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THE LOEB CLASSICAL LIBRARY 

FOUNDED BY JAMES LOEB, LL.D. 

EDITED BY 
fT. E. PAGE, C.H., LITT.D. 

tE. CAPPS, PH.D., LL.D. fW. H. D. ROUSE, litt.d. 

L. A. POST, L.H.D. E. H. WARMINGTON, m.a., f.r.hist.soo. 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF STRABO 

V 



THE GEOGRAPHY 
OF STRABO 

WITH AN ENGLISH TRANSLATION BY 
HORACE LEONARD JONES, Ph.D., LL.D. 

CORNELL UNIVKRRITT 



IN EIGHT VOLUMES 
V 




LONDON 

WILLIAM HEINEMANN LTD 

CAMBRIDGE, MASSACHUSETTS 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS 

MCMLXI 



G 
SI 

Orp.5' 



First primed 1928 
Reprinud 1944, 19-54, 1961 



1 .9 5 2 7 1 



Printed in Great Britain 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 
BOOK X 3 

BOOK XI 183 

BOOK XII 345 

APPENDIX, ON THE ITHACA-LEUCAS PROBLEM . . . 523 
PARTIAL BIBLIOGRAl'HY OF THE ITHACA-LEUCAS PROBLEM 529 
A PARTIAL DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES .... 531 

MAPS 
ASIA MINOR AND SYRIA SUPERIOR at end 

ARMENIA AND ADJACENT REGIONS at end 



THE 

GEOGRAPHY OF STRABO 

BOOK X 



2TPAB12N02 TEOrPA^IKON 
V 



1.^ ^ETreiBi) 77 Yjv^oia irapa irdaav rrjv irapdkiav 
ravrrfv irapa^e/SXrjTai rrjv utto ^ovvlov /J^^XP'' 
©exTaXta?, irXrjv t(i)v ctKpcov e/caTepcoOev, OLKetov 
av €17} avvuyjrai, TOt? €ipr}/jL€VOt<i to. Trepl rrjv vrjcrov, 
eW^ ovTO) fj,€Ta^f]vai 77/369 re ra AItcoXlko. Kal 
ra^ A/capvaviKa, airep Xonrd eari tcov t/}9 F,vpcoTTr}<i 
fiepMV. 

2. UapafjLiJKr]^ p,ev tolvvv ccttIv rj vr}ao<i eVt 
^tXtof? ax^Sov TL Kal 8iaKoaLov<; arahiovs airo 
K.tjvalov TTpo<i VepaiaTov, to Be TrXaro? ava)fxaXo<; 
Kara he to irXiov oaov 7revT)']Kovra Kal eKarov 
arahiwv. to fxev ovv Kr^^atoy eVrt kutu &€p/j,o- 
7rvXa<; Kal to, e^o) ©ep/xoTrvXchv iir oXlyov, 
TepaLaTo<; Be Kal YieTaXia tt/oo? ^ovvlu). yivcTai 
ovv avTLTTop9p.o<; TTj Te ^Att iKj] Kal HoicoTLa Kal 
AoKplBt Kal Toi<; ^laXieuai. Blo, Be ti-jv aTevo- 
TTjTa Kal TO Xe^Bev iJLrjK0<i vtto twv TvaXaioiv 
C 445 Ma/c/3(9 covofxdoOr]. avvaTTTei Be ttj rjireiptp KaTO, 
KaXKiBa /xaXiaTa, KvpTrj TrpoirLiTTovaa Trpo^; 701/9 
KaTO, Trjv AvXlBa tottov; Tri<i BoicoTia^ Kal 

1 The Paris MS. No. 1397 (A) ends with Book ix (see 
Vol. I., p. xxxii). 



THE GEOGRAPHY OF STRABO 

BOOK X 

I 

1. Since Euboea lies parallel to the whole of the 
coast from Sunium to Thessaly, with the exception 
of the ends on either side,^ it would be appropriate 
to connect my description of the island with that of 
the parts already described before passing on to 
Aetolia and Acarnania, which are the remaining 
parts of Europe to be described. 

2. In its length, then, the island extends parallel 
to the coast for a distance of about one thousand two 
hundred stadia from Cenaeum to Geraestus, but its 
breadth is irregular and generally only about one 
hundred and fifty stadia. Now Cenaeum lies op- 
posite to Thermopylae and, to a slight extent, to the 
region outside Thermopylae, whereas Geraestus and 
Petalia lie towards Sunium. Accordingly, the island 
lies across the strait and opposite Attica, Boeotia, 
Locris,and the Malians. Because of its narrowness and 
of the above-mentioned length, it was named Macris ^ 
by the ancients. It approaches closest to the main- 
land at Chalcis, where it juts out in a convex curve 
towards the region of Aulis in Boeotia and forms the 

* i.e. the promontories of Thermopj'lae and Sunium, which 
lie beyond the corresponding extremities of Euboea — 
Cenaeum and Geraestus. 

* i.e. " Long " Island (see Map VIII, end of Vol. IV). 

3 



STRABO 

TTOiovaa rhv Kvpnrov, wepl ov Sia irXeiovwv 
elpi]Ka/jLev, a')(€S6v 8e ri kuI irepi rcov avr lit 6 p6 pio)v 
d\X7]\oL<; TOTTcov Kara re ttjv yveipov Kal Kara 
rrjv vrfcrov i<p' eKurepa rov ILvpiirov, rci re €VTb<; 
Kal TO, e/cTo?. €i Si ti iXXeXeiTTTai, vvv irpoa- 
8cacTa(f)7]aopev. Kal irpSyrov, on TTjq Eu/Sola^ ra 
KolXa Xeyovai ra pera^ii AuXtSo? -"^ kuI twv irecX 
Vepaiarov tottcov KoXirovrai,^ yap t) TrapdXia, 
TrXrja-id^ovcra Be rfj X.aXKL8i Kvprovrai irdXiv tt/so? 
Tr]v rjireipov. 

3. Ov poi'ov 8e Ma/cpi? eKXijOi] ?'; vrjao^, dXXa 
Kal ^A/3avTi<;. FjVfSoiav fyovv enrwv 6 7ronirri<i 
rov<i air' avri]<i Kvf3oea<i ovBerroTe eiprjKev, dXX^ 
"AySai'Ta? dec' 

01 8' YjV^oiav e^ov pevea 7rveL0VT€<i ^ K^avTe<i. 
T&) 5' a/i' "AySai/re? eirovTO. 

(i)T]al S' 'ApKTTOTeA.779 i^ "A/Sa? T77? ^coKixtj^: 
QpaKa<i oppriOevTa<i iTTOiKrjaai ttjv vr]aov Kal 
eTTOVopdaai "A/Sat'Ta? toj)? €)(^ovTa<; avrrjv ol 8' 
diTO r]p(o6<i (f)aat, KafiaTTep Kal JLv^oiav duo 
■t]pa)iv7]<;. Ta;^a 8' oiairep Boo? avXr) Xejerai ti 
avrpov ev ttj tt/jo? Alyalov rerpappivrj rrapaXia, 

OTTOV TTjV IcU (f>aai T€K€IV "ElTacpOP, Kal Tj VTjCrO'i 

^ AuAtSoy, Du Theil, Corais, and Groskurd would emend to 

- For KoX-KovTai, Jones conjectures Kot\ovTai, to correspond 
with KoiAo. 



- 1 9. 2. 2, 8. 

* " Inside " means the loMer or south-eastern region, "out- 
side"' the upper or north-western. 

^ Elephenor. 
4 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. i. 2-3 

Euripus. Concerning the Euripus I have ah'eady 
spoken i-ather at length/ as also to a certain extent 
concerning the places which lie opposite one another 
across the strait, both on the mainland and on the 
island, on either side of the Euripus, that is, the 
regions both inside and outside ^ the Euripus. But 
if anything has been left out, I shall now explain 
more fully. And first, let me explain that the parts 
between Aulis and the region of Geraestus are called 
the Hollows of Euboea ; for the coast bends inwards, 
but when it approaches Chalcis it forms a convex 
curve again towards the mainland. 

3. The island was called, not only Macris, but also 
Abantis ; at any rate, the poet, although he names 
Euboea, never names its inhabitants " Euboeans," 
but always " Abantes " : " And those who held 
Euboea, the courage-breathing Abantes .... And 
with him ^ followed the Abantes."* Aristotle^ says 
that Thracians, setting out from the Phocian Aba, 
recolonised the island and renamed those who held 
it " Abantes." Others derive the name from a hero,'' 
just as they derive "Euboea" from a heroine.' But 
it may be, just as a certain cave on the coast which 
fronts the Aegaean, where lo is said to have given 
birth to Epaphus, is called Boos Aule,^ that the 

* Iliad 2. 5.36, 542. 

* Aristotle of Chalcis wrote a work on Euboea, but it is no 
longer extant. He seems to have flourished in the fourth 
century B.C. 

* Abas, founder of Aba, who later conquered Euboea and 
reigned over it (Stephanus Byzantinus, s.vv. "Afiai and 
'A^avrls). 

' On the heroine " Euboea," see Pauly-Wissowa, s.v. 
" Euboea" (4). 
« Cow's Stall. 



STRABO 

aTTo T?)? avTrj<i alrla<i ecyxe tovto rovvo/xa. Koi 
'^XV ^^ eKaXeiTO rj vrjao<; kol ecrriv o/jLCovvfiov 
avrfi TO ^eyLCTTOV rcov ivravOa opwv. koi 'EX.- 
XoTTia 8' wvofidaOr] cnrb "EWotto? tov "Iwro?* 
01 Se 'AikXov ^ KoX Ko^of ahe\(^6v ^aaiv, o? kol 
TTjv 'EWomay KTiaai XeyeraL, ■)(^copLOV iv ttj 
^Clpia KaXovfiivT) t?}? 'lcrTiai(OTiSo<; irpo^ rw 
TeXeOpia) opei, kov ttjv IcTTtaiav irpoaKri^aaadai 
KOL rrjv TlepidZa ^ koI KijptvOov kol AlSrj-^frov ^ 
KOL 'Opo/8ta9, iv w /xavTelov yv d-\jrev8i(TTarov' 
r)v he p,avTelov kuI tov ^eXivovvTiov 'AttoXXcovo^' 
/jL€TQ)KT]crav B' et? ^ ttjv 'laTtaiav ol ' EWoTrt et?,^ 
Kol r/v^rjo-av ttjv ttoXiv ^iXiaTihov tov Tvpdvvov 
^caaafMeuov p,€Ta to, AevKTpi/cd. Ai]fioa$€vrji; 8' 
v7t6 ^tXCinrov KaTacrTa9?]vai Tvpavvov (fyrjat Koi 
Tcov ^VlpeLTOiv TOV ^iXiaTLBrjv ovTU) 'yap wvo- 
p.dad'qaav varepov ol 'Icrriaiet?, koI rj ttoXls dvTi 
'\aTLala<i 'flpe6<;' evioc 8 vrr' ' AOrjvaiayv diroiKKT- 
drjvai (^aai ttjv 'laTiaiav diro tov hi]p.ov tov 
'l(TTiatio)v, ct)9 Kol diro rov ^EpeTpiecov ttjv 
^KpeTpiav. ©eoTTOyttTTo? Be ^rjai, TlepiKXeov^ 
')(^eipovp,€vov ¥jV^oiav, tou? 'laTiaiel^ KaB' ojio- 
XoyLa<; et? ^aKcBoviav pbeTaaTJjvai, Biaxi\lov<i 
S' e^ ' Adrjvaioiv eXOovTaf tov flpeov oiK-fjcrac, 
BrjpLov OVTU irpoTepov Tutv laTiaiewv. 

4. Ketrat 8' vtto tw TeXeOplo) opet ev tw 
C 446 A/3U/A&) KaXovfievo) Trapd tov KdXXavra Trora/jLov 

^ 'AiKXov 'BDEghlTwpu, 'a4k\ov y, 'A^IkXov k. 

* Meineke emends UfpiaZa (otherwise unknown) to ircS^aSa. 
' \iZT)^6v, Xylander, for "E.5^^i^^6v ; so the later editors. 

* 5' els, Corais, for 5e ; so the later editors. 

' 'EAAoTTifTs, Tzschucke, for 'EWowtls ; so the later editors. 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. i. 3-4 

island got the name Euboea ^ i'rom tlie same cause. 
The island was also called Oche ; and the largest of 
its mountains bears the same name. And it was also 
named Ellopia, after Ellops the son of Ion. Some 
say that he was the brother of Aiclus and Cothus ; 
and he is also said to have founded Ellopia, a place 
in Oria, as it is called, in Histiaeotis^ near the 
mountain Telethrius, and to have added to his 
dominions Histiaea, Perias, Cerinthus, Aedepsus, and 
Orobia ; in this last place was an oracle most averse 
to falsehood (it was an oracle of Apollo Selinuntius). 
The Ellopians migrated to Histiaea and enlarged 
the city, being forced to do so by Philistides the 
tyrant, after the battle of Leuctra. Demosthenes 
says that Pliilistides was set up by Philip as tyrant 
of the Oreitae too;^ for thus in later times the 
Histiaeans were named, and the city was named 
Oreus instead of Histiaea. But according to some 
writers, Histiaea was colonised by Athenians from 
the deme of the Histiaeans, as Eretria was colonised 
from that of the Eretrians. Theopompus says that 
when Pericles overpowered Euboea the Histiaeans 
by agreement migrated to Macedonia, and that two 
thousand Athenians who formerly composed the 
deme of the Histiaeans came and took up their 
abode in Oreus. 

4. Oreus is situated at the foot of the mountain 
Telethrius in the Drymus,* as it is called, on the 
River Callas, upon a high rock ; and hence, perhaps, 

' i.e. from the Greek words "eu" (well) and " bous " 
cow). 

* Or Hestiaeotis (see 9. 5 3 and foot-note 2). 
3 Tinrd Philippic 32 (119 Reiske). 

* "Woodland." 



ST R A BO 

eVl Trirpwi v\lry]Xi]<;, o'ycne Ta^a Kai Bia to rov<i 
'EWoTTtet? opeiovf ehai tou? 7rpooiK>iaauTa<; 
CTeOr] Tovvofia tovto rfj TroXer Boxel Be koI 6 
^flpicov evravOa rpac^el'^ ovToy<i utvopaadrjvai,' 
evtoi Se T0U9 HpetTa?, iroXiv e')(^ovTa<i Ih'iav, (^acrl 
TToXep^ov/xevov; v-rro tmp ^KWoTTiicov fMera^rfvai 
Koi (TuvoiKTjaai TOi<i 'lartaievcn, jiiav he yevrjdel- 
aav TToXiv dp<pOTepoc<; -^p^cracrdai, rol<i ovojxaai, 
KaOdnep AaKeSalp-cov re Kal ^Trdprrj r) avTt]. 
etprjTai S OTt Kal ev QerTaXia 'lariaLcoriii diro 
TOiv dvacnracrOevTOdv ivdevhe vtto UeppaijScop 
o)vo/j,aaTai. 

5. 'ETrei S' 77 'EXXottlu rijv dp^rjv diro t^? 
'IcTTtataf Kal rov '^peov TrpoarjydyeTo ri/j,d<i 
TTomjaaaOai, rd avve^V Xeycofiev ^ TOi? tottoi^ 
TovToi^. ecTTi 8' iv Tw ^flpeo) tovto) to T€ 
Kj'jvaiov ^ TrXijcriov,^ Kal tV avTw rb duov Kal 
^Adrjvat al AidS€<;, KTLcrfia ^ AOrjvaiwv, inrepKei- 
[levov Tov iirl Kvvov ^ iropOfiov' e'« Be rov ^ Alov 
K.dvai Tj}? AloXlBo^ aTratKiaOijaav^ ravrd re Br) 
rd 'X^copca irepl rr]v 'JaTtatdv eari Kal eVt 
}^-)]pivOo^ TToXeiBiov eirl t^ daXdrrr)' eyym Be 
BovBopo<; 7roTa/j,6<; 6fi(jovvp.o<i rw Kara ttjv XaXa/Mva 
opei TO) irpo'i TTJ \\ttikt]. 

6. KapucTTo? Be ecTTiv viro tw opei ttj 'O;^??.' 
ttXtjctlov Be rd Xrvpa Kal to ^lapfxdpiov, iv u> 
TO Xarofiiov rcov K.apvario)v klovcov, lepov e~)(pv 

^ \4ytiifi.ev, Corais, for Keyo/dev ; so the later editors. 
^ Kr]uaiov, Hopper, for K\ftva7ov and KKtvalov ; so the later 
editoi's. 

^ TrK7)aiov, E omits ; so Kramer and Miiller-Diibner. 
* Kvvov, Tzschucke, for Kaivov ; so the later editors. 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. i. 4-6 

it was because the Ellopians who formerly inhabited 
it were mountaineers that the name Oreus ^ was 
assigned to the city. It is also thought that Orion 
was so named because he was reared there. Some 
writers say that the Oreitae had a city of their own, 
but because the Ellopians were making war on them 
they migrated and took up their abode with the 
Histiaeans ; and that, although they became one 
city, they used both names, just as the same city is 
called both Lacedaemon aaid Sparta. As I have 
already said,^ Histiaeotisin Thessaly was also named 
after the Histiaeans who were carried off from here 
into the mainland by the Perrhaebians. 

5. Since EUopia induced me to begin my de- 
scription with Histiaea and Oreus, let me speak of 
the parts which border on these places. In the 
territory of this Oreus lies, not only Cenaeuiri, near 
Oreus, but also, near Cenaeum, Dium ^ and Athenae 
Diades, the latter founded by the Athenians and 
lying above that part of the strait where passage is 
taken across to Cynus ; and Canae in Aeolis was 
colonised from Dium. Now these places are in the 
neighbourhood of Histiaea ; and so is Cerinthus, a 
small city by the sea ; and near it is the Budorus 
River, which bears the same name as the mountain 
in Salamis which is close to Attica. 

6. Carystus is at the foot of the mountain Oche ; 
and near it are Styra and Marmarium, in which latter 
are the quarry of the Carystian columns * and a 

*■ i.e. from "oreius" (mountaineer). * 9. 5. 17. 

3 Mentioned in Iliad 2. 5.38. « See 9. 5. 16. 

^ Trjj B(Toi5 in sec. man. above rris)CT)ghi7iv. 
" oLTTifKlaG-qffav D, iir(yKi(Te7]<Tav other MSS. ' o^^p Cghwy. 



STRABO 

'A7r6WQ)vo<i Mapfiapivov, odev StuTrXov^ eh AXa<i 
Ta? ' Apa(j}rivi8a<;'^ ev Se rf) Kapuarcp kol t) 
Xido'i (pveTac rj ^aivo/xivr]^ Kal vcpaivo/jievr], wcrre 
TO. v(f>i] ^ x^'^P^f^^'^'^P^ yivecrdai, pynwdevra S" et? 
(f)\6ya ^dWeadaL Kal diroKadaipeadai rfj irXvaet, 
TMV \ivwv ^ TTapa'nX'qcrLO)^' coKiadai ht ra ^otpta 
TavTci (paacv viro rdv e'/c TerpaTroXew? r?}? Tvept, 
^lapaOoiva Kal 'S^reipiecov ^ KaTecnpd(^r) he ra 
'S.Tvpa ev tS> MaXiuKw ^ TToXefxtp vrro ^aihpov. 
rov Wdrjvaiwv arparrj'yov' Tt]v 8e ')(^(opav €)(ovcni 
^Ep€Tpi€t<;. Kdpv(TTo<; 8e eart koI ev rfj AaKco- 
viKTJ roiro'i r7]<; Aiyvo<; 7rpo9 WpKuBlav, d<p ov 
K^apvariov olvov WXK/jLav eipijKe. 

7. TepaccrT6<; 8' iv fiev tw J^aTaXoyw tmv 
vecov ovK elpijrac, /jLefivijTai 8' 6 Troirjrr]'^ Ofx,(i)<i 
avrov' 

€9 Be Vepaiarov 
evvv')(iOL KardyovTO' 

Kal SrjXo2, SioTi Tol<i hiaipovaiv eK TJ79 'Acrta9 
ei9 Trjv ^ Attikt]v eTriKaipioyi Kelrai tw 2,ovvi(p 
TrXyala^ov to \wpiov e)(ei K lepov Y\oaeihoivo<i 
eTriarjfiorarov rcau ravjrj Kal KaroiKiav d^ioXoyov. 

8. Mera Se rov VepaccrTov 'Eperpca, TroXt? 
p,eyi(T7r) t^9 EuySota? fxera X.aXKi8a, eVef^' r) 
XaX^I? /j,T]Tp6TToXc<i tP]<; vrjaov rpoirov rtvd, eir 
avTO) Tw EivpLTrq) Ihpvfxevrf dfKpOTepai. 8e Trpo 

^ 'Apa(>>7}vi5os, Xy lander, following D pr. vian., for 'A/)o- 
(pr]i'ias ; so the later editors. 

2 On an interpolation after ^aiyofifvi} in the Aid. Ed., see 
Muller's Ind. Far. Led. p. 1007. 

^ iKpafffxara kno Aid. 

JO 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. i. 6-8 

temple of Apollo Marmarinus ; and from here there 
is a passafje across the strait to Halae Araphenides. 
In Carystiis is produced also the stone which is 
combed and woven/ so that the woven material is 
made into towels, and, when these are soiled, they 
are thrown into fire and cleansed, just as linens are 
cleansed by washing. These places are said to have 
been settled by colonists from the Marathonian 
Tetrapolis ^ and by Steirians. Styra was destroyed in 
the Malian war by Phaedrus, the general of the 
Athenians ; but the country is held by the Eretrians. 
There is also a Carystus in the Laconian country, a 
place belonging to Aegys, towards Arcadia ; whence 
the Carystian wine of which Alcman speaks. 

7. Geraestus is not named in the Catalogue of 
Ships, but still the poet mentions it elsewhere : "and 
at night they landed at Geraestus." ^ And he plainly 
indicates that the place is conveniently situated for 
those who are sailing across from Asia to Attica, 
since it comes near to Sunium. It has a temple of 
Poseidon, the most notable of those in that part of 
the world, and also a noteworthy settlement. 

8. After Geraestus one comes to Eretria, the 
greatest city in Euboea except Chalcis ; and then to 
Chalcis, which in a way is the metropolis of the 
island, being situated on the Euripus itself. Both 

^ i.e. asbestos. ^ See 8. 7. 1. 

3 Od. 3. 177. 

* Toiv \ivaiv Epit., for rhv nrivov (filth) ; and SO the editors 
in general. 

^ 5Tf ipifcoi/, Palmer, for 'S.rvpUwv Dhi, 'STvpialuv 'BCfclnox ; 
so the later editors. 

^ Vla\taK(f, Meiiieke, following conj. of Casaubon, emends 
to AaixiaK<p. Perhaps rightly, but evidence is lacking. 

1 1 



STRABO 

Q 447 T(t)v TpoyLKoyv vir ' Adrjvalo)!' eKTiaOai Xeyovrai, 
Koi fiera ra TpwiKO, "Af«X,o9 kuI Ko^o?, e^ 
WOyvMV 6pfiy]6evT€<i, 6 fj.€V rr]v ^Eperptav wKiae, 
Kotos' 8e rrjv XaXKiSa' xal tS>v AloXicov Si 
Tire? aTTO rr}? JJevdiXov arpaTid<; Karep-eivav ev 
rfi vi]cr(p, ro Se iraXaiov kui ApaySe? oi K.dSfi(p 
avvhia^dvTe^. at S" ovv 7r6Xei<; avrai Biacbe- 
p6vT(i)<i av^rjdecaat Kal diroLKia'i eareiXav d^io- 
Xoyov; et? M aKehoviav Kpirpia pev yap avvwKiae 
rd^ Trepl Yla\.Xrjvi]V Kal tov ' AOo) ttoAci?, i) Se 
l{.aXKi<; ra? vtto ""OXvvdu), a<i 4^tXi7r7ro? hteXvpt')- 
varo. Kal t?}? 'IraX-ta? 8e Kal S^/ceXia? iroXXd 
')(^o)pLa \aXKiBeo}v eariv iardXyjaav 8e al diroLKLat 
avrai, Kaddirep etpr]K€v 'ApiaroTeXi]^, tjvIku rf 
Twv 'iTTTTo/SoTtov KoXovpevT] eTTeKpdrei, TToXiTeia' 
7rpoe(TTr]aau yap avTrj<; diro rip.r)pdTCi)v dvhpe<i 
dpL(TTOKpaTLKU)<i dp')(^ovTe<i. Kara he rrjv AXe^dv- 
Bpov Sid/daaiv Kal tov irepl^oXov t/}? 7roXe&)<? 
rjv^rjaav, ivTO<; Tei')(pv<i Xa^6vTe<; tov t€ KdvTjOov 
Kai TOV KvpiTTov, €7riaT7]aavTe<; ttj ye<pvpa irvpyovi 
Kal irvXa<; Kal Tel)(o<i. 

9. "T-nepKeiTai Se t?}? twv XaXKiSewv TroXeox; 
TO Ai]XavTov KaXovpevov Trehlov. iv Be toutco 
deppav T€ v8dT0)v eialv eK/SoXal Trpo? depairelav 
vocrcov ev(f>vel<i, ol<; e;^/3?;craT0 Kal 1,v\Xa<i Kopvj']- 
Xio<;, 6 TO)v 'FcopaLcov rjy€p,cov, Kal peTaXXov 8' 
v'Trr}p-)(^e 6avp.aaTov y^aXKov Kal aiB7]pov koivov, 
oirep ov)(^ icrTopoucnv aXXa^ov arvfi^alvov vvvl 
fxevTOL dpcjiOTCpa eKXeXonrev, cocnrep Kal 'AO^vrjai 

1 Son of Orestes (13. 1, 3). 
* See note on Aristotle, 10. 1. 3. ^ "Knights." 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. r. 8-9 

are said to have been founded by the vXthenians be- 
fore the Trojan War. And after the Trojan War, 
Aldus and Cothus, setting out from Athens, settled 
inhabitants in them, the former in Eretria and the 
latter in Chalcis. There were also some Aeolians 
from the army of Penthilus^ who remained in the 
island, and, in ancient times, some Arabians who 
had crossed over with Cadmus. Be this as it may, 
these cities grew exceptionally strong and even 
sent forth noteworthy colonies into Macedonia ; 
for Eretria colonised the cities situated round Pal- 
lene and Athos, and Chalcis colonised the cities 
that were subject to Olynthus, which later were 
treated outrageously by Philip. And many places 
in Italy and Sicily are also Chalcidian. These 
colonies were sent out, as Aristotle ^ states, when the 
government of the Hippobotae,^ as it is called, was 
in power ; for at the head of it were men chosen 
according to the value of their property, who ruled 
in an aristocratic manner. At the time of Alex- 
ander's passage across,* the Chalcidians enlarged the 
circuit of the walls of their city, taking inside them 
both Canethus and the Euripus, and fortifying the 
bridge with towers and gates and a wall.^ 

9. A])ove the city of the Chalcidians lies the so- 
called Lelantine Plain. In this plain are fountains of 
hot water suited to the cure of diseases, which were 
used by Cornelius Sulla, the Roman commander. 
And in this plain was also a remarkable mine which 
contained copper and iron together, a thing which is 
not reported as occurring elsewhere ; now, however, 
both metals have given out, as in the case of the 



* Across the Hellespont to Asia, 334 B.C. 
^ Cf. 9. 2. 8 and foot-notes. 



13 



STRABO 

rdpyvpela.^ ecrri Be kol airaaa fxev r) Kv0ota 
evcr€iaTO<i, pLcikicrra 8' rj -rrepl rov iropO^ov, Kal 
he'^op.evT] irvevfiuTcov uTro^opa'?, Kaduirep xal rj 
BotwTta Kal ciXXoi tottoi, Trept wv iiMvi'-jadrj^iev 
Sia TrXeiovcov irpoTepov. inro ToiovSe ttclOov; zeal 
rj 6 fidavv fjLO's jfi vi]cru) TToXf? KaTaTTo9i)i>aL Xeyerai, 
r)<i fie^VTjrai Kal Ala')(^vXo^ iv tw Ylovricp TXavKut' 

¥iV^oiBa Kafxmr]v ^ d/j,(f)l Yir^vaiov Ai6<i 
aKTi'^v, KaT avrov tu/j.^ov ddXiov At^a. 

XaX«t? K 6^oivvfico<; XeyeraL Kal iv AlrwXia- 
XaX/ct'Sa t' dy')(^LaXov, K.aXvSoJvd re Trerpijeacrav 

Kal iv rfj vvv 'HXeta* 

/Sav SeTrapa K.povvov<i Kal XaX«t5a Trerprjeaaav 

01 irepl TifXep^ayov aTTfofre? irapd ^idTopa et? 
T-qv olKeiav. 

10. 'KpeTpiav^ 8' ol fiev diro MaKLcrrov t% 
Tpi(f)vXia<i diroiKiadrjvai ^acriv vir 'Eperpieo)?, 
01 K diTo Trj<; ^ AdrjvrjaLV 'Eper/sta?, rj vvv iarlv 
C 448 dyopd' eari Se Kal irepl ^dpaaXov 'Kperpia. iv 
Be TT) ^KpeTptKj} 7r6Xi<i r]v Ta/xvi'ai, lepd rov 
^A7r6XXa>vo<;' ^ABfiTjrov 8' XBpyi^a Xeyerai ro le- 
pov, Trap u> 6^]T€vaaL Xeyovai rov Oeov iviavrov,^ 
irXtjaiov rov 7rop6/xov' MeXavrjl<; 6' iKaXelro 
irporepov -q ^Kperpia Kal 'Aporpia' ravTr}^ B' 
ecTTi Kcofxy] rj ^A/j,dpvvdo<; d(f)^ eirrd araBlwv rov 

^ uxT-rep . . . rapyvpe'ia, preserved only in the Epit., and 
inserted by Groskurd and Meineke. 

^ KaixirTT)v Hkl Aid., instead of Ka/xir-qv ; so Meineke. 

14 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. i. 9-10 

silver mines at Athens. The whole of Euhoea is 
much subject to earthquakes, but particularly the 
part near the strait, which is also subject to blasts 
through subterranean passages, as are Boeotia and 
other places which I have ah'eady described rather 
at length.^ And it is said that the city which bore 
the same name as the island was swallowed up by 
reason of a disturbance of this kind. This city is 
also mentioned by Aeschylus in his Glauciis Pontius : ^ 
" Eubois, about the bending shore of Zeus Cenaeus, 
near the very tomb of wretched Lichas." In Aetolia, 
also, there is a place called by the same name Chalcis : 
" and Chalcis near the sea, and rocky Calydon," ^ 
and in the present Eleian country: "and they went 
past Cruni and rocky Chalcis," * that is, Telemachus 
and his companions, when they were on their way 
back from Nestor's to their homeland. 

10. As for Eretria, some say that it was colonised 
from Triphylian Macistus by Eretrieus, but others 
say from the Eretria at Athens, which now is a 
market-place. There is also an Eretria near Phar- 
salus. in the Eretrian territory there was a city 
Tamynae, sacred to Apollo ; and the temple, which 
is near the strait, is said to have been founded by 
Admetus, at whose house the god sex'ved as an 
hireling for a year. In earlier times Eretria was 
called Melaneis and Arotria. The village Amaryn- 
thus, which is seven stadia distant from the walls, 

M. 3. 16. « Frag. 30 (Nauck). 

» Iliad 2. 640. * Od. 15. 295. 

* 'EpfTpias HCDhiklno ; 'Epfrpttas x (?) and the editors 
before Kramer. 

* iviavT6v, MuUer-Dubner, from conj. of Meineke, for 
a.{ir6v. 



STRABO 

ret^of 9. rrjv fiev ovv apyaiav troktv Karia/cayp-av 
Uepaai, a-ayr]veuaavT€<;, c5? (firjaiv 'HpoSoro?, toi;? 
avOpcoTTOv; rw TrXrjOei, 'jTepi-)(y6evr(i)V rwv ^ap- 
Bdpcov Tu> Tel^ei (kuI BeiKvvovcnv ert tou? defie- 
\iov<;, KoKovcn he iraXaiav ^Rperpiav), rj Be vvv 
eTreKTiarac. Tr)v he huva/iiv ttjv E-perpLewv, rjv 
eay^ov irore, jMaprvpel rj (m]\r], rjv aveOeadv irore 
ev TO) lepu) T^? \\fMapvv6La<; ^ Aprefiiho^' 'ye'^painai 
6' ev avTTJ, TpLa-)(^LKioi,<i fiev OTrXlrai^, e^aKoaioL<i 
8' iTTTrevcnv, e^tjKovTa S" dpfxacn iroielv rrjv 
TrofjLTTijv eirrip-y^ov he Koi 'AvhpLcov Kal Trjviwv 
Koi K.€i(ov Kol ciWcov vrjacdv. eiroiKOV<; S' 'id'^ov 
CLTT "HX.iSo9, d<^' ov Kal Tw '^pdfiyuiTi rw pw 
TToWw ■)(^pr}(Tdfievoi, ovk eirl reXet fjLOVOv tojv 
pTjfidrcov dWa Kal ev p.eaw, KeKcofiaihTjvrai. ecrri 
he Kal Ot^aXta koo/xtj t^? ^EpeTpiKr}<i, XeLxjravov 
T/}9 dvaipeOeiari^ iroXeca viro WpaK\eov<i, op-covv- 
fj,o^ rfi Tpa')(^ivLa Kal rfj ^ rrepl TpiKKy]v Kal rfj 
^ApKahiKfi, rjv Wvhaviav ol varepov eKdXeaav, 
Kal jf] ev AiTcoXia trepl Tov<i Evpvrdva^i. 

11. Nvt'l fiev ovv ofioXoyovfMevo)^ rj ^uXkU 
(peperai rd irpwrela Kal /jLTjrpoTroXL^; avn] Xiyerac 
ra)v Rv^oicov, hevrepeveu 8' 77 ^Eperpia. dXXd 
Kal nporepov avrat p,eya el')(^ov d^LCi)p,a Kal Trpo? 

1 7] BCDhklnox ; 01 Aid. 

^ " Whenever they took one of the islands, the barbarians, 
as though capturing each severally, would net the people. 

16 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. i. lo-ii 

beloncrs to this city. Now the old city was rased to 
the ground by the Persians, who "netted" the 
people, as Herodotus ^ says, by means of their great 
numbers, the barbarians being spread about the walls 
(the foundations are still to be seen, and the place 
is called Old Eretria) ; but the Eretria of to-day 
was founded on it.^ As for the power the Ere- 
trians once had, this is evidenced by the pillar 
which they once set up in the temple of Artemis 
Amarynthia. It was inscribed thereon that they 
made their festal procession with three thousand 
heavy-armed soldiers, six hundred horsemen, and 
sixty chariots. And they ruled over the peoj)les 
of Andros, Teos, Ceos, and other islands. They 
received new settlers from Elis ; hence, since they 
frequently used the letter r,^ not only at the end of 
words, but also in the middle, they have been 
ridiculed by comic writers. There is also a village 
Oechalia in the Eretrian territory, the remains of 
the city which was destroyed by Heracles ; it bears 
the same name as the Trachinian Oechalia and that 
near Tricce, and the Arcadian Oechalia, which the 
people of later times called Andania, and that in 
Aetolia in the neighbourhood of the Eurytanians. 

11. Now at the present time Chalcis by common 
consent holds the leading position and is called the 
metropolis of the Euboeans ; and Eretria is second. 
Yet even in earlier times these cities were held in 

They net them in this way : the men link hands and form a 
line extending from the northern sea to the southern, and 
then advance through the whole island hunting out the 
people" (6. 31). 

'^ i.e. on a part of the old site. 

' i.e. like the Eleiaiis, who regularly rhotacised final .<; (see 
Buck, Greek Dialects, § 60). 

I? 



STRABO 

TToXcfiov Kal TTpo? eipyjvTjv, axrre koI (f)i\.oaocj)oi'; 
dvBpdat TTapaa)(^eiv Biaycoyrjv rjEeiav koI d66pv0ov. 
/xaprupet 8' r] re twv 'KpeTpiKoyv (f)i\oao4)(ov 
axoXrj Twv TTcpl Mez-eSj^/xoy eV rj] ^Eperpla yevo- 
fievT], Kal ere irporepov rj ApiaTOTeXov; iv rfj 
XaX«t8i ZiaTpijBj], 09 ye KuKel ^ KareXvae rov 

12. To fiev ovv irXeov oijioXoyovv dXXrjXai'i al 
iroXei^; ainai, irepl he XrjXdvrov hieve-xOelaac 
ovB' ovTco reXeo)? e-navcravTO, coare tw iroXepLW 
Kara avddoeiav hpav cKacrra, dXXd avveOevro, 
e</)' ol? (jvari']aovraL rov dywva. htfK.ol Se Kal 
rovro iv rw ' Ap.apvvdi(p arrjXij ri^, (f>pd^ovaa 
/XT) ')(pria6ai ryXe^6Xoi<;. ^ Kal yap 8t} Kal rwv 
TToXepLiKwv edbiv Kal rcov oirXLcr p.oiv oy;^ ev ^ out 
earlv ovr rjv * e^09' dXX' ol p,ev rrfke^oXoif; 
■Xpoyvrai, Kaddirep ol ro^orai Kal ol (XcjyevSovTJrai 
Kal ol aKOvrtaral, ol S' dy')^ep^d-)(^oi^, Kaddirep ol 
^L(f)ei Kal Bopari rw opeKrw ')(^pcofMevor Scrrr] yap 
rj rcbv Sopdrwv ■)(^pr}ai<^, rj pe.v eK ')(^eip6<;, rj 8' ('o<i 
TraXrot?, KaOdrrep Kal o Kovro<i dp(f)orepa<i Ta? 
')(peLa^ aTToSlBcoar Kal yap avardSr/v Kal kov- 
To/3oXovvr(ov, OTTep Kal y) adpiaaa Buvarai Kal o 
v(Tao<i. 

13. Ol 5' Ei)/3oet9 dyaOol 7rpo<; p.dj^rjv inrrjp^av 
Tr]v arahiav, r/ Kal avcrrdBy]v Xeyerai Kal eK 

^ OS ye Ka/ffi ileineke, for S>s ye nai CT)(jhi ; Zcre Kai s ; 
ou ye Kai Jix ; os 7* B (?) ; oj ye koI exei Casaubon. 

- Kal yap . . . 6 vffoos Meineke, following conj. of Kramer, 
rejects as an interpolation. 

^ o"x e", Meineke, for ov64f CUKkx, Aid., oHd' ev Inos, 
Casaubon. 

* ^v is omitted by all MSS. except E. 

18 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. i. 11-13 

great esteem, not only in war^ but also in peace; 
indeed, they afforded philosophers a pleasant and 
undisturbed place of abode. This is evidenced by 
the school of the Eretrian philosophers, Menedemus 
and his disciples, which was established in Eretria, 
and also, still earlier, by the sojourn of Aristotle in 
Chalcis, where he also ended his days.^ 

12. Now in general these cities were in accord with 
one another, and when differences arose concerning 
the Lelantine Plain they did not so completely break 
off relations as to wage their wars in all respects 
according to the will of each, but they came to an 
agreement as to the conditions under which they 
were to conduct the fight. This fact, among others, 
is disclosed by a certain pillar in the Amarynthium, 
which forbids the use of long-distance missiles. ^ In 
fact among all the customs of warfare and of the use 
of arms there neither is, nor has been, any single 
custom ; for some use long-distance missiles, as, for 
example, bowmen and slingers and javelin-throwers, 
whereas others use close-fighting arms, as, for 
example, those who use sword, or outstretched 
spear ; for the spear is used in two ways, one in 
hand-to-hand combat and the other for hurling like 
a javelin ; just as the pike serves both purposes, for 
it can be used both in close combat and as a missile 
for hurling, which is also true of the sarissa^ and the 
hyssus.^ 

13. The Euboeans excelled in "standing" combat, 
which is also called "close" and "hand-to-hand" 

1 322B.C. 

2 The rest of the paragraph is probably an interpolation ; 
see critical note. 

* Used by the Macedonian phalanx. 

* The Roman "pilum." 

19 



STRABO 

■)^€ipo<;. Sopaai S' i')(^p6i)VT0 toI<; opsKrol^, w? 
(f>7]aiv Troir)T)]<i, 

C 449 alx/^V'^^'' /ue/iacore? opeKTrjai fMeXlrjac 
OcoprjKa^ pi]aa€iv. 

aWoiayv "law'i ovrtov tmv TraXroiv, o'lav eiKO^ eivat 
TTjv n.r]Xi.dBa pekirjv, rfv, u)<; cf>')]cnv o TronjTrjf, 

olo<i eTrlaraTO ^ irrfKai ^ A.^iWev'i 

KoX eCTTCOV 

Sovpl 8' aKOVTL^o), ocrov ovk a\Xo<; rt? olarru), 

rCo ttoKtw \eyei Sopari. koI ol fiovo/j.a)(^ovvTe<; 
TOt? 7ra\Tol<; ')(^p(i}p,evoi Sopaatv elcrdyovTai irpo- 
repov, elra iirl ra ^l(f>r] ^aSi^ovTe^;' ayykp^a^ni 
8' elalv ov)(^ 01 ^i^ei \p(iop,€voi fiopov, dWa kol 
Sopari €K ^eipo'i, co<i (f)i]aiv' 

ovrrjae ^varw 'X^aXKijpei, Xvae 8e yvla. 

Tou? /xev ovv lLu0oea<; tovto) tu> rpoirw ^^pcofxei/ov^ 
eladyei, irepl he XoKpoiv rdvavrla Xeyei, o)? 

ov a<^iv (TTaSi7]<; va/xLvr]<; epya p,i/jiT)Xev, 
dXX' dpa To^oiaiv kol iva-rpocpa) 0169 dcorq) 
"IXtoi/ ei? d/x eTTOVTO. 

irepi^epeTai ^ he kuI ■^pija-fib^ e/cSo^et? Alyievaiv, 

iTTTTOV (deaaaXiKov,^ AoKehai/xoviai' he yvvaiKa, 
dvhpa^ 6\ ol TTLVOva-iv vhwp leprj'i \\peOovar]<i, 

T0U9 \aXKihea<i Xeycov o)? dpiarov^' eKel yap 1) 
^ ApeOovaa. 

14. Etcrt he vvv Y.v^OLrai 'rrorap.ol Krjpev'^ koI 
l>*i]Xev^, 6iv d(f)' ov p.ev TTLVovra to, TrpojSara 

20 



GEOGRAPHY, to. i. 13 14 

combat; and they used their spears outstretched, as 
the poet says : " spearmen eager with outstretched 
ashen spears to shatter corselets."^ I*erhaps the 
javeUns were of a different kind, such as probably was 
the " PeHan ashen spear," which, as the poet says, 
" Achilles alone knew how to hurl " ; ^ and he ^ who 
said, " And the spear I hurl farther than any other 
man can shoot an arrow," ^ means the javelin- 
spear. And those who fight in single combat are 
first introduced as using javelin-spears, and then as 
resorting to swords. And close-fighters are not those 
who use the sword alone, but also the spear hand- 
to-hand, as the poet says : " he pierced him with 
bronze-tipped polished S})ear, and loosed his limbs." ^ 
Now he introduces the Euboeans as using this mode 
of fighting, but he says the contrary of the Locrians, 
that " they cared not for the toils of close combat, 
. . . but relying on bows and well-twisted slings of 
sheep's wool they followed with him to Ilium." ^ 
There is current, also, an oracle which was given 
out to the people of Aegiiim, "Thessalian liorse, 
Lacedemonian woman, and men who drink the 
water of sacred Arethusa," meaning that the 
Chalcidians are best of all, lor Arethusa is in their 
territory. 

14. There are now two rivers in Euboea, the 
Cereus and the Neleus ; and the sheep which drink 

' Ihad 2. 54.3. 2 iii^^i 1 9 3S9_ 

3 Odvsseus. < Od. S. 229. 

6 Iliad '^. 469. « llmd 13 713, 716. 



' iirirrraTo no ; Other MSS iTrlrrrarai. 

^ -rrep (pepf-rai, Corais and later editors, for Traparpip^Tai 

' (diacaKiKOf k b}' correction. 



STRABO 

XevKo, yiverai, a(f) ov Se fieXavw koI irepl top 
KpdOiv Be elprjTai tolovtov ti a-v/j-^alvov. 

15. T(ov 8' e/c T/3oia<? itraviovTwv Kv^oecov 
rivk'; ei? 'iWvpiov'i ixTreaovTe^, apavre<i^ ocKuBe 
Blo, tt}? Ma/ceSoi'ta? Trepl "KSeaaav epetvav, avp^iro- 
\epi]aavTe<i toU uvroSe^a/xeVot?, Kal exTLcrav ttoXlv 
^ij^oiav r)v hk Kal iv ^iKeXla Ku^oia, X.a\Ki8e(ov 
Toiv ixel KTicr/jia, fjv TeXcov i^avearrja-e, Kal iye- 
v€To (f)povpLov XvpaKovaicov Kal iv KepKvpa Se 
Kal ev Aijfj^vu) TOTTO? rjp Kv^oia Kal ev rfj ^ Apyeia 
X6(f)0<i Ti?. 

16. 'ETrel Be toi<; f^eTTaXoi<; Kal OtVatot? to, 
7rpo<; eaiTepav AlrcoXol Kal AKapvave^ el<Tt Kal 
*A6a/xdve<;, el 'X^prj Kal rovrov; ' KXXrjva<; elirelv, 
XoiTTOv e^i]y}']aaa$at trepl tovtmv, Xv e\(op,ev rrjv 
irepioBov airacrav rrjv t^v 'EXXdBo'^' TrpoaOelvai 
Be Kal Ta<; vtjaov<; ra? irpoa-^^topov^ pdXicna rfj 

KXXdhi Kal OLKovpeva<i vtto tcov 'EiXXtjvcov, oaa^ 
fiT) TrepLO)BevKap,ev. 



II 

1, AltcoXoI pev Toivvv Kal \\Kapvave^ opopovcriv 

aXXrjXoi^, pecrov e^oire? tov 'A^eX&ioy Trorapov, 

peovra diro tcov apKTwv Kal Trj<; iMvBov irpo'i 

C 450 voTov Bid re ^Aypaicov, AItmXikov edvov;, Kal 

Ap(piXo)(^u>v' AKapvdve<i pev to 7rp6<; earrepav 

^ &pavT(s, T. G. Tucker, for'AjSafTes ; ai'o3di'T€j, Xylander ; 
IxeraBalvovTes, Corais ; diro/3oj'Tes, Kramer ; atrolJaivoyTes, 
Meitieke. 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. i. 14-2. i 

from one of them turn white, and from the other 
black. A similar thing takes place in connection 
with the Crathis River, as 1 have said before.^ 

15. When the Euboeans were returning from Troy, 
some of them, after being driven out of their course 
to lll^nia, set out for home through Macedonia, but 
remained in the neighbourhood of Edessa, after aiding 
in war those who had received them hospitably ; and 
they founded a city Euboea. There was also a Euboea 
in Sicily, which was founded by the Chalcidians of 
Sicily, but they were driven out of it by Gelon ; and 
it became a stronghold of the Syracusans. In Corcyra, 
also, and in Lemnos, there were places called Euboea; 
and in the Argive country a hill of that name. 

16. Since the Aetolians, Acarnanians, and Atha- 
manians (if these too are to be called Greeks) live 
to the west of the Thessalians and the Oetaeans, it 
remains for me to describe these three, in order that 
I may complete the circuit of Greece ; I must also 
add the islands which lie nearest to Greece and are 
inhabited bv the Greeks, so far as I have not already 
included them in my description. 



II 

1. Now the Aetolians and the Acarnanians border 
on one another, having between them the Acheloiis 
River, which Hows from the north and from Pindus on 
the south through the country of the Agraeans, an 
Aetolian tribe, and through that of the Amphilochians, 
the Acarnanians holding the western side of the river 

1 (1. I. i:i. 

23 



STRABO 

fjbepo<; e')(OVT€<; rov TrorajMov f^eypi rov ^Afj,^paKi/cov 
koXttov tou Kara AfjLcpiXoxovi koX to lepov tov 
\\.KrLov \\7r6W(ovo<i, AlrcoXol Se to tt/jo? eco 
p^^XP'' "^^^ ^O^o\o)v AoKpcov Kal TOV Ylapvaaaov 
KUL TMi^ OlTaicov. v7r6pK€ivTai S ev rfi neaoyaia 
Kal Tol<; Trpoa/BopeLOi'; /xepeai rwv p.ev AKapvdvwy 
'Ap.(f)L\oxoi, rovrcov Be AoXovre? Kal rj Yiivho% 
T(ov S" AItwXmv Ueppai/Soi re Kal ^ \6ap,ave<i koX 
Alvidvcov Tt fiepo'i twv ttjv OiTr]v i)(6vTa>v' to Be 
voTLOv TrXevpov, to re AKupvaviKov op.oi(o<; Kal to 
AItcoXikov, KXv^eTai tt} iroiovar) OaXdrrr] rov 
K.opivdiaKov koXttov, e/9 ov Kal A^^eXoio? ttoto- 
/Lto? e^irjcriv, opi^wv ttjv tmv AtTwXwy irapaXiav 
Kal TTjv \\.KapvavLK7]v' eKaXelro Be Q6a<i 6 'Ai^e- 
Xwo? irporepov. eart Be Kal irapa Avfirjv 
6p,(t)vv/j.o^ TovT(p, KaOuTTep eipi]rai, Kal irepl 
Aa/xtav. e'Lprjrai Be Kai, ort apxh^ tov Kopiv- 
diaKov koXttov to crTO/xa rovBe rov irorap.ov (f^acri. 
2. IToXei? 8' elalv ev p.ev Tot? A/capi daiv 
AvaKTopiov Te eVt x^ppovrjaov iBpvpLeiov Wkti'ov 
TrXrjGiov, ep-iropiov t/;? vvv eKTi(Tp.evi]<; e0' ri/j.MV 
Ni«o7roXeoj9, Kal 'ErpuTO';, dvaTrXovv e^ovaa tw 
^ Ax'^Xdi'p TrXetovcov rj BiaKoaifov (TTaBicov, Kal 
OlveidBai, ^ Kal avTr) iirl rw 7roTap,aj, 1) p.ev 
iraXaid ov KaroiKOvpievr), Xaov direxpvaa t^? Te 
6aXdTTT]^ Kal TOV ^ ^.Tpdrov, 77 Be vvv oaov 
e^Bop,7]KOVTa aratiov<; vrrep Tri<i eK^oXr)<i Bie\ovcra. 
Kai aXXai 5' elai, YlaXaLp6<; Te Kal ^AXv^ia Kal 

^ Olveid^at, Meineke from conj. of Kramer, for 'Hvala Se 
Bk, Mvfla 54 I (?), Aid 

^ But rfjs is the reading of noxy (cp. Stephanas : ^rpdrof 
. . . dr]\vK'jis Ko\ ajcreviKus). 

24 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 2. 1-2 

as far as that part of the Ambracian Gulf which is 
near Am2)hilochiand the temple of the Actian Apollo, 
but the Aetolians the eastern side as far as the 
Ozalian Locrians and Parnassus and the Oetaeans. 
Above the Acarnanians, in the interior and the parts 
towards the north, are situated the AmphilochianSj 
and above these the Dolopians and Pindus, and above 
the Aetolians are the Perrhaebians and Athamanians 
and a part of the Aenianians who hold Oeta. The 
southern side, of Acarnania and Aetolia alike, is 
washed by the sea which forms the Corinthian Gulf, 
into which empties the Acheloiis River, which forms 
the boundary between the coast of the Aetolians and 
that of Acarnania. In earlier times the Acheloiis 
was called Thoas. The river which Hows past Dyme 
bears the same name as this, as I have already said,^ 
and also the river near Lamia.^ I have already 
stated, also, that the Corinthian Gulf is said to begin 
at the mouth of this river.^ 

2. As for cities, those of the Acarnanians are 
Anactorium, which is situated on a peninsula near 
Actium and is a trading-centre of the Nicopolis of 
to-day, which was founded in our times ; ^ Stratus, 
where one may sail up the Acheloiis River more 
than two hundred stadia ; and Oeneiadae, which is 
also on the river — the old city, which is equidistant 
from the sea and from Stratus, being uninhabited, 
whereas that of to-day lies at a distance of about 
seventy stadia above the outlet of the river. There 
are also other cities, Palaerus, Alyzia, Leucas,^ Argos 

1 8. 3. 11. * 9. 5. 10. " 8. 2. 3. 

* Tins Nicopolis (" Victory City ") was founded by Augustas 
Caesar in commemoration of his victory over Antony and 
Cleopatra at Acliura in 31 B.o. ISee 7. 7. 5. 

* Amaxiki, now in ruins. 

25 



STRABO 

AevKU'i Kol "Apyo<i to AfMcfiiXo^CKOv kuI ^A/u/3pa- 
KLa, oi)V ai TrXela-Tai ■nepioLKihe'^ '•^e'^/ovaaiv rj koI 
Traaai rr]<; Ni/co7roX.e&)?' Kelrai B 6 ^ '^rpdro'; 
Kara fiecrrjv ttjv e^ W\v^i,a<; oSov eh WvuKropiov. 

3. AlrodXoiv S' eicrt YLdXvZdiv re koX TWevpayv, 
vvv p.€V TeraTTeivcofj.^i'ai, to Be irdXaiov TTpoa-^yiixa 
tt}? EWaSo? r]i> ravTa ra KTia/xaTa. kuI Brj kol 
BiT}pria9ai avvejBaive Bi^a ttjv AlrcoXiav, Kal rrjv 
fiev ap^^alav XeyeaOai, tijv S" eTTLKTrjrov ap-)(aLav 
uev Tr]V airo rov 'A^eXciJOf H'^XP^ ]La\vB(avo<; 
7rapaXLav,i7rl ttoXv Kal rt^}^ jjueaoyaia^ dvt'jKovaav, 
ev/cdpirov re Kal TreBidBo'i, y earl Kal ^rpdro<; kuI 
TO Tpi)(^coviov,^ dpLaT7]v e^oi' yrjv eTTLKTrjTOV Be 
TTjv Toi? AoKpol'i avvdiTTOvaav, ft)9 eVl KaviraKTOV 
T€ Kai EvirdXiov, Tpa'x^vTepav re ovaav Kal 
\v7rpoT€pav, pixP'' '^V'^ OlTaia<; Kal Trj<; \AOa- 
fxdvuiv Kal TOiv e(pe^Pi<; eirl ttjv cipKTOv ijBt) Trepiia- 
ra/xevoiv opcov re Kal iOvojv. 

4. "Ep^ei Be Kal rj AiTfoXia opo<; /xeycaTOv /xev 
Tov K.opaKa, avvdiTTovra ttj Oltt], tcov 6' dXXtov 

C 451 iv /neao) fxev /xaXXov ^ rov WpdKVvOov, rrepl ov 
ry]v vewrepav Y\.Xevpo)va aviwKiaav d^evTe<i ttjv 
iraXaidv, eyy ii^ Keifxtvi^v \s.aXvBo)vo<i, ol OLKiJTope^, 
evKapnov ovaav Kal TTeBidBa, iropOovvra ttjv 
■X^oopav AT]/j,r]TpiOV TOV e'JTiKXrjdevTo<i AItcoXikov' 
VTrep Be Trj<i ^loXvKp€ia<;^ Ta(f)iaacr6v Kal KaXKiBa, 

^ T] nox, instead of 6, other MSS. 

^ Tpix<^viov, Palmer, for Tpax'hvtov os, Tpaxlvtov, other MSS. 
So the later editors. 

* txaKKov, Casaubon, for fj.a\a6u ^Cghilnosxy, /xaKa tvrwv 
marg. h, fj.d\a ov T>k, omitted in E ; so the later editors. 

* VioKvKpdas, Tzschucke, for VloXvKpias ; so the later 
editors. 

26 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 2. 2-4 

Ainphilochicum, and Ambracia, most of which, or 
rather all, have become dependencies of Nicopolis. 
Stratus is situated about midway of the road between 
Alyzia and Anactorium.^ 

3. The cities of the Aetolians are Calydon and 
Pleuron, which are now indeed reduced, though in 
early times these settlements were an ornament to 
Greece. Further, Aetolia has come to be divided 
into two parts, one part being called Old Aetolia 
and the other Aetolia Epictetus.^ The Old Aetolia 
was the seacoast extending from the Acheloiis to 
Calydon, reaching for a considerable distance into 
the interior, which is fertile and level ; here in the 
interior lie Stratus and Trichonium, the latter having 
excellent soil. Aetolia Ej>ictetus is the part which 
borders on the country of the Locrians in the direc- 
tion of Naupactus and Eupaliuni, being a rather 
rugged and sterile country, and extends to the 
Oetaean country and to that of the Athamanians 
and to the mountains and tribes which are situated 
next beyond these towards the north. 

4. Aetolia also has a very large mountain, Corax, 
which borders on Oeta ; and it has among the rest 
of its mountains, and more in the middle of the 
country than Corax, Aracynthus, near which New 
Pleuron was founded by the inhabitants of the Old, 
who abandoned their city, which had been situated 
near Calydon in a district both fertile and level, at 
the time when Demetrius, surnamed Aetolicus,^ laid 
waste the country ; above Molycreia are Taphiassus 

^ An error either of Slrabo or of the MSS. "Stratus " and 
" Alyzia" should exchange places in the sentence. 

2 i.e. the Acquired. 

^ Son of Antigonus Gonatas ; reigned over Macedonia 
239-229 B.C. 

■21 
VOL. V. H 



STRABO 

opi] iKavoi'i {jyjryjXd, i(f)' oT? TToXl'y^vta ihpvro ^ 
yiaKwla T€ Kal XaX«t9, ofMcovv/xo'; tu> opei, rjv 
Kal 'TrroxakKiha KaXova-r Kovpcov Be irXr^aiov 
T^9 TToXxtia^ YiXevpwvo's, at^ ov rov<i TlXevpcoviovi 
KovpiJTa^ ovoixaaOrjvai rive's inreXaQov. 

5. 'O S' Ei;7;i;o9 ^ 7roTafio<; apT^erat /lev e/c 
Bo)/jLi€cov ^ Tcov ev 'Ocpievcriv, AItcoXikm edvei 
{KaOd-rrep Kal ol KvpvTave^; Kal ^Aypaioi Kal 
KovprJTe'i Kal aXXoi), pel d' oi/ 8id t% }s.ovp7}TiKri^ 
KaT dpy^d<;, rjrL<; earlv rj avrrj rfj UXevpcovia, dXXa 
^la T^9 7rpoaea)a<i p.dXXov irapa ttjv XaA.«:tSa Kal 
K.aXvBc!)va' elr dvaKdfi-\Jra<; iirl ra Tr}9 n\ei'/3ci)j/09 
TreSla t/'}9 7raXaid<i Kal TrapaXXd^a'i 6t9 Suaiv 
e7ri(TTpe(p6i 77/369 rd<; eK^oXd^ Kal rrjv pecrqp^piav' 
eKoXeiTo Se AvK6p/j,a<; * Trporepov, Kal 6 N€cr(To<; 
ivravOa Xeyerau 7rop6pev<; d7roSe^eiyp.evo<; vcj) 
'HpaKXeov; dirodavelv, eTreiBr) iTopdp.evwv tj/v 
Arjtdveipav e'Tre-)(^eipei, ^idaaaOai. 

6. Kal "ClXevov Se Kal YlvXijvrjv 6vo/j,d^ei 
7r6X,€t9 7roti]TT]<; AiT(oXtKd<;, (ov rijv pev 'QXevov 
6/j.Q)vvp,co^ rfi ' A'x^aiKTJ Xeyopev/]v AiO/\.et9 Kare- 
(TKa^lrav, TrXrjaiov ovaav Trj<ivewTepa<i UXevp(ovo<;, 
Trj<; he ■)(^u)pa'i rjp(f)ia^7]Touv WKapvdve<;' ttjv 8e 
UvXrjvtjv peTeviyKavra €i9 toi'9 dvcorepov Toirovi 
ffXXa^av avrfj^ Kal rovvopa, Tlp6a-)(^i.ov KoXkaav- 
T69. 'YSKXdviKO's S' ovhe rrjv irepl Tavra<; laro- 

^ Wpvrai "BhlO. 

* EHrjvos no, 6 b( TTJfos BCDhilsx. 

28 



CiEOGRAPHY, lo. 2. 4-6 

and Chalcis, rather high mountains, on which were 
situated the small cities Macynia and Chalcis, the 
latter bearing the same name as the mountain, 
though it is also called Hypochalcis. Near Old 
Pleuron is the mountain Curium, after which, as 
some have supposed, the Pleuronian Curetes were 
named. 

5. The Evenus River begins in the territory of 
those Bomians who live in tlie country of the 
Ophians, the Ophians being an Aetolian tribe (like 
the Eurytanians and Agraeans and Curetes and 
others), and flows at first, not through the Curetan 
country, which is the same as the Pleuronian, but 
through the more easterly country, past Chalcis and 
Calydon ; and then, bending back towards the plains 
of Old Pleuron and changing its course to the west, 
it turns towards its outlets and the south. In earlier 
times it was called Lycormas. And there Nessus, 
it is said, who had been appointed ferryman, was 
killed by Heracles because he tried to violate 
Deianeira when he was ferxying her across the river. 

6. The poet also names Olenus and Pylene as 
Aetolian cities.^ Of these, the former, which bears 
the same name as the Achaean city, was rased 
to the ground by the Aeolians ; it was near New 
Pleuron, but the Acarnanians claimed possession of 
the territory. The other, Pylene, the Aeolians 
moved to higher ground, and also changed its name, 
calling it Proschium. Hellanicus does not know the 

1 Iliad 2. 639, 

' ^uiniaioiv DCghinox, Bwiaiwv 'Bkl ; emended by Tzschucke 
and so by the later editors. 

* AvKSpfias E, AvKfpvas CDghilxy and by corr. in Bk, and 
AvKcipvas no but corr. to AvKSpfxos. 

29 



STRABO 

pLav olBev, a\X &><? eVt Kal avTMv ovrrwv ev rfj 
ap^aia KaTacndaei /xe/jLvyjTai, raii 8' ixnepov Kal 
Tfj<; TOiV 'WpaKkeihcav kuOoSov KTi(7dei(Ta<i, Ma- 
Kvviav ^ Kal ^lo\vKp€iav,^ ev Tai<; ap-)(aiai<; kutu- 
Xeyei, TrXeLarTjv ev-^epeiav einheiKvvfxevo^ ev Trdarj 
(T^^hov Ti rfi ypacfifj. 

7. KadoXov pev ovv Tavra Trepl Tr)<i yjMpa^; earl 
T»}? Tci)v WKapvdvayv Kal tmv AItcoXmv, irepl Be 
T% irapaXiwi Kal rcov TrpoKeifiivoyv vrjatov eVt 
Kal ravra iTpoaXrjTTTeov' citto <yap tov arupaTo^ 
up^ap,ei'OL<; ^ rov ^Ap,/3paKiKov koXttov irpwrov 
eariv AKapvdvcov 'X^wpiov to "Aktiov. opwvvpiw^; 
Be Xeyerai to re iepov tov ^Aktiov 'ATroWtBro? 
Kal »'; aKpa rj iroiouaa to aropa tov koXttov, 
€)(^ov(Ta Kal Xtjjbeva eKTo<;. tov B lepov T6TTapd- 
KovTa pbkv (TTaBiovi d'ne')(eL to AvaKTopiov ev tu> 
KoXiTfp iBpvp,evov, BiuKoaiov^ Be Kal TerrapdKovTa 
J] AeuKdt. 

8. AvTTj S' ^v TO iraXaiov p,ev ')(^epp6vi^(To<; Tt]<; 
^ AKapvdvwv yri'i, KaXel 8' 6 Trot^^T/;? avr?jv olkttjv 
r/Trelpoio, ttjv irepaiav Tri<; 'I^a'/t?;? koI t?}? Ke^aX- 

C 452 X>ivLa<i rfireipov KaXwv auTt] B eoTiv ?; 'A/fa/3- 
vavla' ware, oTav (f)f} ukt^v TjTrelpoto, Tij<; 
WKapvavia<; aKTrjv BeX'^^^dai Bel. t?)? Be Aev- 
KdBo<i ?; Te N»;pt«o<>,* r^v (jir^aiv eXelv 6 AaepTt]^, 

rj p,ev^ N}jpiKov ^ elXov evKTLp.evov •moXieOpov, 
CLKTtjv rjireipoio, KecjyaXXfjvecrcriv dvdaarov 

' Vla.Kvv'iav, the editors, for VlaKivtov. 

2 yioXvKQfiav, the editors, for VloKvKptav. 

^ The MSS., except k, have «a/ after ap^afifvots. 

* N'fipiKos, Jones restores, following BED (though in D the 
NriptKos is written above Nijpiros in first hand), instead of 
NTJpiToj (Kramer and later editors). 

3° 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 2. 6-8 

liistory of tliese cities either, but mentions them as 
though they too were still in theii* early status ; and 
among the early cities he names Macynia and 
Molycreia, which were founded even later than the 
return of the Heracleidae, almost everywhere in his 
writings displaying a most convenient carelessness. 

7. Upon the whole, then, this is what I have to 
say concerning the country of the Acarnanians and 
tiie Aetolians, but the following is also to be added 
concerning the seacoast and the islands which lie off' 
it : Beginning at the mouth of the Ambracian Gulf, 
the first place which belongs to the Acarnanians 
is Actium. The temple of the Actian Apollo bears 
the same name, as also the cape which forms the 
mouth of the Gulf and has a harbour on the outer 
side. Anactorium, which is situated on the gulf, is 
forty stadia distant from the temple, whereas Leucas 
is two hundred and forty. 

8. In early times Leucas was a peninsula of 
Acarnania, but the poet calls it " shore of the main- 
land," ^ using the term " mainland " for the country 
which is situated across from Ithaca and Cephallenia ; 
and this country is Acarnania. And therefore, when 
lie says, "shore of the mainland," one should take 
it to mean "shore of Acarnania." And to Leucas 
also belonged, not only Nericus, which Laertes says 
he took ("verily I took Nericus, well-built citadel, 
shore of the mainland, when 1 was lord over the 

* Homer specifically meiition.s Leucas only once, as the 
" rock Leucas" (Od. 24. 11). On tlie Ithaca-Leucas problem, 
see Apprndix in this volume. 

* Instead of ^ yueV, Homer {Od. 24. 376) has olos ; B reads 
both, i5 M^'' oios. 

* NiipiKov, Jones restores, following MSS., except B, which 
reads ti-lipiToy. 

31 



ST R A BO 

Kai a? ii' KaraXoyo) (^rjai^ 

Kal KpoKvXei ^ ivefiovTO Koi AlyiXcTra rp'q')(elav. 

KoplvOioi Be Tre/ic^^eWe? vtto Kv^jreXov Kal 
Fopyov ^ lavrrfv re KaTea')(^ov rrjv aKTi]v, Kal 

PL&XP^ "^^^ ■Ap-^PO'KIKOV KoXtTOV TTOOrfK-OoV, Kal 1] 

T€ Wfi^paKLa crvv(pKiaOri Kal WvaKTopiov, Kal 
T/}? '^eppovijaov Bcopv^avTC'i top laQfiov eiroiiiaav 
vrjaov TTjv AeuKuSa, Kal fi€TeveyKavTe<; ttjv Ki'jpi- 
Kov ^ iirl TOP roTTOV, 09 r)v irore /xev ladfio^, vvv 8e 
rrop6p,o<i ye^vpa ^evKr6<;, fieTcovofiaaav AevKciBa 
eTTcovufiov, hoKO) /jLOI, tov AevKura' rrerpa yap 
iari XevKVj ti-jv ^poav, TrpoKeifxevrj t/;? Aeu /caSo? 
et? TO 7reXayo<; Kal rrjv KecpaXXTjviav, o)? ivTevdev 
rovvofia Xa^elv. 

9. E^et Oe to tov AeuKara ' AnoXXcovo^ lepov 
Kal TO aXfMa, to T01/9 epcora^ iraveLV rreTriaTev/xivov 

ov 8r] Xiyerai irpcoTi] "S^aTrcfxo, 

(w9 (f>T]aiv 6 Mei'ai'Spo?) 

Toi' inrepKo/xTrov drjpoiaa ^daiv , 
olaTpoivri irodfp plyfrai Trerpa^ 
UTTO TrjXe(f)ai>ov<: aXp.a^ /cot' eu^'V 
aijv, hecnoT^ dva^. 

6 fih' ovv yievavBpo^ Trpconjv dXecrOai Xeyei rr)v 
'^aircfxi}, 01 B' €Ti ap'y^aioXoyLKoiTepoi Ke^aXoi' 
(pacriv ipaadevra XlTepeXa,^ top ^ Arjioveco^;. ^v 

* KpoKv\ei' E, KpoKvKny Other MSS. 

* rSpyov, Runke, for Tapyaaovaos CT>hil, Tapydaou otlier 
MSS. ; so Meineke. 

^ H-kpiKov, the reading of the MSS. (except B where 
NripiTov is corrected), Jones restores. 

32 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 2. 8-9 

Cephallenians ")/ but also the cities which Homer 
names in the Catalogue ("and dwelt in Crocyleia and 
rugged Aegilips ").2 But the Corinthians sent by 
Cypselus^ and Gorgus took possession of this shore 
and also advanced as far as the Ambracian Gulf; 
and both Ambracia and Anactorium were colonised 
at this time : and the Corinthians dug a canal 
tlirough the isthmus of the peninsula and made 
Leucas an island ; and they transferred Nericus to 
the place which, though once an isthmus, is now a 
strait spanned by a bridge, and they changed its 
name to Leucas, which was named, as I think, after 
Leucatas ; for Leucatas is a rock of white * colour 
jutting out from Leucas into the sea and towards 
Cephallenia, and therefore it took its name from its 
colour. 

9. It contains the temple of Apollo Leucatas, and 
also the " Leap," which was believed to put an end 
to the longings of love. " Where Sappho is said to 
have been the first," as Menander says, "when 
through frantic longing she was chasing the haughty 
Phaon, to Hing herself with a leap from the far- seen 
rock, calling upon thee in prayer, O lord and 
master." Now although Menander says that Sappho 
was the first to take the leap, yet those who are 
better versed than he in antiquities say that it was 
Cephalus, who was in love with Pterelas the son of 

' Od. -24. 377. =* Iliad 2. 633. 

^ See Didionarif in Vol. IV. * "leuca." 

* aKfjLa, Wordsworth (note on Tlieocritus 3. 25), for awd ; 
so Meineke. 

^ nrepf Ao, Tzschucke, for nep6Ka Dh, but nTfp6\a in margin 
of h and Ci, nro/jjAo Hylmno, Urapoxa. x, nap6Ka k ; so the 
later editors. 

'^ r6v, Kramer, for toO, from corr. in B. 

33 



STRABO 

Se KoX Trdrpiov rot? AevKaBloii; Kar eviavTov ev 
rfi dvala rov ^A7r6XX.Q)vo<; uTrb t?}? ctkottt}? 
pLTneZaOai riva t5>v ev alriai<; ovtcov aTrorpoTr^? 
y^dpiv, e^aTTTOfievcov i^ avrov iravrohaiTWV rrrepcov 
Kal opveoiv dvaKov(f)L^€iv 8vva/iev(ov rfi TTTrjaei ro 
d\/j.a, vTro8e)(^€adai Se kcito) fiiKpat'i dXidai kvkXw 
TTepiearcora^; ttoWuv^ koI nepLaco^eiv et? hvvapiv 
TUiv opcov e^co TOP dva\7](f)6evTa. 6 Sk rrjv ^X\k- 
ixaicoviha ypdyj/a^i- ^iKapiov, rov TlrjveXoTTi]^ 
TTUTpo^, fi'et? •yeveaOai hvo, 'AXv^ea koX AevKaSiov, 
BvvaaTevaai 5' ev rfj ^ AKapvavia TovTov<i /xerd 
rov 7raT/D09" tovtcov ovv inTcovvpov; to? TToXet? 
"E^o/)09 XeyeaOat BoKei. 

10. K.e(f)aWi]va<{ 8e vvv /lev Tov<i ex t?}? vrjaov 
rr)<i Ke(f)aX\T]via<i Xeyovcriv, "Opijpo'i Be Trdvra<i 
Tov<i viTo ru) 'OBvacrel, mv eial Kal ol ^ Afcapvdv€<i' 
elwcov ydp' 

ai)Tdp'OBva(T€v<; r^ye Ke(f)aWrjra<; , 

01 p 'WaKrjv el'X^ov Kal N?;pfTov €ivoai(f)vWov, 

(ro ev TavTT} 6po<i iirK^ave*;- w? Kai 

o't B* eK AovXix^iOio ^E^ivdcov 6^ lepdcov, 

Ku) avrov rov AovXi'^iov tmv 'R^ti dBcov ovro^' 

KUL 

r 453 OL S' dpa Bovrrpdcnov re Kal "HXiBa, 

Kal rov J^ovTrpaalov ev^HXiBi ovro^' 

o'l S' Y^v^oiav e)(^ov Kal XaX/tt6a t' Fjlperpidv re, 
ft)? ^ rovrayv ev Eti/Sota ovacov Kal 

^ ws, all MSS., except E and the editors {Kai), Jones 
restorea. 

34 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 2. 9-10 

Deioneus. It was an ancestral custom among the 
Leucadians, every year at the sacrifice performed in 
honour of Apollo, for some criminal to be flung from 
this rocky look-out for the sake of averting evil, 
wings and birds of all kinds being fastened to him, 
since by their fluttering they could lighten the leap, 
and also for a number of men, stationed all round 
below the rock in small fishing-boats, to take the 
victim in, and, when he had been taken on board,^ 
to do all in their power to get him safely outside 
their borders. The author of the Alcmaconis^ says 
that Icarius, the father of Penelope, had two sons, 
Alyzeus and Leucadius, and that these two reigned 
over Acarnania with their father ; accordingly, 
Ephorus thinks that the cities were named after 
these. 

10. But though at the present time onl}' the 
people of the island Cephallenia are called Cephal- 
lenians. Homer so calls all who were subject to 
Odysseus, among whom are also the Acarnanians. 
For after saying, "but Odysseus led the Cephal- 
lenians, who held Ithaca and Neritum with quivering 
foliage " ^ (Neritum being the famous mountain on 
this island, as also when he says, " and those from 
Dulichium and the sacred Echinades," * Dulichium 
itself being one of the Echinades ; and " those 
who dwelt in Buprasium and Elis," ^ Buprasium 
being in Elis ; and " those who held Euboea and 
Chalcis and Eiretria," * meaning that these cities 

^ Or perhaps "resuscitated." 

* The author of this epic poem on the deeds of Alcmaeon 
is unknown. 
» Iliad 2. 631. * Iliad 2. 625. 

' Iliad 2. G15. « Iliad 2. 536. 

35 



STRABO 

T/Jwe? KOL AvKioi KOI AdpSavoi, 
cuf Kul eKelvfov Tpcocov ovtcov)' ttXtjv fxerd ye 
i^rjpiTOV (firjar 

KoX KpoKvXec' ^ ivep,ovTo kol AlylXiTra rprj- 
Xetav, 

01 76 ZuKwdoV €)(0V TjS" o'l ^dflOV d/JLcf)eve/J,0VTO, 

OLT f}TTeipov €)(ov 7;S' dvTiTTepai' ivefiovTo. 
fjireipov p,kv ovv ^ to, avrnrepa rojv vjjcroov ^ovXe- 
rat Xeyetv, d/jua r^ AevvdSc koX ttjv dXXrjv 'A/tap- 
vaviav aufiTrepiXa^elv ^ovX6p.evos, irepl rj^ kul 
ovTco Xeyef 

BooheK' kv rj7r€Lp(p dyeXai, rocra Trcoea p,y]Xaiv'^ 
rd'X^a T^9 'H7ret/)a>TtSo<? to TraXaiov p-expi' ^evpo 
SiaretvovaTTi kui ovopbari koivu> rjireipov Xeyo- 
p.evr]<i' ^d/xov Be rr)v vvv K.€(paXXi]VLav, ci)? Kal 
OTav (pfj' 

iv iropdp.w ^l9dKi]<i re 'Edp.oto re 7ranraXoecT(Tr)<i, 
TO) yap inideTa) rrjv opLWVvp.iav BiicxTaXTai, &)? 
ovK eVl tt}? TToXeo)?, dXX^ eVi t% vqaov Tidel^; 
rovvofxa. TerpaTroXeco^: yap ovcrr)^ t^9 vr/crov, ^ia 
rcov rerjdpwv earlv r) Kal 'Ed/j,o<; Kal 'S.d/xi] koXov- 
p,€vr) KaO' eKarepov Tovuo/xa, op-covvpovaa rfi 
vr]a(i). OTav 6' €iL7rr}- 

oo'CTOc yap vrjaoLaLv eTTiKpareovaiv dpiaToi, 

AovXi^ifp T£ 2a/x77 T€ Kal iiXi^evTL 'LaKvvOtd, 
T(x)v vrjacov dpiOpov ttoiwv^ B!]\6<i iari, Kal^d/xrjv 
KaXoiv rrjv vrjaov, rjv irporepov Xdfiov eKdXeaev. 

^ KpOKv\r)v nox. 

* Kal, after ovv, marked out in B and omitted by kno. 

* ola>i>, not ^■fi\cvv, is Homer's word {Od. 14. 100) 

* TToiuv hi and D man. jir., instead of iroielodai ; so Meineke. 

36 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 2. 10 

\\ ere in Eubuea ; and " Trojans and Lycians and 
Dardanians, " ^ meaning that the Lycians and 
Dardanians were Trojans) — however, after mention 
ing " Nerituni," ^ he says, " and dwelt in Crocyleia and 
rugged Aegilips, and those who held Zacynthos and 
those who dwelt about Samos, and those who held 
the mainland and dwelt in the parts over against 
the islands." By "mainland," ^ therefore, he means 
the parts over against the islands, wishing to 
include, along with Leucas, the rest of Acarnania 
as well,'* concerning which he also speaks in this 
way, " twelve herd on the mainland, and as many 
flocks of sheep," ** perhaps because Epeirotis ex- 
tended thus far in early times and was called by 
the general name "mainland." But by "Samos" 
he means the Cephallenia of to-day, as, when he 
says, "in the strait between Ithaca and rugged 
Samos " ; * for by the epithet he differentiates 
between the objects bearing the same name, thus 
making the name apply, not to the city, but to the 
island. For the island was a Tetrapolis,' and one 
of its four cities was the city called indifferently either 
Samos or Same, bearing the same name as the island. 
And when the poet says, " for all the nobles who 
hold sway over the islands, Dulichium and Same 
and woody Zacynthos," ^ he is evidently making an 
enumeration of the islands and calling " Same " that 
island which he had formerly ^ called Samos. But 

» II lad 8. 173. ' Iliad 2. 632. 

^ " epeirus " (cp. " Epeirus "). 

* On Homer's use of this "poetic figure," in which lie 
specifies the ])art with the whole, op. 8. 3. 8 and 1. 2. 23. 
6 Od. 14. 100. « Od. 4. 671. 

' i.e. polilically it was composed of four cities. 
" Od. 1. •_>45. « mad 2. (MU. 

37 



STRABO 

'AttoWo^cw/jo? Be, tot€ fiiv^ tw eirtdeTco Xeyayv 
SiecrTciXdai rrjv a/jL(f)t,3o\lav, elirovTa 

^d/xoio re '7ranra\.oe(T(Trj<;, 

ct)9 TT]v VTjcrov Xeyovra' Tore Se dvTiypd<f>e<T6ai ~ 
Belp 

Aov\,i)(^ia) re 'S.dfxoi re, 
dXXd fA,ij 

XdfXT) re, 

SijXo^ ear I rrjv /xev rroXiv ^d/xijv Koi ^d/Mov 
avvo)vvu(ti<i viroXaf-i^dvcov eKcpipeaOai, rTjv 8e 
vTjaov ^d/xov fiovov on 'yap ^dfit^ Xeyerai y 
TToXt?, Sr]Xov elvai eK re rov BiapiOfxau/xevov roift 
e^ €Kdar7j<! iroXeaxi fivr)(rrf]pa<; <f)dvai, 

€K Be ^dfirj^ TTiavpef; re koX eliKoai (f)u)re<; eaai, 

KoX eK rov rrepl ttJ? Kxt/ie'i'?;? Xoyov 

rrjv fiev erreira Xd/j.rjvB' eSoaav. 

C 454 ^x^i' Be ravra Xoyov, ov yap euKpcvM'i aTroBiBcoa-iv 
6 '7T0ir}rr)<; ovre rrepl tt}? \^e(paXXfivia^, ovre rrepl 
T>/9 ^l6dKt]^ Koi ro)v dXXcov rrX'Tjalov ^ roircov, 
uxxre Kal ol i^rjyov/xevot Bia(f)epovrai Kal ol 
laropovvref. 

11. AvriKU yap errl t% ^lddKi]<;, orav (\>fi' 

oX p ^IdaKTjv elx^v fcal Nijpirov elvoaicjivXXov, 

on ixlv TO ^-qpirov 6po<; Xeyei, rw imOerw BtjXol. 
ev dXXoi<i Be kuI pr]ra)<; 6po<i- 

vaterdo) B' ^WdK-qv evBeleXov ev S' 6po<; aurfj, 
Nijpirov elvoai^vXXov dpnrpeire'i. 
38 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 2. lo-ii 

Apollodorus/ when he says in one passage that 
ambiguity is removed by the epithet when the poet 
says " and rugged Samos," ^ showing that he meant 
the island, and then, in another passage, says that 
one should copy the reading, " Dulichium and 
Samos," ^ instead of " Same," plainly takes the 
position that the city was called " Same " or 
" Samos " indiscriminately, but the island " Samos " 
only ; for that the city was called Same is clear, 
according to Apollodorus, from the fact that, in 
enumerating the wooers from the several cities, the 
poet * said, " from Same came four and twenty 
men," ^ and also from the statement concerning 
Ktimene, " they then sent her to Same to wed."* 
But this is open to argument, for the poet does 
not express himself distinctly concerning either 
Cephallenia or Ithaca and the other places near by ; 
and consequently both the commentators and the 
historians are at variance with one another. 

11. For instance, when Homer says in regard to 
Ithaca, "those who held Ithaca and Nerituni with 
quivering foliage," ' he clearly, indicates by the 
epithet that he means the mountain Neritum ; and 
in other passages he expressly calls it a mountain ; 
" but I dwell in sunny Ithaca, wherein is a moun- 
tain, Neritum, with quivering leaves and conspicuous 
from afar." ^ But whether by Ithaca he means the 

1 See rhctiovary in Vol. I. 2 Od. 4. 671. » Od. 1. 24fi. 
* In the words of Telemachus. ^ q^, 16. 249. 
« Od. 15. .SG7. ' Iliad 2. 6.32. « Od. 9. 21. 

' fv, after fifv. Corals omits. 

2 avriyf>a(t>iadai, Tzschucke and Corais, following ox, for 
yp4(i>€adai E, dv ypoi<p((rdai HCDhikln. 

^ irKvaiov, h and the editors, instead of irKijcrlinv. 

39 



STRABO 

'lOaKyjv S' etVe rr^v ttoKlv, eiVe ri^v vrjaov Xeyei, 
ov StjXov iv TOUTro ye rw eirer 

o'l p ^ 'lOdKrjV elxOV KCLl 'SjjplTOl'. 

KupLO)<; /X6V yap ukovcov Ti? Trjv ttoXiv Be^acT ai>, 
tt)9 Kai ^AO)']vaf; Kal \u/ca,3i}TTov et Ti? Xeyoi, Kal 
PoSov Kal Wtu^v piv, Kal eVt AaKeBaifiova Kal 
TavyeTOV TTOt,t)TiKOi^ he TOvvavrLOv. iv fievroi tm 

vaierdu) S' ^IduKrjv euBeieXov' iv 8' 6po<; avTrj 

yrjpirov 
BijXov' ^ iv yap rfj v/jaw, ovk iv rrj iroXei to opo';. 
orav he ^ outq) (f)^' 

r)/jL€i<i e^ 'I^tt/t?;? vtto ^rjlov elX7]Xovd/J.€V, 

dhrjXov,* etre to avTO Ta> N>;/3tT(W Xeyei to X>;'toi% 
etTe eTepov, rj 6po<; rj -^(oplov. ^ 6 fMevToi dvTi 
yrjpLTOV ypd(f)u>v ^i]pLKOv, rj avdiraXiv, irapa- 
Traiei TeA-e'co?' to fxev yap elvoai^vXXov KaXel a 
7rotr}Ti'j<;, to h ivKTi^evov TTToXieOpov, Kal to /lev 

iv IddKTj, TO h' UKTrjV rjTTeLpoio. 

12. Kal TOVTO . he hoKtl v7TevavTi6T)]Td Tcva 
hrjXovV 

avT)} he ^dafxaXt) TravuTrepTdTr] elv dXl KeiTai' 

)(dafj.aX7] jMev yap i) Taneivi] Kal )(^afj,i]X'>], iravv- 
7r€/9TaT>7 ^e t) vy^riXi], o'lav hid irXeiovcov aiijiaivei, 
Koavaijv KaXoJv' Kai Ttjv ohov Trjv iK tov Xifievo^ 

' o7 j)\ nosx and the editors, instead of oT t'. 

* SSaov, after N7/piTov, Corais inserts ; so the later editors. 
•' 5e, after orav, o and the editors, instead of re. 

* iSTjAor, Xylander and later editors, instead of oh ah-qKov 
B by corr. and x, SriKop other MSS. 

^ 6 fxivToi . . . r)iriipoio, Kramer suspects and Meineke 
rejects. 
40 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 2. 11-12 

city or the island, is not clear, at least in the follow- 
ing verse, "those who held Ithaca and Neritum " ; ^ 
for if one takes the word in its proper sense, one 
would interpret it as meaning the city, just as 
though one siiould say " Athens and Lycabettus," 
or " Rhodes and Atabvris," or " Lacedaenion and 
laj'getus " ; but if he takes it in a poetical sense 
the opposite is true. However, in the words, " but 
I dwell in sunny Ithaca, wherein is a mountain 
Neritum," ^ his meaning is clear, for the mountain 
is in the island, not in the city. But when he says 
as follows, " we have come from Ithaca below 
Neium," ^ it is not clear whether he means that 
Neium is the same as Neritum or different, or 
whether it is a mountain or place. However, the 
critic who writes Nericum * instead of Neritum, or 
tiie reverse, is utterly mistaken ; for the poet refers 
to the latter as " quivering with foliage," ^ but to 
the former as " well-built citadel," "^ and to the 
latter as "in Ithaca," ' but to the former as "shore 
of the mainland." ^ 

12. The following verse also is thought to disclose 
a sort of contradiction : " Now Ithaca itself lies 
chlhamale, panijpertate on the sea " ; ^ for chthamale 
means " low," or " on the ground," whereas pany- 
pertale means "high up," as Homer indicates in 
several places when he calls Ithaca " rugged." ^^ 
And so when he refers to the road that leads from 



1 Iliad 2. 632, 2 Od. 9. 21. » Od. 3. 81. 

* Accusative of "Nericus." ' Iliad 9.. 632. 

6 Od. 24. 377. ' Od. 9. 21. « Od. 24. 378. 
» Od. 9. 25 (see 1. 2. 20 and foot-note). 

'0 Iliad 3. 201 ; Od. 1. 247 ; 9. 27 ; 10. 417, 463 ; 15. 510 ; 
16. 124; 21. 346 

41 



STRABO 

Tpyj^^^elav (iTapvov 

■)(^bypov av v\i]ev~a' 
Ka\ 

ov yap Ti? vrj(T(t)v evheie\o<;} ovh^ €v\eip,wv, 

ai 6" aXl KeKklaiai' ^XQaKi] he re Kal vepi 
iracrecov. 
e%et fj,ev ovv a7r€fi(f)da€i<; Toiavra^ ?'/ cf)pdai<;, e^r)- 
yovvrai Be ov Katcw' ovre yap '^dafiaXrjv Seyov- 
Tai raTTeivrjv evravOa, dWa Trpoa-^^^ccpov rf) rjireiprp, 
iyyvTCLTW ovcrav avTrj<;' ovre TTavvTrepTdrrjV v'\}rTj- 
XordTTjv, dWd TravvTreprdrrjv irpb^ ^o^ov, olov 
vnep Tracra? ea^drr^ii ~ Terpafipbivi-jV irpo^ dpKToV 
rouTO yap jBovKcraL Xeyeiv to Trpo? ^orpov, to 8' 
ivavTLOv 7Tp6<; votoV 
C 455 al Be t dvevde tt/jo? ijo) t rjeXiov re" 

TO yap dvevde TToppw Kal x^P^'^ ecrTiv, a)? twv fxev 
dWwv Trpo? VOTOV KeK\ip.evfov Kal dircoTepo} T7y<? 
rjTrelpov, T^9 B IddxTji; iyyvdev Kal ^ tt/jo? dpKTOV. 
on B' ovTw \eyei to votiov p.epo<i, Kal iv TolaBe 
cf)avep6v' 

eiT eirl Be^'i ccocri, Trpo? i]cb t rjiXiov re, 

e"T' ctt' dpiaTepd Toiye, ttotI ^ocpov rjepoevTa' 
Kal ere fidXXov iv rotcrSe* 

0} (f)iXoi, ov ydp t' iBfiev, ott/; ^6(f)o<;, ovB' oTrrj 
770)9, 

ovB' OTTrj rjeXio^ (paeaipLJSpoTO'^ ela inro yalav, 

ovB^ 07777 dvvetTai' 

^ Instead of ivStUxos the margin of B has Iwirri^aTos, the 
Homeric reading. 

- eVxaTTji' E, Trp^j ^ff;(aT7)j' BCW/iO, is ^(rxoTT)!/ a* ; faxdrriv 
omitted by Dhi. 

3 Kai, aficr iyyvdiv, omitted by MSS. except E. 
42 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 2. 12 

the harbour as " rugged path up through the wooded 
place," ^ and when he says " for not one of the 
islands which lean upon the sea is eudeielos^ or rich 
in meadows, and Ithaca surpasses them all." ^ Now 
although Homer's phraseology presents incongruities 
of this kind, yet they are not poorly explained ; for, 
in the first place, writers do not interpret chthamale 
as meaning " low-lying " here, but " lying near the 
mainland," since it is very close to it, and, secondly, 
they do not interpret panypertate as meaning 
" highest," but " highest towards the darkness," 
that is, farthest removed towards the north beyond 
all the others ; for this is what he means by " to- 
wards the darkness," but the opposite by " towards 
the south," as in " but the other islands lie aneuthc 
towards the dawn and the sun," * for the word aneuthc 
is " at a distance," or " apart," implying that the 
other islands lie towards the south and farther away 
from the mainland, whereas Ithaca lies near the 
mainland and towards the north. That Homer 
refers in this way to the southerly region is clear 
also from these words, " whether they go to the 
right, towards the dawn and the sun, or yet to the 
left towards the misty darkness," ^ and still more 
clear from these words, '•' my friends, lo, now we 
know not where is the place of darkness, nor of 
dawn, nor where the sun, that gives light to men, 
goes beneath the earth, nor where he rises." ^ For 

» Od. 14. 1. 

2 On eudcielos, see 9.2. 41 and foot-note. 

' Od. 4. 607 ; but in thip particular passage the Homeric 
text has hippilatos ("fit for driving horses") instead of 
eudf.ielos, although in Od. 9. 21, and elsewhere, Homer does 
apply the latter epithet to Itliaea. 

♦ Od. 9. 26. * niad 12. 2.39. « Od. Id. 19(1 

43 



STRABO 

ecm [xev yap Be^aadat, tcl rirrapa KXifiuTu, rrfv 
rjS) he^oixevovi to voriov fj,epo<;, e;^et ri ^ riva 
rovT e/u,(pacnv, aWa ^eKnov to Kara ttjv irdpo- 
hov Tov rjXiov voeiv avriridefxevov tco apKriKw 
fiepet' i^dWa^iv <ydp riva rSiv ovpaviwv ttoWtjv 
/SovXcTai arjixaiveiv o Xoyo^, ^^X} "^tXrjv eTrLKpvyjriv 
rotiv KXi/jbdrcov, Set jdp Kara Trdvra <7vvv€<prj^ 
KUipov, dv d' i)pLkpa<i, dv t€ vvKTwp aufi^fj, 
TTapaKoXovOelv rd 8' ovpdvia e^aXXdrrei iirl 
irXeov TO) tt/jo? p,€cn]fi^piav fiaXXov rj ^ttov 
TTpo^copeiv^ 7}p,d'i rj el? rovvavrlov. tovto Se ov 
Svaeco^ Kal dvaroXi)^ ijKaXv\Jr€t<i iroiel, dXXd 
ix€arip,j3pia<i Ka\ dpKTov, Kal yap alOpia<i ovcrrj'^ 
(TVfjL^aivei.'^ fidXitrra yap apKrcKOf eariv 6 
TToXo?" toutou Se Kivovfievou Kal irore fieu Kara 
Kopv(f)r]v Tj/jilv yivofievov, irore 8e vtto 77}? 6vTo<i, 
Kol ol dpKTiKol (TUfifieTa^dXXovai, ttotc 8e 
avveKXeLTTovcTi Kara Ta? Toiavraf 7rpo)^o)p7](T€i<;,^ 
wcrre ovk dv elhelrj<^ ottov earl to dpKTiKov KXipa, 
ovBe dpyj'].^ el he tovto, oi/Se TovvavTiov dv 

1 Tg, Kramer, for Se ; so the later editors. 

* (Tvvvf<pT\, Casaiibon, for <Tvya<pTJ HCDhikl, ffvvatpTJs nox ; 
so the later editors. 

^ TTpox<^pf^'', Jones, for -rrapaxeepuu (cp. similar emendation 
below). 

* Kal yap . . . ffvuBalvei, Jones transfers from position 
after Troiej to position after 6pKTou. 

* irpox'^P'flo'f^s, Jones, for irapax'^pVff'!- 

* ecrriv, after apxv, Jones deletes. Corais and Meineke, 
following conj. of Tyrwhitt, read ovB' tl apxh" i<rrlv ("or 
whether there is a northern clima at all") ; Groskurd, follow- 
ing Tzschucke, reads ovh' oirov apxv ^cyriv. 

^ But in this passage "climata" is used in a different sense 
from that in 1. 1. 10 (see also foot-note 2 ad loc, Vol. I, 

44 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 2. 12 

it is indeed possible to interpret this as meaning the 
four " climata," ^ if we interpret " the dawn " as 
meaning the southerly region (and this has some 
plausibility), but it is better to conceive of the region 
which is along the path of the sun as set opposite 
to the northerly region, for the poetic words are 
intended to signify a considerable change in the 
celestial phenomena,^ not merely a temporary con- 
cealment of the " climata," for necessarily conceal- 
ment ensues every time the sky is clouded, whether 
by day or by night ; but the celestial phenomena 
change to a greater extent as we travel farther and 
farther towards the south or in the opposite direc- 
tion. Yet this travel causes a hiding, not of the 
western or eastern sky, but only of the southern or 
northern, and in fact this hiding takes place when 
the sky is clear ; for the pole is the most northerly 
point of the sky, but since the pole moves and is 
sometimes at our zenith and sometimes below the 
earth, the arctic circles also change with it and in 
the course of such travels sometimes vanish with it,^ 
so that you cannot know where the northern " clima " 
is, or even where it begins.* And if this is true, 

p. 22). It means here the (four) quarters of the sky, (1) 
where the sun sets, (2) where it rises, (3) the region of the 
celestial north pole, and (4) the region opposite thereto south 
of the equator. 

* Odysseus was at the isle of Circe when he uttered the 
words in question, and hence, relatively, the celestial 
phenomena had changed (see 1. 1. 21). 

' i.e. the infinite number of possible northern arctic circles 
vanish when the traveller (going south) crosses the equator, 
and, in the same way, the corresponding quarter of the 
southern sky vanishes when the traveller, going north, crosses 
the equator (see Vol. I, p. 364, note 2). 

* See critical note. 

45 



STRABO 

yvoirj'i. KVK.\o<; he T/79 ^]OdKi]<; earlv ws oyBorj- 
Kovra^ (Trahiwv. irepl fiev 'lOaKrj^; Tavra. 

13. T^y 8e K.e(paW7]viav, rerpaTroXiv ovaav, 
ovT avTTjV eiprjKe tw vvv ovofiari, ovre twv 
TToXeav ovhefiiav, TrXrjv fxid^;, etVe Sa/u?;? etVe 
l^dfiov, r) vvv fiev ovK€T^ iaTiv, t%y»; 6' avri]^ 
ZeiKwrai Kara fiiaov rov tt/oo? ^IOcikt} TropOfjLov 
ol 5' CLTT avT>]<; %afiacoi KoKovvrai' ai 8' dWat 
Kal vvv elatv eVt, fxiKpal TroXeis tiv€<;, HaXel^,^ 
IlpQ)}'->]ao<; Kal Kpdviot,. €0' rjfiayv Be Kal dWrjv 
irpoaeKTiae laio? 'AvTd)VLO<i, 6elo<; Mayo/cou 
^ AvT(oviov, TjviKa (})vyd<i 'yevofievo'i fieTd rijv 
vrraTeiav, i]v avvr)p^e K-iKepoivi tw piJTopi, iv 
TTJ Ke(f)aWr]Via hieTpLyjre Kal rrjv oXrjv vtjctov 
v7r7]Koov eax^v, ew? Ihiov Krii/xa- ovk ecfjOrj fievroi 
avvoiKLaa<;, dWd KaOoBov TV)^oiV, irpo'^ aWoi<; 
fxei^oaiv o)v KareXvae rov /Slov. 

14. OvK ioKiniaav Be riv€<; i-qv Ke(f}aXXr)viav 
C 456 rrjv avrrjv tm AouXt^tco <pdvai, ol Be ttj Tdcpo), 
Kal Tacjiiov; TOv<i Ke^aXXrjvLOVf;, tov<; 8' auToy? 
Kal Tr)X€/36a<;, Kal rov ^Afi^npvwva Bevpo crrpa- 
Tevcrai jxera KecpdXov rov Ay]iove(i)^, i^ ^ XOi-jvoiV 
(f>vydBo<;, 7TapaXr](f)0evTO^, Karacryovra Be rrjv 
vrjaov irapaBovvai t&) Ke^aXw, Kal ravTqv p.ev 
eTTcovv/jLOv eKeivov yeveadai, Td<i Be iroXeif roiv 
TTaiBwv avTOV. ravra 6' oi);^ 'OfiTjpiKd' 01 /xev 
yap K.e(j)aXXrjve^ vtto ^OBvaael Kal Aaeprrj, rj Be 
Td(f)0<; VTTO Tw MevTT]- 

^ But the Ithaca of to-day is nearer 300 stadia in circuit, 
riiny savs 25 Roman miles {Xat. Hist. 4. 12). Strabo must 
have -written 180 (er' ir') or 280 (t' tt') instead of 80 (ir'). 
And if he meant Leucas, the error would be far greater. 

^ Tla\e~is, Casaubon inserts ; so the later editors. 
46 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 2. 12-14 

neither can you know the oj)posite " clima." The 
circuit of Ithaca is about eighty stadia. ^ So much 
for Ithaca. 

13. As for Cephallenia, which is a Tetrapolis, the 
poet mentions by its present name neither it nor any 
of its cities except one, Same or Samos, which now 
no longer exists, though traces of it are to be seen 
midway of the passage to Ithaca ; and its people are 
called Samaeans. The other three, however, survive 
even to this day in the little cities Paleis, Pronesus, 
and Cranii. And in our time Gains Antonius, the 
uncle of Marcus Antonius, founded still another city, 
when, after his consulship, which he held with Cicero 
the orator, he went into exile,^ sojourned in 
Cephallenia, and held the whole island in subjection 
as though it were his private estate. However, 
before he could complete the settlement he obtained 
permission to return home,^ and ended his days amid 
other affairs of greater importance. 

14. Some, however, have not hesitated to identify 
Cejihallenia with Dulichium, and others with Taphos, 
calling the Cephallenians Taphians, and likewise 
Teleboans, and to say that Amphitryon made an 
expedition thither with Cephalus, the son of Deioneus, 
whom, an exile from Athens, he had taken along 
with him, and that when Amphitryon seized the 
island he gave it over to Cephalus, and that the 
island was named after Cephalus and the cities after 
his children. But this is not in accordance with 
Homer ; for the Cephallenians were subject to 
Odysseus and Laertes, whereas Taphos was suljject 

* See critical note. ^ 59 B.C. 

• Probably fi'om Caesar. He was back in Rome in 44 B.C. 

47 



STRABO 

^ievTrjf; K'y')(^LaXoio SaL(})povo<; €v)(^ofiai eluai 

uto<?, arap Tacfitoicn (f)i\y]peT/xoi(Tiv avdcrcra). 
KaXeLTUi Se vvv Ta(f)Lov^ ^ 7] Td(f)o<;. ovB' 'EWa- 
viKO<; 'Ofj,y]piK6<;, Aov\l-)(^iov ttjv Ke(f)aX\j]vtav 
Xeycov. to fiev yap vtto M.€yy]Ti, eiprjTUi Kal al 
XoLirai 'E^^^tvaSe?, oX re ivoiKovvra 'ETretot e^ 
HX,iSo<» d(piyp.evof hLoirep Kal tov ^Virov rov 
KvWy'jviov 

'^vXelSeeo^ erapov pieyadvixcav (J'p-)(ov ^l^-neioiv 
KaXer 

avrdp 'OSucrcreu? ijye Kee/jaXX^i'a? fieyadvp,ov<i. 
ovT ovv i\ovXi-)(^iov t) K€(f)aXX')]iHa kuO^ ''O/xtjpoi^, 
ovre T//9 Ke(t)aXXi]via'i ro ^ovXi-s^iov, di<i "Av8pcoi> 
(prjcr'f TO fxev ^ yap 'ETretot Kurel'^OD, tijv Be 
Ke(f>aXXr]VLav oXrjv K€(f)aXXi]ve^, Kal o'l p.h' * vtto 
OSvaaet, oi S' inro Meyr/Tf. ovhe ^ HaXeli; 
\ovXi')(^LOV v(f)^ 'Ofit'jpov Xeyovrai, Mt ypdcpei 
(PepeKv8i]<i. fidXta-ra S' evavriovrai 'Ofxy']pu> 6 
Tr)V Kec; aXXrjvlav ri-jv avT7]u tu> AofXt^tw Xeywv, 
eiirep t6)u p,v7](7Tr]pQ)v e/c /lev JlovXiX^oio 8vco Kal 
7revT>']KovTa rjaav, €k 8e 1,dp,T]^ Trtavpi^ re Kal 
eiKoat. ov yap tout av eu] Xeycov, i^ oX,?;? 
fiev Tocrou?, e/c Se fxid<; rcov rerrdpcov rrapd Svo ^ 
T01/9 yp,La€i<; ; el S' dpa touto Scoaei rc<i, iprjao- 
fieOa, Tt'? dv eiT] r) ^dpn], orai' ouro) (f)y- 

AovXl^iov re %dp.riv r ?}6' vXtjevra ZaKvvOov. 

^ Tacptovs, Meineke, following Pliny, emends to Taftds ; 
but see To<^ioCs in § 20 below. 

* •fri/A.fiSe'tt', Casaubon, for <i>uAi«coj CYihiksx, tvWtfws B/, 
4>v\iS(ti> Epit. 

^ Th fiev, Tzschucke, for tIjj' ^eV ; so the later editors. 

* ol fiiv, k inserts ; Meineke omits the Kai instead. 
48 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 2. 14 

to Mentes : " I declare that I am Mentes the sou of 
wise Anchialus, and I am lord over the oar-loving 
Taphians." ^ Taphos is now called Taphius. Neither 
is Hellanicus^ in accord with Homer when he identi- 
fies Cephallenia with Dulichium, for Horner^ makes 
Dulichium and the remainder of the Echinades sub- 
ject to Meges ; and their inhabitants were Epeians, 
who had come there from Elis ; and it is on this 
account that he calls Otus the Cyllenian " comrade of 
Phyleides * and ruler of the high-hearted Epeians " ; ^ 
" but Odysseus led the high-hearted Cephallenians." " 
According to Homer, therefore, neither is Cephal- 
lenia Dulichium nor is Dulichium a part of 
Cephallenia, as Andron' says ; for the Epeians held 
possession of Dulichium, whereas the Cephallenians 
held possession of the whole of Cephallenia and were 
subject to Odysseus, whereas the Epeians were 
subject to Meges. Neither is Paleis called Dulichium 
by the poet, as Pherecydes writes. But that writer 
is most in opposition to Homer who identifies 
Cephallenia with Dulichium, if it be true that " fifty- 
two " of the suitors were " from Dulichium " and 
" twenty -four from Same ";^ for in that case would 
not Homer say that fifty-two came from the island 
as a whole and a half of that number less two from a 
sin<fle one of its four cities .'' However, if one grants 
this, I shall ask what Homer can mean by " Same " 
in the passage, " Dulichium and Same and woody 
Zacynthos."* 

1 Od.l. 180. * See Dictionary in Vol. I. » Iliad 2. 625. 

4 Son of Phyleus (Meges). ^ Iliad 15. 519. 

« Iliad 2. 631. ' See foot-note on Andron, 10. 4. 6. 

8 Od 16. 247, 249. » Orf. 1. 246. 

* ov^f, <iroskurtl, for oi Se ; so the later editors. 

* Trapa 5iJu X, trap' (va other MSS. 

49 



STRABO 

15. Kelrai S* ■>) K.€(f)aWTjVLa Kara WKapvaviav, 
hie-^fovcra tov AevKara irepl jrevTijKOvra {oi Be 
TeTTapciKovTii <paai) a-raStov^, tov Be XeXtwrnra 
TTepl eKarbi'^ oyBorjKOVTa. avrrj 5' ecnXv &)<? 
TpiaKoalcov ^ ti)v TrepifieTpou, puaKpa S' avrjKOVcra 
7rpo<; Kvpov, opeLvyy /j.eyiarov S' opo'^ ev avTrj 
Alvo<i,^ ev (L TO TOV Aio<; Klvrjcjiov lepov Kad^ 
Be aTevcoTiiTi] ecTiv i) vrjao^, Tairetvov ladpLov 
iroiel, load' vnepKXv^eadac ttoWuki^ eV daXuT- 
Tri<i et? OakaTTav TrXrjalov S' elal tmi' aTevoiv 
ev Tw KoXrro) Kpdvioi t€ kuI TlaXel'i. 

16. Mera^u Be r?)? 'I^aAc*;? kul tt}? Ke^aX- 
Xr^j'ia? ;/ WaTepla vrjaiov 'AcrTepi<i 8' t^Tro TOj'i 
TTOirjTov XeyeTui- r}v 6 fxev 2/c>;'-\/rto9 fxrj p,eveiv 
TOtavTJjv, o'lav (prjacp o TTOir)T>'j<i, 

Xt/xeVe? B' evi vavXo)(Oi uvTij 

dfJi(f>LBvfXOl, 

C 457 6 Be 'ATToXXoSwpo? jxeveiv kuI vvv, kuI 7roX[)(^viov 
Xeyei ev avTrj 'AXaXKo/j.evd<i, to eir avTa> tu> 
laO/uM Keip,evov. 

17. Ka\et S' o TronjTTjii '^dfiov koI ttjv @pa- 
Kiav, fjv vvv ^a/xoBpaKTjv KaXovfiev. tt)v B* 
'IcoviKTjv olBe^ fiev, w? etVo?' kuI yap ttjv 'Icovikjjv 
aTTOiKiav elBevai (jialveTar ovk av " dvTiBieaTeiXe 
Be TTjv 6/jL(ovvp-Lav, TTepl Ti]<i 'S.ap.odpaKTj'i Xeywv, 
TOTe fj.ev Tw iTTideTO)' 

^ (Karhv (p'), Jones inserts, following conj. of C. Muller. 

* Instead of TpiaKoalwv (t' = 300), Strabo probably wrote 
f-maKoaiwv (i^' = 700), which, not counting the sinuositiea of 
the gulfs, is about correct. Pliny (4. 19) says "93 niilea" 
(744 stadia). 

5° 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 2. 15-17 

15. Cephallenia lies op|)(>site Acarnania, at a 
distance of about fifty stadia from Leucatas (some say 
forty), and about one hundred and eighty from 
Cheionatas. It has a perimeter of about three 
hundred ^ stadia, is long, extending towards Eurus/ 
and is mountainous. The largest mountain upon it 
is Aenus, whereon is the temple of Zeus Aenesius ; 
and where the island is narrowest it forms an isthmus 
so low-lying that it is often submerged from sea to 
sea. Both Paleis and Crannii are on the gulf near 
the narrows. 

IG. Between Ithaca and Cephallenia is the small 
island Asteria (the poet calls it Asteris), which the 
Scepsian ^ says no longer remains such as the poet 
describes it, " but in it are harbours sSfe for anchorage 
with entrances on either side " ; * Apollodorus, how- 
ever, says that it still remains so to this day, and 
mentions a town Alalcomenae upon it, situated on the 
isthmus itself. 

17. The poet also uses the name " Samos " for that 
Thrace which we now call Samothrace. And it is 
reasonable to suppose that he knows the Ionian 
Samos, for he also appears to know of the Ionian mi- 
gration ; otherwise he would not have differentiated 
between the places of the same name when referring 
to Samothrace, which he designates at one time by the 

* See critical note. 

^ i.e. towards the direction of winter sunrise (rather south- 
east) as explained by Poseidonius (see discussion in 1. 2. 21). 

* Dcnietrijis of Scepsis. * Od. 4. 84fJ. 

^ Alvos, Xylander inserts; so the later editors. 

« «(5€ Bkl. 

* &y, Corais inserts ; so the later editors. 

51 



STRABO 

vyp-oii in uKpoTdrr]<; Kopv(f)'>]<; Xd/mov vXT}€<Tcry]<;, 
®p7jLKi,r]<;' 
TOT€ Se TTj (Tv^vyLa Ta)V TrXrjaiov vrjacov 

69 ^dfxov 69 t' "l/.i^pov Koi A.rj[xvov dfiL^- 
SaXoeaaav 
Kol irdXiv 

/xeaarjyix; re ^dfioio Koi "l/x^pov iraLira- 
\oeacrrj<i. 

i/Bet, fxev ovv, ovk covofiaKe 8' avTi'jv ov8' eKoKelro 
rep avrO) ovopart. irporepov, dWd ^leXdp,(f>vXo^, 
elr 'Ai/depL<i, elra UapOevia dirb tov iroTafiov 
Tov Uapdevlou, 09 "lp,^pacro^ p^eTcovopdaBrj. 
eVel ovv Kara ra TpuiiKa Xdpo<i p,ev koX 1) 
K.e(f)aXX't]via eKaXelro Kal t) ^apoOpaKii (pv yap 
av 'EKu/Br] eiai'jyero Xeyovaa, oti tou? Traiha^ 
avTr]<i irepvaa-)^ , 6v kc Xd^oi, 69 Xdp.ov e? t' 
''l^/3pov),^ ^looviKTj 8^^ OVK drroiKLaTo ttw, 8rjXov 
S' ^ on diro TOiv Trporepoov tcv6<; tt/j/ op^uivvpiav 
ea^ev e'f o)v KUKeivo 8rjXoi', on trapd rj]v 
dp'^aiav laTopiav o Xiyovaiv ol (^I'^aavre's. perci 

TTjV 'Io)VtKJ]V (ITTOlKLaV KOL TTJV '\^epl3pUoVO<i TTU- 

povalav aTTOLKOVi iXde'iv iv ^dp,ov Kal 6vop.daai 
'Sdp,ov ri]V Xap,o0paKr]p, co? 01 ^dp.iot tout 
etrXdaavro 86^r]^ y^dpiv. 7ridavcoT€poc 8' elcrlvoi* 
UTTO TOV (xdpov<; ^ KuXetadai rd rjy^i] (f))]aavTe<i 
evprjcrOaL rovTO Tovvopua ttjv vrjaov ivTevdev yap 
i(f)a[v€T0 irdcra pbkv '\8i], 
(f>aLV€TO 8€ IlpLdp,oi,o 7roXt9 Kal vfje'i W)(^ai(op. 

1 Before 'licviKri hi have ^, x S><tt\ y Sxrre i), Corais ?; S'. 
- Kramer inserts 6' before ovk; so the later editors. 
* Kramer inserts 5' before Srt ; so the later editors. 

52 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 2. 17 

epithet, "high on the topmost summit of woody 
Samos, the Thracian," ^ and at another time by con- 
necting it with the islands near it, " unto Samos and 
Imbros and inhospitable ^ Lemnos." And again, 
" between Samos and rugged Imbros." He therefore 
knew the Ionian island, although he did not name it ; 
in fact it was not called by the same name in earlier 
times, but Melamphylus, then Anthemis, then 
Parthenia, from the River Parthenius, the name of 
which was changed to Imbrasus. Since, then, both 
Cephallenia and Samothrace were called Samos at the 
time of the Trojan War (for otherwise Hecabe would 
not be introduced as saying that he^ was for selling 
her children whom he might take captive "unto Samos 
and unto Imbros "),* and since the Ionian Samos had 
not yet been colonised, it plainly got its name from 
one of the islands which earlier bore the same name. 
Whence that other fact is also clear, that those 
writers contradict ancient history who say that 
colonists came from Samos after the Ionian migration 
and the arrival of Tembrion ^ and named Samothrace 
Samos, since this story was fabricated by the Samians 
to enhance the glory of their island. Those writers 
are more plausible who say that the island came upon 
this name from the fact that lofty })laces are called 
" samoi," ^ " for thence all Ida was plain to see, and 
plain to see were the city of Priam and the ships of 
the Achaeans." ' But some say that the island was 

1 Iliad 13. 12. 

* Or "smoky"; the meaning of tlieOreek word is doubtful, 
a Achilles. * Iliad 24. 752. ^ See 14. 1. 3. 

« See 8. 3. 19. ' Iliad 13. 13. 

* ot, before air6, Ch/u'l omit. 
' aafxovs E, aaj-i-alovs other MSS. 

53 



STRABO 

Tive<; Be ^dfiov KaXeicOat, <^acnv airo 'S.atcov, roiv 
oIkovvtohv ©paKmv trporepov, ot KOt rijv ■ijireipov 
ecr^ov rrjv 7rpoaex,t], etre ol avroi lol^ "EaTraLOi.^ 
0J/T6? r) Tot9 Strroi?, ou? StVxAa? KoXet 6 7roirjT7]<i, 
elB' erepoL. fiefxp^jrai Be rcov "Eaioyv 'Apxi'^o)(o<i- 

uairiBa fxlv "^aioiv ti<; dpelXero} rrjv irapa 
Odfivcp 
€VTO<; dfji(o/xy]Tov kuWittov ouk eOeXoiv. 

18. XoLirrj S' earl tcov viro tu> ^OBiaael 
TCTay/xevcov vrjaoyv 7) ZdKVvdo^, fiiKpw Trpo? 

C 458 ecTTre/aai^ fxdWov t% K€(f)aW')]via<; KeK\ip,evr}- 
Trj<; Ti.€\o7roiiv7)(rov, a-vvaTrrovaa S' avTj] ^ irXkov. 
ecTLv 6 kvkXo^ Tr]<i ZaKvvdov araBiwv eKurov^ 
e^rjKOVTa' Zieyec he koI tt}? Ke<f)aX\rivia<; oaov 
e^i]KOVTa (TTaBlov^, vXcoBr](; fxev, €VKap7ro<i Be' 
Koi 77 TToXi? d^LoXo'^/o^ o[Ji(jL)vvfio<i, ivTevOev ea 
'^cnrepiBaq t^? Ai^vrjq ardBioi rpiaxi'^ioi 
rpiaKocrioi.^ 

19. Kal Tavrrj<i Be kol rr}<; K.€(f)aXXy]via<; irpo^ 
ea> Ta9 'E;^ti/aSa? iBpvaOai vrjaov^; ovp.^e^r)Kev 
u)v TO re AovXi^iov iari (xaXovaL Be vvv 
AoXiy^av) koI a! 'O^etat KaXoufxevai, a? fdod^ 
6 7roujTT)<; eljre' koI t) p.ev AoXlya Kelrat Kara 
Olv€idBa<i Kal ri^v eK/BoXrjv rov A^eXwov, Bie- 

^ a.vfl\(To Epit. and corr. in B, avflXaro }igy, acpeiXaro s, 
iiyei\aTo i, ayaWtrai editors before Kramer (cp. readings of 
same passage in 12. 3. 20). 

- Palmer omits Kai before ttjs ; so Tzschucke, Groskurd, 
and Meineke. 

* avrfi, Kramer, for avri] {gxy) ; awaitTiuv 5' avrrjv [vKfoy 
iarlv i kt\.), other MSS. ; so the later editors. 

* In-tead of eKarhv (p' = 100) Strabo almost certainly 

54 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 2. 17-19 

called Samos after the Saii, the Thracians who inhab- 
ited it in earlier times, who also held the adjacent 
mainland, whether these Saii were the same people 
as the Sapaei or Sinti (the poet calls them Sinties) 
or a different tribe. The Saii are mentioned by 
Archilochus : " One of the Saii robbed me of my 
shield, which, a blameless weapon, I left l)eliind me 
beside a bush, against my will."^ 

18. Of the islands classified as subject to Odysseus, 
Zacynthos remains to be described. It leans slightly 
more to the west of the Peloponnesus than Cephal- 
lenia and lies closer to the latter. The circuit of 
Zacynthos is one hundred and sixty stadia.^ It is 
about sixty stadia distant from Cephallenia. It is 
indeed a woody island, but it is fertile ; and its city, 
which bears the same name, is worthy of note. The 
distance thence to the Libyan Hesperides is three 
thousand three hundred stadia. 

19. To the east of Zacynthos and Cephallenia are 
situated the Echinades Islands, among which is 
Dulichium, now called Dolicha, and also what are 
called the Oxeiae, which the poet called Thoae.-* 
Dolicha lies opposite Oeneiadae and the outlet of the 
Acheloiis, at a distance of one hundred stadia from 

* Bergk, Frag. 6 (51). Two more lines are preserved: 
"but I nij'self escaped the doom of death. Farewell to that 
shield ! 1 shall get another one as good." 

* See critical note. 

' In Greek " Oxeiai " and "Thoai," both words meaning 
"sharp "or "pointed" (see 8. 3. 26 and foot-note, and Od. 
15. 299). 

wrote -KfVTaKifrioi {<p' = 500). 5G0 stadia is about correct for 
the circuit. Pliny's text has 36 miles (4. 12). 

* Meineke emends rpiaK6aioi (t') to e|a«(^(rioi (x = 600), as 
in 17. 3. 20, but this is doubtful. 

55 



STRABO 

-)(^oV(Ta ^Apd^ov, Tri<; tcov 'HXelwv aKpa<i, eKUTOv^ 
teal ai Xoiiral S* 'E^tmSe? (TrXeiou? elat,, irdcrai 
Xvirpal Kol T/ja%erat)^ irpo Tr}<? e/c/SoXt}? tov 
'A^eX.ft)ou, irevTSKai^eKa crTaSlovq acfyecrrcocra 77 
ttTTtuTaTftj, 77 8' iyyvTUTco irivre, veXayi^ovaai 
irpoTepov aXyJ rj ^ou? ra? /iei/ e^rjTreipcoKev 
avTcbv i'jSrj, ra^ 8e /xeXXei, TroXXrj Karac^epofiivrj' 
i'jTrep KoX rrjv na/oa;)^e\c()tTii' ^ KaXovfi6V7]v -x^capav^ 
r)v 6 TTorajib'i einKXv^ei, Trepi/jLci-^rjTov* eVotet to 
TraXaiov, TOi'9 opovi (TV'y')(^eovaa ael TOV'i airo- 
8eiKvv/xivov<; rot? 'AKapvdai Koi Tot9 AtTtuXot?' 
eKpivovTO yap toI^ ottXoi^, ovk e')(0VTe<i 8taiT7]Td<i, 
ivLKCov S' ol TrXiov Swdfievor d(j> ris alTia<; koX 
fxv6o<; eirXdcrdt] Tt9, ft)9 'H/ja/cXeoL'9 KUTaTroXe- 
p,^aapro<i tov 'AxeXaiov koX iveyKa/nevov Trj<; 
PiKT]^ dOXov TOV Arjiaveipwi ydpLOV, tt)? OtVe&)9 
OvyaTpo'i, yv TrevoltjKe Xo<poKX't]^ ToiavTa 
Xiyovcrav 

fLvrjaTrjp yap rjv fioi TroTa/jLO'i, 'A^eX&ioi' Xeyos, 
09 /i' €v Tpicrlv p,op(^alcnv e^rjTei 7raTpo9, 
(f)OtTa)V evapyi]<i Tavpo<;, dXXoT^ aloXa 
SpdKcov eXiKTo^;, dXXoT dvhpeiw KVTei ^ 

^OVTTpoypO'i. 

TrpoariOeacri S' evioi Kal to tj}9 'A/u,aX^eta9 tout 
elvac XeyovTe^; Kepa<i, o dtreKXacrev 6 'H/3a«X,r)9 
Toi) ^ K^eXcpov Kal eScoKev Olvel tcov yd/xwv cBvov 

^ Corais omits kolI before irpS ; so Meineke. 
^ HapaxeAyiv IBk!, ITopoxeAyrji' nosx, ITapaXfeAi^Tii/ D. 
^ After x'^P"-'' ^ adds iffrl irpoerxovaa ; so Corais. 
* Xylander omits 6e' before iwoifi ; so Meineke. 
^ Tvwcf Dhil, 

q6 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 2. 19 

AraxuSj the promontory of the Eleians ; the rest of 
the Echinades (they are several in number, all poor- 
soiled and rugnfed) lie off the outlet of the Acheloiis, 
the farthermost being fifteen stadia distant and the 
nearest five. In earlier times they lay out in the high 
sea, but the silt brought down by the Acheloiis has 
already joined some of them to the mainland and will 
do the same to others. It was this silt which in early 
times caused the country called Paracheloitis,^ which 
the river overflows, to be a subject of dispute, since 
it was always confusing the designateH boundaries 
between the Acarnanians and the Aetolians ; for 
they would decide the dispute by arms, since they 
had no arbitrators, and the more powerful of the 
two would win the victory ; and this is the cause of 
the fabrication of a certain myth, telling how 
Heracles defeated Acheloiis and, as the prize of his 
victory, won the hand of Deianeira, the daughter of 
Oeneus, whom Sophocles X'epresents as speaking as 
follows : " For my suitor was a river-god, I mean 
Acheloiis, who would demand me of my father in 
three shapes, coming now as a bull in bodily form, 
now as a gleaming serpent in coils, now with trunk 
of man and front of ox."^ Some writers add to the 
myth, saying that this was the horn of Amaltheia,"^ 
which Heracles broke off from Acheloiis and gave to 
Oeneus as a wedding gift. Others, conjecturing the 

' i.e. "Along the Achelous." 

2 Trachiniae 7-11. One vase-painting shows Achelous 
fighting with Achilles as a serpent with the head and arms 
of a man, and with ox-horns, and anotlier as a human figure, 
except that he had the forehead, horns, and ears of an ox 
(Jebb, note ad loc). 

3 Cf. 3. 2. 14 and fo.jt-note. 

57 



STRABO 

01 S', ct/ca^&i/T69 ef avTMV rd\i]Oe<;, ravpM /ie> 
ioiKora XeyeadaL tov 'A^^eXwoi/ <f)a<n, Kaddirep 

Kol TOU? dWoV^ TTOTayttOU?, aTTO T€ TOiV r)X^^ 

Kal rSiv Kara rd peiOpa Kap-ircov, a? KoKovcrt 
Kepara, hpaKovri Be Sid to fir]Ko<; Kal ttjv (tko- 
XioTijra, ^ovTTpcopov Be Bid Trjv avrrjv alriav, 
St' rji' Kol ravpcoTTov rov 'HpaKXea Si, Kal aWw? 
evepycTiKov ovra Kal rw Olvei K-qSevaouTa, irapa- 
')(oifjLa(Ti T€ Kal Sio')(€7eiai'i ^idcraaOai tov Trora- 
C 459 fiov 7rXT]fL/x€\co<; peovra Kal ttoWtjv t% Y\apa- 
■)(^eX(OLTiSo<i ^ dvayffv^ai ^ ;;^apf^o/Li6i'oi' tm Olver 
Kal TovT eivai to tt}? ^ AftaXOeia^; Kepa<;. t6)v 
fxkv ovv Et')(^ivdS(t)v Kal twv ^O^eiMV KaTa Ta 
TpwiKd MeyyjTa dpx^iv (l)r}(Tlv 'O/ii^po?, 

ov TLKTe Aa (piXo^ nrnoTa 't>vX€V^, 
09 7roT€ AovXi)(^LOvS^ uTTevdaaaTO, -naTpl yo- 

Xo}0€i<i. 

TraTTjp S' ^v Auyea?, 6 t/)? 'HXetO'? Kal to)!/ 
'ETretcoy dpyotv wctt 'ETreiot ra? vr)<Jov<; Tai/ra? 
elxov ol crvv€^dpavT€<; et? to AouXt^^ioi' tw 
^vXel. 

20. At Se Twv Ta(j)Lcov vrjcroi, Trporepov Se 
TrjXe^ooyv, <av r)v Kal rj Ta<^09, vvv Se Ta(f)Lov<i ^ 
KaXov^evrj. ^wpl? rjaav tovtcov, ov Tot? SiaaTtj- 
^aaiv* (eyyi/? ydp KeivTai), dXXd v(f> eTepoi<; 
■>]y€p.6<Ti TaTTOfievai, Ta<^tot? Kal TT/Xe^oat?' 
TTpoTepov fiev ovv 'Afj,(f)iTpv(ov, iiriaT paTevaa<; 

* After Tlapaxt>^miTiZos, 'Bnox add tpdelpovra. 

* afa^iiv^ai, Villebrun, for ava^^v^iv ; so the later editors. 

' Ta(piovs, Meineke, following Pliny, emends to Ta<pids^ 
but see Tafiovs in § 14 above. 

58 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 2. 19-20 

truth from tlie myths, say that the Aeiieloiis, like 
the other i-ivers, was called " like a bull " tVom the 
roaring of its waters, and also from the the bendings 
of its streams, which were called Horns, and " like a 
serpent" because of its length and windings, and 
"with front of ox " ^ for the same reason that he 
was called " bull-faced " ; and that Heracles, who in 
general was inclined to deeds of kindness, but esjieci- 
ally for Oeneus, since he was to ally himself with 
him by marriage, I'egulated the irregular flow of the 
river by means of embankments and channels, and 
thus rendered a considerable part of Paracheloitis 
dry, all to please Oeneus ; and that this was the 
horn of Amaltheia.^ Now, as for the Echinades, or 
the Oxeiae, Homer says that they were ruled over in 
the time of the Trojan War by Meges,'"who was 
begotten by the knightly Phyleus, dear to Zeus, 
who once changed his abode to Dulichium because 
he was wroth with his father." ^ His father was 
Augeas, the ruler of the Eleian country and the 
Epeians ; and therefore the Epeians who set out for 
Dulichium with Phyleus held these islands. 

20. The islands of the Taphians, or, in earlier 
times, of the Teleboans, among which was Taphos, 
now called Taphius, were distinct from the Echi- 
nades ; not in the matter of distances (for they lie 
near them), but in that they are classified as under 
different commanders, Taphians and Teleboans.'' 
Now in earlier times Amphitryon made an expedition 

* Literally, " ox-prowed " (see Jebb, loc. cit.). 
" Cp. :i 2. 14. =• Iliad 2. 628. 

* The Ifctter name is not found in the Iliad or Odytisey. 

* ZiaaTi\fji.aaiv, Xylander, for SiaiTTj/^aj'ii' ^DYAlnor. 

59 

VOL. V. C 



STRABO 

avrol^ (xera Ke(f)dXou rov i^ijcoveoi'; ^ e'f ^AOrjvcov 
(f)V'yd8o<;, iKeivw rrjv dp')(r]V TrapehcoKev avroiv 
6 he Troi7jr7]<; vtto yievrr) TerdydaL (f)rjal, Xtjo-to.^ 
KoKoiv avTou<;, KaOdirep Koi tov<; TrjXe^oaf; dirav- 
Td<; (^aai.^ rd fxev irepl Td<i vi]aov^ Td<; irpo 
Trj<i * A.Kapiavia^ ravra. 

21. Mera^u 8e AevKdSo^ koX rov \\p./3paKiKou 
KoKiTou \t fivoOdXarrd eVrt, M.vpTOuvTiov Xeyo- 
fjiivr). txTTo Be Aei/AraSo? e|-^? UdXaipo^; Kal 
^AXv^La Trj<;^ AKapvavia^ elal ^ TroXet?,^ mv i) 
\Wv^ia TrevreKaiheKa diro daXdmi'^ 8te)(€i 
a'Tahiov<i, Kad^ rjv eari Xifirjv 'HpaKXeov<; iep6<: 
Kal T€/jLevo<i, i^ ov ^ rov<i 'Hpa/cXe'ou? dOXov^, 
epya AvaiiriTov, fierrjve'yKev et? 'PdofiTjv tcov 
jp/e/novcov Tf 9, -rrapd roirov ^ Keip.evov<i hid rrjv 
ipij/jLiav. elra aKpa KpidcoTr] ' Kal al ^ 'E^i^ti^aSe? 
KoX TToXi^ 'A<rTa«o9, 6fi(ovufxo<; rfj irepl Niko/jLi']- 
heiav Kal rov ^AaraKrjvou koXttov, 6ijXvkco<; ^ 
Xeyop,evi]. Kal rj Kpidwrr] 8' 6/j.covvp,o<; TToXix^jf ^^ 
tS)v iv rfi SpaKca ^eppovyjaro. Trdvra 8 evXifieva 
rd /lera^v' eW Olvidhai Kal 6 'A^eXwo?" elra 
Xifivrj ro)v OlviaSojv, ^leXirr] KaXovp^evi], ixr)Ko<i 
p,ev e')(^ovaa rpidKovra arahicov, irXdro'i he 
eiKoai, Kal dXX'>j Kwla, hnrXaaia ravrr}^ Kal 

^ ATjioceoij E and Eustathius (note on Od. 1. lOo), Arji'ovoj 
GD^hhisx, ArjtSveos Bo by corr., Ariiwpos k. 

2 (paai, Corais, for <pi}<Ti; so the later editors. 

^ ilffi, Palmer, for iarl (all MSS. except nox, which omit 
the word). 

* n6Keis X, 7r6\is other MSS. 

° oZ, Casaubon, for avrov ; so the later editors. 

' TrapaToircev g, vapaTS-nocs Corais. 

' KpiduTTi, h and by corr. in D, Kopivdwrr} BC/clnosx ami 
'iiui/i. pr. in D and in margin of h. 
6o 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 2. 20-21 

against thfin with Cephalus tlie son of Deioneus, an 
exile from Athens, and gave over their government 
to him, but the poet says that they were marshalled 
under Mentes,^ calling them pirates,^ as indeed all 
the Teleboans are said to be pirates. So much, then, 
for the islands lying oft" Acarnania. 

21. Between Leucas and the Ambracian Gulf is a 
salt-lake, called Myrtuntium. Next after Leucas 
one comes to Palaerus and Alyzia, cities of Acar- 
nania ; of these, Alyzia is fifteen stadia distant from 
the sea, where is a harbour sacred to Heracles and 
a sacred precinct. It is from this precinct that one 
of the commanders carried to Rome the "Labours of 
Heracles," works of Lysippus, which were lying out 
of place where they were, because it was a deserted 
region. Then one comes to Cape Crithote, and the 
Echinades, and the city Astacus, which bears the 
same name as the city near Nicomedeia and Gulf 
Astacenus,^ the name being used in the feminine 
gender. Crithote also bears the same name as one 
of the little cities in the Thracian Chersonesus.* 
All parts of the coast between these places have 
good harbours. Then one comes to Oeniadae and 
the Acheloiis ; then to a lake of the Oeniadae, 
called Melite, which is thirty stadia in length and 
twenty in breadth ; and to another lake, Cynia, 

1 Od. 1. 180. * Od. 15. 427. 

3 (lulf of Ismid (see 12. 4. 2). 

* See Frag. 55 (56), Vol. Ill, p. 377. 



" ai, Corais and Meiueke insert. 

" e-r]KvKu>s, Mflller-Diibner and .\Ieineke emend to kviKus. 
."• iroXlxvri, Jones, for iro\ix^"n- 

61 



STRABO 

/xrjfco'i Kat 7rXaT09, rpir)] 6' Oupia ttoWm rov- 
rwv fiLKporepa' i) /xei' ovv Kfi't'a Kal eKhihfoaiv 
et9 Tr/y ddXarrav, a'l Xotiral h viripKeii'Tat oaov 
riiiKTTdhiov' eW^ ]ijurivo<;, et? ov dtro tov Aktlov 
ardhioi k^aKocTLoi ef3So/xi]/covTa' /xeTo. Be tov Kurjvov 
TO opo^ i) \a\Ki'i, f]v XuXkluv •*• €ipy]Kev Xpre^ii- 
hoipo<;-^ eld^ i) TlXevpoov, eW rj ' WiKvpva ^ Kcofirj, 
7/? vTrepKeirai K.aXvB(t)v iv rfj fxeaoyala cnahioi^ 
rpu'iKovTa' irepl he rr/v }s.aXvB(ovd iarri ro tov 
Aacbpiov^ ^ AttoXXcovo^ iepov eW 6 Tacfxaaab^;^ 
C 460 70 6po<i, eZra ^laKvvla 7roXt9, gItu ^ioXvKpeia 
Kol TrXrjcriov to AvTcppiov, to rrj? AtTOjXta? 
opiov Kal Tr)^ AoKpi,6o<i, et? o arro tov Kvipov 
cTTahioi irepl eKUTOv eiKocrr 'Aprefxiboopo^ p,ev 
ovx.^ ovTO) irepl t?/? etVe \aXKL8o<; ecTe XaX/ct'a? 
TOV 6pov<i, fieTa^v tov W^^Xcoov Kal tt]<; HXev- 
p6i)vo<; iSpvcov avTijv, ' ATroXXoScopof; 8e, o)? irpo- 
Tcpov elirov, iiirep rr)? ^loXvKpeia^ kol ttjv 
yiaXKiSa Kal tov Tacbtacra'ov'^ Kal tt]v 8e ^ 
K.aXvBc!}va fxeTa^v iSpvaOal, (prjac ^ t^? re XlXeu- 
piovo^ Kal T^? Xa\«tSo9* el fir] dpa eTepov deTeov 
TO 77/909 YlXevpSivi opo^ XaXKLav KaXovfxevov, 
€Tepov he ttjv XaX/ctSa ttjv 7rp6<; MoXf/c/je/a. 
e'cTTf he Ti<i Kal ^^ 7Tp6<i tt) K.aXvho)VL Xifiv)] 

^ XaXflav DChsz, XaKiav no, XaA/ceioj' editors before 
I\iauier. 

^ Kramer would transpose eW t) TWtvpwv . . . UpSv back 
to a position before el6' 6 Ev-nvos kt\. (See his note and 
MuUer's Ind. Far. Zed. p. 1009.) 

^ 'A\iKvpva (see Steph. Byz. .i.v.), the editors, for AiKvpya. 

* Aaippiov, Palmer, for Aa<ppaiov ; so the later editors. 
^ Tacpiaaais, the editors, for Ta<pia<ros. 

* ovx, before ovra>, Meineke inserts, from conj. of Du Theil. 

62 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 2. 21 

which is twice the size of Melite, both in length and 
in breadth ; and to a third, Uria, which is much 
ymaller than those. Now Cynia empties into the 
sea, but the others lie about half a stadium above it. 
Then one comes to the Evenus, to which the dis- 
tance from Actium is six hundred and seventy 
stadia. After the Evenus one comes to the moun- 
tain Chalcis, which Artemidorus has called Chalcia ; 
then to Pleuron ; then to the village Halicyrna, 
above which, thirty stadia in the interior, lies 
Calydon ; and near Calydon is the temple of the 
Laphrian Apollo. Then one comes to the mountain 
Taphiassus ; then to the city Macynia ; then to 
Molycreia and, near by, to Antirrhium, the boundary 
between Aetolia and Locris, to which the distance 
from the Evenus is about one hundred and twent}^ 
stadia. Artemidorus, indeed, does not give this 
account of the mountain, whether we call it Chalcis 
or Chalcia, since he places it between the Acheloiis 
and Pleuron, but Apollodorus, as I have said before,^ 
places both Chalcis and Taphiassus above Molycreia, 
and he also says that Calydon is situated between 
Pleuron and Chalcis. Perhaps, however, we should 
postulate two mountains, one near Pleuron called 
Chalcis, and the other near Molycreia called Chalcis. 
Near Calydon, also, is a lake, which is large and 

1 10. 2. 4. 

' TafptacTffov, the editors, for TapiaTffov B, Tacpiados other 
MSS. 

^ 5*', Kramer, from corij. of Tzschucke, for re (BCDhl) ; 
other MSS. omit the word. 

* 07j(n, the editors, for (paai. 

*° For Tts Kot Pahner conj. 'Ofdts ; so Kiepert in Tab. 
Grace, 

63 



STRABO 

HeydXt] Kal €voy}ro<i,^ i)v e')(^ovaiv oi ev Ilar/jai? 
VwixaloL. 

22. T?}? he fxeaoyaLa<; Kara /xev t7ju 'AKupvaviav 
' \Lpvcn-)(aiov<; Tivd<i (^y^aiv ^ KiroWohfiipo^ XeyeaSai, 
o)v ^ AXk^luv fxefxvrjTar 

oi)8' 'Kpvcrl^(^alo^ ovSe ^ Troi/uitjv, 
dWa Hiaphicov dir aKpdv. 

Kara Se rr^v AlrcoXiav r)v ClXevo'i, ^? ^ iv toU 
AlrcoXiKO) KaraXoyw /xefxvriTai "O/jLijpo^, tX^V ^' 
avT7]<; XetVerai p.6vov €yyu<i rrj^ TLXevpcovo^i viro 
Tw ' ApaKvvOui-^ TJv Be Kal Aucrt/xa;^ta TrXijcriov, 
t)(f)avi(TfMev7j Kul avTi], Keifievr) Trpo? tjj Xifivrj, rfj 
vvv fj,ev Avarifxaxt'Ci, irporepov 6' "TSpa, fiera^v 
n.Xevpwvo'i Kal Apaivoi]^ iroXewq, i) km/jLT] /xev 
i)v -npoTepov, KaXovfievr) KwvcoTra,^ Krlafia 6' 
virrjp^ev Wpaiv6i)<;, t^9 TlToXe/j-aiov tov SeuTepou 
yvvaiKos cifxa Kal dSeX^^}?, ev(^v6><; eTriKeifiivT) 
TTft)? TTj Tou Wx^Xaov Sia/Sdaer TrapaTrXija-tov Se 
Ti Kal 1) TlvX}']V7} Tft) 'ilXepo) ireTTOvdev. orav Se 
<^fj rrjv YiaXvhSiva alnecdv re Kal ireTpi^eaaav, 
aTTo ri]^ x^P^^ 8eKT€ov' etp-qrai ydp, ore Tr]v 
^dypav St^a BceX6vT€<; rr/v fiev opeivrjv Kal eTriKTt]- 
Tov T7J K.aXvS(t)vi -npoaeveip-av, rrjv irehidha he rfi 
WXevpoivi. 

23. Nfi/t nev ovv eKTreTrovyjrai Kal uTrrjyopevKev 
VTTO rtov (Tvvex<^v TToXep-wv i] t ^ AKapvavia Kal 
AltcoXol, Kaddirep Kal iroXXd twv dXXcov edvSiv 

* evvi\ios JiCDgfll/tox ; eiixpuxos k. 

' Before iroi/j.-nv Beigk (note to Frag. 24) reads merely ou54 
instead of Ka\ i/Scof atou 54 DUis/i, KaKvSuvtou 54 B^, KAvSaiyaiov 
5e C ; Ka\vSd>vtos ovS4, Corais from conj. of Casaubon. 

64 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 2. 21-23 

well supplied with fisli ; it is held by the Romans 
who live in Patrae. 

22. Apollodorus says that in the interior of 
Acarnania there is a people called Erysichaeans, 
who are mentioned by Alcman : " nor yet an Ery- 
sichaean nor shepherd, but from the heights of 
Sardeis." ^ But Olenus, which Homer mentions in 
the Aetolian catalogue, was in Aetolia, though only 
traces of it are left, near Pleuron at the foot of 
Aracynthus. Near it, also, was Lysimachia ; this, 
too, has disappeared ; it was situated by the lake 
now called Lysimachia, in earlier times Hydra, 
between Pleuron and the city Arsinoe. In earlier 
times Arsinoe was only a village, and was called 
Conopa, but it was first founded as a city by Arsinoe, 
who was both wife and sister of Ptolemy the 
Second ; ^ it was rather happily situated at the ford 
across the Acheloiis. Pylene ^ has also suffered a 
fate similar to that of Olenus. When the poet calls 
Calydon both '' steep " ^ and " rocky," ^ one should 
interpret him as referring to the country ; for, as I 
have said,^ they divided the country into two parts 
and assigned the mountainous part, or Epictetus,'^ to 
Calydon and the level country to Pleuron. 

23. At the present time both the Acarnanians and 
the Aetolians, like many of the other tribes, have 
been exhausted and reduced to impotence by their 

^ Frag. 24 (Bergk). * She married him in 279 b.c. 

3 Cf. 10. 2. 6. « Iliad 13. 217. « mad 2. 6-10. 

« 10. 2. 3. ' i.e. Aetolia the " Acquired " (10. 2. 3). 

' ^s, Corais, for is ; so the later editors. 

* 'ApaKi'vOif, the editors, for ' \paKivdcf. 

^ KuvJuTza, Tzschuckc, for Kovdi-wa ; so the later editors. 

65 



ST R A BO 

TrXelarov fievroi y^povov avvifieivav \It(o\ol fiera 
rcov ^ AKapvdvcdv 7rp6<; re tov<; Ma/feSoj-a? Kal 
TOi"? aWou<; ' EWT^ya?, varara hk Koi Trpo? 
'Pcofiaiov; Trepl t?}9 avTovofiia^ dycovt^ofievoi. 
iirel he Kal"Op.r]po<; avroiv iirl ttoXu fiepivi-jTai koi 
01 aXkoL TTOirjjai, re Kal av'yypa(f>eU', ra fikv 
evcn'ip.w'^ re Kal o/xoXoyoufievox;, ra h r^rrov 
yva>pipa)<i {KaOdirep rovro ^ Kal iv toI<; r;8>; 
\e;!^^etcri irepl avrwv cnroBeSetKrai), TrpoaXrjTrreov 
Kal TMV iraXaiorepcov riva rcov apx^j^ i-)(^ovra)v 
rd^iv rj BiaTropov/iievcov. 
C 461 24. KvOix; iirl ri]^ \\Kapvai>ia<;, on fiev avrrjv 
Aaeprrj^ Kal ol K.e(baXXr]ve^ KareKrrjaavro, 
eiprjrai r)/j.li>, rlvwv he Karey^ovrwv rrporepov, 
TToWol p.€V eipy^KacFLv, ov^ ofxoXoyovfieva Be 
elrrovrcov, emc^ain] he, diroXeiTrerai ri<; X0709 rip.lv 
hLairT]rcKO<; rrepl avrcjv. (f)acrl yap rov<; Ta^t'ou? 
re Kal TriX€^6a<;X€yop.evov<; oiKetv rr]v 'AKapvaviav 
vporepov, Kal rov y)yep6va avroov K.e(f}aXov rov 
Karaaradevra vtto Wp^Lrpvwvo'i Kvpiov rcov irepl 
ri)v Tdcf)ov v7]acov Kvpieuaat, Kal ravr>]<i t»}>? '^capa'i' 
evrevdev he Kal ro aTTo rov AevKdra vopn^opevov 
dXpa rovrcp rrpcorfp 7rpocrp,v0evoucnv, co<; irpoeipi]- 
rat. 6 he 7roi7}TT]<;, ore pev ?)pxov ol Tdcf)ioi rcov 
^AKapvdvcov, rrplv 17 toi)? Ke(f)aXXi]va<; kuI rov 
Aaeprrjv eireXOelv, ov Xeyei, htori h' rjaav cfyiXoi 
Tot9 '\9aKy]aioi<; Xeyei, wcrr' 17 ovh' 6Xco<; errrjp^av 

* toCto )Uk rovrov T{CD/(/.7. 



1 10. 2. S, 10. * Cf. 10. 2. 9. 

66 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 2. 23-24 

fontiiiual wars. Howeveiv, for a very long time the 
Aetolians, together with the Acarnanians, stood 
firm, not only against the Macedonians and the 
other Greeks, but also finally against the Romans, 
when fighting for autonomy. But since they arc 
often mentioned by Homer, as also both by the 
other poets and by historians, sometimes in words 
that are easy to interpret and about which there is 
no disagreement, and sometimes in words that are 
less intelligible (this has been shown in what I have 
already said about them), I should also add some of 
those older accounts which afford us a basis of fact 
to begin with, or are matters of doubt. 

24. For instance, in the case of Acarnania, Laertes 
and the Cephallenians acquired possession of it, as I 
have said ; ^ but as to what people held it before 
that time, many writers have indeed given an 
opinion, but since they do not agree in their state- 
ments, which have, however, a wide currency, there 
is left for me a word of arbitration concerning them. 
They say that the people who were called both 
Taphians and Teleboans lived in Acarnania in earlier 
times, and that their leader Cephalus, who had been 
set up by Amphitr3'on as master over the islands 
about Taphos, gained the mastery over this country 
too. And from this fact they go on to add the 
myth that Cephalus was the first to take the leap 
from Leucatas which became the custom, as I have 
said before.^ But the poet does not say that the 
Taphians were ruling the Acarnanians before the 
Cephallenians and Laertes came over, but only that 
they were friends to the Ithacans, and therefore, 
according to the poet, they either had not ruled over 
the region at all, or had yielded Acarnania to the 

67 



STRABO 

TOiiv TOTTwv Kar avrov, rj e/foyre? irapeyuiprjaav 17 
Kol avvoiKOt iyevovTO. ^alvovTai 8e kuI €K 
AaKeSacfiovo'i riv€<; e-jroLKrjTai rijv 'AKapuavlav, 
01 fxeT 'iKapLOV Tov TI'TjveXoTrrj^ iraTpo'i' Kai yap 
TovTov Koi roiis dB€X(f)ov<i avrt]<i ^ci)VTa<; irapahi- 
haxJLv 7roiriTT)<i Kara rrjv ^OBvaaeiav 

04 iraTpo'i fM€V €9 OLKov a-nepptyadL veeadai 
'iKupiov, w? «' avTO^ ieSvcocrairo Ovyarpa- 

Ka\ irepl rcov a8eX(l)(ov 

^S?; yap pa iraTijp re Kaaiyvijroi re KeXovrai 
Yivpvfidx^^ yrjp,a(TOai. 

ovre yap iv AaKeSaifiovi mdavov avrov<; OLKelv 
ov yap av Ti]\e/jLa^o<i irapa MeveXcift) Kari'iyero, 
a(f)iyfX€vo<; eKelae' ovr ciWrjv o'iK7]cnv irapeiXi^^a- 
p.ev avrwv. (pacrl 8e TvvBdpecov Kal rov dhe\<^ov 
avrov rbv^JKupiov,^ iKTreaovra'i vTTo iTTTroKoiovro^; 
ri]<; oiK€La<;, ekOelv rrapa Seariov, rov rcov TlXev- 
pcovLcov dpxovra, Kal GvyKaraKrrjaaaQai rijv 
irepav ^ rov 'A^eActou ttoWtjv ^ iirl p.eper rov fisv 
ovv Tvi'Bdpewv eiraveXOelu oiKaBe, ytjpavra A)]8av, 
rrjv rov Seariov dvyarepa, rov 8' ^iKapiov* im- 
pielvat,^ tt}? ^AKapvavLa<; e^ovra pepo<i, Kal rsKvo- 
iroLrjaaaOac ri'-jv re TlrjveXoTnjv €K HoXvKdari}^ 
T//9 Avyaiov 6vyarp6<i Kal tou? d8eX(f)ov^ avrrj<i. 
rjfi€l<; pev ovv direhei^apev iv rw KaraXoyw rwv 
veoiv Kal rov<i \\Kapvdva<; Karapidpovpevov<i Kal 

^ 'Ixdpioy, Xylander, for "iKapoy. 

- For rhv irioav (t)]v itepalav BE^•>lo) Tzscliucke and Corals, 
from conj. of Casaubon, rear] t5)s itepaias. 
3 ■,r6\iv CDEghisIx, iroWd k. 

68 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 2. 24 

Ithacans voluntarily, or had become joint-occupants 
with them. It appears that also a colony from Lace- 
daenion settled in Acarnania, I mean Icarius, father 
of Penelojje, and his followers ; for in the Odyssei/ 
the poet represents both Icarius and the brothers of 
Penelope as living : " who ^ shrink from going to the 
house of her father, Icarius, that he himself may 
exact the bride-gifts for his daughter," ^ and, con- 
cerning her brothers, " for already her father and 
her brothers bid her marry Eurymaclnis " ; ^ for, in 
the first place, it is improbable that they were living 
in Lacedaemon, since in that case Telemachus would 
not have lodged at the home of Menelaiis when he 
went to Lacedaemon, and, secondly, we have no 
tradition of their having lived elsewhere. But they 
say that Tyndareus and his brother Icarius, after 
being banished by Hippocoon from their home-land, 
went to Thestius, the ruler of the Pleuronians, and 
helped him to acquire possession of much of the 
country on the far side of the Acheloiis on condition 
that they should receive a share of it ; that Tyn- 
dareus, however, went back liome, having married 
Leda, the daughter of Thestius, whereas Icarius 
stayed on, keeping a portion of Acarnania, and by 
Polycaste, the daughter of Lygaeus, begot both 
Penelope and her brothers. Now I have already 
set forth that the Acarnanians were enumerated in 
the Catalogue of Ships,* that they took part in the 

1 The suitors. » Od. 2. 52. » Od. 15. 16. 

* 10. 2. 25; but Homer nowhere specifically mentions the 
" Acarnanians." 



* "iKapof MSS. except E. 

^ eni^ie'vai, Meincke emends to 



virofj.f'tvat. 

6y 



STRABO 

KaTCOvofid^opTo 01 re rrjv uKTrjv olKovvre<i koX 
en 

01 T ijrreipov e%oi/ ^5' avTiirepac' ive/xovro. 

oine 8' 7) TjTTeipo'i ^ hKapvavia Mvofid^eTo ttq), ovO* 
rj d/crrj AevKO,^. 
C 462 25. 'E0opo9 8' ou cfyijai avcnpajevaai' 'AX«- 
fialcova ^ yap rov W/.i(f)idp€co, arparevcravTa ^ fierd 
Aio/xi']8ov^ Kal Tcov dWcov ^ETTiyovcov Kal Karop- 
6d)aavra rov tt/oo? ^rj^aiov^ ttoXc/xov, (TvveXdelv 
^Loprjhet Kal Ti/xcopijaaaOai fxer avrov tou? 
OiV€Q)<; i\dpov<>, TTapahovra 8' iK€lvoc<; ^ rrjv 
AlrcoXiav, avrov et<? rrjv ^AKapvaviav irapeXdelv 
Kal ravrrjv Karaarpe(j)€cr6ai. ^ A<y a fie fivova B', iv 
rovrcp rol<i ^Apyeioi^ eirideixevov, Kparrjcrai paSi(o<;, 
rcov rrXeiaroiv roi'i irepl Aiop^TjSr} avvaKoXovdr)- 
crdvrcov. fiixpov 8' varepov eTrnrea-ovcrr]'; t^9 eu' 
"iXiov i^oSov, heiaavra, fit] drrovro^; avrov Kara 
rr)V arpareiav enaveXdovre^; o'lKaBe ol irepl rov 
Atop,i]8rj {Kal yap uKoveaOai /xeydX^jv irepl avrov 
avvearpap,p,evt]v hvvap.iv) Karda-)(^ouv rrjV fidXcara 
rrpoarjKovaav avToc<; dp')(^r)v, rov fiev yap 'ASpda- 
rov, rov Se rov 7rarpb<; elvai KXi]pov6p,ov, ravra 8r] 
hLavorjdevra KoXelv avrov<; eirl re rrjv rov "A/jyof? 
dTroXrj-yjnv Kal rrjv Koivwviav rov iroXep-ov rov 
p,ev ovv AiOfitjSr) ireiaOevra /jLeraa^^eiv r7J<; crrpa- 
rela^i, rov he ' AXk jxaioova dyavaKrovvra firj 
(ppovria-at' hid he rovro /jLrjhe KOivcovrjaat rrj<; 
arparela^ pLovov; roii^ ^AKapvdva<i rol^" EXXr]cn' 

^ ' AXKnaiciiva, Meineke emends to 'A\Kfi4uva. 

^ ffvcrrparetxravra do. 

^ fKeiuw C (?) and editors before Kramer. 

70 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 2. 24-25 

expedition to Ilium, and tliat among tliese were 
named "those who lived on the ' shore/ "^ and 
also "those who held the mainland and dwelt in parts 
opposite," ^ But as yet neither had the mainland 
been named " Acarnania'' nor the shore "Leucas." 

25. Ephorus denies that they joined the Trojan 
expedition, for he says that Alcmaeon, the son of 
Amphiaraiis, made an expedition with Diomedes and 
the other Epigoni, and had brought to a successful 
issue the war against the Thebans, and then joined 
Diomedes and with him took vengeance upon the 
enemies of Oeneus, after which he himself, first 
giving over Aetolia to them,^ passed into Acarnania 
and subdued it ; and meanwhile Agamemnon attacked 
the Argives and easily prevailed over them, since the 
most of them had accompanied the army of Dio- 
medes ; but a little later, when the expedition 
against Ilium confronted him, he conceived the fear 
that, when he was absent on the expedition, Dio- 
medes and his army might come back home (and in 
fact it was reported that a great army had gathered 
round him) and seize the empire to which they had 
the best right, for one* was the heir of Adrastus and 
the other ^ of his father;^ and accordingly, after think- 
ing this all over, Agamemnon invited them both to 
resume possession of Argos and to take part in the 
war ; and although Diomedes was persuaded to take 
part in the expedition, Alcmaeon was vexed and 
refused to heed the invitation ; and for this reason 
the Acarnanians alone refused to share in the ex- 

i " Shore of the mainland," Od. 24. 378. 

* See 10. 2. 8. ^ Diomedes and Oeneus. 

• Diomedes. * Alcmaeon. * Amphiaraiis 

71 



SIR A BO 

rouTOf? B , ft)9 elKo<i, TOi<i Xoyoi^ e7raKo\ouOi](TavT€'i 
01 AKappfiva aocplaacrdai 'Pa)/jiaLOu<i Koi rrjv 
avTOvofiiav Trap" avroov e^avvaacrdac, Xeyorre?, 
0)9 ov fieTaa^oiev /xovoi t?}? inl tov<; 7rpoy6vov<; 
70 y? e/ceivoov a-rpareia^:' ovre yap iv tu> AItcoXlku) 
KaraXoyo) (f)pd^oivTO, ovre Ihia' ovhe yap oXw? 
Tovvofia Tovr ep,^epoLro iv toi<; eireaiv. 

26. 'O fxev ovv"K(f>opo'i, irpo tS)v TpcoiKcov 17S7/ 
Ttjv ^ Axapvaviav vno Tft> ^AXK/j,ai(ovi rroii'^aa^, ro 
T€ "Apyo^ TO 'A/j,(f)i\o)(^iKov ixelvov Kriajxa airo- 
4>aLV€c Kol rrjv 'AKupvaviav Mvo/xdcrOuL (prjcrlv 
(iTTo rov 7ratB6<; avTou AKapvdvo<i, 'A/i<^fX6;^oi/9 Be 
diro Tov dS€X<f)ov Apcjii\6)(ov coare eKiriinet, el<i 
rd Trapd rrjv Ofj,i]piKT]v laropiav Xeyo/xeva. 
^ovkvBIBt]^ 8e Kal dXXoc rov 'A/x<f)L\o)(ov, uTro 
T^9 aTparela<i t^? T/jwi/c/}? eiraviovra, ovk dpeaKo- 
fjL€vov Tol^; ev "Apyei, ravTrjv olKt]aai (f)aai ^ rrjv 
^(opav, 01 p,ev Kara SiaBoxv^ iJKOvra t^? tov 
d8€X(f)0v Bwaareia^, 01 S' aWw?. KaX IBia fiev 
TTcpl ' AKapvdvwv ravra XeyoiT dv, KOivfj B oaa 
Kal TOt? AIt(i)Xiko2<; eTTinXeKeTai vvv epov/xev, tu 
AItcoXlku X€yovT€<i e'^e^j}?, oaa TrpoaXa^elv roi? 
elprjpievoL^ eyvwfiev. 

' (pr](Ti BChhw. 
1 Iliad 2. 638 ff. « 2. 68, 



72 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 2. 25-26 

pedition with the Greeks. And it was probably by 
following this account that the Acarnanians tricked 
the Romans, as they are said to have done, and 
obtained from them their autonomy, urging that 
they alone had had no part in the expedition 
against the ancestors of the Romans, for they were 
named neither in the Aetolian catalogue ^ nor 
separately, and in fact their name was not men- 
tioned in the Epic poems at all. . 
26. Ephorus, then, makes Acarnania subject to 
Alcmaeon even before the Trojan VV^ar ; and he not 
only declares that the Amphilochian Argos was 
founded by him, but also says that Acarnania was 
named after Alcmaeon's son Acarnan, and the 
Amphilochians after Alcmaeon's brother Amphi- 
lochus ; therefore his account is to be cast out 
amongst those contrary to Homeric history. But 
Thucydides^ and others say that Amphilochus, on 
his return from the Trojan expedition, was dis- 
pleased with the state of affairs at Argos, and took 
up his abode in this country, some saying that he 
came by right of succession to the domain of his 
brother, others giving a different account. So much 
may be said of the Acarnanians specifically ; I shall 
now speak of their history in a general way, in so 
far as their history is interwoven with that of the 
Aetolians, relating next in order the history of the 
Aetolians, in so far as I have thought best to add 
to my previous narrative. 



73 



STRABO 



III 



1. Tou? ^e K.ovpfjTa'i tmv fxev \\Kapvacn, rwv 
8' AiTfoXoi"? 7rpoa-v€fx6vroiv, koI tcov fieu e/c Kpj;T7??, 
r&v 3' e^ EOySota? to y€i>o<; elvai (fiaaKovrcov, 

C IG3 eTTeiSij kol 'O/iT/po? ainoiv jj.efxvqTai, ra irap 
€K€ivov TrpcoTov iTTtaKeTTTeov. otovTai S' avrov 
Xejeii^ AIt(i)\ov<; p.aXXov i) ^A.Kapvava<i, elirep ol 
WopdaovihaL ))aav 

"A'ypio'i rjBk Me'Xaf, T/OtTaro? 8' rjp iTTTroTn 

(pK€ov B' iv UXevpMVC kol alireLvfi \s.a\vh(ji)vi. 

avTai 8' elalv AlrcoXiKol 7r6\ei9 ap^orepai kuI 
(pepovrai if AItcoXiku) KaraXoyai, cocrre, eVei rrji^ 
TlXevpcova OLKOvvre'i (pacvovTai kol kut avTov ol 
K.ovpT}Te^, AiTcoXol av elev. ol B' avTiXeyovre^i 
Tft) rpoTTCp T?}? (f)pda-€co<i TrapdyovTai, orav <j>f], 

K.ovprjTe<i t' €fid)(0VT0 Kal AltcoXoI p.evexdpp-cii 
a.fi<f)l TToXiv KaXvBcova. 

ovBe yap av Kvpio)<i elirev ovr(o<i' ifid-^ovro Botwrot 
KoX @7}^aloi 77/90? dXXrjXov^;, ovB' Wpyeloi Koi 
WeXoTTOvvrjaioi. iBeL)(Oi] B' iv Tol<i kpirpoadev, on 
iarl Ka\ OpijpiKov to e'^o? tovto t/)? (^pd<jew<i koi 
vTTo TOiv dXXcov TTOirjTiov TeTpcfifievov TOVTO fiev 
ovv evaTToXoyrjTov. eKeivoi Be XeyeTcocrav ttw? av 
pLT) 6ixoedv€i<i oj/Ta? /i7;S' AItq)Xov<; tou? UXevpco- 
viov<; iv TOt? AiTcoXoh KUTeXeyev. 

2. "E<^o/)o? Be T0v<i AIt(i)\ov<; eiTToov edvoi; elvai 
p,rjBe7rci)7roT€ yeyevrj/ievov v(f)' eTepoi^, dXXa ttuvtu 

» Tliud 14. 117. * ///«'/ 14. 116. 

74 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 3. 1-2 

III 

1. As for the Curetes, some assign them to the 
Acarnanians, otliers to the Aetolians ; and some 
assert that the tribe originated in Crete, but others 
in Euboea; but since Homer mentions them, I should 
first investigate his account. It is thought that lie 
means that they were Aetolians rather than Acar- 
nanians, if indeed the sons of Porthaon were " Agrius 
and Melas, and, the third, Oeneus the knight";^ 
"and they lived in Pleuron and steep Calydon." ^ 
These are both Aetolian cities, and are referred to 
in the Aetolian catalogue ; and therefore, since, 
even according to the poet, the Curetes obviously 
lived in Pleui'on, they would be Aetolians. Those 
writers who oppose this view are misled by Homer's 
mode of expression when he says, " the Curetes were 
lighting, and the Aetolians steadfast in battle, about 
the city of Calydon " ;^ for, they add, neither would 
he have spoken appropriately if he had said, " the 
Boeotians and the Thebans were fighting against one 
another" ; or "the Argivesand the Peloponnesians." 
But, as I have shown heretofore,* this habit of ex- 
pression not only is Homeric, but is much used by 
the other poets also. This interpretation, then, is 
easy to defend ; but let those writers explain how 
the poet could catalogue the Pleuronians among the 
Aetolians if they were not Aetolians or at least of 
the same race. 

2. Ephorus,^ after saying that the Aetolians were a 
race which had never become subject to any other 



« Iliad 9. 529. « 8. 3. 8, 10. 2. 10. 

• See Dictionary in Vol. I, 



75 



STRABO 

Tov fivrj/xovevo/Jievov ^povov fMefievrj/cb^; aTTOpOijrov 
Sid re ^ Ta9 8v(TX0)pLa<i roiv tottmv koI hia Trjv 
irepX TOV TToXefjLOV tKTKrjcnv, i^ dp^rj<; fieu (f)r](Tiv ^ 
arraaav rrjv x^P^^ K.ovpi]ra<; Karaa^^eip, d(f)iKO- 
fievov 8' €^"HX,tSo9 AItmXov tov ^RvSvfiio}vo<; koI 
Tol<i 7ro\e/iioi<i KpaTovvTo<i avTcov, Tov<i fiev K.ovpr]- 
ra<i el<i rrjV vvv KaXovfxevrjv ^ KKapvaviav vtto- 
y^coprjcrai, tou? S' XlrtoXov'^ avyKaTeXdovra'i 
'ETretoi? Ta9 dp-)(o.iordra<i KTLaai to)v ev AlTcoXla 
iroXecov, SeKdrrj 8' ^ varepov yeved ttjv^HXiv vtto 
'O^uXou TOV At'/Lioro? crvuoiKiadPjvai, irepaiaiBevTO'i 
e/c T^9 AtTcoXta?. TrapaTtdrja-i 8e tovtcov fiapTupia 
Ta i7nypdp,fj,aTa, to fiev iv ^ep/xotf rr}? AtrcoXta?, 
OTTOV Ta<? dp'x^aipeai.a'i TroietcrOai irdTpiov avTol<i 
iaTLV, kyic^yapayp-evov Trj /Sdaei ttj^ AItcoXov 
eiKovo^' 

'^(opy]<; olKicfTrfpa, 'nap' 'AXcfieiov ttotc Bivac<i 
6pe(f)0ePTa,^ aTahiwv lyeiTOv 'OXvfnridBo^i, 

^^pSufiicovof TratS' AltcoXoI topB' dpedrjKap 
AItwXov, a(ji€Tipa<; p,prjfi dpeTr]<i eaopdv. 

TO 8' ev rfi d'yopa toop HXeitov^ eVi to) 'O^vXov 
dpSpidvTr 

AiT&)\6<? TTOre Toi'Se Xiiroov avT6)(^6ova Sfjfxop 
KTTjaaTO K.ovp)]Tiv 'yrjp, Bopl ttoXXu Kap,(i)V' 
C 464 T^9 S' avTr]<i yeved^ SeKaToanopo'i AXp.ovo<i 
vi6<i 
"O^vXo^ dp-yairjv eKTicre T-^vSe ttoXiv. 

* T«, Tzschucke, for 5e' ; so the later editors. 

* (priaiy, Tzschucke, for (pacn ; so tlie later editors. 

^ StKOTjj 5', Corais, for St/ca, rfj 5' ; so the later editors. 

76 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 3. 2 

people, but throughout all time of which tliere is any 
record had remained undevastated, both because of 
the ruggedness of their country and because of tlieir 
training in warfare, says at the outset that the Curetes 
held possession of tlie whole country, but when 
Aetolus,^ t,he son of Endymion, arrived from Elis and 
overpowered them in war, the Curetes withdrew to 
what is now called Acarnania, whereas the Aetolians 
came back with Epeians and founded tiie earliest 
of the cities of Aetolia, and in the tenth generation 
after that Elis was settled by Oxylus^ the son of 
Haemon, who had crossed over from Aetolia. And 
he cites as evidence of all this two inscriptions, the 
one at Therma in Aetolia (where it is their ancestral 
custom to hold their elections of magistrates), 
engraved on the base of the statue of Aetolus : 
" Founder of the country, once reared beside the 
eddies of the Alpheius, neighbour of the race-courses 
of Olympia, son of f'ndymion, this Aetolus has been 
set up by the Aetolians as a memorial of his valour 
to i)ehold " ; and the other inscription in the market- 
place of the Eleians on the statue of Oxylus : 
" Aetolus once left this autochthonous people, and 
through many a toil with the spear took possession 
of the land of Curetis ; but the tenth scion of the 
same stock, Oxylus, the son of Haemon, founded 
this city in early times." 

1 Cp. S. .S. 33. 2 Cf. 8. 3. 33. 



■* 8pf<pdevra., Jacobs, Corals, and later editoi'-s, foi' T^«</)eVTa 
nx, rfif<pdevTa othei' MSS. 

' 'HKdur, conectlon in n, and Pletho, for AiTuKuf ; so the 
editors. 

77 



STRABO 

3. Tijv /lev ovv av^/^tveiav riji' Trpov d\\T]Xnv<; 
rSiv re '\i\eiwv kuI tmv AItcoXmv 6p6o><i eiriayj- 
fialverai Sia tmv iTTiypafx/xaTayv, i^ofioXoyou/u-evcov 
ajicfiolv 01) rr)v Tvyyeveiav /xovov, aWa kul to 
apxr]yeTa<i aXkrjXuiv elvai' St ou Ka\ci)<i i^eXeyx^t' 
y^evhoixevov<i TOv<i (f)daK0VTa<i t&v fxev AnoiXoyv 
aTToiKov^; elvai tov<; 'HXe/ou?, firj fxevrot twv 
'HXeiwy T0U9 AitmXow. ttjv S' avofxoXoyiav ri}<i 
ypa(f)Ti'i Koi T^9 aTToc^ao-ew? ^aiverai Tt]v avr-qv 
eTTiheheLyixevof; KuvravOa, rjVTrep eirl tov fxavreiov 
Tov iv lleX(f)OL<; irapeaTi^crafJbev. ecTrcov yap a-nop- 
dqrov €K TOV p,vr]/xoveuofj,€vov -x^povov TrapTOf 
Trjv AItcoXluv, ebTTOiv he koI i^ ^PXV^ "^^^ 
Xf^pcLv Tavrrjv tou? ^iHoup^^ra^i Karaaxelv, oi^eiXe 
fiev ^ TOt? elpiiixevoL<i ukoXovOov tovto eVt^e- 
peiv,^ OTi o'l Koupr}T€? Sce/xecvav ew? et? av- 
rov Karexovre<i rrjv AItcoXIuv yfjv, ovtco yap 
e/xeXXev airopdr^ro^; re koi ovherrore eV ^ aX- 
Xoi<i yeyovvla 6pdo}<; Xex^t'jaecrdar 6 5' eKXaOo- 
p,evo^ rrj<; VTroax^o'eco^ ov rovr em^ipei, u.XXa 
rovvavriov, co? u(piKo/jLevov e^ "HXiSo<; AlrooXov 
Kul TOi? 7roXe/xot9 Kparovvro^ avrSiv, ol Kovpr]re<; 
uTTrjXdov eh rrjv ^ AKUpvaviav ri ovv aXXo 
'nopdi](jeb}<i cBiov -rj r(p iroXefxro KparrjOrjvai kuI 
rrjv x<^p(^v eKXirrelv ; rovro Be /cal ro eTriypafipa 
fxaprvpel ro irapa rol<; 'HXetot?, o yap Alr(oX6<i, 

KTrjtraro Kovprjriv yrjv, Sopl iroXXa KafKov. 

^ Corais and Meineke delete roiye, before toTi. 

^ iiri(p4peiy, Meineke, following conj. of Casaubon, for 
<p(peiy. 

' yn-' X, Corais, and Meineke. 
78 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 3. 3 

3. Now through these inscriptions Ephorus cor- 
rectly signifies the kinship of the P^leians and 
Aetolians with one another, since both inscriptions 
agree, not merely as to the kinship of the two 
peoples, but also that each people was the founder 
of the other, through which he successfully convicts 
of falsehood those who assert that, while the Eleians 
were indeed colonists of the Aetolians, the Aetolians 
were not colonists of the Eleians. But here, too, 
Ephorus manifestly displays the same inconsistency 
in his writing and his pronouncements as in the 
case of the oracle at Delphi, which I have already 
set forth ; ^ for, after saying that Aetolia has been 
undevastated throughout all times of which there 
is any record, and after saying also that in the 
beginning the Curetes held possession of this 
country, he should have added as a corollary to 
what he had already said that the Curetes con- 
tinued to hold possession of the Aetolian land down 
to his own time, for only thus could it have been 
rightly said that the land had been undevastated 
and that it had never come under the power of 
others ; and yet, utterly forgetting his promise,^ he 
does not add this, but the contrary, that wlien 
Aetolus arrived from Elis and overpowered the 
Curetes in war, they withdrew into Acarnania. What 
else, pray, is specifically characteristic of a devastation 
than being overpowered in war and abandoning 
the country ? And this is evidenced also by the 
inscription among the Eleians, for Aetolus, it says, 
" through many a toil with the spear took possession 
of the land of Curetis." 

1 9. 3. 11. ' See 9. 3. 11. 

79 



STRABO 

4. "Ierft)9 8i] Tf? av (f)aiij, \i<yeiv avrov arropOi]- 
rop TT]v XlruiXLav, d(f>' ov rovvofxa tout' eo';^e 
ixera ttjv AItcoXov Trapovaiav cOOC u.(f)tjp7]rai 
/cal TOVTOV ^ Tov voij/jLaTO<i Tov \6yov, ^?;cra9 iv 
Tot? €<f>€^rj<i TO fiev irXeldTOv tov \aov tov Sia- 
fjLevovTo<; iv Tot? AiT&)Xot9 toOto elvai, to tmv 
'ETretwv Xiycov,^ (TVfifXL)(devT(t)v 8' avTol<; vaTepov 
PildXeuiv, Ttov afia JioiaiToi<i eV ©erTaXta? dva- 

(TTUVTCOV, KOlvfj flCTa TOVTCOV Trjv ')(^(i)pav KUTa- 
(JXelv. dp OVV TTICTTOV ^ eCTTi X^P'''* "^oXifMOV Tr)V 

dXKoTpiav €Tre\d6vTa<i avyKUTaveifiaadac TOi? 
exovai, firjSev h€0/Mevoi<; Koivcoviwi TOiavTT]<i ; ?) 
TOVTO fxev OV TTKXTov, TO Bc KpaTov/xivoif T0l<i 
07rA.ot? eV t'crot? * avpb^rjvai ttkttov ; ti ovv dWo 
TTopOriai'i fj TO KpaTelaOai Tolf 6tt\oi<; ; Kal 

ATT0XX68(Op0<i S' €ipi]K€P €K Tt}? BoiCtfTia? aTTeX" 

d6vTa<; ^ "Tainan laTopeiadat kol eiroLKOv^ toZ? 
AiTwXot? yevo/j-evov^' 6 S' wairep KaTcopd(i)KO)<; 
eTTikeyei, hioTi ^ tuvtu Kal to, ToiavTa SiaKpt^ovv 
el(oOa/j,ev, oTav fj ti twv Trpay/xuToov i) TravTcXa)^ 
diropov/xevov i) ylrevBrj Bo^ai^ ^xov- 
C 465 5. ToiovTO<; S' &v"E(f>opo<i eTepav o^a)<i KpeiTTOiv 
icTTL' Koi auTO? 6 eairovhacr fxevca ovtq)S eiraLvicTa^ 
avTov IloXuySfo? Kal (f)i']aa<; irepl tcov 'EjWijvikmv 
KaXoix; /lev E^vBo^ov, KaWiaTa 5' "E<j)opov e^>;- 

' TOVTOV, Corais inserts; so the later editors. 

* \fywv, Jones restores to the text. Corais emends to 
il 'H\(iwv ; Meineke deletes. 

^ irtffTov, Groskurd inserts ; so the later editors. 

* Itr 7JS Bklnox. 

* aire\e6vTas, Corais and Meineke emend to fntWoyrcs ; a 
tempting emendation. 

' oTi Bklnox. 

8o 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 3. 4-5 

4. Perhaps, however, one might say that Ephorus 
means that Aetolia was undevastated from the time 
when it got this name, that is, after Aetohis arrived 
there ; but Ephorus has deprived himself of the 
argument in support of this idea by saying in his 
next words that this, meaning the tribe of the 
Epeians, constituted the greatest part of the people 
who stayed on among the Aetolians, but that later, 
when Aeolians, who at the same time with Boeotians 
had been compelled to migrate from Thessaiy, were 
intermingled with them, they in common with these 
held possession of the country. Is it credible, pray, 
that without war they invaded the country of a 
different people and divided it up with its possessors, 
when the latter had no need of such a partnership? 
Or, since this is not credible, is it credible that those 
who were overpowered by arms came out on an 
equality with the victors ? What else, pray, is 
devastation than being overpowered by arms? 
Apollodorus, also, says that, according to history, 
the Hyantes left Boeotia and settled among the 
Aetolians. But Ephorus, as though he had achieved 
success in his argument, adds: "It is my wont to 
examine such matters as these with precision, when- 
ever any matter is either altogether doubtful or 
falsely interpreted." 

5. But though Ephorus is such, still he is better 
than others. And Polybius^ himself, who praises him 
so earnestly, and says concerning the Greek histories 
that Eudoxus^ indeed gave a good account, but 
Ephorus gave the best account of the foundings of 



» Book 34, Frag. 1. 

* Eudoxus of Cuidus (fl. about 350 B.C.). 



St 



STRABO 

yela-dai irepX KTicrewv, avyyeveicov, fxeravaaTci- 
aecov, ap')(T)'yeTO>v, rj/xel'i Be, (^rjai, ra vvv ovra 
SijXdoao/jLev Kal irepl Oecrew's tottwv kuI Biaarrj^d- 
TO)v' rovro yap iariv olKeioTUTOv ^copoypacpLa. 
aWa firjv av ye, m TioXv^ie, 6 ra<; XaoSoyfia- 
TiKa<; ^ d'no(f)d(rei<; irepl tcov hiaarrjixaTwv eiaaywv 
ovK ev Tot9 €^6) T?}? 'EXXctSo? jjiovov, flXXa Kai ev 
T0t9 'EXX?;i^f«ot9, Kal ScBoU ^ evOvva^ ra? fiev 
TloaeiScovio), Ta<; 5' ^ApTe/xiBcopai, tck; S dWoi<i 
TrXeCoar xal rjfilv ovv avyyvcoixriv ^ e^eiv * koI 
ov hvcfx^epaiveiv hel, irapd rcov roiovrcov /iexa- 
(f)epovai TTjv TToWrjv IcTopiav, idv re inaicofiep, 
aXX' dyairav, idv rd TrXeto) tmv ei,pr)/j,evQ)P 
€Tepoi<i dfteivov Xeywfiev, r] ra 7rapaXei<f>6evro. 
Kar dyvotav irpoa-TiOSip.ev. 

6. Tlepl he K.oupi]T(ov eVt Kal roiavra Xeyerai, 
rd fiev iyyvrepo) ovra rrj<i rrepX AiroiXoiv Kal 
^AKapvdvoJv i(rropta<;, rd S' dirwrepw eyyvrepoy 
fiev rd roiavra, ola irpoelprjrai, on rijv ')(^copav, 
f] vvv AlrcoXia KaXelrai, Kovp)]re<i u>kovv, iX06vr€<; 
8' oi AlrooXol fxerd AlrwXov rovrovi e^e^aXov 
et? rrjv ' AKapvaviav Kal ert rd roiavra, on 
rrjv UXevpoovtav vtto K.ovp'^rcov OLKOvfjuevrjv Kal 
K.ovpfjnv irpoaayopevo/xevrjv AtoXet? eireXOovre^ 
d(f>€i,Xovro, Tou? Se Karexovra<; i^e^aXov. 'Ap^^e- 

^ Tos XaohoynariKas, Tzschucke, from conj. of Tyrwhitt, for 
ra\as 6 Soy/iori/coj CV)ghilnosx, tos rSiv &\\a>v SoynariKas B/fc ; 
so the later editors. 

* Kal StSo7s, Caaaubon, for koI StaSovs HCDghikx, koI 
SiaSiSovs Ino, vi) Ala, SlSons Corais ; so the editors after 
Corals. 

' a-vyyvdiiT} Bk ; so Miiller-Diibner. 

82 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 3. 5-6 

cities, kinships, migrations, and original founders, 
'' but I," he says, " shall show the facts as they now 
are, as regards both the position of places and the 
distances between them ; for this is the most appro- 
priate function of Chorography." But assuredly 
you, Polybius, who introduce "popular notions"^ 
concerning distances, not only in dealing with places 
outside of Greece, but also when treating Greece 
itself, must also submit to an accounting, not only 
to Poseidonius,^ and to A{w4^1«d©rTr§7 but to several h^Umac 
others as well. One should therefore pardon me 
as well, and not be vexed, if I make any mistakes 
when I borrow from such writers most of my 
historical material, but should rather be content if 
in the majority of cases I improve upon the accounts 
given by others, or if I add such facts as have else- 
where, owing to lack of knowledge, been left 
untold. 

6. Concerning the Curetes still further accounts, 
to the following effect, are given, some of them 
being more closely related to the history of the 
Aetolians and the Acarnanians, others more re- 
motely. More closely I'elated are such accounts as 
I have given before — that the Curetes were living 
in the country which is now called Aetolia, and that 
the Aetolians came with Aetolus and drove them 
into Acarnania ; and also accounts of this kind, that, 
when Pleuronia was inhabited by the Curetes and 
was called Curetis, Aeolians made an invasion and 
took it away from them, and drove out its occupants. 

1 See 2. 4. 2 and 7. 5. 9. * Cf. 2. 3. 1 tW and 2. 4. li ff. 

* ex«"'> Jones inserts, following a correction in n ; Meineke 
merely indicates a lacuna ; Kramer conj. ffvyyvwuai. 

$3 



ST R A BO 

fiaxo<i 6' 6 Ev/Soev^ (fiijac tou? KovprJTa<; ev 
XuXklBc avi'OLKy]aai, crvve')(^(a^ he Trepl rov 
A)]\(ivrov -nehiov ■Tro\€fiovvTa<;, iireiSr} ol iroXe- 
fiioi tt)? K6fj,r]<i iSpciTTovTO Tfj<; efiirpoaOev Kal 
KaTecnrwv avrov^, oiriadev Kop^oivra^ yeveaOai, 
TO, 8' ep-TTpoaOev Keipeadai' Bw Kai KovprjTWi 
aiTO tt}? Kovpa^ K\t]$rjvar /jLeTOCKijaai 6' et? rr^f 
AlTcoXlav,^ Kal Karaaxovra^ ra irepl YlXevpcova 
')((i)pia rov'i irepav oiKovvra'^ rov ^ A.')(^eXwov Sia to 
uKovpovi (pvXdrTeiv ra? Ke<paXa<; WKupvdva^ 
KaXiaaL? evtOL S' airo rjpu)o<i rovvop,a <r%etv 
eKcirepov to (j)vXov oi S' cltto tov 6pov<i tov 
Kovpiov Toy? K.ovpT]Ta<; ovopLaaOijvai tov vTrepKet- 
/jl€vov tj]<: nXevpcovo^;, elvai re (bvXov tl ActcoXikov 
TOVTO, ft)? 'O0i6t? Kal Aypaiov; Kal Etipurara? 
Kal aXXa irXeiw. o)? h elprjTai, r?}? AtVwXf'a? 
Bi')(^a Si7]p7]!u.€vrj(;, to, fxev irepl KaXvScova tov 
Olvea e)(^eiv (pacri, tt}? Se IlX€vpa>via<; pepo<; /xev 
Tl Kal Tou? Hop6aoviSa<i ex^ti' toi)? Trepl tov 
" Ay p tov, eiirep ^ 
C 466 (pKeov iv YiXevpoivi koI alireLvf) l^aXvhoivi' 

irriKpaTeiv pevToi @€<ttiov t% UXevpcovia^, tov 
Trevdepov tov OtVew?, ^ AXOaia^ he iraTepa, ijyov- 
pevov Tcov K.ovpy]T(i}v' iroXepov S' e'ytiTrecroi/TO? 

' TIKivpteviav iW. 

* KaXiaai, Meineke, from conj. of Kramer, for KaKuadai. 

* Archemachus (fl. not later than the third century B.C.) 
wrote works (now lost) on the History of Euhoea and Meto- 
nymies (Change of Xames). 

* "Cura. " From this passage one might identify the 
"CnreteS" with the " Abantes" (?ee 10. 1, 3), whom Homer 

84 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 3. 6 

Archeiuachus tiie Euboean^ says that the Curetes 
settled at Chalcis, but since they were continually 
at war for the Lelantine Plain and the enemy 
would catch them by the front hair and drag them 
down, he says, they let their hair grow long behind 
but cut short the part in front, and because of this 
they were called "Curetes," from the cut of their 
hair,^ and they then migrated to Aetolia, andj after 
taking possession of the region round Pleuron, called 
the people who lived on the far side of the Acheloiis 
" Acarnanians," because they kept their heads " un- 
shorn." ^ But some say that each of the two tribes 
got its name from a hero ; others, that the Curetes 
were named after the mountain Curium, which is 
situated about Pleuron, and also that this is an 
Aetolian tribe, like the Ophians and the Agraeans 
and the Eurytanians and several others. But, as 1 
have already stated,* when Aetolia was divided into 
two parts, the region round Calydon, they say, was 
in the possession of Oeneus, whereas a certain part 
of Pleuronia was in the possession of the sons of 
Porthaon, that is, Agrius and his followers, if it be 
true that " they lived in Pleuron and steep 
Calydon";* the mastery over Pleuronia, however, 
was held by Thestius (the father-in-law of Oeneus 
and father of Althaea), who was leader of the 
Curetes ; but when war broke out between the 

speaks of as " letting their hair grow long behind " [Iliad 2. 
542). According to a scholium (on Iluul I. c), the Euboeans 
wore their hair long behind " for the sake of manly strength." 
The Greeks in general, however, let their hair grow long all 
over the head in Trojan times, being often referred to by 
Homer as the "long-haired Achaeans." 

^ The Greek adjective used is aKovpovs ("acurus"). 

* 10. 2. 3, 22. * Iliad 14. ll(j, 

85 



STRABO 

TOt? ^€(TTidBai<; TTpb? Olvea kcli yieXeaypoi', w? ^ 
/xei' 6 7T0ir]Tr)<; dfi(f)l (Tv6<; Ke(f>a\fj Kal hepfxaTi, 
Kara ttjv irepl tov Karrpov fivdoXoylav, a)<i Se 
TO €ifc6<i, "nepi /xepo<i tt)? y^capa'i, oinw hi] 
\eyeraf ^ 

Kovpi]T€^ T ep.d)(^ovro Kal XItojXol p,ev€- 
Xdppai. 

raina fiev rd eyyvTepco. 

7. To. 6 dTTcoripco t^9 virodicrew^; Tavrq^, 
dWw<i he hid TT}v 6fio)vv/jLi,av et? ravrov vtto roiv 
IcnopiKoav dy6p.eva, direp KovprjriKa fiev Kal 
Trepl K.ovpj]T(ov Xeyerai, ofioiw^; ojairep kcli rd 
irepl Twv Trjv XlroyXlav Kal ttji' \\Kapvaviav 

olKT](jdvT(i)V, €K€iV(i)V p.€V hia(p€p€l, €01K€ Sk fxdXXoV 

Tw Trepl ^arvpcov Kal ^eiX-rjvcbv Kal Ba/c;;^aii' 
Kal TiTvpo}v Xoyqy roiovTOV<; yap rwa^ haip.ova<i 
rj TrpoTToXovi decbv tov<; Koupi]Td^ (f)aaiv oi 
7Tapah6vT€<; rd KprjriKd Kal rd ^pvyia, Upovp- 
yiai<; rialv ifMireTrXeyfieva rat? fiev p,vaTiKac<i, 
rac<; h' dX'Kaiii ^ irepi re Tqv rov A^o? 7raihoTpo(f)Lav 
rrjv ev ]s.p7]rr) Kal T01/9 tt}? fXT]Tpo<i tcop dewv 
opyiacrfiov^ ev ttj ^pvyia Kal roi? irepl rrju 
'lhr]v TTJV TpcoiKrjv ToTTOi?. ToaavTrj 6' earlv ev 
Tol^ Xoyofi TovTOi<; voiKiXia, rcav fiev toi/<? 
avrov<; toI<; ^Lovprjcri toj)? }s.opv^avTa<; Kal 
Ka/Set'pou? Kal 'I^atou? AaKTvXov<; Kal Te\;y;ti'a9 
diTOi^aLVOvTOiv, Tcov he (Tvyy€veZ<i dXXrjXcov, Kal 

' is is omitted iu all MSS. except E. 

- Dki read 5ia\e'76Tat instead of 5?; Atytrai, 

' SaAou X, instead of fiAAws. 

86 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 3. 6-7 

sons of Thestius, on the one hand, and Oeneus and 
Meleager, on the other ("about tlie hojf's head and 
skin," ^ as the poet sa^-s, following- the mythical 
story of the boar,^ but in all probability about the 
possession of a part of the territory), according to 
the words of the poet, " the Curetes were fight- 
ing, as also the Aetolians steadfast in battle."-* 
So much for the accounts which are more closely 
related. 

7. The accounts which are more remotely related, 
however, to the present subject, but are wrongly, 
on account of the identity of the names, brought 
into the same connection by the historians — I mean 
those accounts which, although they are called 
" Cure tan History " and " History of the Curetes," 
just as if they were the history of those Curetes 
who lived in Aetolia and Acarnania, not only are 
different from that history, but are more like the 
accounts of the Satyri, Sileni, Bacchae, and Tityri ; 
for the Curetes, like these, are called genii or 
ministers of gods by those who have handed 
down to us the Cretan and the Phrygian traditions, 
which are interwoven with certain sacred rites, some 
mystical, the others connected in part with tiie 
rearing of the child Zeus ■• in Crete and in part with 
the orgies in honour of the mother of the gods 
which are celebrated in Phrygia and in the region 
of the Trojan Ida. But the variation in these 
accounts is so small that, whereas some represent 
t-he Corybantes, the Cabeiri, the Idaean Dactyli, and 
the Telchines as identical with the Curetes, others 

» lli(Ld 9. 548. 

* Known in nij'tliology as " the Calydoniaii boar." 

a Iliad 9. 529. « 10. 3. ll. 

87 



STRABO 

fMKp(i<; Tiva^ avroiv 7rpb<i dWijXovi Btacfiopas 
BiaaTeWo/xevwv, <w? 8e tvtto) eltrelv Kal Kara 
TO irXeov, uTravTWi ivdovcnacrTiKoii<; riva<i kuI 
Ba«;!^t«:oi/? Kal ivoifKiw Kivrjcrei /xera Oopv^ov 
Kul yfrocpov Kal KVfi^aXcov Kal rv/jLvdvcov xai 
ottXcov, €71 S' avXov Kal /So?}? eKTrXi'jTTOvra^ 
Kara rd^; i€povpyLa<i ev a)()']fiaTi SiaKuvcou, wcrre ^ 
Kal TO, lepa rpoTTOv Tiva KOivoTroieladai ravTci 
Te Kal TO)v ^ap,odpdKO)v Kat ra ev AjJ/jLvo) Kai 
dXXa TrXeio) hid to Toy? 7Tpo7r6Xou<; Xiyecrdat 
Tou? avTov<;. eari fj>ev ovv OeoXoyiKOf; ird^ o 
TOfouTO? Tpo7ro<i T?}? eiTia K€y\rc(ii^ Kal ovk dXXorpio^ 
T^9 Tov <f}cXna6(t)0v Oewpia^. 

8. ETTfi he Bi ofxoovvfjLLav ^ roiv K.ovp7']Tcov Kal 
01 laropiKol (Tuvijyayov et? ev rd dv6/j,oia, ouS' 
dv ^ avrb<i OKvi^craip^ dv elirelv vepl avTcov eTrl 
irXeov ev irapa^dcrei, irpoadel^ tov ocKetov ry 
laTopia (pva-CKov Xoyov. Kalroi Ti.ve<i Kal avvoc- 
Keiovv ^ovXovrai ravr eKeivoL<;, Kal rv')(ov i'(T(u? 
€')(0VTai Tivo<i TTiOavov' difXv(7roXovvTa<i ydp, a)9 
at Kopai, Tovvofia c~)(^elv tovto tou? ^ Trepl tjjv 
AlrMXlav (pacriv elvai ydp Kai riva roiovTor 
^i]Xov ev To?9 "KXXijcrc, Kal ^Jdova<; €XK€)(lTo)va<; 
C 4:67 elprjcrdai,^ Kal rov<i irepl AecoviSav KT€VL^Ofj.evov<i, 
6t e^tjecrav eh ri]v /j,d')(r]v, KaTa(f)povi]67jvai 

^ ware, Corais, for re ; so the later editors. 

* €7r€l Se 5*' bijidivvixiav, Corais, for iireih)) Je d/u.uuviJ.la (J-rrti Sf 
no, fTTfl 5' 7) ."'•) ; so the later editors. 

' av is omitted by yioi:. 

* Tovs, the editor.s, for rots. 

* After elpvffdai Meineke (from Siephanns, s.v. 'Auupfavla) 
inserts the words koI KpdfivKov koI rfrn-ya ifxrXtKiadai. 

88 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 3. 7-8 

represent thein as all kinsmen of one another and 
dirt'erentiate only certain small matters in which 
they differ in respect to one another ; but, roughly 
speaking and in general, they represent them, one 
and all, as a kind of inspired people and as subject 
to Bacchic frenzy, and, in the guise of ministers, as 
inspiring terror at the celebration of the sacred 
rites by means of war-dances, accompanied by up- 
roar and noise and cymbals and drums and arms, 
and also by flute and outcry ; and consequently these 
rites are in a way regarded as having a common 
relationship, I mean these and those of the Samo- 
thracians and those in Lemnos and in several other 
places, because the divine ministers are called the 
same. However, every investigation of this kind 
pertains to theology, and is not foreign to the 
speculation of the philosopher. 

8. But since also the historians, because of the 
identity of name of the Curetes, have classed to- 
gether things that are unlike, neither should I 
myself shrink from discussing them at greater 
length, by way of digression, adding such account 
of their jihysical habits as is appropriate to history. 
And yet some historians even wish to assimilate 
their physical habits with those others, and perhaps 
there is something plausible in their inidertaking. 
For instance, they say that the Curetes of Aetolia got 
this name because, like "girls," ^ they wore women's 
clothes, for, they add, there was a fashion of this 
kind among the Greeks, and the lonians were called 
"tunic-trailing," ^ and the soldiers of Leonidas were 
"dressing their hair " ^ when they were to go forth 

1 "Corai" (see foot-note on "t.'irls" and "youths," p. 91). 
« e.g. Iliad 13. 685. » Herodotus 7. '20S, •20<>. 

89 



STRABO 

Xeyovcru' vtto tmv Tlepaoiv, iv he rfi fJ^'tXl) 
OavfxacOrjvai. aTrXoi? S' ?; irepl ra<i Kofxa^ 
(^iXoTexyia avvecrTrjKe irepb re dpe^iv koX Kovpav 
Tpi)^6<i, ap,(f)co Se Kopai^; koI K6poi<i iarlv olKela' 
uxTTe TrXeo^aT^w? to eTvpoXoyeiu tov<; K.ovpf]Ta; ^ 
iv eviTopoi Kelrai. elK6<; 8e kol ti-jv evorrXiov 
op^rjcriv iiTTO twv i)aKr)p,evwv ovtq) irepl Kop.i]v 
Koi aroXrjv TrpoiTOV elcra^^Oelaav, iKeivcov K^ovpij- 
Tcop Ka\ov/j.€vo)v, Trapaax^elv irpo^acriv kul toU 
crrpaTLu>TLKOiTepot,<i erepoiv koI top ^lov ivorrXiot' 
e')(pvaiv, waQ op.wvvput'i Koi avTov<{ Kovpi^jTw; 
Xex^fjvai, Tou? iv EuySoia Xiyco kol AlraiXia 
Kal \Kapvavla. Kal"O/jL'r}p0'i 8e tovs veov^ arpa- 
Tta)Ta^ ovTO) Trpoarjyopevae' ^ 

Kpivdfievo'i KovprjTa^ apiarrfa^i Tlava)(^aiMv, 
Boypa 6oi)<i ^ Trapa i^f/o? iveyKelv, oaa 'A^fA./}i 
^di^ol VTTeart]p€V' 

Kal TTuKiv, 

Sa>pa (fiepov KOvprjre<i ^ A-^^^aiOL.^ 

irepl pev ovv t?}? twv Kovpr]Tcov irvpoXoyiat; 
raura. i) 8e ^ ivoTrXio^ op-^rjai^ (npaTLwriKi), 
Kal r) TTvppi^rj SijXol Kai o Ylvppi')(o<i, 6v (paatu 

^ ToTs KovprjtTi CDhilsx. 

* The editors omit Kal, after TrpodTiySpevae. 

^ The Iliad (19. 193) has i/j.rj: instead of OoTis. 

* Tlie Iliad (19. 248) haa'Axaiii' instead of 'Axa'of. 

' The words fi Si if6-irKios . . . a-TpanaiTtKo. are suspected 
by Kramer, and relegated to foot of page bj' Meineke. 

* " Corai " and "Coroi." But the corresponding Homeric 
forms (Kotpoi, Kovpoii) yield in English " Curae " and ' ' Curoe " ; 

90 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 3. 8 

to battle, so that the Persians, it is said, conceived a 
contempt for them, thougli in the battle they 
marvelled at them. Speaking generally, the art of 
caring for the hair consists both in its nurture and 
in the way it is cut, and both are given special 
attention by " girls " and " youths " ; ^ so that there 
are several ways in which it is easy to derive an 
etymology of the word "Curetes." It is reasonable 
to suppose, also, that the war-dance was first intro- 
duced by persons who were trained in this particular 
way in the matter of hair and dress, these being 
called Curetes, and that this dance afforded a pre- 
text to those also who were more warlike than the 
rest and spent their life under arms, so that 
they too came to be called by the same name, 
"Curetes" — I mean the Curetes in Euboea, Aetolia, 
and Acarnania. And indeed Homer applied this 
name to young soldiers, " choose thou the noblest 
young men 2 from all the Achaeans, and bring the 
gifts from the swift ship, all that we promised yester- 
day to Achilles " ; ^ and again, " the young men of 
the Achaeans brought the gifts." * So much for 
the etymology of the word "Curetes." The war- 
dance was a soldiers' dance ; and this is plainly 
indicated both by the " Pyrrhic dance," and by 
" Pyrrichus," who is said to be the founder of this 

and Strabo evident!}' had those forms in mind (see note on 
10 3. 11). 

" "Curetes." » Iliad 19. 193. 

* "The Pyrrhic dance of our time seems to be a sort of 
Dionysiac dance, being more respectable than that of early 
times, for the dancers have thyrsi instead of spears, and 
hurl them at one another, and carry fennel-stalks and 
torches" (Athenaeus 14. 631 B). 

91 



STRABO 

evperrjv elvat, t^<? TOiavrr}^ d(TKi]creo}<; tmv veoov 

Kol ^ TO, (TTpaTlCOTlKO..^ 

9. To 6' 6t? €v au/jL<pepea6aL to, TOcravTa ovo- 
fxara Kal ttjv evovaav deoXoyiav iv ttj irepl aiiroyv 
IcTTopia vvv iTTiaKeTTreov. kolvov hrj tovto koI 
TU)v 'KW7]V(t}v KCLL T&v ^ap^dpcov iarl to ra? 
lepoTTOilas fierd aveVew? eopraariKr}^ TroieicrOai, 
TO,? /u,€v avv ivBovaiaafio), rw; Se ■^(opi'i' Kal Ta<; 
jxev /xeTa povaLKrj^, to-s Be fit]' Kal Td<i p.ev 
fjLvariKO)^, ra? 6e ev t^avepw' Kal rovO' i) <J3vcn<i 
ovTU)<i virayopevei. t] re yap di'eai<; rov vovv 
cnrdyei diro tcov dvOpwrnKoyv da)(^o\Tj/jLdTcov, rov 
Be 6vT(o<; vovv TpeVet tt/jo? to Oelov 6 re ivdov- 
aiaap.b<; iirl'rrvevcrLV riva Oeiav e^etv BoKel Kal 
Tw pavTiKW yevet TrXrjaid^eiv rj re Kpvyp-i<; tj 

P-VCTTIKT] TCOV C€pcbv ae/XVOTTOiel TO OeloV, fJ,lflOUfJ,€V7] 

TTjV (pvaLV avTOu (pevyovaav r]fx6)V rrjv a'iadijcnv 
ri re /jLovctikt], Trepv re 6p-)^T}aiv ovaa Kal pvOfihv 
Kal /j,e\o<i, TjBovfi re afxa Kal KaWiTe)(yia 7rp6<; 
TO Oelov rjfjLtt'i (TwdiTreL Kara TOiavrrjv alriav. 
ev fiev yap etprjrai Kal tovto, toi)? dvdp(07rov<; 
Tore pd\i(TTa fxiixeladai, rov<; Oeov<;, orav evepye- 
Tcoatv dfJLetvov S" dv \eyoi ti<;, orav evBaifiovwcrr 
ToiovTov Be TO X'^lpeiv Kal to eoprd^eiv Kal to 
<f)tXo(TO(f)eip Kal /iovcnKrj<i dTrreaOar /xtj ydp, et 
Ti? eKinuxTi^ TT/oo? TO ■)(^elpov yeyevrjTai,^ rwv 

^ Kal, Xylander, Casaubon, and Corais emend to eir/ ; 
Kramer conj. Kara. 

^ 71 (TTpaTKUTiKTi C. * yiyfyrfrai, Meineke, for yevriTat. 



^ Or, following the conjecture of Kramer (see critical 
3t 
ir 
92 



note), we should have, instead of ■' but . . . affairs,'' simply 
"in the work of the soldier. "' 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 3. 8-9 

kind of training for young men^ as also by the 
treatises on military affairs.^ 

9. But I must now investigate how it comes 
about that so many names have been used of one 
and the same thing, and the theological element 
contained in their history. Now this is common 
both to the Greeks and to the barbarians, to })er- 
form their sacred rites in connection with the 
relaxation of a festival, these rites being performed 
sometimes with religious frenzy, sometimes without 
it ; sometimes with music, sometimes not ; and 
sometimes in secret, sometimes openly. And it is 
in accordance with the dictates of nature that this 
should be so, for, in the first place, the relaxation 
draws the mind away from human occupations and 
turns the real mind towards that which is divine ; 
and, secondly, the religious frenzy seems to afford 
a kind of divine inspiration and to be very like that 
of the soothsayer ; and, thirdly, the secrecy witli 
which the sacred rites are concealed induces rever- 
ence for the divine, since it imitates the nature 
of the divine, which is to avoid being perceived by 
our human senses ; and, fourthly, music, which in- 
cludes dancing as well as rhythm and melod}', at 
the same time, by the delight it affords and by 
its artistic beauty, brings us in touch with the 
divine, and this for the follov, ing reason ; for 
although it has been Avell said that human beings 
then act most like the gods when they are doing 
good to others, yet one might better say, when 
they are happy ; and such happiness consists of 
rejoicing, celebrating festivals, pursuing ))hilosophy, 
and engaging in music ; for, if music is perverted 
when musicians turn their art to sensual delights 

93 



STRABO 

fiov<riKa)v eh r)Zv'na6eia<i TpeTrovrwv Tci<; rexva^ 
C 468 iv TOt? avfX7roai,oi<; Kal dv/jAXaif; koI <TK7]vai<i Kai 
aX\oi<; Totoi>TOf9, Sia^aWicrdo) ro irpdyfia, dXk 
1] (f)V(7i<; Tj 70iv TraiSevfiuTcov e^era^ecrdo) ttjv 
apxv^ ivOevhe exovcra. 

10. Kal Bta rovTo fiovcriKrjv eKoXeae WXdrwv 
Kal 'in TTpoTepov ol Hvdayopecoi Trjv (f)iXo(TO<j)Lav, 
Kal Ka6^ dp/jLOvLav tov koctijlov avveardvai ^aai, 
irdv TO fjLOvaiKov elSo? decop epyov inro\ap,^d- 
vov7e<i. ovTO) 8e koI al Moycat 6ea\ Kal AttoX.- 
\u)v MovaijyeTij'i kuI rj Troir/riKT] irdcra v/xvrjriK'q} 
wcauTft)? 8e Kal TtjV tcov rjOoiv KaraaKevrjv rfj 
fiovaiKy TTpo(Xi'€/xov(nv, W9 irdv to eTravopdmriKov 
TOV vov Toi<i deoh 6771)9 6v. ol fiev ovv " EXXrjve'i 
ol 7r\et(TT0i Tw Aiovvaro) irpocredecTav Kal Tip 
^ AttoWwvi Kal TTj 'Kkutt] Kal Tal^ Mouo-at? Kal 
ArjfirjTpt, VT) Aia,^ to opyiaaTiKov irdv Kal to 
jSaKX^KOv Kal TO x^pcKOV Kal TO irepl Ta9 TekeTd<i 
p^vaTiKov, "luK^ov Te Kal tov Aiovvaov KaXovai 
Kal TOV dpxvyeTTjv tmv pLVaTrjpiwv, t^9 Atj/xtjtpos 
haip^ova' SevSpocpoplai re Kal xopelai, Kal TeXeTal 
Koival TCOV Oecov elal toutcov al he Movaai Kal 
6 ^AttoXXcov, al p,€V tcov %opwi' TrpoeaTdcnv, 6 he 
Kal TOVTwv Kal TMv KaTa pavTiKijv' irpoiroXoL he 
T&jy Mofcrwy ol TreTratheu pivot rravTe^, Kal ihto)^ 
01 p^ovaiKoi, TOV h WtToXXatvo^ ovtoI T€ Kal ol 

^ ovffa, after vfivtiTiKv, Kramer omits ; so the later editors. 

* T, Tzschucke, and Corais write Kal Ad instead of vij A(a. 

1 Plato, Phaedo 61. 

* Philolaiis, Frag. 4 (Stobaeus 1. 458-460). See also 

94 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 3. 9-10 

at symposiums and in urchestric and scenic perform- 
ances and the like, we should not lay the blame 
upon music itself, but should rather examine the 
nature of our system of education, since this is 
based on music. 

10. And on this account Plato, and even before 
his time the Pythagoreians, called philosophy music ; ' 
and they say that the universe is constituted in 
accordance with harmony,^ assuming that every 
form of music is the work of the gods. And in 
this sense, also, the Muses are goddesses, and 
Apollo is leader of the Muses, and poetry as a 
whole is laudatory of the gods. And by the same 
course of reasoning they also attribute to music 
the upbuilding of morals, believing that everything 
which tends to correct the mind is close to the 
gods. Now most of the Greeks assigned to 
Dionysus, Apollo, Hecate, the Muses, and above 
all to Demeter, everything of an orgiastic or Bacchic 
or choral nature, as well as the mystic element in 
initiations ; and they give the name " lacchus " 
not only to Dionysus but also to the leader-in-chief 
of the mysteries, who is the genius of Demeter. 
And branch-bearing, choral dancing, and initiations 
are common elements in the worship of these gods. 
As for the Muses and Apollo, the Muses preside over 
the choruses, whereas Apollo presides both over 
these and the rites of divination. But all educated 
men, and especially the musicians, are ministers 
of the Muses ; and both these and those who have 
to do with divination are ministers of Apollo ; 

Athenaeus 14. 632 B-C Aristotle, Metaphysics 1. 5, Sextus 
Enipiricus, Adv. Math. 4. 6. Cp. Plato, Timams 32 C, 
36 D, 37 A, 41 B, Republic 617 B, Epinomis 991 E. 

95 



STRABO 

irepl fiavTiK)']V, A-)]fir)Tpo<; Se oi re fjivarai koI 
oaoov)(^oi Kal lepocjidvTat, Atovvaou Be XeiXtjuoi 
T6 Kal ^drvpoi Kal BaK^at, Af]vai re Kal ^vlat 
Kal Mt/xaXA-we? Kal Nai'Se? Kal Nvficjyat Kal 
TiTVpoi Trgoaayopevofievoi.^ 

11. 'Ev Be rrj K.p7']Tr} Kal ravra Kal ra rov 
A<o9 lepa tS/w? eTrereXetro fier opycaafiov Kal 
roiouTcov TrpoTToXwi', oloL^ Trepl rov Acovvaov 
elaiO ol SuTvpof toutou? S' Mvo/xa^ov K.oupr]ra<i, 
veovi Tiva<i evoirXtov KLvrjaiv fier 6p)(^7']aeQ)<; 
uTToBiBovTa'i, 7rpoaT7jad/j,evot p-vdov rov irepl rr)<i 
rov Aioq yevecreco^, iv c5 rov fiev K.p6vov elcrdyovaiv 
eid i(T p^evov KaraTriveiv rd reKva diro t?;? y€V6a€co<i 
€vOv<i, r7]v Be 'Fiav Treipcopevrjv einKpvirreadai 
ra<i doBlva^ Kal ro yevi'r]6ev ^pe(f)o<i eKTroBwv 
rcoLelv Kal rreptaco^eiv el<; Bvvap.iv' Trpo? Be rovro 
avv€pyov<; Xa/Selv roix; KoupTjrd'; (paaiv,^ o'l p^erd 
rvpirdvcov Kal roiovrcov dXXcov yjfocpQiv Kat evoirXiov 
'X,op€La<; Kal dopv^ov 7r€pce7rovre<; rrjv 6eov eKirXrj- 
^€iv ep,€XXov rov Kpovov Kal Xtjaeiv vrrocnTd- 
(xavre'i avrov rov TratBa, rfj S' avrfj eiripeXeia 
Kal rp€(f)6p,evov vtt' avrcov rrapaBlBoaOaf wad 
oi Koyp?/T6? ijrot. Bid ro veot^ Kal Kopoi ovre'i 
vTTOvpyelv i) Bed ro Kovporpo(^elv rov Aia (Xeyerai 
ydp dp.(f)orepfi)<i) ravry]'i rj^id)Orjaav rrj<i Trpoarjyo- 
C 469 P*-"^* olovel Xdrvpoi rive<; 6vre<i irepl rov Ata. 
ol pev ovv "EXX')]j'€<i roiovroi irepl rov<i opycaa- 
p,ov<{. 

^ KoL Thupot TTpoffayopevS/jievoi no, for «ul xdrvpoi Trpoaayo- 
pevS/xtfai (other MtsS.)- Cp. 10. 3. 7. 

* oloi X, ol other M8S. ^ cpaa-iv, Jones inserts. 

* yfot E, veov other MSS. 
96 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 3. ro-ii 

and the initiated and torch-bearers and hierophants, of 
Demeter ; and the Sileni and Satyri and Bacchae, 
and also the Lenae and Thyiae and Mimallones and 
Naides and Nyniphae and the beings called Tityri^ 
of Dionysus. 

11. In Crete, not only these rites, but in pai-ticular 
those sacred to Zeus, were performed along with 
orgiastic worship and with the kind of ministers 
who were in the service of Dionysus, I mean the 
Satyri. These ministers they called " Curetes," 
young men who executed movements in armour, 
accompanied by dancing, as they set forth the 
mythical story of the birth of Zeus ; in this they 
introduced Cronus as accustomed to swallow his 
children immediately after their birth, and Rhea 
as trying to keep her travail secret and, when the 
child was born, to get it out of the way and save 
its life by every means in her power ; and to 
accomplish this it is said that she took as helpers 
the Curetes, who, by surrounding the goddess with 
tambourines and similar noisy instruments and with 
war-dance and uproar, were supposed to strike terror 
into Cronus and without his knowledge to steal 
his child away ; and that, according to tradition, 
Zeus was actually reared by them with the same 
diligence ; consequently the Curetes, either because, 
being young, that is " youths," ^ they performed 
this service, or because they " reared " Zeus " in 
his youth " ^ (for both explanations are given), were 
accorded this appellation, as if they were Satyrs, so 
to speak, in the service of Zeus. Such, then, were 
the Greeks in the matter of orgiastic worship. 



^ "Coroi" (see note on "youths," 10. 3. 8). 
* "Curo-trophein," to "rear youth." 



97 



ST R A BO 

12. O/ Be Bepe«ui/Te9, ^pvya)v ri (f>vXov, Kai 
«7r\&)? ol ^pvy€<; Koi roiv Tpdowv ol irepl rr]v 
"IBrjv KUTOiKovvTe'^, Peuv fX€V Kol avTol TLfxSiai 
Kol 6pyid^ov(Ti TavTT], p^-qrepa KaXovvres deoiv 
Koi ' AyBiariv ^ Kal ^pvylav Oeov fieydXrjv, drrb 

Be TMV TOTTCOV IBaiuv Kal AlvBvfJ,7'lVTJl/ Koi 

1.nrv\t^vrjv ^ Kal HeacrivovvriBa ^ Kal Kv^eXrjv 
Kal K.v^r)^rjv^ ol S' ''EXk'qve'i rov<i 7rpo7r6\ov<; 
avTr}<; 6/j,o)VU/j.co<; Kovpr]Ta(; Xeyovaiv, ov p.-qv ye 
diro Tr}<i avTi}^ fj.v6o7roita<i, dXX^ erepov^, ol)? av 
vTTovpyov^ Tiva<i, TOi? ^arvpoi<; dva Xoyov rov'i 
8' avTOv<i Kal Kopv^avTa<; KaXovai. 

13. MayOTUyoe? 6' Of TTOirjTal roiv toiovtcov 
vtrovoicov 6 T€ yap llivBapo<i iv tw BiOvpafi^w, ov 

Ylpiv /j.ev elprre crxoivorkveid^ t doiBd^ 

BcSvpd/x^cov,^ 
fxvrjcrdei^ ® Tcoi' irepl rov Aiovvaov vp.vcov tmv re 
iraXaicop Kal rcov varepov, /zeraySa? utto tovtcov 

aol fxev KaTdp)(eiv,^ 
fidrep fxeydXa, irdpa ^^ po/xfioi KvfMl3dX(ov, 

' "^ySiaTtu (word omitted by x), Casaubon, for AUffriv ; so 
the later editors. 

* 2iirt;Ar,»'T7»', Tzschucke, for nuXvunv ; so the later editors. 

* neffo-ivovrrlSa, the editors, for Xlfpta-ffiyovvra B, XltaivovyTa 
X, UtacnvovvTa other MSS. 

* Kal Kv^T)^j)v, omitted by MSS except E?io. 

* axo^voriveia Bergk, for O'xor^'oj Tovlas k, ffXu^voxovtai hi, 
axoivoTovla^ other MSS. 

* aoi5o^ Viklnox. 

' SiBvpdix&wv X and Dionys. {de Comp. Verb. 14) ; Stduiidfi^if), 
other MSS. 

* Sf, after /xvrjffdfti, Corais and Meineke eject. 
98 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 3. 12-13 

12. But as for the Berecyntes/ a tribe of 
Phrygians, and the Phrygians in general, and 
those of the Trojans who live round Ida, they too 
hold Rhea in honour and worship her with orgies, 
calling her Mother of the gods and Agdistis and 
Phrygia the Great Goddess, and also, from the 
places where she is worshipped, Idaea and Dindy- 
mene and Sipylene and Pessinuntis and Cybele 
and Cybebe.2 The Greeks use the same name 
" Curetes " for the ministers of the goddess, not 
taking the name, however, from the same mythical 
story,^ but regarding them as a different set ot 
" Curetes," helpers as it were, analogous to the 
Satyri ; and the same they also call Corybantes. 

13. The poets bear witness to sucli views as I have 
suggested. For instance, when Pindar, in the dithy- 
ramb which begins with these words, " In earlier 
times there marched * the lay of the dithyrambs 
long drawn out," mentions the hymns sung in honour 
of Dionysus, both the ancient and the later ones, and 
then, passing on from these, says, "To perform the 
prelude in tiiy honour, great Mother, the whirling 

» See 12. 8. 21. 

2 i.e. from Mt. Ida, Mt. Dindyimun (12. 5. 3), Mt. Sipyius, 
Fessinus {I.e. ), and Mt. Cybela (I.e.), and Cybeba. Cf. Diodorus 
iSiculus (3. 58), who spells the next to last name "Cybelum." 

' The story of the Cretan Curetes. 

* Or perhaps " was drawled" (sc. from the lips of men ; 
see Bergk, or Sandys in Locb Classical Library, Frag. 79). 
Roberts (Dionysius of Halicarnassus, On Literary Composi- 
tion 14) translates the verb "crept in" and Sandj's {I.e.) 
" flowed." 

• /caTopx*"'. Bergk, following kx, instead of /coropx*' other 
MS8. ; so Kramer, NIuller-Diilmer, and Meineke. 

'" HtyiXa, irdpa Bergk, for vapa nfyaAai corr. in B, -ndpa 
Hfyi\ot other MSS. 

99 



STRABO 

iv Be Ka^\dca)v^ KporaX', aWo/xeva re 
8a<; vTTo \av6al<TL irevKai'^, 

rrjv KOLVcoviav twv irepl rov Aiovvarov cnroSei'^dev- 
Tcov vo/jll/xwv TTapa rot? ' KWrjai /cai raiv irapa 
TOi? ^pv^l TTepX TT}v fir^repa roiv Oecov avvo'Keioov 
dX,\7;\oi?.^ KvpnTL8)]<i re ev ral<; BdKXCii<i ra 
irapaTrXijcna iroiel, Tot? ^puyLOi<i d/xa kuI to. 
AvBia (TVfjL(f)€pa)V Sid ro op.oLov' ^ 

dW (o XtTToOcrai Tp,6)Xov, epvpa Af Sia?, 
dla(TO<i e/io?, yvvacKe^, a? ck ^ap^dpcov 
eKOfiia-a Trapehpov; koI ^vvep-Tropovi euoi, 
acpeade rdiri^^Mpi ev iroXei <Ppvy(Ji)v 
TVfiTrava, 'Pea? re p,i^rpo<i e/xd 0^ evprjpara 

KoX "TrdXiv 

Si fidxap, 0(TTf? evhaipwv reXerd^ Oecov 

et5<w9, /Scordv dyiaTevei' 

rd re fiaTpo<; peydXa'i opyia Ku/Se'Xa? 6ep,i- 

revfov ^ 
dva SvpcTov TeTwuaacov, Kicrao) re aTe(pavcoBeL<i, 
Ai6vv(rov Oepairevei. 
Ire Y^aKy^ai, Ire BdK')(aL, Bpoptov TvalSa Oeov 

deov 
i^Lovvaov Kardyovaai ^pvyiwv e^ opecov 
'EWaSo? et? evpvxopovi dyvid(i. 

irdXiv 3' ev toi<; e^r}<i koI rd Kp7]TiKd crv/xTrXe/cei 

TOVTOl^' 

• Kax^^dSwv (= nsfriyrum), Wilamowitz restores the reading 
of all MSS. For other emendations, see C. Miiller, hid. Var. 
Led. p. 1010. 

« kK\i)\ais BCDhiklx. 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 3. 13 

of cymbals is at hand, and among them, also, the 
clanging of castanets, and the torch that blazeth 
beneath the tawny pine-trees," he bears witness to 
the common relationship between the rites exhibited 
in the worship of Dionysus among the Greeks and 
those in the worship of the Mother of the gods 
among the Phrygians, for he makes these rites 
closely akin to one another. And Euripides does 
likewise, in his Bacchae, citing the Lydian usages 
at the same time with those of Phrygia, because of 
their similarity: "But ye who left Mt. Tmolus, 
fortress of Lydia, revel-band of mine, women whom 
1 brought from the land of barbarians as my assist- 
ants and travelling companions, uplift the tam- 
bourines native to Phrygian cities, inventions of mine 
and mother Rhea."^ And again, " happy he who, 
blest man, initiated in the mystic rites, is pure in his 
life, . . . who, preserving the righteous orgies of the 
great mother Cybele, and brandishing the thyrsus on 
high, and wreathed with ivy, doth worship Dionysus. 
Come, ye Bacchae, come, ye Bacchae, bringing 
down 2 Bromius,^ god the child of god, Dionysus, out 
of the Phrygian mountains into the broad highways 
of Greece."* And again, in the following verses he 
connects the Cretan usages also with the i'hrygian : 

1 Bacchae 53. 

* Tlie verb is also used in the sense of " hrimjitig back 
home," and in tlie aliove ease might be construed as a 

double entente. . . .. :, ., ■ .. . 

^ i.e. " 7?r»/.s7c)-o?/s " one. * Bacchae12. '.''': " ., 

* 5io rb '6fjioiof, Professor Capps, for 810 t* "O/xripoi' (/caro rhf 
'Ojxripov Jilcno) ; oil Kara rbi' "Ojj.r\pov, Corais, 810 rb Zjxopuv, 
Meineke. 

* flf^iTfuoi', Musgrave, for dtjxiaTtvwv, on account of metre. 

loi 



STRABO 

0) dakdfievjjba K.ovpi]TQ)v, ^dOeoi re K.pi]Ta<{ 
Bcoyevirope'; evavXoi, 
ev9a rpiKopvOe^ avrpoi^ 
^vpaoTOvov KVKXwfxa rohe 
C 470 /ioi Kopv0avTe<; evpov, 

dva Be Ba«%eta crvvrovo) 

Kepaaav dBv^oa <t>pvyi(ov 

avkSiv TTveufiaTi, /jLarpo^i re 'Pea? 

€49 xepa OrjKav ktvttov evdafxacn BaK^dv 

Trapd Be fiaiv6p.evoi ^drvpoi 

p-arepo^ i^avvcravTO 'Pea?, 

6t? Be ■)(^opevfxara 

TTpoa'q'^av TpierrjpiBcov, 

aU 'X^aipei Aiovvao^. 

Kol eu Tla\ap,y']S€t (pijalv 6 ')(op6'i' 

@uaav Aiovvaov 
Kopav, 0? dv" ^'\Bav 
TepTrerai avv /jLarpl <^i\a 
TVfiTrdvcoiJ 67r' la-)(^al<i} 

14. Kat 1.ei\r]vov koX M.apavav koI "OXv/jlttov 
<Tvvd'yovTe<; et? ev Kal evperd^ avKwv laTopovvTa 
rrdXiv koX outw? rd AiovvcnaKa kuI ^pvyia et? 
tV (TVfi(f)epov(Ti' T^v re "1B'>]V koX tov "OXvp.TTOP 
crvyKexv/jLevax; iroWdKi^ cu? to avro 6po<; ktv- 
TTOvcriv. ela-l p.ev ovv '\.6(f)0L reTxayoe? "OXvfnroi 
KaXovp,evoi rri<; "IS?;? Kara tt)p ^AvravBpiav, eari 
Be Kal 6 Muco? "OXu/atto?, o/u.opo<i fxev, ou;^ o 
auTO? Be rfj "IBtj. 6 8' ovv So<^o«\^? Troirjaa'i rov 

^ The reading and metrical arrangement of this corrupt 
passage is that of Nauck, Frag. 586 {q.v.). 

I02 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 3. 13-14 

" O thou hiding-bower ^ of the Curetes, and sacred 
haunts of Crete that gave birth to Zeus, where for 
me 2 the triple-crested ^ Corybantes * in their caverns 
invented this hide-stretched circlet,^ and blent its 
Bacchic revelry with the high-pitched, sweet-sound- 
ing breath of Phrygian flutes, and in Rhea's hands 
placed its resounding noise, to accompany the shouts 
of the Bacchae,^ and from Mother Rhea frenzied 
Satyrs obtained it and joined it to the choral dances 
of the Trieterides,' in whom Dionysus takes delight." 
And in the Pulamedes the Chorus says, " Thysa, 
daughter of Dionysus, who on Ida rejoices with his 
dear mother in the lacchic revels of tambourines."* 
14. And when they bring Seilenus and Marsyas 
and Olympus into one and the same connection, and 
make them the historical inventors of flutes, they 
again, a second time, connect the Dionysiac and the 
Phrygian rites ; and they often in a confused manner 
drum on ^ Ida and Olympus as the same mountain. 
Now there are four peaks of Ida called Olympus, 
near Antandria ; and there is also the Mysian 
Olympus, which indeed borders on Ida, but is not 
the same. At any rate, Sophocles, in his Polyxena, 

* Where Zeus was hid. 

' The leader of the Chorus in Bacchae 120 ff. is spokesman 
of the chorus, and hence of all the Greeks. 

' Referring to the triple rim of their helmets (cp. the triple 
crown of the Pope). 

* Name of the Phrygian priests of Cybele. 
'" i.e. the tambourine. 

* They shouted "ev-ah!" («5a ; cf. Lat. ovatio), as the 
Greek word shows. 

' "Triennial Festivals." 

* See critical note. 

* ' ' Drum on " is an efifort to reproduce in English Strabo's 
word-play. 

103 



STRABO 

yiei'eXaoi' €k rf}<; Tpoia<; anaipecv cnrevBovTa iv 
rf] WoXv^evrj, top 5' Wyufxefivova fjiLKpov vTroXeitb- 
Oijvai ^ovXofievoi' rov e^iXdaacrOai ttjv ^ Xdrjvav 
y^dpLv, eladyeL Xiyovra top W^veXaov 

(TV S' avOi filfivcov irov ^ kut ^iBaiav y^duva 
7roi./jLva<; 'OXv/jLttov avvayaycov OvrjTroXec. 

15. Ta) 6' avXrp kuI ktvttw KpoTuXcav re «at 
Kvpi^dXwv Kal TV/XTTcivcov Kal Tat9 eTri-^orjaecn 
Kai euaa/xol^ Kal 7To8oKpovaTLaL<i otKeta e^evpovro 
Kai Tiva Tcov ovop-droiv, a Toix; TrpoTToXov^ Kal 
\npevTa<i Kal Oepa-jrevTci^ tmv lepon> eKdXovv, 
Ka/9et/30u? Kal Kopv^avTa<; Kal ndvas Kal 
SaTji/aou? Kal TiTvpou<i, Kal rov Oeov ]idK')(^ov Kal 
rrjv Peai>K.v/3eXT]v Kal Kv^nfStjv^ Kal AivSvfirjvTjv 
Kara tov<; tottov^; auTOu?. Kal o Xa^d^to<i he tS>v 
^pv'/LaKoiv earl Kal rpoirov Tiva rr)'^ ^li]rp6<; to 
iraihiov irapahov'i to ^ tov ^Lovvaov Kal avT6<i. 

16. TouTo;? S' eoLKe Kal rd irapd roi^ ("dpa^l rd 
T6 KoTUTia * Kal ra ^evhiheia,^ Trap" ol<i Kal rd 
'(Jpcf)i,Kd ry]v Karapxh^ ^^X^- '^'5'> A^^^ ^^^ Kotuo? ^ 
T^9 iv TOt? 'Howi'ow Aia-\(vXo<? fMe./u,vy]Tai Kal rwr 
Trepl auTr]v opydvcov. etVo)/' ydp' 

(T€jULvd KoTVi iv TOt? 'HSu}Vo2^, 

opeia ^ S' opyav" exovre^, 

^ irov, Corai?. from conj. of Xvlander. for rov C])hi, ttiv 

* Kv8ri$r]y, Tzschucke, for Kv3r]y ; so the later editors. 

' irapaSovs rd, Meineke from conj. of Kramer, for ra^a.^niv 
TO. X, irapoLZiSovra s, 7rapo5i5o/^eto5 tois B/j/iO. 

* K6Tua DA, K6TTva i, KorrvTia Epit. 

' Bei 5i5!a vr>x, Mev5i5ia C/./, Biven^ia E. 

104 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 3. 14-16 

representing Menelaiis as in haste to set sail from 
Troy, but Agamemnon as wishing to remain behind 
for a short time for the sake of propitiating Athena, 
introduces Menelaiis as saying, " But do thou, here 
remaining, somewhere in the Idaean land collect 
flocks of Olympus and offer them in sacrifice." ^ 

15. They invented names appropriate to the flute, 
and to the noises made by castanets, cymbals, and 
drums, and to their acclamations and shouts of 
"ev-ah," and stampings of the feet ; ^ and they also 
invented some of the names by which to designate the 
ministers, choral dancers, and attendants upon the 
sacred rites, 1 mean " Cabeiri " and " Corybantes " 
and "Pans" and "Satyri" and "Tityri," and they 
called the god " Bacchus," and Rhea " Cybele " 
or " Cybebe " or " Dindymene " according to the 
places where she was Avoishipped. Sabazius also 
belongs to the Phrygian group and in a way is the 
child of the Mother, since he too transmitted the 
rites of Dionysus.^ 

16. Also resembling these rites are the Cotytian 
and the Bendideian rites practised among the Thra- 
cians, among whom the Orphic rites had their 
beginning. Now the Cotys who is worshipped 
among the Edonians, and also the instruments used 
in her rites, are mentioned by Aeschylus ; for he 
says, " O adorable Cotys among the Edonians, and 
ye who hold mountain-i-anging ^ instruments " ; and 

1 Frag. 47- 9 (Nauck). « Cp. end of § 17 following. 

' Cp. end of § 18 following. 

* The instruments, like those who play them (cp. §§ 19 and 
23 following), are boldly referred to as " mountain-ranging." 

* kJttuos ino. ' opfia J)h, Spta other MSS. 

105 



ST R ABO 

701/9 Trepl rov ^lovvcov €v6i(o^ iirKJiepei' 

6 fiev iv ^epcriv 

^6fi^vKa<; e^oyv, Topvov Kafiarov, 
SaKTvXoBei/cTov ^ rrip^TrXriai p.i\o<?, 
fiavia<i eTraycoyov opoKKav, 
6 he ^(aXKoSeroi^: ^ KOTv\ai<; oro^el 
Kat iraXiv 
C 471 yjra\p6<; 8' aXaXd^er 

ravp6(f)0oyyoi 5' vTropvKmvTai ^ 
TTodhv e'f d(f)avou^ (f>o0€poi ficfioi, 
rv/MTTavov 3' cIkcov * wad^ vnoyaiov 
/3povTij<;, (f)€p€Tai ^apvrap^i]<;. 

TavTa yap eoiKC Toh ^pvyioi<i' Kal ovk d'rreiKo'; 
ye, wanrep avrol ol 't>pvye<i ®paKOiv airoiKoi elaiv, 
ovTO) Kal TO, lepd CKeldev perevtive-)(^dai. Ka\ rov 
AiovvcTov 8e Kal tov'HScovov AvKovpyop crvvdyov- 
re? eh ev rrjv opoioTpoTriav rwvlepoiv alviTTovrai. 
17. 'Atto he Tov fxeXov<; Kal rov pvOpov Kal rwv 
opydvwv Kal 77 fj,ouaiKT} irdcra QpaKia Kal 
'AcTiart? vevofj-iarai. StiXov 5' e« re rcou tottcov, 
iv olf a! Movaai T€rLp,y]VTai' Hiepia yap Kal 
O\vp,7ro<: Kal YiipirXa Kal Xei^rjOpov to Trdkaiov 
7]v ^paKta ')(a}pia Kal oprj, vvv he e^ovat Mave- 
hove-i' TOV T€ 'EXiKcova KaBiepoicrav Tah y{ovaai<; 
SpaKe<i ol TTjv ^otcoTlav i7rotK7]aavT€<;, oiirep Kal 

^ SaKrv\iSfiKrov MSS., but Corais, from conj of Jacobs, 
reads SuktuKoOiktov. Perhaps SoktiiXoSiktov is right ; so 
Nauck reads, Frag. 57, but the interpretation of the word in 
L. and S. ("of the humming of a top " ) is wrong. 

" x°^fo5eToij, Casaubon, for xo^foflt'ou MSS., xaXKodtTots 
Epit. ; so the later editors. 

■^ vTTofxriKwvTai Bkhco. 

106 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 3. 16-17 

lie mentions immediately afterwards the attendants 
of Dionysus : " one, holding in his hands the bom- 
byces,^ toilsome work of the turner's chisel, fills full 
the fingered melody, the call that brings on frenzy, 
while another causes to resound the bronze-bound 
cotylae " ; ^ and again, " stringed instruments raise 
their shrill cry, and frightful mimickers from some 
place unseen bellow like bulls, and the semblance ^ 
of drums, as of subterranean thunder, rolls along, a 
terrifying sound " ; for these rites resemble the 
Phrygian rites, and it is at least not unlikely that, 
just as the Phrygians themselves were colonists from 
Thrace, so also their sacred rites were borrowed 
from there. Also when they identify Dionysus and 
the Edonian Lycurgus, they hint at the homoge- 
neity of their sacred rites. 

17. From its melody and rhythm and instruments, 
all Thi'acian music has been considered to be 
Asiatic. And this is clear, first, from the places where 
the Muses have been worshipped, for Pieria and 
Olympus and Pimpla and Leibethrum were in 
ancient times Thracian places and mountains, though 
they are now held by the Macedonians ; and again, 
Helicon was consecrated to the Muses by the 
Thracians who settled in Boeotia, the same who 

^ A kind of reed-flute. 

* Literally " cups " ; hence, a kind of cymbal. 

' In connection with this bold use of " semblance" {uKiiv) 
by Aeschylus, note Strabo's studied use of "resembles" 
(foiKf, twice in this paragraph) and " unlikely " [airfiKSs). 
Others either translate eih-cic " echo," or omit the thought. 

* (Ikwi', Kramer restores, instead of ^x« ^'^<> &"<! earlier 
editors ; ei'xwv B(by con:)lx. 

107 



STRABO 

TO TMV Aei^r]0pidB(ov l^v/jb(f)(bv dvrpov KaOiepcocTav. 
01 T iTrifieXrjOivre^ t^9 dp-)(^aLa<i fiovtriK'y]^ ^pdK€<; 
XeyovTai, ^Opcfyev^ re Kal Movaaio^ koX ®dfivpi<i 
Koi T(p Kv/jLoXTTOi Be Touvofia evdevhe, Kal ol tm 
Aiovvao) Ttjv ^ Kaiav oXrjv Ka0iep(O(TavT€<; /^^)(pi 
tt}? ^lvBiKT]<; eKeWev Kal rrfv TToXXrjv fxovaiKrjv 
ljbeTa(j)epovcri' koI 6 fiev ti? (pTjaiv KiOdpav 
^Aaidriu pdaawv,^ 6 Be tovs avXoi/^ ^epeKwriov^ 
KaXel Kal ^pvylov;' Kal ro)v opydvoiv evia 
^ap0dpa><; dovo/uaa-Tai vd^Xa<i ^ Kal aaix^vKi) Kal 
^dp^i,'ro<; Kal jjiaydBi<i Kal dXXa TrXetro. 

] 8. ^ KdrjvaloL B' oiCTirep irepl rd dXXa (f)iXo^e- 
vovvre<i BiareXovaiv, ovro) Kal rrrepl Tov<i Oeov'^. 
TToXXd yap tmv ^eviKWv lepcov -napehe^avro, ware 
Kal iKQ)/ji(pBi]07]crav' Kal Br] Kal rd ©paKca Kal rd 
^pvyia. roiv fiev yap VievBiBeloyv ^ TLXdrMV 
fiifivrjrai, rcov Be ^pvylcov AT]p.oaOevr]<i, Bia^dX- 
Xcov rrjv Akt'^^lvov /xrjripa Kal avrov, dx; reXovcrr) 
rf] fMTjrpl avvovra Kal avpOiacrevovra Kal 
eiTLc^Oeyyoixevov evol aajSol ttoXXuki^; Kal vr}<i 
drrr]<i, drrrj^ * vrj<;' ravra ydp ecrri Xa^d^ia Kal 
M.i]rpa)a. 

19. "Et£ S' dv ri'i Kal ravra evpoo^ rrepl rcov 
Baifxovcov rovrcov Kal rr]<; rojv ovo/xdrcov 7roiKi\i.a<; 
Kal on ov TTpoTToXoL dewv fiovov, dXXa Kal avrol 
deol TTpoa^yopevdrjcrav. 'YialoBa fxev ydp 'E/ca- 



' apacrffoiv nox, 

- vaix&\as CJ^ilnosx, vd/x^Ka E^• and corr. in B. 

8 BeStSiiuiv Dhi, BfvSiolaiv other MSS. 

* The second Stttjj Kramer restores (for the variant read- 
ings see his edition). 

* ei/'poi omitted except in Bkno. 

lo8 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 3. 17-19 

consecrated the cave of the nymphs called Leibe- 
thrides. And agnin^ those who devoted their 
attention to the music of early times are called 
Thracians, I mean Orpheus, Musaeus, and Thamyris ; 
and Eumolpus/ too, got his name from there. And 
those writers who have consecrated the whole of 
Asia, as far as India, to Dionysus, derive the greater 
part of music from there. And one writer says, 
"striking the Asiatic cithara " ; another calls flutes 
" Berecyntian " and " Phrygian " ; and some of the 
instruments have been called by barbarian names, 
" nablas," "sambyce," " barbitos," " magadis," and 
several others. 

18. Just as in all other respects the Athenians 
continue to be hospitable to things foreign, so also 
in their worship of the gods ; for they welcomed so 
many of the foreign rites that they were ridiculed 
therefor by comic writers ; and among these were 
the Thracian and Phrygian rites. For instance, the 
Bendideian rites are mentioned by Plato,^ and the 
Phrvgian by Demosthenes,^ when he casts the 
reproach upon Aeschines' mother and Aeschines 
himself that he was with her when she conducted 
initiations, that he joined her in leading the Dio- 
nysiac march, and that many a time he cried out 
" evoe saboe," and " hyes attes, attes hyes " ; for 
these words are in the ritual of Sabazius and the 
Mother. 

19. Further, one might also find, in addition to 
these facts concerning these genii and their various 
names, that they were called, not only ministers of 
gods, but also gods themselves. For instance, Hesiod 



^ " Sweet-singei-. " ' Eepiihlir I. .SJT, II. S'A. 

* On the Crown 313. 



109 



STRABO 

T6pov^ Kal T?y9 ^opoyveco^ duyarpo^ irevTe yeviff- 
6 at, dvyarepa^ (fytjaiv, 

t'f Mu ovpeiat KvfjL(f>aL deal e^eyevovro,^ 

Kal yevo'; ovTihavoiv ^arvpcov Kal dfjLrj-)^a- 

voepyCiv 
Kovp7]Te<; re deol (^iKoTraLy p^ova , op^y^aTqpe^. 

C 472 he Tr}v 't>opcovi8a ypd\fra^^ av\rjTd(; .Kal ^pvya^ 
TOv<; Kovpr]Ta^ \eyei, dXXoc Be yqyevel^ Kal 
')(a\Kdcnnha^' ol S' ov rom K.ovpT]Ta<;, dWd tou? 
K.opvi3avTa<i ^pvya<;, eKeivovq Be KyoJJra?, irepi- 
decrdai S' oirXa ^^aXKa tt/owtov? ev Kv/Soia' Bio 
Kal X.a\KiBea<; avrovf; K\riO?]var ot B viro Ti- 
rdvcov 'Via Bodrjvai, tt po-n 6\ov<; evoirXovj Toix; 
Kopv^avTa<; Ik t^9 HaKrpiavi]^ d(f)typ,evovs, ol S' 
eK KoX^^^ 4)aaLv. ev Be Tol<i Kpr]TCKol<i Xoyoa oi 
KovpiJTe'i Ato9 rpo(f)€i<i \eynnat, Kal (pvXaKe<;, et9 
Kpy]Tr]v eK ^pvyla^ p.eTa7rep.(}>0€vre<; viro t?}? 
'Pea?* ol Be 'YeX-^ivcov ev 'VoBw evvea ovrcov, Tov<i 
'Via (TVvaKo\ov9r]aavTa<; et? K^pi^Tr/v Kal tov Ata 
KovpoTpo(f)7]aavTa^ Kof/ojjra? 6vop.aadfjvai,' Ki;/)- 
^avra Be, tovtcov eralpov, 'lepaTrvrvT]^^ ovra 
KTLcrrrjv, irapd rol'i 'VoBloi<; 7rapa(TX€iv 7rp6cf)aaiv 
roU npacrtot? (ocrre Xeyeiv o)? elev Kopv^avre<; 
B(up^ove<i Tive<i ^Adrjvd^ Kal 'HXlov iralBa- ert Be 

1 'EKUTfpov Nauck, following n {inan. sec.) and Gottling ; 
'E/faTfou B, 'EKaraiou k and editors before Kramer ; 'ZKaripa 
other MSS. But Hecaterus is otherwise unknown. At any 
rate, the person mentioned was probably a son or descendant 
of Hecate, unless one should read 'En-fiTopos or 'ZKT\r6pov (see 
Diod. Sic. 5. 50) or 'I.ko.tov (Apollo). 

' f^ifivovTo, Corals, for iyivovTo ; so the later editors. 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 3. 19 

says that five daughters were born to Hecaterus 
and the daughter of Phoroneus, " from whom sprang 
the mountain-ranging nymphs, goddesses, and the 
breed of Satyrs, creatures worthless and unfit for 
work, and also the Curetes, sportive gods, dancers." ^ 
And the author of Pkoronis ^ speaks of the Curetes as 
"flute-players" and "Phrygians"; and others as 
"earth-born " and " wearing brazen shields." Some 
call the Cory bantes, and notthe Curetes, " Phrygians,'' 
but the Curetes " Cretes," ^ and say that the Cretes 
were the first people to don brazen armour in 
Euboea, and that on this account they were also 
called " Chalcidians " ; * still others say that the 
Corybantes, who came from Bactriana (some say 
from among the Colchians), were given as armed 
ministers to Rhea by the Titans. But in the Cretan 
accounts the Curetes are called " rearers of Zeus," 
and "protectors of Zeus," having been summoned 
from Phrygia to Crete by Rhea. Some say that, of 
the nine Telchines^ who lived in Rhodes, those who 
accompanied Rhea to Crete and " reared " Zeus "in 
his youth "^ were named "Curetes"; and that 
Cyrbas, a comrade of these, who was the founder of 
Hierapytna, afforded a pretext to the Prasians ' for 
saying among the Rhodians that the Corybantes 
were certain genii, sons of Athena and Helius. 

1 Frag. 198 (Rzach). 

- Hellanicus of Lesbos (fi. about 430 B.C.). 

* "Cretans." * " Chalc-" means " brazen." 

6 See 14. 2. 7. • See 10. 3. 11. ' See 10. 4. 12. 

' ypdrpai, X3'lander, following x, instead of arexf/as, other 
MSS. ; so the later editors. 

* 'UpairvTvris, Oasaubon, for 'lepia niSftis ; so the later 
editors. 

Ill 



STRABO 

Kpovov Tiu€<i Tou? Kopv/3avTa^,^ aWoi Se Ato? 
Kal KaXXtoTT);? cpaal tou? KopufSavTU^, toi/? 
avTov^ Tot<r K.a/3€i,poi<; ovTa<;' aTreXOelv Se tovtov<; 
61? 'S.a/xoOpoLKrjv, Ka\ovp.evT]v Trporepov MeXtr^/j', 
Ta'i 8e 7rpd^€i<i avTcov pLvariKWi elvai. 

20. Tavra S' ovk aTroce^d/xevo^ 6 XK}]-\fno<; 6 
TOv<i fiudovi avvayaycov tovtov<;, w? /xri8evo<i ev 
^aixodpjLKT] fiva-TiKov \6yov irepl \Laj3eLpwv Xeyo- 
fxevov, TrapaTLdtjcrcv ofx.o)<; ^ Kal ^TTjcri/x/SpoTov rov 
(^acTLOv So^av, w? to, ev Sa/u.odpaK7] lepa rol^ 
Ka^eipoc^ iTTiTeXolro- KaXecaOai Se (prjaiv avToii^ 
e'/ceti'o? (iTTo rov 6pov<; rov iv rfi ^epeKwria Ka- 
(Betpov. ol h' EiKarrji; irpoTToXou^ vo/XL^ovai 
Tov<i Kovpfjra^, toi/? avTov<; roi? K.opv/3acni> 
6vTa<;. (f^rjal 8e ttuXiv 6 '2,Ky]y^io<i iv rfj Kpr/r?? 
TO.^ tt}? 'Pea? Tifia^ /xij vofii^eaOai /xi]Se eVt;^ft)- 
pid^eiv, v7T€vavTiov/j,evo<; tw rov KupiTriSov \6yq), 
aX.V ev TT] ^Ppvyt,a fxovov Kal rrj TpcodSi, Tov<i 
Se Xeyovraq fxvdoXoyelv fidXXov ?; laTopecv, Trpo? 

TOVTO 8e Kal TT]V TCOV TOTTWV OfXfOVV/ilLaV (TU/jL7rpa^ai 

TVXov icTa)<i avTOi<;' "iBrj yap to opo'i to re Tpo)i- 

KOV Kal TO K.p7)TlK6v, Kul AlKTT] T07r09 il' T]) 

^Krj-^ia Kal upo<i iv l^pi'jTrj- r?}<? 8e "IS?;? Xo0o9 
UvTva, «^' ov 'lepuTTVTva i) tt6Xi<;, iTTTTOKopoovd 

T€ TJ79 'A8pa/J,VTT)]Vrj'i Kal 'lirTTOKOputVLOV iv 

l^pijTT], Xa/j,covi6v re to ecoOivov aKpcort'jpiov t?}? 
v7]aov Kal Tvehiov iv ttj NeavSpiSi Kal Ty 'AXe- 
^avBpicov. 

^ Tohi Kopv$avTas, Meineke omits ; peiliaps riglitly. 
^ lificas, Corais, from conj. of Xylander, for &fxoiias. 

^ Demetrius of Scepsis. 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 3. 19-20 

Further, some call the Corybantes sons of Cronus, 
but others say that the Corybantes were sons of 
Zeus and Calliope and were identical with the 
Cabeiri, and that these went off to Samothrace, 
which in earlier times was called Melite, and that 
their rites were mystical. 

20. But though the Scepsian,^ who compiled these 
myths, does not accept the last statement, on the 
ground that no mystic story of the Cabeiri is told in 
Samothrace, still he cites also the opinion of Stesim- 
brotus the Thasian ^ that the sacred rites in Samo- 
thrace were performed in honour of the Cabeiri : and 
the Scepsian says that they were called Cabeiri after 
the mountain Cabeirus in Berecyntia. Some, how- 
ever, believe that the Curetes were the same as the 
Corybantes and were ministers of Hecate. But the 
Scepsian again states, in opposition to the words of 
Euripides,^ that the rites of Rhea were not sanctioned 
or in vogue in Crete, but only in Phrygia and the 
TrOad, and that those who say otherwise are dealing 
in myths rather than in history, though perhaps the 
identity of the place-names contributed to their 
making this mistake. For instance, Ida is not only 
a Trojan, but also a Cretan, mountain ; and Dicte is 
a place in Scepsia * and also a mountain in Crete ; 
and Pytna, after which the city Hierapytna^ was 
named, is a peak of Ida. And there is a Hippo- 
corona in the territory of Adramyttium and a Hippo- 
coronium in Crete. And Samonium is the eastern 
promontory of the island and a plain in the territory 
of Neandria and in that of the Alexandreians.^ 

- El. about 460 B.C. ; only fragments of his works are extant. 
3 Quoted in 10. 3. 13. * 13. 1. 51. 

^ In Crete. « See 13. 1. 47. 

113 



STRABO 

21. ^ A KovfxiXao'i S' 6 ^Apyelo'i €k Ka^et/aou"? ^ 
Kal 'll(f)alaTou }\.aB/j,tXov^ \eyei, rov Ze r/aet? 
Ka^ei'povf;, mv^ Nv/xcpwi Ka/3eipl8a<;' (^€peKuBri<; 
5' t'f 'AttoXXwi'O? /cat 'P^^Tta?* ls.vp^avra<; ivvea, 
OLKyjaaL 6' avrov<i ev^ap-oOpaKr]' e'/c 5e l^a^eipov'i 
T/}9 n/)(WT6&)9 Acai. 'Hc^atcTToy Ka/Se/pou?^ rpet? 
Acat Nu/i^a? rpet? Ka/Set/JtSa?, €Karepoi,<i 5' ('epa 
C 473 yivecrdai' paXiara p.iv ovv iv'lfi^po) Kal Aijjj,i>(j) 
Tou? Ka^eipov; TC/ndaOai (Tvp,jBe^rjKev, aWa koI 
iv Tpoia Kara TroXet?' to, 8 ovojiaja avroyv eVrt 
fivcrriKa. 'Hp6SoTO<; Be koI ev Mepcjjei Xeyei tmv 
Ka^eipwv lepd, KaOdirep Kal rov 'HcpaiaTOV, 
Sia(f)0€tpai S" avra Kafi^uarjv. eari 5' aolK-qra 
rd '^(opia t>7? tmv haipovwv tovtcov xt/iT;?, to re 
K.opv^avT€cov ^ TO eV t^ ' Afia^iria t% I'Ot' 'AA,e- 
^avhpeoiv ')(^cjopa<; iyyix; tov 'S.fiii'diov, Kal i) Kopu- 
jBiaaa iv tt) I^Kyfy^ia Trepl iroTap-op Kvpt]ePTa Kal 
Kcopj]v ofxcovv/xov Kal en '^(^eipappov AlOaXoevra. 
TTidavov he (f)y](Tii> 6 'S,Kr]yp-io<i, KofyO^Ta? fiep Kal 
Kopv^avTa<i elvai rov<i avTov<i, ot irepl xa? rrj^ 
fj,7)Tpo<i TMv deCiv dyiaTeia<i 7rpo<i evoirXiov op'^^ijaiv 
ijideoi Kal KopoL Tvy)(^dvovai TrapeiXi'ippLevoi, Kal 

1 Kapfipous gs, Ka^eipou CD/ii {ovs added above in D), 
KaPelftTji Btlno. 

2 KaSfiiKof, Jones, for Kd/juXov Bklu, Ko^uiAAo*' Other MSS. 
and the editors. 

^ S>v kno, oh other MSS. and editors. 

* 'PuTi'oj n, perhaps rightly, as suggested by the fact that 
there was a 'Punov in Crete (see 10. 4. 14). 

^ Ka^flpov CDhlnos, KajSf/pijj B/.:. 

* Kopv^avTf^oy, Meineke, for Kopv^dynoy. 

114 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 3. 21 

21. Acusilaiis,^ the Argive, calls Cadinilus the son 
of Cabeiro and Hephaestus, and Cadmilus the father 
of three Cabeiri, and these the fathers of the nymphs 
called Cabeirides. Pherecydes^ says that nine 
Cyrbantes were sprung from Apollo and Rhetia, and 
that they took up their abode in Samothrace ; and 
that three Cabeiri and three nymphs called Cabei- 
rides were the children of Cabeiro, the daughter of 
Proteus, and Hephaestus, and that sacred rites were 
instituted in honour of each triad. Now it has so 
happened that the Cabeiri are most honoured in 
Imbros and Lemnos, but they are also honoured in 
separate cities of the Troad ; their names, however, 
are kept secret. Herodotus ^ says that there were 
temples of the Cabeiri in Memphis, as also of 
Hephaestus, but that Cambyses destroyed them. 
The places where these deities were worshipped are 
uninhabited, both the Corybanteium in Haniaxitia in 
the territory now belonging to the Alexandreians 
near Sminthium,'* and Corybissa in Scepsia in the 
neighbourhood of the river Eureeis and of the village 
which be^irs the same name and also of the winter- 
torrent Aethaliieis. The Scepsian says that it is 
probable that the Curetes and the Corybantes were 
the same, being those who had been accepted as 
young men, or "youths," for the war-dance in con- 
nection with the holy rites of the Mother of the gods, 
and also as " corybantes '' from the fact that they 

* Acusilaiis (fl. fifth century b.c. ) wrote works entitled 
Hiitory and Genealogies. Only fragments remain. 

* Pherecydes (fi. in the fifth century B.C.) wrote a mytho- 
logical and historical work in ten books. Only fragments 
remain. 

» 3. 37. * 13. 1. 48. 



STRABO 

Kopv/3avTe<; 8e airo rov Kopv7rTovTa<; ^aiveiv opx>l~ 
CTTIKQ}^. ov<; Koi ^■)jTdp/Mova<; Xeyei 6 iroirjTrjs' 

hevT ciye <^aii]K(ov ^r)Tdpfiove<;, ocraoi dpicnoi. 

TMV Be KopV^dvTtOV 6p')(ri<JTiKWV Kol ivdov(Tia<TTi- 
KWV OVTCOV, KOi TOV<i fMUVlKM^ KlVOV/X€VOV^ KOpv- 

^avTiav (pa/xiv. 

22. AaKrv\ov<i S" IBalov^ (pacrC Tive<; K€K\fjaOai 
rov<; irpcoTOV^ otK^ropa^ t?}? Kara Tijv"lBiiv vttco- 
peia<i' TToSa? fiev 'yap Xeyea-dat ra? v7r(ope[a<i, 
Kopv<f)a^ Be ra aKpa rSiv opcov al ovv Kara p.epo'i 
€(T)(^ariai {Kal iracrai t>}9 fxrjTpof rcov 6eo)v lepai) 
irepl rrjv "iBrjv BuktuXoi ixaXouvTO.^ So^o/cA.r}9 2e 
o'lerat Tret'Te tou? irpcoTOVi dpcreva^ 'yeviaOai, ot 
(TiSijpov T€ e^evpov kuI elpydaavTO irpcoTOt /cal 
aWa TToWa tmv 7rpo<? rov ^iov y^pr^aip.wv, irevre 
Be Kol dBe\(^d<i rovrcov, uTro Be rov dpidiiov 
Aa/CTuXof? K\7]drjvai. dWoi B dWco^ fivdevov- 
aiv, diT6poL<i aiTopa avvd'movTe<i, Bia^opot,^ Be Kal 
rol^ 6v6p.acn Kal roi^ dpiO/xoi^ y^poivrai, wv 
KeXpw ^ ovofid^ovcTi riva Kal l^afivafievea^ Kal 
'HpaK\ea Kal "Axfiova' Kal oi fiev e7rt;;^&)ptoL'9 
77)9 'IS7^9, ol Be iTTOLKOVi, irdvre^ Be aiB'qpov 
elpydaOai vtto tovtwv iv^'lBr} Trpwroi' ^acn, Trdvre^ 
Be Kal 'y6i]Ta<i vTreiKijcfxiai Kal irepl rrjv firjrepa 
TOiv Oeoi)v Kal ev ^pvyia wKTjKora^ irepl Trjv "IBrjv, 
^pvyiav rrjv TpcodBa KaXovvref Bia to tou? 

^ Certain words must have been omitted from the text after 
'I5rjr. X adds So/ctuXoi, Jones also iKaXovvro. Others merely 
indicate a lacuna. 

* KeKutv, Tzschueke, for 2a\afuvov ; so the later editors 
' Aauva/uevfa, Tzschucke, for Aa/xvta X, Aafxvavfa other 

MSS. ' 
116 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 3. 21-22 

"walked with a butting of their heads '' in a dancing 
way.^ These are called by the poet " betarmones " :^ 
" Come now, all ye that are the best ' betai'mones ' 
of the Phaeacians." ^ And because the Corybantes 
are inclined to dancing and to religious frenzy, we 
say of those who are stirred with frenzy that they 
are "corybantising." 

22. Some writers say that the name " Idaean 
Dactyli " was given to the first settlers of the lower 
slopes of Mt. Ida, for the lower slopes of mountains 
are called " feet," and the summits " heads " ; 
accordingly, the several extremities of Ida (all of 
which are sacred to the Mother of the gods) were 
called Dactyli.'* Sophocles ^ thinks that the first 
male Dactyli were five in number, who were the 
first to discover and to work iron, as well as many 
other things which are useful for the purposes of life, 
and that their sisters were five in number, and that 
they were called Dactyli from their number. But 
different writers tell the myth in different ways, 
joining difficulty to difficulty ; and both the names 
and numbers they use are different ; and they name 
one of them " Celmis " and others " Damnameneus " 
and "Heracles" and " Acmon." Some call them 
natives of Ida, others settlers ; but all agree that iron 
was first worked bv these on Ida; and all have assumed 
that they were wizards and attendants of the Mother 
of the gods, and that they lived in Phrygia about 
Ida ; and they use the term Phrygia for the Troad 

' i.e. "Corybant-es" is here derived from tlie two verbs 
"coryptein" ("butt with the head") and " hainein " 
("walk " or " go"). 

2 "Harmony-walkers." => Orf. 8. 250. 

* " Dactyli " means either " fingers" or "toes." 

* In his Cophi Satijri, now lost. Fraij. .S37 (Nauck). 

117 



STRABO 

^pv'ya<i iTTiKparricrat irXrjcno-xwpov'; ovtu^, tt)? 
Tpoia<; €K7re7rop6y]/j.evr]9. uvovoovat. Se twv ^Ihaicov 
AaKTvXo)v CKyovovi elvai tov<; re Kovpr]Ta<; xal 
Toii'i Kopu^ai'ra<;' tov<; yovv Trpcorov^ y€vv>]d€VTai; 
ii' K.pj]vr) cKarov avBpa<; 'iSat'of? AatfTi^Xof? kXtj- 
Orjvai, rovTwv K aTToy6vov<; (paal K.ovprJTa<; ewea 
yeveadac, tovtwv S" eKaarov heKa Tralha<i reKvSiaat 
Tou<i '\Sa[ov<; KoXov/xevov^ ila/cTvXovi. 
C 47-4 23. Upoijx^'lf^^^ ^^ ^"^ TrXetovcov elirelv Trepl 
TovTcov, KaiTTep iJKiara (})t\.ofiv9ovvT€<;, on rov 
deoXoyiKOv yevov^ icfxinTeTat ra Trpdyp-ara raura. 
Tra? Be o ire pi tmv Oecov X6yo<i ap')(aia<i i^eTu^ei 
Bo^a<i KoX fivOov<i, alviTTO/xevcov ^ rSiv iraXaioiv a? 
ei^ov ivpoLa<i (f)vat,Ka<; Trepl to)v irpayfiaTcov koI 
7rpo(TTi6ivTQ)v ael rol<i Xoyoi^ rov /xvdov. airavTa 
fxev ovv TO, alviy fxara Xveiv e7r' aKpi^e<i ov pdBiov, 
rov Be 7rXi']0ov<i rwv /xvOeuofievcov eKredivTOf et? 
TO fieaov, T(t)v fj.ei> opLoXoyovvrcnv dXXr]Xoi<;, roiv 
S' evavTiov/xivcov, evTropcorepov dv rt? BvvaiTo^ 
elKd^eip i^ avrcov TaXi-jOe^' olov ra? 6pei/3aaia<; 
TMV Trepl TO 0eiov cnrovBa^ovTuiv koX avroiv r&v 
deoiv Kal Tou? iv6ov(nacr/j.ov<; et/toTcu? fivdevovcn 
Kara ttjv avn^v alnav, KaO^ fjv koI ovpan'ou^ 
vofXL^ovcri Toi/? deov<; Kal TrpovorjTiKoi/'i twv re 
dXXodv Kal TOiv Trpoarj/xaaiMV rfj fiev ovv opei- 
^aala to /xeTaXXevriKov Kal to diipevTiKov Kal ^ 
^rjTTjTiKOV TOiv 7r/309 rov iSCov y^prjaificov ecpdvT} 

^ alvirrofj.4voiv, Xylander, for alvi.rroixivous ; so tlie later 
editors. 

^ 6.V ris Zvvairo, Kramer, from conj. of Tyrwhitt, for 
dvTiSoi/cat r6 BChil, liv ti Sovvai t6 D, av SoCvai ti no, 6.v rir 
€| avToiv fiKaaeie x, Tzschucke, Corais ; so the later editors. 

Il8 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 3. 22-23 

because, after Troy was sacked, the Phrygians, whose 
territory bordered on the Troad, got the mastery 
over it. And they suspect that both the Curetes and 
the Corybantes were offspring of the Idaean Dactyli ; 
at any rate, the first hundred men born in Crete 
were called Idaean Dactyli, they say, and as off- 
spring of these were born nine Curetes, and each 
of these begot ten children who were called Idaean 
Dactyli. 

23. I have been led on to discuss these people 
rather at length, although I am not in the least 
fond of myths, because the facts in their case border 
on the province of theology. And theology as a 
whole must examine early o])inions and myths, since 
the ancients expressed enigmatically the physical 
notions which they entertained concerning the facts 
and always added the mythical element to their 
accounts. Now it is not easy to solve with accuracy 
all the enigmas, but if the multitude of myths be 
set before us, some agreeing and others contradicting 
one another, one might be able more readily to con- 
jecture out of them what the truth is. For instance, 
men probably speak in their myths about the 
"mountain-roaming " of religious zealots and of gods 
themselves, and about their "religious frenzies," for 
the same reason that they are prompted to believe 
that the gods dwell in the skies and show fore- 
thought, among their other interests, for prognostica- 
tion by signs. Now seeking for metals, and hunting, 
and searching for the things that are useful for the 
purposes of life, are manifestly closely related to 



* «oi, Kramer inserts ; so the later editors. 

119 



STRABO 

(Tvyy€ve<;, roiv S' ev6ovcnacrfi6)V Kal 6pi](TKeLa<; Kal 
fjavTiKy}^ TO ayvprtKov Kal yorjTela iyyv^. roiovrov 
Se Kal TO (f)iX6Te)(^vov fidkicna to Trepl Ta? Aiovv- 
aiaKCL'^ Te'^i'a? ^ Kal ra<; ^OpcftiKci'i. aW' d7r6x,pv 
Trepl avTO)v. 

IV 

1. 'ETret he irpoiTOv Trepl tmv Trj<; TleXoTrovvi^a ov 
vrj(TU)v Tb)V re dWcov BctjXOop Kal twv ev tw 
KopivdiuKO) koXttm Kat, twv irpo avTov, Trepl 
TJ}9 Kpi']Tris i^e^ri<; pTjTcov («at yap auTt]^ t?}? 
Yle\o7rovv^aov ecnt) Kal et Ti? Trepl rrjv Kp7]Ti]v. 
ti> Be TavTai<; a'l re KvKXdBe^ elal Kal at X7ropd8e<;, 
ai fiev d^iac p.vy]p.i]<i, ai S' d(TJ]p.6Tepat. 

2. Nfi't Be Trepl t/}? KpijTTj^ irpMTOu \eyoip.ev. 
\ivho^o<i p.ev ovv ev Tcp Alyaicp (^rjalv avrijv 
tSpvcrOai, Bel Be firj ovtco^, dXXd KeiaOai fiev 
p-eTa^i) T?7? K.vp7]va[a<i Kal Tr}? 'EWaSo? t?}? arro 
"EouvLOv p-^xpi T?;9 \aKa)viKri<i, iirl fiijKO^ TavTai^ 
Tai? ;^a)/3at? TrapdWifKov diro t^? ecnrepa^ inl 
rrjv €0}' KXvi^ecrOaL Be diro fiev rwv dpKTtov tw 
AlyaL(p TreXdyei Kal t&j YiprjriKcp, aTTo Be tou v6- 

TOV TW Al^VKM TU) (TwdTTTOVTl TTpO? TO AlyUTTTCOV 

ireXayo'i. twv Be aKpcov to p.ev ecnrepiov ecTTi to 
Trepl ^aXdaupva,^ irXdTO'i e')(pv BiaKoalcov irov 
(TTaBicov Kal el^ Bvo dKpooTrjpia /xepi^ofxevov (cov 
TO p,ev voTLov KaXecTai Kpiov p^eTcoirov, to B 
dpKTiKov KLfiapo<;), to B ewov to ^afxcoviov eaTiv, 

VTrepTTlTTTOV TOV XoVVLOV OV TToXv TT/OO? eCO. 

^ For Tfxyas, Jones conjectures TeXeras. 

* avT^, Corais, and later editors (except Meineke uuttj). for 
o't77s. Corais inserts irpo aftei- avTT) 

* <t>a\a.nrapva, Corais, for •^aKapva ; SO the later editors. 
I20 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 3. 23-4. 2 

mountain-roaming, whereas juggling and magic are 
closely related to religious frenzies, worship, and 
divination. And such also is devotion to the arts, 
in particular to the Dionysiac and Orphic arts. But 
enough on this subject. 

IV 

1. Since I have already described the islands of 
the Peloponnesus in detail, not only the others, but 
also those in the Corinthian Gulf and those in front 
of it, I must next discuss Crete (for it, too, belongs 
to the Peloponnesus) and any islands that are in the 
neighbourhood of Crete. Among these are the 
Cyclades and the Sporades, some worthy of mention, 
others of less significance. 

2. But at present let me first discuss Crete.^ Now 
although Eudoxus says that it is situated in the 
Aegaean Sea, one should not so state, but rather 
that it lies between Cyrenaea and that part of 
Greece which extends from Suniura to Laconia, 
stretching lengthwise parallel with these countries 
from west to east, and that it is washed on the north 
by the Aegaean and the Cretan Seas, and on the 
south by the Libyan Sea, which borders on the 
Aegyptian. As for its two extremities, the western 
is in the neighbourhood of Phalasarna ; it has .'i 
breadth of about two hundred stadia and is divided 
into two promontories (of these the southern is 
called Criumetopon,2 the northern Cimarus), whereas 
the eastern is Samonium, which falls toward the east 
not much farther than Sunium. 



1 For map of Crete, see Insert in Map VIII at end of 
Vol. IV. 

2 " Ram's Forehead." 

121 



STRABO 

3. Me'7€^o<f Be lici)CTiKpdTrj<; jxev, 6v (f>T]aiv uKpi- 
/3ovp 'AttoWoSw/jo? to, Trepl rrjv vrjaov, a(f)op{,^€Tai 
C 475 fi^JKei fi€V Tr\ei6v(i)v 17 Sfcr^^iXift)!/ (rrahiwv koI 
TpiaKocrioyv, irXdr^i 3e vtto to /niyeOo'?,^ waS' 6 
kvk\o<; Kara rovrov yivoiT av irXeov rj irevra- 
Kia\i\ioi aTaBior Apre/xlBwpo'i Be rerpaKia- 
y^iXiov^ Kal ckutov (f)i]aiv. '\epotyvvpio<; Be, firjKO'^ 
Bkt^^iXlcov <pi']aa<;, to Be irXuTO^ avw^aXov, irXeio- 
V'jiv av etr] Xeywv tov kvkXov, ?; ogwv 'A pre/it Swpo?. 

KUTO, Be ^ TO TpLTOV fiepO^ TOV /jL7']K0V<i ^ TO 

Be evdev la^p-o^ eaTtv (09 ckutov aTaBccov, exwv 
KaTOiKtav 7rpb<t /lev ttj ySopetw OaXciTTr] 'A/i(/)t- 
fxaXXav,'^ tt/jo? Be ttj votIo) (polvi/ca tov AafiTrecov^ 
TrXaTVTaTr] Be kuto. to fiecrov icTTt,. irdXiv B' 
evTCvdev et? aTevwTepov tov irpoTepov av/jLTTLTTTOv- 
(Tiv laOfiov al r}i6ve<i -nepl e^rJKOVTa aTuBioyv, tov ^ 

CITTO Mtt'Ctja? T^<> XvKTiwV €l<i 'lepCLTTVTVaV Kal TO 

Ai/SvKov ireXayo^' ev koXttw B eaTlv r/ TroXt?. 
eiTa irpoeiacv et? o^v uKpoiTi^piov to Safxcovtov 
iirl TTjv AtyvTTTOV vevov Kal Td<; Y'oBkov vijaov;. 

^ virh rh fityfOos is corrupt. B has oCiroi TO fifyedos ; /.MO 
and h (between lines) and editors before Kramer read oh 
Kara rh /xeyidos. Groskurd conj. ocrov SiaKoaiaiv (cr' = 200) ; 
Kramer rtTpaKocriuiv {v = 400) or TpiaKoa'iwv (t = 300\ 
Mcineke TtrpaKoa'ioiv (u'), Jones r(rpaKO(Tl'j>v 6ySo->iKovTa (v tt'), 
omitting to juLfyedos. v' ir' (480) is more in proportion to 
Strabo's number for the maximum length (24'W). 

^ Sf, Corais, for t« ; so the later editors. 

' Something has fallen out after jj-iiKous. Jones conj. 5io- 
Koffiwv {a' = 200). Others suggest a number of word.'^, but 
these contain no number (see Miiller, Ind. Var. Led., p. 
1011). 

* 'Afi<(>iiJ.a\\av, Casaubon, for 'AfKpnraAlav ; so the later 
editors. 

* Aa/iTeoji', Tzschucke, for Aa/xvfw : so tiie later editors. 
I 22 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 4. 3 

3. As for ils size, Sosicrates, whose account of tlie 
island, according to Apollodorus, is exact, defines it 
as follows : In length, more than two thousand three 
hundred stadia, and in breadth, ... ,^ so that its 
circuit, according to him, would amount to more than 
five thousand stadia ; but Avtemidorus says it is four 
thousand one hundred. Hieronymus^ says that its 
length is tM'o thousand stadia and its breadth 
irregular, and therefore might mean that the circuit 
is greater than Artemidorus says. For about a third 
of its length . . . ; ^ and then comes an isthmus of 
about one hundred stadia, which, on the northern 
sea, has a settlement called Amphimalla, and, on 
the southern. Phoenix, belonging to the Lampians. 
The island is broadest near the middle. And from 
here the shores again converge to an isthmus narrower 
than the former, about sixty stadia in width, which 
extends from Minoa, city of the Lyctians, to Hiera- 
pytna and the Libyan Sea ; the city is situated on 
the gulf. Then the island projects into a sharp 
promontory, Samonium, which slopes in the direction 
of Aegypt and the islands of the Rhodians. 

' The text is corrupt (see critical note), and no known 
MS. contains a number for the breadth of the island. More- 
over, the Greek words (either three or four) contained in the 
MSS. at this point are generally unintelligible. According 
to measurements on Kiepert's wall map, however, the 
maximum dimensions are 1400 x 310 stadia. 

* On Hieronymus, see notes on 8. 6. 21 and 9. 5. 22. 

' All MSS. omit something here (see critical note). Jones 
conjectures "(it is) about two hundred stadia" in breadth 
(the breadth of the western end as given in 10. 4. 2). 



• r6y, Corais, for ruv ; so the later editors. 



123 



VOL. V. 



STRABO 

4. "EcTTt 8' opeivrj KoX Baaeia rj vijcro';, e^^i 6' 
aiXwra? evKupirov^. ro)v 5' opoiv to, fiev tt/jo? 
hvaiv Kokelrai Aevxd, ov Xenrofieva tov Tavyerov 
Kara to u\^09, cttI to fMrJKo<; B eKTeTa/xeva ocrov 
rpiaKoaicov oTahicov, kol iroLOvvTa pd)(^iv, TeXev- 
T(oadv TTft)? errl Ta aTevd. iv fiecKo 5' eVrl kuto. 
TO evpu^copoTaTOv t'^? vi]aov to 'ISatov opo'i, 
vi\rr]\6TaTov Ttav €Kei, 7repL(f)€p€<i S' iv kvkKw 
<jTahio)v e^aKoaiwv' TrepioiKeiTai S' vnb tmv 
dplaTcov TToXecov. dWa h'' eVrt Trdpicra Tol<i 
AeuKot'i, TO, fi€v iirl votov, to. S' inl ttjv eco 
XrjyovTa. 

5. "EcTTt S" diro T% K.vpT}va[a<i eirl to Kpiov 

fieTWTTOV hvelv l)fl€pO>V KOL VVKTOiV irXoV^, aTTO hk 

Kcfidpov eVi Tairapov ^ elcTL cndhioL eiTTaKoaioi 
(fiGTa^v Se Kvdrjpa), utto Be tov ^afxcovtov tt/qo? 
AtyvTTTOV TCTTdpcov rj/j.€pcbv Koi vvKToyv TrXovf, 
ol Be Tpibiv (f)aal' (TTaBicov S' elvai tovtov Tive<i 
7T€VTaKC(T)(^iXiCL>v elprjKaau', ol he eTi eXaTTovwv. 
^RpaToaOevi]<i B' dirb fxev t/)? Kvp7]vaLa<; fie^pt 
K^piov /xeTcoTTOV Btaxt'XLOV^; (f)y]aLv, evdev S* ei? 
Yl6Xo7r6vvi](TOP eXaTToi/?. . . .^ 

6. ^'AXXr] B' dXXcov yXwaaa p-efiiy/neprj, 
(f)t]alv 6 TTOirjTrj'i, 

ev fiev ' A-)(^aioi, 

iv S" 'Ereo^/jT^re? /j.eyaXiJTope'i, iv Be JUvBoyve'i, 
Act)/9t€69 T€ TpixdiK€<; Bioi T6 HeXuayoi. 

' M Taivapov, Meiiieke, from conj. of Kramer, inserts; 
others, i-zrl MaAfo(j). 

* After i\drTovs probabl}' x'^^"" (/*) 'i^^ fallen out, as 
Groskurd suggests. 

124 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 4. 4-6 

4. Tlie island is mountainous and thickly wooded, 
but it has fruitful glens. Of the mountains, those 
towards the west are called Leuca ; ^ they do not 
fall short of Taygetus in height, extend in length 
about three hundred stadia, and form a ridge which 
terminates approximately at the narrows. In the 
middle, in the most spacious part of the island, is 
Mount Ida, loftiest of the mountains of Crete and 
circular in shape, with a circuit of six hundred stadia ; 
and around it are the best cities. There are other 
mountains in Crete that are about as high as the 
Leuca, some terminating towards the south and 
others towards the east. 

5. The voyage from Cyrenaea to Criumetopon 
takes two days and nights, and the distance from 
Cimarus to Taenarum is seven hundred stadia,^ 
Cythera lying between them ; and the voyage from 
Samonium to Aegypt takes four days and nights, 
though some say three. Some state that this is 
a voyage of five thousand stadia, but others still 
less. Eratosthenes says that the distance from 
Cyrenaea to Criumetopon is two thousand, and from 
there to the Peloponnesus less. . .^ 

6. " But one tongue with others is mixed," the poet 
says; "there dwell Achaeans, there Eteo-Cretans * 
proud of heart, there Cydonians and Dorians, too, of 
waving plumes, and goodly Pelasgians." ^ Of these 

» "White." 

* A very close estimate (for the same estimate, see 8. 5. 1). 
^ Eratosthenes probably said "a thousand less," but no 

number is given in the MSS. (see critical note). 

* "Cretans of the old stock." 

* See 5. 2. 4, where the same passage (Od. 19. 170) is 
quoted. 



STRABO 

TOVTcov (jyrjal STa</)i'Xo9 to fitu tt/jo? e&) Afoptet9 
KaTe\etv, to Se ZvafiiKov KwS&jya?, to 5e votiov 
^Kreofcp-ijTa^, o)v elvat 7ro\i)(^i'iov Updaov, ottov 
TO Tov AiKTaiov A<09 lepoV Tot"? 8' aWov<;, 
lcr')(yovTa<i TrXeov, oifcrja-ai, to, ireZia. tov<; fxev 
ovv 'ETeo«pr;Ta<> Kal toi/? K.v8a)va<; avTO'^dova^i 
vTTcip^ai et«o9, tou? Se \ot7rov<i eTrryXf oa?, ov<; t'/c 
©eTTaXtav <f)^ialv iXOeiv "AvSpcov t^? i\(opLBo<i 
fikv TrpoTepov, vvv he 'Eo-T/atcoTtSo? X€'yojj,evr]<;- 
e^ r)<i (JL)pp.i]8t]aav, W9 cfyTjaiv, oi irepl tov Ilapvaa- 
C 476 crov otK>]aavTe<i ileopiec^ Kal eKTiaav ti^v re 
^Epii'eov Kal Botoz/ /cat K-vtIviov, «(/>' oii /cat 
Tpt')(aiKe^ VTTO TOV TTOL'qTOv XcjovTai. ov Trdvv 
Se TOV TOV "AvSpo}vo<i \6yov diroBexovTai, ttjv 
fikv TeTpcnroXiv ^(oplha TpiiroXLV d'Tro(f>aivovTO<i, 
Trjv Be firjT poTToXiv tmv Acopiecov d-TroLKOv @eT- 
TaXSiv' Tpi'x^dlKa^ Be Be-^ovTai ijtoi aTTo r/}? 
TpiXo(f)ia^ 7] aTTO ToO t pi')(^ivov<i ^ elvai tov<; 
X6(f)ov<i.^ 

7. IloXei? S" elalv iv ttj Kp^Tp 7rX€iov<; fiiv, 
fiiyiaTai Be Kal eTricpaveaTaTai T/oei?, K.vcoaa6^, 
VopTVva, K^vBcovla. BiacpepovTO}^ Be ti-jv K.vcoaa6v 

* Tpixivovs, Xylauder (from Eustath., note on Od. 19. 176) 
for rpixtfiov ; so the later editors. 

- After \6<pous CDhi have evaiti(To\o(pos {evan'tWovs added 
above in h), f(pafxiao\6^os B, €vafj.iao\6(povs gl, koI rjUKToxScpos 
s, e(paij.i\\ovs nok and editors before Corals (who brackets it). 
Kramer and Melneke omit, following Eustathius (I.e.). 

* Staphylus of Naucratis wrote historical works on Thes- 
saly, Athens, Aeolia, and Arcadia, but only a few fragments 
are preserved. The translator does not know when he lived. 

* Andron (fl. apparently in the fourth century b. c. ) wrote 
a work entitled Kinships, of which only a few fragments 
126 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 4. 6-7 

peoples, according to Staphylus,^ the Dorians occupy 
the part towards the east, the Cydonians the western 
part, the Eteo-Cretans the southern ; and to these 
last belongs the town Prasus, where is the temple 
of the Dictaean Zeus ; whereas the other peoples, 
since they were moi'e powerful, dwelt in the plains. 
Now it is reasonable to suppose that the Eteo- 
Cretans and the Cydonians were autochthonous, and 
that the others were foreigners, who, according to 
Andron,^ came from Thessaly, from the country 
which in earlier times was called Doris, but is now 
called Hestiaeotis ; ^ it was from this country that 
the Dorians who lived in the neighbourhood of 
Parnassus set out, as he says, and founded Erineiis, 
Boeiim, and Cytinium, and hence by Horner^ arc 
called "trichaices." ^ However, writers do not 
accept the account of Andron at all, since he repre- 
sents the Tetrapolis Doris as being a Tripolis,^ and 
the metropolis of the Dorians as a mere colony 
of Thessalians ; and they derive the meaning of 
"trichaices" either from the "trilophia," ' or from 
the fact that the crests were " trichini." ^ 

7. There are several cities in Crete, but the 
greatest and most famous are three : Cnossus, 
Gortyna and Cydonia. The praises of Cnossus are 

remain. It treated the genealogical relationships between 
the Greek tribes and cities, and appears to have been an able 
work. 

3 See foot-note 2, p. 397, in Vol. IV. * Odyssey, 19. 177. 

* Andron fancifully connects this adjective with " tricha " 
("in three parts"), making it mean "three-fold" (so Liddell 
and Scott q.v.), but it is surely a compound of 6pi^ and ata-ao) 
(cp. Kopvdai^), and means "hair-shaking," or, as translated in 
tiie above passage from Homer, " of waving plumes." 

^ i.e. as composed of three cities instead of four. 

' " Triple-crest " (of a helmet). * " Made of hair." 

127 



ST K A BO 

/cat 'Ofir]po<; ufivec, fMeydXrjv KaXSiv Koi fSaalXeiov 
Tov MtVft), Kol 01 varepov. kol 8r) koi hiereXeae 
p-^xpi- TToWov (fiepofxevrj ra TrpcoTa, elra eraTreivwdj] 
Koi TToWa Ta)v vofxi/xcov ^ dcfyrjpeOi], /xerecrrT] Be to 
n^Lco/xa eT? re Foprvvav kul Av/ctou, varepov 6' 
aviXa^e irdXiv to fraXaiov a)(rjfxa to Tfj<; fiy]rpo- 
TToXew?. KCLTat S' eV irehiw kvkXov e^ovaa >} 
K.v(0(Ta-o<i TOV dp-xcuov TpiaKovra araBifov fiera^v 
T^9 Af/CTta? Kal T>}? ropTvvia<;, 8ie)(^ov(Ta tt}? 
p,kv VopTiiV)]^'^ crTadLOV<i hiaicoaiov<i,Tr)<i he Xvttov,'^ 
r)v o 7roiy]T7]<i Avktov oivofiaaev. eKUTov elfcoat' tt)<; 
8e daXdm]<; Kvcoaao^; p.ev tt;? ISopeiov irevTe Kal 
eLKoai, VopTvvaSeTri'i At/5f/c?}9 eveviJKOvTa, Aukto'; 
he Kal avTi] t^9 Xi^VKrj^ oySorJKOVTa. ^X^^ ^' 
eiriveLOV to 'HpaKXeiov t) Kvcoaaof. 

8. ^livQ) 8e (f)aaiv emveiw ^p7;o"n(T^ai tw 
'A/xviao), oTTov TO Tr)<> KlXetOvLWi iepov. eKaXetTO 
5' rj K.vo)aa6<; Kai'/oaTO?* irpoTepov, ofX(ovv/j,o<i tm 
TrapappeovTi iroTapu). laToprj-ai S' o M/rco? 
vo/jiodeTy]'i yeveaOai a7rov8aLO<i OaXarTOKpartjaau 
re TrpcoTO?, Tpixv 8e SieXuiv ttjv vrjaov ev e/cdarco 
Tft) fiepet KTLcrai ttoXiv, rrjv fiev Kvcoaaov ev 

Tw ^ KaTavTiKpv T?;9 TleXo7rovvr]aov Kal 

auTT] 8' e'cTTi 7rpoa/3op€io<;. &)? 8' e'ipijKev "E^opo?, 

' vojxwv CDyhlsx. 

• 5t4xovffa TTjs fifv Toprvvus, Meineke inserts, from conj. of 
Tyrwhitt. 

^ AvTTov, X3'lander, for Avktov ; so Meineke. 

^ Kaiparos, Casaubon, for Keparos ; so the later editors. 

5 After eV TCfi MuUer-Diitjiier insert from Diod. Sic. (5. 78): 
Trpbs 0oppa.» Kal rriv 'Acriav I'fvovTi fJ-epei rrjs v^crov, 'tanrrhi' 5' 
iirl da\6.aaTi% iarpafxnivriv 4irl ufarifx^piav, KuSaiiay 5' ii' roif 
nphs kaitipav KtK\iixi;uis tottqis. 

128 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 4. 7-8 

hymned above the rest both by Homer, who calls 
it *' great " and " the kingdom of Minos," ^ and by 
the later poets. Furthermore, it continued for a 
long time to win the first honours ; then it was 
liumbled and deprived of many of its prerogatives, 
and its superior rank passed over to Gortyna and 
Lyctus ; but later it again recovered its olden 
dignity as the metropolis. Cnossus is situated in 
a plain, its original circuit being thirty stadia, 
between the Lyctian and Gortynian territories, 
being two hundred stadia distant from Gortyna, 
and a hundred and twenty from Lyttus, which the 
poet named Lyctus.^ Cnossus is twenty-five stadia 
from the northern sea, Gortyna is ninety from the 
Libyan Sea, and Lyctus itself is eighty from the 
Libyan. And Cnossus has Heracleium as its seaport. 
8. But Minos is said to have used as seaport Amni- 
sus, where is the temple of Eileithuia.^ In earlier 
times Cnossus was called Caeratus, bearing the same 
name as the river which flows past it. According to 
history, Minos was an excellent law-giver, and also 
the first to gain the mastery of the sea ; * and he 
divided the island into three parts and founded a city 
in each part, Cnossus in the . . .^ opposite the Pelo- 
ponnesus. And it, too,^ lies to the north. As Ephorus 

' Od. 19. 178. 2 m^ 2. 647 and 17. 611. 

^ The goddess of child-birth. 

* So Diodorus Sioulus {I.e.), but see Herodotus 3. 122. 

^ The thought, if not the actual Greek words, of the 
passage here omitted from the Greek MSS. can be supplied 
from Diodorus Siculus (5. 78), who, like Strabo, depends 
much upon Ephorus for historical material: "(Cnossus in 
the) part of the island which inclines towards Asia, Phaestus 
on the sea, turned towards the south, and C^donia in the 
region which lies towards the west, opposite the Pelopon- 
nesus ". •■ Cydonia, as well as Cnossus. 

129 



STRABO 

^rfKwT^^ 6 Mtvft)? ap-)(aiov Tivo<i 'FahafidvOvo<;, 
SiKaiOTarou av8p6<i, o/ioyvvfiov tov dSeXcpov avTov, 
0? 7r/3ft)TO? TT]v vfjaov €^i]fM€p(oa-ai SoKel vofxi/xoi<; 
Kol (Tvi'oiKicr/xot<; iroKewv koI 7ro\ir€iai<;, aKrj- 
■\jrd/jb€vo<i irapd Aio<; (pepeiv eKaara rtav riOe/ievcov 

Soy/jLUTCOV €19 fxicTOV. TOVTOV 8i] flCfMOV/MCVO^ Kol O 

Mti^ft)? hi evvea eTcov, w? eoiKev, dva^aivwv iiri to 
TOV Afo? dvTpov KoX hiaTpi^oiv ivddSe, aTrrjei 
avvTCTay/xeva eyccv TrapayyeXp.aTd Tiva, a €(f)a- 
(TK€v elvai 7rpoaTdyp.ara tov Ato?* a^' 7}? alTia<i 
Koi TOV TToiTjTTjv ovTO)? elprjKevaf 

ivOdhe M.iV(t)<i 
evpecopo^ ^aalXeve At.6<; /xeydXav oapicrTt]^. 

ToiavTU S' ecTTOVTO^, oi dp^aloi irepX avTov ndXiv 
dWov<i elpij/cacri \6yov<; VTrevavTiovi tovtois, &)? 
C 477 Tvpavviic6<; re ykvotTO koX ^iaio^ kuI haa^oX6yo<i, 
Tpay(p8ovvT€<i Ta irepl tov ^livwTavpov koI tov 
Aa^vpivdov KOL TO, (^7}(T€i avfi^dvTa Kal Aat- 
BdXo). 

9. TavTa fxev ovv oTroTepoi'i e)(^ei, 'X^oiXeTTov 
eiirelv. eaTi he Kal dWo<; X6709 ovy^^ 6/jlo\o- 

1 See 10. 4. 14. 

2 We should say "every eight years," or "every ninth 
year." 

' Five dififerent interpretations of this passage have been 
set forth, dependent on the meaning and syntax of iwewpos : 
that Minos (1) reigned as king for nine years, (2) was nine 
years old when he became king, (3) for nine years held con- 
verse with Zeus, (4) every nine years held converse with 
Zeus, and (5) reigned as king when he had come to mature 
age. Frazer (Paiisanius 3. 2. 4) adopts the first. Butcher 
and Lang, and A. T. Murray, adopt the second. Heracleides 
of Pontus (On the Cretan Canstitutimis 3) seems to have 

130 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 4. 8-9 

states, Minos was an emulator of a certain Rhada- 
manthys of early times, a man most just and bearing 
the same name as Minos's brother, who is reputed 
to have been the first to civilise the island by 
estal)lishing laws and by uniting cities under one 
city as metropolis^ and by setting up constitutions, 
alleging that he brought from Zeus the several 
decrees which he promulgated. So, in imitation of 
Rhadamanthys, Minos would go up every nine years,^ 
as it appears, to the cave of Zeus, tarry there, and 
come back with commandments drawn up in writing, 
which he alleged were ordinances of Zeus- and it 
was lor this reason that the poet says, " there Minos 
reigned as king, who held converse with great Zeus 
every ninth year." ^ Such is the statement of 
Ephorus ; but again the early writers have given a 
different account of Minos, which is contrary to that 
of Ephorus, saying that he was tyrannical, harsh, and 
an exactor of tribute, representing in tragedy the 
story of the Minotaur and the Labyrinth, and the 
adventui-es of Theseus and Daedalus. 

9. Now, as for these two accounts, it is hard to 
say which is true; and there is another subject 

adopted the third, saying that Minos spent nine years 
formulating his laws. But Plato (Minos 319 C and Laws 
624 D) says that Minos visited the cave of his father " every 
ninth year" (5i' itdrov trovs) ; and Strabo (as 16. 2. 38 
shows) expressly follows Plato. Hence the above rendering 
of the Homeric passage. Apart from the above interpreta- 
tions, Eustathius (note on Od. 10. 19, on a different passage) 
suggests that ^j'j'e'opos might pertain to "nine seasons, that 
is, two years and one month " (the "one month," however, 
instead of "one season," seems incongruous). This suggests 
that the present passage might mean that Minos held 
converse with Zeus during a period of one season every other 
year. 



STRABO 

yovixevo^, twv fikv ^evov rrj'i vi]aov rov M/vw 
XeyovTcov, tmv 8 i7ri')(copiov. 6 fievTOc Trotr/T^? 
T77 Sevrepa Sokci /jloXXov crvvrjyopetv a7ro(})d(rei, 
orav (f)fj, oTi 

TTpwrov yiivwa re/ce K.pj]Tr) eiriovpov. 

virep Se rrj<; Kpi]Tri<i o/jLoXoyelrai, Sioti Kara toi"? 
TToKaiov^ ')(povov<i ^Tvyy^avev evvopLOVfjLevi^ kcli 
^r]\(i)Ta<i eavrf]'? toi)? aplcrrovi rcov 'EWijvcov 
aire(j>')]V€V, iv 8e to 19 irpcoTOL'i AaK€Sai/xoviov<;, 
Kaddirep YWdrwv re iv rot? No/iOi? hifKol Kal 
"K(f)opo<; 09^ iv rfi KvpcoTrj] ttjv TroXneiav^ ^ dva- 
yeypa<p€V' vcrrepov Se irpo^ to -xetpov /xere^aXev 
iirl TrXecarov. fxerd yap tou? Tvpprjvov^,^ ot 
p,d\LaTa iS^coaav riiv Ka9^ t^p-d^ OdXaTjav, ovtol 
elcnv ol BiaBe^dp,evoi ra \r]aTi]pLa' TOvrov<; 6' 
iiropOrjCTav vcnepov ol Ki\iK€<;' KareXvaav he 
TrdvTa^ Poypbaloi, tj]v re K.pT]Tr]v iK7ro\e/j.7]aavTe^ 
Kal TO, TreipariKa tmv KiXi/ccov 4>povpia. vvv hk 
Ki'&)(T<T09 Koi V(op.auov drroiKLav ey^et. 

10. Ylepl p,ev ovv K.vu>(T(Tov ravra, 7rdX,6&)9 ovk 
aXXoTpla^ rjp^iv, Bid Be rdvOpooTriva Kal Td<i iv 
avroi<; pcera^oXd^ Kal avvTVXLa<i eKXeXeifipevcov 
TOiV avp.^oXaiwv tcov v-nap^dvrwv i)puv irpa Trjv 
TToXiv. AopvXao<; yap rfv dvrjp ra/CTi/fo?, twi/ 
^lidpiBdrov Tov Euepyerov (J)lX(dv ovto<; Bid Trjv 
iv roi<; 7roXep.iKoi<; ipbireiplav ^evoXoyeiv utto- 
86f%^et9, TToXv^; rjv ev re ttj 'KXXdBi Kal rfj ^pciKr), 
iroXv^ Be Kal T0t9 irapd t?;? Kpy^Trj'; lovcnv, outtco 
Trjv vrjCTOv ixovTcov '¥a)p,at(ov, av^vov Be 6vto<; iv 

* OS, Jones inserts, from conj. of C. Miiller. 

^ t)]1' wo\ne{av, Jones inserts, from conj. of C. Miiller. 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 4. 9-10 

that is not agreed upon by all, some saying that 
Minos was a foreigner, but others that he was a 
native of the island. The poet, however, seems 
rather to advocate the second view when he says, 
"Zeus first begot Minos, guardian o'er Crete." In 
regard to Crete, writers agree that in ancient times 
it had good laws, and rendered the best of the 
Greeks its emulators, and in particular the Lacedae- 
monians, as is shown, for instance, by Plato in his 
Laws,^ and also by Ephorus, who in his Europe "^ 
has described its constitution. But later it changed 
very much for the worse ; for after the Tyrrhenians, 
who more than any other people ravaged Our Sea,"* 
the Cretans succeeded to the business of piracy ; 
their piracy was later destroyed by the Cilicians ; 
but all piracy was broken up by the Romans, who 
reduced Crete by war and also the piratical strong- 
holds of the Cilicians. And at the present time 
Cnossus has even a colony of Romans. 

10. So much for Cnossus, a city to which I myself 
am not alien, although, on account of man's fortune 
and of the changes and issues therein, the bonds 
which at first connected me with the city have 
disappeared : Dorylaiis was a military expert and 
one of the friends of Mithridates Euergetes. He, 
because of his experience in military affairs, was 
appointed to enlist mercenaries, and often visited 
not onlv Greece and Thrace, but also the mer- 
cenaries of Ci-ete, that is, before the Romans were 

1 631 B, 69.3 E, 7511) ft'., 950. 

- The fourth book of his history was so entitled. 

' The Mediterranean. 

' Before avayeypa ev C. Miiller would insert avrHv. 

* Tvppr/vovs, Tzschucke, for rvpawovs ; so the later editors. 



STRABO 

avTTJ Tov fiia6o(f)opt,KOV Koi aTpaTKoTiKov 7r\y']0ov<;, 
i^ ov Kol ra Xijcnijpia ifKripovaOaL avve^aivev. 
iTTiBTj/jLOVVTO'i 8e TOV AopvXdov, Kara TV)(^r)v 
ivearT) TroXe/io? rol'i Ki^&xrcriot? 7rpo<i tov<; Toprv- 
vLov^' alpedel^; 8e arparrjyo'; Kal Karopdcoaa^ 8ia 
Tax^wv Tjparo TLfjia<i Ta<s fxeyi(TTa<i, Kal evretS^ 
/MtKpov varepov i^ eVf/SofX?}? hoXof^ovriOevra eyvco 
TOV YivepyeTrjv vtto twv (f)[\oiv ev ^ivcottt], ttjv 
BiaSo'y^rjv 8e et<; yvvatKa kclI Tvaihia rjKovaav, 
aTToyvov<i Toyv e'/cet Kurifxeivev iv^ ttj Kvuxrao)' 
TeKvoTToieiTai 5' e« ^laKeTi8o<i^ yvvaiKO'i, Sre- 
poTTT}^ TovvofjLa, hvo fiev fie??, Aaye-av Kal 1,Tpa- 
Ta'/o^av, a)v rov 'ETpaTdp)(^av ea-)(^aToyrjp(jiv Kal 
Tj/j,et<; 7)Si} etBo/xev, Ouyarepa Be fxiav. hvelv he 
ovTcov viSiv TOV KvepyeTov, SieSe^aTO ttjv /Saffi- 
Xelav MiOpiSdT7]<; 6 7rpoaayopev6el<i KviraTcop, 
evBeKa €Tr) y€yova)<i' tovtw crvvTpo(f)0^ virijp^ev 6 
C 478 '^ov ^iXeTatpov AopvXao'i- -qv 8' 6 ^LXeTatpo<; 
d8eX({)o<; tov TaKTiKov AopvXdov. dv8p(i)del<; S' o 
^a(TiXev<; cttI toctovto rjpTjro tt) avvTpoc^ia ttj 
7rpo<; TOV AopvXaov, coctt ovk eKelvov fxovov el<; ti- 
/i.a? ?;76 ra? ixeyi(TTa<^, dXXd kol tcov avyyevoiv 
eTTefieXetTO Kal tou? ev K^vcocraw fxeTeireinreTO' 
rjcav S' ol Trepl AayeTav, tov ^ev iraTpo^ rjhrj 
TeTeXevTTjKOTO^, avTol S rjvBpco/Mevoi-, Kal tjkov 
d(pevTe<; to, ev Kvcoaaco- tov he AayeTa dvydTTjp rjv 
1) fxrjTrip T% e'yu-?}? firjTpo'i. evTV^ovvTO<; fj,ev hrj 
eKelvov, avvevTv^^elv Kal tovtol^ avve^aive, /cara- 
XvdevTO<i he ficpcopddT] yap d^iaTa^; Tol<i 'Po)/j.aiot<; 

^ iv is omitted except in BW. ^ Mo/ieT»5os B^■. 

134 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 4. 10 

yet in possession of the island and while the number 
of mercenary soldiers in the island, from whom the 
piratical bands Avere also wont to be recruited, was 
large. Now when Dorylaiis was sojourning there 
war happened to break out between the Cnossians 
and the Gortynians, and he was appointed general, 
finished the war successfully, and speedily won the 
greatest honours. But when, a little later, he learned 
that Euergetes, as the result of a plot, had been 
treacherously slain in Sinope by his closest associates, 
and heard that the succession had passed to his wife 
and young children, he despaired of the situation 
there and stayed on at Cnossus. There, by a 
Macetan woman, Sterope by name, he begot two 
sons, Lagetas and Stratarchas (the latter of whom 
1 myself saw when he was an extremely old man), 
and also one daughter. Now Euergetes had two 
sons, one of whom, Mithridates, surnamed Eupator, 
succeeded to the rule when he was eleven years old. 
Dorylaiis, the son of Philetaerus, was his foster 
brother; and Philotaerus was a brother of Dorylaiis 
the military expert. And when the king iMithridates 
reached manhood, he was so infatuated with the 
companionship of his foster brother Dorylaiis that 
he not only conferred upon him the greatest honours, 
but also cared for his kinsmen and summoned those 
who lived at Cnossus. These were the household of 
Lagetas and his brother, their father having already 
died, and they themselves having reached manhood ; 
and they quit Cnossus and went home. My mother's 
mother was the sister of Lagetas. Now when 
Lagetas prospered, these others shared in his pros- 
perity, but when he was ruined (for he was caught 
in the act of trying to cause the kingdom to revolt 

135 



STRABO 

Ti-jv fiaaiXetav, e'(^' o3 avTo<; et? t7]i> ap)(i]v kutu- 
crT}'](T€Tai , avyKUTeXuB)] Kal ra rovrwv kul era- 
TreivfoOrjaav' MXiyooptjdrj Be Kol ra Trpo^ tou? 
KvMcro-tou? (Tv/j./36\aLa, koI avTOv^ p,vpia<i pera- 
(3o\a<i Se^afievov^. dWa yap 6 pev irepl rrj<^ 
Kvwaaov \6yo^ roiouTo<i. 

11. Mera Se ravri^v Sevrepeuaai Sokcc Kara 
T7)v Svvap.iv 1] TMv Toprvvloiv TToXf?. avpLTTpdr- 
Tovaai re yap dXX7jXat<i ciTravra^; v7r7]K6ov<; el^ov 
avTUt TOv<i dXXov<i, aracrida-aaai re Biearrjaav rd 
Kara rrjv vrjaov rrpoadt'jKrj S' ^v rj K.v8a)VLa 
pLeyiarrj orrorepoi'i rrpoaykvoiro. Kelrai h" ev 
Tvehlw Kal r) rwv Voprvviwv rroXis, to iraXaiov 
p,ev i(Ta><; rerei'^iap.evii (Kaddrrep Kal 'Op.y]po<; 
etpi]Ke' 

Voprvvd re reix^'jeaaau) 

varepov S" d-jTo/BaXovaa ro ret^o? e'/c Oep-eXicov 
Kal rrdvra rov y^puvov p.eivaaa drei^icrro'i' kol 
yap ^iXoirdrcop TlroXep.alo'i dp^dp.evo<; Tet;^/^eu^ 
oaov enl 6yhoi]Kovra^ arahiov^ rraprjXOe p.6vov 
d^ioXoyov B ovv i^eirX/jpov rrore kvkXov i) 
ocK7]cn<i, udov TrevnjKOvra arahioiv Ste^ei he rrj<; 
Ai^vkP]^ daXdrrr]<; Kard^ Ae/3i]va, ro ip-rroptov 
avrrj^y eveuijKOvra' e^et Be re Kal dXXo errlveiov, 
ro MdraXov,^ Bie)^ei 8' avrri<i eKurov rpiuKOVTa. 
Biappel 8' avrrjv oXrjv 6 ArjOaio'; rrorap-o';. 

12. 'E« Be Ae/9/}i^o? 7]v AeuK0K6p.a<i re Kal 6 

^ For oySor.Kovra (MSS., Eustath. on Iliad 2. 64.5, 
Phrantzes Chron. 1. 34), Tzscliucke and Corais, from conj. 
of Casanbon, read oktw, following x, which has in the 
margin ^ Sktoi. 

* Kara, Casauboii, for koi ; so the later editors. 

136 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 4. 10-12 

to the Romans, on the understanding that he was to 
he established at the head of the government), their 
fortunes were also ruined at the same time, and 
they were reduced to humility ; and the bonds which 
connected them with the Cnossians, who themselves 
had undergone countless changes, fell into neglect. 
But enough for my account of Cnossus. 

11. After Cnossus, the city of the Gortynians 
seems to have ranked second in power ; for when 
these two co-operated they held in subjection all 
the rest of the inhabitants, and when they had a 
quarrel there was dissension throughout the island. 
But Cydonia was the greatest addition to whichever 
side it attached itself. The city of the Gortynians 
also lies in a plain ; and in ancient times, perhaps, 
it was walled, as Homer states, " and well-walled 
Gortyn," ^ but later it lost its walls from their very 
foundations, and has remained unwalled ever since ; 
for although Ptolemy Philopator began to build a 
wall, he proceeded with it only about eighty ^ stadia*; 
at any rate, it is worth mentioning that the settle- 
ment once filled out a circuit of about fifty stadia. 
It is ninety stadia distant from the Libyan Sea at 
Leben, which is its trading-centre; it also has 
another seaport, Matalum, from which it is a 
hundred and thirty stadia distant. The Lethaeus 
River Hows through the whole of its territory. 

12. From Leben came Leucocomas and his lover 

1 Iliad 2. 646. 

* " Eighty " seems to be an error for " eight." 



^ MaraAov, Corais and later editors, from conj. of Villebrun, 
for HiraWov. 



STRABO 

ipaaTr)<; avrov FjV^vvdero^,^ oif<; Icrjopel f)€6(t>pa(T- 
To? iv Tu> Wepl ' E/3&)T0? X6y(p' " ciOXcoi' d ,^ &v 
o AevKOKOfia^ tw Kv^vi'deTfp Trpoaera^ev, eva 
(f>rjalv elvai tovtov, top iv Updaw^ Kvva avaya- 
yetv avTW- ofiopoi S' elalv avToi'i ol Tlpdcrioi, 
Tj'}9 /iiev OaXaTTi]^ k^hofn'^KOvTa^ Voprvvo'i he 
hi,e)(ovre<i e/carov kuI oyBoiJKOvra. eiprjTat Be, 
on TOiv 'FjreoKpt']rcov v'nrip)(^ev t) Updao<i, koI 
BtoTi, evravda to tov AiktuLov Afo? lepov ica\ 
yap Tj AiKTr] TrXriaiov, ov)(^, to? "Aparo?, opeo^ 
cT-)(ehov 'iBaioio' Kal yap p^iXtou? 7) Alktt] t>}9 
'I8r)<i direyei, irpo'i dviayovra ifKiov inr avrq^ 
Kei/xiv)], TOV Be Xaficovlov eKurov. pera^v Be 
TOV Xaficovlov Kal Trj<i Keppovrjcrov rj ilpdao'i 
C 479 XBpvTO, vTTep t/)? daXdTTy^ e^rjKovTa crTaBioi^' 
KaTecrKayjrav B' '\epa7rvTvioi. ovk ev Be ovBe tov 
KaXXi p.a)(^ov Xeyeiv (f)a(Tiv, &)? t) BpiTop.apTi'i, 
(bevyovcra Tr^v ^Mvw ^iav, utto ttj^ At/cr?;? dXoiTO 
eh dXieoiv Blktvu, Kal Bid tovto avT-q p.ev 
AiKTVvva VTTO T&v KvBcoviardov TTpoaayopevdeii^, 
Alkti] Be TO 6po<i- ovBe yap dX(o<i e« yeiTovwv 
earl To2<i tottoi^ tovtoi^ tj KvBtovta, 7rpo<; Be 
TOi? tarrepioi^ Kelrat tt}? viqaov Trepacrc. tt;? 
fievTOt KvBayvLa^ 6po<i earl TtTvpo^, ev m lepov 
ecrriv, ov AlktuIov, dXXd AiKTVvvacov. 

13. K.vBo)vla B' eirl OaXdrTrj /xev iBpvTai, 
^Xeirovcra TTyOo? tt]v A.aKoyviKi]v. Bie^^^ei B eKaTepa<i 

1 E'l^vvOeos k, EuffiJfSeoj i, EvlvfBfos other MS8. ; emended 
by all editors. 

2 hi add eh'at before &6\u)v. 

^ S\ after a6\iev, Jones inserts, from conj. of Kramer. 
* UpiffKif) k, Upaiccii Tzsclmcke and Corals. 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 4. 12-13 

Eiixyntliflus, the story of wljom is told hy I'lieo- 
|)lira,stus ill his treatise Ow Love. Of the tasks 
which Leucocomas assigned to Euxynthetus, one, 
he says, was this — to bring back his dog from 
Prasus. The country of the Prasians borders on 
that of the Lebenians, being seventy stadia distant 
from the sea and a hundred and eighty from 
Gortyn. As I have said,^ Prasus belonged to the 
Eteo-Cretans ; and the temple of the Dictaean Zeus 
was there ; for Dicte is near it, not " close to the 
Idaean Mountain," as Aratus says,^ for Dicte is a 
thousand stadia distant from Ida, being situated at 
that distance from it towards the rising sun, and 
a hundred from Samonium. Prasus was situated 
between Samonium and the Cherronesus, sixty stadia 
above the sea; it was rased to the ground by the 
Hierapytnians. And neither is Callimachus right, 
they say, when he says that Britomartis, in her 
Hight from the violence of Minos, leaped from Dicte 
into fishermen's "nets,"-^ and that because of this 
she herself was called Dictynna by the Cydoniatae, 
and the mountain Dicte ; for Cydonia is not in the 
neighbourhood of these places at all, but lies near 
the western limits of the island. However, there 
is a mountain called Tityrus in Cj^donia, on which is 
a temple, not the " Dictaean " temple, but the 
'•' Dictynnaean." 

13. C3'donia is situated on the sea, facing Laconia, 
and is equidistant, about eight hundred stadia, from 

1 10. 4. 6. 2 Phaeno)i,cn.a 2Z. » " Dictya/' 

^ On f^ZoixriKovTa [o'), See Kramer (ad loc.) and C. Miiller, 
Imi. Far. Led. p. 1011. D/t have </, h has Sm/cotr/ous (cr'), 
added above, i has itaKoaiuvi and the other MSS. 6. 



STRABO 

TO laov, T^9 re K-Vwacrou kol tt)? Toprvvo^;,^ olov 
oKTaKoaiov^ arahiov^, Kirrepa^ he 6yBo7]KOVTa, 
t/}? ravrrj hk Oa\drTr)<i TerrapuKOVTa. 'AirTepaf 
S" tTTLveiov €(TTi KtVa/iO?" Trpo? eairepav S o/xopoi 
Tot? KfS&)i/mTat9 YloXvpptjvtoi, Trap' 0I9 e'crrl 
TO Trj<; Ai,icTvvvt)<? lepov aTTe)(^ovai he t/}? OaX.a.TTrj'i 
(w? rpiCLKOvTa aTaStovi, ^a\aadpvr]<i Be k^i^Kovra. 
KWfirjhov h) cpKovv "wporepov eir A^atot koI 
AdK(ov€<; avvaKy^aav, Tef)(^i(TavTe<; ipv/xvov ')(0)piov 
^XeTTov irpof /j.earjp.^piav. 

14. T(ov 8' V7T0 M.LV(i) (7VV(pKiapevu)v rpicov 
rrjv XoiTrrjV {^Paiaro^; h' yv auTT])^ KaTe(TKay\rav 
FopTvviot, Trj<i pev VopTvvo^^ hie-)(^ovaav e^tJKOvra, 
t?79 Be da\dTTrj<i eiKOcri, rov Be MardXav^ rov 
eirivelov TerrapaKOVTa' rrjv Be -x^copav e')(ovcnv 
ol KaTa<TKdyfravTe<;. FopTvvitov B' earl koX ro 
'Pvriov <Tvv rrj ^aiarw' 

^atarov re 'Vvriov re. 

eK Be ti)? ^aiarov rov tou? KaOappou^ iroiijcravra 
Bi^ rS)v errayv ^Ei7ripeviBi]v (f)aaiv eivai. koI 6 
Xiaarjv ^ Be t^9 ^J^atCTia?. Avktov ^ Be, 979 

^ ropTvvris ikx, Corais. 

* ijj', before KOT€V/fov|/oi', Xylander omits; so tlie later editors. 

* TopTvyris ix. 

* MaTd\'iv B (by corr.) 0, MapT&Xov BCT>gh}xy, MeraXov n. 

* 6 Ataa-fjv (Stephanus 6 Aicraiis), Corais, for 'OAvcffttv ; 
so Meineke. 

' Avktov 'QMH'no, and D (corr. second hand) ; Aviov B 
(first hand)a;. Kramer and Meineke avoid the Homeric 
spelling, reading Avttov. 

' Strabo refers, respectively, to the distanc:e by land to 
Aptera and by sea, but his estimates are erroneous (see 
Pauly-Wissowa s.v. " Aptera "). 

140 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 4. 13-14 

Llie two cities Cnossus .md Gortyn, and is eighty 
stadia distant from Aptera, and forty from the sea 
in that region.^ The seaport of Aptera is Cisamus. 
The territory of the Polyrrhenians borders on that 
of tlie Cydoniatae towards the west, and the temple 
of Dictynna is in tlieir territory. They are about 
thirty stadia distant from the sea, and sixty from 
Plialasarna. They hved in villages in earlier times ; 
and then Achaeans and Laconians made a common 
settlement, building a wall round a place that was 
naturally strong and faced towards the south. 

14. Of the three cities that were united under 
one metropolis by Minos, the tliird, which was 
Phaestus, was rased to the ground by the Gor- 
tynians ; it is sixty stadia distant from Gortvn, 
twenty from the sea, and forty from the seaport 
Matalum ; and the country is held by those who 
rased it. Rhytium, also, together with Phaestus, 
belongs to the Gortynians : '' and Phaestus and 
Rhytium." 2 Epimenides,^ who performed the puri- 
fications by means of his verses, is said to have been 
from Phaestus. And Lissen also is in the Phaestian 
territory. Of Lyctus, wiiich I have mentioned 

2 Iliad 2. GJS. 

' Kpimenides was a wizard, an ancient " Rip Van Winkle,'' 
wlio, acconJing lo iSuidas, slept for sixty of his one liundivd 
and fifty years. According to Diogenes Laertius (1. 110), 
he went to Athens in " the forty-sixth Olympiad " (596-59.3 
P..C ) "and purified the city, and put a stop to the plague" 
(see Plutarch's account of his visit in Solon's time, Solon 12). 
According to Plato (Laivs 642 D) he went to Athens "ten 
years before the Persian War" [i.e. 500 B.C.), and uttered the 
prophecy that the Persians would not come for ten years, 
and would get the worst of it when they came. But see 
Paulj'-Wissowa s.v. "Epimenides." 

141 



STRABO 

ifivi'jadrjfMev koI irpoTepov, eiriveiov effrtv 77 Xeyo- 
fiivT) \€pp6vT](T0^, ev fi TO T>79 B/otTO/za'pTeo)? 
lepov al he cv^KaTaKeyOelaai iroX.ei'i ovkct 
elai, MtXrjTo? re Kai AvKaaro^, ttjv Be ^(^(jopav, 
TTjv fiev iveipavro Xvktlol,^ ttjv Se K.v(0(T<tioi, 
KaraaKdy^avre^; ttjv ttoXiv. 

15. ToO he TTOirjTov to fiev eKaTOfXTroXtv \e- 
yovTO<; TTjv KpijTijv, to he evev^jKovTciTroXiv, "E<^o- 
/309 fiev ixJTepov eiriKTLcrdrivaL Ta<i heKU (prjal 
fiSTCi TO. TpcoiKCL vTTO T(ov ^ AXdaifievei tS) ^Apyelw 
(TvvaKoXovOyjadvToyv Aojpie'av tov p.ev ovv 
^Ohvaaea Xeyei evevrixovTaTroXiv ovop-daai' ovto<; 
fiev ovv 7Ti6av6<; iaTiv 6 X6yo<;' dXXot S" inro 
Twv 'lhop,eve(i)<; i^Opcov KaTaaKac^rjvai (paai Td<; 
heKa. dX\ ovtc kutcl tu TpcoiKd (prjaiv o 7roir]Tr}<; 
\ CKaTOVTaTToXiv virdp^at ttjv ILprJTiiv, dXXd pdXXov 

/ KUT avTov {i/c yap tov Ihiov irpocrcoTrov Xiyer el 
C 480 S' €K TOiv Tore ovtwv TLvo<i rjv 6 X0709, Kadd-nep 
ev TTJ ^Ohvaaeia, rjiiKa ivev/jKovTUTToXiv (f)pd^€i, 
KaXco'i et^ei' av ^ ovtco he)(eadai), ovt el ^ avyyw- 
p-qaaifxev tovto ye, e^rj<i Xoya aco^oiT dv. ovTe 
yap KUTCL TTjv (TTpaTeiav ovTe fieTo, ttjv eirdvohov 
T-qv eKeWev tov 'iSoyue^eo)? * et«09 ecTiv viro twv 
e')(6pojv avTov Td<i 7r6Xei<; rjc^avicrOaL TavTa<i' o 
yap 7roirjTr)<; (f)7]aa<i,^ 

* Au/cTioi Dhikln, aud B (first hand); Avnot kx; Kramer 
and Meineke Aumoi. 

* &v is omitted by all MSS. except x. 

' For oCt' fl BCDAes have ort, x on d, Tzschucke and 
Corais, from conj. of Tyrwhitt, aW ouS' el. 

* Tzehucke, Corais. Meineke, and others omit ij, after 
'I5o/U6^'€a•J. 

' (priaas, Meineke, from conj. of Kramer, for <pr]<ri. 
142 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 4. 14-15 

before/ the seaport is Chersonesus, as it is called, 
where is the temple of Britomartis. But the cities 
Miletus and Lycastus, which are catalogued along 
with Lyctus,^ no longer exist ; and as for their 
territory, the Lyctians took one portion of it and 
the Cnossians the other, after they had rased the 
city to the ground. 

15. Since the poet speaks of Crete at one time 
as " possessing a hundred cities," ^ and also at 
another as " possessing ninety cities," * Ephorus says 
that the ten were founded later than the others, 
after the Trojan War, by the Dorians who accom- 
panied Althaemenes the Argive ; he adds that it 
was Odysseus, however, who called it " Crete of the 
ninety cities." Now this statement is plausible, but 
others say that the ten cities were rased to the 
ground by the enemies of Idomeneus.^ However, 
in the first place, the poet does not say that Crete 
had one hundred cities at the time of the Trojan 
War, but rather in his own time (for he is speaking 
in his own person, although, if the statement was 
made by some person who was living at the time 
of the Trojan War, as is the case in the Odyssey, 
when Odysseus says " of the ninety cities," then 
it would be well to interpret it accordingly). In 
the second place, if we should concede this,® the 
next statement "^ could not be maintained ; for it 
is not likely that these cities were wiped out by 
the enemies of Idomeneus either during the ex- 
pedition or after his return from Troy ; for when 

» 10. 4. 7. * Iliad 2. 647. ' Iliad 2. 649. 

* Od. 19. 174. 6 The grandson of Minos. 

* i.e. that Homer was speaking of his own time. 

' i.e. that ten were rased by the enemies of Idomeneus. 

143 



STRABO 

01 (f)VyOV €K TToXefJbOV, TTOVTO'i he OL OVTIV 
UTDJUpa' 

nai ^ T0V70V rov irdOovi €fi€/J,v)]T' dv' ^ ov yap 
S^TTov '08vcraev>i fieu 'iyvco rov dcpaiua/xov twv 
troXeoiV 6 fxijSepl avp.p,i^a<; rcov 'EiWijvcov fitjre 
Kara rrju -rrXdvrjv /Jbr/O' vcrrepov. 6 Be Koi (Tvarpa- 
revaa^ tm 'iSofievei kuI (jvvavaafoOel^ ovk eyvco 
rd crvfji,8dvTa oXkoi ai'TM ovre^ Kara tj-jv crrpa- 
reiav oure rrjv errdvohov Trjv eKeldev dWd /jli]v 
ovSe fierd rrju eirdvohov el yap perd irdvTwv 
eadyOrj tmv eraiputv, l(T')(^vpo<i eiravrfkOev, mctt' 
OVK €p,eX\.ov Icrxvcreiv ol €')(^6pol ToaovTOV, ocrov 
BcKa df^aipelaOai, 7r6Xei<; avrov.^ t?}? pei/ ovv 
\(iipa<i T(t)i> Kpi]T(bv TOiavTi] ti^ -t] irepioheia. 

16. T?}? he T7o\iTeia<i, rj<; "R(f)opo<; dveypa-^e, rd 
Kvpicorara eirthpapelv diroy^pdiivra)'^ dv €')(oi. hoKel 
he, (f)i]aLV, 6 I'opoBeT)]^ pbiyiarov virodeadai ralf; 
TToXeaiv dyaOov Ttjv eXevOepiav' povrjv ydp ravrTjV 
Ihia TToielv tcou KTijaap-euMV ra ayaOa, ra h ev 
hovXeia t(op dp^ovrcov, dW' ov)(i twv dp')(^opev(ov 
elvai' TOi? h' exovcri ravrrjv <j)vXaKrj<i heiv ttjv 
pev ovv opovoiav hi-^oaraala^; aipopev)]<;^ d-rravrav, 
i) yiverat hid TrXeove^iav Kal rpv(f)i'jv' aux^povo)^ 
ydp Kal Xt.TO)<i ^Maiv diracnv ovre (f)06vov ovO^ 
v/Spiv 0VT6 piaa dwavTav Trpo? tou? ofMOiov;' 

1 Before k«1 tovtov B(by corr. )kno and the earlier editors 
insert ware. 

* iaefxvqr' &i> B/CJ, f/j.eiJ.vr]To other MSS. 

' oijre, after aiiT'f, Corais inserts : so Miiller-Diibner and 
otliers. Meineke ejects /coto . . . fKudsv, 

144 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 4. 15-16 

the poet said, " and all his companions Idomeneus 
l)roiight to Crete, all who escaped from the war, and 
the sea robbed him of none," ^ he would also have 
mentioned this disaster ; for of course Odysseus 
could not have known of the obliteration of the 
cities, since he came in contact with no Greeks 
either during his wanderings or later. And he ^ 
who accompanied Idomeneus on the expedition to 
Troy and returned safely home at the same time 
could not have known what occurred in the home- 
land of Idomeneus either during the expedition 
or the return from Troy, nor yet even after the 
return ; for if Idomeneus escaped with all his 
companions, he returned home strong, and therefore 
his enemies were not likely to be strong enough 
to take ten cities away from him. Such, then, is 
my description of the country of the Cretans. 

16. As for their constitution, which is described 
by Ephorus, it might suffice to tell in a cursory 
way its most important provisions. The lawgiver, 
he says, seems to take it for granted that liberty 
is a state's greatest good, for this alone makes 
property belong specifically to those who have 
acquired it, whereas in a condition of slavery 
everything belongs to the rulers and not to the 
ruled ; but those who have liberty must guard it ; 
now harmony ensues when dissension, which is the 
result of greed and luxury, is removed ; for when 
all citizens live a self-restrained and simple life 
there arises neither envy nor arrogance nor hatred 
towards those who are like them ; and this is 

1 Od. 3. 191 (Nestor speaking). ^ Nestor. 

* avT6v, Corais, for ahruv ; so the later editors. 
' plpo/j-evrts C ; alpovfi4v7]s Other MSS. 

145 



ST R A BO 

Biorrep roix; /xev Trai8a<; et<> Ta<; 6i'0fia^0fj.iva<i 
dyeXw? KeXevaai (^otrav, tov<; 8e TcXelov; iv Tot<i 
avcraiTLoi^;, a KoKovcnv avhpela, cruaairelv^ oircof; 
Twv l'(T(ov /jL€Tdcr-)^oiev TOL<i €V7r6poi<i 01 TTevecnepoi, 
^r]f.waia rpecpo/xevoi' TTph<i Be to /xr/ SeiXiav dW 
dvhpeiav Kparelv €k ttulScov OTrXoi? Kat 7rovoi<i 
avvrpecpeiv, (oare Karacbpovelv Kav/xaTO^ Kai 
■\jrv^ov<; fcal rpay^eias ohov Kal dvdvTOV<; koi 
7r\7]y6}V TWV €v yvpi'a(TiOL<; Kal pd)(^ai<; ral<; Kara 
avvTay/xa' daKelv he Kal to^lkt] Kal iuoTrXifp 
op^yjaei, f]V Karahei^ai KoupZ/ra? ^ irpoyrov, 
vcrrepov 6e Kal tov ^ avvrd^avTa ti-jv K\i]6ec<Tav 
a7r' avTOu TTvppi'^t]v, oxne p.r]Se Trjv iraihiav 
afioipov eJvai. riov 77/209 TroXepov '^prja-ipLWV' w? 
S' avTO}^ Kal TOt? pvdpol<i KpTjriKoh ;\'/o?7cr^at 
Kara Td<; (pBd<; avvTOvcoTaroi^ ovaiv, 01)9 (P^dXrjra 
31 dvevpelv, a Kal Tovf; Traidva^ Kal rd<> aXXa<i Ta<; 
eTTix^P^ovi; w8d<: dvaTcdiacri koI TroXXd tmv 
vopipcov, Kal eadrjri he Kal virohicrei TToXepuKf) 
'X^prjaOai, Kal twv hwpcov TipicoTara auroi<; elvai 
rd 07r\a. 

17. AiyeaOai h' inro tivcov, d><; XaKowLKa eh] Ta 
TToXXd TOiv vopi^opevcov KprjTiKOiV, to S' dXT}de<;, 
evprjadai fiev vir eKeivwv, rjKpi^MKevaL he tou9 
1.7rapTidTa<;, tol'9 he K/)^Ta9 oXiywprjaai, kukw- 
deiaoiv Tcbv voXecov, Kal pdXiaTa t^? Kvcoaaicov, 
Tbiv TToXepiKOiV peivui he Tiva tmv vopupwv rrapd 

^ avcranilt', Meineke, for avaa'iTia. 
- KovpriTas, Groskurd, for KoupTJTa, Kramer approving. 
' r6v, before (rvvTa^avTa, Corais inserts; so Jones inde- 
pendently. 

T46 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 4. 16-17 

why the lawgiver commanded the boys to attend 
the " Troops," ^ as tliey are called, and the full- 
grown men to eat together at the j)ul)lic messes 
which they call the " Andreia," so that the poorer, 
being fed at public expense, might be on an equality 
with the Avell -to-do ; and in order that courage, 
and not cowardice, might prevail, he commanded^ 
that from boyhood they should grow up accustomed 
lo arms and toils, so as to scorn heat, cold, marches 
over rugged and steep roads, and blows received 
in gymnasiums or regular battles ; and that they 
should practise, not only archery, but also the 
war-dance, which was invented and made known 
by the Curetes at first, and later, also, by the 
man ^ who arranged the dance that was named 
after him, I mean the Pyrrhic dance, so that not 
even their sports were without a share in activities 
that were useful for warfare ; and likewise that they 
should use in their songs the Cretic rhythms, which 
were very high-pitched, and were invented by 
Thales, to whom they ascribe, not only their Paeans 
and other local songs, but also many of their 
institutions ; and that they should use military dress 
and shoes ; and that arms should be to them the 
most valuable of gifts. 

17. It is said by some writers, Ephorus continues, 
that most of the Cretan institutions are Laconian, 
but the truth is that they were invented by the 
Cretans and only perfected by the Spartans ; and 
the Cretans, when their cities, and particularly that 
of the Cnossians, were devastated, neglected military 
affairs ; but some of the institutions continued in 

' Literally, " Herds " (cf. the Boy Scout " Troops "). 
* Pyrrhicus (see 10. 3. 8). 



STRABO 

Af«7tot9 Kol TopTvvioL<; Kal aWoi<: tictI iroXi- 
■)(yioL<; fjidWov, r) irap €K€lvoi^' Kal Stj koI ra 
AvKTLcov vofitfia TTOcelaOai /xaprvpia T01/9 ra 
\ax(j)VLKa irpeo'^vrepa aTro(^aLi>ovTa<;- aTTo'iKov; 
'jap ovra^ (fivXarreiv to, tt}? fjLTjTpoTToXeco^ edt], 
iirel aXXw? ye evrjOe^ elvai to tou? /3e\.rLov avvea- 
7(yTa9 Kal TroXiTevofiivov; twv "x^eipovwv ^ii\(i)ra<; 
d7ro(f)aLveiv' ovk ev 8e ravra Xeyeadar ovre yap 
eK rav vvv KadearTjKorcov to, iraXaia TeK/xrjpiova- 
dat Selv, 619 rdvavTia eKarepcov /xeraTTeTrrcoKoTcov' 
Kal yap vavKparelv irpoTepov tov<; }^prjTa<;, ware 
Kal TTapoi/jLid^ecrOai. 7rpo9 701/9 TrpoaTToiov/jiivov^ 
fit] elhevaL a taaaiv O K/^?;9 dyvoel rrjv ddXarrav, 
vvv 6' dTTO^e^XrjKevai to vavriKoV ovze ore 
aTTOCKOi Tiv€<; rcov iroXecov yey ovaai rcov iv Kp'jrTj 
"ErrapTiaTCOv, iv Tot9 eKeivaiv vo/j.L/jioi<; ejrrjvay- 
KaaOai' 7roXXd<; yovv rcov dfroLKihcov firj ^vXdr- 
reiv ra rrdrpia, 7roXXd<; Be Kal tmv /urj drroiKlhwv 
ev K.pT]rr] rd avrd e^eiv rol^ diToiKOi<; 'idrj. 

18. Twv re ^Trapriarcov rov vo/j,o6eTT]v AvKovp- 
yov rrevre yeveal<i vecorepov AXOat/xevou^ elvai rov 
areiXavTO^ rrjv el<; KpT]rrjv dnTOLKlav rov fiev yap 
laropeladaL ]^icraov iralha rov ro "A.pyo'i Krlaav- 
ro<; rrepl rov avrov XP^vov rjviKa UpoKXrj'^ rrjv 
'^Trdprrjv avvaiKi^e, AvKovpyov S' 6/u,oXoyeiadai 
irapd TrdvTcov eKrov uTrb UpoKXeov; yeyovevai' 
rd he fj,i/jLr]fj,aTa /xrj eivai Ttporepa rcov rrapaSeiy- 



* This Althaemenes, therefore, is not to be confused with 
the Althaemenes who was the grandson of Minos. 
' i.e. of Laconia (see 8. 5. 4). 

148 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 4. 17-18 

use among the Lyctians, Gortyiiians, and certain 
other small cities to a greater extent than among 
the Cnossians ; in fact, the institutions of the 
Lyctians are cited as evidence by those who re- 
present the Laconian as older ; for, they argue, 
being colonists, they preserve the customs of the 
mother-city, since even on general grounds it is 
absurd to represent those who are better organised 
and governed as emulators of their inferiors; but 
this is not correct, Ephorus says, for, in the first 
place, one should not draw evidence as to antiquity 
from the present state of things, for both peoples 
have undergone a complete reversal ; for instance, 
the Cretans in earlier times were masters of the 
sea, and hence the proverb, " The Cretan does 
not know the sea," is applied to those who pretend 
not to know what they do know, although now the 
Cretans have lost their fleet ; and, in the second 
place, it does not follow that, because some of 
the cities in Crete were Spartan colonies, they 
were under compulsion to keep to the Spartan 
institutions ; at any rate, many colonial cities do not 
observe their ancestral customs, and many, also, of 
those in Crete that are not colonial have the same 
customs as the colonists. 

18. Lycurgus the Spartan law-giver, Ephorus 
continues, was five generations later than the Al- 
thaemenes who conducted the colony to Crete ; ^ 
for historians say that Althaemenes was son of the 
Cissus who founded Argos about the same time 
when Procles was establishing Sparta as metropolis ;2 
and Lycurgus, as is agreed by all, was sixth in 
descent from Procles ; and copies are not earlier 
than their models, nor more recent things earlier 

149 



STRABO 

fidrcov fiijhe to, vewrepa tS>v Trpea^vTepcov rr)V re 
6p-)(r}cnv rrjv irapa rot? KaKehatp.ovioL<i inL^copid- 
^ovaav Koi TOu<i pvOfMoii'i Kai Traidva^ tov<; Kara 
vopbov d8opevov<; kol dXXa TroWd ro)v vopip-cov 
K.py]TiKd KaXelaOac irap avTol<;, co? dv eKeldev 
oppnopbeva' twv S' dp)(^€tcov rd pev kul Td<; SiotKi']- 
cret? e')(^€iv ra? avrd<i koi rd^ eTTa)vvpia<i, oxnrep 
KoX rrjv Twv yepovrajv dpxv^ xal ttjv tcov linrecov 
C 482 {ttXtjv ore tou? iv KpTjTT) t'TTTrea? kuI ittttou? 
KeKrrjcjdai crvp^e^ifKeV e^ ov reKpaipovrai irpecr- 
^VTcpav elvai rwv iv Kpyjrr) iTTTricov rrjv dp')(i]v' 
crco^eiv '^/dp ry]v irvpoTTjTa rfj^ irpocrrj'yopia'i' tou? 
he pT] iTTTTOTpocfieLv), roix; €<^6pov<; he rd avrd toI<; 
iv K.pr]TT) K6(7poi<i hiotKovvTa^ erepo)? covopdadai' 
rd he crvaaLTia dvhpela Trapd p,ev toU Kprjcriv 
Kal vvv ert KoKelcrOai, Trapd he Tol<i ^TrapTUiTai^; 
pLYj hcapetvai KaXovp^eva op,oiw<; &>? ^ irporepov' 
Trap ^ A\Kp,dvL 701)1/ ovTco KelaOai' 

(f)Oi'vai<i he kul iv didaoLcnv 

dvhpeiwv ^ Trapd haiTVpoveaai TrpeTrei ^ Traidva 
Kardpxsiv. 

19. AeyeaduL h' vtto tmv Kpyjrayv, co? Kal Trap" 
avTom d(f)LKOiTO AvKOvpyo'; Kard ToiauTTjv alTiav 
dhe\<f)6<; r)v Trpea^vTepo<; rov AvKOvpyou UoXv- 
heKTr]<;' outo? reXevrow eyKvov KUTeXiTre rrjv 
yvvaiKa' rew^ pev ovv i^aaiXeuev 6 AvKOvpyo<; 
dvTi Tov dheX(})ov, yevop,evov he Traiho^, eVer/xj- 

' ws only no ; bfioiois a>s B (by corr. ), and so Tzschucke and 
Corais ; bfioioos only, other MSS. (except k, which has neither 
word), and so Miiller-Diibner and Meineke. 

* avSpiaiv BCDAz. 

' irpeTrei, Kramer, from eonj. of Ursinus, for Trpeirt. 

150 



GEOCiRAPHY, lo. 4. 18-19 

ihaii older things ; not only the dancing which is 
customary among the Lacedaemonians, but also tlie 
rhythms and paeans that are sung according to 
law, and many other Spartan institutions, are called 
''Cretan" among the Lacedaemonians, as though 
they originated in Crete; and some of the public 
offices are not only administered in the same way as 
in Crete, but also have the same names, as, for 
instance, the office of the " Gerontes," ^ and liiat 
of the "Hippeis"- (except that the "Hippeis" 
in Crete actually possessed horses, and from this 
fact it is inferred that the office of the " Hippeis " 
in Crete is older, for they preserve the true meaning 
of the appellation, whereas the Lacedaemonian 
" Hijjpeis " do not keep horses) ; but though the 
Ephors have the same functions as the Cretan 
Cosmi, they have been named differently ; and the 
public messes are, even to-day, still called " Andreia" 
among the Cretans, but among the Spartans they 
ceased to be called by the same name as in earlier 
times ; ^ at any rate, the following is found in 
Alcman : " In feasts and festive gatherings, amongst 
the guests who partake of the Andreia, 'tis meet to 
begin the paean." * 

19. It is said by the Cretans, Rphoi'us continues, 
that Lycurgus came to them for the following- 
reason : Polydectes was the elder brother of Lycur- 
gus ; when he died he left his wife pregnant ; now 
for a time Lycurgus reigned in his brother's place, 
but when a child was born he became the child's 

^ " Old Men," i.e. " Senators."' 
^ " Horsemen," I.e. "Knights." 

' The later Spartan name was "Syssitia" or "Philitia" 
(sometimes " Phiditia"). 
* Frag. 22 (Bergk). 



STRABO 

irevev eKelvov, el<s ov rj ap-)(i] Ka6/]K0V(Ta eTv<y)(ave' 
\oiBopov/x€vo<; Btj Ti<? avTO) cra<pM<; elfrev elhevai, 
hioTL ^aatXevcTOL' Xa^oiv 8' v-novoiav iKelvo<i, &)? 
i/c Tov Xoyov tovtov Sia^dWoiro eTnfBovXrj i^ 
avTov TOV iraiho^, 8eL(Ta<i, /jlt) 6K rv)(^r]<} cnroOavov- 
T09 alriav avro^ ^'%o* Trapa tcov i.')(dpS)V, aTrffpev 
eiv Kp?^T?;i>* ravTTjv fiev hrj Xeyeadat t^<? diro- 
S7]fj.ia<; alriav, eXOovra he TrXrjcndcraL @aX.r;Tt 
fxeXoTTOiw dvhpl Kal vo/xoOeTiKO), laroprjaavTa Sk 
Trap avTov tov rpoirov, bv 'PaBdfj.avdv<i t€ irpo- 
repov Kal vaTepov MtV&)9, &)? rrapd rod Ato? tou? 
vofiovf iK(f)epoi et? dvOpdiirovi, yevofxevov he koI iv 
AlyvirTO) Kal Karajxadovra Kal to. eKel vo/mt/xa, 
evTv^ovra 8\ &<; <^aai Tive<;, Kal 'Ofi^jpo) hia- 
rpi^ovTi iv Xto), KaTapai irdXiv elf ttjv olKeiav, 
KUTaXa/Selv Be rov tov dhe\<^ov vlov, tov lioXv- 
BeKTov XaplXaov, /BacnXevovra' eld opfj-fjaai 
Biadeivai toi'9 v6/j.ovf, ^oiTOiVTa d)<i tov deov tov 
ev A€\(pol<;, KUKeWev KOfil^ovTa rd TrpocTTdy/xaTa, 
KaOdirep oi nrepl MtV<w eV tov dvTpov tov Ai6<;, 
TrapaTrXj'jaia eKeivois to. TvXeioi. 

20. TS)v KprjTiKMV TU KVpicoraTa tcop KaG' 
eKacTTa TOiavTa el'pijKe. yafielv fiev d/xa irdvTe'i 
dvayKd^ovTai Trap" avTol'i ol xaTa tov avTov 
■^^povov eK Ttjf TOiv TTaiBdiv dyiXr)<i eKKpiOevTeq, 
ovK evdv<i 8' dyovrai Trap' eavTovf ra? ya/jLTjOelaa^ 
TTalBa<i, dXX' iirdv ijBt] BioiKelv iKaval coac tu 
irepl TOv<; oikov^;' (ftepvrj 5' iaTLV, av dBeXtpol oicri, 
TO y']/j,iav T/}? ToC uBeXipov fiepiBo^' 7ra2Ba<; Be 



GEOGRAPHY, ro. 4. 19-20 

guardian, since the office of king descended to the 
child, but some man, railing at Lycurgus, said that 
he knew for sure that Lycurgus would be king ; 
and Lycurgus, suspecting that in consequence of 
such talk he himself might be falsely accused of 
plotting against the child, and fearing that, if by 
any chance the child should die, he himself might 
be blamed for it by his enemies, sailed away to 
Crete ; this, then, is said to be the cause of his 
sojourn in Crete ; and when he arrived he associated 
with Thales, a melic poet and an expert in lawgiving ; 
and after learning from him the manner in which 
both Rhadamanthys in earlier times and Minos in 
later times published their laws to men as from 
Zeus, and after sojourning in Egypt also and leai'ning 
among other things their institutions, and, according 
to some writers, after meeting Homer, who was 
living in Chios, he sailed back to his homeland, 
and found his brother's son, Charilaiis the son of 
Polydectes, reigning as king; and then he set out to 
frame the laws, making visits to the god at Delphi, 
and bringing thence the god's decrees, just as Minos 
and his house had brought their ordinances from the 
cave of Zeus, most of his being similar to theirs. 

20. The following are the most important pro- 
visions in the Cretan institutions as stated by 
Ephorus. In Crete all those who are selected out 
of the " Troop " of boys at the same time are forced 
to marry at the same time, although they do not 
take the girls whom they have married to their 
own homes immediately, but as soon as the girls 
are qualified to manage the affairs of the house. 
A girl's dower, if she has brothers, is half of the 
brother's portion. The children must learn, not only 

153 



STRABO 

C 483 ypci/j-fxaTa re fxavBaveiv Kal Ta<; e/c t6)v vofioiv 
ioha<i fcal riva eiBi] t^< /jU)vaiKfj<i' Tov<i fiev ovv 
€Ti vecoT€pov<; et? to. avaaiTta dyovcri ra dvhpela' 
'X^cLixai he KaOijfievot, hianSiVTai fier aWy]\o}v iv 
(pauXof; TpL^wvioi^ kul '^eLp.Mvo^ koI Oepovi ra 
avTci, hLUKovovai re Kal eavTOL<; Kal rol<i dvSpdac 
av/x^dWovai S' ^ et<? fid^^rju Kal o'l eK tov avrov 
avaaniov irpo^ dWy]\ov^, Kal Trpo'i erepa crvcr- 
aiTia' KaO' eKaarov he dvcpelov i(pe(Trr}Ke irai- 
hov6/j.o<;' oi he fiei^ovi et? Td<i dyeXwi dyovTui' 
Ta9 h' dye\a<i avvdyovacv ol eTTK^avearaTOL Toji' 
TTaihwv Kal ouvaTcoTaroi, eKaaro^ oaovi irXeia- 
rovi oi6<i re eariv ddpol^cov' eKdaT'r}<; he t?}? 
dye\i)<i dpxc^v iarlv w? to ttoXv 6 7raT7]p tov 
avvayayovTO'i, Kvpio^ mv i^dyeiv eirl Orjpav Kal 
hpofiov^, TOV S" ajreidovvTa KoXd^eiV TpecpovTai 
he hrj/jLoaia' TaKTal^ he tktiv rj/Mepai^ dyekt] 
TTpo^ dyeXrjv avfx^dWei p-CTO, avXov Kal \vpa^ 
et9 p.d')(riv ev pvOp,(b. (oairep Kal iv Tol<i iroXe- 
p,iKoi<i elwOatTLv, eKcpepovai he Kal Td<i 7rXr]yd<i, 
ra? p-ev hid ■^eipo'i, ra? he Kal hi oirXcov cnhr^pcov. 
21. ^Ihiov S' avToU TO irepl tov<; epcoTai; 
v6/Mip,ov' ov yap Treidol KUTcpyd^ovTai Tov'i 
epcofievovi, dXX" dpirayfi' irpoXeyei T049 <^iXoi^ 
irpo Tpicov Tj TrXeiovcov rjp-epcbv epacrTi']<;, OTi 
/xeXXei ^ T7]v dprrayr]v Troieladar rot? h' diro- 
KpvTiTeiv p.ev TOV iralha 77 p,r) eav iropeveadai 
Trjv TeTayp.evr]v ohov twv alaxidToyv eaTU>, ft><? 

1 5', Casaubon inserts ; so the later editors. 
* /xtWoi BClno. 

* Others translate iK<pipov<n in the sense of delivering hlows. 



GEOGRAPHY, 10.4. ao-21 

their letters, but also the songs prescribed in the 
laws and certain forms of music. Now those who 
are still younger are taken to the public messes, 
the " Andreia " ; and they sit together on the 
ground as they eat their food, clad in shabby 
garments, the same both winter and summer, and 
they also wait on the men as well as on themselves. 
x\nd those who eat together at the same mess join 
battle both with one another and with those fx'oni 
different messes. A boy-director presides over each 
mess. But the older boys are taken to the "Troops"; 
and the most conspicuous and influential of the boys 
assemble the "' Troops," each collecting as many boys 
as he possibly can ; the leader of each " Troop " is 
generally the father of the assembler, and he has 
authority to lead them forth to hunt and to run 
races, and to punish anyone who is disobedient ; 
and they are fed at public expense ; and on certain 
appointed days "Troop" contends with "Troop," 
marching rhythmically into battle, to the tune 
of flute and lyre, as is their custom in actual war ; 
and they actually bear marks of^ the blows re- 
ceived, some inflicted by the hand, others by iron ^ 
weapons. 

21. They have a peculiar custom in regard to love 
affairs,^ for they win the objects of their love, not 
by persuasion, but by abduction ; the lover tells the 
friends of the boy three or four days beforehand that 
he is going to make the abduction ; but for the friends 
to conceal the boy, or not to let him go forth by the 
appointed road, is indeed a most disgraceful thing, 

* Possibly an error for " wooden." 

^ The discussion of "love affairs" is strangely limited to 
pederasty. 

VOL. v. F 



ST R A BO 

€^OfioXoyovfi€voi<;,^ on dvd^io^ 6 Tral^ eh] toiov- 
Tov ipacTTOv TV'y)(^dv€iv. arvviovre^ 8\ av fjuev 
TOiv i'(Tcov rj TO)v v7repe)(^0J'T(av rt? rj rov iraiho'; 
Tifjifi KUL T0i9 dX\oi<; o dpird^wv, e7ri8i(t)KOVTe<i 
dvO/]\}ravTo fxovov /x?T/ot&)?, to vofzi/iov eKTrXrj- 
povvre^, rdWa 5' eTTLTpirrovaiv dyeiv yaipovTe^i' 
dv 8 dvd^(.o<;, d(f)aipouvTai' rrepa^ 8e t^9 iiri- 
8i(i)^eu)<; ^ ecTTiv, eco^ av d')(6y 6 iral^ ei9 ro rov 
dpirdaavTO's dvhpelov. epda/xiov Se vo/xi^ovcriv 
ou rov KdXXei hia^epovra, dWd rov dvhpeia 
Koi KOcrpioTrjri'^ koX 8ci)pr]ad/jL€vo<i dirdyei rov 
iraiSa t?}? '^(opa^ et9 ov /SovXerai tottov eVa- 
KoXovOouac 8e rfj dpirayfj oi irapayevopevot, 
€(TTiaO€VT€<i Se fcai crvvOypevaavre^ 8i/j,T]vov (ov 
yap e^ecrri TrXeio) )(^p6vov Kare^eiv rov Trai8a) 
€19 Tr]v TToXiv KarafSaivovacv. d<f>L€Tai S' o 7rat9, 
85ipa Xa^oov aroXrjv TroXepiKrjv Kal ^ovv Kal 
7roT7]piov (ravTa p.ev rd Kara rov vopov 8o)pa)^ 
Kal dXXa rrXeuo Kal ttoXvtcXij, wcrre avvepavil^eiv 
TOi'9 <f)iXov^ 8id TO TrXijOo^ twv dvaXcopdroiv. 
Tov fiev ovv ^ovv Ovei tu) Ail Kal earia rov^ 
avyKUTa^aivovra^' etr' dvo(f)aLverat^ irepl Trjs 
7rpo9 TOV epaa-Trjv op,iXia<;, eW dcrpevc^wv t€tv- 
')(r}Kev, eiTe jx/], tov vopov tout' €7nTpe-^jravT0<i, 
C 484 tv, e'i ti<; avro) /Sia Trpoaevi'iveKrai Kara ttjv 
dpTTayrjv, evravda irapfj ripojpelv ^ eavrrp Kal 

^ t^oixoAoyoufjifi'oti, the editors, for f^o/j.oKoyoufj.fvovt. 

2 fTTiSidc^ecos no, (TTtSfl^iws otlier MSS. 

3 Before Kal SoDpritrdixet'os Meineke, following Groskurd's 
conj., indicates a lacuna, suspecting that something like 
6 5* e'pacTTrjs aa-Kaaifxevos has fallen out of the MSS. 

* After ks>i>a IMeineke indicates a lacuna. 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 4. 21 

a confession, as it were^ that the boy is unworthy 
to obtain such a lover ; and when they meet, if the 
abductor is the boy's equal or superior in rank or 
other respects, the friends pursue him and lay hold 
of him, though only in a very gentle way, thus 
satisfying the custom ; and after that they cheerfully 
turn the boy over to him to lead away ; if, however, 
the abductor is unworthy, they take the boy away 
from him. And the pursuit does not end until the 
boy is taken to the " Andreium " of his abductor. 
They regard as a worthy object of love, not the boy 
who is exceptionally handsome, but the boy who 
is exceptionally manly and decorous. After giving 
the boy presents, the abductor takes him away to 
any place in the country he wishes; and those who 
were j)resent at the abduction follow after tliem. 
and after feasting and hunting with them for two 
months (for it is not permitted to detain the boy for 
a longer time), they return to the city. The boy is 
released after receiving as presents a military habit, 
an ox, and a drinking-cup (these are the gifts re- 
(juired by law), and other things so numerous and 
costly that the friends, on account of the number of 
the expenses, make contributions thereto. Now the 
boy sacrifices the ox to Zeus and feasts those who 
returned with him ; and then he makes known the 
facts about his intimacy with his lover, whether, 
jjerchance, it has pleased him or not, the law 
allowing him this privilege in order that, if any 
force was applied to him at the time of the abduc- 
tion, he might be able at this feast to avenge 
himself and be rid of the lover. It is disgraceful 

^ iropji Tifj-atpeiv, Corais, for irapaTifiuipuv ; so the later editors. 

157 



STRABO 

airaWaTTeadai. toi? he «a\ot9 Tr}v iheav Kal 
Trpoyovcov €7n(j)av(bv epaarSiv /jltj TV)(etv at(T')(pov,^ 
ct)9 Bia rov rpoirov tovto TraOovaiv, exovai Se 
Tip.a^ 01 nrapaarad evre<; {ovtw '^/ap KaXovcri rov<; 
apTrayevras/ ev re yap toI<; x^pol^^ Kal rol<i 
6p6p.0L<; eyovai tck: eVri/xoTaTa? -^copa^, rfj re 
arokf] KoafxelaOai Bia(f)€p6vTa)<; tojv dWcov i(pL€Tai 
rfi hoOelar) Trapa rcov epaaTcov, Kal ov rore fiovov, 
aXXa KUL TeXeiot yevopevot, hidar)p.ov iadr/Ta 
(f>epovaii', a(f) tj^ yvcoadrjcrerai eKaajo^ KXeivo<i 
yevop.evo'i' rov p,ev yap ipcopevov KaXovai KXeivov, 
TOP B epacrjyjv (bi-XrjTopa. Taina p.ev to. irepl 
rovs epcoTa'i vo/ui/xa. 

22. 'Ap-^ovTWi Be CeKa alpovvrar irepl he 
Twv p.eyicn(ov aup,^ovXoi<; y^poiVTai, Tol<i yepovai 
KaXovfievoi^' KadiaravTai 8' el<i tovto to avve- 
hptov 01 TTJ^ TOiv Koap^oiv apxfj'i rj^icop.ivoc Kal 
TaXXa hoKip-oi Kpivop-evoL, a^lav S' dvaypa(f)7]<; 
TrjV TOiv KprjTOW TToXirelav vireXa^ov hid re Tr]v 
IhioTTjTa Kal hid ^ j-qv ho^av ov iroXXd he hia- 
p,evei TovTcov Tci)v vop.ip.(ov, dXXd Tot9 '^cjL>p.aLwv 
hiardyp-aav to, TrXelaza hioiKeiTai, KuOdirep Kal 
€v Tat? dXXai<; i7Tap)(^Lat<; crvpL^aivei. 

' alcTxpo^'- Casaubon inserts ; so the later editors. 
' Xpoi'ots BCDhH, Bpovois hnox and by corr. in B. 
' oio is omitted bj- D^i^, and the lat«r editors. 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 4. 21-22 

for those who are handsome in appearance or 
descendants of illustrious ancestors to fail to obtain 
lovers, the presumption being that their character is 
responsible for such a fate. But the parastathentes^ 
(for thus they call those who have been abducted) 
receive honours ; for in both the dances and the 
races they have the positions of highest honour, 
and are allowed to dress in better clothes than the 
rest, that is, in the habit given them by their 
lovers ; and not then only, but even after they have 
grown to manhood, they wear a distinctive dress, 
which is intended to make known the fact that each 
wearer has become " kleinos," ^ for they call the 
loved one " kleinos " and the lover " philetor.'' -^ So 
much for their customs in regard to love affairs. 

22. The Cretans choose ten Archons. Concerning 
the matters of greatest importance they use as 
counsellors the " Gerontes," as they are called. 
Those who have been thought worthy to hold the 
office of the " Cosmi " and are otherwise adjudged 
men of approved worth are appointed members of 
this Council. I have assumed that the constitution 
of the Cretans is worthy of description both on 
account of its peculiar character and on account of 
its fame. Not many, however, of these institutions 
endure, but the administration of affairs is carried on 
mostly by means of the decrees of the Romans, as 
is also the case in the other ])rovinces. 

^ The literal meaning of the word seems to be " tlioae who 
were chosen as stand-bys" by lovers. 
* Famous. 
^ i.e. "lover" or "sweetheart." 



159 



STRABO 



1. Hepl Be rrjv K.pT]Tr]v elcri vrfcroL, (-)i']pa fxev, 
7] rSiv K.vpr]vaiO)v fxrjrpoTToXii, clttolko'^ Aa/ce- 
oaifioi'Lcov, Kal 7r\7]aiov ravTr}^ Avdiprj, iv rj to 
roi) AlyXi'jTOv WttoA.A.&jj/o? iepov. Xeyei 8e Kal 
KaWifia^o<i rore fikv ovtco^- 

Aly\7]Tr]v ^Avd(p7jv re, AukcovlSi yeirova ^)i'ipci' 

TOTe he T//? (~)7Jpa<i /xv7]a0ei\' 

fjL7]Tr)p eVLTTTTO'J TTUTpiho's 7)fJ.€r€pT)<f, 

eaTC Se p.aKpd i) (rhjpa, hiaKocriwv ovaa t/;i' 
■jrepip-erpov arahiwv, xeifj-evT] Be Kara Aiav vrjdov 
r7)v 77/30? 'Hpa/cXetco ru> Kvo}a<JL(p, Biey^ei Be t*}? 
K/37;t77? et? eirraKoaiou^' TrXrjcrlou B' avrrj'i 7) re 
'Avdcf)7] Kal (r)r)pacria. ravr7j<i S' et? eKarov ^ 
ciTre^^et vtjaiBiov "lo?, ev w KeKrjBevadai Tive<i 
^aac rov rroirjrrjv "Ofirjpov diro Be t/j? "Iou 
Trpo? ecTTTepav lovri ^ikivo^^ Kal Adyovaa Kal 
'i>o\eyavtpo^, 7)v "Aparo<; aiBrjpeirjv 6vop.d^ei Bid. 
ry-jv rpa~)(_vri]ra' iyyv^ Be rovrwv Kl/j,(i)\o^, oOev 
j) yi) 7) Kip,rt)\ia' ivOev 1) -,i(f>vo<i ev dy\rei eariv, 
ecf)' T) Xeyovai '^i(f)i>iov darpdyaXov Bia rijv 
evreXeiaV' en K iyyvrepw Kal rt]<i K-i/jlcoXov 
Kal T?5<? K.p}]rr)'i 7) M/yXo?, d^ioXoycorepa rovrtav, 
Bte^ovaa rov Rp/xiovLKOv aKpoirrjpLOV, rov ^kvX- 
Xaiov, aradLOVi errraKoaiov^' roaovrovi; Be 

1 Tai/Trjj 5' 6is iKarov, Tzschucke, from conj. of Casaubon, 
for Tovrwi' 5' Xaov iKatrrr) Bkjio, eKaarov CDgkilsxy; so the 
later editors. 

* XtKtvos, Tzschucke, for Xiktivos ; so the later editors. 

160 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 5. i 



1. TiiK islands near Crete are Thera, the metro- 
polis of the Cyrenaeans, a colony of the Lacedaemo- 
nians, and, near Thera, Anaphe, where is the temple 
of the Aegletan A{)ollo. Callimachus speaks in one 
place as follows, ''Aegletan Anaphe, neighbour to 
Laconian Thera," ' and in another, mentioning only 
Thera, "mother of my fatherland, famed for its 
horses," ^ Thera is a long island, being two hundred 
stadia in perimeter ; it lies opposite I)ia,^ an island 
near the Cnossian Heracleium,* but it is seven 
hundred stadia distant from Crete. Near it are 
both Anaphe and Therasia. C)ne hundred stadia 
distant from the latter is the little island los, where, 
according to some writers, the |)oet Homer was 
buried. From los towards the west one comes to 
Sicines and Lagusa and Fholegandros, which last 
Aratus calls " Iron " Island, because of its rugged- 
ness. Near these is Cimolos, whence comes the 
Cimolian earth. ** From Cimolos Siphnos is visible, 
in reference to which island, because of its worth- 
lessness, people say " Siphnian knuckle-bone.'** 
And still nearer both to Cimolos and to Crete is 
Melos, which is more notable than these and is 
seven hundred stadia from the Hermionic promon- 
tory, the .Scvllaeum, and almost the same distance 

* Fraq. 113 (Schneickn-). 

* Frag. 112 (Schneider). 

' i.e. almost due north of Dia. 

* Heracleium was the seaport of Ciiossiis (10. 4. 7). 

* A hj'drous silicate of aluminium, now called "cimolite." 

* i.e. the phrase is a proverb ap])lied to wortidess people 
or things. 

r6i 



STRABO 

cr^eSoi' Tt Koi tov C^LKrvvvaiov. Wdrjvaioi 3e 
TTore Trifi-^avTa arpaTeiav, i^^qhov KUTeacpa^av 
C 485 Toixi irXeiovi. avrat fiev ovv ev tw KpyjTtKO) 
ireXdyet, ev Se rw Alyalai fidWov avTi] re rj 
Arj\o<; KoX al irepl aurrjv Ku/cA-aSe? Kal ai 
TavTaL<i TrpocrKeifxevai ^ XiropaSe^, oiv elal Kal 
al \e)(jdei(TaL irepl ttjv K.p7]Ti]v. 

2. 'H pev ovv Aj/A-o? ev TreBiw Ketpevijv e'jj^ei 
r7)v ttoXlv Kal to lepov tov \\tt6W(i>vo<; kuI to 
ArjTMOv, vnep/ceiTai 8e t)}? iroXea)^ 6po<i yjriXov^ 
6 Kvvdo<i Kal rpax^, Trorapo'i Be Siappel ttjv 
vfjcTov 'Ij^wtto? ov peya<i' Kal yap /; vz/cro? piKpd. 
reTipyjTai Be €k TraXaiov Bid tou? 0eov<; drrb 
rSiv i)po)LkS)v ■)(p6va)V dp^ap^evr)' pvdeveraL yap 
evravOa t) Atjtm rd^ (oBiva<i aTrodeadai tov t6 
'A7roA.Xa)?''09 kuI Trj<; \\.pTipiBo<;' 

rjv yap TOirdpoide ^ (popi]Td, 

(pTjalv 6 IlivBapo<i, 

KvpdTeaai iravToBaTTMV ^ dvepoov 
pnralaiv' dXX' d K.oioyevi)<{ ^ ottot' MBiveaai ^ 

dvoca ^ 
dyx'-TOKoi<; eVe/Sa ^ viv, Bi] TOTe T€aaape<i updai 
irpepvoiv ^ aTTCopovaav ')(6ovi(i)v, 

1 TTpoKelfjifvai hw. * \l/iX6v CD, yv|/j)AoV otlier MSS. 

* Toirdpoidf, Casaubon and later editors, instead of ndpoiBtv 
ov (all MSS.). Eustathius omits the ov (note on Od. 10. 3). 

* Before avifjuav Tzschucke and later editors insert t'. 

^ o\X' o Koioyfviis, Kramer and Meineke, from conj. of 
Porson, for aAXa Koio7€;'7js D, dWa koI 6 yevns Cs, a\K' 
aKaioyfyris BA:, dA\a Kaivoyivi\s hi, aWa koX 6 ytvos I, dAAa 
Kolov y4voi Schneider, Hermann, Tzschucke, Corais. 

162 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 5. 1-2 

from the Dictyniiaeum. The Athenians once sent 
an expedition to Melos and slaughtered most of 
the inhabitants iVoni youth upwards.^ Now these 
islands are indeed in the Cretan Sea, but Delos 
itself and the Cyclades in its neighbourhood and 
the Sporades which lie close to these, to which 
belong the aforesaid islands in the neighbourhood 
of Crete, are rather in the Aegaean Sea. 

2. Now the city which belongs to Delos, as also 
the temple of Apollo, and the Letoum,^ are situated 
in a plain ; and above the city lies Cynthus, a bare 
and rugged mountain ; and a river named Inopus 
flows through the island — not a large river, for the 
island itself is small. From olden times, beginning 
with the times of the heroes, Delos has been re- 
vered because of its gods, for the myth is told that 
there Leto was delivered of her travail by the birth 
of Apollo and Artemis : " for aforetime," says 
Pindar,^ "it* was tossed by the billows, by the blasts 
of all manner of winds,^ but when the daughter of 
Coeiis ^ in the frenzied pangs of childbirth set foot 
upon it, then did four pillars, resting on adamant, 
rise perpendicular from the roots of the earth, and 

1 416 B.C. (see.Thucydides 5. 115-116). 

2 Temple of Leto. =* Frag. 58 (Bergk). < Delos. . 

* There was a tradition that Delos svas a floating isle until 
Leto set foot on it. 

« Leto. 

* wZlufffi JMy/iios, uiSvvaiffi k, oSu aiai editors before 
liefore Kramer. 

" Ovoia', Bergk, for dvois GT>hl, dflais Hk/ios and editois 
before Kramer. 

* iirfBa vty, Wilamowitz, for int^alveiv. 

* irpffj.vuy, Hermann, for irpv/xyoou C])hilos, irpffxiSii' B/j. 

163 



STRABO 

av S' i7ri/cpdvoi<i (T')(edov irerpav dBafxavro- 

•rreBiXoi 
KLOVd' evda T^KoXc evha'ifiov eiro^aTO yiirvav. 

evBo^ov S' eiroLTjaav avTrjv ai 7repcoiKi!8e<i vrjaoi, 
Ka\ovfM€vai Ku/eX-aSe?, Kara Ti/xrjv Tre/jLTTouaai 
SrifjLOcrla de(apov<i re koX duai'a^ kuI ■)(^opov<i irap- 
Oevwv 7ravT]yvp€i^ re iv avrfj crvi'dyovaai 
/jLcydXa^. 

3. Kar' dp'^d'i fiev ovv BcooeKa Xiyovrat- 
irpoaeyevovTO Se koI TrXetof?. 'Apr€p.i,B(opo<i 
yovv^ irevTeKalheKa'^ StapiOfietTat irepX t% 
'EXei/^f elirdov, on, utto ^opiKov /^e%pi ^ovviov 
•napdKenai, fiUKpa, araSLwv oaov e^ijKOVTa to 
p.TjKo^' diro Tavrrji:; I'^P' 4>V<^^V' ^t KaXoufxevat 
Kf/cXaSe? elcTLV' ovojjLdZei he Ke&), ri-jv eyyvrdru) 
TT} 'EXevtj, Kol fxerd TavTi]v ¥ivOpov kui 'Eepicfiov 
Koi WrjXov Kal '^Lcpvov Kal KificoXov Kal Upe- 
ireaLvdov Kal TlXiapov ^ koX Trpo<i TavTai<; Udpov, 
Na^oi/, ^vpov, ^IvKovov, Trjvov, "AvBpov, Vvapov. 
raq fiev ovv dXXwi roiv hooheKa vo/mL^v, tt]v de 
YlpeTreaLvdov Kal 'ClXiapov^ Kal Vvapnv fjrrov' 
oiv rf) Vvapo) 7rpoaop/j.ia6H<; eyvwv kco/xlov vtto 
dXiewv avvoiKovp-evov' d-naipovre^ S" iSe^dfieOa 
irpecr^evTTjv evOevhe w? Katcrapa TrpoKex^t-piap-e- 
vov, Twv dXiecov rivd {rjv h' iv Kopivdoi Kalaap, 
^ahi^wv eVi Tov 0p[afx/3ov tov ^ AKnaKov)' 
(Tv^TrXitov 8^ eXeye tt/jo? tov<; 7rvOofievov<;, on 
Trpea^evoi irepl Kovc^icrpiov tov cpopov reXolev 
C 486 'y^P Bpa)(/u,d(; cKaTov TrevTi'jKOVTa, Kal Ta^i eKaTov 

^ yovv, Meineke, for 5' oiv. 
2 irfVTiKulhfKa (le'), Corais inserts ; so Meineke. 
^ 'KKlapov 'Dhil. * 'AXiapov BCDAia:. 

164 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 5. 2-3 

on their caj)itals sustain the rock. And there she 
gave birth to, and beheld, her blessed offspring." 
The neighbouring islands, called the Cyclades, made 
it famous, since in its honour they would send at 
public expense sacred envoys, sacrifices, and choruses 
composed of virgins, and would celebrate great 
general festivals there.^ 

3. Now at first the Cyclades are said to have been 
only twelve in number, but later several others 
were added. At any rate, Artemidorus enumerates 
fifteen, after saying of Helena that it stretches 
parallel to the coast from Thoricus to Sunium and 
is a long island, about sixty stadia in length ; for it 
is from Helena, he says, that the Cyclades, as thev 
are called, begin ; and he names Ceos, the island 
nearest to Helena, and, after this island, Cythnos 
and Seriphos and Melos and Sij^hnos and Cimolos 
and Prepesinthos and Oliaros, and, in addition to 
these, Paros, Naxos, Syros, Myconos, Tenos, Andros, 
and Gyaros. Now I consider all of these among 
the twelve except Prepesinthos, Oliaros, and Gy- 
aros. VVhen our ship anchored at one of these, 
Gyaros, I saw a small village that was settled by 
fishermen ; and when we sailed away we took on 
l)oard one of the fishermen, who had been chosen to 
go from there to Caesar as ambassador (Caesar was 
at Corinth, on his way - to celebrate the Triumpli 
after the victory at Actium ^). While on the voyage 
he told enquirers that lie had been sent as ambas- 
sador to request a reduction in their tribute ; for, 
he .said, they were paying one hundred and fifty 
drachmas when they could only with difficulty pay 

' i.e. in honour of Apollo and Leto (see Thucydides 3, 104). 
- i.e. back to Rome. * 31 u.C. 

165 



STRABO 

')^a\€7rQ)^ av TeXovvre^. 8r)\oi Be Ta<i airopta^ 
avTcov Kol "ApaTO^ ev rol'i Kara XewTOV 

0) AtjToi, (TV p,€V 7] fie crLhrjpeLr] ^oXeydvBpw, 
BeiXfj ^ rj Fuapo) irapeXeucreai avTL)(^ Ofxoirfv. 

4. Trjv fiev ovv ArjXov 'ivho^ov yevo/u.evijv ovto)<; 
€Ti fiaXXov rjv^Tjae KaraaKac^eltxa viro 'Pcop-atcov 
Kopivdo^. ixeiae yap pLGTexdiprjaav ol efXTropoi, 
fcal T^9 dreXeta? tov lepov tt poKaXov pevii^ aurov'i 
Koi tt}? evKacpia^ tov Xi/j-evo<;' ev kuXm yap ksZ- 
rai TOi? CK T7}?''lTaXta9 koI tt}? 'EWaSo? et? ttjv 
^ Aalav TrXiovaiv r} re TravqyvpL^ ep^iropiKov ri 
TT pay fid eari, Kal (TVvi]deL'i i](Tav auTTj Kal P<u- 
fialoi T(ov dXXcov /xdXiara, Kal ore crvveta-TjJKei 
rj KopivOos' ' AOrjvaloi re Xa^6vre<i rrjv vrjcrov Kal 
rSyv lepoiv d/xa Kal rcov ifiiropoiv eireyLeXovvro 
iKavo)^' €7reX66vT€<; S' ol rov MidpiSdrou arpa- 
TTjyol Kal d7roari]aa<i rvpavvo^ aurrjv SteXv- 
fiTjvavro Trdvra, Kal rrapeXa^ov ipyj/xrjv ol 'Pco/xaloi 
trdXiv rrjv vrjcov, dvaxu>priaavro<i et? r-qv OLKelav 
rov /SacrfXeo)?, Kal StereXeae p-exP'' vvv eVSew? 
irpdrrovaa. e)(^ovai 8' avrrjv A^rjvaloi. 

5. 'Pi'^veia ^ 3' epTjfiov vijalStov ecrriv ev rerpacn 
rijf At]Xov araSioi^, ottov rd p.v7]para roi^ Arj- 
Xioi^ eariv. ov yap e^eariv ev avrfj rij A'^Xw 
OdirreLV ovhe KaUiv veKpov, ovk e^ecrri Be ovBe 
Kvva ev Ar]\(i) rpec^eiv. dovofxd^ero 8e Kal '0/3- 
Tvyia rrporepov. 

^ ZeiXv, Muller-Dfibner, for ifi\i)v s (and Meineke), SeiA^ 
other MSS. 

2 'Viivtia Bkno, 'Pvvaia other MSS. 

* i.e. Trifles. - 146 B.C. 

i66 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 5. 3-5 

one hundred. Aratus also points out the povertj 
of the island in his Calalepton : ^ " O Leto, shortly 
tliou wilt pass by me, who am like either iron 
Pholegandros or worthless Gyaros." 

4. Now although Delos had become so famous, 
yet the rasing of Corinth to the ground by the 
Romans ^ increased its fame still more ; for the 
importers changed their business to Delos because 
they were attracted both by the immunity which 
the temple enjoyed and by the convenient situation 
of the harbour ; for it is happily situated for those 
who are sailing from Italy and Greece to Asia. The 
general festival is a kind of commercial affair, and it 
was frequented by Romans more than by any other 
people, even when Corinth was still in existence.^ 
And when the Athenians took the island they at the 
same time took good care of the importers as well as 
of the religious rites. But when the generals of 
Mithridates, and the tyrant* who caused it to revolt, 
visited Delos, they completely ruined it, and when 
the Romans again got the island, after the king 
withdrew to his homeland, it was desolate ; and it 
has remained in an impoverished condition until the 
present time. It is now held by the Athenians. 

5. Rheneia is a desert isle within four stadia from 
Delos, and there the Delians bury their dead ; ^ for 
it is unlawful to bury, or even burn, a corpse in 
Delos itself, and it is unlawful even to keep a dog 
there. In earlier times it was called Ortygia. 

' As many as ten thousand slaves were sold there in one 
day (14. 5. 2). 

* Aristion, through the aid of Mithridates, made himself 
tyrant of Athens in 88 B.C. (cf. 9. 1. 20). 

* This began in 426 B.C., when "all the sepulchres of the 
dead in Uelos were removed " to Rheneia (Thucydides 3. 104). 

167 



SIR A BO 

6. Kew? Se T€Tpd7ro\i<i fiev vTrrjp^e, Xeiirovrai 
he hvo, rj t€ 'louA.tS' Kal rj K.ap6ata, a? a? crvve- 
TToXlaOrjcrav at \onrai, i) fxev Hoirjeaaa ei<? rrjv 
Kapdalai', rj Se K-oprjaaia eh t^]v 'lofXtSa. e'/c 

8e T/}? 'loL'X.t'So? T€ StyU&)J'J,S?7? 7]V O /JL€\07rOlO<i 

Kal l^aK)(^vXL8i]<i. dBeX(f)i^8ou<i eKeivov, koI fierd 
raura ^Epa<Tl(TTpaTO<; 6 laTp6<; Kal tmv €k lou 
TreptTruTov (f)t\oa6(ji(i)V ApiaT(ov, o tov Bopva- 
OeviTov Bt'twi/o? ^i]\cor)]<;. irapd TOUTOi<i Be 8ok€i 
TcOfjual TTore v6/j.o<;, ov /jie/jLvyjTac Kal ^l€vav8po<;' 

KaXov TO Kettoy v6/ui/x6v ecrri, ^Pavia' 
6 prj 8vi'(ipevo<; ^tjv vaAw? ou ^fj KaKW. 

irpocreTaTTe yap, w? eoiKcv, 6 v6p,o<i tov^ uvep 
e^}']KovTa ery] <yeyov6Ta<i Kwveid^eadac,^ ^ tov Biap- 
Kelv Toi<i dWoi<; tt]v Tpo(f>y}v' Kal iroXiopKOvp.evov; 
he TTore utt' ^AdrjvaiMv ylnj(f)Laa(T$ai (paai tou? 
Trpea/SvTaTov^ i^ avTcov aTToOavelv, 6pia6evT0<i 
7r\}]6ou<; eTb)}', TOv<i he TravaaaOai 7ro\iopKovpra<i. 
K€iTai S' ev opet tt}? 6a\dTTTj<i hie)(ovcra i) ttoXi^ 
oaov 7TevT€ Kal eLKoat aTahlov^, erriveiov S' eaTLv 
C 187 avTrj<i to 'xoypiov, ev u> IhpvTO t) Kopijaala, KaTOi- 
Kiav ovhe Kd)/jLr]<; e-^ovaa. eoTL he Kal tt/jo? ttj 
Kop'ijaaia %p,ivdeov WiroWayvofi iepov Kal 7rpo<; 
n.oi7]eaa7], /xeTa^v he tov iepov Kal tmv ttj^ 
rLoc7]€(Tar]<i epeLTTLcov to t7]<; Nehovaia'i 'Adijvd^ 
Iepov, Ihpvaapevov NeaTopo<; KaTO, ttjv ck Tpoia<; 
eirdvohov. ecrrt he Kal "EA.f^09 iTOTapo<i rrepl Ttjv 
KoprjacTLav. 

7. Mera he TavTtjv Nafo<f Kal "Avhpa d^io- 
Xoyoi Kal Tldpo^' evTevOev yv \\pxiXo)(^o<i 6 ttocij- 
T»;<f. VTTO he Ylapiwv eKTtadrj 0«cro9 Kal \Jdpiov 
i68 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 5. 6-7 

6. Ceos was at first a Tetrapolis, but only two 
cities are left, lulis and Carthaea, into which the 
remaining two were incorporated, Poeeessa into 
Carthaea and Coressia into lulis. Both Simonides 
the melic poet and his nephew Bacchylides were 
natives of lulis, and also after their time Erasistratus 
the physician, and Ariston the peripatetic philo- 
sopher and emulator of Bion the Borysthenite. It is 
reputed that there was once a law among these 
people (it is mentioned by Menander, " Phanias, the 
law of the Ceians is good, that he who is unable to 
live well should not live wretchedly "), which appears 
to have ordered those who were over sixty years of 
age to drink hemlock, in order that the food might 
be sufficient for the rest. And it is said that once, 
when they were being besieged by the Athenians, 
they voted, setting a definite age, that the oldest 
among them should be put to death, but the 
Athenians raised the siege. The city lies on a 
mountain, about twenty-five stadia distant from the 
sea ; and its seaport is the place on which Coressia 
was situated, which has not as great a population 
as even a village. Near Coressia, and also near 
Poeeessa, is a temple of Sminthian Apollo ; and 
between the temple and the ruins of Poeeessa is the 
temple of Nedusian Athena, founded by Nestor when 
he was on his return from Troy. There is also a 
River Elixus in the neighbourhood of Coressia. 

7. After Ceos one comes to Naxos and Andros, 
notable islands, and to Paros. Archilochus the poet 
was a native of Paros. Thasos was founded by the 
Parians, as also Parium, a city on the Propontis. 

* KwveaCfaOai CDgkljcy, K0ved(f(r8ai Hk. 
- Kai, before rov, omitted by 7iox. 

169 



STRABO 

eV T^ npoirouTthi 7ro\i9. ev TavTrj fiev ovv o 
l3(i)/j,o<; Xiyerai 6ea<i a^io^, araBiaia^ ^X^'^ '^^'^ 
7r\€vpd<;' ev Be ifj ITa'pft) 7; Uapla Xido^ Xeyo/xevrj, 
apiOTTi] TTpo? TTjV /j,ap/j,apoyXu(f)Lav . 

8. SOpo? 8' ecrrL ( /j,rjKVVovcn ttjv irpooTTji' avWa- 
/3i]v), i^ 779 ^epeKvSr)^ 6 Ba/3uo<? ^ i]v veoyrepo^ 
5' ecTTtv WOijvalo^ eKe'ivov. TauTr]<; SoKel /xvrj- 
fiov€V€tv 6 TTOitjTt']';, ^vpir]v KoKwv' 

vfjcTot; Tf<? "Evpiy] KiK\T]crK€Tai 
'Oprvyii]^ KaOuirepde. 

9. Mu/toi'o? 8' ecrriv, iicf)^ fj /xvOevovcri Kelcrdai 
TO)v yiydi'Twv tol'? varaTOVi ^ v(f) Hpa«\eoi;? 
KaraXvdevTa^ , dcj)^ o)v rj Trapoifxia YldvB^ utto p-tav 
yivKovov errl rcov vtto fiiav eTTLypa(^rjv dyovTcov 
Kal ^ TO, hcrfpTri/j.eva Trj cbvcrei. koI toi)? (paXaKpoix; 
8e Tiv€<i ^IvKOviov^ KaXovcTLv d'JTO rov to Tra'^o? 
TOVTO eTTixcopidl^eiv ^ rfi vrja-q). 

10. %epi(f)o<; S' ecrTLv, ev 37 to, irepl rov Alktvv 
fxe/jLuOevrat, rov dveXKvaavra ttjv XdpvaKa toI<; 
BiKTvoi<i T-qv 7repte-)(0uaav rov Tlepaea Kal ti]v 
firjrepa /lavdi]v, KaTaTreTrovro) fj,evov<; vtt ^AKpicriov 
rov 7rarpo<; t^? Aai^a/;?" rpacpr^vai re yap evravOa 
rov Tlepaea ^aai, Kal Kop-iaavra rrjv t^9 Vopyo- 
vo<; ^ Ke^aXi']v, hei^avra rol<; '2,epi(f)Loi^ diroXiOoiaai 
Trdvras' rovro Be irpd^ai, rifioopovvra rf) fujrpL, 
on avrrjv TToXu^e'/cT?;? /SacriXev'i ciKovaav 
dyeadac rrpoeiXero tt/jo? ydfiov, avfnrparrovrcov 

^ Except D the xVISS. have Bd^ios. 

* vyietvoTiirovs Stephanus [s.r. MvKovoi) and Eustathius 
(note on Dionysius 525). 

^ «oi omitted by B/t«or. 

* liefore rf; BCD hive iv. « Top-,6vni BCD. 
170 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 5. 7-10 

Now the altar in this city is said to be a spectacle 
worth seeing, its sides being a stadium in length ; 
and so is the Parian stone, as it is called, in Paros, 
the best for sculpture in marble. 

8. And there is Syros (the first syllable is pro- 
nounced long), where Pherecydes ^ the son of Babys 
was born. The Athenian Pherecydes is later than 
he.-' The poet seems to mention this island, though 
he calls it Syria : " There is an island called Syria, 
above Ortygia." ^ 

9. And there is Myconos, beneath which, accord- 
ing to the myth, lie the last of the giants that were 
destroyed by Heracles. Whence the proverb, " all 
beneath Myconos alone," applied to those who bring 
under one title even those things which are by nature 
separate. And further, some call bald men Myco- 
nians, from the fact that baldness is prevalent in the 
island. 

10. And there is Seriphos, the scene of the 
mythical story of Dictys, who with his net drew to 
land the chest in which were enclosed Perseus and 
his mother Danae, who had been sunk in tlie sea by 
Acrisius the father of Danae ; for Perseus was reared 
there, it is said, and when he brought the Gorgon's 
head there, he showed it to the Seriphians and 
turned them all into stone. This he did to avenge 
his mother, because Polydectes the king, with their 
co-operation, intended to marry his mother against 

1 Fl. about 560 B.C. 

' Pherecydes of Leros (fl. in the first half of the fifth 
century B.C.), often called "the Athenian," wrote, among 
other things, a work in ten books on the mythology and 
antiquities of Attica. 

» Od. 15. 403. 

171 



ST U A BO 

i/ceLvwv. ovTco S'' earl ireTpcoSr]^ i) vr](TO<;, Mcne 
iiTTO T)}? Vop'yovo'i rovro iradeiv avTrjv cpaaiv oi 
Kco/j.wSovvre'i. 

11. T7]vo<i 8e TToXiv fifv ov fJLeydXrjv e^et, to h 
lepov Tov YloaeiScoi'O'i fxeya ev aXaet t?}? TroXe&J? 
e^&), dea<; ci^iov' ev m koI kanaropta TreTrolr^raL 
fieydXa, arjfielov tov avvep'^^aOat 7rXrjdo<i iKavov 
tS)v avvdvoi'Tcov avTol<; daTuyeirovcov ra Ilocrei- 
^(livia. 

12. "EcTTt oe Kal ^A/jLopy6<; tcov STTopdScov, 66ev 
rjv XifJi(ovl8y]'i 6 Twy Idfx^wv Trotrjrj']';, koX Ae/3ivdo<i 
Kal Ae/)09"^ 

Kal ToSe ^cokuXlSov' Aipioi KaKoi, ou;^ 6 p,ev, 

0? O OV, 

7rdvT6<;, 7rX,?)i' YlpoKXeovi' Kal WpoKXet^'; Aepto?. 

C 488 ^Le/Be^XrjVTO jdp &)? KaK0r')6ei^ ol ivdevhe dvOpwnoi. 

13. \Wrialov S' earl Kal rj IlaT/tiO? Kal Ko- 
pacTdlaiy 77/309 Svaiv KCLfievai rfj ^iKapia, avTTj Se 
'S.dfio). r] fiev ovv 'iKapt'a eprjjxo'i icni, vopLa<; K 
ex^t, KaV'XP^^^'^f^^ avral^ ^dfiioi,' roiavrr) S' ovaa 
evho^o<i o/ji(i)<; ecrn, Kal dir avrij'i iKupiov KaXel- 
rai TO TrpoKeifievoi' 7r6Xa~/o<i, ev a, Kal avT7] Kal 
Xd/jio<i Kal Kco? ecTTi, Kal at dpTi Xe^^elaaL Ko- 
paaaiai Kal IlaT/io? Kal Aepo<;. evBo^ov 8e Kal to 
ev avTrj 6po<; 6 Ke/7«€Tei;s', fxdXXov Ttj^i 'A/xTreXoV ^ 
avrr] S' virepKetTat Tr)<^ "Eafxiayv TroXeo}<i. crvvdir- 
Tei 8e TM 'iKaplo) to KapTrddiov TreXayo^ tt/io? 
voTOv, TovTM he TO AlyvTTTiov, TTpo'i Be hvaiv to re 

}^pr]TlKOV Kal TO Al^VKOV. 

' Aepos, Grof kurd, for Aepia ; so Meiiieke. 
- Meineke ejects the words (pioS,oy . . , 'AuveXov. 
172 



(JEOGRAFHV, lo. 5. 10-13 

her will. Tiie island is so rocky th.at the comedians 
say that it was made thus by the Gorgon. 

11. Tenos has no large city, but it has the temple 
of Poseidon, a great temple in a sacred precinct 
outside the city, a spectacle worth seeing. In it 
have been built great banquet-halls — an indication 
of the multitude of neighbours who congregate 
there and take part with the inhabitants of Tenos 
in celebrating the Poseidonian festival. 

12. And there is Amorgos, one of the Sporades, 
the home of Simonides the iambic poet ; and also 
[..ebinthos, and Leros : " And thus saith Phocylides, 
' the Lerians are bad, not one, but every one, all 
except Procles ; and Procles is a Lerian.'"^ For 
the natives of the island were reproached with being 
unprincipled. 

13. Near by are both Patmos and the Corassiae ; 
these are situated to the west of Icaria, and Icaria to 
the west of Samos. Now Icaria is deserted, though 
it has pastures, which are used by the Samians. 
But although it is such an isle as it is, still it is 
famous, and after it is named the sea that lies in 
front of it, in which are itself and Samos and Cos 
and the islands just mentioned — the Corassiae and 
I'atmos and Leros. Famous, also, is the mountain 
in it, Cerceteus, more famous than the Ampelus,- 
which is situated above the city of Samians.^ The 
Icarian Sea connects with the Carpathian Sea on 
the south, and the Carpathian with the Aegyptian, 
and on the west with the Cretan and the Libyan. 

1 Frag. 1 (Bergk). 2 See 14. 1. 15. 

' But both of these mountains are in Samos (Pliny, in 5. 37, 
spells the former "Cercetius") Hence the sentence seems 
to be a gloss that has crept in from the margin of the text. 

173 



STRABO 

14. K.al ev Tw KapTTadla) 8' elcrl TToWal rcov 
"^TTopaScov fiera^v t^? Kw fidXiara koI 'Vohov koX 
Kpr^rr;?* wv elalv WaTVTrdXaid re Kot T7}\o? kuI 
XaXKia, Kol a? ''0/j,rjpo<i ovo/xd^et iv rw Kara- 
Xoyrp • 

o'i S' apa ^lavpov t' elxov K.pdrraOou re K.a(TOv 

Kal K.MV, KvpvTTvXoio ttoXlv, vr)(Tov<; re Ka- 
Xvhva<i. 

e^co yap tt}? K<w kui t^? 'PoBov, Tcepl wv epovpiev 
vcrrepov, Ta<? re aXXa^ iv rat^ "^iropdcn ridepev, 
Kal 8t] Kal ivravda pepLvqpLeda avrwv, Kanrep Trj<; 
Acrta?, ov tt}? EupcoTr?;?, £771/9 ovawv, eTretSr) rfi 
KprjTTj Kal rat? KvKXdai Kal Ta<; 1,7ropdBa<; 
(Tv/nrepiXa^elv f^Treiyero ^ ttco? 6 \6yo<i' iv he rfj 
rr}<i 'Aa-ta9 TrepioBeia rd^ Trpoaex^^'i avrfj rwv 
d^ioXoywv vqawv 7Tpoa7repioSevaop,€v, K.u7rpov 
Kal 'P6S0V Kal Kcbv Kal rd<i iv ttj e</)e^>)9 irapaXia 
K€cpeva<i, ^dpov, Jiiov, AiajSov, TeveSov vvv 8e 
zd<i '2,TTopdha<;, q)v d^Lov pvTjaOiivai Xoiirov, eiripLev. 

15. 'H pLev ovv WcTTVTrdXaia iKavoj^ earl ire- 
Xayia, ttoXlv e^ovcra. rj Be T^\o9 iKreTarai irapd 
rrjv KviSiav, paKpd, vyjryjXj], cTTevrj, rrjv Trepip-erpov 
ncrov eKarov Kal rerrapdKovra araBiwv, e^ovaa 
v(f)opp^v. 77 Se KaXKca ^ T/79 T?;\oi; Bce^ei ara- 
Siov<i oyBorjKovra, K.ap7rd6ov Be reTpaKoaiov;, 
^ AcrTV'Tra\aLa<; Be irepl BiTrXaaiov;, ex^t Be Kal 
KaroiKLav 6p,covvpov Kal lepov 'AiroXXwvo'i Kal 
Xipieva. 

' ilireiyfTo, Kramer, for ineiyeTo BCDhikl, iire'tyeTai nox ; 
so Miiller-Diibner anrl Meineke. 

174 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 5. 14-15 

14, In the Carpathian Sea, also, are many of the 
Sporades, and in particular between Cos and Rhodes 
and Crete. Among these are Astypalaea, Telos, 
Chalcia, and those which Homer names in the 
Catalogue : " And those who held the islands Nisyros 
and Crapathos and Casos and Cos, the city of Eury- 
pylus, and the Calydnian Islands " ;^ for, excepting 
Cos and Rhodes, which I shall discuss later,^ I place 
them all among the Sporades, and in fact, even 
though they are near Asia and not Europe, I make 
mention of them here because my argument has 
somehow impelled me to include the Sporades with 
Crete and the Cyclades. But in my geographical 
description of Asia I shall add a description of 
such islands that lie close to it as are worthy 
of note, Cyprus, Rhodes, Cos, and those that 
lie on the seaboard next thereafter, Samos, Chios, 
Lesbos, and Tenedos. But now I shall traverse the 
remainder of the Sporades that are worth 
mentioning. 

15. Now Astypalaea lies far out in the high sea, 
and has a city. Telos extends alongside Cnidia, is 
long, high, narrow, has a perimeter of about one 
hundred and forty stadia, and has ananchoring-place. 
Chalcia is eighty stadia distant from Telos, four 
hundred from Carpathos, about twice as far from 
Astypalaea, and has also a settlement of the same 
name and a temple of Apollo and a harbour. 

'■ Iliad 2. 676. Cf. the interpretation of this passage in 
10. 5. 19. 
2 14. 2. 5-13, 19. 



* .XaAKffa lUV.-.sr. 

^75 



STRABO 

16. Xto'L'po? 06 irpo^ dpKTov fj.ev ian T7]Xov, 
Siey^ovaa avTijs oaov e^rjKovra (nahiov<i, 6aov<i 
Kai Ko) Sie)(^et, arpoyyvXi] Be Kul vyjrrjXr] Kal 
•neTpwhTj^ rov fMvXiou XlOov rol^ yovv aarv/eiro- 
aiv eKeldev icniv ?) tcov p.v\wv evTropia. e^et Se 
Kal TToXiv 6/j,oivvp.ov Kal \ip.eva Kal Oepfia Kal 
TioaeLhoivo^ lepov irepifieTpov Be avT^<i oySorjKovra 

189 crrdBioi. eari Be Kal vrjaia 'irpo<i avrfi ^ta-vptcov 
Xeyupueva. c^aal Be rrjv y^iavpov (iTtoO pavapa 
elvai t/)? Kw, 7rpoa6evT€^ Kai p.u0ov, on YloaeiBcou 
Blcokcov eva rodv Tiyavrioi', T[o\v^coTr]V, cnro- 
dpavaa^ rfj rpiaivr] Tpv(f)o^ rf/f; Kai eV avTov 
^d\oL, Kal yeioiro vP]ao<i to ^KrjOkv i) ^iaupo<i, 
VTroKeip-evov €)(ovaa ev avrfj rov ViyavTa' rivk^ 
Be avrov viroKeicrdai rfj Koo ^acriv. 

17. 'H Be Kdp7ra6o<i, rjv KpciTraOov elirev 6 
iTOiriTri<;, vyj/TjXi] eari, kvkXov e')(^ovaa (jraBioiv 
BiaKoaiwv. TeTpuTToXc^ B' vTrfjp^e Kal ovopa 
elxei^ d^ioXoyov dtp' ov Kal tu) ireXdyei rovvofia 
iyei'CTO. fiia Be tmv iroXewv eKaXelro N/cru/aoc, 
o/u.covvpo<; rfj tcov ^lavpiwv ^ vijcrco. Kelrai Be 
T/}? Af/Si;/?? KaTO, AevKijv aKTrjv, f] T/}? fiev 
WXe^avBpeiai; rrepl )(^tXiov<i BLe-)(eL araBiov^, t/}? 
Be HapTrddov irepl TeTpaKLa^^tXlovi. 

18. Kacro? ^ Be ravTr]^; p.ev diro ef3Bop.iJKovrd 
eart (rraBlcov, rov Be ^apcoviov ^ tov uKpov t?}? 
Kpr/T?;? BiaKoaiwv irevTrjKOvra' kvkXov Be 'e')(^ei 
(TTaBiwv oyBot'jKovra. ecrrL S" ev avrfj Kal iroXi^ 
op.(ovv/j.o<i, Kal Kaaicov I'rjaoL KaXovfievai rrXelovfi 
trepl avTijv. 

19. Njjcrou? Be KaXvBva^ ra? "EiropaBa^ Xeyeiv 
(ftaal TOV TTOirjTtji', 0)v fxiav elvai KdXvp-vav eLKo<i 
176 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 5. 16-19 

16. Nisyros lies to the north ot" IVlos. and is about 
sixty stadia distant both from it and from Cos. It is 
round and high and rocky, the rock being that of 
which millstones are made ; at any rate, the neigh- 
bouring peoples are well supplied with millstones 
from there. It has also a city of the same name and 
a harbour and hot springs and a temple of Poseidon. 
Its perimeter is eighty stadia. Close to it are also 
isles called Isles of the Nisyrians. They say that 
Nisyros is a fragment of Cos, and they add the mvth 
that Poseidon, when he was pursuing one of the 
giants, Polybott's, broke off a fragment of Cos with 
his trident and hurled it upon him, and the missile 
became an island, Nisyros, with the giant lying 
beneath it. But some say that he lies beneath Cos. 

17. Carpathos, which the poet calls Crapathos, is 
high, and has a circuit of two hundred stadia. At 
first it was a Tetrapolis, and it had a renown which 
is worth noting ; and it was from this fact that the sea 
got the name Carpathian. One of the cities was 
called Nisyros, the same name as that of the island of 
the Nisyrians. It lies opposite Leuce Acte in Libya, 
which is about one thousand stadia distant from 
Alexandreia and about four thousand from Carpathos. 

18. Casos is seventy stadia from Carpathos, and 
two hundred and fifty from Cape Samonium in 
Crete. It has a circuit of eighty stadia. In it there 
is also a city of the same name, and round it are 
several islands called Islands of the Casians. 

19. They say that the poet calls the Sporades 
" Calydnian Islands," one of which, they say, is 
Calymna. But it is reasonable to suppose that, as 

' KiiTvpluyv, Corais, for Niffvpuv ; so the later editors. 
- vrjaos BCJyklsz. ^ SoA.uoJcfoi; BCIil-tio. 

'77 



STRABO 

S', ft)<> CK ro)v Niavpiwv Xeyovrai Kal Kacrift)^ ^ al 
eyyi/^ Kal vin'jKOOi, ovr(o<i Kal Ta<i ttj K.a\v/xvr} 
TrepiKei/J.eva'i, t'crto? Tore Xeyo/juevrj KaXvBvrj' 
rive^i Be 8vo elvai KaXuSya? <j)a(xi, Aepov Kal 
KaXv/xvav, aairep Kal Xeyeiv rov Tronjrtjv. 6 Be 
'^Kijyp-i.o'i 7rXr]dvvTiK(o<; wvofxdadat rrjv vtjctov 
KaXu^i^a? (firjcTLv, 0)9 ^AOj]va<; Kal ©7;/3a9, Belv Be 
vTrep^aT(xi<i Be^aaOat to rov iroiriTov' ov yap 
vyjaov; KaXvBva^ Xiyeiv, dXX' ot ^ S' dpa vi]aov<i 
^lavpov r el'yov KpciTradov re K.daov re Kal 
l\.o)v, KvpvTTvXoio TToXiv, ^aXvBva<; re. dirav fiev 
ovv ro vrjcTLcoriKov fieXt &>? iirl ro iroXv daretov 
iari Kal evdficXXov ru> ^ArriKw, ro B' ev ralaBe 
rai<i vi](TOi^ Bia<pep6vro)<;, fxaXiara Be ro Ka- 
Xvixviov. 

^ Kaufftwv BD/iWno. ^ aAA." o", the editors, for dWoi. 



ns 



GEOGRAPHY, lo. 5. 19 

the islands whicli are near, and subject to, Xisyros 
and Casos are called " Islands of the Nisj'rians " and 
" Islands of the Casians/' so also those which lie 
round Calymna were called " Islands of the Calym- 
nians" — Calymna at that time, perhaps, being called 
Calydna. But some say that there are only two 
Calydnian islands, Leros and Calymna, the two 
mentioned by the poet. The Scepsian ^ says that 
the name of the island was used in the plural, 
'■ Calymnae," like " Athenae " and " Thebae " ; but, 
he adds, the words of the poet should be interpreted 
as a case of hyperbaton, for he does not say, 
" Calydnian Islands," but " those who held the 
islands Nisyros and Crapathos and Casos and Cos, the 
city of Eurypylus, and Calydnae." Now all the 
honey produced in the islands is, for the most part, 
good, and rivals that of Attica, but the honey 
produced in the islands in question is exceptional! v 
good, and in particular the Calymnian. 

^ Demetrius of Scepsis. 



179 



BOOK XI 



lA' 
I 

C 490 1- T^fl S' F^vpcoTTj) (Twe^i/'i tariv i) Waia, kutu 
TOP Tdvalv avvdiTTOvcra avrfj' irepl ravTi)<i ovv 
€0e^>7? pT]T€OV, BieXovTa<i (j)VcnKOi<i Tialv opoi<i rov 
cra(f)ov<; 'x^dpiv. oirep ovv ^KpaToa0€VT]<; e^' oX^jt 
T^9 olKov/J,evT]<i eTTolrjae, tou6' rj/xlv iirl tt}? 'Acria? 

TTOL'qTeOV. 

2. 'O 'yap TaOpo? fxiarjv 7r&)9 Sii^coKC ravrrjv 
TTjV Tjireipov, diro T7]<; e<T7re/)a? eVl rrjv eco rera- 
fievo<i} TO fxev avTr)<i diroXetTrcov Trpo? ^oppav, to 
he p,ea^]fj.l3piv6v. koXovctl Se avTOiv ol "KKXrjve'i 
TO fiev eVro? TOvTavpov, to Be e«T09. eiprjTai 8e 
TavO' rjfitv Kal irpoTepov, dXX! elprjadoa Kol vvv 

VTTO/J.V^CTeCO'i '^dpiv. 

3. nXaro? ixev ovv e^ei to opof 7roXXa;^oi) 
Kal T pLa')(L\io3v aTaBicov, p,rJKO<; 8' ocrov Kal to 
TTJ^ Acria<i, TCTTdpav irov fivpidSav Kal trevTa- 
Kt(T)(^i\i(i)V, diTo Trj<i 'Vohioiv irepaia'i iirl tcl ciKpa 
Tr}? ^IvBiKT]^ Kal ^KvOla^ irpo'i Td<; dvaTo\d<i. 

4. At,T]pr)Tai S' et9 /ie'yo?; iroXXd Kal ovo/xaTa 
7r6pi<ypa(f}al^ Kal fiei^oac Kal iXdrTOcriv dcpcopia- 
ixeva. eVet 6' ev t&) TocrovTUi 7rXaT6t tov 6pov<i 

^ rerfiriufvos Cglouxwz, rerpaufvos Eustath. (note on Dionys. 
647). 

1 The Don. * See 2 1.1. 

182 



BOOK XI 



1. Asia is adjacent to Europe, bordering thereon 
along the Tanais ^ River. I must therefore describe 
this country next, first dividing it, for the sake of 
clearness, by means of certain natural boundaries. 
That is, I must do for Asia precisely what Eratos- 
thenes did for the inhabited world as a whole. ^ 

2. The Taurus forms a partition approximately 
ihrough the middle of this continent, extending 
from the west towards the east, leaving one portion 
of it on the north and the other on the south. Of 
these portions, the Greeks call the one the " Cis- 
Tauran " Asia and the other "Trans-Tauran." I 
have said this before,' but let me repeat it by way 
of reminder. 

3. Now the mountain has in many places as great 
a breadth as three thousand stadia, and a length as 
great as that of Asia itself, that is, about foi*ty-five 
thousand stadia, reckoning from the coast opposite 
Rhodes to the eastern extremities of India and 
Scythia. 

4. It has been divided into many parts with many 
names, determined by boundaries that circumscribe 
areas both large and small. But since certain tribes 
are comprised within the vast width of the mountain, 

* i.e. "Asia thia side Taurus aud Asia outside Taurus." 
(Cp. 2.5.31.) 

183 



STKABO 

u'rroXa/x^aveTai riva eOvrj, to, fiev darj/noTepa, 
C 491 TO, Be Koi 7ravT€\(o<i yvMptfia {Kaddirep r) Hap- 
dvala KoX M7;Sia /cat ''Apfievia koI K.a777raSoKO)v 
Ttfe? Kal KtXt/ce? kuI YliaiBat), to, /xev irXeovd- 
^ovTa ^ iv^ TOt? TTpoa/Sopoi^ fiepeaiv ivravOa 
TUKTeov, TO. S' iv Tot? ^'OTlOi? ei? rd voTia, Kal 
rd iv fxecrqy Be T(bv opoiv Keifieva hid ra? rwv 
depoiv 6fioi.6Tr]Ta<; Trpo? ^oppdv irw's Oereov 
■\lrv)(pol ydp elcriv, ol Be vorioi Oep/xoL Kal tmv 
TTOTapLOiV Be al pvaei^ evOevBe ovaai -rrdaat 
(7)(eB6v Tt eh rdvavria, al /xev et? ra jSopeia, al 
S' et? rd voTta p-epyj (rd ye^ irpwra, Kav varepov 
Tiv€'i eTTiarpec^uxxL 7rpb<; dvaroXd^ rj Bvaei';), 
e~)(ov(Ji Tt ev(f)ve<i 7rpo<i to toi? opeaiv opioi<i 
\p7]a9ai Kara jifv el'i Buo p-ep^] Biaipecriv rrj<; 
^AcrCa^' KaOdirep Kal i) OdXarra i) evro^ 'l^rrjXwv, 
eV evOela^ 7r&)9 ovaa rj TrXetcrT*/ toi? opecrc 
TOinoa, eirnrjBeia 'ye'yevrjTai, Trpo^ to Bvo voietv 
r)TTeLpov<;, ti]V re E.vpdi-mjV Kal rrjv Ai^vrjv, opuov 
d/ui(poiv ovaa d^idXoyov, 

5. Tot? Be p-era^alvouaiv diro t?}? ^vp(07n)<i 
eirl r7]v 'Aaiav ev rf) <y e coy pa(f)i a rd Trpo? ^oppdv 
earl TTp&Ta t?}? et? Buo Biaipeaecos' ware diro 
TovTcov dpKTeov. avTwv Be tovtcov irpMrd eari 
rd -nepl rov Tdpaiv, ovirep tt}? Eu/awTTj;? Kal 
T7]'i ^A(Tta<; opiov vireOeixeda. eari Be ravTa 
rpoTTOV TLvd ')(^eppov7]ai^ovTa, 7r6/5te';\;eTat ydp €k 
p.ev T>}? eazreyoa? tu> irorafia) tco TavdlBc Kal 

' irXridtd^ovTa hi and Xj'lander, instead of Tr\fopd(ovTa. 
* fv. before to7s, Groskurd inserts; so C. Miiller. 
3 7€ D, re other MSS. 

184 



GEOCiKAPHY, n. i. 4-5 

some rather insignificant, but others extremely well 
known (as, for instance,- the Parthians, the Medes, 
the Armenians, a part of the Cappadocians, the 
Cilicians, and the Pisidians), those which lie for the 
most part in its northerly parts must be assigned 
there,^ and those in its southern parts to the 
southern,^ while those which are situated in the 
middle of the mountains should, because of the 
likeness of their climate, be assigned to the north, 
for the climate in the middle is cold, whereas that 
in the south is hot. Further, almost all the rivers 
that rise in the Taurus flow in contrary directions, 
that is, some into the northern region and others 
into the southern (they do so at first, at least, 
although later some of them bend towards the east 
or west), and they therefore are naturally helpful in 
our use of these mountains as boundaries in the 
two-fold division of Asia — ^just as the sea inside the 
Pillars,^ which for the most part is approximately in 
a straight line with these mountains, has proved con- 
venient in the forming of two continents, Europe 
and Libya, it being the noteworthy boundary between 
the two. 

5. As we pass from Europe to Asia in our 
geography, the northern division is the first of the 
two divisions to which we come ; and therefore we 
must begin with this. Of this division the first 
portion is that in the region of the Tanais River, 
which I have taken as the boundary between Europe 
and Asia. This portion forms, in a way, a peninsula, 
for it is surrounded on the west by the Tanais River 

* i.e. to the Cis-Tauran Asia. " i.e. Traiis-Tauran. 

' i.e. the Mediterranean (see 2. 1. 1). 

185 



ST R A BO 

T^ MatcoTiSt fj'^xpi' ToO BoaiTopov Kal T779 tov 
F,v^€Lvov 7rapa\ia<i t?}? TeX€VTu)(r7]<; et? t^i* 
KoX^lSa' €K Se TO)v apxTiov tG> 'D,K€avQ) P'^XP'' 
TOV (TToparof; ri)^ KacrTrta? daXciTTi]^' ecodev Be 
avTTJ ravTT] rfj 6a\(iTTT) /xexpt to)V fieOopioyv Tr]<; 
T€ ^A\0ai'La<i Kal t?}? Wpp-evla^, KaO^ a 6 K.vpo<; 
Kal 6 \\pa^rj<; eKSiSouai TTOTUfiOL, piovre^; 6 fxkv 
Bia rfji; 'Apfu€VLa<;, K.vpo<; Se Bia tj;? ^\^r)pla^ 
Kal T>)9 ^AX/3avLa<;' Ik votov he rfj ^ airo t% 
eK^o\.rj<i TOV Yivpov p^expL Tr]<; KoX;i^iSo9, otrov 
TpLaxtXicov ovarj ^ (JTahiwv airo da\dTrr]<; eirl 
ddXarrav, 8t ^AX/Savciyv Kal ^IjS/jpoov, oxne 
IcrOfiou Xoyov ex^iv. ol 8' eirl roaovTov avva- 
yay6i'Te<; tov IcrBfiov, €(f) oaov KXeirap^o^, eVi- 
kXvcttov (jii]aa<; e^ eKarepov tov ireXdyov;, ovS" 
av Xoyov d^iotvTO. UoaeiScovia 8e ;;^iXi&)y Kal 
TTevTaKOdioiv eipyjKe tov lad/xov, oaov Kal tov 
(iTTO TLrjXovcTLOv laOpov e? ttjv ^KpvOpdv' Sokm 
Se, (pTjal, p-rj ttoXu hiaf^epeiv p.7]8e tov dirb t?}? 
MatcoTiSo? el<i tov ClKeaiov. 

6. OvK olSa Be, ttw? dv ri<i Trepl twv dhi'jXwv 
avTW TnaTevaeie, fxyBev et/fo? e^ovTi elirelv irepl 
avTcov, OTav irepl tS)v (pavepwv ovtco TrapaXoycc^ 
Xeyrj, Kal TUVTa (})iXo^ T[op,Tn]L(p yeyovoD^; tw 
aTparevaavTi eirl tov<; "l/37]pa<; Kal tol"? 
C 192 ' AX/3avov<; P'^XP^ '^^'^ ^V*' eKdrepa OaXdTTi]<;, 
T^f T€ KaaTTt'a? Kal Trj<; KoX^t/^/}?. (f)a<jl yovv 

^ rri, Corais, for ^ ; so the later editors. 

* o5(7T?, Corais, for ovaa ; so the later editors. 

* T!ip Cimmerian Bosporus. 
186 



GEOGRAPHY, it. i. 5-6 

and Lake Maeotis as far as the Bosporus^ and that 
part of tlie coast of the Euxine Sea which terminates 
at Colchis ; and then on tlie north by the Ocean as 
far as the mouth of the Caspian Sea;^ and then on 
the east by this same sea as far as the boundary 
between Albania and Armenia, where empty the 
rivers Cyrus and Araxes, the Araxes flowing through 
Armenia and the Cyrus through Iberia and Albania; 
and lastly, on the south by the tract of country which 
extends from the outlet of the Cyrus River to Colchis, 
which is about three thousand stadia from sea to sea, 
across the territory of the Albanians and the Iberians, 
and therefore is described as an isthmus. But those 
writers who have reduced the width of the isthmus 
as much as Cleitarchus ^ has, who says that it is 
subject to inundation from either sea, should not be 
considered even worthy of mention. Poseidonius 
states that the isthmus is fifteen hundred stadia 
across, as wide as the isthmus from Pelusium to the 
Red Sea.^ " And in my opinion," he says, " the 
isthmus from Lake Maeotis to the Ocean does not 
differ much therefrom." 

6, But I do not know how anyone can trust him 
concerning things that are uncertain if he has 
nothing plausible to say about them, when he 
reasons so illogically about things that ai'e obvious ; 
and this too, although he was a friend of Pompey, 
who made an expedition against the Iberians and the 
Albanians, from sea to sea on either side, both the 
Caspian and the Colchian ^ Seas. At any rate, it is 

* Strabo thought that the Caspian (Hj'rcanian) Sea was an 
inlet of the Northern Sea (2. 5. 14). 
' See Dictionary in Vol. II. 
« Cf. 17. 1. 21. » The Euxine. 

187 
VOL. v. G 



STRABO 

eV 'PoSw yevofievov rov IIo/xTr/^iov, rfviKa eVi 
TOP XrjcrrpLKOv TroXcfioi' e^rjXdev (evdvs 6' e/xcXXe 
Kol eirl Mi6pi8dT7]v opixi^aeiv koX ra fJ^^XP'' '^V'^ 
KacTTTta? edvT}), iraparvxeiv hiaXeyop-evw tm 
TloaeiBcopLO), airiovTa ^' ipeaOai, et' rt irpocrrdT- 
T6i, Tov h eiirelv' 

alev dpKjjeveiv koX vireipoxov epfxevai aWwv. 

Trpoarldei ^ Se TOVTOt<;, on koi ttjp laropiav 
avviypaylre ttjv irepl avrov. hia hi] ravra 
iypr]v (f)povri(Tai TdXr]dov<i TrXeov ti. 

7. Aevrepov S' av elrj p,epo<i ro virep Tt}<i 
'TpKavla<i OaXaTTrj'^, tjv K-acnriav KaXovp,€P, 
P'^xpi' TOiP Kar ^\phov<i 'S.KuBcop. Tpirop Be fJLepo<i 
TO o-vi/e%e? Tw Xe^d^PTi laOp,a) koX to, k^r)<i 
rovTO) Koi TaL<i KaaiTLai'i TTvXai<;, tup ipT6<i toO 
Tavpov Kal TTj'i \Lvpd)Trr}^ iyyvTaToo' ravra 3' 
iarrl ^irjBla Kal ^App,€PLa Kal KaTTTraBoKia Kal 
ra fiera^v. reraprop 6' rj epro<; "AXuo? yi] Kal 
ra ev aiirw rS> 'Yavpa> Kal eKro<; baa elf r-qp 
X^ppoPTjcrop ipTTLTTreL r]P rroiei 6 Bieipywp laOpo'^ 
rrjp re UopriKrjp Kal rr^p K.LXiKiap BaXaaaap. 
rcop Be aXXoop, rcop e'^o) rov Tavpov, rrjp re 
^IpBlktjp ridepep Kal rrjp 'Apiarrjp p^expi TOiP 
edpoip roip KaOrjKovrcop 'rrp6<; re rrjp Kara Hepcra^; 
ddXarrap Kal rop ^Apd^iop koXttop Kal rop 
NelXov Kal 7rpo<i ro AlyvTrriop TreXayo^ Kal ro 
'IcraiKOP. 

' irpoaridfi, Corais, for irpofffTidti ; so llie later editors. 



i88 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. i. 6-7 

said that Pompey, iipuii arriving at Rhodes on his 
expedition against the pirates (immediately there- 
after he was to set out against both Mithridates and 
the tribes which extended as far as the Caspian Sea), 
liappened to attend one of the lectures of Posei- 
donius, and that when he went out he asked Posei- 
donius whether he had any orders to give, and that 
Poseidonius replied : " Ever bravest be, and pre- 
eminent o'er others." Add to this that among 
other works he wrote also the history of Pompey. 
So for this reason he should have been more regardful 
of the truth. 

7. The second portion would be that beyond the 
Hyrcanian Sea, which we call the Caspian Sea, as 
far as the Scythians near India. The third portion 
would consist of the part which is adjacent to the 
isthmus above mentioned and of those parts of the 
region inside Taurus^ and nearest Europe which 
come next after this isthmus and the Caspian Gates, 
I mean Media and Armenia and Cappadocia and the 
intervening regions. The fourth portion is the land 
inside^ the HalysRiver, and all the region in the 
Taurus itself and outside thereof which falls within 
the limits of the peninsula which is formed by the 
isthmus that separates the Pontic and the Cilician 
Seas. As for the other countries, I mean the Trans- 
Tauran, 1 place among them not only India, but 
also Ariana as far as the tribes that extend to the 
Persian Sea and the Arabian Gulf and the Nile and 
the Egyptian and Issic Seas. 

^ Cis-Tauran. " i.e. "west of.' 



189 



STRABO 



II 



1. Oi/TO) Se SiaK€ip,€V(i}v, TO TrpcoTov fiepo^ 

oIkOVCTLV i>C fX€V TOiV 77/309 apKTOV fJbepOiV Kul TOV 

^D,K€av6v SkvOmp Tive<i i'opdBe<i Ka\ dpd^oiKOi,^ 
ivhojepci) he rovrwv '^appi'nai, kol ovroi ^Kvdai, 
"Aopaoi KoX 'S^tpaKOi, peXP'' "^^^ KavKaaiwv 
opcov eVt fJ.€(Trjp.^piav TeLV0PT€<;, oi fiev vo/xdSei;, 
ol he Koi. aKTjvlrai koX yecopyoi' irepl he ttjv 
\i/j,v7jv Maiayrar irpo^ he rfi OoXuttt} rov 
^oarropov rd Kara tt)v ^Kaiav earl koi rj 
"StivhtKiy fxerd he ravTrjv Wx^tol kuI Zvyol xal 
'Hvio')(^oi, KepKerai re Kal yiaKpoTrcoycopei;. 
virepKeivTai he tovtcov kuI to, tmv ^deipo^dywv 
arevd' fierd he tov<; 'Hvio^of? rj KoX;\^t9, 
viro Tot? KavKacrLoi<; opeai K€ip,ev7] koI rot? 
Mo<TT^t/cot9. €Trel 8' opiov vTroKeirat tj}? Eu- 
p(i>Tr7)<i Kal T?}? 'Acrta? 6 Ta/'oi? Trorapo^, ev- 
Tevdev dp^dpevoL rd Ka6^ eKaara VTroypdyfropev. 

2. ^eperai pev ovv diro tcov dpKriKwv pe- 
pwv, ov p,r)v &)9 av Kara hidp-erpov avrippovi 
rSi ^eiXo), Kaddirep vopi^ovcriv ol ttoXXol, dWd 

C 493 ea>6tv(i)T€po'i eKeivov, Trapa7rXr]aico<i eKeivw Td<i 
up')(^d^ dh^Xov<i e')(0)v dXXa rov p,ev rroXv to 
(f)avep6v, ')(^copav hie^iovrof rrdcrav eveTrip-iKrov 
Kal p.aKpov<i dvdirXovi e)(^ovro<;' rov he Tapdiho<i 
rd<; p,ev eK/3oXd<; cap,ev (hvo 8' elalv et? rd 
dpKriKoorara p^epr] tt}? Maicort^o?, e^rjKovra 

* a/xd^oiKoi, Oorais, for kfid^tKoi ; so the later editors. 

' Also spelled " Siraces." See 11. 5. 8. 
190 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. 2. 1-2 



. II 

1. Ok the portions thus divided, the first is in- 
habited, in the region toward the north and the 
ocean, by Scythian nomads and waggon-dwellers, 
and south of these, by Sarniatians, these too being 
Scythians, and by Aorsi and Siraci,^ who extend 
towards the south as far as the Caucasian Mountains, 
some being nomads and others tent-dwellers and 
farmers. About Lake Maeotis live the Maeotae. 
And on the sea lies the Asiatic side of the Bos- 
porus, or the Sindic territory. After this latter, 
one comes to the Achaei and the Zygi and the 
Heniochi, and also the Cercetae and the Macro- 
pogones.2 And above these are situated the narrow 
passes of the Phtheirophagi ; ^ and after the 
Heniochi the Colchian country, which lies at the 
foot of the Caucasian, or Moschian, Mountains. But 
since I have taken the Tanais River as the boundary 
between Europe and Asia, I shall begin my detailed 
description therewith. 

2. Now the Tanais flows from the northerly 
region, — not, however, as most people think, in a 
course diametrically opposite to that of the Nile, 
but more to the east than the Nile — and like the 
Nile its sources are unknown. Yet a considerable 
part of the Nile is well known, since it traverses 
a country which is everywhere easily accessible and 
since it is navigable for a great distance inland. 
But as for the Tanais, although we know its outlets 
(they are two in number and are in the most 
northerly region of Lake Maeotis, being sixty stadia 

* "Long-beards." ' "Lice-eaters." 

191 



ST R A BO 

<TTa8i'ov<; aWi]\o)v Siexovaai), rov ^ 8' virkp roiv 
eK^oXcov oXiyov ro yvwpifxov ecm Sia ra "^vxv 
Kul Ta<; a'iTopia<i t^9 '^(^copa'i, a? oi p.ev avTox^ove^; 
BvvavraL (pepeiv, aap^l kuI <yd\aKTi Tpecpo/xevoi 
vofiaSiKM^, 01 S' dWo€6vet<; ov^ virofxevovaiv. 
aW(c<; T€ ^ 01 vopdSe^ hvcreiripLKTOL roi^ dWoi^ 
ovT€<; Kol •Tr\t]deL Koi ^ia Bia^epovre<; diroKe- 
KKe'iKaaiv, el Kai ri TropevaifMOv tt}? x^P'^'^ earXv 
i) ei Tiva<; rervxpix^^v dvcinXov^ ^-^(ov 6 Troxa/iof. 
aTTO 8e Tr}? alTLa<; ravTT]^ ol fiev VTreXa/Bov rd^ 
7T7]yd<; e^etv avrov ev rol<; KavKaaioii; opeai, 
TToXvv S' eve^jdevra eirl rwi dpKTovi, elr dvaarpi- 
yjravTa eK^dXXeiv eh ttjv MaicoTiv TovToi<i Se 
ofioSo^ec Kol S€0(f)dvT]^ 6 MiTvXr]vaio<;' ol 5' diro 
Tcov dvw p.6poiv Tov 'laTpov (f)€pecr6ai, aiip,elov he 
(j>epovaiv ovBev t?}? Troppcodev ovtco pucreo)? koI 
ajr' dXXcov KXipdrcov, wairep ov hwarov ov koX 
i'yyvOev Koi diro rayv dpKTCov. 

3. 'EttI he Tw TTOTapw Kal t^ Xlp^vrj 7r6Xi<i 
6p,a)vvp.o<i olKecTai Tdvai'i, Krlap^a roiv tov ^oairo- 
pov eyovrwv E\X?;i^&)i/" vecoarl p.ev ovv e^eTropdrjcev 
avTT]v TloXefKov 6 ^aaLXev<i direidovaav. rjv S" 

epUTTopCOV KOLVOV TMV T€ 'AaiaVoi)V Kal TMV EuyOft)- 

Tralcov vofidhwv Kal rwv ck tov ^ocnropov ttjv 
XLpbVTjV irXeovToov, TOiv pev avSpdiroSa dyovTcov 
Kal 8epp.aTa Kai ell ti dXXo tmv vop^ahiKcov, tcov 

^ TOV, Corais, for to ; so the later editors. 
^ T€, Corais, for S4 ; so the later editors. 

^ Intimate friend of Pompey; wrote a history of his 
campaigns. 
2 See Vol. I, p. 22, foot-uote 2. 

192 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. 2. 2-3 

distant from one anotlier), yet but little of" the 
part that is beyond its outlets is known to us, 
because of the coldness and the poverty of the 
country. This })ovcrty can indeed be endured by 
the indi<^enous peoples, who, in nomadic fashion, 
live on flesh and milk, but people from other tribes 
cannot stand it. And besides, the nomads, being 
disinclined to intercourse with any other people 
and being superior both in numbers and in might, 
have blocked off whatever parts of the country are 
passable, or whatever parts of the river happen 
to be navigable. This is what has caused some 
to assume that the Tanais has its sources in the 
Caucasian Mountains, flows in great volume towards 
the north, and then, making a bend, empties into 
Lake Maeotis (Theophanes of Mitylene^ has the 
same opinion as these), and others to assume that it 
flows from the upper region of the Ister, although 
they produce no evidence of its flowing from so 
great a distance or from other " climata," ^ as 
though it were impossible for the river to flow 
both from a near-by source and from the north. 

3. On the river and the lake is an inhabited 
city bearing the same name, Tanais ; it was founded 
by the Greeks who held the Bosporus. Recently, 
however, it was sacked by King Polemon ^ because 
it would not obey him. It was a common emporium, 
partly of the Asiatic and the European nomads, 
and partly of those who navigated the lake from 
the Bosporus, the former bringing slaves, hides, and 
such other things as nomads possess, and the latter 

^ Poleinon I. He became kiug of the Bosporus about 
10 B.C. (Die Cassius 54. 24). 

19.^ 



STRABO 

5' iadrjra Koi olvov koX raWa, oaa rri<; rjfxipov 
8iaLTrj(i oiKela, avTi(f)opTi^o/X€Vcov. "rrpoKeuai S* 
iv eKUTOV (TTaSlot<; tov efxiropiov vr)(7o<i ^AXcoTreKta, 
KaToiKia piydScov dvdpooTrcov eart 8e koI dWa 
vrjalSia TrXrjaiov iv rfj \ipvrj. hie'xei he tov 
(TTopaTO'i rrj'i Mai(ioTiSo<{ evdvirXoovat errl rd 
/36p€ia 8fcr;!^tXtof? koI hiaKoalovq <nahiov<i o 
Tttz/ai?, ov TToXv he irXeiov^i elcrl TrapaXeyop^evo) 
rrjp yrjv. 

4. 'Ei/ he T& irapdirXw tw irapd yyv nrpwrov 
p,€V eariv aTro tov Tavdiho^; irpoLOvcnv iv oktU' 
KoaLOi<i peya<; KaXovpevo<i Pop^iTijq, iv m tu 
irXelcTTa dXievpuTa tcov el<i Tapf)(^eia<; l^^Ovwv 
eireiTa iv dXXoi<i oKTUKoaloi^ 6 iXdaawv 'Pop^iT7]<; 
Kol ^ dfcpa, e)(ovaa kuI avTt) dXieia<i eXaTTOu?* 
e^ofcrt he ol pev irepX tov^ irpoTepov vrja-ia 6pp,r}- 
Trjpia, ol 8' iv tw piKpw 'Vop^LTj] avToi elaiv ol 
Maiwrat ipya^opevor olfcovai yap iv tw TcapdirXm 
C 491 TovT(p iravTX ol Matwrat, yecopyol pev, ou;^ tjttov 
he Twv vopdhcov TToXepiaTaL hi^prjvTai he et? 
edvi] TrXelo), Td pev TrXtjalov tov Tavdiho<i dypico- 
Tepa, TU he avvdiTTOVTa tco BotTTropo) yeLpoi']di] 
p,dXXov. aTTO he tov piKpov 'Po/iy8tTOf (TTahioi 
elaiv e^aKoatoi eVt Tvpdp/3r]v Kal tov ^AvTiKeLTTjv 
TTOTapov eW eKUTOV kul e'cKoaiv eVt r^y Kcopriv 

TTjV Kipp,€piK7]V,^ i]Tl<; icTTLV d^eTTjpiOV Tol^ TrjV 

Xipvy]v TrXeovuiv' iv he tw TrapdirXcp tovtw Kai 
(TKOirai Tive'i XeyovTai KXa^opevlcov. 

^ Kal, before &Kpa, Corais inserts ; so the later editors. 
* vepl r6v, before ■7rp6Tepov, (iroskurd inserts ; so Miiller- 
Diibner, but Meineke merel}' indicates a lacuna. 

^ Kitx/xeptK'fjv, Xylander, for Kifx^piK-hv ; so the later editors. 

194 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. 2. 3-4 

giving in exchange clothing, wine, and the other 
things that belong to civilised life. At a distance 
of one hundred stadia off the emporium lies an 
island called Alopecia, a settlement of promiscuous 
people. There are also other small islands near by 
in the lake. The Tanais ^ is two thousand two 
hundred stadia distant from the mouth of Lake 
Maeotis by a direct voyage towards the north ; but 
it is not much farther by a voyage along the coast. 

4. In the voyage along the coast, one comes first, at 
a distance of eight hundred stadia from the Tanais, 
to the Greater Rhombites River, as it is called, 
where are made the greatest catches of tlie fish 
that are suitable for salting. Then, at a distance 
of eight hundred more, to the Lesser Rhombites 
and a cape, which latter also has fisheries, although 
they are smaller. The people who live about the 
Greater Rhombites have small islands as bases for 
their fishing ; but the people who carry on the 
business at the Lesser Rhombites are the Maeotae 
themselves, for the Maeotae live along the whole 
of this coast ; and though farmers, they are no less 
warlike than the nomads. They are divided into 
several tribes, those who live near the Tanais being 
rather ferocious, but those whose territory borders 
on the Bosporus being more tractable. It is six 
hundred stadia from the Lesser Rhombites to 
Tyrambe and the Anticeites River ; then a hundred 
and twenty to the Cimmerian village, which is a 
place of departure for those who navigate the lake ; 
and on this coast are said to be some look-out 
places 2 belonging to the Clazomenians. 



i.e. the movtJi of tlie Tanais. 
i.e. for the observation of tisli. 



195 



STRABO 

5. To 8e JLi/n/jLepiKov 7ro\t9 ■^v irporepov irrrl 
')(^eppovi](Tov Ihpvfievrj, rov ladfxov 'Ta.<^p(o koX 
y^dipLari, Kkeiovaa' eKeKrrjvTO 8' ol Ki/jLp,epioi 
/xeydXrjv irore iv ru> Bocvropft) Svva/j,iv, hioirep 
Kal K.i/Ji/xepiKO<i Bo(77ropo? oyvop^daOrj. ovtoi 6' 
elalv ol roix; tijv fieaoyaiav oiKOVvra^ ev rot? 
8e^iol<; fiipecri rov Hovtov /^€)(^pt 'Ityyta? eiriSpa- 
/ji6vre<;. Tourovi /mev ovv e^yfKaaav e« rwy Toironv 
'S.Kvdai, Tov<i Se'EKvda'i" \LX\,i]V€'; ol YlavTiKuirdiov 
Kal ras ciWai; olKLaavT€<; 7roA.et9 Ta<; iv BoaTropco. 

6. EIt' eVi ri]v ^A)(^iXX.€iov kco/xtju eiKoaiv, iv 
77 TO 'A;)^iA,A,ea)9 lepov' ivTavOa S' icnlv 6 arevol)- 

TUTOS TTOpd/jLO'i TOV aTO/jLUTCi T?}? MatftJTiSo?, 6(T0V 

eiKoat (TTadlcov rj TrXeiovcov, e)(^cov iv rfj irepaia 
Ka)/jbi]v TO MvpiJi7]Kiov' TrXrjcriov 6' eVrt to 'Hpa- 
Kkelov ^ KOI TO TlapOivtov. 

7. FjVTevOev 6' eVi to XaTvpov fivTjpa ivevijKOVTa 
(TTahioi' TOVTO S' iaTlv iir^ aKpa<; tlvo^ ')(o)crTov 
dv8po<; TOiv iTTicpavoj'i SuvaaTevcruvTcov tov Bocr- 
TTopov. 

8. YlXtjaLov 8e KMfMi] JJaTpa€v<;, d(f r)<i iirl 
K(i)/u,i]v I^opoKovSd/jLrjv cKaTOv TpiuKovTa' avTr) S' 
e'cTTi ToO K-L/ui/MepiKou KoXoufxivov BoaiTopov 7repa<;. 
KoXetTai he outo)?'^ aTcvcoTro^ iirl ^ tov (XTop,aTo<i 

T/}? MatWTiSo? UTTO TMV KUTa TO ' A')(^lXX€IOV Kol 

TO ^XvpfirjKLov (TT€V(ov SiciTeli'cov fiexpt' 7rpo<; ttjv 
K,opoKov8d/u,i]v Kal to avTiKei/jievov avT^ Kcofxiov 
T/;? liavTiKairaiwv j'tj'i, ovofia "AKpav,^ €l3Bop,t]- 

*■ rh 'tipuK^e'ioy, Jones, following conj. of Kranier ; so (J. 
Miiller. 

^ ourws, Xylander, for olros ; so the later editoix. 
' eni, Xylander, for ano : so the later editors. 

196 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. 2. 5-8 

5. Ciiuinericuni was in earlier times a city situated 
oil a peninsula, and it closed the isthmus by means 
of a trench and a mound. The Cimmerians once 
possessed great power in the Bosporus, and this 
is why it was named Cimmerian Bosporus. These 
are the people who overran the country of those 
who lived in the interior on the right side of the 
Pontus as far as Ionia. However, these were driven 
out of the region by the Scythians ; and then the 
Scythians were driven out by the Greeks who founded 
Paiiticapaeum and the other cities on the Bosporus. 

6. Then, twenty stadia distant, one comes to the 
village Achilleium, where is the temple of Achilles. 
Here is the narrowest passage across the mouth 
of Lake Maeotis, about twenty stadia or more ; and 
on the opposite shore is a village, Myrmecium ; and 
near by are Heracleium and Parthenium.^ 

7. Thence ninety stadia to the monument of 
Satyrus, which consists of a mound thrown up on a 
certain cape in memory of one of the illustrious 
potentates of the Bosporus.'- 

8. Near by is a village, Patraeus, from which the 
distance to a village Corocondame is one hundred 
and thirty stadia ; and this village constitutes the 
limit of the Cimmerian Bosporus, as it is called. 
The Narrows at the mouth of the Maeotis are so 
called from the narrow passage at Achilleium and 
Myrmecium ; they extend as far as Corocondame and 
the small village named Acra, which lies opposite to 
it in the land of the Panticapaeans, this village 

1 Cf, 7. 4. 5. 2 See 7. 4. 4. 

* "Anpav, Meiiieke, for "A/cpa ; Corais and others insert y 

before uvofxa. 

197 



STRABO 

KovTa arahlwv Bieipyofievov jropOfx^' fi^XP'' 1^9 
Seupo Kal 6 KpvaraWo^ hiareLvei, 7r7}TT0/j.evy]<; rij<; 
Mai&JTt^o? KUTci T017? Kpvp,ov<;, ware Tre^eveadai. 
aTra? S' iarlv ev\iixevo<; 6 aTevco7r6<; ovTo<i. 

9. "TTrepKeirai. Be rr}? KopoKovSd/xri<; €VfM€y€dy]<; 
Xifxvri, r)v KoKovaiv air avT7]<; K.opoKoi hapuTLV' 
eKSlScoai 8' cLTTo 8eKa (TTaBicov tt}? accw/x.?;? eh ttjv 
ddXarrav' efi^dWei 8e ei? rrjv Xi/xvrjv dnoppco^ 

Ti9 TOV ^AvTiKCLTOV TTOTa/JLOV, KOI TTOiei VYjaOV 

TrepiKKvcxrov riva ravrrj re rfj Xifivj] Kal rfj 
MaiojTiSi Kol T(p TTorauu). Tive<; he Kal tovtov 
TOV TTOTUfibv 'T-navLv irpoaayopevovai, Kaddirep 
Kal TOV 7rp6<; tw BopvaOevei. 

10. RlaTrXevcravri 3' et? Trjv K.opoKOvBa/UTiv rj 
C 495 re ^avayopeid iaTi, TroX-t? d^ioXoyo^, Kal KrJTTot 

Kal Kp/xcovaaaa Kal to 'ATrdroupov, to tt}? 
'A0/)o3tT7;<? lepov a)v rj ^avayopeia Kal ol ^LrjiroL 
KUTa TTjv Xe'x^delaav vtjaov 'ihpvvTaL, elcrirXeovTi 
ev dpiaTepa, at Se Xonral Tro'Xet? ev Be^td irepav 
"TTrdvLO^ ev ttj ^ivSikj}. ecTTi Be Kal TopyLTria ^ 
ev TTJ l.ivBiKfj, TO ^aaiXeiov tcov 'S.ivBoyv, TrXrjalov 
^aXaTT>;?, Kal ^A^opuKT], rot? Be tov ^oairopov 
BvvdaTai<; vtt^kooi ovts^ diravTe'i HoaTropavol Ka- 
XouvTai' Kal eaTi tmv fiev ^vpcoiraicov BoaTropavcJv 
//-^T/JoVoXi? TO TlavTiKdrraiov, tcov B ^ Acnavoiv to 
'^avayopeLov [KaXelTai yap Kal ovtco^ tj 7t6Xi<;), 
Kal BoKcl TCOV fiev eK t^? MatwTiSo? Kal t?;? 
vTrepKecfjLevr]^ ^ap^dpov KaTaKOfii^o/jLevcov ep/rro- 
piov elvai T) ^ ^Pavayopeia, tcov 3' e« tt}? BaXdTTTj^ 



^ ropylma, Kramer, for ropyiima. 

* T], xz and Corals (^ ^avayopia), ii tend of to.. 



198 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. 2. 8-10 

being separated from it by a strait seven ly si !(Iia 
wide ; for the ice, also,l extends as far as this, the 
Maeotis being so frozen at the time of frosts that it 
can be crossed on foot. And these Narrows have 
good harbours everywhere. 

9. Above Corocondame lies a lake of considerable 
size, which derives its name, Corocondamitis, froin 
that of the village. It empties into the sea at a 
distance of ten stadia from the village. A branch 
of the Anticeites empties into the lake and forms 
a kind of island which is surrounded by this lake 
and the Maeotis and the river. Some apply the 
name Hypanis to this river^ just as they do to the 
river near the Borysthenes. 

10. Sailing into Lake Corocondamitis one comes 
to Phanagoreia, a noteworthy city, and to Cepi, and 
to Hermonassa, and to Apaturum, the sanctuary of 
Aphrodite. Of these, Phanagoreia and Cepi are 
situated on the island above-mentioned, on the left 
as one sails in, but the other cities are on the right, 
across the Hypanis, in the Sindic territory. There 
is also a place called Gorgipia in the Sindic territory, 
the royal residence of the Sindi, near the sea ; and 
also a place called Aborace. All the people who 
are subject to the potentates of the Bosporus are 
called Bosporians ; and Panticapaeum is the metropolis 
of the European Bosporians, while Phanagoreium 
(for the name of the city is also spelled thus) is the 
metropolis of the Asiatic Bosporians. Phanagoreia 
is reputed to be the emporium for the commodities 
that are brought down from the Maeotis and the 
barbarian country that lies above it, and Panti- 

^ i.e. as well as the Narrows. 

199 



ST R A BO 

uvacftepo/xevcov eKelae to llaiTiKcirraLOV. ea-ji Be 
Kal ev rfi <PavayopeLa t/}9 A(f)poSiTT)<; lepov eincri^- 
fiov Trj<i 'ATTarovpoV erufioXoy overt Be to eTriOeTOv 
r7]<; 6eov fivOov riva TrpoaTrjad/nevoi, &)?, imOefie- 
vcov evTavOa rfj dew tcov TiydvTcov, errcKaXeaa/xei'}] 
TOP 'HpuKXea Kpi/yfretev ^ ev Kevdp,covl rivt, elra 
T<wi' Viydi'TQJV eKUcrrov Bexop-evr) Kad^ eva rfo 
'WpaKkel TrapaBiBolrj ho\o^ovelv e^ avraT/;?. 

11. Twu yiaicoTcov B' elalv avrol re ol %LvBoi 
Kal AavBdpiOL Kal Topedrat ^ Kal " Ay pot, Kal 
WppT])(OL, ere Be TdpTrr]T€<;, '0^iBtaKt]voL, ^ma- 
Ki^voi, \6(TKoi, dWot TT\eiov<;' toutcov S' elal Kal 
ol WaTTOvpyiavoi, p.eTa^u ^avayopeia<;^ olKovvte^ 
Kal Topynria<; ev TrevTaKoalofi araBioL^, oU eVt- 
6ep.evo<i Yio\ep.wv 6 ^aai\ev<i ein, irpoaTTOirjaeL 
(pi\ia<;, ov Xadccv avTearpaTr^yijOr] Kal ^(oypia 
Xi)(p6el<i uireOave. royv re crvfnrdvTwv MaiJOTw*' 
roi)v Aaiavcov ol p.ev vtrrjKOvov tcov to eixiropiov 
^X'jvTOiv TO ev TO) TavdlBi, ol Be tmv JioaTropavcov' 
Tore B' d<pLcrravTO ciWor^ dWot. TroWaKC'; B' ol 
TMv BoaTTopavcov rjye/j,6ve<; Kal tu p^expi tov 
TavdiBo^ KaTeL^ov, Kal p-dXiara ol vararoi, 
^apvdKrj<; KaV AaavBpo^ Kal Ilo\ep,cov. ^apvdKt)<i 
Be TTOTf Kol tov'Tttuviv TOt<f AavBapLot<; eirayayelv 
XeyeTai Bid tivo^ 7raXaid<i Bciopvyo^, dvaKaOdpa^ 
avTi']v, Kal^ KaraKXvcrai t>]V ^copai^. 

12. ^lerd Be ttjv 'S.cvBikijv kuI t?)i' Topynrlav 

* Kpiiifififv z, instead of Kf>iiipfi, Kpu\poi, /cpi^i^oi, Kpv\pi other 
MSS. 

- Topfdrai is probably' an error for Toptrat. 
" <^avayopeias, Meineke, for tafayopias. 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. 2. 10-12 

capaeuni for those which are carried up thither from 
the sea. There is also in Phaiiagoreia a notable 
temple of Aphrodite Apaturus. Critics derive the 
etymology of the epithet of the goddess by adducing 
a certain myth, according to which the Giants 
attacked the goddess there ; but she called upon 
Heracles for help and hid him in a cave, and then, 
admitting the Giants one by one, gave them over to 
Heracles to be murdered tlirough "treachery." ^ 

11. Among the Maeotae are the Sindi themselves, 
Dandarii, Toreatae, Agri, and Arrechi, and also the 
Tarpetes, Obidiaceni, Sittaceni, Dosci, and several 
others. Among these belong also the As{)urgiani, 
who live between Phanagoreia and Gorgipia, within 
a stretch of five hundred stadia ; these were attacked 
by King Polemon under a pretence of friendship, 
but they discovered his pretence, outgeneralled him, 
and taking him alive killed him. As for the Asiatic 
Maeotae in general, some of them were subjects of 
those who possessed the emporium on the Tanais, 
and the others of the Bosporians ; but in those days 
different peoples at different times were wont to 
revolt. And often the rulers of the Bosporians held 
possession of the region as far as the Tanais, and 
particularly the latest rulers, Pharnaces, Asander, 
and Polemon. Pharnaces is said at one time actually 
to have conducted the Hypanis River over the 
country of the Dandarii through an old canal which 
he cleared out, and to have inundated the country. 

12. After the Sindic territoi-y and Gorgipia, on 

^ In Greek, "apat^." 

* /cot, before Kara/cXuffai, Casaubon inserts ; so the later 
editors. 



STRABO 

iiri rfj 0a\(iTTT] ?; ^ Tajj/ 'A^aiwj' Koi Zujmv Kai 
'Wvioxwv TrapaXia, to rrXeov aXifievo^ Kal opeivrj, 
Tov KavKticTov fjL€po<; ovcra. ^wcn Be airo Ttov 
Kara ddXaTrav XTjcrrrjplwv, uKaria e^ovre^ \e7rrd, 
<neva Kal KOixpa, oaov dvOpwirov; Trevre Kal 
etKoai Bexo/jueva, aTrdviov Be rpiaKOVTa Be^aadai 
T0U9 TTaj/Ta? Bvvd/xeva' KaXovcrt, B^ avra oi 
' EX\.7)ve<; Ka/Jidpa<;. (f)a<7l 6' dirb tt}? ^Idaovo^ 
(JTpaTia<i Tov<i fxev ^0i(OTa<; 'A^^aioi/? ttjv evddBe 
^ X-^aiav oiKLcrai, AdKwva^ Be rrjv 'Yi.vLO')(iav, wv 
C 496 rjp-)(^ov 'PeKa^ ^ Kal ^Afi(f)i(TTpaTO<;, ol tcov Aiocr- 

KOVpCOV TjVLO^^^Ol, Kal TOU? 'WvLO^OVi CLTTO TOVTCOV 

€t/co9 wvofxdaOai. tmv B' ovv Kafiapcov aroXov^ 
KaracTKeva^ofievoi Kal eTrnrXeoine^; Tore /xev Tal<; 
oXKuai, Tore Be %<w/3a rcvl ^ rj Kal TroXei daXuT- 
TOKparovcrc. irpoaXa/jL^dvovai 8' eaO ore Kal oi 
TOV JiocTTTopov e^oi'Te?, v(f)6p/jL0u<; ')^opr)<yovvTe<; Kal 
dyopav Kal BidOeaiv twv dpTra^Ofievcov eiraviov- 
re? Be et? to, OLKCta y^apla, vavXo)(^eiv ovk e-)(0VTe<;, 
avaOefievoL toI<; Mfxoi<i Ta<; Kh.fidpa<; dva(f)epovaiv 
CTTi Tou? Bpvfj.ov<i, ev olcnrep Kal oIkovcti, Xvirpav 
dpovvre^ 'yrjv KaTacfiepovai Be irdXiv, OTav 77 
Kaipo'i tov TrXelv. to B^ avTO Troiovai Kal ev Trj 
dXXoTpla, yvcopifia e^j^ofre? vXcoBtj ')(u)pia, ev oI? 
d'iroKpvy^avTe<i Ta<i Kajxdpa^ avTol irXavcovTaL 
ire^fj * vvKTwp Kal pjeff" i)ixepav dvBpaTroBiafiov 

^ 7), after daXarrri, Xylander, forrji ; so the later editors. 

* Meineke emends 'PeVoj to KpfKas (see critical notes of 
Kramer and C. Miiller). 

' nvi is found only in Cloicz. 

* lo2cz have ire^oi instead of irffij. 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. 2. 12 

the sea, one comes to the coast of the Achaei and the 
Zygi and the Heniochj, which for the most part is 
harbourless and mountainous, being a part of the 
Caucasus. These peoples live by robberies at sea. 
Their boats are slender, narrow, and light, holding- 
only about twenty-five people, though in rare cases 
they can hold thirty in all ; the Greeks call them 
" camarae." ^ They say that the Phthiotic Achaei ^ in 
Jason's crew settled in this Achaea, but the Laconi- 
ans in Heniochia, the leaders of the latter being 
Uhecas^ and Amphistratus, the " henioclii " * of the 
Dioscuri,^ and that in all probability the Heniochi 
were named after these. At any rate, by equipping 
fleets of "camarae" and sailing sometimes against 
merchant-vessels and sometimes against a country 
or even a city, they hold the mastery of the sea. 
And they are sometimes assisted even by those who 
hold the Bosporus, the latter supplying them with 
mooring-places, with market-place, and with means 
of disposing of their booty. And since, when they 
return to their own land, they have no anchorage, 
they put the "camarae" on their shoulders and 
carry them to the forests where they live and where 
Lhey till a poor soil. And they bring the "camarae" 
down to the shore again when the time for naviga- 
tion comes. And they do the same thing in the 
countries of others, for they are well acquainted 
with wooded places ; and in these they first hide 
their " camarae " and then themselves wander on 
foot night and day for the sake of kidnapping 

* i.e. "covered boats" (cf. Lat. and English "camera"). 
See the description of Tacitus (Hist. ,3. 47). 

* Cf. 9. 5. 10. ^ Apparently au error for " Ciecas." 

* "charioteers." * Castor and Pollux. 

203 



STRABO 

'y^dpiv. a S' av Xu^coaiv €7riXvTpa Troiovai. pahio)^, 
fiera tou? avdirXov^ pLT]vvovTe<i rol<i aiTo\e(raaLV. 
ev fiev ovv rol<i hvva(7Tevop.evoi<; t6ttoi<; iart, rt? 
^orjOeia e« rSiv r)yep.6vwv toi^ a8iKovp.ei'ot^' 
avreinridevTaL 'yap 7ro\Xa/ci? koI Kardyovaiv 
avrdv^pov; ra<; Kapdpa^' j) S' vtto '¥(opaloi<i 
d^OT]d)]TOTepa icrrl Sid rrjv oXiycoplav joiv 
7refMTrop,6V(ov. 

13. ToLovTO'i pev 6 rovTcov f3L0<;' hwacnevovraL 

he Koi OVTOl VTTO TOiV KaXovp,eP(OV (TKrj7rT0V)(0)V 

Koi avTol Be ovtoi vtto rvpdvvoi<i ?; ^aaiKevcriv 
elaiv. oi yovv Hvlo)(^oi- TeTTapa<i el)(^ov ^aaiXeaf, 
qvLKa ^liOptSdrT]^ o EvTrdrcop, (pevycov Ik tt}? 
irpoyovLKi)'; el<i l^oairopov, hirjei rrjv '^copav avroiv' 
Koi avri] pev r]v 7ropevaip,o<; avTW, tt]^ 8e tmv 
Vjvywv ^ diToyvov^ Sid re hv<7-^epeia<; koi dypioTrj- 
Ttt? rfi irapaXia ;i^aXe7r&>? yei, tu^ TtoXXd ep-lSaivcov 
eVt rrjv OdXarrav, eity? eVi rrjv twv 'A')(^aio}v 7]Ke- 
KoX IT poaXa^ovrcov tovtoov igeTeXeae ri^v o8ov 
Tr)v eK OacTiSo?, ov ttoXv t6)v TeTpaKia)(^iXicov 
XeiTTOvaai' arahiodv. 

14. FjvOv'i S' ovv drro Tfj<; KopoKovSdp-r]^ TTpo<i 
eco pev ttXovs eariv. ev hk arahioL<; eKUTov 
oySorJKovTa 6 %iv8ik6<; iari Xip,i]v Kal Tr6Xi<;, eWa 
ev TerpaKocrioi'i rd KaXovpeva Bara, Kcoprj /cal 
Xtp,j]v, KaO' o pdXiara avTiKelaOat, SoKel 7rp6<t 
voTOv Tj XivooTTT) ruvrr} T77 irapaXia, KaOdrrep fj 
Kdpap/3i<; etpjjrai tou Kpiou perdiiru)' diro he 

* Zvfwv (as spelled elsewhere b}' Stiabo), Meineke, for 

* TO should probably be ejected from the text. 
204 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. 2. 12-14 

people. But they rttidily offer to release their 
captives for I'ansom, iiiforniiiig their relatives after 
they have put out to sea. Now in those places 
which are ruled by local chieftains the rulers go to 
the aid of those who are wronged, often attacking 
and bringing back the " camarae," men and all. 
But the territory that is subject to the Romans 
affords but little aid, because of the negligence of the 
governors who are sent there. 

13. Such is the life of these people. They are 
governed by chieftains called '•sceptuchi," ^ but the 
"sceptuchi" themselves are subject to tyrants or kings. 
For instance, the Heniochi had four kings at the time 
when Mithridates Eupator,^ in flight from the country 
of his ancestors to the Bosporus, passed through their 
country ; and while he found this country passable, 
yet he despaired of going through that of the Zygi, 
both because of the ruggedness of it and because 
of the ferocity of the inhabitants; and only with 
difficulty could he go along the coast, most of the 
way marching on the edge of the sea, until he 
arrived at the country of the Achaei ; and, welcomed 
by these, he completed his journey from Phasis, a 
journey not far short of four thousand stadia. 

14. Now the voyage from Corocondame is straight 
towards the east; and at a distance of one hundred 
and eighty stadia is the Sindic harbour and city ; 
and then, at a distance of four hundred stadia, one 
comes to Bata, as it is called, a village and harbour, 
at which place Sinope on the south is thought to 
lie almost directly opposite this coast, just as 
Carambis has been referred to as opposite Criume- 

^ "Sceptre-bearers" (see note on " sceptuchies," § 18 
(lelow). " See Dictionary in Vol. I. 

205 



STRABO 

Tbiv Waiwv o fikv 'Apre/jiiBoipo^ Trjv KepKerMv 
\e<y€i irapdXiav, v(})6ppov^ exovaav /cal KO)pa<i, 
ocrov €7rl cna^Lou^ oKraKocriovi koX TrevrrjKOi'Ta' 
eJra rrjv rwv 'A^afwi* (rrahioyv TTevraKoaLWv, eiTU 
TT)v roiv 'Yiviox^^v ')(^i\io)v, elra rov niTvovvTa 
497 Tov fiiyav rpiaKoaLwv €^>]KovTa P-^XP'' ^^oo"- 
KOvpidho<i. OL he TO, MiOpiSariKa crv'y'ypd^avr€<i, 
olf pLoXkov irpoaeKTeov, ^ Axcitov<; Xeyovai irpui- 
Tou?, elra Zvyoix;, elra 'Hvi6xov<i, eira Kep/cera? 
Kul ^locrxov^ Kal K6\xov<; Kal tou<? virep tovtcov 
^d€ipo(f>dyov<; Kal 'S.odua<; ^ Kal dWa piKpd eOvrj 
TO, ire pi TOV KavKacrov. Kar dpxd<i p-ev ovv rj 
irapaXla, KaOdirep elirnv, eVt tt)v eo) reivei Kal 
^XeireL Trpb<; vorov, cnrb he rcov^arMV eTriarpocprjv 
\ap^dv€i Kara puKpov, etr dpTL-rrpocrcoTro'; jLverai 
rfi hvaet Kal rekevrd 7rpo<; tov UiTVOvvTa Kat 
TTjv Aio(TKOvpidBa' TUVTa yap Ta ^wpta t^9 
K.oXyiBo<i crvvdirTei Trj Xe^^^eicTT; TrapaXia. p,eTa 
he Trjv AioaKOvpidha r) XotTr?) Tr]<i Ko\;^tSo9 eo"Ti 
TrapaXia Kal t) crvvexv^ Tpa7T€^ov<;, KapLfrrjv 
d^ioXoyov Troir'](raaa' etra et? evOelav Tadelad 
TTW? TrXevpdv ttjv tu he^id tov TIovtov iroiovcrav, 
TO, ^XenovTU irpo^ dpKTOv. diracra h rj twv 
^ Pi.'Xdioiv Kal Tcov dXXcjov TrapaXia p-expi' ^loar- 
KOvpidho<i Kal Ta)v eV euOeia^ tt/oo? votov iv Trj 
peaoyaia tottcov VTroTretTTcoKe tco KavKdcro). 

15. "EcTTi S' 6po<i TOVTO vTTepKeipevov tov 
TreXdyov<i eKaTepnv, tov re Uovtckov koI tov 
KacTTtou, hiaTelxi^ov tov ladpov tov hieipyovTa 
avTa. u(f)opl^€i he Trpo? votov pev ttjv re 'AX- 
^avlav Kal tt)v 'l^rjpiav, 7r/30<? dpKTOV he to, twv 
XappLUTMV TTehia' evhevhpov S' eaTlv vXrj rravTo- 
206 



GEOGRAPHY, n. 2. 14-15 

topon.* After Bata Artemidorus^ mentions the 
coast of the Cercetae, with its mooring-places and 
villa'^es, extending thence about eight hundred and 
fifty stadia ; and then the coast of the Achaei, five 
hundred stadia ; and then that of the Heniochi, one 
thousand ; and then Greater Pityus, extending three 
hundred and sixty stadia to Dioscurias. The more 
trustworthy historians of the Mithridatic wars name 
the Achaei first, then the Zygi, then the Heniochi, 
and then the Cercetae and Moschi and Colchi, and 
the Phtheirophagi who Hve above these three peoples 
and the Soanes, and other small tribes that live in 
the neighbourhood of the Caucasus. Now at first 
the coast, as I have said, stretches towards the east 
and faces the south, but from Bata it gradually takes 
a turn, and then faces the west and ends at Pityus 
and Dioscurias ; for these places border on the above- 
mentioned coast of Colchis. After Dioscurias comes 
the remaining coast of Colchis and the adjacent 
coast of Trapezus, which makes a considerable bend, 
and then, extending approximately in a straight line, 
forms the i-ight-hand side of the Pontus, which faces 
the north. The whole of the coast of the Achaei 
and of the other peoples as far as Dioscurias and 
of the places that lie in a straight line towards the 
south in the interior lie at the foot of the Caucasus. 

15. This mountain lies above both seas, both the 
Pontic and the Caspian, and forms a wall across the 
isthmus that separates the two seas. It marks the 
boundary, on the south, of Albania and Iberia, and, 
on the north, of the plains of the Sarmatae. It is 

1 See 2. 5. 22 and 7. 4. 3. * See Dictionary in Vol. II. 

^ "Zoavas, Tzschucke from conj. of Casaubon, for Qodvas ; 
80 the later editors. 

207 



ST R A BO 

BaTTTJ, rf] re ciWr] koI tjj vav7rj]yy]crL/ji,w. (f)i]at 
8' 'KparoaOevri<; vtto to)v ein')((i) piayv KoKelcrdai 
K.d<T7rLov Tov K^avKacrov, l(T(jo<; (itto roiv KacrTritoz' 
TTapovofxaadivTa. ay/CMve^ Se rwe^ avrov irpo- 

TTlTTTOVCrLV CTtI TTjV p.€(T1]/J.^pLaV, o'i TrjV TC ^l^ljpLOV 

7r€piXap,f3dvovcri p.eai]i> Kal rol'i App.euifov opeat 
avpuTTTOVcn Kal rols Mocr^^t/cot? Kokovpevoi'i, en 
he r(h ^Kvhiar] Kal rw Tiapvdhpy ravra 8' ean 
fiepi] TOV Tavpov Travra, tov 7roiovvTo<; to votiov 
ri]<; ^ Apfi€VLa<; irXevpov, direppoiyoTa iroi^ eKeldev 

7r/30? dpKTOV Kal TTpOTTLTTTOVra ^ P-^XP'' "^^^ Kaf - 

Kacrov Kal rrjs tov Ku^elvov 7rapa\ia<i, Tfj<; eVi 
("JeplaKvpav hiaTeivovai]^ utto t?}? KoX%i8o9. 

16. 'H 8' OVV AlOCTKOVptd^ iv KoXtTCO TOCOVTfn 

KeifjLevT] Kal to ecodivooTaTov ai]p,elove7rexovcra tov 
avp-navTo^ 7re\dyov^, pv^o^ t^ tov ILv^elvov 
XeyeTat Kal ecrxaTOs ttXoO?' to Te 7rapoip,iaKOJs 
\e)(6ev 

ei? (^daiv, evda vavalv eV^i^aTo? hp6po<;, 

ovToy Set Be^aaOai, ovx ^? "^o^ TroTapov \eyovTO<i 
TOV 7roii']aavTO<; to Idp^etov, ovSe 8t] co? Trjv 
6p,(t)Vvpov avTU) TToXiv KeipLevqv eirl tw 7roTap,a), 
aW' 609 Tr/i* KoX^i^a aTro pepov^, enel diro ye 
TOV TTOTapLOv Kal Til's TToXeo)? ovK eXdTTcov e^a- 
Kocricov aTaBtcov XeiireTai irXovf eir €vOeLa<; etV 
498 TOV pLV^ov- V S" avTT) L^toaKovpid'i e'cTTt Kal 
dpxv ■'■ot' lcrdp,ov TOV peTa^v t/}? Kao-Trta? Kal 
TOV HoVTOV Kal epiTopLov T(bv v7r€pK€ip,evcov Kal 
crvveyyv<i eOvoyv kolvov avvepx^o-^cii yovv et9 
avTTjv e/38opi7JKovTa, ol ok Kal TpiaKocria edvi] 

^ TrpOTTiirToVTa, Xicsc, for TrpoffiriTnovTa ; SO Meiiieke. 
20S 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. 2. 15-16 

well wooded with all kinds of timber, and especially 
the kind suitable for ship-building. According to 
Eratosthenes, the Caucasus is called "Caspius" by 
the natives, the name being derived perhaps from 
the " Caspii." Branches of it project towards the 
south ; and these not only comprise the middle of 
Albania but also join the mountains of Armenia and 
the Moschian Mountains, as they are called, and also 
the Scydises and the Paryadres Mountains. All 
these are parts of the Taurus, which forms the 
southern side of Armenia, — parts broken off, as it 
were, from that mountain on the north and pro- 
jecting as far as the Caucasus and that part of the 
coast of the Euxine which stretches from Colchis to 
Themiscyra. 

16. Be this as it may, since Dioscurias is situated 
in such a gulf and occupies the most easterly point 
of the whole sea, it is called not only the recess of 
the Euxine, but also the "farthermost" voyage. And 
the proverbial verse, "To Phasis, where for ships is 
the farthermost run," must be interpreted thus, not 
as though the author^ of the iambic vei'se meant the 
river, much less the city of the same name situated 
on the river, but as meaning by a part of Colchis the 
whole of it, since from the river and the city of that 
name there is left a straight voyage into the recess 
of not less than six hundred stadia. The same 
Dioscurias is the beginning of the isthmus between 
the Caspian Sea and the Euxine, and also the 
common emporium of the tribes who are situated 
above it and in its vicinity ; at any rate, seventy 
tribes come together in it, though others, who care 
nothing for the facts, actually say three hundred. 

^ An unknown tragic poet [Adcsj). 559, Nauck). 

209 



STRABO 

(f)a<TLV, ol? ovSeu roiv oprcov fiiXei. iravra oe 
eT€p6y\Q)TTa Bia to (nropdSrjv koI dfiiKTca oiKeiv 
VTTo avdaheia<; koX dypioTTjTO^;' ^apfidrai S' el(Tiv 
oi TrXeiov;, Travre? Se KavKaawi. ravra /ikv Bi] 
TO, irepi TT]v AioaKOvpidBa. 

17. Kal i) XotTTT] Be Ko\;^'(? eVl tt) OaXdrTij 
i) TrXeid^v eVri" Biappel 5' avrrjv o Oacri?, fieya^; 
TTOTa/io? e^ \\ppevia<i xa? ap;^a? e;^&Ji', Se;^o/ii€i/o<; 
Tov re rXuvKou Kal top "Ittttov, iK royv ttXtjctlov 
opSiV eKiriiTTovTa^' dvatrXetTai Be fiixpi ^apa- 
Travoov, epvp.ajo'; Bvvafj,evov Be^aadai kul TroXeftJ*? 
avvoiKLap.ov, odev -rre^evovaLv eiri rov K^vpov 
r)fj,epai<i TCTTapcn 6t' dfia^irov. iTTiKeirai. Be to) 
^dcnci ofid)vvp.o<; ttoXi';, e/jLiropiov twv KoX)(^cov, 
TTJ fiev 7rpo^e^Xrip,evr] top norap-ov, ttj Be Xlp-p-qv, 
TT] Be TTjp ddXarrav. iprevdev Be TrXoO? eV 
'Afiicrov Koi ^ipaoTnTi rpioiP r)pepQ)v rj Bvo ^ Bid 
TO Tou? alyiaXoi)^ fiaXaKOV'; elpai Kai Ta<; twp 
TTOTapoop e«/So\«9. ayaOj] 8' earlp t] %w/3a koL 
KapTTol<i TrXrjp rov p,€XiTO<; {•mKpi^eL yap ro irXeop) 
Kal roU Trpo? vavnrjyiav irdar 7roXXr]v re yap 
vXt]p^ (f)V€t Kal irorap.ol'i KaraKopi^ei, Xivov re 
TTOiel TToXv Kal Kdvpa^ip Kal Kifpov Kal irirrav. 
Tf Be Xipovpyia Kal redpvXtjrat' Kal yap et? tou? 
e^o) roirov^ eireKop^i^op, Kai riPd ^ovXopepoi avy- 
yeveidp ripa Tot? KoX;^oi9 tt/oo? rov^ AlyvTrrtov^; 

1 TpiHv rjfxfpcliv ri Suo ("three or two days") cannot be 
right, since, according to Strabo (12. 3 17) the distance 
from Phasis to Amisus is 3600 stadia. Gosselin, Groskurd, 
and Kramer think that the copyists confused y' (3) and &' 
(2) with n' (8) and d (9). C. Muller thinks that the ;8' has 
been confused with 5' (4), and would emend Tjjufpwf to 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. 2. 16-17 

AH speak different languages because of the fact 
that, by reason of their obstinacy and ferocity, they 
live in scattered groups and without intercourse with 
one another. The greater part of them are Sarmatae, 
but they are all Caucasii. So much, then, for the 
region of Dioscurias. 

17. Further, the greater part of the remainder of 
Colchis is on the sea. Through it flows the Phasis, 
a large river having its sources in Armenia and 
receiving the waters of the Glaucus and the Hippus, 
which issue from the neighbouring mountains. It is 
navigated as far as Sarapana, a fortress capable of 
admitting the population even of a city. From 
here people go by land to the Cyrus in four days by 
a wagon-road. On the Phasis is situated a city 
bearing the same name, an empoi'ium of the Colchi, 
which is protected on one side by the river, on another 
by a lake, and on another by the sea. Thence people 
go to Amisus and Sinope by sea (a voyage of two or 
three days), because the shores are soft and because of 
the outlets of the rivers. The country is excellent 
both in respect to its pi*oduce — except its honey, 
which is generally bitter — and in respect to every- 
thing that pertains to ship-building ; for it not only 
produces quantities of timber but also brings it down 
on rivers. And the people make linen in quantities, 
and hemp, wax, and pitch. Their linen industry has 
been famed far and wide ; for they used to export 
linen to outside places ; and some writers, wishing to 
show forth a kinship between the Colchians and the 



* VA.1JC, Jones inserts, following conj. of Kramer, and also, 
following X, omits Kai befoie ftn. 



STRABO 

€jiixf)av(,^€iv ajTO tovtcov Tnarovvrai. virepKeiTai 5e 
Tftiy \ex6evrwv TTorafxcov ev rfj ^locxxiKfj ro tt}? 
AevKodea<i lepov, ^pi^ov 'iSpvfia, kuI fiavTeiov 
ixeivov, ottov /cpto<; ov Overai, irXovaioi' ttotc 
virdp^av, tjv\r]9kv he vtto ^apvuKov KaB" r]/jid<;, 
Kal pLLKpov vaTepov vtto MiOpiSuTov Tov Uepya- 
/xi]vov' Ka/fwO€i.ar](; yap ')(oipa'i, 

vocrel TO, tmv deoiv, ovhe Tifxaadai OiXei, 

(f)r)alv EvpnrtBr)<;. 

18. To fiev yap iroKaiov oarjv iiriffxiveiav 
eayev 17 X^P^ avrr], hifKovcnv 01 /xvOot, rrjv 
*ldaovo<; aTpareiav alvmopevoL vpoeXdovro^ H'^XP'' 
Kal MT^Si'a?, en Be irporepov rrjv ^pl^ov. /neTo, 
Se ravja hiahe^dpevoi l3aai\ei<i e/? cr/c?;7rToi»^ia9 
8iT}pi}fMevi]p exovre^ ti^v ^aS/oat" pea(o<; eir parrov 
av^rjdei'TO<i he €7rl ttoXv MiOpihdrov tov Evttu- 
Topo<i, et? eKelvov 1) X^P^ irepiecnrj' eTrepLirero 
4.99 S' dei ri<i rcov (plXcov inrapxo^ Kal hioiKijrrjf; Trj<i 
Xdipa<;. TOVTCOV Se rjv Kal ^\oa<pepvq^, o tt}? 
pLrjTpb'i rjfxwv 0€Lo<; vpo'i TraTpo-i' rjv S* evOev ?'; 
TrXeiCTTT} Tw /SaaiXel 7rpo<i Ta9 vavTiKa^ Svvd- 
fj,ei<i vTTOvpyia. KaTaXv6€VT0<; Se MidpiSdTOV, 
(TvyKaTeXvdrj Kal r; vir avTw irdaa Kal Bceve- 
fiy'ldrj TToXXol^' vaTUTa 8e YloXe/xcov ecr^e ttjv Ko\- 
X^ha, KaKeivov Te\evTrj(7avT0<; rj yvvrj Yivdoh(i)pi<i 
KpaTet, ^aatXevovaa Kal KoXxwv Kal Tpaire- 
^ovvTO<i Kal ^apvaKca^ Kal tcov vTrepKeip.evoyv 
^ap^dpwv, Trepl mv epovp-ev ev Tol<i vaTepov. 77 

^ Troades 26, 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. 2. 17-18 

Ej>yptians, confirm theii" belief by this. Above the 
aforesaid rivers in the Moschian coinitry lies the 
temple of Leucothea, founded by Phrixus, and the 
oracle of Phrixus, where a ram is never sacrificed ; 
it was once rich, but it was robbed in our time by 
Pharnaces, and a little later by Mithridates of 
Pergamum. For when a country is devastated, 
"things divine are in sicklv ])light and wont not 
even to be respected," says Euripides.^ 

18. The great fame this country had in early times 
is disclosed by the myths, which refer in an obscure 
Avay to the expedition of Jason as having proceeded 
as far even as Media, and also, before that time, to 
that of Phrixus. After this, when kings succeeded to 
power, the country being divided into "sceptuchies,"^ 
they were only moderately prosperous ; but when 
Mithridates Eupator ^ grew powerful, the country fell 
into his hands ; and he would always send one of his 
friends as sub-governor or administrator of the 
country. Among these was Moaphernes, my 
mother's uncle on her father's side. And it was 
from this country that the king received most aid in 
the equipment of his naval forces. But when the 
power of Mithridates had been broken up, all the terri- 
tory subject to him was also broken up and distributed 
among many i)ersons. At last Polemon got Colchis ; 
and since his death his wife Pythodoris has been in 
power, being queen, not only of the Colchians, but 
also of Trapezus and Pharnacia and of the barbarians 
who live above these places, concerning whom I shall 
speak later on.^ Now the Moschian country, in 

* i.e. divisions corresponding to the rank of Persian 
"sceptuchi" (" sceptre-bearers "). 
3 See Dictionary in Vol. I. * 12. .3. 28 flf. 

213 



STRABO 

S' ovv Moap^^i/ct;, eV 17 to Upov, Tpi/xepr]^ iarr 
TO /J.6V <yap €-)(OvaLV avri]<; K6\xoi, to Se "l^rjpe^;, 
TO Be ^Ap/jbepioi. eari he Kai 'ir6\i')(yL0V ev rfj 
*10r)pia, ^pt^ov TToXi?, 77 vvv 'ISj;ecr<7a, eue/J/ce? 
')(a)piov, ev fiedopioi^ tj}? KoA.;^i6o?. rrepl Be^ ttjv 
AiocTKovpLaSa pel 6 X^dprj^ ^ irora^o^. 

19. Twv Be avvep'XpfJ'^vdiv edvwv eh rrjv 
L^ioaKOvpLciBa KoX 01 ^Oeipo(f)dyot elaiv, diro 
Tov avXH-ov Kol roii ttIvov \a^6vTe<; Tovvop.a. 
irkrjaiov Be koX oi Sodve<;, ovBev /SeXTiof? tou- 
T<wi/ T(p TTLVW, Bwdfiei Be /3e/\,Tt'ou?, a^')(eBov Be 
Ti kclI KpdTiaroi, Kara uXktjv koI BvvafiLV Bvva- 
crrevovac <yovv rSiv ^ kvkKw, to, ctKpa tov Kau- 
Kdaov KaTexovTe<; to, virep t^9 Aio(TKOvpidBo<i. 
^acriXea B' e^ovai koX crvveBpiov dvBpoiv Tpia- 
Koaiwv, crvvdyovcTi B\ (w? <f)aai, crTpaTidv * Kal 
eiKocn fMvpidBcov clttuv yap eaTi to ifKrjda 
ixd^ifxav, oil crvvTeTayfiivov irapa tovtol<; Be 
\ey6Tai kol xpvaov KUTacpepeiv tov<; x^ifidppov^:, 
vTroBex^crOac S' avTov Toy? ^ap^dpov^ (f>dTvai'i 
KaTarerprjfievat^ Kal yu.aXXa)Tai<f Bopal'i' d^ ov Bij 
/jbefxvOevaOai Kal to XP^^^fiaWov Bepo'i' el /zr/ ^ 
Kol "l/Srjpa^ oficiivvfMWi Tot9 eairepioL'i koXoixtlv 
diro Toov eKaTepcodi XP^^^^^^' X/owi/Tat 5' ol 
Soav€9 <^apfidKOi,<i irpo^ Ta? dKLBa<; davfiacTToU,^ 

^ Se, after -rrepi, Casaubon adds from rw ; so the later 
editors in general. 

2 CV)hi have pioxapv^ instead of pei 6 Xdpris ; but Meineke 
ejects the whole sentence. 

3 rwv, Casaubon, for ry MSS. , except C, which has rd ; 
so the later editors. 

* (TTpaTiav, Corais, for (npaniaf ; so the later editors. 

* ei |ttT| seems to be corrupt. Kranier proposes ivioi. 

214 



GEOGRAPHY, n. 2. 18-19 

which is situated tlie temple/ is di\ ided into three 
parts : one part is held by the Colchians, another by 
the Iberians, and another by the Armenians. There 
is also a small city in Iberia, the city of Phrixus/ 
the present Ideessa, well fortified, on the confines of 
Colchis. And near Dioscurias flows the Chares 
River. 

19. Among the tribes which come tooetlier at 
Dioscurias are the Phtheirophagi,^ who have received 
their name from their squalor and their filthiness. 
Near them are the Soanes, who are no less filthy, 
but superior to them in power, — indeed, one might 
almost say that they are foremost in courage and 
power. At any rate, they are masters of the peoples 
around them, and hold possession of the heights of 
the Caucasus above Dioscurias. They have a king 
and a council of three hundred men ; and they 
assemble, according to report, an army of two hundred 
thousand ; for the whole of the people are a fighting- 
force, though unorganised. It is said that in their 
country gold is carried down by the mountain- 
torrents, and that the barbarians obtain it by means 
of perforated troughs and fleecy skins, and that this 
is the origin of the myth of the golden fleece — unless 
they call them Iberians, by the same name as the 
western Iberians, from the gold mines in both 
countries. The Soanes use remarkable poisons for 
the points of their missiles ; and even people who 

^ Of Leucothea (§ 17 above). 

* Phrixopolis. ' "Lice-eaters." 



• QavixaaTols, Casaubon, for davfxaaris ; so Ktamer and 
Miiller-Dubner. 

215 



STRABO 

a ^ Kol Toits fi>) " (f)aiJ/.LaKTOL<; ^ rerpwiJievov<i 
^eXecn Xvirel Kara t^]v oa/x/jv, ra fiev ovv 
dWa eOvrj ra irXt-ja-iov to, irepl top K.auKaaov 
Xvirpa Kal /xiKp6')((i)pa, to Be twi' ' AX^avMv eOvo<; 
Kal TO Tcov ^l^tjpcov, a 5?; TrXtjpol p^dXiara top 
\e')(9ivra ladfiov, KauKacna Kal avra Xiyoir 
dv, evhaipLOva he -^copav eyet Kal a<^6hpa KaXo)<i 
OLKeladat Bvvafiepyjv. 

Ill 

1. Kal Brj Kal i] ye 'I/9j;/)ta KaroiKeiTai ^ 
KaXoj'i TO irXeov iroXeai re Kal eiroiKLOL^, ware 
Kal Kepapcordq eli'ai areya^ Kal ap-)(^LTeKT0VLKr]v 
TT)V rcov olKr}aewv KaraaKCvrjv Kal dyopai; Kal 
raXXa KOivd. 

2. T?}? 8e ')(^u)pa<; ra p'ev kvkXo) to?9 KavKaaioi^ 
C 500 opecri Trept,e')(^erai. rr port err rcoK acre yap, 6i<i elirov, 

dyKOJve'i errl ri]v fxearip^piav evKapvoi, vepi- 
Xap^dvovTe<i rrjv crvpiraaav '[/37]piai> Kal avvdir- 
rovre'i irpo^i re rrjv Wppeviav Kal rijv KoX^t'Sa* 
€v [xeaa S' e'cTTt ireBtov rrorapoi^ Stdppvrov, 
fieylartp Se rw Kvpa' 09 ri]v dp)(r]V e';^&)i' d-no 
rrj^ 'Ap/xev[a<;, elcr^aXiov ev9v<; el<; ro irehiov to 
Xe')(6ev, irapaXa^wv Kal rov "Apayov, Ik ^ rod 
KauKdcTov peovra, Kal dXXa uSara, Bid arevr}<; 
irorafiCa'} et? rrjv WX^avlav eKTrlrrreL' p,era^v 
Se ravrri<i re Kal ri)^ ^App^evia^ eve')(del<i iroXv^ 

^ a, Casaubon inserts ; so Kramer and Miiller-Diibuer. 
- ,uT), Jones inserts, on suggestion of Professor Capps. 
^ (papixaKTols, Corals, for a.<papfjia.KTOis; so Kramer and 
M iiller-Diibner. 

216 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. 2. 19-3. 2 

are not Avounded by the poisoned missiles siiH'er from 
their odour. Now in general the tribes in the 
neighbom'hood of the Caucasus occupy barren and 
cranijied territories, but the tribes of the Albanians 
and the Iberians, which occupy nearly all the isthmus 
above-mentioned, might also be called Caucasian 
tribes ; and they possess territoi-y that is fertile and 
•capable of affording an exceedingly good livelihood. 



Ill 

1. FuHTHF.HMORE, the greater part of Iberia is so 
well built up in respect to cities and farmsteads that 
their roofs are tiled, and their houses as well as 
their market-places and other public buildings are 
constructed with architectural skill. 

2. Parts of the country are surrounded by the 
Caucasian Mountains ; for branches of these moun- 
tains, as I said before, ^ project towards the south ; 
they are fruitftil, comprise the whole of Iberia, and 
border on both Armenia and Colchis. In the 
middle is a plain intersected by rivers, the largest 
being the Cyrus. This river has its beginning in 
Armenia, flows immediately into the plain above- 
mentioned, receives both the Aragus, which flows 
from the Caucasus, and other streams, and empties 
through a narrow valley into Albania ; and between 
the valley and Armenia it flows in great volume 

» 11. 2 15. 

* KaroiKe7Tai, Meineke, for koI o'lKe'trat; earlier editors 
merely omit tlie /coi. 

^ "Apayov (.see § 5 following) iK, Oorais, for "Apaywya Kdru! ; 
BO Meineke. 

217 



STRABO 

8ia TTehifov eu^OTOVfMevoyv a(f)6Boa, he^a^evo<i Kai 
TrXetou? TTOTUfMOu^, oiv iarlv 6 re \Wa^6vL0<; Kal 
6 'S.avho^dvTj'i Kal o 'PoiTdKr]s real XaV?;?, ttXcotoI 
Travres, ei? rrjv Kaa-Triav ejjL^dWet^ OdXarrav. 
€Ka\etTO Se Trporepov Kopo?. 

3. To fiev ovv TTshiov rdv ^l^rjpoiv ol yecopyi- 
KOiTepoi Kal 7r/)o? elpr'jvrjv vevevKOTe<i OLKOvaiv, 

Apfieviari re Kal ^lijBiaTL icrKeuacrp^voi, rrjv 6' 
opeiVTjv 01 7r\€LOV<i Kal p,dxt/J.oi xarexovaL, "^kvOmv 
Blktjv ^(i)VT€<i Kal "^apfiaTCov, wvirep Kal ofiopoi, 
Kal (Tvyyeveh elalv diTTOVTat S' ofxw^ Kal yecop- 
7ta?, TToWa? re fivpidSa^ (Tvvdyovaiv Kal i^ 
kavTOiv Kal e^ eKelvcov, iweiSdv rt, avixirear) 
dopv^oihe<i. 

4. Terra/je? 8' elalv et? rrjv ')(copav ela^dXai' 
fiia fiev 8id '^aparravwv, 4>povpLOv ]s.o\^ikov, Kal 
roiv Kar avro arevoiv, Sl cov 6 Oaai? y€(f>vpai^ 
eKaTov Kal ecKoai 7repaTo<i yevoftevo^ Sia ttjv 
(TKoXLOTTjra Karappel T/3a;^i/9 Kal j3Laio<i eh ttjv 
K.o\')(^iBa, 7roX\ot<; ')(^€i/xdppoi<; Kara ra^ iiroii^pia^ 
eK')(^apahpovfiev(jiv rdv tottcov. yevvarat S' e/c 
TOiv v7r€pKeip.iv(ov opcov TroWah avp7r\T]povp.€vo^ 
TTijyai^, iv Be to2<; TreStot? Kal dWovi irpoaXap.- 
^dvei TTora/xov^, wv iarlv 6 re T\avKO<; Kal u 
"Itttto?" 7r\r]pa)6el<i he Kal yev6p.evo<; ttXwto? 
e^irjcriv et? top Tiovrov Kal exei ttoXiv 6/j,coi^ufiov 
eiT avTW Kal \i/j,vr}v TrXrjalov. 77 pLev ovv e'/c T/}<f 
Ko\;^tSo9 6t9 TTJV ^l^i-jplav ifi^oXrj roiavTrj, 
Trer/oat? Kal ipv/xaai Kal 7roTapot<i '^(^apaBpooSea i 
BLaKeKXeia-fxevT). 

' inPiWtt oz Epit. ; iu&dwoufft other MSS. 
21S 



GEO(JRAPHY, II. 3. 2-4 

through plains that have exceedingly good pasture, 
receives still more rivers, among which are the 
Alazonius, Sandobanes, Rhoetaces, and Chanes, all 
navigable, and empties into the Caspian Sea. It 
was formerly called Corns. 

3. Now the plain of" the Iberians is inhabited by 
people who are rather inclined to farming and to 
peace, and they dress after both the Armenian and 
the Median fashion; but the major, or warlike, portion 
occupy the mountainous territory, living like the 
Scythians and the Sarmatians, of whom they are 
both neighbours and kinsmen ; however, they 
engage also in farming. And they assemble many 
tens of thousands, both from their own people and 
from the Scythians and Sarmatians, whenever any- 
thing alarming occurs. 

4. There are four passes leading into their coun- 
try ; one through Sarapana, a Colchian stronghold, 
and through the narrow defiles there. Through 
these defiles the Phasis, which has been made 
passable by one hundred and twenty bridges be- 
cause of the windings of its course, flows down into 
Colchis with rough and violent stream, the region 
being cut into ravines by many torrents at the time 
of the heavy rains. The Phasis rises in the moun- 
tains that lie above it, where it is supplied by many 
springs ; and in the plains it receives still other 
rivers, among which are the Glaucus and the 
Hippus. Thus filled and having by now become navi- 
gable, it issues forth into the Pontus ; and it has on 
its banks a city bearing the same name ; and near it 
is a lake. Such, then, is the pass that leads from 
Colchis into Iberia, being shut in by rocks, by 
strongholds, and by rivers that run through ravines. 

319 

VOL. V. H 



STRABO 

5. 'E« he TO)v rrpo^ dpKTOv vo/id8cov iirl Tpel<; 
7]/j,€pa<; dvdj3aai<; ')(_d\e7ry'], Kal p,era ravTqv 
TTorap-ia arevr] iirl rod Wpdyov worafMOV rerrd- 
pwv 7)/j.ep(ov oBov e^ovaa e0' eva, (^povpel 8k ro 
rrepa^ tT;? oSou ret^^o? hvap.a-)(ov dirb Be t?)? 
WX^avla^ Bid Trerpa^ Trpcorov XaTop-rjrr] eto-oSo?, 
elra Bid Te\p.aro<;, o iroLel 6 7rora/j.6<;WKa^6vio';^ 
eK, Tou KavKdaou KaTaTTLTrrcov' dirb Be Trj<; 
'Apfievta^ rd eVt t« Ku/ow (nevd Kal rd eirl t5> 
'Apdyo). irplv yap el<i dX\7]\ov^ crv/j.7recrelv, 
exovcriv i7riK€ip.eva<; TroXet? epv/j,vd<; ini 7Terpai<;, 

C 501 Ste;^oi;<rat? dWijXow ocrov eKKalBeKa araBiov;, 
iirl fiev rd) Kvp<p Tr]u ' Ap/xo^iKi^v, iirl Be Oarepw 
"^evadfiopa. raurai.'; Be exp^]<^ciTO Tal<; ela^6\al<; 
irporepov Do/i 7777^09 e« rdiv ^ Apfieviwv opfxrjdei';, 
Kal pLerd ravra l^aviBio^- 

6. Terrapa Be Kal yevq tmv dvOpcoircov oiKel 
rrjv ')(^u>pav ev p,ev Kal TTpdnov, e^ ov tov<; Bacri- 
Xea? KaOiaTaai, Ka-r dyyia-re'iav re Kal i]KiKlav 
rbv TrpeajSuTaTov, 6 Be Sei/Te/309 BiKaioBorel Kal 
cnpaTrjXarel- Bevrepov Be to twv lepewv,^ o'l eVi- 
fxeXovvTat Kal roiv 7rpo<i Tovi opLopov^ BtKaicov 
rpuTOv Be TO rcov arpaTevop^evcov Kal yewpyovvrcov 
TerapTOV Be to twv \ad}v, o'i ^acnXiKol Bov\oi 
elcTL Kal Trdvra BiaKovouvrai Ta 7rpo9 rbv /3lov. 
KOival B" elalv avToh al KTijaei^ Kard avyyeveiav, 
dp'xei Be Kal Tap-ievet eKdaTrjv 6 7rpe(T/3vTaTO<;. 
ToiovTOi fiev ol "l/3rjpe<; Kal tj ')((i)pa avTcbv. 

^ 'AAofo'ftoy, Groskurd inserts ; so the later editors. 
* iepewv, Xylander, for Upuv ; so the later editors. 

* Crassus the Triumvir. 

' i.e. as well as four passes leading into the country (see 
§ 4, beginning). 
220 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. 3. 5-6 

5. From the country of the nomads on the north 
there is a ditticult ascent into Iberia requiring three 
days' travel ; and after this ascent comes a narrow 
valley on the Aragus River, witli a single-file road 
requiring a four days' journey. The end of the road 
is guarded by a fortress which is hard to capture. 
The pass leading from Albania into Iberia is at first 
hewn through rock, and then leads through a marsh 
formed by the River Alazonius, which falls from the 
Caucasus. The passes from Armenia into Iberia are 
the defiles on the Cyrus and those on the Aragus. 
For, before the two rivers meet, they have on their 
banks fortified cities that are situated upon rocks, 
these being about sixteen stadia distant from each 
other — I mean Harmozice on the Cyrus and Seus- 
amora on the other river. These passes were 
used first by Pompey when he set out from the 
country of the Armenians, and afterwards by 
Canidius.^ 

6. There are also^ four castes among the inhabi- 
tants of Iberia. One, and the first of all, is that 
from which they appoint their kings, the appointee 
being both the neai'est of kin to his predecessor and 
the eldest, whereas the second in line administers 
justice and commands the army. The second caste 
is that of the priests, who among other things 
attend to all matters of controversy with the neigh- 
bouring peoples. The third is that of the soldiers 
and the farmer^i. And the fourth is that of the 
common people, who are slaves of the king and per- 
form all the services that pertain to human liveli- 
hood. Their possessions are held in common by them 
according to families, although the eldest is ruler 
and steward of each estate. Such are the Iberians 
and their country. 

231 



STRABO 



IV 



1. 'AXySai'ot Be TroifieviKOiTepoi kuI tov vojia- 
SiKOV yevovi iyyvripco, irXifv ciW ovk ciyptoi'^ 
ravTjj Be Kal TroXe/xiKol /xer/Jto)?. oIkovctc Se 
/jLcra^v TOiV ^l^ijpcov Kal TJ79 KacrTrta? OaXdrTrj^;, 
77/909 €0) fxev aTTTOfievoi tt}? 0a\dTT')]<;, 7rp6<; hvaiv 
Be 6/jiopovvTe<; rot? 'l^rjpa-i' tmv Be \onvSiv irXev- 
pcbv TO fiev fiopeiov <f>povpeiTai rol'i K.avKa(Tioi^ 
opecTL {ravra yap virepKeiTai tmv Trehloiv, KaXelrai 
Be TO, TT/oo? rfi daXdrrt] /j,dXiara Kepavvia), to Be 
voriov TTOiel 1) 'Apfievla iTaprjKOvaa, TroXXij pev 
TreBid<;, rroXXr] Be Kal opeLVrj, Kaddirep rj Ka/i- 
jSva-rjvi], Ka6' i)v dp.a Kal rot? ^'l^rjpa-i Kal rot? 
'AX/?az'oi? 01 App.evioi (Twdtrrovaiv, 

2. O Be KO/309 Biappewv ti]v 'AX/3ai'Lav Kac 
01 dXXol TTorap-ol oi 7rX7]povvTe<; eKelvov ral>i p.ev 
Trj<; 7^9 dpeTaL<; irpoaXapL^dvovcn, rijv Be ddXar- 
Tav dXXoTpLovcriv, 1) yap %o{}9 irpoaTrnrrovaa 
ttoXXt} TrXiipol TOV iropov, wcrre xal Ta<i iiriKei- 
fieva^; vrjalBa^; e^'qireipovadau Kal Tevdyi] iroielv 
dvcop.aXa Kal Bva(f)vXaKTa, ttjv 6' uvcop-aXiav 
eTTLTeiuovaiv al ck tmv irXrji.LpvpLBwv dvaKOTrai. 
Kal Bi] Kal et9 aTop-aTa BwBsKd <j)acn p.efj.epiaOai 
Ta9 €K^oXd<i, TO. pikv TV^Xd, to. Be iravTeXw^ 
eTTVTTeba ovTa ^ Kal /mjBe ' v(f)opp,ov dTToXeiTTOVTa- 
eirl 7rXetoi'9 yovv rj e^rjKOVTa (TTaBiov^ dpi<^i- 

^ oW' OVK &ypioi, Meineke from conj. of Kramer, for 
aWoTpioi. 

- For iTriye\uvTa Meineke and C Miiller conj. iwiirfSa 
ovra. firlyeta ovra conj. Tyrwhitt, «iriiro'Aoia uvra Corais, 
iniirXfa uvra Kramer. 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. 4. 1-2 



IV 

1. The Albanians are more inclined to the 
shepherd's life than the Iberians and closer akin to 
the nomadic people, except that they are not fero- 
cious ; and for this reason they are only moderately 
warlike. They live between the Iberians and the 
Caspian Sea, their country bordering on the sea 
towards the east and on the country of the Iberians 
towards the west. Of the remaining sides the 
northern is protected by the Caucasian Mountains 
(for these mountains lie above the plains, though 
their parts next to the sea are generally called 
Ceraunian), whereas the southern side is formed bv 
Armenia, which stretches alongside it; and much 
of Armenia consists of plains, though much of it is 
mountainous, like Cambysene, where t!ie Armenians 
border on both the Iberians and the Albanians. 

2. The Cyrus, which flows through Albania, and 
the other rivers by which it is supplied, contribute 
to the excellent qualities of the land ; and yet they 
thrust back the sea, for the silt, being carried 
forward in great quantities, fills the channel, and con- 
sequently even the adjacent isles are joined to the 
mainland and form shoals that are uneven and diiK- 
cult to avoid; and their unevenness is made worse 
by the back-wash of the flood-tides. Moreover, they 
say that the outlet of the river is divided into twelve 
mouths, of which some are choked with silt, while 
the others are altogether shallow and leave not 
even a mooring-place. At any rate, they add, 
although the shore is washed on all sides by the sea 



' /UT)Sf, Kramer, for |Hrj5fV ; su tiie later editoia. 



STRABO 

kKixjtov t>79 rji6vo<i ov<77]<; rf] OaXdirr] kul Tol<i 
7roTa/i049, airav eJrat /xepo^ auTj}? aTrpoaTreXaa- 
Tov, Tj]v Se %oui' Kal p^XP'' Ti^VTaKOdiwv TTapi'-jKeLv 
araSicov, 6ivcoSt] irocovaav rov alyiaXov. irXT^alov 
Se Kol 6 Wpd^7]<; ifi/SdWec, rpa^p^ e« r?}? 
^ Ap/jLevLwi eKTrLTTTcoV f]v Be eKetvo'i 7rpoco6el X^^^y 
TTopevrov ttolwv to pelOpov, tuvttjv 6 K.vpo<; civa- 
irXripol. 

3. Ta^a piiv ovv tw tolovtw ^^/evei roiv dvOpoo- 
D 502 TTcov ovSev Bet OaXdrry]^' ovBe yap rfj yfj XP^^'^O,'' 
Kar d^iav, rravTa p.ev ^ eKc^epovar] Kapirov, koI 
rov rjixepciirarov, irdv he ^vtov' kuI yap to. 
decOaXT] (f)epef rvyxdvei 8' eVi/ieXeta? ovBe 
lxLKpd<i, dXXa ray add cicnrapTa Kai dvyjpora 
airavra (f>vovTai, KaOdirep ol (Trparev(Taine<; 
<paai, HvKXcoTieiov riva Birjyou/ievoi ^iov ttoXXu- 
-^ov yovv aTTupelaav ajra^ 8t? iK(f)epecp Kapirov rj 
Kal T/9t9, Tov Be nrpwTov Kal TrevriiKovraxovv, 
dveaarov Kal ravra, ovBe aiB-qpco rp,i]0€laav, dXX' 
avro^vXo) dporpw. iroTi^erat Be irdv to TreBiov 
TOV Jia^vXcovLov Kal tov XlyvrrTLov fidXXov Toi'i 
7roTa/j.oc<i Kal rot? dX\oi<; vBacriv, wctt del TTOcoSr) 
<f)vXdTTetv TTjv oyp-iv Bid Be tovto Kal ev^oTov 
€(TTr TrpoaeaTi Be Kal to evdepov eKeivw fidXXov. 
daKa(j)OL Be d/jLireXoi. jxevovcraL Bid reXoi;?, Tefivo- 
fxevai Be ^ Bid irevTaeTrfpiBo'^, veai p,ev BieTei<^ 

^ yap, after fxtv, is omitteil by oxz and the later editors. 
* Se, D man. irr. inserts after rffj-fSfievai ; so Meineke. 

1 i.e. the excessive amount of silt deposited by the Cyrus 
compensates for the failure of the Araxes in this respect. 
On these rivers see Tozer, Selections, pp. 262-263. 

224 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. 4. 2-3 

and the rivers for a distance of more than sixty 
stadia, every part of it is inaccessible ; and the silt 
extends even as far as five hundred stadia, making 
the shore sandy. Near by is also the mouth of the 
Araxes, a turbulent stream that flows down from 
Armenia. But the silt which this river pushes 
before it, thus making the channel passable for its 
stream, is compensated for by the Cyrus.^ 

3. Now perhaps a people of this kind have no 
need of a sea ; indeed, they do not make appropriate 
use of their land either, which produces, not only 
every kind of fruit, even the most highly cultivated 
kind, but also every plant, for it bears even the 
evergreens. It receives not even slight attention, 
yet the good things all " spring up for them without 
sowing and ploughing," - according to those who have 
made expeditions there,^ who describe the mode of 
life there as " Cyclopeian." In many places, at any 
rate, they say, the land when sown only once pro- 
duces two crops or even three, tlie first a crop of 
even fifty-fold, and that too without being ploughed 
between crops ; and even when it is ploughed, it is 
not ploughed with an iron share, but with a wooden 
plough shaped by natui'e. The plain as a whole is 
i)etter watered by its rivers and other waters than 
the Babylonian and the Egyj)tian plains ; conse- 
quently it always keeps a grassy appearance, and 
therefore is also good for pasturage. In addition to 
tiiis, the climate here is better than there. And 
the people never dig about the vines, although they 
prune them every fifth year;* the new vines begin 

2 Odyssej/9. 109. 

* In particular Theophanes of Mitylene (already mentioneil 
in 11. 2. ,'?/. * i.e. every fmtr years. 

225 



STRABO 

dK(f)€pov(Tit^ rj^i] KaoTTov, xeXeiai S" aTToSihoacri to- 
(TOVTOv, oiCT a^taaiv iv tol'; KXijfiaai ttoXu /iiepo<i. 
evepvf] h' icrrl koX to, ^ocrKiifxara irap avTols Ta 
re rifxepa koI to. dypia. 

4. Kat 01 avOpwiTOL KaWei kuI /neyidei. Bia- 
(f)epovre<;, arrXol Be kol ov KaTrrfkiKoi' ovhe yap 
vofiia/j,aTL to ttoWo. -y^pooi^Tui, ovSe apiOjxov laaai 
fieC^co ^ rwv eKarov, aWa (f)oprloi<i ra? ufioi^a^ 
TTOLOvvTai, Kal Trpo? TciWa Be ra rov jBlov pa6vixw<; 
e')(^ov<TLV. aireipoL S' elal fcal /xerpoiv tmv eV 
aKpL^l<i KOI GTaOfxoiv, Kal TTo\ep.ov Be Kal ttoXi- 
Teta9 Kal yecopyiaf; dTTpovoy]ro>^ e)(^ov<xtv o/xw? Bi 
Kal TTe^ol Kal a^' lttitcov dycovL^ovTai, •driXoi re 
Kal Kardc^paKTOt, KaOdirep Wpfievioi, 

5. "EreWovaL Be fiet^o) Trj<; '\^))pcov crrparidv^ 
oTrXl^ovai yap e^ p.vpidBa<; nret^wv,^ i7r7rea<i Be 
Bicrp-vpLOv;^ Kal Bi(T)(^iXlov^, 6aoi<; tt/oo? Wop.- 
TTrjiov BieKLvBvvevaav. Kal rovroi^ Be avpLTro- 
XefiovcTcv 01 vo[idBe<i 7rpo<; tou? e^wOev, oicnrep 
TOt? ^'l^rjpcTL Kara ra? avrd<i alTia<;- aA-Xtu? B' 
iirfx^eipovat rol^ diOpco7roi<i ttoXXukl^, ware Kal 
yetopyeiv KcoXvovaiv. uKovriaral Be elai Kal ro- 
^orat, du>paKa<i e^^oi'Te? Kal 0vpeov<i, irepiKpava Be 
0))peia TrapaTrXijalax; rol<; "l^rjpatv. eart Be tT/? 
^AX^avcop ^ftjpa? Kal ■>) Kaarrcavij, rov Kaamou 

^ E, and Eustath. (ad Dimi. 730), have irXdui instead of 

* aTpaniv, Meineke, foil. conj. of V^illebrun, for arparuis. 
^ 7re(,'aji' E^, av^pHiv other MSS. 

* Plutarch has fiupiovs (Pomp. 35). 

^ See § 8 following, 
236 



GEOGRAPHY, n. 4. 3-5 

to produce frait tlie second yeur^ and when mature 
they yield so much that the people leave a large 
part of the fruit on the branches. Also the cattle 
in their country thrive, both the tame and the wild. 

4. The inhabitants of this country are unusually 
handsome and lai'ge. And they are frank in their 
dealings, and not mercenary ; ^ for they do not in 
general use coined money, nor do they know any 
number greater than one hundred, but carry on 
business by means of barter, and otherwise live an 
easy-going life. They are also unacquainted with 
accurate measures and weights, and they take no 
forethought for war or government or farming. But 
still they fight both on foot and on horseback, both 
in light armour and in full armour,- like the 
Armenians.^ 

5. They send forth a greater army than that of 
the Iberians ; for they equip sixty thousand infantry 
and twenty-two tliousand "* horsemen, the immber 
with which they risked their all against Pompey. 
Against outsiders the nomads join with the Alba- 
nians in war, just as they do with the Iberians, and 
for the same reasons; and besides, they often attack 
the people, and consequently prevent them from 
farming. The Albanians use javelins and bows ; 
and they wear breastplates and large oblong shields, 
and helmets made of the skins of wild animals, 
similar to those worn by the Iberians. To the 
country of the Albanians belongs also the territory 
called Caspiane, which was named after the Caspian 

* For a description of this heavy armour, see I'acitus, 
Hist. 1. 79. 

3 Cf. 11. 14. 9. 

* Plutarch, Pompey ^5, says twelve tlMiisaiul. 

227 



STRABO 

eOvov<i e7r^oiw/jLO<i, ovirep koX rj daXarra, aq}avov<i 
6vTo<^ vvvi. 7] 8' e'/c T% ^\l3ripia<i et? tt^v ' AX^avlav 
ela-^oXr] 8ia t?}? Ka/ji,l3var]vrj<i avvhpov re koX 
Tyoa^et'a? eirl tov ^ AXa^oviov iroraixov. Orjpevrt' 
Kol Se Kal avTol koX ol Kvve<; avTcov eh VTrep/SoXrjv, 
ov T€)(vr) fiaWov t) cnrovhfi ttj nepX tovto. 
503 6. Ata(f)epovat Se kol ol ^aai\eZ<i' vvvl p,€v ovv 
el? aTravTcov ap'^^ei, irporepov 8e Kol KaB^ eKaarrjv 
fy\o)TTav IBia ijSaaiXevovjo exacrToi. <yXo)TTai 8' 
elalv e^ koI eiKocn avTo2<i Sia to /xt/ eveiripLKTOv 
TTpo^ dWi'jXov;. <f)epei S" rj yrj Kal tcov kpTreroiv 
evia TOiv davaaipav Kal aKopiriov<i Kal (jiaXdjyia' 
T(Ov Se cfyaXayyicov ra /iiev iroiel yeXoyvra'i utto- 
dvi]aKeiv, TO, Be KXaiovTa<i irodrp roiv OLKeiwv. 

7. ©eoi'? Se Tip.co(Ttv ' HXiov Kal Aia Kal 
^eXTjvrjv, Sia(l)ep6vT0}<; Se Trjv '^eXrjvrjv, earc 8' 
avrP]^ TO lepov tt;? 'l^ijpia^ irX^-jalov' lepdrai 
8' dvTjp evTi/ji6TaT0<i pberd ye rov fSacnXea, irpoe- 
CTcb? tt}? iepd<i ')(^u>pa<;, 7roXX))<; Kal evdvSpov, Kal 
avrrj^ Kal tmv lepoSovXwv, uv evdovaicoai ttuXXoI 
Kal 7rpo<pT]Tevovaiv' o? 8' av avrSiv eVt irXeov 
Kardcr^eTO<i yev6pLevo<i irXavdrat, Kara ra? vXa<i 
fxovo^, TOvrov avXXa^oov 6 iepev'i dXvaei Syjcra^; 
lepa Tpe(f)ei TroXvreXw^; rov eviavrov eKelvov, 
eirena irpoayOel'i el<i Ttp' dvcrlav rrj<i dtov, criiv 
dXXoi<; lepeioK; Overai fxvpiadel^. t»}9 Sc Ovalu.^ 
6 T/ooTTO? ovro^' e^f^v ti^ lepdv Xoy^Qjv, yirep 



^ Members of the spider family ; but here, apparently, 
tarantulas (see Tozer, op. ciL, p. 265). 
2 The Sun. 3 The Moon. 

« Cf. 12. 3. 31. 

228 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. 4. 5-7 

tribe, as was also the sea ; but the tribe has now 
disappeared. The pass from Iberia into Albania 
leads through Cambysene, a waterless and rugged 
country, to the Alazonius River. Both the people 
and their dogs are surpassingly fond of hunting, 
engaging in it not so much because of their skill in 
it as because of their love for it. 

6. Their kings, also, are excellent. At the present 
time, indeed, one king rules all the tribes, but 
formerly the several tribes were ruled separately 
by kings of their own according to their several 
languages. They have twenty-six languages, because 
of the fact that they have no easy means of inter- 
course with one another. The country produces 
also certain of the deadly reptiles, and scorpions and 
phalangia.'^ Some of the phalangia cause peo))le to 
die laughing, while others cause people to die 
weeping over the loss of their deceased kindred. 

7. As for gods, they honour Helius,^ Zeus, and 
Selene,^ but especially Selene ; * her temple is near 
Iberia. The office of priest is held by the man who, 
after the king, is held in highest honour ; lie has 
charge of the sacred land, which is extensive and 
well-populated, and also of the temple slaves, many 
of wiiom are subject to religious frenzy and utter 
prophecies. And any one of those who, becoming 
violently possessed, wanders alone in the forests, is 
by the priest arrested, bound with sacred fetters, 
and sumptuously maintained during that year, and 
then led forth to the sacrifice that is jierformed in 
honour of the goddess, and, being anointed, is sacri- 
ficed along witli other victims. The sacrifice is per- 
formed as follows : Some person holding a sacred 
lance, with which it is the custom to sacrifice human 

220 



STRABO 

ioTt vo/jio<; avOpcoTTodvreZv, TrapeXduA/ e« tov 
TT\r)6ov<i, TTaiei Sia •Trj<; TrXevpa^ el<i Tr]\> Kaphiav, 
ovK aireipo^ tocovtov' ireaovro'^ he (Tr/fxeiovvTat 
fiavTeid Tiva e/c rod TTTco/iaro? kuI et? to kolvov 
aTTOtpalvovai' KOfxiaOevro^ he tov crco/xaTO<; el? 
Tt -xooplov, eiTi^aivovaiv ciTravre^ /cadapato) %p(w- 
fievot. 

8. 'TTrep0aW6vT(o<i he Kal ^ to yf^ipwi ri/xoxriv 
' KXjBavoi, Kal to twv ciWcov, ov twv 'yoveoiv 
fxovov' Tedvt-jKoTwv he ov^ oaiov (f)povTL^eiv ouhe 
fiefivi]a0ai. (TvyKaTopvTTovac fxevToi to, ')(^pi]paTa 
avToif, Kal hia tovto TrevrjTe^ ^watv, ovhev 
TraTpuxiv e^ovTe^. TavTa jxev irepl ' AXQavoiV. 
XeyeTUL h' ^Idcrova fieTa ' Ap/xevov^ tov (^eTTaXov 

KUTO, TOV TtXoVI' TOV eVl TOU? K.6X-)(0V(! opfjL^^aai 

p-expi T/")? KacTTrmf OaXciTTrj^, Kal t)]V re ^\^>}piav 
Kal TTjv^AX/Saviav eiTsXOelv Kal iToXXa rr}? Wpfxe- 
VLa<i Kal T?}? Mr;Sta9, ct)? fiaprvpet tu re 'lacrovi a Kal 
aXXa uTTofiv^fxaTa irXeio). tov he " Apfxevov ^ elvac 
i^ 'Apfieviov 7rd/\e&)9, tcov trepl tt)v Boi0>;l.ha 
Xifxvrjv fiCTa^v *^epwv Kal Aapi(Tr)<;' roy? (rvv 

aVTM T€ OLKLCrat TTTjV T€ ^ AkiX( (TrjVrjV Kal T)]V 

'^vaTTipiTiv e'ws" KaXa\av7]<i Kal 'Ahta^rjv^^, Kal 
hi] Kal TTjv AppLeviav erroovv/xov KaTaXiTrelv. 

^ Corais and Meineke eject the Kal liefore rb ^TJpay. 

^ 'Apufvou, the editors, for 'ApiL.eviou (cp. 11. 14. 12', and so 
five lines below. 

^ 'Apj'fVou, Tzschucke and later editors (Eustath. on Iliad 
2. 734 reads 'O^^eVou), for 'Apufflov. 



230 



GEOGRAPHY, 11.4. 7-8 

victims, comes forward out of the crowd and strikes 
the victim through the side into the heart, he being 
not without experience in such a task ; and when 
the victim falls, thej draw auguries from his fall ^ 
and declare them before the public ; and when the 
body is carried to a certain place, they all trample 
upon it, thus using it as a means of purification. 

8. The Albanians are surpassingly respectful to 
old age, not merely to their parents, but to all other 
old people. And when people die it is impious to 
be concerned about them or even to mention them. 
Indeed, they bur^^ their money with them, and 
therefore live in poverty, having no patrimony. So 
much for the Albanians. It is said that Jason, 
together with Armenus the Thessalian, on his voyage 
to the country of the Colchians, pressed on from 
there as far as the Caspian Sea, and visited, not only 
Iberia and Albania, but also many parts of Armenia 
and Media, as both the Jasonia ^ and several other 
memorials testify. And it is said that Armenus was 
a native of Armenium, one of the cities on Lake 
Boebei's between Pherae and Larisa, and that he and 
his followers took up their abode in Aciliseiie and 
Syspiritis, occupying the country as far as Calachane 
and Adiabene ; and indeed that he left Armenia 
named after himself 

^ As among the Lusitani.ans (3. 3. 6) and the Gauls 
(4. 4. 5). 

* i.e. temples dedicated to Jason (see 11. 14. 12). 



231 



STRABO 



1. 'E// Be Tot9 vTrep Tf]<i ^AX^ai'iai; opeai kcli. 
Ta<i A/jia^oi'a<; oiKelv (paai. (~)eo(f}dvr]^ fxev ovv o 
crvaTpaTeuaa<i rw Uo/xTrrjUo koX yevo/j.evo'i ev rot? 
A\/3ai>oi<i, fxera^v rutv ' Apa^ovcav Ka\ to)i> 
AX^avoiv (f)r}al r?;A,a9 oiKelv Kal Ai']ya<i Stfu^a?, 
Kal pelv evravOa rov \lep/id8aXiv irorapLov rov- 
C 504 TWt' T€ Koi TMV Wpa^ovooi^ dva fieaou. dWoc Se, 
o)V Kal o ^Kij^lrioi; \lr)Tp6S(t)po<i Kal 'T-\^iKpdrri<;, 
ov8e avTol direipoL rcov tottcov yeyovore^, Fapya- 
pevcrtv ofiopov^ avTd<i oiKetv (fyacrtv ev rai^ inro)- 
pe[ai<; rai<; tt/jo? dpKTOv rcov KavKaatwv opcov a 
KaXetTai Kepavpia' rov /j.€v dXkov ')(p6vov KaO^ 
avTa<; avTovpyovaa<i eKaara, rd re 7r/9o? dpOTOv 
Kal (pVTOvpyiav Kal to, tt/jo? ra<i vop^dq, Kal 
fidXicTTa TOiv iTTTTcov, Ttt? 6 d\Ki/ji(ordTa<i i(f)' ^ 
nnrcov Kwr^yeaiaL^ irXeovd^eiv Kal ra iroXepia 
doKelv cnrdawi 8' cTTiKeKavaOai rov Be^ibv 
p,a(TTov €K vi]7rio)v, axne euTrerw? ■)(^prj(jdaL rw 
^pa')(^iovL TT^o? eKdarrjv ■)(^peLav, iv 8e Tot? irpcoTOi^ 
7rpo<i UKOVT L(T p,6v' '^pijaOai Be Kal ro^co Kal 
<raydpi Kal TreXTrj, hopd^ Be Orjpiwv TroielaOai 
irepiKpavd re Kal (TKeirda-piara Kal Bca^copara' 
Bvo Be p,rjva<i e^aiperov; 'e\eiv rov eapo^, Ka9' oi)? 
dva/Saivovaiv et? to TrXrjcriov opos to Biopi^ov 
avTd<i re Kal rom Tapyapea<;- dva^aivovcn Be 
KaKelvoL Kara eOa ri iraXaiov, (Tvv6vaovri<; re 

^ (<()' l{?)oz and the earlier editors for tmv ; Meineke ejects 

^ Cnaeus Pompeius Theophanes of Afytilene. 
* See 13. 1. 55. ^ See 11. 4' 1. 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. 5. i 



1. The Amazons, also, are said to live in the 
mountains above Albania. Now Tlieophanes,^ who 
made the expedition with Ponipey and was in the 
country of the Albanians, says that the Gelae and 
the Legae, Scythian people, live between the 
Amazons and the Albanians, and that the Mer- 
madalis River flows there, midway between these 
people and the Amazons. But others, among whom 
are Metrodorus of Scepsis ^ and Hypsicrates, who 
themselves, likewise, were not unacquainted with 
the region in question, say that the Amazons live on 
the borders of the Gargarians, in the northerly foot- 
hills of those parts of the Caucasian Mountains which 
are called Ceraunian ; ^ that the Amazons spend the 
rest of their time * off to themselves, performing their 
several individual tasks, such as ploughing, planting, 
pasturing cattle, and particularly in training horses, 
though the bravest engage mostly in hunting on 
horseback and practise warlike exercises ; that the 
right breasts of all are seared when they are infants, 
so that they can easily use their right arm for every 
needed purpose, and especially that of throwing the 
javelin ; that they also use bow and sagaris ^ and 
light shield, and make the skins of wild animals 
serve as helmets, clotliing, and girdles ; but that 
they have two special months in the spring in which 
they go up into the neighbouring mountain which 
separates them and tiie Gargarians. The Gargarians 
also, in accordance with an ancient custom, go up 

* i.e. ten months of the year. 

^ Apparently some sort of single-edged weapon (see 
Hesychius s.v.). 

233 



STRABO 

/cat iJvvecTOfievoi, ral<; yvvai^l reKvoTToua^ "x^apiv, 
a^arw? xe Kai ev (TKoret, o tv\u)V ttj TV)(^ov(Tr), iyKV- 
fjLOva^ Se 7roi7](Ta"Te^ aTToire^nrovaLV cii d 6 zi ;j.ev 
av drfKv reKcocn Kare)(^ovaiv avToi, ra 8' dppeva 
KOfil^ovaiv iK€LVOis eKTpe(f)eiv' wKeLcorat B eKaaro^ 
Trpo? eKaorov, vofitl^wv vlov 8ia rrjv ayvoiav. 

2. O he Mep/xoSa?, Karapomuiv airo twv opoiv 
Sia T^9 Twv ' A/jLa^6va>v Koi Trj<i '^ipaKr]V7]<; kui 
6<T7] jxera^v e/37;yu.o?, eh ri]v MaiMTiv eVSt'Scocrf. 
Tou? Se Tapyapea^; avvava^rji'ai fxev e'/c ^efiia- 
Kvpa<i cf)aal ral<i 'Afia^oacv et? rovcrSe tov<; 
TOTTov?, elr' aTTocTTCLVTa^ avTcov TToXe/xelv pLera 
%paK6)v Kol FjV^oecov rivcov 7rXavi]devTcov /ie%/3t 
Sevpo 7rpb<; avTciq, varepov Se KaraXvaafievov; tov 
7r/jo9 avTa<; iroXefiov errl toi^ Xe^Oelcn TroiyjcraaOat 
crufj.^d(rei<i, ware t€kvcov avyKoivwvelv puovov, ^rjv 
Se KaO^ avTov<i e/carepovi. 

3. "iStoi/ Si TC (7u/i/3e/3/;«6 tm Xoyro irepX t(ov 
^Afia^ovcoV 01 fxev yap ciWoi to /jlvOq)S6<; kuI to 
l(TT0piK0V BicopKTfiivov e^^ovai' TO. yap iraXaia xal 
y}rev8ri Kal TepaTcoSi] fivOoL ko.Xouvtui, tj 5' laTopia 
^SovXeTtti TaX,7;^e?, dv re ira'Xaiov dv re veov, ical 
to TcpuTcoBe^; fj ovk ex^i *) cnrdvLoV irep\ Be twv 

Afxa^ovwv Ta avTa XeycTai Kal vvv Kal irdXai, 



^ Apparently the same river as that called Mermadalis iu 
the preceding paragraph. 

234 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. 5. 1-3 

thither to offer sacrifice with the Amazons and also 
to have intercourse with them for tlie sake of 
begetting children, doing this in secrecy and dark- 
ness, any Gargarian at random with any Amazon ; 
and after making them pregnant they send them 
away ; and the females that are born are retained 
by the Amazons themselves, but the males are 
taken to the Gargarians to be brought up ; and 
each Gargarian to whom a child is brought adopts 
the child as his own, regarding the child as his son 
because of his uncertainty. 

2. The Mermodas '^ dashes down from the moun- 
tains through the country of the Amazons and 
through Siracene and the intervening desert and 
then empties into Lake Maeotis. It is said that 
the Gargarians went up from Thcmiscyra into this 
region with the Amazons, then revolted from them 
and in company with some Thracians and Euboeans 
who had wandered thus far carried on war against 
them, and that they later ended the war against 
them and made a compact on the conditions above- 
mentioned, that is, that they should have dealings 
with one another only in the matter of children, and 
that each people should live independent of the 
other. 

3. A peculiar thing has happened in the case of 
the account we have of the Amazons; for our 
accounts of other peoples keep a distinction between 
the mythical and the historical elements ; for the 
things that are ancient and false and monstrous are 
called myths, but history wishes for the truth, 
whether ancient or recent, and contains no monstrous 
element, or else only rarely. But as regards the 
Amazons, the same stories are told now as in early 

235 



STRABO 

Tepardohrj re ovra Kal Triareox; Troppay. Tt? yap av 
■mcnevaeLev w? <yvvaiKO)v (jrpaTo<i rj 7r6Xi<i i) eOro^ 
(TvaTairj av irore ^copt? avhpwv ; Kal ov p.6vov 
ye avcnaiii, aWa Kal e(f)oSov<i TroiijaaiTo eVt ttjv 
dWoTpiav Kal KpaT7]aeiev ov tcov €771)9 p.6vov, 
C 505 <yo"T6 Kal P'SXpt 'I'V^ ^^^ Twi/ta? irpoeKdelv, aWa 
Kal StairovTCov (TT€iKai,ro arpareiav p^eXP^ '^^'^ 
'ATriKi]<; ; tovto yap ofxoLov, co? av eX rt? \iyoi, 
Tom fiev dvBpa<; yvvalKa<i yeyovevat, tov<; Tore, 
Ta9 Be yvvalKa<; dvSpa^. dWa /mrjv ravrd ye 
avrd Kal vvv Xeyerat Trepl avTwv, iTriretvei Be rrjv 
iBioTTjTa Kal TO TTLcrreveadai rd TraXaia pdXXov rj 
rd vvv. 

4. KTtcrei9 yovv iroXecov Kal €7ra>vvp,lai \eyov- 
rai, Kaddirep ^E(p6crov Kal 1,pvpvrj<i Kal KvfXT]<; Kal 
M.vpi,vj)<;, Kal Td(f)Oi^ Kal dXXa iiTro/j-vijfiaTa' rr^v 
Be ®epL(TKupav Kal rd irepl rov SeppcoBovTa 
ireBia Kal rd inrepKeip^eva oprj drravre'i *Apa- 
^ovcov KaXovai, Kal cpaaiv e^eXaOrjvaL avra<i 
evdevBe. ottov Be vvv elaiv, oXtyoL re Kat dva- 
TToBeiKTW^ Kal dTriaro)^ diTo<^aLvovTat' Kaddtrep 
KaX Trepl ®aXT]crTpLa<;, rfv ^We^dvBpcp crvppu^ai 
(jyacriv iv rfj "TpKavia Kal avyyeveaQai TeKvoiroiia^ 
')(^dpiv, Bvvacrrevovaav^ rcov ^Apa^ovcov ov yap 
ofMoXoyelrai rovro' dXXaTwv crvyypa(^eoiv Toaov- 
Toov ovroiv, 01 jxaXiara rrj^ dXr]6ela<i (f)povTiaavTe<; 
ovK eipy']Ka(Ji,v, ovB ol 7riarev6/j,evot paXiaTa 
ovBevos pepLvrjvrai toiovtov, ovB' ol elnovre'i rd 

^ Instead of rd(poi, Dhilrtvx have ■7rd<pov, oz irdipos, C Trdpai. 
^ Svvacrreuovcrav, Casaubon, for SwacrTevcai Ojyz, SuiaffTev 
ffdvTccv other MSS. 

236 



GEOCiRAPMY, ii. 5. 3-4 

times, though they are marvellous and beyond 
belief. For instance, who could believe that an 
army of women, or a city, or a tribe, could ever be 
organised without men, and not only be organised, 
but even make inroads upon the territory of other 
people, and not only overpower the peo])les near 
them to the extent of advancing as far as what is 
now Ionia, but even send an expedition across the 
sea as far as Attica ? For this is the same as saying 
that the men of those times were women and that 
the women were men. Nevertheless, even at the 
present time these very stories are told about the 
Amazons, and they intensify the peculiarity above- 
mentioned and our belief in the ancient accounts 
rather than those of the j)resent time. 

4. At any rate, the founding of cities and the 
giving of names to them are ascribed to the 
Amazons, as, for instance, Ephesus and Smyrna 
and Cyme and Myrine ; and so are tombs and 
other monuments ; and Themiscyra and the plains 
about Thermodon and the mountains that lie above 
them are by all writers mentioned as having be- 
longed to the Amazons ; but they say that the 
Amazons were driven out of these places. Only a 
few writers make assertions as to where they are 
at the present time, but their assertions are without 
proof and beyond belief, as in the case of Thalestria, 
queen of the Amazons, with whom, they say, 
Alexander associated in Hyrcania and had inter- 
course for the sake of offspring ; for this assertion 
is not generally accepted. Indeed, of the numerous 
historians, those who care most for the truth do not 
make the assertion, nor do those who are most 
trustworthy mention any such thing, nor do those 

237 



STRABO 

avTa elpyjKacrr KXeirapxo^ Se^ (^r^aL Trjv HaXt]- 
crrpiav diro KaaTTLCov ttvXmv koI S6pfi(t}BovTO<; 
oppLrjOelcrav eXdelv Trpo^ ^ AXe^avhpov, elcrl 6' utto 
Kao-TTia? et9 SepficoBovra (ndhioi irXeiov; i^uKia- 

5. Kal TO, TTyoo? TO evho^ov OpvkrjOevTa ovk 
dvo}/j,oX6'yT]Tai^ irapa irdvrwv, ol 8e TrXdaavre^i 
Tjaav ol KoXaKeia<i fiaXXov rj dXrjdeta^; 4>pov- 
Ti^ovTe<i' olov TO Tov K.avKacrov /jbereveyKeiv ei<> 
ra IvBiKa oprj klil ti]v irXrjcid^ovcrav e/ceti/oi? 
e(pav OdXarrav diro twv v-nepKeifxevoyv Ttj'i KoX- 
')(ioo<i Kal TOV Eiv^eivov opwv tuvtu <yap ol 
"EjXX7]V€<: Kal KauKaaov wvo/ma^ov, hie\ovTa Trj^ 
'lvBiKr)<; irXelovs rj TpL(Tp.vpiov<; aTahiov<i, Kal 
evTavda ipLvOevaav tci irepl Upo/jLTjOia Kal tov 
heap,ov avTOV' TavTa yap tu ixnaTa rrpo'? eco 
iyvcopi^ov ol Tore, rj Be eirl 'Ii^Sou? aTpoTela 
^lovvaov Kal 'HpaKXeov<i vaTepoyevf] ttjv fxvdo- 
TTodav i/j,(f)air€i, aTS tov 'WpaKXeov; Kal tov 
YipofxrjOea Xvaai Xeyofxivov '^^iXidaiv ctcov vcftc- 
pov. Kal rjv fiev evBo^oTepov to tov ^AXe^avBpov 
fiexpi' Twi' ^\vBlk6)v opo)v KaTaaTpeyp-aadai ttjv 
""Aalav Tj /^e^pi tov fiv^ov tov Ey^etfoi/ Kal tov 
K^avKdaov, dXX^ i) Bo^a rod 6pov<; Kal Tovi'op,a 
Kal TO Toi)? Trepl ^Idaova Bokclv pLaKpoTdTrjv 
aTpuTCiav TeXeaai ti^v p-^xpi tmv irXrjaLov K.av- 
C 506 Kaaov Kal to tov T[po/xT]6ia TrapaBeBoadat BeBe- 
pcevov eirl Tol<i ia)(^dT0i<; tj'}9 yPj^i ev tu) KavKdcrai,^ 

^ 5e before <pr)<Ti is found only in E. 

* avcx;fj.^A6yriTai E, instead of xtiv ccnuXSyrjrai ; SO Meineke, 
and Miillei'-Diibner. 

^ Meineke indicates a lacuna after Kai/KoVy ; but it is 
probably merely a case of aiiacolouthon. 
238 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. 5. 4-5 

who tell the story agree in their stcatements. 
Cleitarchus^ says that Thalestria set out from the 
Caspian Gates and Thermodonand visited Alexander ; 
but the distance from the Caspian country to Ther- 
modon is more than six thousand stadia. 

5. The stories that have been spread far and wide 
with a view to glorifying Alexander are not 
accepted by all ; and their fabricators were men 
who cared for flattery rather than truth. For 
instance : they transferred the Caucasus into the 
region of the Indian mountains and of the eastern 
sea which lies near those mountains from the 
mountains which lie above Colchis and the Euxine ; 
for these are the mountains which the Greeks 
named Caucasus, whicli is more than thirty thousand 
stadia distant from India ; and here it was that they 
laid the scene of the story of Prometheus and of his 
being put in bonds ; for these were the farthermost 
mountains towards the east that were known to 
writers of that time. And the expedition of 
Dionysus and Heracles to the country of the Indians 
looks like a mj-thical story of later date, because 
Heracles is said to have released Prometheus one 
thousand years later. And although it was a more 
glorious thing for Alexander to subdue Asia as far 
as the Indian mountains than merely to the recess 
of the Euxine and to the Caucasus, yet the glory of 
the mountain, and its name, and the belief that 
Jason and his followers had accomplished the 
longest of all expeditions, reaching as far as the 
neighbourhood of the Caucasus, and the tradition 
that Prometheus was bound at the ends of the earth 
on the Caucasus, led writers to suppose that they 

* See Didiotiary in Vol. II. 

239 



STRABO 

^(^apielcrdai tc Tfo (iaacKel vireXa^ov, rovvofxa tov 
6puv<i n6T€ueyKavTe'i ei'? rrji' ^IvSiktjv. 

6. Ta fi€v ovv u-\p-i]\6raTa tov 6Vt&)9 KavKacrov 
TO, voricorarci iari, to. irpo^ AXfBavLo. Kal 'I^rjpia 
Koi KoX^ot? Kai Hi'io^oi?' otKovai he ovs elirov 
TOV<; (jvv€py^ofikvov<i el<; Tf]v AcoaKovpidBa' avvep- 
^ovrai 8e to irXelcnov akwv ')(^dpiv. tovtcov 8' 
oi fiev Ta<i iiKpcopeia^; KUTexovaiv, oi Se iv vd7rai<; 
avki^ovrai Kal ^oiaiv diro Oripeiwv aapKutv to 
rrXiov Kal Kaprroiv dypLCOi' Kal ydXaKTo<;. at he 
Kopvcjial ^et/Liwro? pev d^aroi, Oipov^ Be irpoa- 
^aivovcnv virohovpevoL KevTpcoTa oopo/Soiva Slktjv 
TvpTTuvav 7r\aT€ia Bed ra? 'x^Lova^ Kal Tov<i 
KpvaTaWou^. KUTa^alvovat B' eirl Bopd^; Keipevoi 
(Tvv Tot? (f>opTioi<; Kal KaToXiaBaivovTe^, oirep Kal 
KaTa TTjv ^ATpoTraTLav yhjBiav Kal KaTa to 
MacTioi' 6po<; to ev 'Appevla avp^alver evTavOa 
Be Kal Tpo)f^LaKoi ^vXivoi KevTpcoTol rots" ireXpacriv 
VTroTiOevTai. tov yovv KavKdaov Ta pev aKpa 
TOiavTa. 

7. K.aTa0aluovTL B' et? ra? v7r(opeLa<; dpKTi- 
KcoTepa pev ecrxi Ta KXtpaTU, 7]/iep(i}Tepa Be- j/o>; 
yap (TVpdTTTei rot? TreStot? twv 'S.t.pdKcov. elal Be 
Kal TpcoyXodvTat. Tive^ ev (fxoXeol'i OLKovvTe^ BiaTa 
ylrv-^t], irap^ ol<; -ijBij Kal dXcpiTwv ecJTiv eviropia' 
peTa Bk T0U9 '[^p(oyXoBvTa>i Kal XapatKocTui ^ Kal 
IloXv(f)dyoi Ttve<i KaXov/Mevoi Kal ai Ttov EtVa- 
BI.KOiv ^ Kcopai, Bvvapeucop yea>pyeiv Bid to pij 
TTavTeXo)^ vTroTreTTTcoKevai Taif dpKTOi-i. 

1 XanaiKoTrai, Du Theil, for xa"a'o7Tot (for other variants 
see C. Miiller) : so Meineke. 

- EiVaSiVuif is doubtful (see C. Miiller). 

240 



GEOGRAPHY, n. 5. 5-7 

would be doing the king a favour if they ti'ansferred 
the name Caucasus to India. 

6. Now the highest parts of the real Caucasus 
are the most southerly — those next to Albania. 
Iberia, and the Colchians, and the Heniochians. 
They are inhabited by the peoples who, as I have 
said,^ assemble at Dioscurias ; and tliey assemble 
there mostly in order to get salt. Of these tribes, 
some occupy the ridges of the mountains, while the 
others have their abodes in glens and live mostly 
on the flesh of wild animals, and on wild fruits and 
milk. The summits of the mountains are impass- 
able in winter, but the people ascend them in 
summer by fastening to their feet broad shoes made 
of raw ox-hide, like drums, and furnished with 
spikes, on account of the snow and the ice. They 
descend with their loads by sliding down seated 
upon skins, as is the custom in Atropatian Media 
and on Mount Masius in Armenia ; there, however, 
the people also fasten wooden discs furnished with 
spikes to the soles of their shoes. Such, then, are 
the heights of the Caucasus. 

7. As one descends into the foothills, tiie country 
inclines more towards the north, but its climate is 
milder, for there it borders on the plains of the 
Siraces. And here are also some Troglodytae, who, on 
account of the cold, live in caves ; but even in 
their country there is plenty of barley. After the 
Troglodytae one comes to certain Chamaecoetae " 
and Polyphagi,^ as they are called, and to the 
villages of the Eisadici, who are able to farm be- 
cause they are not altogether exposed to the north. 

' 11. 2. 16. ^ i.e. "People who sleep on the ground." 

' i.e. "Heavy-eaters." 

241 



STRABO 

8. 0/ ^ e(/)e^^9 ■t]8r) vofxahe^; oi /j,€Ta^v tT/? 
Mafa)TtSo9 fcal tt}? Kaairlat; ^ajSiavol Koi 
Tlav^avol^ Kal rjhrj to, tcov "EtpuKCov Kal Wopcrcov 
(bv\a. hoKOvai S' oi^'AopaoL Kal oi 1,lpaKe<; (pv- 
yd8e<i elvat tcov uvcorep'^i) Kal rrpoadpKriOL fxaWov 
"Aopaoi.^ W^eaKO<; pev ovv, o rwv ^tpciKOiv 
l3aaL\ev<;, rjvlKa ^apvaKij^ tov Boairopov €t;)^e, 
Svo p,vpidha<i linrioiv ecneiXe, X7raBiv>]<; 8 , 6 tcov 
^Aopacov, Kal e'tKoaiv, oi Be avco "Aopaot Kal 
TrXeioua^' Kal yap eTreKparovv TrXetoi/o? 7%, Kal 
a')(eh6v Tt T^? KaaTTLcov 7rapa\la<i tPj^; TrXeicrr/^? 
rjp^ov, ware Kal iveiropevovTO Kap,7/\oi<; rov 
^IvBiKov (j)6pT0v Kal TOV Ba/SvXcovtov, irapd re 
^App.evLcov Kal ^h'jScov 8taSe)(^6p,evoi' €Xpvcro(f)6pouv 
8e 8ia TTjv eviropiav. oi fiev ovv "Aopaoi tov 
Tdvaiv irapoiKOvaii', ot ^ipaKe<; Be tov ^ A-y^apBeov, 

0<? €K TOV KaVKUiTOV pi(OV €k81B(jO(TCV 64? Tr]V 
^1(110)TIV. 



VI 

1. H Se BevTepa p€pl<; dpx^Tai p,ev utto t/}? 

C 507 KacTTTta? da\dTTr]<;, eh tjv KaTeiravev i) irpoTepa- 

KaXeiTaL 6' ■>) avTrj OdXarTa Kal "TpKavla. Bel 

Be irepl t/}? OaXuTTi]^ elirelv irpoTepov TavTij<i 

Kal TWi^ 7rpo(jOLKO)v edvcov. 

"EcTTt 8' 6 /coXtto? dvex(^v e/c tov wKeavou irpo^ 

' The spelling of this name varies (see C. Miiller). 
* "Aopaot, nrosknrrl, ior'ASparuv ; so MiillerDiibner's Latin 
trans. 

242 



GEOGRAPHY, ti. 5. 8-6. i 

8. The next peoples to which one comes between 
Lake Maeotis and the Caspian Sea ai'e nomads, tlie 
Nabiani and the Panxani, and then next the tribes 
of the Siraces and the Aorsi. The Aorsi and the 
Siraces are thought to be fugitives from the upper 
tribes of those names ^ and the Aorsi are more to 
the north than the Siraces. Now Abeacus, king of 
the SiraceSj sent forth twenty thousand horsemen 
at the time when Pharnaces lield the Bosporus ; 
and Spadines, king of the Aorsi, two hundred 
thousand ; but the upper Aorsi sent a still larger 
number, for they held dominion over more land, 
and, one may almost say, ruled over most of the 
Caspian coast ; and consequently they could import 
on camels the Indian and Babylonian merchandise, 
receiving it in their turn from the Armenians and the 
Medes, and also, owing to their wealth, could wear 
golden ornaments. Now the Aorsi live along the 
Tanais, but the Siraces live along the Achardeiis, 
which flows from the Caucasus and empties into 
Lake Maeotis. 



VI 

L The second^ portion begins at the Cat^pian 
Sea, at which the first portion ends. The same sea 
is also called Hyrcanian. But I must first describe 
this sea and the tribes which live aliout it. 

This sea is the gulf which extends from the 

' i.e. the southern tribes. The tribes of the Aorsi and 
Siraees (also spelt Syraci, 11. 2. 1) extended towards tlie 
south as far as the Caucasian Mountains (11. 2. 1). 

* i.e. of the First Division (see 11. 1. f)). 

243 



STRABO 

fJLearju^piav Kar apx^^ /^^v iKavo)'; (nevof, ivBo- 
T€pco Be TrXarvverai Trpoicov, kol fidXiara Kara 
rov ixv~)(ov eirl ara8Lov<; ttov fcal irevTaKia'^LXiov'^' 

8' GtcrTrXoi"? fie-x^pc rov /xvxou ixiKpw irXeiovcov ^ 
av eh], (TVvd'TTrwv 7r<w? r;^?; rfi aoLKrjrqy. (pTjal 
S' 'Eparocr^ei'?;? rov vtto rcov 'KW-qvcov yvoopi/jLOv 
rrepiirXovv t/)? 6aXdrrii<; ravrr]<s, rov fiev irapd 
T01/9 ^AX^avov<; koI rov^ KaSofcrtof?^ elvai 
irevraKLaxtXicov koI rerpaKoaiwv, rov he irapd 
rrjv AvapiaK(t)v^ Koi ^Idphoiv kuI TpKavcov 
fiexpi Tov crrofiara rov "fl^ov irorafiov rerpa- 
KiaxiXlcov Kal OKraKoaicov evdev 8' eVl roi) 
^la^dprov SccrxtXtcov rerpaKoalcov. Set 8e irepl 
ro)v ev rfi fieplht ravry Kal rot? errl roaovrov 
€KreT07n(Tfi6V0i<i dirXovarepov uKOvecv, Kal fid- 
Xiara Trepl rcov Biaa-ri^fidrcov. 

2. EtcTTrXeoj/Tt 8' ev Se^ia fiev rot? ¥ivpwTraL0i<i 

01 (Tvv€X€L<i ^Kvdai vefMOvrai Kal Xap/xdrai oi 
aera^v rov Tavdlho<i Kal rrj<; OaXdrrrj^ ravrij^, 
vofidSe'i ol TrXetoLi?, rrepl cjv elpi^Kafiev ev dpia- 
repa S' ol 7rp6<; eco ^Kvdac, vo/jidSe^ Kal ovroi, 
fiiXP^ '^V'^ ewa? OaXdrrj]<; Kal ri}^ 'Ii'St/o'}? rrapa- 
reivovre<i. d'iravra<i fiev Si) rov<i Trpocr^opovi; 
Koivoi'i ol rraXaiol rcov EiXXyvcov avyypacpel'i 
1,Kvda<i Kal K.eXro(TKvda<i eKaXovv ol 8 en 
Trporepov 8ieX6vTe<i tou? p.ev vrrep rov Ev^elvov 
Kal "larpov Kal rov *A8piov KaroiKovvra<; 'Trrep- 
^opeovi eXeyov Kal Xavpo/jLdra(; Kal 'Api/jLacxTrovf, 

1 Tr\fi6i'a>v, Kramer, for ir\eiov C, irKeluv other MSS. ; so the 
later editors. 

2 KaSouaiovs Epit., for K.\ovaiovs MSS. 

' 'AvapiaKwv, Tzschucke, for 'ApidtKuv CD, 'AvapiuKuy oz. 

244 



GEOGRAPHY, n. 6. 1-2 

ocean ^ towards the south ; it is rathei* narrow at its 
entrance, hut it widens out as it advances inland, 
and especially in the region of its recess, where its 
width is approximately five thousand stadia. The 
length of the voyage from its entrance to its recess 
might be slightly more than that, since its entrance 
is approximately on the borders of the uninhabited 
woi'ld. Eratosthenes says that the circuit of this sea 
was known to the Greeks ; that the part along the 
coast of the Albanians and the Cadusians is five 
thousand four hundred stadia ; and that the part 
along the coast of the Anariaci and Mardi and 
Hyrcani to the mouth of the Oxus River is four 
thousand eight hundred, and thence to the laxartes, 
two thousand four hundred. But we must under- 
stand in a more general sense the accounts of this 
portion and the regions that lie so far removed, 
particularly in the matter of distances. 

2. On the right, as one sails into the Caspian Sea, 
are those Scythians, or Sarmatians,'^ who live in the 
country contiguous to Europe between the Tanais 
River and this sea; the greater part of them are 
nomads, of w^hom I have already spoken.^ On the 
left are the eastern Scythians, also nomads, who 
extend as far as the Eastern Sea and India. Now 
all the peoples towards the north were by the 
ancient Greek historians given the general name 
" Scythians " or " Celtoscythians " ; but the writers 
of still earlier times, making distinctions between 
them, called those who lived above the Euxine and 
the Isterand the Adriatic " Hyperboreans," " Sauro- 
matians," and " Arimaspians," and they called those 



* See note on "Caspian Sea" (11. 1. 5) 

* See 11. 2. 1. Ml. '2. 1. 



245 



STRABO 

Tou? Se TTepav Trj^ K.aaTrLa<i OaXaTTtjs TOV<i fxev 
^(iKWi, TOV<; Se ^laaaayera'; eKokovv, ovk e)(OVT€<i 
aKpij3oi<i ^ Xeyeiu irepl avroiv ouSev, Kaiirep TTpo<; 
Maaaayerw; rov Kvpov iroXepov IcnopovvTe^. 
aW ovre irepX tovtcov ovdev rjKpi/3(OTo 7rpo<? 
aXi'jOeiav, ovt€ ra irakaLci rwv TlepcrcKcbv oine 
rcov ^ir)8iK0)v 17 %upiaK(ov e? iricnLv ac^iKveljo 
fieyaXt-jv 8ia rrjv Ttav avyypa^ewv inrXoTrjTa Kat 
rr)V ^iXofMvdLav. 

3. 'Optavra yap tou? (j^avepco^ p.vdoypd<^ov^ 
evhoKip.ovvra<i (pj']dr]aai' Kal avTol Trape^ecrdat Tr]v 
ypa(prii> '})^elav, iav ev laropLWi cr)(tjpaTi Xeyoxriv, 
a p^y-jBiTTore elSov prjSe ^ ij/covcrav, rj ov jrapd ye 
elSoTMV,^ aKOTTovvre'i'^ avro^ p.6vov tovto, b t< 
vLKpoacnv rjSelav e)(^et, koI OavpaarrjV, paov K 

508 av ra 'HctioSm Kal 'Opyjpo) TrtaTevaecev I'lpwo- 
Xoyovai Kal TOi? rpayiKol'i Trotr)Tai<; rj K.T)]aLa 
T€ Kal 'HpoSoTW Kal 'FJWavLKO) Kai aWoa 
TOtovroi^. 

4, OvBe TOi? irepl ^AXe^dvBpou Se crvyypd-yjraatu 
ov^ pddiov Triareveiv rot? TroXXoh' Kal yap ovtoi 
pahtovpyovat, old re rr^v So^av Tip> 'AXe^dvBpov 
Kal Bia TO TT)v crrpaTelav tt/so? ra? ea^aTia<i 
yeyovevac ri]<i 'Atria? TToppco dtji ijpcov to Be 
TToppo) hvaeXeyKTuv. >/ 5e rdv Pwpaicov iiri- 
Kpdreia Kal ?; ro)V TlapPvatcov TrXetov ri irpoaeK- 
KoXvTJTei Tcov TrapaSehopevtov irpoTepov ol yap 

1 aicpiBh E, Meineke. 

* ftrjSf, Jones, for [At/tc, from conj. of C. Miiller. 
3 eiSoToiv, Meineke emends to ISovrocv. 

* 81', he fore aiiro, Corais omits. 

* Sf, after avrii, Corais omits. 

* 01; is omitted bj' oz and some of the editors. 
246 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. 6. 2-4 

who lived across the Caspian Sea in part " Sacians " 
and in part " Massagetans," but they were unable to 
give any accurate account of them, although they 
reported a war between Cyrus ^ and the Massa- 
getans. However, neither have the historians given 
an accurate and truthful account of these peoples, 
nor has much credit been given to the ancient history 
of the Persians or Medes or Syrians, on account of 
the credulity of the historians and their fondness 
for myths. 

3. For, seeing that those who were professedly 
writers of myths enjoyed repute, they thought that 
they too would make their writings pleasing if they 
told in the guise of history what they had never seen, 
nor even heard — or at least not from persons who 
knew the facts — with this object alone in view, to 
tell what afforded their hearers pleasure and amaze- 
ment. One could more easily believe Hesiod and 
Homer in their stories of the heroes, or the tragic 
poets, than Ctesias, Herodotus, Hellanicus,^ and 
other writers of this kind. 

4. Neither is it easy to believe most of those who 
have written the history of Alexander ; for these toy 
with facts, both because of the glory of Alexander 
and because his expedition reached the ends of 
Asia, far away from us ; and statements about things 
that are far away are hard to refute. But the 
supremacy of the Romans and that of the Pai-thians 
has disclosed considerably more knowledge than that 
which had previously come down to us by tradition ; 

^ Cyrus the Elder. For an account of tins war, see 
Herodotus 1. 201 ff. 

* Oil their writings, see Dictionary in Vol, I. 

247 



STRABO 

irepi eKetvcov <Tvy'ypd<f>ovTe^ kuI to, -^wpla kuI 
ra eOvT), iv ol<; at Trpa^et?, iricrTorepov Xiyovaiv 
?; 01 rrpb avTcov p,dWov yap KaTcoTTTevKaai. 



VII 

1. Toi/? 8' ovu iv dpicrrepa eicnrXeovri to 
Kdcnriov TreXayo^ 7rapoiKOuvTa<i vo/xdBa^ Ada<; 
ol vvv TTpocrayopevovcTL tov^ eTrovop^a^opevov^ 
^ A-ndpyov;-^ elj €pi]po<i irpoKeiTai pera^v, Kal 
e^6^^9 ri 'TpKavla, KaO^ fjv i]Bj} TreXayi^ei p^XP'' 
rov avvdyjrat, toi<; yit]SiKo7^ opeai koL Toi<i 
Wppeviwv. TOVTMV 8' icnl p^tjvoeiBe'i to <Tj(^)]pa 
Kara ra? vTrci)peLa<i, at reXeurwaaL irpo'i OdXaTjav 
TToiovai rov piv^pv rev koXttov. olkci Be rrjv Tra- 
pcopeiav Tavrrjv P'ixP'' '^^^ aKpwv aTTO 6aXdTTrj<; 
dp^ap,€V0L<; iirl piKpov p.€v rwv WX^avoiv n 
p.€po<? Kal TOiv 'AppL€VLQ)v, TO Se TtXeov Vi]Xat 
Kal KaSovaioi Kal "Ap-apSot Kal Omrioi^ Kal 
^AvaptdKai. (paal Be Uappaalcov Tivd<; avvoiKYjaat 
Tol<; WvapiuKaL^;, ov'i KaXelcrdai vvv Yiapaiov^'^ 
Aliidva<; 8* iv rfj Oviria Tti^icrat ttoXiv, fjv 
Alvidva KaXeiadai, Kal heiKvvcrOai * o-rrXa re 
'^XXrjviKa ivravOa Kal crKevrj ;;^aA,«a Kal Ta(f>d<;' 
ivTavOa he Kal ttoXiv AvapidKi]v,^ iv r],^ (^aai, 

1 'ATraprous (so spelled in 11. 8. 2 (twice)), Jones, for 
"ZTrapvous ; others TVapvovs (as in MSS. 11. 9. 2, 3 q.v.). 

^ OiiLTioi R, Kovlrtot other MSS. C. Miiller conj. Kvprioi 
(see Ijid. Var. Led., p. 1014). 

^ Uapaiovs, Corais, for Tlappaaiovs ; so the later editors. 

248 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. 6. 4-7. i 

for those who write about those distant regions tell 
a more trustworthy story than their predecessors, 
both of the places and of the tribes among which 
the activities took place, for they have looked into 
the matter more closely. 



VII 

1. Those nomads, however, who live along the 
coast on the left as one sails into the Caspian Sea are 
by the writers of to-day called Diiae, I mean, those 
who are surnamed Aparni ; then, in front of them, 
intervenes a desert country ; and next comes 
Hyrcania, where the Caspian resembles an open sea 
to the point where it borders on the Median and 
Armenian mountains. The shape of these mountains 
is crescent-like along the foot-hills, which end at the 
sea and form the recess of the gulf. This side of the 
mountains, beginning at the sea, is inhabited as far 
as their heights for a short stretch by a part of the 
Albanians and the Armenians, but for the most part by 
Gelae, Cadusii, Amardi, Vitii, and Anariacae. They 
say that some of the Parrhasii took up their abode 
with the Anariacae, who, they say, are now called 
Parsii ; and that the Aenianes built a walled city in 
the Vitian territory, which, the}' say, is called 
Aeniana ; and that Greek armour, brazen vessels, 
and burial-places are to be seen there ; and that 
there is also a city Anariace there, in which, they 



* SfiKwadat, Corais, for SeiKwrai ; so the later editors. 

^ 'kvapiOLKriv, Tzschucke, for 'A^dpKrjv Dh, Na^Sap/cTjc other 
MSS. ; so the later editors. 

* p, Tzschucke, for ^; so the later editors. 

249 



STRABO 

SetKPVTat fxavrelov iyKoi/xcofxevav,^ Kal dWa 
Tiva eOvt] XrjarpiKa Kal fid)(^iiJia fxaWov rj 
'^/ewp^/licd'^ TTOtei Se tovto rj Tpa')(yrri<i tmv 
roiroiv. TO fievroi irXeoi' rfj<; irepi rrjV 6peivi]v 
irapaXia^; KaSovaioi vip^ovrai, cr^^^eBov Be ri 
eirl Trei'Ta/cfcr^fA.tou? arahlov^, co<; ^'>](Tt, IlaT- 
poic\y)^, 0? Koi TTcipiaov yyelrao to 7reXayo<; tovto 
Tft) TLovTiK(p. TavTa fiev ovv to, ^(wpia \v7rpd. 

2. "^H S' "Tp/cavta a(f>6Bpa evSaip-wv Kal ttoWi) 
Kal TO TrXeov Tre8id<i iroXecrl re d^io\6yoi<; Siei- 
\i]fi/x€vi], o)v e<TTt TaXa^poKT] Kal 'Eap-apiaj')) Kal 
K.dpTa Kal TO ^aaiXeLov TaTT?;* o <^a(TL /xiKpov 
vnep T/)? 6a\dTTr]<; Ihpvpevov Ste^ety tmv Kacr- 
■niwv TTvXcov aTaHov<; ^iXtoi/? TeTpaKoaiovi, 
Kal Slo, to fM€v el8o<; ^ Tr,<; €vBai/j,ovLa<i (rrffiela 
Bi7)yovvTai,'* rj fxev yap dp,7re\o<; fieTpTjTrjv oivov 
(f)€p€i, r) Be avKTj p.eBiiivov<; e^yKOVTa, 6 Be crtro? 
C 509 eK Tov iKTrea6vTo<i Kapirov Trjq Ka\dfir]<; cf^veTai, 
iv Be Tol<i BevBpeai a/j^rjvovpyelTat Kal tmv 
(f)vXX(ov diroppel /xeXi' tovto Be yivcTai Kal tt}? 
M.rjBia^ ev tj} MaTiavj] Kal t^<? ^Apfxeria^ iv 
TTJ ^aKaarjvfi Kal tt} 'Apa^rjvfj. tt}? fieuTOt 
Trpoarjxovaii^; eV/yieXeia? ovk €TV)(^ev ovTe avTi] 
ovT€ i) eTTOivufio^ avTrj ddXuTTa, aTrXov^ re ovaa 

^ iyKotfxu.-ixivaii', Tzschuckc, for iv Koifxaifxtvav ; so the later 
editors. 

2 Tliere appears to be an omission here. Groskurd suggests 
that Strabo wrote "and some other traces of Greek colonisa- 
tion, and all these tribes are more inclined to brigandage 
and war." 

^ ical TOV fifv eXSovs otvz, koI ravra fiev rov ("[Sovs xy. E 
omits the words, iiisei'ting 5e after aviJ-f'ia. T. G. Tucker 
{Classical Quarterly 3. 101) pioposes koI v^ Ai'o tov jxtye^ovs 
. . . SiTiyovvTai. 

250 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. 7. 1-2 

say, is to be seen an oracle lor sleepers,^ ^ and 
some other tribes that are more incHned to brigand- 
age and war than to farming; but this is due 
to the rugged ness of the region. However, the 
greater part of the seaboard round tlie mountainous 
country is occupied by Cadusii, for a stretch of 
almost five thousand stadia, according to Patrocles,^ 
who considers this sea almost equal to the Pontic 
Sea. Now these I'egions have poor soil. 

2. But Hyrcania is exceedingly fertile, extensive, 
and in general level ; it is distinguished by notable 
cities, among which are Talabroce, Samariane, Carta, 
and the royal residence Tape, which, they say, is 
situated slightly above the sea and at a distance of 
one thousand four hundred stadia from the Caspian 
Gates. And because of its particular kind of 
prospei'ity writers go on to relate evidences thereof: 
the vine produces one metretes* of wine^ and 
the fig-tree sixty medimni ; ^ the grain grows up 
from the seed that falls from the stalk ; bees have 
their hives in the trees, and honey drips from the 
leaves ; and this is also the case in Matiane in 
Media, and in Sacasene and Araxene in Armenia.^ 
However, neither the country itself nor the sea that 
is named after it has received proper attention, the 
sea being both without vessels and unused. There 

' i.e. people received oracles in their dreams while sleep- 
ing in the temple (of. 16. 2. 35). 

'^ See critical note. * See Dictionary in Vol. I. 

* A little less than nine gallons. 

' The medimnus was about a busliel and a half. 
« Cf. 2. 1. 14. 

* SiTjYoOvTai, Groskurd, for Tiyovvrai, which E and Meineke 
oujit. 

VOL V. I 



STRABO 

Kai apyo^' vrjcroL re etaip oiKelaOai ^uvdfievai, 
&)<> 6' elprjKaa-i rive<;, koI ■)(^pucrtTiv exovcrai 'yrjv. 
aiTiov 8 , OTi Kai, 01 rjye/Move^ ol r ^^CLpXV'^ 
iTvy)(^avov ffdp^apoc ovre^ ol tcov 'Tpxavcov, 
yi7]Soi re Kai TLepcrai, koX ol varaTOi TIapOvaloi, 
y^elpov^ eKeivoov ovt€<;, koI rj yelrcov diracra %<w/3a 
XrjaTcov Kai vofidBcop /xeari] Kai eprj/xla^;. Ma- 
K€86ve<; S" oXlyov fiev ')(p6vop iirrjp^av, koI iv 
TToXe/iOi? ovre^ Kai ra iroppoi aKonetv ov Bvpci- 
fievOL. (f)T]al S' 'A/3taTo/3of\o? vXooSr) ovcrav rrjv 
"TpKavlav hpvv e^etv, •nevK'qv he Kai iXaTijv Kai 
ttLtw fiT] (f)v€ii^, jrjv 6' '\vhLKr)v TrXrjOveiv TovTot<;. 
T^9 Se 'TpKavia<i earl Kai 77 ^rjaaia' Tcve<i Se 
Kai Kad^ avTr-jv Tideaai ttjv Nrjaalav. 

3. Aiappelrat 8e Kai iroTafioli; rj "TpKavia rut 

re '^XV '^^'- "^V ^^-^V H-^XP'' '^V'^ ^^^ ddXarrav 
iK/3o\T]<i, wv 'li^o? Kai 8ia rrj<i NT^crata? pec' 
eviOL 8e TOP ^n^ov el^ rov ^Vi^ov ifi/SdWeiv 
(fiaalv. ^ ApiaTo^ovXcs 8e Kai fxeyiaTov diro- 
(f)aivec TOP ^n^ov ratv eoopa/jievcov v(f)' eavrov 
Kara rijv ^Aalav, TrXrjv tcov 'IpSikojv (ptjcrl 8e 
Kai einrXovp elpai {Kai ovto<; Kai ^EpaToa6ePT)<; 
TTapd JlaTpoKXeovi Xa^cop) Kai ttoXXo. tcop 
'IpBtKOip (^opjldov KardyeiP el<; ti^p 'TpKavlav 
OdXarrav, iprevOep 8' et<? tt]p AX/Saplap ire- 
paiovadai, Kai 8ia rov Kvpov Kai tmp e^% tottcop 
et? TOP ^v^eipop KaTacpepeaOat,. ov ttupv Be 
VTTO roip iraXaioiP 6 ^Vl^o^ opofid^erai. 'AttoX- 

' Pi7iics inaritima. - Plniis jjicea. 

3 Pinus pinea. « Cf. 11. 13. 7- 

'' This Avistobulus accompanied Alexander on his expedi- 
tion and wrote a work of unknown title. 
252 



GEOGRAPHY, n. 7. 2-3 

arc islands in this sea whicli could afiurd a livelihood, 
and, according to some writers, contain gold ore. 
The cause of this lack of attention was the fact that 
the first governors of the Hyrcanians, I mean the 
Medes and Persians, as also the last, I mean the 
Parthians, who were inferior to the former, were 
barbarians, and also the fact that the whole of the 
neighbouring country was full of brigands and 
nomads and deserted regions. The Macedonians 
did indeed rule over the country for a short time, 
but they were so occupied with wars that they 
could not attend to their remote possessions. 
According to Aristobulus, Hyrcania, which is a 
wooded countr}', has the oak, but does not produce 
the torch-pine^ or fir^ or stone-pine,^ though India 
abounds in these trees. Nesaea, also, belongs to 
Hyrcania, though some writers set it down as an 
independent district.^ 

3. Hyrcania is traversed by the rivers Ochus and 
O.xus to their outlets into the sea; and of these, the 
Ochus flows also through Nesaea, but some say that 
the Ochus empties into the Oxus. Aristobulus^ 
declares that the Oxus is the largest of the rivers he 
has seen in Asia, except those in India. And he 
fui'ther says that it is navigable (both he and 
Eratosthenes taking this statement from Patrocles) "^ 
and that large quantities of Indian wares are brought 
down on it to the Hyrcanian Sea, and thence on that 
seaare transported to Albaniaand broughtdownonthe 
Cyrus River and through the region that comes next 
after it to the Euxine. The Ochus is not mentioned 
at all by the ancient writers, Apollodorus,' however, 

''' See Dldiunarij in Vol. I. ' Of Aiteniita. 

253 



STRABO 

\6Ba}po<; fievrot 6 ra HapdiKo. ypdylrwi (Tvveyco'i 
avTOV ovofid^ec, to? iyyurdrco rois n.apdvaiOi<s 
peovTU. 

4. Ylpoae8o^da6i] he koX irepl Trj^; daXdrTTj^; 
TavTr]<i TToWd yjrevSi] Bid ttjv 'AXe^dvSpov (piXoTi- 
fiiav eTreiSr] yap oofio\6yr]TO i/c Trdvrwv, OTi 
Sielpyei tjjv ^Aaiav diro Trj^ ^vpcoTrrj^; o Tdpal<; 
7roTa/j.6<i, TO Be /xera^u tt}? OaXdTT)]<; koX rov 
Tai^at3o<?, TToXu fj,epo<; t/}? 'Acrta? 6v, ovx vTreTrnrTe 
rol<i MaAceSocrt, arpajriyelv B' eyvwajo, ware ttj 
(f>yj/u.Tj ye KUKeivcov Bo^ai tmu /xepcov Kparelv rov 
^AXe^avBpov €19 ev ovv (Tvvrjyov ttjv re MaKyTt;/ 
Xifivrjv TTjv B€Xo/J'€vrjv rov Tdvaiu Koi ttjv K-uaTriav 
OdXarrav, Xifjbvqv koX Tavrrjv KaXovvT€<; Kol 
avvTerprjaOai (pdcTKOVTe^ 7rpo<; dXXi']Xa<i dficporepa'i, 
eKarepav Bk elvai iiepo<i rrj'^ krepa^. WoXvKXeiTO'i 
Be Kal 7rL(Trei<; irpoacfiepeTai Trepl rov Xlfivijv elvat 
C 510 Tr/z' ddXarrav ravrrjv (o0e<9 re yap eKrpe^eiv Kal 
vTToyXvKV elvai to vBojp), otl Be Kal ov)(^ erepa 
T7]^ Mai(i)riB6<; iarc, •TeK[xaip6iJ-evo<; e/c rov rov 
Tdva'iv ei? avrrjv ifi^dXXeiv gk yap rwv avrcov 

OpOiV TMU 'IvBlKCOV, i^ b)V 6 T€ 'H^O? Kttl 6 Ti^O^ 

Kal dXXoi ttXclov^;, ^eperai Kal o 'la^dprt]'? eKBi- 
BaxTL re 6/ioL(o<i eKetvoc^ et'v ro K.da7riov 7reXayo<;, 
rrdvrwv apKriKcoraro^;. rovrov ovv oovo/jLacrav 
Tdvaiv, Kal rrpoaeOeaav Kal rovrra rriarLV, q)<; ^ 
eh] Tdval<;, ov etprjKev 6 TloXvKXeiro*;' rrjv yap 
Trepaiav rov rrorafiov rovrov cfiipeiv iXdrrjv Kal 
oicrrol^ eXarlvoi^ '^pficrdai tou? ravrrj ^Kv9a<i, 
rovro Be Kal reKfiijpiov rov rrjv ■)(u>pav rrjv irepav 

^ (Ij, Corais, for Sxtt' ; so the later editors. 
254 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. 7. 3-4 

who wrote the Parthica, names it continually, 
implying that it flows very close to the country of 
the Parthians. 

4. Many false notions were also added to the 
account of this sea because ^ of Alexander's love of 
glory ; for, since it was agreed by all that the 
Tanais separated Asia from Europe, and that the 
region between the sea and the Tanais, being a con- 
siderable part of Asia, had not fallen under the 
power of the Macedonians, it was resolved to mani- 
pulate the account of Alexander's expedition so that 
in fame at least he might be credited with having 
conquered those parts of Asia too. They therefore 
united Lake Maeotis, which receives the Tanais, 
with the Caspian Sea, calling this too a lake and 
asserting that both were connected with one another 
by an underground passage and that each was a part 
of the other. Polycleitus goes on to adduce proofs 
in connection with his belief that the sea is a lake 
(for instance, he says that it produces serpents, and 
that its water is sweetish) ; and that it is no other 
than Maeotis he judges from the fact that the Tanais 
empties into it. From the same Indian mountains, 
where the Ochus and the Oxus and several other 
rivers rise, flows also the laxartes, which, like those 
rivers, empties into the Cas})ian Sea and is the most 
northerly of them all. This river, accordingly, they 
named Tanais ; and in addition to so naming it they 
gave as proof that it was the Tanais mentioned by 
Polycleitus that the country on the far side of this 
river produces the fir-tree and that the Scythians in 
that region use arrows made of fir-wood ; and they 
say that this is also evidence that the country on the 

1 See 11. 5. 5. 

255 



ST R A BO 

tt}? Fjvp(i)7r7]<; eivai, firj tt}? Acria?* ttjv yap 
WcTLav rrjv avco koI rrjv vpo^ eo) /J.r] <f)veiv eXaTr/v. 
^Eparoadeurj'i Se cf)yai Kal ev ttj 'IvSikt} (f)uecr0ai 
€XaTr]v Kol ivT6vdev vaviriiyrjaaaOai tov (ttoXov 
WXe^avSpov iroWa Se Kal aXXa roiavra avy- 
Kpoueiv ^KparoaOev^]'^ Tretpdrai, rjfilv S' drro^^pcoi'- 
Toj? €lp7]aO(o Trepl avTMV. 

5. Kal TovTO 6' €K ro)i' Kara tiji' 'TpKaviav 
taropovfievoiv irapaho^wv €<ttlv vtto Ei)oo^ou Kai 
ciWwv, oTi irpoKeivrai Tiv€<i aKral tt}? 6aXdrTri<; 
inravTpoi, tovtwv Se pLe-ra^v Kal t?}? OaXdrrt^'i 
vTTOKeLTai ra7r€ivo<; aiyiaXo^, ek he twv virepOev 
Kpi]fivo)v TTOTapiol piovTe<i ToaavTij Trpoc^epovTai 
^ia, o)(TTe ral^ tiKral^ avvdyjravre^ e^aKOvritovcn 
ro vhddp 619 T'Tiv ddXaTTav, dppavTov (^yXdrrovre^ 
TOV alyiaXov, were Kal a-TparoTreSoi^ oSevai/xov 
elvai, (TK€7ra^ofj,evoi^^ tw pevfiari' oi S' i'7Ti)(^copioi 
Kardyovrai iroXXdKi^ euw^ta? Kal Ovcria^ X"'P''^ 

€19 TOV TOirOV Kal 7T0T6 fieV VTTO T0t9 dvTpOl<i 

KaTaK\ivovTai, ttotc 5' utt' avTU) tu) pevp-UTi 
I'fXia^opevoi, aXXca ^ dXXoi TepirovTaL, irapac^aivo- 
/jL€vt]<; dpia Kal tj}9 OaXdTTi]^ eKaTepwOev Kal 
T7'}9 riL6vo<i, 7ro(oBov<i Kal dvdrjpd^ ovai)^ did ttjv 
LKp.dSa. 

YIII 

1. 'Atto Be Ti]<; 'TpKavLa<i 9a\aTTr]<i Trpo'iovTi 
eVi Tr]v ea> he^id p-ev eVrt to. opr} piixP'' 'T'V^ 
^lvSiKrj<; 6a\d7T7]<; irapaTeivovTa, direp ol''EW'r}ve<i 



256 



^ (TKeTra^OfiiioiS Epit. for <TKe-na^6aiV0V, 
" S', after aWws, Meineke omits. 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. 7. 4-8. i 

far side belongs to Europe and not to Asia, for, they 
add, Upper and Eastern Asia does not produce the 
fir-tree. But Eratosthenes says that the fir-tree 
grows also in India and that Alexander built his fleet 
out of fir-wood from there. Eratosthenes tries to 
reconcile many other differences of this kind, but as 
for me, let what I have said about them suffice. 

5. This too, among the marvellous things recorded 
of Hyrcania, is related by Eudoxus ^ and others : 
that there are some cliffs facing the sea with caverns 
underneath, and between these and the sea, below 
the cliffs, is a low-ljing shore ; and that rivers flow- 
ing from the precipices above rush forward with so 
great force that when they reach the cliffs they hurl 
their waters out into the sea without wetting the 
shore, so that even armies can pass underneath 
sheltered by the stream above ; and the natives 
often come down to the place for the sake of feasting 
and sacrifice, and sometimes they recline in the 
caverns down below and sometimes they enjoy 
themselves basking in the sunlight beneath the 
stream itself, different people enjoying themselves in 
diflferent ways, having in sight at the same time on 
either side both the sea and the shore, which latter, 
because of the moisture, is grassy and abloom with 
flowers. 

VIII 

1. As one proceeds from the Hyrcanian Sea 
towards the east, one sees on the right the moun- 
tains that extend as far as the Indian Sea, which by 

^ Eudoxus of Cnidus (see Dictionary in Vol. 1). 

257 



SIR A BO 

ovofid^ovai Tavpov, ap^dfieva ^ diro rrj<; lla/i^u- 
\la<; Koi rf]^ KiXiKta^; kul f^expi' ^evpo irpolovra 
uTTo tt}? ecTTTepa? avve)(i) koI rvy)(^di'0VTa '^ liXkcov 
Koi dWcov ovo/Jbdraiv. TrpoaoiKovcrt 8' auTov to, 
TrpocrdpKTia fjieprj Trpcoroi p,ev ol VrfKaL kol 
Yi^ahovacoL kol "Apap8oi, KaOdnrep etpyjrac, Kat 
Tcov Tpxavicov riie<;, tTreira to r6)v UapBvatcou 
€dvo<; Kal TO T(ov ^iapyiavcov kul to>v Wptwv Kal 
C 511 ^ ^pr}/j,o^, rjv UTTO ttj^ "Tpicavia-; opl^ei 6 Sdpvio^ 
7roTa/xo9 7r/309 eco (Bahil^ovai Kal eirl tov 'H^ov. 
KaketTai Se to fiexpt^ ^evpo aTrb t?}? ' Ap/jLevi,a<i 
hiaTslvov, 7J fjLiKphv d-rroXelTrov, TlapaxpdO pa^.^ 
ecTTt he diro Trj<i 'Tp/cavLa<; ^aXarrr;? a? tov<; 
'Aptoi^9 Trepl e^aKC(7Xt\lov<; (JTahiovs, eW^ rj 
BuKTpiavi] icTTL KOL 7] ^oySiavj], TeXevTaloL Se 
^KvOai vo/j,d8e<;. tcl h 6pii ^MaveSoi/e? jxev 
drravTa tu e0e^^? aTro 'Aplcov KavKacrov exd- 
Xeaav, irapd Be Toi<i ^ap/3dpoi^ Td re dxpa KUTa 
/j,epo<i o)vop,d^€TO 6 Tlapo7rd/jiL(TO<; to, Trpoa^opeia^ 
Kal TO, ^HfiwSd Kal to l/xaov Kal dWa TOiavTa 
6v6p,aTa eKdaToc^ jxepeaiv eireKeLTO. 

2. 'Ey dpiaTepd Se toutoi^ di'TiTrapaKeiTUL to, ^ 
"S/KvOcKU e6vr] Kal tu vo/xahiKd, drraaav eKirXij- 
povvTa TTjv jSopeiov TrXevpdv. ol fiev S?; 7rA.etov9 
Tcov ^KvOwv dfTo r^9 Kao-77-/a9 OaXdTTTj'; dp^dpuevoi 
Adai TTpoaayopevovTai, Tov<i Be TrpocreMov^ tovtcov 

1 ap^dfiiva E'jxyz {ap^d/xevov other MSS.) ; so Tzschuuke, 
Corals, Meineke. 

^ TvyxdvovTO E, Tvyxo-"^"''''^'' other MSS. 

* XlapaxodBpas, Tzschucke, for Uapuixodpas ; so the later 
editors. 

■• The reading of the MSS., rd re &.Kpa Ka\ tov Tlapavanitrov 
TO vpocr&opeia ktK. , is corrupt. Jones corrects the passage b« 

258 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. 8. 1-2 

the Greeks are named the Taurus. Beginning at 
Pamphylia and Cilicia they extend thus far in a 
continuous line from the west and bear various 
different names. In the northerly parts of the range 
dwell first the Gelae and Cadusii and Amardi^ as 1 
have said/ and certain of the Hyrcanians, and after 
them the tribe of the Parthians and that of the 
Margianians and the Arians ; and then comes the 
desert which is separated from Hyrcania by the 
Sarnius River as one goes eastwards and towards 
the Ochus River. The mountain which extends from 
Armenia to this point, or a little short of it, is called 
Parachoathras. The distance from the Hyrcanian 
Sea to the country of the Arians is about six thou- 
sand stadia. Then comes Bactriana, and Sogdiana, 
and finally the Scythian nomads. Now the Mace- 
donians gave the name Caucasus to all the mountains 
which follow in order after the country of the Arians ; 
but among the bai-barians^ the extremities^ on the 
north were given the separate names " Paropamisus " 
and " Emoda " and " Imaus " ; and other such names 
Avere applied to sepai-ate parts. 

2. On the left and opposite these peoples are 
situated the Scythian or nomadic tribes, which cover 
the whole of the northern side. Now the greater 
part of the Scythians, beginning at the Caspian Sea, 
are called Diiae, but those who are situated more to 

1 11. 7. 1. 

' i.e. the "natives," as referred to in 15. 1.11. 
' i.e. the "farthermost (or outermost) parts of the Taurus," 
as mentioned in 15. 1. 11 {q. v.). 

following the similar statement in 15. 1. 11 (but cp. Groskurd 
and C. Miiller). 

* TO., before :^Kv6iKa, Corals inserts ; so the later editors. 

259 



STRABO 

fiaWov M^a(T(Ta<yeTa<i koX Xdxa^ ovofid^ovai, tou? 
S' dXkov; KOi,vM<i fiev 'S,Kv0a<; 6vo/j,d^ovaiv, Ihia 5' 
o)<; eKaaTOV^' diravre^ 6' co? eVi to ttoKv vofid8e<i. 
fxdXicrra 8e yvcopi/xoi yeyovaai TUiv vofjidScov o'l 
Toi)? 'EWT^t-a? d(f)e\ofi€voi rrjv ^UKTpiavrjv, "Aeriof 
Kal Uacriavol koI T6')(^apoL^ koI —aKdpavXoi,^ 
opfirjOevTe^ cnro t?}? Trepaua^ tov ^la^dprov t^? 
Kara XdKa<; kuI ^oyBtavov<;, i)v Kurelxov ^dxai. 
Kal TOiv Aacbu oi jxev Trpoaayopevovrai "ATrapvoi, 
ol 8e "B-avdioi, 01 Se UiaaovpoL' oi fiev ovv 
"AtrapvOL TrXijatairaTa Trj "TpKavla TTapdKeivrai 
Kal TTj KUT avrrjv OaXdrrrj, oi 8e \ot7rol ScareC- 
vovcn ^ Kal fiexpi ttj^ dvTL7rap7]KOvar]<; ttj ^ Apia. 

3. Mera^u 8' avrcov Kal rrj^ 'TpKavia<; Kal Trj<; 
YlapOvaLWi P'^XP^ 'ApLcov epr]p.o<; irpoKenai ttoWtj 
Kal dvvhpo^, f)v Bie^iovre'; p.aKpal<; o8ol<; Kare- 
rpexov rrjV re 'TpKaviav Kal rrjv Nrjaaiav * Kal 
TO, ro)v HapOvaiwv irehia' oi he avveOevro (popovf 
<f)6po<; S" rjv TO iTTiTpeireiv raK7ol<i rial ^yooi/ot? 
TTjv xdypciv Kararpex^i'V >^<^l (^epecrdai \eiav. eiri- 
TToXa^ofTCOu S' avTMv irapd rd (rvyKeip^eva, irro- 
\€p.eiTo, Kal irdXiv SiaXvaei<; Kal dva7roXep,r)cr€i<; 
virrjpxov. TOiouTo? he Kal 6 rcov dXXcov vop,dh(ov 
^lo^, del TOi<i 7rXi]aiov eTriTiOe/xevcov, Tore h' av 
hiaXXaTTop-evcov . 

4. %dKai pievrot irapaTrXricria'; e(f)6hov<; eTroirj- 

^ T6xapoi, the editors, for Taxapoi. 

- Kai, before opuriBeyTes, Kramer omits ; so the later 
editors. 

^ Siareivovffi, Corais, for Stafiivovart (but E omits the word) ; 
so the later editors. 

^ T^rja-aiay, Xjlander, for 'laaiav ; so the later editors. 

260 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. 8. 2-4 

the east than these are named Massagetae and Sacae, 
whereas all the rest are given the general name of 
Scythians, though each people is given a separate 
name of its own. They are all for the most part 
nomads. But the best known of the nomads are 
those who took away Bactriana from the Greeks, I 
mean the Asii, Pasiani, Tochari/ and Sacarauli, who 
originally came from the country on the other side 
of the laxartes River that adjoins that of the Sacae 
and the Sogdiani and was occupied by the Sacae. 
And as for the D.iae^ some of them are called Aparni, 
some Xanthii, and some Pissuri. Now of these the 
Aparni are situated closest to Hyrcania and the part 
of the sea that borders on it, but the remainder 
extend even as far as the country that stretches 
parallel to Aria. 

3. Between them ^ and Hyrcania and Parthia and 
extending as far as the Arians is a great waterless 
desert, which they traversed by long marches and then 
overran Hyrcania, Nesaea, and the plains of the Parth- 
ians. And these people agreed to pay tribute, and the 
tribute was to allow the invaders at cei'tain appointed 
times to overrun the country and carry off booty. 
But when the invaders overran their country more 
than the agreement allowed, war ensued, and in turn 
their quarrels were composed and new wars were 
begun. Such is the life of the other nomads also, 
Mho are always attacking their neighbours and then 
in turn settling their differences. 

4. The Sacae, however, made raids like those of 

* On the Tocliaii and their language, see the article by 
T. A. Sinclair in the Classical Revieic, xxxvii, Nov., Dec,, 
1923, p. 159. 

'^ The Aparnian Daae (see 11. 9. 2). 

261 



STRABO 

aavTO TOi? Ki,fM/j.epLOi<; Kal Tpr'jpeai,^ Ta<; fxev 
fxaKpoTepa^, Ta<i Se /cal iyyvOev' Kal yap Tqv 
BaKTpiavrjv KaT€a-)i^ov Kal Trj<; 'Ap/xevia^ KareKJi]- 
cravro ttjv apicTT'ijv yr]V, r)y Kal iTTcovvfiov iavTCov 
KarekLTTOv rrjv "^aKaarjvrjv, Kal fJ-eXP'' ^cnnra- 
C 512 SoKwv, Kal /idXiara twv 7rpo<; Ku^clvo), ov^ 
IlovTiKov<i vvv KaXovcri, TrporjXdov. e-mdepevoi 
S' avrol<i 7ravr]yvpl^ou(Tiv oltto tcov Xa^vpwv oi 
TavTT] Tore rwv TLepcroiV arparriyoi, vvKTOop apBrjv 
at'Tou? t](^dviaav. ev he rip irehifp ire-pav rii>a 
7rpoax<J^/-'-art avfj,7r\ypci)cravre<i et? /SoiioeiBei; 
o'X^P'Ci eTreOrjKav rel'xp'i Kal ro rrj<; ^AvairiSo'; 
Kal rwv (TVfx^(t)/jL(i)v Oecov lepov iBpvaavro, ^D.fjLavou 
Kal ^AvaSdrov, YlepaiKoyv Baifiovcov, direBeildv re 
TravTjyvpiv Kar ero^ lepdv, rd —dKaia, yjv jJ.exP'' 
vvv emreXovaiv oi rd ZijXa ^ e^ovTe^' ouro) yap 
Ka\ov(TL rov roirov' eart Be lepoBovXwv TToXicrfMa 
TO rrXeov' Ylofj,7n]io<; Be rrpocrOel^ ■)(^u>pav d^coXoyov 
Kal rov<; ev avrfj crvvoiKLaas et? to Tei^i^o? /xLav 
rcov TToXeoiv d7re(f)r]vev, wv Biera^e /jLera rrjv 
MidpiBdrov KardXvaiv. 

5. Oi fiev ^ ovTOi Xeyovcn irepl rwv 2.aK6jv, ol B\ 
on Kvpo^ e7Ti(7rparevaa<; Tot? XdKac;, i]rrrjOel<i 
rfi p.d')(r) cf)evyei, crrparoTreBevad/jLevo^; S' ev co 
■)(^copi(p rd<i TTapaaKevd^ direXeXoLrrei * 7rXy]pei<; 
d^Oovia^ dirdaT]'?, Kal /j-dXiara o'ivov, Btavarravaa^; 
/j.iKpd rrjv crrparidv, yXavvev d(f) earrepa<i, g)9 
(fievycov, TrXijpei^ a<^ei9 Ta? aKrjid<;' irpoeXOdiv 8 , 

^ Tp-fipeiT'., Xylander, for rpffjpecTi ; so the later editors. 
- Zr)Aa, Tzschucke, for 2a»fo ; so the later editors. 
' Corais, Meineke and others insert odv after fifv. 
* aneXiAoinft. Jones, for oTroAeAoi'irei. 

262 



GEOGRAPHY, n. 8. 4-5 

Cimmerians and Treres,^ some into regions close to 
their own country, others into regions farther away. 
For instance, they occupied Bactriana, and acquired 
possession of the best land in Armenia, which they 
left named after themselves, Sacasene ; and they 
advanced as far as the country of the Cappadocians, 
particularly those situated close to the Euxine, who 
are now called the Pontici. But when they were 
holding a general festival and enjoying their booty, 
they were attacked by night by the Persian generals 
who were then in that region and utterly wiped out. 
And these generals, heaping up a mound of earth 
over a certain rock in the plain, completed it in the 
form of a hill, and erected on it a Avail, and estab- 
lished the temple of Anaitis and the gods who share 
her altar — Omanus and Anadatus, Persian deities ; 
and they instituted an annual sacred festival, the 
Sacaea, which the inhabitants of Zela (for thus the 
place is called) continue to celebrate to the present 
day. It is a small city belonging for the most part 
to the temple-slaves. But Pompey added consider- 
able territory to it, settled the inhabitants thereof 
within the walls, and made it one of the cities which 
he organised after his overthrow of Mithridates. 

5. Now this is the account which some writers 
give of the Sacae. Othei's say that Cyrus made 
an expedition against the Sacae, was defeated in the 
battle, and fled ; but that he encamped in the place 
where he had left behind his supplies, which con- 
sisted of an abundance of everything and especially of 
wine, rested his army a short time, and set out at 
nightfall, as though he were in flight, leaving the 
tents full of supplies ; and that he proceeded as far 

1 Cf. 1, 3. 21, 12. 3. 24, 12. 8. 7, 13. 1. S, 13. 4. 8, 14. 1. 40. 

263 



STRABO 

oaov eSuKet av;.i,(f)epeiv, ihpvOiy eTTiovTa 5' eKeivoc 
KoX KaTa\a^6pTe<; epijpLOv dvBpMV to arparorrehov, 
Twv he 7rp6<i airoXavaiv /xearov, dveSrjv iveTvip,- 
irXavTO' 6 8' v7ro<TTpey}ra^ i^oivov<; Kureka^e koI 
TrapairXi^iya^, wcrd^ ol fiev iv Kapa Keifievoi koi 
vTTvw KareKoiTTovTO, ol K opyovpievoi koli ^uk- 
')(^€vovT€<; 'yvfivoX TrepieTmrTov roi<; t(oi> TToXep-ioiv 
onXot^, oXiyov 8' dfrcoXovTo airai'Te^;. 6 8e Oelov 
vofXLcra<; to evTV-)(iip,a, rrjv i)p.epav eKeivijv dviepco- 
(TWi jfi Trarpla) dew Trpoayjyopevae^ ^aKaia- 
OTTOV S' dp y T?}? Oeov TavT't]<; lepov, evravOa 
vofML^erai koI rj tcov ^aKaicov eoprr] ^aK-)(eia ri<i ^ 
/xed' t]p.epav koI vuKTcop, Biecx/cevaafxevcov XkvOkttl, 
TTCvovTCOv d/j.a fcal 7rXy]KTL^op.ev(i}v Trpb^ dXXij\ou<i 
d/u,a re kul tci^ avfiTrivovaa^ yvvalKa^. 

6. ^{aaaayerai h ehi^Xwaav rrjv acjierepav 
dp€TT]V iv Tw Trpb'i K.vpop TroXep-w, rrrepl mv "^ 
dpvXovai iroXXoi, koX hel irwddveaOat Trap 
eKelvcov. Xeyerai Se koI roiavra Trepl tmv Maa- 
aayerwv, on KaroiKovcriv ol p.ev oprj, Tive<; 8' 
avTMV irehia, ol he eXr/, d Troiovcriv ol irorapLoi, 
ol he Ta? ev roh eXecri vijaov;. p-dXiara hi (paai 
Tov 'Apd^i]v ^ TTorapLOv KuraKXvteiv ri^v j(^u)pav 
TToXXa;^/"; (T^i^op.epov, eKiriTTTOVTa he toI^ pep 
C 513 aXXoi<i aropiaaip et? ti]p dXXrjp rr)V 7rp6<i dpKTOi<i 
OdXaTTap, epl he jjlopo) irpo'i top koXttop top 
"TpKUPiop. Oeov he r/Xiop fiopop ^yovPTai, toutm 
he linToOvToiKjf yap^eX 5' eKaaT0<; p.iap, ^^^pcopTai 

^ irpo(Triyip(vaf oj'z, irpoaTjyopevcras other MSS. 

* ris, Tzschucke, for rols D, rf/y Chilncg, rwv gxy. 

3 For Siv, Meineke, following conj. of Corais, reads o5. 

* 'Ap^fTjv i, 'kpa^ov other MlS.S. 

264 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. 8. 5-6 

as he thought best and halted ; and that the Sacae 
pursued, found the camp empty of men but full of 
things conducive to enjoyment, and filled them- 
selves to the full ; and that Cyrus turned back, and 
found them drunk and crazed, so that some were 
slain while lying stupefied and asleep, whereas 
others fell victims to the arms of the enemy while 
dancing and revelling naked, and almost all perished ; 
and Cyrus, regarding the liappy issue as of divine 
origin, consecrated that day to the goddess of his 
fathers and called it Sacaea ; and that wherever 
there is a temple of this goddess, there the festival 
of the Sacaea, a kind of Bacchic festival, is the 
custom, at which men, dressed in the Scythian 
garb, pass day and night drinking and playing 
wantonly with one another, and also with the 
women who drink with them, 

6. The Massagetae disclosed their valour in their 
war with Cyrus, to which many writers refer again 
and again ; and it is from these that we must get 
our information. Statements to the following effect 
are made concerning the Massagetae : that some 
of them inhabit mountains, some plains, others 
marshes which are formed by the rivers, and others 
the islands in the marshes. But the country is 
inundated most of all, they say, by the Araxes 
River, which splits into numerous branches and 
empties by its other mouths into the other sea ^ on 
the north, though by one single mouth it i*eaches 
the Hyrcanian Gulf. They regard Helius ^ alone as 
god, and to him they sacrifice horses. Each man 
marries only one wife, but they use also the wives of 

' The Northern Ocean. ^ Tlie Hun, 

265 



STRABO 

oe Kai ral<i aWtjXcov ovk dcf)avoi)<;, 6 Be /jLLyvufievo^ 
TTj dWorpia, rrjv (papeTpav e^apTi]aa<; eK T7]<i 
dp,d^i1<;, (f}av€pco<i /ulyvvTac' ddvaTO<i he vopi^eTai 
Trap' avToi<i dpiaTO^, orav yrjpdcravTe^; KaraKO- 
TTOicri perd Trpo/SaTeicov Kpeoiv kuI dvapl^ ^pwdwar 
TOv<; he v6(T(p Oav6vTa<i pLTrrouacv, o)? dae^el<; koX 
d^lov^ iiTTo dijpLtov ^e^pcoaOai. dyaOol Se LTnTorai 
Koi Tre^OL, to^oi<; 8e ')(pcovTai Kal pia~)(^aipai'i kul 
dcopa^i Kal aaydpe(Ti ')(a\/<ai<;, ^oivat he avrot^ 
elal ■)(^pvaal Kal hiahi]p.aTa ev rat's p,d)(^ai<;' o'C re 
XiTTTOL ')(pV(Toxd\ivoi, Kal paa)(^aXi(TT}]p€<; he 
)(pvaot' dpyvpo^i 8' ov ylverat, irap' avrol<i, 
crt8?;po9 3' 0X1709, ')(^a\Ko<i he Kal XP^^'^'^ 
d(f)6ovo<y. 

7. 01 pev ot'v iv ral<i vt](Tot<;, ovk e')(0VT€^ 
(TTTopipa, pi^o(payovcrc Kal dypLoi<i ')(^po}VTai 
Kapirol^;, dp-ney^ovTai he rom roiv hevhpwv (fiXoiov^ 
(ovhe yap ^ocrKi]p,aTa e\ovcn], ttlvovo'c he top eK 
Tcov hevhpwv KapiTov eKOXlfiovTe^;' oi S' ev toI<; 
eXeaiu l\dvo4>ayovaiv, dpLirexovrat hi rd roiv 
^(OKwv heppara twv €k OaXdrTr}<; dvarpe'^^ovaoip- 
01 S' opeioL Tol'i dypLoi<i rpi(f)OVTat Kal avrol 
Kap7roi<;' e')(^ovai he Kal irpo^ara oXiya, coctt' ovhe 
KaraKOTTTOvai, (^eihopevoi tmv epl(ov ^ayoti' Kal 
Tov ydXaKTO'i' ttjv h' eaOrj-a iroiKiSXovaiv 
einxpiaroi'i (papp-uKoi^ hvae^LrrjXov e)(ovcn to 
dvdo<i. 01 he irehivoL, Kaiirep exovre'i ^^pav, ov 
yewpyovaiv, aXXa diro trpo^dTCOv Kal l}(9vo)v 
^oxTi vopaht,K(t)<; Kal ^Kv6iKa)<;, en yap ri<i Kal 
KOiVT] r) hiaira irdvTUiv roiv toiovtcoj', rjv 7roXXdKL<; 
Xe7&), Kal Ta(f)al S' elcrl TrapaTrXtja-cai Kal rjOr] Kal 

266 



GEOGRAPHY, n. 8. 6-7 

one another ; not in secret, however, for the man who 
is to have intercourse with the wife of another hangs 
u{) his quiver on the wagon and has intercourse with 
lier openly. And tlicy consider it tlie best kind of 
death when they are old to be chopped up with tlie 
Mesh of cattle and eaten mixed up with that flesh. 
But those who die of disease are cast out as impious 
and worthy only to be eaten by wild beasts. They are 
good horsemen and foot-soldiers; they use bows, short 
swords, breastplates, and sagares ^ made of brass; and 
in their battles they wear head-bands and belts made 
of gold. And their horses have bits and girths made 
of gold. Silver is not found in their country, and 
only a little iron, but brass and gold in abundance. 

7. Now those who live in the islands, since they 
have no grain to sow, use roots and wild fruits as 
food, and they clothe themselves with the bark of 
trees (for they have no cattle either), and they drink 
the juice squeezed out of the fruit of the trees. 
Those who live in the marshes eat fish, and clothe 
themselves in the skins of the seals that run up 
thither from the sea. The mountaineers themselves 
also live on wild fruits ; but they have sheep also, 
tliough only a few, and therefore they do not 
butcher them, sparing them for their wool and 
milk ; and they variegate tlie colour of their clothing 
by staining it with dyes whose colours do not easily 
fade. The inhabitants of the plains, although they 
possess land, do not till it, but in the nomadic or 
Scythian fashion live on sheep and fish. Indeed, 
there not only is a certain mode of life common to 
all such peoples, of which I often speak,^ but their 
burials, customs, and their way of living as a whole, 

' See note on "sagaris," 11. 5. 1. * e.g. 7. 3. 7 — 8. 

26 J 



STRABO 

6 crv^TTa'i ^L0<;, avOeKa<no<i jjAv, aKato<; he koI 
aypLo<i Koi 7ro\€fj,iK6<i, 7rp6<; 8e ra avfi^oXaia 
cnrXov^ koI a/cdinjXo'i. 

8. Tov Be TOiv ^laaaayeroiyv Kol TOiv %aK(t)V 
tdvov<i Kal ol Krr datoL ^ Kal oi X.o)pdafjiioi, el<i 
01)9 aTTO tS)v BaKzpiavoov Kal twv ZoyBLaucov 
ecpvye STrtra/xei^r??, eh €k tmv uTroBpdvTcov 
Uepacov tov 'AXe^avBpov, Kaddirep Kal B?}<jcro9' 
Kal vcnepov he WpcrdKr]^ tov K.aWiviKOv (pevycov 
%eK.evKov eh tov? ^A7racndKa<i e)(oypii(je. (f)r](Tl 
8' ^EpaTO(Tdevy]<; Tot'?'A|oa;(&)TOi'9 Kal^laacrayeTa<; 
T0i9 Ba/CT/9tot9 TTapaKeZadai 7rpo<; hvaiv irapd tov 
^n^ov, Kal 'EdKai; p,ev Kal Xo'yhiavov<i rot? 6\oi<i 
ehd(f)eaiv dvTLKeladai ttj ^IvhiKy, Ba/CT/^/ou? h' 

C 514 eV oXlyoV to yap TrXeov tw HapoTrafiiaai irapa- 
KelaOai' hielpyeiv he XaKa^i fxev Kal 1,oyhiavov^ 
TOV 'la^dpTTjv, Kal Xoyhiavov<; he Kal Ba/c- 
Tpiavov<i TOV 'n^ov, jxeTa^v he TpKavcov Kal 
^Apicov Ta-TTvpov; oiKelv' kvkXw he Trepl rrjv 
OdXaTTav /xera Tom 'TpKavov<i ^Afidphov<i^ xe 
Kal ' AvapidKa<i^ Kal K.ahouaLov<; Kal ^ AX^avov<i 
Kal K.a(nTi,ov^ Kal Ovitlov;, Td^a he Kal eTepov^ 
fiexpL XkvOojv, eirl OdTepa he fiepi] tmv "TpKavoiv 
Aep^iKat;, tov<; he Kahovcrlovi aufiyfraveiv Mi'jhcov 
Kal MaTiavMv^ utto tov TiapaxodO pav. 

9. Ta he hiacTT'^/jiaTa ovtco Xeyei' utto p.ev tov 
KaaTTiov eirl tov K.vpov co? ;^«X,tou9 OKTaKocriovq 

* On ^ATTcitTiot, believed to be corrupt, see C. Miiller, hid. 
Far. Lect., p. 1015. 

* 'A/idp5oi/s, Xylander, for 'Ap/j-avovs E, ^Afidpvous other 
M8S. ; so the later editors. 

^ 'AvapiaKas, Xylander, for 'ASpiaKas E, ^AfSpiaKat other 
MSS. ; so the later editors. 
268 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. 8. 7-9 

are alike, that is, they are self-assertive, uncouth, 
wild, and warlike, but, in their business dealings, 
straightforward and not given to deceit. 

8. Belonging to the tribe of the Massagetae and 
the Sacae are also the Attasii and the Chorasniii, to 
whom Spitamenes ^ fled from the country of the 
Bactriani and the Sogdiani. He was one of the 
Persians who escaped from Alexander, as did also 
Bessus ; and later Arsaces,^ when he fled from 
Seleucus Callinicus,^ withdrew into the country of 
the Apasiacae. Eratosthenes says that the Arachoti 
and Massagetae are situated alongside the Bactrians 
towards the west along the Oxus River, and that the 
Sacae and the Sogdiani, with the whole of their 
lands, are situated opj)osite India, but the Bactriani 
only for a slight distance ; for, he says, they 
are situated for the most part alongside the 
Paropamisus, and the Sacae and the Sogdiani are 
separated from one another by the laxartes River, 
and the Sogdiani and the Bactriani by the Oxus 
River ; and the Tapyri live between the Hyrcanians 
and the Arians ; and in a circuit round the sea after 
the Hyrcanians one comes to the Amardi, Anariacae, 
Cadusii, Albani, Caspii, \^itii, and perhaps also other 
peoples, until one reaches the Scythians ; and on the 
other side of the Hyrcanians are Derbices ; and the 
Cadusii border on the Medi and Matiani below the 
Parachoathras. 

9. Eratosthenes gives the distances as follows : 
From Mt. Caspius to the Cyrus River, about one 

1 See Arrian's Expedition of Alexander, 3. 28. 16, 29. 12, 30. 1. 

* King of Parthia. * King of Syria 246 — 226 B.C. 

* E reads Vlavnavitiv (cj). MorTiofv'/ and note in 11. 14. 8). 

269 



STRABO 

<TTahiov<i, evOev S' eVt KacrTTia? TruXa? irevra- 
Kia)(i-^^ov<; e^aKoaiov^, elr et? ^ XXe^dvhpeiav Trjv 
ev ^ ApioL<i e^aKia-^^iXlov; rerpaKoaiovi, elr eh 
3dKTpav TT]V TToXiv, r) Koi ZapidaTra KaXeiTat, 
r pLCT-)(^L\iov<i oKTaifoaiov^ k^hop^i'-jKovra, elr eirl 
TOP ^la^dpTrjv iroTap-ov, i(f) ov 'A\€^ai'Bpo<i rjKev, 
&)? iTevTaKia)(LKiov<i' o/xov Biafxvpioi 8ia")(lXiot 
e^a/cocriot e^dofuj/covra. Xeyei Se kuI ovtco ra 
hiacrTrjfiara diro KacnrLoov ttvXcov eh 'lv8()u<;, eh 
fiev ' EjKaropLTTvXov )(iXiovq ivvaKOCTLOvi e^rjKovrd 
(f)acnv, eh S WXe^dvSpeiav ttjv ev 'Aptot? rerpa- 
Kia)(iXLOv<i TrepTUKoaiov^ TpiuKovra, en ea 
Yipo4>9aaiav r^]v ev Apayyfj^ )(iXiov^ e^dKocTLOv;, 
oi Be irevTCLKoalovi, elr' eh 'Apa)(a>rov^ rrjv ttoXiv 
rerpuKiaxtXiovf; eKarov e'lKoatv, etr' eh 'Opro- 
airava, errl rrjV eK BuKrpcov rpiohov, 8i<txiXlou<;, 
elr eh ra opia tt}? ^IvSiKq^ xiXiov<i' Ofxov p,vpioi 
TrevraKicrxi'^toi rpLaKoaioi.^ eV evOi^ia<i he t5> 
8iaari'j/j.ari rovrcp ^ avve^h Bel voelv, ro drro rov 
''\vhoi) p-tXP'' ''"*?'? ^<^ci<i 6aXdrr7]<; p,r]KO<i rrj^ ^lvBiK7J<i. 
ravra fiev ra irtpl rov<; ^uKWi. 



IX 

1. 'H Be Tiapdvaia TroXXrj fi€v ovk earr ovve- 
reXet yovv fxera rcov TpKai wv Kara * ra HepaiKa, 
Kal pera ravra, roiv ^\.aKeBovo}v Kparovvrcov errl 

^ Apayyfi, the editors, for ^pdnr;. 

* TpiaKOTioi, Kramer, for TrevraKSnioi; so the later editors. 

* t6, before trurex^s, Jones deletes. 

* Kara, before to, Casaubon inserts ; so the later editors. 

270 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. 8. 9-9. i 

thousand eight hundred stadia ; thence to the 
Caspian Gates, five thousand six hundred ; then 
to Alexandreia in the country of the Ariaiis, six 
thousand four hundred ; then to tlie city Bactra, 
also called Zariaspa, tluee thousand eight hundred 
and seventy ; then to the laxartes River, to which 
Alexander came, about five thousand ; a distance 
all told of twenty-two thousand six hundred and 
seventy stadia. He gives also the distance from 
the Caspian Gates to India as follows: To Heca- 
tompylus, they say one thousand nine hundred and 
sixty stadia ; to Alexandreia in the country of the 
Arians, four thousand five hundred and tiiirty ; then 
to Prophthasia in Drange, one thousand six hundred 
(others say one thousand five hundred) ; then to 
the city Arachoti, four thousand one hundred and 
twenty; then to Ortospana, to the junction of the 
three roads leading from Bactra, two thousand ; 
then to the borders of India, one thousand ; a 
distance all told of fifteen thousand three hundred 
stadia.^ We must conceive of the length of India, 
reckoned Irom the Indus River to the eastern sea, 
as continuous with this distance in a straight line. 
So much for the Sacae. 



IX 

1. As for the Partliian country, it is not large; 
at any rate, it paid its tribute along with the 
Hyrcanians in the Persian times, and also after this, 
when for a long time the Macedonians held the 

' The sum total of the distances liere given is 15.210 
stadia, not 15,300 (15,500 MSS.)- The total of 15,300 is 
again found in 15. 2. 8. 

271 



STRABO 

')(^p6vov TToiXvv. 7r/309 he rfj (T/jLtKpoTrjTi haaela 
Kol opetvi] icTTL KoX a7ropo<i, ware ^ Sia tovto 
Sp6/J,(p Sie^Lacri tov kavroiv ol ^a(n\el<i o^Xov, ov 
Svva/u.€VT]<; Tpe(f)eiv Tij<; ^(^(opa'i ovB* iirl puKpov 
aWa vvv Tjv^rjraL. fiepi] S' earl tt)? Y[apdvr]vP]<; 
rj re K^o) fiiaijvj] ^ kol i) Xcop-t]V)j, a-)(ehov he ri Kal 
TO, p-^xpt TTvXoiv K.a(nri(ov Kal Payoiv Kal Tuttv- 
pcov, ovra r?}? My]hta<; irpoTepov. eari, S' 'Avra- 
fieia Kal 'Wpi'iKXeia 7r6Xei<; irepl ra<; 'Pdya<;. elal 
8 aTTO Kaa7ri(i)V irvXoJv et? p,ei> Pdya'i ardhioc 
TrevraKoatoi, 6)<i (pijcriv A7roW6h(Dpo<;, Ci? 8' 
' EiKaTOfiTTvXov, TO Toiv Ilap6vaiQ)v ^acriXeiov, 
yiXioL hiaKoaioi k^r^KOvra' rovvo/xa he Tai<; 
Pdyat<; diro tmv yevo/xevcov aeicrfxiov yeveadai 
(f)a(TLv, vcfi' (t)v TToXei'i re av')(yal Kal KM/xai hicr- 
■^IXiai, <t)9 Iloa€ih(ji}VL6<i <^y]ai, dverpdrrr^aav. tou? 
he Ta7Tvpov<; oLKelv (paal p^era^v Aep/SiKoiv tc Kal 
C 515 "TpKavcov. IcTTopovcri he irepl tmv TaTrvpwv, on 
avToi<; elrj vofitfiou xa? yvvalKa<; eKhihovai ra<i 
yafj,€Ta<; erepoi^ dvhpdaiv, eTreihdv e^ avTcov 
dveXwvTai hvo rj Tpia reKva, KaOdirep Kal KaTCoy 
'Oprrjaloy he7]0evTi e^ehcoKe ttjv ^lapKtav i(ji' rip,(i)v 
Kard TvaXaiov 'Pcop-aicov e^o?. 

2. l>ieoirepia 6 evTWV he twv e^co tov Tavpov hid 
TO 77/30? d\Xoi<i ^ elvai tou? tt}? ^vpia<i Kal t^9 
M7;8ta9 ^a(TLXea<; rov'; e^ovTa^ Kal ravTa, irpoirov 

^ w(TT( gixy, iii other MSS. except E, which omits the 
word. 

2 Kccjxiffrivfi, Tzschucke, for Kco/xe Lcrvf-fi CIW, Ka/xfiva-nv-ri y, 
Kaneicrvffi other MSS. ; so the later editors. 

' &\\ots, Corais, from conj. of Tyrwhitt, for aWrjAovs loz, 
dA.ATjA.oiy other MSS, (but see Kramer's note). 

273 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. 9. 1-2 

mastery. And, in addition to its smallness, it is 
thickly wooded and mountainous, and also poverty- 
stricken, so that on this account the kings send their 
own throngs through it in great haste, since the 
country is unable to support them even for a short 
time. At present^ however, it has increased in 
extent. Parts of the Parthian country are Comisene 
and Chorene, and, one may almost say, the whole 
region that extends as far as the Caspian Gates 
and Rhagae and the Tapyri, which formerly be- 
longed to Media. And in the neighbourhood of 
Rhagae are the cities Apameia and Heracleia. The 
distance from the Caspian Gates to Rhagae is 
five hundred stadia, as Ajwllodorus says, and to 
Hecatompylus, the royal seat of the Parthians, one 
thousand two hundred and sixty. Rhagae is said 
to have got its name from the earthquakes that 
took place in that country, by which numerous 
cities and two thousand villages, as Poseidonius 
says, were destroyed. The Tapyri are said to live 
between the Derbices and the Hyrcanians. It is 
reported of the Tapyri that it was a custom of theirs 
to give their wives in marriage to other husbands 
as soon as they had had two or three children by 
them ; just as in our times, in accordance with an 
ancient custom of the Romans, Cato gave Marcia 
in marriage to Hortensius at the request of the 
latter. 

2. But when revolutions were attempted by the 
countries outside the Taurus, because of the fact 
that the kings of Syria and Media, who were in 
possession also of these countries, were busily 
engaged with others, those who had been entrusted 
with their government first caused the revolt of 

273 



STRABO 

ixev T7]p Ba/crpiapTjv airean^aav ol TreTrccrTev/jievoi 
Kol Tijv eyyv<; avTTJ^ iraaav, ol irepl EvdvSrj/jLov. 
€7r€ir 'ApaaKT]^, aprjp 'EkvOi]';, twv Aaojp ^ rtva<i 
e^f^v, TOi»? ^ X'ndpvov<s ^ KoXovfievov; vo/xdSa'i, 
iTapoLKOvv7a<i Toi' ^fl)(^ov, eTrrjXdeu eVt ttjv 
IlapSvaLav kuI eKpaTrjaev avTf]<;. Kar dp')(a<i 
jxev ovv dadevrj^ rjv SiaTroXe/xciyv 7rpo9 toi/? d<f>aipe- 
devra^ ri^v ')(aipav kuI avr6<; Kal ol 8ca8€^dp,€Voi 
€K€tvov, eirecd^ ovrux; \a~)(yaav cK^aipovfMevot rrjv 
TrXrjaiov del Sid ra? ev Toi<i 7To\€fioi<i Karop- 
d(tiCTei<i, ware reXevTcovre^ aTracT;? rr}<; evxo? 
EiV(f)pdTov KvptoL Karicnrjcrav. dcpelXovro Be Kal 
T>}<f BaKTpiavP]<i fiepo<i ^lacrdfievoi tov<; "EKvOa*; 
Kal €TC Trporepov rov^ irepl JLvKpariBav, Kal vvv 
e'jTdp')(ov(Jt, ToaavTTj'i yT]'? Kal toctovtcov edvwv, 
wcrre dvTnraXoi, rot? Peoyuatoi? rpoTrov rivd 
yeyovaat Kara fieyedo^ T/79 a/3%^9. aiTio<; 3' 6 
/3t.09 avTcov Kal rd eBr) rd e^ovra iroXv p.ev to 
^dpiSapov Kal to ^kvOlkov, irXeov /xevroi to 
-X^pijcrifiov irpot; -^yefiovlav Kal t7]v ev rol'i TroXe- 
/jLoi<i Karopdcoaiv. 

3. ^aal he tou? *ATTdpvov<i^ Ada^ fieravdo-Ta^ 
elvai €K TMv virep tt}? MattoTt^o? Aaoiv, ov<i 
'B.avhiov<; y Tlapiovi KaXovatv ov Trdvv S" co/jlo- 
Xoyi^rai Ada^ elvai riua<; rwv vrrep ri}<; Maico- 
Tt8o9 "^KvOoyv diTo TovTcov S' ovp eXKeiv (f>acrl 
TO yeva top ApcrdKrjv, ol Se BaKrpiavov Xeyouaiv 
avTov, (pevyovra Se rrjv av^')](Tiv roiv irepl 
A1080TOV dTToaTrfcrai Tt]v TlapOvalav. elprjK6re<i 

^ /^awv, Xylander, for AutIcov ; so the later editors. 

- 'Airdpvovs, Jones, for Xlapvovs (see note on 'Atrdpvovs, 11. 
7. 1). 
274 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. 9. 2-3 

Bactriana and of all the country near it, I mean 
Euthydemus and his followers ; and then Arsaces, 
a Scythian, with some of the Daae (I mean the 
Aparnians, as they were called, nomads who lived 
along the Ochus), invaded Parthia and conquered 
it. Now at the outset Arsaces was weak, being 
continually at war with those who had been de- 
prived by him of their territory, both he himself and 
liis successors, but later they grew so strong, always 
taking the neighbouring territory, through successes 
in warfare, that finally they established themselves 
as lords of the whole of the country inside the 
Euphrates. And they also took a part of Bactriana, 
having forced the Scythians, and still earlier 
Eucratides and his followers, to yield to them ; 
and at the present time they rule over so much 
land and so many tribes that in the size of their 
emjnre they have become, in a way, rivals of the 
Romans. The cause of this is their mode of life, 
and also their customs, which contain much that 
is barbarian and Scythian in character, though more 
that is conducive to hegemony and success in war. 

3. They say that the Aparnian Daae were 
emigrants from the Daae above Lake Maeotis, who 
are called Xandii or Pai'ii. But the view is not 
altogether accepted that the Daae are a part of 
the Scythians who live about Maeotis. At any 
rate, some say that Arsaces derives his origin from 
the Scythians, whereas others say that he was a 
Bactrian, and that when in flight from the enlarged 
power of Diodotus and his followers he caused 
Parthia to revolt. But since I have said much 

* ' A-jrapvovs, Jones, for Udpuovs (see note on 'Airdpyous, 11. 
7. 1). 

275 



STRABO 

Se TToWa Trepl twv YlapdtKMV vofilficov ev TJj eKrrj 
TMv tcTTopiKMV v7rofMvrj/j.dTcov ^L/3\(p, SevTepo, Be 
TOiv fi€Ta TLoXv^iov, TrapaXel.yjrofj.ev ivravOa, firj 
rauToXoyecv So^co/xev, roaovTov elirovTe^ fiovov, 
on TMv UapOvauov avvehpiov (f>r]aiv elvai Hocrei- 
8(ovio<; BiTToi', TO fxev crvy^/evoiv, to Se ao(f>o)v koI 
fid'ywv, i^ ojv dfupoiv tov^ /3acnX€l<i KadicrTaadai. 



1. 'H S' ^ Apia Kol 7} lAapyiavrj} KpaTtaTa^ 
'^oypia ecTTL TavTrj, tj] fiev viro tmv opoiv iyxXeio- 
fieva, TTj K iv TreStot? Ta<i olKi](jeL<i e')(^ovTa. to, 
fiev ovv 6pi] vefiovTai crK'qviTai Tive^, tcl he irehia 
7roTafiol<; SiappeiTai TroTi^ovaiv avTa, to, fiev tcG 
'Aptro, TO, Be ^Idp'jfp. 6/j.opet Be r) ^ Apia Trj 
C 516 BuKTpiav^ Kal ttjv vTrooTaaav opei tw e^oi'Tt 
TTjv TiaKTpiavtjv^ ^^^X^'- ^^ T"^? 'TpKaviWi irepX 
e^aKia)(^i\LOv^ aTaBiov;, (Tvvt€\i]<; B' tjv avTrj 
Kol rj ApayyiavT] fie')(^pt Kapp,avia'i, to /xev irXeov 
TOt? voTioi,<i fiepeac tcov opwv v7ro7re7rTO)Kvta, 
e')(pvaa fievTOi Ttva twv p^pcov ^ Kal TOi? dpKTt- 
KOi^ 7T\rjat.d^ovTa TOi? KaTO, Trjv ^ Aplav Kal rj 
^Apaxfocrla Be ov ttoXv airwOev ecFTi, Kal avrr] 

1 Mapyiai'7], Casaubon, for Martafr) E, MavTiavq I, MapTtavT) 
Other MSS. 

- Kpariffra K, & Kparicna other MSS. 

^ The words koI tijv v-Koaraffav opei rtf tx"*''''! ttjv BaKTptaviiv 
are unintelligible. For purely conjectural emendations see 
C. Miiller, Ind. Far. Led. p. 1016. 

276 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. 9. 3-10. i 

about the Parthian usages in the sixth book 
of my Llislorical Sketches and in the second book 
of my History of events after Polybius/ I shall 
omit discussion of that subject here, lest I may 
seem to be repeating what I have already said, 
though I shall mention this alone, that the Council 
of the Parthians, according to Poseidonius, consists 
of two groups, one that of kinsmen,^ and the other 
that of wise men and Magi, from both of which 
groups the kings were appointed.^ 

X 

1. A HI A and Margiana are the most powerful 
districts in this part of Asia, these districts in part 
being enclosed by the mountains and in part having 
their habitations in the plains. Now the mountains 
are occupied by Tent-dwellers, and the plains are 
intersected by rivers that irrigate them, partly by 
the Arius and partly by the Margus. Aria borders 
on Margiana and . . . Bactriana ; * it is about six 
thousand stadia distant from Hyrcania. And 
Drangiana, as far as Carmania, was joined with 
Aria in the payment of tribute — Drangiana, for the 
most part, lying below the southern parts of the 
mountains, though some parts of it approach the 
northern region opposite Aria. But Arachosia, also, 
is not far away, this country too lying below the 

' See Vol. I, p. 47, note 1. * i.e. of the king. 

^ It appear.? that the kings were chosen from the first 
group l)y the members of the second (see Forbiger, Vol. Ill, 
p. 39, note 7). 

* The text is corinipt (see critical note). 

* Instead of /lepajv E reads opu>v. 

277 



STRABO 

TOi? voTLoa fMepeai, tcov opcop viroTreTrTfo/cvla Koi 
fi^xpi- Tov ^Iv^ov TTorafiov Terafxevt], fxepo^ ovaa 
rri<i ^ Apiavrj'i. fj,riKO<; Se t?}? 'A/ota? ocror hua'^iXLOi, 
aruhiot, 7rA.aT09 he rpiaKoaioi tov irehiov jroXei^ 
Be ^ApraKarjva ^ koX WXe^uvSpeta Kal ^\')(^aia, 
eTTCovvfioi TCOV KTtadvTcov. evotvec Be a(j)dBpa ■>) 
yrj- Kal yap eh rpiyoviav 7rapap.evei ev aTTiTOiTroL^ 
ayyeai. 

2. Uapa7rXi]aLa B' earrl Kal i) ^lapytav?'], epi]- 
fMLai<; Be Trepie^x^erai to TreBiov. Oav/.uiaa<; Be rijv 
ev^viav 6 "Ecorrjp 'Ai^Tto^o? Tel)(^ei irepie^aXe 

KVkXoV k'X^OVTl ')(^lXiCOV KUL TTeVTaKOatCOV (JTaBlCOV, 

ttoXlv Be €KTL(7ev 'Ai/Tto^efai^. eua/iTreXo? Be Kal 
avTt] rj yij- (fiaal yovv tov TTvd/jieva eiipicrKecrOai 
TToXXaKis Bvalv duBpaat TrepLXrjTTTov, tov Be 
jBoTpvv BiTrri'^vv. 

XI 

1. T?}? Be BaKTpla^; fiept] /xev Tiva t^ ^ Apia 
Trapa/Si^XrjTai tt/so? apKTov, to. TroXXd S' virep- 
KeiTai irpo^ ew iro'XXr] S' eVrt Kal 7rdfi(f)opo<i 
ttXijv eXaiov. Toaovrov Be 'laxvc^av ol diroaTr]- 
aavT€<; " EXXtjvc'; avTrjv Bia ttjv dpeTrjv t^? p^copa?, 
w(JTe T^5? re Apiav7J<i eireKpaTOvv Kal tcov ^IvBoJv, 
oj? (prjaiv ArroXXoBcopo'i o ApTepnTrjvo^;,^ Kal 
irXeioi edvti KaTecrrpeyfravTO rj ^ AXe^avBpo<;, Kal 
fidXcaTa ^levavBpo<i {et ye Kal tov "TTraviv Bie^rj 

' For variant spellings see C. Miiller, Tnd. Var. Ltd. 
p. 1016. 

* '\pr(ixiTT)v6s, Corals, for ' ApTafiiTriv6s (cp. 2. 5. 12, 11. 
11. 7, and 11. 13. 6). 

278 



GEOGRAPHY, u. lo. i-ii. i 

southern parts of the mountains and extending as 
far as the Indus River, being a part of Ariana. The 
length of Aria is about two thousand stadia, and 
the breadth of the j)hiin about three hundred. Its 
cities are Artacaena and Alexandreia and Achaia, 
all named after their founders. The land is ex- 
ceedingly productive of wine, which keeps good for 
three generations in vessels not smeared v/ith pitch. 
2. Margiana is similar to this country, although 
its plain is surrounded by deserts. Admiring its 
fertility, Antiochus Soter ^ enclosed a circuit of 
fifteen hundred stadia with a wall and founded a city 
Antiocheia. The soil of the country is well suited 
to the vine ; at any rate, they say that a stock of the 
vine is often found which would require two men to 
girth it,2 and that the bunches of grapes are two 
cubits.^ 



XI 

1. As for Bactria, a part of it lies alongside Aria 
towards the north, though most of it lies above Aria 
and to the east of it. And much of it produces 
everything except oil. The Greeks who caused 
Bactria to revolt grew so powerful on account of the 
fertility of the country that they became masters, 
not only of Ariana, but also of India, as Apollodorus 
of Artemita says : and more tribes were subdued by 
them than by Alexander — by Menander in particular 
(at least if he actually crossed the Hypanis towards 

I King of Syria 280-261 B.C. 
* i.e. about ten to eleven feet in circumference. 
' i.e. about three feet ; apparently in length, not in cir- 
cumfereTice. 

279 



STRABO 

7r/309 eco, Koi /J'^XPt' "^ov 'l/J,dov^ irporjXde), ra fiev 
<yap auTO?, ra 8e Aij/jbi'jTpiO'i o FivOu8t]/uiov wo?, tov 
BuKTpiwv ^acn\ea)<i' ov povov he ttjv UaraXrjvijv 
Karea^ov, dWa koL t?}? dXXr]<i 'jrapa\ia<i tj]v re 
'%apa6(JT0v KoKov pki'rjv kol ttjv XiyepSiSo'; ^aai- 
Xeiav. Kad' oXov Se (f)r]aiv exeivo^ rrj^ cru/ATracrjy? 
^Apiavrj<i TTpoa'xripa elvai rrjv BuKTpiavijv' Kal St] 
KoX pe'x^pt Xrjp&v Kill ^pvvMv ^ e^ereivov ryv 

2. IIo\6f? S' el-x^ov Ta re BuKTpa, rjvirep Kal 
Zapidairav KoXova v, fjv Biappei 6pcovvp,o^ ttoto.- 
ytio? eK^dXkwv el'i tov 'fl^ov, Kal Adpa-^a ^ Kal 
dX\.a<i 7r\ei0v<;' tovtcov S" rjV Kal r] KuKpaTiSia, 
TOV dp^avTO<i eTr(iivvpo<i. ol Se «aTacr^ofT6<> 
avrrjv "E^Wr^ve^ Kal 64? aaTpaTreiaf; hirjpi'^Kaaiv, 

C 517 oiv rrjv re^AaTTLCovov Kal rrjv Tovpiovav ^ dcpjjpijv- 
ro ^vKparihr)v ol WapOvaloi. ecy')(^ov he Kal ripj 
'^oySiavrjv vTrepKetpevrjv Trpo? ea t?}? BaKTpiavij'i 
pera^v tov re 'fl^ov rrorapbov, o? opi^ei ri]v re 
rSiv HaKrpioov Kal ri]v tmv SoyBicov, Kal rod 
^la^dprov ovro<i Be Kal TOv<i 'StOySiou^ opi^ei Kal 
roix; vop.dBa'i. 

3. To p-ev ovv iraXaiov ov rroXv Biecpepov rol<i 
^Loi'i Kal TOi? i^decTL ^ TMv vop.dBwv o'l re SoySia- 
pol Kal ol BaKrptavoL, puKpov B' opois tjp.epdirepa 
tjv rd roiiv HaKrpiavcov, dXXd Kal irepl rovrcov ov 
rd ^eXriara Xiyovcriv ol rrepl ^OvrjcyiKpirov rov<; 
yap dTreiprjKora^i Bid yrjpa<i r) voaov ^(bvra<i rrapa- 

* 'Ijxdou, Meineke, from conj. of Casaubon, for 'Icrd/xou. 

* ^pvvcov, Tzschucke, for ^awuv. 

* £ia.pa\pa, Meineke emends to "ASpoifa (cp. ''ASpa\f/a in 
15. 2. 10), but the spelling is doubtful. 

280 



GEOGRAPHY, n. ii. 1-3 

the east and advanced as far as the Iniaiis), for some 
were subdued by him personally and others by 
Demetrius, the son of Euthydemus the king of the 
Bactrians ; and they took possession, not only of 
Patalena, but also, on the rest of the coast, of what 
is called the kingdom of Saraostus and Sigerdis. In 
short, ApoUodorus says that Bactriana is the orna- 
ment of Ariana as a whole ; and, more than that, they 
extended their empire even as far as the Seres and 
the Phryni. 

2. Their cities were Bactra (also called Zariaspa, 
through which flows a river bearing the same name 
and emptying into the Oxus), and Darapsa, and 
several others. Among these was Eucratidia, which 
was named after its ruler. The Greeks took posses- 
sion of it and divided it into satrapies, of which the 
satrapy Turiva and that of Aspionus were taken away 
from Eucratides by the Parthians. And they also 
held Sogdiana, situated above Bactriana towards the 
east between the Oxus River, which forms the 
boundary between the Bactrians and the Sogdians, 
and the laxartes River. And the laxartes forms also 
the boundary between the Sogdians and the nomads. 

3. Now in early times the Sogdians and Bactrians 
did not differ much from the nomads in their modes 
of life and customs, although the Bactrians were a 
little more civilised ; however, of these, as of the 
others, Onesicritus ^ does not report their best traits, 
saying, for instance, that those who have become 
helpless because of old age or sickness are thrown out 

^ See Dictionary in Vol. I. 

* '^ovpiovav, Meineke emends to lawplav, perhaps liglitly. 

* For YiBfffi Meineke reads ^Qiai. 

281 



STRABO 

^dWeadai rp€(f>Ofj,€voi<i Kvalv iTTLT7]Se<i Trpo? 
rovTO, ov<; ivra(^ia(na<; KaXeiaOat rfj TraTpooa 
yXcoTTj}, zeal opaadai tcl jxev e^co re/^oy? tt}? 
firjTpoTToXeoo^ tmv BaKTpcov KaOapd, tcov S" evTO<i 
TO irXeov oarewv 7r\r]p€<; dvOpwrrivav' KaraXvaac 
8e rov vofiov ^AXe^avSpov. TOiavra Be tto)? Kal 
rd irepX tou? KacrTrtof? laropovar rov^ yap 
yovea^, inreihav virep e^SofxijKovTa ctt; yeyovoTC^ 
Tuy)(^dv(t)aiv, eyKXecaOevra^ Xi/ioKTOveiaOai. tovto 
fiev ovv dveKTorepov Kal rw Ket'cov ^ v6p,(p irapa- 
TrXrjCTiov, Kaiirep ov SkvOikov, ttoXv fxivTot I^kvOl- 
KQ)T€pOU TO TCOV l^aKTpuivcov. Kal St] cl ^ BtaiTO- 
pelv d^iov rjv, rjVLKa 'AXe^avSpo<; rotavra Kare- 
Xdjx^ave TavrauOa, tl ')(^pr] elrreiv ^ rd iirl rwv 
TrpooTcov llepaoyv Kal rwv ert irporepov I'jyefxovcov, 
OTTola eiVo? ^v Trap' avrol^ vep-ajJiLcjOai ; 

4. ^aal 3' ovv okto) iroXei'; rov AXi^avBpov ev 
T6 rfj BaKrpiav^ Kal rfj XoySiavij Kriaai, rivd^ 8e 
KaraaKd'^ai, o)v Kapidra<i fxev t^? Ba/cTp/az'^?, 
ev 7] K.aXXia0evr]^ avveXi](f)dr} Kal rrapeSodrj 
(fyvXaKfj, ^lapdKavSa 8e t?}? ^oyBiavrj^ Kal rd 
Kvpa, ecr^arov bv KiJpou Kria/xa, eTrl tco JaPaprrj 
rrorajxo) Ketfjievov, oirep r]v opiov rrj<i llepacov 
dpXV^' Karaa-Kdyjrai 8e to Kriap-a rovro, Kai-nep 
ovra (fiiXoKvpov, 8ia ra<i TrvKvd'i d7ro(xrdaei<i' kXelv 
8e Kal Trerpa'i epvfxvd<i a(f)68pa eK 7rpo8oaca<i, ri]v 
re ev rfj BaKrpiavfj, rrjv ^Lai/xldpov, ev fj elyev 
^O^vapri)^ rijv dvyarepa Pco^dvrjv, Kal rrjv ev rfi 

^ K.el<tiv, Kramer, for oWfiif ; so the later editors. 
' fl, after Srj, Jones inserts. 
* flireiv, and Corais, for -noiflv. 

282 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. ii. 3-4 

alive as [)rey to dogs kept expressly for this purpose, 
which in their native tongue are called ** under- 
takers," and that while the land outside the 
walls of the metropolis of the Bactrians looks clean, 
yet most of the land inside the walls is full of human 
bones ; but that Alexander broke up the custom. 
And the reports about the Caspians are similar, for 
instance, that when parents live beyond seventy 
years they are shut in and starved to death. Now 
this latter custom is more tolerable ; and it is similar 
to that of the Ceians,^ although it is of Scythian 
origin ; that of the Bactrians, however, is much more 
like that of the Scythians. And so, if it was proper 
to be in doubt as to the facts at the time when 
Alexander was finding such customs there, what 
should one say as to what sort of customs were 
probably in vogue among them in the time of 
the earliest Persian rulers and the still earlier 
rulers ? 

4. Be this as it may, they say that Alexander 
founded eight cities in Bactriana and Sogdiana, and 
that he rased cei'tain cities to the ground, among 
which was Cariatae in Bactriana, in which Callisthenes 
was seized and imprisoned, and Maracanda and Cyra 
in Sogdiana, Cyra being the last city founded by 
Cyrus '^ and being situated on the laxartes River, 
which was the boundary of the Persian empire ; and 
that although this settlement was fond of Cyrus, he 
rased it to the ground because of its frequent 
revolts; and that through a betrayal he took also 
two strongly fortified rocks, one in Bactriana, that of 
Sisimithres, where Oxyartes kept his daughter 

1 Cf. 10. 5. 6. * Cyrus the Eider. 

283 



ST R A BO 

^oySiav^ TTjv Tov "O^ou, o'l 8' ' Apiapid^ov (f)aaL 
TTjv fxev ovv XifTifildpov irevreKaiheKa arahiwv 
laTopovcri to vyfro^, oySorJKovTU 8k tov kvkXov' 
dvoj 8' eTriirehov koX evyecov, oaov TrevraKoaiovf; 
dv8pa<; Tpicpeiv hvvajxevi^v, ev fj koX ^€vLa<; TV)(€lv 
TToXvrekov'i, /tat ydfj,ovf; dyayelv 'Po)^dvi]f; rt;? 
^O^udprov 6uyaTp6<; tov ^ AXi^avhpov' ryv 6e t*/"? 
^oySiavF]<; hnrXaaiav to ux/^o? (^acri. irepl tovtov<; 
Be T0U9 TOTTOf? Kal TO Tcov Bpay)(^iSb)v darv dve- 
C 518 Xelv, ov^ ^ep^rjv p.kv IBpuaai avToOt,, avva- 
7rdpavra<; avrw eKovTa^ €k t?}? otKeia^, Bid 
TO TrapaSovvai tu xP^'l/^^"^^ "^^^ Oeov Ta iv 
AiSy/iot? Kal Tov<; drier avpov<i' eKelvov S' dveXeiv 
/jLvcraTTo/xevou ttjv lepocrvXiav Kal Trjv vpohoaiav. 
5. Tor he hid Trj<i ^oyhiavi)<i peovTa TroTUfMov 
KaXel^ l]oXvTlfjLi]Tov ^Api(TT6/3ovXo<;, tmv MuKe- 
Sovcov ovofia ^ Oeixevoyv {KaOdrrep Kal dXXa iroXXa 
Ta fiev Kaivd eOeaav, Ta Be Trapcovopbaaav), 
dpBovTa Be ttjv ^(opav eKiriTTTeiv eh eprjp^ov Kal 
dpLfidiBr] yr)v, KaTaTTLveaOai t€ et9 ttjv d/m/j-ov, co? 
Kal TOV ^Aptov TOV Bi ^Apiwv peovTa. tov Be 
'Vly^ov TTOTa/xov TrXrjcriov 6pvTT0VTa<; evpeiv eXaiov 
7r7]yi]v Xeyovaiv' et/to? Be, oiairep viTpcoBrj Tivd 
Kal (TTV(f)OvTa vypd Kal da^aXTdiBi] Kal OeLwBrj 
Biappel TTjv yrjv, ovtw Kal Xivapa evpiaKeaOai, to 
Be (Tirdviov TTOiel Trjv irapaBo^iav. pelv Be tov 
^ClXov 01 fiev Btd tt}? BaKTpiavrj^ (f)a(TLV, oi Be 

' KaAei, Forbiger, from conj. of Casaubon, for kui. ixy 
insert \4yeL after 'Apia-T6fiou\os. xy omit the Kai, and so 
Tzschucke and Corais. 

* ovofia, Jones inserts, from conj. of Kramer; others, 

284 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. ii. 4-5 

Rhoxana, and the other in Sogdiana, that of Ox us, 
though some call it the rock of Ariamazes. Now 
writers report that that of Sisimithres is fifteen 
stadia in height and eighty in circuit, and that on 
top it is level and has a fertile soil which can support 
five hundred men, and that here Alexander met with 
sumptuous hospitality and married Rhoxana, the 
daughter of Oxyartes ; but the rock in Sogdiana, 
they say, is twice as high as that in Bactriana. And 
near these places, they say, Alexander destroyed also 
the city of tlu' Branchidae, whom Xerxes had settled 
there — people who voluntarily accompanied him from 
their home-land — because of the fact that they had 
betrayed to him the riches and treasures of the god 
at Didyma. Alexander destroyed the city, they add, 
because he abominated the sacrilege and the be- 
trayal. 

5. Aristobulus ^ calls the river which flows through 
Sogdiana Polytimetus, a name imposed by the Mace- 
donians (just as they imposed names on many other 
places, giving new names to some and slightly altering 
the spelling of the names of others) ; and watering 
the country it empties into a desert and sandy land, 
and is absorbed in the sand, like the Arius which flows 
through the country of the Arians. It is said that 
people digging near the Ochus River found a spring 
of oil. It is reasonable to suppose that, just as nitrous " 
and astringent and bituminous and sulphurous liquids 
flow through the earth, so also oily liquids are found ; 
but the rarity causes surprise.^ According to some, 
the Ochus flows through Bactriana ; according to 

^ See 11. 7. 3 and foot-note. 

* i.e. containing; soda (see 11. 14. 8 and foot-note). 

^ i.e., apparently, when one does happen to find them. 

285 



STRABO 

Trap' auTrjv, Kol o'l fxev erepov tov 'fl^ov fJ'expf' 
T(ji)v €k/3oX6)v, voTicorepov eKeivov, a^f^orepwv K 
€V rfj "TpKavia To.'i €t<i ti]v OaKaTrav vTrdpx^tv 
eKpvaei<i, ol Sk Kar ap)(^a^ fj,€v erepov, avfi^dX- 
Xeiv S' et? ev to tov 'O^ou peWpov, iroWa^ov koL 
e^ Kal eTTTo, aTahioyv e^ouTa to TrXaro*?. 6 jxevToi 
'la^dpTrj^ dir dp')(r)^ M'^XP'' "'"^^oi'S' erepo'? eari 
TOV "fl^ov, Kal et? fiev ttjv uvttjv TeXevroiv dakaT- 
rav, al 8' ifx^oXal Biexovaiv oXXtjXwv, w? <f)t]ai 
l]aTpoK\7]<;, 7Tapa(Tdyya<; w? oyBoi'jKovra' tov he 
7rapaadyyr]v tov WepcriKov ol fxev e^rjKOVTa ara- 
Slodv (f)aalv, ol he rpiaKOVTa rj ^ rerTapaKovra. 
dvarrXeovTcov S' r^pirav tov NeiXov dXXor aX\oi<; 
fieTpoi<; XP^M^^'' "^^"^ crxolvov^ (ovo/xa^ov uTrb 
TToXeeo"? eVt ttoXiv, ware tov avTov tcov crxoivoiv 
dpidfiov dXXaxov p^^v fMei^to Trapex^iv ttXovv, 
dXXaxov he ^pax^Tepov out&)<? e^ dpx^l'i irapa- 
hehop,evov kol (fivXaTTo/xevov P'ixpi' vvv. 

6. Me'^YPt fxev hrj tt;? ^oyhcav7]<; 7rpo<i dvicrxovTa 
ijXiov lovTi diTO Tri<i "TpKavia<; yvcoptfxa VTrrjp^e to, 
edvi) Kal TOt? Wepaai'i irpoTepov to, elo-w " tov 
Tavpov Kal Tols Ma/ceSoat p.€Ta Tavra Kal toi<; 
Wapdvaloi^. TO, h' ineKeiva eV €vBeia<; oti fiev 
SkvOiku eaTiv, €k rrjs ofioeiheia^; eiKd^erai, arpa- 
Telat S' ov yeyovaaiv eV avTov<i t)fJLLv yvwfifxoi, 
KaOdirep ovhe eVi Tov<i ^opeioTdTOV<i toov vofidhwv 
e'^' ov<; inex^lpv^^^ P-^^' o A.Xe^avhpo'i dyeiv arpa- 

^ rpidKovra ^, Xylander, for rpiaxoalav ; so the later editors. 
* eiftro), Du Theil, for i^ui ; so Meineke and others. 
286 



GEOGRAPHY, n. ii. 5-6 

others, alongside it. And according to some, it is a 
different river from tlie Oxus as far as its mouths, 
being more to the south than the Oxus, although 
they both have their outlets into the Caspian Sea 
in Hyrcania, whereas others say that it is different 
at first, but unites with the Oxus, being in many 
places as much as six or seven stadia wide. The 
laxartes, hoMever, from beginning to end, is a 
different river from the Oxus, and although it ends 
in the same sea, the mouths of the two, according to 
Fatrocles, are about eighty parasangs distant from 
one another. The Persian parasang, according to 
some, is sixty stadia, but according to others thirty 
or forty. When I was sailing up the Nile, they used 
different measures when they named the distance in 
" schoeni " from city to city, so that in some places 
the same number of "schoeni" meant a longer 
voyage and in others a shorter ; ^ and thus the 
variations have been preserved to this day as handed 
down from the beginning. 

6. Now the tribes one encounters in going from 
Hyrcania towards the rising sun as far as Sogdiana 
became known at first to the Persians — I mean the 
tribes inside ^ Taurus — and afterwards to the Mace- 
donians and to the Parthians ; and the tribes situated 
on the far side of those tribes and in a straight line 
with them are su])posed, from their identity in 
kind, to be Scythian, although no expeditions have 
been made against them that 1 know of, any more 
than against the most northerly of the nomads. 
Now Alexander did attempt to lead an expedition 

* On the variations in the length of the "sclioenus," see 
17. 1. 24. 

* i.e. "north of" Taurus (see 11. 1. 2). 

287 



STRABO 

reiav ore rov ^rjaaov fMerrjei icaX rov "ZiriTa- 
/j,€VTjv, ^(oypia 8' ava')(9evT0^ tov ^rjaaou, rov he 
^TnTajxevov; vtto tmv ^ap^dpcov Biacf>BapevTO'i, 
e-rravaaTO t?)? imy^eipi](Te(i)<i. ov)(^ ofioXoyovcri S', 
OTL TrepieTrXeuadv Tive<i utto tt}? ^\vhiKri<i eVt rrjv 
"TpKaviav, otl Be Svvarov llarpoKXTj<; eipijKe. 
C 519 7. Aeyerai Be, Siori tov Taupou to TeXevralov, 
b KoKovaiv ^IjjLcuov,^ rfj 'IvBikt] OaXdrry ^vvdirrov, 
ovSev ovT€ iTpov)(eL irpo^ eco tt}? ']i>8iKi)<i fidXXov 
oijT elaex^'-' frapLovri S' et? to ^opeioi' TrXevpov, 
del Ti TOV fiijKOV^ v(f>aip€l koL tov irXdrovi t) 
ddXarra, wo-t' aTToc^aiveiv fxeiovpov ^ Trpo? ew rrjv 
vvv v'7roypa(pofji,ev7]i/ fieplBa rrf<i 'Acr/a?, rjv 6 
TaO/ao? uTroXafi/Sdvei tt/oo? rov wKeavov rbv 
irXiipovvra to K-dcnriov rriXaya. fiijKO^ 2' 
€(ttI ravrr}^ rr)^ fi€piBo<i ro ^eytarov drro rfj<i 
'TpKavLa<i OaXdrrrj'i irrl rov wxeavov rov Kara 
ro ^Ifidlov rpiarfivpicov ttov araSicov, Trapd rrjv 
opecvrjv rov Tavpov rrj<i rropeia^ ovai]<i, rrXdro^ 
5' eXarrov roiv fMvpiwv.^ el'py]rat ydp, on irepl 
rerpaKi(TfMvpiov<i araBiov^ earl ro diro rov 
'laacKov koXttov p-^XP^ '^V'^ ewa<i daXdrrr]^ rfj<i 
Kara ^\v8ov<i, iirl 8' ^laaov aiTo rwv kcnreplwv 
aKpoov roiv Kara ^rifXa<i dXXoi rpiafivpiof eari 
Be 6 /jLVxb<i rov ^laacKov koXttov fiiKpbv rj ovBev 
'A/xtCToO e(o6iv(t>repo^, ro Be utto 'Ap,iaov errl rijv 
"TpKaviav yrjv irepl p.vpiov<i earl araBiov^, irapdX- 
XrfXov ov rco diro rov 'laaov Xex^^vri eirl rov<; 
'lvBov<;. XeiTTerat Bt] ro Xe^^^v /j,t]ko<; irrl rrjv 

^ 'Ifnaioi', Meineke, foi"Ijuoioj' E, "ifieov other MSS. 

- E has fivovpov above fxdovpov ; Meineke so reads. 

* See note of Groskurd, who would emend t^vpiwv to 
«{a«iffxi'\i<«'»'; also Kramer's comment. 
2S8 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. n. 6-7 

against these when he was in pursuit of" Bessus^ and 
Spitamenes, but when Bessus was captured alive and 
brought back, and Spitainenes was slain by the 
barbarians, he desisted from his undertaking. It is 
not generally agreed that persons have sailed around 
from India to Hyrcania, but Patrocles states that it 
is possible. 

7. It is said that the last part of the Taurus, which 
is called Imaius and borders on the Indian Sea, 
neither extends eastwards farther than India nor 
into it ; ^ but that, as one passes to the northern side, 
the sea gradually reduces the length and breadth of 
the country, and therefore causes to taper towards 
the east the portion of Asia now being sketched, 
which is comprehended between the Taurus and the 
ocean that fills the Caspian Sea. The maximum 
length of this portion from the Hyrcanian Sea 
to the ocean that is opposite the Imaius is about 
thirty thousand stadia, the route being along the 
mountainous tract of the Taurus, and the breadth 
less than ten thousand ; foi-, as has been said,^ the 
distance from the Gulf of Issus to the eastern sea at 
India is about forty thousand stadia, and to Issus 
from the western extremity at the Pillars of Heracles 
thirty thousand more.* The recess of the Gulf of 
Issus is only slightly, if at all, farther east than 
Amisus, and the distance from Amisus to the 
Hyrcanian land is about ten thousand stadia, being- 
parallel to that of the above-mentioned distance 
from Issus to India. Accordingly, there remain 
thirty thousand stadia as the above-mentioned length 

^ Satrap of Bactria under Darius III. 

* To understand this discussion, see Map in Vol. I. 
» See 2. 1. 3 ff. 

* See, and compare, 1. 4. 5, 2. 1. 85, 2. 4. .3, and 11. 1. S. 



STRABO 

eco rr]<i ireptcoBev/jLevi]^ vvvl fiepiho<i ol rpicrfivpioi 
aTuBioi. TraXiv he tov irXdrov; tov fieyicnov^ 
T^9 oiKovfievrj^ 6Vto<? Trepl Tpi(Tfivpiov<; (nahiov;, 
')(Xafiv8ci8ov<; 01/(7779, to 8tdarr]fia tovto iyyv<; av 
ehj TOV /jLearjfi^pivov tov Bia t?}? 'TpKuvCa^; 
6a\dTTrj<i ypacpofievov kclI t?}? T\epaiKrj<i, elirep ecrrt 
TO fJ,i]KO<i T?}? olKov/xevr]<; eirTa fivpid8e<i' el ovv 
d-TTo T?}? TpKav[a<i iirl ApTefiLTau ttjv iv ttj 
Ha^vX(ovLa aTahLoi elaiv OKTaKiax^'^^oi, KaddTrep 
elprjKev 'AttoXX-oSw^o? e'/c t?7? 'ApTep,LTa<;,^ eKeWev 
K €7rl TO aTOfia t/}? kutu He/jaa? Oa\dTTr]<i ctWo 
ToaovTov iaTC, Kal irdXiv toctovtov t) fiiKpov 
ciTroXeiTTov et? to, dvTaipovTa Tol<i cLKpoi^ t^9 
Ai^iOTTta?, XoiTTOv av etrj tov TrXaTOi;? tt}? oIkov- 
/j.ei>T]^ tov Xe^devTo^ dno tov fxv)(^ov Trj<i "TpKavia^ 
0a\dTT7]<i eVt TOV aTOfJ-UTO^ avT7]<i oaov elptJKa- 
/j.€v. fieiovpov S' 6vTo<i tov TfirjfiaTO^ tovtov t?}<> 
yi'j^ irrl to, tt/jo? eco fieprj, y'lvoiT^ av to cx'xrjixa 
IT poaop-oiov fJLayeipiKfi kottlSc, tov fiev 6pov<; ctt' 
6v0€ia<; 6Vt09, Kal voov/j,evov KaTO, ttjv ukjxi^v tj/9 

KOTTiho^;, T?}9 S' UTTO TOV (JTOp-aTO^ TOV "TpKaVLOV 

'irapa\i,a<i eirl Td/j,apov KaTa ddTepov irXevphv et9 
7Tepi(f)epi) Kal fieiovpov ypa/j,fu.)]v dTroXfjyov. 

8. ^EiTri/jLVT)aT€ov Be Kal twv Ttapah6^a>v eviwv, 
a OpvXovat irepl twv TeXeu><i ^ap^dpcov, olov tcov 
•nepl TOV K.avKa(TOV Kal tjjv dXXy^v opetvrjv. toI^ 
C 520 fiev yap v6/j.ip.ov elvai (f)aai to tov YivpnriBov, 

TOV cfiuvTa dprjvelv, eh 6a epx^rai KaKd, 
TOV 8 av OavovTa Kal ttovcov ireTrav/xevov 
^atpoi/Ta9 ev(pr]/j,ovvTa<i eKire/xTreiv Sofxcov 

^ Toi/ /xiyla-Tov, Corais, for tj)s ij.iyi(rrr)s ; so the later editors. 

^ 'ApTtniras, Xylander, for 'ApTe/x-qaias Cx, 'ApTentclas 
other MSS. 
290 



GEOGRAPHY, n. ii. 7-8 

towards the east of the portion now described. 
Again, since the maximum breadth of the inhabited 
world, which is chlaniys-shaped,^ is about tliirty 
thousand stadia, this distance would be measured 
near the meridian line drawn through the Hyrcanian 
and Persian Seas, if it be true that the length of 
the inhabited world is seventy thousand stadia. 
Accordingly, if the distance from Hyrcania to 
Artemita in Babylonia is eight thousand stadia, as 
is stated by Apollodorus of Artemita, and the 
distance from there to the mouth of the Persian Sea 
another eight thousand, and again eight thousand, 
or a little less, to the places that lie on the same 
parallel as the extremities of Ethiopia, there would 
remain of the above-mentioned breadth of the in- 
habited world the distance which I have already 
given,- from the recess of the Hyrcanian Sea to the 
mouth of that sea. Since this segment of the earth 
tapers towards the eastern parts, its shape would be 
like a cook's knife, the mountain being in a straight 
line and conceived of as corresponding to the edge 
of the knife, and the coast from the mouth of the 
H3rcanian Sea to Tamarum as corresponding to the 
other side of the knife, which ends in a line that 
curves sharply to the point. 

8. I must also mention some strange customs, every- 
where talked about, of the utterly barbarous tribes ; 
for instance, the tribes round the Caucasus and the 
mountainous country in general. What Euripides 
refers to is said to be a custom among some of them, 
"to lament the new-born babe, in view of all the 
sorrows it will meet in life, but on the other hand 
to carry forth from their homes with joy and bene- 
dictions those who are dead and at rest from their 

' See Vol. I, p. 435, note 3, * Six thousatul (2. 1. 17). 

291 



STRABO 

€Tepoi<; Be /xrjSiva aTTOKreiveiv rwv i^a/j-aprovrcov 
ra fj-eyiara, dW e^opi^eiv fxovov fiera rcov rifcvcov, 
v7revavTL0)<; rol'i Aepffi^r Kal yap iirl fiiKpoL<; 
ovTOL a^drrovaL. cre^ovrai 8e Vr/v ol ^epjSiKe^' 
Pvovai 5' ouSev OrfKv ouSe iaOlovaC tou? 8k virep 
e/3Bop,i]KovTa eTYj yeyovora'i acfydTrovat,, dvaXicr- 
Kovai Be ra? crdpKa<i ol ay^KTra yevov<i' Ta<i Be 
ypaia'i dirdy^^^ovaw, elra Od-rrTovcn- rov^ Be eVro? 
k^Bofxi']KOVTa eroyv dTroOavovrwi ovk ecrOiovaiv, 
dWd Odtnovai. ^[yivvot. Be rdWa fiev irepai- 
i^ovaiv, imrapLoif; Be -^poivjaL p.iKpol'i, Baaeacv, 
direp 'nr'TTorTjv ox^lv pev ov Bvvavrai, redpnnra Be 
^evyvvovcriv 7]vio')(ov<ti Bk yvvalKe<^, Ik ttulBcov 
■^aKrjfiei'ai, t) B' dpiara rjvioxovcra avvoiKet a> 
/3ov\€Tai. TLva^ S' einTrjBeveiv (paalv, otto)? eo? 
paKpoK€(f)aX(OTaTOi (^avovvrai, koI Trpoire'iTru}- 
«oTe? T0i9 peTct)7roi<;, 0)<t9 vrrepKVTrreiv tmv 
yevetcov. Ta7Tvpa>v^ 3' ecrrt Kai to tou? fiev 
avBpa<i peXaveipovelv Kal paKpoKopelv, rd^ Be 
yvvalKa^ \ev)(eipovelv Kal /3pa)(^vKopeLv' oIkov(tl 
Be fj-era^v Aep^iKcov Kal TpKavoiv^ Kal 6 
dvBpeioraro'; KpiOelf; yapel fjv jBovXeraL. Katr- 
irioi. Be TOL'9 virep ejBBopn'jKovTa enj XipoKrom]- 
aavTe<i ei<i rrjv epy^piav eKTiQeaaiv, aTTcoOei' Be 
CTKOTrevovre^ edv p'ev vir opviOcov KaTaaTVoyperovi 
diTO Tj}? kXiv^]'^ XBwaiv, evBaipovi^ovai, edv Be 
virb di~ipioyv rj kvvcov, rjrrop, edv S' vtto pr)Bev6<i, 
KaKoBaipovi^ovac, 

^ Tairvpoiv, Corais, for Tairv/i(Dv ; so Meineke. 
^ oUoixTi Se . . . "tp.^ayuv appears to be a gloss from 11, 
9. 1. 

292 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. n. 8 

troubles " ; ^ and it is said to be a custom among 
others to jiut to death none of the greatest criminals, 
but only to cast tiiem and their children out of their 
borders — a custom contrary to tliat of the Derbices, 
for these slaughter people even for slight offences. 
The Derbices worship Mother Eai-th ; and they do 
not sacrifice, or eat, anything that is female ; and 
when men become over seventy years of age they are 
slaughtered, and their flesh is consumed by their 
nearest of kin ; but their old women are strangled 
and then buried. However, the men wlio die under 
seventy years of age are not eaten, but only buried. 
The Siginni imitate the Persians in all their customs, 
except that they use ponies that are small and 
shaggy, which, though unable to carry a horseman, are 
yoked together in a four-horse team and are driven 
by women trained thereto from childhood ; and the 
woman who drives best cohabits with whomever she 
wishes. Others are said to practise making their 
heads appear as long as possible and making their 
foreheads project beyond their chins. It is a custom 
of the Tapyri for the men to dress in black and 
wear their hair long, and for the women to dress in 
white and wear their hair short. 'Phev live between 
the Derbices and the Hyrcanians. And he who is 
adjudged the bravest marries whomever he wishes. 
The Caspians starve to death those who are over 
seventy years of age and place their bodies out in 
tlie desert ; and then they keep watch from a dis- 
tance, and if they see tiiem dragged from their 
biers by birds, they consider tliem fortunate, and 
if by wild beasts or dogs, less so, but if by nothing, 
they consider them cursed by fortune. 

^ Frag. Cresphontes 449 (Nauck). 

293 



ST R A BO 



XII 



1. *E7rel Be to, ^opeia /J-epi] t/}? 'Acria? iroiel 6 
TaOpo?, a 07] Kol ii>TO<i tov Tavpov koXovolv, 
elirelv TrpoeiXo/xeda irpwrov TvepX tovtwv'^ tovtcov 
S" iari koI ra iv rol^ opecriv avroh »; o\a 
r) ra irXelcna. oaa fxev rcov KaaTricov ttvXwv 
kwdiviorepa iariv, airXovaTepav eyet, rrjv Trepit']- 
<yT}(Tiv Bia rrjv aypLOTr^ra, ov ttoXv re av 
6ia(f)€poi rovBe rj rovSe tov KXlparo<i avyKa- 
TaXej(deuTa' to. S' eaTrepia iravra hihwaiv 
evTTopiav TOV Xeyeiv irepl avTcov, coare Bel irpod- 
yeiv eTTi tu 7rapaKeip,eva Tals KacrTrtat? 7rvXai<i. 
TrapaKeirai Be >) ^IrjBia Trpo? Bvaiv, X'^P^ '^"^ 
ttoXXt) Kal Bwacrrevaaad irore koX ev p,i(T(p tw 
TauyOft) KeifxevTj, iroXvay^iBel kuto. Tavra vTrdp^ovTi 
Ta fMeprj kul avXMva<i epirepiXa/jL^dvovTC /xeyaXov^;, 
KaOuTrep Kal TJ} ^Ap/xevca rovro cuyLt/Se/jJ^/ce. 

2. To yap 6po<; tovto dp-)(eraL pev diro t/}? 
K.apia<i Kal AvKia^, aA,V evravOa pev ovre 
TrXaTO? ovTe vy}ro<; d^ioXoyov BeiKWcriv, i^atpeTai 
Be TToXv TTpcoTOv KaTCL Ta<i X.€XiBoPia<;' avTai B 
elcrl vrjtToi Kara rrjv apxv^ t"?}? napL(f)vX(t)V 

C 521 TrapaXta?' eTrl Be ra? dvaToXa<i eKTeivopevov ^ 
avX(bva<; paKpov<;^ diroXap^dvei rov^ twv K.i- 
Xlkwv' elra ttj pev TO^Apavovdir^ avrov a^i^^Tai, 
Trj Be AvTLTavpo<;, ev u> to, K.6p.ava 'iBpvTai to 
ev Toi<i avo) Xeyopevoi^ KaTnrdBo^iv. outo? p.ev 

^ irfpl Tovrwy, Tzschucke, for irepl tovtov oz ; otlier MSS. 
omit the words. 

^ fKTftvifievov, Meineke, for iKretvSufvos, from correction 
in D. 

294 



GEOGRAPHY, n. 12. 1-2 

XII 

1. Since the northern parts of Asia are formed 
by the Taurus, — I mean the parts which are also 
called "Cis-Tauran" Asia,^ I have chosen to describe 
these first These include all or most of the regions 
in the mountains themselves. All that lie farther 
east than the Caspian Gates admit of a simpler 
description because of the wildness of their inhabi- 
tants ; and it would not make much difference 
whether they were named as belonging to this 
" clima " 2 or that, whereas all that lie to the west 
afford abundant matter for description, and therefore 
I must proceed to the parts which are adjacent to 
the Caspian Gates. Adjacent to the Caspian Gates 
on the west is Media, a country at one time both 

" extensive and powerful, and situated in the midst of 
the 'I'aurus, which is split into many parts in the 
region of Media and contains large valleys, as is 
also the case in Armenia. 

2. For this mountain has its beginning in Caria 
and Lycia ; there, irideed, it has neither any con- 
siderable breadth nor height, but it first rises to a 
considerable height opposite the Chelidoniae, which 
are islands at the beginning of the coast of Pam- 
phylia, and then stretching towards the east encloses 
long valleys, those in Cilicia, and then on one side 
the Amanus Mountain splits off it and on the other 
the Antitaurus Mountain, in which latter is situated 
Comana, in Upper Cappadocia, as it is called. Now 

1 See 11. 1. 1-5. * See Vol. I, p. 22, foot-note 2. 

' naKpovs E, ixtKpds oz, fiiKpovs ot'.ier MSS. 

295 



ST R A BO 

o^v ev TTJ KaTaovia TeXevra, to Se W/xavov 6po<; 
fxexpi Tov Kv(f)pdrov Kal t% MeXtxT;!'?}? Trpoeiai, 
KaB' t)v 7] K.o/jLfJ,ayr]vr] t?} K.aTr7ra8oKia irapd- 
K€iTai' eVSep^erat 8e ra irepav tov KvcjipciTov oprj, 
avvex^ yitei' toI<; Trpo€iprjp,evoi<i, irXrjv ocrov 8ia- 
KOTTTSi pewv Bia /xeawv 6 7roTafi6<;' ttoWtjv S' 
iirLSomv Xafi/Bdvei et? to {/■v/^'o? kuI to 7r\dT0<i Ka\ 
TO TToXva-y^ihe';. to S' ovv voticotutov p^dXiaTd 
icTTiv Tavpo<;, opi^cov ttjv ^App.eviav diro Trj<^ 
MecroTTOTa/xia"?. 

3. ^KvTevdev Be ufji(f)6T€poL peovaiv o'l ti^v 
\leaoTroTap.Lav eyKVKXoufievoi TTOTa/xol Kal <rv- 
i/aTTTOVTe? dXX7jXoi.<i €771/9 KaTa ttjv ^a^vXwviav, 
eiTa €k8i86vt€<; ct? tj]v kuto, Ylepaa<; ddXaTTav, 
6 re Kv(f)pdTr]<; koI Tlypii;, ecTTL 8e Kal fiei^wv 
6 Kv(f)pdTt]<; Kal irXeiw hie^eiat, ^(wpav (tkoXim 
Tft) peidpw, Ta<; irriyd's e^fov ev tco Trpocr/Sopo) 
fxepet, TOV Tavpov, pewv 8' iirl 8v(rtv 8cd t/}? 
\\p/jL€via<i tt)? fMeydXi]<i KaXovfj.evr]<; p-ixP'' '''% 
pLiKpa^, ev 8e^id e')^(Jiv TavTi]v, ev dpicrTepa 8e 
TTJV AKiXiar]vt]V' ^ e'r' eTritTTpe^ei Trpo? votov, 
avvdiTTei Be KaTa ttjv eiriaTpocpTjv toI<; KairiTa- 
86k(ov opiofs' 8e^ia 8e TavTa d(pe\<; Kal to, tmv 
KofipLayijvMV, dpiaTepa 8e tyjv ' AKtXiirrjvrjv Kal 
'Ea)(f)'r]VT]v T^9 fj.€ydXi]<; Wpp.evLa'i irpoeiaiv evl ttjv 
^vpiav Kal Xa/x/3dvei irdXtv dXXyjv e7riaTpo(f)r]v 
et? Tr^v BajSvXojvLav Kal tov nepcriKov koXttov. 
6 8e TiypL<i eK tov votcov p,epov<i tov avTov 
6pov<i eve')(del<i cttI ttjv "EeXevKeiav auvdiTTei tu> 
Kv(f)pdTr} TrXyjcriov Kal Troiel ti-jv \leao7roTa/j,iav 
7rp6^ avTov, eW eKBiBcocrt Kal avTO? et? tov 
avTov kuXttov. Bie^ovaL 8e dXXijXwv at TTtjyal tov 
296 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. 12. 2-3 

the Antitaurus ends in Cataoiiia, whereas the 
mountain Amanus extends to the Euphrates River 
and Melitine, where Commagene lies adjacent to 
Cappadocia. And it is succeeded in turn by the 
mountains on the far side of tlie Euphrates, which 
are continuous with those aforementioned, except 
that they are cleft by the river that flows through 
the midst of them. Here its height and breadth 
greatly increase and its braniches are more numerous. 
At all events, the most southerly part is the Taurus 
proper, which separates Armenia from Mesopotamia. 
3. Thence flow both rivers, I mean the Euphrates 
and the Tigris, which encircle Mesopotamia and 
closely approach each other in Babylonia and then 
empty into the Persian Sea. The Euphrates is not 
only the larger of the two rivers, but also, with its 
winding stream, traverses more country, having its 
sources in the northerly region of the Taurus, and 
flowing towards the west througli Greater Armenia, 
as it is called, to Lesser Armenia, having the latter 
on its right and Acilisene on the left. It then 
bends towards the south, and at its bend joins the 
boundaries of Cappadocia ; and leaving these and 
the region of Commagene on the right, and Acilisene 
and Sophene in Greater Armenia on the left, it runs 
on to Syria and again makes another bend into 
Babylonia and the Persian Gulf. The Tigris, run- 
ning from the southerly part of the same mountain 
to Seleuceia, approaches close to the Euphrates and 
with it forms Mesopotamia, and then flows into the 
same gulf as the Euphrates. The sources of the 



' 'AKiAia-nvTiv in margin of E, \ia7ivT\v MSS. , BaaiXLTrivi^v 
Epit., Casaubon and Corais. 

297 



STRABO 

T€ Eixfipdrov fcal rov Tiypio^ irepl Bicrxi^t'Ov^ Koi 
TrevraKoaiov^ (TTaBiov<;. 

4. 'Atto 5' ovv Tov Taupov 7rp6<; apKTov 
aTTOfT^iSe? TToXXal yeyovaai, p.ia p.ev rj tov 
KaXovfievov ^ Avmavpov xal yap evravda ovtco^ 
(ot'opd^ero 6 rrjv liax^rjvrjv cnroXafi^dvcov iv 
avKthvL p,€Ta^v Keifievu) avTov re Kal tov Tav- 
pov. irepav he tov Y.v(^pdTov kutci ti]V fiLKpdv 
^Ap/j.€VLav i(f)€^y)'i tw WvTCTavpo) irpo^ dpKTOv 
eTTCKTelveTai p.eya 6po<; xal TroXvcrjj^^iSe^' KaXouai 
Be TO fiev avTov TlapvdSprjv,^ to Se Moo-;;^i/ca 
opr}, TO B' dX\oi<; ovofiaai' TavTa h' diroXap^^dvet 
TTjv Wpp^viav oXijv pexpt ^^^rjpwv kuI \W/3av6)v, 
eZr' aXX" eiravicxTaTaL Trpo? e<w, ra vvepKeifieva 
C 522 tt)? KacTTTta? OaXaTTt]'; p^e^pt- MT/^ta?, Ttj^ re 
^ATpoTTUTLOV Kttl Tr;? peydXr]^' KaXovai he Kal 
TavTU TO, p-epr] TrdvTa TOiv opoiv YlapaxodO pav 
Kal TCL p-expi T(t)v KacTTrlcov ttvXwv Kal eireKeiva 
€Tt 7r/)o? Tat? dvaToXai<; to, avvdiTTovTa ttj 'Apta. 
Ta p,ev hr) rrpocr^opa oprj ovtw KoXovai, to, he 
voTia TO, irepav tov Euc^parou, drrb ^ t^9 KavrTra- 
hoKLa<; Kal tt}? ^s.opp.ayrjvy)'; 'rrpo<; eo) TeivovTa, 
KaT dp-)(^a<i pev aiiTo tovto KaXe'iTai Tavpo<;, 
SiopL^o)!' Trjv 'S.CL)(f)i]V7]v Kal TTjV dXXTpi 'Appeviav 
UTTO Trj<i MecroTTOTa/zia?" Tive<i he Tophvala opi] 
KaXovcLv. iv he tovtoi^ eVri Kal to Matrtoi', to 
inrepKeipevov tt}? Ni(Ti^io<i opo<; Kal tmv Tiypa- 
voKepTcov. eireiTa i^alpeTat nXeov Kal KaXelTat 
Nt0aT779* evravOa 'he irov koi ai^ tov Tlypiof 

' UapvdSpTii', Tzschucke, for UoXvappTjv ; so the later editors. 
" arS, Groskurd inserts ; miz kuI. 
* oi, after Kai, the editors insert. 



GEOGRAPHY, n. 12. 3-4 

Euphrates and the Tigris are about two thousand 
five hundred stadia distant from each other. 

4. Now the Taurus has numerous branches towards 
the north, one of which is that of the Antitaurus, 
as it is called, for there too the mountain which 
encloses Sophene in a valley situated between itself 
and the Taurus was so named. On the far side of 
the Euphrates, near Lesser Armenia and next to the 
Antitaurus towards the north, there stretches a 
large mountain with many branches, one of which 
is called Paryadres, another the Moschian Moun- 
tains, and another which is called by various names ; 
and these comprehend the whole of Armenia as far 
as Iberia and Albania. Then other mountains rise 
towards the east, I mean those which lie above the 
Caspian Sea, extending as far as Media, not only the 
Atropatian Media but also the Greater Media. Not 
only all these parts of the mountains are called 
Parachoathras, but also those which extend to the 
Caspian Gates and those which extend still farther 
towards the east, I mean those which border on 
Aria. The mountains on the north, then, bear 
these names, whereas those on the south, on the 
far side of the Euphrates, in their extent towards 
the east from Cappadocia and Commagene, are, 
at their beginning, called Taurus proper,^ which 
separates Sophene and the rest of Armenia from 
Mesopotamia ; by some, however, these are called 
the Gordyaean Mountains, and among these belongs 
also Masius, the mountain which is situated above 
Nisibis and Tigranocerta. Then the Taurus rises 
higher and bears the name Niphates ; and some- 
where here are the sources of the Tigris, on 

1 Cf. 11. 12. 3. 

299 



STKABO 

TTijyal Kara to votiov tt}? opeivrjf; irXevpoV eiT 
d-JTO Tov Si(f)dTov fxdWov €Ti KoX fidWov rj pdx'-'i 
iKTeivofievrj to Tjd-^piov opo'^ iroiel, to hiopi^ov ttjv 
Mtj^luv Kal Tr]v Ba/3v\(0VLav /xeTa Se to Zdypiov 
eVSe^^erat i^Trep fikf t/}? Jia/BuXcovia^ rj re TOiV 
""FjXv fiaicov opeivrj Kal rj tmv UapaiTaKtjiojv, inrep 
Se tT]^ M7;Sta? rj tcov Koaaaioiv' iu /j,e<Ta> S" iaTiv 
rj ^I?;Sia Kal rj \\p/jL€VLa, iroWd fiev oprj irepc- 
Xa/j-^dvovaa, TroXXd Be opoirehia, waavTO)<i hk 
irehia Kal avXa>va'i /j.€ydXov<i, avyya he Kal edvrj 
TO, TrepioiKovi'Ta, fiiKpd, opeiva Kal XtjaTpiKd to, 
irXeico. ovTOi fiev tolvvv Tide/xev evT6<; tov Tau- 
pov TTjv Te ^IrjSiav, ?;? elal Kal at KdaTrioi TrvXai, 
Kal Trjv ApfxevLav. 

5. K.ad' 7j/j.d^ fiev TOLVVV irpocrdpKTia dv elrj 
TO, edvyj TavTa, eireih-i} Kal eVro? tov Tavpov, 
^EpaToaOevrj^ 8e, TreTTOLrjfiei'O^ tijv hiaipeaiv et? 
Ta voTia /xeprj Kal to. irpoadpKTia Kal to^ vtt 
avTov Xeyofieva^; a<^paylha<i, ra? p.kv /SopeLov; 
KaXwv, Ta? he votiov^, opia aTTOipaLvei tcov 
KXi/xdTwv d/i,<f)olv TO? KaaTTiov^ TrvXaf;' eiKOToy^ 
ovv Ta voTicoTepa, 7rpo<i eo) TeivovTa,^ tco/' Ivaairiwv 
ttvXmv voTia dv diroi^aivoi, a)v cVtI Kal i) ^hjhia 
Kal i) Ap/ievia, Ta he jSopeioTepa irpocr^opa, KaT^ 
dXXrjv Kal dXXrjV BidTa^iv tovtov avp,^aLvovTo<;. 
Td)(^a he ovk eire/SaXe toutco, oioti, e^w tov "^Favpov 
TTp6<i voTov ovhev iaTiv ovTe tt}? Apjievias /Jtepo^ 
ovTe Trj<i M?;Sta?. 

^ TTphs fO! Tiivovra, Kramer suspects, Meineke ejects. 



* See 2. 1. 35 and note on " Sphragides." 
» See Vol. I., p. 22, foot-note 2. 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. 12. 4 5 

the southern side of the mountainous country. 
Then from the Niphates the mountain-chain ex- 
tends still farther and farther and forms the moun- 
tain Zagrus which separates Media and Babylonia. 
After the Zagrus there follows, above Babylonia, 
the mountainous country of the Elymaei and that 
of the Paraetaceni, and also, above Media, that of 
the Cossaei. In the middle are Media and Armenia, 
which comprise many mountains, many plateaus, 
and likewise many low plains and large valleys, and 
also numerous tribes that live round among the 
mountains and are small in numbers and range the 
mountains and for the most part are given to 
brigandage. Thus, then, I am placing inside the 
Taurus both Media, to which the Caspian Gates 
belong, and Armenia. 

5. According to the way in which I place them, 
then, these tribes would be towards the north, since 
they are inside the Taurus, but Eratosthenes, who 
is the author of the division of Asia into " Southern 
Asia" and "Northern Asia" and into " Sphragides," ^ 
as he calls them, calling some of the " sphragides " 
''northern" and others "southern," represents the 
Caspian Gates as a boundary between the two 
'^climata";- reasonably, therefore, he might repre- 
sent as " southern " the parts that are more southerly, 
stretching towards the east,^ than the Caspian Gates, 
among which are Media and Armenia, and the more 
northerly as " northern," since this is the case no 
matter what distribution into parts is otherwise made 
of the country. But perhaps it did not strike Erato- 
sthenes that no part either of Armenia or of Media 
lay outside the Taurus. 

* "Stretching towards the east" seems to be an inter 
polation (see critical note). 

301 



ST II A BO 



XIII 



1. 'H 8e yirj^La 8L')(^a BtrjpTjrar KoXovai he ti]v 
fiev fieydXrjv, '^9 /xr]TpOTro\i<; ra 'KK/daTava, fie- 
ydXi] TToXt^ Kol TO ^aaiXeiov e^ovaa Trj<i 'Slrihwv 
dpxv^ {SiaTeXovcri 8e kul vvv ol Tlap0valoi rovTcp 
■)(poi)/x€vot ^aai\eL(p, Koi Oepll^ovcri je evravOa oi 
$aatXel<i, ■\\rv')(^pa 'yap rj Mr^Sta" to he ■y^eip.dhLov 
ecTTiv avTol<; ev ^eXevKsia Trj eVt tw Tiypiht 
ttXiioIov Ba/3f Xwi^o?) , /; S' eTepa pepi<; eaTiv r; 

C 523 'AT/?07raTt09 ^Irjhia, Tovvofxa h' ea-^ev diro tov 
r}ye/j,6vo<; 'Ar/aoTraTOf, 09 eKcoXvaev vtto toU 
MaKehocri yiveaOai koi TavTi]v, /lepo^ ovcrav 
fjbe<ydXr]<; M7;8t'a9' Kal 8t} koi ^acnXev<i dvayo- 
peuOel^ Ihia crvveTa^e kuO uvttjv ttjv -x^copav 
TavTTjv, Kai T} hiahoxi] (Tco^eTai /^e^/Jt vvv i^ 
eKeu'ov, rrpo'^ re Tov<i Wpfievicov ^aaiXea^; Troirjaa- 
fiivcov eT7LyapLLa<; twv vaTcpov kul Xvpwv koI peTO, 
TavTa YiapOvaiwv. 

2. Ketrat he rj X^P^ "^V f^^^ 'Appevla kul ttj 
y[aTLavfi 7r/309 ew, t^ hk peydXr] Mj/^/a 77/309 
hvaiv, 7rpo9 apKTOV h' dpc})0Tepai<;' T0i9 Be irepl 
TOV pvxpv Trj<; "TpKavLa<; OaXdTTTj<; Kal ttj 
MaTiavT] ^ diTO votov nrapd/ceiTai. eaTi h' ov 
piKpd KaTa TT]v hvvapiv, &<; ct)r]criv 'A7roXXQ)vi,hT]<;, 
i] ye Kal ^ pvpiov<; 'nnrea's hvvaTai irapexGcrOat, 
TTetoiv he T6TTapa9 pvpidha^. Xlpvrjv h' e^^t ttjv 
^^airavTa,^ ev f] aXe9 e7ravOovvTe<; TryjTTovTai' elcrl 

*■ Tj MaTmx/77, Kramer, for t^s Martdvns ; so Meineke. 

2 Kara, before nvpiovs, z and Corais omit. 

3 Katravra, conj. of C. Miiller (KaTrurra;', Kramer and 
others), for SiroSra ; so Tozer (see his note). 

302 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. i 



XIIl 



1. Media is divided into two parts. One part of 
it is called Greater Media, of which the metropolis 
is Ecbatana, a large city containing the royal residence 
of the Median empire (the Parthians continue to use 
this as a royal residence even now, and their kings 
spend at least their summers there, for Media is a 
cold country ; but their winter residence is at 
Seleuceia, on the Tigris near Babylon). The other 
part is Atropatian Media, which got its name from 
the commander^ Atropates, who prevented also this 
country, which was a part of Greatei- Media, from 
becoming subject to the Macedonians. Furthermore, 
after he was proclaimed king, he organised this 
country into a separate state by itself, and his 
succession of descendants is pi-eserved to this day, 
and his successors have contracted marriages with 
the kings of the Armenians and Syrians and, in 
later times, with the kings of the Parthians. 

2. This country lies east of Armenia and Matiane, 
west of Greater Media, and north of both ; and it 
lies adjacent to the region round the recess of the 
Hyrcanian Sea and to Matiane o*n the south. It is 
no small country, considering its power, as Apol- 
lonides^ says, since it can iurnish as many as ten 
thousand horsemen and forty thousand foot-soldiers. 
It has a harbour, Capauta,*' in which salts effloresce 
and solidify. These salts cause itching and are 



1 In the battle of Arbela, 331 B.C. 

2 Vol III., p. 234, foot-note 2. 

* Now Lake Urmi (see 11. 14. S and note on "Blue"). 



3°3 



STRABO 

Se Kvqa/jicoBei,^ /cat eVaA-'/tt?, eXaiov hi rod irdOov^ 
ctKO^, vhwp he <y\vKv rol^ /caTTupoyOelaiv^ ifxarioi^, 
ei Tt9 KaT^ ayvoiav ^dyfreiev et? avTrjv 'ir\vcxeo)<i 
-)(^dpiv. €)(^ovai h' la'xypov^ yeiTovaf rov^ 'Ap/xe- 
ftou? Kol Tov<i Tlapdvaiov^;, v(ji' oiv TrepiKOTTTOvrai 
7roX\dKi<i. dvri'X^ovai 8' opw^ kuI airoXapfidvovai 
rd d(^aipedevTa, KaOdirep rrjv Zvp^dKr]v aTriXa^ov 
irapd roiv 'AppevLfov, vtto Pcopaioif yeyovurcov, 
Kal avTol Trpoa-eXrjXvOaai rfj (piXla Trj irpb^ 
Kaiaapa' depairevovai h dpa Kal tou? Tlap- 
Ovaiovi. 

3. Bao"tX,eto/' 8' avTOiv Oepivov fxev ev Trehio) 
lhpvp,evov rd^uKa ^ ■)^6ip^ptvbv he ^ ev (^povpiw 
epvp,vS> Ovepa, orrep AvTU}VLO'i eiroXiopKi^cre Kara 
TTjv iirl HapdvaLov<i arpareiav. hiexet he rovro 
TOv 'Apd^ou TTorafiov tov opi^ovTO'i tj)v re 'Ap/ie- 
viav KOL rrjv 'ArpoTrar7]v>]v (nahiov<i hia)(iXlov(; 
Kal rerpaKoaiov;, w? (\>r]cnv 6 AeXXio<;,^ 6 tov 
' AvTcoviov (f)lXo<;, avyypdyjrafi rrjv €ttI IlapOvaiovi 
avTov arpareiav, ev rj rTaprjV Kal avro<i i)yep,ovlav 
e-)(^(x>v. ecrri he tj}? ■)(^ci)pa^ ravrij^i rd pev dXXa 
evhaip,ova ')(^u>pia^ ?; he rrpoadpKrco^ opeivr) Kal 
rpax^ta Kal yjruxpd, Kahoualtov KarocKta rwv 
opeivwv Kal 'A/jidphcov Kal Tairvpcov Kal Kvprlcov 
Kal dXX(i)v rotovroov, ot p.eravd(7rai elcrl Kal 
XrjarpiKoi. Kal yap o lidypo'^ Kal o ^i(f)drr)'i 
Karearrappeva e^ovcrt rd edvrj ravra, Kal ol ev ri] 
Xlepcrihi Kvprioi Kal Mdphoi (Kal yap ovrco 
Xeyovrat ol " Apaphoi) Kal ol ev rf) ' App^evia pe^pi 
vvv 6p,(ovvp(i)<i 7rpoaayopev6p,evoi tj}? avrfj<i elalv 
lhea<i. 

^ For Kawvpw6e7(Tiv, C. Miiller conj. KaTapfjvir<uB(7ffiv 
("soiled"). 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. 13. 2-3 

painful, but this effect is relieved by olive-oil ; and 
the water restores weathered garments, if perchance 
through ignorance one should dip them in it to 
wash them. They have powerful neighbours in the 
Armenians and the Parthians, by whom they are 
often plundered. But still tliey hold out against 
them and get back what has been taken away from 
them, as, for example, they got back Symbace from 
the Armenians when the latter became subject to 
the Romans ; and they themselves have attained to 
friendship with Caesar. But they are also paying- 
court to the Parthians at the same time. 

3. Their royal summer palace is situated in a 
plain at Gazaca, and their winter palace in a fortress 
called Vera, which was besieged by Antony on his 
expedition against the Parthians. This fortress is 
distant from the Araxes, which forms the boundary 
between Armenia and Atropatene, two thousand four 
hundred stadia, according to Dellius, the Iriend of 
Antony, who wrote an account of Antony's expedition 
against the Parthians, on which he accompanied 
Antony and was himself a commander. All regions 
of this country are fertile except the part towards 
the north, which is mountainous and rugged and 
cold, the abode of the mountaineers called Cadusii, 
Amardi, Tapyri, Cyrtii and other such peoples, who 
are migrants and predatory ; for the Zagrus and 
Niphates mountains keep these tribes scattered ; 
and the Cyrtii in Persis, and the Mardi (for the 
Amardi are also thus called), and those in Armenia 
who to this day are called by the same name, are of 
the same character. 

* Ta^a/ca, Groskurd, for Tafa Ka( ; so the later editors. 

* Xei/Jifptvhv Se, Groskurd inserts ; so Meineke. 

* Ae'Wioj, Casaubon, for 'ASe\<ptos ; so the later editors. 



STRABO 

4. 0/ S" ovv Yiahovaioi TrXyjdei tm 7re^(w /xiKpov 
(iiroXeLTTOVTai rtav 'Apiavwv, uKovTicnal 8' €i,crlv 
apicTTOL, ev he T019 rpax^criv avG' nnreMV ire^ol 

C 524 Biafici'X^ovTai. ^Avtcovlm Se ■x^aXeirijv rrjv arpa- 
relav eTToirjaev ou% r) tt}? ■)(^(t)pa<i <^vai^, aXX, 
ro)v ohMv 7)yefi(t)v, o rcop Apfievtoov /3ao"f\ef? 
^ApraoudaBr]<i, ov elKrj ^ iK€ivo<;, em^ovXevovTa 
auTcp, avfi^ovXov eTTOieiTO kol Kvpiov t?}? irepl rov 
TToXefiov ^j/foj/A?;?* irt/xcopijaaro fxev ovv aurov, 
aXX" oy^e, yjviKa ttoWcov aiTco<i Karia-Trj kukmv 
'Po)fialot<; Kai avTo<i koX eKelvo<i, octti^ rrjv arro 
Tov Zevyfiaro^i oBov tov Kara rov }Lv(f)pdr)iu 
p-expi- TOV ayjraaOai tt)? 'ArpoTrar?;!/^? oktukict- 
■)(^i\i(t)v arahioiv eTToirjae, irXiov t) hnrXaaiav t/}? 
evOelaf, Bia opSiv kol dvohioiv koI KVKXoiropta'i. 

5. 'H he /xeydXr] ^IrjBia to p,ev iraXaibv tT/i? 
'Atrta? ^jytjaaTO Trdcrr)^, KaToXvcracra rrjv tcov 
"Svpcop dp')(rjv' varepov 8' vtto K^vpov koI Tlepawv 
iK^aipedelcra rrjv roaavTrjv e^ovaiav inl 'Acrxfa- 
jov, 8ie(f>vXaTT€v 6/xa)<; ttoXv tov iraTplov d^ico/xa- 
TO?, Kal r/v TU^KK/Bdrava ')(eifidhiov ^ rot? Y\ep(Tai<i, 
6/j.oi(t)<i he Kal toi^ cKeivovi KaraXvaaai Ma/ceSoo"/ 
Tol'i rijv "^vpiav e-)(^ovcn Kal vvv eVt Tol<i WapOvaicov 
/SacriXeva-i rrjp avTr)v Tra/oeT^erat ')(^peiav re Kal 
dacfidXeiav. 

6. 'Opi^erai 3' dno fiev t^9 ew rf} re YlapOvaia 
Kal T0i9 Koaaaitov opeai, XrjarpLKWv dvOpwTrcov, 
ot ro^6ra<i fivpcov^ Kal TpicrxiXLov<i Trapecy^ovTo 

* flnn, Meineke, for (\k6s, which oz omit. 

^ X^ifid^iov must be an error for depivhv Pa(Ti\(iov, or simply 
PaaiKftuv, unless certain words (see Coraia) have fallen out of 
the text which make x*'>*«5iov apply to Seleuceia (see 
U. 13. 1). 
306 



GEOGRAPHY, ti. 13. 4-6 

4. The Cadusiij hoAvever, are but little short of the 
Ariani in the number of their foot-soldiers ; and their 
javelin-throwers are excellent ; and in rugged places 
foot-soldiers instead of horsemen do the fighting. 
It was not the nature of the country that made the 
expedition difficult for Antony, but his guide Arta- 
vasdes, the king of the Armenians, whom, though 
plotting against him, Antony rashly made his 
founsellor and master of decisions respecting the 
war. Antony indeed punished him, but too late, 
when the latter had been proved guilty of numerous 
wrongs against the Romans, not only he himself, but 
also that other guide, who made the journey from 
the Zeugma on the Euphrates to the borders of 
Atropatene eight thousand stadia long, more than 
twice the direct journey, guiding the army over 
mountains and roadless regions and circuitous routes. 

5. In ancient times Greater Armenia ruled the 
whole of Asia, after it broke up the empire of the 
Syrians, but later, in the time of Astyages, it was 
deprived of that great authority by Cyrus and the 
Persians, although it continued to preserve much of 
its ancient dignity ; and Ecbatana was winter resi- 
dence ^ for the Persian kings, and likewise for the 
Macedonians who, after overthrowing the Persians, 
occupied Syria ; and still to-day it affords the 
kings of the Parthians the same advantages and 
security. 

6. Greater Media is bounded on the east by 
Parthia and the mountains of the Cossaei, a pre- 
datory people, who once supplied the Elymaei, with 

^ Apparently an error of the copyist for " summer 
residence" or "royal residence" (cf. § 1 above and § (j 
below). 



STRABO 

TTore 'E\y/xaiot<?, avfifjLa)(^ovvr€<; eVl 'l.ovaiovq kcli 
Ba^uXwviovi. Niap'X^o'i Se (fyrjcri, Terrdpav ovtcov 
X-rjarpiKOiv iOvCov, 0)V MripSot fiev Ilepcraif; irpoa- 
e;^€t? r/aav, Ov^iot hk Kal 'iLXv/j.aiot tovtoi<; re 
Kal ^ovaiot^i, KocrcraiOi Be WijBoi^, TTcivTWi /xev 
(p6pnv<; irpdrieadai rov^ ^a(TL\ea<;, K.oaaaLOV<; Se 
Kal Scopa Xafi^dveiv, tjvlku 6 ^aaiXeix; depiaa^ 
ev 'EjKf3aTdi'0i<; ei<? rrjv Ba^vXcovcau Kara^aivor 
KaToXvcraL S" avroiv ttjv ttoXXiji' roX/xav WXe^ai- 
Spov, imdep^evov ^et/iwt'O?. tovtol^ re hrj dcpo- 
pi^€Tai 77/30? eco Kal en rot? UapaLraKrjvol^, ot 
avvdirrovai Ilepcrat?, opeivol Kal avrol Kal 
Xr}aTpiKOL' diro ce rcov dpKTCov rot^ vTvepoiKovai 
T^9 "TpKavLa<; 6aXdTT7]'i K.a8ovaLOL<i Kal TOi? 
dXXoi<i, ov^ ciprc Bti]X0o/u,€V' irpo^ vorov^ Be rf] 
W-TroXXcovidTiBc, qv ^LraKrjvtjV eKdXovv ol iraXaioi, 
Kal Tw Tidypw, Kad^ o i) Wacraa^ariK)] KelraL, 
tt}? ^li]BLa<; ovaa, ol Be tt}? 'EXv/j,aLa<; (paai' tt/so? 
Bvaiv Be TOi? 'Arpo7raTioi<; ^ Kal rcov WpfieviMv 
TtaLV. elal Be Kal 'EXXr!viBe<; TroXa?, KTicrfiaTa 
Tcov yiaKeBovcov ev rfj ^h]Bla, wv AaoBiKeid re Kal 
\\.7rdpeia Kal i) 7rpo<i 'I*dyai<; ^ Kal avr?] 'Pdya, to 
rov Ni/cctTopo? KTi(T/j,a' o eKelvo^ pev ILvpcoirov 
divopaae, TldpOoL Be WpauKcav, voriwrepav ovaav 
rcov KaaTTicov ttvXcov 7revraKocrLOL<i ttov araBloif, 
C 525 w? (f)7]aiv 'AttoXXoSco/jo? 'Aprepiry]v6'i. 

^ E has ectf instead of v6tov. 

* 'Arpoirartois E, 'ATpoirtoij other MSS. 

' 'HpaK\fia (the name of the city to wliich Strabo refers, 
see 11. 9. 1) is inserted after 'Pciyats by Meineke, who follows 
conj. of (4roskurd and Kramer. 

308 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. 13. 6 

whoni thev were allies in the war against the Susians 
and Babylonians, with thirteen thousand bowmen. 
Nearchus^ says that there were four predatory 
tribes and that of these the Mardi were situated 
next to the Persians ; the Uxii and Elymaei next 
to the Mardi and the Susians ; and the Cossaei next 
to the Medians ; and that whereas all four exacted 
tribute from the kings, the Cossaei also received 
gifts at the times when the king, after spending 
the summer in Ecbatana, went down into Babylonia ; 
but that Alexander put an end to their great 
audacity when he attacked them in the winter time. 
vSo then, (Greater Media is bounded on the east by 
these tribes, and also by the Paraetaceni, who 
border on the Persians and are themselves likewise 
mountaineers and predatory ; on the north by the 
Cadusii who live above the Hyrcanian Sea, and by 
the other tribes which I have just described ; on the 
south by Apollioniatis, which the ancients called 
Sitacene, and by the mountain Zagrus, at the place 
where Massabatice is situated, which belongs to 
Media, though some say that it belongs to Elymaea ; 
and on the west by the Atropatii and certain of the 
Armenians. There are also some Greek cities in 
Media, founded by the Macedonians, among which 
are Laodiceia, Apameia and the city - near Rhagae, 
and Rhaga ^ itself, which was founded by Nicator.^ 
Bv him it was named Europus, but by the Parthians 
Arsacia; it lies about five hundred stadia to the 
south of the Caspian Gates, according to Apollodorus 
of Artemita. 

' See Dictionary in Vol. I. ^ Heracleia (see 11. 9. 1). 

* The name is spelled both in plural and in singular. 

* Seleucus Nicator, King ol Syria 31'2-2cS(l k.c. 

309 



ST R A BO 

7. 'H ttoWt) fiev ovv vy^rrfXi] iari koL -^vxpii, 
TOiaxna ck kul ra vTTepK€Lfieva tmv EiK^muvon' 
opt] Kat ra irepl ra<i 'Pdya<; Kal ra.'i Kacr7nov<; 
Trv\a<; kol kuOoXov to. irpoadpKTia fiep'q ra ev- 
revOev f^e)(pi 7rpo<i rrjv ^larLavrjv^ Kal ti)v Apfie- 
viav, 7] 5' I'TTo rat? HaaTTLoa 7ruXai<? iv zaTreiiol^i 
i8d(f)€(TL Kal Koi\oi<i ovaa evBaifxwv (j(f)6Bpa kcnl 
Kal TTciiK^opo^ ttXi-jv eXaia^' el Se Kal (pverai ttov, 
dXnri'i<i re eari Kal ^rjpd' 'nr-TTo/Soro^; Be Kal avry 
earl Sta(f)epuvra)<i Kal ?} \\p/xei4a, KaXelrat Be ri^ 
Kal Xeip-Uiv 'Itttto/Soto?, qv Kal cie^iacnv o'l e« tT;? 
Ilepcri^o? Kal Ba/Sf A-ouz'O? ei? Ka<77riou9 irvXa^ 
oBevovre<i, ev y irevre ^ p.vpidBa<i linrcov drfkeioiv 
vep-eadai <f}aaip eirl rcbv Tlepa-aiv, elvai Be rafi 
dyeXa<i ravra'i l3acnXiKd^. rov<i Be N^jo-aioi;?^ 
iTTTTOV?, ol^ e-^poivro 01 /BaatXel^ dpL(Troi<; ovai 
Kal fteytcTTOi?, ol p.ev evOevBe Xeyouai ro yh'O'i, ot 
B' i^ Wpp.€VLa<;' IBiupopcpOL Be elcriv, oiairep Kal oi 
llapOiKol XeyofxevoL vvv trapd rov<; 'K\XaBiKOv<; 
Kal rov<; dXXov^ tou? Trap" t'j/itv. Kal rrjV ^oruvqv 
Be rrjv fxdXicrra rpecpovaav rov<i ittttoi/? airo rov 
■nXeovd^eLV evravda lBiio<i ^IrjBcKrjv KaXovp.ev. 
(f)epec Be Kal aiXc^iov i) -^oopa, tic/)' ov 6 y\r]BcK6<i 
KaXovpevo<i otto?, eVt to ^ iroXv Xenropevo^ rov 
K^uprjvalKOv, tart, 8' ore Kal BLa^epwv eKeivov, elre 
irapd rd^ rcop rotroov Bia<popd'i, etre rov ^vrov 
Kur^ el£o<i e^aXXdrropro<;, etre Kal irapd tou? 

' riv have lAavTiavi)v. 

^ For TTfyre, Wesseling (note on Diodorus 17. 11"). com- 
paring Arrian 7. 13, conj. irepTeKaiSiKa. 

^ E has Niffaiovs. 

* tVl T<J, Jones inserts before iru\v ; St«phanus Byz. {s.v. 
MjjSi'o) reads ov itoKv. 
310 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. 13. 7 

7. Now most of the country is liigh and cold ; 
and such^ also, are the mountains which lie above 
Ecbatana and those in the neighbourhood of Rhagae 
and the Caspian Gates, and in general the northerly 
regions extending thence to Matiane and Armenia ; 
but the region below the Caspian Gates, consisting 
of low-lying lands and hollows, is very fertile and 
productive of everything but the olive ; and even if 
the olive is produced anywhere, it is dry and yields 
no oil. This, as well as Armenia, is an exception- 
ally good " horse-pastui'ing " ^ country; and a 
certain meadow there is called " Horse-pastui'ing," 
and those who travel from Persis and Babylon to 
Caspian Gates pass through it ; and in the time of 
the Persians it is said that fifty thousand mares were 
pastured in it and tliat these herds belonged to the 
kings. As for the Nesaean horses, which the kings 
used because they were the best and the largest, 
some writers say that the breed came from here, 
while others say from Armenia. They are cha- 
racteristically diffei'ent in form, as are also the 
Parthian horses, as they are now called, as compared 
with the Helladic and the other horses in our 
country. Further, we call the grass that makes the 
best food for horses by the special name " Medic," 
from the fact that it abounds there. The country 
also produces silphium ; whence the " Medic " juice, 
as it is called, Avhich in general is inferior to the 
" Cyrenaic " juice, but sometimes is even superior 
to it, either owing to regional differences, or be- 
cause of a variation in the species of the plant, or 
even owing to the people who extract and prepare 

' " Hippobolos," a Homeric epithet of Argos (e.g. Od. 
4. !)9). 



ST R A BO 

oTTi^orTO.? Kal cTKevci^ovra^, ware crv/ji/ieveiv Trpos" 
TT)v airoOecTiv Kal rrjv ■)(^peiav. 

8. Toiavrrj fiev Tff ?'; ')((opa' to Se fieyeOo^ 
irdpiao'i TTft)? iariv et? TrXaro? zeal firjKO'i- BoKel 
Se fxiyiarov elvai TrXdra ^ t% M^/Sta? to aTro t^? 
ToO Zdjpou virepOeaeoi^, j'jTTcp KoKelrai ^lijSiKi] 
TTvXt], €t<; KaaTTiov^ irvXaq Bid Tr}<; "EcypiavTjf; 
crraSicov TeTpaKiax^^i'Oiv eKarov. ra> he /jueyidec 
Kal T7} Bvvdfiei t^? ')(^ci)pa<i o/xoXoyel Kal r) irepl 
TOiv (f)6pcov IdTopia' Trj<; yap KaTTTraSo/cta? irape- 
')(^ovay]<; TOt? Ylepaai<i Kar iviavjov iTpo<i tm 
dpyvpiKw reXei 'i7nrov<i ')(^l\lov<; Kal irevraKoaiovi, 
rjfxiovovi Se Sia'^iXlov'i, Trpo^drwv Be irevre fxv- 
pid8a<;, BnrXdaia a^eBov tl tovtwv ereXovv ol 
Mr;8of. 

9. "KOri ^ Be rd iroXXd ixev rd avrd rovToi<; re 
Kal T0Z9 'ApfjL€vioi<; Bid to Kal Trjv '^((opav irapa- 
irXtjcrlav elvai. rov<; /xevroi M7]Bov<; dp)(T]yeTa<; 
elvai (paai Kal tovtoi<; Kal en irporepov Ilepcrai? 
TOt? e')(^ovatv avrovs Kal BiaBe^ajxevoi'i rrjv r7]<; 
'Acri'a? e^ovaiav. rj ydp vvv Xeyofievrj JJepcxiKi) 
(TT0X1J Kal 6 Tj}? TO^CKrj<; Kal liT'irLKri^ ^rjXo<i Kal 7) 
irepl Tov<; ^aaiXia'i depaireia Kal Koap-o^ Kal 

C 526 aei3a(T/x6<i Oeoirpeirrj^; irapd ro)v dp'^op.evcov eh rom 
Ilepcra? irapd yhjBcov d(f)lKrai. Kal oTt toOt 
dXri6e<;, eK t/)? iaOr)To<i p-dXtcrra BfjXov rtdpa 
ydp Ti9 Kal KLTapi^ Kal 7rlXo<i Kal '^epcBcorol 

^ TrAoTor, Meineke emends to h^kos, presumably in view of 
Strabo's general use of the two terms (see 2. 1. 32). 
2 rerj oz, ie-nK^ other MSS. 

1 i.e. robe (cf. Lat. " stola "). 
312 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. 13. 7-9 

the juice in such a way as to conserve its strength 
for storage and for use. 

8. Such is the nature of the country. As for its 
size, its length and breadtli are approximately equal. 
The greatest breadth of Media seems to be that 
from the pass that leads over the Zagrus, which is 
called Medic Gate, to the Casjiian Gates through 
Sigriane, four thousand one hundred stadia. The 
reports on the tributes paid agree with the size and 
the power of the country ; for Cappadocia paid the 
Persians yearly, in addition to the silver tax, fifteen 
hundred horses, two thousand mules, and fifty thou- 
sand sheep, whereas Media paid almost twice as 
much as this. 

9. As for customs, most of theirs and of those of 
the Armenians are the same, because their countries 
are similar. The Medes, however, are said to have 
been the originators of customs for the Armenians, 
and also, still earlier, for the Persians, who were 
their masters and their successors in the supreme 
authority over Asia. For example, their " Persian " 
stole,^ as it is now called, and their zeal for archery 
and horsemanship, and the court they pay to their 
kings, and their ornaments, and the divine reverence 
paid by subjects to kings, came to the Persians from 
the Medes. And that this is true is particularly 
clear from their dress ; for tiara,^ citaris,^ pilus,* 
tunics with sleeves reaching to the hands, and 

* The royal tiara was high and erect and encircled with a 
diadem, while that of the people was soft and fell over on 
one side. 

^ A kind of Persian head-dress. Aristophanes {Birds 497) 
compares a cock's comb to it. 
. * A felt skull-cap, like a fez. 

.^13 



STllABO 

'X,CTa)V€<; Kal ava^vpihe<i iv fiev rols ■yjrvxpol'; 
TOTTOt? Kal TTpoa^opoi^, iiTCTTjSeid i<TTi ^Qpy]p.ara, 
oloi elcriv ol ^ItjSikol' iv 8e rot? vorioi^; rfKiara' 
ol he Uepaat rr^v nXeLaTTjv oiKija-iv eVt t^ 
'Kpv6pa OaXdrTT) KeKri]VTai, fiecn^/jL^pivcoTepoi 
Kal Jia^vXcovLfov 6vre<; Kal '^ovaloiv' fMera Se ttjv 
KaraXvaiv rrjv rcov ^Ij]Scov TrpoaeKT^cravTO Tiva 
Kal Twv TrpoaaTrTO/xevcov M^^Sta. aX,A' ovt(o<; 
6(f)dvT) cefJLva Kal tov ^aatXiKov 7rpoax,^fiaTO<; 
oLKela TO, edr) rot? viK7]aaai Kal ^ ra rcov vikt]- 
OevTcov, wcTT avrl yv/xvTjTOiv Kal yjnXoJv OijXv- 
aroXetv vTrefietvav, Kal KaT7]pecpec<i elvai Tol<i 
aK€7rd<T/j,acn. 

10. Tive? Be M.i]8€iav KaraBel^ai rrjv iadrjra 
TavTi]u ^acri, Swaarevaaaav iv rot? TOTrot?, 
KaOdrrep Kal ^Idaova, Kal iTriKpvTrTOfievrjv Trjv 
6-y^iv, ore civtI tov ^acriXeci)<; i^ior tov fiev^ 
'ld(Tovo<i v7ro/jLVJ]/j.aTa elvai to, laaovta rjpwa, 
TLjJiwpLeva a(f)68pa vtto tcov ^ap^dpcov (ecrTt Be 
Kal opo^ fieya iiirep tcov Kaawloiv ttvXmv iv 
dpiarepa, KaXovtxevov 'Jaaoviov), t?}? Be ^IrjBeia^ 
Tr]V iadrjTa Kal Tovvofxa t/}? '^(opa'i. XeyeTac 
Be Kal M?}So9, u/o9 avTr)<;, BiaBe^aaOai ttjv dp-)(rjv 
Kal TTjv ')(^u)pav iTTO)vvp.ov auTov KaTaXnrelv. 
op-oXoyel Be tovtol^ Kal to, KaTO, t?;v 'Apfievlav 
'lacTovia Kal to tyj^ ')(^u)pa'i ovopua Kal dXXa TrXeio), 
Trepl a)v ipovp^ev. 

1 1 . Kal TovTO Be }^It]Bik6v, to ^acnXea aipecadac 
TOV dvBpeiOTaTOV, dX\ ov irdaiv, aXXa rot? 
6peioL<i' /xdXXov Be to TOi<i ^aaiXev<ri 7roXXd<i 

^ Kai, before rd, oz and Meineke omit. 
3M 



GEOGRAPHY, n. 13. 9-1 1 

trousers, are indeed siiital)le thiiins to wear in cold 
and northerly regions, such as the Medes wear, but 
by no means in southerly regions ; and most of the 
settlements possessed by the Persians were on the 
Red Sea, farther south than the country of the Baby- 
lonians and the Susians. But after the overthrow 
of the Medes the Persians acquired in addition 
certain parts of the country that reached to Media. 
However, the customs even of the conquered looked 
to the conquerors so august and appropriate to royal 
pomp that they submitted to wear feminine robes 
instead of going naked or lightly clad, and to cover 
their bodies all over with clothes. 

10. Some say that Medeia introduced this kind 
of dress when she, along with Jason, held dominion 
in this region, even concealing her face whenever 
she went out in public in place of the king ; and 
that the Jasonian hero-chapels, which are much 
revered by the barbarians, are memorials of Jason 
(and above the Caspian Gates on the left is a large 
mountain called Jasonium), whereas the dress and 
the name of the country are memorials of Medeia. 
It is said also that Medus her son succeeded to the 
empire and left his own name to the country. In 
agreement with this are the Jasonia of Armenia and 
the name of that country^ and several other things 
which I shall discuss. 

11. This, too, is a Medic custom — to choose the 
bravest man as king ; not, however, among all 
Medes, but only among the mountaineers. More 
general is the custom for the kings to have many 

' See 11. 4. 8. 

^ Meineke inserta ovv after /nev. 



STIIABO 

eJvai yvvaiKa<;. Toi'i S' opeioi^ twv yirjBcov koI 
TTacTLv edo<i TovTo, iXiiTTOVi 8e rcov nevre ovk 
e^ecrrii'' &)? B avTcof Ta<i jwaiKa'^ (^acTLV iv 
KaXw Tt,6ecr0ai on irXeicrrov^ vifieiv civSpa^;,^ rSiv 
irevre he iXdrrov^ aup.(popav rjyetaBat. t^9 S' 
dWr}<; M7?Sta9 evoaLfxovovarjf; reXew?, Xvirpd icrrip 
rj TrpoadpKTto<i opeivij' airovvrat yovv airo iiKpo- 
Spvcov, €K re p.tjXwv ^rjpcjv KOTrevrcov TToiovvrai 
fid^a<i, dirb 8' dp,vyhd\wv (^u>')(6evTcov dprov^, 
eK he pi^Mv TLvwv olvov eKdXijBovaL, Kpeaat he 
"X^pcovTai Or]peiOi<;, rjpLepa hk ov Tpe(fiOvai dpep.- 
p,aTa. Toaavra koL irepl ^Irjhoiv (f)apev' rrrepl 
he Tcov vop,i/j,cov ^ KOivfj Trj<i avp,7Tdar]<i M>;Sta9, 
eTret^ ravra ^ roi? IlepiTt/coi? yeyevy]Tai hia ttjv 
rSiv Wepaoiv eTTLKpdreiav, ev tw irepl eKeivwv 
Xoycp (pr]ao/j.ev.^ 



XIV 

1. T^9 S' 'Ap/Ltewa? to, pev voria nrpo^e^Xi-jraL 

rov Tavpov, hieipyovra ainr)v d(j) 0X7;? t?}? pera^v 

C 527 FjvcppdTov KOI Tov Tiypco<i, i)v ^lecroiroTapiav 

KaXovai, ra he ewOiva rf} ^Irjhia avvdiTTeL ttj 

peydXr) fcal rfj ATpoTraTrji'fj' TrpoadpKTia hi 

^ oTi irXeicTTOj vf/xnv rovs ivSpas Groskurd, and so Meineke, 
omitting the rovs ; Kramer conj. on ir\ficrTas tlxofrai vtfiftv 
Si-Spos (see Kramer's note, and C. Miiller's Irul. Var. Led. 
p. 1018). 

* vofxifxcup margin of x and the editors, for fOjuaSiKwv. 
' rahra, Corais, for toSto ; so the later editors. 

* (p-i]aojxiv, Casaubon, for Q-i)<TOfjLtv ; so the later editors. 

316 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. 13. 11-14. 1 

wives ; this is the custom of the inountaiueers of the 
Medes, and all Medes, and they are not permitted to 
have less than five ; likewise, the women are said 
to account it an honourable thing to have as many 
husbands as possible and to consider less than five 
a calamity.^ But tliough the rest of Media is 
extremely fertile, the northerly mountainous part 
has poor soil ; at any rate, the people live on the 
fruits of trees, making cakes out of apples that are 
sliced and dried, and bread from roasted almonds ; 
and they squeeze out a wine from certain roots ; and 
they use the meat of wild animals, but do not breed 
tame animals. Thus much I add concerning the 
Medes. As for the institutions in common use 
throughout the whole of Media, since they prove to 
have been the same as those of the Persians because 
of the conquest of the Persians, I shall discuss them 
in my account of the latter. 

XIV 

1. As for Armenia, the southern parts of it have 
the Taurus situated in front of them,^ which sej)a- 
rates it from the whole of the country between tlie 
Euphrates and the Tigris, the country called 
Mesopotamia ; and the eastern parts border on 
Greater Armenia and Atropatene ; and on the north 

^ So the Greek of all MSS. ; but the editors since Du Theil 
regard the C4reek text as corrupt, as.suniiiig that the women 
in question did not have plural iiusbands. Accordingl}', 
some emend the text to make it say, " for their husbands to 
have as many wives as possible and consider less than five a 
calamity " (see critical note). 

^ The Greek implies that Armenia is prulected on the south 
by the Taurus. 



STRABO 

iaxL ra uTrepKeifieva t?}? Kacr— /af Oa\('mr}<; oprj 
TO, Tov IJapaxodfipa Koi WX^avol koL "]^T}pe<; 
Kol KavKa(TO<; €yKVK\ovfji,evo<i ra eOvij Tuvra 
Kal avvaTTTCov Tot? ^ Apfievioi^, avvaTrroiV Be kol 
Tol<i Mocr;^f.voi9 opeai kuI Ko\;^f«ot9 H-^XP'' "^^^ 
KaXov/xevcop Tc^apavcov' diru Se t^? ecrvrepa? 
ravra icni to, eOvq Kal 6 YlapvciSpr^'i^ koI 6 
'EKvSiai]'; p-ixpt "J"'!? pLiKpd<; Wpfxevlw; Kal tt)? 
TOV l^AVcppdrov TTorapia^, fj Sieipyei rrjv Apfxeviav 
diro Tt]^ KainraSoKLa^ Kal Tf]<i K.ofi/j.ayT]vr]<i. 

2. 'O yap E,v<f)pdr)]<; diro rf)^ ^opeiov TrXevpd^ 
rov Taupov Td<; dp^d^ ^X^^ "^^ f^^^ Trpwrov pec 
Trpo? SvaLU Bid t/}? Wp/j,erLa<i, e'r' eTTtcrr/ae'c^et 
TT/JO? voTov Kal BiaKo-mei tov lavpov p-era^v tcov 
^ ApfievLcov re Kal KamraBoKcov Kal Kop.p.ayT]Vb)v, 
eKireacov S' e^co Kal yev6p.evo<s Kara ttjv ^vpi'av 
eTTia-Tpecfiet 7rp6? ^ei/^eptm? dpaToXd^ P'^XP'- Bci/Sf- 
Xoivo^i Kal TTOiel ttjv ^leaoTroTapLiav rrpo^ rov 
Tiypiv dp())6repoL Be reXevTcoaiv et? rov UepaiKov 
koXttov. rd p.ei> Bt] kvkXw roiavra, opetva crx^Bop 
Ti Trdvra Kal rpax^a, irXrjv rwv rrpof r^^v M/yStai' 
K€KXip,(V(ov oXiyojv. 7rd\iv Be rov Xe^^eVro? 
Tavpov rr]P dpxh^ Xap.j3dvovro<i aTTo ri)'i irepata^ 
roiv KopL/xayijVcov Kal rcov MeXiryji'iov, r]v o 
Euc^par?/? iroiel, yidcriov fiiv ecrrt ro virepKeip-evov 
opo<; ro)v iv rfj ^leaoTTorapia ^luyBovcov eK vorov, 
ev ol<; >) Nio-i/3t9 earcv eK Be rcjv irpof apKrov ^ 
fiepMV Tj^ '!^co(f)7]pi] Kelrat, p.era^v rov re Macrtof 
Kal rov Avriravpov. ovro<i B' drro rov Evcpparov 

^ IlapiSfiris is the reading of the MSS. 

* ir/jos- apKTov, Kramer, for irphs UpKruv E, irooffdpKrwv other 
MSS. 

318 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. 14. 1-2 

are the mountains of Paraclioathras that He above the 
Caspian Sea, and Albania, and Iberia, and the 
Caucasus, which last encircles these nations and 
borders on Armenia, and borders also on the 
Moschian and Colchian mountains as far as the 
Tibarani, as they are called ; and on the west are 
these nations and the mountains Paryadrcs and 
Scydises in their extent to Lesser Armenia and the 
river-land of the Euphrates, which latter separates 
Armenia from Cajipadocia and Commagene. 

2. For the Euphrates, having its beginnings on the 
northern side of the Taurus, Hows at first towards 
the west through Armenia, and then bends towards 
the south and cuts through the Taurus between 
Armenia, Cappadocia, and Commagene, and then, 
after falling outside the Taurus and reaching the 
borders of Syria, it bends towards the winter-sun- 
rise ^ as far as Babylon, and with the Tigris forms 
Mesopotamia; and both rivers end in the Persian 
Gulf. Such, then, is our circuit of Armenia, almost 
all parts being mountainous and rugged, except the 
few which verge towards Media. But since the 
above-mentioned Taurus ^ takes a new beginning 
on the far side of the Euphrates opposite Commagene 
and Melitene, counti'ies formed by that river, Mt. 
Masius is the mountain which lies above the 
Mygdonians of Mesopotamia on the south, in whose 
country is Nisibis, whereas Sophene is situated in 
the northern parts, between Masius and Antitaurus. 
The Antitaurus takes its beginning at the Euphrates 

1 See Vol. I, p. 105, note 2. 

2 Cf. 11. 12. 4, 

^ jl xz and the editors insert. 



SIR A HO 

Kai Tov Tavpov ttjv ap')(rfv Xa^icv reXevTa tt/jo? 
ra e(ha t/}? Ap/jLevLa<i, anoXafi^dvcov /j,e(Tyjv rtjv 
'Eo:>(prjV7]i', eK Oarepov Be /j.€pov<; ey^cou ttjv WklXl- 
ar]in]v /xera^v i8pufj,6V)]v rov WvTiravpov^ re kuI 
T?}? rov ¥jV(f)pdrov 7rora/JLia<i,^ irplv rj Ka/jLTrTeiv 
avrrjv^ eirX vorov. fSaaiXeiov he rri<i S(ocj)y]vrj<; 
KapKudio/cepra. rov Be WacLOv virepKeLrat 7rp6<; 
€0} TToXv Kara r]]v VopBvrjvrjv * 6 Nti^arr;?, et^' o 
W/3o<i, (Kp 01) Kal \Lv(p pdr7]<; pel Kal a 'Apa^?;?, 
fiev 7r/309 Bvaiv, o Be tt/so? dvaro\d<;- eW^ 6 
^l/3apo^ p-expi Ti]^ yiT]Bla<i rrapareivei. 

3. 'O p,ev ovv JLv(f)pdr)]<; eiprjrai ov rpoirov 
pel' 6 Be ^Apd^rj<;, tt/jo? rd^ dvaro\d<; evey^del<; 
p-expi' tt)? 'ArpoTrarrjvP]^, Kafiirrec tt/Oo? Buaiv Kai 
7rpo9 dpKrov<; Kai rrapappel rd ^ "A^apa irpo^rov, 
elr Wprd^ara, TroXet? ^ Apfievicov' erreira Bid 
rov Wpa^T]i'OU TreBlov tt/jo? ro K.da7riov €kBlBco<ti. 
7reXayo<;. 
C 528 4. 'hlv avrfj Be rrj Wppbevia TroXXa fxev opi], 
TToXXd Be opoireBia, ev ol<i oiiB' a/iTreXo? (pverai 
paBica, TToXXoi 5' avX(ove<i, o'l fxev fieaco^, oi Be 
Kal ad>6Bpa evBaifiove^, Kaddirep rb Apa^tjfov 
ireBiov, Bl ov 6 'Apa^)79 TTora[xo<; pecov et? rd 
aKpa rvj^ \\X/3ai>La<; Kal rrjv Kacnriav eK-rri-nrei, 
OdXaaaav. Kal fxerd ravra ?'; 'S.aKaa^iv)'], Kal 
avrr} rfj ^ AX^avia TTpba-)((iipo<i Kal rw Kyp&) 
TTorapLW, eld' rj Twyap-qvrj' Trdaa '^dp 77 ydipo- 

1 'AfTiraupou, Du Theil, for Tavpou ; so Casaubon and C. 
Miiller. 

* iroTafiias, Corais from conj. of Salmasius, for futroiro- 
ra/iiias ; so the later editors. 

' rrr, Tzschucke, and Corais read avrSf. 

320 



GEOGRAPHY, n. 14. 2-4 

and the Taurus and ends towards the eastern parts 
of Armenia, thus on one side ^ enclosinji; the middle 
of Sophene," and having on its other side Acilisene, 
which is situated between the Antitaurus '^ and the 
river-land ^ of the Euphrates, before that river 
bends towards the south. The royal city of Sophene 
is Carcathiocerta. Above Mt. Masius. far towards 
the east opposite Gordyene, lies Mt. Niphates ; and 
then comes Mt. Abus, whence flow both the Euphrates 
and the Araxes, the former towards the west and 
the latter towards the east ; and then Mt. Nibarus, 
which stretches as far as Media. 

3. I have already described the course of the 
Euphrates. As for the Araxes, it first flows towards 
the east as far as Atropatene, and then bends to- 
wards the west and towards the north and flows 
first past Azara and then past Artaxata, Armenian 
cities, and then, passing through the Araxene Plain, 
empties into the Caspian Sea. 

4. In Armenia itself there are many mountains 
and many plateaus, in which not even the vine can 
easily grow ; and also many valleys, some only 
moderately fertile, others very fertile, for instance, 
the Araxene Plain, through which the Araxes River 
flows to the extremities of Albania and then emj^ties 
into the Caspian Sea. After these comes Sacasene, 
this too bordering on Albania and the Cyrus River ; 
and then comes Gogarene. Indeed, the whole of 

* See critical note. 

^ i.e. "enclosing Soplicne in a valley between itself (the 
Antitaurus) and the Taurus" (11. 12. 4). 

^ 8ee critical note. * See critical note. 

* ropSvr^vrii', Corais, for TopSuXrivr^v E, TopyoSiKrji' ~, TopyoSu- 
\r]vi\v other MSS. * ret, the editors, for Tr]v. 

321 



STRABO 

avri] KapiTol'i re kul toT? Tjfxepoi^ SevBpeai kul 
Tol<i deiOaXecn TrkrjOvei, (pipei Se Kal iXaiav. 
ecTTL he Kal rj (pavrjvrj ^ t^9 'A/j/xei^ta? eirapxio. 
Kal rj K(o/jii<Tr]vrj Kal ^Opx^o-'^V^'h TrXeiCTTijv 'nr- 
ireiav irapexovcra' rj he l^op^T]V7] kul Kafi^va-y^vr] 
irpocrftopcoTaTai elcn Kal vi(j)o/3o\oi p.a\iaTa, 
avvaTTTOvaai Tol<i Kaf/cacrtof? opeai Kai rfj 
^l^Tjpia Kal rf] KoXx^hr oirov <^aal Kara raq 
v7T€p^o\a<i TOiv opoiv TToWc'iKL'^ Kal (rvvohLa<i 
oXa'i ^ ev rfj %iWi KaTairlveaOai vK^e-wv •^iivo- 
[xevcov iirl irXioV e'Xj^iv he Kal ^aKTi]pia<; Trpos 
Tou? ToiovTOV<; Kivhuuovi^ irape^alpovTa^ el<; rrjv 
eTTK^iiveiav dvairvoi]'; re X«/3ii' Kal rov htap,T]vueiv 
Toi? eTTLOvcriv, oxrre /dorjdeia^ ruyxuveiv, dvopvr- 
Te<j0ai Kal aw^eadai. ev he tt} %to/'f /SwXou? 
Tnjyvvcrdai (f)acri KoiXa<; Trepiexovcra^ ^prjajov 
vhcop Q)'i ev ')(^iTa)Vi, Kal ^rpa he ev avrfj yevvdadat' 
KaXel he crKcoXijKa'i WTroXXcovLhr]'?, P)€0(f}dvr)<; he 
Opiira^' Kdv Tovroi<; diroXa/x^dveadai y/prjarov 
vhwp, irepia'x^LaOevTwv ^ he t6)v ')(^L'r(ji}vcov iriveaOaL' 
TrjV he yevecnv tcov ^mcov roiavrrjv eLKu^ovacv, 
o'lav rrjv tmv Kcavdyirov eK rf]'; ev toI<; fierdXXoi^ 
(fyXoyo'i Kal rov c^e'^dXov.^ 

5. '\aropovcn he rrjv ^Apfxeviav, pLiKpdv rrpo- 
repov ovaav, av^rjdjjvai hid rcov irepl ^Apra^lav 
Kal Zapiahpiv,^ ot -nporepov fxev rjaav 'Avri6)(^ou 

^ 4>ou7jrTJ {^avr]vri orwxz) seems corrupt ; perhaps ^avvt)VT\ 
(Tzschucke, Corals) is riglit (cp. >i>auj'rTis below), if not 
^affiavT] (see Kramer's note). 

^ The words rwv opwv after o\as are omitted Ijy gxy and 
Corais. Strabo probably wrote ifiiropuv (conj. of Corals) or 
dSoi-nopaii' (conj. of Meineke). 

^ Meineke inserts as after kivSwovs. 

322 



GEOGRAPHY, n. 14. 4-5 

this country abounds in fruits and cultivated trees 
and evergreens, and even bears the oHve. There is 
also Phauene/ a province of Armenia, and Comisenc, 
and Orchistene, which last furnishes the most cavalry. 
Chorzene and Cambysene are the most northerly and 
the most subject to snows, bordering on the Cauca- 
sian mountains and Iberia and Colchis. It is said 
that here, on the passes over the mountains, whole 
caravans are often swallowed uj) in the snow when 
unusually violent snowstorms take place, and that 
to meet such dangers people carry staves, which 
they raise to the surface of the snow in order to get 
air to breathe and to signify their plight to people 
who come along, so as to ol)tain assistance, be dug 
out, and safely escape. It is said that hollow masses 
of ice form in the snow which contain good water, 
in a coat of ice as it were ; and also that living 
creatures breed in the snow (Apollonides^ calls 
these creatures "scoleces"^ and Theophanes* 
'^ thripes " ^) ; and that good water is enclosed in 
these hollow masses which people obtain for drink- 
ing by slitting open the coats of ice ; and the 
genesis of these creatures is supposed to be like that 
of the gnats which spring from the flames and 
sparks at mines. 

5. According to report, Armenia, though a small 
country in earlier times, was enlarged by Artaxias 
and Zariadris, who formerly were generals of 

1 See critical note. ^ See Vol. Ill, p. 234, foot-note 2. 

* " Worms" or " larvae." * See foot-note on 11. 2. 2. 

* Wood-worms. 

* irepLo'XKrSei'Twy E Epit., vepiaxeOivrup other MSS. 

^ i/)e»(/oAoi; E Epit., ireraAAou D^, TreraAou other MSS. 

* V.aplahpiv, Tyrwhitt, for ZapioSr}*' ; so the later editors. 



STRABO 

Tov fieydXov (rrparij'yol, jSaaiXevaavTe^ S' i/crre- 
pov /x€Ta Tr]v eKeivov '^rrav, 6 fxev tt}? "S.wcfiTjvTj'i 
Koi T^9 ^AKi(T^]vrj<;^ koX ^OSo/xavrlBo^ kuI aWcov 
TLVMV, Se rr)<; Trepl ^ Aprd^ara, crvvrjv^rjaai', ck 
Tcov TTepiKeifxii'Cov idvMV dvoTefjiOfxevoi p-eprj, ex 
^ly'jScov p.ev njv re K.acnriavT]v koI ^avvlriv Kal 
BaaopoTreSav, ^I^i'jpcov Be t^v re irapoopeiav rov 
Uapvdhpou " Kal rrjv X.op^i]V7]v ^ xal Twyapriv>')v, 
•nepav ovaav tov Kvpov, X.a\v^ci)v Be Kal Moc7f- 
voIkwv Kapijvlriv^ Kal 'E.ep^rjvijv, a TJj puKpa 
'App-eiita iarlv ofxopa rj Kal ixeprj avrrj^i ecrri, 
Karaopcou Be 'AKiXiarjvTju^ Kal tt^v irepl tov 
' AvTiTavpov, ^vpo)v Bk Tapcavlriv,^ ware TrdvTa<; 
6/xoyXcoTTOV<; elvai. 

6. n6\ef9 S' earl rr";? Wpp.evia<; 'A/Jxa^axa re, 
rfv Kal 'Apra^idcraTa KaXovaiv, ^Avvi^a KTiaav- 
C 529 TO'; 'Apra^la t5> ^aatXel, Kal "Ap^ara, dfi<^6- 
Tepai eirl tCo Wpd^rj, rj fiev "Ap^ara Trpo? roi? 
6poi.<; T?}? 'ArpoTraTta?,' r) Be ^ Aprd^ara tt/so? tw 
Apa^i]V(2 ^ TreBiO), avvwKLapLevrj KaXoi<; Kal j^aal- 
Xeiov ovaa tj}? ^wpa?. KeiTai 5' eVt -xeppovqaid- 
^ovTo<i dyKa)vo<;, to Telxo^ kvkXoi Trpo^e/SXtj/xevov 
TOV TTOTafibv 7rXi]v tov lad/JLov, tov iad/xov S' e^^ei 
rdcppw Kal -x^dpaKi KeKXeiafievov. ov ttoXv 8' 

^ 'Akio-tjj/tjj {'AKtXta-rtvris editors before Kramer) is very 
doubtful (see Kramer's note). 

2 TlapvaSpov, Xylander, for ITaioSpou ; so the later editors. 

* Xop^Tju-hv, Xylander, for Xop(ov7)v ; so the later editors. 

* Kapr)viTiv, Kramer, for KapriPiTriy ; so the later editors. 

* 'Pi.KiKi(n]VT\v, 1'zscliucke, for ' AK\ia iriviiv ; so the later 
editors. 

® TapaivlTiv, Kramer, for Tafxwv'ms ; so the later editors. 
' ' fiTpnizarias. the editors, for 'ATpoTrdrris C, 'ATpowdras 
Other MSS. 

324 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. 14. 5-6 

Autiochus the Gi-eat/ but later, after his defeat, 
reigned as kings (tlie former as king of Sophene, 
Acisene, Odomantis, and certain other countries, 
and the latter as king of the country round 
Artaxata), and jointly enlarged their kingdoms by 
cutting off for themselves parts of the surrounding 
nations, — I mean by cutting off Caspiane and Phau- 
nitis and Basoropeda from the country of the 
Medes; and the country along the side of Mt. 
Paryadres and Chorzene and Gogarene, which last 
is on the far side of the Cyrus River, from that 
of the Iberians ; and Carenitis and Xerxene, which 
border on Lesser Armenia or else are parts of it. 
from that of the Chalybians and the Mosynoeci ; and 
Acilisene and the country round the Antitaurus 
from that of the Cataonians ; and Taronitis from 
that of the Syrians ; and therefore they all speak 
the same language, as we are told. 

6. The cities of Armenia are Artaxata, also called 
Artaxiasata, which was founded by Hannibal ^ for 
Artaxias the king, and Arxata, both on the Araxes 
River, Arxata being near the borders of Atropatia, 
whereas Artaxata is near the Araxene plain, being 
a beautiful settlement and the royal residence of 
the country. It is situated on a peninsula-like 
elbow of land and its walls have the river as pro- 
tection all round them, except at the isthmus, 
which is enclosed by a trench and a palisade. Not 

^ Reigned :us king of Syria 223-187 B.C. 
* The Carthaginian. 

* 'Apa^riv^, Tzschucke, for 'Apra^tvcp DA, 'Apra^tiv^ other 
MSS. ; so the later editors. 



STRABO 

aTToyOev ecrri t/}? TroXer-o? ^ ra Ttypdvov Kol 
'ApraovdaSov ya^ocf>uXdKia, cf^poupia epvfxvd, 
Bd^vpad re koI ^OXavy'y ?]v hk koc dWa eirl 
rrp ¥jV(f)pdTT]. 'Apraj}']pa<; ^ Be drreaTrjcre fiev 
^ABa)p ^ 6 cf)povpap)(o<;, e^elXov S' ol K.aiaapo<; 
aTpaTTjyoL, TToXiopKrjaavre^ ttoXvv \p6vov, kcli rd 
re'L')(ii TTepieiXov. 

7. YloTa/jLol Be TrXeiov; /xiv elaiv ev ttj -y^wpa, 
yvcopificoraTOi Be Q)a(Ti<; p,ev Koi Au/co? ei? Trjv 
HovTiKTjv e/CTTtTTTOi'Te? OdXaTTUv (^KpaToa9evri<i 
S' dvTL Tov AvKOV rlOrjcn Qep/xcoBovra ovk ev), 
et? Be Trjv Kacnriav Kvpo<; kol 'Aoa'^r;?, ei? Be 
Tr)v 'Etpvdpdv 6 re Y^v(^pdrri^ koX o Tly pi <;. 

8. EtVt Be Kal Xipuvai Kara rrjv ^Apfxeviav 
fj-eydXat, /jllu fiev i) ^\avTiavi'], Kuai'^^ ^pfnj- 
vevOelaa, fieylarr], w? (^acri, p.eTa r^-jv ^laiwriv, 
dX/xvpou vBaTO<i, BtijKovcra p^e^pi rr/s 'Ar/QOTraTta?, 
e^ovaa Kal dXoTrtjyia- i) Be 'AparjvTj, r^v kol 
^coTTiTiv ^ KaXovcrtv earl Be viTpLTi<;, rd<; S" 
€(T0fJTa<i pvTTTei ^ Kal Bia^alver Bid Be tovto 
Kal aTTorov eari to vBcop. t^eperai Be Bt avTrj<i 

' (irl, after iroXecos, Meineke omits ; the editors before 
Kramer emended it to koj. 

^ Meineke emends 'Aprayripas to 'Aprdyftpa, perhaps 
rightly. 

* Meineke emends 'ASdp to "ASwv, perhaps rightly. 

* Kvauri E, Kvavea^r} other MSS. 

^ Qaiir^Tiy, Kramer, for QwriTtv ; so the later editors. 

* liiiTTTfi (ptjmeL C, ^vTTfi 7)i), Eustathlus, for prrrei ; so 
Xylander (cp. 11. 13. 2). 

^ Father and son respectively, kings of Armenia. 
2 See critical note. ^ See critical note. 

* Mantiane (apparently the word should be spelled 
"Matiane"; see 11. 8. 8 and 11. 13. 2) is the lake called 
326 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. 14. 6-8 

far from the city are the treasuries of Tigranes and 
Artavasdes/ the strong fortresses Babyrsa and 
Olane. And there were other fortresses on the 
Euphrates. Of these, Artageras ^ was caused to 
revolt by Ador,^ its commandant, but Caesar's 
generals sacked it after a long siege and destroyed 
its walls. 

7. There are several rivers in the country, but 
the best known are the Phasis and the Lycus, 
which empty into the Pontic Sea (Eratosthenes 
wrongly writes " Therniodon " instead of " Lycus "), 
whereas the Cyrus and the Araxes empty into the 
Caspian Sea, and the Euphrates and the Tigris into 
the Red Sea. 

8. There are also large lakes in Armenia ; one 
the Mantiane, which being translated means 
"Blue";* it is the lai-gest salt-water lake after 
Lake Maeotis, as they say, extending as far as 
Atropatia ; and it also has salt-works. Another is 
Arsene, also called Thopitis.^ It contains soda,^ and 
it cleanses and restores clothes ; "^ but because of 
this ingredient the water is also unfit for drinking. 

"Capauta" in II. 13. 2, Capaiita meaning " Bhie " and 
corresponding to the old Armenian name Kapoit-azow (Blue 
Lake), according to Tozer (note ad loc), quoting Kiepert. 

* On the position of this lake see Tozer (note ad loc). 

•^ The Greek word "nitron" means " soda" (carbonate of 
soda, our washing soda), and should not be confused with 
our "nitre" (potassium nitrate), nor yet translated "pot- 
ash" (potassium carbonate). Southgate {Narrative of a Tour 
through Armenia, Kurdistan, etc., Vol. II, p. 306, Eng. ed.) 
says that "a chemical analysis of a specimen shows it to be 
alkaline salts, composed chiefly of carbonate of soda and 
chloride" {chlorite in Tozer is a typographical error) "of 
sodium " (salt). 

' See 11. 13. 2. 

327 



STRABO 

'\iypi<; aiTo rfj^; Kara top ^i(f)(iTJ]v 6p€ivTJ<; 

OpfJL7]0eL'i, dfjLlKTOV (f)v\uTTCl)V TO f>ev [XU hlO. TTjV 

o^vrrjTa, dcb^ ov koI Tovvofxa, .\b;SaJi/ rlypiv 
Ka\ovvTu>v TO To^ev/ia- kol ovto<; p.kv e'x^^i iroXveL- 
Set? Ij^Ov'i, 01 8e \i/j.vaioc ev6<i ecSov^ elcri kutcl 
8t" Tov p,v)(hv T>;9 Xl/jLvt]^ et? ^dpadpov e/xireacov 
TTOTap.o'i Koi iroXvv tottov eVe^^et? vtto yrj^ 
dvaTeWet KaTo. Tr}v XaXcovLTiv ixeldev 8' 7;S?; 
7r/3o? TT]i> ^flmv KOL TO TTjs Xefj,i,pdfj,L8o<; jcaXov- 
/xevov hiaTel'X^Lcr pLa iKetvo<i re KaTa(f>ep€Tac, TOv<i 
VopSualov^ iv Se^ia «(^et9 xal ttjv ^leaoTTOTapIav 
6Xj]v, kol Rv(f)pdTT]<; TOvvavTcov iv dpiarepa 
ey^wv TTjv avTi-jV ^(^(opav' 7T\Tjaid(TavT€<i Be uXXt]- 
Xoi? Kal 7roi.7](TavT€<; tijv Mecro7roTa/xtai^, 6 p-ev 
Sici SeXeu/cet'a? cf)€p€Tai tt/jo? tov UepcriKov fc6\- 
TTOV, 6 8e 8ia Ba^v\(i)vo<;, Kaddirep ecprjTat ttov 
€V TOi? 7rpo9 KparoaOevrjv Kal "iTrirap-^ov Xoyoi^. 
9. Mt'raXXa S' iv p.ev Tjj 1,va7riplTiSi,^ iaTi 
Xpvo'ov KaTCL TO. Kd^aWu, i(f a Met-wz'a eirep,- 
-^ev WXe^avSpa p-eTci aTpuTicoTcov, dv7'i)f^6i] ^ S" 
VTTO TMV iy)(^(opLa)V' Kal tiWa B' eVri p.eTa\\a, 
Kal hi] ^ Tir}? (jdvBvKO^ ^ KaXovp.ivrj'i, rjv Sij Kal 
'App.€viov KaXovat '^ptopia, opLoiov KaXyr], ovtco 
3' iaTlv lirTro^oTO'i acpoSpa rj ^copa, Kal ou;^ 

^ ^uffirtplriii, Groskurd, for 'T<7iri/)aTi5< ; so Kramer (see his 
note), Meineke, and C. Miiller (Ind. Var. Led. p. 1018). 

- For o^r'x67)'iit'fiX^'?C), Casaubon conj. avripedr], Tzschucke 
avfSfixdr] or iSeix^rt, Groskurd awrixSri ; Corais reads dj'€(^x^'? 
and Meineke a.ir-/yx6v- 

^ Sri, Tzschucke and Corais emend to to. 

* cravSvKos, Salmasius, for dirdvSiKos ; so the later editors. 

^ There must have been a second Chalonitis, one " not 
far from Gordyaea" (see 16. 1. 21), as distinguished from 

328 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. 14. 8-9 

The Tigris flows through this lake after issuing from 
the mountainous country near tlie Niphates ; and 
because of its swiftness it keeps its current unmixed 
with the lake ; whence the name Tigris, since the 
Median word for "arrow" is "tigris." And while 
the river has fish of many kinds, the fish in the lake 
are of one kind only. Near the recess of the lake 
the river falls into a pit, and after flowing under- 
ground for a considerable distance rises near 
Chalonitis.^ Thence the river begins to flow down 
towards Opis and the wall of Semiramis, as it is 
called, leaving the Gordiaeans and the whole of 
Mesopotamia on the right, while the Euphrates, 
on the contrary, has the same country on the left, 
tiaving approached one another and formed Meso- 
potamia, the former flows through Seleuceia to the 
Persian Gulf and the latter through Babylon, as I 
have already said somewhere in my arguments 
against Eratosthenes and Hipparchus.^ 

9. There are gold mines in Syspiritis near Caballa, 
to which Menon was sent by Alexander with soldiers, 
and he was led up ^ to them by the natives. There 
are also other mines, in particular those of sandyx,* 
as it is called, which is also called "Armenian" 
colour, like chalce." The country is so very good 

that in eastern Assyria, or else there is an error in the 
name. 
« 2. 1.27. 

* "Led up" (or "inland") seems wrong. Tlie verb has 
been emended to "destroyed," "imprisoned," "hanged" 
(Meineke), and other such words, but the translator knows 
of no evidence either to support any one of these emendations 
or to encourage any other, 

* An earthy ore containing arsenic, which yields a bright 
red colour. 

' i.e. purple dye. The usual spelling is calche. 

329 



STRABO 

J bSO *1TT0i' tt}? M?;^ta9, wcrxe oi NjjaaJoL^ Ymroi Kai 
evravOa ylvovrai, olairep ol V\epau>v /SaatXel^ 
e^poovTO' kclI craTyOaTr??? rr}? ^Ap/j,€vi.a<; rw Yleparj 
KUT eVo? 8iafi,vp[ov<i ttcoXov^ toI? }i.lidpaKLV0i<; ^ 
errepLirev. ApraovdcrBy]^ Be ^AvTcovicp %w/3i? r^? 
a\Xrj<i iTTTreta? aini-jv rrjv Kard^paKTOv e^aKia- 
)(^i\tav "ttttov e«Ta^a? eTreBei^ev, r/vtKa et? TT^t' 
M?;Stav eve^ake avv avTw. ravrr]'i Be t% 
tTTTrcia? ou Mz/Sot fiovot koI ^Ap/xevLot ^j^Xtural 
yeyovaaiv, dWa koI ^ AX^avoi, kuI jdp eKelvoL 
KaTa(f>pdKroi<; 'X^pcovrai. 

10. Tov Be ttXovtov koI t?}9 Buvdp.€(i)<i t/}? 
■)^(opa<i (Trjfielov ov p-LKpov, otc Uop^injiov Tcypdvr] 
TU) irarpl rut ApraovdaBou rdXavra iiriypdyfrai'- 
T09 e^aKLCT-^iXia dpyvpiov, Bieveifiev avrtKa ral^ 
Bwdp^ecn rcov 'PcopLaLcov, crrpaTtMrr] p.ev Kar 
dvBpa irevTt'jKOVTa Bpa^^p-di;,^ eKarovrdp^^^rj Be 
^iXiaii, 'nTTTdp-^u) "* Be koI ^(^iXtdp'^o} rdXavrov. 

11. Meye^o? Be Tfj<; ')(^u)pa<i @eo(f)dvr]<; utto- 
BiBcoaLv evpo<i fiev ^^(oivav eKarov, /j,i]Ko<i Be 
BnrXdaiop, TiOe\<i rrjv a-^oipov reTrapdKovra 
araBiMV tt/oo? vTrep^oXrjv 8' eipi]K€V' eyyvrepo) 
B earl t/}? dXrjdeia^ p,rjKo<i /lev deaOai to utt' 
eK€Li>ov Xe)(^Oev evpo<;,^ evpo<i Be to y]/xta-v rj p.LKpu> 
irXelov. i) fxev Btj (pvat<i t/}? Wpfievla^i kuI Bvvapii<i 

TOiaVTT). 

^ E has Ni(ra7oj. 

* Mj9poKii'ois, Kramer, for MidpaKi^vots C, MiOpaKavois 
VJorwg, M.i6piaKois Corais, Midpai>to7s Groskurd. 

^ «al fKaT6v, after Spax/^as, Corais would omit; so tlie later 
editors. 

* liTirdpxv, Du Theil, for titdpxv ; so the later editors. 
^ tlpos, Groskurd inserts ; so the later editors. 

33° 



GEOGRAPHY, ir. 14. 9-11 

for ''horse-pasturing," not even inferior to Media,^ 
that the Nesaean horses, which were used by tlie 
Persian kings, are also bred there. The satrap of 
Armenia used to send to the Persian king twenty 
thousand foals every year at the time of the Mithra- 
cina.2 Artavasdes,^ at the time when he invaded 
Media with Antony, showed him, apart from the rest 
of the cavalry, six thousand horses drawn up in 
battle array in full armour. Not only the Medes 
and the Armenians pride themselves upon this kind 
of cavalry, but also the Albanians, for they too use 
horses in full armour. 

10. As for the wealth and power of the country, 
the following is no small sign of it, that when 
Pompey imposed upon Tigranes, the father of 
Artavasdes, a payment of six thousand talents of 
silver, he forthwith distributed to the Roman forces 
as follows : to each soldier fifty drachmas, to each 
centurion a thousand drachmas, and to each hip- 
parch and chiliarch a talent. 

11. The size of the counti-y is given by Theo- 
phanes:* the breadth one hundred '' schoeni," and 
the length twice as much, putting the '' schoenus " 
at forty stadia ; ^ but his estimate is too high ; it 
is nearer the truth to put down as length wliat he 
gives as breadth, and as breadth the half, or a little 
more, of what he gives as breadth. Such, then, is 
the nature and power of Armenia. 

1 See 11. 13. 7. 

2 The annual festival in lionour of the Persian Sun-god 
Mithras. 

» See 11. 13. 4. * See foot-note on 11. 2. 2. 

^ On the variations in the meaning of " sclioenus," see 17. 
1. 24. 

33« 



STRABO 

12. ^ Ap\aLo\o<yia he Tt? eVrt irepl tov eOvov^ 
rovSe ToiavTT)' 'Ap/j.evo<i i^ Xpfxeviov, TroXew? 
BcTTaXt/c?^?, >) Kelrai pera^ii ^epwv Kal Aaptcrr;? 
eVt T^ Bol/St}, KaOdirep elprjrai, avvecnparevcrev 
^Idaovi eh Ty-jv 'Apfxeviav rovrov cf)aalv eircovv- 
fxov TT]v ^ App.evLav ol irepl K.vpcri\ov tov 
0apad\iov kol ^h]hiov tov Aapiaacov, duBp6<i 
(TuveaTpaTevKOTe^ ^ AXe^dvhpw, tow he fxerd tov 
Wpfxevov Tot'9 /J.ev ttjv ' AKi\iaT]vr]v ocKfjcrat Tr]v 

UTTO TOt? 1.a)cl}7]V0L'i TTpoTCpOV OVaUV, TOU? hk iv TJi 

"EvaTTipLTihi e(o<i t^? K.a\a^y]vi}^ Kal t^9 ^Ahia- 
^r)vi]<i €^(0 Tcov ^Ap/neviaKcav opwv?- Kal ttjv 
ecrdrjTa he Trjv ApfieviaKr]v @eTTa\iK7]v cf)aaiv, 
olov Tov^ ^adel<i ^trcoz/a?, ov<; KaXovai ScttuXl- 
Kov<; ^ iv Tal<; Tpaywhiaa, Kal ^covvvovat Trepl to, 
aTr}drj, Kal ecpaiTTlha'i, &)<> Kat TOiV Tpaywhcov 
fiifMrjaa/xei'cov tou? (deTTa\ov<;, ehei /xev yap 
auTot<; eTTiOeTOV Koapov toiovtov Ttv6<;, ol he 
&eTTaXol /jidXiaTa ^a6vaToXovvTe<;, ux; elKO'i, hid 
to rrdvTcov elvac 'EXXijvcov f3opeiOTdTOV^ Kal 
yJAUXpoTaTOVi vepeadac tottov^ iTriTy^heioTaTy^v 
7rape(T)(^oi'ro piprjaLv ttj twv vttokpltcov hiaaKevrj ^ 
iv TOt? dvairXdapacnv Kal tov t^? 'nnriKy]^ 
C 531 ^rjXov (j)acnv elvai, (r)eTTa\iKov Kal tovtol^ 6p,ol(o'i 
Kal Mi^Sot?" Ttjv he 'Idcrovo^ CTTpaTeiav Kal Ta 
^lacrovia p.apTvpei, o)v Tivd ol hvvdaTai Acare- 
(TKevaaav^ "TrapaTrXrjcrioi^ wairep tov iv W^hrjpoi<i 
veoov TOV 'la'croi'O? Wappevlwv. 

^ '6puiv, X3'lander, for opSiv ; so the later editors. 

* 06TTaAiKoi;j, Corais from conj. of Du Theil, for hhoi- 
KtKovs ; so the later editors. 

* TT) . . . SiacTKevfi, Kramer, for Tr]v . . . 5iaaKfur]y, 
omitting 5e after SiaoKfv^ ; so the later editors. 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. 14. 12 

12. There is an ancient story of the Armenian 
race to this effect : that Arnieniis of Arnienium, a 
Thessalian city, wliich lies between Pherae and 
Larisa on Lake Boebe, as I have ah-eady said,^ 
accompanied Jason into Armenia ;^ and Cyrsilus the 
Pharsalian and Medius the Larisaean, who accom 
panied Alexander, say that Armenia was named 
after him, and that, of the followers of Ai'menus, 
some took up their abode in Acilisene, which in 
earlier times was subject to the Sopheni, whereas 
others took up their abode in Syspiritis, as far as 
Calachene and Adiabene, outside the Armenian 
mountains. They also say that the clothing of the 
Ai*menians is Thessalian, for example, the long 
tunics, which in tragedies are called Thessalian and 
are girded round the breast ; and also the cloaks 
that are fastened on with clasps, another way in 
which the tragedians imitated the Thessalians, for 
the tragedians had to have some alien decoration 
of this kind ; and since the Thessalians in particular 
wore long robes, probably because they of all the 
Greeks lived in the most northerly and coldest 
region, they were the most suitable objects of 
imitation for actors in their theatrical make-ups. 
And they say that their style of horsemanship is 
Thessalian, both theirs and alike that of the Medes. 
To this the expedition of Jason and the Jasonian 
monuments bear witness, some of whicli were built 
by the sovereigns of the country, just as the temple 
of Jason at Abdera was built by Parmenion. 

1 11. 4. 8. 

* Karfii Kevaaar, Casaul)Oli, for Karianu^av ; ho the lat«'f 
editors. 

333 



STRABO 

13. Tov Be Apd^rjv KXrjOrjvai vo/jiil^ovai Kara 
TTjv ofioioTTjra ttjv tt/oo? rov Urjveibv vvo rwv 
Trepl Tov " ±\p[X€vov oficoi'Vfxwi eKeivw, KaXelaOat 
yap 'Apd^rjv KUKelvov Sia to aTrapd^ai Tr)v 
"Oacrav dno tov ^OXv/xttov, prj^avra rd 'Tifnn]' 
Kal rov iv ^App^evia Be, diro twv opwv Kara- 
^dura, TrXarvvecrdai ^aai to TrdXaiov Kal ire\.a- 
yi^eiv ev toI<; v7roK€i/j.evoi<i TreStot?, ovk exovra 
Bie^oBov, ^Idaova Be, /xi/xtjad/jievov tu Te/iTT?/, 
TTOtTjcrai TTJV Biacr(f)dya Bi 779 KUTapdrTei vvvl 
TO vBcop ei9 Tr]V KaaTriav ddXaTTav, eK Be 
TOVTOV yvfivcoOijvai to 'Apa^rjvov ireBiov, Bi ov 
Tvy')(^dieL ^ pecov eirl tov KaTapdKTVjv 6 TroTa/jio^. 
ovTo<i p.ev ovv Xoyo'i irepl rov ^Apd^ov 7TOTa/xov 
Xey6/jLevo<i ex^t tl mOavov, Be 'H/oo^oreto? ov 
irdvv, (f}r]ai yap e/c ^lartrjvcov avTov peovTa et? 
TeTTupd/covra TTOTa/ioi)? cr^t^ecr^at, /xepi^eiv Be 
'S.Kvda^ Kul HuKTpiavoixi' Kal K.aXXiardevr)^ Be 
yjKoXovdrjaev avTw. 

14. AeyovTai Be Kal tmv Alvidvcov Ttve<i, ol fxev 
Tr]v OviTiav oiKTJaai, ol 8' inrepde twv ^Ap/xevLOiv 
virep TOV "AySov Kal tov ^i^apov.^ P-^PV ^' earl tov 
Tavpov Tavra, wv 6 "A^So? eyyv<i eaTi Trj<: oBov t>}<> 
ei9 'E/c/Sarai^a (pepovarj^; irapd tov t/)9 Bay9i8o9 ^ 
vecov. <paal Be xal %paK(tiv Tivd<i, tov<: irpoaa- 
yopevo/xevov^ ^aparrdpa^, olov Ke(^aXoT6fxov<;, 
oiKijaai virkp t^9 ^ AppevLa<i, TrXijatov Vovpaviwv 

* Tvyxo-vet, Kramer, for avyxc-ivti CEA/, and margin of 
D ; (7t;7x*'" ^Irwx, avu^rj 2, cv/j.fialvfi and editors before 
Kramer. 

^ Ni0apov, Corais, for "Ififxapov E, "ifx^apov other MSS. 

* For hdptSos Cx, Tzschucke and Corais read 'A/3opi5oj. 

334 



GEOGRAPHY, n. 14. 13-14 

13. It is thought that the Araxes was given the 
same name as the Peneius by Armenus and his 
followers because of its similarity to that river, for 
that river too, they say, was called Araxes because 
of the fact that it " cleft " ^ Ossa from Olympus, the 
cleft called Tempe. And it is said that in ancient 
times the Araxes in Armenia, after descending from 
the mountains, spread out and formed a sea in the 
plains below, since it had no outlet, but that Jason, 
to make it like Tempo, made the cleft through 
which the water now precipitates^ itself into the 
Caspian Sea, and that in consequence of this the 
Ai'axene Plain, through which the river flows to its 
precipitate ^ descent, was relieved of the sea. Now 
this account of the Araxes contains some plausi- 
bility, but that of Herodotus not at all ; for he 
says that after flowing out of the country of the 
Matieni it splits into forty rivers * and separates the 
Scythians from the Bactrians. Callisthenes, also, 
follows Herodotus. 

14. It is also said of certain of the Aenianes that 
some of them took up their abode in Vitia and 
others above the Armenians beyond the Abus and 
the Nibarus. These two moiuitains are parts of the 
Taurus, and of these the Abus is near the road that 
leads into Ecbatana past the temple of Baris. It 
is also said that certain of the Thracians, those called 
" Saraparae," that is " Decapitators," took up their 
abode beyond Armenia near the Guranii and the 

' "ap-arax-ae" is the Greek verb. ^ " cat-arax-ae." 

^ Again a play on the root " arax." 

* " The Araxes discharges through forty mouths, of which 
all, except one, empty into marshes and shoals. . . . The 
one re7naining mouth flows through a clear channel into the 
Caspian sea" (Herod. 1. 202). 

335 



STRABO 

opeivom, irepiaKvdKTTa.'i^ re koi a7roK€(f>a\i(TTd<;' 
TOVTO yap SrjXovcriv oi '^apa-ndpai. eLprjrai he koi 
xa irepl Trj<; M?;Seia? ev toI<; Mi]hiKoi<;' oiar Ik 
TrdvTWV TOVTCOV eLKaKovai Kal TOV<i Mj;Sof? Kal 
WpfievLOVi crvyyevel^ tto)? to(? Sctt aXoh elvai Kal 
TOi? drrb ^Idaovo^; Kal M7;6eta?. 

15. 'O fiev Sr) vaXaio^ \6yo<; ovto<;, 6 Be rov- 
Tov veo)T€po<i Kal Kara Ylepcra'i et? to e^e^ri<i 
/jLexpi ft? r]/Jid<i, &)9 ev Ke^aXaifp Trpeiroi av P'e')(pL 
roaovrov Xe)(^0ei<;, on Karel')(ov rrjv ^ Apfieviav 
Uepaai Kal Ma/teSoi'e?, fierd ravra o'l rrjv Xvpiav 
e^ovre^ Kal rrjv "Sh-jhiav reXevralo^ 8' vTrrjp^ev 
'Op6vr-)]<; d7r6yovo<i "TSdpvov, rwv eirrd YiepaSyv 
evo^' eW VTTo rwv ' Avrioxov rou fxeydXov 
(Trpaniyoiv rov irpof 'Pto/xat'ou? •jroXefiy'jaavro'i 
8iT}pe6r] Bi^a, Apra^tov re Kal ZapidBpio<i' Kal 
rjp-^ov ovroi, rov /3aaiXeo)<i e7nrpe\lravro<;' rjrrr]- 
6evro<i 6' eKeivov, rrpoaOe/xevoi 'V(OfiaLoi<; KaS' 
C 532 avrov'i irdrrovro, /SaaiXei'i 7rpoaayopev0evre<;. 
rov /xev ovv ^Apra^lov ^iypdvri<i r^v diroyovo^ 
Kal eZ^e rrjv lBiQ)<; Xeyofxevrjv ^ App,eviav, avrrj 
B r)v TTpocrexv^ "^V "^^ ^IrfBia Kal ' AX/3avol^ Kal 
"\l3i]p(n, fiexpi }s.oX')(iBo<i Kal rrj<i eirl rut Y.v^eiv(p 
K.amraBoKLa'i, rov Be ZapidBpiof; 6 ^co(f)i]v6<; 
Wprdpy]^ ^ €)(0)v ra voria fiepj] Kal rovrcov ra 
TTpo? Bvaiv /jLaXXov. KareXvOr) 6' ovro<; vtto rov 
Tiypdvov, Kal rrdvrwv Kareari] Kvpio^ eKelvo<;. 
rv)(ai<i 8' e^prja'aro rroLKiXai<;, Kar dp^cKi piev 

^ oxz read irfpia-KeXiiTTds. 

* For'ApToj'TjsSteph. it\z.,s.v. ^axfrovri, writes 'Af)(ra/o)s, and 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. 14. 14 15 

Medes, a fierce and intractable people, mountaineers, 
scalpers, and beheaders, for this last is the meaning 
of "Saraparae." I have already discussed Medeia 
in my account of the Medes;^ and therefore, from 
all this, it is supposed that both the Medes and 
the Armenians are in a way kinsmen to the Thes- 
salians and the descendants of Jason and Medeia. 

15. This, then, is the ancient account ; but the 
more recent account, and that which begins with 
Persian times and extends continuously to our own, 
might appropriately be stated in brief as follows : 
The Persians and Macedonians were in possession 
of Armenia ; after this, those who held Syria and 
Media ; and the last was Orontes, the descendant 
of Hydarnes, one of the seven Persians ; ^ and then 
the country was divided into two parts by Artaxias 
and Zariadris, the generals of Antiochus the Great, 
who made war against the Romans ; and these 
generals ruled the country, since it was turned 
over to them by the king; but when the king 
was defeated, they joined the Romans and were 
ranked as autonomous, with the title of king. Now 
Tigranes was a descendant of Artaxias and held 
what is pro2:)erly called Armenia, which lay adjacent 
to Media and Albania and Iberia, extending as far as 
Colchis and Cappadocia on the Euxine, whereas the 
Sophenian Artanes,^ who held the southern parts 
and those that lay more to the west than these, 
was a descendant of Zariadris. But he was over- 
come by Tigranes, who established himself as lord 
of all. The changes of fortune experienced by 

1 11. 13. 10. 2 See Herodotus .3. 70. « See critical note. 

so Groskurd ; T3'rwhitt emends to 'Ap,u€i'/os, making 'Sa><pT]v6s 
a proper name (op. 12, 2. 1). 

337 



STRABO 

yap (i)/jL7']p€V(T€ irapa lldpdoi^, eirena Bi eKeivwv 
ervx^e Ka66hov, \a^6vro)v pucrdov e^8op,t]KOvra 
av\(ava<i Trj<; 'Ap/iewa?' av^tjOel^ Be Kal ravra 
uTTeXa^e to, 'X^copLa /cal rrjv €K€uiov eTTopdrjcre, 
TTjV re irepl Nlvov^ real rrjv irepl ' Ap^tjXa' 
vTrr/Koovii 8' eax^ koX tov WrpoTrari^vov kul rov 
VopSvalov, fieB' o)v Kal tj]v Xonrrjv MecoTrora- 
fiiav, €Ti Be ry-jv 'S.vpiav avTrjv kul ^oivlkijv, 
8ta/3a9 Tov Kv(f>pdT')]i', civa /cpcno'i eiXev. eiri 
TocrovTov S' e^apde\<; Kal irokiv eKTiae ^ TrXtiaiov 
Trj^ ^l0T]pia<i^ fxera^v TavTrj<; re Kal tov Kara 
TOV FtV(f)pdTr]v ZevjfiaTo^, rjv (ovo/xaae Tiypavo- 
KcpTa, CK ScoSeKa eprj/xoydeicrMv inr avTOV iroXeoyv 
'FjXXrjviScov dvBpwTTOVi avvayaycov. €(f)Oy] S' 
eTreXOoiv Aeu/coXXo? 6 tw MidpiSaTrj 7roX€pj](Ta<i 
Kal Toi)^ /xev olKi']Topa<i ei? ttjv oiKeiav €K(1(ttou 
dtreXvcre, to he Krla-fia, rj/xneXe'i ert 6v, KaTe- 
(TTraae irpoa^aXwv Kal /xiKpav koo/jltjv KaTeXiirev, 
e^tfXaae he Kal t?}? '^vpia<; avTov Kal rf}? Ooi- 
viKii<i. htahe^dp,evo<; 8' 'ApTaovd(rhii<; eKelvoV' 
T€ft)9 pev T}VTv\ei, (f)iXo<; o)v 'Vwpaioi^, ^ AvTwvtov 
he TTpohihoix; HapOvaioi^ ev tm 7rpo9 avTov<i 
TToXe/xw, hiKa<; eTiaev, dvaxOel^ yap el<i XXe- 
^dvhpeiav inr avTov, hecrp.io'i TropirevOel^ hia 
T7](i 7roX,€ft)9 T€(i)<; pev e(f)povpelTo, eireiT dvrjpeOij, 

^ TTfpl Uivov, Xylander, for izipiviov ; so the later etlitors. 
^ (KTifft, Xylander, for -rlaai ; so the later editors. 
^ 'I)377ptos seems corrupt; for conjectures see C. Miiller, 
hid. Var. Led. p. 1019. 

^ This cannot be the country Iberia ; and, so far as is 
known, the region in question had no city of tliat name. 



GEOGRAPHY, ii. 14. 15 

Tigranes were varied, for at first he was a hostafre 
among the Parthians ; and then through them he 
obtained the privilege of returning home, they 
receiving as reward therefor seventy valleys in 
Armenia ; but when he had grown in power, 
he not only took these jjlaces back but also 
devastated their country, both that about Ninus 
and that about Arbela ; and he subjugated to himself 
the rulers of Atropcne and Gordyaea, and along 
with these the rest of Mesopotamia, and also crossed 
the Euphrates and by main strength took Syria itself 
and Phoenicia ; and, exalted to this height, he also 
founded a city near Iberia,^ between this place 
and the Zeugma on the Euphrates ; and, having 
gathered peoples thither from twelve Greek cities 
which he had laid waste, he named it Tigranocerta ; 
but Leucullus, who had waged war against Mithri- 
dates, arrived before Tigranes finished his under- 
taking and not only dismissed the inhabitants to 
their several home-lands but also attacked and 
pulled down the city, which was still only half 
finished, and left it a small village ; ^ and he drove 
Tigranes out of both Syria and Phoenicia. His 
successor Artavasdes ^ was indeed prosperous for a 
time, while he was a friend to the Romans, but 
when he betrayed Antony to the Parthians in his 
war against them he j^aid the penalty for it, for 
he was carried oft" jirisoner to Alexandreia by Antony 
and was paraded in chains through the city ; and 
for a time he was kept in prison, but was afterwards 

Kramer conjectures "Nisibis" (op. 11. 12. 4); but C. 
Miillei-, more plausibly, "Carrhae." Cp. the reference to 
"Carrhae" in 16. 2. 23. 

2 69 B.C. » See 11. 13. 4. 

339 



STRABO 

(Tvvd7rrovro<; tov 'Aktcukov 7To\e/xov. fier eKeivvv 
he irXelov'i i^acriXevaav vtto Kaiaapi Kal 'Pw- 
/jLaioi<; ovre'i' Kal vvv eVt crvvi)(€Tai tov avrov 
rpoTTov. 

16. " ArravTa fxev ovv ra tow Wepaoiv lepa 
Kal yiT]8oi Kal ^ Apfievioi TeTifijjKaai, ra Se tj}? 
'Ai'aiViSo? ^ 8ia(f)€p6vTa)^ Apjievioi, ev re dWoi<; 
IhpvadfievoL tottoi'^, Kal Br] Kal ev rfj ^AKiXtarjvfj. 
civaTiOeaaL 8' evravOa 8ov\ov<; Kal SovXa^. Kal 
Tovro fiev ov dav/MuaTov, dXXa Kal dvyarepa^i oi 
eTTKpavearaTOi tov e6vov<; dvtepovai 7rap6e'vov<i, 
at? v6pL0<i earl KaraTropvevOeiaai^ ttoXvv y^povov 
■napd TTj dew pLerd TavTa hihocrOai 7rp6^ yd/xov, 
ovK d7ra^iovvTO<; ttj Toiavrrj avvoLKelv ovEev6<i. 
C 533 roiovTOV Be ri Kal 'HpoSoro? Xeyei to irepl rd<i 
AuSa?" TTopveveiv yap dirdcra^;. ovt(o Be (f)i\o- 
(f)p6vco<; y^pcovrai roi'i epacrraU, ware Kal ^eviav 
irapeypvGL Kal Bwpa dvTiBiBoaai TrXeico 7ToXXdKi<; 
77 XapL^dvovaiv, dr e|- eviropwv oikwv iTTf^opT)- 
yovfievai,' BexovTat Be ov tov^ TV)(^ovTa<i tmv 
^evcov, dXXd pudXiara tov<; utto I'ctov d^id)fj,aTO<;. 

1 'AvairiSos, Xylaiulcr, following Epit. and Eustathius 
[Dionysius 846), "for TafatSos; so the later editors. 

1 1. 93, 199 



340 



GEOCiRAPHY, ii. 14. 15-16 

slain, when the Actian war broke out. After him 
several kiiiys reigned, these being subject to Caesar 
and the Romans ; and still to-day the country is 
governed in the same way. 

16. Now the sacred rites of the Persians, one and 
all, are held in honour by both the Medes and the 
Armenians ; but those of Anaitis are held in ex- 
ceptional honour by the Armenians, who have built 
temples in her honour in different places, and 
especially in Acilisene. Here they dedicate to her 
service male and female slaves. This, indeed, is 
not a remarkable thing ; but the most illustrious 
men of the tribe actually consecrate to her their 
daughters while maidens ; and it is the custom for 
these first to be prostituted in the temple of the god- 
dess for a long time and after this to be given in 
marriage ; and no one disdains to live in wedlock with 
such a woman. Something of this kind is told also 
by Herodotus ^ in his account of the Lydian women, 
who, one and all, he says, prostitute themselves. 
And they are so kindly disposed to their paramours 
that they not only entertain them hospitably but 
also exchange presents with them, often giving more 
than they receive, inasmuch as the girls from wealthy 
homes are supplied with means. However, they 
do not admit any man that comes along, but 
preferably those of equal rank with themselves. 



341 



BOOK XIT 



IB' 
I 

1. Kai 1/ K-aTTTraSoKia^ earl Tro\u/j,€p7]<i -re Ka\ 
av-^va<; 8e8eyp,evij /j.era,3o\d';. oi S' ovv o/xuyXcor- 
Toc fxaXicTTd elaiv o'l iK^opi^ofMevoi. 7rpo<; vutov fiev 
Tft) K.iXiKi(p Xe'yo/j,6i'a) Taupw, irpo^ eoj 8e ttj 

Apfxevla kuI rfj KoX;^tSt koI toI<; fiera^v erepo- 
yXcoTTOi'i eOveat, 7rpo<i dpKTOV he tco l^v^eivq) 
fiexpi' Tftiv eK^oXoiv tov ''A\vo<i, Trpo? Bvcnv Se rw 
re Tcov Tla(f)\ay6va)v eOvei Kal VaXaroyv rwv ttjv 
^puyiav i7rot.Krj(rdvTO)V ^ H'^XP'' Aukuovoov koI 
K.iXlk(j)v tcov TTjv rpa)(^€Lav K^iXikluv v€/xo/j,eva}v. 

2. Kat avTCOv Be rcoi> ofioyXcoTTcov oi iraXaioi 
TOv<i ^aTdova<i kuO^ avTOv<i eruTTov, dvTcSiai- 
povvTe<; Tot? KaTnrdSo^iv, to? erepoedvecri, Kal iv 
rf) Stupid /j.i']aei twv iOvoiv p-era t7]v KinnraBoKLav 
eTiOeaav rr)v Kcnaoviav, elra top Kixfypdnjv xal 
TO, Trepav eOprj, wcxre Kal Ttjv ^leXiTi]vtiv uirb r^ 
KuTaovia TdrTeiv, rj fxera^v Kelrai TavTrf<i re kul 
TOV Ev(j)pdTov, avvd-mouaa rfj l\.op./xayi]vfjy /xepo^ 
Te T?}? KaTTTra^o/tia? earl SeKUTov Kara ttju ei9 
BcKa (TTpuTTjyia^ hiaipeaiv tt]<; ;^aipa?. ovtco yap 

C 534 B>] ol KuO^ rip,d<i /3aai,XeL<i oi Trpo 'Ap^eXdou 

^ Before sari Corais ami Meiiieke insert S'. 
* inoiKTjffdvrwy, Corais, for [UToiKriaivTUiv ; so the later 
editors. 

344 



BOOK XII 
I 

1.^ Cappadocia, also, is a country of many parts 
and has undergone numerous changes. Howevei*, 
tiie inhabitants who speak the same hmgiiage are, 
generally speaking, those who are bounded on the 
south by the "■ Cilician " Taurus, as it is called, and 
on the east by Armenia and Colchis and by the 
intervening peoples who speak a different group of 
languages, and on the north by the Euxine as far 
as the outlets of the Halys River, and on the west 
both by the tribe of the Paphlagonians and by those 
Galatae who settled in Phrygia and extended as far 
as the Lycaonians and those Cilicians who occupy 
Cilicia Tracheia.^ 

2. Now as for the tribes themselves which speak 
the same language, the ancients set one of them, 
the Cataonians, by themselves, contradistinguishing 
them from the Cappadocians, regarding the latter 
as a different tribe ; and in their enumeration of the 
tribes they placed Cataonia after Cappadocia, and 
then placed the Euphrates and the tribes beyond it 
so as to include in Cataonia Melitene, which lies 
between Cataonia and the Euphrates, borders on 
Commagene, and, according to the division of Cap- 
padocia into ten prefectures, is a tenth portion of 
the country. Indeed, it was in this way that the 
kings in my time who preceded Archeliius held 

1 From Xylander to Meineke the editors agree that a 
portion of text at the beginning of this Book is missing. 
- " Rugged " Cilicia, 

345 



STRABO 

hiarera'y^evriv ely^ov ttjv yyefioviav tj}? KaTnra- 
hoKia';' SeKuTOV 8' icrrl /u,epo^ koI i) J^araovia. 
Ka& rjixa'^ he el;^6 crTpaTijyov eKarepa lBiov ovre 
S' eK T^? StaXcKTov hia^opa<; tlvo<; iv TovToi<i 
Trpo? Toy? dWovi; KaTTTraSo/ca? e/j.cpaivop.evij'i, 
ovT€ €K ^ T(ov dW(i)v idoiv,^ Ouv/xaajov 7rco9 
r]<^dvL(nai Te\ew<i rd (Tt]fiela t>}9 dWoedviaf;. 
rj(Tav S' ovv Sicopicrfiei'Di, irpocreKTrjaaTo 8' avrov^ 
'Apiapddrji; 6 irpoiTO'; TrpoaayopevOeU Kmnra- 
BoKcov /SacrtXey?. 

3, "EcTTt 8' oyatrep x^PPOV7](Tov fieydXrjf; la6/j,o<; 
ovTO<i, ac^tyyop-evofi 6aXd7Tai<i hvat, rfj re tov 
'IcrcriKov koXttov p-^xpi rr}? Tpa')(^ela'i KtA-t/cta? 
Koi rfj TOV Kv^elvov fiera^v %ivco7n]^ re Kal tv'}? 
Tcov Ti(3apr]vcov vapaXla^' ivT6<i Be tov ladp^ov 
Xiyofiev '^eppovrjaov ttjv irpoaecnrepiov rot? KaTr- 
TrdSo^iv uTraaav, rjv 'l\p6hoTo<i /xev ivTo<; " AXvof; 
KaXel' avTTj ydp earTiv, r}? rjp^ev aTrdcnji; Kpolaa, 
Xeyei 5' avTov €KeLvo<i Tvpavvov edvicov tcov eVro? 
" AXvof iroTapLOV. ol he vvv ttjv eVro? tov Tavpov 
KaXovaiv 'Aaiav, 6/j,o)iwp.o)^ ttj oXtj i)ireip(p 
TavTTjv ^ Aaiav TrpoaayopevovTe^. Trepie-^eTaL 8 
iv avTrj irpoiTa p,ev eOvti Ta diro tt)? dvaToXr]<; 
TlaipXayove^ t€ kui ^pvye<i koi AvKdova, erreiTa 

]^l0vvol Kal MuaOl KuI TJ ^RTTLfCTTJTO^;, €TL he 

Tpwa? /cat 'l^XXrjaTrovTia, p,eTa he TovTOVf eVt 
daXuTTTj p,ep 'FjXXi'jvcov oX t6 AtoXet? Ka\ "leoi/e?, 
Twy S' dXXoyv Ka/969 re zeal Avkioi, ev he ttj 
fxea-oyaia Avhoi. irepl p-ev ovv twv dXXcov 
ipovp,€v vaTepov. 



^ TTJr, before rcSf &\\a>v, is rightly omitted by oz 
* iBuf c instead of idvwv ; so the editors. 



346 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. i. 2-3 

their several prefectures over Cappadocia. And 
Cataonia^ also, is a tenth portion of Cappadocia. In 
my time each of the two countries had its own 
prefect ; but since, as compared with the other Cappa- 
docians, there is no difference to be seen either in 
the language or in any other usages of the Cata- 
onians, it is remarkable how utterly all signs of their 
being a different tribe have disappeared. At any 
rate, they were once a distinct tribe, but they were 
annexed by Ariarathes, the first man to be called 
king of the Cappadocians. 

3. Cappadocia constitutes the isthmus, as it were, 
of a large peninsula bounded by two seas, by that 
of the Issian Gulf as far as Cilicia Traclieia and 
by that of the Euxine as far as Sinope and the 
coast of the Tibareni. I mean by "peninsula" 
all the country which is west of Cappadocia this 
side the isthmus, which by Herodotus is called 
"the country this side the Halys River"; for this 
is the country which in its entirety was ruled by 
Croesus, whom Herodotus calls the tyrant of the 
tribes this side the Halys River.^ However, the 
writers of to-day give the name of Asia to the 
country this side the Taurus, applying to this country 
the same name as to the whole continent ot Asia. 
This Asia comprises the first nations on the east, 
the Paphlagonians and Phrygians and Lycaonians, 
and then the Bithynians and Mysians and the 
Epictetus,- and, besides these, the Troad and 
Hellespontia, and after these, on the sea, the 
Aeolians and lonians, who are Greeks, and, among 
the rest, the Carians and Lycians, and, in the 
interior, the Lydians. As for the other tribes, I 
.shall speak of them later. 

* 1. 6, 28. * The territory later " Acquired " (2. 5. .SI). 

347 

VOL. v. M 



STRABO 

4. Tr)P Be K.aTT7ra8oKLav ei<; Svo crarpaTreia^ 
ixepicrdeicrav vtto tcov llepawv TrapaXa^ovre^ 
yia>ceB6ve<i -rrepielhov ^ to, fiev €k6vt€<; to, 6' 
dKOVTe<? ei? ^aaCKeia'^ dvrl aarpaireLOiV irepi- 
crraaav wv ttjv fiev tOico? KaTTTraSoKLav wvo/xa- 
aav Kol 7r/oo9 tw Taypo) /cat vr] Aia fieydXyv 
KaTTTraSoKiav, ttjv he Wovtov, ol he rrjv tt/jo? tw 
IIovTfp KaTTTraSoKiav. t% he /xeydXri^; KaTnra- 
hoKLa<; vvv pLev ovk icrpev iro) rrjv ^ hLara^iv reXev- 
TrjaavTO<i yap tqv jSlov ^ A^p^eXdov rov ^acnXev- 
cravTO's, eyvw Katcrdp re Kal i) crvyKXy]TO<; eTrap')(^iav 
elvat 'PcopaLcov auT7]v. eV eKeivov he koI tcov 
irpo avTou ^acriXeoov ei? heKa <TTpaTi]yLa<; htTjpij- 
IxevTj's T7]<; '^(^(opa^, irevre p,ev i^T^rd^ovro al irpo^ 
T(f> Tavpo), yieXtTTjvt], K-araovla, KlXiklu, 'Tva- 
vtTi<;, Tap(TavpiTi,<;' Treine he Xonral Kaoviavarivrj,^ 
^apyapavcrrjvy'],'^ Sapaov7]vi], Kapavrjvj], Mopt- 
p,y]V7],^ Trpocreyivero h' varepov Trapd Paypalwv 
€K T?}? KtXiKfa^; TOL^^ irpo ^ Ap-)(eXdov Kal evheKdrrj 
C 535 crrpaTrjyia, -q irepl K.a<Trd^aXd re Kal Kv/3i(TTpa 
pexpt T% 'AvTiTrdrpov rov Xrjarov Aep^r]'^, rat 
he Wp)(e\dfp Kal rj rpa^ela irepl KXaLovdcrav 
KtXiKitt Kal irdaa i) rn Treipartjpia avanjcrapevr}. 

^ -rrfpidSou, Xylander, for nepieiKov ; so the later editors. 
- TTO) Trjv, Tyrwhitt, for irpiirr^y ; SO the editors. 
' Aaoviava-riff), Kramer, for Aooi'crai'o'Tj^T? /, Aaoi/iroiTTjvri other 
MSS. 

* ^apyapava-nvij , Tzschucke, for ^apyavffijvii. 

* MoptuTii'rl, Tzschucke, for 'Pi^vrjvrivri DHior, 'Ptfivrivri Cx:, 
yiopafj.Tivr] Epit. 



348 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 1.4 

4. Cappadocia was divided into two satrapies by 
the Persians at the time when it was taken over 
by the Macedonians ; the Macedonians willingly 
allowed one part of the country, but unwillingly 
the other, to change to kingdoms instead of 
satrapies ; and one of these kingdoms they named 
" Cappadocia Proper " and " Cappadocia near Tau- 
rus," and even "Greater Cappadocia," and the 
other they named " Pontus," though others named 
it Cappadocia Pontica. As for Greater Cappadocia, 
we at present do not yet know its administrative 
divisions,^ for after the death of king Archelaiis 
Caesar 2 and the senate decreed that it was a Roman 
province. But when, in the reign of Archelaiis and 
of the kings who preceded him, the country was 
divided into ten prefectures, those near the Taurus 
were reckoned as five in number, I mean Melitene, 
Cataonia, Cilicia, Tyanitis, and Garsauritis ; and 
Laviansene, Sargarausene, Saravene, Chamanene, and 
Morimene as the remaining five. The Romans 
later assigned to the predecessors of Archelaiis an 
eleventh prefecture, taken from Cilicia, I mean the 
country round Castabala and Cybistra, extending 
to Derbe, which last had belonged to Antipater the 
pirate ; and to Archelaiis they further assigned the 
part of Cilicia Tracheia round Elaeussa,andalso all the 
country that had organised the business of piracy. 

* A.D. 17. ' Tiberius Caesar. 

* roh E, T^s other M8S. 



349 



STRABO 



II 



1. "EcTTt h rj fj.ep ^leXiTTji'r] TTapaTrXrjaLa rfj 
Ko/Jiuayrjvfj, Trdaa <yap eari Tol<i 7]fiepoi,<; 8evBpoL<; 
KaTacf)VTO'i, fiovr) t% aW?/? Kainra^oKLa^, ware 
Kol eXaiov (pepeiv koI rov ^lovapiri]v olvov Tot<> 
'EiWrjviKoc<; ivdfiiWoji- avriKeirai d€ rfj "^(ocfyTjvfj, 
fieaov exovaa rov Kv(f)pdri]v rrorapLOV Kal avrrj 
Koi^ 7] K.ofj,/xayT]vi], 6fiopo<; ovaa. ea-n 8e (f)pou- 
piov a^ioXoyov r6)v KamraSoKcov iv rfj rrepaia 
T6/u,Laa. rovro S' eirpcWrj /xev r5> '^co^tjvw ra\dv- 
rwv CKarov, vcrrepov Be iB(op7](Taro AevKoXko<; rut 
KaTTTTfiSoKi avarparevaavri dpiarelov Kara rov 
irpo'i yUdpiSdrtjv TToXefiov. 

2. 'H Be Karaoi'LU irXarv /tal koTXov iari 
TreBiov nd/jLcpopov ttXjjv rcov detOaXwv. rrepcKeirai 
5' opt] dX\a re Kal 'ApLavo<i e'/c rov Trpo? vorov 
/xepovf, drroaTraa-fxa ov rov K.iXiKiov Tavpov, Kal 
6 'AvrLravpof, et? rdvavria dTreppwyco^. 6 fiev 
yap 'Ayuavo? eVl rr]v K^iXiKiav kuI rrjv 'l.vpiaKrjv 
cKreiverai ddXarrav rrpo'i rtjv eairepav dtro rrj<; 
Karaoi'ta? Kal rov vorov, rjj Be roiavrr) Biaard(rei 
TrepiKXeiet rov 'laaiKov koXttov diravra kuI rd 
fxera^v rwv K.iXlkcov rreBia rrpo^ rov Tavpov 6 B^ 
Wvriravpo<; ivl rd<; dpKrovs eyKeKXirai Kal puKpov 
eiTiXafi^dvet rcov dvaroXwv, elr el<; rrjv pieaoyaiav 
reXevra. 

3. 'Er Be ra ^Avnravpu) rovrw ^aOel<; Kal 
crrevoi elcriv avXcove^, ev ol? 'iBpvrai rd K.6fiava 
Kal ro rrj<; 'Ei/you? lepov, rjv^ eKelvoi Ma ovofid- 

^ KOii, Xylander inserts. 

^ ^v. Groskurd, for 2 ; so Meineke. 

35° 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 2. 1-3 

11 

1. Melitene is simil;ir to Coinuiagene, for the 
whole of it is planted with fruit-trees, the only 
country in all Cappadocia of which this is true, so 
that it produces, not only the olive, but also the 
Monarite wine, which rivals the Greek wines. 
It is situated opposite to Sophene ; and the 
Euphrates River flows between it and Commagenc, 
which latter borders on it. On the far side of the 
river is a noteworthy fortress belonging to the 
Cappadocians, Tomisa by name. This was sold to 
the ruler of Sophene for oiie hundred talents, but 
later was presented by Leucullus as a meed of 
valour to the ruler of Cappadocia who took the 
field with him in the war against Mithridates. 

2. Cataonia is a broad hollow plain, and produces 
everything except evei*green-trees. It is surrounded 
on its southern side by mountains, among others 
by the Amanus, which is a branch of the Cilician 
Taurus, and by the Antitaurus, which branches off 
in the opposite direction ; for the Amanus extends 
front Cataonia to Cilicia and the Syrian Sea towards 
the west and south, and in this intervening space 
it surrounds the whole of the Gulf of Issus and tlie 
intervening plains of the Cilicians which lie towards 
the Taurus. But the Antitaurus inclines to the 
north and takes a slightly easterly direction, and 
then terminates in the interior of the countiy. 

3. In this Antitaurus are deep and narrow valleys, 
in which are situated Comana and the temple of 
Enyo/ whom the people there call " Ma." It is 

1 Goddess of war {Iliad 5. 333). 



STRABO 

^ova-f TToXi^ h eariv a^ioXoyo-;, irXecaroi' jxevrot 
TO ^ rwv d€0(f)oprjTcov 7T\rjdo<^ Kai to twv iepoBou- 
\(i)v iv aiirfj. Karaot'e? Se elaiv ol €voikovvt€<;, 
dXX.(o<; fiev vtto tw fiaatXel TeTayfievoi, rov Be 
tepeo)? vTruKOvovres ro irXeov 6 Se rov d' iepov 
Kvpi.o'i icTTt Kal Twi/ UpoBovXcoi', o'l Kara rr)v 
TjfieTepav ifrihrifiiav irXeiov^ y)(jav rcov e^UKia- 
')^(,\icov, dvSpe^ o/iov yvvai^i. TrpoaKeirac he tu> 
lepui KCLi X^P^ TToWij, KapTTOurai 3' o lepev^ rrjv 
irpoaohov, Kal ecrriv ovto<: BevTepo<; Kara ri/xyv 
iv ^ TT) KaTTTTaBoKLa. /xerd rov /3acri\ea' a)<? S' eVt 
TO TToXv Tov avrov yevovi rjaav ol lepei<i TOif 
/3aaiXeuai. rd he lepd ravra BokcI OpeaTr}<i 
fierd Trj<i uSeX(f)r]'i Icpcyeveia^ KOfxiaai Sevpo diro 
tt}? TavpiKi}<; 1,Kv6ia^, rd t/;? TavporroXov 
''Apre/j.iBo^, ivravOa he Kal ttjv TrevOipLov KOfUjv 
diroOeadai, d(f ri<i Kal rovvofia rfj iroXei. hid 
C 536 f^^^ ovv TJ]<; 7roX.e&)9 ravrrj^; 6 '2dpo<; pel 7rorafi6<i, 
Kal hid TOiV (TVvayKeiwv ^ tov Tauyoou hieKirepaiov- 
Tai irpo^ rd tmv KiXIkcov irehia Kal to viroKei- 
p.evov TTeXayo^. 

4. Ata he rrj^ Karaot'ta? o Tlvpap.o<; ttXcoto^, 
e/c p.ecrov rov irehiov Ta? irrjyd^ ^X^^' ^'^^'^ he 
/36dpoi d^ioXoyo^, hi ov KaOopdv ^ ecTTL to vhtop 
v7rocf)ep6p.€i'OV KpvTTTOi^ H'^XP'- "^oXXov hcacTTij- 
/uaTO? iiTTo 7^9, etT* dvaTeXXov et? Ti]v eTTK^dveiav 
T(p he KaOievTt aKovTiov dva>6ev et? tov ^odpov i) 
^ia TOV vhaTO^ avTiirpuTTei toctovtov, ware fi6Xi<i 

1 TO, inserted by i. ' eV, Corais inserts. 

^ (TwayKfiSiv, the editors, for avvayyelwv oxz, awayKiinv 
other MSS. 

* KaOopav, Tyrwhitt, for Kudapoy ; so the editors. 

352 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 2. 3-4 

a considerable city ; its inhabitants, however^ consist 
mostly of the divinely inspired people and the 
temple-servants who live in it. Its inhabitants arc 
Cataonians, who^ thou<Th in a general way classed 
as subject to the kin<>-, are in most respects 
subject to the priest. The priest is master of the 
temple, and also of the temple-servants, who on 
my sojourn there were more than six thousand in 
number, men and women together. Also, con- 
siderable territory belongs to the temple, and the 
revenue is enjoyed by the priest. He is second in 
rank in Cappadocia after the king ; and in general 
the priests belonged to the same family as the 
kings. It is thought that Orestes, with his sister 
Iphigeneia, brought these sacred rites here from the 
Tauric Scythia, the rites in honour of Artemis 
Tauropolus, and that here they also deposited the 
hair ' of mourning ; whence the city's name. Now 
the Sarus River flows through this city and passes 
out through the gorges of tlie Taurus to the plains 
of the Cilicians and to the sea that lies below 
them. 

4. But the Pyramus, a navigable river with its 
sources in the middle of the plain, flows through 
Cataonia. There is a notable pit in the earth 
through which one can seethe water as it runs into 
a long hidden passage underground and then rises to 
the surface. If one lets down a javelin from above 
into the pit,^ the force of the water resists so strongly 
that the javelin can hardly be immersed in it. But 

* In Greek, "Koine," the name of the city being 
"Komana, " or, translated into English, "Comana." 
"^ At the outlet, of course. 

353 



STRABO 

0aTTTi^€a$af dTrXeVco ^ Be ^ddei koL TrXcnei 
Tro\v<; iv€)(del<; eireihav crvi'dyjrrj tm Tavpo), irapd- 
So^ov Xafi^dvei rrjv crvva'ywyi'^v, 7rapdSo^o<i Be 
Koi i) BiaKoirij rov 6pov<i earl, Bi J79 d'yerai to 
peWpov Kaddirep yap ev ral^ p'tjy/xa Xa^ovaai^ 
irerpai'i Kal cr-^i(T0€i,aai'i BL)(^a to.^ Kara rrjv 
erepav 6^0^(0.^ ofioXoyov^; elvac avixjBaivei rat? Kara 
TTjv erepav el(ro)(^ai<i, coare kuv (rvvapp.oadyvai 
BvvaaBai, outw? e'lBofxev koI Ta9 v7repKeifj.eva<; rou 
irorap-ov irerpa^ eKUTepcodev (T\eB6v ri /ifc'x/3t tmu 
uKpcopetcov dvareivovaa^ ev BiaaTacreL Bvelv y 
rpiMV TrXiOpcov, dvTiKeifxeva i')(ovaa<; to. KOiXa 
Tat? e^o)(^ai'i' ro Be eBa(^o<i to /lera^v ttuv ire- 
rpivov, ^aOv ri koI arevov reXeo)? e^ov Bia jjueaov 
prjy/xa, ware kuX Kvva koX Xayo) BidXXecrOai,. 
TOVTo 8* e'cTTi TO peW pov rov iTorap.ov, dy^pi 
■)(elXov<; irXype^, o^eTw " TrXdrei TTpoaeoiKo^, Bid 
Be TTJV (TKoXtoTrjTa koi ttjv eK ToaovTOV avvayco- 
yi]v Kul TO ^ Tj}? (jiupayyo<^ ^ddo<; evdix; rol^ 
TToppwOev irpocrioixxtv yfro(f)0<i jSpovrfj rrpocnrLTr- 
Tei TrapaTvX-qcno'i- BieK0a[v(ov Be to, oprj rocravTijv 
Kardyet "Xpyv iirl OdXarTav, ttjv fiev ck t/}? 
K.aTaovLa<i, ttjv Be e'/c tu>v KiXlkcov TveBicov, (oaTe 
err avTu> kul ')(p'>]afio<i e/CTreTTTOJ/cco? (peperai 

T0L0VT0<;- 

' EacTCTat eacrofxevoif, ore Ilvpafio^ dpyupoBi'i>t]<i,* 
jjiova 7rpo)(6o)v,^ leprjv e<i Kvirpov lktjtui. 

* dirKfTif), corr. in C, for air\wTii> ; but Corais, from conj. of 
T3'rwhitt, writes avrh r^. 

* oxfTO), Corais, for oxfrov ; so the later editors, though 
Kramer conj. ov after oxe'ry. 

* 5m, after to, Meineke, from conj. of Kramer, deletes ; 
others exchange the positions of the two words. 

354 



GEOGRAPHY. 



12. 2. 4 



although it flows in great volume because of its 
immense depth and breadth, yet, when it reaches 
the Taurus, it undergoes a remarkable contraction ; 
and remarkable also is the cleft of the mountain 
through which the stream is carried ; for, as in the 
case of rocks which have been broken and split 
into two parts, the projections on either side 
correspond so exactly to the cavities on the other 
that they could be fitted together, so it was in the 
case of the rocks I saw there, which, lying above the 
river on either side and reaching almost to the 
summit of the mountain at a distance of two or 
three plethra from each other, had cavities corres- 
ponding with the opposite projections. The whole 
intervening bed is rock, and it has a cleft through 
the middle which is deep and so extremely narrow 
that a dog or hare could leap across it. This cleft 
is the channel of the river, is full to the brim, and 
in breadth resembles a canal ; but on account of 
the crookedness of its course and its great con- 
traction in width and the depth of the gorge, a 
noise like thunder strikes the ears of travellers long 
before they reach it. In passing out through the 
mountains it brings down so much silt to the sea, 
partly from Cataonia and partly from the Cilician 
plains, that even an oracle is reported as having been 
given out in reference to it, as follows : " Men that 
are yet to be shall experience this at the time when 
the Pyramus of the silver eddies shall silt up its 
sacred sea-beach and come to Cyprus." ^ Indeed, 

' Cf. quotation of the same oracle in 1. 3. 7. 

* apyvpoZivris, Meineke, following Epitome and Oracida 
tiibyll. p. 515, for flipvoSivris. 

* wpox^i^y, for irpoxfuy, as read in thi.s text i»^ I. 3. S. 

355 



STRABO 

•napaTrXrjcnov '^dp ti KUKet (7v/jij3aLV€i Kal iv 
AlyvTrro), tou ISetXov 7rpo(T€^r]Tr€ipovvTo<i del ttji' 
OdXaTTav rfj 7rpoa-)(^oja€i- Kado Kal 'HpoSoTO? fiev 
hoipov Tov TTorafMOv Trjv Aljvtttov eiirev, 6 iroir]- 
T^9 8e rrjv ^dpov TreXayiav iiirdp^ai, irporepov 
ovx f^^ ^ vvvl Trpoayeiov ovaav rfi Alyvina). 
C 537 5.^ Tpirr] 8' iarlv lepatavvrj Ato9 Aaici/jov,^ Xec- 
TTO/xev)] rainri<;, d^i6\oyo<; S' 6p.(o<;. ivravda S' 
ecnl XaKKO^ dXfivpov i/Saro?, d^ioXoyov Xifivrj^; 
e)((i)v Treplfierpov, 6(})puai kX€l6/jL€vo^ vyjrrjXal^ re 
Kal 6pdiai<^, war ex^iv Kardj3acnv KXifxa/cooSi]' ru 
h vScop ovr^ av^eaOal (paaii/, ovr drroppvcnv 
e^j^iv ovSa/xov (pavepdv. 

6. HoXtv S" ovre ro rcov K.ara6va>v e%et rrehiov 
oijB' rj M.eXtr'fjVT], cfypovpia S' epvpLvd irrl rcov opSiv, 
rd re ^A^dfiopa Kal ro AdarapKov, o rrepippelrai 
rw K^ap/iidXa Trora/xo). e;^et Se Kal lepov ro rov 
Kaxa'oi^o? 'AttoWw^o?, Kad' oXov rifMcofievov rrjv 
J^aTTTraSoKLav, rroirjaa/jiivcov d(f)Lhpv/j.ara dir^ 
avTOV. ovBe at aXXai arparriyiaL rroXei^ e^ovai, 
7rXr)V BveiV rcov Se Xolttcov arparrjyicav ev fiev rfj 
'^apyapavarjvfj^ ttoXlx^vcov icrriv ' Upwa Kal 
irora/xo^ K.apfMdXa<;,^ 69 Kal avro<; et? rr]V Kt- 
XiKiav iK8iBo)(Tiv ev Be ral^ dXXai'i 6 re "Apya, 
epv/jLa vyln]X6v tt/jo? rw Tavpo), Kal rd Natpa, b 

^ ovx' ajs, Corais, for oviria; so Meineke. 

* § 5 seems to belong after § 6, as Kramer points out. 
Meineke transposes it in his text. 

* AaKiyjou, Jones, fromconj. of C. Miiller, for AaKln oi). Tyr- 
whitt conj. AaKii\vov. Meineke, citing Marcellinus 23. 6, and 
Philostratus Vit. ApoUnnii, emends to 'AcrBafiaiov, 

* ^apyapav<Ti)VTi , Tzschucke, for 'S.apyapavaivT), 

* KapyuoAas, Corais, for KdpixaKos. 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 2. 4-6 

something similar to this takes place also in Egypt, 
since the Nile is always turning the sea into dry- 
land by throwing out silt. Accordingly, Herodotus * 
calls Egypt "the gift of the Nile," while Homer ^ 
speaks of Pharos as " being out in the open sea," 
since in earlier times it was not, as now, connected 
with the mainland of Egypt.^ 

5.* The third in rank is the priesthood of Zeus 
Dacieus,^ which, though inferior to that of Enyo, 
is noteworthy. At this place there is a reservoir 
of salt water which has the circumference of a 
considerable lake ; it is shut in by brows of hills 
so higli and steep that people go down to it by 
ladder-like steps. The water, they say, neither 
increases nor an3vvhere has a visible outflow. 

6. Neither the plain of the Cataonians nor the 
country Melitene has a city, but they have strong- 
holds on the mountains, I mean Azamora and 
Dastarcum ; and round the latter flows the Carmalas 
River. It contains also a temple, that of the Cataonian 
Apollo, which is held in honour thoughout the whole 
of Cappadocia, the Cappadocians having made it the 
model of temples of their own. Neither do the 
other prefectures, except two, contain cities ; and of 
the remaining prefectures, Sargarausene contains a 
small town Herpa, and also the Carmalas River, this 
too^ emptying into the Cilician Sea. In the other 
prefectures are Argos, a lofty stronghold near tlie 
Taurus, and Nora, now called Neroassus, in which 

1 2. 5. * Od. 4. 354. 

' i.e. "has become, in a senise, a peninsula " (1. 3. 17). 

* See critical note. 

^ At Morimenes (see next paragraph). 

« Like theSarus (12. 2. 3). 

.357 



STRABO 

vvv KaXelrai Nrypoacrcro?, iu co Kvfxevrj'i iroXiop- 
KOVfM€VO<i dvT€(T^€ TToXvv ')(^povov' Kad^ rjfia^ Be 
^Lcrivov inrrjp^e ')(p7]fMaTO(f)v\dKiov rov eTnOe/jiei ov 
rfj KainrahoKwv ap')(^, tovtov 5' rjv Kal ra 
K.d8r]va, ^aaiXeiov Kal 7r6\eco<; KaraaKevrjv exov 
eari Be kol eVt t(ov opcov^ tmv Av/caoviKMv rd 
Tapcravipa'- KcofioTTo'X.L';' Xeyerat^ virdp^ai iroTe 
Kal avTij fiTjT poTz o\L<i rfj'i -y^copa^i. iv Be rfj Mo- 
pi/xtjvfj t6 lepov Tov iv Ovy]vdaoi<i Ato?, lepoBov- 
\cov KaroiKLav exov Tpt.axt\^(^v crx^Bov ri kuI 
XOiypav lepdv evKapirov, Trapexovcrav irpocroBov 
iviavaiov raXavroyv TTevreKaiBeKa tw leper Kal 
OUTO? * ecTTi Bid ^iov, KaOdirep Kal 6 iv Ko/iaVot?, 
Kal Bevrepevei, Kard Tifirjv /u,er iKelvov. 

7. Ayo Be exovcrL fxovov arpartjyLai 7roXet9. ^7 
fiev TvaviTi^ rd Tuava, viroTreiTTOiKvlav ra Tavprn 
r&) Kard ra? K.i\iKla(; irvXa'i, Kad^ 09 evTrereara- 
rai Kal KOivorarai Trdaiv elaiv at el^ rr}v KiXtKiav 
Kal rtjv ^vplav virep^oXai' KaXelrai Be Kvae/Seia 
17 TTpo? ra) Tavpw' dyadrj Be Kal 7reBtd<; ?; irXeiarT} . 
rd Be Tvava iTTLKeirac ;^<w/uaTt 1.e/jLtpdfiiBo<; rerei- 
XtoTfJi'it^fp KaX(o<i. ov TToXv 3' dirwOev raurrj^ iarl 
rd re K.aard/SaXa Kal rd Kv/3iarpa, en fxdXXov 
ra> opei irXTjaid^ovra iroXicrp.ara' wv iv rol<i 
K.aara^dXoi<; earl ro t% Ilepaaia<; ^Apre/xiBo<; 
lepov, OTTOv (f^acrl rd<i lepeia<; ryvfj,voL<i roU rroal Bi 
dv6paKid<; ^aBi^eiv drraOel'i' Kavravda Be revet 
rrjv avrtjv OpvXovaiv laroplav ri]v irepl rov 
'OpecTTOu Kal rrj^ TavpoiroXov, Uepaaiav KeKXrja- 

^ ZpcDV, Corais, for 6pS>y. 

^ CT>hilrw read ra yap ^aveipd (cp. Tdpffdvipd in 12. 2. 10). 

' After \fyerai Meineke inserts 5'. 

358 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 2. 6-7 

Eumenes held out against a siege for a long time. 
In my time it served as the treasury of Sisines, who 
made an attack upon the empire of the Cappadocians. 
To him belonged also Cadena, which had the royal 
palace and had the aspect of a city. Situated on the 
borders of Lycaonia is also a town called Garsauira. 
This too is said once to have been the metropolis of 
the country. In Morimene, at Venasa, is the temple 
of the Venasian Zeus, which has a settlement of 
almost three thousand temple-servants and also a 
sacred territory that is very productive, affording 
the priest a yearly revenue of fifteen talents. He, 
too, is priest for life, as is the priest at Comana, and 
is second in rank after him, 

7. Only two prefectures have cities, Tyanitis the 
city Tyana, which lies below the Taurus at the 
Cilician Gates, where for all is the easiest and most 
commonly used pass into Cilicia and Syria. It is 
called " Eusebeia near the Taurus " ; and its territory 
is for the most part fertile and level. Tyana is 
situated upon a mound of Semiramis,^ which is 
beautifully fortified. Not far from this city are 
Castabala and Cybistra, towns still nearer to the 
mountain. At Castabala is the temple of the Pera- 
sian Artemis, where the priestesses, it is said, walk 
with naked feet over hot embers without pain. And 
here, too, some tell us over and over the same story 
of Orestes and Tauropolus,^ asserting that she was 

^ Numerous mounds were ascribed to Semiramia (see 
16. 1. 3). 

* i.e. Artemis Tauropolus (see 12. 2. 3). 



* After ovTos Meineke inserts 5'. 

359 



STRABO 

Oai <^d(7Kovje^ Bia ro irepaOev KO^LaOrjvai. ev 
fxkv 8r] rfj TuavLTiBi crrparriyia tmv \e-)(^0eLcr6iV 
Sexa eVri 7r6\i<i ^ ra Tvava (Ta<; 8' €7TtKT)jTov^ 
ov avvaptO/xco Taurai<;, ra Kacrrd^aXa koI ra 
Kv/Siarpa koI to, iv rfj rpa')(eLa KiXiklo,, ev y 
T7JV 'EXaiovcraav v^)aiov euKapirov^ avveKTiaev 
\\pX^Xao<i d^ioXoyojs, fcal to irXeov iviavOa 8ie- 
rpi^ev), iv Be rfj KiXiklo, KoXov/ievr] to. Ma^a/ca, 
C 538 t] firjT poTToXi.'i Tov eOvou-;' KaXelrai 5' Evae/Seia 
Kal avri], eTTLKXiiatv 7) 7rpo<; tw Apyalo)' Kelrai 
yap VTTO T(p Wpyaiw opei Trdvrcov v\jfrjXordT(p 
Kal dveKXenrrov ytovi, ttjv uKpcopeiav eyovTi, dcj)' 
57? (fjaalv oi dva^aivovTe<; {ouroi 8' elalv oXiyoi) 
KaTOTTTeveaOai rat? al6piaL<i dfi(j)fo rd treXdyrf, 
TO re YlovriKOV Kal ro 'laaiKov. rd fiev ovv 
aXXa d(f)vri vrpo? avvoiKccrpov e';^et TroXeto?, 
dvvBp6<; re ydp iari Kal dvcox^po^ Bid re rrjv 6X1- 
ycopiav rcov r}ye/J,6vcov Kal dreixicrro^ {rd)((i Be 
Kal eTTirrjBe'i, I'va fiij, &)? epu/xari TreiroiOore'i 
ru> reix^t crcpoBpa, Xrjrrrevoiev^ Treolov oiKovvr€<i 
X6(f>ov<i virepBe^iov<; exovre<i Kal dvep,^aXel<;).^ Kal 
rd kvkXw Be ;^aj/3ta e';\;ef reXew^ d(f)opa Kal 
dyecopyijra, Kanrep ovra ireBivd' dXX ecrnv 
ufM/xdiB}] Kat vTToTrerpa. puKpov B' en Trpoiovat, 
Kal 7rvpL\i]7rra rrehia Kal fxecrrd ^oOpcov^ 7rf/5o? 
errl araBiov<; rroXXov^^ ware iroppwdev rj KO/xiBi] 

' TToAij, Jones, for iroAitr/xa. 

* Instead of eSKapnov E has evKatpop. 

^ XTjcrrtvoKv, Xylander, for incrTtvoiev ; so the later editors. 

* avin&aXils, L. Kayser (Ncuc Jahrhiicher 69, 262), for 
ifj.PaXe'ts. Meineke follows MSS. ; Kramer suggests emending 
Kal to ovK ; Miiller-Diibner insert ovx after km. z, however, 
omits Ko! efi8a\f?s. 

360 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 2. 7 

called " Perasian '' because she was brought "from 
the other side." ^ So then, in the prefecture Tjanitis, 
one of the ten above mentioned is Tyana (I am not 
enumerating along with these prefectures those that 
were acquired later, I mean Castabala and Cybistra 
and the places in Cilicia Tracheia,^ where is Elaeussa, 
a very fertile island, which was settled in a note- 
worthy manner by Archelaus, who spent the greater 
part of his time there), whereas Mazaca, the 
metropolis of the tribe, is in the Cilician prefecture, 
as it is called. This city, too, is called " Eusebeia," 
with the additional words " near the Argaeus," for it 
is situated below the Argaeus, the highest mountain 
of all, whose summit never fails to have snow upon 
it ; and those who ascend it (those are few) say that 
in clear weather both seas, both the Pontus and the 
Issian Sea, are visible from it. Now in general Mazaca 
is not naturally a suitable place for the founding 
of a city, for it is without water and unfortified bj' 
nature ; and, because of the neglect of the prefects, 
it is also without walls (perhaps intentionally so, in 
order that people inhabiting a plain, with hills above 
it that were advantageous and beyond range of 
missiles, might not, through too much reliance upon 
the wall as a fortification, engage in plundering). 
Further, the districts all round are utterly barren 
and untilled, although they are level ; but tiiey are 
sandy and are rocky underneath. And, proceeding 
a little farther on, one comes to plains extending 
over many stadia that are volcanic and full of fire- 
pits ; and therefore the necessaries of life must be 
1 "perathen." " Cf. 12. 1.4. 

* fiSOpwv, Xylander, for 06.6ptcv (fidpaOpu hi, and D man. 
sec. ) ; so the later editors. 

361 



STRABO 

T(av inirijheloov. Kal ro hoKovv hk 7r\(oi'€KTijn(i 
TrapaKel/jLevov e^ei klvSvvov' a^vXov yap vvap- 
X0V(T7](; (TX^ehov ri Tr)9 crvfi7rda>]^ KaTTTraSo/ft'c*?, 
'Apyalo^ ep^et irepiKeipievov BpvpLov, ware iy- 
yvdev 6 ^v\i(Tfj.o<; TrdpecrTiv, aXX ol uTTO/ceifxeict 
Tft) Spv/xw TOTTot Kal avTol TToWax^v TTvpa 
exovacv, dfia he Kal ix^vhpoi elai "^I'XP^p voari, 
ovre Tov 7rvpo<i ovre rou vBaTO'i et? ri/v eVt- 
(pdveiav iKKvrrrovTO'i. wcrTC Kal irod^eiv ttjv 
TrXeiaTrjv' cgti S' ottov Kal e\6)Se^ €<tti to 
eha(\)o<;, Kal vvKTcop e^dTrrovrai (f)\6y€<i dir 
avTou. 01 fiep ovv e/j,7reipoi (f>v\aTro/x€voi rov 
^vXicTfiov TTOiovuTai, Tot? Se TToXXot? Ki,vBvio<s 
eari, Kal /xdXiaTa to6? kti]i>€<xi,v, €fi7rl7TTova(v 
eh dSr/'Xof"? ^6Qpov<; TTfpo?. 

8. "EffTt he Kal TTora/io^ iv rfo irehiro rto irpo 
rri<; 7r6Xe&)9, MeXa? KuXov/xevo^;, oaov rerrapd- 
KovTa crrah'tov^ htexf^v tt)^ TroXetu?, iv Taireivo- 
Tepw rf/? TToXeo)? ^&)/3i&) rd<; Trrjydq '^X.^''^'- Tavrt] 
jxev ovv dxPV^^'^o^; avroU earlv, ovx vTrephe^tov 
exo)v TO pevfxa, et? eXrj he Kal Xiiiva^; hia\^eu,'J€Vo<i 
KaKol TOV aepa tov depov<; tov irepl tjjv ttoXiv, 
Kal TO XaTOfiecov he iroiel Si;cr;^p7;crT0j', Kaiirep 
€v-)(^pr](TTOV ov TrXara/iWj'e? ydp elaiv, d(f wv 
TTjv \idiav ex^iv d<p6ovov (rvfi^aivet Tol<i M«- 
l^aKrjvoh 77/309 Ta9 OLKohopia^, KaXuTTTu/xeiai h 
VTTO T(i)v vhdjoiv ttL irXdKC^ dvTLirpuTTovai. Kai 
TavTa h^ e<TTi to, eXr; rravTa^ov irvpiXi^iTTa. 
^ KptapdOr]^ 5' ^a(TiX6v<;, tov MeAai'09 KaTu 
Tcva cTTevd €Xovto<; Trjv ei9 tov ]Lv(f)pdT>]v^ 
hie^ohov, i/j.(f>pd^a<i TavTa Xtfxvrjv ireXaytav uttc- 

^ EiKppa.TT]!' is an error for 'A\vv. 
362 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 2. 7-8 

l)rought from a distance. And further, that which 
seems to be an advantage is attended with peril, for 
although almost the whole of Cappadocia is without 
timber, the Argaeus has forests all round it, and there- 
fore the working of timber is close at hand ; but the 
region which lies below the forests also contains fires 
in many places and at the same time has an under- 
ground supply of cold water, although neither the 
fire nor the water emerges to the surface ; and there- 
fore most of the country is covered with grass. In 
some places, also, the ground is marshy, and at night 
flames rise therefrom. Now those who are acquainted 
with the country can work the timber, since they are 
on their guard, but the country is perilous for most 
people, and esj)ecially for cattle, since they fall into 
the hidden fire-pits. 

8. There is also a river in the plain before the city; 
it is called Melas, is about forty stadia distant from 
the city, and has its sources in a district that is 
below tiie level of the cit3^ For this reason, there- 
fore, it is useless to the iidiabitants, since its stream 
is not in a favourable position higher up, but spreads 
abroad into marshes and lakes, and in the summer- 
time vitiates the air round the city, and also makes 
the stone-quarry hard to work, though otherwise 
easy to work ; for there are ledges of flat stones 
from which the Mazaceni obtain an abundant supply 
of stone for tlieir buildings, but when the slabs are 
concealed by the waters they are hard to obtain. 
And these marshes, also, are everywhere volcanic. 
Ariarathes the king, since the Melas had an outlet 
into the Euphrates^ by a certain narrow defile, 
dammed this and converted the neighbouring plain 

* " Euphrate.s" is obviously an enor for " Halys." 

363 



STRABO 

Sei^e TO irXycTLOv irehiov, evravOa he. vr](Tl8d<; 
Tiva<;, ct)9 Ta? K.VK\dSa<;, uTroXa^ofievo^ Sia- 
C 539 Tpi/3df; iv avrah eTroielro fxeipaKioohet,<i' ixpayev 
8' dOp6w<i TO eficppayfia, i^exXvae irdXiv to vhwp, 
TrXr]p(i)del<; 6' 6 Euc^pdr?;? ^ tt)? t6 twv Kainra- 
B6ko)v TToXXrjv irapeavpe kuI /caTOiKta^ kuI 
(^uTeta? rj(p(hia€ 7roXXd<;, t/)? re tc5i' VaXaToyv 
Twv TJ)v Q?pvylav ey^oi^rcoif ovk 6\iyr)v €Xv/j,7']vaT0, 
clvtI he tt)? ^Xd^)]<; eirpd^avTO ^ij/Xi'ai' avTov 
TdXavTU TpiaKocia, 'Pcofiaioi<; iwiTpeyp^avTe'i Trjv 
KpluLv. TO 8' avTO crvve^i] kuI irepl ^Hpira' Koi 
yap e/cet to tov KapfidXa peu/xa €vi(j)pa^€v, cIt 
eKpayevT0<i tov aTo/xLov koi TOiv Y^iXiKoiv Tiva 
ywp'ia rd irepl ^laXXov 8ia(f)0€LpavTO<i tov uSaro?, 
8t«a9 eTicrev toi<; dSiK-rjdeicnv. 

9. 'A0fe9 S' ouv KUTa TroXXd to tmv Ma- 

^aKT^VCOV ')(^(i}pi0V 6v^ TTpO<i KUTOLKLaV pidXlaTa 01 

^aaiXel'i kXeaOai, SoKovaiv, oti Tf/? ')^(opa<i 
dirdcrrj^ totto? '>]v /xeaaiTaTO^; ovTO<i twv ^uXa 
ey^ovTwv dfia koi Xidov 7rpo<i Ta^ oiKoSofila^ koI 
XopTov, ov irXelaTOv iSeovTO KTT]voTpo(f)OVVT€^' 
TpoTTov ydp Tiva cTTpaTOTrehov rjv avToh ■q 7ro\t9. 
TTjv S' dXXtjp da(f)dX€iav ttjv avTOiv re kclI 
aco/jidTcov e« tcov ipvfidTcov^ ^^X°^ '^^^ ^^ "^^^^ 
(f)povpLOi<;, a TToXXd V7rdp)^ei, ra fiev ^aaiXiKd, 
TO. Se Twv (f)lXcov. d(f>6aTT]K6 Be ra Ma^a«a 
TOV fxev TlovTov irepl 6KTaKOcriov<i aTahiovi 7r/)09 

VOTOV, TOV S' EtV(ppdT0V flLKpOV eXdTTOV<i rj 

^ Evcppdr-ns is an error for "A\vs. ' 6i>, Corais, for t(. 

^ Corais emends avra>y to ainaiv and inserts tuv before 
ffajjLOLTwv ; and he emends eV -rSiv ipv/xdraiv to koi t<Lv xpv- 
fiaTa-v (so ]\Ieineke). Kramer proposes merely to emend 
aw/xdroDy to xp'Ol^o-'^'^''- 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 2. 8-9 

into a sea-like lake, and there, shutting off certain isles 
— like the Cyclades — from the outside world, passed 
his time there in boyish diversions. But the barrier 
broke all at once, the water streamed out again, and 
the Euphrates,^ thus filled, swept away much ot 
the soil of Cappadocia, and obliterated numerous 
settlements and plantations, and also damaged no 
little of the country of the Galatians who held 
Phrygia. In return for the damage the inhabitants, 
who gave over the decision of the matter to the 
Romans, exacted of him a fine of three hundred 
talents. The same was the case also in regard to 
Herpa ; for there too he dammed the stream of the 
Carmalas River ; and then, the mouth having broken 
open and the water having ruined certain districts 
in Cilicia in the neighbourhood of Mallus, he paid 
damages to those who had been wronged. 

9. However, although the district of the Mazaceni 
is in many respects not naturally suitable for habita- 
tion, the kings seem to have preferred it, because of 
all places in the country this was nearest to the centre 
of the region which contained timber and stone for 
buildings, and at the same time provender, of which, 
being cattle-breeders, they needed a very large 
quantity, for in a way the city was for them a camp. 
And as for their security in general, both that of 
themselves and of their slaves, they got it from the 
defences in their strongholds, of which there are man}-, 
some belonging to the king and others to their friends. 
Mazaca is distant from Pontus ' about eight hundred 
stadia to the south, from the Euphrates slightly less 



1 Again an error for " Halj's." 
* i.e. the country, not the sea. 



365 



STRABO 

6t7rXacrlov<;, rwv KiXikIwv Se jrvXtov 686v rjfie- 
pwv e^ Kal roO K.vpLvov ^ arparoTreSov Bia Tud- 
va>v' Kara jieariv he Trjv oBov Kelrai ra Tvava, 
Biex^t Be Kvl3{,(Trpa)v rpiaKoalovi (TTadLov<;. 
')(^poivraL he ol yia^aKrjvol to69 X.apwvSa v6p,oi<;, 
alpov^evoi Kal ropicphov, 09 iaTiv aurot? i^ijyrjTT)^ 
rwv v6p,(ov, Kadd-nep ol irapd VwpLaioL<i voptKoi. 
SiidrjKe Be 0ayX(i)9 avrov^ Tiypavrj^ 6 'Appevio<;, 
qvLKa rr]v K.aTT7raBoKiav KariBpapeV diravra^ 
'yap dvaaTarov^ eTroirjaev et9 ti]v ^leaoiroTapiav 
Kal rd TiypavoxepTa e« tovtcov crvvfpKiae to 
•rrXeov' varepov B' aTravrfkOov ol BvvdpevoL pierd 
TTjv TOiv TiypavoKeprcov dXaxriv. 

10. Me7e^09 Be t% ')(^copa^ Kara irXdjcn p-ev 
TO diro Tov YiovTOv 7rp6<i top Taupov oaov ^(^iXLOi 
Kal OKTUKoaioi ardBtoi, prjKO^ Be dirb tt}? 
AvKaovLa<i kuI ^pvyla^; pe^pt ^vt^pdrov 77/309 
TT]v eo) Kal rrjv 'Ap/xeulav irepl Tpicr)(tXLov<i. 
dyadr) Be Kal Kap7ro2<;, pdXiara Be alrw Kal 
^oaKj'jpaai TravToBa'rroi'i, voriwrepa S' ovaa tov 
novTOf yp-vxporepa earlv ?] Be BayaBavia,^ 
Kalirep TreSm? ovaa Kal vortfOTdrr] iraacov 
(vTTOTreTTTcoKe yap tco Tavpro), p,6Xts TOiv Kap- 
TTtpoiv Ti (j>epei Bei'Spcov, 6vayp6/3oTO^ ^ 6' earl 
Kal avTTj Kal 77 ttoXXi] Tr]<; d\\T]<;, Kal pAXicrra 
C 540 r) irepl Tapaavipa^ Kal XvKaoviav Kal ^lopipr]vtjv. 
iv Be T^ K-amraBoKLa yiverai, Kal rj Xeyop,evT) 
XivcoTTiKT} piXro^, dpiarrj twv iraawv' ivdp,iXXo<; 

^ Kvpii'ov, Meineke emends to Kvpov. 

2 BayaSavia, Meineke, for ratafia E, Ta/SoSai'ia Other MSS. ; 
BayaSaovla, Tzschucke, Corais, Kramer. 

366 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 2. 9-10 

than double that distance, and from the Cilician 
Gates and the camp of Cyrus a journey of six days 
by way of Tyana. Tyana is situated at the middle 
of the journey and is three hundred stadia distant 
from Cybistra. The Mazaceni use the laws of 
Charondas, choosing also a Nomodus/ who, like the 
jurisconsults among the Romans, is the expounder 
of the laws. But Tigranes, the Armenian, put the 
people in bad plight when he overran Cappadocia, 
for he forced them, one and all, to migrate into 
Mesopotamia ; and it was mostly with these that he 
settled Tigranocerta.2 But later, after the capture 
of Tigranocerta, those who could returned home. 

10. The size of the country is as follows : In 
breadth, from Pontus to the Taurus, about one 
thousand eight hundred stadia, and in length, from 
Lycaonia and Phrygia to the Euphrates towards the 
east and Armenia, about three thousand. It is an 
excellent country, not only in respect to fruits, but 
particularly in respect to grain and all kinds of cattle. 
Although it lies farther south than Pontus, it is 
colder. Bagadania, though level and farthest south 
of all (for it lies at the foot of the Taurus), produces 
hardly any fruit-bearing trees, although it is grazed by 
wild asses, both it and the greater part of the rest of 
the country, and particularly that round Garsauira and 
Lycaonia and Morimene. In Cappadocia is produced 
also the ruddle called "Sinopean," the best in the 

^ "Law-chanter." - Cf. 11. 14. 15. 



3 ovaypSffoTos {6vaypoP6ros, Casaubon and later editors), 
Jones, for a.yp6$oTos. 

* rap(7a6ipa Dhioz. For variants see C. Miiller, Ind. Far. 
Led. p. lO'JO and op. rapffavipa in 12. 2. 6. 

367 



STRABO 

5' icTTiv avrfj koL i) ^]/3r]pt.K^' wvo^dcrdj] 8e 
^ivcoTTiKy'], SioTi Karayeiv CKelae eldoOeaav^ ol 
efiTTopoi, irplv rj TO tmv ^Ecf>eaiQ)v ifMiropiov /J-expt 
ro)v ivddhe dvOpcoTroov 8u)(^0ai. Xiyerat, Be kuI 
KpvcrrdWov 7rXdKa<; kcu 6vv)(Itov \i6ov irXriaiov 
T% Tbiv TaXarMv vtto twv Wp)(^eXdov fieraX- 
XevTcov evpricrdai? rjv Be rt? totto^ kuI XlOov 
XevKOv, Tco eXecpavri Kara Tr)v y^poav ep.(f)epov^, 
warrep dKova^i Tifa? ov /x€ydXa<; eKcbepcov, i^ wv 
rd Xa^ia rol's p.a\ai-P'-OL'^ /careaKeva^op' dXXo<;^ 
8' el<i Ta?* BioTTTpa^i iScoXov<i fxeydXa^; eVStSou?, 
cocrre kuI e^ut Kop-i^eaOai. opiov S" earl tov 
HovTov Koi Tf]<; KaTTTTrtSo/cia? opeLvi'i ri<; irapdX- 
X7]Xo<i T(p TavpM, TTjv dp-^i-jv exouaa diro roiv 
kaTTepiwv UKpwv rfj^ yiap.p.avy]vPj'i, i(f)' ^? 'iBpvTai 
(f)poupiop aTTOTOuoi' ^aapei>Ba,^ p,€XPt tmv ecodivcov 
T>)9 AaovLav(n]V)]<;.^ arpaTijyiai S' eial rfj<; 
K.aTnraBoKLa<; i] re Xa/jL/j,avr]vy) ' Koi /; Xaovtav- 

' 8 

err;//?;. 

11. Svve^r) Be, y'jvLKa Trpcorov 'Foop-aloL rd Kara 
TT]i> 'Acriav Bimkovv, viK7]aavTe<i ' AvTiO)(ov, koli 
<f)iXLas fcai avp.fia'x^a'i iiroiovvTo TT/ao? re rd edvi] 
KoX Tou? ^aaiXea^i, toI<; p.ev dXXoi<i ^aaiXevaiv 
avTol<i KaO' (avTov<i Bo9?]vat tjjp Tt/xrjv TauT7]v, 
Tw Be HaTTTrdBoKi koI avTU) Be rw edvei Koivfj. 
€fc\nTuvTO<i Be rov ^aaiXiKov yevovi, ol /xev 

1 (liiBfaav, Groskurd, for elu>Oa<Ttv ; so the later editors. 

- e\''pT}T6ai, Corais, for (vptcrBai ; so the later editors. 

* CDhi/riv read aWws. 

* 5' eh rds, Corais, for 5e rds ; so liie later editors. 

'' For the variant spellings of this name, see C. Miiller 
(I.e.). 

368 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 2. lo-ii 

world, although the Iberian rivals it. It was named 
" Sinopean " ^ because the merchants were wont to 
bring it down thence to Sinope before the traffic of 
the Ephesians had penetrated as far as the people of 
Cappadocia. It is said that also slabs of crystal and 
of onyx stone were found by the miners of Archelaus 
near the country of the Galatians. There was a 
certain place, also, which had white stone that was 
like ivory in colour and yielded pieces of the size of 
small whetstones ; and from these pieces they made 
handles for their small swords. And there was 
another place which yielded such large lumps of 
transparent stone ^ that they were exported. The 
boundary of Pontus and Caj)padocia is a mountain 
tract parallel to the Taurus, which has its beginning 
at the western extremities of Chammanene, where 
is situated Dasmenda, a stronghold with sheer 
ascent, and extends to the eastern extremities of 
Laviansene. Both Chammanene and Laviansene 
are prefectures in Cappadocia. 

11. It came to pass, as soon as the Romans, after 
conquering Antiochus, began to administer the affairs 
of Asia and were forming friendships and alliances 
both with the tribes and with the kings, that in 
all other cases they gave this honour to the 
kings individually, but gave it to the king of 
Cappadocia and the tribe jointly. And when the 
royal family died out, the Romans, in accordance 

1 See 3. 2. 6. 

^ Apparently the lapis specularis, or a variety of mica, or 
isinglass, used for making window-panes. 

" For variant spellings, see C. Miiller (I.e.). 
' For variant spellings, see C. Miiller (/.c. ). 
" For variant spellings, see C. Miiller [I.e.). 

369 



STRABO 

'Pdi/iaioi (Tvv€)((opovv auTot? avTOvofieladai Kara 
Tj)f (TvyK€i/J,€vi]v (f>i\iav T€ Ka\ (TVfi^axiav tt/jo? 
TO 'tdvo<;, ol he irpecr^evadfievoi rr/v /xev iXevOe- 
piav TTaprjrovvro {ov yap BvvaaOai (f)ep€iv avrrjv 
e(^acrav\ ^aaiXea S' tj^l'jvv avTol<; aTToh€L')(6rjvaL. 
ol Be, davpdaavre^ el Tive<; ovtw^ eleu direipi]- 
k6t€^ 7r/3o? T)]!) eXevOepiav,^ iireTpeyp-av S' ovv^ 
avTOL<i e^ eavTcov eXiaOai Kara ')(eipoToviav, ov 
av ^ouXcovrai'^ xal eXXovTO WpLO^ap^dvy]v, et? 
Tpiyovlav Be 7rpo€\66vro<; tou yevov<; e^eXiire' 
KareardOr] B' 6 'A/3;;^t'X.ao?, ovBev Trpocn'jKcov avT0i<;, 
AvTioi'iov Kajaari'jaavTO'i. ravra kuI rrepl t% 
p.€yd\r)^ KaTTTraSo/cia?" nepl Be t/"}? Tpa')(^eia^ 
KiXtKLa<i, T/}? irpoaTeOeiariq avrj}, /BeXrcov eariv 
ei> Tu> irepl t/}? o\r^? K(X//cta? XoyM BieXdeiv. 



Ill 

1. Tou Be YlovTOv Kadicrraro p-ev }AiOpiBdri)^ 
YjVTrdrwp f3a<7LXev<;. et;^e Be ttjp d(fiopi^opei>r]v 
TO) " AXvl p,6XpL TifBapav&iv kuI ^ Xppeviwv kuX 
C 541 T^9 evTo?' AXfo? jd p^XP'- Apdarpeoi'i kul tivcov 
T^9 Tla4)\ayovLa<i pepMV. TrpoaeKTi'-jaaro 8' ovto<; 
KUI T7]v p-^XP^ 'Hpa/cXcia? rrapaXtav eVt rd 
Bvap,iKa p.€pT], T77? HpuKXeiBov rov TlXarwviKov 
Ti arplBo^, eirl ^Be rdvavrla p^xpi' KoX.;^tSo9 /cal 
T^9 piKpd<i 'App,€vca<;, a Bt) koX trpoaeOrjKe tm 
YlovTO). Kal Bt] Koi Wop,TTi]LO<i KaroKvtja'i eKetvov 

1 Meineke, following conj. of Kramer, indicates a lacuna 
before firfTpeipav. 

- 5' oiiv omitted b}' editors before Kramer. 

^ fiouXuvTai, restored by Kramer, instead of QovKoivto. 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 2. 11-3. t 

with their comjiact of friendship and alliance with 
the tribe, conceded to them the right to live under 
their own laws ; but those who came on the embassy 
not only begged oft" fiom the freedom (for they said 
that they were unal)le to bear it), but requested 
that a king be appointed for them. The Romans, 
amazed that any people should be so tired of 
freedom,^ — at any rate, they permitted them to 
choose by vote from their own number whomever 
they wished. And they chose Ariobarzanes ; but 
in the course of the third generation his family died 
out ; and Archelaiis was appointed king, though not 
related to the people, being appointed by Anton}-. 
So much for Greater Cappadocia. As for Cilicia 
Traclieia, which was added to Greater Cappadocia, 
it is better for me to describe it in my account oi' 
the whole of Cilicia.- 



Ill 

1. As for Pontus, Mithridates Eupator established 
himself as king of it ; and he held the country 
bounded by the Halys River as far as the Tibarani 
and Armenia, and held also, of the country this side 
the Halys, the region extending to Amastris and to 
certain parts of Paphlagonia. And he acquired, not 
only the sea-coast towards the west as far as 
Heracleia, the native land of Heracleides the Platonic 
philosopher, but also, in the opposite direction, the 
sea- coast extending to Colchis and Lesser Armenia; 
and this, as we know, he added to Pontus. And 
in fact this country was comprised within these 



1 Something seems to have fallen out of the text liere. 
» 14. 5. 1. 



371 



STRABO 

€u rovroi<; rol<; '6pOL<; ovcrav rrjv y^copap Tavrrjv 
TvapeXajBe' ra fjbhv Trpb'i ^Apfievtav koI to, nepl 
TTjV KoA,^i8a Tot9 avvayQ}viaafMevoi<; 8vvdaTai<; 
KaT€V€ifjL€, ra Ze XoLira et? evBcKa 7ro\iTeia<; Stei\e 
Koi rfi QiOvvLO, 7rpo(Te6y]Kev, coar' i^ dfi(f)Oiv 
eTTap-)(iav yevicrdai fiiav- jxera^v re roiv UacpXa- 
yovcov Twv fiecroyaloov rivd<; fiaacXeveadai Ttape- 
ScoKe TOt? aTTo Uv\ai/xivou<;, Kaddirep kuI rov<; 
FaXaTa^; Tot? inrb yevov<; TeTpdp)(^ai<;. vcrrepov 
5' oi Tcbv 'Po)/xaiO)v ■)']y€fi6v€<; dWov<; /cal d\Xov<i 
i'rrou]aavTO fj,epicr/j.ov<i, /3aaiXia<; re Kai hvvdcrTa<; 
KadiaTdpref Kac '7roXei<; ra? fiev iXevdepovvref;, 
Td<i Ze ey)(eipi^ovTe<i Tot<i 8vvd(TTai<;, Td<i 8' inro 
rut hrjixw r(p 'PcofiaLcov icovre<i. rjfiiv 8' encovac to. 
Kad' exaara, co? vuv ex^i, Xeyecrdco, jxiKpa koI 
roiv rrporepcov e^airropLevofi, oirov rovro ^pjjai- 
fxov. dp^o/xeOa Se drro 'YipaKXeia^, r^-rrep hvajXL- 
Kcordrii earl rovrwv roiv roTTcov. 

2. E/9 8r) rov Kv^eivov irovrov elcTTrXiovaiv e« 
rrj<i Ilpo7rovri8o<; iv dpicrrepa /j,ev rd irpoaexv '^^ 
Bv^avrtw Kelrai, @paKcbv 8' iari, xaXelrac Be rd 
Apcarepd rov Uuvrov' iv Be^ca Be rd 7rpoae)(^i] 
'K.aXKr]hovi, Jiiduvcbv B earl rd rrpwra, elra 
^apiavBvvcov (xfj/e? Be koX KavKcovcov (^aaiv), 
elra HacfiXayovcov fJ.^XP'' " A.Xvo<i, elra Kainra- 
BoKcov ro)v •npo<; too Yiovrto Kal rdv ef'}'? P-^XP'' 
KoA,;>5^i'5o9* ravra Be irdvra KoXelrai rd Ae^id 
rov Ev^eivov irovrov. ravrrj^ Be tt}? irapaXia^ 
aTrdarj'i iirrjp^ev ^vTrdrcop, dp^dfxevo<i dirb rrj<i 



^ Between Pontus and Bithynia. 
372 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 1-2 

boundaries when Ponipey took it over, upon liis 
overthrow of Mithridates. The parts towards 
Armenia and those round Colchis he distributed to 
the potentates who had fought on his side, but the 
remaining parts he divided into eleven states and 
added them to Bithynia, so that out of both there 
was formed a single province. And he gave over to 
the descendants of Pylaemenes the office of king 
over certain of the Paplilagonians situated in the 
interior between them,^ just as he gave over the 
Galatians to the hei'editary tetrarchs. But later the 
Roman prefects made different divisions from time 
to time, not only establishing kings and potentates, 
but also, in the case of cities, liberating some and 
putting others in the hands of potentates and 
leaving others subject to the Roman people. As I 
j)roceed I must speak of things in detail as they 
now are, but I shall touch slightly upon things as 
they were in earlier times whenever this is useful. I 
shall begin at Heracleia, which is the most westerly 
place in this region. 

2. Now as one sails into the Euxine Sea from the 
Propontis, one has on his left the parts which adjoin 
Byzantium (these belong to the Thracians, and are 
called "the Left-hand Parts" of the Pontus), and 
on his right the parts which adjoin Chalcedon. 
The first of these latter belong to the Bithynians, 
the next to the Mariandyni (by some also called 
Caucones), the next to the Paphlygonians as far as 
the Halys River, and the next to the Pontic Cappa- 
docians and to the people next in order after them 
as far as Colchis. All these are called the " Right- 
hand Parts " of the Pontus. Now Eupator reigned 
over the whole of this sea-coast, beginning at Colchis 

373 



STRABO 

KoX.;\;t5o? IJ'^XP'' 'tIpaArXeta?, ra h' irreKeiva ra 
/Jbixpt' TOv (TTO/xaro^ kuI Tr)9 Xa\Kr)^6vo^ tw 
BidvvMV ^aaiXet crvvefxeve. KaraXvOevTtov Se 
Toiiv ^aatXecov, e^vXa^av ol 'VwfxaloL Toy? avrov^ 
6pov<;, io(TT€ Ti-jv 'WpaKKeiav irpoaKelcrdai t&j 
TlovTU), xa S' eTTeiceiva Bi^ut'ot? 7rpoa)(a)pecv. 

3. Ol fj,ev ovv JiiOvvol ScoTi irporepov Mvaoi 
6vT€<i fieTcovo/idadrjaav oi/TW? utto tcov ^puKSiv 
rSiv iTTOiKyjaavTcov, liidvvcov re Koi Svvwv, ofio- 
XoyetTai irapa tcov TrXeiarwv, Koi aijfieia riOev- 
Tai Tov fMev TCOV IBiOvvcJv e0vov<; to fi^XP'' ^^^ ^^ 
rfj ®paK7) XeyeaOai riva^ Jii0vvov<i, tov Se tcov 
®vvcov T7]v ©uviciSa iiKTt^v TTjV TT pb<i AjToXXcovia 
KOi ~aXfivB7]cr(Ta), kuI ol Be/S/jv/ce? he ol tovtcov 
TrpoeiTOLKrjaavTe'i ttjv Mvcriav &paK€^, ci)? elKct^co 

C 542 iyca. eiprjTai, 8\ oti /cat avrol ol Mvaol &paKcov 
aTTOiKoi elac tcov vvv Xeyofxevcov ^Ioktcov. TavTa 
fiev ovTco XeyeTui. 

4. Toi)? 8e ^lapiavBvvov^ kuI tov<; K.avKcovaf; 
ovx ofiol(o<i airavTe^ Xeyovar tt-jv yap Brj 'Hpd- 
xXeiav ev to2<; ^lapiav8vvoL<; Ihpvadal (f)aai, 
M.iXr](TLcov KTLafia, Tive<i he Koi rroOev, ovhev ^ 
eipijTai, ovhe hidXeKTO^;, ovh^ aXXrj hcacpopa idviKy 
Trepl TOv<; dvOpco-nov^ (^aiveTat, TrapairXi^cnot 8' 
elal rol^ Bi,6vvol<i' eoiKev ovv koi tovto ®pdKiov 
vTrdp^ai TO (j>vXov. ©eoTTo/xTro'; he ^lapiavouvov 
(pTjai fiepovi T% Yla(f)XayovLa'i dp^avra vtto 
TToXXcbv hwacTTevoixevi]^, eireXduvTa Tr)v tcov 

^ oiiSif, Meineke emends to ovSevl. 

1 See 7. 3. 2. 
374 



GRO(;RA^F^Y, i2. 3. 2-4 

and extending as far as Heracleiaj but the parts 
farther on, extending as far as the mouth of the 
Pontus and Chalcedon, remained under the rule of 
the king of Bithynia. But when the kings had been 
overthrown, the Romans preserved the same bounda- 
ries, so that Heracleia was added to Pontus and the 
parts farther on went to the Bithynians. 

3. Now as for the Bithynians, it is agreed by most 
writers that, though formerly Mysians, they received 
this new name from the Thracians — the Thracian 
Bithynians and Thynians — who settled the country in 
question, and they put down as evidences of the 
tribe of the Bithynians that in Thrace certain people 
are to this day called Bithynians, and of that of the 
Thynians, that the coast near Apollonia and Salmy- 
dessus is called Thynias. And the Bebryces, who 
took up their abode in Mysia before these people, 
were also Thracians, as I suppose. It is stated that 
even the Mysians themselves are colonists of those 
Thracians who are now called Moesians.^ Such is 
the account given of these people. 

4. But all do not give the same account of the 
Mariandyni and the Caucones ; for Heracleia, they 
say, is situated in the country of the Mariandyni, 
and was founded by the Milesians ; but nothing has 
been said as to who they are or whence they came, 
nor yet do the people appear characterised by any 
ethnic difference, either in dialect or otherwise, 
although they are similar to the Bithynians. Ac- 
cordingly, it is reasonable to suppose that this tribe 
also was at first Thracian. Theopompus says that 
Mariandynus ruled over a part of Paphlagonia, which 
was under the rule of many potentates, and then 
invaded and took possession of the country of the 

375 



STRABO 

lieiSpvKcov KaTa(j')(elv, rjv 8' i^eXnrev, eirwuvfiov 
eavTOu KaraXnrelv. eiprjrai he kuI tovto, on, 
TrpoJTOL TTjv 'HpcLKkeiav KTcaavTC^ MtXT/crtot tou? 
y>lapiavBvvov^ elXwTeveiv rjudyKaaav tov<} irpo- 
KaT6)/ovTa<; rov tottov, ware koI imTpdcTKeadai, 
vtt' avTCov, fiT) 649 TJ]v vTTepoplav Si {(TVfji^rjvai 
yap eVt tovtoi<;), Kaddrrep Kpijai fiev iOi]T€vev ?; 
yivwa ^ KaXovfiei'Tj crvvoho'i, (^erraXol'; Be ol 
TleveaTaL. 

5. Toi/9 he Kau/cwi'a?, oD? Icnopovcn rrjv e(f)e^rj^ 
oiKr^aai irapakiav toI<; ^lapiai'hvvol<; P-^XP'' '^°^ 
WapOeviov iro-rap^ov, ttoXlv e^ovra^ to Tieiov,^ ol 
p.ev ^Kv9a^ <^aaiv, ol he rcov ^laKehovcov TLvd<i, 
ol he ru)v Tle\aayo)v elprjrai he ttov kuI irepl 
TOVTCOV irpoTepov. }s.a\\Ladevri<i he Kal eypacpe 
TO, e-nt) TavTa et? tov ^idKoap^ov, pera to 

Kpoop-i'dv t' Aiyiakov re Kal vyfrrjXov^ 'EpvOci'OVs 
riOel^; 

KauK(i)i'a^ o' avr' yjye Y[o\vK\eo'^ vlb^ dp.vp.<j}v, 

at Trepl Ylapdeviov irorapov Kkvrd hd>p.ar 
evaiov 
TTaprjKeLV yap a<^' 'Hpa/cXe/a? Kal ^lapcavhwcov 
p.^XP'- Aef/coCTu/Jcoz^, 01)9 Kal 7]pel<; KaTTTraSofa? 
TTpoaayopevopev, ro re row }s.avKcovcov yevo<; ro 
rrepl ro Tieiov^ P'^XP'' ^o-P^^vlov Kal ro rwv 
'Everoiv ro (Tvve-)(e<i pier a rov Ylapdeviov rwv 
e-)(6vrQ}v TO KvTcopov, Kal vvv 8' en KavKQ)VLTa<; 
elvai riva^ irepl rov UapOeviov 

^ Mvtfa, the editors, for Mivwa and Mivwa. 
- tUiov, the editors, for Tijiov. 
3 Tiftov, the editors, for T-fiioy. 



376 



1 Literally, "synod." 2 § .^. 17 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 4-5 

Bebryces, but left the country which he had aban- 
doned named after himself. This, too, has been said, 
that the Milesians who were first to found Heracleia 
forced the Mariandyni, who held the place before 
them, to serve as Helots, so that they sold them, but 
not beyond the boundaries of their country (for the 
two peoples came to an agreement on this), just as 
the Mnoan class,^ as it is called, were serfs of the 
Cretans and the Penestae of the Thessalians. 

5. As for the Cauconians, who, according to report, 
took up their abode on the sea-coast next to the 
Mariandyni and extended as far as the Parthenius 
River, with Tieium as their city, some say that they 
were Scythians, others that they were a certain 
people of the Macedonians, and others that they 
were a certain people of the Pelasgians. But 1 have 
already spoken of these ])eople in another place." 
Callisthenes in his treatise on The MarsliaU'mg of the 
Ships was for inserting^ after the words "^^ Cromna, 
Aeginlus, and lofty Erythini " * the words " the Cau- 
conians were led by the noble son of Polycles — they 
who lived in glorious dwellings in the neighbourhood 
of tlie Parthenius River," for, he adds, the Cauconians 
extended from Heracleia and the Mariandyni to the 
White Syrians, whom we call Cappadocians, and the 
tribe of the Cauconians round Tieium extended to 
the Pai'thenius River, whereas that of the Heneti, 
who held Cytorum, were situated next to them after 
the Parthenius River, and still to-day certain 
" Cauconitae " ^ live in the neighbourhood of the 
Parthenius River. 

' i.e. in the Homeric text. 

* Iliad 2. 855. On the site of the Erj'tliini ("recklisli 
cliffs"), see Leaf, Troy, p. 282. 

* Called " Ca'.icoiiiatae " in 8. 3. 17. 

377 



STRABO 

6. 'H ^ev ovv WpcLKkeia ir6\i<; ecnlv evXtfievo^ 
Kal aX\(o<i a ^16X0709, rj ye Kal aTTOz/cta? ecTTeWev 
€K€Lvr]^ <yap i] re Is.eppovrjcro'^ cittoiko^ Kal i) Kd\- 
\aTi<;' rjv re avTovopo^, elr eTvpavvrjOrj y^povov^ 
Tivd^, etr' rfKevOepwaev eavrrjv ttoXlv' vcnepov 
S' e^aaiXevOi], jevofievij viro toi? 'PfwyLtaioff 
eSe^aro 8' cnroiKiav 'Vcopatwv iirl jxepei t^? 
TToAew? icai tt}? ■^copa'i. \a^an' 8e Trap" Wvtwvlov 

C 543 TO /xepo^ tovto t/}? 7roA,ea)? WBtaropi^ 6 Aopve- 
kXc'lov, rerpdp'X^ov TaXaroyiJ, vl6<;, o Karelxov 01 
'HpaKXeicorai, piKpov irpo twv ^AKTiaKoJv eiredero 
vvKTwp T0t9 VwnaioL^ Ka\ direa^a^ev avjov<;, 
eTrnpe-^avTO<i, eo? €(f)acrKev CKeivo^, ^Avrcoviov 
6pta/uL^€v0el<; 8e /.lera t»;v ev ^Aktcm vckiiv, ia^d<yT] 
fied' v'lov. ■}] Be 7r6X,i9 eVxt t?}? YIovtik7]<; iirapx'-oi^ 
Tr}<i crvvT€Tayfji€vr]^ rfj l^iOvvla. 

7. Mera^i) Be Xa\KT]B6vo<; koI 'H/aa/cXeta? 
peovat TTOTa/jiol TrXetoi'?, wv elaXv 6 re '^tXXf? 
KoX 6 KaXTra? koI 6 Xayydpto'i, ov /j^e/mvrjTai 
Koi 6 7roi7)T7](;. e%6t Be Td<; irriyd^ Kara Xayyiav 
Kwfiriv d(f)' evaTov kuI rrevTijKOVTd ttov oTaBioiV 
ouTO? Y[e(TaLVOvvro<;-^ Bie^eicn Be Tfj<; eiriKripov 
^pvyia<i TT]v irXelw, pLepo<; Be ti kuI t^? B/^ywa?, 
wcTTe Kal Tr}? l^iKop7]Beia<; aTrex^iv ^ fiiKpov TrXeioi'? 
77 TpiaKoaLov<; araBiov^, Kad' o (TV/x^dWet, irora- 
/u,09 avTW rdXX.o'i, e/c ^loBpcov ra? dp)(^d^ ^X^^ 
T^9 e^' 'EXkrjaTrovKp *i>pvyia<s. avrti S" earli> 
Tj avrrj ttj eTTiKrrjrm, Kal elxov avTr/v 01 Bidvvol 
irporepov. av^y]6el<; Be Kal yevofievo^ irXooro'i, 



^ GKfioxz read UitTtvovfTos. 

' d^r6'xfI^, Corais, for aTTocrxe^'' ; SO the later editors. 



378 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 6-7 

6. Now Heracleia is a city that has good harbours 
and is otherwise worth}' of note, since, among other 
things, it has also sent forth colonies ; for botli 
Chersonesus ^ and Callatis are colonies from it. It 
was at first an autonomous city, and then for some 
time was ruled by tyrants, and then recovered its 
freedom, but later was ruled by kings, when it 
became subject to the Romans. The people received 
a colony of Romans, sharing with them a part of 
their city and territory. But Adiatorix, the son of 
Domnecleius, tetrarch of the Galatians, received 
from Antony that part of the city which was occu- 
pied by the Heracleiotae ; and a little before the 
Battle of Actium he attacked the Romans by night 
and slaughtered them, by permission of Antony, as 
he alleged. But after the victory at Actium he was 
led in triumph and slain together with his son. The 
city belongs to the Pontic Province which was united 
with Bithynia. 

7. Between Chalcedon and Heracleia flow several 
rivers, among which are the Psillis and the Calpas 
and the Sangarius, which last is mentioned by the 
poet.^ The Sangarius has its sources near the village 
Sangia, about one hundred and fifty stadia from 
Pessinus. It flows through the greater part of 
Phrygia Epictetus, and also through a part of 
Bithynia, so that it is distant from Nicomedeia a 
little more than three hundred stadia, reckoning 
from the place where it is joined by the Gallus 
River, which has its beginnings at Modra in Phrygia 
on the Hellespont. This is the same country as 
Phrygia Epictetus, and it was formerly occupied by 
the Bithynians. Thus increased, and now having 

1 See 7. 4. 2. » Iliad 3. 187, 16. 719. 

379 

VOL. V. V 



STRABO 

Kcdirep TToXai airXfjOjo^ 0)v, r}]v BiOvvlav opi^et 
Trpo? raU e'/f^SoXat?. TrpoKeirai 8e Tj]<i vrapaXia? 
TavT7]<; Kol T] %vvia vrjao'i. ev he rfj 'Hpa- 
•cXeicoTiSL jLverai to ukovitov Bii'^et Be rj noXi^ 
auTtj rov lepov rov lia\Ki]Sovlov cnahiov^ ^i- 
\LOv<i TTOV Kol TrevraKoaiovi, rov 8e ^ayyaplov 
■jrevraKoaiov^i. 

8. To he Ttetoi- iari 7ro\i-)(yLov ovhev e-x^ov 
p.vrjiJL'>]<i a^iov, TrXrjv oti ^iXeTatpo^ ivrevOev rju, 
6 ap-)(r]yeTri<i rov roiv WttuXckcoi^ ^aaiXewv 
yevov;' eW 6 Hapd€vio<; 7rorap6<i hia ')((opLQ}v 
avOi-jpwv (f)€p6/iievo<; kuI Sia tovto rov ovo/xara 
TOVTOv rerv-)(^r]K(i)<;, ev avrfj rfj Ila(f>Xayovia ra^ 
Tr7]ya<i €)(^cov erreira rj T[a(f)XayovLa koI oi 'EveroL 
^rfrovai Be, riva<i Xeyei roi/^ 'Everoix; 6 TTOirjrTJ^, 
orav (f)f}' 

na(f)Xay6vcov S' rjyecro TlvXaipLeveo^: Xdaiov Krjp 
e^ Ejvercov, 66ev i)p,iova)v yevof ayporepdcov. 

ov yap SeLKvvadai (f>aai vvv 'Everou? ev rfj 
]Ja(f}XayovLa' oi he KwpLrjv ev rw AlyiaXw (pacrl 
hexa G-)(^oivov<i diro "'Apdarpeco^ hiexovaav. Zt]v6- 
horo^ he e^ 'Efer?}? ypd(f)ei, kul (^t^ctl hrjXovaOaL 
rrjv vvv Wpicrov aXXoi he (pvXov ri rol'i KaTTTra- 
ho^cv opLopov arparevaai perd Kippepiayv, elr 
eKTreaelv et? rov ^ Ahpiav. to he p,dXtaO' opoXo- 
yovpevov eariv, on d^ioXoywrarov rjv roiv ITa0Xa- 
y6vo)v (f)vXov oi Kveroi, i^ ov o UvXaipevrj^; t]v' 



^ " parthenius " (lit. "maidenly") was the name of a 
flower used in making garlands. 

2 Iliad 2. 851. * Sc. " called Eneti," or Enete. 

380 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 7-8 

become navigable^ thougli of old not navigable, 
the river forms a boundary of Bitliyni;i at its outlets. 
Off this coast lies also the island Thynia. The plant 
called aconite grows in the territory of Heracleia. 
This city is about one thousand five hundred stadia 
from the Chalcedonian temple and five hundred 
from the Sangarius River. 

8. Tieium is a town that has nothing worthy of 
mention except that Philetaerus, the founder of the 
family of Attalic Kings, was from there. Then 
comes the Parthenius River, which flows through 
flowery districts and on this account came by its 
name ; ^ it has its sources in Paphlagonia itself. And 
then comes Paphlagonia and the Eneti. Writers 
question whom the poet means by "the Eneti," when 
he says, " And the rugged heart of Pylaemenes led 
the Paphlagonians, from the land of the Eneti, 
whence the breed of wild mules " ; ^ for at tiie 
present time, they say, there are no Eneti to he 
seen in Paphlagonia, though some say that there is 
a village^ on the Aegialus* ten schoeni "^ dis- 
tant from Amastris. But Zenodotus writes " from 
Enete," ^ and says that Homer clearly indicates the 
Amisus of to-day. And others say that a tribe called 
Eneti, bordering on the Cappadocians, made an 
expedition with the Cimmerians and then were 
driven out to the Adriatic Sea.' But the thing 
upon which there is general agreement is, that the 
Eneti, to whom Pylaemenes belonged, were the 
most notable tribe of the Paphlagonians, and that, 

* i.e. Shore. ^ A variable measure (see 17. 1. 24). 

* i.e. in.stead of "from the Eneti" (cf 12. 8. 2.^). 

' For a (liscus.siou of the P]neti, see Leaf, Tivi/, pp. 285 ft'. 
(cf. 1. 3. 21, 3, 2. 1.3, and 12. 3. 25). 

381 



STRABO 

Koi 8t} Kai (TwecTTpaTevaav ovtoi avToi irXelcrToi, 
a7ro0dX6vTe<; Se rov rjje/xova Sie^yaav els tt)v 
HpaKrjV fiera ttjv Tpota? aXwaiv, "TrXavcofievoi S' 
6i9 Tr]v vvv EjveTiKr]v cKbiKovTO. Tives Be Kai 
C 014 ^ KvTrjvopa koi tovs 7raLSa<; avrov KOivwvrjaai rov 
aroXov tovtov <paal Kal IhpvOrjvai Kara tov 
fivy^ov TOV ^ABpiou, KaOdirep e/xvTJaOrifjLev iv Toi<i 
'IraXt/rot?. T0L/9 /xev ovv Kverovs Bia, rovr ixXi- 
irelv eLKOs kul fi)] BeiKwaOai ev rfj IIa(pXa'yovia. 

9. Tou? Se Tla(f)Xay6va<; 77/209 eto fiev opl^ei 
"AXu9 7roTa/-t6s', 09 -"^ pecov airo /jL€ai]p.^pLa<; fiera^v 
^vpcov re Kal YlacpXayovwv^ e^irjai^ Kara rov 
'Yipohorov els rov Ejv^etvov KaXeo/xevov rrovrov, 
Xvpovs Xiyovra rovs KaTnrdSoKas' Kal yap en 
Kal vvv AevKoavpoi KaXovvrat, 1.vpcov Kal rmv 
e^Q) rov Tavpov XeyopAvwv Kara he rrjv irpos 
rovs evrcs rov liavpov avyKpiaiv, eKeivwv CTriKe- 
Kavfievcov rrjv ')(p6av, rovrcov 8e /xr], rotavrr^v rrjV 
eTTcovv/jLiav yeveadai crvve^r)- Kal TiwBapos (prjaiv, 
on at Wfxa^oves ^vpiov evpva'L')(^p,av hleirov * 
crrparov, ri-jv ev rfj &efiia-Kvpa KaroiKiav ovrw 
SrjXwv. t) he Se'filaKupd eanv rwv ^ Xp.icrr]voif, 
aiirrj he AevKoavpcov rci)v perd rov ' AXvv. irpos 
eco fxev roivvv 6 ' AXvs opiov rdv Ila(f>Xayov(ov , 
TTpos vorov he ^pvyes Kal 01 eTroiKijaavres TaXdrai, 
irpos hvcTLV he V>l6vvoI Kal Wapiavhvvoi (to yap 
rSiv J^avKcovcov yevos e^ec^daprat reXecos Tvdvrodev), 

^ '6s, Corais inserts (see Herod. 1. 6) ; so the later editors. 
^ Kai, before i^irjai. Meineke ejects. 
^ But Herodotus reads i^iei. 

* 5U-K0U oxz and Meineke, for Zuicov C, Slriirov Iw, 5i<7iroi4 
other MSS. and e<litor.s. 

382 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. S 9 

furthermore, these made the expedition with him in 
very great numbers, but, losing tlieir leader, crossed 
over to Thrace after the capture of Troy, and on 
their wanderings went to the Enetian country,^ as it 
is now called. According to some writers, Antenor 
and his children took part in this expedition and 
settled at the recess of the Adriatic, as mentioned 
by me in my account of Italy.^ It is therefore 
reasonable to suppose that it was on this account 
that the Eneti disappeared and are not to be seen in 
Paphlagonia. 

9. As for the Paphlagonians, they are bounded on 
the east by the Halys River, "which," according to 
Herodotus,^ "flows from the south between the 
Syrians and the Paphlagonians and empties into the 
Euxine Sea, as it is called " ; by "Syrians," however, 
he means the " Cappadocians," and in fact they are 
still to-day called " White Syrians,'' while those out- 
side the Taurus are called "Syrians." As compared 
with those this side the Taurus, those outside have a 
tanned complexion, while those this side do not, and 
for this reason received the appellation "white." 
And Pindar says that the Amazons " swayed a 
'Syrian' army that reached afar with their spears," 
thus clearly indicating that their abode was in 
Themiscyra. Themiscyra is in the territory of the 
Amiseni ; and this territory belongs to the White 
Syrians, who live in the country next after the 
Halys River. On the east, then, the Paphlagonians 
are bounded by the Halys River ; on the south by 
Phrygians and the Galatians who settled among 
them ; on the west by the Bithynians and the 
Mariandyni (for the race of the Cauconians has 



1 See 3. 2, 13 and 6. 1. 4. " 5. 1. 4. M. (i 



383 



ST R A BO 

7Tpo<; apKTov he o Kv^eivo^ eari. t?}? he ^copa<i 
TavTt]'i hLr]prifxevri<i el<i re tt]v f.ieao'^/aiav kuI Tip' 
eVt Oakdrrr], hiarelvovaai' aTTO rov ' AXvo<i p^XP'^ 
Tit6vvia<; eKarepav, Tifv fiev irapaXiav eco<; ri)^ 
'HpatcXeia^ elxj^v o ^VTrdrcop, rr)? he pecroyaLa<; 
T)]v p.ei> eyyvrdrw ea^ev, /;? rivd /cal irepav tov 
'AXuo? hierewe' Kal p-^XP^ hevpo rol<; Vwp.aloi'i 
)) YiovTiKT] eirapxicL utixopLCTTaL' ra Xonra h' 7]v 
viTo huvd(TTac<i Kal p-erd rrjv Widpchdrov Kard- 
\vaiv. irepi p,ev ht] roiv ii> ttj p.eao<yaia Tla(f>Xa- 
yovcov epovpiev varepov tmv pbrj vtto t« \ii6pi^dT7}, 
vvv he vpoKeirai ttjv utt exeLVM x^P^'^> KXrjOelcrav 
he IlovTOVfhteXOelv. 

10. Mera hrj rov Ylapdeviov irorapov iariv 
" \p.aaTpi<;, 6fi(i)vvp.o<i tt}? avv(pKiKVia<i TroXt?- 
ihpvrai 6' eVt ^e/jpo^'jicroi; Xip.ei>a^ e^ovaa rov 
la$p.ov eKarepoidev' rjv S' r) "Ap,aarpi<; yvvrj puev 
AiovvaLOu, TOV Hyoa/cA-eia? rvpdvvov, dvydrrjp 
he O^vdOpov, TOV Aapeiou dheXcjiov tov KUTa 
' AXe^arhpov' eKeivi] p.ev ovv eV TCTTdpcov KaToi- 
Ktcov avvwKiae ^ t)]v ttoXlv, €k re 'Erjcrdp.ov Kal 
KvTcopou Kal Kp(t)p.v7j<i {cov Kal ''Qp,i)po<; p.ep,vj]Tai 
iv Tfp TlaipXayoviKM hiaKoap-ai), TeTapr?/? he t?}? 
Ttetof^ aXX' avTi^ p,ev ra^i/ direa-Tri tt}? Koivcovla^, 
at he dXXat avvep^eivav, wv i) ^rjcrap,o<; uKpoTroXi'; 
T?}? 'A/ia(TT/3e&)? XeyeTai. to he K.vTcopov epLiro- 
piov r]v rrroTe 'S.ivcoTretov, wvopiaaTai, S' diro Ky- 

^ E reads ffvvfffrrtcre. 

* Tidov, Tzschucke, Corais, and Muller-Diihner, for Tt/iou ; 
the Epitome, Kramer, and Meineke reail Tlov. 

^ i.e. interior of Paphlagonia. 
3S4 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 9-10 

everywhere been destroyed), and on the north by 
the Euxine. Now this country was divided into two 
parts, the interior and the part on the sea, each 
stretching from the Halys River to Bithynia ; and 
Eupator not only held the coast as far as Heracleia, 
but also took the nearest part of the interior,^ certain 
portions of which extended across the Halys (and 
the boundary of the Pontic Province has been 
marked off by the Romans as far as this).^ The re- 
maining parts of the interior, however, were subject 
to potentates, even after the overthrow of Mithri- 
dates. Now as for the Paphlagonians in the interior, 
I mean those not subject to Mithridates, 1 shall 
discuss them later,^ but at present I propose to 
describe the country which was subject to him, called 
the Pontus. 

10. After the Parthenius River, then, one comes 
to Amastris, a city bearing the same name as the 
woman who founded it. It is situated on a penin- 
sula and has harbours on either side of the isthmus. 
Amastris was the wife of Dionysius the tyrant of 
Heracleia and the daughter of Oxyathres, the 
brother of the Dareius whom Alexander fought. 
Now she formed the city out of four settlements, 
Sesamus and Cytorum and Cromna (which Homer 
mentions in his marshalling of the Paphlagonian 
ships) ^ and, fourth, Tieium. This last, however, soon 
revolted from the united city, but the other three 
remained together ; and, of these three, Sesamus is 
called the acropolis of Amastris. Cytorum was once 
the emporium of the Sinopeans ; it was named after 

* Cp. J. G. C. Anderson in Anatolian Studies presented to 
Sir JVilliam Mitchell PMnisay, j). 6. 

3 12. .3 41—42. * 2. 853—885. 

38s 



STRABO 

rajpov, Tov ^pl^ov Trat^o?, el)? ^'Ei^opo'i (fyrjac. 
C 545 irXeiaTij Be Kal apiarrj 7rv^o<; (f)U€Tai Kara rijv 
^ Ap,a(jTpiav7']v, Kal pLiiKiara Trepl ro K.vTa)pov. 
6 Se AljiaXo'; ecm fiev rjttov jxaKpa irXeiovwv ^ 
?7 eKUTOv aTaSlayv e';\^et Se Kal Kcofxy]v ofxcovvfiov, 
r}? /xifivrjTai 6 TronjTij^;, orav cfifj, 

K.pci>/xvdi> T AljiaXou je Kal u\ln]Xov^ 'Fjpvdi- 
vov<i. 

ypd<pov<Ti Be Tive<i, 

K.po)fivav K(o/3ia\6v re. 

^Kpv6Lvov<; Be XejecrOai (pacri rov<; vvv 'Fipvdpi- 
vov^, diTo TT]<; ')(poa<;' Bvo B' elal aKoireXot. fxera 
Be AlyiaXov Kdpa/n^t^, ctKpa /xeydXi] tt/jo? ra? 
apKTOv<; uvaTeTafievT) Kal rrjv XkvOiktjv yeppo- 
I'ljaov. e/jLv/]aOr]/j,ev B' avTrjfi 7roXXdKi<; Kal rov 
dvTiKeifxevov avrr} Kpiov /xeru>7rov, BtOdXaTTov 
7roiovvTO<; top Ejv^eivov irovrov. fierd Be Ka- 
pajx^LV KtV&)/\,t9 Kal 'AvTiKivo)Xi<; Kal 'A^covov 
Tet^o?. TToXij^yiov, Kal 'Ap/jiein], e(f>' rj irapoipna- 
^ovrai, 

oo"Tt9 epjov ovBei> el\ev 'Apfieviiv eTe'fX^iaev. 

€(TTL Be KWjxii TO)v ^ivcoTTecov eyovaa Xip^eva. 

11. EZt' auTj; "Eii'MTrT], (naBiov<i irevTi'jKOVTa 
Tr]<i 'ApfMevi]<; Bie')(ovaa, ct^ioXoycordT')] tmv TavTj) 
TToXecov. eKTtcrav /juev ovv aurrjv ^liXrjacoi' Kara- 
aKevacra/xevf) Be vavriKov eTrijpx^ t?/? eVro? 
Kvaveoov OaXdTT7]<;, Kal e^co Be iroXXiov dycovcov 
fieretye toT? "EXXTjaiv avTOvojxy^Oelaa Be ttoXvv 
\p6vov ovBe Bid reXov^ e<^vXa^e rrjv iXevOepiav, 

386 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 10-11 

Cytorus, the son of Phryxus, as Ephorus says. The 
most and the best box-wood grows in the territory 
of Amastris, and particularly round Cytoruni. The 
Aegialus is a long shore of more than a hundred 
stadia, and it has also a village bearing the same 
name, which the poet mentions Avhen he says, 
" Cromna and Aegialus and the lofty Erythini," ^ 
though some write, " Cromna and Cobialus." They 
say tliat the Erythrini of to-day, from their colour,"^ 
used to be called Erytliini ; they are two lofty 
rocks. After Aegialus one comes to Carambis, a 
great cape extending towards the north and the 
Scythian Chersonese. I have often mentioned it, as 
also Criumetopon which lies opposite it, by which 
the Euxine Pontus is divided into two seas.^ After 
Carambis one comes to Cinolis, and to Anticinolis, 
and to Abonuteichus,^ a small town, and to Armenc, 
to which pertains the proverb, " whoever had no 
work to do walled Armenc." It is a village of the 
Sinopeans and has a harbour. 

11. Then one comes to Sinope itself, which is 
fifty stadia distant from Armene ; it is the most 
noteworthy of the cities in that part of the world. 
This city was founded by the Milesians ; and, having 
built a naval station, it reigned over the sea inside 
the Cyaneae, and shared with the Cireeks in many 
struggles even outside the Cyaneae ; and, although it 
was independent for a long time, it could not even- 
tually preserve its freedom, but was captured by 

1 Iliad 2. 855. ■ i.e. "Red." 

» 2. 5. 22, 7. 4. 3, 11. 2. 14. 
* Literally, Wall of Abonus. 

^ fi4v, before ij, Meineke, following the editors before 
Kramer, omits; riv read 5e'. 

387 



STRABO 

aX\' eK TToXiopKLWi edXw kuI iSovXevae ^apvaKi) 
TTpwTOV, eireira rot? 8ia8e^a/j,evoc<; eKelvov fji-e^^pi 
Tov EuTTaro/JO? Kal tmv KaraXvaavrcov 'Pcofxalcov 
eKelvov. 6 8e EuTraro)/) Kal eyevvtjOi] eKel Kal 
eTpd(})i}' Bia(p€p6vT(i}<; Be irifirjcrev avrijv firjrpo- 
TToXlv re tT;? ^aai\€la<; vweXa^ev. eari 8e Kal 
(f>va€i Kal ^ Trpovoia KareaKeuaa p^evr] KaXa><i' 
iBpvTai yap eirl avx^evi yeppovijaou tlvo'^, eKare- 
poodev Be TOV ladfiou Xip.eve'i Kal vavaradpa Kal 
irrjXap.vBeia davp-aard, Trepl Siv elp-qKapev, on 
Bevrepav O-qpav ol l^ivooireh 'i'XpvcTi, i-pirrjv Be 
Hv^dvTtoi,. Kal kvkXw B' i) x^PP^vri(TO<i trpo- 
^e^XrjTat, pax^oiBei^ aKrd^, e')(ovaa<i ^ Kal KoiXd- 
Ba<i Ttm?, uxjavel ^60pov<; Trerplvouf;, 0&9 KaXovcn 
j^0LVLKiBa<;' TrXrjpovvTai Be ovtol peTewpicrOeicrri^ 
rr}^ OaXdrr'rj'i, &)? Kal Bia rovTO ovk evrrpoaiTov 
TO ^ ^(^0) piov , Kal Bia to Trdaav ttjv rr]<; Treryoa? 
€Tri(f)dveiav e-^ivcoBrj Kal dveiri^aTov elvai yupvo) 
TToBr clvcoOev p,evToi Kal iiirep t^? TroXeoj? evyewv 
C 546 ecTTt TO eBatpo^; Kal dypoKr)7rioi<i KeKoaprjTai ttvk- 
vol^,^ TToXv Be p-dXXov Ta irpodaTeia. avTT) B' 
rj TToXt? reTei)(^LaTai, KaXw<i, Kal yvpvaoiw Be 
Kal dyopa Kal crToat<i K€K6ap,r]Tai Xap,7rpo}<;. 
ToiavTT] Be ovcra Bl<i op,uK{ edXra, irpoTepov p,ev 

1 (pvaft Kal, Kramer, from conj. of Casaubon, for (pwiKf,. 

* exoiycraj, Corais, for fxovara. 

' t6, the editors insert from E. 

* E reads ■n-oWo'ts instead of ttukvoIs. 

1 183 B.C. 2 Mitliridates the Great. 

3 7. 6. 2 and 12. 3. 19. 

* "Crossing the town to the north I passed through a 
salljf-port, and descended to the beach, where the wall was 

388 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. n 

siege, and was first enslaved by Pharnaces ^ and 
afterwards by his successors down to Eupator ~ and 
to the Romans who overthrew Eupator. Eupator 
was both born and reared at Sinope ; and he accorded 
it especial honour and treated it as the metropohs of 
his kingdom. Sinope is beautifully equij)j)ed both by 
nature and by human foresight, for it is situated on 
the neck of a peninsula, and has on either side of the 
isthmus harbours and loadsteads and wonderful 
l)elamydes-fisheries, of which I have already made 
mention, saying that the Sinopeans get the second 
catch and the Byzantians the third .^ Furthermore, 
the peninsula is protected all round by ridgy shores, 
which have hollowed-out places in them, rock-cavities, 
as it were, which the j)eople call " choenicides " ; * 
these are filled with water wlien the sea rises, and 
therefore the place is hard to approach, not only 
because of this, but also because the whole surface 
of the rock is prickly and impassable for bare feet. 
Fliglier up, however, and above the city, the gi-ound 
is fertile and adorned with diversified market- 
gardens ; and especially the suburbs of the city. 
The city itself is beautifully walled, and is also 
S])lendidly adorned with gymnasium and market- 
place and colonnades. But although it was such a 
city, still it was twice ca])tured, first by Pharnaces, who 

built upon a sharp decomposing shelly limestone which I was 
surprised to find full of small circular holes, apparently 
resembling those described by Strabo, under the name of 
'choenicides' ; but those which I saw were not above nine 
inches in diameter, and from one to two feet deep. There 
can, liowever, be no doubt that such cavities would, if larger, 
render it almost impossible for a body of men to wade on 
shore." (Hamilton's Researches ^7^ Asia Minor, 1. p. 310, 
quoted by Tozer,) 

3S9 



ST R A BO 

Tov ^apva/cov irapa ho^av ai(f)i'i8ico^ e7rt7re<70i/T09, 
varepov he viro AevKoWov kul tov iyKaOrj/xevov 
rvpdvvov, Kai ivTO<; ap.a kuI iKTO<i rrokiopKovfievr}' 
6 '^/ap iyKaTao-ra6ei<; vtto tov /SacrtXew? (f)pov- 
papxo<i Ba/c^tS?;?, vttovowv dec Tiva Trpohoaiav 
eK TOiv evSodev, Kal 7roX\a9 at«ta<» Kal acpaya^ 
TTOLMv, aTrayopevaai, tou? dv6 poairov^ eTroLrjae 
7rpo9 d/j,(f)a>, /j,i']t' d/j-vvaadai, Bvvafxevov<; yevvaiw<i 
p-y'lTe TrpoaOeaOai kutci avp-jBdaei^. kdXwaav 8' 
ovv Kal TOV pev dXXou Kocrp-ov t/}? 7roX,ea)<? Biecfiv- 
Xa^ev 6 AevKoXXo^, ttjv Be tov BiXXdpov acpalpav 
r/pe Kal TOV AvToXvKov,^ XdeviSo^ epyov, ov eKelvoi 
olKKTTrjv evofMi^ov Kal eVt/ituy to? deov rjv he Kal 
p^avTelov avTov' hoKel he tmv 'Idaovi crvfx'TrXev- 
advTcov elvai Kal KaTaay^elv tovtov tov tottov. 
eW^ vaTepov ^liXi^aioi ttjv ev(f)Viav lh6vT€<i Kal 
TTjv dcrdeveiav tcov ivoiKovvTow e^ihcdaavTO Kal 
eiroiKov^ ecTTeiXav vvvl he Kal 'Fco/naicov diroiKLav 
heheKTai Kal p.epo<; t^? TroXeco? Kal t^? ^a>pa? 
eKeivcov e'crt'. hie^^i he tov fiev 'lepov TpL<7-)(^LXiov<i 
Kal 7revTaKoaLOv<;, dcp' 'Y{paK\e'ia<i he ht(j'^iXiov<i, 
J^apdp.-Beco'i he eTTTaKoalovs crTahiov^. dvhpa<i he 
e^7]veyKev dyadov<i, tmv puev c^iXoao^wv Aioyevrj 
TOV K^vviKov Kal Tip.6deov tov UaTplcova, tmv 

he TTOirjTMV Ai(f)cX0V tov K(Op.lK6v, TMV he 

avyypa(})ea)v HaTOJva tov irpayp^aTevOevTa to, 
YlepaiKa. 

12. 'EvTevdev h' e'^e^?)? rj tov "A\vo<; eK^oXr) 

1 AiirdKvKoy, Xylander, for Air6\vTov. 

^ See Plutarch, Liiculhis, 23. 
39° 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 11 -12 

unexpectedly attacked it all of a sudden, and later 
by Leucullus and by the tyrant who was garrisoned 
within it, being besieged both inside and outside at 
the same time ; for, since Bacchides, who had been 
set up by the king as commander of the garrison, 
was always suspecting treason from the people inside, 
and was causing many outrages and murders, he 
made the people, who were unable either nobly to 
defend themselves or to submit by compromise, lose 
all heart for either course. At any rate, the city was 
captured ; and though Leucullus kept intact the 
rest of the city's adornments, he took away the 
globe of Billarus and the work of Sthenis, the statue 
of Autolycus,^ whom they regarded as founder of 
their city and honoured as god. The city had also 
an oracle of Autolycus. He is thought to have been 
one of those who went on the voyage with Jason 
and to have taken possession of this place. Then 
later the Milesians, seeing the natural advantages 
of the place and the weakness of its inhabitants, 
appropriated it to themselves and sent forth colonists 
to it. But at present it has received also a colony 
of Romans ; and a part of the city and the territory 
belong to these. It is three thousand five hundred 
stadia distant from the Hieron,^ two thousand from 
Heracleia, and seven hundred from Carambis. It 
has produced excellent men : among the philoso- 
phers, Diogenes the Cynic and Timotheus Patrion ; 
among the poets, Diphilus the comic poet ; and, 
among the historians. Baton, who wrote the work 
entitled The Persica. 

12. Thence, next, one comes to the outlet of the 

^ i.e. the [Chalcedonian] "Temple "on the "Sacred Cape" 
(see 12. 4. 2) iu Chalcedonia, now called Cape Khelidini. 



STRABO 

TTOTa/jiOV' oivojiacnaL h cnro Tojv aXcov, a? 
irapappel- e;^et Be raii 7rr)ya<i ev rrj /leydXr] 
KainraBoKLa rr}? Uovtiktj^; irX^iaiov Kara rrjv 
K.a/jLi(Ty]vr]v, eVe^^et? 8' eVl Svaiv ttoXv^, elr 
iiriarpe^a^ irpb^ ttjv apKTOv Bid re FaXaTciov 
Kal Ilacf)\ay6v(op opi^ei toutoi/9 re kuI rov<i 
AeuKocrvpov^. e%ef ^e kuI i) ^lvoottIti^ kuI rrdaa 
7/ p-ex^pi BiOvi'la^ opeivt] virepKeip-ev)^ Trj<; Xe;^^et(T>/9 
nTapakiwi vavTrrjyr'jaLpiOV vXr/v dyaOrjv kuI evKa- 
raKOfMiCTOV- i) Be ^ivcottitc^ Kal (j(i)evBap.vov 
(pvei Kal opoKupvov, e^ mv Td<i Tpa7re^a<i T€fivov- 
aiv diraaa Be Kal eXaio(f)vro<i eariv i) niKpov 
VTTep Trj<i daXdrTTj^ yewpyovfievrj. 

13. Mera Be ttjv eK^oXrjv rou "AXuo? ?} 
ra^ijXcoviTL^ ^ eari yuexpt tt}? ^apap,r]v?}<;,^ ev- 
Baip.(ov X^'^P^ '^"^ 7reBid<i irdaa kuI 7rd/u.(f)opo(;' 
e^et Be Kal Trpo/Bareiav v7roBi(f)0epov Kal p,aXaK?]<i 
epea<i, rj<{ KaO' oXrjV rrjv K.<i7r7raBoKLav Kal rov 
TlovTov o(f)6Bpa ttoXXt] airdvi'i eari' yivovrat Be 
V 547 ical ^6pK€^, oiv aWa^oO cnrdvc^ eaji. javrt]^ 
Be T)]^ ^a)/7a? rrjv fxev e^ovaiv ' Afiiai^voi, rrjv 
5' eBcuKe A'>]Lordpa> TlofX7nji.o<i, KaOdirep Kal tci 
rrepl ^apvaKiav Kal tj/j' TpaTre^ovaiap P-^XP^ 
}\oXxt'Bo^ Kal ri]<i p.cKpd'i ' App^evia^' Kal tovtcov 
drreBei^ev avrov fSaaiXea, exovra Kal ttjv TraTpojav 
rerpapxt-dv tmv VaXarcov, tou? T oXiar o ^cayiovi , 
aTroBavovTOf B' eKeivov, -rroXXal BiaBox^^l Tcoy 
eKeivov yeyovaai. 

1 rafTjAajj/iTis, Meineke ior VahiK'^^vWis ; for other spellings 
see C. Miiller (Lc.) and Kramer. 
* CD/;//.''? read ' Apa.fxrtvr)s. 

1 " salt works." * i.e. "Pontiis" (see 12. 1. 4). 

392 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 12-13 

Halys River. It was named from the " halae," ^ 
past which it flows. It has its sources in Greater 
Cappadocia in Camisene near the Pontic country ; ^ 
and, flowing in great volume towards the west, and 
then turning towards the north through Galatia and 
Paphlagonia, it forms the boundary between these 
two countries and the country of the White Syrians.^ 
Both Sinopitis and all the mountainous country 
extending as far as Bithynia and lying above the 
aforesaid seaboard have shipbuilding timber that is 
excellent and easy to transport. Sinopitis produces 
also the maple and the mountain-nut, the trees from 
which they cut the wood used for tables. And the 
whole of the tilled country situated a little above 
the sea is planted with olive trees. 

13. After the outlet of the Halys comes Gaze- 
lonitis, which extends to Saramene ; it is a fei'tile 
country and is everywhere level and productive of 
everything. It has also a sheep-industry, that of 
raising flocks clothed in skins and yielding soft 
wool,"* of which there is a very great scarcity 
throughout the whole of Cappadocia and Pontus. 
The country also produces gazelles, of which there 
is a scarcity elsewhere. One part of this countiy is 
occupied by the Amiseni, but the other was given 
to Deiotarus by Pompey, as also the regions of 
Pharnacia and Trapezusia as far as Colchis and 
Lesser Armenia. Pompey appointed him king of 
all these, when he was already in possession of his 
ancestral Galatian tetrarchy,^ the country of the 
Tolistobogii. But since his death there have been 
many successors to his territories. 

^ i.e. Cappadocians (see 12. 'A. 9). 

« See Vol. II, p. 241, and foot ih.u- l.".. ^ See 12. 5. 1. 

393 



STRABO 

14. Mera 6e tt^v Ta^rjXcova^ rj 'S,apafii}V}j kuI 

Trepl ivvaKoo-Lovq arahluvs. (pijal S' avrrjv 
©eoTTo^TTO? rrpcoTOV^ MtXT/crtoL"? Krlaai,^ . . . 
Ka7r7raS6KQ}i> apj^^ovra, rplrov B' vtt' ^AOrjvo- 
K\eov<i Kal ' Ad7]vaiQ)v eiroiKtaOelaav, YleLpaia 
fieTOPO/xaadfjvai. Kal ravrrjv Se Karecr^ov oi 
fiaaiKei<i, 6 S' EyTrartw/j eKocTfii^aev lepol^ Kal 
irpocreKriae p.ipo^. Aey/coXAo? he Kal Tavrrjv 
eiToXiopK^iaev, eiO^ varepov OapvaKi]-;, ck Boo"7ro- 
pov (iiaf3u<;- iXevOepwOelaav S' vtto }LaLaapo^ rov 
&€ov TTupehcoKev AvTWPCO^ ^aaiXevatv el6 o 
Tvpavvo'i ^rpdrwv kukm^ auTi;V SiedrjKev etr' 
TjXevdepctiOr} ttoKlv pLSTa rd 'AKTiaKO, vtto K.aiaa- 
po<i Tov ^e^aa-roi), Kal vvv ev crvvecrTrjKiv. ey^ei 
he Ti]V T€ dWrjv y^copav rcaXrjv Kal irjv 0e/itcr- 
Kvpav, TO TMv 'Afxa^ovwv oiKr)T7]ptov, Kal Tr]v 
^ihrjvj'jr. 

15. "EcTTi he ■>) ^efiiaKvpa rrehlov, i-fi p.ev vtto 
rov 7re\dyov<i K\v^6pevov,6aov e^tjKovTa oTuhiov^ 
T-^9 TToXeco? hie\ov, rfj 8' otto tj}? 6peiVTJ<; evhev- 
hpov Kal hiappvTov 7roTa/j,oi<;, avrodev Ta9 Trrjjdf 
exov(Tiv. eK pev ovv tovtcov Tr\r]povpevo<; dirdvrcov 
el? TTorap.b'i Bii^eiai to Trehiov, Sep/iwhcov Ka- 
Xovpevo^' d\Xo(; he tovtw Trdpiao<;, pecov ck t/}? 
KaXovpevri<i ^avapoia<;, ro avro hie^ecai rrehiov, 
KaXelrat he 'Ip(?. ex^t he rd<i 7rr}yd<; ev avrat 
T(w rToi^Tw, pvei<i he hid iroXeoi^ pearr]^ }\.op,dvQ)v 

' FaJ.'j/Aiij'a, Meineke, for raOiXwya (TaKiSuiPa D). 
^ Certainly one or more word.s liave fallen out here, i insert.^ 
Kal, and oz ko.] etra. 

394 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 14-15 

14. After Gazelon one comes to Saramene, and 
to a notable city, Aniisiis, which is about nine 
hundred stadia from Sinope. Theopompus says that 
it was first founded by the Milesians, ... ^ by a 
leader of the Cappadocians, and thirdly was colonised 
b}' Athenocles and Athenians and changed its name 
to Peiraeus. The kings also took possession of this 
city ; and Eupator adorned it with temples and 
founded an addition to it. This city too was be- 
sieged by Leucullus, and then by Pharnaces, when he 
crossed over from the Bosporus. After it had been 
set free by the deified Caesar,- it was given over to 
kings by Antony. Then Straton the tyrant put it 
in bad plight. And then, after the Battle of Actium,^ 
it was again set free by Caesar Augustus ; and at the 
present time it is well organised. Besides the rest 
(jf its beautiful country, it possesses also Themiscyra, 
the abode of the Amazons, and Sidene. 

15. Themiscyra is a plain ; on one side it is 
washed by the sea and is about sixty stadia distant 
from the city, and on the other side it lies at the 
foot of the mountainous country, which is well- 
wooded and coursed by streams that have their 
sources therein. So one river, called the Ther- 
modon, being supplied by all these streams, flows 
out through the plain ; and another river similar to 
this, which flows out of Phanaroea, as it is called, 
flows out through the same plain, and is called the 
Iris. It has its sources in Pontus itself, and, after 
flowing through the middle of the city Comana in 

^ See critical note. 

'•^ It was in reference to his battle witli Pharnaces near 
Zela that Julius Caesar iiifonned the .Senate of his victoiy 
l)V the words, "I came, I saw, I conquered." 
'» 31 B.C. 

395 



STRABO 

ro)v TLovTLKwv Kal oia t/}? Aa^i ficovlriSo^, evZai- 
fMOVo<; TreBiou, Trpo'i Bvaiv, etr' iTriarpecpei tt/jo? 
Ta? apKTOv<; Trap avra ra Fa^iovpa, iraXaiov 
^aaiXeiov, vvv S' epr)/j,ov, eira dvaKafMirrei iraKiv 
Trp6<; €00, irapaXa^oiv tov re X/cvXaKa Kal a.Wov<i 
TTOTafjLOv<;, Kal irap avro to tt}? 'A/iacreta? 
eVep^^ei? relxo^i, t?}? rifxeT6pa<i TrarpiSo^i, 7ro\e&)? 
epv/jLVOTarrji;, eh rr)v Oavdpocav TrpoeicTiV ev- 
ravOa Be crvpL^aXoiV 6 KvKo<i avrw, ra? 
dpxo.<; i^ 'A/jyu-ei'ta? e^ojv, yiverat. Kal avTO<i 
'Ipt9* eW 7] (de/MiaKvpa vTroBexerai to pev/xa 
Kal TO YlovTiKov TriXayo'i. Bid Be tovto ev- 
Bpoaov icTTi Kal TToa^ov del to ireBiov tovto 
Tpe(f}eiv dye\a<; ^ooiv tb ofioioxi koI lttttcov Bvvd- 
fievov, airopov Be irXelaTov Be^eTai tov €« t^9 
eXvfiou Kal Kejxpov, fxdWov Be dveKXenrTOV 
C 548 avxP'OV ydp ecTTi KpecTTCov rj evvBpia 7ravT6<;, 
waT ovBe Xipo'i KuOiKvelrai TOiv dvdpwrrwv rov- 
Tcov ovB^ d-Tra^' ToaavTijv 5' oncopav eKBlBwaLV 
rj 7rap6p€io<i tijv avTo^vi) Kal dypiav aTa(f)vX)]^ 
TC Kal o)(pi](; Kal p,7jXov Kal twv KapvoiBwv, ooaTe 
KaTa irdaav tov €tov<; utpav d(f)66vci)^ eviropelv 
Tov<i e^i6vTa<i errl Tr]v vXrjv TOTe fxev eVt Kpepua- 
fjievwv Twv KapTTCov iv tol<; BerBpeai, totc S" ev 
TTj TreTTTWKvia (pvXXdBi Kal vir avTrj Keip-evcop 
^aOeia Kal ttoXXtj Ke-)(yp.evr). av^val Be Kal 
drjpai iravToicov dypevp^uTcov Bed ttjv €V(f>oplav ^ 
Trj<i Tpo(jiri<i. 

16. MeTa Be ti]v (f^e/nlcrKvpdv iaTiv rj '^iBijvrj, 
TTcBiov evBaifxov, ou^ op-oiw^ Be Kal KaTappvTov, 
€Xov %w/3/a ipufxvd eirl ttj irapaXia, Ty']v t€ 
"ZiBijv, d(f)' r)<; oivofMdadij 'S,iBr]vi], Kal X.d/3aKa 
396 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 15-16 

Foutus and through Daziuionitis, a fertile plain, 
towards the west, then turns towards the north past 
Gaziura itself, an ancient royal residence, though 
now deserted, and then bends back again towards 
the east, after receiving the waters of the Scylax and 
other rivers, and after flowing past the very wall of 
Amaseia, my fatherland, a very strongly fortified 
city, flows on into Phanaroea. Here the Lycus 
River, which has its beginnings in Armenia, joins it, 
and itself also becomes the Iris. Then the stream is 
received by Themiscyra and by the Pontic Sea. On 
this account the plain in question is always moist 
and covered with grass and can support herds of 
cattle and horses alike and admits of the sowing of 
millet-seeds and sorghum-seeds in very great, or 
rather unlimited, quantities. Indeed, their plenty 
of water ott^sets any drought, so that no famine 
comes down on these people, never once ; and the 
country along the mountain yields so much fruit, 
self-grown and wild, 1 mean grapes and pears and 
apples and nuts, that those who go out to the forest 
at any time in the year get an abundant supply — 
the fruits at one time still hanging on the trees and 
at another lying on the fallen leaves or beneath 
them, which are shed deep and in great quantities. 
And numerous, also, are the catches of all kinds of 
wild animals, because of the good yield of food. 

16. After Themiscyra one comes to Sidene, which 
is a fertile plain, though it is not well-watered like 
Themiscyra. It has strongholds on the seaboard : 
Side, after which Sidene was named, and Chabaea 



* fiKpopiaf, Corals emends to fi/voplav, Meiiieke following. 

397 



STRABO 

Koi Q>d^Ba' l^e\pi fxev Brj Sevpo ^ Afiia-rjvq. 
dvBpf.i; Be yeyovaaiv ci^iol fivrj/jLt]^ Kara iraiheiav 
evravda, fjiaOrj/jLariKol /xev AfjfiyjTpio'i 6 tov 
'Pa6r]vov Koi Aiovva-oScopo^,^ o/j.covv/jiO'i ra> 
MtjXlo) ^ 'yeo)fierpr], jpafjUjuaTiKO^ Be TvpavvLO)v, 
ov r}p,ei<; rjKpoaad/ieOa. 

17, Mexa Be ry]v "ZiBrjvrjv r] ^apvuKta e<7TtV, 
ipvfivov TToXiafia, koI fierd ravra rj Tpa7re^ov<i, 
TToXt? 'EWT^i^t?, ei? ^]v diro rrj<i Afiicrov irept ctcrxi^- 
Xi,ov<; Kal BiUKoaiovi (naBiov<; iarlv o tt\ov<;' etr 
evOev el<i ^dcnv y^iXioi irov Kal rerpaKoa-ioi, ware 
01 crv/jL7ravTe<; cltto tov 'lepov p-expi' ^cia-LBo'i irepl 
OKraKccr^iXiovi; aTaBiov; eicrlv rj fxiKpu) TrXeiovi 
fj eXdrTOv^. ev Be rfj TrapaXLa TUVTrj diro 
^Afiicrov TrXeouaiv tj 'H/oa/tXeto? aKpa Trp&rov 
iariv, elr dXXr] dxpa ^laaoviov Kal 6 Tevijryj^;,^ 
elra Kvrcopo^;^ TroXi-^^vrj, i^ ^9 crvvcpKLaOi] rj 
^apvaKia, elr 'Icr^o7roXt<? Kar€prjpi/ji/j,evT), elra 
koXtto';, ev w Kepacrov^f re Kal 'Kp/jbcovaacra, 
KaroLKiat, fierpiac, elra t?}? 'Ep/u.covdcrarj'i irXrjcriov 
T) Tpa7r€^ov<i, eld^ 7; KoA,;^'/?* evravda Be ttov 
ecrrl Kal Zvy67roXi,<; rt? Xeyofxevrj KaroLKta. irepl 
fxev ovv rrj<i IvoA,;^tSo<f etprjrac Kal tt}? inrepKei- 
/xevrj^ TrapaXia'i. 

18. T?}? Be TpaTTe^ovvTo<; vrrepKeivrai Kal rr}*? 
Q>apvaKLa<i VilBapavoi re Kal XaXBatoi Kal 
Xdvvoi, ov^ rrporepov eKaXovv ^IdKpcova'i, Kal 

^ AioyvuSSuipos, the editors, for AiovvaiuSwpos. 

* Mi}Aicj!, Tyrwhitt, for "licfvi ; so Meineke. 

' r«j/7)Tr)s, Casaubon, for yderris ; so the later editors. 

* KvTuipoi, an error for Korvupa, KoTvoopov, or KoTvccpos 
(see C. Miiller, I.e.). 

398 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 16-18 

and Phabda. Now the territory of Amisus extends 
to this point; and the city has produced men note- 
worthy for their learning, Demetrius, the son of 
Rhathenus, and Dionysodorus, the mathematicians, 
the latter bearing the same name as the Melian 
geometer, and Tyrranion the grammarian, of whom 
I was a pupil. 

17. After Sidene one comes to Pharnacia, a forti- 
fied town ; and afterwards to Trapezus, a Greek city, 
to which the voyage from Amisus is about two 
thousand two hundred stadia. Then from here 
the voyage to Phasis is approximately one thou- 
sand four hundred stadia, so that the distance 
from Hieron^ to Phasis is, all told, about eight 
thousand stadia, or slightly more or less. As 
one sails along this seaboard from Amisus, one 
comes first to the Heracleian Cape, and then to 
another cape called Jasonium, and to Genetes, and 
then to a town called Cytorus,^ from the inhabitants 
of which Pharnacia was settled, and then to Ischo- 
polis, now in ruins, and then to a gulf, on which are 
both Cerasus and Hermonassa, moderate-sized settle- 
ments, and then, near Hermonassa, to Trapezus, and 
then to Colchis. Somewhere in this neighbourhood 
is also a settlement called Zygopolis. Now I have 
already described ^ Colchis and the coast which lies 
above it. 

18. Above Trapezus and Pharnacia are situated 
the Tibarani and Chaldaei and Sanni, in earlier times 
called Macrones, and Lesser Armenia ; and the 

1 See 12 3. 11. 

2 Apparently an error for "Cotyora" or "Cotyonim" or 
" Cotyorus. " 

3 11. 2. 15. 

399 



STRABO 

7/ fiiKpa Apfxevia, Kai oi ATTTralraL ce ttw? 
irXTjcnd^ovai toI<; ')(oipioi<; tovtoi<;, o't TrpoTepcv 
KepKLTai. Sl7]k€i 8e 8ia tovt(ov o re ^Kvhi(jr]<;, 
6po<i Tpa\VTa70i', crvvd-TTTOv T0t9 Mocr^Y^^ot? opeai 
TOL<; vvep T/}? }\.oX')(lSo<;, ov to. dxpa KaT€^ovcni> 
ol EiTrTaKcofMrJTai, Kal o T\.apvdhp-)i<i o fJ-i^pi 
T7]-: fiiKpd<; Ap/jL€VLa<; diro tmv Kara "^iSrjvfjv 
C 549 Kal ^^efMiCTKupav tottwv SiaTeiviov Kal iroioiv to 
ka)6ivov Tou HovTov irXevpov. elal 8' aTrafxe? 
fiev 01 opeioi tovtoov dypiot reXeo)?, vTrep/Se- 
^Xt-jvrat he tou? dWov; ol ETrTa/c'w/x/^Taf rive<i 
8e Kal eirl hevhpecTU' r) irvpytoi^; oiKoucri, Bio Kal 
^oavvoLKOv^ eKaXovv oi -rraXaioi, tcov Trvpycov 
^ocTvvcov XeyofjL€i'o)v. ^dxri 5' uto dr}pei(M)v 
(japKOiv Kal T(t)v aKpohpvoyv, eiriTiBevrat he Kal 
Tol<; oBoiTTopovai, KaTaTniByjaavre^; diro roiv 
LKplwv. ol Be 'Ej7rTaKa)fiy]Tai rpeU lJop.7rrii,ov 
(TTreipa^ KareKoylrav Bie^covaa^i rrjv opeivijv, 
Kepdaavre<; Kparrjpa^ iv TaL<; 65ot? tou fxaivo- 
fievov p.eXiTo<i, b cj^epovatv ol dKpe/j.6ve<; tcov 
Bevhpwv TTLovai yap Kal TrapaKoyfracriv eTTidefievoi 
paBiw^ hiex^i'Pl'CO'VTO tov<; dvOpcoirov^. eKoXovv- 
To he TOVTcov Tives twv j3apl3dpu)v Kal Bi;^>;pe9. 

19. Ot he vvv XaXhaiot XdXu^e<; to TraXaiov 
QiVopA^ovTO, Kad ov<i ixdXifTTa rj ^apvaKia 
ihpvTai, KaTa OdXaTTav fxev e^^oucra eucbvl'av 
Ttjv eK tt;? Trr]Xap.vheia<; {irpooTiaTa yap dXia- 
KeTat ivTavda to 6-drov touto), eK he t?)? yi)'; rd 
pieTaXXa, vvv /xev (JLhi]pQV, vpoTepov he Kal dpyv- 

^ i.e. six hundred, unless the Greek word should be trans- 
lated "cohort," to -which it is sometimes equivalent. 

400 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 18-19 

Appaitae, in earlier times called the Cei'citae, are 
fairly close to these regions. Two mountains cross 
the country of these people, not only the Scydises, a 
very rugged mountain, which joins the Moschian 
Mountains above Colchis (its heights are occupied by 
the Heptacometae\ but also the Paryadres, which 
extends from the region of Sidene and Themiscyra 
to Lesser Armenia and forms the eastern side of 
Pontus. Now all these peoples who live in the 
mountains are utterly savage, but the Heptacometae 
are worse tlian the rest. Some also live in trees 
or turrets ; and it was on this account that the 
ancients called them " Mosynoeci," the turrets being 
called "mosyni." They live on the flesh of wild 
animals and on nuts ; and they also attack wayfarers, 
leaping down upon them from their scaffolds. The 
Heptacometae cut down three maniples^ of Pompey's 
army when they were passing through the moun- 
tainous country ; for they mixed bowls of the 
crazing honey which is yielded by the tree-twigs, 
and placed them in the roads, and then, when the 
soldiers drank the mixture and lost their senses, 
they attacked them and easily disposed of them. 
Some of these barbarians were also called Byzeres. 

19. The Chaldaei of to-day were in ancient times 
named Chalybes ; and it is just opposite their terri- 
tory that Pharnacia is situated, which, on the sea, 
has the natural advantages of pe/aw7/r/e.v-fishing (for 
it is here that this fish is first caught) ^ and, on the 
land, has the mines, only iron-mines at the present 
time, though in earlier times it also had silver-mines.^ 



2 See 7. 6. 2 and 12. 3. 11. 

3 On these mines see Leaf, Tro]/, p. 290. 



401 



STRABO 

pov. 6\(D<; Se Kara tou? tottou? tovtou? rj irapa- 
Xia (TTevrj reXeox; earlv, virepKeLrai 'yap evdv<; to, 
opt] fieTuXXwv 7r\7]py] koI Spv/xMv, 'yewpyelrat ^ 
S" ov TToWd' XeLTrerai Be rol^ fiev fMeTaX\.evTai<i 
€K Twv fierdXkcov 6 ^io's, toi<; Se 6a\aTTOvp'yol<; 
CK TTJ^ dXieia^, koX /xaXicrTa rutv Trrfkap.vhwv 
KoX TMV 8eX(j}ii'Ci)v' iTTUKoXovdovvTe^ yap Taif; 
d'y€\ai<; tmv l-)(6v(iiv, KophvXi]<i re kuI $vvvi]<; Kal 
avTi]^ tt}? 7Tr}Xap,v8o<;, iriaivovTai re kuI evdXwroi 
yivovTai hid to irXriaid^eiv rfj yfj rrpoaXecTTepov 
heXea^o p,evov<i p.6voi ovtoi KaraKOTrrouai tou? 
SeX(f)iva'i Kal tw aTeart ttoXXm '^(^ptxivTai vrpo? 
aTTavja. 

20. 'YovTOV^ ovv olfiai Xeyeiv rov ■7roi7]Ti]v 
' AXi^d)vov<; ev tw fierd roi)? Ila(f>Xay6va<; 
KaraXoyo)' 

avrdp ' AXi^covcov 'OSio? xal 'E7rio-T/90<^o<? 

ryjXodev e^ ^AXv/3rj<;, oOev dpyvpov earl 
yeveOXty 

I'jTOi T^<? ypa(f)y)^ ixerare6ei<jri<i diro rov nfXodev 
eK X.aXv^rj^;, rj rSiv dvOpcoTTCov "nporepov ^ AXv^wv 
XeyofjL€vo)v dvrl ^aXv^wv ov yap vvv fiev 
Bvvarov yeyovev eK ^aXv^wv X.aX8alou<; Xe^- 
dyjvai, rrporepov 8' ovk evrjv dvrl 'AXv/3&)f 
XaXu/Sa?, Kal ravra rS)v ovop-droiv /jL€ra7rrcoaei<i 
TToXXd^ he^Ofievcov, Kal fidXtara ev roi<i ^ap- 
^dpoi<i' %tvrie<i yap eKoXovvro rive<i rwv (dpaKcov, 
elra %ivroi, elra Itdioi, "nap ol<i (fi^jalv 'A/j- 
^tXoYO? rrjv dcTTriSa pl^^aL' 

402 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 19-20 

Upon the whole, the seaboard in this region is 
extremely narrow, for the mountains, full of mines 
and forests, are situated directly above it, and not 
much of it is tilled. But there remains for the 
miners their livelihood from the mines, and for those 
who busy themselves on the sea their liveliliood from 
their fishing, and especially from their catches of 
pelamydcs and dolphins ; for the dolphins j)ursue the 
schools of fish — the cordyle and the tunny-fish and 
the jielamydes themselves ; ^ and they not only grow 
fat on them, but also become easy to catch because 
they are rather eager to approach the land. These 
are the only people who cut up the dolphins, which 
are caught with bait, and use their abundance of fat 
for all purposes. 

20. So it is these people, I think, that the poet 
calls Halizoni, mentioning them next the after 
Paphlagonians in his Catalogue. " But the Halizones 
Avere led by Odius and Epistrophus, from Alybe far 
away, where is the birth-place of silver," since the 
text has been changed from " Chalybe far away " or 
else the people were in earlier times called " Alj'bes " 
instead of " Chalybes " ; for at the present time it 
proves impossible that they should have been called 
"Chaldaei,'' deriving their name from " Chalybe," if 
in earlier times they could not have been called 
" Chalybes " instead of " Alybes," and that too when 
names undergo many changes, particularly among 
the barbarians ; for instance, certain of the Thracians 
were called Sinties, then Sinti and then Saii, in 
whose country Archilochus says he flung away his 

' All three are species of tunny-tish. 

^ yfwpyuTai, Casaubon, for yiQipyet ; so the later editors. 

403 



STRABO 

a(T7riSa /aei' "^a'icov rt? aveiXeTO,^ Trjv irapa " 

evTo^ d/jia}/jiy]Tov KaWnrov ouk eOeXcov' 

C 550 01 8' avTol ovroL ^aTraioi,^ vvv ovo/nd^oVTar 
Trdvre'i yap outoi irepl "A/8S?;yoa ttjv oiKTjaiv €t)(^ov 
Kal ra? irepl Arj/xvov vi]aov<;' o/jLOboyi Be koX 
^pvyot, Kal B/3i;7e? ^ koX 'Ppvye'i ol avrol, koX 
Mucroi ^ Kol Ma(oi'69 Kal ^lr)ove<s' ov %/Jeta ^e 
rrXeovd^eiv. iiirovoel Be Kal 6 "ItKyj-^io^ ttjv rov 
ovo/xaro'; /LieTdTrraiaiv e^ 'AXv^wv et? XdXv^a<;, 
TO, S' e^?}? Aral rd avvwhd ov voSiV, Kal fidXiara 
€K TLvo<; 'AXt^(i)vou<i eiprjKe Tov<i XaXu/Sa?, diro- 
SoKifid^ei rrjv Bo^av rj/jieU B' dvTnrapaOei>re<; 
TTJ rjfxerepa ti]v eKeivov Kal ra? twv dXXwv 
v7roX7Jyfrei<; aKOTTco/xev. 

21. Ol fiev /jbeTaypd(f)oua Lv AXa^wvwv,^ ol S' 
^Ap,a^(t)V(jov 7roiovvT€<;, to S' e^ 'AXu/St;? e'^ 'AXottt;? 
?) ' e^ 'AXo/3?79,^ T0U9 fiev^ ^/cu^a? ' AXa^wi/a? ^" 
(f>daKOVTe'i virep rov HopvaSevr] Kal KaXXi7rLBa<; 
Kal dXXa ovop-ara, direp EjXXdviK6<i re Kal 
HpoBoTO'i Kal EiuBo^o<i KaTe(f}Xvdpy]aav tj/jLcov, 
Ta?^^ B' 'A/ia^wf a? ^^ p,€Ta^v Mucrta? «at Ka/Jt'a? 
/cat AfSta?, Kaddirep "E</)0/909 vopi^ei, irX'qaiov 
Ku/i?;? tt}? TrarptSo? avTov' Kal tovto p^ev €')(eTaL 

^ cLveiKero, omitted by MSS. except E. ayaWerai, editors 
before Kramer (cp. 10. 2. 17 wliere same passage is quoted). 

^ irapd, Corais for ■jr€pi ; so the later editors. 

^ 2a7roroi, Groskurd, for Satrai; so the later editors. 

* Bpiiyes, Epit., Bpe'yfj MSS. 

^ Koi Mf paves, Ijefore Kal Ma(oves, Corais and later editors 
eject. 

" 'AAa^u'uwf, Tzschuuke, for 'A\ai^lvwy ; so tlie later 
editors. 
404 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 20-21 

shield : " One of the Sail- robbed me of" my shield, 
which, a blameless weapon, 1 left behind me beside 
a bush, against my will." ^ These same people are 
now named Sapaei ; tor all these have their abode 
round Abdera and the islands round Lemnos. Like- 
wise the Brygi and Bryges and Phryges are the same 
people ; and the Mysi and Maeones and Meiones are 
the same ; but there is no use of enlarging on the 
subject. The Scepsian ^ doubts the alteration of 
the name from " Alybes " to " Chalybes " ; and, 
failing to note what follows and what accords with 
it, and especially why the poet calls the Chalybians 
Halizoni, he rejects this opinion. As for me, let me 
|)lace his assumption and those of the other critics 
side by side with my own and consider them. 

21. Some change the text and make it read 
"Alazones, " others " Amazones," and for the words 
" from Alybe " they read "from Alope," or " from 
Alobe," calling the Scythians beyond the Borysthenes 
River " Alazones," and also " Callipidae " and other 
names — names which Hellanicus and Herodotus and 
Eudoxus have foisted on us — and placing the 
Amazons between Mysia and Caria and Lydia near 
Cyme, which is the opinion also of Ephorus, who was 
a native of Cyme. And this opinion might perhaps 

^ Frag. 6 (51), Berglv. Same fragment quoted in 10. 2. 17. 
- Demetrius of Scepsis. 



' ¥1, Corais inserts ; so the later editors, 

* 'AA.o'/3r)s, Tzscliucke, for 'Ao'Atjs ; so the later editors. 

* ixfv, Corais, for Se; so the later editors. 

1" 'KKa(iiivas, Tzschucke, for 'AAi^ajras; so the later editors. 
^' Tos, Jones restores, instead of roxis Q\)iv and the editors. 
^^ 'Afxa^u>vas C, 'A/ia^oVaj other MSS. 

405 



STRABO 

Tivo'i Xoyov TV)(OV icro}<i' eir] yap av Xiywv rrjv 
vTTo Twv AloXecov Kal 'Icovcov OLKLaOelaav varepov, 
TTporepov S' iiTTO ^Apa^ovcov Kal eVcoi^y/iou? 
7r6Xef9 Tiva<; elvai (fyaai, Kal yap "K(f)€(Tov Kal 
"Efivpvav Kal K.vfii]v Kal ^Ivpivav. rj 8e 'AXy/S?; 
r;, w? Tive<;, 'AXottj; rj ^AXS^t) ttw? av ev rot? 

TOTTOi? TOUTOi? € ^7]T d^€TO ; TTCO? Be TrjXodeV ; 770)9 

S' 7] Tov apyupov yevedXr] ; 

22. TavTa fiev diroXveraL rfi p,€Taypa(f)f)' 
ypd(f)€t yap ovt(i)<;' 

avrap ^ Afxa^covcov ^ 'OSto? Kal 'E7rt'o"Tpo0O9 

VPXOv,^ 
iXOovT e^ 'AXoTTTy?, 60' Afia^ojaBcov yeVo? 

ravTa S' ciTToXvadpevo^ ei? aXXo ifnreTTjwKe 
•nXdapa' ovBafiov yap ev6dBe evplaKeTai 'AXottij, 
Kal ?; fieTaypa(f)7] 8e irapd ttjv twv dvTiypdcficov 
Tcov dpxciiMV Tricmv KaivoTOfiov/ievT) ivl roaov- 
Tov (T'x^hiaap.w eocKev. 6 Be '%Ki]y^io<; ovre^ tvjv 
rovTov Bo^av eoiKev d7roB€^dpei'0<; ovre twv irepl 
rr]v YlaXXyjvrjv tou? ^ AXi^wvov^ vrroXa^ovTcov, oiv 
epvi'jaOTjfiev ev roi<i ^iaKeBovtKoi<;' ofioica Biairopel 
Kal TTW? e/c TOJj' virep tov ^opvadevrjv vofidBwv 
d4>l')(daL crvp-zxa^iav toI<; Tpcocri xi? vopicreiev 
€7ratvel Be p^dXiara rrjv 'KKaTaiov tov M^iXtjctlov 
Kal yieveKpdjov<; tov 'KXaiTov, twv E.evoKpdTov<; 
yvcoplpwv dvBp6<;, Bo^av Kal ttjv UaXaicfidTov, oiv 6 
pev ev yrj<i irepioBo) ^rjaiv " eVt S' ^AXa^ia ttoXi ^ 
7TOTap6<i 'OBpv(rarj^ ^ pecov Bid MvyBovLT]<; ^ TreBiov 

1 Dhilorw read 'Af^a^ovuy. 
^ ovTt, Corais, for ovSt ; so the later editors. 
406 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 21-22 

not be unreasonable, lor lie may mean the country 
which was later settled by the Aeolians and the 
lonians, but earlier by the Amazons. And there are 
certain cities, it is said, which got their names from 
the Amazons, I mean Ephesus, Smyrna, Cyme, and 
Myi-ina.i But how could Alybe, or, as some call it, 
*'Alope" or " Alobe," be found in this region, 
and how about '' far away,'' and how about " the 
birth-place of silver " ? 

22. These objections Ephorus solves by his change 
of the text, for he writes thus : " But the Amazons 
were led by Odius and Epistrophus, from Alope far 
away, where is the race of Amazons." But in 
solving these objections he has fallen into another 
fiction ; for Alope is nowhere to be found in this 
region ; and, further, his change of the text, with 
innovations so contrary to the evidence of the early 
manuscripts, looks like rashness. But the Scepsian 
apparently accepts neither the opinion of Ephorus 
nor of those who suppose them to be the Halizoni 
near Pallene, whom I have mentioned in my descrip- 
tion of Macedonia.^ He is also at loss to understand 
how anyone could think that an allied force came to 
help the Trojans from the nomads beyond the 
Borysthenes Kiver ; and he especially approves of 
the opinions of Hecataeus of Miletus, and of Mene- 
crates of Elaea, one of the disciples of Xenocrates, 
and also of that of Palaephatus. The first of these 
says in his Circuit of the Ea?ih : " Near the city 
.\lazia is the River Odrysses, which flows out of 

' Cf. 11. 5. 4. 2 Vol. Ill, p. 351, Frag. 21a. 

^ C reads ttoKh. 

* 'OSpuiro-Tjj, Tzschucke, for & liv/xos Dhilorw, oSpvcrios x. 
^ yivySovir^s, Corals, for MvySovos xz, MuySJrrjs other MSS. 

407 



STRABO 

C 551 uTTO hvcno<i e'/c tj}? Xifivt]^ t!j<; ^aaKvXiTiho^ i<i 
'FvvSaKov ea^dWei" eprjfiov Be elvat vvv ttjv 
^AXa^iav Xeyei, Koi^fia<i Be TroWa? tcov WXa^covcov ^ 
olxelaOai, Bi' o)v 'OBpuaarjii pel, ev Be ravTai<i tov 
^ AiroXXcdva rifMciaOai Bia(^epovT(o<i, xal fidXtcTTa 
Kara rr)v e(})opLnv rcbv }s.v^ikj]vcov. 6 Be Mei^e- 
Kpdrrj^ ev rfj ' EXkrjcntovr laKrj irepioBw inrepKela- 
Bai Xiyei twv Trepl^ ttjv }^'lvp\eiav^ tottcov 
opeivrjv (Tvve-)(ri, fjv KarwKei to tcov 'Wi^wvcdv 
edvo^' Bel Be, epical, ypdcfietv ev rot? Bvo XdjBBa, 
TOV Be 7roi't]TT]v ev tw evl ypdcjyeiv Bid to pLerpov. 
6 Be Yla\ai(f)aT6<; ^rjaiv, e^ Wpia^ovwv tmv ev TJj 
'AXoTTT] oIkovvtwv, vvv S' ev ZeXeta,^ tov ^OBlov 
Kal TOV ^}L7rlaTpo(f3ov aTpaTCvaac. tL ovv d^iov 
iiraivelv tu^ tovtoov B6^a<i ; p^eopt? yap tov ttjv 
dp-x^alav ypa(f>7]v Kal tovtov<; Ktvelv ovTe rd 
dpyvpela BeiKVvovaiv, ovTe ttov ^ tt}? Mf/jXearf So? 
WXoTrr] ecTTLV, ovTe ttw? oi evdevBe d(f)iy/j,evoi eh 
'\Xiov TrjXoOev rjcrav, el Kal Bodeirj 'AXoTnjv^ Tivd 
yeyovevai ij ^ AXa^iav ttoXv yap Brj TavTa iyyv- 
repco eVrt rfj TpwdBc y ra TrepL "Ej(f)ecrov. dXX' 
o/i&)9 Tou? Trepl IlvyeXa XeyovTa<i roix; Afia^cova^ ' 
p.eTa^v K<peaov Kal yiayvrjaLa'i Kal Tlpijjvr)^ 
(pXvapelv (j)7]alv 6 Ayjp,i']Tpio<i' to yap TTJXodev ovk 
ecjiap/jLOTTeiv tw tottco. oTTOdip ovv pidXXov ovk 
ecpapp-OTTei tw irepl ^Ivcriav Kal TevOpavlav ; 

23. Nt) Aia, dXXd <f)rjai Belv evia Kal uKvpcitq 
Trpoa-Tidepeva Be)(^eadai, &)? «ar 

^ X reads 'A\aC6va>v, other MSS. 'A^la(ovwv. 

* irtpl, Corais (from Kustathius), for uxeV ; so the later editors. 
^ MvpKfiav, Xvlander (from Eustathius), for MupKiav. 

* Meineke emends 5' iv ZeKtia to 5s ZijAei^ (cp. ZiKaav § 23). 

* ovre vov, Kramer, for 'iirov ; so the later editors. 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 22-23 

Lake Dascylitis from the west tliruugh the plain of 
Mvgdonia and empties into the Uhyndacus." But 
he goes on to say that Alazia is now deserted, and 
that many villages of the Alazones, through whose 
country the Odrysses flows, are inhabited, and that in 
these villages Apollo is accorded exceptional honour, 
and particularly on the confines of the Cyziceni. 
Menecrates in his work entitled The Circuit of the. 
Hellespont says that above the region of Myrleia 
there is an adjacent mountainous tract which is 
occu])ied by the tribe of the Halizones. One should 
spell the name with, two /'s, he says, but on account 
of the metre the poet spells it with only one. But 
Palaephatus says that it was from the Amazons who 
then lived in Alope, but now in Zeleia, that Odius 
and Epistrophusmade their expedition. How, then, 
can the opinions of these men deserve approval ? 
For, apart from the fact that these men also disturb 
the early text, they neither show us the silver-mines, 
nor where in the territory of Myrleia Alope is, nor 
how those who went from there to Ilium were '• from 
far away," even if one should grant that there 
actually was an Alope or Alazia ; for these, of course, 
are much nearer the Troad than the places round 
Ephesus. But still those who speak of the Amazons 
as living in the neighbourhood of Pygela between 
Ephesus and Magnesia and Priene talk nonsense, 
Demetrius says, for, he adds, " far away " cannot 
apply to that region. How much more inapplicable, 
then, is it to the region of M^sia and Teuthrania } 

23. Yes, by Zeus, but he goes on to say that some 
things are arbitrarily inserted in the text, for 

* 'AXoTrrjc, Groskurd, for xlfxvn ; so later editors. 
' 'A,ua^(icas, Kramer, for 'A^aCc^cas ; so later editors. 

409 



STRABO 

Kat 

'Api/ato? S' 6vo[x ecTKe, to 7ap Oero irorvia 

UrjveXoTrr]. 

SeSoaOco Bt] kul tovto' dX)C e/ceiva ov horea, oh 
irpoaey^wv o I^TjfiijTpto^; ovSe rot<i viroXa^ovcn heii> 
uKoveiv Tr]\66ev €k XaXu/S??? TTiOavco^ avTeipi'jKe. 
avyxo)p>]cra<; 'yap, oti, el kol fir) eart vvv iv rol^ 
}id\vyp-i TO, dpyvpela, vTrdp^ai ye evehe)(^ero, eKelvo 
ye ov auyxf^pc^, on xal evBo^a rjv koI d^ta 
p,vi']prj^, KaOdirep rd (riBrjpela. Tt Be KcoXvei, 
(paiT] Ti? dv, Kol evBo^a elvai, Kaddirep kcil rd 
aiBrjpeta ; rj cnBy]pov pev eviropia tottov e-m^av^ 
Bvvarat iroielv, dpyvpov B' ov ; ti 8' el p,rj ^ Kara 
TOj)? ijpcoa^, dXXd Ka9' 'Op-ripov el<i Bo^av dcpiKTo 
ra dpyvpela, dpa pip^yfratTO t<? d.v rrjv d7r6(f)a(Tiu 
Tov TTotijrov ; ttw? ovv ct? tov TToiy]Tr)v t) Bo^a 
ddnKero ; ttw? S' tj tov iv tt} Tepecrrj ')(aXKOv rfj 
ItuXicotiBl ; 7rco<i 8' 17 tov ©r//3ai/coz) ttXovtov tov 
KUT^ AlyvTrrov ; Kairoi BnrXdcnov cr^eSoi^ ti 
Bie^ovTa Tb)V AlyvTTTLCov Si]^d)v rj twv ^aXBatcov. 
C 552 aXV ovB' ^ ol<; avvi^yopel, tovtoi<; 6p.oXoyer tu 
yap irepl ttjv '^Krj-y^iv roTrodeTcov,^ tj]v eavrov 
iraTpiBa, irXi-jaiov r;'}? '^K/jyjreo)'; Kal tov AIctt^ttov 
Neav * Kuiprjv koi Wpyvpiav Xeyei kul ^AXa^ovlap. 

* Ti 5' €1 1U.T1, Corais, for ovn fl /j-ii; so tlie later editors. 
- uvS\ Corais, for out' ; so Meineke. 
410 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 23 

example, " from Ascania far away," ^ and " Arnaeus 
was his name, for his revered mother had given him 
this name at his birth/' 2 and " Penelope took the 
bent key in her strong hand." ' Now let this be 
granted, but those other things are not to be granted 
to which Demetrius assents without even making a 
plausible reply to those who have assumed that we 
ought to read " from Chalybe far away '' ; for although 
he concedes that, even if the silver-mines are not 
now in the country of the Chalybians, they could 
have been there in earlier times, he does not concede 
that other point, that they were both famous and 
worthy of note, like the iron-mines. But, one might 
^sk, what is there to prevent them from being 
famous like the iron-mines? Or can an abundance 
of iron make a place famous but an abundance of 
silver not do so ? And if the silver-mines had reached 
fame, not in the time of the heroes, but in the time 
of Homer, could any person find fault with the 
assertion of the poet ? How, pray, could their 
fame have reached the poet? How, pray, could the 
fame of the copper-mine at Temesa in Italy have 
reached him ? How the fame of the wealth of 
Thebes in Egypt,* although he was about twice as 
far from Thebes as from the Chaldaeans ? But 
Demetrius is not even in agreement with those for 
whose opinions he pleads ; for in fixing the sites 
round Scepsis, his l)irth-place, he speaks of Nea, a 
village, and of Argyria and Alazonia as near Scepsis 

' Iliad 2. 863. = Odyssey 18. 5. 

» Odyssey 21. 6. * Iliad 9. 381. 

* ToiroOfTuv, C.asaiibon, for vo/xodtTuv ; so the later editors. 

* Stav, Meineke, for 'E^eai'. 

411 

VOL. v. O 



STRABO 

ravTa fiev otv el koI e<Tri, Trp6<; Tai<; 7rtjyai<} av 
el'r) Tov S.la-rjTTOv. 6 8e 'E/tarato? \eyet iireKeiva 
rwv eK/3oXwv avrov, 6 re YlaXaLcparo^; irpoTepov 
fxev '.WoTrrjy oIkcIv ^i]aa<i, vvv he ZeXeiav, ovSev 
ofMoioi' \eyei tovtoi<;. el S' apa 6 Meye/cpar?;?, kuI 
ays' 0UT09 Trjv ^AXotttjv tj Wx6^t]v t} otto)? 7roT€ 
/SovXovrai ypdipetv (ppd^ei, ^rt? ecrriv, oi'B' ^ auTo<> 
Ar)/jL}]TptO'i. 

24. TIpo<i ' AttoXXoBci) pov he irepl rayv avroiv ev 
Tw YpwiKW 6iaKoafjL(p hiaXeyofxevov ttoXXcl jxev 
el'py^Tai irpoTepov, Kal vvv he XeKreov. ov yap 
ol'erai helv hex^crdaL tou? AXi^covof? e'/cTo? rov 
' AXvu<;' p/qhefxiav yap cr v fx/xa-)(^Lav d(f)'i)(^dat, rot? 
TpriXTlv e'/c T^? 7repaLa<i tov "AXfo?. Trpoyrov 
Toivvv dTraiTijaofiev avrov, riVe? elcrlv ol^ evro<; 
TOV "AXuo? ' AXL^O)voi, 01 Kal 

TijXodev e^ 'AXu/St;?, oBev dpyvpov ecTTt, yevedXiy 

ov yap e^ei Xiyeiv eireuTa ttjv alriav, hi tjv ov 
(Tvy)(^C})peZ KOL CK T% TTepaia^ d^l-^6ai Tiva (tv/jl- 
ixa-)(^iav Kal yap el ra? dXXa<; eVT09 elvac tov 
TTOTa/xov TTacra? avfj,^aivet ttXtjv tmv %naKb)v, 
fiiav ye ravrrjv oi/hev eKcaXve irepaOev d(fit)(dai e/c 
T?)? eireKewa tmv AevKoavpcov. rj 7roXejj,)]cravTa<; ^ 
p.ev 7]v hvvaTov hia^aiveiv eK roiv tottcov touzmv 
Kal TOW eireKeiva, KaOdirep ra? \\/jba^6va<; Kal 
TpT]pa<; Kal Ki/xp,eptov^ (f)acrl, avp-fiax^aavra^; ^ 

■■ oi>5', Jones, for out'. 

* oi, Corais inserts ; so the later editors. 

' Tro\(fj.7iaavTas, Corais and Meineke, following 2, emend to 
Tro\iiJ.ricrovTas ; " idque sane arridet," says Kramer. 

♦ av/jLuaxrcavTas, Corais and Meineke, following z, emend 
to (Tvf.ifxax' (Tovras . 

412 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 23-24 

and the Aesepus River. These places, then, if they 
really exist, would be near the sources of the 
Aesepus ; but Hecataeus speaks of them as beyond 
the outlets of it; and Palaephatus, although 
he says that they ^ formerly lived in Alope, but now 
in Zeleia, says nothing like what these men say. 
liut if Menecrates does so, not even he tells us 
what kind of a place *' Alope" is or " Alobe," or 
however they wish to write the name, and neither 
does Demetrius himself. 

24. As regards Apollodorus, who discusses the 
same subject in his Marx/ia/litig of the Trojan Forces, 
I have already said much in answer to him,^ but I 
must now speak again ; for he does not think that 
we should take the Halizoni as living outside the 
Halys River ; for, he says, no allied force came to the 
Trojans from beyond the Halys. First, therefore, we 
shall ask of him who are the Halizoni this side the 
Halys and " from Alybe far away, where is the birth- 
place of silver." For he will be unable to tell us. 
And we shall next ask him the reason why he does 
not concede that an allied force came also from the 
country on the far side of the river ; for, if it is the 
case that all the rest of the allied forces except the 
Thracians lived this side the river, there was nothing 
to prevent this one allied force from coming from the 
far side of the Hal^s, from the country beyond the 
White Syrians.^ Or was it possible for peoples who 
fought the Trojans to cross over from these regions 
and from the regions beyond, as they say the 
Amazons and Treres and Cimmerians did, and yet 
impossible for people who fought as allies with them 

1 The Amazons (12. 3. 22). 

* e.g. 7. 3. 6. ^ i.e. Cappadocians. 

413 



STRABO 

5' aSvvaTOv ; at fiev ovv ' Afia^6v€<; ov (TVve/j.d')(^ovv, 
Bia TO Tov WpiafMOV voXefMrjaai Trpo? avra^ avfi- 
fiaxovvra tol^; Q>pv^Lv,^ 

oC pa tot' r]\dov W/xa^ove^ dvTidveipai 

((f>r)aiv 6 Hpia/Jio^), 

Kal yap iycov eiTLKovpn^ i(ov fiera rolaiv iXeyfxifv. 

01 5' opopovvre^ axjral<s, ov8' ovtco<; ciTrcoOev 6vt€<;, 
ware ')^aXe7rr]v elvai rrjv eKeldev p.erdirep.-^Lv, ou8' 
ej^Opa'i v7roKeipevT]<;, ouBev CKtoXvovro, olp.ai, crvfi- 

25. 'AW' ovhk So^av e^ei roiavT>]v rcov iraXaLwv 
elirelv, &)? crv/j.(f>(ovouvTcov dirdvjwv, p,r)heva<i eK 
T^9 Trepaia^ tov 'AXyo? Kotixovfjcrai tov TpcoiKov 
TToXefiou, rrpo<i Tovvavriov he p.dWoi' evpoi tis 
dv p.apTvpia<i' ^laidvSpwi yovv ex TOiv AevKO- 
(Tvpcou (f^rjcrl tov<; 'Ei'eTou? 6pp.r]6evTa<; crvp,p.ax- 
rjaai Tolq Tpaycriv, eKeWev he p,€Td twv SpaKcov 
dirdpai Kal oiKrjaai irepl tov tov 'ASptou p-v^ov, 
Toix; he p.i] p.6Ta(Tx6vTa^ t?}? aTpaTeia^ KveTovt 
C 553 KaTTTTaSo/ca? yeveaOai. avvrjyopelv S' dv ho^eie 
Tftj Xoycp T0VT(p, hiOTL TTucra t) TrXyjalov tov ' hXvo^ 
KaTTirahoKia, oat] irapaTeivei ttj V\a(f)Xayovi,a, 
Tat? hvcrl XP^l''^'- hiaXeKT0L<; Kal Tot? ovoyiacn 
TrXeovd^ei toI? UacfyXayoutKol'^, Baya? Kal Yjidawi 
Kal ALvtdTr]<; Kal PaTCOTr)<i Kal ZapO(t}KT)<; Kal 
Ti^LO^ Kal Vdav^ Kal ^OXiyaav; Kal Mai^/j?' 
ravTa yap ev ts ttj Bap-covcTihi ^ Kal ttj Ui- 

^ ^pv^iv, Kramer (see Iliad 3. 184), for "lucrtv oz, Tpwalv 
other MSS. ; so the later editors. 

^ BouafiTiSi MSS. ; ^a^-nuL-ii'iTiZi Meineke. 

414 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 24-25 

to do so ? Now the Amazons would not fight on 
Priam's side because of the fact that he had fought 
against them as an ally of the Phrygians, against the 
" Amazons, peers of men, who came at that time,"^ 
as Priam says, "for I too, being their ally, was 
numbered among them " ; but since the peoples 
whose countries bordered on that of the Amazons 
were not even far enough away to make difficult the 
Trojan summons for help from their countries, and 
since, too, there was no underlying cause for hatred, 
there was nothing to prevent them, I think, from 
being allies of the Trojans. 

25. Neither can Apollodorus impute such an 
opinion to the early writers, as though they, one and 
all, voiced the opinion that no peoples from the far 
side of the Halys River took part in the Trojan war. 
One might rather find evidence to the contrary ; at 
any rate, Maeandrius says that the Eneti first set 
forth from the country of the White SjTians and 
allied themselves with the Trojans, and that they 
sailed away from Troy with the Thracians and took 
up their abode round the recess of the Adrias,^ but 
that the Eneti who did not have a part in the 
expedition had become Cappadocinns. The following- 
might seem to agree with this account, I mean the 
fact that the whole of that part of Cappadocia near 
the Halys River which extends along Paphlagonia 
uses two languages which abound in Paphlagonian 
names, as " Bagas," " Biasas," " Aeniates," " Rha- 
lotes," " Zardoces," "Tibius," '' Gasys," " Oligasys," 
and " Manes," for these names are prevalent in 

' Jliad 3. 189 ; but the text of Ilonier reads " on that day 
when the Amazons came, the peers of men." 
* i.e. the Adriatic Gulf, 



STRABO 

uoXltlBl ^ Kal rfi Tai^riXfovirihi ^ kul la^aKrjvp 
Kat aWai^ TrXeicrTat? ')^(t}pai<; iirnroXd^ei ra 
ovo/xara. auTo<; Be o A7roW68o)po^ TraparLdrjcn 
TO Tov ZijvoSoTOV, OTC ypd(f)€r 

i^ 'Ei^er/}?, oOev rjfMiovcoi' yeVo? ayporepdcov. 

ravTTjv 8e (f>r)<Tiv 'EjKaraiov tov ^liXrjaiov Se- 
y_e(Tdai ttjv W/iiaop' 77 6' 'A/iicro? etprjTai, hioTi 
TOiV AevKoavpcov e'crrl Kal €KTb<; tov " Wvo<i. 

26. Kipi^Tai S' avTU) ttov, Kal Sioti 6 7roii}TT)<i 
laTopiav elxe tcov llatpXayovcov tcov ev ttj /xeao- 
yata Trapd tojv ire^fi hieXOovTwv Trjv ^copav, Tt-jv 
TTapaXiav 8 rjyvoei, Kaddrrep^ Kal Ttjv dWrjv Trjv 
Y{ovTiKi]v oivo/xa^e yap civ^ auT)ji>. TOuvavTiov 
d" eaTiv cwaarpiyp-avTa elirelv, €k Tt]^ TrepioSeiav 
op/u.j]OevTa T/}? diTohoOeiariq vvvl, d)<i Ti]V fxfv 
irapaXiav irdaav iireXyXvOe Kal ovBev Ttiiv ovTUiv 
Tore d^iwv ^ fivTJ/x7]<; irapaXeXofTrev, el S" 'Hpd- 
KXeiav Kal " Ap-aaTpiv Kal 'S.ivmtttjv ov Xiyei, tu^ 
fM)j7T(o aup(pKiafu^i'a<i, ovSev dav/xa(TTov, t7'}9 Be 
fiecToyaia^^ ovhev aTOTrov el /jLtj elpyjKC. Kal to 
fii] ovopd^eiv he ttoXXo. tcov yvcoptpLcov ovk dyvoia<; 
€(ttI o-T]/j,€iov, oirep Kal ev toI^ eixTrpoadev eVeo"*/- 
fiip'ttfieda' dyvoelv yap avTov TroXXa twv ev86^(ov 

^ n»MoAiT(5( MSS., except iiCorxy, which read JlrjuoXiriSt, 
the 1 being changed to tj in D ; ^leineke emends to ITtj/xoAi- 
oItiSl (see C. MuUor, I.e. p. 10-21). 

^ ra(ri\wi'lTt5i, Meineke, following conj. of Groskurd, for 
ZayXoud'tTiSt oz, Va^aKovlTtSi w, ra(a\ovlTiSi other MS.S. 

•* KaBdirep, Xylander, for Kalirep ; so the later editors, 
except Kramer, wlio strangely proposes Hffinp. 

* &v, the editors insert. 

^ a^iwv h, S|tot' other MSS. 

* TTJs Se fiecroyaias, Jones restores, for ttjv Se fi«r6yaiay 
(Kramer and later editors). 

416 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 25-26 

Bamonitis/ Piinolitis,^ Gazelonitis, Gazaceue and 
most of the other districts. Apollodorus himself 
quotes the Homeric verse as written by Zenodotus, 
stating that he writes it as follows : '■ from Enete,^ 
whence the breed of the wild mules " ; * and he says 
that Hecataeus of Miletus takes Enete to be Aniisus. 
But, as I have already stated,^ Amisus belongs to 
the White Syrians and is outside the Halys River. 

26. Apollodorus somewhere states, also, that the 
poet got an account of those Paphlagonians who 
lived in the interior from men who had passed 
through the country on foot, but that he was ignorant 
of the Paphlagoniau coast, just as he was ignorant of 
the rest of the Pontic coast ; for otherwise he would 
have named them. On the contrary, one can retort 
and say, on the basis of the description which I have 
now given, that Homer traverses the whole of the 
coast and omits nothing of the things that were 
then worth recording, and that it is not at all remark- 
able if he does not mention Heracleia and Amastris 
and Sinope, cities which had not yet been founded, 
and that it is not at all strange if he has mentioned no 
part of the interior. And further, the fact that Homer 
does not name many of the known places is no sign 
of ignorance, as 1 have already demonstrated in the 
foregoing part of my work ; ^ for he says that Homer 

1 " ]>ainonitis" is doubtful ; Meiueke emends to "Phaze- 
luonititi.'' 

- " Pirnolitis " is doubtful; Meineke emends to " Pimo- 
lisitis." 

* /.('. "Enete" instead of "Heneti," or " Eneti " (the 
reading accepted by Strabo and modern scholars). See Vol. 
II, p. 298, foot-note 4, and also pp. 308 and 300. 

* Iliad 2. 852. " 12. 3. 9. 
« 1. 2. 14, 19 ; 7. 3. 6-7 ; and 8. 3. 8. 

417 



STRABO 

€<f)i] Trepl rov Wovtov, olov noTafiov^ Koi edviy 
ovofi-daai yap av. rovro 8' eVi fiev tivmv a^ohpa 
cn]p,€La)Bcov Boii) ti<; av, olov ^Kv6a<; kuI yiaiMTiv 
Kal "\<npov. ov yap av ^ Bid crrjfieicov p.ev tov^ 
vofidha<; CLpijKe Va\aKTO(f)dyov<i 'AyStou? re Bikuio- 
Tarof? t' dvOpoiiTOv^, Kal en dyavov<i l7nTr}p,oX- 
70U?, ^Kv6a^ Be ovK av elirev r) Xavpopdra<i rj 
Xapfj,dTa<i, el Bi] oi/t&j? covopd^ovTO vtto tcov 
'FiW7]VQ}v, ovB' dv &paKcov re Kal ^Ivacov /j-vrja- 
^€19 rcjv rrpb^ tu> "larpo) avrov nrapecrlyTjcre, 
jjieyiarov t(ov irorapcov ovra, Kal dWci}<; e7n(f)opo)<i 
e^wv Trpo? TO rol'i irorap-ol^ d(f)opL^eaOai rovi 
TOTToi/?, ovS" dv K.ifi/x€plov^ Xeycov TraprjKe rbv 

BoCTTTOpOI^ rj TTjV M.ai(t)TlV. 

27. 'Etti Be Tcbv fir) ovrco crriixeioiBSiv t) /xr; Tore 
*} fjLrj 77/309 ri'jV viTodeatv, ri dv rt? ixep<^oi,ro ; olov 
rov Tdva'iv, Bl* ovBev dWo yvcapi^oixevov rj Biori 
C 554 T/}9 'A<n'a9 koI T779 Kvp(OTn]<i opiov ecrriv aW' 
ovre rrjv ^ Aaiav cure rr)v Fjvpcomjv wvo/xa^ov ttco 
01 rore, ovBe Birjpi^ro ovr(t)<i et9 rpetf; yjrreLpovi >/ 
oiKov/xevrj' wvop-acre yap dv rrov Bia to Xiav 
a7]pei6!)B€'i, 0)9 Kal rtjv Ai^vrjv Kal rov Ai/3a rov 
uTTo rSiv eaTTepiwv ri]<i Ai^vt]<; rrveovra' rS)v S' 
i)iTeip(jov /j,i]Tr(i) Bicopicrp^eveov, ovBe rov TavdiBo^ 
eBei Kal t/}9 fiVJ]p.Tf]<; avrov. rroWd Be Kal a^io- 
ixvr^jxovevra pev, ou^ vrreBpape Be' ttoXv yap Bij 

* &v, before Sio, Groskurd inserts ; so Kramer and Miiller- 
Diibner. 



1 See 7. 3. 6-7. 
418 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 26-27 

was ignorant of many of the famous things round the 
Pontus, for example, rivers and tribes, for otherwise, 
he says, Homer would have named them. This one 
might grant in the case of certain very significant 
things, for example, the Scythians and Lake Maeotis 
and the Ister River, for otherwise Homer would not 
have described the nomads by significant character- 
istics as " Galactophagi " and " Abii " and as "men 
most just," and also as "proud Hippemolgi," ^ and 
vet fail to call the Scythians either Sauromatae or 
Sarmatae, if indeed they were so named by the 
Greeks, nor yet, when he mentions the Thracians 
and Mysiaiis near the Ister, pass by the Ister in 
silence, greatest of the rivers, and especially when 
he is inclined to mark the boundaries of places by 
rivers, nor yet, when he mentions the Cimmerians, 
omit any mention of the Bosporus or Lake Maeotis. 
27. But in the case of things not so significant, 
either not at that time or for the purposes of his 
work, how could anyone find fault with Homer for 
omitting them ? P'or example, for omitting the 
Tanais River, which is well known for no other 
reason than that it is the boundary between Asia and 
Europe. But the people of that time were not yet 
using either the name "Asia" or "Europe," nor yet 
had the inhabited world been divided into three con- 
tinents as now, for otherwise he would have named 
them somewhere because of their very great signi- 
ficance, just as he mentions Libya and also the Lips, 
the wind that blows from the western parts of Libya. 
But since the continents had not yet been distin- 
guished, there was no need of mentioning the Tanais 
either. Many things were indeed worthy of mention, 
but they did not occur to him ; for of course 

419 



STRABO 

Kal TO €7re\ev<TTiKov elSo^ ev re rot? \070f? koI 
iv rat? irpd^eoLV iariv. e'/c iravToiv Se ^ t&jv 
Toiovrwv SrjXov icTTiv, ort /j,o)(^Or]pa) arjfjieiw ^(^prjTat 
ira^i 6 e'/c rov fj,r} \iyea0ai ri vtto tov ttoitjtov to 
dyvoeladai eKctvo vtt avrov T€Kfj,aip6fievo<;. koI 
Bel Bid irXeiovcov TrapaBeiyfiuTcov i^e\ey)(eLv avTO 
jxo'xdripov 6v, TToWo) yap aura) Ke)(pi]VTai ttoWoC. 
dvaKpovariov ovv avrov^ Trpo(pepovra^ rd roiavra, 
el Kal TavToXoyi]ao/j.ev rov Xoyov'^ olov irrl TOiv 
ttotu/jlcov eo ri^ Xeyoi, rCo 1x1) oDVOfidaOat dyvoela- 
6ai, evr)6rj (^i]aop.ev rov Xoyov' ottov ye ovBe 
IsleXtjTa TOV irapd ti)v Xp^vpvav peovra wvo/naKe 
TTOTafiov, TT)P VTTO Twv TTXetcTTOiv Xejo/xevijv aVTOV 
irarpiBa, Kpfiov iroTafiov Kal TXXov ovo/xd^wv, 
ovBe TlaKTcoXov top el<i ravTO tovtoi^ peWpov 
epL^dXXovra, tvjv B up^rjv dtro tov TticoXov 
€\ovTa, ov ^ /xefivqTat' ouB avTrjV ^/xvpvav Xeyei, 
ovBe Tfl? aXXa-i tmv ^Icovoyv 7r6\ei? kuI tcop 
AloXecov Ta<? TrXetcrTa?, MIXtjtov Xeywv Kal 
^djxov ^ Kal Aea^ov Kal TeveBov, ovBe Ar)0acov 
TOV Trapd Mayvrjaiav peovTa, ovBe By yiapcrvav, 
Tou? €t9 TOV ^laiavBpov iKBiB6vTa<;, eKeivov 
ovofxa^cov Kal irpo^ TOVTOi<i 

Prjcrov 6' EiTTTaTTopov Te K.dpr)aov Te 'PoBlov 
re, 

Kol T0v<i dXXov^, b)v 01 TrXctou? 6\eT0}v ouk elac 
^el^ovi. 7roXXd<; Te ')(^ci)pa<i ovo/j,d^(ov Kal ttoXci^ 

1 Before rwv tomvtoiv ^leineke inserts tovtwv Kai ! 

* rhv xAyov seems to be an interpolation ; Meineke ejects. 

* OX), the erlitors, for ov. 

* Koi 'S.aixov, ejected by Corais and later editors on the 

420 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 27 

adventitiousness is much in evidence both in one's 
discourse and in one's actions. From all these facts 
it is clear that every man who judges from the poet's 
failure to mention anything that lie is ignorant of 
that thing uses faulty evidence. And it is necessary 
to set forth several examples to jirove that it is 
faulty, for many use such evidence to a great extent. 
We must therefore rebuke them when they bring- 
forward such evidences, even though in so doing I 
shall be repciiting previous argument.^ For example, 
in the case of rivers, if anyone should say that the 
poet is ignorant of some river because he does not 
name it, I shall say that his argument is silly, be- 
cause the poet does not even name the Meles River, 
which Hows past Smyrna, the city wliieh by most 
writers is called his birth-place, although he names 
the Hermus and Hyllus Rivers ; neither does lie 
name the Pactolus River, which Hows into the same 
channel as these two rivers and rises in Tmolus, a 
mountain which he mentions ; - neither does he 
mention Smj'rna itself, nor the rest of the Ionian 
cities ; nor the most of the Aeolian cities, though he 
mentions Miletus and Samos and Lesbos and Tenedos ; 
nor yet the Lethaeus River, which flows past Mag- 
nesia, nor the Marsyas River, which rivers empty 
into the Maeander, which last he mentions by name, 
as also " the Rhesus and Heptaporus and Caresus and 
Rhodius,"^ and the rest, most of which are no more 
than small streams. And when he names both many 

1 12. 3. 20. * Iliad 2. 866 and 21. 835. 

s Iliad 12. 20 

ground that the Ionian Samos is nowliere specifically 
mentioned by Homer (see 10. 2. 17). 

42 I 



STRABO 

TOTe fiev Kal tou? TroTafiov^; kuI opt] avyKara- 
Xeyet, rore 8' ov' toi)? yovv Kara Ti]V AlrcoXLav 
Kol TrjV ^Attiktjv ov \iyei, ovS" dX\.ov<; TrX-etOff 
eri 1 Kal TW)v TToppo) pepvr)/jLevo^ twv iyyv'i 
(T(f)68pa ov pefiVTjrat, ov Brjirov ayvooiv avrov;, 
yv(i)pipov<i Toi'i aXXoi<; 6vTa<;' ovBe Brj T0v<i iyyv<i 
eVto"???, a>v rou<i p.ev ovofid^ei, rov<i Be ov, olov 
AvkIov^ fxev Kal ^oXv/jLov<i, MtXua? B ov, ovBe 
Ilap,(f)vXov<i ovBe rito-tSa?* kuI Tla(f>Xay6va^ /jl€i> 
Kal ^pvya<i Kal Mucroy?, ^lapiavBvvov<i B' ov, 
ovBe Svvov'i ovBe BiOvvov'i ovBe Bi/SpvKWi' 
' Apa^ovwv re p.epvi^raL, AevKoavpcov B' ov, ovBe 
'S.vpcov ovBe KaTTiraSoKcov oiiBe AvKaovwv, Oot- 
C 555 viKa<; Kal AlyvTrriovi Kal Aldiorra'i dpvKoiv Kal 
' AXrjiov fxev TTtBiov Xeyei Kal 'A/jtyuou?, to Be 
edvo<i, iv M ravra, aiya. o p,ev Brj toiovto^ 
eXeyxo'i yjr€vBi]<i eariv, 6 B' aXrjOi]^, orav BeiKwrai 
yfrevBo<^ Xeyo/mevov ti. uXX' ovB' ev tS> toiovtw 
Karopdoyv eBei)(6rj, ore^ ye eddpprjae irXdapara 
Xeyeiv toi)? dyavou<i 'IvnnjpoKyov^ Kal^ Pa- 
XaKTO<f)uyov<;. roaavra Kal irpo<; ' ATToXXoBcopov 
eirdvei/xi Be eVi rrjv e^r)^ nrepn^yrjcnv. 

28. 'Tirep /xev Br] tmv rrepl ^apvaKiav Kal 
Tpaire^ovvTa TOTroiv ol TiJ3apt]vol Kal ^aXBalot, 
f^e^^pi T^9 piKpa<i Appevia<i elaiv. auTrj B' ecrrlv 
evhaip,wv iKavo)^ j^^oopa' BwdcTai B' avrrjv Ka- 
relxov det, KaOdirep rrjv %co(f)rjV7]v, rore fxev ^iXoi 

^ in, the later editors, for i-irei MSS., except Im, which 
omit the word. 

* ore, Grosliurd, for oUre ; so the later editors. 

* Kai, added by i ; so the editors. 

1 Iliad 2. 783. 
422 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 27-28 

countries and cities, he sometimes names with them 
the rivers and mountains, but sometimes he does 
not. At any rate, he does not mention the rivers in 
AetoHa or Attica, nor in several other countries. 
Besides, if he mentions rivers far away and yet does 
not mention those that are very near, it is surely not 
because he was ignorant of them, since they were 
known to all others. Nor yet, surely, was he 
ignorant of peoples that were equally near, some of 
which he names and some not; for example he 
names the Lycians and the Solymi, but not the 
Milyae ; nor yet the Pamphylians or Pisidians ; and 
though he names the Paphlagonians, Phrygians, and 
Mysians, he does not name Mariandynians or Thy- 
nians or Bithynians or Bebryces ; and he mentions 
the Amazons, but not the White Syrians or Syrians, 
or Cappadocians, or Lycaonians, though he repeatedly 
mentions the Phoenicians and the Egyptians and the 
Ethiopians. And although he mentions the Aleian 
plain and the Arimi,^ he is silent as to the tribe to 
which both belong. Such a test of the poet, there- 
fore, is false ; but the test is true only when it is 
shown that some false statement is made by him. 
But Apollodorus has not been proved correct in this 
case either, I mean when he was bold enough to say 
that the "proud Hijipemolgi" and " Galactophagi " 
were fabrications of the poet. So much for Apollo- 
dorus. I now return to the part of my description 
that comes next in order. 

28. Above the region of Pharnacia and Trapezus 
are the Tibareni and the Chaldaei, whose country 
extends to Lesser Armenia. This country is fairly 
fertile. Lesser Armenia, like Sophene, was alwa3's 
in the possession of potentates, who at times were 

423 



STRABO 

Tot<; ciWoi^ ' Ap/j.ei'loi^ ovr€<i, rore Se ISioirpa- 
yovvre^' vttijkoov^ B' elx^v Kai tou? XaXBaiov? 
Kal Ti^apy]vov<;, ware fJi.^XP'' TpaTre^oOt'TO? Koi 
^apvaKia<i SiareU'eiv ti-jv dp)(^r)v avrwv. av^rideU 
Se MiOpi8dTy]<; 6 ^vTrdrcop Kal tj}? KoX;:^t'So? 
KaTeaTT] Kvpio^; Kal rovrwv dTravroiv, ' Avtitto.- 
rpov Tov %icnBo<; Trapa'X^copuo'ai'TO'i avrw. irre- 
peXydrj Be ovTco twv tottoov tovtcov, ware Trevre 
Kal €^8ofX7]KovTa (ppovpca ev avTOi<; KaTecrKevd- 
craTO, olairep rrjv irXeiaTijv yd^au eve^elpicre. 
TOVTwv S' rjv d^ioXoycjoTara ravra' ' Thapa Kal 
BaayoiSdpi^a Kal ^ivopia, e'TrtTre^f/co? toI^ opioid 
T)]<; peydXt]^ 'Ap/j.ei La<; ')(^u)piov, hioirep ^€0(f)dvi]'i 
"^vvopiav 7rap(i)v6/jLa(T€V. ■>) yap tov TlapvdSpov 
irdcra opeivrj Toiavra^ imTr]hei6ri^ra<i e%ef 7roXX«<r, 
evvhp6<; re ovoa Kal vXwhrj^ Kal aTroTOyuot? (f)d- 
pay^i Kal Kprjpvol<; Bi€iX7]pp,evr] iroXXaxoOev 
irereixK^'TO yovv ivTavda rd irXeiaTa tmv ya- 
^o(f)vXaKlo)i', Kal 8r] Kal to reXevralov eh Tavra^ 
KaT€(f)vy€ Td<; eV^arfa? t?'}? IlorTf/c?}? ^aatXela<; 
6 ^ItBpiSdrrj^, €7r i6vro<i I]op,7r')]iov, Kal Trj<; 'Aki- 
Xiarivr}<i ^ Kara Adareipa euvSpov opos KaraXa- 
/36/jLevo^ (irXyjaLOv S' r^v Kal o Y^tix^pdrrj^ o BiopL^wr 
TTjp ' AKtXia7]v7]v diTo Tj)? ptKpd<; WppevLa^) 
hieTpiy\re^ t€&)?, ew? 7roXiopKOvp,evo<i rjva'/Kdtjdii 
(fyvyetv 8ia tmv opoov eh KoX^tSa, KUKeWev eh 

HocTTTOpOV. Oo/XTrZ/tO? Sc TTepl TOV TOTTOV TOVTOV 

TToXiv cKTicrev ev ttj p,iKpd ' Appevia NikottoXiv, 
7j ^ Kal vvv avfxfievei Kal oiKelTai /caXw?. 

* 'AffiA.j(TT)i'^F .Ti', 'AyyoXiffTivrjs other MSS. 

* Te, hefore Tttcs, omitted ))y x; so Corais and Meineke. 

424 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 28 

friendly to the other Armenians and at times minded 
their own affairs. They held as subjects the Chaldaei 
and the Tibareni, and therefore their empire ex- 
tended to Trapezus and Pharnacia. But when 
Mithridates Eupator had increased in power, he 
established himself as master, not only of Colchis, 
but also of all these places, these having been ceded 
to him by Antipater, the son of Sisis. And he cared 
so much for these places that he built seventy-five 
strongholds in them and therein deposited most of 
his treasures. The most notable of these strongholds 
were these : Hydara and Basgoedariza and Sinoria ; 
Sinoria was close to the borders of Greater Armenia, 
and this is why Theophanes changed its spelling to 
Synoria.^ For as a whole the mountainous range of 
the Paryadres has numerous suitable places for such 
strongholds, since it is well-watered and woody, and 
is in many places marked by sheer ravines and cliffs ; 
at any rate, it was here that most of his fortified 
treasuries were built ; and at last, in fact, Mithridates 
fled for refuge into these farthermost parts of the 
kingdom of Pontus, when Pompey invaded the 
country, and having seized a well-watered mountain 
near Dasteira in Acilisene (near by, also, was the 
Euphrates, which separates Acilisene from Lesser 
Armenia), he stayed there until he was besieged and 
forced to flee across the mountains into Colchis and 
from there to the Bosporus. Near this place, in 
Lesser Armenia, Pompey built a city, Nicopolis,^ 
which endures even to this day and is well peopled. 

^ " Synoria" means "border-land." 
* "Victory-city." 

* 5}, Kramer inserts ; so the later editors. 

425 



STRABO 

29. Tt]i> fxev ovv fiiKpav ' Apfxeviav dWoT aWfov 
e^ovrcov, o)? i^ovKovro 'Pwfiacoi, to reXevTulov 
el^ev Wp)(^eXao<;. tov^ Be lLi0apy]vov<; Kal 
X.a\BaLOv^ fiexpt KoX^tSo? Kal ^apvoKia^ Kal 
TpaTre^ovvTO'i '^X^'- ^v0oScopi<;, yvvr] acocppcov /cat 
Svvarr) irpotarTaaOaL TrpaypaTwv. eari hk dvya- 

C 556 ''"'IP TivOoScvpou Tou YpaWiavov, yvvr) 8' iyevero 
YLoXifKovo^; Kal avve^aaiXevaev eKeivo) xP^vov 
Tii'd, elra hiehe^aro rijv cipx^ji'i TeKevri]cravTO^ 
iv rol'i 'Aa7rovpyiavol<;^ KaXovpJvoi'i rcov irepl 
TTjv '^LvBiKi]v ^apjSdpwv hvelv S" €k rov YloXe- 
p.rj}vo<i ovrwv vloiv Kal dvyaTp6<;, tj p.ev eSodrj 
KoTvi ra> "EairaLcp, ho\o^ovqdevTO^ he e;^»;/3efo-e, 
TTalSa^i exov(Ta e^ avTov' hwaarevet S' 6 irpea^v- 
TaTO<; avTwv rcov Be t?}? Ylv6oSa)piSo<i vImv 6 pev 
lSi(i)Tr}<; (TvvSiaJKei rfj pi-jTpl rrjv dpx'HV, o he 
veoocrrl KadeararaL ^ rrj<i p,eyd\r)<; ' Appevta^ 
^aaiKev^. avrrj he avvwKyaev 'ApX^^dro Kal 
avvepeivev eKeivM pexpi' re\ov<;, vvv he ^?7peuei, 
rd T€ Xex^evra exovaa ^<wpta Kal dWa eKcivcov 
Xapiearepa, irepl o)V e'c^e^r}? ipovp^ev. 

30. T^ yap ^apvaKi'a avvex']^ ecniv rj "EihjjVTj 
Kal 7] (^epLCTKvpa. tovtcov h tj ^avdpoia inrepKei- 
rai, pepo^ exovaa rov Uovtov to KpdricrTOV Kal 
yap eXaiocf)VT6^ eari Kal evoivo<i Kal Ta? dWa^ 
ex^i T^daa-i dperdf. eK p,ev tmv ewwv pepoiv 

' ' ha-novpyiavois, Xylander, for 'A-jrovpyiaiols; so the later 
editors. 

* Kabfararat, Corais, for KaQluTarai ; so the later editors. 

1 Cf. 14. 1. 42. - King of Odrysae (Book VII, Frag. 47). 
^ In A.D. 19 by his uncle, Rhescuporis, king of the 
Bospoms. 

426 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 29-30 

29. Now as for Lesser Armenia, it was ruled by 
different persons at different times, according to 
the will of the Romans, and finally by Archeliius. 
But the Tibareni and Chaldaei, extending as far 
as Colchis, and Pharnacia and Trapezus are ruled 
by Pythodoris, a woman who is wise and qualified 
to preside over afl^airs of state. She is the daughter 
of Pythodorus of Tralles. She became the wife of 
Polemon and reigned along with him for a time, 
and then, when he died ^ in the country of the 
Aspurgiani, as they are called, one of the barbarian 
tribes round Sindice, she succeeded to the rulership. 
She had two sons and a daughter by Polemon. 
Her daughter was married to Cotys the Sapaean,^ 
but he was treacherously slain,^ and she lived in 
widowhood, because she had children by him ; and 
the eldest of these is now in power.* As for the sons 
of Pythodoris, one of them ^ as a private citizen is 
assisting his mother in the administration of her 
empire, whereas the other ^ has recently been es- 
tablished as king of Greater Armenia. She herself 
married Archelaiis and remained with him to the 
end ; ' but she is living in widowhood now, and is 
in possession not only of the places above mentioned, 
but also of others still more charming, which I shall 
describe next. 

30. Sidene and Themiscyra are contiguous to 
Pharnacia. And above these lies Phanaroea, which 
has the best portion of Pontus, for it is planted with 
olive trees, abounds in wine, and has all the other 
goodly attributes a country can have. On its eastern 



* The king of Thrace. ^ Polemon 11. 

* Zeiion. ' He died in a.d. 17. 



427 



ST R A BO 

Trpo^e^Xtj/jLevrj tov UapvdSprjv, TrapaXkrjXov ainfj 
Kara /xtjko^, etc he rcbv Trpo? Sucriv rov AiOpov 

Kal TOP "0(fi\LflOV. eOTTl S' avXoOV KoI flrJKO<i 

e;YW a^ioXoyov Kal TrXaro?, Siappel B' avTrjv ek 
fiev Tj}"? 'App€VLa<; 6 Avko<;, eK he rcbv irepl 
' \/j,dcreiav arepcov o 'I/3t<>' avp^^dWovari h' dpcjyo- 
repoL Kara p,eaov ttov tov avXwva, eVi t^ avfi^oXf} 
h' ihpvTat 7r6Xi<;, fjv 6 pev tt/jwto? uTro^e^Xyjpevo'i 
EvTraToptav d(f)' avTou Trpoarj-yopeuae, no/x77/;fo? 
h' rjpiTeXf] KaraXaj^wv, Trpoat^el<i ')(a)pai>, Kal 
oLK)]Topa<;, ^layvoTToXiv TrpoaeiTrev. auTV) p,€v ovv 
ev pea(p KeiTai tc5 Trehiw, tt/jo? avTfi he rfj 
Trapwpeia tov Hapvdhpov Is^d^eipa ihpvTai, aTU- 
hb0L<i eKaTov ^ Kal irevTr^KovTd ttov voTicoTepa rf]<i 
^layvoTToXew'i, oaov Kal ' Apdcreia hvcrpiKcoTepa 
avTTj^ eaTi'v ev he Toi<i Ka/^etpoi? to. ^aalXeia 
yiiOpthdrov KaT€(TKevaaTO kul 6 vhpaXeTr]<i, kuI 
rd ^wypela Kal at ttXtjctlov Oijpat Kal Ta p,e- 
TaXXa. 

31. 'EvTuvda he Kal rb Kaivov yjcoplov irpoaa- 
yopevdev, epvfivr) kuI diroTopo^ Trex/aa, hie-)(^"V(Ta 
Tcov Is^a^elpcov eXaTTOv r) hiuKoaLOVi aTahlov<i' 
e')(ei h' iwl rfj Kopv(f)f} 7n]jt]v dvafSdXXovaav ttoXv 
vhcop, ire pi ^ re t^ pl^j] TTOTapov Kal (pdpayya 
/SaOelav. to 5' vyp-o^ e^aiaiov t/}? 7r€Tpa<i earl 
dvco ■^ TOV avxevo<;, (ocjt dTroXi6pKi]T6<; iaTt, 
Terelxio'Tat, he Oavp,aaT(t)^, ttXtjv oaov ol 'Fcopaloi 
KaTecnraaav ovtco h' ecTTlv aTracra t) KVKXat 

1 Foi- kKa.r6v (p'), C. Miiller [lad. Var. Led., p. 1021) conj. 
a' (200). 

- irepi, Meineke emends to irp6s. 

^ &VM, Jones inserts, from proposals of Groskurd. 

^28 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 30 31 

side it is protected by the Paiyadres Mountain, in 
its length lying parallel to that mountain ; and on 
its western side by the Lithrus and Ophlimus 
Mountains. It forms a valley of considerable breadth 
as well as length ; and it is traversed by the Lycus 
River, which flows from Armenia, and by the Iris, 
which flows from the narrow passes near Amaseia. 
The two rivers meet at about the middle of the 
valley; and at their junction is situated a city which 
the first man who subjugated it^ called Eupatoria 
after his own name, but Pompey found it only half- 
Hnished and added to it territory and settlers, and 
called it Magnopolis. Now this city is situated in 
the middle of the plain, but Cabeira is situated close 
to the very foothills of the Paryadres Mountains 
about one hundred and fifty stadia farther south 
than Magnopolis, the same distance that Amaseia 
is farther west than Magnopolis. It was at Cabeira 
that the palace of Mithridates was built, and also 
the water-mill ; and here were the zoological gardens, 
and, near by, the hunting grounds, and the mines. 

31. Here, also, is Kainon Chorion,^ as it is called, 
a rock that is sheer and fortified by nature, being 
less than two himdred stadia distant from Cabeira. 
It has on its summit a spring that sends forth nmch 
water, and at its foot a river and a deep ravine. 
The height of the rock above the neck ^ is immense, 
so that it is impregnable ; and it is enclosed by 
remarkable walls, except the part where they have 
been pulled down by the Romans. And the whole 
country around is so overgrown with forests, and so 

' i.e.. Mitliridates Eupator. ^ " New Place." 

* i.e. Ihe "neck," or ridge, whicli forms the approacli to 
rock (op. the use of the word in § 39 following), 

429 



STRABO 

KaTdhpVfjLO<i Kal opeivrj koX avv8po<;, war ivTO<i 
eKarov kol eiKoai, (naZiwv fit) elvat Buvarov crrpa- 
TOTreSevaaaOai. ivravOa fiev rjv rat MidpiSdrr) 
ra Ttp-ioiTara tmv KeifMriXlwv, a vvv iv tu> KaTrt- 
roiXCw Kelrai, Ilo/inri]iov dvadevro<;. Tavrr^v 8tj 
Ti]v y^ciipav ey^et Trdaav 7) UvOoBcopl^, Trpoaexv 
ovcrav rfj ^ap^dpa> rfj vtt' avTrj<i Karexofievr), 
Kol rrjv Zr]\iTiv Kal MeyaXoTroXiTLV. to, Se 
Kd^etpa, TlofiTTTjiov a-Kevdaavro^ et? ttoXlv kol 
KaXeaavro<; AioaTroXiv,^ eKeivrj TrpoaKaTeaKevaa-e 
Kal 2e/Sao-Tj;i/ fiercovofxacre, /3a(Ti\€lai re tt} iroXet 
')(prJTat. ex^i' ^e ^al ro lepov Mj^i^o? ^apvdKOv 
KaXov fievov ,^ Tr]v 'Afiepiav KcofioiroXiv ttoXXov^ 
l€poBovXov<; exovaav /cal 'x^Mpav lepdv, rjv 6 
iepdip.evo<i del Kapirovrai. iTLfirjcrav 6' 01 (SacnXelf 
TO iepov TOVTO ovTOi<i et'i? vTrep^oXrjv, oxne top 
QacnXiKov KaXov/xevov opKov tovtov ^ dvecprjvap 
Tvxv^ ^aaiXecof; Kal Mrjva ^apvdKOV ecni 8e 
Kal TOVTO Tr]<i SeA-r^rr;? to lepov, Kaddirep to eV 
' AX^ai'ol<; Kal rd iv ^pvyia, to re rou Mt/j/o? 
iv rw o/xoivvficp roirrp Kal to rov ' AaKaLov ro 

' AiOCTTroA.i;' (, i^iSiroXiv other MSS. 

^ ix and Corais insert Kai before tV 'Aj-ifplav. 

' C and Corais read toito instead of tovtov. 



^ " City of Zeus." * In Latin, "Augusta." 

^ i.e. established by Pharnaces. 

* Professor David M. Robinson says (in a private com- 
munication) : "I tliink that M^v ^apvaKov equals Tvxv 
BacriAeMS, since M-l]v equals Tvxv on coins of Autioch." 

'- Goddess of the " Moon." « See 11. 4. 7 and 12. 8. 20. 

' Sir William Ramsay {Journal of Hellenic Studies 1918, 

430 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 31 

mountainous and waterless, that it is impossible for 
an enemy to encamp within one hundred and twenty 
stadia. Here it was that the most precious of the 
treasures of Mithridates were kept, which are now 
stored in the Capitoiium, where they were dedicated 
by Ponipey. Pythodoris possesses the whole of this 
country, which is adjacent to the barbarian country 
occupied by her, and also Zelitis and Megalopolitis. 
As for Cabeira, which by Pompey had been built 
into a city and called Diospolis,^ Pythodoris further 
adorned it and changed its name to Sebaste;^ and 
she uses the city as a royal residence. It has also 
the temple of Men of Pharnaces,^ as it is called, — 
the village-city Ameria, which has many temple- 
servants, and also a sacred territory, the fruit of 
which is always reaped by the ordained priest. And 
the kings revered this temple so exceedingly that 
they proclaimed the " royal " oath as follows : " By 
the Fortune of the king and by Men of Pharnaces." ^ 
And this is also the temple of Selene,^ like that 
among the Albanians and those in Phrygia,^ 1 mean 
that of Men in the place of the same name and that 
of Men' Ascaeus^ near the Antiocheia that is near 

vol. 38, pp. 148 ff.) argues that "Men" is a grecizod form 
for the Anatolian "Manes," the native god of the land of 
Ouranima ; and "Manes Ouramnioas was Hellenized as 
Zeus Ouruda-menos or Euruda - nienos." See also M. 
Rostovtzetf, Social and Economir H iatory of the Roman Empire, 
p. 238, and Daremberg et Saglio, Diet. Antiq., s.v. "Lunus." 
* "Ascaenus" ("Atr'ca-rji'cJj) is the regular spelling of the 
word, the spelling found in hundreds of inscriptions, whereas 
Ascaeus {^PktkoIos) has been found in only two inscriptions, 
according to Professor David M. Robinson. On this temple, 
see Sir W. M. Ramsay's "Excavations at Pisidian Antioch 
in 1912," The Athenaeum, London, March 8, Aug. 31, and 
Sept. 7, 1913. 



STRABO 

7r/)o<? ' AvTLOXeia rf] tt/jo? TLiaihla^ kciI to ev rfj 

32. 'Twep Se ti}s ^avapoi,a<i earl ra - K.6/xava 
TO, ev rrp Ylovrw, o/xdovvfia toi? €v rfj fie'yakr) 
KaTTTraSoKLa kuI rfj avrf/ dew KaOiepwfMeva, a(f)i- 
hpvdevTa eKelOev, cr-)(ehov Be ti kuX rfj dycoyrj 
TTapaiTXrjaia Kexptj/xeva ro)i> re lepovpyicov koI 
TOiv 6eocf)opio)v Kol rP]^ rrepl tov<; lepea^ Tf/i?}?, /cat 
fidXtcTTa eirl tmv irpo rov ^acriXecov i)viKa h\<i 
Tov eTov<i Kara Ta<i e^6hov<i Xeyo/xei'a^ tt}? 6eov 
BuiBijfia (f)opa)v ervy)(avev o lepev<i, kul i]i> Bevrepa 
Kara rifirjv fierd rov jSaaiKea. 

33. 'Fj/u,vr](T9i]/u.€v Berrporepov AopuXdov re rov 
raKriKOv, 09 rjv Trpo7ra7nro<i t/}*? piijrpo^ 7]/jL(t)v, Ka\ 
dWov AopvXdov, 09 7)v eKcivov dBe\(l>iBov'i, vioi; 
Be ^iXeratpov, Kal Btori eKelvo^ riav dXXwv ri/nMu 
Trapd rov Kv7rdropo<i rStv fieyicrrcov rv^oov 
Kal Br] Kal T779 ev Kofidvoi<; i€pQ)(Tvvt)<; iipco- 
pdOr) rrjv ^aaiXeiav d^iUTa? 'Pto/taiot?' Kara- 
XvOevro'i 5' eKeivov, crvvBie^XijOt] Kal ro yevo<;. 
o'^jre Be ^loa(f)€pvrj<i, 6eL0<i t/}? /x7]rpo'i i)p,a)V, et? 
e'm<f)dveiav r/XOev ijBi] Trpo? KaraXvaei t)}? ^aai- 

' TltaiSia (as in 12. 8. 14) /, instead of riKTiSi'ai' ; so Corais 
and Aleineke. 

- T€ after rd, oniitted by x and later editors. 

' Note tliat Strabo, both here and in 12. 8. 14, refer.s to 
this Antioch as " the Antioch near Pisidia," not as 
" Pisidian Antioch," tlie appellation now in common use. 
Neither does ArtemiUorus (lived about 100 B.C.), as quoted 
l)y Strabo (12. 7. 2), name Antioch in his list of Pisidian 
cities. 

* i.e. in the territory of which Antiocheia was capital. 
At this "remote old Anatolian Sanctuary" (not to be con- 

432 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 31-33 

Pisidia^ and that of Men in the country of the 
Antiocheians.^ 

32. Above Phanaroea is the Pontic Coniana, which 
bears the same name as the city in Greater Cap{)a- 
docia, having been consecrated to the same goddess 
and copied after that city ; and I might almost say 
that the courses which they liave followed in their 
sacrifices, in their divine obsessions, and in their 
reverence for their priests, are about the same, and 
particularly in the times of the kings who reigned 
before this, I mean in the times when twice a year, 
during the " exoduses " ^ of the goddess, as they are 
called, the priest wore a diadem ^ and ranked second 
in honour after the king. 

33. Heretofore ^ I have mentioned Dorylaiis the 
tactician, who was my mother's great grandfather, 
and also a second Dorylaiis, who was the nephew of 
the former and the son of Philetaerus, saying that, 
although he had received all the greatest honours 
from Eupator and in particular the priesthood of 
Comana, he was caught trying to cause the kingdom 
to revolt to the Romans ; and when he was over- 
thrown, the family was cast into disrepute along 
with him. But long afterwards Moaphernes, my 
mother's uncle, came into distinction just before 

fused witli that of Men Ascaeus near Antiocheia), "Strabo 
does not say what epithet Men bore" (Ramsaj- in drat 
article above cited). That of Men Ascaeus on Mt. Kara 
Kuyu has been excavated by Ramsay and Calder (J.ff.S. 
1912, pp. 111-150, British School Annual 1911-12, XVIII, 
37 ff., J.R.S. 1918, pp. 107-145). The other, not yet 
found, " may have been," according to Professor Roliinson, 
" at Saghir. " 

' i e. "solemn processions." 

* As a symbol of regal dignity. ^ 10. 4. 10. 

433 



STRABO 

\eia<;, kuI iraXiv rw /SaaiXei crvvijTvxv^^^ '^^' 
avTO<; /cot ot CKetvov (f)i\oi, ttXtjv ei rive's ecpOijaav 
TT poaTTOcndvTe<i avTOv, KaOdirep o TraTTTroi? r}/x(bv o 
7rpo9 ^ avrrj<i, o? ihwv to, tov l3aai\€(o<; KaKuy^ 
^epojxeva ev rw 7rp6<; AevKoWov 7roA.e/x&), Koi ap.a 
i)WoTpi(j)fxivo^ auTOv 8i opyi]v, on aveyjrioT 
avTov Ti^iov KoX v'lov eKeivov @e6(^iS.ov irvyxft- 
vev aTreKTovco^ vecoarl, copfMrjcre ri/xcopelv eKeivoi<^ 
re Kal eavro), kol Xa^cov irapa tov AevKoWov 
C 558 TTicTTei? d<piaTr]cnv avrw irevTeKaiheKa (ppovpia, 
Kal iirayyeXiai fikv ejevovro civtI tovtcov fj.eyd\ai, 
eTreXdcbv BeTlop,7rr]io<; 6 hiahe^dp.evo<i tov TroXefiov 
TTdvTa<; T0U9 eKelvoi tl ^i^a/Jicra/u.ei'ot"? e)(^pov<; 
vireXa^e Sid ttjv yevofiivqv avTu> •rrpb'i eKeivov 
d-rrexPeiav, Bia7ro\efj,7]cra<i 8k koi CTraveXdcov 
oiKaSe i^evLKrjcrev, uxTTe Td(i rifid<;, a? viricrxeTO o 
AevKoWo<; tcov Hovtikcov Tiai, /xr) Kvpoxrai ttjv 
avyK\r)Tov dhiKov yap elvai, KaT0p6(oaavT0^ 
eTepov TOV iroXefiov, rd ^pa^eia eV dXXw yevecrdav 
Kal TTjv T(ji)v dpLCTTeiwv Siavofi'qv, 

34. 'Ettj. ixev ovv TOiv ^aa iXewv^ ovroyTaKufiava 
SiMK€LT0, &)9 €ip7}Tai, TrupaXa^cov Be ]lofj.7n']io'i 
Ti)v i^ovaiav ^Ap^eXaov eTreanjaev lepia kul 
rrpoadipiaev avTw ^J^P^^^ Bia^oivov kukXo) (touto 
3' iarlv e^rjKOVTa ardSioi) 7r/309 tj} lepa, irpoa- 
Td^a<i T0i<; evoiKOvai Treidapxelv avrw' tovtcov 
pev ovv y'lyeficov yv Kal twv ttjv ttoXiv oikovvtcov 
lepoBovXcov Kvpio<i TrXrjv tov iriirpdaKeiv 7]<7av Be 

^ irarpSs, after irpos, omitted by editors. 

* BaaiXiuiv, Casaubon, for fiafftXawv ; so the later editors. 



434 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 33-34 

the dissolution of the kingdom, and again they were 
unfortunate along with the king, both Moaphernes 
and his relatives, except some who revolted from 
the king beforehand, as did my maternal grand- 
fathei', who, seeing that the cause of the king was 
going badly in the war with LeucuUus, and at the 
same time being alienated from him out of wrath at 
his recently having put to death his cousin Tibius 
and Tibius' son Theophilus, set out to avenge both 
them and himself; and, taking pledges from Leu- 
cuUus, he caused fifteen garrisons to revolt to him ; 
and although great promises were made in return 
for these services, yet, when Pompey, who succeeded 
LeucuUus in the conduct of the war, went over, he 
took for enemies all who had in any way favoured 
LeucuUus, because of the hatred which had arisen 
between himself and LeucuUus ; and when he finished 
the war and returned home, he won so completely 
that the Senate would not ratify those honours 
which LeucuUus had promised to certain of the 
people of Pontus, for, he said, it was unjust, when 
one man had brought the war to a successful issue, 
that the prizes and the distribution of the rewards 
should be placed in the hands of another man. 

34. Now in the times of the kings the affairs of 
Comana were administered in the manner already 
described, but when Pompey took over the authority, 
he appointed Archelaiis priest and included within 
iiis boundaries, in addition to the sacred land, a 
territory of two schoeni (that is, sixty stadia) in 
circuit and ordered the inhabitants to obey his rule. 
Now he was governor of these, and also master of 
the temple-servants who lived in the city, except 
that he was not emjiowered to sell them. And even 

435 



STRABO 

ovK eXiiTTOv^ ovB' evravda rcov e^a«tcr^fX,t'(wj'. rjv 
8' ouTO? ^Ap-)(^€'\,ao^ vio^ fiev tov inro %vXka Kai 
TT;<f avyKkrjTOu Tifii]OevTo<;, (f)iXo<; 8e Va^iviov rayv 
VTraTiKMV Tiv6<;. eKelvov Be ire/iKpOevro^ et? Svplav 
r)K€ Koi auTO? eV eXrriSi tov KOivcovrjaetv avrw 
7rapaaK€ua^ofjiev(p tt/jo? tov llapOiKov TroXe/xov, 
OVK i7riTpe7Tovcn]<i Be t^9 avyKXrjTov, Tuvrrjv 
d(f)el<i TTjv iXTTiBa, aWrjv evpcTO ^ /xei^o). eTV'^- 
yjxve fyap TlTo\efiaio<; 6 t^9 KXeoTrar/ja? iraT-tjp 
VTTO T(ov AlyvTTTicov 6A:/3e/3X>/yu,eVo9, dvyuTy-jp 8' 
avTOv KUTel^e t7}1' ^aaiXeiav, dBeXcprj irpea^vTepa 
Tj)9 KXeo7raT/9a9* Tai'nrj ^rjTOv/xevov dvBp6<; fiaai- 
XiKov yevov^, eve)(eipiaev eavTov roi? crv/xTrpuT- 
Tovai, irpocnroi.Tjcrd/iievo'i ^ItdpiBuTov tov KvTraTo- 
pa f/o? elvai,^ Kal 7rapaB6X,6e\<i ejBacjiXevaev e^ 
ixrjva^. TOVTOv /xev ovv o Fa/Strfo? dvelXev ev 
irapaTu^ei, KaTaycov tov JIt oXe/xaiov. 

35. T/o9 S' avTov Tr]v lepcoavvijv irapeKa^ev 
eW^ vaTepov AvKo/jLi]Br)<i, o) koI TeTpda-)(^oivo<i aXXr] 
irpoaeTedrj' KaTaXv6evT0<; Be Kal tovtov, vvv e'X^et 
AvT€VT0<i, v/o9 ^ABiaTopcyo'i, 09 BoKei TavTrjf; 
Tvy^dvetv t>}9 Tifx,r]<; Trapd ]^ai,aapo<; rov Se^acr- 
Tov Bt" dpeTtjv. 6 fjbev yap Kaiaap, 6pia/jL^evaa<; 
TOP ^ ABiuTopiya yLtera TralBcov kuI yvvaLKo<i, eyvco 
dvaipelv fxeTO, tov Trpea/SvTUTOV tmv iraiBcov {rjv 
Be 7rp6cr/3i/TaT09 ovto^), tov Be BevTepov tcov 
dB€X(f)0)V avTOv cf)i]aavT0<i elvat irpear^vTUTov Trpu<; 
Tov'i uTrdyovTWi ^ cTTparuoTa^, epi'i yv dp,(poT€poi^ 

* C and Corais read evptro iastead of evparo. 

' ehai. after vl6s, Tzschucke inserts ; so the later editors. 

* ttTrayo^Tas, Corais, for a.' iyovrds ; RO the later editors. 

' As well as in the Cappadocian Comana (12. 2. 3). 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 34-35 

liere^ the temple-servants were no fewer in number 
than six thousand. This Arehelaiis was the son of 
the Arehelaiis who was honoured by Sulla and the 
Senate, and was also a friend of Gabinius,^ a man 
of consular rank. When Gabinius was sent into 
Syria, Arehelaiis himself also went there in the hope 
of sharing with him in his preparations for the 
Parthian War, but since the Senate would not 
permit him, he dismissed that hope and found 
another of greater importance. For it hapj)ened 
at that time that Ptolemaeus, the father of Cleo- 
patra, had been banished by the Egyptians, and his 
daughter, elder sister of Cleopatra, was in possession 
of the kingdom ; and since a husband of royal family 
was being sought for her, Arehelaiis proffered himself 
to her agents, pretending that he was the son of 
Mithridates Eupator; and he was accepted, but he 
reigned only six months. Now this Arehelaiis was 
slain by Gabinius in a pitched battle, when the 
latter was restoring Ptolemaeus to his kingdom. 

35. But his son succeeded to the priesthood ; and 
then later, Lvcomedes, to whom was assigned an 
additional territory ^ of four hundred schoeni ; but 
now that lie has been deposed, the otHce is lield by 
Dyteutus, son of Adiatorix, who is thought to have 
obtained the honour from Caesar Augustus because 
of his excellent qualities; for Caesar, after leading 
Adiatorix in triumph together with his wife and 
children, resolved to put him to death together with 
the eldest of his sons (for Dyteutus was the eldest), 
but when the second of the brothers told the soldiers 
who were leading them away to execution that he 
was the eldest, there was a contest between the two 

^ Consul 58 B.C. ; in 57 B.C. went to S\Tia as proconsul. 
3 See § 34. 

437 



STRABO 

C 559 TTokvv ')(^p6vGV, eo)? ol yoveh etreicrav tov AvrevToi' 
irapaxd^PV'^^'' '''V vewrepw t?)? vLKt]<;' avrov 'yap 
iv rfKiKio, jxaWov ovra eTTirrjSeioTepov Krjhefxova 
rf] fjLTjrpl eaeaOat Koi tm XeiTTo/xevq) aSeX^w* 
ouTO) Se TOV fiev avvairoOavelv rw Trarpi, toutov 
Se acodr/vai kol rv^eiv t^? rifjirj<i toutt;?. ala- 
06/x€vo^ yap, ft)? €OLK€, Kaicrap ■)]8r] rcov avO pdorrcov 
avrjp-qfxevwv 7]')^6ea0rj, Kal TOv<i ye ^ crco^Ofiivov^ 
evepyeaia^ Kal eVi/ueXeta? d^Lov<i vrreXa^e, Bov<i 
avTol<; Tavryjv Trjv rtfjujv. 

36. Ta fiev ovv Ko/xava evavSpei Kal eariv 
ep-TTopiov Tol<i airo r?}? Wpfi.€i>ia<; d^ioXoyov, 
(TViiep-)(0VTaL he Kara ra^ e^ohov^ Trj<i 9eov iravra- 
'X^odev eV re rcSy iroXeMV Kal t>}<? ^wpa? di'Bpe^ 
ofjioii yvvai^lv eVt rr^v eopTrjv Kal aWoi he Kar 
ev)(7)v dei riv€<; eirihrijxovai, Ovaia^ eirneXovvre^ 
Tj] dew. Ka'i elaiv d^pohlaLTOi ol evoiKovvTe<;, Kal 
olv6(pVTa Ta KTi]/j,aTa avTWV earl iravTa, Kal 
TrXyjOn^ yvvaiKcov twv epya^ofievcov cnro tov 
a(t}/xaTO<;, a)v al TrA-etou? elcrlv lepai. Tpoirov yap 
h)'] Tiva fiiKpa K6piv06<i eariv f; iroXa- Kal yap 
eKel hia to ttXt/^o? tmv eTaipcov,^ al t?}9 'A(f)pohiTri(; 
r^crav lepai, ttoXv^ rjv 6 eirihi^fitav Kal eveopTci^tov 

Tft) TOTTft)* 01 8' eiXTTOpLKol Kal (TTpaTKOTCKol 

T6\e&)? e^avrfXicTKovTo, wctt eV avTcov Kal 
irapoLfiiav eKTrecrelv Toiavrrjv' 

01) iravTOf; dvhp6<; et<; K.6piv66v ead^ 6 ttXoO?. 

Ta jjiev ht) K.6fiava roiavra. 

^ ye, Corais, for 8e'; so the later editors. 
* oz read eraipiScoy instead of fraipwy ; so Tzschucke and 
Corais. 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 35-36 

for a long time, until the parents persuaded Dyteutus 
to yield the victory to the younger, for he, they 
said, being more advanced in age, would be a more 
suitable guardian for his mother and for the remain- 
ing brother. And thus, they say, the younger was 
put to death with his father, whereas the elder was 
saved and obtained the honour of the priesthood. 
For learning about this, as it seems, after the 
men had already been put to death, Caesar was 
grieved, and he regarded the survivors as worthy 
of his favour and care, giving them the honour in 
question. 

36. Now Comana is a populous city and i« a 
notable emporium for the people from Armenia ; 
and at the times of the " exoduses " ^ of the goddess 
people assemble there from everywhere, from both 
the cities and the country, men together with women, 
to attend the festival. And there are certain others, 
also, who in accordance with a vow are always 
residing there, performing sacrifices in honour of the 
goddess. And the inhabitants live in luxury, and 
all their property is planted with vines ; and there is 
a multitude of women who make gain from their 
persons, most of whom are dedicated to the goddess, 
for in a way the city is a lesser Corinth,- for there 
too, on account of the multitude of courtesans, who 
were sacred to Aphrodite, outsiders resorted in great 
numbers and kept holiday. And the merchants and 
soldiers who went there squandered all their money ,^ 
so that the following proverb arose in reference to 
them : " Not for every man is the voyage to Corinth." 
Such, then, is my account of Comana. 

^ See § 32 above, and the foot-note. 

» See 8. 6. 20. » See 8. 6. 20. 

439 



STRABO 

37. Trjv Be kvkXw wdaav e;^et HvOoBwpi^, 779 77 
re ^ai'dpoid cctti koX t) ZtjXiTi^ koI 1) MeyaXo- 
TToXiTi'i. TTepl fiev ^avapoia^ etpTjrar rj Be 
Z7;\rTt<? e^^i TToXiv Zf]Xa iirl ^(o/xan ^€/jLipd/jii8o<i 
TeT€i)(^i(T/xevr]v, e'^ovaav to lepov Trj'i AvaiTiSo^, 
i']V7Tep KoX 01 Apfxevcoi cre^ovrai. ai fiev ovv 
lepoTTOUat fiera [xel^ovo<; dyiareiai; ivravda crvvre- 
XovvTai, Kol Tovf 6pKov<; irepl tmv p-eylcrTcov 
ivTUvOa YIovTiKol ^ Trai/re? iroLovvTat' ro he irXfj- 
^o? TMV iepoBov\(ov Kal at rdv lepecov Tifial rrapa 
fxev TOi<? ^aaiXevai rov avTov €l-)(Ov rvirov, ovirep 
TrpoeLTTOfiei', vvvl Be eVt rfj WvdoBwpiBi ttclvt 
ecTTLv. eKaxwaav Be iroXXol kuI ifxeiwaav to re 
ttXtjOo^ twv lepoBovXwv Kal Tr]v dXXtjv evTToplav. 
€/jLeid)6rj Be Kal rj •napaKeip.evr] %c6/9a fxepiaOelaa 
€t<? TrXelovi BvvaaTeia<i, ri Xejo/xevr) ZTjXiTi<i (?) 
ex^ec TToXiv ZijXa evl ')(^cofj,aTi). to iraXaiov fiev 
yap ol ^a(7iXei<; ov-^ co? ttoXlv, aXV &)? lepov Bim- 
KOvv TMV YiepaiKMV Oeoiv to, Zr/Xa, Kal rjv 
iepev<i Kvpio<i tmv TrdvTMV mk€ito B' vtto tov 
'7TXrjdov<i TMV lepoBovXwv Kal tov iepeM<;, ovto^ ev 
Trepiovaia fieydXr}, Kal T0i<; irepl avTov ovk 6XLyoi<; 
X^P^ ■'■£ UTreVetTO lepd Kal 7) ^ tov lepeM^. llo/i- 
C 560 7r>;Vo9 Be ttoXXo,^ eTrapxlcL'i Trpocrcopiae tm tottm 
Kal TToXiv MvojjLaae Kal TavTifv Kal ttjv \leyaX6- 
TToXiv (TVv6el<i TavTi]v tc el<; ev t7)v re }^ovXov- 
7n]vr)V Kal ti-jv Kafxiarjvj'jv, ofJ,6pov<; ovaa^ ttj re 
fiLKpa ^Apfxevla Kal t^ Aaoviavcijvi], €X0vcra<; 
6pvKTOv<i dXa<; Kal epv/xa dpxalov to, K.d/xiaa, vvv 
KaTeaTracr/jLevov ol Be fxeTa Tavra rjy€p,6ve<; tmv 

^ TlovTiicol, Corais, for noA.iTivo( ; so the later editors. 
^ 7], Corais and Meineke emend to ^y, 
440 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 37 

37. The whole of the country around is held by 
Pythodoris, to whom belong, not only Phanaroea. but 
also Zelitis and Megalopolitis. Concerning Phanaroea 
I have already spoken. As for Zelitis, it has a city Zela, 
fortified on a mound of Semiramis, with the temple of 
Ana'itis, who is also revered by the Armenians.^ Now 
the sacred I'ites performed here are characterised by 
greater sanctity ; and it is here that all the people of 
Pontus make their oaths concerning their matters of 
greatest imj)ortance. The large number of temple- 
servants and the honoui's of the priests were, in the 
time of the kings, of the same type as I have stated 
before, but at the present time everything is in the 
power of Pythodoris. Many persons had abused 
and reduced both the multitude of temple-servants 
and the rest of the resources of the temple. The 
adjacent territory, also, was reduced, having been 
divided into several domains — I mean Zelitis, as it is 
called (which has the city Zela on a mound) ; for in 
early times the kings governed Zela, not as a city, 
but as a sacred precinct of the Persian gods, and the 
j)riest was the master of the whole thing. It was 
inhabited by the multitude of temple-servants, and 
by the priest, who had an abundance of resources ; 
and the sacred territory as well as that of the priest 
was subject to him and his numerous attendants.^ 
Pompey added many provinces to the boundaries of 
Zelitis, and named Zela, as he did Megalopolis, a city, 
and he united the latter and Culupene and Camisene 
into one state ; the latter two border on both Lesser 
Armenia and Laviansene, and they contain rock-salt, 
and also an ancient fortress called Camisa, now in 

' Cf. 11. 14. 16. » Cf. 12. ,3. 31. 

441 



STRABO 

'PcofMalcov roiv hvelv TroXnevfxdrwv Tovrtav to. fiev 
TOt? K-Ofidvcov lepevcn Trpocreveifxav, to, Se ra> 
7ir)\uiv lepei, to, 8' ''AreTropLyi,^ hwdcnri tivI tov 
T€Tpap)(^iKov >yevov<f tmv TaXaTcov dvhpi' reXevrrj- 
cravro^ B eKeivov, Tavrrjv p,kv Trjv fiepiBa, ov 
TToXXrji' ovaav, vtto 'Vo)p.aloi<; elvai (TVfi^aivei 
KaXov/ievrjv iirap'^^Lav [Kal ecrri avaTrj/xa kuO 
aiiTO TO ttoXl^^viov crvvoLKiacivTcov rd Kdpava, dxj) 
ov Kal 7) %aj/3a KapavtTi<; XeyeTai), rd Se Xonrd 
ex^i Tlv6oSa>pi<; Kal 6 AvT€vro<;. 

38. AeLTrerai Be tov Uovtov rd " fieTU^ii TavTT]<; 
T€ tt)? ^(opwi Kal Tr)? ' \/j.iai)V(ov Kal 'Eivoy'Trecov, 
Trpo? Te rrjv K.n7r7raBoKi,av avvTeivovTa Kal 
VaXdTa'i Kal Yla<pXay6va'i. p.eTd fiev ovv ttjv 
A/xLaijvMv p^XP^ "^^^ AXfo? 77 't>al^r]/jL(ovlTt,<; 
etTTiv, fjv Ilop,7n']io<; SeaTroXlriv 6}vop,aae, KaTa 
'^a^rjp.oiva KWfnjv ttoXiv ^ aTrohei^a^ ttjv KaToiKiav 
Kal irpoaayopevaa^ ^edTroXcv. TavTrj^; Be t/)? 
Xdipa'i TO fiev irpoadpKTLGV irXevphv t) Fa^rjXcovl- 
Tt? ^ avyKXeiei Kal rj T(t)v\\p,iar]va)v, to Be ea-rrepiov 
6 ' AXv<;, to B' ewov 7} ^avdpoia, to Be Xonrov rj 
i]p.6Tepa X&ipa rj twv W/xaaecov, ttoXv Traawv 
vXeiaTT] Kal dplaTr). to p.ev ovv Trpo<i ttj 
^avapoia p.epo<i t?)? ^a^i]p,ct)ViTiBos Xip,vr) KaTe.\ei 
■treXayla to fxeyeOo^, i) ^Ti(f>dv7] KaXov/xevi], 
TToXvo'^o^ Kal kvkXu) vop.d'i d(^6ovov<i e^ovaa Kai 
7ravToBa7rd<i- eTTLKeiTai 6' avTrj <^povpiov epvfivov, 

^ 5' 'ATfTr6piyi, Tzschucke, for 5« re-iropyi ; so the later 
editors. 

* TO, before jnfra^v, Casaubon inserts ; so the later editors. 
' tr6\iv, Groskurd inserts ; so Meineke. 

* ra^TjXct'WTis (a.s in 12. 3. 1.3), Groskurd, for Ta^iXa^Tdt 

442 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 37-38 

ruins. The later Roman prefects assigned a portion 
of these two governments to the priests of Comana, a 
portion to the priest of Zela, and a portion to 
AteporiXj a dynast of the family of tetrarchs of 
Galatia ; but now that AteporJx has died, this 
portion, which is not large, is subject to the Romans, 
being called a province (and this little state is 
is a political organisation of itself, the people having 
incorporated Carana into it, from which fact its 
country is called Caranitis), whereas the rest is held 
by Pythodoris and Dyteutus. 

38. There remain to be described the parts of the 
Pontus which lie between this country and the 
countries of the Amisenians and Sinopeans, which 
latter extend towards Cappadocia and Galatia and 
Paphlagonia. Now after the territory of the 
Amisenians, and extending to the Halys River, is 
Phazemonitis, which Pompey named Neapolitis, 
proclaiming the settlement at the village Phazemon 
a city and calling it Neapolis.^ The northern side of 
this country is bounded by Gazelonitis and the 
country of the Amisenians ; the western by the 
Halys River; the eastern by Phanaroea; and the 
remaining side by my country, that of the Amaseians, 
which is by far the largest and best of all. Now the 
part of Phazemonitis towards Phanaroea is covered 
by a lake which is like a sea in size, is called Stephane, 
abounds in fish, and has all round it abundant 
pastures of all kinds. On its shores lies a strong 

* " New City." 



Dhowz, Ta5i\<A)T6s E, Zrj\f)Tii x, ra(-ri.\(iiris other MSS. ; so 
Meineke. 

443 



STRABO 

eptjfxov vvv, 'iKi^api,^ kuI ttXtjctlov /SaaiXeiou 
KaTea/cafXftevov'^ »; Se XoiTri] -yfriXij to rrXeov Kal 
a-iTOcf)6po<i ')(^u>pa. vrrepKeirai he t?}? rwv 'A/xa- 
cricav rd re Oepfia vhara tmv 'P/x^rifxcovirdov, 
vyteiva (X(f)68pa, fcal to —ayuXiov iirl 6pov<i 
opdiov Kal v\Jr7}Xov Trpo? o^elav dvaT6LvovTO<i 
UKpav, epvfia l8pv/j,evov e^ov Kal vSpetov 8a\fnXe'i, 
o vvv wXiycoprjTai, xot? Se ^acnXevaiv rjv XPW''' 
fiov et9 TToXXd. ivravOa Se edXw Kal hLe^Odpt] 
el? ^ TOiv ^apvaKov tov /3ao"tX.ea)9 rratScov Apcrd- 
«:>;?, 8vvaaT€vcov Kal vewTepii^wv, iiVLTpe'^avTO^ 
ovEeva Tcov yyefMovwv edXo) 8e ov j3i.a, tov ipv- 
fiaTo<; Xr](^6evT0<s vtro UoXe/j-covo^ Kal Avko/j,i]8ov^, 
^acriXicov dfi(f)oiv, dXXa Xifiw, dve^vye yap €l<i to 
6po<; 7rapaaKevi]'i -^copl^, elpyofxevo'i tojv TreBicov, 
evpe 8e Kal to, vSpeta i/jL7r€<ppay/j,eva TreTpai^ 
C 561 r}Xi^dToi<i' ovTco yelp SieTeTUKTO HofiTnjio^, KaTa- 
airav KeXevcra^ to. (ppovpca Kal fir] idv y^prjcriixa 
TOt? dva<f>€vyeiv e/? avTa /3ovXo/xevoi<i XrjcrTripLcov 
')(dp{,v. eKetva fiev ovv ovtco SieTa^e ttjv 
^a^7]/j.coi'lTiv, 01 S" vcTTepov ^aaiXevai Kal TavTi/v 

€V€l/J.av. 

39. 'H 6' i)ixeTepa tt6Xl<; KetTai /xev ev (f)dpayyi 
^adela Kal fxeydXr), hi" /}? 6 ']pi(; (pepeTai 7roTa/ji6^, 
KaTeaKEvacTTat, ^ Se dav/jLaaTro^ Trpovoia re Kal 

1 'iKiXapt is doubtful. For the variant spellings see Kramer 
or C. Miiller. 

- KareaKa/j.jj.ei'fiy, Corais, for KaTiaKsvafffxivov ; so the later 
editors. 

^ vTTo, Jones deletes, following J. A. R. Munro (Jlernuvthena, 
— 1900), and Sir W. M. Ramsay {Classical Revieiv, 1901, 
p. .54), the latter likewise conjecturing efs for ujtJ. 

* KaTfcrKtvaTTai D, KarfCTKivaaTO other MSS. 

444 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 38-39 

fortress, Icizari, now deserted ; and, near b}', a royal 
palace, now in ruins. The remainder of the country 
is in general bare of trees and })roductive of grain. 
Above the country of the Aniaseians are situated the 
hot springs of the Phazemonitae, which are extremely 
good for the health, and also Sagylium, with a strong- 
hold situated on a high steep mountain that runs up 
into a sharp peak. Sagylium also has an abundant 
reservoir of water, which is now in neglect, although 
it was useful to the kings for many purposes. Here 
Arsaces, one of the sons of King Pharnaces, who 
was playing the dynast and attempting a revolution 
without permission from any of the prefects, was 
captured and slain. ^ He was captured, however, not 
by force, although the stronghold was taken by 
Polemon and Lycomedes, both of them kings, but by 
starvation, for he Hed up into the mountain without 
provisions, being shut out from the plains, and he also 
found the wells of the reservoir choked up by huge 
rocks ; for this had been done by order of Pompey, 
who ordered that the garrisons be pulled down and not 
be left useful to those who wished to flee up to them 
for the sake of robberies. Now it was in this way 
that Pompey arranged Phazemonitis for administra- 
tive purposes, but the later rulers distributed also^ 
this country among kings. 

39. My city "is situated in a large deep valley, 
through which flows the Iris River. Both by 
human foresight and by nature it is an admirably 

^ The translation conforms with a slight emendation of the 
Greek text. The MSS. make Strabo say that " Arsaces . . . 
was captured and slain by the sons of Pharnaces " (see critical 
note). 

- i.e. as well as Zela and Megalopolis. • Amaseia. 

445 



STRABO 

<f)V(T€i, TToXewi T€ dfui ^ Kai (f>povpiov 7rap€')(^ecrdai 
■^peiav hvvapLevrj' trerpa <yap ii-v/tt/Xt) /cat irepi- 
Kprj/jivo^, KUTeppwyvta eiTL tov TroTafiov, ttj jxev 
exovaa to ret;^©? evrt t« y^eiXei rou TroTap-ou, Ka6 
T) TToki'i crvvipKiaTai, ry 8' avarpe)(Ov eKarepo}- 
6ev eirl ra<i Kopv^d<i' hvo S' elal (xvp.<^vei^ d\- 
\r)\ai<i, 7reTrvpycop.€vai, TrayKoXco';- iv Se ra> Trepi- 
^6\(p rovTcp ^aalXeid r' eVri Kal p,vi]paTa 
^aaikewv al Kopucfyal S' e^ovaiv av'X^eva Travrd- 
iraat arevov, Trevre rj e^ aTahiwv eKarepcodep to 
y-vlro?, uTTO Tri<i 7roTa/j.i.a<; dva^aivovrt Kal rcov 
irpoaoTeiuiv diro he tov av')(^evo<i iirl tck; Kopv(f)d<i 
dXXr) (TTaSiaia XeiireTai irpoa^aaL^ o^eia koX 
Trdar]^ ^iaf Kpe'iTTcov e%6i ^ he /cal vhpela ivrof 
dvacpaipeTU, avplyyoyv rerp,r)p,evcov Svelv, rr]<; p.ev 
errl tov rroTap-ov, Tr)? S' eVt tov avxeva- iire^evK- 
Tai he y€(f}vpa tw iroTap.w pta p,ev drro t?}? TroXefo? 
cTTt TO TTpodaTeiov, dWrj S' utto tov irpoacFTeiOV 
Trpo? Trjv 6^0) xcopav KaTO, yap ttjv ye(j)upav 
TavTi-jV dTToXi)yei, to opo<; to t>}? ireTpa^ vTrepKei- 
fjuevov. avXcov d iaTlv diro tov TroTap^ov hiijKcov, 
ov TrXaTv^ to irpcoTov Te\e&)<>, eireiTa TrXaTvveTai 
Kal TToiet TO XiXioKcop-ov KaXovp.6vov irehiov eW 
7) /^t.aK07rt]VT] Kal -f) Uip,(oXLat]VT) %&>/3a Trdaa 
evhaip,o)v P-^XP'' "^^^ ' AX,uo9. TavTa p.ev to 
dpKTiKa p.epi] tt}? tcov 'Apiaaecov n^oipa?, p,riKO<i 
6(70V TrevTUKOcTLcov (TTahtwv eTTeid e^ri<i rj Xonrrj 

1 T« afia, Meineke, for a^io re. 
^ Dhixz have eVer instead of tx^'- 

^ This appears to mean that the two peaks ran up into 
two towers, and not that they had towers built upon them. 

446 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 39 

devised city, since it can at the same time afford 
the advantage of both a city and a fortress ; for it 
is a high and precipitous rock, which descends 
abruptly to the river, and has on one side the wall 
on the edge of the river where the city is settled 
and on the other the wall that runs up on either 
side to the peaks. These peaks are two in number, 
are united with one another by nature, and are 
magnificently towered.^ Within this circuit are 
both the palaces and monuments of the kings. 
The peaks are connected by a neck ^ which is 
altogether narrow, and is five or six stadia in height 
on either side as one goes up from the river-banks 
and the suburbs ; and from the neck to the peaks 
there remains another ascent of one stadium, which 
is sharp and superior to any kind of force. The 
rock also has reservoirs of water inside it, a watei-- 
sui)])ly of which the city cannot be deprived, since 
two tube-like channels have been hewn out, one 
towards the river and the other towards the neck. 
And two bridges have been built over the river, 
one from the city to the suburbs and the other 
from the suburbs to the outside territory ; for it is 
at this bridge that the mountain which lies above 
the rock terminates. And there is a valley extending 
from the river which at first is not altogether wide, 
but it later widens out and forms the plain called 
Chiliocomum ;^ and then comes the Diacopene and 
Pimolisene country, all of which is fertile, extending 
to the Halys River. These are the northern parts 
of the country of the Amaseians, and are about five 
hundred stadia in length. Then in order comes the 



i.e. isthmus-like ridge. 

i.e. " Plain of the thousaud villages." 



447 



STRABO 

TToXii TauT)/9 €7ri/j,^]K€aTepa pi'^xpi tou Ba^avo/xov 
Kal rrjf; 'E.t/jLTjvyj'i, "^irep Ka\ avTrj KaOrjKet, ^i^XP^ 
7Tp6<i TOP "AXvv rovTO fiev Br] to p.fjKO'i, irXdro^ 
Be TO aiTo TOiv apKTwv 7rpo<; votov eVt re Tr]v 
Tirfklriv Kal ttjv /j,eyd\7]v Ka-rrrraBoKLav fi^xpi tmv 
TpoK/jLcov. elal S' iv rrj 'E,i/J,i]vf} dXai opvKTOiv 
akwv, cicf) 0}V eiKd^ov<7iv elprjaOai ' Wvv tov 
ttotu/jlov. eaTt Be Kal ipv/xara TrXeico KareaKapL- 
fieva ev ttj rjperepa %(W/5a Kal epr)p,o^ yyj ttoW}] 

Bia TOV ^ViOptCaTLKLV TToXepLOV. eCTTl pLeVTOL 

irdaa p.ev evBevBpa, rj B i7r7rOf3oTO<i Kal TOt? 
dX\oi<; dpepLpLacTi 7rp6(T(f)Opo<;' aTracra S' olKj]<ripi,o^ 
/caX&j?. eBoOrj Be Kal rj ^Afidaeia ffaaiXevai, vvv 
8' eTrapxia eaTi. 

40. XoLirri 5' ecTTLV ?; eK~o<; 'AXuo? X^P^ ''"')"» 
C 562 IlovTiKy]<; e7Tapxia<;, rj irepl T6v"0Xyacrcrvv, avva- 
(pr)<i Ty ^LvwiriBi. ecTTL B a 'OXyaaav^ opo^ 
(r(f)6Bpa vyfrrjXov Kal Bva^aTov Kal lepd tov 
6pov<; TovTov TravTaxov KadiBpvpLeva exovaiv oi 
Tla(f)Xay6ve<;' irepLKecTai S' lKavco<; %c6pa dyadr], 
1] Te BXarjVT] Kal r) \opavZTL<;, Bi rjs ' ApvLa<; pel 
TTorapLo^. h'TuvOa yhOpiBdTJ]^; 6 ^uirdToop ra? 
^iKop.7]Eov<; TOV BlOvvov Bvvdpei'i dpBr]v rjc^dviaev, 
ov6 ^ avTO^ 7rapaTVX(*^v, dXXa Bid TOiV aTpaTtj- 
yoiv Kal p-hv ^evywv p,eT oXiyoyv ei? Trjv oiKeiav 
e<T(i)drj, KUKeWev etc '\Ta\iav eTrXevaev, 6 6' 
rjKo\ov9r](7e Kal ti'jv Te Bidwlav elXev i^ i(f)6Bov 

^ ovi\ Corais and Meineke emend to ovk. 

^ i.e. "salt-works." 

* Literally, salt obtained by digging or mining. On the 
salt-mines of northern India, see 5. 2. 6 and 15. 1. 30. 

448 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 39 40 

remainder of their country, which is much longer 
than this, extending to Babanomus and Ximene, 
which latter itself extends as far as the Halys River. 
This, then, is the length of their country, whereas 
the breadth from the north to the south extends, 
not only to Zelitis, but also to Greater Cappadocia, 
as far as the Trocmi. In Ximene there are "halae"^ 
of rock-salt," after which the river is supposed to 
have been called " Halys." There are several de- 
molished strongholds in my country, and also much 
deserted land, because of the Mithridatic War. 
However, it is all well supplied with trees; a part 
of it affords pasturage for horses and is adapted 
to the raising of the other animals ; and the whole 
of it is beautifully adapted to habitation. Amaseia 
was also given to kings, though it is now a 
province.^ 

40. There remains that part of the Pontic pro- 
vince v,'hich lies outside the Halys River, I mean 
the country round Mt. Olgassys, contiguous to 
Sinopis. Mt. Olgassys is extremely high and hard 
to travel. And temples that have been established 
everywhere on this mountain are held by the 
Faphlagonians. And round it lies fairly good 
territory, both Blaene and Domanitis, through which 
latter flows the Amnias River. Here Mithridates 
Eupator utterly wiped out the forces of Nicomedes 
the Bithynian — not in person, however, since it 
happened that he was not even present, but through 
his generals. -And while Nicomedes, fleeing with a 
few others, safely escaped to his home-land and 
from there sailed to Italy, Mithridates followed him 
and not only took Bithynia at the first assault but 

^ Roman province, of course. 

449 



STKABO 

Kal TTjv 'Afftay Karea'^e /iCX/Ot Kapta? kcii i\vKia^. 
KavravOa 5' aireiheixBrj 7r6\i<; ■>] Ylofj,7n]iov7ro\i^' 
ev he TTj TToXei ravrr] to '^avhapaicovp'yiov ov iroXv 
atrwdev TIi/j.o)\Lacov, (f)povpLov ^aaiXt/cov kutc- 
cr/cafi/xevov, a(f)'' ov i) %c6/ja 77 eKaripcodev rov 
TTora/xov KaXehai IIi-fjL(i)\Lar]vij. to Be "EavBapa- 
Kovpyiov opo<; koiXov eariv eV t?}? /xeTaXXeia<;, 
vTreX-t-jXvOo-Twv aurb tmv epya^ofievwv Stoipv^t 
fjb€ydXai<i- elpyd^ovTO Be Brifiocricovai,^ /jLeraXXev- 
Ttti? -)(pct)/j.evoi TOi? aTTo KaKovpyia<; dyopa^oju.evoi<; 
dvBpaTToBoi^- 7rpo<; yap rco eTrnrovo) rov epyov Kal 
davdaifxov kui Buaoiarov elvai rov depa (bacrl top 
ev TOt? ixerdXXoi^; Bia rrjv ^apvTtjra t% t(7)v 
0'oXwv oS/x/}<?, oicrre wKv/xopa eivat rd aco/iaTa. 
fcal Bt) Kal eKXei-neadai ^ crvixj^aiveL 7roWa/ci? rrjv 
/jLe-TaXXeiai' Bia to dXvaireX€<;, TrXetovcov fxev t) 
BiaKOdUov uvToov ro)V epya^ojjievoiv, avvey(^ca<; Bk 
v6<T0i<; Kal (})Oopal<; BaTravoyjiiei'cov. roaavra Kal 
irepl Tov noyTou elpijaOco. 

41. MeTa Be rrjv HofxirrjiovTroXtv i) Xoitttj t)]^ 
Tla<f)XayovLa<; ecnl Trj<i fxeaoyaia^; fJ^e^pi' ^lOvvia^ 
lovai Trpo? Bvaiv. rauT?;? Be, Kaiirep 6Xiyri<i 
ovari<;, pLiKpov fiev irpb t'jfxciyv ^p)(ov 7rXeiou<;, vvv 
K €)(^ov(Ti 'Pfo/xaloi, Tov yevov^ tmv ^acriXecov 
eKXi7r6vTO<i. ovo/nd^ovat S" ovv ttjv ofxopov rf) 
Bidvvla Ti/acopiTiv Kal ttjv Te^aTopiyo'; Kal 

^ SrifioTicivai, Corais, for St] iJ.ocr'ta)v ad CT)hilrw, Srj/n.o<riiiis ati 
xz ; so the later editors. 

* 4K\f'nr(ff6ai, Corais, for 4ic\iir4ff6at ; so the later editors. 

^ " Pompey's city." On the history of this city, see 
J. G. C Anderson in Anatolian Studies presented to Sir 

450 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 40-41 

also took possession of Asia as far as Caria anil 
Lycia. And here, too, a place was proclaimed a 
city, I mean Pompeiupolis ; ^ and in this city is 
Mt. Sandaracurgium,^ not far away from Pimolisa, 
a royal fortress now in ruins, after which the countr}' 
on either side of the river is called Pimolisene. 
Mt. Sandaracurgium is hollowed out in consequence 
of the mining done there, since the workmen have 
excavated great cavities beneath it. The mine used 
to be worked by publicans, who used as miners the 
slaves sold in the market because of their crimes ; 
for, in addition to the painfulness of the work, they 
say that the air in the mines is both deadly and 
hard to endure on account of the grievous odour 
of the ore, so that the workmen are doomed to 
a quick death. What is more, the mine is often 
left idle because of the unprofitableness of it, since 
the workmen are not only more than two hundred 
in number, but are continually spent by disease and 
death. ^ So much be said concerning Pontus. 

41. After Pompeiupolis comes the remainder of 
the interior of Paphlagonia, extending westwards as 
far as Bithynia. This country, small though it is, 
was governed by several rulers a little before my 
time, but, the family of kings having died out, it is 
now in possession of the Romans. At any rate, they 
give to the country that borders on Bithynia* the 
names "Timonitis," "the country of Gezatorix," 

JJ^illiam Mitchell Ramsay, p. 0. Anderson's article is of 
great importance in the study of the time of the composition 
of Strabo's Geography. 

^ Mt. " Realgar (red sulphiiret of arsenic) mine." 

* Hence the continual necessity of purchasing other slaves 
to replace them. 

* i.e. as being divided up into several domains. 

451 



STRABO 

'bJlapfKoXiriv re kol 'S.aviarjvrjv /cat Tlorafiiav ^v 
8e Ti9 Kal "KifiiaTTjv)'],^ ev 77 to. Kifuara, (^povpiov 
ipu/jLvov, vTTOKel/xevov rfj rov ^OXydaavo'i optiv^' 
CO ■)(P']0'a/J,evo<; opfiijTrjpiw Mt^/^fSaxj;?, 6 Kt/cttj?? 
TrpoaayopevOei^, KareaTT] rov YIovtov KvptoSy Kal 
ol aiT avTOv rr]v 8taBo)(^r]v e<^v\a^av p-ixP^ "'"^^ 
Ei)7raTO/3o?. ucrraTO? Be tt}*? IIa(f)\ayovla<; Tjp^e 
^TjioTapo^, Kdcrropo'i ^ vi6<i, 6 irpocrayopevdel'i 
OiXaSeA^09, to ^lop^eov^ ^aalXeiov e^^cov ra 
Tdyypa, TroXia-fiaTiov dfia Kal (f)povpiov. 

42. KvSo^o<; 6' 6pvKT0v<; l\6v^ ev YlacfeXayovLa 
C 563 Xeycov ev ^T]pot<; tottoi^ ov hiopi^ei tov tottov, ev 
vypol<i he irepl rrjv ^AaKavlav Xifivyjv (fitjal tijv 
V7T0 Kt'ft), Xeycov ovSev cra(f}e<;. eirel Se Kal Trjv 
ofxopov TU) rioi^Tfo \\a<^XayovLav eKTiOep-eda, toI<; 
Be Yla(^Xay6aiv opLopovaiv 01 BiOuvol Trpo? Bvcrtv, 
Treipaaofxeda Kal ra rovrcov eTreXdelv eTrena 
Xa^ovre^ dp')(i]v aXXrjv eK re toutcov Kal t&v 
Tla(f)XayovQ}v ra e^rj<i tovtcov to. trpo^ votov 
p-^Xpi TOV Tavpov avvv(pa}>ovp.€V, ra TrapdXXrjXa 
Tw Ooz'Tft) Kal rfi YLamraBoKia' TOiavrrjv ydp riva 
VTToypd(pec rd^iv Kal fiepiafiov 77 toov tottcov 

' Kifj.taT7]vf], Corais, for Kiviarr^fn ; so the later editors. 
' KdcTTopos, Casaubon, for KaaTSpovs CDhl, Kaffropov iorxz. 
■' Mop(tou, Corais, Kramer, and Meineke, for Mop^eovs. 



452 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 3. 41-42 

and also " Mannolitis/' '^'Sanisene," and " Potamia." 
There was also a Cimiatene, in which was Cimiata, 
a strong fortress situated at the foot of the moun- 
tainous country of the Olgassys. This was used by 
Mithridates, surnamed Ctistes,^ as a base of operations 
when he established himself as lord of Pontus ; and 
his descendants preserved the succession down to 
flupator. The last to reign over Paphlagonia was 
Deiotarus, the son of Castor, surnamed Philadelphus, 
who possessed Gangra, the royal residence of 
Morzeiis, which was at the same time a small town 
and a fortress. 

42. Eudoxus mentions fish that are "dug up " in 
Paphlagonia " iii dry places," but he does not dis- 
tinguish the })lace ; and he says that they are dug 
up "in moist places round the Ascanian Lake below 
Cius," without saying anything clear on the subject.^ 
Since I am describing the part of Paphlagonia which 
borders on Pontus and since the Bithynians border 
on the Paphlagonians towards the west, I shall try 
to go over this region also ; and then, taking a new 
beginning from the countries of these people and 
the Paphlagonians, I shall interweave my description 
of their regions with that of the regions which follow 
these in order towards the south as far as the Taurus 
— the regions that run parallel to Pontus and 
Paphlagonia;; for some such order and division is 
suggested" by the nature of the regions. 

1 i.e. "Founder" of Pontus as an independent kingdom; 
reigned 337-302 B.C. 

- Cf . the "dug mullets" in Celtica, 4. 1. 6. 



453 



STRABO 



IV 



1. Tr)v 8e QlOvvluv airo /xev Tys avaTo\fi<; 
opiXovai IIa(f)Xa'y6ve<i re Kol M.apiavBvi'ol /cat tcov 

'K7TlKT}]Ta)V TLvi'i, CLTTO he TMV apKTOiV Tj WovTlKrj 

dakacraa y ajro tcov eK^oXcov tov ^ayyapLou 
/J'€)(pi' TOV (TTOjiaTO^ TOV Kara ^vl^dvriov /cal 
^aXKTjSova, arro he Zvaeco<; rj TlpoTTOinL'i, irpo^ 
I'OTOV B y T€ yivaia koI ?; 'ETrLKrrjro^; Ka\ov/j,evij 
^pvyla, rj 6' avTf] koL KWyanoi^TiaKi] ^pvyla 
Kokovfievrj. 

2. TauT7;9 h eVt jxev T(p (TTOfiari tov IIovtov 
X-aXKyScov iSpvTUi, ^leyapecov Kriafxa, koI Koofiy) 
XpfcroTToX-i? Kal ro lepov to ^aXKrjBoviov, e%ei S' 
■)] %&j/Da. pLtKpbv^ vTrep T779 OoK-clttii^ Kprjvyv 'A^a- 
piTiav, rpecpovaav KpoKoSetXou^ fxiKpov^' eireir^ 
eKB6')(6TaL Trjv to)v \aXKi]8ovi(i)v rjiova 'Acrra/c?;- 
j/o? KaXovp.epo<; «oA,7ro9, p.epo'i wv Ty^ IJpo7rovTc8o<;, 
ev (M T) NiKOfiyheia eKTicTTUt eVcoi'u/io? ei'o? twv 
^lOvvlkwv ^aatXecov, tov KTLaavTO^ avTyv iroXXol 
S' 6/jicovv/xco^ wvofidaOrjaav, KaOdirep IlToXefj,aloL, 
8ia TTjv TOV vpcoTOv ho^av. yv S' ev avTcp tm 
koXttu) Kal 'Aura/co? 7r6Xi<;, Meyapewv KTia/xa Kal 
^ Adr]vaiu>v Kal fxeTci ravTa AoiSaXo'ov, a<^' ^9 Kal 
/coXtto? covo/jidaOrj. KaTecrKdcfyr] B vtto Avai- 
fidy(^ov' Tov<i S' olK}]Topa<i jxeryyayev et? Nf«o- 
fi7]Beiav 6 KTi(Ta<i avTyv. 

3. Tm 6' ' AaraKyvw koXtto^; dX\o^ (Tvveyrj<i 
eariv, elae^cov fidXXov tt/oo? dvi(T')(^ovTa rjXtov, ev 
u) Upovaid^i eaTiv, rj Kto? rrpoTepov ovofxaadelcra' 

' HtKp6v oxz and the editors, instead of fjuKpdv. 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 4. 1-3 

IV 

1. BiTHVNiA is bounded on the east by the Paphla- 
gonians and Mariandyni and some of the Epicteti ; 
on the north by the Pontic Sea, from the outlets of 
the Sangarius River to the mouth of the sea at 
Byzantium and Chalcedon ; on the west by the 
Propontis ; and towards the south by Mysia and by 
Phrygia"Epictetus," as it is called, though the same 
is also called " Hellespontiac " Phrygia. 

2. In this last country, at the mouth of the 
Pontus, are situated Chalcedon, founded by the 
Megarians, and Chrysopolis, a village, and the 
Chalcedonian temple ; and slightly above the sea 
the country has a spring called Azaritia, which 
breeds little crocodiles. Then the Chalcedonian 
shore is followed by the Astacene Gulf, as it is 
called, a part of the Propontis ; and it was on this 
gulf that Nicomedeia was founded, being named 
after one of the Bithynian kings, who founded it.^ 
But many kings, for example the Ptolemies, were, 
on account of the fame of the first, given the same 
name. And on the gulf itself there was also a city 
Astacus, founded by the Megarians and Athenians 
and afterwards by Doedalsus ; and it was after the 
city Astacus that the gulf was named. It was 
rased to the ground by Lysimachus, and its inhabi- 
tants were transferred to Nicomedeia by the founder 
of the latter. 

3. Continuous with the Astacene Gulf is another 
gulf, which runs more nearly towards the rising sun 
than the former does ; and on this gulf is Prusias, 
formerly called Cius. Cius was rased to the ground 

' Nicomedes I, in 264 b.o. 

455 



STRABO 

Kare(JKay\re Be rr]v Kt'oi^ OtXtTTTrof, o Ai]fj,i}Tpiov 
fiev v'i6<s, Wepaew's he TraTijp, eScoKe Se IJpovata 
Tft) Z7JXa, auyKaraaKdyjravTi kuI TavTJ]V Kal 
\lvpXeiav aarvyeirova iroXiv, TrXrjaiov Se Kal 
ITpoycr?;? ovcrav dvaXa/dcov 8 eKeu'0<i ck tcov 
C 564 epeiTricof avTa<; €Tr(ovo/j.aa€v acj) eavrov p,ev Tlpov- 
acdSa ttoXlv T7]p Klov, tijv Be WvpXeiav ^ATJ-d/xeiav 
d-rrb t^? yvvaiK6<;. ovro's 5' earlv 6 Ilpovaia<i 6 
Koi WvvL^av Se^dfi€vo<i, dva)(^(opy'}(javTa Sevpo /xeTa 
TTjv 'AvTio^ov -qTTav, KOL TT]^ e(f>' ' iLXXi]a7rcvr(p 
O/ouyta? dvaa-To.^ Kara crvp^daei^; Tol<i WrraXi- 
KOL<i, fjv 01 ixev TTporepov eKdXovv jiiKpav ^pvylav, 
eKelvoL 8' ^EttIkttjtov oivofxacrav. virepKenai. he 
T/}? Wpovaidho'i opo<i, o KaXovaiv ' Apyavdcoviov. 
einavOa Be p,v6evovai rbv ' TXav, eva tmv 'Hpa- 
KXeov^ eraipoyv crvfiTrXevcravra eVi r/y? Wpyov'i 
avTw, e^iovra Be irrl vBpeiav vtto vv/icpciyv dpira- 
yyjvai' Kloi> Be, Kal tovtov 'HpaKXeou^ eralpov 
Kal (TVfMTrXovv, eiraveXdovTa e« KoA-Ytoi' avroOi 
Karafxelvai Kal Kria-anrjv ttoXlv eirdovvfiov avrov. 
Kal I vv B en eoprij Ti? ajerai irapa TOi? TJpov- 
aievaiv Kal opei/Saaia, diaaevovTwv Kal KaXovv- 
7a)v "TXav, (i? civ Kajd ^>]T7}aiv rijv eKeivov 
TTtTronjpevayv rr)v eVi rd^i vXa^; e^oSov. TToXcrev- 
crdp.evoi Be tt/so? 'Pcofxaiov; oi Upovaiei'i evvoiKO)^ 
eXev6epia<i erv^ov. ol 8' 'Avra/zet? ^ aTroiKiav 
iBe^avTO 'Vco/xaccov. Upovaa Be eirl tu> 'OXv/xttu) 
'iBpvrat Tft) Mucrtft), 7t6Xi<; evvo/jLOv/xevT], rol<; re 
^pv^lv o/jt.opo<; Kal roi? Muo-ot?, KTia/.La Upovaiov 
70V 7r/309 Kpolaov ^ TroXefitjaavro';. 

^ 'ATTo/Lifis, Corais, for "Airo^uierj ; so the later editors. 
- Kpolaov is probably an error for Kvpov (see Steplianua 
s.v. Upovcra). 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 4. 3 

by Philip, the sou of Demetrius and father of Per- 
seus, and given by him to Prusias the son of Zelas, 
who had helped him rase both this city and Myrleia, 
which latter is a neighbouring city and also is near 
Prusa. And Prusias restored them from their ruins 
and named the city Cius " Prusias " after himself and 
Myrleia "Apameia" after his wife. This is the 
Prusias who welcomed Hannibal, when the latter 
withdrew thither after the defeat of Antiochus, and 
who retired from Phrygia on the Hellespont in 
accordance with an agreement made with the 
Attalici.^ This country was in earlier times called 
Lesser Phrygia, but the Attalici called it Phrygia 
Epictetus.^ Above Prusias lies a mountain called 
Arganthonium. And here is the scene of the myth 
of Hylas, one of the companions of Heracles who 
sailed with him on the Argo, and who, when he was 
going out to get water, was carried off by the 
nymphs. And when Cius, who was also a com- 
panion of Heracles and with him on the voyage, 
returned from Colchis, he stayed here and founded 
the city which was named after him. And still to 
this day a kind of festival is celebrated among the 
Prusians, a mountain-ranging festival, in which they 
march in procession and call Hylas, as though 
making their exodus to the forests in quest of him. 
And having shown a friendly disposition towards the 
Romans in the conduct of their government, the 
Prusians obtained freedom. Prusa is situated on 
the Mysian Olympus ; it is a well-governed city, 
borders on the Phrygians and the Mysians, and was 
founded by the Prusias who made war againstCroesus.^ 

^ Kings of Perganium. 

* /.«." Newly acquired," or "annexed," territory. 

• See critical note. 

457 



STRABO 

4. L^iopiaai Be tov<; 6pov<> ')(a\eiTov rov^ re 
\^lOv^'0)l' /cal ^pvyoiv koI Mvctcov koX en i^oXtoi'wv 
Twv -nepl ^S^vl^LKov /cal ^^IvySovcov koI Tpoocov' kuI 
SioTi fxev elrai hei eKaarov ^ <^v\ov ^^aipt'?, o[xo\o- 
yelrai. koX eVt ye tcov ^pvycov kuI rcov Muawf 
Kal Trapoi/xid^ovrai' 

^&)/?t9 ra Mvacov Kal ^pvyoiv opiafxaTa' 

Siopiaai ^ 8e ^aXeTTOj^. aiTiov Be to to 1)9 i7n]\vBa<; 
^ap^dpov<; Kal (nparioiTa'^ 6vTa<i fxrj ^e^aiax; 
KaTt')(^eiv rrjv KparrjOeiaav, dWa 7rXavt]Ta<; elvai 
TO TrXeov, eV/3aX\ofTa<? Kal eK^aWo/xevov^. 
atravTa he to, edvrj TavTa (^paKid ti<; ecKal^oi dv, 
Sid TO TVjv Trepaiav vefieaOat tovtov<;, kuI Btd to 
firj TToXii e^aWaTTetv dWijXwv eKUTepovi. 

5. ' 0/i&)9 h e(p oaov eiKd^eiv olov re, t^? p.ev 
Vn9vvia<i fieai-jv dv rt? 9eii) Kal t^? eKfio\rj<s tov 
KlarjTTov TYjv Mfcrtat', aTrTOfievrjv tt}? OaXdTTrj^; 
Kal SujKovaav p-^XP^ '^'^^ ^OXvp,7rov a^^Sov ^ irav- 
T09* kvkXw Be Triv 'Ejttikttjtov Keip-evrjv ev ttj 
p-eaoyaia, daXdTTrj^ ovBafiov uTTTop.evi^v, BiaTei- 
vovaav Be P'^Xpi twv ewcdv p,epMv t/}? ^ A.CKavia'i 
\Lp,vi]<i re Kal ^co/9a9, 6p.covvpci}^ yap ttj XlpLvrj Kal 
7] %<wpa eXeyeTO. Kal rjv at'T% to pev ^pvyiov, 
TO Be Mvaiov, diroaTepw Be 77)9 Tpoia^ ro ^pvyiov. 
Kal Br) Kal ovtco BcKTeov to nrapd tu> ttoiijti], 
oTav (f}fj' 

Oo/9«:i'9 3' av ^pvya<i ijye Kal WaKdvio^ 

deoeiBtj^, 
T/yA,' e^ ^ \aKaviri<i, 

^ ri, before <pv\ou, E omits; so Meineke. 

* Siopicrai K, oioptaa./j.fi'ot CDhilitr, Sioplcraadai oxz. 

458 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 4. 4-5 

4. It is difficult to mark the boundaries l)eL\veen 
the Bithynians and the Plirygiansand the Mysians, or 
even those between the DoHones round Cyzicus and 
the Mygdonians and the Trojans. And it is agreed 
that each tribe is " apart " from the others (in the 
case of the Phrygians and Mysians, at least, there is a 
proverb, "Apart are the boundaries of the Mysians 
and Phrygians "), but that it is difficult to mark the 
boundaries between them. The cause of this is that 
the foreigners who went there, being barbarians and 
soldiers, did not hold the conquered country firmly, 
but for the most part were wanderers, driving people 
out and being driven out. One might conjecture 
that all these tribes were Thracian because the 
Thracians occupy the other side ^ and because the 
people on either side do not differ much from one 
another. 

5. But still, as far as one is able to conjecture, one 
might put down Mysia as situated between Bithynia 
and the outlet of the Aesepus River, as touching 
upon tlie sea, and as extending as far as Olympus, 
along almost the whole of it ; and Epictetus as lying 
in the interior round Mysia, but nowhere touching 
upon the sea, and as extending to tlie eastern parts 
of the Ascanian Lake and territory ; for the territory 
was called by the same name as the lake. And a 
part of this territory was Phr^'^gian and a part Mysian, 
but the Phrygian part was farther away from Troy. 
And in fact one should thus interpret the words of 
the poet when he says, " And Phorcys and godlike 
Ascanius led the Phrygians from afar, from Ascania," ^ 

* i.e. the European side. * Iliad 2. 862, 

* All iSISS. except K read 5« after ax^^iv. 

459 



STRABO 

T^<? ^pvyiaKrj'i, co? ovar]<i iyyvrepo) dWr]^ 

rj<; fie/xvrjjai,, orav (j)f)' 
C 565 TldXfxvv T WaKcii'iov re ^lopvv 6\ vV 'Itttto- 

^Ivacov dy)(^e/jid)(0)V t)y i'-jto pa, 

o'l p i^ ' AaKaiirj'i epi^oo\aKO<; rjXOov dpoifSoi. 

ov Oavpacnov 8\ el ru>v ^pvycov elTTOiv riva 
■qyepova ^ XaKaviov Koi e|- 'AcrKavla<; rjKovTa, Koi 
yivaoiv Ttvd Xiyei tjyepova ^ AaKavLov Kal i^ 
AdKavia^ rjKOVTa' ttoWt) yap rj opcovvpta Trap' 
avTO), Kal T) tiTTo Twt' TTorapcov Kal Xipvoiv Kal 
')^a>pL(or eTTLKXriai'^. 

6. Kai Tov AXarj-TTOv he Tcov ^Ivacav opiov irapa- 
hihoxTLV avTO<; 6 7roi7;Tr;9* Tr}v yap virep rov 
IXiou irapcopeiav Trj<; Tpola^; KaraXe^a<i tt)v vtt 
Alveia, T]v AapSaviav eKaXeae, riOrjaiv i(f)e^rj<; 
7rp6<; dpKTOv Kal^ Trjv AvKcav, rrjv vtto Yiavhapw, 
ev y Tj TikXeia- Kai (^rjaiv 

6l he ZeXeLav evaiov viral iroha veiarov "\hr)<i, 
d(})veiol TrivovTe<i vhcop p,eXav AlatJTroio 
Tpcoe?. 

T^ he ZeXeia vTroTreirTCOKe Trpo? daXdrrp eTrirdhe ^ 
TOV AlaiJTrov ro t?}? 'Ahpaarei.a'i Trehiov Kal 
'Yrjpeia Kal i) UtTva Kal KaOoXov rj vvv Kv^iktji'T) 
■fj TT/jo? YlpidTTw, r)v i(p-:^}]^ KaraXeyer elra dva- 
Kapirrei -rrdXiv errl rd TTpo<i eo) peprj Kal Ta 
iireKewa, ware ep<^aiveL T-qv pe^P^ Alcn^-nov 
Trepan rjyovpevo^ tt)^ Tpoodho^ to dpKTiKov Kal 

^ (is, before t^v hvKiav, omitted by oxz and the editors. 
460 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 4. 5-6 

that is, the Phrygian Ascaiiia/ since his words imply 
that another Ascania, the Mysian, near the present 
Nicaea, is nearer Troy, that is, the Ascania to which 
the poet refers when he says, " and Palmys, and Asca- 
nins,and Morys, son of Hippotion (Morys being leader 
of the Mysians, hand to-liand fighters), who had come 
from deep-soiled Ascania to relieve their fellows." ^ 
And it is not remarkable if he speaks of one Ascanius 
as a leader of the Phrygians and as having come from 
Ascania and also of another Ascanius as a leader of the 
Mysians and as having come from Ascania, for in Homer 
identity of names is of frequent occurrence, as also the 
surnaming of people after rivers and lakes and places. 
G. And the poet himself gives the Aesepus as a 
boundary of the Mysians, for after naming the foot- 
hills of Troy above Ilium that were subject to 
Aeneas, which he calls Dardania, he puts down 
Lycia as next towards the north, the countr}' that 
was subject to Pandarus, in which Zeleia was situated; 
and he says, " and they that dwelt in Zeleia 'neath 
the nethermost foot of Mt. Ida, wealthy men, Trojans, 
who drink the dark water of the Aesepus." ^ Below 
Zeleia, near the sea, and on this side of the Aesepus, 
are the plain of Adrasteia, Mt. Tereia, and Pitya 
(that is, speaking generally, the present Cyzicene near 
Priapus), which the poet names next after Zeleia ; * 
and then he returns to the parts towards the east 
and those on the far side of the Aesepus, by which 
he indicates that he regards the country as far as the 
Aesepus as the northerly and easterly limit of the 

1 See Leaf, Troy, p. 301. * Iliad 13. 792. 

3 Iliad 2. 824. •* Iliad 2. 828. 

* ^iriTaSs, Meiueke, from conj. of Kramer, for inl Si rtp E, 
^tr; Of r6 other MSS., virfp 5* Oz, airh Se X. 

461 



STRABO 

f&ov. aWa fxrjv /lerd ye rrjv TpaodBa rj Mutrta 
earl Kal 6 "OXu/atto?. r) /xev ovv iraXaia fxvrj/xr] 
roiavTrjV riva inrayopevei Ttjv rwv iOvoyv Oeaiv, 
ai Be vvv fiera^oXal to, ttoWo, i^/]Wa^av, aWoT 
dWoop iTTCKpaTOvvTcov, Kal TO, fxev Gvyyeovroav, 
TO, Be BiacrTrwvTcov, Kal yap ^pvyes eVe/cpa- 
TTjaav Kal Mfcrol /xera ti-jv 'Vpoia^ dXaxriv, ecO 
varepov AvBol Kal /ier' eKeivwv^ AtoXet? Kai 
^lo}ve<i, erreira Hepaai Kal ^laKeB6ve<;, TeXeuralot 
Be '¥cofxaioi, icf)' wv y]Br] Kal ra? BiaXeKTOvi Kau 
rd ovo/xara aTro^e/SXrjKacriv ol irXelaroi, yeyovo- 
T09 erepov rivo^ /xepiafxov Trj<i ')((iipa^, ov /xdWov 
(ppovTLcrai Bel rd vvv ota ecm ^ Xeyovjas, Trj Be 
dp)(^aioXoyia fieTpico^ irpoae^ovTa^. 

7. 'Ei^ Be rfi ^eaoyaia Tr)<i l^iduviai to re 
BiOvviov eariv, vTrepKeifievov tov Tielov Kal e^ov 
Trjv irepl ^dXcova ')(^u)pav dpLarrjv ^ov^oGLOi'i, 
odev idTlv 6 "S-aXcovLTr]^ rvp6<;, Kal NiKaia, r] 
firjTpoTToXi^; Tr}? HiOvvLa^ kirl t^ AcrKavLa Xl/jLVJ], 
irepLKenai, Be kvkXw ireBiov fxeya Kal a^oBpa 
evBaifxov, ov irdvv Be vyieivov tov Oepov<;, Krlafia 
^ kvTiyovov fiev irptoTOv tov ^lXlttttov, o? avTrjv 
^AvTiyoviav TrpoaelTrev, elra Avaifj.dy(ov, o? airo 
T))^ yvi>ai.KO<i fxercovu/xaae KiKaiav' rjv B^ avTT] 
Ovydrrjp 'AvTiTraTpov. eari Be Trj<i TroXeo)^ 

^ Chiorz have iKelvovs. 

* oTa eari (oV tan Meineke), Jones, for oT eroi (sic) C, ou 
ol6v T6 X, oUrat other MSS. ; but the uvra of Corais is 
tempting. 

» 12. 8 7. 
462 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 4. 6-7 

Troad. Assuredly, however, Mysia and Olympus 
come after the Troad. Now ancient tradition 
suggests some such position of the tribes as this, but 
the present differences are the result of numerous 
changes, since different rulers have been in control 
at different times, and have confounded together 
some tribes and sundered others. For both the 
Phrygians and the Mysians had the mastery after 
the capture of Troy ; and then later the Lydians ; 
and with them the Aeolians and the lonians ; and 
then the Persians and the Macedonians ; and lastly 
the Romans, under whose reign most of the peoples 
have already lost bjth their dialects and their names, 
since a different partition of the country has been 
made. But it is better for me to consider this 
matter when I describe the conditions as they now 
are,^ at the same time giving proper attention to 
conditions as they were in antiquity. 

7. In the interior of Bithynia are, not only 
Bithynium, which is situated above Tieium and 
holds the territory round Salon, where is the best 
pasturage for cattle and whence comes the Salonian 
cheese, but also Nicaea, the metropolis of Bithynia, 
situated on the Ascanian Lake, which is surrounded 
by a plain that is large and very fertile but not at all 
healtliful in summer. Nicaea was first founded by 
Antigonus •^ the son of Philip, who called it Anti- 
gonia, and then by Lysimachus, who changed its 
name to that of Nicaea his wife. She was the 
daughter of Antipater,^ The city is sixteen stadia in 

* King of Asia; defeated by Lysimachus at the battle of 
Ipsu3 in Pluygia (301 B.c ), and fell in that battle in hia 
81st year (Diodorus Siculus 20. 46-86). 

* Appointed regent of Macedonia by Alexander in 334 B.C. 

463 



ST R A BO 

kKKaiheKaardhiO'i 6 "jrepifioXo^ iv rcTpaydiiVM 
(T')(^7]fiaTi' eari Be ical rerpd'rTvKo'i iv ireBirp 
C 566 Keifxevo'i ippv/xoTOfii]/xepo^ 7rpo<; op9a<; j(ovLa<;, 
oicrr d(^' efo? \l9ov Kara fiiaov i8pu/j.ei'ov 
TO yvfivdaiov ra? Terrapa<; opdadai vruXa?. 
fxiKpov 6' virep t?}? ^ KcrKavla'; Xifivrj^; 'Orpota 
7ro\L')(vri, rrpo<i Tol<i opoi<i -tjSrj t^<? Bi6vvia<; toi<; 
7r/909 €(o' elKu^ovai 5' diro 'OTpe'to? 'Orpoiav 
KaXeiadat.^ 

8. "On 8' ^v KUTOtKLa yiuacov rj BidvvLa, 
■npihrov /xapTvpi'jaec UkuXu^ 6 KapvavB€v<i,^ 
(pTjaa^ irepioiKelv tjjv ^ AaKaviav Xlfxvrjv ^pvyaf; 
Kal Mv(TOv<;, eireira Aiovvaio<; 6 Td<; KTi(TeL<; 
(Tvyypdyjra';, 09 to. ^ Kara XaXKtjBova Kal Bv^dv- 
Tiov (rrevd, a vvv i^)paKio<i Boa7ropo<i KaXeirai, 
irporepov (f)i](Ti Mvaiov Bocnropov irpocrayopevea- 
Oac TOVTO 5' dv Ti9 Kal tov &pdKa<; elvat rov^ 
Mfffoi)9 fxaprvpiov Seirj- re l£,v(^op'Lu>v, 

^Ivaolo Trap vSaaiv AaKovioio 

Xeyayv, Kal 6 AtTwXo? ^AXe^avBpo<;, 

o'i Koi i'n ^ AaKaviwv Bcofiar e')(^ovai po&tv 
Xi/xvT]^ ^ \(TKavirj<i iirl 'xeiXeaiv, evOa AoXloyu 
vio<; XiXrjvov vdaaaTo Kal MeXu;?, 

TO auTO CKfiapTVpoOffiv, ovBap^ov Tri<i 'AaKavia<; 
Xiixvri<; evpi(TKop.evrj^ dXX! ivravda jxovov. 

9. ^AvBpe<i 8' a^/oXo70i Kara iraiBeiav yeyo- 
vaaiv €i> rfi Bidvvla "B^evoKpdrrj^ t€ 6 (f)iX6ao(j)o<; 

^ ■np6Tfpov, after Ka\e7a6at, is omitted by xz. 
^ KapvavSevs, Casaubon, for Kapuavdpds; so the later 
editors. 

464 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 4. 7-9 

circuit and is quadrangular in shape ; it is situated in 
a plain, and has four gates ; and its streets are cut at 
right angles, so that the four gates can be seen 
from one stone wliich is set up in the middle of the 
gymnasium. Slightly above the Ascanian Lake is 
the town Otroea, situated just on the borders of 
Bithynia towards the east. It is surmised that 
Otroea was so named after Otreus. 

8. That Bithynia was a settlement of the Mysians 
will first be testified by Scylax the Caryandian/ who 
says that Phrygians and Mysians lived round the 
Ascanian Lake ; and next by the Dionysius ^ who 
wrote on *' The Foundings " of cities, who says that 
the strait at Chalcedon and Byzantium, now called 
the Thracian Bosporus, was in earlier times called 
the Mysian Bosporus. And this might also be set 
down as an evidence that the Mysians were 
Thracians. Further, when Eu])horion ^ says, "beside 
the waters of the Mysian Ascanius," and when 
Alexander the Aetolian says, " who have their 
homes on the Ascanian streams, on the lips of the 
Ascanian Lake, where dwelt Dolion the son of 
Silenus and Melia,"* they bear witness to the same 
thing, since the Ascanian Lake is nowhere to be 
found but here alone. 

9. Bithynia has produced men notable for their 
learning: Xenocrates the philosopher, Dionysius the 

^ This Scj-lax was sent by Darius Hystaspis on a voyage of 
exploration down the Indus, and did not return for two and 
a half years (Herodotus 4; 44). 

* Dionysius of Chalcis in Euboea. 
^ See Dklionary in Vol. IV. 

* Passage again cited in 14. 6. 29. 

^ OS Tct, Corais, for on GDhilo, en ric, 'iJti ri. xz; so the later 
editors. 

465 



ST R A BO 

Kal Aioviicnos' 6 BiaXcKTiKo^ Kal 'jTTTrayo^o? koI 
%€o86cTto<; Kal oi vratSe? avTov /j,adi]fMaTtKol 
KXeo%ap?;9 ^ re prJTCop,^ 6 MfpXeayo?, 'Acr/cX?/- 
iTu'ihrjf; T€ Impo^, 6 Ylpovaiev<i. 

10. 11/309 vorov S' eicrt TOt<> Bt^yj/ot? ot 7re/jl 
Toi/ ^OXvfiTTOV Mvcrot (o&9 ^OXv/ji7rrivov<i KaXovai 
rii>e<;, ol S' 'iLWijaTTOvTiov^;) Kal t) e^' 'EXX7;o-- 
TTotTft) ^pvyia, rot? Se Tla(f)Xayo(TL TaXdrai, 
dp,(^oTepo}v re tovtoov eVt Trpo? vorov rj /xeydXy] 
^pvyia Kal \vKaovia p-^XP'' "^^^ Tavpov rod 
K.1X1KLOV Kal rov IlLaiSiKOV. irrel he ra rfj 
Tla(f)Xayovia crvvexv '^(ipaKeirat. ra Ylovro) Kal 
rf) KaTTTrahoKta Kal rot? t^Btj 7repiQ)8ev/j,evoi<; 
edveaiv, OLKelov av elrj ra rovroi<; yeirovovvra 
fiepr] TrpoaaTToBouvai irpajrov, e-rreira rov<; e^rj'i 
roTTovi; TrapaSel^ai. 

V 

1. 11/309 vorov roLvvv elcrl Tot9 Tla(f)Xayoai 
FaXdrar rovrcov S' iarlv edvy] rpiu, hvo [xev rwv 
iiyep.6v(ov e7rd)vvp,a, 'TpoKpuoi, ^ Kal ToXcaro^ojycoi,^ 
TO rpirov S' diro rov ev KeXriKt] edvov^ Tckto- 
(rdye^. Kareaypv he rr]v ^dipav ravrrjv oi FaXd- 
rai TrXavt]d evre<; ttoXvv xP^vov Kal Kara8pafi6vr€<; 
rrjv VTTO T0i9 ' ArraXiKoh ^aaiXevcri ^co/saj/ Kal 

1 K\eoxapr)J, Meineke, for K\io<pdi'ris. 

- After ^TJTOjp Meineke wronglj' emends the text to read 
[re] Mvp\eavhs 'AaK\r]iridST]s [ypafj.fj,aTiKhs} iarpSs [re] 6 
Upova-ifvs. See Paulj'-Wissowa, s. vv. 

' GDhilo read Tpoyuoi, E Tp6yicoi. 

* ToKiffTodiiytoi, Kramer, for ToKiaTo^iiiyui ; so the later 
editors. 
466 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 4. 95. 1 

dialectician, Hipparchus,^ Theodosius and his sons 
the mathematicians, and also Cleochares the rheto- 
rician of Myrleia, and Asclepiades ^ the physician of 
Prusa. 

10. To the south of the Bithynians are the Mysians 
round Olympus (who by some are called the Olym- 
peni and by others the Hellespontii) and the 
Hellespontian Phrygia ; and to the south of the 
Paphlagonians are the Galatae ; and still to the south 
of these two is Greater Phrygia, as also Lycaonia, 
extending as far as the Cilician and the Pisidian 
Taurus. But since the region continuous with 
Paphlagonia is adjacent to Pontus and Cappadocia 
and the tribes which I have already described, it 
might be appropriate for me first to give an account 
of the parts in the neighbourhood of these and then 
set forth a description of the places that come next 
thereafter. 



1. The Galatiaus, then, are to the south of the 
Paphlagonians. And of these there are three tribes ; 
two of them, the Trocmi and the Tolistobogii, are 
named after their leaders, whereas the third, the 
Tectosages, is named after the tribe in Celtica.^ 
This country was occupied by the Galatae after 
they had wandered about for a long time, and after 
they had overrun the country that was subject to 
the Attalic and the Bithynian kings, until by volun- 

' See Dictionary in Vol. I. 

* The friend of Crassus ; lived at the beginning of the first 
century B.C. 
» See 4. 1. 13. 

467 



STRABO 

Tot9 Biduvol<;, e&)9 Trap' ckovtcov kXa^ov rriv vvv 
TaXaTi'av Kal TaXkoypaiKcav Xejofievrjv. ap-^rj- 
70? 8e BoKei ixaKiara tt}? Trepaiuxreco^ t^9 et? rr/i' 
C 567 Wcrcav yeveadai Aeovvopio^. rpioiv Be ovtcov idvCov 
ofioy\(t)TT(ov Kal Kar aWo ovhev i^ijWay p.evcov , 
eKacTTOv 8l€\6vt€<; e/? TeTTapa<; fxepiha^ rerpap^^^iav 
eKokecrav, TeTpdp)(^rjv e)(ovaav iBiov koL SiKaarrjv 
eva Kal crrpaTo^vXaKa eva, vtro toG reTpdpx)] 
T€Tay/xivov<i, V7roaTparo(pvXaKa<i Be Bvo. i] oe 
Tcov B(i>BeKa TCTpapx^v ^ovXrj avBpe<; rjaav 
TpiaKoaLOL, avvrjyovTO Be els rbv KuXov/xevov 
Apvpe/xerov. ra p.kv ovv (^ovikci rj /3ovXr) eKpive, 
Ta Be dXXa 01 TeTpdp)(ai Kal oi BiKacnai. TrdXai 
fiev ovv Tjv ToiavTii ra rj Bidra^d, Kad^ V/^d'i Be 
el<; rpel'i, elr elq Bvo rjyep,6va<;, elra et? eva rjKev 
77 Bwaareia, els Aijtorapov, elra eKelvov BieBe^aro 
ApLvvras' vvv B e')(OvaL Vcopialot /cat Tavrrjv Kal 
rrjv vTTo TM ^ApLvvTO. yevopbivijv iraaav els pLcav 
crvvayayovres eTrapxlciv. 

2. ^'E^ovaL Be oi piev TpoKpioi ^ ra trpos rrp 
TI6vT(p Kal Tfi KaTTTraBoKia' ravra B earl rd 
KpdTKTra 0)v vepLOVTai TaXdrar (ppovpia 8' aiirols 
Terelx'^aTai Tpia, Taoviov, epLiropiov twv TavTrj, 
61TOV 6 rov Albs KoXoaaos xaXKOvs Kal repievos 
avTov davXov, Kal ^IiOpiBdriov, eBcoKe Tlop,- 
•nrjLos ^oyoBiardpo),^ t?}? Uovtiktjs ^aaiXeias 
d(f)opLcras' Tpurov Be rrcos AavdXa,^ oirov top 

^ TpiKfjioi, man. see. in E. TpSy^oi other MSS. 

- Bo7o5iaTopa) is cloubtful. For various conjectures see 
notes of Groskurd, Kramer, and C. Miiller. 

" C reads irai instead of ira-s. Meineke {Vind. Strab.) con- 
jectures HwhivaXo.. 

468 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 5. 1-2 

tary cession they received the present Galatia, or 
Gallo-Graecia, as it is called. Leoiinorius is generally 
reputed to have been the chief leader of their 
expedition across to Asia. The three tribes spoke 
the same language and differed from each other in 
no respect ; and each was divided into four portions 
which were called tetrarchies, each tetrarchy having 
its own tetrarch, and also one judge and one military 
commander, both subject to the tetrarch, and two 
subordinate commanders. The Council of the 
twelve tetrarchs consisted of three hundred men, 
who assembled at Drynemetum, as it was called. 
Now the Council passed judgment upon murder 
cases, but the tetrarchs and the judges upon all 
others. Such, then, was the organisation of Galatia 
long ago, but in my time the power has passed to 
three rulers, then to two, and then to one, Deio- 
tarus, and then to Amyntas, who succeeded him. 
But at the present time the Romans possess both 
this country and the whole of the country that 
became subject to Amyntas, having united them into 
one province.^ 

2. The Trocmi possess the parts near Pontus and 
Cappadocia. These are the most powerful of the 
parts occupied by the Galatians. They have three 
walled garrisons : Tavium, the emporium of the 
people in that part of the country, where are the 
colossal statue of Zeus in bronze and his sacred 
precinct, a place of refuge ; and Mithridatium, 
which Pompey gave to Bogodiatarus, having separated 
it from the kingdom of Pontus ; and third, Danala,^ 

^ 25 B.C. * See critical note. 

469 



ST R A BO 

o-vWoyov €7roi.)']aavTO IIo/ATTTjfo? re kuI AevKoX- 
\o9, 6 fjL€V rJKcov iirl ttjv tov iroXefiou BiaBo)(i]i', 
Se TrapaSt^ov^ t^jv e^ovaiav koI airaipoiv eirl 
TOV 6pla/j./3ov. TpoKjbLoi ^ fiev Srj ravr e^ovai ra 
fieprj, TeKTOo-dye^ de ra Trpo? ry fiejaXr) Opuyla 
rfi Kara Ylecraivovvra koX 'OpKa6pKov<i' tovtwv 
3' rjv (f)povpiov " K<yKvpa, o/xcovvfio<; rfj irpo'^ 
AvBiav irepl Wkavhov^ iroXixv-ri ^pvyLaKrj. 
ToXicTTO^ooyioi Be ojxopoi BLdvvoL<i elal Kal rfj 
'EiTriKTrjro) KaXovfiePt) ^pvyia. (j)povpia 8' avrcov 
icTTL TO re BXovklov^ kol to Tlrjiov, wv to /xev 
rjV jBaaiXeLov ArjiOTiipov, to Se ya^o(f)v\dKiov. 

3. Ilecrcr/roO? S" earlv e/jLiropiov Toiiv TavTrj 
fieyiaTov, lepov e^oj-' tt}? AlT/rpo? twv 6eo)v 
ae^aa/xov fxeydXov Tvy^^avov KaXovcri 5' avTrjv 
" AyhiGTLv. 01 8' /epei? to irakaiov /j,ev SvvdaTat 
TfZ'fc"? rjaav, lepwavvrjv Kapirovpevoi /jLeydXrjv, vvvl 
Be TovTcov fiev at Tifial ttoXv fiefieicovTai, to Be 
e/uLTTopiov avfifieier KaTecrKevaaTat, S' virb tmv 
^ ATTaXiKwv ^aaiXecov iepoTrp6Tro)<; to Tefievo'i 
va(p T€ Kal aToal<i XevKoXiOoi'i' eTrt(pave<i 8' 
eirou](Tav 'Poofxaloi to lepov, d(f)lBpvfj.a evOevBe 
T?}? deov fjbeTaTrefiyj/dfxepoi kuto, Toy's t>}? St/SyX.- 
Xr)<i ')^pT]a/xov^, KaOairep Kai tov AaKXrjiriov tov 
iv ^EiTTiBavpo). eaTt Be Kal 6po<; virepKeipevov 
Trj<; 7roXe&)9 to AivBvpov, dcj) ov i) AivBvfxrjvjj, 
KaOdTTep diro tmv YLv^eXtov rj Kv^eXrj. irXriaiov 

^ GDhilow read Tp6y/j.oi instead of TpoKfioi. 
- B\av5ov, Xylander, for BKavpov ; so the later editors. 
^ BAovKwv, Groskurd and Kramer would emend to 
AovK-qiov. 

470 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 5. 2-3 

where Fompey and Leucullus had their conference, 
Pompey coming there as successor of Leucullus in 
the connnand of the war, and Leucullus giving over 
to Pompey his authority and leaving the country 
to celebrate his triumph. The Trocmi, tlien, possess 
these parts, but the Tectosages the parts near 
Greater Phrygia in the neighbourhood of Pessinus 
and Orcaorci. To the Tectosages belonged the 
fortress Ancyra, which bore the same name as the 
Phrygian town situated toward Lydia in the neigh- 
bourhood of Blaudus. And the Tolistobogii border 
on the Bithynians and Phrygia " Epictetus," as it is 
called. Their fortresses are Blucium and Peium, 
the former of which was the royal residence of 
Deiotarus and the latter the place where he kept his 
treasures. 

3. Pessinus is the greatest of the emporiums in 
that part of the world, containing a temple of 
the Mother of the gods, which is an object of great 
veneration. They call her Agdistis. The priests 
were in ancient times potentates, I might call them, 
who reaped the fruits of a great priesthood, but 
at present the prerogatives of these have been 
much reduced, although the emporium still endures. 
The sacred precinct has been built up by the 
Attalic kings in a manner befitting a holy place, 
with a sanctuary and also with porticoes of white 
marble. The Romans made the temple famous 
when, in accordance with oracles of the Sibyl, they 
sent for the statue of the goddess there, just as they 
did in the case of that of Asclepius at Epidaurus, 
There is also a mountain situated above the city, 
Dindymum, after which the country Dindymene was 
named, just as Cybele was named after Cybela. 

47r 



STRABO 

Be Koi 6 ^ayydpioi; TTorafxos TroiecTai rrjv pvaiv 
C 568 eVt ^e rovrro ra iraXaid tu>v ^pvyoiv olKrjTi^pia 
Mt'Sou Ka\ €Ti irporepov Tophiov Koi dWwv 
rivMV, ovB ix^^ acol^ovra iroXewv, dWd Kco/xai 
jiLKpS) fiei^ov^ Twv dWoiv, olov icTTi TO TopScov 
KoX Vop^eov^, TO rov K.daTopo<i ^aa'Ckeiov tov 
^acoKovBapiov, iv w ya/x/Spov ovra tovtov dire- 
(T(})a^e ArjLorapo'i kul rip> Ovyarepa riiv eavrov' 
TO Se (ppovpiov KaTeairaae, koi SieXv/xr'jvaro to 
TrXeiaTov tj)? KaTOiKia^. 

4. MeTa Be ti]v TaXaTtav irpof votov y tc 
Xifivr] eaTLV rj TaTTa, TrapaKeifiepi] ttj /xeydXij 
KaTTTraSoKia tt) /caTa Tov'i Mopifi7]vov<i, fiepo<i B' 
ovoa Tr]<; p-eydXt]^ ^pvyia^;, Koi rj crvve'^']'? TavTrj 
p-e^pi' TOV Tavpov, r)<i Ti]v jrXelcrTijv 'A/iWTa? 
€ix€v, 7] fiev ovv TctTTa dXoTTr^yLov iaTLV avTO- 
<f>ve^, ovTQ} Be irepiTTi'^TTeTaL paBico^ to vBcop 
nravTl tw ^airTiadevTi et? avTo, wcttc aTe<^dvovs 
dXoiv dveXKovaiv, eTretBdv KaOaxrc kvkXov a^oLvi- 
vov, Ta Te opvea dXidKeTai to, 7rpoaayjrdp,€va tw 
TTTepcofiaTi TOV vBaTO^ TrapaxprjfJ'Ci TTCTTTOVTa Bid 
T}]V TTepLTCrj^iv T(t)i> dXa>v. 

VI 

1. ToiavTi]^ Bi] TaTTa ecTTt. /cal Ta irepl 
^OpKa6pK0U<; Kal UiTviaabv^ koX tu twv \vKa6- 
vwv opoireBia y\rv)(,pd Kal yfriXd Kal ovaypo^OTa, 
vBuTOiv Be aTrdvi^ ttoXXt]' ottov Be Kal evpelv 

^ ToiauTTj, Jones, for the corrupt tj re of the MSS. For 
other conjectures see C. Miiller [bid. I'lir. Led. p. 1022). 
Meineke inserts roiavT-ri after TdrTa, 

472 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 5. 3-6. i 

Near l)_v, also, flows tlie Saugariiis River ; and on 
this rivei' are tlie ancient habitations ot the Phrygians, 
of Midas, and of Gordius, who lived even before his 
time, and of certain others, — habitations which 
preserve not even traces of cities, but are only 
villages slightly larger than the others, for instance, 
Gordium and Gorbeus, the royal residence of Castor 
the son of Saocondarius, where Deiotarus, Castor's 
father-in-law, slew him and his own daughter. And 
he pulled down the fortress and ruined most of the 
settlement. 

4. After Galatia towards the south are situated 
Lake Tatta, which lies alongside Greater Cappadocia 
near Morimene but is a part of Greater Phrygia, 
and the country continuous with this lake and 
extending as far as the Taurus, most of which was 
held by Amyntas. Now Lake Tatta is a natural 
salt-pan ; and the water so easily congeals round 
everything that is immersed in it, that when people 
let down into it rings made of rope they draw 
up wreaths of salt, and that, on account of the 
congealing of the salt, the birds which touch the 
water with their wings fall on the spot and are thus 
caught. 

VI 

1. Such, then, is Tatta. And the regions round 
Orcaorci and Pitnissus, as also the plateaus of the 
Lycaonians, are cold, bare of trees, and grazed by 
wild asses, though there is a great scarcity of water; 
and even where it is possible to find water, the 

* Ui.Tviaa6v, Meineke, for lli'Yvta6i', 

473 



STRABO 

SvpaTOV, ^aOvrara (ppeara twv iravTOiv, Kaddrrep 
iv ^oaTpoi^, oTTov fcal iriTrpcKTKeTat to vScop 
(eari 8e km pLoir o\i<; Vapaaovpoyv^ TrXrialov )' '6fi(o<i 
he /calirep dvv8po<i ovaa i) %w/3a 'Trp6/3aTa e'/c- 
Tpe(f)€L Oavp,a(TT(o<i, T/Da^em? ^e ipea<;, Kal rive'; 
€^ avTMV TOVTCov p,eyLaTov<i ttXovtov; eKTijcravTO' 
*Ap,vvTa<; S" uirep rpta/cocri.a<i eaxe Trolpva^ iv tol<; 
roTToiq TOUTOi^. elal he Kal \ip,vai, 1^6pd\i,<i fiev 
rj pei^wv, i) 8 eXuTTCOV Tpooylrcs. evravOa he ttov 
Kol TO \k6vlov ecTTi, ttoXl^viov €v avvwKLapLevov 
Kal ')(^U)pav euru^eaTepav e^ov t?}? \e')(6elari<i 
ovaypo^oTov tovto h' elx^ YloXepcov. TrXrja-cd^ei 
8' yjhrj rovToi<i rot? tottol'^ 6 Tavpo<; o Trjv KaTT- 
TrahoKiav opl^tov Kal ttjv AvKaov'iav irpo^ toj)*? 
VTTepKeipevov; K.iXiKa<i tou? T pa')(ei cot a<i. AvKao- 
pcov T€ Kal KaTTTrahoKfov opiov ecrrt to peTa^v 
YiopoTTaacrov, Koop,^]^; Avkuovcdv, Kal Vapaaovpcov,^ 
TToXiy^PLOV KaTnrahoKwv' eaTt he to p.€Ta^v 
hidaT7]p.a Ttov (ppovpLcov tovtcov eKUTOv etKoai ttov 

(TTdhlOl. 

2. T/)<; he AvKaovia<i ecTTt Kal t) 'laavpiK?) rrpo'i 
avTM TO) Tavpo) i) tu '\aavpa e^ovaa Ku>pa<i hvo 
opfovvpovi, TT/r pev HaXaidv KaXovpevijv ttjv he 
Neai^ ^ evepKry utttjkooi S' rjcrav TavTai^i Kal dXXai 
KoypaL cri/^rai, XrjcrTOiV 5' diraaat KaTOiKlai. 
'napecr-)(OV he Kal 'Pcopaioi,^ TrpdypaTa Kal t(o 
^laavpiKM •npoaa'yopevOevTi Ylov^Xicp ^ep^iXia^ 
ov ■qpel'i elhop^ev, o? Kal TavTa inreTa^e 'Vapaioi^ 
C 569 Kal Td TToXXd twu ireipaTcov ipvp.aTa e^elXe tu 

€7tI TTj OaXdTTTj. 

* Tapaaovpoiv, Corais, for Vapaa^6p<i>v ; so Meineke. 
" Tapaaovpaiv, Corais, for Vapfadvpoiv ; SO Meineke. 

* T^vSe Nfoi', Meineke inserts. 

474 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 6. 1-2 

wells are the deepest in the world, just as in 
Soatra, where the water is actually sold (this is 
a village-city near Garsaiira). But still, although 
the country is unwatered,^ it is remarkably pro- 
ductive of sheep ; but the wool is coarse, and yet 
some persons have acquired very great wealth from 
this alone. Amyntas had over three hundred flocks 
in this region. There are also two lakes in this 
region, the larger being Lake Coralis and the smaller 
Lake Trogitis. In this neighbourhood is also Iconium, 
a town that is well settled and has a more prosperous 
territory than the above-mentioned ass-grazing 
country. This place was held by Polemon. Here 
the region in question is near the Taurus, which 
separates Cappadocia and Lycaonia from Cilicia 
Tracheia,^ which last lies above that region. The 
boundary between the Lycaonians and the Cappa- 
docians lies between Coropassus, a village of the 
Lycaonians,and Garsaiira, a town of the Cappadocians. 
The distance between these strongholds is about one 
hundred and twenty stadia. 

2. To Lycaonia belongs also Isaurice, near the 
'I'aurus itself, which has the two Isauras, villages 
bearing the same name, one of which is called 
Old Isaura, and the other New Isaura, which is 
well-fortified. Numerous other villages were subject 
to these, and they all were settlements of robbers. 
They were a source of much trouble to the Romans 
and in particular to Publius Servilius, surnamed 
Isauricus, with whom I was acquainted ; he sub- 
jected these places to the Romans and also destroyed 
most of the strongholds of the j)irates that were 
situated on the sea. 

' l.f. h\ streams. * See 14. 5. 1. 

475 



STRABO 

3. T779 8' 'la-avpiKT]^ i(TTlv iv irXevpaU rj Aep^t], 
/jLoXiara ttj KaTnraBoKia eTrnr e(^v KO<i to tov 
WvTLTTaTpov rvpavvelov tov Aep.SrJTOV tov 8' rjv 
fcal TO, AdpavEa' e0' 7]/j,cbv Be Kal to, "Icravpa koI 
TTjV Aip^rjv 'A/iui^ra? el^^ei^, eVi^e/xet'O? tw 
Aep^yjTT] Kol aveXcov avTov, to, h Icravpa TTapa 
Tcov 'PcofMULcov Xa0(ov' Kal St) ^aaiXeiov eavTO) 
KUTeaKeva^ev ivTavOa, ttjv Trakaiav "laavpav ^ 
avaTp€yp-a<i. iv Be roj avTW X^P^<p Kaivov t€1)(o<; 
oIkoBo/jl(i)v ovk e(f)0-)] avvT€\ecra<;, dWa Bie(f)deipav 
avTov ol KtA-f/te?, e/i^dWovTa^ etq tov<; 'Ofiova- 
Belf Kal i^ iveBpa<; XijcpBevTa. 

4. Tt)v yap ^ XvTLox^Lav e^^^v Trjv tt/jo? ttj 
TlKTiBia fJ-expi ^ A7ro\XcovidBo<; tt}? Trpo? 'ATra/xeta 
T7J Kt/SwTw Kal T779 irapoope'iov Tivd Kal t7]v 
AvKaovlav eireipaTO tou? eK tov Tavpov KaTa- 
Tpe)(ovTa^ KiXtKa^ Kal TiiaiBa^ ttjv 'Xjcapav 
TavTijv, ^pvycbv ovaav Kal YLiXIkwv,^ e^atpelv, 
Kal TToWd 'y^wpia e^elXev diropOijTa irpoTepov 
ovTa, 0}V Kal Kptifiva' to Be "EavBdXcov ovS" 
eve')(elprjae /Sia TrpoadyeaOai, fieTa^u Keip-evov tt}? 
re Kp7]p,vr]^ Kal 'EayaXaaaou. 

5. T?;^ fiev ovv Kprjp,vav arroiKOL Va)p.aio)v 
eyovcnv, ?} "EayaXaaaof; S' eaTiv viro t&j avT(p 
-qyep-ovL TCOV Pcop-alcov, v(f)' O) koI rj AfivvTOV 
^aaiXeia Trdaa' Biex^t S' \\7rap,€ia'i T)p,€pa<; oBor, 
KaTaj^acriv e')(0vaa a)(eB6v ti Kal TpiaKOVTa 

I "iffavpar, Meineke, for 'laavpiav. 

* euSaWovra, the reading of the MSS., Jones restores, for 
iix8a\6vra, the reading of Corais and later editors. 

s Kal KixUwv apparently is an error formal AvKa6viiiv, or else 
should he omitted from the text (so Meineke). 

476 



(JEOGRAPHV, 12. 6. 3-5 

3. On the side of Isaurice lies Derbe, which lies 
closer to Cappadocia than to any other country and 
was the royal seat of the tyrant Antipater Derbetes. 
He also possessed Laranda. But in my time Derbe 
and also the two Isauras have been held by 
Amyntas,^ who attacked and killed Derbetes, al- 
though he received Isaura from the Romans. And, 
indeed, after desti'oying the Old Isaura, he built 
for himself a royal residence there. And though 
he was building a new wall in the same place, he 
did not live to complete it, but was killed by the 
C'ilicians, when he was invading the country of the 
Homonadeis and was captured by ambuscade. 

4r. For, being in possession of the Antiocheia near 
Fisidia and of the country as far as the Apollonias 
near Apameia Cibotus and of certain parts of the 
country alongside the mountain, and of Lycaonia, 
he was trying to exterminate the Cilicians and the 
Pisidians, who from the Taurus were overrunning 
this country, which belonged to the Phrygians and 
the Cilicians ; ^ and he captured many places which 
previously had been impregnable, among which was 
Cremna. However, he did not even try to win 
Sandalium by force, which is situated between 
Cremna and Sagalassus. 

5. Now Cremna is occupied by Roman colonists : 
and Sagalassus is subject to the same Roman governor 
to whom the whole kingdom of Amyntas was subject. 
It is a day's journey distant from Apameia, having a 
descent of about thirty stadia from the fortress. It 

^ The Galatian Amyntas who fought with Antony against 
Augustus at the battle of Actiuni (31 B.C.). 
^ See critical note. 

477 



STRABO 

(nahiwv airo tov ipv/xaTO<;' KaXovai 8' avrrjv Kal 
'Z€\y'>](T(T6v' TavTTjv Be ttjv ttoXiv koX ' AXe'^ai/S/JO? 
eVkev. S' ovv 'A/xvvra^ rr]v /xev Kpr]/j,vav elXev, 
et? ^e Tou? 'Ofj,ovaBea<; TrapeXOwv, ol cvo/jli^ovto 
aXyjTTTOTaroi, Kal KaTa(na<; ijSi] Kvpio<; t6)v 
TrXelarcov ')(0)piwv, aveXciov Kal tov rvpavvov 
avTwv i^ dTrdrr}^ eXijcfyOi] Sia t7]<; tov Tvpavvov 
yvvaiK6<i. Kal tovtov fxev eKeivoi Siecj^decpav, 
€K6ivov<; Be K.vpLVio<; e^eiropdriae Xifio) Kal Ter pa- 
Ki(T'^iX[ov<i dvhpa<; ei^dtyprjcre Kal crvvcpKiaev et? 
Ta9 eyyv^ TroA-ei?, ttjv Be ^copav direXnrev epijfiov 
tS)v iv uKfifj. ecTTt Be ^ iv vyjrtjXol^ tov Tavpov 
fiepecri, Kpi]fiV0t<; d7roT6/j.oi<; cr^oBpa Kal to irXeov 
d^dTOi<i, ev jiea-fp kolXov Kal evyewv ireBiov, et? 
avX(t)va<i 7rXetou9 Birjprjfievov tovto Be yecopyovv- 
re? MKOvv iv Tal<; VTrepKei/xevai^ 6(f>pvcnv r) crTrt]- 
Xaiof?, Ta TToXXd S' evoTrXoi r^aav Kal KaTeTpe\ov 
TTJV dXXoTplav, exovTe<; oprj Tei'^^l^ovTa ri]v ^Mpav 
avTOiv. 



VII 

1. %vva(f)et<; B' elcrl TovToi<i oi tc dXXot UialBai 
Kal 01 1ieXyel<i, oi-nep elalv d^coXoycoTaTOi tcov 
UicriBcbv. TO /xev ovv irXeov avTwv fiepo<; Tat; 
dKpwpeia^ tov Tavpov KaTexet, Tive<; Be Kal virep 
C 570 2t8>;9 Kal ^AaTrevBov, TlafK^vXiKOiv iroXecov, 
KUTeXovcrt ye(oXo(f)a ■^wpia, eXat6(f)VTa irdvTa, ra 
8' virep . TOVTWv, jjBt] opeivd, K.aTevvei<i, 6/xopoi 

* After St the MSS., except DM, add nal. 
478 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 6. 5-7. i 

is .ilsu called Selgessus ; this city was also 
captured by Alexander. Now Amyntas captured 
Cremna, and, passing into the country of the 
Homonadeis, who were considered too strong to cap- 
ture, and having now established himself as master 
of most of the places, having even slain their tyrant, 
was caught by treachery through the artifice of the 
tyrant's wife. And he was put to death by those 
people, but Cyrinius ^ overthrew the inhabitants by 
starving them, and captured alive four thousand 
men and settled them in the neighbouring cities, 
leaving the country destitute of all its men who were 
in the prime of life. In the midst of the heights 
of the Taurus, which are very steep and for the 
most part impassable, there is a hollow and fertile 
plain which is divided into several valleys. But 
though the people tilled this plain, they lived on 
the overhanging brows of the mountains or in caves. 
They were armed for the most part and were wont 
to overrun the country of others, having mountains 
that served as walls about their country. 



VII 

1. Contiguous to these are the Pisidians, and in 
j)articular the Selgeis, who are the most notable of 
the Pisidians. Now the greater part of them occupy 
the summits of the Taurus, but some, situated above 
Side and Aspendus, Pamphylian cities, occupy hilly 
places, everywhere planted with olive-trees ; and 
the region above this (we are now in the mountains) 
is occupied by the Catenneis, whose country borders 

^ Sulpicius Quirinus, governor of Syria. 

479 



STRABO 

'S.eX.yevcn Kal 'OfjiOvaBeixri, ^aya^aaael^; S' iirl to 
ivro'i TO, irpb^ rfj M/X-uaSi. 

2. 07;crt 6' ^ApTefJii8(i)po<; twv UiaiScov^ 7roA,et? 
elvai I.eXyrjv, 'EayaXacraoi', UeTvrjXiaaov," ASaBa , 
Tv/x/3ptd8a,^ Kpi]/j,vav, Yinvacrcrov, " Afx^Xaha, 
'Avii^ovpa, Xli'Sa, 'Aapaaaov, Tap^aaaop, Tep- 
jj-Tjaaov rovTcov h' oi fiev elai reXew? opeivoi, 
01 Be Kal p.ixP'' "^^^ vTT(jop€LOiv Kadr)KOVTe<s icp' 
eKcirepa, iiri re tt)v T[a/j.(f)vX.Lav Kal jrjv MtXua'Sa 
^pv^L Kal AfSoi? Kai Kapalv Ofiopoc, irdcriv 
elprjVLKol^ Wveai, Kanrep irpoa^opoi^ ovcriv. ol 
he llcifx^v^oi, TToXv rod K.i\iklov <pv\ov p.ere'X^ov- 
re<i, ov reXeo)^ iKpecvrai rcov XrjcrrpiKcov epywv, 
ovSe rov<i 6/x6pou<; ecocn Kad' i)av)(^iav l^rjv, Kaiirep 
ra voria /J-eprj tj}? vircopela^ rov Tavpov Kare^ov- 
re?, elcrl Be roi<; ^pv^iv o/jLopoi Kal rfj Kapia 
Td^ai ^ Kal XtvBa Kal "Afx^XaBa, oOev Kal 6 
'Afx^XaSev^i olvo^ eK(^eperai tt/jo? Biaira<i larpi- 
Kd<i i7rir7]Beio'i. 

3. Twiy S' ovi' 6peivu)v, ou? eiTrov,^ UiaiBcov oi 
fiev dXXot Kara rvpavviBa<i fiefiepiafjLevoi, Kaddrrep 
01 KtXfY6?, XrjarpcKO)^ i']aKT]VTai' 0acrt B avrol'i 
rcov AeXeYcoj/ avy Kar afxcx^W'^^ rtva<i to rraXaiov, 
TTXdvr}ra<; dvdp(i)7rov<;, Kal (TVfi/j,eti'ai Bid rrjv 
ofioiorpoirlav avroOi. ^eXyij Be Kal e^ ap^^? 
fiev vTTo AaKeBaifjLovidiv eKricrdrj rroXi'i, Kal en 
irporepov vrro }\.dX')^avro^' varepov Be KaO^ avrrjv 

^ IliffiSi;/ D, WiailiKiv other MSS. 

* "ASaSa. Tvix^piaZa, Corais, from conj. of Wesseling. for 
oSaoaTTjy PpidSa; so the later editors. 

" Tay8ai, the editors, from Stephanus (s.v. "A/xfiKaSa), for 
TiojSa D, Tia,u5, Tm/Sai r, Tia$a other MSS. 

480 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 7. 1-3 

on that of the Selgeis and the Hoinonadeis ; but the 
Sagalasseis occupy the region this side the Taurus 
that faces Milyas. 

2. Artemidorus says that tlie cities of the Pisidians 
are Selge, Sagalassus, Petnelissus, Adada, Tymbriada, 
Cremna, Pityassus, Amblada, Anabura, Sinda, Aaras- 
sus, Tarbassus, and Termessus. Of these, some are 
entirely in the mountains, wliiK- others extend even 
as far as the foot-hills on either side, to both Pam- 
phylia and Milyas, and border on the Phrygians 
and the Lydians and the Carians^ which are all 
peaceable tribes, although they are situated 
towards the north. But the Paniphylians, Avho 
share much in the traits of the Cilician stock of 
people, do not wholly abstain from the business of 
piracy, nor yet do they allow the peoples on their 
borders to live in peace, although they occupy the 
southern parts of the foot-hills of the Taurus. 
And on the borders of the Phrygians and Caria 
are situated Tabae and Sinda, and also Amblada, 
whence is e.vported the Ambladian wine, which is 
suitable for use in medicinal diets. 

3. Now all the rest of the above-mentioned 
Pisidians who live in the mountains are divided into 
separate tribes governed by tyrants, like the Cilicians, 
and are trained in piracy. It is said that in ancient 
times certain Leleges,^ a wandering people, inter- 
mingled with them and on account of similarity of 
character stayed there. Selge was founded at fir.st 
by the Lacedaemonians as a city, and still earlier bv 
Calchas ; but later it remained an independent city, 

• See 7. 7. 2. 

* ot>s flirov, Groskurd (i? tlirov Corais), for is fliruv ; so the 
later editors in general. 

481 



STRABO 

efxeivev au^ijOelaa eV tov iToXireveaOaL vofiL^(o(;, 
coare koX 8icr/jivpiavBp6<i ttotc elvai. dav^acnrj 
8' iarXv 7] (f)va-i<; twv tottcov ev yap Tat<; iiKpto- 
peiac^ TOV Tavpov %w/3Ci fxvpidha'; rpecpeir Svrafievi] 
a(f)68pa evKapno^ eariv, Mare kol €\aL6(f)VTa elvai 
TToWa ^(^copLa koX €vd/j,7re\a, vop.d<i re dipdoi'ov^ 
aveladai TTavTo8a7roL<; ^o(TKr]fiaai' kvkXw S' 
virepKeivTac Spufiol TroiKiXr}^ vX?;?. TrXettrTO? 5' 
6 (TTvpa^ (f)ueTai irap^ avTol<i, SevSpop ov fieya 
opdrfkov} d(f> ov Koi to, arvpdiciva dKOvrLafxara, 
ioiKOTU Tot? Kpavetvoi^;'^ iyjlverai 8' iv toi<; 
aTeXe^eai ^v\o(f)dyov rt (TKoo'\.7]KO'i eiSa, o p-e)(pi 
tt}? i7n(f)ai'€La<i 8ia(f)aybv to ^vkov to fiev irpoiTov 
iriTvpoii; rj irpicrfMaaiv ioiKo^; tl '^rjyp.a irpo'X^e'i, 
KoX awpo<i (TwicTTaTai Trpo? ttj pi^rj, fxeTO, he 
TavTa diToXei^eTai Tf? vypaaia he')(0fxevrj irij^iv 
pahiav TTapa-nXriaiav ttj Ko^ifxei' TavTri<i 8e to 
fiev iirl TO yp-ljy/xa 7r/309 tt} pLt,r} KaT€ve\6ev ^ 
dvafxiyvvTai tovtw ts kuX ttj yfj, ttXtjv oaov to 
fiev iv eiriTToXfj avcTTav Sia/iiivei Kudapov, to 5' ev 
C 571 Tfi €7rt(f)av€ia tov crreXeT^oi;?, Ka6' rjv pel, TnjTTeTui, 

KOl TOVTO KadapOV' TTOIOVCTI Be Koi eK tov flT} 

Kadapov fxly/xa ^vXo/jLiye<i ti kol yeo)/j.iye<i, evco- 
SecTTepov TOV Kadapov, tji 8' olXXtj Bvvdfxec Xei- 
TTOfievov (Xavddvei Be tov<; ttoXXoik;), u) TtXeiaTM 
^(^poyvTai dvp,id/j,aTi ol BeiaiBaip.ove';. eTraiveiTai 

^ op6r}\6v, as Meineke suspects, might be an error for 
opQ6KavKov ( " straight-Stalked '). 

■ Kpaviivois, Tzschucke, for Kpavaivois (yUEJiilorw, Kpavadvoa 
X, Kpavivois z. 

* KaTfufx^f" D, Karajxix^*^ other MSS. 

482 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 7. 3 

having waxed so powerful on account of the law- 
abiding manner in which its government was conducted 
that it once contained twenty thousand men. And the 
nature of the region is wonderful, for among the 
summits of the Taurus there is a country which can 
support tens of thousands of inhabitants and is so 
very fertile that it is planted with the olive in many 
places, and with fine vineyards, and produces abund- 
ant pasture for cattle of all kinds ; and above this 
country, all round it, lie forests of various kinds of 
timber. But it is the styrax-tree^ that is produced 
in greatest abundance there, a tree which is not 
large but grows straight up, the tree from which the 
styracine javelins are made, similar to those made of 
cornel-wood. And a species of wood-eating worm - 
is bred in the trunk which eats through the wood of 
the tree to the surface, and at first pours out raspings 
like bran or saw-dust, which are piled up at the root 
of the tree ; and then a liquid substance exudes 
which readily hardens into a substance like gum. 
But a part of this liquid flows down ujKin the rasp- 
ings at the root of the tree and mixes with both 
them and the soil, except so much of it as condenses 
on the surface of the raspings and remains pure, and 
except the part which hardens on the surface of the 
trunk down which it flows, this too being pure. And 
the people make a kind of substance mixed with 
wood and earth from that which is not pure, this 
being more fragrant than the pure sub.stance but 
otherwise inferior in strength to it (a fact unnoticed 
by most people), which is used in large quantities as 
frankincense by the worshippers of the gods. And 

' A species of guni-treo. 

* Apparently some kind of wood-boring beetle. 

483 



STRABO 

Be Koi T) "^eXyiKT] ipi<; koI to atr avTr]<i dXeififia. 
ex^t S' 6Xiya<; 'Trpocr^d(T€i<i ra ^ Trepl rrjv ttoXlv kuI 
TTjV %a;paf ttjv "^eXyetov, opeLvrjV Kptjfivcop Kol 
Xapahpoiv ovcrav TrKi'^prj, a? Troiovaiv dWoi re 
TTorapLol KOL 6 EupvfieBcov kol o Kea-rpo^i, diro tcov 
leXyiKMv 6po)v et? rr]v llap-cpuXlav exiri'movTe's 
OaXaTTav yecpvpai S' eTrLKeivrai, ral^ 68ol<;. Sici 
Be ^ TT)u ipvpLVorrjra ovre rrpoTepov ov6^ varepov 
ouS' dira^ ol 'S,6\yet<i err' dWoi^ iyevovro, dWd 
rrjv fiev dXkrjv ^co/ja/^ aSeco? eKapirovvro, vrrep he 
tt}? KciTCt) rrj^ re eV rfj na/x(;6u\ta Kal tj')? ipTOf 
Tov Tavpou 8i€fj,d)(OVTo 77/309 Toi)? /3aai\ea<i dei' 
Trpo'i Be Toi/? 'PcopLaiov^ ewl raKTol<i rial KaTel)(ov 
rrjV T^oipav Trpo? ^A'Xi^avBpov Be it pea ^evcr dp.evot 
Bex^adai rd irpocndyixara el-rrov Kara cfiiXiav 
vvv Be vTTTjKooL TeXico^ yeyovaai, Kai elcriv ev ttj 
viro 'Ap-vvTo, reTayfievrj irpoTepov. 



VITI 

1. Toi9 Bk X^lOvVol'i Op-OpOVal 77/509 VOTOV, d><i e(pT]V, 

ol Trepl TOV "OXv/xTTOv TOV yivaiov Trpocrayopevo- 
/xevov ^ \lvaoi re Kal ^pvye<; exdTepov Be to edvo^ 
BiTTov ecTTt. ^pvyia re yap i) fxev KaXetTUC 
fxeydXrj, ^9 6 Mt^a9 e^acriXevcre, Kal ^9 fJ-epo<i ol 
TaXdTUi KaTea^ov, rj Be fx.iKpd, rj e<^' 'EXXy](r' 

* TO, before -rrfpi, Corais inserts ; so the later editors. 

^ 5e, after Bid, is omitted by all MSS. except D. 

^ Tpoaayopivoixfvov %v, Trpoa^ayopfv6fx.evot otlier MSS. 
484 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 7. 3-8. i 

people praise also the Selgic iris^ and the ointment 
made from it. The region round the city and the 
territory of the Selgians has only a few approaches, 
since their territory is mountainous and full of 
precipices and ravines, which are formed, among 
other rivers, by the Eurymedon and the Cestrus, 
which flow from the Selgic mountains and empty 
into the Pamphylian Sea. But they have bridges on 
their roads. Because of their natural fortifications, 
however, the Selgians have never even once, either 
in earlier or later times, become subject to others, 
but unmolested have reaped the fruit of the whole 
country except the part situated below them in 
Pamphylia and inside the Taurus, for which they 
were always at war with the kings; but in their 
relations with the Romans, they occupied the part in 
question on certain stipulated conditions. They 
sent an embassy to Alexander and offered to receive 
his commands as a friendly country, but at the 
present time they have become wholly subject to 
the Romans and are included in the territory that 
was formerly subject to Amyntas. 

VIII 

1. BonoKHiNc on the Bithynians towards the 
south, as I have said,2arethe Mysians and Phrygians 
who live round the Mysian Olympus, as it is called. 
And each of these tribes is divided into two parts. 
For one part of Phrygia is called Greater Phrygia, 
the part over which Midas reigned, a part of which 
was occupied by the Galatians, whereas the other is 



* The orris-root, used in perfumery and medicine. 

* 12.4. 4f. 



485 



STRABO 

TTOVTU) Kai 7) Trepi Tov'OXv/J-TTOV, rj Kal 'KTrt/crr^TO? 
Xeyofievrj. Mycria re oixoiw; rj re ^OXv/MTrrjvi], 
(Tvvexv^ ovaa rfi BiOuvLa koI rfj "'Kttikttjto), fjv 
€(f)')] ApTe/jii8o}po<i diro twv TTepav^lcrrpov Muawi' 
cnrMKiadai, kuI i) irepi rov K.aiKOv Kal rrjv 
UepynfMTjvrjv /ie^pt Tevdpavla^ Kal twv eK^oXtav 
rov TTorafioV' 

2. OvTQ) 8 ivrjWaKTai ravra ev aA,X,7;\ot9, o)? 
TToWa.KL'i Xeyofiev, ware Kal rrjv irepl rrjv XlttuXov 
(ppuylav 01 rraXaiol KaXoucriv, aSrjXov, el're ri]<; 
/xeydXr)^ etre rfj<; fiiKpd's fi€po<i ovaav, y Kal rov 
TdvraXov ^pvya Kal rov HeXorra Kal rrjv^io^rjv' 
OTTorepcof S' av €')(r), rf ye eTrdXXa^fi (pavepd. rj 
yap n.epya/jLr}vrj Kal rj 'EXairt?, Ka6^ i)v o K-diKOf 
iKirLTTrei, Kal 77 fiera^v rovrcov Tevdpavla, ev rj 
T€vdpa<; Kal rj rov Ti]Xe(f)ov eKrpocfii], dvd fxeaov 
€(Trl rov re 'KXXijairovrov Kal rrj^ rrepl l.irrvXov 
Kal ^iayvrja-iav rrjv utt' avru) 'X^copa'i' a)aO\ oirep 
e(f>T]v, epyov Siopiaai 

C 572 %<wy0t9 rd ^Ivawv Kal ^pvyoiv opia/xara. 

3. Kai 01 AvSol Kal ol Matoi^e?, 01)9 "Ofirjpo'i 
KaXei M?70z^a9, ev avy^vaei 7raJ9 elcri Kal 7rp6<; 
rovrov<; Kal 7rp6<i dXXrjXov^' ore ol /nev rovi 
avrov<i, ol 8' erepov<i (f>aaL, 77/309 Be rovrovi,^ on 

^ rovTovs, Kramer, for tovtois ; so the later editors. 



1 Cf. 12. 4. 3 and foot-note. 

* See 7. 3. 2, 10 ; 12. 3. 3, and 12. 4. 8. 

3 See 12. 4. 4. « See 12. 4. 4. 

^ Again the M\'sians and Phrygians. 

486 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 8. 1-3 

called Lesser Phrygia, that on the Hellespont and 
round Olympus, I mean Phrygia Epictetus,' as it is 
called. Mysia is likewise divided into two parts, I 
mean Olympene, which is continuous with Bithynia 
and Phrygia Epictetus, which, according to Artemi- 
dorus, was colonised by the Mysians who lived on 
the far side of the Ister,^ and, secondly, the country 
in the neighbourhood of the Caicus River and 
Pergamene, extending as far as Teuthrania and the 
outlets of the river. 

2. But the boundaries of these parts have been so 
confused with one another, as 1 have often said^^ 
that it is uncertain even as to the country round 
Mt. Sipylus, which the ancients called Phrygia, 
whether it was a part of Greater Phrygia or of 
Lesser Phrygia, where lived, they say, the 
"Phrygian" Tantalus and Pelops and Niobe. But 
no matter which of the two opinions is correct, the 
confusion of the boundaries is obvious ; for Perga- 
mene and Elaitis, where the Caicus empties into the 
sea, and Teuthrania, situated between these two 
countries, where Teuthras lived and where Telephus 
was reared, lie between the Hellespont on the one 
side and the country round Sipylus and Magnesia, 
which lies at the foot of Sipylus, on the other; and 
therefore, as I have said before, it is a task to deter- 
mine the boundaries (" Apart are the boundaries of 
the Mysians and Phrygians ").^ 

3. And the Lydians and the Maeonians, whom 
Homer calls the Meiones, are in some way confused 
both with these peoples and with one another, 
because some say that they are the same and others 
that they are different ; and they are confused with 
these people^ because some say that the Mysians 

487 



STRABO 

Tovii \lvcrov<; ol fiev &paKa<:, ol Be AvSov^ elpt]- 
Kacri, KUT aWiav iraXaiav l<TTopovvTe<;, rjv 'B.dvdo'i 
AuSo? 'ypd(f)et. tcaX Mere/fpar?;? o KXatrrj^, 
€TVfio\oyovvT€<i Kal TO ovofia TO TMv y>lvaa)i', qtl 
Ti-jv o^VTjV ovTca 6vop.d^ovaiv ol AuBoL' TToXXrj S' 
I'j o^vrj KaTCL Tov "0\vp.7rou, oirov iKTedrjvai cf)aai 
T0v<; SeKaTevOevTa^, eKeivcov Be diToy6i'OV<i elvai 
Toi/? vcnepov Mucrou?, cnro tT;? Q^uT]<i ovtco Trpoaa- 
yopev6evTa<;- papTvpeZv Be Kal ttjv BidXeKTov 
fii^oXvBcov ydp TTO)? elvat Kal pi^ocppvyiov reo)? 
pev yap olKelv avTov<; irepl tov 'OXv/jlttov, twv he 
(^pvywv eK T/}? (~)paKri<; TrepaicoOevToyv, dveXovTcov 
re ^ T^9 TpoLa<; dp')(^ovTa Kal tj}? ttXtjctIov yP}<i, 
€Keivov<i p,ev evTavda olKtjcrai, tov<; Be Mucroi'? 
virep Ta<; tov KaiKOv 7r}]yd<; irXr^aiov AvBwv. 

4. ^vvepyel Be Trpo^ to.^ ToiauTa<; pvOo7roiLa<; i] 
re avy)(vcn<i tCov evTavda eOvoiv Kal y evBai/xovia 
T?}? y(i)pa<; T/79 evTO^ ' AXuo9, pdXiaTa Bk t*}? 
TTapaXia<i, Bi rjv eiriOiaeL^ eyevovTO avTj) iroXXa- 
Xodev Kal Bia TrafTO? e« t^9 irepaia^, r) Kal eV 
dXXifXov<i lovTwv T(t)v 677^9. /jidXiaTa p,ev ovv 
KaTCL ra TpcoiKo. Kal p^eTo. TavTa Ta9 i<p6Bov^ 
yeveadai Kal Ta9 peTavaaTdcrei^ crvve^t], tcov re 
^ap^dpoov dp,a Kal twv 'EXXijpcov oppfj tivI y^p-qaa- 
pevcov TTpo'i Ti]v Trjf uXXoTpiu^ KaTUKTrjatv dXXa 
Kal rrpo t6)V TpcoiKMV yjr TavTa, to re yap t6)v 

^ a.vt\6vTa!v T«, Corais, for elAovro t6v t€ ; so the later 
editors. 

^ i.e. the oxya-tree, a kind of beech-tree, which is called 
"oxya" by the Greeks, is called "mysos" by the Lydians. 

' i.e. one-tenth of the people were, in accordance with 
some relieious vow, sent out of their country to the neigh- 

488 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 8. 3-4 

were Thracians but others that they were 
Lj'dians, thus concurring with an ancient explanation 
given by Xanthus the Lydian and Menecrates of 
Elaea, who explain the origin of the name of the 
Mysians by saying that the oxya-tree is so named by 
the Lydians.^ And the oxya-tree abounds in the 
neighbourhood of Mt. Olympus, where they say that 
the decimated persons were put out^ and that their 
descendants were the Mysians of later times, so 
named after the oxya-tree, and that their language 
bears witness to this ; for, they add, their language 
is, in a way, a mixture of the Lydian and the 
Phrygian languages, for the reason that, although 
they lived round Mt. Olympus for a time, yet when 
the Phrygians crossed over from Thrace and slew a 
ruler of Troy and of the country near it, those people 
took up their abode there, whereas the Mysians took 
up their abode above the sources of the Caicus near 
Lydia. 

4. Contributing to the creation of myths of this 
kind are the confusion of the tribes there and the 
fertility of the country this side the Halys River, 
particularly that of the seaboard, on account of 
which attai ks were made against it from numerous 
places and continually by peoples from the opposite 
mainland, or else the people near by would attack 
one another. Now it was particularly in the time of 
the Trojan War and after that time that invasions 
and migrations took place, since at the same time 
both the barbarians and the Greeks felt an impulse 
to acquire possession of the countries of others ; but 
this was also the case before the Trojan War, for the 

bourhood of Mt. Olympus and there dedicated to the service 
of some god. 

489 



STRABO 

n6\a<T7a»i/ ^v ^v\ov Kol to twv KavKcoi'oyv fcai 
AeXeywy ecprjTai 8', oti, iroWaxov t^9 Evp(OTrr]<; 
TO iraXaiov erv'yxave irXavoofieva, ciTrep iroiel toi<; 
Tpoial crvfi/xaxovi^Ta 6 7ron]Ti]<i, ouk eK rf)? 
TT^paia^. Tci re irepl rcov ^pvjMV Kai twv \Iv(tu)1' 
Xeyo/j-eva Trpea^vrepa twv TpcoiKwi' eariv ol ht 
SiTTol AvKiot, Tov auTOu yevov<i v-novoiav irape- 
^(^ovaiv, rj T(ov TpcoiKCDv rj twv 7rpo<i Kapia tou? 
irepov; diroiKtadvTcov. Tci'^^a Be fcal eVi t&v 
KiXiKoov TO avTo awe^r)' BlttoI yap koI oinof 
ov p.T]v e%o/LieV ye TOiavTrjv Xa^elv papjvpiav, on 
Ka\ 77/30 TOiv T pwiKOiv i]aai' 7/07? ol vvv KtX,f«e9* 6 
T6 T7/A,e0o9 eK t^<; 'Ap/caSta? d(f>l-)(Oai vo/JiH^oir 
dv /xeTCL tt)? fjLrjTpo'i, ydfjLW he rw TavTq<^ e^oiKeiw- 
(rdfM€vo<i TOV vTrohe^dfievov avrov TevBpavTU 
evofiLcrdy) re exelvou Kal irapeXa^e ttjv ^Ivcrwv 

5. Kai oi Kape<? he v^icnwTai Trporepov ovre^ Kal 
C 573 Ae\eye<;, w? (f^acriv, rjireipaiTai, yeyovaai, irpoa- 
\a^6i'T0)v KpT/TO'i^, o't Kal TTjV ^liXrjTov eKTicrav, 
eK Tr}<i K.pT]TLKrj<; ^ MiXr]T0V ^apTT-qhova Xa^ov- 
Td KTiaTTjv Kal TOL'9 TcpfilXa^ KarcpKicrav iv 
TTj vvv AvKLO,- T0UT0U9 S' dyayeiv €K Kp7/'T7;9 
diroiKov^ '^apTTrjhova, Mivw Kal Pahap.dvduo<i 
dSeX(jiov ovra, Kal ovofidaat, Tepp.iXa<; tou? 
•npoTepov MiXua?, co? (f>T}aiv HpoSoro^, eVt oe 
Trporepov 'EoXvp.ou<;, eireXdovra 8e ror IIav8iovo<; 

1 Kj7)Ti«7ls oz (and the edilorsj, K^>->7tt;j other MSS. 

1 a -2 4 and 7. 7. lo. ^ Cp. 1±'8. 7. 

» Cp. 13. 1. 00. « 1. 17.3: 7. 92. 

49° 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 8. 4-5 

tribe of the Pelasgians was then in existence, as also 
that of the Cauconians and Leleges. And, as I have 
said before,^ they wandered in ancient times over 
many regions of Europe. These tribes the poet 
makes the allies of the Trojans, but not as coming 
from tlie opposite mainland. The accounts both of 
the Plirygians and of the Mysians go back to earlier 
times than the Trojan War. The existence of two 
groups of Lycians arouses suspicion that they were of 
the same tribe, whether it was the Trojan Lycians or 
those near Caria that colonised the country of the 
other of the two.^ And perhaps the same was also 
true in the case of the Cilicians, for these, too, were 
two-fold;^ however, we are unable to get the same 
kind of evidence that the present tribe of Cilicians 
was already in existence before the Trojan War. 
Telephus might be thought to have come from 
Arcadia with his mother; and having become related 
to Teuthras, to whom he was a welcome guest, by tlie 
marriage of his mother to that ruler, was regarded 
as his son and also succeeded to the rulership of the 
Mysians. 

5. Not only the Carians, who in earlier times were 
islanders, but also the Leleges, as they say, became 
mainlanders with the aid of the Cretans, who 
founded, among other places, Miletus, having taken 
Sarj)edon from the Cretan Miletus as founder ; and 
they settled the Termilae in the country which is 
now called Lycia ; and they say that these settlers 
were brought from Crete by Sarpedon, a brother of 
Minos and Rhaclamanthus, and that he gave the 
name Termilae to the people who were formerly 
called Milyae, as Herodotus* says, and were in still 
earlier times called Solymi, but that when Lycus the 

491 



STRABO 

\.vKov *■ a<^ iavTOV •Trpocrayopeva-at tou? avrov<i 
AvKiov<;. ovTO(; fiev ovv 6 \6yo<; airo^alvet roi)^ 
avTOv<i SoXu/iOf? T€ Kal Avklov;, 6 Se 7T0Lr)TT)<; 
■)(^U)pi^eL' B€XX.epo<p6vT7]^ yovv, u>p[xri[xei>o<; i/c Trj<; 
Af/ci'a?, 

%o\vfioicn pLa'^earraTo KvhaXipioiai. 

Yleiaavhpov re oxravrcos, vlov ainov, "Apy^i, cos 
(f>rjai, 

p,apvdpi€VOV %o\v/j,oia-t KareKrave' 

Kal TOP 1.apTrrjh6va he eTTL^^copiov Tiva Xiyei. 

6. 'AWa TO ye adXov TrpoKeladat kolvov t)]v 
aperrjv t^? ')(^(i)pa<;, ri<i Xeyco, Toi<; la)(yovcnv €k 
ttoWmv ^e^aiovTat, ^ kuI ytiera ra TpcoiKu- ottov 
Kal ^Afxa^ove'i Kareddppyjaav avrr]<t, icf)' a? o re 
llyota/xo? arparevaaiXeyeTai Kal 6 BeXXe/Jo^oi'TJ;?' 
TToXet? re iraXaial ^ opLokoyovvrai iTroovufioi 
avrcov ev he tw ^WiaKw irehiw KoXoivr] Tt? 

rjv r}TOL * dvSpe^ iiuTteiav KiK\')]aKovatv, 
dddvaroL he re (T)]fxa TToXva-fcdpO/ioLo 
Mvpi'vT]';- 

rjV icnopovcn pLiav elvai t6)v A/xa^ovcov, e« rov 
eirideTov reK/iaLpofievor evaKdp6finv<; yap iirirovi 
Xeyeadai hid rb Td')(^o<i' KUKeivi^v ovv iroXvaKapd- 

1 KvKov E, \\JKu>va. other MSS. 

* Casaubon conj. ihat koX irph rSiv TpaiiKtuv has fallen out 
before kolI yufra ; Tzschucke conj. nai Kara to. TpaitKa ; Corais, 
[e/c Ta>»'] Kara to, Tpooiiid. 

492 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 8. 5-6 

son of Paiidion went over tliere he named the people 
Lycians after himself. Now this account represents 
the Solymi and the Lycians as the same people, but 
the poet makes a distinction between them. At any 
rate, Bellerophontes set out from Lycia and " fought 
with the glorious Solymi." ^ And likewise his son 
Peisander ^ " was slain when fighting the Solymi " ^ 
by Ares, as he says. And he also speaks of Sarpe- 
don as a native of Lycia.^ 

6. But the fact that the fertility of the country of 
which I am speaking ^ was set before the powerful 
as a common prize of war is confirmed by many things 
which have taken place even subsequent to the 
Trojan War,® since even the Amazons took courage 
to attack it, against whom not only Priam, but also 
Bellerophontes, are said to have made expeditions ; 
and the naming of ancient cities after the Amazons 
attests this fact. And in the Trojan Plain there is a 
hill " which by men is called ' Batieia,' but by 
the immortals 'the tomb of the much-bounding 
Myrina,' " ' who, historians say, was one of the 
Amazons, inferring this from the epithet " much- 
bounding " ; for they say that horses are called 
'^ well-bounding" because of their speed, and that 
Mvrina, therefore, was called "much-bounding" 

1 Biad 6. 184. 

* " Isander " is the spelling of the name in the Iliad. 
3 Iliad 6. 204. * Iliad 6. 199. 

^ The country this side the Halys (§ 4 above). 

* i.e. as well as by events during, and prior to, that war. 
7 Iliad 2. 813. 

' T€ iraXaiai X, rh iroAai Kai CDA, rb TraAat I, rh -naXadv ?', 
iraAoiai Kai ru\ -naXatal OZ. 

* ^Toi, Xylan(l(M-, for ol; so the later editors. 

493 



ST U A BO 

fiov hia TO airo Tr]<; •qvioxeia'; ra^j^o?* Ka\ rj Mvpiva 
ovv i'TTQivvjiio^ ravrr)^ Xeyerai. koL al eyyi/^ Se 
vf](Toi raiir e-rraOov Sia ttjv aperrjv, mv 'PoSo? koX 
Kw? 07 L irpo roiv TpcocKCOV yjSrj v(f>' 'KWtjvcov 
WKOVVTO, KOI V(\) OfjL^pOV (Ta<^(t)<i €K/uLapTvpelTai. 

7. Mera Be ra TpwtKa al re TOiv '¥iW-t]V(tiv 
airoLKLai Koi ai Tptjpcov Koi al K.i/Mp,€pi.a)V €(j)o8oi 
KOL AvSmv Kal p,€Ta ravra Uepacov Kal Ma«6- 
Sovcov, TO TeXevralov FaXarcov, erdpa^av irdvra 
Ka\ avve^eav. yeyove he 7) dadcfieia ov Sid ra? 
fiera^oXd'i fiovov, dWd Kal Bid Td<; roiv avyypa- 
<f)ea)V dvopo\oyLa<;, irepl tmv avTcov ov rd avrd 
XeyovTwv, rov<; fiev Tpcoaf; KaXovvroiP ^pvywi, 
KaOdirep 01 rpayiKol, T01/9 Be Au/ctou? K.dpa'i, kclI 
dWov<; ovTQ)<i. oi Be T/xwe? ovtco^ e'/c puKpoiv 
C 574 av^r]OevTe<;, ware Kal ^a(n\€i<; ^acriXecov elvai, 
■napea\ov Kal tm Troirjrfj \6yov, riva )(^pT] Ka\elv 
Tpoiav, Kal toi<; e^r]yovp.evoi^ eKelvov. Xeyei fiev 
ydp Kal Koivfb'i dTravra<; Tpcoa? tou? avfiiroXefxij- 
(Tavra<; avT0t<;, watrep Kal Aavaov^ Kal 'A^^^jou? 
rot's" evavTLov^' dXX^ ov Bijnov Tpoiav Kal rrjv 
Ha(J3Xayoviav epovfiev, vrj Aia, ovBe rrjv K.apiav 
17 TTJV ofxopov avrfi AvKiav. Xe7&) B\ orav ovto) 

T/3ft)€9 fiev KXayyfj r evoirfi r tcrav 

eK Be Twv evavTicov, 

oi 8' dp' icrav cnyfj /xevea TrveiovTe<i ' A'X^aioi. 

Kal aWo)? Be Xeyet 7roXXa;^<w?. o/i&)? Be, Kaiirep 
TOLovTwv ovTcov, TTeipareov Bcairdv eKaara eh 

1 See 14. 2. 7. * Iliad 3. 2. » Iliad 3. 8. 

494 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 8. 6-7 

because of the speed with which she drove her 
chariot. Myrina, therefore, is named after this 
Amazon. And the neighbouring islands had the 
same experience because of their fertility ; and 
Homer clearly testifies that, among these, Rhodes 
and Cos were already inhabited by Greeks before 
the Trojan War.^ 

7. After the Trojan War the migrations of the 
Greeks and the Trerans, and the onsets of the 
Cimmerians and of the Lydians, and, after this, of 
the Persians and the Macedonians, and, at last, of 
the Galatians, disturbed and confused everything. 
But the obscurity has arisen, not on account of the 
changes only, but also on account of the disagree- 
ments of the historians, who do not say the same 
things about the same subjects, calling the Trojans 
Phrygians, as do the tragic poets, and the Lycians 
Carians ; and so in the case of other peoples. But 
the Trojans, having waxed so strong from a small 
beginning that they became kings of kings, afforded 
both the poet and his expounders grounds for 
enquiring what should be called Troy ; for in a 
general way he calls "Trojans " the peoples, one and 
all, who fought on the Trojan side, just as he called 
their opponents both " Danaans " and "Achaeans" ; 
and yet, of course, we shall surely not speak of Paphla- 
gonia as a part of Troy, nor yet Caria, nor the country 
that borders on Caria, I mean Lycia. 1 mean when 
the poet says, " the Trojans advanced with clamour 
and with a cry like birds," ^ and when he says of their 
opponents, " but the Achaeans advanced in silence, 
breathing rage." ^ And in many ways he uses terms 
difterently. But still, although such is the case, I 
must try to arbitrate the several details to the best 

495 



STRABO 

hvvafiiv 6 Ti 5' av hia(pv<yri Tri<; 7Ta\aiti<; Icnopia^, 
TOVTO fiev iareov, ov yap ivravOa to t>;? yecoypa- 
(f)La'i epyov, to. Be vvv ovra XeKTeov. 

8. "EcTTt TOLvvv opt] 8vo V7r€pfCei/Ji€Va T^9 
llpOTTOVriBo^, 6 T€ "OXv^TTO? Ml/CTiO? Kal t) "lBl). 

T(p fiev ovv'OXvfnro) to, tmv Midvvcov viroTre.'iTTcoKe, 
ri]<i Be "lBr]<; fxeja^v Kal r?}? 6a\i'nTii<i i) Tpoia 
KeLTat, avvdiTTovaa tS> opei' nepl /xev ovv TavTi]^; 
ipovftev varepov Kal tmv avve)(S)v avrfj vpo^ votov, 
vvv Be irepl tS)v 'OXv/j-tt^jvcov Kal rSiv e<^e^r}<i 
fJLe^pi, Tov Tavpov nrapaWy'jXcav Tot'i TrpoecjicoBev- 
fj,evoi<i Xeywjxev. eari joivvv 6 "OXf/xTTO? kvkXw 
[xev ev^ (TvvotKovfievo'i, ev Be rol^ v^jreai Bpvfiov^ 
e^aiaiov<i e)(^u>v Kal Xijcrn'jpia Bvvafievov<i eKrpecpeiv 
TOTTOvi evepKei<;, ev oh Kal Tvpavvoi crvvlaravraL 
TToXXuKi^, 01 Bvvd/j,evoi crvp-fxelvai iroXvv ^povov 
KaOdirep YiXecov 6 Kad' i]p,a'^ tmv Xijcrrrjpuov 
rjye/Kov. 

9. OuTO? B' yv /jL€V ex TopBlov /cco/i.?;?, i)p varepoi' 
av^i]aa<i eiroirjcxe iroXiv Kal nrpoariyopevcTev 
^[ovXiottoXlv XrjtTTrjpia) 8' e)(pijT0 Kal op/xriTyjpiai 
Kar apxa'i tu> KupTepcoTUTM tmv -^atpitov,'^ ovofMa 
KaXXvB[o)- viT?]p^e 8' \\.vtwviw /xev )(^pt](xcfj,o<;, 
eireXOcov ewl tov^ dpyvpoXoyovvTa^ Aa^n]VO),^ 
Kad^ OV )(p6vov eKelva Tt]v W-criav KaTea-^^e, Kal 
KcoXvaa<; ra? irapaaKevd^;' ev Be Tot<? ^ A.KTiaKol^ 
d'iroaTd<; ^ Avtcovlov toI<; K.alaapo<i TrpoaeOeTo 

* fv, Mannert, for oit ; so tlie editors. 

- xa>piu>v, Coi'ais, for x'^p^*'? so the later editors. 

^ Aa/3iT)v^, Xylander, for AaPlvcf Chi, Aafi-fivcf) other MSS. 

1 13. 1. 3t, 35. 

- Quintus Labienus, son of Titus Labienus the tribune. 
496 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 8. 7-9 

of my ability. However, if anything in ancient 
history escapes nie, I must leave it unmentioned, for 
the task" of the geographer does not lie in that field, 
and I must speak ot things as they now are. 

8. Above the Propontis, then, there are two 
mountains, the Mysian Olympus and Mt. Ida. Now 
the region of the Bithynians lies at the foot of 
Olympus, whereas Troy is situated between Mt. 
Ida and the sea and borders on the mountain. As 
for Troy, I shall describe it and the parts adjacent 
to it towards the south later on,i but at present let 
me describe the country of Mt. Olympus and the 
parts which come next in order thereafter, extending 
as far as the Taurus and lying parallel to the parts 
which I have previously traversed. Mt. Olympus, 
then, is not only well settled all round but also has 
on its heights immense forests and places so well- 
fortified by nature that they can support bands of 
robbers ; and among these bands there often arise 
tyrants who are able to maintain their power for a 
long time ; for example, Cleon, who in my time was 
chieftain of the bands of robbers. 

9. Cleon was from the village Gordium, which he 
later enlarged, making it a city and calling it 
Juliopolis ; but from the beginning he used the 
strongest of the strongholds, Callydium by name, 
as retreat and base of operations for the robbers. 
And he indeed proved useful to Antony, since he 
made an attack upon those who were levying money 
for Lahienus^ at the time when the latter held 
possession of Asia,^ and he hindered his preparations, 
but in the course of the Actian War, having re- 
volted from Antony, he joined the generals of 

497 



STRABO 

(TTpaTTiyoU, KOi €TifiJ]07] irXeov i) kot d^uiv, 
TTpoaXa^oiv roi^ Trap' ^ Avtcovlov hodelcn kuI ra 
irapa rov Kaiaapo^' wcn^ avrX \rjarov h'vvdarov 
irepieKeLTO cr-)(rip.a, lepev<; p.ev wv rov W^perTrjvov ^ 
Ato9, Mucriou deov, /xepo<; S' €)((ov vttt^koov t/}? 
^Icoprjvrj'i (Mucrt'a 8' earl Koi aurrj, KaOuTrep 7) 
^ \/3p6TTT]V7]), Xa^ooi' 8e varara kol rrjv iv r(o 
WovTUt Twv K.opdva>v iepeocrvvrjp, et? rjv KareKdwv 
evTO<i p.r)viaiov ')(p6vov Karearpe^e rov /3tov 
C 575 vocro'i 8' i^tjyayev avrov o^ela, etr aX,X&)9 eTrnre- 
aovaa eK Tfj<i dSrjv ifKriapiovrj^, eld , o)? kcpaaav 01 
Trepl TO iepov, Kara ixrjvLv ttj? Oeov' iv yap rw 
TTepi^oXu) Tov r€/j,€vov^ 7) oiKTjaLf eariv r) re tov 
i€pe(t)<i Koi TTJ<i lepeia'^, ro he rep.evo<i %&J/3i? Try? 
aW7]<i dyiareia<i SiacpavicrraTa ttJ? tmv velcov 
KpeoiV ^p(0(T€u><i /caOapevei, ottov ye koI 7) oXrj ttoA.^?, 
ouS' elcdyerai ei? avrrjv u?* S' iv rot? TrpcoTOi^ 
TO XrjaTpiKOj' TjOo^ iTTehe'i^aro evdv<; Kara rrjv 
rrpdiiTrjv e'laoSov rf] rrapa^daei rovrou rov eOovf, 
oxTirep ou^ i€pev<i eia€X7]Xv6(o^, dXXa 8ia(f>6opev<i 
rcov tepwv. 

10. 'O pev 87) "OXf/xTTO? ToioaSe, TrepioiKeirai 
8e 7r/309 dpKrov p,ev inro rwv Qi6vvo)v Kal ^Ivy- 
Sovcov Kal AoXiovcov, to Be Xoiirbv e^ovai Mucrot 
Kal ^FjTTLKrrjroi. AoXiova^ /xev ovv p.dXiaTa 
KaXovai rov<i irepl Ku^f/coj^ diro Aicn'jTTOV e&j? 
'FvvSdKOV Kal r■fj^i ila<TKuXlri8o^ Xip-vrj^, Mi;7- 
86va<; he rov<; i<j)€^rj'; rovrot<; fiexpt tt^? MvpXeta- 
vCiv ^(opa<i' vrrepKeivrat he rrj<; AaaKuXtrihof; 

^ 'A^ptTTT^vov, Xylaiuler, lov'h^pirarr}vovCV)hilrw, 'AjS/jer- 
ravov oz, ' A^puTavov ux. 

498 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 8. 9-10 

Caesar and was honoured more than he deserved, 
since he also received, in addition to what Antony 
had given him, what Caesar gave him, so that he 
was invested with the guise of dynast, from being 
a robber, that is, he was priest of Zeus Abrettenus, 
a Mysian god, and held subject a part of Morene, 
which, like Abrettene, is also Mysian, and received 
at last the priesthood of Comana in Pontus, although 
he died within a month's time after he went down 
to Comana. He was carried off by an acute disease, 
which either attacked him in consequence of ex- 
cessive repletion or else, as the people round the 
temple said, was inflicted upon him because of the 
anger of the goddess; for the dwelling of both the 
priest and the priestess is within the circuit of the 
sacred precinct, and the sacred precinct, apart from 
its sanctity in other respects, is most conspicuously 
free from the impurity of the eating of swine's flesh ; 
in fact, the city as a whole is free from it ; and 
swine cannot even be brought into the city. Cleon, 
however, among the first things he did when he 
arrived, displayed the character of the robber by 
transgressing this custom, as though he had come, 
not as priest, but as corrupter of all that was sacred. 
10. Such, then, is Mt. Olympus ; and towards the 
north it is inhabited all round by the Bithynians and 
Mygdonians and Doliones, whereas the rest of it 
is occupied by Mysians and Epicteti. Now the 
peoples round Cyzicus, from the Aesepus River to 
the Rhyndacus River and Lake Dascylitis, are for 
the most part called Doliones, whereas the peoples 
who live next after these as far as the country of 
the Myrleians are called Mygdonians. Above Lake 
Dascylitis lie two otiier lakes, large ones, I mean 

499 



STRABO 

aXXai Svo Xifivat fieyaXac, rj t€ 'A7roA-A-<ui/taTt9 v 
re Mi\riT07ro\2ri<;' Trpo? fiev ovv rfj AacrKvXiTiSi 
AacTKvXiov 7roXi<?, tt/jo? Se rfj MtX-T/TOTroXtViSt 
MiXT/TouTToXt?, 7r/309 8e ttj rplrr] ' AiroWoivia 
7] €7rl 'PuvBaxo) Xeyofj-evrj' ra TrXeiara 8e tov- 
rcov earl K.v^iK7]v(Ji)V vvvt.' 

11. "Kan he iJrjao<i eV rfj TIpoTTOVTiSi t) K.v^iko^ 
(TVvaTTTO/jievi] ye(f>vpai<; Sval irpo'i rrjv rjireipov, 
aperfi jnev KpaTLarr), fieyiOei Se oaov TrevTaKocriwv 
arahlcov rrjv irepL/xerpov ^X^'- ^^ ofMcovvfiov 
TToXiv TTpo<i avTai<i Tai<i y€(})vpac<i koI Xip.eva<i 
hvo KXeiarov^ koI vewGoiKov; irXeiov^ r&v 
SiaKoalcov ttj? 8e 7roX,6<y9 to pkv ecniv iv eTnTreBo), 
TO ^e 7r/3o<? opei' KaXelrai 8' "ApKTcov 6po<;' virep- 
Keirai S' aXXo Aiv8v/iov povo(pue^, lepov e^pv t'^9 
AivBv/ji7]i>i]^ p.r]Tpb^ decbv, iBpvfia tcov ^ Apyovav- 
rcov. ecTTi S' ivdp.iX\o<i rat<i irpdiTaif rcov Kara 
Ti]v 'Atrial^ ?; 7r6Xi<; jxeyedei re koX KaXXei kol 
evvofiLO. 7ry0O9 Te elpy']V7]v Koi rroXepov eoi/ce tc tw 
TrapaTTXrjaLw tvtto) Kocrp,ela9ai, Mcnrep rj rcop 
PoSicov Kol ^laaaaXiWToyv Koi K.apx'jBovLcov rcov 
TTciXai. ra fiev ovv TroXXa ew, rpel^ S" apxiT^ic- 
T0/a9 Toi'9 iTrifi€Xovfi€i'Ov<i olKoBofiij/xdrav re 
hrjixocrioiv koX opydvwv, Tpel^ Be koi 6'>]aavpov<i 
KeKrrjrai, rbv p^ev ottXcov, tov S' 6pydva>v, rov Be 
acTov' TToiel Be rbv olrov dcrrjTrTOv ?; XaXKiBiKT) 
yrj ^ piyvvpbevr). iireBei^avTO Be tijv ex t^9 
7rapa(TK€vf]<; TavTrjf; axpeXeiav ev tw MiOpiBariKa) 

* 7^, omitted by all MSS. except F. 

^ i.e. "Mountain of the Bears." 
500 



GEOGKAPHY, 12. 8. lo-ii 

Lake Apolloniatis and Lake Miletopolitis. Near 
Lake Dascylitis is the city Dascyliumj and near 
Lake Miletopolitis Miletopolis, and near the third 
lake " Apollonia on Rhyndacus," as it is called. But 
at the present time most of these places belong 
to the Cyziceni. 

IL Cyzicus is an island in the Propontis, being 
connected with the mainland by two bridges ; and 
it is not only most excellent in the fertility of 
its soil, but in size has a perimeter of about five 
hundred stadia. It has a city of the same name 
near the bridges themselves, and two harbours that 
can be closed, and more than two hundred ship- 
sheds. One part of the city is on level ground and 
the other is near a mountain called " Arcton-oros."^ 
Above this mountain lies another mountain, Dindy- 
mus ; it rises into a single peak, and it has a temple 
of Dindymene, mother of the gods, which was 
founded by the Argonauts. This city rivals the 
foremost of the cities of Asia in size, in beauty, and 
in its excellent administration of affairs both in 
peace and in war. And its adornment appears to 
be of a type similar to that of Rhodes and Massalia 
and ancient Carthage, Now 1 am omitting most 
details, but I may say that there ai"e three directors 
who take care of the public buildings and the 
engines of war, and three who have charge of the 
treasure-houses, one of which contains arms and 
another engines of war and another grain. They 
prevent the grain from spoiling by mixing Chalcidic 
earth ^ with it. They showed in the Mithridatic war 
the advantage resulting from this preparation of 
theirs ; for when the king unexpectedly came over 

* Apparently a soil containing lime carbonate. 



STRABO 

TToXefKp. eirekdovTO'i yap avrol<; ahoKi)TU>^ tov 
^acriXeco^ TrevreKalSeKa fxvpidai koX 'iTnra) ttoWtj 
KoX Karaaxovro^ to avTiKeifievov 6po<i, o koKovctiv 
'ASpacTTeta?, kol to Trpodaretov, eVetTa kuI 8id- 
pavro<i €t9 TOV virep t?}<? 7ro\e&)? avxeva kui 
C 576 7rpocrfia)(^o/j.evov Tre^fi re /cat kuto, OdXaTTav 
T€T paK0(TLai<i vavaiv, dvTea)(^ov 7rpo<i diravTa oi 
}^v^iKr]voi, wcrre kuI iyyi/'; r)\6ov tov l^wypia 
XafSetv tov /SacriXea ev ttj hidopvyi dvTthiopvTTOv- 
T€9, dW' €(f>6r) (f)v\a^d/iievo'i Kol dvaXa^wv eav- 
Tov e^w TOV opvyyuaTO'i' o-yjre 8e la^vaev eiaTrefj.- 
yp-at TLvd<i vvKTWp €7nKOvpov<; 6 twv 'PcofMiawv 
arpaTrjyo'i AevKoWo^' covrjcre he kuI \i/j.6<; to) 
ToaovTO) 7r\r]d€i tt)? aTpuTid^ eTmrecrdyv, ov ov 
TTpoeihsTO ^aaCKev'^, co? aTrrjXde 7ToWov<i diro- 
^a\d>v. 'Fcofiaioi S" eTifirjaav Tr)v iroXiv, Kat, 
ecTTiv iXevdepa fiexpi- vvv koI ')(^copav e%6t ttoXXtjv 
Trjv fxev €K iraXaiov, ttjv he tcov 'Pco/xulcov irpoa- 
devTwv. Kal yap t?}? TpcoaSo? e')(ov(ji Ta Tvepav 
TOV Alat]'TT0v Ta irepl ttjv ZiXeiav kuI to t^<> 
WSpa(TTeLa<; irehiov, Kal Trj<; AaaKvXiTcoo'i Xifivrj'i 
TO, fiev e^ovaLV eKelvoc, Ta he Bv^dvTior 7r/309 
he Trj AoXcovihi Kal ttj Alvyhovthi vifiovTac ttoX- 
Xr]v P'^XP'' "^V^ yiiXTjTOTToXcTiho'i Xifivrj'i Kal t?)? 

^ ATToXXwVldTlho'i aVTTj^, hi OiV ^&)ptG)Z/ Kal 6 

'VvvhaKo<i pel 7roTa/Lto9, Td<i dpxd<i e^f^v eK t% 
^ Ai^avLTiho'i' irpoaXajSciov he Kal eK t^9 'A/Sper- 
TT^y/}? Mi»o"ia<? dXXov<i Te Kal ^IdKeaTOv dir 
^ Ay Kvpa<; T% W/3aecTiho^ ^ eKhlhtoaiv et? T^v 
YlpoTTOVTiha KaTa "QeajBiKov vr)<JOV. ev TavTrj he 
rfj vrj(T(ti TCOV K.v^cKr]vot)v 6po<; eaTlv evhevhpov 
^ 'A^aeirihos, Kramer, for 'A;8off(T<5os ; so the later editors. 
502 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 8. 11 

against them with one hundred and fifty thousand 
men and with a large cavalry, and took possession 
of the mountain opposite the city, the mountain 
called Adrasteia, and of the suburb, and then, when 
he transferred his army to the neck of land above 
the city and was fighting them, not only on land, 
but also by sea with four hundred ships, the Cyziceni 
held out against all attacks, and, by digging a 
counter-tunnel, all but captured the king alive in 
his own tunnel ; but he forestalled this by taking 
precautions and by withdrawing outside his tunnel. 
Leucullus, the Roman general, was able, though 
late, to send an auxiliary force to the city by night ; 
and, too, as an aid to the Cyziceni, famine fell upon 
that multitudinous army, a thing which the king 
did not foresee, because he suffered a great loss of 
men before he left the island. But the Romans 
honoured the city ; and it is free to this day, and 
holds a large territory, not only that which it has 
held from ancient times, but also other territory 
presented to it by the Romans ; for, of the Troad, 
they possess the parts round Zeleia on the far side 
of the Aesepus, as also the plain of Adrasteia, 
and, of Lake Dascylitis, they possess some parts, 
while the Byzantians possess the others. And in 
addition to Dolionis and Mygdonis they occupy a 
considerable territory extending as far as Lake 
Miletopolitis and Lake Apolloniatis itself. It is 
through this region that the Rhyndacus River flows ; 
this river has its sources in Azanitis, and then, 
receiving from Mysia Abrettene, among other rivers, 
the Macestus, which flows from Ancyra in Abiieitis, 
empties into the Propontis opposite the island 
Besbicos. In this island of the Cyziceni is a well- 

503 



STRABO 

*AprdKrj' Kal vrjaiov 6fjb(ovvfxov irpoKenai tovtov, 
Kol ifKricnov aKpwTripiov MeXai'o? koKov p-evov iv 
TrapciTrXw rol^ els YipiaTrov Kopt.^ofievoi<; e'« rrj^ 

Kv^LKOV. 

12. T% S' eTriKTJjTOv ^pvy[a<; ^A^avoi^ re elcri 
Kal Na«o\ta kuI Korideiov koI ^liBdetov ^ Kal 
AopvXaiov TToXeis Kal KdBor rov<: Se }^dBov<; 
evioi Tj}? Mycrta? (^aalv. i) Se Mucrta kuto, r-t-jv 
p,eaoyaiav diro t^9 0Xvp,T7r]vf]'s inl rrjv Hepya- 
/Mr)V7]i> KaOy]K€i Kal to KaiKov Xey6p,€vov irehiov, 
o)(jTe fiera^v KelaOai rrjs re "I8779 Kal tt}? }La- 
TaK€Kavp€i>Tj<;, rjv 01 phv ^Ivclav, 01 Be Maioi^iav 
(f)aai,v. 

13. "TTTep Be T?7? 'FiTtikti^tov tt/jo? votov earlv 
t) peydXrj ^pvyia, Xenrovaa ^ ev dpicnepa rrjv 
Ylearcrivovi'Ta Kal rd irepl ^OpKa6pKov<i Kal Av- 
Kaoviav, ev Be^id Be yiaiova<; Kal AvBov<; Kal 
Kapa?" ev y ecrrlv rj re Tiap(op€io<; Xeyop,evrj 
^pvyia Kal rj 7rpo<i YIiaiBiav kuI rd irepl 'Ap,6piov 
Kal Ejvp,evetav Kal "^vvvaBa, elra ^ Atrdp^eia r) 
Kc/ScoTO'; Xeyop,ev7] Kal AaoBiKeia, a'lirep elal 
fMeyiarat tmv Kara rrjv ^puyiav iroXecov Tvepi- 

Kenai Be Tavrais ■noXlap.aTa Kal ^ 

^A(f)poBicnd(;, J^oXoacral, SepiaMVLOv, 'S.avao^;, 
^IrjTpuiroXt';, ' A7roXX(i}vid<;' eVt Be d-ncorepo) tov- 

C 577 rwv TleXrat, Td^ai,^ KvKapTrla, Avcnd<;. 

^ 'A(avoi (as in Stephanus), the editors, for 'A^dvioi. 

^ MiSdeiov, Tzschucke, for MiSaiof ; so the later editors. 

^ \f'nrovaa, Corais, for \iirovaa; so the later editors. 

* Corais omits Kai and supplies the lacuna of about fifteen 
letters with &\\a n Kai, in reference to which Kramer says, 
" substantivuin pot ins videatur excidisse, velut X'^P^" vel simile 
quid " Jones conjectures x'^p''-^-^ a\Ka re Kal ffoui teen letters). 



(;EO(iRAPHY, 12. 8. 11-13 

wooded mountain called Artace ; and in front of 
this mountain lies an isle bearing the same name ; 
and near by is a promontory called Melanus, which 
one passes on a coasting-voyage from Cyzicus to 
Priapus. 

12. To Phrygia Epictetus belong the cities 
Azani, Nacolia, Cotiaeium, Midaeium, and Dory- 
laeum, and also Cadi, which, according to some 
writers, belongs to Mysia. Mysia extends in the 
interior from Olympene to Pergamene, and to the 
plain of Caicus, as it is called ; and therefore it lies 
between Mt. Ida and Catacecaumene, which latter 
is by some called Mysian and by others Maeonian. 

13. Above Phrygia Epictetus towards the south 
is Greater Phrygia, which leaves on the left Pes- 
sinus and the region of Orcaorci and Lycaonia, 
and on the right the Maeonians and Lydians and 
Carians. In Epictetus are Phrygia " Paroreia," ^ 
as it is called, and the part of Phrygia that lies 
towards Pisidia, and the parts round Amorium and 
Eumeneia and Synnada, and then Apameia Cibotus, 
as it is called, and Laodiceia, which two ai*e the 
largest of the Phrygian cities. And in the neigh- 
bourhood of these are situated towns, and ,2 

Aphrodisias, Colossae, Themisonium, Sanaiis, Metro- 
polis, and ApoUonias ; but still farther away than 
these are Peltae, Tabae, Eucarpia, and Lysias. 

' i.e. the part of Phrygia "along tlie mountain." 

^ There is a lacuna in the MSS. at thi.s point (see critical 

note) which apparently should be supplied as follows : 

"places, among others." 

6 To/3ai, Corais, for Ta/Sai'ai x, Ta/xfat hi, TojSf'ai other MSS. ; 
so the later editors. 



STRABO 

14. 'H /xev ovv Ylapcopeia opcivqv riva e%€i 
pa-X'''^ ^"^^ T77<? ai/aroX?}? eKTeivopevrjv eVl Bvcriv' 
ravrr] S' e/carepcodei' vTroTreTrTcoKe tl ttcBlov /xeya 
KOI TToXei^i irXtjalov avTf]<;, Trpo? apKTOv pev ^Cko- 
pijXiov, eK Sarepov Se pepov<i ^ Avrioxj^ia rj Trpo? 
ilLaiBia KoKovpevrj, i) pev ev irehiw Keipivrj irdaa, 
rj S" iirl \6(pov, e^ovaa airoLKiav 'Vu>p.aiwv' rav- 
TTjv S' QiKiaav ^IdyvrjTe^ ol tt/jo? ^laidvhpcp. 
'Vdopaioi S' TjXevdepcoaav tcov ^acriXewv, rjviKa 
rrjv dWrjv ^ Acriav ^vpevei irapehoaav rrjv ivTO<i 
rov Tavpov yv S' evravOa Koi lepaxrvvr] Tt9 
M 77^09 W^pKaiov, TrXrjdo^ e\ovaa lepohovXrov koi 
Xoipicov Upwv KareXvdy] Be pera ttjv 'Ap,vvTov 
TeXevTTjv vTTo T(t)v Tre p(f) 6 evroov eVt rrjv CKeivov 
xXripovoplav. 'S.vvvaSa S' earlv ov pLeydXrj ir6Xi<;' 
vpoKeirai S' avry)^ iXaioi^VTOV irehlov oaov e^tj- 
Kovra araBlcov eireKeiva S' earl AoKLpia KMprj, 
Kul TO Xaropiov 'l,vvvahiKOv XiOov {ovtco p,ev 
'Peopaloi KaXoixTLV, ol 5' eTTLxdiptoi AoKipirriv kui 
AoKip,alov),^ KUT a/9;^a9 p^ev pLiKpd<; /dcoXov^ e'/cSt- 
86vTO<; 70V p,eTdXXov, Sid Be TrjV vvvl rroXvreXeiav 
rSiv 'Pojpaicov Kiove<i i^aipovvrai p,ov6Xidoi p,6- 
ydXoi, 7rX')]aid^ovT€<i tw dXa^acnpLTrj Xl6u) Kara 
Ty-jV TToiKiXlav' Mare, KacTrep ttoXXt]^ ovar)^ t»}9 
eir\ OdXarrav dyo)yT]<; tmv rrjXiKoinoiv (popriayv, 
6pQ)<; Kul k[ov€<; Kal TrXaKe^ eh 'Vwp-qv Kopi^ovrai 
OavpLacnal Kara ro peyedo<; Kai KdXXa. 

^ AoKi/iaToi; Xj'lander, for AoKt/xaiav; so the later editors. 

^ 190 B.C. Strabo refers to Euineiies II, king of Per- 
gamum, who reigned 197-159 B.C. 

506 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 8. 14 

14. Now Phrygia Paroreia has a kind of moun- 
tainous ridge extending from the east towards the 
west ; and below it on either side lies a large plain. 
And there are cities near it: towards the north, 
Philomelium, and, on the other side, the Antiocheia 
near Pisidia, as it is called, the former lying wholly 
in a plain, whereas the latter is on a hill and has a 
colony of Romans. The latter was settled by 
Magnetans who lived near the Maeander River. 
The Romans set them free from their kings at the 
time when they gave over to Eumenes^ the rest 
of Asia this side the Taurus. Here there was also 
a priesthood of Men Arcaeus,^ which had a number 
of temple-slaves and sacred places, but the priesthood 
was destroyed after the death of Amyntas by those 
who were sent thither as his inheritors. Synnada is 
not a large city ; but there lies in front of it a plain 
j)lanted with olives, about sixty stadia in circuit.^ 
And beyond it is Docimaea, a village, and also the 
quarry of " Synnadic " marble (so the Romans call 
it, though the natives call it " Docimite " or " Doci- 
maean"). At first this quarry yielded only stones 
of small size, but on account of the present ex- 
travagance of the Romans great monolithic pillars 
are taken from it, which in their variety of colours 
are nearly like the alabastrite marble ; so that, 
although the transportation of such heavy burdens 
to the sea is difficult, still, both pillars and slabs, 
remarkable for their size and beauty, are conveyed 
to Rome. 

* " Arcaeus" appears to be an error for "Ascaeus" (see 
12. 3. 31 and foot-note on "Men Ascaeus"). 
3 Or does Strabo mean sixty stadia in extent? 

507 



STRABO 

15. 'Airdfieia 6' earlv efnropiov fieya t^? 18l(o^ 
\€yofievri<; 'A<Tia9, ^evrepevov fiera rrjv ''K<f)€(TOV' 
avrrj 'yap Kal rSiv airo rrj'; 'IraXia? Kal Trj<i 
'EWdSo^ vTroho-^elov koivov ianv. 'iSpvrac Be r/ 
^ Kirdfj.eLa eVl Tal<i eK^oXat^ rov ^lapavov iroTa- 
fiov, Kal pel Bia /xea-r]^ Tr]<; TroXect)? o 7roTafj,6<;, 
TO? dp')(^a<; d-no rrj<i 7roXe&)? ^ €')(^q)v KaT€V€\6el<; 8' 
eVt TO Trpodareiov a<f)oBpa> Kal KaTco(f)€pel r(a 
pev/jLUTi av/x^dWei- Trpo? rov ^latavSpov, irpo- 
aet\r](f}OTa Kal dWov 7rora/xov Opydv, 8t' o/xaXov 
(pepofievov irpdov Kal /xaXaKov ivrevdev 8' ijSr] 
yevofiei'O'; /j.eya<i ^ ^laiavSpo^ reft)? /lev 8ia Tfj<; 
^pvyLa<; cfieperai, eirena Siopi^ei rrjv }^apiav Kal 
rrjv AvSiav Kara to ^aidvhpov KaXovfievov 
irehiov, (TKoXi6<i o>v ei<> vTrep^oXrjv, ware i^ eKeivov 
rd<i aKo\i6ry]ra<; aTracra? p.aidvhpov^ Ka\etaOaf 
reXevrcov Se Kal rr}v^ Kaplav avrrjv Biappel* rrjv 
VTTO rcov Icovcov vvv Kare')(^op,evr}v Kal fieratv 
^\L\y]rov Kal Ilpnjvi]^ rroietrai ra<; e/f/8oX,a9. 
dp\eraL he drro KeXaivcov, \6(f)ov tiv6<;, iv o> 
TToXif rfv ofioovvfio^ ro) Xocfxa' evrevdev S' dva- 
C 578 (Trrjcra<i rov<t dvdpcorrovf; 6 Zwrrjp ^ Avrio-)(0<i el'i 
rrjv vvv Arrd/jLeiav rrj<i p,y}rp6<i irrMW/xov ri]V 
TToXiv irreSei^ev 'ATra/ia?, t] Svydnjp fxev r]v 
^ Apra^d^ov, BeSop.ev7) S' ervy^f^ve iTpo<; ydfiov 
XeXevKO) ra> ^iKaropi. evravOa he fivdeverac 
rd rrepl rov "OXv/nrov Kal rov ^lapavav Kal 

^ Instead of air6 C. Miiller conj. ovk &irw6iv ; Corais inserts 
ira\aias between t^s and -noKews ; Kramer conj. a.Kpoir6\fws. 

* fxtyas is omitted by all MSS. except oru-z. 

* Kal Tiji', Corais, for koto ; so the later editors. 

* Ziappel, Casaubon, for S:aipe7; so the later editors. 

508 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 8. 15 

15. Apameia is a great emjioiium of Asia, I mean 
Asia in the special sense of that term/ and ranks 
second only to Ephesus ; for it is a common en- 
trepot for the merchandise from both Italy and 
Greece. Apameia is situated near the outlets of the 
Marsyas River, which flows through the middle of the 
city and has its sources in the city ; ^ it flows down 
to ti)e suburbs, and then with violent and pre- 
cipitate current joins the Maeander. The latter 
i-eceives also another river, the Orgas, and traverses a 
level country with an easy-going and sluggish stream ; 
and then, having by now become a large river, the 
Maeander flows for a time through Phrygia and then 
forms the boundary between Caria and Ljdia at the 
Plain of Maeander, as it is called, where its course 
is so exceedingly winding that everything winding 
is called "meandering." And at last it flows 
through Caria itself, which is now occupied by the 
lonians, and then empties between Miletus and 
Priene. It rises in a hill called Celaenae, on which 
there is a city which bears the same name as the 
hill ; and it was from Celaenae that Antiochus 
Soter^ made the inhabitants move to the present 
Apameia, the city which he named after his mother 
Apama, who was the daughter of Artabazus and was 
given in marriage to Seleucus Nicator. And here is 
laid the scene of the myth of Olympus and of 

' i.e. Asia Minor. 

* i.e. in the city's territory, unless the text is corrupt and 
should be emended to read, "having its sources in Celaenae" 
(Groskurd), or "not far away from the city" (C. Miiller), 
or " in the old city " (Corais) of Celaenae, whence, Strabo 
later says, " Antiochus made the inhabitants move to the 
present Apameia" (see critical note). 

^ Antiochus "the Saviour." 

509 



STRABO 

Tr]V epiv, rjv rjpLcrev o Mapcri/a? irpo^ AiroWoiva. 
VTrepKCcrai Bk Kal Xijxvrj (fiuovaa KoKap-ov rov 
et? TO.':; jXcoTTw; rojp av\o)V eiriTTi^heiov, i^ ^79 
aTroXeifSecrdai ^ (pacri ra^ 7177709 dp.(f)OTepa<;, Tr]v 
re Tov ^lapaijov koI ttjv tov ^laidvBpov. 

16. 'H Se AaoSi/ceia, puKpa irpoTepov ovaa, 
av^TjTiv eXa^ev e^' rip^oyv kul twv r}p,erepo)v 
Trarepwv, Kairoi KaKojOelaa €k 7ro\iopKLa<i em 
^lidpiBciTov TOV EvTrdropo'i' dXk rj t?}? y^wpa^ 
dperii Kal tcov ttoXltow rtve^ evTV-)(_r](javTe'i 
p.eyd\r}v €7roli]crav ainr)v, \epoov p.ev irpoTepov, 
09 TT\ei6va>v T) hi(T')(^L\iU)V raXdvTcov KKripovopaav 
KaTeKnre rtp hi]p.(p TroXXot? t' dvadi^p,acnv eKO(T- 
pLTjcre TTjv TToXiv, Zijvcov Be 6 p?]r(op vcrrepov Kai 
o v'io<i avTov Y{o\ep.wv, 69 Kat /SaacXeia^ rj^iwdr) 
Bid Ta9 dvBpayaOla^ vir 'Avtwvlou p.ev irpo- 
repov, vTTo KaLaapo<; Be tov 2e/3acrT0i) p,eTa 
Tavra. c^epei 8' 6 irepl ttjv AaoBiKeiav T07ro9 
TTpo^dTwv dpeTa<i ovk et9 pLokuKOTriTa ^ p.6vov 
TOiv ipicov, 7} Kal TMV MiXrjaiuiv Bia^epei, dWa 
Kal et9 TT]V Kopa^rjv^ p^/aoat', uxttc Kal rrpoao- 
BevovTat \afi7rp(o<i dir avTOiV coairep Kat, 01 
ls.o\oaaT]vol diro tov 6p.0L>vvp.ov '^(poop.aTO'i irXr)- 
aiov OLKovvTes- evTavda Bk Kal Ka7rpo9 Kac 
6 AvKO<; avpi^dWet, Tat ^laidvBpw TroTa/jLO), 
TTOTap.o'i evp,€yedT]<;, d(p ov Kal 77 7rpo<; tw 
AvKw AaoBiKeia XeyeTai, vTrepKeiTai Be T779 
7roXe&)9 0/309 KdBfjLO<;, i^ ov Kal 6 AvKO<i pel, Kal 

^ airi\fi8eiT0at is emended to inro\ei$ecr6ai by Tzschucke, 
Kramer, and Miiller-Diibner. 

* fj.a\aK6Tr]Ta, Kramer, for fjia\aK6Tr]ras ; SO the later editors. 
^ Kopd^iiv, the editors, for icopa^iv. 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 8. 15-16 

Marsyas and of the contest between Marsyas and 
Apollo. Above is situated a lake which produces 
the reed that is suitable for the mouth-pieces of 
pipes ; and it is from this lake that pour the sources 
of both the Marsyas and the Maeander. 

16. Laodiceia, though formerly small, grew large 
in our time and in that of our fathers, even though 
it had been damaged by siege in the time of Mithri- 
dates Eupator.^ However, it was the fertility of its 
territory and the prosperity of certain of its citizens 
that made it great : at first Hieron, who left to the 
people an inheritance of more than two thousand 
talents and adorned the city with many dedicated 
offerings, and later Zeno the rhetorician and his son 
Polemon,^ the latter of whom, because of his bravery 
and honesty, was thought worthy even of a kingdom, 
at first by Antony and later by Augustus. The 
country round Laodiceia produces sheep that are 
excellent, not only for the softness of their wool, in 
which they surpass even the Milesian wool, but also 
for its raven-black colour,^ so that the Laodiceians 
derive splendid revenue from it, as do also the neigh- 
bouring Colosseni from the colour which bears the 
same name.* And here the Caprus River joins the 
Maeander, as does also the Lycus, a river of good 
size, after which the city is called the " Laodiceia 
near Lycus." ^ Above the city lies Mt. Cadmus, 

1 King of Pontus 120-63 B.C. 

- Polemon I, king of Poutus and the Bosporus, and 
Imsband of Pythodoris. 
3 Cf. 3. 2. 6. 

* i.e. the "Colossian" wool, dyed purple or madder-red 
(see Pliny 25. 9. 67 and 21. 9. 27). 

* i.e. to distinguish it from the several other Laodiceias. 



STRABO 

aWo^ ofKavv/jiO'i rw opei. to irXeov S' ovto<; 
viro 77}? pvei<i, eiT avaKvyp-wi avveireaev el^ 
ravTO Tolf aWoi<; Trora/iot?, e/xcpaivcov ujia xal 
TO TroXvTprjTov t?}? ')((opa<i koI to evaeiaTOV el 
yap Tf? aWr), koI rj AaohiKeia euaeccTTO^, Kal 
T?}? 7r\r]aio)(^(opov Be Kdpovpa. 

17. ' Opiov 8e^ €(TTi T7]<i ^pvyia'i Kal t?}? 
Kapta? ra K^dpoupw Kco/xr} S' earlv avTrj irav- 
So'X^ela e'X^ovaa Kal ^earcov vBaTwv iK^o\d<;, Ta? 
fxev iv TO) TTorafMO) ^laicivSpai, Ta? 8' vTrep rov 
')i^€i\ov<i. Kal St] TTOTe (f)aai iropvo^ocTKov av- 
\ia6evTa iv TOi? 7ravSoxeLoi<i avv 7roWq> iTXrjOeL 
yvvaiKMV, vvKTcop yevo/iiivou aeKJ/iov, crvva(f)a- 
vicrOrjvaL irdaai^. a')(ehov he Tt Kai, Trdaa 
evaei(n6<i ecniv rj Trepl rov MaiavBpov ')(^u>pa, 
Kal v7r6vo/j.o<; irvpl re kol vBaTt P'^XP^ '^V'* 
/LL€aoyaLa<;. StareraKe yap dirb t6>v irehicov 
dp^afievi] irdcra 77 TOiavrrj Karaa Kevrj tt]^ ')((i)pa<i 
ei? Ta ^apwvia, to t€ ev 'lepaiToXei Kal to ii> 
\\')(.^pdKoi<; ^ TTJ^ Nucrai'So? Kal to Trepl ^iayvT)- 
aiav Kal MvouvTa' evdpvTTTo^ tc yap eaTiv 1] 
yrj Kal yfradvpd, 7rXi]p7]<i Te akpLvpihav Kal 
eveK7rvpcoT6<; ecrTi. rd^a 8e Kal 6 Ma[avSpo<; 
8ca TOVTO aKoXiof, otc TroWa? peTaiTTcoaei^ 
Xap^dvei to peWpov, Ka\ iroXX-qv x^^^ KaTdycav 

^ 5« Kapovpa. "Opiov $4, the editors, for Kapovpa 5« 
bfiiov. 

* 'AxapciKols, Tzschucke, for XapuKoU ; so the later 
editors. 



^ See 5. 4. 5, and the note on "Plutonia. " 

* i.e. sodium chloride (salt), and perhaps other salts found 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 8. 16-17 

whence the Lycus flows, as does also anotlier river 
of the same name as the mountain. But the Lycus 
flows under ground for tlie most part, and then, 
after emerging to the surface, unites with the other 
rivers, thus indicating that the country is full of 
holes and subject to earthquakes ; for if any other 
country is subject to earthquakes, Laodiceia is, and 
so is Carura in the neighbouring country. 

17. Carura forms a boundary between Phrygia 
and Caria. It is a village ; and it has inns, and 
also fountains of boiling-hot waters, some in the 
Maeander River and some above its banks. More- 
over, it is said that once, when a brothel-keeper had 
taken lodging in the inns along with a large number 
of women, an earthquake took place by night, and 
that he, together with all the women, disappeared 
from sight. And I might almost say that the whole of 
the territory in the neighbourhood of the Maeander 
is subject to earthquakes and is undermined with 
both fire and water as far as the interior ; for, be- 
ginning at the plains, all these conditions extend 
through that country to the Charonia,^ I mean 
the Charonium at Hierapolis and that at Acharaca 
in Nysais and that near Magnesia and M3'us. In 
fact, the soil is not only friable and crumbly but is 
also full of salts- and easy to burn out.^ And per- 
haps the Maeander is winding for this reason, because 
the stream often changes its course and, carrying 
down much silt, adds the silt at different times to 

ill soil, as, for example, sodium carbonate and calcium 
sulphate — unless by the plural of the word Strabo means 
niotely " salt-parlicles," as Tozer takes it. 

^ On "soil which is burnt out," see Vol. II, p. 454, 
footnote 1. 



STRABO 

dWoT^ aX\(p fiepei tcov alyiaXwv TrpoaTLdrjar 
TO Be Trpb'i TO ireXayo^; /3iaadfi6i'0<; ^ i^wdel. 
Kal Bt] Kol rrjv Tlpi7]VT]v eVl OaXdrTr} Trporepov 
ovaav fxeaoyaiav TreTToirjKe TerrapaKovra crraBLCov 
7rpocr)(^oo/jLaTi. 

18. Kal )] K.aTaKeKavp,6vrj Be, rjirep vtto AvBwv 
Kal ^Ivawv Ka~kyeTaL, Bid roiavrd rtva t% tt/jo- 
ay]yopia<; TeTv)(i^Ke ravTr/f;- >; re ^iXaBeX.(f)eia, rj 
7rp6<; avTrj ttuXk;, ovBe tou? Toixovi e^ei irLOTOV'^, 
dXXd KaO' i]/jLepav rpoirov Tivd aaXevovrai Kai 
Bilaravraf BiareXovai Be 7rpocrexovTe<; toi? TrdOeat 
Tr}<i yrj^ Kal dpj^iTeKTOi^ovvre'i 7rpb<i avrd.^ Kal 
T(bv dXXcov Be TToXetov ^Airdfieia fiev Kal irpo t/}? 
^ItdpiBdrov CTTpareia^ ineiaOr] ttoXXuki^, kul 
eBcoKev eireXOiov b /SaaiXev^ eKarov rdXavra e.? 
eTravopdcoaw, 6po)v diiaTeTpa/j.fxevr]v ttjv iroXiv. 
Xeyerac Be Kal ctt' 'AXe^dvBpov irapairXriaia 
<TVfx^i]var Bioirep etVo? earc Kal tov HoaeiBo) 
Tifidadai Trap' avTol^, Kalirep /j.e(Toyai'oi<i oven, 
Kal diro KeXairoO toO ITocrefSaii/o? eK KeXaivov'i, 
/xid<; Twv Aai'a'lBcov, yevo/xevov KeKXTJaOat Tr]v 
irbXiv eTTOivvfiov,^ rj Bid tov XiOov Kal rrjv diro 
TOiv eKTTvpcbaecov fieXaviav. Kal rd irepl ^lttvXov 
Be Kal rrjv dvarpoTTJjv avTOv fivdov ov Bel n- 
deaOai' Kal ydp vvv rr]V 'Slayvrjalav ttjv i/tt' 

^ ^laaaixfvos, Xylander, for ^laaafjitvovs ; so the later 
editors. 

2 ouTct, Groskurd, for avTi]v ; so the later editors. 
^ eTTwfv/j.oi', the editors, for dfiwvu/jLuv. 

^ " At the present day the coastline has been advanced so 
far, that the island of Lade, off Miletus, has become a hill in 
the middle of a plain" iTozer, op. cit., p. 288). 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 8. 17-18 

different parts of the shore ; however, it forcibly 
thrusts a part of the silt out to the high sea. And, 
in fact, by its deposits of silt, extending forty stadia, 
it has made Priene, which in earlier times was on 
the sea, an inland city.^ 

18. Phrygia " Catacecaumene," 2 which is occupied 
by Lydians and Mysians, received its appellation for 
some such reason as follows : In Philadelphia, the 
city near it, not even the walls are safe, but in a 
sense are shaken and caused to crack every day. 
And the inhabitants are continually attentive to the 
disturbances in the earth and plan all structures 
with a view to their occurrence. And, among the 
other cities, Apameia was often shaken by earth- 
quakes before the expedition of King Mithridates, 
who, when he went over to that country and saw 
that the city was in ruins, gave a hundred talents for 
its restoration ; and it is said that the same thing 
took place in the time of Alexander. And this, in 
all probability, is why Poseidon is worshipped in 
their country, even though it is in the interior,^ and 
why the city was called Celaenae,* that is, after 
Celaenus, the son of Poseidon by Celaeno, one of 
the daughters of Danaiis, or else because of the 
"blackness" of the stone, which resulted from the 
burn-outs. And the story of Mt. Sipylus and its 
ruin should not be put down as mythical, for in our 
own times Magnesia, which lies at the foot of it, was 



2 "Burnt up." 

* Poseidon was not only the god of the sea, but also the 
"earth-siiaker" {ivotrixOf^'' or ivoalyaws), a,n epithet frequently 
used in Homer. 

♦ i.e. "Black." 



STRABO 

avT(p f(aTe/3a\ov creiafioi, rjvcKa Kal 'S.dpBei<; Kal 
rSiV aXXcov ra? eirL(^av6ardra<; Kara ttoWcl ixipr) 
BieXv/jL^vavTO' eTryivcopdwae 5' 6 rjyefKov, XPV' 
fjuira iiriBov^, Kaddirep Kal irporepov iirl Trj<i 
yevo/j.evT]'; crvfi,(f)opd'i 'VpaWLavot<; (J^viKa to 
yvfivdatov Kal aWa fMepy] avveirecrev) o irarrjp 
avTOv Kal TovroL<; Kal AaoBiKevaiv. 

19. A/iovecv 8 ecrri Kai, rcov iraXaioiv crvy- 
ypa(f)€0)v, old (^rjaiv o ra AvBia avyypd-\lra<; 
'E.dv6o<i, BiT]yovfievo<;, olat fieTa^oXal Karicxxov 
TToWaKt'i TT)v ')(^copav ravrrjv, oiv efivijadrjfiiv ttov 
Kal iv TOL<; irpoadev. Kal Brj Kal to, irepl rov 
Tv(f)0)va TrdOt] evravda pLvOevovai Kal tov<; 'Api- 
/Liof? Kal rrjV K.aTaK€Kav/j,ei'riv ravTqv elvai 
<f)aaiv' ovK oKvovai he Kal rd fieTa^v \laidvBpov 
Kal AvBwv cLTTavO^ inrovoelv roiavra Kal Bid to 
7rXrjOo<; t6)V XifivMv Kal irorap.6)v Kal toi)? ttoX- 
Xa^ov K€v6/xcova<; t^? 7^"?' V ^^ p-era^u AaoBi- 
Keia'i Kal 'A7rap.eia<; Xifivrj Kal ^op^opcoBrj Kal 
vTToi'O/jiov ^ rrjv aTro^opdv e%e(, ireXayla ovcra- 
(paal Be Kal BtKa^; elvai tu> ^laidvBpa pLerat^e- 
povri Td<; '^copa^;, orav TrepiKpovadwaiv ol dy- 
KOive^, dXovTi ^ le Td<i ^rjp.i.a'i e« roiv TTopdpLLKoov 
SiaXveaOai reXfav. 

^ v-rrovouov, Meineke emends to virov6u.ov. Corais conj. 
vitSvoa-ov, Kramer iirivoffov. T. G. Tucker {Classical Quarterly 
III, p. 101) ■would insert KaS" before inr6vofj.ov and translate: 
" It has a smell after the manner of a sewer." 

^ b.\6vTi, Jones, from conj. of Capps. for b.\6vres ; others, 
following conj. of Xylander, emend to aKovTos. 

*■ i.e. Tiberius (see Tacitus, Awnah 2. 47). 
u6 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 8. 18-19 

laid low by earthquakes, at the time when not only 
Sardeis, but also the most famous of the other cities, 
were in many places seriously damaged. But the 
emperor ^ restored them by contributing money ; 
just as his father in earlier times, when the in- 
Ivibitants of Tralleis suffered their misfortune (when 
the gymnasium and other parts of the city collapsed), 
restored their city, as he also restored the city of 
the Laodiceians. 

19. One should also hear the words of the ancient 
historians, as, for example, those of Xanthus, who 
Avrote the history of Lydia, when he relates the 
strange changes that this country often underwent, to 
which I have already referred somewhere in a 
former part of my work. 2 And in fact they make this 
the setting of the mythical story of the Arimi and of 
the throes of Typhon, calling it the Catacecaumene ^ 
country. Also, they do not hesitate to suspect that 
the parts of the country between the Maeander River 
and the Lydians are all of this nature, as well on 
account of the number of the lakes and rivers as on 
account of the numerous hollows in the earth. And 
the lake ^ between Laodiceia and Apameia, although 
like a sea,^ emits an effluvium that is filthy and of 
subterranean origin. And they say that lawsuits are 
brought against the god Maeander for altering the 
boundaries of the countries on his banks, that is, 
when the projecting elbows of land are swept away 
by him ; and that when he is convicted the fines are 
paid from the tolls collected at the ferries. 

^ 1. 3. 4. 

3 Cp. 13. 4. 11. 

* Now called Chardak Ghieul. 

* i.e. in size and depth. 



STRABO 

20. Mera^f Be rrj<i AaoBiK€(,a<; kol t(ov Kapov- 
pcov iep6i> icTTi Mrji'o? K.dpov KaXovfievov, ri- 
poifievov a^ioXoyax;. crvvecrrr)K€^ Be Kad^ rifMa<; 
BiBaaKoKelov 'Hpo(f>i\€L(ov larpayv p-eya vtto 
Zev^iBo'i, Kal pera ravra 'AXe^dvBpov tov 
(t)i\a\.i'jdov(;, KaOdirep iirl rwv iraTeprnv tmv 
i^peTepwv ev ^pvpvrj to tmv EipaaiaTpareicov 
VTTO 'iKeaiov, vvv B' ov)(^ opolwi ri arvp^aivet.^ 

21 . AeyeTat Be riva (^v\a ^pvyia ovBap,ov 
BeiKvvp-eva, axrirep oi BepeKVVTe'i' Kal 'A\Kp,av 
Xeyei, 

^pvyiov rjvXrjae p,eXo<; to Kep^ijcriov. 

real J366vv6<i Ti<i XeyeTUi K.ep^'^crio'i e)((ov oXe- 
dpLOVf dTro(f)opd<i' dXX ovTo<i ye BeLKVvTai, at 
B' dvOpaynoL ovKeff' ovto) XeyovTai. AiV^uXo? 
Be <Tvy")(el ev Tt] Nio^j}- <pT]al yap eKeivr} fivrja-- 
drjaeadai^ twv irepl TdvTaXov, 

oU ev 'I Sat ft) TTayat 
A.i6^ TTaTpaov ^(i)p6<i ecTTi, 

Kai rrdXiv, 

^IttvXov ^iBai'av dva ')(66va' 

Kal Tai'TaA.o? Xeyei, 



^ Instead of ffvyeffrriKe rw, Corais and Meineke read (TweaTr). 

' For Tjo-u/iSoiVei, Corais conj. ^tl a-vn/xeyfi ; and Meineke so 
reads. 

' lxvr)(Tdri(Ti(rdai, Casaubon, for fj.vr]crdT}(TeTai ; so the later 
editors. 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 8. 20-21 

20. Between Laodiceia and Carura is a temple of 
Men Cams, as it is called, which is held in re- 
markable veneration. In my own time a great 
Herophileian ^ school of medicine has been established 
by Zeuxis, and afterwards carried on by Alexander 
Philalethes,^ just as in the time of our fathers the 
Erasistrateian school^ was established by Hicesius, 
although at the present time the case is not at all 
the same as it used to be.* 

21. Writers mention certain Phrygian tribes that 
are no longer to be seen ; for example, the Berecyntes. 
And Alcman says, " On the pipe he played the 
Cerbesian, a Phrygian melody." And a certain pit 
that emits deadly effluvia is spoken of as Cerbesian. 
This, indeed, is to be seen, but the people are no 
longer called Cerbesians. Aeschylus, in his Niobe, 
confounds things that are different ; for example, 
Niobe says that she will be mindful of the house of 
Tantalus, "those who have an altar of their paternal 
Zeus on the Idaean hill "; ^ and again, " Sipylus in 

1 Heiophilus was one of the greatest physicians of anti- 
(luity. He was born at Chalcedon in Bithynia, and lived at 
Alexandria under Ptolemy I, who reigned 323-285 B.C. His 
specialty was dissection ; and he was the author of several 
works, of which only fragments remain. 

" Alexander of Laodiceia ; author of medical works of 
which only fragments remain. 

^ Erasistratus, the celebrated physician and anatomist, 
was born in the island of Ceos and flourished 300-260 B.C. 

■• The Greek for this last clause is obscure and probabl}' 
corrupt. Strabo means either that schools like the two 
mentioned " no longer arise " or that one of the two schools 
mentioned (more probably the latter) " no longer flourishes the 
same as before." To ensure the latter thought Meineke (from 
conj. of Corais) emends the Greek text (see critical note). 

« Frag. 162, 2 (Nauck). 



ST R A BO 

aireipdi S' dpoupav SooSex V/^^P^^ 686v, 
^epeKvvra y^oypov, ev6^ AZpacrreta^ eSo?, 
\ht] re /j.vK7)dfMol(7i Kal ^pv)(^)]/j,a(Tiv 
^pifiovcTi ^ n'^Xcov TTav r Ep6)(^6eioi' ^ niBov. 

' pptnovai, Tzschucke and Corais, following Casaubon, for 
(pTTovffi; Meineke conj. irpiirovai. 

^ t' 'EptxOfiov, conj. of Meineke, for 5' ipex^f't' 



i;20 



GEOGRAPHY, 12. 8. 21 

the Idaean land " ; ^ and I'antalus says, "1 sow 
furrows that extend a ten days' journey, Bereeyntian 
land, where is the site of Adrasteia, and where 
both Mt. Ida and the whole of the Erechtheian 
plain resound with the bleatings and bellowings of 
Hocks." 2 

' Frag. 1G3 (Nauck), = Frag. 158, 2 (Naiick), 



!?«i 



APPENDIX 

THE ITHACA-LEUCAS PROBLEM i 

Homer (e.g., Od. 9. 21-27) presents Odysseus as 
the king of a group of islands off the west coast of 
Greece (cf. the trip of Telemachus to Pylus), which 
consisted of four hirge islands (Ithaca, Dulichiunij 
Same, and Zacynthus) and of a number of smaller 
ones. Near the mouth of the Corinthian Gulf there 
is such a group of islands, the larger of which are 
Leucas, Ithaca (Thiaki), Cephallenia, and Zacynthus 
(Zante). 

It is often stated, however, that Leucas is a 
peninsula, not an island. It is separated from the 
mainland by a lagoon too shallow for the passage 
of ships (Leaf, Homer a7id History, p. 144) ; and 
for this reason the Corinthians, in the reign of 
Cypselus (655-625 b.c), " dug a canal through the 
isthmus of the peninsula and made Leucas an 
island" (Strabo 10. 2. 8). Other ancient writers 
agree with Strabo in speaking of Leucas as a 
peninsula (Scholiast on Odyssey, 24. 376 ; Scylax, 
Periplus, 34 ; Ovid, Metamorphoses, 15. 289 ; Plutarch, 
Dc sera numinis vindicta, 7. 552 E ; Pliny, Kat. Hist. 
4. 2 ; see also Manly, Ithaca or Leucas ? pp. 25-29). 

* In the preparation of this note the translator must 
record his indebtedness to two of his pupils, Miss Marion 
L. Ayer, M.A., and Whitney Tucker, B.A., each of whom 
wrote an able paper on the subject. A Bibliography pre- 
pared by them will be found at the end of this note. 



APPENDIX 

This tradition has made it necessary to find tlie 
fourth island, as well as to identify each of the 
others. Scholars are agreed upon only one identi- 
fication, that of the modern Zante with the Homeric 
Zacynthus ; indeed^ some have despaired of making 
Homer's references to the islands agree with geo- 
graphical reality, on the ground that, as Strabo 
{e.g. in 1. 2. 9) insists. Homer was wont purposely 
to mingle false elements \vith true ; and so, for 
example, Wilamowitz [Arch. Anzeiger, 1903, p. 43) 
says that Dulichium is "nowhere to be found." 

Until the end of the nineteenth century the 
prevailing view was that Thiaki was Ithaca and 
that Cephallenia was Same ; while Dulichium was 
sought in various places (see Manly, op. cil., pp. 10 
12), being identified by some with the western part 
of Cephallenia (Pausanias 6. 15. 7 ; cf. Strabo 10. 2. 
14), by Strabo with one of the Echinades. called 
Dolicha (8. 2. 2, 8. 3. 8, 10. 2. 10, 10. 2. 19; cf 
Schol. on Iliad, 2. 625), and by Bunbuiy {Hist. 
Ancient Geog. I, p. 70) with Leucas. The difficulty 
was that Dulichium, the missing island, seems from 
Homer's references to it {e.g. in Od. 14. 335 and 
16. 247) to have been the largest and richest of 
the group. .Same was supposed to be Cephallenia 
because of the existence there, in classical times, 
of a citv of Samus (see Strabo 10. 2. 10). 

In 1894 Draheim ( ?roc^. /. Kl. PhiloL, ISdi, Q3) 
wondered that no one had ever doubted the identi- 
fication of Ithaca with Thiaki, and suggested that 
Leucas Avould better fit the Homeric description. 
In 1900 Dorpfeld announced his theory, that Ithaca 
was Leucas, Same was Thiaki, and Dulichium was 
Cephallenia. Immediately there arose a heated 

5-H 



APPENDIX 

discussion, with a number of scholars taking sides 
or producing new variations of the theories pre- 
sented. Among Dorpfeld's supporters are Cauer, 
Gossler, Leaf, Seymour, and von Marees ; among 
his opponents are Allen, Berard, Brewster, Manly, 
Shewan, VollgrafF, VVilamowitz, and Biirchner. 

The chief arguments in support of the Ithaca- 
Leucas theory, 'as set forth by Dorpfeld, Gossler, 
and Leaf, are as follows : (1) In Od. 9. 21-28 the 
geographical position of Ithaca is described as " low 
in the sea," which they explain as "near the shore" 
(Dorpfeld, Lcukns, pp. 11 f., 28-30; Gossler, Leukas- 
Ithaca, pp. 34-36) ; and as "farthest up towards the 
darkness," in contrast with the other islands, which 
lie "toward the dawn and the sun." The ancients 
confused west and north along this coast, and so 
" towards the darkness " means towards the north 
by our compasses (Dorpfeld, op. cit., pp. 8-10, 26-28 ; 
Gossler, op. cit., pp. 36-40). Both these expressions 
fit Leucas very well, but Thiaki not at all. (2) The 
little island of Asteris, where the suitors lay in wait 
for Telemachus, must be Arcudi, between Leucas 
and Thiaki, since this island fits the Homeric 
description, whereas Dascalio, the only island be- 
tween Thiaki and Cephallenia, does not (Dorpfeld, 
op. cit., pp. 14—16, 34-36 ; Gossler, op. cit., pp. 49-52 ; 
Leaf, op. cit., pp. 148, 151 f.). (3) Since Ithaca was 
connected with the mainland by a ferry, it must be 
close to the mainland, like Leucas, not far off, like 
Thiaki (Dorpfeld, op. cit., pp. 12, 30-32; Gossler, 
op. cit., pp. 47 f.). (4) Ithaca must lie between 
Thesprotia and Dulichium, in view of Odysseus'a 
story of his trip to Ithaca {Od. 14. 334-359); this 
story would exclude Thiaki (Dorpfeld, op. cit., pp. 

525 



APPENDIX 

14, 34; Gossler, op. cit., pp. 45 f.; Leaf, op. cit., 
p. 153). Many other passages in Homer are pro- 
duced to reinforce the conclusion. The name of 
the island was transferred from Leucas to Thiaki as 
a result of the Dorian invasion ; the Dorians drove 
the people of Ithaca out of their own island, where- 
upon they crossed over to the next island (Same), 
conquered it, and changed its name to Ithaca 
(Dorpfeld, op. cit., pp. 17 f., 25; Gossler, op. cil., 
pj). 75-77 ; Leaf, op. cit., pp. 154-156). 

The supporters of Thiaki attack all of Dorpfeld's 
arguments, on various grounds ; for instance, they 
accuse him of misinterpreting the text in con- 
nection with the "ferry" {Od. 20. 187 f.), and they 
object to his conclusions from the text in many 
passages, as Od. 9. 25, " low in the sea." Then 
they proceed to identify on Thiaki the topographical 
features of the Ithaca of Odysseus ; but they do 
not agree in their discussion of these features, nor 
in the identification of the other islands. Most of 
them regard Cephallenia, or a part of it, as Same ; 
but Croiset and Brewster find Same in Leucas. As 
to Dulichium there is great difference of opinion : 
Croiset and Brewster identify it with Cephallenia ; 
Goekoop, Rothe, Gruhn, and Michael with the 
western part of Cephallenia ; Bunbury, Vollgraff", 
Allen, Shewan, Stiirmer, and Bury with Leucas ; 
Lang, Manly, and Cserep with one of the 
Echinades ; and Bcrard {Les Pheniciens et rOdijssee, 
II, pp. 421-446) with the small island of Meganisi, 
near Leucas. All these scholars, however, hold 
that the geographical position of Thiaki agrees 
with the Homeric description of Ithaca, or that the 
discrepancies are so slight that they can be ignored 
536 



APPENDIX 

or set down to poetic licence — as Berurd (op. ciL, II, 
pp. 409, 480-494), who, in trying to prove that Asteris 
is the modern Dascaho, admits that the description 
does not agree with reality, but argues that the 
to|)ography of Asteris is in part invented by the 
poet and in part transferred from the near-by island 
of Cephallenia. 

One group of scliolars, including some of those 
already mentioned, hold that Homer lived in Asia 
Minor and was therefore not familiar with the home 
of Odysseus ; and so they ascribe apparent in- 
accuracies to the ignorance of the poet. Wilamo- 
witz is the most prominent of this group, and 
explains {Arch. Anzeigei-, 1903, j). 44 ; Homerische 
Unlet suclmngen, pp. 26 f.) that Homer knew only a 
few place-names, with a little vague information 
about the region. Belzner {Land und Heimat des 
Odiisseus), adopting this view, disregards actual 
geography and invents a grouj^ of islands in this 
neighbourhood, which, he says, would correspond 
to Homer's description. 

Goekoop (Ithaque la Grande) thinks that Ithaca, Duli- 
chium, and Same are different parts of Cephallenia. 

Through the maze of this controversy the present 
translator, as one of the "^ more Homeric," seems 
to see a preponderance of evidence in favour of 
Leucas as the Homeric Ithaca; but the problem 
still remains open to further investigation.^ 

' Two very recent works on this subject, by W. Durpfeld 
and Sir Rennell Rodd (see under Partial Bibliography), 
appeared too late for consideration in the above Appendix. 
The translator has not yet seen the former, but has read, on 
the very daj' of transmitting the final page-proofs of the 
present volume, the modest and charming little book of the 
latter, who makes an able plea for the traditional Ithaca. 



PARTIAL BIBLIOGRAPHY 

OF THE ITHACA-LEUCAS PROBLEM 

Allen, T. W.— The Homeric Catalogue (./. H. S. 30, 1910). 

Belzner, E. — Land und Heimat des Udyst<eus. Munich, 1915. 

Berard, V. — Lcs Phinicicns ct VOdys^ee. Paris, 1902. 

Brewster, F. — Ithaca : a Study of the Homeric Evidence 
{Harvard Studies in Classical Philology, 31, 1920). 
Asteris. {Harvard Studies, 33, 1922.) Ithaca, Duli- 
chium, Samd, and Wooded Zacynthus {Harvard iStudies. 
36, 1925). 

Bunbury, E. H. — History of Ancient Geography. London, 
1883. 

Biirchner, L. — Ithake ; and Leukas, Leukadia ; both {s.vv.) 
in Pauly-Wissovva. 

Bury, J. B., in the Cambridge Ancient History. 

Cauer, P. — Erfundenes und tjberliefertes bei Homer, pp. 
14-17 (iV. JahrbUcher, 8, 1905). Grundfragen der Horner- 
kritik, 3rd ed., Leipzig, 1923. 

Croiset, M. — Observations .sur la legende primitive d'Ulysse 
{Academic des Inscriptio7is et Belles- Leitres, 1911). 

Cserep, J. — Homer os Ithakrja. 1908. 

Dorpfeld, W. — Das Homerische Ithaka {Melanges Perrot, 
Paris, 1902). Leukas-Ithaka {Archddoqischer Anzeiger, 
1904). [These two articles were republished together as 
Leukas. Athens, 1905.] Die Heimkchr des Odysseus. 
Munich, 1924. Zur Leukas-Ithaka Frage {Philologies, 
1926). Alt-Ithaka : Ein Beitrag zur Homcr-Frage ; 
Stadien und, Aiisgrabungoi avf der Insel Leukas-Ithaka 
(a work in 2 vols.). Verlag Richard Uhde, Miiiichen- 
Gratelfing, 1927. 

Draheim, H. — Die Ithaka Frage. Berlin, 1903. 

Engel, E. — Der ll'ohnsitz des Odysseus. Leipzig, 1912. 

Goekoop, A. E. H. — Ithaque la Grande. Athens, 1908. 

Gossler, P. — Leukas-Ithaka, die Heimat des Odysseus. Stutt- 
gart, 1904. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Grosclil, J. — Dorpfelds Leukas-Ithaka-HypoUuse, Friedek, 

1907. 
Grahu, A.— Ithaka {N. Phil. Rundschau, 1906). 
Lang, G. — Untersuchuvgen zur Geographie der Odyssee. 

Karlsruhe, 1905. 
Lang, N. — Odysxeus Hazaja. Budapest, 1902. 
Leaf, W. — Hr/mer and History. London, 1915. Strabo on 

ihi Troad. Cambridge, 1923. 
Manly, W. G. — Ithaca or Leucaa ? {Univ. of Missouri 

Studies, 1903). 
Maries, W. von — Die Ithakalegende auf Thiaki {Neue 

Johrbueher, 17, 1906). Karteii von Lenkas. Berlin, 

1907. 
Michael, H. — Das Hc'ineritche und das Ueutige Ithaka. 

Jauer, 1902. Die Heimat de'^ Od/j^seus. Jauer, 1905. 
Monro, D B. — The Place and Time of Homer {Class. Rev., 

19, 1905). 
Partsch, J.— Die Insel Leukas {Peiermanns Mittkuluncien, 

1890). Das Alter der Inselnatur von Leukas (Peter- 

mxnns Mitlh., 1907). 
Pavlatos. — -'H narpls rod 'OSua-aiais. Athens, 1906. 
Robert, C— Ithaca {Hermes, 44, 1909). 
Rodd. Sir Rennell. — Horner's Ithaca: A Vindication of 

Tradition. Edward Arnold and Co., London, 1927. 
Rothe. C. — Die Odyssee ah Dichtun^. Paderborn, 1914. 
Seymour, T. D. — Life in the Homeric Age. Xew York, 

1907. 
Shewan. A. — Recent Homeric Literature (Class. Phil., 7, 

1912). Leukaslthaka (J. H. S., 34, 1914). Beati Possi- 

dentes Ithakistae (Class. Phil., 12, 1917). Meges and 

Dulichium, and also Asteris and the Voyage of Tele- 

machus (Class. Phil., 19, 1924). Asteris and Dulichium 

(Class. Phil., 21, 1926). 
Sturmer, F., in Berl. Phil. Wochenschrift, 1913, 1660. 

Rhapsodien der Odyssee. Wurzburg, 1921. 
Vollgraff, W. — Dulichium-Leukas. ^ew Jahrhurher, 19, 

1907). Fouilles d'lthaqne (B. C. H., 29, 1905). 



530 



A PARTIAL DICTIONARY OF PROPER 

NAMES 1 



A bus, Mt., 321, 335 

Acaruanians, the, 23, 65 

Achaei. the, 191, 203, 207 

Achelous River, the, 23, 55, 57 

Achilles, temple of, 197 

Acilisene, 297, 321, 325, 333, 341 

Actian War, the, 341, 497 

Actium, 25, 63, 165 

Acusilaiis the Argive (see foot-note on 
p. 115), on the Cabeiri, 115 

Adiatorix, son of Domnecleius, 
tetrarch of the Qalatians, received 
from Antony a part of Heracleia, 
379 

Admetus, king of Pherae in Thessaly, 
15 

Ador (Adon?), commandant of Arta 
geras (Artageira ?j, 327 

Aenianians, the, 25 

Aeolians, settlers in Euboea, 13 

Aeschines, reproached by Demos- 
thenes for engaging in Phrygian 
rites, 109 

Aeschylus the tragic poet, on the city 
of Euboea, 15; on the worship of 
Cotys and Dionysus, 105 ; con- 
founds things that are different, 519 

Aetolia. divided into Old AetoUa and 
Aetolia Epictetus, 27 

Aetolians, the, 23, 65 

Aetolus, son of Endymion, 77, 79 

Aldus, coloniser of Eretria, 13 

Alazonius River, the, 219, 221 

Albania, 187, 207 

Albanians, the, 223; description of, 
226 

Alcmaeon, son of Amphiarails, 71 

Alcman of Sardis (fl. about 626 B.C., 
founder of Doric Lyric poetry), on 



the Carystian wine, 11 ; on tho 
Erysichaeans, 66; on the " An- 
dreia " (public messes), 151 ; on 
the Cerbesian melody, 519 

Alexander Piiilalethes the physician 
of Laodiceia, contemporary of 
Strabo, 619 

Alexander the Aetolian poet (b. about 
316 B.C.), on the Ascanian Lake, 465 

Alexander the Great, consorted with 
Thalestria, queen of the Amazons, 
237; his exploits exaggerated to 
glorify him, 239, 247, 265; eluded 
by Spitamenes and Bessus, 269 ; 
went to the laxartes River, 271; 
fewer tribes subdued by him than 
by the Greeks, 279; broke up 
Bactrian custom, 283 ; founder and 
destroyer of cities in Bactriana and 
Sogdiana, 283 ; married Rhoxana, 
285; did not attempt expedition 
against certain Scythians, 287; 
captured Sagalassus (Sclgessus), 479 

Althaemenes the Argive, founder of 
cities in Crete, 143, 149 

Amaltheia, the horn of, 67, 59 

Amanus Mt., the, 295, 361 

Amardi (Mardi), the, 249, 259, 269 
305 

Amaseia, 397, 429, 446 

Amastris, a city named after Queen 
Amastris, 385 

Amastris, wife of Dionysius the tyrant 
of Heracleia, daughter of Oxyathres, 
and founder of the city Amastris, 
385 

Amazons, the, 231, 405, 493 

Ambracian Gulf, the, 25 

Amisus, 211, 395, 399 

Ampliilochians, the, 23 

Amphilochua, 73 



1 A complete index will appear in the last volume. 



531 



A PARTIAL DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



Auipiitrjou, 47, 59 

Amyntas, king of Galatia, Euccessor 
of IJelotarus, 469; owned three 
hundred flocks, 475 ; slew Antipater 
Derbetes, 477 

Anactxjrium, 25, 33 

Anadatus, Persian deity, 263 

Anaitis, temple of, 263; worshipped 
by Medes and Armenians, 341 

Anariacae (rarsii), the, 249, 209 

Ancyra, 471 

Andron (see foot-note 2 on p. 126), 
on Cephallenia and Diilichium, 49 ; 
on the foreigners in Crete, 127 

Antenor, settled at the recess of the 
Adriatic, 383 

Antigonia (see Xicaea), 463 

Antigonus the son of Philip (see note 
2 on p. 463), 463 

Antiocheia near Pisidia, 477, 507 

Antiochus Soter, king of Syria 280- 
261 B.C., founded Antiocheia, 279; 
removed inhabitants of Celaenae to 
Apameia, 509 

Antiochus the Great (reigned over 
Syria 223-187 B.C.), 325; con- 
quered by the Romans, 369, 457 

Antipater Derbetes, the pirate, 349, 
and tyrant, 476 

Antipater the son of Sisis, ruler of 
L^ser Armenia, yielded to Mithri- 
dates Eupator, 425 

AntiUurus Mt., the, 295, 299, 319, 351 

Antonins, Gains, uncle of Marcus 
Antonius, 47 

Antony, Marcus, nephew of Gaius, 47 ; 
his expedition against the Par- 
thians, 305; betrayed by Arta- 
vasdes the king of the Armenians. 
307; appointed Archclaiis king of 
Cappadocia, 371; gave part of 
Heracleia to Adiatorix, 379 ; gave 
over Amisus to kings, 395 ; aided 
by Oeon, 497; had high regard for 
Polemon, 511 

Aorsi, the, 191, 243 

Apameia Cibotus, 505, 509, 515 

Apami, the, 249, 2G1, 275 

Apollo Solinuntius, 7; Marmarinus, 
11; the Actiau, 25; Leucatas, 33; 
leader of the Muses, 95 ; Aegletan, 
101; bom in Delos, 163; Smin- 
thian, 169; Cataonian, 357 

ApoUodoms (see Dictionary in vol. ij, 
on .=amos, 39 ; on Asteria, 51 ; on 



Mts. Chalcis and Taphiassus, 63; 
on the Erysicbeians, 65; on the 
Hyantes, 81; praised by Strabo, 
83: on the dimensions of Crete, 
123; on the Ochiis River, 255; 
on the distance from the Caspian 
Gates to Rhagae and Hecatompylus, 
273 ; on the Greeks as masters of 
Ariana and India, 279; on Bac- 
triana, 281; on the distance from 
nvTcania to Ai-temita, 291 ; on the 
Halizoni, 413, 415 ; on Enete, 417 ; 
on the fabrications of Homer, 423 

Apollonides (see vol. iii, p. 234, foot- 
not* 2), on Atropatian Media, 303 ; 
on certain insects In Armenia, 323 

Arabians, settlers in Euboea, 13 

Arachosia, 277 

Aracynthus, Mt., 27 

Aragus River, the, 217, 221 

Aratus of Soli (fl. 270 B.C.), author of 
the astronomical poems Phaeno- 
mena and Diosemeia and also a work 
entitled Catalepton (see p. 167); 
on Dicte, 139; on Pholegandros, 
161 ; on Graros, 167 

Araxene Plain, the, 321, 335 

Araxea River, the, 187, 225, 265, 321, 
327, 335 

Araxus, Cape, 57 

Archardelis River, the, 243 

Archelaiis, father of Archelails the 
priest of Comana ; honoured by 
Sulla and the Roman Senate, 437 

Archelaiis, given kingdom of Cappa- 
docia by Antony (36 B.C.), 345, 349 ; 
an eleventh prefecture assigned to 
his predecessors, 349 ; spent most 
of his time at Elaeussa, 361 ; miners 
of, 369 ; appointed king by Antony, 
371 ; second husband of Pytho- 
doris, 427 

Archelaiis, priest of Comana, son oi 
the Archelaiis who was honoured 
by Sulla and the Roman Senate, 435 

Archemachus the Euboean (see foot- 
note on p. 84), on the Curetes, 85 

Archilochus the Iambic poet (fl. about 
685 B.C.), bom in Paros, 169; 
robbed of shield by one of the Sail, 
403 

Argaeus Mt., the, 361, 363 

Aria, 277 

Ariarathres (d. 220 B.C.), " first man 
to be called king of the Cappa- 



A PARTIAL DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



docians," 347 ; dammed the Melas 
and Carmalus Rivera, 363 

Ariobarzanes, king of Cappadocla 93- 
63 B.C. ; chosen by the people, 371 

Aristion, tyrant of Athens (see foot- 
note 4 on p. 167); caused revolt of 
Delos, 167 

Aristobulus of Cassandreia, served 
under Alexander the Great in Asia 
and wrote a history of his life; on 
the trees of Hyrcania, the Oxus 
River, and on imports from India, 
253 ; on the Polytimetus River, 285 

Ariston, the peripatetic philosopher, 
169 

Aristotle of Chalcis (apparently 
flourished in fourth century B.C.); 
author of a work on Euboea; on 
the colonisation of Euboea, 5; on 
that of Italy and Sicily by the 
Chalcidians, 13 

Aristotle of Stageira (384-322 B.C.), 
prince of ancient philosophers; 
died at Chalcis, 19 

Alius River, the, 277 

Armenia, 187, 209, 231, 301, 307, 321 

Armenia, Lesser, 423, 427 

Armenians, the, 185; castes among, 
221 ; customs of, 313 ; ancient story 
of, 333 ; clothing of, 333 ; worship- 
pers of Analtis, 341 

Armenus, companion of Jason, called 
eponymous hero of Armenia, 231, 
333 

Arsaces a son of Phamaces, captured 
and slain by Polemon I, 445 

Arsaces the Scythian (or Bactrian), 
king of Parthia (about 250 B.C.), 
275; fled from Seleucus Callinious 
(king of Syria 246-226 B.C.), 269 

Arsene (Thopitis), Lake, 327 

Arsinoe (Canopa), founded by Arsinofi, 
wife of Ptolemy n, 66 

Artanes (Arsaces? or Armenias?), the 
Sophenian, descendant of Zariadris, 
337 

Axtavasdes, king of the Armenians, 
betrayed Antony, 307 ; treasury of, 
325; cavalry of, 331; paraded in 
chains, imprisoned, and slain, 339 

Artaxata (Artaxiasata), 321, 326 

Artaxias, general of Antiochus the 
Great, and king, enlarged Armenia, 
823, 337 

Artemidorus (see Dictionary in toI. ii), 



on Mt. Chalciy, or Chalcia, 63 ; on 
the perimeter of Oete, 123; enu- 
merates fifteen Cyclades, 165; on 
the Cercetae and other peoples in 
Asia Minor, 207; on the cities of 
the Pisidians, 481 

Artemis Amarynthia, 17 ; Perasian, 
."Sg ; Tauropolus, 353 

Artemita, 291 

AsaiiJer (ruler of the Bosporus, by 
act of Augustus), 201 

Asclepiades the physician of Prusa 
(fl. about 50 B.C.),"467 

Asia, description of, 183; twofold 
meaning of term, 317 

Aspionus, satrapy of, 281 

Aspurgiani, the, attacked by Pole- 
mon, 201 

Asteria (Asteris), 51 

Astyages (reigned 594-559 B.C.), the 
last king of Media, 307 

Ateporix, Galatian dynast, 443 

Athena, the Nedusian, 169 

Athenians, the, hospitable to things 
foreign, 109 

Athenocles of Athens, colonised Ami- 
Bus, 395 

Atropates, satrap of Media under 
Alexander, 303 

B 

Babylon, 319, 329 

Bacchides, commander of garrison at 

Sinopt\ 391 
Bacchylides, the poet, native of lulls 

in Ceos, 169 
Bactra (Zariaspa), 271, 281 
Bactriana, 263, 275 
Bagadania, 367 
Baris, temple of, 335 
Bata, village and harbour, 205 
Baton (Q. second half of third century 

B.C.), born at Sinop^ and the author 

of The Persica, 391 
Bebryces, the, 375 
Berecyntes, the, worshippers of Rhea, 

99 
Bessus, Persian who escaped from 

Alexander, fleeing to the Ohorasmii, 

269, 289 
Billarus, the globe of, 391 
Bion (fl. about 250 B.C.), the Borys- 

thenite philosopher, emulated by 

Ariston, 169 

533 



A PARTIAL DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



Bitbyuia, 373, 375, 455, 4t)'> 

Bithynians, tlie, 499 

Bogodiatanis, king of Mithridatiuin, 

4C9 
Bosporus, the Cimmerian, 187 ; named 

after the Cimmerians, 197 
Budoms River, the, 9 



Cabeira (Diospolis), 429, 431 

Cabeiri, the, 87, 105, 113, 115 

Oadena, royal residence of Sisinus, 359 

Cadusii, the, 249, 251, 259, 269, 305, 
307, 309 

Caesar Augustus, at Corinth, 1G5 ; 
liberated Amisus, 395 ; appointed 
Dyteutus priest of Comana, 437 ; 
honoured Cleon the robber, 499 ; 
honoured Polemon, 611 

Caesar, Julius, set Amisus free, 395 

Caesar, Tiberius, 349 

Callaa River, the, 7 

Callimachus (see Dictionary in vol. i), 
on Dict^ and Dictynna, 139 ; on 
Aegletan Anaphe, 161 

Callisthenes of Olynthus, pupil of 
Aristotle, accompanied AJeiander 
to Asia, wrote account of his 
expedition, and also a history of 
Greece in ten books, of which only 
fragments remain; seized and 
imprisoned at Cariatae in Bactriana, 
283 ; follows Herodotus in his 
account of the Araies River, 335 ; 
on the Cauconians, 377 

Calpas River, the, 379 

Cambysenfe, 229, 323 

Cambyses (second king of Persia, 529- 
522 B.C.), destroyed temples of 
Cabeiri and Hephaestus in Mem- 
phis, 115 

Capaute (TJrmi), Lake, 303 

Cappadocia; amount of tributes paid 
the Persians, 295, 313, 345, 363. 
367, 415 

Cappaidocians, the, 185 

Carambis, Cape, 205, 387 

CJarians, the, 491 

Carmalas River, the, 357 

Carpathos, 177 

Casos, 177 

Caspian Gates, the, 295 

Caspian (Hyrcanian) Sea, the, 187, 355 

Caspian^, 227, 325 



Caspjus (Caucasus), Mt., 269 

Castabala, 349, 359, 361 

Cataonia, 319, 351, 353, 355 

Cataonians, the, 315, 353 

Cato Uticeusis (95-46 B.C.), ceded his 

wife to Quintus Hortensius, 273 
CJancasian Mountains, the, 191, 193. 

217 
Caucasii, the, 211 
Caucasus, the, 207, 239, 241, 259 
Cauconians, the, 375, 377, 491 
Celaenae, 509, 515 
Cenaeimi, Cape, 3 
Ceo8, 169 

Cephallenia, 35, 47, 51 
Cercetae, the, 207 
Cerens River, the, 21 
Chalcis, 3, 11, 17 
Chaldaei, the, 399, 401, 423, 427 
Chalybians, the, 325, 403 
Chamanene, 349, 369 
Chanes River, the, 219 
Chares River, the, 215 
Charondas of Catana (apparently fl. 

in sixth century B.C.), the lawgiver ; 

his laws used by the Mazaceni, 367 
Chorasmii, the, 269 
Chorzene, 323, 325 
Cilicia, 185, 349 
Cilicia Tracheia, 345, 361 
Cimarus, Cape, 121 
Cimmerians, the, 197, 263, 495 
Cimolos, the island, " whence comec 

the Cimolian earth," IGl 
Cius (Prusias), 453, 455 
CHeitarchus (see Dictionary in vol. ii), 

on the width of the isthmus between 

Colchis and the mouth of the Cyrus 

River, 187 ; on Queen Thalestria 

and Alexander the Great, 239 
Cleochares the rhetorician of Myrleia, 

467 
Cleon, the celebrated robber and 

dynast, 497 
Cleopatra, 437 
Cnossus, 127, 133 
Colchians, the, 207, 211 
Colchis, 187, 209, 211 
Coloesae, 505 
Comana, Cappadocian, 295, Sol, 359 

395 
Comana, Pontic, 433, 435, 439 
Comlsene, 273, 323 
Ommagene, 297. 319, 345, 361 
Corax, Mt., 27 



534 



A PARTIAL DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



C-orocondamitis, Lake, 199 

Corybantes, the, 87, 105, 111, 113 

Cos, 173, 195 

Oossaei, the, 301, 3H9 

Ootbus, Athenian coloniser of Chalcis, 
13 

Cotys, worshipped among the Edon- 
ians, 105 

Crassus, (Jnidus, the triumvir; his 
exit from Armenia, 221 

Crecas (see Rhecas), 203 

Crete, description of, 121 

Oretic rhythms, the, 147 

Orithote, Cape, 61 

Oriumetopon, Cape, 121 

Ctesias (see Dictionary in vol. i), 
called untrustworthv, 247 

Curates, the, 75, 83, 97, 99, 147 

Cybistra, 349, 359, 3G1 

Cyclades, the, 163, 165 

Cydonia, 127, 137, 139 

C!ym§, founded by the Amazons, 237 

Cyuia, Lake, 61 

Cynthus, Mt., 163 

Cypselu3(seo Dictionary in vol. iv), 33 

Cyra, 28.'^ 

Cyrsilus the Pharsalian, accompanied 
Alexander; on came, and settlers, 
of Armenia, 333 

Cyrus (Ck)rus) River, the, 187, 211, 
217, 223, 225, 269, 321, 327 

Cyrus the Great, founder of the Per- 
sian empire (reigned 559-529 B.C.); 
his war against the Massagetae, 247, 
265; said to have made expedition 
against the Sacae, 263 ; founded 
(jyra, 283 ; reduced Greater Ar- 
menia, 307 

Cytorum, 385 

Cytorus, son of Phrixus, eponymous 
hero of Cytorum, 387 

Cyzicus, 501 

D 

Daae, the, 261 

Dactyli, the Idaean, 87, 117 

Dascylitis, Lake, 409, 499 

Dazimonitis, 397 

Delotarus, tetrarch of the Qalatians 
and appointed king by Pompey, 
393, 469; Blucium his royal resid- 
ence, 471 ; slayer of his son-in-law 
Castor and of his own daughter, 473 

Delotarus Philadelphus, son of Castor 
and king of Paphlagonia, 453 



DcUius, commander in Antony's war 
against the Parthians and author 
of an account of it, 305 

Delos, birthplace of Apollo and Arte- 
mis, 163 ; its fame as centre of 
religion and commerce, 167 

Demeter, the worship of, 95 

Demetrius, the son of Euthydemus 
and son-in-law of Antiochus the 
Great; the king of the Hactrians, 
281 

Demetrius Aetolicus (son of Antigonus 
Gonatas; reigned over Macedonia 
239-229 B.C.), devastated Aetolia, 
27 

Demetrius of Scepsis (see Dictionary 
in vol. i), on Asteria, 51 ; on the 
Cabeiri, 113; on the Curetea and 
the Corybantes, 115; on Calymnae, 
179; on the Halizoni and Chaly- 
bians, 405, 407, 409, 411 

Demetrius the mathematician, born 
at SidenC, 399 

Demosthenes, the orator, quoted on 
Philistides the tyrant of the 
Oreitae, 7 ; reproached Aeschinea 
for engaging in Phrygian rites, 109 

Derb§, 349, 477 

Derbices, the, 269, 273, 293 

Dia, the island, 161 

Diodotus, put Arsace3 to flight, 275 

Diogenes the Cynic, born (about 412 
B.C.) at Sinopg, 391 

Dionysius of Chalcis in Euboea (fl., 
apparently, in the fourth century 
B.C.), author of T)te Foundings ; on 
the " Mysian Bosporus," 466 

Dionysius the dialectician, born iu 
Bithynia, 467 

Dionysodorus, the geometer of Melos, 
399 

Dionysodoms the mathematician, 
bom at Sidene, 399 

Dionysus, the worship of, 95 ; his 
expedition to India, 239 

Diosciirias, 207, 209, 216, 241 

Diospolis (Cabeira), 431 

Diphilus the comic poet, contemporary 
of Menander, born at Sinope, 391 

Doedalsus, founder of Astacus, 455 

Domnecleius (Domnilalis), tetrarch 
of the Galatians, 379 

Dorylalis, maternal ancestor of Strabo 
and military expert, 133, 433 

Drangiana, 277 

szs 



A PARTIAL DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



DuUchium (Dolicha), 35, 47, 55 
Dyteutus, appointed priest of Comana 
by Augustus, 437 

E 

Ecbatana, 303, 307, 309, 335 

Echinades Islands, the, 55 

Eisadici, the, 241 
'Elaeussa, 361 

Elixus River, the, 169 

EUops, the son of Ion, founder of 
Ellopla in Euboea, 7 

Elymaei, the, 301, 309 

Emoda. Mt., 259 

Eneti, the, 381 

Enyo, goddess of war, temple of, 351 ; 
priesthood of, 357 

Ephesus, founded by the Amazons, 
237 

Ephors. the Spartan, 151 

Ephorus (see Dictionary in vol. i), 
on names of cities of Acamanians, 
33 ; denies that they joined Trojan 
expedition, 71 ; makes Acamania 
subject to Alcmaeon, 73 ; on the 
Curetes, 75; on the kinship of the 
Eleians and Aetolians, 79 ; on 
Minos, 131; on the good laws of 
Crete, 133 ; on the hundred cities 
In Crete, 143 ; on the Cretan con- 
stitution, 145 ; on the Cretan in- 
stitutions, 147, 153 ; on the reason 
why Lycur^us went to Crete, 151 ; 
says Cytorum was named after 
Cytoms the son of Phrixus, 387; 
on the abode of the Amazons, 405 

Epimenides the wizard (see foot- 
note 2 on p. 141), native of Phaestus, 
141 

Erasistratus (fl. in first half of third 
century B.C.), the physician, bom 
in Ceos, 169 

Eratosthenes (see Dictionary in vol. i); 
on the distance from Cyrenaea to 
Criumetopon, 125; on the " Cas- 
pius " (Caucasus), 209 ; on the 
circuit of the Caspian Sea, 245 ; 
on the Oius River, 253 ; says 
Alexander built fleet out of fir- 
wood from India, 257 ; on the 
abodes of various Asiatic peoples, 
and on various distances in Asia, 
269 ; author of divisions of Asia, 
301; wrongly writes " Thermo- 



don " Elver instead of " Lvcus," 
327 

Eretria, 11, 15, 17 

Euboea (ilacris), description of, 3; 
subject to earthquakes, 15 

Euboeans, the, as soldier?, 21 

Eucratides (king of Bactriana from 
about 181 to 161 B.C.), 27.5, 281 

Eudorus of Cnidus (see Dictionary in 
vol. i), praised by Polybius, 81 ; 
on Crete, 121; describes a. "mar- 
vellous" place in Hyrcania, 257; 
called foister of names, 405 ; on 
certain fish in Paphlagonia, 453 

Enmenes of Cardia, after death of 
Alexander (323 B.C.) became ruler 
of Cappadocia, Paphlagonia and 
Pontus; long held out against a 
siege by Antigonus, 359 

Eumenes the king of Pergamnm (see 
note on p. 506), 607 

Eupatoria (ilagnopolis), 429 

Euphorion (see Dictionary in vol. iv), 
on the Mysian Ascanius, 465 

Euphrates, "the, 297, 317 ; course of, 
319, 321, 329, 351 

Etiripides, on the worship of Dionysus 
and Rhea, 101, 113; on "things 
divine," 213; on a strange custom 
of the barbarians of the Caucasus, 
291 

Euripus, the, 5, 13 

Euthydemus, caused revolt of Bac- 
triana, 275 

Evenus (Lycormas), the Eiver, 29, 63 

a 

(Jabinius (consul 58 B.C., proconsul to 

Syria 57 B.C.), 437 
Galatia (Gallo-Grecia), 469 
Galatians, the, 467, 485, 495 
Gallus River, the, 379 
Gargarians, the, 233 
Garsauira, 359, 367 
Gazelonitis, 393, 417, 443 
Gelae, the, 249, 259 
Gelon, tyrant of Syracuse (d. 478 B.C.), 

drove Chalcidians out of Sicilian 

Euboea, 23 
Geraestus, 3. 11 
Glaucus River, the, 211, 219 
Gogaren^, 321, 325 
Gordium (Juliopolis), 497 
Gordyaean Mts., the, 299 



536 



A PARTIAL DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



Gorgus, son of Cvpselus the tyrant of 

Coriutb, 33 
Gortyna, 127, 137 
Gyaros, the island, visited by Strabo. 

165 



H 



Halizones (Ilalizoni), the, 403 

Halys Eiver, the, 189, 345, 383; 
origin of the name, 391 

Hannibal, the Carthaginian, founder 
of Artaxata in Armenia, 325 ; wel- 
comed by Prusias, 457 

Hecataeus of Miletus (see Dictionary 
in vol. i) ; approved by Demetrius, 
407, 413; identifies Enete with 
Amisus, 417 

Helius (the Sun), worshipped as god, 
229, 265 

Hellanicus (see Dictionary in vol. i), 
on the Aetolian cities, 29 ; on 
Cephallenia, 49 ; author of I'!ioro- 
nis, on the Curetes, 111 ; called 
untrustworthy, 247 ; foister of 
names, 405 

Heniochi, the, 191, 203, 205, 207 

Heracleia in Pontus, 273, 371, 373, 
379 

Heracleides the Platonic philosopher, 
born at Heracleia in Pontus, 371 

Heracles, destroyer of Oechalia, 17; 
married Delaneira, 57 ; made ex- 
pedition to India, 239 ; sailed on 
the Argo, 457 

Hermonassa, 199, 399 

Herodotus, on the destruction of Old 
Eretrla, 17; on the long hair of 
Leonidas' soldiers, 89; on the 
Cabeiri, 115; called untrustworthy, 
247; on the Araxes Kiver, 335 ; on 
prostitution of Lydian women, 341 ; 
on " the country this side the Halys 
River," 347 ; calls Egypt " the gift 
of the Nile," 357; by "Syrians" 
means " Cappadocians," 383 ; 
foister of names, 405 ; on the 
Termilae (Milyae), 491 

riesiod, on the origin of the Satyrs 
and Curetes, 111 

Uicron, benefactor of Laodiceia, liis 
native city, 511 

Hleronymus (see foot-note 2 on p. 123), 
on the dimensions of Crete, 123 

Hlppaltae (Cercitae), the, 401 



Hippus River, the, 211, 217 

Histiaeotis (Hestiaeotis), 7 

Homer, 33, 35, 39, 41, 43, 47, 49, 65, 

75, 127, 129, 137, 153 (" Homer, who 

was living in Chios "), 161 (reputed 

to have been buried in the isle of 

los), 357, 381, 385, 405, 411, 417, 

419, 487, 495 
Homonadeis, the, 479, 481 
Jlortensius, Quintus (consul 69 n.C), 

married Marcia, wife of Cato, 273 
Hydarnes (one of the Seven Persians 

who conspired against the Magi in 

521 B.C.), 337 
Hylas, companion of Heracles on the 

Argo and worshipped by the 

Prusians, 457 
Hypsicrates, the historian, on the 

Amazons, 233 
Hyrcania, 249, 261, 293 
Hyrcanian (Caspian) Sea, the, 189 



laxartes River, the, 269, 281, 287 

Iberia, 187, 207, 217 

Iberians, the ; origin of the name, 216 ; 

description of, 219 
Icarius, father of Penelope, settler iu 

Acarnania, 69 
Iconium, 475 
Ida, Mt., in Crete, 125 
Imaiis (or Imalus), Mt., 259, 289 
India, 271, 289 
Indus River, the, 277 
los, the island, where Homer was 

reputed to have been buried, 101 
Iphigeneia, 353 
Iris River, the, 395, 429 
Isaura (Old and New), 476 
Issus, 289 
Ithaca, 39, 41 



.lason, expedition of, 211, 231, 239, 
315, 333, 336, 391 



Labienus, in command of Asia (40-39 

B.C.), 497 
Laertes, father of Odysseus, 67 
Lagetas, maternal ancestor of Strabo. 

135 



537 



A PARTIAL DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



Lagusa, the island, 161 

Laodiceia, founded by the Mace- 
donians, 309, 505, 511, 517 

Laviansene, 340, SGS 

Leben, home of Leucocomas, 137 

Lebinthos, 173 

Lelantine Plain, the, 13, 19, 85 

Leleges, the, 481, 491 

Leonidas, whose soldiers wore their 
hair long, 89 

Leonnorius, coloniser of Galatia, 469 

Leros, 173 

Lethaeus Eiver, the, 137 

Leto, gave birth to Apollo and Arte- 
mis in Delos, 163 

Leucas (see Appendix), the Island, 
formerly a peninsula, 31, 33 

Leucullus, the Roman commander and 
consul; drove Tigranes out of 
Syria and Phoenicia, 339 ; pre- 
sented Tomisa to the ruler of the 
Cappadocians, 351 ; captured 
Sinope, 391; besieged Amisus, 
395 ; succeeded in Asia by Pompey, 
435; his conference with Pompey, 
471 ; aided Cvzicus against Mithn- 
dates, 503 

Lycaonia, 367, 505 

Lycaonians, the, 345 

Lycomedes, succeeded to the priest- 
hood of Comana, 437 

Lyctus, 129, 141 

Lycurgus, the Spartan lawgiver, 149 

Lvcus River, the, 327, 397, 429, 511 

Lydians, the, 487, 495 

Lysimachia (Hydra), Lake, 65 

Lyslmachus, king of Thrace and 
general of Alexander; rased Asta- 
cus, 455; founder of Nicaea, 463 

Lysippus, the sculptor; his " Labours 
of Heracles," 61 

M 

Macedonians, the, 495 

Maeander River, the, 509, 513, 517 

Maeandrius, on the Eneti, 415 

Maeotae, the, 191, 195 

Maeotis, Lake, 187, 255 

Mantiane (Matian^?), 327 

Marcia, wife of Cato Uticensis and 

Quintus Hortensius, 273 
Mardi (Amardi), the, 309 
Margiana, 277 
Margus River, the, 277 



Mariandyni, the, 373, 375, 377 
Mariandynus, ruler over a part of 

Paphlagonia and of the Bebryces, 

377 
Masius, Mt., 241, 299, 319, 321 
Massagetae, the, 261, 265, 269 
Matiani, the, 269 
Mazaca, 361, 365 

Medeia, co-ruler with Jason, 315, 337 
Medes, the, 185, 269, 337, 341 
Media, 295, 299, 301 ; description of, 

303, 313 
Media, Greater, description of, 307 
Media, the Atropatian, 303 
Medius the Larisaean, accompanied 

Alexander; on name, and settlers, 

of Armenia, 333 
Medus, son of Medeia, 315 
MelitenS, 319, 345, 349, 351, 357 
Melos, the island, 161; most of its 

inhabitants slain by the Athenians, 

163 
Men Arcaeus (Ascaeus?), priesthood 

of, 507 
M§n Cams, 519 

Men of Phamaces, temple of, 431 
Menander, on Sappho's tragic " Leap," 

33 ; on forced suicide in Ceos, 169 
Menecrates of Elaea, opinions of, 

approved by Demetrius, 407 ; on 

the Halizones, 409, 413, 489 
Menedemus, the Eretrian philosopher 

(d. about 277 B.C.), 19 
Menon, sent by Alexander to the gold 

mines near Caballa, 329 
Mermadalis River, the, 233 
Mermodas (Mermadalis?) River, 235 
Mesopotamia, 297, 317, 319, 329 
Metrodorus of Scepsis (see 13. 1. 55), 

on the Amazons, 233 
Midas the king, 473, 485 
Milyae, the, 491 
Minoa, city of the Lyctians, 123 
Minos, 129, 131, 133, 153, 491 
Mithracina, the festival in honour of 

Mithras, 331 
Mithridates Ctistes (see foot-note 1 on 

p. 453), lord of Pontus, 453 
Mithridates Euergetes, friend to 

Dorylaiis, 133 
Mithridates Eupator (see Dictionary 

in vol. i) ; his flight to the Bosporus, 

205; took Colchis, 213; king of 

Pontus, 371; overthrown by Pom- 
pey, 263, 373 ; his Asiatic domain, 



538 



A PARTIAL DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



373, 385; bom and reared at 
Sinope, 387; adorned Amisus, 395; 
master of Colchis and other places, 
425 ; fled to Pontus, 425 ; kept his 
treasures at Kainon Chorion, 431 ; 
conquered Nicomedes, 449; be- 
sieged Laodiceia, 511 ; restored 
Apameia, 515 

Mithridates of Pergamum, contem- 
porary of Strabo, robbed oracle of 
Phrixus, 213 

Mithridatio War, the, 449, 501 , 

Moaphernes, uncle of Strabo's mother, 
governor of Colchis, 213, 433 

Moriraene, 349, 359, 367 

Moschian Mts., the, 209, 299, 319, 401 

Mosynoeci, the, 325, 401 

Muses, the, worship of, 95 

Mygdonians, the, 319, 499 

Myrtuntium, the salt-lake, 61 

Jlysia, 459, 487, 505 

Mysians, the, 375, 405, 491 

N 

Nabiani, the, 243 

Naxos, 169 

Nearchus (see Dictionary in vol. i), 

on the tribes in Greater Media, 309 
Neleus River, the, 21 
Neroassus (Nora), 357 
Nesaea, a district of H3Tcania, 253, 

261 
Nesaean horses, the, 311, 331 
Nibarus, Mt., 321, 335 
Nicaea (Antigonia). 4R3 
Nicator, Seleucus (km^; of Syria 312- 

280 B.C.), founded Heracleia, 309 
Nicomedes the Bithyuian, 449 
Niobe, 487, 519 
Niphates, Mt., 299, 305, 321 
Nisibis, 299, 319 
Nisyros, 177 
Nora (Neroassus), 357 



Oche, Mt., 7 

Ochus River, the, 253, 259, 285 

Odrysses River, the, 407 

Odysseus, leader of the Cephallenians, 

49 
Oechalia, destroyed by Heracles, 17 
Olynthus, 13, 29, 65 
Omanus, the Persian deity, 2G3 



Onesicritus (see Dictionary in vol. I), 

on the traits of the Bactrians, 281 
Orestes, 353, 359 
Oreus (formerly Histiaea), 7, 9 
Orontes, descendant of Hydarnes, 

took Armenia, 337 
Orpheus, 109 
Orphic rites, beginning of the, 106 

121 
Oxeiao (Thoae) Islands, the, 55 
Oxus River, the, 253, 269, 281, 287 
Oxyartes, 283 
Oxylus, son of Haemon and leader of 

the Heracleidae, 77 



Palaephatus (author of a work now 
extant On hicredible Thinas); 
opinions of, approved by Deme- 
trius, 407 ; on the Amazons, 409, 
413 

Palaerus, city in Acarnania, 61 

Panticapaeum, 197; metropolis of 
the European Bosporians, 199 

Panxaoi, the, 243 

Paphlagonia, 381 

Paphlagouians, the, 346, 383 

Parachoathras, Mt., 259, 269, 299, 319 

Paraetaceni, the, 301, 309 

Parmenion, gereral under Philip and 
Alexander; builder of the temple 
of Jason at Abdera, 333 

Parnassus, Mt., 25 

Paropamisus, Mt., 259 

Paros, birthplace of Archilochus, 169 

Parthenius River, the, 377, 381 

Parthia, 271, 275 

Parthians, the, 185, 259 

Paryadros Mountains, the, 209, 299, 
319, 401, 429 

Patmos, the isle, 173 

Patrocles (see Dictionary in vol. i), 
on the Cadusii and the Caspian 
Sea, 251; on the Oxus River, 253; 
on the laxartes River, 287 ; on the 
possibility of sailing from India to 
Hyrcania, 289 

Pclasgians, the, 125, 377, 491 

Pcntliilus, son of Orestes, 13 

Perrhaebians, the, 26 

Persians, the, customs of, 313, 495 

Pessinus, 471, 505 

Phaedrus, the Athenian general, de- 
stroyer of f tyra, 11 



539 



A PARTIAL DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



Phaestus, 141 

Phanagoreia (Phanagoreium), metro- 
polis of the Asiatic Bosporians, 199 
Phanaroea, 395, 427 
Phamaces, ruler of the Bosporus, 201, 

243 ; robbed oraole of Phrixus, 213 ; 

subjugated Siuopi% 387; besieged 

Amisus, 395 
Pharnacia, 399, 401, 427 
Pharos, " out in the open sea," 

according to Homer, 357 
Vhasis River, the, 211, 219, 327 
Pherecydes of Leros (see foot-note 2 

on p. 171), on Dulichium, 49; on 

the Cyrbantes and the Cabeiri, 115 
Pherecydes of Syros (see Dictionary 

in vol. i), 171 
Philadelphia, 515 
PhUetaerus. founder of tlie family of 

Attalic kings, born at Tieium, 381 
Philip, sou of Demetrius and father 

of Perseus, rased Cius, 457 
Philip II (father of Alexander the 

Great), outraged the cities subject 

to Olynthus, 13 
Philistides, tyrant unJor Philip, 7 
Phocylides the gnomic poet (b. 560 

B.C.), on the Lerians, 173 
Pholegandros, by Aratus called 

" Iron " Island, 161 
Phrixus, expedition of, 211 ; oracle 

of, 213; city of (now Ideessa), 215 
Phrygia, 487 

Phrygia, Greater, 485, 505 
Phrygia, Lesser (see Phrvgia Epicte- 

tus), 487 
Phrygia Catacecaumene, 515 
Phrygia Epictetus (Lesser Phrygia), 

4.55, 457, 459, 505 
Phrygia Paroreia, 507 
Pindar (see Dictionary in vol. iii), 

on the worship of Dionysus and 

Khea, 99 ; on the Isle of Delos, 183 ; 

says that the Amazons swayed a 

Syrian armv, 383 
Pindus, Mt., 23 
Pisidians, the, 185 
Pissuri, the, 261 
Plato, called philosophy music, 95 ; 

on the Bendideian rites, 109 ; on 

the good laws of GtcXp, 133 
Pnlemon I (see foot-note on p. 193), 

sacked Tanais, 193 ; attacked the 

Aspurgiani, 20l; got Colchis, 213; 

husband of PytUodoris, 427 ; sou 

54P 



of Zeno the rhetorician and Uiglily 
esteemed by Antony and Augustus, 
511 

Polybius (see Dictinnarij in vol. i), 
praises Ephorus, 81 

Polycleitus of Larissa, author of a 
history of Alexander the Great ; on 
the Caspian Sea, 255 

Pompey the Great, friend of Poseido- 
nius, 187; in Annenia and Iberia, 
221; fought the Albanians, 227; 
accompanied by Theophanes, 233; 
enlarged Zela, 263 ; imposed tribute 
upon Tigranes, 331 ; took over 
Pontus, 373 ; presented territories 
to Deiotarus, 393 ; his army partly 
slaughtered by the Heptacomitae, 
401 ; enlarged Eupatoria, calling it 
Magnopolis, 429; dedicat€d trea- 
sures of Mithridates in Capitolium, 
431 ; successor of Leucullus in Asia, 
435, 471; appointed Archelaus 
priest of Comara, 435 ; founded the 
city Neapolis in Phazemonitis, 443 ; 
his conference with Leucullus at 
Danala (Podanala?), 471 

Pontus (Cappadocia Pontica), 349, 
371, 385 

Poseidonlus (see Dictionary in vol. i), 
praised by Strabo, 83; on the 
width of the isthmus between 
Colchis and the mouth of the Cyrus 
Elver, of that between Lake 
Maeotis and the Ocean, and of that 
between Pelusium and the Red Sea, 
187; friend of Pompey, 187; wrot-e 
history of Pompey, 189; on the 
earthquakes round Rhagae, 273; 
on the Council of the Parthians, 277 

Priam, 415 

Procles, founder of Sparta as metro- 
polis, 149 

Prometheus Bound, 239 

Psillis River, the, 379 

Ptolemy Auletes, father of Cleopatra, 
banished by the Egyptians, 437 

Ptolemy Philadelphus, husband of his 
sister ArsinoS, 65 

Ptolemy Philopator (reigned 222-205 
B.C.), began a wall round Gortvna, 
137 

Publius Servilius Isauricus (contem- 
porary of Strabo), subjugator of 
Isaura, 475 

Pylaemenes (hero in Trojan war), 



A PARTIAL DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



descendants of, giren office of king 

over certain Paphlagonians, 373 ; 

of ttie tribe of the Eueti, 381 
PjTamus Hirer, 353, 355 
Pyrrhic dance, the, 91, 147 
Pythagoreians, the, called philosophy 

music, 95 
Pythodoris, queen of Oolchis and other 

countries, 213, 427, 431, 441 

E 

Ehadamanthys, lawgiver and first to 

civilise Crete, 131, 153 
Rhagae, 273, 309 
Ehecas (Crecas?), leader of Laconian 

colonists, 203 
Rheneia (Ortygia), the isle, 167 
Rhodes, 495 

Rhoetaces River, the, 219 
Rhombites River, the Greater, 195 
Rhombites River, the Lesser, 195 
Rhosana, daugtiter of Oxyartes, 285 
Rhyndacua River, the, 409 
Rhytium, 141 



Sacacene, 263, 321 

Sacae, the, 261 

Sacaea, the, festival of, 263, 265 

Sacarauli, the, 261 

Sail, the, 403 

Samariane, 251 

Same, 37, 47 

Samonium, eastern extremity of Crete, 

121, 123 
Samos, 37, 47, 173 
Samothrace (the Homeric Samos), 61 
Sandobanes River, the, 219 
Sangarius River, the, 379, 473 
Sappho (see Dictionary in vol. i); 

her tragic " Leap," 33 
Saramene, 393, 395 
Sarapana, the fortress, 211, 219 
SaravenS, 349 
Sardeis, 517 
Sargarausenfi, 349, 357 
Sarmatians, the, 191, 207, 211, 243 
Sarmus River, the, 259 
Satyrus, a potentate of the Bosporus ; 

monument of, 197 
Scydises Mountains, the, 209, 319, 401 
Scyiaz of Caryanda, the historian 

(see foot-note 1 on p. 465), 465 



Scylax River, the, 397 

Scythians, the, 245, 2 9, 269 

Selena (the Moon), worship of, 229 

Seleuceia, 303, 329 

Seleucus Callinicus, king of Syria (246- 

226 B.C.), routed Arsaces, 269 
Selgeis, the, 479, 481 
Semiramis, wall of, 329 
Seres, the, 281 
Sicinos, the island, 161 
Simonides the iambic poet, born in 

Amorgos, 173 
Simonides the melio poet, native of 

lulis in Ceos, 169 
Sindi, the, 199, 201 
Sinope, 205, 211, 387 
Sinopean ruddle, 367 
Sinti (Sinties), the, 403 
Siphnos, the island, whence " Siph- 

nian Knuckle-bone," 161 
Sipvlus, Mt., 487, 515 
Siraci (or Siraces), the, 191, 241, 243 
Sisines, attacked Cappadocian empire, 

359 ; resided at Cadena, 359 
Sitacene, 309 
Smyrna, founded by the Amazons, 

237, 421 
Soanes, the, 207, 215 
Sogdiani, the, 269, 281 
Sophene, 297, 299, 319, 321, 326, 351 
Sophocles on Delaneira, 67; on the 

haste of Menelaiis, 105 
Sosicrates, on the dimensions of 

Crete, 123 
Spadines, king of the Aorsi, 243 
Spitamenes, Persian who escaped from 

AJexander, fleeing to the Chorasmii, 

269, 289 
Sporades, the, 163, 176 
Staphylus of Naucratis (see foot-DOte 

on p. 126), on the Cretan peoples, 127 
Sthenis, maker of the statue of Autoly- 

cus, 391 
Straton, tyrant of Amisus, 396 
Sulla, Cornelius, the Roman com- 
mander, 13 
Sunium, Cape, 3 
Syndic territory, the, 191, 199 
Syrians, the white, 393, 415 
Syspiritis, 329, 333 



T 



Tamanun, Cape, 291 
Tanals, the city, 193 



541 



A PARTIAL DICTIONARY OF PROPER NAMES 



Tanals Eiver, the, 183, 185, 191, 193, 
195, 255 

Tantalus, 487, 519, 521 

Tapjri, the, 269, 273, 293, 305 

Tatta, Lake, 473 

Taurus, the, 183, 209, 289, 295, 299 

Tectosages, the, 471 

Telcbines, the, 87, 111 

Teleboans (Taphians), 67 

Tclethrius, Mt., 7 

Tenos, the island, where great Posci- 
donian festivals were held, 173 

Termilae (lliljae), the, 491 

Tetrapolis, the Marathonian, 11 

Thales, inventor of Cretic rhythms, 
147 ; melio poet and expert law- 
giver, 153 

Thalestria, queen of the Amazons, 
met Alexander, 237 

Themiscyra, belonged to the Amazons, 
237, 383, 395, 427 

Theodosius the mathematician, bom 
in Bithyuia, 467 

Theophanes of "litylene (fl. about 
62 B.C.), intimate friend of Pompey, 
and wrote history of his campaigns ; 
on the course of the Tanals River, 
193 ; on the Gelae, Amazons and 
others, 233 ; on certain insects in 
Armenia, 323 ; on the size of 
Armenia, 331 ; changed spelling of 
" Sinoria " to " Synoria," 425 

Tlieophrastus, pupil of Aristotle, 
author of treatise On Love and story 
of Leucocomaa and Euxynthetus, 
139 

Theopompus (see Dictionary in vol. i), 
on the Histiaeans, 7 ; on Marian- 
dynus and the Mariandyni, 376; 
on the founders of Amisns, 395 

ThermodoD River, the, 395 

Thermopylae, 3 

Thuoydides, on AmphDochus, 73 

Tibareni, the, 319, 399, 423, 427 

Tieium, 377, 381, 385 

Tigranes, king of Armenia; treasury 
of, 327 ; his tribute imposed by 
Pompey, 331 ; descendant of Arta- 
xias and ruler of Armenia proper, 
337 ; story of his career, 337 ; over- 
ran Cappadocia, 367 

Tigranocerta, 339, 367 



Tigris River, the, 297, 317 
Timotheus Patrion, bom at Sinopfi, 

391 
Tochari, the, 231 
TolistoboE-ii, the, 393, 471 
Tralleis, 517 
Trapezus, 207, 399, 427 
Treres, the, 263, 495 
Trocmi, the, 469, 471 
Troglodytae, the, 241 
Trojans, the, 495 
Tyana, 359, 367 
Tyrranion the grammarian, teacher 

of Strabo, bom at Siden^, 399 



Uria, Lake, 63 



U 



Vera, besieged bv Antony, 305 
Vitii, the, 249, 269 

X 

Xanthus the Lydian, on the origin 
of the name of the Mysians, 489 ; 
on the earthquakes in Phrygia, 617 

Xenocrates the philosopher, bom in 
Bithynia, 465 

Xerxenfi, 325 



Zacvnthos, 37, 55 

Za^s, Jit., 301, 305, 309, 313 

Zariadris, general of Antiochus the 

Great, enlarged Armenia, 323, 327 
Zelfl, 263 
Zeno the rhetorician, father of King 

Polemon, 511 
Zenodotus (see Diclionart/ in vol. iv), 

wrote " Enete " instead of " Eneti," 

381, 417 
Zeus, bom and reared in Crete, 87, 97 ; 

worship of, 229 ; Aenesius, 51 ; 

Dacieus, 357 ; the Dictaesn, 127, 

139 ; the Venasian, temple of, 359 
Zeuxis, the physician, head of a Hero- 

phileian school of medicine between 

Laodiceia and Carura, 518 
Zygi, the, 191, 203, 205, 207 



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Jerome: Selected Letters. F. A. Wright. 
Juvenal and Persius. G. G. Ramsay. 
LivY. B. O. Foster, F G. Moore, Evan T. Sage, and A. C. 

Schlesinger and R. M. Geer (General Index). 14 Vols. 
LucAN. J. D. Duff. 
Lucretius. W. H. D. Rouse. 
Mabtial. W. C. a. Ker. 2 Vols. 
Minor Latin Poets: from Publilius Syrus to Rutilius 

Namatianus, including Grattius, Calpurnius Siculus, 

Nemesianus, Avianus, and others with " Aetna " and the 

" Phoenix." J. Wight Duff and Arnold M. Duff. 
Ovid: The Art of Love and Other Poems, J. H. Mozley, 
2 



OviD: Fasji. Sir James O. Fiazer. 

OvTD: Heboid ss and Amores. Grant Showerinan. 

Ovid : Metamorphoses. F. J. Miller. 2 Vols. 

Ovid : Tristia and Ex Ponto. A. L. Wheeler. 

Pebsius. Cf. JtrVENAL. 

Petbonius. M. Heseltine; Seneca: ApocOLOCYNTonis. 

W. H. D. Rouse. 
Plautus. Paul Nixon. 5 Vols. 
Pliny: Letters. Melmoth's Translation revised by W. M. L. 

Hutchinson. 2 Vols. 
Pliny: Natural History. H. Rackhara and VV. H. S. Jones. 

10 Vols. Vols. I.-V. and IX. H. Rackhara. Vols. VI. and 

VII. W. H. S. Jones. 
Propertitjs. H. E. Butler. 
Prudenticts. H. J. Thomson. 2 Vols. 
QuiNTiLiAN. H. E. Butler. 4 Vols. 
Remains of Old Latin. E. H. Warmington. 4 Vols. Vol. I. 

(Ennius and Caecilius.) Vol. II. (Livius, Naevius, 

Pacuvius, Accius.) Vol. III. (Lucilius and Laws of XII 

Tables.) (Archaic Inscriptions.) 
Sallust. J. C. Rolfe. 

Scriptobes Historiae Auqustae. D. Magie. 3 Vols. 
Seneca: Apocolocyntosis. Cf. Petbonius. 
Seneca: Epistulae Morales. R. M. Gummere. 3 Vols. 
Seneca: Moral Essays. J. W. Basore. 3 Vols. 
Seneca: Tragedies. F.J.Miller. 2 Vols. 
SiDONius: Poems and Letters. W. B. Anderson. 2 Vols. 
Sniius Italicus. J. D. Duff. 2 Vols. 
Statius. J. H. Mozley. 2 Vols. 
Suetonius. J. C. Rolfe. 2 Vols. 
Tacitus: Dialogues. Sir Wm. Peterson. Aoricola and 

Gebmania. Maurice Hutton. 
Tacitus : Histories and Annals. C. H. Moore and J. Jackson. 

4 Vols. 
Terence. John Sargeaunt. 2 Vols. 
Tertullian: Apologia and De Spectaoulis. T. R. Glover. 

MiNUcius Felix. G. H. Randall. 
Valerius Flaoous. J. H. Mozley. 
Varro: Db Lingua Latina. R. G. Kent. 2 Vols. 
Velleius Patebculus and Res Gestae Divi Auousti. F. W. 

Shipley. 
Virgil. H. R. Fairdough. 2 \'ols. 
Vitruvius: De Akchitectura. F. Granger, 2 Vols. 



Greek Authors 

Achilles Tatius. S. Gaselee. 

Aelian: On the Natuee of Animals. A. F. Scholfield. 3 
Vols. 

Aeneas Tacticus, Asclepiodotus and Onasander. Tho 
Illinios Greek Club. 

Aeschines. C. D. Adams. 

Aeschylus. H. Weir Smyth. 2 \"ols. 

Alcipheon, Aelian, Philostbatus : Letters. .\. H. Benner 
and F. H. Fobes. 

Andocides, Antiphon, Cf. Minor Attic Orators. 

Apollodoecs. Sir James G. Frazer. 2 Vols. 

Apollonius Rhoditts. R. C. Seaton. 

The Apostolic Fathers. Kirsopp Lake. 2 Vole. 

Appian : Roman Histoey. Horace White. 4 Vols. 

Aeatus. Cf. Callimachus. 

Aeistophanes. Benjamin Bickley Rogers. 3 Vols. Verse 
trans. 

Aristotle: Abt of Rhetoric. J. H. Freese. 

Aeistotle: Athenian Constitution, Eudemian Ethics, 
Vices and Virtues. H. Rackham. 

Aristotle: Generation of Animals. A. L. Peck. 

Aristotle: Metaphysics. H. Tredennick. 2 Vols. 

Aristotle: Meterologica. H. D. P. Lee. 

Aristotle: Minor Works. W. S. Hett. On Colours, On 
Things Heard, On Physiognomies, On Plants, On Marvellous 
Things Heard, Mechanical Problems, On Indivisible Lines, 
On Situations and Names of Winds, On Melissus, Xenophanes, 
and Gorgias. 

Aristotle: Nicomachean Ethics. H. Rackham. 

Aeistotle: OECONOincA and JIagna Moralia. G. C. .Arm- 
strong; (with Metaphysics, Vol. II.). 

Aristotle : On the Heavens. W. K. C. Guthrie. 

Aristotle: On the Soul. Paeva Naturalia. On Breath. 
W. S. Hett. 

Aeistotle: Organon — Categories, On Interpretation, Prior 
Analytics. H. P. Cooke and H. Tredennick. 

Aeistotle: Organon— Posterior Analytics, Topics. H. Tre- 
dennick and E. S. Foster. 

Aeistotle : Oeganon — On Sophistical Refutations. 

On Coming to be and Passing Away, On the Cosmos. E. S. 
Forster and D. J. Furley. 

Aristotle: Parts of Animals. A. L. Peck; Motion and 
Progression of Animals. E. S. Forster. 



Artstotle : Physics. Rev. P. Wicksteed and F. M. Cornford. 

•2 Vols. 
Aristotle: Poetics and Longinus. W. Hamilton Fyfe; 

Demetrius on Style. \V. Rhys Roberts. 
Aristotle: Politics. H. Rackham. 
Aristotle: Problems. W. S. Hett. 2 Vols. 
Aristotle: Rhetorica Ad Alexandrum (with Problems. 

Vol. II.). H. Rackliam. 
Arrian: History of Ale.xander and Indica. Rev. E. Iliffe 

Robson. 2 Vols. 
Athenaeus: Deipnosophistae. C. B. Gulick. 7 Vols. 
St. Basil: Letters. R. J, Deferrari. 4 Vols. 
Callimachus: Fragments. C. A. Trypanis. 
Callimachds, Hymns and Epigrams, and Lycophron. A. \V. 

Mair; Aratus. G. R. Mair. 
Clement of Alexandria. Rev. G. W. Butterworth. 

COLLUTHUS. Cf. OpPIAN. 

Daphnis and Chloe. Thornley's Translation revised by 

J. M. Edmonds; and Parthenius. S. Gaselee. 
Demosthenes I.: Olynthiacs, Philippics and Minor Ora- 
tions. I.-XVII. AND XX. J. H. Vince. 
Demosthenes II.: De Corona and De Falsa Leoatione. 

C. A. Vince and J. H. Vince. 
Demosthenes III. : Mkidias, Androtion, Aristocrates, 

TiMOCRATEs and Amstogeiton, I. and II. J. H. Vinoe. 
Demosthenes [IV.-VI.: Private Orations and In Neaeram. 

A. T. Murray. 
Demosthenes VII. : Funer.vl Speech, Erotic Essay, Exordia 

and Letters. N. W. and N. J. DeWitt. 
Dio Cassius: Roman History. E. Gary. 9 Vols. 
Dio Chbysostom. J. W. Cohoon and H. Lamar Crosby. 5 Vols. 
DiODORUs Siculus. 12 Vols. Vols. I.-VI. C. H. Oldfather. 

Vol. VII. C. L. Sherman, Vols. IX. and X. R. M. Geer. 

Vol. XI. F. Walton. 
Diogenes Laeritius. R. D. Hicks. 2 Vols. 
DiONYSius OF Halicarnassus : Roman Antiquities. Spel- 

man's translation revised by E. Gary. 7 Vols. 
EpiCTETUa. \y. A. Oldfather. 2 Vols. 
Euripides. A. S. Way. 4 Vols. Verse trans. 
EuBEBius: Ecclesiastical History. Kirsopp Iiake and 

J. E. L. Oulton. 2 Vols. 
Galen: On the Natural Faculties. A. J. Brock. 
The Greek Anthology. W. R. Paton. 5 Vols. 
Greek Elegy and Iambus with the Anacreontba. J. M. 

Edmonds. 2 Vols. 



The Gbeek Bucolic Poets (Theocritus, Bion, Moschus). 

J. M. Edmonds. 
Geeek Mathematical Works. Ivor Thomas. 2 Vols. 
Herodes. Cf. Theophrastus : Characters. 
Herodotus. A. D. Godley. 4 Vols. 

Hesiod and The Homeric Hymns. H. G. Evelyn Whit«. 
Hippocrates and the Fragments or Heracleitus. W. H. S. 

Jones and E. T. Withington. 4 Vols. 
Homer: Iliad. A. T. Murray. 2 Vols. 
Homeb: Odyssey. A. T. Murray. 2 Vols. 
IsAEUs. E. W. Forster. 

Isoceates. George Xorlin and LaRue Van Hook. 3 Vols. 
St. John Damascene: Barlaam and Toasaph. Rev. G. R. 

Woodward and Harold Mattmgly. 
JosEPHUs. H. St. J. Thackeray and Ralph Marcus. 9 Vols. 

Vols. I.-VII. 
Julian. Wilmer Cave Wright. 3 Vols. 
LuciAN. 8 Vols. Vols. I.-V. A. M. Harmon. Vol. VI. K. 

Kilburn. 
Lycophron. Cf. Callimachus. 
Lyra Graeca. J. M. Edmonds. 3 Vols. 
Lysias. W. R. M. Lamb. 
Manetho. W. G. Waddell: Ptolemy: Teteabiblos. F. E. 

Robbins. 
Marcus Aubeltus. C. R. Haines. 
Menander. F. G. Allinson. 
Minor Attic Oeatobs (Antiphok, ANDOriDEs, Lycurqus, 

Demades, Dinarchus, Hypehkidks). K. J. Maidment and 

J. O. Burrt. 2 Vols. 
NoNNOs: DiONYSiACA. W. H. D. Rouse. 3 Vols. 
Oppian, Colluthus, Tryphiodorus. a. W. Mair. 
Papyri. Non-Liteeaby Selections. A. S. Hunt and C. C. 

Edgar. 2 Vols. Literary Selections (Poetry). D. L. 

Page. 
Parthenius. Cf. Daphnis and Chlob. 
Pausanias: Description or Greece. W. H. S. Jones. 4 

Vols, and Companion Vol. arranged by R. E. Wycherley. 
Philo. 10 Vols. Vols. I.-V.; F. H. Colson and Rev. G. H. 

Whitaker. Vols. VI.-IX.; F. H. Colson. 
Philo : two supplementary Vols. {Translation only.) Ralph 

Marcus. 
Philostratus : The Lite or Apollonius ot Tyana. F. C. 

Conybeare. 2 Vols. 
Philostratus; Iuaolneb; CALLXi-rBATCs: Descripiions. A. 

FairbAnki. 



Phtlostbatus and Eunapius : Lives of the Sophists. VVilmer 

Cavo Wright. 
Pindar. Sir J. E. Sandys. 
Plato: Chabmides, Alcibiades, Hipparchus, The Lovers, 

Theages, Minos and Epinomis. W. R. M. Lamb. 
Plato: Cbatylus, Pabmenides, Greater Hippias, Lesser 

HippiAs. H. N. Fowler. 
Plato: Euthyphro, Apology, Cbito, Phaedo, Phaedbus. 

H. N. Fowler. 
Plato : Laches, Pbotaqobas, Mend, Euthydemus. W. R. M. 

Lamb. 
Plato: Laws. Rev. R. G. Bury. 2 Vols. 
Plato: Lysis, Symposium, Gorgias. W. R. M. Lamb. 
Plato: Republic. Paul Shorey. 2 Vols. 
Plato: Statesman, Philebus. H.N. Fowler; Ion. W. R. M. 

Lamb. 
Plato: Thbaktetus and Sophist. H. N, Fowler. 
Plato: Timaeus, Critias, Clitopho, Menexenus, Epistulae. 

Rev. R. G. Bury. 
Plutabch: Mobalia. 16 Vols. Vols. I.-V. F. C. Babbitt. 

Vol. VI. W. C. Helmbold. Vol. VII. P. H. De Lacy and 

B. Einarson. Vol. IX. E. L. Minar, Jr., F. H. Sandbach, 
W. C. Helmbold. Vol. X. H. N. Fowler. Vol. XII. H. 
Chemiss and W. C. Helmbold. 

Plutabch: The Paballel Lives. B. Pen-in. 11 Vols. 

Polybius. W. R. Paton. 6 Vols. 

Peocopius: Histoby op the Wars. H. B. Dewing. 7 Vols. 

Ptolemy: Tetrabiblos. Cf. Manetho. 

Quintus Smybnaeus. a. S. Way. Verse trans. 

Sbxtus Empieicus. Rev. R. G. Bury. 4 Vols. 

Sophocles. F. Storr. 2 Vols. Verse trans. 

Stbabo: Geography. Horace L. Jones. 8 Vols. 

Theophbastus : Chabacters. J. M. Edmonds. Hebodes, 

etc. A. D. Knox. 
Theophbastus: Enquiry into Plants. Sir Arthur Hort, 

Bart. 2 Vols. 
Thucydides. C. F. Smith. 4 Vols. 
Teyphiodobus. Cf. Oppian. 

Xenophon: Cybopaedia. Walter Miller. 2 Vols, 
Xenophon: Hellenica, Anabasis, Apology, and Symposium. 

C. L. Brownson and O. J. Todd. 3 Vols. 

Xenophon: Memobabilia and Oeconomicus. E. C. Marchant. 
Xenophon : Sceipta Minora. E. C. Marchant. 



IN PREPARATION 



Greek Authors 

ABI9T0TLE: History of Animals. A. L. Peck. 
Plotinus: a. H. Armstrong. 



Latin Authors 

Babeius and Phaedhos. Ben E. Perry. 

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