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Chapter L — Boecription. ^^^^ 

Position and Area ; Boaudartes; SttbDivifiioDa ; Aspect ,.. 1-4 

Hills ; BivcTB ; Floo<l8 ... ... ... ... 5.11 

Geology; Climate .. ... ... 12.15 

Oupter n.- Production. 

MioenlB; Trecei Forests ... ... ... I6.19 

DonuMtic Animals i Wild AuimaJa; Birds; FisL ... 20-25 

dupter IIL— FopuUtiofl. 

iiifitory ; DidthbutioQ ; Language ; llonsos ; Dn«a ; Ornn- 

mentd ; Expenses; Dailj Life; B«Iigion ; Community ... 26*33 

Censas Details ... ... ••• ... 34-36 

BrAhmane; Writors; Traders ... ... .„ 87-46 

Hasbandmen ; CrofUnieD ; Mannfiiotarcrs ... .,, 47-53 

Bardji and Actors ; Pcrsoual Sorraats ; Hcrdsmon and 

Shepherds ; Fiahors ; Labourors and Misccllaoeoas Workers. 54-60 

DusetUod Tribes ; Depressed Classes j Oeggnrs ... 61-74 

Mnsalmdns ; P&rsia ; Jews; Ohritiiians ,. ... 75-66 

Villages ; Oommnnities ; Movements ,,, ... 87-8J) 

Oupter IV.— Agricoltnre. 

Husbandmen; Holdings; Arable Land; Stock; Crop Aroa; 

Son ; Field Tools ; Ploughing ; Sowing ; Irrigation ; Wells ; 

Manure; Weeding; Reaping; Thrashing; Winnowing; 

Fallows and Rotation ... ... ... ... 00-07 

Wood-ash Tillage ; Cropa ... ... ... 98-104 

Bligbte; Famines .. ... ... ...105-113 

Qiapter V. -Capital 

Capitalists; Saying Classes; InTestmeuts ; Rankers ; Currency ; 
Insutnnco ; Brokers ; Clerks ; Muuuylcnders ; Bon-owurs ; 
Interest ; Account Books ; Debtors ; Grain Advances ; Land 

Soles ; Land Mortgages 




Cultivuiora ; Craftsmen ; Iia.l)ourore ; Labour Mortgage ; 
Wages; Prices; Wcighte and Moasares ... ... 120-124 

Chapter VX- Trade. 

Communicatlona ■ 
Early Hontcs ; Roads; Pnflsos; Railways ; Bridges ; Ferries ; 
Tolls ; Rest Houaca; Post Offices; Telegraph ... 125. 136 


Old Traffic; Railway Traffic; Road Traffic; Trndo SyEtom ... 137-14-1 


Brass Work ... ... ... ... 145-153 

Wood-turuing; Silk- working ; SUk-dyeing; SUk-wcaving ; 
Gold and Silver Thread ... ... .„ 154- 1C6 

Ootton Goods ; Carpet-making ; Tape- weaving ; Dyeing ; 
Calico-printing ; Blaukot-woaving ; Paper-making ; Nitre- 
making; Lac-work ... ... ,„ ... 167-180 

Chapter VII. — History. 
Barly Hindaa (u.c. 200 •A.D. 1200). 
i-ndhrabhrityia (n.c. 200-A.D. 200) ; OhdlukyAa (a.d. 500) ; 

Rdthodfl {a.d. 300-970) ; ChAndor Yddara (800-lOCO); 

Nikumbhavanshaa (1000-1200) ... ... ... 181-186 

MuBshaaM (1295-1760) ... ... ... ... 187-191 

MaraUia'B (1700-1818) ... ... ... ...192-194 

Briiiah (L818-1882) ... ... ... ...195-204 

Chapter VIII.— Land Admisistration. 
Aequifiition ; Cliangcs ; Staff ... «.. ... 205 • 206 

HiBtory ... ... .., ... ...207-210 

The BritiBh (1818-1882) ... ... ... 211 - 214 

Land Kevenuo (1818-1840) and Borrey (1840-1870): 
Nisik Sub-coUectorato (1840-1845) ; Chdndor (1840-1842) ; 
Dindori (18-12.1843) ; Sinnar (1843-1645) ; NAsik (1844- 
1845); PAtoda (184G-1847) ; Survey Effects (1840-1847) ; 
Hill Villages (1840-1847); Kdvnai (1842-18U); Trimbak 
(1844-45) ;bindori (1845-40) ; Ndaik (1846-47) ; Kivnai 
(1840-47); The DAugs (1800); Point (1805-66); MAlo- 
gaon (1868); BigUn (1868); Jaykhcda and Abhona 
(1869) ... ... ... ... ...215-256 

BevlAion Bnrvcj : 
NiuhAd-Chindor (1871); Chdndor-Dindori (1874); Sinnar 
(1874-75); NAaik (1874); Pitoda (1876); Hill Villages 
(1875); Dindon (1875-76); Niisik (1876-77); Dindori 
(1880) ; Survey ReaulU (1840-1878) ... ... 257-295 

Season Ecjwrts; Land Uevonuo (1850-1882) .. ... 296. 303 

Tin area of the districtj 8140 sqtiare miles, nnd tlio density of fcho 
population, ninety to the square mile, given at pages 1, 2, and 33, were 
taken from the latest nvailablo Ggures, those given In the 1872 
census retum& Since these pages were printed a eerioas error has 
.been detected in the estimated areas of the B/lgMn, Kalvan, and Feint 
MRib-divisions. Inquiries made by officers of the Revenue Survey 
show that the correct area of B&gUn is 620 not 1420 square miles, 
of Kalvan 554 not 1200 sqnnro miles, and of Feint 458 not 961 
sqnare miles. Tliese, and other smaller corrections together reduco 
the area of tho district from 8140 to 5940 square miles.' The 
ameoded area of 5940 square miles givesj for 781,206 the 1881 
population* an avenige density of 131 to tho square mile. 














Uilt^*oit ... 








Kit>4E»u& - 






M.I 44 


Ttote ... 




















Bigl&n (SftOni) 









ToUl ,. 






» Sarvoy Coramissioncr to Govenunent, 262, lOth Mftrch 1881. 

The namea of oontribaton are given in the body of the -book. 
Special acknowledgments are doe to . Meem. J. A. Bainei, O.S.« 
H. B. Cooke, O.S., F. L. Obarles, 0.8.. Gobnel W. H. Wilson, 
CSaplain W. C. Black, Bte Babtfar K^ahiiUUibMahAdeTThatfee, and 
Mr. Bagbpji Trimbak S&nap. 

Much vilaable belp baa been received from Mr. W. Bamsay, 
G.S., Collector of the district. The learned and interesting account 
of the Pinda Lena Caves is contributed by Pandit Bhagv£nUl 

August 1883, 




Na'sik, lying between 19" 33' and 20° 53' north latitude and 

10' and 75° 6' east tongitnde^ with an area of 8140 square miles, 

in 1872, a population of 734.,386 souls or 00-2 to the aqnare mile, 

m 18S0, a land rft venue of nearly £140,000 (Rs. 14,00,000). 

Rhomboidal in abApo^ with a length of 108 miles from aouth- 

\west to north-east and an extreme breadth from north to south of 

iKbtj-seven miles, Nasik is bounded on the north by the Pirapalner 

Dhulia Bub-divisions of Khandesh; on the east by theChilisgaon 

ivision of the same dit^trict, and the Daulatabad division of the 

tm's dt>nuuton8 ; on the south by the Kopargaon, Sangamner, 

Akola sub-divisions of Ahmednagar ; and on the west by the 

^hahipur sub-division of Thana, the state of Dharampur, and the 

ISongad division of the Giikw^r's territory. Except Peint and 

lew villagres in NA&ik, Kalvan, and Igatpuri, the district lies on a 

''le-land immediately to the east of the Sahyadri hills or Western 

The HDundary line on the north is fairly regular. Starting from 
' L'h ground in the north-west it follows the Selb4ri hills due 
r about forty-five miles ; it then turns south and south-eaat 
as far a« the broken ground on the north slope of the SAtmila hills. 
Th£»n, after a southern couruo of about seventeen miles, it takes a turn 
of fifteen miles south-east, in order to include some villages isolated 
in the Nizim's territory. Bending northwards again for eighteen 
lailes and leaving the southern hills of the Satmdla range for the 
slains, it follows a southern course for about twenty-four miles. 
Between the N^ik and Ahmednagar districts, except near the 
Sahr^ri hilb, there is no well marked natural boundary. The line 
k rerv irregular. It runs west from the Niaam's limits for twenty- 
fleren' miles, and then south-east for fourteen miles. After a sharp 
turn south-west for twenty-two miles, it follows a low line of hills 
twenty miles west until it meets a high range of mountains, along 
which it passes twenty-four miles south-west, and ends in a rugged 
of hill forts on the Sahy^dris, overlooking the Konkan. 

* ThiB chapter u ooolribated by Mr. J. A. Biinee, C. S. 

Chapt«T I. 


1 Bombay Oasel 


Chapter I. 


Except Peint wliich lies entirely to the west, the S&hji 
range forms tho wost^jm boundary of the district. This range 
from Khaudesh south-west for nearly sixty miles to the Tri 
fort, near which it turns south-eastj passing out of the district 
mass of rocks that forms the natural boundary between Tgatpo] 
Ndaik and Akola in Ahmednagar. 

For administrative purposes N4sik is divided into twelve 
divisions, with, on an average, an area of 07^ square miles, 
villages, and abont 61,000 inhabitants. The following si 
gives the chief statistics of each sub-division : 

ydtik SubdiviMonai DeiaiU, 1879, 


































































































67 .Ta.^ 














Piflnt. PttA .. 




































TtoUl ... 



















60, IW 











7114 ;»o 



The Peint sub-division differs fi^om the rost of tho district, and, 
both in appearance and climate, partakes of the nature of the Konkan. 
It is a senes of ridge.** and valleys intersectod by streams muning 
in very deep beds. The hills are in many cases higher than those at 
the edge of the neighbouring Sahyadris, but the general elevation 
of the country is about 600 feet below the tablo-land of tha 
Deccan. ITiere is abundance of forest, but the trees, as a rulei 
are of small size, though excellent teak is found in some parts. 
Agriculture consists chiefly in planting rice in the valleys and 
coarse grains on the less precipitous hill slopes. »Socn from the 
crest of the RahyAdri.*i, tho continuous succession of billowy ranges 
and the green patches of tillage in the valleys give Peint aa 
air of picturesqueness. But below, in the country itself, tho 
frequency of the valleys cutting off all but the narrowest view, tha 
bareness of the teak forest except for a few months in the year, the 
small number of inhabitants, and the poverty of the villages^ tend 
to make Peint desolate and raonotououa. 

The rest of the district, from 2000 to 1300 feet al>ovB th© sea, 
slopes from the Sahylldris towards the east and south-east. The 
Satm^la, Ch4ndor, or Ajanta range, ^hat, running east and west 




I Bombay OacettMn 


Chapter I. 




Except Peint which lies entirely to the west, tho Sahyadri 
range formg the western boundary of the district. This range runs 
from Kh^indesh south-west for nearly sixty miles to the Trimbak 
fort, near which it turns south-east, passing out of the district at the 
mass of rocks that forms the natural boundary between Igatpuri in 
NAsik and Akola in Ahinednagar. 

For administrative purposes NAsik is divided into twelve 
divisions, with, on an average, an area of 678 square miles^ HI 
villages, and about 61,000 inliabitants. Tho following summarjT 
gives the chief statistics of each sub-division : 

Xdsik SubtiiiHMonnl Dttaih, 1879, 

6c B- 


HMonoo . 
Nknojnon . 


Pelflt, Pttk. 




Total . 
















Bl«0 I 1470 41 








Vaitgei. ^ 

011 183 
















3i 4s ; iMi ; i8«t 

The Peint sub-division differs from the rest of tho district, and, 
both inappearanc4»and climate, partakes of tho nature of the Konkau. 
It is a series of ridges and valleys intersected by streams running 
in very deep beds. The hills are in many cases higher than those at 
the edge of the neighbouring Sahyddris, but the general elevation 
of the country is about 600 feet below the table-land of the " 
Deccan. There is abundance of forest, but the trees, as a rolej 
are of small size, though excellent teak is found iu some parts. 
Agriculture consists chiefly in planting rice in the valleys and 
coarse grains on the less precipitous hill slopes. Seen from the 
crest of the Sahyd,dris, the continuous succession of billowy ranges 
and the green patches of tillage in the valleys give Point an 
air of picturesqueness. But below, in the country itself, tho 
frequency of the valleys cutting off all but the narrowest view, the 
baroness of the teak forest except for a few months in the year, the 
small number of inhabitants, ana the poverty of the villages, tend 
to make Peint desolate and monotonous. 

The rest of the district, from 2000 to 1300 feet above the sea, 
slopes from the Sahy^ris towards the east and south-east. The 
Satm^^ Chdndor, or Ajanta range, that, running oast sad west 



ised to divide Kh^ndesL from Ahmedna^r before Niaik was a 

lepamte coHectorBte, forma a nataral di^-isiou between the valley of 

Kbe GirDii on the north and the valley of the GodAvari on the south. 

Another greatj though less clearlj marked, division rans north 

•nd eoath^ the western portion being- called Ddng, the eastern 

De«h. D^n^ denotes a wild and hilly tract in which, thon>^h 

eicellont soil is sometimes found, cultivation of the simplest kind 

ia alone possible, owing to the excessive rainfall and the consequent 

prevalence of maUria during the cold season. Dcsh implies a 

wide extent of open champaign country in which large fields, 

imgatod gardens, and a system of crop rotation are the rule. 

The D^ing country of Nasik stretches eastward from the Sahyddris. 
It Tanee greatly in breadth, being in some places only ten miles 
vide Andjn others more than thirty. Its general characteristics 
are the 'Mine throughout, rough hilly ground intersected by 
torreuU. the v»l|pyfi, as a rule, stretching from west to east, 
th- lower as they approach the Desh plains. North 

of i^j in Baglan, the crest of the Sahyadris is much 

less ciearlr denned, the country both above and below consisting 
oC ft mass *-^ ^' l^- -f considerable hei»jht. The valleys are short and 
narrow, s< - mere steej) clefts between high ranges of 

hills. The', irna river and ita larger tributaries have worn wide 
Insins within a short distance from their sources, and are fed 
by ah' Titless torrents from the neighbouring hills. South 

irf the X-, the Dang is more open but equally broken by 

ridges and torrents. The hills are lower, and the edge of the 
8ahjiuin8 is often a wide plateau, deeply seamed in places by the 
beds of iho rivers that How east and west. 

The heavy rainfall, washing the soil from the uplands into the 
lorretJta, has driven tillage to the valleys, leaving the slopes to grass 
and the coarsest grains. In the northern Dkng this is almost 
aairensally the case. The larger rivers have been dammed, and 
a considerable area of irrigable land stretches on either hank, 
hat beyond the comparatively level tract at the base of the hills 
hounding the valloVH, there is little regular tillage. Some of the 
•lopes show patches of cleared land, whei*o ndgli^ Elousine coracana, 
is grown by dint of burning grass or the leaves and branches of trees 
over the soil, both for the sake of the ash manure and because tho 
process renders the earth more friable and better suited to crops 
that- require transplantation. There are few large trees except the 
mango and tho lesa valuable sorts of timber which flourish in the 
ravine* snd valleys. Corinda, Carissa carandas, and other brushwood 
00* of the uplands. Teak is found in the gashes on the sides 

o( ; „lier hills and on the western slopes of the Sahyadris ; but 

«atil the foot is reached some 600 to 800 feet below, the teak is of 
no great size. On this side the descent is abrupt, but on the east 
the sktpe consists of a series of gradually descending undulations 
from 20U0 feet to about 1800, at which elevation the Desh may be said 
to begin. The Dang hills furnish abundance of fodder. They are 
the yearly resort of thousands of cattle from the eastern villages, 
fcnd form the chief breeding ground of the district. The larger 




[Bombay 0&x6tt«tr, 


Chapter I. 





villages are on or near rivers. The houses of the village headmen 
and the leading families are generally tiled and strongly built of 
earth or sun-dried brick. The lower clasaea, and on the Sahyadna 
nearly all classes, live in huts of wattle and daub, with stoat comer 
posts and frequently a trellis in front covered with gourds or some 
other creeping plant. North of the Satradlds the population is, in 
moat cases, confined to the valleys of the larger rivers. 

In the east and north-east of the district, one or two upland tracts 
partake of the nature of the DAng, though they are not properly 
-within its limits. The soil is poor and light, the surface is on all 
sides cut with deep stream beds, there are few largo trees, and 
stunted anjan, Hardwiokia biuata, covers a great portion of the 
untilled land. But as the climate is different from that in the 
neighbourhood of the Sahyfidris, the husbandman is able to sow a 
better paying crop than the coarse grain, which alone can be raised 
on the shallow soil and rain-drenched uplands of the west. 

B^gldn, the country north of the S^tmilas, has a character of its 
own, on account of the size of some of its valleys within a compara- 
tively short distance of the sources of the rivers by which they are 
drained. It is a land of hills and streams, and the valleys, except in 
the eastern portion bordering on MAlegaon, are narrow and broken. 
They are eeparatcfd from each other by five abrupt and rocky ranges, 
spurs of the Sahyadris trending eastward. Streams everywhere 
descend from the hills, most of them containing water daring the 
dry season. The level lands, confined to comparatively narrow belts 
along" both banks of the Ginia and some of its large tributaries, are 
chiefly given to garden tillage for which B^lan is noted. The 
rivers and large streams are crossed by a series of small works 
constructed at short intervals, by which a liead of water is obtained 
sufficient in some c^ses for perennial irrigation. Sugarcane, rice, and 
wheat are the chief irrigated crops. These represent the wealth of 
the people, and whatever capital there is in Bd-glAn is mainly derived 
from this source. Thedry-crop cultivation is insignificant, because 
the soil, except in rich black lands irrigable from rivers, is generally 
poor. Near rivers are fine mango groves, but the rest of Bagldn is 
bare of large trees. The Ddng tract south of the SAlmalas 
corresponds with what, further south, Grant Duff calls GhAt Mdtha 
or above-Ghat Konkan, in contradistinction to Thai or below-Ghit 

In the Desh there is a great deal of open, bat, except towards tbe 
east, not much level country. The watersheds of the smaller rivers 
are wider and their beds are nearer the surface than in the Ding. 
The undulations extend throughout, from 1300 to 1500 feet above 
the plain. The country is broken by isolated hills, and by a 
few low flat-topped ridges. Some parts are well wooded with 
large mango groves. In other parts, though the soil is equally 
fertile for grain cultivation, scarcely a tree of any size is to be seen, 
except round a well or near a villag©j wbere a sparely clothed 
fimpulf Ficus religiosa, breaks the monotony of the scene. In 
the north and north-west Desh, the people incliue to houses with 
bigh-pit-ched tiled n-^ofs, and they usually plant trees round the village 


of tlio Ehone. The waot of trees is a serioun 

ik to ito pictnresqnenesa of the Desh. Whf?rever engarcane 

there is a large demand for fuel and the hills are stripped 

bruahwcrod. Babhul plantations are seen here and there, but, 

in B^glin, tbey are not sufficiently thick to keep pace with 

g that goes on every year. In the open country, tillage 

, the hedges are low, and often of cactus. If it were 

background of mountains that is visible from nearly 

rt of the districtj the country would be downright ngly. 

Ihe exception of the Sahyddris, the general direction of the 
n ranges is from we^t to ea/at, the higher portion beiug 
le west. Both flat-topped and peaked mountains are found; 
er predominate in number, though not in height. 

extreme north, is the Selb^ri range, the higher points in 
"•■oTn 3100 to 4200 feet. A few miles to the south and 
K 1, come the Dolbari hills, a lower line, starting like the 

ri, fcrom the Suken range. The last mentioned range, varying 
fht from liTOO to 4700 feet, has one peak, the fort of Saler, 5298 
gh. This is outside the limits of the Ndsik district, and is now 
it«d by a few Giikwdri soldiers, the descendants of the former 
DO. Separating the larger rivers of Bdgldn are various minor 
i, none of them more than 3500 feet high, and the majority 
f few peaks of even that elevation. The aouthmost range is 
kabie for the beaatiful and striking outline of its peaks. 

i Sdtmdla, Chandor, or Ajanta range, has been mentioned as 
ng right across the district. It differs from the rest of tlie 
oins in the north by the number and sha[>e of its pojika, and by 
>sence of tiat summits. These peaks are visible from nearly 
part of the district and form a prominent landmark. The highest 
^m is Dhctdap, 4701 fet?t. Several other peaks approach 
lek^bt Amongst these ^ro Saptashring, a celebrated place 


<kfiltAtMt*A^ nf t.hpin fnrt.a fninnlintr 

[Bombay Oaxett 



siirroundiug elevations, amongst wliich is the once celebrated fort 
RAmsej,and the conical peak of ChiimbharLenain whichare some Ji 
rock ehriues, frequented by pilgrims, chiefly of the much -abused cl 
of Vd-niscalledMArvildis. South-west of NAsik are two or three iaoh 
hillR, the moat easterly of which has a terrace on the north-east 
containing a large number of cave temples of considerable importaiu 
This hill is known to the Brihmans by the name of Trishirsha, ~ 
isolated peaks merge towards the west in a lino of hills, vchich gradi 
rises from 3000 to 4800 feet. The highest summits are those of 
forts of Aujaniri or Anjani, 4292 feet, and Trimbak, 4248 
Anianiri is a fine mass of trap rock, with lofty upper and lower seal 
each scarp resting on a wide and well wooded plateau. Its top is 
and of considerable area. Triiubak is celebrated in mythology as 
as in history. On the north-east it forms a tine amphitheatre enclosi 
the town at its base. The scarp is well defined, like that at Anjani 
and is scaleable only at one or two clefts, where a narrow 
difficult path gives access to the energetic faithful who determine to 
go the complete round of a pilgriui's duties. The fort itself rise* 
above the scarp in a grass-covered slope of conical shape, the summit 
being indented like a cock's comb. As the deity of the Trid< 
IB the tutelary of the place, the depressions of the ridge 
three in number, just as in Europe, celebrated cities, for lonj 
somehow included seven hills within their limits. To the west 
Trimbak are three large masses of rock, Brahma* Harsh, 
Bh^kargad. The last mimed, which seems to be the highest, 
in the ThAna district, and, when viewed from the north or the souf 
forms a magnificent buttress of the SahyAdria, 

Between the Anianiri range and the southern limit of tL 
district are several detached ridges over 3000 feot high. Amongst 
these the chief are Hhaula and Kd-vnai forts, and the Mhordan hill. 
All three are flat-topped and scarped. Kavnai, or the hill of KAm^k- 
shidevi whose temple is on the top, was once the chief residence of 
the Peshwa's revenue officer for the circle. The range that stretches 
eastwards from the Suhyddris, south of Igatpuri, is on the whole the 
most rocky and precipitous iu the district. It contains the highest 
summits, two of which, Kalsubdi and a less important one to the 
west, reach an elevation of about 5400 and 5100 feet respectively, 
and many c»f the other peaks are between 470(» and 5'>00 feet high. 
Almost every mountain has been a fort, and many still have water- 
cisterns and granaries. The best known, as well as the largest, ia 
Patta which was more than once taken by Shivaji and his lieutenants. 
Though its base lies within Nasik limits its summit is in Ahmed- 
nagar. North of KalsubAi a 8tuj>endous precipice overhangs the pass 
between Igatpuri and Akola. The whole i*auge is bare of trees, except 
a few belts of teak towards the foot. There is not tlie same regularity 
in scarping as on other ranges of a nearly equal height, the only well 
definea scarp being that in the magnificent amphitheatre enclosed 
by the two forts of Aundha and Patta. This ninge subsides beyond 
these points, one branch, with only one large hill, Adkilla, 
trending thirty miles south-east to the plain of Sangamner. The 
other branch is more a step than a ridge. It follows in its 



teral tlireotion the coarse of the D^ma river, from west to eaat, 
&inka into tlio plain before reacbLng the God^vari, eighteen or 
it^ miles (lidtftDt. 

^des these leading ranges there are many hills, both 

ited and furming the backbones of ridges between streams, 

le^e. tbongh often of considerable height above the sea, present 

_' appearance from the table-laud out of which they riso. 

„_, ___ ^ l^ualIy covered with coarse graea, loose stones weighing 

frnrm a few ounces to five or six pounds, and in many places large 

tea of ruck. Some of these ranges are flut-topped, preserving a 

>us regularity in height and slope for many miles. Others are 

and irregular. The isolaiod hills are chiefly towards the 

or near the higher ranges, and present no feature worthy of 


le district is drained by two chief rivers the Gima and the 

ivari. and their tributaries, the watershed being, as before noticed, 

■■■i range. The Girna rises to the west of the district north 

iiije near Hatgad, flows thTX)ugh Kalvan, B/LglAn, and 

►n till it passes into Khandesh, where it turns north to meet 

iti. The God^vari rises in the Trimbak range to the sonth, and 

witli its affluents drains the N^sik, Igatpuri, Dindori, Chdndor, 

"^'" ' . and \iphad sub-diviiiions, passing into Ahmednagar and tke 

nes of the NiMm on its way to the Coromaudel coast. 

Feint there are many streams, but only tbree rivers of any 

L«nib]e size. The largest is the Davangakoa, which flows into 

at Daman, about fifty miles sonth of Surat. The two others, 

vad the F.^k, are but slender streams in the dry season. 

flow through deep ravines over rocky and winding beds. 

mks are steep and well wooded, and little or no use is made 

■ water for irrigation. 

Taitarma rises in the south-west side of the Trimbak fort, 
ius but a small portion of the district, and, about eight 
from its source, leaves the Deccan by a remarkably deep 
and pttcipitous channel cut through the edge of the Suhyddris, 
the sides of which, wherever they afford foothold for vegetation, are 
tuvered with teak. The channel is some seven or eight miles long, 
tit two or three miles from its upper entrance it is met by a 
jond vrIIpv, equally steep, worn by a tributary stream, the apex 
the delta between the two affording a magnificent view of the 
irse of the river into the ThAna district, through which after a 
l1 length of about ninety miles it empties itself into the Arabian 
t, eleven miles north of Bassein. Of its drainage area only about 
square miles lie above the Sahyadris. 
[The GodAvari, or Ganga as it is locally called, is the most 
lebrated river in the district. One of its sources lies just 
low the scarp of the western side of the Trimbak amphitheatre, 
iere» is a temple, reached by a flight of well built atone steps. 
larger and more distant branch takes its rise in the ridge that 
ins the Trimbak and Brahma mountains. But here there is no 
iposing natural formation to lend its aid in aupporting the belief in 

Ch*pt«r I. 





I Bombaj O&sftti 



Hiaptor I. 



the divine origin of the stream, so this branch is neglected in 
of ita smaller rival. After passing the town of Trimbak, the GodAi 
turns to the east, cutting a deep and rocky bed through the 61 
M^tha country. After about seven miles, it receives the a 
mentioned tributary, called the Kikvi, on the north. Three 
further to the east, the Godavari is met by the Alandi, a 
river flowing from the north and debouching at Jaldlpur. j 
hundred yards below the meeting, the Godavari dashes dow 
narrow cha^m in a bed of rocks, some thirty-two feet high, 
owing to the narrowness of the passage and the height of 
rocky walls, the fall is accompanied by a noise far above 
would be expected from the average body of water that 
through. About 500 yards below the falls of Gangiipur, the bed 
the river is crossed by a remarkably well marked dyke of the kii 
usually found in trap formations. It has been worn down by 
stream, but at each bank the broken edges are so clean cut a 
give it the appearance of a wall built by human agency ; and 
is, in fact, the character it bears among some of the neighboui 
villagers. Seven miles east of Gang^pur the river passes the 
of N^ik. Here it turns slightly southward, and at a bend near tl 
point of its entry into the town, a second ridge of rocks croE 
the bed, causing a slight fall of five or six feet. Numerous tem[ 
stud the banks, aud the bed of the river is a succession of masoi 
pools used in ceremonial ablutions, aud with a sort of quay on the 
right bank where the markets are usually held. About a quart 
of a mile south, the river bends sharply to the east, washing tl 
base of a high clifF, formerly the site of a Moghal fort, but which 
now being eaten away by the action of floods. At this spot a fei 
crosses the stream, with a causeway close by for the fair seasoi 
Except during two or three months of the year the ferry is liM 
used. A mile or two below Nasik, the Goddvari receives the Nasai 
on the right, a small but important stream rising ten miles west 
the town in the Anjaniri range. From this stream the chief ws 
supply of Nasik is at present drawn, being conducted by a channel to 
a sort of basin in the centre of the town. Below this, the bed of tlie^ 
main stream widens, but rocks still obstruct its course. The ban! 
continue high, but become more earthy as the river flows 
About fifteen miles below N^sik is the junction of the Godai 
and one of its chief tributaries, the £)drna. The stream hei 
occupies, for nine months in the year, a small space in a wide 
gravelly bed, the greyish banks being fifteen or twenty feet higl 
topped with a deep layer of black soil. A few miles after i1 
meeting with the Ddma, the Godavari swerves to the north-east, 
till the B^nganga, from the north-west, meets it on the left. 
The course of the main stream then tends more decidedly south. 
At NAndur-Madhmeshvar ten miles below, the Kddva, a second 
large affluent, brings a considerable increase to the waters of the 
Godavari. A ferry plies at Tarnkhodla, a little south-east of thi^H 
junction, but is scarcely more used than the Ndsik ferry, the streai^H 
being fordable except during the highest floods of the rainy season. 
A few milea below the ferry, the Dev stream, draining the Sinnar 
Bab-division, empties itself on the right, and the Godavari^ after 





round of ceremonies, and keep houses of ente 
during liia visit. In the months of April and 
s(i!v!! y runs so low that it is dammed duriug the night by 
i into the conduits of the principal pools, and^ iu 

- _-^ lS7B, it acarcely filled a channel two feet wide, cut 

ed to utilise in the town as much of the water as remained. 

■ver is at ita best about ten miles from its source, whore the 

are bold and well wondedj the bed rockj, and the stream 

d winding through a succession of pouls. There is also a 

ictore^ae reach, nbout three milen west of Ndsik, at Auand- 
lie country residence of Anandibdi, the wife of Peahwa 
rtUhniv or Baghoba (1773-1784). 

chief streams that join the God&vsri in its course thniugh 

tTict are tht^ Darn a and the Kadva. The DArva rises from 
eat of the Sahyadris, about a mile south of Igatpuri. It has 
bng course of over fifty mile!?, though a straight lino from iLn 

to th« Qodavuri would not be more than thirty-fivo miles 

Its banks are like those of the God&vari below Nasik^ of 
M height, but broken by scores of small streams, making the 
po of the river very difficult to laden carts. It is crossed by 
ttt Chohedi on the Naeik and Pfx>na road^ on the way to 
Thf Ixrd is for the most part wide and sandy, though at 

for miles together, the water flowt* over rocks. Near the 
mri the river is a little used for irrigatiou. On the right 
ftt Belhti, it receives the Kadva, not the large river of that 

hut a small deep stream that drains the whole of the south 
>uth-<5aHt of Igatpuri. On the left bank the Darna has only 
Hbutari*?;* of any siae, and they bold little water during the 
^ason. They are the Aundha and the Valdevi. Both these 

the Aujauiri rango, the former in a hill t»j the south of the 
[he latter from the summit of the fort itself. It reaches the 

near the ferry at Chehedi. 

Ki-DVA rises in the Sahyadria to the north-west of Dindori, 
grosses Dindori from north-west to south-east. It is rocky 

wide, and the averaf?e voIuem 


[BonlMiy Oi 




bed, with high banks in some parts, but, as a rule, ' 
admit of the use of the water for irrigation. The - 
daring this portion of its course ia comparativrlj^ atuiil^ aftd 
confined during eight months of the year to a narrow strip of 
Bandy bed. Several dams have been boilt across the main stn 
irrigating large areas of garden land. Aft^r entering Male^ 
the coarse of the river for some distance is to the soath-i 
winding north as it nears the Khande^h &0Qtier. The Gima^ 
its upper course receives several rivers little less capacious tl 
itself, and equally useful for irrigation. The first consi'i 
stream that joins it, on the left or north bank, is the Pi: 
flowing from the Suken range south of S^ler fort, and reachisv 
the Qima at Bej. Its valley is deep and its banks steep aol 
rocky, and, along its channel, in the rainy season the water ilowi 
from the hills in considerable quantities and with great rapidity. 

The Aram ia formed of four streams which join a little abnv« 
the town of Satdna. The width of its main valley is considerable, 
the banks are low, and the land at the lower portion is particularly 
well suited to irrigated crops. The main stream is fed by almost 
innumerable tributaries, chiefly from the south. Between the 
village of Dang Sauudana and Satina, a distance of only twelve 
miles, no fewer than fifty -seven feeders jnin it from the soutb alone. 
The other rivers that join it are the Snkia, the Sukad, the Keener, 
and the Hattini. The characteristics of all are the same, deep beds 
and steep banks. The water supply is abundant in the larger streams, 
bat the smaller are filled dunug the south-west monsoon only. Tho 
Aram joins the Girna about three miles east of Thengoda. 

The MosAM, the next tributary of the Girna from tbe north. 
west, rises in a range of hills fi*om 3400 to 4000 feet high north 
of the S&ler fort. It runs south-east past the market town of 
Jdykhed, receiving on its way a vast number of streamlets from 
the north. At the village of Askhed it is met by its largest affluent 
the Karanjidi, flowing east from the Snken hills. Like the Aram, 
tho MoRam ha« cut a wide valley which its waters suffice to irrigate 
plentifully, until the banks become too high to admit of the use of 
the natural flow of the stream, which, in the dry weather, lies too 
far from them to allow the cultivators to raise it by lifts, biidkU, 
It joins the Girna about a mile below Mdlegaon. 

After leaving Malegaon, on the right or south bank, the Girna 
receives its two largest tributaries the Prinian and the Manidd. The 
PjLnjax rises to the south of the Chandor fort, flows east for some 
miles, and then turns north-east. The valley is deep and narrow, 
and the banks are so high that irrigation is impracticable. After 
passing tbe Sdtm&lis, the country through which it flows is rough, 
oroken, and for the most part barren. It drains tbe whole of west 
Nindgaon and part of the south-east of Mdlegaon. 

The ManiAd, which drains the east of Ndndgaon, rises a 
little south of K^japur in the Ajnnta range, flows east for abont 
ten miles, then turns north, cutting a passage in the hills near 
M^nikpunj. It meets tho Girna close to the extreme eastern limit 

fBombft/ Gauti 



Chapter I. 



hedn, such as are known to exiet to the east and sortb 
The volcuuic portion consists of compact, stratified basaltB» 
an earthy trap. The basalts are the mofit conBpicuoua geol 
feature. To tlie west fhey lie in flat-topped ranges, separat 
valleys, trending as a rule from west to east. The descent to 
Konkan is precipitous, and the sides of the hills are gen 
lofty. The eastern slope is gradual and by a series of fitops. 
t-otal tlvickness of the trap flows is probably about 5000 feet, 
have a curioua equality in thickness and elevation. Thesurve 
the portion of the Great Indian Peninsula Railway that 
through the district show that the flows have a slight dip 
ca^t, but to the eye they appear horizontal. The Uibular stm' 
hills, many miles apart, are found to be almost exactly at the 
height above the sea. From this it is surmised that these mu^s 
forme*! part of an immense plateau, similar to the hills in this 
range of mountains further south towards Sat^ra. The crystaUine' 
basalt as well as the earthy beds were undoubtedly spread out bj 
volcanic action over this largo surface. At the same time there it 
this difference between the force by which this region was formed, 
and the volcanic action which is accumulating masses of rock aa 
other parts of the world, that, though there are numerous dykei^ 
no trace of igneous vent ha-s been found, or of any outlet throng^ 
which the lava flow could have been poured. 

The numerous hill forts, of which repeated mention has beea 
made in the section on mountains, have a geological as well as an 
historic iiitcrost. In most cases they are flat-topped, or have but a 
Bmall peak rising out of a table-land ; below comes a per]>endiculAr 
scarp, rising out of a terrace, usually thickly wooded. In somv 
instances a second scarp supports this terrace, resting in its turn 
on a sloping earthy base. The summit of these fOrts in chiefly of 
earthy trap, disintegrated and washed down by the weather. This 
denudation exposes the flow of basalt below, which is usually of 
too great thickness t^:> be covered by the debris fulling from 
above. The debris gathers in a terrace below, leaving between 
it and the summit a frowning wall usually of a dark green and 
compact stone. In some flows the basalt is columnar, and then it 
weathers into the fantastic shapes of the S^tm^la range or the 
crags of Kalsubai with their gables, roofs, spires, and mitres. 
The earthy formation at the base of those higher traps is chiefly 
amygdiiloidal, containing quartz in vertical veins, crystals, and 
zeolitic minerals, especially apophyllite. It weathers into a greyish 
Boil, either in nodular or tabular fragments. 

A curious feature in the geology of the district is the absence of 
the latent^, which caps the summits of the hills to the south. There 
is no tract of laterite of any large extent, though there appear to 
be slight traces of it at the Thai pass through which the Great 
Indian Peninsula Railway enters Igatpuri. 

The lithological character of the basalt varies greatly. In soma 
cases the tabular trap is of fine texture, and takes a fair polish, in 
others it is coarse and nodular. That in the dykes splits into oblong 
regidar masses, but is too brittle for use in masonry. 




averages about bventy-sffven and is seldom more than tLirty- 
inches.* Nearer the plains of Kbdndesh and the Nizam's terril 
the fail becomes lighter, and at Mak'gaon and Yeola it does 
average more than twenty-three or twenty- four racbea; 
Igatpuri, on the other hand, which is on the line of the Sab; 
and within the influence of the cloud bank that always foi 
against the lofty range of Kalsab^i and AlaDg-Kulang> the 
variea from sixty-eight to 148 and averages ahcmt 125 inches.* 
same conditions exist in the Koukan Ghit Matha in the Nii^ik bi 
division which is affected by the mass of hills, to which Trirabi 
Anjaniri, and Indr^i belong.^ Further north, the crest of 
Sahyadris becomes more levelj and the ranges of hills at rigiit an| 
to it are lower, so that, except near the Dang fort of S4Ier, 
rainfall is considerably lighter than in the south-west. 

In different parts of the district the rainfall varies less in 
bution over tlie year than it varies in quantity. In May/ one 
two heavy thunder showers from the north-east are the first sij 
of the gathering south-west monsoon. After this cloud be 
continue to drift from the coast till, towards the third week in Ji 

' The details are : 

M6M aai0sf»U, iSCr, ■ 1370 

















J&nauy ... 






Fi-bruaJY .. 













UftTOll ... 









AprU ... 










V ■ 












3m ... 





















SO [ ft-M 



A»ffii»t ... 

























October ... 











4-4U i-U 














Total ... 











0*SI ... 







31 W 








' The details at these three stAtiona are : 

RMnftiU, mS'iHn. 

















68 -M 






* Bhdskiirgad U tbo ordinary name ; but this is the fort, the peak is callod Ini 
tbouab nut coramooly. 

* Hjulatorins accompamed Mith rain arc not iineommon 83 early na April. 
ctorreBpondent of the Bombay TimeSf deecribiDS a hailstorm at Anjaniri, tith April 
1848, writea : 6 a.m. clondy with deusc fog, Bouiborly hrcczo ; 9 a.m. a perfect onlm ; 
3 p.m. sky covered with heavy maasosorcumnli, rain.aod lightning to we«t and north, 
wind variable: C^ p.m. strong brooxt from south-oast. This bdoa became a perfect 
burricaoe, and coutinui^dao alittlemoru than half an hour, when it suddenly a)-..' ' 
was accompanied with heavy rain and some hail. Vivid t1a«hcB of lightning t< 

each other most rapidly, accompanied by loud crabbing peals ot thunder, i .... 
continued till about 3 A.M. when the breeze again freshened from the toutb-east. 
Trans. Bom. Oeo. Soi;. IX. 192. 

[Bombay Gtxetteer, 

Chapter IL 






Thr district has not yet been geologically surveyed. A* 
Los been aacertained the only minerals are .stone and lime nodi 
kankar^ which arc found more or less all over the district. The 
of which almost all the distinct rocka are formed, is very ub 
for building. It can be worked and delivered within about 
miles of the quarry at 7a, (Rs. 3-8) the 100 cubic feet of rubble, 
lime nodules yield a very good lime, slightly hydraulic, but 
sufficiently so, to be used alone under water. Mixed with pounded i 
brick and sand it forms a very fair hydraulic mortar. Lime caal 
be made at 11*. (Rs. o-8) the khandi of thirty-two cubic feet. 

Except an occasional mango grove^ the hedgerows in gnrdenj 
lands, and some hahhuU along the skirts and untitled patches] 
of fields, the cultivatetl parts of the district arc bare of trees. 
Except the mango, jack, and bdhhul, the country pei»ple haval 
little loudness for trees, thinking that their shade gathers birds aodj 
dwarfs the crops. When well-to-do they seldom cut their trees, Bol 
if pressed by a creditor, timber is generally the first property that m 
turned into cash. The trees best suited for roadside planting are,f 
over the whole district, the mango and the various figs, eKpociallj 
Ficus indica, Ficus glomornta, and Ficus nitida. In the hilly part*] 
to the west, the jdmhhul vSyzigiuin jambolanum, and the jack] 
Artocarpus integrifolia ; further north, the nraf^ Acacia oduratissiraa 
and still further north, the nimb Azadirachta indica, are the mc*8t 
useful. AVithin the region of heavy rjiinfall the karunj, Pongamia 
glabra, can be grown with advantage, and is a most ornamental 
roadside troi\ The figs are grown from cuttings, or from branches 
planted in July in the places they are pernianeutly to occupy. The 
rest are raised in nurseries, planted out, each surrounded by a thorn 
fence, and, for at least a year, are regularly watered. The system 
of making the headmen and people of the villages along the line of 
road responsible for the fences, has, especially in the M61egaon sub- 
division, worked well. In Kaivan, Bdlgau, Malegaon, and Xandgaon, 
besides the ordinary royalties over teak Tectona grandis, blackwoodj 
Dalbergia latifolia, and sandalwood Santnlura album. Government! 
have reserved a half share of the produce of mango trees. 

Fifteen' or twenty years ago, many parts of the plain coui 
had considerable tracts of woodland and forest. Near Igatpurij at 

From materittk anppliwl by Mr. R. C, Wronghton, Deputy Coa»crv»t*>r of Ti 

iBombay Oi 



Chapter 11. 


chiefly of hor Zizyphus jujuba, or kansnr Ac-acia amara^ 
stunted khair and hivar Acacia catechu and leucophloea. 
forests are valuable only as firewood reserves. The present 
can never yield useful building timber. At the same time there 
in places as much as seventy-five per cent of anjan. A& their ItMTcv] 
and twigs are a favourite food for cattlej the present aujun 
have been so lopped and pollarded^ that they are little larger 
the surrounding scrub. Since these lands have begun to be protect 
a fresh growth has sprung u[v which if saved from the axe 
billhook will in time form a forest. As anjan grows to a large 
and yields first rate timber, every acre of scrub into which it can 
introduced will rise tenfold in value. Still, as it is a sinjLrularly] 
local tree and does not seed every year, it ia doubtful whotlier 
can be grown through all these reserves. The best anjan forest 
where the trees are large and little mixed, are very beaul 
brightened with leaves of every shade of green, brown, and red. 

Pure teak coppice is rare. It is found in patches, a few t?q 
miles in area, in the valleys of the Godavari and of the Kddva o 
of the GodAvari's main feeders. Where there are no trees but 
the contents of a teak coppice are poor. As the proportion 
other trees increases, the teak improves in quality, and when t 
forest becomes evergreen with only a small proi>ortion of teak, th* 
teak roaches timber size. In a pure teak coppice there is never any 
growth from seed. The result is the exhaustion of the stools. 
Standards cannot be kept, for, after growing fairly for fifteen or 
twenty years old, the tree seems to lose its power of increaiiing io 
girth, and begins to settle down, so that even though straight when 
twenty years old, at forty it is twisted like a corkscrew. The 
cure for this, the introduction of other trees, is not easy. Pure teak 
coppice, the natives say, burns any seedling. The fact is that, a« 
no humus forms, the soil is always growing poorer. Still by 
keeping out man and beast, by chocking fires, and by fostering a 
growth of corinda, Carissa carandas, and siras, Acacia odonxtisaima, 
a good deal can be done to improve the character of the teak. 

Evergreen forest is the opposite extreme front teak coppice. 
It ia rarely found pure, except on the upper tcrrnces of trap hills, 
whore it contains mttngo , jdmbhtd Eugenia jambolaua, and some- 
times hardn Terminalia chebula. Such isolated forests, though 
of little market value, are of use in nursing springs during the dry 
seEtson, and in checking suddeu rushes of water during the rains. On 
all the slopes which run from the main Sahyadri range, and below the 
Sahyadris through Point, the foi-ests are mixed with from fifteen to 
BevButy-five per cent of teak. The kinds of trees vary greatly in 
different places. Whore the rainfall is light, the chief trees are, mditda 
DP ain Terminalia tomentosa, dhdvda Conocarpus latifolia, tiva 
Dalbergia uiainensis, and an xmdergrowth of corinda, Carissa 
carandasj and ioran Zizyphua rugosa. Nearer the Sahyadris, whore 
the rainfall is heavier, the forests become more and more varied, till, 
among the western slopes of the Peiut hills, more than 200 kinds of 
trees are found. Among them the chief are bliu-kwuod, s-ituntt 
Dalbergia latifolia, hfJ nud huluinh Nauclea cordifolia and parvifulia, 



Chapter II. 








Bombay Qa 



white, and GAvrtini oxen, which are of various colours, have 
horns, lliej are worth from £2 lO/r. to £G (Rs. 25 -Rs. 60) tho 
iJahali oxen, t'liiofly found in Igalpuri and nmch est<?emed, are hi 
mottJed with white. They fetch somewhat higher prices than 
MalvL and GdvrAni. 

Oxen are bred by Kunbis and by Kilharis or Thills, a <^1att 
professional herdsmen. They begin work at about three y. 
and from one to three jmirH are yoked to a plough. * 
carts want only one pair of bullocks, but heavy grain aud 
wagons are sometimes drawn by as many oh five pkirs. I*ack hi 
are used in the hilly districte by Vanjaris for carrying gram 

salt. They are also used for carrying tobacco, cloth, pota, > 

and oil. Oxen are fed on millet stalkH, rice hunks, and 
oil-cake, with an occasional feed of gram or a dose of salt. Xj 
are seldoui treated to spices, masala. 

Cows calve when three years old, and live from fifteen to ti 
years. A good cow will give ten pints (five aher/t) of milk for ft 
months in the year. Milch cows are fed on millet stalksj wheat i 
carrots, boiled onions, cotton seed, and pulse bran. Their 
varies from lO.f. to £3 (Rs. o-Rs. 30), and the monthly cost of 
keep from 4^. to 12«. (Rs. 2-Rs. 6). Cows are sometimes girt 
herdsmen to take care of, on the understanding that the o^ 
to take the male and the herdsmen the feuuile calves. Sometu 
the calves are shared equally. 

He-bufFaloes are commonly used for ploughing, dragj^ 
timber, drawing heavy carts, aud sometimes for carrying wat 
8he-butTaloes calve when four or five years old. They live to sixt 
or eighteen. A good buffalo will give fourteen pints (seven shi 
of milk for eight mouths in the year. They are fed in tho 
way as cowsj at a monthly cost of about 16tf. (Rs. 8). Their 
varies from £2 10;*. to £8 (Rs. 25.Rs. SO). 

Sheep are of two kinds, GAvrani and Hanini^ the 
distinguished by short snouts. The wool is cnt in Jnne 
September. The Dhangara and Hdtkars, the professional herdsmi 
who i*ear sheep, weave coarse blankets of the wool, and use it 
stuffing saddles and making ropo. The bones are used for sii 
handles, the skin for drums, and the dung for medicine. The ew( 
lamb when nine months old, and yield from one to two pints (4-1 
of milk a day for one or two mouths after lambing. But milking ii 
not a very general custouL They cost from 2*. to 125. (Re. 1 - Ra. tS)j 
A trained fighting ram fetches from £1 to £2 (Rs.lO-Rs. 20), anc 
anless no other ram is available, is not used for breeding after 
has been once beaten. 

There are two kinds of goats. Nemdd goats, tall, with grotesquely 
hooked noses aud long twisted horns, cost from 6*. to 
(Rs. 3-R8. 5). A good Nemiid she-goat fetches £2 (Rs. 20). It ki< 
when nine mouths old, aud gives four pints (two skers) of mill 
day for three or four months after kidding. Deshi or local goats, 
small, with short snouts and horns, vary in price from 4«. to 10 
(Rs. 2 -Rs. b). Goats when over six months old bring forth bvice 



and have (roin one to three kids at. a birth. They give about 
pints (otic ther) of milk a day. Thoy foed on leaves and bdbkul 
TUu dang is applied as a poultice to reduce inflammation, and 
kuch used as mauuxc. 

Pooies arc bred in Siimar^ Ycola, and other plain districts. 

are usoally from lO'o to 13'2 hands high, and lose in Btreng-tb 

(tj than thirteen or 13*1. Pegu stallions, lately stationed 

and Nfcik, are not in much demand ua the people 

iK iLoiu too small. Ponies are commonly used to carry packs, 

in iiome parts, especially in Sinnar, a pony and a ballock are 

aucommonly yoked together in the same pony carriage. 

les are very numerous in many villages. Their price varies 
fern £] to £o (Rs. 10- Rd. 50), and a» they feed on grass, leaves 
every son of garbage, thoy cost nothing to keep and are good 
ivengvrs. The milk is 8up|x>3ed to be medicinal. ABses are used 
washermen, potters, and tinkers, as pack animals and also for 
ng bundles. 

Pi^. i!*f^ftil as village scavengers, are found in large numbers 
th- inn and Igatpuri sub-divisions, without any owners. 

itat' i^.lhdtis and Vadars rear them for their Oesh. 

^FowIb are of two kinds, Xulaugs and Phatydls. Hens of the 
breed cost from 2^. to 5^. (Re. 1 -Ra. 2^) the pair, and lay 
e^gs a month four or five times a year. Fighting cocks of this 
fetch from IQs. to £2 (Rs. 5-Rs. 20). Phatyak cost from 
to 1#. (4-8 anntts), and lay only twenty eggs a month. Kggs 
II in towns at six, and in country parts at from six to ten for 
(1 anna). 

4^cks are kept by MuRalmflns, Kolis, and Portuguese, who feed 
on soaked grain husks. They cost from 4*. to 0». (Ra. 2 - Rs.S) 
Dncks lay all the year round except in the rainy season, 
sell at about five for l^d. (1 anna), 

igeous are of four kinds : Lotan and Ijakka, unually white and 

>rth from 5«. to 11«. (Ba. 21-Re. 5J) the jxvir ; Girbiz or tumblers, 

lite marked with reddish yellow and worth from 2*1. to 48. 

>. 1 - Rs. 2) the pair ; and FhatyaJs, la. {as, 8) the pair. Peacocks 

rarely kept. 

Of Wild Animals ' the Tioee, vdgh, Felis tigris, was within the 

rt twenty years common in Bdgl^n, ^Idlegaon, and in the west of 

di- tug the line of the Sahyadri hills. In the rains tigers 

^- ' to move among the hills in considerable numbers. 

it in other parts of the district the thinning of the forests, the 

of tillage, and the destruction of his natural food, pig and 

ir, have almost entirely driven the tiger away. In February 

March a tiger may still be found at Mulher in Bagl^n, or on the 

lyidri hills near Igatpuri. But they are generally on the move, 

'•nd afl the forest pools dry they disappear. During the five years 

Chapter It. 










* The Wild AnuDul and Game Bmt sections uo contributod by Mftjor W. Q. 
rikoa, DiAtrict Soperinteodeat of Police, l^&sik. 




Chapter II. 


ending 1879 only thirteen were killed.* The Panther, biUai 
Fells pardusj is common all along the SahyaJris and the ran| 
that run east. The B&gUn panthers are said to be of specuilly lar{ 
bize, many of them over seven feet in length,^ and do much dami 
to young cattle. Thoy are often shot by natives who watch 
them during the night on trees. The returns for the whole disi 
forthe five years ending 1879, show a destruction of 156 panl 
The Hunting Lkoi'ari), ckittaj Felia jubata, though rare, is 
to be found in Malegaon and Ndndgaon. The Indian Black BkaIi 
dsvalj Ursus labiatua, common in the Sahyadris fifty years ago, is n( 
rare. They are still found in Bagldn and Peiut where they are eak 
to attack and occasionally kill men. The Wolf, londga, Ci 
pallipcs, common in parts of BAglan and Ndndgaon, is also foum 
but not in any numbers in other parts of tho district. The HyjenaJ 
tiiras. Hyaena striata, is found in the Igatpuri, Chdndor, DindoriJ 
Bfigldn, and Ndsik sub-divisions. The Wild Doo, kolsundaj Cnon] 
rutUaus, is said to be found in Peiut, and perhaps in NdndgaoiL.[ 
The Stao, sdinbar, Rusa ariatotelis, common on the Sahy»ulri hilUj 
twenty years ago, has, with the spread of tillage and the clearin| 
of the forests, almost disappeared. During the rains some comej 
from the Nizam's territory into N&ndgaon, and all the year] 
round a few are still found in Peint and 8urgdna. Tho Spot 
Dekb, chUal, Axis maculatus, found twenty years ago over 
whole district and especially common in Dindori, is said to be nowl 
represented by a single herd of about fifty head on the Dindori 
hills near Ambegaon. The Blue Bull, nilgay, Portax pictus, ha&j 
almost disappeared. One or two are to be foimd near Igatpuri, and 
during the rains a few come into Nandgaon from the Nizdm'fl' 
territoi-y. The Antelope, kiilvU, Antilope bezoartica, though much 
less common than in former years, is still found in all parts of the] 
district and in good numbers in tho Niphdd, Sinnar, Dindori, and 
Yeola sub-divisious. During the rains, Kolis, Bhils, and other 
hunting tribes enclose a part of the forest with nets, and drive thej 
deer into the enclosure. The Indian Gazelle, ckinkdra, Gazellai 
bennettii, frequents tho Nandgaon and Bdgldn sub-divisions. The) 
FouB-HoRNED Deer, hhekre, Tetraceros quadi-icornis, ia notf 
uncommon on the Sahyadri hills, and is sometimes found on the 
Saptashring range. The Barking Deer, dhardia, Cerrulus aurousi 
a small animal resembling, but somewhat darker thaUj the hhekre, 
with two eight-inch long backward-bent horns, is sometimes found 
in Peint. It has long teeth overhanging the lower lip and 
always loose in the socket. Another kind tho hingola dhardia, 
smaller than the dhardia and witb very hooked horns, is still rarer,* 
The Mouse Deer, ahedOf Meminaindica, a little bigger than a guinea 
pig, is found only in very dense forests in Peint^ and is identical with 

< Fonr in 1875, two in 1876, one in 1877, one in 1878. and five in 1879. 

* M»jor Wil80D mentions one 7 feet 2 inchca, another 7 foet 3 inohei, and a third 
7 feet 4 incfaes. 

* Thir^-aevcn in 1875, forty in 1876, thirtj'-five in 1877, twenty-one ia 1678, and 
twcnty.throc in 1879. 

* Tbflre ia no perceptible difforeuce betwoen these two variotios. 

[Bonltajr Oautteer, 



Chapter XL 




K4«ik, and Igatpnri. BAin Qo&il generaJlj gsUher about 
in considerable nambers in well grown udid, Pbaaeoltts mi 
fields, Aa other crope come on they scatter orer the coi 
Thejr stAj all tfae jear roand and b^ed near the end of the 
(September-October}. Grey Qnail generally come in Noi 
leave in March. BcsH Qcail^ Perdicula asiatica, are f( 
o^er the district, never leaving it. Coming along with, and 
smaller than, the Rain Quail, is the Bastard Quail, Turaix 
so called £rom its bastard eje and three-toed feet. It is n* 
in great noml^ers, one or two here and there in damp places. 
Fowl, Pavo criatatcs, are rare, found only in the XandgBon 
Peint forests. 

Grekn Pioboji, Crocopns chJorigasterj are found nV — ■^r 
district in the cold sen^^on. 

The district ^ has few large ponds or lakes, and except iu 
the God£vari, Gima, and Dinia pools, where they swarm, . . 
the whole rather poorly supplied with fish. The following ■!-' 
gives the local names of the chief varieties, Mard,^ cnught ip 
to twenty pounds, are eaid to spawn in Mai-ch or April; rti<j , 
avera)?ing from four to six pounds, spawn in August; F 
Fdhdai, somewhat largor than the Vddio, live in still water 
and spawn later than the rest ; Shingdda, averagiug from fiiiiri»- r. 
to sixteen pounds but sometimes as much as twenty poundst, li^f 
among big rocks and boulders ; Bodadj seldom more than half a 
pound in weight, live in rapids aud stony parts of the river bed 
Kolas, a little larger than the Bodad, choose sandy and mudd] 
bottoms and spawn in March or April ; Murfj a very email f 
are found in sandy river bottums; Aral, u lou^ mirrow tish fr 
half a pound to a pound in weight, live in muddy river boti 
Tarn, flatter and shorter than the Aral, live among stones ; Gvn 
a ribbon-like fish eight to ten inches long and from a quarrer 
half a pound in weight ; Mnlhof a small fish not more than half 
span long and about as thick as the forefinger, spawn in July 
Sdndkoi, a thick fish from four to six inches long and fi^ni a ■ 
to half a pound in weight, spawn in July ; Ckapati, a t 
rather flat fish, from six to eight inches long aud avei-a^ug al>ou| 
half a pound in weight, is in habits like the marel ; Alnr, a rai 
serpent-like fish three feet long, sometimes found in stony parts ol 
the river ; and Kanusa, a rather uncommon thick-set fish two or tl 
inches broad aud four long. 

The fishers are the Dhimars or Dhivars, Bhois, Bhils, and Kolia, 
The Dhimars and Bhois are very small tribes who live ahni 
entirely by fishing; the Bhils and Kolis rarely sell fish, catchin^^ 
them almost entirely for home use. Besides these tribes, Musal< 
m&na occasionally fish, aud in moat rivor bank villages the people 

^ From matorialB eupplied by Mr. J. A. Bftinea, C. S., and Riv SAheb Shridl 
Oimdo. MAmUbUr of KViik. 

■ Dr. Burn writes ; The only noteworthy kinds ui fish are the imirr-/, nftea' 
caiiRht cighluen iiichM long, the river evl, aud a unall «pral, when cooked much like 



lombay &ai 

Chapter m. 



TmtRK is a largo early clement in the Nasik popal 
According to the 1872 census, the early tribes, Kolis di 
Bhila 35,970, Thakurs 15«606, and Viriia 8954, included I29j 
9onlsorl7ril percent of the whole district population, axkd 
probable that, especially iu the wilder parts of tho disti 
large uamber of the hasbandmen who are retumt'd as 
belong almost entirely to the early tribes. In modem time^ 
have entered Naaik by four main routes, up the TApti valley < 
through the passes iu the north-west and north, up the Girna valley i 
from the north-east and east, up the Godiivari valley from tfuij 
south-east, and up the 'Ilial pass from the weet. Except so far mI 
the ruling dynasties are a guide, almost no information has 
been obtained of settlements in the district before the time of tlt^j 
Musalmiins. The only classes of whose early history aiVrj 
information has been traced are the Govardhan and Yajnrvefi] 
Brdhmans, and the hill tribe of Thdkurs. The facts that Gt)vardhaa( 
is an old name for Kasik, and that the people of this caste bold 
many hereditary accountantships and some village pricstships, makaj 
it probable that the Govardhaus are the oldest Brahman stjttlerfl. 
They seem to have been ousted by the Yajurvedis, tho present ruling' 
priestly community, whose nhdkha or branch and whose miirriage 
taws point to their having come from Gujarat, while their friendiy] 
feeling towards the Palshes of Thdua favours the idea that they 
came into Nasik through the Thai pass. It is probably correct toj 
rank the Thiknrs among the early tribes. At the same time itu 
name, their position on the highroad throngh the Thai pass, 
some of their customs, seem to show that they have a strain ol 
Rajput blood, perhaps the result of the settlement in and near 
Thai pass of some of the tribes of Rajputs who have travelled inland] 
up the Vaitama valley.' 

In early Musalmdn times, besides the Muhammadans who may! 
have come from Khdndesh in the north-east and Daulatabad in the 
east, there was an immigration of Gujanit Tdmbats who fled from 
Ch^pSner in the Ranch Mahals when it was taken by Mahmud' 
Begada in 1484. In the seventeenth century there were further^ 
additions of Arabs and Upper India Musalm^ns cbiefly throu( 
Kh&ndesh. In tho eighteenth century the establishment of 
power of the Peshwa (1760) drew Kanoja Brahmans from the] 
north, and Konkanasths, Xarhidas, and Devrokhas from the soath. 

^ The chief contributor to this chapter a Mr. H. R. Cooke, C.S. Mr. J. A. BailM^, 
C.S., Major W. H. Wilson. Mr. F. L. Charles. CS., lUo B&hd<tnr KiUhioltb Mah^devl 
Thatt^, and Mr. Raghuu^Trimbak Sdnap have also given much help. 

* In NAiik the word Th^kiir is applied to five caato« all of whom apparentlv cUlm 
Kaliatri blood. They are BhAta, Brahma- Kshaths, Kajput«, KAUria, and tlte hill 
tribe of ThAkun. ' 

Bombay Gaz«tte«r, 



Chapter III. 


mortar, but more often of brick and mad, and rarely wit*- " 
than one storey. The timber is usually teak, the ceiling of tli 
and the floor of the upper storey are often of teak planks, ana 
roof is tiled. In a houi^e of this class there is. as a rule, a 
central room called majghar used for sitting and eating. C^i 
Bide is a room with a sruall ohamber, khoU, attached. At tlj 
and back of the house there are usually verandahs, ojtrU, 
cover of the roof, and, in default of verandahs, an outatandir!-' • 
form, called oto.opento thesky on throe sides. The smaller eh 
are usually the cooking-room, the godrroom, the store-room, . 
lying-in rocim. Besides these, there are often other aparttii- 
the women or for sleeping. Houses of this kind, as well oa ho 
of the first class, usually have their own well, itd, and privy, 
shauchakup. They are the rule in towns, and in large welI-to«da 
villagea are owned in considerable numbers by tracers, craft-smeu, 
the better class of husbai^dmen, and village headmen. Mobt o( 
them cost over £100 (Rs. 1000). 

The next class of honse is usually found in those parts of th* 
distinct, especially Niphad and Yeola, where the rainfall is nol 
heavy. It is a mnch cheaper building than the mansion, ytiJa, and 
in the drier parts of the district very generally takes its place. It 
has mud walls and a flat mud roof resting on planks of cheap 
wood with, in many cases, doors windows and beams of teak. 
These houses vary greatly in size and value. A first-rate house, 
costing about £60 (Rs. 600), is some forty cubits long by twenty-seven 
broad ; the roof rests on some thirty-six uprights, khdrnbHj and the 
inside is divided into a central and two side spaces, the side spaotM 
being probably divided into two or more separate rooms. Other 
Rouses of this class are only a few feet square and so low that a man 
can hardly stand upright in them. These want but little labour to 
build and do not coat more than a few shillings (lie, l-Rs. 2). There 
is no wood work; the door and the window, if there is a window, ana 
holes in the mud wall, and the roof is kept up by a few bits of rafte^ 
or bdhhnl branches, over which first coarse grass or leaves and 
afterwards a coating of mud are spread. Between these two 
extremes, houses of this class vary greatly in siae and value. The 
mud of the walls stat^ds rain so well, that in deserted villages the 
house walls may be seen standing almost unharmed, though the 
roofs have been taken away for tlie sake of their timber. In some 
parts, the poorer kind of flat^roofed mud house is replaced by a 
pnilding with mud walls and roofed either with thatch or tiles. 
Finally, there is the thatched hut, jkopdi, of wattle and mud, found 
along the Sahyadri and Snptashring hills. These houses are alwajB 
grouped in compaet villages or large hamlets, usually near a rirer 
pr stream. In towns shade seems to be generally sought. But 
villages are usually on harojnonnds, the trees, as a rule, being* ii^ 
the garden lands which often surround the village. 

The furniture of these houses is always of the simplest. It is 
rare to find a table or a chair, though the custom is gaining ground 
of keeping a chair and table for tno use of any chance visitor of 
distinction. A largo swing is common and there is sometimes 
d wooden bench. A well furnished house probably has one or two 



a girl wears a petticoat and a gown. The clothes of a craftsniaH or 
trader are not very different. Inntcad of tho body cloth, ur i 
ho wears a jacket, and probably a coat, aiigarkha, over t'- 
His head-dresB and waistcloth are aUo of better 
Tho women ami children of these classes dress like tho wnc- .■■■^r, 
daaghters of husbandmen, oxcept that a girl wearsj in addu rt, n 
cotton shawl, «/io</^i*, or a smal] robe, chirdi. It is not asmil Iji 
bave special clothes for out-of-door use, In-doors, a mim it boy 
generally wears a cap, or topi, inst'Cad of a tnrban, and tho wtlUto- 
do generally dress themaelvea in better clothes when they leav^- ^hv 
bouse. In rainy or cold weather an over-all, called himfli ur 
ffhonffdlt is worn. This over-all is an oblong piece of cojirst; thick 
woollen cloth, the upper comers of which are brought topt.'llu'r 80*1 
sewn 90 as to form a hood which is drawn over the head, whilo tH.i 
rest hangs down the back or is drawn tightly round the \>'Ay, 
On special occasions the best dress is always worn, a haniltiome 
turban or a fine robe and clean clothes. Besides this, when they 
can afford it, a bright handkerchief or a rich shawl is thritwn over 
tho shoulders. A good turban oosts from £1 4«. to £2 (Rs. 12- Kt*. 20), 
and a good silk robe from £2 lOrf. to £7 10<. (Rs. 25-R**. 75). 
These should last, according to their make and the care taken of 
them, from three to ten years. The comfortable clothing of a 
family, of a man, a woman, and two small children, probably cosU 
about £1 lOtf. (Hs. 15) a year. 

It is not nsnal to wear many ornaments. A man is rarely seen 
with more than a few trifling silver rings, anfjthisj on his faugers, and 
» couple of common ear-rings, bhikbdlittt fastened to tho top of 
his ears. Occasionally he has a silirer wristlet, /w/Za, and sometimM 

gold necklet, hanihi or gop. Often he wears a silver geiha or rope 
^if silver wire, with a loop at one end and a tassel at the other. It 
is thrown ronnd the nock, and the tassel is passed throagh the loop 
and drawn to the required length. It costs from £3 to £5 (Re. 30- 
Rs. 50). Besides these ornaments traders often wear a silver 
wristlet or katgoia, Wowen are usually seen with silver aukleta 
iodUUt several coloured glass bracelets bangdis, a few hollow silver 
armlets above tho elbow veld-j*, and a necklet with gold coins or 
beads, putlytichi orjavachi mdl. Sometimes, but only on special 
occasions or by the wealthier classes, a nosering imfh and gold hair 
ornaments arc also worn. Children rarely wear ornaments, except 
perhaps a bit of silver wire or a hollow silver anklet or armlet. 

Of tho following ornaments most are worn only by the wealthiest 
and on special occasions. As a rule they are laid by, and only those 
already mentioned are worn. The men's ornaments are : A finger 
ring mudi, bracelet kadaj gold wire necklet gop, silver necklet 
gelha, ear-ornament worn on the top of the ear bhikhiiU, ear 
ornament chaukada worn in the lobe and passed round tho oar, a 
small ear ornament vinrkia, a silver wristlet kargoia, anklets todas, 
and gold bracelet pauchi. The women's ornaments are ; Ankleta 
lodde, chain anklets /jayantf, second toe ornaments jWrw, small toe 
ornaments vtrodis, gold or silver bracelets got-a and pdtli.<, gold or 
silver bracelets with pattern bdngdin^ gold or silver bra<.'eleta of 
wire kdknds, armlets veld», pieces of gold and silver threaded oil 


fojubaniffi, pieces of gold and silver for the neck thuMhis, 

t of coins pntlyarhi rruti, ear ornnmcntH worn in the loboe 

e»r omameuta bunging fr<.>in the top of the ear batin and 

, nose omameat naih, hair ornaments phuU, large hair 

t rdkhdi, oval hair ornament kftak^ and creacent-e^haped 

onmmeut chasulraktyr. There is no limit tu the 4um that uiaj 

VB&ted in omameatB, but only rich familios are able to show 

than £50 (Ha, 500) worth. In the famitios of labourers and 

1 faoshnndmeD, the oruamtiuta are not worth more than from 

». to £5 (R«. 25 -Ra. 50). 

regards expenses it is to be noticed that hasbandmen have 
\j to bay anything in the way of food. Thoy usually grow 
r mm gTain, oil -seed, and tol»acco, make theirown clarified butter, 
ttrf ffnd their own fuel ; the labourer is often paid in kind or fed 
)iu master ; only traders and craftsmen have to give money 
com. The probable monthly coat of the food used by a 
well-to-do family, a husband wife and two children, is as 
Market bill, including vegetables, meat, spices, milk, 
sugar, 4«. (Rs. 2); grain, that is rice, wheat and millet, 12*. 
0) ; oil, both for eating and burning, 2«. (Ro. 1) ; clarifiod butter, 
1); aalt, 1*. (a*. 8); fuel, l«. (<ix. 8); epirit«,6(i. (^.4) ; extras, 
optom, tobaooo, and betelnnt, 2*. (Re. 1); total £1 4>r. (kl, 
12-4). Similarly, as a rule, craftsmen and traders alone pay 
y in charity 5 husbandmen, if they are asked for alms at home, 
pTta handful of grain, and, if in the field, a sheaf of wheat or millet 
wongh to yield abonb two pounds (\ a ehor) of grain. Labourers 
in too poor to ^ve anything beyond a share of their meal. The 

VMpf a craftsman or trader varies indefinitely in accordance 
B^ wealth and feelings. One i-eturn gives figures as low as 89. 
I) to religious bcg^rs and 1*. (a#. 8) to the poor, and another 
irtTeefigaresBa high as i2 10«. (Rs. 25)and £1 4«.(K8. 12) respectively. 
Both estimates are intended for families in middling circunastancea. 

t item of ordinary expense is that of servants and cattle. 
the rnle to keep servants evon in woll-to-do cultivators' 
Day-labourers are hired when wanted, but the ordinary 
ia done by the members of the family. Large well-to-do laud- 
traders, and craftsmen u.sually keep a servant or two. 
ch cases those servants are general servants, and are not 
for any one branch of work. They are usually paid either 
or in cash and kind, and sometimes have clothes given 
tbem as well. If he is paid in cash only the servant receives an 
average monthly wa£?e of 85. or 10*. (Rs. 4 or Ra. 6), but the sum 
Ttfies much with the place and the state of the parties. In a large 
Ullage or town, wages are higher than in an out-of-the-way village, 
and a boy is paid less than a grown man. Such arrangements 
are generally made for a few months only. If it is intended 
to engage a servant for a longer period it is usual to give him 
elothes and food, and a smaller cash payment perhaps is. or 6». 
(Rs. 2 or Ra. 3) a month with food, or £2 (Rs. 20) a year with both 
food and clothes. The clothes usually given are a turban, a waist- 
cloth, a flhouldercloth. a waistband, and a pair of shoes. These are 
pertmps worth in all from 12*. to 14*. (Rs. G-Rs. 7), and the feeding 






Ex peases. 


coBta less than £2 8#. (Rs. 24) a year. The wife is someti 
engaged as a servant with lier husband; in sucb casas she is 
gets no payment in cash or clothes. A hosbandmaa's 
drives the plough, looks after the cattle, watches the crops, 
other similar work. The servant of a trader or artisan gc 
helps his master in the shop and carries the goods. At 
and other great family occasions it is not usual to pre.<«ent 
with anything more valuable than a cocoanut or some 
A hasbandmau's cattle cost their owner little to keep. They 
free grazing and are rarely fed with grain, except in June 
July, when they have extra work, and are always moi'e or 
worn by the heat and the scanty grazing of the previous mom 
Husbandmen usually store the chaff left after threshing, and gii 
^ it to their cattle. Without these resources, a trader or craft smwi 
' has to pay from 8«. to £1 4«. (lis. 4 - Rs. 12) a month, to keep oithot 
a bullock or a horse according to its size and quality. 

Special expenditure varies so greatly under different cirrurastanpe:^ 
and in different castes and places, that it is very ditBcult to tix 
an average. The following are believed to be fairly representative. 
In the case of the birth of the first son, a well-to-do family sp >«''• 
£12 10*. (Ra 125) on ornaments, £2 10». (Rs. 2o) on clothes, £- 
(Rs. 25) on dinners, and £1 (Rs. 10)" on charity; total £1« iUf. 
(Rrt. 185) ; a poor family spends about £5 (Ks. 50) in all. In the 
case of the births of the younger children the outlay is very 
less. On the occasion of circumcision, a well-to-do Musalman i _. 
spends some £5 (Rs. 50) on clothes and £5 (Hs. 50) on feasting, 
and perhaps 10*. (Rs. 5) on charity; a poor family spends alxmt 
£2 (Rs. 20) in all. At a thread investment a well-to-do family 
spends some £5 (Rs. 50) on ornaments, £2 lOs. (Rs. 25) on cl ' 
£10 (Rs. 100) on feasting, and £1 (Rs. 10) on charity; and .. 
family about £5 (Rs. 50) in all, of which one-half goes in £t*a^Lui^. 
When a daughter reaches womanhood, the expenses of a well-to-do 
family are about £15 (Rs. 150) on clothes, £15 (Rs. 150) on feasts, 
and £2 10«. (Rs. 25) on clmrity; and of a poor family £5 (Rs. 50) 
in all. On a betrothal a well-to-do family spends £20 (Rs. 200) 
on ornaments, £2 lOs, (Rs. 25) on clothes, and IOji. (Rs. 5) on 
charity ; and a poor family between £5 and £6 (Rs. 50 and Rs. 60). 
At a marriage the father of the boy and girl together pnjbably 
spend, if welU to-do, £20 (Rs. 200) on dowry, £100 (Rs. 1000) on 
ornaments, £20 (Rs. 200) on clothes, £40 (Rs. 400) on feasting, and 
£10 (Rs. 100) on charity; and if poor £20 (Rs. 200) on ornaments, 
£7 10*. (Rs. 75) on clothes, £10 (Rs. 100) on feasting, and £2 10*. 
(Rs. 25) on charity. At a pregnancy £2 10». (Rs. 25) would be spent 
on clothes, and as much on feasting by a well-to-do family ; and £1 
(Rs. 10) and 10*. (Rs. 5) respectively, by poor people. Lastly, on 
the occasion of a death a rich family would spend £20 (Rs. 200) on 
feasting, and £10 (Its. 100) on charity ; and a poor family £5 (Rs. 50) 
on feasting and £2 (Rs. 20) on chanty. 

The daily life of almost all classes is much the same. They rise 
with the sun and work till noon. Then they rest for a couple of 
hours taking a meal and a nap. They begin work again about two, 
and go on till dusk, and, after another meal, go to sleep between 



td len. A few take a small meal, ntjah/inj aboat eigbt in the 

J, beside* their diuDer at noon and their supper aftei dark ; 

gority take the lost two meala only. Their food, as a mle^ is 

kkes bhtikris, and a few onions hUuhU, chillies mirchyds, or 

roliah vhaafUa, and, when thoy can afford it, rice iandul, 

»le«&^Ji#»and sweetmeats tnevfimithtus. The employment of 

and craftsmen is fairly constant throughout the year. Except 

where a stock of silk and cotton goods is sometimes hiid in, 

asual to make ^oodsin the rains for sale during the fair 

A hnsbandman's is a busy life. At some times of the year, 

whole day is spent in the fields, he is up by three or four 

Loriung to take his cattle to graze and to water them. It is 

["be wondered at if be seeks rest at an earlier hour than other 

ii* his noon-day leisure, after he has eaten his meal^ 

ai :^^ So also a husbandman has no time to 

or stop workj except on the Pola day in August which for most 

idmen is a day of rest. Most other classes cease from work 

Ldaya^ spending tbem at borne, eatiug better food than usual, 

fhen ont-of-dnors wearing many ornaments and their best 

Fast^ are not much observed except the Mahdnhivardira 

th, and ihe eleventh days of the bright luilf of the months of 

(Joly-Aug-ust) and Kdrtik (October- November),^ 

wild tribes have Wdf/'hia and other gods of their own ; a few 

and Mardthiis worship Shiv or Vishnu only; but the 

^ds of the Mar^tha Hindus are Marutij Khandoba, Bhairoba, 

r, and DeTi. Many Brdhmans worship Khandoba as their 

>ld deity, and new settlers, whether from Upper India^ Gujardt, 

:, seem before long to join in paying him reverence. 

\ie, from the BrAhmau to the Bhil, forms a more or less 

community. Some have a headman, either hereditary or 

; others luive a council of five; but, among all, social disputes 

orally settled according to the judgment of the majority of 

lale members passed at a opecial caste meeting. 

the lands, nnw included in N^ik, formed, till 1868, part of 

and Ahmednagar, the results of earlier censuses cannot 

fcred with those of 1S72. As far as can be learned from 

lal references in survey and other reports, the increase in 

ion, during the tbirty years ending 1372, was about fifty per 

This would give for the total popcdation in 1846 a rough 

of about 50(^000 soids. 

knlingto the 1872 census, the total population of the district 

16 souls or ninety to the square mile.' Of these, Hindus 

693,-335 or 94-41 per cent, and MusalmAns 32,148 or 

cent, that is at the rate of twenty-one Hindus to one 

There were besides 1064 Christians and 130 Pdrsis. 

[following tabular statement gives, for the year 1872, details of 

lulationof each sub-division according to religion, age, and sex: 

Chapter IIL 


Diuly lj£a. 



Ceiuai Deiiiil*. 

about hciitsee,funutnro,cxpctiaoa, ornaments^ food and d&ily life b»ve 

•d by Mr. H. U. Cooke, C. 8. 
_ Aywr»m density of popolation, the lowest of any part nf the Preaidency 
iidaa w the Urge area of hill and forest land enpecially in Bikgliu aoa 


^V L Bombay Gmam 



■ Chapter m. 
H PopnlatioxL 

H Oonsat Details, 

HdAik Popuiaiioti, t87S, Sub-divisionai DehtiU. ^^| 



■ 187a. 


Up to twelve. 

Twelve to 

Above Uilrly. 

TuteL JM 







Mala. FcD^I 









SO.OOV 39,119 







14.768 18,781 








W.lrtS a.8«7 

NlpbAd « 







41 ^9a 40.7X7 

SlDQur ... 







0, .-,. ... U^ 

Iffiir :: ;: 












15 .sn 




10,47 & 






Dtndori , 











10.$] 8 












■--•.-.■;•.' ' 









74.M4 • 


129.184 1 114.437 



87,310 \ S^'>^,5]r ^v^.,a^^ 

MTJSALUA'trs. ^^1 











































'nr :;; 






















































1V}U1 ... 










16,8U : 





































JSir ::: 










































ToUl ... 







"u i r 



















81,740 ) 








14,884 3 








SO, 488 

28,887 1 










41.480 i 


IS. 804 



11, 82a 

01 oa 



a^ ::: 













11. «& 











22,017 i 









A3,747 j 









32«908 1 

SiUn* ... . 


















84,109 1 








.157,635 r 


* Of won shown under Ottierf , lOM w«rc CbrinkM. ^H 



aboTB statement shows that the percentage of males on the Chapter IIL 
population was ol'32, and of females 48'68, Kiudn males pnn^tinn 
— -^ 355,317 or 51-24, and Hindu females 338,018 or 48-76 "Pa^"o»^ 
kt of the Hindu prjpiilation ; Musalmdn males numbered 
or o2'31 per cent, and Musalm^n females 15^32 or 47*69 per 
\pi the Mu$salm^n populatiuu. 

tc'tal nnmbor of mtirra persons was returned at 4+90 (males Health. 

[£amalea 1 741 ), or sixty-one per ten thousand of the popiiUttion. 
303 (males 210, females 93), or four per ten thousand 
le; 430 (males 277, females 153), or five per t^n 
were idiots; 677 (males 418, females 259), or nine 

T were deaf and dumb ; 2362 (males 1284, females 

■'voperten thousand were blind ; and 718 (males 
iocj. or tt'n per ten thou{*and were lepers. 

iiig tabular statement g-ives the nunaber of each religious Age. 

)Tfiiug to 8fX at ditTerent ages, with, at each Rtage, the 
on the total population of the same sex and religion. 
colunme referring to the total population omit religions 
ictions bat show tne difference of sex *. 

^d*ii FopHlaiitm by Age^ I87t, 

[Bombay OucttM^ 

Chapter m. 






According to the 1872 cenHne, the Hindus belong to the followio| 

ydaik Hindu SecU, 1812, 






J ^ 






or Tor^ 









fioeo WllH 

From this atatemeuL it would aooui, that of the t<jtal OindQ 
popxilation the nDsectarian classes numbered 610,314 or &80J per 
cent; the Shaiva 72,863 or 10*50 per c«nt; the Vaishnavs 5078 c€ 
0'73 pep cent; and the Shrdvaks 5080 or 0*73 per cent. Tli« 
Musalinau population belongs to two sects, Sunni and 8hia ; i\m 
former numbered 24,684 souls or 76'78 per cent of the total 
Musalmdn population ; and the latter 7404 souls or 23*22 per cent. 
The Pdrsis are divided into two branches, Shensh^i and Kaduii; 
the number of the former was 99 or 761 6 per cent, and of the latter 
31 or 23-84 per cent. There were besides 1064 Christians, IW 
Brohnios, 53 Jews, 15 Sikhs, and 7445 Others. 

According to occupation the census returns for 1872 divide thfl 
population into seven classes : 

I. — Employed under Government or municipal or other local AUtfaoiitiM 
ffrOO souls or 1"32 \m*t cent of tlie populMiou. 

11— Professional yj<?rBone, (j741 or O-Sl per cent. 
III. — In Bervice or perfonning personai officeH, 86B8 or 118 per cent. 
IV. — EugHged in ftgricullure and with animalB, l']9»589 or 20'36 per cent, 
V. — Engaged in commerce and trnde, 16,075 or 2'05 per cent. 
VX — Employed in mechanical artA, manufactures and engineering opentiooi^ 
and engaged in the Bale of articles manufactured or otherwise pr^ared for 
consumption, 96,182 or 13-09 i)er cent 

VII. — PcriouD not ulaasea othervnae, (a) wives 175,368 and children 35741(^1 
in all 432,478 or 58-89 per oent ; and [h) miaceUaneous peisomt, 15,933 ur i'lfi 
per cent ; total, 448,411 or 61*06 per cent. 

The different Hindu castes may be most conveniently grouped 
under the fourteen heads of Brahmans, Writers, Traders, Husband- 
men, Craftsmen, Manufacturers, Bards and Actors, Servants, He-rda- 
men, Fishers, Labourers, Early or Uuaettlod Tribes, Depressed 
Classes, and Beggars. 

Brahmans, exclusive of sub-divisiona, include seventeen 
divisions with a strength of 28,211 souls or4'0()per cent of the whole 
Hindu population. The divisions are Yajurvedis or Madhyaudins, 
Desba»ths, Chitpdvana, KarhAd^, Devrukh^, KAnnavs, Telaugr, 
Shenvis, Maitrdyanis, Govardhans or Golaks, Stlrasvats, K^nadAs, 
GujarAtis, Mdrvudis, KanojAs, Pardeshis, and Madrilsis. 

Brdhmaus are found all over the district. They are family priests, 
keepers of pilgrims' lodging-houses, temple ministrants, pilgrims' 
gaides and instructors, moneylenders, landholders. Government 
servants, and pleaders. The landholders own both Government 
and alienated lands. Some of them till with their own hands, but 
most rent their estates to MAtis or Kuubis. Of tho pleaders some, 



tli« stibordinfttc oonrts, ara local Br^raann^ but those in Ndsilr 
almost all Chitpdvans who bare come to the district within the 
thirty years. 

TL<* local Brahman community incladea Yajurvodis, Deshastbs, 
Cbitpavana, and KarhAdas, who eat togotbor and settle caste 
>pates according to (be majority of votes. Wben a matter comes 
settlement, sixteen lejirued men, called grdnu or headmen, send 
invitations to tho members of the community. The meetings 
generally held at Bbadra Kali^B temple, and Boraetimca at the 
of a tjrdvt. The prosecutor, anuvddah, states the case, and^ 
aecDsed, prnumthchifti, makes his defence. The panditH cite- 
anthi how the nature of the alleged offence, and the^ 

ic© 1^" 1, and give their opinions ou the case. The' 

sit in judgment, and the votes nf the majority decide the 
lit or innocence of the accused. The proceedings and judgment 
written and filed. Of late these learned men have lost importance. 
-'- -nect is shown them, and wealtliy members are able to 
rs in their own way and get off an accused, though the 
,i ol iufl guilt may be overwhelming. 

*hoagh they send their children to school, and, when pnestfaood' 
Cake to new pursuits, Br^hmans have, as a whole, fallen in 
illh and position since the days of the Pesbwas. Many have 
ly money enough to repair their old mansions. 

The largest and most important class of Brabmans are the 

Tainrredis, or AlAdhyaudins, who are followers of the Vajasneyi 

recension of the Yajurved otherwise known aa the Whito Yajurved.* 

lev are the most numerous class of Br^hmans in Berdr where they 

^TB come from Mabttrashtiti or the Bombay Deccan.* They are 

found in Poona, Sdtara, Kolbapnr, and the Southern Maratha 

■icta Bat their hea^Uquartera are in the Nasik district where 

tfcey have about 20(»0 bouses, 500 of them in Nasik t-own, 200 each 

■ » ^'»»nar and Ti-imbak, and the rest scattered over the district in 

iients of from one to fifteen families. They are rougher looking, 

■, and less cleanly than Chitpavans,butsomewhBtclo3ely resemble 

j-ths.' Their MarAthi differs little from Deshasths' Marithi 

' that they interchange the dental and cerebral ns. Nearly all 

>ik town are priests, who have bodies of patrons, yajnidns, in 

different parts of India, whose family trees are entered in huge account 

biKjks/ and whom the priests attend and instruct when they visit N4sik. 

They generally go in parties to the Ndsik Road railway station or 

Btand where the Ndsik and the DevlAli roads meet. There they accost 



1 Aoeordizig to Dr. WOwn (Cwtea, II. 24) they get their nntee of MAdhyandin or 
IGd-day BrAhmmim from the importance they attadi to worship at noon. 

s Bfirtr Gazetteer. 183. 

*-Mr: Siu clai r , C.S., B«y« i Yajarvedin «*, in ray obeervation, (Urker» the noe* 
rastdi IcM U}t to bo aqoiUne and the whole physiognomy inferior to that of the 
bmdMmie ^itpiraiu and the acute looking Dwhaatha and Karh&d&s. lad. Ant. 

ni. 45. 

• Tile books of one family, whom all Mirvidi pilgrims ropport, show that In the 
ttaae of Anraagscb, Ajitaing Raja of Jodbpur was among their patruiw. Another 
hmalf bM on their bonka the enlir of a vint of a gr^at grandfnther of Sir Jang 
bhAuor, which proved of uo amaU advantage to them when that chief vi«it«l NAsik. 

CBomb&y OftuttMir. 

tpter in. 



every Hindu traveller asking where he has come from and what apt 
his name aiid caste. The Brdhman, who finds the stranger's naraff 
or his ancestor's name in his book, takes him to lodge at Li 

and helps him to perform the different ceremonies. Thi , 

makes no fixed charge, but gets a present from the pilgriao and t 
share of all that he spends. A dinner is then given to Brahrr ■ *^ 
number of the guests depending on the pilgrim's means, 
all the wealthiest of these priests engage in monoylending. 

Though no information has been obtained of their settlenn'iif nl 
Kdsik, several considerations tend to show that the Mfldh 
came from Gujnnit. The Mddhyandin ahnkha, or brnnoh, is ■ 
in Gujardt and little known in the Deccau, and their rule for^ 
marriage with any one of the stock or g^-itra of the mother*- 
is a Gujardt and not a Manltha rule. Their complete s<j 
from tho Deahasths in matters of marriage and their Guj.imt-iike 
fondness for trade favour tkis view, and their friendly fet-Iiug for 
tho Thana Palshis, who also are MfidhyandLns and have the same 
marriage rules, soems to show that they entered Nusik through tli0 
Thai pass. Of tho cause and date of their coming uothJng has been 
traced. There are two divisions of Madhyandins io the district, 
the main body of Nasik Yainrvcdis and a sub-division who are 
locally known as Baglania j the divisions eat together, but, as a mleif 
they do not intermarry. The Abhir or Ahir Brahmans, of whom 
some details are given in tho KhAndesb Statistical Account, art 
also of the Madhyandin stock. ^ 

Tho Mildhyondins' family records show that they have been lO 
Niisik for at least 500 years. But their close resemblance to the 
Deshasths in appearance, language, aud religious customs, makes it 
probable that they came to Nasik at a much earlier date. The three 
once leadiug families, PArAshare, Prabhu, and Panchbhayye, appear 
from their registers, to have secured numerous patrons, yajr/i^n«, 
in RajpntAna and the Panjib as early as about 1470. Tho PilrJishures 
enjoy the old and once very gainful patronage of not less thaa 
thirty Rajputjlua chiefs; the Shuklas and Shauches have many rich 
supporters in Berar and the Central Provinces; and the Panchbbayyes 
and Shiugaues have many Sikh families in the PanjAb. The Dikshits 
and Prabhus act as priests for many NAgar VAni families ; the 
GAydhanis, one of the richest families, act as priest* for many 
Bombay Bhdtiils and Lohanas, and a few of them have 
succeeded in obtaining patrons from among Deccan BrAhman and 
MarAtha families. In addition to payments made by their patrons, 
some leading Mridhyandin families enjoy yearly stipends from 
Dative princes. Thus the Shinganes, Shuklas, and GAydhanis have 
each an annuity, vatshd^an, from the Niictim, obtained in tho second 
quarter of the present century when Chanduldl was minister at 

' Bombay Gazetteer, XII. 52. In connection with the MitlhyandinB the rcfcrenc« 
in ArruLn'a (a.d. 100| Uat of the Oftngea tribatariefl to the country of the Mddhyaudins 
is worthy of nute (McCrincllc's Megaethencs and Arrian, 186). The reacmbliLnee of 
the nAmoii ia bo close thnt in Hpite of Prof. M&x Mailer's objections (History of. 
Ancient Saiukrit Literature, 3^) it is difficnlt to doabt the oorrectoevs of Prof. 
Weber'i idontiticAtion. Uiatory of Indian Literature, 106, 


lomliad ; the Devs and Shauches have an allowance from Baroda ; 

Andhmtkars from GwAlior; and the Bhannses and Beles from 

Peahwaa uf Poona which haa beeu continiiuJ by the British. 

lik and Triuibak ahnost a!) Ynjurvedis are priests, either 

of pilsrrinis' ceremonies, family priostv^?, reciters of holy 

I, or astrologers. Some of the richer fjimiHes of pil^iins' 

add to their regular gains by employing workmen of the 

or P^nchAl caste to make silver vessels which they sell to 

iniH and others. They have no regular shops, but keep the 

in stock and sfll them in their own houses. Besides this 

the well-to-do priestly faiDiliea trade in grain or cloth and 

loney. Of the jviorer priestly families many are supported 

i\y by the presents they receive in return for taking a part in 

ions ceremonies. Very few beg from honse to house. A few 

entirely aecular lending money or keeping money-changers' and 

ders' ffhof.»8. In country parts a considerable number of the 

_ lis are husbandmen. Over the whole district a few are 

id aa clerka and in the lower grades of Government service. 

'n ndigious matters the SLidhyandins, who arc followers of the 
White Yajurved, are separate from Doshasthe, Konkanasths, and 
"bAdAs.. who follow either the Big^ed or the Black Yajurved. 
of this difference they are apt to bo looked down on by 
»th8, Deshasths, and KarhAdaSj but they do not admit any 
ity.* Madhyandina never marry with any other class of 
imans; and among themselves they are prevented from marrying 
only with families of their father's stock, but also with families 
the stock of their mother's father. Of late the minor differences 
reen the Yajurve<lis and the DeshnHtha, Konkanasths and 
-h&dds have been greatly smoothed. They now call each other 
religious ceremonies, officiate together on the banks of the 
Ivari, and do not object to sit in the same line at funeral feasts, 
some Madhyandius are very well off, cases are not uncommon 
lies selling their rights as local priests to Konkanasths and 
iha^tbs. They have only lately begun to send their children 
?Iy to Government schools, and are, therefore, loss fitted than 
ihasths, KonkattastliB, and Karh^dan, for the higher grades of 
(vcmment service or for practice as pleaders. 

'ifteea families of M^hyandins hold a specially high social 

itioD.^ Among these the Devs, who were originally agents of 

Prabhu family, stand at the head of the local Brahman 

lauity and are honoured alike bv members of their own and 

' classes of Brihmans. As officiating priests, dharmddhikurist 

priests, grdnwpddhydyas, they are entitled to from ton 

per cent of the alms given to Brdhmans, on birth, death, 

marriage occasions. 


Chapter m. 


> Mr. Staclair, C.S. Ind. Ant. HI. 4o. 

* Ttietr ouuoea ikre Duv with thirty housofi, OdydliAni with twenty-flvo, ShnkU 
vilh llfto«i« Sbaucbe witli twelve, Garjje with teu, Bele wHth ten, V'ire with ten, 
rr»bba with ten, F4ri«luu-e with tou, Kahemkaly4zii with eiglit, Chaitdriiti with eight, 
Aotlhrntluu' vritb Mreo, Punchbhayye with Qve, ShiDgaae with tive, and Doahp&Qtle 

[Bombay 0«aett<«f 



Aftpter III. 




The Dbshastits, who are a smaller body tlian the YAJnrredia,, 

generally well-to-do, and a few of them are rich. They are 
iiereditary village accountants^ husbandmen^ moneylenden. 
Government servants.^ 

ChitpAvavs, or Kokkanasths, who first came to the district 
the Peshwfl, have had many additions dnrinj^ the last thirtv 
Under the Martlthda, besides being the seat of Peshwa Rag-h^. 
or Riighoba (1772-73) and of the wife of his nephew Nara3au' 
Peshwa, Niiaik was the residence of many MnrAtha nobles ^ 
maintained Chitpdvan priests. ChitpAvana are generally 
and delicate-featured, clean in their habits, and 
money-hoarders with a bad name for stinginess and hardness," 
Many of them are Government servants and pleaders, and only 
small number are beggars, bhiktthuks. Since their settlement in 
district they have adopted a pood many Yajurvcdi and T> 
cnstoms. Thus in Nasik they have taken to worship Khni: . 
imitation of the Yajurvedis and Deshasths; and instead of a 
Br^hmans in honour of the goddess Satri on the fifth day 
a birth, they call them on the tenth, like the Yajurvedis an< 
Deshasths. It is said that Bdjir^, the last Peshwa,' when perfoi 
ing some ceremony at NAsik, was, by the local Br^hmans, probabl 
the Madhyandins, denied the use of the same flight of steps as tl 
priests. This has been quoted as a proof of the low position whii 
Konkanasths hold among Bnlhmans. But it seems more probuble thati 
it was the result of a feud between BAjirao and the Yajurvedu 
There is now no difference between the treatment of Konkanasl 
and of other Brahman pilgrims at N^ik. 

KabhXdAs, who take their name from the town of Karhad iaj 
Sitdra, ai'e found in small numbers and are genenilly well-to-do, some] 
of them priests and moneylenders and others Government servants. 
In look, speech, dress, and customs, they differ little from Desh&sUii 
with whom they eat bat do not generally marry. 

DevbukhAs, who take their name from the village of Devrnkh bf 
Ratndgiri, are found in small numbers in Nasik, M^legaon.and Din- 
dori. Except a few moneylendei*s and pleaders all are husbandmen. 
Other Br^hmans eat but do not many with them, and as thers 
are no learned Brihmans among" them, they are not admitted to 
the meetings held by the Brdhman community to settle sociiJ! 

■ Somo of the highest families in the diatriot, the Vinclinrkor. ChAndradkn; 
Hingnc, and K^in bdhiidur are Deahasths. 

3 ChitpAvan thrift is the theme of Hevcral sftyings, nich u CJUtpdvatti bH 
Ch^pdvani kdt, used of any fine-drawn economy. 

* Hamiltc-n'a Beficription of Hinduati^n. II. 197. 

* The NAaik ChitpAvaua declare that Hdjirtio waa never denied any privO^ei. 
Bat the authority ia good and the incident ia not likely to have been invented. It 
seema that B&jirdo ordered a temple at Trimbak to be oooaecrated by Kouluuiaath 
Blaok Yajorvedia and not by the local White Yajurvedia. The White Yajnrvedia 
gathered in a mob to atop the conaecntion and were diaperaed by BiljirAo's orders, 
•ereral of them being aent to prison. For thia the community cnraed him, andi 
mt N&aik the Yajar^-edia* curse is believed to have been one of the chief cauBCS of| 
SAjitfto'a mistakes and rain. 




KWAV Br^hm&ns, who are found in considerable strength in 

and in small numbers througbout the district, chU themselves 

thanishakbis, or followers of the first branch of the White 

ajurved. A few of them are flottled in Poena and considerable 

ambers iu Kolhapar. Some of them are priests, some Govoromeut 

lervants, and some cloth dealers. 

Sbchtis, or Sdrasrat Brdhmans, are found in rery small numbers 
N4sik, Sinnarj Ycola, and BflglAn. They have come from the 
^onkan, and can hardly be said to be settled in the district. 
*koy dress like other Mnriitha Br^hmans, and^ unlike their caste- 
ellowrs io the Konkan, do not openly oat fish. Other Br^hmans 
eitlier eat nor marry with them. Iu N^ik they have a monastery 
t I 75 years old, built in honour of Pumdnand a Shenvi ascetic 
high priest of the caste whose tomb it contains* The monastery 
the property of Atm^oand Svimi, the present high priest of 
Shenvi caste, whose head-quarters are at Kavla iu Goa and who 
onally visits Nisik. The Peahwds granted it a yearly allowance 
Bf about €50 (Rs. 300). The hereditary local manager ia a 
Tajarvedi Brdhman who is paid about oue-third of the allowance. 

GorABUBAX Brdhraans, genei-ally called Golaks or sous of BrAhman 
Bridows, are found iu large numbers all over the district, and form a 
beparate caste having their own priests. Some arc cultivators, but 

Eare hereditary village accountants. The caste headman is 
rally some one with a smattering of Sanskrit, called a Vedia, 
T BpAhmans do not dine or marry with them. Their widows do 
"emarry and are required to shave their heads. From the name 
Govardhan, which some of the early cave inscriptions (a.d. 120) use 
fts a name of N^k, and from their holding the post of village 
uroonntauts, it seems probable that these are the representatives of the 
oldest Brahman settlers at Ndsik. They may, perhaps^ have been 
railed Golaks^ Manu's name for the sons of widows, because they 
continued to allow widow-marriage aft-er the later-arrived Brahmang 

^ given up the practice.' Govardhaus are found in Khiiudesh, 
e west of Poena, and in the Northern Konkan. 
irrBi.YANis, called from the Maitrdyani recension of the Ynjur- 
red, follow the 4f^n'it?sij/ra and seem to have come from Khandesh 
vrhere they have long been settled. As a class they are well-to-do, 
IK>nie as large laudholders, some as accountants and Government 
Bervants, some as moneylenders, and some ae cloth-sellers. Other 
BrAlimans do not eat with them. 

KItastr or KisTB Brahmans have three houses in the village of 
Ghi>ti in Igatpuri, They are said to have come from Upper India 
vithin the last forty years. They call themselves Yajurvedi 
^Hlimans, dre-ss like them and kunp the regular Brdhman ceremonies, 
pB they are considered a low class aud other Brahmans do not eat 
•rith them. They live in well built houses, and maintain themselves 
by Belling tobacco aud salt. They do not use animal food or liquor. 

I Tb« Honourable Rfto tiahAdar GopAlri^o Uari Doithmukh. The name Onrardhan 
Ui Mr. Sberriog's list of Kaaoj Tivdris (Castes, I. 26). Tboy do not SMm to 
kaonrti in Cpp«r India, 



Chapter IIT. 






L Bombay CKuwttMrJ 


Chapter IIL 







KamojAs, found in small numbers inNdsik, Mdlegaon, andC 
are settlors from Kanoj, Allahabad, and Benares. Most of U.^ 
said to have come within the last hundred years and to have 
military service with the local Muratha nobles. They luive »1 
features, with rather broad faces and dark prominent eyes, bat 
appearance they differ little from Kunbis. The men shave the 
like Dercan Brfihmana leaving* the usual top-knot. Some 
have taken Government service allow their whiskers to 
The women are short and slight. They talk both Hindustani 
Maratlii. They do not eat animal food or drink liquor. Thi 
some dress like Brahraans most have adopted the Kunbi or M 
costume. Their women wear a petticoat and a robe over it, 
great occasions, a sheet, chddrif in addition to the robe. They are 
workinj^, sober and neat in their habits, and bear a good ua 
orderliness and freedom from crime. On the establishment of 
at the beginning of British rule most of the Kanoja soldiers 
husbandmen. Of the rest some are traders and money! 
others grain-dealers, and a few beggars. They are fnirly off 
few are rich. They worship Shiv, Devi, and Maruti, and do not a 
to have any Upf>er Indian gods. They are fond of going ' 
ages both to local shrines and to different parts of India, t-^ 
to Dwirka. Their priests are Yajurvedi BrAhmans. They a 
eat nor marry with Deccan Br^hmans. Except Kanoja they 
no one to come into their cook-room. Thoy marry among 
of their own caste. They are said to have formerly brought t 
wives from Upper India, but the practice is no longer kept 
Many of the men never marry, and the number of the class ia bbI 
to be declining. At birth they have five days' rejoicing, 
friends and worshipping their gods. On the twelfth day the 
is named and frieuds are feasted. Boys are girt with the 
thread from their seventh to their tenth year. Girls are marri 
while still children. When they come of ago they are kept 
themselves for three days, and the whole of the fourth day u 
spent in singing and music. Men marry at any age, the Tio\i 
early and the poor when they can afford it. Except infants who 
die before teething, they burn their dead. Their widows are not 
allowed to many, but, unlike other Bi*ahman widows, their heads 
are not shaved. Though their houses are scattered they form a 
separate community. Quarrels are settled by a committee. They 
have no recognised headman, but the opmion of those who are 
learned in religious and moral texts carries weight with tho rest. 

DkAvids are connected with the monastery of the great Shan 
ch&rya which was built in Panchavati by Xdua Faduavis towards t 
close of the eighteenth centnry. The monastery and alms-house 
managed by a DrAvid Brahman whose ancestors seem to have co 
from the'Dravid country when the monastery was built. 

Pabdbshi BhAhmans, found at N^ik, Mdlegaon, and ChAnd 
are the priests of the different classes of Upper Indian Hindus, chio 
Rajputs, who are locally known as Pardeshis. They have settled 
the district and marry among other settlers of their own class. 
Their number is not large and most of them are poor. Some a7« 





«l4 hoAbandmeiiy aad the re&t mossengers. They 
ndasUint and live on vegetables. Some wear their tnrbans 
(ha Bnlbmana and others like Kunbis. They worship the 
^ s as Diiccaa Br^hmans. 

NADA and Telanq Bmhmanfl occasionally visit the district, 
either by begging op by the sale of sacred threads. They are 
ally dark and have a name for cleverness and knowledge of 
edas. They speak Teiagu. 

BaAtuiANSf of foar snb-divisions, Chanyafr, Pushkamaj 

Shevak, are found in the district, but go to MArwAr 

or other special business. They are ecattered over 

whole district, the well-to-do dealing in cloth, others 

hopkeej^rs or cooks, and the rest living on the alms of, 

ing ceremonies for, Mitrwdr VAnis. They do not eat 

rink liqnor. Some worship Vishnu and others Shiv. The 

of the girl generally seeks for the husband and offers hia 

5r in marriage. If rich he gives a handsome dowry. At 

08 when ihi> bridegroom reaches her house, the bride takes 

ed hi^una le.ivrs, amuug which a silver ring is hid, in her right 

1 the bridegroom clasps her hand in his. They then go to the 

altar, and after making offerings walk four times round it. 

er ring is afterwardd worn by the bride, 

JAJiiT BkIbhans have ten or twelve honses in l^ilsik. They 

fllx Bub-divisions, Audich, KhedAvAl, Bhatmevdda, TravAdi- 

Gomtival, and Kandolia. They eat together but do not 

Arry. Some of the men dress like Deccan Brdhmans. Their 

en wear the petticoat. Most of them are beggars or priests 

e T^nibats, KdsiirB, and Tdmbolis. Soino make and sell 

, while others are servants iu the houses of Deccan Br^hmans, 

ing walor for house purposes and for drinking. Though they 

water brought by these Gujardt servants, Deccan Brdbmans 

eat food cooked by them. Thei'e is a great scarcity of 

ble girls, and many men do not marry till they reach an 


Writers include two classes, KAyasth Prabhns 150 (males 81, 
Jemale--* Oy), and Thiikur8 488 (males 287. females 201) with, in 1872, a 
rength of 038 souls or 0*09 per cent of the whole Hindu population. 
, mostly lato arrivals from the Konkan, hold high posts in 
ue brunch of tho public service. Their prosperity greatly 
ds on the caste of tho headmen in the Collector's office, aa 
is n very keen rivalry between Prabhns and local Br^Juuans, 
As a class they are educated and well-to-do. 

TaiicrRa, properly called Brahma-Kshatri Thdkurs, are found 
chieHy in NAaik and Yeola where thero ia a oonsiderable Guiardt 
colony. They are generally fair and wear the sacred thread. Some 
of the hoQdea of the welUto-do are beautifully rich examples of the 
Gujiiratstyleof wood'Carving. Bolhmenand women dress like Maratha 
limhmaus. They live on vegetable food and worship the same gods 
fB Brdhmans, Most of them are well-to-do living as landholders, 
'nnders, and pleaders, and some dealing in butter and sugar. 
' not allow widow marriage. They have oriven up intercoursQ 
f^nii luu Brahma-Kshatris of Gujarat. 

Chapter IU. 




Write w, 


Chapter III 



Mercantile, Trading, and Sbopkeeping classes 
12,0il Miirviidis of three divisions (m;vlea 7'JlO, feinale:= 
407d (males 2175, females 1900) VAnis. 1050 (males 539, ft 
511) LingAyata, 130 (malea 79, females 51) BhfttiAs, and 63 (iiudeai 
females 26) Gajnrs, giving a total strength of 17,959 souls (i 
10,470, femalos 7489) or 2*59 per cent of the HindapopulntioQ. 
three Marvadi classea are the Meshri, the Shr(ivagi, and the 
Of both Meshri and OflvAl there are many suh-divisions. Ea 
Yeola Mfirvidia, who are said to have been settled for nearly 2" 
all are said to have come, during the last 6fty or sixty years^ fVoi 
the north of the Narbuda, from \I4rwAr, Jepur, Jodhpnr, Udepur, 
Bik^nir. Most of the settled M^rviidis speak Mar^thi with a brnn<l 
accent,' The town MiirvAdi generally shaves excepit the nppor lip, 
and the village MArvAdi grows the beard. Some wear three 
locks of liair, two curliog one on each cheek and the third oo 
the crown of the head. The back hair is mostly worn long with «n 
upward curl at the tips. New arrivals may be easily known by ihAr 
small two-coloured turbans, generally yellow and red or pink aad 
red, their long hair, their dirty look, and their odd speech Iq 
course of time they become naturalised, drop their poculinritk'*', 
and, except by their strongly marked features, can hardly be ku'V. n 
from higher class Ilindns. They take to wearing the ordinary Marnth.'i 
turban and shoe, become cleanly in their habitus and dress, speak aud 
write Mar&thi, and even wear their hair like high class Hindus. 
Town Marvddis Hve in houses like those of other Hindu traders, bnt 
In the country it is usually easy to make out the Marvidi's house by 
its belt of brown round the doors and windows sometimes picked oatj 
with whitewash. On first arriving a Mdrv&di is generally poorJ 
Coming by Indor and KhAmgaon, he brings camels for sule in thB] 
Central Provinces or Berar, or a pack of native white blankets, raj 
article much in reqnest among Maiitthas. He deposits the proce^da] 
of his season's tour with the shopkeeper with whom he takes serviceJ 
and is generally put in charge of a branch shop, or given a packj 
of such trifling things as glass bangles, pulse, asafoetida, or curoin,j 
and sent round the different markets. Tliere seems to be usually 
some sort of partnership between the employer and the employedJ 
loading, as their relations thicken, to intricate mano3uvnng wtUij 
regard to bonds and moneyleuding. Their thrift and greod of 
are a byo-word. It is said to be their rule to go supporlej 
bed on any day on which they fail to make money. Having, by 
dint of the strictest economy, put together a little money, the new 
MArvAdi usually establishes himself in some small village, and. with 
the headman's leave, begins to make graiu advances, viidiflifihit to 
be repaid at harvest time at from twenty-iive, mvai,to a hundred 
per cent, duni^ and, occasionally on bad sectirity and during times of 
scarcity, at the rate of three to one, tipat. Besides in wholesale graio, 
he deals in retail, kirkul, pulse and grain, and in condiments, spices. 

t for one, ck, they say yr*jfe, and ffnoM, or vilUse, they proDounM 
l&Dgtmge. as thoy writ« it, allows bu much latitude in BpeUiug and granunar 
ii rare to titid a MArvAdi who can road a letter written in hu lan^age^ aula 
in hi« oim baadwritiug. Mr. J. A. Bainee, C.S. 



% and floor. From grain he gmdaallj passes on to sollinf^ cloth 

lending monoy, and being, as a rule, keener and more exacting 

pnnctiml in his demands than most monejlenders, his profits are 

lerable. When he has mado enough money for the purpose, he 

his budinesa to his partner or clerk, or to some acquaintance, 

bome to marrr. He comes back with bis wife and coutinnea 

usually for the rest of his lif<^, and lesa oommooly 

ie has collected enough to retire on.* Though generally very 

•fisted, when at marriages and other family ceromomes ho 

rtains his castemen, he asks his friunds frum great distancesj 

leasta them regardless of expense.' Instances of M^rvadis 

tiding wells or rest-houses an3 rare, and the little they spend in 

ily is given in a business-like way, the charity fund account 

'ing in their books a^ they would enter any other item of 

ie. Though stricter and perhaps less scrupulous, the MarvAdi 

ousted the local moneylender chielly by his much greater energy 

by his willingness to help in times of need. Unlike the local 

i, he never thinks whether his debtor is able to pay or not, 

gets out of him what lie can, how he can, and whenever he 

As a rale, M^vAdis can write, teaching one another or having 

tt before coming to the district. There are no local schools 

lore Mdn^sdi is taught, bat MilrvddiB almost always send their 

[dron to learn Mardthi in the Government primary schools. 

BSBKis are Mdrv&dt Vdnis who worship Vishnu and wear a 

aeck1ac4\ kanti, Osviils^ and ShrAvagis are Jains, the Osvdls 

i^itdmlwr or white robed, and the Shnivagia of the Digambar 

-clad, that is naked, sect. Osvdls are of two sub-divisions, 

and Visa,* and have three places of pilgrimage in the district, 

at Mhasrul six milus north of Niisik and the others at the 

Lniilr Lena caves a few miles to the north-west of N^ik und at 

•Tongia in north*west Biigl^. On the top of the hill at 

Chapter nL 


Hm qiiestioii of retiring to MlrwAr or lettUnf in KAaik (lependa on a man*! 
lUb. One who hu (rieuds and reUtioua round liiin probauly stnyB ; lunely 
men, m a mlo, ga book. The gener&l prnctice is Ui settle. 
Tk0 gMitt want of manriA^Able giria auion^ tUeiii autl the ruinuua expense of a 
marriage trip to MAmAr force moat of them to remain nmnarried. 

* Orrils are tniil to tiavc taken their nuiiie fi-uni the tuwii Oaliva in Jodhpur. They 
■ay 4ka& danchiol, a ginldosa of that plaoe, onlered them to leave tike town, and 
threatened to hring niin oo any one who stayed Whind. The Cutch account 
cnniMcts thev name with the town of Os in PArkar. See Bombay Oaitetteor, V. 52. 

* Thecanmoo «tor>' of the origin of tlie division is that an OsvjU widow, contrary 
to thtt rule against -widow msniagee, lived with a Jain priest and ha<i two sona 
by him. The eons grew rich, and hit npon the foUoMring plan for forcing their 
oateieUows to overlook their illegitimate deaoent. At the town of Reya, where 
tiMre wta « Urge ntUDber of Oiviilg, they made grwid preparatioDa for a dinner and 
aakeii the 0«vi&Ia, who, not knowing that the )u>ntn were of illegitimate hirth, attend- 
ed the ^^>ty in large numbers. A widow tulil her ton the history of the men who 

giving the feaufc. And he went before the aasembled Oav4ia and begged of 

to allow hia mother to reniarry. They aaked why h« had come there to moke 

nfeqnest, W)d he told thein the story of the birth uf the two brothers who had 

them to dinner. On hearing that their hosts were cmtcaatos there was a 

cniifuaion among tftte guesto. Those who hul touched the foo<l be4uune the 

I t>f the two broraeni And cune to be called Daeas. while those who had not 

the T.' ' "* ' - • ' :-*ir« were called VisAs. The ute of Visa and Dasa aa 

erf ca.*^; tnun. The terms soem to mean Visa, or twenty 

. I i Dasa, or ten in the score, that is hsif -osBte. 

rBombay Gftxetteer, 



lapter III. 








!Mangia-Tnngia they have carved images of PdrasTiiith 
twenty-third saint. At Mhasrul and at Mang^i-Tuugia they 
haudsome rest-houses for the use of pilgrinis, 

Ladsakka Yanis, found in Bigliu, Kalvan, and Mdlegaon, 
welUto-do class of Vdnis, who, in the villages of those sub-divii 
hold the place which MArvadi Vania hold in other parts of 
district. They speak mixed Gujardti and Mar^thi. They are 
industrious and greedy of money, and deal in grocery, cotton, gnii'j 
of all sorts, and cloth, while some are moneylenders and a few ara^ 
husbandmen. They are the chief wholesale buyers of molasaea or{ 
(jolf and in March ^o round the district making arrangements for id' 

LiNOAYATS, found in Nasik and Peint and a few in other sub-divisioni 
AB grain-dealers, have come from Sholapur and the son them 
ManUha districts. They are of seven sub-diviaions, Pauoham, 
Dixivant, Chilivant, Tiloris, Bandgar, Hatkar, and Koshti. Of 
these Panchams are found all over the district, and BandgarSy 
Hatkars and Koshtis in Yeola. All speak Afar^tUi both at home 
and abroad. In appearance they are dark, and, except a few 
in Nasik, they live in small houses. Both men and women tie 
round the arm or hang from the neck, and some men hide in their 
turban, an image of Shiv sometimes covered with a red cloth. Thej 
have a great name for craft and cunning, and deal in grocery, 
keep cattle, and sell milk both fresh and thickened by boiling. 
Among Panohams some are landholders, vaiandars, and money-' 
lenders while others have taken to cultivation. Bandgars, Hatkan,< 
and Koshtis are almost all weavers. In token that they are devotee* 
of Shiv they generally rub ashes, bha^m, on their foreheads and arnuj, 
They hold that no true believer can be impure, and therefors 
disregard the ordinary rules about ceremonial impurity. Tho 
Chilivants do not allow food to be seen when it is being oooked'j 
or eaten. They never drink water from flowing streams or rivers, 
but use the water of cisterns and wells. They never eat clarified 
butter that has been kept in leather cases, budUls. Their disputes 
are settled by a majority of votes at a mass mooting where the 
presence of a priest or Jangam of the Chiranti Bub-division is 

GnjAR VAnis, found in small numbers here and there all orer' 
the district, are said to have come from GujarAt some about 250 
years ago and others within the last hundred years. Most of thorn 
are shopkeepers, though some lend money, others cultivate, and 
few labour. They are said to be a sober and honest class. 

Husbandmen are of fourteen classes, with, in 1872, a strength of 
293,460 souls (males 150.215, females 143,245) or42'32 per cent of tha 
whole Hindu |X)pulation. Of these 205,099 (males 104,057, females 
101,042) wero Kunbis; 49,563 (males 25,940, females 23,623) 
Konkanis; 21,416 (males 11,192, females 10,224) MiiUs; 5751 
(males 2993, females 2758) Mar^th&s ; 4508 (males 2326, femoJea 
2182) Kfinadds; 3501 (males 1788, females 1713) Rajputs; 26\S 
(males 1340, females 1308) Hctkaris ; 409 (males 245, females 164) 
TdhMis; 254 (males 180, females 74J Dohdris : 105 (males 82^ 




IkiwIds ^S) Tirmdlis ; 62 (mftles 31, females 31) Vidare; 38 (maloe 
1- 20] Ban d gars ; 33 (males 14, females 19) Tirgula ; aud 

lo ...1 1.--- '.», females 4) Naikavdis. 

Krvpia form the roost important element in tbe population of 
il. r . with a tstren^th of 201,*372 or 29*47 per cent of tlic entire 

pi They are the most skilled aud successful of cultivators, 

asd are found, all oyer the district. Besides in cuttivatin^, some of 
them are employed as police constables aud mesbengersi aud a few aa 
aohoolmafiters and clerks.^ 

■ 13 are immigi*ant8 from Thitna who have spread into the 

Li .; l up the western spurs of the SahyAdri hills. They seem 

to be newcomers, many within the last generation, and almost all 

within the last hundred years. They call themselves Konkan 

Konbis, and are a wretched looking race like Kolis in appearance 

and not above them in intellijrenco. Choosing sparsely peopled 

plBfv« with t-riictsof waste arable land, they often shift their wattle 

. and occasionally go to the Konkan to renew their 

(I their native place, nominally in search of uplands 

and gmzing. They stand the feverish western climate better than 

Nasik Kunbis, and, as the Bhils and Kobs are very idle, they have 

almost the monopoly of hill cultivation. They are much given to 

wood a*!;h, dalki, tillage, and, where this is not allowed, they 

work as labourers. They have a great name for skill in sorcery. 

•fa few village headmen who hold hereditary grants they are 

, off. 

Alis, found in considerable numbers all over the district, are 
three sub-divisions, Phnl, Halde or Bankar, and Jire, which neither 
eat t-o^iher nor intermarry. They dress like Kunbis and speak 
hi both at home and abroad. Most live in mnd-walled flat- 
i houses, and the rest in houses of burnt or uubumt bricks. 
ept a few, who are devotees of Vithoba of Pandharpur, all eat 
b, but never c<:»w'8j bullock's or baffalo's flesh. They arc sober and 
hardworking, most of them husbandmen aud the rest masons or 
labonrers, and, in rare cases. Government servants. Their women 
help them both in husbandry and in selling flowers, fruit, and 
Tegetables. They worship Vithoba, Khaudoba, and Bhairoba. 
Borne of them in honour of the god Vithoba visit Pandharpur at 
fixed periods, called v^rin. Their only two ceremonies are hair 
catting or jdvai, and marriage. Hair cutting takes place iu the 
caae of girls within one, and in the case of boys within two years 
after birtli. The marriage age depends on the circumstances of 
the parents. Social disjmtes are settled by a majority of votes at 
ft caste meeting, and the decision there given is final. They send 
their boys to school, but do not keep them at school after they have 
learnt to read and write Mardthi. 

MxiUTais, properly so called, are a comparatively small body 
but have a good position in their villages. A few are deshmukhs. 




* Tlifl details about Konbis given in the Khdndeah Statistical Accoont (Bombay 
Gaarttcer. XII. 62- 68) apply to a cdnsiderable cxteut to tho Kunbia of the cut aud 
acffUi'aaat of Kiialk^ andtuo detjula civen below for AhinbUiiagar may bo taken to 
i nelndt a oonsiderabk portion of thv Kunbia of the west aud south of the district. 

Bombay Q&MitMt»| 




pitilfl, and clerk*?, constables or messenfrersj a^d the r 
inen and labourers. Except. thedfshnmWbs and well-i 
wlio live in good houses, moat of them live in poor one- 
Rich Mardthaft do not nllow widow marriage, strictly 
senana system, go^he, and wear the aacred thread which la 
them at marriage.^ 

RAJPtTTs, or Thdkurs, fonnd in small numbers throagbonl 
district, are of two Bub-divisions, Tunrs and Chavaos. In S 
there are about four houses of these Rajputs. They are said \o 
come from Upper India in search of military service about 1 ' 
a^o. As a rule they are tall, strongly made, and dark brown, 
men let their hair grow and wear the beard, They speuk Hindi 
at home, but they know Marathi. The men dross like Muriithaj», 
the women in Pardeshi fashion with a robo, lakvnya or phi 
and a bodice, c/to/i, and when they go out a white sheet, ch<hJn'. 
are clean in their habits, soldier-like, hot-tempered, hardworl 
and orderly. Their ancestors are said to have served under t&l 
Peshwa as soldiers and hill-fort guards. Now some are husbondrnea, 
some keep grain and grocery shops, some are constables and me^^en* 
gers, and a few are moneylenders. They eat animal food, tmtdonoti 
touch fowls or cow or buffalo beef. They do not eat onions or 
liquor ; and if any man oats onions or drinks liquor he is put out' 
of caste.. The men wear a sacred thread like Ileecftn Brahrnans, 
which is given them at the time of marriage. In their couuLry, it' 
is said that after childbirth women are held imparo for sirj 
days, but the Nasik Rajputs follow the Deccan rule by whtclli 
ceremonial impurity lasts for ten days. Widow marriage is 
allowed. Marriages are performed in North Indian fashion, thaj 
bride and bridegroom being required to walk seven times round ai 
pillar fixed in the marriage booth. Their household deity is Devi, in 
whose honour thev keep a special holiday on CJimira shuddha Stk\ 
(April- May). They also worship Khandoba, Mahidev, and A^m& 

' N^sik MarAthda h&ve a special interest aa the ori^nal teat of the MarAthis ii 
BnppoBeil to have been in Weat KhAndcsh anrl NAsik ^Grant DufTa History, 25; 
Briggi}' Ferisbta, U. 320. »25 ; Haiuiltou'a nescripbioaof UinduiUn. II. 1H3). !b24A 
B.C. Maht^ratta ia noticcti as nne of the teu phiccft to which Anhoka eent an 
embauy (Tumour'a Mab&vanao, 71, 74). Mah&rAsbtraka is meukioae<l, in a Chftlakylo , 
hucriptioD of the sixth rentnry (&d()}, aa including three proviucca and 9U,0(N> 
villagus (lud. Aut. V. 08). In the seventh century (H42) MahlrtUhtra secma to bare 
inclndod the cmintry an far aouth as BadAmi (Hiwcn Thtjflng in Ind. Ant. VU. 2tNI)- 
Id 1015 Al Ilimni mentions Mahratdes as Iwginnins sovcntv-twu tnilett, \B jHinifufi^, 
south of the NarhadalKlliot's Hifltiiry, I. GO). In the thirteenth century Ziiii-d-din Bareiy| 
in writing of Ala-ud-din's exiwdition to Uevgiri, notices that till then the Mar&thiai 
had never boon punished liy MufUklniin armies (tUliot's TTistory, III. ITiO). In 
the beginning of too fourteenth century (1320) Friar Jordoans (MemorabiUa, 41) 
mentions the very ffreat kingdom of Maratha, Twenty years later (IS42) Ibn 
Batuta notices tbe Mar&thfLs of NandurbAr in Khindesh as a people skilled iai 
the arts, medicine, aud astrology, wbose uoblejs were Brihmans (Lee's Ibn Batata, )^ 
16i). In connection with the view that Nisik wna part of the original seat ot\ 
the Maritliis it may be noticed that two of the chief Manitha T&miliea, thtt| 
KAjds of SAti^ra ana the OiikwiVrs of Baroda are connected with the district. 
Though they originaUy came from Poona, it was on the north boundaries of Xdsik 
tiiat the Gaikw&rs first rose to power and the present Q&ikwiVr is tbe son of a pAtilj 
of the village of Kalvun in MAlegaon, The Bliousle p&tils of V&vi iu Siiwar bavs I 
more thui ono« been eonnected by marriage with the lU^^ of S&tdra, by the last of { 
whom one of the fftmily was adopted^ 



priesta are Kanoja Brdhmans who officmte at their rnarriagea. 
caste disputes are settled by a majority of votes at a caste 
n^. They send their hoyB to school. 

ffiLDia.1 found here and there throug'hoQt the district, are mostly 
able Beller^j the women selling retail and the men exporting 
es and other vegetables. Some are also grocers and cloth- 
m. The bulk of their produce goes by rail to Bombay, 
rest they carry on bullock-back to local markets. Their 
speech is Mar^thi, and thoy do not differ in appearance 
ordinary Knnbia or Marath^. They are a hardworking 
sober closa, and are fairly off. They generally live in 
toned houses with brick walls and tiled roofs. They eat 
food and drink liquor. Their staple diet is rico, millet, ndgli 
wheat bread, and pulse of different kiudH. There is nothing 
in what they eat on festive and marriuge occasions. Their 
oat-door dress does not differ from that worn by Kanbis 
ia. They hold Miirgashirsh Shuddh Gth (November - 
mber) called Champa ShasfUhi in special ravercnce, offering 
millet, onions, and brinjals to their gods as first fruits, naivcdija^ 
and then eating the offeriugH. In marriages neither the parents of 
the bride nor of the bridegroom take any dowry. Widow marriage 
is allowed and practised. Besides marriage the only ceremony 
ia Jdoai rahhanr, or shaving the heads of boys. This takes place 
eiraer in the child's Efth or seventh year when a caste dinner ia 
ven. They dixie with Ldmghe Vanjaris and Mollis, but not with 
bis or Maratbi^. They worship Hhavdni, Khandoba, Bhairoba, 
other gods, and in some cases Musalman saints. Mardtha 
s, generally Yajurvedis, officiate at their marriages. Caste 
are settled in accordance with a majority of votes at a 
meeting. They send their children to school, but do not 
I allow them to stay there long. They are hardworking and are 
geoerally well off. 

Hbtkaris, or south coast men, may have corao into the district from 
Ratnagiri, as Ratniigiri people are generally known by that name. 
KiJlAoAs, generally called Kduada Kunbis, immigrants from the 
tern Ahmednagar sub-divisions of Akola and Sangamner,are found 
fly in Ndndgaon, Dindori, and Igatpuri, and have spread north - 
to Jawhar in Th&na. They are of two sub-divisions, Talevad 
Hatkar. Wherever they go they pay great reverence to 
Alunadnagar headmen and caste councils. They have peculiar 
gods and wedding customs, and are very ready to move from 
one place to another. They take cattle about with them, and live 
as much by stock breeding as by tillage. They vanish into the 
Konkan when the rice crop has been harvested (November), and 
e back to the hills in May. They often dispose of a good 
ion of their herd in Th^na, and for a hill tribe are well-to-do. 

LS, found only in Chdndor, are believed to have come from 
Ahmednagar, and Aurangabad. Thoy are honest, orderly, 
'anS'weli-to-doy and are specially skilful in growing the betel vine. 

' Pibidia arc believed to have come from Upper Bengal, Mr. J. A. Bamee, C.3. 

Chapter IIL 



[Bombay OaMttMTj 






Craftsmen include fifteen classes witb, in 1872, a «' 
35,0:>U souls (males 18,1 15, females 10,974) or 5*06 fjercent' 
Hindu population. Of these 9411 (males 5020, femalea ' i 

SouarSjgoldand silversmiths; 73b6(aiale83747,female336ii: ,- .. 
tailors; 6826 (males 3509, females 333 7) Sutirs, car pen tors ; li •■ 
(males 2047, females 2071) Kunibh^rs, potters; 3932 (m ' i, 

females 1»88) Lobars, blacksmiths; 1714 (males 898, f- ■) 

Kis&rs, coppersmiths; 681 (males 333, females 348) Ti*;ii!,*t4, 
coppersmiths; 490 (males 248, females 242) Jingars or Paiuhiln, 
saddlers; 221 (males 115, females 106) Qaundis, masons ; 139 ytnalm 
70«females 69) Ghisddis, tinkers; 126 (males 64, females 02) OtiriA. 
casters ; 16 (males 6, females 10) Patvekars, silk-taasel makers; \i 
(males 9, females 6) K^tiris, turners; and 14 (males 5, female* t) 
Lakherds, lac-bangle makers. 

SonArs, or goldsmiths, of four sub^divisions, Ij^d, Abir, T 
and Devangan, who neither eat with one another nor interu.^,.., 
are found in large numbers in Ndsik and occasionally in other 
parts of the district. The home speech of all is Mar^thi, and all 
claim to be old settlers and have no tradition of Imving com« 
from any other part of the country- They are generally fair, 
dressing like Br^hmans and resembling them in their mannen 
and customs. They are liard working and clean, but, as th« 
proverb shows, have a poor name for honesty or fair dealing,* 
Of the four classes the Pinch^ls are very few and of little 
importance. Except the Devangans who are very strict 
vegetarians, all eat animal fond. Must of them live in well bnilt 
houses with walls of burnt brick and one or more stories. £x»^t 
afew who are Government servants, they work as goldsmiths. Laai 
and Devangans wear the sacred thread, the Ldds being investedl 
with it at marriage, and the Devangans undergoing the regular 
Brahman thread ceremony, inunj, when about eight years old. 
Yajurvedi Brdhmans officiate as their priests on marriage and 
other occasions. They worship Khanduba, Bhairuba, and Bhavdni, 
and their caste disputes are settled by a majority of votes at a 
caste meeting. They send their boys to school, but do not allow 
them to be taught more than reading and writing Marithi. Though 
they complain of a decline in their calling, as a class they are Lurly* 
if not well, off. 

Bhimpis, or tailors, are of three kinds, Jains, Ahirs, and 
Namvaushis, now called Namdevs after the great devotee of that 
name.' The three sub-divisions neither eat together nor intermarry 
Jain Shimpisare a very small class, with only one house at Ntok and 

* The proverb is, Sondr, Shimpi^ KuUtarni Qppa, ydneki aangcU naho re Bdppa: 
thjit i*, BApa, h«TB mi doAlinge with a goIdBinith, a tailor, or my lord Kolkanii. 

' Nimdev, believed bv the Mar&thAs to be thuir oldest writer, it said to haTS 
been a onnicmporary of the great Kahir and to hsve tiourished in the twelfth or 
thirteenth century. He was a great worahipper of Vithoba, or Vithal. of Pacdhar* 
par. As a writer of hymna, ahknng^ he was second only to TnkArim. He dwells 
OD the praises of Vithal, associating him with the Supreme in a pantheistic Benae, 
and taking refuge in his favour and oxpficting rest, if not absorption, in hi» being. 
Ue is the author of the popalar piece known as the Haripith. Dr. Wilson (16£7K 
Prafaoeto Mt^esworih's MarAthi aad English Diotionary, xxv. 



bere and there in the district. The two other divisions are 
d in considerable nam bars in NAsik town and in the district. 
deau, and hardworkini?, they lire in mud-walled tiled or 
houses, and, except the Jaina, eat animal food and drink 
They earn iheir liviug as tailors^ cloth-sellers, and money- 
Several of the tailors have bogTin to uae sewing machines. 
women, bosidos doing household work, help their husbands by 
and uieudiug clothes. Eicept the Jains who are fShr^vala 
devotees of Parasn^th, they have Brahman gurus, and are 
Ts or Vaishnavs as their gurus may be. The Ahir and 
ey Shimpis worship Khandoba, Bhairoba, and Bhar^ni, and 
great devotees of Vithoba of Pandharpur and of the Trimbak 
ev, where they go at stated periods every year. Their priests 
Yajarvedi Brahmans, and, nnliko the Jain Shimpis, they do not 
the sacred chruad. Caste disputes are settled by a majority 
rotes at a meeting of the adult male members. On the whole 
mpis are a well-to-do class. They send their boys to school, 
IhoQgb they do not allow them to be taught more than simple 
ding and writing, and Mar^thi account- keeping. 

vtAE», or carpenters^ found throughout the district but especially 

eroas in N4sik, are very useful to husbandmen who pay them a 

re of their crops. Clean in their habits and a shade fairer than 

nbis they dress like Maratha Brahtuans and neither eat animal 

nor drink liquor. Almost all are carpenters. Ending work and 

ting good wages in towns and large villages. 'J'hey worship 

doba, Bhairoba, Devi, and Vithoba. Their caste disputes 

fere settled by a majority of votes at a mass meeting of the oaste- 

men.' 'Vhej send their boya to school, but do not allow them to be 

Un^ht anything beyond MarAthi reatling and writing. They are 

•ddom in waut of work and are fairly off. 

KtncBHiRS, or potters, found in almost every village, make and 
^^^ earthen tiles and pots. As a class they are poorly ofT, most of 
^^Bb large pottery work in NAsik and Igatpuri having passed to 
^^uihiawar Kumbhars who have the monopoly of making the better 
l^fbss of bricks. 

LohArs, or blacksmiths, are found in very small numbers. There 
are about ten souls in N^ik and a few hero and there in the country 
towns aud large villages. Their number has of late considerably 
declined owing to the competition of Jingars and Gujarat Loh^s, 
The Gnjardt Lohiirs are said to have been driven by a famine from 
Jan^gad in KrithiAwdr. Their home speech, till lately, waa 
Gnjariti, but they are now almost like Kunbis, speaking MarAthi 
both at home and abroad, and following Kunbi manners and customs, 
worship Kalika Rennkaof Jun^gad, but their priests are Decoan 

KJUXsa, or coppersmiths, said to have come from KhAndesh, are 
d in considerable numbers in Nisik and in small numbers in 

^ Tb# cMte u at present mitch split into loc&l fiectioni which acknowledge the 
thority of different council* or panrAs, 

Chapter m 








[Bombay Qaxei^en, 



Chandor, Yeola, Mftlegaon, Bnglan, and N4ndgaon. G^nor 1 

in appearance and clean in their habits, their dress differs litr .^^ 
that of Mardtha Brdhmans. They speak Manithi both nt b^^| 
and abroad, and live in strongly built houses mostly with ^^^t 
than one storey. They do not eat animal food nor drink luj^H 
They make and sell brass and copper vessels of various sorts, ^H 
deal in bauu-les, needles, thread, and other miscetlaueons art-il^H 
Except that widow marriage is allowed, their manners and casti^^l 
differ little from those of Mardtha Brahtnans. Their chief goda^H 
Khandoba, Bhairoba, and Devi, and they are said to be reliri^H 
worshipping their household gods daily before dining. T^H 
priests are Tajurvedi Brahnians. Social disputes are settled }f^M 
majority of votes at a meeting of the oaste. They eond trarl 
children to school, but let them learn little more than reading, | 
writing, and account keeping. They are a hardworking and prM-l 
perous class. I 

TAmbats, or coppersmiths, found in the village of Ojhdr in NiphUi 
and in Ndsik, are said to havo come from Pavagad when it fell into tho ] 
hands of Mahmud Begada in 148 1. Their first settlement was at OjhAr,! 
now called Ojhdr TAmbat, where they are supposed to have remainedl 
till the l>?ginning of the present century when their village waM 
plundered by Pendhdris. Though they have still a large settlemeotl 
at Ojliar, many of them then retired to Nasik w here theyl 
have given their names to two streets, old and new Tarabatvddil 
In appearance and in their home speech they are still Gujariti&l 
The men have taken to the Mardtha Brdhoaan head-dress, bofel 
the women keep to the Gujardt petticoat, robe, and bodice. Theyl 
use neither animal food nor liquor. They livo in rich strongly! 
built houses^ aud are a clean, orderly, hardworking, and prosperous 
class, whose skill in making brass and copper vessels is known 
all over Western India. They are still devout worshippers of tho 
Pdvdgad Mahakali, though tho Deccan god Khandoba has gained 
a footing in many a household. Some Tdmbats, especially the 
elderly ones, will not dine until they have worshipped their 
household gods. Their priests are Gujarat Brdlimans, who also 
are said to have come from Pavagad. Some details of their 
customs are given below under the head Manufactures. They are a 
prosperous class and send their boys to school. 

JiNGARs, or saddlers, also called Pi.NCHXL8, are found chipfiy in] 
Ndeik town where they have about fifty houses. They speak Marathi, 
and eat flesh and drink liquor. Their own craft of making wood 
and cloth saddles has passed away, and they have been forced 
work in brass, iron and tin. Their state has declined, and it seei 
probable that their claim to be of part Kshatri descent is 
founded. They worship Bama and Kriehna. 

Gaundis, masons, wander in search of work. In the rains the^ 
earn their living as labourers and a few as hnsbandmen. On thi 
whole they are badly off. GuisAdis are a class of travellinj 
tinkers who make and mend iron field-tools. Their women hell 
them in their work. A few of them are husbandmen. OxA: 
metal moulders, make and sell bniss idols and toe-rings. Patvjsj 



ftisd Bet gerns, and make fringea, tofisels, and silk nefc 

lliey are found in large towns. As a clasM they are poorly 

KAtAris, also called Katari Tbdkars, are found chiefly in 

ik and Yeola. ITaey are turners and woo<l carvers, and their 

» as well as their art point to u Gujardt origin. Some of the 

carved woodwork is as rich, varied, and picturesque as any 

Gujarat.' They are generally fair, and wear the sacred 

and dross like Br^hmans. They speak MEirithi but with 

ious tone, and often confound the dental with the cerebral ». 

do not marry with Brahma-Kshatri Thakurs. LakhesIs 

lac bracelets and vamiah wood. They also work in tin, zinc, 

f'ther tuetals. They are found only in large towns. 

Mantlfactxirers include seven classes with, in 1872^ a strength of 

20,5^0 (males 10,603, females 0930) or 296 per cent of the whole 

Hindu population. Of these 11 ,028 (males 5546, females 5482) were 

Telis. oil-pressera; 3617 (males 1891, females 1726) Sdlis, weavers; 

'Dales 1311, females 1072) Koshtis, weavers ; 2027 (males 

females 9i5) Khatris, weavers; 1277 (males 684, females 

ingilris, dyers ; 193 (males 86, females 107) Rivals, weavers; 

_ — . (males 8, females 8) NirAlis, weavers. 

The Khatrib, Koshtis, and SAtis weave cotton, and some 
m weave silk. The S^lis follow various crafts. Of the 
-Jivisiona, Panjilbi, Vinkar, K^yat, Rode, and Arodo, 
only Panj6bis and Viukars are found in the district. The Panjdbia 
do not weave but are shopkeepers, sweetmeat-sellers, and husband- 
men. Vinkara, found at Sinnar, Yeola, and Mdlegaon, weave cotton 
' '^W staffs of various sorts. In waiateloths and white robes, 
the use of steam has enabled the larger manufacturers to 
-.11 them. In other articles they have so far been uearly ablo 
'1 their own. Silk weaving in Nriaik town is carried on to a 
7 extent than in Yeola, where the GujarAti Leva and Kadva 
^ use the most expensive materials. Still competition has 
reduced prices, and now many of the weaving classes have 
k^BiuKC a 6eld or even to work as day .'labourers and are said to be in 
I^P^ circurostauoes. Ravalb, said to have come from Khandush, are 
^miod in small numbers throughout the district especially at Yeola. 
f A'? followers of (rorakhmith they ought to wear ochre-ooloured 
-, but some dress almost like Kunbis. Their home language 
i^.^rHni or Khflndeshi, but those who have settled in Niisik 
k ordinary Marathi. They worship Gorakhnath, and also 
doba and Bhavini. They are weavei-s^most of them working 
aJis' booses. Caste disputes are settled by a majority of votes at 
» mate meeting, NirAlis, found only in Sinnar and Yeola, are said 
lo hftve been iadigo-sellers and to have come from Khandesh and 
Nagar about a century ago. About middle height, somewhat slightly 
made, and brown-skinned, the men shave the face and the head except 
the top-knot. Their home speech is Man^thi, and both men and 
women dress in ordinary Mar^tha fashion. They are clean in their 

Chapter III. 







J. A. Bainoi, C.S. The Xteik story is that most ckf the wood carvioga cUU 
the oiM sArr fAmtDO, that is lfM)3'04. 

Bomb&y GuailMt, 



Chapter IIL 



Bardi and Acton. 



babita, and as debtors have a high name for honesty. The 
in the demand for Khandesh indij^o forced thoai to give up ': 
trade. They are now hand-loom weavers and from thecompoMtiin 
of machiue-mado cloth are very poorly off. Though they have na 
religious feeliag aguinst animal food they eat flesh only at murringeiij 
They seem to be partly Lingayats, accosting their oastefellows by^ 
word Sharndth and returning the salutation in the words 
Sharnath.^ On the tenth day after birth sweetmeats are distribi 
among friends and relations. Both girU and boys are married 
they are nine years old. Widow marriage under the (ran't! 
JI/y/io/Mf form is allowed. When a man dies the body is . 
with flowers aud sandal and perfume^ gundUf and it is dressed in ft] 
new waistclorh. A woman's body is adorned with turmeric and] 
saffroUj and a folded betel-leaf is laid in the mouth. They never] 
bury their dead. They worship Mahddev and Dhavdni, and keep 
the Pradoah and Shivrdtra fasts in honour of Shiv. Social dispatetl 
are settled by a committee whose decision is final. They sand 
their boys to school. 

Bards and Actors inclnde six classes 1872,a total strength 
of 2147 souls (males 1039, females 1108) or 0*30 percent of the whole 
Hindu population. Of these 1561 (males 766, females 79o) were 
Gurave, drummers ; 257 (males 101, females lotS) Kolh^tia, rope* 
dancers; 256 (males 126, females 130) Bliats^ bards ; 57 (male« o2, 
females 25) Ghadsis, musicians ; 11 Hijdas^ eunuchs; and 5 (malee 
3, females 2) Johflris, jewellers. 

GuRAVS, or drummers, found in large numbers all over the district, 
are of two sub-diviHions, Shaiv and Gasi'atj who do not intermarry,*! 
Many of them wear their hair matted, rub ashes ou their bodies, andj 
serve at Shiv's temples living on the offerings made to the god. 
Some look and dross like Brdhmaus, and have hereditary rights 
temple priests. They use neither flesh nor liquor. Besides aervini 
at Shiv's temples they play the drum, pakhvtU, at marriages or] 
in the train of dancing girls and boys. Many make leaf platea 
and cups, sell them to husbandmen ou marriage occasions, and iaj 
return receive yearly presents of grain. They are Shaivs in religion, 
and in their houses keep images of Khandoba, Bhairoba, ano 
Bhavdni. Some among them reverence Musalmdn saints. Their 
priest, vpddhyaf is a member of their own caste ; in his absence 
they call in a Yajurvedi Brahman. Disputes are settled at oasi 
meetings. If any one is found eating flesh or drinking liquor, h< 
is put out of caste and is not allowed to join till he lias paid for a oast 
dinner, or, if he is poor, for betelnutand leaves. Some of them senc 
their boys to school. 

KolhXtis, or tumblers, fonnd in small numbers all over the disfcrii 
are fancifully said to bo the children of Shndras by Kshatriya 
They are of four sub-divisions, Dombdri, Jadhav, Pavar, and Shinde^ 
the throe last of which eat together and intermarry. They are ioxr^ 

* Tbe word Sharnith seems to be » corruption of the Sanskrit aAarondrtAo, ft 
Morap proiectioa or refuge and artha object. 

' The ShnivB 1.I0 not eat frnm the Gasrats. but Kmi« GMTitseat from SbaivL 



J tbe women, and speak Mftr&tfai mixed with K^nareee^ 
and HioduBtdai. They live in huts made of roaka i^rass, 
y carry from place to place ou donkeys or on their own hea<iis. 
a rery lazy and dirty class, and maintain themselves mostly 
ng feats of strcni^th, and ^ymuastics with rope-dancing-, 
few sell matresaes and dolls, and others beg- chiefly from 
n in the fields. They never work ag labourers. Any one 
a 18 pat out of caste, and is not re-admitted except on 
of a tiue of from a handful of tobacco leaves to £1 (Rs. 10). 
on they are Hindus and some worship Musalman saints. The 
is of the Hindus are Khandoba and Devi. They also worship 
and the river GutlAvari. They have no priests. Their disputes 
^d at caste meetings called on marriage and other occasions. 
od women are allowed to practise prostitution, and their issue 
not put out of caste cannot marry with legitimate Kolhati boys 
BhIts, generally called Gaon Bh4ts, are bards who appear on 
occasions, recite Hindustani verses, kavits, with great force 
aenro, and receive some present in cloth or money. They 
oustacbes twisted into long curls. They eat iiesh, and 
m indulge to excess in hhthirj and gdtija. They allow 
marriage. Giiadsis, found, if at all, in very small numbers, are 
musicians. ITieir head-quarters are at Jejuri and Puudharpur. 
, or eunuchs, found in Ndsik, Teola, Dindori, M^legaon, 
, and Kalvan, have fallen in numbers of late years, and very 
nain- They formerly had dues, haknj in every village, aud, it ia 
>me even enjoyed patilships. Some of them keep and till fields, 
it live on alms. They drees like Hindu wonicn. In religion 
B nominally MusalmAns. The Hijdiis who live at Pdthardi, a 
about five miles south of Nasik, have some Musalmdns among 
ftHed MuudiAa. They live by tillage^ andaccompany the HijdiLs 
ihej go on begging tours. 

Jiis, or jewellers, believed to have oome from Upper India^ 
Itobe the children of a Shudra father by a Vaishya mother. 
ipe&k Hindustani and others Marathi. They eat flesh but 
the smaller kinds of game. They earn their living by giving 
>ot6 in exchange for gold-thread work and lace borders. 
eal in false pearls^ some sell beads, and some labonr. They 
dow marriage. Their priests are Yajurvedi Brd,hmans, 
ija Br^Lhman generally officiates at their marriages. At 
the brow ornaments, hamngSj worn by the bride and 
m are of date palm leaves. They worship the images 
Khandoba, and Mahddev, and hold in reverence the 
oare a sort of GosAvis, said to have come from the PanjAb, 
oare Nduakpanthis in belief and have a monastery, akhdda or 
t Trimbak. Johdria settle their disputes at caste meetings. 
of them send their boys to school. Marriages are always 
Led at night after nine o'clock, the bridegroom wearing a 
or red robe reaching to the feet. 

Onal Servants are of two classes, with a strength of 9239 
4-922, females 4317) or TSS per cent of the whole Hindu 
on. Of these 6493 (males 3608, females 2985) were Nhivis, 
; and 2746 {males 1414, females 1332) Parits, washermen. 

Chapter UL 

Bards and Acton. 




[Bombay Qi 



ClLapter III. 






NhAtib are of fonr kinds, Kunbi Nh^vis, Bandelkband Nh 
MArwar Nh&ria, and Gujnrit NMvig. Except, a few £a 
at Niflik, the Kiiubi Nhavis are mostly found in country 
and villages; the other three kinds are found in Nanik 
Besides shaving, the Bundelkhand Nhavis bear torches 
processions, and the Kuubi NbaviB act as luusicianB, vdjarUriti 
marriage and other processions. Many of the village Nhavis ei> 
sole right of shaving in certain villages for which the husbandn 
tbem asmall ahareoE their crop. The few Kunbi barbers in Xaailc 
the sole right to shave pilgrims at the God^vari. The washer 
are either local, called Parits, or Bengali and North- West imini, 
called Dhobhis. They are a poor class, the foreigners more num 
in the towns and the Parita in the villages. The Parit« as 
add to their earnings by tilling a field or two. At Hindu mar. 
it is the duty of the washerman to spread cloths on the ground 
the women of the bridegroom's family to walk on as they go 
procession to the bride's house. 

Herdsmen and Shepherds are of two classes with, in 18 
strength of 12,837 souls (males (5448, fomah^s 0889) or 1*85 per 
of the whole Hindu population. Of these 11,700 (males 5825, fe 
5875) were Dhangars, and 1137 (males 623, females 614) Gavlis. 

DHA.NOARS, except a few who are settled as husbandmen in parti 
of Sinnar, are found mostly in the lands to the south of the Ajanta 
range. Like the K4nadds, they usually come from Akola and 
8angamner where their headmen live. Tliey are of five sob- 
divisions, Ldd, Ahir, Shegar, Khutekar, and Hatkar,* which neit.Jier 
eat together nor intermarry. Except tho Hatkars who keep 
sheep, cows, buffaloes, and sometimes serve as sepoys, all are 
blaulcet weavers. They are very dark in complexion, and 
are rather taller and sparer than Kunbis. They come every year 
to the Sahyddris with herdtj of sheep, goats, and ponies. 
Sometimes, but less often than the Kanad^, they have homed 
cattle. In the fair season, as manure is scarce and valuable, they 
earn a good deal from Kunbis by penning their flocks in the open 
fields. Like Thil^is they have a good breed of dogs and a 
peculiar way of gelding ponies. Except those who selT wood or 
blankets they are seldom seen in towns, and^ except the settled 
Dhangars who are well off, they are as a class poor. Gavlis, 
shrewder and less honest than Dhangars, generally keep to towns 
and large villages where there is a steady demand for their milk 
and clariiied butter. They are skilled in breeding cows and 

' A MuBolm&n story ^voa tho following origin of the word Hatkar : A certaia 
Dbmigar, une uf the Mouba] Viceroy's guard, was iu the habit of ealutiag hia 
tnaeter every <lay, but of never waitiug after he had made hii bow. The 
coartiera told him tliat he ought to treat thu Viceroy with greater re^>ect. Bat 
he kept to bia usual practice, and hia conduct was at last brought to the Viceroy** 
notict). Ab a punishmuut the Viceroy ordurvd the dtxir by which the Dbangar cazna 
lobe clofted with swnrda. The Bhangar, regardleaa of wounds, pAiised through the 
awurda, made bia bow. and at onoe came cut. The Viceroy pleaaod with hie spirit, 
took hinn in favour and gave him the name of Hatkar, or stubborn. This story ia 
only a play on tho word. The tribe is well known in Uiadust&n and Berir. B«c*r 
Oasetteer. 200. 



&nd both men and women are vQvy knowing in treating 
of animals. 

thers Ate of two classes with, in 1872, a strength of 1387 souls 
742, females 645) or 0*20 per cent of the whole Hindo popala" 
I. Of these 1274 (raaleBC77, females 597) wereBhois.and 113 (males 
females 48) K4har3. Bhoih belong to two classes, those who 
north, and those who live soath, of the Cb^ndor or Saptashring 
The north Bhois are Khandeahis. The Bbois call themselves 
ibis, and some Kanbis eat with them. The two classes of Bhoia 
not intermarry. Besides their regular trade of netting fish^ the 
Ate oocasionaily hereditary ferrymen and grow melons in 
bedfl. KIrArs, carriers and palanquin-boarersj are also low 
fishen, looked down on by Bhois who try to force them off the 
DHivAits, a small tribe found in most parts of the district, 
are fishers, ferrymen, and melon growers.^ 

Labourers and Miscellaneous Workers include eighteen 
clas»i?«, with, in 1872, a strength of 13,646 souls (males 7230, females 
0*161 or 1*96 per cent of the whole Hindu population. Of these 
3688 (males 3165, females 252H) were Pardeshis ; 1535 (males 814, 
femalcfl 721) Beld&rs, stone masons; 1363 (male^ 668, females 
695) Loniris, salt carriers; 1186 (males 612, females 574j 
^' - \'s, batchers ; 884 (males 458, females 426) Jats; 499 (males 
- _ males 2 17) Patharvats, Btone-cutters ; 448 (males 205, females 
^45) PendhAris ; 446 (males 219, females 227) Pdrdhie, hunters; 386 
(nuJeA 203, females 183) Bornda, bamboo splitters; 265 (males 148, 
taules 122) Tadis; 223 (males 96, females 127) KAro^tis, labourers ; 
189 (males 87, females 102) Eomtis; 121 (males 62, females 59) 
HalvBia, sweetmeat-makers and public cooks ; 107 (males 53, females 
M) Tdmbolis, betelnut sellers; 95 (males 55, females 40) Kalaikars, 
ttnners ; 86 (males 42, females 44) BhujAris ; 85 (males 44, femalea 
41) KabLlSy liquor-sellers; 27 (males 14, females 13) Kdthi^wddis, 
; and 13 (males 8, females 5) Bhadbhunjds^ parched grain 


'ABDisiiifi, thongh they have little knowledge of their original 
eaete, are mostly Ahirs. Many of them came to the district to get 
•errice in the garrisons of hill forts.' Ahirs of three sub-divisions, 
Oavti, B&nsi, and Jat Banai, are found in Sinnar, Dindori, Chandor, 
Milegaon, and Bagl^n. They are believed to have come from Upper 
India abont 200 years ago, and bear a good character for sobriety 
and honesty in their dealings. Some have taken to tillago, some 
labour and work as household servants, while the rest sell and deal 
in milk. Besides Ahim, there are among Ndsik Pardeshis, 
Kaeluirs, glass bangle makers, Chetris or Khatris the original 
fort garrisons, Rajputs of different clans, and Brdhmans some 
of whom are moneylenders. As a rule, Pardeshis are taller and 
thniDer, and have slighter moustaches than most N&aik Hindus. 

Chapter in. 





* Mc. W. lUmn^, CK 

* laanof of tku it may be lUted thftt all the PardMhi vilUges, that is villagw 
jrilfc nrdMbi headmea and iaaD«yl«&dera, are w-ithin fort limita. ghtt^ as Patta 
^ ' Bitangad and Bhaula. Mr. J. A. BaincSf C.S. 

;Bomb«y OftteitNT, 









Some of tbem have settled in villages and get on pref 
with the Kunbie. In other villages they are known as the : 
class. There have been one or two monejrlendora among tht-ui, bui, 
as a rule, they are poor. Some, eapocially in Trinibak, are knoivu &4 
Pnrbi Brahmans. The greater pare of the non-cultivators are polic9^i 
men, or domestic servants of moneylenders, who go about danniog 
their master's debtors carrying a big blackwood stick shod with 
iron ring. A good many Pardeshia have taken to the lower 
of the forest department and make active guards. 

BeldXrs, stone masons, found in the monutainoas parts of tilt] 
district, are of two classes^ Pardeshi and Vad Beldirs. The 
classes do not intermarry. They speak Hindustani at home 
Mardthi abroad. They eat flesh and drink liquor. Their worn* 
wear the robe like a petticoat not tucking the end between thmt\ 
legs. They are properly quarrymen, but some contract to sqnam 
stones for builders; some lalnjur and some work as bricklayers niaking 
clay walls. They worship Khandoba, Bhav^ni^ and the great MubbI* 
min saint DAwal Malik of Mulher in Bdglan. Their priests axV, 
Yajnrvedi Brahmans who name their children two days aft«r birtluj 
A woman is considered impure for twelve days after childbirth. 
All widow marriages take place on a fi.xed night in the dark 
of the month. Caste dinpntes are settled in accordance with 
majority of votes at a meeting of adult males. Drinking and 
eating are not forbidden. They do not send their children to schc 

Pi-THARVATSj stone cutters, found inconsiderable numbers in th^' 
towns of Igatpuri and Nri^ik, claim Rajpnt descent, and say that they 
were once soldiers. They are generally dark and strongly mw 
and wear a flat ^(uriltha turban. Their homo tongue is Baid 
have been Hindustani, but they now 8]>eak Manithi both at homtt] 
and abroad. They drink liquor, and eat iish and the flesh of goat«,j 
but not of buffaloes or cows. Many smoke and a few chew tobaec<x| 
They are a clean hardworking class, mostly stone cuttera though 
some have t^iken to tillage and even to labour. Their houses have 
generally mud walls and thatched roofs. Their family priests are 
Yajurvcdi Brdhmuus. A Bhdt from Balapur near Akola cornea 
every five or ten years and reads their pedigree books before them. 
He is treated with great respect and is paid from 10«. to £1 (Rs, 5- 
Bs. 10). They are both Shaivs and Vaishnavs in religion. Their 
household deities are Khandoba, Bhairoba, Devi^ Krishna, and 
Ganpati. Funeral ceremonies are performed on the twelfth day after 
death if the deceased has no son, and on the thirteenth if he has a 
son. After a man's funeral the bier-bearers, and after a married 
woman's funeral, thirteen married women are fed on the thirteenth 
day. Widow marriage is allowed. Disputes are settled by a caste 
council under the presidency of the headman, who receives a turbax\ 
on the settlement of every dispute. Children are sent to school. 
They are a poor class living from hand to mouth. Loyicis, besides 
carrying saltj bring to the large towTis logs of firewood and packs 
of lime gravel. Many of them are fairly off, and own a good 
«tock of cattle or ponies. KbAtiks, butchers, are both Uiudns and 
Masalmdne, the Hindus selling mutton only, the Musalmins both 




and matton. Ji.T8, found mostly in Malegaon, are regarded 

hoaeet class oot much unlike Kanbis in appearance and living 

mUge. PxvDHABiM of three sub-divisions, Maracha, Gond, and 

g*. are found chiellyin Malegaon and B^gldn. Thoy are believed 

5» the descendant8 of the Pondhari freebootera of the early years 

tlie present century, and, except the Baglan PendbAria who deal 

^nuD and carry it to Malegaon for sale, are mostly labourers and 

bandmen. PArdhis are buntftrs who snare and net hares, 

dges, and deer. 

-. basket and mat makers, are found in almost all parts of 

r. According to the Jativivck» the son born to a Bi-ihmau 
w by a Sauyiisi was named a Karmach^uddl, and, by his 
iage with the daughter of a Brahman woman by a Vaishya 
, the Burud race is said to have been produced. This is no 
bt biDciful. The appearance and calling of the Buruda combine 
to show that they are on© of the earlier tribes. They are generally 
dark in complexion and speak Marathi both at home and abroad, 
thoir pronunciation differing little from that of the Knnbis. They 
"hand mutton^ and drink liquor. Hardworking and dirty, 
■jf them deal in bamboos and plait baskets. A few keep carts 
lor hire, but none of them work as labourers. After childbirth 
wtimeii remain impure for twelve days. They consult Brahmana 
ftboot a child's name. Widow marriage is allowed. They areShaivs 
in religion, and their household deities are Khandoba, Bhairoba, and 
BliavAni. Some time ago, an enthusiasm for Shiv worship led many 
"• l-i in N4sik pud Ahmednagar to tie a ^7(t/ round their necks, 
I . - 10 Liugdyats. The feeling is said to have passed away, and 
bAp practice Ut have been giveu up except when their spiritual guide 
Kkite them. Bamboos, required to carry a dead body, are sold by 
enery Burud in turn at a fixed price of 9d, {09. 6). The proceeds 
are applied tt^ feed castomen. They have no headman, and disputes 
•re settled by the majority of rotes at a meeting of the adult male 
members. Except in NAsik where they are fairly off, they are a 
poor declining cast«, unable to earn more than their daily bread. 
Some of them send their children to school. 

KAitiTHis of four Bub-divisionSj Mar^tha, Mhar, Mdng, and 
Telang, are mostly found in MAlegaon and appear to have settled in 
tLe district since the overthrow of the Peshwa. Most of them are 
labourers, and as a class bear rather a bad name for thieving. 
KoMTlfi, from the Karnatak, have been settled in the district from 
fifty to eiity years. They speak Telagu at home and Mardthi 
abroad. Dirty and idle they are great toddy drinkers, and earn 
their living by selling beao^, saored threads, needles, small metal 
pots, and pieces of sandalwood and basil garlands ; others by 
mending and selling old worn-out clothes, and some by begging. 
They ask Deccan Brahmans to officiate at their marriages. Their 
pTteet, KrishnAchdrya, lives in a monastery at Varsuvargal, near 
Haidarabad, in the Nizam's territories^ and visits N^ik once in every 
five or six years. Their caste disputes are settled at meetings of 
adnlt male members helped by their religious head or his assistant, 
iiijiN.^3.ri, whose duty it is to settle the disputes referred to him by 
tbe bigb priest. TImbolis do not belong to the district^ some seem 

Chapter III. 









Chapter III. 






to have come from Gnjartlt and others from North India. 
are well off taking bhang and gdyija farms, and cultivating 
letting out betel-leaf gardens. HalvIib, profoasional makors 
Bellers of sweetmeatSj are a Panleahi class who call thomf 
Kshatri Pardeshis. Sweetmeat making is practised also by 
Fardeshis, and, in a few casee^ by Bhujijis. BHOJJlRia, found in 
niimbere in Ndsik, are a branch of Kdjrats from Upper ] 
They are of four Bub-diviaions, Bhuatomj Maihalbhat, Nagar^ 
Siikshiri, which neither eat together nor intermarry, 
dark-skinned and dirty they speak Hinduat^iathome and 
ftbroad. The women dress like Pardeshis, and the men 
Kunbis or Mar^th^. They use animal food and liquor. Soni 
make and sell sweetmeats and others let carta for hire, bo( 
their chief calling, as their name implies, is frying grain. Th« 
work is generally done by their women. Brdhman women may oftea 
be seen at their shops with parcels of millet, wheat, gram, pulse, 
and udid, used in making the cake called koddle, KalAlb, hqnov^ 
8eltor8, come from other districts. They are sometimes grain dealer% 
buying in villages and selling to Bhitia agents of Bombay firms. 

KAthiAwAdis, from Gajardt and Kdthidw^, are found chiefly li 
Nitsik and Sarule, a village eight miles south-west of N^ik. They ans 
said to be Rajputs, who were driven from their homes by a ^mine, aod 
settled in the district within the last forty or fifty years. Thoafl^k 
dirty they are a hardworking and orderly olaaa. 'I^oy talk Gojar^li 
at home and Mardthi abroad. Though a few have houses of the better 
sort, most live in huts with mud walls and thatched roofa. Most (A 
them arn potters making bricks, tiles, and clay vessels. Some deal 
in grass, and some have tiiken to tillage and others to labour. They 
eat rnntton, and their staple food is wheat, millet, rice, ndgli, and 
UiUd pulse. Their caste dinners generally consist of the GujariA 
Bwoetmeats called gnlpdpdi. The men wear tronsers and cotton 
robes, and roll waistcloths round their heads. They name their 
children after consulting their family priests, who are Gujarit 
Brdhmans and whom they treat with great respect. After child* 
birth the mother does not appear in pubUo fur three mouths. 
They either burn or bury the dead. For ten days visitors at the 
house of mourning are offered a pipe and a meal of rice and pulse, 
hhichdu Marriages are celebrated only in the month of Mdgk 
(January -February), Though they have taken to worshipping 
Khandoba, Bhairoba. and Bhav^ni, their chief god is Rtodepir wnoae 
principal shrine is in Malwa. Caste disputes are settled by a roam 
meeting presided over by the headmen. Their children are sent 
to school. They are a poor class living from hand to mouths 
BhadbhunjAs, grain parchers, are sometimes foundas sellers of grain. 

Unsettled Tribes are twelve in number with a atreng^th in 
1872 of 101,033 souls (males 82,196, females 78,887) or 26-1 perc. 
of the whole Hindu population. Of these 6S,fi20 (mates 3d;3i 
females 35,222) were Kolis ; 36,833 (males 20,390, females 16/ 
Bhils; 30,178 (males 15,180, females 14,998) VanjAris ; 16,31 
(males 7926, females 7392) Thilkurs; 8954 (males 4722, femi 
4232) V^lis ; 664 (males 346, females 308) Vadars ; 156 (males 
females 86) Kaikidis ; 137 (males 60, females 68) Kdtkaris; 100 



51, females 49) Vaidas ; 52 (tnalea 26, females 24) KangAris; 
(nal«B 13, females 11) BhAmUa or Uchalis: and 7 (mJes 3, 
4) Berads. 

ioLie, who are found all along the fiahy^dri and Akola hills, 
a fine looking race, the most civilised and settled of the hill 
They belong to three olasBes, Malh^r, Dhor, and RAj. In 
>ce and cnstoms they differ little from Nilsik K unbis. 
grow hill grains, pulse, oilseed, and rice. Active and 
their love for robbery was for many years the chief obstacle 
t-he improvement of the district. Though they still require 
special police supervision, they have of late years, in groat measure, 
led to tillage, and their husbandry is now little le&s skilful than 
of the local Kunhia. One Koli outlaw, whose memory is still 
in the district, was Raghoji Bbiingrya of Nisik who, about 
struck a panic into the Marwar Vanis. Enraged at the torture 
hia mother, Raghoji gathered a band of Kolis and wandering 
i^h the district cut the nose of every MArvAdi he could lay 
tds on. The whole Milrv^i commnoity fled in terror to the 
centres. The measures taken by the police made the country 
hot for him and Rdghoji broke up his band and disappeared, 
b Mcaped for the time bot was caught by Captain Goll among 
crowo of pilgrims at Pandharpnr. As some of his raids had 
accompanied with murder he was oonvioted and hanged.^ Koli 
are seldom married till they are twelve or fourteen, and 
lidered fit to live with their husbands. The bridegroom's 
goes to the bride's father, asks for his daughter, and pays 
£1 to £5 (Rs. 10 -Be. 50} in monoy and forty to eighty poimds 
2 hsojm) of grain. If the bride's father thinks this enough, the 
takes place soon after. The rites and customs are the 
suae as those at Kunbi weddings. The girl brings few ornaments 
her father's house, and those received from the bridegroom 
looked on as lent rather than given. They usually bury the 
A ea^to meeting is held on the twelfth day after a doath and 
it is given. The chief mourners are considered impure for ten 
ijs, bot no fihrd<ld}vaM or other funeral ceremonies are performed. 

Bhiu seem to have come into the district from the Odngs. In 
the north thej are found in Kalvan, Biglin, and Malegaon, and in 
the south they are settled in some of the richest sub-divisions.^ 
They are a strong active race, bad husbandmen but good watchmen, 
oecaaionally given to plunder and hving chiefly by gathering such 
produce as hooey and lac. Though settled they aro still under 
irveillanoe, and are not allowed to more from place to place 
giving notice to the village authorities. Unless stimnlated 
: classes, Bhil forays are prompted by love of excitement or 
rather than with a view to plunder. In 1869, when the 

Chapter nx. 




Bellasis' Math&rui, 15. 

^ Frv,Tn iTifrirniAtion Hopplicd bv Mt. Kftghoji of NA»ik, 

- numK>er I7,l&6 or 26*01 per cent of the tntal popolation of the 
. .gUn M85 orl9'6iier oeut, in M&Iegaon 6504 or 9'7 per cent, 
« ni-k£i.lot 3M)0 or 7 5 per cent, in NAiM^aon 2240 or 7'4 Pflr cent, in SAvargaon 
JKTT <w 4'4 wr cent, in HinuAr ^3**0 or 8o per cent, and in NipbAH 2W!9 or 2-3 per 
Mr. H. E. M. J«nea, C.«.» Bhil Memoramhini Hth July 1S76. 2, 

rBombay 6iu«U«i,i 




BdgKn moneylenders were pressing their debtors with the 
gaining a hold of their land, armed groups of Bhils went froi.. 
to village plundering moneylenders' houses of bonds. Their 
of discontent and sense of hardship and wrung showed itself in 
acts of outrage, and it was feared that the spark of violence, 
lighted, would spread among the cognate tribes of the Sahyddri 
S^tpada hills, and rise into a flame of rebellion that would take 
to Htamp out.' 

VANjAaia or LahAns, whose calling as earners hma, during 
last fifty years, suffered greatly by the increased use of carts 
by the opening of railways, belong to two classes, bnsbandliD 
and carrierH. The huHbaudmen have settled in villages, ai 
except by the men's larger and rounder-brimmed turban &\ 
special surnames and family names, are hardly to be distin 
from Kunbis. They speak Marathi in their houses and the wamea 
have given up their high-peaked head-dress. The carrying VanjariB, 
who, in spite of cart and railway competition, still pass to the coast 
with long trains of bullocks, taking grain and tobacco and bringing 
back salt, keep to their peculiar dress and their odd dialect closely 
akin to Marvkdi. Besides these local Vanjuris large bodit»s frum 
the north of Indor constantly pass through the district. 'Hieee 
Beem a class apart speaking a Hindi dialect. 

LAds,' the most important of the Vanjjiri sub-divisions also 
found in the B6,leghat8 near Ahmednagar and in GwAlior, ar»^ 
scattered over the whole district. In the town of N&aik 
are about twenty houses with a population of sixty souls. In 
appearance, dress, food, character, and oocupatiou, they hanlly di 
from other VanjAria.* Their household gods are Khandoba, Bhairo 
Devi, and Gnnpati, and they have also an image representing 
ancestors vadildcha ink. In villages where there is a temple to M^ruti,' 
the monkey god, they worship there daily. They wear the eacred 
thread and eat, though they do not marry, with KhndAne and 
Mehrune Vanjdris. As is the custom among the twice-born classea, ^ 
the members of the same family stock, or gotra, do not marry. ThdH 
two most important of their marriage ceremonies are ieivan, ofH 
anointing, and devak. For the performance of telvan the bride 
and bridegroom are reqiiired to fast on the marriage day, ti 
nine in the morning. A witsherwoman plays the chief part 
the oeremony. She ties some betel leaves to an arrow, dips the 
into oil, and spriukles the oil on the bride and bridegroom. S 
then repeats the names of their ancestors, sings for a while, aud, 
dipping two betelnuta into water, bores a hole through the nutt 
and ties them with a woman's hair one etush on the wrists of 


^ Mr. James' Memoraudmn , 7. 

* From matcriftls Bunpltod by Mr. Raghoji Trimbak iS&oap. Lid was the 
in cDtnmon nae for aouUi Gujarjkt from tno aecoad to the thirteenth century. 
Borobay Gazetteer, XII. 57 footnote. 

* The V'anjAri story of the great Purg^devi famine, which lasted from U 
1407, ia that it waa named from Diirga a Liu\ Vaniari woman, who had amaaaed 
wealth and owned A million pock Imnncks, which efae nscd in bringing grain 
NetMll, Bormih, and China. She diAtrihuted thu crr&in among the Btiurving 
ana gained the honourable title of ' Mother of the World, Ja^dcKi MdUu* 



de and bridegroom. A dinner is then given to the ftssem bled 
The devak ceremony takes place almost iiumeJiatcly 
It 18 performed by a married couple the hems of whose 
*re tied together. The woman carries in a bamboo basket, 
certain articles of food, sidhaj and with them a cake made 
beat flour mixed with molnsses and coloured yellow with 
eric powder, and the man carries an axe and a rope. The 
^ followed by the marriage party^ then walk to the temple of 
ti, a piece of broadcloth being held over their heads all the 
In the temple the ministering Garav or his wife staods waiting 
tbem with a bundle of small twigs of five trees, the mangOjjambult 
r, ravdantu and rut. The articles of food are kept by the Gurav 
M wife, bntthe cake is returned in the bamboo basket with the 
.ITS which are called panchfu'dvi. The twigs are held in great 
I re and tied round a post in the marriage booth. When the 
gs have been fastened to the post the marriage can be celebrated 
«pite of any obstacle, bnt, without the devak, marriage cannot take 
plai^. Though it generally takes place on the marriage day, the 
(feraZc is sometimes performed earlier if there is reason to fear that 
anything may stand iu the way of the marriage.^ 

One cnstom, peculiar to them, though not uncommon among the 
upper classes, is for the sister of the bridegroom to close the door of 
hn bousei and on his return with the bride, after the completion of 
the marriage, to ask her brother to give his daughter in marriage 
to her son. The bride promises to do this and the door is opened. 
ir death ceremonies hardly differ from those of other Vauj^ris, 
though burning is the rule, no objection is taken to the poor 
_r. Caste disputes are settled by a meeting of respectable 
^j.-i-.-vTs, under the presidency of the chief male member of the 
S^nap Chandarrao's family. If the accused is found guilty and is not 
able to pay a fine, he is made to stand before the caste meeting and 
crave pardon with his sandals on his head. 

THAruRs arc found chiefly in the hill parts of Igatpuri and 
Nisik, along the Akola and Sahyadri ranges. Among Ilindus they 
theoretically hold a good position equal to or above the ordinary 
Knnbi, and many of their surnames are said to be pure Sanskrit. 
An inscription found in a Thakur's possession in Igatpuri, and 
tranalated in 1878, seems to show that as far back as about 650 they 
■were known as Thakkurs and some of them held positions of 
importance.^ They would seem to be the descendants of Rajputs 
who settled in the Thai pass and married Koli women. In appearance 
Thiikurs, though short, are fairer than Bhils, well made, and strong. 
The men have a g^d name for honesty and the women for 
chastity. The men wear a scanty loincloth, langoii, and the women 
» peculiar head-dress like a porkpie drawing their sari tight over thd 

p:^Uc — leatha among reUtiona or ceremonial imparity of ibe bride orbride> 

r are the ubstaclea meant 
rj. ; R, A. S. XIV. 16*28. The grant runs, 'at the reqnest of BalAmmA 

tkar.' The fact that the copper plate was found in a Th&kor's poMeseion 
IlkToon the view tb*t Tfaakknr ic the name of BalAmma'a tribe and notiimply i^ title 

Chapter XtL 







Chapter IIL 




top and knotting it over the temples. The men wear i 
ornaments, but generally go about with a quantity of wilJ 
pods and round egg-si^ed gourds tied round the waist, clatr. 
they walk. They carry a reaping hook, nella or koila, stuck 
them into a bit of wood fastened to a waistband of stout wild , 
fibre. They are very clever in the use of their speATS, 
blades are about a foot long and from two to two and a bait 
broad. The bamboo handles are six or seven feet long and 
four to six inches round. Armed with these spears, three or 
Thikurs will walk almost straight to a tiger much more bra' 
than Kolia. They are less given to robbery than Kolis, 
not BO much given to drink as Bhils. Many of them do not 
touch liquor. Though a few enjoy good positions as village hi 
most are labourers eking out a living by bringing to the 
head-loads of firewood. They have eight chief yearly festi 
Vaishdkh ahiuidha 3rd (May); Ashddh vadya SOtk (July) ; 8h 
$huddha bth, Ndgpanekmif (July -August) ; 8hrdv<t7^ vadya 
(August- September) ; Ashvin ehnddha lO^A, Dasra, (O 
Aahmn vadya 30th, Divdli, (October-November) ; Mdgh »h 
(Febmarj') ; and Pkalgun shuddha \bfhf Holi^ (March-April). 
most im)x>rtant of these is the Holi festival, a time of riot and rouj 
merrymaking. The women gather in numbers, and carrying ro 
a dish of red powder, ask for gifts from every one within 
The men get up shows of oddly dressed beggars and expect gift* 
for the performance. The observance is much the same as amo: 
Kunbis, except that the women of the wilder tribes seem to losa 
their shyness and roam about demanding money and chasing 
men all over the place. 

VAhlis, perhaps originally Vardlis or nplanders, are f 
in Peint and on the Sahyadris. Their name seems to appear 
Varalatta the most northerly but one of the seven Hindu Konkai 
Like Thakurs they live for part of the year on the grains they rais^, 
and for the rest almost entirely on the roots of the havdlmri tree 
on karanda berries. Besides these they eat some sixteen or seven 
roots and leaves, kand and bhdji. As a class they are pc 
clad and very wretched. Their language is rather peculiar wi' 
many strange words.' They move their huts every two or 
years, and, except beef, eat flesh of all kinds. They are great to 

Vadaks, delvere and qnarrymen, of three sub-divisions, MMi, 
and Jit, are believed to have come from Pandharpur, ShoUpur, ~ 
and Jamkhandi, though according to a local story they have 
long settled at Nasik and built many of the district forts.^ They talk 
Telagu at home and Mardthi abroad. They live like Vaidus in 
small tents, pdU, and eat mice, rats, fish, and swine. Except a few 

' Troyer's RAja Tiumngiiii, L 491. 

' %amb ol their pcouliftr words are : here rfl, there iat, ftn old man darar, an old 
wofiuui cfen, a young roan bandga, a yoang vomaa Utndgi, a blanket jAinj^iMr, m 
■arm lit AoMrfra, and clarified bnttcr gdytd. 

* Aaoording to another account, except at Sinnar whare they have been for aboii% 
twanly.five yaara, they can hartllv be aaid to have settled, and are always wandering 
from village to village m searcb of work. 




arers they are all earth-workers. The Mdti Vadara generally 

V in •Tie^ngand other earth work on roads, dams, and wells. 

ns break stones and serve as qiiarrymen, supplying atones 

iiurposes. Jat Vad.ara prepare and sell grindstones. 

V with anything else tbey catch field mice. Social 

il by a council whose decision is subject to the 

lit, male members of the caste. 

13, originally immigrants from the Konkan. arc a forest 
y small in number and seldom found beyond the limits of the 
Squalid and sickly looking they are the lowest and jxxirest 
rest tribes. Among some of the least poverty-stricken 
:i draw a ragged shoaldercloth across the breast, but 
• go naked to the waist. They speak a corrupt Mariithi uwing 
and then some Gujantti words. They live chiefly on roots and 
'bs, and eat almost every kind of animal including rats, pigs, and 
keys, not scrupling even to devour carcasses.' Though the use 
is said to be forbidden, one branch of the tribe called Dhor 
itkiuris eat beef, but are not for that reason treated as a separate 
sab-division. Forest conservancy has put a stop to their former craft 
of makiTig catechu. Except a few catechu makers in the neighbouring 
native fltatos, they work as field labourers, or gather and sell fire*- 
wood. Their gods are Chaide and Afhasoba, but ghosts and demons, 
bkuis and ftaishdrhn, are their favourite objects of worship. They have 
ao priesta and themselves otHciste at marriage ceremonies. Disputes 
am sottlad by a council appointed for the purpose, bat the decision 
most be approved by a mass meeting of tribesmen. 

KjusABtJS support themsolves by begging, basket making, and 
»U>ne*cutting. Their women would seem to be a very termagant 
mud di rty class, as the word Kai kddin i s proverb iai for a 
qnarrelsome and dirty shrew. Though an orderly class they are 
flBiierally watched by the police, aa they are given to pilfering, and, 
m Bome caaea, to housebreaking and dacoity. 

Vaidus, medicine hawkers, found wandering throdghout the 
district, are of five sub-divisions, Bhiii, Mali, MirjumAli, Dhangar, and 
Koli Vaidns, who neither eat together nor intennarry. All are said 
to htive c^nie from the Kamitak. They are dark and strongly made* 
^! Vaidns, probably called after the Mirya hill near Ratnagiri 

wli. - - -iiraons for its healing herbs," wear the beard, while the rest 
ahave the chin. They generally camp ontside of towns in cloth tenta, 
pdhf which they carry with them on asses. On halting at a 
Tillage or town, they walk through the atre<3tH and lanes with two 
b:i ■ ' " ' '\f> tied to both ends or to the same end of a stick, 

C?'' Vaid, or dmg-seWing doctor, or Nihli Parlksha 

Void, that IS pulse-feeling doctor. They talk Kanareae and Telagu at 
boioe^andaa incorrect Mor^thi or Hindustani abroad. They eat 

' Tea or fifteen jtM.n ago an immoiue encampment of Kitk&rU in KiLndflaon vu 
ttt>rir<H by ma epidemic Tbts they believed was a punishment for killing and 
t^timg the MmcnA HanuioAn monkoys on Mah4dev*s hill. They accordingly flod Chfl 
Mvatry and are only now beginning to rotum in tniall numben. 

* BMBbay OazctUer, X. rJ9. 
■ 23-D 

Chapter HL 






iBombay GaseUen 



Chapter ni. 





flesh except beef, and driuk liqaorsomeof them to excess, 
never touch food coolcpd by M^nsalmAns or Chdmbh^ra. 
wear ochre-coloured clothes like Gosdvis, and have the sawe 
in the house and out-of-doors. They are genorally dirty hnt 
off and contented. They gather healing herbs and rootfl, a- 

them from village to village. They worship Veukobsj M_ 

Bhavdni, and M&niti. The Dhaugar Vaidus are suid to 
Brdhmans to their marriages; the other Vaidiis are said to 
all their cereiDouics themselves. Social disputes are settled at 
meetings. They are not allowed to work as labourers, and, if 
one is loimd working for hire^ he is thrown out of caste and 
allowed back till he ha.s given a caste feast. They do not 
fasts. A woman is held to be impure for five days after cli> 
Except at marriage, no rites are observed from birth to death* 

BhAmtAs, or UchlAs, are, except in isolated villages 
Sahyadria, settled only in Niphad and Chindor. They are Tel 
who have lived in the district for more than a hundred years. 
are supposed to have been driven north by a famine. They 
strongly mode, and, except that they are somewhat darker, 
do not differ from local low class Hindus. They wear a top-1 
like other Hindus, and some wear side-knots over the ears li 
M^rvAdi Vdnis. At home they speak Telagu and elsewh* 
rough Mai*Athi. If a man and woman are caught in an inti 
the woman's head and the man's head and i&ce are shaved, thej 
forced to drink cow's ui'ine, and the man has to pay for a caate 
If an intrigue is suspected but is denied, a council of the 
inquires into the matter, and if they are satisfied that there ii 
ground for suspicion, nothing is done to the woman but the man 
fined £5 (Rs. 50). If the man refuses to pay and denies the intrignej 
his truth is tested by ordeal. To test his truth about eighty [Kinn< 
(five payaliit\ of sesamum are crushed in a newly washed oil-mill, au< 
the oil is poured into a large iron pot and boiled. When it is boilii 
a stone weighing twelve pice is thrown into the oil. The man 
woman bathe and take the stone outof the boilingoil. If either of thei 
is scalded they are made to pay the fine, and if they do not pay th« 
are pat out of custo. The fine ia spent on a caste dinner. Agaii 
if there is a dispute between a debtor and a borrower about a loi 
for which no bond has been passed, if the debtor denies that he 
the money, the council meet and the debtor is made to pick a 
laid on the ground, close to where the council are seated. H 
picks the rupee he is asked to pick a pimpal tree leaf. If he picki 
the leaf the dispute is settled in his favour. All do not intermarry^ 
certain families marry with certain families. Marriage does not taki 
place till both the boy and the girl are of age. They fix the daj 
without asking any priest. On the marriage day two little tenta" 
are pitched at the bride's house. In one of tJiese the bride sits and 
in the other the bridegroom^ each alone. At sunset the bride's 
brother takes the bridegroom to the bride's tent, and knottingj 
together the hems of their clothes withdraws. The husband and! 
wife spend the night together, and the next morning the bride's 
maternal uncle nnties the knot, receiving a present of £10 
(Rs, 100), The marriage is completed without any roUgions rito. 



ia professional thieves stealing in markets and other open 

between sunrise and sunset. They never rob hoases. 

h f!««ih eaters they never eat beef. They keep the same fasts 

r Hindus. They worship Devi and Khandoba. 

i without performiug- any rite. They never send 

ehiidren to achooU. Bebads, found only in MAlegaon, are of 

kinds. Bomda proper, Mariitha Berads, and MAng Berads, 

are aiostlr labourers living from hand to moathj and are not 

tly found committing petty thefts. 

d CasteSy who»e touch is considered by Hindns a 
tioD, are ten in number with a total strength of 88,*)50 sonls 
4ii,o99, females 45,051) or I2'78 per oent of the whole Hinda 
on. Of these 71,666 (males 34,779, females 36,887) were 
^-at-chmen; 9432 (males 4839, females 4593) ChambhAra, 
12 (males 2965, females 2767) Mdngs, rope-makers and 
16 i 637 (males 383> females 254) Ramoshis; 308 (males 165, 
ties 14^3) H&lemdrs ; 238 (males 128, females 110) Mochis, shoe- 
ikcrs ; 21^2 (males 131, females 101) Bhangis, scavengers; 313 
rrti?.>- !<52, females 151) MaugGdrudis, suake-charmersanddaucers; 
t.^s 4-4, females 44) Dhors; and 4 (males 3, female 1) Dheds, 

>is are found in hnts in the outskirts of almost all villages. 

M their twelve and a half sub-divisions, Soravansi, Dora, Advan, 

i^van. Chelkar, Pular, Sutad, Dhed. Pan, Ghadoshi, Bdvcba, Gopal, 

md the half-caate Rati, Soravansi is the only one found in strength 

rding to their own account thoir founder Svarup 

^ j; fmm the sole of Brahma's foot. They are 

^ I id strongly made. Except that thoy keep the top- 

1 ive the hea<i and beard, and weartho moustache. They 

? I'^rfithi both at home and abroad. A few are well housed, 

.. ...^st live in huts with mud walls and thatched roofs. They eat 

at4on and hens and the flesh of dead cows, bullocks, and baffaloes, 

at thev never eat pigs or horses. Their staple food 18 wheat, millet, 

naglL On festive days sweet-cakea, puray^polisf are eaten. 

ly of them hold grants of land as village servants* and watchmen, 

are husbandmen and labourers, and some serve in lufautry 

te^mencs. Mh^rs, as a whole, have gained considerably by the 

opening of the railway, many of them getting steady and well paid 

mploymeut as workers on the line. One MhAr has been a very 

aocewfol contractor for masonry ballast and earth, and is now a 

ibh man. They worship Khandoba, Bhairoba, AibhavAnt, arul 

lafa^ev. Their chief plfioes of pilgrimage are Ndaik, Trimbak, 

'andharpur, Paithan, and Pultdmba in Ahmednagar. Thoy keep 

II &inda holidays. The Somvansis especially observe Bhadvi or the 

eventh day of the bright half oi Bhadrapad (August -September). 

}n that day seven dough lamps are made and lighted, balls o£ 

' Id moat largt? villages thnrc is some feud between the Kunbis and Mhir*. A« 

■SUge •ervanU MhAn claim, while the Kunbis refuse Ihem. ft share of the grain crop. 

or two uLBtanoea the diaputo hoe been carried to the High Court. Mr. J. A, 








rBombAX 61 



(ter III. 



of the lamps, and a di 


wlieat flour arc offered to the sp 

is given of rice, milk, and clarified butter, 'fheir priest* 
hoi*odit4iry saints, sdilhu?, of their own caste, called Mh^ 
A Bli^t generally officiates at their marriagea They » 
consult village BrdbinauH about a child's name or the luck? (lay 
hour for marriage. They have also devotees, bhagats, of Khi 
called Vaghes, of Vithoba called H^rd^'s^ and of BhaTini 
3hute6. These hhagaU, who claim supernatural powers and 
believed to be at times possessed by the gods, generally gain a " 
by begging or by preaching to their castefellowa. The biia^i 
nut hold tiioir kiriausj or preachings, in private hooseA but 
Mhani' rest-house where the Mhars genei*ally meet. The 
of these kirtans is, in most cases, a story chosen from such 
the KAmvijuya, Harivijaya, and Pdndavprat^p. They are very 
held in the month of Shravan (July. August). Corresponding 
investiture with the sacred thread they have a peculiar curemoi 
called kdnahrdvni or earffCleausing. It is performed both for 
and girU after the child is five years old. It is usually held on 
eleventh daya of the Hindu month. Bice and flowers are laid bef< 
a MhAr GosAvi who offers them to a tin image of MahAdev. If 
child is a boy the priest seats him on his right leg, and on his h 
if she is a girl. He then breathes into the child's ear^ repeating 
words Namo Shlv Ram KrMna Hari, probably meaning, I bow in 
name of Shiv, Rdm, Krishna, and Hari. Thiu ends the cert" 
the Gos^vi becomes the child's spiritual guide, gum. K 
few mintT jKtiuts their marriage customs differ little from tin 
performed by Chiiinbhiira.* Widow marriage and polygamy 
allowed subject to the conditions observed by Chtobhiirs. Ci 
disputes are settled at a meeting of the men presided over by 
headman J niehetar. 

ChAudhArs, or tanners, are found in considerable numbers 
almost the whole district. They are of ten anb-dirisions, Dakf 
Dhor-Dakshani, Pardeshi, Hindust^, Pardeshi^Mang, Bengili, 
MudrKsi, Jingar, Mochi, and MdrviUli. Of these the Uakahani and 
Dhor-Dakshani are found iu considerable numbers throughout the 
district^ and the rest in particular places only, such b» N^ik and 
!phagnr. The sub-divisions neither eat with one another nor 

Dakshani Chitmbhitrs seem to have been long settled in the distnct. 
They are generally dark, but have nothing in their appearuuoo 
different from Kunbia. They speak Marathi both at home and 
abroad, and, though a very dirty class, are hardworking. They make 
shoes and leather water-bags, motv, their women helping thena. They 

' Mh&r'a marriage ceromonies differ fmni ChAmbhir's in three chief points. 1, ^ni* 
bride^;room'fi brow omaxnent is tied on an hoqr or two before the lime fixe^l for Uui 
wedding, and the party then mt U* the temple v( MAruti. 2, After \*ete\ and l«atM 
have been distribat«d iimung the men and turmeric andaai&oD among the women, the 
mnrritMl pnir ofl'er etiiianniui «ce4l«, rice and c1nrine<l butter, »n<l walk font or five tnnM 
round the sncriricinl fire. ;i, Haitketa of various daiiitius arc exchanged betwccathff 
\viit iamilivn Hftvr the rt'tuin vi ihv bridt-grooni £rutu the biide's house. 



In ane-atoriod hooses^ and their asnal food is pulse and bread. 
They wear the ordinary Kunbi dress. Ou tho occasion 
rothnl, at a caste meeting, clothes and ornaments are given to 
bride, and a silk waist thpca<:l, called kargoia^ aiiJ a cocoanut to 
bridegtooni. Then, according to thtr couvunieuco of both parties 
ia conBollation with a Yajurvedi Brahman, a lucky day and 
art) chosen for the marriage. No limit of a^e is tixed for tho 
g« either of boys or of firirls. IP their parents are well-to-do 
are married at an early age* But, among tho pour, buys often 
unmarried till they are thirty or thirty-five, and girls till they 
ri. Before tho marriaiire a firiihman isa^ked to fix 
' _• the boy with turmeric, and he generally chooses 
y X hrw or fonr <iays before the marriage. After the boy has been 
bed, iSAiuie of the turmeric is, with music, taken to the girl's house 
B party of the boy^s women relationjs and friends. On reaching 
nonse the bride is rubbed with the turmeric, and presented with 
he* and ornaments. On the marriage dayj about a couple of honra 
fcbe appoLut<)d time, the bridegroom, riding on a horse, goes 
ion to the temple of Mamti followed by his male and 
le relations and friends. His sister, or if he has no sister some 
female relation, sits behind him if she is ayoung girl, or, if she 
wn up, walks behind him holding a brass vessel with a bunch 
ads and some betel leaves, and a cocoannt placed over the 
'Sionth. At tho temple the bridegroom is decked in a paper crown 
'.-eivea a turban and such other presents a« the bride's father is 
■ g^^e, and then goes in procession to the bride's house. On 
iua way and at the bride's dwelling, a cocoanut or a piece of bread 
is waved in front of his head and thrown away. The rest of the 
ooremonies differ little from those observed by the higher castes. A 
^ ~ "f turmeric-coloured cloth is held between the p«.ir, while tho 
keeps repeating versos and throwing grains of rice and millet 
the bride and bridegroom. At the lucky moment the cloth is 
tched away, and the guests, clapping their hands, join tho priest in 
throwing grain, while the married couple encircle each others' necks 
h flower garlands or yellow threads. Then betel is handed to the 
, and turmeric powder and saffron to the women. After this tho 
de and bridegroom present five married women with some wheat 
or rice, five dry dates, and five betelnuts. The pair then tie, each 
on the other's right wrist, a yellow thread with a piece of turmerio 
fastened to it. In the evening the bride's father gives a dinner to 
the bridegroom and his relations and friends. This usually consists 
of ordinary food, pulse, and broad ; but, if tho people aro well-to-do, 
rich food is prepared. Next day the bridegroom's father gives 

■dinner, called ulpliay to the bride's relations and friends, at which 
K>ked rioe, sugar and butter, and sometimes pulse and bread aro 
served. On the third day, at a ceremony called mdndav or -phal 
hhcnutj the bride is presented with clothes and ornaments, and a 
small quantity of wheat or rice and a piece of cocoa kernel, some dry 
dates, almonds, and betelnuts are laid in her lap. The parents and 
relations of both sides give and receive presents of clothes. Then 
the liridcgroom's mother and her female relations and friends, 
walking on white clothes, go in procession with music to the bride's 

Chapter III. 


TBombay Gaietl 



»r m. house. Ou reaching' the bride's house all the women bathe« 

itlon. ^*^ ^^^ afford it, are presented with glass baaiLfles by the 
father. The three days that the bridegroom spends at tli 

g^ house are passed in great merriment, the bride and bn 

LL^ snatching betel out of each others' mouths, playing hide and >^ 

m betel nuts, throwing water on each other while bathing, anrl 

H each other with dainties and sweetmeats. White they areat }; 

H the bride's father gives the bridegroom's party two dinners. Ui 

H fourth day both jmrties form the procession called imrflt, and, 

B music and fireworks, accompany the bride and brideKTOom on 

H back to the bridegroom's house. On the day after the bridef 

H return to his house, his father gives a dinner to all his castefellow9j 

■ the turmeric is taken from the wrists and the yellow tl 
I from the neck, and all traces of turmeric are washed awar.i 
H Polygamy and widow marriage are allowed ; but it is not 
I right for a man to marry a second wife, unless the first is 
H is barren. They have a rule that bachelors cannot marry widL(W8 ; «i 
^^^ widow's husband must be either a widower or a married man. 

^^H They either bury or bum the dead. When they bury, the body] 
^^^ is laid in the grave dressed in a turban and other clothes ; anc 

■ the deceased's eldest son, followed by others of the party, throwe 
H in handfuls of dust. When they burn the dead, the eldest soi 
I sets fire to the pile, walks thrice round the corpse with an earthoi 
H vessel full of water on his shoulders, dashes the water pot on tbd 
I ground, and cries aloud. The funeral party then bathe, return 
H homo, and separate after chewing a few nim, Melia azadiraehta, 
B leaves. Ou the next day the earth of the grave is levelled, or, if the 
H body has been burnt, the ashes are thrown into some river or pool. 
H On the tenth day, rice or wheat balls are offered to the ancestors of 
H the deceased, some of them arc thrown into the river, and the rest 
I left for the crows. Tlie party who has gone to perform the ceremony 
H cannot leave the river bank, until crows come and touch the rice 

■ balls. They keep all ordinary Hindu holidays, and worship Vithoba, 
I Khandoba, iJhavdni, and Mahddev. ChAmbhArs' favourite places of 
H pilgrimage are Pandharpur, Saptashring, Chandanpuri in MAlega<m, 
I and Ndaik and Trimbak. They hold in great reverence Bbagat 
I B^va of Sukena in Niph^i. The present hdva, who is toiirth in 
H descent from the original saint, is named Bhagtya Murhjiri and is 
H the hereditary tanner of the village of Sukena. Though he works io 
H leather like other Chambhars, he bathos daily, worships the god 
H Vithoba, and reads a holy book called Harivijaya, Once, at least, m a 
H year he goes on a tour through Mdlegaon, Ndndgaon, Chfindor, and 
H Niph&d, the other Ndsik sub-divisions beiug undur the spiritual 
I charge of the hdvds of Dhulia, Amalner, and Paithan, While on 
I tour the bdva is accompanied by one or two men. He has a 
H staff and a guitar, and his followers have small hollow cymbals^ 
H itil, on which they accompany their leader's devotional aoDgsJ 
I hkajanSj and texts rrom the Barivijaija. He is greatly respected J 
H often asked to dinner, and paid two or three pence by each family on 

■ his followers. He is often visited by religious-minded ChitiubhiirH 
H who come for spiritual teaching, upadesha. The bava gives th« 

■ disciple three ndcs of eondact, not to steal, not to cheat, and not taj 



it adultery. If the disciple agrees to keep thoae rules the 
M bftthes and asks him to bathe, and then reoit-es a verse in liis 
r, receiving in return a fee of from three Iaj six peace (2-"l a».).^ 
koa^b regarded as the spiritual guide of the cattto, the bfiva's 
eaence is not necessary at marriage or other festive occasions, 
ir even at a meeting held for settling caste disputes. If he happens 
> be present at such b meeting he is paid a shilling or two 
w. 8 -Re. 1) from the Hne levied from the guilty man. They 
lODgnlBe an hereditary headman called nuhtluHn, Caste disputes 
W "i^ttled at a ine^eting of adult mule memberb in consultation with 
f Ti. A Ch^mbhiir is put out of caste for not giving casto 

using filthy languiige to a castefellow, for killing a cow, 
r for dining, smoking, or having sexual intercourse with a MhAr, a 
, or a Musalmiin. A person thus expelled is re-admitted into 
on payment of a Hne, generally a caste dinner, imposed at a 
of the adult males of the caste. Caste dinners are 
ry on occasions of births, betrothals, marriages and deaths^ 
a pani.shmcnt for breaking caste rules. They never send their 
to school, but are,oa the whole, a fairly off and contented class. 

rdeehi Ch^mbhirs who are of several sub-divisions, including 
^s, Jatves, Dhors, and Katais, claim descent from the saint 
the author of many poems and religious songs.' Their 
cas differ in several details from those of the Deccan ChdmbhArs. 
the time of marriage the members of tho bride's and of the 
ridegroom'ft households never dine with one another, and no 
animal food is touched so long as the marriage festivities last. 
The bridegroom's marriage crown is very cleverly made of palm 
leaves^ and instead of holding a piece of cloth between the bride and 
bridegroom at the moment of marriage, they are made to walk seven 
times round a pillar. These ChAmbhArs speak Hindustani at home 
and an incorrect MarAthi abroad. They aro very devout worshippers 
of Bhavdni. It is not known when the Bengal, Mdrwdr, and 
Jb^'^^ ChAmbhirs came to Ndsik, but they cannot bo very old 
^^plers as they speak the language of their native country.^ 
^^pffiwort, also called V/tjantria or musicians, are generally dark, 
ooaree and sturdy, passionate, revengeful, rude, and greatly feared as 
srtrcerers. They make brooms, baskets and ropes of coir, twine, and 
lefither. Some serve in Infantry Regiments, others are village watch- 
men, guides, grooms, musicians,^ and hangmen. They also beg and 
flical, and are under special police surveillance. They worship the 

Chapter in. 

^ The vcffse ruxis, S^am ha ny maiUra khara, rAutf ehaurydskicha ph^ra : meaning, 
'He (th&t ia God I is I. This ifl our own true chArro for avoiding tho eighty-four 
miUwD wanderingA.' The practice of Mcking Bpiritual teaching is said to be much leva 
comrona than it uaed to be, 

* RokidAat bom atCbimbhArgonda now called Shrigonfla in Ahmednagar, is said to 
bAr« been a contemporary of the great Kabir« and must therefore have dourished somo 

about the twelith or thirteenth century. Though not the author of any great 
_ _ . many of his devotional Boogs. «dJbur, padas^ and dohrd*, are well known. 

* A few of thuc ChjimbhiLra at Bhagur, near DevUli, seem to hare settled there 
nac« the Mtabhshznent of the Devldli camp. 

* Their principal nmsical instruments are the tamboniino daf, two clarions aana.i«t 
•a^A oi|« rur. The masic produced by these is called U&lemdri Ikija, 


[Bombay Qt 



lapter III. 





goddess Mahdmdri. Mfings and ^flidrs have a long standiog 
and do not, if they can help it, drink of the samo well. 

RlHOflHis are foond in Nisik, Baglan,' and Sinnar. 
Sinnar they have an entire village. The NAsik Rdmoshia 
deacent from l^m, and say that they are of the same 
aa those of Poonai They can tell men of their own 
by sight, though to others they do not differ from Ktiiibis> 
that their MarAthi is rough and harsh. They shave like 
HindnSj and it is a breach of caste rules to grow the beard, 
are watchmen and cattle and sheep dealers^ and, when they 
pledged their word, are honest and trustworthy. They are 
niint«men using slings and gans but never bows and 
Though fond of hunting they eat the flesh of deer and hares 
and never drink liquor. They worship KhanderAo and Hhavi 
TuljApur. They call BrAhman priests to their weddings, bat 
religious guides, gurus, are ascetics of the slitr-ear or K^nphafa 
Their women are held to be impure for twelve days aft^r cli 
They eat from Kunbisbut not from Telia, Silis, Koahtis, Sali»4i>, 
Bhifs. The heads of their boys are first shaved at the tem] 
Satvi to whom they offer a goat. They have a formal bet: 
VHtmjni, before marriage. Girls are married when they are ten v< 
old, and boys when they are sixteen or seventeen. Their inarri 
expenses vary from £10 to £30 (Rs. 1(H). Ra, 800). Polygamy ia| 
allowed and practised, and divorce is easy. They either bnry or] 
burn the dead. Caste dinners are given in memory of the dettd> 
invitations being sent to friends and relations even though theyj 
Jive at a great distance. Some of them send their boys to school, 

MocHis are found in large villages and towns. They work 
leather, cut and dye skins, and make shoes, bridles, and water-bags.] 
They are more skilful than ChfimbhArs, but, as a class, suffer fram| 
their fondness for drink. Though some of the newcomers froi 
north India are fairly off, their condition is on the whole poor. 
HAlemArs, found here and there in the district, are shoemAkers] 
who make sandals, vaJuinds, on\j. Dohoris, also called Dindori«| 
colour leather and make leather bags, mots. They never mako 
sandals a.s that branch of the craft is followed by Hilemars only. 
They do not dine with Chdmbhdrs. Dhors dye skins of cows and 
other animals, and make water-bags, inots, pakhdls and mofoks* 
As a class they are badly off. Bhanuis, of two divisions Ldlbegs 
and Shaikhs, the former Hindus the latter Musalmdns, both are from 
Gujardt. Except a few in the service of European officers, theyj 
are found only in towns as road sweepers and scavengers. Th( 
are fairly off. MAno-GAbudis, or snake charmers, wander about, 
especially in large towns, begging and showing snakes. The womeal 
help by pilfering grain from the fields, and some of the men st 
and sell buffaloes and bullocks. 

Devotees and Religious Beggars. The sanctity of N^ 
and. Trimbak draws many religious beggars to the district. Soi 

1 In th« B^Uq snb.diviMon there is a tUmoshi pdhV and %jaghird<ir. 




lotig time, others, after restiug for a fe^r ilayii, pass on in 

'tTriinftge. The 1S72 a>nsusnftaniR show twelve cWsoa 

^ '1 uf StiOO (uialei 47-38, feiiialoe S702) or 1*22 pt^r cent 

kole Uiudn population. Of these 21^0 (runles 1613, females 

Goearts i ItJOO (males 1146, females 514) Bairti^a; 919 

females 383) Miabhavs; 757 (males 383, females 374) 

198 (males 281, females 317) Gondhalis ; 382 (males 201, 

) Jangamsj 268 (males 104, females l(>4) Chitrakathis; 

132, females 134) Jo^b; 200 (males 138. females 122) 

1 (males 119, females 112) Kanphatasj 113 (males 5»>, 

) Gopals ; 49 (males 24, females 25) Pangols ; and 7 (males 

2) Vifiadeva. 

, of whom many are settled in different parts of the 
worshippers of Vishnu and Shiv, and are recruited 
all castes. They rub ashes over their lx>dies, and wear 
dishevelled and sometimes coiled round the head. They 
about begging- and visiting places of pilgrimage. Some are 
)lers of perfumes, fragrant ointntonts, and asafcetida, and 
travel to Khfindesh and Nagar for the sale of their wares; 
:ially in Trimbak, are rich, dealing in jewelry, owning 
money, and trading on a large scale in grain. 
VaibAois,* are drawn from almost all classes of 
Many of them have settled like the Gosavis, but do not 
>d a position. They own land and keep cattle. Among 
y worship Vishnu and Shiv, Ram and Krishna, and among 
Bhavini and Mah^lakshmi. Many of them belong to 
maths, and lead a celibate life. In Panchvati, of 
ivnown from which Sita is said to have been carried by 
the ten-beaded king of Ceylon, four alms-houses, saddvarts, 
ir^gis and religious beggars visiting the Godfivari, are 
ined by Bombay merchants, MAnbhXvs, of both sexes, live 
r in maths or religious houses. ITiey all shave the head 
if black clothes. They wander about in bands and receive 
1 devoted to their order by their parents. They are respected 
people, but hated by the Br^hmans to whose power they are 
a. BharA-DIS, also called Danre Gosavis, found in small 
•8, are a poor class who make a living by bogging and 
ng cotton loin-girdles, hlchha. While begging they beat a 
m called damru, and chant songs in honour of Jotiba their 
te god whose chief shrine is in Ratu&giri.* They worship 
Khandoba, Bhairoba, and Devi. When a family has to give 
in honour of Jotiba, a Bharddi must always be called, fed, 
d one pice as alms. Befure sitting to his meal the Bhariidi 
lome ballads in praise of the god. Gondhalis, wandering 
8 who sing and dance and form a separate caste, are generally 

tb* Suukrit W apart from, aad rdij poutou : one free from or void of 

BB hy Bhar&HiR Jotiba ia wora1iipp«d bv recent Kunbi eettlere from Poona, 
■ad Sholipar where Jotibn is hebl iu great n«vorcnco by all cbuwes. 
the older settled N&aik cUaae* worslup Jotiba, wbo ia origiaalJy a sonth 


Chapter III. 










Cbaptcr III. 




J whin. 

found in large villages anil i^jw-ns. Tliey are eiifTHgtHl In - t.. 
to perform a gondhal some days after a TTiarriajBre. This is a i. . - 
ceremony which Uikea place only at niKht, and the Oondl 
>fenerally paid from Otf. to 6». (a*. 4*Rs. 3). Two ir 
GondhaliB are engaged for a gondhal. The dance, which is C' 
performed at births and marriagtjs, is known to a few fun i 

almost all castes. On the day of the dance four men who kn 
dance are asked to a dinner generally of ^ntranpoli At ni^bt 
come back bringing their rausica] instrnment-s, a torch called 
and the uniform of the dancer. When tho men arrive, t^e heaf 
of the family Bets a wooden stool called chaurang close to the go< 
in whose honour the dance is given, and lays some wheat on thei 
and a brass or copper cap eontainiug betel leaves. In this cnpia 
a half cocoa kernel filled with rice, a betelnut^ and a quart(?r anuftj 
piece. Near the .stool is placed a lighted lamp Then the head 
Htands in front dressed in a long white robe reaching to the ankl< 
wearing a cowrie garland round bis neck and jingling bell an! 
The others stand behind him, two of them with drums and 
third with a torch. The torch, dxxtiif ia lirst worshippeti with 
and turmeric. The head dancer then sings and dances, the drui 
accompanying him and the torch-bearer serving as a butt f( 
jokes. After about an hour a prayer is sung in honour of^ 
goddess and the company drops some copper or silver coins 
braHs pot held by the head dancer. Then the head dancer pr( 
them with cocoa kernel and sugar ; the h( gives the company 
bottlleaf; and the party bi'eaks up. There ia no fixed payiuettt' 
to the dancersj but they generally get from 6d. to 2#, (cw. 4 - Ke. l),j 
and if the host is welUto-dn, a turban. They live solely by hoggin 
and are fairly off. Jakgajis, Liug&yat priests, of two sub-divisioi 
Sthdvnrs and Chirantis, are found in very small nurubei*8. They w< 
hanging from their necks a small silver or copper casket with aa^ 
emblem of Shiv. The Chirantia lca<I a secluded life in monasteries, 
or holy plnces. The Sthavars serve as priests to Lingavj 
laymen. Besides acting as priests some of them beg from hoi 
to house and village to village dressed in ochre-coloured cloibf 
carrying a conch shell or a drum called kanjdri, and others Ul 
Rdvals have taken to make silk and cotton thread and silk tasselsj 
They eat no animal food. Some of them aro poor, but, as a cl 
they are fairly off many living in well endowed monaHtorios. Jooil 
are of many kinds, some foretell future events and others act 
showmen to deformed animals. Persons of all castes enter th( 
order, some marrying and others remaining siuglo. Josnrs, beggars 
of middle rank, foretell future events and go about singing ao< 
beating a drum called davre, KAnphatAb,^ or slit ears, wearii 
large and thick rings in their ears, earn their living by singii 
and plajnng on a guitar. Raja Gopicliand is generally the hei 
of their songs. GopAls are wrestlers who earn their living hi 
performing feats of strength and agility. They make money b] 
rearing and selling buffaloes. They generally remain from five 

An Moonnt of the KinphAtAs ia given in BombAy Gu«tteer, V. 86-87. 



lys at one camp, but do not move danncf the raiuy inonthfi, 
■ ver rhov" happeu to l>e when thu rain begins. During 
irry nn Ihcnr uHiial busin<!ss, and, when times are bad, 
their gaius by begj^ug. PANrJCLfl are a cliws of beggars 
in at ouck-crow and are never seen begging after the sun 
rhey go about praising Hindu gods, and receive alms either 
tuey or clothes, ble»«itig the name:* of thu givers' forefathers. 
DEVS wear long peacock fe^rher hats and support theuiselvea 
They play on a flute called pova and take alms in 
■ ' irn-<iut clothes. They pride themselves in being beggars, 
loihing will l^mpt them to become Ubourers. NaxdivAlks 
m bull in a smart cloth with a fringe of jangling bells and a hell 
ace, and, taking him with them beg from house to house. 
jhree, Vasudevs, Josbis, and Nandivalett, e&t together and 

Krding^ to the 1872 census, Ndsi'k Musalma'ns numbercMl 
|v souls. They were fuuud over almost the whole district, their 
>er varying from 4^593 in the Nisik sub-division to 435 ia 
lg»oD. In the absence of any written record, there is much 
b SB to the earliest Musalman sottlomeut in Nasik. The 
Mcisalmau invasions of the Deccan, under Ala-ud-din Ghori 
5) and Mabk Kfifur (1318) do noti seem to have left any lasting 
bn the Nasik people. It was not until the establishment of 
Boftlim kingdoms of Khdadesh (1377) and Ahmeduagar 
^), and the arrival of Moslim missionaries that the MusalmAus 
3 to form a separate community. The two leading Nasik 
onaries were Khwdja Khunmir Husaini (1520) and Syed 
kmmad SadikSarmast Husaini (1568). Sometimes the missionary 
h healer aa well aa a preacher, trust in his power to cure doing 

r foster a belief in his creed. At the same time much of their 
was due to their influence with the neighbouring Musalman 
9. Of conversions by force under the early Deccan dynasties 
is no record ; the Lakarhar^, Mult^nis, and other classes are 
ace of the Emperor Aurangzeb's zeal for the faith. 

e Syeds and Pirzddds arc the only examples of strictly foreign 
mt. The ola.«ses who .stylo themselves Shaikhs and Pathaus, 
^ere are almost no Moghals^ show no signs of a foreign origin 
p in their features or in their character. Nor is their nam© 
jh to prove a foreign origin as, in the Deccan, Hindu converts 
lonly took the class name of their patrons or converters. 
Naikwaris, the leading local body who style themselves 
Lns and who are said to have been called after Haidar Ali Nfiik 
"ysor, are probably the descendants of Hindu converts. No 
ina of pure Kabul descent are settled in the district j any that 
are Ti.sitors. The Syeds ai'e found in Nri^sik only ; the other 
» are distributed throughout the district. 

Na«ik, three or four families of Syeds claim descent from 
in^ the younger son of Ab, through their forefather saint 
^js Khnnmir Husaini who came from Persia about the end 








I ContrihiiUd by Mr. Fazl LutfnlUh. 



Chapter III. 



of the ninth century of the Hejra (a.d. 1520) ami eetii 
Gulbargii, then ouu uf tho chief seuts of Muaalmdn power. Ui 
Mu&ahuau rule, on account of their knowledge of Mi' li 

ftiul because of the piety of their lives, his deBcendaii^ 
kdzis of Bcvoral towns and cities, and many of tbom m 
these offices. Their home speech is Hindu^t^ni. Shtirt arn 
in habit, with palish brown or wheat-coloured skins, thtry 
larpo dark eyes and hair, and a raild genilo expression. Thoi 
faulty the fetvtures are irregular. The men let the beard gi 
younger cutting the mou^Ukches short above the lips and a1T< 
thoin to gniw near the corners of the mouth, and U»o old 
shaving the upper lip. Residence in India and subjection 
Maratba rule have changed their bold and generous 
to woak-miuded timidity. They have no distinct conininiii 
aniens under special cinmrastances, they do not marry with 
than the Syed Pirzddtls of Nfisik- They give their chijih 
English etlucation, but teaoh them a little Amble, t'enii 
IlindusUini, and MarathL In the beginning of Ilritish 
some of them held high appointments under Government, but w 
except one who is a chief constable in the Th^na police, none 
Government service. 

PirzAdAs are a class of Syods fonnd in Nisik only. They 
descended from the saint Syed SbAh Muhammad ISuilik ISun 
Hnsaiui, who, about the close of the tenth century of the 
(a.d. 156S), came from Medina, and, having travelled over 
gi*eater part of western India, settled at N^sik. He is said to 
been one of the most successful of Musalman missionariea, 
of the converted classes still show a special belief in his power 
a saint, and a warm and res[>ectful devotion to his desoendi 
After settling at Naaik, ho married the daughter of au Hi 
Syed who was in charge of the province of Bidar, 
strong, and muscnlar, with black or brown eyea and Imir, 
Pir»ad(is are mostly fair ; the eyes are generally large with 1< 
and nitlier full eye lashes ; the nose is often rather flat and puggirf 
marring faces wh^>80 other features are unusually handsome. Thu 
expression is firm and intelligent. Most old men ai»d some of 
the young shave the head ; others wear the hair hanging to llu* 
car lobes, and have thin beards, and the oiougtaeheB are worn m 
large tufts at the corners of the mouth, and cut short on the lip. 
Though jovial and fond of amusement, they are sober, steady, 
thrifty almost to meimness, and many of them well-to-do. Many 
among them are landholders, holding lands in gift from the 
Moghal empemrs and the Marathas in consideration of the sanctity 
of their forefathers or of their services as soldiers. S<tme deal in 
grain, hay, or fuel, and some are municipal contractors. Some who 
ere well-to-do lend money to Hindu bansera or husbandmen. Very 
few enter into money dealings with their own people, aflj among 
Musalmdns, moneylending as a oalting is illegal and unpopular. 
Sunnis in faith, as a class they are not careful to say their prayers. 
They do not form a separate community- But in the matter of 
marriage and social civilities, they are closely connected with the 
I^feik Syeds of the KAripura quarter of the city. Though thoy 


inarry witb those Syed families, they have no objection to 
the daughterly of Shaikhs or Pathdus of good family. Except 
phai the oldest and most hononrod among them manages the Inudfi 
tf the ebrine, in whose rovenoes moat of them have Booie shnre, 
Ibuns U no acVnowIodyred head of their community. Most teach 
^icnr children Honie Arabic^ I'crsian, Hitrdnstdni, and Miirttthi, and 
too or twro liave lately begun to send their boya to loam Euglinh in 
^KKasik high school. 

^^K Traders there are five chief classes, BohortiSj Kokanisj NT ult^nis, 
LAkiirhAriU, nod Malub^ris. 

B'fHioiiAa, fonnd in N4sik where they nnmber about thirty 
tftii.ilr^, are .naid to have settled in the district daring the last 
i I years, and most of them since the opening of the railway 

jU^iy. All are Shias of the Ismaili sect, followers of the Mulla 
^^^b of Sural who is their high priest. With a strain of Amb 
^^Ter^ian blood, they are pn-»bably chiefly converts from among 
^^Blindu tnuiers of Gnjunlt. Moat of the families were settled in 
^^ft>>Ay before they moved to Nusik. All are ahopkeepers selling 
^BBunery, Eumpenn hardware, and kerosinc or gaa-bgbt oil as it is 
TScally called, and some of them making and selling iron vessels for 
bolding water and oil. They are a well-to-do chiss and have a 
<liuioqae of their own, which, within the last five years, they have 
rebuilt and greatly enlarged. They are a religions people, their 
worship and family ceremoniefl being conducted by a deputy, nAib, 
[Oftiie Surat Mulla Saheb. 

I KoKAHis, who as theirname shows are settlers from the Konkan,^ 
Bprm a large community in N^k. Descendants of the Arab and 
rP&rftian refugees and traders, who, from the eighth to the sixteenth 
crotury, settlt'ii along the coast of Thdna, they are said to have come 
to Ntwrik about a hundred years ago. Except some newly married 
girla from the Konkan, who speak the mixture of Arabic, Hindustani, 
laud Marathi which is known as the Kokani dialect, the Nasik settlers 
Apcctk Deccan Hindust-Ani. Tall and mnscular, though spare, with 
fair, mddv, or clear ulivo skins and black or brown eyes, the Kokania 
ha\ L ' r and clear cut features, with generally an expression of 

kt- 1 intelligence. The younger men wear the hair hanging 

to • f the ear, and the older ahavo the head. The luiir on tha 

upj , close cut by the young, and shaved by the old. Both 

young and old wear full curly beards. The men have the common 
ilusalm&n dress, and the women the Mardtha robe and bodice, though 
[iboir ornaments are the same as those worn by the Deccan Musalmaa 
'woniftn. They are cleanly in their habits, crafty, hardworking, sober 
.thmigh fond of amusement, and, though thrifty, charitable and 
[boepitablo. In their intercourse with other Masai mans they maintain 
ladiAtaat but polite reserve. The Naaik Kokanis, almost to a man, are 
dealers in grain generally in rice. They lend money to husbandmen 
and take rice in payment. Some buy standing crops of rice, others 


' MumlniAnfl ttnuiouitco khd wnto tho wnrrl Kokan not Knnkan. Tliov muui to 
ilnv« changed wv form to tnako it m*<an in their speech what the Hioau Konluin 
aIjio to Dicojif 'The Laud of Hills.' 

{Bombay GuettM: I 



Chapter III. 


lend money at interest. Those who enter into contracta for the 
riee keep lar^ numbers of cows ami bullocks^ and, during 
time, visit the fields of the hushandmen to whom they have 
ad%'ances. The rice ia packed in bags of about \}i)0 to 1 lOO |vv 
(4-0 /rmnj*),aud brought by bands, or gallanj of bullocks, to t 
gniin markets where it is sold to local or Marwar Vdnis, and 
rail chiefly to Bombay. In religion they are Sunuia of tlx 
school, and are very religious and devoted. At Nasik th- 
several mosques built for worship, as well as for the use of tr 
and religflous teachers. At these places, ti-avellers from Upl- 
and vinHlav'ifi learned in the law of Islam are entert^^uned f 
at the expense of the Kokani community. They have also ni ■ 
or schools, where a foreign maidavi paid by the community j ■ 
and where the boys are taught the ground-work of Ambic And 
the leading principles of Islam. On the nights of the Mautndiuid 
the Ramzdn tuese mosques are lighted, and sermons are pntac'lusd 
by one of the vianlavia^ They marry among themselves only, and 
have a well organisod community under tho management of fionw 
of the richest and most respected of their number. Civil, and 
sometimes criminal, disputes are settled by the community whicb 
has the power of levying fines and crediting the amount to the 
common, or vnu<jid, funds. From these funds the ex.[K»uses ot 
^naulnvis and ti*avoller3 are met and the deserving poor are somotimoi 
helped. Though they do not teach their children anything but 
Hindustani and sometimes Arabic and Marathi, and though none of 
them has entei-ed Government service, they are a flourisliing aftd 
well-to-do people. 

MnLTiNrsare found in small numbers in Nd^ik and in the weal 
of the district along the Sahyadri hills. They are siiid to hare 
come from Multan as carriers and camp followers to Anraugzeb'i 
armies. Those in Nasik speak a low Hindustani, and tlie 
Kh6.ndosh Multaais speak half Marathi and lialf Panjab Hitidustijit 
Both classes have a strong PanjAb accent. Those of Kbdnde^h 
understand no other language, while those of Nasik both understand 
and speak common Hindustani. They ai-e tall, thin but muscular, 
dark skinned, with keen rather sunken eyes, rather large and booked 
noses, and a crafty though jovial expression. Those in Nasik shave 
the head but wejir the Ixsartl, %vhilo those in Kliamlesh wear their 
hair in long wild curls and are not careful to shave the beard. 
The Khilndosh Multanis wear the Marathn Kunbi dress, the women 
liaviug half Maratha half Vanjari costumes, a Maratha robo over a 
petticoat, and a Vanjdri bodice. Nilsik Multinis, both men and 
women, wear the common dress of Deccan Muhammadans. The 
Nasik Multanis ai*e honest, hardworking, but given to drink, 
and proverbially touchy and quaiTelsome; those in Kh^ndeah am 
quiet,, bold, sober, and thrifty. Tt is a strong prf»of of 
their honesty and love of order that no Khrmdesh Multtini is 
known to have appeared as a principal, either in a civil or in 
a criminal court. Those in Naaik deal in dried fish which they 
bring from Kalydn or Bhiwndi in Thana, and soil in Nasik and 
other large district towns. Those in Khandesh are husbandmen 

cattle breeders. Sunnis iu name they know notliin^ of their 

on. Their daily life differs little from thiit. of iheir Knnhi 

bnnrs. It is cveu snid tbut some vi tbeui, uot kuomug their 

hulidaysj keep Hindu ones. They do not send their ehildren 

lickol. The Nasik MnltAuis arc dying out; but the Khandesh 

:\TG more autneruutij and as husbouduien are proapcroua 


BRjiaJls^ or wood sellers, are found in small numbers in NaBik, 
*i, Ahinednagar, Pooua, and all parts of the Deocan. In 
3 they are a mixed p<jpulatiou of Shaikhs and a few Syeds, 
r] Mc* reign of Aurnngzeh were joined by a large number 

■ ertfi, who were either wood-sellers when they were 
UHik to wood Belling when tliey became MusalmanH. They 
. ' the common Decean Musalm^ns, except that some of the 
men wear the Marathi robe and bodice. They are quiet and 
eriy, some of them given to <;aKyii smoking, but most of them 
, thrifty, and well-to-do. They sell wood both for building 
for fael, and buy wood from private sources lis well as at forest 
k They store it in tbtnr yards or compounds, and in open 
."ea wbich they bire for the purpose. The business though 
fitabte requires capital, and for this reason many have taken to 
er callings, chiefly private and Government service as messengers 
police constables. ITiey are Sunnisinname, but are not careful 
My their prayers. They form a separate community with one of 
ir number as head, who has power to settle disputes by small fines 
hich go to meet the expenses of the nearest mosque. They teach 
ir chddren a little Hindustani. None of them has risen to any 
gh post under Government. 

MALAfiAftia are rongbly estimated at about 200 souls. They 
generally stay in large towns, and never visit villages except 
for parposea of trade. Even in Nusik few are settled, almost all 
forward to the time when they shall have laid by enough to 
11 to their native land. They belong to the part Arab part local 
iUnity, which, in the beginning of the sixteenth century, the 
^...^iignese found established in strength on the Malabar coast. 
They are generally traders in Lides^ which they buy from the 
butchers in large towns and from the Mh4rs of surrounding villages, 
with whom they have regular dealings. Some send tho hides 
to Bombay and others to Madras. Othei*s trade in cocoanuts, dates, 
and coffee, which they bring either from Bombay or Malabar. The 
poorer members of the community retail glass and wax banglos. 
**hpv are a short, well-made people, wich black or rich Ijrowu skins, 
lu^'f narrow eyes, and an abundance of hair, which they say is due 
to their fondness for cocoanuts. Tho women are gaunt and strong, 
with regular but harsh features. The men shave the head and grow 
large bnshy beards and moustaches. Their homo tongue is Malabari, 
but they .speak HinduatAni with others. Tlie men wear white skuU- 
cnpH covered, out of doors, by long tightly-wound coloured kerchiefs. 
The well-to-do wear loose long shirts with tight jackets fastened 
either in the middle by buttons or on the side by broadcloth 
strings. Instead of trousers both men and women wear colourecl 

Chapter HI. 







ipter IIL 


waistcloths, /m/j;w, reacliing from the waist to the m ' ' 
women tie a scarf round their heads, and as an np|.ier g 
either a jacket or a looau shirt. Both men and women v 
or shoes. 'J'heir common food is rice, cocoauut*, ai 
they are fond of drinking water in which Hce Ima f 
mixed with a little chirified butter. Most of the Ndaik .. 
are more or leHH well-to-do. After a ten years* stay in a 

Elace, a Malabari is ^nerally able to return to his native land 
e starts a new business or becomes a husbandman. The 
families, though humble craftsmen, are rarely iu debt. T* 
hot-tempered the Malubdris are hardworking, the hit 
religious and steady, and the lower cksses, though 
cleatJy, neither sober nor particularly honest. All : 
moet of them of the Shafei school, and, except that they do uut kit-p 
many of the marriage and other cei-emonios, their customj* do utA 
differ from those of the local Musalmana. Ln Nasik they have M 
organisation as a separate community. They teach their rV " 
the Kurdn by rote and sometimes Malabdri, but no one hu 
known to give them an English or a Mamthi training. 

Of Craftsmen there are five classes, Tambats, coppor«T*:>*V'' - 
Kaghsis, paper-makers; Saikalgars, tinkers ; Telis or I' 
oil-preasers and cotton, cleaners, and Momins, weavers. 

TXmbats, or MisoARS, are immigrants from M^warand Rajnut'ina. 
and aro found in large numbers at Ahmodnngar, in less &; 
at N^ik, and thinly scattered over Khaudesh and other p^n^ >! 
the Deccau. Out of doors, the men speak Hindust&ui, bat at home 
and with the women they use a MarwAr dialect much mixed with 
Hindustani. They are of middle height, mnacular though not gtuatt*- 
with wheat-coloured skins, regular features, and scanty beards And 
moustaches. The men dress like common Ueccan Musalm^ns, except 
that, in-doors and when at work, they wear a waiatcloth instead of 
trousers. The women wear the head-scarf and short sleeveless shirty 
hidta, and, except a few who have lately given it np, the foil Mirwif 
petticoat. Some of the women's ornaments, each as the Murwdr 
chained anklets, are peculiar.^ As a class they are sober, truthfol 
and honest except in trade matters, hardworking, thrifty, cleanly, 
and well-to-do. They are tinkers and makers of copper and brasa 
vessels, driving a brisk ti-ade of which, to a great extent, they hav© 
the monopoly. Simnis in religion those at Ahmednagar and Nasik 
have latterly adopted very strait almost Wahhibi opinions, owing 
to the preaching of a Wahhilbi missionary, Maulavi Nurul Hudiii 
whose tollowcrs most of them are. They have a well organised 
community, whose head-quarters are at Ahmednagar and Nasik.* 
The yearly charity tax enjoined by the Muhammadioi law Bnpplies 
common funds, which are under the management of their bead* 
man. Money from the fund is spent in maintaining maulavu and 

^ TlwM are of aUver, the chains bendmg down from the middle and genermUv worth 
from £1 to £U (Ra. 10 • Tie, 140). 

' Tho hood of the N&aik uummuoity is a Tery intUli^QOt man named Hafii 



travellera who come from Bombay and Upper ladin, 

wing schools in which Hindustani, Arabic, and Persian, 

tl^^- relig^ious portions of Muhauamadaa learning, are 

T' - are increased by fines levied by the heads of 

I -ottling civil and some minor criminal dispates. 

f thora who know the Kurtin by heart place the title Hafix 

tlieir name. One of them, the late Hafiz Osmdu of 

nagnr rrme to be a m^mlatdur in Government service, one 

iBAttt-' ' tor in the BerarH, and many hold respectable 

the gu 't of Ut8 Highness cbe Nizam. 

15, or paper makers, form a small commanity whose 
were originally partly foreigners partly local converts. As 
urpoaes they formed a separate anion and for convenience 
same quarter of the town, they came to be looked on 
clasif. On a rough calculation they do not number 
}0 sonls. Besides in Naaik they are found in Erandol 
and in Daulatabad in His Highness the Niz^'a 
DQSy where they claim to be immigrants from Gujarit. 
a mixed class they have no special appearance. Their home 
is HindnstAni. They dress in Gujarat Musalman fashion, the 
aariiig a tarbau, a shirt, a coat, and trousers, and the women 
, a long shirt, and tr*)U3ers. The well-to-do have factories 
paper is made from rags and old scraps of paper, llie poorer 
the paper factories or as day labourers. The universal use 
Ush paper has much lessened their trade; those who, ten 
go, were well-to-do are now only fairly off, and those who were 
mhnve taken toother employments. The better off among 
ave enough for ordinary expenses, bat marriage and other 
charges swallow np their savings. The poorer are usually 
?d even for daily charges, and on special occasions are forced 
3W. They are sober, hardworking, steady, cleanly, honest, and 
18, Sannis in religion they believe in Shdh Gharib-un-nawdz 
idurbar in Khindesh, to whose descendants, when they come 
ikj each pays from 2/*. to 10«. (Ro. 1 - Ra 5). They form a 
,e community settling their smaller disputes among themselves, 
Dishing refractory members by fines of from 2w. to £10 (Re. 1- 
K)J which they S[>end in repairing mosqnes and in other 
works. The moat respected member of their community 
trally chosen headman. Some of them teach their children 
i, with the view of giving them an English education. 

kLOABd, or GhisIras, wandering blacksmiths, are a small 

nity of not more than 200 souls. Converted from Hinduism 

than fifteen years ago, though they cannot claim to belong 

of the four regular classes, they call themselves Shaikhs to 

clasa the Fakir, who converted them, belongs. Tho manner 

conversion was rather curious. A wild wandering people 

1 of worship, the Presbyterian missionaries of Niisik 

*o convert them. While the Gliisiirds wore hesitating 

to adopt Christianity, a Muhammadan Fakir from Bombay, 

nainted with their habits of thought, persuaded them to be 

ised and then explained to them the doctrines of IsUra. 


Chapter m. 




[Bom buy Qaxcttofr, 



»r III. 


Tbe (ihisainLs fix their camp at some town or village <-■ ' 
there is a supplj of knives to griud and touU to mend. \\ 
business dwindles they make a move. They are thin wiry 
black Bkins, high cheek bonas, and thick hpH. Latterly i__ , 
taken to shaving the head, but some still keep the Hindu top-kift. 
Since their conversion moat men wear the beard. The women drt-aa 
their hair rather oddly, plaiting each tress in a hcparate braid. Tart 
speak a mixlureofKduareaeand Mardthi, and, since their o" 
have added a considerable Hindnstani eleuieut. lu their 
with townspeople they speak a vile Hindustani. Their drt-i.- i- ivr^i 
to describe, as it i? little more than the rags and tattera ot 
clothes begged from their customers. Before their couversi* 
ate almost anything. Now they abstain from things forbiddi 
the Muhammadau law. Wandering ironsniiths and tinkers the 
make nails and tongs, and when they happen to be in villng«^i 
field and other tools. Their women help by blowing the ht 
andj when in towns, by gatheringbitsof iisan from dust heaps and dtuil 
hills, as material for thoir husbands* anvils. Though never pi 
for food they lead a hand to mouth life, always ready to spend wl 
little they earn in food and drink. They are making some ali 
progress towards a better life. Some of their women, in conspqni 
of the preaohinga of their patron, have given up the tattered 
open petticoat and taken to the long shirt and trousers, a cl 
that shows an improvement in means as well as in morals, 
character also is undergoing a change. As Hindns they were 
unclean, and given to drink and stealing. Since their couvei 
most have given up drinking as a habit and are better off 
formerly. They still cling to many of the vices of thoir f< 
state, but they have begun to look upon them a^ things Eorbi 
Sunnis in religion they look on the Fakir who converted them 
special reverence. They have a community, and regard aa 
head the viulla or other local religious authority. They hav* 
begun to give their children any training even in matters of religioi 

Telis, or oil-pressers, ai'e found only in Nasik and w< 
Khandesh, and Pi.vjahAs, or cotton cleaners, are thinly scattei 
over the whole Deccan. The N4*ik Tolis and Pinjants form one 
community, and are said both by thcm.selves and by others to be 
settlers from Gujarat. In Khandesh and in Ahlnednagar and other 
DoccAn cities, there are no Muhammadan Telis, and the PinjarAa or 
Naddafa aa they are CJiUedin Ahmednagar, are deacendaut-s of local 
converts to Islam. ^ The men are tall, somewhat stout and fair or 
wheat-coloured, with regular features, scanty beards, and shaveJi 
heads. The women are generally well made, handsome, and fair. 
Except that they always wear the waistcloth, the men dress in 
regular MusalmAn fashion. They are hardworking, thrifty, sober 
and honest, and, though Dot very prosperous or well-to-do, are d< 
scrimped for ordinary or special ex^ionsee and are not in del 
Cotton cleauei's and oil-pressers by craft they rarely ti»ke to anl 
other calling. Sunnis by religion, those of Nasik and w< 

N«dd4f in tu) Arftb word for cotton cleaner. 








believe in the Gujardt saint Bawa Ghor whose tomb is on 
ia, about fourteen miles above Broach. The AJiniednagar 
I Mlow the local Pirzadas. The Nasik community of 
ad Telia is under the management of a council of five. 
1 disputo or misconduct the usual penalty is temporary 
v.\ licfition, which, as in Gujarat, is known as wntor and 

tobacco stopping. Fines are also levied, and the amounts paid are 
kept in charge of the council, and, whou tbcy form a big enough 
HUfn^ a dinner is given to the community. In Kbandesh and the 
Doc4::an the community is not so well organised. Fines are unknown, 
and an ofFontler h punished by making him humbly beg the pardon 
of the members of the community. As a class the Deccan, 
e«peoially the Ahmednagar, cotton cleaners are held in little esteem. 
In general invitations, when all Musalmans are asked, the Naddafa 
form an exception, and no Ahmednagar Musahn^n will dine at 
the house of, or with, a NadJ^f. They do not give their children 
ftny schooling, and none of them has ever entered Government 

Servants are of two classes, Naikwaria and Kasbans. The other 
ecTvanta, such as Bhistis or wator-carriers and Dhobhis or washermen, 
are too few to form separate communities. 

NaikwAkip are found in large numbers in Nasik, KhAndesh, and 
Ahmednagar, and thinly sc^ittered over the other Deccan districts, 
They are said to be Maratha Knnbis whose forefathers were converted 
to Islam by Tippn's father Haidar Naik, from whom they take their 
name. After the fall of iSeringapatam they passed north as soldiers 
of fortune under the PeshwAsi, and many of them settled at Niisik, 
which, before and during the rci^u of Hiijirdo, was the chief seat of 
Maratha power. The home speech of those who live in villages is 
lifaratbi, while those who live in towns speak Hindustani with a 
plentifnl mixture of Marathi words and a strong Marathi accent. They 
are tall, thin, and muscular, with black skins and Maratha features, 
high cheek bones, rather sunken eyes, large and full lips, and 
irregular teeth. Though like them in other respects, the women 
are of a fuller habit of body than the men. The men let their hair 
grow, wear curled moustachet*, and, except a few who shave the chin, 
have beards parted and combed from the middle of the chin. The 
men dress like Mar^thds in large three-cornered turbans, short coat«, 
and waifitcloths ; very few have trousera. The shoes are of the Maratha 
shape. In villages and outlying towns the women wear the Mardtha 
robe and bodice, and, in towns and all over Kbandesh, dress in 
the Musalm^n shirt and trousers. They are quiet, hardworking, 
honest, thrifty, sober, and fond of amusement. They are generally 
soldiers, messengers, and constables, and a few are husbandmen. 
In Ahmednagar and Poena, some of them find employment with 
bankers as watchmen. Some are Sunnis and some who live in 
outlying porta keep many Hindu customs, calling a Brahman as 
well as a malla to their weddings. A few of the more educated are 
strait in their religious opinions, inclining, it is said, to Wahhitbi-ism. 
Thoy have a well organised community with their most intelligent 
and respected member as the heatl. The head has power to fine in 

Chapter III, 


T>-fvt at%fi 



[Bombay Oaietteer, 



Chapter III. 



cases of misconduct. The money realised from fines forms a 
common fund, from which public feasts are given. Very few sond 
their children to school, and, in Government service, nono haa 
risen higher than a head constable. 

Kasbaits, or NiiKAHS, dancing girls and prostitutes, form in Naaik 
a community of about a hundi-od souls. They do not claim to 
belang tu any of the fuur chief classes. They are mostly converted 
Hindus, with a certain numljer of foreigners who have got themselves 
euroUe<l in the community. They are found only in Nasik. Being 
a mixed class they have no common peculiarity of feature or form. 
Tho home speech is Hindustani, with a free sprinkling of Mar^thi 
words and with a strong Deccan accent and pronunciation. The 
oomniou dress is tho Marritha robe and bodice covering the 
back and fastened in a knot in front. Till they reach womnnhood, 
girls wear the short shirt with or without sleeves, and, in many 
cases, a bodice and trousers. All wear shoes ; the well-to-do tha 
light Hindustani shoe, the poor the plain baggy Deccan slipper, 
and a few of the moro coquettish English slippers and stockings. 
Sometimes a small waistcoat is used for winter wear. It is of plain 
or ornamented velvet, or of broadcloth, according to the means and 
taste of the wearer. The usual ornaments are a necklace, 
pendants or earrings, bangles, and loose bell auklota, known as 
kadtiitf which are always worn to give a gracefulness tu the walk 
by regulating it according to the chime of the bells. Fresh converts 
from Hinduism do not eat beef. Singing and dancing or prostitu- 
tion, or tho three together, form the occupation of the greater 
number. From the spread of reformed ideas and education among 
the youth of the present day their profession has of late become 
very poorly paid. The dancing girls trace the change to a general 
Jooseness of conduct and fondness for intrigue, which, they say, 
prevails among private women, as, under the British rule, tbe/j 
no longer fear the husband's sword or poniard. The days 
are gone by when a dancing girl was not uncommonly mistress of 
a village. Now the poorer, that is the plainer among them, can 
y irdly go to sleep with the certainty of to-morrow's breakfast, and 
the chances of the profession at times force even the better off to 
seek tho moneylender's help. They are proverbially crafty and 
faithless, and, though tidy and cleanly, are fond of amusement, and 
given to intoxication and intrigue. They have two special customs, 
the celebration of the first night on which a girl enters her profession, 
and the miV*t or day on which she first dyes her teeth with black 
dentrifice. The first ceremony lasts for fifteen days, during which all 
the women meet and dance and in retnrn are feasted. It costs from 
£10 to £100 (Rs. 100. Rs, 1000) or even more. The minsi is 
celebrated at the wish of the person under whose protection a girl 
happens to be. A dancing girl though of advanced years never 
performs the missi^ unless one of her masters is kind enough to 
bear the expense. The missi is celebrated by a round of feasts and 
dances for a certain number of days, on one of which the girl ia 
dressed in flowers and otherwise treated like a Mnhammadan 
This also costs from £10 (Rs. 100) upwards. Except some foreignei 



uo gill M.a I 

an bridca 



are Shi^ in religion, the N^ik Nflikans are Snnnis. They place 

" fiiith in Syed Muhammad who is bm*ied in the NAaik Pir«adfo' 

»e, aud at every anniversary of Lie death dance at his tomb 

loat payment. They have a community with a heatl who is 

lerally the girl whose ancestors are the oldest residents, "WTiea 

'w member joins the community she is made to give a dinner. 

rn1e« are enforced by eicommiinication or fine. They teach 

iip children nothing but their own profession. 

Pa'raiB numberod 130 souls (males 94, females 36). Moat are 
sbopkoepers or li({ in N&sikj Igatpori, and other towns. 
One 18 a chief constable at Devldli. 

j JOWS, forty-nine in number (males twenty-ninCj females twenty), 
Um employed as railway carriage painters in Igatpuri. One is a 
^^bftitman in the public works department, 

■Christians numbered loot souls (males C71, females 393) or0'13 

ffb cent of thy popalation. Tho only Christian village is Sharanpur 

for the City of Refuge. It was founded by the Reverend W. S. 

Ufaice of tho Church Mission Society in 18o4-, For some years 

^Bbre the establishment of a separate village, there was a Christian 

^Aool and orphanage in Nasik. It ivas thought that the institution 

would Hourish better outside of the town, where arrangements 

might \}e made to teach the children some useful calling, and 

where convertsjwould find refuge from the annoyance and persecution 

ihftt commonly follow a change of faith. A mile or so west of 

Nasik the grant of about eighty ot^ros of land with a yearly rental of 

iM 10^, 0(L (Rs. 3o-4-0), which was after wai-ds increased t<i 114 acres 

and £9 3*. 3»/. (Rt?. 91-10) rental, was obtained from Government, 

I and an orphanage, a missionary's home, schools, and workshops were 

It. In 1879, including sniidl communities at Devlali^ Igatpuri, 

iala, Fathardi, and Makhmulubadj the number of Christians was 

In that year t^velve adults and thirty-nine children were 

^isod. Of the twelve adults, one was a Brithraan, one a Kunbi, 

a goldsmith, and the rest Mhdrs. During 1879 the orphanage 

' itained eighty -nine boarders, thirteen of whom were new- 

lera. Unring the same year twenty-nine boarders left, chiefly 

chiUlren uf destitute parents who had been taken in during the 

'city of 1877 and were then sent back to their homes. Tho 

orphanage contributions amounted during 1879 to M96, and the 

disbursements to £395 leaving a net balance of £101. 

kThe workshops have trained a large number of artisans, who, 88 
ri ' blacksmiths, and bricklayers, find steady work, and 

} _-do. The estate is too small to divide into holdingst 

|i a home farm has lately been started which gives constant 
>rk to some of the villagers, and employs others during the busy 
Boason. In 1879, the farm yielded a net profit of £10 (Re. 100). 
8uofa of the converts as are not craftsmen earn their living as day 
l&bonrers. Most of tho villagers, except one or two Kunbi and 
Brahman families, were either MhArs or Mangs. All eat and drink 

Chapter IIL 





I Ciu|»ent(ire trunod at Sharanpur arc found at Igatpuri, Aurangi^bad, and Kagar, 


Chapter IIL 



IBombiiy Oaxettotr, 



judgo kazi, the inosquo*kocper muUtt, and the preacher khatih. 
There aro besides, the barber nhdvi^ the wanhorman parity the 
boteluut seller fdmholi, the carpenter #((/'ir, the blacksmith Jofia^, 
the potter kumbhir^ the tanner chlmhhat, aud the pold and 
silversmith soiuir. The viHage priests have no particnhir privileges. 
\n Home iuBtuuceH they hare private lands aud even cauh allowances; 
but they generally live on the villagers' free-will grifta. No villages 
are inhabited entirely by people of one caste. Each village 
contains houaoholda belonging to several castas, among whom are 
almost always Kunbis, Kolis, and Mhars. The village watchmen or 
jdtjlios^ arc usually either Kolia or Bhils. Village headmen, though 
nearly always Kunbis, are sometimes Kjinadas, Vanjaria, Musalm^ns^ 
aud UrahmauSj and, in villages near the Sahyddri hills, Konkanis, 
Thikurs, and Kolia, Some of them represent the family of the 
original founders of the village. But many are new men who 
have bought their position. They live almost entirely by 
cultivation. A few lend money^ but the practice is uncommon. 
Though ti-eated with a certain deference and appealed to as an 
arbitrator in debt and other disputes, the headman has, as a rale, 
no very largo share of authority. On threo chief occasions, Holi^ 
Polaj and Dagra, ho is treated with special respect, tminpaji. At 
the IToit (March- April) he lights the fire; at the Pola (July-Aagust) 
his cattle load the procession ; and at the Dasra (August -September) 
his sword gives the sacrificial buifaloits first wouud. When, owing 
to purchase, there is more than one family of headmen, it is usual to 
divide among them these tokens of headship, the different families 
tnking the place of honour at different festivals or in different years. 
In many coses no settlement has been made, and, to avoid ill-feelings 
the special tokens of respect have been given up. 

Next to the headman the moneylender and grain-dealer, 
generally a lately come MiirwAr Vani, is one of the leading villagers. 
He holds an independent position and seldom stands in need of 
the help of the headman to recover his debts. The village school- 
master is said to bave little authority and to be seldom consulted or 
used as a petition writer. The practice of living in one village and 
tilling the lands of another is common, and new settlers are not 
required to make any payment on joining a village. 

Craftsmen tend to gather in toipvns and large villages. But most 
villages of any size have still their blacksmith and carpenter who 
are able to meet most of tho husbandmen's wants and are paid by 
them either iu grain or in money. The village council, or punch, 
settles some caste questions, pettv disputes, and trifling money 
matters. The common pasture land, or gdyrtin, is free to the cattle 
of all alike without restriction or difference. The Ullage well is 
open to the use of all except Mh&rs and Ch^mbhars, who may not 
draw water from it but must beg water of others. Charitable and 
other public works are rarely undertaken by the xdllagers as a body. 
When a subscription bas to be raised it is usually taken in hand 
by the headman or some other trustworthy person, and he collects 
according to tho known ability of each, or more generally by an 
arrangement of so much on each house or plough. 

populaiion ia on tLe wliole BfAtiouary ; few either leave or 
the district. The follomog are the chief exceptioas. 
nan men go on pilgrimage to Benares and other distant places, 

many cases stay away for years. Youths, chiefly of the 

casU^s, after some schooling, leave tiieir homes and seek 
ivment at Indor, Gwaliorj Baroda, or Bombay. The youth as 

starts by himself, and, if sncce^afiil in finding a place, cornea 

nd takes his family with him. Among hereditary village 
atants this practice is very common. In many cases the actual 

is away and his work is done by aaubstitnte. Many labourers 
about the district in search of work. But few of them go far 
most all come back to their homes during the rains, when 
ind work either as field labourers or in tilling their land, 
ractico of leaving their homos is specially common among the 
Eknis and Kulis of the poor lands in the west on and below the 
dri hills. The yield of their fields is generally too small to 
•t them through the year, and during the fair season most of 
going into the Peint and other neighbouring forests, live by 
' and carrying timber and burning charcoal. In those parts 
is little either in their land or in their villages to bind the 

to one spot. A few deaths or long-continued sickness often 

whole village to flight. 

5i:>urce8 of employment, money-lending and handloom 
ig, draw strangers to the district. The foreign money- 
8 are Mdrwar Vanis, who keep coming in small numbers and 
w found in almost every part of the district. The foreign 
ra are chiefly Musalmdns from Pooua, Burhinpur, PAtan, 
, and even Lncknow and Benares, who are drawn to Yeola bj 
Enaud for its cotton and silk fabrics. 

[Bombay Oazetteer, 

Chapter IV. 


Anble L&nd 




AoRicuLTtTRE Bupporfcs aboTit 380,000 persons or a little more 

than one-half of the population.* 

The chief husbandmon are Kunbia, Mjllisj Thakurs, Kolia, Kon» 
kanis, Vaajdris, and Bhils. lu the rural parts, all classesj except 
Marwar and Gujar VAnis, work in the fields. Only in large towns 
do craftsmen support themaelves entirely by their crafts. Nasik 
husbandmen as a rule seem more intelligent and bettor off than 
those of other parts of the Deccan. They fully understand the value 
of irrigationj and, especially the Malis, grow the finest watered 

In 1878-79, including alienated lands, the total number of 
holdings was 63,194 with an avenige area of 32§ acres. Of the i 
whole number, 9537 were holdings of not more than five acrea^H 
6496 of from five to ten acres, 14,034 of from ten to twenty acres," 
26,867 of from twenty to fifty acres, 8987 of from fifty to 100 
acres, 2952 of from 1(10 to 200 acres, 201 of from 200 to 300 acres, 
ninety-four of from 300 to 400 acres, seventeen of from 400 to 600 
acres, eight of from 500 to 750 acres, and one of from 750 to 1 000 
acres. More than a hundred acres is considered a large, from fifty ; 
to a hundred a middle sized, and less than forty a small holding. ■ 

Of an area of 5395 square miles surveyed in detail, 180 are the^ 
lands of alienated villages. The rest, according to the revenue 
survey rotums, contains 2,401,128 acres or 71*96 per cent of amble 
land; 324,443 or 9 72 per cent of unarable; 336,979 or 1010 
per cent of grass; 162,238 or 4*86 per cent of forest reserves ; * 
and 112,170 or 3 34 per cent of village sites, roads, river beds, 
and hills. From the 2.401,128 acres of arable land, 163,386 or 
6'8 per cent have to be taken on account of alienated lands in 
Government villaffes. Of the balance of 2,237,742 acres, the actnal 
area of arable Govenment land, 1,892,908 or 8504 per cent were 
under tillage in 1879-80. Of these, 1,844,105 acres or 97*4 per 
cent were di-y crop, and 48,743 acres or 26 per cent were watered 
garden land. 

1 MateriRlBfrtrthegrMtervart of thin chapter hmv« been supplied by Mr. KAahiaAth 
MfcliftHev Thatte. Deputy Collector, and Mr. H. R. Cooke. C S. 

' The actual total 379.908 include* adult males 126,9IH ; their wive«, acrnrding 
trt the ordinary proportion of men to women. 119,911 ; and their children, 1.^.1,006. 
In the CGDStis'Ktatementi a Im-ge number of the momeu and children are brought 
under MinrolLtneouii. 

* The forest area has lately been increased to 1183 square milea. and, as atpreeenfc 
proposed, it will tinally include about 1613 square miles or about 1,032,320 acres 




ling to the 1S79-80 returns the farm stock amounted 

,875 ploughs, 24,450 carts, 173,443 bollocks, 151,626 cows, 

[71 buffaloGfi, 11,392 horses, 3660 asses, and 175^541 sheep 

goats. On an average there are about two pairs of bullocks for 

forty acres of arable land. 

%^ 1879-80, of 1,892,908 acres, the whole are under tillage, 293,371 

^fhi or 15'49 per cent were fallow or under gross. Of the 

Tvmaining 1,509,537 acres, 12,0S8 were twice cropped. Of the 

1 ,625 acres under tillage, Grain Crops occupied 1,223,329 acres 

'5*9 per c«nt, 699,318 of them under hajHy Penictllaria spicata; 

under jvdri, Sorghum vulgare; 191,191 under wheat, ^a^u, 

SBdtirum ; 13»684 under nay^', Eleusine coracana ; 50,840 

and sfiva, Panieum mi Hare and miliaccum; 40,570 uuder 

', Oryza sativa ; 1658 under maize, makka, Zea majs; and 

ider other grains of which details are not given. PuLfiBa 

167,376 acres or 1038 per cent, 65,377 of them under gram, 

\ra, Cieer ariotinum ; 42,484 under kiditk, Dolichos bitlorus ; 

under u'/ir?,Phaseolusmungo ; SlSSunderfur^Cajanus indicns; 

under lentils, mn/tur, Ervnm lens ; 2929 under peas, vdidjiUf 

loro Sftfimm ; 520 nndrr rnug, Phaaeolns radiatus ; and 3267 

andt*r<'fhH'r pulses. Oilseeds occupied 183,845 acres or ir40 per 

S of them nnder gingclly seed, /*/, Sesamum indicum ; 

itrr linseed. aUhi\ Linnta usitntissimum ; and 119,053 under 

\rd*nif VWhesina sativa; safflower, kardaij Carthamus tinctorius; 

rndnnt, hhuimutj^ Arachis hypogsea; and other oilseeds. Fibres 

tapied 13,147 acres or 0*81 per cent, 1 1,184 of them under cotton, 

r, Gossypium herbaceum ; 259 under Bombay hemp, 8an or tag, 

CrotolariA jnncea ; and 1704 under brown liemp, ambddi, Hibiscus 

canuahinus. Miscellaneods Croi's occupied 23,928 acres or 1*43 

cent, 7749 of them under sugarcane, k.^, Saccharum officinarum ; 

under chiUiea, mirchi, Capsicum frutcscens ; 1441 under 

tambdUiu, Nicotinna tabacum ; and the remaining 7413 

'Tarions vegetables and fruits. 

le arable laud is of two classes, hill or ddmjif lying below 
near the Sahyadria in the western sub-divisions of Igatpuri, 
tik, Peint, Dindori, Kalvan, and Baglan ; and plain or deski, lying 
(able-land further east. Hill lauds are poor, and, unless, which 
lorn the case, they are freely manured, ihey cannot yield yearly 
Except rice lands, after two or three years' cropping, they 
'6 to be left fallow for four or five years. As they wholly depend 
on rain for moisture they yield no watered or gai*den crops. The 

«il does not admit of deep ploughing, the cattle and tools are feeble, 
IB outturn is small, and the people, as a rule, are badly off. Part of 
is land, on hill slopes where no field tools can be used and where 
the soil is very shallow, is entirely tilled under the wood-ash, dalhi, 
Bystem. Except the hilly parts, the soil of the open country 
nearly alt black and is fairly rich, though good soil of a lighter 
lour is found in some places. Part of it, having the advantage of 
itercourses and wells, is watered, and the rest is used for rain and 
[.weather dry crops. Yearly crops are grown and fallows are 
torn wanted. In hilly and ixtcky places, as well as in extensive 

Chapter 17. 



Crop Area. 


[Bombay Ofttel 



ChapUr IV. 



Field Tooli. 


flat tractfl of gravelly eoil, tbe land is poor^ and the outtBrn, eapecislly 
in the case of rice laudn, is much smaller than among the western 

There are four kinds of soil : black kali, red mdl, red and black 
leordl, and light brown harad. Except in the uplands where some 
of it is poor, black eoil^ found mostly in the plain country near the 
beds of rivers, is often deep and very rich and yields excellent cold 
weather crops of wheat and gram. Red soil, which is stiffer and 
Bhallower, is found chiefly on hill slopes or plateaus, and yields good 
rainy season crops. Red and black, kordl, is found occasionally in 
hilly tracts, and yields gram, lentils, and other cold weather cro})8. 
Light brown, harad, the lightest of all, found on waving and hilly 
binds, is often strewn with boulders and mixed with lime uodulea. 
It never gives niorethau alight crop, and yields nothing at all when 
the rainfall is scanty. M 

Rainy season crops, the millets and several of the pulses, are ■ 
grown in poor reddish nplandsj and, sometimes for change, in rich 
black-Eoil fields. The pulses are grown singly or mixed with other ^ 
crop*). Except safflower or kardat which is grown in red land, wheat, | 
gram, and other cold weather crt>p3 are generally grown cither in the 
richer or in the lighter black s(.ila. Early crops remiire the ground 
to be well soaked with rain before they are sown in June; they want 
showers at intervals while they are growing, and again in September 
when they are ripening. Cold weather crops are sown after the 
October rains are over, and require some showers iu December. 
A well-timed fall of twenty-five inches is sufficient, but unseasonable 
heavy rain often does much harm. 

The field tools are : the plough, iiditffar, made of wood and fitted 
with a steel share plidl ; the hoe, valchar, a borizontul iron blade from 
three to four feet long fixed between two wooden uprights at the 
ends of a log of wood; the rake, c/ti/e, with wooden teeth; the _ 
scalping knife, khutye, used for weeding the g^rouud after it iafl 
ploughed ; the clod-crusher, jjhall or hficjiyi, a wooden board H 
twenty feet long and two fet»t broad, used for smoothing and. 
levelling the ground ; the drill, pdhhur, used for sowing millet and 
some other early crops, in parallel lines j the tnoghadf another 
drill with two or three tubes instead of four, used for sowing wheat, 
gram, and some other late crops, or added to the piibhar when a 
mixed crop is to be raised; the rdkya, like the vakhar but with a 
longer blade, used to smooth the surface and cover the seed ; and the 
small hoe, kulpe, with several T-shaped iron shares. Resides these, 
the husbandman generally owns a pair of carts gddds, hand-hoes 
kudah, spades pdvdds, sickles vilds, billhooks koylds, largo knives 
$ur{Sj iron crowbars pahdrs, and an axe kurhdd, M 

In hilly lands fit only for wood-ash tillage the plough is not used ; 
the surface is slightly loosened by the hand-hoe. The rest of (he hill 
hinds are worked by a plough lighter than that used in the plains. 
To bring a piece of waste plain land under tillage it is first broken by 
a heavy plough drawn by four bullocks. After the rains are over, it 
is ploughed four times from end to end so as thoroughly to uproot thQ 



vMdfi,^ which soon die when exposed to the sun and wind. When 
iKe first showorB of the next rainy season have softonod the clods, 
Uw Imnd i& aguin ploughed once or twice and weeded by the hoe^ once 
•long and once across the furrows, the second weeding being called 
Jt\din^. The clod-crusher, phnli, is afterwards dragged over the 
field to smooth and level its surface. 

In hill Iftnds, whether the field is sloping or flat, the seed is sown 
h' ^ " aud thick on a small plot of burnt ground, and the surface 
i'. i by an iron-tipped wooden hoe. When the thick sown 

•eedUug;^ are about ft foot high, they are planted in irregular rows 
in patches of prepared laud. 

Plain country sowing differs greatly from hill sowing. In the 
plftins both for the early and late crops, seed is sown in regular 
rows by the drill pdhhar. This drill has a wooden cup chdde, at 
the top, with a number of divtirging holes into which the upper ends 
of hollow bamboo tubes are fixed, the lower end of each bambtio 
being set in a wooden bill that stands out from a wooden bar aud 
is armed with a small iron tongue that furrows the ground. When 
at work, the driver keeps feeding the cup from a bag of grain hung 
to the mschiuej and the seed passes through the bamboo tubes into 
tlie small furrows cut by the iron tongues. The number of bills and 
tubes varies according to the seed. On the side next the sower each 
pipe hi%A small holes which show if there is anything in the way 
of the seed. To cover the seed a smoother rnkija, or a thorn harrow, 
is drawn over the ground. For gram and safflower which ai'e grown 
only in small quantities, the drill is not used. The seed is sown by the 
hand in furrows made by a light plough and covered by a smoother, 
or by a scalping knife. 

IiTigatioUj both from wells and from channels dependent on local 
rainfall, extends over more than 47,000 acres. It is pretty general 
ihrunghout the plains especially in Bagl4n, Sinnar, Ndsik, Chdndor, 
and Niphad. The cost for each acre varies according to circumstances 
frorn 2y to tlO (Re.l-Rs. 100). In Baglan it ranges from £6 to £7 
! ' ■i')-Rs.70) the acre of sugarcane, and the produce in a year 
, ; ^ I)rK"es varies from £15 to £20 (lis. 150-1J8.200). The chief 

watered crops are sugarcane, rice, wheat, millet, gram, udidy lentils, 
gnnundiiuts, chillies, grapes^ guavas, plantains, and vegetables. 
The water channels belong either to small or to large works. The 
buiull works, mostly under the Collector and managed by the people, 
are ilO»i weirs, handhnraa^ou the Godavari's and Tapti's tributaries; 
271 of them are permanent and the rest are renewed every year ; they 
water an urea of about 37,000 acres. Most of these weirs were made 
by the villagers from fifty to loO years ago. Some were built by 
private persons to whom rent-free lands were given in reward for 
their public spirit. Water rates on old irrigation works, estimated at 
the rate of not more than £1 (Us. 10) an acre and consolidated with 
the land revenue, are x^id whether the land is cropped or not, 
(Jdvernmont generally carry out petty repaii*s on those works at 
their own cost, but in some places the people have to puy for i*epaii*8, 

' The (thief w«C(3« »ra kvnda luid hnrydU ; the htndai from Ihe depth to which i^ 
■to<]i it« root*, M Rtoat hard tu get rid of. 

Chapter IV. 



[Bombay OasetUerJ 



lapter IV. 

Pdlkhed Canai 

VaddU Canal 

Ojhar Tdmhal 


In most villages where there are canals, there is, under the headmAn^ 
an hereditary officer called a channel-keeper, or jHitkart, who regaiates 
tho supply of water. Near new works ihe irrigated area is assessed 
every year at the rate of frt>m 2s. (Re. 1) an acre for monsoon dry- 
crops to 16«. (Rfl.8) for perennial crops. These rates apply to 
irrigation by flow ; only half as much is charged when the water has 
to be lifted. "Well irrigation, though not separately assessed, is 
estimated to cost from 2s, to 6fi. (Re.l-KB.3) and soroetimea as 
much as 16«. (Rs. 8) an acre. 

The large works/ which are under the Public Works Department, 
are the l*Alkhed canal in Dindori and Niphad an entirely new 
scheme, the Vadali canal in NiphAd an old scheme improved and 
enlarged, and the Ojhar Tambat canal also an old work in Dindori 
and Niphfld. The P^ilkhed canal is supplied from the Kadva river. 
The weir and head works are of rubble masonry. The weir, which is 
twenty feet high at the centre and 800 feet long, is built on a rocky 
barrier in the river about twenty miles above its meeting with the 
Godavari. The canal, which is eleven miles long, lies on the 
right bank, and, with ten miles of side channels, commands an arable 
area of about 20,000 acres in uiueteen Dindori and Niphad villages. 
The work was begun in 1868, but, on account of two accidents due 
to excessive floods, it was not opened till 1873-74. The total cost 
was £14,872 (Rs. 1,48,720). Tho discharging capacity at the head 
is sixty-three cubic foot a second. The river haa a large and never 
failing supply for six months, and needs only to be aided duriug 
the other six months by storage to make the canal very popular, and, 
when the Vdghad reservoir, partly built as a relief work in 1878, is i 
ready for use, irrigation will no doubt rapidly spread. ■ 

The Vadali canal, an old work improved and enlarged, is also " 
supplied from the K^dva river, llie weir, 620 feet long and eleven 
high at the centix*, is built on a rocky barrier near the village of 
Vadali, twelve miles below the weir of the Palkhed canal. The 
length of the old canal was 3J miles and tho area irrigated 318 
acres. The improvement-s, begun in 1866 and finished in 1868, 
included the raising of the weir nearly one foot, the widening of tho 
canal at the head to carry nineteen feet a second, and its extension 
to a total length of 8^ miles, commanding an arable area of 1702 
acres. Though it is more than enough during the rainy and cold 
seasons, the water supply fails during the hot months. The total 
cost was £2000 (Ks. 20,000). M 

The Ojhar Tambat canal, which was opened in 1873, is also an I 
old work improved and extended. It is supplied from the Bdnganga, 
a tributary of the Godavari, and from the waste water of the 
Pdlkhed canal. Tho weir is 258 feet long and twenty-three feet high, 
and the canal, which is on the right bank of the river, h two mues 
long and commands an area of 1405 acres. On this work £588 
12s. (Rs. 5836) were spent by His Highness Holkar, and £192 
(Rs. 1920) by the British Government to whom it was handed over 
in connection with certain territorial transfers. 

' The dctAils of the Urge Irrigntiou Works have btien supplied by Mr. J. D. Fergnsoa, 
C.E., Executive Kngincer for Irrigation, NAak. 




des these, the V%had and Khirdi i-eservoirs were begun in 1878 
ine relief works. The Vdghad reservoir, eighteen miles north of 
k, ifl in progress, but the Khirdi reservoir, eight miles from 
T«o1ft, b&8 been stopped for want of funds. The Vdghad reservoir ia 
decigoed to Ktore rain water for the canals below. When the work is 
fioMhed, it will consist of fin earth dam, across the Kolvan river, 4100 
feet long and ninety feet high at the centre. The flam will impound 
C25 million cubic feet of water within an area of 800 acres. Water, 
when required, will be let out by a masonry culvert and will flow 
ftV ' channel of tLe river to the Palkhed, Vadiili, and Ojhar 

T;, iiftU to aid their supply. The work will cost about £22,750 

(R*. 2,i7,60(>), and, by a furtlier expenditure of about the same 
unoant, can be made of twice its present capacity. The design of 
the Khirdi reservoir is to build an earthen dam, 2465 feet long and 
y-one feet high, across the Nitrindi river, and to cut an open 
nnel ten miles long leading to a reservoir close to Yeola and 
ff the lands on its way. The estimated cost is about £lSj310 

The Godftvari project has long been under the consideration 
of Government, and is now likely to be matured as a scheme 
for irricration on the right bank of the river from Nandur- 
"*' " Ijvar to Rahata in the Ahmednagar sub-division of Nevasa. 
■oil be of masonry, half a mile long and thirty feet high 
00 a rocky barrier in the river l)ed, and the canal, which wHIl be a 
hundred miles long, will protect an area of about 14i),000 acres 
almost wholly in that part of the Deccan, which is specially liable to 
staffer frotn drought. Exclusive of storage works, the lowest probable 
cost will bo at the rate of £1 (lis. 10) the protected aero. 

Besid^*s 5334 wells used for drinking, about 12,307 wells are used 
for wateiing the laud, and their number is yearly increasing. 
Of the whole number, about 1180 are with, and 11,200 without, 
jps. A good well waters from two to four acres and costs from 
to £100 (Rs.50a-R3.1000). The depth of water varies from 
ilx to thirty-two and averages nineteen feet. Besides the largo 
reservoir? mentioned above, there are about 140 small village 
reservoirs and ponds. 

The commonest manure is cattle dung mixed with house 
Bwee}>ings. The people store it in pits outside the villages, and, 
when it is seasoned, cart it to the fields. As much as forty 
cartloads are required for an acre of garden land. Every husband- 
man owns a number of cattle and can command a certain quantity of 
this manure. But the supply is always short and is usually eked 
out by gathering rubbish, burning it on the field, and ploughing in 
the ashes. For sugarcane and other rich crops hemp is sown, and, 
when the plants are two or three feet high, the land is ploughed 
and flooded, and the hemp, left for about twenty days, rots and 
forms an excellent manure. Rice roots are also a very useful 
fertiliser. To enrich the land by sheep droppings, shepherds are 
encouraged to graze their fiocks in the fields when fallow, the 
occupants in some places paying as much as 40. (Rs. 2) the hundred 
0h«ep for a single night. Though villagers shudder at the idea. 

Chapter IV. 

Vdghad A Khirdi] 




[Bombay Oazettoer, 




Chapter IV. |v)udrette, or sonkhat, is much used in and round Nasik. It iS 
Amculture. prepared by tlio Nasik municipality, and fotrhes a higher price' 
than other manures, boing 8old at the rate of 6iL (4 annas) a cnrtJoad. 
As it is strong and hot, it is used only where there is a good supply of 
water. Manure is used universally for watered crops, sometimes,' 
especially in the case of sheep droppings, for early dry crops when 
the manure gets soaked in by the early rains, but never for cold 
weather crops. 

When two or three inches high the crop reouires weeding. 
There are two modes of weeding, one by a sickle, or Ichnrpe, which ia 
generally practised in hill lands, and the other by a small hoe, or 
kulpe, with two or three shares ilrawu by two muzzled bullocks, Aa 
the hoe moves, the shares we^d the space between two rows of crop 
which, pass untouched between them. This is done two or thred 
times over. The uprooted weeds are gathered and thrown away or 
left to rot on the spot. Besides lessening the drain on the soil, 
weeding loosens the earth and enables it to take in and keep moro 
moisture. The crop root« havo froo scope and the plants grow 
vigorously. Without weeding the surface of the earth becomes hard 
and crusted, and the water, failing to soak in, washes away particles of 
soil. The early or raiuy season crops are weeded two or three times. 
Cold weather crops seldom want weeding as the ground is both too 
carefully cleaned and too dry to yield any large supply of weeds, 

BMping. There is considerable difference in the reaping, or saungani, of I 

the various crops. When udgli is wanted for immediate use, the 
heads are first cut and the stalks afterwards ; but as a rule the heads 
and stalks are cut together. After it is cut, the juigli is left to diy 
for two days and then stacked in the field till the end of December* 
Of vari and mva the ears only are picked, and the stalks are left 
in the field as they are not fit for fodder. In the case of jvdri the 
ears are gathered first and the stalks, kadln, cut afterwards. Of 
millet, rice, and watered wheat, the stalks are cut with the ears on, 
tied in small bundles, left to dry for two days in the field, and 
carried to the thrasliiug floor where they are stacked for several 
months, the best-lookiug ears being set apart in a separate bundle or 
in a stack for next year s seed. Before they are thrashed, the millet 
heads are separated from the stalks, aarmad, Unwatored wheat 
and gram are pulled out by the root, stacked for a time in the field, 
and taken to the thrashing floor when the other crops are ready. 
Tliraaluog. Grain is thrashed either in the field or in some place outside the 

village. The thrashing floor, or kkale, is prepared with much care, 
soaked with water, trampled by bullocks till it grows hard, and 
twice or thrice smeared vnth cow ilung. When the floor is ready, 
in some places the heads, in other places as in Malegaon and Baglan 
where fodder is plentiful, the stalks and heads, are strewn some 
inches deep. On these, round a central post, three or four muzzled 
bullocks tread till all the gi'ain is crushed out of the heads. Where 
the quantity is too small to make it worth while to use bullocks, 
the grain is beaten out by a rod or flail. On account of its thorns 
safiQower is seldom taken to the thrashing floor ; it is beaten with 
rods in the field or on some rock close to the field. 



Winnomng is the next proceaa after thrashing. On a breezy day, 
Iko wianower stands ia the thrashing floor, on a high wooden bench, 
4»r*t *nd^ne or two workmen keep handing him hiwjketfulR of chaff 
Ukd grain. These he skilfully pours out so that the chaff is blown 
away and the grain faJlH in a heap. Part of the chaff is gathered 
•fld used for fodder, and the grain is taken to the husbandmaa's 

To refresh the aoil both fallows and changes of crop are made use 
of, the practice varying according to the place and soil. After 
BTCfy two or three years of cropping, hill lauds require four or ^ve 
years of rtst. The succession of crops varies according to the crop, 
ike soil, and the manure. Low-lying lands need no change, and, 
in a few special tracts, rich black soils yield wheat for several 
years together. In such lands when the outturn begone to fall, 
wheat is replaced by gram for the first year, millet for the second 
and aaftlower or tur for the third. In the fourth year Indian millet 
18 •ometimes grown, but, as a rule, wheat follows the safBower or 
<ur. The poorer hill lands are sown with nd-yli in the first year. 
With vari or sdva in the second, andy where level enough, with 
kkur6*ni in the third. Khurdsni also takes the place of vari or adva 
as a second year crop, and is sometimes mixed with ndqli, ran\ 
or sdra. The better Borts of hill land are sown the first year 
with ndgli or khurdsni, the second with vari, ifdva, or udid, and the 
third with khunisni or udid. When waste plain land is brought 
under tillage, if the soil is poor and redclish the first crop is 
kkurd.^, if it is red-black the first crop is safflower, and if it is rich 
black the first crop is gram. These plants tone down the harshness 
of the soil, and the oxalic acid that drops from the gram leaves kills 
weeds and grass. In light plain lands the usual order of crops is : 
in the first year, kkunUni, knrdai or nd<jli, and, whore possible, a 
tmall qoantity of jvdri ; in the second year, hdjri mixed with hemp 
and h\dga, Dolichos bifiorus; and in the third year one of the first 
jiear's crops. In heavy soils, hdJri mixed with tur or other pulses, 

mmmbdili, hulga J v4id, QXiil rdla or sdva are sown in the first year; 
^^^leat alone or mixed with kardai SiXid gram or mustard seed in the 

' second and third years ; and one of the first year's crops or gram in 
the fonKh year. In N^ndgaon and Yeola, hdjri and til take the 
place of khurd^ini and ndgli. In good soils, when the season allows 
tl, a second crop of gram, lentils, peas, or safflower, is raised after 
bdjri, udid, and rata. In garden lands no regular order is kept. 
An early cn>p of hdjri, ndgli, udid, or rice, is followed by a late 
crop of wheat, gram, lentils, and methi, Trigonella foenumgraecum, 
or some other vegetable. Sugarcane greatly exhausts the soil, and 
two to three years should pass before it is again planted in the 
same land. Between the first and second sugarcane plantings the 
intermediate crops are carrots, onions or garlic, rice, kondya or hot 
wefttheryvtirt, frJ/rt, wheat, gram, and groundnut. Kor^ya jvdri, 
which ia grown chiefly for fodder, is sown in March and reaped in 
June or July. 

The hill wood-ash or daUd tillage, to which reference has already 
, been made, is of sufficient consequence to call for a detailed 







Bombay Gazetteer, 



Chapter IV. 





description. This kind of cultivation is a necessity where there is a 
ahallow light soil and a heavy but short rainfall. In December and 
January, a brushwood -covered plot of land is chosen and ita 
bushes and grassj and Homciimca brnnchefl from the neighbourin|J 
trees, are cut and stacked. In April or May when the loppiuga, 
Tab, are thoroughly dry they are spread on the plot of land and aet 
on fire. First the shrubs and tree branches are laid, then a layer of 
grass, and, to prevent the fire from spreading into the neighbouring 
brushwood, the whole is pressed down by a light layer of earth and 
lumps of cowdung. About the middle of May, in the Rohlul 
Naktthatra when rain begins in tho hills, the burnt plot is cleared and 
sown, the first year with ndijlip and the second year with vari or sdva, 
Tho seed is skilfully scattered and the ground loosened with the 
sickle or kkiirpe. At the same time the rest of the clearing is loosened 
and weeded. Tho plants must l>e forced on or thoy wither. When 
five or six inches high the seedlings are pulled out and thrown 
singly in irregular rows four to six inches apart on the unbuvnki 
part of the clearing, each plant sloping upwards so as to be supported] 
by the earth immediately above it. In two or three days the rootJ 
strike, and in a week or two the stalks have stiffened and the plan(a] 
begin to stand upright. A few seedlings are left on the bumi 
patch, but they yield less than those that are planted out. Before i1 
ripens the crop is twice weeded with the sickle or khurj)e. 

The following are some details of the culture of the chief crops 
Millet, hajri, Penicillaria spicata, with, in 1879-80, a tillage area a 
699,318 acres, is the people's staple food. It is grown in red or md 
lands mixed with tnr^ being sown iu June and reaped in an ordinary, 
season towards the end of September. If it is in garden land or 
if there is want of i-ain it is watered from a well or a channel, 2>rt/, 
Millet stalks, sarmad, are used as fodder. They are cut with tho 
ears on, and, after drying iu the field for two days, are taken to the 
thrashing floor and stored for sevond months. Before thrashing, 
except in BagMa and Malegaon where there is plenty of fodder, the 
heads are cut off and separately trodden under bullocks' feet. 


Wheat, gahu, Triticum sestivum, with, in 1879-80, a tillage ai 
of 191,191 acres, cornea next in importance. It is grown in all* 
sub-divisions, and is either a dry or a watered cold-weather crop. , 
Wheat is of five kinds, ban^hi or bak^fhi, tldudkhdni, kdfhe, botikf", and! 
khaple also called khavdc or jdde. Of these hiinshi is a watered crop^l 
ddudkhdnit kdthe, and hodke are dry crops, and kkapU is Iwth dry 
and watered. Banshi, also called bdhmani, a yellowish wheat, the 
favourite kind in garden land, is soft, large or middle sized, and 
black bearded. Next to it comes ddudkhdni wheat which is yellow^ 
Kdthe, hodke or the beardless, and khaple are hard, reddish, ana| 
small grained. Khaple is as good aa dd-iidkhdnif but wants much 
clari6ed butter when it is used as food, i'o^e, a local variety of 
over-watered ddudkhdni, is soft yellow and small grained, aud is 
generally chosen as a second crop. It grows only on sandy and 
poor soils. Land set apart for wheat is ploughed after the previous 
crop is over, and two or three months later it is harrowed* Af 



ftnt rain it is twice ploughed along and across^ and imTncdiately 

fiowing ia ag&io ploughed and harrowed. In this way 

land ia carefally prepared and the weed roots picked out. 

ia sown from September to November and reaped from 

to April. From tweuty-four to eighty pounds of seed are 

to sow an acre. Except as a dry cold-weatber crop it is 

lys manured. In December wheat is sometimes attacked 

■* "tildew which shrivels the grain. When ripe the plants, 

a watered hiada where their hold is firmer, are palled out 

bound into large sheaves, carried on carts to the 

>r, and trodden under bullocks' feet. The average acre 

is about 300 pounds in dry, and 780 pounds in garden 

Is. The produce is more than enongh for the local demand, 

!pt on foast dayg, when even the poor use it, wheat is not much 

in the villages except by Musalm^ns and firahmans. It is 

trallj prepared with clarified butter, and sometimes with 

>« or sugar. The imports, mostly brought to the railway to 

forwarded, are from the Nizam's territory, Mdlwa, Berdr, and 

ir. The export is idmost entirely to Bombay, 

Indian niillot, Jvdn, Sorg-lnnn vulj^are, had, in 1879-80, a tillage 
of 104,1 3-i aoro.s. After can->fully preparing the land, jvar* is 
iwn at the end of the rains (October), and reaped at the close of 
Iho cold weather (March). The ears are first gathered and the 
tiiSks, Icjjilhi, afterwai-ds cat. Immediately after the harvest the 
in is trodden out by buUocks. The stalks arc a valuable fodder. 

Niitjliy Eleusine coracana, with, in 1879-80, a tillage area of 

3,854 acres, and rtnri and ^^r^, Panicum miliare and miliaoeum, 

50,840 acres, are grown in hill lands, sometimes under the 

-ash, d^Uii, system. The seed is sown in burnt beds in the 

{>art pf May, the seedlings are planted out in June or July, 

the ertip i» reaped in October. The ears, except those of na^li 

ch are sometimes cut with the stalks, are picked separately, 

d thrashed by beating them with a rod, or trampling them under 

nllockft' hoofs. These grains form the staple food of the poorer 

lo near the Sahyddris, but are seldom used by the richer classes. 

»nc, hhai, Oryza aativa, with, in 1879-80, a tillage area of 
»,570 acres, is grown in the better sorts of dark hill land, 
knd in plain garden lands. In hill lands the seedlings are raised 
»n a sloping plot of burnt ground outside the field. The seed ia 
broadcast in the plot, and the surface lightly ploughed so 
lo cover the seed. Fields which receive a sure supply of water 
ield rice every year. In plain garden lands, where it is not easy 
bam a plot of ground as a seedling nursery, the seed is soaked 
water, and, as soon as it begins to sprout, is sown broadcast either 
the whole field or in a plot set apart as a seedling bed. 
iwhilo, when rain has fallen, the whole field is ploughed four 
s in different directions, flooded with water, and once 
lied 80 as to reduce the soil to fine mud. The deeper 
lad ihe better are the prospects of the crop. After fifteen 
the seedlings are set ont in bunches of five to eight 

Chapter IV. 





Cajan Pta, 





(Bombay Oaietteei* 


plaate. Water is always allowed to gather in the field till the ears 
are out, or rather till they begin to ripen. A scarcity of water 
spoils the crop as the soil cracks and lays bare the roots. No weediug 
is wanted. Irrigated rice crope are always late, not ripening tiU 
NoTember or December. Rice is reaped with the straw, which, when 
the heads have been thrashed, serves as fodder. Rice is used daily 
by the well-to-do and by others on festive occasions. It is sometimes 
sent in small quantities to Ahmednagar. 

Gram, harbharay Cicer arietinum, had, in 1879-80, a tillage area 
of 65,377 acres. For gram the land is carefully prepared and well 
weeded. It ia sown from the beginning of October to the end of 
November, and is reaped in March. As already noticed, it is some- 
times grown on new land, as the oxalic acid from its leaves kills the 
weeds. Gram is much esteemed as food both for men and for horsea. 
Like other peas and beans gram is generally used in the form of split 
pulse, ddlf which is made by soaking the pea in water, ond after 
letting it dry separating the halves by grinding. It is also eaten 
parched. The plants servo as fodder and as a vegetable. Gram is 
sent in small quantities to Bombay and other places. 

Cajan Pea, <»r, Cajanus indicns, had, in 1879-80, a tillage area 
of 8188 acres. Almost every one uses tur. It is sown in alternate 
lines with cotton or some other plant in June or July, and is reaped ia 
September and October. It yields a superior yellow pulse, ddl, only 
a little less valuable than gram. The stalks are generally used 
as fuel by the poor, and yield a charcoal which is much valued in 
making gunpowder. 

Black Gram, iidid, Phaseolus mungo, had, in 1879-80, a tillage 
area of 36,781 acres. Tlie plant is used as food for cattle, and its 
pulse, though less valued as food for men, is considered the most 
fattening grain for horned cattle, and bears about the same market 
value as gram. The crop is never grown alone, but under some tali 
plant such as common millet. 

Peas, vdldna, Pisum sativum, had, in 1879-80, a tillage area of 
2929 acres. The chopped straw forms a most nourishing fodder. 

Lentils, viamr, Ervum lens, had, in 1879-80, a tillage area 
of 7830 acres, chiefly in the western sub-divisions. Lentils are sown 
in October and harvested in February, and are sent to Bombay in 
small quantities. 

Green Gram, mug, Phaseolus radiatus, had, in 1879-80, a tillage 
area of 520 acres. It is sparingly grown for its split pulse which is 
nsed in various ways. 

Sesame, til, Sesamum indicum, with, in 1879-80, a tillage area 
of 53,958 acres, is sown in June or July and reaped in October. It ia 
grown almost entirely north of the Satmalas. The oil is used both, 
for cooking and for burning. The cakes form an excellent food for 

Linseed, alM, Linnm nsitatissimnm, with, in 1879-80, a tillage 
area of 10,834 acres, is sown in October and reaped in January. It 
is sent in large quantities to Bombay. 


»tk| hdpus, Gossvpiam herbaceutu. Lad, in 1S79-80, a tillage 
of only ll,l8i acres. Besides indigenous, gdvrdnt, cotton, 
HingunghAt and acclimatified Dhdrwararc grown, but only in 
in and in a few Naudgaon villages. Tlie seeds are used as food 
kttle. Tbe area under indigenous cotton has increased from 
a<:res in 187o-70 to o022 acres in 1878-79, while the area under 
cotton has fallen from 8010 acres in 1675-70 to 1886 acres 
(73-79. The system of tillage ia the same as in Khandesh. 
;li is used locally, and the rest goes to Manrnad where there ia 
cotton press, and thence by rail to Bombay. The Maumdd press 
chiefly fed by cotton from Khdndesh. 

Tobacco, tanibdkhv, Nicotiana tabacum, with, in 1879-80, a tillage 

of 1441 acres, is raised all over the district in small quantities 

of inferior size and quality. It is grown in all lands but thrives 

It in whitish hoil near village sitee, or in Lght alluvial soil on the 

doping banks of rivers and streams. It is sown broadcast in July in 

11 plots, and the seedlings are set ont in August or September 

rhen they are about three inches high. The crop is ready for cutting 

in January or even earlier. To strengthen the leaves the main shoots 

tve to be nipped, and this destruction of life is one of the reasons 

rby the area under tobacco is so small. No well-to-do Kuubi will 

row it. The cultivation is generally entrusted to a Bhil or a Koli who 

half the produce for his labour. When the leaves are ripe they 

ite nipped off and three or four of them are laid one over the other 

m the sun to dry. They are turned, from time to time, and after 

fortnight sprinkled with water, sometimes mixed with the sap of 

igo-tree bark or the juice of a coarse grass called surady and 

Led in underground pits, or, if the quantity be large, stacked 

loeelj in the open air for eight days. This heightens the colour 

the leaf and improves its flavour. 

Sugarcane, us^ Sacchamm officinamm, with, in 1879-80, a tillage 
area of 7749 acres, is one of the most paying of watered crops, 
and yery great cai'e is taken in its growth. Four kinds of sugar- 
cane are grown, whit^ Jchadya, striped bangdya, black kdla or tdmhda, 
and Mauritins called bcuo. The last is grown only to a very limited 
extent near Ndaik and Devldli. The ground is ploughed from corner 
to oomer seven or eight times. Weeds, which are seldom found in 
•watered lands, are carefully picked out as the ploughing goes on. 
The clods are broken and levelled, anda good deal of manure is spread 
over and mixed with the earth either by hand or by a light rake, 
date. Furrows, six inches deep and about IJ feet apart, are cut 
by a deep plougla, divided into small beds, and watered. Sugarcane 
cuttings, about a foot long and three or four inches apart, are thrown 
into the furrows lengthwise, and pressed by the foot to drive them 
into the ground. Planted in this way sugarcane is called 
ilya 119 It is moat suited to a sballowish soil. In the case 
the white or khadya cane, the cuttings are thrown into the 
furrows Mrithont dividing the land into beds, and after levelling 
the furrows by a beam harrow, the plantation is freely watered. 
Sagarcano grown in this way is called ndngrya its. The ndngrya 
us being deeper set stands a scanty supply of water better 




t Bombay <kt 



Chapter IV. 





than the pdvhjaj and if regularly watered comes to 
perfection than the other. The cuttings are planted in Jani 
FobfUJiry, and more often in March, and begin to Fprovt 
about fifteen or twenty days. Before it is five feet high the 
twice or thrice carefully weeded. No further cleaning is 
as weeds do not thrive under the shade of grown canea. 
the rains set in, when the crop is not more than three 
high, except the white variety which wants only nbout ha 
much water, the cano requires a weekly watering, and after 
rains, a watering every twelve or fift-een days. The crop takes 
eleven months to ripen. The mill consists of two bdbhul rol 
called husband and wife, navrn. navri, woHced by two or 
bullocks. A cano pipe joins the mill to the boiling pan w 
is under the charge of the owner of the cano or of sorn' ' ' 
trustworthy person, as the work of choosing tlie proper 
which to take the pan off the fire requires mnch kn<-' 

and care. As the fire must bo kept burning fiercely, ;._.. 

loppings are, as much as possible, nsed for fuel. Two men aio 
required to feed the furnace, two to drive the bullocks nod 
cut and supply the cane, «one to feed the rollers, and one to 
see that the juice pii>e runs freely. The sugar mills are the 
resort of all the villago when work time is over, and the smooth 
floor in which the moiilds for the hot juice are built is pleasantlf 
lit by the glow of the furnace. The white cane, khadya, thoxxpk 
very hard and coarse for eating, fields the best molasses, and urn 
crop requires less labour and care. It is found over almtist the 
whole district. In Malegaon and part of Yeola, the striped hdn^dya 
cane is chiefly grown, but it is seldom pressed. Mauritius cane 
requires the greatest care as regards water and manure, and thd 
molasses are generally inferior. Sugarcane pressing usually goes on 
during the nights of the cold season, beginning with January. U 
employs a groat number of hands. At the time of pressing, the 
owners never refuse cane or J nice to any one, and crowds of 
beggars throng their fields. They even call passers-by to take 
some of their sugarcane and juice, believing that free-handed gifts 
are i-ewarded by a plentiful outturn. 

Vines, drdksh, Vitis vinifera, of three kinds, ahdi, vhdkdi or phdkiri 
and kdlif havo for long been grown by Kunbia and M^lis in Naaik and 
ChAndor. Tho vineyards are in rich garden lands carefully fenced. 
Cuttings are laid in September and set out in April and May. 
land is ploughed and made ready as for sugarcane. Parallel 
eight feet apart are drawn along and across. At the crossings, 
which are marked by small sticks, holes a foot and a half deep and 
& foot broad are dug, and filled with half a basket of well seaeoaed 
manure. The cuttings are then planted in tho holes and watered 
every fourth day, until they sprout strongly. Then they are 
regularly watered every ten or twelve days, and given poudrctto 
and other rich manure. Tho shoots are at first trained on diy 
Bticks, and, after about four months, on forked pdngdra, Erythrina 
indicA, stakes three or four feet high and three to four inches 
thick. Theso take root readily and are oft€u trimmed bo aa not 


too freely. la the rains most of them are allowed to grow, 

it the upper shoota may^supply the place of any stakes that die. 

it r(*aches the fork, the top of the vino is lopped to force the 

■\<r oat side shooU, These side shoots, rebtingonthe 

-.aches, keep the heavy weight of the top shoots and the 

iroro dragging the plant to the ground. Vines boar fruit from 

jcond year, and, if properly cared for, go on yielding for 

than a century. They are triuimed twice a year in Chaiirn 

rcb- April) and Ashvin (September-October), and they be»r 

about four or five months after each trimming. The first 

■comes in the rainy season, does not ripen. The grapes 

I'l are sometimes used for pickles and jams, but are 

fraliy allowed to decay on the tree. In Phfihjun (Febniary- 

l) four or 5ve months after the second triauuiiig, the vines 

good sweet gi^apes and the loppings then made are used for 

jyarda. Vines wore formerly largely grown in Niisik and 

ipur about four miles off, but about seven years ago they were 

by a disease and most of the vineyards hud to be destrciyed, 

aIbo suffered considerably during the recent years of scanty 

(187(^-1877), but their cultivation is still carried on. 

Gaavas, ptru, Paidiura gnava, are reared from seed and planted 
iiol when three or four years old. As they grow to a large sizcj the 
distance between the trees is greater than between vines. The 
guara bears fruit from the second or third year after planting, and 
contiuDBB to yield for about six or aevcn years, when the tree is 

Pliuitains, kefy Musa paradisica, are grown from shoots. As soon 
aa a bunch of plantains appears on the tree, only one shoot, styled 
the daughter, or kdr, is allowed to grow. When this has borne fruit, 
the plantation is generally destroyed, but occasionally a grand- 
daughter, ruHp is allowed to grow. A plantain seldom remains in 
the ground for more than three and a half years. The land is 
ftfterwartla used for chilh'es, groundnuts, and other hght crops. 

' ' . battita, Solanum tuberosum, are grown to a small extent, 

a« . _, u crop, by Kunbis and Malie. They were introduced into 
the district about forty years ago by a European cultivator named 
Grftot.' The people, at first, objected to use them, but the feeling 


1 Mr. Qrftnt obt«incd from GovommeDt 154 acres (257 biyyiM) of I»Dd near Kdsik 
RDt-free for five ye&ra. About fourteen cwt of ohoice Nilgiri, Surat, and Mahiba- 
Imhvar potatoes were aowu. The coit of tbe need was £22 (Rs, 220) and tbe coat of 
iilUgo amountMl to £C (Ra. 6). Tbe crop was Bucc«csfnl. Abriut s^ven tons (201 
) the produce of three acres (6ve biuhiU) waa sold for £120 (Rs. 120O) ; part of the 
which wa« k^pt- for seed, waa diatributc<l ainoDK the hufthaiidnmu who soon 
alive • iiie of the crop. One Ab&ji Fiitil obtamed from the Agri- 

ealtural riec of a cart and a pair of bullocks for tbu siiT>erior quality of 

toes, ... i -..J lue potatoes groMn in Mr. Grant's fiebl were the largest of any 
protlured in the Presidency. In adilition to supplying local wants N&stk 
found their way to the Mdlegaon and Mbow cantonments. Bcsidct) tntro- 
_ potatoes Mr. Cirant brought many grass seetls from France, Italy, and Malta. 
Xadigo and Uppt:r Georgian grecD'Seeded cotton and Bombay mango trees and coffse 
phuaUwere also tried, but allTailctd. Mauritius sugarcane, peas, and European vege- 
iablea were grown to considerable extent and the seeds distributed among the people, 
■* Bflv. R«c. 1339 of IW2, 89-95, U5, 


'Bombay Gazfitt«i 



apter IV. 




gradually irore off, and potatoes have now altogether taken the plac< 
of the local sweet variety, ra^rt/w. They are planted in the months 
of Ckaitra, Vainkdkh, and JcM (March - J nne), and ripen f roi 
August to October. To make it ready for potatoes, land does not 
want much care or trouble. The potatoes are cut into two or three 
pieces, each with some shoots, and are laid in furrows half a foot j 
from each other, and coveretl with earth by means of a harruw«S 
The crop is watered every eighth day and requires careful weedin^^ 
and manuring. Tlie ground near each plant is kept as loose as 
possible, to lot the roots grow freely. When ready (August' 
October), the potatoes are ploughed and dug out. As they are not 
stored in pits for any time, they do not last long, and are mostly^^ 
used in the district, only a few being sent to Bombay. 

Groundnuts, hh.uunu(f, Arachis hypogffia, are grown to a fair 
extent. It is a hardy and certain crop and pays well, the cost of 
tillage being small. After the land has been ploughed and smoothed, 
furrows are ploughed close together, and the seed is dropped into 
them by the hand at intervals of about an inch, and covered with 
earth by means of a hairow. This is done soon after the rains set 
in, and the nuts want no watering till the rains are over. After- 
wards they are watered every fifteenth day, until December when 
they begin to droop and are ready for digging. They should he 
several times weeded, but want no manure. Women and children 
dig out the nuts- This is an easy and a popular work, as, while 
digging, they can eat as much as they like, besides getting a good 
supply of nuts as wages. Bhils are often seen wandering in gangs 
in search of jobs of this sort, armod with the heavy crowbars that 
are used in turning up the tangled roots. 

Betel Leaf, pan. Piper betel, requires close care and attention and 
grows only in specially selected tracts. A year before the young 
plants are ready, the ground chosen as a betel leaf garden is 
surrounded with a thick hedge of milkbush, to which an outer 
fence of coarse grass matting is afterwards added. The ground is 
dug a foot or more deep and reduced to fine powder. In the land 
thus prepared, shtri'ri, pdnyaraj and hadga seeds are sown in regular 
rows close to each other to form supports to the betel vines. 
"When the supports are four or five feet high, the garden is 
divided into beds three feet long by two broad, each with a water 
channel and a long trench. In the trenches, about a foot and a half 
from each other, betel-vine cuttings are set and earth is heaped all 
round. For twenty-one days, the cuttings are shaded from tho sua 
by a covering of leaves and branches, and watered daily with well 
water. For the first two months, the young shoots are trained on 
dry sticks, and then on the pcijigdra and other living supports. 
After twelve months the top shoots of the creeper are drawn down 
the tree, twisted in circles, covered with earth, and the shoots 
again trained up the stem. This is done every year in April and 
May, when the garden is enriched by a layer of new earth, from sir 
to eight inches deep. Owing to the change this causes in the level 
of the bods and of the water channels, betel leaf gardens are alwayi 
watered from wells and never from rivers or streams. The 
begins to yield eatable leaves after twelve months from the time 

Iways ■ 
I vine ■ 
cne of ■ 



itiog, and continues to bear for twenty or thirty yeAra. A stunted 
mchhij gives tho best leaves, soft, smooth, and full of ta^t^?, while 
ou a growing shuot, pharpttiijaj aro coarse. Of bakshl and 
yatthe two kindts of vines, ^i/H6</ya yields a quicker return, and 
xiki a bettor and larger crop. Tho vines remain in the ground 
from fifteen to twenty years. The acre yield varies from £15 to 
fO (Ra. 160 -Rs. 700^) a year. The betel leaves of the Siunar sub- 
vi^i'>n are considered the best, though, like those of Vaddli in 
lor, they suffered severely during the drought of 1876-77. 
^"-TS of betel leaf gardens are generally Brdhmans, Tambolis, 
s, who do not work with their own hands but employ work- 
men ut liiL* Mtili caste. Betel leaf is the most costly and troublesome 
rrf>[> in the diHtrict, and cannot be carried on without the aid of 
ierable capital. From £40 to £60 (Rs. 400- Rs. 600) are often 
J _ _: on a betel leaf garden before it yields any return, 

Cbinf<»q. mtrchi, Capsicum fratescens, with, in 1879-80, a tillage 
^" 25 ar-res, is the most important crop grown in garden lands. 

]• . ted in July and gathered in January. It does not want 
manure, but requires watering aftor tho rains are over. 

is much irrigated land near N4sik where all sorts of 
s s ore raised. Cattle dung and poudrette are froely used 

as m&Dure. Since the opening of the railway most of the produce is 
aent to Bombay. 

Bars of wheat smitten, the people say, by the east wind, grow 
^<^d, shrivelled, and light, and the grains in millet heads, 
ftttiu*ked with mildew, turn into black powder. These blights are 
never so general as to affect the harvest, and no precautions are taken 
against them. Frosts often damage garden produce, killing rows 
or vines, and fields of chillies, groundnuts, eggplants, and other 
-• — tables. Pulses are sometimes attacked by caterjnllars. Locusts, 
lid, never appeared between 1805 and the autumn of 1878, 
ttlicu parts of Sinnar and Igatpuri were attacked by swarms of 
these insecta. 

The great Durgfldevi famine, which lasted from 1396 to 1407, is 
said to have caused as much ruin in Nasik as in the southern parts 
of the Deccan. Some memory of the Ddmajipant famine in 1460, and 
notices oi the famines in 1520 and 1629 also remain. But the oldest 
famine of which any details have been traced is that of 1791-92. 
ThiB is the ses'erest famine of which any local record remains. Liberal 

venue remissions were granted by the Peshwa, the exportation of 
in was forbidden, and its price was regulated. Rice was brought 
large quantities from Bengal by private traders. In October, 
rain fell abunJantly, and the late crop which throve well helped to 
cheapen grain and relieve distress. 

In 1802, the rains were favourable, and tho crops promised well. 
But Yftshvantriv Holkar, crossing MAlegaon and ChAndor with a 
large army ou his way to Poona, plundered all the vinage8 
and destroyed the standing crops, ITie PcndhAris, under their 
leaders Muka and Hiru, completed the work of destruction. 
In oooaequence there was an utter want of food, and grain rose 

^h li 

Chapter IV.' 



BfX^l tea/. 








Bombay &( 



Chapter IV. 


J83S A 184S. 

1860- J86S. 



to 14 ponndfl the rupee. The famine lasted for a year, an» 
vras at its height from April to August 1804. Larj^ numbei 
moved to Gajarit. Of those who remained, it was estimated that, 
over the whole district, from 7000 to 10,000 died, and many of the 
survivors lived on vegetables, milk curds, and hudhndt goddmbr, 
sole, kulduj and other dried grass seeds, and such wild fruits a4 
•umbar and bhohar. Cow's, buffalo's, and even human flesh is said 
to have been eAten. The Peahwa's government imported grain 
from the coast and freely remitted the revenue. Private charity was 
active, an d mere han ts dis trib ut ed di shes of grain and cooked 
food. Still largo numbers of lives wore lost, and some vitlagea 
then left desolate have ever since remained wast-e. After two or 
three years prices fell to their former level and the people camo 
back and resettled many villages. 

lu 1824, failure of rain raised vdgli to twenty-eight pounds tho 
rupee. Large quantities of grain were imported, and revenue was 
freely remitted. After five or six months good rain fell, and the 
distress passed away. There was no largo number of deaths. 

In 1833, there was a small and temporary scarcity, and in 1646 
a failure of rain which caused a five or six months' famine, and 
loss estimated at 1000 lives. In 1854, there was great scarcity 
Feint; grain rose to twenty -four pounds the rupee, and about 5< 
persons are said to have died. 

Between 1860 and 1 862, the increased growth of cotton reduced the 
area under cereals and raised the price of grain ; this, combined in « 
1863 with a bad harvest, forced prices to a famine level. Durin^fl 
these years, Indian millet varied from fifty-two to thirty -two pounds^ 
and averaged forty-four pounds. In 1869 a failure of crops raised 
millet prices to twenty-seven pounds, and again in 1871 from thirty* 
three to thirty pounds. 

The irregular rainfall of 1876 led to failure of the early cro| 
and distress over about one-fourth of the district.* Thnngh at oui 
time very great, the distress in N^sik never rose to famine. Tb< 
south and south-west suffered most. The crops, in two sub-divisions/ 
Sinnar and Yeola, almost utterly failed ; in one, Niphiid, they were 
poor ; and in the other sub-divisions they ranged from middling t« 
fair. Besides tho failure of tlie early harvest, there was very little 
rain in September and October and few cold-weather crops were 
Bowni With millofe- at twenty-six instead of forty-seven pounda 
and little field work, the poorer classes fell into distress. About 
the middle of September the need for Government help became so 
great that relief works had to be opened. In November distress 
increased, graindealers hold back their stores, and prices rose. 
This artificial forciug of prices did not last long. Importation soon 
set in and prices fell. In the hot months grain again becam^ 
dearer and distress increased. A favourable opening of the rainyl 
season was followed by a very long drought. Distress and anxiety 
lasted till, heavy rain fell, near the end of August. A further faU 

1 Tho QBtiiDftte wu. in area. 2000 si^uare mileB of a total of 8140, and, inp< 
260.000 out of 734,380. 

^ Forty-Berea poand* for millet, bt^ri^ and fifty-four for Indian mitlot, jvdri, 
tti« ordinary price*, 



Um> begianing of September greatly iiaproved crop prospects 
I iUg Atiite of the jweple. And, at the close of November, the 
tfcm&Dd for Hpecial Government help ceased. 

The following summary sliow», mouth by month, the state of the 
fiitrict and the Tiioa.^nrea taken to meet tbe distrefta. In September 
1876, very little rain fell except in the^ west and south-west, in 
Igfttpiiri and Feint, where the fall was goad. What little rain fell 
«-"- "f great value, especially in the Dftngs, where anxiety had been 
: account of the hillmen and BhiU. In spite of this rain the 
eany crops failed in the greater part of Yeoln, Sinnar, and NiphAd, 
ud to » lofis extent, in Chfiudor and Kalvan. The distress waa 
greateet in NiphAd and Yeola, and in Sinnar tbe people were 
dftiuoariug for work. In these parts, about the end of the month, 
the pro«pects of the cold weatlier harvest, thoagh not good, were 
iBBCiL improved by a fall of rain. In other places prospects were 
fair. In the middle of September the Collector authorised an 
vxpeoditare of £817 (Rs. 8170) from local funds in Miilegaon, 
fttghin, Kalvan, Cfaaudor, and N^ndgaou, and, on the 24th, work 
vaa provided for the distressed labourers of Niph&d and Teola on 
the NiphAd-Yeola road. On the 29th, another work was begun at the 
Kapmia paAS for the Sinnar sub-division. 

" r passed without rain. In Yeola and Sinnar there waf3 an 
11 ;.T failure of early crops, and in Niplidd they were poor, 

1 1 i oud Yeola grass and water were scarce, and cattle were 

V v*'0 away. Rice and tuvjli, which promised fairly in the 

parts of Igatpuri, NAsik, Dindori, Kalvan, and Bagldn, did 
u-^i iipen owing to the failure of the later rains, and, for the same 
reason, especially in Yeola and Sinnar, cold-weather crops could be 
•own in only a very few places. The rise in grain prices caused 
much diiitreBJ^, bnt the numbers on relief did not increase rapidly 
AS the people .still found work in harvesting the early crops. On 
Uio frontier of Mnlegaon, the Mh^rs and others were in 
ft bad state and were crying for work. About the end of the 
month, Hia Highness Hoi kar gave £300 (Rs. 3000) for the relief of 
the famine-stricken. The people continued very patient, and, except 
Bume grain thefts, there was little special crime. 

About the nuddle of November a few showers fell in the central 
■ob-diviaions of NAsik, NiphAd, Cb^dor, and Dindori, and in 
Sinnar in the south. In many places late crops were not sown ; 
where they were si>wn, they were withering and prospects were gra- 
dually growing worse. In the early days of the month, though there 
wer^ £au* stooks of grain, the dealers held them back and forced 
prices to about twelve pounds the rupee. To avoid the serious 
disturbance that threatened, grain was imported' and prices fell. 

Chapter IV. 





1 Oa tbe 1 lib November the N4nk maniclpality opened a shro for the retail eale 
«( gnfo. Beeidea £300 (R0. 3000) lent from mnnidpal fonda, eleven Ni&aik 
■•ttftlaiieii, Kevalchand Khapchaod^ Gaupatriv DAroodiu- Cb&ndv&dk&r, Dada 
UnuUhuikAr, fJopAl PAnlichand, Hari Trimbak Kilo, BalvmntrAv BApuji KAle, 
Riimlm OangArim, Kachra, Aimndrdm, Gaoesh BUghaniith Muthe, and Bila Tb4kar 
lent £85') tree of inter«t (OoveTument Resolution Local '228 C. W. 925 of 1976). 
Grmin wm told to the poor up to tbe value uf one rupee andcr the supervisioD of tbe 
Mtmicipal CommiMioncr and Mr. Preacott, Police Iniipector. Huntlredi of peopI# 
ftoeked tu tlu» tkioy. Tbe very poor were fed uuce daily in Niiik^ 




[Bombay Gazetteer. 



Chapter IV. 








Millet went down to about twenty-six and Indian tnillet to aboi 
twenty-nine pounds The rupee. Except in Niplidd, Yeola, 
Sinuar, the InbnariTig' chisBes could still get work in barvesting* tb< 
early crops, preparing the ground for the next year, or in grnw- 
cutting. The average daily number of persons on relief works ros 
to 7382, all of them able-bodied, expected to do a full day's worl 
and superintended by ordinary public works officers.* Forchaiitablo 
relief a 8UUI of £1000 (Us. 10,000) was placed at the Collector's 
disposal. On the 3rd November, Government sanctioned .£2i'0 I 
(Rs. 2500) to be advanced to Vaujrtris and other herdsmen to drive 
cattle to the hillH and other pasture grounds. This provision proved 
unnecesaarv, as, from Siunar, Yeola, and Niphild, where fodder had 
failed, the surplus cattle had already been sent to the N/tndgaon, 
Dindori, and Peiut hills. December passed without rain and with 
no change in crop prospects. Except in the worFt parts, the people 
still found work, and there was no cry ftr labour. Rupee prices 
fell, for ft«Jn from twonty-six pounds at the beginning to twenty- Ij 
eight pouniis at the close of the month, and for jvdri from j 
twenty-eight to thirty-lhrC'O pounds. Fever and small-pox were 

Prevalent. On relief works the numbers rose from 7382 to 14,275. i| 
n January 1877 some rain fell. Biijri prices, after rising slightly 
in the early days of the month, remained steady at thirty-twaj 
pounds the rupee, and yrari prices fell from twenty -eight to twenty*fl 
nine pounds. In two sub-divisions cattle died of foot-rot. The" 
numbers on relief works rose from 14,275 to 18,000, and during 
the month eighteen pei-sons received charitable relief. In Februar 
about a quarter of an inch of rain fell over the whole district. 
Fever and small-pox were general. The grain supply continued 
good, jvari rcmaiuing stationary at thirty-two and lajri rising froni 
twenty-nine to twenty -six pounds. The approach of the Hoi 
holidays and rhe strict enforcement of task work led many [x^opl 
to leave the works, the numbers falling from 1 5,40t? in the beginnin 
to 15,078 about the close of the month. At the same time th 
number on charitable relief rose to twenty-two. Early in Marc 
about tift<?en cents of rain fell. Grain supplies continued abnndajQ 
and prices remained steady, for hdjri at twenty-six and Uyr jvn 
at twenty-two ]K>unds the rupee. On the Sinnar-Ghoti road th 
relief labourers, led by some Bhils, struck work because the task 
system had reduced their earnings. But by punishing some of the 
ringleaders the strike was soon brought to an end. The numbers 
on relief works fell from 15,078 to 13,586, and, on charitable relief, 
from twenty-two to four. In April there was no rain. Fodder was 
very dear in the east of NiphAd and in the south and west of Teola, 
and, in some villages, water was scarce. In Yeola large numbers 
of cattle died, and many were sold to butcliers at from 6/j. to 10«. 
(Rs. 3-R«, 5) each, the price of beef falling from lirf. to Id. 


iTbe originjil waf^eA were, for s man 3f/. (2 a^.) a day, for a woman 2^. (li a«. 
and for a boy orf^irl 1^^.(1 ri/irin). About the middle of xsovembor a slidiag scale 
introduced, proviiling thr.t. when prriced roae over aixtocn potmda the rupee, 
money rate should vary with the X'^°^ °^ ^^^ ^f^in* uid that a man nhould alwa^ 
rucuive the price of oue pi>uaU of grain in addition to one aiiiia, » woman the price 
of one pound of grain in addition to a half aonn, ond a child baU a pound of 
and« at the discreliou of the directing officer, half an anna in addition. 







a) the poand. AH over the district thosK* fchftt liiwl wells wero 

^kumlyn jmri for frxider. Rupee prices continued stoiwly, for 

nt iwenty-tive iind forjWri nt thirty-one pounds. The number 

lief wijfks rose from l»^,-5etj on tho 3l8t March to 17,872 on 

April, when about 4000 workers wen.^ drafted from the 

boli road to tho Dhond-Manm^d railway, 

ay, X'\l Jnrhes of luin fell throughout the district. Grain 

ri'inained steatjy, for hiijrl at twenty-four and for jvdri at 

'H pounds. 'Hiero was much distress atnong the hill 

Iljlikurs of Sinnar. Grass was not to be had except in 

Wfst. But there was a good supply of irrigated hot-weather 

t^ komltjasMfX thixhnln, \ eolo and Sinnar HuflFered from cholera. 

nombers on the relief works feU from 13,167 in the beginning 

o month to 10,224 near the close. The fall was due chiefly to 

continued transfer of labourers to tho Dhond-Manmdd railway 

\' ' >Eal of thoao who refused to go there to work. Those 

L ;).it remain long. Almost all came back V^efore the 

yr^isi oi'er The number receiviiig charitable relief rose from 

10 thirty-eight. 

In Jane, there was a good fall of rain, averaging 542 inches, the 

I' " monsoon setting in favourably on the 20th. In Sinnar 

people left the relief work* to go to their fields. The 
ing ot" the early crops was in progress in all the sub-divisioua 
pt Yeola where the rainfall was scanty. Jvdri fell from twenty- 
■i&Ten to twenty-nine pounds, while hdjri remained steady at twenty- 
fuar. Cholera continued prevalent throughout the month. The 
buiolKtrs on relief works fell from 10,224 to Sol 7, against a rise on 
charitable relief from thirty-eight to 104. 

In July, though there was an average of 5*70 inches of rain, the 
fall was irregular, and, about the middle of the month, field work 
was Kl4>pped in many places and the crops were withering. Later, 
especially in the west, some smart showers improved the crops, 
but, over most of tho district, grazing waa bo scanty that the cattle 
bad to be sent to the hills. Prospects wero gloomy, rain waa badly 
•wanted, and some parts suffered from serious outbreaks of cholera. 
After conriduiiig easy during most of the month, near its close a 
heavy external demand rai»ed htijri from twenty-six to sixteen and 
jvdri from twenty-nine to seventeen pounds. Still destitution did 
not spread. The numbers on relief works fell from 5517 to 4008 

d on charitable relief from 104 to fift}*-eight, 

^ Daring the greater pai-t of August, there were only a few 
light showers in the west. The crops continued to wither ; rupee 
I>nces rose for bdjri from seventeen about the beginning to sixteen 
towards the close of tho month and (or jvdri from twenty to eighteen 
pounds ; and distress increased. The Malegaon and Chandor Bhils 
refused to go to the relief works, and, especially in Malegaon, along 
trith Mhiirs and Kunbis, began plundering grain. Yoola and Sinnar, 
where the failure of crops had been most complete, were well 
snpplied with relief works. But in Ndndgaon and Malegaon, to 
meet the growing distress, a new work, the Ndndgaon-MAIogaon 
road, had to bo started. Cholera continued, but grew lighter 



[Bombay Oazetteer, 



Chapter IV. 








to'Kards the end of the month* Daring the last two or three days 
a general and heavy fall of rain much improved prospects. The 
numbers on relief works rose from 32'l-3 iu the buginiiing to 4537 
about the close of the moQthj and ou charitable relief fiom iifty- 
eight t<. 200. 

During September, harvest prospects were greatly improved by 
an average ftdl of 4*48 iachea of rain. The early crops were gttod 
in five, and poor in the remaining sub-divisions. The sowing of 
the cold-weather crops wae begnuj but before field work could be 
general more rain was wanted. Rupee prices rose, for bdjri from 
nineteen to lo| and for jvdri from nineteen to sixteen pounds. 
Cholera continued to decrease. The numbers on relief works rose 
from 4537 to 5486, and on charitable relief, fell from 200 to 193. 

In October, with an average fall of 3*45 inches, prospects were 
generally good. The early harvest was being secured, and the late 
crops were beginning to come up. Prices fell, for bdjri from 
sixteen pounds about the beginning to twenty-one pounds near the 
close of the month, and, ior jvdri, from seventeen to twenty-four 
pounds. Cholera, though declining, was still general. The numbers 
on relief works fell from 5486 to 1093, and ou charitable relief from 
193 to 167. 

In November, some slight showers improved the cold weather 
crops. By the middle of the month the early crops were nearly 
harvested, but for the lato more rain was wanted. Daring tho 
greater part of the month, rupee prices continued to fall, but, about 
the close, rose to twenty-two pounds the rupee for bdjri, and twenty- 
five for jvdri. The numbers on relief works rose from 1093 to 
8689 against a fall on charitable relief from 167 to sixty-one. The 
apparent increase in the number on relief works was due to the 
entry of the Ndsik workers on the Dhond-Manmdd railway. At the 
end of November all relief works were closed. 

Deoember passed without rain. Rupee prices continued steady 
at twenty-two pounds for bdjri and twenty-five for jvdri. The 
numbers wanting relief rose from sixty-one to 156. 

The following statement of grain prices and of the numbers who 
received relief shows that during the first four mouths of 1877 
Indian millet kept pretty steady at thirty-two pounds the rupee, or 
more than one and a half times the ordinary rate ; that its price 
rose rapidly in May, June, July, and August, till in September it 
reached seventeen pounds ; and that it then quickly fell to twenty- 
seven pounds in November, and in December again i^ose slightly to 
twenty.five. As early as December 1876, the numbers on relief 
reached 14,27.5. In January 1877, they rose to 18,000, but, in Alaroh, 
when many left on account of the task test, they fell to 13,586 ; in 
April they again rose to 17,872 and then went on falling to 4008 in 
July. During tho next two months they rose to 5486 and then con- 
tinued rapidly to fall till November, when the works were closed. 
The numbers on charitable relief rose from eighteen in January to 
twenty-two in February ; they fell to four in April and May, and 
then went on rising to 200 in August ; from August, after faUing to 
edrty-one in November^ they rose in December to 156. 


Stuik Famine, 1^76-77. 


AmAo* Daily 


Ri'iunu RKLin B». 








Nor«mb«r 1676 . 









IJttsnwy UTT -. 











IsiAKta .. .. 






Sfi? :: 







JttnB ,, 






Jnly „ ... 





J 70 






4 15 






oSS ;* :: 






WiwwiibH „ 












10/, - at* 1 ... 1 

As Ihe dwtrosSj though at one tinie great, never rose to famine, 
special relief staff or relief houses were found aeceeaary* Whea 
overnment directed that caaeeof theft shonldbe punished by whip- 
in^, the m^mlatd^s of Igatpuri and Ntiudgaon were, as a temporary 
re, invested with second cla^ magisterial powers. In Yeola 
were raised by private subscription for the relief of the poor, 
r fed amounu»d to 8146 and the expenditure to £i2 10«. 
(R- r about \id. (10 puts) a head. A house was hired for 

stonug gruiu and for cooking and l8.9uing food to the poor. Tha 
non-resident poor were Iodg<;d in rest-houses in the town. Food 
wma given gratis to the aged and infirm and to children under seven, 
■od the able-bodied were employed in making a small road in the 
town. The work they did was nominal and was exacted with a view 
to keep them togothor and to prevent them from beggine in the town. 
Two kinds of tickets were given to the people, tin and paper. The 
holders of tin tickets were allowed full rations of one pound (40 tolas) 
of c<>oked bread, and puUe, while the paper ticket-holders were allowed 
a smaller quantity. Children were given half a pound. The paper 
tioketa were issued to such of the poor as shirked their work. The 
plan succeeded as all the idlers chose to work rather than be pinched 
wir^ ' . T' ■ ,,jg were issued at the work daily up to half past 

aev -, late comers getting paper instead of tin tickets. 

At noon the working gangs were allowed to go to the relief kitchen to 
give in their tickets and get their food. They returned to work at 
two. In the early part of the day, the inhrm, children nnder seven 
je^rSy and travellers were gathered in one place and were given 
tioketB. They were then marched to the relief kitchen and received 
lood according to the kind of ticket they held. 

The only other measnre of special relief was helping the Mnsalm^n 
handloom-weevers of Yeola. They were one of the first classes to 
wffer, as their employers, finding no demand for their goods, refused 
to make adranoes, and the weavers were thrown out of work. Of 
familiee nearly 610 had^ by the end of Aoguet, left Yeola« 

Bombay GazetUei 



lapter IV. 

Cart Rates. 






Some went in search of work to Imlor and others to their old he 
in Northern India. For their relief a grant of £000 (Rs. 6OO0) 
sanctioned. Part of this amount was spout in buying yarn wbi< 
was given (16th June 1877) to the weavers to be worked into whi 
turbans and robea. In some cases money advances wore also madi 
for the purchase or repair of looms. After 7th September adviin 
were stopped. The articles were sold and the proceeds left a pn 
of about £24 (Rs. 240). 

During the famine the rates for a cart and two bullocks rose froac^ 
3Jri. to 4^d. (2i-8 n*.) the kos of two miles, and for a cart from 
2id. to '3d. (lJ-2 as.). These enhanced rates still (18S1) continue. 

There were no special obstacles to the effective administration o 
relief. Tlie people took full advantage of the aiTaugemeuts mada 
for their good. Their behaviour was remarkably orderly, Excep 
in the case of villages on the lino of rail, where the people could not 
resist the temptation of stealing grain from the passing trains, tho 
grain robberies and other thefts were generally committed by 
habitual criminals. 

A special census, taken on the 10th May 1877, when famina 
pressure was general and severe, showed that of 10,843 workers, 
all of them on pablic works, 5381 belonged to the sub-divisiona 
where the works were carried on ; 4550 belonged to different 
sub-divisions of the same district ; 735 were from other districts ; 
and 177 were from neighbouring states. As regards their occupa- 
tion, 494 were manufacturers or craftsmen, 2725 were holdtirs or 
Bub-holdei*8 of land, and 7624 were labourers. 

of the famine was estimated at £42,967 }B$, 
which £42,594 6s. (Rs. 4,25,943) were spent on 

The total cost 
(Rs. 4,29,679), of 

public works, and £373 12fl. (Rs. 3736) on charitable relief. Of 
the whole amount £40^725 \4s. (Rs. 4,07,257) were borne by 
Imperial and £2242 4^. (Rs, 22,422) by local funds. 

Though the 1877 police returns showed a total of 3593 offence* 
or a decrease of 174 cases compared with theprecedingyenr, a large 
amount of crime was, more or less clearly, due to the pressure of the 
famine. Dac^iities rosefn^m three in 1876 to eighteen in 1877 ; lheft« 
from 574 to 904 ; lurking house-trespass from ninety-six to 173, and 
receiving stolen property from forty-five to ninety. This increase 
in offences against property was, in the Commissioner's opinion, 
due mostly to distress caused by famine, for, the largo proportion of 
thefts were of grain, and the dacoities were generally directed 
against village VAuis, There are no means of ascertaining the 
number of cattle that died. Of human beings tho estimated special 
mortality was about 4500 souls. The loss of agricultural stock 
though great did not interfere with field work. The areas under 1 
tillage in 1877-78 and 1878-79 exceeded the area in 1876-77 hym 
6131 and 53,549 acrefl respectively. This was in a great measures 
due to tho large number of irrigation channels. Of £120,633 10*, 
(Rs. 12,06,335) tho land revenue for collection for 1676-77 and 
£132 16*. (R8. 1328) of outstandings for former years, £ll5,35i 




. 1 1 ,53,544) and £69 8». (Rs. 694) respectively frere recovered 
close of the year and f-ti 8*. (Rs. 4i4) were written off as 
ble. In 1877-78 the land revenue for collection was 
14*. (Ba. 13,33,247) and theontstanding balances amounted 
(Es. 62,981), of which £125,043 2*. (Bs, 12,50,131) 
14*. (lU. 40,717) were respectively recovered and £112 
fRs. 1127) written off, thus raising fhe outstanding balances 
the next vear to £9395 6s. (Ks. 93,953). Of £136,321 10». 
13,63,215) the realisable land revenue for 1878-79, £132,826 
■. (R«, 13,2H,266) and of the balances £8022 14*. (Rs. 80,227) 
JKT^* recovered before the close of the year and £787 12». 
IH|f written off, leaving for future recovery a balance of 

^M* . (Us. 40,799). This by the 1st January 1880 had fallen 

^Bdotk^ 14«. (Rs. 30,667), and of this £955 6*. (Rs. 9553) wero 
^bted in Jane 1880.^ 

^^Btlrindft of pnblic works were carried oat during the famine, 

' wUer works and roads. Of the VAghad and Khirdi reservoirs, which 

were the chief water works undertaken in 1878, details have already 

heen given. £720 (Rs. 7200) were also spent on repairs and 

iraproretnentH to the P^Ikhed canal. 

The following roads were made : A road from Sinnar to Ghoti with 
■ branch to DevlAli camp, thirty-seven miles long and costing 
723 4«. (Rs. l,07,232j; a road from NiphAd to Devpur with a 
ch to SAykheda, twonty-soven miles longand costing £6453 16«. 
64,538) ; a rnad from Khervildi to Siunar, eighteen miles long 
costing £5288 (Rs. 52,880) ; improving eight miles of the Nasik- 
road at a cost of £2894 (Rs. 28,940) ; a road from Yeola to 
liizjim'fl frontier, 13i miles, at a cost of £2380 (Rs. 23,800) ; a 
m Viuchur to Niph&d, nine miles, at a cost of £2148 16,». 
,488) ; a road from Bhoradbiri to Vinchur, 94 miles, at a 
F £1691 10a. {Rs, 10,915) ; a road from Nfindgaon to MAlegaon, 
miles, at a cost of £766 129. (Rs. 7666) ; a road from Desh- 
to Vinchur, six miles, at a cost of £1134 2s. (Rs. 11,341) ; and 
m^Md from Nasik to Dindori and Kalvan, eleven miles, at a cost of 
4 14-. (Rs. 8947), 

Chapter IV. 



1 Oct. Ret. 2002, Pin. 9th Jnne 1880. 

[Bombay Gazett««ri 


Chapter V. 


Saving ClftMM. 




The 1872 census returns showed, besides well-to-do cnltiraf^irs 
and profesaiooal men, 7447 f)er8ons occupying positions implying 
the possession of capital. Of these, 731 were bankers, money- , 
changers, and shopkeepers ; 5502 were merchants and traders ; ' 
and 1214 drew their incomes from rents of houses and sho])s, and 
from funded property. Under the head Capitalists and Ti-aders, 
the 1879 license tax papers show 10,456 persons assessed on yearly 
incomes of more than £10 (Rs. 100). Of these 4879 had from £10 
to £15 (Rs. 100-Ra. 150), 2443 from £15 to £25 (Rs. ISO-Rs. 250), 
nil from £25 to £35 (Rs. 250-Rs. 350), 500 from £35 to £50 
(Rs. 360-R8. 500), 559 from £50 to £75 (Rs. 500.R8. 750), 352 fr<.»m 
£75 to £100 (Rs. 7oO-Rs. 1000), 185 from £100 to £125 (Rs. lOOO- 
Rs. l250),ninety-eightfrom£l25to£150(R8. 1250-Rs. 1500), 121 
from £150 to £200 (Rs. ISOO-Rs. 2000), ninety-one from £200 to 
£300 (Rs. 2000-R8. 3000), fifty-nine from £300 to £400 (Rs.3000- J 
Ra. 4000). twenty-four from £100 to £500 (Rs. 4000- Us, 5000), ■ 
twenty-one from £500 to £750 (Rs. 5000-Rs. 7500), eight from £750 " 
to £1000 (Rs. 7500-Rs. 10,000), and five over £1000 (Rs. 10.000). 

Moneylenders, traders, and shopkeepers, chiefly Marwar, Gujardtj 
and L^sakka Vdnis, and a few BrAhmans, Shimpis, Telis, Thakurs 
LingiyatSf and MusalraAns throughout the district, and some 
pleaders, Government servants, priests, and skilled craftsmen inNAa" 
and other large towns, save money. They generally own from £20 
to £500 (Re. 2000- Rs. 5000), and in a few cases as much as from 
£10,000 to £20,000 (Rs. 1, 0(»,000-Rfl. 2,00,000), or even more. 
A well known Brahman banker and moneylender in Chdndor it 
Baidtoown from £30,000 to £40,000 (R8.'3,00,000.Rs. 4,00,000) 
In Baglan and some other part's of the district where there is much 
irrigation, some of the cultivators, growing sutrarcane and othe 
rich crops, are well-to-do and lay by money. But their number ia 
small, not more than two per cent of the whole body of cultivators 
and, unless they combine monevlendiug with husbandry, their capital 
is seldom more than £200 (Rs" 2000). 

Money is not hoarded to any great extent. The higher classei 
genei*ally invest their savings in gold and silver omamenta 
Except in Nnsik where the silk, grain, and seed trades, and the 
establishment of a judge's court have attracted a considerable 
number of traders, brokers, and pleaders, few build or buy town 
houses, but, among villagers, all who can afford it own a house. 
With all classes moneylending is a favourite investment. Shop- 
keepers, traders, and moneylenders use their savings in extending 




llieir baamesSj and in honse-building. The Government Savings 

Bask at Naiiik ia nsed chiefly by pleaders^ Government servanta, 

- - ■ ■ — <, and the widows of Government servants, who generally 

ornaments into money and lodge the proceeds in the 

tnk. The deposits in the bank have risen from £905 

in 1871 to£-H61 (Rs. 41,610) in 1879 ; and the yearly 

ut of interest to holders of Government securities, throe of 

in the beginning of 1879 were Europeans and five natives, 

:i from £54 (Ra. 540) in 1871 to £128 (Ra 1280) in 1879. 

1 iijn.' jH uo Inlying of mill or other joint stock company shares. 

A thrifty landholder would probably spend all that he could save 

*tng Cftttle, sinking a well, adding to his holding, or building 

t^rhonae. Many spend all they save in religious ceremonies 

and marriage festivities. 

A few banking establishments, at ChAndor, MAlegaon, Ndsik, and 
Yeiil», deal with Bombayj Nagpurj and Sholapur. The other towns 
vhore their bilU, handU, can be cashed are Ahmednagar, Poona, 
'Bind, Haidarabad, Bbiwndi, Panvel, Kalydn, Ahmedabad, Pali, 
Jabalpur, Jeypar, and Ajmir. According to the time of year and the 
distance the bill has to travel, the rate varies from one-eighth to two 
perc^ot. These bankers often cash bills £or£1000 (Rs. 10,000), and 
•ometimea for £5000 (Rs. 50,000). Wholesale purchases of grain, 
pierr-goods, and cotton, are paid for by bills, tho rates of discount 
\r from one-half to two per cent according to the seaAon, Men 
.. .^i:s class also make advances to people of credit. 

The Chindor rupee coined at the Chdndor mint, and the Jarlpatka 
rnpee coined at the Niiaik mint, were current in the time of tho 
P.'-T,w4a. Both mints were closed soon after the British conquest 
. Up to 1835, the coins were taken at a discount ; but they 
nave now almost disappeared from ordinary use though many aro 
&om time to time produced from hoards either newly discovered or 
broken into for the first time. At present the Imperial rupee is 
tbe only standard coin. There is however a good business in money- 
changing in Nosik where pilgrims from Nepal, Uaidambad, and other 
l^aces bring coins of local currency. Besides silver and copper 
roins, cowrie shells are largely used in Nasik and other market towns 
in huj-ing vegetables and other cheap articles. Their ordinary valae 
is eighty to a quarter anna (fd.) piece. 

It was formerly tho regular practice to insure goods against loss 
by robbery. The insurance agents, with whom the work of 
inanrance formed only a part of their business as bankers, under- 
took to send goods from one place to another, on receipt of transit 
coHt and insurance fees varying from one to two per cent. The 
o- ite of the country, and the introduction of railways, have 

in . oxpenditure nzmecessary and the practice has ceased. 

Property is seldom insured against loss by fire or by accident, and 
insurance of life is nnknown. 

Brokers, chiefly Marwdr Vanis, are not confined to any branch of 
trade. They are paid by a percentage on sales effected through 
tliem and are not bound by any specim trade rules. The percentage 

Chapter Y. 






A=r. .^'Zi.-^ .,:y:: 

[Bombay GasetUfrJ 



Chapter V. 



varieit acoording to the qaantity sold, and also accordiiig' to t 
luiirket demand. Besides acting as brokers thej generally deal 
cloth, grain, and wood. 

Many woll-to-do traders and moneylenders, who do a 
LuHttumM, employ one or more clerks, gamdittiis, and entrust 
tbeiii altuoHt the whole management of their affairs. Their pay 
varicH from £10 to £30 (R3. lOO-Rs. 300) a year, and except 
a turban on niarriaga and other festive occasions they get no 

The well-to-do of almost all classes lend money. In rillages to 
the Hoiith of the Ajanta range the moneylender is generally a 
Miirvv/ir Viiiii or u vShirnpi. In towns moneylenders are of all classes 
luidcrecdH; amunj? tlio higher Hindus, Brdhmaus chiefly priests, 
SLud Gujardt and M^rwar Vunis, and goldsmiths; among the middle 
olnssos^ tailors^ oilmen^ and husbandmen ; and among the lower 
ciMiUts, HhiHMuukerHj Thakunt, and Mhdra. In some cases, thougli 
the practico iu against the rules of their faith, Muaalmans, both 
Koukanis and men of good NAsik families, live by usury. Village 
hoadmoTi ami rich cultivators frequently, but on a small scale, 
Ktiiil int)n*'y and ailvance sued grain. Their better chances for 
ivcovLM-iiig their demands make them, perhaps, less exacting 
than other creditors and they are reluctant to have recourse to the 
civil courts. In other respects their practice differs little from 
the practice of professional moneylenders. Except bankers, who 
uuvko ndvanocQi only to persons of credit, moneylenders deal eqoally 
with li^wnspoople and countrymen, with the and wita 
the poor. The different classes of moneylenders tend to ^ther 
iu ivrtniu plaot***, the centre of the community being one of iheir 
relations or oa.'«tefet1owft who has succeeded in establi^^hing a good 
connection with the people of the neighbourhood. Thus, in three 
or four IgHtpuri villages, there is a wealthy colony of Vanis from 
VimxngiMm iu Ahmedabad ; in Nisik there are similar centres of 
Shimpiftand Pahidis; and in Sinnar there is a specially strong 
element of Rrihmau and Kunbi moneylenders. 

A Mlirwir Vitni when he firs( comes is generally poor. If be 
haM capital, he briu>rs with him a string of camels leaded with soft 
while blaukeU* Coming from Aimir by KhaDdra to Kh^mg»on 
iu Bor;ir or aome trftde oeotn ia uie Central Prorinces, he disposes 
of the oeokeby ma thwv is litUe ^tmmnd for Ibem farther west, and 
ttUkkee e tour by nul or oa fool to eell hts blaaketa. After selUi^ 
hkK bUnferta, he seDds th» precee da to Ittnrar or boys a fresh stock. 
WhiHk bo DNu^hes Ni&aik be either takee service in the shop of ■ 
fric'isd or ao^uAiutanoe^ or ffoes firoca oae place to another dealing in 
kaberdaehaty, Whea, cibaHy bj axfaaate thrift, ke has madesooie 
■koawi haeefeabliah«ahia»elf in eoMe vBlage aader aa 
«itb Ibe Wadaaa. He opoas a gtaia and gtsteety ahofv aad 
^tNidnciMQraad adraaoewcd. TVe iatetest oa mamBy or 
aihrutkoee Tarie* firvea twea^-^Tv to fifty per ceot in good 
^^\ ;» !«..? ^^.^KM ^4.^ t.^ « haadrvd per ceat or eww more, 
lk« \-ered && falL Tbe Ite-var Viai is 

aMhct \ti c<Avci ^H va ^raia. II fwa ca cbe^ be ilowndi pa 




nd if ^UD 13 dear he demanda payment in kind. Men of 

. after they hare established themselves in a business, 

iiiics retire to Marwar, but more often settle in the district, 

•ing with families of their own class, building or buying a 

), and sending a relation to look after their affairs in their native 

where they send a large share of thoir earnings. 

fjbj yeArs ago there vtrs great risk in trade, and traders and 

iders made high profits. But at present, extension of 

_,. and the opening of the field of competition have reduced 

general rate of profit, and the tendency, except when temporarily 

Lterocted by special demand, as in a time of famine^ is still in the 

lion of lower profits. 

Most claases of the commnnity are at times forced to borrow, 
households keep their wedding and funeral charges^ within the 
its of Lheir availal>le capital. But, as a rule, the espense is not 
ruad the power of the borrower to repay within a lair period, 
ia frequently, in the case of the agricultural classes, liquidated 
' •\ ' next two seasons. Traders, shopkeepers, and craftsmen 
L-y when a fresh stock is to be laid in, and the majority 
puor cultivators and traders are more or less in debt. Both 
long traders and cultivators the well-to-do can raise money ou 
t\r pcnional credit. But, in most cases, when the loan is for a 
auiunnt, lands and houses have to be mortgaged, or personal 
lentfi or other valuables pledged. 

trtls their position as borrowers there would seem to be 
■rence between husbandmen and craftsmen. According to 
rir penK>nal credit the well-to-do of both classes pay interest at 
im nine to twenty-four per cent a year, and the poor and needy 
at from twelve to forty. When property is mortgaged or pledged 
t>it- interest is somewhat lighter. If gold or silver ornaments, the 
ih '~t rnnvenient articles to pawn, are given, the yearly rates 
vary from six to eight per cent rising to nine or twelve 
pledge is land or other less saleable security.^ Specially 
high rates are oft-en charged to labourers and craftsmen attracted 
the district by railway or other highly paid and fairly constant 
iployment. In most cases they are forced, at starting, to borrow 
1^, and have to pay for articles of daily food about one and 
times the ordinary price, and, on this, interest of about 150 
iut a year ia charged. In such cases the only limit to the 
exactions is the knowledge that he has little hold over his 
^biore, and that, if too hard pressed, they may combine to leave 
district suddenly in a body. Debts of this kind are, however, 
Jly paid as the labourers get high and regular wages. 
high interest charged by the lender of petty sums is, to 
some extent, a fair return for the great labour of recovering his 
dobls. That he may catch each of them at the proper time and place, 

: ■^. agii the rates of interest were in some cue conaidenbly lower. 

(tcra and craftsmen, they varied from threo to aiae per cent ia the 

ind from twelve to twenty-four iu the case of the poor, Wh«n 

1 the rates vihried from three to six per ctmt. Mr* R, K, Candy, 

Chapter v. 

Honey lenderiL 





[Bombay GasettMr. 



Chapter V. 


Account Books. 


tho lender has always to be looking up his debtors, a task bo heavy 
that uoue but a special class who devote their whole energies to ths 
work can hope to accomplish it. The Shimpis, GujarAt Vanis, and 
Brahmans are just ns keen and importunate as the Marw^r Vania, 
but they are loss judicious in their arrangements. 

Nine per cent a year is thought a good return for money invested 
in land. But to a non-cultivating moneylender land brings with 
it so many troubles, that it is by no means a favourite investment. 
Its produce may bo attached by other of the cultivator's creditors, 
and the mortgagee or purchaser has to prove possession before the 
attachment is removed. Even when his right to the laud is 
unquestioned, there are many difficulties. A common practice is 
for the buyer to let the laud to the former owner, bearing half the 
cost of tillage, paying the whole of the Government rent, and 
receiving from his tenant either half of the produce or a Inmp sum 
in cash. The landlord's share is seldom easily recovered, and, for 
about two months in the year, a servant has to be kept to watch that 
part of the crop is not misappropriated. Again, if he quarrels 
with his tenant, tho purchaser has the greatest difficulty in finding 
any one to till the land. None of the villagers will come, and they 
arc generally able and willing to make an outsider's life so wretched 
that he seldom stays. 

Except in the matter of seed in which they are rarely defrauded, 
tho ])onrer classes, especially iu tho west, trust implicitly to the 
creditors* accounts. The sums thoy borrow being small and 
repayable at short dates, their relations with the moneylendlng 
class, though undoubtedly too close and widespread, are by no 
moans so strained as in the more fertile districts ; aud, partly owing 
to the nature of the country, which allows an intelligent and 
malicious man many opportunities of annoying and injnrincr an 
unpopular usurer, and partly to the single crop cultivation which 
renders recovery at a fixed date very uncertain, there is undoubtedly 
a great deal of forbearance on tho part of the moneylenders. 

Though generally charged b}' the month, in some running accounts 
interest is paid by the year and in others for some specified time. 

Town or large village moneylenders usually keep a rough note 
book ka^fta kharda, a day book pakki ktrd^ written up from the 
note book after the day's work is over, and a ledger khaidvni, 
showing each person's account separately. Some also keep a bill 
book huwiichi nakkalvahij and a jdngtulvahi in which are entered 
articles sent for approval. Smaller moneylenders rarely keep any 
books but exact separate bonds for every advance,or, more frequently, 
several bonds for a single transaction even when the amount involved 
is small. 

A debtor has, as a rule, only one creditor. But in the richer 
districts he has several, and in this case the lenders com|)eto with 
each other, each striving to lay hands on as much of the debtor's 
estate as he can. When a peasant falls deep in debt and his creditors 
become importunate, he generally pledges his crop or field to the one 
of thorn who is most likely to givo him a fresh advance. In other 




-c--.-. fhe crop or land goes to the man who first gets a docreo of 

i1 court and attaches it. Moneylonders evade the law of 

V . their claims fresh by, from time to time, exacting 

- . V never write off the amount due aH a bad debt, 

■ntly bo<iUiMith a bundle of timo-oxpircd and otherwise 

bonds t<j their snccessore. It sometimes happens that a 

-, hearing his creditor is about to file a suit against him, 

li^o^i^-ug^d his lands to another lender for a fresh loan. With this 

he will at least pCLrtialty pay the first creditor and thus put off the day 

of reckoning. At last the fresh creditor's claims must be met, and, 

if not satisfied, he secures outright possession of the fields, and, 

allovriog the debtor little beyond his bare subsistence, makes him 

till the fields aud hand over the j>roduco. In few parts of the district 

jft the moneylender entirely independent of the ciril court. And, 

«xcept' the few who can afford t-o be wary in their dealings and lend 

lo (hose only who are sure to pay them back, they all use the civil 

ooort as a machine for recovering their debts. 

The lower classes of husbandmen, especially in the west, and most 
field labourers require advances of grain for seed and for food 
during the time their crops are growing, and Bomotimes to eke out 
their living during the ploughing season. Such advances aro 
usually repaid at harvest time. From twenty-five to fifty or 100 
per cent more than was advanced is recovered, according to the 
»easou and the previous dealings of the lender with his client. 
Pftyioent is generally made in kind. If it is made in cash, the 
aiii'itint is calculated at the price of grain when the advance was 
made, which is almost always higher than at the time of payment. 
If re}>ayment ia not made the loan accumulates at compound 
in te teat. 

Of lato years no great quantity of land has either been thrown 
up or Bold. What has been st>ld was to satisfy the decrees of civil 
courts, and, in some few instances, in lieu of the Government 
a@«ensment. Sales on account of failure to pay the Government 
assessment are very rare. In the eastern plain villages, land 
is valuable and the holders never willingly give it up. In the 
western hilly tracts, landholders whether well or badly off usually 
till one field for a few years, and then, leaving it fallow, take 
another in its stead. 

Though moneylenders seldom bny land, it is not nnnsual for 
them to gain possession of it by foreclosing mortgages. Land 
mortgages are of two kinds : without possession, najar gahdn, and 
with possession, Uibe gahdn. The details depend in each case on 
the terms of the deed. As a rule, in the more usual arrangement 
mortgage without possession, the owner continues to hold the laud, 
aud the interest of the mortgagee is limited to alien on the property. 
In mortgage with possession the owner or some other man tills the 
land for the mortgagee who pays the Government rent, and in some 
cases has the laud entered in his name in the village account books. 
In Siunar and other parts of the district land is mortgaged to a 
large extent without posaessiozL 

Chapter V. 




Land S&Im. 



Chapter V. 




(Bombay Gazetteer^ 


Thongli better honBed, better fed^ and better clad than they wers 
twenty or thirty years ago, husbandmen are not now (1880) so weO 
off sa they were during the proeperi:)U8 period (1860-1866) of the 
American war. Now and again, a man hopelessly sunk in debt kilLa 
himself, or some hated usurer has his house and bonds burnt But 
agrarian crimes arising from the cultivator's indebtedness are very 
rare. In the 1877 grain robberies, Kunbis on several occaaionB 
joined the Kolis and Mhars in robbing the moneylenders' houses. 
The grain and salt were taken by the Mh^s, the ornaments by 
the Kolis, and the bonds and account books were burnt or torn by 
the Knnbis. 

Many classes of craftsmen require few or no advances to work 
on. They do not often make up their own materials, but the 
employer provides these and pays the workman either by the piece 
or by the day. Others require an advance of from £2 lOs. to £5 
(Rs. 25 - Rs. 50). An a rule, though forced to borrow to meet the cost 
of marriages and other leading family ceremonies, they are,asregardft 
their ordinary expenses, independent of moneylenders. They aro 
invariably helped by their children, and, in the case of weavers, 
dyers, and shoemakers, by their wives also. Muhammadan artisans 
are often dissipated, and spend most of their earnings on dances 
and entertainments. The better class of carpenters, butchers, and 
working tailors, is in about the same position as the well off Kunlii^ 
that is, they could none of them pay up their whole liabilities at a 
week's notice, but their credit and position render it very unlikely 
that they would ever be called upon to do so, and they are well able 
to keep the debt down to a constant level. 

Whatever may be the case with other classes there can be little 
doubt that the condition of the day labourer has improved and 
continues to improve. The demand for labour on local works has 
increased, and the ease and cheapness with which they can travel 
help labourers to go long distances in search of work. Their houses 
and clothes are better than they used to be, and metal vessels have 
to a great extent taken the place of earthen ones. But, as a 
class, they are very improvident, seldom saviug or putting by money. 
Whatever they earn, above what is enough to supply their daily wants, 
is spent in eating and drinking, and very rarely in buying ornaments 
or clothes. Among the MhArs, many have been raised to comparative 
wealth by labour contracts on the railway, and a few lend money. 
Moneylenders will sometimes advance as much as £2 10«. (Rs. 2o) 
to a labourer who is known to them to be of good character or who 
is resident in the village. They rely on their local influence to 
recover their advances ; but, if he has aught to pledge in the way 
of cooking vessels or ornaments, this is required of him ; and, 
perhaps, on such security he might obtain a loan of £5 (Rs. 50). 
A loan without something in pledge is usually made the subject of 
a bond. The ordinary daily wages of labourers are for a man 4Jcf. 
(S ann<is)y for a woman 3[^ (2 anna»), for a boy 2irf. (I J anna*), and 
for a girl IJd. (1 anna). Twenty years ago the figures were 3rf. 
{2 annas), 2^(1, (IJ annas), and l^df. (1 anna) respectively, llie 
demand for laljour is also more constant than it formerly was. 



le time the iraprovement ia, to a considerable extent, 
:ted by the high grain prices that have ruled since the 
•77 famine. 

wife and children of a day labourer always help in 
»rting the family. The children, when seven or ei^ht years 
perform such light labiiur as weeding, winnowing, and driving 
)e to pasture, and wuteriogthem. The wife adds to the family 
aboat hftlf as much as the husband, and each child, 
^tween seven and fifteen, about half as much as the wife. During 
!niiTi.^ And July, the ploughing, sowing, and weeding, and again in 
r and November, the reaping of the early crops, give much 
ijMMviaent. The busiest time is in January, February, and March, 
the wheat and gram crops have t-o be reaped, a good deal of 
and winnowing is going on, and the sugarcane is being 
and made ready for sale. At other times, April, May, 
U and September, the demand for labour is uncertain. Some 
employment on roads or other public works, in building and 
frepairing houses, or at marriage ceremonies. When out of work 
they fetch headloads of firewood and grass, or sit at home idle, 
ving on ro«>lj*, berries, and fish. 

:cept when their work lasts for some time, labourers are paid 
day. In workshops and manufactories where employment ia 
kdt, they are paid once a week, and on Government works once 
lonth. \Vearers in Yeola are paid by the piece. Except field 
unskilled labour is generally paid in cash. Well-to-do 
landmen hire at least one plougbmun, gadif for the season 
le- October), and pay him partly in cash and partly in kiud. 
he number of farm labourers is small and most husbandmen work 
lemselvea. The ploughman gets, beaidea meals, 5*. (Ra. 2^) 
mth, and a suit of clothes, a turban, a blanket, a waistcoat, 
irge sheet, and a pair of shoes. Instead of his meals, the 
iHjurer Bometimes gets thirty-two Bhers of hdjri or ndijU, two 
9 of snlit pulse, one sher of salt, and one «Aer of chillies, a 
th. The plonghman has generally a help, who besides meals 
4*. (Rs. 2) a month. Besides the plonghman and the help, 
are hired for the whole season from June to October, a largo 
nnmber of labourers are at different times employed for sowing, 
weeding, and harvesting, and paid according to the nature of the 
work from 2\d. to 4 Jd. ( I j - 3 annas) a day, or in kind. For planting 
rice, labourers are paid by contract, 5*. 4d. (Rs. 2-8-6) an acre. 
The pressing of sugarcane and the making of molasses employ a 
number of labourers from January to March, who, besides 
XT daily wages, get fixed allowances of sugarcane, juice, and 
ises. In this season, Bhils especially in Bdgldn make enough 
tst them for twelve months, and occcusioually, like other classes, 
invest the surplus in silver onaments. 

^e custom of mortgaging labour prevails to a very large extent 
g field labourers. These persons, in repayment of a debt, 
i i^icwj^ their services mostly to land-holders for field work, and rarely 
arsons of other classes for house service. The usual arrangement 
lat the mortgagee feeds the labourer and at the end of the year 

Chapt«r V, 




LBombay Qaiett 



Chapter V. 





givoB Uim a suit of clotlios, and for the year's work marks off 
£1 An. to £3 12«. (Rg. 12 -Rs. 36) from the amount of the 
When food is not given, the value of the labour is calculated at froi 
£4 lt)£7 4*. (Ra. 48- Rd. 72). The debtor is expected to 
hia wholo time to his*a work. The services of his wife ani 
children are not claitaed, and the master has no power to transfei 
his right over hia servantB to any other person. Men who havi 
pledged their service are generally well ti*eated, and they bonestlj 
carry out their share of the agreement. Masters seldom or nevei 
use force to compel their bondsmen to work. Suits are occasionally 
brought to enforce the terms of tho contract, but the courts refusi 
to take cognizance uf such agreements. There are no heredit 

As is the case with nnskilled labourers the wages of skilh 
labourers have considerably risen duriug the last twenty years. A' 
carpenter whose daily wage used to be \s. (8 unutus) now sometimes 
earua as much as 2s, (Re. 1) ; a bricklayer's daily wages have risen 
from 6t/. and !)(/. (i and 6 annas) to 9t/. and 1«. '6d. (0 aud 10 annaa) ; « 
and a good blacksmith makes 2«. (Re. 1) a day^ nearly double hisfl 
former earnings, ^ 

Though there are no suflScient materials for preparing a complete , 
history of prices, the available information shows that the sixtyfl 
years of British rule may be roughly divided into two periods) otm 
about equal length, before aud after ItioO. Duriug the whole sixty 
years the spread of tillage has been tending to cheapen gniiu, and 
at irregular intervala, this tendency has been met by seasons of mor 
or less complete failure of crops.* Still, though the effect o: 
these two inHuences has apparently been pretty nearly constan 
throughout the whole sixty years, the character of the two perio' 
differs widely. The first thirty years may, as a whole, be descrf 
as a time of falling and very iixegular prices, and the second thirty' 
years as a time of rising and less uneven prices. This change 
would seem to be chiefly due to the removal of transit and export 
duties and to the improvement of communications. 

Except for 1 79 1 and 1804 two famous famine years,' when th 
rupee price of millet rose to 12A and to eight pounds, the earliest 
available produce prices are for 1818, 1819, and 1820, the first 
three years of British rule. During these years, in Mdlegaon, tho 
average rupee price of millet was forty-nine pounds, of gram 52 4 
pounds, and of rice 24i pounds.* For the next twelve yeara 
(1821- 1832) no separate returns are available for Ndsik. But ife 
seems from the prices prevailing in Khiindesh, which then included 
the northern half of Ndsik, that the security of life and property 
and the rapid spread of tillage caused so great a fall iu prices, that 

1 Of six leading years of icarcity, thr«e, 1821, 1833, and 1846, fall in tHe finfc, and 
three, 1863. 1871, and 1876-77, in the second iwriod. 

'The 1791 prices were: bdjri^ 1*2J pounds; wheat, ten poumhi ; rice, 7J pounda j 
and grain, ten pounds. The ISO-t prices were : Uijri ond jvdri 8J pounda ; rice 74 

pnnuda ; and gram 7i pounds. (Lieut. -Colonel A. T. Ethridge's Famine Report, 84-85). 
The«9 priowi are apparently Uie averages daring a certain portion of the famine time, 
not tho highest prices, ' Captain Bhgga' RetiuiiB (1820). 



fcftcr tho severe scarcity of I824'-25, the price of Indian millet 
d from seventy-four to seveaty-uine pounds, of wheat from 
nine to tifry-sii pounds, and of rice from 16^ to twenty-six 
Is. Then followed sis years of still chenpt^r grain (1827-1832) 
Indian millet rautnii^ from ninety in 1827 to 144 pounds in 

wheat from forty-four to sixty-seren pounds, and rice from 
o thirty-one pounds. During the eleven following years 
-181^^,) in spite of three seasons of scarcity 1833, 1836, and 

there was little rise in the price of grain. In 1842-43, the 
if these years, millet sold At 92| pounds the rupee in N^ik 
Oo pounds in Chandor, wheat at 82 J and 87J pounds, gram at 
vtwo pounds, and rice at thirty-tive and 32i pounds. The 
ing are the details : 

Jfdtik Product Priee»(Pt>undM the Itupte), 133fIS4'% 


Ctklnlor. 1 Din4orL 





»[!■-•■ ... ".[ '.'.'. 

lOO Mi 

60 ! 87 
80 1 K 






ng the next tliirty years (1844-1873) there was a marked 
the price of tlie chief kinds of food grain. Millet advanced, 
an average of 88^ p^nnd.s the rupee, in the ten years ending 
to seventy fK)uudB in the ten years ending 1863, and to thirty- 
pounds in the ten years ending 1873. In 1873, the last of these 
rs, millet sold at 47J pounds the rupee, wheat at 30^ pounds, 
t 22§ pounds, and pulse at 18J pounds. During the remaining 
s there has been a further rise in the average to thirty 
The following is a summary of the chief details : 

ydmk Product Prices f Pounds fhe Utifw), lSU-t873, 


1914- 1$M. 

1861 -laei. 






































k •• •— 










1 •* — 











m? :_ 











the last twenty years the special causes of the marked 
J "in prices are : The Aiaerican war that between 1860 and 1862 
cheapening money and narrowing the area under cereals raised 
' value of grain, and, in 1863, combining with a bad harvest, 
prices to a famine level ; a local failure of crops in 1860 that 
millet to twenty-seven pounds, and another failure in 1871 
it from thirty-throe to thirty pounds ; next the famine of 
'ttid 1877 so drained food supplies that grain was dearer in 
'8 than daring the seasons of local failure. 

The following table gives the yearly prices of the staple grains 

Chapter T, 

2318' XSW, 

fBombay Oaietteerfl 


Chapter V. 



W«ighU Mil] 


NdMik Prodwe Pricta (Pounds ike Itupee), 1879-1679. 



UiOet ... 
Indian mt|l«t 
WhiAt ... 

PuIk {tar) 

ISTi. ISTfi. I«7e. 1877- 1B7B. 1«79. 





Precious etoiies and gold are weighed by the tjahu, gnnj, ratig 
nil, masa, gahihnuita, and tola. The table used ia : two gahujft one 
gunj ; one and a half fjunjg, one rati ; two and two-fifths gunjs, one 
m/; eight gunjuj ono wtijjo ; six t«<ij*rt*j one *(iy»inirt*n ; and two 
sahamdwU, one /o/a. The gahxi. is a grain of wheat, the gunj is the 
Boed of tht) AbruB precn-toriuH, and the val of the chilhdri tree ; 
the rati is a small piece of copper weighing nearly two grains; and 
the mdsa, the scJidmdsaf and the tola, ure oblong pieces of metal 
or crockery. The tola weighs a little more than the Government 
rupee which is equal to 11| mnsfU in the town of NAsik and 
1 1 k vidad^ in the rent of the district. lu the case of silver and 
other metals, and cotton, cotton yarn, silk, coffee, molasses, sugar, 
dniga, spices, oil, and clarified butter, the following table is used : five 
ioldSf onechhatdk ; two chhaiakSf one 'pdvehcr ; two pdmhtTg, ono 
achher ; two achhers, one ifher of eighty tolas or two pounds; forty 
nherSy one man ; and three mans one palla. Except the iolOf the 
pdvuher, the w^hfur, the chhatdk, and the Bker, which are madeeithiT 
of brass or copper, all these weights are made of iron. They are 
bell-shaped and flat-topped, and have a ring at the top to lift them 
by. Oil, when bought from the presser, and small quantities of 
clarified butter brought to market by villagers, and milk,are measured 
by copper and brass pots from ono and one-fourth to one and a half 
times as large as the weight measures. '^The milk pots are like 
ordinary English drinking cups. Grain, pulse, oilseed, and salt, are 
measured according to the following table : two shers, ono adholi ; 
two adhoHsj ono pdijli ; sixteen pdylisj one man; thirty pay lis , onoj 
palla ; and twenty jnans, one khandi. The two-«/ipr, adhoU, meaeun 
being the highest, the measuring of large quantities of grain is 
tedious operation. The contents of a one sher measure weigh from] 
three to four pounds. The length measures used in cotton and silk; 
goods are the ta^u, hdt, gaj, and t»ar. The table is fourteen taaus o\ 
thumb joints, one cubit orhdt ; one and three-quarters hats, one gaj ;! 
and two hdtn, ono vdr. Wholesale purchases are made by the piece/ 
or than, of from twenty to forty vdrs, Waistcloths, dhotarSj and 
women's robes, mdia^ are sold by the pair and singly. Woollen 
cloths, blankets, and chavhu, mado by shepherds, are sold by the 
score, kori, to retail, and by the hundred to wholesale purchasers. 
Stones, timber, and earthwork, are measured by the square gaj^ 
and masonry by a hdt of sixteen 'inches. Three such hdtit maki 
one khan. Hewn stones are sold by the hundred. 

The native land measure is : 5^ hands, hdi^t, long and one ham 
broad, ono kdthi ; twenty kdthis, one pdnd ; twenty pdnda, on< 
higha ; thirty bighds, one paiku ; and four /ia»7cu*, one chnhur. The 
h'lthi is either a stick or a piece of string. From 1^ to two bighds. 
»re equal to an acre of 4840 square yards. 




Tbb fame of SupAra/ oirthe Thitift coast near Basseiti, shewH that 
fr-'iu the very earliest times, the Thai pass has bet?u an important 
irntle rout*; between the Deccau and the coast. The Nasik caves and 
the mention of the town by Ptolemy point to Nfisik as a place of 
importance from the second centary before, to the second century 
after, the Christian era. About a hundred years later, the author of 
the Periplus (217) mentions that trade passed from Broach in Gujardt 
to Paithau on the GiirtlAvari and to Tagur ten days further east. 
Part f*i this trade probably went through the Kundai pass, crossed 
thf Nrisik district, and left it by the Kasari pass in the S&tmdlAs. 
From the ninth to the thirteenth century while Devgiri, or 
DanJat-abad, was one of the greatest capitals in the Deccan, and 
Sup^ra was one of the chief centres of trade on the coast, the Thai 
pass must have been the main route of trufiie. Afterwards, in the 
fifteenth and early part of the sixteenth centuries, the bulk of the 
tnuie passed further south between Ahmednagar and Cliaul and 
between Bijapur and Dabhul or Kudnl. In the sixteenth century, 
ihe establishment of Portuguese iX)wer at Baasein bi*ought a large 
trade Inick to its old route by Nasik. In the seventeenth century, 
when foreign trade centred in Surat, the bulk of the commerce 
of the Deccan passed along the north and south routes mentioned in 
the Periplua. When Bombay took the place of Surat, trade once 
more set along the earliest route through the Tlial pass, and this, for 
tlie last fifty years, has been the chief line of traffic in westeni India. 

At the beginning of British rule there were no made roads. The 
chief lines of communication lay through Nasik and Mdlegaon. 
The Poona-Surat road, of 254 miles, through Chdkan, NArdyangaon, 
the Vashera passj and Devthan, entered by the Sinuar pa^s, and, 
Btretching through Nasik and Dindori, left the district by the Rahud 
pnas, and continued its course to Surat through Umbarthdna, the 
lifirpQU paesj the Vagh pstss, and Gandevi. The Ahmednagar-Ndsik 

* Sap4ra is mentionc^l ander ita prefient name both by the author of the Pcriplua 
{^7 A.i». Mtt'nmiluV. iViiplus. 127) and by Ptolemy (150 a.d. Bertina, Vll. 1). 
Ey«u ill Vtolemy'H time SupAra waa an old place, as Supp&nka is nicntiontHl 
<il»niy's Manual of Buddhism, 209) as famoos for ite mcrchante during the lifetimo 
of Gautatn Buddha (B.C. 51B). If ^enfey's (see McCrindle's Feri^lus, 1*27) and 
K«iiiaud'« (Mcoiuir Sur. I'lndu, 222) conjecture ia correct, and Sup^ra iu Solomon'fl 
Sophir or Ophir, it must liave been a centre of trade 500 years b«fora th« time of 
Bnddha. dually thu ineutiou of 8burpiirak in the Vanaparva of the Mah&bhArat 
(K*jm. Kd. chap. 1 18) as a 'most holy' place where the I'indavB rested on their 
wuv ft II, ibe Uravid country to i'rabhda Mnd. Ant, IX. 44) ahown that Suparft wa» 
inpttrtantc at Itiaat 400 years before the time of Solomon, ft »eemi 
i t/> •up|)n«ti that the Thai paM hait been a trade route ai long as SupArahaa 

Ixwu a placoof trakdo. 

Chapter VI 

Earljf HouUb, 




TBombay OfattUer, 


Ghapter VI. 



road, ninety-seven miles long, passed thronghRiihnri,Sangaranerjand 
Sinnar. The Auraugabad-Nttsik road, oighiy-seven miles luug, passed 
through Kopargaon in Ahmeduagar. From Malegaon the ehiof 
roada were to Baroda through the Raval pass, Mhalpur, the Kundai 
pass, the Ksar poas, 8ongad, and Viara, and then either through 
Erapur and Jambua, 220 miles, or through Bardoli, Mota, Varaicha, 
and Kim, 228 miles. Of two roads to Bombaj, one was the section 
of the Bombay-Agra trunk road, 167 miles, through Chandor, Xaeik, 
Igatpuri, the Thai pass, Shahapur, and Bhiwadi, and the other, 
200 miles, through Manm^d, Yeola, Kopargaon, Nimbgaon, Peinfe, 
Talegaon, and Fnnve!. Four other roads passed from Malegaon, one 
to Diiulia, the northern section of the Bombay -Agra road, thirty- 
two miles ; one to Ahmednagar, 110 miles, through the Kdsari pass, 
Baijhdpnr, Puntdmba, and Rahuri; one to Anrangnbad, ninety-five 
miles, through Andarsnl and Ankai Taukai ; and one to Asirgad, 100 
miles, through Chikalvohol, Borkhund, Parola, Dharangaon, Paldhi, 
Raver, and Hurhanpur.* In 1841, there were still no made roads, 
and the Thnl pass was so rough and stony a ravine, that laden 
carts could not pass without the greatest difficulty. Until 1803 the 
main Agra highway absorbed most of the funds set apart for roads^ 
But, since the levy of a special cess for local works, road-makiog 
has made rapid progress. 

In 1879 there were ten and a half milos of Imperial roads, fonr 
miles from K^ik railway station to N^aik city and six and a half 
miles in Devlali camp, constructed at a cost of about £4460 
(Rs. 44,500) and requiring a yearly outlay of about £44-0 (Rs. 4400), 
Besides these there were five j)rovincial roads extending over a 
distance of 213^ miles, and fourteen local fund roads eitendme over 
a distance of about 275 miles. The chief provincial road is the 
Bombay- Agra road from Kasara, at the foot of the Thai pass to the 
Ri.hadi pass in Mdlegaon, 119 miles, metalled drained and bridged 
except at the GodAvari and the Kadva, costing about £2000 
(Rs. 20,000) a year and yielding a toll revenue of about £1700 
(Rs. 17,000). The next is the section of the Pooua-Nasik road from 
Ndndur-tShingotain Sinnar, thirty-threo miles, partly metalled and 
drained, and bridged except at the DAma and two smaller rivers in 
Sinnar. It costs about £1320 (Rs. 13,200) a year and yields a toll 
revenue of about £800 (Rs. 8000). The third, the Nasik-Balsir rood 
through Point up to Udhan, thirty-nine miles, pirtly drained, 
and bridged, and mostly gravelled, costs about £1200 (Rs. 12,000) 
a year and fields a toll revenue of about £90 (Rs. 900). The 
fourth, the Malegaon-Kopargnon road up to Pimpalgaon, forty-two 
miles, drained, bridged, and partly metalled, custrS about £880 
(Rs. 8800) a year and yields a toll revenue of about £120 
(Rs. 1200). The fifth, the NAndgaon-Aurangabad road, is, for 
twelve miles, partly drained, bridged, and metalled. It costs 
about £o25 (Rs. 5250) a year and yields a toll revenue of about 
£250 (Rs. 2500). Of local fund roads, the NAsik-Kalvan road, 
thirty-two miles, is finished only as far as Dindori, at a cost 


Capt&in Clooca' Itioorary (1826). 




£S405 (Ra. 34,050); the rest is in progress. The section as 
Car AS Dindori is used chiefly by Vanjaris. It costs abont £195 
(lia. 1950) a year auJ yields a tol! reveuno of about £30 (Rs. 300). 
■Two other roads nm from NiUik, one north-west to Harsul in 
it, tventy-nino miles, gravelled, partly drained and bridged, 
^ting abont i£250 (Rs. 25(X)) a year and yielding a yearly 
tl revenue of about £20 (Ha. 260) ; the other west to Trimbak, 
^hteen tnilcs, unbridged, partly gravelled and partly metalled, and 
iting- alx»ut £250 (Rs. 250U) a year. Of two roads from Sinnar one, 
!»out £190 (Rs. 1900) and yielding a yearly toll revenne of 
i\ ^ (Ka. 880), goos through the Kaprala jmss to Ghoti, thirty- 

iveu imles, with a branch from Pilndhurli to Bhagur, gravelled and 
ithout drains or bridges ; and another, costing abont £130 (Rs. 1300) 
id jrielding a toll revenue of about £8 (Rs. 80) a year, runs north 
the NAygaon pass to the KherA'adi railway station, eighteen miles, 
lily gtavelled and without dmns or bridges. Of three roads 
ivx NiphAd, one, constructed as a famine work and costing abont 
il08 (Rs. l(KiO) a year, goes to Saykhed by Niindur-Madhmeshvar, 
toen miles, gravelled and without di-ains or bridges; anotlier goes 
>rth to Pirapalgaon (Basvant), nine miles, mostly gravelled and 
[ithout drains or bridges, and costs al)out £120 (Rs. 1200) a year; 
id a third east to Vinchur, nine miles, also gravelled and partly 
drained, and costing about £70 (Rs. 700) a year. From Vinchur 
nm two gravelled lines without drains or bridges, one to Yeola 
tlintugh Deshm^ue, eighteen miles, constnicted as a famine work 
ttiug abont £125 (Rs. 1250) and )rielding a yearly toll revenne of 
(Rs. 30), and another to Satdna by the Bhavar pass, forty miles, 
lith a branch from Nimbgaon to Chiindor, costing about £340 
Is. 3V00) and yielding a yearly toll revenue of about £200 
J. 2000). From SatAnn a similar line runs 20 J miles to Malegaon, 
(Pting about £220 {Rs. 2200) a year and yielding an equal amount of 
toll revenue; and another to Taharabad, seven miles, partly drained, 
id coating abont £80 (Rs. 800) a year. A similar line from 
tdlegaou to Nitndgaon costs about £90 (Rs. 9(XI) a year, and 
another injm Yeola to Kh^ngaon eighteen miles to 8uregaon, 
costs yearly about £95 (Rs. 050) and yields a toll revenue of about 
£20 (Ra. 200).* 

Nisik hill passes belong to two leading systems, those that run 
east and west across the main line of the Sahyddris, and those 
that mn north and south across the spurs and ranges that stretch 
eastwards at right angles to the main line of the Sahyddris. The 
Bahyadri passes are locally known as glidts, and the openings in the 
eastern ranges as hdris or khindit. Of the Sahyadri passes, after 
two footpaths in the extreme north, comes the BjUhclna pass, 
two miles north of Sdler fort, leading to the Chichli state. The 
road is very rough, barely passable even for unloaded carts. But, 
for a small snm, it conld be made a fair cartroad, and can be 
ridden up and down without dismounting. A varying amount of 

Chapter VL 



1 Prom A return tunuAhed by Mr. F. B. UoclAran, C. £„ Executive -Engineer 
FAtik Diviftioo. 

[Bombay QazettMr,. 



Lpter VI. 

Comm u ni cattooK. 

timber, averaging about 500 logs, ia dragged np bj bullocks^ an^J 
there is a considerable VanjAri traffic chieflj in salt, ndgli, and 
vioha flowerB. About four miles south-west of S^Ier, and from foot 
to foot, about two miles south-west of Bibhulna, is the MAxoxu 
pass a cattle track very difficult and very little used. About eight 
miles south are two passes, close together^ both of them fit only for 
cattle, the Umbarda pass to the north and the Kakchan pass to 
the south. The Eanchan is a good drag with a large timber trade 
and a considerable Yanjdri traffic west into Amli. This pass was 
surveyed and a road was begun but afterwards abandoned. Though 
it could not now be done, carts are said to have formerly been taken 
down this pass. About three miles south-west is the Chfp pass, 
easy except for a little distance near the top. It might be made fit 
for carts without much cost. The timber and Vanjiri traffic is less 
than through the Kanchan pass. Close together, about five or six 
miles to the south-west, are the MoRsaADi pass with almost no traffic, 
and the Chir.4i pass, a fair road with little timber, some catechu, and 
a considerable Vanjiri traffic from Dindori to SurgAna. Loaded 
carts can be dragged up, but the strain nearly kills the bullocks. 
In the section of the Sahyadris to the south of the Chaudor 
range, there are many passes, one for almost every village, but 
none of them are made and all are so rough that little trade goes 
tbrough them. The best of them are the Bhakvad pass, ten to 
twelve miles south of Chirdi with a large Vanjari traffic ; the 
Palasvihir pass, three miles south of Bhanvad, a good natural 
pass, one of the best on the line but not now used; four miles south* 
west is the NanAsi pass, surveyed and ready to be made, with a large 
traffic in headloads of bamboos and myrobalans ; and about throe 
miles further south, the MAhaja pass, also surveyed, and used by 
local traders with graiu, onions, timber, and cattle to Jaykheda. 
These passes lead from Diudori to Peint. About three miles south, 
the SAvAL pass on the Balsar road is engineered but so steep that 
carta want help either by hand or extra bullock power. From 500 
to 700 cartloads of bamboos paaa up every year. In addition to 
its load of bamboos, every cart usually briugs some bamboo baskets, 
wiimowing fans, and matting. Other traffic is carried on almost 
entirely on bullock-back. It consists chiefly of onions, chillies, and 
wheat from the Deccau, and salt and dried fish from the Koukan. 
South of this, as the crest of the Sahyadris is not more than 800 
feet, if as much, above the plateau of Peiut, there are many rugged 
passes, of wliich the chief, about nine miles south of S4val, is 
the Ladchi pass, a rough track used only by local traders and 
bullocks. Six miles south of the LAdchi is the Vehela pass, amere 
footpath. Ten miles south-west is the VAghera |)ass, on the local 
fund road between Ndsik and Harsul in Peint. This is an engineered 
cartroad in fair order, with a traffic chiefly in bamboos and timber. 
About two miles south-west is the Satti pass, a very steep track 
nsed by Vanjdri bullocks and foot passengers, and with little traffic. 
Four or five miles south, the VAohvihir pass, from Vehinje to the 
Jawhar state in Thana, is a cattle track with almost no traffic. 
Between these are a footpath called GhebiAchi VAt, Vaohota a 
Vanj^i pass, and again a footpath called Cuulaagah MotiAchi VAt. 




n.-,. ., -I , -,.1 ^ jj^if j^ntii of the VAgLvihir paaa, there is, at the 
;iusti» the D0OARA pass a mere footpath, and two miles 
.- &uutli the MokhJIdi pa^d, a VaDJdri road. 

at twelve miles soath, the Mjet Cuahdeya pass, leading from 

■ ri to Mokhadii, though uot He for carts, is a g^reat Yanjari 

rith a large traffic coastwarda ia graia, turmeric, and chillies, 

ita the coast in salt and fish. Two mi'.ea south is the Mrt- 

U;,^UA» a aim-ilar but poor pass, and the Amboli Ambai track, with 

a cartroad to the head of the pass, which is much used by Vaujiria 

and gmziers as well as for carrying timber. It is very steep in 

p(vrt« but quite pitsaable. About two miles south is the Shib 

y a Vanjari road. About ton miles south-east is the Tral pass, 

* first class well engineered work on the Bombay-Agra road. 

Xb spite of raflway competition it still has a large ti-amo coast- 

wBToa in grain, and Deccanwards in salt and sundries. Between 

the Shir and the Thai parses are the Met EliAchi pass, the YloaABiA 

pass, the Babkhandia pass, and the GhAtandue pass, all Vanjari 

roads and drags. UoaicDAXO is a footpath between the Barkhandia 

and the Gh^tandur passes. About six miles south of the Thai pass 

ia tho Bob or Pimpri pass, a very rough steep track only just 

pnuscksable for laden bullocks. Except the Goxdhaee footpath three 

D: b, this is the rai»3t southerly of the Sahyitdri passes within 

N its. Between those two are the JatmAli and Toran passes 

a»od chietiy by Vanjaris. 

The second system of hill passes, those that run, on the whole, 
ofirth and aonth, belong to the five ranges and spurs that stretch 
e (he Sahyadris. Of these, throe in the north, separating 

It: ^:ira in Kh/indesh from the Mosam, the Mosam from the 

tb wAr<?rs of the Gima, and the north Girna tributaries from the 

uth Gima tributaries, are spurs of no great extent or consequence ; 
and two, Chandor in the centre, separating the Girna from the great 
central plain of Na^ik and the GoiiAvari basin, and Kalsubii in the 
«ooth, separating the Godavari from the Pravara, are large ranges. 

The northmost spur, between the Panjhra and the Mosam, ia 
crossed, in the extreme west, by the Chivtia pass a rough track. 
Garta can go to Borhdti, but beyond Borhati the road is for about 
four miles impassable for carts. Further on carts ply to Pimpalner 
and Var^el. About eight miles east is the Skl pass, bridged and 
^i :i well engineered work, connecting Ndsik with Pimpalner. 

1 he pass itself is fit for carts, there is little traffic aa there 

are no roadii on either side, A considerable amount of timber from 
the north Dangs comes through this pass. About four miles east, 
the PisoL pass, though very steep, is practicable for carts and has 
little tratfio. About t-en miles east, on the old MAlegaon-Surat 
road, are the MordAba, a fair pass, and the RAhddvAdi pass, 
fit for carte but in very bad order. Though rough it is not difficult, 
and in 1879 was crossed by a Battery of Artillery. There is a 
oonaiderabld looal traffic in molasses, cloth, and timber. East o£ 
Rahadv4di the hills are broken by open valleys. 

In the second spur between the Mosam and its tributary the 
Kar^nj^di, is the MoHo pass, a good cart track with small looal 
• 23-17 

Chapter TX. 



I Bombay OazeitMr« 

Chapter VI. 

Co mmnnicfttioxu. 



traffic. Between the Mosam and the tributaries o! the north Gima, 
the DoL pass, joining the Sel pass with Satina by Tdharabad, is 
well engineered, and tit for carts though littlo used. About five miles 
east of the Dol pass is the Chinch pass, an opening in the hills 
between Jaykheda and Satana. It is passable to carts, but had 
nothing but local traffic. East of this the range breaks into 
isolated hills. 

The spur between the north and south waters of the Girna is 
crossed in the west by the Bhilkhand or KoTTAKpaas, which though 
rough and uumade is a fair track tit for loaded carts. East of this 
are the Jay, Tilvan, and BhAt passes, all footpaths except the Jay 
which is the straight line from Dang Saund^na to Kalvan. About 
eleven miles east of Kuttar is the Piufaldara or Chinch pass, 
partly made and fit for carts. There is a little local traffic. 

Besides by this main spur, the tributaries of the Girna are 
separated by three or four smaller ranges. The chief passes tlirougb 
them are the Murau pass joining the head of the Kanchan pass 
with the valley of the Pun; about two miles oast is the ShissAbi 
pass; and about three miles further east ia the LIkhan pass; 
about one mile more is the Mono pass ; and after two miles the TAo 
pass. Except the Lakhan pass which is fit for carts, these are only 
bridle paths. They connect Kan^si in the south with Saundaua in 
the north by way of Sule, The next range, which, separating 
the waters of the Tfimbdi and the Girna> ends in Hdtgad, is crossed 
on both sides of Hdtgad by good bullock passes, the eastern pass 
being the better of the two. About fire'milea east, the Chinch pasg, 

t'oining the head of the Kanchan pass with the south, ia a ro 
>uilock ivn^V. usod for all the timber that passes south for Kan 

The chief passes in the Chdndor range, which stretches from 
Peint east into the Nizam's dominions, are, in the west, in the 
first five miles, the RAhud and GAo passes, one mile apart, joining 
Dindori and Elatgad, very rough but the Gdg practicable for carta. 
Except timber the only traffic is local carried on pack bullocks. 
About eight miles oast the Ahivat pass, a cartroad now being made, 
crosses under the west shoulder of Saptashring connecting Abhona 
with the southern marts of Dindori and Vani. The traffic is 
small almost entirely local. About three miles east, immediately 
below the east of Saptasliring, is the MAkkand pass fit for cattle, 
and, two miles further, the MulAn pass, leading direct from Vani 
to Kalvan, passable by laden bullocks and with a small local traffic. 
About ten miles east ia the KAchan pass, fit for empty carts and 
ladeu camels, and the VaDj^l, a small pass tit only for cattle and 
with a small local traffic. One mile east, the BhAvar pass, 
connecting Chdndor and 6at4$na, is crossed by an excellent cartroad 
completed in 187G. The traffic is small and chiefly local. About 
ten miles east on the Agra road is the CbAndob or RAhudi pass, 
a first class bridged and metalled road. Though the railway has 
turned most of the traffic towards Manmad, there is still a 
considerable local trade, the toll on the yjass letting for about £200 
(Rs. 2000) a year. East of Rahudi the Chandor range ceases to 
a barrier, and, between Manmiid and Chandor, are various 



openings practicable for carts. Beyond Manmiid, abont ten miles 
•onth of the Cbandor range, rise the Satmala hills. On the 
MiiQmiid-Ahuiodnas:ar roal, between Manmadand Yeola, the Ankai- 
Takeai pass, between the Ankai-Tankai fort and a high eminence 
on thtf West, crc)saes the Satmalas with very little ascent. Close 
together, a)x>ut twelve miles east, two passes, the R.UXpcb and the 
SojrraAN, join Yeola and Nandgaon. 'ITioughfit for laden carts and 
in no place steep, these passes are very rough ami have little traffic 
except of Vanjans and local traders. About five miles north-east 
near KaaAri the Nandgaon-Aurangabad road passes, without any 
great ascent, along a made road through a wide depression in 
me hills. About six miles east, leading from Niiydougri to the 
Kizam'« dominions, is the Paedhadi pass, a cartroail but steep 
mod osed almost solely by pack bullocks, with a toll yielding about 
t20 (Els. 200) a year. Along this road there is a considerable 
traffic, wheat and Unseed passing from the Nizam's country and 
mi^JCtfllaneons articles forming the return loads. The DhAgur or 
Rimsej range, between Dindori and Nasik, is crossed by several 
footpaths bat is throughont impassable by carts. 

Between the head waters of the Goddvari and the Dama, lies 
the Trimhak range rising from the west into Bhdskargad, Harshgad, 
Bhdn3ang;id, Tnmbak, and Anjaniri, and falling away towards the 
east in the isolated P4ndu cave hills about five miles 60uth*westi 
of the town of Nasik. This range can be crossed by ptiinies and 
foot p^tssengors in the west only between Trimbak and Anjaniri by 
the Pahine defile. Further east, there is a rough cart track between 
Talegaon on the Nasik-Trimbak highroad and Vadhivra in 
IgatDuri, but it i.s not much uaed. About six miles further east 
toe Agra road passes through one of the valleys that divide ths 
range into separate peaks. 

In the Bonth of the district, the Kalsubiti range is skirted, in the 
e* 'est, by a footpath passing from the village of Jamundha 

it ^ ri round the western spnr of Knlnng fort to the head of 

the Pravara river in Akola Poor miles east are two footpaths used 
only by Thakurs, and so steep as to be almost inaccessible. They 
lie between Kalaubai and the Navra-Navri hilL About seven miles 
east, BIbi, the main piss in the range, crosses under the east 
shoulder of Kalsubai hill. A road has lat^jly been made through the 
pass from the AJimednagar side, and, in Nasik, a road now under 
construction will carry the line to the Ghoti railway station. The 
present traffic is small, chiefly on pack bullocks. When the Ghoti 
road is finished, there will probably be a great increase of traffic, as 
the Bari pass is the only outlet for the produce of north-wesfc 
Ahmednagar. East of Bari the Ealsubdi range is, for many miles, 
impassable except for cattle or foot traffic, and, as the paths lead 
to the very rugged lands of Akola, carts are never used. A cart 
track leads from Dubere to the east of the Ad fort in Sinnar to the 
large town of Thdn&gaon on the bank of the Mah^lungi ; and a 
simitar, though less steep, track communicates with that valley from 
D^par about ten or twelve miles south-east. About thirty miles 
east of BAri at Ndndnr-Shingota is the Hxnmakt pass on the 

Chapter "^ 


IBombay G&xetteer, 



Chapter VX 


iTomsn unieatioiis. 



provincial roa<l between Nasik, Ahmednagar, and Poona. Beyond 
this the Kalsab&i hills fall into tho plain. 

Under the British, besides by roads, the district communications 
have been improved, in 1861, by tho opeuing- of the Great Indian 
Peninsula, and, in 1878, by the opening of the Dhond and Mannjfid 
Railways. The Great Indian Peninsula Railway ent^ers Ndsik at 
tho south-west comer near Igatpuri, and, within district limits, has 
a length of about 110 miles. Within this length there are eleven 
stations, Ijratpnri, Ghoti, Bailgaon or Nandur Vaidyaj Bha^f 
Siding or Devlili, Nfisik Road, Kherv^di, Niphad, Lasalgaon, 
ManmAd, Nandgaon, and Naydongri. This section of the line was j 
begun in October 1857. The portion from Igatpuri to N^sik was ■ 
opsned for traffic on the 28th tianuary 1861, and the rest on the " 
1st October of the same year. No serious engineering diflficnlty 
was met in making the Ndsik section of the line. From the 
Sahyadris to the Gh^ndor hills near Mam^d the line runs through 
tho rich valley of the God^vari, and, by easy gradients and with 
quite ordiniiry works, is carried through the Cbaudor range at a 
gap in the hills near Manmad. Throughout this distance there are 
oni}'' three important bridges, one across the Godavari, one aorosa 
the Kadva, and a third across tho Maniad, a tributary of the Gima. 
At the different stations are quarters for the station master and 
booking offices ; in addition there are waiting rooms at Nasik Road, 
Niphad, and Ldsalgaon, and refreshment rooms at Manmad and 
NAudgaon, the cost of the buildings varying from £250 to £1000 
(Rs. 2500 -Rs. 10,000). Besides these, Igatpuri has a large station 
with j?ood waitinpf and refreshment rooms and a largo locomotive 
workshop, the whole representing a cost of £40,000 (Ks. 4,00,000) • 
At Devlali, a large station with good waiting rooms has just been 
completed. The establishment at Igatpuri includes about 700 
workmen, drivers, firemen, and others employed in working trains 
on the Thai pass and between Igatpuri and Nandgaon, and in the 
repairing shops. Of the whole number about ninety are Europeana 
and Eurasians; the rest are natives. Tho wages paid amount to 
about £3000 (Rs. 30.000) a month. The wages earned are abon 
the same as in Bombay, £3 10«. to £4 10*. (Rs. 35- Rs. 45) a month 
for fitters, smiths, and machinemen ; £2 to £3 \0a. (Rs. 20 -Rs. 35) 
for carpenters ; £1 'is. to £1 \ijs, (Rs. I2-R3. 18) for foremen ; an 
16*. (Rs. 8) for labourers. The mechanics are recruited fro 
different parts of the Deccan. A number of local blacksmiths and 
carpenters are also employed in the fitter's shop. 

Tho Dhond and Manmad State Railway forma a chord line^ 
connecting Mannmdin Ndsik 162 miles from Bombay on the north*] 
east section, with Dhond in Poona lO/railesfrom Bombay on thesouth- 
oast section, of the Peninsula Railway. Of 145 J miles the total lengtkl 
oftheline,abouttweuty-twomiles,withthi-eestations, Manmad, An kai, 
and Yeola, are in the Nasik district ; the rest of the line, except a mile 
or two in Poona, lies in Ahmednagar. The lino was first surveyed ia 
l8t>8by the Peninsula Railway engineers, but no progress was made 
till the rains of 1S76 when the Bombay Government directed 
Mr. Ilallam, the executive engineer of Ahmednagar, to start another] 




Mr. Hallam'a line showed au improved frradient in some 

pbioes and avoided u tuuuel iu the Chikhli ridge, thirty miles from 

Dljond. The earth work was begun in February 1877, and half of it 

ira? finished as a famine relief work, the labourers being chiefly from 

■<, Ahmednaj^^r, and Sholapur. The gauge is 5' tJ", the same as 

!•■» p4»Tiin!4iila lines, and the rails, each thirty feet long, are of the 

f r steel. The sleepers are what are called pot-s!ei?per» 

* feet apart. The ballast is clean river shingle and the 

ks are of gravel. The width of the land taken up varies with the 

^'lit of the bank, and averages about forty feet. The four large 

ii;e« orer the Bhimnj the Mula, the Pravara, and the GodAvari, 

ted at a cost of tl47.2lO (Rs. 14,72,100), are within 

i.tgnr limits. Besides these, there are in all seventy-nine 

btni^t-? r^n^ng from four to sixty feet and built at a total cost of i:.^:J,'.»UO (Rn. 9,30,000), In all cases the stone is boulder trap 

ceiueuted with mortar of the best qnality. The line has not aa yet 

been fenced When finished it will have cost about £1,350,000 

(ttfl. 1.35,00,000) or about £9 lO*. (Rs. 95) a mile, of which about 

•■' ' (Rs. 1,130,000) were paid for land ooujpensation and 

I .try expenses, and about £105,000 (Rs. 10,50,000) for earth- 

wurk. The line was opened for traffic on the 17th April 1878, bnt 

some of the large bridges which were begun iu 1879 were not 

finished till the rains of 1880. Qp to the end of 1880 the line was 

managed by Government; it was then handed over to the Peuinsnla 

Railway authorities. 

A.t Yeola, besides a goods shed, a station is nearly completed at & 

cxMtof £9(K» (K». 0000). 

Except across the God^vari at Nasik and across the Kadva at 
KoV about sixteen miles north of Nasik, the Bombay-Agra 

r»*ft'. ^-ed throughout from Igatpuri to Jhodga. The chief 

bridges are at Malegaon across .the Gima 913 yards long with 
twenty-six tliirty feet spans, constructed at a cost of £4266 
(Rs, 42,660), and seven others across the Nasardi, the Banganga, 
the Vad41i, the AnJarsul, the Vaki, the Pimpli, and the Sel, with 
from one to five spans of ten to 110 feet. In the 1872 flood the 
Giroa entirely covered the bridge at Malegaon and carried away the 
parapets and roadway. The roadway was repaired and ii^on rails 
put op in place of the stone parapets. There is a fiue bridge, across 
the Valdevi, with five spans of forty feet each on the road from the 
Kadik Road railwny station to Devlali camp, constructed at a cost 
of £?5060 (Rs. 30,600), and one with three spans of thirty-five feet 
at SAvargaon across the Agasti on the Mauraiid-Kopargaon road. 
Most of t lio famine roads have culverts and paved causeways. There 
are only throe largo railway bridges, one across the Qodavari 
between Na.sik and Khervidi 8t4itions, built at a cost of £39,400 
(Re. 3,04,000), 145 yards long with t%vo sixty feet and two 132 feet 
grjrder openings; another between Khervadi and Niphad, across the 
KiWva, built at a cost of £12,421 (Rs. 1,24,210), 257 yards long 
with sixteen forty feet stone arches ; and a third across the Manidd, 
■ ti NAndgaon and Naydongri, bnilt at a cost of £15,865 

-s,650), 179 yarda long witi four forty feet archea and five 
•lily feet girder o]^ning8. 





IBoxnbay 0ax«U«6r, 



Chapter VL 



There are four ferries, one over the GodAvari at NA^ik, one at 
Kokangaon aboat sixteen miles north of N^ik on the Agra road 
orer the Kadva, a tributary of the Godavari that risea in the extreme 
west of Dindori ; one at Chehedi, six milen south-east of Nasik, on 
the Poona and Siunar road across the Dama, which, rising near 
Igatpuri, is tilmoBt always in flood during the rainy season; and 
one lately started (June 1880), also across the Darna, about foor 
miles above Chehedi connecting the market towns of Pandhurli and 
fihagnr. The ferry boats have been built in Nasik by a Goanese 
Christian from the Kuukan. Except the Bhagur boat which is single, 
they are double boats, each about forty feet by fifteen, tied together 
and with a deck planking fastened across them. They have keels 
and draw about two feet. They are built of teak, at a cost of about 
£150 (Rji. 1500), and with proper repairs will last for seveml years. 
Each of the boats has throughout the year a steersman, idndelf on 
£1 (Rs. 10} a month in the rainy season, and 14«. (Rs. 7} during the 
rest of the year; and for the single boat a crew of four, and for the 
double boats crews of six boatmen ar 3k. (Re. 4) are engaged. 
The steersmen art? Kunbis, two of them Mdlis and the rest Mamthaa. 
They are called Tarus, ferrymen, and their occupation is permanent 
and said to be hereditary. The crew belong to the Bhoi caste. The 
Chehedi and Bhagur boats are worked simply by rowing; the 
Kdsik and Kokangauu boats are prevented from being carried 
down stream by a block ruuning on a wire rope made fast to 
masonry b:istion3 on each bank of the river. AH the boats ply 
even in the highest floods. They are fourth class ferries under 
the Ferry Act (11. of 1868). Except the Bhagur boat all of them 
carry animaU and carts» as well a^ passengers. The right of 
ferrying is yearly put to auction, tho amounts bid in 1879 
varying from £15 4*. (Rs. 152) in Kokangaon to £39 IGff (Rs. 398) 
at Chehedi. Rules framed nnder the Ferry Act tix the fares and 
the number of passengers, animals, and carts, that each boat 
may carry,' The amounts bid at ferry auction sales are credited 
to local fimds. They are generally enough to pay wages and other 
working chargas, but not to meed tho cost of building the boats 
and kee])ing them in repair. In 1879-80 they yielded a revenue 
of £72 (Rs. 720). One private ferryboat, plying between Saykheda 
and Chandori in Niphad, carries sixty passengers, or about six and 
a half tons (180 inan^*) of goods. The rates are almost the same as 
on Government ferries. Small streams are crossed by swimming, 
or by the help of gourds and cots. 

Of twenty-two toll bars, which in 1879 yielded about £3645 
(Rs. 36,450), eleven are on provincial and eleven on local fund roads. 


I Th* ferry boat* have been certified to he able to carry fifty-five pM««ngera or 
about six toiu (166 mam) <A gotxls. The nanotiotied charge* are ; paasengere, excluaiTa 
of ohiklrcn in nrmi. Id. (3 pltfi\ ; four-wheeled carriages W. (6 atu) ; two-vheeled A^A. 
<3aj.);unIadencftrt«.V.(2(M.);honiea. mule». cattle, aodihfwpandgoata l^rf. (laftna); 
cameli 3<f. (2 a*.); paUnquiua with bearere 6rf. {4 rut,); and cradlea with boorera Si 
(2 a».). For ammala made tonwim aJong«ide of the boat half the usoal rates ara 
charged. Rates tobeleviedatepecifll fprnosareflxedbytheOoUectorwith thesaoction 
of Oovemment. In aome places adrlitinnal fees are charged for takiog od and off 
wheelod-carria|[e8. and dragging them to tho top of tho oppoaitc bai3t, for which 
purpose a vpeoial staff is engaged by the ferry contractor. 




Tboae on provincml roads, yielding about £3032 (Rs. 30,320) a 

jetkTt are at Vilbodi. Kokangaon, Daregaou, and the K^hndi pass, on 

»* " '■a rood; at the Niisardi, Mohodari, and Naudur 

Poona-Ndaik road; at ^lakhmalabad on the 

TUt road ; at Ankai and Chondhai on the Malegaon- 

_.:-'n road ; and at Nandgaon on the Xdndgaon-Aui*augabad 

road. The tolls on the local fund roads, yielding about £613 
(Rs. 613<))j are at Dhdkilmbeon the Ndsik-Dindori road ; at VAghera 
on the Niisik-Harsnl road ; at Ubhade and Ghorvad on the Sinuar- 
Ghoti road; at N4.ygaon on the Sinnar-Khervadi road; in the 
Bbnvar pass on the Satana read ; at Deshraane on the Vinchur- 
V 'l.i road ; at Andarsul on the road from the Nizam's territory to 
Nijliad; in the Sel pitsa on the Satana- Pinipalgaon road ; and at 
Brahmangaou on the Satdna-Malegaon road. 

Of three buildings for the accommodation of district officers, one 
is at Sauudana in the Malegaon sub-division, built, in 1831, by 
the public works department, at a cost of £173 (Rs. 1730) ; one at 
Y&dhivra in the Igatpuri sub-division, built out of provincial funds^ 
with four sitting and two bath rooms and a verandah ; and one at 
Chandor in the Chandor sub-division, with sitting and bath rooms 
and a verandab. There are eleven travellerB* bungalows suited for 
Europeans. Of these one is at the Manmad railway station in the 
Chandor sub-division, built at a cost of £lo-i (Rs. 1540) ; one at 
Jalj?aon on the Malegaon and Manmad road in the Milegaon 
sub-division, biiilt, in 1827, by the public works department, at a cost 
of £1 58 (Rs. 1580); five are on the Bombay and Agi-a road, of which 
one at Cliikhalvohol and a second at Malegaon, are in the Mdlegaon 
«ab-division, the former built, in 1814, by the public works department, 
at a coat of £198 (Rs. 1980), and the la'tter, in 1841, at a cost of £188 
(Rs. 1880) ; two are at Ndsik in the Niisik sub-division, built out of 
local funds at a cost of £804 (Rs. 8040), with main halls, side and bath 
rooms, and a verandah ; and the lifth at Pimpalgaon (Basvant) in the 
Niph^i sub-division, built out of provincial funds at a cost of £154 
(Hs. Io40)p with two rooms and an out-house consisting of a 
kitchen and a stable ; one at the Igutpuri railway station in the 
J ■ sub-division, built out of local funds at a cost of £593 

^1 t), with sitting, dressing, and bath rooms, a kitchen and a 

verandah ; one at the Nandgaon railway station on the Nandgaon 
and AurangalMwi road in the Nandgaon sub-division, built out of 
local fnnds at a cost of £565 (Rs. 5650), with eight rooms; one at 
S^vargaon on the Manm&d-Kopargaon road in the Yeola sub- 
division, built out of provincial funds at a cost of £154 (Rs. 1540). 
with a main hall, aide rooms, bath rooms, and a verandah ; and one at 
Peint, on the NAsik and Balsar road in the Peintsub-division, built from 
state funds, with three sitting rooms, bath rooms, a vemndah, and an 
out-house. Besides these there are fifty -onerest-honses,J/*(;-r?rttf^/td/a*, 
of which two are in the Nasik sub-division, ten in Sinnar, eight 
in Igatpuri, eight in Dindori, ten in NiphAd, one in Chandor, one 
in Yeola, six in Malegaon, two in Ndndgaon, one in Baglan, and two 
in Peiut. 

The district of Nisik forms part of the Khindesh postal division. 




PoH Office 


[Bombay 0%xetu«r, 



tpter VL 
OommunicA ti ooa. 
Po9t OJicei. 


It contains twenty-seven post offices. Of those, one at Ndsik, the 
chief disbursing office in the district, is in charge of a post-master 
drawing a yearly salary rising within five years from VJ*) to £1 14 
(Ra. 9(»0-Ks. 1140); two head offices, at Igatpnri and Mauraad, are 
in charge of deputy post-masters drawing from £48 to £60 (Rs. 480- 
Rs. 600) ; seventeen sub-offices at ChAndor, Devlali, Devlali Camp> 
Dindori, Jaykheda, Kalvan, Lfealgaon, M^legaon, Naudgaon, 
Niphad, Peint, Pimpalgaon, Satana, Sinnar, Sdykheda, Vinchur, 
and Yeola, are in charge of deputy post-masters drawing from £48 
to£60(R8. 480 -Rs. 600); five branch offices, three of them at Ghoti, 
Thengoda,andTrimbak,are in charge of branch poat-nuiatt?rs, drawing 
from £12 to £148*. (Ra. 120-Rs. 144),ftnd two at Ojharand Vadner 
are in charge of school-masten* drawing, besides their school -masters' 
salaries, £(> (Rs. 60) a year ; and two receiving offices in the towns 
gf Malegaon and Ndsik, in charge of clerks drawing £18 and £24 
(Rs. 18u and Rs. 240) respectively. Besides these, the sub-office at 
ilokhdda, and the branch office at Jawh^r in the ThAna distrioty 
are managed as part of the Nasik postal sub-di^'ision. 

These offices are supervised by the Kli&ndosh inspector with a 
yearly salary of £240 (Re. 2400) helped by a sub-inspector drawing 
£90 (Rs. 900) for Niisik. At some of the chief stations^ papers and 
letters are delivered by twcntv-fivo postmen, with yearly salaries 
varying from £9 12«. to £12 (Rs. 96-R3. 120). Village pistman, 
fifty-six in number, receive from £8 8». to £12 (Rs. 84-Rs. 120). 
The mails are carried along the north-east section of the 
Peninsula Railway and along the Dhond-Manmad State Railway, 
and are sorted by travelling post office sorters who have the use of 
a separate carriage. A pony cart post, managed at a yearly cost of 
£24 (Rs. 240), runs daily both ways between Nasik road station and 
Nasikj a distance of 4^ miles. 

Besides the railway telegraph offices at the different railway 
stations, there are at present (1880) two Government telegraph 
offices, one at Mdlegaon and the other at NAsik. In 1 879-80 the 
number of messages was 519 at Mitlegaon, 239 of them Government 
and 280 private; and 565 at Ndsik, 218 of them Government and 
847 private. The corresponding figures for 1875-76 and 1870-71 
were 205 and 289 at Malegaon, and 530 and 437 at Nasik. 


Traffic The earliest Nasik trade, of which details remain, is, in the M 

century after Christ (247), the traffic between Bi*oach and the 
Bouthern marts of Paithaa and Tagar. The chief imports were 
wine, brass, copper, tin, lead, coral, chrysolite, cloth, storax, white 
lass, gold and silver coins, and perfumes. The exports were, from 
aithan, a great quantity of onyx stones, and from Tagar ordinary 
cotton in abundance, many sorts of muslins, mallow-colonred cottons^ 
and local products.^ 

1 McCnndle'i! Penpliw, 125-1'J6. The gold and silver coins were imported not 
from a want nf the preciotiB metalB, but ralher aa worka of art. The mtox tU V»^ 
tiuit thej yielded a profit when exchanged for looal money. Ditbo, 13, 



At the be^nning of BritiBh rule, the greater part of the trade 
between Kh&ndeah aad the coast passed through NiUilc along 
the Bombaj-Agra road. About 1824^ an important change took 
plaee in thiA trade. The export of Ber&r ootton eastwards, 
through Mirzupur^ to supply the great demand of the Bengal 
cotton Land-loom weavers ceased from tho competition of English 
gooda.^ About the same time^ the ostablishment of order and 
the improvement of the route hy the Thai pass to Bhi^vndi,' led 
Bombay merchaute to bring ootton from Berar straight to the west 
COMU In ISdQ, about 14,000 tons of cotton went through the 
district from Berar to Bombajj and in the nine years following, 
the Bverapre quantity was about 15,520 tons. This cotton was 
Carrie ''>' pai:;k bullocks. It was estimated that not fewer 

Ihan 1 : , mllocka were employed, and, in years of scarcity, the 

vrant of carriage was often a great difficulty.' At this time the 
price received by the cotton-grower was littlo more than a penny 
the pound-* The exporters were either rich local traders, or 
Bombay native firms, whose agents sent clerks to advance money 
to landholders and village headmen, or to buy from local dealers. In 
1841 the Bombay cotton trade suffered great losses, and for some 
years remained depressed, the Bombay cotton exports falling from 
46,7&3 tons in 184.1 to 21,030 tons in 184G.6 Though, in 1848, 
prices had somewhat risen, the state of the cotton trade was still very 
bed. The growers were hopelessly indebted and cared little for 
the state of their crops. Since 18t)2 almost the whole of the Berir 
aad Kh^desh cotton crop passes to the sea by rail. 

As early as 1826, the Thai route was passable by carts, and, in 
1844, after the improvements to the road were finished, carts began 
to take the place of pack bullocks. These carts, which were chiefly 
from Khan^h, seldom went back empty. The trip took about six 
weeks, and the drivers netted from £2 to £2 10«. (Re. 20 -Re. 25)." 
In 1845, there was an immense traffic by the Bombay- Agra road« 
grocerieB, English cloth, iron, metals, rice, and salt passing from the 
coast to KhAndesh and Malwa, and vast quantities of manufactured 
goods, cotton, and opium, going from the inland districts to the coast. 
Another equally important route left the Agra road about five miles 
east of NAsik, and, stretching east through the heart of Chandor, 
entered the Nizam's territ<:jry and passed from it to Ber^ and 
Nigpnr, In the fair season, immense quantities of ootton were 
brought down on pack bullocks. To avoid going round by the 

> The VAlue of the export of calicoca from Bengal fell from £1,659,994 in 1816 to 
A9U431 in 1626. Chapiium's Commeroe, 74. 

•In 1826 the Thai pua w« easy for carta ; the Pioneers were at work, making the 
road to Bhiwndi. Captain Clanes' Itmerary, 14Ji. ImproTementa went on in the 
p»w rr..rn iK!l6 to 1B44. Chapmao'a Commerce, 267. 

' s Commuroe. 78. 

* 1 17 pence waa thought a good price (Chapman, 93). In 1847 the price 
waa I ^. (Ditto, 58). ■ Chapman '■ Commerce, 78. 

• Captain O. Wingate, 07 of 29th March 1852. Born. Gov. SoL I. 14. The«e long 

iom««a were not a pure gain to the husbandmoo. The work woa tctv tmog. and, 
muomHy below the Sabyadris, many cattle died or were injured for life. Bom, Gov. 
8aL XCUL S». 

m n-\% 

Bombay Gazetteer^ 



Chapter VI. 


Bailwfty Traffic. 

town of Ndsik as well to secure better pasture for their cattle^ 
immense droves of Vanjaris left the main route at Suken and went 
direct through Sdykhed and VAdi. Grain was chiotJy carried on 
bullocks of which an almost unbroken stream passed from sunrise 
to sunset. Cotton carts were occasionally seen^ but the road was 
little more than a field track J 

By the opening of the Peninsula (1861) and the Dhond and 
Manmad railways (1877), the treule of Ndsik has been greatly 
changed and developed. Between 1368 and 1878 the Peninsula 
railway figures show an increase in passengers from 482,008 to 
524,281, and in goods from 70,491 to 100,149 tons. 

During those eleven years, atlgatpuri, passenger traffic has fallen 
from 134,285 to 49,108, and ^ods from 2032 to 1168 tons; at 
Ndsilc, passenger traffic has risen from 118,189 to 151,380, and 
goods h*om 12,479 to 12,592 tons; at L^salgaon, passenger traffic 
has risen from 23,282 to 36,468 in 1878, and goods from 10,045 to 
11,427 tons ; at Manm^, passenger traffic has risen from 55,227 to 
95,554, and goods from 15,407 to 46,697 tons; and at Nandgaon, 
passengers have fallen fi'om 84,356 to 42,129, and goods risen from 
9802 to 10,761 tons. 

The following statement shows the passenger and goods traffic at 
each station in the Ndsik district in 1868, 1873, and 1878 : 

Penintmla Rtulway Tr^^, 286S, 1873, and 1878. 















B«iltnK>n(.V4ndur Valdn^ 
Uhnfur SidlnKCnaTl&tO- 







T&Ul ... 






































110 1 482,008 






The chief changes in the carriage of goods are, in exports, a 
rise in inoha from nothing to six tons; in tobacco from one to 
twenty -eight tons ; in oil from twenty-one to 134 tons; in country 
piece-goods from eighteen to 102 tons; in wool from fourteen 
to twenty-six tons j in cotton from 5605 to 6052 tons ; in fruit 
and vegetables from 2083 to 2378 tons; in firtjwood from 836 to 
1970 tons; in hides and horns from 110 to 198 tons; in linseed 
from 3897 to 4014 tons ; in metal from 147 to 290 tons ? in salt 
from thirty-five to fifty-nine tons; in sugar and molasses from 231 

1 Survey SuperintendcDt to the Collector, 910 of 1874 
ed in 1840-41 to £92.317 (R«. 9,23,170) and the export* to JE40,866 
Bom. Rev. Kec. 1339 of 1842. 137-8. 

The total imports omoant- 
(Ba. 4,0»,650). 





to ^0 tons ; and in sundries from 5460 to 6745 tons. There is a 
lall in the export of opiam from 441 to 193 tons; in grain from 
l!>,165 to 16,965, and in timber from 331 to 117 tons. In imports 
thero IS a rise in ootton from five to 1399 tons ; in firewood from 
n<.kthinj^ to 429 tons; in grain from 1934 to 17,328 tons; in metal 
from 834 to 1039 tons ; iu moha from nothing to 321 tons ; in hides 
" i!S from four to twelve tons ; in country piece-goods from 156 
>ns ; in Europe twist from 3ii2 to 346 tons and in country 
^w^st from 183 to 243 tons; in salt from 4140 to 5795 tons; in 
flugar from 677 to 1343 tons ; in sundries from 7185 to 26,750 tons ; 
in tobacco from ten to 574 tons ; and in wool from serent-een to 
twenty-two tons. There is a fall in the import of linseed from eleven 
to six tons ; of European piece-goods from 1672 to 917 tons ; and of 
timber from 702 to 155 tons. The details are given in the following 
Biatemeut : 

Pmhisuta Railtaay OootU Trajfui, JS73 and 1S78. 








Id ward. 



ProH Md Vccoteblw 


Or»in «. 





OnlQxa .. 

Plece-coodi, BofOpe 

Ptc«»^oDdt, euaotry 

Pieo^-fjvod^EiigUah uidoottntry. 


SuifU Ulil MoluiM 

8uo<in«« ... M. 


"■ • i* - 

■.ry ... 
.iithtadeoiisirr ... 











'"' I 

" 1 






















*' W 






















Passen^^r and goods tra6Bc returns on the Dhond and Manmdd 
Stat-e Railway are available for three half-yearly periods since its 
opening in January 1879, Of the three Nasik stations, Manmid, 
which is n junction station, shows the largest number of paasengera 
rising from 31,462 in the firsts to 42^078 in the third period, and 
Yeola, well known for its silk and cotton manufactures, shows the 
largest amount of goods, rising during the same time from 1693 to 
2834 tons. In the second period, which includes the rainy season 
(July- November), both the passenger and the goods traffic show a 
csonfliderablc fall. The chief inward goods, besides coal and railway 
material, are grain, pulses, molasses, tobacco, salt, twist, dyes, and 
piece-goods, and the moat important outward goods are fruit and 
Tegetablee. The following statement gives the chief details of the 
passenger and goods tratlio at the threo stations during the cighteea 
months : 


R«ilw»y Tni 

IBombaj Ouetteer, 

Cluiptar VL 

Boftd Traffic. 



mcnd'Manmdd RailuHiy Traffic, 1S79-1SS0, 




In Jaitoakt to 
SOru Jvy E 187*. 

Ivr Jtn.T»31aT 

Dicnra 1979. 

llT JaXTABT to 
NTB JtLT 18». 









To«U ... 



















Of the traffic by road no details are available. There is atill • 
considerable trafiBc down the Thai pass to the coaet. Bnt the 
bulk of the road traffic ia now from and to the railway stations. 
Taking the traffic by road and by rail together, the chief export* 
are grain, oil-seeds, molasaes, hemp, cotton cloth and silk goods 
including turbans, pitdmbars, and paithanis, copper brass and silver 
vessels, onions, garlic, and betel, leaves. At the L^salgaou railway 
station, 146 miles from Bombay, a great quantity of grain, chiefly 
wheat, is bought by agents of Bombay firms and by brokers. The 
export of grain has of late considerably increased. la ordinary 
Beasons as many as five hundred carts and aa many more pack 
cattle, laden with wheat and other grain, come every day in the 
busy season (January- June) from Niphdd, Chfindor, Kopargaon, 
Kh^ndesh, and the Nizdm's territories; the carts often return 
laden with salt. Linseed and other oilseeds, molasses, and a little 
cotton are pretty largely exported from MAIcgaon and other 
northern parts of the district. Cloth and silk goods, prepared chiefiy 
Bt Teola, are sent as far as Bombay, Poona, S^tAra, Sholapur, 
Nigpur^ and other places. Copper, brass, and silver vessels, largely 
manufactured at Nasik, go chiefiy to Bombay and Poona. Onions 
and garlic find their way out of the district by the Khervlldi 
railway station. Betel leaves, grown chiefly in the Sinnar sub* 
division, are also largely exported. The value of the exports may 
be roughly estimated at from £200,000 to £250,000 (Rs. 20,00,000- 
Bs. 25,00,000), to which the cloth and silk goods of Yeola alone 
contribute about £150,000 (Ra. 15,00,000). 

The chief imports are raw silk and cotton yam, metals including 
oopperaudbraas, piece-goods, country cloth, sundries, sugar, groceri 06, 
and salt. There has lately been a great increase in the imports of 
European piece-goods, kerosine oil, lucifer matches, and sundries, 
which are consumed by all classes. Imports are chiefly for retail 
Bale. Piece-goods are sent from Bombay in accordance with the 
orders of some large firm, and sold to retailers who go to the firaii 
make their own pui-chases, and dispose of the goods m their shops 
or at weekly markets and fairs. Country cloths, chiefly lugdaa and 
dkoiarjodd», arc brought from Nagpur, Ahmednagar, B&r^mati. 
Sholfipur, Sangamner, and Ahmedabad; and coloured or nncoloured 
coarse cloth, khddvif joU, pdeodis^ and Q.oor 'SheQis, jdjamSj from 



The agencies far dtstribnting imports and collecting exports are 
oeatres, weekly or half-weekly markots, faira^ shops, and 
irs. The chit.>£ centres of local traffic are Igatpiiri, N4sik, 
[aon, Nandgaon,Manmad, and Yeolaonthe railway, Pimpalgaon 
mt), ChAodor, and Mulegaon on the Bombay-Agra road, and 

liaxiar on the Ahmednagar-N^ik road. 

A few rich traders, with capitals of from £5000 to £20,000 

50,000- Rs. 2,00,000), hare dealings with Bombay in European 

■goods, precious stones, bullion, and sundries. Tirade is brisk 

March, April, and May, when the bulk of the wheat and other 

hie crops comes to market. In the rainy season (Jane - October) 

tost all trade, including weaving and the making of metal vesselsj 


Although thoro are no monopolioSj several trades are carried ou 
lost entirely by certain classes. Gujarat and M^w4r Vauis, 
-is, Salis, and Shimpis deal in piece-goods and cloth ; Marwdr 
and L^dsakka Vdnis and Tolis in grain and groceries; Bohoria 
and other Musulmdus iu oil and hardware; Bohoris, Shimpis, and 
Br^hmans in haberdashery ; Lddsakka Vdnis and Tdmbolis in 
r spioea and groceries ; and Tdmbats and Musalmdns in metal 
|Ktbs9oIb. Besides these, the chief trading classes are Kaohhis^ 
^■Xomtia^ Kdaartt, Dhangars, Pdrsis^ Maoiars, Pardeshis, Yanjdrisj 
^nmisj Kunbis, and Bflgvans. 

^M Ia every sub-division, weekly or half-weekly markets are held in 
Hume or ten of the towns and larger villages. The market days are 
known throughout the neighbourhood, and all who have anything 
to ©ell or to buy crowd to the market. They are usually held in 
some open space iu the village, and for a few hours in the afternoon 
are gay and crowded. Almost everything required by the peoploi 
grain^ salt, spices, pepper, bangles, cooking vessels, coarse hand and 
machine made cloth, aud, ia some places auch as Saykheda, N&sik 
and M&legaon, ponies aud cattle, are offered for sale. Small villages 
generally depend for their supplies on weekly markets. The dealers, 
who are chiefly Mdrwdr, Gujarkt, and Lddsakka Vdnis, aud Bdgvdns, 
have hxed shops in some neighbouring town or village, and go 

■ from one market to another. Generally one member of a family 
travels, while another stays at home and minds the shop. They do 
not move much during the rains. 

I In every sub-division, in connection with two or three temples and 
religions places, yearly fairs are held at stated times. The chief are 
ftt Ndsik, Trimbak, Saptashring, Naitdla, Bhngaon, Vadner, 
Pimpri, Shendumi, Ndmpur, and Bogte. At Pimpri in Igatpuri, 
where the coautry is hilly and most of the people are Kunbis, 
Kolis, or Thdkurs, a considerable trade in blankets is carried on by 
the Dhauf^rs, who sometimes take sheep in return for blankets. 
Except that they are larger and have a greater variety of goods, 
fairs differ little from weekly markets. They last from one td 
fifteen days and draw from 1000 to 1-5,000 people, some of whom 
come from considerable distances. The fairs and weekly markets 
generally provide the poorer classes vrith almost all their daily 

Chapter V 

Trftd« Syrte 





Chapter VL 

TnMJie Syitem. 



wants, except oil and liauor whicli are brought from the Teli 
the Kaldl, and firewooa, which is either gathered by the 
themselves, or is not uaed, its place being supplied by cowdun^i 
The rich and middle classes UKually lay in a six or tw- " 
supply of some of the articles of daily nsej when they art- . 
cheap. They buy other articles from the Marwar and i. 
VAni shopkeepers, who deal in grain, pulses, salt, molasse::, 
oil, clarified butter, spices, and groceries, and sometimes in dl 

Almost every largo village has at least one or two such shop'^ ■' 

In towns where their number is greater they get their - 
except groceries which they sometimes order from Bo ml- 
those who have an excess or who owe them money. In vill 
supplies are chiefly drawn from the nearest markets or fairs, • 
from the producers. Town shopkeepers have their own 
which they sometimes lend at interest, but village shopkeepers artj 
almost entirely dependent on borrowed capital. Their bus^*- 
on a small scale and they have no dealings outside the 
Both in villages and towns, resident customers pay cither in ca^tior^ 
by monthly settlements, and strangers by ready money. Interest n 
not charged on monthly accoimts, nor is any discount all- 
cash payments. Trade by barter often takes place in the iS 
Bub-divisiona between husbandmen and shopkeepora or peddlen.] 
Peddlers, chiefly Mdrvadis, LingiSyats, Shimpis, Kdskrs, 
Bohoris^ att-end weekly markets. Mdrnidis and Lingayat-s deiJ n 
groc-eries, Shimpis in cloth, Kas&rs in metal pots and bangles, 
Bohoris in haberdashery. They buy their stores from 
shopkeepers and hold a stock worth from £2 10s. to £20 (Ra. 
Rs. 200). They take their wares on their heads, or on 
bullocks or horses, or in carts, and sometimes in the railway] 
Kachhis and Makrdnis take cloth, false pearls, stones, and bead] 
Sometimes they sell theirwareswithout receiving any cash paymentj 
but they never fail to recover the money in their second trip. 
Makrdnis occasionally bring with them good Arab horses. 

The opening of roads and railways has caused a marked chan] 
in the system of trade and has greatly increased its amount, 
effect of these changes on the difTorent classes of the people it 
mixed, and local opinion varies as to whether the balance is good] 
or evil. Comparing the trade returns with local opinions as to 
condition of the different claasesi the following seem to be 
chief general results. 

As regards traders the chief results seem to be an increase in tl 
amount of the business done and a fall in the rate of profit. This] 
loss of profit is due to two causes, the competition of local tradei 
of small or of no capital, and the competition of outsiders. When I 
risks were great and much time was taken in turning over stock,] 
business could be carried on only by men of considerable capital 
competition was small and profits wore high. With safe andi 
rapid carriage, the stock in trade can soon be turned over, and thfl 
competition of men of small capital becomes possible. Again the 
ease with which they can visit the district has attracted outside 
traders. And their knowledge of the railway and of the telegraphy i 




ibeir bolder and wider methods of trading, and their willingnesfl to 
take B smaller margin of pruiit, have enabled more than one class 
of ouljdde IraderB to establtsL themselves in Naiiik. The chief of 
Ibese outside traders are Bohoris from Bombay and 8urat, who 
laTe gained a largo share of the iron, hardware, and cloth trades, and 
Ittve lately etarted the import of kerosiue oil. Another class of 
liusaim&ns, Memons known in Ndsik as Kachhis, within the last 
lew years, hare became the leading wholesale grain-dealers. Some 
have settled in the district, but most have their hcad-quartera 
in Bombay and come to Nasik only during the fair months. 
Another class, who compete with the Kachhis in grain and with 
the Bohoriti in oil and cloth, are Hindus of the Bhatia caste. Like 
the Kachhis, most Bhdtia traders belong to Bombay and visit Nisik 
only during the busy season. 

The competition of these outside classes has injured the local 
traders in three ways. The margin of profit has been lowered, 
some important branches of trade have passed from their hands, 
and the number of middlemen has been reduced. In spite of these 
diKadvuntagcs, the local opinion would seem to be, that the great 
increape in the amount both of exports and of imports, has more 
than made up to the local traders for their losses from competition 

d troui chanf»vs iu the system of trade which they have been 
ble or unwilling to adopt. 

The three chief changes in the system of trade, easy and safe 
carriage, fewer middlemen, and smaller trading profits, tend to 
better the atateof producers whether manufacturers or husbandmen. 
In the case of manufacturers and other skilled workmen, the gain 
from these changes is, to a great extent, met by loss from outside 
competition. Lt:)caJ opinion would seem to agree that the clianges 
in the course and system of trade have little, if at all, benefited the 
class of skilled workmen. 

The manufacture of silk goods, of cotton cloth, and of brass and 
oopperware, have of late years increased. At the same time the 
general use of imported hardware and other articles, which, under 
the head Sundries, have risen from 7185 tons in 1873 to 26,750 
in 1878, has forced many craftsmen to leave their old callings and 
take to weaving or bi-assware making. The result has been that, 
even in the prosperous callings, the competition of local labour and 
the competition of cheap outside goods, have together greatly 
lowered the rate of wages. 

In two respects the changes have injured husbandmen. Outside 
competition has destroyed their former monopoly of profit in 
fieoaons of local scarcity, and their gains as carriers have been 
reduced. Their loss from outside competition in times of scarcity 
is doubtless considerable. During the famine years (1876-77) 
iu spite of the failure of the local crops, grain importations prevented 
the price of millet rising above sixteen pounds the rupee. Their 
loss from the decrease of long cart journeys to the coast is, to some 
extent, made up by their employment in carrying to and from 
the railway stations, which, though it yields a smaller return, 
does much less damage to their cattle. Against these losses 



""- --^ 



f Bombay 



husbandmen, or at- least landholders, gain from the grenter 
with which thoir produce finds a market, and the mach larger si 
of the export price that, from the competition of traders and the 
reduction of the number of middlemen, now goes to the grower . 
Another great gain is the wide market that quick carriage hu 
opened for such rich and perishable products as vegetables and 
frait and molasaes; On the whole it would seem that, as producers, 
husbandmen, at least near the line, have decidedly gained by the 
opening of the railway, and that, as consumers, they have, all over 
the district, profited by the reduced cost of cloth, hardware^ uAt, 
oilj and sundries. Jjabonrers, like hasbandmen, have, on the 
whole, benefited by the changes in the system of trade. The 
chief exception to this is the case of carriers. Before the opening 
of roads great numbers of Vanjiris and Lamdnis, and, to a leas 
extent, of Ch^raua and Kunbis, lived as pack-bullock drivers. 
The opening of cart roads reduced the demand for their services^ 
and many were forced either to leave the district or to take to 
tillage. Afterwards, when (1861) the bulk of the traffic passed 
from carts to the railway, many of the poorer husbandmen and Held 
workers lost an important soiirce of income. Again, the railway 
demand for labour, both skilled and unskilled, has, to a greafc 
extent, been met fi-om outside, Deccan Mhdrs furnish the bulk of 
the unskilled, and north India and Eoml)ay crnftsraen, the bulk of 
the skilled labourers. Still the great development of trade 
employs a largely increased amount of unskilled labour ; and it 
would seem that very few people of the labouring class have to 
leave the district in search oi work. As consumers, labourers, 
equally with husbandmen, share in the advantages of cheap cloth, 
hardware, oil, salt, and miscellaneous articles. 

Good roads, and still more the railway, have, in a special way, 
enriched the district by the great increase in the number of pilgrimB 
who visit Niisik and Trimbak. 

As regards the effect of the change in the channel of trade from 
the Bombay- Agra road to the railway, chough some of the towns and 
villages on the line of road have declined since the opening of the 
railway, their decay is more than met by the rise of Igatpuri, 
NiKndgaon, L&salgaon, and Ghoti, from small villages to important 
oonnlry towns and trade centres. 


irta. Of fourteen classes of craftsmen, about whom information has been 

collected, three are makers of articles of furniture, nine of articles 
of dress, and two of miscellaneous articles. The three crafts 
connected with articles of furniture are, the making of copper and 
braes vessels, the founding of bell and white metal, and the turning 
of wood. The nine crafts connected with dress are : the working. 

1 Trom materials aDpnliAd by Mr. BilknshnA Atm&rim Guptc^ MiinUnt to Iho 
Cantor, Victoria and Alovrt Masoom. 



djeiDg*, and weaving of silk, the utakiug of gold and stiver thready 
the wtMkving' of cotton cloth, the weaving of CHrpets, the weaving o£ 
tMpe, the dyeing and printing of cotton cloth, blanket weaving, and 
lac work. The two misoellaneous crafts are the making of paper 
id uitre. 

Tlie Tnaking of copper and brass vessels is one of the most 

r and pmsperoiis of Nflsik oraftfl. Besides 8t]pp>rting a 

-tO'do class of Kasars, or dealers in copper and biiiss ware, 

industry gives employment to three sots of workuieu, Tambata 

its of large articles, Kalaikars' makers of ainall articles, and 

tkvilM workers on the laf he or polishers. One or two Tambat 

»sare fr>und in some of the larger viila^^s and coimtry towna, 

to bulk of them, and almoat all KaLaikarsi and Chanikvalfts, 

settled in Nasik^ and Ojhar, about twelve mileeJ north of Nasik. 

K*sar«, with an estimated strength of about eighty ' families^ are 
said io have gathered into Nasik from the outlpng villages. Their 
tmt* is Miirathi, and, except a few of the richest, they live 

V. 1 bouses. They wear the sacred thrt^ad, a slightly 

dilied Untlimau turban mth a rather broad flat dome, generally 
^relcssly ft>lded, and sboit coats or jackets that do not reach below 
Iiip. They drink licjuor and eat animal food, and are sober, 
irifty, and orderly. Their sole occupation is selling brass and 
copper vessels either wholesale or retail, 'i'hey are well-to-do. They 
Drhhip the goddess Kiili, and have a temple of their own. Widow 
krnage is allowed and they have no trade guild. 

Of Tnmbats there are two chief divisions, Hindus and Musalmdns. 

le Hindus are by much the more numerous and important, 
ith an estimated strength of one hundred families at Nasik and 

leen at Ojhar. The Nfcik Tambnta used to be settled in the west 

the city near the Triml>ak gate, from which they have lately moved 
to the outside of theMalhar gate in tho %vest. They are said to have 
come, between three and four hundred years ago, from ChAmpdner* 
the roined capital of the Panch Mahals, They claim a Kshatriya 
origin, and seem to belong to the same stock as the Tarabats of 
Ahmedabad, Baroda, Surat, and Bombay. Before reaching Ndsik 
they are said to have settled in the village of Ojhar, where there are 
8tili fifteen families and a temple of their family goddess Kali, 
Though, out of doors, they sjx^Mk Murdtlii, their home tongue is 
Gujarati. Tlie men wear Maritha Brahman turbans, and the women 
a modified Gujarati dress, keeping to the petticoat and small head 
rube, but wearing Maratha instead of Gnjardti ornaments. Their 
bonees are generally one-storied. In food tlu'y are strict vegetarians. 

ley are thrifty, hardworking, sober, and skilfuL Their special 

Chapter VL| 

Bmm Work, 



' KAlftilun aUo make »ilver pot« ohftrgiug from 3t/. to 4^1. (2-3 04.) » tola for 
Mr labour. 

* At Skiik th«ro are nbout ooe hundred fmniiliea, and Afteon at Ojhar. 

•Tlie dcuila arc r KiUik nO, Ch and or 2. Yeola 10, Vani 2 Viuchur 4, ^aUtm 8. 
rAle|nnn 6, aur) ManniAd 2. 

* CnAjnpaner Aceinn never to have r<wovcrod since ita capturr by f-h<: F.mjt-^por 
Humijou in 1535. It ooA«od to t>e one of the roy^ seats in UujarAl^ and rapidly 
decayed. See Bombay Gazetteer, lU. 306. 

B 23-19 

[Bombay Gazetteer 

Chapter VI. 

Braaa Work. 



work is making lar^ brass and copper Teasels. Their occupation 
is constaut uud well paidj and, thougli few of them have cupital, 
almost all are well-to-do. They keep images of Khaudoba and 
Bahiroba in their houses. But their chief deity is Kali whose 
worship they Heem to have brought with them from Champ^uer. 
They have the special custom of holding marriages once in every 
four or five years only. At these times all girls between five and 
eleven must be mated. The ceremonies and rejoicings last OTer 
two or three weekfl during which all Tambat shops are closed. 
According to his moans a man spends on his sou's marriage from 
£10 to £50 (Rs. 100.R8.500), and from £5 to £40 (Ra. ^O-Rs. 
400J on his daughter's marriage. Whatever its origin this system 
of periodic marriage seasons has the advantage of greatly reducing 
feasting and show charges. Though there is no trade ^"Tiild, caste 
influence forces the workman to keep certain social and trade rules. 
At every marriage the bridegroom has to pay a caste fee of 12«. 
(Rs. 6). and 1*2*. 6d. (Rs. 6-4) if the bride is a widow. The 
Bum thus collected forma a fund, used for charitable and religious 
purpKJses.' Only a few Tdmbats have shops. They teach their boys to 
read and write, and to keep Marathi Eiccounts. Their wares are in 
fairly constant demand, with a yearly busy season in Shrdvan and 
Bhddrapad (September and October), and a specially heavy harvest 
once in twelve years during SinhaMha. Except six families of 
dealers all are workmen. Their work is plain ; beauty of shape and 
polish are its chief excellence. Among the Uindu Tambat**, are 
five families of Koukani Tnmbats who belong to a colony of 
MarathAs from Chaul and Rcvdauda in Kolaba, They perform the 
thread ceremony, eat animal food, drink liquor, and allow -widow 
marriage. Except that their women dress in Marathi fashion, they 
do not differ in Hpj)eai'aTice from the Gujarali Tdmliats. 

Musalmdu Tarn bats are piTibably converted Gujar^ti Tambats. 
They have six workshops in Nasik, and about ten in Chandor. 
The Chandor settlement is due to the patronage given to the town 
by Malhilrritv Holkar. This prince, when visiting Chdudor about the 
year 1755, was much taken wnth the town, and, to improve it, tempted 
craftsmen to settle, by gifts of land and money. Among the 
settlers were Musalmdn Tambnts from Nngar in Marwar. For a 
time they enjoyed highly paid employment in the Cliandor mint. 
When the mint was closed soon after 1819, the Tambats took to 
working in copper and brass. So long as the Bombay-Agra road 
remained the highway of trade, the demand for their wai*es was good, 
but, since the opening of the railway, the Agra road has ^len 
into disuse, the demand for Chdndor brass-work has ceased, and 
the Tambat« that are left, are badly off, with only a local demand 
for their wares. The six Ndsik families came from Chindor. 

1 The cha-ritahle «xpeD»e« are chiedy iu feo<liug religiuas beggare. On the "th of 
Pnu»h (Jjuiuary-Febraary) a feast is given at the Ttiiiihak Gate, aTi<1 nn the I2th of 
the saitiP month at the Malhlr Gate. ExpeiiBes cuDUOcted with the Trimltak Gate feast 
are borne by the marriaKe tax fund, and those coDneoted with the Malhd.r feiast by a 
distinct fund raised by the meiubi'ns of tlie different castes, who live in that part of 
the town. The relipouu expensea are chiefly connooted with the maintenaDM of Kiii'a 
two temples at Nisik. 





kUiloirs, or tinsmiths^ the other class of brass-workers belong to 
ILe P^chal caato o£ Mttnitbi speaking Hindus. They call themselves 

I 'Ma Somavan&hi Kxhatris,' bat in spite of their high claims some 
pt attaches to their origin. Tliey are not allowed to enter Horn's 
pie» on the GodAvari, and Chatnbhars profess to despise them, 
iBin^ t^ mend their shoes. Tho result of this is that they always 
f *he fact that they are Pduchiils, and take new names 

^ . their calling. The Nasik Kalaikars are said to have 

come from Bedar. In Xasik there are about fifteen establishments 
H^^alaikars. Their proper craft hns of late failed them. They 
^H^l their position »s a special class, to the belief that the 
^Bning of navoitdgarj Chloride of ammonium, brought on a house- 
hold the wrath of the gods. Of late thia feeling has, to a great 
ex'- f*d away, and, as tinning is a yery simple process, the 

net . j-ociul class uf workmen has ceased. Kalaikai-s differ from 

I Tambatfi by casting pots as well as beating them into shapej and 
taking small instead of largo articles. 

larakvdlds, or polishers on the lathe, of whom there are 
lout fourteen families, belong to different castes. Five of them are 
Kalaikars, four Thatere Pardeshis, two Marathds, one Shimpis, 
and one Kolis. They have pretty constant work and are fairly well- 
to-do. They generally make no pots, aud are the hired servants of 
the K£s^s. The Thatere Pardeshis, who have their head-quarters 
JH^Kaipnr* N%par, and Benares, say that they have been settled 
^Bcenturios at Nasik, and that their forefathers were warriors. Only 
'55!? among them has opened a small coppersmith's establishment 

S those of the Kalaikars. The Mardthas and Shimpis have been 
ed in Xasik for a few years only. The Koli says, he is of the 
* caste with the Kolis of Sarvatirth, Takit, and Bailgaon iu 
N^ik, and that hia forefathers have been settled as polishers in 
»ik for eight or nine generations, 
little bra-SH and bell metal is smelted by T^mbats in N^sik, and 
the copper is made from broken pots. But the bulk of 
yr and brass comes by rail from Bombay, in the shape of 
sheets of English copper and brass generally about four feet square. 
; They are bought by K&sars in Nasik, generally through Hindu 
brokers, and sold to, or given to be worked by Tambats. There are 
three kinds of brass aud copper sheets, thick, medium, and thin. They 
differ very little in price, copper costing £4 8*.- to £4 10*. (Rs. 44-- 
Rs. 45), and brass £3 8*. to £3 10«. (Rs. 34- Rs. 35) a hundredweight, 
with two shillings extra, one for brokerage and the other for carriage. 

M Brass and other alloys are smelted in a pit about three feet round 
d four or five feet deep. At the bottom of tho pit a bellow-s-tube 
prmly fixed, and over the tube are laid three or four flat-bottomed 
aome-sliaped crucibles or pots, about eighteen inches high and 
Eoot round. These crucibles are made of powdered flint and 
js, filled H-ith copper and zinc, and closed by an air-tight 
(per. Charcoal, dried cowdung cakes^ and wood, are heaped over 
The fire is lighted, and, with the help of the bellows, blown 
a white heat. The craftsmen know the time, generally from four 
to ^ve hours, required for the alloy to form, andj when it is ready. 

Chapter VX. 

Brut Work, 




[fiombay GazettaaTr 



Chapter 71. 

Brass Work. 


Trith the help of an instrament called chyak,^ the cmciblcs are take: 
out oue by one. On taking- it out, the side of the crucible is bored! 
by the point of a nail, and the liqtiid contents are allowed to flow 
int<:> shallow clay troughs, and left to cool. When coolj the solid 
muss is dragged from the trough by a pair of tongs, laid on a very 
Htrong stone, and beaten thin. After it has been rodncod to the 
proper thinness, the process of working it into shape La the same aa^ 
of shaping imported brass and copper sheets. 

The sheet is laid on the floor, and on it the workman traces, witb 
a compass, the shape of the article to be made and cuts it out wirh 
scissors or a chisel. The metal is then softened in the fire and 
hammen?d, and again softened and hammered, three or four times, 
till it is beaten into shape. Each vessel is generally made of two 
pieces, an under and an upper part, separately beaten into shape 
and soldered with brass, borax ttavagi^ and chloride of ammonium 
7utvti8nf/ar. The men work in bands of five or six, dividing the 
labour, some marking the rough shape, others shaping the neckband 
the rest giving the whole a rough polish. All the polishing the 
T^mbats give is rough scrubbing with a mixture of powdered 
charcoal and tamarind pulp, followed by beating with a small 
hammer till the whole surface of the vessel ia covered with little 
facets. iSmall cups, vessels fur performing worship in, and other 
articles that want a high polish, are hauded to the lathe- workers. 

The process of polishing pots on the lathe is simple. The pot is 
fixed to the lathe with sealing wax, and, while the wheel is turned 
by a labourer, the polisher, sitting close to the pot, holds against it a 
sharp pointed to*^l called randha, which, as the pot whirls, scrapes its 
outer surface. Except oue mau who has a coppersmith's shop, the 
]>olishcr8 are all hired servants. The copper and brass srnipinga or 
dust are returned to the dealer. Although none are rich, all have 
steady eniplctyment, and earn, on an average, from 16«. to 30*. (Rs. S- 
Ks. 15) a month. 

Acoppersmith'schief t«ols and appliances are : (1) a stone, dagad, 
with about three feet above and two feet under ground, nn which brass 
and other castings are beaten. As it hns to stand very rough usage, 
the stone is chosen of flawless black basalt and is very carefully 
smoothed. One of these stones is said sometimes to cost as much 
as ilO (Rs. 100). With the increased consumption of imported 
copper sheets, the use of the stone has greatly declined. (2) Five 
hammers worth 8«. (Rs. 4) each, (3) A pair of bellows, hfuita, worth 
128. (Rs. G). (4) Fourii'on hooks, ompnlif, worth {jd. ( t annaj^) each. 
(5) Four pairs of tongs worth I0«. (Ks. 5). (G) An anvil, savdhan or 
Vifkhy along upright bar ]>oIished at oue end, on which the pot is 
placed aud beaten, worth about 4«. (Rs. 2). (7) About twenty-five 
special anvils, kharvau^ thick iron bars bent and smoothed at one 
-end, worth altogether about£ 15 (Ha. 150). (8) Four ordinary anvils. 


1 This iiutrumcnt ia an iron ring, nearly three feet round, with two long iron htam 
f xed U> it Tit nu lujual HistAnco from each other, and witli a ring which Blidce over the 
\ nn, increuing or decreasing the apace between thorn, as the ■tide is raised or 




, -worth £2 (Rs, 20). (9) About fifty small hftinmerg, used 

the pot is placed on the Iwirauvil, worth about £10 (Rs. 100). 

Two paire of scissors, for cutting copper or brass sheets, worth 

(Rs. 2), (11 J A wooden stand, khodvl, for supporting the 

anril. ITii^ is a block of wooil with two legfs about 60° 

t, aud, in the angle between the legs, a solid block of wood with 

le in the middle. This stool is set slanting on its legs, and 

l»r auvil is passed thrnngh the hole, the lower part of the bar 

I serving as the third leg of the stool, and supporting it in a 

tjujr position. The workman, sitting on the bar anvil with hia 

on tMther side of it, holds the pot in his left hand on the anvil 

he end of the bur, and beats it with the hammer in his right 

Haufl* fl2) Two files, h'tna^j worth 2s. (Re. 1) each; they are 

wed every year. {]'^) Two paira of compasses, kaivarsj together 

U, (R«. 2). ( 1 4) 'IVo hollow stones, nkfuilif, on the top of whi(rh 

sheet is laid and rounded by haramering ; they are each woHh 

(Rs. 4). (lo) Eight chisels, ckhdnisj for cutting the metal, 

together about 3/r. (Rs. 1 -8) . 

alaikars, who make small articles, require the following tools : 

An an^ilj niranf worth 10*. (Rs. 5). (2) Four bar anvils, kharvais, 

h together ]tjs. (Rs, 8). (3) Four hammers worth together S*, 

4). (4) One ]>air of tcrngB, xdtulMi^ worth I*. (8 as.). (5) Two 

of scissors worth together 2ff. (Re. 1). (5] Five files, kdn»is^ 

:h worth from 3(/. to 9(Z. (2 -6 as.). (7) A vice, shagda, worth 

84. (Rs. 4). (8) A pair of bellows worth U, [Hag.). (9) A saw, 

Hii, worth Is. (8 an,). (10) An iron bar, snndhdn, with one end 

thLHl as an auvil. (1 1) A scraper, nindha, of fiat iron six inches 

half an inch, with one end bent and sharpened. It is used for 

ping and polishing pt>t8, and is worth \tt. (8 as,). (12) A borer, 

la, worth 1 {d. (1 anua). (13) A foot rule, gaj, worth 3d. (2 as.). 

) A square iron tray, tdt, worth 6*f. (4 fw.)- (1^) -^ palm-leaf 

,jhadpana, used for making a draft, worth }c/. (i anna). 

1 workers have seven chief tools. (1 ) The wheel 

., worth £1 4fl. (Rs. 12). (2) The lathe, worth \s. 

}. It IS a cylindrical piece of wood with one end made so that 

pot can bo fastened to it with sealing wax. (3) Twenty scrapers, 

i/iJjv, worth together 10a. (Rs. 5). (4) A bar anvil, kharcai, 

to remove notches and other roughnesses, (o) Three small 

mers worth titgether Is. 6d. (12 as.). (6) Tongs worth 1-9. (8 as.), 

A i«air of bellows, hhdta, to work the fire required to heat pots 

t wuut repairing. (8) A sharpening stone, pdthi-if worth 6d, 

und (8 rt-». a ffAer), required to sharpen the scrapers. These are 

ordinary tools. One Kalaikar named Gyanu has been enterprising 

ugh to buy an English lathe. The machine cost him £90 

.t>00). It has worked well, and, from their better polish, his 

B command special prices. 

large class of ornaments and small articles are made by 
ng. Those used for worship arc: (I) The ahkiskckapdira 
ewhat like the yadva, except that its bottom tapers into a 
t; it stands in a tripod, with a ring at the top, and has a hole 
in the bottom through which water drip8 on the object of woi-ship. 

Chapter VL 

Bras« Work^ 


[Bombay GaxeiUara 



Chapter VI. 

Bnus Work. 

(2) The «anij>ii«7t<a, a tollow cylinder, varying from two to aix inobed 
in diameter and one to two in heiglit, is used for washing images. 

(3) The cfiauki, a low four-footed stool, round, square^ or aii or 
eight cornered, is used as an image stand, or as a support for aa 
image stand. (4) The adiiif a staud oa which the conch, or shankhj 
is placed, is generally tortoise-shaped, and about half an inch 
in diameter, (o) The ghrtvin, u long handled hell, has ita handle 
generally carved into the figure of Hanum^n, the monkey god, or 
of Garud, Vishnu*B half-man half-bird charger; it varies much 
in sizo. (6) The e/cdrti is a fish-shaped pot for burning camphor, 
about two to four inches long. (7) The pancharti is a similar pot 
for burning clarified butter before idols; it has five oponiuga 
for wicks. (8) The dhupdrtij a stand with hemispherical top and 
bottom, is used for burning incense. (9) The jiirdttjfin, the lamp in 
which clarified butter iskept burning during worship, is of two shapea, 
a taller and a shorter, the shorter one much like the dkfip*ltri (No. 
8). (10) llie arghya, a narrow cup, from half an inch to three 
inches long and &oia a quarter of an inch to an inch broad, has a 
flat handle and long flat snout from which sacri6cial water is poured. 
(11) The patif^f I pale is a box with chambers for the various powders, 
turmeric, auldlj aiir, and kunki(.j used in worship. (12) The kamal 
is a round plat« with a stand on which the idols are placed. (13) 
The tdmhan, a shallow bath, except for its slightly bulging rim not 
unlike the idt or dining dish, is used for washing the images. 

Three musical instruments are made : The bell (No. b), (14) 
the jliduj, or cjTnbal, and (15) the tnl, a rounded cymbal ; the 
jhdtij is about four and the tdl about two inches in diameter. Both 
are used in worship while reciting tiWw, or songs in praise of the 
gods, and by beggars who go from door to door singing hynuui 
and metrical proverbs. 

For storing and carrving water, the chief vessels are : (16) The 
pdielcj a cylindrical copper or brass pot, with slightly rounded 
bottom, varying in size from two inches round to four or five feet 
across and two or three feet high ; the larger vessels are used for 
Btoring and the smaller for cooking, (17) The ila^e/c, a somewhat 
conical pot, with rounded bottom, and narrow neck; like tho pdtele 
this pot varies greatly in size; the small ones are used for boiling 
rice and holding milk, and the large ones for storing wat^r. 
(18) Tho hdnda is a short-necked cylindrical pot used both for 
carrying aud storing water. (19) The ghdgar has a longer neck, and, 
unlike the hdnda, a sharply eloping lower part, (20) The gnngdl, 
a copper jar from ten to fourteen inches in diameter and four 
to nme deep, is used for holding hot bathing water and for steeping 
clothes; among high class Hindus, who wear fresh clothes every 
day, this hot water pot is much used. (21) The t.avi is generally 
small, from four to six iuches across, has a rounded bottom, and aides 
that contract at rather a sharp angle ; it is made either of copper or 
brass aud is used for holding milk, oil, and butter, (22) The top 
differs from the lavi in having its sides rounded instead of sharp; it 
is made either of copper or brass^ and is used for storing milk, oil, 
and clarified butter. 







There are three tneosarea: (23) The ptiyli, and (24) the iker, 
both of them cylindrical and pfenerally made <jf copper ; and (26) the 
pAc$k4rrj a binall globular briibH pot used lor uieuauruig milk. 

There arc five cooking pots: The pdtelc (No. !6)^ and tapele 
(No. 17), already described. The (2G) frflAw^/M^e, acylindricalpot like 
the pdtcle only rather bidging in the lower half, seldom more than 
a foot in diamet-er. (27) The knravda, a machine for stewing 
modaht, shengas} and one or two other native dainties, consists of 
three pieces, underneath a cylinder with flat side handles, in the 
middle a metallic sieve with two hooks to serve as handlcSj andj at 
the top, fitting the rim of the first piece^ a dome with a cap-shaped 
liandle ; water is boiled in the cylinder, the sieve is put in its place^ 
the diiinties are laid either on the sieve or on a piece of plantain leaf, 
lid is fastened ; then heat is npplied to the lower part, and 
m, gathering in the cover, stews the dainties. (28) The 
lis another sieve or perfoi-ated dish used to carry off the surplus 
^*e«ae when karanjU^ or ondrtKU are fried in clarified butter. (29) 
Tbe rvrali is a cylinder, six to nine inches in diameter and nine to 
twelve inches high, with a sieve at the bottom, used for washing rice 
before it ia boiled. (30) The jViiira is a long handled sieve used for 
iryiDg the gram flour paste required for cooking hundU, In making 
bundU gram Hour, mixed with water, is poured into this sieve 
which is held over a frying pan with boiling clarified butter in it, 
and frhaken. The gram flour paste falls into the pan in drops, which 
become solid as soon as they enter the boiling clarified butter. The 
drops are then taken out in another sieve, called (lil) iqwjtni, which. 
di0ert^ from the jh4r a chiefly in not having a rim. (32) Chahuddnij 
or kitl}\ the hinglish kettle, is now in much use particularly among 
educated natives. (33) The kadhaif or frying pan, is a round pan 
from six inches to six feet across and from one inch to two feet 
deep ; it has two handles opposite each other and is used for 
frying. Eight eating and drinking dishes are made : (34) The 
pardt, a shallow flat-bottomed basin, about six inches deep and 
two or three and sometimes as much as nine or ten feet round, is 
made generally of copper and sometimes of brass ; it is the tray 
into which boiled rice is poured and handed to the company. 

(35) The velni is a dish-like pot, usually one or two feet in 
diameter and sometimes polished, in which enough rice for two or 
three guests is taken from the tray and poured into the plate. 

(36) The ogrdle or muddle, a small brass or copper ladle, about 
two inches in diameter and two to three deep, is used for carrying 
rice from the tray into the eater's plate for the first course, and 
^ving it the shape of a solid ball. The velni is used for the 
second and later courses, and the ogrdle for the first coarse only. 

^ Modakt and ^ehgtu uc niftdo of rice flonr, uid contain ooooa kernel, sngmr, 
cardaiuoaia, Umonds, uidiaSron. They differ in shape only. J^miaiw arc shaped 
somewhat like a lotna bud with the bottom rather flat ; ahnujatt are aemicircnlar. 

^ Knranjii are uf tbu same shatie 04 thewftu, but ditfer fnnn them in l>oing made of 
wheat flonr uaBtsad of rice, and in being fried in£tcad of being stewed ; attdrmi are 
mode of ric« flour, raw sugar, and popjpy seed. Xfaey «re round Cftket aboat m big m 
the p«lm oi the hand. 

1 Bombay OazHI 



Chapter VI. 

Brau Work. 




(37) The idt, a diaing disL with the rim slightly inclin 
outwards, is made of brass and polished, and varies in diamul 
from six inches to two feet. (38) The mf/, a cylindrical h 
cup with a rounded bottom, fn»m one to four inches in diameter 
nsed to hold each man's share of currj, and of broth. (39) Th 
gadva, a polished copper or brass water pot with a narrow noclCy^ 
used for holding each man's supply of drinhiug water, varies from 
the size of a pear to the size of a full-g^rown pomello. (40) The 
vMydeha tainbyag also made of copper or brass, is flatter than the 
gadva and ia used for the same purpose. (41) The loti is a 
pear>shaped j>ot, and resembles thei'd/ycic/in tnmlnjiL in use, size, and 
material. (42) The wanakarn Uco h similarly used, but is smaller an 
always of braes. (43) The chambu ia another small brass water jar, 
Four drinking cups are made varying in size from an apothecaiy'i 
tea spoon meastire to eight ounces. They are ; (44) the rdmpdtra, 
cup with rounded bottom j (45) the jdmh, a nivijMtra on a stand ; 
(46) the phulpdtra ; and (47) the panchpdlra, the former with a thick 
rim and slightly broader above, the latter >vith a thinner rim and 
perfectly cylindrical. 

Two brass lamps are made : (48) the Bamayi, and (40) the hand 
or laiaandiva, both flat saucer-like brass plates, with hollows iu t* 
lip for the wicks ; the snvxayi is laid on along brass stand and tb 
kandil on a shorter stand hung from the roof by brass clmina 

Nasik brass ware is in good demand not only in the local markets,] 
but even as far as GujarAt, the Nizam's country, and the Cent 
Provinces. The trade is almost entirely carried on by Kaears, wh 
either get orders from dealers in Bombay and other chief trade 
centres, or send their agents, or themselves go, with a cart or laden 
bullock or pony, to Mfiheji fair in Khiindesh and to smaller weekl 
markets, and dispose of them to village shopkeepers and well-to 
do husbandmen. In this way the bulk of the large unpolish 
vessels made by the Tdmbats finds a market. But the chief and thi 
most growing demand in Ndsik, is from pilgrims, almost all o 
whom take away some of the graceful highly polished smaller brafii 

Unpolished copper pots are sold at 2s. 3<Z. (Rs. 1-2) the pount 
and polished ones at 4». Od. (Rs. 2-4) ; unpolished brass pots fetch^ 
1*. 9t/. (14 antKut) the pound, and polished ones 4«, (Rs. 2). Water 
pots of two metals, gantjdjainni, are more costly, fetching from 5*. 
6«. (Rs. 24-Rb.3) a pound. 

Except three or four who have shops of their own, Tdmbat 
and Kaluikars, are, Uke Charakvalus, the hired servants of the Ki 
or dealers. They are supplied with the metal and are paid foi 
working largo copper or brass articles 2*. 6d. (Rs. 1-4) the mnnj^ 
and, for small articles, 2«. (Re, 1) the pound, as they require mm' 
labour. Casting is paid for according to the size and shape of thi 
article made. To a fairly steady ana skilled workman these rat 
represent a daily wage of from 4i<Z. to 1«. (3-8 as.). 

In Ndsik there is no lack of work, and, with few exceptions, th( 
T4mbats are well housed^ well fed^ and well-to-do. The KalaikarG 



though poorer, hare regular work, and are by no means badly off. 
ChAndor coppersmiths are also well employed and most of them 
are free from debt. Among no class of brass workers do the women 
take part in the work. 

At ordinary times coppersmiths work about nine hours a day, 
from seven to eleven in the morning, and, after the midday rest, 
from two to six. In the busy season (August and November) they 
k extra hours going on sometimes till nine. Hindu workmen^ 
from twenty-five to twenty-seven, and Musalmin workmen* 
sixty to sixty-seven yearly holidays. On none of these is the 
workman allowed to do any work. Of special holidays Hindus rest 
froxa labour during the marriage weeks onc4? every four or five years, 
and whenever an adult member of their caste dies. Musalman 
Timbatfi close their shops if any member of their community dies. 

Another class of brass workers are the Otaria who cast articles of 
bell metal and of the white alloy known as hhatur. They are 
^Mar^tba Hindus^ who, for marriage and other purposes, form a 
distinct community, and arc said to have originally come to N^ik 
from Miraj. They are a small body, probably not more than nine 
luHises, of whom three are settled at Nasik, one at Yeola, three at 
If^legaoQ, one at Chandor, and one at Sinnar. One or two Gujardti 
TAmbats also cast bell metal. The white metal is au alloy 
eoatainlng, it is said, two parts of brass to one of zinc. Broken 
brass pots are bought generally for 63 ff. (4J annaji) a pound, and 
mixed with zinc, tin, and copper, in the proportion of six parts of 
brass, three good and three poor, to one of zinc, one of tin» and two 
of copper. In casting figures a wax mould of the required shape is, 
except one small hole, covered with a coating of clay. The alloy ia 
then melted in a crucible, and, when ready, is poured through the 
hole on to the wax, the molten metal taking its place as the wax 
mehd and burns off.* When the metal has cooled, the clay coating is 
broken and removed. In casting hollow articles such as bells the wax 
monld is filled with clay, and the metal poured in melts and takes 
the place of the wax. The articles chiefly made are, tats or dining 
plates and vdtia or curry cups. They are sold either by weight at 
the rate of !», to I*. Qd. a pound (Re. 1 - Re. 1 J a sher), or, if of any 
special design, by the piece. The white alloy, b hat ui-j is used in 
casting toe rings, jodcis. The Nasik bell metal casters generally sell 
their own goods chiefly to Markth^s. Their wares have no special 
merit and are in little demand. The work recjuires almost no capital, 
and, as a class, the workers are poor, barely self-supporting. Their 
women help by covering the moulds with clay. Their hours of work 
and their holidays are nearly the same as those of the Kalaikars. 


' The Hindu holidays are : 12 Amdvdsytfji, the kit days of each lunar month, five 
dayt at />irriVi (October-November) tivo days at Hhimya (March -April), two days 
At Va^a (October), and two at SankrUnt (January). 

' The MaBolmAn daya are : one at Bakri Id, two at Aahura, one at Wafti Ban, one 
*t Zhilan, one at Kliraj-i-Mohamad, ono at ShaM-Barat, one at Lailat-uI-Kadar, two 
*t Ramzdn Id, and fifty.two Fridays. 

* The alloy is aoroetunea obtained from the broken pota at 6U. (4 annotf) a poond^ 
a 23-20 

Chapter VL 

Braas Wor^ 




Bombay QmfeFtiMr, 



Chapter YI. 

Wood Taming. 

Wood Turning supports five families in Nasik. The worker* 
partly Kbatris who are said to have oon»e from Chaul in KoUba, 
and partly Mar^th^s who were originally the Khatris' servants. 

The kinds of wood generally used are, kdla kadaj Wrightia 
tinctoria ; teak, sag, Tectona grandis ; tivas, Dalbergia ujaineusis ; 
and blackwood, «wu, Dalbergia latifolia. They are bought from the 
local timber merchants. Besides the wood, their chief other material 
is lac containing resin, sulphur, bees-wax, and some colouring^ 
matter generally mineral. The material generally used for colouriDgW 
red is vermilion; for colouring yellow, orpiment ; for colouring 
green, verdigris or a mixture of orpiment and indigo ; for colouring 
blue, indigo, or the English Prussian blue; and, for colouring black, 
lamp black. * 

A wood turner has two tools, the lathe and the chisel. The lathe, 
thodge, consists of two blocks of wood about two feet long six inches 
broad and six inches high, with a short iron peg or spike on the inner 
face of each of the blocks. Of the two blocks of wood one is kept in its 
place by the weight of a heavy stone, the other is movable. The 
piece of wood to be turned is drilled at each end, the movable part 
of the lathe, always the left block, is takeu away, aud the wood 
slipped over the two iron spikes. The workman then sits on a board 
opposite the lathe, and, with his left foot, keeps the movable block 
in its place. He then takes his bow, kaman, a bamboo about three 
feet long with a loose string, and passing a loop of the string round 
the right end of the wood to be turned, tightens his bow, and, by 
moving it sharply at right angles to the lathe, makes the wood turn 
qoickly round on the two iron spikes. As it turns, it is worked into 
shape by a double pointed chisel, vdkas, held in the left hand. 
When the wood has l>een well shaped and smoothed, a piece of 
sealing wax is held close to it, and, by the friction, melted and spread 
over its surface. The final polish is given by rubbing it with a 
loaf of the kecda, Pandanus odoratissimus. 

The chief articles turned are : The latne, or rolling pin used in 
kneading wheat bread, a plain wooden bar from one to two feet long 
and two to three inches round, costs }J. (4 annn), and is not 
lacquered. The gudgudi or hukka is of three parts, the bowl, 
the handle, and the pipe. The bowl is made of a cocoannt shell 
with a hole at tho top, polished and smoothed on the lathe. The 
handle, from eight to twelve inches long and three to four inches 
round, is hollowed, and the outside carved and covered with lac. 
The pipe is a hollow round stick, from nine to twelve inches long 
and one inch round, smoothed and lacquered. Ndsik hukkds are 
of rather inferior workmanship, and cost from ^^d, to 9d. (3-6 as.). 
Clothes-pegs, khuniis, from four to six inches long and two to 
three round, cost 2b, (Re. 1) a score, kodi. Children's rattles, 
khulkhxdda, a lacquered stick, from two to four inches long and 
half an inch round, with, at each end, a lacquered hollow ball from 
three to five inches round, with a few pieces of stone as a rattle, 
cost \\d, (I anna) each. Balusters, kathada, upright sticks from 
six inches to three feet long and from half an inch to six 
inches round, and lacquered, cost from IJJ. to 6rf. (1 -4 ns.) a stick. 





T?r,1*>r8, dkhnig, from one to two foet long and one to two inches 
i, are not coloured, and coat from lAti. to 4i<i. (l-3a«.). 
; - walking sticks, JcdthiSf the wood is sapplied by the cnfltomer and 
liiH tiirm*r paid from 3//. to 6d, (2-4 as,). All of these articles are 
fr *kers' 8hop3. They have no special merit, and are not 

ii; ;t]d. The turner generally works from eight in the 

morning nil six in tbe evening. He keeps from twenty -five to 
twenty-seven yearly holidays, and earns a monthly income of from 
12*. to 18*, (Rs. 6- Rs. 9). The women do not help. 

Silk Working, one of the most important of NdsLk industries, 
is estimated to support about 4000 families. Silk is woven at 
Yeola, Nag, Balegar, Audarsul, Bharan, and Mukheda. The 
manufacture of silk at Yeola, which is now the chief centre of the 
industry with about 925 looms, dates from the beginning of the 
eighteenth century (1115 H.), when one Righoji N^ik, a fore- 
father of the preaent pd^tV, by the promise of a monopoly, induced 
a certain Sh^md^ VAlji, a Gujarjit VAni, to bring silk weavers to 
settle at Yeola. The monopoly was continued by the Peshwa's 
goremment, and newcomers could not start silk looms in Yeola 
except by paying the original settlers a fine of £35 (Rs. 350).^ Under 
the British the monopoly was at first respected. In 1837 the 
petition of a Pardeshi named Bapu, for leave to open reeling and 
spinning machines in Yeola, was rejected by the assistant collector^ 
and this decision was, on appeal, uphold by the Collector. A 
further appeal to the Revenue Commissioner was more successful, 
and, in September 1845, Bapu gained leave to set up a machine in 
Yeola. On this (26th January 1848) the Gujar^tis filed a suit in 
the Yeola sub-judge's court. The point was decided in their 
favour. But, on appeal, the High Court (24th June 18G4) upset the 
decision and put an end to the monopoly. Since 1864 many classes 
of outsiders have taken to silk weaving, and now there are 250 
Khatris, 300 Koshtis, 200 Salis, and 25 MusalmAns, Similarly, 
besides twenty GujarAt dealers, there are fifteen Patnis, six Th^kurs 
or Bhrama Kshatris, three Shimpis, and four Musalmins. 

All of the silk comes to Yeola raw. It is brought from three 
qoarters, China, Bengal, and Persia. For trade purposes it is 
aivided into six classes. The first class, aval, worth lis, a pound 
(Rs. 17 a sher); the second class, with two varieties rfwwand lankin, 
worth 16j». 6d.ti pound (Rs. 16-8 a eher) ; the third, «tw, worth 
16*. a pound (Rs. 16 a after) ; the fourth with two varieties, sot, 
worth 13.». a pound (R«. 13 a nher), and sal ba phi worth 12*. a 
pmnd (Ra. 12 a shot); the fifth with two varieties, cfuiram and 
Ininak, both worth 8«. a pound (Ra. 8 a sher) ; and the sixth with 
two varieties, shihirpuH worth 4rf. a pound (Rs. 4 a sher), and 
panjam worth 2«. 6(Z. a pound (Rs. 2-8 a sher). All the silk comes 
from Bombay, in goods and passenger trains, in boxes of about 
thirty-five pounds, 20 muihoB, The dealers mentioned above^ 



Silk Working.^ 

» Of 

R.. :. ■ 

. 1-4 went to the Kd6 ;R«. 22-8 to the Poehwa'a government ; 
• nd Ra. 321 to the GujftrAt eilk weaveni for a cute dinner. 
iAr, 124, IrtKovtnnber 1835. 



[Bombay 0ax6tU«r* 


Chapter VI. 

3ilk Working. 

Gujardt Vfinisj Patnisj TfaiLkurs, Shimpis, and Musalznans, are 
men of means with capital of from £500 to Jt30,000 (Rs. 5000- 
Rs. 3,00,000). 

On reaching Yeola the raw silk is made over to the reeler, rakdlkari, 
under whose care it is reeled, sorted, and spun. It is next made 
over to the dyer, rangdri, to be dyed, and, when received from bim, 
it is sent to the weaver, mdgvdla^ by whom it is warped, eizedf 
and woven. At the reeler's, the first thing is to sort the adlk. 
With this object it is thrown on a three feet round bamboo 
cage, phdlka,^ that surrounds a central handle about two feet long. 
Sitting in front of this reel, the sorter, who is generally a woman, 
fastens the end of the hank to a smaller reel known as asan',^ and, 
fixing the central rod of the bamboo cago^ pkalka, against her left 
foot, spins it rapidly by twisting the end of the rod between two of 
her toes. The quality of the fibres in the skein is uneven, varying 
through five or six gradations. It is the sorter's chief duty to 
watch these gradations, and to wind all of each variety round 
& separate reel. With this object, before she begins to wind, 
she gathers near her five or six of the smaller reels or atdrxB, 
'On finding the end of the skein she knots it to one of the 
amaller reels, and, placing the cage against her left foot, spins it 
round between two of her toes. Tbe fibre passes through her 
fingers, and, as soon as its quality changes, she breaks the silk, 
picks up a second reel, knots the end to it, and winds on till the 
quality of the silk changes again, when either a third, or the first, reel 
is taken up. If the new quality is the same as that on the first 
reel, the ends of the silk are put into the mouth and tied by the 
tongue with great noatnoss and speed. In this way, even a young 
worker will, without hitch or mistake, sort the hank over five reels. 

The sorted silk is ready for spinning. To spin it, with the help 
of a small wheel, the silk is wound from the reels on to bobbins^ 
garolis, made of hollow reed. These bobbins are then arranged 
on the throwing machine, idl^ and, by means of a wheel and axle, 
the fibres of each bobbin are twisted together and guided 
through a glass ring round a drum, dholt and then reeled on a 

^ To "botli endfl of a rod, about two feet long and two inches mund, nre He 
>Krand at their ceatres, liw or eight Blips of bAmboo «acb about a foot long. To the 
ends of theae alipa, which cross each other at equal ancles and form a st&r shaped 
figure, strinn are tied in the foUowing manner. One string is tied to oitoer 
end of one of the slips, and, from it, stretched to the other end of the central rod, 
and tied to the end of a slip lying opposite to the slip next the firat one : the process 
is repeated till the string has puwed over the enda of aU the slips, itgzagguig from 
one end to the other. 

* To form an atdri, a piece of stick is passed through the hollow raed and fixed 
in the cleft end of a piece of bamboo. 

' /'df, the throwing oiachioet is a frame with an upright ceolral har and i3pright 
■ides about five feet high. The central bar is furtiisned with two side rows of 
iron pegs or pins, and the aide boards with corresponding rows of glass ring9, and» 
bejond the nnga, is a round wooden drum placed horizontaUy between the upnghts. 
On each of the pegs that stand oat from the central baxp a bobbin is placed on cither 
side, and separate atringa are paaaed round each peg and a large wheat 
Fibres from each bobbin are drawn through the glass ring and fastened to the drum. 
Bt mean« of the large wheel all tbe bobbins and the drum are set in motion, and the 
fibres from each opposite pair of bobbins are twisted, as they .past through the glass 
rings, and wound round the drum. 



femall reel or ph^ilki. This two-thread, donldr, yam is used in 
zoaking some fibres. But most of it is again wound on a reel and 
from thiit on the bobbins, and, a second tinio, put through the 
throwing machine so as to make the regular, or four thread, cbdrtdrf 
jam. The rahdfvalay or wheelman^ who takes hia name from the 
large wheel that drives the throwing machine, haa now completed 
his part. 

" 'k yarn, called *A^no, is sold either to another dealer or to a 

i*r. In sorting and spinning, the raw silk loses about eleven 

and a quarter per cent in weight (from 44 to 39 dhabbuit) .' To make 

this loss good a corresponding deduction is made in the standard 

^f weight. 

The t^jols in a spinner's establishment are : Three large and 
one email cages, pkdlka and phdlkif each worth from 3d. to 6c?. 
(2-4 aji.), and fifteen or sixteen reels, asdris, each worth 3^^. to 
6(i- (2-4 a*.). A small wheel for winding the silk from the reels 
■on to the bobbins, garolisj worth 6». (Rs, 3) ; about 500 bobbina 
worth together about T^d. (5 as.) ; and the throwing machine, 
worth together about £3 6«. (Re. 33), £2 10». (Rs. 25) for the big 
driring wheel, and 89, (Rs, 4) for the upright wooden frame, idt, on 
who&e pegs the bobbins turn, and 8s. (Rs, 4) more for the drum, 
Mvl, round which the twisted threads from each bobbin are rolled. 
To open an establishment a rahdtkarl requires from £3 to £4 
(Rs. SO-Rs. 40) of capital. The spun silk is weighed by a lower 
standard to make up for loss in spinning and reeling, and is 
generally sold to a dealer or to a weaver. In the dealer's hands the 
first process the silk passes through is bleaching and dyeing. 

Silk Dyeing and Bleaching support about twelve families. Of 
these, six are settled at Yeola, of whom one family are Musalm&ns 
and the rest Khatris. The Musahndns say they came to Yeola 
from BurhAiipur; the Khatris, who claim a strain of Kshatriya blood, 
have a tradition that they came from Sind through Gujarat. They 
would seem to have come to Nasik along with the silk spinners and 
weavers at the beginning of the eighteenth century. 

A dyer's appliances are very simple. A brick and mud fire-place, 
A large copper cistern^ a hollow stone mortar, and some long iron- 
tipped pestles. 

On reaching the dyer's hands, the silk yam, sheria, is, if it is not 
to be dyed, washed with soap, and, sometimes, to make it white, 
exposed to the fumes of sulphur. If it is to be dyed, it is first bleached 
by boiling it in an alkaline ley called ukhdr. This ley- is prepared by 
boiling togethor slaked lime and carbonate of soda, of which three 
kinds are used at Yeola, papadkhdr, kcUklidr, and kJviri mdti. When 
boiling, the silk has to be most carefally watched as it spoils if kept 
too long in the ley. 

After boiling it in the alkaline ley the yam is washed, and, while 


SUk Worl 

Silk Dy«tsg. 

^ The tfAnbhu \» a balf-aona piece. 

' The drtAtU of the compound are : For each »her of silk yam, 4 sfur carbonate of 
■oda, I «her quicklime, and ten «A<-r4 water. Tho soda is dissolved in water, and, to 
the itraincd lolution. lime i» added and boiled. 

[Bombay GasettMr, 



LptOT VI. 

Silk Dyeiiiff. 

moiBt., is dipped in a solntion of alatDj kopt in it for three nighis^ 
aud again -washed. The silk is now ready to be dyed. 

To dye it red, a watery solution of cochineal, Coccus cacti, and 
pistachio galls, Pistacia vera,' in the proportion of one of cochineal to 
four of the pistachio galls^ is made by boilingthe powdered ingredients. 
While still moist, the silk is steeped in a copper cistern aud stirred 
in it till it has taken the required tint. The copper cistern, or dye- 
beck, is allowed to cuol, the silk is taken oat> washed several 
times, and dried. If the colour is dull, the tint is brightened by 
dipping the silk in lemon juice mixed with water. 

To dye it orange, the silk undergoes the same processes ae to dye 
it red, except that, in addition to cochineal and pistachio galls, the 
dye-beck contains a variable quantity of powdered turmeric. 
The proportions of the orauge dye mostly used at Yeola are, 
seventeon of cochineal, seven and a half of pistachio galls, and thirty* 
four of turmeric. 

To dye it lemon-yellow, silk is steeped in a hot strained solation 
of ispdrekf a kind of delphinium, and impure carbonate of soda, 
equeezed, and dried. Though not itself yellow, this solution gives 
the silk a yellow that does not fade by exposure to the sun. To 
dye it green, yellow silk is steeped in indigo. To dye it black, the 
silk is steeped in an infusion of myrobalans, and then, for a night, 
in a solution of eulphate of iron, then squeezed, steeped either in 
cocoanut oil or cocoanut milk, boiled again in a solution of sulphate 
of iron, and, when cool, washed in plain water. 

To dye it purple, red silk is steeped in an infusion of myrobalana 
and dried without being washed. It is then steeped in a solution 
of sulphate of iron, and washed. Another way of making a purple 
fabric is, in weaving, to use black silk for the warp and red for the 

Silk is seldom dyed blue. When blue silk is wanted the dye 
used is indigo and the work is entrusted to Musalm&n indigo dyers.' 

To dye it tawny -yellow, the silk is boiled a degfree less in the alka- 
line ley^ than for other shades. It is then taken out, squeezed, kept 
moist, and, without being washed, is plunged into a solution of 
dyer's rottleria, Rottleria tinctoria, and powdered alnm, in the 
proportion of fourteen of the rottleria to three of the alum, mixed 
with carbonate of soda and boiling water, quickly stirred, and left 
standing till the effervoacenoo abates. In this mixture the silk is 
steepedj stirred, and left to soak for about four hours. This is the 
most lasting of yellow dyes, but the process requires delicate 

To dye it snuff colour the silk is steeped in a decoction of 
hdhhidj Acacia arabica, khairj Acacia catechu, and cat-echu powder. 

The dyes and dye stuffs used by a silk dyer are: (1) Tlie 
three varieties of impure carbonate of soda, known as pnpad khdr, 
kelikhdr, and khdrt muti, come either from Sind where they are dug 

' GoIIb from vtber species of Aniic&rdiacece are also used. 

* I>etail6 of thorn oru given below, uadur the head Cotton Dyeing, 




from the bottom of small poada, or from Arabia. They are a mixture 

' Ifouatuundsesque-carbunate of soda, and contain avariablo 

■ 'f silica, chlorides, and sulphut^s. According to the amount 

impurity, the price varies from about Id. to 2d. a pound 

\Rl\ \ -Rm. 2 the mail of 23 lbs.)* (^) Soap, fidban, generally called 
country soap, is made, chiefly at Kapadvanj in Kaira, from the oil 

"' " ■ t? Baasia latifolia, boiled with an alkaline of hhdr and lime. It 
i in round white opaque piccew at from 2d. to 8</. the pound 

■ '-■, 4 a*, a slier). It is not suit-able for fine work or for the toilet- 

,;i' Sulphur is generally bought frtjin Bohoris who bring it from 
Bombay and other plaoea. To bleach it, white yam is put in a two 
feet high basket laid bottom up with holes for the free passage of 
air. In the bottom and sides is set a dish of li^e coals. Among the 
ooals, small pieces of sulphur are thrown, and the damp yam is spread 
over the basket, and soaked with the sulphur fnmea, (4) Alum, 
brought from Cutch and Sind, has traces of iron, silica, and soda. 
A parer and better variety is brought from C^ina. Sind and 
Catch alum vary from about i\d. to l|d. a pound (Ks. 1 ^- Rs. 2 a 
man), and China alum from about \\d. to 2d. (Rs. 2-Rs. 2}). (5) 
Copperas, stilphate of iron, or green vitriol, is brought from 
Europe and sold at IJd. the pound. (6) Pistachio galls, buz^ganj, 
brought from Persia and Cubul, give bett-er tints than other 
galls. (7) Turmeric, halad, is the product of the Curcuma longa. 
It is grown all over India and yields an unstable yellow dye. 
The mother tubers have more colouring mattor than the smaller 
Olios. It costs from about IJtJ. to 2}d. the pound (Rs. 2-R8. 3 a 
mem). (B) Ittparek, the flowers and stalks of a kind of delphinium, 
Ib brought from Persia and Cabul, It is used solely in dyeing 
silk yellow, and cost** from 1*. dd. to 2*. (a*. 14 -Re. 1) a pound. 
(9) Of the two kinds of Indian myrobalans, the chebulic myrobalan 
is the one generally used in eilk dyeing. It is the product of the 
Terminalia chebula which grows in all the Sahy^dri forests. The 
cost varies from 2«. to 3*. (Rs. 1 -Ra. 1 i) a man for the ripe, and from 
Ss. bo 5*. (Re. IJ-Rs. 2i)for the unripe fruit. (10) Kapila, the powder 
on the capsules of the dyer's rottleria, cornea from Malabar, the 
Himilay^, and Arabia. It costs from 28. to 3#. (Re. 1 -Rs. I|] a 
pound. (11) The bark of the hahhxd, Acacia arabira, and of the hhair, 
Acacia catechu, are obtained locally at a nominal price. Catechu, 
the extract of the wood and bark of the Acacia catechu, is sold at 1#. 
to ]«. 6d. (8-12 a*.) the pound. (12) Cochineal, klrmiz^ the dried 
female insect, Coccus cacti, is found in Mexico and Teneriff, and 
bronght from England to India and sold at about 4*. (Ra. 2) the 
pound. (13) Indigo, nil, is the prepared juice of the leaves of the 
Indigofera tinctoria. Almost all the incligo used in N^ik comes 
from Sind, and costs from 3«. to 48. (Rs. 1^-Rs. 2) the pound. 

On leaving the dyer, silk is sent to the weaver, magvdla, who 
performs three processes, sizing, warping, and weaving. Silk is 
siEod in-doors, the warp silk in a diflFerent way from the weft silk. 
The warp silk is sized on the tamdla, a pair of upright wooden bars 
about eight feet high with a row of giass rings fixed to each bar 
through which yam is passed and drawn tight, and stiffened by 

Chapter VL 


Silk WeAving. , 

[Bombay OaiettMrJ 



Chapter VI, 

Silk We*ving. 


brnshing in a dressing of size. In sizing the weftj the silk Lb pi 
on a cagej and wound on reels. While on the reels it is moist 
with size. The sizerj who is always a woman, sits with the reel o 
her leftside, and, on her right, a small wheel, to whose axle is iirmi 
fitted a piece of rood called likhadi. Picking out the end of the 
hank from the reel, she fixes it to the likhadi, and, by working the 
wheel with her right hand, makes the likhadi spin quickly round, 
winding the silk round itself. As the wheel turns the worker dam|>a 
the yarn on the reel with size, and passes the thread through her le 
fingers so thiit the gam is evenly spi'ead over the whole line. 

The warp is next made ready. In this there are three processes 
heddle filling, joining, and arranging, The heddle filler, according 
to the pattern uf the borders, passes threads through the loops i 
the cords of the different heddles and between the teeth of the reed^ 
phanl ; when this has been done, the joiner, Bdntihndrj fastens the 
ends of the warp threads to the heddlea, by tying the corresponding 
threads of the warp to those passed through the reed by the ht^ddla 
filler, and, finally, through the whole length of the warp, the threads 
are arranged in accordance with the position the joiner has giveoj 

The silk loom is from eight to fifteen feet long by four to save 
feet broad. At one end sits the weaver with his feet iu a largd pit^ 
and, immediately in front of him, the square cloth beam, <urai,whio 
supports the warp and round which the fabric, as it is woven, 
rolled. In the weaver's pit are the troddles or foot boards, hy 
working which the weaver raises and lowers the threads of the 

The treddles are joined by strings with the heddles, two frames 
which hang from the roof across the threads of the warp each wit 
a set of threads, the set of threads of the one being fastened to thd 
lower, and of the other to the upper threads of the warp. As the 
treddles are worked the heddles move the threads of the warp in 
turn up and down, while, between each movement, the shuttle loaded 
with weft yarn is passed across the waiT). In front of the heddles, 
and, like them, hung from the roof is the reed, phaui, between whose 
thin slips of bamboo the warp threads pass. This is set in a heavy 
fi'amo, the shuttle beam, which the weaver works to force home the- 
thi'eads of the weft after the shuttle has passed. 

From the pit in which the weaver sits, the warp stretches back 
to the warping beam from six to nine inches above the ground 
In front of the weaver is the cloth beam, abont 4J feet long an 
two inches broad and high, supported by two wooden uprights. 

Behind the heddles, horizontal rods are thrust between the uppe 
and lower threads of the warp to keep them from getting entangled, 
and, ten or twelve feet further, is the warping beam, dta^ on which 
the warp is wound. This beam, about four feet long and two inches 
round, is supported in the middle by a rope, and is kept tight byn 
passing the rope round a pully and fastening it close to the weaver* 
side, who, from time to timej loosens the rope as the cloth is wound, 
round the cloth-beam. 





silk w^earer's establtshcnent twelve appliances are wanted. 

'are : (I) To prepare the warp, the ianedlds or uprights witli rings, 

18*. (Re, 9) ; (2) 200 Wchadi/t or pieces of reod to wind the weft, 

at.) in All ; {S) a wheel, rahH,worih Us. (Rs. 4) ; (4) a large reel, 

worth ^d. (4 as.) ; and (5) small reels, amns, worth Is. 3/L 

!«#.)• for the loom: (6) a cloth beam, turai, worth 3*. (Rs. 1-8); 

f7) the rocd frame or shuttle beam, hdtya, used a8 a batten or lay, 

Iwortfa 7*. Gd, (R-s. 3-12); (8) the treddles and heddles worth 10*. 

I(H4. 5) ; (9) Mtuihi or hiurhe^g rods laid flat between the alternate 

f the ^vTirp to keep them from becoming entangled, worth 1*. 

■?.) ; (10) the warp beam, afa, worth 3)?. (Rs. 1-8) ; (11) three 

ach worth 1*. (3as.);and(12)apieceof polishedagate,wo(7W, 

«... .. rab the gold borders, worth from 6*. to £2 (Rs. 3 -lis. 20). 

The only articles woven are plain silks, without stripes or brocadew 
TWy vary chiefly in compactness, the closer they are woven and 
lore of the fourfold thread that is used, the better and dearer 
are. The kad, a white, blue, or yellow robe without any border, 
as a dining robe by high class Hindus. It wa? formerly 
by old men only. Bnt of late, at small dinner parties, both 
ig men aad women have begun to wear it instead of the muktaf 
lUgh silk cloth- The men's kad is from five to sis yards long 
worth from £1 3a. to £2 10*. (Rs. 13 -Rs. 25), and the women's 
eight to nine yards long and worth from £2 to £3 (Rs. 20- 
30). The breadth of the had varies from 3J to 4i feet. The 
linbar tisually red, purple, or yellow, but sometimes green, 
ie» and white, the more costly dining robe of high class Hindus, 
for men, an embroidered border, and, for women, has besides 
tlie border an embroidered end. It is of the same size as the had, 
varies in price, for men, from £1 10*. to £4 (Rs. 15-Rs. 40), 
for women from £3 to £7 (Rs. 30 -Rs. 70). Green and yellow 
ms are more costly than red and purple ones. 

These wares are sold either to traders or Uj consumers. Rich high 
Hindus generally onler them straight from the Yeola dealers. 
in either go to Yeola and take away the silks as personal 
je, or order them as parcels. The dealers send them to Maheji 
ir in Kluindesh and to N^gardns in Berar. As Yeola silks are 
goo<i demand, the dealers are not forced to hawk their gooda 
ir the country. Of late years the demand for Yeola silks has 
jad among some of the lower classes, who have begun to wear 
dining cloths. On the other hand, from the opening of the 
ilway, the competition of foreign silks is greater than formerly. Aa 
»th the raw silk and the manufactured articles usually come and 
leave Ndaikas personal baggage, it is difficult to form any correct idea 
" the amount of the trade. The estimates of the value of the yearly 
►rt of silks vary from £100,000 to £150,000 (Rs. 10,00,000, 
Hb. 1 5,00,000) ; according to some accoonts the demand is growing, 
^cording to others it is falling. 

Of the 4000 families engaged in the silk industry, the forty-eight 

ilera are all well-to-do, and some of them are rich. Of the rest, 

renty-fivo of the weavers, vid^jvnhUj have capital and work up 

• 23-21 

Chap^ VL 

Silk Weftving. 

Chapter 71. 

Silk We»viu£. 

Goia «na Silver 


irn. J 


and dispose of their own silk. But the bulk are skilled labourera 
employed by cupitaiiats and paid by tbe piece. 

A rahdtkari wLo reels, sorts, and spins, ia paid from Ibd, 
I6d. a pound (Rs. 4-Rfl. 5 a rnuiha), Witb a single set of macbinery 
he can turn in one day from forty to fifty pounds of raw silk into yarn 
To work bis machines bo wants the help of eight labourers and pa; 
them Hs. (Rs. 4) a niorith, less the wages of any holidays t' 
may fall. The rahdikari'n earnings vary from £1 to £2 (Rs. 10- 
Rs. 20) a mouth. Besides the cost of bis dye stufis, a dyer is paid 
Sd. (2 an.) for every pound of silk dyed, representing from 12if. to lU. 
(Rs. 6-R8. 7) a month. A weaver, who warps, sjzea, and weaves the 
yarn, gets £1 (Rs. 10) for each piece of clotb, ninety-six feet long by 
a^ broad, representing average monthly wages of from 12*. to 16«». 
(Rs. 6-118.8). 

Daring the fair season there ia a st-eady demand for Yeola silk 
In the Hindu marriage seasons (November to the middle of June 
the markets are brisk. But during the rainy months (June-October] 
the artisaus have either to live on their savings or to borrow. At 
snob times silk-dealers generally lend money to the artisans oad 
repay themselves from the wages earned dnriug the busy season. 

Silk workers, both Musalmilns nnd Hindus, rest on the last (hiyof 
each lunar mouth, amdcdmja, Hindus take in all thirty-six ordinary 
and six special hobdays, while Musalmdns take sixty ordinary and 
fourteen special holidays. The usual work hours are from seven 
eleven in the morning and from two to sunset. Silk work cnnnt 
go on at night, as it wants good light and constant watchfuluet 
On holidays all the workmen rest 

In Yeola, the making of gold and silver thread is, at present 
fairly prosperous. Its establishment dates from the year 183( 
At the cloBO of that year, in consequence of a dispute with the loct 
authorities of the old city of Paithan on the right bank of 
GodAvari in the Nizilm's dominions, the gold and silver tl 
workers of that place left their homes and settled at Shevgaon 
Ahmednagar. One of tbe leading men, R^mcliaudi*a SakhiLi 
Basvande, visited the Mdmlatddr of Yeola, and, through him, 
leave for the people of Paithan to settle there without the paymei 
of the usual tax, aud, on tbe Gth January 1837, Ramchandra opem 
a gold -thread factory at Yeola.^ 

The indizstry now (1880) supports between 500 and 600 familii 
of Maritha Sonars, Pathdns, and local Musalm4na. Besides tl 
traders who provide the metal, pay piece-work wages, and dis] 
of the thread, there are four classes, wire drawers, pdviekarg, aboi 
six estabbshments of Maratha Sondrs ; thread makers, ^ttay^< 
about 200 souls, Mar^thds, Pathdns, and other MusalmAns; tl 
beaters, chdpadijdst about 100 souls, Marithas, Pathjjis, and other 
Musalmins; spinners, reshimvdUUj and winders, bitayyd^ or tar} 


I YeoU MtolfttdAr'e lUporta, IM, 19ih December 1S36, aad S2Q, lltb J%u\ 





abooi 250 sonh, Mariithis^ Path^ns, and other Muaalm^os. All 
UieM meD lure labourers^ and, as a body, are badly off. 

Tho gold and silver used in making the gold thread is brought 
from Bombay. The gold must be perfectly pure, ifhamhhar nambrif 
or 100 touch. It has to be heated several times, at a loss of t'jth 
of its weight. When ready for use it is worth £2 ia, to £2 Of. 
(Ra. 22- Rs. 23) a i^Ia, Three kinds of silver are used, patdchi or 
Engli3h» netdcht or Chinese, and gaviki or local. Chinese and local 
silver, already to some extent mixed with alloy, are used without 
L't*, but the pure English silver is mixed either with from 
t-en-fortiotbs of Chinese or local silver, or with two or three- 
fortieths of copper. The best EngHsli bar silver costs £10 16«. to 
£10 10*. (Rs. l08.Ra. 109i) tho hundred tolU, the second or 
Chinese silver costs from £10 12*. to £10 \U. (Rs. lOO-Rs. 107), 
and the third or country silver from £10 8s. to 10 £10*. (Rs. 104- 
Rs. 105). 

The gold and silver aro generally brought, in ingots, from 

ilkay, by traders, and taken to the wire drawers, pavtekars. 

he baudli} of the wire drawers the metal passes through two main 

1668. The gold is purified by boiling it with lime juice in a 

»kin and rt^duced to gold leaf. Tho silver is melted in a crucible, 
mred into a mould, and hammered into a short rough ingot. It is 

m worked into a more perfect shape and tho surface is roughened 

with a file. The gold foil is next carefully wound round the silver 

as completely to cover it. The ingot is wetted and rolled 

the workman up and down his thigh till tho gold foil clings 
lose to tho silver. Next a thick soft cord is wound tightly round 
it, and it is laid, with the edges of tho gold foil underneath, in a clay 
trough filled with lighted charcoal which is fanned into awldt-e heat. 
Next it is drawn out by the thin end and hammered on a four inch 
anvil of highly polished steel. This l>eating and hammering is 
repeated three times, the bar gradually lentheuing, but without 
disturbing the surface of tho gold or exposing the silver which never 
again shows, however finely the bar may be drawn. Wlien the ingot 
has been beaten eighteen inches long the process of guilding is 
complete. After the guilding is over, the pdviekar makes it into 
wire by dragging it through the draw plate. For this the bar is 
again hcat^id and its thin end pushed through the largest hole in 
the draw-plate, a metal plate pierced by holes of varying sizes, which 
is set agamst two wooden uprights fixed in the gi-ouna. The point 
of the bar, when it shows through the draw-plate, is caught by a 
pcur of strong pincersj whose handles are joined by a chain and 
ring to one of the spokes of a winch. This winch has a drum, a 
foot in diameter and three feet long, fixed in side sockets, and, at 
right angles to the drum, has three arms, each two and a half feet 
long, which work in a hole, alK)nt six feet by three, and three 
deep. When the end of the bar is tightly fastened to the winch, 
a workman, laying all his weight on one of the arms of the winch, 
draws it down and forces the point of the bar through the hoi© 
in the draw-plate. As it passes through, tho bar and the hole 
are smwired with wax and other substances. When the bar haa 


6oM &nd Sih 

[Bombay Gftsettetr, 



ChApter VI. 


<}o1d Mud Silver 

passed through the platCj the point is again hammered^ and, in the 
same way, is dragged through a smaller hole. This is repeated! 
about twenty times. The bar, now a wire abuut six yards long for 
each tola of metal, is cut into lengths of fifty yards and made over 
to the thread maker^ tanayya^ 

A gilder and draw-plate worker uses twenty tools. Theae are 
crucibles, viuM«, of which each establishment has genei'ally about 
ten, worth together about 8*. (Rs. 4) ; a clay trough, $hegdi, for fire, 
costing \\d. to ZiL (1-2 annaa) ; an iron sieve, jlidra, two to three 
inches in diameter with an iron handle costing IJJ. (I anna) ; three 
anvils, airans, one worth £2 14«. (Rs. 27), another £2 8». (Rs. 24), 
and a third 14*. (Ra. 7) ; three hammers, hdiodds, worth together 
about 4jt. (Ra. 2) ; one iron bar, of-anij hollowed on one side to serve 
aa a mould, worth about Hs. (Rs. 4) j tongs, cAiwftijj worth 6d (4 annnt)*, 
one stone water trough, Icnndi, for cooling the heated bar, worth 6ti. 
(4 annas) ; a pair of bellowR, hhdia, worth 4s. (Rs. 2) ; a pair of filos^ 
kdnas, worth 1». (8 annae) ; scissors, kdtarft, worth 1*. (8 anna^) ; a 
winch, lodj always of bahhul wood, worth 14*. (Rs. 7) ; about tlfteett 
draw-plates, jantars, each worth from 10*. to £5 (Rs. S-Rs. 50) ; three 
nippers, vdkhds, coating 4s. (Rs. 2), 2*. (Re, 1), and 1*. (8 annas) ; a 
chain, sakhli, worth 2s, 6d. (Re. 1-4) ; two scales, kdta and vajan^ 
worth from £1 to £1 10*. (Rs. lO-Rs. 15); two nails, hkdmu, for 
cleaning the draw-plate's holes, worth 3rf. (2 annas) ; a pair of iron 
pincers, hivlts, worth Qd. (4 annas) ; two small reeLs, phdikis, for 
winding the wire, worth together 1«. (8 annas) ; and a pair of smaller 
reels, aadrUj worth 6rf. (4 annas). 

To draw the wire into a thread, a reel, palda, seven or right 
inches in diameter, and a drum, paldij of not more than three inches, 
are supported horizontally by two upright pivots about twenty inches 
apart. Between the reel and the drum, a small draw-plate rests on 
two upright iron rods. This small draw-plate is a piece of an old 
Bword blade pierced by needles of different sizes. The wire is 
wound round the small reel, paldi, and its point is sharpened by two 
bits of China, till it is fine enough to pass through the largest of 
the draw-plate holes. On showing at the other side of the ]}late, 
the point is seized by small pincers and pulled through. The end 
is then fixed on the larger drum, and the drum, set in motion by a 
metal handle, drags the wire through the hole till all of it has been 
moved fn>m the reel to the drum. The whole length is then wound 
back on the reel, and drawn through the next largest hole. To 
draw a tola weight of metal to a length of 250 yards, the wire moat 
be passed through at least sixty holes. Elaborate as this is, so 
great is the workman's skill and delicacy, that they are said to be 
able to make 900 yards of thread from one tola of metal. 

A thread maker, tanayya, uses fourteen tools. These are; 
the palda, a wooden drum used a.s a reel, worth 4*. (Rs. 2) ; the 
paldi, & smaller reel, also made of wood, worth \s. (8 a*,); the 
Ithodsa, a stool on which the reels are fixed, worth 2a. 6d. (Re. 1-4) ; 
draw-plates, jau/iDVjVar^nng in value from 1». to 10*. (Ro. i-Rs. 5) ; 
the thesni, a small sharp-pointed hammer used for stopping old 
draw-plate holes^ worth Gd, (4 as.) j a small anvil, atra?*, worth 





[. (2 a«.) ; a p^ of pincersj nayidsiy worth. 4^^. (3 as,) ; a file, 

ina$^ worth ^d. (6 as.) ; a btuelII hammer, hdtoda, worth 6d. 

ojt.) ; a nail, vJiaurdsi, for widening the draw-plate holes, worth 

(4 a*.) ; a sharpening stone, hillphatri, worth 4«. (Bs. 2) ; a 

mdko'la, to turn the reel, worth Id. (I4 a».) ; a reel axis, 

mgli, worth 1 {d. (1 ajmn) ; and a small bobbin, cltakkar. 

When the wire haa been drawn to the fineness of a thread it is 

to the fiatteuers, chapadyda. To flatten the threads full 

are aet on a small stand or hoard, and the threads are 

'ther and passed through the slits of a piece of leather 

jiL of the stand, and drawn across a highly polished steel 

iWl, about two inches square, fixed in a block of bdhhul wood very 

ittle raised above the level of the ground. To flatten the thread, the 

rurkman firmly grasps his hammer handle between the thumb 

' ' finger holding the other fingers loose, and, drawing the 

•ver the polished steel, with his left hand begins to beat. 

^ads are passed st4?udily over the anvil and the hammer 

fall at the rate of about eighty to the minute, and with such 

irity that no piirticlw of the thread is left unbeaten. As they 

fcttened, the wires are drawn away by the loft hand, and, when 

stretched to arms length, the threads are caught under some 

^■.►r.veniently curved article, such as a broken cup handle or brass 

L'j, k fixed in the ground, and a frosh grip is taken close to the 

anvil. When the wires are flattened, they are carefully separated^ 

wound rouud a small reel, and sent to the winder, bitayya^ 

A wire-beater has seven tools. The indsepdti, a small board 
about a foot square, vnth ten upright nails to serve as bobbin axles, 
the anvil, airon, about two inches square, and the hammer, Mtoda, 
Iwo inches square, kept highly polished by emeiy, worth together 
about \0», (Ra. 5) ; hones, opojih, of lac and emery' powder, worth 
from £2 to £7 (Rs. lO-Rs. 7U) ; the khodsft, a buried block of bdbhul. 
Acacia arabica, on which the anvil is fixed, worth 4«. (Rs. 2) ; the 
chifpn, a piece of leather with small slits for threads to pass through ; 
the giiodi or ranakhdmhy a hook fixed in the ground to guide 
the flattened thread, worth M. (4 as.) j and the asdri^ a small reel, 
worth '6d. (2 as.). 

When the thread is flattened, it is sent to the silk winder, hUayya 
or tarhasi. The winder's silk, specially prepared by the sQk 
apinner, reshimvdla, is drawn from a spindle, passed through a 
elaas bangle or steel ring fastened to the roof, drawn down, and 
the end tied to a second spindle. The gold thread is unwound 
•om the small reel, and dropped in a loose heap on the ground 
near the workman. Sitting on a high stool or chair, he fastens 
the ©nds of the gold thread and tho silk together, and rubbing tho 
apindlo sharply along his thigh, gives it such a start that, as it 
pirhirls, it twists together two or three feet of the gold thread and 
10 silk. When it stops, the workman stretching up draws the spindle 
dovm, and gives it another start by sharply rubbing it along his 



Oold mad SUi 

' The VeoU work«ra u>y pciuU and corals arc addcdi but this is douhtfat 


[Bombay OaMtftMCf 




Qoid Kod Silver 

fchigh. Wlien the thread is ready, it is wound into hajiks and 
skeins by being turned round two nailfl fixed on & cylinder, tfaj* 
The proportion of silk yam to gold thread depends on the qaantity 
of gold used in covering the silver bar.* 

The silk winder ubcb three tools ; the hook or bangle, dkda, 
of a nominal value; two spindles, chdtU, from ^d. to 6t£. (1-4 as.), 
sometimes made by fixing a round piece of brokeu China to a nail ; 
and a wooden cylinder, gaj, with nails fixed at given distanoaa 
worth Qd, (4 as.). 

The silk, used in making gold threailj is spun by people known as 
te»huitvdlas. There are seven establishments at Yeola, all of them 
owned by MarAthas. Tho process is simple. The spinner places 
five skeins on five different phiUktiit,* or large reels, and, from them, 
transfers the thread to fifteen small reels. These fifteen reels are 
then arranged in a semicircle all facing the same way. The spinner 
drawfi a thread from each reel, and sitting facing the point, fastens 
the threads to a spindle, and, rubbing it sharply along his thigh, 
BpiuB a yard or so, and repeats the process till the yam is finished. 
The women of his family help in reeling the thread, or, if his 
household is too small, he engages workmen at from 6«. to Ss, 
(R8.3-Rs,4) a month. 

N^ik gold thread is chiefly consumed locally. The traders, or 
men of capital, to whom tho material belongs, sell to well-to-da 
weavers, or to shopkeepers. It is used chiefiy in ornamenting 
turban ends and tho borders and fringes of robes and dining clotha. 

According to the amount of gold used in gilding tho silver bar 
Mie price varies from 2ii. t>J. to 6*. (Rs. 1 i -Rs. 3) a tola.^ The pecnliar 
excellence of tho local gold thread and tho length of time it remains 
untarnished serve to keep it in domaud. But in spite of its inferiority, 
the much greater cheapness of the imported article ensures an 
increased use. At present tho local industry is not prosperous. 
There are about forty-eight f^old and silver thrt^ad <lealors who are silk 
dealers as well. Twenty of them are Gujanit V^uis, fifl^eu Patuis, six 
Thakurs or Brahma-Kshatris, three Shimpis, and four MnaalmAns, 
Under these dealers the different classes of workers are no more than 
labourers. All are paid by piecework. The pavtekatt or gilder 
and drawplate worker, gets 10*, (Rs. 5) for every ingot of forty toltis 
of silver. From this he has to pay a labourer 6d. (4 a^.) for 
working the winch, another 6d. (i ajt,) goes in ooal, and 1*. (8 as.) 
in loss in working, the gold leaf cuttings being taken away by 
the dealer- The remaining 3#. (Rs. 1-8) are generally divided 

' The dotnils tun : flix mdMis of gold (a vufjta is one-twelfth of a tcia) to thv 
silver ingot of 40 toUfl, WiWt 9 to 10 nuUtU of ulk VAm ; 8 to 10 ntdMU of gold want 
8 to 9 mcUtls of silk ; 12 to 15 of gold want 6 to 7 of silk ; 18 to 22 of gold want H t» 
of silk ; and 24 to 32 of gold want 5 of silk. * See above, p. 166. 

* The detaiU of the proportion of silver to gold and its effect on the prioe of the 
thread are : mdtdii (12 mdtuU are one toUi) of gold to 40 tolia of silvar yield W 
thread worth 29. 6ri. (Re. 1-4) ; 8 mds(U yield a thread worth &. 9<i. (Re. 1-6) ; 
10 nidsde, 3a, (Be. LS) ; 12 vui^*, or a tola, 3«. M. (He. MS) ; 16 mttttu, S». M 
<R«. M4) ; IS »uiM4i, 4s. (Ks. 2) ; 22 mdads, ia. Gd. {Ha. 2-4) ; 24 auuda, or 2 folds, < 
(lU. 2-8) ; 32 vuUdt, 6a. (Kb. 3). 



Among ibree di-awplate workers. As they take two days to work 
»& iiig\}l of forty fo/<iji, this leaves for eaeli worker a daily wage of 
(mL (4 <u.). The thread maker, Innayya, is paid from Si. to 
I2j». (Rs. 4-Rs. (3) for drawing forty tolas weight of wire into 
iKread, This takes five or six men three or four days, and leayee 
fi^r each a daily wogo of fiY>Tn ^d. to \\iL (2-3 rt-s.). The wire 
fisttouer, chiipadya, is paid at the rate of about £1 (Ra. 10) for 
ooo faaadred iolds of thread, and, as he takes from thirty to forty-five 
dttvs U> flatten that quantity, it represents a dayly wage of from 
Gii. to 9J. (4-6 fiw.). The winder, hiiayya or idrkairit gets about 
3}(i. (2J as.) a tola. He winds from one or three-quarters of 
•^ ("fa a day, and thus earns from 3^. to Od. (2-4 as.), The 
n-^himvdla, who prejiares the silk used in making gold thread, ia 
paid from 4*. to bs. (Ks. 2-R8. 2i) a houdred <j(i4!iSj equal to a 
daily wage of from 4Jfi!. to GtZ. (3-4 afi.) 

Dtiring the cold and hot months, except on holidays, work ia 
fairly convStaut, but, in the rainy months, the demand ia very slack, 
and the workmen have to live on their savings. None of these 
workers, except the rej/fiirnvdlaj or silk reeler and spinner, get help 
from their women in their Hpoeial craft llieir ordinary hours of 
work avG from seven to eleven in the morning and from two to five 
in the evening. Even during the busy season they cannot work by 
candle hght because they must always be able to see whether the 
wire is scratched in passing through the dra\^'plate. A slight 
scratch, and the exposure of the silver, spoils the whole work. 
They have no trade guilds and hardly any special craft rules. 

The manafacture of cotton goods supports fi*om 4000 to 5000 
families, partly Musalmans and partly Flindns, chiefly settled in 
Teola, Malegaon, Naaik, Chandor, Diudori, and Sinnar. Mdlegaon 
and Yeola turbans have a specially good name, and are sent to 
Klidndt'sh and Bombay. In Yeola there are said to be 2000 looms, 
all of them worked by MusiUmiins, of whom 900 are Momins and 
1100 Benares ilusalmaus. All of these Mnsalmdns are newcomers. 
The Momins are said to have come from Upper India in 1867 and 
1858, and the Benares MaBalniaus after the ifengal famine of 
1 863-64. ITiey. especially the Momins, are said to be very unsettled. 
In the Ndsik famine of 1876-77, from 300 to 400 of them left Yeola. 
In Malegaon there are said to be 2441 looms, 731 of them worked 
by Hindus, and 1707 by Musalm^ns. In the Chaudor sub-division, 
there are said to be twenty looms, of which three or four are worked 
by Mosalm^ns and the rest by Hindus. In N^ik town there are 
fortv-two looms all worked by Hindus. 

Most of the unbleached yarn used for turbans is brought from 
Bombay mills and coloured red by the local dyers. For the finer 
fabrics, such aa robes and waistcloths, English dyed yarn ia chiefly 
Qsed. In weaving it into cloth the yarn goes through eight 
prooeAaes. It is first steeped in water and placed on the large reel, 
pkdlka.^ It is then transferred from the largo reel to the middle- 



Oold ADd SUvf 

Cottoa Qi 

* 8«e lilk nuuiufactore, p. 156-192. 
Mgmine, in kuown w nifaiL 

This red is also called dehara^ aad, atnoQg th« 

[Bombay O&zettaer, 

Cbapt^ 71. 

Cotton Goods. 



sized reel, asdri or pareta, by a weaver who holds the end of 
the central rod of the large reel in his toes, and, with his right hand^ 
drawing off the yam from the skein, winds it on the smaller reel, 
which he holds in his left hand and whirls round in a small cnp of 
smooth cocoanut shell. To make the skeins of a convenient 
aize, it is next reeled off the middle-sized reel, amri, on to a small 
conical reel called charki. The yam is then taken to the rahdt^ 
vdla, to be twisted and wo\ind round bobbins, kandis or ndru. 
It is next worked by winding it, two threads at a time, in and oat 
among rows of bamboo rods about four feet apart.* It is then 
spread on two bamboos, stretched tight between two posts or trees, 
and sized with rice paste. If it wants colourings it is at this stage 
dyed. Finally it is woven, the process in no way differing from tha 
process adopted in weaving silk. 

The weavers of cotton robes, waistcloths, and bodices, use the 
same appliances as the weavers of silk fabrics.^ The turban weaver 
has a smaller loom, and makes use of a different set of tools. 
These are seven in number. The shuttle beam, hdtyn, in which 
the reed, phani, is fitted, worth 6d. (4 as.); two bars, ntknyas, to 
keep the warp stretched, worth Qd. (•! as.) ; a beatn, Utrai, 
round which the woven fabric is wound ; a pair of shuttles, dhot^j 
worth la. (8 att.) ; a big reel, phalkay the same as is used for 
silk ; a smaller reel, phcilki ; and a wheel, rahdtj for sizing the weft 
yarn with gum arabic. 

The chief articles made are turbans, robes, waistcloths, and 
bodices. The turbans are in considerable demand, and, besides 
being sold locally, are sent in largo numbers to Bombay. The 
demand for the other articles is purely local, the chief markets 
being Sinnar, Sanganmer, Chfi-ndor, Ntlsik, and BaglAn. 

Of the whole number of from 4000 to 5000 families, about 400 are 
said to be well-to-do, working their own yarn and themselvea 
disposing of their fabrics. The rest are almost all badly off, and 
hard pressed by the competition of machine-made goods. The 
weavers are paid from 6d. to9d. (4-6 an.) for each robe, and from 
12«. to IQs. (Rs. C-Rs. S) for each turban, representing a dail)' wage 
of from 6d, to 1*. (i-S ag,). But their emplnyment is far from 
steady, and, in the rainy season, they fail to earn an average of 3c£. 
(2 as.) a day. The women do not weave. But many of them, aa 
well as many of the weavers* children, earn Id. or 2d, (8-16 pies) a 
day, as warpers and reelers. 

^ The details of ihla prooeu are mua aescnoeu dt 
Textile Fabrics, 67 : "This operation is usually performca in a field, or any npen «not 
ooDvenient for the work, near the Weaver's boueo. For this purpofle^ four abort bamboo 
posta arc 6xod in the ground, at mcanured diatanccui (varying according to tha 
intended length of the oluth), and several pairs of rods are placed between them, 
the whole fnrming two parallel rows of rods about four feel i^rt. The weaver^ 
holding a amall wheel of warp yarn (aptndle) in each hand, passes the latter over 
one of the ]x>stB, and then walktt along the rows, laying down two threads and 
crfMBitiK them (by cn>s8ing hiii htuivls between each pair of rods), until he arrivot 
«t the post at the opposite end. He retraces his footsteps h-om this poiot, and thus 
oootiaaes to traverse backwards and forwards, M many tiinea as there are threads 
of the warp to be laid down." * See above, p. 169. 




Hindu Weavers keep forty-two, and MnBalm^n weavers keep 
■iity-four yearly holidays. In busy times, October to May, their 
workmg koars arc from seven to eleven in the morning, and in the 
evening irvm two till dark. Those of them who work their own 
materialB generally go at the close of the day to sell their wares in 
the market. None of the different classes have any trade guild or 
special trade constitution. 

Besides cloth there are two cotton manufactures, white carpets and 
Turkey red tapes. The white carpet or jhorya workers, of whom 
there are about fifty families in Malegaon, are Maratha Hindus known 
as Bunkars or weavers. Except a little that ia grown locally, their 
supply of cotton comes from Kh^ndesh. Carpet making has the 
special interest, that it is almost the only branch of textile work in 
which hand spinning survives. A cotton cleaner, pinjdri, takes the 
cotton, cleans it, and shapes it into rolls about an inch round and six 
inches long. These rolls, which are called pena and are worth from 
1/. 8(f. tol». 6d. a pound (Re. li-Re. IJ a sher), are handed to the 
spinner, who is always a woman. The spinner makes a long nail whirl 
rapidly round, by turning the handle of a small wheel with her right 
hand. As the nail whirls, she feeds it with cotton, which the rapid 
motion of the nail spins into fibre. As it is spun, the yarn is wound 
(onnd the nail, and taken away with the nail when it is covered. 
In weaving, the threads of the warp are passed through notches on a 
toothed beam, a primitive form of the reed ; in front of the beam, 
between it and where the weaver sits, is across bamboo, over and under 
which, before passing them through the teeth, the threads of the warp 
are wound. Near this bamboo, there hangs from the roof, a heavy board 
of wood, which can be made to press down the warp either in front 
of or behind the bamboo ; in front is the cloth beam, and a hollow 
bamboo shuttle, and a wedge-shaped bar for forcing the woof home. 
In detail the chief parts are : The cloth-beam, turai, round which the 
carpet is wound as soon as it is woven, and kept tight by a peg 
passed through a hole in it. The jfau, a flat wedge-shaped bar, 
used to drive the woof threads home. The lavaki, a flat piece of 
very heavy wood hanging from the roof, pressing down the warp 
either in front of or behind the cross bamboo, tokar. The ddiri, or 
toothed beam, the most primitive form of the reed, pkani, through 
whose teeth or notches the fibres of the warp are passed. The 
dftofe, or shuttle of hollow bamboo open at both ends, in which the 
moistened fibre is placed. And the tohar, a bamboo of the same 
breadth as the warp, placed between the toothed beam or reed and 
the weaver, writh the fibres of the warp passed alternately over and 
under it. It ia moved forwards and backwards, by the weaver, who 
holds it by its ends with his hands, aud, between each throw of the 
shuttle, pushes it in front or behind the hanging beam. 

The carpets are white. They vary in size from sixteen feet by 
five to 23i by 7i, and in price from 14*. 6<i. to £1 4». (Rs. 7^- 
Ks. 12). The workmen generally sell them to local or M&rvi&di 
cloth merchants, or, on market days, to consumers. They are used 
by middle class natives. 

When at work, the cotton cleaner and the spinner earn from Zd» 


Carpet MsUng. 

[Bombay Giue«t«Br» 



Chapter YI. to 4Jii. (2-3 annas) a day. But the demand for carpeta is bbiaU* 
CnlU. and the trade is dying. Most carpet weavers have becoBM 

Tapa Wearing. 




Tape Weaving is carried on by Bharadis^ a class of wandering] 
]BIardtha singers and reciters. They use European Turkey- red ^ 
yam, bought from Vdnis who bring it from Bombay. This they 
■weave into stripes two or three inciios broad. Their loom is of the 
simplest construction. Between two uprights, each about sixteeA.] 
inches high, are placed two horizontal bars, one joining the tops and 
fche other the centres of the uprights. To the central horizontal bar 
are tied a row of loops each two inches long. In arranging the 
warp, one thread is passed through a loop and the next over the 
upper horizontal bar, at a spot just above the space between two of 
the loops. The weaver, sitting in front of the uprights, holds in 
his right hand a bundle of the fibre intended for weft, passes i| 
across through the warp into his left hand, and forces the weft home 
by a blow from a flat wedge-shaped piece of wood called hAtya, As] 
he weaves, he slackens the warp which he keeps tied to a peg or] 
beam on the other side of the upright frame. 

The only article made is a tape from two to three inches broa* 
and from three to four yards long. It is worn as a loin tape n 
addition to the langoti or loincloth, by low claas Hindus particmarly' 
gymnasts. They cost IJd. to 3d. (l-2aj?.) each. The Bharadia 
work at this tape weaving in their leisure hours only, and do not 
earn more than 2«. (Re. 1) a month. 

Cotton Dyers, with an estimated strength of from 200 to 2i 
families, arc found in the chief towns of the district, especially 
Mdlegaon from forty to fifty families, in Yeola from 100 to 120' 
families, and in Nasik eleven families. They are of three clasj^ea^ 
indigo dyers, morinda dyers, and safflower dyers. The indigo 
dyers, chiefly Musalmins from Upjier India, are found in 
Mdlegaon and Yeola ; the moriuda dyers, Mar^tha Hindus, ara 
^und only in M&legaon, where there are five families ; and the 
safflowcr dycra are found chiefly in N^ik, where there are eleven 
families. ■ 

Of the three chief varieties of indigo, Bengal, Madras, and SindpV 
the last is alone used by the N^ik dyers. It is of five sorts, called 
after the five towns of Khairpur, Der£, Nali, Brihalpnr and Multaa,^ 
and varies from about one-half to one-quarter of the price of Bengali 
or Madras indigo.' It is brought from Bombay to the chief N^ifc 
towns by the dyer.s themselves. It is prepared in irregular conical , 
cakes, the better specimens of a good blue, bnt most of a hai 
black or pale blue. To prepare the solution of indigo the dyera' 
have two vats, a salt vat, khdra pipj for dyeing cotton, in which 
poor indigo, and a sweet vat, mitka pip, for siJk, in which good 
indigo, is used. Only one dyer at Yeola has a sweet vat* The 
vat is a large open-topped wooden barrel or earthen vessel sunk 
the ground, ana able to hold about 300 gallons of water. 

< B«iigftl ftad Madras indiKO felcliBR hoax jSS to £13 (Ra-SO-B*. 120) th» wwi 
28 pouadi i the pnc« o{ Siud indigo varioi from £2 10«. to £4 10». (lU. 2G-Ka. 45). 



Iq preparing asolatioa of five poanda of mdiga» about 150galIoiiB 
of wmter are poured into the rat. To this is added eight pounds 
(4 then) of impure carbonate of soda, sdji/cfiar^ and four pounds 
(2 sh«r$) of lime. The mixture is stirred and allowed to stand, 
while five pounds (2 J shcrt?) of indigo are soaking in a separate 
disb of wBt«r, Next morning the soaked indigo i3 laid in a etone 
trough four feet square and four inches deep, mixed with water 
ftad, hy a workman whose hands are covered with a thick cloth, 
is robbed on the sides of the stone trough till the whole is dissolved* 
The solution is th<?n poured into the rat and the whole mixture 
stirred. The stirring goes on for about an hour, aud is repeated 
two or three times before evening. In the evening, the remaining 
five pcmnda {2\ sfiera) of indigo are rubbod in the stone trough. 
poored into the v^t, aud the mixture again stirred. On the third 
day, a c/jppcr pot of about ten gallons capacity, is filled with sediment 
from an old vat, and the sediment is thi'own into the new vat, and 
the whole stirred and the vat closed.* Next momitig, the fourth day^ 
the liquid in the vat is yellow, and, when stirred, begins to foam. Th6 
colour of the foam shows whether the mixture hns, or has not, been 
fcucccssfni.' If it is reddish the liquid ia in good order ; if white, it 
wttUta three pounds of carbonate of soda ; and, if it irritates the skin, 
olotfl, or is oily, about four pounds of dates should be added. The 
rat is ready for work on tho fifth day. This is the process whefl 
ft new vat is started. In ordinary cases the liquid in the vafe ia 
renewed by adding lime, carbonate of soda, and indigo in half th^ 
quantities mentioned above. Unless the dye ia spoiled the Vat id 
not cleaned. The sediment can bo used any number of times 
provided there is no failure in preparing the dye. 

To prepare the sweet vat, mitha pip, for dyeing silks, 120 gallons 
of wat-er are poured into tho barrel ; four pounds of carbonate of sod4 
are added, and the whole is kept covered for three days. On the 
third ilay, four pounds of carbonate of soda and two pounds oi 
lime are added, aud the whole is stirred throe times a day. Next 
morning, the fourth day, four pounds of old brown sugar are 
disAolved iu cold water, and tho solution ia thrown into the vat^ 
and the whole is ocoasionallv stirred for three days more. When 
fermentation sets in, the mixture begins to crackle. At this stage 
the foam is examined, and, if it is reddish, the vat is in working 
order. If the ft>um is white, three jxinnds of carbonate of soda 
and an equal quantity of lime, ai-e added to the vat and stirred. 
The prtTportions of lime and brown sugar in the vat require nice 
adjustwout; if this is not properly attended to, the indigo rots, 
smelU horridiy, aud is unfit for dyeuig.^ When the vat is ready. 

I ti n,«-- ^ Q^ aediment, two poundA (<me iherf of liiM, tiffo ponmfe (on* ah^ 
ol ! t«n ponnda (dv« shert) of wvter arc boiled till tho mivtare beoomM 

v< OQ the TAt ii fltirred, the hot mixture thrown ia, and the vat olosod. 

rToxt uioruuig the liqaor in the vst iA yellov and th« rest go«« on m described in the 

* The toomx iBof1«& ^hered, mtu\(3 into balls, and driod. It ti lued lo ruboo olotll 

"evtem India, 23. 

I patcboa whore the dye has not tAken. 
» Dr. NAr4>lii DAji ; Dyeing in W 





Chapter VI. 


the cloth is soaked in water for a night and then folded and throim 
into the vat, where, for about half an hour, it is turned orer and 
moved through the liquid. It is then taken out, well squeesed, 
and stretched in the sun to dry. For pale blue one dipping is 
enough; for deep blues the cloth has to be dipped and dried once 
a day for three days. The indigo dyers of Ndsik do not prepare 
any indigo prints. 

When new, the cloth, whether cotton or silk, almost always 
belongs to the dealer who pays the dyer at a certain rate for the 
piece, and disposes of the cloth in the chief district towns. The 
dealer is generally a Shimpi who carries the cloth on bullock back 
or in carts to the diSerent weekly markets. The weavers are 
almost all Mnsalmins. 

Besides in preparing fresh cloth, indigo dyers find much work 
in re-colouring old clothes. These, chiefly MusalmAn turbans and 
waistcloths, are first carefully washed in water and then once or 
twice dipped in the vat. The dyer is paid Id. (8 pies) a yard- 
For fresh cloth and yam used in weaving women's robes, the cliarge 
varies according to the depth of the colour, from Id. to 3i. (J -2 as.) 
a yard, and in re-colouring dyed cloth from Ji. to Id, (J - § anna). 

If in constant employment, an indigo dyer will dye fifty yards, 
and make from 2$. to 4«. (He. l-Rs. 2) a day. From this ha has 
to meet the cost of the indigo and other materials. Besides this 
the demand for his labour is not constant. He is generally busy 
some weeks before the chief Musalman holidays. But again, 
especially during the rains, he sometimes passes weeks with Lttlo 
to do. His average daily earnings are probably not more than 
from Sd. to 6d, (2-4 tw.). The women take no part in the dyeing. 
They keep from twelve to fifteen holidays a year and they ordinarily 
work from eight to nine hours a day. They have no community or 
trade guild. 

Safflower dyers are either Musalm&ns or Hindus. In N^ik town 
are eleven safflowor dye works, eight belonging to Masalm^ns 
and three to Hindus. Of the eight Musalman dye works, two 
in Aditv4r, one in Kajipura, two near the Trimbak Gate, 
and two near the bridge, belong to local Masai mans, and the 
eighth belongs to a Mdrwdr Musalmdn who lives in T^mbat 
Ah. Of the three Mardth^, two live near the bridge and one in 
Panchavati. The local Mnsalmdns have been settled in N^ik for 
more than five generations, perhaps about two hundred years. 
They are Sunnis, and are said to have come from Aurangabad and 
Delhi. In appearance, language, and dress, they differ little from 
the Nisik paper-makers. The Mfirwdr Musalmans, who formerly 
belonged to Jodhpur have been settled in Ndsik for about fifteen years. 
Though both are Sunnis, in home speech and customs they differ 
materially from the local Musalmin dyers. They speak MarWidi, 
while the local dyers speak Mardthi ; and though they have no 
objection to take food from their hands, they have not yet married 
with the local Musalm^ dyers, lliey wear a M^rwdr turban, 
while the original N^sik dyers wear the three-cornered Mardtha 






turban. The Marwar Mofialmdn women wear a dress, partly like 
Uttt wurn bj the locaf Muaalm^n women and partly like the Hindu 
Marwir dress. With one exception^ the dyers lire and work in 
hired honses. Though self- supporting and ^irly well-to-do, none of 
them have any capital ; they are said to carry on their business on 
borrowed funds. According to a local story, there once lived in 
N&sik town two celebrated dyers named Najekhan and Ddulkh^n, 
whoee scarlet, gul-i-annr^ dye was the best known and most 
fashionable shade ia Western India. Nor does the secret seem 
altog-ether lost, for Chhotabh&i's scarlet is still one of the most 
popular of N^k tints. 

In Malegaon sab-division are said to be about fifty families of 
dyers. As in Naaik thoy are both Muaalmd-ns and Hindus. The 
Hindus, who belong to the Bhavs^r caste, are said to have oome 
from Pdtan in Gujarat, and to be settled for three or four 
generations in Mdlegaon. As in N^ik the Musalmdn dyers are 
partly from Marwar and partly local. In Yeola there are about 
120 bouses of dyers or Rang^ris. All are Hindus of the BhAvskr 
caste. They have been settled in Yeola for generations and do not 
know where they came from. In Sinnar sub-division there are 
about eight families of dyers. Except one widow, who is of the 
Nirdli caste and dyes indigo, all are Hindus of the Bhdvsir 
caste. They are very poor and have to work as labourers. In 
Bigl^n are about twenty to twenty-four families of dyers, all of 
them BhAvB&rs by caste and poor. Saffiower dyeing is an important 
indnstr}', as most Hindus and Muhanuuadans have to get their turbanA 
dyed at least once in twelve months. 

The dye is made from the dried and pressed flowers of the saffiower, 
Inisumha^ Carthamus tinctorius plant, a bright yellow-flowering 
thistle-like annual much grown both for its flowers and for its 
oil-yielding seeds. Though a beautiful red, saffiower fades quickly, 
and does not bear washing. As it has no aflinity for any known 
mordant it cannot be made fast. The crop comes to market in 
February and March, Of the four chief varieties, GuiarAt, Abushahar 
orPereian, Shol^pur, and Umrfi-vati, the two last, which are also the 
cheapest, are most used in N^ik. They are brought to Nasik, 
generally in powder or in loose filaments, by the dyers themselves, 
at prices var>'ing from £3 4*. to £4 16«. (Rs, 32-R8. 48) the 
hundredweight (4 mana). This dye is used only for colouring cotton 
goods. The other dye stuS, used by the saffiower dyers, is the 
commercial turmeric the product of the Curcuma longa, which yields 
an unstable yellow dye. The mother tubers, which contain more 
colouring matter and are therefore preferred, cost from 4*. to 6«, 
(Rs. 2 - Rs. 4) a man. The impure carbonate of soda, sdjikhdr, 
made from burning saltwort and other plants, comes through Bombay 
from the Arabian coast, Persia, and Sind. It contains about forty 
per cent of dry c-arbonate of soda, besides many impurities, chiefly 
oarbonaceons matter, sulphurates, lime, and iron, and is sold at 8ff« 
the huudredweight (Re. 1 a vian), 

A saffiower dyer's only appliances are a few copper pots, and a 
few stool-like frames, with a piece of coarse cloth tied over the top 



[Boabt.y OMtUMTf 



of each to form a strainer, jholi. The powdered safHower is plaood in 
the Lollow of the atraioer and water is poured on it. As thfl 
oolouring matter diasolvos in the water^ it is allowed to trickle iDto 
a copper pot placed bolow the strainer. This process is repeated 
till almost the whole of the colouring matter is soparated. 

From safflower eleven colours are made. (1) Scarlet, yaUi-^n^^ 
literally, pomegranate flower, bj steeping the cloth in an alkaline 
solution of turmeric, then in a similar solution of saffiowcr, and 
lastly treating it >vith lime juice and drying it. (2) Crimson, 
kusumhlj that is safflower proper, by steeping the cloth in an 
alkaline solution of safflower and brightening it by adding lime 
jaioe. (3) Motiija, flesh, or rather blush-rose, by steeping the cloth 
in a weak alkaline solution of safflower and then in lime juice. 
For this colour the cloth has first to be washed very clean. (4) 
Pyaji, pink, by treating the cloth with a little more concentrated 
alkaline solution of safflower, and then steeping it in lime juice. 
(5) Ouldbi, rose pink, and (6) Gahera guUihit deep rose, shades of 
flesh and pink and made in the same way but with a larger 
proportion of safflower. (7) Kinnijif cochineal rod, alight magenta, 
18 produced by steeping the cloth in an alkaline solution of safflower, 
and then in a boiling watery solution of cochineal and galls, to which 
lime juice ia added, (8) Ndrangi, orange, produced by steeping the 
cloth in an alkaline solution of turmeric, then in one of safflower, and 
lastly ia weak lime juic«. (0) Kesliari, saffron colour, or yellow with 
a shade of orange, produced in the same way as No. 8, with a larger 
proportion of turmeric. (10) Bananti, bright yellow, obtained by 
steeping the cloth in an alkaline solution of turmeric and passing it 
through a solution of alum. (II) Bainganij brinjal colour or purple, 
is produced from a mixture of indigo and cochineal. It is fast, all 
the others are fleeting. 

The articles dyed with safflower are mainly turbans, and 
occasionally pdtals or girls' robes. 

The dyers are specially busy on the fifth day of the WoU festival 
(March-April), when people send their clothes to be sprinkled with 

For dyeing a turban, the workman is paid from Is, to 10». Re. \ - 
Rs. 5} according to the shade ; and for dyeing a robe or sheet he fa 
generally paid only from 6i. to 2g, (Re. \ - Re. 1), as robes are always 
of the lighter shades. For sprinkling safflower red on children's 
clothes he gets ^d. to 3d. (|-2 as.) according to the size of the 
ffarment. Labourers in a dye work are paid from 12«. to £1 a month 
tRe. 6 -Ra. 10), and, on an average, a dyer, after meeting all expenses, 
makes from £1 10s, to £2 10.«. (Rs. 15-Rs. 25) a month. They 
hare almost no work during the rainy season. The busiest time 
begins a few days before Dasra and ends with Div(Ui (October- 
Norember), when turbans, spoiled by the rainy weather, ore sent tO 
be dyed. There is also a fair demand during the hot months, as 
it is the marriage season. The ordinary hours of work are, from 
seven to eleven in the morning and from two till snttset. In the 
bnay aaaaon they work at nightj airing and drying the dyed larbana. 





The only holidays on which the MusalindBB stop work are the 
Bakar Id, Ramj'Ui Id, and Moharctm. Hindu dyers reat on the Isfc 
Mul Iftth of evory lunar mouth, on the day after Daera (October), 
•ad <m the day aft^r Sankmnt (12th January), or twonty-six days 
to the year. Dyers complain that the coat of the dyes has lately 
vTfwiXy increased, and that, aa they have not been able to raise 
charges, their profits are much emaller. They have no trade 
KUMii, andj except the Marw^r Musalmans, do not get any help 
from their women in safflower dyeing. 

Calico Phnting and Morinda Dyeing are carried on by about half 
a dozen fumilies of safflower dyers at Malegaon. 

Betsides the braaa pots and strainers used in dyeing, families 
t- "in calico printing require stamps or moulds. These are 

i 1 wood with their faces carved in different designs. They 

V© prepared by carpenters of the Sutar caste, and cost about 2*. 
(Re. IJ each. A calico printer ha£ generally a large store of blocks 
of different desigtxs. 

There are eight processes in printing cloth. (1) The cloth is 

washed in plain water; (2) it ia dipped in a mixture of oil, 

carbonate of siKia, and three-dayn-old goat and 8heep droppings; (3) 

it is washed; (4) it is dipped ia water containing powdered raw 

myrobalans; (o) it is dried; (6) it is handed to the printer who 

s' -he cloth, keeping his block dipped in a mixture of sulphate 

r and tamarind Bced paste; the mark is at first greyish, 

*a exposure to the sun it becomes black; (7) it is boiled in a 

<rion (jf morinda powder,^/, and ahim ; (8) and it is washed 

and dried. In some cases, to give it a dark red tint, the part of the 

cloth that has not been stamped is, before the final boiling (7) 

covered with powdered ochre and tamarind seed paste. 

The only articles printed are : (1) Quilts, pasodasy pieces of clotb 
stuffed with cotton-wool and worn as blankets ; (2) scarves, pkadki^^ 
worn by Maratha, Agri, Gujarati, and Gavli women ; (3) double 
coarse cloths used as carj^ets, jV/;am«. A quilt, which is about four 
feet by eight, is printed for about Is. (8 a*.), a ac^rf for from 6d. 
to 9<i. (4-0 a8.)f and a tloor cloth, which is generally fifteen feet 
by eight, for about 3*. (Re. 1-8). When the dyer buys the 
unbleaclied cloth and prints it on his own account, he sells • 
qailt at from \s. to 8^. (Bs. 2-Rs. 4), a scarf at from Is. to 3^. (Re. |* 
He. li), and a floor cloth at from 9*. to £1 (Rs, 4i-Rs. 10). In 
plain morinda, dl, dyeing, the processes numbered 4, 5, and 6 are 
omitted. Deducting the cost of the cloth, tho dye stuffs and 
the labour on menial work, the morinda dyers and calico printers 
get a net profit on each quilt of from 4^(2. to Qd. (3-4 o^.), and on 
each scarf of from 3(i. to Qd. (2-4 aa.). His average monthly 
income ia from £1 to £2 (Rs. 10-Rs. 20). There ia a fair demand 
for printed calicoes. But the M41egaon printers complain that, 
since the iotroduction of foreign articles, their profit^t have steadily 
declined. Calico printers are helped by their women. Their usual 
working hours are from seven in the morning to eleven and from 
twe to sunset. They keep the same twenty-six yearly holidays as the 
Hindn dyers. They hare no trade guild. 


Calico Prini 


[Bomb&y OaiAtLatf, 



ipter TL 

BUnket WMTing. 

Blanket, kdmhlx, Weaving is a somewhat important craft. 
From their cheapness and warmth, blankets are in constant demand 
among the lower classes. They are woven by Dhangara, or 
ehepherdsj who are occasionally found in different parts of the 
district, particularly in places with good pasture. Nearly one-half 
of them have looms. They have no tradition of having formerly 
livid in any other part of the country. They do not differ from 
M^r^this in language, house, dress, or food, but are darker and 
if#ar a peculiar brass or cheap gold earring. They are thrifty 
Alid hardworking. They tend nocks of sheep and goats, shearing 
tjhe sheep, and sorting, cleaning, spinning, and weaving the wool. 
They have a high priest named Men Jogi, whose head-qnartera 
tre in Kh^ndesh, and who every year visits the NAsik Dhangara 
and receives their offerings. Their family gods are Kkandoba 
and Bahiroba who, they believe, watch over their flocks.* Foreign 
blankets are to some extent imported, but the native blanket ia 
too cheap and comfortable to suffer much from the competition. 

Almost the whole of the wool woven into blanket-s in N^sik iathe 
produce of the local flocks. About the beginning, and again about 
the end, of the cold season (November and March), Dhangars take 
their sheep to some stream, to a spot where the banks are steep on 
one side and sloping on the other. They drive the sheep to the 
edge of the steep bank, and throw or push them over it, one by 
one. The sheep swim to the other bank, and are kept standing in 
the sand till the sun dries thoir wool. When they are dry, with 
the help of his wife and children, the shepherd shears them with a 
large pair of scissors. Besides the local supply, wool is sometimes 
brought from Kh^desh, the Dhangar either going for it himself 
or buying it from some travelling peddler. It is generally sold at 
£1 (Rs, 10) for the quantity obtained from one hundred sheep at 
one shearing, the quantity being from twenty-four to twenty-fire 

When the wool is shorn, it is sorted according to colour, and has 
its clots and tangles opened by a tool like the cotton cleaner's bow. 
It is then carried to the spinning wheel, a machine in no way 
different from the cotton spinning wheel. The yam is then 
arranged rouud two sticks^ each two to three feet long, placed 
horizontally five or six feet apart. The fibre is lightly sized with 
tamarind paste boiled in water, and arranged on the loom to form 
the warp. A blanket weaver's loom is very much like the loom 
used in making cotton carpets. It has six parts^ the cloth beam, 
the jav, the vai, the lavai, the reed, the bamboo, and the warp 
beam. The vai is a bamboo stick from two to three feet long, 
wound round with sized and toughened cotton thread to form loope 
through which the warp fibres have to pass. The warp fibre ia 
first tied to the cloth beam, passed through the loops of the vai, 
and then placed in the notches of the reed or ddtri, passed above 
and below the bamboo, tokar, and finally tied to the warp beanij 

> His Highnen Holk&r bolnngs to their cute, uid is hu Q&tive viUa^ Hoi 
near SAtAra, a temple, dedicated to Bahiroba, ii maintaineil by the ludor govemmeot. 



wtdoh is a bftmb^ stick two or three feet long, and half an inch in 

diameter. When the warp is arranged, the weaver passes a bamboo 

. between the two sets of warp fibres, lays down the 

■ Iraws towards him the Jat'j which has a flat iron bar in 

the iaoe ot it, and drives the thread of the weft home. He then 

/V:\;t9 out his weft-bar. /tfi?, and shifts the beam, lavaij that is hung 

rhe roof, to the other side of the bamboo which is placed in the 

ui'u'iie of the warp. This movement changes the alternate fibres, 

and the weaver begins afresh, parsing the shuttle between them. 

The process is repeated tiD the fabric is woven to the required 

lirngtb. When the weaving is over, the blanket is sized with 

l*mannd seed paste and dried in the sun. 

Besides those required^ by a carpet weaver, the blanket weaver 
usee two tools, shears worth Is. (8 as.) a pair^ of which he keeps one 
pkir for each working member of his family, with a few files for 
arpening them, wi.)rth 1*. (8 na.) each, and the spinning machine, 
unki, worth about 3*. (Re. 1-8). The products of his loom are the 
gle blanket, kdmhlt, and the doable blanket, chavdh, formed by 
aewing two single blankets together. The kdmhU is from two tp 
Uiree foet broad by five to six feet long, and the chavdle three to 
four fet?t by about ten. The single blanket is worth from 3«. to 6s. 
(Ke. li-Rs. 3), and the double from 5*. to &s. (Rs.2i-Rs.4). 
They are worn over the head and shoulders as a shelter from rain 
and cold, and serve the poor as carpets and bedding. The 
weaver generally owns the wool he works with, and seldom employs 
labourers. If he does, he pays each labourer 4^. (Rs. 2) a month 
besides food. A single blanket takes a man from one to two days 
to we*ve, and, after deducting the cost of the wool, yields him from 
6rf. to Is. (4-8 a9.). In shearing, sorting, cleaning, and spinning, 
he is helped by the women and children of his family. To start as 
ft wearer a man wants a capital of from £1 to £2 (Rs. 10-R&.20). 

The blankets woven during the week are sold on the market 
day, generally to the consumers. If not disposed of in the market 
town, they are hawked in the villages round. Blankets are always 
in demand. But June and October are the busiest months. The 
ordinary hours of work are from eleven to sunset ; they do not 
weave in the morning. The only day in the year on which work is 
entirely stopped is Dasm (October -November). The industry is 

Paper-making, introduced about eighty years ago by one Balaji 
.ji, a Thakur or Brahma-Kshatriya, was once important and 
sperous but is now fallen into decay. Bal&ji Abiji is said to 
have brought to Niisik a colony of Musalman paper-makers from 
Roje near Aurangabad, and to have set up the first paper factory, 
which is still in the possession of his grandson, an old man 
of about sixty. The family has been in Nasik eight or nine 
generations, and is said to have been founded by an officer under 
the Bijipur government. A few months after the opening of the 
first paper mul in N^sik, the paper-makers of Roje are said to have 

BUnkM Wesi 

Pftper IhUkiii^ 

Smpage 169. 

s 3S-33 

(Bombay G&Mtt««r« 


Chapter VI, 

Fap«r Making. 

filed a snit against B^^ji for indacing their relations to forsaki 
their homea. The judge ascertained from the manufacturers thai 
they were willing to BtayatNdsikand dismissed the case.* In Sksxk 
they are settled in the north -ease of the city, now known as 
Kathada, and formerly as K^gdipura. Of fifty factories only Sts 

The paper is made from rotten gunny bags for which the 

manufacturers pay 10*. a ton (Rs. 2 a man). 

In making it into paper the cloth passes through thirteen 
processes. (I) It is cat into small pieces, moistened with water, 
and pounded by a heavy fixed hammer, dJwgi, (2) It ia 
washed in plain water. (•'3) It is moistened with slaked lime 
and left in a heap on the floor for seven or eight days, then 
pounded again, heaped, and left to lie for four days more. 
(4} It is washed a second time in water. (5) It is mixed with 
impure carbonate of soda, khdr, in the proportion of a pound of the 
soda to thirty-two pounds of the rags (IJ ahertt a man), pounded, 
and kept for one night. (G) It is washed a third time. (7) It 
is a second time mixed with khAr, at the rate of one pound to 
every forty pounds (one sher to the man), dried in the sun to 
bleach it, and pounded three or four times. (8) It is a fourth 
time kept in water for a night and washed the next morning. 
(9) It is mixed from three to eight times with country soap, in 
the proportion of about one pound of soap to every twenty-seven 
pounds of paper (one and naif 8hern to the man), pounded and 
dried. (10) It is washed a fifth time. (11) It is thrown into 
a cement-lined cistern, about seven feet by four and four deep, 
half filled with water, and when thoroughly loosened and 
spread through the water, the workman, lying at the side of the 
pit leaning over the water, takes in both hands a square-cornered 
screen or sieve, passes it tinder the wat-er aud draws it slowly and 
evenly to the surface, working it so that, as the water passes 
through, a uniform film of pulp is left on the screen; (12) the 
screen is lifted up atid tumea over, and the film of paper is 
fipread on a rag cushion; when layers have been heaped on this 
cushion to the height of from nine to fourteen inches, a rag is spread 
over them, and, on the rag, a plank, weighted with heavy stones, is 
laid ; when this pressure has drained the paper of some of its 
moisture the atones nre taken away, and two men. one Htnnding at 
each end of the plank, 'soo-saw* over the bundle of paper; when 
it is well pressed the paper is pealed off, layer after layer, and spread 
to dry on the ceraeuted walls of the building. (13) When dry each 
sheet of paper is laid on a polished wooden board and rabbed with 
a smooth stone till it shines. 

Four chief tools and appliances are used. (1) The dk^gi, a great 
hammer, formed of a long heavy beam poised on a central fulcrum, 
worked in a long pit two or three feet deep. The head of the 

1 ThU voulil seem to have h&ppcned under the Peahwa'ft maQagement, as the officer 
WM ■ nihha, Dbondo Mftb&dev Jfwhi by n&nie. The vtory in not Kupported by «ay 
writtmi evidence. 



k&mmer is a heavy block of wood fixed at right angles to one end 
of the main beam, with its face strengthened by four thick polished 
steel plates. On the upper surface of the other end of the main 
beam two or three steps are cut, and the hammer is worked by 
tkreeor four labourers together pressing down the beam and letting' 
it rise by alternately stepping on the beam and on the edge of the 
hole. (2) A rectangular teakwood frame, edchat two and a half 
feet by two, and with eight crosa bars ; it costs 6^. (Rs. 3} and is 
asedin fishing out the paper from the cistern. (3) A screen, chhapri, 
made of the stalks of the white conical -headed amaranth, 
Amaranthus globulus, on which the tilm of paper rests when the 
frame is brought out of the cistern and the water allowed to pass 
through ; it costs from 2«. to 4s. (Ro. l-Rs. 2). (4) A soft date-palm 
brush, kunckit, costing from l}d. to Sd. {as, 1-2) used in pasting 
the sheets of paper against the walls of the room. 

The paper, made by this process, though rough and of a dingy 
yellow, is strong and lasting. The makers sell it to Mnsalmto 
shopkeepers of the Buhori sect. From ihem it is chiefly bought by 
local merchants and traders, by whom it is valued for its toughneae, 
and it is still, to a small extent, used in Government offices. The 
retail price varies from Ss. to £2 the ream (Ks. 2-Rs. 10 the 
gaddi of ten quires). The manufacturers have generally from 
four to sii labourers, chiefly Marathas, whom they pay 6d. 
(4 ax.) a day, and use in working the big hammer and io washing 
the pulp. The headmen themselves take the 61ms of paper out 
of the cistern, and their wives help by rubbing the paper with 
the polishing stone. From the much greater cheapness of machine- 
made imported paper, the demand for tho local paper is small 
and decliuing. The makers are badly oS., barely earning a living.. 
There is no trade guild. Their ordinary working hours are from 
seven to eleven in the morning, and from two to six in the evening. 
They keep sixty to sixty-seven holidays, resting every Friday and 
OD the leading Musalmdn fasts and feasts. 

The manufacture of nitre, sora, is occasionally carried on in some 
Nasik villages, chiefly at Satali and Chichondi Khurd in Yeola. 
Nitre is moat commonly found in salt earth, lona, near houses and 
cattle sheds. To make nitre, a large hole from eight to twelve yards 
round and from six to eight feet deep, is dug on high ground. At 
about half tho depth of the pit, a paved gutter leads to masonry 
pans about twenty feet long by forty feet broad and two deep. In 
making nitre the salt earth is dug or scraped and thrown into- 
the pit, the pit is filled with water, and the whole is worked into 
liquid mud. Under the influence of the water, the nitre 
separates from the earth and dissolves into the water. The water 
is then allowed to rest, and, when the earthy particles have sunk and 
the water is clear, the mouth of the gutter is opened, and the 
water is allowed to drain into the pans and left to evaporate in the sun. 
Wheu the water dries, it leaves the bottom of the pans strewn with nitre 
crystals. The nitre makers, known as Sordvalas, do not live in the 
district. They are said to belong to Gujarat and only occasionally 
visit Nasik. The right to gather salt earth is generally let to them 

Chapter VL 
Crafts. ■ 

Paper Making. 

Nitn M&kii 

[Bombay Oaiettaer. 



Chapter VI. 

Lk Work. 

a,t from 10*. to £1 10<». (Rs.5-Rs. 15) a village. The value of the 
nitro ifl said to be coDsiderable, some £20 to £30 (Rs. 200 - 
Rfi. 300). But the supply of earth is soon exhausted^ and as the 
masonry pans cost a largo sum, the number of nitre workers i« 
always smalt. When the nitre is ready it ia taken for sale to 
Naaik, Dhulia^ Poona^ and other places. It sells at from 8«. to 6«. 
(Re.l^-Rs.B) a man. It is chiefly used in making fireworks. 

Lac-working gives employment to a small number of Mnsali 

who form a scpmrate community, known as Lakharis. Iliey 

chiefly found in Nasik, Malegaon, and Chandor. The raw material 
ia generally bought from Bohoris, or native stationers, who get it 
from Bombay. Besides lac they require other pigments, vermilion, 
orpiment, indigo, and copper-leaf, which also they get from 
the Bohoris. The process is to raix a certain amount of cheap 
aealing wax with brick dust^ and heat it till ic becomes thoroughly 
pliable. It is then made into a stick about an inch in diameter 
and from one to two feet long. Next it is covered at one end with 
a layer of lac coloured red, yellow, green, or blue, by mixing with 
it mechanically such pigments as vermilion, orpiment, and indigo, 
or, if green is wanted, a mixture of orpimeut and indigo. The end 
thus covered with coloured lac is then heated and drawn out. 
When the coloured end becomes as small us a quill it is cut away 
from the stick, and, while still hot, it is stamped by a carved brass or 
wooden mould. It is next wound round a wooden cylinder and the 
ends heated and joined, and, finally, to make it He in one ]ilaue, it 
is laid on a stone slab, covered with a flat piece of wood, and struck 
lightly with a hammer. 

The lac-worker uses six tools. The rolling pin, aaHa, to roll the 
heated lac into a stick, worth Od. (4 «*.). A stone which must be 
flat and is generally a piece of a broken grinding mill. The stone 
is beated and the lac soft^^ned on it and rolled into a stick. The 
cost ifl nominal. A hammer worth Qd, (4 aii.). Two ihasds or many- 
sided wooden or brass moulds with different designs carved on 
each face, each mould costing from 16*. to £1 (Rs. S-Rs. 10). The 
adc/taj or wooden cylinder, round which the wax is wound to give 
it the shape of a ring. The thapjm, or flat piece of wood, witk 
which the lac ring is pressed to make it lie in one plane. 

The only articles made are lac bracelets. The maker generally 
disposes of thorn to the E^drs, or bangle-sellers, selling them at 
from jrf.tol^t/, (i-1 anna) each. They are w^om by Hindu women 
of all classes. Nisik lac bracelets have no special merit, and are 
not in much demand. The workmen are poor. Even, with the help 
of their women, they do not earn more than from 8ff. to 129. (Rs. 4- 
Rs. 6) a month. 







According to Brahman tradition the sage Afifastya, who iotrodaoed 
Aryan civilisation from the north into the DeccHU, when visited ftt 
hifl hermitAge near Ndsik, presented RAm the hero of the RAmayan, 
with a bow und other wonder-wurking weapons, and advised him to 
paas the rest of his exile at Panchavati on the Goddvari opposite 
Nisik. JanasthAn or NAsik is described in the RdmAyan aa a 
forest country rich in fruit and flower trees, full of wild beasts and 
btrda, and inhabited by tribes of Rakshaaas.^ 

The routes through Baglan to the Gujardt coast and through Nisik 
to the Konkau coast must have been lines of traffic from remote 
times. The early rulers of Ndaik were probably local chiefs who 
were subject to the overlords of Tagar and Paithan, and had their 
Iwad-quarters at Aujini or Anjauiri in the south-west, at S&ler in 
the north-west, and at Chandor near the centre of the present 

The large series of rock temples in the range of hills about five 
miles south-west of Nri.sik shows, that from the second century 
before to the second century after the Christian era, Nasik was under 
rn!ers who patronised Buddhism, some of whom probably lived at 
Paithan on the left bauk of the Godavsri about 110 miles below 
Nasik.' The first dynasty of which distinct record remains are the 

Chapter Vn. 

Early Eiodua. 



' Griffiili's RAmAyAn, III. 45-72 : ManDing's Ancient And Medieval IndU, II. 19. 

» Tmg&r is said (Or»nt Dtiff's MarAthiU, 1 1 ; Wilford a As. Res. I. 369) to have been 
inportAut enough tu attract Egvption mmcboiits aa early as B.o. 250. Its position has 
not Iteeii fiTfttl, It h&a lately (Jour. Bnm. Br. Roy. As, Soc. XIII. 9) beeu idtstttificd 
with Jaxinar in Puuiia. But Jtiniiar docs not agrve with the position of Tagar given 
eithi^r hy Ptolemy I ad. 150> orhy the niithnr of the Periplus (A.p. 247), both of whom 
]■' '" ea«t of Paithan. (liertina* Plolorny, Asia Map X j McCrindlc'a Periplaa, 
i Ihe remark in the Ptiriplun (MoCrimiles Kdition, I'JQ) tliat many artidea 

Li -..^M. -..;'■ Tagaj from Oie parta alnag the coast were seat by wnsona to Broach, 
•eema to show that Ta^^r was then iit cotninutiication with the Bay of Bengal and lay 
on the line of trmffio with the far east, wtiich then made Mesolia or Maaalia (MaauU- 
patan) so itoportant a trade centre (Ptolemy, A^ia MapX.; Vincent's Periplua, II. 520, 
523). and in later timee enriched M&lkhet, Kalviin, Bidar. Golkonda, and Haidarabad. 
Paithan, thoagh traditionally founded by SniLiivihan in A. v. 78, was a place <4 
importance a3 early u the third century ac. BhAa D4ji in Jonr. Bom. Br. Hoy. Aa. 
8oc VIIL 239. 

* One of the pilUn in the Bhaj-hut f^tup (ac. 250-200) is the gift of a Buddhist 
pilorim of Nteik. {Cunningham *» Bharhat 8tup. 138). One of the earliest inscriptiona 
at Niaik (a.a 100) mentions the town under Iti preeant name (Fergusaon and Burgees' 
Cftro Temples, 263 : Jour. B. B. R A. 8. VII. 48). Patanjali (about B.c. 145 aooord- 
tng to Profeaaore Ooldstilckcr. and BhandArkar, but a« early as b.c\ 700 according to 
m. Kunte. VioiMntodes of Aryan Civjlizatinn, 343) calls it Nisikya (M&hibhjlahya 
VI. 2«), And Ptolemy (a.d. IdO) eoUm it as NAaik. (Bertius' Ptolemy, Abia Miip X). 



[Bombfty &M6l 



C3iapter YII. 

Eariy Hindua. 

».Q. fOO'A.D, MOO. 

Andhrablirityaf,^ or Shatavabana, whose capital waa Dhanakatj 
perhaps Dhamikot on the Krishna ia tho Madras district of 
Gantur.- Of their rise to power so little is known that the most 
recent estimates of the date of their founder Shipnik, Sindhuk, or 
Shishuk, vary from BC. 3u0 to B.C. 21.' They seem to have ruled in 
2<i^£Uik till the latter part of the first century of the Christian era, 
when Nabapan, a Skythiau or Pirthiau of the Kshaharat dynastyi 
drove them from Nasik and Khelndesh, and also^ it would seemi 
from Paithan.* Nahapan, though originally subordinate to aoma 
northern overlord, seems, aft'er his conquest of the north Deccan, 
to have made himself independent and to have established hia 
head-quartors in Malwa.'^ At this time NAsik or Govardhan was a 
place of some trade with a large weaving' industry* The Kshatrap 

' The name Andhrnbbritya, or Aiiillira servrints, is suppcAcd to show that, before 
they liconmo indopoudent, the Andhnia were aubject t4) the Maurya aonercigna of 
Fitaliputra tbe modern PAtutt. lo latur times (a.d. SH*) th>3 AndhnbhrityAx 
Kpere known as the Sb&tavdhans (Trans Sec. [1874] Inter Cong. 349). Acc«nlmg to 
tbe Purina, tbe AmlhmlihrityAs camo after tbe ^bang luid K4iiva dyuastiea. Iheir 
original neat waa Aiulhra in Telingana the country to the north of the znotith of the 
QoaAvnri (Lassen's Indiache AIrerthuin9kundE>, W. 83). 

' This identification is coniirmml by a Hnd of leaden ShAtavAhan coins at Bbaniikot. 
(lladraa. Lit. Jour. III. [New Series], 225 ; Jour. Bom. Br. Boy. As. Soa XiV. IM3 
and Trans. Sec. Inter. Cnng. 3+9). 

> Bhjiti Dlji (Jour. Bom. Br. Roy. As. Soc. VII. 118, and VHI 240) places Shipnk 
in the fourth century before Christ: BhagvilnUl Indraji (ditto, Xlll. 316) about b,c. 
210 J Prinsep (Essays. II. Useful T^iblea. 24) and Bhindirkar (Tnna. Sec. Inter. 
C^ng. 3^2) in b.c. 21 ; Wilford (As. Bes. IX. 101} botween the firat and third 
centurio* nfter Christ; and Wilson (Theat. Hind. L 6) as late aBA.D. li*2. The 
cause of this difl'erence in the estimate of dat» is the doubt whether the d3'aa«tie« 
rnentioned in the Fun^na as followioff the Maurrdd (d.c. iflfi-B.c. 19o)« sncceeded one 
another or ruled at the same time in different parts of tbe country. 

' Nahapiln. if not the fuiiadcrof the dynasty, waa probably of the same race as the 
Kahatraps of Oujardt, who were fonoerly crrooeously k.iown aa the Sib kingi. 
Neither their origin nor their date has been certainly fixed. Newt-in (Joor Bom. 
Br. Hoy. Aa. Sau. IX. G) thought they w^re Parthians, and Lastwo (Ind. Alt IV. 
83) thought they belonged to itie Agh im is tribe of Yueichi, the SIcythian con- 

?[Ueror8 of India in the second century bef'ire Christ. Thnt they were foreigner* 
romthe north is sh-iwn by the tJreek mitto on their coins (Jour. Bom. Br. Boy. Aa. 
Soc. IX. 7). The Kahfttnp kings probably date from the Shik era (a.d. 78). They 
lasted ttt least in Oujariit till A. D, 3:i8 (Jour. Bora. Br. Koy. As. Soc. ViL 2S ; Trana. 
Sec. Inter. Cong. 3.V2, 353). Newton (Jour. Bom, Br. Koy. As. Soc. IX. 7) ootM 
that the inscriptions relating to NnhapAn in the N&sik, K&rlt, and Junnar cavea, 
establinh fivo points : (I) He wao either a king or an officer of aomc distant monarch ; 
(2) hia rule w»s wiiiespread, iucluding much of the Deccan ; (3) he wm a foreigner^ 
probably a Piirthinn ; (4) his daughter had a Hindu name and was married to a Uindu, 
ih« son of a Hindu ; (5) hi.i ilatighter, soo-in-law, and minister were Buddhtsta. 

* Hia capital seems to have been a town some way south of Ujain, mentioned aa 
Minagrtra by IHolemy but not identified, Nilsik cave inscriptions show that Nahapdn*s 
daughter and her haabund Usbavaddt made grants botn to Brahmana and Bud- 
dhiaU. One of the UahnradAt ioacriptions atatea that he built 6igbtB of stepson 
the Bimiaya (BauAain Pilanpnr), ^ve sixteen villages to go<1a and BrAhmana, fed 
100,000 BrAbmans every year, gave wive« to the BrAhmaus nt PrabhtU probably SomiiAth, 
built rest-h'iiiaea at Broach, T^aahpur (a town in M4hva), (luvardlian or Niaik, aad 
Supdra in Thdna, and made boat-bridges across the Iba (.\mbikn), P&r&da lP4r>, 
Damana (the Daman river), Tiipi (Tapti), Karahcna (perhaps the KAveri a tributary of 
the Ambika, apparently the same as the Kalavenl across which [about A.D. 1150] tha 
AnhilvAda general .4mhud had to make abridge or eann<»way in leadiughis army 
ftgainet Mallik^rjun the Silhdra king of the Konkan: eea Forbw' Ria M^U, 145) 
and DAhanuka (the Diih&nu river). UahavadAt also made presents of robca to Buddhist 
monks (Trans. Sec. Inter. Cong. 32d, 333, 336. 3M). 

* Trana Sec. Inter. Cong. .333. tt seeme poaaible that tbe style of silk atufib and 
gold brocade that Marco Polo (1290) found being woven at BagbdAd and called muifk 
and nnc originally came from NAiiik. Tliefie ailka were known in Europe in the fcmrteesith 
century aa nax^ natqH*^^ na^hiz, nacit^ and nan«, Yule'a Marco Polo, I. 60, 6S, SM. 






wiug^ seem to have held Ndsik till (either about a.d, 124 or 319) 
Shatnk.imi Gautaniiputra restored the Andhrabhrityis^ earning 
the title of tho Destroyer of Shnka, Yavana, and Palhavs.^ 
Gautamiputra ruled over Asik^ Ashinak, Mudhak, Surashtra, 
Kukur, Aparant, Vidarbh, Anup^ Akar, and Avanti, a tract of 
country stretching from the north-west frontier of India to BerAr." 
Gantamipntra's son Shri Pulumayi, who ia suid to have been just 
and libenil to Buddhists, seems to have had kindly powers over the 
north Deccan, and a place called Navanar, near Govardhan or NAsik, 
seems to have been his local hoail-(|narters.* Towards the close 
of the second century (178), Hudraddiiiau, the third or more likely 
the fourth of the Gujarat Kshutr^ps, reduced the AndhrtU' power. 
He docs not seem to have held Nasik or conquered any part of 
the Deccan.* According to the Vishnu PurAn, the restored Andh- 
rabhrity^ ruled for ninety-five years after the close of Gautami- 
putra's reign, that is. according to the date accepted as the beginning 
of the dvnasty, either to about a.d. 220 or a.d. 414% Govardhan 
continued to be their local head-quarters.* 

Early in the fifth century (a.d. 41 (>) the ruling family in the north 
Deccan seems to have been of the Abhiror Ahir tribe, whose inde- 
pendence, according to the Purina, lasted for only sixty-seven 
years.** Their local capital is believed to have been at Anjauiri five 
miles east of Tritnbak.' At this time Govardhan, or Nasik, was an 


Early Hint 


* TrULL Sec. Inter. Cong. 311. Gautamiputra'i! (]at« depends on tb« date of the 

begiruoing ot the Anrlhrabhritya dynasty. Bbaudarkar (ditto), fixing tho beginning 
of the djaa«ty a httif bciore the Christian era and Gautamiputrn'B date at a.D. 
319, extends Kehatrap nile in NAsik over abmit 140 years. The evidence from 
tti« writing and omamcnt in the caves srM^ms conflicting. The alphabet used 
by Uabavadlt, the S'nvinUw of Nahapon, diifcrfk very eliubtly from that used bjr 
Gaatamiputra. At the same ttroe the (atlar oapitalrf in Nahap^n's cave (No. VIII.) 
are cut in so much Wtter atyle than those in the veranda of (iauiamiputra's cave 
(No. Ill-), that Gautuiuiputra's seem to belong to a iTiuch later periiMl. though the 
difference in style may iiui tiaps ^le due to the grearrr skill of NidiapAn'a nnrthera 
ar ' : ^' TffTiBSMii and burgess' Cave Temples, 26^, 2118, 2f)'.)). I'tolemy'a mention of 

S ^ of VaithAii, ap{:tarently corrc.s|>tndin;j: with Shri Pulimat, Pulomavit. or 

fi:, .-;...,- , iLe sun and Buucensor of iiaatauiiputra, favours the vien* that Kshatrap 
nUe over Na«ik did not last for more than forty years. This also agrees wiih Professor 
01drnV«erK'9 view (InH. Ant. X. 227) that ^^lultakarm Gautamiputra's defeat of Naba- 
pin -nasalwut A.n. 100. 

* TrauM. 8ec. Inter. Cong. 311. For tb« first three names Mr. BhagrlnliM reads 
A^ ' " ' . anil Mulak nr N»iin<1ak, and understaiuU Ihem to be Skythian tribes ou 
tJ -t frontier, the Amaks or Parthiuns, the Sus, >^\\<\ the Miindas. 

14 Sorath or K.1tbiAwAr, Kuknr l>r. bUhler identifies «ith <Jujan&t in the 
\ . .Xiit, VII. 263). AparfLntis the Konkau, and Vidarbh apparently Bcdar 

\3x . far. {H. H. Wilsou, 1I.1G4). Of Auupa trace ^eems to remain in Anuppor 

and lU ruiuod temple* nbout seveoty milei^ cast of Jubnlpur (see Cnnninghain*! Arch, 
8ar. Rep. Vll. 238). Akar and Avauti together form the modern MiUwa. 

* Laasen's Ind. Alt. IV. 86-89. 

♦Jouf. Bom. Br. Uoy. As. Soc XII. 203, and Burgess' Arohasological Survey, 
KAthiAwar aXLd Cotch. 131 133. Kshatrap power lasted in Gujariit to 2fi0, that is, 
calcnlatingon the Rhak era, to A.i». 328 t J our. Bom. Br. Roy. As. Soc. VllI, 28). 
In the (tirnar iiiMfiption, Kudra<li)man (178) states that though he twice conquered 
Shilbtkami, from their near rplaiiooship he <lid not deslroy bim. Ind. Ant. VII. 262. 

' Coins l>ave ( 1870) been fonnd at Kasik supiMsed to belong to the end nf the fourth 
oentnry a.d. The king's name has been rcaa Uiinaii ^rip, but nothing of him ia 
known. BhAu D*ji in Jour. Bom. Br. Roy. As. Soc. JX. cxcv. 

* Traoa. Sec. Inter. Coug. 354. ? Laasen's Ind. Alt. IV. 100. 


Bombay GaietUfr, 


Chapter VII. 

AM. 600. 

A J). 300-970, 

important seat of industry with separate guilds of weaverSj 
neers, and oilmen.* 

About the end of the fifth century (480), the country passed fpom] 
the Abbirs to the CbaiukyiU, who^ coming from GiijaMt under 
Pulakeshi I., conquered the DeccHU and established their power as 
far south as B^irai in Kal^gi.^ In the middle of the seventh.] 
century (650) the ChAlukya NA^vardhan granted the village of Bale-] 
gr^ru, apparently the present Belgaum-Taralha about twelve mil( 
north-east of Igatpuri, which is described as being in the district 
Gopardahtra.^ Lassen mentions YAdavs at Nsbik in the latter part 
the eighth century. But the reference is doubtful.* 

The next dynasty which has left traces in Nasik were Rathods. 
B^glfln^ the rich and sti'ong tract in the north of the district, through 
which passes the chief line of traffic between Gnjardt and lie 
Decciin, seems from very early times to have been held by a family-i 
of Rathods. According to their own account they were of the stock' 
of tho Kanau] Rathods/ and had been settled in BAglAn since a.d, 
SOO.** They claimed to have at first been independent, coining their 
own money, and stated that they afterwards lost their power and paid 
tribute to Gujarat or to the overlord of the north Deccan, whichever 
happened to be the stronger.' During early Muhammadan times 
(1370-1600) the B%lan Rdthods continued powerful and almost 
independent, each chief on succession taking the title of BahaijL* 
They submitted to Aurangzob in 1640 and obtained good terms, but 
seem, not long after, to have been crushed in the struggles between 
the Marathas and the Moghals. 

The connection between the different branches of the great 
R&thod tribe has not been fully made out. It is doubtful whether the 


\ Tmu. Seo. Int. (^ng. 34*2. Biuidhiam wab then fiouriahing, the chief followers 
being Apparently cruftsmen utd UbotirerA. The fHme of Trinuhtui,or NAsik, ai a 
Buddhist Aeltloment is sbowu hy the fact that noe of the oaves woa mftde by 
Indr&uiudnbtn, a northerner nr Yavon who lived in D&ttAniith a town ne&r SiniL 
Mendicant priests from all aides met during tne rains at Thrashmi. At the sama 
time Br&hmanistn wiui nut neglected. Ushavadit gave as much to Brabmans as to 
Buddhiat«» and in Buddhist inscriptiona Br4hmans are epoken of with raverenoOt 
Trans. Sec. Inter. Cong. 354. 

» ijuwen'a Ind. Alt. IV. 90; Fleet in Ind. Ant. VII. 247. It was formerly 
thought thiit tbia bmneh nf the ChAlukrin was establislted in the Decoao in the 
fonrtli century (a54) (Eltiotin .lonr. Roy.' As. Soc. [Old Sene5J, IV. 4-7). and had in 
the Hftb century forced its way north to Gujardt and waa (472) in possession of 
Brojich. (Ind. Ant. VI. 182). But tho latest omnion, Mr Fleet's, is that the Gujarit 
Cb&lukyia of the fifth century were then on their way south and did not enter tlM 
I)eci-an till they were led bv Pulakishi I. (•W9). Ind. Ant. VIII. 12. 

» Mr. Fleet in Ind. Ant. IX. 123. * Ind. Alt. IV. 139. 

* Tod (Annals of UijaatbiSn, II 2) places RAthods st Kananj as early as 470. But 
CaunlnghAm (Arch. Sur. Rep. I. IfiO) mnkes their conquest of Kanuaj u late u 
about 1070. 

*See the Maasim-I-Omara in Bird's GujsrAt, 122. RAahtrakutAs wore settled in 
other parts of the Deccan in the fourth and fifth centuries. Biihler in Ind. Ant. VI. 
60. ^ Bird's Gujar&t. 122. 

" Maasiru-l-Omam in Bird's Qujarit, 122. In 1370 when he paid tribute to Delhi 
(Brigga' Kerishta, IV. 282) ; in 1529 when he came to Bahidur .Shah (Bird's Gujarit, 
122) ; in 1573 when he paid tribute to A khar (Bird's Gnjariit, 123) ; and in 1737 
when he was oonnuered b^ Anrangseb (Orme's Historical Fragments, 170), the 
BAal4n chief is called Baharji. The origin of thih title is not explained. But t ha 
traditional relationship between the BAgl4n and the Ranauj R&thoda suggests that 
Bahar(ji) may be the same tie Baanrah, which, according to Ma^udi (Prairies D'Or» 
1. 37^1 S74, 375), was the family name of the then (916) ruling house of Kanau j. 



BUitrakutas or Rattaa of M^lkhet, about twenty-three miles Boafch- 
iMt of Ktilbarga, wereaDravidiau tribe who as conqnerors gaiueda 
place among the northern Kahatris, or were northern Rajputs of the 
Bame stock aa the Rathods of Kananj (470-1193). Two c»pper-pIftto 
grants of tbe ninth century favour the view that the RAahtrakutds 
wore northerners, and that perhaps their earliest southern settlement 
wma in Baglan. In the beginning of the ninth century^ king Qovind 
in. (7&5-810) conquered from north Gujarat to the Tuugabhadra» 
and raised his family to imperial power. Malkhet was not yet 
their head-qaarterS) and the fact that two of Govind'a grants 
are dated from Mayurkhandi, the modern M^rkinda near Yani in 
Dindorif suggests that his family were connected with the Rdthoda 
of BAgUln and that the earliest seat of Rashtrakuta power was in 
Dorth X^sik.' In any case, whether or not their earlier home was in 
north Ndsik. the H^htrakut^s of Mfllkhet continued overlords of 
the north Deccan during the ninth and the greater part of the 
tenth centuries. After the overthrow of the Rnshtrakutiis by Tailap 
Chalukya, about A.v, 970^^ the overlordship of Nd,sik and the north 
Deocan seems to have been divided between the Anhilvada kings of 
Gajar&t on the north, and, on the south, the ChAlnkyits and Kalachuris 
of Kalyiin about forty mik^s north of Kulbarga till 1182, and after 1182 
the Yidavs of Devgiri till their overthrow by the Muaalmdns in 1295.' 

Besides the Rathods of Bigl^, record remains of two dynasties of 
local rulers the Y'Adavs of ChandrAdityapur, probably ChAndor in 
the centre, and the NikumbhavanshAs of Pdtna near Ch^Iisgaon in 
the east of the present district of Ndsik. Of these the Ch^ndor family 
was much the more important. It was perhaps the original of 
the Devgiri Y^davs (1182-1295), aa both families bore the title of 
Dv&rdvati Puravar^hishvar, that is lords of Dwarka. Dridhaprahdr 
the founder of the dynasty, whose date is apparently about A.D. 850, 
ia described as making famous the old town of Chandradityapur.* 


Early HindoA. 


CMndor Tddai 


1 Dr. Bar«M (Bi^Ar luid AnrAnea'bad, 32) calla M&rkinda nr MorkbAndn ad earlier 
capitnl. but Ur. Buhler (lod. Ant. vl. 64) and Mr. Bhagv&nliU think it was probably 
ac ontpoat Both grants are dat«d a.d. 806 [8. 730). One of them refers to th« 
village Ambak, the preteot Amb about ten miles sonth of Morkhanda. Anibak is 
mentioned in the grant as within the townahip of Van and in the district^ dv«h^ of 
Njimk. Of the four villages citod in the grant aa marking the position of Amb, 
V ?•'*-"•■ '■■p the east seems to be the modem ^'IMincr, Vftrikhed on the south Varkhed, 
X' ir on the west Paramori Padmavdl on the north has not been identi^ed. 

'i\ ■ ^rant refers to the village of Ratajun, apparently the U)o<lem Kataujoo 

ia Uio KtkTjttt snb-dis'ision of Ahmedno^ar. Of the places mentioned in the grant the 
river Binba is the Sina on wliose right bank Rataojuu stands. VovulAla on th« 
south is BdhhuJgaon, and Miriyathlna on the west Mirajgaon. Vadaha on the north 
haa not been idtfotiHed. The Vaa grant ia given in J. K. A. S. (Old Series), V. 3fi2; 
the RAsin or Nagar grant in lod. Ant. VI. 71 . 

» Dr. Buhler in lud. Ant. VI. 60, and Elliot in J- R. A. S. (Old Series), IV. 3. 

* The Anbilvdda kings claim to have held as overlords a considerable part of the 
north Deccan from about 970 to the cloee of their power (1295). (Forbes* fUs Mdla, 
2ndEd., 67, 136). His reception, whenfleelngfromUlugh Khan io 1297, seems to show 
that Karan. the last uf the AnliilvUda kings, waa theu the acknowledged uvarlord of 
BtelAo. IU» M4]a, 214 and Briges' Feriahta. I. 367. 

<Thedate a.i». 850 is ualculuted from a copper ukte of a.d. 1069 (S. 991), which 
shows that the fifth in descent from DridhaprahAr nmrriofl the daughter of the 
SilbAra king Jh&nja whose date is A-P. 016, Acconliug to an accountof NiVsik written 
in the beginning of tlie fourteenth century hy a Jain named Jin Prabhasuri. Dridha- 
pnhirwas the posthunums son of Vajrakumiir the last king of DvArivati (Dw&rkaL 
which ia described as having b«Bn burnt by the sage Divima, Vajrakum&r's wife fled 

• 23—24 

[Bombay Qaiett«efJ 



Chapter VII. 

Etfty Bifldiu, 




DridhapraMr was succeeded by liia son Seanchandmj who fonnde< 
atown called Seiinpur in Sindiner, perhaps the modern Siunar. Ai 
far as present information goes, Souncbandra had seven successoi 
the last of whom lived about the middle of the eleventh centnryj 
Besides being perhaps the ancestors of the Dergiri Yidavs, tfai 
Chaudor Yadavs were connected by marriage with the SilhdrAs of th< 
Konkan and the Chdlukyas of the Dec^an Kalydn, and apparenth 
by adoption with the RAshtrakut^ of M^khet.* An inscription in' 
the Anjaniri temple dated a.d. 1141 (S. 10G3) records a grant to the 
Jain temple of Chandraprabh, the eighth Tirthankar, by a VAntJ 
miniater of Senndev probably Seuuchandra III. of the same dynastj 
of Chandor Y^avs. 

The Nikambhavanshas of PAtna, a family of less power aii< 
conseqaence than the ChAndor Yddavs, seem to hare raled from] 
abont 1000 to 1200. They were worshippers of Shir, and one of 
them Sonhadader (1206) is mentioned as endowing a college wh 
money and land for the study of the astronomer Bh^skar^hArya'i 
works. From the epithets 'devoted to his master/ 'strong^ 
devoted to his suzerain/ these chiefs seem to have beensnbordinaiaj 
to some overlord, probably at first the Kaly^n Ch41nky^, and in th< 
twelfth and thirteenth oentiiries the Yiidavs of Devgiri.' Th< 
Jain caves at Ankai near Manmdd probably date from the timi 
of this dynasty. After the fall (1216) of the Nikumbhavansh^i 
part of Nasik was probably under an officer of the Yddavs ol 
Devgiri by whom most of the old temples, reservoirs, and wellsj 
known as flemadpanti, were built." The Devgiri Yadavs oontinui 

to KAriik and gave birth to a noi\ iu Kunlivili^ the temple of the eighth Tirthaol 
The author states thnt r>n<lha.prabiir was ohodcn king ia rervara for clearing 
country of roUbvrs. Besides to Uwirka tho name Dvlriivati \b applied to DtI 
aamudra in Muittur where the BalUI branch of YAcltt\-8 bad their aoat l>etwe«u the t«iit 
and tho fourteenth centuries. (Gazetteer of Maiaur, II. 17). It ia doubtful from whi( 
of theM placea the title won tAken. 

' The copper platu from wluch thia iafomuitioa is taken wm found by Dr. Bh4i 
D&ji at Boosein in Thina (Jour, a B. Jl. A. S. IX. 221). It ia in the poeseeaiouofMr.' 
Bhagv&nUI Indraji and haa not been pubb'shod. The village grnntod vas ChinchoUj 
'in the twelve viUagea (petty division) of Siuhi.' Thefie viUagOB are prol)AbIyj 
Chincholi nn tho KfUik'Sangamner mad alnrnt four milm eoat of DevUli and Stndl 
about three utiles uorth-weet of Chiuchuli. 'I*ho uantc of Ibe grantor woa Seuxichaudn 
II. and Uic date a.d. 1069 (S. 991). The order of Bucccsaion ia Dridhapr&hAr (aboal 
K.t>. St'K)), Sooucbondra I., DvAdvapiw, Ubilbun I., ShrirAj, Vardig wbu married] 
LacbhiAbbA tho daughter of tho Siihara king Jhanja (a.d. 016) who waa apporenlJ] 
adopted by one of the RAshtrakutAs. Tesuk Vardig's aon who married NiyiyalU t^ 
danghteroftheCh/Uukya noble GoginLj, Bhillnm II. who confjuered Aharamalla Ann 
of Jaysing ChAlukya |i04U>10G9 according tu (.'hillukyA liate), and ^eiinvhaiidn IL 
the grantor who ia ftaid to liave had to con(]uer other kingK before he conjd hold his 
kiDgrlnm. These detaiU have been contributed by Mr. Bhagvlnl^U Indruju In some 
points they may be liable to correction, as his study of the plate is not yet completed. 

Tho name Ih'ildyBjipa, tho third of the lino, cfosoly corresponds with Dv&dapor 
DvArapthe king of IJA or Snuth GujarAt, who waa defeated by Molrij of AnhilTAda 
about A.i>. »70. (Forbee* BdsMAla,2ud£d.. 46). This cannot bo the DvfUlvAppa of the 
oopper plntf*, ah his dAte mnal have been some sercnty years earlier. But the very long 
period, over 150 vears, allotted to the but Four of tho Chikndor rnlere, looks as if tho 
name of some cnief liAd tieen left out. The missing Dvidyapi)a II. was perhaps the 
father of Tesuk of whom the plate is silent, though it gives details both ol TesOK uid 
of ^-is mntber. » Jour. R. A. 8. (New Series), I. 414, and Ind. Ant. VIII. 39. 

* Hemddpant their builder waa probably the same as the celebrated Humi^dri.thc 
wnter of vobimmous trtatises on Dnsrmajib&itni. or jurisprudence, anfl the niiiiiittcr o| 
MahAtU'v(12b*0-127r) the fifth of tho Ytidara of Devgiri. Burccsaiu Ind. Ajit. VI. 366. 
The lucai trsiUtional uientificution of the Yiidavs with Caali KAjdsor8hi>jilit>rd kin| 
woold seem to show that, as was th(? (Om io KjitUiilwur, the Yidavs and Ahira «< 



OT^^rlords of sonth and enst Nisik till they wore oonqaered by the 
Mus&lmftus at the close of the thirteenth ceutury. 

For about twenty years ftftor AJs-nd-din Kbilji's conquest (1295), 
most of the present district of N^ik formed part of the domi- 
nions of the tributary Yftdavs of Dovgiri. It then passed to the 
Delhi goveraora (13I2-1S47) of Devgiri or Daulatabad, from them 
to the Bfthmani kings (I31-7-l-t87) of Kalburga, and then to the 
NiatoshAhi kingw (US7-10:i7) of Ahinednigar.^ In 1037 on the 
overthrow of the Kizamshahi dynasty, Nasik was embodied in tho 
Moghal province of ^nrangabad. 

Ill 1297, after his defeat by Ulugh Khan tho general of 
Aia-adniin Khiiji, Rdy Karan the last of the Anhilvilda kings fled 
to fi^gUn where he maintained himself in independence, till in 1300 
be was forced to take shelter with Ramdev of Devgiri.* 

In 130G, when iUmdev of Devgiri agreed to hold his territory 
as a tributary of Delhi, his power was extended to BtlglAn,* and 
ftftorwards (1317-1347) Baj^'lau becsime, at least in name, subject to 
tho MuBalmdn ralera of Daulatabad. In the disturbances that 
marked tho revolt of the Deccau from Delhi and the rise of 
the Halimani dynasty (134.7), much of the N^ik country seems 
to have become independent. The Bahmanis are said to have had 
no firm hold of the country along the Chandor or S^tmalii hills, 
and apparently no bold at all over Baglan. In 1366, the B&gl4n 
chief is mentioned as taking part in an unsnccessful Manttha revolt 
against Mahnmmad Shah Bahmaui,* A few yours later, in 1870, 
wh<^u Malik Raja the founder of the Firuki dynasty established 
hiuLSulf in Khjiudeeh, he marched against Raja BEibarji the B^lan 
chief, and forced him to pay a yearly tribute to Delhi.^ At the 
close of the centary on the establishment of the Musalmdn dynasty 
of Ahraedabad, BAgUn seems to have become tributary to Gujardt. 
In 1429, Ahmad Shiih Bahmaui, then at war with (Tiijarat, laid tha 
country waste and uusuucessfuUy attempted to take the fort of 

Towards the end of the fift-eenth century a MarAtha chief seized 
the fort of Galna in Malegnon and plundered the country round. 
About 1487, two brothers, Malik Wagi and Malik Ashraf, the 
governors of Daulatabad, retook Galna and brought tho country 
into such excellent order that tho roads to tho frontier of iSultanpur, 
Nandorbifj Bagl^Uj and Gujarat, were safe enough for merchants and 


12115. 17601 

clofldy oonneoted. Some of the reroaina known as Hornddpuiti are probably oldor 
thiui tha Dcvgtri T&dan. 

* Dctuifi wul be found in the .^hniediugar History. During those ohangeA of over- 
torda the local chiefs of tho wild wesUrm DAng tracts seem tn have been left practically 
tDdepciideut. Mr. C. E. F. Tytler's Report oa tho Kdvnai anb-dlWRiou, 1853. 

« Elliiit, IlL 157, I»3. Briggs' Fenshta. I, 367. Mr. Forbes (KHa Mila, 217) says : 
'History rcoordsoo more of tne unfortunate Karen : ho died probably a namelMa 
fogitiTB.' Itmemft more probable that he remained a refugee at Rj&mdev'B court. 

' Rri^* PeHshta, I. 360. Rftmdev got the title of KAy Rftyan and the diatrict of 
Karaiin in ftoutli Oiijanlt aa a i>tin((>nAl estate. * Scott's Deccan, I. 32-33. 

^Thr Hnit tribute includtMi Hva large and ten small olephanta, beaidee pearli). 
jcwcIh, and mnncy. Brigg^* Fprishta, IV. 282. 

* Watdon'B Uistory of Gujarat, 30. 

[Bombay Guetteer, 



Ghapter VXI. 


travellers to pass without a g^ftrd, and the people were happy 
and fionriahing. In the disturbances that followed the murder of 
Malik Wagi, the Nilsik chie£s again became independent but were 
reduced to order in 1507 by Ahmad Nizam Sh^.^ On the death 
of Ahmad Nizam Shah in 1508, the Gdlna chief once more threw off 
hiaallegiaace and was not made tributary till 1530, when, with other 
Maratha chiefs, ho was defeated and forced to pay tribute. They 
again freed themselves from tribute, and, in 1559, had once more to 
be brought to order.^ Meanwhile the B^gl^n chief seems to have 
continued to pay allegiance to the Gujarat kings whom he served 
with 3000 horse.^ 

In 1573, when Gujardt was conqnercd by Akbar, Bahnrji of Bdglfia 
came with 3000 hoi*se and paid his respects to the emperor ttt 
Surat. He afterwards did good service by handing over the emperor'a 
rebel brother-in-law Mirza Sharaf-ud-din Hiisain, whom ho seized on 
his way through Bdglan.' 

BiglAn is described in the Ain-i-Akbari (1590) as a mountainona 
well peopled country between Surat and NaudnrbAr. The chief waa 
of the Rilthod tribe and commanded 8000 cavalry and 5000 infantry. 
Apricots, apples, grapes, pine apples, pomegranates, and citrons 

fpew in periection. It had seven forts, two of which, Mulher and 
Aler, were places of unusual strength.^ 

When he conquered Khindesh in 1599, Akbar attempted to take 
Bdglan. Pratdp&hah the chief was besieged for seven years,^ but 
fis there was abundance of pasture, grain, and water, and as the ^ 
passes were most strongly fortified and so narrow that not more | 
than two men could march abreast, Akbar was in the end obliged 
to compound with the chief, giving him Nizimpur, Daita, and 
Badur with several other villages. In return Prat^pshdli agreed to 
take care cif merchants passing through his territory, to send 
presents to the emperor, and to leave one of his sons as a pledge at 
Burh^npur. The chief was said to have always in readiness 4O00 
mares of an excellent breed and one hundred elephantsJ 

During the latter part of the sixteenth and the early years of the 
seventeenth ceutury, the rest of the district enjoyed two periods of 
good ^overnmont. Between 1580 and 1589, under Salabat Khto 
the minister of Murtaza Niziim Shdh, the land was better governed 
than it had been since the reign of Mahmud Shdh Bahmani (1378* 
1397).^ After the capture of Ahmednagar by the Moghals (1600), 
most of the Ndsik country ^Hissed under JMju Mian, who for some 
years divided the Ahmednagar territories with his rival Malik 

* Brigga* F«ri«fata, III. 204 ; cotnpwe Scott's Fcrisbta, T. 352-355. 
« Brigga' ForiahtA, III. 239. ■ Binl"« Gujarilt, 122. 

* Bif3*i GujaiAt, 12.1. ■ Gladwin's Ain-i-Akhwi, IL 73. 

* O^IHy ( I (f70, A t\»B V. I «how8 BAgUn as the territory- of Duke FratipebAh. 
' Finch in Kerr'a Voynges, VIII 278, aad Harria' Vovftcofl. I. 85. H»widn» {ie08> 

apenkii of the chief of Lruty (Kftroli, four miles snuth eaat (»i SiUer)tt8lord of a province 
between Dttmaii. OujftrAt anil the Dectnn (Kerr's Vovagw. VIII. 228). In !609 the 
chief of SAlor and Mulher furnished 3000 men towartle tlio force that wan poatod mH 
ItAran»giu-in Dbarampiir t4> guard Sumt from attack by Mftlik Amhiir nf Ahjn«4 
iMgar. WaUon'n GujarAt, 68. a Brigga' FemhU. 111. 202. 


Ambar. Raju Miin was defeated in 1603, and from that tinio till 
Ualik Axnbar's death in 162G, Nasik was again one of the happiest 
and best tilled parts o! the Deccau.^ 

Soon after the hejrinnin^' of Shiih Jnhan'a rei^ (1629-30), Khdn 
Jahdn Lodi, one of the chief Delhi nobles, rebelled and made himself 
mafft^r of almost the whole of the Decoan. A detachment of 8000 
horse under Khdja Abul Hasan was sent to recover Nfisik, Trimbak, 
and Sangamner. After the rains the Khdja marched by way of 
BAf^ldn where the chief met him with 400 horse. The revenue 
officers and husbandmen had left their villages and fled to the 
forests and hills. The land was waste, com was dear, and the soldiers 
of the royal army were in want of food. Bodies of troops were sent 
into the hills and returned with abundance of com and other 
necessaries. Sher Khan came from Gujantt with a reinforcement of 
about 20,000 men^ took Chandor, ravaged the country^ and returned 
with great spoil. In the nest year there was a failure of rain and 
the country was wasted by famine. Over the whole of western 
India from Ahmodabad to Daulatabad, lands famed for their 
richness were utterly barren ; life was offered for a loaf^ but none 
would buy; rank for a cake, but none cared for it; the ever 
bounteous hand was stretched to beg ; and the rich wandered in 
search of food. Dog's flesh was sold^ and the pounded bones of the 
dead were mixed with flour. The flesh of a son was preferred to 
Ills love. The djdng blocked the roads and those who survived fled. 
Food kitchens were opened, where every day soup and bread were 
distributed, and each Monday £500 (Us. oOOO) were given to the 
deserving poor. The emperor and the nobles made great remissions 
of revenue.* 

On the final overthrow of the NizamshAhi dynasty in 1037^ the 
Moghals became supreme in the north Deccan, and the provinces of 
Khdndesh and Daulatabad were united nnder prince Aurangzeb who 
fixed bis capital at Aurangabad about ten miles south-east of 
Daulatabad. In the same year Aurangzeb reduced the hilly countiy 
of Bagl^n, and, as the chief submitted, he was made commander of 
3000 horse, and received a grant of Sultdnpur. He was likewise 
given Ramnagar in Dharampur on paying a tribute of £10,000 
(Bs. 1,00,000).* 

Bdglan at this time is described as famous for its temperate 
climate, its numerous streams, and the abundance of its trees and 
fruits. It was 200 miles long and 160 broad with thirty-four petty 
divisions and about 1000 villages. It was bounded on the north by 
Sultdnpur and Naudurb^r, on the east by Chiindor, on the south by 
Trimbak and Nilsik, and on the west by Surat and the territory of 
the Portoguese.* 

Soon after the conquest a rebellious member of the Pov£r or 
Dalvi* family of Peiut, then part of Bagldn, was sent to Delhi by 

Chapter TZJ. 

History. ■ 

MuflftJmAiui, ™ 

■ Sooti'a Deccan, I. 401. ■ BA<Uhih K&ma in Elliot's History, V^. 24-25. 

* Onoc'a HiBtorical Fragments, 170, Mulher was called Aur&ngad, and Sdler 
iltiAgad. Scutt'B Deccan, II. 27. * RddshAfa Nanu in Elliot's History, VII. 65. 

* A BigUn name for a Kamdvisdir. Mr. H. E. Goldsiaid's Report oa the Feint 
SUtoflS^). Bom. Gov. Sel XXVI. (New Series), 108. 

I Bombay GHmI 



Cliapter VII. 


Jiardtha Inrotuis. 

order of Auranj^zob and sentenced to death. While awAiui 
execatiou the priaoDor cared the emperor's daughter of asthma, ai 
on embracing Islam received a grant of Peint.* 

Aocordinpr to tlio traveller Tavernior (1640-1666), B^glAn, aader< 
which he iudtideslhe north Konkan except the Fortagueso t*^rritory 
on the coast, waa enriched by the passage of the great stream o£ 
traffic between Surat and Oolkonda. Hia description of west 
Khdndesh belongs to the present Niisik district The coantry 
was full of banian, mango, moha, cassia, khajuri or wild date, ftod 
other trees. There were vaat numbers of antelopes, hares and 
partridges, and towards the mountains were wild cows. Sugarcane 
was grown in many places, and there were mills and famaoes tctf 
making sugar. The ways were safely guarded.' 

In the years of quiet that followed Anrangzeb's conquest, Shih 
Jah^n introduced Todar Mai's revenue system, and the rates 
were then hxed remained the nominal standard till after 
establishment of British power. 

In the middle of the seventeenth century, profiting by the 
confusion which followed the struggle between the eons of Sh^ 
Jahfin, Shiviiji extended his power along the Sahy^dri hills. The 
settlement of the Moghal disputes forced him, for a time, to remain 
quiet. But, on his return from Delhi, in 1666, ho began hostilities 
on a larger scale. In 1670, after hi8 second sack of Surat, he retired 
to the Konkan by the S^ler pass and Chdndor. Near Chtindor he was 
closely pursued by a detachment of 5000 cavalry under Ditud Kh^n 

1 Bom. Gov, 8e1. XXVI. (\ew 8eri«8), 113. The grant wm otAUA. shaAOmaJt 
literally adieh or means of Bubaistenoe. See below, Feint Sub-diTiuoa. 

» Tavcniier iu Harriii, IT. 369, 3W, and 385. 1'avernier's account •ecma, as in 
other pH8aK«>> tobetaken from Thevcnut (1666). The following details from Tbe- 
venot's narrative show the 8tiU« ofthe nurth Deocan before Shiviiji hml bcgno to 
ravD^ the country. THevenot in travelling from .Sural to UolkotitU ('2i)th Febiniary- 
11th March 1666) hired tvo carriages (chariotA) oue for hiiu^eU, iha other fur his ut 
and hia servant. The monthly hire for each carriaffo was abont seventeen crowns 
(Rs. 34. A crown IS apparently the same m a dollar which (Kerr's Voyages, VUI. 4*5) 
WAS worth Rs. 2). He also engaged two peons paying each two crowns (Rs. 4) a 
month, and two sols six dinars (abiiut 1^ annait) a day fur food, (Iu Mughal districts 
Re. 1 -.'10 sols : Thev. Voy. V. 292). His men were Rajpnta whom be preferrwl to 
MnBAliiiAus as thuy were leas proud. Each carried a sword, a dagger, a bow, and a 
moskct OT spear, and they acted as sentinels at night, coUeofced provisions, and did 
anything except cooking. 

Thevcnot was one of a caravan of forty-six of whom eight were French, one a 
M. Bszon a rich meroluuit who had ten wagons and fourteen peons. Bofors 
leaving Surat they laid in a store of provisions, incmdiug biscuits, as the Hindus on thfi 
way disliked selling chiekens and eggs and Uie bread was no better than half ' * 
cahcs. The iournov from Surat to Anransabad, a distance of 225 miles, waa 
in fotirteeii davH , that is, a daily average aiatan«e of sixteen miles. The stagoa 
lUnloli ir» miles, VAltxl 12 miles, ViAra lOJ, Charka 7i, Navftpur 18, Piinpnlner 
TaliHrabad 12, Satdna ISA, Umr^ina 16^. Ankai-Tankai 18, Dovcham IS, Lisura 18. 
KhiniVunr 18. Aurangabad 24. The scenery was very varied. In parts it was wooded 
and hilly but most of the land waa under cultivation; the plains were covered with 
rice, a scented rice that grew near NavApur lioiug the l>eet in India. There was a 
great deal of cotton and sugarcane In many places, each ph&ntation having its fnmaoo 
and milL They passed through four cities and thirty. four or thirty-live country towns 
and large villages. There wcro relays of Jogis or road gaardsmen who ashed money 
from travellers. There were numerous temples, reservoirs, and dirty rest-hooses. All 
along the route they kejit meeting carriages full of Hindu pilgrims, and caravana of 
oxen and camels, one of which from Agra had more tlian a tliuiisaud oxen ladeu with 
cotton cloth, liicvonot's V^oyages, V. 220. 




A Mogbal officer. DduJ Khan's approach at first caused no alarui ; 
bat perceiving that a larger body of troops hod gr»tbt'tweon him and 
the S'lisik road, Shiruji broke his army into four or five divisions, 
and himself moved slowly to favour the escape of the detiu-'hment 
whioh h:: ■ of hia booty. When Ddud Khdn druw near^ 

Shivjiji V J i'out, attacked himj and drove him back. Then 

\BArmg a party tt> defend his rear he moved agninst the larger body, 
&nd finding- them drawn up on the banks of a lake charged and routed 
theca. No further attempt ¥ras made to prevent his retreat to the 

A fi'w months later PratAprdv Gujar exacted the first quarter shore, 

K', from the villHfjes of north Nasik. And soon after this 
Trimul took the forts of Aundha, Patta, and SAler. Anndlia 
id Fattii weiT ret-nken by the Moghals in theBame year, and in 1672 
uhjibad Kiuln besieged Saler. A force Bent by Shiviiji to raise the 
Ige was attacked by the Moghals, bnt after aome severe fighting the 
ogfaals were defeated, the siege of S^ler was raised, and Aondha 
and Patta were recovered by the MnrAthas* 

Five yeara later (1079) Shiviji crossed the Bliima and plundered 
G^nsk On his return he was attacked near Sangnmuer. lie suc- 
ceeded in driving back his first as.'^ailauts, bnt before ho had gone 
hkr he found his way blocked by another body of troops, and only by 
his guide's superior knowledge of the country was he able to avoid 
the enemy and reach Patta in safety. 

ShivAji's deatli (IfiSO) was followed by a revival of Moghal power. 
In 1681- f*rince Muhammad Azam gained the fort of Sdlerby promises 
and preaente, but was repulsed by the commandant of Ramsej near 
NAaik.' Nn sooner were the Moghnls gone, than (1685) HambirarAv, 
the Mardtha commandcr-iu*chief, moved from the Konkan, 
plundered Khindesh, and retired ravaging the country along the 
bttae of the S^tmAl^ towards Niisik. For twenty years the struggle 
went on and furts were taken and retaken, and from time to time 

e Marathiis sprejid over the country burning and robbing. 

According to the Musalman historians the chief causes of the 
inoreiaso of disorder were, that instead of the old powerful governors 
of provinces new and greedy men arose and oppressed the people. 
The chiefs and large landholders refused to pay tribute and the 
goveraors could not force them. The husbandmen were oppressed, 
and giving up tillage became soldiers. The imperial arms were busy 
with .sieges and the Marfithas roamed where they pleased. In 
1704 Anrangaeb attcked the Galna fort and took it in 1 705. During 
the siege the Marathas stripped all supplies to the imperial camp and 
numbers perished of famine. Such was their insolence that once a 
week they offered prayers for the long life of Aurangzeb, as his 

ode of making war waa so favourable to their tactics.' 

I Gnukt Ottr« ManithiU. lU. 

"' ^ teocau, II. 27. Auodha and PatU are close together in the extreme noKb 

i 9uh-Uivision of AhmalDagar. 
... 1 'ocean, II. 59 ; Elpliiiutoue.SVl ; KhAfi KhAn in Elliot, VII. 812. 
I* Hoott* DeccAi], II. 109. One of the Mftritha chiefa in the Berviccuf the governor ol 
knk. or OuUbanabod. i» «uU to have kept a l>and of robb«n aad openljr tradfid in 

Chapter VII, 

Mardiha J hi 

J070- aw. 

*■ - -^ 


[Bombay GuettMr, 






After Aurangzeb's death (1707) disorder increased. In 1713, 
Husain Kh&n the leading noble at Delhi sent an army to N^ik 
a^nst the Mar^tha Khander^v Dibhade. The expedition proved 
a complete failure. A second expedition ended in a battle near 
Ahmednagar, sueceaa again resting with the MarAthAs. At last, after 
tedious negotiations, through the able management of the Peshwa 
BdMii VishvauAth, the Mar^this gained the grant of the chauih or on©- 
fourtn, and the sardeshmukhi or one-tenth of the Deccan revenues. 
Shortly after (1723), the fall of the emperor's power in the Deccan 
was completed by the establishment of Chin Kalich Khin, the Niztoi^ 
ul-Mulk, as an independent ruler. 

Chin Kalich KhAu introduced fresh vigour into the MaaalasAn 
government of the Deccan. The roads, which for long had been bo 
infested with robbers that traffic was stopped, were made Safe, and 
the tyranny of the Mardtha tax-gatherers was reduced.' The 
Mar^thds did not quietly submit to these changes. But the first 
campaign seems to have ended without any marked snccess to either 
party, as the Mariith^ continued to levy the usual tribute while the 
Niss&m continued to hold N£sik, and had a commandant at Mulber 
and a governor of BitgUu.* In 1747 (h. 1160) the whole country 
from Ahmedabad to Hushangabad suffered so severely from famine 
that grain rose to 44 pounds the rupee.' In the following year 
(1748) the NizdmChin Kalich KMn died. His death was followed 
by an outbreak of hostilities. Trimbak near N^ik was surprised 
by the MariithAs, and, in 1752, Salabat Jang, the new Nizam, 
marched from Ahmednagar by way of Junnar to retake it. Being 
hard pressed by the Mar£lth^ and at the same time threatened with 
an attack from hia eldest brother GhAzi-nd-dio, he agreed to an 
armistice. No further hostilities took place till, in 1760, the Mar^th^ 
attacked SaUbat Jang at Udgir and forced him to surrender Sinnar 
and other forts, and make over to the Mar£lthds, along with other 
districts, the southern half of NAsik, 

Next year (1761), the Nizdm, taking advantage of the ruin that fell 
on the Mdrdthda at PAniput^ marched on Poona and compelled the 
Peshwa to restore some of the lately ceded districts. As he retired 
he was overtaken by the Mar^thi^s, part of his army was cut to 
pieces, and he was forced to confirm his former cessions. 

After a short term of peace, dissensions broke out between the 
Peshwa MAdhavrAv and his uncle Ragundthrdv (1762). Leaving 
NAaik to which he had retired, and gathering a large force, Ragha- 
nithrav marched to Poona, meeting and defeating his nephew^s army 
on the way. MatihavrAv with remarkable foresight resolved to place 
himself in hia uncle's power as the only means of preventing a 
complete division in the state, and remained under his nncle till 
his judgment and ability gradually obtained him the ascendancy.* 

» Mantakhabu-l-LubAb in Elliofa History, VII. 530, 

'The Mar&tbi and MusalmAn accounta do not agree. According to the MAr&thia 
BijirAT dictated the tcmu (Grant Duff's HiAtory.'222) ; according to the HuaalmADa 
the terms were favourable to the ^'ixAm, aa the MarAtb^ bod hitherto exacted 
than the proper tribute. 

■ Eoatwiora KoatarnAmo, 26-27. « Orant Duff'a MarAthAa. 326. 




In 176-^, wlien a large army was colleiited in Poona to act 
•gftinst Hnidar Ali, MAdhavrdv insisted on bis right to cotumand. 
Bs^banit.lirav yielded his consent, hut quitted Poona in an^er and 
rolired to Anandveli near Naaik,* whore ho stayed till after the 
sie^ of Dhdrw^r, when the Pesbwa, soeiug that the war would 
end aurcessfully, aeked RagLuuiithniv to join him and take the 
eoromaDd. To this RaghunfithrAv agreed. But after his return from 
hlB Deit expedition to the north, at the instigation of his wife, he 
determined to assert his claim to half of the Maritha sovereignty. 
Towards the end of the fair season of 1768, he assembled a force 
of upwards of lo,0(»0 wen, and, in hopes of being joined by 
JAooji Bhonwla of Nagpur, encamped first on the bank of the 
QodArari and ofterwardis in the neighbourhood of Dhodap, a fort 
in Uu> CbAudor range.* His principal supporters were Damilji 
G^Ukwir, who sent him some troops under his oldest son GovindrAr, 
aad Holkar's minister GangAdhar Yashvant, who, besides being a 
aealoos partisan of Rrii^huoittbrav, entertained a personal pique 
agiunst the Peehwa. M:ldhavr^v, to anticipate JAnoji Bhonsla'a 
scheme, marched to Dhodap where he attacked and defeated Ragbn- 
nithrAr's troops, forced bira to seek shelter in the fort, obliged him 
to sarrender, and carrying him prisoner to Poona, confined bim in 
the Pesbwa's palace. 

By the treaty of Salbai (7tb May 1782), which finished the first 
M&r^tha war (1775-1782), RflgbnnAtbrAv retired with his family to 
Kopargaon on the Godfivariin Ahmednagar, where be died in about a 
yenr. Shortly after bis death, in April 1784, his widow Anandibdi 
gave birth to a son Cbimndji Appa. The family remained at 
Kopargaon till 1793, when they were moved to Anandveli near 
N^ik aa a place more agreeable to the widow AnandibAi, who was 
then in failing bealtb and died in April of the next year. The sons 
BAjirdv and Cbimnilji Appa, with the adoptetl son AmritrAv, 
remained at Anandveli, until, on the prospect of hostilities with 
the NiaAm in 1795, they were taken to the bill fort of Shivneri in 

In 1795 (13tb March), after bis defeat at Kharda, the Niz(5m 
ceded to the Peshwa bis Kb^ndesh possessions including BagUn 
and GAlna.* Some of thcso territories, which comprised the present 
sub-divisions of Kalvan, Bdgl^n, M^Iegaon, NAndgaon, and part of 
Cbindor, were granted to Holkar, and the rest kept by the Peshwa. 

With the death of the Peshwa Madbavr^v II. in 1796, began a 
e of unparalleled confusion and trouble, which lasted till the 

XBt of the country by the British. In 1802, Yashvantr^v 
on bis way to Poona, crossing Malegaon and Cbdndor with a 
large army, routed Narsing Vincburkar, plundered his villages, and 
destroyed the standing crops. The Pendhdris, under their leaders 
Make and fliru, folloAved auJ completed the destruction. The result 
was a total failure of food, with millet at 1 J pounds the rupee. The 

Chaptar VI] 

1760- 1818. 

» Or»nt DuCTt MnrAthiVs. S30. 331. 

' Gnat Duff » MuriithikB , 340. nhoiUp lies abonl twenty miles north-west nf rhindor. 
» Grmnt DufTi MartthAi. 5'JO. i Grant DnF* MarAlhAi, 51ft. 

■ 23-26 


[Bombay OasettMTi 



Chapter 7X1. 

1760- 1818. 

Bhil TfOllbUs, 

famine lasted for a year and waa at its height between April and 
August 1804. Large numbers moved to Gnjardt. Of those who 
remained, from 7000 to 9000 were believed to have died, and 
many of the survivors had to live on wild fruit and vegetables. 
Cow'Sj buffalo's, and even human flesh are said to have been eat^n. 
The Peshwa's government imported grain from the coast and freely 
remitted revenue. Private charity was also active. After two or 
three years grain prices fell to their former level and most of the 
people returned. But some of the villages which then fell waste 
have never since been brought under tillage. 

In 1802, on Holkar's approaching Poena, Bdjiriv, as bis only 
resource, signed (31st Decemberl802) thetreaty of Bassein. In 1803, 
Sir A. Wellesley advanced on Poona to save the city from destruction 
by Amritr^v the adopted brother of B^jiriv. Amritrdv retired 
to Sangamner, ravaging the country, and then turned to NAsik, 
defeated a body of troops commanded by RAja BahAdur of MAlcgaoa 
in the interest of BdjirAv, sacked Naaik, and remained in the 
neighbourhood till the end of the war, wheu he made terms with the 
English. Holkar's Deccan districts were taken by the English, and' 
ChAndor, GAIna, and other forts captured. In 1805, on his coming 
to terms, all Holkar's possessions except Chdndor, Ambar, and 
Shevgaon, were restored to him, and these also were given back 
within two years. 

In this time of confusion the Bhils, who till 1802 had lived 
with the other inhn])itants, and, as village watchmen, had been the 
chief instrument of pulice, gathered in large bands, retired to the 
hills, and, when the famine was over, pillaged the rich plain villages. 
Against such an enemy no tactics were thought too cruel or too base. 
B&laii Sakhdrdm, SarsubhedAr of EhAndesh and Baglan, waa 
appointed by the Peshwa to put down the distarbauce. At the 
instigation of one Manohargir Gosdvi, Balaji asked a body of Bhils 
to meet him at Kopargaon in Ahmcdnagar, treacherously seised 
them and threw them down wells, and for a time cleared the country 
south of the Chdndor range. In 180(3, there was a Bhil massacre 
at Ghovri Chaudgaon in Ahmednagar, and several others in differen 
parts of KbAndesh. When disturbances again broke out, thei 
suppression was entrusted to Trimbakji Denglia. He made over froai 
5000 to 6000 horse and a large body of infantry to NAroba TAkit, 
headman of Karambha, and ordered him to clear the Godiivari 
districts. Naroha but*:hered the Bhila wherever he found them, 
and in fifteen months abont fifteen thousand are said to have been 
massacred. This savage treatment failed to restore order. Unable 
to protect themselves, the chiefs and large hindholders called in the 
aid of Arab mercenaries, who, no less frugal than warlike, soon rose to 
power. Saving their pay and giving it out at interest, the Arabs became 
the chief moneylenders of the district and collected lar^ sums 
both from their employera and from the gencml body of the people. 
Besides from Bhil plunderers and Arab usurers, the district suffered 
from the exactions of its fiscal officers, who taking the revenue in farm 
for a year or for a short term of years, left no means untried in theii*^ 
efforts to wring money from the people. The revenue farmer, besid 








ooUeclmg the revenue^ administered civil and criminal jostice. So 
long as ne paid the som required, and bribed the favourite at 
ooort, no local complaints could gain a bearing. Justice was openly 
boogbt and sold, and the people often suSered more from the 
msLmlatd^ than from the Bhils. 

In 1816, Trimbakji Denglia, who for the murder of 6ang4dbar 
Shastri had been imprisoned at Thana in the Konkan, escaped, and 
V ' .r among the Ahmednagar, NAsik, and KhAndesh hilU, 
r • wild tribes and made preparations for war in concert with 

hib master Bajirdv. Soon after this the Pendharis began to give 
trouble, and, in October 1817, Genei-al Smith, who was in command 
at Simr, marched to gnard the passes of the Chandor range. 

Meanwhile the last great Maratha league against the British 
oompk'ted. On the 5th November 1817, the Pe&hwa declared 

against the British, the Nagpur chief followed his example, and, in 
epite of the oppjsition of lulsibAi the mother of the young prince, 
Holkar^s miaistors and generals resolved to join the league. 
Tnlsib4i, the queen mother, was seized and beheaded on the banks of 
the Shipra, and the insurgent generals began their southward march 
with an army 26,000 strong. On the 2l9t December 1817, they wore 
met at Mdhidpur by Sir John Malcolm and Sir Thomas Uislop, 
who were then in pursuit of the Pendhi-ri leader Chhuttu or Chitu, and 
after a hard struggle were defe*ited. Under the treaty of Mandeaar, 
which was concluded soon aft^rthis defeat, Holkar ceded to the British 
all his Ehandesh territories including the northern half of N^ik. 

After the defeat and death (19th February 1818) of Bilpu 
Gokhla the Peshwa's general, at Ashta about fifteen miles north of 
Pandharpur, General Smith marched to Sirur in pursuit of the 
Peshwa. BAjirAvinhisflight remained for atime at Kopargaon, where 
he was joined by TUmdin a partisan of Holkar's, and was deserted by 
his lukewarm friends the Patvardhans. From Kopargaon he 
continned to retreat north to Chandor, but hearing that a British 
force under Sir Thomas Hislop was approaching, he turned back to 
Kopargaon and iled east. He surrendered in May at Dholkot near 

On the 7th March 1818, in consequence of the severe example 
made by Sir Thomas Hislop at ThAlner in Khdndesh,* Holkar's 
commandant at Chandor gave up the fort without a struggle. At 
QAlna also the commandant and garrison left the fort which was 
afterwards occupied by the people of the town,* and by the end of 
31arch 1818, Holkar's Ndeik possessions had all passed to the 
British. As some of the forts were still in the hands of the 
Peshwa's garrisons. Lieutenant- Colon el McDowell marched from 
near Aurangabad to enforce their surrender. Ankai-Tankai about 
ten miles north of Yeola, where he arrived on the 3rd April 
1818, surrendered without opposition. From Ankai-Tankai the 
force moved to Rdjder on a chain of small hills about ten miles 

Chapter V1I< 

1760 1818. 


> Grut DufiTa &farAthAA, 662. 

' rsodhin ud M&t-4tb» Wuw, 258. 

3 Bombay Gazetteer (Khiudeafa), XII. 255. 


[Bombay QazetUtrJ 






1818- t»&l. 




north of Chandor. On tbe 9tli April, as the fi^rrison refused 
surrender, Lieut.-Colonel McDowell took a jiosition abnut two mile 
from the fort while Lieutenant Davies of the Engineers began to 
reconnoitre. In the course of the day the enemy showed themselves j 
in great numbers on the tops of the hills and on the chief ontpo8t,fl 
and some of them coming down the hills drove back the besiegers' n 
grasscutters. Next morning a party of 180 Europeans and S()0 
Natives, under Major Andrews, climbed the heights, gained the 
first and second hills, and took shelter from the fire of R^jder on 
the o£[-»ide of the second hill. Meanwhile a few guns and howiiBers 
were opened on the outpost without much effect. The troops under 
Major Andrews now moved from their cover, and climbing littl 
short of a mile of very difficult and steep hill side under a furious 
discharge of cannon and rockets from tbe upper forts and 
volleys of matchlocks from the lower work, carried the lower work, 
the enemy falling back on RAjder. One officer and a few men 
were wounded. During the whole day the enemy, still secare in 
their main hold, kept up a constant discharge from a couple of gtiua 
and from hundreds of matchlocks. In the ^e of this fire, Lieut<$ 
nant Davies with the help of the sappers and miners and pioneers 
Bet to work to prepare a battery. Towards evening the enemy, 
seeing the work nearly finished, hoisted a flag of truce. Shortly 
after two officers came down and Major Andrews agreed to let the 
garrison retire with their private property and arms. Scarcely had 
the officers returned to the fort, when there was a sudden explosion 
and an outburst of fire which quickly spread over the whole of the fort 
buildings. According to one story the explosion was the result of 
a dispute between the commandant and the head officer^ but it 
probably was an accident. Many of the garrison had already left by 
a Bhil ti-ack, but the greater number bringing their families with 
them came down by the regular gateway. When the garrison hod 
leftj a few companies of sepoys took possession of the gateway. 
About £50U0 (Ra. 50,000) were found among the ruins. On hearing 
of the capture of Rajder, Indrdi and several other forts in the 
neighbourhood surrendered without resistance. 

The detachment then marched from Chandor to Nasikj a distance of 
about thirty-five miles, through acountry described as equal in beauty 
and fertility to any like space in India, a rich well watered plain 
interspersed with gentle rising grounds, populous villages, and large 
mango groves. Kdsik, which is described as a pleasing spot, a 
considerable town with two palaces and some handsome buildings 
and a rich neighbourhood of gardens and vineyards, surrendered 
quietly on the 19th April, the armed part of the population having 
retired a few days before to Trimbak, From Nasik the detachment 
marched about twenty-five miles south-west to Trimbiik, reaching it 
on the 23rd April. After examining its ' tremendous and wonderful 
scarp,' Lieutenant Davies resolved to open operations on the 
north-east where the ground was favourable for batteries. But the 
only access to this point was up narrow and winding stairs, cut in the 
rock and with barely room for one man at a time to pass. The 
enemy opened a few guns and forced the engineers to fall back, 
with the loss of three sepoys killed and others wounded. The village 



of Tritnbak which 13 commanded by the hiJl was taken in the 
evening^aaddoring the night two heavy pieces of ordnance with a few 
[howitzers were placed in battery. Fire was opened on the hill early 
*ie following (24th) morning, and was kept up the whole day but 
little effect. Meanwhile a party of sepoys with two six-poanders 
•ent to th« off-aide of the hill to overlook the gateway and 
draw the enemy's attention to that quarter. Towards noon on the 
third day, the erjcmy s fire ceased and for hours no one was seen on 
le hill. The garrison seemed to be withdrawing or at least to be iu 
hamour tocome to terms. Lieutenant-Colonel McDowell, who was 
Lous to gain possession of a garden and loose work that lay in a 
curre at the base of the hill, ordered a small party of Europeans and 
sepoys to climb the slope above the town, and passing to the right 
take the garden. Instead of leading the party to the garden 
ie commanding otHcer marched straight to the foot of the cliff, 
ight to the entrance of the passage up the hill. Here he was met by 
fierce a discharge of rockets and matchlocks, and such showers 
of atones, that seven or eight men were killed and about thirty 
iverely wounded. The rest took possession of the garden, where, 
lough under heavy fire, they found tolerable cover among the ruins 
of houses and behind trees. In the aftoruooa, the enemy, fancying 
that the besiegers had really intended tu attempt the narrow passage^ 
and that no obstacles could resist their ingenuity and skill, sent a 
meAaage to Lieut. -Colonel McDowell that they were willing to come 
to terms. Demands for the payment of arrears were rejected, and next 
lorning an officior came down and agreed (o surrender the fort. 
In the course of the day the garrison, a mixture of Rajputs and 
larathils with a few Sidis or Abyssiniane, retired with their arms 
id private property.' 

A serious revolt among the Arabs of Malegaon dela^^ed the 
Bettlemeut of affairs. At an early stage in the war, Mr. Elphinstone 
tad allowed Gopalrdv RAja Bahadur of MAlegaon, to gather troops 
id wrest the Malegaon fort from the Poshwa's officers. No sooner 
id Gopdlrav taken the fort than he found himself a prisoner iu the 
►nds of his Arab mercenaries. These men, identifying themselves 
'ith a baud of freebooters and with the Muvallads or Indian- 
►m Arabs of the town, plundered the country round and made 
[iUeg&on one of the chief centres of disorder. On the IGth Muy, 
ieutenant-Colonel McDowell, with not more than 1000 men and 
'0 pioneers, encamped before the town and called on the Arabs, who 
mbered about 350, to surrender. They refused and the place was 
ivested. For three days the Arabs made desperate sallies but 
rero repulsed at the puitit of the bayonet. In one of the sallies, 
(ieuteuHDt Davies the chief engineer was killed, and Major Andrews, 
commanding the European regiment, was severely wounded. On 
the 22nd, the bt^sieging force was strengtheued by 500 Hindu- 
stani Horse, aud ou the next day by a body of infantry of the Russel 
Brigade, 450 strong, under Lieutenant Hodges. As the guns were 

Chapter VJ 


_^^n Mftritha And Pe&dhAri Canin&ign (1820), 163- 1S5. Detulfl of the siegQS of Kijder 
%d Trimbok arc given under FIacos of Interest. 

[Bombay Q&xettMr. 





as- 1881. 

much damaged and tho ammonitioQ was uearly spent, no time was 
lost in attempting n storm. On the night of the 28th, an appa- 
rently practicable breach was made, the few remaining shells were 
thrown into the fort, and the place assaulted. The senior engineer 
who led the storming party was shot dead the moment he monnted 
the breach, uttering, as ho fell, the word 'Impracticable'. Major 
Green Hill^ though wounded in the foot, mounted the breach and let 
down a ladder, bat it dropped from his hands to the bottom of the 
wall. On this a retreat was sounded and only the town remained 
in British hands. 

This failure was followed by a close blockade, and reinforcementa 
arriving from General Smith with some mortars and howitzers, fire 
was again opened, in the course of which, the fort magazine exploded 
making a clear breach thirty feet wide in the inner wall and filling 
the ditch with debris. On the 13th June the garrison capitulated, 
and the British Hag was hoisted on one of the bastions of the inner 
fort. Next day tho garrison marched out and laid down their arms. 
Tho Arabs were taken to Surat, and &om Surat were sent to 

On the 29th June 1818, news was received that Trimbakji Denglis, 
who had lately nearly succeeded in surprising the fort oi Trimbak 
was in hiding in the Chdndor village of Ahirgaon. A party of 
troops, sent from Mdlegaon under Captain Swanston, surrounded 
the village, forced the gates, and seized Trimbakji who was fonnd hid 
under a heap of straw.a 

The reduction of the district was completed by the surrender of 
the fort of Mulher on the 3rd July. 

The country to the north of the Chdndor hills was included 
in Khdndesh, and the country to the south in Ahmednagar. South 
of ChAndor order was restored with little difficulty. The country 
waa exhausted and the people willingly obeyed any power that 
oonli] protect them. Tho Peshwa's disbanded troops settled in 
their villageB, the hill forts were dismantled, and the military force 
was gradually reduced. The Koli and Bhil chiefs of the country 
near the Sahyiidris undertook to prevent robbery and violence, 
their allowances and villages were confirmed to them, and order 
was soon established. In the north and east, the Bhils, who were 
more nomerous than in the south and were led by the powerful 
chiefs of Feint and Abhonu, gave much trouble. The open country 
was soon cleared, but to bring to order the bauds that had taken 
to the bills was a matter of time. A considerable force was kept 
with its head-" piarters at Mdlegaon; the hills were guarded, and 
outbreaks severely punished. A Bhil agency was established at 
Kanharin the S^tmala hills about fifteen miles south of Chalisgaon, 
and inducements were held out to the Bhils to settle as husband- 
men. Cash advances and rent-free gitints of land were made to all 

> PenHbiln and MarAtha War*. 345, 346. 

* PendhAri and Maratha Wars, 367. PAndurang Hari, II. 60. Petails of Trim- 
bakji'v attempt on Trimbak aad of his capture ar« givoa uudor FUc«s of lotoroat, 
Trimbak and Ahirgaon. 



r»- — tKI settle, and allowances were paid to the chiefs who held 
! vssea. Employment more congenial than husbandry was 

liiicicd to the Bhils by the forLoation of an irregular force. The lazy 
h&bics of the men and their dislike of discipline made the first 
cffort-s fruitless. It was not till 1825, that Lieutenant, afterwards Sir 
Jiimt*it, Outramj succeeded in forming the Khdndesh Bhil Corps. 
But, under his patient firmness and thorough knowledge of the Bhil 
character, the corps soon did good service, and disorder was suppressed 
erea in the hills. 

Since the establishment of British rule the only serious breaches 
of order have been in 1843, when the slaughter of a cow by some 
EaropcADs caused a serioas riot in N^eik, and in 1857. 

During the 1857 mutinies, N^sik was the scene of considerable 
disturbance.- Some of the rebels were Kohilis, Arabs, and ThAkurs, 
but most of them were the Bhils of south Nasik and north Ahmed- 
nagar, who, to the number of about 7000, wore stirred to revolt 
partly by their chiefs and partly by Brdhman intriguers. Detach- 
ments of regular troops were stationed to guard the frontier aguinst 
raids from the NiaAm's dominions, and to protect the large towns 
from the chance of Bhil attacks. But the work of breaking the Bhil 
gatherings and hunting the rebels, was entrusted almost entirely to 
the police, who were strengthened by the raising of a special Koli 
Corps, and by detachments of infantry and cavalry. Except the Bhils 
and some of tho Trimbak Brahmans, the population was apparently 
well affected and no repressive measures were required. 

Tho Grst assemblage of Bhila was under the leadership of 
one Bhdgoii Ndik. This chief who had formerly been an officer in 
the Ahmednagar police was, in 1855, convicted of rioting and of 
obstracting and threatening the police, and was sentenced to a term 
of imprisonment. On his release he was required to find security 
for his goo<l behaviour for a year. Shortly after the year was 
over, in conaeqnence of the order for a general disarming, 
Bhdgojileft his village of Niindur Shingote in Siunar. Being u man 
of influence he was soon joined by some fifty of his tribe, and took 
a position on a hill about a mile from his village, commanding 
the Poona-Ndsik road. A few days later (4th October 1857), 
Lieateoant J. W. Henry, Superintendent of Police, arrived at Ndndur 
Shingote and was joined by his assi.stant, Lieutenant, now Colonel, 
T. Thatcher, and Mr. A. L. Taylor inspecting postmaster. The 
police force under Lieutenant Henry consisted of thirty constables 
ftnd twenty revenue messengers armed with swords. Lieutenant 
Henry toltl the mimlatdars of Sangamner and Sinnar to send for 
Bh^oji and induce him to sabmit. Bh^goji refused unless he 
received two years' back pay and tmlesa some arrangement was 

British I 
1818. ISSt 

> Deteib of the formation of the Bhil Corps are gireti in the Statistical Account of 
Khdndeah, Bombay G«etteer, XII. 259.317. 

' This accoaut of the N^ik (listiirl>aao4*a in taken partlj' from a paper prepared by 
Major H. Uaiiiell, late Superintendent of Folice, Ahraedaagar, and partly from Mr, 
bciungton'a Rough Notes Regarding the Supprcsaion of Mutiny in the Bi>mbay 
i'tt!Htit«iicy, Clowea and Sons, lSt>5. 


Bombay QauttatrJ 



lapter VII. 

1818- I8S1. 

The Mutinif^, 

made for his maintenance. On receiving this message the polictt] 
werB ordered to advaaco against his position. The first shoftl 
killed a man immediately behind Lieutenant Henry. The ofGoemi 
dismounted, but before they had advanced many yards^ were met' 
by a voUeyj and Lieutenant Henry fell wounded. He regained 
his feet, and pressing on received a mortal Av^ound in the chest. 
The attack was continued under Lieutenant Thatcher and the Bhils 

This unfortanate engagement excited the whole Bhil popolatioo* 
A fresh gang of about 100 Bhils was raised by one Putharji Ndik in 
the Rdhuri sub-division of Ahmednagar^ but it was soon after 
dispersed by Major, now Lieutenant-General, Montgomery, the new 
Superintendent of Police. On the ISthOctoberan engagement took 
place in the hills of Samsherpur in Ahmednagar, between BhAgoji'a 
men and a detachment of troops and police under Colonel Macan of 
the 20th Native Infantry, in which Lieutenant Graham who was on 
special police duty, and Mr. P. S. Chapman of the Civil Service 
who accompanied the force, were wounded. 

On the 20th January 1858, near Maudvar in Nilndgaon, Major 
Montgomery with a considerable force attacked a large gathering 
of Bhils, Rohilds, and Arabs nnderan unknown leader. The enemy 
were strongly posted in a dense thicket, whence they shot down 
the advancing troops, and Major Montgomery foil badly wounded 
and hia men were forced to retire with considerable loss. In the 
next charge Lieutenant Stuart fell mortally wounded. Lieutenant 
Thatcher then withdrew the troops. The loss on the British side 
was serious. Of ten killed and fifty wounded, one of the killed and 
three of the wounded were European officers. 

As the spread of disorder had become serioos, Captain, now 
Colonel, Nuttall, who succeeded Lieutenant Graham, was ordered 
to raise a corps of Kolis, the hereditary rivals of the Bhils, who, in 
Mard,tha times, had been among the foremost of the brave Mavalis 
or west Decern soldiers. The corps was recruited chiefly in the 
hilly parts of Junuar in Pooua, Akola in Ahmednagar, and 
N^sik. In December 1857, a hundi^ed men armed with their 
own swords and muskets were fit for the field, and so useful 
did they prove that, in January and February 1858, a second 
levy of 110 was ordered, and, shortly after, the strength of the 
corps was increased to 600 men with a commandant and adjutant. 
In raising the corps Captain NuttaJl dealt with the heads of the 
different clans, promising them rank and position in the c^rpa 
corresponding to the number of recruits they might bring. Jdvji 
Ndik Bamla, the chief of the Bamla clan, was made the head of the 
corps, and a brother of the famous outlaw Rdghoji Bhdngria and 
other leading men were chosen as officers. Drill masters were obtained 
from the Ahmednagar police, and, in spite of the want of leisare, the 
Kolis mastered their drill with the ease of bom soldiers and proved 
skilful skirmishers among hills and in rough ground. Their arms 
Were a light fusil with bayonet, black leather accoutrements, dark 
green twisted turbans, dark green cloth tunics, dark blood-colonred 
waistclothfi worn to the knee, and sandals. They marched without 



tfl or baggage. Each roan carriod his whole kit in a havresack 

m light knapsack. They messed in gronps and on the march 

the cooking vessels. They were great walkers, moving with 

bright eprtngj' step of Highlanders, often marching thirty or 

mile-3 in a day over the roughest ground, carrying their arms, 

unition, baggage, and food. Always sprightly, clean, and 

y, however long their day'a march, their first care on halting 

to see that their muskets were clean and in good trim. Every 

e they met an enemy, though sometimes taten by surprise and 

etimes fighting against heavy odds, they showed the same 

hin^ and persevering courage. 

On the 3rd of December, Captain Nuttall, with a force of IGO foot 
and fifty horse,* marched from Akola for Sulgdna, where Bhils 
were said to be gathering and trying to induce the Snigdna chief to 
join them. Three days later (6th December), on the way to Sulgana, 
news was brought that on the night before a party of Bhils and 
Thakurs hml attacked the Trimbak treasury, and that some of the 
men who had taken part in the rising, were in the hills round 
Trimbak. The hills were searched, and among the men who were 
made prisoners, a Thftkiir, named Piindu, acknowledged his share in 
the outbreak and stated that he and his people had risen under the 
advice of a Trimbak Brdbman whom, he said, he knew by sight and 
could point ont. Another of the prisoners confirmed this story and 
promised to identify the Brdhman. On reaching Trimbak, Captain 
Kuttall found Mr. Chapman, the civil officer in charge of the district, 
with a detachment of the Poena Horse and some companies of the 
26th Rt'giment of Native Infantry. Mr. Chapman was aware 
that the rising and attack on Trimbak had been organised by 
Trimbak Brahmans. The Brahmans of the place had been brought 
and ranged in rows in the camp, but no one had come forward to 
identify the leading conspirators. Captain Nuttall, who had left his 
camp and prisoners at some distance, sent for Pandu the ThAkur 
informant. He was told to examine the rows of Brahmans and find 
out whether the man who had advised his people to revolt was among 
them. Pfi.ndu walked down the line, and stopping before a Brtlhman 
hose face was muffled, asked that the cloth might be taken away, 
d on seeing hia face said that he was one of the Brahmans who 
ad persuaded the Thiikura to attack Trimbak. Then the other 
man who had confessed was called in and walking down the line 
picked out the same Brdhman. Next morning tliis BrAhman was 
tried, found guilty, condemned to death, and hanged at Trimbak. 

On the evening of the 12th, news was brought that the people of 
the Peint state had risen and that the village of Harsol had been 
plundered. Captain Nuttall at once sot out, and on reaching Harsol 
( lith), found the villagesackod, the Government records torn, the clerk 
and accountant wounded, and the village moneylender murdered. 
Captain Nuttall remained at Harsol for a day or two and captured 
several rebels. Meanwhile the rebelshad passiKl over the hills to Feint, 

» The cUUila were : ] \ rabrea Poona Irregular Honw; 4 Mounted Police, SO Thina, 
Police, uul 110 Koli Corp«. 

u 23-20 


Chapter VII. 



Thf MutinieM, 




[Bombay Oaxel 

Chapter VII. 


1818 1881. 

The Afufiniet, 


and thepolice being unable to make bead against tbem, they plnnd 
the Peint treasury of £300 (Rs. 3000) and withdrew to a hill on t 
Dharainpur frontier. Shortly after a detachment of thirty men of 
the 4th Rifles under Lieutenant Glaaspool reached Peint from Dio- 
dori and arrested some drunken stragglers of the rebel force. On 
hearing this the rebels returned to Peint to rescue their comrades. 
As they were several thousand strong, the small British force retired 
into the walled Government office and were there besieged. On the 
second day, the insurgent force was strengthened by the arrival from 
Sulg^na of Bhagoji Ndik and some sixty men, many of them armed 
with matchlocks. On the next day news of the critical position of 
the British force was brought to Captain Nuttall near Harsol by a 
loyal Mar&tha landholder. Captain Nuttall at once pushed on to 
Peint. He found the pass leading to the Peint plateau strongly 
barricaded in fonr places. The barricades were not defended i 
were cleared without much difficulty, and a body of the en 
which held the crest of the pass, on being charged by the cav 
fled after firing a few shots. On reaching Peint, about fiv. 
the evening, Captain Nuttall found Lieutenant Glasspool and (he 
thirty men of the Rifles safe, but with their ammunition n'^firU 
exhausted. For some days the rebels mustering from loOO to J 
strong had been swarming round their feebly fortified shelter, 
& fresh assault had been planned for that evening. Even alt' 
Captain Nuttall had established himself in Peint, the insurgents d 
not disperse but contiuued to hold a ridge of hills close to the to 
Captain Nuttall, accordingly, moved out his troops, and after a & 
engagement routed them with the loss of their leader, a Ma 
named Faldi Khdn, and several prisoners. On the 19th, Captab 
Walker and Mr. Boswell of the Civil Service, with a detachment of 
the 10th Regiment, arrived from Surat. Peint became quiet, and 
Bhagvantrav or Bhauraja the head fomentor of the disturbance, a 
claimant of the Peint chiefship and a correspondent of N&na S^eb'd, 
was hanged with about fifteen of his followers. 

The day after Captain Walker's arrival (20th December), with th» 
addition of fifty of the Ahmadnagnr police, Captain Nuttall marched 
southward, and, without baiting, in the afternoon of the next day, at 
Vasir Hira, came up with the insurgents who mustered about 500 
men, and with fifteen of the Poena Horse, charged and routed them 
with the loss of thirteen killed and wounded and three prisoners. In 
ft hand-to-hand fight between Captain Nuttall and Mahipat Niik, 
Bhigoji's brother, the latter was killed and Captain Nuttall's horw 
desperately wounded; and in a second encounter another rebel fooghl 
to the last, wounding Captain Nuttall's second horse. 

In spite of this reverse the number of Bhigoji's foUowan 
continued to increase. On the 19th of February 1858, a' large force 
of regular troops,^ men of the Koli Corps, and Ahmadnagar police 
under Major Pottinger and Captain Nuttall, attacked and scattered 
Bh^goji's band in the bushland near Kakanki or Peoka fort on the 

Tha cUtaili irere: 21 Mbrea Pooiui Horte, 430 bjiyoneta KoU CoqM, And 30 
AbnuidxuhgBr Koli Police. 



of Yeola, Chalisgaon, and the Nisim's territory. The BbiJs 
ly killed and five prisoners, and the British one private of 
Uifles killed and three wounded. But the rebels soon came 
tber a^iD, and tbrougljout IdoS and the greater part of 185^, 
HID !NntUll \vas engaged in banting Bhilgoji, Un the 4tb of 
Bry ltfo9, Captain Nuttall received an express directing him to 
m witJi all speed to Ajanta, where, it was reported, two or three 
sand Ilohil^ had assembled. Captain Niittall, with a force of 
f<iot and twenty-one horse, started for Ajanta, and in three days 
sited about lOOmileSythe men carrying all their kit. In spite 
tiB haete^ before they reached Ajanta, the Rohilds had plundered 
'illago and dispersed. 

I the following hot weather (April -May 1859), the Bhila under 
goji Nfilik and Harji Ndik continued their plundering raids. On 
of July, after a forced march. Captain Nuttall came upon 
Ills near Ambhora Dara, eight miles south-east of Sangamner. 
lis, who were led by Bhd,goji and Harji, took a strong posi- 
itn which they were driven by twent3'"-fivemen of the Koli 
with a loss of ten killed, including Yashvant, Bhitgoji'a 
fveral wounded, and three prisoners, among them Harji 
r one of their leaders. In October 1859, parties of Bhils were 
rted to bo gathering in the Nizam's territory with the intention 
fining Bhagoji. In tho British districts also they were again 
ming uneasy and excited. Under these circumstances, a 
ohment of Native Infantry was kept posted along the frontier 
ih was constantly patrolled by strong parties of tho Poona 
yalar Horse. On the 26th of October.Bhagoji plundered tho village 
. in Kopargaon and carried off property worth about £1SOO 
"'). He was hotly pursued by Captain Nuttall for nearly a 
light along the rough Sahy^dri country, down to the Koukan, and 
.gfain into Ahmadnagar, but by very rapid and secret marches 
-ys BQcceeded in baulking his pursuers. 

eanwhile, Mr., now Sir Frank, Souter, who, since his nppoiut- 
t as Superintendent of Police in July, had been pressing close 
thfigoji's heels, on the 11th of November, at the head of 159 foot 
mounted police, reached the village of Mithsagar in Sinnar. 
B the headman of the neighbouring village of Panchala brought 
1 that Bhdgoji NAik and his followers were resting in a river 
about five miles off. On reaching the place, Mr. Souter deter- 
id to attack the position from the north where tho banks were 
jandthebmshwoodwas thick, and to drive the Bhils into the 
I country to the south. He succeeded in bringing his men close 
le enemy without being seen. As soon as the insurgents were 
ew, Mr. Souter charged with the mounted police, giving orders 
le rest of his force to attack at the double. The insurgents 
} take n by surprise and a few were cut down before they had 
■Mftbt the fuses of their matchlocks. But they soon rallied, 
^^^Bg a position under a thick clump of bushes protected on 
Hb by the river bank, kept up a heavy fire. An attempt to 
Plbeir position failing, Mr. Souter picked out his best marks- 
, approached the enemy in skirmishing order, and taking 

Chapter VII. 


The Jttttinie$, 


[Bombay Qas6l 


Chapter VII. 


TU Mutinif*, 

advantage of every bush and scrap of cover, in face of a deadly 
fire, gained command of their position. The Bhil losses were v< 
heavy. When only fifteen remained alive, they marched hIowIj 
along the river bed, still keeping up a heavy fire. Though repeatedlj 
called to lay down their arms they refused, and dropped man bi 
man. At last the few that remained were forced oat of the river b( 
into the open and charged by the mounted police. They fought 
the last with the most desperate courage. Of forty-nine men, fortyJ 
five including their leader Bh^oji were killed and three severely 
wounded. During the action Mr. Souter's horse fell pierced by two 
bullets, and four of the police were killed and sixteen wounded. 

The completeness of this success, which was so largely doe to 
Mr. Souter's gallantry, energy, and judgment, brought the Bhil 
disturbances to a sudden end. The Nizam Bhils who were awaiting 
Bh^goji's arrival dispersed, and, on the 20th, in falling back fro 
the British frontier, were, with the loss of forty killed, atmcke 
and routed by a detachment of the Haidarabad Contingent nn 
Lieutenant Pedler. 

On the 12th of November, a large party of BhiU under an inflcential 
chief a relative of Bh^goji's, left Sonai in Nevasa to join Bhagoji. 
On hearing of his death they turned towards Kbdndesh, and, aa they 
had not committed any acts of crime, they were pardoned and allow 
to retnm to their bomes.^ 

Though disturbances were at an end posts of regular troo 
were maintained till May 18l50. When they were withdrawn, thei 
places were taken by detachments of the Koli Corps. The Koli Corps 
continued to perform this outpost duty till March 1801, when they 
were disbanded, and all except a few who entered the police, returned 
to their former life of tillage and field labour. 

The wisdom of raising the corps had been proved. Ins 
of heading disturbances, as had often happened before and has 
happened since, the disciplined Kolis were a powerful element in 
repressing disorder. Under Captain NuttalVs patient and kindly 
care, and by the example of his dashing bravery and untiring energyj 
they proved a most orderly, well disciplined, active, and courageoa 
force. They showed themaolvea superior to the Bhils in -etrengt 
and spirit, and in their two and a half years of active service 
times earned the special thanks of Government,' 

Since 1860 the district has enjoyed unbroken peace. 










' After Bhdgoji'a death, MKilrdia h relation of hia aud a member of his gaog, wbo 
had been absent od the 11th Novcmlwr, raiBCtl aomo ten or twelve followora and 
oommittod many gany aud highwny robberie*. At Uat ho murdered a man wh( 
wa> in Mr. Souter's employ aa a Bpy, aud cut to piccea liis wife and cliild wt 
tried to aoreen him. Soon after thu Mhi^rdia woa caught and hanged with five 
hia ffluig. 

> The five oocftaiona were : Peint, 16th December 1857 ; Viair Hira. 22nd Beoeml 
1857 ; Turain Dongor, I9th Fobruarj- la'iS; Aungar, 23rd .Tnly 1858; and Ambhoi 
Dara, Bth July 1859. Of Captaiu N«ttall*8 wrviooa Mr. Bettlngton, the PoU< 
CommiBsionor, wrote in 1858, ' He organised and disoipliued a corpi of one of 
wildeartand moiit nnruly hill tribea, won their entire trust, gradually brvkught them 
into order, cliockcd tlio unmly BhilSf and at V4air Hira» Turaia, Aungar, 
Ambhora Dara. gave them suoh chastiBomcnt m is not likely to be forgotten in 
or in the next generation.' Police Boport for 1858. 





Thb lands of the district of Ndaik have been gained hy cessioUj 
ezcbangc, and lapse. Most of the conntry fell to the British on the 
overthrow of the Peshwa in 1818. In 1852, on the death of the last 
Rija Bahadur, the petty division of Nimbdyat in Mdlegaon lapsed ; 
in 1865, eight villages, ^ve in Chandor and three in Niphdd, were 
exchanged by His Highness Holkar for land in the neighbonrhood 
of Indor; and in 1878, on the death of Her Highness the Begam, the 
Peint state became a snb-division of Nasik. 

In 1818 when the British territories in the Deccan were placed 
nnder the control of a Coramissioner and divided into the four 
ccllectoratee of Khdndesh, Ahmadnagar, Foona, and Dhdrwdr, the 
lands now included in Nilsik belonged partly to Khandesh and 
partly to Ahmadnagar, lu 1837-38 the Ahmadnagar sub-divisions 

Chapter V] 

Admin istral 

1818- " 


l lo ai^ditino to the following Survey Reports, matcriaU for the Arlministrative 
HiHory of Naaik include elaborate survey tablen <lra\t-u up I'n l879-&() by Captain 
W. C. Block of the R«venno Survey ; N^k Collocttir'a File 16.1, Roronue Man&KO- 
nient, 1B10-18S0; and Aunual Jatndbamii Adniiuutratiuu and Season Kcports for tno 
AhuiJulnagar and N^ik diatricta : 

HtUik Survey ReporUt 1840-1881. 


n. Rbvwion SriviT. 

i9\~AhfMdn«9W Dt»K 

ia).—AkmaAnaijar Dcth. 

Ur. OotdiuDlJ't IS5, 1M November ISW, NIphAd 

Llimt. Golonol WA-idinffion's MO, IDth DoMin- 

Kn<) "^nttxr. 

bor I«71, Ch&ndor uid Niphid ; U\. IttUi 
Kt--l«ni«rv 1874, Ch&iidur, Niph&d, Dlodori. 

Lioot., .ft^rvtdnlt 0»pt»lii, D«vt<1«»'#, Sift 

Ovi->i...f iHii, Cli5fi-)-r ; ?n, lUii OvtotKjr 


1- ■ ■■ . 81, 

Ueut. Colnnol Tfcvffncr'i 843. 6tb October 

1 ntirr 

1874, Sinnar, Nlnhiid. KapUffMm. «Dd 
8*ii|j!an«ier ; 910, Itlth U-tolw 1874, NArik, 

1 - , . ■ . , , ; <12. 

liU atiptcmbcr 1^0, ritofio. 

Sij.hAd, and Slnuar ; 7B2. Oth 8*ptom»wr 

(h).—AkmadMuj<%r Ddn^i. 

IH75, Nfaik ; ;3;t. 17th October ia7f». iho 

former PUhxlft .ir the preaant YMla, NAnd- 

Mr. lytlci^ V.'' 1 .lul/ lfM2. 

man, CbAndor, Nlphid, and K-inanrnoa ; 
741, l?tli Ott.iWr l.'57«, Chftndor. 

aiul Btb Aqbtii-' ii F«hni«ry 

1S4I. ntan -tt^l.'-.-n.bor 

C«!wiol U-mfUtcri's IM, i2th February I8S1, 

1- ; ■ ■■■ .■ •W>n; 



{h),~Ahmadmagor ZMtigg, 

4;:»', Isi Jki't^m'-rr lr"'.:>, IVint. 

Lieut. Ootot>el TavM-nor"* 840. 30ih September 


1B75. Abhoo*; 803, IRth October 1875. 

Dindorl j 88*, 4th D«omber isifi, Nialk. 

Mr Ped^lor-i IIR, 20Ui April 1867, and >71, 18th 

Colonel Louffhwn'i 91, SSth Jinunry 1879, 

Dtfviulier 19«7. MlUoiraoD; 4. Mh Juuary 

NiUik (TrijiihAk) ; 12S1, 24th Dwy:mt«jr 1H7S, 

\tm. lUclAo : 3U», 7tb Deoembcr ISOO, 

Nfcsilt : 8.t. S'rth Janaikrr 1880, Dliidori ; 2A0, 

J4ylthe<U and Abhona. 

llth Jtlarch 1?61. t>indorl. 

Not*:—The9C Survey Reports will bo found in B*>m. Gov. Sol. VI.. CXXX., and 
CXLV. and in Bom. Gov. Rev. Rec. 1351 of 1842, 1S2« of 1&43, !G68 of 1844. 163 o! 
t8-io. 171 of 1845. 168 of \M6, 163 of 1847. 171 of 1847. 117 of 1860, 240 of 1862-64 
02 of 1868, 63 of 1868, 7^ ol 1870, 75 of 1870. and 87 of 187:2. 

Bombay Uaiett 




idnunis tratioxL 

1818- 1878. 

' SUff, 


DUtricl OJietra. 



of Sixmar, Cb&udor, Dindori. N^sik including Igaipnri, and the Peint 
Btatewere placed under a Bob-coIlector subordinate to Ahraadnacjar.' 
In Joly 1866 the sub-collectopate "waB abolished and the district 
incorporated in Ahmadnagar. Iq 1861 tlie petty divisions of Nimun 
nnder Sinnar, Chandor under Chdndor, Vani under Dindori, and 
Trimbak under Kdvnai (Igatpuri) were abolished, and a now 8ub- 
divifiioD styled NiphAd was formed. In the general revision of 1809j 
eight Abmadnagnr sub-divisions, NAsik, Sinnar, Igatpuri, Chdodor, 
Dindori, NiphAd, YeolajandAkola, and three Khandesh siib-divisiona 
N^ndgaoD, Malegaon, and Bdjilan together with the Peint state were 
formed into the district of N^sik and placed under the charge of a 
Collector. Shortly after Akola was returned to Ahmadnagar. In 
Angust 1875 the Bdgldn sub-diTision, with its two petty divisiona 
Jiykheda and Abhona, was divided into two sub-divisions, B^tgl&n 
or Sat^na, and Kal van, each of which was placed under a mdralatd^r. 
On the death of the Begum in January 1878, the Peint stat* lapsed 
and became the Peint sub-division of NfLsik. The present (1882) 
sab-divisions are Malegaon, Ndndgaon, Teola, Niphdd, Sinnar^ 
Igatpuri, Ndsik, Peint, Dindori, Kalvan, Bdglan, and Chandor. 

The revenue administration of the district is entrusted to an 
officer, styled Collector, on a yearly pay of £2790 (Rs. 27,900), 
This officer, who is also chief magistrate and eiecntivo head of 
the district, is helped in his work of general supervision by a staff 
of £ve assiatautH, of whom ' four are covenanted and one is an 
uncovenanted servant of Government The sanctioned yearly 
salaries of the covenanted assistants range from £(iO() to £960 
(Hfi. 6000 -Rs. 9600) ; the salary of the uncovenanted assistant is 
£840 (Rs. 8*i00) a year. 

Of the twelve sub-divisions eleven are generally entrusted to the 
covenanted assistant collectors, and the twelfth, the lapsed state 
of Peiut, is kept by the Collector under his own supervision. The 
uncovenanted assistant, styled the head-quarter or kuzur deputy 
collector, is entrusted with the charge of the treasury. These 
officers are also magistrates, and those who hold revenue charges 
have, under the presidency of the Collector, the chief management 
of the different administrative bodies, local fund and municipal 
committeeSj within the limits of their rovenao charges. 

Under the supervision of the Collector and his assistants the 
revenue charge of each fiscal division is placed in the hands of an 
officer styled ^ndmlatddr. These functionaries, who are also entrusted 
with magisterial powers, have yearly salaries varying from £1 80 to 
£300 (Rs. 1800-R8.3000). 

In revenue and police matters, the charge of the Government villages 
is entrusted to 1768 headmen, or pdtilg, most of whom are Kunbis. 
Of the whole number five are stipendiary and 1763 are hereditary. 
One of the stipendiary and 284 of the hereditary headmen perform 

1 Between 1818 and 1S2I Niaik apj>oar8 to ha\'e heon a sub-collectorate subordinite 
to Ahmaduagor— Bee East India Papvrs IV. aSS, and Bom. Gov. Rev. Bee. 47 of 18*22, 
249, 261. 




rercmae duties only ; 225 hereditary headmen attend to matters of 
p-ylice only ; while £oar stipendiary and 1254 hereditary headmen 
are entrusted with both revenue and police charges. The headman's 
yearly endowments depend on the village revenue. They vary from 
6jr. to £15 I4s. (Ra. 3-Rs. 157) and average about £2 Vis. Id. 
(Rd. 26-4-8). In many villages, besides the headman, members of 
hifl familv are in receipt of state land-grants representing a yearly 
earn of £ too (Rs. 4000). Of £4648 (Ra. 40,480), the total yearly 
charge on account of the headmen of villages and their families, 
£3166 (Rs. 31,660) are paid in cash and £1482 (Ra. 14,820) by 
grants of land. 

To keep the village accounts, prepare statistics, and help the 
Tillage headmen, there is a body of 072 hereditary and sixteen 
stipendiary village accountants, or hulkat^h, most of whom are 
Br^hmans. Every village accountant has an average charge of two 
villages, containing about 1067 inhabitants and yielding an average 
yearly revenue of £202 (Rs. 2020). Their yearly receipts amount 
to £5177 (Ra. 51,770), of which £171 (Rs. 1710) are paid in land and 
£5006 (Rs. 50,060) in cash. The hidkarni't^ yeai'Iy pay averages 
about £7 10*. 6(i. (Rs. 751). 

Under the headmen and accountants are 5142 village servants. 
These men who are locally styled watchmen, or jogJyds, are liable 
both for revenue and police duties. Except a few Musalmdns they 
are Bliils or Kolis. The yearly cost of this establishment amounts 
to £:3774 (R^. 37,740). being Us. Sd. (Rs. 7-5-4) to each man, and 
to each village varying from 16*. to £37 8», (Rs. 8-Rs. 374) and 
averaging £2 10». (R8.25). Of the whole amount £2775 (Rs. 27,750) 
are met by grants of land and £999 (Rs. 9990) are paid in cash. 

The average yearly cost of village establishments may bo thua 
summariaed : 

KdsOs ViUage BsULblUhments, 1882, 




To»»l ... 







This is equal to a charge of £9 (Rs. 90) a village or about ten per 
cent of the district land revenue. 


In modem times the revenue of the district belonged to the 
Mosalm&ns, till about 1720 they were forced to acknowledge the 
Mardtlia claim to a one-fourth or ehauth, and a one-tenth or 
aardeehmukhi. This division of revenue lasted till between 1750 
and 17 GO, when the Moghals were ousted by the MarAthfls. Under 
the Marathds one-quarter of the c.haulk was paid to the head of the 
Mar^tha state. Of the rest, which was termed mohdsaj six per cent 
or aahotra were granted to the Pant Sachiv, and the remainder, or 
ain mohdsQ, was given to different nobles. The shares which had 

Chapter VI] 





V'dlagt Ojfici 








been originally allotted to nobles were in some cases attached by tha 
Peshwa. In other cases a part or the whole of the Peshwa's aharo 
was granted to some local leafier.' 

At the beginning of British rale, except some mountain wastea 
and disputed or doubtful patches, the whole area of Ndsik was 
parcelled into villages. This division into villages dates from very 
early times. The names of the villages mentioned in the land 
grants of the ninth century show that, even in outlying parts, the 
distribution of the land has changed little during the last thousand 
years. The villages survived the wars and famines, which more than 
once unpeopled the district, because the rights and privileges of the 
village landholders, craftsmen, and servants did not cease, and 
oonld be enforced as soon as any part of the village was again 
brought under tillage.'* In very early times the lauds of each 
village were divided into large unmeasured plots or estates, perhaps 
one plot for each of the original settlors.* In later times, perhaps 
by the gradual increase of the original families, the big plots were 
divided into shares, or bighds. These shares seem at first to have 
been unmeasured parts of the main block, the size of the share 
varying according to its soil. Afterwards, under the Moghals, the 
smaller plots were measured and the hi<jha became an uniform area 
of 3119'7 square yards.* These measurements were made partly 
by Malik Ambar, the Ahmadnagar minister, at the beginning of the 
seventeenth century (1600-1620), and partly by Shah Jalian about 
forty years later. Under the Mardthds much of the land was 
measured. Most of the measurements were with the view of fixing 
the urea tilled and the rental duo for a particular year, and of this no 
record was kept. But at the beginning of British rule one small grornp 
of fourteen villages in Sinnar was foimd very accurately measured 
and carefully assessed.^ The burning of the Ndsik revenue records 
in Ankai fort in 1818 (?) makes it difficult to say how far the work 
of measuring was actually carried.* In many parts of the district, if 
tho land was ever measured, the memory of the measurements was 
lost in the troubles at the end of the eighteenth century. At the 
beginning of British rule the land revenue was levied in the western 
districts by a plough cess, and, in most other parts, from the large 
unmeasured plots noticed above as mands, hUj and Ukda or thtkaa. 

1 See Mr. Goldamid's Memoir on Ehorenoa io Igatpuri, 36th Maroh 1841, Bom. 
Gov. Sel.VX. 48-49. 

2 Mr, Goldamid, Survey Snpt. to the Rev, Com. 135, Ist November 1S40, para, 7. 

8 Mr. Goldnmid, 135 of 1840, [iaro. 11. Tho Dravidiau or at Icaat un-Sanakht naniM 
of thcBc plotSt ftiunds, iiktU, and hdtt, all of which mean lump or plot, seem to carry 
thiR divininn of landB back to pre-Aryau times. But they may have been uitroducea 
bj tho Shntakamis (b.c. 100-a.d. 400} or other Telugn speokorB i^-ithin historio timea. 
Mund neemB to have been a larger division than iihx. 

* Jonia' Konkan, 69. Compare the English aero which, before ita area was fixed. 
meant field, at God's Acre, the Church->ard. 

B These Sinnar villages were measured by Aba Hnaabnia in 1771, and oascsaedby 
Dboudo Mohidev iu 1783. Mr. Boyd, 28th November 1320, Bom. Gov. Rov. Hco. 156 
of 1827,74-75. 

e Mr. Crawford. 2l8t April 1821, Bom. Gov, Kov. R«c. 47 of 1822, 272. According 
to Mr. Ooldsmid, 135, Ist November 1840, para. 17i the records that romaincd gave no 
useful information. 




Dom the plough and the big nnmeasared plots were supposed to 
nrpreeeiit a certain number of the smaller shares or bitfhds. Bafc in 
cases these emaller shares had either never been measiiredj or, 
y had been measured, their measurements had been forgotten. 
In practice the bigha represented a share of the rental which the 
big anmeasored plot had to pay^ and, like the big plot^ it varied in 
area with the nature of the soil.^ 

As has been already noticed, much of the land had been granted to 
chiefs and others either rent-free or su})ject to a quit-rent.- Except 
some disputed plots and sites called slwri, which were entirely tho 
property of the state and were entered as beyond the village 
bouTidaries,' the state lands were either mirds held by hereditary 
tenants or gatkul hold by some one in tho absence of the hereditary 
holder. The mirds holder could not be ousted so long as he paid his 
ebare of the village rent. Even if he failed to pay and threw up his 
land, ho might, on meeting tho outstandings, take it from the 
temporary holder. la spite of this rukj continued possession of 
ownerless, or gatkul, lai^d raised the tenant, or wpr/, almost to the 
position of an hereditary holder, and, occasionally, ownerless land 
was formally handed to the tenant aa hia hereditary property.* 

The village staff was fairly complete, including the headman or 
}>diilf the accountant or hulkarni, the messenger or mkdr^ the 
carpenter^ and the priest.^ Over groups of villages were tho 
hereditary divisional officers, the revenue superintendent or deshmvkhy 
and tho divisional accountant or deahpdndc.^ Under tho original 
Mar^tha land-revenue system each of the rough sub-divisions among 
which the villages were distributed, had a paid manager or 
jfc<imdt'wfi4r, who, through tho hereditary superintendent and 
aocoantant, fixed the yearly rental of each viUage. The headman of 
a village was generally made responsible for the village rental^ and 
the villagers distributed the amount over the different shares in the 




1 Tb« rate levied on the land is adapted to the differ^Qt qualities of soil, \ty auigtuBg 
to the bujhi ft Inrf^r or a smaller area in prDportion to the poomesa or the richneu of 
the aoil- Bom. Gov. R«v. Letter, 5th No%-eiub«r 1S23, in Kaat India Papers, III. 

' The gnut or indm lands were, if hold free of rent, called oj7, and if subject to a 
qait-rent, apum mdfijaniin. Mr.GoIrlHtnid, 1^5 of 1840, para. 9. 

» KKcri Unda were gonerally lands formed by tho change of a river's course, plateaua 
below the scarps of hill forts, state gardens and plaaMnre grounds, and aometimoa 
narrow atipa of arable land between two viUa^ boandaries, Mr. Cloldsmid, 135, lat 
Kovember 1840, para 10. Shfri lands paid no dues to hereditary oliicors. 

* Mr. Qoldamid, 133, 1st No>'ember 1840, para 8. Both the words gaihd and 
Vkim* teem to be Dravidian. Knl seenis to be the Dravidian cultivator and not the 
&uuknt family, and the examples given in Wilaou's Gloasary soem to show thatmirtij 
ia found only in Southern Indja, 

6 Mr. Goldamid, 26th March 1841, Bom. Gov. Sel. VI. 47-48, gives the following 
detaiU of the pay oud the right* of the ofiicerB of the village of Khoregaon in 
Igatpun. Tho headmao had. as jhUwU, 50 hi'fhds of lato-crop land and 2 a^rv from 
each fnghn of dry-crop land tilled by non -hereditary holderB or upri*. Tho accountant 
bad Rs. 25 a year in cosh, a certain quantity of grain from each landholder, and a 
prevent of butt«r from the whole village. 

Tb« dfihmukh had a cUuu of 5^ per c«nt on the land revenue and of K«. 1 «a a 
prevent, M^, oat of the sum set ftpart for village oxpenseu. He had also a money 
allowance of Ra. 4 for butter, and Rs. 8 aa rdbta from the Mbflr in lieu of lenioe. 
The Heskpdnde had the aamecUima. Boni. Gov, Sel. VI. 47. 

a 23-77 

[Bombay GAzell 





be 1 


village lan^s. If tlie villagers refused to agree to tlie rent pro[ 
by the manager, the qnestion stood over till harvest when^ 
sheaves were piled in each field and the outturn calculated.' 
the time of trouble at the close of the eighteenth century (1 799-1802] 
when the district was laid waste by Holkar and the Fendhdrii 
and then impoverished and emptied by famine, the system of pai( 
managers broke down. Instead of receiving a salary aud acting as 
a check on the local hereditary officers and on the village headmen 
and other revenue farmers, the manager became the farmer of the 
revenue of his sub-division. The f)oat3 of divisional farmers were froi 
year to year put to auction among the Peshwa's attendants. Thol 
office was either given to some dependant or relet to some third 
party, and, as the farmer's term histcd for only a year, there was no 
motive for kindliness, nor any chance of learning what the sub- 
division could pay without injury. In most cases the head farmer 
sublet groups of villages often to the hereditary district officers, and 
the sub-farmer relet his group village by village. The villa^ 
farmer was generally the village headman. If the headman farmi 
the village, he became the absolute master of every one in it. If ho 
refused to farm it, the case wa^ perhaps worse, as the farmer's^ 
undcrbngs levied what they could without knowledge and withoal^f 
pity. In either case the actual state of cultivation was little" 
regarded. A man's rent was fixed by his power to pay, not by the 
size or the character of his holding. No moderation was shown in 
levying the rent. Every pretext for fine and forfeiture, every, 
means of rigour and confiscation were employed to squeeze thi 
people to the utmost, before the farmer^s lease of power came to 

Nasik seems to have suffered less from these exactions than parta 
of the Deccan more completely under the Peshwa's control. Tho 
wild districts to the north and west were too thinly peopled and too 
apt to rise in revolt to be hard pressed, and were left in great measure 
to the management of local chiefs. Aud in the more settled and 
central parts, several estates were granted to the commandants of 
forts and other large landowners, who were able to guard their 
people from irregular exactions.* From 1803, wheu, under the 
treaty of Bassein, the British undertook to protect tho Poshwa, Nasik 
was n-ee from hostile armies and its people were enriched by the 
high prices of grain that ruled in the Deccan. In 1818, when the 
British passed from Chdndor to Trimbak, bringing the hill forts to 
subjection, they found the country equal in beauty and richness to 
any like space in India, a woU-watered plain broken by gently 
rising grounds^ populous villages, and large mango groves. N^ik 



1 Mr. OoldBtnid, 135, Ist November 1S40, paras 10-SI. ^ 

3 The Hou. M. Elphinutone, 25th Octol»er 1819, Bd. 1872, 27-28. 
3 In 1826 bbouC htiU of the Dimlon vilUgca wore attached to the bill forts of 
Mulher, Oliodap, Klmttej, nod TrimUak. Mr. Boyd, 28th November ISS6, in Bom. 
Gov. Rov. Roc. 156 of 1827, 72. Of the 242 villaceB iu the NiUik snb-diviwon, all bat 
mnety-eight wore held by landlords or were attacned to forta. Tho rents were tbK 
by a crop not by a bi/fha aeaeMment. Mr. Boyd, 28th November 1826, in Bom. Got, 
R«r. Rec. 156 of 1327. 65-86. 



a pleasing spot, a considerable town vnih two palaces and some 
liandflomo bnildings, and rich gardens and vineyards. Still the 
appeomnce of rich crops and orchards concealed much debt and 
nagemoDt. In 1821, Mr. Crawford wrote, Chitndor suSerod 
tly under the late government. There was seldom any reg'ular 
emeut. Large sums were exacted not only by Pondhriria and 
r rjbber bands, but by the government itBolf, and to meet these 
ds the heads of the villages were forced to borrow from 

Chapter YUL 




Tlie sixty-four years of British management may be divided into TheBritiih. 
ihroo periods : twenty years from 1818 to 1838, when, except that I8i8-i88t, 
[rayeaoe farming was done away, the old system was as far as 
^^^■p continued ; thirty years (1838-186d)j when the revenue 
PBH^wa« introduced in the south and west ; and fourteen years 
(1868-1882), daring which the revenue survey has been introduced 
in the north, and revised aettlementa in the Niphdd, ChAndor, 
Dindorij Sinnar, N^ik, Yeola, and N^ndgaon sub-divisions of the 
aotitb and west. 

Partly from the fall iu produce prices, partly from the want of 
supervision, the first- twenty years was a time of little advance and 
of much distress. The reduction of the Government demand in the 
firat survey settlements (184-0- 1847) proved a groat relief, and after 
18^ a rise in produce prices caused a rapid spread of tillage and 
growth of wealth, which reached its highest during the American 
war (1863-1865). Since 18*59 several years of cheap produce, 
i^pre than one season of short rainfall, and the plague of locusts 
in 1882 have tried the district. In spite of this, the spread of 
communications and the great permanent rise in produce prices 
have enabled the district to pay without difficulty the largely 
increased rates of the revised settlements. 

At the beginning of British rule the system of farming the i818-ISte. 

revenue ceased. The Dindori hereditary oflBcers were called into 

Dhalia and ordered to prepare a statement, showing for each village 

II the area of arable land and the rates that should be fixed to secure 

^■tevenue equal to the rental of former years. Complete statementa 

^^ke made up and bvjha rates wei*e introduced. But, as was to be 

^^pecbed in returns prepared without local inquiry and with no test 

^^Supervision, they were extremely incorrect.* In the hill villages 

of Niisik and Igatpuri, the Collector ordered the m^mlatddrs and 

writers to measure the lands of each holder and charge them a 

rate varying according to the crop. Returns were prepared as 

required and the settlement was completed. But the establishment 

was new and the men wore untrustworthy and untrained, and there 

> Jlst April 1821. Bom. Oov. Key. Rec. 47 of 1822, 272. 

*Mr. GoldBiQirl. 19, 3Ut M&y 1838. p&ra. 6. caUs these returns 'cgrcgiooaly falso 
in orery respect.* He notices many cases in vhioli a compariauu with the etato of the 
Tillages la 1838 showed the returns to be most iuaccarate. 

[Bomb&j OjuettecT, 

Chapter VIII. 



The BtitUh. 



was no provisioii for supervising or for testing tbeir work. Thoresdt 
was that for a year or two the returns were a dead letter, and ihe 
people distributed tbe village rental over tbe old plots and estatea.' 

In addition to tbe land rent, tbere was a variable tax called tLa 
grass cess, gavat skirastaj bnt taken in cash. It was very useves, 
perhaps a remnant of a former practice of specially assessing graaa- 
yielding villages for tbe support of cavalry.* There were also several 
non-agricultural levies, of which the chief was the shopkeeper's tax, 
or molitarfa. This included a house tax, a shop tax, a loom tax, and 
a tax on trade and crafts. These taxes, though light in villages, were 
heavT in cities and country towns. In the leading craft centres 
the different traders and workers were arranged in sets, or idefds. 
Each set had its headman, chaudhri, who agreed that his set shonld 
contribute a lumpsum. This they distributed among themselves, the 
individual payments varying from half a rupee to eleven rupees a year.' 

In 1820-21 Mr. Crawford, the assistant collector, put a stop to the 
system of crop assessment, and, with the help of two secretaries or 
daflarddrs, measured the land and introduced bigka rates. Even this 
measurement from the want of a trustworthy staff was incomplete 
and inaccurate.* In PAtodaMr. Crawford raised the garden ^u^^a-rate 
from Rs. H to Rs. 2, and ndded a little to the dry-crop ?>t^/ia-rates 
which varied from as. 4 toRs. IJ. The large plot, or mund, villages 
proved on measurement to have from half as much again to twice 
the recorded area, and the full bi^ha rate would have represented a 
crushing increase in rental. Mr. Crawford accordingly arranged 
that one-third of the increased demand should be taken in 1821, 
a fresh third in 1822, and the full amount in 1823.^ In 1823-24 
Mr. Reid, the assistant collector, by introducing the Peahwa's silk 
yard, or reshmt gaz, as the unit of measurement, increased the 

»Mr. GoWamid, 26th March and 11th October IS41, Bom. Gov, Sel. VI. 11. fil. 
Few details of these original Oiftha ratca have bocn obtained. Tbo rates in ths 
villsge of KJioreg&on in Igatptiri were, rice fint cloas Ra. 5, second class K«. 4, third 
class Rb. 3 ; nd^jli, khurdfui, wheat, masury initdna, tur, bdjri, Jniri, and grani, Re. 1 ; 
van and lEun/ai, a«. 8; land newly broken a*. 4. Mr. Ooldamid, Boni.(:kiv. Scl.VI.5l, 
Of the rates in the Nitoik subdivision Mr. Crawford vrote {21st April I82I, Rev. 
Roc. 47 of 1S22, 263} : * Though in aonie Tillages iutoleraUe, the rate is in geiieral 
prefcty well pruportionotL' I a N&aik and JaUipur the garden bifjha rate was Ka. 8 ; 
it varied in other places from Ra. 6^ to Rs. 3. Dry-crop land ^'aried from a#. S 
to Rs. 2,aodaveraffed Ra. 1^. In Dindori, where the revenue had been coUeoted b/ 
a plough tax varying from Rs. 10 to Rs. 20, a plouj^ was taken at 20 Itiffhds and a 
bijfha rate fixed, the hi>;hoat on dry land being Ra. ]|. The old rates in Sinnar 
varied in almost every village. There were four kdnbandi villages, Sinnar, Pimpri, 
PotPimpri. and Vadgaon. isinnarpaid Rs. 9-10 the kfi/i if held by Konbis, or Rs. 9 if 
held by Brihinana ; Pimpri paid 3 cm. to Rs. \\ tlie tioriolM^ bignd*; Cut- Pimpri paid 
Rs. 0|, and Vadgaim Rs. 8i. In Chiindor tho drv.crop rate was fixe<l by Captain 
Briggs at Rs li. and wa« roiluoed by Mr. Crawford to Re. 1 in 1821. Mr. Crawrord, 
aist April 1821, Bom. Gov. Rev. Rec. 47 of 1822, 271. 

> Mr. Bo^d, 15th July 1S27, Bom. Gov. Rev. Rec 207 of 1828, 412-413. Mr. Boyd 
changed this tax into a ohoi^ of U per cent on all village revenues. 

*Bom. Gov. Rev. Letter. 5th November 1823 ; East India Papers, Til. 810-811. 
Id Yoola there were four sets, Gojanitis, MArwiris, gKKwm, nnd weavers. 

4 Bom. Gov. Set. VI. 51*52. In 1821 Mr. Crawford complained that in tbe 
diitriots of PAtoda, Chdndor, .Siaaar. Daipur, Diudori, and Nilaik, only 24,2M bigkds 
hod been brought to account, la his opinion, had the otticers been xeoloua, the 
measurements would have been five times oa large, 2lBt April 1821, Bom. Oct. fier. 
R«o.47of 1822. 202. 

•Mr. Crawford, 2Ut April 1821, Bom. Gov. Rov. Roc 47 of 1822. 274-275. 

camber of hi^hdt by abont twenty-two per cent.' In the same 

year be ordered that all the big plots in a village should be recorded 

m the books, and the area of each plot entered in highds. These 

nitnma were still very rough, in many plncee little more than 

estimates. Two years later (1825-20) Mr. Dunlop did much to 

Ljmprore the system, by ordering that in every village two forma 

^■>uld be filled in, showing the number and names of its plots, or 

^Hd#, their area in bighds, how much was tilled and how much 

^pyBte> the higha rate,, the total assessment, and tho position of the 

^uiflbandmen whether hereditary or yearly holders. At the same time 

a bound day-book and ledger were introduced, instead of the loose 

bits of paper on which tho accounts were formerly kept.- 

Durixig the first three years of British management (I8I8-182I) 

high produce prices prevailed, and the country made a rapid advance. 

^wing the next six years (1821-1827), in spite of the scarcity of 

^B2'i-2o, security of life and property and the rapid spread of tillage, 

^Sbeod millet to fall from lorty-nine to seventy-nine pounds the 

rupee. This was followed by six years (1827-1633) of still cheaper 

grain, millet rupee prices ranging from ninety-four pounds in 1S27 

tl4-4 iu liS32. In 1832 the latter rains failed so completely that very 
;le of the late-crop land was sovra and many of the garden crops 
ferod from want of water. In November 1832 Mr. Andrews, the 
Listant collector, described the state of the people of ChAndor as 
ist wretched. There was no hope of a crop, and the moneylenders 
to dragging their debtors into court to realise what they could 
"before the whole of the debtor's store was spent. When 

t Andrews visited the village of KAnlad, every landholder was 
the Ch^ndor civil court answering complaints brought by his 
liters. In other villages most of the people had left their homes 
in search of work. The few that remained were so wretched that 
Mr, Andrews issued an order removing the duns or mohealsj which 
had been set over them to enforce the payment of Government dues. 
This was a great relief to the people, and would cost Government 
little, as even thongh the duns had been kept almost nothing would 
have been collected. In villages which had a supply of water tho 
distress was less, and the ze-al of the people in growing garden crops 
YOA striking.' Of £41,218 (Rs. 4,12,180) tho rovonuo for collection, 
(Rs. 2,36,990) were collected, £16,363 (Rs. 1,63,630) were 

id, and £1156 (Rs. 11,560) were left outstanding.* 

In the next four j'oars (1833-1837) the Government demand was 
lightened by the abolition of a special water rate in 1835 and of 
sundry small cesses in. 1837, and by a reduction in garden and 
dry -crop rates.^ To lessen the opportunities of exactions the village 

* The Poahwa'a silk yard or gaa waa 18 inches or tasus in garden and 10 inohes or 
Uuu4 in dry-crop land. Bom. Gov. 8el. VL 52. 

'Bom. Gov. Sel. VI. 62. Mr. Goldsmid, 135, lat Novemlier 1S40. paras 22, 28. In 

lilr. Boyd proposed that in every holding one-fourth of the recorded btghd^ 

entered aa falloir or aurpliiH, uUhn. Of the rest ono-tbird Bbould be aBseued 

rate of Re. 1. another third at 8 of., and the rest at 4 u«. But aa this 

wai complicated and left openings for fraud, it does not aeem to have been 

ont. » Mr. W. C. Andrews, 24th Kovember 1832. 

Gov. Rev. Roc, 548 of 1834, 75-79. These figurea are for Niaik, Sinnar, 

idor, and Dindori, for 1832^3. They do not include village cxpe&fiea, Rs, 59,290. 

Got. Kev. Rvo. 692 of 1836, 25 ; Bom. Gov. Sel. VI. 54. 

Chapter VTII, 


Xlie British. 

1818' 18SS, 


(Bomb&y Qasettaer. 



Chapter VIII. 


Xbo Britiah. 




accoant&nts were made to hold office for three years.' A more 
complete village etatement of areae and aasessmente waa 
prepared^ and landlioldere' receipt books with nambered and stamped 
pages and a detailed record of the state of their payments were 
introduced. The pages of the village day-book were also numbered 
and Btampedj and the nse of a paged and stamped receipt-book was 
introduced to show what payments had been made by the village 
officers to the sub-divisional treasury." In the western villages the 
watchman of the grain-yard was paid by Government instead of by 
the village, and the order was withdrawn that no grain was to be 
removed till security was given for the payment of the Government 

For several years the district officers had been complaining that 
the assessment rates were too highj that there was no security 
that they corresponded with the capabilities of the land, and that 
it was time that the labour, annoyance, and expense of yearly 
measurements should cease. Mr. Goldsmid proposed that in rice 
lands, where the boundaries of fields were well marked^ the 
fields should be measured and mapped, the quality of the soil and 
its advantages of position should be appraised, and a rate fixed 
to include all extra cesses and remain unchanged for thirty years. 
Dry-crop lands in the plains should be divided into numbers, 
their crop-bearing powers and advantages appraised, and a rate fixed 
to include all cesses and reuiaiu unchanged for thirty years. In 
the poor western uplands, which after two or three years cropping 
had to lie fallow, it would in his opinion be a waste of labour and 
money to divide the Ituids into small numbers and mark off their 
boundaries. Instead of attempting this he snggested that they 
should bo parcelled into large plots marked with natural boundaries 
and charged at a lump rental or M&fi, leaving the villagers to arrange 
among themselves what share each should contribute to the lump 
sum. The lump rental was to be snbject to revision at the end of five 
years.*'' Tliese suggestions were approved and the survey was begun 
under Mr. Goldsmid and Lieutenant Davidson in 1838. Bad as 
the state of the district was in 1836, the people were still further 
reduced by the failure of rain in 1838. In one important respect 
the pressure of this failure of crops weis less severe than in the 1832 
scarcity. It was followed by a considerable rise in grain prices. 
But as a rule the husbandmen had no store of grain. They were 
extremely poor, living from hand to month, hi the majority of 
cases the profits went to the grain-dealers.* 

The following statement, which does not include Mdlegaon Feint 
or the western hill villages, shows that during the first twenty-two 
years of British rule (1818-1840) the land revenue collections varied 
from £22,000 (Rs. 2,20,000) in 1824-25 to £04,900 (Rs. 0,49,000) 
in 1837-38, and averaged £53,100 (Rs. 5,31,000) ; and remissions 
variedfrom£200(Rs. 2000) in 1818-19 to £38,000 (Rs. 3,80,000) 
in 1824-25 and averaged £10,279 (Rs. 1,02,790). Excluding four 
years of famine or grievous scarcity, 1824, 1829, 1832, and 1838, the 

I Bom. Gov. ScL VI. 53. » Bom. Gov. Bel. VI. 53. • Bom. Gov. 8«L VL 25i. 
* Mr. Tibart, 0th Kovember 1839, in Bom. Gov, Bov. Bee, 1092 of 1840, 3-4. 



NASIK. 215 


ihangea ia revenue show that tlie collecHons rose from £57,300 

Chapter TtsM 

R«. 5,73,000) in 1818-19 to £63,350 (Rs. 6,33,500) in 1825-26, 

L&Bd 9 


kod fell in the next. five years to £44/250 (Rs. 4,42,500) in 1831-32. 

rb-v then rose to £01,150 (Rs. C,ll,500) in 1833-34 and again fell 

Loud Revoau*.^ 

•>00 (Rfi. 6,10,000) in 1330-37. In 1837-38 and 1639-40 they 

. d to about £64.900 (Rs. 6,41».000) which waa the highest 

ram collecte<i daring these twenty-two years : 


Ndsik Liind Rwenue, 1S18-1840. 








1830-11. 1 































52?* :: } 






















IMMMl ^ ... 












BMAC ••« .« 


















77 .wo 



f«to4» ^ ^ 













BkfUn ., 










ISr*::: z 

TcftaX ... 

























88.600 0.17.600 







istt-ts. 1 


1624-36. 1 






























SnpliU ... ) 

yvma ... J 












OtftjMiur ». 

* 1.70.000 





















Skunu »i M>. 












triifk ... .. 











Hfiete „. ... 












//, KhAtui€9K 

. ^^^1 

BA«Ud ... ... 
























Abbom „. 

T^itlU ... 


— ::: — 














2,20,000 S.80.000 














Coll 00- 

in U- 













i.— a*i(i««fna^ar. 










Volar ... J 


1 4fl.0OO 
* 1. 70.000 












SI .00 


& 18,00 












> iOO 

Q 69.00 











D U.00 












) K60 




































C 86.0t 

) 900 





AWmb* .- ... 

















01,600 fl.70,00 




IBombay Oaz«tt«erJ 




Land Revenue. 






KdJtUe Land J^evrnuf^ 1818 - IS^—coniinned, 







iM.* 1 








KIphAd ... 1 
A'ocar ... 1 



Slnnfcr ... 





ToUl ... 






r 4«,ooo 

* 1,70.000 







































Bi:a DiviBioBi, 





18M 36. 


ISSfrJT?. 1 
























NlphAd ... > 



) 40,000 

M, 70,000 
1. 44.000 























1, 16,000 

















Abboaa ... 

Total ... 















81 .600 






19,600 », 46,600 








Nlpb&d ... I 
Voifcf ... f 
Cbindor ... 




PUodft ... 





Total ... 












I 46,000 

' 1.70,000 


















































At tho time of the 6rst survey settloment (1840) Chitndor with 
its petty division Niph^d, Dindori, Sinnar, N4aik, and Kdvnai 
or Igatpuri, formed a anb-collectorate under Alimadnagar; part of 
Nandgaon, and Yeola wore included in the P^toda eub-division of 
Ahmadnagar ; Mdlegaon including a part of Niindgaon and B^liii 
or Satdna including Kalvan were iu Kb^udeab; and Peint w 




native state. For survey purposes, the plain or desk and the hill or 
cMu/; ^lli^s wore formed into two charges, the plain being placed 
under the survey dopartinent, and the hill-land under the assistant 
coUector Mr, Tytlt^r. The survey was begun in the plain country 
in 18JJ.S-30 in the Ch^ndor sub-oivision, and brought to a close by 
the settlement of the Patoda sub-division in 1847. The Khandesh 
portion of Ntisik remained unsettled until 1868. 

In the Kasik sub-coUectorate, 3G9 plain villages were settled 
between 1840 and 1845. Of these 126 were in Chandor, sisty.three 
in l>indori. 111 in Sinnar, and sixty-nine in NAsik. They occupied 
an arua of 1295 square miles or 829,409 acres, 578,853 of which 
were of Government assessed arable land.^ The financial effect of 
the survey settlement in this area is given in the following 
»(atement. Compared with the former total rental the survey 
figures show a reduction of fifty-five per cent in Chindor, of thirty- 
two per cent in Diudori, of fiity per cent in Sinnar, and of forty-five 
per ceut in Ntisik^ or an average of 45J per cent for the snb- 
oollectorate. Compared with the collections at old rates in the 
previous year, the new assessment showed a reduction of thirty per 
cent in Ch^ndor. of twenty in Dindori, of forty-one in Sinnar,* and 
of thirty-four in Ndsik, or an average reduction of thirty-one per 
cent over the entire sub-coUectorate. Compared with the average 
coll-o.-tions between the beginning of British rule and the survey 
: rit, the survey figures give a decrease of four per cent in 

( : , of fifteen per cent in Sinnar, and of fifteen per cent in 

NAsik ; in Dindori they show an increase of 4§ per cent. The final 
resolt of the survey rates, when the whole arable area should be token 
for tillage, would be an increase on past collections of nineteen per 
cent in C'hiindor, of twenty -two in Dmdori, of twenty-one in Sinnar, 
and i>f oighloon in Nfisik, or an average increase of twenty percent 
for the whole sub-collectorate': 






1840- 184£, 

1 ITdiUt Svh-CQlUctoratf Plain Villaffcs, ms. 














Und Id 























Mr. t»»y. 5th M«\h 1845, in NAsik Survey Report, 910 of llHh October 1874. 

> Tot th* group of forty -thret; viUji;i'i>« only. Captain Pavidaoo, of 10th April 
45, III :■ /ik Survey Rojiorl 1)10 of I9th Octolier 1874. 


9 CApiAin Davidson, 6 of Ititb April 1945, ptuik 14. 


(Bombay Qi 



Chapter VIIL 



1840 'ISiS, 

Ndaik Sub'ColUctorate SeUtemmt, 1840 - 1845, 






On pr«yi- 







Total ... 



















Survey returns of 1844 show that exchi.sive of the to's^nof Ndsik 
the sab-collectorato, that in Chandor Dindori SinnAr and Ndaiki 
contained 27,885 peopl^i 28,354 bullocks and bafTaloeB^ 9240 oh 
and goats, 951 horses^ 823 carts, and29G4 ploughs.^ 

The following are the available details of the survey settlement 
the plain or desk villages. 

l*he new rates were introduced into the petty diviaiona of Niphdd 
and VozarinChdndor by Mr. Groldsmid in 1840-41, and were extended 
to the remaining villages of that su.b-division by Lieutenant Daridaon 
in the following year.' Chilndor at that time formed the eastern 
division of the half of the sub-collectorate which lay north of the 
Goddvari. It was bounded on the north by the Chdndor range, 
on the east by P^toda, on the south by Sinnar, and on the 
west by Dindori. It contained 126 Government villages and covered 
an area of about 222,700 acres.^ The measurement of all and the 
classification of forty-one of the villages were finished by July 1840. 
The settlement was introduced into the villages of Niphdd and 
Vozar in 1840-41, and into the rest of the sub-division in 1841-42. 

The diagram annexed to the survey report for the petty divisions 
of Niph^d and Vozar shows that, during the twenty-two years ending 
1839-40, of a total nominal rental of £4600 (Rs. 46,000). the 
collections had varied from £450 (Rs. 4500) in 1820-30 to £2700 
(Rs. 27.000) in 1825-26 and 1827-28, and averaged £1850(R8. 18,500), 
and remissions had varied from £100 (Rg. 1000) in 1821-22, 1823-2*. 
and 1825-26 to £1700 (Rs. 17,000) in 1824-25, and averaged £448 


1 Captain DavidBon, 47 of 29tliNareTnber 1S45. in KAbUc Snrre^Roport 9IOof 1874. 

S Liimteiuuit Davidsna (2lBt October 1841) writes to the Revenue Commlsaioner, 
'Kxoept eight small villages aada portion of the garden land, the survey of the rhAndor 
■nb-diviaion has beeu completed, aad everything prepared for the introduction i.>f tba 
new rates, which, owing to the distressed state ofsome of the vi Uages, should hv brought 
into operation sufficiently early to form the basis of the approaching yearly settlemeat,' 
Bom. Gov. Sel. CXXX. part II. 66. 

3 There were besides twenty seven alienated Tillages with a total rental of Ks. SS^TOO, 
The alienated revenue in Government villages amount«d to Rs. 35,f>'^. Mr. Goldsmid 
doabted the validity of the title by which many alienated villaees and agrcatporiioa' 
ofrent-freoland in Chindor wero (l&W)) held. Bom. Gov. Sel. CXXX. part 1I.42,43J 

* The details are : In the first four yeara of British mlt, GoLLKcnoNs rose from 
about K9. 18,000 in 1818-19 to Rs. 24,500 in 1S21-22; and, with a fall in the next year 
of About Rs. 2000, they rose to Rs. 26.000 in 1823-24. Then came the year of famine, 
1824-25, when the revenue fell to Rs. 7000. lo the following yew it roM ta 



Tlie diag^xn for the Ch^ndor mimlatd^r's division shows that 
daring the twenty-three years ending 1840-41, of a total nominal 
rental of £17,000 (Es. 1,70,000), the collections had varied from 
£2100 (Ba. 21,000) in 1829-80 to £9300 (R«. 98,000) in 1840-41 
and averaged £6710 (Rs. 67,100), and remissions had varied from 
£200 (Be. 2000) in 1833-34 to £6000 (Ra. 60,000) in 1824.25 and 
•Twraged £1596 (Rs. 15,960). » 

In framing his rates for the petty divisions of NiphiLd and Vosar, 
Mr. Goldsmid was guided by a consideration of the rates fixed in 
other parts of tho country, the existing nominal assessment in 
Niph^d and Vozar, the payments for a series of years, tho effect 
which these payments seemed to have had on the people, the 
change in the valae of money, and the existing state of tillage, 
population, and markets. These considerations led him to propose 
the following ratos which were sanctioned by Government. In 
dry- crop lands, nine classes ranging from a maximum acre-rate of 
2#. (Re. 1) to a minimum of B^d, {as, 2\); in channel-watered garden 
lands, twelve classes ranging from a maximum of 16a. (Rs. 8) to a 
minimum of Gs. (Rs. 3) ; and in well- watered garden lands, £ve classes 
ranging from a maximum of Bs. (Rs. 4) to a minimum of 4«. (Rs. 2). 
The survey rental at these rates amounted to £2192 (Rs. 21,920), 
that is compared with the old total rental (Rs. 46,000), a 
redaction of 6fty-two per cent. Compared with the collections 
(Rs. 20,500) of 1839-40, rhe collections TRs. 17,607) of 1840-41 at 
survey rates showed a redaction of fourteen per cent, a reduction 

Chapter^ VIIL 



Survey. H 

Bs. 37,000, Again feU to Rs. 19.000 in 1&2G.27, and rose Ui Rs. 27,000 in 1827-28. 
Iq the next two Vfara it Aeain Tell to Rs. 4500 in 1829-30. It then roM in the 
foUowuig year to Ra. 19,500, and fell in the neict two y«Ani to R«. 5d00 in 1&32-33, 
Since 1833 there w&a & rise and fall in every alternate yeivr, the highest amoant* 
collected being Rs. 22,000 in 1833-34, Rs. 23,500 iu 1537-38, and Rs. 20,500 
in 1839-40, and the Iowe«t Ri. 16,000 in 1836-37, and Rs. 7600 in 1838-39. The 
avenge coUcctioos during this whole period of twenty-two yean (1818- 1840) 
amonnted to Rs. 18,fi00 out of a nominal rental of Ra. 46,000. During the same 
period Remiasionh varied almost as mach as ooUeotions. In the first two y^n 
none were wanted, while in the next three years they rose to Rs. 2500, llien 
with a (kU to R«. 1000 in the following year, they rose to Rs. 17,000 in 1824-25 
and fell to Bs. \000 in 1825-26. In the remaining fourteen years they amounted 
to Ke. 9500 in 1826-27 and 1831 32 ; Bs. 0000 in 1838-39 ; Rs. 6500 ld 1830-31 and 
1836-37; Rs. 5500 in 1935-36; Rs. 5000 in 1834^35 and 1839-40; Rs. 4000 in 
1828-29 ; Ra. 3500 in 1832-33 and 1833-34 ; and Ra. 2500 in 1837-38. Diagram in 
Bom. Gov. Sel. CXXX. part II. 41,60. 

1 The details are : In the ^rst four years Collectionb steadily rose from Rs. 70,000 
in 1818-19 to Rs. 83,000 in 1321-22. They then began to fall till they reached 
Ra. 23»000 in 1824-25. In the next year they rose to Rs. 87,000 and again fell to 
Be. 65,000 in 1826-27. Th<*n rising to Rs. 87,000 in 1827-28, they again fell in the 
next twoyears to Rs. 21,000 in 1829-30. In the next nioe years the highest coLleo* 
tions wew Rs. 81,000 in 18:i:J-34 and Rs. 87,000 in 1837-38 ; and the lowest Rs. 27.000 
in 188248 and Rs. 42.000 in 1838-39. They then rv]so to Rs. 93,000 in 1840 41. The 
average oouections daring this whole period of twenty-three years (1818- 1841) 
aaottDted to Rs. 67.100 out of a toUl rental of Rs. 1,70,000. During theoe 
year* Rkvibsioms varied as much as collections. In the first two years they were 
DOt required. In the next two years they rose to Rs. 12,000 in 1821-22, and in 
two more years fell to Rs. GOOD in 1823-24. Then came the bad year of 1824-25 
when they ainoantetl to Rs. 60,000. In the remainiDg years they were Rs. 9000 
in 1825 26, Rs. 31,000 in 1826-27, Ra, 13,000 in 1827-28, Ra. 15,000 in 1828-29, 
Ba. 8000 in 1829-30. Rs. 25,000 iu 1830-31, Rb. 31,000 in 1831-32. Ra. 18.000 ia 
1832-33, Rs. 2000 in 1833-34, Rt, 13,000 in 1834-35 and 1835-36, Bs. 21,000 in 
1636.37. Rs. 8000 in 1837-38, Rs. 32,000 in 1838-39, Ks. 21,000 in 1839-40, and 
Eb. 12,000 ia 1840-41. Diagram in Bom. Gov. Sel. CX^X. port XI. 48,68. 

tBombfty Omzflttaer, 



Chapter VIII. 

Admin ifitration. 


1840- IS4S. 


wHcli in Mr. GoWsmid's opioion the state of the villages rcqnired. 
In sanctioning these rates Government noticed that the rodnction o£ 
fifty-two per cent in the whole demand was to a great ext^tnt nominal, 
as the old total had never been realised. The actual sacrifice n-oulj 
probably be small, as average past collections for the twenty-two yean 
ending 1839-40 amounted to between £1800 and £1900 (Rs. 18,000 
and Ra. 1 9,000), and under the new rates, when the whole arable arc»j 
was under tillage, the revenue would be £2192 (Ra. 21,920). Aai 
uniform system would bo a great relief to the landholders, who 
suffered severely from the exactions of hereditary district and 

The same rates were extended to the remaining part of ihi 
sub-division in 1841-42. Compared with the old nominal rental of] 
£17,03S (Rs. 1,70,380), the survey rental of £7637 (Rs. 70.370) on 
the entire arable area showed a reduction of fifty-fivu per cent, aadJ 
compared with the average of col lections (Rs. 07,103) during the. 
twenty-three years ending 1840-41 j an increase of thirteen por cent*] 






















ToUl ... 



A., p. 

9 8 



4 7 10 
4 13 S 



S 16 I 

8 iV s 








.- 1 


7 6 



i S 3 

14,767 ■ 


S 14 D 


TSa.Ml I.W,740 

After Chandor the survey settlement was introduced (1842-43) 
into the sixty-three plain villages of Dindori. The survey 
measurement and clastjiScation of this part of the snb-collectorate 
wore finished by October 1842. At that time Dindori formed the 
western division of the half of thesnb-collectorato which lay north of 
the Goddvari. It was bounded on the north by tiio Chiludor range, 
on the east by Chdndor, on the south by Ndsik, and on the west ny 
the Peint state. As Dindori touched on the west the hill tract 
that stretches from Trimbak to the fort of Saptashring, it was more 
within the influence of the hills, and had a less uncertain rainfall 
than Chdndor. The diagram annexed to the survey report showa 
that during the twenty-four years ending 1841-42, of a nominal 
rental of £10,800 (Rs. 1,03,000) the collections had varied from 

I Mr. Golilsmid, 135. lat Xoreraber 1840. and I-ieut. Davidwrn, 2l«t October 1841, 
Bom. Oov.Sel. CX XX. part II.. 40.-('>, 67. Mr. Reid, Chief Secretary, to Revenue 
CoramiMiouer, 093 of 20tli March 1841. Ditto, 65. 

3 Bom. Gov. Sel. CXXX. part II. 68. In the entire mib-divinion the fcverago pftit 
coUf»ctioi)nb«forethu8urreyacttlem(!nt amounted to Rs. 01,227. while the coUoctioovj 
At «urvey ratea in 1843 amounted to R». V3,309« Bom. Uov. Rev. H«c; l(j08 oi 1844., 




*ioA n^q. 36,000) in 1829-30 to £7800 (Bs. 78,000) in 1841-42 and 
fifiOOO (Us. 60.000), and remisaiona had varied from £200 
tl 1 in 1822-23,1823-24. 1827-28, 1833-34, 1840-41, and 

1 to £3700 (Rs. 37,000) in 1824-25, and averaged £737 

(i;^. 7o70).i 

Sarvey retnms of 1841 show that the sirty-three plain villagoa of 
Dindori had 23,463 people, 29,470 bullocks aud biiilaloes, lOoC 
horses, o006 sheep. 05S carts, aud 942 ploughs.^ 

Its nearness to the Sahyrf.dris made Dindori loss liable to dronght 
th&n Clulndor. At the same time ita old assessment was much lighter 
than in Ch4udor; for, while the comparative richness of the soils of 
Ditji'^n and Chandor was as twelve to thirteen, the averaije acre 
laie in Dindori was only 2». 2^(1. {Rs. 1-1-6) compared with 3#. Hd. 
(R». l-TJ-O) in Oh^iudor, or forty per cent less. Besides this, two- 
thirds of the Dindori people added to their earnings a3 husbandmen, 
by bringing timber from the Sahyitdri forests to the local marts 
from which it was carted to Ndsik or to Ahmadungar. Owing to thoaa 
causes the collections in Diuduil, during seasons of unusual failure, 
were never so far below the average, nor those in good years so far 
above tho average as in Chd.ndor. As regards markets the two 
6ub-divis>ions were much on a par. Its more certain rainfall was a 
r>u for fixing higher ratos in Dindori than in Chandor. But the 
erence was so sliglit that Lieutenant Davidson did not think 
it prudent to impose higher rates. At the Chdndor rates the 
Dindori survey rental amounted to £7450 (Rs. 74.600). The 
financial effect of thia settlement was a rednction of thirty per cent 
on the old nominal rental of £10,800 (Rs. 1,08,000), aud when the 
entire arable area should be brought under tillage, a rise of about 
o per cent on ftvei*age collections. Compared with the* 
: > (I^. 78,000) of 1841-42, the collectioua (Ra. 63,000) at 
enrver rates in 1842-43 showed a reduction of about twenty per 






Tho deUils are: Witli a fall in 1810-20 from Ra. 62,000 to Rb. 57,000. the 

= roAC to Ra. 70.000 in I82S-24, and fell the next year (1824-*25J to 

F: In the next four years they varieii from I\h. (iO.OOO in 1826-1^ to 

lu. ; i in 1827.28. They then foil to Ra. 3(J,000 in 1829 ,W. and, rising to 

H^ 54.0IN) thu (t.llinring year, they again fell to Ks. 41,000 in \^i:^2^:^3, and rote to 
ftd. 63.000 in 183:^-34. bince then, except in ]834-:tr) M-hen they amounted to 
Ra- 6O,0tK» mid *u 18:t8-39 to K». 47,000, there wan a steady increase nutil thev reached 
Ra. 78,O<)0 in 1841-42. The average colUotiima during this whole period of tireiity. 
fourvean (1818-1842) aoiouiitvd tu Ha. CO.OOOout of u. uonimal rental uf Ra. 1,08,000, 
In t&e firai four yeara no Remissions wore granted. In tho next fonr years, 
c«pt in 1824-25 when they wore Ra. 37,000, they varied Eroni Rs. 20OO in 
i-23 to Ra. 6000 in lH-2.V2ti. In the next sevon yearfi, except in 18?7-28 when 
y were Rs. SOiX) and in !82fl-.10 when they were Ra. 24,000, they varied from 
7000 in 18:10-31 bo Rs. 15,000 in 1832-33. In the remaining nine year*, oxrept 
iD 1838-39 when ther were Rs. 22.000, they varied from Ra. 2000 in 1833-34. 1840 41, 
n-' ' "'■ v_r to Rs GOOO in 1834-3.5. Lieatenant Davidson, 23, Uth October 1842, 
F -1. CXXX. part II. ,'.-82. 

V. Rev. Rec. 16'J8 of 1844.201. 
•) Id Ciiandor the redaottoD on the old total rental was fifty per cent and the inoreiue 
on a\-crag« collections before the 6nr>*cy settlement was tM'enty-six per cent^ Bom. 
Oct. &tL CXXX. 82. The average coLlectiona before the survey settlement amounted 
to Ri. (50.048, while the collections at sur^'ey rates amounted m 1843 to lis, 62,847. 
Bom, Gov. Rev. Kec. 1668 of lUit 199. 


[BomUj OaMttMri 



Chapter VIIL 



Dmdari SeUUnmi, 2841-43. 



























All«iiu«l ... 
DUpttUMi .., 


Toul ... 




B 8 
10 » 



11, 874 





4 6 « 

4 1 S 






!1 14 U 











6 » 



4 » B 



8 > 6 




The survey was next introduced into Sinnar. Forty-three villages 
were settled in 184-3-44 and the remaining sixty-eight in the 
following year. On the north, Sionar was separated from Cbandor 
by the Godirari, on the east and south it was bounded by Kopargaon 
and Sangamuer, now both in Ahmadaagar, and on the west by N^ik. 

In the group of forty-three villages, during the twenty-five 
years ending 1842-43, out of a total nominal rental of £11,500 
(Ra. 1,15,000), collections varied from £1400 (Ra. 14.000) in 1824-25 
to £7600 (Rs. 75,000) in 1840-41, and averaged £5000 (Rs. 50,000), 
and remissions varied from about £50 (Rs. 500) in 1818-19, 1819-20, 
1833-34, and 1835-36, to £3200 (Rs. 32,000) in 1824-25, and averaged 
£840 (Rs. 8400) .i 

The diagram for the entire Sinnar sub-division shows that daring 
the twenty-five years ending 1842-43, of a nominal rental of 
£28,000 (Ra. 2,80,000), collections varied from £3260 (Rs. 32,500) 
in 1824-25 to £10,000 (Rs, 1,60,000) in 1842-43 and averaged 
£11,400 (Ra. 1,14,000), and remissions varied from £200 (Rs. 2,000) 
in 1818-19 and 1319-20, to £7000 (Rs. 70,000) in 1824-25, and 
averaged £2080 (Rs. 20,800) .« 

1 The dotails of the group of forty-thrcA villages show thftt, in the first five yeu9 
the CoLLBcrioxs rose steadily from lis. 40.000 m 1S18-19 to Ra. 57.0t)0 in 1822-i23. 
They then fell to Ks. 14,000 in 18*24-25. unci, after rising to Rs. 6:i,()00 in tho next 
yeAf. ogaia^fiiil to Ha. 50,000 in 182627. They again rom to Rfl. AiS.OOO in 1827-2$ 
And fell in the next two years to Ks. 19,000. Annin. with an increase of Rs. 22,000 io 
1S30 31, they fell to Ra. 26,000 in 1832-33. They rose in the foUon-ing year to 
Rx. 61,000, and. dunog the next nine years 1834- 184H. varied from Rfl. 42,000 io 
1838-39 to Ra. 75,000 in 1840-41. The average coLIeotiona duhng the whole period 
of twenty-five years amounted to a Uttle uver Kv. fiO.OOO of a nominal rentsil of 
lU. 1,15,000. RsursjiioNS varied a« greatly aa collections. In the firat five years 
they steadily rose from about Ud. 500 m 1818-19 to Ks. GOOO in I8'.'2-23. In 1S*J4.25 
they amoanttid to Kji. 32,000 ; in 1829..'tO to Rs. 20,000 ; in 1832-33 to Ra. 17.000 ; 
in 1828-29 to Rs. 14.000 ; in 1831-32 U) Ks. 13.000 ; iu 1841-42 to Ra. 11.000 ; and. 
except in 1833-34 and 1835-36, when they were Ra. 500, in the rcmaioing yean th«y 
Taried from Rs. 3000 to Hs. 5000. Captain Davidaon, 27, 2ad November 1843, Bom. 
Gov. Rev. Iteo. 1668 of 1844, 179-192. 

S The details of the entire Sinnar Bub-diviaion are: In the first five years the 
Collections steadilv rose from R8.95,000in 1818-19 to R& 1,30,000m lb22•2.^ They 
then began to fall till they reached Rs. 32.500 in 1824-25. Id the next year they 
rose to Kb. 1.31,000. and then falling in one year and rising in another, they fell to 
Rs. 56.000 in 1829-30. In the following yoar they rose to Ra. 98,000, in the next 
two year* fell to R«. 65,000, and again rose to Bs. 1,40,000 in 1833-34. Since then, 
with a fall in one year and arise in another, they amounted to Rs. 1,43,000 in 1837-38 ; 
and then faUing to Ks. 94,000 in 1&38-39, again rose to fU. 1,52,000 in 1839-40, In 






Most of the Sinnar landholders were (1843) sank m the deepest 
pOTerty. Their very small household and personal expenditure, 
ersrytjung in fact eeemod to show that the assessinent exhausted 
Ibe whole profit of their land, barely leaving them a fair retorn for 
their own and their cattle's labour together with the cost of field 
tools and seed.^ 

The survey rates of Chfindor^ and Dindori were extended to 
Sinnar, and as the Sinnar soil was poorer its actual assessment waa 
much lower than in the two other pub-diviaions.* Compared with 
the former nominal rental of £11,468 (Ra. 1,14,680), the total 
survey rental of iho group of forty-three villages amounted to £5450 
(Rs. 54,500) ur a decrease of over fifty-two per cent. The collections 
the first year of survey settlement (1843-44), amounting to 
88 (R«. 42,880), showed an immediate decrease of forty-one per 
t on the revenue (Rs. 73^101) of the previous year and of fifteen 
per cent compared with the average revenue (Rs. 50,461) of the 
past twenty-five years (1818-1843). When the whole arable area 
fihould be brought under tillage the survey rental would show an 
increase of seven per cent over the average collections in the twenty- 
five years ending 1843. The financial effect of the survey rates on 
the entire Bub-division of Sinnar waa a decrease of fifty per cent on 
the old nominal rental. Compared with the collections (Rs. 1,60,000) 
of 1842-43, the survey collections (Rs. 82,000) of 1844-45 show a 
decrease of forty-eight per cent. If the whole arable area was 
brought under tillage the survey rental (Rs. 1,38,142) would show 
&n increase of twenty-one per cent compared with the average 
collections (Rs. 1,13,954) in the twenty-five years ending 1842-43.* 

The next part of the district into which tho survey was introduced 
a group of sixty-nine villages in the plain part of Nasik.* 

Chapt«r 7i 



the next throe yeaiB th«y were Rs. 1,45,000 in 1841-42 and Ha. l.fiO.OOOio 1840-41 
and 1812-43, The average coUectiona dariug tbe whole period ot tweuty-five yotri 
(1818-1843) amounted to about lU. I,U,(K>0 of a uommai rental of Rs. 2,80,000, 
During the same period Rsmisbions also varied conaid^r&bly. A rise from Ra. 2000 in 
1818-19 to Rm, 15.000 in 1821-22 was followed by a fall to Ks. tKKK} in 1823 24. In 
t8M-2». the amount wu lU. 70,000 ; in 1825-26, Rs. 13.000 ; in 1826-27. R«. 28,000; 
in 1827-28. K*. 18,000; iu 132.S.29, U». 28.000; in 1829-30, Rs. 50,000; in 18,10-31, 
U». 23,000; in 18:{132. Rs. 30.000; in 1832 33, Ks. 40,(K)0 ; in 1833-34, no 
iuiona; to 1834 35. Ra. 20.()O0 ; in 183536, R». 4000; id lS3rt-37, Hn. 25,000; 
1837-38, Rs, 10.000; iu 1S3S 39. Ka. 13.000: in 183it-40. Rf. 11.000; in 1S40-41, 
18,000; iu 1341-42, Ka. 30.000; and iu 1842-43. iU. 10,000. CapUiu Davidson, 
3), 17th t>f!tnljHr I8U. 

1 Mr. Bell. Siib-collector, 365 of 13th November 1843, para II. in Sinnar Sonrey 
Bep. 843 of IB74. and in Bora. Gov. Rev. Rce. 1G68 of 1844, 173-175. 

S They were, dry-land Re. 1 to antioji 2^ ; garden, chauuel-watered, Ks. 8 to Bs, 3, 
and well- watered. IU. 4 to Rs. 2. 

3 The average survey acre rate on the dry-orop Und of Oh^dor was Ra. 0-9-8, 
while the average rale of the drr-orop land of Stunar was Ra. 0-7-10. Surrey 
Rep. 27 of 1*43. para 14, in Survey Report 843 of 1874. 

« Mr. Bell. 3G5 of 13th November 1843, para 7- The rednntion in ChAndor was 
fiity-tive per rent, and in Dindori it was only 31) per cent. Captain Davidson, 31 of 
17 th Octo^«^^ 1H44, para 3. Captain Davidson, 35, 23rd November 1844, paraa. 22, 28 
in Survey Rod. 843 of 1874. 

A The Skiik sub-diviaion consisted (1845) of 112 villages, of which sixty-nine plain 
and fifteen hill villngt<fl were Government property, ana twenty-eight were alienat- 
ed. Koiign K. J. Day, 5th UaruU 1845, parao. 5 and G. in NAsik Sun*ey Rep. 6 of 
16th AprU 1845. 


Chapter YIII. 





were begim in 

Tliey were settled in 1844-45. The measurements 
18I-3 and finished in 184-4, and the classitication was begun m 
April and finished in December 1844. The Nasik aub-divisioo waa 
bouDdod on the north by Dindori, on the north-east by Chdodor, oa 
the east by Sinuar, on the south-east by the Akola sub-division of 
Alimadnagar, on the south by the Eavnai sab-divisioUy and on tha 
west by the Trimbak petty-diviaion. The total area of the sab- 
division was estimated at about 354 square miles or 226,G04 acres. 
Of these 231 square miles or 147,826 acres were occupied by 
sixty-nine Grovernraent plain villages, 32 J square miles or 20,700 
acres by fifteen Government hill villages, and 903 BQ^uire miles or 
56,078 acres by twenty-eight alienated villages. During tJia 
twenty-sir years ending 1843-44, of a nominal rental of £14,600 
(Ra. 1,40,000) collections had varied from £2G0O (Rs. 20,000) 
in 1824-26 to £8800 (Rs. 88,000) in 1842-43, and averaged £tJ750 
(Rs. 67,500), and remissions had varied from £50 (Rs. 500) in 
1833-34 to £4400 (Rs. 44,000) in 1824-25, and averaged £765 
(Rs. 7650).> 

Tbe lands of the Nasik sub-division, which were shut in by hilla 
on the west, south, and part of the east, were rough in the west and 
south, and gradually grow more level towards the north and east. 
The country was bare of trees, except in the south where were large 
mango groves. Some of the villages on the north bank of the 
Godavari were famous for their rich black soil. The drainage 
from its hills gave Nasik a bettor water-supply than either Sinnar 
or Chandor, though the deep channels prevented the water being 
much used for irrigation.'' The rainfall was heavier and leas 
changeable than either in t)h&ndor or Sinnar. Nasik was also 
better off for roads than the neighbouring sub-divisions. The whole 
of the traffic between the iuland garts and the coast passed through 
K^ik by two main routes to Agra and to NAgpur. Along the 
Bombay-Agra road, which pasi^Qd through eighteen miles of the 
west of the district, an immense quantity of groceries, EngUsh 

1 The diAgram annexed to the sorvoy report ehowa thnt during tho first four yesn 
of British rulo the Coli.bitkin.s rose from about Rs. 70,000 in 1SI8-I0 to ftboot 
Ua. 77.MHJ in 1821-32. In tho next yeiw they fell to Ro. 67.000 and roec to 
lU. 8*2,000 in 1823-24. Then came thcye&r of famine 1S24-25, when the ravenaa 
realised atnoanted to about Hb. 26.000 only. In the next year the cellectiona me to 
B«. 80,000, and, with a fall of abont Ra. 14,0OU in lS2ti-27, amounted to Ra. 80.0(K» tn 
1827-28. In the next two years they fell to Rs. 37,0<H), nnd, after riaiug to Rs. (H.OOO 
in the following year, a^mn fell to Ks. 30,600 iu l)>32-.t3. another bad year. Stno« 
then, except in 1838-31t when they were only Rs. 38,000, there was a steady increaitf 
until the collections amounted to about Ri. 87,000 in 184l)-44 the year before survey. 
During tho same period RiCMiiifiiONS also varied considerablv. In tho first four yean 
thera were no remisaions. In 1822-23 they amounted to'Ha. 10,000; in 1824-25 to 
aboat Ra. 44,000; io 1836-27 to Hs. 10,000 ; in 1828 29 and 1829-30 to Rs. 15.000 ; 
in 1832-33 to Rs. 9500; in 1838 39 to Rs. 20,000; in 1841-42 to Ks. 8^00 ; and in 
the remaining years they varied from Rs. fiOO to Ra. (5600. CaptflfTi '• ■ ' -n 6, 
16th April lS4r», ajid Mr. Day. oth MaruU 1845, Bom. (Jov. Rev. Rcc. ! 

2 There were ninety-five dams, hauilhiirdA^ and 1 16fi wells in NAaik, \ 
acres and yiehUng by the snn'ey rates Rs. 18,600 ; in CbAndor there a^ 
yielding Rs. 21,161 ; in LHndori there were 6402 seres yielding Rs. L'- 
Sinnar b707 acres yielding Ra. 28.300. Tho percentage |iroportion of 

was 6 in Dindori, 5 in NAsik, 3^ in ChAndor, and 2^ in Bumar. 
Cth March 1845, para. 18 and statement B. 

Ensign H . J. 




«lolli, iron, motals, rice, nnd salt pansod inward to KhAndesb and 
HAlwA, and there was u vast coastward tratiic in country-made 
goods^ cotton, and opium. This traffic was likely (1845) to increase 
wh«3n the Tal pass road was finished. The Ndgpur road left 
the BcHubay-Agra road about five miles north-east of Nfisik and 
atrack oa«t across Chdndor and Fiitoda through the Niziicn's 
fcerritoriea to Boriir and Nilgpur. AJong this route, which was not 
s made mad, great quantities of cotton and grain |)assed £roui the 
inland districts to the coast. The made road from N^ik to Siuuar 
lud little traffic, as the coastward trade took a cross country track 
which joined the Bombay-Agra road about nine miles south-west of 

Exclusire of Nasik with 22,502 people the sub-divisiou had a 
population of 27,885 or 115 to the square mile, against 100 in 
Dindori and 104 in Sinnar.^ The people were (1845) very badly off, 
labouring under pinching poverty. But this poverty, in Mr. 
Dftj's opinion, was due not to excessive rates of assessment, but to 
Clie extravagant marriage expenses which the poorest thought it 
nooemttry to incur. Their want of foresight and self-control 
plnnged them into the hands of moneylenders and other extortioners. 
The people complained bitterly of the help that the Government 
gmre to ihe moneylenders in recovering their debts. In Mr. Day's 
opauion the system of borrowing at exorbitant rates must, in spite of 
light assessment, keep the people low and depressed.^ 

"^n account of its surer rainfall and its better markets higher 
were fixed for Ndsik than had been introduced into Sinnar, 
i/mdori, or ChAndor. The sixty-nine villages were divided into 
three classes, and, according to position, their dry-crop soils were 
Msessed at ton, fifteen, and twenty per cent above the rates 
preTailing in the other sub-divisions.^ In the villages near NAslk 
garden lands were assessed at twenty-five per cent above the rates 
introduced in the other sub-divisions.* In one case, the village of 
SAthpor which supplied Nasik with most of its vegetables, the rates 
were raised tifty per cent. 

The effect of these new rates was a survey rental of (Rs, 79,272), 
or a fall of forty-five per cent from the former nominal rental 
(Rs. 1,46,000). Compared with the collections (Rs. 87,000) of the 
year before survey (1843-44), the survey collections (Rs. 57,000) of 
1844-45 showed a fall of thirty-four per cent, and, compared with 
the average collections (Rs. 07,215) of the twenty-six years ending 
1&43-44, a fall of fifteen per cent. If the whole arable area was 

Chapter VU) 



1 Tt..^*.* t'..f<.f only to the Government Tillages in emch lab-diviiton. 
I' _'lit alienntcd villogos, many of which wure very popalous, 

N ' IKioplc or ISA to the square tnile, which was very c<m«aerftbly 

m cxoew W lUe iJipuUtion of the other sub-divtsiuna. Mr. Day, fi^ Morcli IMS, 
paru 26-28, and Cuptain Uavidaou, 47 of 29th November IW5. 

« EuJSB H. J. Day, oth Slarch 1845, para. 29. 

•The dry-crop acre rates, lixed (ur Chindor, Dindori, and Sinnar. were maximum 
R«. 1 and ntinimnni '2 a;. 3 }n>. Mr. Blane. Rev. Com. 724 of 2Ut May 164d. 

* 'It may be preanined that the rates referred to are thoae contained in Oovemnient 
Lett«r of lOih April 1&45. Thc«« varied from Rs. 2-10 to Hs, £^7-8i p«r UgkaJ Uor. 
Lcttw 3704 o! ?inh July 1845. 

Ifiombay OanUeei 




nil. brought under tillage the survey rates would show an jnci 
, of eighteen per cent on the average collectiona of the twenty .5 

ation. years ending 1843-44.^ 

NdMl SeUlemtni, 1S4S.* 


DftT C&OP. 





















Alten&bMl ... 
IHipuicd ... 
BVTW ... 

Total ... 




As. p. 

» 8 

7 n 



60,nft sno 

11.401 iM 
1037 ... 

EU. %*p. 

4 4 8 





Ri. a.p. 

9 8ft 
8 1 







73.tUS 8080 

17,iGI 1 2G!9 

... ,mi 



In 1846 the survey settlement was introduced into the Ahmadnaigar 
sub-division of Fatoda, most of which is now included in Nandgaon 
and Yeola. Under Patoda the petty division of Kunibhiiri WM 
included, a narrow strip on both banks of the God£lvari, containing 
thirty-four villages, thirty-two of them Government and two 
alienated. Patoda, the main division, lay to the north of Kumbhdri 
and contained 221 villages, 157 of them Government and sixty-four 
alienated. The whole sub-division was bounded on the north by 
Khdndosh, on the east by the Nizdm's dominions, on the south by 
Xev&sa, Rdhuri, and Sinuar, and on the west by Chdndor. ltd 
area wa« about 912 square miles, of which the Government villages 
occupied 709 square miles or 454,365 acres and the alienated 
villages about 203 square miles or 147,983 acres. In general 
features PAtoda closely resembled ChAndor. The north of the 
sub-division, about one-fourth of the whole, known as Briar Land 
or kdti taraf, was broken and hilly, lying between the heights th 
border Khandeah and the low range, which, forming a link betwe 
the Chdndor and the Ajaota hills, is the water-parting betwee 
the Godavari and Girna valleys. In the north-west this hilly t 
was hollowed into a large rolling valley. A small part to the nort 
east was also fairly even. But the centre, south, and south-we 
were roughened by low hills and by tablelands cleft by deep ravines. 
Except a few patches of tillage this part of the sub-division wai^H 
covered with the thorny bushes that gave it the name of Briar Land^| 
Except in the north-east the soil was poor. Most of the north-wes^^ 
valley was very poor, and except for bushes and brushwood the 
tablelands and hills were nearly bare. The streama were dry 

1 CaptAtn Dftridflon, 6 of 16 th April 1845, parn 14. 
. S This etateraent is fur eeventy-onH villages. To the original •ixfcy-nine plain vi! 
two plain villages, at firat included in the hill gronp, were addeo. Tb« 
(1818-1844) average collections of these sovonty-one viUages amonnted to a 
Ra. 68,047. Captain Davidaon, 47 of 'J9th November 1845, m NAaik Survev lUpoii 
OlOofmh October 1874. 






daring the greater part of the year and the people often suffered 
from want of water. 

The soathern village lands formed one large plain which eloped 
with a slightly waving surface from the hilla south to the God^vari. 
Farlpr the hills the soil was poor and scanty. But near tho 
O-'d^vari barron patches were broken by wide stretches of deep 
rich soil. The soil was of ordinary quality, but the deeper loams 
wore unusually stiff and greedy of rain. 

The crops in Pdtoda were much like the Chandor crops- The 
Litl harvest was altogether early, consisting of millet mixed with 
pulse and some oil plants, and in garden lands an occasional crop of 
wheat or of Indian millet. The open villages to the south had a 
doable harvest, an early harvest of millet and oil plants and a late 
harvest of wheat and Indian millet. Along the banks of the 
Godivari wheat was nearly as common as millet and stretched far 
np (he sub-division, yielding to millet as the ground i-oughened into 
hills, A little tobacco was grown in suitable spots and there were 
some patches of rather sickly cotton. Except in a few villages such 
aa Kasmari, Nagarsul, and Mukhed, there was little garden tillage. 
Sugarcane did not seem to thrive, or at least was little grown, and 
vegetables paid only near the larger villages. Husbandmen of the 
gardeuer or Mdli caste grew vegetables rather than dry-crops. But 
toe Kunbi was often too lazy to undergo the labour of growing 
watered coDps. Except in years of scanty rainfall the area of garden 
tillage was seldom large. 

Of the 189 Government villages eight were market towns.' 
Besides the great Poena road that crossed by Ankai and Yeola, 
there were two leading thoroughfares from Ndsik by S^ykhed, 
Vinchar,and Yeola,eastto KlhAmgaon, and south-east to Aurangabad. 
To and from Aurangabad there went salt, cloth, grain, and 
groceries. On the Khamgaon road the chief export was cotton. 
Little trade but many travellers passed along the Poena road. 

Especially in the rich Kumbh6ri villages, near the Godftvari, most 
of the people were wretchedly poor. This was chiefly duo to three 
years of almost total failure of crops. But the distress was 
iBcreased by the weight and the unevenness of the assessment. 
A system of bigha rates seems to have been introduced by the 
Masalm^ns. But for more than a hundred years the PAtoda villages 
had been held as a private estate, and the proprietors, giving up 
moftflnrements and exactness, agreed with their people to take a 
certain rent for an unmeasured plot or share of the village land. 
For two years nft^rthe beginning of British rule the system of 
holding unmeasured plots or shares was continued. Then in 1821 
B higha rate was introduced, as it was impossible to test the fairness 
of the rents levied from the former plots. There were traces of old 
higha rates in the revenue records. But tests showed them to be 

Chapter YI] 



1 The populntifm of the OoTcmment villagcn waa 4S.733, exclu«ive of 10,ft55 in 
Yeola. Mr. GooiWine. 20th Jnly 1846. in Captain DavitUon'aPAtoda Survey Rtport. 
62 of I-llb September 1816. Bum. Gov. Rev. Eec. 163 of 1847. 

:i J=^ ^^^m.^ ^r^F-w : ^^ 

[Bombay OaxettMr. 






so iuaccarate that new measurements were required. The new 
measurements broaght to lij^ht a much larger area than was formerly 
returned, llio rontiil on this extra area was levied by yearly 
additions for four seasons. But it was not known tbat tLe old 
higha was often intentionally unequal^ large in poor soils t^nd small 
in rich. So, when an even rate was enforced, the poorer soib 
were thrown up and tillage was confined to the richer soils. 

To meet this evil, villagers wore allowed to take wbote 
numbers and pay only for such rich patches as they chose to till. 
In 1828, when the fall in produce prices was doubling the weight of 
the Government rents, villagers wereasked if they would like to give 
up tho higha rate and go back to the old plot system. Thirteen 
villages petitioned for a return to the old system, and tho change 
was made. But from tho growing distress among the landholders 
the plot system broke down, and, instead of receiving rent from the 
wlkole urea, the assessment was levied only from the patches that 
were nnder tillage. In the time of great distress in 1S38-34 leave 
was given to allow a larger higha for tho poorer soils, and tho practice 
came into force of entering the patches of tilled and untilled land in 
a field, not according to their measurement but acoording to the 
proportion they bore to the rated area. Thus, by using tho larger 
oi-gka a poor lield of twenty-four higlida would bo rated at eighteen^ 
and, if the arable area was two-thirds of the whole, it was entered at 
twelve instead of at sixteen highds. This allowance in favour of the 
tiller of poor lands was common in Ahmadnagar. It was unknown in 
other parts of N^ik, where the actual area held was always shown. 

Under its former owners Pdtoda had no special garden rates. In 
1821, when the higha assessment was introduced, the British officers 
measured such garden lands ns were under tillage, assumed that 
amount to be tho total garden area for each well, tield, or village, 
and assessed it at two rupees the higha. In succeeding years, if the 
whole of this area was not tilled, remissions wore granted. Garden 
land, which was out of cultivation in 1821, was not measured and 
escaped assessment. Afterwards^ whon it was brought under tillage, 
it was charged a special water rate. This was continued till 
1837-38 whon Government made special concessions to increase 
the area under garden crops. In 1842 the secretary or (/a/CarAir 
to the Collector of Alimadnagar examined the garden land of each 
village, and ftxed tho amount to be rated to each well. But the old 
concession of charging only on the area under tillage was continued 
till the introduction of the survey in 1846. 

Those changes and concessions, though to a somewhat less 
extent, applied to Kumbh^ri as well as to Pdtoda. Under the 
1846 survey measurement the former estimate of 220,247 6»g/kl« in 
Knmbhari was reduced to 110,224 acres; while 390,7^7 highda in 
F&toda gave 344,142 acres, showing that the Patoda higha was nearly 
twice as large as the Kumbhd.ri higha, an inequality which was 
partly due to the difference in the average value of the soils. 

During tho fii-st three years of British management (1818-19 to 
1820-21), the demand was comparatively light and the collectiona 



1 - 


I - 

1 ' 


far above the average. Then was introdaccd the correct measuring 
of &cld9 and assessing the excess by yearly increments. Daring 
tlic next four years this yearly increase in the hlgka rate was 
•eoompaDiod by a failing revenue. The fall continued till 1833-34, 
when the coUecnons agitin rose above the average. During this 
Te«r the old system of measuring poor lands by a specially large 
Cri^Aa was introduced, and from that time till 1846, in spite of bad 
waaons, there was on the whole a steady improvement.^ 

Paring the twenty-eight years ending 1845-46, of a total of 
" -luxs tbo area under tillage varied from 90,000 in 
o in 1821-22 and 1810-41, and averaged 170,000; 
-., uut of a nominal rental of f 37,000 (Rs. 3,70,000), varied 
. -.^UUO (Rfi. 30.000) in 1824-25 to £16,000 (Re. 1,60,000) in 
.'-43, and averaged £11.000 (Rs. 1,10,000); and remiseioTia 
varied from £900 (R 8. 9,000) in 1833-34 and 1837-38 to £9500 
(Rs. 95,000) in 1824-25, and averaged £3627 (Rs. 30,270) or thirty- 
tfart?e per cent of the average collections.^ 

Under the 1846 survey the villages of PAtoda were divided into 
two clMsea, a south-west group including the Kumbhdri villages and 
ly all the villages bordering on Chdndor, and a north and east 
op including the Briar Tract in the north and the villages near the'B frontier. The dry-crop lands of the 1 19 villages in the 
sonth-west were assessed at acre rates varying from 2#. (jd, to 3}i£. 
(Rs. Ij-a8. 2J). The lands of the seventy remaining villages 
were assessed at acre rates varying from 2s. to 3i. (Re. \ - a&. 2). 
The garden lands were divided into two classes, channel- 
watered lands which were divided into thirteen grades with acre 
rates ranging from ^a, ^\d. to 12«. (Re. 1-11 - Rs. 6), and well- 



1 CftptAin DAvidBOQ, 62 of 14th Soptomlwr 1846, para. 12, 

- Tho fuUowiag are the detaiU of the variatioue iu tbo TlLLAQB Arx4 i Of a 
total arable area of 430,000 biy/uf$ the tillage area in tho first two years of Britiah 
rule was about 166,000 hifjfuU. It rose to 200,000 in 1820-21 and fell from 
2f»5.00D in 1821-22 to 130.000 in 1824-25. In tho next four years it rose from 
ItJS.OOO io lH'2o.26 to 172.O00 in I82S-29, and fcU to 90,000 in 1829-30. In tho 
n«xt two yearn tt vnned between 160,000 and 150,000, and in the third year fell to 
100,000 iu l$32-33. It again rose to 160,000 in 1833-34 and since that year it 
nererwetit higher than 205,000 in 1840-41, nor below 150.000 in 1834-30, 1838-39, 
and l$io>40. The average tillage area woa about 170,000 bighdt or 40 per cent of 
the entire arnblo area. Under Collxctioks, of a nominal rental of lia 3,70,000, 
iu the first flvt years, except in 1821-22 when they were Rs, 1,26,000, the collections 
ranged fuim K«. 1,40,0U0 to U». I.'IC.OOO. In the next two years they fell to 
Ka. 1,14.000 in 1823-24 and Ra. 30,000 in 1824-25. In the fallowing year they rose 
to IU. 1,24,000 and fell in tho next foor ycai-a to Ka. 40,000 iu 1329-30. They then 
rOBO to Ra. 1, 05,000 in tho following year, and fell in the next two yeara to 
IU 4Sp000 in 1832-33. In 1833-34 they rose to Ra. 1,37,000 and in the nejtt oix 
yeara rangoil between IU. 65.000 in 1838-39 and R». 1,44,000 in 1837-38. Sinco 
ihcn^ except iu 1841-4^ when they were about R«. 74.000 and in 1845-46 when they 
wore ftVwat R«, 66.<.K)0, they ranged between Hs. 1.15,000 in 1843-44 and Ra. 1,60,000 
v> 1V.10 iv I..., ^.,,^., vnri; not required in tho firflt two year*. In tho next 
-'I with Rs. 20,000. 1821-22 with Rb. 54,000, 1824-25 with 
with Ra. 26.000, they varied between Ha. 33.000 and 
In tiic next live year^ 1833-1^38, except 1330-37 whou they were 
! •. tbey vnried between Its. 0000 in 1833-34 and 1837-38, and Rs. 21,000 

Iu the remaining eiyht years 1838-1846, except 1842-43 with U«. 12,000, 
fh Rb. 23.(HK). Au.l 1840-41 with Ra. 32,000, they vnried between 
uo. v">,^.. t m IMI.42 and IXn. 66,000 iu lS-14-45. Diagram in Survey Rep. 62 of 1846. 

[Bombay Gauttair, 



Chapter Vin. 


Survey Effeete, 


watered lands with five grades paying acre rates of from 3«. to 6{i. 
(Rs. IJ-Ra. 3). The effect of the new rates was to reduce the 
total rental from £36,983 (Ks. 3,69,830) to £16,100 (Rs. 1,61,000) 
or aboat 56 ^ per cent. But the old total rental had never been 
realised, and the survey total was 46i per cent in excess of 
(Rs. 1,09,864) the average of past collections. At the same time 
this new total was not likely to be soon levied, and the survey 
figures showed a reduction in the average acre-rate from \s, 9d, to 
Iff. (as. 14 - as, 8). The former 1*. 9(2., it was true, represented the 
best lands only, while the new l^. included all arable lands whether 
rich or poor. Still the change represented a very important reduction 
in the Government demand. 

The survey rental of £16.100 (Ra. 1,61,000) was £20,SS3 
(Rs. 208,830) or 56^ per cent less than the old nominal rental 
(Rs. 3,69,830). The collections in the first year (1846-47) of survey 
rates amount^ to £9800 (Rs. 98,000), or48J per cent more than 
the collections (Rs. 66,000) of 1845-46 at former rates, and nearly 
eleven per cent loss than the average collections (Rs. 1,09,864) in 
the twenty-eight years ending 1845-46. If the whole arable aren 
was brought under tillage the survey rates would yield £16,100 
(Rs. 1,61,000), or 46J per cent more than the average collecbionB 
daring the twenty-eight years ending 1845-46. 

The following statement shows the effect of these settlements ; 

Ndtik Plain Surwy SrMletiitAi, 1S40- 2S47A 


















ToUl ... 


























While the plain, or <2e«A, villages were being surveyed and 
settled by Mr. Goldsmid and Lieutenant Davidson, the survey and 
settlement of the hill, or dang, villages was (1840) entrusted, to 
Mr. C. E. Fraser-Tytler, acting third assistant collector, who 
continued on the work till 1847.^ This hill land was a tract in 
Dindori, Nitsik, and Igatpuri, bounded on the north by the Sapfca- 
shring hills, on the east by the very irregular western limit of the 
plain districts which in places ran up valleys close to the Sahyddris, 
on the south by the Akola hills in Ahmadnagar, and on the west 

1 Prepared from diacram 7 in Botd. Got. Uel. CXXIII. 160. 

2 Lieutenant-Colonel Taverner, 893 of 15th October 1875. Mr. Fnwor-Tytler hAiI 
at Arst only the mAmlatdAr's staff to help ; n few claasera and measurers wcnj after- 
wards added, and in 184C) Mr. Hexton wu appointed his assiBtAnt. On accoont of the 
feTorish climate the working, season did not last for more than five or six moalhs. 
Mr. Tytler, 77 of 13th October 1815. 



by the SaLyddris. The Ndsik hill tract stretched east from the 
crest of the Sahyildri3 to nu averajje distance of thirty-fivo miles; 

■i^tb from fciaptashriiig to Harischandraj^d was ninety miles 

■ \\e superficial area 13150 square miles.* 

In these dung or hill villages were to bo found both rice and 
dry-crop lands. There were four sorts of dry -crop land, of which 
three* were ploughable and the fourth was so steep that it could be 
worked only by the band.' All the rice was sown in nurseries, 
nsftDured with wood-ashes sometimes in a comer of the field, but 
generally on sloping ground at the field side. 

When Mr. Tytler began the survey of the Ndsik hill lands in 1841 
be found the country empty and the people greatly impoverished.* 
Much of the land waa waste and covered with brushwood and forest.^ 

The hill villages of Igatpuri or Kavnai had great natural advantages 
of which the people had failed to make use* The most prosperotis 
classes wore those that had least to do with tillage. These were 
the cattle-breeding tribes, the KAnadas and Thdkurs, who formed a 
fair proportion of the people, and though they raised grain enough 
for their home use, they mainly depended on their herds and flocks. 
The Tliiikur tribes lived chiefly on game, and when they ama.ssed a 
little capital devoted themselves to breeding goats and cattle rather 
than to tillage. Both of these tribes, but especially the Kanad^, 
were remarkably well ofF. Some KAnada hamlets, with not more 
than three or four houses, had as many as 500 cattle and 500 goats. 
They were of great use to the husbandmen, supplying them with 
cheap and useful cattle. The Kunbis seemed unable to lay by money 
or to a*Id to their capital. In spite of their steady industry they seemed 
to grow poorer and many had become impoverished and apathetic. 

The result of the attempts made in 1824 and again in 1833 to have 
the whole area measured and assessed, was unsatisfactory as the 
work had been carried out by hereditary village and district officers 
without proper soperviaion.^ 

Until 1840^ the returns had almost always shown less than the 

Chapter VII] 



HiU Villag<!$, 
1840 '1S47. 

1 Thift inolndes the AkolA rfffn^ji in Abiuodnagar. Mr. Tytler, fiSS of 18th April 
18«0. limn. 2, in Bom. Gov. Rev. Bee 117 of 1860, 133. 

3 The three ploughable varictiea w«re black or ^ci/*low lying laud, generally dark, 
And best fitteil for whuat and other late crops ; reddiah or kordi land, also low lying 
■nd able to yield ma^vr, grain, and other late crops, a« well at nipdni or un watered 
sugarcane ; plougbable uplands or rn4t^ yielding early or khartf crops snch as a particular 
devcriptiwi of niiJlet, Inditui millet, and ndf/fh Mr. H. K. Goldsmid, 17 of 11th 
October 1841, in Bom. Gov. Sel. VI, 9. The plough waa drawn either by two 
bullocks or by two male buffaloes, or by a bullock and a buffalo. Bom. Gov. 8el. 
VI. «. 

s Grain land on steep slopes, which could be worked only by the hoe, was called 
tfati. These steeps yielded (1841) ndgli, wiiM, and a few other early crops. Bom. 
Gov.Sel VI. 9. 

♦ In 1645, compared with 215 in Naaik and 104 in Sinnar, the average population 
to tht -.."^r,. r„ile was 100 in plain Dindori and 36 in hill Dindori. Mr. Tytler, 
77 o( i: rl845. 

& M: ''HS of 18th April 18(iO, appended to Dindori DAog Revision Survey 

Report 8i»3 of l&th October 1875. 

« Mr. Tytler. Iflth April 1S4I. in Bom. Got. Sel. VI. 3233. 

T Mr. OolOaniid, 135 of Ut November 1840, paraa 22-28. 








ter vm. actual area under tillage. Mr. Tytler warned the district oflScei^ 
zamindars to be careful in their meaeurementa. The nf^eult waa 
a test in the following year showed an almost uniforuj ; 

area. Id some cases the area returned was doublo^the ac i 
of sixty-nine numbers, in only seventeen weretheentriea correct 
five per cent ; and these numbers were bo smal], quarter and 
•acres, that no great error was possible. The probable excess in th«^ 
area retm-ned over the area tilled was about one-fourth. Besii 
the power the hereditary district oflScers had of befriending or 
harming a landholder by incorrect area returns, they were able 
enter the quality of his field as land fit to bear an acre rate of 2#., 
Is. 6d., or of 1«. (Re. 1, a», 12, or as. 8). In the village of J^uri, a' 
few of the richest families held the best land and paid the lowest 
rates, while the barrener fields of the poorer villagers were burdened 
by the higher rates. The ratoa fixed by the district officers wer* 
practically final. They were the people's 'governors.' There was 
a right of appeal, but the right existed only in name. ' We 
never,' wrote Mr. Tytler, 'introduced any regularity in proc«' - 
and therefore wo cannot prove what are irregularities. Neither can 
officers be blamed for faults which are inherent in the system. As 
complaint wns practically useless the people did what they could to 
gain tho favour of their masters. The hereditary officers had aa 
ascendancy unknown in other parts. '^ 

An inquiry into the state of the hill villages and into the existing 
revenue system satisfied Mr. Tytler that some such change as that 
proposed by Mr. Goldsmid in 1838' was necessary.' The existing 
Rystem of yearly measurements was troublesome and unfair. It was 
to tho uncertiiinty and worry of these changes andmeasuremeutSj 
rather than to the excessive rates of the assessment, that the poverty 
of the hill peasants was due. The land was specially ill-suited for a 
hUjha settlement. There were no natural marks, and, as the soil 
was poor, frequent fallows were required, and tho limits of fields out 
of tillage were at once hid in grass and brushwood. Again the 
expense of these minute measurcmouts was great and could not well 
be borne by tracts of hill pasture that wore rarely ploughed. 
Unless there was a wonderfully sudden spread of tillage the lauds 
would be untouched till every trace of a survey had been effaced. 
Even with low rates no very sudden increase of the tillage area 
could be looked for. The task of bringing hill lands under tillage 
was much heavier than in plain tracts. Brushwood had to be cut 
and roots dug out and bumod. In tho up, or mdl, lands frequent 
fallows were wanted and fresh patches had constantly to be cleared, 
and the black lands were hard and barren compared with the black 
soil in the plains. In tho plains arable waste could be taken up at 
once ', in the hills it wanted careful preparing.* 

I Mr. Tytler, Ithii April 1841. io Bom. Gov. Scl. VL Z7-28. 

» Hia letter, 19, Slat Mny 1838, in Dindori DAiig Surv. Rep. 89.^ of 1875. 

> * In the hUJ villages the rice fieMa ahoald be measurea aud the ill marked over- 

Sovn dry-crop lands should he divid<Ml int4> lanie blocks with natural b<HUidah«a,* 
r. TyUer, lOtli April 1841, in Bom. Gov, Sel. VI. 25. 
Mr. Tytlor. 19th April X$41, in Bom. Gov. Scl. VI. 25-29* 





three fiyatema in force, the estate or mund, the plough or ant, 
I the yearly meaauremenU, were marred by fraud which coald 
'}j be practised witbont detection. In so ragged and scantily 
tillod a country the Bimple meaaurementH of the plains could not be 
Mrried oat except in the small area of rice land.^ Mr. Tytlor 
ACCordin gly determined to adopt the suggest ion made by 
Mr. GoI(Lmid in 1838* ond divide the land into two parts, rice be measured, classed, mappe<l, aaaossed, and let out for a 
i of thirty years, and dry-crop land to be charged a lump sum, 
uf</.i, recoverable from the whole village, for a period of five years. 
Mr. Tytler began by making a preliminary survey of six villages 
in or Igatpuri. His proposals, which involved a decrease 

fr to IbGO (Ra. 7060-lU. 5690) in the Government demand, 

w©re approved by Government and were introduced in 181-0-41,' 

In settling the rice lands, as much land as lay together was'made 
into a large, or got, number with small, or chak, sub-nurabcrs, each of 
which had a separate assessment. The large numbers wore plotted 
on a small scale in the village map, which showed the village 
lioundariea and the waste land, and a separate large scale plot was 
made of each main number showing its sub-numbers. In Kdvnai 
or Igatpnri the rice lands were alone measured and plotted. 
Afterwards (February 1844) it was found that in Trirabak the black 
or kiUi. lands also formed separate fields and might be measured 
and mapped.* 

In fixing the assessment on a field the area was divided into equal 
shares or parts. The value of each share of the field, as reg^s 
Boil water and embankments, was appraised in annas, the different 
anna values were grouped into clasaoa, and an acre valuation was 
accorded to each class. The average acre aaseasmeut for each field 
was fixed by adding together the items of the different shares and 
dividing the whole by the number of shares in the field.* 

t Mr. Tytlcr. 58S of 18th April 1860. Z His letter, 31st May 1836. 

S Th- t ) BOtue «xti>nt a. rcviv.-J of the joiut estate or kdn syBteiii, which in 

Mr. T> II waa fipeciiiUy auite'l to those hilly tracts. Mr. Tytler, IDth Amii 

l&tl. A><a '.nxciiimunt L»tbor 72u uf 10th March 1842, in Bom. Guv. 3el. VI. Tho 
followittg atatemeat thowt tbc dctailg of this settlement : 

Kdmai Sxpcrimtntai SctUemaOt 18^-4U 



Ton yean* ftvong«. 


iQoi or 










iuSr" :.: - 


ToUl ... 































« Qov. Letter 133G of 4th Mxy 1844 ia Uout-Coloael Taveroer's 893 of I5tb 
Ootobcr 1875, para 8. 
& lioat. -Colonel TWvom«r, 884 of 4th IKiwmber 1876, para, 12. 

d23— 30 





ma nVtetfM, 


{Bombay 0«xet1 





Mr. Tytler's settlement of tbo rice lands in the Niisik hilly trwU 
was the first rice land settlement in the Deccan. In classifying lie 
land three elements were taken into consideration, the soil, the 
moistaro, and the bank. Of sixteen parts the soil represented eight, 
the moisture fonr, and the banks four. As regards soil the laod 
was divided into four classes, yellow and yellowish red. dark reJ, 
very dark red, and coarse soil. Each class of soil was divideJ into 
three grades according as the soil was over eighteen inches, botwnn 
eighteen and nine inches, or below nine inches deep. A fftult in 
texture, generally a mixture of ccwirso pebbly soil and sand, r^tfcOff 
reduced the soil valuation one class. The details are shown in tba 
following table : 

Rkfsoil CloMtficatioH, 1840, 


D»rm. ] 

or IB* 


Under lulf 

Yrflow ,„ ... 

Darh ml 








As regards the allowance for moisture the land was divided into 
three classes : the first, fairly moist below the surface in April and 
May, was counted as four j the second, slightly moist below the 
surface, as two ; and the third, dry above and below, did not count. 
As regards their banks, fields wore divided into three classes. 
Those whoso banks could be repaired with little cost were valued at 
four; those whoso banks were half carried away or were broken by 
a stream bed were valued at two ; and those whose dams were almost 
entirely swept away or in which the field had silted to the level of the 
dam were valued at nothing. For each share of the field the values 
nssigned to these three elements, the soil, the moisture, and the bank, 
were added together and a combination table applied which showed 
whether the share was, first or aval^ that is of sixteen aiinas ; aecond 
or duvi, that is of twelve, thirteen or fourteen annas ; third or nm, 
that is between eleven and eight annas ; or fourth, chdrsim, that 
is of seven, five, three or one anna,^ The acre rate for the first 
of these classes was fixed at 12«. (Rs. 6), for the second at 
9«. 9(i. (Rs. 4-14), for the third at 6s. 9i. (Rs. 3-6), and for the 
fourth at 3*. (Rs. li). The total of these rates divided by the 
number of shares fixed the average acre rate for the whole field.; 
Experience showed that with high rates four olossos were too few,| 
and in Dindori the number was increased from four to six.' Thi 
following statement shows the classification and acre assessment that] 
wore introduced into the rice lands of the four groups of NisikJ 
bill villages : 

1 In thia, annaa 15, G, 4 and 2 do not appear, ah no combinAtion of the amtascfAi\ 
protluce thoiiu Lieut. -Culonel Tavenicr, 8'J3 of lii15, parwi 16 and 16. 
s Lieut -Colonel Taverncr, if93 of I5th October 1S75, parw 17 and 31. 




Ndrnk BiU ViUagts, Clawed and Aueaxd, 1S40-1S47. 




CLua n. i Claw III. | Cum IT. 

Cum V. 

Cum VI. 


YaIUS. I VftlUA. 






lUte ... 

A: 1& 

j4«. U U) 12. 

At. It toa 

Re. H. 




CUm .. ... 

At, W. 

lU. 0. 

tU. 4 li. 


B«. 1|. 




IHndort... 1 

Omi ... „. 


At. IS to 14. 

J*, la. IS. 

At. 11, 10. 

Ai, B to 7. 

Ke. li 


Anna 1. 
At. 19. 

nuik ...J 



At. IS bQ !«. 

lU. & 



Ito. S|. 

^. d to 7. 

Hi. It. 


Anna I. 
At. U. 

In assoesiug the black or cold-weather soils Mr. Tytler divided 
them into three classes, fine black and dark red, coarBe, and stony 
horkhai or larad. Those classea were divided into four grades 
ftooording to the depth of the soil.' 

Mr. Tytler arranged the rice and the black soils into six and tho 
red soils into four classes. For rice lands his acre rates varied in 
KiivTiftifroml2«. to 3*. (Rs. 6 - Rs. \\), in Dindori from 6#. to 1#. Zd, 
(Ra. 3-a^. 10). and in N^sik from 12*. to Is. Qd. (Rs. 6-*w. 12). 
The black and red soil rates were tho same in all throo aub-divisous, 
the black ranging from 2*. 3d, to Cd. (Rs. li-a*. 4), and the red 
from lOJd. to 4id. {ati. 7-twr. 3). The details are shown in the 
following statement ; the rates shown for mdl lands were not settled 
till 1860 when tbo uplands were surveyed in detail^: 

Ndsih HiU yu/agf«, SeUfemetU RaU^ I840-JS47. 










Black, kiiti 

B<d, tmU 




Black. taK 

Ra. a. 

1 $ 


4 14 




I a 


Ra. a. 
I 8 

Ra. a. 

Ba. a. 

Dumou. I 

1 « 

S 8 





1 8 




Na'«ir. I 


I 2 

a 7 

4 12 


8 8 


8 4 


1 S 






» Ntuik BUi ViUagea, Lat^.-crop Soil, 1840-1847. 


DBFriL 1 



Ono %at, 




half a 

riMbUck and dark red. 


ar»v«Uy ... 










Lieutonani-Colonel Tavemor, 893 of 15th October 1875, pam 23. 

"Mr. Tytler, 824 of I'ifch Oct. 1846 and 588 of 18th April 1860, antl Lieut, -Coloiiel 
Tftvorncr, 8&4 of -ith Pcceniber 1871>. 








In Mr. Tytler'a opinion the lump sum or ukti system 
specially snited to the hill lands. Objection might be taken to 
j<,^int responsibility. But the share to be paid by each hold- " " 
been carefully tested, and the ehanco of the strong' oppros^sn.^ 
weak was small.' 

When the lump sum or ukti was fixed, the people were told to 
apportion among themselves and enter in a statement the naiDbcc 
and position of the waste and cnltivated fn'ghaa which each reqoi 
and to assign to each the share of the lump payment for which he 
responsible. The areas given were fairly oorrect, because each 
entered his hereditary land, and, knowing his powers as a cnlti' 
did not claim more land than ho wished to use. Besides the vii 
lease a pdper was given to each holder, showing the area and 
position of his share. Each man thus dealt direct with Govemmenl 
and was not subject to the caprice of any of the villagers. He 
as independent and free from trammel as any landbulder under 
ordinary settlement. The joint responsibility was only uomiti&L 
The utmost inconvenience it could bring upon any individual wu 
the increase of a few annas if one of the villagers failed to pay his 
rent. Besides making these arrangements as complete as possible 
on paper, the jarrulddrs went through each village with the Dody of 
landholders, making each point out his holding in the presence ol 
the othei's. This they comi)ared with the entry in the Btatement, 
asking if any one disputed the claim. If the claim was not 
questioned they signed to the effect that they had seen the 

1 Tbe foUowiug alwtnct of » village lease Bhows wbiit provision wu made to guard 
against nnfair dealing : 

' The whole of your ric« lauda have been meaanred ioto Elnglish aorea with a chain 
and crou stalT, field regiatera and mapa have been prepared, and the land divided inUj 
four olaaaea. The land haa alao been paroelled into principal and subordinate namb«n 
and eaoh aab^number has been soparauly aaaesaed at tat« shown in a book which haa 
been mode over to your headman. There is to bo no additional levy. But if any 
of a sub-number is tilled the holder must pay (or the whole. The ratee are to 
in force for thirty years. 

* As each plol, or /tXiu, of dry crop (black and red) Und oonld not be ineaaurcd and 
aBsesseti, the villagers have ngrood to pay for the next five years a lamp sum of £50 
<Ra. 500), The villagers have to settle among ttieniselves and euter m a statement 
the numbers of the tilled and waste dry-crop ploLa for which each holdur haa to pay, 
and they must point out the lands to bv held by each in tho presence of the vills^ors 
and of a Government officer. If any holder of dry-crop land dice or fails to pay 
his ahare, the other members must arrange for its payment, either by gvttin^ some 
one to take the share or by 'listribnting the amount among themselves by eiibscnptiun. 

* During tho five years no extra charge will bo made for land on which valuable 
crops are grown. 

* Any part of the waste land, though not inclndc<l in the area on which the lamp 
rental is assessed, may be taken and tiifod, 

* The villagorB should, as far aa poaaihle, aettlc among themaclrea what extra sam 
any one who naa tilled more than his share of tho laud should pay. If they fail to 6x 
the amount tho mAmlatttar will settle it with the help of a jury. 

' At settlement time the miknlatd^r will make a yearly enquiry, and the neceaaarr 
changes will be made in the amounts of tho shares payable by the different laod- 

•No remission of the lump sum will be granted except for failure of crop or lott 
from civil commotion, when tho Collector will enouire and settle. 

'If any onu improves any sharo of the oommon laud by banking or watering it, at 
the end of the tivu years it will be measured off as improved land*. Mr. Gtudamidi 
ijurvoy buperiutundcut, '2Glh Murch 1341, iu Uom. Ovv. Scl, \L 12*4^ 



particnlar holclinj?, tliat no ono disputed the right to it, and that 
they had formally made it over to the occupant. The land 
unapportioned in each Wllage was measured by the officers, and each 
holder woa, if he wiRhed it, entitled to a aliaro proportionate to his 
holding. The area of these lands was in most cases so large that 
no disputes were likely to arise,* 

The lamp sum system was most successful. Freed from the 
exactions ot village and district officers and eucouragiid by the low 
rates of assessment before the first five years' lease was over, 
cultivation had spread some hundredfold and lands were cleared 
which for years nad been covered with brushwood and forest. At 
the end of the first five years the better dry-crop lands were 
measured into well-marked fields, mapped, classified, and assessed 
aa had originally been done in the case of the rice fields. Only tbo- 
poorer dry-cn)p lands and the hill lands wore again lot out at a 
lamp sum to the village on a second five years' lease.^ 

The following are the details of the introdaction of this survey 

Of ono hundred hill villages in OvnEu, six, as mentioned above, 
wore settled in 1841, For assessment purposes the remaining 
ninety-four villages were divided into two groups, ono of forty -two 
villages which was settled in 1S42-43, and the other of fifty-two 
villages which was settled in IS^S-l-'l., 

In all villages the rice lands registered after the survey far 
exceeded the old returns. In many they were double, treble, 
and even fourfold.* Much rice land had until this survey (1842) 
been waste, and the dams of many fields were broached. Tho 
resumption of tillage in these fields could not take place so rapidly 
as in plain villages, as embankments had to be thrown up and soil 
allowed to gather. In Mr. Tytler's opinion low and just rates wore 
the only means of restoring this laud. He, therefore, adopted the 
rates fixed by Mr. Goldsraid and which had proved successful in 
other parte.'*^ The calculation of tho total assessment was not 
completed at the time of Mr. Tytler'a report (28th July 1842). But 
he estimated that tho new rates would yield a revenue twenty-five 
per cent in ozcoss of the average collections during the ten previous 

In fixing the lump or ulcU assessment for the dry-crop land 
Mr. Tytlor classified the villages according to their general 
capabilities and advantages iu respect of black hili and red or vull 
hind, making three classes for each kind of soil. The bigha rates 

Chapter VI 


ma VUlagu, 



> Mr. Tytkr. 10th April 1841, in Bom, Gov. Sol. VI. 20 -3a 

» Mr. Tytler, CollecUr of Ahmailua^^ar, 5BS of IStJi April ISGO, para 3. 

* Kavtuu 94, Trimbak 71, Diudori 04, and NAsik 13, nrnking toj^othcr with thO aix 
villAgM of Kiviuu first Bcttled Id 1841, a total of 278 hill villages. 

*Ur. iVtler. 28th July 1843. ia Bom. Oor. Rov. Rcc. 1351 of 1842, 164. Ho adda, 
'Que can't form any idea uf tbtj extent of laud ro<|uii-ingio1>e mcasared and claMiiied.' 

* The ratca, aaoctioncMl for the rico lands of tho bIx experimental villogoa in 1842, 
wen «ztcndo<t to tho ricu lamU of the romaining villages of Klirnai. 

* Bom. Oov. itiiv. Koc. 1351 of 1842, 187- 188. 






apter VIII. adopted for the three classes of black land wore 1«. lid,, 11 |«i., and 
9iL {as. 9, 7}j 6), and for the tliree cUiflsea of red laud, 7hd., CJJ., 
and OrZ, (rr-y. 5j 4^, i). At tliera rates the lump assessment for the 
dry-crop land of forty-two villages amounted to £1106 (Rs. 11,060). 
Some slight changos were made and the lump assessment Rnally 
sanctioned was £1093 (Rs. 10^930)^ showing a decrease of two per 
cent compared with the average collections (£111G) of the past 
twenty-three years and of 3*7 per cent compared with the average 
collections (£1135) of the past eleven years.^ 

In the following 5rear (1843-44) the new rice rates were introduced 
into the remaining fifty-two villages, and lump sums fixed for the 
dry-crop land. The rice rates wore guaranteed for thirty years and 
tho di*y-crop rates for five years. The majority of these fifty-two 
villages wore in more hilly country than the previous gronp. Their 
dry-crop lands were inferior, and they had for the most part reddiah 
or Jcoral land instead of blaek or kali land. For these reasons the 
lump assessment of fifty-two villages was fixed at £1400 (Rs. 14,000), 
showing a decrease of 5* 14 per cent compared with the average 
collections (£1 47C) of the past twenty-five years (1818-19 to 
1842-43) ; of eleven per cent compared with the average collections 
(£1574) of tho past thirteen years (1830-31 to 1842-43); and of 
23*37 per cent compared with the collections (£1827) of the year 
(1842-43) before tho now settlement.* 

The Dindori hill villages, which were surveyed in 1844^ differed 
greatly from the Kdvnai hill villages. In KAvnai the rice soils were 
the most valuable while in Dindon tho black dry-crop lands wore 
more important, the rice lands being neither very extensive nor 
very fertile. The Trimbak villages differed greatly from each other, 
somo of them being like Dindori and others like Kdvnai. Unlike 
KAvnai, many villages in Dindori and several in Ndsik and Trimbak 
had black dry-crop land valuable enongh to be mappodj measured, 
and settled for thirty years like rico lands.^ Their uplands, as in 
Kdvnai, were settled by a lump assessment or nkiu 

In 1844 tho potty division of Trimbak, to which Mr. Tytler's 
survey was next extended, contained seventy-one villages under a 
mahiilkari. It was exceedingly poor and most of the people were 
Kolis, who had a bad name as gang-robbers.* 

Dunng tho twenty-six years ending 1843-44, the area under rice 
tillage had varied from 1100 highds in 1831-34 to 1800 ^t^^itf in 
1823-24, and averaged 1500 highd^ ; of a total rental of £1100 
(Rs. 11,000) collections had varied from £700 (Rs. 7000) in 1829-30 

> Mr. Tytler, 2Sth July 1842, fiov, Letter 3132 of 3l8t October 1842, in Bonu Got. 
Kov. Reo. 1351 of 1842, l(i3-205. 

a Mr. Tytlcr, 9th August 1843, Gov. Letter 3306 of 12th October 1843, in Bom. 
Gov. Uev. Boo. 1526 of 1843, 91-115. 

' In 1844 Govemment sanctioued a aliffht moditication of the leaauig system. 
Under this modification in all suitnble viUagoB the block ioila were to be accurately 
meaaarcd and assessed niid not ^ven in lease with tbe vuit or upland. Mr. Tytler, 
5th February 1844, and Gov. Letter 1386 of 4th May 1844, Bom. Gov. Rev. Rec. 1668 
of 1844, 83-90. 

* Mr Tytler, 25th Sepicmher 1844, and Gov. Letter 309 of 20th Jauaary 1845, ia 
Bom. Gov, Rev. Kec 171 of 1845, 17-34, 63-57. 



to £1300 (Es. 13,000) in 1834-35 and averaged £1050 (Rs. 10,500) ; 
aud remissirius had varied from £5 (Rs. 50) in 1820-21, 1821-22, 
' '•? 13, and 1843-44, to £240 (Rs. 2400) in 1829-30, and averaged 

Um. 400). 1 

In the rice lands the same rates wore adopted as in Kavnai. The 

T..,t:..]F of these survey rates, when the wtolo rice land was brought 

: tillage, was estimated to be on increase of eighty-four per cent 

-t cvillections and of ninety-six ^er cent on the previous year's 

le.- A five years^ lump or ukii settlement was made for tlie 

•\ or iwH of twenty-one villages, and for the dry -crop, that is 

black land and uplimd, of tifty villages. The entire new ukti 

or lump assessment on dry-crop, or black and rod land, exceeded 

the average of past collections by three and a half per cent.^ The 

Chapter Till. 



* Puringthetwenty-iix years endingl844 the area under rice Tillage varitHl between 
1100 and IBOO ami averaged 1500 bipMut, From I6«K) blghiU in I$1S-19 it fell Uy 1400 
in 1S19-20 and rose in the next foar years to 1800 in 1823-24. In the next four 
year* it fell to 1400 iu 1827 -^S. It i*OBe to IGOO iii the folluwing year aud iu the 
n^vt. five years again fell to 1100 in 1833-34 and roao to 1500 in 1834-35- In tho next 
,.iar» it BtcadUy roao from llOrj id I83i)-3H to 1750 in 1842-43 aud fell to 1700 in 
1 4. Block soil tillage varied between 2100 and 3300 and averaged 2750 b^jhdt. 
Utc first six yean it rose from 2100 in 1818-19 to 33(X) iu 1823-24. Iu thu next 

re years it fell tti 30O0 in IS28-29. In tho next live ycar« it ranged between 2100 
«id 2700 and rose to 3000 hl^/hd* in 1334-36. It then declined till it reached 2500 
in 1S37-3S. In the ncvt six years it ^'aried bctwocn 2500 iuid 2800. Reil soil tilla^ 
varied from 3750 in 1818-19 to 10,000 in 1840-41 and averaged 7000 hiuhU. In the 
hr*t Iniir years it rose from 3750 in 1818-19 to 9500 in 1821-22. Then it fell to 7000 
in 1SJ4-25, and, after rising in tho following year to 6000, continned falling till It 
M 4300 in 1832 33. Id the next two years it rose to 9000 in lS34-Hrf. and 
notX falling till it reached OOOO in 1838-39. Then, exoopt in 1840-41 when it 
».t..4 lO.OOO. it ranged between 9000 in 1S39-40 and 8500 in l$43-44. CoLLKc-noNA 
varied from Ka. 7000 in 1829-30 to Ra. 13,000 in 1834-35 and averaged R«. 10.500. 
In the hret eight years they ruov from Rs. 9200 iu 1818-19 to \U. 11,100 in 1820-21, 
fell to Ra. Hr.OOO in 1822-23, and again rose to R a. 12.900 in 1825-26. They then 
continued to fall till they reached Rs. 7000 iu 1820-30. Xu thu next four years they 
varietl between Ra. 9000 in 1H30-3I and 18:13-34. and H«. 7500 in 1^32-33. They 
then roee to Ra. 13,000 in 1834-35 and continued to decline till they reached Rs. 7800 
in 1838-39. Then, except in 1S40-4I wlicn tber were Ra. I2,4(K), they varied from 
Rfl. U.OOO in 1839-40 to Ra. 11,800 in 1842-43, and fell the next year (1843-44) to a 
little over R». 11,500. Hkmi^uions which were not ro^nircil in tho first two years 
of British rule, vaii&l from R«. 50 in 1820-21, 1821-22. 1842-43, and 1343 44, to 
Rs. 2400 ill 1829-:)0, and averaged Ra. 400. In 1822-23 tfaoy amounted to Rs. 900. 
Rking to Rs. 1000 in tho next year (1823-24) they foU to Rs. 200 in 1825-26, and 
again n»e to R«. 1000 in 1828-29. In 1929-30 they aniouuted to Ka. 2400. In the 
next four yearv they fell from Ra. 500 in 1830-31 to Rs. \V^ in 1833-34. Li three 
more yean they rose from Rs. 100 in 18.34-35 to Rs. GOO in 1836-37 and fell the next 
year to Rs. 100 in 1837-38. In 1838-39 they araounto<1 to Rs. 1100, in 1839-40 to 
Ra. GOO. in 1840-41 to Rs. 100. aud in 1841-42 to Rs. 400. In 1842-43 aud IS43-44 
only Ra. 50 were remitted. Bom. Gov. Rev. Rec. 171 of 1845, 20. 

•Bom. Ooy. Rev. Beo. 171 of 1845. 19. 

TrimUik Lump Setikmeni, JS44-4S, 





1818- 164S. 





T.Aal ,. 












Bom. Oov. R«v, Kec. 171 ol 1845, 31-33. 


[Bombay Oacel 






black or hili land of twenty-one villages was mesfinrcd for aBr-"^" 
in the aamo way as the rice land. Coni]>ared with the total c* • 
(Rs. 11,600) from rice and dry-crop soils in 18 t^-H, the prol>Al>la 
collections (Rs. 9200) for iSi't- 15 showed a decrease of twent 
per cent.* 

In 1845 ninety-four hill villages in Dindori were snrreyed an 
settled. The garden rice and black or late-crop lands wore noiuatel 
surveyed, claseifiedj and assessed, and the poor uplands, or mnl, wo 
leased for a lamp sum to the people of each village. These viUagi 
had been less heavily assessed than most places. The people we 
better off and the rates of interest lower. 

Though the rental had not been excessive, the district Lad n 
made any marked advance under British management. There w 
little increase in the garden tillage. In the rice area ' there had 
boon a marked rise between 1818 and 1822, but between 1822 and 
1844 there was little change. The tillage of late crop or black laud 
greatly increased between 1818 and 1825, the area then fell, but 
again rose in 1833, and after a second fall had regained its former 
position in 1842. Tho early crop uplands, mdlf h\oug showed a si-cad 
spread of cultivation, especially in the sir years ending 1344-45 
In these lands the average realization rose from £524 (Rs. 5240 
between 1818 and 1830 to £910 (Rs. 9400) between 1831 
1842, and to £1 159 (Rs. 1 1,590) between 1839 and 18 U,=> In fon 
villages there were garden lands which had formerly paid 
rates varying from be. 4J(i to 125. 1 Jd (Rs. 2-11-3 to Rs. 6-0-9) an 
averaging 8*. l^d. (Rs, 4-5-2). In their stead the rates which 
Lieutenaut Davidson had introduced in the plain Dindori village 
were adopted, and average acre rate reduced to 5*. 9|J. (lU. 2-14-5) 
The change caused an increase in the total rental of S'9ti per ce 
above the average realizations of the six previous years. The dotal 

IHiulori Hill ViUaae^ Oardm Lands, tS4$, 













CompEired with those of tho previously snrveyed parte of the lull 
country the Dindori rice lands were poor. They want>ed depth and 
they were not well banked. Instead of a higha rate of 8*. (Rs. 4) 
tho rates varied fi'om hs. to 4^*. (Rs. 2J - Rs. 2), and even this low 
rate had been heavy enough to keep much of the land out of tillage. 
The higher kinds of rico were little grown. Tho produce of an aci 
of rico land commonly ranged from 440 to 1040 pounds (5 J - 13 mn'ns} 
giving a profit for the poorer kinds of 125. to £1 6». (Rs. G - Rs, 13) ani 

Mr. TyUer, 4tii November 1844, in Bom. Got. Rov. Rec. 171 of 1S45, 40. 
Mr. TownBcud, ftoc to Oov., 168 of 10th January 1846. Rov. Rec. 168 of 18411, 
153-169. «> Mr. Tytler,77, 13th October 1846; R«v. Roc. 108 of \H^ I17. 




— •he better kinds of £2 4*. (Rs. 22). This was a poor outtura 
:i,rGd to the Ij^tpari rice fields, which yielded from 880 to 
ZOW poiU]d.s (11 -25 man^), worth in some cases as much as £4 IO9. 
(Bs. 4o). Instead of the Igatpuri division of foar dasees paying 
•ere ratee varying from 12«. to 8s. (Re. 6-Ro. li), the rice soils were 
arranged into six classeti rated at Otf., 6a., 4:8., Sg., 2s,, and I a. 8ti. 
(Rs. 8, Rs. 2^, Rs. 2, Rs. 1^, Re, 1, and as. 10) and averaging 2a. bd, 
(B«. 1-3-4) an aero, a marked reduction from the former average 
Kte rate of lO^. Gd. (Rs. 5-4>]. Those rates gave a total rental 
6713 per cent above the average of twenty-seven years' idealizations, 
and 38 2o per cent above those of the six previous ycars.^ The 
details are : 

Dimhri mil VUUtgw, Bicts Lands, 284S. 



1819- 1M4. 











In Mr. Tytler's opinion these rates wore low enough to induce 
the landholders to embank, improve, and till the various classes of 
nee land, and would tempt the hill tribes to settle to steady labour. 
In the Dindori hill villages the black or late-crop land was more 
important than the rice. The whole area was cacefully measured 
and assessed. The produce of an acre generally ranged from four 
to nine fttan^, giving for the richer crops, such as wheat and gram, a 
gross acre profit of from 1G#. to £1 16«. (Rs. 8- Rs. 18). Instead 
of the old rates varjnng from 138. 11 Jt/. to 5frf. (Rs. C-15.6 to as. 3 
pie» 9) a bi^iha and averaging 3fi, 2^1?. (Rs. 1-9-6) an acre, sir new 
classes were formed and assessed at acre rates of 2«. 3(^., Is. lO^d,, 
1*. 6d., Ijr, \{d., 9d., and 6d. (Re. IJ, as. 15, as. 12, as. 9, as. 6, and 

. 4) or an average of \s. Gd, {as. 12). On the whole area 
veyed the new rates gave a total rental 1 13i per cent in excess 
of the average realiaiations of twenty-seven and 105*93 per cent 
above the average of six previous years. The details are : 

Dindori ffiU ViliaffCA, LnU Crop LantU, lS4fK 













In the uplands, or vutl, the chief crops were ndgll and khurdsni, 
though sdva^ ndid, vari, and many others were more or less common. 
An acre of land was estimated to yield from 320 to 480 pounds (fonr to 
six maas), which at current prices were worth from Ss. to 12ff. (Rs. 4- 
Ks. (j). The estate or mund system survived in some villages, 

» Mr. "TyUer, 77 of Ulh October 19«, Bom. Gov. Rev. lUo, 168 ol 1M6, 117-151. 






[Bo&bay Oaul 



ipopnlar, because though the bigha rates were L 



II. but it was 

than in other lands the rent of the whole plot had to 
whether or not the whole was nnder tillage. The hujha 
force varied from I4J. to 1*. 4id, {anna 1 -a». 11) and avera; 
Hd. {as, 5). The new rates averaged only 4|<2. [as, 2}), But as 
area leased by the village for a lump rental was much larger th 
the area formerly nnder tillage, the new rental was 1415 per 
above the average realizations of the twenty-seven and 23*32 
oeut below those of the sir preceding years. The details are : 

Dittdori ffill ViOages, Vplautd SttUmaU, J8^. 






BiaMm. R*. 
aiiTW 7788 

68, MS 


Taking the different branches of the settlement together, in spi 
of an average acre-rate reduction in garden, late crop, and upland 
soils of about a half, and in rice lands of from 10«. Gd to 2*. 5d. 
(Rs.Si-Ee. 1-3-4), the total rental of the new survey exceeded 
the average realizations of the twenty-seven previous years by 
67'68 and of the six years ending 1844-45 by 3806 per cent. But 
from the scanty population the whole survey rental was not likely to 
be soon realised. Exclusive of remissions which had averaged about 
Ra. 1200, the reahzations during the survey year showed a decrease 
of twenty-two per cent compared with the average realizations iu 
the six preceding years.^ The details are : 

Dindori fHfl ViUagcB^ Seiti^^rtu^nt, J84S, 








SO. too 






The survey settlement was next introduced into thirteen Ni 
hill villages. Their superior soils, rice black and garden, we; 
surveyed classed and assessed^ while the uplands were leased for a 
lump sum to each village.' Each cultivator had his upland holding 
and dues defined and recorded iu a separate lease, which was signed 
and given to him when the rates were fixed. Compared with the 
average collections £o96 (Rs. 5960) of the twenty-seven years ending 
1845, the new rental £085 (Rs, 6850) showed an increase of 14 
per cent. The following statements give the new rates and th 
financial e^ect compared with past collections : 


1 Mr Tytler. 77 of I3tb October 1845 and 66 of 15th June 1B46, and Govenuncnt 
Letter 188 nf 10th Jananry 1S46 and 3290 of 4th September 1846, Bom. Gov. R«v. 
Rcc. ICB i»f 184C. Mr. Tj-tlor, 124 of 2Ut October IS46, Bom. Gov. Rev. Rec, 171 of 
1847. 2\ . 

3 * The bigha in the Nitaik pargana is u uearly aa possible half an acre and at this 
I have Msumod it.' Mr. Tvtler, 624 of 12th October 1846, Bom. Gov. Kcv. Keo, 
171of 1847, 51. 


A'drfit TliirU^H nUl ViUagtP, Survey RaUs, tSiS^l.X 












S: :;: 


lU a. 


4 12 
3 B 

5 4 
1 S 


lU. >. 
1 3 



B«. ■. 

8 8 

a is 
e u 

Aii^Or rAirto<» tlUl ViUayts^ SeUlemeni, 18^.^7, 



I Boib. 



1619 to IM&. 

!«»-40 to 1644 4A. 











iKn nt«. 

BUdt ™ ... 

TW»I ... 










Kt.IL p. 
7 14 t 

1 IS a 

4 4 10 
18 9 






B«. «. p, 
1 8 ^ 
U 3 

a a 








(o I rroui l*^!? to lS»i R4. I'iStV ; 19S3 3S to 1844-45 ll«. S3U2. Mr. T)-tler, 6-J4 0< l£Lh 0«L laid. 

In the same year (1846), the five years' lump-sam rates came to 
an end in the six villages of Kavnai which had been leased in 1841. 
Their black lands were accordingly separately meaanrcd, classed 
and assessed^ and the uplands alone were leased out afresh. The 
new lump assessment amounted to £148 (Rs. 1480)^ au increase of 
20 per cent over the average collections of the six years ending 
1844-45. Compared with the average collections of the six years 
ending 1341— 15 the new black-soil assessment £203 (Es. 2630) 
showed a reduction of sixteen per cent. The details are given in 
the following statement : 

KAvwu Six Bill ViUages, Settled in t8Ji6-47. 




lais to isifi. 









A Venn 



Bad .. .. 

1\>ul ... 












7 10 IJ 
1 13 8 
1 S 8 







Bt. ju p, 
1 1£ 10 

19 « 








ChaptM VIIL 





(d) Prxm i^i!^ If) t>>lH2S.3nR«. 103:1; 1818-10 ('I Ha9l<]Rt. Uf87; l&iO-31 ta 18Sli-40 Rd. 1:^0^ ; l>J34-35 
to 1S39-<>J Ita^ 1 1 JO. Mr. I^tlor, 034 of 1 Zth Octobor 1 M«}. 

1 The rice lands of KAvnai and KAiik villtigoa being alike, the Kivnai ratea were 
«dnpi«(I. The Dindori flivifeirm into six olasaes waa adopted as more saited tn the 
N^ik rice lan«id thau the four K^tvnai classes. The Ihmiori rice rate* were R«. 3, 
K«. 24. tt8. a. Rj». U. Re, 1, and «m. !0. Mr. Tytler, 624 of I2th October 1846, and 
Gov. Letter 3J)01 u£ fith October 1847. Bom. Gov. K«v. K«c. 171 oi 1W7, 49-113. 

[Bombay QattiUtft 




The Ddn'jji, 



Nothing farther was deno towards renewing fche five years' I 
■when they la^ed, until, in 1 S55, Mr. Tytler, who was then Collector 
of Ahmadnagar, took up and completed the settlement of the hjH 


The objects of this fresh settlement were to add all newly developed 
rice land to the existing rice registers and maps ; to add to the dry- 
crop registers sach further areas as might seem advisable ; and to 
lease the remaining lands for a lamp sum for the rest of the original 
survey lease. So rapidly had tillage spread that before 1860 the 
entire remaining area of arable hill lands was measured into separate 
fields, mapped, registered, and assessed. These lands were divided 
into five classes, four arable and one unarable.' Four sorts of land 
were included under the first class of arable : level ground with or 
without stones and of finesoil, fine rod soil with a slight easterly slope, 
hollows filled with river or rain deposits, and blackish level land. The 
second class included shallow reddish soil fairly level and mixed 
with stones or gravel, and a sloping clayey or tough black. The 
third class included good red and black soil, so steep that all moistare 
drained off or its substance was liable to bo washed away. The 
fourth class was composed of gravelly hill slopes and peaks unfit 
for the plough. Tbe fifth or biid class included stony land unfit for 
tillage. The acre rates, on the four arable classes, were fixed at lOJti. 
(as, 7), 7{d, {as. 5), 6d, (as. 4), and 4id. («*. 3). These rates were 
higher than the corresponding rates in the poor soils of the east 
of the district. But the soil in the western hills was better, and 
a good deal was considered unarable by Mr. Tytler which in the east 

1 * The leAMfl of the first lix KAvn&i villftOM ejcpirad vhUe Mr. Tytler w» id 
the coUectorate and were revised by him, the Jcrui Unds Iveing measured into 
DaailM-TB ami separately aseeflaed. After Mr. Tytler left the district, Mr. Suart 
proposed to renew the leaaoe, as they expired, on their original basis. There waa a 
[nag aud somewhat angry corn;apuadeDce un tbe subject between Hr. Tytler and 
Mr. Suart. Tbe result was that the leases were never revised, bat were continued 
until Mr. T>'tler'B settlumuiit of the vuil or upUuds lu I860.' Lieut, -Colonel TaTenier, 
893 of 16th October 1875, para 9. 'At the time of Mr. Tytlor's settlement, the 
uplands were giveu out on lump leases, at first nominally for a period of five years* 
but, generally s^akintf, they were never renewed, but allowod to run on, on the 
terms uf the original leaae.* Licat.-Coluncl Tavemer, 840 of 30th September 1875, 
para Q. 

a Kesolutian 403 of lat February 1856. para 27, in Mr. TytIer*B 583 of I860, par*. 1. 
The hill Hnrveywasaprogrcasivosystemwhicli aimed at opening upa country, originallj 
adniitting of but veiV partial florvey operations. At first (lH40j only the rice lands 
wore measured. Subsequently when, under Govemmeut Lutter 1386 of 4th May 
1844, the black land was measured, classified, and aaseaseiU the waate very 
greatly predominated, and it was not easy to determiue which porliuus were worth 
Bunreying and which wore not. Those only, which were under late crop cultiva- 
tion at the time or which from their sittiation were obviously capable of 
continuous tillage, wore surveyed. Ten years afterwards 1 1854) the Revenue Com- 
zoiasLoner Mr. Heevea saw that sufficient time had passed for the development of aQ 
the superior lands, and observed that such as bad before escaped observ'atiou might 
be measured aud aafletwtd. Subsequent Government orders (ISjS) led to the settle- 
ment of all the uplands in regular numbers throughout the hill countr\', and couso* 
quently to the exfcinotion in ISfiO of all lump sum leases. Revenue Commiasioner. 
8276 of 19th April 1854, pani 24, aud Mr. Tytler, 588 of I860, in UouL..Colvn#l 
Tavemer's 893 of 1876. Mr. Tytler. 624 of I'ith October IH46. 

• Mat or red land was subdivided into aralde mtU land, tree or forest proaorroi^ 
and kuran or gross proecrves. Mr. Tj-tler, 388 of 16th April I860, 


would have been assessed at low rste^.^ Compared with the fonner 
ftBsessmont these rates were high. Bat land had doabled in value 
BiBce lS40p when the survey was introduced. Grass, which was to 
be had at 2s. to 6*. (Re. 1 - Rs. 3) the 1000 in 1840, aold in 1860 
at. 12*. to 30#. (Rs. 6-Rs. J5). With the opening of the 
railway other produce prices would equally rise. New rates were 
accordingly introduced, represenliug an increase of 93*59 per cent 
on tho average realizations under the leasing 8yst<?m. The 
following statement shows tho results of the hill survey:^ 
Ndjuk HUl VUlageg, SnUUd 1840- 1860, 


BlfOftK ntBftlttVHT. 

OiUoiirAL SORwr. 

tjMU. SvnuunT. 

181S U> 

uai to 


TBI to 











in«ik la Tll- 



ToUl . 





























The survey settlement was next introduced into Peint. Measure- 
ments were begun in 1862 and finished in 1804. Classing went on 
ftlong with the measuring, and the settlement was introduced in 
18C5-66. At this time Point was bounded on the north by the 
Surgana ddnga or hill-lands of Khandesh ; on the east by tho Dindori 
sub-division of Na&ik; on the south by the Shdhipur sub-division of 
ThAna ; and on the west by the Dharampur state. It was a strip of 
broken gronnd about twelve miles broad and thirty-four long, with 
an area of 408 square miles and a population of 22,690, or an 
average density of fifty- five to the square mile, living in 244 vilkges 
of which twenty-one wore alienated. It consisted of plateaus of 
level upland, or vxdlf crossed by steep ravines and more or less 
dense forests. During the rains and cold season the climate was 
notoriously unhealthy, but in April and May it was cool and free 
from malaria. Tho inaL or uplands generally yielded crops for three 
years of nd'jli, khurdsjiij and ndgti again, and was then left fallow 
for three or fonr years. The rice lauds were inferior to those of 
the Konkan and yielded only the coarser kinds of rice. The chief 
revenue was drawn from the upland tillage, tho rental of the rice 
lands forming only about one-third of the revenue. 

Till 1839, when Peint came under British management, there were 
no roads. By 1865 Peint was joined with Ndsik by two very good 
roads, the one of about twenty-four miles fromNasik to Harsol and 
the other of thirty-two miles from NtUik to Peint. 

The people wore chiefly Marttthas and Kolis, and in some of the 
wilder villages a few Thakurs and Varlis, Except tho villages near 




TU Ddngu, 



1 t*iout .-Colonel Taverner's Report, 893 of lS7fi. paru. 26, 27. The seltleineot wm 
■iDctioncd by (iovcmmont Besulution 3790 orSOth CK^tubor 1860, and waa to remain 
in forc«r until the expiry of thu n'ce and dry-crop rate». 

^ Mr. TyUer, 5Sa of 'l8th April Id60, stat^meut 3 and |>ara. 13. 

Bombay OMcttair; 


Admmistr ation. 




the Dindori sub-division, wtich seemed fairly prosperoos, the people 
wore wild and poor. 

Since 1839 the state had been managed by British officers oa 
behalf of the Begam^ who received a yearly allowanco of £000 
(Rs. 6000).! 

The yearly revenue of the state is given below for the three ye«» 
ending 1803-64: 

PeiMt Hevenue, lSGl-1864, 

















Until 1865 the land revenue was levied by a plough-tas^ irrespeo*^ 
tive of the quantity and quality of the land under tillage. This 
plough-tax varied from £1 'iP*. to £1 (Ks. 19^ - Rs. 10) the 
plough for KuubiH, and was Ok. (Rs. 3) for Kobe. In Harsol and 
Peint all clasaea had for some years pai^l at the same rate, and in 
1865 sameness of rates was extended to Malogaon and B^ra, 
The poorer husbandmen who did not own bullocks tilled such upland, 
either varkas or dali, as they could by haudj and were charged at the 
rate of 6«. (Rs. 3) a hoe or hatdla. The headman of the village 
furnished a list of the owners of ploughs and of band cultivators, and 
was answerable for tlio collections, receiving in return the free grant 
of a fourth, a hulf, or a whole plough. 

The small revenue of the state and the wild character of the 

g^oplo were ansuited to the detailed measurement of the np1and& 
oundaries were fixed, lands marked off for forest and in some cases 
for wood-ash tillage, the uplands were measured iu lump, and the 
rice lauds, whose area was in moat cases very small, were measured 
in detail. Only in two villages, Point and Harsol, were the uplands 
measured into blocks of from twenty to thirty-five acres. 

The rice lands were measured and classified in detail. The 
uplands were assessed on their quality and area, and the rental 
distributed among the villagei-s in equal shares called ploughs. 
The headmen were responsible for the payment of the whole village 
rental, and were promised reductions if the number of ploughs 
went down to one-half. Profits from the increaso of cultivation 
were to be divided equally between the headman and Government, 
On these conditions the headmen agreed to take ten years' leases. 
In assessing their rice lands the villages wore divided into three 
groups with acre-ratos varying from G*. to 4j. (Rs. S-Rs. 2). 
The 6*. (Rs. 3) rate was introduced in forty-one villages on the 
borders of the Dindori sub-division ; the 5«. (Rs. 2^) rate in seventy* 

1 On the death o( the Begam in 187S the Feiat eUte Up««d to th« Bntudj 
Oovernment *ad became a sub-division oi N^isik. 



•even Tillages farther removed tlian the first group ; and the 4-8. 
(Hi. 2) raT^ ia & gronp of 105 forest and wild villages. The acre 
rates for uplimds varied from 4Jtl. [an, 3) to \{d, [ajina 1). The 
4ir/. (u8, 3) rate was introduced only in Haraol, Peint, and one 
or two adjoining villages. The l^d. («««« 1) rate was applied to 
some villages in the Biira division. The rate for late crop or rabi 
land was Ix. {tus, S), but the area of this land was very smalL No 
one took the plots of forest that were marked for wood-ash tillage. 
They were afraid they might get into trouble by burning the teak. 
The Superintendent arranged that the plots should be kept for 
wood-ash tillage for two years, when, if no one applied for them, 
they might be included in the forest area. 

The following statement shows that, compared with the average 
collections £1787 14*. (Rs. 17,877) of the tivo years before, the 
survey' assessment on the land in cultivation £2406 14*. (Rs. 24,667) 
caused au increase of thirty -seven per cent; 


FoMUtft Cau.Kmt)!c«. 




On UUncK. 

Oo wtMte. 









L*to crop, rri^t 





CpUml. imdi 





Wuod-«>b land, (lA/i 






ST,8M («) 


(a) Of this sum Ha. SCitf w«ro p«i>l to vXihk^t officers. 

At the time of settlement transit duties, which averaged about 
£830 (Rs. 8300) a year, were aboliahcd. 

Formerly village headmen were paid by the rent-free grant of a 
plough or part of a plough of laud, the whole concession amounting 
to £23^3 [lis. 2U30) or about ten per cent of the land revenue. 
Instead of this a cash share in the village revenues was granted at 
the rate of five per cent up to Rs. 800 ; four per cent between Rs. 300 
and Rs. oOO ; and three per cent from Rs. 500 to Ra 1000 and 
upwards. Three hereditary accountants or vntani hulkarnis had a 
claim of forty-eight pounds (4 pdylis) of vdgii on every plough, 
amounting on the number of plougha assessed in 1864 to about £63 
(Rs. G30). Under the survey settlement the district was divided into 
ten accountants' charges or sazds at a cost of £109 (Rs. 1090) or 
about 4*3 per cent of the gross revenue of the state. In Harsoland 
Peint a body of Kolis, who acted as watchmen and treasure-guards, 
held land at specially easy rates. Instead of this the number of the 
guards was reduced to sixteen and they were paid in cash at a total 
cost of £19 (Rs. 190). The Mhdra of Peint town, though they 
did no service, had been in the habit of gathering in a band and 
levying from the snialler villages a claim of ninety-six pounds 
(8 pdyliB) of ndgli on every plough. This exaction was stopped. 

Chapter VI] 











Twonty-five cattle-dealers of the Kinada tribe, who had f 
held land at specially easy rates, were charged the regular : j 
assessment^ raising their paymont from £6 to £17 (Ks. 60- Rs. 170)i 

This settlement was sanctioned for ten years by Oovemi 
Resolution 4343 of 29th November 1 805, aud continuod for 
'further term of fire years by Government Resolution 1114 of 
March 1874. In 1879, the Survey Commissioner suggested 
old settlement might be continued for three years from 1881- 
with an increase of twenty-five per cent on the rice nit^s and of 
per cent on cold-weather and upland rates. This increase raised 
average rice acre rate fnjm 2*. l\d. to 3ji. 3(f. (Re, 1-5 to Be. 1-11 
which was in the Commissioner's opinion still a very low rate, 
proposal was sanctioned by Government Resolution 4^53 of IStk 
August 1880, 

The northern or Khdndesh sub-divisions of Milegaon and BiigUn 
remained unsettled till 1868, the year before they became part of 

At the time of settlomont (1868) Mdleguon was bounded on the 
north by Dhnlia ; on the east by Chilisgaon ; on the south by the 
CbAndor or Satmila hills, and on the west by BAgldn. It contained 
163 Government and eight alienated villages, which were all surveyed 
and settled in 1863.^ The total area wus about 808 square miles 
aud the population about 53,000 or sixty-six to the stjuare mile, 
M^legaon was a rolling stony plain bonnded on two sides by hills^ 
and except along the banks of rivers bare of tre^ Except close to 
the rivers the soil was so poor that about twenty-eight per cent was 

The sub-division was well supplied with water. The Girna cro 
it from west to east, aud at Millegaon was joined by the Mo 
from the north-west. The water of both these rivers was largely 
used for channel irrigation. There were several smaller streams, 
but they seldom held water after the close of the cold season. In the 
153 Government viilngos there were 116^> wells, of which 570 were 
out of repair or only supplied driuking water, aud 599 were used for 
irrigation.' The climate was generally good, pleasant in the rains 
and cold in the winter, but hot in April and May, and somewhat 
feverish in October. The average rainfall at Mdlegaon during the 
nine years ending 1866 was eighteen inches. 

In 1865-C6, of a total arable area of 355,475 acres only 142,725 
acres or forty per cent were under tillage. The tillage was chiefly 
of inferior crops. Of the wbolo area sixty-seven per cent were under 
millet, fifteen per cent under Indian millet, six under pulse kulthi. 


1 The |iap«n for one of the 161 villa^ea vere not completed. The details of 
5U, 230 acrtse, the totid area of the renukining 160 vUlacns, showed that the Goven- 
mfiit arable land wa« 3.W,475 acrea and waste 127,904. or a total of 483,379 acret ; 
and X\i9 nlienated arable land wm 25,287 aod waste 9564, or a total of 30.851 acrea. 
Mr. Pedder, 1 18 of 20ih April 1867, para, 6. 
« Mr. Pedder'B Survey Report, 118 of 20th April 1S67, para 12. 
> Mr. Pcdder proposed to assess the Ifiiids watered by those wells by an addition 
~ twenty-t^vc per cent to the dry-orop rate, as saDctionea by psrs 14 of Oovemmeot 
station 1828o( 19th May 1806. His Report ll$of2Qth April 1867. para 10. 



under oil-seed til, two nnder gram, two nndor wheat, and one 
•h under castor-seed, sugarcane^ and miscellanooas crops. In the 

►r Lands the bnshes were cut down from a few acres in the midst 
the low thorny brakes, and the ground was tilled for two or three 
kraand then thrown np. Manure was never used^ and, when the 

showed signs of cxhaostiou, the £eld was left fallow for several 

Chapter^ VrtL-l 





\e sab-division was crossed by two bridged and metalled roads, 

from Malegao!i twenty-two miles to the Manmad railway station, 

tlie other the Bombay-Agra trunk road joining Malegaon with 
Dhulia. on the north and Chdndor on the south. The country roads 
were generally good. The only important market town was 
Milegaon with a population of 8264. 

Poor as Malegaon was (1868) its prosperity had greatly increased 
Bince the introduction of British rule. Between 1818-1 £) and 
1854-55 tillage had spread from 18,076 to 98,905 acres or 447 per 
cent, and the revenue had risen from £3999 (Rs. 39,990) to £8155 
(Rs- 81,650) or 103 per cent In the next eleven years (1 855-1 8CG) 
the tillage area had increosed by 43,820 acres or forty-four per ceut 
imd the revenue by £4499 (Rs. 44,990) or fifty-five per oent^ 
Except in a few bad seasons remissions had been small.^ In spite 
of this increase in prosperity Mr. Pedder was opposed to any great 
enhancement of assessment. The proportion of exportable products, 
-whicb caused an influx of money into the district, was very small. 
Cotton, wheat, gram, oil-seed, and sngarcane together occupied less 
than thirteen per cent of the cultivated area. Again the new rates^ 
though they did not seem so, were really higher than the old rates, 
B8 the measurements which had formerly often been greatly in 
fftvonr of the husbandman were now exact. Though the total 
increase was moderate, the assessment of many villages which had 
formerly been rated very low was greatly raised^ 

The 1 53 Government villages were arranged in four classes with 
highest dry-crop acre rates varying from 5*. (Rs. 2J) to 3s. Qd. 
(Kb. If). The first class included Bovon villages, Malegaon and 
those immediately round it, for which a highest acre rate of 5^. (Rs, 2 \ ) 
was fixed. The second class included sixteen villages for which a 
highest acre rate of 'Iff. M. ( Rs. 2^) was fixed. These villages lay along 
the Agra road near .Tliodga, a halting place where the traffic from 
Berdr and the north-cast joined the Agra road. The third class 
included 101 villages, the bulk of the sub-division which had no 
particular advantage of position or market. These were charged a 
highest acre rate of 4*. (Rs. 2). The fourth class included twenty-nine 
villages divided into two groups^ one bordering on the barren hills 

1 Mr. Pedder 1 18 of 1S67. para. 14. In 1867-68 tillage amounted to 170.786 acres, 
showina in fuurteen ycara an increase of 109 por ceut- Mr. Pedder, 371 of 13th 
Dvcember 18C7, para 16. 

1 Mr. Pedder, 118 of 1867, para 14. 

S Ab an liutancB of the inecioality of the old rates of two villacea, close together 
on the (!ima ami of prcdscly the aame soil, Taiht;r had paid at the rate of It. 7|<'. 
{tiA. 12;);^ff 11)a»d Soigaon at the rate of 2d. Oi'/. (He. 1-0-7}. Mr, Poddor, 118 of 
1867, pnra. 20. 

b23— 32 

apter VIII. 





[Bontoy OftMUNTi 



whicb BOpftrated M^legnon frorn DhDliaand the other of poor TilUgti 
on the lower slopes of the Ch^ndor range. Those were charged 
» highest acre rate of 3*. 6cZ. (Rs. IJ).^ On the same area of 
tilled land the effect of the new rates was an increase of eleven 
cent.' In addition to this, by bringing hidden tillage to 
accurate measnrements raised the increase in thoGovernment demi 
from eleven to thirty-five per cent. This additional reveniio ww 
again reduced to thirty-one per cent by the throwing np of " 
whose included waste had remained untaxed till the introdun 
survey measnrements. 

The following statement shows the effect of the survey : 



POtHVK. \ 

isia to 19W. 

















I. ... 

n. ... 

ni. ... 

IV. .. 
TVlal ... 




14 .on 








AO. p. 

16 7 


10 11 

8 6 






IB s a 

ti 1 ] 









U 8 


44.W) ji7 a s 

US,7?S lM,ni 




















IIL ... ... 


Total ... 

1 a ! 


11 n 





Ra. a. p. 
1 18 
10 4 






















2 8 
2 4 
1 12 

IS 6 


1 10 4 








Bdglilnj when surveyed and settled in 1868, contained 101 
villages/ eighty-eight Government and thirteen alienated, into 
ninety-one of which, eighty-eight Government and three alienated, 

1 These MAlegAoa m&xitnnm acre rates of dry-orop AMOoomcDt were nearly th« 
BaTneaathoaa sanctioned for the neighbouring sub-divisonBof Dhulid (Ra. 2-K. Kb. 2-2. 
and Ra. 114) and OiMingaou (Rs.2i, Rs. 2i, Rs, 2, Rs. ]|, oud Rs. MO) which hod 
been settled in I8(>2 ti3. 

« Mr. W. O. Fodder. 371 of I3th December 18C7, para 22. In another nassage (118 
of 20th April 1867, para 23) Mr. Tedder paU the nominal rise in the pitch of aai 
ment at tiji per cent. The actual incroaoe ieefns to hare been clereu per cent. 

3 Exclusive of the petty divisioiks oi Abhoiui and Jjiykheda, 



scttloracnt was iuiroilacod. Tho aroa of tbcso ninoty-one 
reyod villages was 413 square miles, or 205,449 acres, of whicli 

,038 or thirty-one per ceat were unarable. Population numbered 

,604 or oighty-four to tho square mile. B^gldn ia a district of 
[Us and streams, bare of trees except some fioo mango groves near 

rera. The soil was poor, mostly stony or harad, and the average 
ilficatiou was consequently low, about aitnas 4i according to 

ie revised classification scale. In many of the v^-lleys much good 
and fairly deep black soil h'ld a plentiful supply of river water, and 
paid • V ii^ly high rates. Though pleasantly cool the climate 

w»ij I. y. In some villages every Septenibcr and October 

tho whole pupnlation suffered from fever. During tho eight 
years ending 18(J8 the rainfall ranged froTU twenty-five inches in 
1861 to eight inches in 1805 and 1368, and averaged 14'4 inches. 
Many of the hill villages depended for their water-supply on 
welLi which were liable to fail. But most of the villages were 
in valleys, and ha<l a plentifnl and unfailing supply of water. Wet- 
crop tillage in Biglan was carcful, skilful, and productive. The 
dry-crop tillage seemed to suffer from the greater caro given to the 
watered urops^ and was generally rude and rough, though tho 
outturn was often large. Tillage was almost the sole industry. 
The people were comfortable, but not rich. Even the best channel- 
watered villager had few signs of wealth. Most of the people were 
forced to seek the moneylenders' help and were in debt. Sat^na 
waa the head-quarters and chief local market. There were also 
markets at Dang Saundann, Rej, V'akhdri, and Uamoshvar. But 
the cliief market was at Miilegaou twcuty-two miles east of Sat-Ana. 
In 1800 there were no made roads, and Satdna waa twenty-eight 
miles from Manmad, the nearest railway station. 

Between 1828 and 1848 very liberal reductions had lowered the 
ftveragi.^ acre rate from U, 9|ti. to 2«, bd. (Rs. 2-6-7 to Re. 1-3-4), or 
about fifty per ceut. These reductions seem to have placed tho Baglau 
vilhigos on a satisfactory footing. During the ten years ending 
1857-58 the tillage area spread from 49,800 to 57,491 acres, and, in 
irpite of a slight fall from 2s. bd. to 2*. 3^d. (Re. 1-3-4 to Re. 1-2-3) 
ID the average acre rate, the recoipta rose from £5002 to £640(> 
(Bs. 50,020 - Rs. 04,000). During the nine following years, in 
ooosequenco of the great rise in produce prices, Bdgldn made rapid 
progress. The tillage area rose from 57,491 to 84,095 acres, 
and collections from £.6\06 to £9274 (Rs. 04,060 -Rs. 92,740).* 
Remissions had been triQing and were almost entirely given to 
Bhils, who had forgotten formally to give up lands which they had 
ceased to till. The following table gives a summary of the progress 
of Baglan since the beginning of Britii^h rule : 

Chapter VI] 



I Much of tbiB rifio waa duo to a aucucssiou of scanty local crops, and nay return of 
guod iwMons wu certain to causc a uuirked fall in prices. fSom. Gov. Kev. Kec. 74 of 
1&70, 404*405. 

-^' - • ^-^^^ ^ 

[Bombay GaMt 



Chapter Yni. 




BdffUn Land Revenue, ISIS- 1907, 










AwetBatoflO year*. 

lau-to to isfr-s6 

lffiS-S» to 1887-88 

1888^ to 1847-4B ... ^ 
1S46-49 to IWT-W 


1868.W to IS8Mf .« .« ... 















118 4 

1 8 k 

1 1 t 

Except in tho three villages where the plough tax or authandi 
was in force, the revenue system in DdgUo was an acre rate or 
highoti, tho bigha being nominaUj equal to about three-fourtha of 
an acre, but, in practice, including from an eighth to a sixth more.' 
Tho existing rates were less than one-half of the former rates. 

The eighty-eight Government villages were arranged in five 
classes, with highest dry-crop acre rates of 4«. 3d. (Rs. 2i), 4* 
(Ra.2), 3*. 6d. (Rb. IJ). 3^. (Rs.lJ), and 2*. 6d, (Ra. IJ). The 
first class, with a highest dry-crop acre rate of 4s. 3d. (Hs. 2|), 
contained Jlvo villages iu the eastern plain or near the Gima and 
the Aram. They had easy access to markets and wora well supplied, 
with water. The second class, with a highest dry-crop acre rato 
of 4«, (Rs. 2) contained twenty-eight villages, chieSy in the vaJleysi 
of the Kaner, Aram, Girna, and Kolthi west of the first claB&l 
Tliere were also a few villages, like Ajmer Saundana and Vdygaon, 
which, though not on these rivers, were well supplied with water 
and were near markets. The third class with a highest acre rat© of' 
Ss. 6d. (R«. 1}) contained sixteen villages. The fourth class with 
a highest acre rate of 3». (Rs. 1 J) contained twenty-six villages. The 
fifth or tho lost class with a highest acre rato of 2*. 6d. (RsA\) 
included thirteen villages, a poor group, some among the hills to 
the west of Satiina and others in the extreme west and north of the 
sub-division. These were the rates approved by the Survey 
Commissioner and sanctioned by Government. Mr. Pedder origin- 
ally proposed somewhat higher rates iu a considerable number of 
the villages. The changes recommended by Colonel Francis lowered 
the total rental from £11,483 to£10,908 (Rs. 1.14,830.Ra. 1,09,980). 
The following statement gives a summary of the original and of the 
amended rates : 

Bdgldn SeUtement, 1S6S. 



Samotiord. 1 














ThiMi ... 




Ki. a. 

a -i 


1 12 
I 10 




4), 651 



1 6 



Rg. a. 

t 8 

1 u 

1 8 
1 4 













1 Mr. Pedder, 4, 5tfa January 1860. iu Bom. Gov. Bev. Boc 74 of 1870, 374. 



Ab B^Ua was still cut off from outside markets, as the people 
were by no means well-to-do and had suffered severely from several 
jefrfs of scanty rainfall, some slight lowering of the Government 
demand seemed advisable. The survey measurements showed an 
area under tillage of 106,575 instead of 91,132 acres, while the 
assessment showed a fall from £10,028 bo £9422 (Rs. 1,00,280 . 
Rs. 1*1/220) or about six per cent. This decrease was cansed by 
reducing the average dry-crop acre rate from 1*. oi^d. to Is. 2^d, 
(oj. 11-8 to as. 9-9) and the average channel-watered rates from 
£1 4«. S^. to 18w. U. (Ra. 12-5-4 to Rs. 9-2-8). The following 
etatement shows in detail the chief changes and their Enancial 

Bdffidn SetOemmt, 286S, 




tsis-ia to 







Dry-crop. Cbm.nnel-w&iure<I. 













a .. 

lU. - 

nr. ... 


























lU.K. p. 

• 13 & 

11 9 
10 A 
7 7 








13 8 ll 
13 4 
3 15 

d 3 a 














11 S 



IS 3 4 







































Bii. •. 

3 S 
1 IS 
1 10 








B«.ft. p. 
18 J 
9 9 
7 1 








Rs. s.p. 

10 2 a 

8 16 10 
8 » 

7 8 1 













03.307 9 9 



2 g 



After Bagliln its two petty divisions were settled, JAykhcda with 
ninety-six villages in the north and Abhona with 165 villages in 
e south-west The surface of both of these groups was broken 
steep rocky ranges generally stretching west and east, and 
parated by valleys of varying breadth. Except towards the west 
pecially in the hills about Pimpli near Abhona, where were 
resta of teak and other timber trees, most of the hills were bare 
or covered with low thom-bushea. Along the river banks were 
many rich mango groves. In other parts the arable land was 
aJtnofit troelees. The soil varied from a rich deep black to the 
poorest stony or harad. Some hill villages sufFerod from want of 
water; but, as a rule, the valleys were well supplied. The climate 
cool, but feverish from October to Febmary, 





and Afilu 

[Bombay Oatett 



11^ VIII. 



«(i dbhona, 

The most important crops were sugarcane, rice, wheat, and 
occupying iu uU 10,61 i acres. Except towarda th« oast 
the valleys were open and the climate enited millet, the i 
tillage was rude and careless- As in B^gUn proper the 
had for some years been vory scanty, and it was (December 
the universal opiuion of the people and of Government ofli< 
acquainted with the country that the climate had changed for 
worse. Wella and streams which formerly hold water all the y* 
round had for some years past run dry in January. ITiere was 
a general belief that partly from the want ol moisture, partly from 
the spread of tillage and from continuous cropping, the laud was 
loss fruitful than formerly. The opening of the KondAi and Sel 
paaaea was a great lielp to traffic, and a road was being made froi 
Mdlegaou through Sat^lna and the Dhol pass across J^ykheda, ui 
over the Sel pass to Pimpaluer in KhAndesh. There were 
made roads, and most of the country tracks were broken by 8te< 
passes and deep ravines. No part of either group of villages 
near the railway. Except sugar, which crossed the Bhi.vad 
to NAsik in considerable quantities, the only exports were to 
Mdlogaon. All the local markets were small and unimportant. 
The diief were in JAykheda, Malher, Ndnipur, and Jdykheda ; and 
in Abhona, Hatgad, Kanosi, Pala, and Abhona, The people wei 
few in number, sixty-nine to the square mile in Jdykheda an< 
eighty-five to the square mile in Abhona. They were sunk in del 
and had suffered much from recent bad seasons.^ 

Only ten villages in the extreme south had been prerionsly sn 
veyed, and, except by opening one or two hill passes, no attempt h 
been made to help traffic or supply an outlet for the local pmduci 
Still, though the survey was not introduced, great improvemen 
had from time to time been made in the system of revenue manag 
meut. Tho pressure of distress between 1828 and 1832 had c*ufl 
a marked reduction in the Government demand. By improvement 
in the revenue system and by the introduction of useful checks and 
tests, tho people were freed from the extortion of village and 
district ofBcera, under which they had suffered severely in the early 
years of British rule. Transit duties were reduced, extra cess 
abolished, and the average dry-crop acre rate was lowered abo 
27 per cent.^ These improvements were followed by a steady 
advance of tillage, which became rapid in 1358 when produce prices 
began to rise. In the Jdykheda villages tillage had spread from 
7980 acres in 1818 to 34,979 in' 1868 or an increase of 338 per cen 
while the Government demand had only risen from £ 3020 to £545 
(Rs.3O,200-Rs. 54,560) or eighty per cent. So in Abhona the spre 
of tillage was from 11,135 to 37,4G1 acres or 236 per cent, and th 
increase in collections from £1936 to £4101 (Rs.l 9,360 -Rs. 41,010) 
or 1 1 1 per cent. The details are given below. During the twen 
years ending 1833 in the fifty -four villages of Jaykheda, tho till 

.d I 

> Mr. Podder'e Survey Report, 302 of 7th Deceralier 1869, parii 22. 
i In JAykh«aa {rom Rs. 2-10-1 to Us. l-8*7i aud in Abhona Crom Be. 1-6-3 to 
Re. 1.1-7. 




ATOA had spread from 7980 acres to an average daring the ten years 
ending 1838 o£ 15,569 while the collections remained almost 
nnchanged at J&302a (Rs. 30,200). During the noxt thirty years, 
oorrespondinpr to the first survey period in the southern Bub-divisions, 
the advance was rapid espi'cially towards the close. In the ten years 
ending 1847-4y the average tillage area had risen from 16,569 acres 
to 22,019 or forty-one per cent, and the collections from £3018 to 
£3261 (R8.30,180-Rs.32,GI0) or seven per cent. During the next 
ton years (1848-1858) the tillage increased to 25,705 acres or sixt^jen 
per cent, and the collections to £3752 (Rs. 37,520) or fifteen per cent. 
The prf icrross in the next ten years was much more marked, a rise in 
tilbig'' ■ "7 or twenty -eight per cent and in collections to £5023 

iRs. , > ;_ .r thirty-three per cent, llie last year of the decade 
1867'ti8j was far above the average, with a tillage area of 31,979 
■cree and a revenue of £5450 (Rs. 54,560). During the same period 
the advance in the 108 Abhona villages was about the samcj double 
the tillage area, and an increase of 89 per cent- in the collections. 
The variations in the progress were also very similar, a large 
advance in tillage (5859 acres) between 1837 and 1847, a smaller 
advance (305 1 acres) in the next decade, and again a marked increase 
(9801 acres). Aa in the Jaykheda group the returns for the last 
year of the period (1867-68) were far in excess of the average of 
the ton previous years, tillage showing an increase from 34,893 acres 
to 37,ifil acres and collections from £3791 to £4101 (Rs. 37,910- 
Rs. 41,010). The details for both village groups are given in the 
following statement : 

Jdykheda 54 VHIagfM, Land Retrnuf^ 18JS-1SGS. 



me Hi. 








UlS-W - -. .« 

Tarn fiKiV awrOfT. 


l8M-«to 1M7-48 


MtftM to IBOT-tt 














' Rs. 



Ba. a. p. 

9 in 1 
a 3 t 

1 s 
1 6 1 
I 8 1 

Abhona lOS Viiluijrs. Laml Utvmue^ 1S18-1SG8. 








IMB-IA tol^^TM 






I e s 

\fm^ ' ... 






1 5 1 

vsm^-- ™ ... ... 






1 1 'i 






27, lift 

1 1 6 

lUMB tu lbd3 Od 






1 1 7 






la fifty-six Jri-ykheda and 121 Abhoua villagea the revenue was 
c>>ll<>cted by hlgha rat^s, and in twenty-three Jaykheda and eleven 
Abhona viilagpsthosettlementwasbyaploughtaxor antbandi. In these 
plongb cess villages the lands tilled by each husbandman were roughly 

Chapter VII] 





and Alfhonttf 


tBombay Oi 



measured into plots of thirty btghas. Eacb of these plots waa callei) 
a pIoDgh, and the holder was charged a certain sum on tho plough 
'fttion. without counting his cattle. In the south there was a special group 
of eleven villages, which had formerly belonged to Dindori and hod 
been settled by Mr. Tytler in 1843. In these vdlagos the system 
of granting the village a short lease of the uplands for a lump sura 
had not worked well, and tho lands had been divided and lefc for 
tillage at a low uniform rate.^ In Jiykheda the survey settlement 
was introduced into eleven alienated and eighty-one Government 
villages,' with a total area of 194,610 acres or 304 square miles, of 
which 91,564 or forty-seven per cont were unarable. 'ITie population 
was 20,834 or Bixty-nine to the square mile. Of the 165 Abhona 
villages 143 were Government and twenty -two alienated. Twelve 
alienated and ten Government plough rate villages were circuit 
surveyed only. The ten Government plough-rate villages were in the 
D&ngs to the west of the Sabyidris, scattered along the road from 
Abhona to Balsdr. Their outlying position, their sickly climate, 
the want of labour, supplies, and water, and the probable opposition 
of the Bhils and Konkanis would make the introduction of tho 
survey settlement difiicult and costly, and even if introduced tho 
regular system could not be carried out. Such of these villagea aa 
were tilled were granted to the headmen on ten years' leases, ou 
condition that the headmen were not to levy more than tlie existing 
plough rate of 1G«. (Bs, 8). The effect of these leases was in one 
village to increase tho rental from £11 6^. to £12 14^. (Bs. 112|- 
Rfl. 127), in another from £7 168. to £7 13#. (Rs. 78 -Rs. 79), and 
in eight others to increase rentals varying from £2 144. to £4 4ff. 
(Rs. 27 -Rs. 42) to rentals varying from £3 2». to £5 \0s, (R«. 31 - 
Rs. 55). Of tho remuining 126 villages, into which the survey 
settlement was introduced, four were alienated and 122 GovemmonL 
Of the Government villages one had formerly been assessed by a 
ploagh rate and 121 by a btgha rate. Of a total area of 172,019acres 
or 269 square miles, 80,038 or forty -six per cent were unarable. The 
population was 22,0 7G or eighty-five to the square mile. 

Of 218, the total number of villages settled, eighty-one Govern- 
ment and eleven alienated belonged to Jiiykheda, and 122 Govom- 
ment and foui* alienated to Abhona. They were arranged in five 
classes with highest dry-crop acre rates of 4*., 3j- 6ti., 3«., 2«. 6ti., 
and 2*. (Rs. 2, Re. 1}, Rs. 1 J, Rs. U, and Re. 1). Tho effect of 
the survey rates was in the ninety-two Jaykheda villages a fall 
from £6039 to £5797 (Rs. 66,390 - Rs, 57,070) or thirteen percent, and 
in the 126 Abhona villages a fidl from £4372 to £3889 (Rs. 43,720 - 
Rs. 38,890) or eleven per cent. The details are given in the follow- 
ing statement: 

' Tho thirty yean* lurvey Ioaso of these viUAgee did not oome to an cud till 187S. 
Tlicy wcTc surveyed and nueaaed in odvanco, ten of thorn being placed in the third 
clana with a maximum dry»orop acre rat© of Ks. H, aud uuu m the fourth claas ai a 
rate of Ko. 1. Mr. Pcddcr, 302 of 7th December 1S«0, para 18. Rev. Rec. 76 of 1870. 

' Two of these were formerly huUl on lease. Of the eighty -four Govemraexit ft&d 
twelve alionatcd villages, two Govemmcnt WUagcs were includetl with otbcrs, and oo« 
Govvnimeut village which was vutirely wuate uid ono Qlieuated village were not 
lurvcyed. Mr. Peddur, 302 of IttUO, para. 9. 





Jdffkheda taidAbhona SeUlement, 1369. 

Pkitt Dmnoai. 





Rental ol 



Total ... 


















In 1871 -72j at the close of the tliirty years' guaranteed lease^ the 
revision of the original survey settlements was begun in sixty-nine 
inllages of Nipb4d and nineteen tillages of Chandorj which had been 
BcUled in ISiO-il and 1841-42. This tract was bounded on tha 
north by the Chandor bills, on the east by Yeola, on the south by 
the Qod^T&ri, and on the west by the Bombay- Agra road. It was a 
rolling plain, the sides and tops of the rising ground were poor and 
barren, but the hollows were deep soiled and had streams whose 
water was mnch used for irrigation. The richest parts lay along 
tlio north bank of the Kddva and God^vari, and some Tillages 
bordering on Yeola. 

The rain returns daring the eight years ending 1870-71 varied 
io Ch^udor from 10*42 inches iu 18G4-65 to 41*39 inches in 
1870-71, and averaged 2272 inches; in Niphid they varied from 
13-51 inches iu 1868-69 to 21*20 in 1870-71 and averaged 16'66 
inches.^ Local produce prices during the thirty years varied for 
millet, hdjri, from 84 lbs. the rupee in 1842-43 to 26 lbs, in 1870-71 
or an increase of 220 per cent ; for whest, from 70 lbs, to 24 lbs, or 
on increase of 200 per cent; for rice from 26 lbs. to 14 lbs. or an 
increase of eighty per cent; and for gram from 66 lbs. to 24 lbs. or 
an increase of 170 por cent.^ During the same time the villages had 
greatly gained by the opening of roads and railways. Instead of a 
rough stony ravine, hardly passable for laden carta, the Tal road was 
one of the finest engineering works in West India.' The great Agra 
highway gave easy communication through this pass to the sea and 
north-oast to Khdndesh. The Peninsula railway passed through 
the villages, providing them with three stations, Manmiid, Lasalgaon^ 
and Niphid ; and from one of these stations roads had lately 
(1870) been opened, one about thirty-five miles north-west from 
Lasalgaon to Abhona, the other about fifteen miles north to 




Keviflion Surrey. 

> Tbe deUils were : ChAndor. IS63, 22-05 inchen; 1864. 10-42 ; 1865. 1174 ; 186^ 
nori-r. i u^:- '>2-4r, ; I86S, IS'Sti ; 18«0, 32-27; 1870. 41-39. In Niphdd they we«^ 
IP'. ISW, 14-9:1; \mr\ I8 98;18(lfi, 14; 18C7. 17-02; 1868.13-51; 1869, 

Li*-.. . ' :i-2. Lt-CoL Wwidington, 850 of I9th l>ec«mb©r 1871 ; Kev. Kco. 87 

■U£:2. ;)U0. 

^V^In C'lidxidor the average prioosfrom 1841-42 to 1850-51 were, for millet 7U Hm., 
W whe*t 58 Iba.. forrice24 W, and for gram 56 lbs. From 1851-52 to 1860-61. for 
mUUt 54 lb«., for wheat 50 lbs., for rice22 lbn., and for gram 43 lbs. From 1861-62 
to 1870.71, for millet 24 lbs., for wheat 20 lb«., for rice 12 Ibe,, and for gram 22 Iba. 
Bev. Bee. 87 of 1872, 30S. 343. 
• • I remember/ writes Lieu tenant- Colonel Waddington, ' with what difficulty laden 
' carta were forced ap tbe roagh and atony ravine in 1846/ 850 of 19tb December 1871. 
y 8 23-33 

88 VUlagt$t 

iBottbftf Gi 



Am vm 


■IB 8arv«y. 

Tbo result of these inflaences had been, compftriog the &Tenigo< 
the two perioda of ten years ending in 1851 and in 1871, a spi 
from 95,867 to 110,223 acres in the tillage area and an increase in 
oollectiona from £8216 to £9606 (Rb. 82,160- Ra. 96,000)." ~ 
following statement gives a summary of the detaQs ; 

Niphdd-Ckdndor Land Ratmit 

, 1841-1871. 






















83 JM 

87 .OCT 






1 ^n 

Daring the thirty years ending 1870-71 the population retama 
showed a rise from 18,751 in 1840-11 to 38,007 in 1870-71 or 
per cent; carts from 003 to 2747 or 204 per cent; fcirm buUo 
from 8602 to 13,998 or sirty-two per cent ; buffaloes from 282 
48G4 or seventy-one per cont; shoop and goats from 9522 to 15,977 
or sixty-six per cent ; and horses from 842 to 1062 or twenty-three 
per cent; cows showed a decrease from 11,026 to 8963 or nineteen 
per cent.* Wells had risen from 975 to 1417 or fifty-one per cent. 

Except in a few villages there was no rotation of crops. Sugar- 
cane waa rarely grown oftener than once in four or five years. The , 
chief crops were, in the Niphad villiiges, millet covering fifty-four, wheat 
SO'O, and gram four per cent of the area under tillage ; aud in Chiudc^i 
millet with 71'd and wheat with 8*6 per cent^ The villages were (187^H 
well provided with roads. Bombay traders came in great numbers ^^ 

' During the thirty yean ending 1870-71 in the eighty-eight villages of Niphidand 
ChAndor, the Tn.LAOC Arka varitd from 77,000 acres in 1&41-42 to lia.OOOacrea in 
«ach of the six yean ending 1870-71, and avenged 10l,5&8 aoree. In the tint thrN 
yean it mee frnm 77,000 acres in 1&41-42 to 97,000 in ItH3-M and fell in the next 
two yean to 04.000 Id IS45-46. Then rising to 106,000 in 1S47-18 it again fell to 06,000 
in 1661-52. In the next three yean there was no change. After thst there vas a 
steady iucrease until 1662-63 when it amounted to 110,000 aons. In the next two 
yean thoro was no change and in the remaining six yean the amount stood at 112,000 
acres. Dnrinff the same period, CoLLE(*rioNs varied from Ra. 73,000 in 1S41-42 
to Rfl. 03,000 meach of the six yean ending 1870-71, and averaged B«.&4,210. la 
the fint three yean they rose from Ha. 73.(K)0 in 1S4I-42 to B«. 83.000 in IS43-44, 
and fell in the next two yean to Rti. 77,000 id 1S45-46. Then rising to B«. 87*000 
in 1847 48 they again fell to Ra. 73,OCK^I in 1851-52. In the next foaryeanthey we(« 
Ra. 81.000 in 185253, Ks. 74,000 in 1853-54, Re. 83,000 in 1854-65, and Bs. 75,000 
in 1856-56. In the next nine je&n tbuy steMlily roM} from Ra. 85,000 in 1856-57 
to Rs. 91,000 in 1304-65. In the renuuning lix yean they stood at Ra. 93,00a 
Doring the whole thirty yean of the survey lease, Rkmiiwio.v» were granted in 
only eleven of the flnt fifteen years. In four of theao eleven yean thoy amounted 
to Rs. 7000 in 1850 51. Rs. 10,000 in 1851-52, Rs. 8500 in 1853-54, aud Ra. 7000 iu 
1866-56. Iq the remaining seven of the eleven yean, they were under Ra. lOOO. 

^ Of ploughs no return is available for 1840-41 ; is 1870-71 they nambered 3332. 
They bad probably increased in proportion to the increase in the nnmher of fartn 
bnllocka. The districta on the biuiks of the Godi^vari (Gangthadi) were as famous for 
their breed of ponies aa those of Bhimtluuli ; though the niimberof ponies showed a 
rise of 23 per cent the breed had fallen off. Lieutenant- Colonel Waddingtoa. 8S0 
of 19Ui December 1871. pwra. 7. 




ifae railway stations, and boagbt straight from the growers. The local 
domand waa also good. Saykheda within two miles of the Khervddi 
railway station had a weekly market, where goods wore offered for sale 
worth from £500 to £1000 (Rs. 5000- Ka. 10,000). Weekly markets 
wore aUo hold at Chandor, Niphdd, Pimpalgaon, Vinchur, Ijasalgaon, 
Narayanthembaj Sukena Khurd, Ndndur, and Madmeshvar, 
lUQd there were yearly fairs atNaital in Paush (January), when for 
fifteen days cloth chiefly from Bombay and worth £2500 (Ra. 25,000) 
was sold, and at Ahirgaon in Kdriik (November), when from £1200 
to £1400 (Ra. 12,000- Rs. 14,000) of goods were sold. In Ch4ndor, 
Ndndurdi, and one or two Urge villages the weaving of cloth 
ei' ^216 looms, with an average yearly produce of about £5000 

(li 'J). The villages seemed in better repair, cleaner, and 

neater than Poena villages. The people were fairly off. Private 
sales and mortgages of land to moneylenders were not uncommon^ 
but, during the three years ending 1870-71, there had been only 
one sale of land from failure to pay rent. On the whole the land 
was carefully aud cleanly tilled^ ana the watered lands wore well 
manured. Though not so valuable as at Poena, land fetched as 
much as from thirty to seventy times its yearly rent 

When ^e original survey was made the system was incomplete, 
and tests showed that the land most again be measured before 
revised assessments could be fixed. 

As regards classing the soil, the scale used at the revision survey 
wm, with sligLt morlificatious, the same as Lieutenant Davidson's 
scale.' But although the scale was nearly the same, examination 
showed Uiftt Mr. Davidson's standard was not uniform,^ and that a 
&esh c1aj3:^iiication was required. Consideriug the improved means 
of traffic and the great rise in produce prices,^ Lieutenant-Colonel 
Waddington thought that the rates might fairly be raised from fifty 
to sixty per cent. 

For re-assessment purposes the villages wore arranged under 
lour groups. Six villages either railway stations or close to railway 
stations, where a highest dry-crop aero rate of 4«. Qd, (Hs. 2^) 
was fixed ; twenty-two villages within easy reach of a railway 
station or near a large market or on a high road, for which 
the highest rate was fixed at 4*. (Ra. 2) ; thirty-eight villages not so 
well placed had a highest rate of 3«. 6d. (Rs. 1 J) ; and twenty-two 
villages far from the railway had a highest rate of 3*. (Rs. H). The 
effect of the new rates was a rise in the rental from £9140 to £15,373 
(R8.91,4t50-Rs, 1,53,730) or sixty-eight per cent. The details are 
given in the following statement : 

' Diagmm 0. opposite page 4S of Bom. Oov. Sel. CXXX. t»rt II. 

' The uaistant enperintondcnt Mr. GniBt found that in tbo origiiul cluaing, 'soils 
from the tliird clan doimwftriLi were entered fully twu olauos too law uid the eighth 
and ninth ordon of soil were oommonly entered as onftrAblo, kKardb^* Kev. Kea 87 
of 1872, 231, 305. 

' Comp&red with the average in the first Bfte«n ye&ra of tiko originnl enrvcy (1S41- 

1856), the avorsgo of the ten y oars (185(1-1861 aud 16i>B>1871) showed an increase 

of aoventy-on« per cent in nullet and iieventy-thrtfc per cent iu wheat. These are 

avenges of tb« three plaoes, NiphAd, Chandor. and Niuik. Lient.'Cul. Waddingtoa» 

, 850 bl mb December 1871. Bom. Qov. Kev. Kcc. 87 of 1872, 300, 348. 




Kevision Survey, 



[Bombay Gaietinr, 



KevUiou Survey, 




NifJidtt-CMndor Sewkkm Sdtlmt^ad, 1S7L 




Tvtku j 




















PrapotedntM ... 









Bxistiinr do. ... 


















In 1878-7 I- the revision survey was extended to two village group. 
One of these was of fifty-six villages, forty-five of them in Ch^aor 
and eleven in Niphdd, with an area of 116,811 acres and a population 
of 126 to the square mile. The other was of forty-two villages, 
thirty-eight of them in Dindori and four in NAsik, with an area of 
114,474 acres and a population of 169 to the square mile. 

There was much variety in these villages. Most of the south* 
easty includitig the Niphiid and Nasik villages, and those in the 
80uth*east corner of Dindori were level with deep black eoil, while 
the west of N^sik and the south of Dindori were hilly and poor; 
north Dindori was wooded with somewhat shallow black soil ; and 
Chilndor in the north-east was broken and stony, bare of tree* and 
with poor soil. In almost all parts were streams, many of which 
were used to water the rich lands on their banks. The western 
villages bad a larger rainfall and a more feverish climate than tho&e 
in the east. Rain returns for the nine years ending 1871-72 varied 
in Ch^ndor from 1042 inches in I864-G5 to 41'39 inches in 
1870-71, and averaged 2236 inches; in Dindori they varied from 
20-99 inches in 1864-65 to 2856 in 1870-71, and averaged 26-1*1 

Survey rates had been introduced both into the eastern orj 
Chlindor and into the western or Dindori blocks in 1842. Both 
groups, especially the Chandor villages, were then much depressed, 
and low rates were introduced averaging 1<. 3J'/. {as. lOJ) an 
acre in the Ch4ndor and 1«. 6|d!. {an. 12J) in the Dindori 
villages. The new rates, though less than the former nominal 
total rental by fifty per cent iu Chdndor and thirty per cent m\ 

The details are : 

Chdndor-Dindmi BaiMsfalL, JSOS- J871. 




















31 74 












14 -M 









1) 74 





41 so 

81 -ao 




SO -67 



1871 73 ... 










AvcngA ... 

as 81 


16 67 


Bombay Guv. SoL CXLV. 9. 



icdori, yielded an increase on past collections of twenty-six per 
it in ChAndor and twenty-five per cent in Dindori,^ 

For twenty years after the 1842 survey the rillnges made little 
progress. The average collections in the Chrimdor group rose from 
£8027 (Rs. 30.270) in the ten years ending 1841 to £3303 
(Rs, 33,630) in the ten years ending 1861, and the corresponding 
icreasc in the Dindori villag-es was from £4462 to £4890 
44j620- Rs, 48,900), In the ten following years the increase 
ras more marked, to £3818 (Re. 38,180) in Chdudor and £5317 
53,1 70) in Dindori .* The following Bummary shows the avorngo 
increase of revenue iu each of the four decades between 1832 and 


Chdmhr-Dindori Land Revalue, iSSX-WS, 


tb Cfu'Kiwa km 
11 NiriiA'D viLLAon. 


4 Ka'hr >-u.iuon. 

Total pok 06 ViuaaH. 
























By the close of the survey lease the whole arable area was 
under tillage, except 1845 acres in Dindori and 1'185 in Chaindor. 
~^he increase in the resources of these villages was believed to differ 
ittlo from the increase in the eighty-eight villages of Chfindor and 
Niphid which were revised in 1871. These were, in people 102 per 
cent, iu carts 204 per cent, in farm bnllocks sixty-two per cent, 
in buffaloes seventy-one per cent, in sheep and goats aixty-six 
per cent, and in horses twenty-three per cent; cows had fallen 
nineteen per cent.' Something had been done to improve the 
water-supply. Masonry dams ha<l been bnilt in some villages, and 
yearly mud and stone walls were thrown across several of tho 
streams. Government bad constructed a large dam across the 


» Bom. Gov. Sel. CXI.V. 18. 

- Ju thefortvtwo villAgen of the Dindnri group, the Tti^laoc Area felt from C3,000 
in 1842-43 to 49,(K)0 in 1845-4fi. In tho next three years it rose to 57,000 acres 
and Again in 1840-50 fell to54j,(}00. From Itk'i'Jthe tillage lu'ea continually nilvaiicecl till 
ifc reached 73,000 acres in 1863-G4, and in tho ronioiniug nine years it ranged l>etween 
73.000 and 74,000 in 1872-73. Collkctions steadily rose from R«, 43,000 in 1842-43 
to R«. 62,500 in 1861-ti!^ In the remaining cloven years ther showed a alight 
inoreaac of about £s. 500. The chief KeMisfliONS wore about lU. 500 in 1846-47, 
and about Rb. 20O in 1849-50, 1851-52, and 1S5.V54. 

In the fifty -six Chdndor villages tho Tilimc^e ARR.iro&e from 38,000 acres in 1842-43 
to 39,500 iu 1843-44 and fell to nhout 37,500 in 1844-4.=]. In tho next three years 
it rose to 48.500 nercs in 18-17-48 and again fell in five yconi to 44,500 in l»52.53. 
During the whole of the retriaining period it continued to riiie to 52,000 in 18(j0>01, 
€2,000 in 1863-ft4, and &t,000 in 1872-73. CoLUscTioifs rosefrom about Ub. 30,000 in 
1842-43 to about Kji. 33,000 in 1847-48, and fell to IU. 28,600 in 1851-52. They again 
rose to Rs. 32,500 in 1853-54, fell to Ra. 31,500 in 1856.56, asd again roee to Ra. 34,000 
in 1856-57. In the next four years they stood at Ra. 34, (WO and then roue to 
Rs. 38,000 in 18ti2-G3. In the remaining ten years they varied little and averaged 
about Rb. 38,000. The chief Remiwions were about Rs. 4000 in 1851-52, about 
Rii. 5<H) in 1853 M, and aUut Ra. 200 in 1850-51 and 1855-56. 

> Mr. Aahbumer, Rev. Comr. 251<;, 22ud AprU 1874, in fiom. Ck»v. S«l CXLV. 2. 

Chapter Tl\ 



! Bombay 





e^iiioa Survey. 

KAdva at P^khed.^ Wells for watering the land had increased foi 

five per cent in the Chandor and forty-six per cent in the Diudori 
block. Inateadof being entirely without made roads, the villages had 
the Bombay- Agra highway passing through the south-ea&t comer of 
tho western and crossing from end to end of the eastern group. 
Two stations, Lasalgaon and Kiphad, on the PcDinsala railway 
were within a day's journey of every village in the two groapa. 
From Lflsalgaon a road ran to Chdndor. A road between Niaik 
and Dindori was nearly finished, and one from Dindori to Nipbj&d was 
shortly to be made. Latterly produce prices had fallen, but thej 
were still about sixty -nine per cent above their old level, and, as 
wheat had begun to be successfully sent to Europe^ any oonsidorablo 
fall in prices was unlikely. 

In the eastern group, at the time of the revision survey, except 
along the rich irrigated stream-banks, the poor broken stony country 
in the north yielded nothing but millet, sesamum, Ihurtigni^ and 
other inferior crops. In the level south there was much deep black 
soil yielding fine wheat, gram, linseed, and millet, and a fair 
proportion of channel-watered garden-lands growing chillies, earth- 
nuts, sugarcane, and sometimes rice. In the western block tbo 
northern villages were generally well wooded with a somewhat 
shallow blaclc soil, chieily growing wheat, kardat, and gram 
with a little millet. The southern villages were usually poor 
and the country rough and hilly. The fields were clean, and 
the better dry-crop and garden lands were most carefully tilled. 
Every scrap of manure was kept and used partly for dry-crop and 
partly for garden tillage. Almost every village had some land 
watered from masonry channels, most of which were from fifty to a 
hundred and fifty j'ears old. Of tho whole tillage area, in the 
Chdudor group seventy -one per cent were under millet and eight 
per cent under wheat ; in the Dindori group twenty-seven per 
cent were under wheat, eighteen per cent nnder millet, and 
aix per cent under gram. The villages had an unusually good 
outlet for their produce either to NdaDc or to some station on tho 
Peninsula line. Besides there were local markets at Cbdndor, 
Dindori, Pimpalgoon, Vadner, Vadkhed, Vani, Vdghor, and 
Janori. At Chdndor there was a small manufacture of women's 
robes and other cloth. A timber trade with Point and Surgana 
greatly helped tho people by employing their cattle when they 
were not wanted in the fields. On the whole the people were 
well-to-do and well-housed. In no part li^^the north of the 
Presidency, except in Gujardt, were there so many thriving villages.^ 

Compared with the figures of tho 1 840 survey, the revised survey 
of 1870 showed, in the Chdndor group, an increase in the total area 
from 114,146 to 116j8l4acre8 or 2*3 percent, and in the arable area 
from 65,507 to 77,870 acres or eighteen per cent, and a decroaae in 
the unarable waste from 24,668 to 10,919 acres or fifty -five per cent. 

> Lt-Col. Wnddington, 131 of 16th Fobroary 1874. Bom. Gov. Sel. CXLV. 20. 21, 
» Mr. AAhbotoor, Kev. Comr. 2516, 22ad April 1874, in Bom. Gi>v. Sd. CXJLV. 2. 






the Dindori group the revised siirvcy showed an increase in the 
totnl area £rom 110,231 to 114,471 acres or four percsent, and in the 
arable area from 76^320 to 87,167 acres or fourteen per cent, and a 
decrease in the nnarable waste from 1G,004 to 4544 or seventy-one 
per cent. Together, the returns showed an increase of 23,204 acres 
of arable and a decrease of 25,209 acres of unarable.^ 

In both blocks the villages were grouped on the principle of 

stance from marketa. On this principle the fifty-six Cfhdndor and 

iph^ villages were arranged in five classes. The highest dry-crop 

re rate in six \'illages on the Agra road was fixed at 4*. (Rs. 2) ; iu 

villages close to the six in class I. it was fixed at 38. 6i. 

1)) ; in fifteen villages along the Agra and M^legaon roads 

er from Ndsik at 3«. (Rs. 1 4) ; in seventeen villages at a 

ter distance from those roads at 2«. 9d. (Rs. 1-6); and in 

n near Chdndor range at 2«. 6J. (Rs. IJ). The forty-two 

Dindori and Nasik villages were arranged in six classes. The 

best dry-crop acre rate in Makhmalabad, close to N^ik, was 

ed at 4^1. 6d. (Rs. 2^) ; in Mungsar, about five miles from Ndaik, 

at 49. (Rs. 2) ; in Dagaon next to Mungaar and six villages 

I close to the second class of the Chdndor gronp at 3tf. 6d. 

(Rs. IJ) ; in twenty villages between Dindori and the Agra road 

at 3s, (Rs. IJ); in twelve villages west of Dindori at 2$, 9d, 

(Rs. 1 -6) ; and in Sangamner close to the fifth class of the 

I ChAndor group at 2*. 6(i. (Rs. IJ), 

I Nothing in addition to the highest dry-crop acre rates was levied on 

I purely wull-watorcd lauds. The channel- watered land of the villages 
■^b this block was charged a highest acre water-rate of 1S#. (Rs. 9). 
^H^e average rates on land irrigated from wolls and dams were 
^b. 3|<i. (Rs. 4-2-5) in Chiindor,and 9*. 3}d. (Rs. 4-10-6) in Dindori 
^In addition to the dry-crop rates. A hundred acres of ricoj three- 

Chapter VI] 


Heviaion Sui 


> Tho deUili are 


Chdttdor^DindoH ATta,iaU><Md 2S70. 




Srv- Di vuiosn. 














tS40 ... 


Oh&ndor ... 
NiphAa ... 
Ulndorl ... 

Tolal ... 

CbinAat ... 
Undori ... 

ToUJ ... 
Dvcnaae ... 





\ 77^70 

} 8T,IW 





























26 .M 7 




j 76.826 



4 LOS 

































Bom. Gov. S€l. CXLV. Sa 


[Bombay Oftsetto«r, 



iviuon Survey. 
vSndoT' Dintivri, 

til Viiiao€$, 

fonrtha of wbich wore in Vadgaon in Dindori, were charged a maxi- 
mum water-rate of 10«. (Ra. 5) and assessed at £29 (Its. 290).* 

The effect of the revised survey and assessment was, in the 
Chdndor group» an increase in the tillage area from 64,022 to 75.469 
acreR, an averaj^e rise in the rate of assessment from 1». 3}tZ. 
to l/». 7<Z. [ns. lOi to as, 12-8) and an increase in the rcntnl from 
£3042 to £0015 (Ra. 30,420- Rs. 60,150) or fifty-two per cent. In 
the Dindori group the increase in the tillage area was from 74,481 
to 85,401 acres, the average rise in assessment from 1». 5|<i. to 
1«. 10}ci. {as, 12J - as, 15-2), and the increase in rental from 
£5407 to £8143 (Rs. 5i,070.R8. 81,430) or fifty-one per cent. For 
the whole block the increase in the tillage area was from 138,503 
to 100,870 acres, in the average acre rates from 1*. 3J<i. to 1». SJci. 
(<w. 101 -(w. 13-8), and in the rental from £9349 to £14,167 
(Rs. 93,490-Rs. 1,41,570) or 51-4 per cent. The details are : 

Chdndor-DimloH Reviahn SeUlemrtU, 1873-74** 







Diy Cfop. 
















ToUl ... 


Proposod ... 
ExtattDg ... 
PropoMd ... 
txMiv ... 

rropoMd ... 
BxiatiUiT ... 



























In 1874r-75 the revision survey was extended to the block of 
111 Sinnar villages, which had been surveyed by Captain Davidson 
in 1843 and 1844. Since the original survey a redistribution of 
snb-divisions had scattered these villages. Thirty-five had gone to 
Kopargaou and five to Sougamuer in Ahmadnagar, one had gone to 
Niphdd in Ndsik, and seventy remained in Sinnar. In 1874 the area 
of this block was 481 SQuare miles and the population G5,943 or 137 
to the square mile. The land was divided into three belts : the 
southern and westei'u villages which had middling soil but good 
rainfall and were joined by a high road with the Devlitli railway 
station ; a central tract round the village of Vdvi where the sod 
was middling and the rainfall somewhat scanty; and the 
villages to the east, about the Milegaou and Nagar road, which 
had a larger proportion of good deep soil and the markets of Rah^ta, 
Kopargaon, and Yeola. Except the GodAvari to the north the only 
river of any notQ was the Devnadi^ which had a succession of dams 

> Bom. Gov. Sel. CXLV. 20-24. 

" Under the origiuAl Bettlemeotf including the dry-crop MBesament^ the «Tonig« 
acre-rate on bind watered from urells and danis was Ra. 3*13^ in ChAndur and 
llfl. 4-1-6 in Dindori. Under the revised aottloment chaDoel-watered ratw wen 
raiaed to Ha. 4-2-5 and lU. 4-10-fj in addition to the dry-crop rate. AH purdly ireU> 
watered lands were aasossed only at the higbcat dry-crop rates. Bom. Gov. Sel. 
CXLV. 23. 



ftud eapplied with water almost all the chanuel- watered land. Of 3115 
wells, 2130 were in working order and 985 out of repair. During 
Uie ten years ending 1872-73 the rainfall ranged between 33 33 in 
1870-71 and 12*45 inches in 1871-72, and averaged 18-7-4 inches.' 
When these villages were surveyed in 1843 and 1844 they were 
in. a Teiy depressed state, and a reduction of fifteen per cent had 
been made in the QoTemment demand. From the details of tillage 
And revenue given below, it would seem that during the survey lease, 
1850-51, 1861-52, 1853-54. and 1871-72 were bad years. During 
the thirty years of the survey lease produce prices had risen 
considerably. The average price of millet during the twelve years 
ending 1844 was between 90 and 100 pounds (45-50 skere) the rupee. 
During the first fifteen years of the survey lease there was no great 
rise, but in 1859-GO prices rose to from 70 to 80 pounds (35-40 
€herit). Prom this, chiefly owing to the Ajnerican war, pricea rose 
in 1863-64 nearly three times as high as they had been in 1844. After 
the close of the American war they again decliued, and in 1873-74 
millet had fallen ab<jut sixty per cent.- During the thirty years of the 
aorvey lease the tillage area spread from an average of 151,520 acres 
in the text years ending 1854, to 225,286 in the ten years ending 
1874, which was accompanied by a rise in collections from £10,174 
to £14,809 (Be. 1,01,740- Rs. 1,48,090).* The details are : 
Stnnar Land Hevenut, lSU-1874. 



IaikI Eerenne. 





Ww(« Und 








18M ISM - 
18&4-16M ... 

iaM-it74 .. 


















»ThB <leUiUar«: 1SC3-64, 13-59 incLea ; 1864-65,20-39; 18G5-6fi, 14-66 ; 1866-67, 
18*94; l8«7-68, 18-06; 186S-69, 16*67; 1869-70, 22 32 ; 1870-71, 3333 ; 1871-72.12 45 ; 
1872-73, 16-48. Lieut. -Colooel T*Toni«r. 843 of 5th October 1874, para. 34. In 
1873-74, 19-15 inches ; 1874-76. 24-74 ; 1875-76, 22*69. Lieut. -Colonel Tavemer, 733 
of ITth October 1876, pw», 12. 

» ^iVirmr MiUft or Bdjri Rupee PrJCf*, 18iS'J87S, 

































ISM -fit... 










iau-6t .. 




























IB 18TI-74 niillfi *jlil «t rtO p -un J» the rupc«. Lieut -ColoDcl T»Temcr'« Qlnnar RevUlon 8nrv«y 

'ThcM figiirea are fur 108 of the 111 Sinnar vilWeii. During the thirty ye»« of 
the tirat survey (1844-1874). thoTiLLAOB Abba vteadily rooe from 130.000 acnw in 
1844-45 to 175,000 ocroa in 1347-48 ; it then continually Hoolined to 135,000 
AOT«ft in 1850-51 i utd from 1850 it steadily rose to 220.000 acres in 1862-63 
^^■Bd 227,000 sons in 1873-74. Tlio average tillage amounted to 192,000 acrea. 
^■oLLKcnoivsroaefrom Ra. 80.000 in 1844-45 to K«. 1.15,000 in 1847-48. They then 
■VtocliBod to lU. 85,000 in 1851-52, roM to 1S.%> 1.00,000 in the foUowing year, and 


Land _ 


K«viaiou Survi 


iBombty Oasetteer, 




Ke^-uioD Survey. 

Doringtbe same period population rose from 49,911 to 6d,943 or 
thirlj-two per cent; carts from 2220 to 3467 or fifty-six per cent ; 
ploughs from S569 to 5021 or forty per cent; &nd Smrm bullocks 
and male buffaloes from 20.691 to 28,499 or focrteen per cent 
On tbe other bandj cowa showed a decrease from 18,420, to 
10,333 or eleven per cent; buffaloes from 41 7o to 4053 or three per 
cent ; sheep and goats from 42,933 to 25,460 or forty-one per cent ; 
and horses from 1837 to 1800 or two per cent. The number of weUa 
rose from 2180 in 1844 to 3115 in 1874 or thirty-one per cent. 

Of this Sinnar group, the thirty-five Kopargaon villages, at lb© 
time of resettlement (1874) formed a compact block, twelve znOea 
across at the broadest, and stretching from three to fifteen 
miles south of Kopargaon on the God^van. It had no natanl 
boundary, and contained no hill or river of any site^ nor anj 
stream which flowed all the year round. The country was elightlj 
waring and sloped gradually north towards the Goddvari. Movt 
of the villages had black soil of varying depths. In Shirdi, Rui, 
Biregaon, Pimple, and a few other villages, much of the soil was of 
the best description; in others such as RAnjangaon, Korhala, M&ne- 
gaon, and Kdkdi, there was a large area of poor soil. As a whole^ the 
fertility of the group was above the average. The area under millet, 
pulse, and other early crop?, was about double the area under wheat 
and gram. The stylo of tillage was better than in Sholapur and 
Poona. ITio soil was usually ploughed every other year, and, 
except in deep soil, early and late crops generally alternated, the 
ploughing taking place after the millet was harvested. Many of 
the lighter soils were ploughed every year. The plough used did 
not require more thau four bullocks, and did not pass far beneath 
the surface. Considerable attention was given to manure^ and 
each house owned a mnnure-pit outside the village walls where all 
its refuse was thrown and whence manure was carted as it waa 
needed. Dry-crop soil received any manure that might remain 
after the garden-land had all it wanted. It was a common 
practice to get a Dhangar to fold his flock on a field, the 
landholder feeding him and his family while they remained there. 
Tobacco was a specialty of some of tbe villages, notably of Rui and 
Shirdi, and was generally grown as a dry-crop. It grew in almost 
any soil, but preferred the white soil near a village site or light 
alluvial soil on stream banks. It was sown in seed beds and 
planted about the beginning of October, and was ready to cut 
early in January. Tobacco was seldom grown by Kunbis, 
they disliked the loss of life which the nipping of the 



Again fell to Rs. 02.000 in 1863-54. From 1S54 there wu a steady increaM 
Rh. 1.40,000 in 1868-69. Ib tbe next five yean they varied between Rs. 1,38.000 
1S60-70 and Ra. 1.40,000 io 1873-74. The avenge colleotioos amoooted to 
R*. 1,20,000. Daring tbe lame period Revissions varied betwtton Ra. 3,000 
and R«. 14.000. They fell from Ra. 14,000 io 1844-45 to Hi. 3000 in 184546. In 
the next two ytia.n no teniuuionB were granted. In the next nine years, except 
in 1851-52 and 1853-54 trhen they amounted to about Ha. 14,000, thoy wen 
never more than Ra. 4000. In the remaining Mventeeu yean, except 1871-72 when 
they were about Ra. 4000, no remiuiona were granted. Ueut.-OoloneJ Tavemcr, 
943 of Sth October 1874. 




i&ootfl caosod.' The crop was generally made over to a Bbil, who 
hod no SQch scruples and was rewarded for his paias with half the 
gn>fl9 prodace.' 

The wheat was of two aorta, baksi and hatha. Bakfij which was 
:r grown under wells than in dry soilj was fine but delicate ; 
r.v<.w.a was hardy but inferior. The difference in price between the 
two aorU was not more than two shers or four pounds the rupee. The 
garden crops were not important. Six villages had ptilasthal or 
channel- watered tillage, but it was of the poorest description, as none 
of the channels flowed for more than a mouth or two after the rains. 
The average depth of the wells was twenty feet In well-lands 
Ashtagaon took the lead, having 102 wells, sixty-four of them old 
bearing assessment and thirty-eight of them new. Only about 100 
acres of sugarcane were grown in 1873, and of 930 acres' commanded 
by wells not more than 300 were planted with garden crops. 
It was a common practice throughout these villages to look on 
welts solely as a stand-by in case of failure of rain ; in 1873 many 
wells were left idle because the rainfall sufficed without their aid. 
In the survey officer's opinion this state of things was the natural 
»Bult of light assessment and regular and seasonable rainfall, 
oder the few good wells sugarcane was the usual garden 
>p. The other products wore wheat, generally haksi^ and 
(tables. The unmetalled Mdlegaon-Nagar road passed through 
m and thence through the whole length of the group on 
Item side. Rdbataj the chief village and market after 
►n, lay ou this road, beyond the eastern border of the sub- 
ion. This market was well attended but was not remarkable for 
ftoy special commodity. There was a small market at Korhala; but 
by far the most important trade-centre in the neighbourhood was 
t£o cattleand cloth market at Yeola, twelve miles north of Kopargaon. 
chief place of export was the Ldsalgaon railway station in 
north of the Goddvari, to wbich in the fair season a consider- 
trftffic passed from Alimadnagar. The road was a mere cart 
^track, branching from the Nagar road at Rahdta and leaving tbe 
group at Madhi Budrukh. The buying trade at Lasalgaon was 
carried on by Bohora brokers from Bombay, and in the height of 
the season between 200 and 300 cartloads of grain were every day 

Of the entire Sinnar survey block of 1 1 1 villages, a group of forty- 
four Sinnar and five Sangamner villages differed considerably from 
the thirty-five Kopargaon villages. This group lay to the west of 
the Ko]virgaon group, and on the south and west was bounded by 
spurs of the Sahy^dris. The land was higher and more waving than 
in Kopargaon, and, especially to the east and south, had some small 



K«%'i«iQn Survey, 

Sinnar t 


* The Kaobis thought the tiUung of life a crime of the nature of infanticide, and 
Ukelj to britm; a cane on their childreo. Mr. Fletcher, para 4, in Lieut. .Col. 
Tftv«ni«r'e 843 of 1874, para 31. 

*A flaldof 7A ^c^^ aueasod at Ra. i, yielded (1674) six palltU or 1440 pounda 
wbtoh wiM ooosiilered an eight anna crop. The value of a palUi or 2¥i poaoda ol 
lohaooo raugoe from lU. S to Bs, 1 1, according to the quality of th« loaf. 

* At five aci^ to the workiag rriQi or leather wat«r<b»g- 


(BomlMj Gi 



Chapter VIII. 


Ke^'uioD 8nr\*cy. 

bills. As a whole, except in S^yil Kinkuri and Kirfaila in the 
east, tliis ^rronp contained less good soil than the Kopargaon villagea 
Black soil was the exception, most of it was a ahallow red, whtdi 
with a favourable rainfall was admirably suited for early cnw. 
This Sinnar gronp was crossed from the west as far as its centre DT 
the Devnadi, which then turned north and fell into the GodA?an. 
It was a very fine stream and its waters were largely used for 
irrigation in almost every village through which it flowed. The 
staple dry-crop was millet. Scarcely any other crop was grown, except 
in some of the eastern villages, where, when the soil allowed it, wheat 
was grown. The millet in this group was finer than elsewhere, partly 
because the soil and climate suited it, partly because the tillage vu 
more careful. The soil being light and shallow was ploughed always 
once, often twice, and sometimes even thrice a year. Manure wsa 
carefully saved, and, as most villages had little garden land, a large 
ahare of manure fell to the dry-crop fields. There was no rotation of 
crops. Eveiy year in June millet was sown, mixed perbapa with 
one or other of the ordinary pulses. After the millet harvest in 
October thelandwas immediately ploughed; many or mostfiolds were 
ploughod again in the hot weather, and some even a third time. 
Excopt from the Dev and its tributaries this group had no supply of 
river water, and, as the basin of the Dev lay much lower than the 
country round, little land was watered from wells. Sinnar itself, 
besides its large channel- watered area, had 140 wells watering about 
125 betel-leaf orchards with a yearly gross acre yield of from £15 
to £70 (Rs. ISO-Rs. 700). The other well-watered crop were hakti 
and hxtlia wheat, sugarcane, vegetablesj atid a few lime orchards 
in Nimon. The distinctive feature of this group was its channel 
irrigation of 2787 acres from dams on the Devnadi and its tributaries 
tho Shiv and the Saraavati. The chief channel-watered crops were 
sugarcane, kavdya or Jod wheat, hamod and dodki rice, vdl, and konda 
jvdri. The only made road was from N^ik, which passed throagh 
Sinnar along the southmost villages of tho group as far as N&ndur 
Singoti where it divided, one branch turning south to Foona through 
Sangamner, the other passing to Nagar. Besides this main road 
there were many passable cart tracks. Tho chief markets were 
Sinnar, Vdvi, and Nimon. None of these markets were remarkable 
for any special produce, nor was there any manufacture deserving 
mention in any village in the group. A few weavers in Sinnar wore 
coarse country-cloth, and in a few other villages native blankets 
were made. 

The average rupee prices in the ten years before the survey 
revision (1864-1874) were millet 38 pounds, wheat 29 pounds, and 
gram 28 pounds. Tho rupee prices in 1873-74 were millet 
.57 poundSj wheat 38 pounds, and gram 34 pounds, which, though 
much lower than the prices during the American war, were from 65 
to 84 per cent above the prices that had ruled before the war. The 
survey superintendent thought that, except in seasons of scarcity, 
prices were not likely to rise above their 1874 level. 

In the Sinnar-Saugaraner group the people of several villages, 
among them Ehopdi-Khurd, Khamb^Ha, Bhokni, and Nimon, were 
Yanjdris who had been settled for about two generations. Their 






wandering habits still so far romained that they left their homes 
after the millet harvest (November), and went with their oren 
to the teak forests below the Sahyddris and broaght bock timber 
for sale. Their lands seemed to show that they were hardworking 
and careful husbandmen, though neighbouring Kunbia affected to 
ooDsider them somewhat disreputable and untrustworthy. Though 
dependent on the moneyleader the husbandmen were not without 
little luxuries.^ In many cases the actual husbandman was a tenant. 
In such cHfies in dry-crop land the holder paid the asseesment and 
half of the value of the seed ; and the tenant raised the crop and 
provided the rest of the seed. The produce was divided equally 
between them. In garden lands the holder generally supplied the 
tenant with oxen and a driver and received a money rental.' After 
the early harvest was over the poorer husbandmen added to their 
profits by moving with their women and children to the villages near 
the God^vuri and reaping the wheat. They were paid five per cent 
of what they cut, and, besidee supporting themselves for about six 
woeksj broaght back some grain. 

The 108 Government villages^ were arranged in five gronps 
with highest dry-crop acre rates ranging from 4*. to 2*. 9d. 
(Rfl. 2-Ks. 1-6), averaging Is. 4fi. {as. \l-l), and yielding an 
increaae of 41 i per cent. In fixing these rates the chief 
considerations were, distance from market, ease of traffic, and 
climate. Sinnar and MAhal Sakora were put in the first class and 
charged a highest dry-crop acre rate of 4«. (Rs. 2) ; thirty-nine 
villages formed the second class with a bighest acre rate of 3«. 6d, 
(Rs. IJ] ; fonrteen villages with a highest acre rate of Sa. 3d, 
(Rs. 1-10) were placed in the third class; thirty-seven with a highest 
acre rate of 3«. (Rs. 1 i) in the fourth class ; and sixteen with a highest 
acre rate of 2$. 9d. (Rs. 1-6) in the fifth cla^s. The highest water 
acre rate was tixed at £1 (Rs. 10) and the average amounted to 10«. 
Hd. (Rs. 5-5-1).* In the 108 Government villages these revised 
rates raised the dry-crop assessment by £6147 (Rs. 51,470) or 
41J per cent, and the average acre rate from 1*. 1^(2. (oa. 8-10) 
to 1«. 4|d. (a*, ll-l). The water cess was increased by £394 
(Rs. 8940) or 27 per cent, and the average acre rate from 8*. 8it^ 



Revinou Sumy. 

'Mr. Fletcher in Lieu tooant- Colonel Tavemer'a Survey Report, 843 of 1874. 

'Mr. Fletcher in Lieutenant- Colood Tavemer'i Surrey Report, 843 of 1874. 

*Tho roxnaining three vtUftges were dvmdila or revennouarv villages. 

* Under the original survy there wer© nine orderft of sou, cmnaa 16, 13, lOJ, 8, % 
4^, 3, 2, And 1|. Of these annan 16 and 2 were kept, while a«. 13 was raised to 
as. 14, cu.lOi to (19. 12, oj. 8 to u«. 10, n<». G toa«. 8,a«.4i to <u.6, and m. 3 to cm. 4 ; 
CM. 1^ waa lowered to 1 anno. Alluvial deposit was, for dry-crops, diWded into 
three clataea, cu. SO, 18, and 16. When cultivated as garden aod under welln, which 
were formerlj asaesaed, no water coas was added to the first class ; a«. 2 were added 
to the aeoona class ; and a«. 4 to tbs third. Ujtdl land, that is land moist enough to 
grow sogarcane without the help of well or cluumel water, was classed at the highest 
aUarial rate, w. 20 a «hai«, for all shares in which sugan^ane was grown. Ljinds 
with a right to water from welU, fomierlv assessed, had a water cess of a». 4 added 
to the soil daseiftoation up to the 7th ofaas ((u. 4) of soil. But the levy of this 
speeial oeas was limited to five acres if the well had only one water bag, to ten acres 
if it bad two, to fifteen if it had three, and to twenty if it had four. No addition 
waa nuule to the assessment of land watered from wells which were made during the 
•artey leaae. Lieateiuuit<Colonel Tavsmer, 843 of 1874, para 39. 

[BonlMijr GuHtair, 



Chapter^ VIII. 


Be vision Survey. 



to 10«, 7jJ. (Rs. 4.5-6 to Rs. 5-5-1). The combined 

soil and wator amonnted to £19,461 (Ra 1,04,610) against 

(Rs. 1,39,200) colloctodin 1873-74. the year before the reviuiuW] 

The following statement shows the details in acres and mpeee: 

Sinnar ffeviiion Sfttkmmt, J874-7S. 

Villa* B, 













































The next block in which the revision sarvoj was introduced wu 
one of sixty villages in the plain part of Nisik. This block had beco 
sarveyedby Captain Davidson in 1845. Since 1845 the rediatribution 
of sub-divisions bad brought fourteen of these villages into NiphAd 
and fourteen into Sinnar, leaving thirty-two in NAaik. At the time 
of the first survey the villages in this block numbered sixty-nina. 
They were very depressed, and the rates then introduoed hoJ 
involved a reduction of thirty-four per cent in the Govemi 
demand. These lighter rates, the rise in produce prices, and] 
opening of roads and of the railway had caused a spread of til 
from an average of 59,666 acres in the ten years ending 1854, In 
70,594 acres in the ten years ending 1864, and to 83.454 in the tea 
years ending 1874. Daring the same time collection.s had 
from £5607 (Rs. 55,070) to £7140 (Rs. 71,400) .> The details arai 

Ndtik Land JietKnue, ISU ■ iS74. 


lAod BflVMiiia. 



WaateLMrf 1 



































> During the thirty years endioc 1873-74 the Tillage Arxa ranged from 48,000J 
acres iu 1844-45 to 83,000 iu 1873-74 and averaged 72.000 acr««. In the first four 
Tears (1844-1848) it rose from 48,000 to 67.000; in the next 6ve years (1849- 1853) it! 
tell to 59,000 acres. From 1853 it steadily iooreased to 70,000 aoree in 1859-60 and 
63,000 in 1863-64. Durina the remaining ten years, except in 1867-68 when tben 
waa a alight tali, the tillage area remained constant at 83,000 aorea. During the 
same period CoLLRcnoNs varied from Ra. 45,000 in 1844-45 to lis. 65,000 in 1873 74 
and averaged Ra. 56,000. In the first five yean they rose from Bs. 45,000 in 1844-45 
to Ri. 57,0<X» in 184849, and fell in the next three years to R*. 60,000 in 1851-62. 
They then continually increoaed till they reached Ka. 65,000 io 184>3-64, at whidi 
amount thoy continued during the ten romaiuing years- The chief RuflBaioi 
were Ra 4000 in 1851-52, ^. 2500 in 1844-45, and several years with leMthanj 
Ra. 1000. Aft«r 1855 no remieaioDQ wore graat«d, L4eut.-Col. I^veruer, 910 of 1874. 




RevUioo Sorrvy, 

ing the thirty jeara ending 1873-74 population bad lacreased Chapter 7IIL 
m 23,620 to 3 (-,432 or 40 per cent; cans from 603 to 18<)9 or 
215 per cent; plongbs from 1907 to 2907 or 52 per cent; cows from 
6913 to 8859 or 28 per cent; buffaloes from 247b to 2697 or 9 per 
cent; and Bheep and goats from 8160 to 9269 or 14 per cent. On 
the other hand, farm bullocks and male buffaloes had fallen from 
14,516 to 12,609 or 13 per cent, and horses from 818 to 757 or 7 per 
cent. Wells had risen from 1266 to 1614 or 27 per cent. 

The lands included in this groap formed (1874) a tame well 
wooded basin, nearly surrounded by bills and uplands, and divided 
into two valleys, one drained by the Godavari the other by the 
D^na. Most of the villages were built on the banks of these 
streams. In the low-lying parts, about one-half of the whole, the 
soil was black, and much of it, especially between the Godivari and 
the Ddma, was rich black. In the other half, moat of which were 
uplands, the soil was equally divided between red and gravel, harad. 
Small plots of rice and of dheli or river bed and mdldi or river bank 
land were found in a few of the southern villages. During the ten 
years ending 1872-73 the rainfall ranged from 17-84 in 1871-72 to 
32*96 inches in 1870-71 and averaged 24' 76.^ The Godavari and 
the Ddma provided an unfailing supply of water. There were 1614 
wells watering 6371 acres. Both in the light and in the heavy soils, 
the dampness of the air and the ready growth of weeds made at least 
one ploughing a year necessary. The date of ploughing depended 
on the character of the season. If the season was good the soil was 
tamed by a four-bullock plough in November or December, and left 
to dry till May, when it was twice harrowed. In June, after the 
first showers of rain, the dry-crop lands were again ploughed, 
once lengthways and once across, and once or twice harrowed. 
After the crops sprang up, the hoe was once or twice used to clear 
away grass and weeds. After every crop garden-lands were 
ploughed length and crossways, the plough being used four times 
or oftener, according to the crop to be grown. When sugarcane 
was planted, special care was taken in preparing the lands, the 
clods were generally broken with a wooden mallet, and the ground 
levelled by a flat heavy board. While the crop was growing the 
land was once or twice cleared of weeds. As a rule, garden lands 
received a yearly supply of manure, the quantity varying from ten 
to twenty cartloads tbe acre, according to the crop to be grown. 
Dry-crop lands were manured when the cultivator could afEord 
it. The dry-crops were grown in rotation, and, as a rnle, 
only one crop was raised in a year. The chief dry-crops were 
millets, wheat, Uir, gram, ndglif khurdsni, and tcaraai In good 
seasons and on good soils, after hdjri, udid, rdla, and mug, it 
was nsnal to raise a second crop of gram, masur, vdtdna, or 
hardai. In garden lands there was no regular rotation of crops. 
The practice was to raise two crops a year, the favourite second crop 
being meihi. A third crop of konda jvdri, a variety of Indian 

'Thp dotwli Jire: 1863, 25'92 inches; 1864. 20-20; 1865. 29-26; 1866, 23*67 
1667, 27*31 i 1866, 20-25 ; 1869, 27'20 ; 1870, 32*96 ; 1871, 1784 ; uid 1872, 23. 




lapter VIII. 

Admin istration. 

B«vuioa t^urwy. 

millet, was sometimes raised as fodder. The chief garden 
were wheat, earth-nut Ihuitnug, and English vegotablea Q 
were the best paying crop, and were grown to a consid 
extent both near Nasik and nenr Vad&la. The vineyards oo 
forty-two acres. The best vine was the pkakri, whose erapes fetchoi 
a good price in Bombay. Mnch of the land, entered m the v" 
papers as occupied waste, was purposely kept for grass, an occ 
rest forming part of the system of crop rotation.' 

N^ik was well off for roads. Ihe Bombay -Agra highro«d 
entered on the north-east near Adgaon and left on thp 
south near R^jurbdvla. In spite of the opening of the railmr 
much traffic still passed along this road. The Poona-Nisik roU| 
which by Sangamner and Sinnar entered the N^ik sab-division 
on the east near Sinda, was a still busier thoroughfare. A third 
made road joined N4sik with Peint. Of fair weather tracks ths 
chief were the partially metalled road from Kiisik to Trimbtk, 
used mostly by pilgrims, and the Nfisik-Dindori road. In addition 
to its roads the Njisik sab-division had two railway stations, NAsik 
and Devljili, and two others not far from its boandaries, Khervidi 
three miles on the north-east and K&ndur one and a half miles 
on the south-east. There were two public ferries, one on the 
Agra road across the Godavan and the other on the Sinnar road 
across the Ddrna. There were three market towns, N^ikj Dhagnr, 
and Pandurli. At Ndsik, besides the permanent market, half -weekly 
cattle fairs were held on the banks of the Qod^varL At the 
weekly market at Bhagur about Rs. 500 worth, and at Pandurli 
about Rs. 100 worth of cloth, grain, and copper vessels were sold. 
Except the Ndsik brass vessels and cloth there were no manufactures. 

During the twelve years before the first survey (1844) millet rupee 
prices averaged eighty-four pounds, wheat seventy-four, gram seventy- 
two, and rice thirty-eight. In the first ten years of the survey lease 
(1844- 1854) millet rose to seventy-four pounds the rupee, wheat to 
sixty-six, and gram to sixty-four, while rice remained at thirty-eight 
or an average increase from 12 to 14 per cent. In the second ten 
years of the survey lease (1854-1864) grain prices rose still higher, 
millet and wheat selling at fifty-four pounds the rupee, gram at 
fifty-two, and rice at tbirty-three, or an average increase over the 
twelve years before survey of 55 per cent in millet, 38 in gram, 37 
in wheat, and 15 in rice. During the last ten years of the survey 
lease (1664-1874) the average prices were, millet thirty-tliree pounds 
the rupee, wheat and gram thirty, and rice twenty, or an average 
increase over the twelve years before the survey of 155 per cent 
in millet, 140 in wheat, 140 in gram, and 00 in rice. During the 
five years (1869-70 to 1873-74) before the revision, prices had fallen 
to thirty-five pounds the rupee for millet, thirty-four for gram, 
thirty for wheat, and twenty-two for rice, that is an average increase 
over the twelve years before the original survey of 140 per cent in 
millet, 146 in wheat, 112 in gram, and 73 in rice. 


^ At Pdsta in Siuuir 4461 aorea of red and gniTcUy soil under graM yielded from 
Ba. 614 to Ra. 1990 a year, and at MAlegaon, another Sinnar village twar the Poooia- 
N&sik highroad, 85 acres of black and gravolly soil peldcdRa. l{^to Re,4l6ayMr, 

Lieutonant-Colonel Taverner*» 910 of 1874, para 2C. 



Puring the thirty years of tbe survey lease, millet rupee prices 
eraged fifty-four pounds, wheat fitly pounds, gram forty -eight 
J., i.... 1,-4, and rice thirty poundn. Compared with the averages of the 
twelve years before the survey, tliese prices showed an increase of 
' * : r cent in millet, 50 in graifi, 48 in wheat, and 26 in rice. In 
74 millet sold at forty -five pounds the rujiee, gi-am at thirty- 
four, wheat at thirty-two, and rico at fwenty-four. Compared with 
the average prices of the twelve years before the survey, the 1873-74 
prices showed a rise of S7 {>er cent in millet^ 112 in gram, 131 in 
wbt*it, and bS in rice.^ 

The villages lay close together and were large and well peopled. 
Most of the houses were tiled and many of them were roomy and 
well built with two stories. The people were active, hardworking, 
und well clothed. Land was highly valued in the central portion 
of this survey block The prosperous state of these villages was 
owing to the light assessment introduced in 181-5, to tJic Peninsula 
railway, and to the steady demand and high prices paid for Held 
produce. The husbandmen were vigorous and painstaking, and 
their holdings were not excessively largo, the largest varying 
from 150 to 290 acres with three or four ploughs and from six to 
eight pairs of bullocks. As most of the land was held by husband- 
men, subletting was not common. Tenants paid their rent in grain, 
the amount varying from a third to a half. In dry-crop land the 
proprietor paid the Government rent and supplied half of the seed ; 
u garden land^ besides the rent and half of the seed, he supplied 
the manure and met half the tiUage charges. A few lands were 
sublet for cash payments varying from 25 to 300 per cent over the 
Ooreriiment assessment.'' 

The result of the revision survey and settlement was to arrange 
tbe sixty villages in five classes, with highest dry-crop acre 
rates varying from 5«. to 3«. 3d. (Rs. 2i-Rc. 1-10) and averaging 
1a. 9jd (a*. 14-7). The new rates yielded an increased revenue of 
47} per cent, llie chief grounds in support of this rise in rent 
were the prosperity of the villages, the increase in population, the 
certain rainfall, the plentiful supply of water, and the excellent outlet 
foi* product*. Devlali, which besides being a railway station had every 
advantage of soil and water, was placed in a class by itself with a 
highest dry-crop acre rate of bs. (Rs. 2J). Eleven villages cloae to 
thecampand railway stations formed the second class with a highest 
rate of 4g. Gd. (Rs. 2\), and twenty-five villages in the valley were 
placed in the third class with a highest rate of 4*. (Rs. 2), Of the 
remaining twenty-three eastern villages bordering on the second find 
third classes of the Sinnar group, sixteen formed the fourth class 
and were charged a highest rate of 3tf. Gd. (Re. Ij) and seven 
formed the fifth class with a highest rate of 3s. 3(/. (Re. 1-10). 

1 KilBik millet or fffljri rapee pnces were 10 pdffiU or ftboat 140 ponnda iu 1833, 
ngMtttlis in 1834, 8 in 1836, 11 in 1838, Sin 1839, 1840, and 1841, 9 iu 1S42, 9| in 1843, 
lOi in 1844, 8 iu 1848. 3 in lHf>4 and 1865, 4 in 1870, and H in 1871 uid 1872. Mr. 
Erakjoe, C S., Collector of NiUik. 3689 of 13th November 1874. 

V At DevUIi 14^ ftcrei of alienated dry-crop land aMeeaed at Ra. 24. and tix acrei 
of garden land aaaeascd at Ra, 17} urere sublet for Ra. 125 or at a profit of 290 per 
cent LieuUColonel Taverner, 910 uf 1874, para 32. 
' ft 23-35 


Chapter VIII,J 


RcYtsum Surv«yi 

{Bonbaj OuettattJ 



Chapter vm. 


BeriBioD SiLrv«y. 

189 VUlaga, 

A few acreS; which daring the anrrey lease had been tamed from' 
dry -crop to rice lands, were aBseased at dry-crop rales. On tea 
acres of old rice land a highest rate of lOff. (Rs. 5) waa c' 
The revision raised the dry-crop assessment by £2752 (Rs. _ 
or 47{ per cent, the average acre rate being raised from 1$. 4^^. to 
1*. 9ld. ((M. 11-3J -a*. 14-7). The water cess was increased by* 
£268 (Rs. 2680) or 38 per cent, raising the average acre rate from 
50. 6d. to Ga. S^d. (Rs. 2f-R6. 3-5-8). The combined soil and 
water assessment amounted to £94^8 (Rs. 94,880) against £6468 
(Rs. 64,680), collected in 1873-74 the year before the rerisioa 
settlement. The following Btatt^ment gives the details : 
^(f4tt Reviman SeUkment, IS74-76, 

In 1876 the revision survey was introduced into the old P^toda 
sub-division of 189 villages, which had been sui-veyed and settled in 
1846. Since the former settlement, these Patoda villages had been 
spread over five sub-divisions, twenty-seven going to NAndgaon, 
twenty-one to Chdndor, eighty-four to Yeola, four to Niphdd, and 
fifty-throe to Kopargaon. This group stretched over about forty 
miles from north to south and about twenty-five from east to west. 
The northern frontier abutted on the Ndndgaon, M^legaou^ and 
ChAndor sub-divisions ; the cost on the Nizdm's territory ; the sonth 
on Kopargaon \ and the west on Niphad and Sinuar. The total area 
was ^1^/711 acres.^ 

1 Lieat. 'Colonel Tftverner, 733 of I7th October 1876, para. 6. 

/•af'Hfti Aral. 187$. 












Chdiidur ». 

Yrmlft « 

Total ... 



ToUl .. 































10.977 ! 75.253 





The twenty-seven Nindgaon villages lay on the north slopes of 
le Ankai range. Most of the other villages sloped towards the 
rodAvari. The climate in the south was warmer than in the 
Oi^rth, and was much better for ripening crops. The rainfall 
averaged 24-47 inches, but varied considerably in different parts. 
At Y(!ola, during the seven years ending 1875-76, it varied from 
' inches in 1871-72 to 3698 inches in 1870-71 and averaged 
*;i o2 inches." 

The survey settlement of 1846 had reduced the average acre-rate 
from 1 *, 9d. to 1*. {(W. 1 4 - as, 8) and lowered the Government demand 
by about forty-eight per cent. It had worked most successfully. 
The tillage area had risen from an average of 201,150 acres in the 
ten years ending 1856 to 267,846 in the ten years ending 1866, and 
to 306,019 in the ten years ending 1876. During the same time 
the collections had risen from £11.424 to £17,067 (Rs. 1,14,240- 
Bs. 1,70,670) or forty-nine per cent. The details are : 
Pdtoda Land lUmnue^ IS4G - 1870. 




Rod Is- 






Amblo Wuic. 







ToUl ... 








































74 .M7 









I>uring the thirty years of the survey lease the population and 
the resources of these villages had greatly increased. In the N^ik 
portion of the group, population had risen from 26,991 to 42,061 or 
65*8 per cent; carts from 1527 to 2079 or 361 per cent; ploughs 
from 2391 to 3469 or 45 per cent; bullocks and male buffaloes 
from 12,823 t^> 15.309 or 19*4 percent ; cows from 11,629 to 16,924 or 
45-5 per cent; female buffaloes from 2S19 to 3943 or 398 per cent; 

Chapter V: 


Bevision Survey. 



1 The available detaila from the difforcnt rain statemoxits that inajude villages in 
thu groap are as follows t 













|M4^ ,. 

UM7-fil .. 



3r. 18 

26 49 


41 81 











1874 76... 






27 -85 








31 -Vi 








G&ntt«er, 1 







and horses from 1040 to 1320 or 26 9 per 



and f^OAt^l 


3cm Survey. 



showed a decrease from 17^869 to 14,GC1 or 17 9 per cent. In th 
Ahmadnagar jjortion, population had risen from 20,198 to 29,283 or 
44*9 per cent; carts from 1170 to 2043 or 74'6 per cent; ploogha 
from 1424 to 2682 or 88'3 per cent; bullocks and male buffaloes 
from 7153 to 12,287 or 71*7 percent; cows from 6102 to 11,506 
or 88*5 per cent ; female buffaloes from 1105 to 2337 or 111-4 per 
cent ; and horses from 76G to 1535 or 1004 per cent. Shtep and 
goats showed a decrease from 15^28 to 13,103 or 139 per cent The 
area watered from wells had risen, in the Nflsik villages, from 207 
to 6752 acres, and in the Ahmadnagar villages from 1047 to 4207. 
Most of these villages were well off for roads. The Peninsula 
railway passed east and west along the northern boundary and 
two-stations, Manm&d and N^ndgaon, within the limitsof the gro 
llio Malegaon-Ahmadnagar high road ran north and south throu 
the centre, and from Nandgaou a made road led east to the NiiAm 
territory. In every direction ran village roads very good in the 
plain parts and almost always passable even in the hills. The chief 
town was Yeola, which had a great local name for its sUk cloths and 

fold thread. The other towns were Pnntamba, Rdhdta, Kopargaon, 
^vargaon, Andar8ul,Nagar8uI, Mukhed, aud the railway stations of 
Manmdd and Nandgaon. 

The marked improvement in the means of communication, the rise 
in produce prices, and the prosperous state of the villages justified an 
increase in the rental The rental was raised from £16,400 to £22,7 
(Rs. 1 ,64.000- Us. 2,27,630) or 38-8 per cent, and the average acre ra 
from llji. to U. 2Jrf. (oa. 7? -oji. 9-11). To suit the redistributii: 
of the PAtoda block, the revision details for the NAudgiton, CliAudo 
Yeola, Niphdd, and Kopargaon villages were given separately. The 
twenty-seven NAndgaon villages lay on the north slope of the Anlu^^ 
range. They were on high ground, with shallow red soil and a co<]|^| 
healthy climate. Their market towns were NAndgaon, Mandva^, 
and Manm^, The staple produce was millet, much of it grown on 
the tops of plateaus. There was no channel-watered and very little 
well-watered land. The people had a good store of cattle of a fin© 
breed, more like KhAndesh than Deccan cattle. During the tiui 



X The following are the detoila of the number and tho dutribation of w«Ua 
PAtoda Oarden Tillant and WtOa, SSM- 1870 





]87«. 1 





W orklng. 








ToUl .. 


































2Ufi 1 Ain 



967(1 1 10,000 






of the survey leoso, partly from an inflow from the Niz&m'a 
rillagesj popalation had risen from 3753 to 7624' nr 103 per cent. 
Aa the soil was poor no cfeueral increase was made in the former 
elasfiification valuation. But, on account of the opening of roads and 
two railway stations, the highest dry-crop acre rates were raised to 
2*., 2a. M., 2*. Gil, and 2*. 9d, (Re. 1, lis. 1 J, Rs. U, and Rs. 1-6), 
or an increase of about 24 per cent, and the average rates from 5Jd!. 
to 7i^. (ajj. 3-1 1 - fl«. 4-8). The average acre yield of millet, the 
staple crop, was 160 pounds (2 mans). At the average prices (44 
pounds the rupee), which had ruled in the ten years ending 1876, 
the average dry-land acre rate of SJrf. (as. 5-7) on actual tillage, 
represented a flhare of not more than one-tenth of the outturn. 

Like the Ndndgaon group, the twenty -one Chindor villages were 
on liigH ground ; but they had the advantage of a much better 
supply of water. The market towns were !Manm&d, Ghdndor, and 
Ldsalgaon. During the thirty previous years the population had 
risen from 4323 to 6944 or 60 per cent. All the villages had a 
frtir area of well-watered and most of them had some channel- 
wtiLered laud. Since the former survey the railway with two 
stations^ L^^algaon and Manmad, had been opened, an improvement 
which was held to justify an. increase of thirty per cent in the 
rental. Except two villages rated at 3^. 6(1. (Rs. 1}) and 3«. 
(Rs. 1 J), the highest new dry-crop acre rates were 2*. 6(i. and 2*. 
i)ff, (Rs, li and Rs. 1-6), and averaged IIJ. (as, 7-4) compared with 
l^d, (aji. 5-1) the 1846 average. Taking millet as the staple crop, 
the average dry-land acre-rate of With (a«. 7-11) on actual tillage 
represented, on the average prices (40 pounds the rupee) that had 
been prevailing for ten years (1806-1876), about one-tenth of the 
cKittnrn. In the former settlement, though there was a nominal 
maximum of 12*. (Rs, 6), no channel-water cess of more than 5». 6i. 
(Rs. 2 J) had been levied, and most of the channel- watered land had 
j)aid no special water cess. In 1876 some of tholnnd under masonry 
dams grew sugarcane, rice, and garden crops, and had an abundant 
supply of water throughout the year. The area had risen from 2S7 
acres with a water cesa of £48 10a. (Rs. 485) in 1846 to 902 acres with 
a water cess of £199 4*. (Rs. 1992), or an increase of 310 per cent. 
Under the new settlement the highest acre rate was 8*. (Rs. 4) and 
the average 4^. 5d. (Rs. 2-3-4), 

In the eigbty-foar Yeola villages the population had increased 
from 17,359 to 25,728 or 48 per cent. The chief markets were 
Yeola, Sfivargaon, and AadarsuL The natural features varied 
considerably. A line drawn west from the north-west point of 
Nugarsul to VAki Budnikh, and south from Nagarsul to Andarsul, 
separated the plain wheat-growiug villages of the west and 
south-west from the rolling poorer soils of the north and east. The 
effect of the 187G revision of rates was to raise them 31 per cent, 
the former average acre rate being 9|d. (as, 61) and the revision rate 
1*. id, (as, 8-2). The general highest dry-crop revision acre rate waa 
2*. 6fi. (Rs. li). This was raised to 3s. (Rs. U) in the village of 
Desman Khurdand to 2«. 9</. (Rs, 1-6) in villages bordering on Niphid. 
aud within easy reach of the railway, and in villages near the large 
market towns on the main high road. Eastwards, as the villages 

Chapter VII] 


Revision Survi 



[Bombay OautUet, 




Roviaiun Snrvoy. 

pter VIII. became poorer and farther from markets and roads^ theBe mt-ea were 
gradually lowered tol*,9rf. [as, 14-). There waa hardly any practicable 
road for carts from Rajdpur through the Ankai range, and the country 
between Rfij^pnr and Ankai was difficult. The staple crops were 
millet*, occupying half the tillage area, and wheat and Indian roillot 
with one-eighth each. The average acre yield of millet was eatimated 
at 240 pounds (3 mana), and the average yield of wheat and Indiaa 
millet at 400 pounds (5 ^nans). On these data the average acre value 
of produce, on the prices ruling during the ten years ending 1876, 
-W&3 ]4«. i^^d, (Rs. 7-5-8), or about thirteen times 1a. Hd, {a«. 8}) the 
average assessment on actual tillage. 

In the four Niph^d villages population had increased from 
1656 to 1765 or 13 per c^nt. These villages, whose market town 
was Nandur Madroeshvar, lay close to the Niph&d railway station. 
The effect of the 187G revision was to raise the highest dry -crop 
acre rates to 2ff. dd, and 3«. (Rs. 1-6 and Rs. H) or 31 per cent, and 
the average dry-crop acre rate from 1«. 3^, to la. lO^d, (as. 10- 
aa. 14-11), or 50 per cent, lliechief crops wore millet with two-thirda, 
and wheat with one-third of the whole tillage area. The average acre 
oattam of millet was estimated at 320 pounds (4 mang) and wheat 
at 400 pounds (5 mans] worth, on the prices raling in the ten yean 
ending 1876, about 175. 2JJ. (Ra. 8-0-7) or about nine times the 
average yearly rental. 

The population of the fifty-three Kopargaon (Ahmadnagar) villages 
had risen from 20,108 to 29,283 or 45 per cent. These were the 
finest villages in the Pitoda block, and had good market towns in 
Kopargaon, Rdhflta, and l^unUimba. At the same time they lay 
furthest from the railway and from the main centres of trade. 
Except a few rolling villages in the north-oast, these lands formed 
the deep-soiled valley of the Goddvari. So evenly rich was this 
plain, that, with a highest acre rate of 2«. 6d, {Rs, Ij), the average 
rate in Sera was as high as 2ff. (Re. 1) and in Kokamthiin as high 
as Is. md. {as. 15^). The highest revision acre rates ranged from 
Ss, and ^s, Od. (Rs. 1^ and Rs. 1-6) round the towns and near the 
high roads to 2$. (Ro. 1) in the most remote villages. The average 
acre rate waa Is. d^d, {as. 14-4) or 25 per cent in excess of 1*. b^d, 
{as, 11-5), the average rate under the former survey. The staple 
crops were millet, wheat, and Indian millet in the proportion of five, 
two, and one. Theeatimated acre outturn was for millet 320 pounds 
(4 mau«), and for wheat and Indian millet 480 pounds (0 7/tan*). 
Taking this proportion, the average prices of millet, wheat, and 
ludian millet during the ten years ending 1876, gave a mean acre 
outturn worth 17fl. 7|t2. (Rs. 8-12-11) or about ten times the average 
acre rental. 

For the whole 189 villages of the Patoda block the olTect of the 
revision was, in the tillage area, an increase from 31 1,421 acres to 
336,268 acres or 8 per cent, and in the assessment from £15,902 to 
£22,513 (Rs. 1,59,620 - Rs. 2,25,130) or 41 percent. This increase 
was obtained by raising the average dry-crop acre rate from Is. OJd. 
to Is. 3|i. {as, 8-2 to as. 10-7), and the average water cese from 3«. 
4Jdto4*. 5(i!. (Rs. 1-ll-lto Rs. 2-3-4). On the prices ruling daring 
the ton years before the revision the now rates represented fi'om a 
tcuth to a thirteenth of the average yearly yield of the staple crops* 




Tlie details of the revised survey and aottlomont are 

Pdtwta StttUmtnt, 1870. 



CULTlVAnt) luLKtk 



















Propowd ... 










CxlftClOK ... 









iDcrvue ... 









rropowd ... 

123, li£ 







RxiaUag ... 







Idctmm ... 









rrjpoAwl ... 










Exiting . 









InCKKM .. 









Chapter VIIL 


Reviaiozi Surv« 



Pmmla SeUlanfnt 

, 187G — oontiaaed. 


AiuBU WAvni. 


















Kialk » ...{ 




















MiiMilniiT ...] 













Cbmblned ...| 



















PdJoda StttUincnL 187G — coDtinaed. 





WjiTWL 1 


i^veraga acre 





Avetejte um 










atoagMD ... 

KupkrumoD ... 

Totikl ... 







fl 7 

10 Q 

11 A 

6 T 

7 11 

8 9 
14 11 








Ra. ft. p. 

14 6 

1 to 7 
1 13 8 

Rs. ft p. 


2 5 3 
8 A ] 






S 8 

10 7 




1 11 1 

8 8 4 


PiUoda SttUtmtnl^ i^<;— continaed. 




Boil axd Wathb.. 

Eon tat. 

ATon^re KnMvto. 






NAndnou « 

Ghiador ... .1. 




ToUl ... 










A. p. 

4 4 

5 7 

6 7 
U S 

A. p. 
6 3 
9 1 
14 11 
14 5 





6 8 

10 9 


fBemtey QaiattMr. 



ChAptar yUL 



Elevittioa Survey, 

In 1875 the surrey revision w&s introdnced into the westera 
billy tracts, moet of which had l>een sarveyed hj Mr. Tytler betwe«ii 
1840 and 1847. At the introduction of the revision sorveT the land 
WB« open, covered with grass, and with a Utile heavy forest. The 
teak was stunted, smaller even than Koiikiui teak. Between Ocioher 
and February the climate was feverish ; at other times it woa better 
than in the eastern districts. The people were Kunbis and Kolis in 
the north, and Kanbis and ThSkurs in the south. A railway and 
sonio fair high roads passed through the centre and the south.^ 

In these western hill lands, the first step in preparing lor a new 
crop is to make ready the seed-bed or nursery. With this object, 
dnring the oold-weathcr inonthif, the husbandman gathers farm-yard 
refuse, dried sticks^ leaves, and grass, and lays them evenly on 
patches of the banks that surround the rice fields. They are 
afterwards covered with a thin layer of earth, and the grass and 
branches burnt to ashes. Besides preparing the seed*bed the 
regular field work iu black land begins in April or May, when the 
land is once or twice broken by a light two-bullock harrow. On 
the first rainfall, rice, ran', or ndgU seed iH sown broadcast iu the 
ashes of the seed-bed. The seed sprouts in about a week and the 
seedlings are ready for planting in tliree or four weeks. When 
the land is soaked it is ploughed, and the ploughing is repeated once 
or more than once in July or August. After this second ploughing 
the two-bullock harrow is once or twice used, the surface Ls levelled 
with a fiat board drawn by a pair of bullocks, and the seedlings are 
brought from the nursery and planted. 

Red soil uplands or wal lands arc harrowed once or twice in April 
or May, ploughed after the first showers in June, and again harrowed* 
Of the three chief upland crops, oil-seed, khx^rasni, is sown broadcast, 
while vari and ndgli are sown in a nursery and planted out. A'van 
or rice lauds are ploughed twice after the first showers of rain in 
Juno, once lengthways and once across, and about a month later the 
plough is again used from three to five times, or even oftener. 
After this, the surface is levelled with a flat board, nnd when they 
are ready the rice seedlings are planted. About a month after 
the seedlings have been planted the fields are carefully weeded. 
This system is followed in all uplands where the land is too moist 
to be harrowed. Only the uplands require fallows. Aiter being 
cropped for three years, uplands are allowed a three years' rest. 
When a fallow upland is again bi*ought under tillage it is ploughed 
in September, so that the weeds may be exposed and killed during 
the dry season. In other respects the mode of tillage in the first 
year does not differ from that already described. 

The crops grown on black or h'lli land are gram, wheat, rnasur^ 
vuidfio, and sometimes ttir and tulid. Those on red or mdl lauds 
are khurdsnij ndylif and small quantities of vari and silvn. There is 
no fixed rotation of crops either in black or in red soils. On all 
rice lands that hold moisture long enough after the close of the rains, 
it is usual to raise a second crop either of gram, vdtdna, or maaur.^ 

1 Lieut«Dmnt-ColoDfll Tmvemer, 893 of Ifilb October 1875» pjkni28. 
> Colonel G. A. Laughton, 91 of 28th January 1878, pftou, 13-17. 




Testa showed that the znape were very defective and 1 
vpere remeasured. But, except in cue or two minor points, Mr. 
Tytler's system of classiug the laud was continued. 

The only points that called for change were the importanco 

' •• embankinentSj and the number of classes. Experience 

n and Doccan had shown that the banks were too 

i)lc to be one of the throe elements in fixing the character of 

. ,.. iields. This element was accordingly struck out, and eight annas 

or one-half was assigned to moisture and eight to depth and colour of 

Boil. With high maximum rates the division into four classes was 

foand not t-o be sufficiently minute. Six instead of four classes 

had proved a more satisfactory distribution.' Rice land^ which 

during the survey lease had been reclaimed from black or red soil, 

was separately measured, and its highest rate limited to 28. 3d, 

(Be. IJ) the rate of the best dry-crop." 

Mr. Tytler's system of classing and assessing the late crop or rati 

- had also worked well. Mr. Tytler had given less weight to 

.1 of soil than had been given in the Joint Sarvey Rnlcs. And 

in this he was right, as in hilly tracts with a heavy rainfall depth of 

aoil is a less important factor than in the drier eastern plains. 

In 1875 a revision settlement was introduced into twenty-four of 
til -four Dindori villages which weresettled in 1845, Of these 

t- liT villages twenty-two were Government and two were 

dumdla or reversionary villages. 

In the twenty-two Government villages, during the thirty years of 
settlement, the average collections had risen from £501 (Rs. 6010) in. 
the first ten years (1845-1855) to £1085 (Ra. 10,850) in the last ten 
years (1805-1875), or a rise of 116 per cent. The details are shown 
in the following statement : 

Dindori Hill Villages, Land Rtvtmt, 2S4S,'J87S. 

lands Chapter V] 


Kcvuiou Survi 

ma vtiia{K4t 








Aaasli WAvra. 





























During the same thirty years (1845-1875) the average rupee 
prices of produce were for millet 60, for rice 34, for ndgli 69, for 
wheat 56, and for gram 53 pounds. The average miUet rupee 
prices of 91 pounds in the ten years ending 1855, rose to 51 in 
the ten years ending 1865, and to 40 in the ten years ending 1875. 


' LienU-naat-CoIonel Tavcmer, 893 of I5tb October 1875, parw 20-21, 
" Lieuteuttnt-ColoDfl Tuvemer, 893 of 1 5th October 1875, puni 29. 

B 2»-3«S 

[BomHy OaMtUtr. 






selling at o7 pounds the rupee, and in 

In 1873-74 millet was 
1874-75 at 54 pounds.* 

In 1875, these twenty-fonr villages formed the northern bill 
tracts or ddnga of Dindori, lying under the Saptashrin^ hills at thfr 
southern foot of tlie Chindor range. They stretched along the 
valley of the Padmi, from Vani to within five miles of the crest of 
the Sahyftdris, a distance of some thirteen miles. 

The area of the twenty-two Government villages was 28,441 acreSj 
of which 16^513 acres were tilled and 11,928 were waste ; the area 
of the two reversionary or dumila villages was 4192 acres under 
tillage and 592 waste, or a total of 4784 acres. The area of the 
twenty-four villages was fifty-two square miles^ with a population 
of 9728 or 187 to the square mile. The country was rolling 
rather than hilly. It was broken by many small streams, whose 
banks, as well as the higher ridges, were studded with mango and 
othe r trees, a ha If -cleared country very diflferent fro m the 
well wooded eastern plain. There was some black soil in the 
eastern villages, but it grew scantier and poorer towards the west, 
while the uplands or vidl improved from a stiff shallow black near 
Vani to a bright fine red in the west. Rice land scarcely occurred 
in the east, but it became commoner towards the west and 
south ; and though little was under tillage some villages had great 
natural rice-growing powers. Late or m^t crops, which were grown 
only in black lands, were confined to wheat and gram, though masur 
and vatana were sometimes grown and kardai was not unknown. 
The early crops, rice, nagli, sava, vari, kknrdsnh and hliddli, were 
chiefly grown in the uplands. In-igation, either by well or channel, 
was rare, wells having risen only from twenty in 1845 to thirty-four 
in 1875. There was no highway nearer than Diudori, fifteon miles 
to the south. Still the country was generally passable for carts to 
within two or three miles of the Sahyddris, though there were few 
carts except those used for field purposes. The chief market was 
Vani, which had a good trade in timber and in ndgli. There were 
besides two weekly markets, at Koshimba to the south and at 
Bhdvad to the west on the crest of tho Sahyddris. There were no 
manufactures, but the people took au active part in the timber trade 
between the Sahyadri forests and Vani and Varkhad. 

1 Dindori Ddngt, Produce Hupee Pricea, J84Sa87S, 


184^ to 





1870 to 

1645 to 




Xvly IUc« 


^^ Gmm 



















Lieut«niuit-Coloii«l Tftremeri 693 of 1375, pua 37. 




0£ 9728 people 3108 or nearly a third lived in Vani.^ The 
iple were Kolis, Konkani Kunbis^ and Deahi Kunbis. The Konkani 
K^unbis were an unsettled people, who moved their hamlets if one 
man or if two or three bullocks died. The Deahi or Deccan Kanbi 
was a much more useful settler. The Kolis tilled the upland, but 
were oftener day-labourers than landholders. Field wages were very 
low from £1 to £1 10«. (Ra. lO-Rs. 15) for a year with food and 
clothes, and 4*. (Rs. 2) a month without food or clothes. The people 
seemed fairly comfortable. Their houses were usually of wattle and 
daub with thatched roofs, and were surrounded, at a few yards 
distance, by a high fence. In aeveral villages a better class of house 
was being built In Mdla there were two large brick and mud 
Louses, one of which with two storeys cost £120 (Rs. 1200), and the 
other with three storeys was worth £200 (Hs. 2000). They were 
intended to house t«ru or three families of brothers, and the chief 
item of expense waa teak timber, which formed the whole frame* work. 
Copper vessels were commonly in use. The survey officer was satisfied 
that the first impression of poverty, caused by the mean look of the 
low wattle hnts, was misleading. What comforts the people had 
were however due to the timber trade, not to their agriculture. Nor 
could the land yield more than a pittance, till the growth of the 
coarser hill-grains was supplanted by rice. Must of the rice and 
the black soil was held permanently and little of it was waste. Bat 
in the uplands there was much arable waste, and what was tilled was 
held for only a few years and then thrown up. No roads had been 
opened, and the villages were far from the line of mil and from the 
chief markets of the Dindori sub-division. Compared with the 
former rates of many of the neighbouring plain villages, the 
existing maximum acre rat«s for rice 0*. (Rs. 3), for dry-crop 2«. 3f7. 
(Re. li), and for upland lO^ii. {aa. 7) were high; and very little 
lower than the corresponding revised rates in the plain villages. 
Under these circumstances no increase in the rates was made. The 
Blight adjustments that were required to suit the revised 
measurements caused a fall from £1201 to £1185 (Rs. 12,010 - 
Ra. 11,850) or 1 '33 per cent- The following statement gives the 
details : 



Reviiiioii Survey, 


^ Dindori Ddnga, Population and SU>^, 1875-7$. 



































1 Sheep and ffwta 




BtilloelLi and raalft-bflf- 




412 5032 






Lieateiuuit-ColoncI Tavcrnor, 803 of 1875, para 33. 
> Lieut. -Colouel Tavenier,893 of l^thOctoJser 1875. paru 30-40. 



[BomUy Gi 





Dindori ffiU Vittnfftt, Bevuion StUlemenU IST5-7<i. 




Wa.«. '■fl 















PropoMl ... 

BxUting ... 

IncrcaM . 


















«0 V72 


1 1 

In 1876-77 revised rates were introduced in seyenteen more hill 
or ddng villages, of which fifteen were in N4sik and two in Sinnar. 
Of these seventeen villages eleven NAsik and two Sinnar Tillflges 
formed the group of thirteen NAsik hill villages, which were settled 
by Mr. Tytlerin 1840-47. The romaining four villages belonged 
Dindori at the time of their first settlement in 1845. 


During the term of the first settlement, the average 
these seventeen villages rose from £688 (Rs. 6880) in the ten 
ending 1855-56 to £1058 (Rs. 10,580) in the ten years 
1865-66, and to £1272 (Rfl. 12,720) in the ten years ending 18 
The following statement gives the details : 

Sef^Htfm NdMik HUt Vitfages, BetrHne^ 2846-1876. 






AuBui Wurra. 

























(a) lintil lUS-OO the upliuid vu nut liroken Into aui-re; ttunibera. 

Between 1849-50 and 1875-76 the people had increased froi 
4053 to 6648 or 64 per cent ; carts from 05 to 246 or 159 per cen< 
ploughs from 561 to 827 or 47 per cent; bullocks and male-boffalt 
from 1858 to 2100 or 13 per cent ; cows from 1587 to 2727 or 
per cent ; she-buffaloes from 471 to 579 or 23 per cent; sheep ai 
goats from 89 to 550 or 518 per cent ; and horses from 68 to 
or 7 per cent. Wella increased from thirty-one of which nineti 
were in working order in 1846-47^ to fifty of which twenty-five w< 
in working order in 1875-70; and the area of well-watered land 
had risen from twenty-three to 107 acres. 

Of this group of seventeen villages the four transferred from 
Dindori to N^sik were (1S76) on or near the Harsul road abo|~ 
twenty miles west of NAsik and near the village of GimAra, th< 
market town. The eleven Nilaik villages lay from ten to twei 
miles to the south-west of Nasik on and near the Trimbakand Ij 
pun roads, their markets being Ndsik and Bhagur. The two villa 
transferred from Nftsik to Sinnar were isolated, and were neai 
thirty miles to the south of NAsik near the market town of Pdndi 

The two best villages were Vasali Satpur, and Belgaon Da| 
which were ucnirest to N^tiik and most like desk or plain villi 




The rest were hill rillagea^ some of them with good rioe lands, 
much bettor than the Dindori rice lands, but not equal to the beat 
rice lands about Igatpuri. The uplands of the.oe villageB were not 
pftTlioalarly good. Except in the rillage of Belgaon Daga, there 
waa hardly any watered land. 

The total area of this group of serenteen villages amounted to about 
seventy square miles, of which about two-sovenths was unarable 
waste, and Ere-scvonths assessed Government and alienated laud.^ 

During the thirteen years ending 1875-76 the average rainfall in 
NiUik was 25*79 inches, with a greatest fall of 35*78 in 1874-76 and 
a lenst fall of 17-t8 in 1873-74.« 

As these seventeen villages were nearer to Ndsik, or to the main 
roads and to the rail-road, than the preceding group of twenty-two 
Dindori villages, they could bear an increase on the former rates. 
Rice land rates were therefore increased by 16§ percent, represent- 
ing a rise in the highest acre-rate of first-class rice land in the thirteen 
Nwk villages from I2a. to 14^. (Rs. 6 • Rs. 7), and in the four 
Dindori villages from 6*. to 7«, (Rs. 3 - Rs. 3J). Black-soil rates 
were incrooscd by 25 per cent, the highest acre-rate of the first-class 
land being raised from 2w. 2if. to 'Ztt.djd. (Re. 1J-R<?. 1-6-6). The 
two villages of Belgaon Daga and Vasdli Sd-tpor, which were nearest 
the town of X(isik, were raised 33 J per cent, with an increase in the 
highest acre-rate from 2s. 2d. to 3*. (Re. IJ - Re. 1 J). As 5926 acres 
or about one-fourth were waste, no increase was made in the upland 

The effect of the revision was to give an average acre-rate of 
6*. 2Jd. {Rs. 3-1-7) on the old rice land of the thirteen NAsik villages 
and of 3*. 2|<i. (Re. 1-9-7) on the old rice land of the four Dindori 
villages. The average acre rate on the occupied black land was 
1*. 10^. {as. 142) ^^^ o^ *^^® upland 7^d. {as. 5). The rice rates 

Chapter VII] 


Rerifliob Snrrwft^ 

1 SePenlren NtUik ffill ViUaget, 1876. 











J^ "■ " 

Htvosr ... i.t ... 

TVital .. 

















» NiUik Rainfall, 1863 1875. 







mMA ™ ... 




uer-os ... 



37 -31 



U70-71 „, 








AroTBffO ... 




This w&a rccordo^l at KiUik. S^ moat of theso Bcveotcen villages lay in and almnt 
the hills, tbeir rainfall waaprobnUy gre«t«r thui the NiUik fall. Lieuteaaat'Colooel 
Taverner, S84 of 4th De«cmbcr lS7ti. 

^ ^-ar. 

[fiombfty OautUir. 

Chapter VIIL 


lUvinoD Survey. ^ 


SO nUagti, 




were believed to represent about one-eiglith of au average crop and 
the black soil rates about one-seventb.' 

Channel-watered land was found only in the two villages of 
Belgaon Daga and Amba B&hula. During the survey lease the 
area had increased from thirty-two to fifty -two acres, and at the time 
of revision the average aero rates were raised from 3«. GJi. to 4^. 6i. 

The total effect of the revision was an increase from £1277 to 
£1443 (Rs. 12.770-R8. 14,430) or 13 per cent. The following state- 
ment gives tho details : 

Sevtntren ydtik HiU ViUaga, JleowioH Settlemeni, 1876, 


















Propoeed .. 

ExUting ... 





SI 10 










aaoi 1 OT 

fllM 13.507 

0017 10,063 

108 lO&fi 








In 1877-78 the revised settlement was introduced into thirty of 
the seventy-one villnges of the old Trimbak petty division, which 
bad been settled by Mr. Tytler in 1844-45 and made over to 
NAsikin 1861-62. 

These thirty villages lay on both banks of the Grodiivari, begin- 
ning about ten miles west of N^ik, and, with a general breadth 
of about nine miles, stretching to the extreme west of tho sub- 
division below the Sahyddins. Most of the villages lay between 
the Ndsik-Harsul road ou the north and the Nasik-Triml)ak road 
on the soutk The country was rolling, broken, and hilly, with 
small level patches in the east and much rugged ground in the 
west. The prevailing soil was a light friable yellow, which though 
ahallow was well suited for the growth of ndglL The patches of 
black soil, 9*4 per cent of the arable area, were coarse in texture and 
much mixed with lime. Until the beginning of March the climate 
was feverish and unhealthy; during the hot months it was better 
than in the plains. 

During the ten years before the 1845 settlement the area hold 
for tillage had slightly declined. At the same time remissions had 
fallen and there was a alight rise in revenue. The first year of the 
1845 settlement began with an increase of about 100 per cent in 
the area held for tillage, and this increase was maintained during 
the first ton years. The collections also rose till in 1853-54 they 
showed an increase of £72 6*. (Rs. 723) compared with the year of 
settlement. Mr. Tytler's system of letting the uplands to the village 

' The calcalatioDJ were : A rice crop of about 1440 pounds (18 maru) of uncleoued 
or about 720 poimds of cleaned rico was worth on the average prioeo of the laat thirty 
vearsRs. 24-13-3 or eight times the aweasment, the bUok-soil wheat crop of 320 (KJiiDcia 
(4 moM) waa worth Ra. 6-€-d or nvod timeathe aaseMmeot. Lt.-CoL lareroer, 8&lo( 
4Ui Docember 1876, par« 18. 




at & lamp sum, or ukti, caased considerable nominal remissions, as 
half of the former contract or makta rates were yearly written off as 
outstAndiii]?. The only actual outstandings during the ten years 
ending 1854 was £1 2«. (Rs. 11) in 18o0-5l.' In the second term of 
ten years (l8o4-18t)4) the large permanent remissions given under the 
ukii system ceased. The occxipie<I area steadily spread np to 1850-60, 
when the uplands were separatL'Iy measured and assessed. Then 
there was a considerable rise with as sudden a fall during the next 
jear. After this the increase was steadier, and at the close of the 
ten years (1864) amounted to 4-353 acres. The collections rose from 
£i>6C to £828 (Rs. 5G60- Rb. 8280) or an increase of 46 per cent. 
During the third term of ten years (1864-1374) there was a marked 
improvement, the occupied area rising from 19,874 to 25,007 acres, 
and the rental from £855 to £996 (Rs. 8550- Rs. 9960). During the 
same period the nnoccnpied waste showed a decrease of 6061 acres. 
Remissions had almost entirely ceased. During the three last years 
(1874-1877) the settlement showed a fall in the occupied area and 
in the collections, which was mainly owing to tracts of land being 
tamed into Forest Reserves. The details are ; 










18S4-M to IB4IM4 





I844-4& til ItWI-S* 





leM-Wtr. l«Cl04(a) 





i8m-«6 to lers-;* 





167*--fl lo IBTU-n 





«) Ths incnmn in &ra« ihown Id oolumiu 2 ind 3, during tb« second docEda of tin Sarfttf 
ent, WM dufl to Itie itinry of ut>liuKU In I9fi9^. 

During the lease of the 1845 settlement population advanced 
from 4362 in lh44-45 to 8422 in 1876-77 or 931 per cent; Hat- 
roofed and tik^d houses from twenty to 131, and thatched houses 
from 838 to 1230 or 468 per cent; agricultural cattle from 622 to 
2088 or 235*7 per cent ; cows and buffaloes fi'om 3027 to 4459 or 473 
per cent ; horses and ponies from 54 to 66 or 22*2 per cent ; ploughs 
from 462 to 938 or 103 per cent; and carts from 43 to 162 or276*7 
per cent. Sheep and goats alone shewed a declino from 563 to 558 
or of 09 per cent. 

During these thirty -three years the average rupee price of millet 
rose from seventy-four pounds in the ton years ending 1853-54 to 
fifty -foor pounds in the ten years ending 1863-64, and to thirty-four 

1873-74. lathe next three yeara 

Chapter VnL 


BoTision Survey* 

pounds in the ten years ending 
It fell to forty pounds.' 

1 Colonel lAughton, 91 of 2Sih Juiaary 1878, pam 33. 

' Ifd^ik Produce, Rupee Prices, lSU-1877. 











l844-«fi to ItUfrM ... 
IftM-M to lM»-«4 .; 






leM-as to 1873-74 ... 
1814-75 to 1878-77 ... 








Coloucl Uughtoa, 91 of 2Sih JjiDuKry 1S78» par* 29. 

(Bombfty Gauu*«'^ 



ciuipt«r vm. 


Bcviuou Sun*ey. 

Ab moet of the villages lay near the Sahjddris, ihej had a cert&io 
and sufficient raiufalL lliere were two rooda^ one joining Tnmbok 
with N&sik and the other from X^ik to Peint-Uarsul, cros^iog tliA 
small pass near Gan^-M^lungi, and then over the Suliy^dris close 
by Vdghira. Since 1845, both of these roads had been metalled nnd 
bridged in several places. Except the villages below the SahyAdris 
all were within easy reach of the Devl^ railway statioa. Of the 
seven markets within the sub-diviaiouj Ndsik and Trinibak were of 
fiomo importance^ the other five Girndra^ Gangtipur, Dovargaou, 
Vaghira, and Kharvdl were small. There were no nianufactareB. 
The only evidence as to the value of land was the mortgage of k 
field of 4^ acres assessed at 1-U. i\d. (Rs. 7i) for £100 (l^. 1000). 

The marked progress of this tract under the former settlement, 
the opening of roads and of the Peninsula railway, and the riso 
in produce prices showed that the revised rates might be consi- 
derably increased. The thirty villages were divided into two 
groups^ one of twenty-two and the other of eight villages. In the 
twenty-two villages the highest dry-crop acre mto was &xed at 
2a. 9U. (Kc. 1-G), the highest rice acre nvto was raised by ICJ percent/ 
and the highent black land aero rates by 25 per cent, era rise from 
28. Sd, to 2a, Oi'/. (Re. U-He. 1-6-6) the acre. The upland rates 
fixed in 1860 were left unchanged. ITie eight villages in the second 
group lay below the Suhy^dris and at a greater distance from the 
Devlilli station. As the people were not so well-to-do as the people 
of the first group, no increase was made in the old rice ratee.- The 
acre rates of black soil lands woro raised by 12J percent, the highest 
acre rate of the fit^st-class laud being raised from 2«. '6d. to 2«. 6|d. 
( 1-4-3).* The upland rates fixed in 1860 were continned. 

There were only ] 5|^ acres watered by wells. 

The effect of the revision was to raise the average acre charge oa 
all lands, dry-crop rice and garden, £rora9^(/. to lld.(o0. 6-7 -a«. 7-4J. 

The following statement gives the details : 


Thirty ydail HiU Villages, Revision S^UUmfnt, 1877*73. 















*_^ Ambh- 










L ... 
U. ... 










Rs. ft. 

1 4 




















* Five inatead of four clawes were fiieci The rates were R«. 7, lU, 5-11, Rfc S-15> 
Re. 1}, and <u. 14, itiBtcAH of Rs. 6. Rb. 4-U, Rs. 3S, and Ra. I). 

■ The ratei lixe<l in 1878 were Ks. 6 for the first cUas, Ra. 4-14 for Ui« MOOlid. 
Ra. 3.U for the third, Ko. 1^ for the fourth, and qm. 12 for the fifth. 

' The uauao of the greater percentage increase in assessment in the second than in 
the first group was, thikt the 1S16 sorroy asseMed u red or mdS land wluc^ the revi- 
sion survey found to be black. In nine villages near the Sabj-ftdris trauts of good 
black soil were found omoontiog in all to 967 acres. Col, Laoghtou, 91 of 28th Jaoy. 
1878, paras 49-01. 




T" 1 880 revised rates were introdaced into twenty Government 

ea in the Diudori hilla, with an area of 62,340 acres or 

-'jaare miles, and a density of 78*1 people to the square mile. 

had been formerly settled in 18'to-16. The thirty years of 

l^iittrttutee ended in 1870, but the 1870 famine and other causes 

prevented the work being taken up till 1870. Besides the twenty 

ijovemment villag-es, two alienated villages, measuring 4222 acres 

or 6'(j square miles, with a density of 80*5 people to the square mile, 

wore settled for Che first time. 

Except one alienated plain village, these villages lie in a group 
in tbe south-west comer of Dindori ; sixteen to the south^ and five 
to the north of the main road from Ndsik to Feint. 

The land was bare and much of the surface wa« a flat of black soil. 
The climate was feveriah till March and healthy in the hot weatbef. 
Seven villages had the advantage of surface wat^r from four feeders 
of the Goddvari. The remaining fourt.een villages depended on 
^Hbtls. The prevailing soil was a brown or yellow with good depth, 
^^Ruch, fnjm the heavier rainfall, was more productive than similar 
soils in the east of the sub-division. The black soil lands were better 
than those in NAsik. Even in tho Saliyadri villages from a third to a 
fifth of the whole cultivated area yielded good crops of wheat. On 
tho other hand, the rico lands were not so rich as in the neighbour- 
ing Niisik villugca. 

In the ten years before the first survey (1835^ 184o) the average 
occupied area in tho twenty (Jovernmcnt villages was 1 3,570 acres and 
the average revenue £OtJO (Rs- GGOO). Dui-ing the first ten years of 
survey rates (IS4o-l85o) the average area under tillage rose to 
20,022 acresj while the average collections foil to £012 (Ks. 0120). In 
1800 the uplands, instead of being let to the whole village for a lump 
sum, were measured into fields and assessed. This caused au average 
increase to 24,8i7 acres and to £1051 (Rs. 10,510) of revenue during 
the ten years ending i860. In the next ten years (1805-1875) the 
average tillage area rose to 33,222 acres and the average collections 
to £ 1603 (Hs. 15,030). The four following years showed a slight fall 
in area to 31.513 acres and in revenue to £1311 (Rs. 1,31,10). 

Daring the fourteen years ending 1879 there were almost no remis- 
sions and no outstandings. Tho following statement gives the details: 

TioeiUy Dindori Hill Villager, Rfventte, 13S5-1879^ 












IStf^to l844-4a 






IM'V^O to t«A4-M 





IMfr^ Ui 1S44-M 






laHA-M to 1S74'?6 






187a-:0 to I87tf.7tt 






In those twenty villages between 1845 and 1880, population 
advanced from 4570 to 7014 or OOO per cent; Hat-roofed and tiled 
houses from seventy-four to 100 or 116'2 por cent, and thatched 
hr^nsiea from 797 to 1214 or i)2o per cent ; field cattle from 2815 to 
;!".m8 or S3 per cent; sheep and goats from 413 to 519 or 25"7 per 
cent ; ploughs from 536 to 832 or^5'2 per cent ; carta from 77 to 144 

a 83-37 




ReviBian Survey^ 

Dindori t 

2Z Viiiagrtp 


IBomtey Qai«tt«er« 







or 87 per cent ; and horses from 114 to 119 or 44 per cent- Cows 
and buffaloes sliowed a decrease from 4190 to 4104 or 2*1 per ceot. 

During the settlement period average millet rupee prices rose 
from ninety-two pounds in the ten years ending 1854-55, to fifty -two 
pounds in the ten years ending 1804-65, to forty pounds in the teni 
years ending 1874-75, and to twenty-eight poands in the last foar 

years (187o-1879)."» 

The rainfall was plentiful and certain,' Irrigation was carried 
on to a limited extent in nine Government and two alienated 
villages, both from channels and wells. la the Gh^veraineatj 
villAgeB were ten channels and eighteen wells, and in the alienate 
Tillages eleven channels and eleven wells. The channels 
generally poor, holding water only till December or the iniddlol 
of January, a few till February, and only one in one of the alienated] 
villages till March. 

About twenty-three per cent of the arable area was waste or fallow. 
The villager were well supplied with roads. To the soath and at 
no gi*eat distance was the main road from Nasik to Harsul. and 
the NAaik and Peiut road ran through the middle of the tract. Of i 
Bix market towns in the neighbourhood, the most fre(juent«d were 
Nd^ik, Girndi-a, and Dindori. There were no manufactures. 

The 1845 survey was confined to rice, garden, and the better! 
class of dry-crop land ; the upland.s were not surveyed till 1860, 
The work of revision included the more minute sub-division and 
the separate deumrcation of subordinate numbers in dry-crop and. 
rice lands. The reclassification was chiefly devoted to remedying' 
defects in the original survey. 

The spread of tillnge, the opening of roads and railways, and the 
rise in produce prices justified an increase in the assessment rates. 
Rice rates were accordingly i-aised 58'G per cent' or an average] 
acre rate of 3a. l^d. (Re. 1-12-10) ; black soil rates were raised 69*4 
per cent* or an average aero rat § of 1*. HJrf. (as. 15-7); in garden 
lands, the old highest channel rates varying from 65. to 16«. (Rs. 3- 
Rs. 8) were retained j they gave an average acre rate of 7*. lOJd 
(Ra. 3-14-9). The total increase under this head, including all new! 

* Dindori ProduM Pricgif PoaHd$ tkt 









1B4«^ to l^hi-lb 

18J5-r* to 183«.79 









Colonel Lftnghton, 83 of 28th Jauuary 1880, pam 33. 

' At Nisik 19-24 inches in 1876-77 and 01*96 in 1677-78, &t Dindori 20*fta uii 
1876-77 unJ 41 29 iu 1877-78, and ut Igatpuri 6826 lU 1S76-77 and IGOM in 1877-78. 
Colonel Laughton, 83 of 1880, para 16. 

* The detAils arc : Cla«8 1. Ks. 3 to IU. 4} ; class 11. Ra. 2| to Ua. 3| ; clan QL 
Rs. 2 to Rs 3 ; class IV. Rs. 1^ to Ho. 2^ ; class V. Re. 1 to Rs. IJ ; and class VL; 
as. 10 to Uft. 15. Colonel Laughton, 83 of 1880. para 3a 

* The detaiUare : CUm I. from He. IJ to Ite. 1-6 ; class II, from as, 15 to Re. 1^ ; 
clsas III. from an. 12 to a«. 15 ; cIo&b IV. from m. 9 to cm. 11 ; class V. from as. 6 to 
04, 7 ; and close VL from a$. 4 to at. 5. Colonel Laughton, 83 of 1880, pan 39. 




rice land, amounted to £566 (Rs. 5650) or 69'4 per cent, and the 
average acre rate was 1«. ll§d. [as. 15-7). The upland acre rates 
lOiJ./ 7^d., (id,, and 4id. {aa. 7, o, i, and 3) introduced in 1860 
were left unchanged. 

The following statement shows the effect of the revision survey : 



RncMOir Stntnit. 







diy-crop mt«. 







, Twenty... 


31, M 4 



Acrw Bt. 





1 fl 

These rates were sanctioned for twenty-four years or to the end 
of 1903-04. 

At prudent (18S2) the Ndsik district contains 1696 villages distri- 
buted among twelve sub-divisions.^ Of these 151 1 ai-e Government 
villages and 185 are alienated. Of the whole number, 1500 Govern- 
mont and sixty -fivealionn ted villages have been brought under the 
survey settlement.' Of the eleven unsettled Government villugea, 

» .ydwfc Villafffa, J8SS, 





GoTfnimeut. t AUeii&ted. 

Oorernment. | AUsi«t«d. 






















S^r* :;; 








XtodcMO ... 






In tlie tirst eltiveu HuU-cUvisiuiw Almost all the viliagei wore Mseesed od the bigha 
svstem before the earvcy sctticmunt. The villageB in l^int were Maesaed ou the 
plotuh'iate or aut&ahdi iystcm. 

3 The rate of survey progress ia Ahown in the following Atatement : 
NUMk Smn»jf SeUUitienl Pntgr*4», IjaotiJS, 




SciTLIUIKirT. 1 









« ••{.? 















f " 






IIT ... 1 

■ M 



















in „. u 












las' Mil 


• •K 










163 1 









1871 -7P 




I » 






C 90 




«»1 "t 



81 .. « 





<. i1 












l«S ... IM 






■ M 














mai ... 



Chapter VI] 



Rerision Sarvey. 


^^^ --^ 


[Boinb&y Gftxel 

Chapter VIII. 


1840' 1^8. 





ten are plong'h i-ate or aufhindi in Kalvan/ and one is a hill fort in 
Btigliin which has no amblo laud. 

In comparing the areas of the Govemment viHages before and 
fiince the survey settU'ment, the 225 Peint villajgea must ba 
excluded as no area figurt 8 are available for the roars before the 
enrvey settlenient. Taking the area figures for 1273 and the revenue 
figures for 1498 Governmoni villages for which details are availabie^ 
the returns for the years in which the original survey settlenient was 
in force, show, compared with the average of the ten previous years, 
a fall in the waste of 95,003 acres, and in the remissions of £10,821 
(Ra. 1 ,08,210) or 77 per cent f and an increase in the o<Tcupied area 
of 5C9,140 acres," and in the collections (from all sources and 
includiug Peint) uf £13,995 (Rs. 1,39,950) or IG per cent Compared 
with (he average of the ten years before the original survey the 
figures for 1S77-78 showed a fall in the waste of 209,24i acres, and 
in the remissions of £13,576 (Re. 1,35,760) ; and a rise in the 
occupied area of 1,036,973 acres and in the collections of £4o^67 
(Rs. 4,53,070) or 52-01 per cent. 

Taking the figures for the sixty-three alienated villages for 
which details are available, the returns for the years in which the 
survey settlement has been in force, compared with the average 
for the ten years before the beginning of the survey, show a fall of 
9361 acres in the arable waste and of £734 (Rs. 7340) or 70 per 
cent in remissions ; and a rise in the occupied area of 15,757 acres 
and in the collections from all sources of £1077 (Ra. 10,770) or 17 
per cent. Compared with the average of the ten year^ before the 
survey the figures for 1877-78 showed a fall in the waste of 13,203 
acres and in the remissions of £803 (Rs. 8030); and a rise in 
the occupied area of 22,226 acres and in the collections of £1965 
(Rs. 19,650) or 31'9 per cent. 

In 555 Government and seven alienated villages the origini 
settlement has been revised. Taking the figures for the 555 revised! 
Government villages, the returns for the years in which the revised] 
settlement has been in force, compared with the average of the thirty' 
years of the first settlement, show an iucreuse in the occupied area of 
196,003 acres or 25 per cent, and compared with the average of tea] 
years before the origiual survey, an increase of 462,708 acres or b9' 
per cent. The corresponding figures for arable waste show a fall of 
83,360 acres or 54 per cent in the revision settlement average com- 
pared with the first settlement average, and a fall of 2S3,1 16 acres 
or 80 per cent compared with the average of ten years before the 



large but for tho liberM romiasiuns granted to the DdJig 
yenrs after the »an'ey settlement. Capt. Black, 1880. 

■ The inaccuracy of the earlier areas makes it impossible to fix an exact p* 
age of difference. But the increase is beyond doubt very Urge. The decrease 
the arfta of arable Waste ia leas, Iwcauso much land which was orimnaUy ol 
unorable has since been entered as arable waste. Capt. Black 1880. 





<irigiD&lauryevJ The average co]lectioii8 from all Boarcos show a 
rise of £19,532 (Rs. 1,95,320) or 41 percent in the revision settlement 
period contriisted with the original settlement period, and a riae 
of £23,255 (Ks. 2,32,550) or 53 per cent contrasted with the 
average of the ten years before the original sun^ey. 

From the above comparisons, and the detailed statement given 
below, it appears that, since the introduction of the survey settle- 
ment (1840-1817), the area of occupied land and the Government 
revHnn<> have been stt-adily increasing, while remissions and out- 
tt if years of extreme di.stress from failure of crops 

(. .md 1877-78) are excluded, have been much smaller than 

iMjfore the settlement. Since tho introduction of the aurveyj 
the yearly Government revenue has increased by about £35,000 
(R*i. 3,50,000) or about one-third, and the amount of land held for 
tillnge by some 5(>0,000 acres or about one-third. 

The following statement shows, for tho Government villages of 
each sub-division, the chief changes in tillage area, remissions, 
collections, and outstandings since the introduction of the original 
revenue survey : 

i^dsH Survey RttuU*, 1840-1878, 











Ten rwtut betoro rarrey 


TVq ywm belore «urvf-y 


Ten y**« tiefora •orvejr 


Ten j-ean before euTVey 

18T;-i« .« 

tm y^MXM befora nrrey 


Toil jfoiin before vxtvvs 


Ten )-e»ri before TOrvoy 

1877-78 - 

Ten yeuv before imrvey 
1877-78 , 

Ten years beforft niiroy 


Ton je»r» befoni turvoy 
1877-78 .., ,.. ,,, 

Ten ymn before mrvey 

Ten yeftra before lurrey 

Ten yo&n before tBrv^y 

1877-73 ... 


AsMHed. AUautod. Total 




131. «M 











781. i89 






























123, 4aa 

188. (!70 










Ml 408 



































' TAkPO together, the occupied and waate areaa undtir tho original lurvev do not 

"■- ' *^' thoftc under the revised survey, becaaae in the IiiJl villftgoii of tWe Bub. 

le areas of the upUnda do not Rppear during the earlier part of the survoy 

' (>t.'riod ; some land ahoira in tjie original survey fui unarable was at tho 

limv oi rvviMuu entered as arable ; and the areas of the revision aettloracut are more 

Accurate thou those of the original seltlouient. Captain W, C. fiUck, Aaaiatant 

Snporintcndeat of Sorveyi ld80. 

[fiomb&7 Gazeiuer, 




NiUik Aireiy BtmHt cotttinngd. 


How far has tbis great increase in tillago and in revenue, and this 
great rise in produce prices been accompanied by an improvement 
in the state of the people 't An increase in nnmberR may mean an 
increoae in poverty; the spread of tillage may be due to the pressure 
of population forcing the people to till soils which yield a bare 
maintenance ; ond by raising wages and adding to the coat of tillage 
a rise in produce prices may fail to add to the landholder's wealth. 
Bat N^ik is not overpeopled, and though poorer soils are tillod 
than were formerly tilled, there is still a margin of untilled arable 
land. A rise in produce prices lessens the weight of a money rental, 
while a rise in wages does not necessarily eat away the landholder's 
extra proBt. Under certain circumstances, a rise in wages and 
increased cost of tillage may rob the landholder of most of his 
gains from high prices. But this result cannot happen in Nflsik, 
where the field labourer is as a rule one of the landholder's family 
and is paid not in money bnt in grain. 

An estimate of the effect of the different changes that have been 
ot work in the district since the beginning of British rule has been 
given above under the head of Trade (pp. 142-14'4-). As regards 
the condition of the peasantry Mr. H. N. Erskiue of the Bombay 
Civil Service was satisfied in 1874, that the people were better 
off than they had been twenty or thirty years before. I^arge 
numbers of the landholdiug classes were in debt. But this was dnc 
not to the high rates of Government assessment but to their own 
want of self-restraint and foresight. The holders of rent-free lands 
were no better off than the holders of Government lands 
the American war (1803-1865) both classes hod increased 


During ^M 
:d th&ir ^M 



marriage and other expenses tenfold; and tbongh the abnonnal plenty 
of those years had passed away, the people had not snflScient self- 
restraint to bring their expenses down to the former level. Still, 
in epite of indebtedness, there was much comfort and considerable 
ftdTance. Large suras were sfient on wells and on dwelling houses. 
It was beyond doubt that the people were better fed, better clothed, 
iind better housed than they need to be.^ 

Though the information is meagre, the accounts of the former state 
of the district prove the cotrectnesa of Mr. Erskine's views. The 
rict first (1818) appears as plundei*ed by bands of freebooters 

d by its government; next (1828-1838), in spite of the esta- 
blishment of order and the introduction of regular rentals, it is 
impoverished by the want of markets and by the exactions of its 
officials. A detailed examination (1840-1847) shows that in almo.<4t 
every part the bulk of the people are pinched and disheartened by 
poverty. Then the Government demand is lowered from 30 to 40 
per cent, and exHCtions are stopped and the district is enriched 
(1850-1874) by the opening of roads and railways and the rise 
from 60 to 100 per cent in the valne of its staple products. It ia 
Again examined in detail (1870-1880), and though there is much 
indebtedness, great part of the land has a high value, much of 
the tillnge ia skilful and careful, and almost all classes have some 
margin of profit and comfort. Much of the district, the wild rugged 
west and the barren drought-plagued east, is and must remain poor. 
.And in the richer parts numbers of the |)easantry are laden 
and disheartened by debt. But one chief cause of this indebt- 
edness may be removed by a growth of foresight and self-restraint^ 
and at the worst nolhing now can match Mr. Andrews' experience 
in 1832 when he found the whole village of Kanlad empty, all the 
men dragged to the civil court atChandor to answer their creditors' 

Since 1874 NAsik has passed through two years of general distress 
(1876 and 1877). In 1880 and 1881 the dry eastern tracts suffered 
from scanty rainfall, and in 1882 over a great part of the district a 
promising f^rly crop was destroyed by locusts.' Many well-to-do 
families have lust their capital, and some have fallen from being 
landholders to be labourers. Still the district has not permanently 
suffered. No shrinking of tillage followed the 1877 famine, and, 
daring the last two years (1879-1881), the whole of the Government 
rerenue has been realised without special difficulty. 

* Twenty or thirty yesn ago. Re. 2()0 was thought a great deal for a Runbi to 
■pen'l on a wedding. Now (1974) they sometimes spend nearly R». 3000. Mr. H, 
> <;.S., Collector of Naaik, 3t>89 of 12th November 1874, Bom. Gov. Rev. 
< -i 1875, partH. 

- j*ii. »< C. Andrews, AssiBtant Collector, 24lh November 1832; »ee aUo hia 
report of 3U1 July 1S33, in Uom. Gov. Rev. Keu. &48 of 1834, 71-73, about NAsik, 
Sinnar, Cbiudor. .-vad Uindori. Mr. Aiillfi, Collector, ditto 34. 

* DetailB are given below, p. 301. 

Chapter^ Vin, 


A dminiR tratif 




[Bombay OucUecr. 

Chapter Vm. 









More or less complete details ore available for the thirty- two jean 
ending 1882. 

The Reason of 1850-51 was indifferent and called fctr ihe graDt 
of coDsiderable reuji^sions. The land revenue for rv^lU'Hion' fell 
from M4,109 to £43,613 (R«. 4,41,090- Rs. 4,?J6,' P.i«. 

11,590; were remitted ; and £2t>37 (Rs. 20,370) were i_: . „_ ..:rg. 

The following aeaaon, 1851-52^ was still less favourable. At the 
be^nning of the rains the prospects seemed good. But the early 
fall was too hoavy and I&stod too long. In most places sowing bnd 
to be put off, and what seed was sown either rotted or was washed 
away. After this excessive rainfall, came so long s stretch of fair 
weather that almost every crop suffered; and the few showers that 
fell lattir on were ill-timed, harming the ripening millet, while they 
were too light to make the ground moist enough for sowing the 
late crops. The people suffered severely from fever, l^he land 
revenue for collection fell from £43,til3to £41,424 (Rs. 4,3«,I30. 
Rs. 4J4,2iO}, £3945 (Rb. 39,400) were remitted^ and £43 
(Rs. 480) left outstanding. 

The season of 1852-53 was favourable. In Sinnar and K&vnai 
both the early and the late crops prospered, though in some parts 
they were harmed by excessive cold. The yield was large and many 
of thp husbandmen paid off much of their debt. There was an 
unusually rich grass crop, but a good deal of it was lost for want <^f 
a market. The land revenun for collection rose from £41 
£45,664 (Rs. 4,14,240- Rs. 4,50,640), £188 (Rs. 1880) were re 
and £48 (Ra. 480) left ontntanding. 

In 1853-54 a scanty rainfall caused mnch distress. The eaHy' 
rains failed and largo tracts of land remained unsown. The grass 
withered and much of the early harvest was eaten by locusts. The 
late rains were extremely scanty and the cold weather crops were 
poorer even than the early harvest. Cholera prevailed in March 
April and May, and large numbers of cattle died from want of food 
and from exposure on the Eh^ndesh hills. Road and other relief 
works were opened and employment was given to the deslitute. The 
land revenue for collection fell from £45,664 to £-14,GS5 
(Rs. 4,5(),6'10-R3. 4,i6,850), £3005 (Rs. 30,050) wore remitted, and 
£48 (Rs. 480) left outstanding. 

The rains of 1654-55 were lat« of settingin, but the fall was heai 
and the early harvest was good. Late in the season a very h( 
rainfall damaged the wheat crop, which was further injured by 
In May there was a bad outbreak of cholera in Naaik. The^ 
revenue for collection rose from £4-'l-j085 to £-18,289 (Rs. 4,4^, 
Ba. 4,62,890), £356 (Rs. 3560) were remitted, and there ware 

In 1855-56 the rainfall in the west was sufficient and well-timitd. 
In ChAndor and Sinnar, in the centre and south, a good fall early ii 

TheBgurea for the years 1850-51 to 1S5^>M refer to the Ahmadoagftr portiou 
NMik only. 



was followed by a long stretch of dry weather broken by ouly 
>w showera. Little of the early crop was sown till late in August, 
rhen there were four days of heavy rain. This was followed by a 
1^31 of fair weather that lasted till the middle of October. Then 
^Be & second heavy fall. But later on cloudy dewleas nights and 
IBbrpillars did much damage to the cold-weather crops. The land 
rrevenue for collection fell from £48,289 to £47,893 (Rs. 4,82,890- 
IB*. 4.78,930), £2028 (Ha. 20,280) were remitted, and £1 (Ra. 10) 
left outstanding. 

In 1856-57 the rain was abundant, and though the falls were 
■HDewbat ill-timed, the harvest was fair and public health was 
^^ftd. The land revenue for collection rose from £47,893 to £50,459 
Tite. 4,78,930 - R«. 5,04,590), £278 (R8.2780) were remitted, and 
there were no outstandings. 

In 1857-58 the rains were late, the early crops suffered, and fodder 
yma scarce. But the latter rain was abundant and the season on tho 
whole was fair. Except a few cases of cholera and some cattle 
Idiaease, public health was good. The land revenue for collection 
from £50,459 to £51,323 (Rs. 5,04,590 -Rs. 5,13,230). £262 
2620) were remitted, and there were no ontstaudinga. 

1858-59, thongh both the early and tho late crops suffered 
want of rain, the harvest was good. The season was healthy 
in other respects favourable. The land revenue for collection 
from £51,323 to £52.384 (Rs. 5,13,230-Rs. 5,23,840), £21 
210) were remitted, and there were no outstandings. 

le season of 1 859-60 was generally favourable. The land revenue* 
>U6ctionrosefrom£96,OOf5 to £98,105 (Rs.9,60,060-Ra.9,81,O5O), 
\7 (Rs. 3370) were remitted, and there were no outstandings. 

1860-61 the rainfall was suiEcient, tho harvest plentiful, and 
pnblic health good. The land revenue for collection rose £rom£98,105 
to £101,323 (Rs. 9,81,050 - Rs. 10,13,230), £241 (Ra 2410) were 
iremitted, and there were no outstandings. 

Wtfsi 1861-C2 the rainfall was above the average and well-timed, 
^■Tthe outturn large. Public health was good and the amount of 
^f^le disease was small. The land revenue for collection fell from 
TffDI,323 to £93,253 (Rs. 10,13,230 -Rs. 9,32,530), £140 (Rs. 1400) 
wore remitted, and £208 (Rs. 2080) left outstanding. 

I The early rainfall of 1802-63 was scanty and in many places no 

Iy crops were sovm. But the September and October rains were 
ndant and the cold-weather harvest was unusually fine. Publio 
||k was generally good, but cattle disease prevailed to some 
^K The land revenue for collection rose from £93,253 to 
K (Rs. 9,32,530 -Rs. 0.65,020), £47 (Rs. 470) were remitted, 
■no (R& 1600) left outstanding. 

The year 1863-64 was an average season. The rainfall though 
scanty at the beginning was plentiful and satisfactory towards the 
abse. Both cholera and cattle disease prevail ed over most of the 

FTbc figure! for the ye&n 1859-60 to 1877-78 are for both the Ahmftduagar nnd the 
)deah portion of K&aik* 



8««soa Keporti. 











[Bombay Onnt^mi 





)n KcpoitB. 




.pier VOL district. The land rcrcnno for collection pose from £96,592 
£99,102 (Ra. 9,0.5,020 - Rs. 9,91,020), £14 (Rs. liO) were remi 
and there were no outstandings. 

In 1864-65 the rainfall was on the whole seaaonable, and, exi 
that they suffered in some places from blight, the crops were good. 
Cholera mid cattlo disease prevailed to a great extent. The land 
revenue for collection rose from £99,102 to £101,971 (Ra 9,91,0^ 
Bs. 10,19,710), £35 (Rs.350) were remitted, and £U (Ra. UO) 

In 1865-66 tlie rainfall though somewhat ill-timed was sniHcient, 
and both the early and late harvest were £air. Public health was Oa 
the whole good. The land revenue for collection rose from £101,971 
to £107,089 (Rs. 10,19,710 -Rs. 10,70,890), £74 (Ra. 740) were 
remitted, and there were no outstandings. 

In 1866-67, except in the hilly west, the rainfall of 23*67 inches was 
scanty ; with a partial failure both of the early and of the late crops. 
In many places the water-supply ran low, but the public health did 
not suffer. The land revenue for oollection rose from £107,089 to 
£108,641 (Rs. 10,70,890. Rs. 10,85.410), £3480 (Rs. 34,800) were 
remitted, and there were no ontstandings. 

The season of 1867-68 was, on the whoel, favourable, and the late 
harvest excellent, the rainfall being 27*31 inches. The land revenue 
for collection rose from £108,541 to £111.938 (Rft. 10,86,410 
Rs. 11,19,380), £1091 (Rs. 10,910) were remitted, and there were no 

In 1868-69 there was a rainfall of 20*25 inches. In the west the 
fall was sufficient and the harvest fair. In the east, ospecinlly in 
Mdlegaon, hardly any rain fell, and road and pond making and other 
relief works had to be undertaken. Except for some slight out- 
breaks of cholera, public health was good. There was no cattlo 
disease. The present NAsik district was formed in this year. The 
tillage area was 1,475,234 acres; the laud revenue for ooUectioa 
fell from £111,938 to£110,818 (Rs. 11,19,380. Rs. 11,08,180), £1723 
(Ra. 17,230) wore remitted, and £2739 (Rs. 27,390) left outstanding. 
In 1809-70 the rainfall of 28'51 inches was sufficient Some 
parts of the district suffered from want of water, but both the early 
and the late crops wore fair. Except in Dindori where there were 
outbreaks of cholera and cattle-disease, public health was good. 
The tillage area rose from 1,475,234 to 1,526,371 acres, and the land 
revenue for collection from £110,818 to £112,919 (Rs. 11,08,180- 
Bs. 11,29,190), £44 (Re. 440) were remitted, and £685 (Rs* 6850) 
loft outstanding. 

In 1870-71 the rainfall of 33*01 inches was sufficient and the 
season favourable. Late rain slightly injured the early crops, bnt 
the cold-weather harvest was excellent and public health was good. 
The tillage area rose from 1,526,371 to 1,554,386 acres, and the land 
revenue for collection from £112,919 to £113,027 (113.11,29,190- 
Rs. 11,30,270), £199 (Rs. 1990) were remitted, and £197 (Rs. 1970) 
left outstanding. 

In 1871-72 the rainfall of 21*86 inches was much below tho 
average. In the north the early rains completely failed. A few 
showers followed, but they wore too partial to do much good ; And 

^ I8e$-70* 






another stretch of dry weather roinod the crops. In the middle of 
Noveiuber there was a heavy but oDseasonabte fall. In Mklegaon, 
NAudgaon, and B(igUn, and to some extent in Sinnar and Niphad, the 
«Hrly crops failed almost entirely, and in Malegaon, Nandgaon, and 
Bigl^ the lato crops were either not sown or failed. A large 
import of grain from the Central Provinces checked any great rise 
of prices. Mild cholera appeared in most parts of the district^ 
but public health was geuoraJly good. Cattle disease prevailed to 
some extent in Peint and some of the northern sab-divisions. The 
tillage area rose from 1,554^386 to 1,595,339 acres, white the land 
rev^nne for collection fell from £113,027 to £100,066 (Ra. 
II - Rs. 10,90,650), £10,521 (Rs. 1,05,240) were remitted, 

Hii - ^ (Rs. 31,880) left outstanding. 

In l»72-73 the rainfall of 2b'4\ inches was plentiful and well- 
timed, and the season unusually favourable. Except a few cases of 
cholera and a good deal of dengue fevor, public health was good. 
Cattle disease prevailed to a slight extont. The tillage area roso 
from 1, 505/339 to 1,010,871 acres, and the land revenue for collection 
roso from £1,09,065 to £1,19,018 (Rs. 10,00,650 - Rs. 11,90,180), 
£881 (Ra. 8810) were remitted, and £821' (Rs. 8240) left outstanding. 

In 1673-74, though the late rains were scanty in some parts, the 
rainfall of 22*21 inches "svas satisfactory. The coarser grain crops in 
the hill villages suffered from want of rain in August and Septombor, 
and in Bdgldn and Malegaon the early crops were middling ; but in 
N^k, Sinnar, Igatpuri, Dindori, and Niphad they were good. In 
some parts of Niphdd, Sinnar, Millogaon, and Bdgld.ii, considerable 
loss was caused by caterpillars. The lato crops throve well, and in 
most sub'divisioDs the outturn was above the average. In Sinnar, 
SAvargaon, Mdlegaon, and Baglan, the crop was middling and in 
parts a failure. Except that Dindori was visited by a slight attack 
of cattle disease, public health was good, Tho tillago area foil from 
1,610,871 to 1,591,110 acres, aud the land revenue for collection fell 
from £119,618 to £117.860 (Rs. 11,06,180 -Rs. 11,78,600), £371 
(Ra. 3710) were remittCMl, and £157 (Rs. 1570) left outstanding. 
Millet rupee prices were forty-three and a half pounds. 

In 1874-75 the rainfall of 35*54 inches, though above tho average, 
was unseasonable. In Ndsik, Igatpuri, and BagMn, tho early crops 
yielded well, and iu other parts not more than a fourth of the crop 
was injured. But failure of rain in September and October dia 
much clamagc to the late crops. Public health was good. There 
was no epidemic and little cattle disease. The tillage area rose 
from 1,591,116 to 1,612,801 acres, while the land revenue for 
collection fell from £117,860 to £116,271 (Rs. 11,78,600- 
Ha. 11,62,710), £7814 (Rs. 78,140) were remitted, and £146 
(Rb. 1460) loft outstanding. Millet rupee prices rose from forty- 
three and a half to thirty-six pounds. 

In 1875-76 tho rainfall of 3802 inches was irregular, and, 
especially in August and September, excessive. Tho early crops 
snifered considerably, and the sowing of the late crops was delayed. 
No rain fell in October, and both the late crops and the rice in the 
we8t43m districts snffeied. Fevor and aguo were general in the 
west, and there were 200 deaths from cholera. There was no cattle 

Chapter VI] 


ISeAsun Repoi 








Tm. dittawi The tObge arm roMfircMB 1,612,801 to 1,6^.631 acrea,ui 
tiie kad rereoae for ooHectioo fo» £ro«i £116^71 to £12djd8l 
(Bfl. 11,62,710- Bo. 12^8MS0), £44101 (Be. 46J910) were remiMr 
and £82 CBa. 820) left oatrtapamfr IQki rupee prioee rose bm 

thinj-inx to thirtj pouodB. 

mer?. In 1876-77^ tW raiaUl of 18-14 indwa waa extxendj soanty ud 

ill-tiiDed. Id ei^ift aab-drruioBa the auppty waa leaa than half tht 
average, in two it iras abovt two-tiiiraj, in Igatpori alone was it 
m to the arerage. After Jnlj, except some aligfat and partU 
Mowers, the rain tolaDj failed. Nortli of the Gh&ndor raog«, tLe 
oottam of the early crop varied from one-half to seven-etghths of 
an average crop. Sooth of Ch^uidor the onttam was still leea aad 
averaged between a qoarter and five-eighths, and in the eictreiae 
BOath in Sinnarand Niph^, the harvest waa a complete £u1irre. Is 
aome parts the want of the late rain prevented late crops bein^ sown, 
aod where thej were aown the outturn waa only from a half to a 
quarter of the average. At the cloee of the Beaeon (October) most 
of the dama and water-conrsee were nearly dry. Poblic health was 
on the whole good. Small-pox appeared for a short time in N^Aik 
and Ig&tpnri, and cholera in Nisik, Igatpnri, Siunar, aod Yeola. 
There waa no cattle disease. The tillage area rose from 1,<>37,631 
to 1 .659,406 acres, while the land revenne for collection fell from 
£123,883 to £120,633 (Re. 12,38,830- Rs. 12,06,330), £13,803 
(Rs. 1,38,030) were remitted, and £5279 (Rs. 52,790) left ouutanding. 
Millet rupee prices roee from thirty to twentj-four and a hd[f 

tS77'78. In 1877-78 the rains began with a fall heavy enough to allow the 

Bowing of the early crops. But in Jaly and August the supply was 
scanty, and mnch of the crop that had been sown was lost There was 
rain in September and October. But the fall waa light and stopped 
too soon, and, in spite of some December showers, the late crops 
suffered severely. The Goddvari was very low, and most of the water- 
courses ran dry. The east and south suffered most. In Igatpnri 
alone waa the season at all favourable. The total rainfall was 2i'09 
inches. Cholera prevailed and public health suffered. The tillage 
area rose from 1,659,406 to 1,664,536 acres, and the land revenue 
for collection rose from £120^633 to £133,325 (Rs. 12,06,330- 
Rs. 13,33,250), £375 (Rs. 3750) were remitted,and £8282 (Rs. 82,820) 
left outBtanding. Millet rupee prices rose from twenty-foor and a 
half to twent)''-£our pounds. 

1878'70. In 1878-79 the rainfall was 56'16 inches. There was a widespread 

outbreak of mild cholera and much cattle-disease. In this year the 
district was increased by the addition of Point. The tillage area 
rose from 1,847,572 to 1,900,477 acres, and the laud revenue 
for collection rose from £136,132 to £136,321 (Rs. 13,61.320- 
Rs. 18,63,210), £251 (Rs. 2510) were remitted, and £3495 (Rs. 34,950) 
left outstanding. Millet rupee prices fell from twenty-four to 
twenty-five and a quarter pounds. 

1 Full d«Uilt of tbii and the following famine year are given above, pp. 106-113. 



In 1870-80 the rainfall of 35*08 inches was a little above the 
>rage. The season was on the whole favonrftble. Public health 
good. The tillage area fell from 1,900,477 to 1,892,908 acres, 
id the land revenae for collection rose from £136,321 to £13S|9G1 
;8. 13,63.210-Re. 13,89,610), £174 (Rs. 1740) were remitted, and 
t087 (Rs. 20,870) left outstanding. Millet rupee prices rose from 
'enty-five and a quarter to twenty-two and a half pounds. 

In 1880-81 the rainfall of 22'95 inches was far below the average. 
Except in Yeola and parts of Niph^d and Siunar, where the crops 
were very bad, the season was a fair one. The late crop was a partial 
and the early crop a complete failure. Public health was good. The 
tillage area rose from 1,892,908 to 1,907/258 acres, and the land 
revenae for collection feU from £138,961 to£138,934 (Rs. 13,89,610- 
Bs. 13,89,340), £121 (Ra, 1210) were remitted, and £2686 
(Rs. 26.860) left outstanding. Millet rupee priccB remained 
unchanged at twenty-two and a half pounds. 

In 1881-82, as in the previous year, the rainfall of 22*13 inches 
was deficient and irregular almost everywhere except in Igatpuri, 
Feint, and near the Sahyfidris. In some places, both the early and the 
lat^ crops were short and in others they entirely failed. Want of 
water waa keenly felt in many of the eastern villages, and many 
irrigation channels or pats ran dry. Garden crops suffered greatly 
and grass was very scarce in many sub-divisions. Altogether it 
was a poor season. Several sub-divisions also suffered from locusts, 
bnt the damage done was partial. Public health vfAs fairly good. 
Cases of cholera occurred over the whole district, but they were 
confined to comparatively few villages. The tillage area rose from 
lj907,258 to l,917j804 acres, and the land revenue for collection 
from £138,934 to £141,429 (Ra. 13,89,340- Rs. 14,14,290), £113 
(Rs. 1130) were remitted, and £3728 (Rs. 37,280) left outstanding. 
Millet rupee prices fell from twenty-two and a lialf to thirty-six 

The rains of 1882 are memorable for the great locust plague which 
mined the prospects of an unusually fine harvest.^ The season was 
most favourable. The rains began early and were copious and 
seaaouable, and an unusual extent of land was sown with millet. 
All crops alike did well ; when, just as they were approaching 
maturity, an army of insects sprang out of the ground and began 
to devour every green thing. They showed themselves especially 
fond of millet, whose Hower they ate destroying all hope of grain. 
The plague spread over almost all Khjindesh, over the north of Ndsik 
and Ahmadnagar, and over the neighlx)uring parts of the Nizdm'a 
territory. The origin of these great swarms of locusts is somewhat 
mysterious. Daring May and June large flights passed over the 
north of the district, alighting for a few days and moving from east 
to west. As there were no crops on the ground no harm was done; 
but it is supposed that the insects must then have laid their eggs. 
No 6gg8 were noticed at the time. Afterwards cultivatorsj in 

> Ccotributed by Mr. lUmMy, C. S., Collector of NAaik. 

Chapter Vl 


SeuoQ Re] 




TBamb^f (HufOtm, 





ploagliiDg, occ&sionallj tamed up lamps of a white Elimy matter like 
spawDj and these are now believed to have been lamps of locusts' egga. 
About August the insects came to life. They were minute gtrca 
things like crickets, hopping aboat, doing no damage, and causing 
no alarm. In September there came heavy showers with warm 
sonny weather between and th« insects sprang into new hfe. Tbey 
shed their green skins, became of an olive hue shaded with green 
and brown, and grew rapidly. This was the time of greatett 
destruction. Very soon the millet, already tall and in ear, aaeiBed 
everywhere hopelessly destroyed. Measures were taken to kill the 
locQsts. Rewards were offered of }d. to 4i(i. (i-3a«.)a9A0raad larg<e 
qoantities were collected and buried in pits. In Malegaon, where the 
acstmction was greatest, the atmosphere was poisoned with the 
stench of decaying insects, and the health of some of the clerks who 
were told off to weigh the bodies and pay the rewards was serioasiy 
atFected. Men were also engaged on daily wages to drive the fields 
in line and collect the insects in cloths held out to catch them. 
Largo numbers were destroyed in this way. In little more than a 
week upwards of £2000 (Rs. 20^000) had been spent, and, as it was 
found that this great destruction had no visible effect on the numbers 
of the insects, rewards were stopped. The nambers were too vast 
for any human agency to cope with. In one place some 200 mem 
spent a whole day in a fiold of bbout two acres using every known 
means of destruction. Next day the locusts were almost as thick 
as before. Early in October the insects began to put forth two 
pairs of wings, and by the middle of the month the new wings were 
matured. Soon after they began to take flight, moving ab night 
from east to west into the southern portions of Ndsik which had 
previously escaped Bub as they kept moving the damage waa 
partial. Meanwhile parts of the district originally affected were 
Deiug cleared of the pest, and though Fresh insects came both from 
Eh^udesh and from Nagar, they did not stay. By tho end of 
November the locusts had disappeared. The exact amount of 
damage has not been ascertained. The worst ravages were in 
M^ilegaou, Ndndgaon, Yeola, and ChAndor, where no green thing 
seemed to come amiss to the locusts. The millet crop was almost 
destroyed, and the cotton and sngarcane were much damaged. 
Only the east of Niphdd and Sinnar suffered severely, and in the rest 
of the district the destruction was locul and partial. 

Some uncertainty exists as to the idontification of the locust. It 
is believed not to be the well-knovvn migratory locust called by the 
natives tol or host, but is termed by them ndktodaj that is uose-cuttcr, 
or klda, that is insect. A gentleman in Bombay, known for his 
researches in natural history, identifies it with Paohyfylus indicus, a 
locust peculiar to India. When small and green the insect looke<l 
and acted liko a cricket. As it grew, it shed its skin, its colour 
turned to olive brown with dark shadings, and two wings were 
developed one above the other. The under wing was at first reddish 
and the upper wing grey, but the red fringe soon disappeared. The 
body of the full-grown insect was about two and a half inches longi 
and the folded wings stretched nearly an inch further. Former 

rarms of locusts are ramemberod, but they wore in small numbers 





and spread over a small area. No sucli linge swarm as that of 1882 Chapter VIIJ 
has invaded the district witliin li\nng memory. Laid 

The follo^v^ng statement shows the chief available yearly statistics Administration, 
of rainfall, prices, tillage, land revenue, collections, remissions, and Land Revenue, 
balances, during the thirty-two years ending 1881-82 : IS501SSt» 

Ndtik Tillage and Laral Revenue, 1850-188S. 


LaxD RaVKfTK. 

















Ufia^i («) „. 







J8n^«. ... 

































in»«r... », 





usr4a_ ». 







USMtk.. „ 






• TO 







iav«i.- ... 







i0n-«i.. „ 







1MMI... .» 

• t. 






I8V4I-. ... 



























*7 51 




11. 19.870 








■ 32 






















UB»n.. ... 










1. SOI .lie 













































%Br^m„ ... 









S3 -96 














^ ' 'v4 for thu ytAi% between IdfiO.Cl amd tft57-fi6 kre for tbo Ahmadfuevr portion of 

N ng^inv for the yoara botweeii IflfiS^ and 1877-78 am for the proMlit district excloilre 

Ol > ^TiruM for the yGMV U*t\vocfi Ih78-7D uid 1881-83 uv lor titc cntuo dictiiek ot Hftfilk. 

V>) Tho Avurage rupee price ot mlUot between 1848^ and ISSMS «M 88* iMOoda. 


IBombty &&xeUeer 

Lapter IZ. 

tthft System. 



In early Hindu times, according to the law books, the cliuf 
judicial institutiou was the village coancil or pancJidyat. The 
panchdyat was assembled by order of tho grdtnddJUkdri or vilUg^ 
headman^ and an appeal lay from its decision to the detthdJhihdri or 
district headman. Except that the names of these officers were 
changed to pdtU and de^hmukhj the panchdyat system continaed ia 
force in Musalmdn and Mardthatimes.^ Under the Peshw^, jastioe, 
both civil and criminal, was administered by the revonuo offic«n, 
the pail'/, the mdmlatddrj and the ganubheddr, with the Peahwa or 
his miuiator as the highest coart of appeal.^ In civil cases tha 
officers were helped by councils, or pajichayats, of from two to twelve 
or more but nsoaUy £oar members, men in the same position in Ufa 
as the parties to tho caso, or able to forai a sensible opinion on 
the point in queetion. The pdtil first tried to settle tho dispute aa 
a fiiend of the parties. If he failed he called the council who 
inquired into the matter and gave their decision.^ If the compluinaat 

1 Grant DaflTt MarAthiis, 18, 19. 

* Mr. EJphinstono's Report, 25Ui October 1819. According to Dr. C^iaU, who wnrt* 
an 1819 from penioaal knowledgo, tUo aottlement of civil dupuUv wmc moat vvmpi 
under tho lost Peahwa. Cunning wu rftmpant, ahamelen dcnunda wen; made, •ad 
bribery wu a matter of coone. Still injastice "wai leH cumuitm tban mi^t b» 
expected. The temper of tho people was mild and the position of the pow«TfiU wm lO 
precarious that they could not afford to moke euemiee. When a poor mmn had a cUoi 
against a rich man he cxpectod delay but never despaired of sacoess. He threw hiawilf 
ooatinuaUy iu tho way of the great man and made liis case familiar to hia dopendenlL 
If he got no redress he threatened to destroy himself, a threat which alwi^s aotod 
powerfully on his opponent Trans. Bun). Lit. Soc. IL 289 (Reprint). 

' Dr. Coats gives (1819) the foUowiag details of the wtirking of the village 
oonncil or pancmi^ lyatem. Nu oath was rubiunisterod, but, before prpocedia g 
to try a cause, the members were remin'led of the punishment that awaited them 
in the next world if they aeted contrary to their consciences. If the pcnon who 
lost the suit thought the members had been influenced by bribes, ho bad the right to 
challenge them by some solomn ordeal. It was optional with tho disputants fee 
noniinttto the mombers or to leave the nomination to the Goremmeut, reserving the rishk 
of cliallcngo. When the Ooveramcnt chose the council, much indulgence waa shorn 
to all but otHcials. Private persons, who refused or foiled to attend, wore passed over 
as wronghcaded or mannerless. When the parties named the council, it waa usual, 
if the members required it, to ^to them their dinners during the iuTesiigation, On 
applying for jaatioe, the plaintiff waa called on to furnish a written atateiDrnt of his 
case, a written engagement from a pereon of property and ohamoter making himself 
reaponsible for the appearance of tne plaintiff and for aubmisaion to the award, his 
written proofs, a list of witnesses, and a declaration that ho had nothing further 
to adduce in support of his caose. The defendant was then Bummoued and required 
to tell bis story in writing, moke the same promiaea as the plaintiff had made, and to 
deposit a sum of money. When the memDera of the council met, the papers were 
handed to them, and tJiuy were told to decide tho caaae accordiug to justioe, Thb 
ooort waa open, unless tho council were appointed b^ Goveraraent, when it was either 
open or cloaed. Tho inveatigation begaa by reading tho dooamcnU to the plaintiff 



did not apply to the pdtilf or if he were refused a council, or if ho 
diaapproTed uf the council's decision, he went to the mam/a/ddr and 
then to the sarsuhheiidr. The last oflScer acted in the same manner 
as the pdtU, with the additioniil power *of being able to force the 
defendaut either to submit, to the council's decision or to satisfy 
the complainant. Unless for some gross injustice or suspicion of 
corruption, the superior authority would not revise the original 
decision, excnpt on the promise to pay a large sura into court. In 
some towns there was an officer called nydyddhUh who tried cases 
under the Peahwa's authority. Any other authorised person conld also 
conduct an investigation, the decision being subject to confirmation 
by the Peshwa. The decisions of the courts were sometimes carried 
oat by government and sometimes left to the plaintiff, who was 
allowed, under the name of takdza or duuuiug, to use what means he 
chose to compel thu defendant to pay. The means used varied from 
simple dunning to placing a guard over the defendaut, keeping him 
from eatings ^yiiiR ^i^ up hy the neck and heels, or sotting him in 
the sun with a heavy stone on his head. When government enforced 
payment of a debt it took very much the same steps as the plaintiff, 
or it arranged for the payment by instalments, or it sold the debtor's 

Sroperty, generally sparing his house and taking care not to bring 
im to ruin. Debtors were never kept in a public prison. They 
wore sometimes shut up or tortured by the creditor at his own house 
or in some other dwelling, and in other cases they were made to 
•erve the creditor till the amount of their nominal wages equalled 
the debt. 'ITie chief subjects of litigation were boundary disputes, 
division of property^ inheritance, and money debts. Among traders, 
honeat bankrupts were set free» but if fraud was detected full 
payment waa as far as possible enforced. 

Criminal justice, especially in the time of the last Peshwa, was 
irregular and corrupt. The right of punishing waa ill defined, and 
waa exercised by each officer according to his individual power and 
ieflaenoe. One j)rt<i7 would flog, fine, and put in the stocks, while 
ftnnthor would not venture even to imprison. The power of life and 
death was at first exercised by those only who were entrusted with 
the deputy's, or muidliki, seal, and by military chiefs in their 
camps and estates. In the latter days of Maratha rule capital 
powers were extended to the mdmlatddr and the sarauhheddr, who, 
without reference to higher authority^ could haug rebels and gang 

Chapter IX 


M&ritha SyvtOHJ 

1760 -lais. 

And defendant, and requiring them to acknowledge thMr correctneu^ or to make any 
ftltontion* they tbonght necesaary. It then prooeedud to a minute examination or 
juigry debate over each fact stated by tho pariiefi. When the council cuuld come to 
BO decision an umpire was c&Ued, or more members were summoned and the dit£oalt 
point re argtied. An abstract of the proceedings was recordwl lor the information 
of the GoveriuneDt, and. if the suit related to hereditary rights and to boundaries, 
a copy was deposited with the village or dutrici register for future reference. 
There wuru stn^ng checks aK^inst panMdya/deciMons being uUriu^ly unjust. Tho 
aurobers were all known and had on interest and often an honourable anxiety to 
«itabU«b a fair character. The nuestion waa generally familiar to the whole community 
and waa freely argued in the village. The elders and tboM whose intelligeuce waa 
respected were referred to by the members of the panchdfffxt. Any person might 
raggaet a question or make any observation that occurred tii him. The proceedings 
vere tarbolent, but they were perhJtpi calculated to get at the truth snd to give 
Mtisfaotion. Traoa. Bom. Lit. ^. II. 289 (Reprint). 

• ns9 

L Bombay OftMtUftr. 



Ouipter IX. 


Mtrithii Syirtflm. 


ed, I 

robbers. In disturbed districts, anlesa tbey conld pny for tketr 
release, Bbils migbt be banged simply on the score of notoriety. 
Tbe mode of proceeding, if the accused were professed thieves or 
old offenders, was summary and had something of a sanguinary 
character. It was always es^sential to conviction that the offender 
should confess bis guilt and the investigation turned much on this. 
The facts and evidence were all taJcondown in writing and from tinw 
to time persuasions and threats were used to obtain confession. If 
this failed, and there appeared little doubt of the guilt of the accust^l, 
he was fiogged and the chilly bag was put to his nose. If he persevered 
in his innocence he was sent back to prison, put in the stocks, and 
onl}' allowed a very scanty subsistence, and after an interval waa 
brought forward again to try to get him to confess. This referred 
chiefly to Bhils, Slangs, and persons of bad character. In other . 
cases the proceedings were conducted with more deliberation andS 
forbearance and there were probtibly few instances where thosaV 
entirely innocent were made to suffer. Persons accused of robbery 
and theft were readily admitted to bail if the surety made himself 
responsible for the lost propt»rty in case of conviction. Murder was 
not bailable, unless a compromise was made with the friends of tbe 
deceased. The accused might summon what evidence they pleased, 
but were not allowed to have any intercourse with their witnesses. 
Except in cases connected with religion, where divines, or ^hdttn 
were sometimes consulted, there would seem to have been 
reference to luws. Custom and expediency were the only rules.' 
To a great extent the nature and the amount of punishment 
depended on the criminal's caste. Murder, unless marked by 
special cruelty, was usually atoned by fine. Highway robbery, 
house-breaking, and state offences were generally punished with 
death by elephant-trampling, blowing from a gnn, banging, 
beheading, cutting to pieces, or crushing the head with a mallet, 
and hanging the bodies on road sides. Women were never ■ 
sentenced to death. The usual punishments were turning them out ■ 
of caste, parading them on an ass with their heads shaved, and ~ 
cutting off their noses and breasts. Brdhmans worthy of death, whom 
the feeling for their caste pi^evented from being openly slain or ■ 
subjected to any punishment considered ignominious, were destroyed ■ 
by poison or by unwholesome food, bread half salt and h«lf flour 
being often used. In less extreme cases the commoner punishments 
were, cutting off an arm or a leg, and shutting in hill forts and 
dungeons where the prisoners were often left to die of neglect or 
hunger. Flogging was the usual means for discovering st-olen 

froperty. Hard labour, especially in building forts, was commcn, 
ut like most ignominious punishments, it was confii^ to the lower 
orders. Fine and confiscation were the most usual sent«nce5. They 
were often inflicted for the benefit of the wavilaiddr, when no 
offence had been committed, and they often, both in murder and 
robbery cases, took the place of death when the nccused could pay 
well for his life. Pei-jury was punished by the perjurer being made 
to "^Ifce good the loss that depended on his false oath and to pay a 
f -government. Forgery, which according to the Hindu law 



it to be punished by cuttinp^ off the right hand, was also punished 
ne. For small offences BrAhinans were often merely reproved 
id ordered to dispense charities ood perform relij^ious penance, 
^part from disorders and gunjj robberies, almost all of which were 
le work of Bhils and other lawless tribes, offences were not parti- 
larly numerous. Araon^ Mardthds the commonest crime was 
irder, generally the result of jealousy or of disputes about land or 
llage rank. 

For ten years (1818-1827) after the British conquest, to pTerent 
idden and extensive changes, NAsik, with the rest of the Deccan, 
administered under the orders of the <30veruor in Council,^ 
Subject- to the Commissioner of Poona, a Collector and Political 
Agent was appointed to KhAndeah which included the northern, 
and another to Ahmadnngar which included the southern, half of 
jent district of N^sik. The authority of the Collectors and 
litical Agents closely resembled that of the Peshwa^s narsuhheddrs. 
Their instructions were scrupulously to keep old usages and 
customs, and to attempt no changes except such as were positively 
beoefieial both to the ruled and the rulers. The village council or 
pnnchd'jal system, which had been discontinued since the time of 
Peshwa MadhavrAv II. (1774-1796), was revived, and the council 
entrusted with jurisdiction in suits of £100 (Ra. lOOQ) and under. 
From the council's awards an appeal lay 6rst to the Collector and then 
to the Commissioner. The system was well fitted to secure epeedy, 
cheap, and ready redreas. But there was no power to farce the 
members to serve, or to secure the attendance of the parties and 
witnesses. The delays caused by this want of power led to bri