
Botanic Society to be held in May next, and two 
Silver Memorial Medals at the York GaU to be held 
this year. 

Publications Received. — iZepor/ tt/)oa tkt 

Essex Field Experiments during 1896-97. Theae 
trials were undertaken at the instance of the Essex 
County Council, and the results are here carefully 
tabuUted : 1, Manurial trials on Beans followed 
by Wheat ; 2, Manurial trials on permanent paature ; 
8, Experiments on laying down land to grass; 4, 
Manurial trials on Oata followed by Mangolds. — 
Twenty-first Annual Etport for 1897 of the National 
Aitrieula and Primula Society (Southern Section). 
Thin leaflet announces the gratifying fact that the 
past season has been the most successful for many 
years, owing to a large accession of new members and 
a consequently improved financial position. — The 
West Australian Settler's Guide and Farmer's Band- 
book, Parts II. and III. Issued by direction of the 
Bureau of Agriculture. Valuable for intending or 
established colonists. Part II. is devoted to the 
Settler's Outfit, Clesring, Ringbarking, Cultivating, 
Farm Book-keeping, ko. ; Part III. to Native Grasses 
and Fodder-Bushes and Plants, Special ProducU of the 
Farm, Tobacco, Sugar-Beet, Rape, Potatos ; laying 
down land to grass, noxious weeds, and native poison 
plants.— i7<;/>ar< of the Botanist L, R, Jtmes, from the 
tenth Annual Report of the Vermont Experimtni 
Station (1896.97). The more important aubjects 
under discussion were : Potato diseases and remedies 
Orchard diseases and remedies, Obeervations upon 
Oat Smut, the Onion-mildew, and the Orange Hawk- 
weed or '* Paint Brush.**- ITni^ae Journal Horticole 
Japonais (Journal of the Japaneee Horticultural 
Society), April and November, 1897. — Dictionnaire 
Pratique d' Horticulture, 66ih Livraison. This publi- 
cation is advanced as iar as the word Spigelia.— 
Liste des Oraines recoUies par le Jardin alpin 
d*accUmatation, Geneve, H. Correvon, Janvier, 1898 
— Index seminum in horti Mvtsei Parisiemis anno 
1897 coUectorum. From BL le Directeur du Museum 
d*histoire naturelle, Paria — Katalog der Bibliothek 
des Vereins zur Beforderung des Gartenbaues (Berlin, 
lS97).^IUustrirU Flora (Janner, 1898).— 7((aKrtrr« 
NUtzliche Blatter (J&nner, 1898). 



PLANT PORTRAITS. 

AcTiNiDiA KOLOHiKTA, JUvM IlorticoUt Jtuiuaiy 16. 

Appli RtiHETTS DC CcpLKT, ButUtin d'ArborictiUnre, ftc., 
January, 1898. 

Athkhis TmcTORiA, pale va~., OanUn, December 18. 

.KaioERON 8PEC108US, OardeHf December 18. 

GasviLLEA FoRSTBRi, Rtvut (U VHorticuUutt Bdgt. 

Ipomosa pKRRiMotAMA, Dammer (see Oard,Chron., Deo. 11, 
18t»7. p. 410 ; GarUitJtora, t. 1446. 

IiAPAOBaiA BOSBA VAB. luucMAMMi, OarUt^ra^ December. 

LiLiUM supKRBOM, Mtdkans' Momthljf, January. 

PKAR Bkurrm lloMTKCAT, Bullelin iPArboncHUun, Ac, 
December. 

PlNUS JKFFRavi, Garlcnflanx^ January 15. 

Primula oB(x»fciCA tab. Hdllk. Lucjknne de HiRacH, 
Hevue de t'fforticuUufe Betge, January. 

KosEA L01BA, Ourtien, January 8. 



THE PITCULLEN VINERIES. 

Tub fair city of Perth and ita environs are celebrated 
for piotureaque beauty and amiling plenty. Yean 
•go, this town waa famed for its luaeioua Jargonelle 
Peara, some of the fineat of which were grown 
within the oity'a boundariee. Othen were found 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Jaktakt 39, lees. 



on the Bridg«Dd *aA B«1wcmn1 mdaof the Taj. Thaaa 
amjieDt trees of Jargooells almoat cartainlj -whetted 
the appetite for horticulture that «o greatly enriohes 
the Ta; bank oppomte the North inch to-day. 
On thia channiog site the merohanU ol Perth hB*e 
built their palatial bomea, and planted thdr miniature 
puki and their gaidsnt. The aeene mutt b> 
actually aeen for ill beauty to be duly appreoiatod. 
Probably, it ia not exoelled in, 'hese ialandi or elia- 
where, Othen boDde bumptioui Sootohmrn haire 
compared the beauty of the Tay at Perth with that 
of the Tiber at Rome. !□ three poiala, the verdure of 
the groaa, the etatelineaa and extent ot ita timber, and 
the charming euTironuient of the lurroundiug 
mountain*, Ihe Tay va-ij match the Tiber. 

I am attll conaoicua that we are in the land of the 
moiinlnin ucd the Bood ; Ihe land of brown Heath 
and etisggj fell ; yet heie wB have \ fullneta and 
■ottaeaa of piotureaque beauty by no meana common 
M Scottiah eoenery. It ia, therefore, no matter for 
wonder that we find many fine estatea in the 
near neighbourhood, to wit, DuppUn, Konorieffe, 
Hethven, Drummond Caatle, Boone, Atbule. And 
the majority of the garden! that adorn the 
banka of the Tay .ire mellowed with age, aa well 
ns enriched with a great lariety of new plauta and 
treea. Broadly atited, the gardeoa at Pitonllen, the 
nwidenae of A. Coatea, Esq., are bounded with limbur 
tree!, that afford aheltsr and thadow, enabling the 
pvdeatriita to find plfliannC walk* in the ground* in 
*ll kinda of weather. By carrying Ihe walk* round 
under Ihe treee, introducing ihruba. Feme, and fiowera 
at difiVivnt pointa, treahneea, interest, and variety ace 
provided. Stilt further, variety ii gained by planting 
groups of Roses, beds ot dowering plant*, eitensive 
Btretches of lawn, and fine solitary tieea, and groupe 
of them. 

Keither do the fruit treoa and flowera, nor the 
vegelablet in the kitchen garden, seem to sulTer 
from the pruiimity ot the big trees. The larger 
part of the garden lias on falUog ground ; the 
cropa out-of-doora and the fruita under glass are 
picture* of good health and fertility. The land on 
which PitcullcD Oarden* atand culminatee, about 
three mile* off, at the Uill of Kinooul ; from 
which Ihe Caiae of Qoirrie ia i>eBD, with the Tsy 
meandering to tbe Haa. The higher parts of thu 
grounds commmd cfaarming views of the lindtcape 
CO a point beyond Scoaa Putice. Although Scone la 
my native [ilaue, I had never seen ao much of the 
beauty of the district aa oaa be aeen from Kinnoul 
Hill. 

The Vihemes. 

Those who visit Filculleo at ooce recognise in 
Ur. Lealie, Mr. Co;iIbs' gardener, an able, all-round 
cultivator, and moat gardenars will often have heard 
of Leeiie, of Pitcullen, and many hare observed 
bis exhibits of first-rate Orapei. Itlay 1 linger 
un thu threahold of a very unique range of vinerie* 
to aay that llr. Leslie haa three houaea filled with 
Peaoh-treea ; alto Helen and Tomato- housea, atova 
end grsenhouae, femeij, Ac, in all of which the 
inmatCB were In excellent trim. His Oiapi* have 
in recent yeara been observed at most ot tha beat 
shows in Scotland, winning tor him the highest 
prUes at Edinburgh, Olaagow, Dundee, and other 
towns. The Tines showed al the time of my visit 
eluBters of Grapes perteet in every point. To 
walk through vineries filled with Vinsa carrying 
fine foliage and bunchea of perfect finish is alone an 
instractiVB treat. The first glanoe of the five Pit. 
cullen vineries ia rather diaappoioting. Tbe mataive 
character of their conatruction is lessened a little by 
the peculiarity ot the site, which obliged the builder 
to erect them on diETerent levela ; and being less than 
htJt-epana, tUej look too lofty, bat not top-heavy. 
The fact ia, the five vineries, ranging from 30 to 
47 feet in length, are erected on a sloping brae of 
oonaiderable height, oudeaoh ia IS inobea higher than 
the one lower down the slope. When the eye geta 
osed to the effect, it is as pleasing as unique. 
Entering from the loweal level, the clusters ot Qrapaa 
seam to grow m size, and in density ot ooloor and 

These vinariea are 17 feet high, and 14 feet wide, 



The ^tm nabet in the front ai« 4 last U^ ; the 
front rafteia have a ran of mora than 17 feet, and 
tboaa at the back o( 7i feet. There can be no 
queatlon that thia form ot vinery affords the Vinaa 
inooh Hgfat, and faoilitateB ventilatioD, as ia taatified 
l^ the vigour of tha Tines, sod the aize and finiab 
of tha bmiehea. 

Hia.Tiaeriaa ore of tbe aame dimensionB m ragarda 
width Mtd height throngbout, and difir only in 
length. Ha HnsMt-vinery la 4T feet Itmg; and in 
bnn^ harry, Isat, wood the Tines are all that oould 
be dadred. Tha next bouas ia 30 feet long, and 
is furnished with Bbek Alicwtle and Qrot Haroa 



more than twelve yeara, for young Tines are ■nfaarti- 
tuted tor aged once aa occasion requires, wall as 
new vioenes built. 

The depth of the Vina birdara is about 33 indieia. 
The width of the outside jorden 1 feet, and 9 foet 
that ol the inside border. The total width inaida 
tbe vineriea ia 14 teat, diipoead of aa follow* :— 
Nine feet for border, a^intt the trout wnll, Uu 
Tinea being planted within 7 inches of the w>U ; 
tha distance between the Muscat Tinea being 5 feet, 
and between other vartetiea 1 feet. The path ooen- 
piaa 2^ feet in width, and under thia the bot-wster 
pipe-main* are carried, biauchea going off wherever 



FlO. 27.— A BOKOH.Or BLACK ALICANTE CRAPES. (SB 



varieties, these Qrapes looking all Vbt blacker for 
thair [ffoxlniity to the Muscat of Alexandria in the 
next vinery. He other three vinerie* forming the 
haU-ipan range are also 30 feet long in each oa ■< 
the third vinery oontaina Oros Colmar Tine* vub 
big berriea with a bloom on them like that leen on 
Pluma ; the fourth is a Black Alicante rineij. and 
the fiflit or earliest is tumiihed with Black Ham- 
burgha and Hadreelleld Court varieties, which were 
doing oe well as the thicker-skinoed hardier kinds. 

Besides tbi* range, there i* also another narrower 
early vineij that ia 30 feet long and 10 foet wide, 
furnished with Black Hamburgha. and yet another 
Se feet long and 18 feet wide, that waa planted with 
Gn>e Colmar in 1896. There i* no *ign of daoadance 
in tbe elder Tinea, most of which bava been planted 



tbey are wanted. Tha rematniDg apaoe of 2^ fast 
form* a border for Tine* on the back wall. Ifo 
doubt th* oonditdona of thi* border In regard In 
dvainage, eompoaition of the aoil, provision of root- 
food, ka., are all that akill can eugi:^ or money 
provid^ yet Hr, Leeiie rejoieee in the fact that many 
of hia Vlne-roote have been found atraying awaj into 
the kitchen-garden quarter*, a diatanoe of IB yarda 
from the borders ; and no attempt seema to have 
been made to Lmit tbe Viae-roote to the borders 
either outnde or iuatde. Ah to Tina-manures, for 
many yean the only artiCcial stimuLaDt haa been 
Croaa's Tine- manure, which baa given complete 
satisfaction. 

One thing was soon noted, vii., the tops, aa well ai 
the roota, have more freedom than in meat caees. 



JjiNtrABT 29, 1898.] 



TEE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



Mr. LedJe'i anon of pruniag nw; ba pnt Into ■ nnt- 
■hell : cut book to the moat promiBiilg bud on the 
Ut«r»I nthor than to (ba bud that U clowat to the 
mkia rod ; uid tbii eipecially in the case of Blaok 
Alionta and Muacat of Alaundrin. The Vinea in 
return for Uiia freedom yield banchea uid beniaa 
and wood of Rbuonnillj fine quality, 

Tha Bgi. 24, S5, and 27, are given m mere umplel 
of the Qrapei grown at PitcuUen, na may be M«n 
by noting fig. 27, that of a bnnoh of Alloante, weigh- 
ing 13 lb. e oz., grown there last ycAT ; alioabuneh 
ot Cooper'a Black or Qroi Maroo of about 3 lb. in 
weight (fig. 2S). Both of theae ihow perfect finiih, 
■Ithoujth neither illuitiBta* the aTenge size of thoaa 
fine Tarieties, 

The two flgnna ot buncbe* of Qro* Haroc or 
Coopw's Black (flgi. 24 aod 25) conGnn tbe opmton 
bald b; Hr. Lealia and other growera, that they 
•re one nnl the Mme thing. In this cue, the 
photograph of Cooper'e Black was obtained from ■ 
gardener who declared it to be quite diatinct from 
Qros Haroc, and the hunch to hare grown on a acion 
tliat waa graftedon aVina of Oros Colotan. TbeOroa 
Haroo at Ktcullen baa been grown on ita own root* for 
fourteen yeara, Mr. Lealie'a verdict i* that tha two 
nrietiea an identical, or at any rate the foliage, bark, 
length of atalk, character, fbrm, alze of bunch, are ao 
mnob alike that no difference can be detaotad, and 
tha BaTonr ia idenUcat. Hence, poatibly horticul- 
tural eocietiea at future ibowH will refuee to admit 
Cooper'a Black and Groa Maroo aa diatinct varietiea ; 
and thii popular market Qrape will in tnture ba 
known ai Groe Maroo. Hr. Lealle waa good enODgb 
to give bia emphatic teitimony in ftrour of Mr. 
Kirk'a Tine Border Teeter. 

Thia article doea not tell one half ol tbe atorr of 
theae famous gnperiee and their akilfiil 
D. T. Pith, 12, Peat* Row, Edinburgh. 



Home Gorrespondenoe. 

ORKITHOQALUM LACTEUM. — I have on mj 
table a bloom ol a pretty bat not common IIowr-, 
whloh I brought from the Cape, and which waa oat 
on Noramber 28. It ta itill quite freab and awset. 
It ia Omitbogalum lactenm, known by the KaSra aa 
" Cluttering Chea," audit well known in the colony 
for ita wonderful Tilallty, Inating in bloom ontil ita 
■malleat bud ia fully developed. I quite expect it to 
laat for another weM, making nine waeka in all ainaa 
it waa gathered. PrttwU Poic, F.R.II.8. [We have 
had bloonii of thia apecies io water for three montba. 
They were al» cut m S. Africa. See Qard. Chifm., 
Deo. 2B, 1893, p. 780. En.] 

WORM-EATINQ 8LUQ8.— I am indebted to Mr. 
Henry Laven, of Uolcheater, for Uie following reply 
to my enquiry, how aluga ejected &om TeatacaUa; 
are obearved to be partly cut aaunder at diatanoea of 
aboat an inch apart : " I think the Engual teeth of 
all Testaeelln are luitabla for cutting ; they are a 
eeriei of aharp points, each of which muat when 
drawn across the worm, cut a furrow which would 
vary quickly aevar the worm. I know that if yon 
bold one in your Angara it will quickly toro and bite 
your akin, and draw blood very aoon, and ■ very 
Duty sensation it ia too." }^. Thamtm, Biihtpt 
Tdptltni, 3onA Dtvan. 

THE OAROENERB' BENEVOLENT EI.E0TION,— I 
cannot of oonrae tall what mqr be the general opinioD 



of Bubaoiibers to thia hind in reapeot of the recant 
aleetlon of panaionera, bnt to me it la axceadlngl; 
diaappoinliiig. It haa become a ttereotyped semum 
or aapiration with all who refer to the fnnd, and 
advoeataits elaimi, that gBrdenan ought onivertallj to 
beoomesabacriberi that theymay thoa havapcior claim 
on the fnnd'a benaflta, aadprortde tbemsalve* in their 
old age withe pandon. TtM it a fplandld dootrJDa, 
admirably calculated t« eDoonraga thrift and eelf- 
dependenoe. What i« tha ontoome of it F I tan to 
the reaolt of the reoeot eleeHon aa reported in joor 
pagea last weak, and find that ont ot the nine pan- 
rioneia elected by tha ballot, no fewer than five never 
havabaenauhaoribenataU I le not that at oaoe putting 
a prcniomon thri(tle*lnaes,anddiarenrdiDgoommon 
care for tha Intara in slcknee* or old age 1 What a 
diSbrent and nobler doctrine tha United Hortlonl- 
tnral Provident and Benefit Sodety praotJaea 1 Being 
moat desirDua that my few votes ahonid not be waited, 
I gave them to a candidate who hod already to his 
account nearly 2,300 votee, was 76 years of age, anil 
had been a lite member for seven year* I Natnrally 
I expected that anch an old and worthy candidate 
muat be elected. Judge of my surprise on finding 
not only that he waa not, but ^at two othan, both 
SS yeara of age, or eight years younger than the other, 
and one Btatting with bat tOO votea and the othar 
with 7G1, were elected. I may be told it i* all the 
chaaca of tb* ballot, but that wont do for ma. 



ri should be eliphle 'to becomi' candidate* t 
■houtd have added, that whilst tbe man 
who had nearly 2,300 votea had been a candidate 
five yeara, the one ttarting with 400 bad iiO( prC' 
vionaly bMn, and the 757 candidate once only. A. D. 



A GAEDEN TOOL. 

TBI implement represented in fig, 28 is a very use- 
ful ona in gnrdenn, and mora psrticularly on soils that 
era light or gravelly, aa an sltemative for the hoe, 
ntining the soil to ■ greater depth, being alao 
equally eipaditioua ; it should find a place in every 
^ardan. I am informed it is made in three alzea (the 
figure show* the smaller aise). It is the invention 
of a fellow member of the craft io New Zealand, 
where it !a evidently appreciated if ona may judge 
by the testlmoniala to tiuid. It will be gathered 
from the picture that the tinea rotate at an aqnal nta, 
heuce it is oontinuoua in ita action. The patentee 
ia Hr. A. Hoaking, Manawatn Foundry, Polmaraton, 
Kotth,N.Z. J.Uttdnn. 



Admittedly both theae latter were two out of 
the four subacribers elected, bnt why favour man 
only 6B yeara old over ona 70 yean of ige, and 
having inch nn enviona start tn vote*? In a 
previona letter to tbe Oardaur/ ChrvnicU, I 
pointed oat that oat of the 44 candidate* 23 were 
aabaoribera or the widows of such, leaving 21 
non-aubecribera. The result ia to give dialinot 
encouragement to non-subsaribars, by electing five out 
of the leaser or noo-aubscriblns lot, and four only out 
of the erenter or aubacnbing lot. That is practising 
what chairmen at banquets aod dinnera are being 
conatautly coached to preach, with a vanmMkee. Of 
the oandidaCea, I have penooal knowledge of one 
only. Moat of them alidt one'* deepest (ympathy, 
having been anbeoribBra aever*! year*. Ba«h cendi- 
datas as 'Sot. 4, 6, 16, 20, 3S, 34, 40, 11, 43, if 
none be dead before neit year's election should 
all be made peDiioners, and doubtlesa would be did 
every anbacnbar fill and sign bia voting ■ paper 
himself, acoording to his iiiiliiaaaliil jndgment a* 
to the mertta of each ease. One other ftet la 
worthy of mention : out of the aix higbset on the 
poll, only one was a aubaciiber, and that only far five 
years, oomnancing at tbe sga of 70. Ia it. Indeed, 
not time that raily sabecribers of at lasat five 



-I 1 



. the 



MARKET REPORTS AOAIN.- 
market leporta that Hargnerites have been quoted 
all the aonuner, and are ao now, at 2i, l« ii. per 
doxen bunohea. I only obtained id, per doaen for tbe 
same flowers In early antumn. Vf. 

A MAX. FOR HORTICULTURE.— In the discussion 
of this aubjeot, one of your corraepondsuta writee: 
" Mr. Dean reeommenda Mr. Divers to try a show 
in t«ndoo depending upon tha gata-money to 
raimbursa tbe outlay. No ssne person would attempt 
each a aoheme, but to some extent auch show would 
depend on sotMCriptiona." — Why ahoold auch a ahow 
not Bucoeed In London t In other placea success has 
been emphatic sad permanent Tn conuection with 
the Chiysanthamum shows of the Scottish Horticul- 
taiml AModation, tiiere are practically do aubscription* 
or donationa ; the members' annual aubscriptlooa of 
2s. Sif. are applied to othar purposes, and with the 
exception ot £20 generonaly voted aa ■ apecial prize 
by tb* Uagistratea and Town Council of Bdinburgh, 
and a few donstioua aa special prlnea by varioua 
tradaamen, amounting to about £60 (ioclutivc ot the 
City donation), the whole prizes aod expensea of every 
description are paid from the gate-money and a smaU 
sum received as rents oF sale atalla, and for Uie right 
to pnbllsh the ahow catalogue. As everybody knows, 
the priaee oSered are on tbe moat liberal scale, and 
tha amoont spent on deootatiotia, muaio. hospitali^, 
Ac, are by no means parsimonious. We believe in 
the best of muaio, but do not descend to a conceit- 
room or ballroom a* mantioned by your correspondent 
H. Nichols. Tbe resulta have been of the moat 
gratilylng description. A sum of about £hW having 
l>een given in ohaiitiae dtiiing the eight yean the 
shows have been carried on in tbe Waverley Market, 
Imm tbe aurplua funds, and thu Association 
havs a balance in hand sa a reserve fund 
of nearly £700. Surely what haa been done in 
Edinburgh could be done in Loodcn. We look to 
the metropolis for light and leading on most subjects, 
and it is difflanlt For an outsider to undantand why 
an exhibition got up on popular tine^ and oarriad 
through with spirit, should be impossible there. Ot 
eourse, the Waverley Market in Edinburgh ia 
peculiarly soitad for such exhibitions, standing io tbe 
very centre ot the dty, BJid having ample space for a 
pnblio promenade. It may be, too, that entertain- 
ments of every deacription are so numerooi in 
London that a fiower-sbow by itself niny saem tame, 
and yet it would seem that, to many of its teeming 
mnltitades, such a ahow would be a welcome relief. 
Mr, Dean, a* representing the Committee oF the 
NatioDal Ctuysanthamum Society, probably knows 
diffioultiee not apparent to outsiders, as, doubtls**, 
the subject bss received careful dircuaaioo ; or, is it 
that the National Chrysanthemum Society, like a 
obild commencing to walk, ia ao afraid to trust Its 
own lege, that it dinga to something It imagiaei 
stronger than itealt for aupporb I M. Tixld, Edin- 

WATER •BOUQUET. — In "Notices to Cona- 
■pondeniB " in to-day'a Oardentn' Chronicle, I aee ao 
answer to an enquiry atiout a " watar-bouquet," 
wineh ahowa that tbe quastion haa not been under- 
stood. May I therefore Say that a wKter -bouquet 
is made in the following manner:— Take n atone of as 
roogh a snrfaoa as possible, tie on to it the flowers 
and foliage of your bouquet, such as scnrlet Pelar- 
goniama and Maidenhair or AaparBgua. Lower 
the atone carefully on to a diah, wliich you have 
plaoed in a bathtul of water ; then place a Rlaaa- 
ahade, auch aa are used tor wax-flowaia, Ac, over the 
flowers on tha dish, being careful to put it down 
ddawaya, so Ibat it is completely filled with water, 
excluding all air, and then gently briog tbe dish up 
with the bouquet under tbe Hlaaa-Bhade upon it. Tha 
fiowel* will last thus for weeks. A. 0. B. 

TREES AT MOTTIBFONT ABBEY.— lu answer to 
" A. D.," in last week's issue, respecting the ancient 
Oak-trae, I may aay it is atill eii«ting,and doing fairly 
well. This grand old polUrd Oak meaaurea 35 feet in 
drcumterenoe at 3 feet from the ground, and at 6 feet 
is 33} fret. There ia atill aa entrmnoe to the interior, 
the hollow of which ia 19 feet in eiicumfeience, but 
tho entrance ia gradually getting amatler. With 
reapeet to the laige PUne-tres wtuch stands on tha 
lawn, near the bank of the river, tbe roots are like 
net-work in tha bed of the river, which, no donbt, ia 



74 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Jakitart 29, 1898. 



the aeeret of the tree's looceH. There i^re leTerel 
other fine PUnei growing here, meaeoriDg over 20 feet 
in circamfflrence. H. 0. Reed, Moltv/otU Alhejf 
Oardem, 

VIOLAS.^ I am not diepoeed to take mneh notice 
of thia controTenj between the Ber. Dr. William- 
aon and Mr. W. Sydenham, bnt I think it worth 
pointing out that Ibr. WiUiamson*B article almoat in 
its eotiretsr ia baaed, so ^ aa the merits of varieties 
for bedding parposes are concerned, upon the Report 
of the Viola ConfiMrence, Royal Botanic Gardens, 
August 7t 1896, whereas Mr. Sydenham's ophiions 
are his own. Not one of the yarieties Mr. 
Sydenham names is included by the conference com- 
mittee in their lists. I enclose a selection which miqr 
bo of stnrioe to intending buyers, in view of the 
approach of the planting and purchasing season : — 

Report mttotht Tntpeetion o/tht Viola Trial, at the Bioval 

Botanic Socitt^i Qardau, Auffust 7, ISOtf. 
The oommitteo next proceeded to make selections of the 
best Tsrietles of differwit types and eo^mxn, diTidisg them 
into two main sections :— firstly, dwarf -growing, .naTing 
close, compact, tufted habit ; and secondly, those of a taller 
and more speadlng growth, well adapted for association with 
other plants which woald afford them a certain amoimt of 
support:— 

Jhrarf. White. Tail 

Niphetos, syn. Marchioness Countess of WharacUfre 

Goimtess of Hopetoun Gifrantea 

Pencaitland 
Snowflake 

Crbam. 
QylTift Ablngton 

Lemon Queen Nellie 



ArdwellOem 
Luteola 

Princess Louise 

LordElcho 

Bullion 

True Blue 
Mm C. Turner 

Roland Graeme 

Diana 
Blue Gown 

Rosea pallida 
Lottie McKiel 



Acme 

Mrs. Gordon 

Princess Ida 
Rose Queen 



PriMROSC, OB SULPHCR. 

Sulphurea 

DsEP Yellow. 

Mary GObert 
A. J. Rowbcrry 

Dark Blub, ob Violet. 

Archie Grant 
Max Kolb 

BLrK. 

Ivanhoe 

LlOHT BLtTE. 

Favourite 

Lavrnokr, or Lilac. 

DucheHs of Sutherland 

Bridegroom 

Mabel 

PaSPLB. 

J. a Riding 

Dorothy Tonnant 
Bosk. 

WHUamNlel 

Roslne 

Magle 
Blush. 

Charm 

Norah May 



Bdoro, or Bordered. 

Cissy Thomley 
Colleen Bawn 



Duchess of Fife 
Border Witch 
Blue Cloud 

Fakc y.— <;orirrjo»s op Kintorb Type. 
The Meoms Countess of KIntore 

Bethune Isabel Spencer 

Cissy Mellowes Princess Beatrice 

Columba Lady Amorf 

Mr. fl. Bellamy 

Striped. 

Lilly Langtry 
H. W. Stewart 

The Committee responsible for the selection was: 

Messrs. A. J. Bowberry (Chairman), J. F. McLeod, 

Wm. Cuthbertson, C. Jordan^ J. W. Moorman, 

George Qordon, and Richard Dean (Secretary). 

Snrely a stroog and representati?e lot of gentlenssn. 

AngUhSeot. ' 

THE PRUNING OF APPLE AND PEAR TREEa— 
Permit roe to reply to Mr. Ilott*s qneriesw Apple and 
Pear trees, aU things being favoorable, . raised from 
bods or grafts, eyen if they make 7 feet of growth, 
will emit shoots, in garden parlance " break regu- 
larly, and these take an outward direction, and a 
fruiting specimen is soon found. Headed-down trees 
hsTs a more or less upward tendency in their 
branches, which they keep till the weight of fruit 
bends Uiem to the semi-horizontal position ; and the 
Blenheim Orange Pippin, by not fruiting so early ar, 
for example, DcTonshire Quarrenden, grows more 
rigidly upright for a much longer peri^ than the 
latter, until nltimately it has also to pow its branches 
as the more fruitful period sets in. Permit me also 
to say '* J. K.*' does not presume to teach '* old 
handa," for he is himself still a student of Nature, 
and, unlike many growers of to-day, whose early life 
was spent under glsss, he has closely studied hardy 
fruits, and paid much attention to what has appeared 
on the sutgect in the pages of the Qardenen* Ohronkle, 
I find that pruning to a certain given nnmbex' of 



win not always work; soils, kinds of stocks, and 
loosUties, have varying effects on growth. For instance, 
Pitmaston Duchess on the Pear stock, side by side 
with another on the Quince stock thatare five years old, 
had 8 feet of growth, whilst the other had only S feet, 
yet both bear fruity and one doea not make much 
growth. In another soil the one mi^^ not fruit at 
all, and the other bear hsavily. My objection to the 
pruning of young trees is, that it tends to miUtipW 
the branchea close home, which may look very well 
then; but ss the tree ages, they will mainly have to 
be taken off, for the chancea of getUng any fruit on 
them will then be very reoaote. J. K,, Wimiame, 



Belgium. 



PLANTS AT L'HORTICULTURB 
INTERNATIONALB. 

I VOTED here a fitte specimen of Saocolabium 
giganteum album, with a raceme of very pretty pure 
white flowers; it is probably ihe only example of 
this remarkable variety to be found in BelgiuuL 
Very handsome also was Cypripedium Arthuriaaum, 
with twenty-eight blooms. 

A very interesting introduction is that of twelve 
thousand spedmeos of CatUeya labiata excelsior, 
which will be valued because they flower in November, 
December, and January. This introduction followed 
that of C. Warocqneaaa (C. labiata automnalis), from 
a district hitherto uneiq»lored. I was interested also 
in some hybrids between Cypr^wdium spectabile and 
C. villosum, which is probably the first cross obtained 
between an open-air and a greenhouse variety. 
CKDe B. 



Market Gardening. 



A PIONEER "GROWER." 

The decsaae of Mr. Qea Beckwith, which wss 
briefly announced in our last issuer has removed 
from us one of the most energetic of the pioneers 
in market garden cultivation under ghMs. It is forty 
years or more since Oea Beckwith, Philip Ladds, 
Roohford (father of the present generation of Roeh- 
fords), and others first engaged in the work, and tbe 
trade wa« then in its iniaacj. Sanguine indeed 
would have been any man to have guessed at that 
time the enormous extension of the system that has 
since taken place. 

The following particulars of the life of the deceased, 
courteously given by his surviving son to a represen- 
tative of the Qardeneri OkronieU, may be of interest. 

Early in the forties, deceased, at tbe age of 22, waa 
employed by the firm of Howard, manufacturing 
chemist at Stratford, and at this place he did a good 
deal of plumbing and mending of leaden tanks. For 
five years he practised this work, and at the expira- 
tion of that time Mr. Bednrith, who was specially good 
at meelianics, oommenoed business for himself as a 
hot- water engineer. He remained at this business for 
nearly ten year^ during which time he provided and 
fixed hot-water ap p a r atuses in plant-houses, and 
made iron-work used by the horticultural builder. 
Eventually he was forced to leave the premises, 
owing to the authoritite building a sewer through 
the site, and forty years ago he took the 
''White Hart" at Tottenham. His energy was 
by no means exhauKed in the management of a 
public-house, and he soon began to consider how best 
to utilise an area of four acres of land at the rear of 
the premises. Partly from his pnsvious experience, 
and it may be also the advice of an old neighbour- 
ing fiorist, he built a plant hou«e, and having made it 
pay, he raised another and another. Trtooloured 
Pelargoniums were the sensation in the horticulture 
of those days, and na one admired them more 
than Mr. Beckwith — they were his hobby. He grew 
Pelargoniums almost exclusively for the first few 
years^ , including Tom ^umb, and other varieties. 
Then for sevesal years he was so sngaged with the 
trioolouied sorts that each of the houses waa given 
up to theou The propagation and sale of the plants 



brought excdlent retoms, and modii money was msde. 
A new van being built at the time, ita exterior vm 
decorated by representations of the famous fdiiagt 
" Shortly before this period,^ ssid Mr. Beckwith, M 
was just about to complete my i^pprentioeship to the 
smith's trade, and my father wrote to me, saying tlut 
if I was sgrseable to fake to market gardeniog, he 
would build other houses and make a busbess of it" 
This was done, and father and son then worked late 
and early to establish a businesB, and both of th«m 
being skilled mechanics, house after bnuse was erected 
in a large measure by their own hands, boilers inTent«d 
to suit their special needs, and soooeas won. But 
Tottenham to-day is not the Tottenham of thirty 
yean ago, but the effect that increaaing amoke would 
have upon the cultivatioa of planta was fbresM 
many years ago. In 1885 about ten acres of Isnd ms 
aoquirod at Hoddeedoo, near Broxboume, and the 
lale Mr. Beckwith's energy sgsin applied to tb 
building of first-rate houses, in better fashion thin 
those at Tottenham. During the thirteen yem 
there have been fifty built, and the last was onlf 
added in 18d7. We cannot stop to deeeribe themtt 
any length now (though poenbly we may refer to 
them again). In several respects they are uniqae. 
There are no brick walls, but the iron raften which 
form the span are bent in three places: tt tht 
summit, and on either side, which consequently 
provide straight aidea, and they are then embeddetl 
into walls of concrete. Concrete, iron, and glvi, 
constitute the buildings, and few market nanena 
have been built in a style approaching this {ot 
durability. It may t>e added that each home ii 
300 feet long by 20 feet wide. The building was dooe 
exactly after the ideas of the late Mr. Beckwith. ud 
only four years ago, at the age of eeventy-three, hi 
sustained a fsll of some 20 feet from a scaffold, wbm . 
superintending some of the work. Little hss been 
done of late to renovate the Tottenham housef , uxl 
the land, together with the **White Hart," win 
probably be disposed of in the near future, and the 
film's businesa transferred entirely to Hoddesdon. 

During the forty years deceased was eogiged io 
market gardening he witnessed many and nitfreUooi 
ohangeain the 

Plahts Couiyatbd, 

in the prices obtained for produoe, and in Covnit 
Garden itself. But our note having already become 
longer than we intended, it must suffice to refer my 
briefly to a few of fashion's effects upon the iiidostiy. 
Though the remarkable decline in hard-wooded 
plants affected the late grower less than many etk**, 
as he never made a specialty of Ericas, it fonMd him 
to give up the cultivation of several plants popo^ ^^ 
the same time as were Ericss. Camellias were onee 
profitable, and realised fi«. a doaen blooms, but they 
have been thrown out long since. Cineruiw ^ 
Chinese Primulas in a large measure have shared a 
similar fate. Gardenias no longer give the retorm 
they did, and Encharis cultivation has been perforoe 
abandoned, becauae the 10,000 plants that were odoi 
a peying item, gradually but surely dwindled swtj. 

In the cut-fiower trade, a serious fall in the pnce 
of Hyacinths, Tulips, and other bulbous flowers, hii 
almost ruined this branch of the business, t^ 
excepting Narcissus, Lily of the Valley, »^ 
Japanese Lilies, the forcing of bulbs hss been nearly 
dropped. But market-gardening still payi ^' 
somely if the best means be adopted to cultivste the 
varieties of plants or flowers the public most dentfi^ 
The whole of the houses at Hoddetdon are devoted 
to the growth of flowers for cutting, the priD€il»| 
plants being Roses in pots (some 200,000), Lilies of 
the Valley ; Raspail Improved, and other «on»i' 
leaved Pelargoniums, also the so-called deooratii^ 
Pelargoniums, Psncratiums (which psy capitally). *°^ 
Chrysanthemums. In respect of Lily of the VaUfJ* 
Mr. Beckwith paid 4)3006 for crowns for forciitf 
this sesson. Tomatos are grown Isrgely >*J 
late crop when the Roses have, been pJ««^ 
out-of-doors in the summer, and beddingplwjj 
are grown in large numbers. More *^_ . 



woriLmen are employed in the two nursenes. 



Scci 



is the buainesB that the late Mr. Beokwith and hv 



Janvakt 29. 18BS.1 



TBE OARDENEBS' CHRONICLE. 



aon btva eatebliabBd, sad it ia worth j of moHk that 
this raoona haa follaw«d the afforti of two mm, 
naitlMr of whom bod anj knowladga wbatorflF of tha 
oaltinUon of planta lutU thaf bad ambarkad in tha 
buiioMa. "But,' aaid daosaaad'a sod, "tatberwaa 
Ml axtraoidiiiaij sDthoiiaat, a moat ingenioua man, 
and ■iKOodamaebanioatlliaTaBTflf maL" 

Aftor anSMng Ui« graater part of laat yiar, Mr. 
Bcokwith amwombed aoniewbat anddaol; on tha 16th 
inat., to " Brisht's dlwaaa," at tha ags ol 77. 



SO CIET IES. 

aSASZHO AKS DISTBICT OABDBinnB' 
KITTUAZ. IHFKOVXKBNT A880- 

OXATIOK. 

JtnuABT IT.— DndtflhtatuplOMorUdiaiuoairallKinlnil- 
tiirKl AuodiUoD, a taa ud ■QMUnB-AiniMrt wu haM In tha 
Abtw; Han (by tlia ktnd pcmUHLiia ot X—tt. BnOat 4 
Sou) on Uaxiaf avaDtng. Naarlj ana hundrad niamban 
Hat down to taa, wbleb wai pnddad oiar hj tha Pmldant, 
Hr. C. a SraviKB. Ilia tabl« wan daoontsd with pbnta, 
*e,, tnm tba gaHana ol Eait Thorpa (Mr. Woollard, gr,). 
AnooB ths oxspiiir prai a nt wen Mr. Laonard O. 
Button, Mr. H. B. P. Buttoo, Mhtk. T. TuHoo ud 
HlntoD, duinnui ml Vloa^hilmui rMpaellnl; of tha 
Aaociatliili lor the Haaon IBH ; Maim. J. Found, JuDr, 
Martin, Woolford, Bmltb, Dc»karUI, Ghambartaln, Jobh, 
Bilgbt, H. G. Coi, Bpancsr, Pataona, Vert (Kndleaham), 
Townaend (WalllDgtoa Callage), Baifoot, Thatchar. Oaatla 
(Mnttmer), Sigg, Poimd Banr.. FUgj, liitor, Bobba 
(CaTanham), Doarlora (BargtaSeld;, iMiej, VagatatT (Baar- 
wood}, W. H. Ooi {Galoot), ke. 

"SlHwbarrtia (rom Baad, ar tha CuttlTBtloii of tho 
Altdoa Btrawbarrr," *■• tba anbjeot of a papar raad bj Hr. 
Jakb HnnaoN, of Ouiuarabiuy Houaa Oardani. befora tha 
mambara on tha 14th luL 

In the dlaouaakai which billowad tk a reading ot tha paper, 
tba aambara taUns pait had to pleed Ignorinca of tha ciilU' 
Tatioa ol the alptoa fttrawbany, but bearinfr nhat tha 
leeturaraaldlaltaCxour, andtbe laotthat adljb of atnw- 
banlai during Baptamba r and Ootobai would be a great 
addition to the daaiart, thay will no doubt gin tha plaut a 
trlaL Mr. Hudaoo aald; tbaoultDra ii of tha almpleat. and 
gino weight for weight upon Ihaaame ijant ot ground, the. 
" alplna' wOl not ba ana whit bahlad that of tha Brenga crop 
of ether Bin wberrlei. The Frensbgrowthelritook from laad, 
bntltla only vllhln the lut ttw jsun that Bngllth llrmi 
haTa ealalogiied the eead, although tba ptanta frsm 
runnan are, aa a rale, Ddarad In moit ol our Strawbarrr 
llata IB a almUar way to tha Utga-lnilted Tarlatlei. Tbia 
plan of ofleilng the ninnin hiate»d a( tba Kad landed 
Bgalnit nay aaundad oultun. After dealing fu|tr with the 
ayatom of Doltl ration earrlad oat at fiunnerahnF7, the ipaakar 
gara nmoh raluabla adrleo aa to aoUi and their adaptatrillty 
for growing alphia Btrawbanlaa, alao the poaltlon moat 
aiiltable. Tba two nriatha beat PHganaial ouItlTaUoD are 
Riyal Amellord and Bulton'a Iitrge >tad Alpine, the former 
pnduoiDg Irulta 3 Inohea hmg, whjlit the latter, alibough 
notqultau large, la equal to It In arery other mpect, and 
with aouie It would be preferred beaaiiae ol Ita more band> 
■oma ahapo. Other nrlatiea worth growing are Bella de 
Meaua, oolour ol the deapeit rvd, imd narour Snt-rate ; 
Berger Improved, a rarlety rery highly thought of by 
IVenA groweia ; and Large While Alpine, which on ■ooount 
ol Iti aolour makaa a ploaalug change fortho deaaart. A boi 
oontalnlBg aome HO to UO ajriaai of woU-gio-o Lflyol- 
tba-Valley, many of the )plkea having loiirtaen aad Ulteen 
balla each, waa ahown by M^ia. Rioo A Flina, The 



raatbsr, 1 



le but tl 






th^ the BrIUib'Iilea contained probably a Urgor numlMr of 
Indlgesoua apeclee than any other country ol the aune 
aiteat. Tha effect of tsmpaiatut* ou the growth of planta 
waa raiy marked. Kacb kind of plant bad Ita own requtra- 
■nta with rapid to teBparatura both by day and alg L 



That hot ahould Induce tumeia In tbli country to grow 
only thoaa crops which bad beso found to be best lultad to 
the oUmataand temperature. The Influetwe of rainfall on 
regataUoa waa aeoond only to that of tampaTattira. The fall 
ol rain tn thaaa UUndi waa more thu luadant for the 
wantiofaaraala, hut It waaveryolteu tooUttle,and aaldom 
too much, for rooteropa. Faroolatloa ud avapo'atlon were 
alao to ba taken Into oouldefatlon. Tlie fertlUty ol land 
wai lowered whan tha dnlnage waa eioeaalve, owing to tba 
loaa of nitrogen. A deep nOl of nuw In the winter mautha 
ahould be walootned }rf the laRaer. It kept tha ground 
oamparatlTely steady In teoperatore. and aflbrded a protso- 
tloD afalnat aarare (roat. The BritUi Iilei wen un- 
doubtadly battarlbr gmalncoattla than (or niatag Wheat, 
wbleb taqolred tor aompleta anoaaea a grattn mean soinnMr 
tampantora than waa hara afforded. Paature-graH waa tha 
crop which oonld ba grown with tba graateat aucoaaa. In 
oonalndlng, the Praddant referred In temu cf high pralae 
to the work which had been done fbr nany yeera paat on 
tha eiparimantal laima at Bothamatod, obaerrlng that tha 
only thing wanted there wai tha eatabllahment of a 
thoroughly equipped meteorological itatlon. 



UIJSTSB HOBTZOXn.TUBAIh 

JAiruaav IS.— The Lord Mayor presided at the annual 
gensinl meeting ol tba Uletei Hortlcultunl Bodety, tba 
elBclent oiyanlaatioD under wboae auaplcai the " Cbryun- 
themum ihow," aa It li raited, haa rapidly grown to bi a 
Belfaat Initltutlon. 

/ had the graUfylag report to lubmlt 
I Berere weather, laat year's i ' 



that, Id 



. Thiiw 






HI any pi 



E. B>i 



Wm. Buiuet, Joynlng-a Nuraaiy, Waltham Croaa, N.— 

PatNS Oicla t Co., M. Deaugate. Mancheater -Seedi, Ac. 

J. LAHaaar * Hnmi. Trier-Bead*. 

VlLMuam-AiiDBIEOx ft Oo., 4. Qiial do la MMHarla, Farla- 

Seodi. Planta (Incluillng BImwbarriaaX *«- 
Bdmhbk Baa.. 18, IHgbath, Blrmlughaoi— Seada, kc, 
WtiBta * Don, 111. Obimben Street, New Tork^Seedi. 
H. Divaatu, Banbuiy— Saede and Planta. 
Job* Foaeaa, Hawick, Bootland -Seeds. 
JoBvaaasK, NorlMk NurasHei, Dereham— Saeda and Plants, 



^.^jd In Day- 

'i n ^ t iB— — » - w>/-BVHne algnlfying 1" oontlnnad for 
twanty-Bmr bonn, or any other ntunbar of degreta Rit 
an Inversely pnpoitlonal nnmbar of honra.) 



icountod lor not only by the 

ow, but on Booount of the 

implonahlp. 



oked by the VlctorU 
The reoelpta from all sources amounted to diit'llM. tl., 
and the eipmditurs reached £M1 14<l M. , leaving a balanoa 
of £17 St., whicb, added to ths halance brongbt forward 
abowa a total of «71 1K M., oat ol which ths Mmmlttes 
unanlmouBly reaolvod to devote eM to the Boyal Vlatorla 
HosplUL 

OHISWIOX GABDEHEBS' KUTUAL 



JaiiTutT SD. - The fortnl^tly meeting ol the above Boeiaty 
was bald In tha Counall Chamber at the Boyal Hortlcultuntl 
Boolaty^ Oardana on the above data, when Mr. B. T. Wkkiht 
irava an address, cbooilng at bis aubjeot " Commercial Finlt 

Ha ciranienaed by dealing with the iub|eetB of aoll, 
situation, the beat varlatlea of trult to plant, paaktng, and 
marketing In geasnd. Mr. Wri^t toiiohed lightly apen 
fruit grown under glaaa, taking In thslr order Orapes, 
Peaches, Neotailnea, f Iga, with aultural notaa on Heh. 

A lengthy dlaonialon followed the leeturar's tnost eioallent 



KATIOITAL OUBYSAKTHEXnK. 

iNuiar 11,— A moetJng ol Iho General Committee waa 
1 on the above data at Anderton'i Hotel, Fleet Btreet, 
T. W. Sahdsu In the chair. A latter waa nsd from 81r 
'BHS, the Prealdant ol the Society, promlaing to give 
9f twenty pounds aa a Prealdsnt'a ipsclal flrat prise 
a vases of BpsoUnen bloom* of Japaneae Chrysanthe- 
i cummunlcstlon which was received with great 
on. Tba competition In this olaaa will take plnoa at 
ihow, and tha oommlttae have added other 



In tiM Ant aolnmB are 
IKdrloli— 



d, M. Prlwilint maal-BrDduiiu DiMriali- 
ind, B.; S, liiglaad, N.H. : I, England, K.; 
idOonntlsa; D, BogUnd, Inclndlng Condon, 8. 



Primipal Oraalaf, l... 

T, uigland, N.w. : i, BBgland, 8.1t 
10. Ireland, B. ; * Ohaantl Islanda. 






dI £1S, C 



.d£i. 






BOTAL XETXOBOLOaiOAX,. 

JiniiABT IV.— The annual general meeting of the Royal 
MotsORiloglcal Boolsty waa held on tba abova data, at lbs 
Instltntlan of dvll Boglnsna, Oraat OMrga Btnat, West- 
minatar. The chair waa taken by Mr. B. MaWLET.Piasldent 
of the Bodety. 

At the condu^on ol tha routine bualnaai, tiie Frealdent 
diMwad an addnsi on ■' Weather Inlluenoss on farm and 
gaidai cnps." Hs smplualaed tba c': 
batwaan meteorology aad agriculture, ob 
been Inund at tba enporimental laima al 
' tta dlBknnos iMtwean a good and bad aanaon In regard to 
waUbcr might mean do-jbla tha amount of produce. Bo 
Intlmata waa the sOBnaetlao that, given tha detailed wwther 
racoida for any year. It would ba almoat poaalble to tnoe 
theaHeetot dlfferant aaaaona on dlBerent kinds of producta. 
larkably free from aatremc changes of 



Tba Seoiatary brought up a report from the Bolee BavUlon 
BubHximmlttes, who had dealt thoroughly with tha rulaa, 
bringing ttiem morj Into hannony with tba action and 
raqulretoanta ot the SooMy ; and they wore paased with a 
few altemttona. Tha Seorataiy aubmlttad a rough flnanelsl 
statement ebowing that the lUDoaa ol ths Sada^ for the 
year bad taacbad tba ann o( nearly one thooaand pounda; 
with a probable aooaaakm tothelnaaawofavaroDS hundiad 
pounda mora before the doaa of iha Onanslal year. It itm 
resolTed that a maating of the Bpaolal Claaslfloatlan Com- 
mittas shoold ha hdd on tha 3tBt Inst, and tba ■wwn^i 
gsBanl mseUog on February IB; alas that a amoklng oonesrt 
waa being arrangad for tba bsnellt ol tha Beaarre Fund to 
I Bole), on'f^bnury U. Three oan- 



tumlabad Inm tba Mataorologleal OSea :— 

" Tba wnOtr during lUa period was again unaettled In 
tho eatreme north and north-weat, where frequant ralna 
ooouired, but alaewhsra, although lUght rain wai aipe- 
riBoed Bttlmea,lt waa mainly dry, 'with, however, a good 
daal ot tCig or mlal. On the night of Friday oonddemble 

lUtiaaoI wet snow and ootd rain feU In the north and 

oaat of BooUand. 

"The lim)imlun waa much above the mean, thaeKoeal 
vtijiBg from f in 'Soothmd, H.,' to 7° or S° In all other 
llstdeta. The sbaglute maxima were very high for the time 
il year, especially In tha aitreme north, and were recorded 
luring tha mlitdle al the waak. They varied from Vf In 
BooUand, N.' (at Wick), and G«> In ■ Sootland, E.'and the 
Midla>id Countlai^' to U* In ' Bngland, B., a., B.W., and 
K.W.' The lowest o~ 
caiiler part ol the wt 



CATALOQUE8 RECEIVED 



« A Co., Oentnl Avsni 



t Oatdan, London, 



Paso. Bmitb a Co., Churoh Btrset, Woodbildge, Suffolk— 

Bseda,4e. 
Wh. Watt. Cupar and Perth, N.B.— Beedi, ie, 
Tnoa. iHBii k Son. Ill, High Btmt, Ayr, 
Dahielu Baoa Royal Norfolk Besd EsUbllshmsnt, Morwieh 



Is snif Planta, fti 
ux. CaoaaABomfUmlted), l' 
Saoda,*a. 



Hope Street, Olaagow- 



andtariedlramlri°ln' Boatland,E. 
land, KW.,' to 11° In 'Bootland, W.,'3t°ln 
Id 3T° hi -Ireland, B.,' and the -Channe 

t was ganarally In exeeaa of the mean In 
Bd Joat equal to It In 'Seotland, K.'; biitlu 

all other distileta there was a daffjlt Orer ths easlam, 

central, and aouthsm puts ol Bngland and the Channel 

Talanda the Ml iraa eitmnely lUght. 

The SrifU SmukinB waa coosldsrably less tbsn the mean 
ill diatrlcis aioeptlng tha Ohannal lelanda, wlian there 

waa a large sa(^e■L ne peroenta^ of the pomdida duration 

ranged from X hi the Channel Islands, 11 In ' hgland, B. 

and 'Ireland, B.,' and 11 In 'Bngland. B.V.,' tn l> In 

' Seotland, S.; and to 1 In • Bngland, E.' " 



76 



TEE aABDENERS' CHBONICLE. 



[Jakuaby 29, 1898. 



Notices to Correspondents. 



Advaiitaoe of Shallow Fraiceb : W, T. Before 
bees can oommence work in supers, the tempe- 
rature must be raised thoreiu to about that 
prevailing in the brood-chamber ; if, therefore, we 
give a big skep or a set of standard-sized frames, 
the bees may be unable to produce the desired 
temperature, in which case they remain crowded 
below, and swarm in due course. If instead of a 
big, and possibly badly-protected super, we give to 
skeps one of 6 inches in depth, or to movable 
comb-hives a set of shallow frames, and cover them 
well, the desired warmth is more likely to be 

Suiokly raised ; and then the bees would on- 
oubtedly enter with the object of building comb 
and storing honey. Then, again, shallow supen 
when full are not cumbersome to move about, or 
raise when putting the super-clearer in position ; 
and, lastly, the greatest advantage of aU, in my 
opinion, comes when the work of extracting com- 
mences, for the cappings are not only easily 
removed, but the honey is thrown out with less 
liability to damage the combs. Expert. 

**Arum Lilies Makure:*' A. Reader, Put into a 
40-gallon cask or cistern 2 bushels of fresh horse- 
dung, stir it well about, and leave it to clear ; and 
in about a week add 1 peck of fresh soot enclosed 
in a canvas bag, squeezing this a little evexy third 
day, so as to make its contents exude. Let the 
mixtare get clear, and then use, say, 1 quart to 
3 gallons of rain or soft water. This is a good 
manure for all kinds of soft- wooded plants. It may 
be made stronger for applying to Cannae, Brug- 
mansias, and coarse-growing plants generally, by 
adding chicken's or pigeon's dung, at the rate of 
half a peck to the above quantities. If in summer- 
time bubbles genertte on the surface, it is a 
symptom of fermentation, and the latter should be 
stayed by the addition of a small quantity of white 
vitriol Of course, after the cask has been filled up 
twice, the contents should be turned out and a fresh 
lot made up. Instead of clear water, soap-suds may 
be used in flUmg up the cask. If an artificial manure 
is preferred, you should consult our advertising 
columns. 

Begoviab Qloibb db Lorraine ako Oloibb de 
SoBAOX : Amateur, When the flowering is past, 
afford the plants a few weeks' rest by keeping 
them moderately dry. Cut off the stems to 
within three or four joints (nodes) from the base, 
and gradually increase the moisture till the young 
growths from the nodes are fairly developed, then 
repot in a compost of loam, leaf -mould, and sand. 
Cuttings should be taken from the new growths 
only, and placed in a warm case. When these have 
rooted and been potted off, the temperat ire of a 
warm greenhouse is sufficient, or they should be 
placed in the warmest part of sn ordinary greenhouse. 
These Begonias do not thrive out-of-doors here, but 
do well on the continent. J. F. <£r Sont. 

Books : Enquirer. Donald's Dictumary of Garden- 
ing, containing all the modem improvements, &c. , 
was publidied in 1807. It is a quarto, in two 
volumes, with twenty-four plates. It is not in the 
Lindley Library. We do not know the value, but 
should assess it low. — T. R, Oueumber Culture for 
Amateun, by W. O. May ; The Tomato : Its Culture 
and Utes, by W. Iggulden ; both obtainable at the 
Bazaar office, 171, Strand, W.C. We know of no 
manual on the cultivation of Aspidistra, and no 
gardener of even moderate experience should need 
one. — A. M. 2>. Scott's Structural Botany, 2 vols. 
(A. k C. BUusk) ; F. Darwin's ElemcnU of Botany 
(Clay); Hardy Ornamenial Flowering Treei and 
Shrubt, by A. D. Webster, published at the (far^ 
dening World Office, 1, Clement's Inn, W.C. 

Bronze or Mbtal Statu bs : "J. 0** may possibly 
obtain these of Messrs. Singer k Sods, Frome, 
Somerset, who are workers in all this class of goods. 
H, J, JF. 

Clubbino : A, 0. B. Afford the land complete rest 
for two or three years from every kind of crop of the 
Brassica order, and afford it a dressing or two of 
gas-lime ; and you wiU, by that means, starve out 
the slime fungus that is the cause of clubbing. 

Continuous Coverbd-wat Espaliers : B. H. R, In 
theory, perhaps, you ought to be right, but in 
praotioe there is no reason why fruit-trees grown 
on arches should not produce as fine fruits, and in 
as great abundanoe, as free-standing espaliers, 
provided the trees have proper attention at root 
and top. Of course, only such varieties of Pears 



and FlumB shoold be grown as do not require the 
warmth aflbrded by a ^1. 
Correction. — The Kniphofia described under '< Kew 
Notes " last week is K. primulina. 

Cucumbers on Kew Tbar's Day: X, The first 
reoord we find is one to the effect that Mr. Fowler, 
gardener to Sir N. Gould at Stoke Newington, was 
the first to raise Cucumbers in autumn for fruiting 
about Christmas. He prsaented Kinff Qeoige I. 
with a brace of full-grown onee on aew Year's 
Day, 1721. See Johnson's Hittory of hngluh 
Gardening (1829), p. 158. 

Inducing Barlt Swarms : W. T, Take the supers 
off the skeps if they are stiU on, and examine the 
combs of tile stocks by inverting the Mves and 
driving the bees down with smoke to see how the 
supply of food is lasting, as the weight of the hive 
now is not a reliable teet when the combs contain 
so much brood and geuMnlly so little honey. 
Scrape the floor-boards, and then, having made the 
hives snug and clean, place over the feed-hole either 
a three or four-pound cake of soft oandy, or give a 
pint of warm syrup once a week, until the flowers 
begin to bloom in quantity, but be sure not to give 
too much syrup, or you will retard instead of 
accelerate swarming. The candy would probably 
be ample, but to make sure give a pint of warm 
syrup at once, and then the cake of oandy, with 
warm wrape in the shape of bags or pieces of carpet 
under the milk-pan. Leave the hive thus, and 
await the issue of swarms, which you may expect 
about the middle of May. Expert, 

Mineral Inorbdibrts of Soils : B, 0. 8, These 
vaiy very considerably. An ideal soil for farm 
piurposee would oonaiat of sand, 50 to 70 per cent ; 
clay, 20 to 30 per cent. ; polveiised limestone, 5 to 
10 per cent. ; and humus, 5 to 10 per cent Soils 
vary according to their origin, and the rocks of 
which they form the disinteG^rated remains ; and 
silicsi lime, idumina, iron, magnesia, and potash 
form the chemical composition of most of them* 
these substances being found in various propor- 
tions, in accordance with tlie basis of the soil. 



Names or Fruits : H, H, 1, Cox's Pomona ; 2, not 
known. — Pear, Black Worcester or Achan. — E, S. 
Physalis Alkekengl— B. 0. Pear Winter Nelis. 

Kamrs or Plants : Correepondente not answered 
in this issue are requested to be so good as 
to eonsnlt the following number, — C, P., Arbroaih, 
4, Qrevillea alpina, var. — C, A, 0. Dendrobium 
nmulum, a native of Kew South Wales. C,P. 1, 
Polypodium peltideum (phymatodes) ; 2, Adian- 
tum Cunninghami ; S, Doodia media ; 4, appears 
to be Pteris esculents, sn sUy of our common 
Braeken, but we fail to find spores on the withered 
specimens received ; 5, Adiantum capillus-venerit ; 
6, Lastrea decomposita ; 7, Lastrea denticulate ; 
8, Polystichum vestitum ; 9, DavalliS canariensis ; 
10, Lastrea filix-mas polydaotyla; 11, Platyloma 
fslcatum ; 12, Cyrtomium falcatum. We have given 
the popular names so fsr as we can judge, some 
being merely immature barren fronds. — S, L. It is 
difficult to name Conifers from their shoots only. 
1, Probably the Deodar ; 2, PteudotaugaDouglasii ; 
3, Thuya dolabrata ; 4, Cupressus Lavrsoniana, 
probably the form called erecta viridis ; 5, Thuya 
japonica alias Standishi ; 7, Ciyptomeria japonica 
elegaos ; 8, Cupressus (Retinospora of gMtiens) 
pitifera squarrosa; 9, Cupressus (Retinospora) 
plumosa. — H, H, Sedum oameumvariegatnm. — 
Alt, Lyddiard, Lonicera fragrantissima.---(?. R, B, 
1, Muanta pieta ; 2, Peperomia ariifolia ; 3, 
Hibiscus Cooperi ; 4, Begonia argyrostigma ; 5, 
Glechoma hederaoea variegata (variegated Ground 
Ivy). — W, H, Divers, 1, Cytisua proliferus ; 2, 
Iris unguicularis ; 3, Crocus ancyrensis. — Zest, 
The Fern is Platyloma flexuosum ; the purple-leaved 
yellow- flowered plant, Qynuraaurantiaca of gardens. 
'fred, F, BaHhache. The silk-ootton is that of 
Ochroma lagopus, a soft-wooded Malvaoeoos tree, 
about 40 feet high, native of the West Indies and 
Central America. The ailk-ootton or floss is of 
little or no oonmieroial value, but is sometimes 
used for stuffing cushions. It cannot compete 
with "Kapok," from £riodeodron anfractuqsum. 
/. R, J, — Hamming, Ganya elliptica. — ff, JET., 
Darmstadt, Gomesa pUmifoUa. 

Petals or Camkllias Droppino: A, H, This 
defect ooours when a plant is carrying an exces- 
sive number of blooms, and when the soil contains 
too much moisture, or the air of the house is very 
dry, or soil snd air are dry. In frot, it is occa- 
sioned by anything that cheeks healthy deve* 
lopment. 



PostnoN or Arauoaria imbricata Seed in thi 
Seed-pot : R The needs should be buried «bh 
pointed end downwards, the thick end protrudio; 
from the soil about a (quarter of an inch. 

Royal Hobtichltcral SoctETY's Examtnatiov 
S OBJECTS : B. G. S. Applv to the Secretary, the 
Rev. W. Wilks, 117, Victoria Street, 8.W. 

Select Peas roR Sucokssiox : /. W. ChAlsea Oem, 
or Veitch's Earliest Marrow, the first being 1 } feet, 
and the Utter 4 feet high. Let the next to foUov 
be Gradus, or William I., both about 3 fert. 
Mainorop Peas of good quality and proUfie ire 
Advanoer, Champion of England, Duke of Albioj. 
Huntingdonian, Prodigy, Veitch*s PerfeetioD. If 
exhibition varietiee are wanted, there are Telephone, 
Stratagem, Masterpiece, and Autocrat. Peas for 
the latoit sowing sre British Queen, Ne PlusUltn, 
Sturdy, snd lUclean*s Best-of-AlL Peas should 
be sown firom February to the end of June at fort- 
nightly intervals, in flat broad drills, about 3 inches 
dMp, and ifthese can be arranged in single or double 
rows in various parts of the garden, the pn^daee, 
will be greater, snd the amount of land the crops 
occupy less than if a quarter be entirely devoted 
to Peas. 

Sprino Flowers at Use : R, W, R, The unoioal 
mildness suffioiently socounts for the mriytoiw 
ing of the plants named. 

SuiTABLB Plants roR Bee« : W. T. To limit mf- 
self to one particular plant only, I should prefir 
Arabia albida. It is a valuable plant to grow fer 
bees, blooming early in the spring, sad con- 
tinuing through the summer. Now is a good 
time to sow the seed, and when large ^noogh, 
plant in permanent places 1 ft. apart each wty, 
or sow in drills 1 ft. apart, where they ne 
to remain and thin out, leaving each plant the 
above dirtanoe apart. I should advise aayoni to 
plant more of a selection of bee-flowers, which wiU 
prove a great attraction for his bees, such as Crocu, 
Arabia, Wallflower, Limnanthes Douglasil Tbeie 
spring-blooming plants, 1 think, ought to be grovn 
by every bee-keeper, they coming in bloom wh« 
the bee forage is scarce, aind the bees certainly pif 
these plants great attention in the spring of the 
year. For ^e autumn, nothing beats Anchaa. 
''Chapman honey-plant,** and Echinops Ritro, the 
latter proving an ideal honey-producing pUot. 
Expert, 

United Horticultural Beneeit and Pbotidct 
Institution: J. F,, Hants, The address of the 
Secretary of this Society has been repeatedly gifa 
in this column. However, we gladly repeat it ii 
you have failed to notice it heretofore. It if 
W. ColHns, 9, Martindale Road, Balham, S.W, 
and ha will furnish you with the rules and otbe' 
information you fik. 

Water Bouquet ; W, P, K lady correspooM 
F, B,, kindly informs ub that this kind of hostfl^ 
is <' a Dorset specialty,*' and that a full descrtpaoB 
was given in The Queen for January 15 \u\[^ 
also p. 73) . 

WoRM-EATiNO SLUa9.~Correspondents from South- 
ampton, Ealing, and elsewhero have kindly for* 
warded specimens. 

OoMMUincATioira BsoctvcD. — J. R.— C. N., Antlbes. ' 
D. Ouib^neuf, Paris. - 0. H. K.— B. A., Oomti.- J 
Simpson— 1». T. Jr.--!». w., Viouna.— W. B. H.-J. JJ- 
(shorUy) — H. W. W.-R. P. i*.-J. ». B.— B. ^-^JJl 
— «. M.-T. D. 8.— H. U. D'Ombraln.— QoodUnb, W(«rtti- 
Ing— E. K.-a 8. A Co.-H. D.— A. J. Ii.-W. S-A^ " 
— H. W. W.'^-J. J. W. 

PROTooRAPHa,8PBCiM]ura,icTC., Rbcbivkd.— P.M. R.Brist*'* 
— K. V. k 8«niB.~H. Cumell (with tlianks). 



DIED.— On the 24th of January, at HoHM 
Cockington, after a lung and severe illness, iu bj* 
28th year, William Thomas (Willie) Morrw. ^ 
eldest and beloved sou of W. H. Morris, of the Pejon 
Rosery, Torquay. Funeral at 2.30 F.M. onSaturd«J[;^ 

GONTINUED LARGE INCREASE in the CIRCUIAVOH 
of the ^'GARDENERS' CHRONICLE." 

ImporUnt to Advertisers.— rA« PubliAirha$th«9aii$^ 
tiono/announeitig that the cireuUitUm cfth* "^'f**^ 
ChronicU" hat, $inee Vu rtdttction i% tU priet ofthtpif^' 

XOBB THAN DOT7BI«ED, 
and that it oontlniiea to Increase ^"^•*'^ 

Advrti$€r$ art rtminded that the " ChronicU" cif«i^'»^ ^*J*' 



OoowTEy QatfTUCMCif, and all Classes or Ga»o 

.VKRS at hoiM, that U **"* ''^T?' ^ ji 
Foaaios Ajn> Oolokial Cibculation. and that 



AKD Qaadkn-lovkrs at hoiM, that it hoia tpe^^f ' 
Foaaios ▲»> Oolokial Cibculation. oi 
vruervsd for fttwrenM « oM IA« principal W^rarw* 



{Fcir Markets m p. sir.) 



Pbbkuart 5, 1898.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



77 




THE 



SATURDAY. FEBRUARY 5, 1898. 



PALMS IN THE LIVING-ROOM. 

npHIS manual of 128 pages,* lately published 
-■• in Qermany, supplies a long-felt want, 
and affords just the right sort of information 
that the la3rman desires who wishes to grow a 
few Pklms in his drawing-room, living-room, 
window-ledge, table, or jardinihre, and who is 
in great doubt as to the methods he should 
pursue in order to maintain his handsome and, 
perhaps, expensive Palms in health and beauty. 
The gardener by profession, if he have not had 
some years of experience in an extensive private 
garden, or in nurseries or botanical gardens, 
looks in vain in the ordinary manuals on the 
cultivation of plants. 

The object the author had in view in writing 
was the extension of the circle of Palm fknoiers 
in his own country; and some part of the 
work, particularly that applicable to the care 
of Palms grown in rooms heated by the 
dose stoves in common use in Qermany, is of 
lesser importance here ; but that apart, the 
work embodies the results of close observation, 
and shows much cultural skill, as well as 
peculiar information and research on the part 
of the author. He tells us that about 1100 
different forms of Palms are known, having 
their habitat between the tropics, a few extending 
beyond to the 44"^ of N. lat., as the Chamserops 
in Europe, and Nannorops in Asia to the 34° ; 
in Sabal, in North America to the 36° N. lat. ; 
Eentia, in New Zealand, to the 44° S. lat. ; and 
Jubsoa, in OhiU, to th^ 37° S. lat. Ail of these 
subtropical species adapt themselves to room 
culture requiring no great degree of warmth, a 
not very moist air, and some of them at certain 
seasons a cooler temperature. Sunlight is a 
neoessiiy to all Palms, and the lighter the 
position the better the plants thrive ; therefore, 
the vicinity of a window is the best place for 
them. This position is, however, a dangerous 
one in the winter, when cold draughts penetrate 
the best-made windows, chilling the roots, the 
tenderest and most susceptible part of the 
plants. Methods, however, are indicated, by 
which this evil may in great measure be averted, 
and these are extremely simple. An even, 
regular temperature is very essential to suc- 
cess, and one good method of retaining the 
more tender species in health, is to cover them 
at ni^t with a piece of wetted gauze, but not 
BO that it comes into contact with the plant. 
Of course, that is described as being merely a 
makeshift, a glass-case being preferable. Otiier 
means are indicated for maintaining the roots 
in an equable medium by dropping the pot into 
a larger one, and filling the intervening space 
with soil or sawdust, or by enclosing the pots, 

* AUntfiMdU und PatmenJUgt, hj Dr. Udo Dftmmar, 
Koitof dw KOaigUohen Botantinhim Qutent su Berlin. 
Tmnkj'foar fXLxuktnkUoiu, (Trowitnoh ft Son, Fnakf ort«n* 
tbt^Odw.) Thi PropagatioH and CuUiiwaHm of Palms» 



if smaU ones,^ in wooden or other cases, and 
filling in between with sawdust or earth, and, 
in the case of earth being used, planting 
therein Selaginella or Nertera depressa. 

Of great importance is the wintering of 
Pa]ms---and it is the more remarkable that the 
hardier the species the greater the diflioulty, 
these needing in the winter a resting period, 
but which in the dwelling can only be afforded 
by a low temperature, and a frost-proof, well- 
lighted, unheated room, is rarely to be found in 
any house. And in ventilating a room during 
times of hard frost, the Palms must be removed, 
or covered with doths. Moreover, the roots 
of these species are more liable to injury from a 
degree or two of .frost than the leaves, and the 
pots should always be surrounded in the cold 
season with some non-conducting material, as 
felt, wood-wool, wooUen-doth, or wadding. 

The WE^rmer species need much less care, 
and these in the winter are quite at home in 
the living-room, and, if possible, near the 
window, protected against draughts, dther hot 
or cold. 

We are told the best season at which to buy 
our Palms, namely, late summer, when they 
are well established and the growth mature ; 
and, above all things, to be shy of buying them 
from out of the florists' windows, where but 
little care is given them, and which may have 
the seeds of early death in them, though as yet 
invisible. 

Much excellent matter is found on the rearing 
in apartments of diverse species of Palms from 
seed, and the varied manner in which the seed 
germinates. In the case of the Date-Palm and 
many others, after a shorter or longer time, on 
a certain part of the seed a minute white point 
appears, and grows to a considerable length 
downwards, whilst the fore-end swells some- 
what. After this point has reached a certain 
length, a minute sUt appears near its end, and 
out of this a new point appears, which takes an 
upward direction. Concurrently the first point 
gets longer and thinner and further downwards. 
When the upward-growing point has reached a 
length of 1 cent, it opens, and another point is 
extruded, which is somewhat larger, 2 to 
3 cm. long, and from this shoot the first long 
and thin green leaf appears ; meanwhile, from 
the swollen point of union, several roots have 
been emitted, and taken a downward direction. 
In Areca, Acrocomia, and Sabal, the downward 
striking point goes sideways into the earth, so 
that the base, as in Phoenix, &c., is equidly 
deep in the earth. The various methods of 
germination offer ntmierous hints of value, and 
throw much light on the kind of cultivation 
needed by the plants, which our author does 
not fail to elaborate. 

In the chapter on the Cultivation of Palms, 
good and faulty methods are contrasted, and 
reasons given, especial attention being directed 
to the so-called true and the false stilt-like roots 
of some species, and the treatment indicated for 
avoiding this evil when it is not inherent in the 
plant. The treatment of coiled roots, often 
found at the bottom of the pots and tubs, is, we 
believe, managed entirely empirically by 
English gardeners, who try to uncoil them, 
thus brecJdng them, and bringing the plant 
into a bad state of health from which there 
is no recovery, excepting strong bottom-heat 
be employed for several montbuB afterwards. 
The roots of most species of Palms may be 
pruned back with a sharp knife if the plants be 
thus treated. 

There is a capital chapter on soils, on the 



crocking of pots and tubs — a most important 
matter. The forms of pot suitable to the growth 
of various species, choosing deep pots for those 
having stilt-like and long tap roots, and broad, 
shallow ones for surface - rooters. Potting 
receives full attention, and we are told that 
Palms must not have large shifts at a time, or 
be loosely potted ; and that the sur&ce of the 
soil should slope from the side to the centre, in 
order that the soil should not remain dry in the 
middle of the ball, and hinder the formation of 
new roots. 

When should a Palm be afforded water ? is 
with gardeners and amateurs an all-important 
query; and so feir we have never seemed to 
have the right answer, because these have been 
mainly guesses at the reasons that should govern 
the application. The author says that the 
turgidity of the leaves and stem, which can 
readily be ascertained by the inability of the 
tips to be bent easily round the finger. If a 
plant be dry, the tips can be coiled round the 
finger with ease. The whole matter is made 
clear to the least botanically-instructed reader 
by a description of the construction of the stem 
and the leaves. A little wilting does no harm. 
Warm water should always be used for Palms 
kept in rooms and hothouses, as warm indeed 
as 68° Fahr. 

A chapter is devoted to the manuring of 
Palms, and an analysis given of the ash of 
the Livistonia chinensia, from the work of 
Oomte Kerchove de Denterghem ; and another 
chapter is concerned with Palms in ill-health. 

Bather more than half the book consists of 
brief descriptions of the more important genera 
of Pahns and their varieties, a particularly 
useful section, not available in any but the 
more expensive works of Kerohove, Drude, 
and others. It is to be hoped that this book 
will be translated into English, as we have 
nothing but Seemann's book, now out of print ; 
and the papers by Mr. W. Watson, scattered 
through more than one volume of the Oat" 
denera* Chronicle, 



New or Noteworthy Plants. 



SOPHRONITIS QRANDIFLORA 
"SwnrBUBNB's Vabikty." 

This is a ramarkaUe variety in every lespeot, and 
especially in the thick tabttsnoe of its flowan and 
leaves, snd in the extraordinary breadth of the sepals 
and petals, the Utter being ss nearly oirotUar as 
poaalble. 

There are two well-defined classes of Sophronitis 
grandiflora, the one with the oomparatively long and 
narrow peeudo-bulbs and upright leaves ; and the 
other with short pteudo-bnlbs and broad, leea ascend- 
ing foliage. By the leaf sent with the flower, this 
would belong to the Utter oUm, for it U broadly ovate, 
and nearly a quarter of an inch thick. 

There U nothing abnormal about the flower aent, 
and yet at a cursory glance it might easily be taken 
for a scarlet tuberous Begonia. It measures nearly 
three inches across the petals, each of which are 
exactly one and a half inches broad. The petaU aie 
also much broader than in ordioary forms, and the 
lip larger and more conspicuous by reason of its 
clearly-defined scarlet lines on an orange-coloured 
ground. Jhe sepaU and petaU are li^t scarlet, with 
a slight shade of carmine towards the edges, and in 
the vehuDg which ezteods over their surfaoe. It 
came in an importation made by Meisn. W. L. LewU 
k Co., two yesrs ago^ and flowered with T. W. 
Swinburne^ Esq., Gomdean Hall, Winohoombe, who 
was so surprised by its peculiar flower that he 
remarked in his letter that it seemed to have been 
crosMd with something eUe. Jamea (/Brien, 



78 



THE GARDENERS* CHRONICLE. 



[Februaky 6, 1898. 



Orghid Notes and Gleaninas. 

# 

VANDA TERES AT GUNNERSBURY PARK. 

These plants have for so long a time been a theme 
of interest, and to many of astonishment, that it was 
but natural, being in the immediate neighbourhood a 
few days ago, that I should make a special effort 
to visit the place and see for myself how the 
plants were managed ; and note the condition they 
were in, and what were the prospects for coming 
flower. Well, after careful inspection, I must con- 
fees I was more than satisfled ; the condition of 
the plants was much better than anything I had 
anticipated. I remember visiting these gardens in 
Mr. Roberts* time, and then noting the general 
excellence of everything that came under my obser- 
vation. I also remember that then this Vanda 
was passing through the experimental stages of 
special culture. It is experimental no longer, bnt 
the method then adopted has been continued ever 
since, so that now as far as my observation goes, the 
finest lot of Vanda teres is now to be met with at 
Qunnersbury Park. What there may be in other 
establishments near Tring I cannot say» as I have not 
visited them, but if they come in any way up to these 
now mentioned they must be fine indeed. 

It would seem, judging by the stout growth and 
terete leaves, as well as by the large quantity of healthy 
roots, that this box-culture close to the end of a warm 
house where light and sun-heat can be secured, is just 
the place for them ; placed as the plants are in crocks, 
charcoal, and mos§, pressed only moderately firmly 
together, ^ey can be, and are in the growing season 
freely syrioged, but this latter operation is discon- 
tinued during the winter months. In the spring 
the numerous spikes push out, and in due time the 
glorious flowers will open, when such a sight will be 
presented as can scarcely be met with anywhere. 

I congratulate Bir. Reynolds on his successful method 
of growing this plant, on the excellent condition in 
which I found every thing abou t the place(fogfl taken into 
consideration), and beg to thank him for his kindness in 
conducting me through the whole of the glass-houses, 
and various parts of this beantiful park. Many 
things were worthy of si)ecial note, bnt a little later 
when growth is pushing and new foliage and flowers 
appear, a more satisfactory note may be made than 
early in January. W, Sioan, Bystockt Exmouth, 

Cattleta oavdida (Lehm,). 

. In giving this name to the species originally 
imported and distributed as C. chocoensis, Consul 
F. C. Lehmann gires us a reasonable cause for the 
change {Oard, Chron., Oct. 26, 1896, p. 486) : "This 
Cattleya does not grow in the Chooo, but in the 
Cauca Valley, two quite different provinces ; ** and 
adds the following interesting particulars. '* Cattleya 
Candida is distributed over the Valley of the Cauca 
i^m Tulna down to the neighbourhood of Predonia 
and Concordia in Antioquia, and is restricted to a 
region which extends from 600 to 1,100 metres above 
the sea-level. The climate of this region is very 
damp for some six months in the year, and very dry 
during three months in the time at which the plant 
flowers." 

A beautiful example of it is sent by Joseph 
Broome, Esq., Sunny Hill, Llandudno, whose 
Cattleyas invariably develop flowers of fine quality, 
their excellence being probably in a great measure 
due to the genial air of the place. The sepals and 
petals are white, the latter very broad and crimped 
after the manner peculiar to the species. The lip is 
also white, with a faint purple glow in the tube, at 
the base of which are some dark rose lines merging 
into orange, the front tube being of a rich velvety 
ruby-red changing to violet, the whole luving a broad, 
pure white, crimped margin. It is one of the most 
beautiful of the labiate section, and so variable that 
it is difficult to get two plants exactly alike. The 
flowers also are fragrant. 

Onoxdium nZfaOIOULATUM. 

Althou^ the individual flowers of this species are 
not so showy as those of O. tigrinum of which some 



authoritiee make it a variety, its habit of profuse 
flowering and the long duration of the blooms, make 
it of much decorative value, especially at the present 
season. A good example of it is sent by R. W. 
Rtckards, Esq., The Priory, Usk, Monmouthshire. 
The sepals and petals are heavily barred with d%tk 
brown, and the Up, which differs from that of 
0. tigrinum in having the bright yellow-coloured 
front lobe on a long and narrow isthmus. The plant 
makes good growth, and flowers satisfactorily in an 
intermediate temperature. /, O^B. 



KEW NOTES. 

Tress and Shbubs in Flower during Late 
Januart. — The exceptional mildness of the winter 
la bringing many things into flower considerably in 
advance of their usual time. Whilst this makes the 
garden brighter than it otherwise would be in late 
January and early February, it has its disadvantages 
in hastening unduly the growth of many trees and 
shrubs, for which an English spring is, in any case, a 
perilous time. But like his eonfrtre in agriculture, 
the gardener is difficult to please in regard to 
weather. To the owner of an extensive collec- 
tion of foreign trees and shrubs, a mild winter 
is, after all, the greatest boon. His tenderer 
plants can start where they left off the previous 
autumn, and that means a great deal with 
such things as Csasalpinia japonica. Azalea (more 
properly Rhododendron) rhombica, and many others 
of the same stamp, wliiob, once they get hard 
and woody, are perfectly secure against frost, but 
which, in a small state, are apt to be cut back 
time after time almost to where they started the 
previous spring. Such things as those mentioDed in 
the following notes, howe? er, do i\ot belong to that 
category ; whatever risks their flowers may have to 
encounter, the plants themselves are proof against 
any English winter. How much our gardens owe to 
comparatively recent introductions is shown in even 
S9 short a list as that of January-floweriog shrubs 
and trees. It is not so very long ago that no mention 
could have been made of the Hamamelises or Prunus 
Davidiana, which to-day occupy quite a prominent 
phMse. W. J, B. 

Hardy Plants. 

As evidence of the exceptional mildness of the 
weather experienced during the month of January, 
the following Ust of hardy plants now in flower in the 
open air, chiefly in the Rock Garden, at Kew, may be 
interesting .—Anemone angulosa, A. blanda, A« 
hepatica, Callianthemum anemonoides, ColcMcum 
mcmtanum, Corydalis rutesfolia* Crocus biflorus, C. 
chrysanthus, C. Crewii, C. dalmaticua, C etruscus, 
0. gargaricus, C. Imperati, C. Eorolkowi, C. Oliveri, 
C. reticulatus, C. Sieberi, C. Suterianus, Cyclamen 
europgcum, Eranthis hyemalis, Galanthus Alleni, Q. 
Blwesil, 0. Ikarise, O. nivalis, Helleborusantiquorum, 
H. caucasicus, H. colchicus, H. cydophyllus, H. 
viridis, Hacquetia epipaetis. Iris biflora, L persica, I. 
reticulata, I. Suwarowi, I. unguiculata (stylosa), 
Leueojum vemuai, Merendera caucasica, Morisia 
hypogcoa, Mandragora autumnalis, Narcissus minor, 
K. minimus, Omithogalum montanum, Petaaites 
albus, P. niveus, P. fragrans, P. spurius, Primula 
acaulis, P. a. cosrulea, P. denticulate, Scilla bifolia, S. 
sibirica, Saxifraga ligulata, Stembergia Flscheriana. 

The Witoh-Hazblb. 

Hamamelis arborea (see Oardenen* ChrmicU^ 
Feb. 7, 1874, fig. 47) is undoubtedly the best of the 
Witoh-HsEels, and one of the most beautiful as well 
as the most interesting of our earliest-flowering trees. 
There is something in its appearance that strikes 
one as essentially Japanese. Is it because its 
miniature-treO'Uke habit, its crooked branches, and 
curious flowers (made up, as it were, of little stripe 
of twisted gold leaf) Boggest the fimoiful efforts of the 
Japanese artist *' on many a screen and fan f *' H. 
japonica is not so good a plant ; it does not flower sa 
freely, nor are its blossoms of so rich a colour. The 
new variety, Zuocariniana, is more promising, the 
pal6 lemon-yellow of its flowers rendering It very 



distinct All these Witoh-Hasels, being without leaf 
at flowering time, should, if possible, be aeiociated 
with dark-leaved evergreens, like Holly. 

Rhododbndrom daurioom. 

Compared with the Rhododendrons that flower 
four months later, this is only a very modest plant, 
but producing, as it does, its bright, rosy-purple 
flowers in January and February, it has a great 
charm. It is represented by two forms, one deciduous, 
and the other more or less evergreen. Both have 
flat, saucer-shaped flowers, about 1^ inch across, 
borne usually not more than two or three together. 
It is a natife of Siberia, and has been described as 
"empurpling the mountain sides " when in flower. 

Rhododendron altaolvrense. 

To croes a Himalayan plant (R arboreum) with, a 
North American one (R. catawbiense) specially forced 
into flower for the purpose, and thereby to add to 
hardy shrubs one that flowers almost as soon as mid- 
winter is past, was no mean achievement seven^ 
years ago. Such was the origin of this Rhododendron, 
raised at Highclere in 1826. A group of it in The 
Dell at Kew has several trusses open, and many 
others bursting. The trusses are of medium siae, 
and the flowers are rosy-crimson. I have never been 
able to satisCactorily distinguish between this and 
R. Nobleanum, raised in Waterer's nursery at Knap 
Hill in 1882 from R. arboreum, crossed wiUi R. 
caucasicum, although it is said to have darker flowers. 

LoNiOBRA fraorantissima asd L. Standishk. 

Of the two winter-flowering Honeysuckles, L. 
fragrantissima is preferable. Both have white 
flowers, very freely produced and charmingly fragrant, 
but L. fragrantissima has the advantage of retaining 
most of its leaves. This season, in fact, it is almost 
purely evergreen. Its leaves differ from those of L. 
Standishii in being much less pubescent, and in being 
rhomboidal rather than ovate, as in L. Standiahii. 
The latter flowers the earlier, and we had it in bloom 
at the beginning of November ; but both are now at 
their best. Both are introductions of Robert Fortune, 
and well worth cultivating, but L. fragrantissima 
more especially. 

Prunub Davidiana. 

Of the Peaches and Almonds this is the first to 
flower, and in a season so ftivourable as the present it 
is in bloom early in January. It is said by the Abb^ 
David (by whom it was first sent to Europe ovjr 
thirty years ago) to be common in the outskirts of 
Pekin, and to be one of the most conspicuous trees 
there. Yet it has not been many years in general 
cultivation. It is a very beautifiil tree if planted 
where it has a dark baokground, for its flowers are 
pure white, and very freely borne. The variety called 
rubra, whose flowers are tinged with pale rose, does 
not appear to bloom so well as the other. 

Erica kediterranea htrrida, 

noted in these pages a few weeks ago, is still bright 
with its spikes of rosy flowers, and judging by pre- 
vious years will remain so for as a couple of months 
at least. It is now joined by Erica carnea — perhaps 
one of its pareots— and the most charming of dwarf 
Heaths. 

The Corneuan Cherry (Cornus mas), 

although not fully out, is already becoming conspicu- 
ous with its yellow, bursting flower-buds. It is to 
February, however, rather than to January that it 
belongs. 

Clematis oaltcina (or C. balearica) 

is in flower. It is evergreen, and its blossoms are 
creamy-white, irregularly spotted with reddish- 
purple. It is very pretty at this season, but cannot 
be included among the above as being quite hardy. 
It should have a wall or a sheltered comer. The same 
applies to (3arrya elliptica, the male plant of whieh 
is very graceful now where it thrives well, with its 
long pendent catkins often 1 foot In length. fF. J, B 



PBBR0AIIT li, 1898.] 



TEE OASDENERS' CBRONICLE. 



WiTHASU oKtaunroiAA. = SAifiaiiBOA xhok- 

1 IwT* r*o«dTed wTenl iDqairiu aa to tlw merita 
of a plant which hu bMn okUed Vnthani* orlgkatfall'%, 
and whJidi U offned bj oontiiiantal nmtaijiiuaD onder 
tha name* of "(Bah da Coq" (Cooks'-eggi), and " La 
Hogitat de PampM." An aooonnt ot It !■ glvsa ia 
£« PtlAgtr ifiitt OutUux, PalUens and Boii, ISSfi, 
p. ISE, from whidi ws leani that It b not a Wltlunh 
but ■ Salpiohroa, and tlMt It ii a uMt* of Banoa 
AjrM, Montotidw, and BniU. It wm thown In 



ba Mur,. Imt paUUbte, MpadaUr wh«n oookad and 
mad* into jun or jallf , 

Plants of it an. in .oi^tintion at Saw, and I hara 
•aan it in leTand ethar ooUaotioni around London. 



CoLiua TBTBaomBDa, Baker. 



AltOIQANTHOa I 

Althongh Introdueed into oultiTation tan jean 

ago, and flgand in the Qardentri Ohrmicb in 1S89, 

and in tha BataHiad Magatine, t. 70T3, this reall; 

handioma and aaaily-groim bulboul plant from tha 

Ct^ ia aoarcel; knoim outaida botanical oollectiona, 

Thia ia a new and handaome apeoiea ot Galena It haa flowared aTsr; 7aar,in Deoanber to Januai? at 

which waa found in Briliah Contral Africa bj Mr. Kew dooa ita introductioo, and a good example may 

Whjta, from whose ipadtaena a faw aaada ware be aeen now in the Cape-houaa. The bulba and 

obbdned, and from thaae plants have been raised at Isavaa am not unlike tkoao of the Belladonna LUy ; 

Kew which are now in flower. In habit, the plant ia the acape ia IS inohaahigh, atout, oylindiiaal, hollow, 

and it bean an ombel ot from tit to twelve fioweta, 

whioh are tubular, 1^ inoh long, and coloured bright 

yellow. OOiMtt are tn»Aj formed at the base of 

the old bolba, and these flower when two or three 

;eari old. A Sinoh pot, oontaining; fire or m bolbi, 

potted to loim, and kept moial, except for a few 

weeks after tha learea fade, gives no trouble, and will 

produce flowen annually which are reslly valuable 

for, the ooDservatory in mid-winter. The genua ia 

monotypie, and ia pretty widely dietiibutod over 

Soutii AlHcB. 

HrHBItOPHTU.UH BUTEBCBin. 

i A fine maia of this filmy Fsni(i tha moit reoent 
addition to Uie Kew oolleotion of fllmiea, which is 
now exceptionally rich botb m regards the number of 
mgtiam and their condition generally, tha houae bnilt 
apedally for them five years ago being e*idenay 
suited to their raquiiementa. H. ralesoens was first 
found and dasnibed by Kirk, in 1873, in the Trm»- 
ocMmu i/ a* Naa ZMlatUt 7m(jM(«. Aooordiog to 
Ur. Baker.it is nearMt H. subWi^mnm («ragiiiosum}. 
Tha bonds sra bisngukr, sbont S inohis koft thia 
■egmenta tsther wide and fiat^ and tha whola tcond b 
oorend with a cob-web-liko pnbew oa c c . Other iw« 
spedes reonrad at the same time from New Zealand 
are H. Wflingii, in the way of tha weatem H. aari- 
oeum, but with mora rigid, thicker fronds. It ia Mtd 
to grow on the old trunks of Libooedma Doniana, in 
Hswka' Bay distrioL H. montonnm, a small crispad 
form ol the widely distribnted and very Tatisble 
H. jsTMiiauu, snd Trlehomanes Colensot. Thara are 
lortj epedaa of Uymenopbyllum, and thirty-fiva of 
Trichomanes in the Kew oolleotion now. IT. T. 



Fki. '29. — iuiatiTiii;» 



fruit atPvisinlSTT, andslwtasm^eofjammMla 
from the fruita. 

Tha plant is dsaoribed ss a heihaoeou* pereanisl, 
with nnmerons orseping or seandaot stems, tmall 
gny-graen onte leavea, and amall white asfnu; 
flowers. Tha fruita are oblong or eggabaped, about 
1} Inoh long, white when ripe, with ■ 'pineapple- 
like frsgranoe ; they ha*a bean likened to ■wallow'a 

In Fsrls H grew best when planted agalntt ■ 
sonth wall, on which it waa trained, and in the 
wtamn was ooTsred with frnits. These in Hid to 



like an ordinary Colaui ; iLa lesTts hare petiolfi 
2 inehw loog, snd a triangular, green ooaiady 
toothed blade ai inches wide. The thyiaoid sink* of 
flowaraiataraiinal, erect, 9 Inahee long bj S Laches in 
width st -the base, and Um flower* are nnmeroua, 
I inch bng and eolomad rich Gentka bine. Kr. 
Whyta found Uie pUnt on Uie Nyiks Plateau at 
6000 to 7lNa ft. eleration, and hedesoribad Itsa "a 
very showy blue InMata, growingln damp dtnstloiu." 
It U likaly to prore a nsalul plant tor the hetbacaoua 
bordar ouhdda, sad It may be also niefiil tbr Ilia 



GALANTHUS CILICICUS. 

Hr. Samw, of Herrina, writea about thia new 
GaUntbua sa follows : In 1895 I found, in the 
Ciliolan Taunia, about 560 metrea above the aea-lerel, 
a Snowdrop in the fltst days of Harch; almost all 
flowers were over and alnudj fructifying. Ur. J. Q. 
Baker, at Kew, detonniaed it as s new apedes, 
Oalsnthna cilioioua (see Oardtnert' O&nmidf, 169T, L, 
p. 211). To aaoertain the full flowering sasson I paid 
a virit to the locslity on December 10, and found 
amongst the roclu * great many in full flower, bat 
a so nutny that vrere over. The flowera of the wild 
plants ha>e the outer petals mora than S em. 
long, and more than 1 out. broad. Tha flowers 
have • diameter of more than 6 cm. [A photo 
(Sg. 29), in natural dae, which Hr. Siehe sent to me 
ihow* flowera, the outer petala of which are 3*7 am. 
long and ]'S om. broad, the inner petala I'Sem. loog, 
1-1 em. broad. U. D.\ Hr. Siehe eays that tha beat w^ 
to have tliia idant in full flower at the begfaulng of 
November, ia to plaoa the bulbs closely together in a 
pot at the beginning of September. Tha .later the 
bulbe are potted, the fewer are tha flowers. Thepols 
are brought into a sold Issy bad and lightly oovared 
with earth. In^the middle ot October, when tha bulb* 
are well rooted, tha earth over the pota is taken sway 
and frame-llghia are Iwl over, the bed, and slightly 
r aised on enn ny d^s. On t he flrst days ot Movember 
Uie pot s are fao ught into a graan home or tem perate - 
house to a lunn; place, where they must have nneh 
t^eah air snd plenty ol moisture. Certsinly in Uie 
■outham psrta of England thia Qalantbua would 
flower in the open air aa early aa Zforember. Ur. 
Siehe cultivates in his kortui orientalu at HeniDa 
aboat 50,000 plants of it, which he will pnl into 
commeroethitqtring. Dr. Dainnitr,OTMi LkliUTfeld*, 



80 



TBE GARDENERS' CBRONIGLE. 



[pEBRtTART 5, 1898. 



Market Gardening. 

WIRE TRELLIS. 

Tbo6b trelUies upon whioh to traia the thoots an 
bnnohes of Vmes and Peachea, the bine of Melona 
and Cucumbers to, are easily and cheaply made ; but 
we shall refer to this subject in due course, and 
proceed in our next contribution to make a few 
remarks on work of a more prening nature. 

Raisino Stock to bb AniRWABDs Plantbd ib 
Qlass-bousbb vow biimo Ebiotbd. 

It ii very important that the raising of Vines, 
TomatoB, Melons, and Cucumbers, for planting in 
houses now in course of erection should be proceeded 
with foithwith, in order to secure some crops as early 
in the seascn aa possible. The necessary number of 
Vine-tyes of Grt'S Maroc, Muscat of Alexandria, 
Black Hamburgh, Black Alicante, and Gros Colmar 
should be inserted either singly in 3-inch pots or from 
nine to eighteen in 6-inch pots and pans properly 
crocked, and filled to the rims with sandy loam, 
surf Aced with sand, and ooTered with fine soil to the 
thickness of about half-an-inch, and then plunged to 
the rims pretty dose to the glass in a hotbed, 
sMuming that there are not yet any heated houses or 
pits at command. The frames should be kept dose, 
and the heat maintained by adding some fivsh 
fermenting material round and up to the top of the 
frame every week or two, and oo?ering the glass at 
night with mats or other material The Vines will 
soon push into growth, and should be potted-offinto 
large GO-siEed pots as soon as they haTe made two or 
three leaves, using the same description of soil as 
before, and whioh should be wanned a little pre- 
viously. Return the plants to the hotbed, water 
them and keep dose as before, and subsequently shift 
tham into larger pots, and affbrd more head room 
as occasion requires. 

MdmiM and Omcumben may be raised by the same 
means : potting one seed in each 8-inch pot half -filled 
with light rich soil, a little fibry soil being placed in 
each pot for drainage, top-dressing the plants as soon 
as they have made a couple of inches of growth. 
EarFs Fayourite, Blenheim Orange, and Loddnge 
Hero, are three excellent varieties to grow, being of 
fine flavour, hand-some in appearance, and attainug 
to good size under ordinary cultivation. 

Tomato Sted may be sown thinly in shallow boxes, 
having some rough pieces of turfy loam placed over 
the holes in the bottom for drainage. Fill them 
nearly to the top with light rich mould, covering the 
seed lightly, and press seed and soil gently together 
with a piece of board. As good Tomato-seed oomes 
up very quickly, care must be exercised to remove the 
box or boxes to a position pretty dose to the glsss, 
and where a night temperature of from 55** to €0** is 
maintained, so as to promote a sturdy growth in the 
plants from the beginning. With this end in view, 
pot-off the seedlinga singly into 8-inch pots before 
they become crowded in the boxes, using a compost con- 
sisting of about four parts good sandy loam— or failing 
this the best available — and one of short manure ; the 
whole being passed through a J-inoh meshsieve, and 
warmed by the aid of a few hot-bricks or other means 
before being brought in contsct with the roots, 
pressing the ami gently about the latter in potting. 
Return the planta to the hot-bed, placing the pots on 
sifted coal-ashes near to the glass. Afford tepid 
water to settle the soil, keep the atmosphere close, 
and shade from sunshine for a few days until the 
roots have taken to the soil, when the shading must 
be dispensed with, and suffident air admitted to 
insure a sturdy growth in the plants. As in the case 
of Vines, Melons, and Cucumbers, the number of 
plants to be raised must be determined according to 
the amount of space there will be for cultivating 
them. In each case, but esptdally in that of 
Tomatos, the plants must be planted out before 
they become ** pot " or " root-bound.*' To prevent 
the plants recdving such a check, it may be necessary 
to shift some of them into pots one size laiger. 
Should Tomatos sustain this kind of check, or one from 
excessive drynessat the roota, the first cluster of flowers, 



representing perh^>8 1 lb. of fruit, will fidl to set. 
One pound of fruit lost from each of a thousand 
plants, and estimating the value of the fruit at 
%d, per lb., would mean about £25 on the wrong 
side. Regina, Chemin Rouge, and Challenger are 
good all-round Tomatos to grow. They are early, 
very prolific, the fruits are of good sise, ahi^M, colour, 
and quality. H. W. W, 



Foreign Correspondence. 

C A N N A S. 

It may not be out of place to draw attention again 
to the beantiful large-flowering dwarf Cannes, known 
as *'Crosy*s Cannes.** I am anre that when their 
good qualities, and the very little care which their 
culture neceedtates, are better known, they will meet 
with greater favour than at present, for anyone who 
can grow a Dahlia can as well grow a Canna. A diffi- 
culty sometimes experienced, is to keep them safely 
through the winter, and this is done best by storing 
the dumps under the benches of graenhonss^ on 
boards raised an indi or ao from the ground, to pre* 
vent any dampness arising from tl\e bottom. They 
should be placed in greenhouaes having a temperature 
of about 50' to 55** Fabr. (8* to KT R.). and where 
little watering is done, so as nut to sufler from drip 
from the benches. Pdaigonium-hooaee, Ac, are very 
suitable. For an amateur who has no greenhouse 
the best place is a cellsr, where frost cannot enter. 
It is important not to ahake the earth away from the 
dumps after digging them up, as this helps to keep 
the bulbs fresh and plump until the spring, protecting 
them against dry or cold currents of air ; they should 
be placed under the benehea very dosely, bnt not in 
such a way as to bruise the outer bulbs. 

The method of cultivating Oannas has often been 
explained in these pages. Bear in mind that Cannas 
are gross feeders ; they are not very particular as to 
soil — ^preferring a somewhat heavier to a light one — 
so long as it is nourtdiing and wdl drained. During 
their period of growth they require plenty of water, 
and a few manurid waterings irill be found of serrice. 
At the same time, a Canna grown in a poorer soil, or 
in a pot, will stand the winter better than one grown 
in a heavily manured soiL The practice in Stuttgart 
ia to dig out the bed where it is intended to plant the 
Canna for show, to the depth of about 1 foot or 
more, fllling in with decayed stable-manure from 
hot-beds, ko,, which it is intended to dear away, 
covering again with the sdl previoudy dug out. 
This not only gives the bed a bold appearance 
until the Cannas have become establiahed, but also 
affords good drainage. An ideal Canna should be 
of~(l) easy culture, and of a graceful and robust 
habit; (2) free-flowering, and with flowers (espe- 
cidly for groups) of a. pure, intense colour, whilst 
for pot-culture delicate colours are very useful ; (3), 
flower-spikes should be well above foliage; (4) 
flowen muat be of such texture and durability as not 
to be easily injured by either rdn or heat when 
planted in the open; (5) the spent-flowers should be 
self -shedding, and not ding to the stem until deaned 
or shsken off. 

In this particular, the useful variety Queen 
Charlotte faUs. On the above-named lines, the 
hybridisation and sdection of Cantias from hundreds 
of seedlings is annually carried on in the nursery of 
Mr. WuL Pfitser, Stuttgart, whence some of the best 
Canna novelties have gone out into the world. Mr. 
G. Ernst is dso a specialist in Cannaa ; indeed, Stutt- 
gsrt well deserves the name Canna City of Germany, 
given it by German gardeners, for in the sunmier 
months there are thousands of Cannas to be seen in 
bloom here in the public gardena and squares, and 
above all in the nurseries. Such fine varieties as 
Queen Charlotte, Rdohskander Furat Hohenlohe, 
Frans Buchner, ftc., coming from Stuttgart, can well 
compete with any of the best in existence. In my 
next notes I should like to say a few words about the 
varieties cultivated here, and of such best sorts which 
from persond observation I can strongly recommend. 



HIMALAYAN RHODODENDRONS.* 

{Conclwdedfromp. 66.) 

\}w the forty-three species of Hiaialayan Rhodo< 
dendrons described by Sir J. D. Hooker, I shall pasi 
under notice only the more important ; and becaoM 
of its geoerd utUity in the shrubbery, and the great 
variety it gives, I must assign foremost rank to— 

Rkododmd^nm arhortum, — ^The old eoariet ariwreoiD 
Is to be found in many of our Comisli gardensas troM 
thirty foet or more in height. AtCarclew,therssideDee 
of Colond Tremayoe, grow some of the finest I htn 
ever seen, one of them betog probably the first plaotd 
out of doors in Great Britain. At Tremough we hin 
arboreum in all ita varieties as hugh bashes twsoty- 
five to thirty feet high, the whites, of which dbom 
and dnnamomeum are the types, being objects of 
exceeding beauty. Of the soorea of varietiei sod 
ahadet scattered over our grounds, the best are thoso 
whcee soft purplish-pink flowers are delicatdy friltd 
at the edgea. Such gigantic trusses as we grow moit 
be the envy of nuny gentlemen whose grounds are 
not so well adapted for Rhododendron work. 

Bhododendiron o/rgenUwn^ a synonym of grands, k 
one of the early flowering of the large-leaved seotkm. 
Its trusses of flowers greatly resemble those o( 
Fdooneri, but they bloom much earlier, and n% 
therefore by aome more highly prised. Qrowiog fie 
a height of 40 feet in favoured dtuationa^ its massva 
leaves covered on their under surfaoe with a beautihil 
silvery tomentum, argenteum is well worth giowi^g 
for the sake of the effect of its foliage on tiis 
shrubbery in winter done. 

Rhododendron Auektamdi of gardens [R. GriflBUui' 
num of Wight], is a gem of the first water, oamid 
after the late Lord Auckland, Govemor-Geoetd sf 
India. In its native habitat it is mostly found stis 
elevation of 9,000 feet. The individual flowefs «s 
5 inches across, and as there are generally from 
seven to nine to atrus?, theappearaiioe of a tree wbn 
in full bloom is such as does not easily lend itself t9 
a description. Some of the varieties have pure wblli 
flowers with a delicate pink tinge, others are enriohsi 
with a daret-blotch in the throat. Of the sef«sl 
hybrids which owe thdr parentage to Aueklssdi, 
few, if any, outstrip the origind for general bean^i 
and I shoold be sorry if, in our hurry to inereitf 
varieties we loat sight dtogether of the type. TIm 
flnest plant to be seen in Cornwall is at KiDicnr, 
the reaidence of J. C. Daubuz, Esq., height 10 Mi 
breadth about 10 feet 

Bhododtndron barbaium is another magnifieifli 
apedes, readily distinguished by the barbs at tb« 
base of the leat Its flowers are of a ^^^ }inf^ sesd«(> 
arranged in a very compact, globose truss, and wImo 
Been as we grow them at Tremough, adorning pUdi 
20 and more feet high, the grandeur of orienUl 
gardens becomes by comparison tame ; and fairjlsn^ 
i^sdf cannot be more daz;:ling than a group of tbei* 
treea seen in lull flower on a sunny day afcer i 
diower. 

Kkododendinm ocmpyloearpum is a yellow flowering 
bush of from 4 to 6 feet high. Comiog froD 
altitudes* rangmg from 11,000 to 14,000 feet, it ii 
perfectly hardy, and the wonder of it is thatithtf 
not commanded a greater &vour. Sir J. D. Hooker 
oonddered it the most charming of all the Himals/tf 
apedes. 

Rhododendron eampmiuUUum is a mauve flower, 
very delicately shaded in some varieties^ and of 
suflldent distinction to be included in any colleotioo. 

Mkododondron cUiatwm is a meet useful species of 
dwarf habit^ and flowering every year in abnndtot 
prof udon, making it a suitable plant for the froot 
row of the Rhododendron-bed. 

Rhododendron einnabarinmm and Ro^i are two 
most beautiful kinds, with drooping flowen of 
peculiar habit, and are among the latest to flower. 

Rhododendron Dalhouiim is found at an devation of 
about 6,000 feet, growing as an epiphyte on Magoolitr 
Oak, and Laurd treea. We have grown it ^ 
Tremough for twenty years, but ita tender constito- 

• A pftper T«ad at the Devon and Exeter Q*rdeD*n' 
Assodation on Jan. \% by Richard OiU, Tremoagb, fWTP* 
Cornwall. 



THE GAEDENESti' UURONIGLE. 



lioD cxiHa it to niSii nodv ow mora aeven winteiai 
tha flowering bnili bejcg ooiMBonally dflstrojed, klld 
the jouDg (hooU cut bwik to the old wuod. 

R^adodendnM Edgetoorihi, knothar epiphyte, re- 
■emblae the preocding in pdot o( hudineM. Eien 
Id CorDmll It ii not a atfe subject Tor the open, but 
■ he powerful fngraaee of ita ahowy bloonu entitlaa 
it to B pliee in the home daring; winter. It would 
he diGBcult to find two bandiomer Bubjeote than 
theae, 

JUiododeHdroii FalciMori ia tbe giant of the HicDa- 
lii7B«, growing to a height of 10 foet, and confined for 
the ino*t pnrt to on altitude of 10,000 feet above bbb- 
IcTrl. Apsit from it* flow«T*, it ia a moet durable 



Rkododtndrmt Tlunuaiti will alwsja hold a pUee 
aniang the leading erlmaon apedea and nuietjei. In 
addition to Ita deep blood-red odtoUi, it itaoda out 
very distinctlf from ita compatriota bf Tirtae of Ihe 
lax and graoeful fonn of ita cQrjmb of from aii to 
eight floweiB. Ot the hybrida raiaed From it, SMlaoni 
ii tar ind away the beit. It wia obtained by the late 
Hr. Shilaon by oroaaing Thomsooi with barbatum, 
and well perpetoalea the taemory of one of the keeneat 
obaarren and growin of Sikkim ShododandioDa. 

R. camelUoBBorum, candelabram, elgeagnoidea, tnl- 
gena, glaoeum, laoatum, Haddeni, Divenai, trtSonim, 
Tirgitom, and Whttei, are aleo apaMea of SlkUm 
Rbododeadront. 



t alter the plaiita an folly eatabliahed oaunot 
ML to court atarred planta, whidi yield little or no 
flower. Wilh Bhododandron aultnre, aa with eraij 
other human enterpriee, thoroughnoM i* the only 
road to Buooaas. The operatar'a only maxim ihonid 
be, " Whatii worthdoingat all ia worth ddng wall.* 
No royal path ii open to him ,' hia only paaaporte are 
can, patianoe, and an obaerrant nmd. No greater 
Ulaey can be imagined, no greater blunder per- 
petoated, than to aapposa that, onoe plaoed in poai- 
tion, Rhododendrona are capable of lookilig after 
themselvM. It miut be diitinotly nnderatood, and 
cannot be too often or too atroiigly emphaaiaed, 
that in our gardens the majority of them are 
being grown under tetj unnatural otmditiona, 
and the muufeat duty of the oultirator b to 
atndy their requlramanta. "To woo than into 
obadienoek to see them, as tiaveUen hare aeen them in 
their native wUds, arnyed in magniSaeut splendour, he 
maat flnt aoqnalnt himself with the oonditiODi 
uDder which they thrive there, and then, as br aa 
ii poauble, beoome, not a eUvlab, but a jadicdooa 
imitator of Nature. 



Fig. 30.— ctcuhen ciucicch. 
(AhMI i Nof. (In.) 



ihrubbery pUnt, its noblefuliage forming an agreeable 
(oil to other kinds of vegetation. No Rhododendron- 
garden can ba said to ha uimptete which doaa oot 
fltiil liberal rua n for Falcooeri; and, what is still 
more in its favour, it is rnraly. if sver, iojured by 
frost with us. Many lardeoB in Carnwall grow it to 
nearly SO feet in beiglit. 

KkmUJendniii izimiHm, sltbough no undoubted 
viriety of Falcneri. U aufnoieotly diilinct from it to 
be included in any ooUsction. 

Rhndodf^dron lledgteni is anothfr ol the Isrge- 
fo'ligs spedes which eanuot be omitted. In ita 
native booif, like Valcocir', it has tbe remarkable 
peculiarity ot eeeking the coupanj of Atnea 
Webbisoa. 



The number of hybrida raieed from the sfore- 
mentioned sppclee are legion, but in a paper purport- 
iog to deal with ipeciss only, do place cin be found 
for them. 

A CoNCLnDiNQ Hint. 

No one has a right to eipoct his Rhododendruoa 
t<) give aatisfactios, or to pass muster with the 
specialist, who it not deroted heart and aoul to their 
weirara. W^etber the start ia made with seed, 
Inyen, buda, nr grafts, it is faaauUal that the work 
be carried out syatamaUoally, and not io thnt half- 
beirted, apaimodis manner which is all too frequent. 
Neglect at any oca of the more eritieal periods of the 
life of the plants ia bound to reault la ilt-kempt and 
na'oTely apeeiniena; while a happy-go-luoky sort of 



CYCLAMEN CILICICUM. 
A trsoiES which grow* in Tegetable soil in ahady 
[«rta of the lower hilla, w well aa in the upper foteat 
region of the Cilirian Tauraaup to SlOOmetreaabaTo 
tea-level, and io sipoeed anony eltoationa. Aa the 
illustnttlOD (flg. 30), after a photograph taken by 
H. Siehc^ of HeiBna, ot the plant aa found growing in 
tha origtnal locality, ahows, the plant Is a vary profnaa 
flowerar, and it is oertainly quite hardy, U. A 



DO ORCHIDS DEGENERATE? 

(OHctadid frtm p. ST.) 

That pretty litUe pUnt, Ocelogyae oorragat«, 
first introduced some thirty years ago, is, or was 
not BO long ago, oonsigned to the ranks of the 
unmanagsablee. I remember a few years ago, 
while visiting the Orchid-house at EeW, Doming 
upon a large olamp of this plant in a pot. I ms 
bound to balieva the label, but save for that 
should have passed the plant by without notiea, 
it was so out of oharaoter and so totally 
different to the plants I bad so often seen and 
admired on the Neilgherry mountains. The 
Ipavea were at least three times tha length of 
those of the wild plants, and much more 
luxuriant in growth. I enquired of the young 
man in charge, it the plant had ever flowersd, 
tbe reply was, " I have known that plant 
for the past tour years, and during that 
time it has shown no signs of flowering." 
Its appearance, to my mind, betrayed tha 
fact ^t it had long been kept in a constant 
state of excited growth, so different from &» 
oonditionB under which it is found on its aatira 
hills, where during the loug dry months of rest, 
it reoeivaB nothing from nature but the refresh- 
ing misty vapours to keep it from ' ' drying off." 
Take another example outside the Orehid 
world, viz-, Impatiens Jerdonife, an exquisite 
plant when seen in a wild stale. It was 
introdaoed, I believe, about the year 1852, and 
after aU them years how rarely one sees it 
flowered in this country with onythiog like an 
approach to its capabilities. 

It is frequently grown in pots in peat and 
other substances, and kept in a growing state 
all the year roiud, whereas on its native uplands 
it grows on the thick branches of stunted trees, 
and is exposed to a yearly drought, and conse- 
queat rest of from fonr to six months, during 
which the gouty stems — which h^ve displayed 
and shed their glory during October — shrivel 
and "dry off" so oompleteiy as to make it 
difficult for one to imagine how Nature can 
revivify such shrunk and sapless things. 



82 



THE GARDENERS' CffRONICLK 



[Fbbrvabt 5, 1898. 



One more example of an "unmanageable/' 
and I have done. The Neil^herry Lily, LUium 
nd^gherrense. AlthougH the whole of the 
moTintain ranges of southern India haye been 
ransacked for the sake of the bulbs of this 
charming Lily for importation into England, 
yet it is acknowledged to be extremely difficult 
to- grow and bloom for any length of time; in 
faot» by many it has been relegated to the list 
of " unmanageaUes." In its native habitat I 
hiife hardly ever seen it growing ih any other 
pontion, save from the elefts and fissures of 
rooks, where leaf -mould or vegetable matter 
had accumulated, and where, dnring the 
git>wing and flowering season, water tridded. 
As the dry season advances, the wet mould is 
converted into black dust, the stem of the 
plant decays, and Qie bulb is left in its dry and 
dos^ bed tUl the following spring. Do any of 
the growers of this bulb imitate these con- 
ditions P I may add that this plant may be 
added to the list of those that stand in imminent 
peril of total extinction. 

With reference to the Oroihid family, it is a 
grand thing to know that Nature will silow us 
to coll one of her crowning treasures in these 
plants, and bring them from the ends of the 
BtaHh to oor very doors for ihe display of their 
eaquisito beauty and rich fragrance ; but it is 
aasoredly a sorry thought that instead of 
moving oautiously, and step by step, in the 
importation, cultivation, and preservation of 
this noble order, we have recklessly, wilfully, 
igilprantly^ for the love of gain, and regardless 
of the ultimate fate o f tens of thousands of these 
plants, torn them from their native homes and 
brought them to our markets to be sold in 
bfttthee.and bundles like ordinary nursery- 
stofll:, with no thought of their ultimate fate, 
and "thus contributing in no small degree to 
tho total extinotion of many of the most lovely 
spooiee. Had a more sensible and intelligent 
oonrse been pursued from the beginning, there 
never would have, I venture to think, existed 
the necessity for asking the question, "Do 
Orchids degenerate ?** J, Lowrie, 



Vegetables. 

EARLY CARROTS. 

TROsa who are not provided with hot-bed frames, 
and many amateurs are in that condition, may still 
have Uie sweet, tender young Carrot some few weeks 
earlier than the roots can be obtained from ordinary 
sowings made on "warm borders.*' Let an excava- 
tion be dug out 1} foot deep in some warm comer of 
the garden, resenring enoagh of the clean upper 
layer of soQ for sowing the seed in, and filling the 
exoaiated space with prepared stable-manure, or the 
same mixea with tree-leaves made firm by a slight 
trampling with the feet. When the heat has risen to 
65% and it is not likely to get wanner, cover wUh 
the moold set aside for the purpose, surrounding the 
bed with deep boards, or banking it up with the 
remainder of Uie mould ; make firm, and sow thinly 
broadcast the Carrot-seed, mixed with moist sand, 
and cover lighUy with mould. Put some wooden 
hoops, or bend some Bean-atioks, over the bed, and 
over these put garden-mats. When the plants 
appear, remove the mats by day, when it is fine 
weather, snd always cover up at night. The crop 
will be ready for use in April and May. Qood 
varieties for this sowing ire Early Scarlet Dutch 
Hem, the English Scarlet Horn, and the Early Scarlet 
French Short Horn, with almost globular roots. Care 
must be taken that the soil does not get very dry 
before water is afforded, but this is not so likely to 
occur aa with frame culture. On the other hand, 
drenching rains and showers of snow, sleet, and hail, 
should Im guarded against, and for this purpore 
oiled canvas or calico may be put over the mats. For 
sowing in the open to succeed the hot-bed produce. 
Early Nantes and Early Scarlet Short Horn are 
excellent. 



Most persons like this vegetsble who have partaken 
of it ss a islad-root ooc%ed and prepared like Beet- 
root, or stewed in good soap or stook ; pisin boiled, 
it is napalatahle as a vegetable dish. Those who 
would ' like ta tiT it should include it in their ssed 
order, although the middle of March is soon enough 
to sow [the seeds, which should be done under a 
hand-glaas, or in a seed-pan in a cold frame, the 
plants bebg reared hardily, and planted out in March 
m rich soil. It is more convenient, in order to get at 
the plants, snd to hoe snd hadd-weed the soil, to 
pknt Celeriao on the flat in beds 4 feet wide, with 
alleys between of 1^ to 3 feet Each pUnt should 
stand 16 inches from its neighbour, and the planta- 
tion receive abundance of water in hot weather, 
failing copious rains ; and to sllow the air to circulate 
freely amongst the plants, the lowermost leaves, 
whi<m are usually undersized, and of no use to the 
plant, and the suckers, if any, should be early remoted. 
The roots may be taken up and stored after removing 
the chief part of the foliage, but reserving the heart- 
leaves. They keep till late in the soring if planted in 
damp sand or mould in a c^lar or sued that has some 
amount of sunlight ; and roots can usually be had in 
good condition long after blanched Celery has bolted 
or decaved. It may be mentioned that excessive 
applicauon of either solid or liquid manure results in 
coarse, very large, hollow, or split tubers, and is 
therefore unadvisable. A root from 4 to 5 inchea in 
diameter is large enough for all purposes. 



The Wbek*s Work. 

THB OBOHTD HOU8B8. 

By W. H. Whitb Orehid Orower, Borford, DdUng. 

Jn the Cool'kouse the handsome Odontoglossum 
coronarium var. miniatum is producing its flower- 
spikes, and is a species which grows very freely when 
suspended to the roof on the lightest side of the 
house, with its foliage almost touching the glass, and 
abundantly watered at all seasons. In the same 
house pljAts of Sophronitis grandiflora produce a 
brilliant effect, especially when arranged with' flower- 
ing plants of Odontoglossum orispnuL Thif dwarf- 
growmg species will need plenty of root-moisture 
until the growths are completed, taking care, when 
watering we plant, not to wet the flowers. Sophro- 
nitis violacea thrives best when grown in the coolest 
part of Uie intermediate-house. Plsnts of Cymbidium 
Devonianum showing for bloom must have their 
spikes carefully guided over the edge of the pot, as 
recommended for AngrsBcum pellucidum. 

Calantha. — All of the first-flowering varieties 
having now passed out of blooni, their short resting 
season should commencct at which time the plants 
may be put on a dry shelf in the warmest house in 
full sunlight, in order to mature the pseudo-bulbs 
perfectly. Water must not be afforded during rest. 
The Regnieri section of Calanthes now begin to open 
their flowers. The flowers of C. Begnieri, C nivalis, 
C. Saaderiana, 0. Williamsii, snd C. Stevensii, owing 
to their upward indinatioo, cannot be observed to 
advantage when stood upon the ordinary stage, and 
it is better to arrange them on the floor in one part 
of the house^ and if plants of Cyperus altemifoUus 
are used ss a background, and Maidenhair Fern is in- 
termixed, the long, arching spikes have a pretty 
effect. Where cut-blooms ars m reouest, Calanthss 
are veiy useful plants, as the spikes Isst about three 
weeks in water if kept in a cool-room. 

Mtxiem^kouse, — The plants of Odontoglossum 
citrosmum now starting into growth should not be 
excited too much, or they may grow too ouickly, and 
flowering be abortive ; rather keep the plants at the 
cooler part of the house, affording not any water at 
the root till the flower-spikes show themsMve% when 
abundance of water at the root, and a moist atmo- 
sphere, should be afforded. As soon as a young 
flower-spike is seen pushing up in the csntre of a new 
growth, a piece of wadding should be wrapped round 
it as a protection against slugs snd woodlice. In this 
house Leelia autumnalis, L. albida, L. Qouldiana, 
L. Marriottiana, L. anoeps, and its varieties, are 
ususlly cultivated ; and those plants that have passed 
out of bloom leoentW should be kept on the dry side, 
and soon bunches of new roots will be seen to push 
out from the base of the last-made pseudo-bulbs. 
Before, however, these make any progress, sphsgnum- 
moss should be afforded such as require any. Strong, 
well-rooted specimens, in sufficiently large pots, 
ibould not be disturbed unless the compost is sour 



and dseayed, In which eass ii must be esrefeUj 
eztraoted, and the dirt washed oat from amoogit 
the roots. After a plant thus treated has bsoonM 
dry, let the drainsge be re-arranged, and the roots bi 
laid in fresh materiid|L care being taken not to dhtob 
the roots unnecessarily, or a considerable time viU 
elapse before they regain sufficient strength to tloom 
satisfactorilv. Let Uie plants be well raised abort 
the rim' of the pot or basket, and squeese tbe 
materials together pretty firmly. The latter may coo* 
sist of fibry-peat and sphagnum-moss, and a few thick 
crooks. Aftor re-potting or top-dressing, much care in 
affording water Is nsMed, the roots and riusomei 
beingiiable to decay, especially freshly imported pieoei. 
At the first it will suffice to moisten the oompoti 
slightly with a fine-rose watering-can, wetting the 
bulbs or rhisomes, and to damp the stage between the 
pots on fine afternoons ; the n%ht temperature being 
kept at about 65*, and by day as high as the son- 
heat will raise it^ at the same time air should be 
admitted carefully. On the appearance of new growth, 
the amount of heati ventilation, root* moisture, ssd 
atrial humidity may be increased. 

MiUonia vexiUaria, — Any of these plants that were 
not re-potted last autumn, or those requiring to be 
broken up, may be attended to at this eeaaon. Some 
growers repot the whole stock of M. vezillaria at thii 
seuon, and, as I am told, with very good reeults. 

Blinds w Shading, — Those on the Odootoglossaffl- 
houses should at once be put up, as it m^ happen 
that in a week or so the sun will be too powerfol for 
the plants daring the middle hours of the day. 
During mild weatner the Odontogloeaums may be 
afibrded plenty of air when Uie temperature outude 
stands at 50°, top and bottom ventilators bein; 
opened; but when the thermometer shows 45" out- 
of-doors, air should be admitted by opening the 
lower ventilators only, and on the opposite ifde to 
that from which the wind comes. Odontoglossuou 
being generally in full growth, and many ci them 
sending up flower-spikes, the nearer the night tem- 
perature k kept to 50*" the better it will be for the 
plnmts. 

TflB FLOWBB GA&DBN. 

By H. Waltbos, Osidener, BastwtUPark, AahCord. 

Coleiu Verschafdti, or any other of the darl(- 
foliage variety, known as boiding Coleus, should- 
now l>e propagated, making firat sure that no greeo 
or white aphis infosts them. As lOon as the cuttiogi 
are rootei and potted-off, pinch oat the point of the 
stem, and do not afford the plants later in the yesr 
more heat than will just keep them growing steadily 
and sturdily. 

The Rote ^r</fii.— Many of the pUnts have bsguo 
to grow, and the buds of newly-planted Roses are 
very forward ; it will theref )re l>e prudent to have « 
quantity of braekeo, long litter, and Fir-brsnohei 
at hand for ufe in case of sharp frosts occurriiig. 
paying especial attention to the more tender Tes 
Koses that may be situated at a distance from the 
protective influence of buildings, walls, and tall trees. 

Tmberou9'rooted Begonias, — Seede should be sown 
this month if the plants are intended for bedding 
out in June next The soil found very suitable for 
this purpose ooudsts of three parts leaf -soil to one of 
loam, with a tair quantity of sharp, olesm sand, the 
pans beingvery weU drained, and the soil in a proper 
dsgrse of moisture->that is, neither very damp nor 
dry. The seed, which is very small, needs great 
care in sowing it evenly and regularly over the ear 
face of the mould, and in covering it lightly with very 
fine soiL The seed-pans should be plunged in a brisk 
t)ottom-heat, in order to hasten its germination, and 
much attention is needed in afformng water, so as 
not to disturb the seeds. The seedlings as they 
appear should be lifted with a pointed bit of wood, 
and pricked out round the sides of well-drained psoii 
filled with the sime kind of soil as that in the seed- 
pans, potting them singly into small 60*s ss they 
become large enough, and taking care that the 
drainage is sufficient, Begonias being much injured 
by a stagnant, over-wet soil. As the plants get 
bigger, plant them oiit into frames, or repot them. 
The soil in which the plants are to grow during the 
summer should be liberally dressed with well-rotted 
leaf-soil, and deeply dug previously to being planted. 

Cfeneral Worh^The mild weather has permitted 
alterations, ground-work, gravelling, turfing, ^-t to 
be carried on without much interruption. If tree or 
shrub plauUng, excepting that of Hollies, be uncom- 
pleted, let it be finished, as far as circumstances 
will allow. Qet all the vacant flower-beds and 
borders manured and dug forthwith ; and proceed 



Fbbruabt 5, 1898.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



83 



with eutting the turf-edgingi to waUn and hedi, main- 
taioiag Uie true lioea of the tame at intended by the 
designer. 

FRUITS mSTDEB aiiASS. 

By O. N0BM4H, Oardenor, Hatfield House, Harts. 

Vines : Early-house, — The number of bunches to 
be left for a orop should be decided forthwith, and 
the thinning of the berries carried out when these 
are of the aize of Radish-seed. Vine-rods which have 
a spread of foliage on either side of about 4 feet may 
cany one bunch of 1 lb. weight to each foot of rod, 
or in Uie oase of very strong Vines, a little more than 
this. In thinning a bunch of Grapes, the thinner 
should use a pair of proper Grape- soiiisors that are 
■harp towards the points, and a small piece of stick 
or Birch-twig with a forked tip in the left hand, to 
steady tlie bunch while it is being operated upon ; 
and be must take great care not to bruise or prick the 
berries left in the bunch, or rub them with the hand, 
or let then, touch his hair. Early Grapes are not 
expected to be so large as late ones, and this fact 
should be borne in mind by the thinner, his aim 
being closeness and oompaotness of bunch, so that a 
bunch when out and laid on a dish will retain its 
shape, and not fiill all abroad. In order to have this 
desirable form, Uie berries should be dose together 
without belDg crowded. In every oase the lower 
tip of the bunch should be taken in hand first, 
beginning by cutting out the smaller and unfertilised 
berriee, always proceeding in an upward direction, 
and going orer it a second time, and thus reduce 
the hemes required as much as may be, at the 
same time leaving them as evenly distributed over 
the bunch ms possible. The berries on the four 
shoulders of the bunch having nothing to crowd, 
should be left in larger numbers than elsewhere, 
taking caro to leave no seedless ones. It is good 
practice to f^ over the Vines once or twice a week, 
and remove and stop all lateral shoots not wanted 
for fruit-oarryinff another year. The inside border, 
if found but ali^tly moist on examination, must be 
sffoided a thorough application of tepid manure- 
water, or a top-dressing with artificial or other manure 
before affording clear warm water. If the heat in 
the fermenting materials covering the outside border 
has declined, add enough fresh well- prepared 
materials in a heated ooncUtion, remaking tne mass 
throughout. The same range of temperatures as 
those recommended in last week's Calendar should be 
maintained, and see that the ventilation is carefully 
carried out, so that it will not render the foliage 
flabby and thin by too little air being admitted on 
^vourable days, or it will be very liable to get 
scorched later on in the year. The amount of damping- 
down that is done should vary in accordance with the 
weather and the amount of fire-heat that is employed, 
once a day being enough on days that are mud and 
damp, and in sunny or frobty weather four times 
may not be too many. Be careful, if you would 
avoid rusted berries, not to throw water over the 
hot-water pipes when these are in a heated state. 

Potted Vines, — When the Vines are of medium 
strength, six bunches are enough for a crop, but 
strong ooee may carry eight bunches. If the Vines 
are afforded bottom-heat by means of dung and 
leaves, this should not exceed 75^. If decUniag, 
add some small quantity of fresh materials. The 
lame kind of general treatment is required for pot- 
Vines as for permanent Vines, except in affording 
water, which must be in accordance with require- 
ments ; and it may be necessary to examine the state 
of the soil every day, as it must never be allowed to 
become quite dry, nor, on the other hand, shoujld it 
be kept continually moist Manure-water may be 
slforded onoe or twice a week when the plants are in 
sotive growth, and roots have appeared on the surface 
of the soil. ' 

THE KTFOHBN aABDBN. 

By J. W. McHattik, Gardener, StrathfleldMTe, Hants. 
. TWotof.— If seeds were sown as advised, the seed- 
lings will now require to be transferred to small pots, 
usbg mellow loam and leaf-mould in equal parts, 
with a small quantity of rotten manure and coarse 
sand, and place them in a position close up to the 
glsss in a temperature of 60^ to 65°. Shsde them 
from the sun for a few days, and afford but a small 
smouot of water for a week or so after potting ; when 
the days are fine ventilate them a little in order to 
strengthen the growth. 

CsUry,—A small quantity of seed of Standard 
Bearer, or any white variety, may now be sown in 
finely.sifted nch soil, the seeds slightly covered with 
toil, and the pans or boxes placed in a structure 



having a temperature of 50^ There is a pretty 
eonstant demand in the kitchen for unblanched 
Celery during early summer for flavouring purposes. 

ShaUotSt Cfarlio, and Ohives.^TheaB allied members 
of the Onion family m%y now be divided and planted. 
In the case of the first two, let the soil be forked over, 
levelled, and then made firm, as for Onion sowing, 
and draw drills at 1 foot apart^ i inch deep, press the 
cloves slightly into the soil at the bottom of the 
drills at 6 inches apart, then with a hoe or small rake 
draw the soil up to and almost over them. Chives 
may be divided into small bundles and planted in 
rows at 1 foot apart on the flat The pbmt forms a 
neat line 1 foot retired from the box or other edging. 
The 'plAQ^ should go as deeply into the soil as it was 
before it was removed. 

Tarragon is early on the move, and new plantations 
may be made by olgging up the roots and dividing 
and planting the divisions on a fresh piece of ground. 
It will stand a good deal of shade [imder fruit-trees, 
and should not be much manured. 

Spear etnd Peppermint may be similarly treated. 

Digging Land,-— In trenching any but the oldest 
kitohen gardens, or unusually deep soils, the subsoil 
should not be brought to the surface in any but the 
smallest quantity, or the fertility of the land will be 
impaired for several years. The following is a good 
method of trenching : having taken two good crops 
off the surface soil, trench the land three spits deep 
if lit will bear it, by which the top and the bottom 
spits are reversed, the middle spit of soil remaining 
in the middle, then take three crops off the surface 
soil, digging it only one spit deep ; and having done this 
trench it two spits. .The top spit has now become the 
middle one, and the middle the top; again take 
two cropp, and then trench three spits deep, by 
which procedure that that was the middle spit 
becomes the bottom one, and the bottom, which was 
the surface-soil at the beginning of the series, after 
having laid for four years untouched, cornea to the 
snrftKie. By this means good crops of roots and 
vegetables are obtained without annual dressings of 
anunal and vegetable manures, and ur and water 
have ready access to the soil. 



FIiANTS XTNDBJEt aiiA8& 

By W. MassKNoea, Qardener, Woolverstone Park, Ipswich. 

4diemtum cuneatum. — ^Thoee plants from whidi the 
more useful fronds have been out^ and have been kept 
somewhat drier at the roots, may now be repotted, 
some of the laiger plants m%y be split up for stock, 
although plants from spores are preferable, as 
growing with more freedom. Plants which are in 
good health and have not stood any great length of 
time in the same pots, perhaps do not require a shift, 
and providing the drainage is in good order, they 
will make a satisfactory growth with the aid of 
mild manure-water afforded when growing. As a 
potting compost for Adiantums, use fibrous loam of 
good quality two-thirds, and leaf-mould one- third, and 
sand and charcoal in quantities sufficient to keep the 
soil porous and sweet, drainage being an essential 
point When shaking out the plants, a pointed stick 
should be employed to looeen the matted roots and 
remove the soiL Before repotting, give them a dust- 
ing with sand, and take care that the soil is pushed 
down the bottom betwixt the ball and the side of the 
pot Place the repotted plants in a brisk, moist heat, 
and afford water sparingly till growth has freely 
begun. As other plants beoome d^bby-looking, cut 
the fronds over, keep the soil somewhat dry for a 
time, and then treat m. the manner I have described. 

Pteiis serrulata, — ^Young plants of the type and the 
crested forms, if growing in small pots, may be shifted 
into larger pots and plaoed in a brisk heat, when 
they will rapidly make decorative specimens of a use- 
ful sixe. Spores may be sown on sterilised peat in 
order to keep up the atook of plants, throwing away 
the large old pUmts when no longer of decorative use. 

NephroUpis exaUata, — Where large quantities of 
Fern fronds are needed for cutting; this useful Fern 
might be extensively grown with advantage, and 
young pieces are readily obtsinable from the i^des of 
baskets, firom the rockwork in the fernery, or by break- 
ing up the old plants. There is no difficulty where 
a small stock exists in increasing it Divided plants 
may be plaoed for recovery in an early vinery, or 
similar house in which a moderate degree of warmth 
is maintained. 

Asparagus plnmosuSf Ac. — These plants need 
timely attention, as growth recommences early in the 



year. A. plumosus and A. p. nanus, two of the more 
useful varieties for decoration or for cutting, which 
are much cut over, may be repotted, using 6-inoh 
pots for ordinary purposes ; but if spedmens are 
required, larger pots are necessary. In order to 
increase the stocks of these plants, the roots may be 
divided, or cuttings taken off the main stems, 
each with a leaf^ may be inserted singly in thumbs 
in a sandy soil, and after affording water, place the 
cattings under a hand-glaas in a brisk bottom-heat 
From those cuttings inserted at this date, plants of a 
uielnl sine and in 4 or 6-inoh pots mi^ be obtained 
by the bsginning of the autunm. Bare parts of the 
baok-walls of vineries, stoves, or any position which 
will permit the growths to be trained on wires or 
strings, nuqr be covered by setting out old plants of 
A. plumoeus or A. tenuissimus^ the former being 
the more useful variefy. A. decumbens of 
gardens, when grown in a wire basket, makes an 
elegant plant for hanging in the conservatory or 
fernery. The stocks of these plants may be increased 
by division of the roots, and good lumpy pieces of 
fibrous loam, leaf mould, and sand, form a suitable 
oompost to use ; a layer of moss being used to cover 
the sides of the basket A. rsoemosus is a variety 
that is found of use for affording foliage for cutting, 
or as a decorative plant 

MvrsiphylUtn atparagoides, growing in pots and 
which is denuded of most of its growths, may be 
repotted or divided forthwith if an increase of stock 
be required ; good results are also obtamed by sowing 
seed early in this month in brisk heat, and pricking 
off the seedlings into thumbs when large enough to 
handle^ and finally affording them a shift into 5 or 6 
inch pots. A similar position and treatment are 
advised for this plant as for Asparagus plumosus. If 
planted out, it is advisable to lift them in alternate 
years, and reduce the sise of the plant somewhat 
before replanting ; add a little fresh soil, not too rich, 
or the gro¥rth wiU beoome coarse and lees well adapted 
for decorative purposes. 



THB HABDY FJEtXHT GABDSN. 

Bv W. H. Divsas, Gardener, Belvolr Csstla, Grantham. 

Digging. — All fruit-tree borders should be dug 
without delay, in order that the fain and snow may 
penetrate tlie soil without hindrance before dry 
weather commences. This is especially necessaiy 
with walbtree borders which get trodden very hard. 
If the trees will be benefited by manuring, afford 
rich ^rmyard dung in a deeayed state before begin- 
ning to dig. If the pruning and nailing of the trees 
oannot be finished befbre digging the border, broad 
planks or wooden trelliMS should be used by the men 
engaged in these operations, 

Bwarreem and Duke OAerriet.— Those wall-treea 
which were properly pruned in the summer will need 
but little more at tms season, and it will suffice to 
shorten the points of those bxanchea that were laid 
in at their full length by one-third, and in this manner 
encourage the formation of fruiting spurs. The 
foliage of these varieties of the Cherry is large, and 
therefore the branches and shoots should not be less 
than 4 inches apart Toung shoots that were cut 
back somewhat in the summer in order to form fVuit- 
spurs must be still further reduced to 2 inches in 
length ; and spurs which have got very long should 
also be shortened. Let the dead leaves and other 
rubbish be cleared out frota behind the branches, as 
this offers hiding-places for aphides and other pest& 
Any parts of a tree affected with gumming should 
be cleaned and dried with a hot iron, and then 
covered with grafUng-wax or Mastic lliomme Lefort. 
This disease is sometimes fstal to Cherry-trees, and 
great care should be exercised so as not to bruise the 
bark when nailing. Standard Cherry-trees need but 
little pruning, all that is necessary being the removal 
of oroasing branches ; and in the esse of young trees, 
the shortening of the main branches to 9 inches in 
length until a good foundation for the head is 
obtained, and five to seven shoots of equal strength are 
suffldeDt for this purpose. Hie wei^er shoots should 
be shortened to 2 inches. Cherry-bushes that have 
attained to full sise will require that their young 
shoots be shortened to 2 inches, and the long spurs 
attended to. It is better to keep these bushes of a 
convenient size for netting than to let them beoome 
large. In places where Cherries ftdl to stone, and 
they fall from the trees at an early period, a heavy 
dressing of lime-rubbish or of slaked lime should 
now be forked into the borders, but lime made of 
magnesian limestone must not be used ; and finely 
broken ohalk, if it can be obtained, us better than 
anything else. 



84 



THE GABDENEBS' CEBONICLE. 



[February 5, 1898. 



EDITORIAL NOTIGE8. 



ADVCRTI8EMENT8 should hm Miit to tho PUBUSHER. 

Lstfesrt for Publleallon, a» wgR m wp9t^mtmtamdpiamUfb^ 
wmUmg, Amdd U addruttd to a« EDITOR. 41, Welllnc- 
ton StrMt, CovMit Qarden, London. GomMMiiioalioiM 

iAouM bt WRITTBM OM Om IIDB OHLT OV TH> PAPBB^ 

•ml Of Mriy iw a« iffMfe cm poMiMc, ond duly fi^iiid by 
iktwrikir, J/dMind,tiUti9iMliir»w<UiMlbfpriiilid,b«l 
]Mp<Ma^iMinMiiM(/ilood/iiA. nbiBd<(ordo<t«o<i w d tr 
tote to pay /or am/ff OMUribuMoiif, or f« nlnni twnmd oom- 
mwitoiMoiu or <OiM<raMoiw,«mI«n by jpfotal orranpiMmt 

Local News.— GsrrsspoMdmlf «ri0 grtaO/ff eUigt bjf »ind4mg 
to tkft Editor taidff inUttigtnoi of loeot timite UMy to bf 
of V k i m n^ to om naderf, or q/ any wotten wMdk « U 
dftlrablc (0 bring «Ndrr a« MoMot 0/ korMoidliiriiCi; 

Illustrations.—!^ Xd<tor «ri0 fkniX^Adly netiM osd scImI 
liAoioynifAf or drowriapt, •ttttobl* /br riprodiieMoa, of 
gardtm, or of romairkoiiU plaate, Jtomn, Irsti, de. ; bid 
]kc ecmaol bt rHpon«ib2«/br low or iii^nry. 



APPOINTMENTS FOR THE ENSUING WEEK. 



TUESDAY. Feb. g i Royal Hort Society's Committee^ 

• ( and Annual Meeting. 

BATURDAT, Feb. isj^ij^^i^,^*** Boclety-General 

8 A L E 8. 

( Carnations. Perennials, Conti- 
TUE8DAT, Fbb. 8-J nental Plants, Ac., at Frotheroo 

C b Morris' BOoms. 

(Japanese Lilios, Tuberoses. Con. 
tinental Plants, Roses, Bego- 
nias, Qladioli, &C., at Protheroe 
& Morris' Rooms. 
Roses, Fruit Trees, Shrubs, Bui s. 
Border Plants, at Mr. BtoTens* 
Booms. 

Roses, Fruit Trees, Shrubs, Bulbs, 



■{ 



THURSDAY, Feb. 10-[ Border Plants, Ao., at Bterens* 



Booms. 



FRIDAY, 



«-- 11/ Imported and Est'ibllsbed Orchids, 
riB. 11 1 ^ Protheroe & Morris* Riom* 



ArsiuoB Tbhpbratubb fbr the ensuing week, deduced firom 
ObeervationB of Forty-three yean, at Chiswiek.— 99*2**. 
Actual Tempebaturbs :— 

LoNDOK.— /"ebritary 2 (6 p.m.) : Max., 53"; Min., 42'. 
pBomroBa. — February 2 (« p.m.) : Max., 45% south- 
west counties ; Min., 36°, norUi-east Scotland. 
Weather colder ; strong wind. 



The relation between the stock 

^me^^t ^^ ^® ^^^ " * subject to wbich 
GrafUog. reference has frequently been 
made in these columns. What 
is known as Knight's law, which Van Mons 
expressed still more clearly, asserts that ** only 
its own nature controls the development of the 
scioD." It has, however, been proved that the 
statement is not universally true, and that the 
scion and the stock mutually influence each 
other more or less. Sometimes one predomi- 
nates in influence, and sometimes the other ; 
and a very important series of experiments in 
this connection is contained in Vochtino*s 
Ueher TranspJanUxtion am PflanzenkorptTy which 
was published a few years ago. Much addi- 
tional and corroborative information has since 
been recorded by various observers, more espe- 
cially perhaps by Prof. Daniel, of the University 
of Eennes, in Brittany, who, in the Comptes 
Bendus (t. cxxv., No. 18), has lately given on 
t^is subject an elaborate account of recent 
experiments, which are all the more important, 
inasmuch as they tread on what may be called 
new ground in the field of the graft. 

M. Daniel mentions at the outset that in 
the ordinary methods of grafting, care is taken 
as a rule to suppress all the shoots of the stock 
at the time of the operation. Occasionally, and 
in order to facilitate the rise of the sap to the 
level of the graft, a bud or a few leaf-beariog 
shoots are retained at the apex of the stock. 
This procedure is, however, always of a teaopo- 
rary character, and the removal of all growths 
of this nature is effected after the graft has 
** taken,*' because, as is commonly sfiid, the 



existence of the scion would be seriously com- 
promised by the more rapid development of the 
stock itself. M. Daniel asserts that no attempt 
had ever been made to observe the effect of 
leaving a certain number of shoots on the stock, 
and keeping their development within bounds 
so as to preserve the life of the scion. He com- 
menced his experiments on the hypothesis that 
different results should be obtainable — as 
regards the success of the operation itself, and 
also in respect to the reciprocal reactions of Uie 
scion and stock — ^if it were possible to maintain 
an artificial equilibrium between the parts, 
which would then simultaneously assimilate, 
and elaborate sap derived from one and the 
same source. M. Daniel calls his new method 
the '* mixed graft," to distinguish it from the 
other ordinary systems. 

He states that whilst it is an easy matter to 
graft successfully plants with persistent leaves 
on certain other plants whose leaves are non- 
persistent, the inverse method is difficult, if not 
impossible ; inasmuch, as the stock, when it is 
deprived of its persistent leaves by the ordinary 
process of grafting, exists in the winter prac- 
tically at the expense of the scion which, being 
itself leafless by nature during the same period, 
is imable to render the necessary help. To 
this cause, M. Daniel attributes the failure of 
the '* ordinary " method in this connection. 

In the spring of 1891, M. Daniel grafted 
the wild Cherry (Cerasus avium) on the Cherry- 
laurel (Prunus lauro- cerasus), leaving on the 
stock certain shoots of which the young leaves 
were pinched back as soon as their develop- 
ment assumed proportions prejudicial to the 
scion. In the following year, too large a num- 
ber of leaves was intentionally left on the stock, 
with the result that the scion suffered both in 
its development and from insect attacks. When , 
however, the stock was subjected to severe 
pruning, the scion was restored to its normal 
conditions, and when in subsequent seasons, 
the number of leaves left on the stock was 
proportionate to the giowth of the scion, a 
perfect equilibrium between the two plants was 
obtained, and their growth was normal. The 
scion, moreover, has since borne fruit on two 
occasions, and some of its shoots have attained 
a length exceeding 1 yard annually. M. 
Daniel therefore considers this union to have 
been completely successful, and he is of opinion, 
at any rate in the case of the two plants above- 
mentioned, that the ''mixed method" offers a 
better means of grafting a tree with non-per- 
sistent leaves on an evergreen. 

Another series of experiments was under* 
taken by grafting two different kinds of Hari- 
cot Beans. The grafting of Haricot Beans, as 
weU as of other hollow-stemmed plants, had 
apparently been considered impracticable until 
M. Daniel at the '' French Association " meet- 
ing in 1892 announced its possibility by graft- 
ing the plants during the pariodof germination. 
In order the better to observe the differences 
between the ** ordinary " and ** mixed " methods 
in this connection, M. Daniel selected two varie- 
ties with maximum characteristic differences, 
viz., the Black Belgian and the Soissons Hari- 
cots. The former is a dwarf and somewhat 
early plant, with a short inflorescence, bearing 
from Uiree to five violet flowers, yielding two or 
three pods, which are tender and agreeable to 
the taste, and bearing dark-violet, medium- 
sized seeds. The Soissons Bean, on the other 
hand, is a Bunner Bean, and a much later 
plant ; its long inflorescence bears about twenty 
pale yellow ffowers, with three to pve coar]^ 



pods of a disagreeable taste, and its seeds are 
white and large. 

Mr. Daniel experimented with plants 
growing side by side under exactly similar 
conditions, in order to obtain comparative 
results of the two different methods of grafting, 
and he also grew plants of each variety under 
normal conditions, so as to serve as checks on 
the variations obtained. The results are shown 
in the following tabular statement : — 



o 

o 



i 

I 

* 9 
a S 

o s 



"o 

> 



O fa 

i ■ 
lit 




8 

I 



1 

•2 

o 



r 



i 



o 

ft 



& 

d 

o 

8 



I 

M 



a 



I 



O o 

r. 



s& 


• 


> 


o 




•»* 


is 


> 




1 


fS 


O 


^i 


• 







is rj 



I 




OQ 



mM a 

3 ♦* ■** 

«a «a _ -I 

t»2PS M 

00 O 






'I 



a 



n 

d 

I 



i 

o 

O 
S5 






i 

a 

d 
> 






i 




^ « 

•a 

Q 



dtd 

b3 



1^ S 

« s 



ft 

o 
S3 

3 



2 

o 



9 



ill 



if 



00 ^ 



t 

o 



pa 



1 

CO 



The conclusions drawn by M. Daniel from 
these experiments are as follows : — 

The *' mixed m^thol" of grafting should be 
adopted to ensure more easily the union between 
plants of marked physiological differences, as 
in the case of persistent and deciduous leaves. 

The direct influence of the stock on the scion 
is not identical in the *' mixed" and in the 
'' ordinary *' methods. Those phenomena which 
may be considered due to variations in the sur- 
rounding conditions, as are the size and rela- 
tive vigour of the scion, are less marked in the 
case of the *' mixed " method. On the contrary, 
certain characteristics of the stock, such as its 
taste, the shape of its fruit, and t^e colour of 
its flowers, are much more easily conveyed to 
the scioa by the "mixed'' method, which 
should be used when it is desired to obtain by 
means of the graft new varieties possessing 
certain particular characteristics; or, in other 
words, to make the scion or its posterity acquire 
certain qualities of a given stock. Conversely, 
when the aim is to maintain the purity of the 
variety to which the scion belongs, the *' ordi- 
nary" methods should be adopted, leaving, 
moreover, on the stock the smallest possible 
proportion of green parts- -that is to say, to 
operate as near the root as is possible. 



Fkbbvarv G, 1S9S0 



THE GASDENEBS' CHRONICLE. 



Crocus ZONATUS.— a lo*8lj autumn-fiowning 
ipeeJM, which growi in lounj Kiil, knd oommool; 
(ODUd in the Cedu wid Jaaipw (bratti ; oftsD alio in 
the Alpine rapon of the Cili<^ Tmitoi. Tba flowan 
•M ot> rilkf, p*la violet Miour, withdialinot goldea- 
jalloir mirka in the bM*. The illiutiaition furniahed 
byllr, SliHB(fi2. 31} ahowa the plantau growing wild. 

RovAL Horticultural Society.— The next 
Fiuit and Floral Heating oE tha Bofal Hartioultural 
S lolaty will be held on Tncedaj, Februaiy 8, in the 
Drill Hall, Ztmm Street, Weetmituter, 1 to « F.ic. 
At 8 o'oloek tbe AaauEd Qeneial Ueetiog of the 
Sooiet; will b« hald in (he Linllej Librai;, 117i 
Vwtoria Street, S.W. 



H. Ca. DE BoBiOBiBB will treat of Orohida both is 
the P^enoh and in the Flemiah Unguagei. Ur, di 
BiDKEB will iMture on pUnia grown in apurlmmta, 
and on town gardcua. H. Di BoesoaiM will alao 
leetare on the art of arranging flowers. The datei 
flied at pnaent are Jaonary 30, Febmary fl, Feb, 13, 
Feb. 27, and March 0, at 11 a.m. at the Zoologioal 
Oarden. Further partioiUara maj be had from 
H. Takdbblihdih or H. Akatol* di Cock, the 



John UNDEN.— On the 12th init, the Amaiiu 
ItorticaU wilt publiah a full acoouat of the oarear of the 
late eminent oolleotor, acoonpanied bj • portnut taken 
from one p^Dt«d hj hia aoo, H. Qaston Lihdin. 



18BS, at half'paat 6 o'clock preciralj. Tbe CoonoU 
are invitiog maof diatioguiehed pertona aa offiola] 



FOREtTB OF SiAM.~LaDgsuaQ, a dittriot of 
Siam whence tin ia obtained, producea the varioua 
kinda of fruit oommon to moat Hala;an Statea, the 
Durian, the Papaw, Mangoateao, Uangi, Orange, 
Jaok-fmit (Artocarpua), Melon, the Banaoa and 
othara. The climate ia hat, damp, and var; unwhote- 
aome. "There livea in tha denae jungle," aald Hr. 
Warington Smyth, at areoent meoti&g of the Itoynl 
Oeographical Soflietj, "a peculiar plant known to 
boUniata, which ia called bj tbe Siameee KaluugtoD 
chaDg, and which aeta up gront iiritation in the i^in 



FlU. 31. — CBOCfS lONATUd -. rLUWEKS of 1 

(t nnt. .iff.) 



SILKY FALBVIOLU COLOCB. 



Horticultural Club. — The tweotj-ihird 
■nDiTtraar; dinuer will take pUoe oa Tneedaj, 
F«bruai7 S, at the Hotel Windaor, Victoria Street, 
We-tmiuiter, S.W. Tha chair will be taken by Sir 
J D, T. Lliwiltii, Bart., U.P, chairman of the 
Clab, at6 P.M. 

National Rose Society.— Offan at apedai 
priaea are eameacly requeated, aa tbe Qeneral Furpoaee 
Committee will meet ehortt; to prepare draft copiw 
of the aohedulai for tha jvar. Such prizaa will be 
more than usually welcons, owing to tha aum 
available for tha Crystal Palace ahow being much 
aoumer than in the pretioiu year. 

Royal Horticultural ako Agricultural 
SOCIETYOF Antwerp.- TbeSodety haa eatebliahed 
a lariet of lectnrea on horticultural aubjacta, thu* : 



SEED8MEHS' ENTERPRISE.— It appears that we 
wera not auBioiantly wall informed when we oom- 
uentad on tbe apparent want of anlerpriae of our 
aeed-flrma. Heseia. Chablis SaABPitACo. (Lt.), 
now send us catalognea in French and Gennin, with 
the pricei and quantities given ia terms which foreiga 
purchaaan oan undfratand. No foreigner could nuke 
hrad or tail of our own idtoUo weights and meaaurea. 

The SuRVErORS' Institution.— The next 
ordinary general meeting will be held on Uonilay, 
Fabruary 7, 1S9S. wben the adjourned discusaion 
on tha paper read by Hr. A. UuEtsoH (Aiiooiate), at 
the last meeting, Butitlsd " Tochnlcal Tribunals and 
SuTveyon as Arbitral an," will be resumed. The 
chair will ba taken at 8 o'clock. The Annual Dinnur 
of the Institution will lake place at tbe Holbora 
Restaurant CKing'a HallJ on Wednesday, Fsbraary 9, 



of any parton coming into contact with it. It bM a 
large broad leaf, and tha Siamese deolara, after bmng 
badly atnng by it^ the only renady ia tha heat of a 
Are ; to bathe in a atraam, whioh ii the aatural 
mpulse, ia conNdered abaolutaly fatal." Probably 
thia Isaome Urtioaoaoua tree, bHtthadaaeriplion"a 
Urge broad leaf lacks amplitude. 

London Parks and Open Spaces.— Sir 
Johh HcrroN, • former Chairman of the London 
County Council, la the couru uf an addrau on '' Some 
orLindou's Munic pal Ficaaod Figures," gave soma 
intareating details as to the growth of open apaoea in 
London during the paat tan jraara. The London 
County Council, which woe constitutad nndar the 
Local Qovemment Act of 13S J, oama into pswar in 
1839, and at that time London pnaa a iaid only tor^ 
parks and open apacei, with ai acraaga ol 2,6 j^. At 



86 



THE 0ARDENER8' CERONICLE. 



[Fkbbvart 6, 1898« 



the p r— o nt time London hM Boventy-nine piriui tod 
open ipaoM, to the namber haa praoticillj doubled 
during the ktt nine jeara. The aoreege is now 8,685, 
an inveeae of over 1,000 acres ; neither of thaee iWms 
of acreage include what are known as Boyal Parks, as 
Sir Job V was deaUog only with those under the control 
of the London County Council ; the actual result is 
the addition of 1,029 acres during the past nine years. 
By comparing this added acreage with that of the 
Royal Parks, some idea is gained as to what this 
added acreage really means. Hyde Park is 400 acres 
in extent ; Regent's Park and Primrose Hill combined 
amount to 450 acres ; the Gh'een Park, a<^oining 
Piccadilly, 71 acres ; and St. James' Park, 83 acres. 
These figures totalled up amount to 1,001 acres ; so 
the added acreage of pu^ and open spaces provided 
by the London County Council since its formation 
more than equals the whole extent of the 
four royal parks, the extent of the latter being 
20 acres short of the total increase since 1889. 
The oost of maintenance is £105,000 per annum, 
which roughly speaking comes out at about £28 per 
acre, certainly not too Urge a sum when one con- 
siders how well they are kept, and what an enor- 
mous boon they are to the community. Sir JoHir 
HuTTOir can boast, with justifiable pride, that during 
the three years he was chairman of the Board the 
large majority of these new additions became added 
possessions. It should not be forgotten that the 
immense aone which is known as greater London, 
lying beyond the droumference of the area governed 
by the London County Council, has, during the past 
fifteen years or more occupied itself in also adding to 
its open spaces. London grows in every direction, 
and local governing bodies are fully alive to the 
necessity of making this provision to the great ad- 
vantage of the several localities particularly interested. 

— The Earl of Mcath as Pkresidentof the Me- 
tropolitan Public Qardens Association, has addressed a 
letter to the Times on the subject of ihe maintenance 
of the smaller pleasure-grounds of London, and dis- 
cusses the question, whether they shall be maintained 
wholly or in part by the London County Council, 
or by the local authorities. ** The open spaces in 
London of less than 10 acres in extant^ whidi are at 
present kept up for the enjoyment of the public, 
number 208, aggregatmg 366^ acres. Of these the 
London County Council at present maintain 12. 
Many of the London district boards, vestries, and 
burial boards are keenly interested in the maintenance 
of open spaces, and are very sncceasful in their 
management. For instance, Hackney keeps open 
19 such grounds, blington 10, and St. Pancras 8, 
whilst 34 other similar bodies, including the City of 
London, are responsible between them for the main- 
tenance of 77 grounds." The Earl concludes his 
remarks thus*-** It is to be hoped, therefore, that 
the London County Council, whilst oontributiog 
towards the cost of the maintenance of all small 
public open spaces within the metropolis, will, as far 
as possible, leave their management in local hands." 

A Botanical Garden for Aberdeen.— a 

■erious deficiency in the equipment of the University 
(a deficiency in which it stands alone) is the want of 
a garden to provide means and opportimity for the 
study of living plants, and to render possible the 
efficient teaching of vegetable physiology, whiek is 
required by ordinance as an essential part of botany 
in the final examination for the degree of B.Sc. The 
recent institution of degrees in agriculture renders 
the necessity for such means of instruction mora 
pressing. A small botanic garden might be suitably 
provided near King's College at little cost More 
than a century ago it was proposed to set aside a 
" spot of ground *" behind what is now the Biblical 
Criticism Manse for a botanic garden, as being 
** uncommonly well adapted by the variety of soil it 
contoias, its command of water, its sheltered situa- 
tion, and its nearness to the College ;" but financial 
difficulties prevented the project from being carried 
out. The same spot of ground would still be suitable ; 
ahd, on a representation recently made with regard to 
it by the Professor of Botany (who was, however. 



then tmaware of the eartler proposal), tiM Uoiversity 
Court, while regrett i ng that the stale of the 0niversi^ 
fdnds did not meantime permit of the proposal being 
carried out, recognised the necessity of it>me such 
provision being made as soon as posdble. The first 
cost of laying out the ground may be estimated at 
£200 ; and the annual expense of maintaining it with 
rigid eoonomy, as an open-air garden without green- 
houses, at £100, which capitalised at thirty-three 
years would amount to £3300— in all, say, £8500. 

Kensington Palace. — The most beautiful 

portion of the whole fgroup of buildings, says the 
Timeu^ is the Orangery, a long garden-house which 
was built by Sir Chbistophib Wrkv towards the 
end of his life, and which bears Queen Ahvb's mono- 
gram. It is in red brick, and so fiur as the south 
front and the ends are concerned, is in admirable 
preservation ; but the exquisite interior has been the 
victim not of neglect, but of dironic ontrsge. For, as 
the litUe garden between this and the Palace has been 
found a convenient place on which to put up the 
glasshouses, frames, and potting-sheds necessary for 
the park-gardeners, what more natural, to the official 
eye^ than that the Orangery dose by should be pressed 
into the same service f Acoordinglyi at some time or 
other, which cannot have been very many yesis ago, 
mere than half the beautiful high Ode-panelling of this 
buildmg was torn down and has disappeared ; the gar- 
deners' stands have been let into the wdls, and there the 
daily work has proceeded with no thought that it was 
a daily desecration. Fortunately, it is not beyond 
the skill of a modern wood-carver to work from 
Wbbbt's models as well as Wbeh's own men could do. 
When that is done, and when the floor has been relaid 
— whether in ooncrete or Oak appears to be not yet 
derided — this will be one of the loveliest buildings of 
the late Renaissance period to be found in England. 
It is proposed, we believe, to put it to no active use, 
but to make it just a resting-place and a reftige from 
the weather for any visitors to the gardens. But, 
that the impression may be complete, it will be 
poeitivdy necessary to remove the greenhousee to 
anotiier quarter, perh^M to the neighbouring 
meadow, where they would be fdriy out of sight, and 
the ground on which th^ stand must then revert to 
its origind intention and be Idd out in walks and 
flower-beds. 

The Royal Gardeners' Orphan Fund.— 

The monthly meeting of the committee took place 
on the 28th ult., at the Hotel Windsor, Mr. Willi4m 
Marshall, presiding. The following specid dona- 
tions were announced : — Scottish Horttculturd Asso- 
ciation, £50 ; Royd Caledonian Horticulturd 
Sodety, £26 5< ; Chesterfield Ghirdeners' Associa- 
tion, £5 18t. id ; Mrs. Wills, 16, Ondow Crescent, 
£5 5s. ; Messrs. W. Thomson k Sons, Clovenfords, 
box, £4 5s. id. ; Mr. J. H. Vallanoe, Bristol, £i ; 
the Leeds Paxton Society, £t 15t ; Mr. H. Herbst, 
Kew Road. Richmond, £2 2s. ; Mr. J. Smith, per 
Mr. J. Wright, £2 ; Mr. George Fry, Uwidiam, box, 
£1 3#. 5(i. ; Messrs. J. Veitch k Sons, box,£l 25. 8«f. ; 
the Bournemouth Qardeners' Association, box, £1 It. ; 
Mr. G. Nicholson, Kew, box, £1 ; Miss Forrest, 
Anderton*s Hotd, Fleet Street, box, £1 ; Mr. T. 
Turner, R.H.a Gardens, Chiswick, box, 15t. %d. ; 
afr. J. Sdway, Betteshanger, 17<. id. ; Messrs. H. 
Cannell k Sons, Swanley, box, lli. ; Mr. J. Miller, 
The Gardens, Ruxley Lodge, Esher, lOt. ; the 
young men at Ruxley Lodge Gardens, lOi. ; Mr. 
A. D. Christie, Rsgley Hdl Gardens, Alcester, Tt. 6 ^ ; 
young men at Fairlawn, Tonbridge, 7t. ^d. ; and 
the Chidehurst Gardeners' Society, 6«. Great satis- 
faction was expressed at the very handsome 
donations f^m the two Scottish horticulturd 
aasociations. A draft report and also a financid 
statement, were adopted for presentation at the 
ooming annud meetiog. Some letters of deep 
thankfulness were read from the mothers and 
guardians of children, who, by reaohiog the allotted 
age, have ceased to be chargeable to the Fund. Oqjs 
passsge in the report tou(^es on the timely hdp 
afforded to children who have been on the Fund, in 
the way of assistance in getting a start in life. The 



•aond dinner is fixed for Wednssdsy, April 20, and 
will take plioe at the H6td M^tropole, CHiUUja 
KaiMB, Esq., Warrsn House, Stanmore, pxesidiag. 
Thia being the last meeting of the eominittee prs- 
viona to the annual general meetiBg, a hearty vot« of 
thanks was paaed to the Chairman for his ssrricei 
during the year. 

The Austrauan Kitchen Garden.— Bj 

Faaiilc FuTBDOK (George Roberteon k Ca, Mdbonme, 
Sydney, AdeUidtB, Brisbane, London). A book 
destined to give ^ reliable information in handy form*' 
cannot USl to prove of great valne^ and this it oef • 
tainly the case with tne volume before na. Some 
idea of the subject-matter may be gleaned from the 
td>le of contents, where under the hesding of manige- 
ment we are referred to information conoeming tooli, 
frames, hot^beds, and horticultural operations such 
as seed sowing, watering, k^ Yarietiee and Treat- 
ment ii the heading to the instructions for growing 
vegetables (firom Artichokes to Vegetable-Marrows) ; 
m i sc d l a neons crops indude Arrowroot, Castor-oil 
Plant, Chinese Tam, Liquorice and Tobacco ; while 
land measure, a monthly calendar of operations, s&d 
a sheet odendar are last in place but not in vdne. 
Various illustrations brighten the pages, and the 
detdled information given reipecdng every variety of 
vegetable mentioned (dphabetically), is furnished by 
a highly competent authority. Saltd plants, we note, 
reedve specid treatment in Mr. FursDozf's booL 

The North Peckham Amateur Chrysan- 
themum Society hdd iU annud dinner on the 
27th ult, the proceedings being markedly enthusiattic, 
and the prospect of specid and other priass for 
competition during the present year, are very 
encouraging. 

PuBucATiONS Received.— I%« Rwral Monthly, 
18, Oheapside, B.C., Jan., 1898. The Eret number 
of a new joumd with the sub-title: Snull Fanxu 
Agency and Producer and Consumers* Advertiser.— 
Proeeedinffs rf the Agri-fforticuUural Society of 
Madrat, July to September, 1897, includes papen 
on Opuntia as Cattle Fodder, Rubber-plant Seed, 
Mai^;osteen, Carrot Seed. ko.~The West Australmn 
SettUn* Ouide aud Farmer's Handbook / Parts L 
to IV, ^ National Footpath Preservation Society: 
Thirteenth Annud Report The report endesvoan 
to do justice alike to the landowner and the waj- 
£urer. Undoubtedly much daoiage is done bj 
thoughtless people, but not by naturalists. — Ddcctut 
seminum ex horto Cantahrigiensis Aeademia ad 
mutaam commutationem propotitorum (Exchange Seed- 
list Cambridge Botanic Gardens), R. I. Lynch, Curstor. 



HOLKHAM. 



A PSBrcoT model of an Italian garden forms ptrt 
of the beautiful environment of the house, whose 
principd approach is firom the south, the msin 
entrance being through a noble portico of CorinthitD 
columns. Here, in an ovd sheet of water, is a fine 
omamentd fountain, with a group in the centre 
representing St. George and the Dragon. Three 
colnmna of water issue firom the dragon's mouth, sod 
form an excellent fiM-simile of the Prince of Wdei' 
feathers. The water on the estate is drawn from in 
artesian well 750 feet deep, and the dte of the well is 
only 80 feet above sea-leveL In the pleasure-groundi 
are three large Pines, which are probably the oldest is 
England. It was understood that ths seed was brought 
to Holkham from Cornea, and it was dways believed 
that the trees were Pinus Laricio, which has twisted 
leavee, occadonally 6 inches long. Both on the 
ground of the tradition associated with the seed» vdA 
the appearance of the trees themselves, Mr. Munro, 
who is no mean authority, accepted the belief thst 
they were Larido, but the consensus of opinion on 
this ocoadon was that they are austriaca ; and in 
several other parts the Corsican Pine was pronounced 
to be a variation of the Austrian, and not Laricio st 
aU. One of these trees hss a girth of SO^inchea(qaftrter 

girth), and is about 90 foot high. Another is a (oot 
less in girth, but towers to a height of over 90 (set* 



Febbpabt B, I8B8.] 



THE BASDENEBS- CHRONICLE. 



Moat of tha PinM hsnabont were gromfram the 
aaed of the older treea. Here we law an AUee nuapo 
and CedruB atlantio in oooe, and a Portngd &aiiMl 
in seed. A Cednu Libint a!ota by il 30 InohM 
quart«r girth (under bark), and a WelUiigtomft ie 
Si% inohea, and OS feet high. A TnUp^ttae, an Aoer 
Negondo TahrgMum, aod an Abiea oephalonioa (the 
latter <S feet high, aod in porteot health) were alea 
noted. Growing onbdde In the ganleni were well- 
fruited P!g-tren, and Tomatoe were fruiting freel; in 
the open. There are B aerea of edclosed garden land, 
ind a eorrtiaponding acreage of orehard, with raogei 
of oonaerratoriee, vineiiee, and other glau-honsee tar 
Hotio pUnta and frnlte. Of the SSOO arm eneloeed 



GEOEGE FRY. 

Wi liaTe mnoh plauura In publiabtDg, from hia own 
pen, a few aalient partJeulan in the life of a oale- 
bisted gardener and nnreerjioaii, and meet eetitnablg 
man. Manj of our readera will be aoqnaintod with 
hit name only as being the 
Tarietieaot Fuchaias in the e arl; fortiea and later, 
although to the younger ganecation of gardensti Mr. 
Fry i« praotioally nnlinown out of hia own neigh- 
boarhood— but ws will let Hr. Fry tell hia ator; in 

" I commenced my career in the early Uilrtief, 
and whan the Srit gardener'a nempaper oame ou^ 



OEORGB FRT. 



bf park walla, over 1000 aoree are wooda and planta- 
ttoni ; while there ia a pretty lake, about 1 000 jardi 
long, irith three iaieta, haunted by waterfowl of 
Englith and fonugu brceb, Yroja tha pleiaure- 
graundl we drofe on to tha Obeliak Wood— a wood 
which takea ita name from a atone oolumn 30 feet 
b^, on the main drive leading to the louth lodge. 
ne Obeliak waa erected in 1729, a few yura before 
ta£ building of Holkham Houie waa commenced. It 
wu oloee to the Obellek that Hr. Uunro pointed out to 
ut the largeat of the evergreen Oaks. In the wood 
ot Uut name are leveral Urge Beechea. One of tbeee' 
uMeurei 31 inehea quarter girth, aod )iu a Soc clean 
^^i it was computed to contain S33 cubic feet of 
^ber. Aaothor Beech has a quarter girth of 
31 inchaa, and ia eaid to contain 360 oubio feet 
ol Umber. TranMettons of Ike EnglM ArboriciUturat 



which waa published on January 7, 1837, 1 beoame a 
autweriber in the autumu of that year ; and well 
I remember the winter of 1837—1838, and known 
or dealgnated by aome ai 'Hutphy'e' winter, 
he having predicted the ooldeat night. The Royal 
Exchange waa deatroycd by fire on the night of 
January IC, 1838; the deitruation of ihrube and 
vegetaUon generally waa very ezteotive. Heverthe- 
leaa, I waa enabled to «at very htndaome Cueumben 
in Uie month of April following tbii rigoroua winter ; 
not the kind of Cucumber we grow now, but the old 
favourite ribbed BLack Spine, that earned a beautiful 
bloom, like a well Saiehed bunch of Orapea. At thia 
time our early forcing was done mostly by fermenting 
material— good hone-dung and leaves; We had our 
handsome, clean Potetoe early in the montha of 
spring ; alio Radishes, Carratt, and all auch tbinga sa 
required. All my early daya were much onoupled in 



thia general routine of garden prutios ; and whan 
there haa been de^ anow aod keen froat, I felt 
proad in bebg « young gardener. At thii time I 
took in Haeintoah'a Practical Qardcuer, and thought 
nothing of running about two milea in my dinner^ 
hour to obtain the monthly number or part ; thia 
wai when I waa about aiztean yean of age, and what 
little money 1 got all want for gardening bo^a. 

In ISlfl, by the advioe of Dr. Lindley, Editor of 
the Oardaun' Chronvie, I registered my eonlriranoe 
the ' Waat Kant Oarden-pot,' having shown that gentle' 
man a model at 21, fiegent Street, London, where llie 
meetings of the Uortioultural Soeiety uaed to 
take place. I aold my rights in the pateet to Hr. 
Faioall, of The Potteriea, Chlslehurrt, and handed 
him two ten-pound orden, one from Hr. William 
Bamei, who hat been deearibedae the father of plant- 
growere, and whoae fame waa well known aa auch at 
the giBud ahowe at Chiswick ; the other order wm 
from ray old and hlghly-eeteemed Mend, the late 
Hr.W. P.Ayrw, g3rdeneratBn>oklanda,Blaekheath, 
who waa at that time an able oontributor to the 
Qardatert' Chnmide. EVom thia Ume I waa frequeetly 
attending the maetinga at SI, Regent Street, about 
1650, With what was deaoribed ai a aelf-acting fumi- 
gator, the original aolphniator, and the famigator 
and sulphnrator combined. Abont I8£S, engiavioga 
with description may be seen in the Qurdenert' 
dtrenieb of my patent Beakale propagating ■ pot 
and Fem'pana. Uy mode of growing bedding plante 
in turf, both in pits, tramee, and alio in boiee. 
Theee artiolea appsarad in the Oardmert ChrimUle, 
April 24 and May IG, 1853, with a faoaimile of the 
instrument uaed for perforating the tutf. 

One ol the very intereating periode of aaily life 
waa in 1842, 1843, 1S41, when I was engaged ea 
uoder-gardeoer at John Angeretein'i, the Woodlandi, 
Blaokheath, at one time one of the Sneet places in 
Kent, and notioed by the truly gifted and noble- 
minded man, John Claadiaa Loudon (who inaerted 
the very flnt ertiole written b; ma), during the 
short time that be waa editor of the OardtHtn' 
Qa>ttU, In giving brief dasoriptioiis of noblemen's 
and gentlemen's plaoea ihronghout the United 
Kingdom In his atupendoue work, via., the Bnci/cte- 
padiaof Oardening, published in 1827, thus, ' Wood- 
lands, near Blaokbeath, J. J. Angerstein, Esq., an 
elegant mansion oF Portland atone, in ■ commanding 
utuation. the grounds agreeably varied, and the 
gardena remarkable for the quantity of glass thay 
contain. There is a very large conservatory, and 
numeroui vineriea, the invention and eiecution of 
Hr. D. Stewart, when thia gentleman's gardener. 
Alao an eioetlent collection of exotica.' Durinf the 
latter part of the time I was at the Woodtanda, 
which waa then iu the poiseeijon of John Angeratein, 
the son of the former John Julius Angeretejn, I had 
been removed troja the kitchen garden, fruit, and 
foroing department, and put in charge of the large 
aonaerratory, plant-houee, and pleaanre-grounda. In 
the conserratOfj was (Oowing one of the Bnt Anu- 
caria eioelsa that waa introduced into thia country, 
which, after reaching 30 feet, liad the top out off, 
having reached the glass roof On thd'eolumna In 
the centre of the conservatory, hidden by the large 
■hmbby plants, I waa much interested in reading the 
names of many yonng men who had been employed 
her^ and removed into other situations. Sweet, 
subsequently tha eminent botanical writer and 
author, I was told, was at one time an undergar- 
doner In this old plaoe, whioh is no more to be seen, 
aa Its beanty was destroyed — in fact, completely anni- 
hilated. The Peaoh-houeea and vinerlot in which I 
bad to work have long since been cleared away. 
I may menUou, that it waa at this time that I W4t 
induced to take the Fuchsia in hand, and succeeded 
in prodoetag many good specimens in large-sized 
pote, which used to decorate the terraces outside, 
and also grown in the inside of the conservatory. 
Hese were only apeclea when I entered the arena of 
gaMening, and at this time varieties (good onei) were 
not so very numerous; that old trite adage, bow true 
it proves, that 'every dog baa its day;' old loves have 
to give place to new ones. Such is our transitory 
state and natural condition, plants whioh have been 



88 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE, 



[FSBRUABT 5, 1898. 



idollBed and almost worshipped have to fall back into 
the ranks of generally cultiTated plants as an ordi- 
nary subjeot. This, doubtles), is a judicious order of 
Nature's behest for the welfare of mankind in a 
commercial point of Tiew, also physically and 
mentally. Qtorgt Pry.** 



"THE SUMMERS OF 1896—97: 
THEIR EFFECTS ON THE FBUIT- 
TEBES AND FBUIT-OROPS." 

In reviewing the mauy • sided effects of the 
summers of 1896*97, the facta range themselyes as 
fATOuxmble and unfavourable. The tropical heat, 
combined with drying' winds, and that general 
abience of rain during the spring months of the 
period uoder notice, dried the soil to an unusual 
extent ; and although in 1896 abundant autumnal 
r^ns fall, in 1897 the months of September and 
October were the driest known for years. 

The effect of the heavy rains of the autumn of 
1896 was felt in the activity of the sap and the 
adhesion of foliage on fruit-trees rather lator than 
usual, and consequently the trees did not get that 
rest which is as necessary for the vegetable world as 
for the animal creation ; and we agree with Mr. R. 
D. Blackmore that the general failure of fruit-crops 
in the spring of 1897 was largely du« i > that cause. 

The want of power in the trees themselves to lay 
up that neceasaiy nutriment, and ability to perfect 
embryo fruit-buds, wai arrested at a critical period, 
and as reported in the gudeoing papers, miny oases 
of imperfect blo^oma were noted in fruits, and 
doubtless manymtire facts would have been diso> 
vered had they been suspected and looked for. 

To outward appearance the blossoms were perfect, 
the corollas being bold, as usual ; but in many indi- 
viduals either stamens or pistils were wanting, and 
no doubt also the upper or fruit nourishing roots 
suff«)red from the want of surfaoe-mTisture, and thus 
were preventoi fiom doing their work — while lower 
anchor-roots struck deeperand deeper to gain moisture 
and sustonanoa for the development of the tree, making 
the subjeot less fertile, and adding gross wood to all 
garden trees, and thus trees were found to require 
root-pruning more than u«ual to restore that relative 
balance of fruit and wood-producing power which a 
well-managed fruit-tree should exhibit. 

In orchards (especially among young trees) the want 
of fruit was a distinct benefit, as they are then 
enabled to form vigorous trees before starting to 
crop, and a found4tion is thus laid for full develop- 
ment and after-sucoesi ; as if a youog orchard-tree 
commences to crop in its earlier stages, its after- 
growth is checked for yeirs, and in the future sueh 
checked trees produce pecks where bushels of imit 
should be garnered. 

In the dry autumn of 1897 matters were diflferent, 
and the glorious and gorgeous colours of the folisge 
on Cherries, Peaches, and Nectarines, and the fine 
russet-brown of the Apple foliage, and the golden 
Plum-leaves, leads us to infer that Nature's work 
has been well and truly done, and with a £sir spring 
a good all-n ua J crop may be anticipated in 1898. 

Although icom. a nurseryman's point of view the 
shorter and stouter growth fruit-trees made in 1896-97 
meant some loss and extra expense in stoking for 
standard trees, &o., still the growers cannot fall to be 
great g dners in having the-wood of fruit-trees well 
ripened, hardened, and consolidated for future benefit 
as heavy frosto tell much lew severely on such per- 
fected tre^s. If this is felt in the south, how much 
more must it benefit planters who live in the mid- 
Und and northern counties ! The pretty fruit shown, 
by Mr. Diy, from Qilloiray, and the grand Pears 
from Mr. Divers, BelvoT Castle Qardens, sent to the 
Royal Uorticulturol Society, bear out this fully. 

The fruit crop of the Jubilee year, 1897, will be 
noted in our minda for its remarkably high colour 
and d.velopment more than for great size. Many 
examples submitted to ui have been beautiful 
beyond all former years ; for example, crimson 
Blenheim Orange Apples, Wamer'a King, and 
other green Apples with scarlet flushes on the 
sunny side; and Comiee and other Pears with 



lovely red cheeks; while many Rossete have 
lost their character and come out with golden skins, 
only broken here and there with russet. Many <^ 
the less hardy Apples as Lord Suffield, Ribston, 
King of Pippins, and Qlout Mor^eau, Bergamot 
d'Esperen, Ganseirs Bergamot, and other Pears have 
been so handsome and good, that planters have 
called for them freely, forgetting that they are not to 
be relied upon (as a rule) for freedom from canker, 
or quality. Their extra good appearsnoe, flavour, 
fta, pointe a moral, and doubtless we ought to plsoa 
then and similar good but variable Apples on walls 
or in warmer i^aoes. Apples of the type of American 
Mother, Melon, Scarlet Nonpareil, Allen's Everlasting, 
Duke of Devon, Stormer Pippin, with those that do 
not always ripen well, as Oalville Blanc, Boston 
Rusiet, CAlfille Rouge, Chatley's Kernel, Reinetto 
du Canada, Dutoh Mignonne Apples, with Beurre 
Diet, Bergamot d'Bsperen, Olivier des Serres, Beorrtf 
Ranee, Beurr^ Bsltet, President Osmonville^ Easter 
Beurrtf, Z^phirin Gr^ire, Ac, Pears, would not be 
out of place on many walls which are well situated, 
and now devoted to a doubtful crop of Peaches or 
Neotsrines, especially those old walls, unpointed and 
full of nail-holes one often sses in anoestral gardens, 
where choice Pears and Apples would flourish and 
give good results. 

The extended use of large and handsome Apples for 
deo3ration should lead growers to place Peasgood*s 
Nonsuch, Buckingham, Belle de Pontoise, the Qneeo, 
King of Tomkin's County. Twenty Ounce, Qasooigne's 
Seedling, &o. on walls for this purpose. 

One special feature of the 1897 fruit cropi was the 
general success of the British raised varieties, such as 
Nonpareil, Northern Qreening, Wyken Pippin, 
Blenheim Orange, Devon Qoarrenden, Yellow 
Ingeetre, Stirling Cft^tle, Well'mg^on, BoklinviUe, 
Kerry Pippin, Keswick Codlin, Winter Queening, 
Nanny, Hormead'a, Line's Prince Albert among 
Apple« ; and Hesiell, Al thorp Cra«»ne, Qaoon's Incom- 
parable, Bishop's Thumb, Pitmsaton Duchea, 
CrawforJ, A«ton Town, Byewood, and Knight's 
Monv^h, among Pears, causing a demand to arise for 
trees of many old and superseded kinds, which for 
m%rket purposes are yet valuable. 

The general cropi on the Codlin and e&rly Apples 
and Pears need only be noted to sUte the fisct that 
such kinds have time to recoter themselves after the 
fruit is gathered, and so prove regularly fertile. 

Exceptional prices have been made of some fruits. 
In our district, Devonshire Q larrenden, Ingestre, 
and Ribiton Apples (one grower selling 100 bushels 
of the latter as gathered at 14«. 6(t per bushel), while 
Cox's Orange Pippini made up to 25f. per bushel 
ratail ; and Wellingtoni, with a Peach-like colour, 
made 10«. fid. wholesale. 

As might be expected, the heat and drought his 
caused all late Pears to ripen months before their 
usual season, and by the time t lis is in print many 
frtiit-rooms will scarcely have a Pear in them ; at 
present Olivier des Serres and Beurrtf de Jonghe with 
a few Easter Beurr^ from open trees are all we 



But we are inclined to think thorough ripening 
will allow us to keep Apples as lato as usual, while 
they will certainly not be so large examples^in short, 
beanty will compensate lor mere sise. 

Perhaps no outside fruit felt the grand weather of 
1896-97 more than Peachee and Nectarines on walls. 
The trees made that reddish wood so dear to the 
cultivator's eye, and the crop set well ; and the fhiit 
where the trees were copiously watered, grew out to 
a fine size^ and coloured to perfection, raising the 
almost lost hopes of many old gardeners to encourage 
them to persevere* in their open-wall cultivation; 
those who had late Peachee made long prices, as the 
fruit under gla«s was forwarded by the heat, and thus 
made a market for the outdoor crop. Peaches and 
Nectarines are yearly more in demand. 

We attribute the failure of the Plum crop to the 
causes already named, which by their surface-rooting 
nature, would naturally be aflfocted more than deeper* 
rooting f ruite. 

We cannot refrain from again cautioning gardeners 
from relying on a few varieties for an annual crop ; 



and the best kfaids for quality should be pbotsd it 
various positions to ensure a return, and ab» to 
l ^g ^ fn the aosson of cadi kind. 

Market-growers naturally go in for the lorti 
favoured by the public, but we are Inelined to think 
many less known bat reliable croppers shoold bi 
introduced. 

Strawberries, Raspberries, and bush-fruits geosnll; 
cropped where good deep coltivation was pcaotisei 

In oondnaion, it is evident that cultivators sboold 
do all in their power to utilise all the sumUm 
poBsibls^ and the protection they possosi sddsd to 
careful thinning oif boughs and fruit, and by giiioi 
liberal encouragement to the trees that crop, sod imA 
overetimulating those that are barren* A papir mi 
at a weeding of tki ffortieuUwrtU CUb on Tutiti, 
Janmnf 11, 1898, 6y Mr. (kotge Bm^ymrd, VMM. 



LUCULIA GRATISSIMA AND 

OTHERS. 

On Tueeday, December 22, 1897, I fooad i 
whole house, some 85 feet long, 10 f(Mt wide, 
6 feet high in front, and about 10 feet at the lack, 
filled with this fine old but rarely seen plant Tbe 
bushy plante were smothered with their fngnat 
blooms. I have grown and frequently met with tbii 
autumn and winter-blooming plant on the bid- 
wrUs of grsen-houses, vineries, orohardbooMi, 
csnidora, &e., in several gardens. And st Um 
present time there is a nice plant in bloom in tbe 
well-fumiahed corridor in the Edinburgh Botanic 
Gardens. Not a Uw of us have also been moft or 
less successful with it in potsL But this is Um fint 
time I have met with the Luculia gratisiimt in iti 
proper position, that is as a standard, and the effaek 
waa gratifying %% it was strikhig. The plants look 
venerable from great age rather than by rsnoo o( 
their siae, and they were blooming profnssly, lad 
fully furnished without crowding the spaoe allottid 
to them. They had more flowers per sqosrs foot 
than I have ever seen before, and were looking 
remarkably free from inaecte and healthy, not osif o< 
attainment in Luculias during their flowering setm 

Mealy-bug and thrip are the chief foes of tb 
Luculia, and they need a good deal of dostag tft 
cfl<»ct Uieir oompleto extsrmination. 

Cleanliness is not only the parent of hesltb for 
the Luculia, but the chief secret of success in g(Ov> 
ing the plant Though as to the Utter, thers in 
several more. One of the chief is, to let well slflo^ 
Prepare a border of about equal parte of pest aa^ 
loam, or a fourth of gritty silver-aand, leaf-monld, 
peat, and loam, say 2 feet deep, of any cooftsiaat 
aixe. The old idea waa, the narrower, in rsasoOftba 
better. Hence, the correct practioe'at one time wm to 
brick ofTa limited area from 1 foot to 2 fbet •qa«n< 
for the roote of the LucuUa. There was a ooounoo 
belief that the plant should not have its rootidii 
turbed after plMiting, nor allowed too mnob ^mi 
in which to roam. 

Ito security of tenure seems to have beeo f^' 
giously rsspeeted at the fine old nnrsecies of Mii^ 
Cunninghsm, Fraser k Co., Comely Bank, V^' 
bufgh. Mr. Firaser seemed rather unoertaintf to tbi 

exact age of theee flne pUnts. With the esoeptioi 
of the f^nt path, and a few shelves, the LueaUM ^ 
the house wholly to themselves. An ooouioitf| 
top-dressing with liberal suppUes of water tbroQgb 
the growing season were the chief pointi in oaltar^ 
But a dry time after pruning was also impdrisnt 
found, too, that the exact mode of prapag*^i<)° ^ 
looked upon as a trade secret. This is Im^ ^ 
be wondered at when it is knoim that tbn &f 
supply most of the trade with Luculias. See» 
cjme from abroad, and no plant can well be eui^ 
raised from seeds if these be raised in warmUi <» 
65^ During their eariy stages, however they ih«al<^ 
be shaded from the sun ; but seedlings seldom, bloou 
from seed in less than three years, and there ii ^' 
difference in the growth and flowering of 8«f<^ 
Hence, we are driven to employ cuttings^ ^^ rrhlf 
growers, however, succeeded in rooting freely.^ ^"^ 
have been tried in all stages of growth, ^^^ 
without heels, in an infinite variety of tempe^**^ 



r 1 



FnKiTAlT S, ISM.] 



THE OARDENERS' CBRONICLE. 



and oompMta, and biara onlj bmjo I found Himd 
rooted itadil; in qnkiitltf , and alinoat with absoluts 
oertun^. 

Th* quantity pown and diitribatad ii tha baat 
proof of tiie aunaaM In rooting LuBulla gratinima at 
th« Comalf Bank Ifiuwriw. Baautiful and awceb aa 
ttiaaa planla ara^ the flomn bda «o qnioUr aflor 
cutting u to randar them of litlla or no oommerdal 
value aa daoontlTe Sowera. Planted in oonMrv^ 
toiiea attaohad to a hoiue, or RTOwn in poti and 
p)«o«d oo atairoMea, halla, or oorridora, the fragnaoi 
of LoenliM ii uniquelj Riatetal and pleasing. 

Aa alMadj itated, I am unable to glre the eiaot 
method of propagation «o anoeeaafulij foilowed by 
Ilr. Vtnar, of the Comtlj Bonk tforaaHea, 

Aa to the prof oae bloomiatc of this fragnwt plant, 
TBTj mnoh depends on tha node of pruning, and 
treating it to a dry regimen for two or three montlu 
kfterWMda. A Lnoolia muit not be cut back too 



Alpine Gardek. 



UORISIA HTPOQ^A. 
Ahoko hardj alpine plants of the order CrudfenB, 
this little spestes is welt worth; oE cultirstion, there 
being searuely anjr part of tha year when a few 
blossoms oamiot b« found, although ita proper period 
□f flowering is Jul/ and Angust. The bloesoms are 
prodiioed in abundanoe, and are even now lolly 
expanded on a sonny part of the rookery. They are 
bcnne ^ngly on short stems, usutng from a tuft of 
deep green learai^ and are nl a deep jellaw oolonr. 
The plant grows but 3 inohee in height, and requires 
for proper development a rich sandy soiL It i* easily 
propagated from aeed or cutting! put in daring the 
snmmer. It is a native of Corstoa and Berdinla, from 
which oDuntry it was introduced in 1833, and is 



Home gorrespondenoe. 

THE OARDENERS- ROYAL BENEVOLENT IN- 
8TITUTI0N.— Your leader in last week's issue is 
well timed, and it pUces facts referring to the 
InsUtulion in a fair spirit before the public There 
are three poinia in oanneation with this obari^ which 
one haa to deplore, viz., the apathy shown b; the 
lack of support affinded by ^rdener* ; the large 
number of euMled votins-papere by non-elgoature ; 
and the eleotuin of iion-auMciil>era, In pemsiiw the 
official list of snbaoribers one finds tliat the uigcr 
number of gardsners' Damea are those of men who 
hold leading pUaea,BDd bat very few of thoee holding 
■eoood grade situatioiLS. Seasoning by analogy, the 
former are lees likely to reaulre aauatanee than 
the latter, although Uie reoorda ol the Institution 
unfortunately show many azceptiona. He great 
fktling olTof aubeoriber* appears amongit the middle' 
class men, wiioee ranks, nevcrtheleu, aapply oine- 
tenthsof the pansionere. It is these men who should 
have the olalms of the Institution brau^t urgently 
and pereistently before them, ea aa to arouse them 
turn their preeent apathetic condition. Poaubly 
gardeners from tha vary nature of thur isolated 
Uvee, are more apatbatio than lome other classea of 
the communis ; anyhow, I have arrived at this 
eoDctasioD, that if evary man of the S,{HtO gardeners 
could beoanvaMad, and the whole partioultn explained 
in a friendly way, a large number of tubsoribera 
would be added How can tbia best be done ia the 
queetion ; my aanrer is, by the formation of ooonty 
auiilisrin. Tske the example of one of the yonnsest 
anxUiariei^ that of Woasmtmt : lialf.a.doasa anthn* 
a put down five sbillinp each b 



FlO. 3a— MAGNOLIA CAMPBEU.! : PMWEIia DEEP ROSY P 



closely, ss the young sboote bresk but kluggishly if 
at all from tha old wood. And as the pUnts bliram 
on the ends of the young shoots of the ourrent year, 
unless they break freely there oan only be a loant 
er«pof bloom. The season to prune i* shortly alter 
the flowers fade, which may be timed for any season 
from October to Jsnnary. And from then till the 
■tstrting period in April or Uay, little or no water 
should be given to LucuUas. 

k Hitherto I hare uld nothing of the one other 
spwries or variety, L. Pinceana, which this flrm slso 
keep, though I quite endorse Ur. Fraser's estima'e 
of thrir merits, vii,, that oootraated with Luenlia 
gratis dma at ite beat, U FinoeaiiB is not worth 
grow'ng. Plaoed under dmilar oonditions, how- 
over, h. Pinceana blooms, if at all, earlier, 
oonUmua loi^tar in flower, is white, the larger 
of the two, and mayhap yet mora fragrant than ite 
raae«ih»iied rival. L. Piooeana haa also amaller, 
more glabrons and showy leavea tiian the mora gene- 
rally grown and freer-blooming L. gralimma. The 
last was Brat in the field, having been Introdooed 
hum the temperate Himalsjaa in 18211, and the L. 
PinnaDB fram tha Khaaia Hoantains in 1843. It ia 
gnsrallj -^'i*' **^'* that neither of the Bpedea have 
obtained the popularity which their obvious or latent 
marita, and e^MoiaUy thnr uniqna fragrance and 



monotypio. A description of the plant is given by 
R-ibert Sweet in hia BritM Flower Qarrlen, aariei 2, 
t. 290, published daring the yean 1831 — 1838. 
E. S, Woking. 

MAGNOLIA CAMPBELLI. 

Tbojie who have aoeesi to the One lUmtratioM of 
Himalayan PUmU, publiahed by Sir Joeeph Hooker, 
will remember the splendid plate of this nobleapecdes. 
That the artist did not exaggerate is teaUfiad by Hr. 
Qammics who reeords the flower as measuring ten 
inches in diameter. 

In this oountry, so far, lb haa proved a disappoint- 
ment. In 1885, it first flowered in Hr. Crawford'a 
garden near Cork, and alterwarda in other gardeDs In 
that country. Now Iteasrs. R, Veitah ft Bon of Exeter 
fiivonr na with a fiower taken froma plantwhioh haa 
been growing in the open air in theirnursery for thelaat 
twelve year*. The tree Is oovered with flower-buda, 
snd we hope it may lie possible to protect them in 
tha event of frcet, The oolonr of the outer petals 
was a rioh n>aei>ink. A oolourad figure is given in 
the Bot. Mag., Jsn. 1S8S, tab. 6793, from a Sower 
psoduead in Ur. Crawford's gwdsn. 



subsoribeia and life membus. If each oounty did 
likewise^ what a splendid result would follow ! 
Extreme men require extreme measurea, and much 
aa I hate coercion, I would cany the oanvata into 
a yea or nay, from every gardener, nurseryman, 
or fioriit worthy the name, and bia answer should be 
recorded fidthfiiUy. This oonld all be done with 
little tioubls, If too or three energetic and enthu- 
aiaatie men in each oounty would set it going. 
This would be infinitely bettor than gmmblinR, aa 
' ' A. D." does, at the diaappointinente of the b^lot. 
If he wonld me his well-known tact and abUl^, aided 

Shis powerful pen, many subscribers might be 
ded, snd consequenUy there would be more pen- 
sioners, and fewer disappointmentt. Probably, the 
nonuf^g of voting papers was an ovenight, the 
inttntioD being to ensble tbe Committee to make 
felcction of candldatee out of tbe multitude of 
distressing cases, in fsct, all of them worthy. 
There can be no doubt, a large section of sub- 
acribers are very consU'VBtive ss to eierdung 
thtir votei, and would resent any change or loss of 
privily. There ia also rather a Wrong feeling, and 
rigbUy BO, againit placing non subscribers of leas thsn 
five yesrs on tfae peni-ion list, in preference to older 
pereoDS who have eubacribed for a longer period. It 
is to be hoped influential oounty gardeners will take 
tho matter up seriously ; and any little information or 
details will be cbeerfullj rendered by JFilliain 
Onimp, UadrttHeld Cmrt Qardaa. (We have a large 
number of letters on this subject which we cannot 
publish, but of which we uiay be sble to give a 
summary. En] 

In the oaaa of the elections to the Royal 

Gardenara' Orphan Fund, the exeontive committee 
priote in bold type, just above tbe plsoe for Uie signa- 
ture of the voter, this sentence: — "Any voting- 
paper duly filled up, but unsigned by the voter, may 
be aigned by a life-)ubacribei or member of the com- 
mittee." By making this proviso, many votes are 
aaved to eandidatea which would otherwise be lost. 
Signed papers, but withont sny iodicalioD how the 
voter intended his or her vote* to be given, are, of 
oonrse, rejected. If tbe committee of the Qardeners' 
Boyal Benevolent Institution took power to do thi% 
tbe Iocs of votea so much deplored would be pre- 
vented. Surely such power can be given to the 
committee without the ilighteat danger of ite being 
abused. Your propoasl that the oommibtee should 
select tbe most \\i laslim oases snd propoae them for 
election at the anniwl meeting would not only save 
the expense of voting-papers, but avoid any waste of 
votes. It Is, at the same time, a proposal likely to 
sreato muoh diUbrenoe of opinion. R. Dtan. 

■ THE MILH WrNTER IN aOUTH DEVON.- As an 
indication of the mildntM, so far, of the preeent 
winter, I notioad on Jaunaij 17 the first flower open 



90 



TSB OAHDENBRS' CSSOi^ICLB. 



[fUBUOASLY Bt 1896. 



of Doronioam plantagineam ; thif tisiially wiUi ui 
here is at its beet daring lleroh and A^, end a 
large number of dampa in the herbaoeooi borden 
have always proved innJoable for catting parpoees. 
It is a very free and strong grower, and to those who 
in the earlv spring can ate flowers of yarioua ooloars 
for house-decoration, I say by all means have a good 
supply of this, and I am sure much satisfaetton will 
be received. As it is natural to make rather long 
flower-stalks, the plants should be placed where a 
good row of shrube will afford some protection from 
keen, cutting winds, otherwise the flowers are apt to 
be blown over, and conseauently damaged. Side br 
side with this are some plants of Ageratum, which 
were put out last May and June, when the flower- 
garden and borders, ftc., were bedded-out These 
Ageratums have been in flower almost ever since, 
and good clusters of purple flowers can still be 

fikth«red. In the same border Poiget-me-Kot is 
owering, traly an early reminder|of the coming spring ; 
whilst in a border just removed firom these, good spikes 
of Pentstemons are still brilliantly in flower. Car- 
nations, Ftosies, Wallflowers, Primroses, Mignonette, 
Violets, and the common Marigold, beside buds of 
Qloire de Dijon Rose, give an impression of brighter 
days rather than mid-Jaouary, when there Ib a pos- 
sibility of there being 20** of frost, and a thick 
covering of snow. Though we scarcely expect any 
intensity of frost now, the snow may come and 
remain some time yet. W. Svjcmf late of JByttoek 
Oardens, Bxmoutk, 

PA88IFLORA E0ULI8.— I can fully endoBM every 
word Mr. D. T. Hsh writes on p. 52 in tevour of 
Passiflora edulis, the editorial remarks notwithstand- 
ing, for it is a moat deUdous fruit and a valuable 
addition to the dessert, extending over a long season, 
and hi^j appreciated as such by many. Judging 
by the increase . of inquiries respecting it and its 
culture, I trust that its cultivation is gradually 
extending. Jno, Robtrta. 

FRUIT JUDQlNa— The remarks of '^Comubian" 
(p. 61) on this subject, so far as they refer to the 
Royal Horticultural Society*s great autumn fruit 
shows, serve to make dear the meaning of his note 
in the Oardaters* Ckronide of January 1, p. 12. 
Consequently, I have referred to the report of ^e 
fruit diow, held under the auspices of the Royal 
Horticultural Society at the Crystal Palace the first 
week in October, 1896, and published in the Sodety's 
Journal the following month, wherein we find dassea 
were provided for leading varieties of Pears coming 
in for u«e during the six months following, the date 
on which the show was held, as pointed out by 
' ' Comubian." Among these may be mentioned Jose- 
phine de Malines, ripe ^m February to April, twenty 
dishes being shown. Easter Beurr^, January to 
March (twenty dishes), Bergamotted*£speren, January 
to April (fourteen diahes), Do^enn6 du Coxpioe, 
November to December (tMrty*mne dishee). Winter 
Nelis, November to January (twenty-five didies). With 
regard to the above*mentioned and sinular varieties 
of the Pear being staged in October in classes pro- 
vided for them in the Royal Horticultural Sodety*s 
schedule, or for that mattor in any other society's 
schedule, I have no hesitation in saying that the 
question of ripeness cannot possibly be considered 
in making the awards in these dasses ; the finest all- 
round specimens of the respective varieties should, 
undoubtedly, be awarded the prizes offered. 
But in the case of Pears ripening in October, 
the case is quito different, ^e exhibitors 
staging ripe fruits of equal size and shape 
as those of the same varieties, but not ripe, 
taking the prizes as a mattor of course. This 
lA where the advantage of forwarding the ripening 
period of the fruit a week or two by artificial means 
comes in ; and without resorting to artifidal 
ripening of the fruit by one or two weeks, northern 
growers are unevenly matohed in entering hardy 
fruit competitions with southern craftsmen. In like 
manner Pears may be ripened a week or ton days 
before the usual time, in order to prevent a break 
occurring in the dally supply of ripe Pears. The 
best and finest-coloured spedmens of Marie Louise 
Pear which came under my notice were artificially 
ripened from the end of September, and until they 
ripened in the ordinary way on the shdves in the 
fruit-room a few weeas later, during which time 
several dozen fruite were in daily demand, and 
elicited frequent remarks upon &eir colour, the 
goodness of flavour, and earlmeis. "Comubia'*is 
not very clear in his remarks on the beet collection of 
fruit being the one which covers the longest season, 
providing ue quality is of the best throughout, adding, 
^' and the sooner judges cease to be sensiblo 1k> tl»e 



glamour of mare ripeness, the better and less artifidal 
will be the methods of exhibitors.*' The '*best 
ooUection " must necessarily always include ripe fruit 
throughout the period of time covered. Fruit- 
growers should never send *' dead-ripe" finit to a 
show nor to the dessert-table, because, as a rule, such 
fruit is unfit to eat the day after It has been shown or 
sent to the house. Fruit which is "dead-ripe" may 
properly be described as *' over-ripa** There is a 
distinot and important difflsrence between the flavour 
of ripe and " dead-ripe " fruit, a fact of whioh swely 
*<Comubia" must be aware, ff. W, W, 

FRUIT-TREE LABELa— In r^erenoe to Mr. J. 
Mayne's remarks on this subject, and the editorial 
foot-Doto (p. 60), I beg to say that the lead 
labels there referrsd to, or, rather, dmilar ones, 
had been used by me during the twenty- five 

J ears I was at Longford Outle Qardeas ; and 
should say— judging by the condition of the 
oak-oase containing holea for the reception of 
the twenty-six lettor-pundies and ten numbers, in 
1871, when I took charge of the said gardens— had 
been in use by my predecessors fifty veara before. 
They are exactly the same as described by Mr. 
Divers in the previous Hardy Fruit Calendar. The 
reason that |I did not refer to then practicdly im- 
periahable labels in my ^Calendaiial notes for Deo. 25 
IS, that I was not aware of their beinc in commerce. 
"Horticultural Sundriesmen" would do well to 
obtain a auppl^ of '' letter and number-punchea,'* and 
then to advertise them in the Oardeiuri Ofmmicle, 
ff, fw» frOTcL 

THE NATIONAL CHRYSANTHEMUM SOCIETY. 
— ^As some strictures have recently been made hi 
your columns in reference to the lack of encourage- 
ment given to the culture of the Chrysanthemum by 
the foregoing Sodety, permit me to give a few figures 
I submitted to the committee at ite last meetmg. 
The early Chrysanthemum diow takes place on Sep- 
tember 6, 7, and 8 next. At that exhibition the 
Sodety offers £15 7«. 6d. in money-prises for early- 
flowering varieties, and the value of £6 18j. 6d. in 
Medals, this being thdr actual cost, exclusive of 
engraving, for all the Medals awarded by the Sodety 
are engraved at the cost of the Sodety before bdog 
handed over to the winners. There are in addition the 
Medals awarded to miscellaneous exhibits, probably 
representing another £8 or £9. The Directors of the 
Royal Aquarium give £50 in prises for Dahlias and 
Qladiolns, supplemented by £10 fit>m the National 
Chrysanthemum Sodety. On October 11, 12, and 
13, the Sodety offers in cash prises for Chrysanthe- 
mums, £59 16«. 6d, ; Medals (bare cost exdudve of 
engraving), £2. Some £8 to £10 worth of MedaUi 
wul probably be awarded to miscellaneous exhibits. 
In addition, special prizea to the amount of £8 are 
offered for cut Carnations, and £40 for Onions and 
other vegetoblea. [What have then to do witii Chrys- 
anthemums ? ] On November 8, 9, and 10, the sum 
of £'248 7«. is offered for cut blooms of Chrysanthe- 
mums ; £87 55. for plants, £12 168. 6d, for table - 
deoorations ; fruit, £18 ; vegetables, £6 15«. ; 
and Medals, £3. In addition, the Directors of the 
Royal Aquarium offer £30 aa special commemoration 
prizes for cut blooms; there are other special prizes 
amounting to £12 6«. ; and for vegetables, £53 5«. 6d. 
In addition there are the Challenge T^phy and 
Holmea' Memorial Cups, the Turner MemoriM Cup, 
two other valuable Cups, and some articlea of 
jewellery, representing as offered at the November 
Show, £461 159. in cai£, and £100 in value ; to these 
may be added £15 in Medals for miscellaneous 
exmbits. On December 6, 7, and 8, open-class cut 
blooms, £37 5s. ; plants, £28 ; and to amateurs for 
cut blooms, £9 155. Add to this £8 in Medals for 
miscellaneous exhibits. The Sodety thus makea 
itself respondble for £673 125. ed, in caah and 
Medali, in addition to the Medals awarded to misod- 
laneous exhibits; and Cups, Ac, to tiie value of 
£100. What oondupes so much to the growth of 
membership of the Sodetv is the fact that four exhi- 
bitions are held, in addition to many interesting 
meetings of the Floral Committee^ covering, asl 
have before stated, ''the whole of the Chrysanthe- 
mum season.*' Let me add, that every year witnesses 
additions made to the schedules of prises, which 
annually grow both in bulk and value. JHehmrd Deaa^ 
Secretary. 

A HALL FOR HORTICULTURE.— Mr. M. Todd*S 
communication obliges me to go over once more, the 
ground I have already covered in regard to tlds 
mattor. If the oonditions tending to success which 

SBSvailed in Edinburgh could be secured in London ; 
I there was a Wat eriey Market adjoining a great 



ceixtral railway ^station in the very heart of the Hetvo- 
polls ; if we. had what I have ventured to d e s cri be as 
the " homogendty ** of Edinburgh ; the support of 
the munidpality ; the co-operation of aome leading 
dtisens, and a practical monopoly of audi aa •xhibi- 
tion as that held in the Waverley Marke^ wiuch is 
pososissd by Edinburgh, then were might be a 
probability of "i^*^*ng a bis Chrysanthemum Show 
pay in London. I can deal with the subjeot with 
Bome de^;ree of confidence, because, although I make 
myself luble to the charge of needless repetition^ I 
know sometiiing of the long list of faOurea to attnot 
the multitude to flowei^ahows in London during the 
past twenty-five or thirty years. T^e only exoe^tioo 
apart from the November exhibition of the National 
Cfhryaanthemum Society (whldi is sueosasful only 
because it is held at the Royal Aquarium), is the 
Teqiple Show of the Royal Horticultural Sooietj, but 
then there are no money prises offered, aiul only a 
limited value in plato and medals, while aome 
expenses, otherwise necessary, ars greatly miiodmiaed. 
And yet tiiis great and attractive exhibttion, held by 
the most renowned Horticnltural Sodety of the d^, 
in one of the most oential and delightful spots in the 
City of London, and easily a cc es d ble, at iHiidi it is 
known the finest collections of Orohida and other 
plants will be seen ; with the added patrooagie of 
Royalty, realises at the gates in three days only 
£1,262 14i. 8d,, according to the recentiy published 
financial statement of the coundl — merdj a small 
sum more than was taken at the Waverlev Market in 
Edinburgh. Were the expenditure at the Tomple 
Show on the same scale as that at Edinboi^g^ ths 
financial gain would reach a vanishing point. Tliai 
there is the great Fruit Show held in September by 
the Royal Horticnltural Society at the C^fistal Fklaee, 
unique and instructive in a remarkable degree, and 
yet the Council have to admit in thdr annual reports 
that the "oontinnance of the ahow is abeolntdy 
dependent on at least £100 bdng raised by subecrip- 
tion each year towards a prise fund," in addition to 
the Sttbeidy from the Crystal Palace Company. Let 
me again ask, — where are the great shows of the 
Royal Botanic Sodety and those formeriy held at the 
Crvstal Palace t They were abandoned becnauss they 
did not pay. The Agricultural Hall has been 
suggested as on appropriate place for a Chrjsantlie- 
mum show in November ; a gloomy, barren, gigantic 
ice-house at that season of the year, repulshre in ths 
extreme on a dull foggy November day, added to 
being difficult of access. The Royal Horttoultiiial 
Society made a praiseworthy attempt in 1893, by 
holding a most attractive summer snow there, and 
although assisted b^ a large subsidy firom'the Directors, 
oould "lot make it pay ; the financial loss to the 
Directors of the Hall must have been great. Even 
at Manchester, the Coundl of the Botanic and Horti- 
cultural Sodety have been driven to the necesdty of 
speculating on the probable closing of the gwrdene at 
Old Trafford, the loss to the Society bdng considar- 
able last year, though £600 less than in the previooa 
year. The Sodety is discovering that it hu to 
competo with the Belevoe Gardens, and is driven to 
introduce outride shows. The York Floral Pete 
Committee have set apart for this year, prises £^0, 
£200 for music, £100 for fireworks, £150 for amuse- 
ments, and £60 for balloons. These figures are 
significant. Is it to be wondered at, tiiat thoae who 
have had a long and varied experience of London 
fiowershows, hesiUto to embark on financial specula- 
tions in relation thereto of a deddedly hasardous 
character ! Mr. Todd is quito correct in steting that 
"Mr. Dean as representing the Committee oi the 
National Chrysanthemum Society, probably knows 
difficnltiee not apparent to outeiders,'* and all the 
optimistic propheaes and confident assertions made 
in your columns, and in those of other gardening 
papers, fuX to draw me from a proper appreciation 
of these difficulties. They are, to my thinking 
insnrmounteble, owing to the mardfeet lack of public 
support of London flower-shows pure and nmple. 
Richard Dean, V.M.H., Bating, W, [This discoanca 
must now be closed. Ed.]. 

VICTORIA MEDAL OP HONOUR.— It will be 
remembered that at the distribution of the medali 
at the Drill Hall, on October 26 last, the President 
of the Sodety, Sir Trevor Lawrence, in his opening 
speech, explaining the objects of the distinction, 
remarked that it would be very distasteful " if the 
honour were used for trade purpoaes." On Kov. 11 
a eircular, from which the following is an eztnet, 
was sent out by the Sodety: — '*Si awarding the 
Victoria Medal, the Coundl unanimously laid it 
down as a rale, from which no departure, under 
any dreumatonces, was permlsdble, tiiat the distinc* 
tion was to be entirdy a personal one^ and wis net 



FSBRITART C, 18d8.] 



THE QARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



91 



to be Qted in any waj whatorer for the purpoaet of 
adyertieiDg.** At the CouooU meeting en Dec. 14, 
the following resolution wm passed, and hee since 
been published in your own end other horticultural 
papers: — "In the avent of any recipient violating 
the conditions on which the Victoria Medal of 
Honour was bestowed, by using it for advertising or 
for the promotion of trade interests in any other way, 
the name of such offender shall be struck off the 
list.*' In addition to this, the following announce" 
ment is made in the same journals Hmt the weak 
ending Jao. 16: — *'The Council have been con- 
salted as to a proper mode of the use of the Victocia 
Medal by members of the trade, having decided that 
the only permissible method is by the letters Y.ICH. 
following the name of the holder of a Medal. No 
other mention of the Medal can be properlv made 
in any publication pertaining to horticultural trade, 
or relating thereto." What steps, may I ask, have 
been taken to put into force the resolution passed 
by the Council on Nov. 11, end further qualified on 
Deo 14 ? as it is a well-known fact thai the honour 
was announced in trade droulars some time 
before Christmas. P,R,H,8. [Thoee y.M.U. who are 
not traders should take measures to prevent the 
degradation complained of, and induce the Council to 
take action. Eo.j 

EARLY 8WARMINQ OF BEE8.— In the OartUneri' 
Ckroniole for January 29, p. 76, 1 noticed an answer 
by ** Kzpert" on inducing early swarms. He says, 
*' Examine combs by driving the bees down with 
8moke ; " and in another place he adds, ' * Qive a pint 
of warm syi^p once a week until the flowers begin 
to bloom." I must say that be is a little in error 
here. By disturbing hives at this time of year, you 
run the risk of the bees balling the queei^ and by 
feeding them on syrup so early, you cause them to 
breed too fast; and when a oold spell comes, say, in 
March, the bees draw cloier together, and leave the 
outer circle of brood to perish. If there is sny doubt 
about the stores, slip on a cake of candy, with plenty 
of dry covering, but do not disturb the bees ontQ a 
warm day in lurch. Scotch Expert, 

BENGAL ROSE ABb£ MIOLAN;*— I am sending you 
a boxful of Roses, not knowing whether Boste are a 
a plentiful commodity or not in Euglaod at this season 
of the year. [Oh, no t] I havequantStiee hare, of the 
variety Abbe Miolan, a Noisette, as yon will s6e. 
I have two beds of this variety in the flewsr garden, 
and have been enabled to gather blooms aU the 
winter, gathering 100 every week for house decora* 
tion ; but they do not stand well when cut, although 
in the beds they look weU, and are continuous 
bloomers If planted in a sheltered position. Of 
course, Uie mild weather we are having suits them, 
as the flowers last longer when cut at this season than 
in summer. P. C, M, 0., Drunnals Oardent, Lame, 
Ireland, 

PEAR DUCHE88E D'ANQOUL^ME.— The interest- 
ing problem which I sought to solve in asking the 
questions I did has elucidated at least ooe fact that 
I wanted, and which I actually anticipated in my 
suggestion as to the root-pruning having been done 
already in September, which is some six weeks before 
the usual time. The real interest centres in the 
question whether root pruning done thus early, viz , 
in September, prompted as it was in this case by 
absence of fruit, can in any way be connected with 
a formation of additional flower-buds the same 
autumn, and not among those visible, as is now 
stated, on root-pruning. The actual presence of 
fruitbuda in September renders result of my inquiry 
somewhat vague on that score, and it would be inte- 
resting to learn what experience has been gained, 
and how early root-pruning has been so successfully 
accomplished elsewhere. It may be useful to re< 
member in this connection that root-pruning carried 
out early in November would not show sny results 
before the second autumn after the operation. Of 
course, the fact that fruit of remarkably good 
quality can be grown in this country is very 
satisfactory. I heard of the success at Bournemouth, 
but am unacquainted with details. If the methods 
adopted for such results in various districts can be 
formulated and be successfully applied to all good 
varieties of Pears, it would be the first step in the 
direction of ousting the foreigner from British 
markets. In this connection it may be remarked, that 
Fiance sent us in 1 896 about 250, 000 bush . of Peaxv, and 
Belgium hidf that quantity ; among which the former 
country supplied largely Duchesse d'Angoul6me, 
Beurrd Did, and Louise Bonne ; and the latter Beurr^ 
Hardy, &c, all of which we could grow at home, 
and probably without the e^>en8e of a wall, if only 



well-sheltered plantations were made on high ground, 
out of the reach of spring frosts— a good reason for 
which is furnished by the fkct of the thermometer 
with, for instance, +26" (=6* of frost) Fahr. on low 
levels (with possibly only +20** on grass), will simul- 
taneously mark about -^86**, or lO"" higher at 100 to 
200 feet altitude close in the rear, with an entire 
crop destroyed in the former, whereas complete 
immunity oeours in the latter case. The relative 
dampness of our climate is a convertible term for 
spring hoar firosts that kill the Pear blossom. 
Dew is heavy on grass and low herbage -on low 
lands, and relatively absent on the higher grounds 
reCsrred to ; and the thennometer might ful to 32* 
even— nay, to 30% and lower — ^without prejudice to 
the fruit-bloom, because there is little deir to convert 
into hoar-frost. If so, this double guarantee agMnst 
risk from late frosts be added, the selection of a site 
sloping between S.S.E. and S.W., with natural or arti- 
ficial shelter from K and N.B. winds, that may yet 
ruin an earl^ bloom, risk frx>m frost seems to cease to 
play a part m our Pear-eoonomy. The Conthient of 
Europe being less humid than our Isles, ridL of frost 
is lessened. Mr. Ward's belief that Pears from walls 
are invariably superior to those grown in the open 
must not be accepted literally. I certainly prefer 
an early Pears grown in the open, and some of the 
later onee are at least equally good in Um Seoth of 
England. Where Mr. Ward dtssents from my state- 
mentf, in another ease he only quotes h^f the 
sentence, omitting, for instance, "as grown in 
this country," where I disparage this variety 
as here grown, adding about the splendid ex- 
amples sent us annually fWmi France. I think 
this Pear is dellciouB n sent us from France in 
September in tons for many years past ; and yet we 
can, apparently, grow it at home of equal good 
quality. It will be interesting to learn towards next 
autumn what crops were gathered fit>m the various 
trees treated, ai we are told, similarly in that 
quarter. The result may be an excellent lesson for 
ail growers. The agricultural returns for 1897 to 
hand since writing the foregmng show the total 
importation of Pears to have been 1,050,000 bn^iels 
against rather under 600,000 busheU in 1996> and 
about 400,000 bashels in 1895. These figures 
accentuate the foregoing lemarka. M» H, R,. Fareii 

THE MILD WINTER, Ca CORK. 1897-08.— This is 
a most extraordinary season, mie following March- 
flowering Da£fodils have been for more than a week in 
bloom : Androcles, Countess of Annesley, Early Bird, 
this latter since Jan. 17 ; North Star, Saragoeaa, Ard 
Righ (very fine), of which I send specimen ; Cervantes 
Pallid us pr»oox. Qolden Spur, Henry Irving, the com- 
mon double Daffodils are a sheet of bloom, and many 
others. Then as to spring flowers. Snowdrops, 
Crocuses, Chiouodoxa ssjdensisy Polyanthus of all 
sorts. Primroses, Omphalodes vema, flowering Cur- 
rently Azara mlcrophylla, three sorts of Laurustine, 
Sparmannia africana, Mahonia japonica, Pyrus' 
japonica, Jasminum nudiflorum. The neighbours 
Bees are crowding round the bloom of Prunus 
Pissardi, drinking up their sweet juices. In a 
sheltered spot Veronica Travenii»Potato stalks in bud, 
and Lenten Rotes are a mass of bloom. During my 
more than sixty years of life, I do not remember 
such a season, and for fifteen years' record with 
Daflbdils, no regtotry like this season of 1897-98. 
W, Baylor Hartland, Ard Cairn, Cork, 

CONTiriUOUd FLOWERING OF PANCRATIUMS. 
— As a grower of^ among other things. Pancratium 
blooms for market, I think it may interest some of 
your readers to know that my Pancratiuma have this 
morning (February 1) completed an unusual if not 
altogether unprecedented period of flowering. On 
February 1 of last year I cut my first blooms of Uie 
season, and have continued to cut them every morn- 
ing for 366 days. Those blooms opened on Sundays 
were cut and kept for Monday's market. I consider 
it all the more remarkable as all of the plants are 
grown in one house, viz., a Eucharis-house, conse- 
quently there is no bringing batches forward. The 
plants are still throwing up fresh flower-spikei. 
Henry Porter, BarkJUld Plurser^, Prtihfield, Liverpool, 



SOCIETIES. 

BZOHKOND ALLOTMENTS 
ASSOCIATION. 

Jaxvart 4. — The aanual meeting of the mohmoad 
AUotmenta AseodatUm took place on Friday oTonlng at 
Queeotbury Chambers, Richmond, the President, Mr. F. W. 
DuHBLBBT, J. P., being in the chair. The report of the 
Aaaooiation stated that there had been on incresae in mem- 
berahip during the year. The jniae fund did not come up to the 
expectationa baaed upon the experience of former yeara, but 
this waa attributed to the many csUa made by the Jubilee. 
It neoesaitated reducing the number of prises at the annual 
ozblbitioD. 

The support received from the Richmond Town Council 
and the Richmond Athletic Aaaodation, and the klndneaa of 
the Ifanager of the Aaaooiation Ground were acknow- 
ledged. The aooounta showed that the balance of l%». \d, 
with which the ye«r commenced had been extended to 
£8 ICs. 1(2. Mr. F. W. Dunbleby, J.P., waa rejected Pre- 
sident, Mr. Nevard Hon Treasurer, and Mr. Rogers at 
Hon. Sec. 

EDIKBUBOH FIELD NATUBALISTS' 

AND MICBOSOOPIGAL. 

Jahuast 20.— At a meeting of this Society on the above 
date Bome notea on "The Natural History of the New 
Hebridea Islands*' were communicated by the Rev. J. H. 
Lawsib, one ot the members, who was for many years a 
mia^onary on Aneityum. 

In referring to the vegetable productions of the Islanda, 
Mr. Lawrie said that the staple food of the nativea is Taro 
(Oaladinm eaoulentum), and Tarn (Dioecorea aativa), the 
former grown on the swamps, and the latter on the dry 
volcanic districts. Asfood,theseare looked upon by thenativea 
in the same way as we do Fotatos, flour, or meal. »**»^»>fl« 
and Sugar^iane are also much cnltivated. Coffee, Oranges, 
and Pine-apples have been introduced, and it baa been found 
that whatever thrives in the West Indies may be cultivated 
with profit in the New Hebrides. Copra, or the dried kernel 
of the Coooa-nut, is largely exported for manufaeture of aoap, 
pomades, and other useful artiolea. The nativea do not 
regard arrow<>Toot as a food : but being of the finest quality, 
it ia manufactured and sold for payment of their bibles and 
churches. Kava, an intoxicating beverage, obtained from 
the root of Maoropiper methystioum, is a neeeasary acoora> 
peniment of all the native orglea One of the most useful 
trees is the Fftndanus, or Screw Pine, the leaves of which are 
made into dresses for the women, wrapping banda for the 
men, sorcerers' bags, food-baskets, sleeping-mats, and oanoe- 
sails. The war-dubs and bows are made from spedea of Casua- 
rina and Aeaoia. The principal food-bearing trees indigenoua 
to the islanda are the Cocoa-nut (Cocoa nuoiferaX the Bread- 
fruit (Artocarpus ineisa), Roaewi^pple (Eugenia pimenta), 
and Fapaw-apple (Carica papaya). Crotons, Dracmua, 
HiUscaa, and other omamentel plants grow luxuriantly. 
Among Cryptogams, ISO speolea of magnlfloent Foma have 
been found on Aneityum alone. 



THE SCOTTISH HORTICULTURAL 
ASSOCIATION. 

February 1.— The monthly mooting of this Bodety was 
held on the 1st inst. at 6, St. Andrew Square, Bdinbuigh, 
and the chief attraction of the evening was the lecturs by 
Mr. Jones, of Lewisham, on '* Chrysanthemums and their 
Culture." 

The Chairman, Mr. Dodd, who is always happy in his 
choice of phrMos, exactly expreaaed the feeling of the 
meetkig when, in introludng Mr. Jonea, he aaid, that to 
think of the Chrysanthemum was to think of Mr. Jonea, 
who, perhaps more than anyone living, had done most to 
populariae and improve the oultivatloa of those beautiful 
flowers. 

The preliminary business consisted in passing the minutes 
of the annual meeting, which showed the Bodety to be in a 
moat proeperous condition, and in the reception of twdve 
new members. The exhibits on the table consisted of a 
ohdce glass of Daffodils and Narcissus, fringed with Acacia 
dealbAta, shown by the Preddent ; and some very chaste 
wreaths of Clematis tndivisa, by a member of the Asso- 
ciation. 



Royal Botanic Gardens, Ceylon. —Tbe 

first three ** Circulars " published have reference 
to the Cacao-caaker, which is supposed to be due 
to the attacks of a root-fuogas. PrsventatiTO treat- 
meDt is all that oaa be afforded ; i nd e e d, at pisesot 
but little seems to be known of the f anguSi 



Bees in a Block of Stonc— A correspon- 
dent writes ns to insert the following eutting &om 
his local piqper as being of interest to bee-keepers. 
Dnring the progress of work upon a new church, 
which is being erected by Mr. E. 0. Jordan, at 
Crindan, Newport, a remarkable discovery was made. 
l?he masons were sawing through a piece of Bath- 
stone from Corsham quarries, near Bath, when they 
came upon a small cavity lined with spsr. Such 
cavities are not unusual, but the surprise of the work- 
men can naturally be imagined when it was found 
that inside were six beea. A^arently (the aecttons 



THS OASPHNSllS' CSRomCLM. 



war* broa gbt to tha Neiport liyuMOBeetoriimpac- 
Uon) tham ma do entntnea to the cmtj bstare the 
n« out into it, ud th« pr<a«noa of ths bava u > 
myrtarj. Thaj ware klive, uid two of Ihem w«re 
■till qaite totlTswhaQ braaght to thn Arfiu Office in 
■ small box b; Hr. Pige, arolutcat, who u ia olurg* 
of tha worki for Haaras. QrabitiD, Hitohoos k Co. 
Ha WM on the ipot whan the dtMorar; wu mKde, 
■ltd he \t onoB captured tha beea, and secured the 
blaok of BtoDe M a enrioHty. Tha quertioD bv how 
did tha beee get there ! Btt Joaraal. 



^na taiTD 



, below 4S° FVhr. for Urn period 

nuned ■. end thig combined reinlt Is eipTeiHd In DmJ' 
dagtMt— ■ "Daj-dsgne' ■Igniljlng 1° oonUnoad for 
twaDbr-fDnr hoon, or ■nj' othsr nuinlMr of dagiwi for 
u InTanelj fngoManti nncnbu of boon.] 



The dletiieta Indlotad by aninbet in the Hat ealaDm an 
the fcUovf Dg ^— 

0, BootUad, N. PrtnciniJ WJuat-mduelng Dfttriett- 
1, SeotUnd, B. ; S, EDgUod, H.B. ; 1, EDgUiid. B. ; 
4, IlldllBd Ooontlei ; S, Knglud, Inolodlog LoDdon. B. 
Ml^liaJ ffroiiiu, A:., DMrteti — e, BcotUnd. W. 
7 b^ud, N.W. ; 8, KaeUDd a.W. ; B, InUad, N. ; 
10, Iraluid, a 1 * Chumtl IiUadi. 




Boou : I. C. Mr. A. D. Webaler'i Hardu Orna- 
nifxfaZ Floaering Trees and Shrvbt ; fablithtd it 
the oAoe of the GanUrting World, I, Clemeut'e 
Inn, fl.C—B, P. You might perhaps obtain 
A(X(My/M- A^inncnatonsoTolJierof the second- 
hand boolutaliB. With thia and Dunio's EUmentt 
»J Jlotanji, publilhed by tha CambddEe DniTeraitT 
PrcM In 1696, joa will have good elamantar; 
information on 8;atamatio and Stnictural Botanj. 
Five years horticultural eiperieoca ia neceanry 
betora antering Kew, but no definite botanioiJ 
knowledge, which may, however, beeaailyaoquired 
whilat DC Kew. Application should be mule to 
tha Curator. See our issue tor the 22nd alt., p. 66 

BotaNIOAI. NAHm : U, Gautter, Faya (or Hyrica) 
tiagilera, Canary ialand Wax-tree; SicyMpenna 
grmoila(nicitr btfooeia J, an Dual climber from Uazioo ; 
Echinocyatis lobata also a dimbar, of the aame 
Nat. Onlar as tlia last ; and Paspalum eleganB 
■jnonymona with F.tenellum or P.mambranaoaum, 



CoBBiOTiOH. — We are requested by thepnbliaherto 
eay that in the advt. of " Izoline,' p. tiL, in lut 
iasue, instead of Feb. B, 1892, read Feb. 12, 1808. 

Crickets in thi OLAia-uoufin ; W.J. 3. Enquire 
of the hortioultural sundritsmsn —they Ball tiapa 
and other meaoa of deatroying theae peats ; or dig 
out a hole in the floor of each ot your glsss-hooara 
and sink a cUk^ or big bell-Rlaaa, or ■ 12-inoh 
flower pot bottom uppennoat, leaving the holei or 
hole unooTered and putting some odorous fruit 
inaide, and jou will trap thousands. 
Cdodhbkb Roots : JV. 0. The plante are affected 
with eslwonna, tor whiob there ia no known cure. 
Please send spaoimens o( the insecta yon have 
found in tha Mil, and we will asdeaTourto identifr 

DuNBtR REaiNT Potato ■ bets tor Puimsa : 
X. Y. Z. This varietj;, owing to ita liability to 
take the diaeaae, is going out oF onlttratJon, in 
favour at the Bruoe, Jeanie Deaiu, Lady nta, 
and others, which enjoy compaiatife immunity 
from attack. Tou might leam from Ur. A. Find- 
lay, Harkinoh, Fife, where seta oan be obtuned. 

FRun^BBia roB x Fanoi wtih a 'Dam Sodts 
AsFiOT IN EsBEi, ho. : jimalaur. Pean — Beurrd 
Ranee, Eaat<r Beurrd, Tan Mon's Uon Le Clerc It 
you would like as euly Twietj, plant Doyoind da 
Comios or Bon ChrMien. He aapaet ii too warm 
for moat nrietiea of Ap^eo, bnt you might plant 
Newtown Pip^dn, B^ette du Canada, and Wash- 
ington, iddoh are ezoellant, bat aometimes do not 
ripen Uioroughly in thia coantir away from a wall. 
Of Fluma, plant Reine Claude oa BsTay and Reine 
Claude Violette, both of tha OBga type, and very 
good eatinx; the othara might ba JaSerson, Coe'a 
Qolden Drop, and Late TruiBparent ; plant forth- 
with on fne atoeka. Tha Paaia and Applea 
ahonld be bwned horiaontally, and the Plnma fan- 
ahaped. Cherry-treaa may ha toanaplanted at thia 

LsarlHa or thi Oak: in Old (Jalimut. In an 
article entitled " Indioationa ot BprtDg," pnbliBhed 
in these oolnmns on April T, 1888, and embodying 
the obaerrationa of Robert Haahan}, Esq., ot 
Stntton in Norfolk, extending over liitt years in 
the ease of aome of them, we find that in the 
intaml of flfty-tour yean the Oak at that pUoa 
wsa earliest in leaf on Hatch SI, 1760 ; and latest 
OD Hay 20, 179S, a diSbranoe of fifty days. The 
medium date wte April 26, 176T. R- Usaham, 
who waen F.R.S., died in 1767, aged ninety years. 

LiLiDH Bakksi, rta. : D. 0. 1, L. Huimowleni 
Tar. Bakai, Elwes ; 2, L. Bakarianum, Cotlett and 
Hamalay ; 3, L, Bnlieri, Purdy, are three different 
plants. 1, is a Japanese Hartagon with bright 
scarlet flowers— it is figured and desoribed in the 
jtreat monogrsph of Klwes ; No. 2, oomsa from 
tjpper Burma, sod is allied to the Bermuda Lily, 
witli large fLmnel-Hhaped white flowen. It ia 
figured in the JEwm. /inn. Stc, ,to1, zxriii. So. 
3, ia deaoribed in Brylhaa for Oct. 18BT, p. 104. 
It is a Boarlat Hartagon nearly allied to L, aaluDi- 
bianum,[ahfibiting Washington territory and British 
Columlna. All three are in oultifation. J. 0. B. 

ILaiture fob HtmanHaiK Fkbn nr Small Potb ik a 
SmiBn-iioov : E. N. IF. Fern* dislike manure, 
and it ia only advisable to aSbrd it in the groning 
•eescn, and in vary mild doaea. A bushel or two 
of spent Hasbroom-bad manure, and l-yr.-old tree- 
leaves may ba put into a tnh oontaining atiout 10 
gallons of rain-water, and in about a week after- 
wards it will make a liquid-manure that anaweiB 
vary well if diluted with rain-water. The dung 
may ba left out if the odour Is f ound to be too 
strong. Some very tobuet apccies of Feins 
may ba nfibrdsd oow-dung and soat-wuter, taking 
Iha precautLun to use it in a dear state, otherwiie 
the soil -m be cloeed to the air ; but tbis would 
be Boaioely allowed in a ntting-room, nnlea the 
mnnur»waler is allowed to dnin away from tha 
pots out-of doon. Mitrste of eoda in minute do^ea 
sprinkled on ths soil once a fortnight would do 
good. A thimbleful to a S-iuch pot is enough to 
use at one time ; Brat affording the Fem« aufScient 
cltar water to wet the ball thronghout, and then 
ofibrding a alight second applioation of water in 
order to carry the nitrata or some of it to the 

Nameb or Plaktb : Carretpoinient* not annoered 
in thU itiwe are requtited to be to good at 
to comvlt the foUmmng tatmber. — J. L. Send 
wheninflower. — H.W. l,Bl«agnnsmaerophylln^; 
S, Elnagnns pungens rsriegatOB; S, Euonymns 



ivar.— /. W.K. Tndy*t«iionoriMtsle,s 
plant navly allied to Bonge ; it has been otlM 
Kordmannia, Psilosteoioo, sod Borago. Tbe 
name wB gite you is that adopted in the atindaid 
Inden JTeiMWts. — ifpAar. Lyeium Bioenaa, But- 
fn^ loogifblia, so far ai we can toll withont 
flowara.— O. It. Tha flower sent is of a very pntlj 
varlaty of Cattleya Trianni ; the rich orange lo tlu 
throat is pacnliar.—Jt. Q. B., lAmdunm. 1. Phi. 
lldota imbrioata. The other two are variatia of 
Daadrobium unduUtum. — L. C. An Eria, taic 
whieh ipeciaa it is impossible to say from tha 
apMimen sent.— P. Q. Oypripedium Teminum.— 
J. W. Fnohsia triphylla. 

On A Wall Faonta Sooth-wmt AiaaU<tr. F« 
growing on the wall, honse open to the sun boa 
aouth-wsst, you might plant Peara Jaigoaelti, 
Uarie Lonisa, Winter Kelis, Harie Benoist, isd 
Olon MoTOeau, all exoellent Tsristiaa ; In sooecaiaD 
from Augoat to January. 

OacHiD Imjorid : P. K. We believe that ths mii- 
chief arose from tbe emanation* from the wusd 
used in the atspng. Tbe plant has evsiy qipav- 
■nca ot having boen injurad by polaonons fiimta 

Patent Abticle : A G. Jarrttt, Sea snsmr to 
-Saed-DrilL" 

PLAvra roft PLAmso on ins Sahdt Baku or i 
Stbeaii: BokJci. Tamariz geimsnics, 

Tsnety, Alnus in variety, Lydnm bm- 

bamm, Hippophse rhamnoides, Atriplax HalinM. 

Smtn-DBiu,, KTO. : O. A. You should make q^lias- 
tion at the Patent Ofiioe (on any day from 10 lo I), 
SG, Bouthampton Bnildmga, tV.C, bringing ths 
apaoiflcation (d the inTention, and you will tb«c bs 
enabled to asoartain if a tool dnular to the one joq 
desire to obtain a patent for has been to proteetnl 

Shallow Fkamis ahd FooHCAnoH Comb : M. T, 
1. 0. W. 1. Will shallow framaa tJiat were Dial 
last year do againl — Tea, but they muit ba 
properly cleaned. A good plan ia to bcil (hoi 
well in aods-water tor twenty minutes. Ho 
frames that are vary dirty and old should bs nsid 
sgain ; it ia mooh better to bum Uiam and buj 
new onea, Baung they are Bo cheap now. 2. Will 
the BBoa foundation that ia naad for bmd 
Btandaid tramea do for the shallow framaa, or that 
which is used for the eectiooB !— The same founli- 
tion ahoold be uaed tor ahallow frames as is nnl 
for brood ti*mea, but aecure it s litUe thinner, if , 
possible. Section comb will not do for either 
ahallow or brood frames; being bo vesy thin,il 
would not stand the extractor, and even if it^, 
you would get a large waate in honey, and bnall 
the oombs so much that they would be nsdtn 
for retomiog to the hive. 

SHnoB TO Qbow m a Tub is ah OtrvorKKis 
AviAUT, AUO Fbbnb : S. N. W. CoUelis on- 
oiala, Qoeicua llei, Irish Yaw ThiUa albiriiai 
Virgmian Red Cedar, or Sweet Bay. Tlie biidi 
are leM likely to pack the leavea and boda of 
theee plants than Euonymtis and the Rhododan- 
dron. Ton might give a bial to the eommi» 
and crested forms ot Uart's-tongne Fern, Scolo- 
pendrium ; Wallme, Buta-mniaria, forma ^ 
Bleebnum ^ieant; but we fear that no Fern ^ 
be aafe from depredatlou. Wo do not suppMs the 
birds would touch a Mataka Bamtioo plant. 

SFBUa pHOPAQATIOIt OT Lavihdbb : G. M. t»tt I 
slipa, if poaiibls, with roota, in March and Jp'"' 
and plant theae in rowa 1^ to 2 feet apart, anl 
1 foot apart in tbe rows, and iiffotd water tiU IM 
plaata are eaUblishod. The plant doea best in ' 
light warm soil. 

Stkawbekbt CtiLTUBi : SnUA. You will £<"' 
nrtiolea giving tbe ohemioal constituents of Stn** 
•jany^lan- ' "•- "* 



... -„ .the best means rf 

supplying theae in Uia form of msnu)«, in ''* 
aardatrt' ChnmuU, October 24, 1898, p. 489, sod 
November 11, 1896, p. 600. 
TrNE ; A. G. Ths Vins havmg lost all of lU t»°I< 
owing to tha stttgnatian of water in the aoil, ^ 
better be rooted out, raoovery being well BW' 
impossible, and tbe wood aent shows it Co be so. 

CoHvnaiuTion RBonran.— B. T., CardlS,— W. Koipa.-' 
8. K.— H. M.-F. N.— H. B. It.— W. A. C, Vork.-U. [j- 
It D.— U C— W. B.-A. O— C. T. D.— R. P. a— J-»'^ 



FEBErARY 12, 1898.] 



TEE OAMDENEItS' CHRONICLE. 



93 




THE 



SATURDAY, FEBRUARY 12, 1898. 



NOTES FROM A LITTLE CORNISH 

GARDEN. 

{Continiud from p. 33.) 

TANUARY. — Ovring to the exposed siiua- 
^ lion of my garden, I am apt to receive 
some stem disappointments 'at this season. 
Last month, by means of a deceitful blandness, 
numerous leaves were induced to start from their 
buds, and many flowers to show their inex- 
perienced faces. But these rash firstlings were 
*' no sooner blown but blasted *' by the resistless 
hurricane : — 

*' The young green leaflet's harrier, sworn 
To strew Uie garden, strip the diaws, 
And show our spring with banner torn.*' 

However, several flowers have managed to 
retain a kealtby appearance, chief among these 
being the Primroses, both wild and tame. It 
seems to me that none of the garden Primroses 
approach the yellow one in beauty and delicacy 
of colouring. Herrick, in his persistent search 
for floral similes to the various conditions of his 
*' virgins," treats the Primrose unfairly in 
comparing its colour to that of the skin of those 
suffering from chlorosis : — 

<* VirginB, time past^ known were these, 
Troubled with green rieknesses ; 
Tamed to flowers, itill the hue. 
Sickly giris, they bear of you.*' 

The yellow of the Primrose is utterly removed 
from any suggestion of sickness or disease. 
On the contrary, it is pre-eminently one of the 
'Afresh" colours; it goes with dean print 
dresses, sweet milk, ruddy cheeks, and ** ideal" 
country simplicity— a very difi(6rent thing, it 
may be remarked, from any real rural product. 
The Primrose's scent is like its colour, delicate 
and fresh. No words can approach a descrip- 
tion of these qualities of scent and colour. May 
we fancy that some beautiful fairy, having 
feasted on rose-petals, sweet wild herbs, and 
the south-west wind, breathed her fragrant 
breath on the lovely Primrose blossom ? 

Primroses are among the easiest of all plants to 
grow. They do best in the shade of deciduous 
trees, and I flnd them satisfled under these con- 
ditions with the poorest and driest of soils. 
Judging from their leaves, one would, of course, 
expect them to stand a dry situation welL 
The leaves are corrugated, hairy, and thick, 
unlike those of such plants as Pulmonaria 
officinalis, Cyclamen, and Hepatica triloba, 
which are natives of damp, shady places, and have 
to get rid of a large quantity of moisture under 
adverse conditions. These latter, therefore, have 
mostly large thin-leaf surfaces, naked of hairs, 
and often have their leaves mottled owing to 
the spongy parenchyma being more open-wove 
ui some places in order to allow water to pass 
off readily. The Primrose almost partakes of 
the character of a bulbous plant. Its thick 
starchy root contains as good a store of last 



year's solar energy as does bulb of Snowdrop 
or Crocus. Hence its earliness in showing 
leaves and flowers which it could never have 
produced by the aid of this year's suu alone. 

Since Christmas day my winter Aconites have 
been sending up experimental blooms, but I 
do not anticipate any considerable floral effect 
from them for another fortnight or more. I like 
to watch the daOy lengthening for eight days of 
the yellow dome, one of whose functions is to 
protect the ripe pollen from rain. As the short 
outer row of stamens first ripens, the short sepals 
suffice for its protection, but day after day a 
longer and more central row ripens and re- 
quires protection, and each day the sepals gi'ow 
longer to meet the new need. In spite of the 
pretty little nectaries, I do not think many 
bees will visit them at present. As most of the 
early spring flowers are produced from last 
year's reserve store of nutriment, they com- 
monly appear before the leaves are well 
developed. They spend last year's savings, 
and are able to cut a fine figure before most 
plants have begun even to accumulate the 
wherewithal to produce flowers. 

The winter Aconites will give my firat mass of 
colour in the New Tear. I like a garden which has 
always some brilliant display in eridence, as well at 
containing interesting and beantiful single plants. 
I am looking forward to the following " blazes " in 
my garden with considerable interest : . Winter 
Aconites, yellow Primroses (under a row of trees), 
Croousea, Tulips, Anemones, Wallflowen, Etcholtaias, 
Silene (oarpetiog my Rose-bed), Poppies, and Sweet 
Peas. 

I am contioually receiving severe eritioisms of my 
gardening when I walk in the country. The hedges 
and meadows, hillsides, and even ditches, make con- 
stant tude remarks, and inyite me to look at them 
and learn. I endeavour to take their advice. If we 
are to have any originality in our gardens, we must 
study natural plant effects —not necessarily to copy 
them. It is not, of course, true that everything which 
Nature produces is pleasant to the oaltlvated taste, 
for Nature has a good many other prejudices to con- 
sult besidee those peculiar to man. The dung- 
beetle's view of beauty, for instance, must not be 
foigotten. Then it is that the gardener should study 
Nature constantly and closely, but should remain 
slightly critical and seleotive. The last thing the 
hedges told me was, that I had no business to have so 
much bare earth showing in my garden in January. 
My Saxifesges are growing into nice clumps, it is true, 
and my Wallflowers present me with a very nice 
shade of green ; my Periwinkles cover a little stony- 
bank with glossy leaves, and show a number of early 
blue flowers with the most remarkable of pistils ; my 
little dumps of Cyclamen are a mass of marbled 
foliage ; and little g^reen points proceeding from 
various buried bulbs dot the ground at frequent 
intervals. All this is true, yet the hedge's criticism 
I stains its force, so I have written off for a selection 
of dwarf evergreen plants, Verenioas, Ericas, Kalmias, 
and the like, as well as a few mora varieties of Poly- 
stiohum and Polypody Ferns than those I already 
have. 

The Christmas Roses are still, of course, in their 
glory, and remain the one flower which seems really 
happy out-of-doors at present. Still, the gardener^s 
mind must now be chiefly anticipant; eager for 
effects to come, rather than having any very great 
grounds for joyfulness in the present display afforded 
by his garden. Now, one may study books and 
catalogues by the light of the lamp and the fire's 
warmth, and the genuine gardener will find that his 
hobby often helps his reading, as his reading most 
certainly helps his capacity for extracting pleasure frem 
his garden. For I hold that the most fortunate gar- 
dener is Le who is a bit of a botanist, a bit of an 
artist, a humanist, and a lover of earth-digging. One 
other thing is necessary to the fortune of the gardener, 
and that is a moderate-sized garden in which he may 
ply his craft Harry Robertt, 



WILLIAM CATTLEY. 

VsRT little is generally known of the man after 
whom Lindley named one of the most magnificent of 
the genera of Orahids. Lindley himself {OoUeettMea 
Botanica^ 1821, plate 83), says in reference to the 
dedication : — " Our drawing was made by Mr. Curtis 
from a specimen which flowered in Mr. Cattley's 
stove last November. Without exception, it is tiie 
handsomest species [C. labiata] of the order we have 
ever seen alive, and we hare on that account the 
greater pleasure in publishing it^ as it has given us an 
opportunity of paying a compliment to a gentleman 
whose ardour in the oolleotion, and whose unrivalled 
success in the cultivation of the difficult tribe to 
which it belongs, have long since given htm the 
strongest claims to such a distinction." In Nicbol'* 
son's Dictionary of OardeniMg, Cattley is described as 
a "famous patron of botany, and one of the most 
ardent collectors of rare plants of bis day." In 
Johnson's Qardeners^ Dietumary^ he is designated, ** a 
magnificent patron of botany ; " but the name of 
Cattley does not appear in Britten and Boulger's 
Biographical Index, and I understand he is not to 
be included in the forthcoming supplement to that 
most useful work, though his claims to a place are, 
in my opinion, equal to those of many others. Pos- 
sibly, however, this note may induce the compflers to 
change their minds. 

Cattley's garden was at Barnet, and he must have 
had a very fine collection of plants, for besides the 
Oattleya, the following plants figured in the OoUeetanea 
were from his garden : Vanda teretif oUa, Oxyanthus 
spedosus, Psidium Cattleianum/ Metrosideros vera, 
Cephaelis calyoina, Pusohkinia sdlloides, Omitho- 
galam fimbriatum, Cypripedium insigne, Vanda 
multiflora, and Sarcanthus rostratus. These were 
out of a total of forty plates. I have not found any 
biographical sketch of Cattley, though it is probable 
one exists in the OenUeman*§ Magaaint, There is no 
doubt, however, that he was intimately associated 
with Lindley in some of his other early works, and 
that he had a large collection of drawings of plants, 
littdley's DigittMvm Monograpkia (1821) was illus- 
trated by Ferdinand Bauer, ** penes Gulielmus 
Cattley." This woriL is dedicated to Cattley in the 
following terms : — 

" Viro generoso Qulielmo OatUey, armigere, Sodet. 
Linn. Lend, et Hort SodaL, Botanices Sdentite 
callentiasimo, Patrono Nulli secundo, et, quod m^inmi 
duoit, amico sue optimo, D.D.D. Auotor." 

Lindley was not a man who used complimen- 
tary language of a fulsome character, and I think 
we may assume that Cattley, although no great 
contributor to botanical litereture, was more 
than an amateur gardener. There is at l