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Full text of "The general biographical dictionary. Revised by A. Chalmers"

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THE GENERAL 



BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



A NEW EDITION. 



VOL. XVIIL 



THE GENERAL 

BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY: 

CONTAINING 
AN HISTORICAL AND CRITICAL ACCOUNT 

OF fU 

LIVES AND WRITINGS 

OF' THE 

MOST EMINENT PERSONS 

IN EVERY NATION; 

PARTICULARLY THE BRITISH AND IRISH; 
FROM THE EARLIEST ACCOUNTS TO THE PRESENT TIME. 



A NEW EDITION, 

REVISED AND ENLARGED BY 

ALEXANDER CHALMERS, F. S. A. 



VOL. XVIII. 



LONDON: 

PRINTED FOR J. NICHOLS AND SON; F. C. AND J. RIFINGTON } T. PAYNE ( 
OTRIDGE AND SON ; G. AND W. NICOL ; WILKIE AND ROBINSON l J. WALKER ; 
R. LEA ; W. LOWNDES ; WHITE, COCHRANE, AND CO. ; T. EGERTON ; 
LACKINGTON, ALLEN, jlND CO.; J. CARPENTER; LONGMAN, HURST, REE8, 
ORME, AND BROWN; CADBLL AND DA VIES ; C. LAW ; J. BOOKER ; J. CUTHELL ; 
CLARKE AND SONS ; J. AND A. ARCH ; J. HARRIS ; BLACK, PARRY, AND CO. ; 
J. BOOTH; J. MAWMAN; GALE, CURTIS, AND FENNER; R. H. EVANS; 
J. HATCHARD; J. MURRAY; R. BALDWIN; CRADOCK AND JOY; E. BENTLEY ; 
J. FAULDER ; OGLE AND CO.; W. GINGER j J. DEIGHTOH AND SON, CAMBRIDOE| 
CONSTABLE AND CO. EDINBURGH; AND WILSON AND SON^ YORK. 

1814. 



A NEW AND GENERAL 



BIOGRAPHICAL DICTIONARY. 



&J-OARE (William), an iogenious and amiable English 
artist, was born about the year 1707, at Eye, near Ipswich", 
in Suffolk. His father was possessed of considerable pro- 
perty, holding a farm of large extent in bis own bands. 
William shewing very early a disposition to study, was sent 
to a school at Fariogdon in Berkshire, where the master 
enjoyed a high reputation for classical learning. The pupil , 
eagerly availed himself of e^^i^.'^J7portunity of improve- 
ment, and in the course of^'ii^ f^fiyt^^ attained such a 
degree of proBciency as to asi^ist. his teiaster occasionally in 
the tuition of the other scb,Q)^r^^-^To these acquirements 
he added no indifferent skiil^^'^^^ing^ which was also 
taught in the school; and.&^V^on.j^istinguished himself 
above his competitors in the, prize exhibitions, which took 
place once a year. Indulging the bent of his mind to this 
art, be solicited and obtained his father's permission to 
follow his studies in painting with a professional view. For 
this purpose, after having completed the school courses 
with great credit to himself, be was removed to Londoup 
where he was placed under the care of Grisooi, an Italian 
painter of history, the best, and perhaps the only one^ 
which that time afforded. Grisoni, however, was at the 
best a very poor painter, and the example of his works 
was little calculated to produce eminence in his scholar. 
But he was a man of sound judgment and benevolent dis- 
position, and it is probable that the sense; of his own in- 
sufficiency induced him to persuade young William to 
seek a more satisfactory guidance in the pursuit to which 
be devoted himself so earnestly. The schools of Italy 
appeared to him the place to which a learner should resort 
for the means of accomplishment in his art. Wiliiam 
. Vol. XVIir. B 



2 H O A R E. 

caught the suggestion with eagerness, and the father's per* 
mission was again earnestly sought, for visiting the foreign 
treasures of painting and sculpture, which were then 
known to the Eoglish only through the communications of 
such of our gentlemen and nobility as travelled on the 
continent for the purposes of polite accomplishment.' Wil- 
liam Hoare was the first English paipter who visited Rome 
for professional study. 

At the time of his departure from London he had formed 
a friendship with Scheemackers, the celebrated Flemish 
sculptor, and with Delvaux, his pupil, who were both on 
their way to Rome, and on his arrival at that city he has- 
tened to rejoin them, and lodged in the same house With 
them. His next care was to place himself in^ the school of 
Francesco Imperiale, the disciple of Carlo Maratti, and 
the most eminent master then living. In this school he 
was a fellow- student with Pompeo Battoni, with whom be 
maintained through life a cordial friendship, and with 
others of the same profession. Here he acquired a tho« 
rough knowledge of all that could be taught in his art, and 
a perfect acquaintance with the system and method of study 
adopted in the Roman school ever since the time of Raf- 
faelle ; to which method he at all times adhered in the 
execution of historical works. 

Under the direction of Imperiale, Mr. Hoare made many 
copies from the most celebrated works of the great painters 
in the Ronian palaces ; a circumstance which became of 
great utility to him in a very different manner from that 
which was intended ; for the circumstances of his family 
having been unfortunately impaired by the explosion of the 
South Sea adventure^ he now found it necessary to turn 
the skill he had gained to a provision for his own mainte- 
nance. This was no difficult task, and he continued his 
studies at Rome for the term of nine years, when he finally 
returned to London, bringing with him the few copies of 
the finest works which he had been able to preserve for 
himself, and the most enthusiastic feelings in regard of 
his art. 

" In London the young painter looked around in vain for 
the encouragement which he had hoped to find in the his* 
torical department of his profession ; and the impoverished 
state of his family not allowing him any alternative, he 
immediately resorted to portrait-painting, in which, from 
his superior talents^ he was sure to find an unfailing re« 



H O A R E. 3 

source. In this situation of his circumstances he formed 
a matrimonial engagement with a yonng lady of the name 
of Barker, between whose relations and his own there had 
long subsisted the most cordial intimacy, arising from 
mutual respect. Among the connexions of Miss Barker's 
family were some who were established at Bath, and 
Mr. Hoare soon received an invitation to settle at that city, 
where, as there was no person of any eminence in bis 
profession, he might reasonably look to the highest pro- 
spects of success. He accordingly accepted the invitation, 
and fully realized the expectations of his friends in every 
point. His painting-room was the resort of all that could 
boast the attractions either of beauty or fashion ; and the 
number of his sitters was for a long time so great, as 
scarcely to allow him a momentary interval of relaxation, 
much less sufficient leisure for such an attention to the 
higher performances of his art as formed the constant 
object of his wishes; 

His eminent success in his portraits brought to his gal- 
Jery all the distinguished characters of the time, who oc- 
casionally visited Bath for health or pleasure ; among whom 
were Mr. Pitt, the Duke of Newcastle, Mr. Legge, Mr. 
Grenville, Lord Chesterfield, &c. &c. and his acquaint- 
ance with them was improved into friendship on their part, 
by the variety of his learning, the amenity of his manners, 
the ingenuousness of his mind, and the high respectability 
of his domestic establishment. To the list of his friends 
and patrons were soon added the virtuous Allen, and his 
learned nephew-in-law, Warburton ; and Mr. Allen's house, 
where be was always a welcome visitor, gave him also an 
introduction to Pope, and other distinguished inmates of 
Prior- park. 

In the midst of such society and such success, life might 
have been passed with sufficient enjoyment and ease; but 
the indulgences attendant on so prosperous a career did 
not diminish his ardour for higher excellence in his art : he 
made a voluntary offer of an altar-piece to the church of 
St. Michael, and his otFer being accepted, he paintei 
for it a figure larger than life, of our Saviour holding 
•a cross, which now occupies one side of the wall of the 
ehaocel. ' 

On the btifilding of the octagon chapel, he received an 
application from the proprietors to paint a large altar-piece 
for their church, leaving the subject entirely to his owp 

B 2 



4 H O A R E. 

decision. He chose the appropriate subject of the Poof 
of Bethesda, and found in it the long wisbed-for oppor- 
tunity of displaying bis knowledge of historical composition 
and character. The picture forms one of the principal 
ornaments of the chapel. 

It should be noticed, that in an early part of his success* 
ful practice at Bath, finding a general desire prevailing for 
pictures in crayons, he sent an order to Kosalba, the cele- 
brated Venetian paintress, for two beads of fancy painted 
in that manner, and he received from that eminent mistress 
of her art two of her most studied performances ; the one 
" Apollo with his lyre," the other " A Nymph crowned 
with vernal flowers/' These beautiful works became the 
models of the Bath painter in his first efibrts in crayons, 
in which mode of painting he afterwards carried the practice 
of the art to so high a degree as to be scarcely excelled by 
Rosalba herself. On the formation of the Royal Academy 
in London, his long>establisbed reputation secured him 
an election among its original members, and he was a 
constant exhibitor for many years. 

During this long course of professional industry, be had . 
shewn himself a no less diligent guardian of a numerous 
family. At an early period of its increase he maintained 
a regular correspondence on the subject of '^ parental 
duties" with Mr. Chandler, a brother of the dissenting 
minister of that name, and distinguished among his friends 
for the integrity of his mind and conduct. Many of these 
letters and replies still exist. He extended to all his 
children the most unwearied attention, and bestowed on 
them every advantage of education which Bath could sup- 
ply. He expended on them all that his long life of dili- 
gence had amassed, and left them, at his death, which 
happened in 1792, scarcely any other possessions than the 
remembrance of his virtues and his useful labours. 

He retained the vigour of health and the strength 
of his mind till a few years previous to his dissolution. 
There is a copy of Guido's "Aurora," painted by him (the 
figures nearly as large as life) when he was upwards of 
seventy years of age. The picture is finished with great 
^ firmness and precision of pencil.* 

HOBBES, or HOBBS (Thomas), an eminent English 
philosopher and miscellaneous writer, was born at Malms- 
bury in Wiltshire, April 5, 153S, his father being minister 

I From information obligingly eommonicatfld by hig son, Prince Roare, esq. 
foreign secretary to the Royal Academyi 



H O B B E S. 5 

of that town. The Spanish Armada was then upon the 
coast of England ; and bis mother is said to have been so 
alarmed on that occasion, that she was brought to bed of 
hjm before her time. After having made a considerable 
progress in the learned languages at school, he was sent, in 
1603, to Mag^alen-hall, Oxford; and, in 1608, by the 
recommendation of the principal, taken into the family of 
the right honourable William Cavendish lord Hardwicke, 
soon after created earl of Devonshire, as tutor to his son 
William lord Cavendish. Hobbes ingratiated himself so 
^effectually with this young nobleman, and with the peer 
his father, that he was sent abroad with him on his travels 
in 16 1 0, and made the tour of France and Italy. Upon 
his return with lord Cavendish, he became known to per- 
sons of the highest rank, and eminently distinguished for. 
their abilities and lean^ing. The chancellor Bacon ad- 
mitted him to a great degree of familiarity^ and is said to 
have made use of bis pen for translating some of his works 
into Latin. He was likewise much in favour with lord 
Herbert of Cherbury ; and the celebrated Ben Jonson had 
such an esteem for him, that he revised the first work which 
he published, viz. his " English Translation of the History 
of Thucydides.'' This Hobbes undertook, as he tells us 
himself, '^ with an honest view of preventing, if possible, 
those disturbances in which he was apprehensive his coun- 
try would be involved, by shewing, in the history of the 
Peloponnesian war, the fatal donsequences of intestine 
troubles." This has always been esteemed one of the best 
translations that we have of any Greek writer, and the 
author himself superintended the maps and indexes. But 
while he meditated this design, his patron, the earl of 
Devonshire, died in 1626; and in 1628, the year his work 
was publishcid, his son died also. This loss affected him 
to such a degree, that he i^ry willingly accepted an offer 
of going abroad a second time with the son of sir Gervase 
Clifton, whom he accordingly accompanied into France, 
and staid there some time. Bu( while he continued there 
be was solicited to return to England, and to resume his 
concern for the hopes pf that family, to which he had 
attached himself so early, and owed many and great 
obligations. 

In 1631, the countess dowager of Devonshire was de- 
sirous of placing the young earl under his care, who was 
then about the age of thirteen ; a trust very suitable to his 



6 H O B B E S. 

inclinations, and which he discharged with great fidelity 
and diligence. In 1634 he republished his translation of 
Thucydides, and prefixed to it a dedication to that young 
nobleman, in which he gives a high character of his father, 
^nd represents in the strongest terms his obligations to that 
illustrious family. The same year he accompanied his noble 
pupil to Paris, where he applied his vacant hours to natural 
philosophy, especially mechanism, and the causes of animal 
motion. He had frequent conversations upon these sub- 
jects with father Mersenne, a man deservedly famous, who 
kept up a correspondence with almost all the learned in 
Europe. From Paris he attended his pupil into Italy, and 
at Pisa became known to Galileoj who communicated to 
him his notions very freely. After having seen all that was 
remarkable in that country, he returned in 1637 with the 
earl of Devonshire into England. The troubles in Scot- 
land now grew high, and began to spread themselves south- 
ward, and to threaten disturbance throughout the kingdom. 
Hobbes, seeing this, thought he might do good service by 
composing something by way of antidote to the pestilential 
opinions which- then prevailed. This engaged him to com- 
mit to paper certain principles, observations, and remarks, 
out of which he composed his book ** De Give," and which, 
grew up afterwards into that system which be called hi* 
** Leviathan." 

Not long after the meeting of the long parliament, 
Nov. 3, 1640, when all things fell into confusion, he with- 
drew, for the sake of living in quiet, to Paris ; where he 
associated himself with those learned men, who, under the 
protection of Cardinal Richelieu, sought, by conferring 
their notions together, to promote every kind of useful 
knowledge. He had not been long there, when by the 
good offices of his friend Mersenne, he became known to 
Pes Cartes, and afterwards held a correspondence with 
him upon mathematical subjects, as appears from the letters 
of Hobbes published in the works 6f Des Cartes. But 
when that philosopher printed afterwards his '^Meditajtions,** 
in which he attempted to establish points of the highest 
consequence from innate ideas, Hobbes took the liberty of 
dissenting from him; as did also Gassendi, with whom 
Hobbes contracted a very close friendship, which was not 
interrupted till the death of the former. In 1642, he 
printed a few copies of his book ^^ De Cive,'' which raised 
him many adversaries, by whom he was charged with in« 



H O B B £ a 7 

stilling principles of a dangerous tendency. Immediately 
after the appearance of this book, Des Cartes said of it to 
a friend, *^ I am of opinion that the author of the book * De 
Give,' is the same person who wrote the third objection 
against my ' Meditations.' I think bim a mucb greater 
master of morality, than of metaphysics or natural philo- 
sophy ; though I can by no means approve of his principles 
or maxims, which are very bad and extremely dangerous, 
because they suppose al^ men to be wicked, or give them 
occasion to be so. His whole design is to write in favour 
of monarchy, which might be done to moi*e advantage than 
he has done, upon maxims more virtuous and solid. * He 
has wrote likewise greatly to the disadvantage of the church 
and the Roman catholic religion, so that if he is not par* 
ticularly supported by some powerful interest, I do not see 
how he can escape having his book censured." The learned 
Conringius censures him very severely for boasting, in 
regard to this performance, " that though physics were a 
new science, yet civil philosophy w^s still newer, since it 
could not be styled older than bis book * De Give ;' where- 
as,'' says Gonringius, ^^ there is nothing good in that work 
of his that was not always known." But vanity ^as 
throughout life a prevailing foible with Hobbes. 

Among many illustrious persons who upon the shipwreck 
of the royal cause retired to France for safety,/ was sir 
Charles Cavendish, brother to the duke of Newcastle, who, 
being skilled in every branch of mathematics, proved a 
constant friend and patron to Hobbes : and Hobbes him- 
self, by embarking, in 1645, in a controversy about .the 
quadrature of the circle, became so celebrated, although 
certainly undeservedly as a mathematician, that, in 1^647, 
he was recommended to instruct Charles prince of Wales, 
afterwards Charles II. in that branch of study. His care 
in the discharge of this of&ce gained him the esteem of that 
prince in a very great degree : and though he afterwards 
withdrew his public favour from Hobbes on account of his 
writings, yet he always retained a sense of the services he 
had done him, shewed him various marks of his favour 
after he was restored to his dominions, and, as some say, 
bad his picture hanging in his closet. This year also was 
printed in Holland, by the care of M. Sorbiere, a second 
and more complete edition of his book *^ De Cive," to 
which are prefixed two Latin letters to the editor, one by 
Gassendi, the other by Mersenne, in commendation of it. 



8 H O B B E S. 

While Hobbeswas thus employed at Paris, he was attacked 
by a violent fit of illness, which brought him so low that 
his friends began to despair of his recovery. Among those 
^wbo visited him in this weak condition was his friend Mer* 
'senne, who, taking this for a favourable opportunity, began, 
after a few general compliments of condolence, to mention 
the power of the church of Rome to forgive sins ; but 
Hobbes immediately replied, *^ Father, all these matters I 
have debated with myself long ago. Such kind of business 
would be troublesome to me now ; and you can entertain 
hie on subjects more agreeable; when did you see Mr. 
Gassendi?'* Mersenne easily understood his meaning, 
and, without troubling him any farther, suffered the con- 
versation, to turn upon general topics. Yet some days 
afterwards, when Dr.Cosin, afterwards bishop of Durham, 
came to pray with him, he very readily accepted the pro- 
posal, and received the sacrament at his hands, according 
to the forms appointed by the church of £ngland. 

In 1650 was published at London a small treatise by 
Hobbes entitled " Human Nature," and another, " De cor- 
pore politico, or, of the Elements of the Law." The latter 
was presented to Gassendi, and read by him a few months 
before his death ; who is said first to have kissed it, and 
then to have delivered his opinion of it in these words: 
** This treatise is indeed small in bulk, but in my judgment 
the very marrow of science." All this time Hobbes had 
been digesting with great pains his religious, political, and 
moral principles into a complete system, which he callejd 
the '^ Leviathan," and which was printed in English at 
London in that and the year following. He caused a copy 
of it, very fairly written on vellum *, to be presented to 
Charles II. ; but after that monarch was informed that the 
English divines considered it as a book tending to subvert 
both religion and civil government, he is said to have with- 
drawn his countenance from the author, and by the marquis 
of Ormond to have forbidden him to come into his presence. 
After the publication of his " Leviathan," Hobbes returned 
to England, and passed the summer commonly at his pa- 
tron the earl of Devonshire's seat in Derbyshire, and his 

* This copy appears to be now in How it came there has not been dis* 
the library of the late eart of Macart- covered. l*he library is now in the 
.ney, at Lissanoure in Ireland, if the possession of a lady, the late earl's re- 
one very accurately described by tbe presentative, who probably knew little 
Rev. W. H. Pratt, in the Gentleman's of its history. 
MagaEtne for January 1S13, p. 30. 



.% 



H O B B E S. 

winters in town; where he had for his intimate friends 
some of the greatest men of the age ; such as Dr. Harvey, 
Selden, Cowley, &c. In 1654, he published his ^ Letter 
upon Liberty and Necessity,*' which occasioned a long 
controversy between him and Bramhall, bishop of Lon* 
donderry. About this time he began the controversy with 
WalUs, the mathematical professor at Oxford, which lasted 
as long as Hobbes lived, and in which he had the misfor* 
tune to have all the mathematicians against him. It is in- 
deed said, that he came too late to this study to excel in it ; 
and that though for a time he maintained his credit, while 
he was content to proceed in the same track with others, 
and to reason in the accustomed manner from the established 
principles of the science, yet when he began to.digress into 
new paths, and set up for a reformer, inventor, and im« 
prover of geometry, he lost himsdf extremely. But not- 
withstanding these debates took up much of his time, yet 
he published several philosophical treatises in Latin. 

Such were his occupations till 1660, when upon the king's 
restoration he quitted the country, and came up to London. 
He was at Salisbury-house with his patron, when the ..king 
passing by one day accidentally saw him. He sent; for 
him, gave him his hand to kiss, inquired kindly after his 
health and circumstances ; and some time after directed 
Cooper, the celebrated miniature-painter, to take his por« 
trait. His m^esty likewise afforded him another private 
audience, spoke to him very kindly, assured him of his 
protection, and settled a pension upon him of 100/. per 
annum out of his privy purse. Yet this did not render 
him entirely safe; for, in 1666, his ^^ Leviathan," and 
treatise '^ De Cive," were censured by parliament, which 
alarmed him much ; as did also the bringing of a bill into 
the House of commons to punish atheism and profaneness. 
When this storm was a little blown over, he began to think 
of procuring a beautiful edition of his pieces that were in 
Latin ; but finding this impracticable in England, he 
caused it to be undertaken abroad, where they vret^ pub- 
lished in 1668, 4to, from the press of John Blean. In 
1669, he was visited by Cosmo de Medicis, then prince, 
afterwards duke of Tuscany, who gave him ample marks 
.of his esteem ; and having received his picture, and a corn* 
plete collection of his writings, caused them to be depo- 
sited, the former among his curiosities, the latter in his 
library at Florence. Similar visits he received from several 



»o HO B B E S. 

foreign ambassadors, and other strangers of distinction i 
who. were curious to see a person, whose singular opinions 
and numerous writings had made so much noise ail over 
Europe. In 1672, he wrote his own Life in Latin verse, 
when, as he observes, he had completed bis eighty-fourth 
year: and, in 1674, he published in English verse four 
books of Homer's ** Odyssey," which were so well re- 
ceived, that it encouraged him to undertake the whole 
** Iliad" and " Odyssey," which he likewise performed, 
and published in 167,5. These were not the first speci- 
mens of his poetic genius which he had given to the 
public : he had published many years before, about 1637, 
a Latin poem, entitled ^« De Mirabilibus Pecci, or, Of the 
Wonders of the Peak." But his poetry is below criticism, 
and has been long exploded*. In 1674, he took his leave 
of London, and went to spend the remainder of his days 
in Derbyshire; where, however, he did not remain in- 
active, notwithstanding his advanced age, but published 
from time to time sev^eral pieces to be found in the collec- 
tion of his works, namely, in 1676, his << Dispute with 
Laney bishop of Ely, concerning Liberty and Necessity ;" 
in 1678, his " Decameron Physiologicum, or. Ten Dia- 
logues of Natural Philosophy ;" to which he added a book, 
entitled ^* A Dialogue between a Philosopher and a Stu* 
dent of the Common Law of England." June 1679, he 
sent another book, entitled ^'Behemoth, or, A History, of 
the Civil Wars from 1640 to 1660," to an eminent book- 
seller, with a letter setting forth the reasons for his com- 
munication of it, as well as for the request he then made, 
that he would not publish it till a proper occasion offered. 
' The book, however, was published as soon as he was dead^ 
and the letter along with it ; of which we shall give a cu- 
rious extract : — ** I would fain have published my Dia- 
logue of the Civil Wars of England long ago, and to that 
end I presented it to his majesty ; and some days after^ 

* ^* Hobb«f could construe a Greek gance, or energy of stylci he bad no 
author ; but bis skill ia words must manner , of conception. And hence 
hare been all derived from the dictio- that work, though called a translation 
nary ; for be seems not to have known, of Homer, does not e?en desarve the 
that any one articulate sound could name of poem ; because it is in every 
be more agreeable, or any one phrase respect unpleasing, being nothing more 
more dignified, than any other. In than a fictitious narrative delivered ia 
bis Iliad and Odyssey, even when he mens prose, with tbe additiaaal mean- 
hits the author's sense (which is not ness of harsh rhime, and untuneable 
always the case)^ he proves by his measure.'* Seattle's Bssay on Poetry 
<|feaiM of wordS) that of hanDOny^ ele- wid Music. 



H O B B E S* 11 

tiiieo I thought be had read it, I humbly besought him to 
let me print it. But his majesty, though he beard m^gm^ 
ciously, yet he flatly refused to have it published ; there- 
fore I brought away the book, and gave you leave to take 
a copy of it ; which vfhetk you had done, I gave the ori* 
gioal to an honourable and learned friend, who about « 
year after died* The king knows better, and is more 
concerned in publishing of books than I am; and therefore 
I dare not venture to appear in the business, lest I should 
offend him. Therefore I pray you not to meddle in the 
business. Rather than to be thought any way to further 
or countenance, the printing, I would be content to lose 
twenty times the value of what you can expect to gain by 
it I pray do not take it ill ; it may be I may live to send 
you somewhat else as vendible as that, and without offence. 
I am, &c.'' However he did not live to send his book- 
seller any thing more, this being his last piece. It is ia 
dialogue, and full of paradoxes, like all his other writings. 
More philosophical, political, says Warburton, or any thing 
rather than historical, yet full of shrewd observations. In 
October following, he was afflicted with a suppression of 
urine; and his physician plainly told him, that he bad 
little hopes of curing him. In November, the earl of De- 
vonshire removing from Chatsworth to another seat called 
Hardwick, Hobbes obstinately persisted in desiring that he 
might be carried too, though this could no way be done 
but by laying him upon a feather-bed. He was not much 
discomposed with his journey, yet within a week after 
lost, by a stroke. of the palsy, the use of his speech, and 
of his right side entirely ; in which condition he remained 
for some days, taking little nourishment, and sleeping 
much, sometimes endeavouring to speak, but not being 
aible. He died Dec* 4, 1679^, in his ninety- second year. 
Wood tells us, that after his physician gave him no hopes 
of a cure, he said, *^ Then I shall be glad to find a hole to 
creep out of the world at.'' He observes also, that his not 
desiring a minister, to receive the sacrament before he 
died, ought in charity- to be imputed to his. being so sud-« 
denly seized^ and afterwaixls deprived of his senses ; the 
rather^ because the earl of Devonshire's chaplain declared, 
that ifvithin the two last* years of his life he bad often re* 
ceived the sacrament from his hands with seeming devotion. 
His character and manners are thus described by Dr. 
White Kennety in hb *< Memoirs' of the Cavendish F«mfly ;'* 



12 ROBBED. 

1' 

** The carl of Devonshire," says be, " for his whole life 
entertained Mr. Hobbes in his family, as bis old tutor 
rather than as his friend or confidant. He let him live 
under his roof in ease and plenty, and in his own way, 
without making use of him in any public, or so much as 
domestic affairs. He would' often express an abhorrence 
of some of his principles in policy and religion ; and both 
be and his lady would frequently put oif the mention of 
bis name, and say, ' he was a humourist, and nobody could 
account for. him.' There is a tradition in the family of the 
manners and customs of Mr. Hobbes somewhat observable. 
His professed rule of health was to dedicate the morning 
to his exercise, and the afternoon to his studies. At his 
first rising, therefore, he walked out, and climbed any hill 
within his reach; or, if the weather was not dry, he fa* 
tigued himself within doors by some exercise or other, to 
be in a sweat : recommending that practice uppn this opi- 
nion, that an bid man had more moisture than heat, and 
therefore by such motion heat was to be acquired, and 
moisture expelled. After this he took a comfortable 
breakfast; and then went round the lodgings to wait upon 
^he earl, the countess, and the children, and any consider- 
able strangers, paying some short addresses to all of them. 
He kept these rounds till about twelve o^cIock, when he 
bad a little dinner provided for him, which be eat always 
by himself without ceremony. Soon after dinner he re- 
tired to his study, and had bis candle with ten or twelve 
pipes of tobacco laid by him ; then shutting bis door, he 
fell to smoaking, thinking, and writing for several hours. 
He retained a friend or two at court, and especially the lord 
Arlington, tq protect him if occasion should require. He 
used to say, that it was lawful to make pse of ill instru- 
ments to do ourselves good : ' If I were cast,* says he, 
^ into a deep pit, and the devil should put down his cloven 
foot, I would take hold of it to be drawn out by it.'. To« 
wards the end of his life be had very few books, and those 
he read but very little ; thinking he was now able only to 
digest what he bad fornxerly fed upon. If company came 
to visit him, he would be free in discourse till he was 
pressed or contradicted ; and then he had the infirmities 
of being short and peevish, and referring to his writings 
for better satisfaction. His friends, who had the liberty 
of introducing strangers to him, made these terms with 
them before their admbsion, that they should not dispute 
with the old man, nor contradict him.'' 



H O B B E S: 13 

After mentioning the apprehensions Hobbes was under, 
when the parliament censured his book, and the methods 
he took to escape persecution, Dr. Kennet adds, '* It is 
not much to be doubted, that upon this occasion he began 
to make a more open shew of religion and church commu- 
nion. He now frequented the chapel, joined in the ser« 
▼ice, and was generally a partaker of the holy sacrament : 
and whenever any strangers in conversation with him 
seemed to question his belief, he would always appeal to 
his conformity in divine services, and referred them to the 
chaplain for a testimony of it. Others thought it a mere 
compliance to the orders of the family, and observed, that 
io city and country he never went to any parish church ; 
and even in the chapel upon Sundays, he weYit out after 
prayers, and turned his back upon the sdrmon ; and when 
any friend asked the reason of it, he gave no other but this, 
* they could teach him nothing, but what he knew.* He 
did not conceal his hatred to the clergy ; but it was visible 
that the hatred was owing to his fear of their civil interest 
and power. He had often a jealousy, that the bishops 
would burn him : and of all the bench he was most afraid 
of the bishop of Sarum, because he had most offended him ; 
thinking every man's spirit to be remembrance and re- 
venge. After the Restoration, he watched all opportuni- 
ties to ingratiate himself with the king and his prime mi- 
nisters ; and looked upon his pension to be more valuable, 
as an earnest of fevour and protection, than upon any other 
account. His following course of life was to be free from 
danger. He could not endure to be left in an empty 
bouse. Whenever the earl removed, he would go along 
with him, even to his last stage, from Ch^tsworth to Hard- 
wick. When he was in a very weak condition, he dared 
not to be left behind, but made his way upon a feather-bed 
in a coach', though he survived the journey but a few days. 
He could not bear any discourse of death, and seemed to 
cast off all thoughts of it : he delighted to reckon upon 
longer life. The winter before he died, he made a warm 
coat, which he said must last him three years, and then 
be would have such another. In his last sickness his fre- 
quent questions were. Whether his disease was curable? 
and when ihtimations were given that be might have ease, 
but no remedy, he used this expression, * I shall be glad 
to find a bole to creep out of the world at ;* which are re« 
ported to have been his last sensible words i and his lying 



14 H O B B £ S; 

some days following in a silent stupefaction^ did seem 
owing to his mind more than to his body. The only thought 
of c^eath that he appeared to entertain in time of health, 
was to take care of some inscription on his grave. He 
would suffer some friends to dictate an epitaph, among 
which he was best pleased with this humour, * This is the 
philosopher's stone'." A pun very probaUy from the band 
which wrote for Dr. Fuller, "Here lies Fuller's earth." 

After this account of Hobbes, which, though undoubt- 
edly true in the main, may be thought too strongly co- 
loured, it will be but justice, to subjoin what lord Claren- 
don has said of him. This noble person, during his banish- 
ment, wrote a book in 1670, which was printed six years 
after at Oxford with this title, ** A brief View of the dan- 
gerous and pernicious Errors to Church and State in Mr, 
Hobbes's book entitled Leviathan." In the introduction 
the earl observes, that Mr. Hobbes's " Leviathan" " con- 
tains in it good learning of all kinds, politely extracted, 
and very wittily and cunningly digested in a very com- 
mendable, and in a vigorous and pleasant style : and that 
Mr. Hobbes'himself was a man of excellent parts, of great 
wit, some reading, and somewhat more thinking ; one who 
has spent many years in foreign parts and observations ; 
understands the learned as well as the modern languages ; 
bath long had the reputation of a great philosopher and 
mathematician ; and in his age bath bad conversation with 
very many worthy and extraordinary men : to which it may 
be, if he had been more indulgent in the more vigorous 
part of his life, it might have had greater infiuence upon 
the temper of his mind ; whereas age seldom submits ta 
those questions, inquiries, and contradictions, wbicb the 
laws and liberty of conversation require. And it hath been 
always a lamentation among Mr. Hobbes's friends, that he 
spent too much time in thinking, and too little in exer- 
cising those thoughts in the company of other men of the 
same, or of as good faculties ; for want whereof his natu- 
ral constitution, with age, contracted such a morosity^ 
that doubting and contradicting men were never grateful to 
Jiim. ' In a word,. Mr. Hobbes is one of the most ancient 
acquaintance I have in the world; and of whom I have 
always had a great esteem, as a man, who, besides hia 
eminent parts, learning, and knowledge, bath been always 
looked upon as a man of probity, and of a life free from 
scandal." 



H O B B £ S. IS 

Tbeie have been few personsj whose writings have had 
a more pernicious influence in spreading irreligion and in* 
fidelity than those of Hobbes; and yet none of his trea* 
Uses are directly levelled against revealed religion. He 
sometimes affects to speak witb veneration of the. sacred 
writings, and expressly declares, that though the laws of 
nature are not laws as they proceed from nature, yet ^^ as 
they are given by God in Holy Scripture, they are properly 
called laws ; for the Holy Scripture is the voice of God, 
ruling all things by the greatest right ^.'' But though he 
seems here to make the laws of Scripture the laws of God, 
and to derive their force from his supreme authorityi yet 
elsewhere he supposes them to have no authority, but what 
they derive from the prince or civil power. He sometimes 
seems to acknowledge inspiration to be a supernatural gift, 
and the immediate hand of God : at other times he treats 
the pretence to it as a sign ^of madness, and represents 
God's speaking to the prophets in a dream, to be no more 
than the prophets dreaming that God spake unto them. 
He asserts, that we have no assurance of the certainty of 
Scripture but the authority of the church f, and this he 
resolves into the authority of the commonwealth ; and de- 
clares, that till the sovereign ruler had prescribed them, 
'^the precepts of Scripture were not obligatory laws, but 
only counsel or advice, which he that was counselled might 
without injustice refuse to observe, and being contrary to 
the laws coold not without injustice observe ;'' that the word 
of the interpreter of Scripture is the wprd of God, and that 
the sovereign magistrate is the interpreter of Scripture^ 
and of all doctrines, to whose authority we must stand. 
Nay, be carries it so far as to pronounce ]:, that Christians 
are abound in conscience to obey the laws of an iu6del king 
is matters of religion ; that ^< thought is free, but when it 
comes to confession of faith, the private reason must sub- 
mit to the public, that is to say, to God's lieutenant." Ac- 
cordingly he allows the subject, being commanded by the 
sovereign, to deny Christ in words, holding the faith of 
him firmly in bis heart ; it being in this *^ not he, that 
denieth Chdst before men, but bis governor and the laws 
of bis country.'' In the mean time he acknowledges the 
existence of God§, and that we must of necessity ascribe 

4 

* De Cire^ c iii. s. 33. "{ Be Give, c. 17. LsTiathan, pp. 169, 

t teviathao, p. 196. 283, 284. 

4 LeriatbaD, pp. 238, 872. 



16 H O B B E S. 

the effects we behold to the eternal power of all powers^ 
and cause of all causes ; and he reproaches those as ab-*' 
surd, who call the world, or the soul of the world, God* 
But then he denies that we know any thing more of him 
than that he exists, and seems plainly to make him corpo- 
real ; for he affirms, that whatever is not body is nothing 
at all. And though he sometimes seems to acknowledge 
religion and its obligations, and that there is an honour 
and worship due to God ; prayer, thanksgivings, oblations, 
&c. yet he advances principles, which evidently tend to 
subvert all religion. The account he gives of it is this, 
that '^ from the fear of power invisible, feigned by the 
mind, or imagined from tales, publicly allowed, ariseth 
religion ; not allowed, superstition :" and he resolves reli- 
gion into things which he himself derides, namely, ^^ opi« 
nions of ghosts, ignorance of second causes, devotion to 
what men fear, and taking of things casual for prognos- 
tics." He takes pains in many places to prove man a 
necessary agent, and openly derides the doctrine of a fu- 
ture state : for he says, that the belief of a future state 
after death, *^ is a belief grounded upon other men's say- 
ing, that they knew it supernaturally ; or, that they knew 
those, that knew them, that knew others that knew it su- 
pernaturally.'' But jt is not revealed religion only, of 
which Hobbes makes light ; he goes farther, as will ap* 
pear by running over a few more of his maxims. He as-< 
serts, *^ that, by the law of nature,. every man hath a right, 
to all things, and over all persons ; and that the natural 
condition of man is a state of war, a war of all men against 
all men : that there is no way so reasonable for any man, 
as by force or wiles to gain a mastery over all other per- 
sons that be can, till he sees no other power strong enough 
to endanger him : that the civil laws are the only rules of 
good and evil, just and unjust, honest and dishonest ; and 
that, antecedently to such laws, every action is in its own 
nature indifferent ; that there is nothing good or evil in 
itself, nor any common laws constituting what is naturally, 
just and unjust: that all things are measured by what 
every man judgeth fit, where there is no civil government, 
and by the laws of society, where there is : that the power 
of the sovereign is absolute, and that he is not bound by 
any compacts with his subjects : that nothing the sovereign 
can do to the subject, can properly be called injurious or 
wrong I and that the king's word is sufficient to take any 



H O B fi £ S. 17 

Uiii^ firom the rabject if need be, and that the kiog i^ 
judge of Uiat need/' This scheme evidently strikes at 
the foundation of all religion, natural and revealed. It 
tends not only to subvert the authority of Scripture, .but 
to destroy God's moral government of the world. It con- 
founds the natural differences of good and evil, virtue and 
vice. It destroys the best principles of the human nature; 
and instead of that innate benevolence and social disposi- 
tion which should unite men together, supposes all men 
to be naturally in a state of war with one another, ilt 
erects an absolute tyranny in the. state and church, which jt 
confounds, and makes the will of the prince or governing 
power the sole standard of right and wrong, 

Such principles in religion and politics would, as it may 
be imagined, raise adversaries. Hobbes accordingly was 
attacked by many considerable persons, and, what may 
seem more strange, by such as wrote against each other. 
Harrington, in his ^* Oceana," very often attacks Hobbes ; 
and so does sir Robert Filmer in his ^^ Observations con- 
cerning the Original of Government.'' We have already 
mentioned Bramhall and Clarendon; the former argued 
with great acuteness against that part of his system which 
relates to liberty and necessity, and afterwards attacked 
the whole in a piece, called ^'Tbe Catching of the Levia- 
than," published in 1685 ; in which he undertakes to de- 
monstrate out of Hobbes's own .works, that no man, who is 
thoroughly an Hobbist, can be '^ a good Christian, or a 
good commonwealth's man, or reconcile himself to him- 
self." Tenison, afterwards archbishop of Canterbury, gave 
•a summary view of Hobbes's principles, in a book called 
"The Creed of Mr. Hobbes examined, 1670;" to which 
we may add the two. dialogues of Dr. Eacbard between Ti- 
mothy and Phiiautus, .and Dr. Parker's book, entitled 
** Disputationes de Deo &.Divina Providentia." Dr. Henry 
tMore has also in ditfc^rent parts of his works canvassed and 
refuted several positions of Hobbes; and the philosopher 
of JllaUnesbury is said to have been so ingenuous as to own, 
.that^* whenever he discovered his own philosophy to be 
•unsustainable, he would embrace the opinions of Dr. 
dlore." 'But the two greatest works against him were, 
^Cumberland's book^^ De legibus Naturae," and Cudworth's 
•^^ Intellectual System :" for these authors do not employ 
themselves about his peculiar whimsies, or in vindicating 
ttvealed religion 'from his exceptions and cavils, but 
. V0L.XVIIL C 



IS H O fi B E & 

endeavour to establish the great principles of all religiofi 
and morality, which his scheme tended to subvert^ and to 
shew that they have a real foundation in reason and nature. 
There is one peculiarity related of Hobbes, which we 
have not yet mentioned in the course of our account of 
him — his dread of apparitions and spirits. His friends in* 
deed have called this a fable. ^^ He was falsely accused/' 
say they, ** by some, of being afraid to be alone, because 
be was afraid of spectres and apparitions; vain bugbears 
of fools,' which he had chased away by the light of his phi- 
losophy." They do not, however^ deny, that he was ' 
afraid of being alone ; they only insinuate, that it was for 
fear of being assassinated ; but the fact probably was, that 
he bad that tenacity of life which is observable in men 
whose religious principles are unsettled. Upon the whole, 
we may conclude, with the intelligent Brucker, that Hobbes 
was certainly possessed of vigorous faculties, and had 
he been sufficiently careful to form and improve his judg- 
ment, and to preserve his mind free from the bias of pre- 
judice and pas^on, would undoubtedly have deserved a 
place in the first class of philosophers. The mathematical 
method of reasfoiiing which he adopted, greatly assisted 
him in his researches; but he was often led into error, by 
assuming false or uncertain principles or axioms. The 
vehemence with which he engaged in political contests 
biassed his judgment on questions of policy, and led him 
to frame such maxims and rules of government, as would 
be destructive of the peace and happiness of mankind.. 
An arrogant contempt of the opinions of others, an impa- 
tience of contradiction, and a restless ambition to be dis- 
tinguished as an innovator in philosopby» were qualities 
which appear to have contributed in no small degree to 
the perversion of his judgment It is also to be remarked, 
that though he had the precept and example of lord Bacon 
to guide him, he neglected the new and fertile path of 
experimental philosophy. So little was he aware of the 
value of this kind of knowledge, that he censured the royal 
society of London, at its first institution, for attending 
more to minute experiment than general priudples, and 
said, that if the name of a philosopher was to be obtained 
•by relating a multifarious farrago of experiments^ we 
might expect to see apothecaries, gardeners, and per- 
fumers rank among philosophers. 
~ A list of the works of this remarkable man, in the order 



H O B B E S. 19 



of publieation, seems not unnecessary to close our account 
ofhim^ 1. His *^ Translation of Thucydides/* Lond. 1628, 
«nd 1676, fol. reprinted in 2 vols. 8vo. 2. ** De Mira- 
bilibus Pecci/* a Latin poem, Lond. 1636, Svo, 1666, 4to. 
3. *^ Elementa philosophica seu polit^ipa de Give," Paris, 
J 642, 4to, Amst. 1647, 12mo. 4. '^ An Answer to sir 
William Davenant's Epislle or Preface to Gondibert,'* Pa- 
ris, 1650, 12mo, afterwards printed with Gondibert. 5. 
'^ Human Nature ; or the fundamental elements of policy,*' 
Lond. 1650, 12mo. 6. '^ De Corpore Politico; or the 
Elements of the Law," Lond. 1650, Timo. 7. " Levia- 
than ; or the matter, form, and power of a Commonwealth,'* 
ibid. 1651, and 1680, fol. 8. ^* A Compendium of Aris- 
totle's Rhetoric, and Ramus^s Logic.*' 9. ^* A Letter about 
Liberty and Necessity," Lond. 1654, 12mo. This was 
answered by Dr. Laney and bishop Bramhall. 10. '^ The 
Questions concerning Liberty, and Necessity, and Cliance, 
stated and debated between Mr. Hobbes and Dr. Bramhall, 
bishop of London- Derry," Lond. 1656, 4to. 1 1^ " Ele- 
mentorum Philosophiie sectio prima de Corpore," ibid. 
1655, 8vo; in English, 1656, in 4to. " Sectio secunda," 
London, 1657, 4to; Amsterdam, 1668, in 4to. 12. ^'Six: 
Lessons to the professors of mathematics of the institution 
of sir Henry Savile," ibid, 1656, 4to, written against Mr. 
Seth Ward, and Dr. John Wallis. 13. « The Marks of the 
absurd Geometry, rural Language, &e. of Dr John Wal- 
lis," ibid. 1657, Svo. 14. ^^ Examinatio et emendatio 
Matbematicae hodiernse, sex Dialogis comprehensa," ibid. 

1660, 4to; Amsterdam, 1668, 4to. 15. " Dialogus Phy- 
sicus, sive de Natur^ Aeris," Lond. 1661, 4to; Amster- 
dam, 1668, 4to. 16. " De Duplicatione Cubi," London, 

1661, 4to; Amsterdam, 1668, 4to. 17. " Problem ata 
Physica, una cum magnitudine circuli," Lond. 1662, 4to; 
Amsterdam^ 168.8, 4to. 18. *' De principiis et ratiocina- 
tione Geometrarum, contra fastuosumT professorem," Lond. 
1666, 4to; Amsterdam, 1668, 4to. 19. ^< Quadratura Cir- 
<ruli, cubatio sphserus, duplicado cubi ; una cum respon- 
sione ad objectiones geometriae professoris Saviliani O.x- 
onisB editas anno 1669." Lond. 1669, 4tOv 20. << Rosetum 
Geometricum, sive propositioiies aliquot frustra antehap 
tentatsB, cum censur4 brevi doctrinae Wallisianande motu,'' 
London, 1671, 4to, of which an account is giVen in the 
Philosophical Transactions, No. 72, for the year 1671, 
? L Three Papers presented to the royal society against 

G 2 



UO H O B B E S. 

Dr. Wallis, with considerations on Dr. Wallis*s Ahswier tb 
them/' Lond. 1671, 4to. ^2. ** Lux Mathematical &c. 
censura doctWnae Wallisianse de Libra: Rosetum Hob- 
besii," Lond. 1672, 4to. 23. " Princi]pia et Problemata 
aliquot Ceometrica ante desperata, nunc breviter explt- 
cata et demonstrata/* London, 1674, 4to. 24. '* Epis- 
tola ad Dom. Anton, a Wood, Authorem Historise et Anti- 
quitat. Universit. Oxon. :" dated April the 20th, 1674^ 

Krinted in half ^ sheet on one side. '* It was written to 
Ir. Wood," says Wood himself, " upon his complaint made 
to Mr. Hobbes of several deletions and additions made in 
and to his life and character (which he had written of him 
in that book) by the publisher (Dr. Jo. Fell) of the said 
Hist and Antiq. to the great dishonour and disparagement 
of the said Mr. Hobbes. Whereupon, when that history 
was finished, came out a scurrilous answer to the said 
epistle, written by Dr. Fell, which is at ** the end of the 
said history." In this Answer Dr. Fell styles Mr. Hobbes, 
^^ irritabiie illud et vanissimum Malmsburiense animal *," 
and tells us, that one Mr. J. A. had sent a magnificenjt euld- 
gium of Mr. Hobbes drawn up by him, or more probably 
by Hobbes himself, in order to be inserted in the Hist, et 
Antiq. Univers. Oxon.; but the editor finding in this eulp- 
gium a great many things foreign to the design of that wofk^ 
and far from truth, he suppressed what he thought proper. 
25. "A Letter to William duke of Newcastle, concerning 
the Controversy had with Dr. Laney, bishop of Ely, about 
Liberty and Necessity," Lond. 1670, 12mo. 26. " Deca- 
meron Physiologicum ; or ten dialogues of natural philo- 
sophy, &c." London, 1678, 8vo. To this is added " The 
Proportion of a strait line to bold the Arch of a Quadrant." 
27. ^* His last words and dying Legacy :" printed on one 
side of a sheet of paper in December 1679, and published 
by Charles Blunt, esq. from the ^* Leviathan," in order to 
expose Mr. Hobbes^s doctrine. 28. His *^ Memorable Say- 
ings in his books and at the table;" printed on one side of 
a broad sheet of paper, with his picture before them. 29. 
<< Behemoth: The History of the Civil Wars of Englahd 
from 1640 to 16€0," Lond. 16719, 8vo. 30. «* Vita Tho- 
mas Hobbes," a Latin poeih written by himself, and prihted 
at London in'4to, in the latter end of December 1679 ; 
and a fortnight after that, viz. about the lOih of January, 
it was published in English verse by another band, at Lon- 
idot) 1680| ill five sheets in folio. The Latin copy was 



H O B B E a 21 

reprinted and subjoined to ^ Vits Hobbianse Auctariuro/' 
31. ^^ Historical narration of Heresy, and the punisbment 
thereof/' London, 1680, in four abeets and an half in folio ; 
and in 1682 in 8vo. This is chiefly e^ctracted out of the 
second chapter De Haeresi of his Appendix to the i.$via« 
than. 32. << Vita Thoms Hobbes,'* written by himself in 
prose, and printed at Caropolis, i. e. London, s^nd pre- 
fixed to *^Y'\UB HobbiansB Auctarium,'' 1681, Svo, ai^4 
1683, 4 to. 33. << A Brief of the art of Rhetpric, c^nt^n- 
ing in substance all that Aristotle hath written in hi$ thre^ 
books of that subject,*' 12mo, without a date. U was 
afterwards published in two books, London, 169 1*, in 8vo, 
the first bearing the title of " The Art of Rhetoric/' and 
the other of *^ The Art of Rhetoric plainly set forth ; with 
pertinent examples for the more ready understanding 
and practice of the same." To which is added, 34. ^^ A 
Dialogue between a philosopher and a student of the CpQi*!* 
mon Laws of England." Mr. Harrington in bis Ob^erva-? 
tions on the Statute of Treasons, says it appears by thitt 
dialogue, that Hobbes had considered most of the funda^- 
mental principles of the English law with great care and 
attention. 35. ** An Answer to archbishop BrarpbalPiS Book 
called The catching of the Leviathan," London, 1682, $VQ. 
36. ^< Seven philosophical Problems, and two Propositions 
of Geometry," London, 1682, Svo, dedicated to the king 
in 1662. 37. ^* An Apology for himself and his Writings." 
38. ^* Historia Ecclesiastica carmine elegiaco concinnata,'' 
Aug. Trinob. i. e. London, 1688, 8vo. 39. " Tractatus 
Opticus," inserted in Mersennus's *^ Cou^itata Physico^ 
Mathematica," Paris, 1 644, 4to. 40. ^^ Qbservationes in 
Cartesii de prim& Philosophic Meditationes." These ob- 
jections are published in all* the editions of {)es Gartes's 
** Meditations." 41. "The Voyage of Ulysses; or Ho- 
mer's Odysses," book 9, 10, 11, 12. London, 1674, in 8vo* 
And 42. "Homer's Iliads and Odysses," London, 1675 
and 1677, 12mo. ^ 

HOBBIMA (Mind-erhout), a very eminent painter, is 
supposed to have been born about 1611, at Antwerp ^ but 
tbe master from whom he received his instruction is not 
known. He studied entirely after nature, sketching every 

1 Bioff. 6rit-«6en. Dict.-^Bnract's Gyro Tiipes.— Life prefixed to Wood'^ 
Annals, 4to, p. 1^. — A th. Ox. vol. II,— Leland's^ Deistical Writers — Letters 
irwm the -Bodleian Libraryi S T6lt. Svo, lSld.^--D''Itraeirs Quarrels of A^ihors, 
Tol. 111. p. 1—89. 



22 H O B B I M A. 

scene that afforded him pleasure, and his choice was ex-' 
ceedingly picturesque. His grounds are always agreeably 
broken, and be was particularly fond of describing slopes 
diversified with shrubs, plants, or trees, which conducted 
the eye to some building, ruin, grove, or piece of water, 
and frequently to a delicate remote distance ; every object 
perspectively contributing to delude our observation to that 
point. The forms of his trees are not unlike Ruysdael and 
Dekker ; and in* all his pictures he shews an admirable 
knowledge of the chiaroscuro. His colouring is extremely 
good, and his skies evidently shew that he made nature 
his principal director, by the shape and disposition of his 
clouds, as also by those peculiar tints, by which he ex* 
pressed the rising and setting of the sun, the morning and 
evening. His touch is light, free, and firm ; and .his p 'int- 
ings have a very striking effect, by the happy distribution 
of his light and shadow. The figures which he himself 
designed are but indifferent, which was a defect imputable 
to Claude Lorraine and Caspar Poussin, as well as to Hob- 
bima; but the latter, conscious of his inabihty in that re- 
spect, admitted but few figures into his designs, and those 
he usually placed somewhat removed from the immediate 
view, at a prudent distance from the front line. However, 
most of his pictures were supplied with figures by Ostade, 
Teniers, and other very famous masters, which must always 
give them a great additional value. The works of Hobbima 
are now exceedingly scarce, and industriously sought for. 
A very fine landscape of his, the property of the late Edward 
Coxe, esq. was sold a few years ago for nearly 700/.^ 

KtOCCLEVE, or OCCLEVE (Thomas), an ancient 
English poet, who scarcely, however, deserves the name, 
was horn probably about 1370, and has been styled 
Chaucer's disciple. He studied law at Chester's Inn, in 
the Strand, and was a writer to the privy seal for above 
twenty yeard. When he quitted this office, or what means 
of subsistence he afterwards had, cannot be easily deter- 
mined. Pits seems wrong in asserting that he was pro- 
vided for by Humphrey duke of Gloucester. Nor is Bale 
more correct in saying that he had imbibed the religious 
tenets of Wickliff. From his poems the following. scanty 
particulars of his history have been communicated by a 
learned friend : ** lie dwelt in the office of the privy sea\, 
a ^vriter ' unto the se^l twenty-four years come Easter, ^nd 

1 Pilkington. 



IL 



H O C C L E V E. 23 

that k nigh.' The king granted hitn an annuity of twenty 
marks in the exchequer, which it appears be had much* 
difficulty in getting paid. He expresses much doubt of 
obtaining it from ^ yere to yere :' fears it may not be con- 
tinued when he is no longer able to ^ serve' (i. e. as a writer 
in the privy seal office). Besides this annuity he has but 
six marks coming in yearly * in noo tide.' Speaks of dwell- 
ing at home in his * pore coote,' and that more than two 
parts of his lif^ are spent-— he is ignorant of husbandry ; 
* scarcely could skare away the kite ;' can neither use 
plough or harrow, knows not * what land is good for what 
corn ;' unable to fill a cart or barrow from long use to 
writing ; descants on the troubles and difficulties attending 
writing; says that ^ bit is welle grett laboure,' and con- 
trasts very happily the life of an husbandman or artificer 
with that of a writer^ adding that he has continued in 
writing twenty years and more. He * whilom' thought to 
have been a priest, but now is married, having long waited 
for a benefice; describes the corruption in bis, office, but 
that no share of the bribes come to the clerks. Name 
' Okkleve' acquainted with Chaucer — has small knowledge 
of Latin and of French. He is advised to complain to the 
prince that he cannot get paid in the excheqtitr^ and peti- 
tion that his patent be removed into the haniper, but ob* 
serves this cannot be done because of the * ordinance*' for 
' longe after this shall noo graunt be chargeable.' He says 
^ my lorde the prince is good lorde' to him, and is advised 
to write him ^ a goodlie tale or two,' therein to avoid flat- 
tery, and write * nothinge that sowneth to vice,' " &c. 

Hpccleve is supposed to have died in 1454. Some of 
his poems were printed by Mr. George Mason, in 1796, 
4to, from a MS. in bis possession, and a preface, notes, 
and glossary. The glossary is useful, but the attempt ko 
reyive the poems impotent. Instead, indeed, of removing, 
they confirm Warton's objection to him as a feeble poet, 
" whose chief merit seems to be, that his writings contri- 
buted to propagate and establish those improvements in 
our language, which were in his time beginning to take 
place." The most favourable specimen of Hoccleve's 
poetry is bis *' Story of Jonathas," which the reader will 
£nd in the " Shepherd's Pipe," by William Browne, au- 
thor of Britannia's Pastorals. ^ 

> Preface to Mawn's edition.— Extracts commiiiiicated by Mr. Archdeacon 
Nares from Mn Sharp of Coventry.— Ellis's Specimens*-— Walton's Hist, of 
Poetry. 



^ HOCHSTETTER. 

HOCilSTETTER (Andrew-Adam), a prot€»taDt di^ 
vine, wacs born at Tubingen, July 1688. After studying^ 
i^b credit in the principal universities of Germany, he 
b66aTne successively professor of eloquence, of moral phi- 
losophy, of divinity, and finally rector of Tubingen. He 
died at the same place, April 27, 1717. His principal 
work^ are, 1. " Collegium Puffendorfianum." 2. " Dii 
Festo Expiationis, et Hirco Azazel.'* 3. *' De Conradino^ 
ultifho ^3t Suevis duce." 4. ** De rebur Elbigensibus." 
Hi!^ historical works are in most esteem.* 

HODGES (Nathaniel), an English physician,' was the 
scm of Dr. Thomas Hodges, dean of Hereford, of whomf 
th^re are three printed sermons. He was educated iii 
Westminster-school, and became a student of Christ^church, 
Oxford, in 1648. In 1631 and 1654, he took the degreed 
of B. aiid M. A. and, in 1659, accumulated the degriees of 
B. and M. D. He settled in London, and was, in 1672, 
made fellow of the College of Physicians. He remained in 
the metropolis during the continuance of the plague iit 
1665, when most of the physicians, and Sydenham amon^ 
{fae rest, retired to the country : and, with another of his 
Brethren, he visited the infected during the whole of that 
terrible visitation. Thiese two physicians, indeed, appear 
to ha^e been appointed by the city of London to attend the 
diseased, with a stipend. Dr. Hodges was twice taken ill 
ddring the prevdeiice of the disease; but by the aid o£ 
timely remedies be recovered. His mode of performing 
\xvi perilods duty was to receive early every morning, at bis 
own house, the persons who came to give reports of the 
^fck, and convalescents, for advice; he then made his 
forenoon visits to the infected, causing a pan of coals to be 
carried before him with perfumes, and chewing tuocfaeal 
while hfe wad in the sick chamber. > He repeated bis visits 
in the afternodh. His chief prophylactic was a liberal use 
bf Spanish wine, and cheerful society after the business of 
thb day. It i^ hibch to be lamented that such a man after- 
virai'ds fell into uhfortunate circumstances, and wis confined 
. for debt in Ludgate prison, where he died in 1684. His 
body was interred in the church of St. Stephen's, Walbrook^ 
London, where a nionumeut \% erected to him. He is 
author of two works : 1 . ^^ Vindici^ Medicihse et Medi* 
corum: An Apology for the Profession and Professors 

1 Diet, (list 



HODGES. 25 

t>f Physto, &c. 1660/' Svo. 2. *' Ao(/MXoyia .• sive, pestis 
nuperoe apnd populum Londinensem grassantis narratio bis- 
torica/' 1672, 9vo. A translation of it into English was 
printed at London in 1720, Sva, under the following title : 
'* Loimologta, or, an Historical Account of the Plague of 
London in 1665, with precautionary Directions against the 
lik€ Contagion. To which k added, an Essay on the different 
causes of pestilential diseases, and how they become con- 
tagious. With remarks on the infection now in France, 
and the nobst probable means to prevent its spreading here ;'* 
the latter by Jdhn Quiucy, M. D. In 1721, there was 
printed at London, in Svo, ^* A collection of very valuable 
and stai^ce pieces relating to the last plague in 1665;** 
among which is ** An account of the first rise, progress, 
symptoms, and cure of the Plague ; being the substance of 
a letter from Dr. Hodges to a person of quality, dated from 
bis house in Watling-street, May the 8th, 1666/' The 
atithor of the preface to this collection calls our author 
'* a fditbful historian and diligent physician ;" and tells us, 
that ** he may be reckoned among the best observers in 
any age of physic, and has given us a true picture of the 
plague in his own titne."^ * 

HODGES (William), an English landscape painter, 
Was born in London, in 1744, and received his tuition in 
Che art from Wilson, whom he assisted for some time, and 
under whom be acquired a good eye for colouring, and 
great freedom and boldness of band ; but unluckily, like 
loo many pupils, he caught the defects of his master more 
powerfully than his beauties ; and was, in consequence, 
too loose in his definition of forms, by which means, that; 
which added gface to the works of the master, became 
tdovenliness in the pupil. ** Hodges,'* says Fuseli, ** had 
the boldness and neglect of Wilson, but not genius enough 
to give authority to the former, or make us forgive the 
latter : too inaccurate for scene-painting, too mannered for 
local representation, and not sublime or comprehensive 
enough for poetic landscape ; yet, by mtere decision of 
hand, nearer to excellence than mediocrity ; and, perhaps, 
koperidt to some who surpassed him in perspective, or 
diligence of execution." He accepted an appointment to 
go out draughtsman with captain Cook on his second voyage 
to the South Seas, from which he returned after an ab» 

» Ath% Ox. tol. II,— Gen. Diet. — Recs's Cyclopsedfa. 



2C HODGES, 

sence of three years, and painted some pictures for the 
admiralty, of scenes in Otabeite and Ulietea. Afterwards, 
under the patronage of Warren Hastings, he visited the 
JCast Indies, where he acquired a decent fortune. On his 
return home, after practising the art some time, he en- 
gaged in commercial and banking speculations; which nojb 
proving successful, he sunk under the disappointment, and 
died in 1797.' 

HOD Y (Humphrey), an eminent English divine, was bora 
Jan. 1, 165s^,atOdcombe in thecountyof Somerset, of which 
place his father was rector. He discovered while a boy, a 
great propensity to learning ; and, in 1676, was admitted 
into Wadham-coUege, Oxford, of which he was chosen 
fellow in 1684. When he was only in bis twenty-first year 
he published his ^^ Dissertation against Aristeas^s History of 
the Seventy-two Interpreters.** The substance of that 
history of Ansteas, concerning the seventy-two Greek in- 
terpreters of the Bible, is this : Ptolemy Philadelphus, 
king of Egypt, and founder of the noble library at Alex- 
andria, being desirous of enriching that library with all sorts 
of books, committed the care of it to Demetrius Phalereus, 
a noble Athenian then living in bis court. Demetrius being 
informed, in the course of his inquiries, of the Law of 
Moses among the Jews, acquainted the king with it ; who 
signified his pleasure, that a copy of that book, which was 
then only in Hebrew, should be. sent for from Jerusalem, 
with interpreters from the same place to translate it into 
Greek. A deputation was accordingly seiit to Eleazar the 
liigh-priest of the Jews at Jerusalem ; who sent a copy of ^ 
the Hebrew original, and seventy-two interpreters, six out 
of each of the twelve tribes, to translate it into Greek. 
When they were come to Egypt the king caused them to 
be conducted into the island of Pharos near Alexandria, 
in apartments prepared for them, where they completed 
their translation in seventy-two days. Such is the story 
told by Aristeas, who is said to be one of king Ptolemy's* 
court Hody shews that it is the invention of some Hel- 
lenist Jew ; that it is full of anachronisms and gross blun- 
ders ; and, in short, was written on purpose to recommend 
and give greater authority to the Greek version of the Old 
Testament, which from this story has received the name of 
the Septuagint This dissertation was received with th^ 

1 PillqDgtoD, by Faseli.— fidward«'s Continuatioft of Watpole. 



H O D Y. 27 

liigheftt applause by all the learned, except Isaac Vossiasv 
Charles du Fresne spoke highly of it in his observations oa 
the ^' Chronicon Paschale/* published in 1698; and Me- 
nage, in his notes upon the second edition of *^ Diogenei^ 
Laertius," gave Hody the titles of ^^ eruditiiisimus, doC- 
tissimus, elegantissimas, &c." but Vossiiis alone was 
greatly dissatisfied with it* He had espoused the contrary 
opinion, and could not bear that such a boy as Hody should 
presume to contend with one of bis age and reputation for 
letters. He published therefore an appendix to his '*Ob« 
servations on Pomponius Mela/' and subjoined an answer 
to this viissertation of Hody*s ; in which, however, he did 
not enter much into the argument, but contents himself 
with treating Hody very contemptuously, vouchsafing him 
no better title than Juvenis Oxonieusis, and sometimes 
using worse language. When Vossius was asked afters- 
wards, what induced him to treat a young man of promis- 
ing hopes, and who had certainly deserved well of the re« 
public of letters, so very harshly, he answered, that be had 
received some time before a rude Latin epistle from Ox- 
ford, of which he suspected Hody to be the author ; and 
that this had made him deal more severely with him than 
be should otherwise have done. Vossius had indeed re* 
ceived such a tetter ; but it was writjten, according to the 
assertion of Creech, the translator of Lucretius, without 
Hody's knowledge or approbation. When Hody published 
his ^* Dissertation, &c.*' he told the reader in his preface, 
that he had three other books preparing upon the Hebrew 
text, and Greek version ; but lie was now so entirely drawn 
away from these studies by other engagements, that he 
could not find time to complete his work, and to answer 
the objections of Vossius, till more than twenty years after. 
In 1 704, he published it altogether, with this title, ^^ De 
Bibliorum textibus originalibus, versionibus Grcecis, et 
Latina Vulgata, libri IV. &c.*' The first book contains 
bis dissertation against Aristeas*s history, which is here re- 
printed with improvements, and an answer to Vossius^s 
objections. In the second he treats of tlie true authors of 
the Greek version called the Septuagint; of the time 
when, and the reasons why, it was undertaken, and of the 
manner in which it was performed. The third is a history 
of the Hebrew text, the Septuagint version, and of the 
Latin Vulgate; shewing the authority of each in different 
ages, and that the Hebrew text has been always most 



si HOB Y. 

eftteem^d and vailiied. In the fourth he gives as account 
Oif the re»t of the Gi*^8k Tersions, namely, those of Sym* 
machtts, Aquila, and Tbeodotion ; of Origen^s ** Hexapla,*' 
and other ancient editions,; and subjoins lists of the book« 
of the Bible at different times, which exhibit a concise, but 
foil and clear view of the canon of Holy Scripture. — Upon 
the whole, he thinks it probable, that the Greek version, 
ealled the Septuagint, was done in the time of the two 
Ptolemies, Lagus and Philadelphus ; and that it was not 
done by order of king Ptolemy, or under the direction of 
Demetrius Phalereus, in order to be deposited in the Alex- 
andrine library, but by Hellenist Jews for the use of their 
own countrymen. 

In 1689, he wrote the '^ Prolegomena" to John Malela's 
♦*. Chronicle," printed at Oxford; and the year after was 
made chaplain to Siillingfleet bishop of Worcester, being 
tutor to his son at Wadham college. The deprivation of 
the bishops, who had refused the oaths to king William and 
queen Mary, engaged him in a controversy with Dodwell, 
who had till now been his friend, and had spoken hand- 
somely and affectionately of him, in his ** Dissertations 
upon Irenaeus,- ' printed in 1669. The pieces Hody published 
on this occasion were, in 1691, ^^ The Unreasonableness of 
a Separation from the new bishops : or, a Treatise out of 
Ecclesiastical History, shewing, that although a bishop 
was unjustly deprived, neither he nor the church ever made 
a separation, if the successor was not an heretic. Trans- 
lated out of an ancient manuscript in the public library 
at Oxford," one of the Baroccian MSS. He translated it 
afterwards into Latin, and prefixed to it some pieces out 
of ecclesiastical antiquity, relating to the same subject. 
Dodwell publishing an answer to it, entitled <^ A Vindica- 
tion of the deprived bishops," &c. in 1692, Hody replied, 
in a treatise which he styled " The Case of Sees vacant 
by an unjust or uncanonical deprivation stated ; in answer 
to a piece intituled, A Vindication of the deprived Bishops, 
&c. Together with the several pamphlets published as 
answers to the Baroccian Treatise, 1693." The part he 
acted in this controversy recommended him so powerfully 
to Tillotson, who had succeeded Sancroft in the see of 
Canterbury, that be made him his domestic chaplain in 
May 1694. Here he drew up his dissertation << concern- 
ing the Resurrection of the same body," which he dedi- 
caited to . Stillingfleet, whose chaplain he had been from 



H O D T. 29 

1690. Tillotson dying NoTcmber Following, he was con- 
tinued chaplain by Tenison his successor; who soon after 
gave him the rectory of Chart near Canterbury, vacant 
by the death of Wharton. This, before he was collated, 
he exchanged for the united parishes of St. MichaePs 
Royal and St. Martin's Vintry, in London, being instituted 
to these in August 1695. In 1696,. at the command of 
Tenison, he wrote *^ Animadversions on two pamphlets 
lately published by Mr. Collier, &c." When sir WiUiaiH 
Perkins and sir John Friend were executed that year for 
the assassination*plot, Collier, Cook, and Snatr, three 
nonjuring clergymen, formally pronounced upon them the 
absolution of the church, as ic stands in the office for the 
visitation of the sick, and accompanied this ceremony with 
a solemn imposition of hands. For this imprudent actioi> 
they were not only indicted, but also the archbishops and 
bishops published ^^ A Declaration of their sense concern- 
ing those irregular and scandalous proceedings.'* Snatt 
and Cook were cast into prison. Collier absconded, and 
from his privacy published two pamphlets to vindicate bis 
own, and his brethren's conduct; the one called, <<A De- 
fence of the Absolution given to sir William Perkins at the 
place of execution ;" the other, " A Vindication thereof, 
occasioned by a paper, intituled, A Declaration of the 
sense of the archbishops and bishops, &c." ; in answer to 
which Hody published the ** Animadversions" above-men* 
tioned. 

lV£arch 1698, be was appointed regius professor of Greek 
in the university of Oxford ; and instituted to the arch- 
deaconry of Oxford in 1704. In 1701, he bore a part in 
the controversy about the convocation, and pUbKshed upon 
that occasion, ^* A History of English Councils and Con- 
vocations, and of the Clergy's sitting in Parliament, in 
which is also comprehended the History of Parliaments^ 
with an account of our ancient laws." He died Jan. 20, , 
1706, and was buried in the chapel belonging to Wad- 
ham-coilege, where he had received his ^ucation, and to 
which he bad been a benefactor : for,-in order to encourage 
the study of the Greek and Hebrew languages, df which 
he was so great a master himself, he founded in that col- 
lege ten scholarships of ten pounds each ; now increasekl 
to fifteen pounds each; and appointed that four of the 
scholars should apply themselves to the study of the He- 
brew, and six to the study of the Greek language. He 



30 BODY. 

left behind him in MS. a valuable work formed frotdube 
lectures which he had read in the course of his professor^- 
sbip^ t^ontaining an account of those learned Grecians who 
retired to Italy before and after the taking of Constanti* 
nople by the Turks^ and restored the Greek tongue and 
learning in these western parts of the world. This was 
published in 1742, by Dr. S. Jebb, under this title, " De 
Graecis illustribus linguae Grsscae literarumqge humanio- 
rum instauratoribus, eorum vitis, scriptis, et elogiis libri 
<luo. £ Codicibus potissimum MS8. aliisque authenticis 
ejusdem aevi monimeutis deprompsit Huoifredus tiodius, 
S. T. P. baud ita pridem Regius Professor et Archidiaco- 
nus Oxon.^' Prefixed is an account in Latin of the author^s 
life, extracted chiefly from a manuscript one written by 
himself in English. ' 

HOE (Matthias de Hoenegg), of a noble family at 
Vienna, was born Feb. 24, 1580. After being eight years 
superintendant of Plaven in Saxony, he took holy orders 
at Prague in 1611. In 1613 he left Prague, and was ap«^ 
pointed principal preacher to the elector of Saxony at 
Dresden, where he died March 4, 1645. He wks a stre- 
nuous Lutheran, and wrote with as much zeal against 
Calvinists as Papists. His works, which are very numerous 
both in Latin and German, are not at this day much 
esteemed, or indeed known. Their titles, however, are 
given by the writers of his life, and among them we find« 
*^ Solida detestatio Papife et Calvinistarum," 4to. '^ Apo- 
logia pro B. Luthero contra Lampadium,'' Leipsic, 1611, 
4to. '^ PhiiosophisB Aristotelicse, partes tres.** '' Septem 
verborum Christi explicatio.*' The greater part of bis 
tracts appear evidently, from their titles, to be contro*- 
versial. • 

HOELTZ LINUS (Jeremias), a philologer, was born at 
Nuremberg, but settled at Leyden, and is best known by 
his edition of ApoUonius Rhodius, which was published 
there in 1641. This edition is generally esteemed for the 
beauty of the printing; but Rubnkenius, in his second 
Epistola Critica, calls the editor *^ tetricum et ineptum 
Apollonii Commentatorem ;^* and bis commentary has been 
censiired also by Harwood, Harles, and other learned 
men. He published in 1628, a German translation of the 

t Life M above.— Biog. Brit«-»Birch*s Tillotson.— Chalmen's Hist, of Oxfoi]^. 
s Freheri The atruip.'-Gen. Diet.— Moeheioi.-— Saxii Onomafit. 



.y 



H O E S C H E L I U S. 31. 

Pskims, wbich has the credit of being accui'ate. He died 
in 1641.^ 

HOESCHELIUS (David), a learned German, was born 
at Augsburg in 1556; and spent his life in teaching the 
youth in the college of St. Anne, of which he was made 
principal by the magistrates of Augsburg, in 1593. They 
made him their hbrary- keeper also, and he acquitted him- 
self with true literary zeal in this post : for he collected a 
great number of MSS. and printed books, especially Greeks 
and also of the best authors and the best editions, with 
which he enriched their library ; and also published the 
most scarce and curious of the MSS. with bis own notes. 
His publications were very numerous, among which were 
editions of the following authors, or at least of some part 
of their works; Origen, Philo Judseus, Basil, Gregory of 
Nvssen, Gregory of Nazianzen, Chrysostom, Hori Apol- 
linis Hierbglypbica, Appian, Photius, Procopius, Anna 
Comnena, &c. To some of these he added Latin transla- 
tions, but published others in Greek only, with notes. 
Huetius has commended him, not only for the pains he 
took to discover old manuscripts, hut also for his skill and 
ability in translating them. Re composed, and published 
in 1595, " A Catalogue of the Greek MSS. in the Augs- 
burg library," which, for the judgment and order with 
which it is drawn up, is reckoned a masterpiece in its kind. 
He may justly be ranked among those who contributed to 
the revival of good learning in Europe ; for, besides these 
labours for the public, he attended his college closely ; 
and not only produced very good scholars, but is said to 
have furnished the bar with one thousand, and the church 
with two thousand, young men of talents. He died at 
Augsburg in 1617, much lamented, being a man of good as 
well as great qualities, and not less beloved than admired. ' 
HOET (Gerard), an eminent historical and landscape 
painter, born at Bommel in 1648, was a disciple of War- 
,nard van Rysen, an excellent ardst, who had been bred in 
the school of Polemburg. He was at first invited to Cleve, 
where. his paintings procured him very great credit; but 
he was afterwards prevailed on to visit Paris, where not 
meeting with encouragement in any degree proportioned 
to his. merit, he turned his attention to England, whither he 

* Gen. Diet. — Moreri.— ^Saxii Oiiomaat. 

' NiceroD, vol. XXVllI.— Freberi Theatrum* — Gen. Dict-^Saxii Oo^HnaaU 



82 H O E T. 

certainly would have directed his course, bad he not been 
dissuaded by Vosterman. After practisingi therefore, for^ 
some time at Paris and Cleves, he settled at Utrecht, and 
in that city and its neighbourhood displayed bis abiiitiea, in 
executing several grand designs for ceilings, saloons, and 
apartments, and also in finishing a great number of easel 
pictures for cabinets ; and his reputation was so universally 
established at Utrecht, that be was appointed director of 
an academy for drawing and painting, which he ^conducted, 
with great honour to himself, and remarkable advantage to 
bis pupils. He had a lively imagination, a vefy ready iu* 
vention, a talent for composition and correctness in the cos- 
tume. His manner of painting was clean and neat, and he 
was thoroughly master of the true principles of the chiaro*- 
scuro. His figures in general are designed with elegance, 
bis colouring is vivid, natural, and harmonious, his touch 
is light and firm, and his pictures have a great deal of trans- 
parence. His small easel-paintings are as distinctly touched 
as highly finished ; and yet his larger works are always 
penciled with a freedom that is suitable to those grander 
compositions. 

Many capital pictures of this master are in the palace of 
Slangenberg; and his eminent talents may be seen in the 
grand staircase at Voorst, the seat of the earl of Alben>arle. 
In Holland, and also in our kingdoms, several charmiuf^ 
pictures of Hoet are preserved ; some of them in the maa* 
ner of Polemburg, and others in the style of Carel du Jjir* 
din. He died in 1733.' 

HOFFMAN (Daniel), a Lutheran minister, superin- 
tendant and professor at Helmstad, was the author of an 
idle controversy towards the end of the sixteenth century. 
He started some difficulties about subscribing the concord, 
and refused to concur with Dr. Andreas in defence of this 
confession. He would not acknowledge the ubiquity, but 
only that the body of Jesus Christ was present in a great 
many places ; this dispute, though laid asleep soon after, 
left aspirit of curiosity and contradiction upon people's 
minds, so that in a little time they began to disagree and 
argue very warmly upon several other points, HofFoiaa 
being always, at the head of the party. Among other things 
in an. academical disputation, he maintained that the light 
of reason, even as it appears in the writings of Plato and 

* Pjlkington. 



HOFFMAN. S3 

Aristotle^ is aver&e to religion ; and the more the hamaa 
iindersundiug is culurateli by philpsapbical studyi the 
more perfectly is tbe enemy supplied with weapons of de« 
fence* Tbe partiality which at this time universally pre- 
?ailed in favour of the Aristotelian philosophy was such^ 
that an opinion of this kind could dot be advanced publiclyi 
without exciting general dissatisfaction and alarm. A nu- 
merous band of professors, though they differed in opinion 
among themselvesi united to cake op arms against the 
* .common enemy. At the bead of this body was John Caa« 
sel ; whence the advocates for philosophy were called tbe 
Casselian party. They at first challenged Hoffman to a 
private conference, in expectation of leading him to a 
sounder judgment concerning philosophy ; but their hopea 
were frustrated. Hoffman, persuaded that interest and 
envy liad armed the philosophers against him, in bis reply 
to bis opponents inveighed with great bitterness against 
philosophers, and acknowledged, that be meaut to oppose 
not only the abuse of philosophy,, but the most prudent and 
legitimate use of it, as necessarily destructive of theology. 
This extravagant assertion, accompanied with many con- 
tumelious censures of philosophers, produced reciprocal 
vehemence; and Albert Graver published a book ^^ De 
Unica Veritate," which maintained '^ the Simplicity of 
Trutb;'* a doctrine from which tbe Casselian party were 
called Simplicists, whilst the followers &f Hoffman (for he 
fmnd means to engage several persons, particularly among 
the Theosopbista,, in his interest) (^posing this doctrine^ 
were calledj on the other hand„ Duplicists, John Angel 
Werdeobagen, a Boehmenite, who possessed some poe«- 
tical lalenta, wrote several poems against the phifoso^ 
phenu In short, tbe disputes ran so Ugh, and produced 
no SHich persotial abuse, that tbe court thought it neoes* 
aacy to interpose its authority, and appointed arbitrators to 
examine the merits of the controversy. Tha decision waa 
against Hoffman, and ha was obliged to make a public re- 
cantation ot bis errors, acknowledging tbe utility and OKr 
ceUence of philosophy, and declaring that bis invective#^ 
bad been only directed against its abuses. 
. Hofthian and Beaa wrote against each other upon tb# 
sbbject of tbe Holy Eucharist Hoffman aAQUsed Hommis, 
an eminent Lutheran minister, for having misrepresent^ 
the book of tbe Concord ; for here, says Hoffman, the 
cause of election i* not made ttt ctefKWd upon the qualifi* 
Vol- XVIIL J> 



34 » O F F M A N- 

cations of the person elected ; but Hdnniusi says be, and 
Myiius assert, that the decree of election is founded upon 
the foresight of faith. Hunniiis and Myiius caused Hoff- 
man to be condemned at a meeting of their divines in 
1593, and threatened Him with excommunication, if be 
did not comply. The year following, Hoffman publtsbed 
an apology against their censure. Hospinian gives the 
detail of this controversy : he observes, that some divines 
of Leipsic, Jena^ and Wittemburg, would have h^d Hoff-' 
man publicly censured as a Calvinist, and such a heretic 
as was not fit to be conversed with ; others who were more 
moderate, were for admonishing him by way of letter be- 
fore they came to extremities : this latter expedient was 
approved, and Hunnius wrote to him in the name of all his 
brethren. Hoffman's apology was an answer to this letter, 
in which he gives the reasons for refusing to comply with 
the divines of Wittemburg, and pretends to shew that they 
were grossly mistaken in several articles of faith. At last 
he was permitted to keep school at Helmstadt, where be 
died in 1611. He must not be confounded vnth Mekhior 
Hoffman^ a fanatic of the sixteenth century, who died in 
prison at Strasburgh. There was also a Gasper Hoffman 
(the name being common), a celebrated professor of medi- 
cine at Altdorf, who was born at Gotha in lii72, and died 
in 1649 ; and who. left behind him many medical works. ' 

HOFFMAN (John James), professor of Greek at Bale, 
was born in that city in 1635, and died there in 1706. 
Little besides is known of his history. His great work, the 
•* Lexicon Universale Historico-Geographico-Poetico-Phi- 
losopbico-Politico-Philologicum,^* was first published at 
Geneva, in 1677, in two volumes, folio. This being re* 
ceived by the learned with great avidity, he published,^ 9 
few years after, a Supplement ; which was also rapidly sold 
of£ In 1698, some of the principal booksellers at Leyden, 
encouraged by this success of the work, and having re<* 
ceived from the author all his subsequent collections, and 
many other additions from various learned men, digested 
the whole, with the Supplement, into one alphabet, and 
published it in four volumes, folio. In this form it is now 
Known as a most useful book of reference, and finds a 

{>lace in every learned library. For this edition the aii-* 
hor wrote a new pre&ce. He also published a '* History 



HOFFMAN. 8jr 

of the Popes'* in Latin^ 1687, 2 vols, and <^ Historia Au-* 
gusta,*' 1687, fol.» 

HOFFMAN (Maurice), a physician, was born of a good 
-family, at Furstenwalde, in the. electorate of Branden** 
bourg, Sept. 20, . 1621 ; and was driven early from bis na« 
tive country by the plague, and also by the war that fol-^ 
lowed it. His parents^ having little idea of letters or 
sciences, contented themselves with having him taught 
writing and arithmetic ; but Hoffman's taste for books and 
study made him very impatient under this confined instruc** 
tion, and he was resolved, at all events, to be a scholar. 
He first gained over his mother to his scheme ; but she 
died when he was only fifteen. This, however, fortunately 
proved no impediment to his purpose; for the schoolmaster 
of Furstenwalde^ to which place after many removals he 
bad now returned, was so struck with his talents and laud* 
able ambition, that he instructed him carefully in secret* 
His father, convinced at length of his uncommon abilities^ 
permitted bim to follow his inclinations; and, in 1637, 
sent him to study in the college of Cologtie* Famine and 
the plague drove him from hence to Kopnik, where be bu*' 
ried his father; and, in 1638, he went to Altdorf, to an 
uncle by his mother's side, who was a professor of physic. 
Here he finished his studies in classical reaming and philo-* 
sophy, and then applied himself, with the utmost* ardour, 
to physic. In 1641, when he had made some progress, 
be went to the university of Padua, which then abounded 
with men very learned in all sciences. Anatomy and bo-* 
tany were the great objects of bis pursuit ; and he became 
very deeply skilled in both. Bartholin tells us, that Hoff- 
man, having dissected a turkey-cock, discovered the pa- 
nacreatic duct, and shewed it to Versungus,- a celebrated 
anatomist of Padua, with whom he lodged; who, taking 
the hint, demonstrated afterwards the same vessel in the. 
human body. When he had been at Padua about three 
years, he returned to. Altdorf, to assist his uncle, now 
growing infirm, in his business ; and taking the degree of 
doctor, he applied himself very diligently to practice, in 
which he had abundant success, and acquired great fame. 
Id 1 648, be was made professor extraordinary in anatomy 
and surgery ; in 1649, professor of physic, and soon afteir 
member of the college of physicians ; in 1653, professor 

1 Jdoren*— Diet. Hi8t.*-Saxii Onomatt. 

D 2 



%i » a S F M A N. 

ef bota»;p^ and director of the physic^ garden. He acquit- 
ted himself Tery ably in these various employments, uojt 
neglf etiog^ in tb# nvean tiia^ tke Vusineaa of his profession ; 
ta whieh hi» reputation was sa extensive, that many prii>- 
ees ef Gepma^y appointed k^im their pby^ician. He died 
e£ an apoptexy ii> 169^, aftec having fwbHsb.ed several 
botanicaJ wWks^ and marrv^ the ee^ wives, by whom be had 
eighteen okildrieD^ H4& works^ are, 1. <^ Ahdorfi dehcise 
kovtensefr/* 1677, 4to. 2*. ^< Appendix ad Catalo^umPhn* 
tamun koctensiotn,'^'^ 1691, 4to« 3. *< Delicis silvestres,'* 
lft7<7>, 4t(K 4. << FkMilegiim Altdorfinum,'' 1676, &c. 4tOw^ 
HOFFMAN^ (John Ma v&ice), son of the. for^per by kis 
firsi wifev was. hw» a^ Alidorl in 1653 ; and sent to. school 
ab Hevsapvuck, where haMi<*^ acquired a oonatpetent know-r 
ledge of' the Giseek and Laim to»gi4es, Ive returned to his 
father 9M Ahdavf an the age of sixteen, and studied feat 
pbilosophy,' and then physic. He went afterwards to 
J^ancfovt upon the Oder, and proposed to visit ^he United 
Provinces 9^ Engtand ; but being prevemed by the waps, 
%e went y> Padi\^ whefe b^ studied two y^avs. Tfaeo 
waking a tour of pavt of Italy, he vdiurned to< Altdorf, in 
1674, and was acinwited ta tlK&deg«^e*of M; Dv He spent 
two yeaps in adding to the bnojwvsdge be had acquired ; 
and tbe% i;i^ 16*^7, was made pt^ofessor exti»aordinary in 
pbysic> whieh title, in. » 631, was cbanged to that of pro-> 
fefi^C in ordinary. He how ajpptied hionseU earne&Ucy to the 
praotix^e ef^ pbysie y and in time hi« fame was spread so faif, 
that he me^ sought by papsons* of tke fivst rank. George 
Frederic, meiquis of Aiyspack^ of t^e houa^ of 3rande»« 
beurg, chose him in 169^3 for bis pb.ysiciai^; and ^bout the 
laHep end of the year^ HQ^an attendted' tki^. prince into 
itaty, and renewi^d hk acquaintance witb the teamed therek 
Vpo» the dea^b qS bis fatl>er in 1 6dd> b^ was chosen, to soc-» 
eeed him> in his places of botanic* professor aed» director of 
tbepbysio gavden. He was elected also the- same year 
reotor* of the univevsity oil Altdopf ;> a post vidiicb. he had 
occupied in 1 6;^. Be lost his* great ftie^d and patwo, 
Ibe marquis of Ansp^auih, ia 170S; but fiH^qd the same 
kindHess- ^j^om- hi^ succeasQV WiUiaru Feeder ie> who pressed 
]|im^ so earnestly to come nearer him, and made ki^ suck 
advantageous o|fer$, that Hofftnaip i^ 1*7 1 Si r^nao^ed- frona 
AMoi^f to Anspaoh, wheite bi^ died i^ 1727. He had auu^^ 

1 mo^ wok XV'I.— RalkFBtlik Am*, U Botan. 



« O F F M A N. «7 

Tied t wife in 16«I| by whota hfe btd five ehildrm. Hi 
left «ev«ral wt>rks of fepdte : riis. two difoertatrons on aim^ 
tomy aoil phyviokgy ; one ea whaft had !Btfiee been caiHeA 
moibid aitotbfny^ efitttled *< Disquiaitid bonpoiis hamttni 
ADatoaiicb-Fathol()gfea ;" ibid. 1713. << Acta LabofotodI 
€faemi4:i AltdorffinV* 17 19^ ^< Syntagma Patbologico-tlitf- 
ri^euiicuoii'* 1788^ in 9 vok. 4toy and <' Sciagrafiifa fo>- 
iBUtutionam Medicaniln^'' a posthumoiis pnUkatton. Mb 
also <&ontkiaed bis fadler's << Fioise AltderSin«.*' ' 

HOFFMANN (FftESiEai€&)^ the most earineht pbyt{w 
ciaii of his itaoie, was born at Halle, in Saxony^ Feb^ 19^ 
1660. He received his eariy education ki hi^ ^mtii^e towil^ 
and bad foade great pirogress in philosophy ai^d the mathe- 
ikiatics, when, ^t the agie bf fifteen^ lie lost htl fatiher and 
mother duriing the prevaienbe of an ^tdeinic disease. Ill 
1679 he commenced the study of medieine at J^na^ and in 
tbe following year attended the eh^tniciBl leettires of Oai- 
}>ar Cramer, at Erfarth ; and, on bis return to Jena^ re- 
ceived tbe degree of M. D. in February l€8i. In 16B2Me 
published an l&xcellelit tradt *^ De Cinnabari Antimomi/' 
which gained htm great applanse^ and k crowd of pupils 
to th^ chefbiclil Iieetures^ which he delivered there. lie 
was then induced to vitit Minden> in W^tphalia, oA the 
invitation of a relation^ And practised there for t^ y^ars 
with tconslderaUe success* He then travailed into HoHaM 
and tbsnce to Engtand> where he ivas received with dit- 
tinction by tnlen of s^cience, and particulhriy by Paul HaN 
man, the botanist^ in th6 fommi*, and Robert Bayle ih tile 
latter* On bik return to Minden^ ih 1€S£^ IM Was lia^de 
physiciah to the garrison thefe^ and in the foMclwibg year 
Was honoured by Fr^eric William, elector of Brahdta<- 
burg, with tbe ap^bintm^nts of physician to bis own per- 
son, and to the whole principality of Minden. ¥^t lie 
quitted that city in 1686| in consequence of an invitatidn 
to settle at Halbersladt^ in Lower Sa^ony^ ab public phy« 
sicitafc Here he published a treatise *^ I><3 insufficientia 
acidi €t viscidii'* by which he overthrew the system of 
Corl>eUu8 Boni^km. In 1689 he iliarried the only daugh- 
ter of Andrew Herstel, an eihinent apothecary^ with whom 
hd had liv^d forty-^ight years in perfect union^ when she 
died. About €bis tim^, j^rederic III.^ dftoerwards first kiilg 
f>f Prtisiia^ feUod^d tbe university of Halle; Andta 1613 

1 i^ictroDj Tol.Xvl. 



3» HOFFMANN. 

Hoffmann Was appointed primary professor of medicine^ 
composed the statutes of that institution, and extended its 
fame and elevated its character, while his own reputation 
procured him admission into the scientific societies at Ber- 
lin, Petersburgh, and Loudon, as well as the honour of 
•being consulted by persons of the highest rank. He was 
called upon to visit many of the German courts in his ca- 
'pacityof physician, and received honours from several 
princes ; from whom some say that he received ample re- 
muneration in proportiou to the rank of his patients ; while 
,others have asserted that he took no fees, but contented 
.himself with his stipends.' Haller asserts that he acquired 
great wealth by various chemical nostrums which be 
vended. In ITO* he accompanied some of the Prussian mi- 
nisters to the Caroline warm baths in Bohemia, on which 
occasion he examined their nature, and published a dis- 
sertation concerning them. On subsequent visits, he be- 
came acquainted with the Sedlitz purging waters, which 
he first introduced to public notice, having published a 
treatise on them in 1717 i and he afterwards extended his 
inquiries to the other mineral waters of Germany. In 1 708 
•he was called to Berlin to take care of the declining health 
of Frederic, and was honoured with the titles of archiater 
and aulic counsellor, together with a liberal salary. After 
V three years residence at this court he returned to Halle, 
and gladly resumed his academical functions. He con- 
tmued also to labour in the composition of his writings ;. 
and in 1718, at the age of 60, he began the publication 
of his " Miediciiia Rationalis Systematica," which was re- 
ceived with great applause by the faculty in various parts 
of Europe, and the completion of which occupied him 
nearly twenty years. He likewise published two volumes 
of *^Consultations," in which he distributed into three 
"centuries,*' the most remarkable cases which had oc- 
curred to him ; and also " Observationum Physico-Che- 
micarum Libri tres," 1722. In 1727 he attended the 
pnnce of Schwartzemburg through a dangerous disease; 
in recompence for which his noble patient created him 
' count palatine. He quitted Halle in 1734, in order to 
pay a short visit to his daughter and son-in-law at Ber- 
lin, and was detained five months by the king of Prussia^ 
. Frederic William, in order to attend hiih during a danger- 
ous illness, by whom he was treated with great honour, 
feeing elevate^ tp the rank of privy counsellor^, and pr§^ 



H O F F M A N N. S9 

senled with a poitrait of the king, set in diamonds. Hoff- 
>mann declined a pressing invitation to settle at Berlin, on 
accoant of bis advanced age, and returned to Halle in 
April 1735. The illness and death of his beloved wife, in 
1737, turned his thoughts to the consolations of religion, 
and he drew up in I^tin a summary of Christian doctrine, 
which, at the. king's desire, was translated into German. 
He continued to perform his academical duties until 1742, 
wbea he died in the month of November, aged eighty-two. 
Frederick Ho£Pmann was an industrious and copious writer. 
Haller has occupied thirty-eight, quarto pages in the enu- 
meration of his works in detail. The principal of these 
were collected, during the life of the author, by two Ge« 
nevese booksellers, and published with his approbation, 
and with a preface from his pen, in 1740, in six vols, folio. 
It was reprinted by the same booksellers, the freres de 
Tournes, in 1748; and itt the following year, having raked 
together every thing which bis pen had touched, they pub- 
lished a supplement in t:hree additional volumes folio, which 
was also reprinted in 1753-4. The writings of Hoffmann 
contain a great mass of practical matter of considerable 
value, partly compiled from preceding writers, and partly 
the result of his own observation ; but they contain also 
many trifling remarks, and not a little hypothetical con- 
jecture, which was indeed a common fault of the times ; 
and in the detail there is considerable prolixity and repeti- 
tion. As a theorist his suggestions were of great valu^^ 
and contributed to introduce that revolution in the science 
of pathology, which subsequent observation has extended 
and confirmed. His doctrine of atony and spasm in the 
living solid, by which he referred all internal disorders tQ 
some ^^ preternatural affection of the nervous system/* 
rather than to the morbid derangements and qualities of 
the fluids, first tprned the attention of physicians from the 
mere mechanical and chemical operations of the animal 
body to those of the primary moving powers of the living 
system. To Hoffmann Dr. Cuilen acknowledges the obli-» 
gations we are under for having first put us into the proper 
train of investigation ; although be himself did not apply 
bis fundamental doctrine so extensively as he might have 
done, and every where mixed with it a humoral pathology 
as incorrect and hypothetical as any other. Hoffmann par"* 
sued the study of practical chemistry with qonsiderable 
ardour, and improved tbe department of pharmacy hy thfi 



42 H O-G A R T H. 

There are still many family pictures by Hogarth existing;^ 
in the style of serious conversation -pieces. What the 
prices of his portraits were, Mr. Nichols strove in vain to 
discover ; but he suspected that they were originally very 
low, as the persons who were best acquainted with them 
chose to be silent on the subject. At Rivenhali, in Essex^ 
the seat of Mr. Western, is a family-picture, by Hogarth, 
of Mr. Western and his mother, chancellor Hoadly, arch- 
deacon Charles Plumptre, the Rev. Mr. Cole of Milton 
BOfi' Cambridge, and Mr. Henry Taylor, the curate there 
173B. In the gallery of Mr. Cole of Milton, was also a 
wbole-lipngth picture of Mr. Western by Hogarth, a striking 
resemblance. He is drawn sitting in his fellow-commonei^^s 
habit, and si^uare cap with a gold tassel, in his chamber at 
Clare-hall, tuver the arch towards the river ; and the artist, 
lis the chimifey could not be expressed, has drawn a cat 
sitting near it, agreeable to his humour, to shew the situ* 
ation. Mr. Western's mother, whose portrait is in the con- 
versation-piece at'Rivenhall, was a daughter of sir Anthony 
Shirley. 

It was Hogarth's custom to sketch out on the spot any 
remarkable face which particularly struck him, and of which 
be wished to preserve the remembrance. A gentleman 
informed his biographer, that being once with him at the 
Bedford coffee-house, he observed him drawing something 
with a pencil on bis nail. Inquiring what had been his 
employment, he was shewn a whimsical countenance of a 
person who was then at a small distance. 

It iiappened in the early part of Hogarth's, life, that a 
nobleman who was uncommonly ugly and deformed, came 
to sit to him for his picture. It was executed with a skill 
that did honour to the artist's abilities ; but the likeness 
was rigidly observed, without even the necessary attention 
to compliment or flattery. The peer, disgusted at this 
coiitnterpart of his dear self, never once thought of paying 
for a reflector that would only insult him with his de- 
formities. Some time was suflered to elapse before the 
artist applied for his money; but afterwards many appli- 
cations were made by him (who had then no need of a 
banker) for payment, but without success. The painter, 
however, at last hit upon an expedient which he knew must 
.alarm the nobleman's pride, and by that means answer his 
purpose/ It was couched in the following card ; ^' Mr. 
Hogarth's dutiful respects to lord >-*-— ^ ; fiading that be 



HOGARTH. ♦» 

does not faiean to have the picture which was dr^Wn for hiin« 
is informed again of Mr. H.'s necessity for the money ; if, 
therefore, his lordship does not send for it in three days^; 
it will be disposed of, with the addition of a tail, and some 
other little appendages, to Mr. Hare, the famous wijd-beast 
man ; Mr. H. having given that gentleman a conditional 
promise of it for an exhibition picture, on his lordship's 
refusal.'' This intimation had the desired effect. The 
pictnre was sent home, and committed to the flames. 

Mr. Walpole has remarked, that if our artist ^^ indufged 
hiis spirit of ridicule in personalities, it never proceeded 
beyond sketches and drawings,^' and wonders ** that her 
never, without intention, delivered the very features of 
any identical person.'' But this elegant writer, who may 
be said, to have received his education in, a court, had per«> 
haps few opportunities of acquaintance amMg the low 
popular characters with which Hogarth occasionally peopled 
his scenes. The friend who contributed this remark, was 
assured by an ancient gentleman of unquestionable veracity 
and acuteness of remark, that almost all the personages 
who attended the levee of the Rake were undoubted por* 
traits ; and that in <^ Southwark Fair,^' and the <' Modern 
Midnight Conversation," as many more were discoverable* 
In the former plate he pointed out Essex the dancing* 
master ; and in the latter, as well as in the second plate to 
the ** EUike's Progress," Figg the prize-fighter. He men- 
tioned several others by name, from his immediate know- 
ledge both of the painter's design and the characters re- 
presented ; but the rest of the particulars by which he 
supported bis assertions, have escaped the memory of our 
informant. While Hogarth was painting the ^^ Rake's Pro- 
gress," he had a summer residence at Islewortb, and never 
failed to question the company who came to see these pic- 
tures if they knew for whom one or another figure was 
designed. When they guessed wrongly, he set them right 

The duke of Leeds has an original scene in the Beggars 
Opera, painted by Hogarth. It is that in which Lucy and 
Polly are on their knees before their respective fathers, to 
intercede for the life of the hero of the piece. All the 
figures are either known or supposed to be portraits. If 
we are not misinformed, the late sir Thomas Robinsoti 
(better known perhaps by the name of 'long sir Thomas) is 
standing in one of the side-boxes. Macheath, unlike his 
spruce representative on our present stage, is a slouching 



4* HOGARTH. 

bully ; aiid Pally appears happily discncumberedl iff svrdl 
a hoop as the daughter of Peachuitt within ih^ reach of 
younger tneoiories has f?orn. The dtike gafe 35/« for this 
picture at Mr. Rich's auction. Another copy of tM same 
scene was bought by the late Sir Wiiiiam Saunderson, and 
is now in the possession of sir Harry Gough. Mr. Walpole 
has a picture of a scene in the same piece, where Macheatb 
is going to execution. In this also the likenesses of Walker 
and Miss Fenton, afterwards duchess of Bolton (the original 
Macheatb and Polly) are preserve. 

In the year 1726, when the aBair of Mary Tofts, tb* 
rabbtt-breederofGodalming, engaged the public attention^ 
a few of the principal surgeons subscribed their guinea 
a-piece to tiogeith, for an engraving from a ludicrous 
sketch he had made on that very popular subject. This 
plate, amongst other portraits, contains that of St. AndriS^ 
then anatomist to the royal household, and in high credit 
as a surgeon. 

In 1727, Hogarth agreed with Morris^ an upbotsterer, to 
furnish, him with a design on canvas, representing the ele- 
ment of earth, as a pattern for tapei^tfy. The work not 
being performed to the satisfaction of Morris, he refused 
to pay for it, and the artist, by a suit at law, recovered 
the money^ 

In 17S0, Hogarth married the only daughter of sir James 
Tbornhill, by whom he had no child. This union^ indeed^ 
was a stolen one, and consequently without the approbation 
of sir James, who, considering the youth of his daughter, 
then barely eighteen, and the slender Bnances of her hus<- 
band, as yet an obscure artist, was not easily reconciled to 
^he match. Soon after this period, however, he began his 
^^ Harlot's Progress," and was advised by lady Thornhill 
to have some of the scenes in it placed in the way of his 
father-in-law. Accordingly, one mortiing early, Mrs. Ho- 
garth undertook to convey several of tbem into his dining- 
room. When be arose, he inquired whence they came ; 
and being told by whom they were introduced, he cried 
out, <* Very well ; the man who can furnish representatiotia 
like these, can also maintain a wife without a portion." He 
designed this remark as an excuse for keeping his purse- 
strings close ; but, soon after, became both reconciled and 
generous to the young people. An allegorieal cieling by 
sir James Thornhill is'at the bouse of the iaie Mn Hoggins, 
at Headly-park, Hants. The Mibjeet of it ia the story of 



BOGARTR 43 

£epbyru9 and Flora ; and the figure ef a satyr and smM 
others were painted by Hogartb. 

In 17S2 he venlur^d to attack Mr. Pope, in a plate eaMed 
^ The Man ef Taste," containing a Tiew of the gate ef 
BurlingtoR«house, with Pope wbite«>washing it, and be^ 
^Mtttering the duke of Chandos's coach. This plate was 
intended as a satire on the translator of Homer, Mr. Keoi 
the architect, and the earl of Burlington. It was fortunate 
ibr Hosarth that he escaped the lash of the first. Either 
Hogarth's obsourity at that time was bis protection, or the 
bara was too prudent to exasperate a painter who had 
ahready gi?ea saeh proof of his abilities for satijre* What 
must he have felt who could complain of the ^pictured 
abape**^ prefixed to *^ GuUiveriana,'* *' Pope Alexander^ 
Supreoiacy and InAtllibiNty examined,^* &e. by Ducket^ 
and other pieces^ bad such an artist as Hogarth undertaken 
to express a certain transaction recorded by €ibber > • 

Soon after his marriage, Hogarth bad summer iodgrings 
at 8out)i^ Lambeth; and, being intimate with Mr. Tyers, 
contributed' to the icnproTement of the Spring Gardens at 
yauxhaW, by the bint ef embeUisbtng them with pamtings, 
some of whicb were the suggestions of his own truly comic 
penciL Foe his assistance, Mr. Tyers gratefuNy presented 
kim witb a gold ticket of admission foe himself and bis 
friends, inscribed 

IN PERPETUAM I^ENEFICII MB^fORlAM. 

This ticket remained in the possession of his widow, and 
was by ber oceasibnally employed. 

lu (7^3 bis genius became coospieiiously known. The 
third scene (df his ^^Harlot^s Progress,^* introduced him to 
the notice of the great. At a board of treasury which was 
held a day ec two^ aftef the appearance of that print, a 
copy of it was shewn by one of the lords, as cpntadning, 
amon^ Other excej|fenci€s, a striking likeness of sir Sohn 
Gonsoo. It gave universal satisfaction : from the treasury 
each tordt repaired to the print- siiep f^r a copy of it, and 
Hogarth rose eompletel^jr into fame. 

The ingeoious abb^ du Bos has often complained', that 
no history- paki^ei? of his time went through a aeries of 
actions, and thus, like an< historian, painted the successire 
fortuue of an hero, from the cradle to the ^ave. What' 
Du^ Bos wished to see done, Hogarth performed. He 
launches out his young adventurer a simpte: girl upon the 
town, and conducts her through ail the vicissitudes of 



46 HOGARTH. 

wretchedness to a premature death. This was painting to 
the understanding and to the heart ; none had ever before 
made the pencil subservient to the purposes of morality 
and instruction*; a book like this is fitted to every soil and 
every observer, and he that runs may read. Nor was the 
success of Hogarth confined to his figures. One of his 
excellencies consisted in what may be termed the furniture 
of his pieces ; for as in sublime and historical representa- 
tions the seldomer trivial circumstances are permitted to 
divide the spectator's attention from the principal figures^ 
the greater is their force ; so in scenes copied from fitmiliar 
life^ a proper variety of little domestic images contributes 
to throw a d^ree of verisimilitude on the whole. ^' The 
Rake's levee- room,'* says Mr. Walpole, *^ the nobleman'a 
dining-room, the apartments of the husband and wife in 
Marriage a la Mode, the alderman's parlour, the bed* 
chamber, and many others, are the history of the manners 
of the age." The novelty and excellence of Hogarth's 
performances soon tempted the needy . artist and print* 
dealer to avail themselves of his designs, and rob him of 
the advantages which he was entitled to derive from them« 
This was particularly the case with the ^^ Midnight Con- 
versation," the " Harlot's" and ♦* Rake's Progresses," and 
Others pf his early works. To put a stop to depredations 
like these on the property of himself and others, and to 
secure the emoluments resulting from his own labours, as 
Mr. Walpole observes, he applied to the legislature, and 
obtained an act of parliament, 8 Geo. II. cap. 38, to vest 
an exclusive right in designers and engravers, and to restrain 
the multiplying of copies of their works without the con<? 
sent of the artist. This statute was drawn by his friend 
Mr. Huggins, who took for his model the eighth of queen 
Anne, in favour of literary property ; but it was not so 
accurately executed as entirely to remedy the evil ; for, in 
a cause founded on it, which came before lord Hardwicke 
in chancery, that excellent lawyer determined, that no 
assignee, claiming under an assignment from the original 
inventor, could take any benefit by it. Hogarth, imme- 
diately after the passing of the act, published a small 
print, with emblematical devices, and an inscription ex* 
pressing his gratitu(|e to the three branches of the legisla- 
ture. Small copies of the '.^ Rake's Progress" were piib* 
lisbed by his permission. 



HOGARTH. ^ 4» 

In 1745, finding that, however great the success of his 
prints might be, the public were not indined to take his 
pictures oiF his hands, he was induced to offer some of 
them, and those of the best he had then produced, for 
•disposal by way of auction ; but after a plan of his own, 
-viz. by keeping open a book to receive biddings from the 
^rst day of February to the last day of the same month, at 
12 o^clock. The. ticket of admission to the sale was his 
print of " The £attle of the Pictures," a humourous pro^ 
Auction, in which he ingeniousJy upheld his assertions 
concerning the preference so unfairly given to old pictures^ 
And the tricks of the dealers in tbem. 
• The pictures thus disposed of were, £. s. d. 

The six of the Harlot's Progress, for 88 4 

Eight of the Rake's Progress ;184 16 a 

Morning 21 O 

Noon 38 17 O 

Evening • 39 18 

Night , ^ 27 6 O 

Strolling Players dressing in a Bam.. 27 6 O 

In the same year he acquired additional reputation by 
the six prints of ^^ Marriage a la Mode, which may be 
regarded as the ground- work of a novel called *'The Mar- 
riage Act," by Dr. Sfaebbeare, and of '^ The Clandestine 
Marriage." 

Hc^arth had prcgected a '^ Happy Marriage," by way of 
counterpart to his '^ Marriage a la Mode.*' A desugn for 
the first of his intended six plates he had sketched out iu 
colours ; and the following is as accurate an account of it 
as could be furnished by a gentleman who long ago etgoyed 
only a few minutes sight of so great a curiosity. The time 
supposed was immediately after the return of the parties 
from church. The scene lay in the hall of an antiquated 
country mansion. On one side the married couple were 
represented sitting. Behind them was a group of their 
young friends of both sexes, in the act of breaking bride* 
cake over their heads. In front appeare<| the father of the 
young lady, grasping a bumper, and drinking, with a 
seeming roar of exultation, to the future happiness of her 
and her husband. By his side was a table, covered With 
refreshments. Jollity rather than politeness ^Was the desig* 
nation of his character. Under the screen of the hall, 
several rustic. musicians in grotesque attitudes, together 
with servants, tenants, &c. were arranged* Through the 



> 



«« HO Q ART tt 

ftrch by wfaicli ttSe room was enteibd^ tifae eye ira^ l^d ^\bng 
m pasfsige into, the Idccheny Wfaicli ' afforded a glimpse of 
•acerdbtat luxuty. Before tbie dripping-pan stood a well- 
fed dif ine, in his gown arid cassock, with bis watch in bis ' 
Kand, giving directions tor a cook, dressed ail in ^liite, wb^ 
was employed in* basting a bauncb of irenison. Atpoh^ 
tbc^ faces of the principal figures, none but Ibal of tbe 
young lady was completely finished. Hogarth bad beefi 
ofcen reproached for bis inability to impart gt'ace and dig- 
nity to bis heroines. The bride was tfaereforei meari.t tb 
i4ndicate his pencil from so degrading an imputtation. Th^ 
effort, however, was unsuccessfuL The girLwas certainlif^ 
preity ; but her features, if we may use the term, wer^ 
uneducated. She might have altractedtiotice as a chamber- 
maid, but would bave fajled to extort applausle as a vlbma^n 
of fashion. The clergyman and bis cuLLaary associate were 
more laboured tbaa any other parts of the picture. It isi 
natural for us to dwell longest on that division of a subject 
which is most congenial to our private feelings* The 
painter sat down with a resolution to delineate beautj^ 
improved by art, but seems, as usual, to bave deviated into, 
ineanness, or could not help neglecting his or^nal pur- 
pose, to luxuriate in such ideas as his situation in early life 
bad fitted him to express. He footid himself, in abort. 
Out of his element in the parlour, and therefore hastened 
in quest of ease and amusement, to the kitcbeo iire.. 
ChuFC&ill, with more force than delicacy, once observed 
of him, that be only painted the backside of natitre. X% 
most be allowed, that sock an artist, however excellent^n 
bis vralb^ was better qualified to represeat the low-^borii 
parent than the royal preserver of a foundlings. 

Soon after the peace of Aix la Cbapelle, be t^nt a^ver t0 
France, and was taken into custody at Calais, wbi^be.was 
drawijig the gate of thail towtt, a circumstanea wbieb he 
has; reeqrded in his picture entitled '^ O the Roast Beef of 
Old England !'* published March 96, 1749=. He was mtaif. 
alty carried before the governor as a spy, and,, after a Tery 
strict examination, committed a prisoner to Gransife, hiei 
laiKilord, on hi» promise that Hogarth should not g^ oot of. 
bis house till he was to embark for England. . Soon, after 
tbift period he purchased a small house at Chiswick^ whete. 
be usually passed the greatest part of tbesuamec seasoo^ 
3ret not without dccasioaal vi^itato kia house in LeicaUear^ 
fields. 



II Q O A H T H. 49 

. Ifi 1753 be uppttred 19 ibe worid in the character 4>f aa 
Autbor^ and published a 4io volume entitled ** The Analysis 
pf Beaucy^ written with .a view of fixing the fluctuating 
ideas of Taste/* In this performance be shews by a variety 
Qf examples! that a curve is the line .of beauty, and that 
round swelling figures are most pleasing to the eye ; and 
the truth of bis opinion has been countenanced by subse*^ 
^uenl writers on tbe subject In this v\ork|. the leading 
idea pf which was bieroglypbically thrown out in a frontis* 
piece to his works in 1745, he acknowledges himself in- 
debted to bis friends for assistance^ and particularly to one 
gentleman for his corrections and amendments of at leajst 
a third part of the wording. This friend was Dr. Benjamin 
Hoadiy tbe physician, who carried on the work to about tbe 
third part (chap, ix ), and theti, through indisposition, de- 
clined the friendly office with regret. Mr. Hogarth applied 
to his neighbour, Mr. Ralph ; but it was impossible for two 
such persons to agree, both alike vain and positive. He 
proceeded no further thaii about a sheet, and they then 
parted friends, and seem .to have continued such. 7*he 
kind office of finishing the work and superintending the^ 
publication was lastly taken up by Dr. Morell, who went 
through the remainder of the book. The preface was iu 
like manner corrected by the Rev. Mr. TownIt*y. The; 
family of Hogarth rejoiced when the last sheet, of the 
** Anaiys^*^ was printed off; as the frequent disputes he 
had wiUi bis coadjutors in the progress of the work, did 
not oiucb harmonize his disposition. This work was trans- 
lated into German by Mr. Mylins, when in England, under 
tbe author's inspection ; and the translation was printed in 
London, price five dollars. A new and correct edition 
was, in 1754, proposed for publication at Berlin, by Ch. 
Fn Vok, with an explanation of Mr. Hogarth's satirical 
prints, translated from the French ; and an Italian transia* ^ 
tion was published at Leghorn in 1761. 

Hogarth had one failing in common with most people who 
attain wealth and eminence without the aid of liberal ed.u« 
cation. He affected to despise every kind of knowledge 
which he did not possess. Having established his fiime 
with little or no obligation to literature, he either conceived 
it to be needless, or decried it because it lay out of his^ 
reach. His seiitiments, in short, resembled those of Jack 
Cade, who pronounced sentence on the clerl^ of Chatham,, 
because \ie could write and read. Tilj, in evil hour, thia 

Vou XVIIL E 



\ 



so RO O ikIt'Plll 



eelellirated artist coiiraneiiced author, and #a»' obligecTtO 
employ tbe friends already inerftiofied to coFre<:t bis f^ Ana^ 
lysis of Beauty,^' he dld-not s^em to havediscovere^d thiaM 
even spelHng was a neeei^sary qiialifioatiou ; and yet be 
had vetHured to ridi€ule>the late Mr. Rich's deficieificy as 
t6 tlhis particular, in a n^te irhicb iies before the *ItsLke 
whose play is refused while he remains iiv eonfiiicaieiit fol^ 
debt. Before tbe time o# 'which we are liow sp^akitfigy Otfie 
of our artist's cooinion topics of declamation,' was the use-^ 
lessness of' books to a man of bis profession. In ^Beer^ 
^reel, among other volumes consigned by him to tbe 
pastry-eook, we find ^^TurnbuU on Ancient Painting,'' m 
freattse which Hogarth should have been able to under- 
stand before he ventured to condemii. Garrtch himseliv 
however, was not more ductile to flattery. A word in- 
&vour of Sigismunda^" might have coc^maoded a proof 
print, or forced an original sketch out of our artist's hands.- 
The person who supplied this remark owed one of Hogarth's; 
scarcest performances to the success of a compliment^ 
which nHght have seemed extravagant even to sir Godfreys 
Kneller. 

The following well-authenticated story will also serve ta. 
shew how much more easy it is to detect ill-placed or hy« 
perbohoal adulation respecting others, than when applied 
to ourselves. Hogarth being at dinner with the celebrated 
Cheselden, and some other company, was told .that Mr.* 
John Freke, surgeon of St. Bartholomew's hospital^ a few* 
evenings before at Dick's coffee-house, had asserted tHab^ 
Greene was as eminent in composition as Handel. ^< That- 
fellow Freke," replied Hogarm, ^^ is always shooting bis^ 
bolt absurdly one way or another ! Hafidel is a giant ii^ 
music ; Greene only a tight Florimel kind of a compjoser.'^ 
— ** Ay,*' said the informant, " but at the same time Mr* 
Freke declared you were as good a portrait-^painter a» 
Vandyck." — " There he was in the right,'? adds Hogarth v 
* ** aiid so I am, give me my time, and let me choose my 
suWect!'* 

Hogarth was the most absent of men. At table he wouid- 
•sometimes turn round his chair as if he had finished eat* 
ing, and as suddenly would return it, and commencie hi» 
meal again. He once directed a letter to Dr. Hoadly, 
thus: "To the Doctor at Chelsea." This epistle, how- 
ever, by good luck, did not miscarry ; and was preserved" 
hj the late chancellor of Winchester^ as a plea&ant memo^ 



hooarth: St 

ml of his fnend't extraoirdiiiliry itmlteatioti. Awkhet ire^^ 
markafate instance of Hogarth's absence was rekited by 006 
of bis intimate friendsi 8oon after he aet up his camage^^ 
he had occasion to paya visift to the lord-mayor^ Mr. Btek-" 
ibrd. When, he went^ the vreatfaer was fine ; but bustn^a* 
detained^ him till a violent shower of rain came on. H^* 
was let cot of the mansion-house foy a different door from 
diat at which' he entered ; and, seeing the rain, began im<^' 
niediatelj to oati for a haokney-<coacb. Not one was to be' 
met with on any of the neighbouring stands ; and the ar-^ 
dst sallied Forth to brave the storm, and actuaOy reached 
Leicester- fielda without bestowing a thought oh bis own* 
carriage) till Mrs; Hogarth (surprised to see. him so wet; 
aad splashed) asked him where be had left it. 
- A specimen of Hogarth^s propensitf to merriment, on 
the most trivial occasions, is observable in one of bis'tsards' 
requesting the coQipany of Dr. Arnold King to dine with 
bioi' at the Mitre. Within a circle, to which a knife and 
fork are the supporters, tb^ written part is contained* In 
the centre- is drawn a pye« with a mitre on the top of it ; 
and the invitation concludes with the following sport on 
three of* the Greek lettenn^to Eta Beta Pi. The rest of 
the inacriptioo is not very accurately spelt A quibble by 
Hogaitb is surely as respectable as a conundrum by Swift. 

In one of the' early exhibitions at Spring-gardens, a very 
pleasing amaU picture by Hogarth made its first appear- 
ance. It was painted for the earl of Cbarlemont, in whose 
coUectiein'itrefimna; and was entitled '' Picquet, or Virtue in 
Danger,^' and shews usayounglady, who, during a /^^^-d-^^le;, 
had just losf all her money and jewels to a handsome officer 
of her own age. He is represented in the act of offering hef 
the contents of his hat,, in which are bank-notes, jewels, and 
trinkets, with the' hope of exchan^ng them for a softer 
acquisition, and more'd^licate plunder. On the chimney-' 
piece a wacch*case and a figure of Time over it, with tbia 
motto — ^NUNCc Hogarth has caught his heroine during 
this moment of hesitation, this struggle with herself, and 
has marked her feelings with uncommon success. 

In the ** MiaerS Feast," Mr. Hogarth thought proper 
to pillory an" Isaac Shard, a gentleman proverbially avari- 
eioas. 'Hearing this, the son of sir Isaac, tb^ late Isaac? 
KadltUB Siiard,esq. a young man of spirit, just returned 
from bis tcoveis, calfedat the painter^s to see the picture ; 



wz HO & A B T H. 

and tellong the retti Mkipg the Cicerone <* wbedier tbiit 
odd figure was intended for any particular person ^J* oil 
his replying, '* that it was tbdught to be very like one sir 
.Ispac Shard,** he imoiediately drew bis sword, find slashed 
the canvas Hogarth appeajred insuntly in great wrath ; 
tp whom Mr. Sbajrd calmly justified what he had donci say* 
ipg, *< that this was a very unwarrantable lijcence \ that 
he was the injured party's son, and that he was ready to 
defend any suit at law ;'' which, however, was never insti- 
Uited. 

. About 1757, his brodier-ip*law, Mr. ThombiU, resigned 
the plaiee of king's seijeant-painter in favour, of Mr. Ho- 
garth« '* The last memorable event in our artist's Jife,'^ as 
Mn Walpole observes* '* was his quarrel with Mr. Wilkei, 
in wbich^ if Mr. Hogarth did not commence direct bpstili* 
ties on the latter, he at least obliquelv gave the first of** 
fence, by >n attack, oq the friends and party of that geu* 
tleman. This conduct was the more surprising, as he bad 
all his life avoided dipping his pencil in political contests, 
and had early refused a very lucrative offer that was made, 
to engage him iu a set of prints against the head of a court- 
party* Without eotmng into the merits of the cause^ I 
shall only state the fact, in September 1762^ Mr. Hogarth 
published his print of f The Times.' It was answiered by 
Mr. Wilkes in a severe ^ North Briton.* On this the painter 
exhibited the caricatura of the writer. Mr. Chiircblll, the 
poet, then engaged in the war, and wrote his ^ Epistle to 
Hogarth,' not the brightest of bis works, and in which the 
severest strokes fell on a defect tbat the painter had nei- 
ther caused nor could amend— rhis age \ and which, how- 
ever, was neither remarkable nor decrepit ; much less had 
it impaired his talenu, as appeared by bis having composed 
but six months before, one of his most capital works, the 
sadre on. the Metbodii^ts. In revenge for this epistle^ Ho- 
garth caricatured Churchill, under the form of a canonical 
bear, with a club and a pot of porter— >1C vi/u/^ tu dignus 
K Aic—* never did two angry men of their abilities throw 
mud with less dexterity. 

: <* When Mr. Wilkes was the second time brought from 
the Tower to Westminster^ball, Mr. Ho|pdrth skulked be* 
hind in a corner of the gallery of the court of Common 
Pleas ; and while the chief justice Pratt, with the elo« 
quence and courage of old Rome, was enforcing the great 



ttaGABTa 53 

jpKoeipIes of Magna Ghana, and the English constitution^ 
while every breast from htm cau^t the holy flame of li- 
berty, the painter was wholly employed in caricatuiing 
the person of the man, while all the rest of his fellow* 
citizens were animated in his cause, for they knew it to 
be their own cause, that of tlieir country, and of its laws. 
It was declared to be so a few hours after by the unanimous 
sentence of the judges of that court, and they were all 
present 

'' The print of Mr. Wilkes was soon after published, 
irwwnjtom the l^e by William Hogarth, It must be al- 
lowed^ to be an excellent compound caricatura, or a cariea* 
tura of what nature bad already caricatured.' I know but 

' one sbort apology that can be made for thi$'gentleman, or, 
to speak more properly, for the person of Mr. Wilkes. It 

' is/ that he did not make himself, and that he never waa 
solicitous about the case of his soul, as Sh^d^spealHe calls It, 
only so far as to keep it clean and in health, \ xkexet beard 
that he once hung over the gUs^ stream, like another 
Narcissus, admiring the image in it, nor that he ever stole 
an amorous look at his counterfeit in a side mirrdur. His 
formi such as it is^ ought X^ give bin)' nd pain, because i( 
is capable of giving pleasure to othersi I f^ney he finds 
fainiseif tolerably happy in the clay-cottage tb which be is 
tenant for life, because he has leartit to keep it in good 
jlrd^r. While the share bf health anil animal spirits, which 
h^ven hsM giveii him, sh^aUbold out^ I icah scarcely ima* 
gine he wiirbe one inoinent peevish about the outside of 
so precarious^' so temporary a habitation, or will even be 
brought to own, tn^mium Cdlta male habitat. Monsieur 
ainiqllagS. 

'^* Mr. Churchill was exasperated at^ this personal attack 
on his friend. H^ soon alter published the * Epistle to 
Wilfilun Hogarth,' and'tobk' for the motto, ut pietura pdesin 
Mr. Hogarth's t^Y&i^e against the po^t teritiinatrid* in, 

' vad(^^if)g lip an old print of a ptig-dog ai\d a. bear, which 

 he published under the title of ^ The Bruiser C. Churchill 
(once the Revd.!)' in the character Qfa^ Russian Hercules. 

At .the time when these hostilities ^ere carrying on ip^ ^ 

;i^nii|er s^^ Vir^ilent and disgraceful to all the parties, Ha-> 

^"' 1^1^ Wsis v^^ declining in bis health. In 1762, ho 

'' cdmpiaShed of an inward pain, wbicb> continuingi brought 



M H O G A E T U. 

on a general decay that proved incurable *. This I ast year 
of his life be employed in re-toucbing bis plates, witli the 
assistance of several engravers whom be took with him to 
Chiswick. Oct. 25, 17.64, he was conveyed from, theilce 
to Leicester-6elds, in a very weak couditioiH yet remark* 
ably cheerful ; and^ receiving an' agreeable letter from the 
American Dr. Franklin, drew op a rough * draught of an 
answer to it ; but going to bed, be was seized with a 
Vomiting; upon which he ruog his bell with such violence 
that he broke it, and expired about two hours afterwards, 
'His disorder was an aneurism ; and his corpse was interred 
in, the church-yard at Chiswick, where a monument is 
erected to his memory, with an inscription by his friend 
'Mr. Garrick. 

', It may be truly observed of Hogarth, that all his powers 
!6f delighting were restrained to his pencil* Having rarely 
been admitted into polite circles, none of his sharp corners 
liad been rubbed off, so that he continued to the last a 
gross uncultivated man. The slightest oootradictioa trans- 
jported him into rage. To some confidence in himself be 
was certainly entitled ; for, as a comic painter, he could 
iave claimed no honour that would not 'most readily have 
lieen allowed, him ; but he was at once unprincipled and 
Variable in his political conduct and attachments. He is 
j^lso said to have beheld the rising eminence and p(q>a- 
larity of sir Joshua Reynolds with a di&gree of envy ; and, 
if we are not misinforo^ed, frequently spoke with asperity 
|)oth of him and his performances.. Justice, however, ob- 
liges us to add, that our artist was liberal, hospitable, and 
the most pdnctual of paymasters ; so that, in spite of the 
emoluments his works had procured to him, he left but an 
inconsiderable fortune to his widow. His plates indeed 

^ It maybe worth obsenring, that ed in November 1764, the compiler of 

in *' Ivdependeoce," a poem whfch was this artrcle took occasion to Inment that 
not published by Churchill tiU U|e last " -^— ^Seavee bad Ae friendly tear, 

week 'of September 1764, he con<<iders For Hogarth.shed, escaped the generoua 
his antagonist as a departed Oenitis ; ' eye 

^ ^ogarth WDuFd draw him (Envy jnnst Of feeling PUy , when again h flow*t] 



allow) [now.*' F«r Cburohill*! fate. Ill can we 

JPin to' the life, wa$ Hogarth liyinc. ' the loss' [ally'd 

How little did the sportive satirist ima- Of Fancy's twin-bom offspring, close 

gine the power of pleasing was so soop In enev|^ of thought, tboogh dUTerent 

to cease in both \ Hogarth died in four paths Tpassions sway'd 

weeks after the publication of this pdem; They sought for fame f Though jarring 

and Churchill surviv^ bim but nine The living artists, let the funeral wreath 

flays. In some lioM which were pnat- UuUcf their mtwory I" 



HOG A R T H. ;A5 

were fpch-jcesqacces ^ o ber ^b could not speedily be ex- 
bf^Qst^d. I Sw^ ^ ^is domestics bad lived many years in 
Jiis serviq^i a ^ircunisMLnce ibat always reflects credit on-^ 
oaast^i^. . Of most of these be painted strong likenesses^ o^ 
a csuivaf .wbicb was lefy in Mrs. Hogarth's possession. 
. His widow had al#Q ^ portrait of ber husband, and |in ex- 
•CQllent bust of him by lio^biUiac, a strong resemblance ; 
i^d i»ae of; bis brotber^ip-ipiwi Mr. Tbornhill, much resenv- 
JbUeg the countenance of Mrs. Hogarth Si^veral of his 
portraits also remaine^din ber possession, but at ber death 
were disperseicU 

OC Hogarth's smi^Uer plates many were destroyed. When 
be W9Pt€^d a piece .of copper on a sudden^ he would take 
any plate from . which , he had already worked off such a 
,niimb(^ of impressipos as be supposed be should sell. He 
then seii^ it to be effaced, beat out, or otherwise altered 
.to his- pr^seiS^ purp^e^ 

The fpUt^. whiph remained in bis possession were se-^ 
cor^d itojMr^ Hogarth by, his will, dated Aug. 12, 1764^ 
chargeable wiib .&u it^iniiity of 80/, to his sister Anne, who 
surviy^ bioi. Wh^u^ on the dei^ of his other sister, she 
left off the. business in. which she was engaged, be kindly 
took bet home, and generously supported her, making her, 
at the s.aoie Ume, useful in the disposal of bis prints^ Want 
.of teod^B^ss and liberality to his relations was not amon^ 
,tbe failings, of Hogarth^ 

In .174$» one Lauocdiot Burton was appointed naval 
officer at QeaU Hogarth had seen him by accident; and 
on a pie^e,^ pape(| .previc^usiy impressed by a pl^in cop- 
per •platj^|:. -drew bis %ure with a pen in. imitation of a 
coarse etpbing. He w^g represented on a lean Canterbury 
haoky with ^ ^ot^le sticking, out of hia pocket; and uitder*' 
Death, wf^ 'an inscription^ intimating that he was going ^ 
doilv'n. to. take, possess! (H).pfbi$. place.. This was inclosed to 
bim in '.a. letter ; and,,sQme of bis friends^ who were in.the 
seereti protested the drawing to be a print wbich they bad 
seen i«xpp$^d ly> sale at the:sbops in London ; a cir^iii^ir 
stance. tb^. p^t bitn in a vi<>lent passion, during whigh bf. 
wrptCiW Abjiiilive letter to. Hogarth, wbosQ miin^e was^ub«- 
Bcrib^d ibo tbe work* Put,.af^^ po^r.'^non's tormentors 
badtopt bim in.suspepsethrpugbout an, uneasy three weeks, 
tbey^rdi^^dt^o him tbajc it w#s no engravir)gi. but a sketeb 
with a jpienk (kOtl ink. . He then became so perfectly reoon* 
ipiied to bi» re«ettibbiiH^| jbteftt be sbewQ^ it with e^iUatioa 



5C BOGAET^ 

to admiral Vernon, and aU the res^ of bU fiiendg; lo 195 9^ 
Hogarth returning with a firiend from a visit to Mn Rich 
at Cowley, stopped bis chariot, and get out, being ^uck 
by a large drawing (with a coal) on the wail of an alehouse^ 
He immediately made a sketch of it with tfiiim|lb ; it was 
a St. Gt orge and the Dri^on^ all in straight iiiies. 

Hogarth made one essay in scolpiiirew He wanted a 

sign to distinguish his boose in Leieoi^er'rfieldt ; and tfaink^ 

ing none more proper than the Grotden Bead, he out of a 

mass of corlfL made up.of severai thicknesses compacted tOr 

gether, carved a bust of Vandyck, which be gilt end 

pimped over his door. It decayed, and was -succeeded by 

a head in plaster, which in its turn was supplied k^y a heoSd 

of sir Isaac Newton. H/:>garth also moiielled another re« 

semblance of Vaiid) ck in cUy ; which has also perisbedi 

His works, as lus elegant biogmpher has well o4iserved| are 

bis history; and the curioMS are highly indebted to Mhr« 

Walpole ibr. a catalogue of bis printi^, drawn t^p from- his 

own valuable collection, in 177i* Bui as neither that ea^ 

talogue, nor iiis appendix to it in 1 780, have given tbe 

whole of Mn-Hogartb*s labours, Mr. Nicbolsi including 

Mr. Walpole-s c^aJoguC) has endeavoured, f^om later 4^is«« 

eoveries of our artistes prints in other colief|ioH&, to ar^ 

range them in chroooiogical order. IPbere are three large 

pictures by Hogartht Over the ^tarin the ebureb^ of Sli 

Mary Redcliff at 6i:ialol. . Mr. Forrest, of York4>uilding9^ 

was in possession of a sketch in oil ofourf>avioiir(<1esigrfced 

as a pattern for painted glass) ; and several drawings do* 

scriptive of the incidents th$ithappeaed during a five days^<: 

tour by land and water Tbe parties ^ere Messrs. Hoga#tfa^{ 

Tbornhill (son of the late sir James), Scott .{an tngeniooa 

landseape-'painter of that name), Tothall, . and ^ forresfe 

They set out at midnight^ at a moment^s werniiigy ff!om> 

the Bedford-Arms uvero* with each a shirt, in his pocket^l 

They had all their particular departments^. Hcfpanb ^and* 

Scott made the drawings; Tbornhill the ma|pi;.TotbaU: 

faithfully dtscbarged the joint offices q$ tireasiirer.and et^s 

terer; and Forrest wrote the journal They were^ont fivo^ 

days only ; and on the second night after their retarD^-ibtf^ 

book was produced, bound, gilt, and lettered, and iread^ 

at the same tavern to the above parties tb^ present^^ 

Mr. Forresit had also drawings of two of the m€Hp))^ll»Li^ i^ 

markably fat men, in ludit;rous situations. Etchings from 

all these have been inade^aad'fbelotirnat-^ been printed^ 



H G A R t B. ij 

A i^«iy*efilertmdiig woric, bjr Mr. John Iriel^lid^^entitle^ 
^< Hpl^nbilhMtfaiedt^ was ptrblished by Metsrs. Boydet^t 
ia 1799, wld'iits^shide been reprinted: It conUins tiiife 
MoaHrplatdi wiginalty engraved for % ptrltry work, calte<i 
^^ Ht^Mk moidiixed/' and aa* «itact aecoutit of all iriii 
prints. 9ilice that, ^ bav« appcfared ^ Grapbic illastration^ 
^f'^Hopnrtta} -from (nottfres, 4trawtngs, and scarce prints, in 
tile posseision^of ^MAoel IretamI/' Some curious articled 
were Gonuined in this votume. A sopplementary volinne 
%cr<^ Uogxnk tlhistrated,*^ has more recently appeared, con* 
tainiiig the"^ original mannsertpt of the Analysis, with tb^ 
iS^t sketebes of the figiures.' 2. A Supplemem to the Ana^ 
}ysia, ^e^er flablisbed. >' 3. Original Memdranda. 4. Ma<^ 
teriads Ibr'bik ^own Life, &c. But the most ample Me* 
Inoirs of Hogarth ^ are conuifned in Mr. Nichols's spiendidt 
poblication of bis life sind works, 2 toIs. Ai<r^ with cbpies 
of all bis ptetes accurately redo^ed.* Z 

HOLBEIN {IcmN), better known by bis €^rma|[i nailiift 
Hans HolbefR) a ifiost excetient painter, wis born, accord^ 
faig to some accounts, at BAsil in Switsserland in 1498, hii 
Charles Patin places bis birth three years earlier, supposin^^ 
k tBeryimproteil^e that he cotrid have arrived at such ma^ 
tority of jmlgment and ' perfection in painting, as be shewed 
m 1514 and IS re, if be had been bom so late as 1498? 
He learned tfye rudiments of Us ^trt from bts father Johii! 
IJoMbN^n,' Who was a paititer, and badiremoved from Augs«^ 
burg., to Basifl ; but the sufiertority of his genius soon raised 
bbn above his master. He painted out SaViour^s Passiott 
ih the tewn-konse of Basil ; and in the fish-market of the 
saltier toiii^,a^ Dance tyf peasants, and Deatb^s dance. Tbescf 
pieces were ekceediilgly "striking to the curious ; and £ras» 
mus wat so affe<Sted with them, that be requested of hii&; 
to Arturhis picture, and was ever after his friend. HbU 
bdn, vi the me^n time, though a great genius and fine s(r 
tfsfe, had^ wo ^gaiice or delicacy of tnanners, but was gtveit 
tii'-wine and-' ve veiling company; for which be met with 
tbe>M)owing getitle rebuke fh>m Erasmus; When Eras*^ 
laaa wrote his ^ Moii» Bncdtnium,^ or ** Pan^ric upon 
Solly,^ iie sent-a eopy of it to Hans Holbein,' who was so 
iAe»ieA*w4tb tbe several deikcriptions of foHy there given,- 
tfalat^^e'4es«gn^d them all in the margiti;* and where be 
bad> net YMm to draw the wholi figures, p«i^ed h |>iece of 



H 



«» 9 9 I- B E IN. 

paper to the leayes. He <tlien (returned \\ie book to Era^ 
musy who seeing that he had xejpresented an amorous fo^I 
by the figure of a fatJDutch lovef» hugging bis bottle and 
his lass, wrote under it, *' Hans JHolbein," and so sent it 
iback to the painter. Holbein^ l^ow^ver, .t;o be revenged 
of hin»^ drew the picture of Erasmusfor ^.oiusty book- worm, 
v^ho busied himself in scraping together old MSS. and an^ 
ticjuities, and wrote under it f' Adagia.^* , 

It is said, that an English nobleman, who accidentally 
saw some of Holbein's pprform^nces at Basil, invited him 
to come to England, where his art was in high esteein ; and 
promised him great encouragenaent from Henry VIII. ; but 
Holbein was too much engage^l in his plea&ures to listen to 
so advantageous a proposal.' . A few years after, however, 
moved by the,i|ecessit»es^to yvhich ^n increased family ancl 
Eis own mismanagement had reduced him, as well as by 
the persuasions of his friend Erasmus, who told him hovif 
improper, a country his own was to do justice to km merit, 
he consented to go to Epgland : aiul he consented the more 
readily,^, as he did not live on the happiest terms with hi$ 
wife, who is said to have been a. termagant. In bis journey 
thither . he, stayed some days, at Strasburg, and applying to 
a very great master in rtb^at city for work, was taken in, 
and ordered tq give a specimen of hi3. skill. Holbein 
finished a piece with great^ care, and paint^ a fly upoii 
the most conspicuous part of it ; after which he withdrew 
privily in the absence Qf his master, and pursued his jour« 
ney. .When the painter returned home, be was astonished 
at the beauty and elegance of the, drawing ; and especially 
at the fly, which, upon his fiirst casting his ^ye upon it, he 
so far took for a real fly, that he .endeavoured to remove it 
with his hand. He sent all oyef the city for his journey- 
man, who was now missiag ; but after many i.nqpiries, 
found that he had been thus deceived by the famous Hot* 
bein. This story has been somewhat diSeren^tly told, as 
if the painting was a portrait for ope of his, patrons at B^w 
sil, but the eifect was the same, for befof^ he was disco^ 
yered, he had made his escape. '- / 

After almost begging his way to Englac^d, ^ f!ftifi telU 
us, he found ao easy admitta^e to the lprd*-chancellor| 
sir Thomas More, having , bjpught with him %a^mais-g 
picture, ajnd letters recommendatofy from him to that gr4^ 
man. Sir Thomas received him with all the joy imagina- 
ble, and kept him ia )iis bwse be%^mem two and three 



HOLBEIN. 

years ; duriog which time he drew sir Thomases picture, 
and those of many of his friends and gelations. One liay 
Bolbein happening to mention the nobieman who had some 
years ago invited him to England, sir Thomas was very 
solicitous to know who he was. Holbein replied| that he 
had indeed. forgot .bis title, but remembered his face so 
well, that he thought he could draw his likeness ; and this 
he did so. very strongly, that the nobleman, it is said, was 
immediately known by it* This nobleman some think was 
the earl of Arundel, others the earl of Surrey. The chan- 
cellor, having now sufficiently enriched his apartments 
with Holbein's productions, adopted the following method 
to introduce him to Henry Vlll. He invited the king to 
an entertainment, and hung up all Holbein's pieces,, dis- 
posed in the best order, and in the best light, in the great 
hall of his house. The king, upon his first entrance, was 
so charmed with the sight of them, that he asked, *^ Whe- 
ther such an artist were now alive, and to be had for mo- 
ney ?'' on which sir Thomas presented Holbein to the bing^ 
who immediately took him into his service, with a salary of 
200 florins, and brought him into great esteem with the 
nobility of the kingdom. The king from time- to time ma- 
nifested the great value he had for him, and upon the death 
of queen Jane, his third wife, sent him into Elandersi to 
draw the picture of the duchess dowager of Milan, widow 
to Francis Sforza, whom the emperor Charles V. had re- 
commended to him for a fourth wife ; but the king^s de-* 
fection from the see of Rome happening about that time, 
he rather chose to match with a protestant princess. 
Cromwell, then his prime minister (for sir Thomas More 
bad been removed, and beheaded), proposed Anne of 
Cleves to him ; but the king was not inclined to the match, 
till her picture, which Holbein had also drawn, was present- 
ed to him. There, as lord Herbert of Cherbury says, she w'as 
represented so very charming, that the king immediately re«« 
solved to marry her; and thus Holbein was unwittingly the 
fcause of the ruin of his patron Cromwell, whom the king 
nevef forgave for introducing him tpAnne of Cleves. 

In England Holbein drew a vast number of admirable 
portraits; among otliers, those of Henry VII. and Henry 
yill. on the wall of the palace at Whitehall, which perished 
when it wjas burj^t, though sooie endeavours were made to 
remove tha^ part of the wall on which the pictures were 
(irfiwn* There happened, however^ an atfair in England, 



60 HO LB EI ». 

Which might have been fatal to Hblbetti| if the king had 
hot protected hinv*. On the report of his character, a no^ 
bleman of the first quality wanted one day to see faim, wheh 
lie was drawing a fignre after the life. Holbein, in an^wer^ 
bagged his lordship to defer the honour of bis visit to ano- 
ther day ; which the nobleman taking for an affront, came arid 
broke open the door, and very rudely went up stairs. Holbein, 
bearing a noise, left his chamber ; and meeting the lord at 
his door, fell into a violent passion, and pushed Itim back- 
wards from the top of the stairs to the b(ittom. Consider- 
ing, however, imme<iiately what he had done, he escaped 
from the tumult he had raised, and made the best 6f Eis 
way to the king. The nobleman, tnucti hurt, tbougb not 
90 much as be pretended, Was there soon after him; and 
upon opening bis grievance, the king ordered Holbein tb 
ask pardon for his offence; But this only irritated the no- 
bleman' the more, who would not be satisfied with less than 
his life; upon which the king sternly replied, <^My lord, 
you have not now to do with Holbein^ but with tne ; what- 
ever punishment you may qontrive by way of revenge 
agiiinst him, shall assurealy be inflicted upon yourself': 
remember, pniy my lord, that I can, whenever I please, 
make seven lords of seven ploughmen, but I cannot make 
one Holbein even of seven lords.*' 

We cannot undertake to give a list of Holbein*! works^l 
but this may be seen in Walpole^s Anecdotes. Soon after 
the accession of the late king, a noble collection of his 
drawings was found in a bureau at Kensington, amounting 
td eighty- nine. These, which are of exquisite merit, h^ve 
been admirably imitated in engraving, in a work publbhecl 
lately by John Chamberlaine, F. S.-A. certainly one of the 
most splendid books, and most interesting collections oJF 
portraits ever executed. Holbein painted eqdalty well ib 
oil, water-colours, and distempef, in large and in niinia:^ 
ture : but he had never practised the art of painting in 
'miniature, till be resided in England, and learned it from 
Lucas CoriieUi ; though be afterwards carried it to its 
bighest perfection. His paintings of that kind have all 
the force of oil-colourd, and are finished with* the utmoist 
delicacy. In general he painted on a green ground, bqt 
in bis small pictures frequently he painted on afalue. T4ie 
onyention of Jlolbeiyi 4vas surprisingly fruitful, ^iid often 
poetical ; his execution was remarkably*^ quick) «nd his ap* 
plication indefatigable. His^ pencil was exceedingly deB* 



HOLBEIN.. «l 

C$tk^ ; bis coloqritig. bad a wonderfql degree of force ; he 
finished his pictures with exquisite neatness ; and his car* 
iiations were life itself. His genuine works are alwws dis* 
tinguisbablebjrthe troe^ rounds lively imitation of fleshy 
visible in all his portraits, and also by the amazing deli* 
cacy of bis finishing. 

It is obsenred by most anthors, that Holbein alwayi 
|]iainted with his left hand ; though Walpole objects against 
that traditioh) (what he considers as a proof), that in a por- 
trait of Hoibein painted by himself, which was in the Arun* 
delian collection, he is represented holdinsr the pencil ia 
the right hand. But that evidence cannot be suifncient to 
set a^de so. general a testimony of the most authentic writers 
Qn.tbis, subject; because, although habit and practice 
^igbt enable him to handle the pencil familiarly with his 
Ie(t band, yet, as it is so unusual. It must hatte had but an 
unseemly and awkward appearance in a picture ; which pro* 
bably might have been his real inducement for represent- 
ing himsejif without 9UGh a particularity. Besides, the 
writer of .Holbein^ sft life, at the end of the treatise by De 
PU.es, mentions a. print by HpUar, still extant, which de- 
scribes Holbein drawing with his left hand. . Nor is it so 
extraordinary or incredible a circumstance ; for other 
artists, mentionied in this volume, are remarked for the very 
saipe hi^bit ^ . particularly Mozzo of Antwerp, who worked 
with the: left ; and Amico Aspertino, as well as Ludovico 
Cangiagio, who worked equally well with both hands. 
This great artist died of tbe plague at London in 1554; 
lonie think at hi^ lodgiugs in Whitehall, where he had 
Jived fromjtbe time that the king became his patron, but 
y^riue rather thQUght at the duke of Norfolk^s house, in 
tbe„ priorv of. Christ church, near Aldeate, then called 
Dake^s-pface. ' Strype says that be was buried in St. Ca- 
tberiiie Cree chgrcb ; but this seems doubtful.^ 

HOLBERG (Loui^ pe), a Danish historian, lawyer, 
and poet, was born at Bergen in Norway, in 1.685. His 
family i* l^aid by some to have been low, by others noble ; 
b,ut it i$ agreed that he commenced life in very poor cir* 
.<:uQastaoces, and picked up bis education in his travels 
.through various* parts of Europe, where he subsisted either 
by. charity, or by his personal efforts of various kinds. Qn 



't Viti MlbenPi a Car. Patiito, preflited to Sraiurat^fl Mori* Coconi7a«.«» 
WalpolO. Aascdottf,-P»air i* Reytt<»ldt*i Wocks. 



€2 H O L B ERG* 

his rQtnftt to Copenbageh, be foand tneans to be appbitited^ 
assessor of tbe consistory court, which place aflPording faioi 
a^ competent subsistence, be was able to indulge his ge- 
nius,, and produced several works, which gave him great 
celebrity* Among these are some comedies, a volume of' 
which has been translated into French. He wrote also a 
History of Deninark, in 3 volt. 4tOy which has been consi- 
dered- as tbe best that hitherto has been produced, though' 
in some parts rather minute and uninteresting. Two vo* 
lumes of " Moral Thoughts," and a work entitled *^ The 
Danish Spectator," were produced by him : and he is ge- 
nerally considered as the author of the ^^ Iter subterraneum 
of KHmius," a satirical romance, something in the style of' 
Gulliver's Travels. Moot of tliese have lieen translated 
also into German, and are much esteemed in that country* 
Hb ^^ Introduction to Universal Histofy" was translated 
int<> English by Dr. Gregory Sbarpe, with notes, 1755, 
Svo» ^ his publications, and his place of assessor, he 
had ceeonomy enough to amass a considerable fortune, and' 
even in bis life gave 70,000 crowns to the university of 
Zealand, for the education of young noblesse ; thinking 
it right that as his wealth had been acquired by literature, 
it should be employed in its support. This munificence 
obtained him the title of baron. At his death, which hap-r 
pened in 1754, he left also a fund of 16,000 crowns to por- 
tion out a certain number of young women, selected from 
the families of citizens in Copenhagen.^ 

HOLBOURNE (^ir Robert), a lawyer of considera-' 
ble eminence, and law writer, flourished in the time of 
Charles I. but of his early history, we have no account. In 
1640 he was chosen represifentative for St. Michael in Corn- 
wall in the Long-parliament, and on one occasion argued 
for two hours in justification of the canons. In 1641 he 
was Lent reader of Lincohi's-inn, but soon after quitted the 
parliamient when be «aw the extremities to which they were 
proceeding. He had formerly given his advice against 
ahip-motiey, but was not prepared to overthrow the consti- 
tution entirely, and therefore went to Oxford, where, in 
1643, he sat in the parliament assembled there by Charles 
I. was made the princess attorney, one of the privy coun- 
cil, and received the honour of knighthood. In 1644 he 
was present at the .treaty of Uxbridge, and afterwards at 

1 Diet Hist.— Amiual Re^^Uter for 1759. 



H O L B O U RN£. €S 



Aat^ thelde of Wight Beturmsg to hotkd'oa^ «fter 
ineffectual attempts, to restore peace^ be was forced to com- 
poond for his estate^ and was not permitted to remain in 
any of the inns of court. He died in 1647, and was in- 
terred in the crypt under Lincoln^s-inn chapel. His ^^ Read<^ 
iogsen the Statute of Treasons, 25 Edward III. c. 2.'* were 
published in 1642^,4to^ and m 1661. He was the author 
ako of ^' The Freehqider's Griand. inquest touobing our So^ 
vereign Lord th& King and his, Parliament," viihich bears 
the name of sir Robert Filmer^ wha reprinted it in 1679, 
and 1680, 8vo^ with observations upon forms of govern^ 
ment. He left also some MSS«^ • 

HOLCROFT (Thomas), a draonatic and miscellaneoua 
writer and translator, was born in Orange-court^ Leicester- 
fields, Dec. 22, 1744. His frtber was in the humble oc-*. 
cupation of a shoe-maker, and does not appear to hav0 
given his son uiy education. The first employment men** 
tioned} in which the latter was concerned, was as servant 
to the hop. Mr*. Veruon^ of whose race-horses he had the 
care, and became very expert in the art of horsemanships 
He is said also to have worked for many years at bis fa* 
therms trade. He possessed, however, good natural abili^ 
ties, and a thirst for knowledge, of which he accumulated 
a considerable fund, and learned with facility and- suocesr 
the French, German, and Italian languages. When abou^ 
his twenty-fifth year, he conceived a passion for the stage^ 
and his first performance was in Ireland. He had after^ 
wards an engagement of the same kind in London, but 
never attained any eminence as an actor^ although he>al-' 
ways might be se6n to understand his part better than those 
to whom nature was more liberal. He quitted the stage in 
1781, after the performance 6f bts first play, ^^ Duplicity/^ 
which was successfol enough to encourage his perseverance 
as a djramatic writer. From this time he contributed up* 
wards of thirty pieces, which were either acted oa Xhe- 
London stages, or printed without having been performed* 
Scarcely any of them, however, have obtMned a. perma- 
nent situation on the boards. He published also tiie fol- 
lowing novels : ** Alwyn,'* 1780 ; *« Anna St. Ives,'' 1 792 j: 
" Hugh Trevor," 1794 ; and " Brian Perdue," 1807. Hi« 
translations were, ^^ The private Life of Voltaire/' •12mo ;: 

1 Ath. Ox. vol. Ilk— Lloyd's Memoirs, foIio> pr584. — Bridgmao';} JCegal Bib^ 
liograpfay. 



U H O LC R O^T. 

*< Memoirs of Baron Trenck,** S volt. 1 2iiio ; M trrilmm^tf 
*' Secret History of the Court of Berlin,*' 2 vols. 8vo; m*-' 
dame de Genlis's <* Tales of the Castle,*' 5 voir* I2ido^ 
^ Tbe- postbumoos Works of Frederick 11. of ProsMa,'* IS 
vols. 8vo ; ** An abridgment of Lavater^s Physiognomy/' ft 
vols. 8vo. Mr. Holcroft having imbibed tbe revolutionarj 
principles of France, bad joined some societies in thia 
coontrv, which brought him under suspicion of being con« 
cemed with Hardy, Tooke, and Thelwall, who were tried 
for high tre<)s*)n in 1794, but they being acquitted, Mn 
Holcroft was discharged without being put upon his trii^ 
His last work was his ** Travels,** in Germany and France^ 
2 vols. 4to, which, like some other of his speculations, was 
less advantageous to his bookseller than to himself. Jn 
1782 he published a poem called ^ Human happiness, or 
ibe Sceptic,** which attracted little notice on the score of 
poetical merit, but contained many of those loose senti* 
ments on religion, which he was accustomed to deliver 
with more dogmatism than became a man so little ac- 
quainted with the subject. In these, however, he persisted 
almost to tbe last, when, on his death- bed, be is said toi 
have acknowledged his error. He died March 23, 1809.^ 

HOLDEN (Henry), an English Roman catholic divine, 
was born in LAncashire in 1596^ and in 1618 was admitted 
*a student in the English college at Doway, where be took 
tbe name of Johnson. Here he improved himself in the 
classics, and studied philosophy and divinity, and going 
to Paris in 1623, took the degree of D. D. in that univer- 
sity, to which he continued attached during the remainder 
oi his life, having no other preferment but that of peniten* 
tiary or confessor in the parish church of St. Nicholas da 
iCbardonet. He died about |66S, esteemed one of the 
ablest controversial divines of bis time, and in this respect 
has been highly praised by Dupin. Some suspected him 
of Jansenism, but his biographers wish to repel I thia 
charge, as they think it. Among his works are three^ 
whi<db chiefly contributed to his fame, I. ** Analysis Fidei,** 
Paris, I6S2, 8vo, translated into English by W. G. 4to, 
1658. Of this Dupin has given a long analysis. It waa 
reprinted by Barbou in 1766, and conuins a brief sum* 
snary of the whole ceconomy of faith,' its principles and 
motivesy with their application to controversial questions. 

' Blof. Draniw*--OcBt« Msf. 



» O L D E N. W 

It l^teifsidered as argumentative and sound. 2. ^^ Mar-- 
gilial Notes on the New Testament," Paris, 16^60, 2 vols. 
i2fnt>; 3. ** A Letter concerning Mr. White's Treatise 
Be Media Animarum statu/' Parts, 1661, 4to.' 
- HO i.]>ER (William), a learned English pbilosopher^i 
i^s born in Nottinghamshire, educated in Pembroke hall| 
Gainbridge, and, in 1642, became rector of Blecfaingdon^ 
Oxfordshire. In 1660 he proceeded D. D; was afterwardsi 
o^nofi of Ely, fellow of the royal society, eanoti of St* 
Paul'% sub-dean of the royal chapel, and sab-almoner to 
1h» majesty. He gained particular celebrity by teaching 
sk'yQung gentleman of distinction, who was bom deaf and 
dlHnb, to- speak, an attempt at that time unpTecedented, 
This gentleman^'s name was Alexander Poph'amr, son of 
colonel Edward Popham, who was some time at^ admiral 
ia thesevtice of tfafe long parliament. The cure was per- 
foraied by bimin his hquse at Blechingdon, in 1659 ; but 
Pdpbaim, Josiffg what he had been taught by Holder, after 
he was called hdme to bis friends, was sent to Dr. Wallis^ 
wfa6 brought him to bis speech again. On this subject 
Holdei! puWi^bed 9, book entitled ^* The Elements of 
Speech-; an essay of inquiry into the natural production of 
letters : witb an appendix concerning persons that are deaf 
aiiddamb/* 1669,. Sva In the appendix he relates how 
soon, and by^ what-methods, he brought Popham to speak,- 
latbift^essi^'be has aoalysed, dissected, and classed tbe*^* 
l^tef4 of-oud^ alphabet • so miAutely and clearly, that it 19 
weH^^wortliy the attentive perusal of every lover of philology^ ' 
butpaniottlarly, say^ BiSb Bumey, of lyric poets andcom^ 
posers of ^ocal music ;. to whom; it will point out such harsh 
and uDtaoable combinations of letters aiid syilables^as-from 
their difficult utterance impede and corrupt the ^ceiii 
its^paesage. In 167B he published, in 4to, ^' A Supple^ 
ment ta tim^Philosopbicat Tr»cisaetions:xkt. July 1670, witk 
some Reflections oa Dr. WaUis^s Let)ter thece'ittserted.'?<- 
TUs waa writteO'to clainfi the glory of having taugfatHPp^ 
ham to 4peak, -whidh. Wallis in the letter there mentioned 
Imd'elaimed to himself : upon which the doctor soon aftet^- 
pnhliKhed^ ^'^ A Defence of the Roy^l Society and the Pniii'. 
iosqphixsal TransactiOB% particularly those of July t679/«> 
In answer to the cavils of Dr^r William Holder," 1678^' 4t^i 
Hohler^. was skilled in the theory and practice of .mtisiQir 

1 Dttp'ta*'^DocM's-€)mrcli Hfjit. tol. lit 

VouXVIIIa F 



66 HOLDER. 

and composed some anthems, three or four of which are - 
preserved in Dr. Tudway*s collection in the British mu- 
seum. In 1694 he published ** A Discourse concerning 
Time,'* in which, among other things, the deficiency of 
the Julian Calendar was explained, and the method of re- 
ibrming it demonstrated, which was afterwards adopted in 
the change of style. It is to be lamented that in treating 
this subject with so much clearness and ability, so good a 
musician did not extend his reflections on the artificial 
parts of time, to its divisions and proportions in musical 
measures; a sul\ject upon which the abbate Sacchi has 
written in Italian, *^ Del Tempo nella Musica ;*' but which 
rhythniically, or metrically considered in common with 

i>oetry,' has not yet been sufficiently discussed in our own 
anguage. • 

The same year was published l)y Dr. Holder, ** A Trea- 
tise on the natural grounds of Harmony,'* in which the 
propagation of sound, the ratio of vibrations, their coinci- 
dence in forming consonance, sympathetic resonance, or 
sons harmomques, the difference between arithmetical, geo- 
metrical, and harmonic proportions, and the author's opi^ 
nion concerning the music of the ancients, to whom he 
denies the use of harmony, or music in parts, are all s6 
ably treated, and clearly explained, that this book may be 
read with profit and pleasure by most practical musicians^ 
though unacquainted with geometry, mathematics, and 
harmonics, or the philosophy of sound. This book is snid^ 
in the introduction, to have been drawn up chiejfly for the 
sake and service of the gentlemen of the chapel royal, of 
which he was sub-dean, and in which, as well as othel* 
cathedrals to which his power extended, he is said to have 
been a severe disci plinariaf) ; for, being so excellent a 
judge and composer himself, it is natural to suppose that 
he would be the less likely to tolerate neglect and igno- 
rance in the perforniance of the choral service. Michael 
Wise, who perhaps had fallen under his lash, u^ed to call 
him Mr. Snub-dean. Dr. Holder died at Amen Corner, 
London, Jan; 24, 1696-7, and was buried in St. Paul's^ 
with his wife, who was only sister to sic Christppher Wren. 
Dr. Holder had a considerable share in the eatly education 

of that afterwards eminent architect. ^ 

... i . . . ^ 

I Ath. Ox. vol. n.-^\Vard'i Lives of the Orefbam Professon.— .Letters fram 
the BddUiaa Uirdrj,^ 3 T^ls. #to« 1813.— Rees*a Cyclojpaadia. 



HOLDSWORTH. i> 

HOLDSWORTH (Edward), a very polite and elegant 
scholieiry son of the rev. Thomas Holdsworth, rector of 
North Stoneham, in the county of SoMthampton, was borti 
Aug. 6, 1688, and trained at Winchester-school. He was 
thence elected demy of Magdalen college, Oxford, iti 
July 1705; toqk the degree of M. A. in April 1711 ; be- 
came a college tutor, and had many pupils. In 17 15^ 
when he was to be chosen into a fellowship^ he resigned 
his deiny ship, and left the college, because unwilling to 
swear allegiance to tbe^^ew government. The remainder 
of his life was spent in travelling with young noblemen and 
gentlemen as a tutor: in 1741 and 1744 he was at Home 
in this capacity, with Mr. Pitt and with Mr. Drake and Mr. 
Townson. He died of a fever at lord Digby's house at 
Coleshill in Warwickshire, Dec. 30, 1746. He was the 
author of the ^^ Muscipula,'' a poem, esteemed a master- 
piece in its kind,, written with the purity of Virgil and the 
pleasantry of Luciau, and of whicl^ there is a good English 
translation by Dr. John Hoadly, in vol. V. of " Dodsley'd 
Miscellanies,*' and another among Dr. Cobden's poems. 
He was the author also of a dissertation entitled ^' Pharsalia 
and Philippi ; or the two Philippi in VirgiPs Georgics at- 
tempted to be explained and reconciled to history, 1741,^* 
4to ; and" of ^* Remarks and Dissertations on Virgil ; with 
some other classical observations, published with several 
notes and additional remarks by Mr. Spence, 1768," 4.to. 
Mr. Spenoe speaks of him in his Polymetis, as one who 
understood Virgil in a more masterly manner than any per- 
son he ever knew. The late Charles Jennens, esq. erected 
a monument to his memory >t Gopsal in Leicestershire. ' / 

HOLDSWORTH (Richard), sometimes written Oldsr 
worth f and Oldisworth^ a learned and loyal English 4ivine, 
the youngest son of Richard Holdswo»th, a celebrated 
preacher at Newcastle-upon-Tyne, was born in 1590^ and 
after the death of his Father was committed to the care of 
the rev. William Pearson, a clergyman of the sanle place, 
who had married his sister. He was first educated at New*- 
castle, and in July 1607 admitted of St. John!s coll.ege^ 
Cambridge. In 1610 he took his bachelor^s degree, in 
1613 was chosen fellow of his college, in 16Ji4 was made 
master of arts, and incorporated at Oxford, in tbe 'same, 
diegree in 1617, and in 1620 was chos^ one of the twelve 

* Nichols's Bow]rer«— and Hwt of LeicesUrshire.— Cent. Mag. toI. LXI. 

F 2 



«f HOLDSWORTR 

univernty preachers at Cambridgie. While at eoUege fie 
was tutor, among others, to the famous sir Symond D'Eweft. 
After this he was for some time chaplain to sir Henry 
fiobart, lord chief justice of the common pleas, and thei» 
bad a living given him in the West Riding of Yorkshire^ 
whieh he exchanged for the rectory of St. Peter the Poor> 
Broad-street,« London. He settled there a little before 
Ibe great sickness in 1625, during which he continued to 
do the duties of his ofike, became a very popular preacber> 
mnd was much followed by the puritans. In 1629 he waa 
chosen professor of divinity at Gresham college, and in 
iiis lectures, afterwards published, he discovered an un- 
usual extent and variety of learning. They were fre- 
quented by a great concourse of divines and young scholars^ 
'About 1631 he was made a prebendary of Lincoln, and in 
16S3 archdeacon of Huntingdon. In the same year he 
4itood candidate for the mastership of St. John^s college^ 
Init neither be nor his competitor. Dr. Latie, being ac- 
ceptable at court, the king, by mandate, ordered Dr. 
Beale to be chosen. In 1637, however, Mr. Holdsworth 
was elected master of Emanuel college, and created doctor 
•of divinity. In the same year he kept the act at Cambridge, 
and in 1639 was elected president of Sion college bytbe 
Lottdon clergy. In 1641 he resigned bis professorship at 
Gresham college, and the rebellion having now begun, he 
was marked out as one of tbe sacri6ces to popi^ar pre}u* 
^ice, although he had before suffered somewhat from the 
•court. While vice-chancellor Dr. Holdsworth had sup^ 
plied the king wirh money contributed by the university^ a 
erime not easily to be forgiven*. When, however, the 
assembly of divines was called. Dr. Holdsworth was* no- 
jninafeed one of tbe number, biit never sat among them*. 
Soon after, in obedience to the king^s mandate, he causeA 
such of his majesty^s declarations to be printed at Cam- 
Jbridge as were formeriy published at York, for which, and^ 
^ Dr. FuUer sajns, a sennon preached then by him, be 
-was forced fep leave tbe university before the expiration of 
ills 4>ffiee as vice-chancellor. After some concealment he 
uras apprehended near London, and imprisoned, first in 
£ly bouse, and then in the Tower. Such was the regard^ 
ilowever, in which he was held at Cambridge, that while 
mider 4)onfin0ment be was elected Margaret professor oT 
divinity, which he held until bis death, although he could 
neither attend tbe duties of it nor receive the profits ; hot 



V. 



H O L D S W O RT H; W 

Ilk rectory of St Peter the Poor, and the masterahip of 
Emanuel, were both taken from him. It seems uncertain 
when he was released. We find him attending the king at 
Hampton Court in 1647 ; and in January following, when 
the parliament voted that no more addresses should be 
made to. the king, he preached a bold sermon against thakt 
iPesolutioni for which he was again imprisoned, but being 
leleased, assisted, on the king's part, at the treaty in the 
Isle of Wight The catastrophe that soon after befell his 
royal master is thought to have shortened bis life, which 
terminated' Aug. 29, 1649. He lived unmarried, and left 
his property to charitable uses^ eiccept his books, part of 
which went to Emanuel college, and part to the public 
library at Cambridge. He was buried in the church of St 
Peter the Poor, where is a monument to his memory. He 
was of a comely appearance and venerable aspect ; warm 
in his temper, but soon pacified ; a great advocate for the 
king, and zealous in the cause of episcopacy. He was 
devout, charitable, and an excellent scholar. In bis ** Prn- 
iectiones*' he shows not only an intimate acquaintance with 
the fathers and schoolmen, but likewise most of the emi- 
nent divines of later ages, popish as well as protestant, 
and bis style is good. His works are, 1. " AlSermon 
presu^hed in St. Mary's, Cambridge, on his majesty's in- 
auguration,*' 1642, 4to, the only thing he ever published. 
2. ^^ The Valley of Vision ; or a clear sight of sundry sa- 
cred truths ; delivered in twejity-one sermons," Lond* 
1651, 4to. These were taken in short band) and Dr* 
Pearson says' they are very defective. 3. ** Praelectiones 
theologicse," Lond. 1661, fol. published by his nephew, 
Dr. William Pearson, with a Kfe of the author. ^ 

HOLINSHEO (Raphael), an EogUsb historian, and fa- 
mous for the Chronicles, that go under his name, was 
descended from a family which lived at Bosely, in Cheshire: 
but neither the place nor time of his birth, nor scarcely 
any other circumstances of his life, are ki^own. Some say 
be had an university education, and was a clergyman ; 
while others, denying this, affirm ths^t he was steward to 
Thomas Burdett, of ,Bromcote in the county of Warwick) 
esq. Be this as it will, he appears to have been a man of 
considerable learning, and to have had a particular turn for 

^ Life at aboTC— Ward's Grciham Profetson.-— Atb. Oz< toL L— Barwjck^i 
XHe.— Walker's S«ff«rings of tlw Clerfy.^Lloyd's Memoirs, foL— Peck's X)e« 
•iderad^ ?al« IL 



70 KOLINSHED. 

history. His '< Chronicles'* were first published in ]577> 
in 2 vols, folio; and then in 1587, in three, the two first 
of which are commonly bound together. In this second 
edition several sheets were castrated in the second and 
third volumes, because there were passages in them dis- 
agreeable to queen £Iizabeth and her ministry : but the 
castrations were reprinted apart in^ 1723. Holinshed w^ 
«ot the sole author or compiler of this work, but was as- 
sisted in it by several other writers. The first volume 
opens with ^' An historical Description of the Island of 
Britaine, in three books/* by William Harrison ; and then, 
** The Historic of England, from the time that it was first 
inhabited, until the time that it was last conquered," by 
R. Holin^hed. The second volume contains, *^ The de- 
scription, conquest, inhabitation, and troublesome estate 
of Ireland ; particularly the description of that kingdom :^' 
by Richard Stanihurst. '<The Conquest of Ireland, trans- 
lated from the Latin of Giraldus Cambrensis,*' by John 
Hooker, alias Vowell, of Exeter, gent. " The Chronicles 
of Ireland, beginning where Giraldus did end, continued 
untill the year 1509, from Philip Flatsburie, ' Henrie of 
Marleborow, Edmund Campian,*' &c. by R. Holinshed ; 
and from thence to 1586, by R. Stanihurst and J. Hooker. 
^' The Description of Scotland, translated from the Latin 
of Hector Boethius," by R. H. or W. H. " The Historic 
of Scotland, conteining the beginning, increase, proceed- 
ings, continuance, acts and government of the Scottish 
natron, from the original thereof unto the yeere 1571,'* 
gathered by Raphael Holinshed, and continued from 1571 
|o 1586, by Francis Boteville, alias Thin, and others. The 
third volume begins at <^ Duke William the Norman, com- 
monly called the Conqueror ; c^nd descends by degrees of 
yeeres to all the kings and queenes of England." First 
compiled by R. Holinshed, and by him extended to 1577 ( 
augmented and continued to 1586, by John Stow, Fr. 
Thin, Abraham Fleming, and others. The time of this 
):iistorian's death is unknown ; but it appears from his will, 
which Hearne prefixed to his edition of Camden^s <^ An- 
nals,** th&t it happened between 1578 and 1582. 

As for his coadjutors; Harrison, as we have already 
noticed in his article, was bred at Westminster school, sent 
from thence to Oxford, became chaplain to sir William 
Brooke, who preferred him, and died in 1593. Hookejr, 
frbo ^i^s uncl^ to the famous Richard (iook^r^ will he ho^ 



H L I N S H E D. 



7h 



ticed hereafter. We know Nothing of Botevil^ ; Qrtly that 
Hearne styles him ** a man of great learniag and judgment, 
and a wonderful lover of antiquities/' In the late reprint 
of the series of English Chronicles by the booksellers t{ 
London, Holinsbed very properly took the precedence^ 
and was accurately edited in 6 vols. 4to. ' 

HOLLAND (Philemon), a noted translator, was de- 
scended from an ancient'family of the Hollands of Lan« 
cashire, and was the $on of John Holland, a pious divine, 
who, in queen Mary's reign, was obliged to go abroad for 
the sake of religion ; but afterwards returned, and became 
pastor of Dunmowin Essex, where he died in 1578. Phi- 
lemon was born at Chelmsford in Essex, about the latter 
end of the reign of Edward VL and after being instructed 
at the grammar-school of that place, was sent to Trinity- 
college, Cambridge, where he was pupil to Dr. Hampton, 
and afterwards to Dr. Whitgift. He was adaritted fellow of 
his college, biit left the university after having taken the 
degree of Ml A. in which degree be was incorporated at 
Oxford in 15S7. He was appointed head master of the 
free-school of Coventry, and in thi^ laborious station he not 
only attended assiduously to the duties of his' office, but 
served the interests of learning, by undertaking those nu- 
inerous translations, which gained him the title of *^ Trans- 
lator general of the age." He likewise studied medicine^ 
tmd practised with considerable reputation in his nei^b- 
foourhood ; and at length, when at the age of forty, becam^ 
a doctor of physic in the university of Cambridge. He 
was a peaceable, quiet, and good man in all the relations 
of private life, and by his habits of temperance and regu*^ 
larity attained his 95th year, tiot only with the full pos- 
session of his intellects, but bis sight was iso good, that 
he ne^ver had occasion to wear spectacles. He continued 
to translate till his 80th year ; and his translations, though 
devoid of elegance, are a<^counted faithfut and accurate^. 
Among these are, translations into English of ** Livy,** 
written, it is said, with one pen, which a lady of his ac« 
quaintance so highly prized that she had it embellished 
with silver, and kept as a great curiosity. ** Pliny*s Na- 
tural History," "Plutarch's Morals," " Suetonius," "Am- 
mianus Marcellinus," " Xenophon^s Cyropadia," and 
^* Camden's Britannia," to the last o^ which he made seve« 

" ' 1 Biof. Brit.— tamifrt Bibliothec*. 



M HOLLAND. 

n\ useful additions : and into Latin he traintlated the geo- 
graphical part of <* Speed's Theatre of Grslat Britain,*' and 
a French ** Pharmacopoeia of Brice Bauderon." A quib- 
l^ing' epigram upon his translation of Suetonius has often 
been recaitod in jest books : 

** Philemi^n with translations does so fill us. 
He will not let Suetonius be TranqulUus.'* 

He died Feb. 9. 1636, and was buried in the church of 
oventry. He married a Staffordshire lady, by whom he 
bad seven ^ons and three daughters, all of whom he sur- 
vived except one son and his daughters. One of his sons, 
H£NRY, appears to have been a bookseller in London, and 
ivas editor of the ^^ Heroologia Anglicana/' a valuable col* 
lection of English portraits, with short lives, but the latter 
are not very correct, or satisfactory. These portraits were 
chiefly engraved by the family of Pass, and many of them 
are valued as originals, having never been engraved since 
jbut as copies from these. They are sixty-five in number. 
tie also published <' Monumeuta Sepulchralia Ecclesise S. 
t^auli, Lond." 4to, and, ^^ A Book of Kings, being a true 
and lively effigies of all our English kings from the Con- 
quest," 1618. When he died is not mentioned. ^ 

HOLLAR, or HOLLA.RD (Wj^ntzel, or Wences- 
Ukus), a most admired engraver, was born at Prague in 
l^hemiai in 1607. He was at first instructed in school- 
learning, and afterwards put to the profession of the law ; 
hut not relishing that pursuit, and his family being ruined 
^ben Prague was taken and plundered' in 1619, so that 
they could not provide for him as had been proposed, be 
jremoyed from thence in 1627. During his abode in seve* 

' iral tO)vns in Germany, he applied himself to drawing^and 
jdesigningy to copying the pictures of several great artists, 

, jUtking geometrical and perspective views and draughts of 
cities, tpwns^ and countries, by land and water ; in which 
«t length be grew so e^ccellent, especially for. his land- 
.scapes in miniature^ as not to be outdone in beauty and 
^elicacy by^ any artist of his time. He had some ihstruc- 

. ^tipns from Matthew Merian, an eminent engraver, and 
vho is thought to have taught him that method of pre- 
jparing and working on his plates which he constantly used, 
.jp.e waa but eighteen when the ^i«t specimens of his art 

1 Atb, 0z. Yol. I.— Letters from the 9odki«ii» 3 to1«i. 8to. 1813.-i»Fttller's 
Woitluy. » CeM M» literaria, toL I. 



HOLLAR. 79* 

sppeared ; and the coonoisseurs in his works have oh* 
served, that he inscribed the earliest of tbem with ouly a 
cypher of four letters, which, as they explain it, was in- 
tended for the initials of, ^^ Wenceslaus Hollar P|^ensi$ 
cxcudit." He employed himself chiefiy in copying head^ 
and portraits, sometimes from Rembrandt, Henzelmat^ 
Fselix Biler, ami other eminent artists ; but his little deli- 
cate views of Strasburgb, Cologne, Mentz, Bonn, Franc« 
fort, and other towns along the Rhine, Danube, Necker^ 
&c. got him his greatest reputation; aiid when Howar4 
earl of Arundel, was sent ambassador to the emperor Fer« 
dinand IL in 1636, he was so highly .pleased with his per*^ 
formances, that he admitted him into bis retinue. Hollar 
attended his lordshipfrom Cologne to the emperor's court, 
and in this progress made several draughts and prints of the 
places through which they travelled. He took that view of 
Wurtzburgb under which is written, ^* Hollar delineavit, 
in legatione Arundeliana ad Imperatorem/' He then made 
also a curious large drawing, with the pen and pencil, of 
the city of Prague, which gave great satisfaction to his pai> 
tron, then upon the spot 

After lord Arundel had finished bis negotiations in Ger«- 
many, he returned to England, and brought Hollar with 
him : where, however, he was not so entirely confined to 
his lordship's service, but that he had the liberty to accept 
of employment from others. Accordingly, we soon find 
him to have been engaged by the printsellers ; and Petef 
Stent, one of the most eminent among them, prevailed 
upon him to make an ample view pr prospect of and from 
the town of ' Greenwich, which he finished in two platei, 
16S7 ; the earliest dates of his works in this kingdom. In 
1698, appeared his elegant prospect about Richmond ; at 
which time he finished also several curious plates fromjtHe 
fine paintings in the Arciudelian collection. In the midstf 
of this employment, arrived^ Mary ide Medicis, the queen- 
mother of France, to visit her daughter Henrietta Maria 
queen of England ; and with her an historian, who recorded 
the particulars of her journey and entry intotliis kingdom. 
His wovit, written in French, was printed at London in 
1639, and adorned with several portraits of the royal fa- 
mily, etched for the purpose by the hand of Hollar. Thft 
«ame year was published the portrait of bis patron the eail 
4>f Arandel on horseback ; and afterwards he etched ano- 
ther ^ lum in ar»iHir, aad sevemi views of his cofintry- 






t4 H OL L A R. 

I 

seat at Aldbrough in Surrey. In 1640, be seems to hare 
been introdoced into the service of the royal family, to 
give the prince of Wales some taste in the art of design* 
ingi a^d it is intimated, that either before the eruption 
jof the civil wars, or at least before he was driven by them 
abroad, he was in the service of the duke of York. Tins 
year appeared his beautiful set of figures in twenty-eighl 
piatesy entitled, *^ Ornatus Muliebris Anglicaims/^ and 
containing the several habits of £nglish women of all ranks 
or degrees : they are represented at fuU length, and have 
rendered biiti famous among, the lovers of engraving. In 
1641^ were ptiblisbed his prints of king Charles and his 
queen : but now the civil wars being broke out, and his pa* 
tron the earl of Arundel leavin^^ the kingdom to attend 
upon the queen and the princess Mary, Hollar was left to 
support himself. He applied himself closely to his busii> 
ness, and published other parts oP his works, after Hoi* 
beiD, Vandyck, &c. especially the portraits of several 
persons of quality of both sexes,, niinisters of state, com* 
nianders 4)f the army, learned and eminent authors ; and es« 
pecially another set or two of female habits in divers nations 
^in Europe. Whether he grew obnoxious as an adherent 
to the earl of Arundel, or as a malignant for drawing so 
niany portraits of the royal party, is not expressly said: 
but hovv it seems he was molested, and driven to tak^ 
•belter under the protection of one or more of them, till 
they were defeated, and he taken prisoner of war with 
them, upon the surrender of their garrison at Basing-house 
in Hampshire.' This happened on Oct 14, 1645; biu 
Hollar, either making his escape, .or otherwise obtaining 
bis liberty, went over to the continent after the earl of 
Arundel, who resided at Antwerp, with his family, <&nd 
bad transported thither bis most valuable collection of 
pictures. 

. He remained at Antwerp, several years, copying fi-bm 
bis patron's collection, and working for printsellers, book- 
sellers, and publishers ; but seems to have Cultivated no 
interest among men of fortune and curiosity in the art, to 
dispose of them by subscription, or otherwise' tnost to his 
advantage. In 1647, and 1643, he etched eight or ten of 
the painters' heads with bis own, witb various other curious 
pieces, as the picture of Charles L soon after his deatb^ 
and of several of the royalists ; and in the three following ' 
yparsy many portraits and landscapes after Breughill, £U 



H O L L A B. 7* 

sheimer, and Teniers, with the Triuinphs of Death. He 
etched also Charles II. standing, with emblems ; and also 
published a print of James duke of York, setat 18, ann. 
165 i» from a picture drawn of him when he wns in Flan^ 
ders, by Teniers. He was more punctual in bis dates than 
most other engravers, which have afforded very agreeable 
lighis and directions, both as to his own personal history 
and performances, and to those of many others. At last^ 
either not meeting with encouragement enough to keep 
him longer abroad, or invited by several magnificent and 
costly works pro|)osed or preparing in England, in which 
bis ornamental hand might be employed more to his ad* 
vantage, he returned hither in 1652. Here he afterwards 
eYecute;d some of the most considerable of his publications: 
but though be was an^ artist superior to almost most others 
in genius as well as assiduity, yet he had the peculiar fate 
to work here, as he bad done abroad^ still in a state of 
subordination, and more to the profit of other people than 
himself. Notwithstanding his penurious pay, be is said to 
have contracted a voluntary affection to his extraordinary 
labour; so far, that he spent almost two*>thirds of his time 
at it, and would not suffer himself to be drawn or disen* 
gaged from it, till his hour-glass had run to the las^ mo^- 
ment proposed. Thus he went on, in full business, till the 
restoration of Charles H. brought home many of his friends^ 
and him into fresh views of employments « It was but two 
years after that memorable epocha, that Evelyn published 
bis <' Sculptura, or the History and Art of .Chalcography 
and engraving in copper :'' in which he gave the following 
very honourable account of Hollar: ^* Wincesiaos Hollar,*' 
says he, ^^ a gentleman of^ Bohemia, comes in the next 
plaee : not that he is not before most of the rest fbr his 
choice and great industry, for we rank them very promis*^ 
cuously both as to time and pre-eminence, hut to bring up 
the rear of the Germans with a deserving person, whose 
indefatigable works in aqua fortis do infinitely recommend 
themselves by the excellent choice which he hath made of 
the rare things furnished out of the Arundelian collection, 
and from most of the . best bands and designs : for such 
were those of L. da Vinci, Fr. Parmensis, Titian, Julio 
Romano, A. Mantegna, Corregio, Perino del Vaga, Ra« 
phael Urbin, Seb. del Piombo, Palma, Albert Durer, 
Hans Holbein, Vandyck, Rubens, Breughel, Bassan, £U 
ihaimer, grower, Artois, and divers other masters of priioe 



76 HOLLAR. 

not^y whose drawing? and paintings be hath fatthfally/co* 
pied; besides sevenil books of Ian dscapes^ towns, solem- 
nities, histories, heads, beasts, fowls, insects, vessels,, and 
other signal pieces, not omitting what he hath etched after 
De Cieyn, Mr. Streter,. and Dankerty, for sir Robert Sta- 
pleton^s ^ Juvenal,* Mr. Ross's ' Silius Italicus,* ' Poly- 
glotta Biblia,' * The Monasticon,* first and second part, 
Jdr. Dugdlale's * St. Paul's,' and * Survey of Warwickshire^* 
with other innumerable frontispieces, and things by hioA 
published, and done after the life ; and to be on that ac- 
count more valued and esteemed, than where there has been 
more curiosity about chimeras, and things which are not in 
nature : so that of Mr. Hollar's works we may justly pro- 
nounce, there is not a more useful and instructive coUee- 
tion to be made.'* 

Some of the first things Hollar performed after the Re- 
atoratioii, were, *^ A Map of Jerusalem ;" ** The Jewish 
Sacrifice in Solomon's Temple ;" ^' Maps of England, Mid* 
dlesex, &c." " View of St. George's Hospital at Wind- 
aor ;" ^' The Gate of John of Jerusalem near London ;" 
and many animals, fruits, flowers, and insects, after Bar- 
low and others : many beads of nobles, bishops, judges, 
and great men ; several prospects about London, and Lon- 
don itself, as well before the great fire, as after ijts ruin 
^nd rebuilding : though the calamities of the fire and plague 
in 1655 are thought to have reduced him to such difiicul- 
;tie8, as be could never entirely vanquish. , He vvas after- 
wards sent to Tangier in Africa, in quality of his majesty's 
designer, to take the various prospects there of the garri- 
son, town, fortifications, and the circumjacent views of the 
country : and many of his drawings on the spot, dated 
.1669, preserved in the library of the late sir Hans Sloane» 
were within three or four years after made public, upon 
«ome of which Hollar styles himself '^ Stenograpbus Regis.'' 
After bis return to England, he was variously employed, 
in finishing his views of Tangier for publica.tion, and taking 
several draughts at and about Windsor in 1671, with many 
jrepresentations in honour of the knights of the garter. 
.About 1672, he travelled northward, and drew views of 
Lincoln, Southwell, Newark, and York Minster ; and after* 
wards was engaged in etching of towns^ castles, churches^ 
,and their fenestral figures, araa3> &c. besides tombs, manu- 
mental effigies with their inscriptions, &c^ in such uum* 
ktn as it would almost be isodl^^ itp enumierate* Few 



HOLLAR. 7T 

artists have been able to imitate his works ; for wiiich rea- 
son many lovers of the art, and all the curious both at 
home and abroad, have, from his time to ours, been 
zealous to collect them. But how liberal soever they might 
be in the purchase of his performances, the performer 
himself, it seems, was so incompetently rewarded for them^ 
that he could not, in his old age, keep himself free frooi 
the incumbrances of debt ; though he was variously and 
closely employed to a short time before his dedch. But as 
many of bis plates are dated that year, in the very begins 
ning of which he died, it is probable they were somewhat 
antedated by him, that the sculptures might appear of 
the same date with the book in which they were printed t 
thus, in '^ Thoroton^s Antiquities of Nottinghamshire/' 
tome of them appear unfinished ;. and the 50 (st page» 
which is entirely blank, was probably left so for a plate 
to be supplied. When he was upon the verge of bis 
seventieth year, he had the misfortune to have an execa« 
tion at his house in Gardiner's-lane, Westminster: he 
desired only the liberty of dying in bis bed,' and that he 
might not be removed to any other prison but his grave. 
Whether this was granted him or not, is uncertain, fa^t he 
died March 28, 1677, and, as appears from the parish* 
register of St. Margaret's, was buried in the New ChaptA 
Yard, near the place of his death. Noble and valuable 
as the monuments were which Hollar had raised for 
others, none was erected for him : nor has any person 
proposed an epitaph worthy of the fame and merits of the 
artist.. 

Mr. Grose, from the information of Oldys, has favoured 
the public with some anecdotes of the conscieiiitiousness of 
this eminent artist which are not noticed by Vertue. He 
used to work for the booksellers at the rate of four--peiice 
an hour ; and always bad an hour-glass before him. He 
was so very scrupulously exact, that, when obliged to tu*- 
tend the calls of nature, or whilst talking, though witlk 
persons for whom he was working, and about their own 
business, he constantly laid down the glass, to previent the 
sand from running. It is to be lamented that such a man 
should have known distress. His works amount, according 
to Vertue^s catalogue, to nearly 24O0 prints. They ar^ 
generally etchings performed almost entirely with .the 
point, yet possess great spirit, with astonishing freedom 
and lightoess, especially when we consider how highly be 



n HOLLAR. 

bas fiiiisbed some of them. In drawing the human figur0 
he was most defective ; bis outlines are stiff and incorrect^ 
and the extremities marked without the least degree of 
knowledge. In some few instances, he had attempted to 
execute bis plates with the graver only : but in that< has 
failed very much.* 

HOLLIS (Thomas), esq. of Corscombe in Dorsetshire; 
m gentleman whose " Memoirs" have been printed in two 
splendid vOhimes, 4to, 1780, with a considerable number 
of plates by Bartolozzi,* Basire, and other engravers of 
eminence, and an admirable profile of himself in the fron- 
tispiece, was born in London, April 14, 1720; and sent 
to school, first at Newport in Shropshire, and afterwards 
at St. Alban*s« At l^, he was sent to Amsterdam, to 
learn the Dutch and. French languages, writing, and ac« 
compts; stayed there about fifteen months, and then rr* 
turned to his father, with whom he continued till his death 
in 1735. To give him a liberal education, suitable to the 
ample fortune he was to inherit, his guardian put him 
under the tuition of professor Ward, whose picture Mr. 
Mollis presented to the British Museum; 'and, in honcTur 
of his father and guardian, be caused to be inscribed 
roUnd a valuable diamond ring, Mneviosyiion patris tutt>rU^ 
gue. He professed himself a dissenter ; and from Dr. Fos* 
ter and others of that persuasion, imbibed that ardent love 
of liberty, and freedom of sentiment, which strongly 
marked his character. In Feb. 1739-40, he took cham- 
bers in Lincoln's-Inn, and was admitted a law-student; 
but does not appear ever to have applied to the law, as a 
profession. He resided there till July 1748, when he set 
out on bis travels for the first time ; and passed through 
Holland, Austrian and French Flandets, part of France, 
Switzerland; Savoy, and part of Italy, returning through 
Provence, Britanny, &c. to Paris. His fellow-traveller 
was Thomas Brand, esq. of the Hyde in Essex, who was 
bis particular friend, and afterwards his heir. His se- 
cond tour commenced in July 16, 1750; and extended 
through Holland to Embden, Bremen, Hamburg, the prin- 
cipal cities on the north and east side of Germany, the rest 
of Italy, Sicily, and Malta, Lorrain, &c. The journals of 
both his tours are said to be preserved in manuscript. 

On bis return home, be attempted to get into parlia* 

A life by Vcrtue, 1745, ^.— Bioj^. Brit.— SUult'fl Dictnoajy. . 



. H O L L I ^. ?!» 

''•■•. . . • « 

tnetiC; but^ not being able to effect this without some 
small appearance of bribery, he turned his thoughts en* 
tirely to other objects. He began a collection of books 
and medals ; " for the purpose,'* it is said, ** of illustra- 
ting and upholding liberty, preserving the memory of its 
champions, rendering tyranny and its abettors odious, e?r« 
tending art and science, and keeping alive the honour due 
to their patrons and protectors." Among his benefactions 
to foreign libraries, none b more remarkable than that of 
two large collections of valuable books to the public libraiy 
of Berne ; which were presented anonymously as by " an 
Englishman, a lover of liberty, his country, and its exceU 
lent constitution, as restored at the happy Revolution.'* 
tjwitzeriand, Geneva, Venice, Leyden, Sweden, Russia, &c. 
shared his favours. His benefactions to Harvard-college 
commenced in 1758, and were continued to the amount of 
14002. His liberality to individuals, as well as to public 
societies, are amply detailed in the ** Memoirs" above^ 
mentioned, in Aug. 1770, he carried into execution a 
plan, which be had formed five years before, of retiring 
into Dorsetshire; and there, in a field near his residence 
at Corscombe, dropped down and died of an apoplexy, on 
New-year's-day, 1774. The character of thi« singular 
person was given, some time before, in one of the public 
prints, in the following, sbmewbsit extravagant terms. 
^^ Thomas Hoilis is a man possessed of a large fortune: 
above half of which he devotes to charities, to the encou- 
ragement of genius, and to the support and defence of 
liberty* His studious hours are devoted to the search of 
noble authors, hidden by the rust of tifne ; and to do their 
virtues justice, by brightening their actions for the review 
of the public. Wherever he meets the man of letters, he 
is sure to assist him : and, were I to describe in paint this 
illustrious citizen of the world, I would depict him leading 
by the hands Genius and distressed Virtue to the temple of 
Reward." 

^ If Mr. Hoilis had any relations, his private affections 
were pot as eniinent as bis public spirit, for he left the 
Vvhole of his fortune to his ftiend T. Brand, esq. who, on 
titat account, took the name of Hoilis, and was as violent a 
zealot for liberty as- his patron, although less pure in his 
practice. la 1764, Mfv Hoilis sent to Sidney-college, 
Cambridge, where Cromwell was educated, an original 
portrait of him by Cooper ; and^ a fire happening at his 



«0 H O L L I S. 



;tngft in Bedford^street, in 176], he calmly walked ou^ 
taking an original picture of Milton only in bis band* A 
Dew edition of ^* Toland^s Life of Milton^' was published 
under bi» dtrectioni in 1761; and, in 1763, he gave an 
accurate edition of ^* Algernon Sydpey^s Discourses oa 
Government/' on which the pains and expence be be- 
stowed are almost incredible. He meditated also an edi* 
tion of Andrew Marvell ; but did not complete it. In 
order to preserve the memory of those patribtic heroea 
whom he most admired, he called many of the farms and 
fields in his estate at Corscombe by their names; and^ iq 
the middle of one of these fields, not far from his house, 
be ordered his corpse to be deposited in a grave ten feet 
deep, and the field to be immediately ploughed over, that 
no trac^ of his burial place might remain* His religious 
principles have been suspected, as he joined no denomina- 
tion of Christians, Another of his singularities was, to. 
observe bis nominal birth*day always, without any regard 
to the change of style. He never took it amiss that he was 
charged with singularities; he owned that he affected 
them : " the idea of singularity," says he, ^* by way of 
shield, I try by all means to hold out," and in this way 
got rid of those who would otherwise break in upon his 
time, customs, and way of living. Mr. Branp Hollis, his 
beir,;died in Sept. 1804, and bequeathed his estates in 
Dorsetshire and Essex to his friend Dr. Disney. Tbim 
Brand HoUis did not exactly inherit the independent prin^ 
ciples of bis benefactor ; for whereas Mr. Hollis would not 
accept of a seat in parliament, for fear of being led intp 
corrupt prs^ctices, Mr. Brand bad no scruple to apply kis 
fortune to acquire a seat for Hindon, and was convicted of 
the most scandalous bribery, and imprisoned in the King's 
Bench. It is not unuseful t9 know of what stuff clamorous 
patriots are made. ' • 

HOLMES (George), an Englishantiquaiy, born in 1662, 
at Skipton, in Craven, Yorkshire, became about 1695 clerk 
to William Petyt, esq. keeper of the records at the Towett 
and continued near sixty years- deputy to Mr. P^tyt, Mr. 
Topham, and Mr. Pdlbilh On the death of Mr. Petyt^ 
which happened Oct. 9, ITO?^ Mr. Holmes was, on ac»- 
oount of his singular abilitret and industry^ appointed by^ 

. 1 Memoirt at alcove.— Gent. Mag. LXX1V. — Ik, pitne;^ \mm lately printed^ 
but Mot pttbKahed, a Memoir of Mr. Bmid Holiia. 



HOLMES, ai 

lo^d HaUfiuc (tben president of a coomiktee pf tbe Houaa 
of lords) to methodize and Agest tbe records deposited int 
tbe 'I'owery at n yearly salary of 200iL vKhicb was continued 
tpbisdeatii, Feb. 16, 1743-9, in tbe 87th year of bis affe« 
lie wa$ also barrack- master of tbe Tower. He married a 
daughter of Mr. Marshall^ an eminent sword-cmler in 
fleet-street, hy whom he had ^u only son G^eorge, who 
was bred at Elton, and waa clerk under bis father, but diedj 
apred 25, many years before him. Holmes re-pdblisbed 
the first 17 Tolumes * of Rymer^s **Foedera,'' in iizf. 
His curious dollections of books, prints, and coins, &c. 
were so|d by anction in 1749. His portrait was engravec( 
by tbe society of antiquaries, with this inscription : " Vera 
effigies Georqu Holmes generosi, a. s. s. & tabularii pub- 
lici in Turre Londiaensi Vicecustodis ; quo munere annos 
ciFciijer lx summa fide & diiigentia perfupctus^. xiV l^alend^ 
Mart. A. D. mDccxlvui, aetatis suae Lxxxvn, fato demun^ 
concessit^ In fratris siii erga se meritorum testimoniun^ 
b^nc tabulam Socicta^ ANTiauARioRUM Londini, cujus 
CQoimofia semper promqyit, sumptu suq seri incideadum 
cpravit, mdccxux- R. Van Bleak, p. 1743. G. Veftpe 
del. & sculp.''— ^la Strype's London, 1754, vol. I. p. 746^ 
is a fac-simile of an antique insci:iption over tbe liule door 
next to the cloister in the Temple church. It was in. i old 
Sasou capital letters, engraved within an half-circle ; de*^ 
noting tbe year when the church was dedicated, and by 
Yfbomy oamelfyy Heraclius the patriarch of the church of 
the Holy Resurrection in Jerusalem ; and to whom, namely, 
tbe Blessed Virgin ; and tbe indulgence of forty days par« 
.don to such who, according to the penance enjoined tbem, 
vesorted thither yearly. This inscription, which was scarcely 
legible, and in 1695 was entirely broken by tbe workipen, 
having been exactly transcribed by Mr. Holmes, was by 
^im communicated to Strype. Mrs. Holmes out-lived het 
husband, and received of government 200/. for bis MSS. 
about the records, which were deposited and remain in bis 
pffice to this day. ^Few men, in a similar office, were ever 
i^ore able or willing to assist the researches of those who 
applied to him, than Mr. Holmes ; and he received maay 
handsome acknowledgen^nts of his politeness and abilities^ 
in that respect, from Browne Willis, Dr. Tovey, principal 
• 

* 'Before this tecoiidi edition, a set of the seveateen ▼olumet was told for 100 
guineas. See the prefaoa to the ** Acta Regia," 17£6, Svo. 

Vol. XVI I L G 



> *t 



82 HOLMES.' 

of New-Inn-hall, Oxford, Dr. Richardson, editor of ^* God- 
win de Presulibus," and others. * 

HOLMES (Robert), D. D. a learned EnglisK divine, 
rector of Stanton in Oxfordshire, canon of Salisbury and 
Christ church, and dean of Winchester, was born in 1749, 
and educated at Winchester school. He was afterwards 
chosen to New-college, Oxford, where he took hb degrees 
of M. a! 1774, of B. D. in 1787, and of D. D. in 1789. 
lii 1790, on the death of Mr. Warton, he was appointed 
professor of poetry. His last ecclesiastical promotion was 
to the deanery of Winchester in 1804, which he did not 
long enjoy, dying at his bouse in St Giles's, Oxford, 
Nov. 12, 1805. 

His first publication was a sermon preached before the 
university of Oxford, entitled " The Resurrection of the 
body deduced from the Resurrection of Christ,'* 1777, 
4to, a very ingenious discourse, in which the subject is il- 
lustrated in a manner somewhat new. In the same year he 
published " Alfred, an Ode, with six Sonnets," 4to, in 
which Gray's style is attempted with considerable success. 
In 1782 he was chosen the third. Bampton lecturer, and in 
1783 published his eight lectures *^ on the prophecies and. 
testimony of John the Baptist, and the parallel prophecies 
of Jesus Christ," in which he displayed great abilities and 
judgment. These were followed, iiv 1788, by a very able 
defence of some of the essential doctrines of the churchy 
respecting the nature and person, death and sufferings of 
Christ, in " Four Tracts ; on the principle of religion, as 
^ test of divine authority ; on the principle of redemption ; 
on the angelical message to the Virgin Mary, and on the 
resurrection of the body ; with a discourse on humility,** 
8vo, the whole illustrated by notes and authorities. He 
published also one or two other single sermons^ and an ode 
for the eiicoenia at the installation of the duke of Portland 
in 1793 ; but what confers the highest honour on his abili- 
ties, critical talents, and industry, was his collation of the 
MSS. of the Septuagint version, which he appears to have 
begun about 1786. Induced to think that the means of 
determining the genuine tenor of the Scriptural text wouldl 
be mudTi enlarged if the MSS, of the Septuagint version 
were carefully collated, as those of the Hebrew had been^ 
and ibn collations published in one vie w^ he laid down his 



HOLMES.. 83 

{>lajQ,,.the essential parts of which were: that all MSS« 
knoi^o or discoverable at home or abroad^ if prior to the 
invention of printing, should be carefully collated with 
on^ printed text; and all particularities in which they dif- 
fered from it distinctly noted ; that printed editions and ver- 
sions, inade from all or parts of that by the seventy, and 
juitations from it by eccle^stical writers (with a distinction 
of tbos^ who wrote before the time of Aquila or after k), 
should also be collated with the same printed teirt, and all 
their variations from it respectively ascertained; and that 
these materials, when collected, should all be reduced to 
one plain view, and printed under the text with which the 
several collations have been made, as by Pr. Keunicott— » 
or without the text, as by De Rossi. Upon these general 
principles. Dr. Holmes embarked on his enterprize, hav* 
ing in the first instance been patronized by the delegates 
of the Clarendon pre^s, and by liberal subscriptions from 
other universities, and the public at large. The de^legates 
of the press, agreed to allow him 40/. a year for three.years, 
^^ on bis exhibiting to them his collations annually, to be 
deposited in th^, Bodleian library, and when the whole was 
finished, to be printed at the university press, at his. ex- 
pence, and for bis benefit, or of his assigns, if he should 
live to complete his collations ; or if they were left imper.-* 
feet, they were to be at the discretion of the delegates, they 
undertaking to promote the finishing of them to. the best 
pf their power, and to publish them when finished, allow- 
ing to his assigns a just proportion of the profits.*' 

V^th these encouragements. Dr. Holmes exhibited in 
•1789 .bis first annual account, by which it appeared that 
^leven folio volumes of collations were deposited, at th^ 
end of that year, in the Bodleian library ; subsequent an- 
nual accounts followed, and at the end of I7dk3, the total 
number of MS volumes deposited in that library was seven- 
ty-three, and the sum received by subscriptions 4445/. 
which, liberal as it may seem, fell very fur short of the ex-* 
pences incurred by the editor. Notwithstanding this W 
proceeded in the last-mentioned year to subo^it two folio 
specimens to the opinion of scholars and critics, the first 
containing cbsCpters I. and J.I. of Genesis, and the second, 
chapter I. according to the Vatican text, the divisions of 
.chapters and verses in which somewhat digiar^ from the 
Vulgate. He was aware, however, that his original plan 
was so extensively idborlous, that 09 perseverance or lif^ 

(J 2 



«4 H O L M fe S. 

• 

Wbuld bav^ hken equal to Us lexectttion. He ddte^mtlted, 
therefore, to contract it, and in tHfe form published lii 17M 
ban of his first volume, feotitkfmf^g tfre book of Geilesis, 
*)?bich exhibits a Very tekttitri'di^ry itaiohmdi^t of diligc^»e<^. 
This was followell in 1801, by artoHifer pdrtion of tbe^Btie 
Volume, coAtaimog tlx^dhs tod L^hiciis ; ^hd Ih 1804 
the tolcrme was completed by th^ addittdta 6f Numb^t^ftatid 
Deuterohom^, with a valvafbfe preface^ givirtg a hisitd^y ef 
the 8eptaa^}nt and its vftrtous editibtw. Dr. Holmes tbfeh 
'publiibed the prophecy of Daniel, According to Thifrbdo- 
tlon and the Scptuaginti departing from his pwpoited 
ordfer, as if by a presentiment of his end; The Idss of WtA 
-a iiian at this eritical time tras nnqtiestib^bly gteat,^ tod 
nvft^ duly Appreciated by every "scholar who Wasr k jud^e 'crf 
-his labours. They felt ^herefote a proporHorial grtttificJii- 
^on, in seeing the work iresutned, in kh tintform hianlft^ry 
after an interruption of only four -years, by the rcfv.'Jann^es 
Parsons, M. A. of Wadham college, who in 1810 published 
the first part of vol. 11. containing the book of Joshitia, and 
^bo appears in every retpect qualified to carry oh -tbela- 
ikH-ious design with honour to himself and to the uniVer^ 
«ty. * 

HOLSTENIUS, nr HOLSTEIN (Lucas), an iiig^ntotis 
'andIearnedGerinan,WasboniatHamburgin 1596; and aftet 
% liberal education in his own country, went toFranee^'and 
^t (^aris'distinguished himself by uhfcottimori parts and learn^ 
ing. He was educated a protestant, but afterwards by the 
persuasions of Sirmond the Jesuit, embraced the Roddati 
*tatholic religion^ and going fromFrance to Rotoe, attat^hed 
biihseif to cardinal Francis Barberiiii ; who took him under 
4its protection, and recommended him to favour. He was 
iionoured by three popes. Urban VIII. Innocent X. and 
'Alexander VH. The 'first gave him a canon ry of St. 
•Peter's; the second made him librarian of the Vatican; 
and the third sent him, in 1^65, to Christina of Sweden^ 
w^iose formal profession of the Catholic faith he received at 
inspruck. He spent his life in study, arid died at Rome 
♦in 1^61. Cardinal Barberini, whom he made his heir^ 
caused^ marble monument to be erected over his grave, 
witfaa Latin inscription much to his honour. He wins very 
learned both in sacred and profane antiquity^ was an aictiie 
5crhic, and wrote with the utmost purity and ele^f^e. 



I ttMt. ASag. x«ir LXXV.--lVro»lb. Cnitical, andl Brifeisk Crrttic. 



h n 



HOLSTENIUS. «* 

works eoosiftted chiefly of notes and dissertations, which 
hanre been highly esteemed forjudgmeDt and precision. 
Some of these were published by himself; but the greater 
part were eomnunicated after his death, and inserted by 
his friends in their editions of authors, or other works that 
would admit them. His notes and emendations upon Eur 
sebius's book against Hi^rocles, upon Porphyry 'S <' Life of 
Pythagoras," upon ApoUooius's *^ Argonautics," upon the 
fifsgments of DemophUus, Democrates, ^eci^odus, and Sal- 
lustius the philosopher, upon Stepbanus Byzaotinus de 
Urbibus, 8cc.« are to be found in the best editions of th\>se 
autfaprs. He wrote a '' Dissertation upon the Life and 
Wsitiogrs of Porphyry," which is printed with his notes on 
f^hyry^gJf Life of Pythagoras ;" and other dissertations 
of iiis are inserted in Grsevius's ** Ck)lleciion of Roman An- 
dquities," and elsewfaere.' 

HOLT (Sir Join?), knight, lord chief justice of the oouft 
of King's-bench in Uie reign of king Wiiliam, was son of 
sir Thomas Ho)t, knight, serjeaot at law; and born at 
Thame in Oafordshire, 1642. He was educated at Abing- 
don-school, while his father was recmder of that ^wn ; 
Bod afterwards became a gentleman*commoner of Oriel^ 
coliege, Oxford. In 165^ he entered himself of Gray^s« 
inn, before be took a degree ; some time- after which be 
was eaHed to the bar, where he attended constantly, and 
soon became a very eminent barrister. In the reign of 
Jaases H. he was made recorder of L<uidon, which office 
he disctiarged with much applause for about a year and a 
half; but refusing to give his hand towards abolishing the. 
testf and 'to expound the law according to. the king's design, 
he was removed from his place. In 16ft6 he. was called to 
the degree of a seijeant at law, with many other^i. On the 
arrivat of the prince of Orange, he was chosen a member 
of the convention parliament ; and appointed one of the 
managers for the^^ommons at the conferences held with the 
lords, about the abdication and the vacancy ^ of the throne. 
He ^d here an opportunity of displaying his abilities ; and 
as soon as the government was settled, he was made lord: 
chief justice of the court .of King's-bench, and admitted 
into the king's privy- council. 

In 1700, when lord Somers parted 'with the great seal, 
king William pressed chief justice Holt to accept of it : 

. 1 IfHBtrom vsL XXXI.--»CbAafepMi— Morf ri.r-.Saxii Onosiftst. 



S9 HOLT.-; 

but he replied, that he never had but one chancery eause 
in bis' life, which he lost ; and consequently could not' think 
himself fitly qualified for so great a trust. He continued in 
his post twenty-two years, and maintained it with great 
reputation for steadiness, integrity, and complete know-r 
ledge in his profession. He applied himself with great as* 
siduity to the functions of his important office. He was 
perfect master of the common law ; and, as his judgment 
was most solid, his capacity vast, bnd understanding most 
clear, so he had a firmness of mind, and such a degree of 
resolution, as never could be brought to swerve in ^e least 
from what he thought to be law and justice. Upon gnoat 
occasions he shewed an intrepid zeal in asserting the au« 
thority of the law ; for he ventured to incur the indigna* 
tion of both houses of parliament, by turns, when he 
thought the law was with him. Sev^al oases of the utmost 
importance, and highly affecting the lives, rights, liberties, 
and property of the people, came in judgment before hifft. 
There was a remarksible clearness and perspicuity of ideas 
in his definitions ; a distinct arrangement of them in the 
analysis of his arguments ; and the real and natural differ- 
ence of things was made most perceptible and obvious^ 
when he distinguished between matters which bore a false 
resemblance to each other. Having thus rightly formed 
his premises, he scarcely ever erred in his conclusions ; bis 
arguments were instructive and convincing, and his in* 
tegrity would not suffer him to deviate from judgment and 
truth, in compliance to his prince, or, as observed before, 
to either house of paHiament. They are most of theia 
faithfully and judiciously reported by that eminent lawyer, 
chief justice KaynM)nd. His integrity and uprightness as 
a judge are celebrated by the author of the *^ Tatler,** 
No. 1 4, under the noble character of Verus the magistrate. 
There happened in the time of this chief justice a riot 
in Hoiborn, occasioned by an abominable practice then 
prevailing, of decoying young persons of both sexes tp the 
Plantations, The persons so decoyed they kept prisoners 
in a house in Hoiborn, till they could find an opportunity 
of shipping them off; which being discovered, the enraged 
populace were going to pull down the house. Notice of 
tbis«being sent to Whitehall, a party of the guards were 
commanded to march to the place ; but they first sent aa 
officer to the chief justice to acquaint him with the^ design, 
and to desire him to send some of his people to attend the 



HOLT. «7 

Boldiersy in ordes to give it the better countenance. Th^ 
oflicer having delivered liis message, Holt said to tiioii 
** Suppose the populace should not disperse at your ap** 
pearance, what are you to do then?'' ^< Sir,'', answered 
the officer, *' we have orders to. fire upon theoi." ^^Have 
you, Sir ? (replied Holt) then take notice of what I say ; 
if there be one man killed, and you are triced before me, I 
will take, care that you, and every soldier of your party, 
shall be hanged. Sir, (added he) go back to those who 
sent you, and acquaint them, that no officer of mine shall 
attend soldiers; and let them know at the same time, that 
the laws of this kingdom are not to be executed by th^ 
sword : these matters belong to the civil power, and you 
have nothing to do with them." Upon this, the chief jus* 
tice, ordering his tipsuves with a few constables to attend 
him, went himself in person to the place where the tumult 
was; expostulated with the mob ; assured them that justice 
should be done upon the persons who were the objects of 
their indignation : and thus they all dispersed quietly. 

He married Anne *, daughter of sir John Cropley, hart 
whom he left without issue; and died in March 1709, 
after a lingering illness, in his 68th year. The following 
re]|orts were published by himself, in 1708, fol. with some 
notes of his own upon them : *^ A Report of divers Cases, in 
Pleas of the Crown, adjudged and determined, in the reign 
^of the late King Charles the Second, with directions for 
justices of the peace, and others, collected by sir John 
Key ling, knight, late lord chief justice of his Majesty's 
court of King's-bench, from the original manuscript under 
his own hand. To which is added. The Report of thiree 
modern Cases, viz. Armstrong and Lisle; the King and 
Plumer ; the Queen and Mawgridge." A second edition 
was pretendedly published in 1739, but the title only wsys 
new. * 

HOLT (John), a miscellaneous writer of considerable 
merit, was born at Mottram in Cheshire in 1742, and 
educated with a view to the ooinTstry among the dissenters ; 
but this pursuit he very early relinquished, in consequence 

* Dr. Arbuthnot iii a Letter to Swift jastice Hott'i wife, whom he attended 

says, ** I t6ok the same pleasure ia out of spite to the husband, who wished 

saring hiiQ (Gay, the poet), as Rad- her dead. 
tUffe did in preserving my lord chief 

I Life» 1764, Sto.— Biog. Brit. toI. VI L Supplement'— Burnet's Own Times. 
•— Atb. 03U vol. U.— Nichols's Atterbury. 



'k» H O L T; 

of becoming z tneinber of the clitircl^ ol Englaiid. tl^ 
icontitnied) ho^vever, to cultivate his mind by* levery op^por^ 
tanity withiti his power, aUhough his circumstfthces in earFy * 
Kfe were uo^vour^ble to a liberal education. Abom tht 
year 1761 he removed to Walton in Lancashire, three miles* 
from Liverpool, where be commenced ^cfaoolmi^ter m4 
parish-clierk ; the latter he resigned some years lyeibre h^ 
tieath. Having married a very sensibly and worthy wbm^n, 
)re opened a boarding-school for yoang ladies, with tfaik 
Assistance of his wife, and carried it on with great reputa* 
tion. f)is time was for many years divided between l!h^ 
pares of the school knd the study &f tigficulture, ivhich 
had always in some measure engaged his nmid. Vdr bis 
scholars he compiled several us^nl manuals, particulatly 
the "Characters of the Kings and Queens of England,'* 
1786—1788, 3 vols, l12mo, so jgdiciousf]y laid doWn, knfl 
Illustrated by iso many sensible and original temai'ks, ihA 
bad Mr. Holt applied himself to history only, it is not 
improbable he might have produced a wotk of Iri^er hn* 
portance in that science. In the course of his agriculttiral 

?)ursuits, he wrote ** An %iisay on the Curie in Potattoes," 
or which he received the medal from the society of arts, 
manufactures, and commerce. The many essays amd me- 
moirs which he drew up on such subjects having acquired 
him the character of a minute and sfcilful observer, the 
Board of agriculture appointed hifn surveyor of the cOunfty 
of Lancaster, and the ^^ Report" which he returned, rich 
^1 valuable diatter, judiciously arranged, *was the first that 
was republished by the Board ; and he had various pre- 
miums and other testimonies of approbation adjudged to 
him. It appears to have been his utmost ambition to em- 
ploy his time in what was useful, and no part of that timei 
was allowed to pass without adding something to his stock 
of knowledge. He was at last employed in collecting 
materials for a History of Liverpool, when a bilious disorder 
carried him off, March 21, 1801, to the very great regret 
of all who knew his amiablp character. A portrait, and 
some other parjticulars of his Kfe, may be seen in our 
authority.^ 

HOLTE (J^QK), author of the first Latin grammar of 
any note in England, was a native of the county of Sussex, 
and flourished about the latter part of the fifteenth cen* 

1 Cent Mag. toI. LXXt. 



H O L T K. •» 

tury. After bavingr httu for sotne time usher of the school 
next to Magdalen college gate in Oxford, be took his 
degree of B. A. and in 1491 was admitted fellow of that 
"College. He afterwards compteted his degrees in atts, and 
comn^enced schoolmaster, in which capacity he acqaireil 
'great reputation^ and prepared for college many student!, 
who were afterwards men of eminence. When he died Is 
unknown, bnt he was alive in 1511. The gramriiar be 
|mhliihed was entitled ^'^ Lac PHeroruni. M. Holti. Mylke 
for chy Wren," 4to, printed by Wynkyn de Worde, 149T. 
It is dedicated^ to Morton archbishop of Canterbury, anil 
has some veiy elegant Latin verses by sir Thomas More, 
•when he was a young man. The only copy known is in 
Mr. Heber's fine collection. This grammar, the first me?- 
^odical piece of the kind for the use of schools, was long 
-followed by John Stanbiidge, Robert Whittington, Wifliam 
l.ily, Leonard Cox, Henry Prime, and other sclioc4- 
masters.' 

HOLWELL (Johk ZtPHANiAM), a learned EngliA 
'gentleman, well known in the history of Britirii India, 
was the son of Zepbaniah flolwell, thnher-merchant and 
citizen -of London, and grandson of John Holwell, a mathe* . 
fwaNScal writer of much feme in the serertieenth century. 
The ftither and grandfather of this Jchn Holwell both fell 
in support of the royal cause during the nsui|yation, and 
libe family estate of Holwell- ball, in Devonshire, was lost 
to their descendants for ever ; for although Mr. Holwell 
applied to king Charles at the restoration, the only re* 
compense he obtained was to be appointed royal astrono- 
mer and surveyor of the crown lands, and the advaneemerit 
of his wife to a place of some honour, but of little emohi- 
ment, about the person of the queen. Some years after ^ 
lie was appointed mathematical preceptor to the duke ^f 
Monmouth, for whom he conceived a warm attachment, 
-snd, believing farm lo be the legitimate son of the king, 
-was ind^^ed to take a very active and imprudent pan 
against the succession of the duke of York, which in the 
end proved bis ruin. Having published in 16S3 a small 
Latin tract called '^ Catastrophe Mundi,'* which was' soon 
after translated, and is a severe attack on the popish t^rty, 
he was marked for destruction as soon as the duke of York 

4i)QiUe8» vol. II. 



dQ H O L WE L L. 

xame to the throne. Accordingly, in 1681, it was conr 
trived that, in quality of surveyor to the crown, he should 
be sent to America, to survey and lay down a chart of the 
town of New York ; and at the same time secret orderjs 
, were sent to the government agents there, to take some 
effectual means to prevent his return. In consequence of 
this, it is said, that he had no sooner execqt^d his commis- 
sion, than he died suddenly, and his death was attributed, 
at the time and on the spot, to the application of poison 
administered to him in a dish of coffee. His son was futher 
to the subject of the present article. 

John Zephaniah Holwell was bom at Dublin, Sept. 17^ 
1711, and at the age of eight was brought over to England, 
and placed at Mr. M'Kenzie's grammar-school at Richmond 
in Surrey, where he distinguished himself in classical 
learning. After this, his father having determined to breed 
bim up to mercantile life in Holland, sent him to an aca- 
demy at Iselmond on the Mouse, where he learned th|e 
French and Dutch languages, and was instructed in book- 
keeping. He was then placed in the counting-house of 
Lantwoord, a banker and ship's-husband at Rotterdam^ 
with a stipulation that he was to be admitted as a partner at 
the expiration of five years. The unceasing toil, however, 
of his new situation soon affected his health to a very 
alarming degree ; and although he recovered by consulting 
the celebrated Boerhaave at Leyden, his inclination for 
trade was gone,' and on his return to England, his father, 
finding him inflexible on this point, bound him appren* 
tice to Mr. Forbes, a surgeon in the Park, Southwark, and 
upon the death of that gentleman he was placed under the 
care of Mr. Andrew Cooper, senior surgeon of Guy's 
hospital. 

. Being now duly qualified, andf having lost his father in 
1729, who left a very slender provision for his widow and 
son, he quitted the hospital, and engaged himself as sur- 
geon's mate on board the Duke of Cumberland Indiaman, 
which jailed from Gravesend Feb. 2, 1732, and proceeded 
to Bengal, where he was appointed surgeon of a frigate 
belonging to the company, bound for the gulph of Persia. 
In the course of this voyage he acquired some knowledge 
of the Arabic tongue, and on his return to Calcutta em- 
ployed his leisure hours in studying the Moorish ^nd com- 
mon Hinduee languages, and the Lingua Franca of the 
Portuguese. -In January 1734 he made another voyage, as 



\ 



. H L W E t L. 9^ 

% 

sargeoo of the ship Prince of Wales, to Suri^^ &c. aud 
80011 after his return to Bengal, he was appointed surgeon* 
major to the Patna party, usually consisting of about 400 
European infaDtry^ frhich annually left the presidency in 
the. latter end of Septeoiber, with the company's trade for, 
ibeir factory at Patna. His next voyage was in ;tbe ship 
Prince of Orange^ to Mocha and Judda in the Arabian 
gulph. During his stay there he added to his knowledges 
of the Arabic tongue, and, on his return to Ca\cutta was 
able to speak it with tolerable fluency. After another 
visi](, however, to Patna, as surgeon-major, he was anxious 
to quit this rambling life, and by the interest of his friends 
was appointed surgeon to the company's factory at Decca ; 
and here, besides farther improving himself in the Moonsh. 
and Hinduee tongues, he commenced his researches into 
the Hindu theology. 

At the close of the year 1736 he returned to Calcutta, 
and was elected an alderman in the mayor's court ; and in- 
1740 was appointed assistant surgeon to the hospital, which 
first g^ye him a solid establishment in the company's ser-» 
vice. In 1746 he succeeded to the place of principal 
physician and surgeon to the presidency ; and in the yeara 
1747 and 1748 was successively elected mayor of the cor- 
poration. In Sept. 1749 his bad state of health rendered 
it necessary for him to return to England, where he arrived 
in the March following. During this voyage he bad leisure 
to arrange his materials on the theology and doctrines of 
the ancient and modern Brahmans, and to digest a plam 
which he had formed for correcting abuses in the Zemin* 
dar's court at Calcutta. This scheme of reform he sub- 
mitted to the court of directors, who, in consequence . of 
the advantages it promised to produce, appointed him per*» 
petual Zemindar, and twelfth, or youngest, in the cou'ncU 
at the board of Calcutta ; but With an exception to any 
further advancement in it. On his arrival in Calcutta, in 
August 17^1, he immediately began his system of reform, 
which gave so much satisfaction to the directors, that tb^: 
exception against his rising, in the council wa$ removed, 
and 4000 rupees added to his salary. I'he nature and 
object of this reform is fully delineated in his ^' India Tsracts^'* 
a 4to volume, which he published at London in 1764. 

In 1756 he rose to be seventh in council, and in the 
month of June in that year, Surajah Dowlah, nabob of 
bengal, attacked Calcutta. The governor and seniors iit 



U H O L W E L L. 

council having deserted the place, the renainifig memhets^ 
of the board, with the inhabitants and trbops, elected 
Mr. Holwell governor and commander in chief of the fort 
and presidency ; who, supported by i few gallant friends^ 
•nd the remains of a feeble garrison, bravely held out l^e 
jbrt to the last extremity ; but a noble defence could not 
.preserve an untenable place, or affect an ungenerous' 
eiiemy. The opposition he had met with so incensed the 
habob, that although on the surrender he had given Mr. 
Holwell his word mat no harm should come to him, he 
ordered him and his unfortunate companions in arms, 146 
persons in number, to be thrust into a close prison called 
the Black Hole, not eighteen feet square, into which no 
tfujj^ply of air could cotae but by two small windows in one 
end. Here for one whole night they were confined, and 
in ibe morning only twenty-three were found alive, one of 
whom was Mr. Holwetl, whose affecting and highly inte- 
resting ** Narrative*' of the event was published at London 
in 1758 *• On his delivery from this place he was carried 
in irons to Muxadabad, but was released on July 31st fol- 
lowing, by the intercession of the Begum, Surajah Dbwlab's 
grandmoUier, vAko was influenced to this act of compassioo- 
by the reports of his upright and lenient conduct to the 
natives during the time he presided in the Zemindar and 
Cutcherry courts. He soon after joined the wretched 
remnins of the colony at Fultafa. In December following 
tlie presidency was retaken by vice-admiral Watson and 
eolonel Clive, and the governor and council re-established 
by them. 

Mr. Holwell being in a most deplorable state of health, 
from bis unparalleled sufferings, obtained leave to take- 
dispatches for the company to England, and for that pur- 
pose embarked on board the Syren sloop, of no more t^an 
eighty tons burthen. In February 1757, after a most ha- 
zardous voyage of six months in that small ve8se;l (a very 
curious journal of which he nfterwards published), he 
arrived in England ; and in consideration of his meritorious 
services, eminent abilities, and distinguished integrity, 

* At the ttne of Mr. Ho^reIi*s4e»th Uemao vbo, ms mmitipiiiBd m t^> par*^ 

in 119% there were two survivors of rati ve, manifestecl the truest frieDdship, 

that horrible tyranny, in Eugland : Mr. by resigning h is station near the window 

Bardett» residing at TbitOD near South- of the dungeon to Mr. Holwell, whg* 

an)pton,.aDd Capt Mills on the Haap- otherwise must have expired in a iesr« 

stead-road. The latter, who, if we , minutes, 
mietake loc, is still iiving, is the ge«- 



HOLWELU ^ 

iwas appointed^ by a nuajoritjr of fifteen aget9«l{ liinti in 
ihe court o^ directofs, to return tM» Bengal ai lucaessQt to 
eolanel Clire in that government ; but this i^ipointmeiit 
hey ^ith great modesty^ decUoed in favoof of Mr* Manning** 
haoft. He was tbeil named second in oemncil, aiMl aaceea- 
^or to that gentleman. In this situation ke embarked oil 
.board tbe Warren Indtaasan in March 1758; bnt betn^ 
detained by adverse winds till an election of neur dtrecfeoit 
took place) tbey reversed the whole ptqceedings of tha 
former court, and Mr. Holwell was returned to fats previous 
«i|ualrio<) as seventh ia council. With what justice or Ube>» 
raUty this proceeding was instituted we know not': Mr. 
•Holwellj however, on his arrtvid in Bengal^ found himseil^ 
by the ^{^arture of some senior members of the coudoi^ 
Iciartb in rank; and in .17 59^ from. a similar renuJTal^ he 
became aecond, when colonel Cbve resigned tbe gov>em«> 
4Rient to hia^ The conduct of his administration, and tbe 
lienefits the oompany derived from it, are displayed widi 
eQual truth and modesty in the *' India Tracts" already 
mentioned. 

. At the close of the year 1760 he was superseded by 
Mr. Vaosittart, and in February followiftg be resigned all 
employment in the company'<s service ; and in the succeed- 
ing month embarked for England iii a noost wretched state 
of health, which it recfuired upwards of twelve months 
residence and care to re-establish. Tired of the bustle of 
public life, he now made his election in favour of retire- 
itient and tranquillity, being possessed of an ample and 
independent fortune, acc^ired in the most honourable 
planner ; although it has been complained that he did not 
veceive those returns from the East India Company^ to 
^wbicfa he was entitled by bis long and meritorious services. 
Mr. Holwell was the first European who studied the Hmdu 
antiquities ; and although be was uimvoidahly led into 
many terrors concerning them, from his being totally un-^ 
acquainted with the Saoscreet language, he must be 
allowed the merit of having poimed out the path .which ^hs^ 
fiaally conducted others to those repositories of learning 
and.science. By the capture of Calcutta in 1756, governor 
Holwell lost maaycvrioiK Hindu manuscripts, and among 
^bem two copies of the Sastras, or book of divine autho-* 
rtty, written ia the common Hinduee language, for which 
the comausstoners of restitution allowed him two thousand 
Madras ri^es« He also lost a translation of a considerable 



« holwell; 

•part; of liiat work, on which be had employed eighteen 
•moqths. However, during his residence in Bengal, after 
:be wais removed from the government, he resumed hit 
^searches,, and having recovered some manuscripts by an 
unforeseen and extraordinary event, he was enabled, in 
August 1765, to publish the first part of bis *^ Intei^esting 
jiistoiricai events relative to Bengal and Indostan $ as also 
^tbe Mythology of the Gentoos ; and a dissertation on the 
Metempsychosis," Lxxnd. 8vo. In 1766 and 1771 he ptib- 
lisbed the second and third parts of the same work, in 
which there is much curious information, although ini'Kis 
reasonings he has been supposed to attribute too much of 
divine authority to the Sastras. One of his most valuable 
publications was ^^ An account of the manner of inoculat- 
ing, for tlie small pox in India,'* with observations on the 
medical practice and mode of treating that disease in the 
east. He piliblisbed also ^* A new experiment for the 
prevention of crimes,*' 1786, which consisted chiefly in 
establishing a system of rewards for virtue. His last pub- 
lication, *^ Dissertations on the origin, nature, and pursuits 
of intelligent beings, and on Divine Providence, Religion, 
and religious Worship,'* which appeared in 1788, bore some 
marks of the whims of old age^ and contains some singular 
and fanciful opinions-, isuch as that God created angels of 
diiferent degrees, who on their fall became, the best of 
them, Aien, dogs, and horses ; the worst, lions, tigei^, and 
other wild bea&ts, :&c Mr. Holwell survived this publica* 
tion about ten years, dying Monday, Nov. 5, 1 798, at his 
bouse at Pinner, Middlesex. He -was twice married, and 
of bis family three of his children only survived him, 
lieut-col. James Holwell, of Soutbborough in Kent; Mrs^ 
Birch, the wife of William Birch, esq. ; and Mrs; Swinney, 
relict of the late Dr. Swinney. 

Mr. HolweU's mind was stored with general knowle|3ge : 
his understanding was at once sagacious and comprehen- 
sive; while his imagination gave a lively and pleasing 
i:olour to all be knew and every thing he said. A taste for 
^legant literature, and the possession of elegant accom-» 
plishments, completed bis intellectual qualifications. There 
l^as a superior urbanity in bis manners, which did not pro- 
Qeed more from the babtts of. his life than the benevolei^d 
of his heart; and while his demeaiiourassimilated him to 
the highest station,' it tendered him emitten^ly pleasing- in 
every subordinate rank ot soiial dife.Xi <He was, . indeed. 



H O L Y I> A Y. is 

throughout life a man of great benevolence, generosity, 
and candour.^. 

HOLYDAY (BARTfiN), an ingenious and learned English 
divine, was the son of' a taylor in Oxford, and born in the 
parish of All Saints there about 15^3; He was entered 
early of Christ-church in the time of Dr. Ravis, his relation 
and patroY), by whom he was chosen student; and in 1615 
he took orders. He was before noticed- for his skill in 
poetry and oratory, and now distingViished himself so much 
by his eloquence and populaHty as a preacher, that he had 
two benefices conferred on him in the diocese of Oxford. 
In 1618 he went as ebaplain to sir Francis Stewart, wheti 
he accompanied the coijint Gundamore to Spain, in which 
journey Holyday exhibited such agreeable conversation* 
talents, that the count* was greatly pleased with him. 
Afterwards he became chaplain to the king, aud was pro^ 
inoted to the archdeaconry of Oxford before 1626. In 
1642 he was made a doctor of divinity by mandamus at 
Oxford ; near which place he sheltered himself during the 
time of the rebellion. When the royal party declined, 
he so far sided with the prevailing powers, as to undergo 
the examination of the triers, in order to be inducted into 
the rectory of Chilton in Berkshire ; for he had lost his 
livings, and the profits of his archdeaconry, and could not 
well bear poverty and distress. This drew upon him much 
censure from his own party ; some of whom, however, 
> says Wood, . commended him, since he had thus made 
provision for a second wife he had lately married. After 
the Restoration he quitted this living, and returned to Iffley 
near Oxford, to live on his archdeaconry ; and had he not 
acted a temporizing part, it was said he might have been 
raised to much higher promotion. |lis poetry, however, 
got him a name in those days, and he stood fair for pre- 
ferment. His philosophy also, discovered in his book 
*' De Anima,*' and his welManguaged sermons, says Wood, 
speak him eminent in his generation, and shew him to 
have traced the rough parts of learning, as well as the 
pleasant paths of poetry. He died at Iffley, Oct. 2, 1661, 
and was buried at Christ-church. 

His works consist of twenty sermons, published at dif- 
ferent times. ^' Technogamia, or the Marriage of Arts, 
a comedy,^* 1630*. ^* Philosopbis pQlito-barbarse speci- 

I Asiatic Annual Register,' vol. I. 

* Wood teltt'iis that thii ^iec«^ bail halt in the yenr 1617, but witb do very 
been publicly ade^l in Cbrisicburcii great applause ^ but tbat tbe irits of 



#« 



tt t Y A Y. 



mevi^ m c^o d« ftnima & ^us habititius ioteUeetuaUbas 
iqusBstiones aliquot libris duobus illustrantur^*' 162(3, 4lq4 
*^ purvey of the World, in ten books, i^ poena/' 1661, 8to. 
B^t the work be is koown for now U his ** TraasUtion o^ 
tbe /Satires of Juvepal and Persius;'' for thougpb bis poetry 
ia but ixidiflPeren^ bis translation is allowed to be faithful^ 
and bis nqtes g^d^. Tbe second edition of bis *' Persiqs** 
was published in 1616 ; and the fourth, at tbe end of tb^ 
^< Satires of Juvenal illustrated, witb notes and sculptures,^* 
^673, folio. Dryden, in. the dedication of bis ''Trans« 
la^on of Juvenal and Persii^,'' qaakes tbi^ foiiowiog critique 
ppou our autbor's performance : ^^ If,*' says b9, ^^ rendefiog 
tbe exact sense of these autbots, pdraost line for line, bad 
be;^ opr business, Barten Holyday bad done it already U$ 
our handa ; and by tbe help of bis learned notes and illxisr 
tratioQs, not only Juvenal and Persias, but (what is ye€ 
more obscure) bis. own verses migbt be understood.'* 
Speaking] a little farther on^ of close and literal tran8lat.ioni 
be ad4sy that ^f Holyday, whq m^de this way bis cboi^e^ 
seized tbe meaai^ of Juve;Dal, but tbe poetry bi|s alwaya 
escaped bini^'' In. bis account of Holyday's wriiingSf 
Wood h93 omitted an instructive and entertaining litiW 
work entitled '^ Comes jucundus in via/' which he pub* 
lished anonymously in 1658. In the latter part of tbe 
^cond addr<ess to the r^tader, tbed:e is s^ quainx aUusiop tp 
his name.' 

HOLYOAKE (Francis), a learned Englisbipan, memoirs 
able for having made an/^ Etymological Dictionary of Latin 
woards," was born at Nether Wtuta(i:re in Warwickshirei 
about 156-7, and studied in the university of Ox£or^ abo^ii 
X582 ; but it does not appear tbat be ever took a degree4 



those times, being willing to clSstinguish 
themselnes before the king, were re- 
solved, with leave, to act tbe Mine co-> 
iqedy at Woodstock. Permission being 
obtained, it was accordingly acted oa 
9nnday eTeaing^ Aqg. 96, 16^1. But, 
whether it was too grave for bis majesty 
and too scholastic for the audience, or 
^belbef, assoraeeaid* tbe'aolofs bad 
taken too mnch wine before they began, 
IQ order to remove their timidity, his 
mejesty grew so lirc^ with the perform- 
anee, tbat» after the two first acts were 
over, he several times made efforts to 
begone. At length, however, being 



persuaded by those who were about 
him to have patience till It was over, 
lest tbe yoqog men should be disooU'S- 
raged by so apparent a slight shewn to 
them, be did sit it ont, though much 
ag«ittst.|iis will. Qn which tbe foHow- 
ing smart and ingeoieus epigram was 
made by a c<rrtain scholar: 
** At Chnst^bUrch Marriage, dent be- 
fore the king. 
Lest tbat their mates should want ao 

offering, 
TbekHSg bimself did.o0wv Wb^t» I 

pray ? 
He oj(fer»d twice or thrice — to go away.^ 



> Ath. Ox. vol. n.— Wood's Life, 8vo. 177^.— Lloyd's Memein, fol — ^Ma- 
tone's Orjrden, vol. IV. p. 186. 218. 



JI O L Y O A K E. S7 

He taught school at Oxford, and in his own country ; and 
became rector of Southam in Warmckshire, 1604. He 
was elected a member of the convocation of the clergy in 
the first year of Charles the First^s reign ; and afterwards, 
in the civil wai^, suffered extremely for his attachment to 
that king. He died Nov. 13, 1653, and was buried at 
i\^arwick. His ** Dictionary^' was first printed in I60e^ 
4to ; aqd the fourth edition in 1633, augm^ted, was dedi-. 
cated to Laud, then bishop of London. He subscribed 
himself in Latin, ^' Franciscus' de sacra quercu.*^^ 

HOLYOAKE (Thomas), son of the preceding, was 
born in 1616 at Stony-Thorp near Southam in Warwick- 
fibire, and educated in grammar learning Under Mr. White 
at Coventry ; from whence he Was sent in Michaelmas term 
1632, at the age of sixteen years, to Queen's college in 
Oxford, where he took the degree of bachek>r of arts July 
5, 1636, and that of master, May 16, 1639, and became 
chaplain of the college. In the beginning of the civfl 
wars, when Oxford became the seat of king Charles, and 
was garrisoned for his use, he was put into commission 
for a captain of a foot company, consisting mostly of 
ftcholars. In this post he did great service, and had the 
degree of doctor of divinity conferred upon him by the 
fiivour of his majesty, though no such matter occurs in the 
public register of the univ^sity, which was then sometimes 
neglected. After the surrender of the garrison of Oxford 
to the parliament, he, by the name of Thomas Holyoke^ 
without the addition of master of arts, bachelor or doctor 
of divinity, obtained a licence from the university to prac- 
tise physic, and settling in his own country, he practised 
with good success till the Restoration in 1660, in which 
year Thomas lord Leigh, baron of Stone Leigh in War- 
wickshire, presented him to .the rectory of Wbitnash near 
Warwick. He was soon after made prebendary of the col- 
legiate church of Wolverhampton in Staffordshire. In 
1674 Robert lord Brook conferred upon him the donative 
of Breamour in Hampshire (which he had by the mar- 
riage of bis lady), worth about two hundred pounds per 
annum ; but, before he had enjoyed it a year, he died of a 
fever, June 10, 1 675. His body was interred near that of his 
fether in the church of St. Mary in Warwick. His Dic^ 
tionary was published after his death in 1677^ in foL aod^ 

» Ath. Ox., vol. II. 

VouXVin. H 



98 . H O L Y O A K E. 

AS. Wood says^ ^< i^ made upon the foundation laid by 
hi§ father,'* Before it are two epistles, one by the 
author's son, Charles Holyoake of the Inner Temple^ 
dedicating the work to lord Brooke, and another by Dn 
jBarlow, bishop of Lincoln, which contains many parti- 
culars of the work and its. author. He had another soo^ 
the Itev* Henry. Holyoake, who was for forty years 
xnaster of Rugby school in Warwickshire, and died 
inl73L^ 

HOLYWOOD (John), or Halifax, or Sacrohosco^ was, 
according to Leland, Bale, and Pits, born at Halifax in 
Yorkshire, which Mr. Watson thinks very improbable ; 
accordi^ig to Stainhurst, at Holywood near Dublin ; and 
according to Dempster and Mackenzie, in Nithsdale ia 
Scotland. There may perhaps have been more than one 
of the name to occasion this difference of opinion. Mac- 
kenzie informs us, that having finished bis studies, he 
entered into orders, and became a canon regular of the 
order of St. Augustin in the famous monastery of Holy- 
wood in Nithsdale. The English biographers, on the con- 
trary, tell us that he was educated at Oxford. They all 
agree however in asserting, that he spent most of his life ak 
Paris ; where^ says Mackenzie, he was admitted a member 
of the university, June 5, 1221, under the syndics of the 
Scotch nation ; and soon after was elected professor of m^* 
thematics, which he taught with applause for many years* 
According to the same author, he died in 1256, as appear^ 
from the inscription on his monument in the cloisters of the 
convent of St. Maturine at Paris. 

Holywood was contemporary with Roger Bacon, but 
probably older by about 20 years. He was certainly the 
first . mathematician of his time; and he wrote, I. ^^De, 
Sphs^ra Mundi," Venice, 1478, 1490,^ 4to, a work often 
reprinted, and illustrated by various commentators. 2. ^'De 
Anni Ratione, sen de Computo Ecclesiastico.'' 3. ^< De 
Algorismo/' printed with ^* Comm. Petri Cirvilli Hisp.'* 
ParijS,. 1498.* 

ROMBERG. (William), a cele))rated chemist, was bora 
at Batavia in the island of Java/Jan. 3, 1652| the son of 
John Homberg, a Saxon gentleman, governor of the 
arsenal of that place. His father at first put him into the 

^ Ath^Os. Vol. Il.-^^en. Dkt.— Oent. Mag« vol. L 

• Mackenzie's SootclrWriten, toI. I.— Harrii'i •ditioB of Ware's Ircbad««» 
Wstson'i Haiifaz.-— Hutton*B Pictionary, 



H O M B £ R O; 



99 



army) but soon after qoitting .the service of the Dutcb^ and 
a military life, brought him to Amsterdam, where he settled. 
He, was now educated, by paternal indulgence, at Jena and 
Leipsic, for the law, and was received as an advocate ia 
1674 at Magdebourg, but the sciences seduced him from 
the law : in his walks he became a botanist, and in his noc" 
turnal rambles an astronomer. An intimacy with Otto de: 
Guericke, who lived at Magdebourg, completed his con-> 
version, and he resolved to abandon his first profession* 
Otto, though fond of mystery, consented to communicate 
his knowledge to so promising a pupil ; but as his friends 
continued to press him to be constant to the law, he soon 
quitted Magdebourg, and went into Italy. At Padua and 
Bologna he pursued his favourite studies, particularly me«* 
dicine, anatomy, botany, and chemistry. One of his first 
efforts in the latter science was the complete discovery of 
the properties of the Bologna stone, and its phosphoric 
appearance after calcination, which Casciarolo had first 
observed. The efforts of Homberg in several scientific 
inquiries, were pursued at Rome, in France, in England 
with the great Boyle, and afterward in Holland and Ger-- 
many. With Baldwin and Kunckel he here pursued the 
subject of phosphorus. Not yet satisfied with travelling. 
in search of knowledge, he visited the mines of Saxony, 
Hungary, Bohemia, and jSweden. Having materially im- 
proved himself, and at the same time assisted the progress 
of chemistry at Stockholm, he returned to Holland, and 
thence revisited France, where he was quickly noticed by 
Colbert. By his interposition, he was prevailed upon to 
quit his intention of returning to Holland to marry, accord-; 
ing to the desire of his father, and fixed himself in France^ 
This step also alienated him from his religion. He re- 
nounced theProtestaut communion in 1682, and thus losing 
all connexion with his family, became dependent on, Louis 
XIV. and his minister. This, however, after the death of 
Colbert in 1683, ^became a miserable dependence ; men of 
learning and science were neglected as much as before 
fhey had been patronized; and Homberg, in 1687, left 
Paris for Rome, and took up the profession of physic. He 
now pursued and perfected his discoveries on phosphorus, 
and prosecuted his discoveries in pneumatics, and other 
branches of natural philosophy. Finding, after some time^ 
that the learned were again patronized at Paris, he returned 
there in 1690, and entered into the academy of sciences 

H 2 



100 H O M B E R G. 

under the protection of M. de Bignon. He now resumed 
thei study of cbemistryy but found his finances too limited 
to carry on bis experiments as he wished, till he had the 
good fortune to be appointed chemist to the duke of Orleans, 
afterwards regent In this situation he was supplied with 
the most perfect apparatus, and all materials for scientific' 
investigation. Among other instruments, the large burning 
mirror of Tschirnaus was given to his care, and he made 
with it the most interesting experiments, on the combusti- 
bility of gold and other substances. In examining, the 
nature of borax he discovered the sedative salt, and traced 
several remarkable properties of that production. Pleased 
with the researches of his chemist, the duke of Orleans in 
1704 appointed him his first physician. About the same 
time he was strongly solicited by the elector palatine to 
settle in his dominions, but h^ was too much attached to 
his present patron to quit Paris, and was besides not without 
an inclination of a more tender kind for mademoiselle 
Dodart, daughter to the celebrated physician of that name. 
He married her in 1708, though hitherto much averse to 
matrimony ; but enjoyed the benefit of his change of sen- 
timents only seven years, being attacked in 1715 with a 
dysentery, of which he died in September of that year. 

Homberg was indefatigable in application, and his man- 
ners were mild and social. Though bis constitution was 
not robust, he was rather addicted to pleasure, and was glad 
to forget his fatigues in the charms of good company* 
He did not publish any complete work, the productions 
he has left being only memoirs in the volumes of the 
academy.' 

HOME (David), was a protestant minister of a distin- 
guished family in Scotland, but educated in France, where 
be passed the chief part of his life. James I. employed 
him to reconcile the differences between Tilenus and da 
iVlouIin^ on the subject of justification ; and, if possible, to 
reconcile the protestants throughout Europe to one single 
form of doctrine'; but this was found impracticable. The 
chief work of Home is, his, 1. '^ Apologia Basilica; sea 
Machiavelli ingenium examinatum,'' 1626, 4to. There are 

, attributed to him also, 2. *^ Le contr' Assassin, ou reponse 
a TApologie des Jiesuites,** Geneve, 1612, in 8vo. 3. 

' ^* L'Assassinait du Roi, ou maximes du Viel de la Mon- 

1 Nioerop, fol. XlV.-^Cliaaiepie. 



HOME. 101 

tsig^^i pratiqu^es en la personne de defuDt Henri le 
Grand/' 1617, 8vo. He is also the author of several com- 
positions in .the '* Deiiciae Poetarum Scotorum.'' The 
times of his binh and death are not known.' 

HOME (Henry), usually called Lord Kames, an emi- 
nent Scotch lawyer, philosopher, and critic, the son of 
George Home of Karnes, in the county of Berwick, was 
born at Karnes in 1696. He was descended from an an-^ 
cient and honourable family ; being on bis father's side, 
the great grandson of sir John Home of Renton, whose 
ancestor was a cadet of th^ family of the earls of Home, 
who held the office of lord justiccrclerk in the reign of 
king Charles H. His mother was a daughter of Mr. WaU 
kinshaw of Barrowfield, and grand-daughter of Mr. Ro- 
bert Baillie, principal of the university of Glasgow, of 
whom an account is given in our third volume. His father 
having lived beyond his income, and embarrassed bis 
affairs, Henry, op entering the world, had nothing to trust 
to but his own abilities and exertions, a circumstance which 
although apparently unfavourable, was always most justly- 
regarded by him as the primary cause of his success in life. 
The only education he had was from private instructions 
at home from a tutor of the name of Wingate, of whom he 
never spoke in commendation. 

With no other stock of learning than what he had ac- 
quired from this Mr. Wingate, he was, about 1712, bound 
by indenture to attend the office of a writer of the signet 
in Edinburgh, as preparatory to the profession of a writer 
.or solicitor before the supreme. court; but circumstances^ 
hispired him with the ambition of becoming an advocate ; 
and now being sensible of bis defective education, he re- 
sumed the study of the Greek and Latin languages, to 
which he added French and Italian, and likewise applied 
himself to the study of mathematics, natural philosophy, 
logic, ethics, and metaphysics. These pursuits, which be 
followed at tlie same time with the study of the law, af- 
forded, independently of their own value, a most agree- 
able variety of employment to his active mind. His atten- 
tion appears to have been much turned to metaphysical 
investigation, for which he all his life entertained a strong 
predilection. About 1723, he carried .on a correspond- 
ence with the celebrated Andrew Baxter, and Dr. Clarke^ 
vpon subjects of that kind. 

^ Maichanili vol. L— Diet. Hist. 



102 HOME. 

In January 1724, he was called to the bar, at a time 
vrhen both the bench and bar were filled by men of ui|- 

• common eminence. As he did not possess in any great 
degree the powers of an orator, he engaged for some time 
but a moderate share of practice as a barrister. In 1728, 

' he published a folio volume of ^^ Remarkable Decisions of 
the Court of Session," executed with so much judgment, 
that he began to be regarded as a young man of talents, 
who had his profession at heart, and would spare no pains 
to acquit himself, with honour, in the most intricate causes 
in which he might be employed. His practice was qi\ickly 
increased ; and after ^732, when he published a small vo« 
lume, entitled *' Essays upon several subjects in Law," he 
was justly considered as a profound and scientific lawyer. 
These essays afford an excellent example of the mode of 
reasoning which iie afterwards pursued in most of his juris- . 
prudential writings, and, in the opinion of his biographer, 
furnish an useful model for that species of investigation. - 
Mr. Home, in every period of his life, was fond of so- 
cial intercourse, and with all his ardour of sti^dy, and va- 
riety of literary and professional occupations, a consi- 
derable portion of his time was devoted to the enjoyments 
of society in a numerous circle of acquaintance. Among 
his early friends or associates we find the names of colonel 
Forrester, Hamilton of Bangour, the earl of Findlater, Mr. 
Oswald, David Hume, and Dr. (afterwards bishop) But- 
ler, with whom he had a correspondence. In M 74 1 be 
married miss Agatha Drummond, a younger daughter of 

•James Drummond, esq. of Blair, in the county of Perth. 

• His fortune being then comparatively small, oeconomy 
Ibecame a necessary virtue, but unfortunately, this lady, 
who had a taste for every thing that is elegant, was parti- 
cularly fond of old china; and soon after her marriage had 
made such frequent purchases in that way as to impress 
her husband with some little apprehension of her extra- 
vagance. After some consideration, he devised an inge- 
nious expedient to cure her of this propensity. He framed 
a will, bequeathing to his spouse the whole of the china 
that should be found in his possession at his death ; and 
this deed be immediately put into her own hands. The 
success of the plot was complete ; the lady was cured froin 
that moment of her passion for old china. This stratagenA 
his biographer justly considers as a proof of the autbqr's 
intimate knowledge of the human miad;, and discernment 



HOME. lOl 

«f thie power of the passions to balance and restrain each 
other. It is, indeed, in its contriiranoe and result, equally 
honourable to the husband and wife. 

The mode in which Mr. Home occupied bis time, both 
in town and country, appears to have been most judicious. 
In town he was an active and industrious barrister; in the 
country he was a scientific farmer on his paternal estate^ 
which came to him in a very waste and unproductive con- 
dition. He had the honour to be among the first who in^ 
troduced the English improvements in agriculture into 
Scotland. Amidst all this he found leisure, durilig the 
vacaticms of the court, to compose those various works 
which he has left to posterity. In 1741 he published, ia 
2 vol«L fol. the *' Decisions of the Court of Session, from 
its institution 'to the present time, abridged and digested 
under proper heads, in the form of a Dictionary," a cool- 
position of great labour, the fruit of many years, and a 
work of the highest utility to the profession of the law in 
Scotland. In 1747 he published a small treatise entitled 
*' Essays upon several subjects concerning British Anti- 
quities.^' The subjects are, the feudal law ; the constitu- 
tion of parliament; honour and dignity; succession pr 
descent ; and the hereditary and indefeasible rights of 
kings. These were delicate subject^at that time in Scot- 
land, and the general doctrines p^?baps more seasonable 
than now. 

In 17S1 Mr. Home, though now at the head of the bar, 
published a work entitled ^^ Essays on the principles of 
Morality and Natural Religion," the object of which is to 
prove that the great laws of morality which ijifluence the 
conduct of man as a 60cial being, have their foundation in 
the human constitution ; and areas certain and immutable 
as those physical laws which regulate the whole system of 
nature. His biographer attributes this publication to the 
desire of its author to counteract some sceptical doctrines 
of his friend David Hume, which he had invain endeavoured 
to suppress; That the work, however, had not this effect^ 
we know, in point of fact ; and we have no hesitation in 
asserting that it was not calculated to produce the effect^ 
as it leads to consequences as fatal as any which have fol- 
lowed David Hume's works. It accordingly attracted the- 
notice of the church of Scotland, although be appears to> 
have had friends enough in the general assembly to prevent^ 
its being censured. In some respect he saw his error^ and 



iQ4 it O M E. 

endeavoured to amend it rn a second edition ; but in the 
third it seems doubtful -whether he has not retained the 
most offensive of his opinions. 

In Feb. 1752 he was appointed one of the judges of the 
court of session, and took his seat on the bench by the title 
of lord Kames. This promotion was attended with the 
general satisfaction of bis country^ as he stood high in 
the public esteem, both on the score of bis abilities, and 
knowledge of the laws, and his integrity and moral virtues^ 
As a judge, his opinions and decrees were dictated by an 
mciite understanding, an ardent feeling of justice, and a 
perfect acquaintance with the jurisprudence of his bountry, 
which^ notwithstanding the variety of pursuits in which hi# 
comprehensive mind had already found exercise^ had al- 
ways been his principal ^tudy, and the favoifrite object of 
his researches. The situation which he now filled, while 
it eKtended his opportunities of promoting every species 
of improvement, gave the greater weight and efficacy tO' 
his patronage ; and his example and encouragement were 
more particularly beneficial in exciting a literary spirit, 
which iiow began to prevail among bis countrymen, and 
which was destined to shine forth in his own times with no 
common lustre. It was but a just tribute to bis merits 
when, many years afterwards. Dr. Adam Smith, then in 
the height of his literary reputation', said, in reference to 
^ remark on the great number of eminent writers which 
Scotland bad of late years produced, ^^ We must every 
one of us acknowledge Kaoies for our master.'* 

It was not, however, to the cultivation and patronage 
of literature, and to the duties of a judge in the court of 
session, that the time and talents of lord Kames were 
wholly confined. He was appointed in 1755 a member of 
the board of trustees for the encouragement of the fisheries, 
artisi, and manufactures of Scotland, and soon after .one of 
the commissioners for the management of the forfeited 
estates ; and in the discharge of these important trusts he 
WAS a zealous and faithful servant of the public. Amidst 
such multifarious employment, he found leisure to com* 
pose, and in 1757, to publish, in one volume 8vo, << The 
Statute Law of Scotland abridged, with historical notes,V 
a work which still retains its. rank among those which are in 
daily use with barristers and practitioners. About tbiis 
period he conceived the hope of improving the liaw of Scot* 
land by fissimilating it a« much as possible with the kw of 



/ 



HOME. IQS 

England. With this view, after corresponding on the sub- 
ject with the lord chancellor Hardwicke, he published 
^ Historical Law Tracts/' 1759, Svo. In this be advances 
some singular opinions on the subject of the criminal law, 
which are, in our opinion, but feebly defended by hit 
biographer. The work, however, has undergone several 
editions, and still preserves its reputation ; and with the 
samejriew of counteracting, as £ir as possible, the incon* 
venipncies arising from, two systems of law regulating the 
separate dtvisipns of the united kingdom, be published in 
1760 his ^' Principles of Equity,"* fol. Courts of equity 
and common law are separate in. England, but the powers 
of b^th are united in the supreme civil court of Scotland, 
and it is for this union lord Kames contends- in the pubUca* 
tion just mentioned. 

The greater part of lord Kames^s works had hitherto been 
connected with, his profession, but in 1761 be published a 
small volume on the elementary principles of education^ 
entitled an '< Introduction to the art of Thinking.'* This 
has often been reprinted as an useful manual for young 
persons, although, some parts of it are rather above their 
comprehension. In 1762 he published, in 3 vols. 8vo, his 
*^ Elements. of Criticism," the work, which, of all others, 
is best known in England. We cannot, however, agree 
with his biographer, that it entitles him to be considered 
as the inventor of philosophical criticism, although be has 
unquestionably done much to advance it, and some of his 
principles have been followed by subsequent writers on the 
subject. Blair is evjidently much indebted to him. 

In 1763 he waa appointed one of the lords of justiciary, 
the supreme. criminal tribunal in Scotland. The mere fact 
of his appointment.is suted by bis biographer, but we have 
seen a letter from him ia which he appKed for it to a no- 
bleman in power. This important duty he continued to 
discbarge "with equal diligence and ability, and with the 
strictest rectitude of moral feeling. In 1766 he received 
a very large addition to his income by succession to an 
estate called Blair-Drummond, which devolved on his wife 
by the death of her brother, and which furnished him with 
opportunities of displaying bis taste and skill in embellish** 
ing hia plfsasure^grounds and improving his lands. His 
ideas as a land*holder do him much honour : ^' In point of 
morality," he says in a letter to the late duchess of Gordon, 
^U consid^, that di0 people upon our estates are trusted by 



106 HOME. 

Providence to our care, and that we are accountable for 
our management of thetn to the great God, their Creator 
as well as onrs,^' Before this accession to bis fortune he 
bad published, in 1765, a small pamphlet on the progress 
of flax^hiisbandry in Scotland, with the patriotic design of 
stimulating his countrymen to continue their exertions iif 
a most valuable branch of national industry. He was also 
very active in promoting the project of the canal between 
the Forth and Clyde, now completed, andwhicb has been 
beneficially followed by other undertakings of a similar 
kind. In 1766 be published ^^ Remarkable decisions of 
the Court of Session, from 17S0 to 1752,*' fol. a period 
which includes that of his own practice at the bar. These 
reports afford the strongest evidence of the great ability 
and legal knowledge of their compiler, but his biographer 
allows that the authorV own argument is generatly stated 
with greater amplitude, and is nyore strenuously enforced 
than that which opposes his side of the question. 

In 1774 he published, in 2 vols. 4to, his " Sketches of 
the History of Man,'' which of all his works, if we except 
the ^^ Elements of Criticism," has been the most generally 
read. It is greatly to his honour that when many of his 
opinions were controverted, he not only received the hints 
and remarks with candour, but sought out and behaved with 
great iliberality to the authors. In pursuance of bis pa- 
triotic wish to improve the agriculture of his country, he 
published^ in 1776, when he had attained the age of eighty, 
the ** Gentleman Farmer, being an attempt to improve 
agriculture by subjecting it to the test of rational prin- 
ciples." Noiie of bis works is more characteristic of his 
genius and disposition in all their principal features than 
this, which was one of the most useful books that had ap- 
peared at the time of its publication. 

At the advanced period we have just mentioned, lord 
Kames's constitution had suffered nothing from the attacks 
of old age. There was« no sensible decay of his mental 
powers, or, what is yet more extraordinary, of the flow of 
his animal spirits, which had all the gaiety and vivacity of 
his early years. Indefatigable in the pursuit of knowledge ; 
ever looking forward to so^e new object of attainment ; 
one literary task was no sooner accomplished than another 
was entered upon with eq[ual ardour and unabated perse- 
verance. In 1777 he publislied *^ Elucidations respecting 
ibe Common and Statute Law of Scotland/' 8vO| in which 



HO ME. 107 

it is his object to vindicate the municipal law of his country 
from the reproach it has incurred from the writings of the 
old Scotch jurists. In 1780 he published a supplement to 
bis ^^ Remarkable Decisions/* under the title of *^ Select 
Decisions of the Court of Session/' recording the cases 
most worthy of notice from 1752 to 1769. 

The subject of education had always been regarded by 
lord Kames in a most important point of view^ and fur- 
nished the matter of that work with which he closed his 
literary labours. In 1781 he published, when in his eighty- 
fifth year, an octavo volume entitled ** Loose hints on 
Education, cfaiefTy concerning the Culture of the Heart.'^ 
A work composed at such an advanced age ought not to 
be subjected to rigorous criticism, yet there are many 
shrewd and useful remarks in the book, althbugh mixed 
with others in which the decay of mental powers is visible^ 
•In the following year his constitution began to give way, 
principally from old age, for he bad very little that could 
be called disesMse. In November he left his seat kt Blair- 
Drummond for Edinburgh, and the court of session meet- 
ing soon after, for the winter, he went thither on the first 
day of the term, and took his seat with the rest of the 
judges. He continued for some little time to attend the 
meetings of the court, and to take his share in its usual 
business, but soon became sensible that his strength was 
not equal to the effort. On the last day of his attendance 
he took a separate and affectionate farewell of each of his 
brethren. He survived that period only about eight days: 
He died December 27, 1782, in the eighty-seventh year 
of his -age. 

His excellent biographer, the late lord Woodhouselee^ 
has drawn up his character with impartiality and just dis- 
crimination, without dwelling extravagantly on his virtues, 
or offensively and impertinently on his foibles. The latter 
appear to have been of a kind perhaps inseparable from 
humanity in some shape or other, such as a degree of fond- 
ness for flattery, and somewhat, although certainly in a 
small proportion^ of literary jealousy. A suspicion of lord 
Karnes's religious principles has long prevailed in his own 
country, and his biographer has taken such pains on this 
subject as to leave the reader with an impression that lord 
Kames was more a friend to revealed religion than he ap- 
pears to be in some of his writings ; but while those writ- 
ings remain, we question whether the suspicion to which 



108 H O M £. 

we allude can be e£Fectuaily removed. Too nracb, how- 
eyer^ cannot be said in favour of his genius, and industry 
in many branches of literature ; his private virtues ana 

, public spirit ; his assiduity through a long and laborious 
life in the many honourable offices with which he was en* 
trusted, and his zeal to encourage and promote every thin|^ 
that tended to the improvement of his country, in laws^ 
literature, commerce, manufactures, and agriculture. The 
preceding sketch has been taken, often literally, from lord 
Woodhouselee's valuable work, which appeared in 1807^ 
entitled *^ Memoirs of the Life and Writings of the hon. 
Henry Home of Kames, &c." 2 vols. 4to, which contains 

' what we have been in other instances indebted to, ^^ Sketches 
of the progress of Literature and general improvement 
in Scotland during the greater part of the eighteenth 
century." * 

HOME (John), a clergyman pf the church of Scotland^ 
but known only as a dramatic writer, was born in the yi* 
cinity of Ancrum in Roxburghshire* Scotland, in 1724, 
and was educated at the parish school, whence he went to 
the university of Edinbuigh, and went through the usual 
academical course, as preparatory tor his entering the church* 
Here his studies were for some. time suspended by the re^ 
beilion in 1745. On the approach of the rebels, the citi<» 
zens of Edinburgh assembled, and .formed themselves into 
an association fur the support of their sovereign, and the 
defence of their city. Mr. Home, having once taken up 
arms in this cause, was not to be deterred by danger, and 
xnarcned with a detachment of the royal army to Falkirk^ 
, where he was taken prisoner in the battle fought in tluit 
neighbourhood, and confined for some time in the castle of 
Donne. He contrived, however, to make his escape aboolt 
the time that tranquillity was restored to the country by 
the battle of CuUoden ; and having resumed his studies^ 
was licensed to preach the gospel in 1747. 

Not long after, while on a visit in England, be was in- 
troduced to Collins, the poet, at Winchester, and Collins 
addressed to him his ^* Ode on the Superstition of the 
Highlanders.*' In 1750 Home was settled as minister of 
the parish of Athelstaneford in East Lothian, on the .de«- 
mise of the rev. Robert Blair, author of the ^<. Grave }'* but 

} Life as above.— See also British Criiic, toU XXX. iB which are many ra^ 
luable remarks on the Life 6( lord Kames. 



HOME. 109 

« 

i^ch a situation could not be Tery agreeable to one M^ho 
bad tasted the sweets of literary society, and who, in par- 
ticular, bad a paramount ambition to shine as a dramatic 
writer. His first tragedy was **Agis,'* with which it is 
said he went to London, where the managers refused it^ 
and immediately returning home be wrote his ** Douglas,^* 
which Garrick peremptorily refused. By such discourage- 
ment, however, the ardour of the author was not to be 
suppressed. Being acquainted with the leading characters 
in Scotland, a ready reception of bis play was secured ; 
and accordingly ^^ Douglas" was performed at the theatre 
in the Canongate, Edinburgh, in December 1756, Mr. 
Home and several of his clerical brethren being present. 
Such a departure from the decorum enjoined by the church 
of Scotland could not be overlooked, and the author was 
so threatened with ecclesiastical censures, and in reality be- 
came so obnoxious in the eyes of the people, that in the 
following year he resigned his living, and with it all con- 
nexion with the church, wearing ever afterwards a lay ha- 
bit In the mean time the presbytery of Edinburgh pub- 
lished an admonition and exhortation against stage-plays, 
which was ordered to be read in all the pulpits within their 
bounds on sr Sunday appointed, immediately after divine 
service. In it there is no mention of Home or his play, 
althotigh the latter was probably the cause. It merely con- 
tains a. recapitulation of what had formerly been done by 
the church and the laws to discourage the theatres. 

This opposition, which has been too hastily branded with 
the epithets of " bigotry and malicie," turned out much to 
Mr. Home's advantage, whose friends contrived now to add 
to his other merits that of being a persecuted man ; and 
David Hume, whose taste for the drama was the least of 
his qualifications, addressed his *^ Four Dissertations" to 
the author, and complimented him with possessing ^^ the 
true theatric genius of Shakspeare and Otway, refined from 
the unhappy barbarism of the one, and licentiousness of 
the other.'* With such recommendation, " Douglas" was 
presented at Covent-garden in March 14, 1757, but re- 
ceived at first with moderate applause. Its worth, how- 
ever, was grsuiually acknowledged, and it is now fully esta- 
blished as a stock-piece. It would iiave been happy for 
the author had he stopt here ; but the success of '^ Dou- 
glas" had intoxicated him, and be went on froni this time 
to 1778, producing "Agis,'' "The Siege of Aquileia,V 



110 HOME. 

« The Fatal Discovery," " Alonzo," and « Alfred," none 
of which had even a temporary success. In the mean time- 
lord Bute took him uilder bis patronage, and procured bt<B, 
a pension. In March 1763 he was also appointed a com^ 
missioner for sick and wounded seamen, and for the ex- 
change of prisoners ; and in April of the same year waa^ 
appointed conservator of the Scotch privileges at Cample 
vere in Zealand. With his " Alfred," which lived only 
three nights, he took his leave of the stage, and retired to 
Scotland, where he resided the greater part of his life. la 
1778, when the late duke of Buccleugh raised a regiment 
of militia, under the name of fencibles, Mr. Home received 
a captain^s commission, which be held until the peace. A 
few years ago, he published " The History of the Rebel- 
lion in Scotland in 1745-6," 4tQ, a work of which great 
expectations were formed, but whether he delayed it un*. 
til too late, for he was now seventy-eight years old, or 
whether he did not feel himself at liberty to make u&e of 
all his materials, the public was not satisfied. For a con- 
siderable time prior to his death, his mental faculties were 
impaired, aod in this distressful state he died at Merchis- . 
ton-house, Sept. 4, 1808, at the advanced age of eighty-. 
five. * 

HOMER, the most ancient of the Greek poets extant, 
has been called the Father of poetry; but, however cele-r 
brated by others, he has been so very modest about him-^ 
(self, that we do not find the least-mention of him through-, 
out his poems : Where he was born, who were his parents^ 
at what exact period he lived, and ulmost every <;ircum-. 
stance of his life, remain at this day in a great measure, if 
not altogether unknown. The Arundel marbles say that he^ 
flourished in the tenth century before Christ, and other 
authorities say the eighth. The most copious account we . 
have of the life of Homer is th^t which goes under the- 
name of Herodotus, and is usually printed with his history : 
and though it is generally supposed to be spurious, yet as it 
is ancient, . was made use of by Strabo, and exhibits that 
idea which the later Greeks, and the Romans in the age of. 
Augustus^ entertained of Homer, an abstract of it cannot, 
be unnecessary. 

A man of Magnesia, whose name was Menalippus, went 
tQ aettU at Cumas, where he married the daughter of a citi- 

* Biog, Dntin. — Atfaensum, vol. V. — Davies'g Life of Qarrick, Tol. L p. ^219^ ' 
f»L II. p. 980.<*-Qciit. Ma9» LXXVllI. * 



HOMER. Ill 

«cn called Homyres, and had by. her a d^^ugbfer called 
Critbeis. The father and mother dying/ Critheis Vvas left 
under the tuition of Ci^eonax her father's friend; and, suf- 
fering herself to be deluded, became pregnant. The 
guardian^/ though his care had npt prevented the misfor* 
tune, was however willing to conceal it ; and therefore 
sent tiritheis to Smyrna. Critheis being near her time, 
went one day to a.festivat, which the town of Smyrna was , 
celebrating on the banks of the river Meles ; where she 
was delivered of Homer, whom she called Melesigenes, 
because he was born on the banks of that river. Having 
nothing to maintain her, sh^ was forced to spin : and a 
man of Smyrna called Pbemius, who taught literature and 
music, having often seen Critheis, who lodged nea,r him, 
atid being pleased with her housewifery, took her into his 
house to spin the wool he received from his scholars for> 
their schooling. Here she behaved herself so modestly 
and discreetly, that Phemius married her, and adopted her 
son, in whom he discovered a wonderful genius, and. an. 
excellent natural disposition. After the death of Phemius 
and Critheis, Homer succeeded to his fatber-in -law's for- 
tune and school ; and was admired not only by the inhabi- 
tants of Smyrna, but by strangers, who resorted from all 
parts to that place of trade. A ship-master called Mentes, 
who was a man of wit, very learned, and a lover of poetry, 
was so pleased with Homer, that he persuaded 'him to leave 
his school, and to travel with him. Homer, whose mind 
was then employed upon his " Iliad," and who thought it 
of great consequence to see the places of which he should 
have occasion to ,treat, embraced the opportunity, and 
during their several voyages, never failed carefully to note 
dowti what he thought worth observing. He travelled into 
Egypt, whence he brought into Greece the names of their 
gods, and the chief ceremonies of their worship. He 
visited Africa and Spain, in his return from which places 
he touched at Ithaca, and was there much troubled with a 
rheum falling upon his eyes. Mentes being in haste t;o 
visit Leucadia his native country, left Homer well recom- 
mended to Mentor, one of the chief men of the island of 
Ithaca, and there be was informed of many things relating 
to Ulysses, which he afterwards made use of in composing 
his ** Odyssey.^ Mentes returning to Ithaca, found Homier 
cured. They embarked together; and after much time: 
•pent in visiting the coasts of .Peloponnesus -and th»^ 



112 HOME R. 

Islands, they arrived at Colophon, where Homer was again 
troubled with the defluxion upon his eyes, which proved 
so violent, that he is said to have lost his sight ^. - This 
misfortune made him resolve to return to Smyrna, where 
be finished his ** Iliad." Some time after, the bad state of 
his afiairs obliged him to go to Cumse^ where he hoped to 
have found some relief. Stopping by the way at a place 
called the New Wall, which was the residence of a colony 
from Cumse, he lodged in the boose of an armourer called 
Tichius, and recited some hymns he had made in honour 
of the Gods, and bis poem of Amphiaraus's expedition 
against Thebes. • Mter staying here some time and being 
greatly admired, he went to CumsB ; and passing through 
Larissa, he wrote the epitaph of Midas, king of Phrygian 
then newly dead. At Cumse he was received with extra* 
ordinary joy, and his poems highly applauded ; but when 
he proposed to immortalize their town, if they would allovr 
him a salary, hQ was ttnswered, that ** there would be ho 
end of maintaining all the *Ofmpot or Blind Men," and hence 
got the name of Homer. From Cumce he went to Phocseay 
where he recited his verses in public assemblies. Here 
one Thestorides, a schoolmaster, offered to maintain him, if 
he would* suffer him to transcribe his verses : which Homer 
complying with through mere necessity, the schoolmaster 
privily withdrew to Chios, and there grew rich with Ho- 
mer's poems, while Homer at Phoceea hardly earned his 
bread by repeating them. 

Obtaining, however, at last some intimation of the school- 
master, he resolved to find him out y and landing near 
Chios, he was received by one Glaacus, a iihepherd, by 
whom he was carried to his maAer at Bolissus, who, ad-* 
miring his knowledge, intrusted him with the education of 
his children. Here his praise began to get abroad, and the 
schoolmaster hearing of him, fied before him. At Chios,' 
Homer set up a school of poetry, gained a competent for- 
tune, married a wife, and had two daughters ; one of which 
died young, and the other was married to hts patfo'n at 
Bolissus. Here he composed bis ^^ Odyssey," and inserted 
the names of those to whom be had been most obliged, as 
Mentes, Pbemius, Mentor; and resolving to visit Athens, 

* The bUodoeN of Honier has been title of ** Curatio cttckHomeri.'? ' If he 
contested by several authors, and par- was blind at aU, it was probably oalj 
ticaiarly by a acholar name An^i^as in extreme old age, 
waking in a book beanos the quaint . 



HOMER. 113 

I 

he made bonoufable mention of that city» to dispose the 
Athenians fur a kind reception of him. But as he went^ 
the ship put in at Samos, where he continued the whole 
winter, singing at the houses of great men, with a train of 
boys after him. In the spring he went on board again, ia 
order to prosecute his journey to Athens ; but, landing by 
the way at Chios, he fell sick, died, and was buried on the 
sea-shore. 

. This is the most regular life we hare of Homer; and 
though probably but little of it is exactly true, yet it has 
this advantage over all other accounts which remain of him^ 
that it is more within the compass of probability. The 
only incontestable works which Homer has left behind 
bim, are the *• Iliad," and the " Odyssey." The " Batra- 
cbomybmachia," or '^ Battle of the Frogs and Mice," has 
been disputed, but yet is allowed to be his by many au- 
thors. The Hymns have been doubted also, and attributed, 
by the scholiasts to CynsBthus the rhapsodist : but Thucy<* 
dides, Lucian, and Pausanias, have cited them as genuine. 
We have the authority of ^he two former for that to 
Apollo ; and of the last for a ^^ Hymn to Ceres," of which 
he has given us a fragment. The whole hymn has beea 
lately found by Matthaei at Moscow, and was published by 
Ruhnkenius in 1782, at Leyden. A good translation has 
since been given by Mr. Hole. The Hymn to Mars is 
objected against ; and likewise the first to Minerva. The 
" Hymn to Venus" has many of its lines copied by Virgil, 
in the interview between £neas and that goddess in the 
first ** ^neid." But whether these hymns are Homer's or 
not, they were always judged to be nearly as ancient, if 
not of the same age with him. Many other pieces were 
ascribed to him : " Epigrams," the " Margites," the " Ce- 
cropes^" the ^^ Destruction of Oechalia," and several more- 
Time may here have prevailed over Homer, by leaving 
only the names of these .works, as memorials that such 
were once in being ; but, while the "IliadV and "Odyssey'* 
rc;main, he seems like a leader, who, though he may have 
failed in a skirmish of two, has carried a victory, for which 
he will pass in triumph through all future ages. 

Homer had the most sublime and universal genius that 
the world has ever seen ; ^nd though it is an extravagance 
of enthusiasm to say, as some of the Greeks, did, that all 
knowledge may be found iu his writings, no man pene- 
trated deeper into the feelings and passions of human 

vouxvni. I 



lU HOME R. 

nature. He represents great things with such sublimity, and 
inferior objects with such propriety, that he always makes? 
the one adniirable, and the other pleasing. Strabo, whose 
authority in geography is indisputable, assures us, that 
Homer has described the plaees and countries, of which he 
gives an account, with such accuracy, that no man can 
imagine who has not seen them, and no man can observe 
without admiration and astonishment. Nothing, however^ 
can be more absurd, than the attempts of some critics, 
who have possessed more learning and science than taste, 
to rest the merit of Homer upon the extent of his know- 
ledge. An ancient encomiast upon Homer proves him to 
have possessed a perfect knowledge of nature, and to have 
been the author of the doctrine of Thales and Xenopbanes, 
that water is the first principle of all things, from his hay- 
ing called Oceanus the parent of nature; and infers, that 
be was acquainted with Empedocles' doctrine of friendshfp 
and discord, from the visit which Juno pays to Oceanus 
and Thetis to settle their dispute : because Homer repre- 
sents Neptune as shaking the earth, he concludes him to 
have been well acquainted with the causes of earthquakes } 
and because.he speaks of the great bear as never touching 
the horizon, he makes him an eminent astronomer. The 
truth is, the knowledge of natare, which poetry describes, 
is very different from that which belongs to the philosopher. 
It would be easy to prove, from the beautiful similes of 
Homer, that he was an accurate observer of natural ap- 
pearances; and to show from his delineation of characters, 
that he was intimately acquainted with human nature. Bufe 
he is. not, on this account, to be ranked with natural phi^ 
losophers or moralists. Much pains have been taken to 
prove, that Homer expresses just and sublime conceptions 
of the divine nature. And it will be acknowledged, that, 
in some passages, he speaks of Jupiter in language which 
may not improperly be applied to the Supreme Deity. But, 
if the whole fable of Jupiter, as it is represented in Homer, 
be fiiirly examined, it will be very evident, either that he 
had not just conceptions of the divine nature, or that be 
did not mean to express them in the portrait which be has 
drawn of the son of Saturn, the husband of Juno, and the 
president of the council of Olympus/ It would surely have 
been too great a monopoly of perfection, if the first poet in 
the world had also been the first philosopher. 



HOMER. 115 

" Homer has bad His enemies; and it is certain, that Plata 
banished bis writings from his commonwealth ; but lest this 
should be thought a blemish upon the memory of the poet^ 
ive are told that the true reason was, because he did not 
esteem the common people to be capable readers of them. 
They would be apt to pervert his meaning, and have wrong 
notions of God and religion, by taking his bold and beau* 
tiful allegories in a literal sense. Plato frequently declares, 
that he loves and admires him as the best, the most plea* 
sant, and divine of all poets, and studiously imitates his 
figurative and mystical way of writing : and though he 
forbad his works to be read in public, yet he would nev^r 
be without them in his closet. But the most memorable 
enemy to the merits of Homer was Zoilus, a snarling cri- 
tic, who frequented the court of Ptolemy Philadelphus, 
king of Egypt, and- wrote ill-natured notes upon his poems, 
but received no encouragement from that prince;' on the 
contrary, he became universally despised for his pains, and 
was at length put, as some say, to a most miserable death. 

It is said that though llomer's poems were at first pub* 
lished all in one piece, and not divided ipto books, yet 
every one not being able to purchase them entire, they 
were circulated in separate pieces ; and each of those 
pieces took its name from. the contents, as, *' The Battle 
of the Ships ;" « The Death of Dolon ;" « The Valour of 
Agamemnon ;*' " The Grot of Calypso ;" " The Slaughter" 
of the Wooers,'' &c. ; nor were these entitled books, but 
rhapsodies, as they were afterwards called, when they were 
divided into books. Homer's poems were not known en- 
tire in Greece before the time of Lycurgus ; whither that 
law-giver bising in Ionia carried them, after he had taken 
the pains to transcribe them from perfect copies with his 
,own hands. This may be called the first edition of Homer 
th£t appeared in Greece, and the time of its appearing 
there wa^ about 120 years before Rome was built, that is, 
about 260 years after the time of Homer. It has been said, 
that the "Iliad" and "Odyssey" were not composed by 
'Hoiner in their present form, but only in separate littJb 
poems, which being put together and connected afterwards 
hy sofme other person, make the entire works they now ap- 
pear ; but this is so extravagant a conbcfit that ic scarcely 
deserves to be ment.oned. 

The editions of Homer are numerous beyond those of 
any other classic, and there are many excellent ones ; per- 

i % 



116 H O M E It 

baps the best are^ that by Dr. Barnes with the Greek scho- 
Fia, in two vols. 4to ; that by Dr. Clarke published in 1729^ 
4to ; and that by the learned Heyne, 1 802, 8 vols. 8vo. 
The most elaborate commentary is that by Eustathius, bi- 
shop of Thessalonica, and the best English translation is 
that by Pope : though Cowper^s, in blank verse, is thougbt 
to come nearer to the original. The French, and almost 
every nation, has its translation of Homer. ' 

HOMER (Henry), an excellent classical scholar, the 
son of the rev. Henry Homer, rector of Birdingbury, in 
Warwickshire, who died a few months after this son, in 
1791, was born in 1752, and at the age of seven was sent 
to Rugby school, where he remained seven years, and be- 
came the head-boy of about sixty. He afterwards went to 
Birmingham-school, where he remained three years more. 
In November 1768, he was admitted of Emanuel-college, 
Cambridge, under Dr. Farmer, where he became acquainted 
with Dr. Samuel Parr, and was in some measure directed 
in his studies by this eminent scholar. He proceeded re-* 
gularly to his degree of B. A. in 1773, of M. A. in 1776, 
and that of B. D. in 1783. He was elected fellow of his 
college in 1778, but had lived in Warwickshire about three 
years before he became fellow, and returned to the uni- 
versity soon after his election. He then resided much at 
Cambridge, frequently visiting the public library, and mak- 
ing himself acquainted with the history 6t contents of many 
curious books which are noticed only by scholars, and par* 
ticularly turned his attention to several philological works 
of gvesiX utility and high reputation. He was well versed 
in the notes subjoined to some of the best editions of vari- 
ous authors ; and of his general erudition the reader will 
form no unfavourable opinion from the following account 
of the works in which he was engaged. He joined with 
Dr. Parr in the republication of BeUenden's Tracts in 1787^ 
and about the same year published three books of ^ Livy,'* 
viz. the Ist, 25th, and 31st from Drachenborch^s edition^ 
with dissertations, &c. This was followed by, 1. <* Trac- 
tatus varii Latini aCrevier, Brotier,^' &c. 1788. 2. OvidV 
*^ Epistles** ex editione Burman. 1789. 3. ''Sallust. ex 
editione Cortii,** 1789. 4. << Pliny, ex editione Cortii et 
Longolii,*' 1790; 5. << CsBsar, ex edit. Oudendorp," 179Q. 

1 Life by Herodotus..— Vo08ii Poet. Gnec.— Dibdin's CUssics.— Saxii Ou^ 
■■Itioon.— Bracker# 



HOMER 117 

6; *^ Perstus ex edit HenlniL" 7. *^ Tacitus^ ex edit. 
Brotier/' complete all but the Index* 8. ** Livy*' and 
^' Quintilian," io the press at the time of bis death* He 
also intended to have published <* Quintus Curtius/^ but 
no steps were taken towards it. To these^ however, may 
be added bis ** Tacitus de Moribus Germanorum et de 
Vita Agricolas/' 1788, and Tacitus " De Oratoribus,** 
1789. Dr. Parr having considered him as a very proper 
pierson to undertake a variorum edition of Horace, he had 
made some progress in that work, which was finally pub* 
lished by Dr. Combe, and occasioned a paper-war between 
Dr. Combe and Dr. Parr, which we had rather refer to 
than detail* Mr. Homer, in consequence of some religious 
scruples, refused to take priest^s orders, when by the 
founder's statutes be was required to take them, in order 
to preserve the rank be had attained in the college; in con- 
sequence, of which his fellowship was declared vacant in 
June 1788. HediedMay 4, 1791, of a decline, hastened, 
if not occasioned, by too close an attention to his literaiy 
pursuits. The works he left unfinished were completed by 
his brothers, but, we are sorry to hear, have not met with 
that encouragement from the public, which they amply 
merit. ^ 

HOMMEL (CHAatES Frederick), a lawyer, philobger, 
and historian of Leipsic, was born in 1722. He published 
bis first work in 1743, which was a tract in 4to. 1. ^* De 
Legum civilium et naturalium Natura.'* 2. <^ Oblecta- 
menta Juris Feudalis, sive Grammatical Observationes jus 
rei elieintelaris, et antiquitates Germanicas, varie ijlustran- 
tes," 1755. This was also in quarto, and tends, as well 
as bis other works, to prove the pleasing qualities and the 
acuteness of bis mind. 3.^* LiteraturaJuris,*' 1761, 8vo. 
4. ^^ Jurisprudentia numismatibus illustrata, necnon sigiU 
lis, gemmis, aliisque picturis vetustls varie exornata,*' 1763, 
8vo. 5. '* Corpus juris civilis, cum notis variorum,'^ 1768, 
8vo. 6. *^ Palingenesia librorum - juris veterum," &c. 
1768, 3 vols. 8vo. He published some smaller tracts, but 
these are the most important. Hommel died in 1781.* 

HONAIN, an Arabian, and celebrated translator of the 
ninlh century, was a Christian and a native of Hira. Hav- 
iag quitted Bagdad, where he had been improperly treated, 

I Gent. Mag. vol. LXXVI. and LXXX.-.Brit. Crit. vol. HI.— Dr. Fan's 
''Hemarks on the Sutement of Dr. Charles Combe/' 1795, 8fo, 
' DicuHisU^-Sazu OnooMSticoo. 



y 



lis H O N A I n; 

he went to Greece, and remained there two yearsi study* 
ing the language, and collecting a library of the best wri«» ' 
ters. He then returned to Bagdad, and some time after * 
went to Persia, where he learned the Arabic, and then 
finally settled at Bagdad, and executed ve.ry valuable trana- . 
lations of the Elements of Euclid, the Almagestus of Ptole- 
my, and the writings of Hippocrates and other Greek au- 
. th9rs. At the desire of Almamon or Abdallah III. he trans- 
lated into Arabic all the works of Aristotle ; and for every 
book of that philosopher is said to have received from Al- 
mamon its weight in gold. An anecdote very honourable 
to him is told by Abulfaragius. One day, after some me* . 
dical conversation, the Caliph said to him, ^^ Teach me a 
prescription by which I may take oiBF any enemy I please» 
without being discovered.*' Honain declining to give aa 
answer, and pleading ignorance, ^was imprisoned. Being 
brought again, after a year's interval, into the Galiph^a 
presence, and still persisting in ignorance^ though threat- 
ened with death, the Caliph smiled upon him, and said, 
** Be of good cbeer^ we were only trying thee, that we 
might have the greater c6nfidence in thee." As Honain 
upon this bowed down and kissed the earth, ^^ What hiiw 
^ered thee," says. the Caliph, ** from granting our request, 
when thou sawest us appear so ready to perform what we 
had threatened f" " Two things ;" replied Honain, " my 
Keligion, and my Profession. My religion, which com- 
mands me to do good to my enemies ; and my profession, 
which was purely instituted for the bene6t of mankind.** 
'< Two noble laws," said the Caliph ; and immediately pre- 
sented him, according to the Eastern usage, with rich gar- 
ments, and a sum of money. This Caliph was not only an 
illustrious patron of the learned, but was himself no mean 
adept in several branches of science. He was well ac- 
quainted with astronomy, mathematics, and philosophy ; 
and was frequently present at the conferences of learned 
men, entering with great spirit into the 'subjects of their 
debates. In the midst of the praise which is due to thia 
Caliph, it must, however, be mentioned with regret, that, 
through an ill-judged partiality for his vernacular tongue, 
be gave orders that, after the Arabic versions were finished, 
the original Greek manuscripts should be burned. A simi- 
lar folly seized the Caliphs of Africa : and to this cause we 
are, dou&fless, to ascribe the entire loss of many ancient, 
writings. The diligence, however, .with which this Caliph 



H O N A I N. 119 

cultivated and encouraged learning, cancels; iti some mea- 
sure this disgrace, and leaves him entitled to an honour- 
able station among philosophers. ' 

HONDEKOTTeA (Melchior), the son and grandson 
of two Dutch painters of considerable repQtation, was born 
at Utrecht in 1636, and carefully trained up to the profes- 
sion by his father. He chose the same subjects; but, in 
bis manner, be surpassed not only his master, but even 
the best of his contemporaries, in a very iiigb degree. Till 
be was seventeen years of age be practised under bis father^s 
direction, and accustomed himself to paint several sorts of 
birds ; but he was particularly pleased to represent cocks, 
hens, ducks, chickens, aud peacocks, which be described 
in an elegant variety of actions and attitudes. After the 
death of his father, in 1653, he received some instructions 
fjrom his uncie John Baptist Weeninx ; but his principal 
and best instructor was nature, which he studied with in- 
tense application, and that enabled him to give to every 
animal he painted such truth, such a degree of force, ex- 
pression, and life, as seemed to eqyal nature itself; nor 
did any artist take more pains to study every point that 
might conduce to the perfection gf his art. His pencil 
was wonderfully neat and delicate ; his touch light, his co- 
louring exceedingly natural, lively, and remarkably trans- 
parent; and the feathers of his fowls were expressed with 
such a swelling softness, as might readily and agreeably 
deceive the eye of any spectator. It is reported, that he 
had trained up acock to" stand in any attitude he wanted to 
describe, and that it was bis custom to place that creature 
near his easel ; so that, at the motion of hifi hand, the bird 
^ould fix itself in the proper posture, and would continue 
in that particular position, without the smallest perceptible 
alteration, for several hoars at a time. 

The landscapes which he introduces as the back grounds 
of his pictures, are adapted with peculiar judgment aiul 
skill, and admirably finished ; they harmonize with . his 
subject, and always increase the force and the beauty M 
bis principal objects. His touch was very singular in imi- 
tating the natural plumage of the fowls he painted ; which 
not only produced a charming effect, but also may prove 
serviceable to an intelligent observer, to assist bini in de- 
termining which are tbe genuine pictures pf this mastar, 

J Moreri.— Chaufepie.-^Bruclcier.— See Almanon^ vpL lit of this Dlctioiuiry. 



120 H O N D E K O T T E R. 

and which are impositions. The works of Hondekotter are 
justly in very great request and estimation, and they gene- 
rally afford a large price, almost in proportion to their va- 
lue. He died 1695, aged 59.' 

HONDIUS (Abraham), another artist, well known in 
this kingdom, was born at Rotterdam in 1638, according 
to the most authentic writers, though Descamps fixes his 
birth in 1650. He appears to have been an universal mas- 
ter, painting, with e^ual readiness, landscapes, animals of 
all kinds, particularly dogs, huntings of wild animals, boars, 
defer, wolves, and foxes, as also conversations and fowls ; 
but his favourite subjects were huntings. His manner 
seems peculiar to himself; it was bold and free; and, ex- 
cept Rubens and Snyders, few masters have painted ani- 
mals in a greater style, or with more spirit. There is cer- 
tainly a great deal of fire in his compositions ; bat his co- 
louring is often extravagant, and his drawing extremely 
incorrect In general his pencilling was harsh, and he de- 
lighted in a fiery tint ; yet some of his small pictures are 
very neatly finished. There is a great inequality as to the 
merit of the works of Hondius, some of them being in 
every respect abundantly superior to others ; but there is 
scarce any master whose compositions are so easily distin- 
guishable as^ those of Hondius, by certain particularities in 
bis touch, his taste of design, and his colouring. 

Several of his pictures of dogs are much esteemed ; and 
one especially is mentioned, in which he represented thirty 
difierent species of those animals, all beingwell designed, 
and every distinct animal being characterised with some 
peculiar air, action, expression, or attitude. As he was 
exceedingly harassed and tormented with the gout, the 
works of his latter time are more negligently executed than 
those which he finished in his prime ; and, therefore, they 
very much contribute to lessen the reputation he had ac- 
quired by some of his more studied and better finished per- 
formances. His most capital picture is the burning of 
Troy, in which there are a variety of figures, many of them 
veil designed, and disposed with judgment. Houbraken 
also mentions a candle-light of this master's hand, in wbtefa 
appeared a fine opposition of light and shadow, and the 
figures were extremely well designed and well coloured*. 
When he came to England is not known. Vertue says he 

•— P*AffenTiUe, vol. III. 



H O N D I U S. 121 

wns a man of bdmour. He lired on Ludgate-hilly^ bat died 
of a seirere fit of the gout ia i 695 at the Biackinoor's head^ 
over against Water-lane, Fleet-street. — loDOCUS or j£8SE 
Hondius is supposed to have been his graodfiauther« He 
was born at Wackerne, a small town in Flanders, in 1563, 
and died in 1 6 1 1 . He was a self-taught engraver both on 
copper and ivory, and a letter-founder; in all which 
branches he attained great excellence. He 'Studied geo-» 
graphy also, and in 1607 published a work entitled ^' De^ 
scriptio Geographica orbis terraruni,'Vin folio.^ 

HONE (Georce Paul), a lawyer of Nuremberg, was 
born there in 1662. He became counsellor to the duke of 
.Meinungeu, and bailli of Cobourg, at which place be died 
in 1747. His works are chiefly these: 1. ^^ Iter Juridioum, 
per Belgium, Angliam, Qalliam, Italiam.*' 2. ** Lexicon 
Topographicum Franconiae.*' 3. ** History of the Duchy 
of Saxe^Cohourg," in German. 4. ^' Though ta on the 
Suppression of Mendicity," in the same language.' 

H0N£ (Nathaniel), was born in Dublin in 1767, and 
came to England in the early part of life, painting in se*> 
veral parts of the country, particularly at York, where he 
married a lady of some property. A short time after bia 
marriage, he settled in London, and practised with repu^ 
tation, both as a painter in oil, and in miniature, particu- 
larly enamel; and after the death of Zincke, ranked among 
the r principal artists of bis. day in that branch. He was 
chosen one of the members of the royal academy at its 
first institution ; . but took offence at one of bis pictures, 
intended as a satire on sir Joshua Reynolds, being rejected 
from' the exhibition. Another was also objected to, as 
containing a very profane allusion, which he altered with 
a substance easily washed away, and the picture was again 
exhibited/ in its original state at an exhibition of his ownj 
in 1775. As a painter in oil, he was by no means an in-^ 
ferior artist, yet the colouring of bis pictures was too red 
for the carnations, and the shadows not sufficiently clean 
A few years before his death, he removed to Rathbaee«^ 
place. He died Aug. 14, 1784, and was buried at Hendoui 
where five of bis children lie.' 

HONESTIS, Petrosde. See D AMI AN. 

HONORATUS, bishop of Marseilles, flourished about 
.the year 490. He was, according to Gennadius, who 

> PilktBg^oD.--Orfonl's Anecdotes. — Strutt's DictiQqaiy.^-Rees's Cyclopedia* 

> Diet. Hist. 3 Edwards's Continuation of Walpole't Anecdotei. 



122 H O N O R A T U S. 

celebrates bim, a man of ready and abundant eloquence. 
He published many bomilies, some delivered in an ex- 
temporary manner, others regularly composed ; in which 
his object was to confute the dreams of heretics, and ex* 
hort his hearers to piety. He wrote also lives of many- 
eminent leaders of the churchy of which no one is e^ctant^ 
except his life of St. Hilary of Aries.* 

HONORIUS De Sancta Mauia, whose proper name 
was Blaize Vauzelle, was born July 4,. 1651, at Limoges. 
He made profession among the Carmelites at Toulouse, 
in 1671 ; taught theology with reputation-in his order, in' 
which he was prior, counsellor, provincial, and visitor^' 
general of the three provinces of France. He died i72§, 
at Lisle, aged seventy-eight. His most curious work is 
entitled " Reflexions sur les regies, et *ur Tusage de la 
Critique," 3 vols. 4to ; the first volume is most esteemed.' 
He atso left, ** La Tradition des Peres, et des Auteurs Et*» 
clesiastiques, sur la Contemplation; avec un Trait^ sur 
les motifs, et la pratique, de PAmour Divin,*' 3 vols. 
12mo; ** Trait6 des Indulgences et du Jubii^," 12mo; 
** I>issertations historiques et critiques sur les (>rdre& mili- 
taires," 1718, 4to. He wrote some pieces in favour of 
the Formulary, and the constitution Unigenitus, &c.' 

HON TAN (the Baron de), was a native of Gascony, 
in the seventeenth century, and is principally known by 
his travels in North America, which, however, are writ* 
ten in an . embarrassed and barbarous style, confounding 
truth and falsehood, disfiguring names, and disguisftig^ 
facts. They contain some episodes of pure fiction, par-» 
ticularly the narrative of the voyage up the long river, 
which is supposed to be of equal authority with the Voyage 
to Liliiput. He describes, nevertheless, with some suc^ 
cess, the general face of the country, and the disposition, 
customs, government, and other particulars of the inha- 
bitants. There is an edition of his travels published at 
Amsterdam in 1705, 2 vols. 12mo. He began his career 
in Canada as a common soldier, was raised to the rank of 
an officer, went to Newfoundland in the quality of royal 
lieutenant, there quarrelled with the governor, was broken, 
and retired first to Portugal, and finally to Denmark.' 

HONTHORST (Gerard), a celebrated artist, called 
also Gerardo Dalle Nottt, from his principal subjects, 

. * Gare, vol. I.— Moreri. « Moreri.— pict. Hist. 3 oict. Hist, 



H O N T H O R S T. 125 

WIS bom at Utrecht in 1592, and was a disciple of Abra* 
ham Bloemart; but completed his studies at llome, where} 
he continued several years, employed there by persons of 
the first rank, and particularly by prince Justiniani. He 
imitated the style of Caravaggio, with who^e vivid tone 
and powerful masses of light and ^hade, h^ attempted to^ 
combine correctness of outlinei refinement of forms, grace- 
ful attitudes, and that dignity which ought to be the cha- 
racteristic of sacred subjects. In this he often succeeded*. 
His subjects are generally night-pieces as large as life, 
and illuminated by torch or candle-light. Among his 
numerous pictures, that of our Saviour before the Tribunal 
of Pilate, in the gallery Justiniani^ for energy, dignity,, 
and contrast, is the most celebrated. Soon after his re* 
turn to his own country he visited London, and obtained, 
the favour of king Charles I. by several grand performancesr 
and portraits; especially hy one allegorical picture, in 
which he represented the portraits of the king and queen^ 
intthe characters of two deities, and the portrait of the, 
duke of Buckingham in the character of Mercury, intro- 
ducing the liberal arts to that tfionarch and bis consort.- 
For that composition, which jwas well drawn and extremely 
well coloured, the king presented him with three thousand 
florins, a service of plate for twelve persons, and a beauti- 
ful horse; and he. had afterwards the honour to instruct 
the queen of Bohemia, and the princesses her children, ia 
drawing. 

His pencil is free and firm, and his colouring has a 
great deal of force,, although it often is not. pleasing, by a 
predominancy of the yellow and brown tints ; yet un- 
doubtedly Hpnthorst would have been an excellent painter^ 
if he had known how to give more grace and more correct- 
ness to his figures. At his return from London to Holland; 
he adorned the pleasure houses of the prince of Orange 
with many poetical subjects, which he executed in fresco 
as well as in oil ; but he principally was employed lu 
painting portraits, which are described as having good ex-. 
pression, and extraordinary life and force, by their broad 
' masses of light being contrasted by strong shadows. He 
died in 1 660, aged sixty eight. His brother, William, was 
born at Utrecht in 1604, and learned the art of pa'uiting 
from Abraham Bloemart. The portraits which he painted 
were very much esteemed, and are far superior to his histo- 
rical subjects, which are in no degree equal to those of 



126 H O O G E V E E N. 

fessedijrto a certain point, bat went far beyond htm in 
copiousness and sagacity. A very useful abridgment of 
this work, the only faalt of which is too great prolixity, 
was poblisbed at Dessau, iu 1782, by Schtttz. This edi- 
tio» will be found more useful to the yoiing student than 
the vast work on which it is founded, as more easily pur- " 
chased, and more easily read.^ 

HOOGSTRATEN (David van), a professor of the 
belles lettres, was born at Rotterdam in 1658, and died at 
Amsterdam in 1724» In the evenuig of Nov. 13, there 
suddenly arose so thick a mist, that he lost his way, and 
fell into a canal. He was soon taken out; but the coldness 
of the water, and the fright from the fall, brought on so 
strong an oppression upon the breast, that he died in eight 
* days after. There. are of his, 1. " Latin PoemS." 2. " Fle- 
mish Poems.'* 3. ** A Flemish and Latin Dictionary.** 
4» " Note* upon C. Nepos and Terence." 5. "An edition 
of Pbcedrus,'' for the prince of Nassau, 4to,'Th imitation 
of the Delphin editibns. 6. A fine edition of ^* Janus 
Broukhusius^s Poems."* 

HOOGUE (RoMAiN DE), a Dutch designer and engraver, 
who flourished towards the close of the seventeenth century, 
bad a lively imagination, by which he was sometimes led 
astray ; and his works must be viewed with some allowance 
for incorrectness of design and injudicious choice of sub- 
jects, which were in general of an allegorical cast, or dis- 
tinguished by a kind of low caricature. His works are 
chiefly extant in certain editions of books for which he was 
employed ; as, 1. Plates for the Old and New Testament; 
in folio, published by Basnage in 1704. 2. Plates to '^the 
Academy of the Art of Wrestling," in Dutch, 1(574, and 
in French in 1712. 3. Plates to the Bible, with Dutch 
explanations. 4. Plates for the Egyptian Hieroglyphics^ 
Amsterdam, 1-735, small folio. 5. Plates to Fontaine's 
Fables, 1685, 2 vols. 8vo. 6. To Boccace, 1695, 2 vols. 
8vo. 7. To the Tales of the Queen of Navarre. 8. To 
the "Cent Nouvelles nouvelles,'' 1701, 2 vols. Svo. Sudh 
of bis plates, as are to be met with separate from tbe works 
to which they belong, bear a higher price.* 

HOOKE (Nathaniel), celebrated for a ** Roman His- 
tOTYf* died July 19, 1763, but we know not at what age; 

, 

.  • 

> Hades de Vitis Pbilolognnim^ Tol. IV.— SftxIS Onmiiattioon, vol. VHk 
* Moreri*— Saxii Onoiaast. * Strait's JDlcU of Sogmvers* 



H O O K E. 127 

as indeed few particulars of him are recorded, tboogh ke 
is said, ^^ from 1723 till bis death, to have enjoyed the 
conddence and patronage of men not less distinguished by 
virtue than by titles.^* The first particular that occurs of 
him is from a letter to lord Oxford, dated Oct^l7, 1722, 
by which it appears, that, having been ^^ seized with the 
l^te epidemical distemper of endeavouring to be rich,^* 
meaning the South-sea infatuation^ *' lie was in some mea- 
sure happy to find himself at that instant just woriii 
Dothing.'* ^ome time after, however, he was recommendefd 
to Sarah duchess of Marlborough, who presented him with 
5000/. the condition of which donation was expressly, that 
he the said Hooke should aid and assist her the said duchess 
id drawing up and digesting ^^ An account of the conduct 
of the dowager duchess of Marlborough, from, her &ru 
coming to court to the year 1710.** This was done, and 
the work was published in 1742, 8vo ; but soon after she 
took occasion, as was usoa.1 with her, to quarrel with him, 
** because," finding her without religion, " he attempted," 
as she affirmed, " to convert her to. popery." Hookewas 
a mystic and quietist, and a warm disciple of Fenelon, 
whose life he translated from the French, and published iR 
1723, l2nio. It was he who brought a catholic priest to 
take Pope's confession upon his death-bed : the priest had 
scarcely departed, when Boiingbroke coming in, flew into 
a great^ passion upon the occasion^ He is said to have 
been a remarkably fine reader. Richardson informs us, 
that be once read some speeches of his Roman History to 
the speaker Onslow, who piqued himself too upoa reading, 
and begged him to give his opinion of the work : the 
Speaker answered, as in a passion, *^ he could not tell what 
to think of it : it might be nonsense for aught he knew ; 
for that his manner of reading had bewitched him." 

The " Roman History" of Hooke was pubiished.in 4 vols* 
4to; the first in 1733, the second in 1745, the third iii 
1764, and the fourth in 1771. It embraces the events 
from the building of Rome to the ruin of the common-* 
wealth. In 176B he published ** Observations -on four 
pieces upon the Ronnan Senate," among which were those 
of Middieton and Chapman ; and was answered in an auo« 
nymous pamphlet, entitled " A short Review of Mr. Hookers 
Observations, i&c. concerning the Roman Senate, and the 
character of 'Dloaysius of Halicarnassus," 1758, 8vo. But 
the author of this was Edward Spelman, esq. who was then 



/ 



]2d H O O K E. 

publishing ftn English translation of Dionysius. Hoc^ 
published also a translation of Ramsay^s.^* Travels of Cyrus,** 
1739, 4to. Mr. Hooke left two sons; one a clergyman of 
the English church, rector of Birkby and vicar of Leek in 
Yorkshire, who died in 1791 ; the other a doctor of the 
Sorbonne, and professor of astronomy in that seminary.^ 

HOOKE (Robert), an eminent English mathematician, 

and one of the most inventive geniuses that the world ha^ 

ever seen, was son of Mr. John Hooke, rector of Fresh* 

water in the Isle of Wight, and born there July 18, 1635. 

He was designed for the church ; but being of a weakly 

constitution, and very subject to the head-ache, he was left 

to follow the bent of his genius, which led him to iiie<« 

ehanicsi and first appeared in bis making little toys, which 

he did with wonderful art and dexterity. Seeing, on one 

occasion, an old brass clock taken to pieces, he made ar 

wooden one that. would go : be made likewise a small ship 

about a yard long, fitly shaped, masted, and rigged, with 

a contrivance to make it fire small guns, as it was sailing 

across a haven of some breadth. These indications led hia 

friends to think of some trade for him in which such talents 

might be useful ; and after his father's death in 1648, as he 

had also a turn for drawing, he was placed with sir Peter 

Lely, but the smell- of the oiUcolours increased his head<* 

aches, and he quitted painting in & very short time^. After«« 

wards he was kindly taken by Dr. Busby into his house, 

and supported there while he attended Westminster-schooL 

Here be not only acquired Greek and Latin, together with 

some knowledge of Hebrew and other oriental languages^ 

but also made himself master of a good part of Euclid's 

Elements ; and Wood adds, that while he lived with Dr. 

Busby he ^^ learned of his own accord to play twenty 

lessons on the organ, and invented thirty several ways of 

flying ; as himself and Dr. Wilkins of Wad ham- college 

have reported." 

* Aubrey says he bad some instruc- been paid as an apprentice fee to Lely| 

tions in drawing from the celebrated but after he had been some time upon 

Sam. Cooper, but does not knoir wbe- trial, Hooke left htm, as thinking b« 

ther this was before or after he went to could do all that was to b« done, an4 

Lely. He gives us an auecdote of keep his hundred pounds. When' ha 

Hooke, however, which is very charac- went to Busby's be " lodged his 1 00/^ 

teristic of that sordid regard for money with him.'' — Letters by Emioeoi Pfr* 

which predominated all his life. His sons, 1813, 3 vols. 8 vo« 
father left him 100/. which was to have 

I Nichols's Bowyer.— Ruffhead's Life of Pope, 4to edit. p. 3S1. 421.— <%€»; 
Urfitld's Memoirs, 4to« p* 116.— Bo8weU'» Tour to ^ Hebridje^ . 



> 



H O O It £. 128 

About 1653 he went to Cbrist-churcb, Oxford^ and in 
1655 was introduced to the philosophical society tbere; 
where, discovering his mechanic genius, he was first em- 
ployed to assist Dr. Willis in his operations of chemistry, 
and afterwards recommended to Mr. Boyle, whom he served 
many years in the same capacity. He was also instructed 
about this time by Dr. Seth Ward, Savilian professor of 
astronomy, in that science ; and fipom henceforward distin- 
gimhed himself by a greater number of important inven- 
tions and improvements of the mechanic kind, than any 
one man had ever discovered. Among these were several 
astronomical instruments for making observations both at 
sea and land; and he was particularly serviceable to Boyle, 
in completing the air-pump. Wood tells US| that he also ' 
explained '^ Euclid's Elements,'' and ^^ Des Cartes's Philo- 
sophy," to Boyle. In Nov. 1662, sir Robert Moray, then 
president, having proposed him for curator of experiments 
to the Royal Society, he was unanimously accepted, and 
it was ordered that Boyle should have the thanks of the 
.society for dispensing with him for their use ; and that he 
should come and sit among them, and both exhibit every 
day three or four of bis own experiments, and take care 
of such others as should be mentiomed to him by the so<» 
ciety. He executed this oflSce so much to their satisfac- 
tion, that when that body was established by the royal 
charter, his name was in the list of those who were first 
nominated by the council. May 20, 1663 ; and he was 
admitted accordingly, June 3, with a peculiar exemption 
from all payoients. Sept 28 of the same year, he was 
nominated by Clarendon, chancellor of Oxford, for the 
degree of M.A.; and Oct. 19, it was ordered that the 
repository of the Royal Society should be committed to his 
care, the white gallery in Cresham-college being appointed 
for that use. In May 1664, he began to read the astrono* 
mical lecture at Gresham for the professor. Dr. Pope, then 
in Italy ; and the same year was made professor of mecha- 
nics to the Royal Society by Sir John Cutler, with a salary 
of 50/. per annum, which that gentleman, the founder, 
settled upon him for life. On Jan. 11, 1664-5, he was 
elected by that society curator of experiments for life, with 
an additional salary of 30/. per annum to sir John Cutler^s 
annuity, settled on him *'pro tempore:" and, March fol- 
lowipg, was elected professor of geometry in Gresham «^ 
college, i. 

VouXVlll K 



ISO H O O K E* 

In 1665, he published in folio bis '' Micrographia, or 
some philosophical descriptions of minute bodies, made by 
magnifying glasses, with observations and enquiries there- 
upon f * and the same year, during the recess of the Royal 
Society on account of the plague, attended Dr. Wilkins 
and other ingenious gentlemen into Surrey, where they 
made several experiments. In Sept. 1666, he produced 
his plan for rebuildiM the city of London, then destroyed 
by the great fire ; which was approved by the lord- mayor 
and court of aldermen* According to it, all the chief 
streets were to have been built in regular lines ; all the 
0thet cross streets to have turned out of them at right 
angles ; and all the churches, public buildings, market- 
places, &c. to have been fixed in proper and convenient 
places ; but the nature of the property, and the impossi- 
bility of raising funds to indemnify the landholders who 
would be injured by this scheme, prevented its being car- 
ried into execution. The rebuilding of the city, however^ 
according to the lact of parliament, requiring an able per- 
son to set out the ground to the several proprietors, Hooke^ 
was appointed one of the city surveyors, and Ofiver, a 
glass-pain tet, the ot^het*. In this employment he acquired 
the greatest part of that estate of which be died possessed ; 
as appeared sufficiently evident from a large iron chest of 
money found after his death, locked down with a key in it, 
and a date of the time, which shewed that the contents had 
been so shut up for above thirty years, and seldom dis- 
turbed, for he almost starved himself and all in his house. 

in 1668, Hevelius, the famous astronomer at Dantzick, 
pi^esented a copy of his ** Cometographia" to Hooke, in 
acknowledgment for an handsome compliment which Hooke 
}iad paid to him on account of his '* Selenographia,^* printed 
in 1647 ; and Hooke, in return, sent Hevelius a description 
of the dioptric telescope, with an account of his manner 
9f iising it, and recommended it to him as preferable to 
those with plain sights. This circumstance gave rise to a 
great dispute between them, noticed in our account of 
Hevelius, in which many learned men afterwards en- 
ffag^d, and which Hooke so managed, as to be uni- 
versally condemned, though it haa since been agreed 
that he had the be^t side of the question. In 1671 he 
attacked sir Isaac Newton's " New Theory of Light and 
Colours ;'* where, though he was forced to submit in re- 
tpect to the argument, he U said to have come off with ^ 
b^euer reputation than in the former instance. The Royal 



HOOKS. I3i 

Society having begun their meetings at Gresham-coUege^ 
in Nov. 1^74^ the committee in December allowed him 40/. 
to erect a turret over part of his lodgings, for proving his 
instruments, and making astronomical observations ; and 
the year following he published *< A Description of Tele- 
scopes, and some other instruments,*' made by him, with 
a postscript, complaining of some injustice done him by 
Oldenburg, the publisher of the " Philosophical Transac- 
tions,*' in regard to his invention of pendulum watches. 
This charge drew him into a dispute with that gentleman, 
which ended in a declaration of the Koyai Society in their 
secretary's favoun Oldenburg dying in Aug. 1677, Hooke 
was appointed to supply his place, and began to take 
minutes at the meeting in October, and published seven 
numbers of the ^* Philosophical Collections,*' which have 
been always considered as a part of the '* Philosophical 
Transactions.". Soon after this be grew more reserved than 
formerly, and though he read his Cutlerian lectures, and 
often made experiments, and shewed new inventions before 
the Royal Society, yet he seldom left any account of them 
to be entered in their registers, designing, as he said, to 
fit them for himself, and make them ppblic, which however 
he never performed. In 1686, when sir Isaac Newton's 
Prtncipia were published, Hooke, with that jealousy which 
was niittural ' to him, claimed priority respecting the idea 
of gravitation. Newton, with a candour equally natural 
to him, admitted his claim, but shewed at the same time 
that Hooke's notion of gravitation was different from his 
own, and that it did not coincide with the phenomena. In 
reality, the notion of gravitation is as ancient at least as 
the days of Lucretius, and is particularly noticed by Kepler. 
Newton's merit consisted, not in ascribing the planetary 
motions to gravitation, but in determining the law which 
gravitation follows, and in shewing that it exactly accounts < 
for all the planetary phenomena, which no other system 
does. 

In 1687, his brother's daughter, Mrs. Grace Hooke, who 
had lived with bim several years, died ; and he was so 
affected at her death, that he hardly eVer recovered it, but 
was observed from that time to .grow less active, more 
melancholy, and, if possible, more cynical than ever* At 
the same time a chancery-suit, in which he was concerned 
with sir John Cutler, on account of his salary for reading 
the Cutlerian lectures, made him very uneasy, and in- 

K 2 



J38 H O O K E. 

creased bis disorder. In 1 69 1 , he was employed in forming^ 
the plan of the hospital near Hoxton, founded by Aske, 
alderman of London, who appointed archbishop Tillptsoa 
one of his executors; and in December the same year, 
Hooke was created M. D. by a warrant from that prelate. 
He is also said to have been the architect of Bediami and 
the College of Physicians. In July 1696, hi^ chancery- 
suit for sir John Cutler's salary was determined in his 
favour, to his inexpressible satisfaction. His joy on 
that occasion was found in liis diary thus expressed : 
^< DoMSHLGissA ; that is, Deo Optimo Maximo sit honor^ 
laus, gloria, in saecula sseculorum. Amen. I was born on 
this day of July, 1635, and God has given me a new birth : 
may I never forget his mercies to me ! whilst he gives me 
breath may I praise him !'' The same year an order was 
granted to him for repeating most of his experiments, at 
the expence of the Boyal Society, upon a promise of his 
finishing the accounts, observations, and deductions from 
them, and of perfecting the description of all the instru- 
ments contrii'ed by him, which his increasing illness and 
general decay rendered him unable to perform. For the 
two or three last years of his life he is said to have sat 
night and day at a table, engrossed with his inventions and 
stuidies, and never to have gone to bed, or even undressed ; 
and in this wasting condition, and quite emaciated, be died 
March 3, 1 702, at his lodgings in Gresham-i^oHege, and 
was buried in St. Helen's church, Bishopsgate- street, bis 
corpse being attended by all the members of the Royat 
Society then in London. 

Waller, the writer of his life, has given the following 
character of him, which, though not an amiable one, seems 
to be drawn with candour and impartiality. He was in 
person but a despicable figure; short of stature, very 
crooked, pale, lean, and of a meagre aspect, with dark 
brown hair, very long, and hanging over his face, uncut^^ 
and lank. Suitable to this person, his temper was penu- 
. rious, melancholy, mistrustful, and jealous ; which qualities 
increased upon him with his years. He set out in bis youth 
with a collegiate or rather a monastic recluseness, and 
afterwards led the life of a cynical hermit ; scarcely allow- 
ing himself necessaries, notwithstanding the great increase 
of bis fortunes after the fire in London ^. He declared 

* Sir Godfrey Cof>1ev, in a leUer ffavB, ** Dr. Kook« is very craxy ; much 
vritteB about the time of Nooke'f death, concerned for ftar be ahou Id 4)utUTe his 



H O O K E. 133. 

sometimes, that he had a great project in his head as to 
the disposal of his estate, for the advapcement of natural 
knowledge, and to promote the ends and desigpis for which 
the Royal Society was instituted; to huild a handsome 
fabric for the society's use, with a library, repository, la« 
boratory, and other conveniences for making experiments ; 
and to found and endow a physico-mechanic lecture like 
that of sir John Cutler. But though he was often solicited 
by his friends to put his designs down in writing, and 
make his will as to the disposal of his estate, yet he could 
never be prevailed on to do it, but died without any will 
that could be found. In like lAanner, with respect to his 
philosophical treasures, when he first became known to the 
learned world, he was very communicative of his inventions 
and discoveries, but afterwards grew close and reserved to 
a fault ; alledging for an excuse, that some persons chal- 
lenged his discoveries for their own, and took occasion from 
his hints to perfect what he had not finished. For this 
reason he would suggest nothing, till he had time to perfect 
it himself; so that many things are lost which he affirmed 
he knew, though be was not supposed to know every thing 
which he affirmed. For instance, not many weeks before 
hi9 death, he told Mr. Waller and others, that he knew a 
certain and infallible method of discovering the longitude 
at sea; yet it is evident that his friends distrusted his 
asseveration of this discovery ; and how little credit was 
then g^ven to it in general, appears from Waller^s own 
accounts '^ Hooke,*' says he, '^ suffering this invention to 
be undiscovered to the last, gave some persons cause to 
question, whether he was ever the possessor of it ; and to 
doubt whether what in theory seemed very promising, 
would answer when put in practice. Others indeed more 
severely judged, that it was only a kind of boasting in him 
to assert that which had not been performed though at* 
tempted by many." In the religious part of his character 
he was so hr exemplary, that he always expressed a great 
veneration for the Deity, and seldpm received any remark- 

estate. He bath ttanred one old woman the days of his life, I mean mathema- 
already ; and I beiteve he will endanger ti<;at experiments, than to hare it go to 
hinself t» save sixpence for any thing tl^ose whom he never saw or cared for. 
he wants." In another, written a few it is rare that virtuosos die rich, and it 
weeks after his death. Sir Godfrey says, 
•* I wonder old Or. Hooke did not choose 
rather to leave bis 12,000/. to continue Nicholses possession, 
what he had promoted and studied all 



is pity they should if they were like 
him." Dr. Docarel's MSS. in Mr. ' 



134 HO O K E. 

able benefit in life, or made any considerable diicovisry in 
nature, or invented any useful contrivance, or foynd out 
any difficult problem, without setting down his acknow- 
ledgment to God, as many places in bis diary plainly shew. 
He frequently studied the sacred writings in the originals ; 
for he was acquainted with the ancient languages, as well 
as with all the parts of -mathematics. *^ To conclude,'* 
says Waller, ^^ all his errors and blemishes were more than 
made amends for by the greatness and extent of his natural 
and acquired parts, and more than common if not wonder* 
ful sagacity, in diving into the most hidden secrets of 
nature, and in contriving proper methods of forcing her to 
confess the truth, by driving and pursuing the Proteus 
through all her changes to her last and utmost recesses- 
There needs no other proof of this, thaii the great numl^er 
of experiments he made, with the contrivances for them^ 
amounting to some hundreds ; his new and useful instni«* 
ments and inventions, which were numerous ; his admirable 
facility and clearness in explaining the phenomeiia of na* 
ture, &nd demonstrating his assertions ; his happy talent 
in adapting theories to the phenomena observed, and con« 
triving easy and plain, not pompous and amusing, expe- 
riments to back and prove those theories ; proceeding from 
observations to theories, and fronn theories to farther trials, 
which he asserted to be the most proper method to succeed 
in the interpretation of nature. For these his happy qua- 
lifications he was much respected by the most learned phi* 
losophers at home and abroad.; and as with all his failures 
he may be reckoned among the great men of the last age, 
80, had he been free from them, possibly he might have 
stood in the front.'* 

His papers being put by his friends into the hands of 
Richard Waller, esq. secretary to the Royal Society, that 
gentleman collected such as he thought worthy of the press, 
and published them under the title of his *^ Posthumous 
Works," in 1705, to which he prefixed an account of his 
life, in folio. It is thought, that this gentleman would 
have published more of Hooke's manuscripts, had he 
lived. Mr. Professor Robison of Edinburgh, who ascribes 
the invention of spring- watches to Hooke, had an op[]/or- 
tunity of seeing some of Hooke's MSS. that had been 
rescued from the fire at the burning of Gresham-college, 
and says that they are full of systematic views : many of 
them, it must be acknowledged, hasty, inaccurate, and 



H O O K £. lU 

^tntiltt but still syst^maticaL Hooke called them algebras^ 
and considered them as having a sort of inventive power^ 
or rather as means of discovering things unknown by a 
process somewhat similar to that art He valued himself 
highly on account of this view of science, which he thought 
peculiar to himself; and he frequently speaks of others, 
even the most eminent, as childishly contenting themselves 
with partial views of the corners of things. He-was like- 
wise very apt to consider other inventors as encroachers on 
liis systems, which he held as a kind of property, being 
seriously determitied to prosecute them all m their turn, 
and never recollecting that any new object iipmediately 
called him off, and engaged him for a while in the most 
eager pursuit. His algebras had given him many signal 
helps, and he had no doubt of carrying them through in 
every investigation. Stimulated by this overfond expec- 
tation, when a discovery was mentioned to him he was too 
apt to thinl: and to say, that he had long ago invented the 
s^ame thing, when the truth probably was, that the course 
of his systematic thoughts on the subjects with which it was 
connected had really suggested it to him, with such viva* 
city, or with such notions of its importance, as to make 
him ^et it down in his register iu its own systematic place, 
which was his constant practice : but it was put out of his 
mind by some new object of pursuit. These remarks are 
part of a series, by the same learned professor, on the 
merits and inventions of Dr. Hooke, which are new, and 
highly necessary to enable the reader to form a just esti- 
mate of Hooke as a benefactor to science. They are to 
be found in the ^^ Encyclopaedia Britannica,'' under the 
article Watch, and in Dr. Gleig's supplement to that 
work, under HooK£. No English biographer appears to 
have done so much justice to our pliilosopher. ' 

HOOKER, or VOWELL, (John,) an English historian, 
was born at Exeter, about the year 1524. His father Ro- 
bert Hooker, a wealthy citizen, was in 1529 mayor of that 
city. Dr. Moreman, vicar of Menhinit in Cornwall, wa9 
bis tutor in grammar, after which he studied at Oxford, 
but in what college Wood was not able to discover. Having 
left the University, he travelled to Germany, and resided 
some time at Cologn, where be studied the law ^ and thence 

1 Life by Waller. — Biog. Brit. — Ward's Gresbaia Professors,— Atb. Ox. 
Tol. IL—^EBcyclopssdia as above. 



136 HOOKER. 

to Strasburgh, where he heard the divinity lectures of 
Peter Martyr. He intended also to have visited France, 
3painy and Italy, but a war breaking out, he returned to* - 
England, and, residing at his native city, Exeter, was ' 
elected chamberlain iti 1554, being the first person who 
held that office; and in 1571 he represented Exeter in 
parliament. He died in 1601, and was buried in the cathe* 
dral of Exeter. His works are, 1. *^ Order and usage of 
keeping of Parliaments in Ireland.*' The MS. of this is 
in Trinity-college-library, Dublin. He hsid been sent into 
Ireland by sir Peter Carew to negotiate his affairs there, 
and was elected burgess for Athenry in the parliament of 
1568. This tract is pjrinted with his Irish Chronicle in 
Holinshed. 2. *^ The events of Comets, or blazing stars, . 
made upon the sight of the comet Pagoniu, which appeared 
in November and December 1577." Lond. 1577, 8vo. 
3. ^^ An addition to the Chronicles of Ireland from 1546 
to 1568,'* in the second volume of Holinshed. 4. "Ca- 
talogue of the bishops of Exeter,*' and ** a Description 
of Exeter,** in' the third volume of Holinshed. 5. A trans- 
lation of the history of the conquest of Ireland from Giral- 
dus Cambrensis, in the second volume of Holinshed, and 
some other pieces not printed. This gentlemai^ was uncle 
to the celebrated Richard Hooker. * 

I^OOK^R (Ric|IARD), an eminent English divine, and 
.author of an excellent work, entitled " The JLaws of Ec- 
clesiastical Polity, in 6ight books,** was born at Heavy- 
tree near Exeter, about the end of March 1554, Mis 
parents, not being rich, intended hiqfi for a trade; but bis 
schoolmaster at Exeter prevailed with them to continue 
him at school, assuring them, that his na'tural endowments 
and learning were both so remar](able, that he must of 
necessity be taken notice of, and |hat God would provide 
him some patron who would free them from any future care 
or charge about him. Accordingly his uncle John Hooker, 
the subject of the preceding article^ who was ^en cham- 
berlain of the town, began to notice him ; and being known 
to Jewell, made a visit to that prelate at Salisbury soon 
after, and ^ besought him for charity's sake to 1oo|l favour- 
ably upon a poor nephew of his, whom natqre had fitted 
for a scholar; but the estate of his parents was s$o narrow, 
that they were unable to give him the adv^ntag^ of l^arn- 

I Prince's Worthiei of Devon. — Atb» Ox. vol. 1.— Ware's Ireland by Marri^. 



HO O K E R. 1$7 

ing ; and that the bishop -therefore would become his pa* 
troQ, and prevent him from being a tradesman, for be was 
a boy of remarkable hopes/' The bishop examining into 
his merits, found him to be what the uncle had repre- 
sented him, and took him immediately under his protec- 
tion. He got him admitted, in 1567, one of the clerks of 
Corpus-*Christi college in Oxford, and settled a pension 
on him ; which, with the contributions of his uncle, af- 
forded liim a verv comfortable subsistence. In 1571, 
Hooker had the misfortune to lose his patron, together 
with his pension. Providence, however, raised him up 
two other patrons, in Dr. Cole, then president of the col- 
lege, and Dr. Edwyn Sandys, bishop of London, and after* 
wards archbishop of York. To the latter of these Jewell 
had recommended him so effectually before his death, that 
though of CambWdge himself, he iimmediately resolved to 
send his son Edwyn to Oxford, to b^ pupil to Hooker, who 
yet was not much older ; for, said he, *^ I will have a tutor 
for my son, that shall teach him learning by instruction, 
and virtue by example.'' Hooker had also another con- 
siderable pupil, namely, George Cranmer, grand nephew' 
to Cranmer the archbishop and martyr; with whom, at 
well as with Sandys, he cultivated a strict and htsting 
friendship. In 1573, he was chosen scholar of Corpus, 
and in 157T, having taken his master's degree, was elected 
fallow of his college ; and about two years after, being 
well skilled in the Oriental languages, was appointed de- 
puty-professor of Hebrew, in the room of Kih^smill, who 
was disordered in his senses. In 1581, he entered into 
orders ; and soon after, being appointed to preach at St. 
Paul's-cross in London, was so unhappy as to be drawn 
intp a most unfortunate marriage ; of which, as it is one 
of the most memorable circumstances of his life, we shall 
give the particulars as they are related by Walton. There 
was then belonging to the church of St. Paul's, aliouse 
called the Shunamites house, set apart for the reception 
and entertainment of the preachers at St. Paul's cross, two 
days before, and one day after the sermon. That house 
was then kept by Mr. John Churchman, formerly a sub- 
stantial draper in Watling-street, but now reduced to po- 
verty. Walton says, that Churchman was a person of vir- 
tue, but that he cannot say quite so much of his wife. To 
this house Hooker came from Oxford so wet and weary, 
that he was afraid he should aot be able to perform his 



138 H a O K £ R. 

duty the Sunday following: Mrs. ChurchmaD) however, 
nursed him so wellj that he presently recovered .from the 
ill effects of his journey. For this he was very ^thankful ; 
so much indeed that^ as Walton expresses it, he thought 
binriself bound in conscience to believe all she said ; so 
the good man c^me to be persuaded by her, '^that he 
bad a very * tender constitution; and that it was best for 
him to have a wife, that might prove a nurse to him ; .such 
a one as might both prolong his life, and make pit more 
comfortable ; and such a one she could and would provide 
for him, if be thought fit to marry." Hooker, not conr 
sidering '^ that the children of this world are wiser in their 
generation than the children of light,'' and fearing no 
guile, because he meant none, gave her a power to choose 
a wife for him ; promising, upon a fair summons, to return 
to London, and accept of her choice, which he did in that 
or the year following. Now, says Walton, the wife pro- 
vided for him was her daughter Joan, who brought him 
neither beauty nor portion ; and for her conditions, they 
were too like that wife's which Solomon compares to a 
dripping-house ; that is, says Wood, she was *^ a clownish 
billy woman, and withal a mere Xantippe." 

Hooker, having now lost his fellowship by this marriage, 
remained without preferment, and supported himself as 
well as he could, till the latter end of 1584, when he was 
presented by John Cheny, esq. to the rectory of Drayton- 
Beauchamp, in Buckinghamshire, where he led an uncom- 
fortable life with his wife Joan for about a year. In this: 
situation he received a visit from bis friends and pupils 
Sandys and Cranmer, who found him with a Horace in his 
hand, tending a small allotment of sheep in a common 
field ; which he told them he was forced to do, because his 
servant was gone home to dine, and assist his wife in the 
household business. When the servant returned and re- 
leased him, his pupils attended him to his house, where 
their best entertainment was his quiet company, which was 
presently denied them, for Richard was called to rock the 
cradle, and the rest of their welcome being equally re- 
pulsive, they stayed but till the next morning, which was 
long enough to discover and pity their tutor's condition. 
At their return to London, Sandys acquainted his father 
with Hooker's deplorable state, who entered so heartily 
into his concerns, that he procured him to be made master 
of the Temple in 1585. This, though a valuable piece of 



H O O K E It 



139 



prefennent, wis not so suitable to Hooker'« temper, as the 
retirement of a living in the country, where he might be 
free from noise ; nor did he acc^t it without reluctance. 
At the time when Hooker was chosen master of the Temple, 
one Walter Travers was afternoon-lecturer there ; a man 
of learning and good manners, it is sail), but ordained by 
the presbytery of Antwerp, and warmly attached to the 
Geneva church discipline and doctrines. Travers had 
some hopes of establishing these principles in the Temple, 
and for that purpose endeavoured to be master of it ; but 
not succeeding, gave Hooker all the opposition he could 
in his sermons, many of whfch were about the doctrine, 
discipline, and ceremonies of the church ; insomuch that 
they constantly withstood each other to the face ; for, as 
somebody said pleasantly, *^ The forenoon sermon spake 
Canterbury, and the afternoon Geneva.^' The opposition 
became so visible, and the consequences so dangerous, 
especially in that place, that archbishop Whitgift caused 
Travers to be silence^ by the high commission courts- 
Upon that, Travers presented his supplication to the privy* 
council, which being without effect, be made it public. 
This obliged Hooker to publish an answer, which was in<^ 
scribed to the archbishop, and procured him as much re* 
verence and respect from some, as it did neglect and 
hatred from others. In order therefore to undeceive and 
win these, he entered upon bis famous work " Of the 
Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity * ;" and laid the foundation 



* The followiog Memoir reUttye to 
•ur autbor'i ** Ecclesiastical Polity," 
was drawn op by sir John Hawkins, 
aod inserted in a work into which the 
admirers of Hooker were not very likely 
to look for information, the *< Anti- 
quarian Repertory." Neither Walton, 
says sir John, nor bishop Gauden, nor 
any other that give an account of 
Hooker and his writings, make men- 
tion of the particulaf books or tracts 
which gave occasion to his writing the 
Ecolesiastical Polity. Whitgift had 
written an answer to the " Admonition 
to the Pftrliameut," and thereby en- 
gaged in a controversy with Thomas 
Cartwrigbt, the supposed author of it. 
Hooker, in bis excellent work, under- 
took the defence of our ecclesiastical 
establishment, against which Cart* 
Wright appears to have been the most 
powerful of all its opponents. Ac* 



cordingly, we find throughout his worik 
references to T. C. lib. p. ; but 
giving only these initials, amd citing 
no book by its proper title, we are at 
a loss now to know with whom he was 
contending. It is necessary therefore 
to state the controversy, the order 
whereof is this : ** Admonition to thft 
Parliament, viz. the first and second,'' 
in a small duodecimo volume, without 
date or place ; ** An Answer to an Ad* 
monition to Parliament, by John Whit- 
gift, D. of Divinitie," 4to. Printed by 
Bynneman, 1573. 1. " A Replie to 
the Answer, by T. €.*' 4to. No date or 
place. Of this there are two editions, 
differing in the order of numbering, 
the pages. *< A second answer of 
Whitgift,'' as must be presumed from 
the title of the next article, and is pro- 
bably no other than a book mentioned 
in Ames's Typ. Antiq. 32^,' by the 



140 HOOKER. 

and plan of it, while be viras at the Temple. Bot he foand 
the Temple no fit place to finish what he had there de- 
signed ; and therefore intreated the archbishop to remove 
him to some quieter situation in the following letter: 

" My lord; When I lost the freedom of my cell, which 
was my college, yet I found some degree of it in my quiet 
country parsonage. But I am weary of the^ noise and op- 
positions of this place ; and indeed God and nature did not 
intend me for contentions, but for Mudy and quietness. 
And, my lord, my particular contests here with Mr. Tro^ 
vers have proved the more unpleasant to nie, because I 
believe him to be a good man ; and that belief bath occa- 
sioned me to examine mine own conscience concerning his 
opinions. And to satisfy that, I have consulted the Holy 
Scripture, and other laws, both human and diviue, whe* 
ther the conscience of him, and others of his judgment, 
ought to be so far complied with by us as to alter our frame 
of church government, our manner of God*s worship, our 
praising and praying to him, and our established ceremo- 
nies, as often as their tender consciences shall require us. 
And in this examination I have not only satisfied myself, 
but have begun a treatise, in which I intend the satisfac-^ 

title of a '* Defence of the Answer to i^uestion it of the auUiority of a nan 

the Admonition," 1574, fol. Printed bj fltc." Eccl. Pol. Edit. 1682, p. 117, ia 

Bjrnneman. 2. " A second replie of to be found in p. S5 of one edition, and 

Cartwright a[rainst Whitgifl's second in p. 13 of tbe other. In Ames, 'p. 

Answer," 1575, 4to. No pUc^^ 3. 32^, is this article, which seems to be 

*' The rest of the second Replie of a collateral branch of the controversy, 
Cartwright against Whitgift's secpnd ^ " A Defence of the Ecclesiastical Re^ 

Answer," 1577, 4to. No place. giment of England defaced by T. C. in 

Upon a reference to these sevei^l his Replie against D. Whitgift, D. D.'^ 

publicationsof Cartwright, and a cart- 1574, 12mo. It does not here appear 

ful exan^ination of sundry passages that this defence is of Whitgift's writings 

cited from him by Hooker, it most yet it fias the name of his printer,- 

evidently appears/ that by ** T. C. Bsmneman, Fuller, in bi« Church His- 

Lib. I." is meant No. 1, as above de- tory, Book IX, 102, gives an account 

scribed ; by T. C. Lib. 2," is meant of Cartwright, and of his dispute with 

No. 2 i aad by *< T. C. Lib. 3," Ko^ 3. Wbhgift, whiehis very erroneous; for 

But here it is to be observed, that the he makes it to ^nd 'at Whitgift's De* 

refejrejnces to Lib. 1 , agree bot with one fence of his Answer'; 'hay, he goes 

edition of it, namely, tha^ which has further, and assigns reasons for Oirt- 

the *' Table of the principal Poynte^" Wright's silence. The truth is, he was 

at the beginning and not at the end, not silent till long after, but continued 

as the other .ha»* 13ie difierence be- the dispute in the Tracts No. 2 and 3» 

tween them is, that in the former the above notisd. The relation of the oon- 

ipnolbers of the pages commence with troversy by Neal, in his ** History oC 

the " Address to the Choroh of Eng- the Puritans," vol. I. 2S5, et seq. ia 

land," in the latter with the book it- very fair and aocurate. Antiquarian' 

self; so that to give one instance of Repertory, vol. 111. p. 13$. 
diffeience, this passage, ** When the 



H O O K £ fi. 141 

tion of others, by a demonstration of the reasonableness 
of our laws of ecclesiastical polity. But, my lord^ I shall 
never be able to finish what I have begun, unless I be re- 
moved into some quiet parsonage, where I may see God^s 
blessings spring out of my mother earth, and eat my oi^n 
bread in peace and privacy ; a place where I may without 
disturbance meditate my approaching mortality, and that 
great account which all flesh must give at the last day to 
the God pf all spirits/' 

Upon this application, he was presented in 1591 to the 
rectory of Boscomb, in Wiltshire ; and July the same 
year, to the prebeiid of Nether*- Haven, in the church of 
Sarum, of which he was also made sub-dean. At Boscomb 
he finished four books, which were entered into the re- 
gister-book at Statioxiers'-hall, in March 1592, bu.t not 
printed till 1594. In 1595 he quitted Boscomb, and was 
presented by queen Elizabeth to the rectory of Bishop's- 
Bourne, in Kent, where he spent the remainder of his 
life. In this place he composed the 6fth book of his ^^ Ec- 
clesiastical Polity,*' which was dedicated to the archbishop, 
and published by itsflf in 1597. He finished there the 
6th, 7th, and 8th books of Chat learned work ; but whe- 
ther we have them genuine, and as left by himself, ha« 
been a matter of much dispute. Dr. Zouch, however, 
seems to have advanced almost unanswerable arguments 
against their being directly from the pen of Hooker. Some 
time after, he caught cold in a passage by water between 
I^ondon and Gravesend, which drew upon him an illness 
that put an end to his life when be was only in his forty- 
seventh year. He died Nov. 2, 1600. His illness was 
severe and lingering ; he continued, notwithstanding, his 
studies, to the last. He strove particularly to finish his 
'* Ecclesiastical 'Polity," and said often to a friend who 
visited him daily, that ^' he did not beg a long life of God 
for any other reason, but to live to finish the three re- 
maining books of Polity ; and then. Lord, let thy servant 
depart in peace," which was his usual expression. A few 
days before his death, his house was robbed; of which 
having notice, he asked, <' are my books and written pa- 
pers safe ?" And being answered that they were, ** then," 
said lie, '^ it matters not, for no other loss can trouble 
me.'* 

But whatever value Hooker himself fhight put upon his 
books of ** Ecclesiastical ^Polity," he could not in that 



142 fi O O K E R. 

respect'exceed the estimate which has been fbrnied by the 
general jadgment of mankind, with the exception only of 
the enemies of our church establishment. This work has 
€Ter bieen admired for soundness of reasoning, and prodi- 
gious extent of learning ; and the author has universally 
acquired from it the honourable titles of '' the judicious,*' 
and ** the learned.'* When James I. ascended the throng 
of England, he is said to have asked Whitgift for his friend 
Mr. Hooker, from whose books of " Ecclesiastical Polity*' 
he bad so much profited; and being informed by the arch- 
bishop that he died a year before the queen, he expressed 
the greatest disappointment, and the deepest concern. 
Charles I. it is well known, earnestly recommended the 
reading of Hooker*s books to his son ; and they have ever 
• since been held in the highest veneration and esteem by 
all. An anecdote is preserved by the writer of his life^ 
which, if true, shews that his fame was by no means con- 
fined to his own country, but reached even the ears of the 
pope himself. Cardinal Alen and Dr. Stapleton, though 
both in Italy when his books were published, were yet so 
affected with the fame of them, that they contrived to have 
them sent for^ and after reading them, are said to have 
told the p€>pe, then Clement VIII. that " though his ho- 
liness had not yet met with an English book, as he was 
pleased to say, whose writer deserved the name of an au- 
thor, yet there now appeared a wonder to them, and so 
they did not doubt it would appear to his holiness, if it 
was in Latin ; which was, that ' a pure obscure English 
priest had written four such books of law and church po- 
lity, in so majestic a style, and with such clear demon- 
strations of reason/ that in all their readings they had not 
jnet with any thing that exceeded him.'* This begetting 
in the pope a desire to know the contents, Stapleton read 
to him the first book in Latin ; upon which the pope said, 
** there is no learning that this man hath not searched into ; 
nothing too hard for his understanding. This man indeed 
deserves the name of an author. Ilis books will get re- 
verence by age ; for there is in them such seeds of eter- 
nity, that if the rest be like this, they shall continue till 
the last fire shall devour all learning ;'* all which, whether 
the pope said.it or no, we take to be strictly true. 

• Dr. Gauden published Hooker's " Works," 1662, foL 
with a life, in which there are some inaccuracies. ' A.se- 
copd edition, with Hooker's Life by Walton, appeared in 



HOOKER. 149 

I6i6, fol. reprinted in 1676, 1682, and 1723, which last 
some calt '^ the best edition.'' A more commodioius one 
for use was printed at Oxford, 1793, 3 vols. 8vo. It is 
needless to add how much Walton's Life of Hooker has 
been improved in Zouch's edition of those valuable me- 
morials. Hooker's other works, published separately, 
were, 1. ^' Answer to the Supplication that Mr. Travera 
made to the Council," Oxon. 1612, 4to. 2. <* A learned 
discourse of Justification, Works, and how the foundation 
of Faith is overthrown, on Habak. i. 4." ibid. 1612, 4to. 
3. *' A learned Sermon on the nature of Pride, on Habak. 
ii. 4.^' ibtd. 1612, 4to. 4. <^A Remedy against Sorrow 
and Fear, delivered in a funeral sermon on John xiv. 27.** 
ibid. 1612, 4tb. 5. *^ A learned and comfortable Sermon 
of the certainty and perpetuity of Faith in the elect ; es- 
pecially of the prophet Habakkuk's faith," ibid. 1612, 4to« 
.6. " Two Sermons upon part of Jude's Epistles," ibid. 
1613, 4to. These Sermons were originally published by 
Mr. Henry Jackson, with " WicklifF's Wicket," and after- 
wards reprinted without that tract, and met with a very 
welcome reception from the public. 7. ^* A Discovery of 
the causes of these Contentions touching Church-govern- 
ment, oiit of the fragments of Richard Hooker," published 
in 1641, along with a work entitled '^ A Summarie View 
of the government both of the Old and New Testament ; 
whereby the episcopal government of Christ's church i» 
vindicated," out of the rude draughts of Launcelot An- 
drews, late bishop bf Winchester. 8. ** Three treatises 
inserted in a work edited by bishop Sanderson, and en- 
titled *^ Clavi Trabales," on the king's power in matters of 
religion, in the advancement of bishops, &c. Dr. Zouch 
mentions as a publication of great merit, ^< A faithful 
abrids:ment of the Works of nooker, with an account of 
his life : by a Divine of the Church of England," London, 
1705.* 

HOOKER (Thomas), a celebrated divine of New Eng-> 
land, whose works frequently occur in our public libraries, 
and may render their author the object of curiosity, was 
born at Marfield, in Leicestershire, in 1586, and was edu- 
cated at Emanuel-college, Cambridge, of which he be- 
came fellow. On his leaving the university, he preached 

1 Life by Walton.— ^Blog. Srlt.— Prince's Worthies of DcTOfL-i-Neal's Pu- 



s 



144 H O O K £ ft.' 

i 

occasionally for some time in London^ but in 1626 was 
chosen lecturer and assistant to a clergyman at Chelms* 
ford, where he officiated with great reputation, until si<» 
lenced for non-conformity by Laud, then bishop of Loa- 
don. On this occasion forty-seven of the neighbouring 
clergy sent a petition to the bishop, attesting his ortho- 
doxy and peaceable disposition. But this had no effect ; 
and ev€Q when Mr. Hooker set up a grammar'-school in 
the neighbourhood of Chelmsford, he was cited to appear 
before the high commission court, which determined him 
to go to Holland, where he preached for two or three 
years, and in 1633 went to New-Epgland, and became 
pastor of. the church of Hertford, in the colony of Con- 
necticut, and from bis pious services and usefulness, was 
called the father of that colony. He died July 7, 1647. 
Among his works are, K ^^ An exposition of the Lord' 
Prayer," Lond. 1645, 4to. ' 2. " The Saint's Guide,' 
ibid. 1645, 12mo. 3. " A Survey of the Summe of Church 
Discipline, wherein the way of the churches of New Eng- 
land is warranted," ibid. 1648, 4to* 4. " The "Covenant 
of Grace opened in several Sermons," ibid. 1649, 4to. 
5. "The Saints' Dignity and Duty," ibid. J 651, 4to.' 

HOOLE (Charles), a schoolmaster of very consider- 
able note in his day, and the publisher of some school- 
books not yet out of use,- was born at Wakefield, in York- 
shire, in 1610, and educated at the free-school there. At 
the age of eighteen years, by the advice of his kinsman 
Dr, Robert S^^nderson, afterwards bishop of Linpoln, he 
was sent to Lincoln-college, Oxford, where he became a 
proficient in the Greek and Hebrew tongues, and in phi- 
losophy. After he had taken one degree in arts, he en- 
tered into orders, retired to Lincolnshire for a time, and 
was appointed master of the free-school at Rotberam, in 
Yorkshire. In the beginning of the civil war he went to 
London, and by the invitation of some of the citizens, he 
taught a private school, first near Red-cross street, and 
afterwards in Token-house garden, in Lothbury. About 
the restoration, he was invited into Monmouthshire ; but 
the promises made to induce him to go there not being 
answered, he returned to London, and was taken under 
the protection of his relation bishop Sanderson, who gave 
him_ a prebend in the church of Lincoln. About that time 

1 Ncal's Hist of N«w £Dg1an€l.^Bo41e!an and BriU Museum Catalogao. 



H O O L E. 14» 

lie bectitie rector of Stocky near Billericay, in Essez^ 
where be died on die 7 th of March, 1666. He pablishedy 
^ Piieriiet confabulatinncule;'' '* Aditas facilis ad linguam 
Latinam ;^' << Corderius's CoUoqaies ;'* ^ Rndimenti cf the 
Latin Grammar;*' '* Examination of the Common Aeci«* 
dence/' and in all, above twenty litde books of this kind, 
many of which were adopted in schools, and reprioted 
again and again for the remainder of the seventeenth and 
part of the eighteenth century.^ 

HOOLE (John), a dramatic poet and translator, Waa 
the-son of Samuel Hool^ of London, watch-maker, by 
Sarah his wife, the daughter of James Drury^ a clock* 
maker, v<rhose family came from Warwickshire. He waa 
born in Moorfiteids, in December 1727, and received part 
of his early instruction from his uncle, a taylor, who lived 
in Grub-street*. He was afterwards sent to a private 
boarding-school in Hertfordshire, kept by Mr. James Ben* 
net, die publisher of Roger Ascham's works, "where he 
acquired an accurate knowledge of the Latin and French 
languages, and a small portioit of the Greek. His father^ 
who had carried on the business of watch-making to con-- 
siderable advantage, in consequence of some newly-in- 
vented machifiery of his own construction, wished to have 
Bis son brought up to his own trade, but his being ex- 
tremely near*sighted proved an instiperable objection^ and 
therefore, at the age of seventeen, he was placed as a clerk 
in the Eiast^ India-house, in the aocountant*s office. At 
this time, as he otten accompanied his father to the Aeatre^ 
who had access behind the scenes^ and assisted in 'c6n«» 
fltructing some of the pantomime scenery, he contracted 
a fondness for this amusement which might have been 
fatal to him, for he had no qualifications for the stage, had 
not his father prevented him. He employed his leisure 
hours, therefore, more profitably, in improving himself in 
the Latin, and especially the Italian tongue, which last 
he studied with a view to be able to read in the original 
bb favourite Ariosto, of wtiom, when a boy, he beoime 
enamoured by reading the <* Orlando Furioso^* in sir John 
Harrington's old translation. 

' From admiring he proceeded to trltdslate this poet, but 
laid this tadk ^id^ for some time, to execute a translation 



' Ath. Ox.T0Kn. 

^ Wben this little «ircamst 
tbe 



* Wden this little circumstance waf mentioned bj Mr. Hoole taJDr. J«bM9B, 
e latter said, sobHingi ** Sir» you have been reguUrlp edttciitc4.** 

Vol. XVIII. L 



U6 Kd O IE. 

of Tasso's f^ Jerasalem Delivered/' which be begam ii* 
I75^S, and printed in 1761. a specimen for the peru»at o£ 
kis friends, who probably encouraged: bioi to proceed, a» 
in 1763 he published the whole, and was permitted to de-» 
dicate and present it at court to the qtieen. Tbe.dedica* 
tion was written by Dr. Johnson. This was Mr. Hoole^.» 
first avowed production, but he had before printed a fewr 
poetical essays wkhout his name, . and a Monody on the 
death of Mrs. Woffington, which is in Pearcb's coilectioo. 
In 1767 he published two volumes of the dramas of Metas- 
tasio, consisting of. six pieces^ a copy of which he traas^^ 
Hiitled, to the author, who wrote a very elegant letter to 
him. His. own dramas were, *^ Cyrus,'* 1768.; '^Timao*-* 
thes,*' 1770 ; and ^^ Cleof>ice,'* 1775 ; none of which had 
success on the stage. 

: : In 1773, the first voluniie of bis " Orlando Furio^'! ap- 
peared, and .was favourably received, but the farther pro- 
secution of the work was interrupted by his appointment 
to the office of auditor of Indian accounts to the East India 
company, which occupied much of his time aiKi attention* 
Returning' again, however, to his task, be coo^pleted the 
<^ Orlando Furioso*' in 1783, in 5 vol^. 8vo. . In 17S5 he 
wrote the life of his friend Mr. Scott, the poet of Amwell, 
with whom be bad become acquainted in 1757, by mar* 
rying a quaker lady, Susannah Smith, of Bishop Stortford. 
About the end of 17 S3 he resigned his employment in the 
ladia^ house,, after a service of nearly forty-two years; and 
in April 17S6 retired with his wile and son, the rev. Sa-» 
mael tHoole, to the parsonage-rhouse of Abinger, near 
Dorking. Here, adverting to the objections which had 
been niade to the length and perplexity of Arioso's poem, 
he published *' The Orlando, reduced to twenty-four books^ 
the narrative connected, and the stcuries disposed in a re- 
gular series,'* 1791, 2 vols, dvo; but thia has not prevented 
the republication of his |E»rmer edition, whicb^ wiU^ all its^ 
imperfections, coaveya tiie truest idea of the tediops and 
extravagant jonginal* In 1792 he gave to the JEIngUsh. 

Sublic Tasso's juvenile poem of ^' Rinaldo.'* His,last prq- 
uction was a more coniptete collection of Metast^iofs 
5*. Dramas aud other Poems*' i^ 3 vqIs» 8vo. In tbis^ iiF we 
mistake not, Mr. Hoole has displayed more poetical energy 
and varie^ than tn his translations of Tasso and Ariosto» 
in which his chief merit is snoooth versification, and bi» 
^hief defect a want of variety in his harmony* Mr» Hoole 



H O O L E« 147 

died at Dorkiog, Aug. 2, 1803, leaving the reptltmtion of 
an amiable and estimable man in his private character } a 
man of taste, and a good -scholar. He lived much in ha« 
Irits of friendship with Dr. Johnson, and attended that 
eminent man in his last illness, of which be left an iil« 
terestirig diary. ' 

HOOPER (Dr. George), an eminent English divine^ 
son of George Hooper, gent, was borp at Grimley> ia 
Worcestershire, Nov. 18, 1640, and educated in grammar 
and classical learningfirst at St PauPs, and afterwards at 
WestminsCer-school, where he was a king's scholar. From 
thence he was elected to Christ-church in Oxford, in 1657, 
where be took his degrees at the regular times ; and dis- 
tinguished himself above his contemporaries by his supe« 
rior knowledge in philosophy, mathematics, Greek and 
Roman antiquities, and the oriental languages, in whieh 
last he was assisted by Dr. Pocock. In 1672 he became 
.chaplain to Morley, bisbc^ of Winchester, who collated 
him to the rectory of Havant, in Hampshire> which, the 
situation being unhealthy, he resigned for the rectory of 
East Woodbay, in the same county. In July 1673 he 
took the degree of B. D. and not long afterwards became 
chaplain to archbishop Sheldon, who begged that favour 
of the bishop of Winchester, and who in 1675 gave hioi 
the rectory of Lambeth, and afterwards the precentor^ip 
of Exeter. In 1677 he commenced D. D. and the same 
year, being made almoner to the princess of Orange, he 
went over to Holland, where, at the request of her royal 
highness, he regulated her chapel according to the usage 
of the church of England. After one year's attendancey 
he repassed the sea^ in order to complete hb« marriage to 
Abigaili daughter of Richard Guildford, gent, the treaty 
for which had been set on foot before his departure. He 
then went back to her highness, who had obtained a pro* 
mise from him to that purpose ^ but, after a stay of about 
eight months, she consented to let h^m jreturn borne. In 
1680 he is said to have been offered the divinity-profes- 
sorship at Oxford, but the succession to that chair had 
been secured to Dr. Jane. About the same time, however. 
Dr., Hooper was made king's chaplain. In 16S5, by the 
king's command, he attended the duke of Monmouth, and 

t E«ropean Mag. fpr 1*793.— Biog, Dram.-- Geut^ Mag, voU ZJQCZll«— Nl- 
cfaofs't Bowyer.— Boswell's Johnson. 

L 2 



141 B O O P E R. 

bad nueh free conversation with him in the Tower, iMOlfa 
the evening before, and the day of his execution, on 
which, tiiat unhappy nobleman assured him ^* be bad made 
bis peace with God,'' the nature of which persuasion Dr» 
Hooper solemnly entreated him to consider well, and theit 
waited on him in his last moments. The following year 
be took a share in the popish controversy, and wrote a 
treatise, which will be mentioned presently with bis Works. 
In 1691, he succeeded Dr. Sharp in the deanery of Can<i> 
terbury. As he never made the least application for pre* 
ferment, queen Mary surprised him with this oiler, when 
the king her husband was absent in Holland. With a dis- 
interestedness not very common, he now proposed to re-^ 
sign either of his livings, but the queen observed that 
1* though the king and she never gave two livings to one 
man, yet they never took them away,'' and ordered him 
to keep both. However, be resigned the rectory of Wood* 
hay.' He was made chaplain to their majesties the same 
year. In 1698, when a preceptor was chosen for the duke 
of Gloucester, though both the royal parents of that prince 
pressed earnestly to have Hooper, and no objection wat 
ever made against him, yet the king named bishop Burnet 
for that service. In 1701, he was chosen prolocutor to 
the lower bouse of convocation ; and the same year waa 
offered the primacy of Ireland by the earl of Rochester^ 
then lord-lieutenant, which he declined, in May 1703^ 
he was nominated to the bishopric of St. Asaph. This h<^ 
accepted, though against his inclination : on this occasion 
he resigned Lambeth, but retained his other preferme^its 
with Uiis bishopric, in which, indeed, he continued but 
a few months, and on that account he generously refused 
the usual mortuaries or pensions, then so great a burthen 
tb the. clergy of Wales, saying ** They should never pay 
0O dear for the si^t of him." In March following, being 
translated to &e bishopric of Bath and Wells, be ear* 
Bestly requested her majesty to dispense with the (»rder^ 
not only on account of the sudden charge of such a trans* 
latioD, as well as a reluctance to remove, but also in re-^ 
gard to his friend Dr. Ken, the <)eprived bishop of that 
]dace^ ibr whom he begged the bishopric. The queen 
feadily complied with Hooper'^ request ; but the offer 
being declined by Ken, Hooper at his importunity yielded 
to become bis successor. He now relinquished the deanery 
•f Canterbury, but wished to have retained the. precentor- 



HOOPER. 149 

ship of Exeter in comnHndanif sdely for tbe use df 'Dr. 
Ken. Bot this was not agreeable to Dr. Trektwney, bl« . 
shop of Exeter. His intention, however, was supplied hy 
the bounty of tbe queen, who conferred .an annual pen- 
sion of 200/. on the deprived prelate. In 1705, bishop 
Ho<^r distinguished himself in the debate oii the dangefr 
of the church, which, with many other persons, he ap- 
prehended to be qaore than imaginary. His observation 
was candid ; he complained with justice of that invidious 
distinction which the terms high church and law church op^ 
casioned, and of that enmity which they tended to pro- 
duce. In the debate in 1706, he spoke against the union 
between England and Scotland, but grounded his argijH 
ments on fears which have not been-realized. In 1709-10, 
when the articles of SacbeverelPs impeachment were 
debated, he endeavoured to excuse that divine, and en- 
tered bis protest against the vote, which he could not 
prevent. 

But, whatever were his political opinions, bis prudent, 
courteous, and liberal behaviour in his diocese, secured 
tbe esteem both of tbe laity and clergy. To the latter ha 
was a faithful friend. For while he con6ned his prefer^ 
ments to those of bis own diocese, bis disposal of them 
was judicious and disinterested. The modest were often 
dignified without any expectation, and the diligent were 
always advanced without the least solicitation. His regu^ 
lation also in official proceedings was so conspicuous, that 
'* no tedious formalities protracted business, no imperious 
officers insulted the clergy.*' The regard which he ex«- 
perienced, inseparably attached him to this diocese,^ and 
it is said that he could not be prevailed on to accept the 
see of Loudon on ^the death of Dr. Compton, or that of 
York op the death of Dr. Sharp* 

Having presided over the see of Bath and Wells twenty-* 
three years and six months, and having nearly attained to 
tbe great age of eighty-seven, he died at Barkley, in So* 
mersetshire, whither he sometimes retired, Sept. 6, 1727. 
His remains were interred^ at his own request, in the ca- 
thedral of Wells, under a marble monument with a Latin 
ioscriptiop, and adjoining to it is a monument with an in« 
scripcion to the oiemory of his wife, who died the year be- 
fore him. By this lady he had nine children, one of whooa 
oniy^ a dau^ter, survived hiiii» then tbe widow of 



150 HOOPER. 

It had been observed of this prelate by the celebrated 
Dr. 9usby, ** that he was the best scholar, the finest gen* 
ttleman, and would make the completest bishop that ever 
was educated at Westminster-school ;*' and Dr. Coney, 
who knew the bishop well, has proved this testimony to 
have been just in every respect. Bishops Burnet and At- 
terbury are the only writers of any note who have spoken/ 
evidently from prejudice, against him, as an ambitious 
man, a charge which the history of his promotions amply 
refutes. 

Besides eight sermons, he published several books in 
his life-time, and left several MSS. behind him, some of 
which he permitted to be printed. The following is a ca- 
talogue of both: 1. "The Church of England free from 
the imputation of Popery,'* 1682. 2. "A fair and me- 
thodical Discussion of the first and great Controversy be- 
tween the Church of England and the Church of Rome, 
conceruing the Infallible Guide: in three Discourses.*' 
The first two of these were licensed by Dr. Morrice, in 
1687, but the last was never printed. 3. " The Parson's case 
under the present Land-Tax, recommended in a Letter to 
a member of the House of Commons,*' 1689. 4. ** A 
Discourse concerning Lent, in two Parts. * The first, an 
historical account of its observation : the second, an essay 
coiicerning its original. This subdivided into two repar- 
titions, whereof the first is preparatory, and shews that 
most of our Christian ordinances are derived from the 
Jews ; and the second conjectures, that Lent is of the same 
original," 1694. 5. A paper in the ** Philosophical Trans- 
actions^* for Oct. 1699, entitled ^^ A Calculation of the 
Credibility of Human Testimony.'*" 6. " New Danger of 
Presbytery," 1737. 7. " Marks of a defenceless Cause.'* 
8. ** A Narrative of the Proceedings of the lower House 
pf Convocation from Feb. 10, 1700, to June 25, 1701, vin- 
dicated.** 9. ^^ De Valentinianorum Haeresi conjectural 
quibus illius origo ex ^gyptiaca theologia deducitur,*' 
1711.. 10. *^ An Inquiry into the state of the ancient Mea- 
sures, the Attic, the Roman, and especially the Jewish. 
With an Appendix concerning our old English money and 
measures of content,** 1721. 11. ^<De Patriarchae Jacobi 
Benedictione Gen. 49, conjecturae,*' published by the rev. 
l)r.. Hunt, afterwards the Hebrew professor, with a pre- 
£tce and notes^ according to the bishop's directions to the > 
editor, a little before his death. The MSS. before men<« 



H O O P E "R. 151 

r 

fioned are Ibe two foiiowing: 1. *^ A Latin Sermoii, 
preached in 1672, when he took the degree of B. D. ; and, 
5. " A Latin Tract on Divorce." A beautiful edition of 
his whole works was printed at Oxford, 1757, foHo, by the 
above Ihr. Hunt.^ 

HOOPER, or HOPER (John)^ an eminent prelate and 
foaityr, was born in Somersetshire, in 1495 ^ and entered 
of Merton college, Oxford, in 1514, under the toition of 
his uncle John Hooper, i^ fellow of that house. In l5iS 
he was admitted B. A. ; the only degree he took in this 
university. It is supposed that be afterwards became one 
of the number of Cistercians, or white monks, and conti- 
nued some years, until, becoming averse to a monastic^ life, 
be returned to Oxford, where, by the writings of some of 
the reformers which had reached that place, he was in'- 
duced to embrace the principles of prptestantisni. In 
1539, when the statute of the six articles was put in exe- 
cution, he left Oxford, and got into the service of sir Tho^ 
-mas Arundel, a Devonshire, gentleman, to whom he be^ 
•came chaplain, and steward of bis estate ; but this gentle>- 
man discovering his principles, withdrew his protectiotf^ 
and he was then obliged to go to France, where he conti- 
nued for some time among the reformed, until his dislikb 
of some of their proceedings made him. return to En^ldndn 
but, being again in danger here, he in thor disguise of a 
sailor -escaped to Ireland, and thence to Holland and Swis- 
«erland. At Zurich he met with BuUingef, himself a re«. 
fttgeefrom bis country for the sake of religion, ami v^boi, 
therefore, gave Hooper a friendly reception. During bte 
residence Im^o, Hooper married a Burgundian lady. 

On the accession of king Edward in 1547, Hooper was 
enabled to return to England, and settled in London, wb^r^ 
he frequently preached the doctrines of the reformation; 
but bad imbibed abroad such notions on the ^subject 6( 
church government, and the habits, as rendered bispriti- 
xiples somewhat suspected by archbishop Cranmer, and 
.Ridley, a.nd prevented his co-operating with them so ton- 
diaUy as .could Imve been wished in that critical time. Id 
4lQC^rin9ll malters, however, he was an able asiiistant, being 
Aman!of leat^iog, anda good philosopher and critic; When 
Bonner was to be deprived of bis bishopric, he wasiuie of 

- } Tod<H».Li<reh of Fthe.Oeatii -of Canterbacy^»«^«ii. lMct.-^ciit; Msf. vol. 
XVII. and LXIL^Bamet's Own Timef.^-Nicluils'ii AtMiH)W^P*Atli» Oxr toV. 
Ji«--Niebols'i Bowyen 



4l«e H O O P E «. 

.bis »ocuaen ; iiAieh, no doobt, would mcooiiDeiid hiflD as 
.an aqceptable saqrifice in the following bloody reign. By 
the interest of the earl of Warwick, be was noouaated and 
dectecl bishop of Gloucester ; but, when he came to be 
consecrated or invested by archbishop Cranmer and bishop 
Ridley, he refused to wear a canonical habit ; aiid it was 
not; until these ceremonies were dispensed with by tbe 
king's authority, that he was consecrated bishop, in 1550; 
and about two years after, he had the btshopcic of W6r- 
* ^ce^ter given to him, tp keep in commendam with the fof- 
men He now preached often, visited his dioceses, kept 
^eat hospitality for the poor, and was beloved by maoj. 
But in the persecution under Mary,, being then near sixly 

J ears of age, and>refusing to recant bis opinions^ be was 
ucned in the city of Gloucester, Feb. 9, 1554, and su^ 
iier^d death with .admirable constancy. 

He published many writings, some of which are to be 
found in Fox's book of the ** Acts and Monuments of the 
Church." The others are^ 1. '< Answer to the Lord Win- 
chester's book, entitled A detection of the Devil's Serbia* 
try, &c." Zurich, 1 547, 4to. 2. <' A Declaration of Christ 
and his office," ibid. 1547, 8vo, and afterwards 12mo. S* 
^< Lesson of the Incarnation of Christ," Lond. 1549, Svo. 
.4. *' Sermons on Jonas," ibid. 1550, 8vo. 5. ^ A godly 
confession and protestation of the Christian Faith," ibid, 
1550. 6. ^< Homily to be read in the time of pestilence,^' 
Worcester, 1553. 7. ^ Certain sentences written in pri- 
son^" Lond. 1 5S9^ 8vo. 8. '^ An Apology -against the un^- 
true and slanderous report, that he should be a maintainor 
and encourager of such that cursed the queen's highness," 
ibid. 1562. 9. ** Comfortable Expositions on the 23d, 
62d, 73d, and 77th Psalms," ibid. 1580, 4to. 10. <« Anv 
notations on the 13th Chapter to the Romans," ibid. 1683. 
11. << Twelve Lectures on the Creed," ibid» 1581, 8vo. 
12.. '< Confession of the Christian Faith, containing 100 
articles," ibid. 1581, 8vo, 1584, 4to. 13. ^* Deelaration 
of the ten holy Commandments," ibid. 1550, 1588, 8vo. 
There are also som^ pieces of Hooper^s in Burnet's ^* His« 
tory of the Reformation," to which, as well aa to Fox, the 
reader may. be referred for many particulars o£ his life and 
deaith.* 

* B«tt«taii<F4ttoUiB|im.«-5tryjtt'tCraDiiier,ptti]m.«^Ailk<^ f.«» 



H O O R N B E B C K. 15ft 

iiOOftNBEECK (JofiN), an iHuatrioiis prt>fes8or of dl^ 
Tinity in the universities of Utrecht and Leyden, was bortk 
at Haeriem in 1617, and studied there till he was sixteen, 
when he was sent to Ley den, and afterwards in i6S5y went 
lo study at Utrecht. In 1632, he was admitted a minister^ 
went to perform the functions of his office secretly at Co* 
logne, and was never discouraged by the dangers to which 
he was exposed, in a city where most of the inhalMtants were 
sealous papists. He returned to Holland in 1643, and that 
year was made D. D. The proofs he gave of his great 
learning were such, that he was chosen in 1644 to fill the 
chair of divinity professor at Utrecht ; and the next year 
waa OMide minister in ordinary of the ehurch in that city. 
Ilowever difficult the functions of these two eniiployments 
were, yet he acquitted himself in them with great diligence 
almost ten years. As a pastor, be often visited the mem* 
bera of his church : he encouraged the pious, instructed 
the ignorant, reproved the wicked, refuted the hereticti, 
comforted the afflicted, refreshed the sick, strengthened 
the weak, eheenod the drooping, assisted the poor. As a 
professor, he took as much care of the students in divinity, 
as if they had been his own children : he used to read not 
only public lectures, but even priv^e ones, for them ; and 
to hold ordinary and extraordinary disputations. He was 
chosen to exereise the same employments at Leyden 
which be had at Utrecht, and accepted them in 1654. He 
died in 1666; and though he was but forty-nine years of 
i^e, yet considering bis labours, it is rather a matter of 
wonder that he lived so long, than that he died so soon. 
He published a great number of works, didactical, pole* 
mical, practical, historical, aiid oratorical. The principal 
are^ *' A Refutation of Socinianism,^ from 1650 to 1664^, 
3 vok. 4to ; a treatise for the <* Conviction of the Jews,** 
165«, 8vo, and/< of the Gentiles,'* 1669, 4to; << A Systeoi 
of Practical Divinity/' 4to ; << Theological Institutions,'* 
&c. ; aU in Latin. He understood many languages, both 
ancient and modern ; the Latin, Greek, Hebrew, Chaldaic, 
Syjriac, Rabbinical, Dutch, German, English, French, Ita« 
lian, and aome little of Arabic and Spanish. He never 
depasled one inch from the most strict orthodoxy ; and 
was not leas commendable for bis integrity, than for his 
parts and learning. Bayle, who had little in common with 
io s^und a divine/ e^hibiil;js him as th^ complete model of 



U4 H O O R K £. 

a' good pastor and divinity-pcofessor. He married at 
Utrecht in 1650 ; and left two $on«.^ 

HOORNE (John Van), a distinguished anatomist and 
physician, was born at Anisterdatn in 1621, and educated 
at the university of Utrecht, where he went through bis 
medioal studies with honour. With a view to farther im* 
provement he visited Italy ; biit on his arrival in that coun- 
try he entered the Venetian army, in which he served for 
some time. Subsequently, however, his taste for science 
returned; and having studied under the most eminent 
prpfessors of Italy, ^be went to the universities of Basil, 
Moutpellier, and Orleans, in thcf first of which he received 
the d^ree of M. D. On his return he was appointed pro- 
fessor of anatomy and surgery at Amsterdam ; and in 1653 
he wa9 made professor of the same sciences in the univer- 
sity of Leyden, where he died January 1670. 

Van Hoonie was a man of considerable literary attain- 
jnents, being master of eight languages. His reputation 
with posterity, however, rests principally on his anatomical 
knowledge. He seems to have first described the thoracic 
diict in the human body, which Pecquet bad already de- 
monstrated in other animals ; and the intimate structure of 
the testes. He drew a great number of anatomical figures, 
with great elegance; and besides editing the works of 
Botallus, in 1660, and the book of Galen ^^ De Ossibus,** 
with the commentaries of Vesalius, Sylvius, ^g. in 1665, 
be wrote, 1. ^ Ei^rcitationes Anatomicse I & II ad Obser- 
vationes Fallopii anatomtcas,^' &c. Liege, 1.649, 4to. 2. 
« Novus ductus cbyliferus, nunc primilm delineatus, de- 
scriptus, et eruditorum examini propositus," ibid. 1652. 
3. ^^ Microcosmus, seu brevis manuductio ad historiam 
corporia humani, in gratiam discipuloium," ibid. 1660,' and 
several subsequent editions. 4. '^Microtechne, id est, bre- 
Tissima Chirurgise Methodus," ibid. 1663, 1668, Lipsis^, 
1675. 5. ^^ Prodromus Observatioiium suarum circa partes 
genitalesin utroque sexu," Leyden, 1668. This work was 
afterwards published by Swammerdam, who had made the 
greater part of the experiments there recorded, of which 
Van Hoorne only paid the expences, under the title -^'Mi- 
raculum Naturae," 1612^ 4to. 6. ^* Observationes Anato- 
mico- Medics," &c. Amst. 1674, 12mo. 7. A posthumous 

^Gen. Diet. — ^Nioeron, vol. XXXIII.— BarmaD Traject* Erud.— «Freheri 



H O O R N E. 135 

t 
t 

eollectiof^ under the titU of ^* Opuscula Anatomico-Cbi* 
rargica/* was published by professor Pauli, at Leipsic, iti 
1707, 8vo, with aiuiotaiions.^ 

HOPE (John), an eminent professor of botany in the 
university of Edinburgh, was the son of Mr. Robert Hope, 
surgeon, and grandson of lord Rankeilar, one of the sena- 
tors of the college of justice in Scotland. He was bora 
May 10, 1725, and educated at the university of Edin- 
burgh, where his attention was first directed to the niedi« 
cal art. He afterwards visited other medical schools, par- 
ticularly Paris, where he studied his favourite science, 
botany, under the celeWated Bernard Jussieu. On his 
return to Scotland, he obtained the degree of M. D. from 
the university of Glasgow in 1750, and being a few months 
after admitted a member of the royal college of physicians, 
Edinburgh, entered upon the practice of medicine in that 
city. On the death of Dr. Alston, in 1761, he was ap- 
pointed king's botanist in Scotland, superintendant of the 
royal garden, and professor of botany and materia medica« 
The latter, the professorship of materia medica, he resigned 
in 1768, and by a new commission from bis majesty, was 
nominated regius professor of medicine and botany in the 
university, and had the offices of king's botanist and super* 
intendant of the royal gardens conferred upon him for life, 
which till that time had been always granted during plea- 
sure only. While he thus enjoyed his honours at home, 
be received the most flattering marks of esteem from the 
learned of other countries, having been elected a member 
not only of the royal society of London, but also of several 
celebrated foreign societies, and having been enrolled in 
the first class of botanists even by Linnaeus, who denomi- 
nated a beauuful shrub by the name of Hopea ; and at a 
time when he might be justly considered as at the very 
head of his profession in Edinburgh, holding the distin- 
guished office of president of the royal college of )phy- 
sicians, he was seized with an alarming illness, which, in 
the space of a few days, put a period to his life, Nov. 10, 
1786* This gentleman richly deserves to be remembered 
as one of the earliest lecturers on the vegetable physiology, 
as well as an experienced practical botanist. Edinburgh 
is indebted to his spirit and perseverance, in establishing 
and providing suitable funds for its botanic garden, one of 
the first in the kingdom. 

} Moreri.-— Reet'i Cyclop«dia» 



150 HOPE. 

Besides some useful manuals for facilitating the ac<)a»l- 
tion of botany by his students^ Dr. Hope was long engaged 
ID the composition of an extensive work^ on which be be« 
stowed much study and reflection ; the object of which 
was^ to iBcrease the advantages which result from the highly 
ingenious artificial system of Linnseus^ by conjoining with 
it a sysleoni of vegetables distributed according to Ibeir 
great natural orders. He had made v.ery considerable pro- 
gress in this valuable work ; and it is much to be regretted 
by every lover of botany, that it was left imperfect at his 
death. Two valuable dissertations were published by him 
in the Philosophical Transactions, one on the Rheum pal" 
matump and the other on the Ferula ^ssqfcsttda^ in which 
he demonstrates the practicability of cultivating these twa 
officinal plants in our own country. The true rhubarb has 
been since extensively and successfully cultivated ; but thai 
of the assafcetida plant has not been equally attended to.* 

HOPE (Sir Thomas), a Scotch lawyer, was the son of 
Henry Hope, a merchant of Edinburgh, who had many 
commercial transactions with Holland, where he afterwards 
resided, and where he married Jacque or Jacqueline de 
Tott. His son Thomas soon distinguished himself at Ihe 
bar ; and was made king's advocate in 1627, when he was 
also created a baronet by Charles I. .He however attached 
himself to the covenanters, and was consulted by them in 
all difficult points. The king nevertheless, perhaps either 
to render him suspected to that party, or with a view to 
win him over, appointed sir Thomas commissioner to the 
general assembly in August 1643. 

Sir Thomas Hope, died in 1646, leaving large states to 
three sons ; the youngest, sir 'James, being ancestor of 
the Hopetoun family, which arose to great wealth from 
bis marriage with Anne, heiress of John Foulis of Leadw 
hills in Lanarkshire, these mines being an unfailing source 
of opulence. The works of sir Thomas Hope on the Scot^ 
tish law continue to be valued: they are his ^' Minor 
Practics,'' and his ^^ Decisions.'* He also wrote some 
Latin poems, and an account of the earls of Mar. There 
are several of bis MSS. in the Advocates' library, Edin* 
burgh.* 

HOPKINS {Ez^KiEL)y a learned and worthy prelate, 
who experienced a hxe extremely singular, was born in 

1 Life by Dr. Duncan, Medical CommenUrieSi Dec. ii. vol. III. 
< Pinkerton's Scottish G»Uery4 



H O P K I N S. 151 

16^3, at dandfbrd in Devonshire, where his father Wat 
curate ; became chorister of Magdalen college, Oxford, in 
1649; at the age of about sixteen, he was usher of the 
school adjoining, being already B.A. ; he was chaplain of 
the college when M. A. ; and would have been fellow, had 
his county qualified him. AH this time be lived aud wiui 
educated under presbyterian and independent discipline ; 
and about the time of the restoration became assistant to 
I^. Spurstow of Hackney. He was afterwards elected 
preacher at one of the city churches ; the bishop of Lon* 
don, however, refused to admit him, as he was a papular 
preacher among the fanatics ; but after some time be wail 
settled in the parish church of St. Mary Wolnoth. Having 
retired to Exeter on account of the plague, he obtained 
the living of St. Mary's church at Exeter, was counte* 
Banced by bishop Ward, and much admired for the come^ 
liness of his person and elegance of preaching. The lord 
Robartes in particular (afterwards earl of Truro) was so 
fyleased with htm, that he gave him his daughter Araminta 
in marriage, took him as his chaplain to Ireland in 16^69^ 
gave him the deanery of Raphoe, and recommended hitn 
so effectually to his successor lord Berkeley, that he was 
oonsecrated bishop of Raphoe, Oct 27, 1671, and trans- 
lated to Londonderry in I6i8l. Driven thence by the 
forces Under the earl of Tyrconnel, in 1688, he retired 
into England, and was elected minister of Aldermanbxiry 
in Sept. 1689, where he died, June 22, 1690. He pub- 
lished five single sermons, afterwards incorporated in two 
volumes ; ** An Exposition of the Ten Commandments,** 
1692, 4to, with bis portrait ; and an <* Exposttioa of the 
Lord's Prayer,** 1691, alt printed in one volume, 1710, 
folio. An edition of his works has very recently appeared 
in 4 vols. 8vo. * 

HOPKINS (Charles), son of the preceding, was bom 
at Exeter, ih 1 664 ; but his father being taken chaplain to 
Ii^land, he received the early part of his education at Tri« 
nity college, Dublin; and afterwards was a student at 
Queen*s college, Cambridge, where he took the degree of 
B. A. in 1688. The rebellion breaking out in Ireland in 
that year, he returned thither, and exerted his early valour 
in the cause of his country^ religion, and liberty. Whea 
public trtinquiUity was restored, he came again into Eng-* 

» Atii. Ox. Tol. ll.^Prioct's Wortlii^s of Devon.— Nicbal«?6 Poem*. 



158 HOPKINS- 

land, and formed an acquaintance with gentlemen of mtf 
whose age and genius were most agreeable to his own. In 
1694 he published some ^^ Epistolary Poems and Transla-* 
tions," which may be seen in Nichols's <^ Select CoUec* 
lion ;" and in 1695 he shewed his genius as a dramatic 
writer, by " Pyrrhus -king of Egypt," a tragedy, to which 
Congreve wrote the epilogue. He published also in that 
year, "The History of Love,'' a connection of select fables 
from " Ovid's Metamorphoses," 1 695 ; which, by the 
sweetness of his numbers and easiness of his thoughts, pro- 
cured him considerable reputation. With Dryden in par- 
ticular he became a great favourite. He afterwards pub- 
lished the *^ Art of Love," which, Jacob says, *^ added to 
bis fame, and happily brought him acquainted with the 
earl of Dorset, and other persons of distinction, who were 
fond of his company, through the agreeableness of his 
temper, and the pleasantry of his conversation. It was in 
his power to have made his fortune in any scene of life ; 
but he was always more ready to serve others than mindful 
of his own affairs ; and by the excesses of hard drinking, 
and too passionate an addiction to women, he died a martjrr 
to the cause in the thirty-sixth year of ^is age." Mr. 
Nichols has preserved in bis collection an admirable hymn, 
'^ written about an hour before his death, wheti in great 
pain." His " Court-Prospect," in which many of the prin- 
cipal nobility are very handsomely complimented, is called 
by JaQob " an excellent piece ;" and of his other poemd he 
adds, ** that they are all remarkable for the purity of their 
diction, and the harmony of their numbers." Mr. Hopkins 
was also the author of two other tragedies; 'fBoadicea 
Queen of Britain," 1697; and '* Friendship improved, or 
the Female Warrior," with a humourous prologue, com* 
paring a poet to a merchant, a comparison which will bold 
in most particulars except that of accumulating wealth. 
The anthor, who was at Londonderry when this tragedy 
came out, inscribed it to Edward Coke of Norfolk, esq. in 
a dedication remarkably modest and pathetic. It is dated 
Nov. 1, 1699, and concludes, <^ I now begin to experience 
bow much the mind may be influenced by the body. My 
Muse is confined, at present, to a weak and sickly tene- 
ment ; and the winter season will go near to overbear ker» 
together with her household. There, are storms and tem- 
pests to beat her down, or frosts to bind her up and kill 
ber ; and she has no friend on her side but youtb to bear 



HOPKINS. 159 

ber throdgh; If that can sustain the attack, and bold out 
^11 spring comes to relieve me, one use I shall make of 
farther life shall be to shew how much I ^m, sir, your most 
4eTOted humble servant, C. HopKiiii^.*' 

• His feelings were but too accurate ; be died in the course 
of that winter, 1700.' 

. HOPKINS (John), another son of the bishop of Lon- 
donderry, who deviated likewise fron^ his fathers cbarac- 
ler^ was born January 1; 1675. Like bis elder brother, 
bis poetry turned principally on subjects of love; like bim 
too, bis prospects in life appear to have terminated unfor- 
tunately. He published, in 1698, ''The Triumphs of 
Peace, or the Glories of Nassau ; a Pindaric poem occa- 
sioned by the conclusion of the peace between the Con- 
federacy and France ; written at the time of bis grace the 
duke of Ormondes entrance into Dublin.^' ** The design 
itf Ibis poem^'' the author says in his preface, ^begini^ 
after the method of Pindar, to one great man, and rises to 
another ; first touches the duke, then celebrates the ac- 
tions of the king, and so returns to the praises of tb^ duke 
ligain.." In the same year be published *^ The Victory of 
Peath ; or the Fall of Beauty ; a visionary Pindaric poem, 
occasioned by the ever-to*l^«depiored death of the r^bt 
booourable the lady Cults,'' 8vo. But tbe principal per- 
formance of J. Hopkins was ^ Amasia, (mt the woiiu tji tbe 
Muses^ a collection of Pbems,'' 170O, in S reds. Eacb of 
these little volumes is divided into three bocd»^ and each 
book is inscribed to some beautiful patroness, among 
inrbom. tbe duchess $>f Grafton stands foremost. Tbe last 
book is inscribed ^^ To the memory of Amasia," whom he 
addresses throughout these volumes in tbe character of 
Sytvlu9. There is a vein of seriousness, if not of poetry^ 
runs throogh the whole performance. Many of Ovid's atd- 
riep are very decently imitated ; '^ most of tbem," he says, 
;« have been very well pei'formed.by-my brother, and pub- 
lished some years since ; mine were written in another 
JkJiD^om before X knew of bis." la one of bis dedications 
be tells the lady Qlympia Robartes, *^Yoor ladyship's 
lather, the late earl of Radnor, when goverBor-<>f Ireland, 
was the kind patron to mine : be raised him to the first 
steps.by which be afterwards ascende4 to tbe dignities he 
b^re; . to tbo^e^ which rendered bis labours more coospica- 
op^ m^ s^t in. a xooxe advaiHageous light those hfiag 

* JmoVs Uresv*-)tbf^J>r«m.-!-*Ntcliob'» Poems;. 



160 HOPKINS; 

merits, which now make his memory beloved. . These, wci 
yet greater temporal hooours, your family heaped on bim^ 
fay making even me in some sort related and allied to yott, 
by his inter- marriage with your sister the lady Araminta^ 
How imprudent a yanity is it in me to boaat a father so 
meritorious! how may 1 be ashamed to prove myself his soi^ 
by po^ry, the only qualification be so much excelled in, 
but yet esteemed no excellence^ 1 bring but a bad proof 
of birth, laying my claim in. that only thing he would not 
own. These are^ however, madam, but the products ef 
immature years ; and riper age, may, I hope, bring foitb 
moreiolid works.'* We have never seen any other of his 
writings: nor have been able to collect any farther parti-« 
Cttlars of his life : but there is a portraut of him, under bia 
poetical name of Sylvius.* 

HOPKINS, John. See STERNHOLI>. 

HOPKINS (WiLUAM), a learned divine of the churck 
of England, was born at Evesham, in Worcestershire) iff 
August 1^47, and was the son of the rev. George Hopkinfl^ 
whom Hickes terms a pious and learned divine, aftd who 
was ejected for non-conformity. At school his son was so 
great a proficient, that at twelve years of age he translated 
an EngHsh poem into Latin verse, which was printed sowm 
time before the restoration. At- thirteen he was admitted 
commoner of Trinity-college, Oxford, under the learned 
Mr. Stratford, afterwards bishop of Chester. He proceeded 
M. A. in 1669, sometime before which he removed froai 
Trinity-college to St. Mary-hall; He waa much noticed 
by Dr. Fell, dean of Christ-church, who, it is supposed^ 
recommended him to the Hon. Henry Coventry, as hia 
chaplain and companion in his embassy to Sweden; 6» 
which he set out in Sept 1671. While in Sweden, Mri. 
Hopkins applied himself to the study of northern anticjui* 
ties, having previously studied the Saxon. After hb io« 
turn in 1675, by Mr. Coventry's reeommeodation, he waft 
preferred to a prebend in Worcester cathedral ; and from 
bis installation, began ^o collect materials for a history of 
this church, some of which fell afterwards into the bands of 
Wharton and other antiquaries. In June 1678 he Was madd 
curate of Mortlak^ in Surrey, and about 1680 was chosen 
Sunday lecturer of the church of St. Lawrence Jewry, and 
kk 1686 was preferred to the vicarage of Lindridge in 
Woroestersbire. Ip 1691 he wais chosen master of Sc Ott** 

1 NitMft'i 



H i^ K r N »: 161 

wakJ^s hospital in Worcester, of tlie profit? of which he 
made a fiind for the use of the hospital, and the beneBt of 
his poor brethren there. He had proceeded D, D. at Ox- 
ford in 1692. He died of a violent fever May 18J 1700, 
and was interred in Worcester . cathedral. Hickes, who 
{prefixed his Life to a volume of his Sermons, published in 
1708, 8vo, gives him a high charajcter for piety, learning,^ 
and benevolence. He was a great benefactor to the library, 
of Worcester cathedral. Although a man of extensive 
reading and study, he published only, I. " Bertram or Ra- 
tram, concerning the Body and Blood of the JLbrd, &c. 
wherein M. Boileau's version and notes upon Bertram are, 
considered, and his unfair dealings in both detected.'*' Ot 
this a second edition appeared in 1688. 2. " Animadver- 
sions on Mr. Johnson^s answer to Jovian, in three letters 
to a country friend ;" and a Latin translation, with notes, of 
a*smal( tract, written in the Saxon tongue, on the burial* 
pilaces of the Saxon saints, which Dr. Hickes published in 
his << Septentrional Grammar,** Oxford, 1705. Dr. Sopi-, 
kins also assisted Gibson in correcting his Latin version of 
the' Saxon Chronicle ; and made a new translation, with 
no_tes and addition?, of the article " Worcestershire'* in 
Camden's Britannia, published by Gibson.' 

HOPKINS (William), an Arian writer, although bcr, 
longing to the Church of England, was born at Monmouth 
in 1706. He received the elements of a learned educa- 
tion at his native town, whence be was sent to AIUSouls^ 
Oxford, in 1724. He was admitted to deacon's orders in 
1728, and in the followmg year undertook the curacy of 
Waldron, in Sussex. In 1731 he was presented to the 
vicarage of Bolney, in the same county. .In 1753 he pub- 
fished anonymously, ** An Appeal to the common sensei^ 
of all Christian peoplej more particularly the members of^ 
the*Church of England, wijth regard to an important point, 
o{ faith and practice, iniposed upon their consciences.*!^ 
This excfted a controversy which was carried on many 
years. In. 1756 he was elected master jof the grammar, 
school of Cuckfield ; and in 17G6, undertook the curacy of 
Slaugham, and continued to officiate there many; years, 
and in his own parish of Bolney, makincr what alterations 
be pleased in the service, at which the churchwamens were 
pleased to connive. He supported the famous p^titioif to 



•> 



' Life by Dr. Hickes.^Aih Ox. vol. II. 

Vol. XVIII. M 



162 HOPKINS. 

parliaipent for relief, in the m.aUer of subscription to the 
liturgy and thirty-nine articles of the church ; and wrote 
some pamphlets on the subject, but all anonymously. His 
last work, in 1784, was " Exodus, a corrected translation, 
with notes critical and explanatory," in which notes there 
is little that can gratify the taste of curious and critical 
readers, but so many severe reflections on the articles and 
liturgy of the Church of England, that the Monthly Re- 
viewef took for granted he bad quitted it, although in the 
title he called himself the vicar of Bolney. Immediately 
after this publication, his health began to decline; and his 
mental faculties were greatly impaired before his decease, 
which happened in 1786, when he had attained to his 
eightieth year.' 

HOPTON (Arthur), an English mathematician, was 
son of sir Arthur Hopton, and born in Somersetshire. He 
was educated at Lincoln college, Oxford, and after taking 
bis degree of B. A. removed to the Temple, where he lived 
in habits of friendship with the learned Selden. He died 
in 1614, a very young man, not having attained to more 
than his twenty-sixth year. He wrote a treatise on t^e 
" Geodotical Staff ;** " The Topographical Glass, contain- 
ing the uses of that instrument, the theodolite, plane table, 
and circumferentor;'* "A Concordance of Yearis, con- 
taining a new and a most exact computation of time, ac« 
cording to the English accompt ;'* " Prognostications for 
the years 1667 and 1614."» 

HORAPOLLO, or HORUS APOLLO, was a gram- 
marian, according to Suidas, of Panoplus in Egypt, who 
taught first at Alexandria, and then at Constantinople, 
tinder the reign of Theodosius, about the year 380. There 
are extant under his name two books *< concerning the 
Hieroglyphics of the Egyptians,** which Aldus first pub- 
lished in Greek in 1505, folio. They have often been re* 
published since, with a Latin version and notes ; but the 
best edition is thit by Cornelius de Pauw at Utrecht, in 
1727, 4to. Meanwhile there are many Horapollos of an* 
riqutty ; and it is not certain, that the grammarian of 
Alexandria was the author of these books. Suidas does 
not ascribe them to him ; and Fabricius is of opinion, that 
they belong rather to another Hdrus Apollo of more ancient 

1 Life prefixed to an edition of bit '* Appeal," printed in llST.^-^Reeg'e Cy-. 
«elop«dia.— MonUtly ReTtew, voU LXXJI. * Atb. Ox. vol. 1. 



H O R A P O L L O. 163 

standing, who flourisbed about 150O B. C. md wrote upoa 
Hieroglyphics in the Egyptian language, and from whose 
work an extract rather than a version has been made of 
these two books in Greek. * 

HORATIUS (QuiMTUS Flaccus), an ancient Roman 
poet, and the most popular of vM the classical writers, 
flourisbed in the age ot* Augustus, and was born at Venn- 
Slum, a town of Apulia, or of Lucania, Dec. 8, U. C. 689, 
i» €• 6S B. C. His father, the son of a freedman, and a 
tax-gatherer, being a man of good sense, knew the ncces* 
sity of instructing Ins son by setting before him the exam-^ 
pies of all sorts of persons, and shewing him whWt beha- 
viour be should imitate, and what he should avoid : spur- 
4ng bi'm on all the while to this imitation, by pointing out 
the good eflfects of virtue, and the ill effects of vice. With, 
this view he removed hin) to Rome when about ten years 
of age, where he had the advantage of an education under 
the best masters ; and when he was about eighteen, was. 
sent to Athens, where he acquired all the accomplishments, 
that polite learning and education could bestow. 

. Brutus about this time going to Macedonia, as he passed 
through Athens, took several young gentlemen to the army 
with him; and Horace, now grown up, and quaMiied to set ' 
out into the world,, among the rest. Brutus made htm a 
tribune, but he did not distinguish himself for courage, as ' 
at the battle of Philippi he left the field and fled, after he 
bad shamefully flung away his shield. This memorable 
circumstance of his life he mentions himself, in an Ode to 
his friehd Pompeius Varus, who was with him in the same 
battle of Philippi, and accompanied him in his flight: but 
though running away might possibly save his life, it could 
not secure bis fortune, which he forfeited ; and being thus. 
reduced to want, he applied himself to poetry, in which he 
succeeded so well, time he soon made himself known to 
some of .the greatest men in .Rome. Virgil, as he has tokl' 
usj was the first that recommended him to Maecenas ; and 
this celebrated patron of learning and learned men grew so 
food of him, that he became a suitor for him to Augustus^ 
and succeeded in getting his estate restored. Augustus, 
highly pleased with his merit and address, admitted him 
to a close familiarity with him in his private hours, and 
afterwards made him ho small I offers of prefenhent, aU 

1 Fabric Bibl. (Srac— Saxli Onomast. 

M 2 



1;64^ H O R A T I <!J a ^ 

wjxiph the poet bad the greatness of mind totefu^; and-* 
tbe prin«e generosity enough not to be ofFenfJed at bis. 
freedom. It is a sufficient proof of his indiffierei)ce»to^th^/ 
pride of a court, that he refused a place sq booourable ai^d: 
advantageous as tliat of secretary to AugQs^u«. Qut he \\^d 
a strong partiality to retirement and study^ free frqm.tbQ. 
noise of hurry and ambition, although bis life does not apn 
pear tohave beeii' untainted by the. follies of his youth and 
nation. 

When Horace was, about twrenty-sis years^ of age, Ap« 
gustus found it necessary to make peace wjih Antony, th^t. 
theyrmight unite against Pompey, their common enemy ;. 
and for this end persons were sent to.Brundasium asde-. 
puties, to conclude, the treaty between them. Mflpceuas. 
going on Caesiar's part, Horace, Virgil, and some othery^ 
accompanied him. thither : and Horace has given a very 
entertaining description of the journey in the fifth Satire of 
his first book. This happened in Puliio's consulship, who wa^ 
about that time writing a history of the civil wars for the 
last twenty years ; which occasioned Horace to address the 
first Ode of the second book to him, and to represeot the 
many inconveniences to which such a work must necessa* 
rily expose him, if impartial enoMgh to assign tht; true 
causes of the civil war between Caesar, and P^mpey^ and 
their motives for beginning it. From the notes of Dacier 
and Bentley, wbo have successfully fixed the time of bi^ 
writing some Odes and Epistles, it appears, that before Ue 
was. thirty years of age, he had introduced himself, tQ the 
acquaintance of the most considerable persons in Rooie ; 
o£ which this Ode to PoUio may furnish a proof; fur his. 
m/erit must have been well known, and his reputation welU. 
established, before he could so familiarl}' address one. of. 
Ppllio's high character: and he ivas too great a, master in 
the science of men and manners, to have taken such a li* 
berty if it had been inconsistent with propriety. 

His love for retirement seems to have increased, with. hU 
age, and for some years he was only at Rome in the springs 
passing the sumcner in the country, and. the winter at Ta*<. 
rentum. He never could be prevailed on to undertake any- 
great work, though he was strongly solicited to it ; ye^ hia . 
gratitude to Augustus called upon him sometiooies to tmg 
bis triumphs over Pompey and Aqtpny, or the victorious. . 
exploits oif Tiberius and Drusu^. His ** Carmen 8a)culare^* 
be composed at the express command of Augustus^ aod tj) 



H O R A T I U S. 165 

i^HKgie Mri/>r6te khb the fir^t epistte of the sTecofid bddk. 
'That priiice b^l ttndly Reproached bim with having 'said ib 
'littk of hi^ in his writiirgs ; and a^ked him in ^ lettcfr 
Writt&n oh thia occasion, ** whether he thought it would 
'diJrgrlic^e hitii -with posterity, if he should seem to hav^ 
b^eh intimate with him ?^' upon which he addressed th^ 
'^}st}e just mentioned to him, 

Horace, ithhough not a phitosof^herln the strictest sensc^^ 
'^discovered an inclination for the Epicurean t>hilosopby dur- 
$Rg the greatest paVt of his life ; but at the latter end of it, 
iseems to have ieiaiied a little towards the Stofc. He Was of 
a cheerfikl temper, fond of ease and liberty, and went 
pretty fat into the gallantries of his times], until he ad* 
vahced in years. Dacier has very justly siaid that he Was k 
poet in hh philosophy, and a philosopher in his poetry. 
He met with hfis greatest misfortune, when ' his beloved 
fViehd and patron Miaecenas died ; and this event is sup* 
posed td have touched him so sensibly, that he did not 
survive it long enough to lament him in an elegy. He died 
not thahy days after, iged fifty-seven, Nov. 1 7, in the yeat 
bf Rome 746j slbout eight years B. C. He was buried tiear 
Milsbenas's tohib, and declared in his last words Augustus' 
his heir; the violence of his distemper being such, that b^ 
W21S nbt able to sign his will. In his person he was very 
short and bbrpulent, as we learn from a fragment of a let* 
tei* of Au^dstds to him, preserved in his life by Suetonius ; 
vrhete the emperor compares him to the book he sent him, 
which was a Httle short thick volume. He was grey-baired 
^bout forty ; subject tb sore eyes, which' made him use but 
Hitle exercise; and of a constitution probably not the best; 
lltf'ftd being unable to support hhn to a more advanced age, 
tfaotfgh he seems to have managed it with very great care. 
66nfiH0''t of )mmot*tal fam^ from his works, as all allow he 
fe#y justly mr^t be, he exprcfssed his irfdffference to any 
magtiifitr^tit ft^beral rites, of fruitless sorrows for his death. 

of itf aWhdr so well kndwn, Arid whose merits have been 
io clHiH iiid so mtnrtrtely canvassed by classical critics, it 
would ^e unnecessary to say much in this place. Yet we 
klioi^ tlt»t how to refrain fioni adding the sentiments of an 
Ani nie? i) ft living scbofar, which cannot easily be rivalled for 
adoK^n^ss and elegante. The writings of Horace, says this 
W^efd tritic, are famiKar to ni from dur Earliest boyhood. 
Th^ caFf^ with them attractions which are felt in every 
^idtt of UfeV aird' ahn'ott every rank of society. Tfaey 



i«« H o il A T 1 1; s. 

cbann alike by the harmony of the nooabers, and the purity 
of the diction. They exhilarate the gay, and interest the 
serious^ according to the different kinds of subjects upon 
which the poet is employed. Professing neither the pre«» 
cision of analysis, nor the copiousness of system, they have 
a(ivantages, which, among the ordinary class of writers^ 
analysis and system rarely attain. They exhibit bumao 
imperfections as they really are,, and human excellency as 
it practically ought. to be. They develope every principle 
of the virtuous in morals, and describe every modification 
of the decorous in manners. They please without the glare 
of ornament, and they instruct without the formality of 
precept* They are the produce of a mind enlightened by 
study, invigorated by observation ; comprehensive, but no^ 
visionary ; delicate} but not fastidious ; too sagacious to be 
carped by prejudice, and too generous to be cranoped by 
suspicion. They are distinguished by language adapted to 
the sentiment^ and by effort proportioned to the occasion. 
They cpntain elegance without affectation, grandeur with- 
out bombast, satire without buffoonery, .and philosophy 
without jargon. Hence it is that the writings of Horaco 
are more extensively read, and more clearly understood, 
than those of almost any other classical author. The ex- ' 
planation of obscure passages, and the discussion of con- 
jectural readings, form a part of the education which is. 
given in our public schools. The merits of commentatorsif, 
SIS well as of the poet himself, are the subjects of our con* 
versation ; and Horace, like our own countrym^m Shak* 
speare, has conferred Celebrity upon ma|iy a scholar, who, 
has been able to adjust his text,' or to unfold his allusions. 
The works of some Roman and more Greek writers are in-« 
Yolved in such obscurity, that no literary adventurer should 
presume to publish a variorum edition of themi unless he 
has explored the deepest recessed of criticism. Qut* in rie- 
spect to Horace, every man of, letters knows where infor- 
mation is to be bad, and every man of judgment will (iel 
little difficulty in applying it to useful and even ornamen- 
tal purposes. ^ 

The editions of Horace are numerous beyond those of 
any other poet. jpr. Douglas, an eminent physician in 
the last reign, collected four Jiundred and fifty. Among 
these are valuable editions by Baxter, Bentley,, Bond,^ 
Cruquiusy Dacier, Desprez (the Delpfain)^ Gc|Soer, Lam- 
binus, Muretus, Pulman, Sat^don, Zeunius, jcc. 8kc. t# 



H O R B E R Y. 167 

wfiich may be aJded the more recent editions of Janus^ 
Combe, WakcBeKI, Hunter, and Mitscberlichius.^ 

HORBERY (Matthew), a learned English divine, wa$ 
bom at Haxay in Lincolnshire, in 1707. His father w^ 
vicar of Haxay, but both he and his wife died when their 
son was very young. The provision made for him wa4 
400/. which barely defrayed the expence of his education, 
first at Epworth, and then at Gainsborough. He was then 
entered of Lincoln college, Oxford, where he obtained a 
small exhibition, but afterwards was elected to a feilow'^ 
ship of Magdalen, which extricated him from many diflSi* 
culties, his poor inheritance having been long before eX" 
pended. He took his master's degree at Lincoln previous 
to this, in 1733, and when admitted into orders pres^faed 
before the university with great approbation ; and be- 
coming known as a young man of much learning and 
personal merit. Dr. Smallbroke, bishop of Lichfield, who 
had appointed him his chaplain, collated him successively 
to the vicarage of Eccleshall, and the^curacy of GnosaU, 
to which were afterwards added a canon ry of Lichfield and 
the vicarage of Hanbury, on which last promotion he re* 
sTgned Gnosall. The whole, however, of these prefer- 
ments, even with the ..addition of his fellowship, were 
scarcely equal to his expences, for he had very little no- 
tion of accounts, or care about worldly things. He was 
afterwards promoted by his college to the rectory of Stan« 
lake, and then quitted Eccleshall, preferring Stanlaka 
from its retired situation,' where he might indulge his fa- 
vourite propensity to reading and meditation, and hare 
^asy access to his beloved Oxford. He took his degree of > 
B. D. in 1743, and that of D. D. in 1745, and died at 
Stanlakie, Jan. '22, 1773. 

In early life he was a coadjutor of Dr. Waterland in his 
celebrated controversy on the Trinity ; arfd wrote, in 1785, 
'^Animadversions upon a late Pamphlet, entitled * Chris- 
tian Liberty asserted,' &c." The author of this pamphlet 
,was John Jackson, whom he charges with having misre** 
presented bishops Pearson and Bull, and particularly Dr. 
Waterland, with whom he had then no personal acquaint* 
ance. About this time bishop Hoadly made some ad* 

f ahces to him, to which he paid no attention, as he greatly 

^ .t . ' 

I Honitii Open* — Cn»ius>ft Liret of the Poets.— Life prefeed to Bof^awea^f 
4feMlaiten.««'Brit. Criticy toU ni.-r«SA3ui Oaomatt. 



168 H Q R B E R v. 

disapproved Jus notions. By desire he published three 
occasional sermons, but bis principal work was his treatise 
on the " Eternity of Hell Torments,'* which appeared ia 
1744, and was Written at the solicitation of bishop SmalU 
broke. After his death a volume of his " Sermons'* was 
published by his wife's, nephew. 

Dr. Horbery bore the character of ^n amiable and ex- 
cellent man, as well as of an able and sound divine, who 
ii^alked, as his biographer says, steadily through those 
profound depths of theology^ in whicji men of inferior 
powers and attainments are Tost: but such was his uncom-^ 
inon modesty and invincible diffidence, that nothing could 
draw him out into public life. On the death of Dr. Jenner, 
president of Magdalen college, he resisted the solicitation 
of a^ajority of the fellows to become a candidate, and Dr. 
|Iorne, who was elected, paid him the compliment to say 
ih^t he would never have, presented himself if Dr. Horbery 
would have come forward. His library, consisting of 2000 
volume^, in the best preservation, was sold for the small 
^um of 120/.; but such was his reputation as a preacher, 
that tsjfo hundred of his MS sermons, in the rough state in 
which he first, composed them, were disppsed of for six 
hundred guineas.*' 

' HORNE, John Van. See HOORNE. 
' tiORNE (George), the late amiable and exemplary 
bishop of Norwich, was born Nov, I,' 1730, at Otham, near 
Maidstone, in Kent, wher^ his father, the rev. Samuel 
ftorne, was rector. Of four sons and three daughters he 
was the second son ; and his education was commenced at 
^ome 'under the instruction of his father. At thirteen, 
'having made a gopd proficiency, he was sent to school at 
Maidstone, under the rev. Deodatus Bye;, a mr.n of gocKl 
principles; and at little more than fifteen, beipg elected to 
a Maidstone scht'arship at University college,* Oxford, be 
Went there to reiide« He Avas ^ much approved at his 
college, that about the time when he took his bachelor's 
degree, which was Oct. 27, 1 749, in consequence of a 
strong, recommendation fropi that place, he was elected to 
a kentish feliowship at Magdalen. Ou June 1, 1752, he 
took his master's ^egre^e, and on Trinity Sunday, in the 
year following, he was ordained by the bishop of Oxford, 
and soon after preached bis iirst sermon for bis friend andl 

» Gent. MaV. vol. IJilX. anU LXXVI. . " 



9 O R N E. 169 

:bi(igrapher« Mr. Jp^eSy at Finedon, in Nortbamptonsbire. 

A $hort time , alter h^ preached in London with such sue-* 
cess, that a person, eminent himself for the same talent, 
pronounced him, without exception, the be3t preacher in 
England. 

At the early age of r^iueteeo, Mr. Home bad imbibed a 
y^ery favourable opinion of the sentiments of Mr. Hutchin- 
son ^ which he aftervvards adppted and disseminated with- 
out disguise. Supported by the learning $ind zeal of his 
i'riendsj Mr. Watson of University, college, Dr. Hodges, 
provost of Oriel, and Dr. Patten, of Corpus, he ably vin- 
dicated his principles against th^ intemperate invectives 
to which tl^eir novelty exposed them. That part inde^ 
pf the Hutcbinspnian controversy which relateji to HebreM^ 
etyniology was discountenanced by Mr. Horne as, in a 
gr^at me.asure, fanciful ^nd arbitrary. H^ con^dered it 
of ir^Qpitely more importance to be employed in i^vesti- 

fating fdcts than tp be disputing about verbal criticisms, 
be principle^ of J^r. Hutf^U'nison beginning to extend 
jtbeir influeoce iji t^e university, in 1756 a boh) attack was 
ma^^ upon them in an $monymous pamphlet, entitled '* A 
Wpyd to tiie Huti^binsi^i^i^ps.'? Mr. Home, considering 
himself more particv^larly called upon for a defence, as 
being personally aimed at in the animadver^ions, prodiiced 
an Apology, which hais been universally admired for its 
temper, learning, and good s^nse. The question agitated 
seems rather to involve tbe very essense of religion, than 
io coucej^n Mr. Hutchinson or his. principles. The pam-> 
jphle;t was attributed by the public in general, and Mr. Horne 
in particular, to Mr. Kennicott, of £xeter college ; a man 
who bad distinguished himself by an accurate aequaintande 
with ll|e Hebrew, and two masterly dissertations, one on 
Ihe Tree qf Life, t^e other on the Sacrifices of Cain and 

Aft^ his Apology, Mr. Horne took an active part in the 
contrpv^r^ with Mr. Kennicott on the propriety of col- 
ja^ip4i;;j(h9 text of the Hebrew Bible with such manuscripts 
^a c^^^ ^hen be procured, in order to reform tb^ te^i^t, 
and prepare it for a ii^w traQslatiqu. into the English Ian* 
gmig^., . Mr, llorfte stropgly plyjected %o tl^e proposal, from 
^ p,^ti|i^siGm,,^mQi;ig other serious reasoiis, that the wid^ 
&princip]|e up9t^. which it vvas to be con<juc;ted vnigbt^en'^ 
^^nger ^h^ intere^ of genuir^e^Christianity. He oof^ 
seiy^th/^f, tJby4,upsomKl pri^cism tq which M^ text wqu14 



i^ H O B If & 

.tian ; and i^i» a scholat^ a tiiTifier, and a pi^eachdr, a man of 
jao ordmary quaiifibations. The cheerfulness of his dispo-* 
^tion is often marked, by tii« vivacity of <his writiO'gS) and 
tbe sioicerity of liis heart is every w^bere idbnspicuous in 
tl^em* So far was he from any tincttire of oovetousnedsfi 
that be laid up jiotbing from bis preferaient»iin the cb«ir^b. 
If lie was no loser at the year's ead be ^as:|il)erfe'Ctl5r satis- 
fied. What be gave away w^% bestowed 'ovitih so tDuch se-> 
crecyt that it was supposed by soone persons to be iittl^ J 
but, after bis*deatfa, when tbe pensioners, towfaom be bad 
been a cotistaut beodfactor, rose up to I^tftt ab<^yt tbein 
(qr soQie other support, it began to be knt)wn who, add 
bow many they were. 

Tbe works of bishop Home amount to a good tAM^ 
tuticles, wbicfa we shall notice in chronological order: I. 
" Tbe Theology and Philosophy in Cicero's Somniutn 
Scipionis explained ; or a brief attempt to demonstrate that^ 
the Newtonian system is perfectly agreeable to the notions 
of ibe wisest autients, and that mathematical principles are 
the only sure ones," Loud. 1751) 8vo. 2,*' A fair, can- 
did, and impartial state of the Case between sir Isaac New- 
U^a and Mr. Hutchinson," &c. Oxford, 1753^ 8va. 3^ 
H Spicilegium Sbuckfordianum ; or a nosegay fdf the cri^ 
tic«V' *tc. Lond. 1754, I2mo» 4. '* Christ and the Holy 
Qbost the supporters of the Spiritual Life^" Sec. txvosef- 
mous preached before the university of Oxford, 1755, Svo, 

5, '* The Almighty jdstified in Judgment," a serrnon, 1756. 

6. " An Apology for certain gentlemen in the university of 
0.2cfordt aspersed in a late anonymous Pampbl6t," 1756, 
Svo. 7. " A view of Mr. Kennicott's thethod of dorredtlhg 
tlie Hebrew Text," &c. Oxford, 1760, Svo. «. *^ Cbtisi- 
derations on the Life and Death of St. John tbd' Baptist,** 
Oxford, 1772, Svo. This ' pleasing trac^t contained tb# 
fiubt^unce of several senuons preached annually at Magdair 
fen^college^ in Oxford, tlie course of which bdd commenced 
In 1755. A seeond, edition in I2m05 v^ais pubFislied at 
Oxford in 1777. ^^ ^^ Considerations ^n the projec<ted 
IS^eformaiaon of the Church of England. In a leltteir ik> thd 
right boa lord North. By aclergymiin," Lottdtm^ 1772, 
4tol 10. <^ A Commentary on ti^ Boob of PsIiiAvs," .&e. 
&e. Oxford,, 1776^' 2 voki 4t6. Reprinted in Svo, in 1778, 
an4 three tunes sibee. Witb what stMlsftietion this good 
man composed tbis piooC'Worl, may best b^ judged fron^ 

Ahe fcfttowtng paamge loiKs prcfaeev ^ CoVild the authofr. 



H O R N iX 17$ 

SfttU^c hi/ns^if that any one would bar« batf the pleasure in 
reading the following exposition, which he bath had in 
writing it^ lie would not.fear the loss of- his labour. Tho 
employniexit detached him from the bustle and hurry of 
life, the din of politics, and the noise of folly; Vanity 
and. vexation Sew away for a'season, care and disquietude 
Qame not near his dwelling. He arose fre»h as the nioi*ning 
tp his task; the silence of tlie night invited him to pursue 
it.; and be can truly say that food and rest were not pre- 
ferred before it. Every psalm improved infinitely on his' 
acquaintance with it, and no one g^fve him uneasiness but 
tb^ iaat ; for then be grieved that his work was done. Hap- 
pier hours than thosewhich have been spent in these me- 
ditations on- the songs of Sion he never expects to see in. 
this worl'J. Very pleasantly did they pass, and move 
smoothly and swiftly along ; for when thus engaged he 
counted no timeu They are gone^ but have left a relish 
and a fragrance on the mind, and the remembrance of them 
i^ sweet.'* 1 1. ** A Letter to Adam Smith, LL. D. on the 
Life, Death, and Philosophy of Dairid Hume, esq. By 
one of the people called Christians,'* Oxford, 1777, l!2mo, 
12. ^^ Discourses on several subjects and occasions," Ox«* 
ford, 1779, 2 vols. 8vo. These sermons have gone through, 
five editions. 13. ** Letters on Infidelity," Oxford, 1784, 
12mo. 1 4 ** Tlie Duty of contending for the Faith,*" Jude, 
ver. 3. preached at the primary visitation of the most re- 
verend John lord archbishop of Canterbury, July i, 1786. 
To which is subjoined, a *^ Discourse on the Trinity in 
Unity, Mattb^ xxviii. 19." 1786, 4to. These sermons, 
with fourteen others preached on particular occasions, and 
all published separately, were collected into one volume, 
8vo, at, Oxford, in 1795. The two have also been pub- 
lisjied in 12mo, by the society for promoting Christian 
knowledge, and are amoug the books distributed by that 
SQciety. 15. " A letter to the rev. Dr. Priestley, by an 
Undergraduate," Oxford, 1787. 16. *' Observations on 
the Case of the Protestant Dissenters, with reference to 
the Corporation and Test Acts," Oxford, 1790, 8vo. 17. 
*' Charge intended to have been delivered to the Clergy 
of Norwich, at the primary visitation," 1791, 4to. 18. 
^^ Discourses on several subjects and occasions," Oxford, 
17114, 8vo, vols. 3 and 4.; a posthumous publication. The 
four volumes have since been reprinted in an uniform edi- 
tion ; and lately an uniform edition of these £fnd his other 
works, with his life, by Mr. Jones, has been printed in 6 



174 H O R N E: 

t 

Tols. 8vo; Besides these, might be enninerited several 
occasional papers in different periodical publications, but 
particularly the papers signed Z. in the ^^ Olla Podriday** 
a periodical work, conducted by Mr. T. Monro, then ba- 
chelor t)f arts, and a demy of Magdalen college, Oxford. ' 
HORNECK (Dr. Anthony), an English divine, was 
born at Baccbai*ack, a town in the Lower Palatinate, in 
1641. His father was recorder or secretary of that town, 
-a strict protestant ; and the doctor was brought up in the 
^ame manner, though some, we find, asserted that he was 
originally a papist. He was design<ed for the sacred mi-*' 
nistry from his birth, and first sent to Heidelberg, where 
he studied divinity under Spanheiro, afterwards professor 
at Leyden. When he was nineteen he came over ta 
England, and was entered of Queen^s college, in Oxford, 
Dec. 1663; of which, by the interest of Barlow, then pro- 
vost of that college, and afterwards bishop of Lincoln, he 
was made chaplain soon after his admission. He was in- 
corporated M. A. from the university of Wittemberg, Dec. 
1663 ; and not long after made vicar of All Saints, in Ox* 
ford, a living in the gift of Lincoln- col lege. Here he con- 
tinued two years, and was then taken into the family of 
the duke of Albemarle, in quality of tutor to his son lord 
Torrington. The duke presented him to the rectory of 
Doulton, in Devonshire, aud procured him also a prebend 
in the church of Exeter. In 1669, before he married, he 
went over into Germany to see his friends, where he was, 
much admired as a preacher, and was entertained with 
great respect at the court of the elector Palatine. At his 
return in 1671, he was chosen preacher in the Savoy^ 
where he continued to officiate till he died *. This, how- . 

* He bad been recommeiMled for tbe Garden to Dr. Horneck iire not easy t« 

livingofCovent-garden; but the parish be aisigoed at this distance of tine. 

was so averse to him, ibat Tillotson But their dislike to him was the mor^ 

said, if tbe earl of Bedford had liked extraordinary, considering his prodi* • 

him, be could not have have thought g ions popularity, on account of liin 

It fit to bestow the living on him, reputation for piety, and his pathetic 

" knowing how necessary it is to the sermons, bis church at the Savoy beio|; 

good effect of a man's ministry, that crowded by auditors from the most 

he do not lie under any great prejudice remote parts, which oocasioned deaa: 

with the people." Dr. Birch remarks ?reeman to say that Dr. H.*s parisk " 

en this, that the grounds of the great was much the lai:gest in (own, since it * 

averseness in the parish of Covent reached fromWbiteball to Whitechapel. , 

1 Life by the Rev. W. Jones. — See some valuable remarks on his cha« 
raeter in Dr. Gieig's Supplement to the Ency clop. Britannica.— Gent. Ma£^» ' 

LXII, LXIII, and LXVI ^Boswell's Life of Johnson.— Forbes's Life or' 

Beattie, &c. &c. To his works may be added^ « Considerations on the Life and «K 
Death of Abel, Enoch and Noah," Mvao, 1819, a work which we happieoed 
ioBte io time to intcft ia tlM texK 



H O R N E C K. 175 

ever, was but poor maintenance, the salary being small as 
well as precarious, and he continued in mean circuro* 
stances for some years after the revolution ; till, as his 
biographer, bishop Kidder, says, it pleased God to raise up 
a friend who concerned himself on his behalf, namely, 
the lord admiral Russel, afterwards earl of Orford. Before 
he went to sea, lord Kussel waited on the queen to take 
leave ; and when he was with her, begged of her that she 
** would be pleased to bestow some preferment on Dr. 
Horneck.'* The queen told him, that she " could not at 
present think of any way of preferring the doctor ;" and 
with this answer the admiral was disinissed. Some time 
after, the queen related what had passed to archbishop 
Tillotson ; and added, that she ^* was anxious lest the ad« 
miral should think her too unconcerned on the doctor's 
behalf.*' Consulting with him therefore what was to be. 
done, Tillotson advised her to promise him the next pre* 
bend of Westminster that should happen to become void. 
This the queen did, and lived to make good her word in , 
1693. In 1681 he had commenced D. D« at Cambridge* 
and was afterwards made chaplain to king William and 
queen Mary. His prebend at Exeter lying at a great dis- 
tance from him, he resigned it; and in Sept 1694 was 
admitted to a prebend in the church of Weils, to which 
he was presented by his friend Dr. Kidder, bishop of Bath 
arid Wells. It was no very profitable thing ; and if it 
hiad been, he would have enjoyed but little of it, since he 
died so soon after as Jan. 1696, in his fifty-sixth year. 
His body being opened, it appeared that both bis ureters 
were stopped ; the one by a scone that entered the top of 
the ureter with a sharp end ; the upper part of which was 
thick, and much too large to enter any farther ; the other 
by stones of much less firmness and consistence. He was 
interred hi Westminster- abbey, where a monument, with 
an handsome inscription upon it, was erected to his memory. 
• He was, says Kidder, a man of very good learning, and 
liad good skill in the languages. He had applied himself 
to the Arabic from his youth, and retained it to his death* 
Jle had great skill in the Hebrew likewise: nor was his 
skill limited to the Biblical Hebrew only, but he was also 
a great master in the Rabbinical. He was a most diligent; 
and indefatigable reader of the Scriptures in the original 
languages : ** Sacras literas tractavit indefesso studio,** says 
Aits tutor Spanheim of him : and adds, ^hat he was then 



176' BORNE C K. 

I 

of ait elevated wit^ of which he gave a specrimen in 1659, 
by publicly defending "A Dissertation upon the Vow of 
Jephthah concerning, the sacriBce of bis daughter." He 
had great skill in ecclesiastical history, in controversikl and. 
casuistical divinity ; and it is said, that few men were so^ 
frequently consulted in cases of conscience as Dr. liorueck. 
As to his pastoral cai^e in ail its hranches, he is set forth 
as on^ of the greatest exaunples that ever lived. ^^ He had 
the zeal, the spirit, the courage, of John the Baptist,'* 
says Kidder, " and durst reprove a great man ; and pier- 
haps that man lived not, that was more conscientious in' 
this matter. I very well knew a great man,'' say^ the 
bishop, *^ and peer of the realm, from whom he had just 
expectations of preferment ; but this was* so far from stop- 
ping his mouth, that he reproved him to his face, upon a- 
very critical affair. He missed of Ills preferment, indeed, 
but saved his own soul. This freedom," continues the 
bishop, ^' made hi^ acquaintance aud friendship very de- 
sirable* by every good man, that would be better. He 
would ip him be very sure of a friend, that would not suf- 
fer sin upon him. I may say of him what Pliny says of 
Corellius Rufus, whose death he laments, * amisi meise vit® 
testem,' &c* * I have lost a faithful witness of my life ;V 
and may add what he said upon that occasion to his friend 
Calvisius, * vereor ne negligentius vivam,' ^ I am afraid lest 
for the time to come I should live more carelessly.' " His 
original works are, 1. ^* The great Law of Consideration : 
or, a discourse wherein the nature, usefulness, and abso- 
lute necessity of consideration, in order to a truly serious 
and religious life, are laid open," London, 1676, 8vo, 
which h^s been several times reprinted with additions and . 
corrections. 2. ^* A letter to a lady revolted to the Uomish 
church," London, J 678, 12mo. 3. "The happy Asce- 
tick: or the best Exercise," London, 1681, 8vo. To this 
is subjoined, " A letter to a person of quality concerning 
the holy Uvea of the primitive Christians." 4. " Delight 
and Judgment : or a prospect of the great day of Judg« 
ment, and its power to damp and inibitter sensual delights,^ 
aports, and recreations," London, 1683, 12mo. 5. "The 
Fire of the Altar : or certain directions how to raise the 
soul into holy flames, before, at, and after the receiv- 
ing of the blessed Sacrament of the Lord*s Supper : with 
suitable prayers and devotions," London, 1683, 12mo. To ^ 
this is prefixed, " A Dialogue between a Christian and hia 



• H O R N E C K. iti 

own Conscience, touching the true nature of the Cbristiaa 
Beligion." 6. " The Exercise of Prayer ; or a help to de-^ 
votion ; being a supplement to the Happy Ascetick, or 
best exercise, containing prayers and devotions suit-^- 
able to the respective exercises, with additional prayers 
for several occasions," London, 1685, 8vo. 7.^' The first 
fruits of Reason : or, a discouse shewing the necessity of 
applying ourselves betimes to the serious practice of Re-^ 
ligion," London, 1685, Svo. 8. **The Crucified Jesus: 
or a full account of the nature, end, design, and benefit of 
the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, with necessary di^^ 
rections, prayers, praises, and meditations, to he used by 
persons who come to the holy communion," London, 1686, 
8vo. 9* ^' Questions and Answers concerning the ^ two 
Religions ; viz. that of the Church of England and of the 
Church of Rome." 10. " An Answer to the Soldier's Ques- 
tion : What shall we do ?" 11. Several single Sermons* 
12. ^< Fifteen Sermons upon the fifth chapter of St. Mat^* 
thew," London, 1698, 8 vo. ; 

Besides these he translated out of German into English^ 
** A wonderful story or narrative of certain Swedish wri- 
ters," printed in GlanviPs ^^ Sadduci&mus Triumphatus ;" 
in the second edition of which l)ook is a *^ Preface to the 
wonderful story,'' with an addition of a ^^ new relation from 
Sweden," translated by him out of German. He trans* 
iated likewise from French into English, <^ An Antidote 
against a careless indi£Ferency in matters of Religion ; in 
opposition to those who believe that all religions are alike, 
and that it imports not what men profess," London, 1693^ 
with an introduction written by himself. He collected and 
published ^^ Some discourses, sermons, and remains of 
Mr. Joseph Glanvil>" /in 1681. He wrote likewise, in con-* 
junction with Dr. Gilbert Burnet, ^' The last Confession^ 
Prayers, and Meditations, of Lieutenant John Stern, de-« 
livered by him on the cart, immediately before his execu** , 
tioD, to Dr. Burnet: together with the last Confession of 
George Borosky, signed by him in the prison, and sealed 
up in the lieutenant's pacquet. With which an aiccoutit is 
giv^,n of their deportment, both in the prison, and at the 
place of their execution, which was in the PalUmall, on 
the lOth pf March, in the same place in which they had 
murdered Thomas Tbynne, esq. on the 12th of February be- 
fore, in 1 68 1." This was published at London, infolio, 1682.* 

• AtB. Ox. Tol. H.— Life by Bp. Kidder, Svo. 1693.— Birch's Life of TilloUon, 

\0L. XVIII. N 



17S H O R N I U & 

HORNIUS (Georqe), an historian in the t7tb cen- 
tury, was bora Ui the Psaiatinate. He visited most of the 
catuitries in £urp{ie ; was tutor to Tliomas Morgan, a young 
English gentleman who lived at the Hague ; and appointed 
professor of history, politics, and geography, at Harder- 
wick ; afterwards professor of history at Leyden, where, 
having sustained a great loss by coniiding in an alchemical 
iiapostor, he became deranged, and died in 1670. Hia 
principal works are, ^* An Ecclesia3tical History," with an 
introduction to the universal political history ; a curious 
and instructive work, which has been translated into French, 
^nd continued to 1704. ^*The History of England, dur-« 
ing the year 1645, and 1646,'^ Leyden, 1648, 8vo. ^< History 
of the Origin of the Americans,** Hague, 1652, 8vo. <^ His* 
tory of Philosophy,'* in seven books, 1655, 4to. An edi<^ 
tion of *^ Sulpitius Severus,** with notes, 8vo. ^^ Noah*s 
Ark,** or, A History of Monarchies. This work is full of 
curious inquiries into the origin of each monarchy, &c. The 
above are all in Latin. ' 

HORREBOW (Peter), a celebrated Danish astPono-r 
fner, and professor of that science at Copenhagen, was 
born at Laegsted, in Jutland, in 1679. He studied at AaU 
burg under very unfavourable circumstances, beingobliged, 
at the same period, to submit to various kinds of labour. 
In 1 7 1 4, he was appointed professor of mathematics at Co* 
peuh«^en, and in 17.25 he was elected a member of the 
Danish academy of sciences. He died in 1 764. He was 
author of many works connected with his favourite pur?- 
suits, among which were ^* Copernicus Triumphans, sive 
de Parallaxi Orbis Annui;*' ii| which he shews himself an en-> 
thusiast fdr the system of Copernicus ; the ** Elements of As^ 
tronomy;*' and ^< the Elements of Mathematics ;** but he is 
best known in this country by his *^ Natural History of Ice«- 
land,*' fol. 1758. His mathematical works were published 
in four vols, 4to, Copenhagen, 1735, &c.' 

HORROX (Jeremiah), an English astronomer, and 
memorable for being the first who had observed the pas- 
sage of Venus over the sun*s di^k, was born at Toxteth in 
Lancashire, about 1619. From a school in the country^ 
where he acquired grammanr-leai*ning, he was sent to 
£manael^ollege in Cambridge, and there spent some time 

. 1 Morerh«-^Freher| TliMtrttm.~Fop||en BibU Belf .•■^Saxii Oaomait 
• Diet, HiiU 



H O R R O X. 17» 

io academical studies. About 1633, he began with real 
earnestness to study astronomy : but liring at chat tima 
lirith his father at Toxtetb^ in very moderate circumstance*, 
and being destitute of books and other assistances for the^ 
prosecution of this study, he could not make any coniider<i< 
able progress. He spent some of his first years in study-^ 
ing the writirrgs of LansbergiuSi of which be repented and 
complained afterwards ; neglecting in the mean time the 
more vtduable and profitable works of Tycbo Brabe, Kep* 
ler, and other excellent astronomers. In 1636, he coti-» 
tracted an acquaintance with Mr. William Crabtree of 
Broughton near Manchester, and was engaged in the satne^ 
studies ; but -liYing at a considerable distance from each 
other, they could have little correspondence except by 
letteril These, however, they frequently exchanged, com* 
municating their obserrations to one another^ and they 
sometimes consulted Mr. Samuel Foster, professor of as* 
trqnomy at Gresham-college in London. Horrox having 
now obtained a companion in his studies, assumed ne^ 
spirits. Procuring astronomical instruments and books, he 
applied himself to make observations ; and by Crabtree*s 
advice, laid aside Lansbergius, whose^ tables be found er- 
roneous, and his hypotheses inconsistent He was pursuing 
his studies with great vigour and success, when he was ctit 
o£Fby a sadden death, Jan. 3, 1640«). 

What we have of his writings b sufficient to shew, that 
his death was a loss to science. A little before that time 
he had finished his ^^ Venus in Sole visa.'* He made his 
observations upon this new and extraordinary phenomenon 
1^ Hool near Liverpool ; but they did not appear till 166^, 
.when Hevdius published tbem at Dantzick, with some 
works of his own, under this title, ^*Mercurius in Sole 
^siis Gedanianno 1661, Maij 3, cum aliis quibusdam re« 
rum ccelestium observationibua rarisque phsenomenis. Cox 
s^nexa est Venus in Sole pariter visa anno 1639, Nov. 24^ 
4ic/* Besides this work be bad begun another, in which 
he propoiied, first, to refute Lansbergius* s hypotheses, and 
to shew, how inconsistent they were with each other and 
the heavens ; and, secondly, to diuw up a new system of 
astronomy, agreeably to the heavens, firbm his own ob^ 
servations and those of others ; retaining for the most part 
ibit Kepleiian hypotheses, but changing the numbers aa 
observations required* Wallis, from whose ** Epistola 

N 2 



180 H O R R O X. 

NuQcUpatoria^' we have extracted these memoirs of Hor" 
rox, published some of his papers in 1673, under the title 
of ^^ Opera Posthuma :'' others were carried into Ireland 
by his brother Jonas Horrox, who had pursued the same 
studies, and died there, by which means they were lost r 
and others came into the bands of Mr. Jeremiah Shakerly, 
who, by the assistance of them, formed his ** British Ta- 
bles," published at London in 1643 : which last papers, 
after Shakerly's voyage to the East-Indies, where he died, 
are said to have remained in the possession of a book- 
seller, till they were destroyed by the great fire at London 
in 1666.^ 

HORSLEY (John), author of a very learned and excel- 
lent work, entitled, ^^ Britannia Romana," by which only 
he is known, is supposed to have been a native of North- 
umberland, where, at a village called Long-Horsley, near 
Morpeth, the family, in all probability, originated. This 
parent stock, if such it was, is now lost in the Withering- 
tons, by the marriage of the heiress of Long-Horsley, about 
the middle of this century, with a person of that name.- 
We know only of two other branches j one settled in York- 
shire, the other in the West, from which latter, we under- 
stand the late learned bishop of St. Asaph to have sprung ; 
but the branches have, been so long separated, that they 
cannot trace their relationship to each other. John Hors- 
ley was educated in the public grammar-school at Newcas- 
tle, and afterwards in Scotland, where he took a degree ; 
he was finally settled at Morpeth, and is said, in Hutchin- 
son^ s View of Northumberland, to have been pastor to ai 
dissenting congregation in that place. The same author 
adds, from Ra-ndali's manuscripts, that he died in 1732, 
which was the same year in which his great work appeared ; 
but the truth is, as we learn from the journals of the time, 
that he died Dec. 12, 1731, a short time before the pub- 
lication of his book. He was a fellow of the royal society. 
A few letters from him to Roger Gale, esq. on antiquarian 
subjects, are inserted in Hutchinson's book ; they are all 
dated in 1729. His *^ Britannia Romana^' gives a full and 
learned account of the remains and vestiges of the Romans 
in Britain. It iis divided into three books ; the first con- 

1 Oen. Dicti^Martin's Biog. PbiIo8.-^Httttoii'8 Diet.— Birctff Hist of the 
Heyal Society. > 



B O R S L E> Y, 181 

laining '^ the History of all the Roman Transactions in 
Britain, with an account of their legionary and auxiliary 
forces employed here, and a determination of the stations 
per lineam valli ; also a large description of the Roman 
walls, with maps of the same, laid down from a geometri- 
cal survey." The second book contains, " a complete 
collection of the Roman inscriptions and sculptures, which 
have hitherto been discovered in Britain, with the letters 
engraved in their proper shape, and proportionate size, 
and the reading placed under each ; as also an historical 
account of them, with explanatory and critical observa- 
tions." The third book contains, ^^ the Roman Geography 
of Britain, in which are given the originals of Ptolemy, 
Antonini Itinerarium, the Notitia, the anonymous Raven- 
nas, and Peutinger's Table, so far as they relate to this 
island, with particular essays on each of those ancient au- 
thors, and the several places in Britain mentioned by 
them," with tables, indexes, &c. Such is the author's 
own account in his title-page ; and the learned of all coun«- 
tries have testified that the accuracy of the execution has 
equalled the excellence of the plan. The plates of this 
work were purchased of one of his descendants for twenty 
guineas by Dr. Gifford, for the British Museum, where is 
a copy of the work, with considerable additions by Dr. 
Ward.V 

HORSLEY (Samuel), a very learned and highly dis- 
tinguished prelate, was the son of the rev. John Horsley, 
M, A. who was many years clerk in orders at St. Martin's in 
the Fields. His grandfather is said to have been at first 
a dissenter, but afterwards conformed, and had the living 
of St. Martin's in the Fields. This last circumstance, how- 
ever, must be erroneous, as no such name occurs in the 
list of the vicars of that church. His father was in 1745 
presented to the rectory of Thorley in Hertfordshire, where 
he resided constantly, and was a considerable benefactor 
to the parsionage. He also held the rectory of Newington 
Butts, in Surrey, a peculiar belonging to the bishop of 
Worcester. By his first wife, Anpe, daughter of Dr. Ha- 
milton, principal of the college of Edinburgh, he had only 
one son, the subject of the present article, who was bora 
in his father's residence in St. Martin's church-yard, in 
Oct. 1733. By bis second wife, Mary, daughter of George 

} NicboU'g Bpwycr* 



nt R o R s L E t: 

l/eilte, esq. of Kimragie in Scotland, he had three sons and 
four daughters, who were all born at Thorley. He died 
in 1777, aged seventy-eight; and his widow io 1787, at 
Masing in Essex. 

Samuel was educated in his early years chiefly by his 
lather, and we are assured, never was at Westminster 
school, as has been asserted ; but of this and the other 
transactions of his youth, his studies, and early character, 
we have very few particulars that can be depended on, and 
have failed in obtaining information on these subjects from 
the only quarter whence it could have been expected. It 
if certain, however, that be was entered of Trinity "hall, 
Cambridge^ where it is easy to conceive that be was .an 
industrious student, applying himself much to the study of 
matheoiatics, and storing his mind wilh the writings of the 
anoient and modern divines and logicians. Why "with 
aneh qualifications he took no degree in arts, cannot now 
he ascertained. We find only that he took that of LL. B* 
in 1758, and became bis father^s curate at Newmgton, to 
which living he succeeded, on the resignation of his fether, 
in the following year, and held it till bis translation to the 
see of Rochester in 1793. 

In April 1767, be was elected a fellow of the royal so«« 
ciety, of which he continued for .many years an active 
member ; and in the same year he published a pamphlet, 
entitled ^* The power of God, deduced from the compu- 
table instantaneous productions of it in the Solar Sj^tena,** 
8vo. This he allows to be a *^ very singular, and perhaps 
a whimsical speculation,'' and says, in language not un« 
characteristic of his future style, that in all probability Ibis 
production would ^* roll down the gutter of titn^, for^ten 
and neglected.'' His object was undoubtedly to ^play 
the wonderful power of God ; but it was thought that he 
magnified omnipotent power at the expence of omniscient 
wisdom, and instead of supposing that the planets continue 
for ever to perform their courses, in consequence of the 
almighty ^/!a/, and original impulse impressed upon them^ 
when first they were drawn out of chaos, he maintains the 
necessity of a new force every instant to preserve the sys- 
tem in motion. 

In 1768 be went to Christ church, Oxford, as private 
tutor to Heneage earl o^ A}4esbury, then lord Guernsey. 
To this university he appears ta hay^ become attached ; 
and bis first mathematical publication was elegantly printed 



H O R S L S ¥. .1^ 

at the Onfeaidoii presi^ ^' Apollonii Pergaei iBclinSktioniiai 
Ubfiiluo. Restiiuebftt S* Horsley/' 1770. This work was 
criticised ^ with some severity at the time, bat does not 
appear to have mjiirred his rising reputatioi^^ especially 
with the oiettbers of the royal society, who chose hirq ^to 
the aSkce of secretary ia November 1773. In 1774 be 
was ificorporated B. C. L. at Oxford, and idamediately pro«* 
ceeded to the degree of D. C L. and was presented by hii 
patron, the earl of Aylesbury, to the rectory of Aldbury in 
jSiirrey^ with which be obtained a dispensation to bold the 
rectory of Newhigton. In tfa^ sai»e .year be pnbiisbed 
^^ Eeinadrks on the Observations made in the late Voyagie 
towards the North Pole, for determining the acceleration 
of the Pendulum, in latitude 79*^ 5i\ In a letter to the 
faon. Constantine John Phtpps," 4to. His intention in this 
pamphlet, which oug^evei* to be bound up with ^^ Pbipps's 
Voya^,'* is to correct two or three important errors and 
inaccuracies that bod been introduced, by Israel Lyons^ 
the mathematician aiaployed oa the voyage, in the nume- 
roits matfaei»atical calcuktioad which appear in that valua- 
ble work ; and this it was acknowledged, was performed by 
imr learned aiAbor with equal skill, delicacy, and candour. 
Dr. Horsley bad long medita/ted a complete edition of 
the woriss of sir I«aac Newton, and in 1776 issued proposiaki 
for printing it^ by sttbscription, in 5 vols. 4to, having ob-^ 
tained the royal permtssioa lo dedicate it to bis miyesty ; 
but the commencenefit of it was for a considerable timo 
delayed by severe domestic affliction, arising from the ill-' 
neas of his wife, for f^iom he had the tenderest regard. 
She died in the fotiowing year, and some time after, the 
works of. Newton were put to press, bat were not finally 
completed until 1785. In the mean time his great dili« 
genee and proficiency in various sciences attracted the no- 
tice of an excellent judge of literary merit, the late Dr« 
Lowfh^ bishop of London, who on his promotion to that 
see? i» 1777, i^^ointed^ Dr. Horsley his domestic chaplain ; 
and eoUai^d him to a prebend in St. PauVs cathedral. He 
abo^ by the same interest^ s acceeded his father as clerk in 
ordera aft St Maif tin's in the Fields, 

. In 1 77 ^i dttHng the controversy between Piiestley,- Price, 
aod others,' fesped^ing materialism, and philosophical ne^ 
cesaily,^. Dn Honiley preached a sermon, on Good Friday^ 
Ajffiik 17) entitled *^ Providience and free Agei»cy/' 4to,. ia- 
wbiofar be chnsw a very aimte distinction^ between the phikn 



\ 



184 B R S L E Y. 

sophical necessity of our subtle moderns, and the predets-* 
tination of their ancestors. It was evident he had an eye 
to the writings of Dr. Priestley in this discourse, but that 
polemic did not take any immediate notice of it. In 1779, 
Dr. Horsley resigned Aldbury, and in 17309 bishop Lowth 
presented him to the living of Thorley, which he held, by 
dispensation, with Newington, but resigned the former on 
being appointed archdeacon of Essex, and, in 1782, vicar 
of South Weald/ in that county, both which he owed to 
the same patron. In 1783, we find him deeply involved 
in a dispute with some of the members of the royal society, 
not worth reviving in a regular narrative ; it is only to be 
regretted that it ended in his withdrawing himself from 
the society. 

Dr. Horsley was now about to enter on that controversy 
with Dr. Priestley, in which he displayed his greatest learn- 
ing and abilities, and on which his fame is irremoveably 
founded. In the year 1782 (we use Dr. Horsley's words), 
an open and vehement attack was made by Dr. Priestley 
upon the creeds and established discipline of every church 
in Christendom, in a work in 2 vols. 8vo, entitled a '< His- 
tory of the Corruptions of Christianity." At the head of 
these Dr. Priestley placed both the catholic doctrine of 
our Lord's divinity, and the Arian notion of his pre-extst- 
ence in a nature far superior to the human^ representing 
the Socinian doctrine of his mere humanity, as the unani*- 
inous faith of the first Christians. It seemed to Dr. Hors- 
ley that the most effectual preservative against the in- 
tended mischief would be to destroy the writer's credit, 
and the authority of his name, which the fame of certain 
lucky discoveries in the prosecution of physical experi- 
ments had set high in popular esteem, by a proof of his 
incompetency in every branch of literature connected with 
his present subject, of which <the work itself afforded evi- 
dent specimens in great abundance. For this declared 
purpose, a review of the imperfections of his work in the 
first part, relating to our Lord's divinity, was made the 
subject of Dr. Horsley^s Charge, delivered to the clergy of 
the archdeaconry of St. Alban -s at a visitation held May 22, 
1783, the spring next following Dr. Priestley's publication. 
The specimens alledged by Dr. Horsley of the imperfec- 
tions of the work, and the incompetency of the author, 
may be reduced to six general classes. I. Instances of 
yeasouing in a circle# 2. Instances of quotations mi^ap^* 



H O R S L E Y. 18& 

plied through ignorance of the writer\<i subject.. 3. Iu« 
Glances of testimonies perverted by artful and forced con- 
structions. 4. Instances of passages in the Greek Fathers 
misinterpreted through ignorance of the Greek language. 
5. Instances of passages misinterpreted through the same 
ignorance, driven further out of the way by an ignorance 
of the Platonic philosophy ; and 6. Instances of ignorance 
of the phraseology of the earliest ecclesiastical, writers. 
Dr. Horsley concludes this masterly and argumentative 
Charge, by saying, '^ I feel no satisfaction in detecting the 
weaknesses of this learned writer's argument, but what 
arises from a consciousness, that it is the discharge of some 
part of the duty which I owe to th^ church of Ged."- The 
whole of this charge affords a characteristic specimen of 
Dr. Horsley' s conti%)versial style, with a mixture of tem- 
per leading him, perhaps, somewhat nearer the bounds of 
irony than became the solemnity of an address of this kind. 
After speaking of many things that may be perfectly ob- 
vious to the peaetralion of such a. mind as Dr. Priestley's, 
how absurd and contradictory and, improbable soever they 
may appear to persons of plain sense and common under- 
standings, unsubtilized by sophistry and metaphysics, and 
not stimulated by. the love of paradox, he observes, that, to 
those who want the doctor's sagacity, the ^^ true meaning 
of an inspired writer" will not very readily be deemed " to 
be the reverse of the natural and obvious sense of the ex- 
pressions which he employs." 

Dr. Prie^ey, however, felt. none, of the darm^ with 
which his admirers were affected. He promised an early 
and satisfactory, answer. He predicted that be should rise 
more illustrious from his supposed defeat ; he promised to 
strengthen the evidence of bis favourite opinion by the 
very objections that bad been; raised against it ; he setaied 
to flatter himself that he should fiad a new convert in his 
antagonist himseli^ and even hinted in print somewhat 
concerning the shame and remorse with which he was con- 
fident his adversary must be. penetrated. From all this it 
soon became- evident that Dr. Priestley,, who could not 
but feel personally what every unprejudiced man felt ar- 
gumentaiively, that Dr. Horsley was an antagonist of no 
mean stamp, did not ^profit by this conviction so far as to 
take sufficient leisure to reviise his own Writings, but im- 
medjateiy repeated bis fqrmer assertions respecting the 
dofitrioe of the Xxioity noi having beea maintained by the 



IM H O R 8 L £ Y. 

Gfaristiaa church in the hrtu three centarie% in a pubikak 

tion entitled ** Letters to Dr. Horsley, in answer to hb 

ammadversions on the ' Histoiry of the Corrnpttons irf 

Christianity ^ with an a<klitionaI evidence tbbi the primi^ 

live Christian church w9ls Unitarian^" 1783, Sto. In tbii 

there are nnore of the weaknesses of argument, and the 

errors of haste, than could have been expected front one 

who had so much at stake, and it was therefore no very 

difficult task for Dr. Horslev to continue the contest, ill 

the same epistolary form which his antagonist had aciopted^ 

by ^^ Letters from the arofadeacon of St* Alban's in Reply 

to Dr. Priestley, with an Appendix, containing short strio* 

turas dn Dr. Priestley's Lecters, by an unknown band," 

1784, 8vo« These letters are seventeen in nomber^ and 

their cbject is to pmve that if Dr. Priestley's nsistakes 

which be pointed out, are few in number^ they are too 

coosiderafaAe in size to be incident tp a well-informed wriw 

ter; that they betray a want of such a general comprehea-i' 

aiOn of the subject aswiighc have enaUed Dr.P. to draw 

the srae conelu^ons from the passages he cit^d 'y thofe they 

prove him incompetent in the very language of the writevs' 

Ibom whom his proofs should be di^aivn, and uni^illed in 

Vke plulosopby whose doctrines he pn^nded to conrpara' 

with the opinions of the church. TIhm wre serious charges^ 

but our anothor did not confine himself mevely to substanM 

tiate them, but folioweit up bis numerous proofs b^ odie«s 

in behalf of the doctrine of the Trinity, drawn from like 

earty fathers of the chuneh, and the best ecclestasttcal: Ms^ 

toriaas* The display of readiiig and raseasek m these 

letters is wonderftiL The style aha is adnsrabie,» and 

while it assumes the lolly and somewhat dictatorial manner 

pecuKar to Dr. Horsley, and which indeed tbe^high ground 

on which he stood i<i this^ ease^ seemed to yntifyf the 

Header of tasto finds himself often cbavmed with the ele^ 

ganee of the language, and atways with- die closeness of 

the reasoning. 

Dr. Friesttey, in his tellers, &ad eocpfesscd a great de«- 
sire to draw Dr. Horsley into a tedious controversy on the 
main questiwn, the artielie of our Lord's divinity, but oi«r 
lurihor, knowing that question to have been long sisuse ex^ 
baustedy and that nothing new wa^ te^ be said on either 
side, chose, in his <^' Lexers in Reply," to^adheve doaely 
to Ais (fwn main qnestion. Re^ therefore^ as wehMfemmm* 
tinned^ defended! bis^ owtt argamc^ti auik ^oMeiPtad. new 



H O R 8 L E r. 187 

speciflMSMi from Dr. Priestley's newpublicatioD^ of his 
letter inability to throw light upon the subject. Tb«s a 
useless and endless contention on the main question was 
avoided ; but many discussions necessarily arose upon se- 
condary points, which perhaps the learned reader will es-» 
teem the most interesting parts of the controversy, such as» 
the authority of the writings that go under the Bame of tb« 
apostolical Fetthers ; the rise of the two. sects of the Naza^ 
vepes and £bionites ; the difference between tbe two v and 
the difference of both from the orthodox {lebrew Cbris-* 
tians; and particularly an arti(^ on the accusation of 
Tritbeism>> which Drw Priestley had brought against the 
Trinitarians of tbe seveivteemh century. The *^ Sbort 
Strictufes on Dr. Priestley*' in the appendix to these Let- 
ters, it is now known, were written by Dr. Townson. 

Dr. Priestley (we still use bis antagonist's words), mor- 
tified to find that bis letters had failed of the exjpected 
success ; that Dr. Horsley, touched with no shame, witb 
nosemorse, remained unshaken in his opinion; and that 
tiie authority of bis own opinion was still set at nought, hia 
learning disallowed, his ingenuity in argument impeached; 
1^ wba4 was least to be borne*— fiiiding that a haughty 
<4wrohqiaii vemored ijicidentally to avow his sentiments of 
tbe ^me commission of the epiai^opal ministry, and pre* 
'sttmed tQ i|ueatioft the authority of those teachers who osurp 
the preaebec's offiee withmit any better warrant than their 
own opinion of their own suffimency, lost all teokper. A 
seeond set of ^^ Letters to the archdeacon of St. Alban's'* 
apffteaiwd in tbe. autiama o£ 1784, in. which all profession 
ol persQi^ regaiid and civili^ was laid aside. Tbe cbang^ 
of waufficiency in the subject was warmly retorted, and 
^^ tbe ioeorrigiUe dtgniiary" was taxed with manifest nm- 
cepeesentatioA q£ his advensary'a argument ; with injustice 
to the cfaavaetef of Origen, whose veracity be had called 
in question ; and with, the grossest falsification of ancient 
history. He wa3 st^matiaed in short as a ^ falMfier of 
history, and a defrner cyf the character of the dead" 

Begardiess of this reproach. Dr. Horsley remained 
silent fov eigbteea months. A sermon ^^ Oe the Incarna- 
tion^** pveacfaed in bin parish church of St. Mary Newing- 
ton, ispon the feast of the Nativity in 1785^ was the pre* 
liMie to a senewai of the contest on his side, and was fol- 
lowed casly in the eoauing sffringy by his ** Remarks ew 
Ik».£riaitlcy*a second Lettem. to the arabdeacon of Saint 



188 H O R S L E Y. 

4 

Alban^s, with proofs of certain facts asserted by the arch* 
deacoo." This tract consists of two parts ; the first is a 
collection of new specimens of Dr. Priestley's temerity in 
assertion ; the second defends the attack upon the character 
of Origen^ and proves the existence of a body of Hebrew 
Christians at iElia after the time of Adrian — jthe fact upon 
which the author's good faith had been so loudly arraigned 
by Dr. Priestley. With this publication Dr. Horsley pro- 
mised himself that the controversy on his part would be 
closed. But at last he yielded, as he says, with some 
reluctance, to collect and republish what he had written in 
an octavo volume (printed in 1789) and took that oppor- 
tunity t6 give Dr. Priestley's Letters a second perusal^ 
which produced not only many important notes, but some 
disquisitions of considerable length ; and the remarks on 
Dr. Priestley's second letters having produced a third set 
of *^ Letters" from him, upon the two questions of Origen''s 
Teracity, and the orthodox Hebrews of the church of 
M\\2i : these two are partly answered in notes, and partly* 
in two of the disquisitions. Towards the conclusion of 
Dr. Horsley's ^^ Remarks," after exhibiting specimens of 
Dr. Priestley's incompetency to write on i^uch subjects as 
fell within their controversy, he says, ^^ These' and many 
other glaring instances of unfinished criticism, weak ar- 
gument, and unjustifiable art, to cover the weakness and 
supply the want of argument, which must strike every one 
who takes the trouble, to look through those second letters, 
put me quite at ease with respect to the judgment iwhicii 
the public would be apt to form between my antagonist 
and me, and confirmed me in the resolution of making no 
reply to him, and of troubling the public no more upon the 
subject, except so far as might be necessary to establish ' 
«ome facts, which he hath somewhat too peremptorily de- 
nied, and to vindicate my character from aspersions which 
he hath too inconsiderately thrown out." It ought not to 
be forgot, that in this controversy Dr. H(»rsley derived • 
not a little support from the Rev. Mr. Badcock, whose cri**- 
ticisms on Dr. Priestley's works in the Monthly Review left 
scarcely any thing unfinished that was necessary to prove 
his errors as a divine, and his incompetency as a historian. * 
The reputation Dr. Horsley had now acquir(dd^. recom- 
mended him to the patronage of the lord cbancelk>r Thar- 
low, who.presented him to a prebendal stall in the^church of 
Gloucester ; and in i7a8| by the same interest^ h|^ waa made 



H O R S L E Y. rsjp 

bishop of 9t David'S) and in this character answered thid 
kigh expectations of eminent usefalness which his elevation 
to the mitre so generally excited. As a bishop his conduct 
was exemplary and rery praiseworthy. ' In this diocese^ 
which was said to exhibit more of ignorance and poverty 
than that of any other in the kitigdom, he carried through 
a regular system of reform. He regulated the condition 
of the clergy, and proceeded to a stricter' course with 
respect to the candidates for holy orders, admitting none 
without personally examining them himself, and looking 
very narrowly into the titles which they produced. With 
all this vigilance, his lordship acted to tbem as a tender 
father, encouraging them to visit him during his stay in 
the country, which was usually for several months in the 
year, assisting them with advice, and ministering to their 
temporal necessities with a liberal hand. In his progress 
through the diocese, he frequently preached in the parish 
churches, and bestowed considerable largesses on the poon 
He was, in short, a blessing to his people, and they fol* 
lowed him with grateful hearts, and parted from him with 
infinite reluctance ; and this diocese may be congratiilated 
in being again placed under a prelate whose zeal for the 
promotion of its best interests has seldom beep equalled, 
and cannot easily be exceeded. Bishop Horsley's first 
Charge to the clergy of St. David's, delivered in 1790, was 
deservedly admired, as was his animated speech in the 
house of lords on the Catholic bill, May 31, 1791. These 
occasioned his subsequent promotion to the see of Ro* 
<;hester in 1793, and to the deanery of Westminster, on 
which he resigned the living of Newington. As dean of 
Westminster he effected some salutary changes. * Finding 
the salaries of the minor-canons and officers extremely 
low, he liberally obtained an advance, and at the same 
tiuie introduced sooie regulations in the discharge of their 
office, which were readily adopted. 

During the turbulent period of 1793-4-5, &c. when the 
religion, government, and morals of the country were in 
imminent danger from the prevalence of democratic prin- 
ciples, the warmth and zeal of his endeavours in parlia- 
ment to oppose the enemies of the constitution, procured- 
him a considerable share of illiberal censure, which, how- 
ever, was more than balanced by the general applause which 
followed the steady uniformity, consistency, and manly 
decision of bis conduct. As a senator be was deservedly. 



190 H a R S L K Y. 

considered in tbe first class } and' there were feir important 
discussions^ not only on ecelesissticid topics, but oi^ 
those which concerned the civil interests of tbe country, 
in which he did not take an active part. He was not, 
however, an every-day speaker/ nor desirous of adding tx» 
the debates unless he had. something original to produce, 
and he was on that account listened to with eagerness even 
by those with whom he could not act, and who found it 
easier to arraign his manner than bis matter. In 1S02 he 
was translated to tbe bishopric of St. Asaph, and resigned 
the deanery of Westminster* During all this period fats 
publications were frequent, as we shall notice in a lisl^' 
of them, and his vigour of body and mind was happily 
preserved until the year 1806, which proved bis last, li^ 
July of that year he went to bis diocese, a part of whictt 
he bad visited and confirmed, and after two months resi^ 
dence intended to visit his patron lord Tburlow at Brighton^' 
where he arrived Sept. 20, after hearing on the road that 
bis noble friend was dead. On tbe 30th, a slight complaint 
in bis bowels affected him, and very soon brought on sb 
mortification, which proved fatal Oct. 4, in bis 73d year. 
His remains were interred in tbe parish chureh of St. Mary 
Newington, where a monument baa since been erected to 
bis memory, with an inscription written by himself. 

He was twice married : first to Mary, one of tbe dangh* 
tera of the Rev. John Bothan, his predecessor at Aldbory, 
by whom he had one daughter, who died young, and a^ 
son, now the rev. Heneage Horidey, rector of Gresford iia 
Etenbighshire, prebendary of St. Asaph, and chaplain to 
the Scotch episcopalian church' at Dundee. By his second 
wife, who died the year before him, be had no children. 
She is commemorated in tbe above inscription by the namo 
of Sarah only. 
. Bbhop Horsley^s works not yet mentioned, were, besiden 
various occasional Sermons and Charges, 1. *^ On the pro- 
perties of the Greek and Latin languages,** 1796, Svo, 
without his name. 2. <* On the acronycbal rising of tho 
Pleiades,'^ a dissertation appended to his friend Dr. Vin- 
cent's " Voyage of Nearchus," 1797. 3. " A circular Let- 
ter to the diocese of Rochester, on the Scarcity of Com,** 
1796. 4. Another circular Letter to that diocese, od^ 
<« the Defence of tbe Kingdom," 179B. 5. << Critical Dis* 
quisitions on the 18th chapter of Isaiah: in a letter to 
Sdwaord King, esq. F. R. S. &c«*' 1799^ 4ta Towards tilo 



H O R S L S Y. 191 

^lofe of tbts di^ussion, in which he applies the ivof ds ^ 
Ufiiab to the aspect of the times, he says, with almost a 
prophetic spirit, " I see nothing in the progress of the 
French arms which any nation fearing God, and worship** 
ping the Son, should fear to resist : I see every thing that 
should rouse all Christendom to a vigorous confederate 
resistance, I see every thing that should excite tJm country 
in particular to resist, and to take the lead in a confederacy 
of resistance, by all measures which poHcy can suggest, 
and the valour and opulence of a great nation can supply/* 
6. << Hosea, translated from the Hebrew ; with notes ex- 
planatory and critical,*' 1801, 4to. Archbishop Newcome, 
in bis ^^ Improved Version of the Minor Prophets,'* had 
preceded bishop Horsley in translating Hosea ; but our 
prelal:e has thought proper in so many instances to reject 
bis emendations, that bishop Horsley^s labours will probably 
be thought indispensable to a just illustration of the sacred 
le^t. This )vas reprinted with large additions in i8(>4« 
Z. .'^ Elementary treatises on the fundamental principles ol 
practical Matbeqiatics ; for the use of students,'' 1801^ 
^yo» These, tracts were at first composed, without any 
design of pt^bj^cation, for the use of his son, then a student of 
Cbrist-'Church ; and the work was to be considered, although 
ihen first published, as the third and last in the order of the 
subject, of three volumes of elementary geometry, to be 
i$$ued one after another from the university press of Ox* 
(ord* The first accordingly appeared in 1 802, under the 
^ Utie of *^ Eviclidis Elementorum Libri priorcs XII. ex Com- 
V^ndioi et Gregorii versionibus Latinis," Oxon, 8vo ; and 
the sfi^ond in 1804, ^^Euclidis datorum liber, cum addita-- 
. 9i^9ta, necnon tractatus alii ad geomelriam pertinentes,'^ 
ibid. 8va. 

Since his death have appeared, <* Sermons,'* 1810 and 
).8lJ2, 3 vols- 8vo ; ^^ Tracts in controversy with Dr. 
Pfiesileyi upon the historical question of the belief of the 
fy%% ages in our Lord's Divinity, originally pul^shed in tha 
je?!^^ 1733» 17^4, and 1786 : afterwards revised and aug- 
B;iet)ted, with a large addition of notes and supplemental 
disquisitions ; by the author. The third edition. To which 
is added, an Appendix by the rev. Heneage Horsley^'* 
V819, Svo.; ^'The Speeches in Parliament of Samuet 
Horsley, &c." 1813, 8vo ; and lastly, « The Chargea 
deliver^ at his several visitations of the dioceses of S«. 
Pavid'f^ Rochester^ and St.Asapb,"> 1811S, ^vo. in thb 



1S2 H O R S L E Y, 

enumeration of bis printed works, a few temporary tracts 
of lessee importance may probably have escaped us, to 
being published without his name ; but a complete edition 
of his works, for which there is likely to be a demand^ 
will supply this deGciency. His papers in the Philosophical 
Transactions would form a very necessary part of such a 
collection. It may also be noticed here, that he occasionally 
wrote some very elaborate criticisms in the ^' British Critic,'* 
the plan and principles of which Review he cordially ap*- 
proved. 

Dr. Horsley.was throughout life an indefatigable stu^ 
dent ; he indulged no indolence in youth, and amidst aiK 
accumulation of preferments, contemplated no time whea 
he might rest from his labours. His mind was constantly- 
intent on some literary pursuit or discovery, and setting a 
high value on the fame he had acquired, his ambition was 
to justify the esteem of the public, and the liberality of 
his patrons. Knowing likewise, how much his fame was 
indebted to his theological contest, he endeavoured by la« 
borious researches, to acquire that degree of accuracy 
which renders a controversialist invulnerable. It is evi- 
dent that in the study of ecclesiastical history, particulariy 
that of the early ages, on which his controversy with 
Priestley hinged, his range was most extensive^ and it is 
no breach of charity to suppose that he vexed as well as 
surprized his antagonist, by proving himself more intimate 
with the minutiae of remote^ antiquity than himself, who^ 
from a wish to become the re-founder of a sect, had made 
the subject the study of bis whole life. Dr. Horsley, on 
the contrary, appears to have prepared himself as the exi* 
gencies of the times in which be lived demanded, and 
whether the subject was theological or political, he quickly 
accumulated a mass of knowledge which his genius enabled 
bim to illustrate with all the charms of novelty. While 
the ablest champion of orthodoxy which the church has 
seen for many years, he was so much of an original thinker, 
and so independent of his predecessors or contemporaries, 
that his mode of defence was entirely his own, and his style 
and authoritative manner, like Warburton's and Johnson's, 
however dangerous to imitate, were yet, perhaps, the best 
that could be devised in the conflict of opinions with which 
be was surrounded. His writings possessed some of the 
most prominent features of his personal character, in which 
ihere was nothing lukewarm, nothing compromising. He 



H OR S L E Y. . W4 

disfiatfied li()erality itself, if it preiscribed courtesy to men! 
whose arrogance in; matters or faith l^d by easy steps to 
more violent measures/ and wno, while they affected only 
>ji cal^i and impartial inquiry into the doctrines of the 
chordi, bad nothing less in view than the destruction of 
her whole fabrick. Such men might expect to encounter 
with a roughness of temper which was. natural to him on 
more common occasions, although in the latter qualified 
by. much kindness of heart, benevolence^ and charity. 
When he bad onc^ detected the ignorance of his oppo- 
nentS) and their misrepresentation of the ancient record^ 
tQ which they Appealed, when he found that they had no 
iM^rupte to bend aiuhorities to pre^-conceived theory, and^ 
th^t their only way of prolooffing a contest was by re-, 
peating the same assertions wit;nout additional proofs, he 
fr^ueptly assumed that high tone of contempt or irony 
which would have be^n one of place with opponents who 
bad UQ other object in view than the establishment of 
truth. ; 

As a preacher, or rather as a writer of sermons^ Dr. 
Hprsley ipigbt be sallowed to stand in the first class, if 'we 
kneW wttb.whom of that class we can compare him. Some 
coniparisons we have seen, the justice of which we do not 
think quite obvious. In force, profundity, and erudition^ 
in pret:ision and distinctness of ideas, in aptitude and fe- 
licity of expression, and above all, in selection of subjects 
and original powers of thinking, Dr. Horsley's .Sermons 
have been very justly tenpaed " compositions suigeneris^^ 
Upon most of these accounts, or rather upon all in the 
aggregate, ^they; remove him from a comparison with those 
who may haveacqijired very just fame as popular.preach- 
ers. Bishop Horsley everywhere addresses himself to 
scholars, pb^iiosbphers, and biblical j^ritics. By these he 
was heard with deliglit; and by these his works will con-' 
tiniie to be appreciated as the component parts of every 
theologii^l library, although they tnay not assent to all his 
doctfines.^ 

' JEiOR^TlUS (James), an eminent physician, was born 
at Torgau in 1 537 ; and took thei degfee of M. D. in the 

1 Proi» teaterisls collected in Mr, Kichols't Bowyer. — -Biihop Qorslcgr'f 
printeil M^yifit and the, Reriews ainl MagazhBies pf the period. A minute life 
of bira would be desirable^ but so little seems to be known of his early life an4 
Ubqurs, (hut if now attempted, it would consist principally of an analysis of )yi\ 
later literary prof resi, which is still known, and ariUlong b^ remembfred. 

Vou XVIII. O 



19* H O R S T I U S. 

university of Francfort on the Oder, in 15$2* He W9f 
9Sered the place of public physician in iseveral places; and 
be practiced successively at S,agan and S.uidnitz in Silesia,- 
and at Iglaw in Moravia, till 1580, when, he was made, 
physician in ordinary to the atchduke of Austria ; and. four 
years after, , quitting that plape, was promoted to the me* 
xlical professorship in the university of Helmstadt. T^e 
oration he delivered at his installation, *^ Of the Difficul- 
ties which attend the Study of Physic, and the means to, 
remove them,^ a .very good one, is printed with his 
*^ Cpistblas Philosophical & Medici nales,^* Lips. 1596, 8vou 
ypon entering on this«post, he distinguished himself by 
vfhait was thought a great singularity ; he joined, devotioa 
to the. practice of physic. H^ always prayed to God to 
bless his prescriptions ; and he published a form of prayer 
upon this subject, which he presented to the university. 
He acquitted himself worthily in his functions, and pub- 
lished some books which kept up the reputation he had 
already acquired, but among them was one which pro<« 
duced a contrary, effect, his ^^ Dbsertation upon the Golden 
Tooth of a child in Silesia ;^' concerning which he suf-^ 
fered himself to be egregiously imposed upon. Vau Dale 
has related in what manner this imposture was discovered. 
Norstius, in the mean time, took it for a great prodigy, 
i^hich ought to be a comfort to those Christians who were 
oppressed by the Turks ; as certainly foreboding the down-- 
fall of the Ottoman empire. Horsticis^s dissertation vras 

Eublished at Leipsic, in 1595, Svo, with another piece of 
is writing, *^ De Noctambulis," or ^^ Concerning thote 
who walk m their sleep.*' He died about 1600.' 

HORSTIUS (Gregory), also a learned physician, ne- 

S>bew of the preceding, was born at Torgau, where bis 
ather was one of the chief magistrates in 1578. After 
being educated in the schools of Torgau and Halberstadt^ 
* he went to the university of Wittemberg, and coinmenced 
the study of medicine ; . and received the degree of M. D. 
in March 1606, iatt Basil. On his return in £e same year» 
to his native place, he was immediately appointed to a 
medical professorship in the university of Wittemburg, by 
the elector of Saxony. Two years afterwards he was prp* 
^)oted by the landgrave of Hesse to a medical chair in 
the college at Giessen, and in 1609 was honoured with 

1 Geo. Diet.— Moreri.-^Saxii Onomast. 



H O R S T I U S. 195 

th^ title o( Archiater of Hasse. At this time his profes* 
sional character bad risen in the public estimation, and h^ 
numbered among bis patients the principal nobility of the 
district. In 1622, he received a public invitation fronk 
the Tmagistracy of Ulm to settle there as physician to that 
city, and as president of the college. He fulfilled his du- 
ties in both these offices with great reputation ; and his 
integrity and humanity, not less than his extensive eru- 
dition, and bis successful practice, endeared him to his feU 
low-citizens, and claimed the respect and admiration of 
the surrounding states. He died in August 1636, aged 
fifty -eight years. He left a considerable number of works, 
which were collected, and published under the title of 
'' Opera Medica,'* in 1660, 3 vols, folio, at Nuremberg, 
by his youngest son, OregOCiv, who, as well as his bro-^ 
their John Daniel, acquired eminence as physicians. They 
were also both professors of medicine ; Gregory died at the 
age of thirty-five ; but John Daniel lived to his sixty-fifth 
year, and was the author of several works, chiefly anato* 
micai, and of little value at present. He was concerned 
with bis brother Gregory in editing the collection of his 
father's works, and likewise published an edition of the 
*^ Questk>nes Medico-legales^' of Paul Zacchias, Francfbrt, 
1666, in folio; and an edition of the *^ Opera .Medico" of 
RfVerius, at the same place, in 1674, folio.^ 't 

HORT or HORTE (Josiah), archbishop of Tuam^ ap- 
pears to have been of a dissenting family, as he was edu- 
cated in a dissenting school, between 1690 and 169.5, un- 
der the direction of the rev. Thomas Rowe, and was a 
fellow-student with the celebrated Dr. Watts, who said of 
him, that he was '< the first genius in that seminary.'* 
After his academical studies were finished, he resided some 
time as chaplain with John Hampden, esq. M. P. for Bucks, 
and afterwards settled as a dissenting minister at Marshfield, 
in Gloucestershire, The time of his conformity is not as- 
certained, though it is evident that he was a clergyman of 
thexburcb of England so early as 1708, for in that year he 
published a sermon preaqhed at the archdeacon's visitation at 
Aylesbury. In the preceding year he had printed a Thanks^ 
giving Sermon on our national Successes, from Ps. cxiix. 
6^8. There is a tradition^in the family, that he had so greatly 
reGoannended himself to the court by his zeal and services 

} Geo. Drct.— M«wri.--Fopp#n Bibl. Bclg.— It«fs'« Cy«lopi»ai^ - 

0. 2 



; I 



196 HO R T. 

in support of the Hanover succession, that, aa he s$:nip)ed 
re-ordination, it was dispensed with, and the first prefer* 
ment bestowed on him, was that of a bishopric in Ireland. 
It is. certain that he went into that kingdom as chaplain to 
the lord lieutenant. He was consecrated bishop of Ferns 
and Leighiin, February 10, 17i^l, was translated to Kil- 
more and Ardagb, July 27, 1727, and preferred to the 
archiepiscopal see of Tuam, January 27, 1742, with the 
united bishopric of Enaghdoen, in the room of Dr. Synge^ 
deceased, and likewise with liberty to retain bis other bv- 
shopric of Ardagh. He died December 14» 1751, in a 
yery advanced age. His publications were, 1. in 1738, at 
Dublin, a volume of Sermons, sixteen in number, in. 8vo ; 
they are judicioqs and impressive discourses. These \^ere 
reprinted in London, in 1757^ with the addition of the 
Visitation Sermon mentioned before. In this volume is A 
Sermon preached Jn the castle of Dublin, before the duke 
of Bolton the lord lieutenant of Ireland, after the supr 
fMresston of the Preston rebellion* 2. A Charge .entitled 
*^ Instructions to the Clergy of the Diocese of Tu^m, at 
the primary visitation^ Jiily 8,' 1742." This, after. the 
death of the author,, was reprinted in Lpqdon, with the 
approbation and consent of the rev. Dr. Hort, canon of 
lVindsor<-*-it is an excellent address* In the preface to 
the volume of sermona we. learn, that for .many years pre- 
vious to its appearance from the press, the worthy author 
had been disabled from preaching by an over-strain of the 
voic^ in the pulpit, at a time when he had a cold with, a 
hoarseness upon him. The. providence of God, he says, 
having taken from him the power of diitchargifig that part 
of his . episcopal ofhc^ which consisted in preachings he 
thought it incumbent on him to convey his thoughts and 
instructions from the press, that he might not be. useless. 
The solemn promise that he made at his consecration;, ^' to 
exercise himself in the Holy Scriptures, so as to be able 
hy them to teach and exhort with wholesome doctrine^M 
was)<ie^small motive to that undertaking, as being the only 
means left him for making good that promise* Itappears^. 
that he kept up an epistolary correspondence with his 
<^oid friend,^* as he called. him, and fellow-student. Dr. 
Watt^ to the dosing period of the life of each. laSwifi^'s 
works we find a humorous paper of Dr. Hort\ entitled 
<^ A New Proposal for the better regulation and impi^ve* 
ment df Quadrille,'* and some letters respecting it.^ 

! From Memoinby Dr. Toulmin.— Swtfl't Worki^ 



H O R T E N S I U S. IW 

HORTENSIU9 (Lambert), was a philologer, a writer 
of verses, and a historian. His real name is unknown ; he 
took that of Hortensius, either because his father was a 
glaVdener, or because his family name signified gardener. 
He was born at Montfort, in the territory of Utrecht, in 
1501, and studied at Louvain. Hortensius was for several* 
year^ rector of the School at Naarden, and when that city 
was taken in 1572, he would have fallen a sacrifice to the 
military fury, had he not been preserved by the gratitude 
of one who had been his pupil. His death happened at 
Naarden, in 1577. There are extant by him, besides sa- 
tires^ epithalamia^ and other Latiii poems, the following 
works : 1. Seven books, " De Bello Germanico,'* under 
Charles V. 8vo. 2. " De Tumultu Anabaptistarum,^' fol. 
3. " De Secessionibus Ultrajectinis," fol. 4. Commen- 
taries on the six first books of the ^netd, and on Lucan. 
5. Notes on four Comedies of Aristophanes. ' 

HORTENSIUS (Quintus), a Roman orator, was the con- 
temporary and rival of Cicero, and so far his senior, that he 
was an established pleader some time before the appear- 
ance of the latter. He pleaded his first eaose at the age of 
nineteen, in the consulship of L. Licinius Crassus, an,d Q. 
Mutius Scevola, ninety*-four years before the Christian' 
sera, Cicero being then in' his twelfth year. This early 
eiForl was cfowoed with great success, and he continued 
throughout his life a very favourite orator. His enemies, 
however, represented his action as extravagant^ and gave 
him the name of Hortensia, from a celebrated daiicer of 
that time. He proceeded also in the line of public ho- 
nours, was military tribune, prsetor, and in the year 68 
B. C. consul, together with Q. Qeecilius JVIetellus. He 
was an eminent member of the college of augurs, and was 
the person who elected Cicero into that body, being sworn 
to present a man of proper dignity. By- him also Cicero 
was there inaugurated, for which reason, says that author, 
'^ it was my duty to regard him as a- parent" He died in 
the year 49 B. C.; and Ctcero, to whom the news of that 
event was h^rought when he was at Rhodes, in his return 
from Cilicia^ has left a most eloquent eulogy and lamenta- • 
tion upon him, in the opening of his celebrated treatise 
on ofiators entitled Briitus. .'* I considered him," says that 

1 GcD. Diet — Morerk— >Fo|^B Bibl. Belgi— Bnnnan Traject. Eradit. — Saxii 
OnoBiait. 



»S H O R T E N S I U S. 

writer, <^ not, as many supposed, in the light of an act« 
irersary, or one who robbed me of any praise, but ad a 
companion and sharer in my glorious labour. It was much 
more honourable to have such an opponent, than to stand 
unrivalled ; more especially as neither his career was im- 
peded by me, nor mine by him, but each, on the contrary, 
was always ready to assist the other by communication, 
advice, and kindness/' If, however, Cicero was sincere 
in his attachment, it was surmised that Hortensius was not, 
and this is even insinuated in one of the epistles of Cicero^ 
Hortensius amassed great wealth, but lived at the same- 
time in a splendid and liberal manner; and it is said that' 
at his death his cellars were found stocked with 10,000 
hogsheads of wine. His orations have all perished; but 
it was the opinion of Quintillian, that they did not in pe- 
rusal answer to the fame he obtained by speaking them. ' 
Hortensius must have been sixty t-four at the time of hia 
death.' 

HORTON' (Thomas), a learned and pious English di- 
vine, the son of Laurence Horton, a merchant of London, 
was bom in that city. In July 1623 he was admitted a 
pensioner of Emanuel college, Cambridge, where he took 
the degree of B. A. in 1626, and that of master in 1630. 
He was also a fellow of his college. In 1637 be took the 
degree of B. D. and was appointed one of the twelve uni'* 
versity preachers. The following year he was chosen 
master of Q.ueen*s-coIlege, in that university, after the 
death of Mr. Herbert Palmer, and in July of the same year 
minister of St. Mary Colechurch, in London, a donative 
of the Mercers' company, of which bis £sither was a 
member. 

In Oct. 1641, be was elected professor of divinity at 
Gresham -college, and in May 1647, was elected preacher 
to the honourable society of GrayVinn, of which be was 
also a member. In 1649 be was created D. D. and the en- 
suing year was chosen vice-ohancellor of Cambridge. In 
1651 he appears to have resigned the office of preacher of 
Gray's-inn ; and marrying about the same time, he pro- 
cured an order from parliament that he should not be 
obliged by that step to vacate his professorship at Gresham 
college. The Gresham committee, however, referring to 
^he founder^s will, came to a resolution that the place w^ 

• 

* Gtnh Di^— Cieero*8 Orations 



H O R TON. 19? 

• •  ' 

Vacant, but did not at this time proceed to an electloiit^ 
In August 1652, Dr. Horton was incorporated D. D. in the . 
university of Oxford, and the year following was nominated 
one of the triers or commissioiiers for the approbation of^ 
young ministers. In 1656, the Gresham committee re- 
sumed the affair of his professorship, and proceeded to a new 
election, but Dr. Horton obtained a fresh dbpensation from 
Cromwell by means of secretary Thurloe, and continued. 
in quiet possession, holding with it his headship of Queen^s 
college, Cambridge. On the restoration he was obliged 
to resign the headship to Dr. Martin, who had been ejected, 
by the parliamentary visitors ; and although he had interest 
enough at court to retain his professorship for a little time, 
he was obliged in 1661 to resign it. When the Savoy 
conference was appointed, he was non^inated as an assis-. 
tant on the side of the presbyterians, but, according to. 
Baxter, never sat among them ; and although one of th^ 
number of the divines ejected by the Bartholomew act, he 
conformed afterwards, and in June 1666, was admitted to 
the vicarage of Great St Helen, in Bishopsgate-street,, 
London, which he held till his death, in March 1673. 

Dr. Wallis, who had been under his tuition at Cam- 
bridge, aqd after his decease published a volume of his 
sermons, with some account of his life, says he was *^ s^ 
pious and learned man, an hard student, a sound divine, 
a good textuary, very well skilled in the oriental languages, 
very well accomplished for the work of the ministry, and 
very conscientious in the discharge of it" Nor did the 
close application to his province as a divine, occasion him 
wholly to neglect his juvenile studies. In the Cambridge 
verses, entitled " 2«(^7f^^,'* written upon the restoration of 
Charles 11. there is a poem composed by Dr. Horton, while 
master of Queen^s. He printed hut three sermons him- 
self, but left many oUiers prepared for the press ; and 
after his death were published, 1. '^ Forty-six Sermons 
upon the whole eighth chapter of the Epistle to the Ro- 
mans," Lond. 1674, foL 2. " A choice and practical 
Exposition, upon the 4, 47, 51, and 63 Psalms," ibid. 
1675, fol. 3. *< One hundred select Sermons upon several 
texts," with the author's life by Dr. Wallis, ibid. 1679> 
fol. He left also some sacramental, funera), and other 
sermons, prepared for the press, but which have not been 
printed.' 

t jkth. Oz« Tol. U*— Ward's Lives of tlM Grosham Professom 



too H O S 1 U s. 

HOSlUS (Stanislaus), cardiaaVwas bom at Cracow^ 
in Poland, in 1503, of low parents, hnt being well edu- 
cated,- bore such a character after taking Bis degrees, as. 
to be admitted into the Polish senate. He was here dis- 
tinguished by the acuteness of his genius, the retentive- 
ness of his memory, and other accomplishments mental 
and personal ; and' was advanced successively to the places *• 
of secretary to the king, canon of Cracow, bishop of Culm> 
and bishop of Warmia. He was sent by the pope Pius 
IV to engage the emperor Ferdinand to continue the 
council of Trent ; and the eniperor was so charmed with, 
his eloquence and address, that he granted whatever he 
askud. Pius then made him a cardinal, and employed him, 
as his legate, to open and preside at the council. Hosius 
was a zealous advocate for the Romish church, and de«. 
fended it ably, both in speeches and writings ; the latter 
of which amounted to two folio volumes, atid wereoften 
printed during his life. He died in 1579, at the age of, 
seventy -six, and was burieB in the church of St. Lawrence, 
from which he took his title as cardinal. By his will he left bis 
library to the university of Cracow, with an annual sum to 
provide for its support and increase. Among his works, 
the chief are, 1. " Confessio Catholics Fidei,** said to 
have been reprinted in various languages, thirty- four times. . 
2. " De Communione sub utraque specie.'* 3. '* De sa- 
cerdotum conjugio.'* 4. " De Missa vulgari lingua cele-^' 
brands,'' &c. His works were first collectively published 
at Cologne, in 1584.* 

HOSKINS (John), an English lawyer and poet, was 
born in 1566, at Mownton, in the parish of Lanwarne, in 
Herefordshire, and was at first intended by his father for 
a trade, but his surprizing memory and capacity induced 
him to send him to Westminster, and afterwards to Win- 
chester school, at both which he made great proficiency* 
From Winchester he w^as in 1584 elected probationer- fel- 
low of New- col lege, Oxford, and two years afterwards 
admitted actual fellow. In 1591 he took his master's de- 
gree ; but being terra jiliuiiy in the act following, he was, 
says Wood, ** so bitterly satirical," as to be refused to 
co^iplete his degree as regent master, and was also ex- 
pf her the university. He then, for his maintenance, 
taught school for some time at lichester, in Somersetshire^ . 

1 Gent Dict^-^Frebcri TheairiUB.«— Mor«ri.«>->DupiiK 



H O S K I N S. SOI 

where he^compUed a Greek lexicon as far as 'the letter M* 
^^Tying afterwards a lady of praperty, be.ent/ered him* 
4elf as. sjtudent in the Middle -temple, and at .the usual 
time was cal.ied to the bar.* In 1614 he had aseat in par* 
ll^caent,. where some rash speeches occasioned his being; 
imprisoned tot, a year. He.v^as afterwards elected .Lent- 
reader of the IVIiddle-temple, and fogr years after , waa 
made a se^rjeant at law, a justice itinerant, for Wales, ,and' 
ope of. the council of the Marches. He died at his Jsouse^ 
at Mprehampton^ iu Herefordshire, Aug. 27, 1638.: .; ! 

He was much admired for his talent in Latin and £ng« 
lish poetry, and highly respect^ by the most eminent 
men of his time, Camden, Selden, Daniel, Dr«. Donne, 
sir- Heqry Wottor^ sir Walter Raleigh, whose, ^' History^'* 
he revised before it was sent to press.; and others, par^ 
tieujlarly Ben. Jonson, who used to. say, *^ 'twas he. that 
polished me, I do acknowledge it.*' Wood sp,eaks of him 
as the .author of the Greek (exicon already meutioned, left^ 
in MS. and imperf^t; of several epigrams .-aod.ep'taphs, 
in Latin and l^nglish, interspersed in various .collections ;* 
'^ The Art of Memory/' in which he himself excelled ; and* 
of some ]aw treatises, in MS. which becarnq the property t 
of his graqdsoo, sir John Hoskins, knt. and bart. mas*' 
t^r ip ehancery, but better known to the world as a philo- 
sopher, and ope of the first, members of the royal society,, 
of which he was president in 1682.* 

HOSPINIAN (Rauph), a learned Swiss writer,, who* 
rendered. important service to the Protestant cause, was- 
born at Altdprf near Zurich, where his father, was minister,: 
iu 1547, He b^gan his studies with great diligence and. 
success at Zurich, under the direction of Woliius, his* 
unqle l^ his mother's side ; and lotting his father in 1563, 
foujid an a&ctionate. patron in his godfather Uodolpbus* 
Gualterus. , He left Zurich in 1565, in order to visit. the 
other universities;, and spent some time in Marpurg and 
Heidelberg. H^ ivas, aft;ei*wards recalled, and received; 
into the ministry in 1«568 ; the year following he obtainect 
the freedpm, of the city ; and^ was made provisor of tl>e 
.abbey school in 1371. Though bis scUooLand his cuve 
engr4^sised.nui^h of his time, he bad the courage taauider*. 
take a.nobi^ wprj^ of vast extent, ,*• An History of t^e firw. 
rors of Popery."' He considered, that the Papists, when 

. ' 4^tli. Ox. Tol^ I. — Gr«of er. 



*0i H O S P I N I A N. 

defeated by the Holy Scripturesy had recoursis to traditioTi ; 
were for ever boasting of their antiquity, and despised ther 
protestants for being modern. To deprive them of thi» 
plea, he determined to search into the rise and progress of 
the Popish rites and ceremonies ; and to examine by what 
gradations the truth, taught by Christ and his apostles^^ 
had been corrupted by innovations. He oould not, how-' 
ever, complete his work, agreeably to the plan be had 
drawn out ; but he published some considerable parts of 
it, aji, 1. "DeTemplis: hoc est, de origine, progressu, 
U8u, & abusu Tempiorum, ac omnino rerum omnium ad 
Templapertinentium,'' 1587, folio. 2. <' Die Monachis t 
seu de origine & progressu monachatus & ordinum 
monasticorunj," 1588, folio. 3. <^ De Festis Judaeorum, 
ct Ethnicorum : hoc est, de origine, progressu, ceremo* 
nib, et ritibus festorum dierum Judseorum, Graecorunr, 
Romanorum, Turcarum, & Indianorum,'* 1592, folio. 4. 
^*Festa Christianorum,'' &c. 1593, folio. 5. " Histoiria; 
Sacramentaria : hoc est, libri quinque de Coen» Domimc» 
prima institutione^ ej usque vero usu & abusu, in primaBva 
ecclesia ; necnon de origine, progressu, ceremaniis,^ & ri- 
tibus MissdB, Transubstantiationis, & aliorum penie infini- 
torum errorum, quibus Coense prima institutio borrilnHter 
inpapatu polluta & profanata est,*' 1598, folio. 6. ^ Para 
altera: de origine et progressu controversis& sacramentaria»^ 
de Coena Domini inter Lutheranos, Ubiquistas, & Ortho* 
doxos, quos Zuinglianos seu Calvinistas vocant, exortsei ab 
anno 1517 usque ad 1602 deducta, J 602,** folio. These ^ 
are all of them parts of his great work, which he enlarged 
in succeeding editions, and added confutations of the ar- 
gumentis of Bel^armin, Baronius, and Gretser. What he 
published on the Eucharist, and another work entitled' 
'^ Concordia Discors,*' &c. printed in 1607, exasperated 
die Lutherans in a high degree ; and they wrote against 
him with great animosity. He did not publish any answer, 
though he had almost finished one, but turned his arms 
against the Jesuits; and published ^< Historia Jesuitica : 
hoc est, de origine, regulis, constitutionibus, privilegiis, 
incremehtis, progressu, & propagatione ordinis Jesuitarum. ' 
Item, de eorum dolis, fraudibus, imposturis, nefariis faci- 
Qoribus, cruentis consiliis, falsa quoque^ seditiosa^ & san* 
guinolenta doctrina,** 1619, folio. 

These works justly gained him high reputation, and 
considerable preferment He wias appointed archdeacott 



H b S P 1 N I A N. 20S ^ 

^f Caroline church in 1588; and, in 1594, minister of the 
abbey-church. He was depjived of his sight for near a 
year by a cataract, yet Continued to preach as usual, and 
was happily couched in 1613. In 1623, being 76 years of 
age, his faculties became impaired, and so continued tiH 
his death in 1626. The public entertained so high an' 
opinion of his learning from his writings, that he was ex-' 
horted from all quarters to refute Baronius^s ''* Annals ;*^ 
and no one was thought to have greater abilities for the' 
task. A new edition of his works was published at Geneva/ 
1681y in seven thin volumes, folio. * 

HOSPITAL (Michel de l'), chancellor of France, and 
one of -the most liberal-minded men of his time, was the 
son of a physician, and born at Aigneperse in Auvergne^ 
in 1505. His father sent him to study in the most cele** 
brated universities of France and Italy, where he distin* 

Jruished himself at once by his genius for literature, and 
or business. Having diligently studied jurisprudence, be 
was quickly advanced to very honourable posts ; being sue* 
eessively auditor of the congregation called the congregation' 
of Rota at Rome, and counsellor in the parliament of Paris^ 
which he held during twelve years. He has described in one 
of his poems his habits of life during this time. He rose at a 
very early hour, and in the autumnal, winter, and spriag' 
sessions, was often in the court of justice before day-break,' 
and reluctantly rose from his seat, when the beadle, at teifi 
o^clock (the hour of dinner) announced the breaking up of 
tbe court. He says, that he made it a rule to listen to all 
with patience, to interrupt no one, to express himself ail 
concisely as possible, and to oppose unnecessary delays. 
He mentions, with evident satisfaction, the joy which he 
felt when the vacations allowed him to quit Paris, and 
breathe in tbe country. The cares of magistracy he then 
banished wholly from his thoughts, and endeavoured, by 
harmless relaxation, to enable himself, on his return to the 
discharge of bis functions, to resume them with fresh vi«' 
gdur. *' But,*' says he, ^^ there is nothing frivolous in 
my amusements ; sometimes Xenophon is tbe companion 
* of mv walks ; sometimes the divine Plato regales me with 
the discourses of Socrates. History and poetry have their 
turns ; but my chief delight is in the sacred writings : what 
comfort, what holy calm, does the meditation of them 
confer !" 

I Geiu Dict.*.Nieeroo, toU XXXVIIL— Saxii Onomaif* 



, ^0* HOSPITAL. 

4 

L^HospiUl was then appointed by Henry IL to be bis 
embassador at the council of Trent, wbi^b was fitting at 
Bologna. By his own desire, he was soon re<iaUed from 
that honourable employment, jand on his return expeneor 
qed, at firsts aome coldness from the court, but was soon 
Tijcstored to the royal favour, and appointed master of tfa^ 
requests* In .the beginning of 1554 he was made super* 
intendant of. the royal finances .in France. His merits in 
thi^ post were of the most singular and exalted kind. By 
a ^vere oe^cpnomy, he laboured to restore the royal trea- 
sure, exhausted by the prodigality of the king, Henry II» 
amd the dishonest avarice of bis favourites ; be defied the 
enmity of those whose, profits he destroyed, and 'was hini« 
self so rigicjly disinterested, that after five or six. years' con* 
tinpance in this place, he was unable to give a portion to 
his:daughter, and the deficiency was supplied by the libe* 
rality^of the sovereign. On the death of Henry, in 151^9, 
th$ cardinal of Lorraine^ then at the head of affairs, intro*; 
duced r Hospital into the council of state. Hence he was 
Ir/snioved by Margaret of Valpis, who took him into Siavoy^ 
as her chancellor. Butthe confusions of France soon made 
it necesisary :ta recal a inap of such firmness and undaunted, 
integrity. In the midst of faction- and fury, be was ad- 
vapced: to the high office of rchancellor of that kingdom, 
%here, hemaintained his post, like a philosopher who was. 
superior to. fear, oi^ any species of weakness. At the breakf* 
ing out of the ceaspiracy of Amboise, in 1560, and on all* 
other :oecasions, he. was the advocate fpr mercy and recon<» 
ciliation^ 9nd by the edict of Romorantio, prevented the 
eiitablishment of the inquisition in France. It was perhaps* 
for reasons of this kind, and his general ia^ersion to perse- 
ciition for religion's sake, that the violent Romanists^ at:-' 
cijsed him of being a concealed Protestant:; forgetting that 
by such suspicions they paid the highest compliment to: 
the spirit: of .Protestantism* The. queen, Catherine of;. 
Medicis, . who had contributed to the elevation of THospi- . 
tal^ being too .violent to approve bis pacific measures, •ex-* . 
eluded him from the council of war; on which be retired 
to his country-house at Vignay near £stampe8. Some days . 
after, when the seals were demanded of him, he resigned • 
tbemwithotit regret, saying, that ** the affairs of the world ; 
were too. corrupt for him to meddle, with them." In Itft- 
tered ease, amusing himself with Latin poetry, and a se- » 
lect society of friends, be truly enjoyed bis rietreat, till his 



happiness was interrupted by tlte atroieidas day ef St. B^r^ 
tholottiew, in 1572. Of this disgra^^al -inassacrey li^ 
thongbt'as posterity has thought'; but, thdugh hisfnendi 
Conceived it probable ' that he might be included in the 
proscriptian, h« disdained tiy seek hiii'safety by flight. So 
fifth was he, that when & party of boiisemen actually ad^ 
Tanced to his house, though without ordei>s, for' the horrid 
purpose of murdering him,' lie refused' to dose' his gates : 
^ If the small one,'' said he, <* will not admit them, thro^ 
open the large ;'' and he was preserved Qoly^by thei arrival 
of another party, with expiiess orders from the king to de* 
clare that he was not among the pr<)scHbed. The [i^ons 
who made th^ lists^, if Was alided; pai^oned bim the dppo^ 
sition he had always nfiade to their projects. . '**I did not 
know,** said fa^ coldly, without any change of* donnte-^ 
nance, ^* that I had done any thing to deserve eithet death 
or pardon." His motto- is said to have been. 

Si fractus illabatur orbU— 
Impavidum ferient ruinae^ 

aiid certaiply no person ever had a. better right to asisume 
that subliqae device. This e^xcellent magistrate, and truly 
great man, , died March 13, 1573, at the age 6( 68 yearsJ 
** L' Hospital," says Brantome, "was the greatest, wor* 
thiest, and most, learned chancellor, that was ever known 
in France. His large white beard, pale cbiintenancey 
austere manner, ihade all who saw him think they beheld 
a true portrait of St. Jerome, and he was called St. Jerome 
\ff the courtiers. All orders of men feared him.; particu- 
larly the members of the courts of justice ; and, when he 
examined them on their lives, their discha/ge of their 
duties, their capacities, or their knowledge, and particularly 
when he examined candidates for offices, and found ih^in 
deficient, he made them feel it. He was profoundly versed 
in polite learning, very eloquent, and an excellent po^l 
His severity was never ill-natured j he made due allowance 
for the imperfections of human nature ; was always equal 
antd always firm. After his death his very enemies acknpw- 
[edged that he was the greatest magistrate whom France 
*Kad known, and that they did not expect to see such aiio-; 
ther.'* There are exunt by him^ 1. " Latiui Poems." 
Their unpretending simplicity is their greatest merit;' hut 
they shew such real dignity of character, they breathe so 
pure a spmi of virtue, and are full of such e&cellent sea« 
timents of public and private wortbi that they will always 



ao^ B O a ? I T A. U 

he ir^ied with pkasure^ 2. << Speftcbc^ delivered in- tbd 
meetiDg of the States at Orleans." As an orator he sbioes 
much less than as a poet. 3. ** Memoirs^ containing 
Treaties of Peat^e,'* &c. &c. Tt is said that be had also 
projected a history of his own time in Latin, hut this he 
did not execute. The best edition of his poems is that of 
Amsterdam) 1732, 8vo. He left only one child) a daugh- 
ter^ married to Robert Hurault, whose children added the 
fiame. of T Hospital to that of their father; biit the male 
line of this family also was extinct in 1706. . Nevertheless, 
the memory of the chancellor ha^ received the highest 
honours widiin a few years of the present time. In .1777, 
Louis Xy I. erected a statue 'p^;whit§ marble, to him, and 
in the same year be was proposed by tb^ French academy 
for the subject of an eloge. M. Guibert and the abb6 
Remi contended for the prize. It was adjudged to the 
latter, who did not, however, print his work ; M. Guibert 
was less prudent, but his eloge gave little satisfaction^ 
The celebrated Condorcet afterwards entered the lists, but 
with equal want of success. Such fastidiousness of public 
opinion showed the high veneration entertained for the 
character of L'Hospital. In 1807, M; Bernard! published 
bis '' Essai sur la Vie, les Ecrits, et les Loix de Michel de 
L^ Hospital,'' in one vol. 8vo, a work written with taste and 
judgment ; from these and other documents, Charles But- 
ler, esq. has lately published an elegant '* Essay on^ the 
Life'' of L'Hospital, principally with a view to exhibit 
bim as a friend to toleration.' 

HOSPITAL (William-Francis-Antony, marquis im 
l'), a great mathematician of France, was born of a branch 
of the preceding family, in 1661. He was a geometrician 
almost from his infancy ; for one day being at the duke de 
Kohan's, where some able mathematicians were speaking 
of a problem of Paschal's, which appeared to tbeifn ex* 
tremely difficult, he ventured to say, thatt he believed he 
^oujd solve it. They were amazed at what appeared such 
unpardonable presumption in a boy of fifteen, for be was 
then no more, yet in a few days he sent them the solution. 
He entered early into the army, but always preserved his 
love for the mathematics, and studied them even in his 
^ent; whither be used to retire, it is said, not only to 
study, but also to conceal his application to study : for in 



HOSPITAL; iHf 

• • • 

tbosediip^ labeknow^g in the sciences, wm Iboiight to 
derogate from nobility; «ind a soldier of quality, to pre- 
serve bis dignity, was in some measure obliged to bide bis 
literary attaiQments. Del'Hospital was a captain of borne; 
but, being extr^ely sbort«sigbted, and exposed on that 
accbpnt to perpt^tual inconveniences and errors, be at 
length quittei^ the ariny, and applied himself entirely 
to bis favourite amusement He contracted a friend* 
ship with Malbranche, judging by bis ^^ Recherche de la 
VeritS,^' that be nm^t be an excellent guide in the sciences; 
itnd be took his opinion upon all occasions. His abilitieif 
^x\d knowledge were no longer a secret : and at the age of 
thirty-two. be gave. a public solution of problems, drawn 
from the deepest geome.try, which had been proposed to 
mathematicians in the acts of Leipsic. In 1693 be was re- 
ceived an honorary member of the academy of sciences at 
Pari^.; and published a work upon sir IsiBUic Newton^s caU 
eulations, entitled ^^ L^ Analyse des iafinimens petits." He 
was the first in France who wrote on this subject; and on 
this account was regarded almost as a prodigy. He en- 
gaged afterwards in another work of the mathematical kind# 
in which he included ** Les Sectiones coniques, lea Lieux 
geometriques, la Construction des Equations," and '* Une 
Theorie des Cburbes mechaniques ;'' but a little before be 
bad finished it, he was seized with a fever, of which he 
died Feb. 2, 1704, aged 49. It was published after his 
death, viz. in 1707. There are also six of his pieces in- 
serted in different volumes of the memoirs of the academy 
;(|f sciences.' 

HOSTE, or L'HOSTE (John), a learned mathemati- 
cian of Nancy, towards the end of the sixteenth century, 
taught law and mathematics with uncoounon reputation . ^t 
Pont-ii-Mousson, and was appointed superintendant of for- 
tiBcations, and counsellor of war by Henry duke of Lo9- 
rain. His genius was extensive, penetrating, and formed 
for the sciences. He died in 16SI, leaving several valu- 
able works: the principal ones are, ^^Le sommaire et 
Tusage de la Sphere Artificielle,*' 4to; << La Pratique de 
G^om^trie," 4to ; '* Description et usage des prinoipaux 
instrumem de G6om£trie," 4to ; ^< Du Quadran et quarrf ; 
lIRayon astronomique ; B&ton de Jacob ; interpretatipn dm 
grand art de Raymond LuUe,*^ &c.* 



1 Qtm. Dict«-ilf orari.«»Martia*f Bi#s< PliUog^  Momk-^Okit. Bi^ 



i(A ft O S T k* >• 

HOftTE XPkvh), born May 19^^ 1652, :atin)tit:.3^iV^l«|^^ 
cntenei among' the Jesuits ih 16iSd; smd^ ibqujred great 
ikill in mathematics ; accompariied ^be ti)arechaf$'(f*F!str^e;i 
and db'Tourville, during twelve years; in tiVtHhiir navai 
expeditions, and gained their esteieqpii' ' He Was appbintec 
king's profeissor of mathematics afTouWii-'anid *<fiea''iher^ 
February 23, 17t30, leaving, " Rfetiieirdes JTrait^s d^'Ma- 
tll^matiques les plus necessaires a* tjn' bfficier,'". 5 Vols! 
l^mo; " L'Art des armies naralesj oii Traits dies ^vbTu- 
tibns navales,'* Lyons, 11597, and tiroyef ctbrhpletely in 1727. 
folio. This work is not less historicariban scientific, ana . 
contain^ an accodnt of the most cohsiderable n&varbVents 
of the fifty preceding years. He p'fefented it' to Loui$ 
XIV. who received it graciously, and rewarded the author 
with 100 pistoles; and a pension of '600 livres; a treatise 
o6 the construction of ships, which he wrote in conse- 
quence of some conversation with marechal de Tourville^ 
is- printed at the end of the preceding. ' In 1762, lieute- 
nant O'Bryen published in 4t03j '**^ Naval Evolutions, or a . 
System of JSea-disclpfine,'* extracted froln fether L'Hoste's 
"L^'A'ft des armies uavales." * 

ftQTMA]>T (FaANCis), in Latin Hbtqmanus, a learned 
t^rench civilian, was borii in '1524, at Paris/ where his fa- 
mily, originally "of fireslau in Silesia, had Nourished For . 
some time. He. made so rapid ^ progress in the belles 
lettres, that at the age of fifteen, he was. sent to Orleans 
to study the civil l^w, and in three years was received doc- 
tor to that faculty. His fether, a counsellor in parliameii^ 
had already designed hirp for that employment ; andther^ 
foi'e'iiertt for hini home, and placed him at the bar. But 
Hotman wa^ soon displeased with the chicanery of the 
court, and applied himself vigorously to the study of th^ 
Rbrpan law and polite literature. At the age of twenty- 
thre)?, be was chosen to read public lectures in the schools / 
of Paris : but, relishing the opinions of Luther, on ac^ 
count of which many persons were put to death in France, - 
and finding that he Co^^d not profess tliem at Paris; h(e 
went to Lyons in*1^548. Having npw nothit^g to expect 
from' his father. Who was greatly irritated, at the change o^ • 
his religion, he left tVance, and retired to Geneva j where /^ 
he lived some tin)e in jCalviii's house. From hence he went 
to Lausanne, where the magistrates ;of Bern gave' him tbn ^ 

• Moreri.— Diet* Hist 



H O T M A N. »W 

place of professor of polite literature. He publisbed there 
sdme books, which, however, young as he was, were not 
his first publications ; and married a French gentlewoman, 
who had also retired thither on account of religion. His 
Daerit was so universally known, that the magistrates of 
Strasburg oflPered him a professorship of civil law ; whi^h 
he accepted, and held till 1561, and during this period^ 
received invitations from the duke of Prussia, the land- 
grave of Hesse, the dukes of Saxony, and even from queea 
Elizabeth of England ; but did not accept them. He did 
not refuse, however, to go to the court of the king of Na* 
vsirrey at the begining of the troubles ; and he went twice 
into Germany, to desire assistance of Ferdinand, in the 
name of the princes of the blood, and even in the name of the 
queen-mother. The speech he made at the diet of Franc«> 
fort is published. Upon his return to Strasburg, he was 
prevailed upon to teach civil law at Valence ; which he did 
with such success, that be raised the reputation of that 
university. Three years after, he w^nt to be professor at 
Bourges, by the invitation of Margaret of Fra,nce, sister of 
Henry II. but left that city in about five months, and re- 
tired to Orleans to the heads of the party, who made great 
use of his advice. The peace which was made a month 
after, did not prevent him from apprehending the return 
of the storm : upon which account he retired to Sancerre, 
aiid there wrote an excellent book, <^ De Consolatione,^' 
which his son published after his death. He returned after- 
wards to his professorship at Bourges, where he very 
natrrowly escaped the massacre of 1572: which induced 
him to leave France, with a full resolution never to return. 
He then went to Geneva, where he read lectures upon the 
civil law. Some time after, he went to Basil, and taught 
civil law, and was so pleased with this situation, that he 
refused great, offers from the prince of Orange and the 
States*general, who would have drawn him to Leyden. 
The plague having obliged him to leave Basil, be retired to 
Montbeliard, where he lost his wife ; and went afterwards 
lo live with her sisters at Geneva. He returned once more 
to Basil, and there died in 1590, of a dropsy, which had 
kept him constantly in a state of indisposition for six years 
before. During this, he revised and digested his works 
for a new edition, which appeared at Geneva in 1599, in 
3 vols, folio, with his life prefixed by Neveletus DoschiuSw^ 

vouxvm. p 



«io ti6t a Ait. 

The first two eoutaia treadats upon the ci?H bw; t^ 
third, pieces relating to tho governvient of France^ and tb€ 
fight of succession ; five books of flomaa aatiquities ; com-<^ 
inentaries upon TuUy's << Orations and Epistles;" ntdtea 
tipoii Caesar's.'' CommeJitaries;" &c. His *< Franoo-Galli^^ 
or, *^ Account of the free state of France/' has been trans* 
lated into English by lord tholes worth, ambor of ^The 
Account of Denmark." He pubikbted also several othef 
articles without his nsune ; but, being' of the . controversial 
kind, they wer^ probably not thought of consequence 
enough to be revived in the coUeetion of his works. 

He was one of those who would never consent to bef 
painted ; but we are tdd, that his picture was uken while 
he was in his last agony. ' His integrity, firmness, and 
|)iety, , are highly extolled by the author of his life $ yet, it 
Baudouin may be believed (whom, however, it is more rea* 
S(n>abie not to believe, as he was bis antagonist in religious 
opinions), he was suspected of being avaricious : but it 
must be remembered, that be lost his all when be changed 
his religion, and had no supplies bat what afx)se from read* 
ing lectures ; for it does not appear that his wife brought 
him a fortune. It is very probable, however, that his lee-* 
tures Would have been sufficient for iiis sul^istence ; h<td 
he not been deluded by schemes of finding out the philo- 
sopher's stone ; and we find him lamenting to a friend in 
hi$ last illness, that he had sqitatidered away his substaacef 
upon this hopeful project. With all these weaknesses, he 
was est€f€!med one of the greatest civilians France ever pro« 
duced.* 

HOTTINGER (JoHN-HENaY), a very learned writor^ 
and famous fot his skill in the oriental languages, was born 
at Zurich in Switzerland, in 1620. He had a particular 
talent for learning languages ; and the progress he made iti 
his first studies gave such promising hopes, ttuu it was ine<» 
solved be should be sent to study in foveign coantrits, at 
the public expence. He began bifi travels in 1638, and 
went to Geneva, where he studied two months under FV« 
Spanheim. Then be went into France, and thenfce into 
Holland f and fixed at Oroningen, where he studied divi«> 
nity under Gomarus and Aiting, and Arabic under P^^sor^ 
Here be intended to have remained ; but being very d;&si«^ 

' Cen. Diet.— Nioeroo, vol. XI. and XX.— Moreiri.— Freberi Thtairnitt.— ^ 
Saxli Ouomast. 



HOTTlNO^ll, ill 

rems of iinproving himsyf in tb6 oHental Ift^gUiEigeii, hi& 
^ent in 1639 to Leyden, to be tutof lb the dhlldfeh of Go- 
lius, who was the best fikiUed in those languages of kn j taih 
of that age. Bythe instructions of Golius» h^ improired 
greatly in the knowledge of Arabic, and feilso by. \ht assist* 
anceofaTurk, who happisned tb be at Lieyden. Besfdek 
these advantages^ Grolius had a fine cbltettioh of Arabic 
books an4 MS84 from which Hotttngef W^ snfl^r^d td t'd^^f 
what he pleased, during the foori^i§h months he st^id at 
Leyden. Jn 1641, he was offiE^red, at the iretod^oiendattbii 
of Golios, the place of chaplain to the artiba^sltdor of tb^ 
Staies-gekierai to Constantinople; And be vroold gladljr 
have attended hitn^ a» such a jouk-ney #biild hate co-ope<' 
rated wonderfully with his grand design of p^rfb^tihg; hitti^ 
s^if \h the eastern languages t but the ma^istrtttes of Zii-^ 
rich did not Consent to it : tlu§y ehode rathtei* to veeAX hiM; 
in order to ibmploy him fof t\vt advantage o^ theiic public 
schools. Th^y permitted hiin fir^t, hc^et^r^ to visit Ehg« 
laiid ; and the instant he returned ffoin that cbtfhtry, ihef 
appdintdd him prbfesitof of etdcfsiAstietll hi^tofy; and A 
year after, tn 1648^ gd^e him tWb pmf^sbfshtps^ thki 6i 
catecbeticat dttiiiity^ and that of kh^ oHl^iltii) tongues. 

He married at twenty^-two, and b^^rl td publish bobki 
at t^entjr.fomr. New |^ofe^6orshipd WdH? b^stbWt^jd upott 
bim ill 1653^ and b^ was admitted iHIb tb^ college of 
candtis. In I655| the eiectot t^aktini^, d^^trous to fi^^- 
store the l^redft Of hht aniTtet-slty of H^i^berg, ebtaih^d 
leiiv^ c^ the seriate of Zurich fot Hoitirig^V t<s go fher^, on 
condition that be shotald return M th^ eiid of thr^e years : 
but befsre he set out fbijr thdt t&Wy^ he w^'nt to Basil, and 
took the degree «f D. D. Ji^ arrived ^t iteidelberg the 
sasse year^ atid #ak graebctely feci^ived iri that city. Be« 
aMes tbeprofessorshijbrof Aivfnrty at)d th^ ori^Utaf tongues, 
he was appoiiHed pr'wvtX^X of th^ Coll^gfdhi Sapiential. 
He waa rector of the tiniver^ity the yedr fbilo^Eing, Hnd 
wrote a \sfa^ eDM^min^ the te-'tifaion of th& Lutherans 
8nd Cailririisfs r which he d^rd t^ pl^s^ tb^ elector, wht) 
wt»^ Maloift in that MTaiiy t blit ^^rty-ai^iibositles readied 
biir pe^fofteitoc^ iweffeetir^K Hottln^cfr si^companted this 
prinde to the &)eetoral diet df ¥tfii\t9M itl 165^^ and there 
twd a; 6^x\htwi&t& mth Job Lt^lf. Ludolf had Acquired d 
vasH knowledge of Ethiopia; and^ itif cotijirn<^ti5h i^ith Hot-* 
tiiigar^ concerted meas^ates foif setidifig into Africa some 
peraoM siftilled in the orvAital iongHei^^ #h^ Migifl linake 

P 2 



i^lB HOTTIKGER. 

t 

exact inquiries concerning the state of the Christian re1t-« 
gion in that part of the world. Hottinger was not recalled 
to Zurich till 1661, his superiors, at the elector's earnest 
request, having prolonged the term of years for which they 
lent him : and he then returned, honoured by the elector 
with the title of Ecclesiastical-counsellor. 

Many employments were immediately conferred on him i 
among the rest, he was elected president of the comtnis-' 
sioners who were to revise the German translation of the 
Bible. A civil war breaking out in Switzerland in 1664, 
he was sent into Holland on state affairs. Many universi- 
ties would willingly have drawn Hottinger to them, but* 
yrere not able. That of Leyden offered him a professor- 
ship of divinity in 1667; but, not obtaining leave of bis 
superiors, he refused it, until the magistrates of Zurich, 
consented, in complaisance to the States of Holland, who 
had interested themselves in this affair. As he was pre-' 
paring for this journey, he unfortunately lost his life, June 
5, 1667, in the river which passes through Zurich. He^ 
went into a boat, with his wife, three children, his brother-^' 
in-law, a friend, and a maid-servant, in order to go and 
let out upon lease an estate which he had two leagues from 
Zurich. The boat striking against a pier, which lay under 
water, overset : upon which Hottinger, his brother-«in-laWy 
and friend, escaped by swimming. But when they looked 
upon the women and children, and saw the danger they 
were in, they jumped back into the water : the conse- 
quence of which was, that Hottinger, his friend, and three 
children, lost their lives, while his wife, his brother-in-law, 
and servant-maid, were saved. His wife was the only 
daughter of Huldric, minister of Zurich, a man of very? 
great learning, and brought him several children : for be- 
sides the three who were drowned with him, and those who 
died before, he left four sons and two daughters. 

As an author, he was very prolific, and it is surprising/' 
that a man, who had possessed so many academical em- 
ployments, was interrupted with so many visits (for every 
body came to see him, and consulted him as an or^^), 
and was engaged in a correspondence with all the Uteratr 
of Europe, should have found time to write more than: 
forty volumes, especially when it is considered, that he 
did not reach fifty years of age. The most considerable, 
of his works are : 1. *< Exerdtationes Anti-Morinianse, d^ 
^entateucho Samaritanos 4c.*' 1644^ quarto* Moria had 



H O T TINGE R. 213 

asserted, in the strongest manner, the authenticity of the 
Samaritan Pentateuch ; which he preferred to the Hebrevr 
tipxt, upon a pretence that this bad been corrupted by the 
Jews ; and it was to combat this opinion, that Hottinger 
wrote these Exercitations. This work, though the first, 
is, in the judgment of father Simon, one of the best he 
wrote ; and if he had never written any thing more^ it is 
probable that he would have left higher notions of his abi* 
lities : for certainly it was no small enterprise for him, so 
early in life, to attack, on a very delicate and knotty sub- 
ject, and with supposed success too, one of the most 
learned men in Europe at that time. 2. '^ Thesaurus Thi- 
lologicus, seu clavis scripturae," 1649, 4to. There was a 
second edition in 1649, in 4to, with additions. 3. ** His- 
toria Orientalis, ex variis Orientalium monumentis col* 
lecta,"' 1651, 4to. No man vras better qualified to write 
on oriental affairs than Hottinger, as he was skilled in most 
of the languages which were anciently, as well as at pre-* 
sent, spoken in the East: namely, the Hebrew, Syriac,' 
Cbaldee, Arabic, Turkish, Persiau, and Coptic. 4. ^^Promp-* 
tuarium, siy^ Bibliotheca Orientalis, exhibens catalogum 
sive centurias aliquot tarn auctorum, quam librorum He^-^ 
braicorum, Syriacorum, Arabicorum, ^gyptiacorum : ad« 
dita maijtissa Bibliotheearum aliquot EuropsBarnm," 1658, 
4to. Baillet does not speak very advantageously of this 
work of Hottinger, whom he accuses of not being very 
accurate in any of bis compositions : and indeed his want 
of accuracy is a, point agreed on by both papists and pro-, 
testants. 5. ** Etymologicon Orientale, sive Lexicon Har- 
monicum Heptaglotton," &c. 1661, 4to. The seven lan- 
guages contained in this Lexicon are, the Hebrew, Cbaldee, 
Syriac, Arabic, Samaritan, Ethiopic, and Rabbinical. 
. These works are valuable for containing materials of a 
curious nature, and which were before only accessible to 
persons skilled in oriental languages. A catalogue of his 
other works may be seen in, th.e *^ Bibliotheca Tigurina ;" 
or the Latin life of Hottinger, published by Heidegger at 
Zurich, 1667 : in either of which they are all drawn up 
and digested into regular order. — John James Hottinger 
his son, was also a learned protestant divine, succeeded 
Beidegger ip the divinity chair at Zurich, and died Dec; 
18, 1735,leaving a great number of works, chiefiy ^' Theo* 
logical Dissertations," on important subjects.^^ 

^^en. iDct,— Morcri,-^iceroD, vol. VIII.—* Saxii Onoma8ticoa.-i-F^ehert 



^1* H Q y 9 I a A N T« 

^QUBIGANT'(CHARit£)S^ Francis), a pious aod learaed 
^aqslatpr of the l^ehr^w Scriptures, and comineiuator on 
^em, was b^prn at Paris ia 1^86. |n 1702 he became a^ 
priest of the con^reg^UQn pa^ed the Oratory i and being, 
by deafness, deprived of tb^ chief comforts of society, a4- 
dioted biioself the more earnestly to I^ooks, iii which he 
fqund his constant consolation. Of a d^sppsition naturally 
benevolent, with great firn^n^s of soul, goodness oi tem- 
per, and politeness, of i^anners, he w$^s held in very gei^- 
ral e^tioi^tipn, and received honours and rewards from th& 
pope. (Benecl- XIV.) and froin h|s couutryipei^ wbich b^ 
had pever thou.gbt of soliciting. Though his income waa. 
but small, he dedicated a part of it to found a school near 
Chantillyi; and the purity of bisi judgment, joined tqt^e 
strei^gth of his memory, ens^bled hi(m ta cajrpy on tiis lite- 
rary labours to a very ^()v^p^d s^gQ, Ev^q when, his fa* 
culti^§ h9.d declin^, $^n4 ^^^ further injured by the acci- 
' dent of ^ fall, the v§ry sight pf a bppH, that well-known 
CQQsoler of aU bis c^re^^ raii^^d him to p^apeand rationa- 
lity, f}^ di^d Oct 31, 17^, a^ the ^vanced age of ninety- 
dig^t* Hi^ works, ibr wl^cM be waf po less esteemed in 
tpr^ign ppuntrien tb^n b^^ j)ia own^ w?re chiefly tb^§ • ) * 
An edv^QQ of the Hebrew Bible,^ witl^a Latin version s^pd 
^^^^ pi^blished i^t Paris io 11 ys, 19 4 vols, folio. This is 
th^ fnost valiu^ble and iippprtant work of t^e aatbpCy and 
copt^itis tln^ ^ebr^w teixt corrected, by the spm\de^t ruies 
of cr4t|pi|5ip» 1^ X«atin ver«^n, and p^eful notes : find pr^ . 
ii'^ed tf> f ^t^ ^ook b a v^ry l^arnifd preface, ^pedicl 
XIViiM^t^o justly ^ppr^iat^d %^. value and difficulty of the 
W^: Mgppujf^d th^ authcyr with, a n^^dc^l, ^ad ^^m ^^^er 
m^rk^ of approl^fitipp ; apd t}^^ clergy qf bis pwi^ poMPtry^ 
unsoliciti^df QPnferif€^; a p^psipn oc^ him, 9; A L^)n trans- 
Ijitippftf tl^$ P«^ltifr, from tije yebraw^ i;46, 12^0, 3. 
Apotb^r of t()e Old Test^m^ntf a|: l^rge, ip 1754, ip B vojf. 
^Yp. 4. " ks^Qifips IJebr»i<ii^,'* \7S'i, ^vp, ^aji^st tU<i 
poipta. 5. " Eic^w^ii du Psftutiqr d^ C^pupUips,'' lHg\(V. 
the mod^ of injfirpr^t^tiop used ii) YiV^ch. hf tti.QcigbJti top 
^ri^itr^ry. Q. A French trapslatipnr pf ap £^ngli»h wprk by 
ForbeSj enticed ^- Thoughts on N^qfal H^ligipQ-^' 7. 
Most of tt^p works of Ctiaries Lesljp trajii^atpd,^ Paris,. i 770^ 
8vo. Father Qoubig^nt i^ ^9t\d £Ofio/t^p har^ (eft several 
works ia i^anus5:ciptf whic^s frqp^ tb^ e^cell^pc^ of tbo.^t 
he published, ijiAy be copje.ctur^d to bte well d^sctryipg of 
the press. Among^, thiese are a ^^ Trait£ des Etudes;^' a 



H Q U BJ O A N T. Sl$ 

^ranslalion of **Origen against Celsus;** a •* Life of Carr 
dinal Berulte ;** and a complete translation of the Bible, 
Eccor^iAg to his own corrections. The first of these watt 
to have been published bj father Dottevi]Ie, and the rest 
bj Lalahde, but we do not find that any of them have apV 
peared.* 

HOUBRAKEN (Jacob), an eminent engraver, ^a^ 
the son of Arnojd Houbraken, a native of Holland, and a 
painter, but of no very superior merit. He is known, how^ 
ever, to the Uterary world, as the author of a work in Dutch, 
entitled ** The Gre^t Theatre of the Dutch and Flemish^ 
painters,*' in $ vols, folio, with their portraits. He came* 
AVer into England, to make drawings of the pictures of 
Vandyke, which were afterwards engraved by Peter Va^ 
Gunst. He died at Anis^erdam in the fifty-niot^ jear of 
^is age, 1719. 

Hi^ son Jacol^ was born December S5, 1998. By wha^ 
mt^Vef he was instructed in the art of engraving, we are 
Hot informed, but he was probably initiated in the art by 
his fetfaar ; and Mr. Btrutt supposes that he studied the; 
»eatest portraits of EdMinJ^ very attentively, especially that' 
Qf Le Brun^ which is usually prefixed to the engravings of 
Gtrard Audran, from his battles of Alexander. He work- . 
ed, however, for some time with little profit, and with less 
celebrity V atid he had arrive<J at the meridiap of life be- 
fore he engaged in that work by which he is best known ;' 
/^•work, which, notwithstanding some well-founded objec- 
tions, will reflect honour on the several persons engaged 
in it. It seetos to have been a plan of the accurate and 
industriotis- Gdorge Vertue, who propose^ to give sets or 
classes of eminent men; but his design was adbpted by 
others, a^d at letigth taken out of hi» hands, who, as lord 
Orford observes, was best furnished with material for.stfel^' 
a Vf&fk. 

The person* who undertook apd brought to conelusi^m 
this' great national wOrkj were the two Knaf^ton^r, bo<^^* 
selfewr, encouraged by Ae vast success of Rapin's History- 
of England: They employed both Vertu^ and Hotibraftdtti • 
buvcbiefl^ the fetter^ and the puWication b^gan in tiurti-; 
bers in' t^44. The first? volume wn^ conipleted f« I7*4T,' 
antt the' second in 1752: It was accompamed %vith short 
Iives' of AfCf pers6nages, written by Dr. Birch; Lord CSrfcrd 



i\e H O U B R A K E N. 

ol^serves, that some of Houbraken^s headsr were csre« 

lessly done, especially those of the moderns ; and the eft*» 

graver Hying in Holland, ignorant of our history, uninqiii* 

sitive into tbe authenticity of what was transmitted to him, 

engraved whatever was sent. His lordship mentions two 

instances, the heads of Carr earl of Somerset, and secre* 

tary Thurlow, which are not only not genuine, but bav« 

not the least resemblance to the persons they pretend to 

' represent. Mr. Gilpin, in his Essay on Prints, says^ 

** Houbraken is a genius, and has given us in his collection 

of English portraits, some pieces of engraving at least 

equal to any thing of the kind. Such are tb^e heads of 

Hampden, Schomberg, the earl of Bedford, and tlie duke 

of Richmond particularly, and some others. At the same*' 

time, we must own that he has intermixed among his works 

a great number of bad prints. In his best, there is a won-: 

derful union of softness and freedom. A more elegant and 

flowing line no artist ever employed.^* Mr. Strutt esti<« 

mates his general merits more minutely. Houbraken'» 

great excellence, says that ingenious writer, consisted ia 

the portrait line of engraving. We admire the softness 

and delicacy of execution, which appear in his works, 

joined with good drawing, and a fine taste. If his I^st per- 

fornaances have ever been surpassed, it is in. the masterly 

determination of the features which we find in the works 

of Nanteuil, Edelink, and Drevet ; this gives an animation 

to the countenance, moire easily to be felt than described. 

From his solicitude to avoid the appearance of an outline, 

he seems frequently to have neglected the little sharpnesses 

of light and shadow, which not only appear in nature, but, 

like the accidental senoitones in music, raise a pleasing. 

senspitipn in the mind, iq proportion as the variation is judi* 

cioa^y nianaged. for want of attention to this essential' 

beauty, many of bis celebrated productk>ns have a misty 

aiJ|yearancQ, and d^ iiot strike the eye with^ the force we 

might expect, when we consider the excellence of the en*- 

graving^ The Sacrifice of Manoab, from Rembrandt, for 

the collection of prints from the pictures in the Dresden 

gallery, is the only attempt he made in historical engrav- 

ii}g ; but in it he by no means succeeded so well.-— Of his* 

private life, family, or character, nothing is known. He- 

liy^ ta a good old age, and died at Am^terdam^ ta 1780.^/ 

^ Strutt's Oiciipimry.^— Buropemn M>;c 1803^ 



HOUDRY. 21T 

. HOUDRY (Vuicent), a Jesuit, istraa born Jan, 22, 1631, 9^% 
T?ours, and taught ethics, rhetoric, atvd philosophy among 
the Jesuits, and devoted himself afterwards to - preaching 
tweoty«four years; the rest of his life was.spept Jn com* 
posing useful books. He died at Paris, in the college of 
l^uis le Grand, March 29, 1729. His works are, ''?La 
Bibliotheque des Predicateurs,** Lyons, 1733, 22 voU;.4tiO. 
*f Morality," 8 vojs. the supplement 2 vols. " Panegyrics,** 
4 vols, and the supplement 1 yol. The '^ Mysteries," ^ 
vols, and the supplement 1 ^ol. ^' The Tables," 1 voL 
V The Ceremonies of the Church," 1 vol. " Cbris>tiaa 
Eloquence," IvoL ^^ Trait^ de la maniere d*imiter,l£{s» 
bohs Predicateurs," 12mo. *^ Ars Typographica, carmen/' 
4to } and twenty volumes of <' Sermons," all which shejnr 
more industry than genius, but some of them are consulted 
as repositories of facts and opinions.' 

BOUGH (John), an English prelate, memorable, for the 
firm and patriotic stand which be made against the tyraooyi 
aad bigotry of James 11. was the son of John Hough, a- 
citizen of London, descended from the Hoiighs of I^eightoa. 
in Cheshire, and of Margaret, the daughter of fi{pb» 
Byrche of Leacroft in the county of Stafford, esq. He wa9) 
born in Middlesex, April 12, 1651 ; and, after having re.^i 
chived his education either at Birmingham or Walsall in 
Staffordshire, was entered of Magdalen college, Oxford,* 
Nov. 12, lfi69f and in a few years was elected a fellow. 
Qe took >i>rdei:s in J 675, and in 1678 was appointed do-- 
mes^tic 9haplain to the duke of Ormond, at that time lord: 
lieutenant of Ireland, and went over with him to. that; 
country; but ,bo returned soon after, and in 1685 was^ 
made a pre^beajc^ary of Worcester. He was also presented^ 
to the rectory of Tempsford in Bedfordshire, in the gilt of 
the crown. From these circumstances, it should seem that, 
bf must have, been considered as a man of talents and. 
merits before he acted the conspicuous part be did im 
October 1687., . 

in Marph of (hat year, the presidentship of Magdalen 
college being vacant by the death of Dr. Henry Clai^ke, 
t5e, .usual notice was given that the election of a president 
wouldtakepljice on the 1 3 th of April; but the fellows 
be^ng afterwards informed, that his majesty James IL bad 
i;raiited letters maadatory, requiring them tp . elecl Mr.; 

* Moreri.— Diet, jyiist, 



«l» HOUGH. 

Antbony Farmer, who kid not been feffow either of tfaif, 
or New college, as indispensably required by the statu tes, 
Irho bad also given strong proofs of hidtfflerence to all 
reiigions, and whom they tboaght unfit ki other respects to 
he tbeif president, petitioned the king, either to leaye tbem 
to the discharge of their doty and conscience, and' to theif 
£emiider's statutes, or to recommend such a person as might 
be more serviceable to bis majesty and to the college. 
No answer being given to this petition, they met on the 
ISth of April, but adjourned first to the 14th, and then to 
lile 15th, the last day limited by the statutes for the election 
of a president, and having still received no answer (except 
a i^rbal one by the rev. Thomas Smith, one of the fellows, 
fttmi lord Sunderland, president of the council, which was^^ 
•that his majesty expected to be obeyed**) they proceeded 
to the election, according to the usual forms, and the' 
Mev. Mr. Hough was chosen, who is stated in the college 
register to be ^'a gentleman of liberality and firmness, 
phoj by the simplicity and purity of his moral character, 
by the mildness of his disposition, and the happy teiiipe- 
mmeiit of his virtues, and many good qualities, had given 
everyone ijeason to expect that he would be a distinguished 
omaioent to the college, and to the whole university." 
' He was accordingly presented next day, April 16, to the 
mitor,' Dr. Mews, bishop of Winchester, and was the same 
day sworti in president of the college. He returned next 
day, and was solemnly installecT in the chapel. Many ap- 
plieations were made to the king during this and the foi- 
Iftwihg month in behalf of the fellows, both by themselves, 
llie bishop of Winchester, and by the d like of Ormond, 
phaftcellor of the university : notwithstanding which, they 
were ^ired'to appear at Whitehall, in June following, before 
Iria majesty's commissioners for ecclesiastici^l causes, who 
decreed that the election of Mr. Hough, who had novi^ 
taken his doctor's degree, was void, and that be be amoved 
firom his office of president. Still as Farmer's iporal cha-» 
racter was too strong to get over, another mandate was sent 
to the fellows on August 27, to admit Dr. Samuel Parker 
president, who was at that time bishop of Oxford, and a 
Roman Catholic. But this was declined, 9n the ground 
of' the office being full, and' being directly contrary to 
their statutes and the oath they had taketi, although tho^ 
king went to Oxford in Septe_mber Jn order to enforce hi» 
mandate, attended by lord Sunderland and others. Among 



^66e was ^1^ c^l»br9kt(Ki WUliUpi' Paon the qiiaker, wiuKW 
influence with his brethc^Hi w^ the dissenters in general, 
Jfames II. inade^ u^e of tQ pnoQi^e bU own designs in favour 
Qf popery, qoider tbe cg^QUc qf a. general toieratioa and 
suspeusiqn ol' the p^nal lavfs against all sectavies, as wel| 
as against th^ R^pipan cattbolic^* Peno^s interference in the 
present business, bQWever9-4o.es n^ appear to bai«rbeen 
improper. He even allowed, after making hinuelf ap^ 
quainted with the circu.n^Btanqes of the case, that the 
'^ fellows could not yield obedience without a hreacb of 
their oaths, and that such rasM^dates wete a force on con^ 
science, and not figroeablei tP the king's other gsacious 
^nduigencii^s.*' 

The kingj however, witb wboni no good advice bad aajp 
weight, as soq9 as be arrived at Oxford, sent for the fel* 
lows, Sept. 4, to attend bim in person, at thrqe ui tbw 
afternoon, at Christ Cborgb, of which the bishop of Ox- 
^ford was de^n, Th/^ fellows accordingly attended, and 
presented a petijti9Q| recapitinjiating their obligations to 
obey tbe st^tutf^, ^q* which the king refused to accept, 
ai^d tbreate^ed tbeiP> in 9 very gross n^anner,. wi|h the 
vifhql^ weight of bis diAple^s.i|re, if they did not ^dmit the , 
bishop of Oxford, wl)ich tbey intimated w^ pot in their 
fower; add hjsving returned tp their chapel, and bein^ 
^ked by the sepior fellow whether tbey would elect the 
Jt^ishopo? Oxford their president, they all answered in theip 
turn, tl^ it beipg contrary to their statutes, and to the 
po^itiv;e o^tU which they bad taken, they did not apprehend 
it wa^ in tbf^ir power. Their refusal was foikkwod by the 
appointment of certain (ords comptiissioners. to visit the 
college. These were,^ Cactj^right^ bishop of Chester, sir 
llobert Wright^ chief justice of the king's h^ncb, and sip 
Thomas J^inqeri J^suron of the exchequer, whq cited th^ 
pretended president^ as be wa^ called, and the fellows, to 
appear befpre tUoiU fit ]V(|igdAlen college on Oct. 21, the 
day before which the commissioners had arrived at Oxford, 
witb the parade of three troops, of horse. Having assem- 
bled on the day .appointed in the bnll, and their conunis* 
lion read, the na^ues pf the, president and fellows were 
called over, and Dr. Hough was mentioned first. It 
was upon this* occ^istrtn that he behaved with tliat cou-, 
rage and iiitrepidity,. prude"^^ and temper, which will- 
endear his nitjmory to the* latest posterity. The commis-' 
sioners, towevqf, struck bis.n^me out of the bool^s of tb^ 



iM HO u o h: 

new buildihg %t that piece of his edncatidti. He Iik6wis€ 
contributed 1000/. tovnird9 building All Saints church . in 
Worcester. In 1715 the metropolitan chair was offered Id 
him, on the death of. archbishop Tenison, whi^h lie de« 
clined, from the too modest and hambk ftentiments which 
he entertained of himself j but afterwards^ in 1717, he 
succeeded brshop Lloyd in the see of Worcester. As his 
pabti{i betoefactibns baT« been just'tnentibned^ it is neces- 
sary to add that bis private acts of charily were very exten-* 
sive. Hisusirai itiaunerof Itvingwasajgreeable to hisftinction, 
hospiuble i^ithout proftis^ness, and his conversation with 
ail was full of humanity and candour, as well as prudeftt 
atid instruetive. 

His earliest biographer says, that ^^ his heavenly templef 
of mind, his contempt of the world, and his indifference 
to life, were most visible in the latj:er period of his own ; bin 
firm faith in the promises of the goipel exerted itself most 
remarkably in his declining years, as well in conversatibn 
with some of his friends about bis hopes of a better state, 
and even in his own private thoughts on the nature of that 
state, as in several letters to others about the gradual decay 
of his body, the just sense he had of bis approaching 
dissolution, and his entire resignation to the will of Goo. 
As he had on many occasions expressed his Weil-grounded 
hopes of immortality, so they gradu£llly grew stronger oft 
him, aud seemed to be more vigorous in proportion to the' 
decays of bis body. Indeed, even the temper of histtiind 
bore so just a proportion to bis well-tempered constitution 
of body, as by an happy result of both, to extend, his age 
to thie beginning of his ninety-third year, and almost to 
the completion of the fiity-tbird year of his episcdpate* 
But he cast only a cursory eye upon (he minute distine-'' 
tioAs of human life, as the whole is at best of a short' 
duration. Bishop Hougb^s lamp of' life burnt clear, if not 
bright, to the Istst; and though his body was iVeak, he had' 
no pain or sickness, as he himself acknowledged on several 
occai»ons, not only at a censiderable distance from hn 
death, but even a few minutes before he expired.^ A little 
before his death, he wrote a letter to his friend lord 
Digby, where we find the following remarkable words: 
f^ I am weak and forgetful-— ^ in other res|)ect8r i have ease 
to a degree beyond what I dtirst have thoilght on, when 
years began to multiply upon me^ I wait contentedly for 
a deliverance out of this life into ^ belter, in humbis 



'^ 



H O U O fl. fit 

lonfid^nc^ that bj the mercy of God, through tbe m^rita 
of his Son, I shall stand at the Resurrection otl his right 
hand*' And when you, my lord, have ended those days 
which are to come, which I pray may be many and' com-* 
fortable, as ioopceatly and bs exemplary as those which are 
passed, I doubt not of our meeting in that state where the 
joys are unspeakable, and will always endure." He died 
March 8, 1743^ and was hnried in Worcester cathedral 
sear bis wife, where his memory is preserred by aa elegant 
aioDument , . 

It does not appear that Dr. Hough ever prepared- any 
thing for the press, except eight occasional sermons, and 
he gave a strict charge that none should be published from 
his manuscripts after his death. Many of his letters, how« 
ever, with various important docuilients to illustrate bis 
character and public services, have lately been given to 
the world in a splendid publication, entitled <VThe Life of 
the rev. John Hough, D. D. &c.'^ by John Wilmot, esq« 
F. R. S. and S. A. To this we are indebted for the pre^ 
^ceding sketch; and Mn Wilmot has accumulated so much 
inforniation respecting Dr. Hough, that it is now uoneces*. 
sary to refer to any other authority. ^ 

HOULIERES(Antoniettadela Gari>e Dps), a French 
poetess^ was born at Paris in 163S, and. possessed all the 
charms of her sex, and wit enough to shine in the age of 
Louis XIV. Her taste for poetry was cultivated by the 
celebrated poet Henault, who is said to have instructed her 
in all he knew, or imagined he knew.; but she not only 
imitated him fn his poetry, but also in his irreligion ; for. 
her verses savour strongly of Epicureanism. She com*, 
posefl epigrams, odes, eclogues, tragedies; but succeed* 
ed best in the idyllium or pastoral, which some affirm 
she carried to perfection. She died at ParLs in 1694, 
and left a da^ighter of her own name, who had some talent 
for poetry, but inferior to that of her mother. The first 
verses, however, composed by this lady, bore away the 
prize at the French academy ; which was highly to her 
honour, if it be true, as is reported, that Fontenelle wrote 
at the sanae ttme^ a/nd upon the same subject. . She was a 
menhber of the academy of the Ricovrati of Padua, as was 
ber moither, who wfas also of that of Ar}es. She died at 
Paris in 1718, The works of these two ladies were col- 

» Life, as abore. 



tU HOULIERES. 

fectivjsly published in 1747, in 2 vols. 12ino. Several 
maxims of the elder of these ladies are mncb cited by 
French writers ; as, that on gaming, *^ On commende par 
4tre dupe^ on finit par £tre fripon.'' People begin dtipes, 
and end rogues. And that on self-love: <^ Nui n'est con- 
tent de sa fortune, ni m^content de son esprit.'' No one 
is satisfied with bis fortune, or dissatisfied with his talents. ' 

HOUSTON (WiLUAM), an able promoter of exotic 
botany in England, went first to the West Indies, in the 
character of a surgeon, and upon his return, after two 
years' residence at Leyden, took his degrees in physic 
under Boerhaave, in 1728 and 1729. At Leyden be insti*' 
tuted a set of experiments on brutes ; some of which were 
made in concert with the celebrated Van Swieten. They 
were afterwards published in the Philosophical Transactions 
under the title of ^* Experimenta de perforatione thoracis, 
ejusque in respiratione affectibus," the result of which 
proved, contrary to the common opinion, that animals 
could Jive and breathe for some time, although air was 
freely admitted into both cavities of the thorax. Soon 
after his return from Holland, he was in 1732 elected a 
fellow of the royal society, and went immediately to the 
West Indies, where he fell a sacrifice to the heat of the 
climate, July 14, 1733. He had previously sent over a 
description and figure, of the dorsteria contrayerva, which 
were published in the Philosophical Transactions, voL 
XXXVII. This was the first authentic account receiv€|d 
of that drug, although known in England from the time oF 
sir Francis Drake, oV earlier. He also sent to his friend 
Mr. Miller, of Chelsea, the seeds of many rare and new 
plants collected by him in the islands. His MS Catalogue 
of plants also came into the hands of Mr. Miller, and after 
his death into the possession of sir Joseph Banks, who, 
out of respect to the memory of so deserving a man, gra- 
tified the botanists with the publication of them, under the 
title of ^^ Reliquise Houstonianss, 1781, 4to.* 

HOUTEVILLE (Claude Francis), a native of Paris, 
was eighteen years a member of the .congregation called 
the oratory, and afterwards secretary to cardinal Dubois, 
by whom be was much esteemed. He was appointed in 
.1742 perpetual secretary to the French academy, but did 

« 

1 Moreri. — Diet. Hist. — ^Biog. OalHca. 
• Fttlteney't Hist, and Bk>s. Sketckei. 



H O O T E V I L L E. «« 

not foog eiipf' bit 'prdfeMiietit> far lie dM thd bMie-year, 
litting iiAMMit filly- four yean^ did. iie ptfblished a #ork 
efltMed ^Lft Verii)6 de la Religion G^if^ienne frouv^ par 
fas ieoiti^^ riie liiMer €diiions of v^nch are for 9a^(>«rior to 
dw iirft. Tbe foedt ledkUm is that <ili Paris, 1741, 3 voh, 
410. TIms 4>ook had an aatofiishitig ^uctess on its first ap« 
pearance ; but sunk afterwards kito a state cf discredit n^ 
kas aBtDnbfaing : it jiad been extdiled too highly at 6rst, 
and ^ftarwards %O0 ttinok depreciated. The style is af« 
&ated| and tbe aoiiior lays down ^iseless principles, and, 
•ome MflMi, ey^ti sooh as are dangerous and hurtful to his 
oatne. His proofs are not always solid or-well ehosen ; 
bat li»e is tpaiilioalarly Maitioafbie for' having separated th^ 
difficukies and Q^ectififns^m'^be proofs brougbt against 
diem. By thus heaping ob^eeVions on e^bjections at the 
end df his 'Wioi4t| afid gi'^ng rery short and concise answer$ 
fortfear^df repetitions, be gives greater force to the former 
than to fiA»^ latter, makes us ime sight of his proofs, and 
seatns to destroy what be'had established. ^ 

iiHi>Y£D£N (Itoofift de), an English historian, Who 
flourished in die refijgn of Henry H. "wcts bora in Yorkshire, 
must probably in tbe «€ywn of that name, was of a good 
family, and Jmd beyond the year 1204, biH'the exact pe- 
Biads of his birth anddetoth are not known; He is said to 
iMMre 'hsid -some situation i<n the fatnily of Hehry H. and to 
hatie bean employed by that' ^monarch in conmlentitll ^r^ 
vioeB,* such as visiting ad^iasteries. He was by profession 
a ibwyer, <bm, hke* other lawyers of efaat time, in tbe 
^dMirch, and aliio a professor of theology at Oxfoi^d. After 
the death of Henry^ be applied himself diligently to the 
•rviting of Msitory, an^ composed annals, which he com- 
meaeed at cive' year 731, tlie period where Bede left off, 
and oontinuefd to the third year of king John, 1 202. Tli^se 
annals were first published by Savile ainong the Hbtorici 
Anglici, in 1595, and reprinted at Francfort in 1601, folio, 
in tiMo books. Leiandsays of him, " If we fconsider his 
dihgence^ his kfiowiedge of antiquity, and his religious 
Sitriotn^ss of veracit}'^^ he may be^considered as having sur- 
passed, HOtoiAy the rude historiaMsof the preceding ssi^s, 
biftteven^wlviteould have befen expected of himself. If to 
that fidelity, which is the fir^t quality of a historfanj he had 
joif»ed a4ittie moiie elegance of 'Latin style, he might have 

'« Moteri.i— Diet HItt, 

Vol. XVIII. Q 



fae H O V E D E N. 

stoodthe first among the authprs of that class/* Vossius 
says that he wrote also a history of the Northumbrian kings, 
and a life of Thoinasil Becket. Edward the Third caused 
a diligent search to he made for the works of Hoveden 
when he. was endeatouring to ascertain his title to the crowq 
of Scotland. Savile bears the same testimony to his fide- 
lity that we have seen given by Leland.' 

HOW (William), the first English botanist who gave a 
sketch of what is called a '' Flora,^' was born in London in 
1619y and educated at Merchant Taylors' school. He 
became a commoner of St. John's college in 1637, took 
his degree of B. A* in 1641| and that of M. A. in 1645^ 
and began to study medicine, but we do not find that, be 
graduated in that faculty, although he was commonly 
called Dr. How. , With many other scholars of that.time^ 
he entered into the royal army, and was promoted to the 
rank of captain in a troop of horse. Upon the decline of 
the king's aflTairs he prosecuted his studies in physic, and 
began to practise* His residence . was first in Lawrence^ 
lane, and then in Milk> street. He died about the begin- 
ning of Sept« 1656, and was buried by the grave of his 
mother in St. Margaret's churchy Westminster ; leaving 
behind him, as Wood says, '* a choice lib^ry .of books of 
bis faculty, and the character of a noted hetbajist." The 
work which he published, Cto which we have alluded, was 
entitled ** Phytolpgia Britannica, natales exbibens indige* 
narum Stirpium sponte emergentium," Lond« 1650, I2mo, 
This list contains 1220 plants, which (as few mosses and 
« fungi are enumerated) is a copious catalogue for that time, 
tfven admitting the varieties which the present state of 
botany would reject, but there are many articles in it which . 
have no title to a place as indigenous plants of England. 

HOWARD (Th6mas), earl of Surrey* and duke of 
Norfolk, an eminent commander in the reign of Henry 
VIII. was born in 1473, and brought up to arms, and soon 
after the accession of Henry was decorated with the knight*- 
hood of the garter. He served with bis brother 3ir Edward, 
against sir Andrew Barton,, a Scotch free-booter, or pirate,: 
who perished in the action. When his brother, sir Ed* 
ward, was killed in an action near Brest, in 1513,. be was 
appointed to the office in his stead, and in the capacity of 
high admiral he effectually cleared the channel of Freuch 

I Leiaod.— TaDoer.— >NicoUou^s HiftQrical Library. 



HOWARD. 227 

cruisers. The Tictory of Flodden-fidld, in which the king 
of Scotland was slain^ was chiefly owing to his valour and 
good conduct For this his father was restored to the titi0 
of duke of Norfolk, and the title of eari of Surrey was con- 
ferred on^him. In 1521 be was sent to Ireland as lord« 
lieutenatit, chiefly for the purpose, it was thought, of hay- 
iiig him out of the way during the proceedings against his 
father-inJaw, the duke of Buckingham. Here he was 
very instrumental in suppressing the rebellion, and having 
served there two years be returned, and had the Command 
of the fleet against France. By the death of bis father he 
succeeded to the title and estates as duke of Norfolk. 
Notwithstanding his great services, Heniy, at the close of 
his tyrannical life and reign, caused the duke to be sent 
to the Tower on a charge of high treason, and his son to 
be beheaded in his presence. The death of the king saved 
the duke's life. He was, however, detained prisoner du- 
ring the whole of the reign of Edward VI. but one of the 
first aets of Mary, after her accession to the throne, was 
to liberate him. He was, after this, the principal instru- 
ment in suppressing the rebellion excited by sir Thomas 
Wyatt. He died in August 1554, having passed bis 
eightieth year. He was father to the illustrious subject 
of our neitt article. * 

HOWARD (Henry), Earl of Suhrey, This highly- 
accomplished nobleman has been peculiarly unfortunate in 
his biographers^ nor is there in the whole range of the 
English series, a life written with less attention to proba*^ 
bility. Even the few dates on which we can depend have, 
been overlooked with a neglect that is wholly unaccount- 
able in men so professedly attentive to these matters, a$ . 
Birch, Walpole, and Wartoii. The story usually told con- 
sists of the following particulars : 

Henry Howard, earl of Surrey, was the eldest son of 
Thomas, the third duke of Norfolk, lord high treasurer of 
England in the reign of Henry VIII. by Elizabeth, daughter 
of Edivard Stailbrd, duke of BuckiTiglHa.m. He was born 
either at his fatber-s seat at Framlingham, in Suffolk, or 
in the oity of Westminster, and being a child of great 
hopes, all imagitiahje care was taken of his education. 
When he wa^ very young he was companion, at Windsor 
castle, with Henry Fitzroy, duke of Richmond^ natural 

> CqIHqi's Pelage, hf Sir S« Brydges. 
Q 2 



$M H O W V* R D. 

•on feo Henfiy VIII. iMid 4iftetwavdft ^l^deafc in C^Mrdinal 
coUog^ fioW Ohri^l Cbi»r4$b» 0«for4 Iq 15^2 be yifm 
wiA 4be diibe f>f KichiMOfid «t Piiri% «ii4 coi^iim^ ifeere 
for sooM tme in ^e ^d^aoMlion of bis slttdW^ ^nd )9£Hr^ 
ing 0he Prencb l^nguaf^ ; fwd ^oti tb^deaib 0f ^ai i^ki^ 
m^tHily iSB^y 4ivsw«Ued 4nie <i!iesiiifiA5V ^6tfe be resided 
«Mie time at tbe 6«|)ef(9r*B xeuit, en^ *tbeni«e n^^t t0 
Fiorenoe, wbere -be ^U io love with tbe f^k <7era(diin^ 
ibe jgreat -obj eet of %%s 'poetktd «bddf essed>. and hi ibe griMid 
dake*8 coiKt publfsbeci a ob«Uei:i^& agakiM lell W|o ^b»iild 
dispute her beauty; *wbiOh diallesge jbc^Qg aco«!flled> ka 
catne 4>ff viotopieus^ ^r this applH^ved ^alour^ ^be-ckabe 
^ Fldrende wade -bkb large effefa te&^y MHitb bHiif 4)M 
he refuised ib^nb beealirae be ifiteiided lo 4efetKl %be boiiovut 
of bis Gersttdine in all Dbe obief cities lof Itaibp. But tfajs 
design of his i^^as diverted by letters sent to bim by kintg 
He^nry \Uh 'reoalKog him to Kngiandi IS<e left Itaiy^ there- 
fore, where be had oukiyated bis poeiieel ^genius by the 
treading of tbe .^greatest writers of tbat ocmtAiy^ and 'Re- 
turned Ho 'bis own countryy where be was considered as 
one of the fiist of tbe £ngUsb nobility, who adoroed*bis 
i>tgh birth with the 'advantages of a polite ttfste utid exten* 
sive literatutve. On the first of May, 1540, he was one o£ 
the chief of those who justed at Westminster, 'as a defend- 
ant, against i^ir Joha Dudley , sir IHionili^s S4ykii6m4% atnd 
other cballenlgers, tvheiFe be bebaved himself with ad« 
mirabie •courage, and ^eat skill in the use of bis arms, 
and, in 1540, served in the army, of which bis father was 
lieutenant-^general, and which, in October thut year, en* 
tered Scotland, and burnt divers ^iUs^ges. In February ot 
March foUowii^, he was <:onfined W Windsor castle. for 
eating flesh in Lent, contrary to the king^s proctatnation 
of t|)e 9th of February 1542. In 1544, upon the expe* 
dition to. Boulogne, in France, he wiais field^-inarshal of the 
English army; and after takirtg that town, being tben 
knight of tbe garter, be y^as iii the b^inning of September 
li545, oonstitiited the kiiig^.s lieutenant and ctiptain^general 
of all his army within the town and country of Boulogne. 
During his comomnd there in 1546, bearing that a convoy 
of proi^isions of the .enemy was coming to the fort at Oul- 
treao, be resolved to intercept it ; but the Rbingrare, with 
fdur thousand Laoskinets, together with a considejrable 
number of French under the marshal de Biez, making a^ 
obstinate defeijce, the* English were routed, and sir Ed- 



B O W A R B. M» 



I 



WBoA MtyniogS) wl4k dkatft oihm$ ^mtthmen^ %litidy and 
tk% m9itl of Surrej hknsdlf cibUgtd to fty ^ though it afipoM^ 
by a lcrtt#f of bis to the Icings, i&ieA Januai^ ft, 1 4f45«6, that 
diitt atfvsfitage cost the €ii«iiiy a gveat uunxbeF of nma* 
But tbeliiiig was to highly displeased with thii iU saccofs^ 
tha^ from that tiMO be contracted a pfojadiee against thf 
#arl, and, soon alt#r^ removed faiai from bis coiiMnatid, 
afipoifitiiig the oari of liertfbrd to so^eeed hiin. On this 
firWilKaai Paget wrate to the earl of Surrey to advise hiai 
ie procure some emittent post unAer the earl of Hertford, 
that he might f>ot he impro^id^ m the town amtJlM. The 
earl heivftg desiirous^ in the meaa time, so legaio his for* 
aser trnf^mr with the kifig^ shirmi^ed agariist the Frendi^ 
and routed them; but, soon after, writing o?er to th^ 
kin^s council, that as the enemy had east much larger 
eannoR ihw had been yet seef», with whkb they imagined 
they sbouM soon demcjish Boulogne, it deserved const* 
ders^on, ¥i4ietber the lower town should stand, as not 
h<diiig defensible, tht eouneil ordered him to return to 
England, in order to represent Ms sentiments asore folly 
apon those points, and the earl of Hertford was imme* 
dioteiy sent oif^rJn his room. This ei?aspfef«tfng the earl 
of 8un^, occasioned htm to let faU some expressions 
which savoured of reveiige, and a dislike of the king, and 
aU hatred of his dounsetlors i and was, probably, one great 
cause of bis ruin soon after. His fittber, the duke of Nor- 
folk, had endeavoured to ally himself to the earl of Hert^ 
ford, and to his brother, sir Thomas 8eymour> perceiving 
how much they were in the king*s ftlvojur, and how great 
an interest they were likely to hate under the succeeding 
prince ; and therefore he would have engaged his son, 
being then a widower (having lost hts wife Frances, daughter 
of John earl of Oxford), to marry the earl of Hertford** 
daughter, and pressed his daughter, the duchess of Rich* 
mond, widow of the king's natural son, to marry sir Tho- 
mas Seymour. But though the earl of Surrey advised his 
sister to the marriage projected for her, yet he would not 
consent to that designed for himself; nor did the propo- 
sition about himself take effect. The Seymours could not 
but perceive the enmity which the earl bore them ; and 
they ihight weH be jealous of the greatness of the Howard 
fSsimily, which was not only too considerable for subjects, of 
itself, but was raised so high by the dependence of the 
whole popish party, both at home 'and abroad, that they 



2S0 HOWARD. 

were likely to be very dangerous, competitors for tte chief 
government of aiEairs, if the king should die, whose disease 
was now growing so fast upon him that he could not live 
many weeks. Nor is it. improbable, that they persuaded 
the king, that, if the earl of Surrey should marry the 
princess Mary, it might embroil his son's government, and^ 
perhaps, ruin him. And it was suggested that he had 
some such high project in his thoughts, both by his con* 
tinuing unmarried, and by his using the arms of Edward 
the Confessor, which, of late, he had given in his coat 
without a diminution. To complete the duke of Norfolk's 
and bis son's ruin, his duchess, who had complained of his 
using her ill, and had been separated from him about four 
years, turned informer against him. And the earl and his 
siscer, the duchess dowager of Richmond, being upon ill 
teru)s together, she discovered all she knew against him ; 
as likewise did one Mrs. Holland, for whom the duke was 
believed to have had an unlawful affection. But all these 
discoveries amounted only to some passionate expressions 
of the son, and some complaints of the father, who thought 
he was not beloved by the king and his counsellors, and 
that he was ill used in not being trusted with the secret 
of affairs. However, all persons being encouraged to bring 
informations against them, sir Richard Southwel chsMrged 
the earl of Surrey in some points of an higher nature ; 
which the earl denied, and desired to be admitted, accord- 
ing to the martial law, to fight, in his shirt, with sir Jli- 
chard. . But, that not being granted, he and his father 
were committed prii^oers to the Tower on the -12th of 
December 1646 ; and the earl, being a commoner, was 
brought to his trial in Guildhall, on the 13th of January 
following, before the lord chancellor, the lord mayor, and 
other commissioners; where he defended himself with 
great skill and address, sometimes denying the accusa- 
tions, and weakening the credit of the witnesses against 
him, and sometimes interpreting the words objected to him 
in a far different sense from what bad been represented. 
For the point of bearing the arnis of Edward the Confessor, 
he justified himself by the authority of the heralds. And 
when a witness was produced, who pretended to repeat 
some high words of his lordship's, by way of discourse, 
which concerned him nearly, and provoked the witness to 
re urn him a braving answer; the oarl left it to the jury to 
JLC^^e whether it was probable that this man should speak 



HOWARD. 231 

thus to hitDf and be not strike him again. In oonclusion, 
he insisted upon his innocence, but was found guilty, and 
had sentence of death passed upon him. He was beheaded 
on Tower-hill on the 19th of January 1546-7; and his 
body interred in the church of All Hallows Barking, and 
afterwards removed to Framlingham, in Suffolk. 

Such is the account drawn up by Dr. Birch for the *' lU 
lustrious Heads," from Anthony Wood, Camden, Herbert, 
Dugdale, «id Burnet's History of the Reformation. The 
principal errors, (corrected in this transcription,) are his 
making the earl of Surrey sen to the second duke of Nor* 
folk *, and the duke of Richmond natural son to Henry the 
Seventh. 

His next> biographer to whom any respect is due was 
the late earl of Orford, in his Catalogue of ** Royal and 
Noble Authors.** : The account of Surrey, in this work, de- 
rives its chief tnmt from lord Orford*s ingenious expla* 
nation of the sonnet on Geraldine, which amounts to this, 
that Geraldine was Elizabeth (second daughter of Grerald 
Fitzgerald earl of Kildare), and afterwards third wife of 
Edward Clinton earl of Lincoln; and that Surrey proba^ 
biy saw her first at Hunsdon-house in Hertfordshire, where, 
as she was second cousin to the princesses Mary, and 
Elizabeth, who were educated in this place, she might 
have been educated with them, and Surrey, as the com-? 
panion of the duke of Richmond, the king's natural son, 
might have had interviews with her, when the duke went 
to visit his sisters.— -Ail this is ingenious; but no light is 
thrown upon the personal history of th^ earl, and none of 
the difficulties, however obvious, in his courtship of Gerald- 
ine removed, or even hinted at; nor does lord Orford 
condescend to inquire into the dates of any event in hia 
life. 

Mr. Warton commences his account of Surrey by ob- 
serving, that ^* Lord Surrey's life throws so much light on 
the character and subjects of his poetry, that it is almost 
impossible to consider the one, without exhibiting a few 
anecdotes of the other.'' He then gives the memoirs of 
Surrey almost in the words of lord Orford, except in the 
following instances : 

* The same error appears on the second son Henry earl of Northamp- 
llioniimeut erected to the earl's me- too. Dugdale admits the error in p. 
Biory at FrsailiDfbAiD in 1612, by bis 268^ but corrects it in p. 274. vol. IL 



i«3! ttOWARDL 

^Afrieitclsfaipofthe elosesi kind ooBUil6tf€iiig Itft^vMH^ 
thene ,\rwo illustrioas yowthsr [Smrtey and th^ defkid dl 
Riehmond)^ abotit the year 15B<^ tbey were both removed 
t9 ibardinal 'WdUdy's coiiieg^ at Oxtfo«d.--^Tm) y6ar» after^ 
Wards (153^2) for the purpose of ibcqoiiini^ every dccocil-^' 
plishment of aiv etegant edocauoiiy the cavl a(5co«ftptnii<ed^ 
his noble friend and fdlow-papil mta Fra«eie, wbftr« ttbey 
received kiog HeUry, on bi» arHval at Calais t& i^h^ 
Francis I. with a most magtiificentt fBtitiM. The Mwd^ 
riiip of these two yoilng noblemen was soon £{rr«ng«ben^d{ 
by a new tie ; for Riehmoiid Ofarried the lady Mal'y flow^ 
srd, Surr^y^s sister. Richmond, However, appears to^ bsvre 
died in the year 1 53^6, about the age of seventeen^ haviit^ 
never cohabited with his wifev it wa» bng before S^irfey 
forgot thd tmtimely losffcf this aqftableyomh, 1^6* flpi^fvdf 
and associate of bis childhood, and who neariy tt^sefivlrted 
himself in gettios, refixietnetit of mitaii^Vf^/' am libiMtt ac^ 
qnisitions^*' 

After adiopting brd Qrf<ird*s expktiammi iif the soitftet 
dn Oeraldine, Mr. Warton pifoceedi& to Stivt«y^» travels^ 
beginning with a circtnofstance on wiiich miicb inore zMHen^ 
tien onght to hsv€ been besto<wed% 

^^ It is net precisely known a€ what period tke isari df 
Surrey began his travels; They have the ^ir of aveiMi^Mi 
He niadie the tpnr of Europe in the trae spirit of ebivtftty, 
a/nd with the ideas of an Amadis: pmclafiming the ^nprnr-^ 
ralleled charms of his mistresa, and prepared to^ defend the 
cause of her beauty with the weapons of km'gbt-«rfimtry< 
Nor was this adventaroos journev perfotmed witltoUt the 
if^terveiition of an enebanter. The first city i^ Itaty whUiH 
he proposed to visit was Florence, the eapttal of l^scfa^y^ 
and the original seat of the ancestors of hi^ Geraldine. M 
his way thither, he passed a few days at the emper^'^ 
court ; where he-became aoqnainti^d WithGdrnelins Agrippa, 
8 celebrated adept in natural magie. This - viatonai^ 
phil(»opfaer fthewed our bero^ in a mirror of gVa^, a living 
im^age of Geraldiiie, reclining on aceoch, iiidt, andread^^ 
ing one of his most tender sonnet* by a.WAxeti taper. 
His imagination, which Wanted net the flattering frepfis* 
sentations and artificial incentives of iltusiofi, was heated 
anew by this interesting and affecting spectacle. Inflamed 
with every enthiisiastn of the most romantic pftssion, he 
hastened to Florence : and on bis arrival, iminedisiiely,pttb-^ 
Ushed a defiance against any person who could handle a 



H O W A R Di- f St 

kade tod w«s in lave, «tictlMr Cbristnm^ Jeiv^ Tiit^, 8i^ 
racen, or Cteikat^ wbd sbouM f)resu«e t^ dis)mte tkt so* 
fMviorkj of Geraldine^s beaoty; At the Iftdy was pt%^ 
lerrded to be at Tii9emn*03GtriK«io»> tlie pride. •£ the ¥\o^ 
rdittineft wa» liattered oft cbis occaikMi' : and the grand d^kt 
of Toseslny permkted a general mid: anoMlested irrgresA 
into his domnioM of the combatants of all oooairies, tSt 
ibis impettaM% trial sbottld be decided. Tbe chatienge waa 
aecapted, and the ear) victorioM, The skMd wbicb be 
ffPtaef^^A to tbe dtibe before tbe loamsfnent began, is 
esrbibked in Vertue^i vakiaUe plate of tbe Arotidel ftimily, 
and was actuaUy in the possessioii of tbe late duke of 
Worfotk. 

^ These berofc vanities did not, bowever, so totaHy en^ 
gross the time wbfcb Syrrey spef»t in Italy, as to alienate 
bis mind frbm letters : fa# sto<iied with the greatest sttc« 
eess a eritieal knowle^e of tbe Italian tongue ; and, that 
be might give new lustre to the name of Geraldin^ attilineid 
a jost taste for tbe pecnltar graces of the Italian poetry. 

^ He was i^called to Eag^nd for some idk tems^n by 
Hbe king, much soooev than be expaeted : and he returnea 
koMe, tbe most elegant traveller, tbe tmmtfoike lover j th^ 
V^st tearneid noblesnan, and tbe aiost aecoinpltsbed gefi« 
tteoifan, of his age. Dexterity in tthing, and gracefulness 
in maitagtog a horse nnder arms, were excellencies nofT 
viewed with a critical eye, and practised with a high degnee 
of emubitiofs. In 1340, at a tournameivt held in tiie pre^ 
senee of ther coort at Westminster, aad in which the prin* 
cipal of the nobility were engaged, Surrey was distin- 
gaididd above tbe rest for bis address in tbe use and! ex- 
ereise of arms; But bis martial skill was ftot solely dis- 
played ia tbe parade and ostentation of these domestic 
oombats. In 1542, he marched into Scotland, as a chief 
coasmander io his father's army ; and was conspicuous for 
kis coaduct and bravery at the memorable battle of 
Flodden-field^ where James tbe Fourth of Scotland was 
killed.** 

Tbe only other passage in which Mr. Warton improves^ 
upon bis authorities is a veiy proper addition to the above 
j^ccount of lord Surrey^s travels. 

<^ Among these anecdotes of Surrey^ s life, I had almost 
forgot to mention what became of his amour with the fair 

* It is perhaps iinneeessary topofnt tkrs story, for which we are entirely 
•at the many littJe embeiltsbments in indebted to Mr. Warton's elegant pen« 



234 



H O WAR D. 



QeraMine. We lament to find that Surrey^s devotion to 
this lady did not end in a wedding, anSl that all hi& gal* 
lantries and rerses availed so little. No memoirs^ of that 
incurious age have informed us whether her beauty was 
equalled by her cruelty; or whether her ambition pre- 
yailed so far over her gratitude, as to tempt her to prefer 
the solid glories of a more splendid title and ample fortune 
.to the challenges and the compliments of so magnanimous^ 
^o faithful, and so eloquent a lover. She appears, how- 
.evei;, to have been afterwards the third wife of Edward 
Clinton, earl of Lincoln. Such also is the power of time 
and accident over amorous vows, that even Surrey himself 
outlived the violence of bis passion. He married Frances, 
daughter of John earl of. Oxford, by whom he left several 
children. . One of his daughters, Jane countess of West- 
moreland, was among the teamed ladies of that age, and 
became, famous for her knowledge of the Greek and Latin 
I$tnguages." 

It is truly wonderful that lord Orford and Mr. Warton^ 
delighted as they were with the ^* romantic air'* of lord 
Surrey's travels, : should by any enchantment have been 
prevented from inquiring whether the events which they 
have placed between 1536 and 1.546, when lorH Surrey 
died, were at all consistent with probability. Ua^^ they 
made the slightest inquiry into the age of lord Surrey, al- 
though the precise year and day of his birth might not 
have been recoverable, they could not have failed to ob« 
tain such information as would have thrown a suspicion on 
the whole story of his knight-errantry. 

The birth of lord Surrey may be conjectured to have 
taken place some time between 1515 and 1520, probably 
the former, or at least earlier than 1520*^ He was, it is 
universally agreed, the school companion of the duke of 
Richmond, who died in 1536, in his seventeenth year, and 
if we allow that Surrey was two or three years older, it will 



* Id hift letter addressed to the 
I^rds of the Coancil when be vms in 
the Tower, previous to his trial and 
execution, we find him more than once 
pleading his youth. He requests their 
lordships to " impute his error to the 
farie of rechelesse youlh,** — " Let my 
ya»/h unpractised in durance, obtain 
pardop."— «• Neither am I the first 
young nmn that, foreroed by fury. 



hath enterprised such things as be bath 
afterwards repented." These expres- 
sions give some countenaitce to ib« 
supposition that* the date on, his por* 
trait in the picture-gallery at Oxford is 
nearly right. See the above letter in 
the Historical Anecdotes of the Howard 
Family ; or in Mr. Park's valuabi* 
edition of the Royal and Noble Au- 
thors. 



H O W A B D- M5 

fiot much affect the .bi^ probability that he urits a very 
young oian at the time irhen bis biographers ix^ade him fall 
in love with Geraldioet. and maintain her beauty at Flo* 
rence. None of tbe portraits of Surrey, as far as the pre- 
sent writer has beeu able toascertaioi mention his age, ex^ 
cept that in the picture gallery, at Oxford, on which ia 
inscribed, that he was beheaded in '^ 1547, sat 27.** Thd 
inscription, indeed, is in a hand posterior to the date of 
the picture (supposed to be by Holbein), but it may. have 
been the hand of some successful inquirer. None of the* 
books of peerage notice his birth or age, nor are these cir- 
cumstances inserted on his monumet^t at Framlingham* 
Conjecture, it has been already observed^ supposes him to 
have been born some time between 1515 and 1520. If 
we take the earliest of these dates, it will still remain that 
his biographers have either crowded more events into his 
life than it was capable of holding, or tbat they have de- 
layed his principal adventures until they become unde-^ 
serving of credit, and inconsistent with his character. 

Mr. Warton observes, that '^ it is not precisely known 
at what period tbe earl of Surrey began his travels;*' but 
this is a matter of little consequence io refuting the ac- 
count usually given of those travels, because ail bis bio* 
graphers are agreed that he did not set out before 1536, 
At this time he had ten years only of life before him^ which 
have been filled up in a very extraordinary mauner. - First, 
he travels over a part of Europe, vindicating the beauty 
of Geraldine — in 1540 be is celebrated at the justs at 
Westminster — in 1542 be goes to Scotland with his father's 
army-^-in 1543 (probably) be is imprisoned for eating 
flesh in lent — in 1544 — 5, he is commander at Boulogne— 
and lastlyj, amidst all these romantic adventures, or serious 
events, he has leisure to marry tbe daughter of tbe earl of 
Oxford, and beget five children, which we may suppose 
would occupy at least five or' six of the above ten years, 
and those not the last five or six years, for we find hioi a 
widower a considerable time before his death. Among 
f^her accusations whispered in the ear of his jealous sove* 
teigUi one was his continuing unnuirried (an expression 
which usually denotes a considerable length of time) after 
the period when a second marriage might be decent, in 
order that he might marry the princess Mary, in the event 
of the king*s death, and. so disturb the succession of Kd- 
ward. 



f» HOWAll'D. 

The pheing 4f^ these e^ts m thi^ series w^uld rMid^ 
the stocy of iMs kMg;bl*«i*mntry tdrffifeiently ittiproliabte^ 
wer6 ire left wkhcMit any iiiforiiiatipn respectiiyg tfae date 
of Sumy'a mamage^ b«it that erent neaders the whole tm^ 
possible, if we wii^ to preserve an j yes^peet fer the c<m* 
sistency of hi» chaFactfer. ' S^trej was ae^ally mametl 
before the corameiiGdnlent ef his trai^ m pwsuit or itt 
defence of Geraldine^a bea«ly. His eldest son, Thoniasy 
tkird dvfce of Norfolk) was eighteen yeaH old when m 
grandfiatfaer died in 1554. He was eonsequently born in 
1536, and his father, it is surely reasonable to svrppose^ 
W90 noanieid in 1535*. It wot»tdy therefore, be umreces* 
sary to examine the story of Snrrey's roEBantic travels any 
&rther, if we bad not soine collateral authorities whieb^ 
nay still show that whatever may be wrong in the pre* 
sent statement, it is certain that there is nothing right in 
the comnion accounts, which ha^e been read and copied 
widiottt any suspicion. 

If it be said that Surrey's age is not exactly ki^own, and 
therefore allowing 1536, thie date of his travels, to be er- 
roneous, it is possible that he might have been enamouretl 
of Geraldine long before this, and it is possible that his 
travels might have cooimenced in 1 526, or atiy other pe- 
riod founded on this new conjecture. This, however, is 
as im^probable as all the rest of the story, for it can be de« 
cidedly proved that there was no time for Surrey's gal«> 
lantries towards Geraldine, except riie period which his 
biographers, however absnrdly, have assigned, namely^ 
when be was a married man. The fkther of lady Eliza- 
beth the supposed Geraldine, married in 1519, one of 
the daughters 6f Thomas Grey, marquis of Dorset, and 
by her bad 6ve children, of whom Elizabeth was the 
fourth, and therefore probably not born before 152S or 
1524. If Surrey's courtship, therefore, must be carried 
farther back, it must be carried to the nursery ; for even 
in 1536, when we are told he was her knight-errant, she 
could not have been more than eleven or twelve years old. 
Let us add to this a few particulars respecting Geraldine'^s 
husband. She married Edward lord Clinton. He was 
born^in 1512, was educated in the cxHirt, and passed h'w 

> If, aooo^tqg to tbe pteceHug siipp«»itioii, there a r« not «t»ti|i£ iir? 

coojecUire, he was born ia 1515, he stances of as early marriages in. past 

was now twenty 3rear8 of age; bat had times. The duke of ftichmond, w^ 

he been bora in 1520, tbe more usual find, died a married man at sevaileep. 



youth in th^^se «fe|tgiu(uif»ntaiid r^aatB^k i^^ 
dilFtingiiiisbed the banning of ^Heni^ VUL'fi jteJ^B^, but 
did not 9fipituc ait;a^ub^4c chariuatar until J|j»44> «th0n iie 
was thirty-ttiKo y ^rs of «m;e^ G^raldine about tweat^-loMiv 
and SttKi^y wilLin 'two y^ac^ of bpa daatji, ainl mwt pmr 
bftli^y « m^ow^. This earl of, Lkicoln bad tl^ee Rvi?«is 
the date of bis marriage with any of them is tiot.^kaowii^ 
99^ bow long tbi^y liv€4» but Geraldine was the Abiv4> 'the 
oa]^ one l^y wbo«i he bad no dvldnen^ and w^bo ««im\it4 
his death> wbiich took /plaoe in 13M^ thkty-ejgfat jream 
a^fitec the 4eath of Siuvrey. M£* Warto% iti hi» earneat 
d»iiiBe'iia oonneot ber with Sorifey^ insinuates that abe aright 
liaye beeu oHber pruel, or that ber ^^afnb«tio(n pveimlad 

r so trover her gratituide as to teaipt har to fprefer ibhio 
9pUd glories of a more ^endid tiiie <and aaaple- fartuna^ 
|o tbe/Qballen^s^a»d the comprlidaaents of so oiagnaninaoiis^ 
so iaithfuJ, alid so eloquent a loveri.^' On this it is only 
ueceiKsaitjr to ifofnacHy that the. lady^s ambkion might ibame 
l^en 8(9 highly gratified by. inarrying theacootnpUisbad«and 
gallant. Sufrey, the heir of the dadke of Iiiorfolk^ as!byal« 
^ing h^rsolf to a JooUevaan of inforior talent and.xank^ 
Bat df his two oonjectufes^, Mr. Wmiqb seems mosjt id 
adhere, to. 'thai; of orH^lty» forheadds^ that ^^ Surrey him** 
self outUvod bis amorous ^ows, and aoarvied tbe daughter 
of the earl, of OKford«" This, howievcar, ia as Httle de** 
serving of serious examination^ as.t^ ridict^lous story ^of 
Cornelius A^rippa showing Gecaldioe in ^aiglass,. wbicb 
Aiithony Wood found in Draytom'd ^^'lleroical £piatle/' 
OX probably^ as Mr» Park thinks, took it fwnx Nash's 
fenciAil *^ 'Life of Jack Wilton^" :publiBhed in l&94fy 
where, under the character of his hero, be professes to 
have tvavelied to the emperor^s cou^^t as page to the earl of 
l^ucrey. But it is unfortunate for this snory, wherosoevor 
borrowed) that Agrippa was no moi^e a ooq^urer than any 
other learned man of his time^ and that bae died at Gre<- 
noble the y-ear before Surrey is said to have set out on his 
rpooantic expedition. Drayton tias made. a similar mistake 
in giving to Surrey, as one of the companiona of hi^ 
^•oyi^S^f tbe.great sir Thomas .More, who was beh^ded in 

^l^5Z5f a year likewise before Surrey sot out Poetioal 
authorities, although not wholly to be rejected, are of all 
others to be received with the greatest-caution, yet it'ims 
probilbly Drayton's ^' Heroical .i£pistle * " which led IVIr^ 

V aeeJ)r»yton»s Wotks/lrol. TV. p. ^, et seqq. 



«38 HOWARD. 

Walton into so egregiotis a blunder as that of our poet 
being present at Flodden-field, in 1513. Dr. Sewell, in* 
deed, in the short memoirs prefixed to bis edition of Sur-* 
rey's Poems, asserts the same ; but little credit is due to 
the assertion of a writer who at the same time fixes Sur- 
rey's birth in lif20, seven years after that memorable 
battle was fought. 

It i^ now time to inquire whether the accounts hitherto, 
given can* be confirmed by internal evidence. It has been 
so common to consider Geraldine as the mistress of Surrey, 
that all his love-poems are supposed to have a reference 
to bis attachment to that lady. Mr. Ws^rton begins bis 
narrative by observidg, that ^' Surrey's life throws so much 
light on the character and subjects of his poetry, tbal it is 
ainiost inipossibte to consider the one without exhibiting a 
few anecdotes of the other." Wcbave already seen wbat 
those anecdotes are, how totally irreconcileable*with pro-^ 
bability, and how Bmply refuted by the dates which hisi 
biographers, unfortunately for their story, have uniformlj 
furnished. When we look into the poems, we find the 
celebrated ioivnet to Geraldine, the only specious foun- 
dat](>n for his romantic attachment ; but as that attachment 
and its consequences cannot be supported without a con* 
tinual violation of probability, and in opposition to the 
very dates which- are brought to confirm it, it seems more 
9afe to conjecture that this sonnet was one of our authorV 
earliest productions, addressed to Geraldine, a mere child,^ 
by one wbo was only not a child, as an effort of youthful, 
gallantry, in one of his interviews with her at Hunsdoki. 
Whatever credit may be given to this conjecture, for 
which the present writer is by no means anxious, it is cer- 
tain that if we reject it, or some conjecture of the same 
import, and adopt the accounts given by his biographers, 
we cannot proceed a single step without being opposed by 
invincible difficulties. There is no other poem in Surrey's 
collection that can be proved to have any reference to 
Geraldine, but there are two with the same title, viz. ^^ The 
Complaint of the absence of heir lover being upon the sea,'* 
which are evidently-written in the character of a wife, la- 
menting the absence of her husband, and tenderly alluding 
to •* his faire litle Sonne," Mr. Warton, indeed, finds 
Geraldine in the beautiful lines beginning ^< Give place, 
ye lovers, here before,'^ land from the lines ^^ Spite drave 
me into Boreas reign/' infers that her anger *^ drafVe hin 



HOWARD. 29t 

into a colder climate,** with what truth may now be left to 
the reader. But another of bis conjectures cannot hie 
passed over. " In 1 544," he says, " lord Surrey was fields 
marshal of the English army in the expedition to Boulogne^ 
which he toolc. In that age, love and arms constantly 
went together; and it was amid the fatigues of this pro« 
tracted campaign, that he composed his last sonnet, called 
* The Fansie of a Wearied Lover.'* Bat this is a mere 
supposition. The poem^ of Surrey are without dates, and 
were arranged by dieir first editor without any attention 
to a matter of ^o much importance. The few allusion^ 
made to his personal history in these poems are very dark| 
but in some of them there is a train of reflection which 
seems to indicate that misfortunes and disappointments 
had dissipated his Quixotism, and reduced him to the som- 
ber and serious tone of a man whose days bad been^'few 
and evil.'* Although he names his productions songs and 
sonnets, they have less of the properties of either than of 
the elegiac strain. His scripture-translations appear to be 
characteristic of his mind and situation in his latter days*. 
What unless a heart almost broken by the unnatural con- 
duct of his friends and family, could have induced the 
gay and gallant Surrey, the accomplished courtier and 
soldier, to console himself by translating those passages 
froai Ecclesiastes which treat of the shortness and, uncet'^ 
talnty of all human enjoyments, or those Psalms, which 
direct the penitent and the forsaken to the throne of aU 
mighty power and grace ? Mr. Wartoii remarks that these 
translations of Scripture *^ show him to have been a friend 
to. the ^reformation ;" and this, which is highly probable, 
may have been one reason why his sufferings were em- 
bittered by the neglect, if not the direct hostility of his 
bigotted father and sister. The translation of the Scriptures 
into prose was but just tolerated in his time, and to fami- 
liarize them by the graces of poetry must have appeared 
yet more obnoxious to the enemies of the reformation. 

Although the present writer has taken some liberties with 
the Historian of English poetry, in his account of Surrey*a 
life, he has not the presumption to omit Mr. Warton's ele- 
gant and just criticism ou his poems. ** Surrey for just« 
ness of thought, correctness of style, and purity of ex- 
pnession, may justly be pronounced the«.first English clas- 
sical poet. He unquestionably is the first polite writer of 
love- versus ia ourlanguag;e, although it must be allowed thyx 



t$9 II O .W :A A O. 

|d|6rv«!iii4t#li«ldiigjnAtim boMtf im sbpae of our faKw-rcneft 
writfeeD mnaek ewHer Abaa Swrroy 's.'* It itt also >«nitb j icC 
iKi^0€^; that while all "hi^ hiagmpiieiia aen A liiai 4o Sfealy 9 
^i^ly k» poelry, Mr. Waitoo finds imibing m bu unrks «f 
^t lamtapbjfiaical cast whipb muk$ the Ifcaliw fK>ctts iUk 
aii{if)0Md TiuaatOfs, ^spoeiaUy PeJaoaroh. -^^Sanfey^a aemv- 
QMOli^ 91^ ifar thcoBost pa«t mdnisid and un«fiariKrfs ^aoBinf 
fyum his <)vviri.fealiagSy and <filjictalail by the present ciccum- 
MaAcea* Hia >p€Mrjr k Ji4ike iiiueaabanaaied by ksroad (Bi»> 
toiiWiWj .or elabonate conaeits* If etar aatkor copies iie»> 
traisoh/ i t /is Petrarch'^ battermaauEier:; wlieD he descemte 
jhomi hia Fialenie ajbpateactiDns^ hi» ittfiaeocsits ^ tpaasi ea ^ 
h«i eiKstggeiBted oompllhiiaatsy and ifaas ftkiy upoia tofapatte 
SMiioiealSi into a tnack of tendemess^ ssoafkhcstfy, ^Jan^ na^ 
tijiae^ J^oaaroh would b$gvfa been a J)elter ppet bnd iiefaNH 
e. worse adhohur. Oih: ambor'a aniod was nuat iboo anoab 
ev«r-iaid by iearaiag.'^ 

Thia traoslattmi of the 'two fa}dks^ef the Aiieid is ** eae« 
culted iPfiAh (fickaiaty^ srithoiaE a ptoaeic servility:; tbe^ietaaa 
is xtften fo^tkal, aod ^e ^enofiaaaion varbsid mtli .paofmr 
pauaes/V.. lis pianoipdl. merit, ibom&ireBf is ahat of bmn^ 
ibe 6|rat apeciaaeii in tlie >£liigJishJa(Bguage» of blaqh vtrse^ 
whach iwas At tibat^iime >gvowHig fasdiioniLbde.iii the itaUam 
p!ael;ry» It is rei^y padbable 4&at beintettded to hov^ tiiaiw*^ 
lated t^e ifabalei .aad- haa lis so loousb tmene <elegaiit and iOCHu 
vedt in this than ^ia bk other aianslationa, stfaafcntbe Eiieid 
af^earsiia bajre.bceB,tifae!pitiduBaioB jo£ hiBibappsa[*;4a3^ 

Tbe (fidelkb^ whioh Mi% Weurton aatribaies to abe traiiaku> 
lioDsVfrom Vargid^ our auahor bas'noa fMneaenred in bis^rasia*^ 
lations (from Scriptuae, which sure very Ubenad, fand* by 
f^equeat oinissions^atYd. a difi'imrent arraiigeiiieot, >li]ade to 
auit his aituation.aiid feelings at the time they weve iwrit^ 
tee, 'which -Hias probably Kvbea.be was in the Toiaer. 

. Surrey^s jaoe^Bsajirere in bigh.repul»iion among bis coti** 
lemporaiies and imooediate isaocesaors, who xaied with eaob 
other in eoooapiinteiits to^tatgenius, gaUaotry, and .penotiirl 
WQVtb. ^Xhey imeseffiiatfwtnted in 1657, by Tioaiel, in<44;o, 
with tbe .titie of ^' ^oages.and aounettes by due riglit bo*- 
aoiable .Henry Havard, jiafeejearl of 'IBorrey^ land otbev.'^ 
Senreral edition^ of 6he same followed nn M&65j. liSiG?, '1 $69^ 
j.H'M'y 1^65, and iShl, 80 laanj; editions prorea degree 
ofipoputarity which fell to <tfae lot of very few poema>of 
that agfo* iBut after the time of Eiiaabetb they became 
fradttaUyohsourey and we find no modevn edition until 



HOWARD. 2«l 

p9p^M iiieideutal notice of tiim (in Windsor-Forest), at^ 
Ibe ** Oranville of a former age,'' induced the booksellers 
t» employ Dr. Sewell to be tbe editor of Surrey 's^ Wjat's^ 
and the poems of uncertain authors. But the doctor per** 
ibrtoed his laA with so liule knowledge of tbe language^ 
th^ this is perhaps tbe most incorrect edition extant of 
any ancient poet It would have been surprizing had it 
contributed to reviye his memory, or justify Pope's com^* 
parison and eulogium. 

The translation of the second and fourdi book of the 
Soeid was pubKshed in i557, but it seems doubtful whe« 
tber together or separately. The translations of the Psalms, 
Scclesiastes, and the few additional original poems, were 
printed*, but not published, many years ago, hy Dr. 
Percy, from a MS.f now in the possession of Thomas Hill, 
esq. A more correct and perfect edition of Surrey may 
soon be expected from Dr. Nott.^ 

HOWARD (Hbnry), earl of Northampton, second 
son of the preceding, but unworthy of such a father, was 
born at Sboltisham in Norfolk about 1539. He was edu* 
cated at King^s college, and afterwards at Trinity-hall, 
Cambridge, where he took the degree of A. M. to which 
he was also admitted at Oxford, in 1568. Bishop Godwin 
says, his reputation for literature was so great in the uni« 
versity, that he was esteemed ^* the learnedest among the 
nobility; and the most noble among the learned.'' Ha 
^as at first,, probably, very slenderly provided for, being 
often obliged, as Lloyd records, ^' to dine with the cjiatr 
of duke Htimpbrey.'* He contrived, however, to spend 
some years in travel ; but on his return could obtain na 
favour at. court, at least till tbe latter end of queen Eliza* 
beth's reign, which was probably owing to hi^ connections. 
In 1597, it seems as if he was in some power (perhaps^ 
)iowever, only through the influence of his friend lord £s* 
sex}/ because Rowland White applied to him concerning^ 
sir Robert Sydney's suits at court. He was the grossest of 
flatterers, as appears by his letters to his patron and friend 

' # The whole imprettton irtt oon- tioo of the Nugv Aatiqa«. In his 

filmed iu the destractive fire which, edition of the Royal tnd Noble Author*, 

look place in Mr. Nichols's premisesy are some interestint^ particaUrs re- 

tth» 1808. speeting the Tations editions of Sur- 

; f This MS, descended from the Har- vey's Poems. 
riB|tQii family. See Mr. Parkas edi- 

* Johnson and Qhalmers'e BogUsh Poets. 

VouXVIlI. It 



M4 HOWARD. 

to he readly on any emergency, reposed so entrre a coviH^ 
deace in the earl of Nottingham, that she comtnitled to 
btmtbe chief command. But these forces behig again 
difbaiided a few days -after, he had no opportunity for ac* 
lion until 160^1, when he suppressed the earl of Essex '9 
insorrectfon. The same year he was appointed one of the 
commissioners for exercising the office of earl marshal of 
Sngiand; and in the beginning of 1602-3, during tbd 
queen^a last illness, he was deputed by the council, with 
the l<9rd kieep^r Egvrton and secretary Cecil, to know bet 
maj/esty^s pleasure in referenee to the succession, which 
Ae dedlared in favour of Jaimes king of Scotland. - 

' -Upon the accession of that king to the throne of Eng^ 
l«nd^ the earl was continued in his post of lord admiral^ 
«nd at the coronation was made lord high steward of Eng« 
land for that oecasioti ; and the year following, upon the 
leoewing the comaiission to seven lords for exercising 
the office of earl marshal, he was appointed one of that 
Bdmbdr. In 1604 he was one of the commissionei^ to 
treat of an union between England and Scotland; and in 
1605, aent ambassador to tbe court of Spain, attended with 
a splendid retinue, who being, as Wilson says, ** persons 
of qiiali^^ accoutred with all ornament!! suitable, were tbe 
wore admired by tbe Spaniards for beauty and excellency, 
%y bow nimch tbe Jesuits had made impressions in tbe ▼ul'* 
fjat bpitfloii, tbat since tbe English left the Roliian reli'^ 
gioni they were tnmaformed into airange horrid shapes, 
irink heads and taib like beasts and monsters." His em- 
ployasent tbeve was to take the oath of tbe king of Spairi 
lo ike trea^ of peace latcAy made with hm ; amd he bad a 
jialiicabir inatruction, that in performing that ceremony, 
which was most likely to be in the royal ehi^cll, he should 
f hwf% ^special care, tbat it might be done^ not in the fcire* 
^tiooii in the time of mass, but rather in the afternoon, At 
tirbich time' tbe Momtsh sendee is most free from supersti^ 
tion. During this embassy, the king of Spain did mdrts 
iKmoor to tbe earl than eter be huo dond'to any person in 
bis employBlent in that kingdom ; and (he people in gen^ 
lal shewed all possible regard for b)m, as bis lordship's be^ 
jbaviour there justly deserved ; and at bia departure from 
^eocde in June tbe same year, he had prese»ta made bim 
by that king in plate, jewels, and horses, to tl^e value of 
$!0,000/. besides the gold chains and jiewela given to bia 
'^tendants. Upon the marriage of the lady Eibabetb.t^ 



HOWARD. $41 

^ ileclor. Palatine, February 14, 1612-13, tbc| ^ of 
Nottingham with the duke of Lenox cofulucted ber ^%b* 
Dena frofB the cbapel; and bad the honour of convoying 
her with a royal navy, to Flushing* He Goutmued lord >igh 
afdaiind of England tilijebruary 6, 1618-19, when finding 
hinself uoable any Icfiger to perform the necessaiy .duties 
pf that great eaploymeiit, which he bfid ei^oyed abo«4 
thirty^tfaree yours with the highest applause, be fvoluih' 
tarUy resigned it to his nwyesty \ who bei^ig sensible ^of ijbi^ 
ins p o r tamt services: which be bed done Jjina nation, remitted 
him. A debt owing to the crown of 18,000/. seuled mpeii 
hi» ft pension of 1000/. a year for life, atkl granted hioi 
the place and pnecedenqy of John lilowbray, who had been 
eiwated earl of Nottingham by kic^ Ricbard II. at the tliaMi 
of his coronation. 

, . He died at the age of eighty*etgbt,. leaviiig /rafb^ at 
ev^erlasting memcMrial of his extraordiaa^ry worth, tb^n an^ 
gseat estate to his family ; although be had ei^oyed si^ 
long the poofitahle post of lord admiral. He live^ in ^ 
jttost splendid an4 oaiagAiiicent manner, keeping savjeii 
ataoding houses at.ibe same time; and was always fotiy 
snurd to pvoamte any design servioaable to his ,coQ(»t^ 
J9e expended in severail expeditions gveat sutns out ^: 'hip 
private fortune ; and in the critical year 15^ whieni ^m 
la aurmisey that the Spaniarda wese unable to set saUtba^ 
year, secretary Walsiogbam, by ocdejr of itbe queen^ rWfote 
to him to send back i»ttr of his.4angei|t ships,, ha. desina^b 
that nothing might be arasbly credited in S0 w^eigbty a mfl4h 
tJtr^ and that .he might Jieepr those ships with ihim,, tbqugh 
it ynae jat. his own cost ;. tand in the eicpecUtion toflgdif^ 
)ie, and. the earl^f Easex^ the two <:ofninandidn?,.cofi|ri^ 
^buted ^sery < largely out of their own jestanes* Sir Bob^vt 
Naimtan styles him ^ a good, honest, land brare man ;. ImmI 
4W £or ins person, as g^dly a gentleman i^ any of tbf|t 
•ge^*' and Mr. Osborne tells us, that hb ^^fid^ily wna 
jflspiregnafaie in aelataon to corruption.*' fiy his first wife^ 
^Catharine, da'ugbter to Hensy Cary lord Hunsdooyihieba^ 
tssovsooi and three daubers; and by his second, Macv 
^garet, .danghter to James Stuart earl of. Murray in Scotf 
imody twosoM.^ -) 

^ HO V(f AKD <JoBK), ^ht indefatigable friend of* thia poor 
smd unfortunate, was born at Hackney, in i73€b 



' 1 Bi«r. Brit.-*Birch'8 XItcs.— Lloyd's Statj| Wonbi«s»«->JittSie's Qiit, si 



US HOWARD. 

Ikther^ who kept a carpet-warehouse in Long-lafie, Sinidi* 
field, dying while he was very yoong, left him to the caito 
Vf guardians, by whom be was apprenticed to Mr. Newii^ 
haoi, grandfather to the late aldennan Newnham, a wbote« 
iMtle grocer in the city of London. His constitution ap* 
pearifig too weak for attention to trade, and his father hav^ 
Ittg left bio), and an only sister, in circumstances which 
placed them above the necessity of pursuing it, he bought 
'out the remainder of his indentures before the time, and 
took a tour in France and Italy: On his return, he lodged 
«t the house of a Mrs. Lardeau, a widow, in Stoke-Newing« 
ton, where be was so carefully attended by the lady, that 
though she was many years older than himself, he formed 
ati attachment to her, and in 1752 made her his wife. She 
was possessed of a small fortune, which he generously pre- 
iented to her sisten She lived, however, only three 3rear» 
Hfter their union, and he was a sincere mourner for her 
)oss. About this time be became a fellow of the royal ao- 
tiety, and, in 1756, being desirous to view the state o( 
Lisbon after the dreadful earthquake, he embarked for that 
city.' In this voyage, the Hanover frigate, in which he 
ftailed, was taken by a French privateer, and the inconve- 
niences which he suffered during his subsequent conBue- 
tnent in France, are supposed to have awakened his aym- 
)>athies with peculiar strength in favour of prisoners, and 
to have given rise to his plans for rendering prisons lesa 
pernicious to health. It is supposed, that after his release^ 
he made the tour of Italy. On his return, he fixed himself 
at Brokenhurst, a retired and pleasant villa near Lyming- 
ton, in the New Forest. Mr. Howahl married a second 
time in 1758 ; but this lady, a daughter of a Mr* Leeda^ 
of Croxton in Cambridgeshire, died in chikl-bed of her 
only child, a son, in 1765. Either before or aooD after 
the death of his second wife, he left Lyminvton, and pur- 
chased an estate at Cardington, near Bedfonl, adjoinhq^ to 
that pf his relation Mr. Whitbread. Here he laodi conci- 
liated the poor by giving them employment* hoiMii^ them 
cottages, and other acts of benevolence; and legniariy «u 
tended the congregations of dissenters at Bedford, being 
of that persuasion. His time was also a good deal ooc«* 
pied by the education of his only son, a task far wldeh he 
is said to have been little qualified. Willi all kis benevor 
lence of heart, he is asserted to hare beem d Bi poaed to i^ 
trigid severiQr of discipUne, arisii^ piebiJ% Ifiram a teiy 



HOWARD. 2« 

Utict teose of rectitude, but not well caicuUied to form a 
lender mind to advantage. In 1773, he served the office 
of sberifF, wUch, as be has said bimsdf, '^ brought the dis* 
tress of prisoners more immediately under bis notice,*' and 
led to. his benevolent design of visiting the gaols and other 
places of confinement throughout England, for the sal^e of 
procuring alleviation to the miseries of the sufferers. In 
1774, trusting to his interest among the sectaries at Bed« 
ford, be offered himself as a candidate for that borough^ 
but was not returned ; and endeavouring to gain his seat 
by {>etition, was unsuccessful. He was, however, in the 
same year, examined before the House of Commons, oq 
the subject of the prisons, and received the thanks of the 
house for his attention to them. Thus encouraged, he 
completed his inspection of the British prisons, and ex«*' 
tencled bis views even to foreign countries. He travelled 
with this design, three times through France, four through 
Germany, five through Holland, twice through Italy, once 
an Spain and.Portugal, and once also through the northern 
states, and Turkey. These excursions were taken betweea 
,1775 and 1787. In the mean time, his sister died, and 
left him a coiisiderable property, which be regarded as 
the gift of Providence to promote his humane designs, and 
applied accordingly. He published also in 1777, ^^The. 
State of the Prisons. in England and Wales, with prelimi- 
nary Observations, and an Account of some Foreign Pri- 
sons,^' dedicated to the House of Commons, in 4to. In 
1780 he published an Appendix to this book, with the 
narrative of bjs travels in Italy; and in 1784, republished 
it, extending his account to many other countries. About 
this time, his benevolence had so much attracted the pub- 
. Uc attention, that a large subscription was made for the 
jsttrpose of erecting a statue to his- honour; but he was too 
modest and sijicere to accept of such a tribpte, and wrotci 
kioiself to the subscribers to put a stop to it. ** H^tve I 
notone friend in EngUnci," he said, when be first heard 
of the design, *' that would put a stoj^ to such a proceed-, 
-ingP In. 1789, he published f^ An Account of the prin- 
ciple Lazarettos in Europe, with various Papers relative to*. 
the Plague, together with further Observations on some 
-foreign Prisons, and Hospitals ; and additional remarks oiv 
the present state of tho^ in Great Britain and Ireland.'\ 
. He had published also, iu 1780, a translation qf a French 
, account of the Bastille; wd, in 1789, the duke of Tua^* 
cany's new code of civil law^ with an English translation* 



2«^ ttOWARDJ 

> In hU book on Lazarettot^ hebad aDhooneed histnten^f 
tion of revisiting Kussiai Turkey, and iDme other cOuiiv 
tries^ -aud extending bis tour in the Ea&t*. ^^1 am not in** 
sensible," says he, ** of the dangers tbat must attend sucb 
a jburney. Trusting, however, in the protection of tha& 
kind Providence wbicb bas bitherto preserved me^ I calmly 
and cheerfully ooiainit myself to ^he disposal of unerring 
wisdom. Should it please God to cut off my life in the 
inrosecution of this design^ let not my conduct be oncan* 
didly imputed to rashness or enthusiasm, bet to a serious^ 
deliberate conviction, tbat I am pufssuing the path of duty j^ 
^4nd to a sincere desire of being made an iostrument of., 
more ea^tensive usefulness to my feUow-creatures, than; 
could be expected in the nari^wer circle of a retired life.'* 
He did actually fall a sacrifice to this design ; for in viattingi 
a sick patient at Cherson, who had a malignant epidemnd 
fever^. he caught the distensper, and died, Jan. 20, i%90i 
An honour was now paid to him, whieh we believe is with«^ 
out a precedent : his death was ansiouoced^ in the London 
Gazette. 

Mn Howard wad, in bis own habits of lif<^, rigid^ tem** 
perate, and even abstemious ; subaistiiig entirely,' at one 
time, on potatoes ; at anotbecy chiefly on tea and bread 
and batter ; of course not mixing in convivial society, nee 
accepting invitations to public repasu. His labenni ba^e 
certainly .bad the adniirable effect of drawing th«»at|Bntion of 
this country to. the regnlation of public prisons. * In tommf 
places his improvements have been adopted, and peitiapA^ 
in all our gaols some advantage has been d^ivted from 
them. We may hope that these plnM will terminate in 
such general regulations as will make judicial confifiemenl^ 
instead of the means of confirming and increasing deppa« 
vity (as it has been too generally), the successful inatmrneiit 
of amendment in morality, and ficqniring hahfts of industry* 
While tlie few criminals, and probably very few^ itvbo m»f 
be too depraved for amendment^ will be comfiriled to bii 
beneBcial to tbe community by their labour; and^ being 
advantageously situated in point of health, may snfler 
nothing more than tbat restraint which isneoessaiy lor dbe 
sake of society^ and tbat exertion which they ongbt never 
to have abandoned. Oonndered as the fimt mover of itfaesA 
important plans, Howard will always be honoured with tte 
gratitude of his conntry ; and his monument, lately erected 
in St Pjaml's catb^drali is a proof tbat this gratitude v^PM 



f 
/ 

iilert. Tbe ntottiiaie^t k at tha same Ihb^ a noble pt^ot 
of tbeskiUand gooiusof the artist, Mr. Baoon^ and re«^ 
presents Mr. Howard, io a Roman dressy with • look and^ 
attitiide expressire of ben^oleoce and aotmty, holding in 
one hand a scroll of plans for the imptovemMt of prisons; 
hospsftals^ &c* and in the ochiOT a key ; while be is tramp-* 
ling on chains and fetters^ The epitaph oonttias a dietch oS" 
Us life, and conckides in words which we alsoheartUy adopt ; 
'^ He trod an opeb hot unfrequented path to imflsoKtatttyt*^- 
10 the ardent and unremitted exercise of Christian cbsrity** 
May this tribute to his fame excite an emulation of his tntfy 
j^iorions«ehteyements !" To this may be added the eloqnentr' 
eulogiiim. pronounced upon Mr. Howard by Mr. BurkeV ia 
bis '^ Speech at Bristol^ previous to the election in 1780*'! 
Having oecasion to mention him, he adds, ^^ I cannot name 
this gentleman witbont reBiariung, that his labours and 
writings have dcme much to open the eyen and hearts of 
mankind. He haa visited all £orop^-*^ot to survey the 
sumptttomaess of pidaoes» or the statdiness of temples | 
not to make accurate measunements of the remains of an*4 
cient gcaadeur, nor to ibrai a scale of the curiosity of 
flsddem art $ not to collect medal$^ or collate aoanusctiptsi 
^-irbot to dive into the depthaof dungeons ; toplnnge into 
the iofeoaion of hospitals ; to sufvey the manaions ,of 8or<^ 
iiear and pain ; to take the gage arid dimensions of misery^ 
depressioDi and conteoipt; to Iwmenibar the fotf^en^ to 
attend to the neglected, to vMt ^heforsakeiiy and to com*-t 
pant «nd odlate the distresses of all toen in all cooutrieils* 
Hia pfam is oftginal, and it is as full x>i genilis as it is of 
faMnanity* It was a voyage of discOveiy ; a direumnav^^ 
tijon <rf chariiv. < Already the benefit of hia kboutf is felt 
mere or less «n every country ; 1 hope he wilt anticipate 
hia final fewatd, byaeeing all its effects fbllyTealised ih 
hie own* He ^ill recseive, not by retail, but id gross, the 
Inward of those who visit the prisoner ; anid he has so foie4 
stalled and monopolized this branch of charity, thAt there 
wqll bit, I trusty little room to merit by imcfa'ac^ of beote* 
veMce hereafter/' ' 

HOWARD (Sir RoamT}^ an EngUsfa Writer of isbme 
abilities and lisarning, bom Jan. I«6i6^ wias a younger son: 
of* Thomas earl of ficdEvhire, and educated at Magdaleit 



•• « 



1 Aikin's Life of Howard, 8to. •— Accoaot of hi» death, Clarke*! Travela, 



wo H <> W A R D; 

college, Cambridge. DuriDg the civil war he laffisred^ith 
his family, who adhered to Charles I. but at the Reatora-' 
tioQ was made a knight, and chosen for Stockbridge in 
Hattipshire, to serve in the parhament which began in. 
May 1661. He was afterwards made auditor of the ex^ 
chequer, and was reckoned a creature of Charles II. whom 
the mooarcb advanced on account of his faithful services, 
in cajoling the parliament for money. In 1679 he was 
chosen to sen^ in parliament for Castle Rising in Norfolk; 
and re-elected for the same place in 1688. He was a 
strong advocate for the Revolution, and became so pas- 
sional^e an abhorrer of the nonjurors, that be disclaimed all 
manner of conversatiqa and intercourse with pessons of 
that description. His obstinacy and pride procured hki^ 
many enemies, and among them the duke of Bockiogfaam^ 
who intended to have exposed him under the name of 
Bilbea in the ^* Rehearsal," btt afterwards altered hie 
resolution, and. levelled bis ridicule at a much greater 
Dame, under that of Bayes. He was so extremely posi^ 
live, and so sure of being in the right upon every snbject^ 
that Sbadwell the poet, though a man of the same prin* 
tiplies, could not help ridiculing him in his comedy of the 
** Sullen Lovers," tinder the character of Sir Positt^ At^lk 
' In the same play there is a lady Vaine, a courtesan; which 
the wits then Understood t6 be the mistress of m Robert^ 
whom he i^rwards married. He died Sept. S, 169S. .;He 
published, 1. .<< Poems and Plays." 2. *^ The History of 
the Reigns of Edward and Richard II. with reflections and 
characters of their chief ministers and ftivourites ; also a 
comparison of these princes with Edward L ^nd III." 16M^ 
Svo. 3* ^^ A letter to Mr. Samuel Johnson, occasioned by 
a- scurrileus pamphlet, entitled Animadveisions. on Mr; 
Johnson^s answer to Jovian,"- 1692,'8vo. 4. ** The History 
of Religion," 1694, 8vo. 5. << The fourth book of VirgU 
ccanslated," 1660, ^vo. 6. << Statius's Acbilleis translated^'^ 
:1660, 8vo. 

^ £j> WAao HoWAaD, esq. likewise, his brother, exposed him- 
self to the severity of our satirists, by writing bad plays; 
and the hon. Jam^ Howard, probably a relative, wrote 
two plays about the same time, called << All Mistdcen," and 
5' The English Monsieur," which were successful ; but Utdo 
else is recorded of him.' 



V jOibb«r's Liv«i.-i»Biog* Dram.— Nichols's Poems,** Bllii's Sptcimftis.— » 
MtlOoe'8 0rydeii, vol. I. 398, II. 34, in» 145, 155. . 



irOWARD. 251 

HOWAUD (Sawuei), Mus. D. was bt^ught up in the 
king's chapel, and took his degree of doctor of music at 
Cambridge ac the timeof the Installation of theduke of Graf-^ 
ton as chancellor of that university. Dr. Howard had studied 
tmich under Dr. Pepusch at the Charter-house, and was 
well acquainted with the mechanical rules of counterpoint. 
His overture in the ** Amorous Goddess,*^ a happy imita- 
tion of Handel's overture in "Alcina," particularly the 
musette and minuet, was very popular in the theatres and 
public gardens. But his ballads, which were long the de- 
light of natural and inexperienced lovers of music,' had 
the merit of facility ; for this hbnest Englishman preferred 
tiie style of his own country to that of anjr other so mucb^ 
that be never staggered in his belief of its being the best 
in the world, by listening to foreign artists or their pro- 
ductions^ for whom and for which he had an invincible 
aversion. 

He began to flourish 4^bout l^e year 1740, and from that 
time tifU Arne's Vauxhall songs were published under the 
tide of *^ Lyric Harmony," they were the most natural and 
pleasing which oor country could boast. After the decease 
of Michael Christian Pesting, Dr. Howard took the lead 
in managing the affairs of the musical fund-; but not with 
oqual address and intelligence. He was a dull, vulgar^ 
amd unpleasant man ; and by over-rating his own import^ 
ftnce^ and reigning paramount over his equals, he rendered 
the monthly meetings disagreeable, and' cooled the zeal 
of many well-wishers to the society. He long laboured 
under a dropsy^ yet walked about with legs of an enormous 
aise, during aeveral years. But it was not this disorder 
which put an end to hi$ existence at last, but repeated 
paralytic strokes. He died about the year 1783.^ 

HOWE (ChaALES), the author of a very popular book 
of ^^ Devout Meditations,'^ was the third son of John 
Grubham Howe, of Langar in Nottioghamshire, by his 
wife Annabelia, third natural daughter and coheiress of 
Emanuel earl of Sunderland, lord Serope of Bolton. He 
.was born in Gloucestershire in 1661, and during the latter 
end of the reign of Charles II. was much at court. About 
1686 he went abroad with a near relation, who was sent bf 
blames IL as ambassador to a foreign court. The ambas'> 
fadordied; and our author, by powers given to him t<i 

1 f^Mtnefs Hist, of Music^^By the fiame^ ia Kees^s Cyclodfl|dU% 



iSt B O W E. 

 

that effect, eoncloded the business ^ the emlwssy* H^ 
bad an offer of being appointed successor to his friend ill 
his public charac^sr ; but disl&ing the measures that were 
then carried on at courts he declined it, and returned to 
England, where he aoon after married a lady of rank and 
fortune, who, dying m a few years^ left behind her aa 
only daughter, manried afterwards to Peter Bathurst, esq^ 
brother to tb^ first earl Batii^rst. After his lady's death/ 
Mr. Howe lived for the most part in the country, where 
be spent mliny of his Utter years in a close retirement^ 
eonseorated to religiotts meditatioas and eseroises. He 
was a man of good understanding, of an exeknplary I^^ 
and cheerful coiiversatian. He died in i74&i The work 
by wbich be is still remembered, was entitled ^ Deveut 
Meditations; or a collection of thougbts upon reltgioas 
and pbilojsopbical subjects/' ;8vo, and waa first, pubiished 
anotiymously ; but the second edition, at the instance of 
Dr. Young and others, camie out ia 17^2 With the author's 
name. It baaoftsen been. reprinted sinee^ Dr. Yonngasid 
of this book, that be ^Ubould never lay it far out of hit 
reaeh ; for a greater demonstration of a aound bead and 

lincere heart he never 'saw.V 
HOWE (J^HK^ eaf(|.), a relation of the preceding, wni 

tbe younger brother of sir Scroop Howe, of: Nattingbam* 

shire. In the cdnvention«pariiament, wkicfa met at.Wesb^ 

ininsler Jan^ 22, 1^^849, he served for Gifeaoesterj end 

was constantly chosen for that borough, or as a knight of 

Isbe shire for the county of Glonoesterj in. tbe three iast 

parliaments of Mng William, and in tbe three first <^ queen 

Anne. In 1696 he was a strenuous advocate for sir JofaA 

Fenwick; aiid bis; pleadings in behalf of that unfortunate 

gentleman, sfaews his extensive knowledge >of the laws, and 

aversion to unconstitutional measures. In 1699, whence 

aro^' vras reduced, it was principaHy in consideration of 

Mr. Howe's remottstrances, that the Home of Comnonir 

iBigreed to allow half-pay to the. disbanded officers 4 and 

when the partition^treaty was afterwards und^ the consi* 

deration of that house, he e^presaed bis sentiments of itin 

auoh terms^ that king William declared, that if it were not 

Isr tbe dispari^ of tbeirrank^ be would demand satisfaction 

with the si^ord. At the accession of «qi»en Aimey he wna 

«hvorn of her privy •aouncil^pril 2I9 1702 ; and, on Jnne 

7 following, constituted vice-admiral of the county of 

S Gent. Mag. JUXTV.-^BaUer'i Life of fiUdesIey^ p. 350,. 



HOWE. i$$ 

Gloucester. Before the «nd of that ytor, Jan. 4y 170^*3* 
he was constituced paymaster^general of her taiajesty's 
gfuards and garrisons; Macky says of bim, ^* be seemed 
to be pleased with and joined in the Revolution^ and was 
made vice-chaoiberlaia to queen Mary ; but harkig asked 
a grant, which was refused him, and given to lord Port-* 
brtd/he fell from the court, and was all that reign the most 
violent and open antagonist king WiUiam had in thehouse^f 
A great enemy to foreigners settling in England ; most' 
clauses inacts against them being brought in by him. He 
is indefatigable in whatever he undertakes ; witness the old 
East India company, whose cause he maintained till he 
fixed it upon as sure a foot as the new, even wheq they 
thought themselves past recovery. He lives up to what bis 
visible estate can afiord ; yet purcjba^es, instead of running 
in debt. He is endued with good natural parts, attended 
With an unaccountable boldness ; daring io say what -he 
pleases, and will be heard out ; so that be passeth with 
some for the shrew of the bouse. On the queen's acces* 
aton to the throne he was made a privy-eoun^ellor, and 
paymaster of the guards and garrisons. He is a tall^ thii)^ 
pale-faced man, with a very wild look ; brave in his person^ 
hold in expressing himself, a violent enemy tv.a sure friend^ 
and seems to be always in a huny. Near fifty years bid.'* 
Such is the character given of this gentleman in 170^* 
A new privy council being settled May 10, 1708, aceording 
to act of parliament, relating to the union of the two 
kingdoms, he was, among the other great officers, sworn 
into it. He continued paymaster of the guards and garri- 
sons tin after the accession of George I. who appointed 
Mr. Walpole to succeed him on Sept. 23, 1714 : the privy 
touncil being also dissolved, and a new one appointed to 
meet on Oct. 1 following, he was left out of the list. Re- 
tiring to his seat at Stowell in Gloucestershire, he died 
Aere in 1721, and was buried in the chancel of the church 
of Stowell. 

Mr. Howe was author of *' A panegyric on king William/* 
and of several songs and little poems ; and is introduced ii| 
Swift's celebrated ballad " On the Game of Traffic.** He 
married Mary, daughter and coheir of Humphrey Basker^ 
Ville, of Pantryllos in Herefordshire, esq. widow of sir 
Edward Morgan, of Laternam in Monmouthshire, bart^ by 
whom he was father to the first lord Chedworth.^ , 



aS4 HOWE. 

HOW£ (John), a learued fioa*cODfbraii$t cfmoe in the . 
seventeenth century, was a minister's son, and nephew to 
Mr. Obadiah Howe, vicar of Boston in Lincolnshire. He 
was born May 17, 1630, at Loughborough iii Leicester* 
shire, of which town his father was minister, being settled 
there by archbishop Laud, though afterwards ejected by 
that prelate on account of his adherence to the Puritans ; 
upon which he went with his son to Ireland, where they 
continued till the Irish Rebellion hroke out, when -they 
returned to England, and settled in Lancashire, where our 
author was educated in the first rudiments of learning and 
the knowledge of the tongnes. He was sent pretty early 
to Christ college in Cambridge, where he continued till he 
had taken the degree of bachelor of arts, and then removed 
to Oxford, and became bible-clerk of Brazen-nose college 
in Michaelmas term 1648, and took the degree of bachelor 
of arts Jan. IS, 1649. He was made a demy of Magdalen 
college by the parliament visitors, and afterwards fellow ; 
and July 9, 1652, took the degree of master of arts. Soon 
after this he became a preacher, and was ordained by Mr« 
Charles Herle at his church of Winwick in Lancaishire» 
and not long after became minister of Great Torrington in 
Devonshire. His labours here were characteristic of the 
times. He inforiiied Dr. Catamy, that on the public fasts 
it was his common way to begin about nine in the morning 
with a prayer for about a quarter of an hour, in which he 
begged a blessing on the work of the day ; and afterwards 
read and expounded a chapter or psalm, in which he spent 
about three quarters ; then prayed for about an hour^ 
preached for another hour, and prayed for about half an 
hour. After this he retired, and took some little refresh-* 
ment for about a quarter of an hour or more (the people 
singing all the while), and then came again into the pulpit^ 
and prayed for another hour, and gave them another ser* 
mon of about an hour's lengthy and so concluded the ser- 
vice of the day, about four o'clock in the evening, with, 
half an hour or more in prayer. 

In March 1654 he married the daughter of Mr. Georg6 
Hughes, minister of Plymouth. Having occasion to take 
a journey to London, be went as a hearer to the chapel at 
Whitehall. Cromwell was present, and, struck with his 
/ demeanor and person, sent a messenger to inform hiin that 

be wished to speak with him when the service was over, 

la th^ couris^ of the int^rvi^w be desired him to preach 



before bim the following Sunday: he requested to be ex** 
cusedy but Cromwell would not be deoiedy and even an* 
dertook to write to bis eongrogation a sufficient apology 
for his absence from them longer than he intended. This 
led to the appointment of Mr. Howe to the office of his 
domestic cbaplaini and he accordingly removed with his 
family to Whitehall. : Dr. Calamy tells us, that while he 
was in this station, he behaved in such a manner that he 
was never charged, even by those who have been most for- 
ward to inveigh against a number of his contemporaries^ 
with improving his ii^terest in those who then b&d the ma- 
nagement of affairs in their hands, either to the enriching 
himself, or the doing ill offices to others, though of known 
differing sentiments. He readily embraced every occasion 
that offered, of serving the interest of religion and learns, 
ing, and opposing the errors and designs which at that time 
threatened both. The notion of a particular Jaiih pre« 
yailed much at Crom well's court; and it was a common 
opinion among :tbem, that such as were in a special manner 
favoured of God, when they offered up prayers and sup- 
plications to bini for his mercies, either for themselves or 
Qthe;rs, often had such impressions made upon their minds 
and spirits by a divine hand, as signified to them, not only 
in the general that their prayers .would be heard and an- 
swered, but that the particular mercies which were sought 
for would be certainly bestowed ; nay, and sometimes also 
intimated to them in what way and manner they would be 
afforded, and pointed out to them future events befprehand, 
which in reality is the same with inspiration. Mr. Howe 
told Dr. Calamy, that not a little pains was taken to cni-' 
(ivate and support this notion at Whitehall ; and that he 
once heard a sermon there from a person of note, the 
avowed design of which was to defend it. He said, that 
be was so fully, convinced of the ill tendency of such a 
principle, that after hearing this sermon, he thought him^ 
^e\i bound in conscience, when.it came next to his turn 
to preach before Cromwell, to set himself industriously to 
oppose it, and to beat down that spiritual pride and con- 
fidenpe, which such fancied impulses and impressions were 
CLpt to produce and cherish. He observed, while he was, 
in the pulpit, that Cromwell heard him with great atten- 
tion, but would sometimes knit his brows, and discover 
great uneasiness. When the sermon was over, a person 
Zs distinction came to him, and asked him, if he knew 



2^5^ 11 O W EL 

what be had done ? and isignified it to him as hi« apptv*^ 
hension, that Cromwell would be so incensed at that dis- 
cottftei that he would find it vety diflBcult ever to make his 
peaee with him, or secure his favour far the fotm^e. Mr. 
Howe replied, that he had but discharged his conscience, 
and could leave the event with God. He afterwards ob* 
served, that Cromwell was cooler in bis carriage ' to him 
itian before; and sometimes he thought he would ba^'e 
spoken to him of the matter, but nevel* did. 
« Upon the death of Oliver Cromwell, his non Richard 
succeeding him as protector, Mr. Howe stood in the same 
relation to him of chaplain as he had done to the father ; 
and was in his judgment very mnch averse to Richard's 
parting with his parliament, which he foresaw would prove 
his ruin. When the army had set Richard aride, Mr. Howe 
teturned to .his people at Great Torrington, among whom 
he continued till the act of uniformity took place August 
24, 1662, after which he preached for some time in private 
houses in Devonshire. In April 1671 he went to Ireland, 
where he lived as chaplain to the lord Massarene in the 
parish of Antrim, and had leave from the bishop of tbe 
diocese and the metropolitan to preach in the public church 
of that town every Sunday in the afternoon, without sub* 
oiitting to any terms of conformity. la 1675, upon the 
death of Dr. Lazarus Seaman, he was chosen minister of 
his congregation, upon which he returned to England and 
settled at London, where he was highly respected, not 
only by his brethren in the ministry among the dissenters, 
but also by several, eminent divines of the church of Eng- 
land, as Dr. Whichcot, Dr. Kidder, Dr. Fowler, Dr. Lucas, 
and others. In August 1685 he travelled beyond sea with 
tbe lord Wharton, and the year following settled at Utrecht, 
and took his turn in preadiing at the English church in 
that dty. In 1687, upon king James's publishing his 
<< Declaration for Itbertv of coiiscience,*' Mr. Howe returned 
to London, where he oied April 2, 1 705, and was interred 
in the parish church of Allballows Bread*street. 

Mr. Howe, abating his attachment to the family of the 
0sufper, was a man of more moderation than most of hia 
brethren, and as a divine laboured zealously to promote the 
interests of real practical religion, and to diffuse a iipirit of 
candpur, charity, and mutual forbearance, among his dis* 
senting brethren. He was' a man of distingfuished piety 
and virtue^ of eminent inteUectual esdowmeotSi and of 



HO W E- 2« 

•zt^mif learning. Granger says, ** He was one of tfie 
■lost learned and polite writers among the dissenters. His 
reading in divinity was. very extensive : he was a good 
Orientalist, and undel^tood several of the modern Ian- 
gu^es.'' 

Among his works are, 1. <* A Treatise on th^ blessedness 
of the righteous/* 1668, 8vo. 2. ** A Treatise on delight- 
ing ia God,"' 1 674. 3. << Of tboughtfulness for the mor« 
row ;'* and many sermons and discourses on several sub^ 
jects. His whole works were printed in 1724^ 2 vols, folio, 
with a life by Dr. Calamy.* 

HOWE (Josiah), an accomplished scholar of the seven* 
teenth century, was born at Crendon in BuckiiYghamshire, 
aad elected sdiolar of Trinity-college in 1632, of which, 
when B. A he became fellow in 1637. By Hearne, in his 
preface to ** Robert of Gloucester,'' he is called <^ a very 
great cavalier and loyalist, and a most ingenious man.'* 
He appears to have been a general scholar, and in polite 
Ht&ature was esteemed one of the ornaments of the uni- 
versity., In 1 644 he preached before Charles I. at Christ- 
cfaureh cathedral, Oxford ; and the sermon was printed, and 
in red letters (but only thirty copies), of whieh.perhaps the 
only one extant is in the Bodleian library. In 1 646 he was 
created bachelor of divinity by decree of the king, among 
others who were complkneuted with that degree for having 
distiBguished themselves as preachers before the court at 
Oxfofd-. He was soon afterwards ejected from his fellow- 
ship by. the presbyterians, but not in the general expulsion 
in 1648, according to Walker. Being one of the bursars 
of the eoUege, and foreseeing its fate, and having resolved 
at the same time never to acknowledge the authority of 
CroBoiwelFs visitors, he retired, in the beginning of 1648^ 
to acoUegeestate in Buckinghamshire, carrying with him 
many rentals, rolls, papers, and other authentic documents 
belonging to his ofiice. These be was soon after ipduced 
t<» return on a promise of being allowed to retaiahis fel- 
lowship ; but they were no sooner recovered than he was 
expelled, aqd not restored until 1660> . He lived forty-^wo 
years after this, greatly respected, and died fellow of tbo 
coUege, whfre he constantly resided, Aug. 28, 1701, and 
was interred i« die college chapel. Hearne says, ^* He 

^ life by Calamy.r*^o. i>ict.«^?io|^'^it. vol. YlL^i^Bir^'t Tillotsin,— 
WllMm's Hist, of Piiaentios ClM[^itlif9, 

voL.xvni. s 



258 HOW E. 

lived sb retiredly in the latter part of hjs life, that he rarefy 
came abroad ; so that I could never see him, though I have 
often much desired to have a sight of him." 

Mr. Howe has a copy of recommendatory English verses 
prefixed to the foiio edition of Beaumont and Fletcher^ 
printed in 1647 ; another to Randolph's poems, 1640, and 
another to Cartwright*s comedies and poems, 1651. These 
pieces, says Wartoo, which are in the witty epigrammatic 
$tyle that then prevailed, have uncommon acuteness, and 
highly deserve to be revived. Denham, Waller, Jonson, 
Corbet, Brome, Shirley, &c. appear to have been of his 
intimate acquaintance. Wood says that he wrote some 
English verses, which were much applauded, spoken be- 
fore the duke and duchess of York, in 1683, at Trinity- 
college.* 

HOWE (Richard), fourth viscount Howe, and earl 
Howe, and first baron Howe of Langar, a gallant English 
admiral^ was the third son of sir Emanuel Scrope, second 
lord viscount Howe, and Mary Sophia Charlotte, eldest 
daughter to the baron Kilmansegge. He was born in 1725, 
was educated at Eton, entered the sea-service at the age 
of fourteen, on board the Severn, hon. captain Legge, 
part of the squadron destined for the South Seas under 
Anson. He next served on board the Burford,. 1743, under 
admiral Knowles, in which he was afterwards appointed 
acting lieutenant; but his commission not being confirmed, 
he returned to admiral Knowles in the West-Indiesj where, 
be was made lieutenant of a sloop of wai* ; and being em* 
ployed to cut an English merchantman, which, had been 
taken by a French privateer under the guns of. the Dutch 
settlement of St. Eustatia, and with the connivance of the 
governor, out of that harbour, he executed the difficult 
and dangerous enterprise in such. a manner, as to produce 
the most sanguine expectations of his future services. In 
1745, lieutenant Howe was with admiral Vernon in the 
Downs, but wa4i in a short time raised to the rank of com- 
« mander, in the Baltimore sloop of war, which joined the 
squadron then grqizing on the coast of Scotland, under the 
command of admiral Smith. During this cruize an action 
took place, in which captain Howe gave a fine example of 
persevering intrepidity. The Baltimore, in company with 

■■'■ 

t Ath. Ox. vol. n.-*Wairt<m'8 Life of sir ThomM IPope^ prelkce— ud «f 
Batkarlt, pp. 154, tSll. 



HOWE. 259 

another kriiied vessel, fell id with two French frigates of 
thirty guns, with troops and ammunition for the service of 
the pretender,, which she instantly attacked, by running 
between them. In the action which followed, capt. Howe 
received a wound in his head, which at first appeared to be 
fatal. He, however, soon discovered signs of life, and 
when the necessary operation was performed, resuoied all 
his former activity, continued the action, if possible, with 
redoubled spirit, and obliged the French ships, with their 
prodigious superiority in men and metal, to sheer oflF, leav- 
ing the Baltimore, at the same time, in such a shattered 
condition, as to be wholly disqualified to pursue them. He 
was, in consequence of this gallant service, immediately 
made post-captain, and in April 1746, was appointed to 
the Triton frigate, and ordered to Lisbon, where, in con- 
sequence of captain Holbourne's bad state of health, he 
was transferred to the Rippon, destined for the Coast pf 
Guinea. But he soon quitted that station to join his early 
patron admiral Knowles in Jamaica, who appointed him 
first captain of his ship of 80 guns; and at the conclusion 
of the war in 1748, he returned in her to England. In 
March 1750-51, captain Howe was appointed to the com- 
mand of the Guinea station, in La Gloire, of 44 guns ; 
when, with bis usual spirit and activity, he checked the 
injurious proceedings of the Dutch governor-general on the 
coast, and adjusted the difference between the English and 
Dutch settlements. At the close of 1751, he was appointed 
to the Mary yacht, which was soon exchanged for the Dol- 
phin frigate, in which he sailed to the Streights, where he 
executed many difficult and important services. Here he 
remained about three years ; and soon after, on his return 
to England, he obtained the command of the Dunkirk of 
60 guns, which was among the ships that were commis- 
sioned from an apprehension of a rupture with France. 
This ship was one of the fleet with which admiral Boscawen 
sailed to obstruct the passage of the French fleet into the 
Gnlph of St. Lawrence, when captain Howe took the Al- 
cide, a French ship of 64 guns, off the coast of .Newfound- 
land. A powerful fleet being prepared, in 1757, under 
the command of sir Edward Hawke, to make an attack 
upon the French coast, captain Howe was appointed to the 
Magoanime, in which ship he battered the fort on the 
island of Aix till it surrendered. In 1758 he was appointed 
commodore of a small squadron, which sailed to aiinoy the 

S 2 



/ 



269 HOWE. 

tn^ttiy on their totsts. This he effected with his tniml 
tuccess at St. Malo, where an hundred sail of ships and 
neveral magaRsines were destroyed ; and the heavy gale 
blowing into shore, which rendered it impracticable for 
the troops to land^ alone prevented the executing a similar 
mischief in the town and harbour of Cherbourg. On the 
1st of July he returned to St. Helen's. This expedition 
was soon followed by another, when prince Edward, after- 
wards duke of York, was entrusted to the care of commo-» 
dore Howe, on board his ship the Essex. The fleet sailed 
on the 1st of August 175a, and on the 6th came to an 
anchor in the Bay of Cherbourg ; the town was taketi) and 
the bason destroyed. The commodore, with his royal 
midshipman on boards next sailed to St. Malo; and as his 
instructions were to keep the coast of France in continual 
alarm, he very effectually obeyed them. The unsuccess- 
ful affair of St. Cas followed. But never was courage, 
skill, or humanity, more powerfully or successfully dis- 
played than on this occasion. He went in person in his 
barge, which was rowed through the thickest fire, to save 
the retreating soldiers ; the rest of the fleet, inspired hy 
his conduct, followed bis example, and at least seven hun- 
dred men were preserved, by his exertions, from the fire 
of the enemy or the fury of the waves. In July in the 
same year (1758), his elder brother, who was serving his . 
country with equal ardour and heroism in America, found 
an early grave. That brave and, admirable officer was kil- 
led in a skirmish between the advanced guard of the French, 
and the troops commanded by general Abercrombie, in the 
expedition against Ticonderago. Commodore Howe then 
succeeded to the titles and property of his family. In the 
following year (1759). lord Howe was employed in the Chan- 
nel, on board his old ship the Magnanime ; but no oppor« 
tunity offered to distinguish himself till the month of No- 
vember, when the French fleet, under Conflans, was de- 
feated. When he was presented to the king by sir Edward 
Hawke on this occasiOD^ bis majesty said, *< Your lifie, my ^ 
lord, has been one continued series of services to yonr 
country.^* In March ITBO, be was appointed colonel of the 
Chatham division of marines ; and in September fdlowiag, 
he was ordered by sir Edward Hawke to reduce tlie French 
fort en the isle of Dumet, in order to save the expence of 
the transports employed to carry water for the use of the 
fleet. Lord Howe continued to serve, as occasion reqttire4^ 



HOWE. 5l«l 

in the Channel ) ftnd in th^ gdaioief of 1762, he f^ntoted 
to the Princess Amelia, of SO gunft, having accepted thd 
command as captain to his royal highness the ddke of York^ 
Bo^ rear-admiral of the blue^ serving as aeoond in com- 
mand under sir Edward Hawke, In the Channel. On the 
23d of August, 1763, his iordsbip was appointed to the 
board of admiralty, where he remained till August 1765 i 
he was then made treasurer of the navy ; and m Octobef 
1770, was promoted to be rear-admiral of the blue, and 
eommander in chief in the Mediterranean. In Mlirch 1771^ 
he was appointed r^ar-admiral of the white ; and was soon 
after chosen to represent the borough of Dartmouth in paN 
liament. In the month of December, in the same y^ar, h^ 
was made vice-admiral of the blue. It was on ohe of these 
promotions that lord Hawke, then first lord of the admi- 
ralty, rose in the honse of peers, and said, *^-l adVi^^ bil 
Biaje^y to Btiatte th6 promotion. I h&Ve tried my loMd 
Howe on important occasions ; he never asked me bow h^ 
was to execute any service^ but always went and peVf6ymed 
it.*' In 1778, France having become a party in th* war^ 
the' I'rencb admiral D'Estaitig appeared,- on the flth of 
July, in 6ight of the Aritish fleet, at Sandy Hopk, v^^ith d 
eonsKlerable force of tin^ of battle ships, in complete equlp*^ 
ment and condition. Most of the ships und^r lord How6 
tnai been long in servicei were not well mtiinned, and weri 
liot line of battle ships of the present day. The Frendb 
admiral, however, remained seven days without making an 
a^ttacky aild by that time lord Howe nad ^sposed his in'<> 
ferior force in such a manner as to set him at defiance. On 
D'Estaing's leaving the Hook, lord Howe heard of thd 
critical situation of Rhode Island, and made every possible 
exertion to preserve it He afterwards acted chiefly on th^ 
defensive. Such a conduct appears to have been required, 
from the state of his fleet, and the particular situation of 
the British cause in America. He, however, contrived to 
baffle all the designs of the French admiral ; and may be 
said, considering the disadvantages with which he was sur- 
rounded, to have conducted and closed the campaign with 
honour. Lord Howe now resigned the command to admi-> 
ml Byron; and$ on his return to England in.Octoberj^ imi- 
inediately struck his fl^g. In the course of this year, he 
had been advanced to be vice-admiral of the white, and 
rik)rtly after, to the same rank in the red squadron. On 
the change of administration in 1782, lord Howe was raised 



262 HOWE, 

to the dignity of .a viscount of Great Britain, having bi^en 
previously advanced to the rank of admiral of the blue. He 
viras then appointed to command the fleet fitted out for the 
relief of Gibraltar ; and he fulfilled the important objects 
of this expedition. That fortress was effectually relieved, 
the hostile fleet baffled, and dared in vain to battle ; and 
different squadrons detached to their important destina- 
tions ; while the ardent hopes of his country^s foes were 
disappointed. Peace was concluded shortly after lord 
Howe^s return froav performing this important service : and 
in January 17B3, he was nominated first lord of the admi- 
ralty. That office, in the succeeding April, he resigned 
to lord Keppel ; but was re-appointed on the 30th of De- 
cember in the same year. On the 24th of September i787» 
he was advanced to the rank of admiral of the white ; and 
in July 1788, h^'finally quitted his station at the admiralty^ 
In the following August he was created an earl of Great 
Britain. 

. But the greatest glory of lord Howe^s life was reserved 
^Imost to its close. On the breaking out of the revolu- 
tionary war in 1793, he accepted the command of the 
lyestern squadron. Three powerful armaments were pre- 
pared for the campaign of 1794 ; one under lord Hood 
commanded the Mediterranean, reduced the island of Cor- 
sica, and protected the coasts of Spain and Italy ; a second 
Yinder sir John Jervis, afterwards lord St Vincent, with a 
military force headed by sir Charles Grey, reduced Marti- 
nico, Guadaloupe, St. Lucia, and St Domingo; but the 
most illustrious monument of British naval glory, was raised 
by earl Howe. During the preceding part of the war^ 
France, conscious of her maritime inferiority, had conr 
fined her exertions to cruizers and small squadrons for ha- 
rassing our trade ; but in the month of May, the French 
were induced to depart from this system, and being very 
anxious for the^ safety of a convoy daily expected from 
America, with an immense supply of corn and flour, naval 
stores, &c. the Brest fleet, amoimting to twenty-seven sail 
of the line, ventured to sea under the command of rear- 
admiral Villaret Lord Howe expecting the same convoy, 
went to sea with twenty ships of the line, and on the 28th 
of May descried the enemy to windward. After various 
previous manoeuvres which had been interrupted by a thick 
fog, the admiral found an opportunity of bringing the 
French to battle on the ist of June. Between seven and 



H O WE. 263 

eight in the morning, our fleet advanced in a close and 
compact line; anxl the enemy, finding an engagement un- 
avoidable, received our onset with their accustomed va- 
lour. A close and desperate engagement ensued, ih the 
course of which, the Montague of 130 guns, the French 
admiraPs ship, having adventured to encounter the Queen 
Charlotte of 100 guns, earl Howe^s ship, was, in less than 
an hour, compelled to fly;. the other ships of the same 
division, seeing all efforts ineffectual, endeavoured to foU 
low the flying admiral : ten, however, were so crippled 
that they could not keep pace with the rest ; but many of 
the British ships being also greatly damaged, some of these 
disabled French ships effected their escape. Six remained 
in the possession of the British admiral, and were brought 
safe into Portsmouth, viz. two of 80 and four of 74 guns ; 
and the Le Vengeur, of 74, was sunk, making the whole 
loss to the enemy amount to seven ships of the line. The 
victorious ships arrived safe in harbour with their prizes ; 
and th€^ dlews, officers, and admiral, were received with 
*every testimony of national gratitude. On the 26th of the 
same month, their majesties, with three of the princesses, 
arrived at Portsmouth, and proceeded the next morning in 
barges to visit lord Howe's ship, the Queen Charlotte, at 
Spitbead. His majesty held a naval levee on board, and 
presented the victorious admiral with a sword^ enriched 
with diamonds and a gold chain, with the naval medal sus- 
pended from it. The thanks of both houses of parliament, 
the freedom of the city of London, and the universal ac- 
clamations of the nation, followed the acknowledgments of 
the sovereign. In the course of the following year, he 
was appointed general of marines, on the death of admiral 
Forbes ; and finally resigned the command of the western 
squadron in April 1797. On the 2d of June in the same 
year, he was invested with the insignia of the garter. The 
IjAst public act of a life employed against the foreign ene- 
mies of his country, was exerted to compose its internal 
dissentions. It was the lot of earl Howe to contribute to 
the restoration of the fleet, which he had conducted to 
glory on the sea, to loyalty in the harbour. His experi- 
ence suggested the measures to be pursued by government 
on the alarming mutinies, which in 1797 distressed and 
terrified the nation ; whilci his personal exertions power- 
fully promoted the dispersion of that spirit, which had, for 
» time, changed the very nature of British seamen, and 



364 HOWE. 

greatly helped to recall them to their former career of dotjr 
and obedience. This gallant of&cer, who gained the first 
of the four great naval victories which have raised the re- 
putation of the British navy beyond all precedent and all 
comparison, died at his house in Grafton-street, London, 
of the gout in his stomach, August 5, 1199. In i75S his 
lordship married Mary, daughter of Chiverton Hartop, esq. 
of Welby, in the county of Leicester. His issue by this 
lady, is lady Sophia Cbarloite, married to the hon. Pen 
Ashton Curzon^ eldest son of lord Curzon, who died in 
1797 ; lady Mary Indiana, alid lady Louisa Catharine, 
married to earl of Altamont, of Ireland. He ^as succ ceded 
in his Irish viscounty by iiis brother, general sir WtUiaoi 
Howe, who died (1814) while this sheet was passing through 
the press ; and in the English barony by lady CurzonJ 

HOWELL (James), a voluminous- English writer, the 
son of I'homas Howell, minister of Abernant in Caer* 
marthenshire, was born about 1594, and, to use his own 
words, '< his ascendant was that hot constellation of cancer 
about the midst of the dog-days.*' He was sent to the free- 
school at Hereford -, and entered of Jesus-college, Oxford, 
in 1610. His elder brother Thomas Howell was already a 
fellow of that society, afterwards king's chaplain, and was 
nominated in 1644 to the see of Bristol. James Howell, 
having taken, the degree of B. A. in 1613, left college, and 
removed to London; for being, says Wood, ^^u, pure 
cadet, a true cosmopolite, not bom to land, lease, house^ 
or .office, he had his fortune to make; and being withal not 
$o much inclined to a sedentary as an active life, this situ- 
ation pleased him best, as most likely to answer his views.'* 
Xh^ first employment he obtained was that of steward to a 
gliassohouse in Broad*street, which was procured for hioi 
by sir Robert Mansel, who was principally concerned in it. 
The proprietors of this work, intent upon improving^ the 
manufactory, came to a resolution to send an agent abroad^ 
who should procure the best materials and workmea; and 
they made choice of Howell for this purpose, who, setting 
off in 1619, visited several of the principal places in HoU 
land, Flanders, France, Spain, and Italy* In Dec. 1621, 
he returned to London ; having executed the purpose of 
his mission very well, and particularly having acquired n 

^ CoUiDs's Peenage by Sir E. lB|iydfe9»— rChaniock> Bbg. N»?iklM*-»NaTi4 



HOWELL. 265 

masterly knowledge io the modern languages, wbicb af- 
forded bim a siagalar cause for gralitude. ^* Thank God/* 
be says, ^^ I have tbis fmit <if my ioreign travels, that f 
can pray unto bim every day of the week in a separate 
language, and upon Sunday m seven.** 

800B after his return, be quitted his stewardship of the 
glass-house ; and having experimced the pleasuiea of tra^ 
veiling, was anxious to obtain more employments of the 
same kind. In 1632 he was sent into Spain, to recover a 
rich English ship, seized by the viceroy of Sardinia for his 
master's use, on pretence of its having prohibited goods 
on board. In 1623, during bis absence abroad, he was 
chosen fellow of Jesus college in Oxford, upon the new 
foundation of sir Eubule Tbelwal ; for be had tdcen unte*- 
mitting care to cultivate his interest iu tbat society. He telb 
sir Enbule, in his letter of thanks to bim, thdt be ^ will 
reserve bis fellowship, and lay it by as a good warm. gar«» 
ment against rough weather, if any fall on bim :** in which 
be was followed by Prior, who alleged the same reason 
for keeping his fellowship at St. Jobn^s-eollege in Cam^ 
bridge. ^ Howell returned to England in 1624; and was 
soon after appointed secretary; to lord Scrope, afterwarda 
earl of Sunderland, who was made lord-president of the 
North. This office carried him to York ; and while be ' 
resided there, the corporation of Richmond, without any 
application from himself, and against several competitors, 
chose him one of their representatives, in the parliament 
which began in 1627.. In 1632, he went as secreiaiy to 
Robert earl of Leicester, ambassador extraordinary from 
Charles I. to the court of Denmark, on occiision t>f the 
death of the queen dowager, who was grandmother to that 
king: and there gave prdofii of his oratorical talents, in 
several Latin speeches before the king of Denmark, and 
other princes of Germany. After bis return to England^ 
his affairs do not appear so prosperous; for, except an 
inconsiderable mission, on which be was dispatched to 
Orleans in Fmnce by secretary Windebank in 1635, be was 
for some years destitute of any employment. At last,.iu 
1639, be went to Ireland, and was well received by lord 
Straiford, the lord-lieutenant, wl)o had before made hint 
very warm professions of kindness,' and employed him as 
an assistant^derk upon some business to Edinburgh, and 
afterwards to London ; but his rising hopes were ruined b^ 
the unhappy £i^te i/^ioh soon oy^ook X^X nobleman. In 



866 HOWELL. 

1640 he was dispatched upon some business to France; 
and the same year was made clerk of the council) which 
post was the most fixed in point of residence^ and the most 
permanent Jn its nature, that he had ever enjoyed. But 
his royal master, having departed from his palace at White^ 
ball, was not able to secure his continuance long in it : for, 
in 1643, having visited London upon some business of his 
own, all his papers were seized by a committee of the 
parliament, his person secured, and, in a few days after, 
he was committed close prisoner to the Fleet This at 
least he himself, assigns as the cause of his imprisonment : 
hxLt W^^ood insinuates, that he was thrown into prison, for 
debts contracted through his own extravagance ; and in- 
deed some of his own letters give room enough to suspect 
it. But whatever was the cau^e^ he bore it cheerfully. 

He had now no resource except his pen : and applied 
hims/elf therefore wholly to write and translate books. 
^' Here," he says, '^ I purchased a small spot of ground 
upon Parnassus, which I have in fee of the muses, and I 
have endeavoured to manure it as well as I could, though 
I confess it hath yielded me little, fruit hitherto.^' This 
spot, however, brought him a comfortable subsistence, 
during his long stay in prison, where he was confined till 
some time after the king's death ; and as he got nothing^ « 
by his discharge but his liberty, he was obliged to continue 
the same employment afterwards. His numerous produc- 
tions, written rather out of necessity than choice, shew,* 
however, readiness of wit, and exuberant fancy. Though 
always a firm royalist, he does not seem to have approved 
the measures pursued by Buckingham, Laud, and Straf- 
ford ; and was far from approving the imposition of ship*' 
money, and the policy of creating and multiplying mono* 
polies. Yet the unbridled insolence and outrages of the 
republican governors so much disgusted him, that he wasf 
not displeased when Oliver assumed the sovereign power 
under the title of protector ; and in this light he addressed 
him on that occasion in a speech, which shall be mentioned 
presently* His behaviour under CromwelKs tyraiTny was 
prudential, and was so considered ; for Charles H. at his 
restoration, thought him worthy of his notice and favour : 
and his former post under the council being otherwise dis* 
posed of, a ,oew place was created, by the grant of wbicb 
be became the fir^t historiographer royal in England. He 
died Nov. 16^) and was interred in the Temple-chorch^ 



•HOWE L L. i6T 

London, wher^ a monument was erected to his memory^ 
with the following inscription, which was taken down when 
the church was repaired in 1683, and has not since been 
replaced : ^< Jacobus Howell, Cambro-Britannus, Regiuti 
Historiographus in AngUa primus, qui post varies pere^ 
grinationes tandem naturae cursum peregit, satur anno«^ 
rum & famsB ; domi forisque hue usque erraticus, hie fixus 
1666." 

His works were numerous. 1. ^^ Dodona's Grove, or. 
The Vocal Forest, 164a" 2. "The Vote:" a poem, pre- 
sented to the king on New-year's day, 1641. 3. "In- 
structions for Forraine Travel! ; shewing by what course,^ 
and in what compass of time, one may take an exact sur^ 
vey of the kingdomes and states of Christendome, and ar^ 
rive to the practical knowledge of the languages to good 
purpose, 1642." dedicated to prince Charles. Reprinted 
in 1650, with additions. These works were published before 
be was thrpwn into prison. 4* " Casual Discourses and 
Interlojcutions between Patricius and Peregrin, touching' 
,the distractions of th# times." Written soon after the bat- 
tle of Edgehill, and the first book published in vindication 
of the kiiig. 5. " Mercurius Hibernicus : or, a discourse ' 
of the Irish Massacre, 1644." 6. " Parables reflecting on 
the Times, 1644." 7. <^ England*^ Tears for the present 
Wars, &c* 1644." ^. ^^ Preheminence and Pedigree of 
Parliaments, 1644." 9* *^ Vindication of some passages 
reflecting upon him in Mr. Prynne's book called The Po-^ 
pish Royal Favourite, 1644." 10. ^^ Epistoiae Ho^Elianse : 
or. Familiar Letters, domestic and foreign, divided into 
sundry sections, partly historical, partly political, partly 
philosophical," 1645. Another collection was published 
in 1647 ;. and both these, with the addition of a third, came 
out in 1650. A few, additional letters appeared in some 
subsequent editions : of which the eleventh was printed in 
1754, 8vo. It is not, indeed, to be wondered at, that these 
letters have run through so many editions ; since they not 
only contain much of the history of his own times, but are 
also interspersed with many plei^ant stories properly intro- 
duced and applied. It cannot be denied, that be has given 
way frequently to very low witticisms, the most unpardon- 
able instance of which is, his remark upon Charles the First's 
death, where 'he says, ^^ I will attend with patience how 
England will thrive, now that she is let blood in the Ba* 
siUcal veiui and cured as they say of the king's evil ;" and 



f6i H o w E L l; 

I 

it k tio great czcute, thai he wis led inte diii maatier h^ 
tbe bumoar of the times. Woed relates, it does not ap- 
pear on vrtiat authoii^^ that *' many of these lettteirs were 
never written before the author of the«i was in the Fleet, 
as he pretends they were, but otfly feigned and purposely 
published to gain money to relieve his ne<:esMt)es :^ be .this 
as it willy he allows that they ** give a tolerable bistory of 
those times," which, if true, is sufficient to recommend 
tbem^. There are also some of his letters among the 
Strafford papers; 

These letters are almost the only work of Howell that is 
BOW regarded ; the rest are very obsoure. 1 1. '^ A Noe<^ 
turnal Progress : or, a Perambulation of most Countries iil^ 
Christendom, perfonned in one night by strength of imal« 
^nation," 1645. 13^ ^^ Lustra Ludovici: or the Life of 
Lewis XIII. King of France, &c.** 13. << An Aceoant of 
the deplorable state of England in 1647, &c,'* 1647. 14. 
^' Letter to Loi^d Pembroke concerning the Tiines, and the 
sad condition both of Prince and People," 1647. 15. 
^< Bella Scot^Anglica: A Brief of all die Battles betwixt' 
England and Scotland, from all tinges to this present," 
1646. 16. *^ Corollary declaring the Causes, whereby the 
Scot is come of late years to be so beightened in his Spi* 
riW 17. <' The Instruments of a King : or, a short Dis- 
course of the Sword, Crown, and Sceptre, fcc. 1648.'* 18. 
" Winter-Dream," 1 649. 1 9. ** A Trance, 6r News from 
Hell^ brought first to town by Mer^uiius Acberonticus,*' 
1649. 20. << Inquisition after Blood, &c.'' 1649. 31. 
'< Vision, or Dialogae between Soul and Body," 1651. 
S2. « Survey of the Sigtiory of Venice, &c." 1651.^ 23. 
^' Some sober Inspections made into the carriage tad con- 
sults of the late Long Parliaoient, whereby occasion is 
taken to speadc of Parliaments in former times, and of 
Magna Charta : with some Reflections upon Government 
in general,.'' 16li&. Dedicated to Oliver lord protector^ 
whom he compares to Charies Martel> and compliments in 
language much beyond tbe truth and the sentiments of 
his own heart. The fourth edition of this book came out 

* * *' I believe the second puhlitbed friend of Jobsoq, and the first who bom 

cdirespondeiice of this hind (after As* tbe office of the roy)iI bistoHo^apher, 

^am), and in o«r own lali^ini$e, at which discowr a variety of literature* 

least of any importatioe after (bishop) and abound with miM^ entertaiaiBg 

Hall, wiH be found in the « Epistols and useful informatfOA." WartOn^a 

H«ieliai»;*' or th^.lmeili of Jtfmes History of Poetry, voT. IV. p.54. 
IfoweUy a great traTeUer, an hiiiapate 



HOWELL. fi6i 

JO 1660, with several adflitiont. 24. ^< History of the 
Wars of Jerusalem epitomised/' 25. *^ Ah, Ha; Tumu*- 
las, Thalamus : two Counter- Poems : the first an Elegy 
on Edward }ate earl of Dorset : the second an Epithala- 
mium to the Marquis of Dorohester,'' 165$. 26. ** The 
German Diet: or Balance of Europe, &c.** 1653, folio^ 
with the author's portrait, at whole length. 27. ** Parthe- 
nopeia: or, the History of Naples^ jco." 1654. 28. <^ Lon^ 
dinopolis,'' 1657 : a short discourse, says Wood, mostly 
taken from Stowe's *' Survey of London,** but a wow 
which ia our time bears a high price, and is worth con* 
suiting, as containing particulars of the manners of Lou* 
don ia his days. 29. ^ Discourse of the Empire, and of 
the Election of the King of the Romans,^* 165S. 30. 
^ Lexicon Tetraglotton : an English-French-Italian-8pa- 
nish Dictionary, &c." 1660. 31. « A Cordial for the Ca« 
valiers,*' 1661. Answered immediately by sir Roger L'Es** 
trange, in a book entitled ** A Caveat for the Cavaliers :** 
replied to by Mr. Howell, in the next article, 32. ^< Some 
sober lospeerions made into those ingredients that went 
to the composition of a late Cordial for the Cavaliers,** 
1661. 33. '< A French Grammar, &c." 34. << The Par- 
ley of Beasts, &c.*' 1660. 35. ** The second Plart of casual 
Discourses and Interlocutions between Patricius and Pe- 
regrin, &c.'* 1661. 36. «< Twelve Treatises of the late 
Rmolutions,'* 1661. 37. ^< New English Grammar for 
Foreignees to learn English : mth a Grammar for the Spa^ 
nish and Castilian Tongue, with special Remarks on the 
Portuguese Dialect, for the service of her Majesty,'* 1662. 
M. ** Discourse concerning tile Precedency of Kings,** 
1668% 3^. *^ Bsems :'* coneoted and published by ser- 
jeaot-major P. F. that is, Pig^ne Fisiier> who had been 
poet-launeat to CiomweH^ The editor telti us, that his 
amthor How«ll ^' may be called the pvodigy of tiie ag^ for 
the vairiety of his volumes : for there hath passed the press 
above feriy of bis wovbs on various subjects, usefol not 
oJity to the praaent times, bat to all posterity. Audit is 
«o be obserwd^" say* he, ^ that an idl his wrinngs tliere is 
soBMthing still new, either in thematter, metiiod, or fcncy, 
and IB an untrodden tract.'* Ik is quite impouible, how- 
ever, to say any thing infovour of his poetry. He pub^ 
Ushed next, 40. <* A Treatise concerning Ambassadors,** 
1664. 41. ^* Concerning the surrender of Dunkisfc> that it 
was done upon good Grounds,** 1664. 



870 HOWELL. 

' Besides these original works, he translated sevefstl froni 
foreign languages; as, 1." St. PauPs late Progress upon 
Earth about a Divorce betwixt Christ and the Church of 
Rome, by reason of her dissoluteness and excesses, &c/' 
1644'.- The author of this book published it about 1642, 
and was forced to fly from Rome on that account. He 
withdrew in. the company, and under the conduct of one^ 
wiio pretended friendship for him ; but who betrayed him 
at Avignon, where he was first hanged and then burnt. 
2. " A Vedetian Looking-glass : or, a Letter written very 
lately from London to Cardinal Barberini at Rome, by a 
Venetian Clariasimo, touching the present Distempers in 
England," 1648* 3. "An exact History of the late Re* 
volutions in Naples, &c." 1650. 4. " A Letter of Advice 
from the prime Statesman of Florence, how England may 
come to herself again,'* 1659. All these were translated 
from the Italian. He translated also from the French, 
<* The Nuptials of Peleus and Thetis, &c." 1654 ; and from 
the Spanish, " The Process and Pleadings in the Court of 
Spain^ upon the death of Anthony Ascham)^ resident for 
the Parliament of England, &c.** 1651. 

Lastly, he published, in 1649, ** The lat6 Kiog*s Decla- 
ration in Latin, French, and English :" and in 1651, " Cot- 
ton! Posthuma, or divers choice Pieces of that renowned 
antiquary sir Robert Cotton, knight and baronet," in 8vo. 
The print of him prefixed to- some of his works was taken 
from a painting which is now. at Landeilo house, in Mon- 
mouthshire, the seat of Richard Lewis, esq.^ 

HOWEL (Laurence), a learned, but somewhat unfor- 
tunate divine, was born soon after the restoration, and edu- 
cated at Jesus college, Cambridge, where he took his de- 
gree of B. A. in 1684, and that of M. A. in 1688, after 
which it is not improbable that he left the university, as be 
not only scrupled the oaths to the new goTernment, but; 
adhered to the nonju ring party with a degree of firmness, 
zeal, and. rashness, which no considerations of personal loss 
or suffering could repress. In 1712 he was ordained and 
instituted into priest^s orders by Dr. Hickes, the celebrated 
nonjuror, who was titled Sui&agan Bishop of Tbetford. 
Before this, in 1708, he published ^^ Synopsis Canonum 
JS. S. Apostolorum, et conciliorum oecumenicorum et pro- 

1 Biog. Brit. — Lloyd's Memoirs,' folio, p. 529. — Atb. Os« vol. 11. — Censan 
Ltteraria, toI. III. 



H O W E L. 27t 

viQcUIiuaiy ab ecclesia Graca receptor urn/' 17 10, in folio ; 
*^ Synopsis canon um ecclesi» Latins/' folio ; and in 171 5, 
the tliird and last volume was announced ^^ as once, more 
finisbed'' by Mr. Howely the manuscript having been burnt 
at the fire which consumed Mr. Bowyer^s printing-bouse. 
Soon after this be printed a pamphlet entitled ^^The case 
of Schism in the Church of England truly stated/' which 
was intended to be dispersed or sold privately, there being 
no name of any author or printer. Both, however, were 
soon discovered^ andRedmayne, the printer, was sentenced 
to pay a 6ne of 500/. to be imprisoned for five years, and 
to find security for his good behaviour for life. The prin- 
ciples laid ilown in Howel's pamphlet are these: 1. ^That 
the subjects of England could not transfer their allegiance 
from king James II. ; and thence it is concluded, that all 
who resisted king James, or have since, complied with such 
as did, are excommunicated by the second canon : 2. That 
the catholic bishops cannot be deprived by a lay-power 
only ; and thence it is inferred, that all who have joined 
with them that were put into the places of the derived 
bishops, are schismatics.*' As such assertions seemed to 
aim at the vitals of .government, both civil and ecclesias- 
tical, it was thought necessary to visit Mr. Howel's crime 
with a more severe punishment than had been inflicted on: 
the prin^r. Accordingly he was indicted at the Old Bailey 
Feb. 18, 1717, for a misdemeanour, in publishing V a se- 
ditious libel, wherein are cbntained expressions denying 
bis majesty's title to the crown of this realm, and asserting 
the* pretender's right to the same ; &c. &c." and being 
found guilty, he was ordered to pay a fine of 500/. to be 
imprisoned for three years, to find four securities of 500/. 
each, himself bound in 1000/. for his good behaviour during 
life, and tp be twice whipped. On hearing this last part of 
the sentence, he asked, if they would whip a clergyman i 
and was answered by the court^ that they paid no deference 
to his cloth, because he was a disgrace to it, add had no 
right to wear it; that they did not look upon him as a 
clergyman; in that he had produced no proof of his ordi- 
nation, but from Dr. Hickes, under the denomination of 
the bishop of Thetford, which was illegal, and not accord- 
ing to the constitution of this kingdom, which knows no 
such bishop. And as he behaved in other respects haugh* 
tily, on receiving his sentence, he was ordered to be de- 
graded, and stripped of the gown be had no right to wear, 



274^ H O Z I E R. 

of the French nobility^ and was rewardea M^itb a pensbir 
of 4000 iivres. He died in 1732. This gentletodnV 
hepfaevf succeeded him in his office, and dt^d in 1767. 
He compHed the " L'Armoria},- on RegistFes de la No-' 
blesse de France,'* 10 vols, folio. Such works^ of la^e 
years, have been of very little use in France.* 

HUARTE (John), a native of French Navarre*, thougb 
he is usually supposed to be a Spaniard, lived in the se- 
venteenth century. He gained great fame by a work whicb 
he published in Spanish, upon a very curious and intiirest^ 
ing subject. The title of it runs thus : " Examen de in- 
genios para las Sciencias, &c. or, sin examination of such 
geniuses as are fit for acquiring the sciences, and were? 
born such : wherein, by marvellous and useful secrets, 
drawn from true philosophy both natural and divine, are 
shewn the gifts and different abilities found in men, and 
for what kind of study the genius of every man is ad^pted^ 
in such a manner, that whoever shall read this book atten- 
tively, will .discover the properties of his own genius, and 
be able to make choice of that science in which he wilt 
make the greatest improvement." This book has been' 
translated into several languages, and gone through seve- 
ral impressions. It was translated into Italian, and pub- 
lished at Venice in 1582; at least the dedication of that 
translation bears this date. It was translated into French 
by Gabriel Chappui« in 1580; but there is a better French 
version than this, by Savinien d'Alquie, printed at Amster- 
dam in 1672. He has taken in the additions inserted by 
Huarte in the last edition of his book, which- are consider- 
able both in quality and quantity. It has been translatetl 
also into Latin, and lastly, into English, by'Carew and 
Bellamy. This very admired author has been highly ex- 
tolled for acuteness and subtlety, and undoubtedly had a 
great share of these qualities : Bayle, however, thinks, that 
" it would not be prudent for any person to rely either on 
his maxims or authorities ; for," says he, "he is not to be 
trusted on either of these heads, and his hypotheses are 
frequently chimerical, especially when he pretends to teach 
the formalities to be observed by those who would beget 
children of a virtuous turn of mind. 'I'here are, in this 
part of his book, a great many particulars repugnant to 
modesty (a discovery which we are surprized Bayle should 

1 Moreri.-~Dict. Hiit— Niceron, rol. XXXIL 



H U A R T £ Q7^ 

ba^e made) : and he deserves ^enimre fi^^publishicigy a^ Or 
genuine aiKl authentic piece^ a. pretended lelter of Leon 
tutus the proconsul from Jeriisale(ii);1)0 ti^ Koinsin.&ei^itex 
wherein a portrait is giren of JeautriCbfi^t^ a .di98(Gription of 
his. shape. afid stature^ the eototiirof hts.ile^ry the q^alitie^ 
of his beard> &c/' The work^ bQwe¥er^< has: now akog^thl^i; 
lost its popularitjr, . afipd de^^wediy.^ .,jo ! . > v^.f 

HUBALD^ JivcjbAU>i or KyQ$ALi>,;a mojok of S^t 
Amand, in Flanders^ who pre^aeded G^iiildo idoretha^oiM^ 
bondred years, was cofitetnporary withr^Retwi, and' au^hoc 
of Sk treatise on music, vrbicih is siijl 'Silbsistin^ in the kmg 
ot' FraiKe^s library, unPder^ the. title of ^* Eochiridion Mti'^ 
siccBi/'^ No. 7202, transcribed in* jQhe :deventh o^nttiry. la 
this work there h a kind of gananiut^ or expedient. for. d^-; 
lineatinig. the several sounds of the seale^ ^ni;a way. wholly 
different from his predecessora; but tbef nselhod 6f Guido 
not only superseded this, but by deigrees effaced th^ 
knowledge and remembrance of eVery other that had been 
adopted- in the diffieirent courirtries and convents of £uriD|)e« 
However, the awkward attempts at singiiig in consonance^ 
which appear in this tract, are cdrious, and clearly prove 
that Guido neither invented, nor, rude asrit wbs before Iris 
time, much contributed to the improvement of this art. > 
• Hmbald was not' only a musician, but a pGf6t ; and an 
idea maybe formed of his patience and perseverance> if 
not of his genius, from a circumstance related by Sigebert, 
the aoibor of ^ his life,, by which it appears tlmt be van* 
quisbied a moch greater difficulty in poetry than the lippD^ 
grammists of antiquity ever attempted: for they only ex «- 
cbmmtiiiicated' a single* letter of the alphabet from a whole 
po^ensi; btittbis determiired nionk composed three hundred 
veyies in piuise of baldwess, which he addressed to the em* 
peror Charles the Bald, and in which be obliged the letter 
C to take the lead in every word,, as the initial of hiS'pa^" 
tron's- naiiie and infirmity, as thus:- 

 '' C^rmina Qarisonse Cakis Cant^te Camoefna." 
ffubald'died in the year 930, at the age bf ftinety.* 

, QUBER (Joi^N JaM£s), a celebrated anatomist, was 
b6rn at Basle,, in 1707. He was a pupif of Haller at 
B^^rne, iu 1.730, after which be studied^at ptrasburgb, and 
iq 1733 took the deg!^ee of M, I), at bis h?itive place. ^ He 
visited Paris in i7i35, and in the same year was appointed 

* Gen. Diet.— Moreri. * Moreri.— tifees^s CydopKciia, by Dr. ^urney* 

T ^ 



» 

physici)an to the ? court of Baden Dourlach. At the request 
of-Haller, be examined the Grauband mountains^ in Swit- 
zerland, and transtnivted to hiili his collection of plants 
found in that district^^^i^vious to the publication of HaU 
ler's work on the botanjr'of Switzerland. Haller then in-. 
▼ited biq[i to Gotting'eh in 1738, to be dissector, where, 
having acquired considerable reputation, he was made ex- 
traordinary professor of anatomy in that city in 1739 ; pro- 
fessor in the Caroline' college at Cassel, with the rank of 
court- physician, in 1742 ;• and counsellor of state and 
body-physician to the prince in 1748. Hejdied in 1779, 
His principal works are entitled, ** Coromentatio de Me- 
dulla Spinali, speciatim de Nervis ab ea provenientibas,'* 
cum icon. Goett. 1741, 4to. <^ Commentatio de Vaginas 
Uteri structura rugbsa, necnon de Hymene," 1742, 4to. 
He published a letter in the Philos. Transactions, toL 
XLVI, ^^ De cadavere aperto in quo non existit vesica 
fellea, et de Sterno gibboso.*' * 

HUBER (Mary)^ a voluminous female author, was bora 
at Geneva in 1710, and died at Lyons in 1753. Her 
principal works are, 1. *^ Le monde fou, pr^fere au monde 
sage," 1731 — 1744, in 8vo. 2. " Le Systfeme des Tbeo- 
logiens anciens et modernes, sur Uetat des Ames s6par6e8 
des corps," 1731 — 1739, 12nio. 3, " Suite du m^me 
ouvrage, servant de r^pouse a M. Kuchat^" 1731 — 1739, 
12mo. 4. ^* Reduction do Spectateur Anglois." This 
was an abridgment, of the Spectator, and appeared in 
1758, in six parts, duodecimo; but did not succeed. {• 
'^ Lettres sur la Religion essentielle t^ l^bomme," .1739 — 
1754. Mary Huber was a protestaot, and this latter work, 
in particular, was attacked by the divines of the Qomish 
communion. She bad wit and knowledge, but was some* 
times obscure, from wanting the taU^nt to develope her 
own ideas.' 

HUBER (Ulric), a native of Dockum, in the Dutch 
territories, famous as a lawyer, an historian, and a philo- 
loger, was born ip 1635, and became^ professor at Franeker^ 
and afterwards ^t Lewarde. He published, 1. in 1662~, 
seVen dissertaitions, << De genuina aetate Assyriorum, et 
regno Medoruip.*** Also, 2. A treatise " De Jure civi- 
tatis." 3, " Jafisprudentia Frisiaca;" 4, " Specimen 
PhilosophiaB civilis.'' 5. " Institutiones Historise ciyilis ;** 

V.ReeB'i Gjrclop»dia. t Diet. Hist 



H U B E Ri i27t 

•and several other works. From 1668^ he was engaged ii^ 
violent controversy with Perizoniu^, on some points qf 
jnrispradence, and on his work last-mentioned, the << In* 
stitutiones historise civilis." He died in 1694. The dis- 
pute with Perizonius was carried On with safficient scur- 
rility on both sides.' 

HUBER (Zacharias), son of the former, was born at 
Franeker in 16^9 ; and afterwards advanced to the same 
professorships. He published in 1690, I. *^ A disserta- 
tion ** De vero sensu atque interpretatione, legis IX D. 
de lege Pompeia, de Parricidis," Franeker, 4to* 2. Also^ 
''* Dissertation um Irbri tres, quibus explicantur, &c. selects 
joris publici, sacri, privatique capita/' Franeker> 1702. 
He. died in 1732." 

HUBERT (Matthew), a celebrated French preacher; 
was born in 1640, and was contemporary with Bourdaloue, 
whom, indeed, he could not rival, but was skilful enough 
to please; being esteemed by him one of the first preacher^ 
of the time. He was a priest of the congregation of the 
Oratory, and no less remarkable for his gentle piety and 
profound humility, than for his eloquence. He excelled 
Consequently rather in the touching style of the sacred, 
than the vivid manner of the temporal orator. He was 
used to say, that his brother Massillon was fit to preach to 
the inaster^ and himself to the servants. He dic^d in 
1717, after displaying his powers in the provinces, in the 
eapital, and at court. Eight years after his death, in 1725, 
bis sermons were published at Paris, in 6 vols. l2mo, and 
were much approved by all persons of piety and taste* 
'^ His manner of reasoning,*^ says his editor, father Mon- 
teuil, <^ had not that dryness which frequently destroys the 
effect of a discourse ; nor did he employ that studied elo- 
cution which frequently enervates the style by an excess 
of polish/' The best composition in these volumes is the 
funeral oration on Mary of Austria. As a trait of his hu- 
mility, it is related, that on being told by a person in a 
krge company, that they had been fellow- students ; he 
replied, << I cannot easily forget it, since you not only 
lent me books, but gave me clothes."' 

HUBNER (JaHN), a native of Lusatia, or, according 
to some authorities, of Torgau, in Saxony, highly cele^ 

f Ct^ufepie.— Diet. Hiit * Diet. Hist^Saxii Ooomast. 

^ A^oirerk— >Dict, Hist. • 



f 7? H: U B N E R. 

kxU^d for his skilt iifliUtQry, geograpfay, tod genealogy^ 
^a$ born in 1668. fii& works ivere chjefly written m tfae 
fprm of qqestioD and answer, and so popular in GermaDy, 
thu bis introduction to geography went through a vast 
n'l^mber of editions in that country^ and has bei^n traaa^ 
lated into English, French, and other languages. His 
M^orks, theinefpre, are calculated I'atber for the instruction 
pf the ignorant, than the satisfaction of the learned ; but 
are wel^ executed in their way. Hubner was professor of 
geography at Leipsic, Si,nd rector of the school at Ham-r 
}>urgh, in which city he died in 1731. His questions on 
modern and ancient geography were published at Leipstc 
in 169?, in 8vo, under the title of ^* Kurtse Fragen was 
der newen und alten Geographie." He published, 2. in 
)697, and several subsequent years, in 10 volumes, similar 
questions on political history, entitled <^ Kurtze Fragen 
aas der Politischen Historie, bis zum Ausgang des 8ie*» 
benzenden saiculi." S. His next work was Genealogical 
Tables, with genealogical questions subjoined, 1708, &g« 
4. ^^ Supplements to the prtoeding works. 5. Lexicons, 
yesembling our Gazetteers, for the aid of common life, 
entitled ^* Staats, Zeitungs, und : Conversationa-Lexico.'^ 
6. A Genealogical Lexicon. 7* • ^^ Bibliotheca Historica 
Hamburgensis,^' Leipsic, 1715. And, 8. **' Museum Geo*< 
graphicum.*' The two last were more esteemed by the 
learned than any of his other works.' 

HUDSON (Captain Henry), was an eminent English* 
navigator, who flourished in high fanie in the beginning of 
the seventeenth centary. Where he was born and edu-i 
eated, we have no certain account; nor have we of any 
private circumstances of his life. The custom of* disco-' 
vering foreign countries for the benefit of trade not dying 
with queen Elizabeth, in whose reign it had been zealously) 
pursued, Hudson, among others, attempted to find out a 
passage by the north to Japan and China. His first voyag6 
was in 1607, at the charge of some London merchants ; 
and his first attempt was for the nortfa-east passage to the 
Ifidies. He departed therefore on the 1st of May; and 
after various adventures through icy seas, and regions in* 
tensely ct>ld, returned to England, and slrrived in the 
Thames Sept. 15. The year following he undertook a se*^* 
cond voyage for discovering the same passage, and ac-» 

1 Moreri«-^X>lcii Hist — ^SiixU Onomast. 



HUDSON. 279 

co^ingly set sail with fifteen persons only, April 22 ; but 
not succetding, returned homewards, and arrived at 
Gravesend on Aug. 26. 

Not disheartened by his former unsuccessful voyages^ 
he andertook ^ain, in 1609| a third voyage to the same 
IMurts, for further discoveries ; and was fitted out by the 
Dutch East India company. He sailed from Amsterdam 
with twenty men English and Dutch, March 25; and on April 
25, doubled the North Cape of Finmark, in Norway. He 
kept along the coasts of Lapland towards Nova Zembia, but 
found the sea so full of ice that he could not proceed. 
Then turoiog about, he went towards America, and ar^ 
rived at the coast of New France on July 18. He sailed 
from place to place, without any hopes of succeeding in 
their grand scheme ; and the ship^s crew disagreeing, and 
being in danger of mutinying, / he pursued his way home- 
wards, and arrived Nov. 7, at Dartmouth, in Devonshire; 
of which he gave advice to his directors in Holland, send?-' 
ing them also a journal of bis voyage. In 1610, he waa 
again. fitted out by some gentlepien, with a commission to 
try, if through ^oy of those American inlets which cap.*- 
tain Davis saw, but dqrst not enter, on the western side 
of Davis's Streights, any passage might be found to the 
South Sea. They sailed from St. Catharine's April 17, 
and on June 4, came within sight of Greenland. On the 
9th they were off Forbisher's Streigb.ts, and on the 15th 
eame in sight of Cape Desolation. Thence they proceeded 
norih«>westward, among great quantities of ice» until they 
came to the mouth of the streights that bear Hudson's 
name. They advanced in those st^^ights westerly, as the 
land and ice would permit, till tuey got into the bay, 
which has ever ^since been called by the bold discoverer's 
name» ^^ Hudson's Bay." He gave names to places as he 
went along ; and called the country itself ^' Nova Britan- 
nia," or New Britain. He sailed above 100 leagues south 
into this bay, being confident that he had found the de- 
sired passage ; but perceiving at last that it was only a bay, 
he resolved to winter in the most southern point of it, with 
an intention of pursuing his discoveries the following 
spring. Upon this he was so intent, that he did not con* 
sider how unprovided he was with necessaries to support 
himself during a severe winter in that desolate place. On 
Nov* 3, however, they drew tlieir ship into a small creel^, 
where they would ail infallibly have perished, if they had 



i280 H U D S O I<^. 

not been unexpectedly and providentially supplied with 
tincomaion flights of wild fowl, which served them for pro* 
vision. In the spring, when the ice began to waste, Hud- 
son, in order to compliete his discovery, made several ef- 
forts of various kinds ; but notwithstanding all his endea* 
TOurs, he found it necessary to abandon his enterprise, and 
to make the best of his way home ; and therefore distri-^ 
buted to his men, with tears in his eyes, all the bread be 
lad left, which was only a pound to each : though it is 
said other provisions were afterwards found in the ship. 
In bis despair and uneasiness, he had let fall some threat- 
ening words, of setting some of his men on shore ; upoa 
whicb, a few of the sturdiest, who had before been very 
mutinous, entered his cabin in the night, tied his ariBS 
behind him, and exposed him in his own shallop at the 
west end of the streights, with his son, John Hudson, and 
seven of the most sick and inBrm of his men. There^ they 
turned them adrift, and it is supposed that they all perished, 
being never heard of more. The crew proceeded with the 
ship for England ; but going on shore near the streight's 
mouth, four of them were killed by savages. The res^ 
after enduring the greatest hardships, and ready to die for 
want, arrived at Plymouth Sept. 1611.* 

* HUDSON (Dr. John), a learned English critic, waa 
Tjorn at Widehope, near Cockerjmouth, in Cumberland, 
1662; and, after having been educated in grammar and 
classical learning by Jerome Hechstetter, who lived in that 
iieighbourhood, was entered in 1676 of Queen' s-coUege, 
Oxford. Soon after he had taken the degree of M. A. in 
1684, he removed to University-college, of which he was 
unanimously chosen fellow in March 1686, and became a 
most considerable and esteemed tutor. Ip April 1701, on 
the resignation of Dr. Thomas Hyde, he was elected prin- 
cipal keeper of the Bodleian library ; and in June fol- 
'lowing, accumulated the degrees of B. and D. D^ With 

^this librarian's place, which beheld till his death, he kept 
his fellowship till June 1711, when, according to the sta- 
tutes of the college, he would have been obliged to resign 
it; but he had just before disqualified himself for holding 
it at)y longer, by marrying Margaret, daughter of sir Ra- 

' bert Harrison, knight, an alderman of Oxford, and a» 
mercer. In J7 12, he was appointed principal of St. Mary-^. 

i^ali, by the chancellor of the university, through thj^ 

^. *- . . . • 

\ Bio^. Brit • 



HUDSON. 281 

interest of Dr. RadcIUFe ; and it is said, t*iat to Hudson'^ 

interest with this pbysiciaa, the university of Oxford 19 

obliged for the very ample benefactions she afterwards re«- 

xreived from him. Hudson's studious and sedentary way of 

life, and extreme abstemiousness, brought him at lengtti 

into a bad habit of body, which turning to a dropsy, kept 

iiim about a year in a very languishing condition. He died 

Nov, 27, 1719, leaving a widow, and one daughter, 

. His publicatiorvs were, 1. ^^ Introductio ad CbronOf> 

^raphiam ; sive ars cbronologica in Epitomen redacta>*' 

lg9i, 8vo. Extracted from Beveridge's treatise on that 

subject, for the use of his pupils. 2. " Velleius Patercu- 

Jus, cum variis lectionibus, & notis, & indice,'^ 1693, 

8vo. A second edition, with the notes enlarged, in 1711. 

.3. " Thucydjdes," 1696, folio. A neat and beautiful 

edition, but somewhat eclipsed in its credit by that of 

J^ttker and Wasse. 4. " Geographioe Veteris Scriptores 

Graeci Minores: cum Dissertationibus & Annotationibus 

Henrici Dodwelli," 8vo. The first published in 1698, the 

j^econd in 1 703, and the third and fourth in 1 7 1 2. 5. '^ Dio- 

nysii Halicar.uassensis opera oipnia,^' 1704, 2 vols, folio. 

A beautiful and valuable edition, enriched with the various 

readings of an ancient copy in the Vatican library, and of 

several manuscripts in France. The learned editor hat 

subjoined to his own notes several of Sylburgius, Portu^^ 

Stephens, Casaubon, and Valesius. 6. ^^ Dionysius Lon* 

ginus," 1710, 4to, and 1718, 8vo. A very beautiful edi*- 

tion, and the notes, like all the rest of Hudson's, very 

.short. 7. " Moeris Atticista, de vpcibus Atticis & Hel- 

lenicis. Gregorius Martinus de GrsBC^rani llterarum pro- 

j)Unciatione,'' 1712, 8^. 8. "Fabulse iEsopicse," Greek 

and Latin, 1718, 8vo. 9. " Flavii Josephi Opera,** h^ 

bad just finished, but did not live to publish. He bad 

proceeded as far as the third index, when, finding himself 

unable to go quite through, he recommended the work tp 

his intimate friend Mr. Antony Hall, who published it in 

1720, in 2 vols, folio. Jt is a correct and beautiful editioq^ 

^nd deserving of the ample commendation bestowed upoa 

it by^Fabricius, Harwood, Jlarles, and Obertbur. Th^ 

c^re of Mr. Hall extended not only to the works pf bif 

deceased friend, but to his family, for he married his w\^ 

dow, whom he also left a widow. 

Dr. Hudson intended, if he had lived, to publish a ea^ 
tglogue of tUe Bodleian library, wbicl^ be had cs^us>ed Id 



Mi HUDSON 

be fairly transcribed in 6 vols, folio. He wa9 an sMe 
assi^ant to several editors in Oxford, particularly to Dn 
Gregory in bis *< Euclid/* and to the industrious Mr. Hearoe 
in bis *' Livy/' &c. He corresponded with many learned 
men in foreign countries ; with Muratori, 8alvini, and 
Bianchini, in Italy ; with Bbivin, Kuster, and Lequien, in 
France ; with Olearius, Menckenius, Christopher Wol&nfly 
and, whom he chiefly esteemed, John Albert Fabricius, ia 
Germany ; Eric Benzel, in Sweden ; Frederic Rostgard, 
in Denmark ; witb Pezron, Reland, Le Clerc, in Holland; 
he. He used to complain of the vast expence of foreign 
letters ; for he was far from being rich, never having been 
possessed of any ecclesiastical preferment; of which he 
used also to make frequent and not unjust complaints. He 
met, sometimes, however, with generous patronage. When 
employed on his edition of Josephus, the carl of Caernap- 
Ton (afterwards duke of Chandos) hearing of his merit and 
the expensive nature of his undertaking, sent him a pre*- 
sent of two hundred guineas, which Dr. Hudson hand- 
somely acknowledges in the dedication to the earl's son^ 
lord Wilton, of his edition of Esop's Fables. On his de» 
cease, several sets of his Josephus were disposed of by his 
widow, at twelve shillings per set, a work which now 
TSinks in the very first class of Variorum editions in folio. 
Dr. Hudson had been long conversant with Josephus, bad 
irevised sir Roger UEstrange's translation, and added some 
critical notes. He also digested and finished Dr. Willises 
two discourses prefixed to that work. Hearne was a kind 
of pupil to Dr. Hudson, and directed by him in his critical 
studies.^ 

HUDSON (Thomas), a portrait-painter of some ce- 
lebrity, born in 1701, was the scholar and son-in-law of 
Richardson, and enjoyed for many years the chief bu- 
siness of portrait-painting in the capital, after the favourite 
artists, his master and Jervas^ were gone off the stage. 
Though Vanloo first, and Liotard afterwards, for a few 
years divei^ted the torrent of fashion from the established 
professor, still the country gentlemen were faithful to their 
compatriot, and were content witb his honest similitudes, 
and with the fair tied wigs, blue velvet coats, and white 
satin waistcoats, which he bestowed liberally^ on his cusr- 

' . ^ BJQg. Brit.-^H9ll'3 preface to the Jof ephus. — Atb, Ox. vol. ll.-^Story of 
^ie daugbler's marriage, GeoU Mag. toI. IV^. p. 653. 



HUDSON. 88S 

laoieiSy and which with complacence they beheld tuviti^ 
plied in Faber*s n^ezzotintos. I'he better taste intrpdnced 
by ^r Joshua Reynolds, who had been for sonie tifue hia 
pupil, put an end to Hudson's reigo, who had the good 
sense to resign the throne soon after finishing his capital 
work, the family-piece of Charles duke of Marlborough^ 
about 17S6. He retired to a small villa he had built ac 
Twickenham, on a most beautiful point of the river, aurd 
where be furnished the best rooms with a welUchosen col»- 
}ection of cabinet»pictures aod drawings by great masters ; 
having purchased many of the latter from his father-iu'- 
Jaw's capital collection. Towards the end of his life he 
married to his second wife, Mrs. Fiennes, a gentlewoman 
with fL good fortune, to whom he bequeathed his villa* He 
died Jan. 26, 1779.^ 

HUDSON (WiLLUM), one of the earliest Linnsan bo* 
iapists in England, was boru in Westmoreland, about the 
year 1730. H« served his apprenticeship to an apothecary 
in Panton<-street, Haymarket, to whose business he suc«- 
ceeded, and with whose widow and daughters he continued 
lo reside. His acquaintance with the amiable and learned 
Mr. Benjamin Stillingileet greatly advanced his taste and 
information in natural history. This gentleman directed 
his attention to the writings of Linnseus, and gave his mind 
that correct and scientific turn, which caused him to take 
the lead as a classical English botanist, and induced him te 
become the author of the* ^^ Flora Anglica," published in 
1762, in one volume octavo. The plan of this book was^ 
taking Ray^s ^' Synopsis'' as a ground*work, to dispose hit 
plants in order, according to the Linnaean system and no^ 
menclatiire, with such additions of new species, or of new 
places of growth, as the author or his friends were able to 
furnish* The particular places of growth of the rarer spe« 
cies were given in Ray's manner, in English, though the 
rest of the book was Latin. * The elegant preface was writ<^ 
ten by Mr. Stillingileet, and probably the concise, but not 
less elegant, dedication to the late duke of Nortbumber* 
land, ^^ artiuriiy turn uiilium^ turn elegantiorum, jtuUci et 
patrono^ 

This publication gave Mr. Hudson a considerable rank 
as a botanist, not only in his own country, but on the 6on« 

1 Pi1ktDgton.---W4liioI«'8 ABecdotiw««i*MaIoQe'i and Nortlioote^ 
Sir J. Reynolds. 



SM HUDSON. 

"ttnenty and derived no small advantage JTrom a coitipiarisoh 
rwhh Dr. Hill's attempt of the same kind. He had indeed 
^pi^eviously^ in the course of his medical practice, formed 
:some valuable connexions, which were cemented by bota^ 
mical taste; and his correspondence with LiniiaBus, Hallef^ 
jand others, as well as amongst his countrymen, was fre^ 
quent^ and very useful to him in the course of his sti)die9» 
,wfaich were extended, not only to botany in all its crypto- 
'gamic minutiae, but with great ardour also, to insects^ 
shells, and other branches of British zoology. He wa9 
elected a fellow of the royal society Nov. 5th, and ad^ 
initted Nov. 12th, 1761. He took the lead very much in 
rthe affairs of the Apothecaries' company, and was their 
botariical demonstrator in the Cbelsea^garden for many 
years. 

Mr. Hudson, having never married, continued to reside 
in Pantonrstreet with the last surviving daughter of bis 
friefid and master, an amiable and valuable woman, tnar* 
ried to Mr. Hole. His " Flora" being grown very scarce^ 
he published, in 1778, a new edition, in two volumes, with 
many additions, and various alterations, which, on th^ 
whole, was worthy of the advanced state of the science. 

Mr. Hudson's tranquillity received a dreadful &hock in 
the winter of 1783, v^ben his house, and the greater part 
lof his literary treasures, were destroyed by a sudden fire^ 
caused, as it was believed, by the villany of a confidential 
%, servant, who knew of a considerable sum in money'which 
his master had received a day. or two before; and the in- 
aurance having been neglected, although for a short tim^ 
only, the loss wa^ considerable, in a peciiniary point of 
view,, to a man whose resources tvere not extensive. He 
bore the whole like a philosopher and a Christian, giving 
"Dp his practice, and retiring, with Mr. and Mrs. Hole, to 
ft more economical residence in Jermyn-street, where he 
died May 23d, 1793, and was buried in St. James's 
church. 

. The accident of the iSre entirely defeated a project Mr. 
Hudson had for many years kept in view, of publishing a 
** Fauna Britannica," on the plan of bis " Flora," for. 
which he had long been collecting materials. His taste for 
bis favourite pursuit remained to the last, unimpaired and^ 
unembittered by these disappointments. He became a 
lelipw of the pnnse^n Society early in 1791, libeirailv con^ 



H E R T: a. tss 

tfribuCing to its infant funds, and attending the meetings atf 
often- as his no^ declining health would allow. ^ 

HUERTA (Vincent Garica de la), a Spanish poet 
and critic, and a member of the Spanish academy, was bomu 
at Zaira in Estremadura, about the year 173Q; Among^ 
his countrymen he acquired considerable feme by the ex^v 
erdse of his poetical and critical talents, and was at leaisfr 
successful in one of his dramas, ^^ L^ Raquel,^' a tragedj^^. 
which, to many stronger recommendations, adds thatiof 
being exempt from the anachronisms and irregularities so^ 
often objected to the productions of the Spanish stage.; 
He published "A Military library ;'* and " Poems" im 
2 vols, printed at Madrid in 1778 : but his principal! work 
Is bis " Teatro Hespanbl," Madrid, 1785, 17 vols. %ta, ai 
collection of what he reckoned the best Spanish plays^ with 
prefaces, in which he endeavours to vindicate the honour 
of Spanish literature from the strictures of Voltaire, Lin-- 
guet, Signorelli, and others of its adversaries ; but on the: 
whole, in the opinion of lord Holland, who appears well 
acquainted with this work, so far from retrieving the lost 
honours of the Spanish theatre, he has only exposeil it to 
the insults and ridicule of its antagonists. La Huerta died, 
abotit the close of the last century. * * 

HUET (Peter Danieu), bishop of Avranches in France,, 
a very eminent scholar, was born of a good family at Caea: 
in Ndrmandy, Feb. 8, 1630. His parents dying when hie. 
was scarcely out of his infancy, Huet fell into the bands j^^ 
of guardians, who neglected hint : bis own itivincible lo^ 
of letters, however, made him amends for all disadvantages ;, 
and be finished his studies in the belles lettres before be wa«^ 
thirteen years of age. In the prosecution of his philoso^ 
phical studies, he met with an excelle«it pr^ofessor, father. 
Mambrun, a Jesuit ; who, after Plato^s example, directed 
him to begin by learning a little geometry, and Huet con- 
tracted such a- relish for it, that fee went through every/ 
branch of mathematics, and maintained public these3 at 
Caen, a thing never before done in that city. Having 
passed through his classes, it was his business to. study the 
law, and to take his degrees in it; but two books thea 
published, seduced him from this pursuit. These were, - 
^^ The Principles of Des Cartes," and ** Bpcbart's Sacred 

> Rees'*. Cyclop, by sir E. Smith.— PuUeney»s Sketches of Botany.—Geat.* 
^Ag, vol. LXJH. 
» 4)i^ airt.-'Lord iioIUnd'i Life of Lopa de Y«f », p. ^%5, f%e. 



SS6i H U E T. 

Geograipby." He was a great admirer of Des Cartel, and 
adhered to hfs. philosophy for many years ; but afterwards 
saw reason to abandon it as a visionary fabrictr^ and wrote 
against it. Bochart's geography made a mofe lasting ha^ 
pression upon him, as well on account of the immense 
erudition with which it abounds, as by his acquaintance 
with its author, who was minister of the Protestant church 
at Caen. This book, being full of Greek and Hebrew 
learning, inspired Huet with an ardent desire of being* 
▼ersed in those languages, and, to assist his progress itn 
these studies, he contracted a friendship with fiocharty aad 
put himself under his directions. 

At the age of twenty years and one day, he was delivered 
by the custom of Noifmandy from the tuition of his guar- 
dians : BXkd soon after took a journey to Paris, not so m^i^ck 
from t^riosity to see the place, as for the sake of purchas-' 
mg books, and making himself acquainted with the learned 
flien of the times. He soon became known to Sirmotidy 
iPletavius, Vavassor, Cossart, Rapin, Naiid^, and, in .shorty 
to almost ali the scholars ia France. With Petavitia 
in particular he passed much of his time : he was a 
great admirer of the splendour of his diction, and the 
variety of his erudition ; but he confesses, that in wetgb*^ 
iag the argnments which he offered in support of his dog- 
mas, be perceived in them a degree of weakness and am*' 
biguity, which obliged bim to suspend his assent, and in*' 
'- dined bim towards scepticism. Naturally excelling rather 
in genius, than judgment, atid the vigour of his under^ 
ftanding having been rather repressed than improved by 
M immense variety of reading, Huet found bis mind too 
feeMeto mastertbedifficuhies of metaphysical and tbeolo-' 
glcal studies, and concluded that his want ,of success in 
die search after truth was owing, not to any peculiar infe- 
Ueity in his owti case, but to the general imbecility of the 
human mind. ^ « 

' With this bias towards scepticism Huet entered upon his 
travels,' and Christina of Sweden having invited Bochart to 
hier court, Huet accompanied him, in April 1652* He 
saw Salmasius at Leyden, and Isaac Vossius at Anasterdam* 
H^ often visited the queen, who would have engaged him 
ifn her service; hot Bochart not having been very grar* 
ciously received, through the intrigues of Bpurdel, another 
physician, who was jealous of him, and the queen's fickle 
temper being well k^nowm^ Huet di^tdiiued alL offers^ ancf 



H U E T. 



sa? 



after a stay of threie mcmths retnraed to Fnmce. The diief 
fnift of bis journey wa» a copy of a inaniiscript<of Origen's 
^^ Comtnentaries upon St Matthew/* whtcb he .transcribed 
at Stoekbolm ; and the acquaintance he contracted with 
the learned men in Sweden and HoOand, through which he 
fiassed. Upon bis retorn to his own country, Caen, here^ 
sumed bis studies with more vigour than ever, in order to 
publish bis manuscript of Origen *• While be was em- 
ployed in translating this work, he was led to consider the 
rules to be observed in translations, as well as the different 
manners of the most celebrated translators. This gave oc-> 
^asion to his first performance, which came out at Paris in 
1661, under this title, ^^De interpretatione libri duo:'* 
and k is written in the liorm of a dialogue between Casau-* 
bon, Fronto Ducsbus, and Thuanus. M. de Segrais teib 
lis^ that ^ nothing can be added to this treatise, either 
wrch respect to strength of critical judgment, variety of 
learning, or elegance of style;" " which last," saysabb601i« 
Vet, '' is so very esttfaordinary, that it might have done 
honour to the age of Augustus." This book was first pvinted 
in a thin 4to, but afterwards in 12mo and 8vo. la l&^% 
were published* at Rouen, in 2' vols, folio, his '' Origenis 
Commentaria, ' &c. em» Latina interpretatione^ Aotis & 
observatioaibus ^" to Winch is prefixed, a large pretiniiuer|r 
diseourse, iiv which is collected all that antiqui^ relates o£ 
Origen; The internal of sixteen years, between his return 
from Sweden and the publication of this work, waa spent 
entirely in study, exeeptiiig a month or two every jreer, 
when he went to Paris ; during which time he gaTe the 
publie a speeimen of his skill in polite literatuce^ in ae 
elegant c^lectienef poems, entitled ^^Carraina Latina 4t 
Grasca;" which were published at Utrecht in 1664, and 
afterwards enlarged in several successive editions. While 
he was employed upon his *^ Commentaries of Origen," be 
had the misfortune to quarrel with his friend and master 
Bochart ; who desiring one day a sight of his manuscripti 



* Here be also instituted a society 
ibr the iraprovement of naluraljphilo- 
iopby and anatomy, wbich^ through 
the interest of Colbert^ was liberally 
endowed by the king, for the purpose 
of defraying ttte expences of philoso* 
phical experiments and anatomtcal 
dissections. About this time Huet 
formed* a friendship with* Gormis» pre-^ 
•ideatof the fenate of Aiz^ who cams 



to reside at Caen. This new intimsKy- 
▼erymucb contributed to cooarittHiMC 
in his propensity towavdr stq^eisiK 
For Cormisaus, who waa. well nsad m 
aiitient philosophy, was- » gneat siib> 
mii^r of tfafe Pyntiooic sent, and eanw 
estly i^oorameBded to bis friend the 
study of Pyrrhonism in the instiWHea 
of Sextos Bmpiricos. 



sst HUE t; 

for theBakeof consuitiiig some passages about the Eucharist^ 
which bad been, greatly. coiitroverited between Papisu and 
Protestants, discovered. an hiatus gr defect, which seemed 
. to determine . the sense in favour of the Papists, and rer. 
proached fiuet Orith being the contriver of it. Huet at fira^ 
thoaght that it was a defect in the original MS. but upoa 
consulting another very autient MS. in the king's library.at 
> Paris, he found that be had. omitted « some words in th^ 
hurry of transcribing, as be says, and that the mistake waa 
bis pwn. fiocbat-t, still supposing that this was a kind of 
pious fraud in Huet, to support the doctrine of the eburqb 
of Rome in regard to the Eucharist, warned the Protestants 
against Huet's edition of Origen's " Cpmmentari^,'* an4 
dissolved the friendship which had so long subsistted be- 
tween Huet and himseU*. 

In 1659 Huet was invited to Rome by .Christina, who 
bad abdicated her crown, and retired thither; but,. re- 
membering the cool reception which Bochart bad expe-t 
rienced from her majesty after as warnt an invitation, ho 
refused to go. His literary reputation, however^ when 
Bossuet was' appointed by the king preceptor to the Dau- 
phin, procured him to be chosen for bis colleague^ with 
the tide of sub-preceptor, which bonour had some t^iine 
been designed him by the duke de. Montausier^ goveijnojc: 
to the. Dauphin. He went to court in 1670, and stayed 
tbere till 16i30, wben the Da^iphin was married. Ybough 
his employment must of necessity occupy a considerable 
part of his time, be found enough to complete his ^' D^; 
monstratio Evangelica,'' which, though a great and labo^ 
jrious work, was begun and ended amidst the embarrass-^ 
xbents of ae^urt^. It was .published at Paris in. 1679, in 

* This work, says Brucker, in which vain to attempt to establisl) by argU' 

he undertakes to exhibit the eridrnces mentafton, wtthont the ^race of Godi 

•of Christianity in a geometrical fornm AQCordiBg)y» he professes to write Ipis 

indeed discovers great erudition, but '* Demonstration,'* merely as an ex- 

the judicious reader will perceive tTiat' traueous and adrentitions support to 

i Ihe writer was more desirons to dis|>lay ffutby by.m«ao»of wJbtck the mind may 

his learning, than to establish the be more easily inclined to submit itself 

Cfaristian faith upon rational groundis. to the auibority of Christ. Bishop 

Inbispittfiscetotbitwork, hemaiataios Watson thinks that a very Taluablt 

at large the uncertainty of all human part of it in which he traces t^e heaUiea 

icnav ledge, whether derived from the mythology to the Scriptures, for thougli 

tenses or from reason ; and declares it he may carry his hypothesis too far, 

as. his opinion, ^hat those methods of of Mo;»es repres^Uog under different 

|>failosophising which lead to a ^uspeur names most of the gods of the heathens^ 

aion of judgment are by no means bps- yet the deduction of the heathen my« 

tile to Christianity, but sery« to pr^? thology from^ sacred history, is a strong 

pare the mind for an implicit submis- proof of jthe tru^ of the latter^ ^ 

aion to divine i^velation, which it is in Watson's Cat, at the endof &8 Tract* 



H U E T, 2$9 

folio; and has been reprinted since in folio, 4to, and 8vo. 
Huet owiis tnat this work was better received by foreigners 
than by his own countrymen ; many of whom considered it 
as a work foil of learning indeed, but utterly devoid of that 
demonstration to which it so formally and pompously pre* 
tends. Others, less equitable, borrowed from it, and at- 
tacked it at the same time, to cover their plagiarism ; 
which fluet complains of. Father Simon had a design of 
making an abridgment of this work ; but Huet being in* 
formed that his purpose was likewise to alter it as he 
thought proper, desired him to excuse himself that trouble. 
Huet was employed on the editions of the classics *^ in 
usum Delphini :'* for though the first idea of these was 
startfed by the duke de Montausier, yet Huet formed the 
plan, and directed the execution, as far as the capacity 
of the persons employed iq that work would permit. He 
undertook, he tells us, only to promote and conduct the 
work, but at last came in for a share of it, in completing 
Faye's edition of Manilius. He was also chosen a member 
of the French academy ; and his speech pronounced on the 
occasion before that illustrious body was published at Paris 
in 1674. 

While he was employed in composing his ** Demonstra- 
tie Evangelica,** the sentiments of piety, which he had 
cherished from his earliest youth, moved him to enter into 
orders, which he did at the late age of forty •six ; and he 
tells us, that previous to this he gradually laid aside < the 
lay habit and outward appearances. In 1678, he was pre- 
sented by the king to the abbey of AuDay in Normandy, 
which was so agreeable to him, that he retired there every 
summer, after he had left the court. In 1685, he was 
nominated to the bishopric 'of Soissons ; but before the 
bulls for his institution- were expedited, the abbg de Sillery 
having be^n nominated to the see of Avranches, they ex- 
changed bishoprics with the consent of the king ; though, 
owing to the differences between the court of France and 
that of Rome, they could not be consecrated till 1692. 
In 1689, he published his *^ Censura Philosophise Carte- 
sianse,*^ and addressed it to the duke de Montausier: it 
appears that he was greatly piqued at the Cartesians, when 
he wrote this book ; but it may be questioned whether he 
thoroughly understood the system. In 1690, he published 
in Caen, in 4to, bis '' Qusestiones AInetanse de Concor- 
dia Hationis & Fidei :" which is written in the form of a 

Vol- XVIII. tJ 



290 H U E T. 

dkilogde> after the manner of Cicero^s Tttsenlan Quastjohs. 
In this he endeavours to dx the respective liinits of reHtoh^ 
aiid faith, and maintains, that the dogmas and precepts^ 
of each have no alliance, and thdt there is nothing, bow-^^ 
ever contradictory to common sense, or to good morals, 
which has not been received, and which we may not be 
boond to receive, as a dictate of fdith. He hdrie^tly con- 
fesses that he wrote this work to establish the authority of 
trtiditibn against the empire of reason. 

In 1699, he resigned his bishopric of Avranches, and 
was presented to the abbey of Fontenay, near the gates of 
Caen. His love to his native pidce determined him tofiis 
there, for which purpose he improved the house and gar- 
dens belonging tp the abbot. But several grievances &ndr 
law -suits obliged him to remove to Paris, where he lodged 
among the Jesuits in the Maison Profes^lS, <i^hom be* had 
ihade heirs to his tibrdry, reserving tb himsfelf the use ofit 
while he lived. Here he spei^t the last twenty years of his 
life, dividing his tiifne between devotion and study v He 
did not consider the Bible as the only book to be read^ 
but thought that all other books must be read^ before ife 
could be rightly understood. He employed himself chiefly 
in writing notes on the vulgate translation : for which pur- 
pose he read over the Hebrew text twenty-four times ; com- 
paring it, as he went along, with the other Oriental texts, and 
spent every day two or three hours in this work from 168^1 
to 1712. He was then seized with a very severe distemper, 
which confined him to his bed for near six months, and 
brought him so very low, that he was given up by his phy- 
sicians, and received extreme unction. Recovering, how-> 
ever, by degrees, he applied himself to thfe writing of bis 
life, which was published at Amsterdam in 1718, in 12ii]0| 
under the title of "Pet. Dan. Huetii, Episcopi Abrilncen$i«y 
Commentarius de rebus ad eum pertinentibus :" where the 
critics have wondered, that so great a master of Latin as 
Huetius was, and who has written it, perhaps, -as weli as 
any of the moderns, should be guilty of a 'solecism in the 
very title of his book ; in writing " eum,'* when be 
should have manifestly written " se. This performance, 
though drawn up in a very amusing and entertaining man- 
ner, and with great elegance of sty W,^ is not execate^d 
with that order and exactness which appear in bi^ other 
works: his memory^ being then decayed^ and afterwards 
declining more and more} so. that he was no longer capable 



il U fi t. iH 

f 

of a continued work, but 0nly committed dcstached tbo'ughtfs 
tb papet. Olivet ii^ the m^ien time relates a rob^ f ettiarlr- 
^le i^Dgalatity Of bitti, tihrntty, that, ^' for two or three 
hours before hi^ death, be recovered ail the vigour of his 
genius atid meitipry/' He died January 26, 1721, in hv$ 
$lst year. 

Besides the works which v^ have mentioned in the course 
of this metnoir, be pubHiihed others of a similar nature, 
vit. " De POri^infe dfes I{.omans," 1670; published in 
Ehglisfa 1672, l2mo. ** De la situation du Faradis Ter* 
restrev" 1^91. ** Nouveaux Memoii'es pour servir k 
THistoire dn Cartesianisme,** 1692. •* St^tUts Synodaa:^ 
pdurl^ diocese d*Avtanches, &c/* 1693; to which were 
added three Supplements in the years i6d5, 1696, 1698, 
"De Navigationibus Salomonis,*' Amst. 1698. **Not^ih 
Anthologiam Epigrammatttm GrsBcoruto,** Ultraj. l7oo. 
^^ Origines de Caen,'* Roan, 1702. " Lettres k Mon^. 
Perriiilt, sur le Parallele des Ancients & des Modernes, din 
10 Oct. 1692,** {>tinfted without the ^uthor*Sf knowledge in 
the thihJ part of the ^* Pieces JPdgitives,*' Paris, 1704. 
*' ExatHeh du sentiment de Lpngin sur ce passage de la 
Genese, £t Dieu dit, que la lumiere soit fatte, & la lumiere 
fut feite,'* inserted ih tome X of Le Clerc's J* Bibliotheque 
Cbtrisfe,** Amst. 1706. Huet, in his ** Demonstf^tio Evan- 
gel ica,'* bad assetted, that there was nothing sublime ii| 
this passage, as Longtnus had observed, bat that it was 
perfectly simple. Messrs. de Pbrt Royal and Boileau^ 
$iiio gave trai^siatiohs of Longinus, asserted its sublimity 
oh th&t very account ; ahd this occasionetl the ^^ Examen*' 
just mentioned. << Lettre I M. Foucault, cohseilter d*etat, 
sur Porigine de la Poesie Fran9oise, du 16 Mar. 1706,*^ 
iniierted in the ** Memoires de Trevoux," in 1711. ** Let- 
ti^e de M. Moriii (that is; of M. Huet,) de Tacademie des 
itiscriptions i, M. Huet, touchant le livre de M. Totandus 
Anglois, intitule, Adeidddemou, & Origines Judaicss,*^ in- 
iert^d in thi" Memoires de Trevoux'* for Sept. 1709, an4 
in the cdltectron which the abb6 Tilladet published of 
'Host's Vtrorks, under the title of ^^Dissertations sur di verses 
ttikti^tes dfe la Religion & de Philologie,'* 1712. "His- 
toite de Commerce & dei^ Navigation des Anciens,'* 1716. 
After his death were published, ** Trait6 Philosophique de 
laFoiblesse de Tesprit humain," Amst. 1723 ; in which the 
aceptical spirit which followed Huet througii every change 
of situation appears in its full vigour. Of this work^ which 

V 2 N 



i92 H U £ T. . 

was originally written in French, the author left behind 
him a Latin translation. It has also been translated into 
English. ^^ Huetiana, ou pens6es diverses de M. Huet,*' 
1722. These contain those loose thoughts he committed to 
paper after his last illness, when, as we have already ob- 
served, he was incapable of producing a connected work. 
'^ Diana de Castro, ou le faux Yncas/' 1728, a romance, 
written when he was very young. There are yet in being 
other MSS. of his, which, as far we know, have not been 
published; viz. *^ A Latin translation of Longus's Loves 
of Daphnis and Chloe f ^ <^ An Answer to Regis, with 
regard to Des Cartes^s Metaphysics ;'* ** Notes upon the 
Vulgate translation of the Bible ;" and a collection of be- 
tween 5 and 600 letters in Latin and French written to 
learned men. 

On the whole, though it canaot be questioned that Haet, 
on account of his great learning and fertile genius, may ^ 
justly claim to have his name preserved with honour ia the 
republic of letters, several circumstances must prevent us 
from ranking him among the first philosophers of the seven- 
teenth century. Better qualified to accumulate testimonies 
than to investigate truth, and more disposed to raise diffi*- 
culties than to solve them, he was ah injudicious advoca^te 
for a good cause. If we are not very much mistaken, Huet 
did not strictly adhere to the scholastic art of reasoning 
which he had learned m the schools of the Jesuits ; other- 
wise he must have seen that there can be no room for faith, 
or for, what be artfully conceals under that name, the au- 
thority of the clTurch, if evety criterion of truth be re- 
jected, and human reason be pronounced a blind and fal- 
lacious guide^^ 

HUGH (St.). There are several ecclesiastics of this 
name in French history, few of which perhaps will be 
thought now very interesting. St Hugh, bishop of Gre- 
noble in 1080, was a native of Chateau-neuf-sur-l'Isere, 
near Valence in Daupbiny, who received St^ Bruno and 
his companions, and fixed them in the Grande Chartreuse. 
He was author of a Cartulary, some fragments of which 
are in Mabilloo's posthumous works, and in AUard's Me- 
moirs of Dauphiny, 1711 and 1727> 2 vols. fol. He died 
April 1, 11 32. He must be distinguished from the subject 
of the next article.* 



1 G€n. Dtct— Moreri.-«Bnicker.--StxH OnonMtt. 
• Moreri.— DupiD.-^Dict Hitt. 



HUGH. 893 

HUGHof Cluni, a saint of the Romish calendar, was 
of a very disdngaished family in Burgundy, and was born 
in 1023. When he was^ only fifteen, be rejected all worldly 
views, and entered into the monastic life bt Cluni^ under 
the guidance of the abbot Odilon. After some years, he 
was created prior of the order, and abbot in 1048, at the 
death of Odilon. In this situation he extended the reform 
of Cluni to so many monasteries, that, according to an 
ancient author, he had under his jurisdiction above tea 
thousand monks. In 1058 he attended pope Stephen when 
dyitag, at Florence ^ and in 1074 he made a religious piU 
grimage to Rome^ Some epistles written by him are ex* 
tant in Dacheri Spicilegium. There are also other pieces 
by him in the ** Bibliotheque de Cluni.'* He died in 1 108 
or 9. He is said to have united moderation with his ex« 
emplary piety ; and was embroiled, at one time, with the 
biriiop of Lyons, for saying the prayer for the emperor 
Henry IV. when that prince was under excommunication** 

HUGH DB Fleury, or de St. Marie, a celebrated 
monk of the abbey of Fleury towards the end of the 1 tth 
century, was called Hugh de St. Marie from the name of a 
village which belonged to his father. He is little known 
but by his works, which are twb books : ** De la Puissance 
Royale, et de la Dignity Sacerdotale,'' dedicated to Henry 
king of England, in whicli he establishes with great soli* 
dity the rights and bounds of the priestly and royal powers, 
in opposition to the prejudices which prevailed at that time. 
This^work may be found in torn. IV. of the *' Miscellanea'* 
of Beluxe. He wrote also '^ A Chronicle,^' or History, 
from the beginning of the world to 840, and a small Chro- 
nicle from 996 to 1109, Munster, 1638, 4 to, valuable and 
scarce. It may also be foiind in Troher's collection. * 

HUGH DK Flavigny, born in 1065, was a monk of 
St Vannes at Verdun, arid afterwards abbot of Flavigny in 
the 12th century, but was dispossessed of that dignity by 
the bishop of Anton, who caused another abbot to be elected. 
Hugh, however, supplanted St. Laurentius, abbot of Vannes, 
who was persecuted by the bishop of Verdun for his attach- 
ment to the pope, and ,kept his place till 1115, after whiclt 
time it is not known w^at became of bim. He wrote the 
^* Chronicle of Verdun/' which is esteemed, and may be 
found in P. Labbe*s *^ Bibl. Manuscript."' 

1 Morari.— DapiD.^Diet Bitt < Ibid. . » Ibid. 



^94 ii U G tf . 

HUGH cf? AMmiiSy also onlkd Hogh oip Rouen,. left 
Afui^n^y his native pUce, and going to England was mad^^ 
fir&ty abbot of. Roding^ and afterwards bishop of JKouen, 
1130, and died 1 164. He faas the tharaictef in his cbupch 
of bqing one of the greatest, mOst pions, and most learned 
bishops of. his age. He ivrote three books for the instruc-f 
tiofi of his clergy, which are in the Ubmry 6f the fathers^ 
and P. d^Ajchery has printed cbem at the ertd of Guibert 
de Nogen.t*s works. Some, other pieces by Hugh may bc^ 
found in the collectioOs by Martenite and Dqrand.' 

IIUGH DE St. Victor, an eminent divtuife in the i^tb 
century, originally of Ftanders, devoted himself to reli-i 
gioQ in the abbey of St. Victor at Paris, at that time go^ 
vemed by its first abbot Oilduin ^n i 1 15, and taogiit tbeo* 
logy with so much reputation, that be was called^ a second- 
Augustine. He dicid in 1 14d, aged 44, after having been 
prior to St. Victor, leaying several works, in which he 
imitates St. Augustine's style, and follows >hk doctrine.. 
The principal among these is a large treatise **- Oa the Sa- 
cramebts.'^ They have all been printed at Rouen, 1'648^ 
3 vols. fol. ; and some may also be found in Martenne's' 
« Thesaurus." « 

HUGH DE St. Chea, a <selebrated cardinal of the Do^ 
minican order, was so called from the place of his biitfa,^ 
at the gates of Vienne, where there is a church dedicated 
tp St. Cher. He acquired great reputation in th^ l3th 
century by iais prudence, learning, and genius « was dpctor 
of divinity of the faculty of Paris, appointed provioMal of 
His orddr, • afterwards cardinal by Innocent IV. Migr 28^ 
1244, and employed by this pope and his successor Alex* 
aader IV. in affairs of the greatest consequeiice. Md died 
March 19, 1263, at Oryieto. His principal works are a 
collection of the various readings of Hebrew^ Greek, and 
Latin MSS. of the bible, entitled <f Cdrrectorium Biblioe,'* 
which is in the Sorbonne in MS. ; a ^' GoQCordance of tbd 
Bible," Cologn, 1684, Svo; the earliest work of this kind. 
He is said to have been the inventor of concordances. 
" Commentaries ort the Bible ;" " Speculum Ecdesise/* 
Plaris, 1480, 4to, &c.* 

HUGHES (John), an English poet, was son of a^citi^en 
of London, and born at Marlborough in Wiltshire July 29, 
1677. He was educated at a dissenting academy, under 

* MoKfi.— Dupin.— Diet. Hrat. « Ibid. s «^. 



H U G H E a 894 

( 

the! cate.of Mt. Thom^ RowO) yv^e, at the tapA^ iim^f 
tbeia&ecHfards celebrated Dr. Isaac. Wattf was a stadent^ 
whose pi^ty. and friendship foe Mr. .Hugbes induce^l faim to 
nsgcet tiiat be employed any part of his talents in wriljing 
focltbe stage. Mr. Hughes had a: weak ov at least a deK^ 
cate constitution, which perhaps rpstcained him fvem 
seyerer/studies,. and inclined hiav;tq pursue the softei^acts 
of poetry, oiusic, and draving.; in each of which he o^Ldo 
coBs^dfiiable pr4>gress. . His acquaintance with. the MuseS 
and th^ Graces did net render him awme to business; . he 
bad a place in the office of ordnanee, and was secretary lo 
sateial comoiissions underj the great seal for purchasing 
lands, in-order to the better.secaring.oftbe royal dpcks 
and yards at Portsmouth, Chathao?, and Harwich. Ha 
continued, however, to cultivate bis taste, for letters, and 
added to a competent knowl^flge of the ancfent, an iiiti* 
mate aequaintimdef with tli^e modern languages* The' first 
te&timgny he ga^e the public of his poetic vein, was in:^ 
po^m ^'; on the peace of Ryswick," printed in 1697, ati4 
received ivith unctfasimon approbation. In^ 169d, *^ T^e 
Cpurtfof Neptuiie^^ was written by him on king Wiiliaih>'$, 
return from Holland ; and^ the same year, a song on the 
duke of Gloucestey»?bftrth<^ay. In the year 1702, h6 
published, on the death -of JiiAg Will'^m, a Pindaric ode, 
^^iiled'*^ Of the House of Na$$an,t'i. which he dedicated 
tp Charles duke of. Somerset; and in 1703 his^^-Ode in 
Praise of Music*' was performed with great applause at 
Stationers'-halL ; .; : 

His numerous performances, 'for he had all along em«r 
ployed bis leisure hours in translations and imitations from 
the ancients, had by this tiitie introduced him, not only to 
the wits of the age, Addison^, Congreve, Pope, Southerne, 
Rowe, and others, but also to some men of rank in the 
kingdom, and among these to the earl of l^hartop, who 
offered to carry htm over, and to provide for him,' when 
appointed lord-lijeutenant of Ireland ; but, ^bating other 
otfaer views at home, he declined the offer. His views, 

f ** His acquaiptfi^ce with the j^reat^ was desired by Addison to sapply. If 

writers of his time,^ says Pr. Johasoii, the request was sincere, it proceeded 

'< appeara to have been very general $ - from an opinion, whatever it was) that 

^ut of bis intinift^y witjl^ Addison tb§re ^ did not last lopg ; for whed Hughes 

is a remarkable proof. It \p told, on pame in a week to shew him his first 

^ood authority, that * Cato' was finish* attempt, he found half the act wHtten 

ed and played by his persuasion. It by Addison himself." 
had long wanted the last agt, which be 



d96 H U G. H E S. 

> 

howevec, were not vtty proukismg^ until id 1717 the lord 
chancellor Cowper made him secretary to the commia^m»B 
of the peace; in which he afterward), by a parti(»il«it 
request, tlesired his successor, lord Parker, to continue biiQ« 
Kehad now affluence; but such is human life, that be had 
it when his declining health could neither allow him king 
possessiou nor full enjoyment. His last work was hk 
tragedy, ** The Siege of Damascus ;^' after which aSiegtt 
became a popular title. This play was limg popular, and 
is still occasionally produced ; but is not acted or printed 
according to the author's original draught, or bis settled 
intention. He had made Pbocyas apostatize from bia 
religion ; after which the abhorrence of Eudocia would 
have been reasonable, his misery would have been just, 
and the borrora of his repentance exemplary^ Tbe player% 
howerer, required that the guilt of Phocyas should terw 
minate in desertion to the enemy ; and Hughes, unwilling 
that his relations should lose the benefit <rf his work, com^: 
plied with the alteration. He was now weak witli a linger^ 
ing consumption, and not able to attend tbe rehearsal ; 
yet was » so vigorous in his faculties, that only ten. days 
before bis death he wrote the dedkation to his patron .lo^d 
Cowper. On Feb. 17, 1720, the play w9s represented,, 
and the author died. He Itiled to hear that it was well 
received; but paid m^ regard to the intelligence, being^^ 
then wholly employed in tbe meditations of a departing 
Christian. 

A few weeks before be died, he sent, as a testimony of 
gratitude, to his noble friend earl Cowper, his own picture 
drawn by sir Godfrey Kneller,. which he had received as a 
present from that painter : upon which the earl wrote bim 
the following letter. *^ 24 January 171^*20.- Sir, 1 thank 
you for tbe most acceptable present of your picture^ and 
assure you, that none of this s^. can ^et ao higher v^liie* 
on it thail I do, and shall while I Jive ; though I am aen* 
siblejtbat posterity will outdo me in that particular.'* 

A man of his amiable character was undoubtedly re*, 
'gretted^ and Steele devoted an essay in the paper called 
** The Theatre," to tlie memory of his virtues. In 1735 
his poems were collected and published in d vols- 12mo,' 
under tbe following title : ^* Poeois on several occasions, 
with some select &says in prose." Hughes was also the 
author of other wnr4s Ju prose. *^ The Advices from 
Parnassus/' and "T%e 'Political Touchstone; pf Boccailini,** 



H U G H £ a 291 

Miwlsied by several bands, i^d pimted m firito, 17^, 
f»ere revised, corrected^ and had a preface prefixed to 
fhetn, by^htm. He translated bimsetf <' FonteneUeV Dia» 
logue»of the Dead, and Discoarsexonceriihig the AitcienUi 
and Moderns ;*' «^ the Abb6 Vestot's History of the Be- 
Tototions in Portugal j*' and ^< Letters .of Abelard and He^ * 
hMSa,^' He wrote the preface to the collection of Ae 
^ History of England*^ by various hactis, called ^< The' 
Complete Htslory irf England,*' pnnted in 1706, in 3 Tola;/ 
Mio ; in which he gives a clear, satbfactory, and impartial^ 
aeeoilnft of the historians there collected. : Sevei^l papers 
in the ^ Tatters,*' ^ Spectators," and '< Guardians,'' were 
mitten by hies. He is supposed to have written the whdb^: 
or at least a considerable part, of the *^ Lay Monastery ^^ 
eooaistingof Essays, Discourses, &c. published singly tiiMler'. 
die title of die «' Lay Monk,'' being the sequel of the 
^ Spectators." The second edition of this was printed in' 
If 14, 12iiio. Lastly, he published, in .17 15, an accurate 
edition of the works of Spenser, in 6 vols. 1 2010 ; to which! 
are prefixed the>< Life of Spenser," ^^ An £ssay on Alle- 
gorical Poetry,*" '^ RennMrks on the Fairy Queen, and others 
writings of Spenser^" and a glossary, explaining old words ; 
aU by Mr. Hughes. 'ThiH was a work for which he was v^ell 
qualified, as a judge of the beaMes of writit^,but be wanted 
an aURtquary's knowledge of the oMblete words. He did 
not omch revive the curiosily of the public, for 4)ear thirty 
years elapsed before his edition was reprinted. The cha- 
racter bf his genius is not unfairly given in' the correspond- 
ence of Swift and. Pope, **A month ago," says Swift/ 
<f was sent me over, by a friend of mine, the works of John 
Hughes, esq. They are in prose and verse. I never heard 
of the man in my life, yet I find your name as a subscriber. 
He is too grave a poet for me ; and I think among the' 
mediocrists, in prose as well as verse." To this Pope 
returns: "To answer, your question as' to Mr. -Hughes; 
what he wanted in genius, he made up as an honest man ; 
but he was of the class you think him." ^ 

HUGHES (Jabez), was the younger brother of Mr. John 
Hughes, and, like him, a votary of the Muses, and an 
excellent scholar. He was born in 1685.' He published, 
in 1714, in 8vo, a translation of " The Rape of Proser- 

1 Qipf. Brit,— JohBtoo an^ Chalmers's EngK^hPocti, 16l0.«.-«6riti^ Essay- 
isls, PrdTace to the Spectator^ voL Vi.— Gent. Mag. &ep inAax, 



2M St It G H> £ S. 

piMjV firotn Claudian^ and . '^ TlMii Story of SesUis.aini! 
Ertciho,'* from Lncan'si^^ PlMrsalia^" ibook .vi. « Theae' 
traofilationsi with notei^ mere reprfoted iixil728)! i2ino,;.He! 
also fmblished^iii !7inr, a traiMiiation of Suctonisis's ^MaisiBsI 
of ilie Twelve Cttsars,'^ aod trobalatad. sevieral ^< Novek'!; 
from the Spanish of Gervaales,'URfaicb arp ia^eited in the 
^^•Sielect Collection of Novels and Historiesi" printed' fon 
Waits, 1723. He. died Jan. 17^ lt3L A ipoathunbhi^ 
volume of his ^^ Miscellanies in Verse aiid < Brose?' iKas^ 
fiubliihed in 1737. His vridow aeconipaoied .lhe«ladjr:af. 
governor Byng^to Barbadoes, and daed. there in. 12740i\; j jn 
' HUGHES (John), of a^iffermit family f|;oai the (6takBr^ 
wais born in I6S2) end became 9, felW of Jeatu^ coUef e^' 
Cambridge. He was called by bishop Atteibiiry ^^^.leiamed 
band^^'Mftnd is known tp die republic, of letter^ a8.edtta»:<tf' 
St Chrysos^ra's treatise ^< Oh the Pnestbood*'': Two letL^ 
tfsr^ of his to Mr. Bonwicke are pmted in ^' The Gentle'-' 
man*^s Magazine,^' in oqe of whic|i he says, f* I.iuma ajt kffil 
been prevailed on to undertake ap edition >of .St* ChrjrsbM 
stem's mBpt (ip^;,* arid I would beg. the favour of you toi 
send me your octavo edition* I want a small volume'to«iay: 
bv me^ and the L^tin version may be of seme service. toi 
me, if I cancel the inteipretation of Fronto Ducsaus.'- . A 
second edition of this treatise was printed at paml^ridge in> 
Greek and Latin, with notes, and a pceliminary/dioiutatioa 
against the pretended ^^ Rights of .the CharchjV &o. iir 
1712. A good English translation of St; ChrysoalxuD ^ Qa 
the Ptries«hood/* a pouhumons^ work by.ti^ Rev^ John 
Bunce, M. A. was published by bta son (vicar of 'St. Ste-. 
phen-s near Canterbury) in 1760. Mr. Hngbes died Nov. 
18, 1710, and was buried in the church of St. Nicholas^ 
Dep^ford, where there is a long Latin inscription to his 
memory.* 

HUGO (Herman), a learned Jesuit, was born at Bnis^ 
sels in 15S8 ; and'died of the plague at Rhinberg in 1639. 
He published his first work in 1617, which was *^ De prima 
scribendi origine, et universdB ret literarise antiquitate,? 
Antwerp, 8vo. This book was republished by Trotzius in 
}738, with many notes. 2. ** Obsidio Bredana, sub Am- 
brosio Spinola,^' Antwerp, 1629, folio. 3. ** Militia eques** 
tris, antiqua et nova,'' Antwerp, 1630, folio. 4. His ^ Pia 

* Nicbols'g Select Oolletftioii of Poems. 

* Nichols's Aiterboiy. — >Gent. Msg. ▼ol. XLVUI. •.- Lysoas's Environs, 
▼oU IV. 



Il IT G O. S«# 

HesiAe^"** i^e^vmk bjr #iiich be i% best kho«rii^ wfts first 
published in 1632-, Svo^eiiidrepYinted in S2fB0^ with all the 
deafness of Elze^r, and adorned v^ith rather fahcifel en-* 
gratings. These- <^ Pia DeMderia^' are in Latin, and coin 
sist of three books, the ^ubjeets of which are thus arranged. 
B. r. ^Gemiins Anitnm penitentis.'' 2. ^ Vota aniiiies 
sanctse/' 8. ^^ M^piria animo^ amantia.'^ They consist df 
lemg p^aphmses'iti: 'elegiac verse, on various passages of 
scripture. His Vev^ifiidikion is bsiially good^ 'but be want» 
^iaiplicity • and sub)»nliity ; ' yet he is eometii^es p oeti^at, • 
tbi^ugh his muse isriot'litce that ef David J 

HUGO (ChaIiles LoiirfS), a voiuminous author in La-* 
ti«f dnd i^reneh, whbse works, frotn their subjects, are Httle 
known herd, Wa^ a •canon- ^ of the PremonstratensiaYi order, 
a4oe«o)? of divinity,' &bb& of Etiva!, and titular bis^hop oif 
Ptotemais. He died M^afrt advanced a^e, in 17S5. HiS' 
worics are, h "♦* Annaie^ PreeiiAonstr&tensium,*' a history i>f 
bis own order, and a vei^y laborious work, iii two volumes, 
folio ; illustrated with plans of the monasteries, and other 
curious particltlars ; but accused' of some remarkable ^r-' 
rorsi a, ** Vie d^ St. Nofbert ffondateurdes Premontr^s,*^' 
1704, 4to. 3. «Sacr8B antiquitatts monumenta historica,' 
dogmatica, dipicimatica/^ 1725, 2 vols, folio. 4.^*Triiit6 
historique et critique de la Maison die Lorraine,^* 1711^* 
Svo. This being a work of some boldness, not 6n)y the 
name of tlie author, but that of the -place where it wits' 
printed, wis c4>Ticealed : the former beihg prbfessedly Bal- 
cicdurt^ the latter Berlin, instead of Naftci. Yet the au- 
thor was traced otit, and fell under the censure of the par- 
liament, in 1712. In 1715, be published another work, 5. 
entitled ^^ Reflexions sur les deux Ouvrages concernant 
la Maison de Lorraine,^* where he defends his former 
publication.* 

HULDRICH (John James), a protestant divine, of a 
considerable family, was born at Zurich in 1683, and was 
educated partfly at home, and partly at Bremen, devoting 
his chief attention to the study of the Hebrew language 
and the writings of the Rabbins. From Bremen he went 
to Holland, where he published at Leyden a very curious 
bodk, not in 4to, as Moreri says, but in 8vo, entitled 
" Sepher Toledot Jescho," or the history of Jesus Christ, 
written by a Jew, full of atrocioiis calumnies, which Hul- 

1 Moreri.—Dict. Hist. t IhjA. 



300 H U L B S I: C li. 

drich refutes in his notes. Tim work is io Hebrew and 
Latin. On his return to Zurieh in 1706, he was made 
chaplain of the house of orphans, and four years after pi^o* 
fiessor of Christian morals, in the lesser college, to which 
was afterwards added the professorship of the law of nature. 
This led him to write a commentary on Puffendorff <* on 
the duties of men and citizens.** His other works are the 
^ Miscellanea Tigurina,". 3 vols. 8vo, and some sermons in 
German. He died May 25, 173 i« Zimmerman, who wrote 
his life, publbhed also a Sermon of bis on the last words 
of St. Stephen. He was a man of considerable leamii^, 
and of great piety, sincerity, and humility.^ 

HULL (Thomas), a late dramatic and misceUaneous 
writer, and an actor, was bom in the Strand, London^ in 
1728, where his father was in considerable practice as aa 
apothecary. He was educated at the Cbarter*house, with 
a view to the church, but afterwards embraced his father*s 
profession, which, however, he was obliged to relinquish 
after an unsuccessful trial. What induced him to go on 
the stage we know not, as' nature. had npt been very boun* 
tiful to him in essential requisites* He performed, how* 
ever, for some time in the provincial theatres, and in 1759 
obt^ned an engagement at Covent-garden theatre, which 
he never quitted, unless for summer engagements, tn 
one of these he became aequainted with Shenstone th^ 
poet, who, observing his irreproachable moral conduct, so 
different from that of bis brethren on the stage, patronized 
him as far as he was able, and assisted him in writing his 
tragedy of " Henry H." and ** Rosamunjl.^' It was in- 
deed Mr. Hull's moral character whicb did every thing for 
him. No man could speak seriously of him as an actor, 
but all spoke affectionately of his amiable manners and un- 
deviating integrity. He was also a man of some«iearning, 
critically skilled in the dramatic art, and the correspondent 
of ^ome of the more eminent literary men of his time* His 
poetical talents were often employed, and always in the 
cause of humanity and virtue, but he seldom soared above 
the level of easy and correct versification. In prose^ per- 
haps, he is entitled to higher praise, but none of his works- 
have bad more than temporary success. He died at his 
house at Westminster, April 22, 1808. For the stage he 
altered, or wrote entirely, nineteen pieces, of which a list 

> Bib). GermaQique, voK XXIV. 



H t L L. 301 

may be seen in ouraudicMty. His other works were, 1^ 
*' The History of sir William Harrington,'' a novel, 1771, 
4 vols. 2. '^.Genuine Letters from a gentleman to a young 
lady his pupil,'' 1772, 2 vols. 3. ^< Richard Plantagenet,'* 
a, legendary tale, 1774, 4to. 4. ^ Select Letters betweeii 
the late duchess of Somerset, lady Luxborough,; miss Dol- 
man, Mr. Whistler, Mr. Dodsley, Shenstone, and others,** 
1778, 2 vols. This is now the most interesting, of bis pubr 
lications, and contains many curious particulars of literary 
history and opinions. The letters were given to him by 
Shenstone. 5. " Moral Tales in verse," 1797, 2 vols. 8vo.' 

HULME (Nathaniel), an English physician, was born 
at Holme Torp in Yorkshire, June 17, 17829 and was 
taught the rudiments of medical science by his brother, 
Br. Joseph Hulme, an eminent physician at Halifax, and 
afterwards was a pupil at Guy's hospital. In 1755, h^ 
served in the capacity of surgeon in the navy, and being 
stationed at Leith after the peace of 1 763, he embraced t^e 
favourable opportunity of prosecuting his medical studies 
at Edinburgh, where he took bis degree of doctor in 1765. 
His inaugural thesis was entitled '^ Dissertatio Medica 
Ihauguralis de Scprbuto." Soon after his graduation; he 
'settled in London as a physician, intending to devote his 
attention particularly to the practice of midwifery. This^ 
however, he soon relinquished: and, on the establishment 
of the general dispensary (the 6rst institution of the kind 
in London), be was appointed its first physician. He was 
also some time physician to the City of London Lying-i^ 
hospital. About .1774, he was, through the influence of 
lord Sandwich, then first lord of the admiralty, elected 
physician to the Charter-house. His other of&cial situa-^ 
tions he resigned many years before bis death, and with- 
drew himself at the same time in a great measure from the 
active exercise of his profession ; but continued in the 
Charter-house during the remainder of his life. In March 
1807, he was bruised by a fall, of which he died on the 
28th of that month, and was buried at his own desire in 
the pensioners* buriaUground, followed by twenty-four 
physicians '^d surgeons, who highly respected his cha- 
racter. 

Dr. Hulme was the author of several dissertations; viz. 
a republication of his thesis, with additions, 1768. ^^ A 

^ Biog. Dram.— Greaves's RecoHectioas of Shenstone. — Preface to the 
•* Select Letters.'* 



80i2 H U L M E. 

treatise on Puferperal Fever/' 1772. Art oriitiDh **.De Re 
'Medica e<ignoscendi et fjronioveiida,"^ delivered at the an- 
Hiv^ersary of the fneditat society in 1*777, to which a smatl 
tract was annexed, entitled " Via tnta et jucuntitl Cafeulum 
solvendi in vesica urinaria ifihaerfentem.'* Ah enlarged 
i^dition of this trftct, in English, appeared in the following 
year, tinder tlie title c>f ^* A safe and easy Remedy for the 
relief of the Storie and Gravel, the Scurvy, Gout, &c.'; 
and for the destruction of Worms in the humaii body^ 
illu^tmt^ by cases ; together with an extemporaneous 
Bfietiiod of impregnating water and other liquids with fixed 
air, by simple' mixture only, &c." 1778. In 17B7^ he Was 
presented with a gold medal by the royal society of mtedi- 
cine at Paris, for his treatise on the following prize ques- 
tion, "Rechercher qudles sont les causes de rendurcissier- 
ifient de tissu celiulaire auquel plusieurs enfans nouTfeaur- 
ii6s sont sujets." In 1800, Dr. Hulme instituted a series 
of experiments " on the light spontaneously emitted frbm 
various bodieis,'' an account of which was published iti thh 
Philosophical Transactions of that and the following year. 
He had been chosen a fellow of that society id 1794, and 
of the society of antiquaries in 1795. To the Archaeolo^ia 
ht coutrrbuted an account of a brick brought ffoito the sitfe 
of ancient Babylon. Dr. Hulme was also one of the edi- 
tors of the " London Practice of Physic." — In 17^1, a Mr. 
ObaDiah HuLme died in Charter-house square, author df 
an ** Historical Essay on the English Constitution/' ^hd 
other tracts, probably a relation of Dr. Hulme.' 

HUME (David), a celebrated philosopher and histo- 
rian, was descended from a good fanlily'in Scotland, and 
born at Edinburgh April 26, 1711. His fathei* was a de- 
scendant of the family of the earl of Hume or Home, and 
his mother, whose name was Falconer, was descended frbm 
that of lord Halkerton, whose title came by succession to 
her brother. This double alliance with nobility was a 
source of great self-complacency to Hume, v^ho was a phi- 
losopher only in his writings. In his infancy he does not 
appear to have been impressed with those sentiments of 
religion, which parents so generally, ^^e may almost add 
universally, at the time of his birth, thought it their duty 
to inculcate. He once owned that he had never read the 
New Testament with attention. However this nlay be, a's 

» Atlirnxuni, vol. II.— Rees'sCycloi^xdia.— Gci»t, Maj:. vol, tXI. and LXXVII. 



HUME. zm 

be was a yoanger brother with a very slender patrihionj, 
aod of a studious, sober^ industrioas tnrn^ he veas desdned 
by his family tQ the law: but^ being seiaed with an e4rly. 
passion for letters^ he found an insurmountdbleaverstoti 
to any thing else ; and,, as he relates,^ while they fanoied 
him to be poring upon Voet and Vinnius, he was occu^ 
pied with Cicero and Virgil* His fortune, however, beiug 
very small, and his health a little broken by ardent appli* 
4:ation to books, be was tempted, or rather foinced, to make 
a fedble trial at business; and^ in 1734, went to Bristol, 
with recommendatious to some eminent mercfaanis : but, iii 
a few months, found that scene totally unfit for him. He 
seems, alsp, to hav6 conbeived somb personial disgust against 
the men of business in that place : for, though he was by 
no means addicted to satire, yet we can scarcely interpret 
him otherwise than ironically, When, speaking in bis Hbr 
tory. (antio i660) of James Naylor's entrance iiitoBrisrtol 
upon a horse, in imitation of Christ, he presumes it tb bci 
^^ from the difficulty in that place of finding an ass !*' 

Immediately on leaving Bristol, he went over to France, 
with a view of prosecuting his studies in privacy ; and prad- 
tised a very rigid frugi)lity, for the sake of maintaining his 
independency unimpaired. During his retreat thei^ firsi 
at Rheims, but chiefly at La Fleche, in Anjou, he composed 
his ^f Treatise of Human Nature;'* and, eomitig over to 
London in 1737, he published it the year after. This 
work, he informs us^ he meditated even while at the uni- 
versity; a circumstance which, it has been observed^ proved 
the self-sufficiency of Hume in a very striking manner. For 
a youth, in the full tide of blood and generous syAipathy^ 
to meditate the diffusion of a system of universal scepticism^ 
in which it is endeavoured to prove, not only that all the 
speculations of the philosopher or the divine, but every 
virtuous feeling of the heart, every endearing tie by which 
^an is bound to man, are no better than ridiculous pveju* 
dices and empty dreams, is the most singular deviation from 
the natural and laudable propensities of a mind unhacknied 
in the ways of the world, that has yet octtrrred in the ano- 
malous history of man. The scepticism and i^religion of 
Voltaire, Diderot, and Rousseau, "grew with their growth, 
and strengthened with their strength," but Hume started 
as if from the nursery, a perfect and full-grown infidel. 

Never, however, according to the avowal of the author 
himself, was any literary attempt 'more unsuccessful. " It 



304 HUME: 

felly" be says, <^ dead ham from the press, without reach-* 
ing such distinction as even to excite a munnur among the 
zediots.'' He adds, however, that << being naturally of a 
cheerful and sanguine temper, he soon recovered the 
blow.'' But this .equanimity, we shall afterwj^rds find was 
mere affectation, nor was the work quite unnoticed. It 
was criticised with great ability in the only review of that 
period, " The Works of the Learned ;" and from a peru- 
sal of the article, we have no hesitation in ascribing it to 
Warburton. Whether it be true, that Hume called on 
Jacob Robinson, the publisher, and demanded satisfaction^ 
we will not affirm. One remark of the Reviewer seems 
somewhat singular, and it may be thought prophetic. 
*^ This work abounds throughout with egotisms. The au- 
thor would scarcely use that form of speech more f re- \ 
quently, if he had written "his c/wn memmrsJ** 

In 1742, he- printed, with more success, the first part of 
bis ^'Essays.'' In 1745, he lived with the marquis of 
Annandale, the state of that nobleman's mind and health 
requiring such an attendant : the emoluments of the aitua- 
tion must have been his motive for undertaking such a 
charge. He then received an invitation from general St. 
Clair, to attend him as a secretary to his expedition ; which 
was at first meant against Canada, but ended in an incur-^ 
sion upon the coast of France. Next Jrear, 1747, he at- 
tended the general in th<rsame station, in his military em- 
bassy to the courts of Vienna and Turin : he then wore " 
the uniform of an officer, and was introduced to these 
courts as aid-de-camp to the general. These two years 
were i^ost the only interruptions which his studies re- 
ceived during the bourse of his life: his appointments^ 
however, had made him in his own opniion «< independent; 
for he was now master of near 1000/.^' 

Having always imagined, that his Want of success,' in* 
publishing tb« *' Treatise of Human Nature," proceeded " 
more from the manner than the matter, he cast the fir^ 
part of that work anew, in the *^ Inquiry concerning Hu- 
man Understanding,'' which was published while he was at 
Turin; but with little more success. He perceived, how-, 
ever, some symptoms of a rising reputation : bis books ^ 
grew more and more the subject of conversation ; and ^I 
found," says he, "by Dr» Warburton's 'railing, diat they : 
were beginning to be esteemed in good company/* ' In 
1752> w^re published at Edinburgh, where he then lived/ 



HUME* lOf 

hk ^< jPoUUcal IKjieQttfBes ;'' and tbe same year, at London^ 
his '< loquiiy coDeerning the Principles of Morals/' Of 
the former be says, ** that it was tbe only work of his 
which was successful on the first publication, being well 
received abroad and at home:'' and he pronounces the 
latter to be, *^ in his own opinion, of all his writings, buh 
torical, philosophical, or literary, incomparably tbe best ; 
althojugb it came unnoticed and unobserred into the world*** 

In 1 754, he published the first volume, in 4to, of '^ A 
Portion of Engush History, from the Accession of James L 
to the Bevolution/' He strongly promised himself sue- 
odss from this work, thinking himself the first English his-* 
torian -that was free from bias in his principles : but he says, 
** that he was herein miserably disappointed ; and that, in« 
stead of pleasing all parties, he had made himsdf obnoxious 
to all.'' He was, as he relates, ** so discouraged with this, 
that, had not the war at that time been breaking out be« 
tween France and England, he had certainly retired to' 
soiue provincial town of the former kingdom, changed bis 
name, and never more have returned to bis native country." 
The '< cheerful and sanguine temper'' of which he formerly 
boasted, had now forsaken him, and the philosopher bad 
dwixkdied to a mere irritable author. He recovered him« 
sd[^ iiowevers so far, as to publish, in 1756, his second to« 
lump of the same history; and this was better received* 
*' It not only rose itself," he says, ** but helped to buoy 
up its unfortunate brother," Between these publications 
came out, along with some other small pieces, . his ** Natu*^ 
ra| History of Religion :" which, though but indifferently 
received, was in the end the cause of some consolation to 
him ; because, as be expresses himself, *^ Dr. Hurd wrote 
a pamphlet against it, with all the illiberal petulfti>ce, arro* 
gance, and scurrility, which distinguish tbe WarburtonlaH 
school ;" so well aware was he, that, to an author, atuek of 
any kind is much more favourable than neglect. Dr. Hurd, 
hoffever, was only the ostensible author ; he has since de« 
dared expressly, that it proceeded from Warburton him** 
self« hf 1759, be published bis << History of the House of 
Tudor;" and, in 1761, the more early part of the English 
History : each in 2 vols. 4to« The -clamour against tfab 
fbmier of these was almost equal to that against the history 
of the two first Stuarts} and the latter was attended with 
but tolerable success : but he was now, he tells us, grown 
ciulous against the impressions of public censure. He had> 

VouXVlIL X 



io6 a U M K 

indeed) what he vroxAd think goo4 reason t^hesa; fi^r tbe 
copy-money given by the booksellers for his histary, exi- 
ceptionable as it was deemedy had made him not only in* 
dependent, but opulent. 

Being now about fifty, he retired to Scotland, deter- 
mined never more to set his foot out of it; and carried 
with him ^' the satbfaction of never having preferred a 
request to one great man, or even making advances of 
friendship to any of them/' But, while meditating to 
spend the rest of his life in a philosophical manner, he 
received, in 1763, an invitation from the earl of Hertford 
to attend him on his embassy to Paris ; which at length be 
accepted, and was left thepe charg6 d'affaires in the som- 
. mer of 1765. Tn Paris, vyhere his peculiar philosophical 
opinions were then the mode, he met with the most flatter- 
ing and unbounded attentions. He was panegyrised by 
the literati, courted by the ladies, and complimented by 
grandees, and even princes of the bh)od. In the beg^n- 
ning of 1766 he quitted Paris; and in the summer of that 
year weiit to. Edinburgh, with the same view as before, of 
burying himself in a philosophical retreat; -but, in 1767, 
he received from Mr. Conway a new invitation to be 
under-secretary of state, which, like the former, he did 
not think it expedient to decline. He returned to Editi- 
burgh in 1769, " very opulent," he says, ** for he pos- 
sessed a revenue of 1000^ a year, healthy, and, though 
somewhat stricken in years, with the prospect of enjoying 
long his ease«" In the spring of 1775, be was struck with 
a disorder in his bowels ; which, though it gave him no 
alarm at first, proved incurable, and at length mortal. It 
appears, however^ that it was not painful, nor even trouble- 
some or fatiguing : for be declares, that <^ notwithstanding 
the great decline of his person,, be bad never suffered ^ 
moment's abatement of bis spirits ; that he possessed tbi& 
same ardour as ever in. study, and the same gaiety in coob> 
pany : insomuch," says he, *^ that, were I to name a pe- 
riod of my life which I should most choose to pass over 
^gain, I might be tempted to point to this latter period..^' 
He died August 25, 1776 ; and bis account of his own life, 
from which we have borrowed many of the above particu'^ 
lacs, is dated only four months p4*evious tx> hisdecaaRse. 
As the author was then aware of the impossibility of a- re^- 
covery, this may be considered as the testiipony of aTdyiiig 
man respecting bis own character and conduct. But vb 



H U M K. 4#r 

lisaplKiiiited those who^xpected to find iniit sdtfife a^ixkr^ 
ledgment of error, and some reiiKn^e <oji;' r«f)^cftih^-ott* 
the many whom he had led astray by his wrki^. H'ume, 
however, was not the man from whom- this was to tte^ex'' 
pected. He had no religious principles Which he had vio^ 
lated, and which his consdience mi^ht now recath He 
had none of the stamina of repentance; From a mere fond^ 
ness for speculation, or a love of philtf^ophicsd applause, 
the least harmful motives we can attribute to Hume, it was 
the business of bis life, not only to extirpate from the 
human mind all* that the good and wise among mankind 
have concurred in venerating, the authority and obligations 
of revealed religion ; biit he treats that authority and the 
believers in, and defenders of revealed religion, with a 
contempt bordering on abhorrence; or, as has been said' 
of another modern infidel, ** as if he had been revenging a 
personal injury.'' Hume early imbibed the principles of a 
gloomy philosophy, the direct tendency of which was to 
distract tile mind with doubts on subjects the most serious 
and important, and, in fact, to undermine the best in<« 
torests, and dissolve the strongest ties of society. Such is 
ttie character of Hume's philosophy, by one who knew him 
as intiihat^ly as Dr. Smith ^, who respected his talents and 
his manners, but would haVe disdained to instilt wisdom 
and- Virtue by bestowing the perfection of them on the 
studies, the conversation, and the correspondence that were 
constantly employed in ridiculing religion. An6ther rea- 
son, perhaps, why Hume died in the s»tne i^tate of mind 
in which be had lived, gibing and jesting, as Dr. Smith 
infertiH us, with the prospect of eternity, may be this, 
that he was -at the last surrounded by men who, being of 
nearly the same way of thinking, contemplated his end 
with a degree of satisfaction ; or as the triumph of pbilp- 
sophy over what he and they deemed superstition. Even 
his clerical friends, the Blairs and Robertsons, who pro- 
leased to know, to feel, and to teach what Christianity is, 
appear to have withheld the solemn duties of their office, 
and by their silence at least, acquiesced in his obduracy. 
Bis social qualities, his wit, his acuteness, and we may 

*t^s Sniith'^ absurd language 19, '* I perftctif wise and virtnons mail *• 

liave always eoDsidered him both in his perhaps the naiare gf hinnan frailtf 

Hfe-time, and since his death, as ap- will permit." 
pffMohinf . M nc«rly to the idea of a 

X 2 



/ 



R U M R 

a44y hi* ^fuii99 .preserved to km tbe regavd of hds lemeA 
<;Q|iHjtf|»i|i0mi i^Hp foBg^ the iiifidd in tbi» hUtoiiaft. ( 

, it^iuH ir^^fti^ .Its »p MstorHMH M peib»|>s ocdtfliffMUy M 
ap9lkic»l writ^fr, tbAt..Haine.wiU4)rab9My be lie«t Isttownl 
to poft^rUy; md i>. is iti thf»e capaeui^^ Uuit he tuk be 
r^ wUb the gr^test pbniiMi^ tod. adVaotage by ihe 
frijopds pf MHind ii)oniU and religion* Yet even aa aQ.hi 
toriap, bi^ has many fauHa;.he does not serupk to di 
gvUe ^acts from party leouves^ and be never loses an opr 
pcH-jtunity of throwing. oui bis eool iKiepucal siie«r at.Gliiis^ 
tiaoiiy» under the names of ianatieism .and supemiiliaer 
** When. Mr. Hume rears the standard, ef infidelity/' saya 
Gilpipt^^' be acts openly andboni^stly; bat wbenbescatteia 
bis c^rel^s insinuations, as be tsaverses^ the paths of his^ 
tory, we chamcterize bim as a dank^ iosidioua enemy«" ^ 

HUMPHREY (LauR£NCB>, alefiroed Gngbsb writer^ was. 
born at Newport PagneU in Buekiogbaeishire, about li^S7i 
and bad bis school education at Cambridge ; after which 
be became first a demy, then a fellow, of Magdalen*college 
in Oxford. He took the degree of M. A. in I552| and 
about that time was made Greek reader of bis college, aed 
entered into orders. In June 1555 be bad leave from bis 
college to travel into foreign countries ; > be wentto ^ttctcb^; 
apd associated himself with the Ebglish there, wibo bad 
fled from their country on account of their religion. After, 
the death of queen Mary he returned to England, and waa 
restored to bis feUowsbip in Magdalen college^ firom iriiiob 
be had been expelled )>ecause he did not return within tbe 
space of a year, which was one condition on 'wUcb he was 
permitted to travd; another was, that he should refrain^ 
from all heretical company. In 1560 he was appointed* 
the queen's professor of divinity at Oxford ; and the year, 
after elected president of his college. In 1562 he took 
both the degrees in divinity; and, in 1570f was madet 
dean of Gloucester. In 1580 he was removed to the. 
deanery of Winchester ; and had probably been promoted^ 
to a bishopric if he had not been disaffected to the cburob: 
of England. For Wood tells us, that from the city of^ 
Zurich, where the preaching of Zuingiius had fashioned 

I Life by bimielf, prefixed to hn History, stid Dr. SmiUi'f Letter onvMs 
deatb*?— Ritcliie't Life of Hniiie.—- Botwell*t Life of JohnsoD, end Toor.— i 
Beattie's Disiertations, 4to, p. 37.-rLeIand>s Detstfcal Writ^i.— >Forbes't Life of 
Bevttie.— Tytler't Life ef Kames.— WarbiMrtoa*8 Letters to Hardi^-Briti C»iti% • 
vol. JCKXIV.— W«ri(« of the LcWMd for 1739» kc Ice. \ 



/ t 



HUMPH R E t. 3f<>^ 

plioplif 8 iicMons, and fi'om tbie cbifrespbnAebi^ bc( H&d «rt 
Oenevia, he* brought b^ck With him s6 niueli df the GaK 
Tkiist both in doctrine and discipline, thatr the best ^h!bb 
ctaldfsfe ^aid of him was, th^ he uras sL moderate and con^ 
seientious noncotiformnt. This was at leaist tbe opinion 
of several divines, who used to call. him and Dr. Euike of 
CambHdge, standard-bearers among die nofftsOnforMfsts ; 
though othein thdnght they ^rew more cofnformkl^te ii!^ the 
ehd. Be this as it will/ « sure it is,'» says Wodd, that 
^ Htimphrey was a great and genetul schblar, an able^ 
Imgnist, a deep divine ; and for his exceliency of style^' 
exactness of niethod, a(nd silbstance of matter id' his writ-' 
itigs, wenft beyond most of our theologists ♦.** He died in 
Feb. 1590, N. S. leaving a wife, by whom he bad twelve* 
cfaildiren. His writings are, 1. * Epistola d^Gra^cis Uteris^ 
et Honaeti ^ectione et imitatione ;** printed before ii book' 
oTHadrian Junius, entitled <^ Cornucopias," at Baisil, 1556; 
2;^ De Religionis (donservatione et reformatione, dequ^^ 
pYimiatu regum, Bas; 1:559.** S. *VDe ratione interpre-^ 
taiidi aiictores, Bas. 1559.** 4. "Optimattes: sive de nd-/ 
bititate, ^usqtie antiqtia Origine, &c.** Bas. 1560. 5. 
^^Jbannis Juelli Angli, Episcopi Sarisburierisis, vita et^ 
mbrs, ejusque verfe doctrinae defensio, &e. Lbnd.1573."' 
6i '^'Twa Latin orations spoken before queen Eii2abetli ; 1 
one in 1572, another in 1575.** 7. "Sermons;*' and 8. 
'^Some Latin pieces against the Papists, Campian in par- 
ticular.** Wood quotes Tobias Matthew, an eminent ar<5hi ' 
bishop, who knew him welt, as declaring, that ** Dt/ 
Humphrey had read more fathers than Campian the Jesuit; 
ever saw ; devoured more than he ever tasted ; and taiigbt 
more in the university of Oxford, than he had either' 
Jeafned or heard.." ' 

HUNAULD (Francis Joseph), an eminent anatomist 
and physician, was born at Chateau -Briant, in February' 
1701. His father was a physician, and practised at St. 
Malo. He studied first at Rennes, and afterwards at An- 
gers and Paris, and received the degree of M . D. at Rheims 
in 1722. On His return to Paris he studied anatomy and 

* Warton saya that about the year - Christ Cfaureb» who were capable of 
1563, there were only two divines, and preaching the puMic^sermont befinre 
those or higher rank, the President of the University of Oxford. -*>Hi8tory of 
Magdaten eoltese, and the Dean of Poetry, vol. II. p. 460. 

\ Ath. Ox. vol. I.— Faller's Abel Redivivos.— Strype's Cjranmer» p. e|S4, 35S, 
393.— Strype'i Parker, pi 11^, 162—165, IS*, 217. 



*!0 H UN A U L D. 

surgery mthgrpa^ as»tdqity» under the celebrated teacb^s 
Winiiloif and'Oq Vi^ra^y, ^pd w^s sjidniitted into the aca« 
dea^ of ^penc^s ip 1724. Having been boooqred wijtb 
the appoiptineQit of pfiytfician .to |:he.du^e of JlicbeUeu, be 
appompi^nijeK) tt^^t nojbleri>ai:> in his f^mbassy to tbecQ^^^of 
the emper^CharlesVL. at Vienna, and ever aftervmrds 
retained bia ^tire confidence, and bad apartmentn in bis 
house. Qn .tt)f9^4^ath of Qu Verney, ip |.7$0, ]H[unauld 
waa appoipfe^ bis- siiccessor, as prqfessor of apatqiny in 
the )^ij9g's gard^n^ .^here be soon acquired a^ reput^ion 
littl^^hort of . A^ of bis predecessor, and found tb§ ^pa- 
ciaifs tbes^tjre.overflowipg with pupils. Having beeii |Ld- 
n^tted ^ ,{]iember of the faculty of medicine of Paris, be 
piractised with great success, and attracted the notice of 
the court He took a journfiy iqto HolUnd, where he 
became acquainted with the c^lebrat^d Boerhaave, with 
wbon^ he ever afterwards maintained ^friendly correspond- 
ence; and, in n35, be visited London, where he was 
elected a member of the royal society, at one of the meet- 
ings of which be read some ^ Reflections on the operation 
for Fistula Lacrymalis,*' which were printed in the Trans- 
actions.. He^ ^^9 cut off in the vigour of life by a p9« 
trid fipver, in December 1742, being in bis forty -second 
year^ The greater part of his writings consist of papers, 
wbicb were published in various volumes of the memoirs 
of. the academy of sciences, between 1729 and 1742 in- 
clusive. Osteology was a favourite subject of bis enquiry, 
aq^ some of the most curious of his observations relate to 
tbie .fofrn)atio|i aqd growth of the bones of the skull. He 
likewise traced with great accuracy the lymphatics of the 
"lungs to the thoracic puct, and the progress of some of (be 
nerves of the thoracic viscera. He published anonyipou&ly, 
in 1726, a critique, in the form of a letter, on the book pf 
Petit, relative to the diseases of the bones, which occa^ 
sioned some coutrqversy, and received the formal disap- 
proval pf the academy. H^nauld had collected a consi- 
derable anatomical museum, whjph ^yas especially rich in 
preparations illustrative of osteplogy and the diseases of 
the bones, and which came into the possession of the aca- 
demy after bis death. * 

HUNIADES (John Corvinus), waiwode of Transyl- 
▼ania, and general of the armies of Ladislas, king of HuQ- 

» 

* Diet. IIiit.-*Itee8'8 Cyclopadiii. 



/ 



*. 



HUNIADES. »n 

l^y^ wts ^m€ 6f tbfe jgreatest comtnanders 6f bis tioie. He 
fought against the Turks like a herd, and, in 1442 and 
1443, gained important battles against the generals of 
Aoittrath ; and obliged that prince to retire from Belgrade, 
after besieging it seven months. In the battle of Varnes, 
sofs^ lo the Christian caasre, and in which Ladislas fell, 
Corvinus was not less distinguished than in his more for^^ 
tunater contests; and, being appointed governor of Hun- 
gary, became proverbially formidable to the Turks, In 
1 448, however, - he suflfered a defeat from them. He was 
more fortunate afterwards, and in 1456, obliged Ma* 
h^ntee 11. alto to relinquish the siege of Belgrade; and died 
Uie iOAi of September in the same year. Mahomet, 
though an enemy, had generosity enough to lament the 
' death ef so great a man ; and pride enough to allege as 
one c4use for his regret, that the world did nc^t now con-^ 
tain «L man against whom he could deign to turn his arms, 
' or from whom he could regain the glory he bad so lately 
}o6t before Belgrade. The pope is 6aid to have shed tears 
on the news of his death ; and Christians in general la-' 
mented Huniades as their best defender against the infidels. ^ 
\ HUNNIUS (Gli^Es), a celebrated Lutheran divine, was 
born at Winende, a village in the duchy of Wirtemburg, 
in 1550. He was educated at the schools in that vitinicy, 
an<l took his degree tn arts at Tubingen, in 1567C Me 
then applied himself earnestly to the study of theology, 
and was so remarkable for bis progress in it, that in 1576 
he was made professor of divinity at Marpurg. About the 
same period be married. He was particularly zealous 
against the Calvinists, and not long after this time began 
to write against them, by which he gained so much repu- 
tation, that in 1592 he was sent for into Saxony to reform 
that electorate, was made divinity -professor at Wittemburg, 
and a member of the ecclesiastical consistory. In these 
offices he proved very vigilant in discovering those who 
had departed from the Lutheran communion ; and, from 
the accounts of the severities practised against those who 
would not eonform to that rule, it appears that nothing less 
tlnwi a strong persecution was carried on by him and his 
colleagues. In 1595 he was appointed pastor of the church 
at Wittemburg, and in the same year published his most 
celebrated polemical work, entitled ^' Calvious Judaizans,'* 

1 MorerL— Universal History. 



nt HUNI^LU s,. 

in ivebicb ke job^go* that reformer wkb ^1 ppmUe^b^^re^lcMU 
At tbe sume time be carried on a coatroversy witb Hul^ei9M| 
about predestination and election. Against CaLvip be 
wrute with tbe most intemperate acrimony. HunoftiiAiwM 
bresent at tbe conference at Ratisbon in ISOl, bj^ween 
the I^utberans and Roman catbolics. He died of an. icK 
flammation broi]^bt on by tbe stone^ in April 16103^ His 
wprkf bave been coUeoted in five volumes s and contain^ 
funeral orations, . a calechism, prayers, colloquies^ notes 
on some of the evangelists, &c. &c. HU acrimony in 
writing went beyond bis judgment, ^ 

HUNT (J£HBMIAH), a dissenting divine, was born ia 
London in 167S, and was the son of Benjamin f Hunt,, a 
member of the. mercers' company in London. He was 
educated voder Mn Tbomas Rowe,and after he bad fioisbed 
his. course with him, be went first to Edinburgh, and then 
to L^yden ; at the latter place be applied himself most 
diligently to tbe study of the Hebrew lakigui^e and the 
Jewish antiquities* In Holland he preached to a small 
English congregation, and upon his return Jae. officiated 
some time at Tunstead, in Norfolk,* from whence he re- 
moved to London about 1710, and was apfK>inted |Mstor of 
the congregation at Pinners* hall. In 1729 the university 
of Edinbu^rgh conferred on him the deforce of O. D. He 
died in 1744. He was author of several single sermons; 
ajid likewise of ^^ An Essay towards explaining the History; 
and Revelations, of Scripture in their several periods; to 
which is annexed a dissertation on the Fall of Maa*" After 
his death four volumes of bis *^ Sermons," with tracts, 
were published, to which was prefixed Dr. LardneeS Fu<«. 
neral Sermon for him.' 

HUNT (Stephen), of Canterbury, the son of Mr. Ni. 
cholas Hunt of that city (an intimate and worthy friend of 
Arch. Tillotson, and to whom, whilst labouring under a. 
cancer, be addressed that most excellent letter of consola* 
tion, printed in bis life by Birch, p« 133), was admitted a 
scholar of C. C. C. Cambridge, Jan. 29, 1693. Aft«r ;taki-^ 
ing the degree pf M. B. in 169^, he practised physic at 
Canterbury, and became a collector of Eoman coin% ves?*' 
sels, and utensils, particularly of those about Recolver and . 
Ricbborougb, afber the manner of archdeacon Batteley, in. 

• Geo. Diet — Melchior Adam.— -Freheri Tbeatrum.— -Saxii Onomatt. 

* Lardner's Funeral Sermon.— Kijypia's Life of Lar^ner, p, 11^ 33.— Prote9« 
tant Dissenters' Magazme, vol. If. 



B U NT. 31S 

Ms ^ AMiquitates Ratopinv;** all whicb, togetherr wMk 
his book« and maiiusoriptSy be bequeathed to the library of 
that cathedral. He was eateemed a learned avitiquaiy. 
The time of his death is uncertain ^ 

'HUNT (Thomas), a learned Hebraist, and Regius pro* 
feasor of Hebitew, Oxford, was born in l#96, but where 
or of what parents we have noi been able to learn, or in*- 
deed to recover any particulars of his early life. He was 
educated at Hart-hall, Oxford^ where he proceeded M. A; 
in Oct. 26, 1721) and was one of the first four senior fel- 
lows or tntorS) when the society was made a body corporate 
and politic* under the name of Hertford college; and he 
took hki degree of B. D. in (743, and that of D, D. in 
1744. His first literary publication, which indicates the 
betit'Of his studies, was ** A Fragment of Hippolytus, 
taken out of two Arabic MSS. in the Bodleian library,'* 
printed in the fourth volume of *^ Parker's Btbliotheca 
BibHca^'* 1728, 4to. In 1738: he was elected Laudian 
pTofiassor of Arabic, which he r^ained the whole of his 
life, and was succeeded by the late Dr. Joseph White. 
In tbe following year be delivered in the schools, a Latin 
speech ** De antiquitate, elegantia, utilitate. Linguae Ara«* 
bicse," published the same* year ; and another *^De usu 
Dialectorum Orientalium, ac prsBcipue Arabics, in He- 
braicocodioe interpretando,*' which waspublished in 1748. 
In 1746 he issued proposals for printing '< Abdollatiphi 
Historise ^gypti compendium," with a full account of that 
worky which, however, he never published. The sub-^ 
scribers were recompensed by receiving in lieu of it his 
posthumous *^ Observations on tbe Book of Proverb^,^* 
edited by Dr. Kenni6ott after his death. 

In 1747, Dr. Hunt was appointed regius professor of 
Hebrew, and consequently canon of the sixth stall in Christ 
church. He had in 1740 been elected a fellow of the royal 
society, and was also a fellow of that of antiquaries. In 
J 757, as we have noticed in tbe life of bishop Hooper, he 
puMtshed the works of that prelate, in the preface to which 
he represents himself as ^* one who had received many ob- 
ligstioiis from his lordship, was acquainted with bis fa;nily, 
atid had been fbrmerly intrnsted by him with the care of 
publishing one of his learned works," viz. ^^ De Benedic- 
tione patriarchal Jacobi, conjecturae,*' Oxon. 1728^ 4to; 

> Muiere's Hist, of Corpui Chritti Coliege, Cambridgtw 



S14 HUN T. 

by the preface to which it appears that biibop Hoopei^ was 
one of his early patrons. Of this only 100 copies were 
printed as presents to friends^ but it, is included in the 
bishop's works. . ' 

. Dr. Hunt's epistolary correspondence both at home and 
abroad, was considerable. Some of his letters are to be 
found in << Doddridge's Letters," published by StedmaQ. 
He frequently mentions his <^ Egyptian History i^' and his 
** attendance on Abdoliatiph/' as engrossing much of his 
time. He also highly praises Dr. Doddridge's ^' Rise and 
Progress of Religion," and his ^^ Life of colonel Gardiner/* 
In 1759 Dr. Kennicott dedicated his secoad volume on the 
** State of the printed Hebrew text of the Old Testament^* 
to his much respected friend Dr. Hunt, to whom he stood 
** indebted for bis knowledge of the very elements of the 
Hebrew language." Aniquetil du Perron, the French orien* 
talist, having made some unhandsome reflections on Dr. 
Hunt, the celebrated sir William Jones, then a student at 
Oxford, repelled these by a shrewd pamphlet, publiiheid 
iq 177 1, entited ^^ Lettre a monsieur A[nquetil du P(erron) 
4ans laquelle est compris I'examen de sa traduction dea 
livres attribues a Zoroastre." 

Among Dr. Hunt's intimate friends was Dr. Gregoiy 
Sbarpe, who sought his acquaintance and highly prized it, 
and their correspondence was frequent and affectionate. 
Dr. Hunt not only promoted Dr. Sharpe's election into the 
royal society, but was a liberal and able assistant to him in 
bis literary undertakings. When, however. Dr. Sbarpe 
published his edition of Dr. Hyde's Dissertations in 176.7, 
no notice was taken of these obligations ; and the reason 
assigned is Dr. Hunt's having declined a very unreasonable 
request made by Dr. Sharpe, to translate into Latin a long 
English detail of introductory matter. Such treatment 
Dr. Hunt is said to have mentioned ^ to his friends, with 
as much resentment as his genuine good-nature would* per* 
mit." This very learned scholar, who had long been 
afflicted with the graVel, died Oct. 31, 1774, aged seventy* 
eight, and was buried in the north ailejoining to the body 
of the cathedral of Chrisr-cburch, with an inscription ex«> 
pressing only his name, offices, and time of his death. 
His library was sold the following year by honest Daniel 
Prince of Oxford.. In that same year Dr. Kennicott pub* 
lished a valuable posthumous work of his friend, entitled 
*^ Observations on several passages in the Book of Proverbs, 



with two Sec mpnt. • By Tbpnaas Hutu," &c, 4lo. A con*- 
siderable part of jthis , work was printed before bis death ; 
4od the only i^eason^iy^a.wby he bim^f did not finish it, 
was, that he wa^.r^niAK-Jiably ti[n,or9^, and distrustful of 
his own judgment;; ^nd tjiat^ in his declining yeacs, he 
grew more and i^opvp fearful of the severity of public criti- 
cism, for whicji he.cei^taiiily had littk cause, bad this been 
his only publicatiof).. His. character, i^. an Orientalist, had 
been fully estabKshed 4>y,his fprmer works ; and be justly 
retained it to the^ clof e of his- . lite, leaving tbe learned 
world only to regret that be did not engage in some grand 
and critical work, or that he did not complete an edition 
of Job which he had long intended.' 

HUNTER (Christopher), an eminent physician and 
antiquary of Durham, was the son of Thomas Hunter, 
gent, of Medomsley, in tbe county of Durham, where he 
was born in 1675 : he was educated at the free-school of 
Houghton- le-Spring, founded by tbe celebrated Bernard 
Gilpin, and was admitted of St. John's college, Cambridge, 
where he continued until he had taken bis^ bachelor's degree 
in 1698.. In 1701 be received a faculty orJicence from 
Dr. John Brookbank, spiritual chanc<E;llor at Durham, to 
practice physic through^ the whole diocese of Durham. 
After some years he removed to the city of Durbam ; and 
though he pubhshed little, was always ready to assist in any 
literary undertaking. He is acknowledged by Mr. Horsley 
and Mr. Gordon to be very exact and masterly in the know- 
ledge o( antiquities. Dr. Wilkins mentions him with re- 
spect in the preface to the first volume of bis *^ Councils," 
to which he furnished some materials; and Mr. Bourne was 
much indebted, to him in compiling his ** History of New<- 
castle'' He published, a new edition of <^ The Ancient 
Hites and Monuments of tb^ chiirch of Durbam," 1733, 
without his name ; and a xurious, and now very scarce' 
work, entitled '* An Illustration of Mr. Daniel Neale's 
History of tbe Puritans, in tbe article of Peter Smart, M. A. 
from original papers, with remarks." 1736, 8vo. In April 
1743, be published proposals for printing by subscription, 
in .:; vols. 4to. ^' Antiquitates Parochiales Dioc. Dunelm. 
hucusque ineditse,*' but no further progress appears to have 
been made. Perhaps this might be owing to an unfortu- 

1 Gent. Mag. LXXI. — Doddridge's Letter^ .--^Nichols*! Bowyer.<^MS eor- 
respondence with Dr. Sharpe, in the possession of the Editor. 



3^16 H U l^T'E IL 

> » 

Date accidMt he met wiA, hi ^estrehing tte arehireii x^ tihe! 
ciLtbedml, where b6 spilt ft bottlifc of ink ait 'the eelebmed 
copy of Magna Charta, ami was ftdvet afterivsfdft jNinntttJeU 
to come there. In 1757 be retired ftom^Dufl^ain) with 
bis family^ to Untbank, an estate belonging to his \i^ife^ iti^ 
Shotley parish, Nonhaniberland, where be died Jiilfy IS; 
of that year, and was buried in iSfaotley church.' 

HUNTER (Henry), a popular preacher and writer, was^ 
born at Culross, in Perthshire, in 174t. 'Re hdd the best' 
education that the circumstances of his parents would per- 
mit, and at the age of thirteen was sent to the uniVerBity 
of Edinburgh, where, by his taints and profidencjr, he 
attracted the notice of the professors, and when he left 
Edinburgh he accepted the office of tutor to lord Dtm« 
donald's sons at Culross abbey. In \764 he was lic6tk^d 
to preach, having passed the several trials with great ap* 
plause : and very quickly became muth followed on ac- ' 
count of his popular talents. He was ordained in 1766, 
and was appointed minister of South Leith. On a visit to 
London in 1769, he preached in most of the iScotch meet- 
ing-houses with great acceptance, and soon alter his re- 
turn he received an invitation to become pastor of the Scotch 
church in Swallow-iftreet, which he declined; but in 1771 
he removed to London, and undertook the pastoral office 
in the Scotch church at London-wall. He appeared first 
as an author id 1783, by the commencement of his <' Sa- 
cred Biography,** which was at length extended to seven 
volumes octavo. While this work was in the course of pub- * 
Iication,he engaged in the translation' of Lavater*s ''Essays 
on Physiognomy,^' and in order to render his work as com- 
plete as possible, be took a journey into Swisserland> for ' 
the purpose of procuring information from Lavater himself. 
He attained, in some measure, his object, though the au- 
thor did not receive him with the cordiality which he ex- 
pected, suspecting that the English version must injure the 
sale of the French translation. The first number of this 
w<Mrk was published in 1789, and it watf finished in a style 
worthy the improved state of the arts. From diis period 
Dr. Hunter sp^nt much of his time in translating different 
works from the French language. In 1790 he was elected 
secretary to the corresponding board of the '^^ Society for 
propagating Christian Knowledge in the Highlands ana 

' Nicbola's Bowyor. 



B ir N T B ft 



Sif 



Uimi^ qI, Scc^VkiHl.'* Hftn^ likairiae cbsijdaiii Vfk i^ 
<< ;SifoM^ QjoirppratmA;'* m4 )botb ulieiie. iDpiUiaiQiyi nrone 
omqb bw^&ted )>7 . Us sfalaus ;emKftUHM «» their behalft 
ta Ii79<s;y bei.publiib^ iwaivs^liHMs of fSe^^^ md ia 
1799 be g^vfe tb« ivoffld 4ighl ^' lieefturoftion tbe. &ridMcfi$ 
of |CbKi«ti«<^il]r»V b#iog tib# oQwpiisti0n4il a p\m begun by 
Air; fi'fBll. Tb^ wbol^ (PQot»i^ a poi^liHr < ao4 U9efi>l qIik^^ 
dikf;MH>:.of tbf prw&.ia famur of ibe CbriMian jreligion^ 
mmg «^Kn i^ iDjtermd evidence^ it% beiiefifii«Ji iniaenoe^ 
ajlid tbe eiiqfifdpr.i^iie of tb^ infonnfitian wbicb it ooDviejfi 
yiilk f^9fi^i%Q itmAty* During die latter years of Ub 
Uff^ Qr» ilivMer^Ji ^eooslifeaitiQii jNiflfared t]fte jeverest abecks 
kgm 4i? Wv Aif tJuree ehitdrent nvbiGb^ wUb other eauifiv^ 
cootrifrttlfd to. reader bim uoable to nrithstaiid.tbe aAtacka 
of,4W^Me^ He died at tbe Hot^^Welk, Bristol^ on thd 
27tb of Qetober> )902> in tbe'<>i3d y»ar. of 1»m age. Br; 
limiter .waa a^nan of iearoiag : bia .vittngs are doquenty 
ai»d :^w boMf well he bad studied huuian nature. In the 
pu)pi(. bia flaaaner waa unaffected, aolemn» and impresatro; 
He indulged bis liberal and frieedly he;^rt in the exercise 
of bospitali^, ^barity> and tbe pleasoresof scicial intet'4 
oomae^ b«t tbe latter freqiieatly beyond tbe liiaits wbicb a 
regard to prudeece and economy should have prescribed^ 
He was tbe translator of ^^ Letters of Eiiler to a Geipnian 
Priecess,;Qn diffiereot subjects in Physic^ and Philosophy;'' 
'' The Studies of Nature by St Pierre;'* <' Saurin's Ser-» 
mens;'' <* Sonaioi's Tra;rds." Miscellaneous pieces and 
sermona of bis own have been published since his deaths to 
which are prefixed memoira: from the» the foregoing par*> 
tiqiuUurs bo^ve been taken. Dr. Hunter^ about 1196 or 7»! 
bi^an ** A History of luoitdon and its Environs," whieh^ 
came. out in parts, but did little credit to him,, as he evi- 
dently had no taleiits or reseajrob for a work of this de-^ 
scriptioa.* 

HUNTER (WiLliUM> M. D.)» an eminent anatomist and: 
physician, was bora May 23, 1718, at Kilbride in the- 
county of Lanark. He was the seventh of ten ebildren e 

* Gent. Mag. vol. LXXII.— Reel's Cyclopedia. 

^ These were, John, Elizabeth, An- to London in 1743, with an. inteatioii 
drew, Janet, James, Agnes, William, to study anatomy under bis brother 
0on>thea, Isabella, and John. Of the William, but was prevented from pur- 
sons, John the eldest, and Andrew* died soing thi« plan by ill bealtb, which in- 
young; James, horn in 1715, was a duced him to return to Long Cald^r* 
writer to the signet at Edinburgh, who, wood« where he died soon ^fter, aged 
dislikingthe profession ofthe law, came 28 years; John, the yoiingeft» is tha 



/ 



318 11 tl JJ f B 

bf Jdhn and Agnes Hunter^ whd resided on a small es^e 
in that parish, called Long Oatderwood, which had long^ 
been in the posseswion of his family. His grreat grand^^ 
father, byfais fiither^s side, was a younger son of r Hunter 
of Hunterston, chief of the family of that name. Atth^ 
age of fourteen, his father sent him to the c<dlege of Qhats^^ 
gow ; where he passed five years, and by bis prudent be«- 
haviour and diligence acquired the esteem of the profesaors^' 
and the reputation of being a good scholar. Kh HAer 
had designed him for the church, -but «be necessity of sub- 
scribing to articles of &ith was to him a strong objection. 
In this state of mind he happened to become acquainted' 
with Dr. Cullen, who was then just established in practice 
at Hamilton, nnder the patronage of the duke of Hamilton: 
By the conversation of Dr. Culi^n,- he was soon determined 
to devote himself to tlie profession of physic. His father's^ 
consent having been previously obtained, he went, in 17S7. 
to reside with Dr. GuUen. In the &mily of this excellent 
friend and preceptor he passed nearly three years, and 
these, as he has been often heard ^to acknowledge, were 
the happiest years of his life. It was then agreed, that be 
•hould prosecute his medical studies at Edinburgh and 
London, and afterwards return to settle at Hamilton, in 
partnership with Dr. Cullen. 

Mr. Hunter set out for Edinburgli in N6v. -1740, and 
continued there till the following spring, attending the 
lectures of the medical professors, and amongst Others thos6 
of the late Dr. Alexander Monro. Hearrivedin London iif 
the summer of 1741, and took* op his • residenci^ at Mr. 
(afterwards Dr.) Smellie's, who was at that time an apothe^^ 
cary in Pall-mall. He brought wiA him a letter of recorn-^ 
mendation to his countryman Dr. James Douglas, from Mr. 
Fotdis, printer at Glasgow,, who had Ueen useful to the 
doctor in collecting for him different editions of Horace. 
Dr. Douglas was then- intent on a great anatomical work* on 
the bones, which he did not live to complete, and was 
looking out for a young man of abilities and industry whom 
he might employ as a dissecter. This induced him to pay 
particular attention to Mi:. Hunter; and finding him acute 

subject of the ensuing article. — Of the James Baillie, D. D. professor ofdlrU 

daughters, Elizabeth, Agnes, and Isa- niiy in the university of Glasgow, l^y 

bdia, died young; Janet married Mr. whom she had a son Matthew Baitlie, 

Buchanan of Glasgow, and died in now a very eminent physician, ati4 

1749; Dorothea married the late ver. two daujjhtrrs. 



H U N T £ IL 9t# 

md sensible^ he after a short time iitvited htm itito his h^* 
mily, to assist in his dissections, and to superintend the 
education of bis son. Mr. Hunter barring commnaiGaited 
this offer to his father and Dr. CuUen, the latter nsltdily 
and heartily gave bis concurrence to^^it^ but his father, 
who was very old and infirm, and expected his return with 
impatience, consented with reluctance. His father did ndl 
long survive, dying Oct. 30 following, aged 7S.> 
' ' Mr. Hunter,, having accepted ^ Dr. Douglas's invitatioO| 
was by hisfriendly assistance enabled to enter himself asa 
surgeon^s pupil at St. George's hospital under Mr. James 
Wilkie, and as a dissecting- pupil under Dr. Frank- Nichols, 
who at that time taught anatomy with considerable reputa* 
tkm. He likewise attended a course of lectures on expe« 
rimental philosophy by Dr. Desaguliers. Of these* means 
of improvement he did not fail to make a proper use. He 
soon became expert in disseetton, and Dr. Douglas was at 
tbe ex pence of having several of his preparations engraved. 
But before many months had elapsed, he bad the hiisfor* 
tune to lose this excellent friend. Dr.. Douglas died April 
1, \74Qf in his 67th year, leaving a widow and two chiU 
dren. The death of Dr. Douglas, however, made no 
^ange in his situation. He continued (o reside with the 
doctor's family, and to pursue his studies with the same 
diligence as before. In 1743 he communkwced to the 
royal society << An Essay on the StructcHre and Diseases of 
articulating Cartilages." This ingenious paper, on a sub^ 
ject which till then had: not been sufficiently investigated^ 
affords a striking .testimony of . the rapid progress he had 
made in his anatomical inquiries. As he had it in contem-* 
plation to teach anatomy, his attention was directed prin< 
cipally to this object ;- and it deserves to be mentioned as 
an additional mark of his prudence, that he did not pre- 
cipitately engage in this attempt, biit passed several years 
in acquiring such a degree of knowledge, and such a col- 
lection of preparations, as might insure himsuccess* After 
waiting some time for a favourable opening, he succeeded 
Mr. Samuel Sharpe as lecturer to a private society of sur« 
geons in Covent-garden, began his lectures in their rooms, 
and soon extended his plan from surgery to anatomy. This 
undertaking commenced in the winter of 1746. He is said 
to have experienced much solicitude when he began to 
speak in public, but applause soon inspired him with cou- 
rage ; and by degrees he became so fond of teaching, that 



«*• 



H y If T £ R« 



£or many y^Ars \mfyre bis dfntb he was nevscr h^j^pmr tbM 
wiien employed in deliYeriag a lecture. 

The .pro&ta of bis two firtt cotHTses were considerables 
but by contributing to the wants of different friends, be 
found himself at the return of the next season^ 9Uiged.to 
d^r his lectures for a fortnight, merely because he had 
not money to ddray the necesaaiy espenoe of advertisi^ 
ments. This circumstance taught turn to be moi)e «eaenred 
in this respect In 1747 he was admitted, a mraiber. of 
the corporation of surgeons, and in the spciug (tf the Uk^ 
lowinfg year, soon after the close of his leotures, he set 
out in company with his pupil, Mr* James Douglas, on- a 
tour through Holland to Paris. His lectures sufiered no 
interruption by thk journey, as he returned to England 
soon enough to prepajre for his winter course, whidi began, 
about the usual time. At first he practised both surgery 
and midwifery, but the former he always disliked ; and, 
being elected one of the surg^on-men-midwiYes first to the 
Middlesex, and aoon afterwards to the British lying-in 
hoapital, and recommended by se?eral of the most emi-^ 
neot ftttcgeoos of that time, his line was. thus determined. 
Over his countryman, Dr. SaseUie, notwithstanding his 
great experience, and the reputation he had jostly ac* 
quired, he had a great advantage in person and address. 
The most lucrative part of the practice of midwifery was 
at that time in the hands of sir Rachard Manningham and 
Dr. Sandys. The fi>rmer of these died, and the latter re« 
tired into the country a few years after Mr. Hunter began 
to be known in midwifery. AUboUgb by these incidents 
he was established in the practice of OMdwiferyy . it is well 
known that in proportion as his reputation increased, his 
ofiinion was eagerly sought in all cases where any light 
concerning the seat or nature of any disease, could be ex* 
pected from an intimate knowledge of anatomy. In 17^0 
he obtained the degree of M. D. from the university of 
Glasgow, and began to practise as a physician. About 



* Mr. Wation, F. R. S. who was 
one of Mr. Hanter't earliMt pupils, 
a^ponptnied him boiiM after hit ia- 
trodoctory lacture. Mr. Uuoter» who 
bad receired about seventy (uinead 
from hit pupils, and bad got tbe nO- 
ney ii| a bag under bia cloak* obterved 
to Mr. Walton* tbat it was a latger 
«um Uian be had ever been master of 
before. Dr. Pulteoef , m.bi< ** Life ot 



Linoaui," baa not tbougbt it. supeiw 
flttous to reooid the slander begioninf 
ftom which that graalaataralist rote tt 
ease and aSioeoce in life. " Exivi 
patria triginti sex nummis aiireisdives»" 
are • Linn«us's own words. Anecdotea 
of this sort deserTe to bo ffooorded» m 
an encouragemeat to young men, who, 
«ith great merit, happen to possesA 
but tilde advantages (2 fortune. 



HUNTER. iai 

• 

Ak lime he quitted the family of Mrs, Douglas, and went 
to reside in Jermyn-street. In the summer of 1751 he 
revisited his native country, for which he always retained 
a cordial affection. His mother was still living at Long 
Oalderwood> which was now become his property by the 
doath of bis brother James. Dr. CuUen, for whoni he always 
entertained a sincere regard, wais'then established at Glasgow. 
During this visit, he shewed his attachment to his little 
piateroal inheritance, by giving many instructions for re-* 
pairiDg and improving it, and for purchasing any adjoining 
laada thatmight be oflered for sale. As he and Dr. Cullen 
were riding one day in a low part of the country, the lat- 
ter poiYiting out to him Long Calderwood at a considerable " 
cfistatdce, reoiarked how conspicuous it appeared. ^'Weli,''' 
fakl he, with some degree of energy, ^* if I live, I shall 
make it still more conspicuous.*' After his journey to 
Scotland, * to which he devoted only a few weeks, he was 
never absent from London, unless his professional en4 
gagements, as sometimes happened, required his attend* 
ance at a distance from the capitaL 

In 1762 we find him warmly engaged in controversy^ 
supporting his claim to different anatomical discoveries, in 
a work entitled *< Medical Commentaries,'* the style of 
whieh it corr^t and spirited*. As an excuse 'for the tar- 
diness with which he. brought forth this work, be observes 
in his introduction, that it requited a good dealof time.' 

* In hit **llediearCoiDiiieii(8riefy' ^ Mr. Mbgnezi in the iBeimd tditioo of 

to which 8 *' Sappl«meotV was after- a work.entitled ** L'Ana^inie du Corpi 

wanlfl added, he ;iapported the pr\or\tf der I'Homme eh abr^f ^,^* printed at 

of hii diacoterjet: over thoie of > Or* Patia. Who may have first sncceeded 

ifimvo, jon. proifeaior of anatomy at in a lacky iDJection» wen^ a niatter 

£dinhorgh, in respect to the duets of scarcely worthy of contest; bat Dr. 

the Inebrymal- s)ands» i^jectiops of the Hunter was extremely tenacious of any 

taaMe, the erigtn and use o^tbe ly m- elaima of this kindt and would not anf» 

phatic Tessela* and absorption by veins, fer the interference eren of his own 

There is, however, sOme difficulty in brother. Some papers; in which a 

adjintiag the claims of contemporary claim of Mr^ John Hunter, relative to 

anatondists. The great doctrine of the tbe connection between the placenta, 

absorbent action of the lymphatic sys* and nterus, was dfsputed by ihe doc* 

tern, which is now fully received, at tor in 1*780, are preserved in the ar* 
least by the anatomists of Oreat Bri-> 'chtves of the royal society, la the 

taittf was taught and illnitrated at the *' Commentaries" there are alsO some 

same time in' the fthools of London observations on the in»ensibi!ity of the 

and'offSdinborgh, and'exeveijiedthein* dura mater, periosienm/ tendons, and 

genolty of Hunter, > Monro, Hewson, ligaments, ar taught with some slight 

Cmikshaakr and other anatomists. ' difference by ' Ualler ; and ijikewise 

But Dr« SiiiSmOna baa shewn, that the «< Observations on the Sfat^ of the 1*estfs 

prinoipal points of tHiis s]|i|^ni had inthePtetni, and on the Hernia Con- 

heen itated no long ago as tT^, by genita, by Mr. John Hunter.'* 

vou xvni. . Y 



9^ h^ h^4 UttU lo 9par»e ; that tb# sul]|^t wis unpies* 
fi^t, aqd theref^e be wa^ very 9iiJdQni in tii»e buiooar 
^> uli^ it iup. In 17«29 ffrhea Q«f preseoi e^^^lent ^em 
became p^egnaQjt, Dr. Hunter was cojoi^uliisAt And Iwo 
year$ after be bad the bai>ptNr U9 be appointed {ri^yaiciao* 
extraordinary to ber q^ajesty. Abput tbia tiioe bis aFQcta- 
tiQQs were so t^um^PW, tbat be becwie desiooiM of lea** 
p^niqg bis fadgue^ «iid baTiog noticed tbe ingenuity and 
asaidwu;^ appTicaliofi ^f ^ Is^e Mr» WilUam Kewa^iii; 
F. K. S. who was tbeo one of bi« pupils, be engaged hiiOy 
fir^t. a_9 ain a$ai3ta]94t, and afteniards as a partner in bis lee* 
t^^s. This eoAne<Qtioii continued tiH 1770, wbeosooie 
disputes happened) wbi^b termiaated in a separation^ (See 
Hewson]. Mr« ^ewaoo was succeeded in the partnei^p 
by Mr. Ci'pikahank, whoee anatomical abilities were de- 
aervedly respeicted. 

Ap^l 30) 17^7, Dr. Hunter was elected F. R« S. and the 
year folio wifig Goa)Knupicated to that leaned body ^ ^^ Ohr 
aervationsom tbe Bones commonly supposed to be Ele^ 
phants' bpneS) which hare been found near the river Ohio 
in AmerM^a^i^' This was not the only subject of natural 
history on whicb Dr. Hunter employed his pen ; for in a 
aubs^qiient froluipe of the ^^ Philosophical Transactions)^ 
we find bi^A offering his ^* Remarks on isome Bones foiamd 
m the BocfL of Gibraltar,'' which he proves to have be- 
longed to some quadruped. In the same work| likewise^ 
he published an account of the NyUghau, an Indian ani- 
mal not described before, and which, from its strength 
and swiftness, promised, he thought, to be an useful ac- 
quUition to this country. 

In 1768, Dr. Hunter became F« S. A. and the sam^ 
year, at the institution of. a royal academy of arts,, he was 
appointed by bis majesty to the office of professor of ana- 
tomy. This appointmeat opened a new field for his abl- 
lities ; and he engaged in it, as he did in every other pur- 
suit of his life, with unabating zeal. He now adapted his 
anatomical knowledge to the objects of painting and sculp- 
ture; and the novelty and justness of hi^s observations 
proved at once the readiness and tb^ extegil of his genius. 

In January 1781, be was unani&ously elected to sue* 
ceed the late J^r. John Fothergill as president of tbe so- 
cietjr of physicians of London. ^^ He was one of those,'* 
says Dr. 8immons» ^ to #hom we are indebted for iis^ 



H U N T E |L 319 

-^aUitboieiiti «nd our gral^fM 4<»fcnow)<^gmeBlf wm dfae 
lobittfor bU zealous en^eay^^urs to ffromote the Viberpl 
views of tUfl institution, hy^rend^rtng it a source of matuaV 
inproveiiaidntjy and thus making it ultimately useful to tbe 
jpiiblie.** As bis came and t^ilents were knovm and re- 
peeled ia eirery part of Europe, so the honours conferred 
etf fain were not limited to his own country. In 1790 tbe 
fc^fal m^Kcal society at Paris elected him one. of their fb- 
weiga asseeiates; and in 1782 he received a similar mark 
of distinction from the royal academy of sciences in itbat 
eiigr« We coose now to the most splendid of Dr. Hunter^s 
'iMdksal publications, ^^ The Anatomy of tbe Human Gra- 
Vid Uterus.'^ The appearance of/ this work, which bad 
been begun so early as 1751 (at which time ten of the 
thirty*four plates it contains were completed), was re- 
tarded till 1775, only by the autlior's desire of sending it 
into the world with fewer imperfections. This greli^ work 
ii dedicated to the king. In his preface to it we find the 
antbor very candidly acknowledging, that in most of tbe 
dissections be had been assisted by his brothet, Mr. John' 
Hunter. This anatomical description of tbe gravid nterns, 
wes not the only work which Dr. Hunter had in contem- 
pktton te give to tbe public. He had long been em* 
l^egred in oellecting and arranging materials for a biS" 
tery ei the rarions ooneretions that are formed in tbe hu^ 
mta body^ He seems to have advanced no further in tbe 
execution of this design, than to have nearly completed 
that |»art of it which relates to urinary and biliary concre- 
jddna. Among Dr. Hunter's papers have likewise been 
fbund two introductory lectures, which are written out so 
lUrly, and with soch accuracy, that he probably intended 
no further correction of tbem> before they should be 
^en to tbe world. In. these lectures Dr. Hunter traces 
the history of anatomy from the earliest to the present 
limes, along with the general progress of science and the 
artSb He eonsiders the great utility of anatomy in the 
practice of pfaj^ic and surgery ; gives the ancient divisions 
of tbe different substances composing the human body, 
iwbich for a long time prevailed in anatomy ; points on| 
the most advantageous mode of cultivating this branch of 
natural knowledge; and concludes with explaining^ the 
particular plan of his own lectures. Besides these MSS,. he 
bis also left behind hkn a considerable number of cases- of 

Y 2 



SW HUNTER. 

dbseotiolor^. *rbe same year in which th« tablet 1 of tb^ 
gravid uterus made their appearance/ Dr. Hunter coannti* 
nicated to the royal society << An essay on the Origin of 
the Venereal Disease.'* After this paper had been read 
to the royal society, Dr. Hunter^ in a conversation with 
the late Dr. Musgrave, was convinced that the testimony 
on which he placed his chief dependence was of less 
weight than he had at first imagined ; he therefore ^ery 
properly lud aside his intention of giving his essay to the 
public. 

In 1777, Dr. Hunter joined with Mr. Watson in prei^ 
sentiug to the royal society << A short account of the latiqj 
Dr. Maty's iUness, and of the appearances on dissection ;'* 
and the year following be published his ** Reflections on 
^e Section of the Symphysis Pubis.'' 
' We must now go back a little in the order of time, to 
descrihe the origin and progress of Dn Hunter's Museum, 
without some account of which these memoirs would b» 
very incomplete. When be began to practise midwifery, 
he was desirous of acquiring a fortune sufficient to place 
him in easy -and independent circumstances. Before many 
years had elapsed, he found himself in possession of a sum 
adequate to his wishes in this respect ; and this he set apart 
as a resource of which he might avail himself whenever- 
age -or infirmities should oblige him to retire from business. 
' He has been heard to say, that he once took a considerable 
sum from this fond for the purposes of his museum, bjit 
thiit he did not fed himself perfectly at «ase till he had 
restored it again. After he had obtained this competency»^ 
as his wealth continued to accumulate, he .formed a laud* 
able design of engaging in some scheme of public utility,* 
and at first had it in contemplation to found an anatomical 
school in this metropolis. For this purpose, about 1765. 
during the administration of Mr. Grenville, he presented' 
& memorial to that -minister, in which he requested the 
grant of a piece of ground in the Mews for the site of an 
anatomical theatre. Dr. Hunter undertook to expend 7000/. 
on the building, and to endow a professorship of anatomy in 
perpetuity. This schenie did not meet with the reception 

« 

* The work on the Gravid Utcrni tended to supply thif defect. It it eii» 

• vai pnbliihed without a descriplire ac- titled ** Ad Aoatomical Description of 

ceuqt. lu 1795, Dr. Bail lie publiBbed the Human Gravid Uterus, and its Con- « 

from Dr. {lunter'a. pftpera, improved tenti. By theJate W. Htto]beri.M*D.^ 

by his own obfervationfy « book in« k,Ok and forms a Chin 4to. 



M U N T E H. 325 

{( deserved. In a conversation on this subject soon after- 
wards with the earl of Shelburne^ his lordship expressed a. 
wish that the plan might be carried into execution by sub« 
scription, and very generously requested to have bis name . 
set down for 1 000 guineas. Dr. Hunter's delicacy would 
not allow him to adopt this proposal. He chose rather to 
execute it at his own expence, and accordingly purchased 
•8 spot of ground in Great Windmill-street, where he erected 
a spacious house, to which he removed from Jermyn-street 
in 1770. In this building, besides a handsome amphi- 
theatre and other convenient apartments for his lectures 
itod dissections, there was. one magnificent room, fitted up 
with great elegance and propriety as a museum. 

.Of the magnitude and value of bis anatomical collection, 
some idea may be formed, when we consider the grea^ 
length of years he employed in making anatomical prepa-. 
nations, and in the dissection of morbid bodies ; added to 
the eagerness with which he procured additions, from the 
Qollections that were at different times offered for sale in 
London. His specimens of rare diseases ,were likewise, 
frequently increased by presents from his medical friends 
and pupils, who, when any thing of this sort occurred to. 
them, very justly thought they could not dispose of it 
more properly than by placing it in Dr. Hunter's museum. 
Before his removal to Windmill-street, he had confined. 
bis collection chiefly to speci(nens of human and ppmpa- 
rative anatomy, and of diseases ; but now h^ extended his 
views to fossils, and likewise to the branches of polite li-* 
terature and erudition. In a short space of time he be- 
came possessed of ^^ the most magnificent treasure of Greek 
and Latin books that has been accumulated by any person 
now living, since the days of Mead.'' A cabinet of an* 
cient . medals contributed likewise greatly to the richness 
of his museum. A description of part of the coins in this 
cdllection, struck by the GTreek free cities, has been pub- 
lished by the doctor's learned friend Mr. Combe, under the 
title of " NuDnfmorum veterum populorum & urbium qui 
in museo Gulielmi Hunter asservantur descriptio figuris 
illustrata. Opera & studio Caroli Combe, S. R. ^ S. A. 
8oc. Londini," 1783, 4to. In a classical dedication of 
this elegant volume to .the queen, Dr. Hunter acknpw« 
ledges his obligations to her majesty. In the preface, 
some account is given of the progress of the collection, 
which bad been brought together since 1 770, with sin« 



5M HUNTER. 

gukr taste^ and at the expence of upwards of SO^o6o/t^' 
In 1761, the museum received a valuable addition of shells^ 
corals, and other curious subjects of natural bistorj, which 
bad been collected, by the late Dr. Fothergiil, who gave 
directions by his will, that his collection should be ap* 
praised after his death, and that Dr. Hunter should have 
the refusal of it at 500/. under the valuation. This wM 
accordingly done,- and Dr. Hunter purchased it for the 
sunsi of 1200/. 

Dr* Hunter, at the head of his profession, honoured with 
the esteem of his sovereign, and in the possession of every 
thing that his reputation and wealth could confer, seemed 
now to have attained the i^ummit of his wishes. But these 
sc^urces of gratification were embittered by a diq>08ition 
to thq gout, which harassed him frequently during the 
latter p^rt of his life, notwithstanding his very abstemious 
manner of Jiving. About ten years before his death his 
health was so much impaired, that, fearing he might soon 
become unfit for the fatigues of his profession, he began 
to think of retiring to Scotland. With this view he re- 
quested his friends Dr. CuUen and Dr. Baillie, to look out 
for a pleasant estate for him. A considerable one, and 
such as they thought would be agreeable to him, was of<* 
fered for sale about that time in the neighbourhood of 
Alloa. A description of it was sent to him, and met with 
his approbation : the price was agreed on, and the bargain 
supposed to be concluded. But when the title-deeds of 
the estate came to 'be examined by Dr. Hunter's counsel 
Jn London, they were found defective, and he was advised 
not to complete the purchase. After this he found the 
expences of his museum increase so fast, that he laid aside 
ail thoughts of retiring from practice. 

This alteration in his plan did not tend to improve his 
health. In the course of a few years the returns of his 
gout became by degrees more frequent, sometimiss af« 
fecting his limbs, and sometimes his stomach, but seldoin 
remaining many hours in one part. Notwithstanding this 
valetudinary state, his ardour seemed to be unabated. In 
the last year of his life he was as eager to acquire new 
credit, and to secure the advantage of what he had before 
gained, as he could have been at the most enterprising 
part of his life. At length, on Saturday, March 15, 17S3, 
after having for several days experienced a return of wwx^ 
derlng gout, he complained df great l^d-ache and naused« 



HUNTER. S$t 

Iii'diis 8tMe be went to bed, and for sereral days fUt more 
p&in than usual, bdfh in his flt^ommch and limbs. On xM 
Thursday foUov^ing he found himself so much recon^red, 
that he determined to give the introductory lecture to th# 
operations of surgery. It was to no purpose that his 
friends urged to . him the imprbpriety of such aw ^ttempt^ 
He was determined to make the experiment, and accord* 
ingly delivered the lecture; but towards the condosiort, his 
strength was so eashausted that he fainted away^ and was 
obliged to be carried to bed by two servants. The fo}* 
lowing night and day his symptoms were such' as indicated 
danger ; and on Saturday morning Mr. Combe, who ittadiik 
bim an early visit, was alarmed on being told by Br. Hun- 
ter himself, that during the night he had certainly had il 
^uraly tic stroke. As neither his speech nor his pulse were 
affected, and he was able to. raise himself in bed, Mr; 
Combe encouraged him to hope that he was mi^takem 
But the event proved the doctor's idea of his Qdmplmnt to 
be but too well founded ; for from that time till his death, 
which happened on Sunday March 30, he voided no urine 
without the assistance of the catheter, which was occa- 
sionally introduced by his brother ; and purgative medi- 
cines were administered repeatedly, without procuring a 
passage by stool. These circumstances, and the absence 
of pain, seemed \o shew that the intestines and bladder 
had lost their sensibility and power of co'ntractton ; aYld it 
was reasonable to presume, that a partial palsy had affected 
the nerves distributed to those parts. The tatter moment!^ 
of his life exhibited a remarkabm instance of calniness and 
fortitude. Turning to his friend Mr. Coihbe, ^' If I had 
streiigth enough to hold a pen,*' said he, ^' I would write 
how easy and pleasant a thing it is to die.'' 

By bis will, the use of his museum, utider the direction 
of trustees^ devolved to his nephew Matthew Baillie, and 
in case of his death, to Mr. Cruikshank, for the term of 
thirty years, at the end of which period the whole collec- 
tion was bequeathed to the university of Glasgow, but Dr. 
Baillie removed it to its destination some years before the 
completion of that term. The sum of BOOO/. steriiog was 
left as a fund for the support and augmentation of the col- 
lection. The trustees were. Dr. George Fbrdyce, Dr. Da- 
tid Pitcairne, and Mr. Charles (since Dr.) Combe, to each 
of whom Dr. Hunter bequeathed an annuity of 30/. for 
thirty years, that is, during the period in which they 



SS8 HUNTER. 

would be executing the purposes of the will. Dr« Hmit^ 
likewise bequeathed an annuity of 100/. to bis sister Mrs^ 
Baillie, during her life, and the sum of 2000/L to each of 
her two daughters. The residue of his estate and effects 
went to his nephew. On Saturday April 5, his remaius 
were interred in the rector's vault of St^ James's church, 
Westminster. 

Of the person of Dr. Hunter it may be observed that he 
was regularly shaped, but of a slender make, and rather 
below a middle stature. There are several good portraits 
of him extant. One of these is an unfinished paiiitiog by 
Zoifany, who has represented him in the attitude of giving 
a lecture on the muscles at the royal academy, surrounded 
by a groupe of academigiaiis. His manner of living was 
extremely simple and frugal, and the quantity of his food 
was small as well as plain. He was an early riser, and 
when business was over, was constantly engaged in his 
anatomical pursuits, or in his museum. There was some-v 
thing very engaging in his manner and address, and he ha4 
such an appearance of attention to bis patients when he 
was making his inquiries, as could hardly fail to conciliate., 
their confidence and esteem. In consultation with his me? 
dical brethren, he delivered his opinions with diffidenee 
and candour. In familiar conversation he was chearful and 
noassumiogt All who knew him allowed that he possessed 
an excellent understandingf, great readiness of perception, 
a good memory, and a sound judgment. To these intel- 
lectual powers be united uncommon assiduity and preci- 
sioD, so that he was admirably fitted for anatoniical inve^* 
tigation. As a teacher of anatomy, he was long and- de- 
servedly celebrated. He was a good orator, and iiaving % 
clear and accurate conception of what he taught, he knew 
how to place in distinct and intelligible points of view 
the. most abstruse subjects of anatomy and physiology. 
How much he contributed to the improvement of medical 
science in general, may be collected from the concise view 
we have taken of his writings. The munificence he dis« 
played in the cause of science has likewise a claim to our 
applause. Dr. Hunter sacrificed no part of his time or his 
fortune to voluptuousness, to idle pomp, or to any of the 
common objects of vanity that influence the' pursuits of 
mankind in general. He seems to have been imimated 
with a desire of distinguishing himself in those things which 
u^G in their nature laudable ; and being a bachelor^ s^qd 



HUNTER. $2^ 

withodt views of establishiag a family , he was at liberty to 
indulge his ioclioation. Let us, therefore, not withhold 
the praise that is due to him ; and undoubtedly his tem- 
perance, his prudence, his perscTering and eager pur* 
suit of knowledge, constitute an example which we may^ 
with advantage to ourselves and to society, endeavour to 
imitate.' 

HUNT£R (JOHK), younger brother of Dr. Hunter, one 
of the most profound anatomists, sagacious and expert 
surgeon^, and acute observers of nature, that any age has 
produced, was born at Long Calderwood, before-meu- 
tioned, July 14, 1728. At the age of ten years he lost 
his ftLthkr, and being the youngest of ten children, was 
sufiered to employ himself in amusement rather than study, 
though sent occasionally to a grammar-school. He had 
reached the age of twenty before he felt a wish for more 
active employment ; and bearing of the reputation his bro- 
ther William had acquired in London as a teacher of ana* 
tomy, made a proposal 'to go up to him as an assistant. 
His proposal was kindly accepted, and in September 174S 
•he arrived in London. It was not long before his dispo« 
sition to extei in anatomical pursuits was fully evinced, 
and his determination to proceed in that line confirmed 
and approved. In the summer of 1749 he attended Mn 
Cheselden at Chelsea-hospital, and there acquired the rqh* 
diments of surgery. In the subsequent winter he was so 
fat: advanced in the knowledge of anatomy, as to instruct 
his brother's pupils . in dissection ; and from the constant 
occupation of the doctor in- business, this- task in future 
devolved almost totally upon him. In the summer oi n^O 
he again attended at Chelsea, and in 1751 became a pupil 
at St. Bartholomew's, where he constantly attended when 
any extraordinary operation was to be performed. After 
having paid a visit to Scotland, he entered as a gentleman 
commoner in Oxford, at St Mary-hall, though with what 
particular view does not appear. His professional studies, 
however, were uot interrupted, for in 1754 he became a 
pupil at St George's hospital, where in 1756 he was ap* 
pointed house-surgeon. In the winter of 1755, Dr. Hunter 
admitted him to a partnership in his lectures. / 

The management of anatomical preparations was at this 
time a new art, and very little known ; every preparation, 

t Life of Dr. Huoter, by tbt late S. F. Simmons, M. D. F. R. S. published in 



no H U N T E B. 

thereftiey that was skyfally vrndcy iMcaiM aa» object of 
admiration ; many were wantrng for the use of the leotuYea^ 
and Dr. Hunter having himself an entbusiasmt for the aitv 
his brother had every advantage in die proseoation oi duR 
pursuit towards which his own disposition pointed- so 
strongly ; and of which he left so noble a monument in 
his Museum of Comparative Anatomy. Mr. Hunter par* 
sued the study of anatomy with an ardpat and perseveranpe 
of which few examples can be found. By this dose appli* 
eation for ten years> he made himself master of all that 
was already known, and struck out some additions to that 
knowledge. He traced the ramifications of the oUaetoirf 
nerves upon the membranes of the nose, and discovered 
the coarse of some of the branches of the fifth pair of 
nerves. In the gravid uterus, he traced the Arteries of 
she uterus to their termination in the placenta. He 
also' discovered the existence of the lymphatic vessels ie 
birds. In comparative anatomy, which he cultivated with 
indefatigable industry, his grand object was, by examining 
various organizations formed for similar functions, undeir 
different circumstances, to trace out the general principlei 
of animal life. With; this object in view, the commonest 
animals were often of considerable importance to him ; but 
be also took every opportunity of purchasing those that 
were rare,^ or encouraged their owners to sell the bodies 
to him when they happened to die. 

By excessive attention to these pursuits, his health was 
so much impaired, that he was threatened with consump*^ 
tive symptoms, and being advised, to go abroad, obtained 
the appointment of a surgeon on the staff, and went with 
the army to Belieisle, leaving Mr. Hewson to assist his 
brotjh^. He continued in this service till the close of the 
war in 176S, and thus acquired his knowledge of the na- 
ture and treatment of gun-shot wotinds. On his return ^to 
London, to his emoluments from private practice, and his 
balf'^pay, he added those which arose from teaching prac*' 
tical anatomy and operative surgery ; and that he might 
be more enabled to carry on his inquiries in comparative 
anstomy, he purchased some la^nd at EarPs-court, near 
Brompton, where he built a house. Here also he kept 
such animals alive as he purchased, or were presented to 
him ; studied their habits and Instincts, and cultivated an 
intimacy with them, which with the 6ercer kinds was not 
always supported Without personal risk. It is recorded by 



BUNTKR. m 

bin biogra|iiier^ tbat, on finding tma l«opardi loose, Mi 
Iftoly to escape or be killed, he went oot, aivd seiimig^ 
tbem with his own hands, cairried them back to^ their deiib 
The horror he felt afterwards at the danger he bad mn, 
would noty probably, hare prevented btsi from making- si 
similar effort, bad a like occasion arisen. 

On the 5tb of February, 1767, Mr. Hunter was elected 
Si fellow of tbe royal society ; and in order to make that 
situation as productive of knowledge as possible, be pre- 
vailed on Dr. George Fordyce, and Mr. Gumming (the 
celebrated watch-maker) to form a kind of subsequent 
meeting at a coffee-house, for the purpose of philosophical 
discussion, and inquiry into discoveries and improvements* 
To this meeting some of the first philosophers of the age 
very speedily acceded, among whom none can be morn 
conspicuous than sir Joseph Banks, Dr. Solander, Dn 
Maskelyne, sir Geo. Shuckburgb, sir Hairry Englefield, sir 
Charles Blagden, Dr. Nootbe, Mr. Ramsden, and Mr. 
Watt of Birmingham. About the same time, the accident 
of breaking his terido AchUlis^ led him to some very sue* 
cessful researches into the mode in which tendidns are re* 
united ; so completely does a true philosopher turn every 
accident to the advantage of science. In 1768, Dr. Hun- 
ter having finished his house m Windmill-street^ gave up 
to his brother that which he had occupied iii Jermyn-streei; 
and in the same year, by tbe interest of the doctor, Mr. . 
Hunter was elected one of the surgeons to St. George's 
hospital. In 1771 he married Miss Home, the eldest 
'daughter of Mr. Home, surgeon to Burgoyne's regiment 
of light^horse, by whom he had two sons and two daugh- 
ters. In 177S he undertook the professional education of 
his brother-in-law Mr. Everard Home, then leaving West- 
minster-school, who has assidoonsly pursued bis steps, 
ably recorded his merits, and successfully emulates bis re* 
putation. 

As tbe family of Mr. Hunter increased, his practice and 
character also advanced; but the expence of his collec*^ 
tion absorbed a very considerable part of bis proBts. The 
best rooms in his bouse were filled with his prepara- 
tions ; and his mornings, from sun -rise to eight o'clock, 
«rere constantly employed in anatomical and philosophical 
pursuits. The knowledge which he thus obtained, he ap«> 
plied most successfully to the improvement of the art of 
snidery ; was particularly studious to examine morbid 



S32 HUNTER. 

bodies, .and te investigate the caiise of failure when ppera^ 
tions bad not been productiv:e of their due effect. It. was 
thus that he perfected the mode. of operation for the h]r- 
droceie, and made several other improvements of different 
kinds. At the same time the volumes of the Philosophical 
Transactions bear testimony to his success in comparative 
anatomyi which was his favourite, and may be called al- 
most his principal pursuit When he met with natural 
appearances which could not be preserved in actual pre* 
patations, he employed able draughtsmen to represent 
them on paper; and for several years he even kept one in 
his family expressly for this purpose. In Jan. 1776, Mr. 
Hunter was appointed surgeon-extraordinary to his ma- 
jesty. In the autumn of the same year, he bad an illness 
of so severe a nfiture, as to turn his mind to the care of a 
provision for his family in case of his decease ; when, con-^ 
sidering that the chief part of his property was vested in 
his collection, he determined immediately to put it into 
such a state of arrangement as might make it capable of 
being disposed of to advantage at his death. In this he 
happily lived to succeed in a great measure, and finally 
left his museum so classed as to be fit for a public si- 
tuation. 

Mir. Hunter in 1781 was elected into the royal society of 
sciences and belles lettres at Gottenburg; and in 1783, 
into the royal society of medicine, and the. royal academy 
of surgery at Paris^ In the same year he removed from 
Jermyn-street to a larger bouse in L^eicester^square, and, 
with more spirit than consideration, expended a very great 
sum in buildings adapted to the objects of his pursuits. 
He was in 1785 at the height of his career as a surgeon, 
and performed some opeifations with v complete success, 
which were thought by the profession to be beyond the 
reach of any skill. His faculties were now in their fullest 
vigour, and his body su£Scientiy so to keep pace with 
the activity of his mind. H<e was engaged in a very 
extensive practice, he was surgeon to St. .George's hos- 
pital, be gave a very long course of lecture^ in the* 
winter, had a school of practical anatomy in his house, 
was continually engaged in experiments concerning th^ 
animal oeconodiy, and was from time to time producing 
very important publications; At ihe s^me time he in- 
stituted a medical society called <^ Lyceum Medicum 
Xondinense,'* which met at his lecture-rooms, apd soon 



J 



a U N T E R. SSS 

xbse' to considerable reputation; Qh thel death of Mr. 
Middteton,' surgeon-general, in 1786, Mr. Hunter obtained 
the appointment of deputy surgeon-general to the army ; 
but in the spring of the year he had a violent attack of ill- 
Qiess, which left him for the rest of his life subject to pe- 
culiar and violent spasmodic adections of the heart. In 
July 1787, he was chosen a member of the American phi« 
losophical society. In 1790, finding that his lectures oc- 
cupied too much of his time, he relinquished them to hit 
brother-in-law Mr. Home ; and in this year, on the death 
of Mr* Adair, he was appointed inspector -general of hps* 
. pitals, and surgeon-general of the army. He was also 
elected a member of the royal college of surgeons in 
Ireland. 

.. The death of Mr. Hunter was perfectly sudden, and the 
consequence of one of those spasmodic seizures in the 
heart to which he had now for several years been subject. 
It happened on the 16th of October, 1793. Irritation of 
mind had long been foundto bring on this complaint ; and 
on that day, meeting with some vexatious circumstances at 
St. George's hospital, he put a degree- of constraint upon 
himself to suppress bis sentiments, and in.that state went 
into another room ; where, in turning round to a physician 
who was present, he fell, and dnstantly expired without a 
groan. Of the disorder which produced this effect, Mr. 
Home has given a clear and circumstantial account, of a 
very interesting nature to professional readers. Mr. Hun- 
ter was short in stature, but uncommonly strong, active, 
and capable of great bodily exertion* The prints of him 
by. Sharp, froni a picture by sir Joshua Reynolds, give a 
forcible and accurate idea of his countenance. His tem- 
per vras warm and impatient ; but his disposition was can- 
did and free from reserve, even to a fault. He was super 
rior to every kind, of artifice, detested it in others, and In 
er^er to iavoid it, expressed bis exact sentiments, sometimes 
too openly and too abruptly. His mind was uncommonly 
active ; it was naturally formed for investigation, and so 
attached to truth and fact, that he despised all unfounded 
speculation, and proceeded always with caution upon the 
•olid ground of experiment. At the same time his acute- 
ness in observing the result of those experioQents, his inge- 
nuity in contriving, and his adroitness in conducting them, 
enabled him to deduce from them advantages which others 
weuld not have derired. It has been supposed, very 



4$4 H U N T E 1* 

falsely, that he was fond of hypothesM ; on iW oonteftfff if 
be was defective in any talent, it was in tbat of imq^a- 
tion ; he pursued truth on all oocasiOins with malheioatieid 
precision, but he made no fanciful exeursiMs. Coiivnr-'' 
sation in a mixed company, where no smbyect could lie 
connectedly pursued, fatigued instead of amuaifig him ; 
particularly towards the latter part of hia lUe. He ilept 
little ; seldom more than four hoiurs in the ni^it, and 
^bout an hour after dinner. But his occupations, laboriotiii 
as they would have been to others, were far from being 
fatiguing to him, being so perfectly congenial to his mitidL 
He spoke freely and sometimes harshly of his contemfM^ 
raries ; but he considered surgery as in its itifaacy, md, 
being very anxious for its advancement, thought meanly df 
those professors whose exertions to promote it were imeqaal 
to his own. Money he valued no otherwise tiMUi «9 k 
enabled him to pursue his researches; and in his&sesl; to 
bene6t mankind, he attended too little to the interesis of 
bis own family. Altogether he was a man such as few agos 
produce, and by his great contributions to the stores <if 
knowledge, will ever deserve the gratituda and veneratioii 
of posterity. 

The contributions of Mr. Hunter to the TransacttoMi &£ 
the Royal Society cannot easily be enumerated : his other 
works appeared in the following order. 1. A treatise o^ 
^* the Natural History of the Human Teeth," 177 1, 4to; a 
second part to which was added in 1778. 2. ^^ A treatt^ 
on the Venereal Disease,*' 1786, 4to. 3. ^^ObservatiMie 
on certain Parts of the Animal CEconomy,'' 1786, 4co. 
4.^^ A treatise on the Blood, Inflammation, and Giin«^ 
shot Wounds,'' 4to. This was a posthumous work,. oa!t 
appearing till the year 1794 ; but it had been sent to the 
press in the preceding year, before bis death. Thei» ^« 
also some papers by Mr. Hunter in the ^^ Transactiims of 
the Society for the Improvement of Medical and Chinir* 
gical Knowledge," which were . published in, 1793. Tb^ 
collection of comparative anatomy which Mr. Hunter left 
behind him, must be considered as a proof of talents^ 
assiduity, and labour, which cannot be. qpntem plated witi^'«> 
out surprize and admiration. His attempt in this qoHeciion 
has been to exhibit the gradations of nature, from tha 
most simple $tate in which life is fou'nd to exist, up tp the 
most perfect and complex of the animal creation, to oaaii 
hioi^elf. By his art and care^ be has been able so ti^ 



BVVTEIL tM 

txpote and preserve in a diied state, or la spvnu^ the 
corresponding parts of animal bodies, that the Tarioos links 
« JH the chain of perfectoess may be leadily followed and 
dearly understood. They are classed in the followiiigr 
order: first,, the parts constructed fiur motion; seoeodly, 
the parts essential to animals as respecting their own 
ieteroal economy ; thirdly, parts superadded for purposes 
eoncemed with externsl objects ; fourthly, parts designed 
for the prepsgation of the species, aud the maintenance 
and preservation of die young. To go finrther into diese 
particttliMrs, would lead us to a detail inconsistent with die 
nature of this work ; but they are of the most curious 
hind, end may be &uiul described in a manner at once 
elear atid iestructive, io the <^ Lile of John Hunter,*' from 
whieb we have taken this account By his will, Mr. Hihi^ 
ter directed that this museum should be offered to the 
pujfchaae of government ; and, after some negociation, it 
was bought for the public use for the sum of 15,000/. and 
gime to the Ccdlege of Surgeons, on condition of exposing 
it to public view on certain days in the week, and giving a 
set of annual lectures ezplanauory of its contents. A large 
building for its reception has been completed in Portugal- 
street, (Connected with the College of Surgeons, in Lin- 
eoln's-inn fields; and in the spring of the year 1810 the. 
first course of lectures was delivered by Mr. Home and sir 
William Blizard.' 

HUNTER (Robert, esq.), author of the celebrated 
*' Letter on Enthusiasm/' and, if Coxeter be right in his 
MS conjecture in his title-page of the only copy extant, 
ef a farce called *^ Androboros.*' He was appointed lieu- 
tenant-governor of Virginia in 1708, but was taken by the . 
French in his voyage thither. Two excellent letters, ad« 
dressed to colonel Hunter while a prisoner at Paris, which 
reflect equal honour on Hunter and Swift, are printed in 
the 12th volume of ^the Dean's, works, by one of which it 
appears, tliat the" ^' Letter on Enthusiasm" had been 
ascribed to Swift, as it has still more commonly been to 
the earl of Shaftesbury. In 17 10 he was appointed gover-' 
QOr of New York, and sent with 2700 Palatines to settle 
there. From Mr. Cough's ** History of Croy land Abbey," 
we learn, that Mr. Hunter was a major-general, and th^t, 
during-his government of New^York, he was directed- by 

V Life by Bf j^rard Home. 



we HUNTER. 

her majesty to provide subsistence for about 3000 Pdstinei' 
(the number stated in the alienating act) sent from Great 
Britain to be employed in raising and manufacturing navaK^ 
stores; and by an account stated in 1734, it appears that 
the governor had disbursed 20,000/. and upwards in that 
undertaking, no part of which was ever repaid. He 're- 
turned to Engrland in 1719; and on the accession of 
George II. was continued governor of New York and the 
Jerseys. On account of his health he obtained the ^o- 
vernmeQt of Jamaica, where he arrived in February 1728 ; 
died March 31, 1734 ; and was buried in that island.' 

HUNTINGTON (Henry of), an ancient English his- 
torian, was the son of one Nicholas, a married priest, and 
was born about the beginning of the twelfth century^ or 
and of the eleventh, for he infornis us that he was made 
an archdeacon by Robert Bloet, bishop of Lincoln, who 
died in lli23. He was educated by Albinus of Anjou, a 
learned canon of the church of Lincoln, and in his youth 
discovered a great taste for poetry, by wjiting eight books 
of epigrams, as many of love verses, with three long 
didactic poems, one of herbs, another of spices, and a 
third of precious stones. In his more advanced years he 
applied to the study of history; and at the request of 
Alexander bishop of Lincoln, who was his great friend 
and patron, he composed a general History of England, ' 
from the earliest accounts to the death of king Stephen, 
1154, in eight books, published by sir Henry Siavile. In 
the dedication of this work to bishop Alexander, be tells, 
us, that in the ancient part of his history he had followed 
the venerable Bede, adding a few things from some other 
writers : that he had compiled the sequel from several 
chronicles he had found in different libraries, and from 
what he had heard and seen. Towards the conclusion he 
very honestly acknowledges that it was only an abridgment, 
and that to compose a complejte history of England, many^ 
Inore books were necessary than he could procure. Mr. 
Wharton has published a long letter of this author to his 
friend Walter, abbot of Ramsay, on the contempt of the 
world, which contains many curious anecdotes of the kings, 
nobles, prelates, and other great men who were his. con- 
temporaries. In the Bodleian library Is a MS Latin poem 
by Henry, on the death of king Stephen, and the arrival 

* Nichob's Bowyer.-^Biog. Drata.— Smfl's Works, 



HUNTfiR. S37 

of Henry II. in England, whi^h is by no means contemp-^ 
tible, and in Trinity college library, Oxford, is a fine MS. 
of his book. " De imagine mundi." When he died is 
uncertain.^ 

HUNTINGTON (Robert), a learned English divine^ 
W43 born; at Deorhyrst in Gloucestershire, where his father 
was minister, in 1636. Having been educated in school 
learning at Bristol, he was sent to Merton-coUege, Oxford, 
of .which in due time he was choseh fellow. He went 
through the usual course of arts and sciences with great' 
applause^ and then applied himself most diligently to 
divinity and the Oriental languages. 'The latter became 
afterwards' of infinite service to him, .lor he was chosen 
chaplain to thef English- factory at Aleppo, and sailed from 
England in Sept 1670; During his eleven years* residence 
in this plape, be applied himself particularly to search out 
and procure manuscripts ; and for this purpose maintained 
a correspondence with the learned and eminent of every 
profession and degree, which his knowledgte in the Eastern 
languages, and especially the Arabic, enabled him to do. 
He travelled also for his diversion and improvement, not 
only into the adjacent, but even into distant places ; and 
after having carefully visited almost all Galilee and Samaria, 
he went to Jerusalem. In 1677 he went into Cyprus; and 
the year after undertook a journey of 150 miles, for the 
sake of beholding the venerable ruins of the once noble 
and glorious city of Palmyra ; but, instead of having an 
opportunity of viewing the place, he and they that were 
with him were very near being destroyed by two Arabian 
princes, who had tdken possession of those parts. He had 
better success in a journey to Egypt in 1680, where he 
met with several curiosities and manuscripts, and had the 
pleasure of conversing with John Lascaris, archbishop of 
mount Sinai. 

Id 1682 he embarked, and landed in Italy ; and having 
visited Rome, Naples, and other places^ taking Paris in his 
Way, where he stayed a few weeks, he arrived, after many 
dangers^and difficulties, safe in his own country. He retired 
immediately to his fellowship at Mi^rton college ) and in 
1683 took the degrees in divinity. About the same time, 
through the recommendation of bishop Fell, he was ap- 

1 Nicolson's English Hist. Libra rj*.— Henry's Hist of Britain —Wharton's 
Inglia Sacfa.— WaHoQ's Hkit. of Poetry.— Rery in Aogl. Scriptores dt Savile. 

Vol. XVIII. Z 



»»» HUNTINGTON. 

poioted matter of Trinity G<rfleg^ in Dablin, and went 
over thither, though agaiast his will ; bot the troables that' 
iiappened in Ireland at the Revolution forced him baek f&t 
a time into England; and though he returned after the' 
recaption of that luDgdom^ yet be resigned his mastership 
in 1 69 1^ and came home, with an intention to quit it na 
pore. In the mean time be sold for 700/. his fine coHee^ 
tipn dl MSS. to the cuiators of the Bodleian libraiy ; 
haTing before mad<e «, present of thirty* five* lo 1692 he 
WAS pcesent^ by ^ir Edvfard Turnor to the rectory of 
preat ]^llingbury in Essex, and the same year he married. 
He was offered al^out that time the bishopric of Kilmore 
io Ireland^ J>ut refiised it ; in ITOl^ however, he accepted 
that of RapboiSy and was coiraecrated io Christ*chuicbt 
Dublin, Aug. 2^0. He survived his consecration but twelve 
days, fpx be died Sept. 2, in his 66th year, and was 
buried m Trinity college chapel. 

AU that he published himself was, '' An Account of die 
Porphyry Pillars io Egypt,'' in the *^ Philosophical Trans* 
actions. No. 161.** Some of his ^< Observations " are 
printed in ^^ A Collection of curious Travels and Voyages," 
in two vols. 8vo, by Mr. J. Ray ; and thirty*nine of his 
letters, chiefly written while he was abroad, were published 
by Pr. T. Smith, at die eud of his life.^ 

HURD (Rxchaed), an eminent and accomplished pre- 
late, was born at Copgreve, in the parish of Penkricb, ia 
Staffordshire, Jan. 13, 1720. He was the second of three 
children, all sops, of John and Hannah Kurd, whom he 
describes as '^ plain, bonest, apd good people, farmers, but 
of a turn of mind that might have hondUred any rank and 
any education ;'' and they appear to have been solicitous 
to give this son the best and most liberal education. They 
vented a considerable farm at Congreve, but soon after 
removed to a larger at Peuford, about half-way between. 
Brewood and Wdverhampton in the same county. There 
being a good grammax-school at Brewood, Mr. Hurd was 
educated there under the rev. Mr. HUman, aud upon hia 
death under his successor the rev. Mr. Budworth, wbona 
memory our author affectionately honoured in a-dedar.aiion» 
in 1757, to sir Edward Littleton, who had also been edu-f 
i»ited at Brewood school. He continued under ibis ro pi— ? e 
care until 1733, when he was admitted of Emanuel college, 

I iifo hj Dr. SoAiltb in Latin, Load. 1704, Sr«.»-«ios« 



H'U R IX ii% 

Canbridgje, but did not go to reside there till a yeacor two 
ajterwarda. 

lo this •college he bad the bftpptuess of beiog encouiagi^d 
by, and hearing the lectures of, that excelleot tutor» Mr« 
Henry Hubbard, although he had been admitted under 
another person. He took the degree of B. A. in 1739, 
proceeded M« A* and was elected fellow in 1742. In June, 
of that yfsaf he was ordained deacon in St. Paul's cathedra^' 
London, by Dr. Joseph Butler, bishop of Bristol and deaa- 
Cff St. Paul's, on letters diniissory from Dr. Gooch, bishop, 
of Norwicli; and;was ordained priest May 20, 1744, in the 
chapel of Gonvile and Caius college, Cambridge, by the. 
same Dr. Gooch. 

. Mr, Hurd's first literary performance, as far as can .be. 
ascertained, wots *^ Remarks on a late book entitled ^ An. 
Enquiry intatfae rejection of the Christian miracles by the: 
Heathens, by William Weslpn^ B.D.'" 1746. On the 
peace of Aix<*la»Chapelle, in 1748, he contributed some 
verses to the university collection of 1749. In the same 
y^ear he took the degi:ee. of B. D. and published his ^* Com- 
meatary on Horace?s Ars Poetica^,'' in the preface to 
which he took 'Occasion to compliment Mr. Warburton in a 
mapner which procured him the acquaintance of that au« 
thor, who soon after returned the eulogium, in his edition 
of Pope^s works, in which he speaks of Mr. Hurd-s Com- 
mentary in terms of the highest approbation. Hence 
acose an intimacy which remained unbroken during , the 
DKbole of their lives, and is supposed to -have had a con- 
siderabl/e' effect on the opinions of Mr. Hurd, who was 
long considered as the first scholar in what has been called 
the Warburtonian school. His Commentary was reprinted • 
i^ 1757, .with the addition of two Dissertations, one on 
the Province of the Drama, the other on Poetical Imitation^ 
a^d a letter, to Mr. Mason, on the *^ Marks of Imitation." 
A fourth edition,, corrected and enlarged, was published in 
3 vols. 8iiro. in 1765, with the addition of another Disser-* 

'* This Commentary endeaTours to compliments to Colman, and thank him 

«ftoblishy^ thai' Horace wfitei, in his for the handsome manner in which he 

*< Alt of Poell^itf'' wiUi systematic or* has treated.me, ai|4 tell him thai^ I think 

der and the strictest method ; an idea he is right." Drs. Warton and Beatiie 

which has l>een combated by sereral ^were of the same opinion. Yet we 

eritifli. Colnpan^ method of aeconnt* know not whether ali this much ilimi- 

iii|^/or this epistle* published in 1783j nishes the Talue of Dr. Hurd*s perform^ 

is l&>nght preferable.. On that occa- ance as a piece of miscellaneous cri* 

tioa Dr. Hard said to Dr. Douglas, the . ticism. 
lite Visbop of SftGibury, " Give nqr 

2 2 



S40 H U R D. 

tatioii on the idea of univers.al Poeti'y ; and the whole werr 
ag^in reprinted in 1776. It is needless to add that they 
fully established Mr. Hurd's character as au elegant, acute^ 
and judicious critic. 

In May 1750, by Warburton^s recommendation to 
Dn Sherlock, bisbop of London, Mr. Hurd was appointed 
one of the Whitehall pfeachers. At this period the uni- 
versity of Cambridge was distui'bed by internal divisions, 
occasioned by an exercise of discipline against some of its 
ihembers, who had been wanting in respect to those who 
vrere entrusted with its authority. A punishment hav- 
ing been inflicted on some delinquents, they refused 
to submit to it, and appealed from the vice-chancellor's 
jurisdiction. The right of the university, and those to 
whom their power was delegated, becoming by this means 
the subject of debate, several pamphlets appeared, and 
among others who signalised themselves upon this occasion, 
Mr. Hurd was generally supposed to have written ^^ The 
Academic,, or, a disputation on the state of the university 
of Cambridge, and the propriety of the regulations made 
in it on the 1 1th day of May and the 26th day of June 
1750, 8vo ;'' but this was, as we have already remarked, the 
production of Dr. Green : Mr. Hurd, however, wrote 
** The opinion of an eminent lawyer (the eari of Hardwicke) 
concerning the right of appeal from the vice-chancellor of 
Cambridge to the senate ; supported by a short historical 
account of the jurisdiction of the university ; in answer 
to a late pamphlet, intituled ^An Inquiry into the right 
of appeal from the vice-chancellor, &c.' By a fellow of a 
college,^' 1751, 8vo. This passed through three editions; 
and being answered, was defended in '^ A Letter to the 
Author of a Further Inquiry," 1752, 8vo. It is also pre» 
served in the bishop's works. 

In 1751, he published the '' Commentary chi the Epis« 
tie to Augustus ;'' and a new edition of both Comments^ 
with a dedication to Mr. Warburton, in 1753. In 1752 
and 1753, he published two occasional sermons, the one 
at the assizes at Norwich, on '^ The Mischiefs of Entbu-^ 
siasm and Bigotry," and the other, for the charity schools 
at Cambridge, neither of which has been retained in his 
works. The friendship which had already taken place be- 
tween Warburton and Mr. Hurd had from its commence- 
ment continued- to increase by the aid of mutual good 
offices } and in 1755 an opportunity offer^ for the latter 



. H U R D, 541 

to sheve the warmth of his attachment, which he did per* 
liaps with too close an imitation of bis friend's manner. 
Dr. Jortin having, in his ^^ Dissertations/' spoken of War* 
burton with less deference and submission than the claims 
«f an overbearing and confident superiority seemed to de- 
mand, Mr. Hurd wrote a keen satire, entitled '^ The Deli- 
•cacy of Friendship, a seventh dissertation ; addressed to 
the author of the sixth," 1T55, 8vo. It has been said, that 
iipon reflection, he was so little satisfied with the warmth 
of zeal he had displayed pn this occasion, that he took 
great pains to suppress this pamphlet. If so, it is difficult 
to account for the eagerness with which it was brought for- 
ward again in a new edition in 1788, by an eminent living 
scholar, in a volume entitled ^* Tracts by Warburton and 
a Warburtonian." It was this obtrusion, however, for 
which it would not be easy to assign the most liberal mo* 
tives, that probably induced the author in his latter days, 
not only to acknowledge the tract, but to include it among 
those which he wished to form his collected works. 

Although Mr. Hurd's reputation as a polite scholar and 
critic had been now fully established, bis merit had not 
attracted the notice of the great. He still continued to 
reside at Cambridge, in learned and unostentatious retire- 
ment, till, in Dec. 1756, he became, on the death of Dr. 
Arhald, entitled to the rectory of Thurcastdn, as senior 
fellow of Emanuel college, and was instituted Feb. 16, 1757. 
At this place he accordingly entered into residence, and, 
perfectly satisfied with his situation, continued his studies, 
which were still principally employed on subjects of polite 
literature. It was in this year that he published* ^^ A Let- 
ter to Mr. Mason on the Marks of Imitation," one of his 
most agreeable pieces of this class, which was afterwards 
added to the third edition of the " Epistles of Horace.'^ 
This obtained for him the return of an elegy inscribed to 
bim by the poet, in 1759, in which Mason terms him ^' the 
friend of his youth," and speaks of him aa seated in " low 
Thurcaston's sequester'd bower, distant from ^promotion's 
view." The same year appeared Mr. Hurd's ^* Remarks 
on Hume's Essay on the Natural History of Religion.'* 
Warburton appears to have been so much concerned in 
this tract, that we find it republished by Hurd in the quarto 
edition of that prelate's works, apd enumerated by him in 
his list of his own works. It appears to have given Hume 
some uneasiness, and he notices it in bis account of his 
life with much acrimony. 



«42 HUB'D. 

In 175d, he published a volume of '^ Daalogiieft on nii- 
eerity, retirement, the golden age of Elizabebb, and the 
constitution of the Enghsh government,*' in 8vo, without 
bis name. In this work be was thought to nnt among those 

- writers who, in party language, are called conatitutional; 
but it is^said that he made considerable' alterations in the 
subsequent editions*. This was followed by his very en- 
tertaining " Letters on Chivalry and Romance/' which with 
his yet more useful ^* Dialogues on foreign Travel" <were 
republished in 1765, with the author's name, and an escu- 
lent preface on the manner of writing dialogue, under the 
general title of *' Dialogues moral and polidcal." In the 
year preceding, he wrote another of those. zealous tracts ia 

• vindication of Warburton, which, with the highest respect 
for Mr. Hurd's talents^ we may be permitted to say, ha^e 

-added least %o his fame, as a liberal and courteous po- 
lemic. This was entitled '* A Letter to the fiev.: Dr. Tho- 

. mas Leiand, in which bis late ^ Dissertation on the prtn- 
ciples of Human Eloquence' is criticized, and the iHshop 
of Gloucester's idea of the nature and character of an in- 

- spired language, as delivered in his lordship's Doctrine ef 
Grace, is vindicated from all the objections of the learned 

- author of the dissertation." This, with Mr. Kurd's other 
controversial tracts, is republished in vol. VIII. of the late 

* authorized edition of his works, with the following iineSy 
by way of advertisement, written not long before his death 

« «— ^' The controversial tracts, which make up this vokmaey 
. were written and published by the author at different times, 
as opportunity invited, or occasion required. Some sharp- 
ness of style may be objected to them ; in regard to which 
he apologizes for himself in the words of the poet : 

— Me quoque pectoris 
Tentavit in dulci juventa 
Fervor — 

— nunc ego mitibus 
Mutare qusro tiistia.*' 

With this apology, we return to his well-eaarned promo- 

> tions. In 1762, he had the sine-cure rectory of Folktoo, 

near Bridlington, Yorkshire, given him by the lord cban- 

' ceUor (earl of Nortbington), on the recommendation of 

* " Dr. Johnson, howeyer, wu vn- being archbiibop of Canterbury, Jobn- 

villing to allow bim full credit Ibr big son said,  I am glad he did not go to 

- political conversion. I nenioMher when Laabetb; for after all, I fear be ii a 

.M iord^ 4e<;liii^'tht bo^onr of wbiginbisbesctV 9otveU*i JobMoa. 






^*4»M 






KURD. 3« 

Mr. Allen of Prior-Park ; and in 1765, on the recommeh-' 
4ation of bishop Warburtxin and Mr. Charles ¥orke, he 
was chosen preacher of Lincoln's-inn ; and was collated to' 
the archdeaconry of Gloucester, on the death of Dr. 
Geekie, by bishop Warburton, in August 1767. On* Com- 
mencement Sunday, July 5, 1768, he was admitted' D. I>. 
at Cambridge ; and on the same . day was appointed to' 
open the lecture founded by his friend bishop Warburton^ 
for the illustration of the prophecies, in which he exhibited 
a model worthy of the imitation of his successors, flis 
^^Tweive Discourses^' on that occasion, which had been, 
delivered before the most polite and crowded audiences^ 
that ever frequented the chapel, were published in 1772^ 
imder the title of ^' An Introduction to the Study of thej 
Prophecies concerning the Christian Church, and in parti- 
cular concerning the Church of Papal Rome ;'' and raised^^ 
his character as a divinOi learned and ingenious, to an emi- 
nence aknost equal to that which he possessed as a man of 
letters ; but his notion of a double sense in prophecy, whicfa^ 
he in general supposes, has not passed witliout animadter- 
aion. This volume produced a private letter tb the author 
from Gibbon the historian, under a fietitious name, re-' 
speeting the book of Daniel, which Dr. Ifurd answered ;' 
md the editor of Gibbon's Miscellaneous Works having, 
printed the answer. Dr. Hurd thought proper to include 
bodi in the edition of bis works published siftce Ms- death' 
(in 1811)« It was not, however, until, the appefeinince of 
Gibbon's <^ Miscellaneous Works,'* that he dbcovereVl liie* 
real name of his correspondent. 

In 1769, Dr. Hurd published <<The Select Works of Mr. 
Abraham Cowley," with a preface and notes^in l^vols. 8vo. 
This has not been thought the most judicious of Dr. Hurd^ir 
attempts, yet it was too fastidiously objected to^ as inter* 
fering with the totality of Cowley's vfrork^. Dr. Hurd' had 
no intention to sink the old editions; he only selected! 
what he thought most valuable. 

In 1775, by the recommendation of lord Mansfield, who' 
had for some time cultivated his acquaintance, and badf ar 
high esteem for his talents, he was promoted to the' 
bishopric of Lichfield and Coventry, and consecrated^ Feb. 
12, of that year. On this occasion he received, an el^gant^ 
and affectionate letter of congratuUtion from the memberti 
of Emanuel college, to which he returned an equrfly ele« 
gant and respectful letter of thanks. In this year he^edit^ 



S44 KURD. 

a republication of bishop Jeremy Taylot^9 '^ Moral Demon-i^ 
strat'ion of the Truth of the Christian Religion/' 8vo ; and 

. ^arly in 1776, published a volume of " Sermons preached 
at Lincoln^s-inn/* which was followed afterwards by a se<* 
cond and third. These added very greatly to the reputa- 
tion he had derived from his sermons* on prophecy, and are 
equally distiogpished by elegant simplicity of style^ per- 
spicuity of method, and acuteness of elucidation. On June 
5th of this year, he was appointed preceptor to their royal 
highnesses the priuce of Wales, and prince Frederick, bow 
4uke of York. Very soon after entering inta the episco- 
pal office, appeared an excellent ^^ Charge delivered to the 

» clergy of the diocese of Lichfield and Coventry, at the 
bishop's primary visitation in 1775 and 1776," and soon 
after, his " Fast Sermon" for the •*' American rebellion," 
preached before the House of Lords. In; 1781 he. was 
elected a member, of. the royal society .of Gottingen. It is 
somewhat . rpm^rkable that he. did not belong to that of 
ItOndon. 

^ . On th^ death of the bishop of Winchester, Dr. Thomas, 
in M^y 1781, bishop Hurd. received a gracious messi^e 
from his majesty, with the offer of the see of Worcester 
(vacant by the promotion of bishop Nprth to Winchester), 
^ncl of the cler)(ship of the closet, in the room of Dr. 
Thomas, both which he accepted. On his arrival at Har- 
tlqbury castle, one of the episcopal seats of Worcester, he 
resolved to. put the castle into complete order, and to 
build a libriary, which was much wanted. 7'be library was 
accordingly finished in 1782, and furnished with a co]lec-< 
tion of books, the property of his lately deceased fri^d 
bis^ipp Warburtqn, which, he purchased. To these he af-^ 
terwards ipade several considerable additions, and be« 
quipatjied th^ whole of bis own collection. On the death of 
Pr. CornwalH^, archbishop of Canterbury, in 1783, bishop 
!l^ur4 had th^ o^er pf the archbishopric from his majesty, 
with many* gracious expressions, and was pressed to accept 
it : but be humbly bagged leave to decline it, ^^ as a charge 
not suited to his temper and talents, and much too heavy 
for hini to sustain, especially in these times," alluding to 
the political distractions arising from a violent conflict be* 
tween Mr. Pitt and Mr. Fox, and their respective sup* 
porters. The king was pleased not to take offence at this 
#^reedom^ and then to enter with Dn Hurd into some con* 
^d^nti^l CQiiversatioa on the subject. ^^ I took the liberty," 



KURD. 345 

said the good bishpp to Mr. Nichols, when relating this 
afFairi ^^ of teiliDg bis majesty/ that several much greater 
men than myself had been contented to die bishops of 
Worcester ; and that I wished for no higher preferment.'* 

In the end of February 1788, was published in 7 vols. 
4to, a complete edition of the Works of bish(}p Warburton, 
prepared by our prelate, but who did not publish the 
*^ Life'' until 1795. In March 1788, a fine gold medal was 
given to him by his majesty at the queen's house; the 
king's head on one side ; the reverse was taken from the 
bishop's seal (a cross with the initials on a label, I. N. R. I. 
9,' glory above, and the motto below m m^lm)i which his 
majesty chaqced to see and approved. The die was cut 
by Mr. Buirch, and the medal designed for the annual 
prize-dissertation on theological subjects, in the univer^ 
sity of Gottingen. In the summer^ of thp same year he 
was honoured with a visit from their majesties at Hartle* 
bury castle. 

In 1795 the life of bishop Warburton appeared under 
the title of ^^ A Discourse, by way of general preface to 
the quarto edition of bishop Warburton's works ; contain* 
' ingf some account of the life, writings, and character of 
the author." Of this work, which excited no common 
portion of curiosity, the style is pecpliarly elegant and 
pure, but the whole is too uniform in panegyric not to 
render the author liable to the suspicion of long-confirmed 
prejudices. Even the admirers both of Warburton and 
Hurd would have been content with less effort to magnify 
the fpcmerat the expence of all his contemporaries; and 
conscious that imperfection is the lot of all, expected that 
age and reflection would have abated, if not wholly extin* 
gui^bed, the unscholarlike animosities of former times. 
But in this all were disappointed ; and it was with regret 
they saw the worst characteristics of Warburton, his inve- 
terate dislikes, bis strong contempt, and sneering rancour, 
still employed to perpetuate his personal antipathies ; and 
employed, too, against such n\en as Lowth and Seeker. If 
these were the feelings of the friends who venerated War« 
burton, and who loved Hurd, others who never had much 
attachment to Warburton, or his school, found little difiB- 
culty in accumulating charges of gross partiality, and illi- 
beral language, against his biographer. This much may be 
sufficient in noticing this life as the production of Dr. Hurd. 
It will come hereafter to be more particularly tioticed as 
^regarding Warburton. 



V 



84G H U K D. 

The remainder of bi^op Hurd's life appeanr to iMfe 
been spent in the discharge of liis episcopal dudes, asiar 
as his increasing infirmities would permit ; in studious re- 
tirement ; and often in iamentifig the loss of oM and tried 
friends. So late as the first Sunday in February before his 
death, though then declining in health and strength, he 
tisas able to attend his parish church, and to feceive die 
sacrament. Free from any painful or acute disorder, he 
gradually became weaker, but his faculties continued per« 
feet. After a few days' confinement to his bed, he ex- 
pired in his sleep, on Saturday morning, May 28, ISaS^ 
Iiaving completed four months beyond his eighty-eighth 
yean He was buried in Hartlebury church-yard, accord- 
ing to his own directions.-^As a writer, Dr. Hurd's taste, 
learning, and genius, have been universally acknowledged^ 
and although a full acquiescence has not been given in all 
bis opinions, he must be allowed to be every where shrewd, 
ingenious, and original. Even in his sermons and charges, 
while hd is sound in the doctrines of the church, his argu- 
ments and elucidations have many features of not elty, and 
are conveyed in that simple, yet elegant style, which ren- 
ders them easily intelligible to common capacities. Dn 
Hurd's private character was in all respects amiable. 
With his friends and connexions he obtained <?he best eulo- 
gium, their constant and warm attachment ; and with the 
world in general, a kind of veneration, which could neither 
be acquired nor preserved, but by the exercise of great 
virtues. One of his last employments was to draw up a. 
series of the dates of his progress through life. It b to be 
lamented he did not fill up this sketch. Few men were 
more deeply acquainted with the literary history of his 
time, or could have furnished a more interesting narra** 
tive. Much of him, however, may be seen in his Life of 
Warburton, and perhaps more in the collection of War- 
burton's <' Letters'' to himself, which he ordered to be 
f published after his death, for the benefit of the Worcester 
nfirmary. Of this only 250 copies were printed, to cor- 
respond with the 4to edition of Warburton's works, but it 
has since been reprinted in 8vo. 

Dr. Hurd was early an admirer of Addison, and akhoogh 
afterwards seduced into the love of a style more flighty and 
energetic, maturer judgment led him back to the favourite 
of his youth. << His taste is so pure," Dr. Hurd says in a 
letter to Mason, <'and his Virgilian prose (as Dr. Young 



H U R D. ^€3 

«lyl«6 it) 80 (exquisite, that I have but now found out, at 
«the dose of a critical life, the full value of his writifi]gpB«** 
This lettaer is dated 1770; and the author, whose life wm 
.then for 'from, its eloae, employed his leisure hours tn pee* 
iparing an edition of Addison^s works, which he left quite 
•ready for the press. It. was published accordingly in tic 
jbtsidsoine vohimes, 8vo^ with philological notes. These 
are aceouuted for in a very short address prefixed in the» 
words: << Mr. Addiaonis generally allowed to be the laoat 
ASBnect and eiegantof all our writers ; yet some inaccunu- 
loies of style have escaped hioi, which it is the clmf design 
-of the fdllowiiig notes to point out A work of this sort, 
(well easeeuted, would be of use to foreigners who study 
!Our language ; and even to such of our countrymen as 
:wirii to write it in perfect purity/' This is followed by an 
jelegant Latin inscription to Addison, written in 18.05, by 
<which we learn that he intended this edition as a mouu- 
ment to Addison — *^ Hoc monumentum sacrum esto.'' In 
/the same year^ 1810, a new edition of the works of bishop 
:Warburton appeared, according to Dr. Hurd's ^directions ; 
;8nd, for the first time, an edition of his own works, in 8 
vols. 8vQ, consisting of his critical works, moral and poli- 
tical dialogues, his sermons, and controversial tracts.' 

HUKDIS (James),' an ingenious poet, and very amiable 
man, the son of James Hurdis, gent was born at Bbhop-' 
stone in Sussex in 1763. His father dying, and leaving 
bis mqther in no affluent circumstances, with seven children^ 
seems tO:bave laid the foundation of diat extreme tender- 
ness and liberality of brotherly affection which formed the 
most striking feature in the character of Mr. Hurdis. He 
iwas educated at Chichester school, where being of a delw 
.eate. constitution, he seldom partook in the juvenile sporls 
of his school companions, but generally employed his hours 
.of leisure in reading. His inclination to poetry soon ap-" 
.peared in various juvenile cpmpositions, and he contracted 
at the same time a fondness for the sister art, music, which 
ended.in his being a very considerable performer on several 
: instruments* Before he left school, be nearly completed 
the building of <in otgan, an instrument he preferred to all 
others. 

In 1780 be was entered a commoner of St. Mary*hall, 
0;sfofd; and at the election in 1782, was chosen a demy 

^ Mii)ttt«8 of his Life prefixed to bis Works.— Nichols's Bowyer« 



348 H U R D I S. 

of St Mary Magdalen college. Here his studies, wbiek 
were close and uninterrupted, were encouraged, and his 
amiable character highly respected, by Dr. -Home, presi- 
<lent of Magdalen, and his successor Dr. Rooth, by Dr. 
Sheppard, Dr. Rathbone, and others. About 1784 he weat 
to Stantner in Sussex, where he resided for some consider* 
able time as tutor to the late earl of Cbichester^s youngest 
son, the hon. George Pelham, now bishop of £xeter. In 
May 1785, having taken his bachelor's degree, be retired 
to the curacy of Burwash in Sussex, which he held for six 
years, but in the interiip, in 1786, was elected probationer 
fellow of' Magdalen, and the following year took his mas- 
ter's degree. Finding himself now sufficiently enabled to 
assist his mother in the support of her family, he hired a 
nnall house, and took three of his sisters to reside with 
him. In 1788, he first appeared before the public as a 
poet, in <^ The Village Curate," the reception of which 
&r exceeded bis expectations, a second edition being 
called for the following year. This poena, although per- 
haps not highly finished, contained so many passages of 
genuine poetry, and evinced so* much elegance, taste, and 
sense, as to pass through the ordeal of criticism with great 
applause, and to be considered as the earnest of future 
and superior excellence. Such encouragen>ent induced 
' the author to publish in 1790, his ^^ Adriano, or the first of 
June," which was followed in a short time by his/^Panthea/* 
^^ Elmer and Ophelia," and the '^ Orphan Twins," all which 
were allowed to confirm the expectations of the public, 
and place the author in an enviable rank among living 
poets. These were followed by two publications, connect- 
ed with his profession ; ^^ A short critical Disquisition on 
the true Meaning of the word td'^l'^^Jly found in Gen. i. 21, 
1790," and " Select critical Remarks upon the English 
version of the first ten^chapters of Genesis." In 1791, 
through the interest of the earl of Chichester, he was ap- 
pointed to. the living of Bishopstone; and about the same 
time wrote his tragedy of " Sir Thomas More," a poem of 
considerable merit, but not intended for the stage. In 
1792, he was deprived by death of his favourite sister Ca- 
therine, whose jelegant mind he frequently pourtrayed in 
his works, under the different appellations of Margaret and 
Isabel. On this affliction he quitted his curacy, and re- 
turned with his two sisters to Bishopstone. Here the 
trouble of his mind was considerably alleviated by an affec«- 



H U R D I S. S4^ 

Uonate invitation from his much- esteemed friend Mr. Hay* 
ley to visit Eartham^wliere iie had the pleasing satisfaction 
of- becoming personally known to Cowper, the celebrated 
poet, with whom he had ' maintained a confidential corre* 
spondence for some years. 

In 1792, he published his '^ Cursory Remarks upon the 
arrangement of the plays of Shakspeare, occasioned by 
reading Mr. Malone's Essay on the chronological order of 
those celebrated pieces ;" which showed that, he had be-» , 
stowed much attention on this curious subject In April 
1^93, he w^nt to Oxford, and with two of his sisters, re« 
8\cied in a small house at Temple Cowley. In November 
of the same year, he was elected professor of poetry in that 
university, and in the year following took the degree of 
B, D. On being elected professor, he published a speci- 
men of some intended lectures on. English poetry, and 
meant to have published the lectures themselves, a few of 
which he printed at a private press, but the scheme was 
dr4^ped for want of encouragement. In 1797 he took his 
degree of D.D. and in 1799, ni;arried Harriet, daughter of 
Hughes Minet, esq. of Fulham, Middlesex. In 1800 be 
published his ^^ Favourite Village," and the same year his 
^'.Twelve Dissertations oi). the Nature and Occasion of Psalm 
and Prophecy," 8vo, in which he displays much ingenvitj 
and acumen, as in all his publications, but has in some in- 
sUnces yielded too much to the hypotheses which arise 
from a fertile in)agination, and are repugnant to the genius 
of the Hebrew criticism, and the rules of Hebrew gram- 
mar. Dr. Hurdis's fame seems indeed more solidly esta* 
blished on his poetical than his critical works. 

Dr. Hurdisdied Dec. 23, 1801, afterayery short illness, 
in his thirty-eighth year, leaving a widow and two. sons, 
and a posthumous daughter. He was buried, by his own 
desire, at Bishopstone. As few men bore so excellent a 
character in every station and duty of life, few have been 
more generally lamented. In 1808, a correct and elegant 
edition of his *^ Poems," in 3 vols, was printed at the uni- 
versity-press, Oxford, encouraged by a very large list of 
sabscribers. They have since been partly reprinted, and 
are likely to retain their popularity.' 

HURE (Charles), a French divine 6f some eminence, 
was born at Champigny*sur-Youne, in 1639, the son of'a 

1 Life prefixed by Miss Hurdis to the Oxford editfoa ofliis Poems.— Hay ley's 
Life of Cowper.— 'Monthly Review, &.c. 



ua H u R E;. 

kinmren H« made it hift object to know eveiy thing: thalt 
could throw any light upon theology ; and with tius iiioivvi 
lie stodied^ the oriental laoguages* He was a member at 
the learned -society of Port- Roy at, where, he imbibed al^ 
OQce bis* zeal for religion and for letters^ He was. afters, 
wards professor of the learned Jangaages in the QRiversky 
ci Parts, and principal of the college of Boncourt He^ 
died in 1717. There are exta^ by himi 1. A DictioDary < 
of the Bible, 2 vob. folio^ less fiill,,and less complete^ tbaau 
that of Calmety pLblisbed in 1715. 2. An edition of*the>' 
Latii^ Testament, with notes, which are much esteemed^ 
2 vols. L2inow 3. ^^ A French translation of the former^ 
with the not^ from the Latin augmented, 17051, 4^1s#' 
12mo. 4. << A Sacred Grammar,*' with rules for uoderf^ 
standing the literal sense of the Scripture. He was coa« 
ddered as a Jansenist ; aad.by some.'said to be only Ques«' 
nel a little moderated.* 

HUS& (John), aoelebratedidivineiiDd martyr, was hmu* 
at: a town in Bohemia, oaUed Huasemtz^ about 1376,. aiKt. 
liberally educated in the university of Prague* Heare. her. 
took the degree of B. A. iu 13931, and< tbattof master iiii 
1^95 ; and we find him^ in 1400, in orders, and a minister 
of a church in that city. About this time the writings of" 
our countryinaii WicUiffe had spread themselves among 
the Bohemians, which was owing to the foUowing cirettm* 
stence : Queen Anrte, the wife of Riohar^ II* of England, 
was daughter to the emperor Gbades IV. and sister to 
Wenceslaus king of Bohemia, and Sigismund emperor of& 
Germany. She was a princess of great piety, virtue, audi 
knowledge, nor could she endure the implicit service andt 
devotion of the Rpmish chureh. Her death happened in 
1394, and her -funeral was attended by all tbe nobility of 
England; She had patronized Wicklifie^ and after hev/ 
death, several of WicklifFe's books were carried by her at* 
tendants jnto Bohemia, and were the means of promoting 
the reformation there. They had also been carried into 
the same country by Peter Payne, an Englishman, one of 
his disciples, and principal of £dmund*ball. Fox mM« 
tions another person, a young nobleman of Bohemia, wto 
had studied some time at Oxford, and carried home with 
htm several of Wickliffe's tracts. They were particulady 
read by tbe students at Prague, among the chief ol whooi^ 

I Morcri.— Dkt. HisU 



K 



H U S S< ISt 

Wis Huss; #)io, being much taken with Widkliffe^a hcn 
lions, began to preach and write with great zeal a^^nat. 
the superstitions and errors of the church of Rome. H^ 
succeeded so far,, that the sale of indulgences gradually 
decreased among the Bohemians 5 and the pope's party 4^ 
claredy that there would soon be an end of religion, i£ 
measures were not taken to oppose the restless endeavours . 
of the Hussites. With a view, therefore, of preventing ibis 
danger* Subinco, the archbishop of Prague, issued forth, 
two mandates in 1408 ; one, addressed to the members qC 
the university, by which they were ordered to bring toge*- 
ther all WicklifFe's writings, that such as were found to^. 
contain any thing erroneous or heretical might be burnt ; 
lihe other, to all curates and ministers, commanding themi 
to teach the people, that, after the consecration of the. 
elements in the holy Sacrament, there remained, nothing, 
but the real body and blood of Christ, under the appeaiw< 
mce of bread and wine* Huss, whose credit and authority 
kt the university were very great, as well for bis piety and 
learnings as on account of considerable services be bad 
done, found no difficulty in persuading many of its mem<« 
bers of the unreasonableness and absurdity of these man** 
4ates: the first being, as he said, a pl^in encroachment 
upon the liberties and privileges of the university, whose 
members had an indisputable right to possess, and to read 
all sorts of books ; the second, inculcating a most abomiop 
able error* Upon this foundation they appealed to Gre«- 
gpry XIL and the archbishop Subinco was summoned to 
$,ome* But, on acquainting the pope that the heretical. 
notions of Wickliffe were gaining ground apace in Bohe* 
mia, through the zeal of some preachers who had read bis 
bp.oks^ a bull was granted liim for the suppression of all 
such notions, in hb province. By virtue of this bull, Su- 
binco. condemned the writings of Wickliffe, and proceeded 
aipsiust four doctors, who had not complied with his man.-* 
dale in bringing in their copies. Huss and others,, who 
were involved in this sentence, protested against thi^i pro- 
cedure of the archbisbop, and appealed from him a second 
time, in June 1410. The matter was then brought before 
John XXIU. who ordered Huss, accused of many errons 
and heresies, to appear in person at the court of Rome^ 
and gave a special commission to* cardinal Colonn^ to cite, 
him. Huss, however, under the protection and counte- 
nance of Wenceslaus king of Bohemia^ did not appear, but 






352 * . H U S S. 

sent three deputies to excuse his absence, and to aiisvr^f 
all which should be alledged against him. Colonna paid 
no regard to the deputies, nor to any defence they could 
make ; but declared Huss guilty of contumacy to the court 
of Rome, and excommunicated him for it. Upon this the 
deputies appealed from the cardinal to the pope, who com- 
missioned four other cardinals to examine into the affair. 
These commissaries not only confirmed all that Colonna 
bad done, but extended the excommunication, which was 
limited to Huss, to his friends and followers : they also 
declared him an Heresiarch; and pronounced an interdict 
against him. 

All this time, utterly regardless of what was doing at 
Rome, Huss continued to preach and write with great zeal 
ffgainst the errors and superstitions of that church, and in 
defence of WicklifFe and his doctrines. His discourses 
were pointed directly against the pope, the cardinals, and 
* the clergy of that party ;. and at the same time he published 
writings, to shew the lawfulness of exposing'the vices^ <rf 
ecclesiastics. ' In 1413, the religious tumults and sedi« 
tions were become so violent, that Subinco applied to 
Wenceslaus to appease them. Wenceslaus banished Huss 
from Prague; but still the disorders continued. Then the 
archbishop had recourse to the emperor Sigismond, who 
promised him to come into Bohemia, and assist in settling 
the affairs of the church ; but, before Sigismond could be 
prepared for the journey, Subinco died in Hungary. About 
this time bulls were published by John XXHI. at Prague 
against Ladisjaus king of Naples; in which a crusade wasf 
proclaimed against that prince, and indulgences promised 
to all who would go to the war. This furnished Huss^ 
who had returned to Prague upon the death of Subinco^ 
with a favourable occasion of preaching against indul- 
gences and crusades, and of refuting these bulls: and 
the people were so affected and inflamed with his 
preaching, that they declared pope John to be Anti- 
christ. Upon this, some of the ringleaders among the 
Hussites were seized and imprisoned ; which, however, 
was not consented to by the people, who were prepared 
lo resist, till the magistrate had promised that no barm 
should happen to the prisoners ; but the Hussites disco- 
vering that these persons had been executed in prison^ took 
up arms, rescued their bodies, and interred them bo- 
nourably, as martyrs, in the church of Bethlehem^ which 



H U S S. SA 

Wis Huss's church. Huss, says Mr. Gilpin, discovered on 
this occasion a true Christian spirit The late riot had ^ 
given him great concern ; and be had now so much weight 
with the people as to restrain them from attempting any 
farther violence, whereas, at the sound of a bell, he could 
have been surrounded with thousands, who might have 
laughed at the police of the city. 

Matters were in this state at Prague and in Bohemia, till 
the council of Constance was called; where it was agreed 
between the pope and the emperor, that Huss should ap« 
pear and give an acconnt of himself and his doctrine. The 
emperor promised him security against any danger, and 
that nothing should be attempted against his person ; upon 
which he set oiit, after declaring publicly, that he was 
going to the council of Constance, to answer the accusa* 
tions that were formed against him ; and challenging all 
people who had any thing to except to his life and converr 
sation, to do it without delay. He made the same decla- 
ration in all the towns through which he passed, and ar- 
rived at Constance, Nov. 3, 1414. Here he was accused 
in form, and a list of his heretical tenets laid before the 
pope and the prelates of the council. He was summoned 
to appear the twenty-sixth day after bis arrival ; and de- 
clared himself ready to be examined, and to be corrected 
by them3 if he should be found to have taught any doc- 
trine worthy of censure. . The cardinals soon after with- 
drew to deliberate upon the most proper method of pro- 
ceeding against Huss ; and the result of their deliberations 
was; that he should be imprisoned. This accordingly was 
done, notwithstanding the emperor's parole for his secu- 
rity ; nor were all his prince's endeavours afterwards suf* 
ficient to release him, though he exerted himself to the 
utmost. Huss was removed from prison to prison for six 
months, suffering great hardships from those who had the 
care of him ; and at last was condemned of heresy by the 
x;ouncil in his absence, and without a hearing, for main- 
taining that the Eucharist ought to be administered to the 
people in both kinds. The emperor, in the mean time, 
complained heavily of the contempt that was. shewn to 
himself, and of the usage that was employed towards Huss} 
insisting, that Huss ought to be allowed a fair and public 
hearing. In pretended compliance with this, he was on. 
the 5th and 7th of June 1415, brought before the council, 
and permitted to say what be could in behalf of himself 
T/L)U XVIIL A A 



^^4 h u s s. 

and his doctrines ; bat every thing was carried on wiilr 
noise and tumult, and Huss soon given to anderstand tha*: 
they were not disposed to hear any thing from bimbut a 
recantation of bis errors; which, however, he absolutely 
refused, and was ordered back to prison. On July 6, he 
was brought again before the council, where he was con- 
demned of heresy, and ordered to be burnt. The cerc*- 
mony of his execution was this : he was first stripped of his 
sacerdotal vestments by bishops nominated for thafptir- 
po0e ; next he was formally deprived of his university- de- 
grees ; then he had a paper- crown pat upon his bead, 
painted round with devils, and the word heresiarch in- 
scribed in great letters ; then he was delivered over to the 
magistrate, who bui-nt him alive, after having first burnt 
his books at the door of the diurch. He died with great 
firmness a!>d resolution ; and bis ashes were afterwards 
gathered up and thrown into the Rhir>e. His writings^ 
vi^hich are very numerous and learned, were collected into 
a body and publislied, }558, in two volumes folio, under 
this title, " Joannis Hiissi Opera, qua? extant.'* To pre- 
serve his memory, it is said that the 7th of July was, for 
many years, held sacred among the Bohemians. In some 
places large fires were lighted in tbe evening of that day 
upon the mountains, to preserve the memory of his suf- 
ferings; round which the country people woukl assemble 
and sing hymns. Huss, u4though a martyr for tbe opinions 
of WickliflPe, did not imbibe tbe whole of then). He was 
in most points a strenuous Calvinist, if we may anticipate 
the epithet, but neither he nor Jerora of Prague denied 
the real presence in the eucharist, *and transubstantiation* 
It is said that at his execution he asked tbe excutioner^ 
** Are you going to burn a gooseV' (the meaning of Huss m 
the Bohemian language) '^ In one century you will have 
a swan you can neither roast nor boil." This was after-* 
wards interpreted to mean Luther, who had a swan for bis 
arms. Much of Huss^s writings are in Fox^ Gilptn, and 
other ecclesiastical writers. ^ 

HUSSEY (Giles), U distinguished artist, was the sixtb^ 
but only surviving son and heir of John Hussey of Mam- 
bull, esq. descended from a very ancient family, ainl was 
bora at Marnhull (in Dorsetshire), Feb. lO, 17 lO. At 

> Gilpin's Life. — Cave. — Freberi TheatrooBy &c.-— See u eBgrafhug ef \im 
wedal, Gent A4ag. ?ol. LIX. p^ 1002. 



H U S S E Y. i5S 

seven years of age be was sent by bis father, wbo 5vas ^ 
Roman catholic, to Doway for his education, where be 
continued two years. He then was removed to St. Omer'a, 
where be pursued bis studies for three years more. His 
father^ though willing to afford him some education, yet 
designed bitn for trade; to which, perbs^ps, be was the 
more inclined, as a near relation, in the commercial worlds 
offered to take him under bis protection and care. Though 
from a sense of parental authority, and filial obedience^ 
Mr. Hussey did not at first openly oppose this design, yet 
it was so repugnant to bis natural turn and bent, that 
be found his mind greatly embarrassed and perplexed^ 
but after some opposition, his father very wisely yielded 
to bis song's request, to be permitted to follow the di- 
rection of bis genius; and for that end he placed him 
under the care and tuition of Mr. Richardson, the painter; 
with whom he continued scarcely a month; revolting at 
the idea and proposal of being kept in the bondage of 
apprenticeship for seven years. He then commenced pu- 
pil at large under one Damini, a Venetian artist, esteemed 
one of the best painters at that time in England, with 
whom be continued nearly four years. During this timQ 
he was principally employed in copying pictures, and 
finishing those of his master, whom be assisted in painting 
the ornaments of the cathedral of Lincoln, During their 
work, on a scaffold nearly twenty feet high, as Mr. Hussey 
was drawing back to see the effects of bis pencil, be would 
have fallen, bad not his master saved him as ingeniously 
as affectionately, and at some risque to himself. Mr. 
Hussey entertained such a sense of his master^s humanity 
and kindness, that he could not bear the thought of being 
separated from him, and therefore requested permission 
of his father for Damini to attend him whilst pursuing bis 
studies in Italy. This be obtained; and under the care 
and direction of the Venetian, our young and inexpe- 
rienced pupil set out for the seat of science and genius; 
bending first bis course for Bologna. But, soon after their 
arrival, the poor unsuspecting pupil found that one act of 
friendship is by no means a sure pledge of another ; Da- 
mini having in a few days decamped, taking with him all 
bis pupils money and the best of his apparel. Mr. Hus- 
Sey was, however, kindly relieved from this state of dis- 
tress by signor Gislonzoni, who had been ambassador froni 

A A 2 V 



U§ H U S S £ Y. 

tbe Statfs of Venice to the court of London, and now be« 
came bis friend an^ protector. 

Mr. Httssey prosecuted bis studies ai Bologna for three 

JeVrs and a half, and then removed to Rome, where b^ 
as received with tbe most obliging courtesy by a cele* 
t>rated artist, Hercule J^elli, who, refusing any coinpen- 
satiofT, imparted to him in the roost friendly manner alt 
that be knew of the arc. This did not entirely satisfy Mn 
Hussey, who seems to have aimed at establishing somc^ 
fixed and unerring principles : hence he was led into^ 
search after theory, which ended, although he Inew no- 
thing of music, in his adopting the ancient hypothesis of 
musical or harmonic proportions, as being the goreroin^ 
principle of beauty, in all forms produced by art, andeTen, 
by nature. Delighted with this discovery, as he thought 
it, he continued his studies at Rome with increasing plea^ 
aore and reputation. At length, in 1757, be returned tO' 
bis friends in England, with whom be resided till 1742^ 
when he went to London, whete he submitted to the drud^i 
gery (as he used to call it) of painting portraits for his 
s^ubsistence. 

Whilst thus employed, our artrst met with great oppo: 
sition and very illiberal treatment from those to wbomy 
in the simplicity of his heart, he communicated bis prin-r 
ciples, as well as from those whose professional pride was- 
piqued, and envy excited, by those masterly, elegant, and 
graceful perfornmnces which were the result of these 
principles^ The meek spirit of Hussey, as well as bis pride 
of conscious superiority, could ill bear the treatment both 
himself and his perfornjances met with from the envy of 
those who depreciated their merit. This, as he often con»* 
plained, affected him deeply ; and so depressed bis spirits^ 
and repressed his ardour, as to give him a disgust to the 
world, and almost a dislike to his professioti, and bis tem- 
per, though not rendered sour and morose, was certainly 
exasperated. After conflicting" with this and other diffi- 
culties and misfortunes, Mr. Hussey left London in thft 
month of October 1765, and retired for three years into 
,tbe country, to recover his health and spirits ; and baving- 
at; lengthy by the death of his elder brother, Mr. Hussey^ 
in 1773, succeeded to possession of hi3 paternal estate at 
Marnbull; he resided there in adluence, ease, and content^ 
and pursued his favourite studies, and amusenoents of gar- 
dening, till the autumn of 1787 ^ when, from motives purely 



H U S S'E Y.' 85^' 

0f a religious nature (after having transferred and resigned 
all his worldly possessions to a near relation) he retired to 
Beastoji, nearAshbnrton^ in Devonshire ; at which place^ 
in the month of June 1788, as he was working in the gar«- 
den in a very sultry day, he suddenly fel], and expired. 

The great merit of Mr. Hussey's pencil drawings frpm 
life was, that he has preserved the best characteristic like- 
nesses of any artist whatever. And, with respect to those: 
of mere fancy, no man ever equalled him in accuracy, ele- 
gance, simplicity, and beauty. The academical drawings 
lie left at Bologna, notwithstanding the school ba^ beea^ 
often purged, as it is called, by removing old drawings to* 
make room for those of superior merit, are still shewn oa 
account of their superior merit. 

Mr. Barry, that ingenious and liberal artist, whose great; 
work in the paintings which adorn the large room at the 
^ciety of Arts in the Adelf^hi, together with bis descrip-, 
tion of these paintings, do no less honour to himself thaa 
to his country, has, among other illustrious characters^, 
thought Mr. Hussey entitled to an eminent place in his, 
£lysium, and thus notices him: ^^ Behind Phidias, I have, 
introduced Giles Hussey, a name that, never occurs to m^ 
without fresh grief, shame, and horror, at the mean^. 
wretehed cabal of mechanics, for they deserve not the 
liame of artists; and their still meaner runners, and as<p 
sistants, that could have co-operated to cheat such aq, 
artist out of the exercise of abilities, that were so admirably 
calculated to have raised this country to an immortal repu- 
tation, and for the highest species of excellenqe. Why 
will the great, who can have no interest but in the glory 
of their country, why will they suffer any dirty, whimper* 
iug medium to interfere between them and such characters^ 
as Mr. Hussey, who appears to have been no less amiabiq^ 
as a man, than he was admirable as ah artist ? 

'^ The public are likely never to know the whole of what 
they have lost in Mr* Hussey. The perfections that were 
possible to him, but a very few artists can conceive ; and. 
it would be time lost to attempt giving an adequate idea of 

them in words* 

. . »  . •  ' ••' 

^' My attention was first turned to this great eharactifr . 
by a conversation I had, very early in life, with Mr. Stuart^ 
better know^n by thie name of Ath^ian Stuart, an epithefc 
richly metited bjrthe essential advantages Wt. Stuart had' 
rendered the pttbUc> by his establishing just ideas^ and a 



SS8 H U,S S E T. 

true taste for the Grecian arts. The discourses of this 
truly intelligent and very candid artist, and what I saw of 
the works of Hussey, had altogether made such an impres- 
sion on my mind, ^s may be conceived, but canfiot be 
expressed. With fervour I went abroad, eager to retrace 
all Hussey's steps, through the Greeks, through Rafaelle, 
through dissected nature, and to add to what he had been 
cruelly torn away from, by a laborious, intense #tudy and 
iiivestigation of the Venetian school. In the hours of re- 
laxation, I naturally endeavoured to recommend myself to 
the acquaintance of such of Mr. Hussey's intimates as were 
sttU living : they always spoke of him with delight. And 
from the whole of what I could learn abroad, added to the 
information I received from my very amiable and venerable 
friend Mr. Moser since my return, Mr. Hussey must have 
been one of the most amiable, friendly, and companionable 
men, and the farthest removed from all spirit of strife ind 
contention." 

Mr. Edwards and' Mr. Fusdi have spoken less respect- 
fully bf Hiissey. The latter says, that ** disdainiuig por-' 
trakure, discountenanced in history, Hussey was reduced 
to the solitary patronage of the then duke of Northumber- 
land, who, says Edwards, * offered to receive him into his 
fatnily, and to give him a handsome pension,' with the at- 
tendance of a servant, upon condition that he should em- 
ploy his talents chiefly,* though not exclusively, * for the 
ckike.' This offer he rejected, because the duke did not 
complywith the further request of keeping a priest for him 
in the house.' Hussey, a bigot in religion, was attached 
to the cr^ed of Rome; but had he not been so, commis- 
sions and patronage, almost confined to drawing copies, 
even from the antique, was certainly sufficiently proVoking 
f©r a man of an original turn, to be rejected.*' It is not 
slrictly true, however, that the duke of Northumberland 
was his only patrort. Mr. Duane was another, who pos- 
sessed many of his works. Mr. West bought some penciled 
headsat Mr. Duane's sale, and said of one of them, that "he 
•would venture to show it against any head, ancient or mo- 
dern ; that it. was never exceeded, if ever equalled; and 
that no man had ever imbibed the true Grecian charadter 
aW art deeper than Giles Hussey.- ' *^ ' 

VftriJii>'e Su^j^kipent to Wa)poit;'6 A|iecdote(^« — riikioi^t^p, ^j Fus«)i. 






H U T C H E S O N. S5f 

HXrrCHESON (Dr. Francis), a philosoplier of the 
Shaftesbury school, was the son of a dissenting miiiister iti 
Ireland, and was born Aug. 8, 1694. He discovered early 
a superior capacity, and ardent thirst after knowledge; 
and when he had gone through bis school- education, was 
s^nt to an academy to begin his course of philosophy. In 
1710 he removed from the academy, and entered a student 
in the ufiiversity of Glasgpw in Scotland. Here he renewed 
fais study of the Latin and Greek languages, and applied 
himself to all parts of literature, in which he made a pro- 
gress suitable to his uncommon abilities. Afterwards lie 
turned his thoughts to divinity, which he proposed to make 
the peculiar study and profession of his life, and for the 
prosecution of this he continued several years longer at 
Glasgow. 

He then returned to Ireland ; and, entering into the 
ministry, was just about to be settled in a small congre- 
gation of dissenters in the north of Ireland, when some 
gentlemen about Dublin, who Icnew his great abilities and 
virtues, invited him to set up a private academy in that 
city, with which he complied, and met with much success. 
He had been fixed but a short time in Dublin, when his 
lingular merits and accomplishments made him generally 
known ; and his acquaintance was sought by men of ail 
ranks, who had any taste for literature, or any regard for- 
learned men. Lord Molesworth is said to have taken great 
pleasure in his conversation, and to have assisted him with 
bis criticisms and observations upon bis '^ Enquiry into the 
Ideas of Beauty and Virtue,^* before it came abroad. He 
received the same favour from Dr. Synge, bishop of Elphin, . 
with whom he also lived in great friendship. The first 
edition of this performance came abroad without the author^s 
Qame, but the merit of it, would not suffer him to be long 
concealed. Such was the reputation of the work, and the 
ideas it had raised of the author, that lord Granville, who 
was then iord-Iieutenant of Ireland, sent his private secre- 
tary to inquire at the bookseller's for.the author ; and when 
he could not learn his name, he left a letter to be con- 
veyed- to him : in consequence of which Mr. Hutchesoji 
soon became acquainted with his excellency, and was 
treated by him, all the time he continued in his govern- 
ment, with distinguished marks of familiarity s^nd esteem. 

From this time be began to be still more courted by men 
^ distinctiojij either for rank or literature^ io Ireland^ 



S60 H U T C H E S O N. 

Abp. King held him in great esteem ; and the friendship 
of that prelate w^s of great use to him in screening him 
from two attempts made^to prosecute him, for taking upon 
I^im the education of youth, without having qualified him** 
self by subscribing the ecclesiastical canons, and obtaining 
a license from the bishop. He had also a large share in 
the esteem of the primate Boulter, who, through his in« 
fluence, made a donation to the university of Glasgow of a 

?rearly fund for an exhibitioner, to be bred to any of the 
earned professions. A few years after his Inquiry into the 
Ideas of Beauty and Virtue, his " Treatise on the Passions" 
was published : these works have been often reprinted^ 
and always admired both for the sentiment and language, 
even by those who have not assenteil to the philosophy o£ 
them, nor allowed it to have any foundation in nature. 
About this time he wrote some philosophical papers, ac- 
counting for laughter in a different way from Hobbes, and 
more honourable to human nature, which were published, 
in^ the collection called *^ Hibei^nicus's Letters." Some 
letters in the << London Journal," 1728, subscribed Phila- 
retus, containing objections to some parts of the doctrine 
in << The Enquiry," &c. occsisioned his giving answers to 
them in those public papers. Both the letters and answers 
were afterwards published in a separate pamphlet. 

After he had taught in a private academy at Dublin tot 
seven or eight years with great reputation and success, he 
was called in 1729 to Scotland, to be professor of philoso* 
phy at Glasgow. Several young gentlemen came along 
with him from the academy, and his high reputation drew 
sxiany more thither both from England and Ireland. After 
his settlement in the college, the profession of moral phi- 
losophy was the province assigned to him ; so that now he 
liad full leisure to turn all his attention to his favourite 
study, human nature. Here he spent the remainder of his 
life in a manner highly honourable to himself, and orna-. 
mental to the university of which he was a member. His 
whole time was divided between hifl^ studies and the duties 
of bis oflfice ; except what he allotted to friendship and so- 
ciety. A firm constitution, and a pretty uniform state of 
good health, except some few slight attacks of the gout, 
seemed to promise a longer life ; yet he did not exceed 
bis' 63d year, dying in 1747. He was married soon after 
bis settlement in Dublin, to Mrs. Mary Wilson^ a gentle- 
man's daughter in the. county of Longford > by ^om he 



HUTCHES© N. irf 

iett behind him one son, Francis Hutcheson, M. D. By 
(his gentleman was published, from the original MS. of hiaf 
fother, " A System of Moral Philosophy,** in three books, 
Glasgow, 1755, 2 vols. 4to. To which is prefixed, ** Some 
account of the Life, Writings, and Character of the Author,*' 
by Dr. Leechman, professor of divinity in the same uni-r 
versity. Dr. Hutcheson's system of morals is, in its founda- 
^tion^ very nearly the same with that of lord Shaftesbury. 
He agrees with the noble author in asserting a distinct 
class of the human aflFections, which, while they have no 
relation to our own interest, propose for their end the wel- 
fare of others ; but he makes out his position rather more 
clearly than Shaftesbury, who cannot exclude somewhat of 
the selfish as the spring of our benevolent emotions. Hut- 
cheson maintains, that the pleasure arising from the per- 
formance of a benevolent action, is, not the ruling princi- 
ple in prompting to such actions ; but that, independently 
of the selfish enjoyment, which is allowed in part to exist, 
there is in the human mind a calm desire of the happiness 
of all rational beings, which is not only consistent with, 
but of superior influence in regulating our conduct, to the 
desire of our own happiness; insomuch that, whenever 
these principles come into opposition, the moral sense de- 
cides in favour of the former against the latter. Dr. Hut- 
cheson deduced all moral ideas from what he calls a tnorat 
sense^ implanted in our natures, or an instinct like that of 
self-preservation, which, independently of any arguments 
taken from the reasonableness and advantages of any ac- 
tion, leads us to perform it ourselves, or to approve it 
when performed by others ; and this moral sense he main- 
tained to be the very foundation of virtue. His hypothe- 
sis was new, but whether much better than other theories of 
the same kind, may be questioned. His fame, in the opi- 
nion of an eminent Author, rests now chiefly on the tradi« 
tionary history of his academical lectures, which appear to 
have contributed very powerfully to diffuse, in Scotland, 
tiiat taste for analytical discussion, and that spirit of liberal 
inquiry, to which the world is indebted for some of the 
most valuable productions of the eighteenth century.**^ 

HUTCHINS (John), a topographical historian, the son 
of the rev. Richard Hutchins, was born in the parish of 

> Biogj ^rit. SnppkaoiU-^'ryiler's Life of ^iJBe».*-Sttvart^Jift af 0r. 



362 H U T C H I N S. 

Biadfofd PeTerel, Sept. 21, 1698. His fathei- wais rector 
of All Saints in Dorchester, and curate of Bradford Peve- 
reL His income was small, and bis son^s education vras 
suited to the frugality of the statioa in which be was born. 
He appears to have been sent early to the grammar-school 
at Dorcliester, where his master was the rev. Mr. Thornton, 
rector of West Stafford, whom he afterwards mentioned 
•with gratitude, as behaving to him with the kindest atten- 
tion, aud as a second parent. He was afterwards sent to 
Oil for df where his residence was not long ; for he took his 
master of arts degree at Cambridge, a proof that he had 
Dot kept a statutable residence for that degree in his own 
UDiversity, by applying to. another in which none is re- 
quired ; and it is also a proof that he determined in Ox- 
ford; for, unless that exercise be performed, a certificate 
of a bachdor of arts degree is never granted. He was ma* 
triculated in Easter term, J 7 18, from Hart-hall, now Hert* 
ford college; but was afterwards removed by a beneMsces^ 
^ii to Baliol college; and, as it appears by their books, 
he was admitted a member of that society in Easter term, 
April 10, 171^, and was regularl}' admitted to the degree 
of bachelor of arts in Lent term, Jan. 13, 1721-2: He was 
a determining bachelor in the same term ; so that his whole 
residence in the university did riot exceed four years ; yet 
the friendships he contracted in both societies of which 
he was a member, continued with life; of which Mr. 
Charles Godwyn, fellow of Baliol college, was an instance 
in one ; and his tutor, Mr. Davis, vice- principal of Hart- 
hall, in the other ; and in what esteem he held both the one 
and the other, different passages in bis ^' History" evince. 

He was soon after admitted into holy orders, and be- 
came curate and usher to the rev. George Marsh, rector of 
Burleston, vicar of Milton Abbas, and master of the free 
grammar school of Milton Abbas. I'his engagement at 
Milton procured him the acquaintance of Jacob Bancks, 
esq. then the possessor of that estate, by. whose interest he 
obtained in 119,9 the rectory of Swyre, and in 1733 the 
rectory x)f Melcom be Horsey. About this time he began 
first to engage in the study of antiquities^ and having a 
competent income, was enabled to pursue it with the less 
ititerruption, as an incurable deafness prevented his en* 
joying the pleasures of society. In 1744 he was presented 
Ui the living of Wareham, ^hich was attended with a con- 
siderable increase in his clerical duties; yet without ever 



H U T C H I N S. 36S 

relaxing in his attention to these, he continued to accuqiu- 
fete materials for the history of his native county, and en- 
tered into an extensive correspondence with gentlemen 
most likely to assist his researches. He had many difficul- 
ties, however, to encounter. He was himself rather a 
man of diligence than of extraordinary genius; his cbJIec- 
tions were many years making, and a great part of them 
fell into his hands on the death of a prior collector.' The 
book, however, which he did not live to see published, 
was most liberally conducted through the press, by a very 
handsome subscription of the gentlemen of the county, and 
the kind patronage of Dr. Cuming and Mr. Gough, for the 
benefit of the author^s widow and daughter. Several arti- 
cles were added, relative to the antiquities and naitural 
history ; and such a number of beautiful plates were con- 
tributed by the gentlemen of the county, tjiat (only 600 
copies having been printed, a number not quite sufficient 
for the subscribers) the value of the book increased, im- 
mediately aftec publication, to twice the original price^ 
which was only a guinea a volume. The title of it is, 
f^ The History and Antiquities of the County of Dorset,, 
compiled from the best and most ancient historians, Ingui^ 
sitiones post mortem^ and other valuable Records and MSS. 
in the public offices, libraries, and private hands ; with a 
Copy of Domesday-book and the Inquisitio Gheldi for the 
county : interspersed with some remarkable particulars of 
Natural History, and adorned with a correct map of the 
county, and views of antiquities, seats of the nobility and 
gentry," Lond. 1774, 2 vols, folio. 

In the decline of life, when he had a reasonable prospect 
of seeing his " History" through the press, he was seized 
with a paralytic stroke, which greatly debilitated him, and 
hastened. his dissolution, which took place June 21, 1773, 
He %vas buried in St. Mary's church at Warehara, in the 
ancient chapel under the south aile of the church. He 
married Anne, daughter of the rev. Thomas Stephens, for- 
merly rector of Pimperne, by whom he had issue one 
daughter, who was married to the late John Bellasis, esq. 
major-general of artillery in the service of the East-India 
company, who died at Bombay in 1808. The profit arising 
from hifi^ ** JHEistoiy," was. the chief provision Mr, Hutchins 
made for his family. A second edition was brought forwards,, 
of which vol. L, was published in L796, and vol. IL in i803r, 
und^r this aospices of geo, Bellstsis^ who^xpeod^d a larger 



S€4 HUT C H ins: 

sam to^ promote the undertaking, and with the assistance 
^ of Mr. Gidugh and Mr. Nichols. The improvements in this 
editiou were so many as to extend the work to four vo- 
lumes, the third of which was nearly ready for publication 
at the time when the unfortunate fire in Mr. Nichols*^ 
printihg-office and warehouses destroyed that and a vast 
mass of other valuable literary property. Mr. Nichols has 
•iai^ printed the third and fourth volumes, so essential to the 
completion of the work, and we may add so indispensable to 
c^eiy public library and private topographical collection.^ 

HUTCHINSON (John), an English author, whose writ- 
itigs have been much discussed, and who is considered as 
tbe founder of a party, if not of a sect, was born at Spen- 
nytham in Yorkshire in 1674. His father was possessed of 
about 40/L per ann. and determined to qualify his son for a 
stewardship to some gentleman or nobleman. He had 

S'veu hiiii such school-learning as the place afforded ; and 
e remaining part of his education was finished by a gen- 
tleman that boarded with his father. This friend is said to 
Have instructed him, not only in such parts of the mathe- 
matics as were more immediately connected with bis 
destined employment, but in every branch of that science^ 
and at the same time to have furnished him with a compe- 
tent knowledge of the writings of antiquity. At the age of 
nineteen, he went to be steward to Mr. Bathurst of Skut* 
terskelf in Yorkshire, and from thence to the earl of Scar* 
borough, who would gladly have engaged him in his ser- 
vice ; but his ambition to serve the duke of Somerset would 
not suffer him to continue there, and accordingly he re- 
moved soon after into this nobleman's service. About 1700 
be was called to London, to manage a law-suit of conse- 
quence between the duke and^ another nobleman ; and 
during his attendance in town, contracted an acquaintance 
with Dr. Woodward, who was physician to the duke his 
master. Between 1702 and 1706, his business carried him 
into several parts of England and Wales, where he made 
many observations, which he published in a little pamphlet, 
entitled, <^ Observations made by J. H. mostly in the year 
1706.'' 

While he travelled from place to place^ he employed 
hinaself in collecting fossils; and we are told, that the 

> Life, hf Mr. Bingham, in ** Bibl. Topographtba Britanniea,*' No» TdSXVt* 



H T C B I N S O N. 8^^ 

krge and treble collection^ wbicb Woodward bfsqoeatbe^. 
to the UDiTersity of Cambridge^ was actually formed by 
l^im. Whether Woodward bad no notion of Hutcbinson'a 
abilitiea in any other way than that of steward and minera^ 
bgtst^ or whether he did not suspect biin at that time aa 
likely to commence author, is not certain: Hutcbinsoo^ 
bowever, complain^ in one of his books, that ^^ be was be- 
reft, in a manner not to be mentioned, of those observa* 
lions and those collections; nay, even of the credit of 
being the collecior.'' He is said to have put bis coilectiopa 
into Woodward's hands, with observations on them, wbicb^ 
Woodward was to digest and publish, with further obser* 
vattons of bis own : but his putting him off with excuses^ 
when from time to time he solicited him about thi» work, 
first suggested to Hutchinson unfavourable notions of his 
intention. On this Hutchinson resolved to wait no longer, . 
but to trust to bis own pen ; and that be wight be more a^ 
Insure to prosecute bis studies^ be begged leave of the 
duke of Somerset to quit his service* The request at first , 
piqued the pride of that nobleman ; but when be was mad^ 
lo understand by Hutchinson, that be did not intend to 
serve any other master, and was told what were the real 
iQOtives of bis request, the duke.not only granted bis sni^ 
but Quide bim bis riding purveyor, being at thi^ time 
master of the horse to George I. As there is a good bouse 
in the Mews betonging to the office oi purveyor, a fixe4 * 
^ary of 200/L per aon. and the place a kind of sioecnri^ 
Hutcbinson^s situation and circumstances w€Mre quite agree* 
able to his mind ; and be gave himself op to a studious and 
sedentary life. The duke also gave him tbe next presen- 
tation of the livino; of Sutton in Sussex, which Hutchinson 
bestowed on the rev« Julius Bate, a great fixvourite irith 
bim, and a zealous promoter of his doctrines* 

In 1724 he published the first part of bis *^ Moseses Prin*^ 
cipia ',^ in which be ridiculed Woodward^s ^ Natural His* 
tory of the Eartb,^^ and his account of tbe settlement of 
tbe several strata, shells, and nodules, by tbe laws of gra* 
vity ; which, he tells bim, every olirty impertinent collier 
could cx>ntradict and disprove by ocular demonstration. 
Tbts work, in which gravitation is exploded, is evidently 
opposed to Newton^s ^ Principia/* where that doctrine is 
established. H ptchinson also threw out some faints concern* 
ing what had passed between Woodward and bimsdf, andy 
tbe doctor^s design of robbing bim of bis collection of 



3€& H U T C H J N S ON. 

Ibssib. From this time to bis deaths he continued fo pvih* 
lisb a Tolume every year, or every other year ; which, with 
the MSS. he left behind him, w^re collected in 174S, 
aniounting to 12 vols. 8vo. An abstract of tbem was also 
published in 1723, in 12mo. Hutchinson's followers look 
ttpon the breach between Woodward and him, as a very 
happy event ; because, say they, had the doctor fulfilled 
bis engagements, Hutchinson might have slopped there, 
and not have extended bis researches so far as he has done ; 
in which case the world would have been deprived of writ- 
ings deemed by them invaluable. Others are as violent 
opposers and censurers of his writings and opinions ; and 
the dispute has been carried on at various times with na 
tmall degree of warmth. ^ 

In 1 727, Hutchinson published the second part of ^ Mo* 
ses^s Prvicipia ;*' which contains the sum and substance, or 
the principles of the Scripture* philosophy. As sir Isaac 
Newton made a vacuum and gravity the principles of bis 
philosophy, this ^author on the contrary asser'ts, that a ple- 
num and the air are the principles of the Scriptuve-philo* 
sophy. . In the introduction to this second part, he hintedi 
that the idea of the Trinity was to be taken from the three 
grand agents in the system of nature, fire, light, and spirit; 
these three conditions of one and the same substance, 
namely, air, answering wonderfully in a typical or sym- 
bolical manner to the three Persons of one and the same 
essence. This, we are told, so forcibly struck tbe cele- 
brated Dr. Samuel Clarke, that he sent a gentleman to 
Mr. Hutchinson with compliments upon the performance, 
and desired a conference with him on that proposition in 
particular : which, however, it is added, after repeated so- 
licitations, Hutchinson thought fit to refuse. This doe- 
trine a certain admirer of Hutchinson, particularly in his 
opinions on natural philosophy, has lately attempted to re- 
vive and illustrate, in a pamphlet entitled, *^ A short Way 
to Truth, or the Christian doctrine of a Trinity in Unity, 
illustrated and confirmed from an Analogy in the Natural 
Creation." It was publi*»hed in 1793. 

Some time in 1712, Hutchinson is said to have com- 
pleted a machine of the watch-kind, for the discovery of 
the longitude at sea, whicl^was approved by sir Isaac New«» 
ton ; and Whiston, in bis <' Longitude and Latitude,'* 
&c. has given a' testimony in favour of his mechanical 
abilities. << I have also/' sa^ he^ ** very lately been shewn 



HUTCHINSON. Z$t 

by Mr, Hutdiinson, a very corioos and inquisitive person, 
a copy of a MS map of tiie world, mside aboat eighty 
years ago, taken by himself from the original : wherein 
the variaiian is reduced to a theory, mnch like that which 
Pr Halley has since proposed, and in general exactly^ 
agreeing to bis observations. — But with this advantage, that 
therein the nortberit pole of the internal loadstone is mock 
better stated than it is by Dr. Halley — its place then beings 
accordi^Yg to this- unknown very euriotis and sagacious ati<^ 
thor, ahout the tneitdian, &c. which ancient and anthentic 
dele mii nation of its place, I desire my reader pnrticolarly 
to observe.** 

Hutchinson bad been accustomed to mabe an excnrsioil 
for a montii or so into the conntry for his health : but to 
neglecting this in pursnie of his studies, he is soppCKsed 
have brought himself into a bed babil of body, which pie« 
pared the way for his death. The imiBediate cause is said 
to have been an overflfowing of the gall, occssioued by the 
irregnlar sallies of an high- kept unruly horse, and the snd* 
den jerfts given to his body by them. On theMoiKlay be- 
fore^ his death,. Dr. Mead was with him^ and urged hini to 
be bled ; saying at the same time in a pleasant way, ^I 
wit! soon send you to Moses.** Dr. Mead meant to 
studies, two of his books being entitled ** Mose&^s 
pia :*" but Hutchinson,, taking it in the other sense^ an« 
*wered in a muttering tone, *'I believe, doctor^ yon will ;** 
ar»d was so displeased with Mead, that he afterwards dis*, 
missed him for another physician. He died August 2S^ 
1737, aged 63* He seclhs to have been in «umy respectal 
a singular man. He certainty had eminent abilities^ witb 
mucb knowleJge and learning; but many people have 
thought it very questionable, whether he did not want 
judtifment' Co apply them property, and many mofe have 
inveighed against his principles without previously making 
themselyes acquainted with them. They were, however^ 
in some measure, adopted by many pious and learned di« 
vines of the last century, by Home, Parkhorst^ Romaine^ 
and the late Rev. William Jones^ who, of all others, bas- 
exhibited the ablest anatysvs and defence of Mr. Hutcinn-. 
son's sentiments, or what \s CiMei JhtfckiascmianisTny in the 
^^ Preface to the second edition"* of bis tite of bishop 
Borne.' 

' FToyd's "Bibriotheca Bro^raphica^ rtx) of vol. III. an avirtle tonmumieaAfd 
^y Robert- $pe«»rtn«i» e«q. vtho ir9» ctMfecetntJ wkkvte Ker. JtttmsBalfr is 
tke {lablicaliott «f Ilatcb'tusott^s Woik&. 



8«« H U T T E N. 

HUTTEN (Ulric' de), a gentleman of Francoiria, of 
uncommon parts and learning, was born in 1488 at Stec- 
kenburg, the seat of his family; was sent to the abbey of 
Fulde at eleven years bf age; and took th6 degree of 
M. A. in 1 506 at Francfort on the Oder, being the first 
promotion made in that newly-opened university^ In 
1509, he was at the siege of Padua, in the emperor Maxi* 
milian's army ; and be owned tbat it was want of money, 
which forced him to make that campaign. His father, do( 
having the least taste or esteem for polite literature, 
thought it unworthy to be pursued by persons of exalted 
birth ; and therefore would not afford his son the necessary 
supplies for a life of study. He wished him to apply him- 
self to the civil law, which might raise him in the world ; 
but Hutten bad no inclination for that kind of study» 
Finding, however, that there was no other way of bteing 
ppou good terms with his father, he went to Paviain 1511, 
where he stayed but a little time ; that city being besieged 
and plundered by the Swiss, and himself taken prisoner. 
He returned afterwards to Germany, and there, contrary 
|o bis father's inclinations, began to apply himself again to 
literature. Having a genius for poetry, he began bis ca* 
reer as an author in that line, and published several com* 
positions, which were much admired, and gained him ere-* 
dit He travelled' to various places, among the rest to Bo* 
hernia and Moravia; and waiting on the bishop of Olmuta 
in a very poor condition, tbat prelate, who was a great Mas* 
cenas, received bim graciously, presented him with a horse, 
and gave him money to pursue bis journey. The corre- 
spondence also be held with Erasmus was of great advantage 
to him, and procured him respect from all the literati in 
Italy, and especially at Venice.' 

At his return to Germany in 1516, he was recommended 
in such strong terms to the emperor, that he received from 
hitti the poetical crown ; and from that time Hutten had 
himself drawn in armour, with a crown of laurel on bis 
bead, and took great delight in being so represented. He 
was of a veiy military dispposition, and had given many 
proofs of courage, as well in the wars as in private ren- 
counters. Being once at Viterbo, where an ambassador 
of France stopped, a general quarrel arose, in which Hut«' 
ten, forsaken by his comrades, was attacked by five French- 
men at once, and put them all to flight, after receiving 
some ismall woundi^ He wrote an epigram on that 



H U T T E N, S6S 

occasion, ^^ in quinque Gallos It se profligates/' which may 
be seen in Melcfaior Adam. He had a cousin John de 
Hutten, who was courNmarshal to Uiric duke of Wirtem* 
berg, and was murdered by that duke in 1515, fpr the sake 
of his wi/e, whom tiie duke kept afterwards as a mistress. 
The military poet, as soon as be heard of it, breathed no^ 
.thing but resentment ; and because he had no opportunity 
of shewing it with his sword, took up his pen, and wrote 
several pieces in the form of dialogues, orations, poems» 
and letters. A collection of these was printed in the castle 
of Steckelberg, 1519, 4to. 

He was in France in 151&, whence he went ,to Mentz, 
and engaged in the service of the elector Albert ; and at« 
tended him a little after to the diet of Augsburg, where the 
elector was honoured with a cardinal's hat. At this diet, 
articles were exhibited against the duke of Wtrtemberg, 
on which occasion the murder of John de Hutten, marshal 
of his court, was not forgotten : and a league was after 
formed against him, Uiric Hutten served in this war with 
great pleasure ; yet was soon disgusted with a military life, 
and longed earnestly for his studies and retirement. Thi» 
we find by a letter of his to Frederic Piscator, dated May 
21, 1519 : in which he discovers an inclination for matri* 
mony, and expresses himself somewhat loosely on that 
subject.- r 

, JBelieving Luther's cause a very good one, he joined in it 
with great warmth ; and published Leo the Xtii^s bull 
against Luther in 152Q, with interlineary and marginal 
glosses, in which that pope was made an object of the 
strongest rjidicule. The freedom with which he wrote 
against the irregularities and disorders of the .court of 
Rome, exasperated Leo in the highest degree ; and induced 
him to command the elector of Mentz to send him to 
Rome bound hand and foot, but the elector suffered him 
to depart in peace. Hutten then withdrew to Brabant, and 
was at the court of the emperor Charles V. but did not 
$tay long there, being told that his life would be in danger. 
He then retired to Ebernberg, where he was protected by 
Francis de Sickingen, Luther's great friend and guardian, 
to whom the castle of Ebernberg belonged. There he 
wrote in 1520 his complaint to the emperor, to the elec<- 
tors of Mentz and Saxony, and to all the states of Ger-* 
ipany,. against the attempts which the pope's emissaries 
xnade against him, ' From tk^, same plac^ also he wi;ote |0l 

Vol, XVIIL Bp 



\ 



670 a u T T E n. 

Luther in May 1521, and published severati pieces in fk^ 
vout of the Reformation. He did not declare openly foir 
Luther, till after he had left the elector of Mentz^s court; 
but be had written to him before from Mentz, and bis first 
letter is dated June 1520. . While he was upon ^his jour^ 
ney to Ebernberg, he met with Hochstratus, and, drawings 
bis swdrd, run up to him, and swore he would kill him, 
for what he had done against Reucblin and Luther : but 
Hochstratus, throwing himself at bis feet, conjured him so 
earnestly to spare his life, that Hutten let him go, after 
strikins: him several times with the flat sword. Such wa^ 
bis turbulent zeal, so disgraceful to the cause he espoused, 
that Luther himself, warm as he was, blamed it. During 
his stay at Ebernberg, however, he performed a very ge-^ 
nerous action in regard to bis family. Being the eldest 
son, and succeeding to the whole estate, he gave it all up 
to his brothers ; and even, to prevent their being involved 
in the misfortunes and disgraced which he expected, by the 
suspicions that might be entertained against him, he en- 
joined them not to remit him any money, nor to hold the 
least correspondence with him. 

It was now that he devoted himself wholly to the Lutbeii 
ran party, to advance which he laboured incessantly both 
by bis writings and actions. We do not know the exact 
time when he quitted the castle of Ebernberg ; but it ap-^ 
pears, that in January 1523, he left Basil, where he had 
flattered himself with the hopes of finding an asjlum, and 
bad only been exposed to great dangers. Erasmus, though 
bis old acquaintance and friend, had here refused a visit 
from him, for fear, as he pretended, of heightening the 
suspicions which were entertained against faim : but bis' 
true reason, as he afterwards declared, in a letter to Me- 
tancthon, was, ** that he should then have been under a 
necessity of taking into his house that proud boaster, op-* 
pressed with poverty and disease, who only sought for al 
nest to lay himself in, and to borrow money of every one 
be met.^' This refusal of Erasmus provoked Hutten to at-^ 
tack him severely, and accordingly he published an ** Ex-' 
postulatio^' in 1523, which Erasmus answered the same 
year, in a very lively piece, entitled, " Spongia Erasmi 
Adversus adspergines Hutteni." Hutten probably intended 
to reply, had he not been snatched away by death ; but bef 
died in>an island of the lake Zuricbi wher^ he had hid 
himself for security, August I5i^ - * ^ 



jj U T T E % t^W 

tie Wiis a man of little stature ; o( a weak and sickly 
tonstitution ; extremely brave, but passionate : for he was 
not satisfied with attacking the Roman Catholics with his 
pen, be attacked them also with his sword. He acquainted 
^qtber with the double war which he carried on againit 
the clergy. ** I received a letter from Hutten,'' says Lu- 
c tfaef, *^ filled with rage against the Roman pontiff, declar- 
ing he would attack the tyranny of the clergy both with 
.bis pen and sword : he being exasperated against the pope 
for threatening him with daggers and poison, and com* 
manding the bishop of Mentz to send him bound to Rome.'* 
Camerarius says, that Hutten was impatient, that his air 
•tod discourse shewed him to be of a cruel disposition ; and 
applied to him what was said of Demosthenes, namely, 
that *^ he would have turned the world upside down, bad 
his power been equal to his will.*' His works are nume* 
rousy though he died young. A collection of his '^ Latin 
t^oems^' was published at Francfort in 1538, ISmo) all 
which, except two poems, were reprinted in the third part 
of the ^' DelicisB Poetarum Germanorum. ^' He was tlie^ 
author of a great many works, chiefly satirical, in the way 
of dialogue ; and Thuanus has not scrupled to compare 
him to Lucian, Of this cast were his Latin Dialogues on 
Lutheranism^ published in 4to, in 1520, and now very 
scarce. He had also a considerable share in the cele« 
brated work called ^' Epistolae virorum obscurorum,'' 
^hich Meiners, in his ^< Lives of Illustrious Men," says, 
was the joint work of Ulrick and Crotus Rubianus, ali^s 
John Jaeger, of Dornheim in Thuringia. The produc- 
itions of each, according to Meiners, may easily be dis* 
tinguished. Wherever we are struck with the " peculiar 
levity, rapidity, and force of the sty le~^ with a certain sol- 
dier-like boldness and unclerical humour, in obscene jests 
land pictures, and comical representations of saints, re- 
liques, &c. — with no small degree of keenness in the rela^ 
tion of laughable anecdotes, -^with a knowledge of Italy^ 
to be obtained only by experience, — with a pleasant ex'^ 
planation and derivation of words in the style of the mon« 
kish schools ; — in all these places, the hand of Ulrick Hut« 
ten may be traced.'* That these betters were the work^of 
different hands, says an acute critic, is not improbable; 
but we are not certain that Crotus Rubianus had any share 
in themi nor can we tell from what authority it is. sp 



jSli H U T T E N, 

afBrmed. Goethe/ who wrote his ** Tribute to the memoiy 
of yirick af Hutten,'' translated into English by Antony 
Aufrere, esq. 1789, and who wrote that, some years before 
the appearance of Meiners' Biography, seems to have led 
the latter into this opinion. With much more probabt'lily 
might Reuchlin have been mentioned, who, indeed, by 
some has been supposed the sole author. Upon the whole, 
however, there is most reason to think them Hutteii^s. ^ 

HUTTEN (Jacob), a Silesian of the sixteenth century, 
was the founder of the sect called the Bohemian or Moravian 
brethren, a sect of Anabaptists. Hutten purchased a ter- 
ritory of sotne extent in Moravia, and there established his 
society. They are considered as descended from the befr* 
ter sort of Hussites, and were distinguished by several re« 
ligious institutions of a singular nature, but well adapted 
to guard their ' community against the reigning vices of 
the times. When they heard of Luther's attempts to re- 
form the church, they sent a deputation to him, and he, 
. examining their tenets, though he could not in every par- 
ticular approve, looked upon them as worthy of toleratioii 
and indulgence. Hutten brought persecution upon him- 
self and his brethren by violent declamations agafnst the 
magistrates, and the attempt to introduce a perfect equality 
among men. It has been said that he wa$ burnt as a he- 
retic at Inspruck, but this is by no means certain. By de- 
grees these sectaries, banished from their own country, 
entered into communion with the Swiss church ^ though, 
for some time, with separate institutions. But in the sy- 
oiods held at Astrog in 1620 and 1627, all dissensions were 
jremoved, and the two congregations were formed into onief, 
under the title of the Church of the United Brethren. 
The sect of Herrenbutters or Moravians, formed by count 
Zinzendorff in the beginning of the present century, pre- 
tend to be descended from these brethren, and take the 
'Same title of unitas Jratrum ; but Mosheim observes that 
.^^ they may with more propriety be said to imitate tb^ 
4(^xample of that famous community, than to descend from 
^tbose who composed it, since it is well known that there 
l^re very few Bohemians and Moravians in the fraternity of 
tlie Herrenbutters ; and it is extremely doubtful whether 

t Gen. Diet — Moreri.— Goethe's " Tribute," by Aufrerc — Jortin's Erasmus. 
— »Melchior Adam» — Niceron, vol. XV, and XX, ^^ MontUly RevieWi Tol. VU 



•e 



H U T T E N. 375 

<9<en this^small number are to be considered as the pos- 
terity of the ancient Bohemian brethren, who distinguished 
themselves so early by their zeal for the reformation,'' ' 

HUTTER (EuAS), a Protestant divine, was born at 
Ulm, in 1553, and died at Nuremberg after 1602. He 
was deeply versed in languages, oriental and occidental ; 
particularly Hebrew, which he seems to have taught at 
Leipsic. He published, 1. " A Hebrew Bible," remark- 
able for being printed with the radical letters in black, the 
^servile in hollow type^^ and the quiescent or deficient; let- 
ters in smaller characters above the line. At the end is 
the I. 17th Psalm in thirty different languages. 2. <' Two 
Polyglotts,'' one in four languages, printed at Hamburg in 
1596 ; the other in six languages, at Nuremberg, iu 1599 ; 
both in folio.' 

HUTTER {Leonard), was also a native of Ulm, and 
born in 1563. He studied at Strasbourg, and early ap- 
plied himself with great diligence to theology ; he was af- 
"Orwards at Leipsic, Heidelberg, Jena, and Wirtemburg, 
and in the latter place was appointed one of the pubhc 
professors of theology. He married a lady of illustrious 
birth in 1599; and died of a fever in 1616, being then- 
for the fourth time rector of the university. The opinion 
held of his principles may be judged by five anagrams of 
his names Leonardus Hutterus^ four of them implying that 
he was another Luther.' They are formed, says the author 
who gives them, ^^ per literarum baud vanam transposi* 
tionem ;" thus, ** Redonatus Lutherus ;" " Leonhartus 
Hutterus j" ** Ah tu noster Lutherus ;" " Notus arte Lu- 
therus ;\' ** Tantus ero Lutherus." His works are very* 
numerous ; a great part of tliem controversial, directed 
gainst the church of Rome. Besides these, i. '^ Com- 
pendium TheologisB^ cum Notis D. Gotofredi Cundisii." 
2. "Explicatio Libri Concordiae Christianse,'-' 8vo. 3. •* Loci 
Communes Theologici," folio. 4. " Porniula; concionandi/' 
8vo. 5. ** Disputationes de verbo Dei scripto, ac traditioni- 
bus non scriptis," in 4to. 6. ^^ Collegium Tkeologicum, sive 
XI disputationes de articulis confessionis Augustanse," dvo.* 
7. ** Libri Christians^ Concordiee," 8vo ; and several pieces in 
defence of the Formulas ConcordisB, which in his time were 
liigbly esteemed; besides many other tracts in Latin and ia 

1 Mosbeiin's Hist: vol IV. p. 102, and V. p. 8*. 
f Cbaufepie.— »More;i.— Saxii Onom^t» 



JW* H U T T E Ri 

Germany all of which are enumerated by Freher, but seear 
too uninteresting at the present day to be transcribed.^ 

BUTTON (James), an ingenious philosopher of the- 
sceptical class, was the son of Mr. William Hutton, mer- 
chant in Edinburgh, and born in that city on the 3d of 
June, 1726. He entered the university as a student of 
humanity, in Nov. 1740. He studied afterwards unde^ 
the celebrated Maclaurin, but did not prosecute the m^« 
thematical sciences to any great extent. The origin of bis 
attachment to the study of chemistry is traced to the acci- 
dental mention of a chemical fact by professor Stevenson, 
in his prelections on logic. The fact was, that aqita regu^ 
is the only solvent of gold which requires the united action 
of two acids, each of which singly is capable of dissolving 
any of the baser metals: This important phenomenon- 
drew him, »s if by a kind of electric attraction, to the study 
of chemistry, with a force that could never afterwards^ 
be overcome. His philosophical career was however in-: 
terrupted by his engaging, at the request of his friends, as 
an apprentice to a writer to the sign^. But itistesid of 
copying w'rits and deeds, or studying the forms of legal, 
proceedings, it was found that his favourite object of pur-^ 
suit was the experiments of the crucible and retort. He 
was accordingly released from his engagement as an apr 
prentice, and permitted to direct his attention to studies 
more congenial to his inclinations. He applied himself ta 
t^e study of medicine as being the most closely connectetl 
with chemistry, and after attending the lectures in the' 
tiniversity for some years, repaired, as was then customary^, 
to the continent, to finish his course of study. He took 
the degree of M. D. at Leyden, in 1749. 

After his return from the continent, he began to think 
seriously of settling in the world. His views were first di-f 
rected to the medical profession, but were soon abandoned' 
for others that afforded better hopes of success. He rer 
9olved to apply himself to the study and practice of agri-r 
culture. With this view he fixed his residence for some- 
time with a farmer in Norfolk, from whom he receiv^ 
practical lessons in husbandry. During his stay in Eng- 
Hnd he made many journeys on foot into different parts of 
the country, for the purpose of studying mineralogy on 
geology. He afterwards visited Flanders with the view o^ 

I C!$n, Di^<-^reheri XheatrHm.— Saxii Qnoma^t. 



\ 



BUTTON. (37? 

iffomoting both hts mineralogical and agricultural studies. 
'In 1754 he returned to Scotland, and fixed bis residence 
*^n his own farm in Berwickshire, where he introduced the 
Jiew husbandry which has since made such rapid advances 
Jn that quarter. About 1768 he left Berwickshire, and 
went to reside in Edinburgh, giving his undivided atteotioa 
4o scientific pursuits. This gave him the advantage of 
^njoyiug with less interruption,, the society of bis literary 
iriends, among whom were Dr. Black, Mr. Russel, and 
professor Adam Ferguson. 

- Dr. Uuttoa's first publication was given to the world in 
vl777, entitled .*' Considerations on the nature, quality, 
and distinctions of Coal and Culm." It proves that culm 
.ia the small or refuse of the infusible or stone-coal, but 
jvery different in its properties from the small of the fusible 
jcoaL A sketch of his great work, his *^ Theory of the 
£arth/' the formation of which had been the object of 
inany years of previous study, was communicated to the 
voyal society of Edinburgh soon after its original institution. 
Another paper, a ^^ Theory of Rain,^' appeared also ia 
Xhe first volume of the Edinburgh Transactions. Thiii 
theory, as is well known, met with a most vigorous and 
4eter mined • opposition from M. de Luc, and became a 
subject of controversy, which was conducted with perhaps 
]:po much warmth. After the period of these two public 
fcatioQf, Dr. Hutton made several excursions ipto different 
parts of Scotland, with a view of comparing certain results 
of his theory with actual observation ; and in these he 
see^i^ to have been very successful. In 1792 he publistied 
'' Dissertations on different subjects in Natural PhilosO« 
phy,'* in which his theory for explaining the phenomena 
of the material world, seems to coincide very closely ivith 
ihat of Boscovich, though there is no reason to suppose 
that the former was suggested by the latter. But Dr* 
Hutton did npt confipe himself merely to physical specu-*' 
lations ; be directed his attention also to the study of meta-^ 
jphysicsg the result of which was the publication of a work 
entitled ^' An Investigation of the Principles of Knowledge^ 
and of the Progress of Reason from Sense to Science and 
Philosophy," 3 vols; 4to. The metaphysical opinions ad- 
vanced in this work coincide for the most part mth those 
af Dr. Berkeley^ and abound in sceptical boldness and phi-^ 
losophical infidelity. In J794 appeared his ** Dissertation 
jupoQ the Tbilosophy of Light, Heat, ' and Fire," 8vo, 



r 



-87B H U T T O N. 

which may be considered as a kind of supplement to ih0 
two preceding works. In 1796 his *^ Theory of the Earth*' 
was republished in 2 vols. 8vo, frbm &e Edinburgh Phi^ 
losophical Transactions, with large additions, and a new 
minecalogical system. Many of his opinions here have 
been ably combated by Kirwan and others. 

In 1792 Dr. Hutton's health began to decline, and in 
tbe summer of 1793 be was seized with a severe illnes% 
which after some intervals of convalescence, terminated at 
last in his death, March 26, 1797.* 

HUXHAM (John), was a physician of considerable re«* 
|3utation, who practised his profession at Plymouth, where 
he died in 1768. It is remarkable that no biographical 
memoirs of this able and learned practitioner are extant. 
Mr. Polwhele informs us. only that he was the son of a 
butcher at Halberton. Yet he possessed an innate geniui 
;and a strong propensity for medical acquisitions. By these 
lie was led to the university of Leyden, where he pursued 
Jiis studies with indefatigable application, and todk his 
doctor's degree in medicine. At length, settling at Ply- 
mouth, by a successful Course of practice he acquired a 
considerable fortune^ and by several admirable publications 
gained universal fame. His ^^ Treatise on Fevers'' Mn 
Polwhele notices, as the most eminent, and as it lead^ to 
the subsequent anecdote. ^^ The queen of Portugal being 
ill of a fever, and being reduced to the last extremity, not* 
.withstanding the efforts of the physicians of the country ; 
his majesty, hearing of the eminence of a physician lOf the 
£nglish factory at Lisbon, sent for him, and giving him 
the particulars of the queen's disorder, inquired whether 
it was in his power to administer any assistance. The phy* 
sician replied that he was not without, hope, but that he 
could do nothing unless her msgesty was Jeft to his sole 
care and direction. This being granted, the disorder soon 
took a turn, and in a short time the queen was restored to 
perfect health. The doctor being complimented by the 
kiiig on his abilities and success, said he had no claim but 
to the application ; for that the merit was due to Dr. Huxr 
bam, an eminent physician at Plymouth, whose tract on 
the management of fevers he had implicitly followed. Upon 
vrbich, the king immediately procured the treatise, bad il 
translated into the Portuguese language, printed it ixk 

I Philpsopbical TtansacUops of Edinburgh, voUV, 



H U X H A M. 87» 

faanjsome 4to, and sent it richly bound to Dr. Huxham, as 
^n acknowledgment of the sense be entertained of bis abi- 
lities, and of his debt of gratitude on the recovery of the 
queen;'* 

Dr. Huxbam's writings display a most intimate acquaint* 
ance with the writings of the ancients, and a great vene*- 
ration for those of Hippocrates in particular ; and he quotes 
the ancient languages, and writes the Latin, with great 
fluency and familiarity. He appears to have spent his lif^ 
at Plymouth in the active exercise of bis profession ; foo 
be kept a register of the state of health and reigning dis- 
eases at that place, togeUier with an account of the variety 
of the seasons, for nearly thirty years, (namely, from 1724 
to 1752 inclusive); which were published in Latin, under 
the title of" Observationes de Aere et Morbis Epidemicis,'* 
4&C. in 3 vols. 8vo. The first of these volumes commences 
with an account of the year 1728 ; but in the dedicatioa 
to sir Hans Sloane, he refers to an account of the consti- 
tution and diseases of the seasons from 1724 to 1727, al« 
ready published. The third volume was edited in 1770^ 
after the death of the author, by his son J. Cor. Huxham, 
A. M. F^ R. S. ; who, it is Ur be regretted, did not insert 
anfy miemoirs of bis father^s life. 

< Dr. Huxham was at an early period elected a member of 
the royal society, and communicated several papers on 
the subjects of pathology and morbid anatomy, which 
tvere published in the Philosophical Transactions. But 
the work, upon which his reputation principally rests, iv 
bis " £ssay on Fevers," published about 1739, of which a 
fifth edition appeared the year before his death, containing 
also ^^ A Dissertation on the Malignant, Ulcerous Sore 
Throat." His accuracy and acuteness, as an observer of 
the phenomena of disease, were particularly exemplified 
in his drscrimiBative history of the " Slow Nervous Fever,'*^ 
to which bis name is often annexed when this fever is 
mentioned by succeeding authors. His theory was the a^« 
cieut humoral pathology, which much influenced bis prac- 
tice ; but that was the general fault of the age. He was 
the author of some ^^ Observations on Antimony," 171^6^ 
4to ; and was elected a fellow of the royal college of phy-^ 
aicians at Edinburgh. He has gii'en few prescriptions in 
his works ; for he observes, with Hippocrates, that the phy-« 
sician who knows a disease, cannot be at a loss in respect 
to. the ^rni of his remedy ; but, having mentioned a 



nn H u X H A m; 

favouritie formula for the preparation of a tincture of tb4 
Peruvian bark, in bis Essay on Fevers, in which the bitter 
is (Corrected by aromatics, his name has become attached 
to the tincture of bark which is commonly prepared in the 
shops according to his prescription, land is also adopted in 
the Pbarmacopceia of the college of physicians/ 
. HUYGENS (Christian), a very celebrated mathema-p 
lician and astronomer, was born at the Hague April 14^ 
1629, and was son of Constantine Huygens, lord of Zuy^ 
Uchem, who had served three successive princes of Orange 
in the quality of secretary, and had spent his whole life in 
cultivating the mathematics ; not in the speculative way 
only, .but in nmiking them subservient to the uses of life^ 
From his infancy our author applied himself to this study^ 
land made a considerable progress in it, even at nine years 
of age, as well as in music, arithmetic, and geography ; in 
all which be was instructed by his father, who in the mean 
time did not suffer him to neglect the belles lettres. At 
thirteen be was initiated in the study of mechanics ; having 
discovered a wonderful curiosity in examining machines 
^nd other pieces of mechanism ; and two years after bad 
the assistance of a master in mathematics, under whom he 
made surprising progress. In 1645 he went to study laws 
at Leyden, under Vinnius ; yet did not attach himself so 
closely to that science, but that be found time to oontinue 
his mathematics under the professor Schooten. He left 
this university at the end of one year, and went to Breda^ 
where an university had just been founded, and placed 
under the direction of bis father ; and here, for two or 
^ree years, he made the law his chief study. In 1649 he 
went to Holstein and Denmark, in the retinue of Hemy 
count of Nassau ; and was extremely desirous of going tQ 
Sweden to visit Des Cartes, who was then in that country 
"tvith the queen Christina, but the count's short stay in 
Denmark would not permit him. In 1651, he gave the 
world a specimen of bis genius for mathematics, in a trea« 
tise entitled ^^ Theoremata de quadratura Hyperboles^ 
Ellipsis, & Circuli, ex dato portionum gravitatis centro :'* 
in v^hich he shewed very evidently what might be expected 
from him afterwards. 

; -In 1655 he travelled into France, and took the degree 
ef doctor of laws at Anglers. In 165a he published his 

i. \P<ilvyhel^'8 Hifitqry of PeTODshiie, voL I, p. 326,— Re^'s C^cIoi^KdUt^ .; 



H u r G E N S* S1^ 

<f H6ro1ogtain oscillatorium, sive de rootu pendalorum/* 
&Ci at the Hague* He had exhibited in a preceding work 
entitled <* Brevis institutio de usu Horologiornixi ad inve« 
niendas longitudines/' a model of a new invented pendu-^ 
lum ; but as some persons envious of his reputation were 
labouring to deprive him of the honour of the invention^ 
he wrote this book to explain the construction of it^ and 
to shew that it was very different from the pendulum of 
astronomers invented by Galileo. In 1659 he published 
his^^ Systema Saturninum, sive de causis mirandorum Sa« 
tumi phaenomenon, & comite ejus planeta novo." Galileo 
bad endeavoured to explain some of the surprising appears 
^ces of the planet Saturn. He had at first perceived two 
stars which attended it; and some time after was amazed 
to find them disappear Huygens, desirous to account for 
these changes, laboured with- his brother Constantine to 
bring the telescopes to greater perfection ; and made \ixvd* 
self glasses by which be could view objects at a greater 
distance than any that had yet b^en contrived. With 
t^hese he applied himself to -observe all the phases and ap<^ 
pearances of Saturn, and drew a journal of all th^ differeni 
aspects of that planet. He discovered also one of the sau* 
tellites belonging to that planet, which had hitherto es« 
caped the eyes of astronomers ; and, after a long cdUris^ 
^ observations, perceived that the planet is surrounded 
>^th a solid and permanent ring, which never changes its 
situation. These discoveries gained him an high rauk 
^unong the astronomers of his time. 

r In 1660 he took a second journey into France, and the 
year after passed over into England, where he communi- 
cated his art of polishing glasses for telescopes, and was 
Bnade a fellowof the royal society. About this time the 
^ir-pump was invented, which received considerable im- 
provements from him. This year also he discovered the 
laws of the collision of elastic bodies : as did afterwards 
(Dur own countrymen, the celebrated Wallis and Wren, 
with whom he had a disputed about the honour of this dis« 
covery. After he had stayed some months in England, he 
returned to France in 1663, where his merit became so 
conspicuous, that Colbert resolved to fix him at Paris, by 
aettling on him a considerable pension. Accordingly, in 
1665, letters written in the king^s name were sent to him 
to the Hague, where he then was, to invite him to Paris^^ 
fntb the projpaise of a li^rge stipend, i^nd other considerable^ 



$S0 tt U Y G E N S. 

advantages. Huygens consented to the proposal, and teJ 
sided at Paris from 1666 to 1681 ; where be was made a 
member of the royal academy of sciences. During thi& 
time he was engaged in mathematical pursuits, wrote several 
works, which were published from time to time, and invented 
and perfected several useful instruments and machines. 
But continual application began then to impair his health ; 
and, though he had twice visited his native air, in 1670 
and 1675, for the sake of recovering from illness, he now 
found it permanently nebessary to his constitution ; but 
perhaps the revocation of the edict of Nantz was a prin- 
cipal reason for his wishing to return to his 0wn country^ 
Though he was assured that he should enjoy the same 
liberty as before, and not be molested for his religious 
opinions, he would not consent to live in a country where 
bis religion was proscribed, and therefore left Paris in 
JI68I^ and passed the remainder of his life in his own 
country, occupied in his usual pursuits and employments* 
lie died at the Hague June 8, 1695, in his sixty-seventh 
year, while his ^* Cosmotheoros,** a Latin treatise con- 
cerning the plurality of worlds, was printing ; he provided, 
however, in his will for its publication, desiring his bro- 
ther Constantine, to whom it was addressed, to take that 
trouble upon him. But Constantine was so occupied with 
business, as being secretary in Holland to the king o£ 
Great Britain, that he died also before it could be printed; 
so that the book did not appear in public till 1698. 
. In 1703 were printed at Leyden, in 1 vol. 4to, Huj«. 
geos's *^ Opuscula Posthuma, quae continent Dioptricam, 
Commentarios de vitris figurandis, Dissertationem de Co^ 
rona & Parheliis, Tractatum de motu & de vi centrifugay 
descriptionem Automati Planetarii.'' Huygens had left by 
^will to the university of Leyden his mathematical writings^ 
and requested de Voider and FuUenius, the former pro-* 
fessor of natural philosophy and mathematics at Leyden, 
and the other at Franeker, to examine these works, and 
publish what they should think proper. This was per*^ 
formed in the volume here mentioned. Huygens had writ- 
ten in Low Dutch the second of the tracts it contains, re- 
lating to the art of forming and polishing telescope -glasses, 
to which he had greatly applied himself; and Boerbaava 
translated it into Latin for this work. In 1700, were pub- 
lished in 4to, his " Opera Varia." This collection is ge* 
x^eraliy bound in 4 vplumes. It contains the greatest jpart 



H U Y G E N S^ 381 

.4>F the pieces which he had published separately, and is 
divided into four parts. The first part contains the pieces 
• relating to mechanics; the^ecand, those relating to geo- 
metry ; the third, those relating to astronomy ; and the 
fourth, those which could not be arranged under any of 
the former titles. Gravesande had the care of this edition^ 
in which he has inserted several additions to the pieces con- 
tained in it, extracted from Huygens's manuscripts. In 1 728 
were printed at Amsterdam, iq 2 vols. 4to, his *^ Opera Reli- 
qua;'' which new collection was published also by Grave- 
sande. The first volume contains his ^' Treatises on Light 
and Gravity ;" the second his '^ Opuscula Posthuma,'* 
which had been printed in 1703. His whole time had been 
employed in curious and useful researches. He loved a 
quiet and studious life ; and perhaps through fear of inter- 
ruption, never married. He was an amiable, chearful^ 
worthy man ; and in all respects as good as he was great. 
As an inventor, the first and not the least considerable of 
his discoveries was that he made of the real nature, or 
rather figure of the luminous appearance which accompa- 
nies the planet Saturn ; but the most important was his 
pendulum clock and his micrometer. His history, how- 
ever, includes many controversies respecting priority ia 
these inventions, which may be seen at large in our autho- 
rities.^ 

HUYGHENS (Gomarus), a celebrated doctor of Lou- 
vain, was born in 163 i, at Lier, or Lyre, a town in Brabant. 
He professed philosophy at Louvain with reputation, and 
was made president of the college of pope Adrian VL 
where he died, October 27, 1702, leaving several. works in 
Latin : the principal are, ^^ The Method of remitting and 
retaining Sins," 16S6, 12mo; it has been translated into 
French ; " Theses on Grace," 4to ; " Theological Con- 
ferences," 3 vols. 12mo, &c. ; a " Course of Divinity," 14 
i^ols. l2ino, &c. He refused to write against the four ar- 
ticles of the French clergy, which displeased the court of 
Home. Huyghens was P. Quesnel's intimate friend, and 
^^ealously defended his cause and his opinions. M. Ar- 
Jiauld speaks highly in his praise.* , 

« 

1 Gen. Diet.— Eloges des Academici«QS,To]. L-^Martin's Biog. Pbilosophia^ 
-.Ward's Gresham Profeasors.-^NiceroD, vol. XIX.— .Hutton'i Dictionary.— h 
EncycloiMidia BritannicB, vol. XVilL p. SOS, aote»^Tb«onon^s liMtory of tka. 
Soyal Society. "" 

! MorerL—Dict, Qpu . 



js«2 /. H tj Y sr U Bt 

HUySUM (John Van), an illustrious painter who suim 
passed all who have ever painted in his ^tyle, aad whose 
Works excite as much surprise by their finishing, a^ admi- 
ration by their truth, was born at Amsterdam in 1 6S2^ and 
was a disciple of Justus Van Huysum, his father. He sec 
.out in his profession with a most commendable principle, 
not so much to paint for the acquisition of money, as of 
fame ; and therefore he did not aim at expedition, but at 
delicacy, and if possible, to arrive at perfection in his art. 
-Ha^ng attentively studied the pictures of Mignon^ and ail 
other, artists of distinction who had painted in his own sty la^ 
he tried which manner would sooioest lead him to imitate 
the lightness and singular beauties of each flower, fruit, or 
plant ; and then fixed on a manner peculiar to himself, 
•which seems almost inimitable. He soon received the 
most deserved applause from the ablest judges of painting-; 
eyen those who furnished him with the loveliest flowers; 
confessing that there was somewhat in his colouring and 
pencilling that rendered every object more beautiful, if 
possible, than even nature itself. His pictures are finished 
with inconceivable truth ; for he painted every tiling after 
nature, and was so singularly exact, as to watch even tilts 
hour of the day in which his model appeared in its greatest 
perfection* . 

By the judicious he was accounted to paint with grcateir 
freedom dban Mignon or Brueghel; with more tendernesi 
and nature than Mario da Fieri, Michael Angelo di Cam- 
pidogHo,or Segers ; with more mellowness than De Qeem, 
^d greater force of colouring than Baptist. His reputa*^ 
tiofl rose tosueh a height at last, that he fixed immoderate 
prices on his works ; so that none but the very opulent' 
could pretend to become purchasers. Six of his paintings 
were sold, at a public sale in Holland, for prices that were 
almost incredible. One of them, a flower-piece, for four- 
teen hundred and fifty guilders; a. fruit-piece, for a tbou^ 
sand and five guilders ; and the smaller pictures for nine 
hundred. These vast sums caused him to redouble his en«» 
deavours to excel ; no person was admitted into his rooitt 
while he was painting, not even his brothers ; and hi» 
method of mixing the tints, and preserving the lustre of 
£is colours, was an impenetrable secret which he never 
iwould disclose. From the same principle he would never 
take any disciples, except one lady, named Haverman'y 
and he grew envious and jealous even of her intsrit^ ' 



H O Y S V IVf . JM 

<- By Several domestic disquiets, bis tefiipef became 
changed; he grew morose, fretful, and apt to withdraw 
himself from society. He bad many enviers of his fame^ 
which has ever been the severe lot of the most deserving in 
all professions ; but be continued to work, and his reputa^ 
tion never diminished. It is universally agreed, tbat he 
bas excelled all who have painted fruit and flowers before 
him, by the confessed superiority of his toupb, by the de«- 
licacy of his pencil, and by an amazing manner of finish«- 
ing ; nor does it appear probable that any future artist will 
ever become his competitor. The care which he took tb 
purify, his oils, and prepare his colours, and the various ex*- 
periments he made to discover the most lustro^us and du- 
rable, is another instance of his extraordinary care and 
capacity. 

From having observed some of his works that were per* 
fectly finished, some only half finished, and others only 
begun, the principles by which he conducted himself ^may 
perhaps be discoverable. His cloths were prepared with 
the greatest care, and primed with wJiite, with all possible 
purity, to prevent his colours from being obscured, as he 
Jaid them on. very lightly. He glazed all other colours^ 
except the clear and transparent, not omitting^ even the 
^bite ones, till he found the exact tone of the colour ; and 
oyer that be finished the forms, the lights, the shadows^ 
and the reflections ; which are all executed with precisioa 
and warmth, without dryness or negligence. The greatest 
truth, united with the greatest brilliancy, and a velvet soft<» 
ness on the surface of his objects, are visible in every part 
of his .compositions ; and as to his touch, it looks like the 
pencil of nature. Whenever he represented flowers placed 
in vases, he always painted those vases after some elegant 
model, ^nd the bas-relief is as exquisitely finished as any 
of the other parts. Through the whole he shews a delicate 
composition, a fine harmony, and a most happy eflect of 
light and shadow. Those pictures which he painted on a 
clear ground, are preferred to others of his hand^ as having 
greater lustre ; and as they demanded more care and 
exactness in the finishing ; yet there are some ofx a darkish 
ground, in which appears rather more force and harmony^ 
. It is observed of him, that in the grouping of his flowers^ 
he, geneiielly designed those which were brightest in the 
centre, and gradually decreased the force of his. colour 
from the centre to the extremities. The bbNls' nests and 



3S4 H U Y S U M. 

their eggs, the feathers, insects, and drops of dew, ard 
expressed with the Htmost truth, so as even to deceive the 
spectator. And yet, after all this merited and just praise, it 
cannot but be confessed,' that sometimes bis fruits appear 
li' e wax or ivory, without that peculiar softness and wvirmth 
wi;ich is constantly obseryable in nature. Beside bis merit 
as a flower- painter, he also painted landscapes with great 
applause. They are well composed ; and although he had 
never seen Rome, he adorned his scenes with the noble 
remains of ancient magnificence which are in that city. 
His pictures in ibat style are well coloured, and every tree 
is distinguished by a touch that is proper for the leafing. 
The grounds are well broken, and disposed with taste and 
judgmen^t ; the figures are designed in the manner of 
Lairesse, highly finished, and touched with a great deal of 
«piQt ; and through the whole composition, the scene re- 
presents Italy, in the trees, the clouds, and the skies. He 
died in 1749, aged sixty-3even. 

Of his brothers, Justus Van Huysum was born at Am- 
sterdam, and died when he had arrived only at his twenty- 
second year. He painted battles in ajarg^and a small 
;iize, with exceeding readiness and freedom, without hav- 
ing recourse to any models ; and he composed his objects 
Xnerely by the power of his own lively imagination, dis*- 
posing them also with judgment and taste ; and Jacob 
Van Huysum, also ,born at Amsterdam, in 1680, died at 
London, wberehe bad resided for several years. His merit 
chiefly consisted in imitating the works of his brother John ; 
which he did with so much critical exactness, beauty, and 
delicacy, as frequently to deceive the most sagacious con- 
noisseurs; and be usually had twenty guineas for each 
copy. He also composed subjects of his own invention 
in tlie same style, which were very much prized; and his 
paintings increased in their value like those of his brother 
Johi^. He died in 1740.^ 

HYDE (Edward), earl of Clarendon, and chancellor of 
England, was descended from an ancient family in Cbe- 
abire, and born at Dinton in Wiltshire, Feb. 16, 1608. la 
1622, he was entered of Magdalen -hall in Oxford, and icr 
1625, took the degree of bachelor in arts ; but failing of a 
fellowship in Exeter college, for which he stood, he re- 
moved to the Middle Temple^ where he studied the law 

I Pilkio|toii.— Ar2;enville| toL lII.«-*Wa||K>ie'8 Anecdotes* 



It YD It* StJ^ 

ibr «Qv<eitil' jekru widn dil%«nce ancl «iioc0B9< When th«f 
ls|wyer» resolved td give a puUio teitknony of Aeif dissent 
frMA the new doctrine advanced in Prynne^s *f HistviO'* 
HaasPtix/^ in whioh was iihewn' an uttet disregavd ef all man^ 
ney ef deeency and respect Iro tfae ci^ewn, Hyde and White- 
locke^were appointed the managers of the masque pre-^ 
iented on that occasion to their majesties at Whitehall on 
OaBd)emas<-dayy 1693«>4. At the same time he telstified, 
npon alt occasions, bis utter dislike to that excess of power,' 
whioh was then exercised by the couyt, and supported by 
the judges in Westminster- ball. He condemned the op- 
pressive proceedings of the higb-commissiGfn court, th^ 
star-chamber, the eiounciUboard^ the earl-marshal!s court, 
er court of honour, and the court of York, This just way 
of thinking is said to have been formed in him by a do- 
mestic accident, which Burnet relates in the .ft^llowing 
manner : ^ Wtien he first began,** says that historian, ^^ te 
grow eminent in his profession of ^e law, he went down to 
Tisit his father in Wiltshire ; who one day, aa they wert 
walking in the fields together, ebseriFed to him^ that * men 
6f his profession were apt to stretch the prerogative toor 
far, and injure Kberty: but charged him, if ever be eame 
to any eminence in his profession, never' to sacrifioe the 
laws and liberty of his country to his own interest^ or the 
will of his prince.* He repeated this twice, and immew 
diatdy fell into a fit of apoplexy, of which he died to a 
few hours ; and this advice had so lasting an influence upon 
the son, that he ever* after observed and pursued it.'* 
' In the parliament which began at Westminster April 
10, J 640, he served as burgess for Wotton-Basset in Wilt- 
shire; and distirtguished himself upon the following occa- 
sion. His majesty having acquaitited the house of com- 
mons, that be would release the ship-money, if they would 
^knt him twdve subsidies, to be paid in three years, great 
debates arose in the house that day and the next ; when' 
Hampden, seeing the matter ripe for the question, desired 
it might be pat, ^^ whether the house should comply with 
the proposition made by the king, as it was contained in*^ 
the message?*' Serjeant 'Glanvile, the speaker, for the 
house was ttien in a committee, endeavoured in a pathetic 
speech to persuade them to comply with the king, and so 
reconcile him to parliaments for ever. No speech ever 
united the inclination of a popular council more to the 
speaker than this did; ai^d if the question had been im^ 
Vou XVIIL C c 



3M HYDE. 

mediately, put, it was believed that few would have opposed- 
it. But, after a short silence, the other, side recoTeriiig 
new courage, called again with some earnestness, tha^ 
Hampden's qqesdon should b^ put; which being^ like to 
mQet with a coDcuri'ence, Hyd^, who was desirous to pi^- 
serve a due mediuoi^ after expressing bis dislike of Hai^p-* 
den's question, proposed, that 'f to the end eyery man 
might freely give his yea or no^ the question might be pu^ 
only upon giving the king a supply ; and if this was car«^ 
ried^ another might be put upon the manner and propor^ 
tion : if not, it would have the same effect with the Qtbpr 
proposed by Mr. Hampden." This^ after it had been some 
time opposed and diverted by other propositions, which 
were answered by Hyde, would, as it is generally believed^ 
have been carric^d in the afErmativCi though positively pp« 
posed by Herbert the solicitor-general, if sir Henry. Vane 
the secretary had not assured them as from bis miyesty, 
that if they should pass a vote for a supply, and not in the 
proportion proposed in his majesty's message, it would 
not be accepted by him, and therefore . desired that tb^ 
qu^sj^ion might be laid aside* This being i^gain urged by 
the solicitor-general, and it being near five in the after** 
nppn, a very late hour, in those days, it was readily con- 
sented to, that the bouse should adjourn till the next 
morning, a.t which time they were suddenly dissolved. 
And within an hour after Hyde met St. John, who was sel- 
dom known to simile, but then bad a most cheerful aspect ; 
and observing Hyde melancholy, asked him, ''what trou- 
bled him ?" who answered, '^ The same he believed that 
troubled most good men, tliat, in a time of so much confu«» 
sion, so wise a parliament should be so imprudently dis- 
solved." St John replied somewhat warmly, '^ that all 
was well : that things must grow worse, before they would 
grow better ; and that that parliament would never have 
done what was requisite." 

.This parliament being dissolved, Hyde was chosen for 
SaljU&li ill Cornwall in the Long -parliament, which com- 
meiwjed Nov. 3 .the same year, where his abili^i^s began 
to b(^ noticed ; ^and when the coaimpns prepared fi charge 
ai>ainst lord chi^f baron Davenport, baron Weston, and 
baron Trevor, he was sent up with the impeachment to 
the lords^ to whom he made a most excellent speech. It 
begins thus ; ^* My lords, there cannot be a greater instance, 
of a ^ck and languishing commonwealth^ than the businesa 



HYPE. 387 

of tbU day. Good Qod ! how have the guilty these late ^ 
* years been punished, when the judges themselves have 
been such delinquents ? It is no marvel, that an irregular, 
extravagant, arbitrary power, like a torrent, 4iath broken ' 
in upon us, when our banks and oQr bulwarks, the laws, 
wer^e in the custody of such persons. Men, who bad left . 
their innocence, could not preserve their courage ; nor 
could we look that they, who had so visibly undone us, 
themselves should have the virtue or credit to rescue us 
from, the oppression of other men. It was said by one, 
who always sppke excellently, that ' the twelve judges were 
like the twelve lions under the throne of Solomon ;^ under 
the throne of obedience, but yet liqns. Your lordships 
shall this day hear of six, who, be they what they will else, 
weipl& no lions : who upon vulgar fear delivered up their 
precious forts they were trusted with, almost without as* 
saitlc ; and in a tame easy trance of flattery and servitude, 
lost and forfeited, shameifully forfeited, that reputation, 
,awe, and reverence, which the wisdom, courage, and gra- 
vity of their venerable predecessors had contracted and fas* 
tened to the places they now bold. They even rendered 
that study and profession, Which in all ages hath been, and 
I hope, now shall be, of honourable estimation, so contemp- 
tible and vile, that bad not this blessed day come, all men 
would have bad that quarrel to the law itself which Marius« 
had to the Greek tongue, who thought it a mockery to 
learn that language, the masters whereof lived in bondage 
under others. And I appeal to these unhappy gentlemen 
themselves, with what a strange negligence, scorn, and in- 
dignation, the faces of all men, even of the meanest, have 
been directed to wards them, since, to call it no worse, that 
fatal declension of their understanding in those judgments, , 
of which they stand here charged before your lordships.'^ 
The conclusion runs thus ; '^ If the excellent, envied con- 
stitution of this kingdom hath been of late distempered, 
your lordships see the causes. If the sweet harmony be- 
tween the king's protection and the subject's obedience 
hath unluckily suffered interruption; if the royal justice 
'and honour of the best of kings have been mistaken by his 
eople ; if the duty and affection of the most- faithful and 
oyal nation bath been suspected by their gracious sove- 
reign ; if, by these misrepresentations, and these misunder- 
standings, the king and people have been robbed of the 
delight and comfort of each other^ aiid the blessed peace 

C c 2 



r. 



8M HYDE. 

oC thiif island been shaken and frigbteMit into tutnitlts and 
commotions^ into the porerty, tbougifv not into the rarge, of 
W3r, as a people prepared for destru^ction and desolation 4 
tbase are the men, aetiveiy or passively, by doing or not 
doings who have btoii^bt this upon us : * Misera servitua 
false pax vocatur; ubi judicia deBeiunt, inctpit bellum'.*^ 

But tisough Hyde was very zealous for redressing the 
grievances* v>f thef nation^ be vi^as no less so for the security 
of the established ohurcb^ attd the honour of the crovrn. 
When a bill was brought in to take away the bishops' vote 
in parUament^ and to leave them out of all commissions of 
the peace^ or any thing that had relation to temporal afiairs, 
he was very earnest ,tbr throwing it out, and said, that, 
'ffrom the time that parliaments begun, bishops had aU 
ways been 3^ part of it; that if they were taken out, thisre 
was nobody left to represent the clergy ; which would iU'* 
troduce another piece of injustice, that no other part of 
the kinrgdom could com plaifi of, who, being all represent-- 
ed in parliament, were bound to submit to whatever was 
enacted there, because it was, upon the matter, with their 
own consent : whereas, if the bill was carried, there was 
nobody left to represent the clergy, and yet they must b« 
bound by their determination.'* He was one of the cont- 
mittee employed to prepare the charge agaihst the earl of 
Strafford : but, as soon as he saw the unjustifiable violence 
with which the prosecution was precipitated, he I^ft them, 
and opposed the bill of attainder warmly. He was after- 
wards appointed a manager at the conference with th^ 
house of lords, fur abolishing the court of York, of i^hich 
that earl had been for several years president ; and was 
ciiairman also of several other committees,, appointed upon 
the most important occasions, as long as he continued to 
sit among them. But, wheit they began to put in execu- 
tion their ordinance for raising the militia against- his ma* 
jesty, Hyde, beiijg persuaded that this was an act of open 
rebellion, left them ; and they felt the blow given to their 
authority by his abticrjce so sensibl}^, that in their instruc- 
tions shortly aiier to the earl of Essex their general, he 
WAS eificepced with a few others from any grace or favour. 
- Hyde witiidrew to the king at York, having first obtained 
the great seal to be dent thither on May 20, 1642 : and, 
upon his arrival, was admitted into the greatest confidence, 
though he was not under any olHcial character in the court* 
foe some izionths. £ut^ towards the latter end of the year,' 



H y JL 069 

upon the pminotion iof fiir John Calepepper to be master of 
th« roUs^ be succeeded Jii«i in the chancellorship of th^ 
exchequer, and the same year was knighted, and made a 
privy*counsellor. With tb^oe characters he /sat in tbd 
parliament assembled at Oxford, Jan. L64S ; and, in 16M, 
was one of the king^s commissioners at the treaty of Ux- 
bridge. Not long after, the king sending the prince of 
Wales into the West, to bare the superintendency of th^ 
affidrs there, sir Edward Hyde was appointed Co iittend his 
bighpess, and to be of bis council ; where he entered, by 
his majesty's cosimand, into a correspondence with the 
marquis of Ormond, then.lord-Ueuteuant of Ireland. Upon 
the declension of the kiug's cause, be wiib tlie lords C^pel 
and Colepepper sailed from Pendennis castle in Cornwall 
to Scilly, and tbence to Jersey, where he arrived in Marcb 
1645 ; bu^ being greatly disgusted at the prince's removal 
thence the following year ito France, he obtained leave to 
^ta^ in that island. His opinion respecting the prince's * 
removal i^lo France, is warmly expressed in the foilowiii^ 
letter to the duke of Ormond : 

" My Lord, 
*^ Your lordship hath been lonig since informed, wbitber 
iny lord Bigby attended the prince ; and from thence Jhave 
pardoned my not acknowledging your grjace's favour to me, 
from the io^possibility of presenting it to you. I confess, 
IQ that conjuncture of time, I thought the remove from 
Jersey to Ireland to be very At to be deliberately weigbed, 
before attempted ; but I wouul have chosen it much more 
cheerfully than this that is embraced, which I hope will be 
A memorial to my weakness ; .for it is my misrfortune to 
difiier from those with whom I have hitherto agreed, and 
especially with my best friend, which I hope will not ren- 
der me the less fit for your charity, though 1 may be for 
your consideration. Indeed, there is not light enough for 
me to see my way, and I cannot well walk in the dark f and 
therefore I have desired leave of the prince to breathe in 
this island a little for my refreshment, till I may discern 
some way in which I may serve his majesty. I hope your 
. lordship will never meet with any interruption in the exer- 
cise of that devotion, which hath rendered you the^iuvied 
example of three kingdoms, and that I shall yet fiq^d an 
opportunity to attend upon your lordship, and have the 
honour to be received bjr you in the capacity of 

" My Lord, your Lordship's, &c. 

" June 22, 1646. " EDWARD Hyde." 



S30 tt Y 6 1 

We see herie not barely a disgust^ but even a resentment 
shewn to the prince's going to Paris ; the ground of which 
undoubtedly lay in the manifest danger his religion might 
be brought into from the restless endeavours of his mother; 
since it is notorious^ that the chancellor was never upon any 
tolerable terms with the queen^ on account of his watch- 
fulness against every attempt of this kind. 

During his retirement in Jersey, he began to write his 
** History of the Rebellion,'* which had been particularly 
recommended to him, and in which he was assisted also by 
the king, who supplied him with severalof the materials for it. 
We learn from the history itself, that upon lord Capel's. 
waiting on the king at Hampton-court in 1647, his ma- 
jesty wrote to the chancellor a letter, in which he '^ thanked 
him for undertaking the work he was upon ; and told him^ 
he should expert speedily to receive some contribution 
from him towards it;" and within a very short time after- 
wards, iie sent to him memorials of all that had passed 
from the time he had left his majesty at Oxford^ when he 
waited upon the prince into the west, to the very day that 
the king left Oxford to go to the Scots ; out of which me» 
morials the most important p^sages, in the years 1644 
and 1645, are faithfully collected. Agreeably to this, the 
ninth book opens with declaring, that ** the work was first 
undertaken with the king's approbation, and by his en- 
couragement ; and particularly, that many impottant points 
were transmitted to the author by the king's idimediate 
direction and order, even after he was in the hands and 
power of the enemy, out of his own memorials and jour- 
nals." Thus we may trace the exact time when this hSs- 
tory was begun ; and the time when it was finished may be 
ascertained with the same degree of exactness, froni*the 
dedication of the author's " Survey of the Leviathan," in 
which he addresses himself to Charles II. in these terms : 
'^ As soon as I had finished a work, at least recommended, 
if not enjoined to me by your blessed father, and approved, 
and in some degree perused by your majesty, I could not," 
&c. This dedication is dated Moulins, May 10, 1673; 
whence it appears, that the history was not completefd till 
the beginning of that, or the latter end of the preceding 
year ; and this may account for certain facts being related 
which happened long after the Restoration ; as for instancci 
that " sir John Digby lived many years after the Icing's 
return ;" and that the " earl of Saindwich's expedition was 



HYDE. S91 

* 

never forgiven him by some men:'* which might veiy 
consistently be introduced in this history, though that 
nobleman did not lose his life till 1672. 

In Mky 1648, sir Edward received a letter from the 
queen to call him to Paris ; where, after the king^s deaths 
he was continued both in his seat at the privy council, and 
in his office of the exchequer, l>y Charles II, In Nov. 
1649, he was sent by the king with lord Cottington am* 
bassador extraordinary into Spain, tp apply for assistance 
in the recovery of his crown ; but returned without success 
in July 1651. Soon after his^ arrival, the king gave him 
an account of his escape after" the battle of Worcester, in 
that unfortunate expedition to Scotland, whibh had been 
undertaken during sir Edward's absence, and much against 
his judgment. He now resided for some time at Antwerp, 
but left no means unattempted, by letters and messages to 
England, for compassing the Restoration ; in which, how« 
ever, he solely relied upon the episcopal party. In 1653, 
he was accused of holding a correspondence with Crom* 

^ well ; but being declared innocent by the king, was after* 
.wards made secretary of state. More.attempts were made 
to ruin him with the king, but iii vain ; for in 1657 he was 
made chancellor of England. Upon the Restoration, as 
he had been one of the greatest sharers in his master's 
sufferings, so he had a proportionable share in his iglory. 

Besides the post of lord chancellor, in which he was 
continued, he was chosen chancellor of the university of 
Oxford in Oct. 1 660 ; and, in November following, created 
a peer by the titl^ of baron Hyde of Hindon in Wiltshire; 
to which were added, in April 1661, the titles of viscount 
Cornbury in Oxfordshire, and earl of Clarendon in Wilt- 

" shire. These honours, great as they were, were, however, 
by no means beyond his merit. He had, upon the Resto* 
ration, shewn great prudence, justice, and moderation, 
in settling the just boundaries between the prerogative of 
the crown and the liberties of the people. He had reduced 
much confusion into order, and adjusted many clashing 
interests, where prope^-ty was concerned. He had endea- 
voured to make things easy to the Presbyterians and mal- 
contents by the act of indemnity, and to satisfy the Royal- 
ists by the act of uniformity. But it is not possible to 
stand many years in a situation so. much distinguished, 
without becoming the object of envy ; which created him 
such enemies as both wished and attempted his ruin, and^ 



399 tt Y O & 

%t l^st effsqt^d it .. Doubtless notbitig more ^^ofttribut^ t^ 
inflame this passion against biin^ than the €irciiinstanee of 
his eldest daughter l^ing married to the duke of Yorl^ 
which became known in a fe^v months after the king's 
return. She had been one of the maids jq£ honoar to the 
princess royal Henrietta, some time during the exile^ wbe^i 
the duke fell in love with her; and being disappoiated bf^ 
the defeat of sir George Booth^ in a design be had iovmeA 
of coming with some forces to England in 1659^ he went 
%o Breda, where bis sister then resided. Passing aoib^s 
weeks there, be took this opportunity, as Buro«t tells u^ 
of soliciting miss Hyde to indulge his desires without -maD* 
r|a^ ; but she managed the matter with such address^ Uiitf 
in the conclusion he married her, Nov. 4 that year, tvidt 
9hU possible secrecy, a^id unknown to ber fatlier. Afeeir 
tbeir arrival in £E>glaiid, being pregnant, she called upoft 
the duke to ownbi^ marriage 9 and though he endeavoured 
|» divert her from this object^ both by great premises «iid 
great threatenings, yet she had the spirit and wisdom td 
tell him, '^ She would have it known tbtft she was bis ^^ 
let him use her afterwards as be pleased/' The kkig 
ordered some bishops aod judges to peruse the pro<>fs ^ 
ber marriage ; and they importing that it ha4 been, sol^mr- 
nized according to the doctrine of gospel and the IfMir 
of. England, he told his brother, that be must live 4vitk 
her whom he had made his wife^ and at the sali>e time 
generously preserved the honour of an excellent servant 
who bad not Deen privy to it ; assuring him, that ^^ this 
accident should not lessen the esteem and favour be had 
for hiiii.'* 

The first open attack upou lord Ciarendoi) was inade by 
^he earl of Bristol ; who, in 1663^ exhibited Against bi<n a 
charge of high treason to tl>e house of lords. Inhere had 
been a long course of friendship, both in pros^perity and 
adversity, between the chancellor and this earl : b^Qt they 
bad gradually fallen into different measures in religion and 
politics. In this state of things, the chancellor . r^fusiu^ 
what lord Bristol considered as a small favour (which was 
said to be the passing a patent in favour of a court lady), 
the latter took so much offence, that he resolved upon rcr 
venge. The substance of the whole accusation was as 
follows : *' That the chancellor, being in place of highest 
trust and confidence with his majesty, and having arrogated 
H supreme direction iu aU things, had, with a traitorous 



H ¥ D fr 399 

iotetit to draw contMipt vpon bis msjeAy^i perioo^ «»d lo 

aUetiiUe the affections of kis subjects^ ^i|^d che said 

iriist in manner following. U He bad endeavoufed ito 

alienate the hearts of his ma^sty*« subjects, by aftfuUir 

iBsiauatingto hU creatures and dependents, that bis oiajest|r 

was inclined to popery, and desigoed to alter the 6M*- 

%lished neligion^ 2. He had sai4 to seyeral persons of bis 

tmijesty's privy council, that kiis majtesty wits dan^rously 

corrapited in bis religion, and inclined h» fopety i tbttt 

jperaons oT that religion had such access aad sncb credit 

wHfa.brni, that, unless there were a careful eye Isad upoti, 

it^ die protestant . religion would be -overtbrowti in tfats 

kingdooi. 3» Upon his maje^ty^s admitting sir Henry 

fiWaet to be secretary 4>f 6ta«e in the ^place ^^ sir Edward 

t^icboltub he^aid, that his majesty ihad given tO^OOO/. to 

MfBove a iNiost zealous Prolestafi^t, tbathQimiight bring ioibo 

that ^laoe a concealed Papist. 4w ki pumuance t}f the 

saiue fciPfiierous 4esigni^ several friends aad dependents af 

his have said aloud, that ^ were it not for my lord chan<- 

oelta^r^s standing in tbe gap, Popery wOaitl be intrdduoed 

iAto-thigJuBgdom^' 5. That he bad |>ers(iaded the king, 

comvary >to bia OfHnion, to allow bis name to be used to the 

^pe^atid several "Cardinals, in ttve solicitation of acardtoai*s 

cap fer tbe lord Aubigny, great almoner to the queen : in 

order toe)ffect which, he had employed Mr. Ricfaard Beal^ 

ing, a Jcnown Papistf^ and had likewise applied himself tp 

several popish |)riests and Jesuits tto the ^ame purpose^ 

promising great favour to the Ps^istis bei^e, incase it 'shouU 

bie effected. 6. That he bad Ivkewise (promised to several 

Papists, tlnat he would do his endeavour, "amd said, * he 

hoped to compass taking away all petial laws against them;' 

to the end Ibey might .presujue and grow vain upon his 

f>ati*oivage ; and, by their pnbltsh^ing their hopes of toie- 

nation, increase the scandal designed by him to be raiseil 

against bis m^esty throughout tbe kingdom. 7. Thar^ 

beimg intrusted with the treaty between his majesty and bis 

x^oyal oonsort the queen, he concluded it upon articles 

fcandalousand 4angerous to the Protestant religion. More«- 

over, he brought the king and queen together without any 

settled agreement about the performance of the marriage 

rites ; w^reby, the queen refusing to be married by a 

l^rotestant priest, in case of her being with child, either 

th^ succession should be made uncertain for want of tbe 

due rites of matrimony, or olsehis majesty be exposed to 



^94 HYDE. 

E suspicion of having been married in his own dominions 
by a Romish priest. 8. That^ having endeavoured to 
alienate the hearts of the king's subjects upon the score of 
religion, he endeavoured to make use of all his scandals 
and jealousies, to raise to himself a popular applause of 
being the zealous upholder of the Protestant religion, &c. 
9, That he further endeavoured to alienate the hearts of 
the king's subjects, by venting in his own discourse, and 
those of his emissaries, opprobrious scandals against his 
majesty's person and course of life; such as are not fit to 
be mentioned, unless necessity shall require it. 10. That 
he endeavoured to alienate the affections of the duke of 
York from his majesty, by suggesting to him, that ^ his 
majesty intended to legitimate the duke of Monmouth.* 
11. That be had persuaded the king^ against the advice of 
the lord general, to withdraw the English garrisons out of 
Scotland, and demolish all the forts built there, at so vast 
a charge to this kingdom ; and all without expecting the 
advice of the parliament of England. 12. That he endea- 
voured to alienate his majesty's affections and esteem from 
the present parliament, by telling him, ^ that there never 
was elo weak and inconsiderable a house of lords, nor never 
so weak and heady a house of commons ;' and particularly 
that * it was better to sell Dunkirk than be at their mercy 
for want of money.' 1 3. That, contrary to a known law 
made last session, by which money was given and applied 
for maintaining Dunkirk, he advised and effected the sale 
of the same to the French king. 14. That he had, con- 
trary to law, enriched himself and his treasures by the sale 
of offices. 15. That he had converted to his own use vast 
sums of public money, raised in Ireland by way of subsidy, 
private and pubHc benevolences, and otherwise given and 
intended to defray the charge of the government in that 
kingdom. 16. That, having arrogated to himself a supreme 
direction of all his majesty's affairs, he had prevailed to 
h^ve his majesty's customs farmed at a lower rate than 
others offered ; and that by persons with some of whom 
he went a share, and other parts of money resulting 
from his majesty's revenue." 

A charge urged with so much anger and inconsistency as 
this was, it is easy to imagine, could not much affect him ; 
on the contrary we find, that the prosecution ended greatly 
to the honour of the chancellor ; notwithstanding which, 
his enemies advanced very considerably by it in their 



tt Y t> t. 3^* 

design^ 10 make him less in favour with his master, less 
respected in parliament, and less beloved by the people. 
The building of a magnificent house, which was begun in 
the following year, 1664, furnished fresh matter for ob- 
loquy. «« The king,'* says Burnet, " had granted him a 
large piece of ground, near St. James's palace, to build 
upon. He intended a good ordinary house ; but not un- 
derstanding these matters himself, he put the management 
of it into the hands of others, who run him to a vast ex-^ 
pence of above 50,000/. three times as much as he had 
designed to lay out upon it. During the war, and in this 
year of the plague, he had about 300 men at work, which 
he thought would have been an acceptable thing, when so 
many men were kept at work, and so much money as wa& 
daily paid circulated about; but it had a contrary effect ; 
it raised a great outcry against him. Some called it Dun- 
kirk-Chouse, intimating that it was built by his share of the 
price of Dunkirk : others called it Holland-hOuse, because 
he was believed to be no friend to the war ; so it was given 
out he had the money from the Dutch. It was visible that, 
in a time of public calamity, he was building a very noble 
palace. Another accident was, that before the war there ' 
were some designs on foot for the repairing of St. PatPs, 
and many stones were li^rought thither for the purpose. 
That project was laid aside ; upon which he bought the 
stones, and made use of them in building his own house. 
This, how slight soever it may seem to be, had a great 
effect by the management of his enemies." To this remark 
it may be added, that this stately pile was not finiished till 
1667 ; so that it stood a growing monument for the popular 
odium to feed upon, almost the whole interval between bis 
first.and his last impeachment ; ahd to aggravate and spread 
that odium, there was published a most virulent satirical 
song, entitled "Clarendon's House-warming," to irritate 
the minds of the populace. 

In August 1667, he was removed from his post of chan- 
cellor, and in November following was impeached by the 
liouse of commons of high treason, and other crimes and 
misdemeanors ; upon which, in thp beginning of December, 
he retired to France, and on the 19th, an act of banishment 
was passed against him. Echard observes, how often ** it 
has been admired, that the king should not only consent to 
discard, but soon after banish a friend, who had been aa 
honest and faithful to him as the best, and perhaps more 



396 HYDE. 

useful and semoeable than any be h^ ev^t employed:; 
which surely could never have been braqgbt to bear with* 
out innumerable enviers and enemies^'' But to conceite 
bow these were raised, we need oaly remember, that during 
the height of his grandeur^ which conttuued two years 
after the Restoiatiou without any rivalshij)^, as weU as the 
rest of his ministry, he manifested an inflexible steadiness 
to the constitution of the church of Ei^ianid, in e^iial 
opposition to the Papists on one side, and the Dissenters 
<on the otbej* ; so that none of these could ever be recon- 
ciled to him or his proceedings. Yet at fir«t be seaoied go 
ibrward to effect a coalition of all parties, that the cavali^v 
.and strict churchmen thought themselves much neglected; 
and many of them upon that account, though lanfuatly, 
.entertained insuperable prejudices against him, and jemed 
with the greatest of his enemies. But the cironmatafices 
which were supposed to weaken bis interest with, and at 
length make him diss^reeable to the kir^ wene rather «f 
Ji personal nature, and auch as coocemed the kii^g aad 
him only. It is allowed on all hands, that the chancellor 
! was not without the pride of conscious virtue ; so that his 
.personal behaviour was accompanied with a sort of ^mvity 
and haugbtinei^, -which struck « very ynplea^ng awe iiMO 
a court filled with licentious persons of both sexes. He 
' .often took the liberty to give reproofs to these persons of 
jnirth and gallantry ; and sometimes thought it bis d«ty lo 
advise the king himself in such a manner that they todk 
advantage of him, and as he passed in court, wouJd often 
say to bis majesty, <* There goes your schoolmaster.'' The 
chief of these was the duke of Buckingham, who iiad a 
surprising talent of ridicule and buffoonery ; and that he 
might make way for lord Clarendon's ruin, by bringing 
him first into contempt, he of^en acted and mimicked him 
. in the presence of the king, walking in e stately manner 
with a pair of bellows before him for the purse, and colonel 
Titus carrying a. fire-shovel on his shoulder for the mace; 
with which sort of farce and banter, the king, says Echardf 
was too much delighted and captivated. These, with soBie 
more serious of the Popish party, assisted by the solicita- 
.tions of the ladies of pleasure, made such impressions 
upon the king, that he ait last gave way, and became will- 
ing, and even pleased, to part both from his person and 
services. It was also believed, that the kiag had some 
private resentments against him, for cbteking of, those 



H Y D E. »>7 

wtio mmtm too forward in loading the erowh with preroga- 
tive and reinenue ; and particdarly we are told, that he 
had coonteracted the king m n grand design which he haid, 
to be divorced fronv the q«een, under pretence '^ that she' 
had been pre-engaged to another person, or that she was 
iftcapabte of bearmg (Sbildren.'" The person designed to 
SQppiy her j^ace was Mrs. Stuart, a beautiful young lady/ 
who waff lekited to the king, and bad some office under the 
q^een. The- chancellor, to prevent this, sent «for the duke 
of Richinond, who was of the same name ; and seeming 
to be sorry that a person- of bis worth and relation to bis 
majesty should reoeive no marks of his favouTi advised hini 
to asarry this tady, as the most Kkely means to advance 
Umself. The young nobleman, liking the person,; followed 
Us advicse, made immediate application to the lady, 
who was ignorant of the king's intentions^ and in a few 
day4^ married her. The king, thus disappointed, and 
sooD after informed how the match was brought about, 
banished the duke and his new duchess from court, reserv- 
ing his resentment against the chancellor to a more conve- 
usent opportnnity. Be this as it will, the private reasons 
that induced the king to abandon the chancellor were ex- 
pressed in a letter to the duke of Ormond, then in Ireland ; 
which the king wrote to that nobleman for his satisfaction^ 
knowing him to be the chancellor's friend. Echard ob- 
serves, that this letter was never pubfished, nor would a 
copy of it be granted ; but that be had been told the 
substance of it more than once by those who bad read it ; 
and the principal reason there given by the king was, 
*'The chanceUor's intolerable temper." 

Being now about to quit the kingdom in exile, before 
he departed he drew up an apology, in a petition to the 
bot^se of. lords, in' which he vindicated himself from any 
way contributing to the late miscarriages, in such a man- 
ner as laid the blame at the same time upon others. The 
lords receired it Dec. 3, and sent two of the judges to 
acquaint the commons with it, desiring a conference. The 
dtike of Buckinghatn, who was plninly aimed at in the pe- 
tition, delivered it to the commons ; and said, " The lords 
have commanded me to deliver to you this scandalous and 
seditious paper sent from the earl of Clarendon, They bid 
me present it to you, and desire you in a convenient time 
to send it to then again ; for it has a style which they are 
in love with, and therefore desire to keep it.'* Upon the 
riding of it in that house, it was voted to be " scandalouS| 



3M HYDE. * 

malicious, and a reproach to tbe justice of the nation ;^ 
and they moved the lords, that it might be burnt by the 
hands of the common hangman, which Was ordered and 
executed accordingly. The chancellor retired to Rouen 
in Normandy; and, the year following, his life was at- 
tempted at Evreux near that city by a body of seamen, in 
such an outrageous manner^ that he with great difficulty 
escaped. In tbe Bodleian library at Oxford^ there is an 
original letter from Mr. Oliver Long, dated from Evreux^ 
April 26, 1 668, to sir William Cromwell, secretary of state^ 
in which the following account is given of this . assault 
** As I was travelling from Rouen towards Orleans, it was 
my fortune, April 23, to overtake the earl of Clarendon, 
then in his unhappy and unmerited exile, who was going 
towards Bourbon, but took up his lodgings at ^ private 
' hotel in a small walled town called Evreux, some leagues 
from Rouen. I, as most English gentlemen did to so va* 
luable a patriot, went to pay him a visit near supper-time ; 
when he was, as usual, very civil to me. Before supper 
was done, twenty or thirty English seamen and more came 
and demanded entrance at the great gate ; which, being 
strongly barred, kept them out for some time. But la a 
short space they broke it, and presently drove all they 
found, by their advantage of numbers, into the earPs cham- 
ber ; whence, by tbe assistance of only three swords and 
pistols, we kept them out for half an hour, in which dis- 
pute many of us were wounded by their swords and pistols, 
whereof they "had many. To conclude, they broke the 
windows and the doors, and under the conduct of one 
Howard, an Irishman, who has three brothers, as I am told, 
in the king of England's service, and an ensign in the 
company of caononeers, they quick \y found the earl in his 
bed, not able to stand by the violence of the gout ; whence, 
after they had given him many blows with their swords 
and staves, mixed with horrible curses and oaths,' thev 
dragged him on the ground in the middle of the yard, 
where they encompassed him around with their swords, 
and after they bad told him in their own language, how 
he had sold the kingc}om, and robbed them of their pay, 
Howard commanded them all, as one man, to run their 
swords through his body. But what difference arose among 
themselves before they could agree, God aboveywho alone 
sent this spirit of dissention, oilly knows. In this interval 
their lieutenant, one Swaine, came and disarme^d them* 



! . 



Sixteen of the ringleaders were put into prison ; and maay 
of those things, they had. rifled from him, found again, 
which were restored, and of great value. : Mons. la Fonde, 
a great man belonging to the. king of Francois bedtchani'- 
beci sent to conduct the earl on his way thither, was so: 
desperately, wounded in the head, that there were little^ 
hopes of his life. Many of these assassins were grievously, 
wounded ; and this aotion is so much resented by all here, 
that many of these criminals will flieet. with an usage equal 
to. their merit. Had we been sufficiently provided witfai 
fircH-arms, we had infallibly done ourselves justice on them y 
however, we fear not but the law will supply, our defect.'* 
> Being greatly afflicted with the gout, and not finding 
himself secure in that part of .!^ranoe, he went ia the sum* 
mer to Montpelier, where, recovering his health in a con-^. 
siderable measure, he continued three or four years, In 
1672 he resided at Moulins, and removing thence to Rouen, 
diied Dec. 9, 1673, in that city; from whence his body. 
was brought to England, and interred on. the north side of 
Henry Vllth's chapel in Westminster-abbey. He w^. 
twice married; first to Anne, daughter of sir Gregory 
Ayloffe, of Robson, in Wiltshire^ knt. and this lady dying 
without issue, to Frances, daughter, and iit length beif ess, 
to sir Thomas Aylesbury, bart. in 1634 ; by whom he had. 
four sons and two daughters. Anne his eldest daughter 
was married, as we have already observed, to the duke of 
York, by which match she became mother to two daugh- 
ters, Mary and Anne, who were successively queetis of 
England. Besides these, she brought the duke four sons 
and three daughters, who all died in their infancy. The. 
last was born Feb. 9,1670-1, and her mother died. on. 
March 31 following; having a little before her death 
vcbanged her religion, to the great grief of her father, who 
on that occasion wrote a most pathetic letter to her, and 
another to the duke.faer consort. 

Besides the ^^ History of the Rebellion'' already men-, 
tioned, the chancellor wrote other pieces, theological as 
well as political. In 1672, while he resided at Moulins, he 
wrote his ^^ Animadversions upon Mr. Cressy's book en- 
titled ' Fanaticism fanatically imputed to' the Catholic 
Church by Dr. Stilliugfleet, and the imputation refuted 
and retorted by J. C' " He is supposed to have been led 
to this work from the knowledge he had of Ctpssy^ by 
means of an^ acquaintance comfnenced at Oxfprd, wherei 



40Ot B' Is JJL xLm 

tli«i:g6ntkttiMi' wts kk contewponurjr; aold' a iu>tmf 0t 
a similar nature isight piohdbly iod«c9 him tft draw: up hit 
M Surrey of Mr. HdbbesH Leviathan,^* wfaiok faedodicataA 
tb« year M loving to Ctiarles II. from tbfO iame placs. H« 
wrole also soma things of a smaller kind, which have beeis 
coHiected and published with his '< Misoellaaeous Trae|s/^ 
And lastly, in 1759, was published << An Aecount of bia 
own Life from his birth lo the restoration in 1660 p and m 
Contiotialien of the same^ and of his Hbtory of the GraMt 
Rtbeltion, from, the restovatson to his banishment tn LddT;^* 
written by himself; and printed in one Tolume, f^ia, vaJI 
three in Svo^ frocn his original MS., giiren to tkeunrvefsity 
of Oxford by bis heirs : and his- << Slate* Papers'^ were pub^ 
lisbedin d vols, fol, the first in 1167> the second in 1773,' 
and the third in I7S6. 

It is as a historian that knrd Clarendon wfU be longest 
remembefed, and if compared with those whopreieeded^ 
or were contemporaries with him, his superiority must in 
efery respect be acknowledged. He knevik more and baa 
told tnore of the histories of nis times than aiiy other iMin^ 
and that with an impartiality which gi^es: tss an ecjnUty 
fiiaeuyable opinion of his hcM as of hisi heart. It may,b# 
ef«ry where seen that be cannot disguise the trntb evenf 
when it makes against the cause be supports ; and where^ 
there is any appearance of partiality, it may easily ba 
traced to a warmth of loyalty and friendship, for wbick 
every honourable man will find an apelogy in his own' 
breast. The republicans of hie time had much to allega 
against him, and those of more modern times wilt never 
fonrgive a loyalty which they eatinot comprehend, a steadi- 
ness of principle which ill accords with their versatilo 
schemes of innovation, and a species of patriotism whldU 
wonid pr^erve the balance between liberty and licentio«s«> 
ness.v ** Liiie justice itself/^ says lord Orlxird, in a cfaa<^ 
racter of our author, by no means very favourable, *^ b# 
held the balance between the necessary power of the su- 
preme magistrate and the interests of the people. Thiji 
never-dying obligation his contemporaries were taught tcf 
overlook and to clamour against, till they removed the only 
man, who, if he could, would have corrected his master^s 
evil government." Such was Ciarendon^s majrit in ther 
corrupt court of ChaHes II. when, ^ if he had sougb^j 
fiotbiog but power, his power liad never ceased/' Tha 
jSsct was^ that Clarendon, iu his History^ not then p^ln 



H Y D fi. 401 

lUbedt bnt certainly written, had traced tbe misfortunes ^of 
the preceding reign to their true source, and was the oql/ 
pan at court who wished to profit by his experience* As 
to his style, as a historian, it has chiefly been objected that 
his periods are long ; hut it seems scarcely worth while ti| 
jsnlarge on the /style of a writer wholive^ at a time wheii 
style was so Ut^Ie cultivated, so imperfectly known, .His 
excellencies are his comprehensive, knowledge pf mankind^ 
which enabled him to draw those exact portcaits pf tbo 
Reading characters of his time, which have scarcely been 
equalled, and probably can never be excelled. No man 
brings us nearer to the personages with whom we wish t<} 
\)e familiar. He is, says Granger, in this particular as 
ynrivalled ampng the moderns as Tacitus among the an<v 
cients. He.paints himself in drawing the portraitsof pthers; 
and we every where see the clear o^nd exact compr^hen-^ 
sion, t^e uncommon learning,. the. dignity and equity. of 
the lord chancellor, in his cjiaracter as a writer.^ 

HYDE (Henry), earl of Clarendon^ eldest son of the 
chancellor, was born in 1638. Having received the rudi* 
snents of education, he early entered Uito business ; for hia 
father, apprehending of wba): fatal consequence it would 
be to the king^s airairs, if bis correspondence should bei 
discovered by unfaithful secretaries, engaged him, wheii 
very young, to write all his letters in cypher ; so that he 
generally passed half the day in writing in cypher, or de^ 
cypheringt and was so discreet, as well as jaithful, that 
nothing was ever discovered by him. After the restora* 
tion, he. was created miister of arts, at Oxford, in 1660*^ 
and} upon settling the queen's household, appointed cham- 
berlain to her majesty. He was much in the queen's fa<* 
Tour; apd, his father being so violently prosecuted on ac* 
count of her marriage, she thought herself bound to pr^^ 
^ct him m a particular manner. He so highly resented 
the usage his father met with, that he united himself eagerl;^ 
to the party which opposed the court, and made no inconi* 
•iderable figure in the list of speakers. Mr. Grey has pre^ 
aerved a great number of his speeches. On his fatherV 
death in 16 7 4^ he took his seat in the House of Lords; s^ 

• • • 

* 1 life by btnuelf.— Biog. Brit.-«Fftrb't edition of the Royal and NobTa Au« 
ttMin.*^B|inietit Own Timet.— >Btinrkk>t Ul9»T^l>r. Jobnaon^s Werkii.— Atb. 
Ox. Tot II.^W»rburtoii>s Uttert.-M3eat. Mag. tdI. LX, LXIU, UQCXl, 4c. 
Ac. For an accouot and refaMlion of OldmixooL't iofan&ous attack oo.Jord 
Ctaiettdon't hietory, tee Buften*i ''GeHiiieeiMtt 9f that histery^" kn^imk^^, 

Vot. XYlll. Dp 



401 it t D t. 

continued his opporitioDi and eren signed a protest againsC 
an address toted td the king on his speech^ He sdll, how- 
ever, held his post of chamberlain to the queen ; and af« 
terwardsy shewing himself no less zealous against the bill 
of exclusion, was taken into favour, and made « privy-* 
counsellor, 1680. But he soon fell under the displeasure 
of the prevailing party in the House of Commons ; who^ 
unable to darry the exclusion bill, shewed, their resentment 
against the principal oppOsers of it, by Vbttng an addresa 
to the king, to remove from his presence and councils, the 
tnarquis of Worcester, and the earls of Halifalt, Feversham; 
and Clarendon. 

On the accession of James II. he was first liiadelord 
privy-seal, and then lord-lieutenant of Ireland : but being 
too firmly attached to the protestant religion for thosd 
times, he was recalled from his goverriinent to make room 
' for lord Tyrconnel; and soon after removed from the 
privy-seal, that lord Arundel, of Wardour, another papist; 
inight succeed him. About this time he was made high- 
Steward of the university of Oxford. After the landing of 
die prince of Orange, be was one of the protestant lords, 
summoned by the kin?, when it was too late, to repair the 
ill Consequences of his popish councils, and had spirit 
enough to take the lead, and to speak his mind ffankly and 
openly in that memorable assembly. Yet though he had 
no great a regard to the constitution as to oppose kin{p 
James's encroachments, he would not transfer his alle- 
giance to the new establishment, nor take the oatlis tor 
king William : on which account he was, with some others^ 
suspected of designs against the government; add, when 
the king was in England, and the French fleet appealed on 
the English coast, the regency thought proper to secure 
him in" the Tower. After some months he was released* 
and spent the femainder of his days privately at Ins own- 
house jii thcf country ; where he died Oct. 22, 1709^ %e<i 
sevent^-pheu. 

Hi9 3tate Letters, during bis government of Ireland, 
and h)j ijj^ary Tor the years 1687, 1688, 1689, and 1690; 
were published in: 2 vols. 4t09 1763, from the Clarendon 
press in Oxford. **This diary,!* says the editor^ " pre- 
sents us .with a picture of the manners of the age in wbidr 
the writer lived. We may learn from it, that at the close 
of the^eventeenth century, a lAan of the first quality made 
it bis constant practice to go to churcb, and c^uld spend 



i 



HYDE. MS 

* 

the dty m society with his family and frieiids, without 
fbaking his arm at a gaming-table, associating with jockiea 
at Newmarket, or murdering time by a constant round of 
giddy dissipation, if not of criminal indulgence.** Besides 
the above, lord Clarendon drew op '' Some account of the 
tombs and monuments in the cathedral church of Winches- 
teri Feb. 1683,*' which was continued and printed with 
Gale's history of that church ; and there are .three tracts 
nattriboted to him, printed in dutch's << Collectanea." ^ 

HYDE (Henry), Lord Hyde and Cornbury, eldest 
son to Henry earl of Clarendon and Rochester, was the 
author of a few pamphlets published without his name : of 
tome tragedies still in manuscript, and of a comedy called 
V The Mistakes ; or. The Happy Resentment," printed ia 
\7SS at Strawberry Hill, with a preface by lord Orfordi» 
This was a juvenile performance, of no great merit, never 
acted, and printed for the benefit of an actress. His lord* 
ship was killed by a fall froth bis horse, in France, May 
S, 1763. Pope has neatly complimented the virtuous taste 
of lord Cornbury, by making it a criterion of merit to 
** disdain whatever Cornbury disdained.'' " He was," saya 
lord Orford, *^ upright, calm, i^teady ; his virtues were of 
the gentlest complexion, yet of the firmest texture ; vice 
could not bend him, nor party warp him ; even his owa 
talents could not mislead him. Though a master of e1b« 
quence, he preferred justice and the love of his country 
to all the applause which the violence of the times in which 
he lived was so prodigal of bestowing on orators who dis- 
tinguish themselves in any faction ; but the tinsel of po« 
pularity and the intrinsic of corruption were equally his 
contempt He spoke, nor wrote, nor acted, for fame." 
He wrote the paper dated Feb. 12,' 1737, in the periodical 
paper entitled *^ Common Sense," and *' A Letter to the 
Tiee-chancelldr of Oxfoird." 1751. His lordship had re- 
presented the university in parliament, and in this letter 
announces his resignation, in consequence of being called 
vp to hts father's barony in the house of peers. This vva^ 
followed by a ** Letter to his Lordship," from seireral 
members of the university, acknowledging his merits. He 
was succeeded by sir Roger Newdigate. But of all' his 
compositions, that which did his lordshipl^mdst'tfre^it, was 
his *< Letter to David Mallet, on the intended jiiiblicatiuii 

t ConiM'i P«tras«^Park'f Royal and Noble itttj^^rii^io^^BritJ 

DP 2 






404 HYDE. 

« * 

of lord Bolingbroke> Manuscripts/* which was printed in 
Dr. Hawkesworth's edition of Swift^s works ; and it is a 
monument, says that editor, that, will do more bononr to 
"the writer's memory than all that mere wit or valour has 
achieved since the word began. Mallet, it is well known, 
-did not profit as he ought to have done by this advice. 
Pope's allusioQ of ^' disdain/' &c. is said, by Ruffbead, to 
have arisen from the following circumstance: when lord 
iCorobury returned from his travels, the earl of Essex, his 
brother-in-law, told him he had got, a haiid^me pension 
Jor him ; to which lord Cornbury answered with a com-^ 
posed dignity, ** How could you tell, my lord, that I was 
to be sold ; or, at least, how came you to know ftiy price 
so exactly ?"* ' 

HYDE (Dn Thomas), a very learned writer, was sofi 
of Mr. Ralph Hyde, minister of Billingsley near Bridge-^ 
north in Shropshire, and born there June 29, 1636. Having * 
a strong inclination for the Oriental languages from bis 
youth, he studied them first under his father ; and after- 
wards, in 1652, being admitted of King's college, Cam- 
bridge, he became acquainted with Mr. Abraham Whee- 
lock, art admirable linguist, who encouraged him to pro- 
secute his study of them in that place. By him, Hyde, 
when he had been at Cambridge little more than a year, 
was sent to London, and recommended to Walton, after- 
wards bishop of Chester, as a person very capable of asi 
sisting him in the Polyglott Bible, in which work he was 
then engaged. Hyde rendered him great services; for, 
besides his attendance in the correction of it, he transcribed 
the Pentateuch out of the Hebrew characters, in which it 
was first printed at Constantinople, into the.proper Persian 
character^; which by archbishop Usher was then judged 
impossible to have been done by a native Persian, because 
one Hebrew letter frequently answered to several Persian 
letters, which were difficult to be known. He translated 
it likewise into Latin. What he did farther in the Poly- 
glott, is specified by the editor in these words : ^^ Nee 
prxtereundiis est D. Thomas Hyde, summs spei juvenisji 
qui in linguis Orientalibus supra setatem magnos progressut 
fecit, quorum specimina dedit turn in Arabibus, Syriacia^ 
« t^ersicis, &c. corrigendis, tum in Pentateucho Persico 

* Park's R«y«l and Kuble Anibors.— Biog. Drsm.— Bovlev's editiMi of Pope's 
Woriu.— Colt's Heiaoiri of Walpole. 



ft Y D E. 40* 

enaracteribus Persicis describendo, quia afiteisi $o1ii HH 
braicis extitit, ejasque versionem Latinam condnnando/' • 

In 1658 he went to Oxford^ and was admitted of Queen*f 
cdlegey where be was soon after made Hebrew reader; 
The year after, Richard Cromwell, then chaneellor of thai 
university, directed his letters to the delegates, 8igniiying,> 
that *^ Mr. Hyde was of full standing, since hia admissioa 
into the university of Cambridge, for the degree of master 
of arts, and that he bad given public testimony of his mor« 
than ordinary abilities and learning in the Oriet^tal laiu 
guages i** on which they made an order that he should 
accumulate that degree by reading only a lecture in on^ 
of the Oriental languages in the schools ; and having ac«^ 
cordingly read upon the Persian tongue, he was created 
M. A. in April 1659. Soon after he was made under-^ 
Jceeper of the Bddleian library, upoh the ejection of Mr. 
Henry Stubbe; and behaved himself so well in this em« 
ployment, that, when the office .of head-keeper became 
vacant, he was elected into it with the unanimous approba- 
tion of the university. In 1665 be published a Latin trans^ 
lation from the Persian of Ulugh Beig's ^^ Observations 
concerning the Longitude and Latitude of the fixed Stars,*' 
with notes. - This Ulugh Beig was a great Tartar monarch, 
the son of Sh&hrokh, and the grandson of Timur Beig, or^ 
as he is usually called, Tamerlane. In the preface be iuK 
forms * us,' '^ that the great occupations of government hiii^ 
dered him from performing in person, sp much as he would 
have done towards the completing this useful work : but 
that be relied chiefly on bis minister i^alalieddin, and that 
he dying before the work was finished,: his colleague Gaia^ 
tbeddin Giamshed and his son Ali al Coushi were afterwards 
employed, who put the last hand to it." It was wiitten 
originally in the Arabic tongue, but afterwards translated 
twice into the Persian. 

About this time Hyde became known to Mr. Boyle, to 
v^hom he was very usefuf in communicating from Oriental 
writers several particulars relating to chemistry, physic, 
and natural history. In Oct. 1666, he was collated to a 
prebend in the church of Salisbury.: In 1674, be pub« 
lished **A Catalogue of the books in the Bodleian library.^' 
In 1678, he was made archdeacon of Gloucester; and, in 
i6S3, took the degree of doctor in divinity. Deo. 1651, 
he was elected Arabic professor, on the death 6f Dr.' £d- 
irard Pocock } aod the same year published the ^< Itinem 



4M B r J} IX 

Miliidt** ^f Abr^am PeritaoI^.tbe son of Mordecai Peritsol, 
a very leairned Jew. This was done to supply in some 
neasure the Arabic geography of Abulfeda, which, at the 
request of Dr. felt, he had undertaken to publish with a 
Latin transUiioti : but the death of his patron putting an 
end to that work, be sent this smaller performance abroad, 
and dedicated it to the earl of Nottingham, then secretary 
of state, in hopes that it might excite a stronger curiosity 
amongst the learned to search into this branch of literature. 
Dr. AUhatn, regius-professor of Hebrew, and canon of 
Christ-church, being, on some dispute about the oath^ 
l!emoved from both preferments, Hyde became possessed 
of both, as they are always annexed, in July 1697. 
< Three yeara after he had ready for the press, as Wood 
tellk us, an excellent work, on a subject very little known 
even to the learned themselves, ^^The Religion of the 
Ancient Persians," a work of profound and various erudi* 
tion, abounding with many new lights ou the most curious 
and interesting subjects, filled with authentic testimonies, 
which none but himself could bring to public view, and 
with many ingenious conjectures concerning the theology^ 
history, and learning of the Eastern nations. This work, 
which was printed at Oxford in 1700, in 4to, containing 
$S0 pages, and is now become exceedingly scarce, and 
sells at a very high price, was entitled " Historia Reli* 
gionis Vetenim Persarum, eorumque Magorum.'* It was 
dedicated to lord Somers. Foreign writers, as well as those 
of our own country, have spoken of it with high admiration 
and applause; and, if Hyde had. left us no other. monii?» 
ment of his studies, this alone had been sufficient to esta<« 
blish and preserve his reputation, as long as any taste for 
Oriental learning shall remain. 

In April 1701 he resigned the office of principal keeper 
of the Bodleian library, on account of his age and infirmi^ 
ties; and died Feb. 18, 1703, at his lodgings in Christo 
church, in his 67tii year. He bad occupied the post of in- 
terpreter and secretary in the Oriental languages, during 
the reigns of Charles II. James II. and William IIL and, it 
is said, had, in the course of ihisi employment, made him- 
telf accurately acquainted with whatever regarded the 
policy, ceremonies, and customs of the Oriental nations. 
He was succeeded in his archdeaconry of Gloucester by 
Mr. Robert Parsons; and, what was singular enough, in 
the chair of Hebrew professor and in his canonry of Cbrist- 
chorch by his predecessor Dir. Altbam. 



r D IL «9T 

fieqitles^ th€ v^orks alireatdy meDtiobed, be publishefcl 
*^ QuaMOf Evangelia & Acta Apostolorutn Linguil M alaicd^ 
^hacac4;eribua EuropfiBis,*' Oxford, 1677, 4to. His << Epis« 
IqIa de mensurb & ponderibus Serum sive Sinensium,*' &c« 
WA9 printed al^ the eod of Dr. Edward Bernard's book, en-^ 
titled ^^I>e laensuris & ponderibus anttquis Libri tres/' 
Oxford, 16S8, 8to. In 1690 be published at Oxford in 
4to^ I'^AoAotatiuocute in Tractatuin Aiberti Bobovii Tur-> 
<^aruin Imp. Mohamoiedis I-V. oUm interpretis primarily de 
^Turcarum Liturgid, peregrinauone Meccani, Circumci- 
aionei sgrotoniin visijUtione, &c. Subjungptur Castigatio 
ia Afigelum a Sancto Josepho, Carmelitarum discaLceato-> 
mm in Perside prsfectum olim generalem.*' In 1694 he 
published at Oxford in dvo» *^ De Ludis Orientalibus Libri 
doo,*' &c* The first book is divided into two parts : the 
first' of which parts eontains ^^ Mandragorias, seu Historia 
-ShaUludiiy" &c, in Latin ; and the second part *^ Hist. 
:£babiiudii/* &c. in Hebrew and Latin. This <^ Historia 
>$hahiludii" bad been publislied by iteelf at Oxford, 1689, 
in 8vo» The second book contains *^ Historia Nerdiludii, 
.boo est dieere,^ Trunculorum," &c. He wfote likewise 
,^' In Historian Plaotarum Oxoniensium Annotationes No-* 
^ioinn sbigulariiBi Piantarum LingulL Arabi<;& & Persic& & 
Turcioi,'' pttblished by Jacob Bobart in his *^ Historia 
.PlanUrum," at Oxford, 16.99, in 4to. 

The vast extent of his learning and industry will yet ap« 

rpear m(H« extnuMrdinary by a list of the works which, ac- 

c<Mrding to Wood, he had. planned, and partly prepared for 

4be press. These ave, L ^* Grammatica pro Lingua Per- 

-aica,'' 4IO. 2. '^ Lexicon Peraico^Latinum,*' in a thick 

AtKK .3. >^ Lexicon Turcico-Latioum,'* in a thick 4to. 

4, *' Nomenclator Mc^olo-Tartanciim, cum Grammatic& 

'C^oadem LingusB.** 5* <' Dissertatio de TartariSl. Item 

Historia Cfaartiludii; & Dissertatio de Numerorum Notis, 

eaeondemque origine & combinandi ratione, doctrin& oovd,'* 

ftro«: 6. *^ Cnriosa - Cbinensia & Selanensia,'* 8vo. 7. 

^ Historia Gemmarum Aiabicd & Latine, cum Notis,*' 8vo. 

9. *' Historia Tamerlanis Arabic^ & Latine cum Notis,'' 

• 4lo. ». << Liber Bust&n PersicS & Latind oum Notis ; Li* 
ber elegantissimus, autove Sc^pia Sbadi," 4'ta 10. <^ Di- 
Tini Poetsa .H&pbix Opus< Persiei & Latii)^ com Notis,'^ 

* 4t0* 1 1« ^^ AbalfedsB Geograpbia Arabice & Latin^ cum 
Motis/' 4ito. 12. ^* Liber B&barkt&n eloquentissimo styla 
twnrriptiisy neri ioge;iii specimiua continens, Libmsa 



4«^ HYDE. 

Qolist&n sqaanSi si non soperans, Penici Ac La^i, cniiii'- 
Kotis/* 4to. 13.** Maimonidis Liber More Nevoelnm tran^ 
tcriptus ex cbaracteribus Hebraicis quibus a Maim^AMkf 
^criptum est, in proprios Arabicos, cum navft Versione^ft " 
Nolisy Arabioe & Latiue,'* in a tbick 4to. 14. << Htaioria 
Regum. Persi^e eic ipsorum mooamentia & autoribus ex« '- 
tracUy'* 4to. 15. '< Annofcationes in difficiliora loaa Bib^^ 
lica ex Literaturi Orientali," in a thick 4to. 16. ** Peri* 
plasMariumMediterranei & Archipelagic Tarcice & Lattn^ 
cum circulo ventorum in variis Linguis, Arabic^, Pi»niefty 
Cbinensi/' &c. 8vo. 17. ** Zoroastria Peno-^Medi Opera 
omnia Matbemattco-inedico^physico*Theologicay Peniei tt 
Latin^/* foliq. 18. ** Liber £rdavirapb*name, Persici fc 
Latiney* 4ta 19. ** Lexicon Hebraicum emendalum 0X 
MSS. Lexicis Rabbi Pincbon, R. Jonds, k R. Jesattt, itque * 
ex collatione cum Linguis Arabic^ & Persic^ & aliis Lin-* 
guis Orientalibus/' 4to. 2a *^ Cosium Orientale AriiWeo* 
Persicum^ atq; Occidentale OraBCO-Latihum, una cum 8a« > 
phii Figurationibus Stellarum duplici situ, prbut ia Ceelo, 
& prout in Globo apparem; cum earum nominibus seeun* 
dum harum gentium doctripam,'* 4to. 21* '^ Commenta* 
rius in Pentateuchum Arabic^, auctor MansCkr Syro«Arabe 
ex Scriptur& Gersbumi in Arabicam transcriptus & Latmi*^ 
tate 4onatU8,V 4to. 22. *' Urbium ArmenisB Nomencla- 
tursR ex eorum Geographia excerpta,'* &c. 23. *^ Varta 
Chiaensia, scil. eorum Idoioiatria^ Opiniones de Dea & 
de Paradiso atque de GebennSt, & de Ciradibus & nofodii 
8upplicii;.de eorufii Literature & Libffis & Chartft, & de 
iipprimendi .modo atque antiquitate, &c. omnia excerpta ex 
ore .& scriptis natiyi Cbinensis Shin Fo>*>burg/* 8iro. 24, 
*< Varia Selanen;iia; ubi insulee Selan (vulgo Batavts Ceylon) 
Historica qusdam & vocabularium genuims eorum charac^ 
teribus exaratum cum eorum Alphabeto & aliis rebus/' 8va 
2.5. ** Batamense Alpbabetum k Legato scriptum cum 
Literarum potestate & numerorum notb,'* 8vo. 26. ^' No** 
tsB Arithmetics variarum Gentium, ubi talium Notamm 
origo & combinaodi ratio docetur,*^ 8vo. 27. ^^ IMalogi 
Arabic9-Per$icd-Turctci| Latioi vecsi,*' 8?o« 2B. '* Liber 
de Turcarum opinioQibus in rebus religiosis, Turcie^ h 
LatinV' Bvo^ 29. <^ Utiliat taensalia, sciL quid in Con* 
Tersauoive Convivali decorum eat, Arabici^. & Latini/' 8vo; 
30. ** Bivpliie Lexicon Armeoiacuoa cum Litiguis Orieotat^ 
bfas (sQit Arabici^ Per$icft,'& Turcicft) colUtum k in mar^ 
g^ine nptatMio/* 4to. 31. <^ Evaf^eUwa Lucis ^ 'AoM 



H Y D s: *^ 

A|H»lolOHiviLtngbil JcCbarac^reMhiltteo,** 4to; He also/ 
tmisiated itiM EngHsh the letters of several Eastern kingtf 
and priiioes sent to king Charles II| king James IT, and 
kifig William III. ^ 

Dr.Gregoiy Sharpe, master of the Temple, collected 

an4^ republished some of Dr. Hyde^s pieces that 9^re for^^ 

tnerly published, under the title of'*< Syntagma Disserta* 

tiommi et Opuscula/* 1767, 2 vols. 4t61 Tbiil is accbm*^ 

pauied by a life and v^y just praises of the atttfaor^ as one 

of the greatest Otientalrsts that any country has prdduced.^^ 

-HYGINUS (Caius Julius), was an ancient Latin vt^iter, 

wbo flourished in the time of Augustus. Suetonius, in his 

book *' De ilbistrf bus Grammaticis,'* says that he was a 

fi^eedman of Augustus, and by nation a Spaniard'; thoughr 

some think that he was an Alexandrian, aind brought b/ 

Ciesar ix> Rome when Alexandria was taken. He was a 

diligent follower and imitator of Cornelius Alexander, a 

celebrated Greek grammarian; and was also himself a^ 

teacher at Rome. He was made keeper of the Palatine 

library ; was very intimate w^h the poet Ovid, and with' 

Catus Licinius, a i»an of consular dignity and an historian,, 

who lias taken ocieadon to inform us, that he diied very 

pooTy and, while he livedo was supported chiefly by bis 

generosity ; but Vossius thinks that the person here named 

the consular historian Caius Licinius, should be Cains Asi- 

uixis, who wrote a history of the civit war, and was consul* 

with OneiosDomitiUs CalvinUs, U; C. 723.- 

Hyginus wrote many books^ which are mentioned by 
ancient writers. Gelltus quotes a work ** of the Liv<;s and 
Actions of illustrious Men.'^ Serviiis, in his ^* Commen-- 
tary upon the JEneid,*^ t^lld us, that he wrote upon '* the 
Origin and Situation bf the Italian Cities :** which same 
Work< is also nientioned by Macrobius. ^ Geilius again men^ 
tions'his *^ Commentaries upon Virgil ;** as does Macrobius 
a. book* ^* Concerning the Gods.** He wrote also ^* about 
Bees and Agriculture ;*' and lastly^ a book of ** Genealo- 
gies,':*, of which he himself has made mention in the only 
Viidoabted work of his remaining, tbkt' is, in his << Po6ti« 
coo Astronomicoti^' de mundi &sphflene ac utriusque par- 
tium deplaratione, librisquatuor, ad M. Fabiuih conscrip- 
loiD<!v' The first book treats of the #orld'ahd W' the doc^t 
tcilift of the- Inhere ; the (NKSond of the signs in the zodiac } 



4ia H Y G I N U *. 

the tbifd gimM % dficriptioD rad history of tJM. t^tktHtXhik 
tiops ; aad the fourth treats of several things relatiag lie t^ 
planets. Here, while Hyglnus describes the cgnsielUtiooii 
in the heavens, and notes the stars which belpog to eapin 
Retakes ^occasion, to eacplain the fablea of the peets fioni 
^bicb the ^onstelUtioos were, supposed originaHy to have 
taJ^^ tb^ir rise and name ; and boAce bis woA aeema lo 
hav.e bf^QQ called ^^ Po^ticpii Astropomiem*^* It has qosm 
down to ^ however^ veiy imperfect ; and all that part 4>f 
kf whictv as be tells ms» treated of the month* the yev^ 
and the reasons of intercalating the ai^onibs, i$. entisiely 
if)9t.. To this 14 joined a jbook of fables, in which ibis 
l^eath^u. mythology is reduced injtp a wmpeodi^ni : but 
^ius is imperfect, aad suspected to be spuripus. There am 
iinany editions of these boohs, but Uie best is ihaA wfai^ 
|I|liinher publisbe4» JM3getber with some other pieces ef an> 
iiquity upoa the same or a similar suli^t, under the* title 
^ << Mytbographi Latini^'' Amsft. 1681, 9 vols, ^v^o* The 
third book of the AstioBe«iics» is illustrated with "sevwdl 
tpopper-plates pf the constellations cflegaotly ^ngravedy 
which Grotiiif bad published from the 8Qsian M& but 
which, Schetiter tells us, be had emitted in bi$ ediupm of 
1 67 4, because be knew those .ancient delineations to^ be 
Yery ernoneous, .and very ill done. ^ 
' HYPATIA9 a most beautifal« virtuous, and Warned lady 
ef antiquity, was the dai:^b|teir of Theoe, who governed 
the Platonic school ^t Alexandria, 4he place of her birth 
^^d education, in the latter part of the fourth eentory. 
Theoii w^s fapnans among his contemporaries for bis extea« 
five knowledge a^d learning; but what baa ebiefty ren- 
dered him so with posterity, as, that he wa9 the fia^r of 
Bypatia^ whom, encouraged by her prodigious genius, he 
educated not only in all the qualificatiwi belonging taher 
fex, but likewise in the most ah^tr^uae. Alienees. s£u» made 
§n amaeing progress 19 every branch of learning, and the 
things that are said of her almpst sui2>a9s belief. Socratn^ 
the ecjcle^astiical historian^ a wdtne^s whose veracity caiuio^t 
be doubtedji at least when he speaks in favour of an hea«>. 
then philosopher, Mis us, that Hypiaitia ^^ arrived at smk 
a pitch of fle^iroi^g^ . as very far to eme^d all the. philoaft* 
pbers of her tune;" tp. which Nicepborus adds,. ^< those of 
oth.er tin^" Philo^^gins, a third historian of the 

t JAoMrl— Yof a)ut But. Ut.-*Sutt OnQQMaUeoa^ 



H y ? A T I A» 4U 

jitimpf affirms^' that <' she was much ^upedor to htt father 
and master Tbeon, in what regards astronomy V' ai»d SdW 
das, who mentions two books pf her writing, oae *^ on tba 
Astronomical Canon of Diopbantus, and another on. the 
Conies of ApoUonius,*' avers, that ** she not oiply ^w^pAe^ 
her father in astronomy, but also that she ^n4lrs|094 all 
the other parts of philosophy.*' It is some confkmati^a ef 
these assertions that she succeeded her father in the .go^ 
▼ernment of the Alexandrian school: filling that cbAii^ 
where Ammonius, Hierocles, and many great and t^ekt^ 
brated philosophers had taught ; and this, at a time, when 
men of immense learning abounded both at Aleuodriat 
and in many other parts of the Roman empire. Her fame 
was so extensive, and her worth so univer^^ally acknpw>* 
leijged, that we cannot wonder, if she had a t^rowded aas^ 
ditory. ^^ She explained to her Jiearers," says Socraiesy 
'< the several sciences, that go under the general name of 
philosophy ; for which reason there was a confluence to h^# 
from all parts, of those who made philosophy their detighl 
and study.'/' 

Her scholars were as eminent as they were ivumerons : 
one of whom was the celebrated Synesiusj who wa3. after- 
wards bishop of Ptolemais. This anqient Christian Pl^ 
tonist every where bears the strongest, as wtell as the jno«t 
grateful testimony to the learning and yirt^ue of his instruct 
tress ; and never mentions her without the profpundest rei* 
spect, and sometimes in terms of affection coming littld 
abort of adoration. In a letter to bis brother Euoptius^ 
'^ Salute," says he, ^^ the most honpured and the most be^* 
loved of God, the Philosopher ; and that happy society^ 
which enjoys the blessing " ^f her divine voice;" In ana* 
ther, he mentions one £gyptus, who ^< sucfeed in the seeds 
of wisdom from Hypatia." ^n another, he ex;pre$ses him^ 
self thus : '^ I suppose these letters will he delivered bjr 
Peter, which he will receive from that sacred h$nd." In a 
letter addressed to herself, he desires her to direct a hy^^ 
droscope to.be made and bought fpr him, ^rhich he there 
describes. That famous silver astrolabe, which be pre* 
sented to Peonius, a man equally excelling in philosophy 
and arms, he owns to have been perfect^ by the direc- 
. tions of Hypatia. In a long epistle, he acquaints her with 
his reasons for writing two books, which, he sends her ; and 
asks her judgment of one, resolving not to publish it with* 
out her approbation. 



4l» It y P A T I A. 

' But it was not Sjrnesius only, aiid the disciples of tfa^ 
Alexandrian school, who adrhired Hypatia for her great 
irirtue and learning: never woman was more caressed by 
the public, and yet never woman bad a more unspotted 
character* She was hield as an oracle for her wisdom, 
which made her consulted by the magistrates in all impor- 
tant cases ; and this frequently drew her among the greatest 
^concourse of men, without the least censure of her man« 
ners, ^<0n account of the confidence and authority,*' 
says Socrates, ^* which she had acquired by her learning, 
she sometimes came to the judges with singular modesty. 
Nor was she any thing abashed to appear thus among a 
crowd of men ; for all persons, by reason of her extraor-' 
dinary discretion, did at the same time both reverence and 
admire her.** The same is confirmed by Nicephorus, and 
other authors, whom we have already cited, Damas- 
Cius and Suidas relate, that the governors and magistrates 
tf Alexandria regularly visited her, and paid their court to 
ber ; and, when Nicephorus intended to pass the higfaesc 
compliment on the princess Eudocia, he thought be could 
not do it better, than by calling hei* ** another Hypatia." 

While Hypatia thi^ reigned the brightest ornament of 
Alexandria, Orestes was governor of the same place for 
the emperor Tbeodosius, and Cyril bishop or patriarch. 
Orestes, having bad a liberal education, admired Hypatia, 
and frequently consulted her. This created an intimacy 
between them that was highly displeasing to Cyril, who 
bad a great aversion to Orestes : which intimacy, as it is 
supposed, had like to have proved fatal to Orestes, as ws| 
may collect from the following account of Socrates. ** Cer« 
tain of the Monks," says be, ^ living in the Nitrian moun* 
tains, leaving their 'monasteries to the number of about 
five hundred, flocked to the city, and 'spied the governor 
going abroad in bis chariot : whereupon approaching, they- 
called bim by the names of Sacrifice]* and Heathen, using^. 
many others scandalous expressions. The governor, sns*. 
pecting that this was a trick played him by Cyril, cried 
out that he was a Christian ; and that he bad been baptized 
at Constantinople by bishop Atticus. But the monks giy* 
ing no heed to what be said, one of them, called Ammo-, 
nius, threw a stone at Orestes, which struck him on the 
head ; and being all covered with blood from his woundst. 
bis guards, a few excepted, fled, some one way and some 
another^ hiding themselves in the crowd, lest tb^ shoiildr 



H r P A T ^ A. 41S 

be stoned to death. In the mean while, the people of 
Alexandria ran to defend their governor against the monk;, 
and puttingtbe rest to flight, broughtAmmonius, whom they 
apprehended, to Orestes; who, as the laws prescrib^c^ 
put him publicly to the torture, and racked him till hf 
expired.'* 

But though Orestes escaped with his life, Hypatia after? 
wards fell a sacrifice. This lady, as we have observed^ 
was profoundly. respected by Orestes, who much frequented 
and consulted her : ** for which reason/' says Socrates, 
^* she was not a little traduced among the Christian multi« 
tude, as if she obstructed a reconciliation between Cyril 
and Orestes. This occasioned certain enthusiasts, headed 
by one Peter a lecturer, to enter into a conspiracy against 
her ; who watching an opportunity, when she was return^ 
ing home from some place, first dragged her out of her 
chair; then hiirried her to the church called Ciesars; 
and, stripping her naked, killed her with tiles. .After this, 
they tore her to pieces ; and, carrying her limbs to a placa 
called Cinaron, there burnt tbeni to ashes.!' Cave endea«» 
yours to remove the imputation of this hprrid murder fron^ 
Cyril, thitiking him too honest a man to bi|ve bad any hand 
in it ; and lays it upon the Alexandrian mob in general^ 
whom he calls *^ levissimum hominum genus,'' ** & very tri«n 
fling inconstant people.^' But though Cyril sl^ould be aU 
lowed to have been neither the perpetrator, nor even thet 
cotitriver of it, others have thought that he did notdis* 
countenance it in the manner he ought to have done : and; 
was so far from blaming the outrage committed by the Nitrian 
monks upon the governor Orestes, that <^ he afterwards, 
received the dead body of Ammonius, whom Orestes had 
punished with the rack; made a panegyric upon hfm, ia 
, the church where he was laid, in which be extolled his 
courage and constancy, as one that had contended for the 
truth ; and, changfaig his name to Thaumasius, or the Admin 
rable, ordered him to be considered as a martyr.. Qow* 
ever, continues Socrates, the wiser sort of Cbristiansi did 
not approve the zeal which Cyril shewed on this man's be- 
half; being convinced, that Ammonius had justly suffered 
for his desperate attempt." We learn from the same his* 
torian, that the death of Hypatia happened in March, in. 
the 10th year of Honorius's, and the 6th of Theodosius's, 
consulship ; that is, about A. D. 415. ' 

> So«nitef, Va Sccl. Hia c. l5.-«r«lNrtaii kibL OfiNi-Morcri.— S«|d» 



414 H Y P E R X E 5. 

HYPERIDES, an Athenian orator^ disciple of VitM 
and Isocrates, flourished about 335 years before the Ghris* 
tian sera. He was a sincere patriot, and so strenuous ar 
lover of justice and liberty, that be did not hesitate to 
accuse his friend Demosthenes of receiving money front 
Harpalusy and actually drove him into banishment. They 
were afterwards reconciled, and perished about the same 
time. When the Athenians were beaten at Cranon, he wa^ 
dragged out of the temple of Ceres, and delivered up ta 
^Antipater. He died about 322. He published many of his 
orations, of which one only is extant, and that in some de- 
gree dubious. It stands the 17th among those of Demo«« 
ithenes. There are also some fragments. His style of do- 
qnence has been variously estimated by the critics of his 
own country.' 

HYPERIU8 (GeiuKD Akdrew), a celebrated Lutheran 
divine and professor of divinity, was born at Ypres in 
Flanders, whence he took his name. May 16, 151 1. His 
father, who was a civilian, and had sent him to study at 
various places, when near his death in 15^8, removed him. 
to Paris, where he studied philosophy for three years, in 
the college of Calvi ; and after be had taken a journey 
ID Ypres, he returned to Paris in 1532, and studied 
divinity there till 1535.' He went afterwards to Lou- 
vain, and then he travelled through several provinces- 
ef the Low-Countries and of Geroiany ; which rendered 
.ineffectual the pains his friends had taken to procure hiin 
a living without his knowledge ; for as soon as it was re- 
presented to Carondilet, archbishop of Palermo and chan- 
cellor to the emperor, that he had travelled in Germany^ 
this rendered him so much suspected of heresy, that he 
was obliged to think of a sanctuary. He went into Eng* 
}and, and lived about four years with an English nobleman, 
Charles lord Mountjoy, who was a lover of learning, and 
settled a handsome pension or him. He crossed the sea 
again in 1541, and designed to visit the university of 
Sirasburg, and particularly to see Bucer, who made that 
university very famous. But as he passed through the 
country of Hesse, he met at Marpurg with a professor of 
divinity, named Geldenhaur, who was one of his friends, 
and who, in order to keep him there, gave him hopes of 
some employment In the university of that city. He ac« 

' Saxii OaomMtioon. 



H T 1» e It lU ». 41^ 

oordingly settled there, and soon after succeeded bis 
friend) who died in January 1542. He continued in that 
employment until bis death at Marpurg, February the Ist^ 
1564. He was author of numerous works, some of which, 
were published by himself, and the rest were published 
after his death. They CQUsisf of ^^ Commentaries on the. 
Scriptures ;** ^* Theological Dissertations ;** << Controvert 
tfial Tracts ;*' treatises in rhetoric, logic, arithmetic, geo« 
metry, astronomy, optics, natural philosophy, &c. fiievernl 
of these, enumerated by Ames and Herbert, were trans<« 
lated into English, and published here in the sixteenth 
century. Hyperius had a very clear head, and a verjr 
happy talent in conveying instruction. He was meek and 
polite in conversation, and delighted in social convivial in* 
tercourse, possessed true wit and good sense, and added ta 
those qualities a high degree of virtue and zeaU 

HYPSICLES, of Alexandria, a disciple of IsidoruSf 
flourished under jM. Avrelius, and Lucius Verus, in the 
second century. He has been supposed to be the authoi: 
.4>f a certain work called ** Anaphorious/' or a book of as« 
censions, vriiich was written in opposition to the doctrines 
of some astronomer. It was published in Greek, with the 
Latin versicm of Mentelius, and in conjuuction with the Op« 
tics of Heliodorus, at Paris, in 1680, 4ta Vossius, in his 
book ^^ de Scientiis Mathematicis," has erroneously sup-, 
posed him to have lived at a much earlier p