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Full text of "The German drama on the St. Louis stage"

UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA 



THE GERMAN DRAMA ON THE 
ST. LOUIS STAGE 



BY 



ALFRED HENRY NOLLE 



A THESIS 

PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE GRADUATE SCHOOL IN 

PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR 

THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY 



(Smtumint 

NUMBER 32 






PUBLICATIONS OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA 
1917 



EXCHANGE 







PUBLICATIONS 

OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA 



AMERICANA GERMANICA 

MONOGRAPHS DEVOTED TO THE COMPARATIVE 
STUDY OF THE 

Literary, Linguistic and Other Cultural Relations 



OF 



Germany and America 

EDITOR 

MARION DEXTER LEARNED 

University of Pennsylvania 
(See List at the End of the Book} 



UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA 



THE GERMAN DRAMA ON THE 
ST. LOUIS STAGE 



BY 
ALFRED HENRY NOLLE 



A THESIS 

PRESENTED TO THE FACULTY OF THE GRADUATE SCHOOL IN 

PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR 

THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY 



Ammratra (fermattini 

NUMBER 32 



PUBLICATIONS OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA 
1917 



COPYRIGHT 1917 

BY 
ALFRED HENRY NOLLE 



The author wishes to acknowledge with gratitude his in 
debtedness to Professor M. D. Learned, of the University of 
Pennsylvania, for the encouragement and valuable assistance ren 
dered by him in the preparation of this work, and to Dr. E. M. 
Fogel, of the University of Pennsylvania, for aid in reading the 
proof. He further wishes to express his gratitude for the cour 
teous treatment extended by the St. Louis Public Library, the 
library of the State Historical Society of Missouri, and the 
library of the Missouri Historical Society, in giving free use of 
source material found in their respective archives. 

Alfred H. Nolle. 
Columbia, Missouri, July 7, 1917. 



381615 



THE GERMAN DRAMA ON THE ST. LOUIS 

STAGE. 



PREFACE. 

This account of the German drama on the St. Louis stage 
is intended to form a contribution to the history of Americana 
Germanica. It is based essentially on material gathered at first 
hand from the files of the German newspapers published in St. 
Louis contemporaneous with the stage in the various phases of 
its existence. For the period 1835-1898 the Anzeiger des IV e- 
stens was used as the primary source; from 1890-1914, the Wcst- 
liche Post and its Sunday edition, the Mississippi Blatter. These 
were supplemented by other contemporaneous German and 
English papers of St. Louis and in several instances by the 
Deutsche Pionier of Cincinnati and the New Yorker Staats- 
Zeitung. The files of the newspapers are in most instances com 
plete. They present gaps from October 21, 1838, to October 29, 
1841 ; October n, 1843, to October 18, 1844; October 23, 1848, 
to October 20, 1849; October 20, 1851, to April 19, 1852; Octo 
ber 20, 1852, to April 1 8, 1853; April 21 to October 19, 1860; 
October 20, 1861, to April 22, 1862; October 21, 1862, to July 
20, 1863, and in several isolated instances individual issues are 
missing. The narrative history of the stage for the periods repre 
sented in these gaps has been gleaned from other sources, but 
statistical material as to the repertories for the period cannot be 
collected. If records for the period represented by the several 
gaps are extant, diligent search has failed to locate them. They 
are not to be found in the several libraries in and about St. Louis, 
including the library of the State Historical Society of Missouri 
in Columbia, Missouri, and the excellent German library in Belle 
ville, Illinois, nor in the Library of Congress. 

Heinrich Bornstein in his memoirs l treats in some detail the 
period of his activity on the St. Louis stage and to a certain 

1 Funfundsiebsig Jahre in dcr alien und neucn Welt, Memoiren eines Un- 
bedeutenden. Leipzig: Otto Wigand, 1881. 

" St. Louis in friihcrcn Jahrcn. Ein Gcdcnkbuch fur das Deutschtum, 
St. Louis : A. Wiebusch und Sohn Printing Company, 1893. 



8 German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 

extent the period preceding his activity. E. D. Kargau in his 
St. Louis in friiheren Jahren 2 devotes fifteen pages to a sketch 
of the German stage prior to 1893. At the time of the opening 
of the Germania Theater the souvenir programs for the initial 
performance contained a brief account of the stage, which was 
substantially reprinted in the St. Louis Tribune for September i, 
1892. The Anzciger des Wcstens for July 12, 1897, reprinted 
that part of an address on "Die deutsche Biihne in Amerika," 
which dealt with the St. Louis stage, made by Ferdinand Welb 
before the "Deutsch-Amerikanischer Lehrerbund" convened in 
Milwaukee. This account, as Welb professed, is taken almost 
verbally from Bornstein s Memoirs. Subsequently the Missis 
sippi Blatter for July 2, 1899, and March 14, 1909, printed his 
torical sketches of the German stage in St. Louis. These, the last 
of which was compiled by Welb, are based upon Bornstein s 
Memoirs and Kargau s account, supplemented by a brief account 
of the occurrences postdating the appearance of Kargau s book. 
They are popular articles full of inaccuracies. They give no idea 
as to what was actually performed on the stage. The New Yorker 
Staats-Zeitung for October 5 and 12, 1902, contains an account 
of "Die deutsche Biihne im Western," by Carl Pletz, which takes 
into account the St. Louis stage, but, necessarily, considering the 
wide field the article covers, in very brief compass. Of these 
several accounts of the stage only one, the Memoirs of Bornstein, 
was a real help; the others were suggestive and helpful in out 
lining the history of the stage, but, due to their inaccurate or 
sketchy nature, had to be used with caution. 

All values are in the last analysis relative values. To gain a 
conception of the literary value of the St. Louis stage during 
the various phases of its existence, its history has, therefore, been 
divided into five periods. On the basis of these a statistical 
survey of the literary complexion of the several stages has been 
made. The statistical material on which such estimates are based 
is added in the Appendix. The division of the history of the 
stage as a basis for establishing comparative values is not, how 
ever, an arbitrary division. The divisions represent natural and 
logical periods in its development. 



German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 9 

I. 1842-1859. 

THE BEGINNINGS. 

The first German theatre in St. Louis dates from the year 
1842. In the summer of 1842 Rudolf Riese, an actor of ability, 
originally from Berlin, in the course of a variegated existence, 
became stranded in St. Louis. A number of young Germans, on 
becoming acquainted with the man and his plight, sympathized 
with him in his embarrassment. Money these for the most part 
poor clerks and business apprentices did not have to offer the 
stranded actor. But out of a desire to aid him they encouraged 
him to arrange a series of theatrical performances for his benefit. 
To this end they offered their assistance as dilettantes. The 
result was the first performance of a German drama in St. Louis. :{ 
For a record of this first performance we are indebted to the 
facile pen of Heinrich Bernstein. 

"Die jungen Leute gingen zu einem deutschen Wirte, 
dessen Gasthaus an der dritten Strasse zwischen Pine und 
Olive den Schild : Zum Bremer Schliissel trug, und mie- 
teten dessen oberes Lokal, einen langen Saal, der als Speise- 
zimmer bei Hochzeiten oder anderen festlichen Gelegen- 
heiten benutzt wurde; aus Zimmermannsbocken und Bret- 
tern wurde eine Noth-Buhne improvosirt, und so weit diese 
reichte, wurden die weissgetimchten Wande des Saales von 
einem Zimmermaler zu einem Walde umgepinselt fiir die 
Scenen, die im Zimmer spielten, wurden billige Tapeten zu 
Coulissen und einer Hinterwand zusammengeklebt und der 
Vorhang bestand aus zwei zusammengenahten Bettdecken; 
ein paar Holzstiihle und ein Tisch bildeten das Ameuble- 
ment der Zimmer-Dekoration. Mit diesen Dekorationen 



3 Historically authenticated interest in the German drama on the St. Louis 
stage dates from the year 1838. "Am 21, September 38 trat der erste 
Schauspieler in St. Louis, Icks (vom Konigsstadter-Theater in Berlin), auf 
und declamirte wiihrend der Zwischenacte den Monolog aus Wallenstein s 
Tod. Da noch kein deutsches Theater existirte, so fand dieses Ereigniss auf 
den Brettern des alten St. Louis Theaters (amerikanisch) statt und scheint 
von Erfolg gekront gewesen zu sein ; wenigstens trat der Kunstler noch an 
verschiedenen Abenden auf." Der deutsche Pionier (Cincinnati, 1871), III. 
275. The innovation had, however, no immediate consequences in introducing 
German drama permanently on the St. Louis stage. 



io German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 

wurden als erste Vorstellung Schiller s Riiuber aufgefiihrt; 
den Thurm, in welchem der alte Moor gefangen sitzt, 
hatte der kunstsinnige Zimmermaler so tauschend herge- 
stellt, dass er aussah wie ein riesiger Gugelhupf ; da kein 
Lehnstuhl fiir den alten Moor aufzutreiben war, so wurde 
eine alte Waarenkiste genommen und eine Wand derselben 
bis zur Sitzhohle. herausgesagt, die dadurch gewonnenen 
Brettchen dann als Sitz auf Leisten genagelt, das ganze mit 
einem Bettuche iiberzogen und der Lehnstuhl des alten 
Grafen war fertig. Hatte sich nun irgend ein Muthwilliger 
den Spass gemacht, oder was es Zufall, genug, ein Zipfel des 
Bettuches hatte sich in den Strick des Verhangs verschlun- 
gen, die Vorstellung ging los, die vier Mann im Orches- 
ter hatten eine Ouverture herungtergestrichen, der Souffleur 
gab das Glockenzeichen und der Vorhang rollte in die Hohe. 
Aber mit ihm ging ztigleich das Bettuch hinauf, der Lehn 
stuhl, in dem der alte Moor sass, wurde dadurch riicklings 
umgeworfen und ein heilloses Gelachter begriisste diesen 
tragi-komischen An fang. Der Vorhang musste unter stiir- 
mischer Heiterkeit wieder heruntergelassen werden und erst 
als.Alles auf der Biihne wieder in Ordnung war, nahm die 
Vorstellung ihren Verlauf; da keine Schauspielerin auf 
zutreiben gewesen war, so wurde die Amalie ganz heraus- 
gestricken; es wurde nur von ihr gesprochen, aber sehen 
bekam man sie nicht. Die Rauber-Statisten, lauter junge 
Volontars, waren viel zahlreicher als die Darsteller, sie hatten 
alle ihre Revolver und Jagdgewehre mitgebracht und bei der 
Rauberscene im dritten Akt wurde so furchtbar drin geschos- 
sen, dass der ganze Saal dick mit Pulverdampf angefiillt war 
und ein undnrchdringlicher Nebel herrschte, durch welchen 
die Talg-Lichter der Beleuchtung wie rothe Pimktchen 
schimmerten. Den fiinften Akt wollte aber Riese nicht 
spielen, wenn er nicht eine Amalie, wenigstens zum Tod- 
stechen, habe ; endlich musste die Kochin des Wirths ein 
weisses Kleid anziehen, sich die Haare auflosen und in den 
dichten Pulvernebel auf Riese zustiirzen, worauf dieser mit 
den betreffenden Worten seiner Rolle sie erstach und als die 
arme Kochin nicht gleich umfiel, sie mit der Faust nieder- 
schlug. Von den letzten Akten hatte man des Rauchs wegen 
fast nichts mehr gesehen und anch, da das ganze Publikum 
fiirchterlich hustete, wenig gehort ; am Schlusse jedoch 
wurden alle Mitwirkenden mehreremale stiirmisch gerufen, 



German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 1 1 

worauf die ganze Einnahme unten in der Wirthsstube ver- 
kneipt wurde. Die Zeitungen jener Zeit haben uns die 
Namen jener Manner aufbewahrt, die damals die erste 
deutsche Theatervorstellung in St. Louis ermoglichten, 
den Karl Moor spielte Riese; den Franz John D. Hill, ein 
bekannter Holzhandler ; den alten Moor Heinrich Fischer ; 
Hippo Krug, spater einer der popularsten Wirthe der Stadt, 
spielte den Schweizer und den Hermann dazu ; Georg 
Bressler von Belleville den Schufterle und Block, von der 
spateren sehr geachteten Firma Block und Evers den Spie- 
gelberg. Die Vorstellung, die im vollsten Sinne des Wortes 
Sensation machte, musste nicht nur in St. Louis wiederholt 
werden, sondern der Ruf derselben war auch nach dem 
benachbarten Belleville gedrungen und Riese wurde einge- 
laden, mit seiner Gesellschaft hiniiber zu kommen und die 
Rauber aufzufiihren. So wurden denn die Rauber mit 
derselben Besetztmg auch in Belleville aufgefiihrt, und da 
kein Orchester aufzutreiben war, so zog Hippo Krug, wenn 
er auf der Buhne seinen Schweizer und Hermann verar- 
beitet hatte, einen Domino uber sein Costume, lief ins Pub- 
likum, wo vor der Buhne ein Klavier stand, und spielte 
darauf die Zwischenakts-Musik, wobei ein Herr Ochs mit 
Es-Clarinette und ein Herr Daun mit der Violine ihn accom- 
pagnirten. Nach der Vorstellung wurde wieder die Nacht 
hindurch die Einnahme verkneipt und als es Tag wurde, 
hatte keiner der Darsteller auch nur einen Heller, um nach 
St. Louis zuriickfahren zu konnen ; da erbarmte sich ihrer 
der Bierbrauer Gottfried Busch, Hess seinen grossen Bier- 
wagen anspannen, lud die ganze Gesellschaft hinauf und 
fiihrte sie unentgeltlich nach St. Louis zurikk." 4 

Encouraged by the success of his venture, Riese, who, in the 
newspaper advertisements announcing his performances, styled 
himself "friiherer Direktor der deutschen Oper zu Philadelphia 
und Direktor des deutschen Theaters in New Orleans," announced 
a series of performances under his directorship in "Rankens 
Lokal," at irregular intervals dating from July 2 to October 29, 
1842. The exact date of the memorable Rauber performance is 
not recorded. The programs of these half dozen performances, 



4 Memoir en II, 240 ff. 



12 German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 

including the initial R duber performance, were made up of the 
following plays: Die Raubcr und Dcr Eckensteher Nante im 
Verhor each three times, Die Braut and Die Himmelfahrt ernes 
Saufers twice each, and Der Nachtwdchter and Die Seelenwan- 
dentng once each. These plays were announced anonymously. 
Usually two or three of the shorter plays were given at one per 
formance, as was regularly the custom followed in the numerous 
Volkstheater, which made their appearance a decade and a half 
later, and in the Liebhabertheater, which occupied the intervening 
period. 

The theatre established by Riese r> was short-lived. It could 
lay little claim to artistic or dramaturgical excellency. But it 
deserves recognition because it was epoch-making in the cultural 
history of the German element of St. Louis. From it may be 
traced the history of the institution, which, thru the vicissitudes 
of more than seven decades, has without serious interruption, but 
with varying degrees of fortune continued to the present day to 
fulfill a cultural mission. 

The period in the history of the German stage in St. Louis 
beginning with Riese s venture in 1842 till the establishment of 
the St. Louis Opernhaus, the first permanent theatre, in 1859, 
constitutes the period of the beginnings. Attempts to establish 
a German theatre on a professional basis during the period proved 
ineffectual and short-lived. German theatricals during the greater 
part of this period rested in the hands of amateur or semi-profes 
sional organizations, in which one or several professional actors 
usually formed the nucleus, around which 1 a group of dilettantes 
concentrated their efforts. The number of dilettantes who in the 
midst of their work-a-day activities could find leisure to study 
roles and take part in theatricals was not a large one, yet among 
the young men of that day there was a -sufficient number of ade 
quate talent to meet the requirements of a Liebhabertheater, who 



5 Ricsc imposed upon his St. Louis friends to such an extent that they 
were glad to rid themselves of him. They collected money with which to 
send him to Philadelphia where he was engaged as haritone in an Italian 
opera company. Under the name of Hcnedetti he sang in Italian opera for 
several years in Xew York, Philadelphia, P.oston, and other cities, until he 
lost his voice. He died in 18^9 in the Poor House on Blackwells Island, New 
York. 



German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 13 

showed willingness to take part. In consequence it was always 
possible for a professional actor or director coining to the city 
to find ample support to enable him to engage in his profession. 

Of the Liebhabertheater to follow in the wake of Riese s 
venture the first to be organized was opened September 16, 1843, 
under the directorate of Christian and Louise Thielemann. 
Thielemann and his wife were both experienced actors. Mme. 
Thielemann (Louise Ehlers), prior to her marriage, had been 
engaged at the royal theatre in Kassel. Both had played in New 
York and New Orleans. They subsequently became theatre di 
rectors in Chicago. The principal amateurs cooperating with 
them were Christian Kribben, a well-known lawyer; his brother 
Wilhelm, a Mississippi River pilot; Benkendorf, a journalist; 
Herman Aschenbach, Julius Buchel, A. U. Ross (Post-Ross), 
Henry Lischer, Wilhelm Mackwitz, Hippo Krug, and Georg 
Reichard and wife. The Thielemanns .played with this organiza 
tion for three successive winter seasons, with occasional perform 
ances in the summer of 1845. The directorship of the society, 
with the second season, however, passed into the hands of John 
D. Hill, a dilettante who had played under Riese. The season 
1845-1846 closed May n. A season of post-season perform 
ances followed, for charitable purposes, at irregular intervals, 
ending December 12, 1846. Performances during the three 
years of the existence of this Liebhabertheater had been bi 
weekly. During the first season of its existence performances 
were held "im Salon der Hrn. Angelbeck und Linkemeier," at 
Third and Walnut Streets; during the last two seasons in the 
Vaudeville Theatre at 24 North Main Street. The price of ad 
mission was fifty cents for single performances, one dollar and 
fifty cents for six performances by subscription. 

Following the last of these performances there was a lull 
in German theatricals for more than a year, until this same group 
of amateurs reorganized December 7, 1847, under the presidency 
of Adolph Abels, into the Thalia Gesellschaft The purpose of 
the new society was not only to institute amateur theatrical per- 
formances, but also to arrange balls and other social gatherings 
for the benefit of its members and friends. Its theatrical per- 



14 German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 

formances differed from those of the Liebhabertheater which 
had preceded it in that only amateurs were to take part and that 
only members of the society and their friends were to be ad 
mitted to the performances, tho exception was made to the latter 
rule on evenings especially set aside for the entertainment of the 
public. The Kribben brothers continued to be the spirit and soul 
of the new organization. It opened its first season January 5, 
1848, in a building at the corner of Main and Pine Streets. Per 
formances were usually given weekly on Wednesday evenings. 
The price of admission for non-members varied between twenty- 
five and fifty cents. 

With the second year of its existence the Thalia Gesellschaft 
was reorganized as the St. Louis Sangerbund. With the reorgan 
ization of the society debates and declamatory exercises became 
its chief activity, to the exclusion of German theatricals, for sev 
eral years to follow. 

In the spring of 1851 Xaver Strasser, accompanied by his 
wife, two daughters and stepson, all actors by profession, came 
to St. Louis. Supported by local amateurs, among whom Adal 
bert Lohr especially distinguished himself, Strasser on the 7th 
of April opened a Liebhabertheater in the "Tontine," on Second 
Street near Elm. After several performances there he built and 
moved into a summer theatre in what was then Arsenal Park. 
Strasser proved a failure as a director. His theatre in the "Ton 
tine" had promised well. But his summer theatre "eine grosse 
dunkle, nur mit wenigen Luftlochern versehene Bretterbude"- 
proved a fiasco from the start. It came to an abrupt close August 
24, whereupon the Strasser family at once left the city. 

Strasser s ill-fated attempt as director was followed by 
another lull which lasted until the dramatic talent of the St. Louis 
Sangerbund again became active. From February till May, 1852, 
the Sangerbund gave biweekly performances in the old Wash 
ington Hall. From December, 1852, till the spring of 1853 it 
performed occasionally in the Varieties Theatre, in the People s 
Theatre and in the Bates Theatre. 

In 1850 there was called to editorial leadership of the 
Anzcigcr dcs West ens a man who more than any other one man 



German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 15 

of his day was instrumental in the cultural and educational uplift 
of the German clement of St. Louis. "Bildung ist Macht" was 
his watchword. He was instrumental in organizing the Freie- 
Manner-Verein which established German schools for boys, and 
evening and Sunday classes for grown people. In connection 
with Franz Schmidt he established a school for girls. He lectured 
extensively on a variety of topics and even taught, for a time, in 
the girls school he had helped to establish. Thru the fcuilleton 
columns of the Anzeiger, of which he became sole proprietor 
in May, 1851, and thru his aggressive and somewhat sensational 
policy made the most widely circulating German newspaper in 
the West, especially in the Sunday edition, the Westlichc Blatter, 
and thru the publication in book form of a library of German 
belles lettres he disseminated much wholesome literature among 
his fellow-countrymen. This man, Dr. Heinrich Bornstein, 6 had 
come to America with a varied and rich experience, not only as 
a journalist, but more especially as an actor and impressario and 
playwright. In the course of his long and busy life of four score 
and seven years his varied career launched him into diverse fields 
of activity, but the lure of the stage constantly attracted him in 
one capacity or the other. His old friend and journalistic col 
league, Emil Klauprecht, writing his necrolog from Vienna, says 
of him, "Wer Bornstein s Charakter, seine Naturanlagen, geistige 
Eigenschaften und Temperament mit einem Wort bezeichnen 
soil, wird ihn ein Theaterkind in der vollsten Bedeutung des 

* Bornstein, whose father, prior to his marriage, had been a successful 
actor, was born in Hamburg, November 4, 1805. At the age of ten he was 
taken to Lemberg, in Austrian Poland. After having studied for a year at 
the University of Lemberg he, in 1821, entered the Austrian army, in which 
he served for five years. In 1826 he studied medicine in Vienna, and at the 
same time did editorial work for Carl Eduard Reinold. From 1826-1827 
he worked for Bauerle on the Theaterzeitung." From 1827-1828 he was 
secretary of the combined Josephstadt Theater and the Theater an der Wien, 
under Carl. For several years following he served as stage manager in sev 
eral of the leading cities of Germany and Italy. In 1841, with his wife, 
whom he married in 1829, he performed with success in star engagements in 
the leading German cities. The following year he went to Paris, where he 
became manager first of the German Opera, later of the Italian Opera. Dur 
ing the revolutionary days of 1848 he was engaged in journalistic and literary 
pursuits in Paris. With the return of Bonaparte to power as dictator, Born 
stein, the enthusiastic advocate of political freedom, early in 1849 emigrated 
to America. A.fter a short stay in Highlands, Illinois, where he did efficient 
service as physician during an epidemic of cholera, he accepted the editorship 
of the Anzeiger des West ens, March 8, 1850. 



1 6 German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 

Wortes nennen. Bis zum Ende 1st er ein solches geblieben, es lag 
in seinem Blutc, seiner Erziehung und den Umgcbungen seiner 
Jugend." 7 Bornstein believed in the stage as a great cultural 
and educational and moral force. He writes in his Memoircn, 
"Die beste Schule der Erwachsenen, die wahre Bildung fur das 
Volk, bietet inimer die Schaubuhne und Wahrheiten, die in 
Biichern nur zur Kenntniss von Wenigen gelangen, dringen von 
dem Podium dcs Theaters aus, schnell und tiei in die Massen 
und fassen feste Wnrzcln. Die beste Schule des Volkes ist und 
bleibt eine gute Biihne und die Auffiihrung von Lessings Nathan 
der Weise/ von Schillers Don Carlos, von Goethes Faust und 
Eginont verbreitet nichr genialle Ideen und hebt und veredelt 
die Massen mehr als alle Biicher- und Kathedcr- \Veisheit und 
alle Kanzelberedsamkeit." He had early entertained the desire 
of giving to St. Louis a German stage that should take rank with 
the best in Germany, but wisely realized the necessity of making 
a small beginning and gradually working up to the desired goal. 
"Es war mein heissester Wunsch, in St. Louis ein deutsches Thea 
ter zu griinden, aber die . . . Schwierigkeiten, besonders der 
Mangel an guten deutschen Schauspielern stclltcn meinen 
Wiinschen uniibersteigliche Hindernisse entgegen; ja es mussten 
noch viele Jahre vergehen, ehe ich an die Realisirung eines wirk- 
lichcn stabilcn deutschen Theaters denkcn konnte. Das Hochste, 
das im damaligen Augenblicke erreichbar war, waren demnach 
Dilettantcn-Vorstellungen ; abcr bcsserc, sorgfaltiger vorbcreitete 
und kimstlerischer geleitete Dilettanten-Vorstellungen, als man 
bisher zu sehen gewohnt gewescn war." 9 

To the end he had in view Bornstein in 1853 organized the 
Philodramatische Gesellschaft. lie found for his purpose among 
his friends and acquaintances a number who showed promise, 
with proper training, of developing into good actors, who enthu 
siastically embraced his cause and volunteered their services. 
What they lacked in innate histrionic ability had to be made up 
by diligence and enthusiasm. At first Bornstein himself and his 

1 Anccifjcr dcs IVestcns, October 9, 1892. 
"Op. cit, II, 222. 
9 Op. cit., II, 223. 



German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 17 

talented wife had to bear the burden of work in the new organi 
zation. Bornstein acted as stage manager and acted in the roles 
of bon vivant and comic character. Under stress of necessity 
it even became necessary for him in several instances to depart 
from his accustomed line to play the part of fool or jeune premier. 
Mine. Bornstein Marie Stelzer, in her youth a danseuse trained 
under the eye of the French ballet master, Beauval performed 
with much success as soubrette of the organization. The first 
season offered difficulties to the stage manager. To adequately 
fill the role of leading lady (Salon-Liebhaberin) presented a 
problem. Volunteers were not lacking. But none in the environ 
ment of the unsophisticated new world had had opportunity to 
acquire the necessary acquaintance with the life which they were 
supposed to interpret. The male contingent of the organization 
were willing workers, but the busy life of a growing Western 
metropolis did not always afford the necessary leisure for mem 
orizing the parts assigned them with the precision demanded by 
an exacting stage manager. But the really capable dilettantes 
under the professional guidance of Bornstein and his wife gained 
in attainment from performance to performance. The second 
season brought the acquisition of a very valuable asset in a young 
Austrian physician, Rudolf Gussmann, who had emigrated to 
America on account of political banishment from his native coun 
try. Gussmann possessed marked histrionic talent and literary 
ability. He for this season assumed the role of leading gentleman 
(Salon-Liebhaber) which Bornstein had found difficult to fill to 
his satisfaction. The second season also profited by the acquisi 
tion of two professional actors who had become stranded in St. 
Louis, Carl Stein, a character actor of repute, and his talented 
wife, who later became directress of the German Theatre in San 
Francisco. 10 



10 Those recorded as taking part in the performances of the Philodra- 
matische Gescllschaft in addition to those mentioned above were: Messrs. 
Albert, Aschenbach, Assmann, A. S. Bornstein, Btichel, Gayer, Gensis, Ferdi 
nand Klunder, Christian Tvribben, Lconhard, Lischer, Miiller, Nebel, Preyt- 
ner, Schmidt, Hermann Schroder, Stierlin, Thomas, Warnecke, Wild ; Mmes. 
Charton, Frimmel, Koser, Kroger, Miiller, Novaak, Schiller, Schlesiger, 
Schroder; child parts Carl Bornstein, Kl. Fuchs, Georg Hoffmann, Kl. 
Meckel. 



1 8 German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 

The efforts of the Philodramatische Gesellschaft met with 
an enthusiastic and appreciative response on the part of the Ger 
man public from the start. On the opening evening of the first 
season two plays from the pen of Bornstein were presented in the 
Varieties-Theatre, located on Market Street between Fifth and 
Sixth Streets, one of the largest theatres in the city, before an 
audience which crowded the house. The first of these plays, a 
five-act Lustspicl, Betrogene Betriigcr, was later performed with 
distinct success more than twenty times in Vienna and became 
a favorite in the repertory of many stages in Germany; the sec 
ond, a "Lebensbild aus dem Deutsch-Amerikanertum" entitled 
Deutsche Eimvanderung und deutsche Gesellschaft, became part 
of the repertory of practically every German dilettante stage in 
the United States at that time. This initial success augured well 
for the future of the organization. It played weekly for four 
winter seasons with growing artistic success. Houses were re 
ported good, even in bad weather. During the winter of 1854- 
1855 the organization suffered competition at the hands of a com 
pany managed by Benrodt, which the latter recruited largely from 
the ranks of a company to which he had belonged, which had 
been brought to St. Louis from Louisville in the summer of 1854 
by Julius Botzow for a series of performances beginning July 3. 
The keen rivalry that existed made the Philodramatische Gesell 
schaft more determined to put forth their efforts. In consequence 
a professional stage attempting to play three times per week, 
entailing the expenses of salaried players, after a short-lived 
season beginning November 20, had to succumb by the middle 
of February to the superior performances of their competitors, 
whose popularity made it possible for them to utilize the larger 
Bates Theatre after Benrodt had got possession of the Varieties. 
It spelled failure for Benrodt to attempt to stage plays beyond 
the possibilities of his limited ensemble. What he lacked in qual 
ity he attempted to make up by use of the sensational. Flis adver 
tisements for Goethe s Faust, for example, contained the com 
ment, "Zum Schlusse des Stiickes Fausts Hollenfahrt! Erster 
Tableau mit Brillant Feuerwerk!" The Anzeigcr dcs Wcstcns, 
Bornstein s paper, echoes the rivalry between the two stages. In 



German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 19 

a review of a performance of the Philodramatische Gesellschaft 
that is typical it says : 

"Es ist interessant und fiir die Darsteller anregend, vor 
einem solchen gebildeten, empfanglichen und kunstsinnigen 
Publikum zu spielen, und die stets gedrangt vollen Hauser 
bei der Auffuhrung einfacher Lust und Schauspiele stehen 
im erfreulichen Contrast zu jenem Treiben, wo mit ellen- 
langen Zetteln und Trommlern und Trompeten und Geigern 
und Pfeifern auf den Ankiindigungen, Gothes und Schillers 
Meisterwerke zusammengestrichen, verstiimmelt und ver- 
hunzt von anderthalb Schauspielern und einem Dutzend 
Statisten vor leeren Banken herabgeleiert werden. Der 
Kuntsinn des hiesigen deutschen Publikums hat sich abermals 
glanzend bewahrt, es hat bewiesen, dass es sich keinen Sand 
in die Augen streuen und sich nicht durch grosse Annoncen 
und atemlose Puffs verblitffen lasst, sondern richtiger Weise 
eine gerundete, naturgetreue und von einem lebendigen 
Geiste durchwehte Darstellung eines guten Lust oder 
Schauspieles einer Tlollenfahrt mit Brillant-Feuerwerk oder 
irgend einen grossen Banditen vorzieht. Wir kennen unser 
deutsches Publikum hier und sind stolz darauf und eben 
darum auch nur laden wir uns alle die Miihen und Plagen, 
die Opfer und Anstrengungen auf, die die Organisation 
und Aufrechthaltung einer Dilettanten-Buhne unabweisslich 
mit sich bringt." n 

The Philodramatische Gesellschaft during the first three 
seasons of its activity donated the net proceeds of its perform 
ances to charitable purposes. Its announcement states : "Das 
Privat-Interesse hat mit diesen Vorstellungen gar nichts zu thun, 
im Gegenteile mussen alle Darsteller, mit Vernachlassigung 
ihrer eigenen Geschafte, Opfer an Zeit, Miihe und selbst Geld 
bringen; aber sie thun es gern, weil es dem doppelten Zwecke 
gilt ; den Geschmack und Sinn fiir deutsche Kunst hier zu heben 
und gute und nutzliche Anstalten befordern zu konnen." 12 The 
Deutsche Einwanderungsgesellschaft, the Deutsche Frauen- 
verein organizations designed chiefly to aid newly arrived immi 
grants the Freie Gemeinde in New Bremen, the German Orphan 



11 Anzeiger des Westens, February 22, 1855. 
13 Anzeiger des Westens, January 15, 1854. 



2O German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 

Home and similar institutions were the chief beneficiaries. With 
the fourth season the plans of the organization and consequently 
the financial obligations of the members became more preten 
tious. It therefore avowedly became a professional organization, 
announcing that henceforth the proceeds of the performances 
would be divided among the performers on a pro rata basis 
according to degree of service rendered. For the organization 
was at no time to become a private enterprise, but to be conducted 
on a republican basis. 

With the termination of the Philodramatische Gesellschaft 
the Liebhabertheater may be said to have played their role in the 
history of the German stage in St. Louis. During the winter of 
1857-1858 the St. Louis Turn Verein gave regular Sunday per 
formances. During subsequent seasons the newspapers continue 
to announce performances by one or the other Turn Verein or 
other organization. But such performances in time became more 
and more occasional. They did not always please the directors of 
the regular professional German stage, for they kept away from 
the regular theatre many who would otherwise have attended. 
As late as 1909 one of the directors of the professional stage took 
occasion in a brief historical sketch of the German stage in St. 
Louis, submitted to the Mississippi Blatter (March 14, 1909) to 
lodge such a complaint, saying, "An Liebhabertheatern war nam- 
lich auch in den scchziger Jahren ebensowenig ein Mangel, wie 
in dem jiingsten Jahrzehnt, in welchem sie als Anhangsel von 
Gesang- und Turnvereinen den jeweiligen Theater-Unternehmern 
bald grosseren, bald geringeren pekuniaren Schaden zugefitgt 
haben." 

The first attempt to establish a German theatre after the 
cessation of activities by the Philodramatische Gesellschaft was 
made by Ed. Herrmann. October 28, 1856, he instituted a Ger 
man stage in the Varieties Theatre. Herrman mysteriously dis 
appeared after the second performance, whereupon Robert A. 
Wolff reopened the theatre November 30. His company included 
six former members of the Philodramatische Gesellschaft 
Assmann, Kliinder, Schmidt, Stierlin, Mine. Koser und Mine. 
Novack. Other members of the company were Dardenne (a 



German fir ama on the St. Louis Stage 



21 



comedian, formerly director of the Stadttheater in Augsburg), 
Diiringer and Fredeking (from the Volkstheater in Chicago), 
Bernhard Meissner, Steinberg (from New Orleans), Mmes, 
Marie Dardenne, Meissner and Maria Wolff. Wolff played 
with varying fortune till March 8, when he gave up the director 
ship. The company then played under direction of a committee 
appointed from its members until April 13. During the latter 
period Carl Stein and Lola Montez played with the company in 
starring parts, the former as Shylock in a performance of The 
Merchant of Venice, the latter in four performances of Lola 
Monies in Bayern. The non-success of the season was due chiefly 
to an attempt to perform three times weekly in plays beyond the 
capacity of a limited ensemble. Wolff made efforts to fill the 
gaps in the ranks of his company. But the country offered no 
supply of available actors from which to recruit them. 

The performances of the Philodramatische Gesellschaft had 
served the purpose they had been designed to attain namely, to 
awaken an interest in the German theatre. But thru lack of a 
director who would live up to standards artistically sufficiently 
exacting to immediately follow up the work of the Philodra 
matische Gesellschaft, the Volkstheater soon usurped the field. 
The interest in German theatricals which had been aroused was 
soon capitalized by the proprietors of summer gardens and beer 
halls. The first of these Volkstheater to follow in the wake of 
the activities of the Philodramatische Gesellschaft was opened 
in Ruedi s Volksgarten, on Second Street between Mulberry and 
Lombard Streets, on Sunday, August 2, 1857. During the winter 
of 1857-1858 Ferdinand Kliinder attempted to rehabilitate the 
German stage in the Varieties Theatre. Kliinder s company con 
tained good material. In its ranks were included Robert Gilbert 
(villain and character roles, from the Stadttheater in Philadel 
phia), Anton Follger, Botzow, Louis Pelosi, Carl Worrett (stage 
director, from Chicago), Assman and Stierlin (formerly of the 
Philodramatische Gesellschaft) and Mmes. Botzow, Meissner 
and Maria Pelosi. During the first part of the season Kronfeld, 
from the Hoftheater in Darmstadt, and during February Schunck 
and his wife, of the Deutsches Theater in Cincinnati, performed 



22 German Drama on the St. Lrt * Stage 

with the company in starring parts. Mme. Bdrnstein appeared 
with the company from time to time. She played without com 
pensation, solely in the interest of art. But Kliinder s venture, 
due to various causes, was not a success. Occasionally the per 
formances, especially those given with the aid of the visiting 
players, reached a plane which won words of commendation 
from the pen of the critic. Lack of cooperation on the part of 
the players, however, and the attendant insufficient rehearsals 
the critic ofttimes had occasion to find fault on the score of poorly 
memorized or poorly interpreted parts caused the performances 
in many instances to suffer by comparison with those of the Philo- 
dramatische Gesellschaf t, to which the newspapers constantly refer 
as the high -water mark in German theatricals in the city up to 
that time. Kliinder s stage therefore did not attract the patron 
age of those who could afford a good theatre. Moreover, the 
season was one of financial depression generally. "Shinplaster" 
was accepted far below par. The great mass of the people flocked 
to the inexpensive Volkstheater, where the price of admission 
was usually advertised as "10 cents, wofiir ein Glass Bier verab- 
reicht wird," or where admission was free as an inducement to 
the public to come spend their money with the proprietor of the 
beer hall or garden with which the stage was connected, and 
where a dance usually followed the performance. During the 
summer of 1857 and the ensuing winter, in competition to Kliin 
der s enterprise, the theatre in Ruedi s Volksgarten usually played 
three times weekly. The level of performances of the Volks 
theater which the economic situation of the people had helped 
make popular soon shaped popular taste and created a demand for 
such performances. During the summer of 1858 the theatre in 
Ruedi s Volksgarten played daily, and three other German stages 
the Deutsches National Theater, established in Flora Garten, 
on South Seventh Street, May 22, by Gilbert and Schunck, the 
one in the Tyroler Halle, at 2 Carondolet Avenue, and the St. 
Georges Theater, on DeKalb Street between Barton and Victor 
less frequently, the first two usually three times per week, the lat 
ter on Sundays. During the winter of 1858-1859 the Volksthea 
ter brought the number of German stages in St. Louis up to eight. 



Germacn^rama on the St. Louis Stage 23 

Of these one, representing an attempt by Jules Bonent to estab 
lish a first-class stage in the Varieties Theatre, with prices at fifty, 
thirty-five and fifteen cents, proved short-lived. Of the Volks- 
theater those in Ruedi s Volksgarten, in Flora Garten, and in the 
St. Louis Stadt Theater (formerly Bechner s Varieties), on Fifth 
Street between Morgan Street and Franklin Avenue, usually 
announced daily performances. The others advertised irregu 
larly or not at all, but usually played several times weekly or 
daily. The theatre in Flora Garten, admission to which was usu 
ally twenty-five cents, was the only one which received occasional 
recognition from the newspapers outside the advertising columns. 
A contributor to the Anseiger des West ens for December 24, 

1858, appraises it as ranking first among the eight stages playing 
at that time. During the summer of 1859 the number of German 
theatres in St. Louis reached fifteen. Most of these were ephe 
meral. Changes in management and personnel were frequent in 
all. Notice of them disappears entirely with the establishment of 
the first permanent German theatre in St. Louis, in September, 

1859, with the exception of a series of performances in Flora 
Garten from November 21, 1860, to March 31, 1861, under the 
management of Emil Hochster and O. Schadt. 13 The theatres 
in Ruedi s Volksgarten and in Flora Garten, and the one con 
ducted by Alexander Pfeiffer in Apollo Garten, on Fourth Street 
between Poplar and Plum, from May 23 to September 5, 1859, 
were resuscitated after the disturbances attending the Civil War 
had terminated the permanent German theatre established in Sep 
tember, 1859, but only the Apollo Garten Theater was destined 
to flourish. It played winter and summer with but slight inter 
ruption under frequent change of management thru the winter 
season 1890-1891. 

If we stop to view in perspective the development of the stage 
during this period of the beginnings, the performances of the 
Philodramatische Gesellschaft, from the standpoint of dramatur- 



13 The Flora Garten ensemble for this season consisted of Messrs. Schone. 
Mahl, Hafner, Beekier, Werber, Petersen, Weber, Seifert, Eugen ; Mmes. 
Schadt-Meaubert, Taraskiewicz, Miihl ; Mile. Weber, and Lina Burgk (child 
parts). 



24 German Drama on the St. L^^f Stage 

gical excellency, stand out as the hif h-water mark. The Prrilo- 
dramatische Gesellschaft wisely limited its efforts to the class of 
plays commensurate with the capacity of its ensemble. Under 
the guidance of Bornstein, a man of indefatigable energy, who in 
business circles had the reputation of getting the maximum of 
work out of his employees, 14 the performances of the society 
gained unstinted praise in press reports. Most of the comment 
on the stage of this period must be gleaned from the columns of 
Bornstein s paper. Its relative validity is in a measure attested, 
however, by the fact that subsequent critics ofttimes take the per 
formances of the Philodramatische Gesellschaft as the basis for 
comparative judgment in estimating later performances. Other 
stages statistically show a larger per cent of plays of literary 
worth presented, but such plays were usually given with limited 
ensemble, or by amateurs who lacked the guidance of the experi 
enced artist. Press comment upon the plays of the Liebhaber- 
theater preceding the activity of the Philodramatische Gesell 
schaft was usually favorable, but it was avowedly so "mit Beriick- 
sichtigung der Verhaltnisse." 15 



II. 1859-1861. 

THE ST. LOUIS OPERNHAUS. 

When Bornstein, due to the pressure of business activities 
which demanded his time and attention, reliquished his interest 



14 Cf. William ITycle, Encyclopedia of the History of St. Louis (New 
York, Louisville, St. Louis: The Southern History Co., 1899), .1, 44. 

15 A statistical survey of the plays produced on the several stages during 
the various periods in the history of the German drama on the St. Louis 
stage will indicate the relative character and literary value of the several 
stages. For comparative purposes the statistical survey of the several stages 
for the period of the beginnings and for subsequent periods is arranged in 
tabulated form in the appendix following the narrative portion of this work. 
For the period of the beginnings the repertoires of the various amateur 
theatres, including the Turnverein performances, are included in the statistical 
survey; for the period after 1859, only performances on the several profes 
sional stages. Opera performances are included where they form a part of 
the repertory of a regular German stage. 



German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 25 

in the Philodramatische Gesellschaft, he announced that it was 
his intention to relinquish permanently his professional interest 
in the stage. But opportunity needed but present itself to induce 
the actor and impressario of eighteen years experience on the 
European stage to change his mind. The Varieties Theatre prop 
erty had not been a paying investment to its owners. It was 
accordingly sold at a bargain to two public-spirited citizens of 
St. Louis, Captain Eads and Mr. Dickson, whose purpose it was 
not to make money out of the new investment, but to save the 
property to St. Louis for the purpose for which it had been built. 
They had the building renovated and approached Bornstein with 
the proposal to take over the management thereof. Bornstein 
acquiesced. He placed the editorial columns of his paper in the 
hands of his friend, Dr. Charles L. Bernays, an experienced 
journalist who had emigrated to America with him, and the man 
agement of the technical details of the paper in the hands of his 
eldest son. He was thus enabled to devote the major part of his 
time to the new venture, which, tho destined to be short-lived, 
was to give St. Louis the best permanent theatre it had yet had, 
and after its suspension, was to have for some years to follow. 
The St. Louis Opernhaus represents the first Bluteseit of German 
theatricals in St. Louis. 

Bornstein announced his aims and intentions with reference 
to the new undertaking in a series of articles in the columns of 
his paper. They are contained essentially in an excerpt from the 
first of them : 

"Es ist uns dabei vor Allem darum zu thun, den richti- 
gen Standpunkt festzustellen, den eine deutsche Buhne in 
St. Louis einnehmen kann und soil und zugleich das Ver- 
haltniss dieser Buhne zum Publicum und umgekehrt, naher 
zu beleuchten. Wir wollen hier nicht in die vielbesprochene 
Frage eingehen, ob die Biihne eine Notwendigkeit fur den 
Bildungsgang und das gesellige Leben eines Volkes sei, wir 
wollen hier nicht den Einfluss derselben auf Pflege und 
Entwickelung der nationalen Literatur und Kunst hervor- 
heben, wir wollen uns einfach mit der praktischen Frage 
beschaftigen : Tst ein deutsches Theater in St. Louis ein 



26 German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 

Bediirfniss und kann es daher bestehen? Die eigentliche 
Losung dieser Frage kann nur clurch ein Experiment, durch 
die Erfahrung gebracht werden und wir konnen nur von 
anderen, namentlich von europaischen, Theater- Verhalt- 
nissen, ziemlich unsichere Schliisse ziehen. In Deutschland 
hat eine Stadt, die 12-15,000 Einwohner zahlt, ein Theater, 
das tiber der Mittelmassigkeit steht und Stadte von 30-50,000 
Einwohnern haben eine gute, stabile Biihne mit Oper and 
Schanspiel. St. Louis hat eine deutsche Bevolkerung von 
60,000 Kopfen, und diese Bevolkerung ist durchschnittlich 
wohlhabender und zugleich lebenslustiger, als die gleiche 
Bevolkerungszahl irgend einer grossen Stadt in Deutschland. 
In Deutschland haben Stadte wie Hamburg, Bremen und 
Wien vier bis fiinf grosse Theater, die Sommertheater in 
den Umgebungen gar nicht gerechnet. Nun unser St. Louis 
hat in diesem Sommer an fiinfzehn Sommertheater des ver- 
schiedensten Calibers gehabt und wenn die Unternehmer, 
ihrer grossen Unkosten halber, auch keine Schatze sammel- 
ten, so zeigte sich doch von Seite des Publicums ein lebhafter 
Besuch und eine grosse Theaterlust. Alles ware sehr 
ermuthigend, wenn die Erfahrung vergangener Jahre nicht 
ware. Ausser der philodramatischen Gesellschaft, die stets 
voile Hauser hatte, die aber auch nur 10 bis 20 Vorstel- 
lungen in einem ganzen Winter gab, haben alle folgenden 
regularen Theater-Directionen theils hochst mittelmassige, 
theils absolut schlechte Geschafte gemacht. . . . 

"Bei einer Bevolkerung von 60,000 Menschen sollte 
man doch, selbst bei ganz bescheidener Stiitzung, fiinf Pro- 
cent als Theater- Publicum anschlagen konnen ; das gabe von 
60,000 Deutschen drei tausend Theaterbesucher. Nun denn, 
wenn von diesen drei tausand jeder Einzelne nur einmal in 
der Woche das Theater besucht, so kann eine gute deutsche 
Biihne hier bestehen; wenigstens ist ihr dann ein Stamm- 
publicum gesichert und die Fremden und Durchreisenden 
und jene unregelaren Theaterbesucher, die nur bei beson- 
deren Gelegenheiten ins Theater gehn, miissen dann den 
etwaigen Ausfall decken. Unsere Leser werden gestehen, 
dass wir sehr bescheidene Anforderungen an die Unter- 
stiitzung des Theater-Publicums machen und dass man 



German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 27 

glauben sollte, diese Wiinsche und ihre Erfiillung lagen im 
Bereiche der Moglichkeit und wiirden sich wohl verwirk- 
lichen. Wir wiinschen und hoffen es, denn sonst hatten wir 
die Aufgabe nicht unternommen, mit deren Losung wir uns 
jetzt beschaftigen, wir haben von Anfang an das feste Ver- 
trausen gehabt, dass die deutsche Bevolkerung von St. Louis 
ihr eigenes deutsches Theater haben und erhalten konne, und 
in diesem Vertrauen haben wir gehandelt. 

"An abrathenden und warnenden Stimmen hat es nicht 
gefehlt; Manner, die wir zu unseren wahren Freunden 
zahlen, widerrieten uns ein deutsches Theaterunternehmeii 
zu beginnen, sie stellten uns vor, wie wir unbedingt viel 
bessere Geschafte machen miissten, wenn wir uns nicht bloss 
auf einen Theil des Publicums beschrankten, sondern, wie 
die amerikanischen Theater, auf das ganze Publicmn, Ameri- 
kaner und Deutsche, Irlander und Englander, speculirten. 
Wir gestanden ihnen zu, dass sie Recht hatten, und dass wir 
als Geschaftsmann unzweifelhaft sicherer und vorteilhafter 
speculiren wiirden, wenn wir heute eine italienische Oper 
und morgen ein englisches Schauspiel, diesen Monat die 
Ravels und im nachsten die Martinettis vorfuhrten, aber wir 
bemerkten zugleich, dass der Gedanke ... in St. Louis 
eine stabile, gute, deutsche Biihne zu begriinden, uns viel 
verlockender sei, dass wir diesem Gedanken und diesem 
Wunsche schon f riiher vier Jahre angestrengter Bemuhungen 
mit der philodramatischen Gesellschaft geopfert hatten und 
dass wir nun, wo Mittel und Unterstiitzung, wo die Zahl der 
darstellenden Krafte und die Theaterlust des Publicums 
gestiegen seien, ernst entschlossen waren, wenigstens einen 
ernsten Versuch zur Durchfuhrung dieser unserer Lieblings- 
idee zu machen und weder Miihen, noch Opfer zu scheuen, 
um sie zu realisiren. 

"Das Publicum kennt somit unsern Standpunkt als The- 
aterunternehmer, es ist nicht Speculationstrieb, nicht Gewinn- 
sucht, die uns leiten, denn der Gewinn eines Theaterunter- 
nehmers hier ist noch immer ein sehr problematischer gewe- 
sen und obenein haben wir zu leben/ wie man im gewohn- 
lichen Leben zu sagen pflegt, und diese Zeitung giebt uns so 
sichere und so reichliche Ertragnisse, dass wir uns wohl 



28 German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 

damit bescheiden konnen. Wir wollen also bei dem Theater- 
annehmen nicht reich werden, wir sind sogar, in den ersten 
Jahren wenigstens, auf Opfer gefasst, und wenn wir uns 
diese Opfer und mehr noch die ungeheure Miihe und Arbeit, 
die eine Theater-Direction mit sich bringt, aufladen, so 
geschiedt es, um in dem deutschen St. Louis ein deutsches 
Theater herzustellen und fest zu begriinden, das der Zahl, 
der Stellung, der Bildung und dem Einflusse unserer 
deutschen Bevolkerung entspricht." 1G 

It goes without saying that in a period of heated political 
controversy a man of the prominence of Bornstein, to whom 
political plotting was second nature, who in the columns of his 
paper had undertaken to rule the rising emancipation movement, 
should at the instigation of political animosity in unfriendly 
quarters have the sincerity of his motives questioned. But his 
contention that his was not a money-making scheme, but a pur 
suit in the interest of art and culture at least, the sequel of events 
does not disprove. 

Bornstein leased the former Varieties Theatre, which he now 
called the St. Louis Opernhaus, for a period of ten years. He 
at once had an extensive theatrical library containing the best 
classics and contemporary plays forwarded to him from Vienna 
and Leipzig. He had a goodly supply of necessary stage scenery 
painted by a capable Austrian stage painter, Ferdinand Kurz. 
From a stranded Italian opera company he acquired a copiously 
stocked wardrobe more pretentious than that of most of the 
smaller court theatres in Germany. His ensemble was recruited 
from the best talent available in the country in so far as it was 
not permanently engaged in New York. In addition to Bornstein 
himself and his talented wife, the ensemble included such first- 
rate talent as Alexander Pfeiffer, actor of heroic and character 
parts; Karoline Lindemann, character and mother parts, and 
Julius Ascher, comedian and character actor. 17 The first two, 



"Anseiger dcs Westens, August 28, 1858. 

17 The other members of the ensemble were Adolphi, by-parts ; Wilhelm 
Berben, villain and comic parts; Ehnler, by-parts, servants; Fortner, leading 
comedian (part of first season) ; Anton Follger, jeune premier; Julius Gross- 
mann, leading gentleman, bonvivants, comic parts ; Emil Hochster, gallants, 



German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 29 

who had appeared in New York, the Almanack dcr deutschen 
Buhnen in Amerika lauded as the best talent on the New York 
stage at the time of their appearance there. 18 

Pfeiffer had enjoyed extensive reputation and high rank as 
an actor in Germany. Expression of liberal political views had 
led to a difference with the manager of the theatre at Mannheim, 
Baden, which determined him to emigrate to this country. Mme. 
Lindemann (nee Miiller) had received her tutelage under Char 
lotte Birch-Pfeiffer in Zurich and had afterward scored a triumph 
in Darmstadt. Ascher had appeared successfully in Berlin. The 
members of the ensemble were all engaged for a period of eighteen 
months. It was Bornstein s; plan to play summer and winter 
without interruption. In announcing his plans he wrote : 

"Ein Theater, zu dem jedes Mai bei Beginn des Winters 
ein Dutzend Schauspieler und Schauspielerinnen zusam- 
mengetrommelt werden, die sich nicht kennen and verstehen, 
die dann iiber Hals und Kopf in ein Noth-Repertoire hin- 
eingestiirzt werden, um, wenn sie anfangen sich zusammen- 
zuspielen und ein Ensemble zu bilden, wieder entlassen zu 
werden, sobald der Friihling und die ersten Schwalben 
kommen, ein solches one-horse-concern haben wir in 
Europa nie gefiihrt und mochten es auch. hier nicht. Dieses 
Exploitiren einer Winter-Saison, ohne alle Riicksicht auf 
hohere Kunstzwecke, konnte uns nicht befriedigen. Konnen 
wir hier nicht ein stabiles und gutes deutsches Theater her- 
stellen, womit wir jetzt den Versuch beginnen, so bleibt uns 
nichts iibrig, als die deutsche Buhne hier, wenn auch mit 
Bedauern, ihrem Schicksale zu iiberlassen und unser Theater 
in anderer Weise, gleich den iibrigen amerikanischen Thea- 
tern auf das Moglichst-Beste zu ververthen." 19 



naive parts ; Kinklin, by-parts ; Arthur Kampmann, gallants ; Louis Menschke, 
servants, by-parts; Friedrich Ropenack, character and villain parts, fathers; 
Schwan, fathers and character parts; G. W. Stierlin, comedian; Wilson, 
Walter, Schiiler, by-parts; Mile. Bornstein, jeune premiere, by-parts; Mme. 
Alwine Dremmel, jeune premiere, by-parts; Mile. Halenz, jeune premiere, 
by-parts; Mme. Rohardine Otto, leading lady; Mme. Louise Riedel, comic 
old women; Mme. Pfeiffer, mothers and comic old women. The complete 
personnel of the theatre, including property master and assistants, numbered 
about forty. 

18 Heinrich Schmidt, Almanack der deutschen Buhnen in Amerika (New 
York: G. B. Teubner, 1860), I, 14 ff. 

18 Anzeiger des Westens, September 4, 1859. 



30 German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 

The St. Louis Opernhaus was formally opened September 
15, 1859. In order to afford time for the new theatrical com 
pany to assemble and hold necessary rehearsals the German the 
atrical season proper was prefaced by a series of twenty opera 
performances by Signora Parodi s Italian Opera Company. The 
company, which included as principals the prima donnas Teresa 
Parodi and Karline Alaino, the tenor Giovanni Sbiglia, the bari 
tone F. Gnone and the basso N. Barili, was pronounced by critics 
to have been superior to that of Strakosch and others which had 
previously visited St. Louis. It presented La Traviata four times, 
Polinto three times, // Trovatore, Lucia di Lammermoore, Nor ma, 
Ernani and Lucrecia Borgia each twice, and La Favorita, Rigo- 
lette and // Babiere di Siviglia each once. 20 

The theatrical season opened October i with a performance 
of Goethe s Egmont. Performances were given daily. The sea 
son promised well. The repertory presented showed that the 
director was working toward the artistic and cultural goal he had 
set before him. The hundredth anniversary of Schiller s birth 
was commemorated in the Opernhaus by a series of Schiller s 
plays. His Ranker, Kabalc und Liebe, Fiesco, Maria Stuart, 
Wallensteins Tod and Wilhelm Tell were presented on November 
6, 7, 8, 9, 10 and n respectively. The series was prefaced 
November 5 by a performance of Laube s Karlsschiilcr. Except 
ing a Sunday performance of Hersch s Anna Lisa, three classic 



20 Signora Parodi s Company returned to the St. Louis Opernhaus Decem 
ber 27 for a series of performances, at which the following operas were 
given : Norma, La Traviata, and Don Giovanni, each twice ; // Trovatore, 
Lucia di Lammermoore, Lucrecia Borgia and Polinto, once. Later in the 
season the French opera company from New Orleans with Mme. Dalmont- 
Messmacre as prima donna, Demoiselle D Arcy as soubrette, M. Philippe as 
tenor, gave a number of performances which alternated with the German 
theatrical performances. In April, 1861, Madame Colson s Italian Opera 
Company gave a series of performances in the Opernhaus. The company 
included the prima donnas Pauline Colson and Miss Kellog, the tenor Brig- 
noli, the baritone Ferri and the basso Susini. Later the pantomime and ballet 
company Siegrist Zamfretta with a large corps de ballet and excellent dan- 
seuses, and finally Anna Bishop with her concert company, appeared on the 
stage of the Opernhaus to lend the season variety. 



German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 31 

plays Faust, Jungfrau von Orleans and Morcto s Donna Dianna 
(German by West) attracted the largest audiences during the 
initial months of the season. These plays formed part of a series 
of eighteen performances in which Antonie Grahn, formerly of 
the Hoftheater in Darmstadt, later of the Stadt Theater in New 
York, appeared in starring parts, such as Gretchen, Ophelia, Julia, 
Johanna, Maria Stuart and Donna Dianna. She received un 
stinted praise for her work, in which she received first-rate sup 
port from Pfeiffer in roles such as Faust and Hamlet, Mme. 
Lindemann as Martha, Follger as Romeo, and Bornstein as Perin 
in Donna Dianna. Beginning with February the company had 
the support of Heinrich Kronfeld, of the Hoftheater in Darm 
stadt, in a number of performances. He excelled in comedy. He 
proved to be a drawing attraction, as Mme. Grahn had been. 

But the unhappy political and attending economic conditions 
of the time militated against the realization of Bernstein s plans. 
As the performances grew in dramaturgical excellence and gained 
in the estimation of the critics, the attendance decreased. Con 
strained by the necessity of attracting a full house, Bornstein was 
forced to strive after that which was designed for effect. In 
March and April, 1860, he staged fourteen performances of Der 
Zauberschlcier, romantisch-komisches Feenspiel mit Gesang und 
Tans, an adaptation from Scribe by F. X. Told. In September 
and October of the same year he staged twenty- four perform 
ances of Raimund s Barometermacher auf der Zaubcrinscl, and 
in November nine performances of a local Seller zspicl by Told 
called Liebeleien in Cincinnati, Neckercien in St. Louis und Fop- 
pereien in Carondelet. But such performances were not staged at 
the sacrifice of quality. With reference to the performances of 
the Zauberschleier, a contributor to the Anzeiger wrote: "Hat 
sich unser Opernhaus-Theater in Bezug auf Darstellung bis jetzt 
schon den ersten Platz in Amerika erobert, so tritt es mit den 
letzten Auffiihrungen des Zauberschleiers auch in jeder anderen 
Beziehung in die Reihe der grossen Theater ein, und St. Louis 
darf stolz auf ein Institut sein, das auf die Beurtheilung des 



32 German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 

hiesigen deutschen Elements auf das Vortheilhafteste zuriick- 
wirken muss." 21 

And commenting upon the Liebeleien performances, a critic 
wrote: "Wir diirfen es dreist aussprechen, dass die Direktion 
mit der Nothwendigkeit, eine Reihe voller Hauser zu schaffen, 
aufs Neue in einer Weise entledigt, die wieder einmal den von 
uns schon ausgesprochenen Satz bestatigt, dass die St. Louiser 
deutsche Biihne die erste in den Vereinigten Staaten ist." 

Because of poor attendance Bornstein concluded to close the 
Opernhaus temporarily January 20, 1861, and in the interim to 
take his company to Cincinnati, where conditions were not yet 
affected by the impending political crisis. The company played 
with success in Pike s Opera House in Cincinnati, where it had 
the hearty support of the German press, and then, ere returning 
to St. Louis, played with appreciative reception for several even 
ings in Louisville. 23 The company resumed daily performances 
in the St. Louis Opernhaus March 31. 

Sundays had brought the German theatre its largest audi 
ences. When the Know-nothing party, the political enemy of the 
free-soil" Germans, came into power, they at once unearthed 
and arbitrarily enforced an antiquated law which prohibited the 
theatre to open on Sundays. On the 8th of April the new police 
commissioners were installed. On Sunday, April 14, at six o clock 
in the evening, Bornstein was notified not to open his theatre. 
He declined to heed the police order. Fifteen minutes later the 
new chief of police with forty policemen came and took posses 
sion of the building. Threatened violence upon the police by the 
assembled Germans was forestalled by a speech from Bornstein, 
who advised them to quietly go home. Inability to give the cus 
tomary "Sacred Concerts," as the Sunday performances had in 
the past been termed, dictated that a German theatre could not 



31 Anzeiger dcs West ens, March 20, 1860. 
M Anzcigcr des West ens, November n, 1860. 

1 "Herrn Bornstein gebiihrt allerdings fur die von ihm organisirte 
Schauspielertruppe, die er Anfangs der 6oger Jahre ebenfalls nach Cincinnati 
brachte, und zu deren eifrigsten Unterstiitzern auch wir gehorten, grosse An- 
erkenming. Wir gestehen es ein, es war das das beste deutsche Theater was 
Cincinnati je gehabt hat." Der deutsche Pionier (Cincinnati, 1882), XIV, 20, 



German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 33 

meet with financial success. For the German element of the city 
lived for the most part in the extreme northern and southern 
parts of the city and therefore had no time to attend perform 
ances after business hours on week days. Bornstein consequently 
closed his theatre permanently April 20. 

Had the police interference not put an abrupt end to St. 
Louis Opernhaus, the political crisis, which within the next fort 
night became acute, would have done so. After the closing of 
the theatre Bornstein used all his energies and did much to con 
solidate the German sentiment of St. Louis in favor of the Union. 
He was prominent in organizing the German troops for the de 
fense of the United States arsenal in St. Louis. He took part 
under General Lyon in the seizure of Camp Jackson May 10, 
1861. He was elected Colonel of the Second Regiment of Mis- 



Ill. 1861-1891. 

A. 1861-1867. A New Era Begins. The Directorship of Wil- 

helm Koser. 

After the St. Louis Opernhaus had closed its doors Alex 
ander Pfeiffer attempted with a remnant of Bornstein s en 
semble to institute a German stage in Apollo Garten. At the 
souri Volunteers, and as such saw active service. 24 
initial performance, July 9, Bohn s Drama, Der Tower von 
London, was staged. The following day Benedix s Schauspiel, 
Die Stiefmuttcr, and Putlitz s Lustspicl, Badckurcn, were per 
formed, and July n, Topfer s Lustspicl, Frcien nach Vorschrift. 
This third performance marked the end of the experiment. At 
a time when the columns of the German press were full of calls 



24 After several months of active military service, spent for the most part 
in Jefferson City, Bornstein was appointed counsel to Bremen by President 
Lincoln. He went abroad, to return in 1864, at the invitation of his friend, 
Hon. Francis P. Blair, to take part in Lincoln s second campaign. After the 
election he returned to his consular post, which he held till deprived of it 
in 1864 in consequence of the rotation in office which followed Lincoln s 
death. From 1869-1871 he was codirector with Carl Bukovics, of the Joseph- 
stadt Theater in Vienna. During his last years he corresponded for the Cin 
cinnati Volksblattcr, the Westliche Post and the Illinois-Staats-Zeitung. He 
died in Vienna, September 10, 1890. 



34 German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 

for volunteers to do military service in the cause of the Union, 
an attempt to set up a stage could not prove other than futile. 
A number of actors formerly belonging to Bernstein s ensemble 
were now engaged in active military service under his com 
mand. 

A new era for German theatricals began with the spring 
of 1862. May 1 8 the theatre in Apollo Garten was formally 
reopened under the directorship of Alexander Pfeiffer, June I 
the one in Reudi s Volksgarten under the directorship of R. 
Rosinski and A. Follger. Both theatres usually played three 
times weekly, tho the latter advertised irregularly. During June 
and July occasional performances were also given in Flora 
Garten under the management of Rosinski. In these Mme. 
Louise Thielemann, who had been active on the St. Louis stage 
in the early part of its history, took part. The personnel of the 
performances during the season was a varying one. In the en 
semble of the theatre in Apollo Garten appear the names of 
Theodor Boll, Julius Grossmann, Konemann, Lange (of Cincin 
nati), Mme. Caroline Lindmann, Mme. Ludovika and Mile. Mai- 
wine Pfeiffer, and in occasional starring parts, Ascher, G. W. 
Stierlin, Spitznas, Werber and Follger, and Mmes. Koser, Otto 
and Werber, among them members of the ensemble in Rudei s 
Volksgarten. In the latter ensemble appear the names of Wil- 
helm Bottner, Follger, Werber, Mme. and Mile. Bottner, and 
Mmes. Otto, Pritzkow, Ungar and Werber. August 10 the 
directorship of the performances in Ruedi s Volksgarten passed 
into the hands of Bottner. In a number of performances under 
his short lived directorship, which terminated August 24, the 
combined talent of the two stages took part. Aside from one 
performance each of Laube s KarlsschiUcr and Montrosc in 
Apollo Garten nothing of literary value was staged during this 
season. Kotzebue, Friedrich, Nestroy, Birch-Pfeiffer, Corner 
and Benedix, the most popular dramatists represented on the 
stage during the period antedating the establishment of the St. 
Louis Opernhaus, and popular on the latter stage, continued to 



German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 35 

be preferred during the season with 8, 10, 3, 4, 7 and 10 perform 
ances respectively. Raupach was represented twice. The rela 
tive percentage of Schauspiel, Volksstiick, etc., Lustspicl and 
Posse presented under the Pieiffer and the Rosinski-Follger-Bott- 
ner managements were respectively 21+, 5 , 47+, 27 , and 
3 , n , 26+, and 61 per cent. 

The summer season in Apollo Garten was concluded Octo 
ber 3. October 5 Pfeiffer staged Kriiger s Madchcn vom Dorfc 
in the former St. Louis Opernhaus, now again called the Varie 
ties Theatre. October 21 he opened a winter season in Concert 
Hall with a performance of Deinhartstein s Hans Sachs. De 
tails of Pfeiffer s activity during this season are meagre in the 
extant records. Reference to his stage in later years, however, 
ranked the performances under his direction with those of 
Bornstein. The end of this season marked the termination of 
his connection with the St. Louis stage. 

Beginning with this same winter the destiny of the Ger 
man stage for the next five years lay chiefly in the hands of 
Wilhelm Koser. October i Koser opened a theatre on Market 
Street, between Fourth and Fifth Streets, "deni Courthouse 
gegeniiber im Museum," which he termed the Deutsches Stadt- 
theatre. He conducted a theatre in this same building for four 
consecutive winter seasons, but each season the theatre under 
went a change of name. With the second season (October 6, 
1863 May i, 1864), the name was changed to the St. Louis 
Stadttheater, with the third season (October 8, 1864 May 21, 
1865), to tne National Theater, which, with the fourth season 
(September 6, 1865 May 14, 1866), was again changed to the 
Deutsches Stadttheater, also called during this season the Metro 
politan Theater. During the last winter under his directorship 
Koser performed on Sundays (September 23, 1866 April 28, 
1867) m ^e Varieties Theatre and occasionally in the Olympic 
Theatre, and on week-days (February 9 April 22) in the 
"Walhalla" Vaudeville Theater on Fourth Street, between Mar- 



36 German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 

ket and Walnut Streets. The former winter home of Koser s 
theatre had been destroyed by fire in the spring of 1866. 

During the intervening summers, with the exception of the 
summer of 1865, Koser regularly conducted a summer theatre. 
During the summer of 1863 he played first in Ruedi s Volks- 
garten and later (August 6 October 3) in Apollo Garten. In 
the latter he again played the following summer (June 14 
October 3, 1864). During the summer of 1866 he played in the 
Stadttheater Garden on Elm Street, between Third and Fourth. 
The gap in Koser s activity as director presented by the sum 
mer of 1865 was filled by Hannes Lewens who conducted the 
stage in Apollo Garten from May 21 till September 24 with 
daily performances principally of Lustspicl and Posse by an en 
semble recruited largely from the ranks of the company directed 
by Koser during the preceding winter. During the course of 
the summer Alexander Pfeiffer played under Lewen s director 
ship in four, and Louis Pelosi and his wife in eight star engage 
ments. 

Koser played daily in both his winter and summer theatre, 
with the exception of the first two winter seasons, during which 
he played three or four times weekly. The personnel of his 
stage during these years changed almost completely from sea 
son to season. 25 With the aid of talent such as Otto von Hoym 



K In the following list of those recorded as playing under Koser s di 
rectorship the figures 2, 3, 4, 6 and 2-3, 3-4, etc., indicate respectively the 
summer seasons 1862, 1863, etc., and the winter seasons 1862-63, etc., during 
which the actor in question played in his ensemble. An asterisk indicates that 
the actor appeared during the season not as a regular member of the ensem 
ble, but in Gastspiele. 

Ahlfeld 5-6, Julius Ascher *4, *5-6, Rudolph Beckier *4, Berman 5-6, 
Theodor Boll *3~4, T. Conny *4~5, Conrady 5-6, Anton Follger *3, *4, *4-5, 
Caesar Franck *6, Friedrich Gebhard 4-5, Anton Graff 5-6, 6, Heinrich Graff 
6, Groehner 6-7, J. Grossman 3, 3-4, R. Griinewald 4-5, Albert Giihlen 5-6, 6-7, 
Georg Hagen 6, M. Hahn *3-4, E. Harting 5-6, Rudolph Helmer 6, Emil Hoch- 
ster 4, 4-5, Otto von Hoym *6-7, Gustav Htibsch 6, Richard Jahn 3-4, 4-5, 5-6, 
Ludwig Knorr *4, Julius Koch 4-5, 6-7, Kress 5-6, Georg Kriiger 3, 3-4, Wil- 
helm Kunst 4-5, 6, Emil Lasswitz *5-6, *6, Hugo Lennert 4-5, Bruno Lensch- 
ner 6, Hannes Lewens 4, 4-5, 5-6, 6, 6-7, Adolph Lieberati 6, 6-7, J. K. Mc- 
Afferty (Professor in Racine College, in one performance of Halm s Sohn 
dcr Wildnis, February 12, 1866), Louis Menschke 4, 4-5. Conrad Miiller 6, 
Wilhelm Mumsen 6, Friedrich Neidmann 4-5, 5-6, 6, 6-7, Emil von der Osten 
*6-7, Gustav Ostermann *4, Carl Otto 3-4, 6-7, Pelzer 3, Alexander Pfeiffer 
*5-6, Karl Rensberg 4, G. Rogge 5-6, R. Rosinsky 3, 3-4, Erwin Rossbach 6, 



German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 37 

and Emil von der Osten, Mmes. Bekker-Grahn and Mile. 
Clausen, Koser was, however, able to conduct a stage of literary 
as well as dramaturgical importance. Press comment on the 
performance under Koser s directorship is occasional and general 
in nature. The relative merit of his stage is attested by rem 
iniscent comment in the editorial columns of the press of the 
next decade, where his performances and his audiences are 
classed with those of Bornstein and Pfeiffer. 

Of the 945 performances recorded as given under Koser s 
direction, the Traucr spiel represented 5 per cent., 
Schauspiel, 19+ per cent., Volksstuck, etc., 15+ per 
cent., Lustspiel, 25 per cent., Posse, 25 per cent., 
Sing spiel, etc., 6 per cent., Oper, 5 per cent. The 
repertory included many plays of literary importance. These 
were (figures indicate number of times performed) : Goethe s 
Faust 4; Schiller s Braut von Messina 5, Don Carlos i, 
Fiesco i, Jungfrau von Orleans 5, Kabale und Licbe 2, Maria 
Stuart 3, R duber 9, Wallensteins Lager 2, Wallensteins Tod i, 
Wilhelm Tell 4; Lessing s Nathan der Weise i; Grillparzer s 
Medea 2; Gutzkow s Konigsleutnant i, Uriel Acosta 6; Hebbel s 
Gcnoveva 3 ; Kleist s Kdtchen von Heilbronn 3 ; Laube s Graf 
Essex 3, Karlsschuler 5 ; Raimund s Alpenkbnig 3, Bauer ah 
Milliondr 5, Verschwender 5 ; Shakespeare s Besdhmte Wider- 
spenstige i, Hamlet 4, Kaufmann von Venedig 3, Othello i. 



Otto Rudolph 4, 5-6, Leonhard Scherer *s, 5-6, J. H. Schmitz 4-5, H. Schmitz 
3-4, 5-6, 6, Carl Schone 3, C. Schunck *6, Friedrich Schurthe 3-4, Friedrich 
Schwan *3-4, Alexander Julius Varena 4-5, Carl Werber 3-4, 4, Christian 
Wolf 5-6, Ignatz Wolf *3~4, *4, 4-5, 5-6, *6, *6-7, Alphons von Zerboni 6. 

Mmes. Ahlfeld 5-6, Antoine Bekker-Grahn *4~5, *6, Elise Bottner *4, *4-5, 
Mile. Johanna Claussen *4-5, *5-6, *6, *6-7, Mme. Danzi-Hausmann 3-4, Miles. 
Pauline Dursy 5-6, 6, Sophia Dzinba *6, Ottilie Genee *5-6, Maria Graff 6, 
Mme. Mathilda Graff 6, Miles. Grempler 5-6, Emma Grosse 4-5, Mme. Anna 
Griinewald 4-5, Miles. Louise Haase *5-6, *6-7, Hedwig Hesse *5-6, Hofsteden 
4-5, 6-7, Kaiser 5-6, Mme. Albertine Koser 2-3, 6, Mile. Johanna Lehmann 5-6, 
6-7, Mme. Caroline Lindemann 3, 3-4, 4, 4-5, 5-6, Miles. Ida Marchand *6, 
Ottilie Miiller 6, Emma Neumann 6, Mmes. L. von der Osten *6-7, Minna 
Ostermann-Bottner *4, Rohardine Otto 4, 5-6, 6-7, Hendricks-Peltzer 3, 3-4, 




Schmitz 3-4, 4-5, 5-6, 6, Maria von Schramm *3-4, Miles. Augusta Sonnen- 
schein 4, 4-5, 6-7, Anna Wedemeyer 4, Caroline Werner 4, 4-5, 5-6, 6-7, Rosa 
von Zerboni 6. 



38 German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 

Richard III i, Romeo und Juliet i, Winter mar chen 5. Charlotte 
Birch-Pfeiffer was the most popular dramatist for the period, 
Benedix ranked second. Their plays were performed 64 and 35 
times, respectively. Kotzebue was represented 12 times, Rau- 
pach but once. Weihrauch s Volksstiick, Die Maschinenbauer 
was the most popular individual play; it was staged 14 times. 26 

In several instances Koser s stage suffered competition. Be 
ginning with September 6, 1863, an attempt was made to stage 
German drama in Bechtner s Varieties on Fifth Street, between 
Morgan Street and Franklin Avenue, called for this season the 
Deutsches Stadttheater. Emil Hochster was stage director. The 
attempt was short lived. None of the plays presented possessed 
literary merit. After the eighth performance on November 15 
all notice of the theatre disappears from the columns of the 
press. 

From May 20 till November 6, 1864, R. Rosinski conducted 
a German theatre, at first in the Deutscher Volksgarten at 136 
North Fifth Street and after cold weather set in, in the Deutsche 
Volkshalle with which the Garten was connected. His theatre 
was typically a Volkstheater which essayed nothing more pre 
tentious than an entertaining Lustspiel or Posse. It announced at 
its opening daily performances, but advertised irregularly. The 
limited personnel consisted of Messrs. E. Goldschmidt, C. Miller, 
R. Rosinski, Mme. D. Haase and Miles. Louise Schmuckert and 
Marie Freebertheyer, whose efforts were supplemented by occa 
sional help from Koser s ensemble. 

One or more of several Volksgarten the former Ruedi s 
Volksgarten, Washington Garten at Third and Elm Streets, and 
Franklin Garten at Tenth Street and Franklin Avenue usually 
staged Possen and kindred pieces during the summers of 1864, 
65, 66 and 67, admission to which was free or ten cents, for 
which usually "2 Bier-tickets" were given to the visitor. But 
such stages rarely advertised. 



"The season of 1863-64 included a half dozen performances by Holman s 
National Opern-Truppe, which sang Bellini s Nachtwandlerin and Balse s 
Zigeunermddchen each twice, and Rossini s Aschcnbrodel and Donizetti s 
Tochter des Regiments each once. 



German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 39 

While Koser was playing in the Stadttheater Garten, Anton 
Follger from May 3 till August 17, 1866, conducted a theatre 
with daily performances in Apollo Garten. His ensemble was 
limited. The incomplete list of those recorded as belonging to it 
included the names of Follger, Graf, Monch, Friedrich Schwan, 
Mme. Amalia Pritzkow and Miles. M. Hoehm, Pfeiffer and 
Emma Neumann. Follger relied largely for assistance upon 
outside talent. Ludwig Knorr, stage director of the Stadtthe 
ater in New York, Julius Koch, Fmil Lasswitz, Ropenack, Zer- 
boni, Mmes. Bekker-Grahn, Louise Haase, Ropenack, Zerboni, 
and Mile. Johanna Clausen played under his direction in the 
course of the season. The great number of stars appearing 
on this stage during the season raised the standard of its reper 
tory above that of the average summer theatre. Goethe s Faust, 
Schiller s Maria Stuart, Laube s Graf Essex and Gutzkow s 
Zopf und Schwerdt were each performed once, Gutzkow s Ko- 
nigsleutnant twice. The different types of play were repre 
sented as follows: Trauerspiel 4 %, Schauspiel 13 %, 
Volksstiick, etc., 21 %, Lustspiel 24 %, Posse 23 + %, Sing- 
spiel t etc. (including two performances of Auber s Stumme von 
Portici), 16%. 

From January 20 till February 22, 1867, the Olympic 
Theatre was the scene of eleven German performances under 
the stage direction of Hannes Lewens. The short lived season 
was inaugurated by a number of actors who were for the time 
being without regular engagements, some of whom later joined 
Koser s ensemble. 

B. 1867-1870. An Uneventful Period of Decline. 

During the summer and the first half of the ensuing winter 
season following the suspension of Koser s activity on the St. 
Louis stage, Emil Lasswitz directed daily performances in the 
Apollo Garten Theater (May n October 7, 1867; November 
21, 1867 May 20 < 1868). On the six Sundays intervening be 
tween the summer and winter seasons Lasswitz staged plays 
with his ensemble in the Varieties Theatre. The Apollo Garten 
Theater had in the meantime been rebuilt. A reviewer of the 



4O German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 

opening performance (Goethe s Clavigo) takes occasion to com 
ment upon the improvement wrought by the renovation, saying: 
"Wir haben nach langer, bitterer Entbehrung ein wenn auch 
nicht iibermassig grosses, so cloch eine hinreichende Zahl Zu- 
schauer bequem fassendes, prachtig eingerichtetes, zierliches 
deutsches Theater nnd konnen uns des Instituts mit vollstem 
Rechte freuen." 27 Lasswiz resigned the directorship of the 
theatre at the end of January with the intention of returning to 
Germany, whereupon Kurth, who had been associated with him 
as business manager, took charge and played daily till May 20. 
the end of the season. The season was made notable by the 
large number of "Gastspiele," some of which proved sufficiently 
attractive to warrant performances by the Apollo ensemble occa 
sionally in one of the larger theatres of the city. In such star 
ring parts appeared C. Harting, Joseph Keppler, Theodor L Ar- 
ronge, Mines. Hedwig L Arronge and Louise Haase, Miles. 
Hedwig Hesse and Dora Rolff, and the Hungarian dwarfs Jean 
Piccolo, Jean Petit and Kis Jozsi. The latter three appeared 
almost daily before crowded houses for over a month (March 
16 April 19). Some reviewers proclaimed them to be great 
artists. The review in the Anzeiger des Wcstens for April 19, 
1868, undoubtedly comes nearer the truth when it says: "Im 
"Qbrigen sind und bleiben sie wohl grosse Kunstmerkwurdigkei- 
ten das Pradikat Kiinstler aber in dem Sinne, in welchem es 
die Asthetik den Jiingern der Biihne zuspricht, kann ihnen nicht 
zuerkannt werden." 

With the opening of the summer season, May 23, Kurth 
again continued to stage daily performances in the same theatre. 
Alphons von Zerboni acted as stage manager under his director 
ship. July 13 Kurth withdrew from the theatre. His repertory 
had been designed chiefly with the view to entertain, but hard 
times kept down the attendance. "Er hatte das Seinige redlich 
und mit dem besten Willen gethan, hatte Opfer auf Opfer ge- 
bracht, aber ohne dass damit ein Erfolg erziehlt wurde, der ihm 



27 Anzeiger des Westens, November 22, 1867. 



German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 41 

die Weiterfiihrung des Theaters hatte wiinschenswerth erschei- 
nen lassen. Die Ausgaben iiberstiegen stets die Einnahmen 
und Herr Kurth, der mit der Absicht, als reeler Geschaftsmann 
reel zu handeln, seiner Zeit mit Herrn Lasswitz die Direktion 
des Apollo Theaters iibernommen hatte, sah sich nach unun- 
terbrochenen pekuniaren Verlusten schliesslich gezwungen, sich 
von der Leitung des Unternehmens zuriickzuziehen. Zu viele 
leere Hauser in den Wochentagen Sonntags ist das Theater re-- 
gelmassig gut besucht gewesen sind auch in der jiingsten Win 
ter und in der ersten Halfte der laufenden Sommersaison der 
Nagel zum Sarge fur das Unternehmen gewesen und es gehort 
in der That Muth dazu, nach so vielen Entmuthigenden die 
Sache in die Hand zu nehmen. . . . Der Eintrittspreis ist 
(namentlich im Sommertheater) so ausserordentlich nieclrig ge- 
stellt, dass man sehr Vielen, die sich hinter die schechten Zei- 
ten verstecken, nachweisen konnte, eine wie viel grossere Summe 
ihrerseits allabendlich der Unterstiitzung der edlen Kunst des 
Bierbrauens zugewendet wird."- 

About the same time that Kurth retired Zerboni became ill. 
He died after several weeks and his wife out of despair over the 
loss of her husband soon thereafter committed suicide. Follow 
ing Kurth s retirement Kriiger and Schiller, the lessees of the 
theatre, engaged Hannes Lewens as stage manager and under 
his guidance brought the season to a conclusion October 12, 1868. 

Since the retirement of Lassowitz the theatre had artistically 
ranked low and possessed no literary merit. Attendance had 
been poor. Kriiger and Schiller resumed the directorship of the 
theatre with the opening of the winter season October 22. They 
engaged Lewens and Julius Koch as stage managers. The initial 
weeks during this winter in no respects offered an improvement. 
The elite no longer patronized the theatre. January 18 Kriiger 
and Schiller turned the theatre over to Louise Haase. She made 
elaborate plans for improvement. She had the hearty co-opera 
tion of the press. Commenting upon the change of management 
the Anzeiger for January 17, 1869, says: "Die direktionslose, 



Anzeiger des Westens, July 14, 1868. 



42 German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 

die schreckliche Zeit erreicht heute ihr Ende und von Morgen 
an hat das Apollo Theater eine artistische Leitung, deren Nicht- 
vorhandensein sich in jiingster Zeit nur allzusehr fiihlbar gemacht 
hatte. Ueber clem hiesigen deutschen Theater waltet seit Jahres- 
frist und la nger ein eigener Unstern und vielleicht geht ihm 
in der neuen Direktion ein gliicklicher Stern auf. Ernes ist 
sicher: Fran L. Haase ist der Aufgabe, der sich die Dame 
nunmehr unterzieht, gewachsen und das waren ihre unmittel- 
baren Vorgiinger nicht. 

Die Herren Kriiger und Schiller batten, kein Gutmeinender 
wird das in Abrede stellen, einen in mehr denn einer Hinsicht 
ausserst schwierigen Standpunkt, keiner von Beiden ist mit dem 
Biihnenwesen auch nur entfernt vertraut und was die Folge die- 
ser Thatsache war, davon weiss das Theaterpublikum einer die 
Kasse der Unternehmer anderseits ein Liedchen zu singen. 
Doch dariiber, wie iiber so manches andere, der Vergangenheit 
Angehorende, mag der Zwischenvorhang fallen und in den Vor- 
dergrund einzig und allein die neue Direktion mit ihrer theoreti- 
schen wie praktischen Befahigungen zttr Leitung des Theaters 
treten. Ihr wird das Publikum mit allem Vertrauen auf die In- 
augurirung einer neuen Biihnen-Era entgegenkommen ; ihr wird 
zuvorderst der Beweis geliefert werden, dass der Werth des 
Geleisteten den Massstab fiir die Theilnahme des Publikums ab- 
giebt und dass ein deutsches Theater in St. Louis bestehen kann, 
wenn das Verstehen auf Seite der Biihnenleitung nicht mangelt. 
Schon hort man von, durch Frau Haase beschlossenen Re for- 
men und von der Energie, deren die Dame ein gut Theil besitzen 
soil, lasst sich erwarten. dass neben dem Reformiren auch das 
Substituiren und Completiren in zweckentsprechender Weise ge- 
handhabt werden wird." 

With the aid of outside talent Mme. Haase was able to 
raise the standard of the theatre. Frau von Borndorf, one of 
the starring performers, drew full houses and at her concluding 
performance was presented with a silver service by a number of 
her admirers. For a time St. Louis again enjoyed first-class per 
formances. In spite of increased price of admission, attendance 
increased. 



German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 43 

This winter season closed April 16. After several post- 
seasonal performances Mme. Haase formally opened the sum 
mer season in Apollo Garten, May 16. By the middle of July 
the public had again grown indifferent to her efforts. She was 
constrained to discontinue her directorship July 19. Mme. Au- 
guste Hofl reopened the theatre July 27, under her own manage 
ment. Mme. Hofl made a serious attempt to bring new life into 
the stage. She introduced occasional opera and operette which 
attracted not only Germans, but also Americans, and received 
favorable recognition from the English as well as German press. 
But the fact that the expense entailed by a stage of such propor 
tions was out of proportion to the proceeds it netted, dissuaded 
Mme. Hofl from continuing the experiment. The last several 
weeks of the season concluding September 26 were devoted to 
Lustspiel and Posse. 

The following winter (October 3, 1869 May 18, 1870) 
Kriiger and Schiller again assumed charge of the Apollo Garten 
stage. Beginning with January, prior to which the company 
usually played without regular director, Kurth again directed 
the stage for Kriiger and Schiller. He was succeeded with the 
beginning of the summer season by Lewens and Lasswitz. The 
success of the winter season was made possible by the assistance 
of artists such as Otto von Hoym, J. Humbser, Joseph Keppler, 
and Mmes. Elise von Hoym and Sophie Frida Vellguth (from 
the Stadttheater in Milwaukee). 

The public during the years represented by the period 1867- 
70 was apathetic with reference to the theatre. This apathy to 
gether with the frequent changes of directorship caused the 
theatre to suffer in attendance and from the standpoint of dra 
maturgical attainment. It required an unusual star or the pres 
ence of the unique as represented in the three dwarfs to attract 
a full house. If the literary merit of the repertory seemingly 
did not suffer, the fact must be ascribed to the frequency of the 
Gastspiele. Of the 1018 plays performed the Trauer spiel rep 
resented in terms of percentage 3 , Schauspiel n , Volksstuck, 
etc., 14+, Lustspiel 22-f-, Posse 31+, Singspiel 8-)-, per and 
Operette n+. The serious dramas appearing on the stage dur- 



44 German Drama on the St. Loins Stage 

ing these years were the following (figures indicate number of 
times performed) : Goethe s Clavigo 2, Egmont i, Faust i; 
Schiller s Braut von Messina i, Don Carlos i, Jung f ran von Or 
leans i, Kabalc und Liebe i, Maria Stuart 2, Z)z> Rduber 3, PFa/- 
lenstcins Lager 2, Wilhclm Tell 2, Turandot 2 ; Shakespeare s 
Hamlet 5, Macbeth i, Othello 3, Romeo und Juliet i, w Sow- 
mermdrchen T, Do* IViderspenstigen Z dhmung 3; Freytag s 
Journalistcn i ; Gutzkow s Kdnigslcutnant 2 ; Hebbel s Genoveva 
2 ; Kleist s Katchen von Hcilbronn 2 ; Laube s -to .y<? Zungen 4, 
GVtf/ Essex 2; Raimund s Alpenkonig i, Bauer als Milliondr i, 
Verschwcnder 4. 

C. 1870-1880. Opera on the Apollo Stage 1870-1875. The 
Pelosi Directorship 1871-1880. 

The summer season of 1870 (May 21 October 16) Kriiger 
and Schiller introduced opera and operette along with drama on 
the Apollo stage under the direction of Carl Schramm as musical 
conductor. During the course of the summer Donizetti s Regi- 
mentstochter was sung once, Offenbach s Verlobung bet der La- 
terne, and Suppe s Flotte Bursche and Scheme Galathee each twice, 
Offenbach s Orpheus in der Unterwelt five times, his Schone 
Helcnc fifteen times, and Der Blaubart eighteen times. 

During the next five years the Apollo Garten Theater was 
devoted to a large extent to opera and operette. Julius Herr 
mann, who during the summer of 1870 had appeared in starring 
parts in the Apollo Garten Theater, was director of that theatre 
during the winter of 1870-71. Herrmann made it his aim to 
present almost exclusively opera and Lustspicl. The perform 
ances he staged were not perfect, but pleased, as is apparent from 
the word of warning contained in the criticism printed in the 
Anzeiger dcs Westens for October 23, 1870, which, after com 
menting on the excellencies of the performance in question, says : 
"Nichts ist so verderblich und muss verderblich fiirs Theater 
sein, als Berichte, denen auf der Stirn geschrieben steht, dass sie 
eben nichts weiter sind, als geschaftsmassige Puffs. Wenn ein 



German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 45 

Blatt z. B. schreibt, class die Auffiihrung von Fra Diavolo am 
Freitag die beste war, die jemals hier gcsehen, und gehort wor- 
den sei, so mag das, als Geschaftsempfehlung, vielleicht zu ent- 
schuldigen sein, dem Publikum gegeniiber ist es aber nicht zu 
rechtfertigen. Dass die Chore tadellos waren, wie es in jenem 
Blatte zu lesen, heisst der Wahrheit so stark ins Gesicht schla- 
gen, dass Musikverstandige, die der Auffuhrung beiwohnten, ein 
Recht haben, iiber solches Lobhudeln ungehalten zu werden." 
Herrmann instituted a number of "Galavorstellungen." At the 
first of these Hugo Miiller s Genrebild Adelaide followed by 
selections from grand opera was given. It succeeded in creating 
interest anew for the stage in many who had grown apathetic 
toward it. "Der ersten der im Laufe der Saison zu veranstalten- 
den Gala-Versammlungen wohnte kein sehr zahlreiches, dagegen 
ein um so gewahlteres Publikum bei, so dass alte ergraute The- 
aterhabitues sich in die Zeiten der Alexander Pfeifferschen Di- 
rektion, oder in die Wintersaison des National Theaters unter 
Direktor Koser zuriickversetzt glauben konnten, in jene Zeiten, 
da dem deutschen Theater noch reges Interesse von Seiten der 
Elite des hiesigen Deutschtumes geschenkt ward und das Audi 
torium die besten deutschen Familien der Stadt in sich zu schlies- 
sen pflegte. Der Anblick des Zuschauerraums am gestrigen 
Abend Hess das Bedauern iiber die in gewissen Kreisen dem The 
ater gegeniiber herrschende Lautheit doppelt rege werden, und 
damit zugleich den Wunsch nach Besserwerden." 29 

But the enthusiasm these Galavorstellungen aroused was 
but spasmodic. Less than two weeks later, December 31, the 
reviewer in the same paper complains bitterly over the poor 
attendance at the really first class performances : Lucretia 
Borgia wird im Apollo Theater besser aufgefiihrt, als sie z. B. 
von der Parodi Truppe, spater unter Strakosch s Management 
oder von der Ghioni-Susini Gesellschaft gegeben wurde. Es hat, 
danach zu schliessen. also auch auf diesem Gebiete der alte Satz. 
nach welchem der Prophet in seinem Vaterlande nichts gilt seine 
Berechtigung. Weil Direktor Herrmann sich hier niedergelas- 
sen, well er das Theater ubcrnommen hat, well Fr. Schiiler-Jiiger 
und Frl. Dziuba St. Louis zu ihrem Wohnort erkoren haben, well 



Anzeiger des Westens, December 21, 1870. 



46 German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 

Beetz, Humbler, Graff, etc., fur die ganze Saison engagirt sind, 
weil man also noch Zeit hat, sic im Laufe des Winters zu horen, 
deshalb lasst man die Vorstellungen einer der ansprechendsten, 
melodienreichsten Opern eines Tonmeisters unbesucht ! Solcher- 
gestalt ist die Logik, die dem iibeln Stande der Dinge zu Grunde 
liegt. Es ist freilich eine sehr unlogische Logik. Was aber wird 
die Folge schliesslich sein? Dass wir einbiissen werden, was 
wir jetzt besitzen und was keine zwjite Stadt im ganzen Lande 
aufzuweisen hat : eine permanente deutsche Oper. Und erst, 
wenn es zu spat sein, wenn der Schatz unseren Handen entglit- 
ten sein wird, erst dann wird das Bedauern kommen, dann erst 
wird man die schonen Tage zuriickwiinschen, die Tage, die uns 
solche musikalische Freuden gebracht hatten." January 26 the 
reviewer again speaks in similar terms, concluding: "Es bleibt 
beim Alten, beim Schlimmen." 

The winter season concluded June 2, 1871. During this 
time Herrmann had usually played daily. Beginning June 4 he 
commenced a summer season. But as early as June 25 he found 
himself constrained to cease performing, because of the apathy 
of the public toward his efforts. Ferdinand Ahlfeld then took 
charge as director with performances several times weekly, at 
times daily, concluding the season September 29, which was fol 
lowed by a number of post-seasonal performances ending October 
27. His repertory, made up chiefly of Lustspiel and Posse, in 
cluded occasional opera performances. 

During the ensuing winter the drama prevailed on the 
Apollo stage under the directorship of Louis Pelosi. Pelosi s 
advent marks a decided rise in the artistic and literary niveau of 
German theatricals in St. Louis. The very successful season 
which he conducted during this winter will be discussed below in 
connection with his subsequent activities on the St. Louis stage. 

Beginning with June 17, 1872, opera again made its appear 
ance on the Apollo stage, now called the Apollo Opernhaus. 
Nathan Waldstine, a local business man, assumed charge of the 
theatre. He engaged Julius Herrman as stage director, with a 
company which included as principals: E. Beetz and Theodor 
Habelmann, tenors, Emil Telle, baritone, Adolp Frano.sch, Julius 
Herrmann, W. Koerner and Otto Schiiler, bassos. Miles. Sophia 



German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 47 

Dziuba, Anna Jager, Bertha Roemer, prirnadonnas, and Albertine 
Hofstetter, second primadonna. Carl Hclmar, of the California 
Stadttheater in San Francisco, and Mile. Josie Hofl assisted in a 
number of performances. Opera and operette were sung under 
Waldstine s management three times weekly, and at times daily, 
throughout the summer season, concluding October 25, and the 
winter season beginning November i. From an artistic stand 
point the performances, though not perfect, received the approval 
of press and public, including the English-speaking public. The 
principals in these performances were usually praised, but the 
ensemble work and chorus ofttimes gave ground for criticism. 
Though attendance was good, it was not sufficient to make the 
venture a financial success, a fact easily understood in the light 
of the present day, when deficits must constantly be covered by 
generous lovers of art or by subsidy. Waldstine therefore re 
tired from the venture, whereupon Theodor Habelmann at once 
re-engaged the greater part of the ensemble, added to it, and 
without interruption resumed playing. He formally reopened the 
theatre under his direction February 1 1 . He too staged exclu 
sively opera and operette till the termination of the season 
May 30. 

Habelmann resumed performances in the Opernhaus June i 
with the change that besides opera an occasional Lust spiel was 
staged. By the end of the summer season (September 28) the 
German public had grown apathetic toward the opera perform 
ances, not without reason, for the same operas had been sung 
time and again. The opera ensemble therefore left St. Louis for 
Louisville, where it met with no better financial success than in 
St. Louis. By February i it there incurred a deficit of $1200, 
which the Liederkranz of that city guaranteed. 

Kriiger and Schiller, the lessees of the theatre, thereupon "der 
Noth gehorchend, nicht dem eigenen Triebe," again assumed 
charge. They devoted the stage to drama with a company under 
the directorschip of Hannes Lewens. The winter season and the 
first part of the summer season following (October 5, 1873 July 
19, 1874) rarely offered anything better than oft repeated Lust- 
spiel and Posse, which failed to prove attractive to the public. 



48 German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 

The apathy of the public naturally in turn reacted upon the stage. 
"Der mittlere Biirgerstand, die deutschen Handwerker und Arbei- 
ter sind es, die seit Jahren der hiesigen deutschen Biihne ziemlich 
kiimmerliches Dasein fristen helfen und Diejenigen, die da stets 
von schlechten Leistungen sprechen, von nicht mitanzusehenden 
Vorstellungen, etc., sind mil, nein sind vornehmlich daran Schuld, 
dass es eben so and nicht besser. Die Misere vor der Biihne die 
leeren Banke erzeugt Misere auf der Biihne. Nur des Sonn- 
tags pflegen die Vorstellungen (sowohl im Apollo- wie im Olym 
pic-Theater) besucht zu sein und im letzten findet sich eine An- 
zahl deutscher Familien regelmassig ein aber gerade das ist 
eben nur ein Beweis mehr fur die Richtigkeit des oben Gesagten. 
Die mit jedem Jahre zunehmende Zahl der geselligen Vereine bil- 
det gleich falls einen Hemmschuh fur das Prosperiren der The 
ater. So kommt eins zum Andern und das Facit dieses Rechnen- 
exempels kann sich jeder machen." 30 

In July a part of the opera company returned to St. Louis. 
The majority of the performances during the remainder of the 
summer season beginning July 24, were thereupon devoted to 
opera under the directorship of Fritz La Fontaine. The reper 
tory offered nothing new. The German press again found it 
necessary to upbraid the indifferent public. Later in the year 
Habelmann again reorganized the opera ensemble. It had ceased 
performing November 15. Habelmann resumed performances 
in the Apollo on Christmas Day to continue without interruption 
till June 27. He introduced at least two new operas which had 
not been heard in the Apollo before Meyerbeer s Afrikanerin 
and Wagner s Tannhauser, the latter the first Wagnerian opera to 
be produced on the German stage in St. Louis ; it had, however, 
previously been sung by a visiting company. 

Habelmann s audiences were usually reported fair, but 
offered ground for complaint. As is evident from the following 
review containing utterances that are typical of a number of sim 
ilar editorial utterances, the theatre itself and its environs were 
responsible for the indifference of part of the public toward the 



Anzeigcr des Wesiens, November 30, 1873, 



German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 49 

performances in the Apollo. Entrance to the theatre was ap 
parently through a cafe connected with the Apollo Garten. "Der 
dritten Auffiihrung der Afrikanerin am Mittwoch Abend, wohnte 
ein sehr zahlreiches Publikum bei, und in diesem Umstande 
erblicken wir, gegeniiber der bisher nur zu deutlich bekundeten 
Apathie der hoheren Gesellschaft eine Wendung zum Bessern. 
Wenn unsere feine Welt es iibers Herz bringen konntcn, iiber 
den lobenswerthen Bestrebungen der Direktion und den Anstren- 
gungen der Mitwirkenden den vielleicht nicht allzu clegantcn Kin- 
gang zum Theater zu vergessen und vergeben; wenn die Ilcrr- 
schaften mehr darauf denken wollten, dass sie Meycrbeersche 
Musik zu horen bekommen, und zwar eine seiner grossartigsten 
Schopfungen, und sich weniger daran stossen wollten, dass der 
Dress Circle nicht mit rotem Sammet ausgeschlagen ist (was es 
iibrigens in Ben de Bar s und im Olympic auch nicht) wenn sie 
das Opfer brachten, diese Ausserlichkeiten zu iibersehcn, dann 
wiirde die Dierektion ihrerseits in den Stand gesetzt werden, 
dem Publikum mit der Zeit noch Besseres zu bieten und nicht 
fortwahrender Sorge fiir Aufrechterhaltung eines Kunstinstituts 
zu kampfen haben, das ein zahlreiches Deutschtum wie das hie- 
sige so kraftig unterstiitzen sollte (und konnte), dass die regel- 
massigsten Einnahmen tnindestens , nicht aber, wie bislang, Mister 
Deficit leider eine Hauptrolle zu spielen bekommt." 31 An at 
tempt had been made to engage the support of the dissenting ele 
ment of the German public by occasionally staging performances 
in one of the large theatres on Sundays, but without the desired 
result. Commenting upon a performance held in De Bar s Opera 
House a review in the Anzeiger for March 21, 1875, sa ^ : "Man 
hatte glauben sollen, dass Diejenigen, die als Entschuldigung 
oder Rechtfertigung ihres Nichtbesuchens der Oper jahraus jahr- 
ein die Mangel des Lokals vorschiitzen, die gestern gebotene Ge- 
legenheit, die Oper im besten Theatergebaude der Stadt horen 
zu konnen, beniitzt haben und sich in grosser Zahl eingestellt ha 
ben wiirden fehl geschossen! Von den Herrschaften war keine 
Spur zu erblicken. . . . Am Sonntag wird die Aristokratie 



Anzeiger des Westens, June 4, 1875. 



50 German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 

so wie so nicht erwartet. Sonntags fiillt sich das Haus durch 
Gewerbtreibendc, der sogenannte Kleine Geschaftsmann/ del 
Handwerker und Arbeiter bereitet sich und den Seinen da die 
beste Erholung, indem er in die Oper geht und dicsc Besucher- 
klasse zeigt durch ihr regelmassiges Wiederkommen, dass sie 
Sinn und Geschmack fiir diese Art Unterhaltung besitzt. . . ." 
Of the 944 plays recorded for the Apollo stage from the 
summer of 1870 till June 27, 1875, excluding the winter season of 
1870-71, during which Pelosi had charge of the Apollo Theater, 
431 were operas or operettes and 37 Singspielc, together about 
50% of the total. The Trailer spiel, Schauspicl, Volksstiick, 
Lustspiel, and Posse, represented respectively i , S-f-, 17 , 
1 1+, and 14 per cent, of the total. 

The Pelosi Directorship 18/1-1880. 

During the years in which the Apollo Theater was to a large 
extent being devoted to opera and operetta, St. Louis at the 
same time enjoyed a creditable German theatre under the di 
rectorship of Louis Pelosi. As already pointed out Pelosi had 
charge of the Apollo Theater during the winter season of 
1870-71, during which he played three times weekly. He came 
to St. Louis heralded with a flattering reputation. An 
editorial announcing his coming said : "Das Apollo Theater hat 
der Phasen so viele erlebt, die hiesigen deutschen Biihnen- 
verhaltnisse haben im Laufe der Jahre alle Stadien des Wohl- 
ergehens und Nichtwohlergehens durchgemacht, dass der Hoff- 
nungsanker, der jetzt ausgeworfen wird, von Seiten aller Freun- 
den der Biihne und des deutschen Publikums im Allgemeinen mit 
doppelter Freude begriisst werden sollte, da sich im Pelosischen 
Ehepaare die tiichtige Direktionskraft mit trcfflicher Leistungs- 
fahigkeit auf den Brettern vereint und somit dern Hierherkom- 
men des Paares zwiefacher Werth fiir die hiesigen Theaterver- 
haltnisse beizumessen ist." 32 Editorial comment at the end of the 
season indicates that Pelosi lived up to the reputation which 
heralded his coming. "Wenn je eine Direktion zu Anerkennung 



Anzeigcr des Westens, October 26, 1871. 



German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 51 

und Lob berechtigt war, so ist es die gegenwartige des Apollo 
Theaters. Herr und Fran Pelosi haben dem alten Schlendrian 
friiherer Jahre ein Ende gemacht und in das Chaos der hiesigen 
deutschen Biihne Ordnung gebracht. 33 Pelosi raised the 
standard of the theatre over that which it had been for a number 
of years. His repertory during the first season included two per 
formances of Schiller s Rauber, one of Schiller s Wilhelm Tell, 
one of Shakespeare s Hamlet, one of Grillparzer s Medea, and 
among other serious dramas two performances each of Brachvo- 
gel s Narciss and Halm s Griseldis. The reviews of the per 
formances for this season are not detailed, but are universally 
favorable, as illustrated in the following comment upon a mid- 
season performance, "Die gute Einstudierung der Vorstellungen 
ist eine der Hauptaufgaben, die sich die Direktion gestellt hat; 
nach dieser Richtung hin ist ihr Eifer besonders tatig, und das 
Resultat sind eben gerundete Auffiihrungen." 34 Attendance at his 
performances was not only consistently good, but included many 
of the "old guard" who took interest in the theatre only when it 
from the standpoint of merit warranted recognition. A review 
of a performance contained in the Anzeiger des Westens for 
April 7, 1872, is typical of a number of editorial utterances sub 
stantiating this fact: "Die Freunde der deutschen Biihne hatten 
sich am Freitag Abend recht zahlreich im Apollo Theater einge- 
funden, um einer (dritten oder gar vierten) Wiederholung des 
Benedixschen Lustspiels Die zartlichcn Verwandtcn beizuwohnen. 
Es war eine seit lange entbehrte Genugthuung fur altere hiesige 
Theater freunde, im Zuschauerraume nicht wenige von jenen deut 
schen Familien zu erblicken, die zu den Zeiten Bornstein s, Pfeif- 
fer s und Koser s den Kern des Theaterpublikums zu bilden und 
selten bei einer Vorstellung zu fehlen pflegten; jene Familien, auf 
die in friiheren Jahren die Direktion so zu sagen zahlen konnte. 
Leider ist es jetzt Ausnahme, was damals wir sprechen von den 
Jahren 1859 bis 1866 Regel war. Unter einer Direktion wie 
die Pelosische wurden sich allerdings die hiesigen Theaterver- 
haltnisse nach und nach wieder ins rechte Geleise bringen lassen. 

88 Anzeiger des Westens, April 25, 1872. 
"Anzeiger des Westens, January 14, 1872. 



52 German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 

. . . Mag die Sommersaison nun bringen was sie will die 
Wintersaison brachte sicher und gewiss gar manches Gute und 
Schone und vor Allem gerundete, wohlvorbereitete Auffiihrun- 
gen." 

Pelosi for the next eight consecutive winters, with the excep 
tion of the season 1876-77, contemporaneous with and for several 
years following the seasons in which the Apollo was largely de 
voted to opera, continued to give St. Louis a creditable German 
stage. During these seasons he performed weekly on Sundays. 
During the first four and the last of these seasons 35 he staged his 
plays in the Olympic Theatre, during the season of 1877-78 in 
Ben De Bar s Opera House. Beginning October 3, 1875, while 
staging Sunday performances in the Olympic, he also performed 
several times weekly in the Apollo Theater, but discontinued on 
January 17. The season in the Apollo concluding June 4, begin 
ning March 3 was continued by a company under the director 
ship of Mme. Solia, to be transferred beginning April 16 to the 
directorship of Silberberg and Schulz. The Apollo ensemble con 
tinued to perform several times weekly, and in addition gave 
Sunday performances in De Bar s Opera House. 

During these years Pelosi s performances continued to merit 
favorable comment in the columns of the press and to attract 
audiences which continued to be termed gewahlt. The tenor of 
the press comment is that of the excerpts quoted above for the 
season 1870-71. 

The winter of 1876-77 Pelosi spent in Germany. During 
his absence St. Louis had two theatres. From September 17, 
1876, to April 15, 1877, De Bar s Opera House was the home of 
Sunday performances. The season opened under the manage 
ment of Silberberg and Company. Beginning with October 22 it 
continued under the management of Paul Dilg and Company. 
This Opera House ensemble attempted weekday performances, 
first in the St. Louis Stadttheater, on Morgan Street, between 



35 September i, 1872, to May 4, 1873; August 31, 1873, to May 3, 1874; 
September 6, 1874, to April 16, 1875; September 19, 1875, to April 16, 1876; 
October 21, 1877, to April 21, 1878; September I, 1878, to May i, 1879; Sep 
tember 21, 1879, to December 21, 1879. 



German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 53 

Tenth and Eleventh, and later in the Apollo Theater. But poor 
attendance caused the weekday performances soon to be discon 
tinued. During the same winter Alexander Wurster, director of 
the New Chicago Theater, conducted Sunday performances in the 
Olympic Theatre from September 24 till May 6, with occasional 
Sunday and weekly performances in the Apollo. 

Members of Wurster s Company continued, under the man 
agement of Lewens, during the greater part of the ensuing sum 
mer to present Posse and Lustspiel on Sundays in the Apollo. 
Beginning with May 27 Carl Schmidt during the same summer 
directed a summer theatre devoted chiefly to Posse and Lustspiel 
in a new theatre erected in Strathmanns La Fayette Park at Sec 
ond Street and Carondolet Avenue. Performances on this stage 
were initially given three times weekly. But the public was not 
responsive to the new enterprise. An editorial of June 17 in 
commenting upon the poor attendance it received says : "Hier 
hat man sich die Gleichgiltigkeit, die schon gar Manches zu 
Grabe tragen half, auch der Sommerbuhne gegeniiber gel tend und 
zwar in solchem Masse, dass es nach alien Richtungen sehr zu 
bedauern ist. So lange im Apollo Theater gespielt wurde, das 
als Sommertheater nur der grossen Hitze wegen nicht alien An- 
forderungen entsprach so weit die Raumlichkeiten in Betracht 
kommen wurde das Nichthingehen mit der Lokalitat, mit dem 
Eingang, mit dem Mangel an Eleganz und dergleichen motivirt. 
Jetzt aber hat ein unternehmender Privatmann im priichtigsten 
Stadtteile, mitten zwischen Garten und Baumen, mittelst Stras- 
senbahn bequem zu erreichen, in nachster Nahe des schonsten 
Parks der Stadt, ein Sommertheater bauen lassen, das ein wahres 
Schmuckkastchen ist, in einem Garten steht, und worin gut ge 
spielt wird und wie sieht s nun da mit der Unterstiitzung aus ? 
Obgleich wochentlich nur dreimal gespielt wird ... so sind 
die Vorstellungen nur Sonntags angemessen besucht, wahrend an 
den Wochentagen der Zuschauerraum nur sehr selten gefiillt ist. 
Und doch sind die Vorstellungen fleissig einstudirt, sorglich vor- 
bereitet die Gesellschaft ist aus recht tiichtigen Kraften zusam- 
mengesetzt die Regie ruht in fahigen Handen und man darf sich 



54 German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 

versichert halten, den Abend auf das Angenehmste zu verbrin- 
gen, wenn man das Lafayettepark Theater besucht." 36 

During the latter part of the season the La Fayette Park 
Theater varied its program by alternating English plays with Ger 
man performances. An attempt was made during the following 
summer to again stage German plays in this theatre, but the at 
tempt met with no success ; after the middle of July the press gives 
no further notice of such performances. During the summer of 

1879 St. Louis had no summer theatre. During the summer of 

1880 an attempt was made to again establish a German stage in 
the La Fayette Park theatre, now called the Thalia Sommergar- 
ten Theater. But after several performances the attempt was 
given up. 

While Pelosi after a year s absence resumed Sunday per 
formances during the winter of 1877-78, this time in De Bar s 
Opera House, Wurster again as during the winter previously gave 
Sunday performances in the Olympic (September 16 to April 7). 
The following winter Pelosi had the field to himself. During the 
season 1879-80, while he was again playing in the Olympic, his 
performances suffered competition by a stage instituted by Wil- 
helm Rieckhoff. Rieckhoff gave performances three times weekly 
from August 31 till February 27 in the Apollo Theater, which 
had been remodelled during the course of the preceding summer. 
At the end of February due to poor attendance he discontinued 
the weekday performances and played Sundays only from Feb 
ruary 29 till April 30, 1880, in Pope s Theatre at Ninth and Ohio 
Streets. These Sunday performances proved more attractive. 
The character of Rieckhoff s audience compared favorably with 
that of Pelosi. In fact Pelosi this season discontinued perform 
ances with the end of December and the allegiance which the 
public had shown his enterprise was transferred to that of Rieck 
hoff. A review toward the close of the season summarizes the 
activitiy of the latter as follows : "Die Rieckhoffsche Gesell- 
schaft hatte tins wenige vereinzelte Ausnahmen abgerechnet 
recht gute Vorstellungen geboten und hatte die Lust an deutschen 



1 Anzeigcr des Wesicns, June 17, 1877. 



German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 55 

Kreisen geweckt, in denen seit lange eine formliche Apathie ge- 
gen die deutsche Biihne geherrscht hatte; die Besetzung der 
Rollen war in den meisten Fallen eine gute gewesen, die Auffiih- 
rungen waren sorgfaltig vorbereitet, die Ausstattung war was 
die Toiletten der Damen anlangt vorziiglich, mit einem Worte : 
die Gesellschaft verdient ungeschmalerte Anerkennung fur das 
Geleistete." 37 

The year 1880 did not mark the termination of Pelosi s con 
nection with the German theatre in St. Louis. The following 
year he again appeared on the stage and subsequently was again 
active as director. But his subsequent directorship falls in a 
period where the German theatre was handicapped by the want 
of an adequate home. The year 1880 therefore marks the close 
of the most successful part of Pelosi s career as director. As 
reference to the repertory for the period will show (see Ap 
pendix), his stage from a literary standpoint ranked far supe 
rior to that of his contemporaries. 

d. 1880-1891. A Period of Varying Fortune. 

Beginning with the year 1880 the English theatres were 
commencing to be used on Sunday evenings for English per 
formances. The nomadic existence which the German stage in 
consequence of the want of a permanent home was during the 
next decade therefore constrained to lead, coupled with frequent 
changes of management, made the fortune of the German stage 
during this decade a varying one. 

Rieckhoff again staged Sunday performances in Pope s The 
atre during the winters of 1 880-81 and 1881-82. The first of these 
two seasons was again a moderate success. The Anzeiger des We- 
stens for March 26, 1881, says: "Die diesjahrige Theatersaison, 
welche Herr Rieckhoff unter den glanzendsten Auspizien eroff- 
nete, hat zwar nicht alle Erwartungen erfiillt, welche Direktion 
und Publikum daran kniipften, aber sie hat doch den Beweis ge- 
liefert, dass ein gutes deutsches Theater in St. Louis nicht nur 
existenzfahig ist, sondern geradezu als ein Bediirfnis betrachtet 



Anzeiger des Westens, April 19, 1880. 



56 German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 

werden muss." This season Rieckhoff had had the field to him 
self. The following season (1881-82), however, he had serious 
competition by performances instituted by Alexander Wurster 
with a strong ensemble in the Apollo Theater, which had again 
been rebuilt, and by a number of visiting companies who offered 
star attractions. The Wurster ensemble usually performed on 
Sundays in the Grand Opera House. The Rieckhoff ensemble 
excelled in the Lnstspiel and the Konversationsstuck; the Wur 
ster ensemble in Posse and Gesangsstuck. 

St. Louis had not for several seasons past adequately sup 
ported one good German theatre. It could not support two. 
Both the enterprise of Wurster and of Rieckhoff therefore termi 
nated Abruptly with financial loss to the directors, the former 
March 16, the latter April 18. Though the season from a 
financial standpoint had been a failure to both directors, from the 
standpoint of the standard of attainment reached on the two 
stages the public had profited by the competition between them. 
"Die Saison 1881-82 war eine sehr reiche und mannigfache Ab- 
wechslung bietende. Wie konnte auch eine Theatersaison nicht 
reich sein, die uns einen Haase, einen Sonntag, eine Geistinger 
der die minorum gentium, die als Gaste kamen, gar nicht zu ge- 
denken brachte ? . . . Freilich gingen die beiden Direktoren, 
die sich bittere Concurrenz machten, dariiber elendiglich zu 
Grunde und ihre hinterlassenen Truppen mussten sich nicht bios 
in alle Winde zerstreuen, sondern auf dem nicht sehr ungewohn- 
lichen Wege der Benefizvorstellung zum Theil ihr Fortkommen 
von hier, zum Theil ihr Hierbleiben ermoglichen. Aber vom 
Standpunkte der Kunst betrachtet war die Saison, wie gesagt, 
eine der besten, die wir noch je zu verzeichnen hatten." 38 

During the summer of 1881 St. Louis had no summer the 
atre. Contemporaneous, however, with the initial weeks of the 
performances of the rival stages under the direction of Rieck 
hoff and Wurster, Victor Sarner from September 22 till Novem 
ber 13, 1 88 1, conducted a Volkstheater in the Tivoli Halle at 
Fourth and Elm Streets, in which he staged Lustspiel and Posse 
several times weekly. During the spring of 1882 he conducted 

88 Anzeiger des Weslens, April 30, 1882. 



German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 57 

such a Volkstheater in the Apollo (March 5 to May 28), and in 
August of the same year lie made a short-lived attempt to insti 
tute a similar theatre in Union Park, Ninth Street and Allen 
Avenue, which notices such as the following were designed to 
make attractive: "Ferner kann man wahrend der Vorstellung 
in aller Gemiithlichkeit sein Glas Bier trinken, eine Cigarre dazu 
rauchen, Sandwich, etc., verzehren, und sich an den auf der 
Biihne gebotenen Gentissen ergotzen." This was the last summer 
in which St. Louis enjoyed a Sommertheater. 

On the seventeenth of September, 1882, the Apollo Theater 
again became the home of an operette and dramatic ensemble un 
der the direction of Louis Genee. The plan to pertorm four 
times weekly abruptly culminated October 8. Although the en 
semble included first-class talent, including the primadonna Ma 
ria Konig, it failed to gain the recognition of the public. Alwine 
Heynold, the soubrette of the organization, thereupon attempted 
to reorganize the theatre under her direction. The attempt netted 
less than a dozen performances (October 15 to November 26) ere 
it failed. Beginning with December 3, Victor and Hugo Sarner 
assumed charge of the Apollo. They played weekly on Sundays. 
After several performances they dissolved partnership. Hugo 
Sarner continued the season till May 20, essaying nothing more 
pretentious than Posse and Lustspiel which had been staged in 
St. Louis many times previously. After the fashion of the Yolks- 
theater the performances were usually followed by a "Tanzkranz- 
chen." 

During this season while the Apollo was the home of weekly 
Sunday performances an attempt was made in the interest of a 
better ensemble and a more varied repertory to constitute a the 
atrical circuit of the three cities St. Louis, Milwaukee and 
Chicago. A paragraph taken from the Anzeiger des West ens for 
August 3, 1882, outlines the scheme. 

"Das deutsche Theater in St. Louis wird im kommenden 
Winter unter Direktor Collmers Leitung stehen, der seit ein paar 
Jahren die Direktion eines der vielen Milwaukeer Theater ge- 
fiihrt hat. Die beiden anderen Mitglieder des Direktionstrium- 
virats, das die Buhnen in St. Louis, Chicago und Milwaukee nach 



58 German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 

dem Co-operationsplan bewirtschaften wird, sind Alexander 
Wurster und Major Isenstein. Alexander der Grosse hat Mil 
waukee zum Wirkungskreise erkoren, der Major bleibt bei seinen 
Laren und Penaten, d. h. in Chicago. Die drei Gesellschaften bil- 
den faktisch cine; die Mitglieder wurden bald in St. Louis, bald in 
Chicago oder Milwaukee spielen, wohin immer sie einzeln oder 
als Ganzes (a la Meiningen) dirigirt werden. Auf diese Weise 
wird erstlich hier ein moglichst gutes ensemble gesorgt sein, 
zweitens wird das Repertoire die wiinschenswerte, um nicht zu 
sagen nothwendige Abwechslung bieten und drittens wird der 
regelmassige Besucher nicht den ganzen Winter (d. h. vom Oc 
tober bis zum April) sich an ein und denselben Gesichtern mude 
sehen mussen. Das ist auch etwas werth." 

Pope s Theatre was the home of the St. Louis perform 
ances. The season opened October 8. Performances were given 
weekly on Sundays. But the scheme failed to work. Disagree 
ment among the directors early in December led to a dissolution. 
The St. Louis stage gave its last performance December 3. 

The following winter the Apollo Theater was not used for 
German performances. The only German theatre St. Louis 
could boast of during this season consisted of a series of medi 
ocre performances held on Sundays, from September 23, 1883, 
to April 27, 1884, under the joint directorship of Pelosi and 
Hugo Sarner, occasionally in Pope s Theatre, but more often in 
one or the other Turnhalle. 

During the winter of 1884-85 Victor Sarner again assumed 
charge of the Apollo Theater, making of it a Volkstheater. Per 
formances were given on Sundays from November 9 to May 10. 
The following winter Pelosi and Hugo Sarner again conducted 
the Apollo stage. They gave Sunday performances from Sep 
tember 20 to May 2. Though nominally this season not a Volks 
theater, the theatre in fact did not amount to more. 

During the winter of 1886-87 St. Louis again had no regu 
larly established German theatre. In September Pelosi instituted 
German performances in the Apollo. His venture soon ended. 
October 24, Louis Menschke reopened the same theatre with a 
series of Sunday performances, which continued till the middle of 



German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 59 

January, whereupon the theatre was again advertised for rent. 
April 3 it was again formally reopened, this time by Eduard 
Schmitz as a Volkstheater. Schmitz concluded the season in May 
after a half dozen Sunday performances. 

While the Apollo was undergoing diverse changes of man 
agement, Hugo Sarner from September till April advertised occa 
sional Sunday performances. But his ensemble had no regular 
home. It played first in one theatre, then in another. 

Schmitz continued to conduct Sunday performances in the 
Apollo during the following four winter seasons (1887-1891 ). He 
was destined to be the last of the many directors of the German 
theatre the Apollo had had. The building was once more used 
as a German theatre during the season 1891-92, but under the 
name of Sarner s Theatre. Throughout the four winter seasons, 
while the Apollo was the home of German drama under Schmitz s 
direction principally Lustspiel and Posse Hugo Sarner with 
more or less regularity continued to give Sunday performances 
first on one, then another stage, usually in the Olympic theatre. 
Much that he presented was good, much mediocre, but at all 
events his performances mark an improvement over those in the 
Apollo during this period. 

IV. 1891-1912. 

A REVIVAL OF INTEREST. THE GERMANIA THEATER. THE DIREC 
TORSHIP OF HEINEMAN AND WELB. 

The season 1890-91, the season which marks the termina 
tion of Schmitz s directorship in the Apollo Theater, for two rea 
sons marks the beginning of a new era in the history of the Ger 
man theatre in St. Louis. The season marks a decided increase 
in interest in the German theatre, which two years later was to 
culminate in the establishment of the Germania Theatre, the first 
attempt to establish a permanent German theatre in St. Louis to 
net tangible results since the closure of the St. Louis Opernhaus 
in 1862. And it marks the introduction of the modern German 
realistic drama on the St. Louis stage. 

March 30, 1890, Hugo Sarner announced in the columns of 



60 German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 

the Anzeiger des Westens his intention to stage performances in 
St. Louis twice weekly during the coming winter with an en 
larged and improved ensemble. May 5 Hermann Riotte in the 
same paper outlined elaborate plans for a German theatrical sea 
son under his management. Friends of the theatre realized from 
past experience that three German theatres including Schmitz s 
stage in the Apollo would be more than the German theatre 
going public could support. They therefore persuaded Sarner 
and Riotte to join forces. Under their joint directorship Sarner 
and Riotte, October 19, 1890, opened the season with two simul 
taneous performances, one an opera performance Czaar und 
Zimmermann in the Grand Opera House, designed to attract 
the English-speaking as well as German-speaking public, the 
other a performance of Schonthan s Salonstiick Das Letzte Wort 
in the Olympic Theatre. The two directors disagreed over the 
feasibility of continuing German opera in St. Louis and there 
fore amicably severed partnership October 22. Sarner agreed to 
withdraw from the field for the rest of the season. Riotte con 
tinued to produce both opera and drama till December 8. The 
opera company had included good individual soloists, but the 
chorus had been poor. The rest of the season, concluding April 
5, was devoted to the drama. Performances were usually given 
four times weekly throughout the season, first in one, then in 
another theatre, on weekdays usually in the small auditorium of 
the Exposition Building at Thirteenth and Olive Streets, on Sun 
days usually in the Olympic Theatre. Attendance was fair. A 
new reason this season for the first time gained prominence in the 
columns of the press in argument for the maintenance of the Ger 
man theatre, namely, the preservation of the German language to 
the youth of German parentage. "Hier gilt es zu zeigen, dass 
uns die Muttersprache lieb und werth, dass sie unser hochstes 
Gut ist ; hier konnen wir beweisen, dass wir Sinn und Verstand- 
nis haben fur die deutsche Kunst . . . ; hier haben wir auch 
ein Mittel, bei unsern Kindern, besonders bei denen, die in den 
Flegel beziehungsweise Backfisch jahren stehen und so gern eng- 
lisch plappern, die Liebe zur Sprache ihrer Eltern zu wecken." 39 

89 Anzeiger des Westens, October 19, 1890. 



German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 61 

Under the directorship of Riotte Sudermann and Ibsen were 
for the first time introduced on the German stage in St. Louis. 
Sudermann s Die Ehrc was given for the first time on Christmas 
Day 1890. "Der Eindruck, den das Stiick machte, war geradezu 
grossartig, unbeschreiblich." Die Ehrc was repeated December 
27, January i and February 10. The excellencies of the play, 
above all the characterization the reviewer praised. But it took 
several years before the reviewer and the public became recon 
ciled to the new realistic drama. Commenting upon the fourth 
performance of Die Ehre the critic wrote : "Allein Die Ehrc ist 
vor wenigen Wochen mehrmals hinter einander hier aufgefiihrt 
worden, und es ist anzunehmen, dass jeder Theater freund, der 
sie sehen wollte, einer dieser Vorstellungen beigewohnt hat. An- 
dernfalls ist der Inhalt des Stiickes derartig, dass er kein reines 
Geniessen aufkommen lasst, und sich unter gewohnlichen Um- 
standen gewiss nur wenige entschliessen konnten, es zweimal an- 
zusehen." 40 

Ibsen s Gespenster was performed for the first time January 
n, 1891. The critic condemned it in no uncertain terms. "Im 
Olympic Theater ist gestern Abend Heinrich Ibsen s Charakter- 
bild Die Gcspcnster iiber die Biihne gegangen. Es ist gegangen 
und hoffentlich kehrt es niemals wieder, das ist der fromme 
Wunsch, den wir dieser AufTiihrung nachscicken. Nach unserer 
vielleicht veralteten Ansicht gehort dieses Stiick des problemati- 
schen norwegischen Dichters nicht auf die Biihne. Es ist jeder 
Poesie bar, entbehrt jedes versohnenden und befriedigenden Mo 
ments, jeder ansprechenden Figur, ist unschon, abgesehen von 
seiner klaren, knappen, packenden Sprache, und unwahr, weil un- 
natiirlich. . . . Ibsen mag, wie seine Bewunderer sagen, der 
Dichter des zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts sein, weshalb soil aber das 
neunzehnte Jahrhundert sich von seinen Gjengangere anliigen 
und anekeln lassen? Ibsen behauptet, das Leben, die Wahrheit 
zu schildern. Der Reginen, der Engstrands und auch der Man- 
ders gibt s im Leben genug, aber ein wirkliches Wesen wie Frau 
Alving, gibt es zum Gliick nicht. Wer ohne Voreingenommen- 



Anzeiger des Westens, February n, 1891. 



62 German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 

heit der gestrigen Auffiihrung beigewohnt hat, wircl uns Recht 
geben, und trotz der vortrefflichen Darstellung war wohl ein jeder 
froh, als das Stiick zu Ende war." 41 

The naturalistic French drama elicited the same type of criti 
cism. Of Daudet s Die beiden Compagnons the reviewer in the 
Anzeiger for January 19 wrote: "Das Stiick gehort zu jener be- 
kannten franzosischen Ehebruchsdramen, mit denen wir uns nicht 
recht befreunden konnen." Benedix continued to prove more ac 
ceptable to the audience and to the critic. With reference to Das 
bemooste Plaupt the latter on February 9, in the Anzeiger wrote : 
"Das Publikum . . . nahm alles, was zur Vermehrung der 
Ruhrung beitragen konnte, dankbar und willig an. Jedenfalls ein 
erfreulicher Beweis dafiir, dass wir im Westen hier Gott sei Dank 
noch nicht blassirt sind." 

The winter of 1891-92 again found the theatre under the 
directorship of Hugo Sarner. Sarner performed weekly in Sar- 
ner s Theatre, formerly the Apollo, now used for the last season 
for German theatricals, and occasionally in the Olympic Theatre, 
the Grand Opera House and the Exposition Building. His reper 
tory from a literary standpoint marked a retrogression from that 
of the winter previous. Aside from a performance of Othello, 
in which Maurice Morrison appeared in the role of a star, the 
repertory offered nothing beyond oft repeated V olksstilckc , Lust- 
spiel, and Posse. 

The Ger mania Theater. 

Experience had demonstrated that a reputable German the 
atre could only be possible if it had its own home and was not 
compelled to journey from Sunday to Sunday from one theatre 
to another, as had in recent years been the case. For the Eng 
lish theatres had begun during the past decade to utilize their re 
spective stages for English drama on Sunday evenings, making it 
impossible to find a suitable stage for German drama. To the 
end of establishing a permanent German theatre meetings had 
been held. July 14, 1891, fourteen prominent Germans finally 
formed an organization which incorporated as the "German Dra- 

41 Anzeiger dcs IVcstens, January 12, 1891. 



German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 63 

matic Association." These fourteen stockholders were: S. H. 
Leathe, William J. Lenip, Chas. G. Stifel, Chas. F. Orthwein, A. 
Griesediech, Geo. D. Capen, John C. Nulsen, J. H. Conrades, G. 
Cramer, Ad. Bockeler, A. Moll, H. Duncker, Geo. J. Fritz and 
William Schreiber. They bought an old Presbyterian Church at 
Fourteenth Street and Lucas Place, which they had remodelled 
and termed the Germania Theater. The building equalled in ele 
gance the former Opernhaus of Bernstein s day. 

Under the most favorable auspices the theatre was opened 
on the fourth of September with a large ensemble, under the di 
rection of Carl Waldemar and Ed. C. Buechel. Its list of sub 
scribers for the season included the most prominent Germans of 
the city. Shakespeare s Wintermdrchen was staged at the initial 
performance. The interest manifested by the public in the new 
theatre is attested by the controversy which was waged by con 
tributors to the columns of the press concerning the propriety of 
the selection of a play in keeping with the occasion. Waldemar 
therefore felt himself obliged to justify his choice in a communi 
cation published in the Anseiger for August 21, 1892, in which 
he says in part: 

"Ich bin selbst sehr lange mit dern Gedanken umgegangen, 
das deutsche Theater mit einem Stiicke deutschen Ursprungs zu 
eroffnen. Hierfiir konnen naturgemass nur Goethe, Schiller oder 
Lessing in Betracht kommen. Gute Lustspiele haben aber diese 
unsere Dichter-Heroen, mit Ausnahme viellcicht (?) von Les- 
sing s Minna von Barnhelm, welches Stuck fur eine Festvorstel- 
lung indess viel zu einf ach, nicht ; und das neue Biihnenhaus mit 
einem Drama zu eroffnen, dazu konnte ich mich erst recht nicht 
entschliessen. Ausserdem kommen bei einer Eroffnungs-Vorstel- 
lung noch so viele andere Factoren in Betracht, von denen der 
Laie absolut nichts weiss, nichts wissen kann, mit denen wir in- 
dessen hochst bedeutsarn zu rechnen haben, dass schon aus sol- 
chen Griinden unsere Wahl nur zu berechtigt erscheinen muss. 
Es handelt sich bei der Eroffnung des neuen Theaters zur Haupt- 
sache auch darum, das gesammte Biihnenpersonal dem Publi- 
kum im gimstigsten Lichte, d. h. in guten Rollen vorzuftihren. 
Das ist der Fall im Wintermdrchen. . . . Hier sind ca. 15 



64 German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 

gute Rollen, in denen meine Mitglieder ihre Leistungsfahigkeit 
bethatigen konnen. Ferner kann ich die grossartigsten Decora- 
tions-Effekte hier zu Geltung bringen; grosse Massen-Scenen, 
blendende Costume, wie eine herrliche, zum Winter mar chen ei- 
gens componirte Musik tragcn weiter das Ihrige zum Gelingen des 
Ganzen in schonster Weise bei, kurzum, es muss uni jeden Preis 
mit der Erst-Auffiihrung in jeder Beziehung ein voller Erfolg er- 
zielt werden und deshalb eben wiihlte ich fiir diese Shakespeare s 
Wintermdrchen." 

He then cites Schlegel s estimate of the play and concludes 
by finding a precedent for his selection in that the new "Wiener 
Hofburg Theater" was opened under the direction of Dr. August 
Forster with the same Shakespearian drama. 

Performances during this season were give four or five times 
weekly, concluding May 28. In addition to the performances 
given in St. Louis, the ensemble played fifteen times in Chicago, 
nine times in Belleville, eight times in Omaha, six times in Kan 
sas City, and twice in St. Joseph and in Peoria. From a financial 
standpoint the season ended with a deficit, due largely to a loss 
of $3000 incurred on the visit of the company to Chicago, where 
the poor location of the theatre and bad weather combined to keep 
down the patronage. 

From a literary standpoint the stage during this season 
ranked high. Of 121 plays performed during the season 30 pos 
sessed recognized literary quality. The repertory included two 
performances each of Goethe s Faust and Shakespeare s Winter 
mdrchen, and one performance each of Goethe s Egmont, Schil 
ler s Braut von Messina, Don Carlos, Fiesco, Jungfrau von Or 
leans, Kabale und Liebe, Maria Stuart, Piccolomini, R dubcr, and 
Wallenstein s Lager, Lessing s Minna von Barnhehn and Emilie 
Galotti, Shakespeare s Othello, Romeo und Julie, und Der Wider- 
spentigen Zdhmung, Gutzkow s Uriel Acosta, Kleist s Kdthchen 
von Hcilbronn, Laube s Graf Essex, Raimund s Verschwcnder, 
and Wildenbruch s Quitsoivs. Of the realistic drama Ibsen s 
Stiitzcn der Gesellschaft and Wildenbruch s Haubenlerche were 
each presented once, Sudermann s Die Ehre and Die Heimat each 
twice. 



German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 65 

The realistic drama failed, still, to gain the approval of the 
critic. Judging from the limited number of repetitions such 
plays received, they were not yet in favor with the public. 

Alexander Wurster was engaged to direct the theatre for 
the next three years. With practically a new ensemble he 
opened the first season September 17, 1893. ^ concluded April 
22. The second lasted from September 23 till April 21. He 
opened the third season September 29, and again, as during the 
two years previous, he played thrice weekly. He exerted every 
effort to make the theatre a success. But the time chosen to 
establish a German theatre in St. Louis, as the sequel of events 
showed, was inopportune. The first season in the Germania had 
ended with a deficit. During the first four weeks under Wur- 
ster s management the income had amounted to no more than 
one-half the expense of the enterprise. By the middle of the 
third season under his management Wurster was constrained to 
give up the directorship. He ascribed the non-success of the 
theatre primarily to the growing indifference on a large part of 
the German public toward German performances. In a curtain 
speech made on the evening of January 19, in which he an 
nounced his withdrawal from the stage, he said in part : 

"Es ist hart und bitter fiir meine selbstlosen und edlen Be- 
strebungen, am Ende meines arbeitsvollen Lebens angelangt, ein- 
sehen und beklagen zu mussen, dass das Interesse am deutschen 
Theater immer mehr erkaltet und der Geschmack unserer heran- 
wachsenden Jugend sich lieber den amerikanischen Schaustellun- 
gen zuwendet. 

"Viele der treuesten Anhanger meines Unternehmens hat 
seit meinem Hiersein der Tod ereilt, andere sind durch irgend 
welche Beeinflussungen fortgeblieben, wieder andere haben sich 
vielleicht durch irgend ein unbesonnenes Wort meinerseits belei- 
digt gefiihlt, andere mussen in ihre Vereinsversammlungen, 
Clubs und Logen und wieder andere sind zu alt und zu bequem 
geworden oder spielen Skat und trinken Bier dazu, und neue 
Freunde und Conner hat das Unternehmen leider nur wenige ge- 
funden. 



66 German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 

". . . Ich scheide mit dem Bewusstsein, Alles versacht 
und getan zu haben, was in meinen Verhaltnissen nur moglich 
war, um ein Unternehmen am Leben zu haltcn, welches mit 
Treue und Liebe geleitet und welches ich jetzt mit tiefem 
Schmerze und Wehmuth in andere Hande iibergeben lassen 
muss." 42 

The fact that St. Louis today still maintains interest in Ger 
man drama sufficient to support a permanent company would in 
dicate that much of the financial non-success of the Germania 
Theatre during these years was due to the financial panic which 
swept the country in 1893. 

In order to insure a continuation of the theatrical season a 
number of friends of the German drama immediately at a meet 
ing presided over by Dr. Emil Preetorius, organized the Germania 
Theater Verein. Membership in the association merely implied 
that the member pledged himself to subscribe to a certain number 
of performances for the rest of the season. The Verein rented 
the Germania Theater and engaged the ensemble which had been 
playing under Wurster, for three months. Oscar Teuscher, a 
member of the company, was engaged as stage manager. Under 
this arrangement the season was successfully brought to a con 
clusion April 24, 1896, whereupon the Theater Verein, having 
fulfilled its purpose, ceased to be. 

At the close of the season a new Germania Theater Verein 
was at once organized, with the purpose of again insuring a Ger 
man theatre in the Germania for the coming season. May 22, 
1896, St. Louis was visited by a devastating tornado which left 
in its wake damage to property and real estate amounting to more 
than $10,000,000. The section of the city where those dwelt 
upon whom the German theatre depended for its patronage was 
the section most affected by the storm. The owners of the Ger 
mania Theater, which had not proved a paying financial invest 
ment, therefore saw no bright prospects for a successful Ger 
man theatrical season for the ensuing winter. Inasmuch as the 



42 Anzeigcr dcs Westens, January 20, 1896. 



German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 67 

Theater Verein had made no definite request for the building by 
the end of June, the owners at that time rented it to a theatrical 
manager who purposed to use it for English performances. The 
Germania Theater Verein in a meetting June 29 therefore de 
cided, inasmuch as it could find no theatre available for German 
performances, not to institute a German stage under its auspices 
during the coming season, but to keep its organization intact with 
a view to again becoming active in the future. 

During the season of 1896-97 St. Louis was not, however, 
to be without a German theatre. Richard Stolte, beginning with 
October II staged plays weekly on Sundays in one of several 
auditoriums, usually in the New Century Theatre at Ninth and 
Olive Streets or in the Olympic. But the season was in no sense 
a success. It marked a decided retrogression. The repertory 
contained little other than time-worn Volksstiick, Lustspicl and 
Posse. Ibsen s Nora oder ein Puppenheim was presented once, 
but not without changing the muchly criticized conclusion of the 
play, whereby the director won the approval of the press critic, 
who wrote: 

"Bei der Leichtigkeit, mit welcher die jungen Leute heutzu- 
tage, wenn sie kaum die Kinderschuhen entwachsen sind, in die 
Ehe hinein und sehr haufig auch wieder hinauszuspringen pfle- 
gen, darf man sich wohl gestehen, dass ernste Betrachtungen 
tiber den Gegenstand wohl angebracht sind und Ibsen s erschut- 
terndes Seelengemalde manches gute bewirken kann, ohne dass 
man alien Ansichten und Folgerungen des Verfassers beizupflich- 
ten braucht. Direktor Stolte hat, wohl aus Mitleid fiir sein 
Publikum, den Schluss eigenmachtig abgeandert und Hess durch 
Vermittlung der Kinder eine Versohnung der Ehegatten anbah- 
nen. Die star r en Ibsenverehrer werden dariiber wohl die Hande 
iiber den Kopf zusammenschlagen und iiber Inconsequenz zetern. 
Wir aber sind der Ansicht, dass Inconsequenz eine sehr mensch- 
liche Eigenschaf t ist und sogar bei Frauen hier und da vorkommt. 
Deshalb nehmen wir es Nora nicht libel, wenn sie sich durch den 
Anblick ihrer Kinder zur Umkehr bewegen lasst, und stehen in 



68 German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 

diesem Falle auf Seiten des menschenfreundlichen Direktors ge- 
gen den starrkopfigen Dichter." 13 

Part of the epilog composed by the journalist E. D. Kargau, 
for many years a staunch supporter of the German stage in St. 
Louis, which was spoken by Director Stolte at the concluding 
performance of the season, March 21, will serve to summarize 
the season s activities. 

"Die deutsche Kunst besass nach langer Bitte 
Ein eignes Heim, das leider sie verier. 
Nun zieht umher sie nach Nomadensitte, 
Ein obdachloses Kind, von Thor zu Thor. 
Der Thespiskarren war stets auf der Reise 
In ruhelosem Zug bald hier, bald dort. 
Und kommt zu friih er jetzt aus dem Geleise, 
So ist s nicht unsre Schuld, glaubt mir s aufs Wort. 

"Dazu der schwere Druck der schlechten Zeiten, 
War s doch ein boses Jahr fiir s ganze Land 
Bei der politischen Parteien Streiten 
Hat ja die Kunst stets einen schweren Stand. 
Wo Handel und Gewerbe liegt darnieder 
Wird selbst ein iipp ger Boden unfruchtbar. 
Vom Reif getroffen bliiht sobald nicht wieder, 
Was einst des Gartens schonste Zierde war. 

"Zum Hemmschuh ward der Kunst bescheidnem HofTen 
Noch Anderes im letzt verfloss nen Jahr 
Sie wird sogar vom Wirbelsturm betroffen, 
Wenn zwar auch nicht direkt, doch mittelbar. 
Gar mancher, der in friihern Zeiten gerne, 
So oft gespielt ward, ins Theater kam, 
Blieb ihm in diesem Winter ganzlich feme, 
Weil der Tornado ihm sein Alles nahm. 



Anzciger des West ens, October 18. 1806. 



German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 69 

"Und wic sich so die Hindernisse tiirmten 
Blieb, selbstverstandlich, der Frfolg auch aus; 
Wenn abends gar noch Schnee und Regen stiirmten, 
Da spielten oft wir vor halbleerem Haus. 
Ihr werdet drum es fiir begreiflich halten, 
Dass die Saison so friih schon kommt zum Schluss 
Wir weichen gleichsam hoheren Gewalten, 
Denn zu gehorchen zwingt das harte Muss ." 14 

Stolte the following season again attempted a German stage 
in St. Louis, this time in the former Broadway Theatre, a small 
theatre on South Broadway, between Market and Walnut Streets. 
The season opened September 23. An attempt was made to play 
daily. The enterprise met with little response on the part of 
the public, therefore abruptly came to a conclusion October 25. 
After several benefit performances following Stolte s with 
drawal from the theatre, the building became the home of Eng 
lish vaudeville. 

The next two seasons the Germania Theatre was again the 
home of German drama. The first of these seasons the theatre 
was under the able stage direction of Georg Heinemann, who 
gave performances twice weekly from October 2, 1898, till April 
1 6, 1899. From an artistic standpoint the season was a success. 
But financially it ended with a deficit. Though the German DVa- 
matic Association, the owners of the theatre, made deductions 
from the amount of rental the contract with Heinemann called 
for, the latter claimed to have personally lost $800 in the venture, 
aside from receiving no salary. He therefore refused to resume 
charge of the Germania Theater the following season. 

The season in the Germania during the winter of 1899-1900 
was made possible by a guarantee fund subscribed to by generous 
individuals. With the help of this fund Mme. Anna Frandsch- 
Diel (of Cleveland) agreed to assume charge of the Germania. 
She opened the season October I and performed two and three 
times weekly till April I. The season was only a moderate suc- 



44 Anzeiger dcs Westens, March 22, 1807. 



yo German Drama on the St, Louis Stage 

cess. The ensemble for the season was limited. Mme. Frandsch 
could not therefore stage serious drama nor carry out her avowed 
intention to introduce modern plays. Aside from one perform 
ance each of Schiller s Maria Stuart, Fulda s Die Sklavin and Die 
wilde Jagd, and Wilbrandt s Die Tochter des Herrn Fabricius, 
her stage offered nothing of literary importance. 

The Germania Theater for the following two years was 
again the home of an English stage. 

While Mme. Frandsch was staging German drama in the 
Germania, Heinemann regularly conducted performances with 
a separate ensemble in the Olympic Theatre on Sundays from 
October 8 till April 22. The season was from the standpoint of 
attainment a success. The Westliche Post for April 23, 1900, 
summarizes it in the following eulogistic terms: 

"Summa cum laude! Mit diesem.in der gestrigen Schluss- 
auffuhrung der Heinemannschen Theatergesellschaft im Olym 
pic so oft gebrauchten Ausdrucke mochten wir die letzte Saisori 
charakterisiren d. h. nur so weit die Leistungen auf der Biihne 
in Betracht kommen. Wohl hat die Direktion in der Auswahl 
der aufzufiihrenden Stiicke gelegentlich einen Missgriff gemacht, 
doch lasst sich daraus kaum ein Vorwurf fur sie schmieden. . . . 
Die aufzufiihrenden Stiicke waren durchweg gut einstudirt,- 
hiibsch inszenirt und gingen flott iiber die Bretter. Das Ensemble 
war stets tadellos und die Hauptkrafte derselben lieferten tins Lei 
stungen, die weit iiber das Durchschnittsmass hinausgingen und 
den Theaterbesuchern noch lange eine angenehme Erinnerung bil- 
den werden. Leider kann dem deutschen Publikum nicht das- 
selbe gute Zeugniss ausgestellt werden. Es waren fast Sonntag 
fur Sonntag die alten Gesichter zu sehen, und manche Vorstel- 
lung, besonders in den letzten Wochen, war sehr diirftig be- 
sucht. Unter diesen Umstanden ist es, was Direktion und 
Kiinstler betrifft, doppelt anerkennenswert, dass die Saison, wel- 
che in finanzieller Beziehung kein glanzender Erfolg war, iiber- 
haupt durchgefiihrt wurde." 

The following season (October 7, 1900, till April 21, 1901 ) 
Heinemann staged Sunday performances in the Olympic, this 



German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 71 

time under joint direction with Ferdinand Welb, who had for 
years been director of the Pabst Theater in Milwaukee. Before 
the opening of the season the Theater Verein was again brought 
to life. Its members paid but a small monthly due, for which 
they received the privilege of reduction in price of admission to 
the theatre on condition that they buy a certain number of tickets 
per month. This Theater Verein continues to exist today. It has 
since its organization been an important factor in the support of 
the German theatre in St. Louis. Its purpose is not only to 
help the German theatre, but also to provide for its members 
social gatherings of one sort or another from time to time, in 
cluding the summer months, when these social features have fre 
quently assumed the nature of picnics and boat excursions. 

During the season of 1901-1902 and 1902-1903 Heinemann 
and Welb played twice weekly in the Germania Theater, and as 
during the season 1900-1901, once weekly in Belleville. The end 
of the season 1902-1903 marked the termination of the Germania 
Theater. The building had not been a financial success as a Ger 
man theatre; its owners therefore disposed of it. It has since 
that time been the home of an English stage. Under the name 
of the Gayety Theatre it is at the present time the home of Eng 
lish vaudeville. 

The German drama therefore had to seek a new home. Be 
ginning with the season 1903-1904 the Odeon, an auditorium 
seating two thousand, centrally located at Grand and Finney 
Avenues, became the home of German drama. With the excep 
tion of the season 1904-1905, when Heinemann and Welb utilized 
the Olympic Theatre on Sunday evenings for their stage, the 
Odeon continued to be the regular home of the German drama 
till the opening in 1913 of the present Victoria Theater. 

The joint directorship of Heineman and Welb of the Ger 
man stage in St. Louis continued till Heinemann s death, Febru 
ary 2, 1908. Welb, who had been stage manager while Heine 
mann assumed charge of the business phases of the directorship, 
then continued as sole director till his death, October 2, 1910. 
Mine. Welb assumed charge of the theatre after her husband s de- 



J2 German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 

mise and under her directorship brought the season of 1910-1911 
to a conclusion. Since 1911 Hans Loebel, the present director 
of the Victoria Theater, has been in charge of the German stage 
in St. Louis. 

The history of the German stage under the directorship of 
Heinemann and Welb after the termination of the Germania 
Theater and during the seasons of 1910-11 and 1911-12 was one 
of even tenor. Performances were given regularly on Sunday 
evenings from October till April or May. Attendance was fair. 
The season of 1905-1906 ended with a small deficit. But usually 
the theatre was a financial success without the aid of subsidy or 
guarantee. In several instances it became necessary to forestall 
an impending deficit by exhortation to better attendance in the col 
umns of the press and in speeches before the curtain in the the 
atre. In such instances the public responded promptly. Through 
out these years an unusually cordial relation existed between the 
directorship and the members of the ensemble and the public, as 
reflected in press comment from time to time. The press always 
granted liberal space to a review of the plays which, as far as 
the dramatic presentation was concerned, \vere almost universally 
complimentary, though it took several years after the introduc 
tion of the realistic drama before the reviewer began to comment 
upon them in a conciliatory tone. 

V. 1911-1914. 

THE PRESENT DIRECTORSHIP. THE VICTORIA THEATER. 

When the Germania Theater was permanently closed to the 
German drama in 1903, those most interested in the continuance 
of the German stage at once began to formulate plans for the 
building of a new theatre. The plans slowly materialized. In 
the course of time the Deutscher Theaterbau-Gesellschaft was or 
ganized. In order to interest as many Germans as possible in the 
theatre it was planned not to allow a few men to build and own 
the new theatre and therefore to control its destiny, but to issue 
stock at ten dollars per share to as many individuals as possible. 



German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 73 

Initially the capital stock of the Theaterbau-Gesellschaft was 
fixed at $75,000. On the first of April, 1907, one-half of this 
total was called in. Immediately a building site was purchased 
on which to erect the proposed theatre. But it soon became mani 
fest that a larger capital stock would be needed in order to insure 
a theatre of any consequence. The venture then dragged until 
the spring of 1912, when the directorate of the building associa 
tion again brought the project before the public. The association 
voted to increase its capital stock and commenced building 
operations at once. The building, located on the north 
side of Delmar Boulevard, west of Grand Avenue, was 
completed at a cost of about $150,000, owned by between 500 
and 600 stockholders. At the time the building was opened the 
Board of Directors was made up of the following men of promi 
nence: Leo Rassieur, President; Edward Westen, Vice-Presi- 
dent; J. A. Valentin Schmidt, Secretary; Henry Heil, Treas 
urer; Edward L. Preetorius, John R. Payten, Hans Loebel, 
Frank W. Feuerbacher, Jacob D. Goldman, Hans Hackel, Frank 
Tombridge, Fred Widman and Henry Walk. 

The new theatre the Victoria Theatre was formally 
opened March i, 1913, under the artistic directorship of Hans 
Loebel, who had opened the season October 6, 1912, in the Odeon, 
where, as pointed out above, he had also directed the German 
stage in 1911-1912. At this opening performance Goethe s 
Faust was given. Mile. Kate Herbst, leading lady of the Papst 
Theater in Milwaukee, and C. G. Ackermann, of the Deutsches 
Theater in New York, appeared in the roles of Gretchen and 
Mephistopheles, respectively, assisted in the other parts by mem 
bers of the local stock company. 

The Victoria Theater under Loebel s direction has been an 
artistic success. The season 1912-1913, concluding April 24, 
ended with a small deficit. The season 1913-1914 (October 5 
till May 10) ended with a deficit of approximately $12,000. 
These deficits were readily made up by subscription among the 
more enthusiastic supporters of the German stage. As the defi 
cits indicate, the German theatre does not receive support from 



74 German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 

the German element at large in St. Louis in the measure it de 
serves. But the relative smallness of the deficits, compared with 
those of New Work, Milwaukee, and other places, speaks well 
for the extent of interest in the German drama that still does 
exist in the city. At present German performances continue to 
be given in the Victoria Theatre once weekly on Sunday evenings 
throughout the season from October till May. In addition to 
these performances a half dozen mid-week performances have 
for several seasons past been given in other auditoriums under 
the auspices of the "Kunstbienen," an organization of German 
women interested in the furtherance of German art and culture. 
These mid-week performances have been devoted principally to 
the modern realistic drama. 45 



45 For the repertory of the German stage under Hans Loebel s director 
ship, see Appendix. 



German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 75 

APPENDIX. 

STATISTICAL SURVEY OF THE SEVERAL STAGES. 
For comparative purposes the statistical survey of the sev 
eral stages for the various periods in the history of the German 
drama on the St. Louis stage is arranged in tabulated form. Un 
der Table A I, A II, etc., are recorded the relative number of 
authenticated performances for different types of plays and the 
percentage of plays of a given type performed on a particular 
stage compared to the total number of plays performed on that 
stage. In order to indicate the relative literary value of the sev 
eral stages the plays of the authors who receive recognition in 
the annals of German literary history are tabulated separately in 
Table B I, B II, etc. 

I. 1842-1859. 

THE BEGINNINGS. 

In the instance of the Volkstheater a number of stages 
during the period in the history of the German drama on the St. 
Louis stage ending with the establishment of the St. Louis 
Opernhaus at times announced performances without giving the 
title of plays to be staged. Moreover, as protests in the news 
paper columns indicate, in some instances titles of plays were 
changed ad libitum, making it impossible, inasmuch as the casts 
of characters were not printed, to identify such plays. In sev 
eral instances extant records present slight gaps (cf. Preface} 
and therefore do not permit reconstruction of the repertory of 
the contemporary theatres with completeness. Statistical in 
formation contained in the tables for this period is therefore 
based upon repertories which are representative, but cannot rep 
resent scientific accuracy. 

TABLE A I. 

Abbreviations: LT all Liebhabertheater antedating the 
Philodramatische Gesellschaft (-Ph). TH Turnhalle 1857- 
1859. B Benrodt-Botzow. W Hermann- Wolff. Kl Kliin- 
der, including performances by his company after he resigned 



7 6 



German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 



management. R Ruedi s Volksgarten, including performances 
November 21, 1860, to March 31, 1861. St St. Louis Stadt- 
theater. Fl Flora Garten. Ap Apollo Garten. VT all 
Volkstheater performances, except R, St, Fl, Ap. Av average 
percentage for all plays recorded for the period of the begin 
nings. In this and subsequent tables figures in left-hand col 
umns indicate number of performances, those in right-hand col 
umn percentages. 



Trauerspiel 

Schauspiel, Drama . . . 

Volksstuck, Charakter- 
gemalde, etc. . . . 

Lustspiel 

Posse, Schwank, etc.. 

Singspiel, Vaude 
ville, etc 

Operette 

Total 170: 



Trauerspiel 

Schauspiel, Drama . . 

Volksstuck, Charakter 
gemalde, etc 

Lustspiel 137 

Posse, Schwank, etc. 

Singspiel, Vaude 
ville, etc 

Operette 



Total 



LT 


Ph 


TH 


B 


W 


Kl. 


23:14 


i :oi 


i :oi 


3 :O4 


2:03 


I :oi 


43:25+ 


4:07 + 


7:12 


17:23 


22:28 


19:21 


9:05+ 


4:07+ 


4:07 


8:11 


10:13 


12:13 + 


59 :35 


27:50 


22 :37 


21:28 


15:19 


17:18+ 


24:14+ 


15:28 


18:30 


23 :24 


19 :24+ 


36:39+ 


1 1 :o7 


2 :o4 


8:13+ 


3:04 


9:11 + 


6:07- 


i :oi 


i :oi 


o: o 


o: o 


2:03 


i :oi 


[70: 


54: 


60: 


75: 


79: 


92: 


R 


St 


Fl 


Ap 


VT Total Av. 


2:01 


o: o 


4:02+ 


2:02+ 


i :oi 


40 :o3 


56:16 


13:13 


27 : 14 


15:16+ 


27:10+ 


250 :02 


53:i5 


4:04 


19:10 


J 3 :*4 


26:10 


162:10+ 


^37 :38+ 


34 :34 


76:38+ 


14:15+ 


90:34+ 


430:28 


86:24+ 


37 :37 


68:34+ 


44:47 + 


102:42+ 


554:04- 


22 :o6+ 


6:06 


5 *^3 


5:05 + 


15:06 


92:06 


i :oi 


7 :07 


o: o 


o: o 


3:01 + 


16:01 


557: 


101 : 


199: 


93: 


264: 


1544: 



TABLE B I. 

(Abbreviations as in Table A I. Figures indicate number 
of times performed.) 

GOETHE: Clavigo LTi, Faust Bi, Sti, Fli. SCHILLER: 
Kabale und Liebe LT4, TH2, Bi, Ri, Fli, Maria Stuart LTi, 
Die Rauber LT5, Wi, KLa, R2, VTi, Wallensteins Lager Wi, 
Wallensteins Tod LT3, Wilhelm Tell LT4, B2, Wi, Kli, R$. 



German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 77 

LESSING: Minna von Barnhelm * i. SHAKESPEARE: Hamlet 
LTi, Ri, Der Kaufmann von Vencdig LT5, Wi, Macbeth LT5, 
Othello LT3, Romeo und Julie Ri, Der Widerspenstigen Zah- 
mung** LTi, Ph2, TH2, Bi, R4, St2, Fl4, VT2. GRILLPARZER: 
Die Ahnfrau LT2, Kl2. GUTZKOW : Das Urbild der Tartiiffe 
THi, Uriel Acosta Bi, Wi, Fb, Api, VTi, Zopf und Schwert 
Api. KOERNER: Die Braut VTi, Hedwig, die Banditenbraut 
LT2, 63, St3, Fl2, VT3, Das Katchen von Heilbron LTi, Bi, 
R2, Sti, Fli, Kriegers Heimkehr R3, Der Nachtwachter LTi, 
THi, Bi, Ri, VTi, Toni LTi, Ri, Zriny LT2, Wi. LAUBE: 
Graf Essex Api, Die Karlsschiiler Api, VT2, Prinz Friedrich 
Api. RAIMUND: Der Alpenkonig und der Menschenfeind W"3, 
Kli, R3, Der Bauer als Millionar Ap2, Der Verschvvender Ph3, 
W2, Kli, Sti, Fh, A P 2. 



II. 1859-1861. 

THE ST. LOUIS OPERNHAUS. 

Extant records for the performances from April 21 to Oc 
tober 19, 1860, are incomplete (cf. Preface). The reconstructed 
repertory for the Opernhaus is, however, practically complete, 
for fifteen of the theatrical performances for the period between 
April 21 and October 19 are accounted for, and it was during 
this period that the performances of the Colson and the New 
Orleans opera companies, of the Siegrist-Zamfretta corps de 
ballet and of the concert company of Anna Bishop alternated 
with the German theatrical performances. 



*Lessing s Minna von Barnhelm was performed on February 18, 1857, at 
a "klassischer Buhnen-Abend," arranged by Bornstein to celebrate the organ 
ization of the "Detttsches Institut fur Wissenschaft, Kunst und Gewerbe." 
The program, carried out by an ensemble made up of the best talent on 
Wolff s stage and former members of the Philodramatische Gesellschaft, was 
made up of the Overture to Weber s Freischiitz, a prologue composed and 
spoken by Bornstein, Beethoven s Overture to Egmtmt, a scene from Egmont, 
the Overture to Mozart s Zauberflote, a scene from Kabale und Liebe, We 
ber s Overture to Oberon, and Minna von Barnhelm. 

**Usually given in Holbein s version, Die bezahmte Widerspenstige. 



78 German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 

TABLE A II. 

Trauerspiel 36 :i i + 

Schauspiel, Drama 54 :2O+ 

Volksstiick, Charaktergemalde, etc 36:13+ 

Lustspiel 37 114 

Posse, Schwank, etc.* 100:37+ 

Singspiel, Vaudeville, etc 6 :02 + 

Total 269 : 

TABLE B II. 

GOETHE: Egmont i, Faust 4, Gotz i. SCHILLER: Don 
Karlos 2, Fiesco 2, Jungfrau von Orleans i, Kabale und Liebe 3, 
Maria Stuart 2, Die Rauber 2, Wallensteins Tod 4, Wilhelm 
Tell i. SHAKESPEARE: Hamlet 3, Kaufmann von Venedig i, 
Lear i, Macbeth i, Othello 2, Romeo und Julie i. GUTZKOW : 
Das Urbild der Tartiiffe i. LAUBE: Graf Essex i, Die Karls- 
schiiler i, Montrose, der schwarge Markgraf 3, Prinz Friedrich 
i. RAIMUND: Der Barometermacher 24, Der Verschwender 2. 

III. 1861-1891. 

A. 1861-1867. ^ New Era Begins. The Directorship of 
Wilhelm Koser. 

B. 1867-1870. An Uneventful Period of Decline. 

TABLE A III AB. 

Abbreviations: A Pfeiffer directorship May 18 to Octo 
ber 21, 1862; B Rosinski-Follger-Bottner directorship June i 
to August 24, 1862; C Koser directorship 1862-1867; D Lew- 
en s directorship May 21 to September 24, 1865; E Follger di 
rectorship May 3 to August 17, 1866; F the Apollo stage 
1867-1870. 



*Including 24 performances of Raimund s Barometermacher, and 17 per 
formances of Der Zauberschleier, adapted from Scribe by Told. 



German Drama on the St, Louis Stage 79 

A B C D E F 

Trauerspiel 0:0 0:0 46:05 3:02+ 4:04 27:03 

Schauspiel, Drama ... 22:214- 1:03 184:19+ 29:21 15:13 107:11 
Volksstiick, Charakter- 

gemalde, etc 5:05 4:11145:15+ 16:11 24:21145:14+ 

Lustspiel 49:47+ 10:26+ 236:25 47:31+ 28:24 224:22 + 

Posse, Schwank, etc.. 28:27 23:61 232:25 41:28 27:23+ 316:31 + 

Singspiel, etc 0:0 0:0 55 :oo 12:08+ 10:09 84:08+ 

Oper, Operette 0:0 0:0 47:05 o: o 9:08 115:11 + 

Total 104: 38: 945: 148: 117: 1018: 

C. 1870-1880. Opera on the Apollo Stage 1870-1875. The 
Pelosi Directorship 1871-1880. 

D. 1880-1801. A Period of Varying Fortune. 

TABLE A III CD. 

Abbreviations: G the Apollo stage, summer 1870 to June 
22, 1875, exclusive of the winter season 1870-1871, during which 
Pelosi had charge of the Apollo stage; H the Pelosi director 
ship 1871-1880; I German performances in De Bar s Opera 
House 1876-1877; J performances under Wurster s director 
ship 1876-1878; K the Rieckhoff directorship 1879-1882; L 
Wurster s directorship 1881-1882; M Pelosi-Sarner director 
ship 1883-1884; N the Apollo under Schmitz 1887-1891; X 
all performances for the period 1861-1891 not included under 
the above headings; T total number of performances; Av 
average percentage for all plays recorded for the period 1861- 
1891. 

G H I J K L 

Trauerspiel 10 :oi 12 :o3+ i :O2 3 104+ 5 :03 o : o 

Schauspiel, Drama .. 78:08+ 59:i5 + 6:12 8:11+ 15:08 7:13 
Volksstiick, Charakter- 

gemalde, etc 150:17 69:18+ 17:33+ 20:28+ 32:17 12:22 

Lustspiel 107:11+ 97:25+ 9:1820:28+ 61:32+ 21:36+ 

Posse, Schwank, etc.. 131:14 138:36+ 7:13+ 19:27 49:26 12:22 

Singspiel, etc 37:04 I :oi 7:13+ 1:01+ 10:05+ 0:0 

Oper, Operette 431 47+ 5:oi+ 4:08 0:0 18:09+ 3:05 + 

Total . ..944: 38i: 5i: 7i: 100: 55: 



8o German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 

M N X T Av. 

Trauerspiel 3 : 10+ I :oi 9 :o2 124 103 

Schauspiel, Drama 1:03+ 32:17+ 46:10 610:13 

Volksstiick, Charaktergemalde, etc 3:10+ 47:26 88:18+ 777:16+ 

Lustspiel 8 :28 14 :o8 1 10 123 1041 :22 

Posse, Schwank, etc 14:48+ 72:39+ 189:39+ 1298:27+ 

Singspiel, etc 0:0 2:01+ 16:03+ 235:05 

Oper, Operette 0:0 15:08+ 21:04 668:14+ 

Total 29: 183: 479: 4753: 

TABLE B III. 
(Abbreviations as in Table A III, a, b, c, d.) 

GOETHE: Clavigo F2, Egmont Fi, 63, Hi, Faust 4, Ei, 
Fi, Ji, Iphigenie X2. SCHILLER: Die Braut von Messina 5, 
Fi, Hi, Don Carlos Ci, Fi, Ki, Fiesco Ci, Di, Jungfrau von 
Orleans 5, Fi, Hi, Ki, Mi, Kabale und Liebe C2, Fi, G2, Ji, 
Xi, Maria Stuart 3, Ei, F2, Hi, Ki, Mi, Die Rauber CQ, Di, 
F 3 , Gi, H 3 , Ki, Ni, Xi, Wallensteins Lager C2, F2, Hi, Wal- 
lensteins Tod Ci, Wilhelm Tell 4, F2, H4, Ni, Xi. Gozzi 
(SCHILLER) : Turandot F2. LESSING: Emilia Galotti Di, Na 
than der Weise Ci, Li, Xi. SHAKESPEARE: Hamlet 4, I ? 5, 
Hi, Ki, Kaufmann von Venedig 03, Gi, X3, Die Komodie von 
Irrungen Ni, Die lustige Weiber von Windsor Di, Macbeth Fi, 
Othello Ci, F3, Gi, Ji, Xi, Richard III Ci, Romeo und Julie 
Ci, Di, Fi, Ein Sommernachtstraum Fi, Der Wider spenstigen 
Zahmung Ci, F3, Hi, Li, Ki, Ein Wintermarchen 5. AN- 
ZENGRUBER: Der Herrgottschnitzer von Ammergau N2, Herz 
und Hand J2, Der Meineidbauer G6, Ki, Ni, Der Pfarrer von 
Kirchfeld G3, Ni. FREYTAG: Graf Waldemar Ki, Die Journa- 
listen Fi, Hi, Ki, Die Valentine Ci, Ki. GEIBEL: Brunhild 
Xi. GRILLPARZER: Medea C2, H2, Mi. GUTZKOW: Der drei- 
zehnte November Ci, Der Konigsleutnant C2, 2, F2, Li, K2, 
Richard Savage Di, Das Urbild des Tartiifre 03, Ki, Uriel 
Acosta C6, Gi, Ii, Ni, Zopf und Schwerdt C2, Ei, Gi, Hi, Ki. 
HEBBEL: Genoveva C3, F2, Gi, N2. KLEIST: Das Katchen von 
Heilbronn 3, F2, G3, Hi, Ki, N3. LAUBE: Bose Zungen F4. 
H4, Graf Essex 3, Di, Ei, F2, H2, Die Karlschiiler Ai, C5, 
H3, Xi, Montrose Xi, Prinz Friedrich G3. RAIMUND: Der 



German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 8 1 

Alpenkonig 3, Fi, Der Barometermacher G?, Der Bauer ah 
Millionar C$, Fi, Der Verschwender 4, D2, Ei, F<4, 64, Ii, Xi. 

IV. 1891-1911. 

A REVIVAL OF INTEREST. THE GERMANIA THEATER. THE DIREC 
TORSHIP OF HEINEMANN AND WELB. 

TABLE A IV. 

Abbreviations : A the German stage under the director 
ship of Sarner and Riotte 1890-1891; B under Sarner 1891- 
1892; C the Germania Theater under Waldemar and Buechel 
1892-1893; D the Germania under Wurster 1893-1896; E the 
stage under Stolte 1896-1898; F the Germania under Mme. 
Frandsch 1899-1900; G the directorship of Heinemann and 
Welb 1898-1911. T total number of plays staged during the 
period 1891-1911 ; Av average percentage for all plays recorded 
for this period. 

ABC D 

Trauerspiel I :oi 1 103 13:11 10 104 

Schauspiel, Drama 19 124 0:0 34 128+ 67 :24+ 

Volksstikk, Charaktergemalde, etc 9:11+ 5:14 9:07 42:15 + 

Lustspiel 24:30 8:22+ 40:33+ 65:23 + 

Posse, Schwank, etc 13 :i6+ 22 :6i + 24 :20 91 .-33 

Singspiel, etc 3 -04 0:0 0:0 0:0 

Operette 11:14 0:0 I :oi 3:01 + 

Total 80: 36: 121 : 278: 

E F G T Av 

Trauerspiel 4:06 i :oi 18:03+ 48:04 

Schauspiel, Drama 6 :o8 10 :i8 129 122+ 265 :22 

Volksstiick, Charaktergemalde, etc 19:27 13:23+ 104:18 201:16+ 

Lustspiel 16:23 ii :2o 147:25+ 3^ :25 + 

Posse, Schwank, etc 17 :24 20:36 164 :2g 351 :2Q 

Singspiel, etc 0:0 0:0 3 :oi 6 :oi 

Operette 9:13 i :oi 18:03+ 43:04 

Total . . 71: 56: 583: 1225: 



82 German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 

TABLE B IV. 
(Abbreviations as in Table A IV.) 

GOETHE: Egmont Ci, Faust C2, Di. SCHILLER: Die 
Braut von Messina Ci, Gi, Don Carlos Ci, Gi, Fiesco Ci, Gi, 
Jungfrau von Orleans Ci, Di, Gi, Kabale und Liebe Ai, Ci, 
Di, G3, Maria Stuart Ci, Di, Fi, G4, Piccolomini Ci, Die Rau- 
ber Ai, Ci, Di, G3, Wallensteins Lager Ci, Wallensteins Tod 
Di, Gi, Wilhelm Tell A4, Di, G4. LESSING : Emilie Galotti Ci, 
Di, Gi, Minna von Barnhelm Ci, Di, G2. SHAKESPEARE: 
Hamlet Di, Gi, Kaufmann von Venedig Di, Die lustigen Wei- 
ber von Windsor Gi, Othello Bi, Ci, Di, 4, Gi, Richard III 
Di, Romeo und Julie Ci, Der Widerspenstigen Zahmung Ci, 
D2, Gi, Ein Wintermarchen 2. ANZENGRUBER: Heimgefun- 
den (Weihnachtsstiick) G3, Meineidbauer Di, Gi, Der Pfarrer 
von Kirchfeld Ei, G2, Das vierte Gebot Gi. BJOERNSEN: Ein 
Fallissement G2. FREYTAG : Graf Waldemar Gi, Die Journalisteri 
A2. FULDA : Jugendfreunde G2, Die Sklavin Di, Fi, Der Talis 
man G2, Unter vier Augen Di, Das verlorene Paradies 05, G3, 
Die wilde Jagd Di, Fi, G2. GEIBEL: Meister Andrea Gi. 
GUTZKOW: Das Urbild der Tartiiffe G2, Uriel Acosta 
Ci, Di, G2, Zopf und Schwerdt Di. GRILLPARZER: Des 
Meeres und der Liebe Wellen Di. HAUPTMANN : Der Biber- 
pelz Gi, College Crampton Di, Die Weber Gi. HEBBEL: 
Maria Magdalena Gi. IBSEN: Gespenster Ai, Gi, Ein Pup- 
penheim Ei, Stiitzen der Gesellschaft Ci, Gi. KLEIST: 
Das Katchen von Heilbronn Ci, G2. LAUBE: Bose Zungen 
Di, Graf Essex Ci, Di, Gi, Die Karlsschiiler AJ, 
Di, Ei, G2. RAIMUND: Der Verschwender Ci, Ei, G3- Su- 
DERMANN: Die Ehre A3, C2, GS, Es lebe das Leben G2, Das 
Gliick im Winkel G2, Die Heimat C2, D2, G4, Johannisfeuer G4, 
Die Schmetterlingsschlacht Di, Gi, Sodoms Ende D2, Fi, Gi, 
Stein und Steinen Gi. WILBRANDT: Die Tochter des Herrn 
Fabricius D2, Fi. WILDE: Salome Gi. WILDENBRUCH : Die 
Haubenlerche Ci, G2, Der Menonit Di, Die Quitzows Ci, Die 
Rabensteinerin Gi, Vater und Sohn, oder Aus Deutschlands 
schwerer Zeit (Vaterlandisches Schauspiel) Gi. 



German Drama on the St. Louis Stage 83 

V. 1911-1914. 

THE PRESENT DIRECTORSHIP. THE VICTORIA THEATER. 

TABLE A V.* 

Trauerspiel 3 103 

Schauspiel, Drama 17:17 

Volksstiick, Charaktergemalde, etc 16:16 

Lustspiel 19:19 

Posse, Schwank, etc 27 :26+ 

Singspiel i :oi 

Operette 19 :i9 

Total 102: 

TABLE B V. 

GOETHE: Faust i, Iphigenie i. SCHILLER: Maria Stuart i, 
Wilhelm Tell i. IBSEN: Der Volksfeind i. SCHOENHERR: 
Glaube und Heimat i. SUDERMANN: Die Heimat i, Der gute 
Ruf i. 



*These tables do not include plays given under the auspices of the 
"Kunstbienen." 



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