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VOL. I. 


O R K S HI R, 

Cmwlctntt (NORFOLK 










Parle patois, s' il le faut. II n' y a pas de sottes langues ; et le Saint- 
Esprit les parle toutes. JOSEPH Roux, Nouvelles Pensees. 









Feast of St. Mary Magdalen, 1888. 


A Glossary of words used in the 

Wapentakes of Manley and CJorrlngham 


oy Sdvrard Peacock. (Revised and enlarged ed.) 

f - 

fnsM ^o asrff 




PREFACE ix-xvi 

GLOSSARY .. .. i^-S ? 


" It is a mistake to imagine that the Dialects are everywhere corruptions 
of the literary language. Even in England the local patois have many forms 
which are more primitive than the language of Shakspere, and the richness 
of their vocabulary surpasses, on many points, that of the classical writers of 
any period." MAX MULLER, Lectures on the Science of Language, 8th Ed., 
1875. P- 55- 

THE following Glossary consists exclusively of words 
now or formerly in use in the Wapentakes of Manley 
and Corringham that is the North Western corner of 
Lincolnshire. The first edition was published by the 
English Dialect Society in 1877. The present re-issue has 
been so much enlarged and modified that it may not unfairly 
be called a new work. It contains all that was important 
in the first edition, except certain folk-lore notes and a few 
place-names. These have been omitted because they ought 
not, in the author's opinion, to appear in a dictionary of 
dialect, and also because works on these subjects are in 
preparation which will deal with them in a manner far more 
thorough than would have been possible in these pages 
without swelling the volumes to an extent quite out of 
harmony with the objects which the English Dialect Society 
proposes to accomplish. 

The author has been engaged in collecting the materials 
from which this word list is compiled for more than thirty- 
five years, and has received help from many friends and 
correspondents. As to words no longer known to be in use 
he has not inserted any for which he has not manuscript 
or printed authority. The words quoted from Richard 


Bernard's translation of Terence* are especially noteworthy. 
Bernard lived at Epworth, in the Isle of Axholme, and seems 
to have endeavoured to render the dialogue into the common 
speech with which he was familiar. The late Thomas 
Hugh Oldman, Esq., of Gainsburgh, the steward of the 
manor of Kirton-in-Lindsey, gave the author unrestricted 
access to the long series of court-rolls of that manor. 
Gravenor Roadley, Esq., the lord of the manor of Scotter, 
permitted the fullest use to be made of the records in his 
possession. t The court rolls of the manor of BottesfordJ are 
the author's own property, and have supplied some good 
examples of disused words. Some manorial records of the 
manor of Keadby are in his possession by the gift of a friend, 
and he has also been permitted to examine certain original 
wills of the sixteenth century relating to the district. A survey 
was made of the manor of Kirton-in-Lindsey in 1616, by John 
Norden, John Thorpe,, and John Norden, jun. A contem- 
porary copy of this valuable document is preserved in the 
public library at Cambridge. Of this the author has a 
transcript which has been found of much service. Another 
survey of this manor was made in 1787. The original is 
preserved among the records of the Duchy of Cornwall. 
A few copies of this document have been privately printed. 
From it the author has gleaned some words now obsolete, 
or rapidly becoming so. The late Mr. J. Ellett Brogden's 
Provincial Words and Expressions Current in Lincolnshire has 
been of much service. No word, however, has been inserted 
on its authority which the author does not know to be in 
use, or to have been used within the district. Of this little 
book the Rev. Joseph Thomas Fowler lent the author an 
interleaved copy ; from it he gleaned many words for the 

* The Edition is the 5th, 1629; 410. 

I Notes from these Rolls occur in Arch&ologia, vol. xlvi., pp. 371-388. 
t See A rchcEologia, vol. 1., pp. 371-382. Ff. 4-30. 


first edition which would certainly have otherwise been 
missed. The Rev. Professor Skeat was also helpful with 
that edition in more ways than can be named. 

On the publication of the first edition the Rev. Edward 
Synge Wilson, vicar of Winterton, at once undertook the 
task of annotating and making additions. These most 
useful collections have been handed over to the author. 
He has, moreover, received words, examples, and useful 
suggestions from Sir Charles Henry John Anderson, of L ea 
Hall, Baronet ; Alfred Atkinson, Esq., and Miss Atkinson, 
of Brigg ; C. C. Bell, Esq., of Epworth ; Alexander John 
Ellis, Esq., F.R.S., F.S.A. ; James Fowler, Esq., of Liphook, 
Hampshire; the Rev. John Clare Hudson, Vicar of Thornton, 
near Horncastle; the Rev. Charles Knowles, Rector of 
Winteringham ; Walter Nicholson, Esq., of Sidcup, and 
John Sykes, Esq., M.D., F.S.A., of Doncaster. The late 
William England Hewlett, Esq., F.S.A., and the late Rev. 
Edward Saint Leger, Rector of Scotton, were very helpful 
with the first edition and supplied the author with some 
additions for the present one. 

It may be well, in conclusion, to note that nearly all the 
references to Shakspere are adapted to the Globe Edition, 
where the lines are numbered, and, to repeat the concluding 
sentence of the preface of 1877, " The examples have not 
been coined for the purpose of this work, but are, in almost 
every case, the exact form of words which I or the friends 
who have helped me have heard used." 

Persons studying the dialect of Manley and Corringham, 
for philological purposes, must bear in mind that 'the vowel 
sounds of many of the words are still in a fluent state. 
Sometimes the variation is caused by the conscious choice 
of the speaker, but usually it seems to depend on some law 
which has yet to be defined. As examples of the various 
forms one word assumes I may mention : 


Maake) Taake) Caame ) 

Mak ^r=Make. Tak h=Take. Com f=Came. 

Mek J Tek J Cum'd ) 

and broken. Water 

Curtin Curtain - 


Plew Y = Plough. 

Ploo J 

Other words possess two or more perfectly interchangeable 
forms as 

Earth) TT^I, Faather) - Pof r 10 . Naw) 

E'th = Earth ' Feytherj Noft =No. 

No J 

It is probable that at an earlier time one form of these 
words belonged to the northern and north-western borders of 
the district, where the pronunciation bears a greater likeness 
to the dialect of Yorkshire, than does that of the south-lying 
parishes. Whatever the cause may be, it seems impossible 
to lay down a definite rule for determining the phonetic laws 
which govern the dialect, so that the following notes must 
be received as expressing observed tendencies, not as 
recording fixed characteristics. 

Mr. Cole has already remarked on the tendency of vowel 
sounds to become weak,* and has furnished a useful list of 

* Glossary of South-West Lincolnshire, p. iii. 


words thus modified, to which many more might be added. 
Thus After becomes Efter, Fast, in Fasten-penny, becomes 
Fest, Had becomes Hed, Make, Mek, Master, M ester, and Peel, 
Pil. When a in the current English has the power of a in 
what, it changes in the Folk- Speech to the a in ant; e.g., 
qualified, squander, squat, swallow, wad, want, wash (which, 
however, commonly takes the form of w^sh), and watch. 

When the sound is that of a in labour, rain, etc., it 
lengthens to aa; e.g., laabour, raain. Chain and drain may 
become chaain or chean, and draain or dredn. 

The a in words like ask, bath, etc., is pronounced like the 
a in ash. The "south-country" broad a is rarely used unless 
the speaker be consciously adapting his language to the ears 
of a stranger. 

A when followed by r is sounded like the a in carp; e.g., 
quart, swarm, war, warn. 

Ea is usually pronounced like the ea in real ; but some 
words such as breath, feather, leather, heart, ready, steady, 
weather, follow the ordinary English form. Death, bread, 
lead (the metal) and sweat commonly belong to this class, 
but are occasionally changed into death, bread, lead, and 
sweat. Great is sometimes gret, at others great and grut ; 
earn, learn, and concern, become arn, larn, and concarn. 

The ei or ey often lengthens to aa, e.g., thaay, naaighbour. 
The ei in either and neither becomes ai or aai t e.g., naither 

The double e sometimes changes to the ea in real; e.g., 
teeth may become teath, and keep, keap, but often retains the 
classic sound. 

E or ee at the end of a word may be turned in ea when 
it is emphatic ; otherwise it is shortened to . 


Ew, ey, and ow at the end of words become e, a (as in fan), 
or ah, and are usually represented in print by a' or er. 


The vowel i before gh sometimes changes to ei (the ei as 
in neighbour); e.g., r eight for right, /eight for fight, and 
sometimes becomes double e as leet for light, neet for night. 


in words sounding like done, come, etc., changes to the u 
in bull; e.g., dun, cum. One and once, however, have the 
vowel sounded like the'o in on, preceded by a w. in words 
like broth, soft, cough, sounds like o in dog. The pronunciation 
which obtains in the South of England is a foreign introduc- 
tion, and is rarely heard from a Lincolnshire tongue. 

Oa sounds like oo-a quickly pronounced, and is generally 
written oa. 

01 frequently assumes the sound of the ow in know, which, 
for the sake of distinguishing it from the sound of ow in now, 
has been represented by oh in the illustrative sentences in 
this Glossary. 

Oo is generally long, but foot, stood, and some other words 
are often pronounced in the ordinary manner. 

Ow frequently becomes oo ; e.g., coo (cow), croon (crown); 
or aw, as craw (crow); maw (mow). See Ey. 


U is usually pronounced as the u in bull ; e.g., butter, but 
u in ywle, duty, and some other words sounds like ew in new, 
and before r it is pronounced in the current fashion. 


Y is often short in the pronouns my and thy, sounding like 
the i in pin, unless emphasis is required, but is long in 
adverbs ending in ly ; e.g., sewer-Jy for surely, accordin'-ty for 



The final ch often becomes k as screek for screech, thack for 


D sometimes becomes th as father for fodder, blether for 

Dge becomes g or d as brig, bridge, rig, ridge, fligged, 
fledged, sled, sledge. 


Gh is occasionally guttural in pleugh, plough, and beugh, 
bough, but the sound seems to be dying out. 

.,,,,,. ,,,,, ^ ^ 

H is rarely heard unless emphasis falls on it, the rule 
being that any word beginning with this letter, or with a 
vowel, should be aspirated when stress is laid on it, but not 


R, though used in spelling to represent the dialetic form 
of ow and ew at the end of words, is rarely pronounced with 
distinctness unless it commences a syllable, or is run on 
from the end of one syllable to the beginning of another, 
though there is a tendency to make it heard in bear (bear) 
and beer, and in pear (pear) to differentiate these words from 
bea (bee) and pea (pea). It is also used in the interjectional 
phrases ger up for get up, ger oot for get out, and ger awaay 
wi ye. 

R is also often used in the word hairf (half) but merely to 
convey to the eye the value of the preceding vowels, which 
are frequently mispronounced when represented by aa. 


Aa nearly resembles the sound we represent by air with 
the r untrilled. 



Aw=Aw in Gnaw. 

Ea Ea in Real. 

Ew Ew in News, but occasionally in the words ewse, ewst 
ewt represents a sound nearly like the German u. 

Oa = Oo-a quickly pronounced. 

Oh = Ow in know. The above sound is slightly modified 
in one or two words in which it is uttered by the fore part 
of the mouth and lips, e.g., hohle. 

Oo = Oo in Tool. 

Ow=Ow in Now. 

U = U in Bull except when followed by r, and in a few 
words such as yule, refuse, and duty. 






A', prep.Of. 

Th 1 fraame a 1 this here door's maade o' th' oak tree that cwst to 
graw wheare th 1 cemeterry is at Scunthrup. 

A, prep. On. 

A. Prefix to substantives and verbs : as rt-gate, ^-bulling, 

A, EH, inter, interj. Equivalent to " What ? " 

A, v. To have. 

A ' dun vvi' thee. 

AARON'S BEARD. Spiraia salicifolia. 

AARON'S ROD.Verbascum Thapsus. So called from its tall 
straight stem. See Britten and Holland's Eng. Plant Names. 

ABACK, prep.(i) At the back (followed by of). 

It's aback o' th' beer barril. 
(2) adv. By surprise, in phr. to take aback. 
I was ta'en clear aback when she tell'd me on it. 

ABACK O' BEYONT, phr. A very long way off. 

A man is aback o' beyont his sen, when he is, through his own fault or 
ignorance, unable to perform what he has undertaken. 


ABARGENS, phr. Of no value or consequence. 

It's that mucky and torn, it's abargens what becums on it. 
It's abargens whether he cums or no noo. 

ABATE. In the habit of. 

He's gotten abate o' drinkin'. 

ABEAR, v. To endure. 

ABIDE, v. To endure. 

I can't abide no bairns nobut my awn. 

ABLESS i.e., haveless, q.v. 
ABLINS, adv. Perhaps. 

ABLISH, adj. Somewhat able. 

He's an ablisk chap for a little un, but he can't hug a seek o' wheat 
aboard a vessil. 

ABOARD, phr. In drink. 

He's sum'uts aboard to-daay ; he could nobud just sit e' his gig as he 
cum'd fra Brigg market. 

ABOARD ON, phr. To run. 

- He runned aboard on me as I druv doon Ranthrup Hill, an' I thoht 
he'd a' tekken a wheal off. 

ABOON, prep. Above, in excess of. 

If he duzn't feal paain o' th' turpe'tine aboon paain o' th' inflammaa- 
tion it'll be to no ewse. 

ABOON A BIT, phr. Very much. 

It raain'd aboon a bit last Brigg fair ; it fairly siled doon. 

ABOON-HEAD. Up above. 

It's do'ty under foot, but dry aboon-Jiead. 

ABOON PLUM. Drunken. 

ABOUT, adv. In hand, in the doing, on hand. 
We'd a three-weaks' wesh aboot that daay. 

ABOUT WHAT, phr. All that, nearly all that. 

He's a straange good hand at tellin' taales an' hinderin' uther foaks 
warkin' wi' listenin' to him, an' that's aboot what he's fit for. 

ABRAHAM. Isaac and Jacob, (i) The Garden Comfrey. 

I am not sure whether it is a variety of Symphytum o fficinaleor a 
foreign plant. 

(2) Pulmonavia officinalis, 

These plants are probably so called because there are flowers of 
three differing tints on one stem. 

(3) Borago orientalis. 

This plant is so called from its being confounded with Nos. i and 2. 


ABRAHAM-MAN. A cheat. An able-bodied beggar, who 
pretends to be sick or a cripple, is said to sham Abraham. 

ABREAD i.e., in breadth. 

Th' wall's nobut a brick abredd. Cf. Mid. Eng. brede, breadth. 

ABUSEFUL, 04;. Abusive. 

A ! BUT, inter] . 

A ! But Charlie is a big leear, an' noa mistaake ; He'd lee thrif a 
three-inch deal. 

ACCORDING-LY (the ly very long). Accordingly. 
AGON-TREE. An oak. 
ACOS, conj. Because. 

ACRE. A measure of length, defined in Murray, Diet. 

An acre-length, 40 poles or a furlong (i.e., furrow-length) ; an acre- 
breadth, 4 poles or 22 yards. Cf. Leicester Words, E.D.S., 49, 88. 

In the iith of Hen. VIII. the tenants of the manor of Scotter, in 
Messingham, were required to repair the banks of the river Trent. 
For every acre in latitudine that was left unrepaired a fine of fourpence 
was to be levied. Rot Cur. . 

ACRE-SPIRES, s. pi. The sprout of corn before the ears come 

ACRE-TAX. A draining tax, always used for the yearly tax 
on the Ancholme Level, in contradistinction from assess- 
ments levied on the same district. 

Some of these Carrs are subject to a Drainage Tax. . . . It is 
sometimes called an acre-tax. Survey of Manor of Kirton-in-Lindsey , 

ADAM AND EVE. (i) A particular pair of legs in a shrimp, 
so called from a fancied resemblance to two human figures 
standing opposite to one another. 

(2) The flowers of the Arum Maculatum. 
ADAM'S-ALE, ADAM'S-WINE i.e. water. 


Adami pomum, the convex part of the thyroid cartilage of the larynx. 
Parr's Med. Diet. i. 32. 

ADAM'S-FLANNEL, white mullein, Verbascum Thapsus. 

ADDLE, v.~ To earn. 

Tom Stocks can addle fower shillin' a daay at suffin', soa he'll not 
wark for thee at two and nine. Adle, vox Lincolniensi agro usitatissima 
quod ipsis salariutn vel praemium mereri designat. Skinner, 



silly person. 

He's such a waffy addle-head, he duz n't knaw blew fra red. 

ADDLINS, s. //.Earnings. 

A-DONE. Have done ! 

Thoo awkerd bairn, a-dun wi' thee ! 

A-DOORS. Out, out of doors. 

You're alus clattin' in and oot a-doors. 

My brother will be flung and thrust out adoores by head and ears. 
Bernard, Terence, 120. 

AFEARD, adj. Afraid. 
AFORE, adv. and /r^. Before. 
AFORE-LONG. Before long. 
AFORE-TIME, adv. Formerly,, 

AFTER A BIT, adv. In a short time. 
Cum, arn't ye gooin' ? Ey, after a bit. 

AFTERBURDEN. The afterbirth (placenta). 

The afterburden should oht to be alus putten upo* kitchen fire-back at 
neet when foaks hes gone to bed. 

AFTER-CLAP. An unpleasant thing which comes to pass 
after the likelihood of such an event has long gone by. 

Rachel Taylor's 'e a fine waay ; she hed her tent bairn nine year sin, 
an' noo she's fallen doon wi' twins ; it's a sore after-dap for her. 

" It doth not spring from humble uprightness, but from a proud con- 
ceitedness ; and is the after-clap of Satan, and our sinfull hearts. 1 ' 
Obadiah Sedgwick. The Anatomy of Secret Sins, 1660, 247, Cf. Murray, 

AFTER-END. The autumn ; more commonly the back-end or 

AFTERLINGS. The last milk that comes before a cow's 
udder is empty, which is said to contain the most butter. 

AFTERMATH. The second crop of grass; the grass that 
grows when the hay is cut, more commonly called eddish, q.v. 

" The second crop of grass or aftermath," Rogers, Hist, of Agriculture 
and Prices, i. 17. Cf. Murray, Diet, 


AGATE, AGATE ON. Begun, tmder-way, fully-employed. 

Well, I mun get agaate. 

He's a bad un at startin', but when he's agaate on oht noht '11 stop 

Q. When is an oven not an oven ? A. When she's agate. 

A man was from home when his wife was taken in labour ; he was 
telegraphed for and hurried back. On his way he met the postman, 
who, in answer to his enquiries, replied, "All's gooin' on reight ; she's 
hed twins and is agaate yit." 


If thoo'll nobbut waait a bit I'll go agateus wi' thee o' th' waay hoiim. 
Messingham, 1877. 

AGE, v. To grow old, to acquire the appearance of age. 
He aages fast. 

AGE, AT. Of age. 

It'll all be th' yung Squire's when he cums at aage. 
" The jurie doth fynde that the heire of Randle Haworthe is at age." 
Manchester Court Leet, Records 1597, II., 120. 

AGE AN, prep. Against, before, in time for, presaging, nigh 

We mun hev wer cleanin' all dun agedn Maayda'. 
Th' herse collars is al'us as weet as muck agedn raain. 

(2) In exchange for. 

I sattled his bill, an 1 he gev' me three an' six agedn a sov'rin. 

AGEE, adj. Awry. 

(ai'gur, ee'gur). The high tidal wave of the Trent and 
Ouse. This phenomenon is called the Bore in the Severn, 
and the Barre at Mont St. Michel in Normandy. 

" This day the general going over the river . . . was graciously 
delivered from a great danger he was near unto, by a sudden surprisal 
of the tide called eager." Sprigg, Anglia Rediviva, 1647 ; ed. 1854, p. 76. 
" But like an eagre rode in triumph o'er the tide." 

Dry den, Threnodia Augustalis. 
" Then rushed on all, 
Like eagre swallowing up its streamy way." 

Ph. J. Bailey, Festus, 5th ed., p. 528. 

" What is called the eagre of the tide . . ; astonished those who 
saw it come up the channel." Monthly Mag., Dec., 1810, p. 472. 

" Wallis, the coxswain, perceived a strong aeger coming up the 
river." Stamford Mercury, Aug. 15, 1884. 

Speaking of the similar phenomenon in the Severn, William of 
Malmesbury says, " Nautae certe gnari, cum vident illam hi gram ^ sic 
enim Anglice vocant, venire, navem obvertunt, et per medium secantes 
violentiam ejus eludunt." Gesta Pontificum, Roll's Series, p. 292. Cf. 
Stark, Hist, of Gainsburgh, 522 ; Carlyle, Heroes and Hero-worship, 29 ; 
Palgrave, Normandy and Eng., i. 233, 731, 740 ; C. Brooke, Ten Years in 
Sarawak,}. 364; Louisa S. Costello, A Slimmer Amongst the Bocages^ 


AGG. A misfortune, an irritating loss. 

"That's a soor agg" is a common expression to indicate a teasing 

AGGRAVATE, v. To vex. 

You're eniff to aggravaate a growin' tree. 

It's eniff to aggravaate the heart of a whealbarra'. 


AGREEABLE, adj. Willing. 

Well, sir, you see it begun e 1 this how Robud ax'd me if I would 
hev him, and I says, efter studyin' a bit like, "Well, Bob, I'm 


AHIND, AHlNT,prep. and adv. Behind. 

AIM. Intention, desire. 

All his aaim is to get e' uther foaks road. 

AIM, AT, v. To intend, to try for. 

To aaim at sich things as he talks on, isn't fittin' for a convarted man. 

AINT. Am not. Arnt is the commoner form. 

AIR, v. (i) To dry damp clothes. 

Tak them weet cloas oot o* th' dolly, an' hing 'em upo' th' hedge, 
an' put th' mangled cloas upo' th' herse to air. 

(2) To fumigate. 

"For rossell and franckinsens to aire the church iijd'." 1586, Louth 
Churchwarden's Accounts. 

(3) To ventilate. 
AIR BLEB. A bubble. 
AIRM. The arm. 

AIR PEG. The vent-peg of a barrel. 

AIRS. Humours. 

She's in her airs to-daay. 

AIRY. Breezy, well-ventilated. 


AKERATE, v. To rust as iron does. 

We fun' sum shackles sich es thaay ewst to put upo' prisoners e' ohd 
times. Thaay was o'must all aheraated awaay, bud oor Squire thoht 
a great deal on 'em. 

(2) Blighted. 

His crops was that akeraated last year (1879) thaay was wo'th, in a waay 
of speaking, noht at all. 

ALABLASTER. Alabaster. 

Thaay fun alablaster at Gainsb'r when thaay dug railroad, bud it 
wasn't wo'th oht. 

It's a straange nist bairn, it's skin's that clear it's like alablaster. 

Nicholas Godeman, alebasterer, was fined in 1497 four pence for 
licence to traffic at Nottingham. Nott. Borough Rec. II., 302. Cf. 
Mon. Ang., v., 484. 

manorial officer whose duty it was to look to the assize and 
goodness of bread and ale within the precincts of the manor. 

George Greene .... for not sending for the ale-finder. 
Bottesford Manor Roll, 1617. 

The ale-taster's oath is given in John Kitchin's Jurisdiction of Court 
Leet, 1675, p. 94, and Sir William Scrogg's Practice of Court Leet, 
1714, p. 15. 

ALE-DRAPER. Keeper of an alehouse. 

"July 8th (1747) Thomas Broughton, farmer and ale-draper." Scatter 
Par. Reg. Burials. 

ALE-FEAST (obsolescent.) A public drinking usually held at 

ALE-MASTER. The chief man at the ale feast. 

ALEGAR. Sour ale used as a substitute for vinegar. Cf. 
Murray, Diet. 

ALENIATED. Alienated. 

Can't ye borra' a pick fra Billy K ? Noa, we're aleniated friends 

at present, soa I can't ax him. 

ALE- PEG. The vent peg of a cask. 
ALE-POSSET. Warm milk and beer sweetened. 

ALE-SCORE. The debt for drink at an ale-house recorded 
with chalk marks on the door. 


ALE-WHISP. The bush which was suspended in front of a 
public-house to indicate that drink was sold there (obsolete). 

In the Scotter Court Roll for 1562 is an order that Thomas Yong 
should either immediately give up his public-house or take out 
recognisance and licence according to the Statute for keeping an ale- 
house, and hang up " Signum aut unum leak -wyspc adhostium domus." 
A bush of ivy or other evergreen was for ages the sign of a tavern 
both in England and the neighbouring continental lands. There is an 
engraving of a mediaeval inn with a bush hanging before it in Cutts' 
Scenes and Characters of the Middle Ages, p. 543. Heine says in the 
Suttler's Song : 

" Der griine Kranz vor meinem Zelt, 

Der lacht im Licht der Sonne ; 
Und heute schenk 1 ich Malvasier 

Aus einer frischen Tonne." 

In Good Newes and Bad Newes, by S. R., 1622, quoted in Ellis's 
Brand's Popular Antiquities, 1813, vol. ii., p. 246, a Host says: 
" I rather will take down my bush and sign, 
Then live by means of riotous expence." 

ALIVE-LIKE. Lively, likely to live. 
ALIVE WF LOPS. Much invested with fleas. 

ALL ABOUT IT, phr. A clincher to an argument. 
I weant gie the anuther farden, so that's all aboot it. 

ALL- ABOARD, phr. All in confusion ; equivalent to the slang 
expression, " All at sea." 

Her things is ail-aboard, niver noht nowheare. 

ALL AND SOME, phr. One and all. 

ALL-ALONG, adv. In a continued course. 

I've gone on that foot-trod all-aling ony time this tho'ty year. 
Th' Hea runs all-long o' west side o' Ketton Parish. 

ALL ALONG ON,/>/^. Entirely owing to, in consequence of. 
It was all along o' drink 'at he ended his sen e' that how. 

ALL AT HOME. Quite sane. 

He's all at hoame when ther's oht to do, but he talks straange an' 
random when he's sittin' by th' fireside. 

ALLAWAYS, s. //.Aloes ; the drug not the plant. 
As bitter as allawaays. 

ALL-BUT, />//. Almost. 


ALL ENDS AND SIDES, phr.(i) All around, in or from 
every direction. 

Gether them things up, thaay 're of all ends an 1 sides. 

" da kommen 

Viele stolze Gesellen von alien Seitcn und Endcn." 

Goethe, Reincke Fuchs, Erstcr Gesang. 

(2) Slatternly, scatter-brained. 

She's alus of all ends an' sides, we can niver fix her to noht. 

ALLEY. The aisle of a church. 

A woman from Kirton-in-Lindsey informed the author that she never 
heard the passages between the pews in churches called anything but 
alleys, until the Puseyites began to make people particular about " them 
soort of things." 

The north aisle of the choir of Lincoln Minster was formerly called 
, the chanters' alley. 

" Mr. Olden did say when he did come to be churchwarden, he would 
make the Puritans to come up the middle -alley on their knees to the 
rails." 1638, Wallington, Hist. Notices, i., 70. 

ALL-GATES. By all means, in any manner. 

ALL-HALLOWS. An object called " the idol of All-Hallows " 
existed in the Church of Belton, in the Isle of Axholme, in 
the early part of the reign of Queen Elizabeth. It was 
probably a representation of All Saints. Peacock, Eng. 
Ch. Furniture, 45. 

ALL E' BITS, phr. All in pieces. 

He brok my cheiiny tea-pot wi' John Wesla' head on it all e' bits, an' 
then said a metal un wo'd do for a ohd thing like me. 

A woman who has lately been delivered of a child, or a man who 
has become a bankrupt are said to have tumbled all e 1 bits. 

ALL IN A PIECE, phr. Stiff with rheumatism, frozen, coa- 

I'm all in a peace like a stockfish. 

ALL-IVERS, phr. A hyperbolical phrase, meaning for all 
occasions, or for all time. 

He's books enif e' that room for all-ivers. 

ALL OF A PIECE, phr. Almost entirely covered. 

(I) Her legs is all of a peace wi' harvist-bug bites. 
(II) Used also with regard to a person who is much crippled 

by rheumatism. 

He was a nim'le yung man twenty year sin', but he's all of a peace 
noo, and walks wi' crutches. 

ALL OUT, adv. Quite, entirely, beyond comparison. 

ALL OVER. Every where. 

Taaties hes faail'd all oher to year. 


ALL-OVERISH, adj. Nervous, sickly. 

ALLS, s. pi. Goods and chattels, especially workmen's tools. 

" Pack up your alls and slot off" is a common form of dismissal, used 
bv mnsters'to workmen. 

ALL'S ONE (the latter word pronounced to rhyme with on), 
pkr. All the same. 

It's all's one to me whether you paay me noo or o-' Setterda' neet. 

ALL SORTS AND SIZES, phr. Of every kind or pattern. 

He hed all soorts an' sizes o' boots, but theare was niver a pair that 
would fit me. 

11 Articles of Impeachment, which they keepe by them of all sorts and 
sizes, tit tor every man, as in Birchin-lane they have suites ready made 
to fit every body." Clement Walker, Hist, of Independency, 1648, 
part i, p. 62. 

ALL TO NAUGHT. Entirely, completely. 

In thease wet years top-land beats warp land all to noht. 
Bottesford, 1882. 

ALL THAT. To do anything like ail-that is to do it very well, 
or very quickly. 

ALL THERE. Quite sane. 

He talks straange an 1 random, but he's all theare when one wants oht. 

ALLUDE, v. To attack. 

I've hed arysip'las bad, but it niver alluded to my throat. Winterton. 

ALL UP Wl',phr. All over with, quite done for. 

It's all tip wV them, fine, fine- weather, farmers that keaps the'r 

" Quite well at ten, 

Had a few friends to sup with me ; 
Taken ill at twelve 

And at one it was all up with me." 

Perversion, 1856, ii. 38. 

ALMANAC-MAN. The surveyor of the Court of Sewers, so 
called because he sends notices to the dwellers near the 
Trent, of the times when high tides may be expected. 
Burringham, 1882. 

ALONG ON, prep. (i) On account of, owing to. 
It was along on a letter missin' 'at my mare got kill'd. 
(i) By the side of. 

ALONG SIDE ON,/^. By the side of. 
The stee's along side on the fother stack. 

ALUS, ALUST (ol-us, ol-ust), adv. Always, 
I'm alus niver reight wi' maister. 


A'M. Used for I am. 

A'm a gooin' to Eputh o' Setterda' an" shall mebby staay while 

AMBERGREASE. A strong, sweet scent. 

It's a straange nist bairn ; it smells like ambergredse. 

When your throat's perfum'd your verie words doe smell of 
ambergreece. Marston, Antonio and Mellida, Act III. 

It was formerly believed that there were at the bottom of the sea 
springs of this scent, similar to the naptha springs which are found on 
land. E. W. Lane, Thousand and One Nights, 1841, vol. in., p. 108. 
See Murray's Diet., Ambergris. 

AMMERGRATE, v. To emigrate. 

AMONG-HANDS (o as in wrong) adv. In some way; said of 
anything done conjointly with other things, or of something 
done to eke out another thing. 

Thaay doan't keiip a sarvant lass noo, but thaay get thrif th' hoose- 
wark tidy enif among-hands. 

Th' bread's sad, but I weant thraw it i* to swill tub ; we shall get 
thrif it among-hands. 

AN. Used in the phrases, " Such an a, what an a". 

It was sich an a thing to do ; I wo'd n't ha' been scan in it at noht. 
What an a fixment she's gotten her sen into wi' that yung man. 
This an is perhaps a remnant of the Mid. Eng. kin, used in what kin 
for what kind, &c. Thus it may really mean " what sort of a fix." 

AN '-ALL, adv. Also, besides. 

He wants sendin' to Ketton (Kirton-in-Lindsey, where there was a 
prison), an' a cat- o'-nine-taails an* -all. 


ANCHOR. (i) An iron tie in a building. 
(2) The tongue of a buckle. 

ANCIENT. An old man. 

Well, old ancient, what did Adam saay when you last seed him. 

ANDPARCY, i.e., and per se ; the contraction &. 

" From A to andparcy " is equivalent to from beginning to the end. 

ANDRA. Luncheon, or any extra meal, as bread, cheese, and 
beer, sent to workfolk at about eleven or four o'clock. 

Farmer : Wheare's John Dent ? Bailiff : He's hevin' his andra' (See 
Aandorns, Aunder, Arndorn, and Downdrins, in Ray's Glos. E.D.S.) 

ANDREMAS. The feast of Saint Andrew (obsolete). 

"For the servese bouke at Sant Andrames vijs'.." Kirton-in-Lindsey, 
Ch. Ace., 1581. 


ANEAN, prep. Beneath. 

You'll find th' almanac ancun Bible up o'th parlour taable. 

ANEAR, ANEARLY, adv. Nearly. 

AN-END, adv. On end. 

I dreamt all th' dead bodies was stan'in' an-end e' th' chech-yard , 
sum on 'em as if they hed n't been oher a weiik dead. Northorpe, 

To go straight an-end is to go straight forward. 

ANGLES. Artificial burrows used for capturing rabbits in 
warrens. See TYPE. 


ANGNES. Agnes, a form often found in lyth century parish 
registers, and sometimes, though rarely heard in conversation. 

ANGRY, adj. Inflamed ; said of wounds. 

ANGUISHED. Pained, troubled. 

I was straangely anguished in my joints all thrif Thomas . . . 
th' wizzard. Bottesford, 1858. 

My spyryt ys anguyssed ful sore yn me. Manning of Brunne, 
Meditations, i. 315. 

ANIFF, ENIFF, adv. Enough. 

ANSHUM-SCRANSHUM. Bewilderment, confusion. 

Ther' was a deal o' anshum-scranshum wark at Smith's saale along 
o' th' auksoneer not causin' foiiks to stan' e' a ring. 

ANTLING. Inkling, knowledge. 

I ha'nt noil antlin' wheare he is noo, bud he did tell me his wife 
ewsed him that bad he should slot off to 'Merikay. 

ANY. See ONY. 

APPERN. (Ap'urn). (i) An apron. 

(2) The inner fat of a pig and the fat of a goose are called the 
pig-appevn and the goose-appern. Cf. Thomas Tusser, Five 
Hundred Pointes of Good Husbandrie, E.D.S., p. 36, 246. 

APPLE, v. To bottom, to root. Spoken of potatoes, turnips, 
and other bulbs. 

APPLE-ARK. A big chest in which apples are kept. 

APPLE-SCOHP. An apple-scoop; an instrument made of a 
sheep's metacarpal bone, sometimes carved, dyed green, 
&c., used for taking the cores out of apples. 

When the late Edward Shaw Peacock was a little child, he was 
saying in the presence of a rich and ignorant farmer that he should 
much like to possess a microscope. The man, who misunderstood him, 
said he had a good one at home which he would present to him. A 
few days after the farmer sent a handsome apple-scoop. 


APPLE-TURNOVER. An apple puff. 
APRICOCK. Apricot. Used by Shakspere, &c. 

AQUABUS. A passenger boat or water omnibus. A word 
badly formed in imitation of omnibus. 

ARGISOME, adj. Quarrelsome, full of contention. 
It's the argisumist bairn I iver did see. 

ARGLE, ARGY, v. To argue. 

Come maister, it's no use to argle. Ralph Skirlaugh, ii. 112. 

ARGLE-BARGLE, v. To argue, to bandy words ; also as 
sb., argument. 

ARGLEING. Arguing. 

What's the good o' argleiri 1 . . . about what folks is worth. 
Ralph Skirlaugh, ii. 152. 

ARGYFY, v. (i) To argue. 

(2) To be of import, to signify. 

It duzn't argyfy what his faayther was es long es he's a punct'al man 

ARK. A big chest. 

" And trusse al }>at he mithen fynde of hise in arke or in kiste." 
Havelok, 2018. 

"Thomas Carffare takyn down a hark out of rode loft vjd." 15:5, 
Louth Ch. Accts. 

" A malte arke.' 1 1538, Invent, of Dale Priory in Archceologia, xliii. 222. 

" One stoole and a great arke, 1624." Fairfax Invent., ibid, xlviii., 158. 

ARLES. Money given to fasten a bargain (obsolescent.) See 
To'n Agean. 

ARM. The arm of an axle-tree is that part which goes into the 

ARN'T. Fov am not, are not. 

Mother : Doant goa to chapil wi' that mucky faace, Mary. 

Daughter : I arn't a-gooin'. 

I wean't tak' no arn't an' no sharn't fra a bairn like thoo. 

ARRANT. An errand. 

Other arrants necessarie to be done. Lease of Scatter Manor, 1537. 
Arrand nuncium. Littleton, Latin Diet., 1703. 

ARREARAGE. Arrears of payment. 

He's gotten fower years arrearages o' his highwaay raate on, an' I can't 
get noa sattlement." 

"The arrerages of the same fully contentyd & satysfied." Lease of 
Scatter Manor, 1537. 

Mr. Burghe arrerages as befor. Kirton-in-Lindsey Ch. Acct. 1577. 

ARRIDGE An arris. The edge of a plank, a squared stone, 
or any similar object. 


ARSE. The lower or bottom end of a sheaf of corn. 

Farm Bailiff- Billy Ratton puts o'must as many heads in his sheiif 
arses as he duz e 1 th' top end. 

Farmer : Then tell him fra me 'at if I find him gooin' on e' that waay 
when I cum I'll arse him oot o' th' cloiis. 

ARSE, v. To kick upon the seat. 

If thoo cums here agean loongin' aboot, I'll aise the wf my foot. 

ARSE, TO HANG AN. To hang back. 
" This nat'ral son of Mars 
Ne'er hung an arse, 
Or turned his Tail, 
Tho' shot like Hail, 
Flew 'bout his ears." 

Epitaph on Duke of Grafton, in Steinman's Mem. 
of Duchess of Cleveland, :86. 

ARSE-BAND. The crupper. 
ARSE-BOARD. The hind door of a cart. 

ARS'ERD. Backward. 

Go ars'erds, cousin Edward, go ars'erds. 

" Bot if }e taken as }e usen arseworde this gospel." Political Poems 
(Rolls. Series), ii., 64. 

ARSE-SMART. Polygonum,Peysicaria, and Polygonmn Hydropipev. 
4 ' Persicaria urens, eodem sensu Fr. G. Culrage, sic dicta quia summum 
ardorem & dolorem ea podicem sibi tergenti conciliat." Skinner, 
Etymolog. Botan. 

So called because 

" If it touch the taile or other bare skinne, it maketh it smart, as often 
it doth, being laid into the bed greene to kill fleas." Minshevv, as 
quoted in Britten and Holland's Eng. Plant Names. 

ARSY-VARSY, adv. Topsy-turvy, the wrong end first. 

" Arsy-varsy, or the Second Martyrdom of the Rump," is the title of 
a song written about 1660. Rump Songs, i edit., part ii., p. 47. 

ARTICLE. Worthless fellow, a strong term of contempt. 

He's a sore article to be a parson ; he's nobud fit to eat pie oot o' th 1 
road an' scar bo'ds fra berry-trees. 

AS, vd.pvon. Who, that, which. 

The man as sells barm hesn't been this weak. 

Whose cauves was them as I seed i' Messingham toon streat ? 

AS, prep. Sometimes used redundantly. 
I expect him a weak as next Thursda'. 
He hesn't been here sin a munth as last Bottesworth feast, 
"Warning of another storm has been telegraphed from America 
as likely to arrive on our northern coasts as yesterday." Guardian, 
April 4, 1877. Quoted in Notes and Queries, 5th S. ix., March 9, 1878. 


ASCRIBE, r. To describe. 

I niver seed onything o' th' soort my sen, bud I've otens fieri it 
ascribed to me. 1886. Probably a mistake, not a true dialectic word. 

ASH-FENTIN, ASHFELTIN. An asphalte pavement. 

He slipt doon o' th' ashfentin when it was slaape wi' snaw. an' as it 
was nigh hand a public th' bobby hed him up fer bein' drunk. 

ASH-HEAP-CAKE. A cake baked on the hearth under hot 
wood embers. 

ASH-HOLE. (i) The square hole which receives ashes under 
the kitchen-grate. 

(2) An outhouse, or exposed place where ashes are thrown. 

AS HOW, conj. That. 

He said as how he was a loongin' theaf what hed gotten eaghteen 
hundred pund e' Gainsb'r bank all thrif cheatin' poor foaks. 

ASH-KEYS, s. pi. The seed of the ash-tree. 
A' SH' THINK, phr. I should think. 
ASIDE. Beside. 

ASK. A lizard, a newt. 

I was once tanged wi' an ask among the brackens e' Brumby Wood 
that bad, I thoht I should hev' deed strlght off. 

ASK. Harsh to the touch or taste ; astringent, S3ur, sharp. 
The aale's as ask as whig. 

A sharp ask squeal just for all the world like a hare. Ralph Sktrlaugh, 
i. 87. 

(2) Strong clay land when baked [by the sun is said to be 
" very ask." 

You ha'nt anuther bit o' land belongin' to you, oht like as ask as th' 
top end o 1 th' Wood Cloas is. 

(3) A sharp east wind is said to be ask, i.e., harsh. 

ASKINGS. The publication of bans. 
Did ta hear Bessie's ask in' s last Sunda' ? 

ASLANT, adj. Slanting. 
ASMY. Asthma. 
ASQUINT, adv. Awry. 

ASS. When an ass brays the saying is, " Ther's anuther tinker 
dead at Lincoln." Though now naturalised, I believe this 
to be an importation from Leicestershire or Nottinghamshire. 
When bricklayers dees they to'ns to asses. Messingham, 1865, 



He jumps aboot like ass-muck up'n a hard road. 

Ass-muck is much harder than horse-dung and frequently rolls about 
like a ball. 

4ST. Asked. 

I ast him when he wasjagooin, an' he said, " What's that to thoo ? " 

ASTRUT, adj. Jutting out, as a buttress does. 

AT, rel. pron.Tha.t. 

Them at steals geese should hide the feather poake, 
Th' sod wall at I maade was to noa ewse at all to keap them rabbits 

AT, prep. To. 

When ye cum at th' big elmin-tree ye mun to'n to th' reight. 

AT, prep, and adv. A word expressing dwelling or action. 
He's left Crosby an' I doan't knaw wheare he's at noo. 
Oor Jack's oot o' Ketton (prison) once moore ; I wonder what 
he'll be at next to get his sen putten in agean. 

A'T, v. (second per. sing, pr.) Art. 

A't ta gooin' to leave thy"plaace this Maayda', Bess ? 

AT-ALL, adv. Whatsoever. 

I fun' oot he duz n't knaw noht at-all aboot it. 

AT NOHT, phr. On no account. 

I wo'd n't hev sich an aidled bairn at noht. 

AT- AFTER, prep. After. 

He com in at after afternoon chech an' set wi' me maay be a quaarter 
o' a nooer. 

One generation at-after another. Cf., Notes and Queries, iv. S. xi., 
113, 182. Used by Chaucer, Sq. Ta., 302. 

ATOP-ON. On the top of. 

ATTACT. An attack. 

Oor squire's hed a bad attact o' asmy ; I thoht he'd ha' deed. 

ATTACT, v. To attack. 

He attacted him like a wild fella', and knockt him oher th' head wi' a 

ATWEEN, prep. Between. 

ATWEENWHILES, adv. In the interim. 

I hev' to be at Gaainsb'r i' th' morriin", an' at Ketton at neet, bud I 
shall staay a bit at Blyton atwecinwhiles. 


ATWIST, ^'.Unfriendly. 

Squire Heala an' him got atwist su'mats aboot Ran Dyke ! 

ATWIST, prep. Between. 

ATWIXT and ATWEEN, phr. (i) Shuffling, full of excuses. 
He's alus atwixt and atween, soa I can't get the reight end o' noht. 

(2) In a medium condition. 

It was noht to speak on, nayther good nor bad, just atwixt an' aticedn. 

A'TWO, adv. In two. 

I'm sewer I didn't breiik missis's cheany bowl ; it caame a'tii'o e' my 

AUD. Old. 

AUGER. A three-pronged instrument with serrated edges and 
a long shaft for spearing eels. 

AUNT (ant). A bawd, sometimes, though rarely, a prostitute. 
Cf. Winter's Tale, Act iv., sc. 3, 1. n. 


AUVEN, AUVER, v. To go about in an awkward, or aimless 
kind of way. 

Th' soft thing was auveniri 1 aboot like a great cart hoss. 
He neadn't come auverin' aboot efter oor Mary. 

AVELONG, adj. Slanting. 

AVERAGE. Average is a Lincolnshire term for land that is 
" fed " in common by the parish as soon as the corn is 
carried. Survey of the Manor of Kirton-in-Lindsey, 1787. 

The field lands of Bottesford and Yaddlethorpe were average before 
the enclosure. 

AW AN TING, adj. Wanting, deficient, usually employed in 
relation to defects of intellect or manners. 

He is straange and awantin' in his behaaviour, though he hes been to 
th' boardin' school. 

AWARRANT IT, v. To guarantee, generally used sarcasti- 

John '11 cum hoam drunk agean to neet I'll awarrant it. 

AWAY. Way. 

You mun goa to Ferry by Had'ick hill awaay, not by Scawthrup. 
He's ohder than her by aage aivaay, bud she looks fit to be his muther. 

AWAY, adv. as v. To go. 

I'll awaay to chech this mornin', theare's anew parson preachin 1 , an' 
theare weant be noa c'llection. 


AWAY WITH, v. To put up with, to endure. 

I can't awaay wi' blash like that; it's fer all th' wo'ld like listenin' to 
foaks speak at 'lection times. 

AWE (au), v. To owe. 

"John Halefylld aiie to church, vijs'." Kirton-in-Lindsey , Ch. Ace., 1539 

AWEARIN'. Wasting away. Applied to persons dying from 
a lingering illness. 

A consumptive person is said to be awearin'. 

AWIVER, *#. However. 

Well, awiver, I niver seed sich a sight e' all my born daays. 
Woy, herse, woy, herse, awiver, herse, thoo'll be tired afoore ta gets 
hairf a mile, herse. 

AWHILST. While, until. 

AWK'ARD, adj. (i) Awkward in movement. 

This is the awk'ardest che'n onybody nead want to sea ; it's wark o' 
two men an' a boy to to'n it. 

The late Archdeacon Stonehouse, vicar of Owston, in the Isle of 
Axholme, one day came up with a boy who had been employed to take 
on a pony some seed potatoes from West Butterwick to Ferry. The 
sack containing them, being more heavily weighted at one end than at 
the other, had fallen off the pony's back. The Archdeacon helped to 
raise up the burden. When he had done so, the lad, instead of 
thanking him, said, "Well, thoo is th' aivk'ardest fella' at liftin' a bag o' 
taaties I iver seed." 

(2), adj. Bad-tempered, obstinate, difficult to deal with. 

I doant knaw oht this side o' Hell 'at's warse then livin' wi' an 
awk'ard woman like what she is. 

I'm noane soa extra fond o' them theare easy-guided bairns ; 
timmersum cauves maks awk'ard bulls ye knaw. 

AWK'ARDNESS, AWK'ARDS.- Mischief, senseless ob- 

Th' lad's up to his awk'ards to neet. 

Thoo's as full of awk'ardness as thoo can stick. 

AWN. See OWN. 
AWNER. Owner. 

AWN SEN. Own-self. 

"Luv daddy, luv mammy, luv awn-sen best," a proverbial sayin' 
used to justify or explain acts of selfishness. 

AWSOME (au-sum), adj. Awful. 

A woman speaking of a burning oatstack said, " Treas look'd 
bewtiful when leet fra stack shined on 'em at neet, bud it was real 
awsum, it was. J . S., May, 1887. 


AX, v. (i) To ask. 

The Commissioners of sewers . . . axed me if they might cut 
through this bit to make the water course straight. Ralf Shirlaugh, 
i., 130. 

(2) To publish banns. 

AXED-OUT, AXED-UP, pp. Persons are said to be axed out, 
or axed up, when their banns have been read three times in 
the church. 

Theare's many a lass hes been axed-up, an' hed a bairn an'-all, 'at 
niver's gotten a husband. 

AY, EY. Yea, yes. 

AY, MARRY, phr. An expression of assent. 

Let's hev anuther pint o' aale, Jim. Aye, Marry, that we will. 



BAA-LAMB. A child's name for a lamb. 

BAB, BABBING. A flat-bottomed boat, used for removing 
the mud from drains. 

The bab or babbing boat is dragged along so as to disturb the warp 
which is carried by the current into the river Trent. The process is 
called Babbing. 

BABBLEMENT. Silly talk, babble. 

BABBY. (i) A baby. 

(2) A doll. 

Dryden translates Pupae in Perseus "Baby Toys," and in a note 
says that "those baby-toys were little babies or poppets, as we call 
them." Richard's Diet., sub. voc., Doll. It would seem, therefore, that 
at that time the word baby was commonly used for a puppet with 
which children play, and that the word doll was unknown, or at least 
not in common use. This is confirmed by Robert Burton, who 

Ut pueri infantes credunt signa omnia ahena, 
Vivere, et esse homines, et sic isti omnia ficta, 
Vera putant, credunt signis cor inesse ahenis. 

As children think their babies live to be, 
Do they these brazen images they see. 

Anat. Mel., vi. edit., p. 675. 

And by the Excise Act of 1656, where we find an import duty of nine 
shillings per dozen laid on babies heads of earth. Scobell, Acts and Ord., 

Lady Strafford says, in 1712, " Her face is exactly like a sign in the 
Strand, where they sell babys." Wentworth Papers, 244. 

(3) A child's word for a picture. 

(4) The reflection of objects seen in the human eye, or any 
other small reflecting surface. 

A lady who lives at Winterton saw some little children gazing 
intently at a door-knob of polished brass. She asked what they were 
doing, and the reply was. " Pleas 'm, we're lookin' for babbies. 

" Angling for babies in his mistress eyes." Cleveland, Poems, 1665, 
p. 117. 

" Sigh'd and lookt babies in his gloating eyes." Aphra Behn, The City 
Heiress, Act III., sc. i. 

" To look babi-es in one another's eyes." John Scott, Christian Life, 
1696, part iv., p. 70. 


BABBY-HOOSE. A doll's house. 

Thaay've the grandest ohd babby-hoose at that I iver seed ; it's 

bigger then ony chist o' drawers. 

Parson , he plaays aboot wi' chech like a bairn wi' a babby- 

BACCATOTAL. A total abstainer from tobacco. 

I'm alter 'd fra what I ewsed to be ; I'm boath teetoatal and baccatodtal 
noo. Messingham, 1870. 

BACHELOR'S BUTTON. (i) A double daisy. 

(2) A small rose, not much bigger than a daisy. 

(3) A double yellow butter-cup found in gardens. 

BACK and EDGE, phr. Entirely, completely. 

He was beaten back an' edge ; he hed n't a wo'd to saay for his sen. 

BACK-BAND. A chain or strap passing through or over a 
cart-saddle for the purpose of supporting the shafts. 

BACK-BOARD. The hind board of a cart. 

BACK-CAST. (i) A relapse in sickness or a backsliding in 

He was the punct'alist man at prayar meatin's ther' was e' all 'th' 
toon, but he got a straange back-cast thrif that lass bein' wi' bairn to 
him. Ashby, 1886. 

(2) Backwater, q.v. 
BACK-DOOR-TROT. Diarrhoea. 

BACKEN, v. To retard. 

Wheat's been very much backen'd this year thrif th' frost. 
Dinner's been backen'd a good hooer thrif soot tum'lin doon th' 

BACK END. (I) The hinder part of a thing. 

It's at th' back-end o' th' hoose, just agean th' watter-tub. 

(2) Autumn. 

We'd no apples to speak on last back-end. 

Them back-end anemones isruinaated wi' drought, Miss. 

(3) Back end o' th' week, Friday and Saturday. 

BACKENING. A hindrance. 

She's got a backening in her liggin-in thrif takkin' cohd. 

BACK'ERD. Backward. 


adv. Backwards. 

Th' bairn get's noa good at school, he's goin' back'erds-waays-on. 
He tum'l'd back'erds-waays-oher doon th' graain'ry steps. 


BACK-FRIEND. A secret enemy. 

" Some of my back-fyiends will labour to let as many see their teeth as 
I desire may see the truth." John Rosworm, Good Services, 1651, in 
Palmer's Hist, of Siege of Manchester, p. 66. 

"When he was with his back-friends at Swineshead." Samuel Pegge 
in Archtfologia, vol. iv., p. 46. 

BACKHANDER. A back stroke, a stroke with the back of 
the hand. 

He gev him a backhander into th' mooth. 

BACK-HOOSE-DYKE. To be in back-hoose-dyke is to be very 
far behind-hand. 

I've overligged my sen this mornin' an' hev' been e' back-hoose-dyke 
all th' daay thrif. 

BACKING. (i) Small coal or cinders thrown on the back of a 

(2) The retrogade movement of a horse. 

(3) Support. 

He'd niver hev goan to law if it hedn't been for . . . backin' on 

BACK-LANE. A narrow road or street ; not a highway ; or, 
if a highway, one that is but little used. 

Thaay're buildin' a sight o' new hooses agean As'by back-laane fer 
th' iron-stoan men to live in. 

" I tooke to my heels as hard as I could runne and got my selfe into 
a back-lane.' 1 Bernard, Terence, 156. 

BACK O' BEYONT, adv. or adj. Very far behind-hand. 

BACK ON. To urge on, to support. 

His muther backs him on in ivery thing he duz. 

BACK-OUT, v. To retreat from an engagement. 

He boht th 1 taaties at five an' twenty pund an aacre, but th' markit 
dropp'd, an' soa he tried to back-oot. 

BACK-RECKONING. An account of old standing. Used 
figuratively of old causes of quarrel. 

I could do very well wi' my ohd man noo, if he wasn't alus reapin up 

I doant talk much aboot it, bud I've a back-yeckonin' to paay him when 
I nobut get a chanche. 

I JACK-RENT. Unpaid rent, when another term has become 

BACKSET. An outshot at the back of a building. 


BACKSIDE. (i) The hinder part of anything. 

" A old paynted clothe hangyng on the bakesyd of the rood." North- 
ainptonsh. Inventories, i6th cent., in Archtfologia, vol. xliii., p. 241. 

"The back-laine on the back-side of Mr. Hindmarsh's house." Gains- 
burgh Manor Records, 1663, in Stark's Hist., Gainsb., p. 262. 

(2) Offices behind a house. 

You'll find the tool o' th' backside, nigh-hand th' swill-tub. 

" I haue a certaine parlor in the backside, in the furthermost part of 
my house ; in thither was a bed carried and covered with clothes." 
Bernard, Terence, p. 233. 

" All houses, outhouses, barnes, stable yardes, backsydes, ways, 
passages." Particulars of Sale of Warren in Brumby, 1650. 

The street in Winterton, to which the name of " East Street " has 

now been given, was previously called " Mr. backside," 1 ' from the 

name of the principal inhabitant. 

(3) Land behind a house running down to a back-lane or 


" The gardens and backsides be divided by many low, dry stone walls, 
as good as breast workes. 1 ' 1642, Relation of the Action before Cyrencester, 


" Postices, Anglice backsides." Scotter, Manor Roll, 22 April, 1713. 

" To impound all swine and other cat el that shall be found trespassing 
in the .... back-sides belonging to the towne." Gainsburgh 
Manor Records, 1718, in Stark's Hist. Gainsb., p. 537. 

"Backside, the yard or ground behind a house." Penning, Diet, sub voce 

"Curtilage, sb. a gateroom or backside." Ray, S. & E. Country 
Words, E.D. S., p. 81. 

(4) The breech. 

BACK UP. A person is said to have his back tip when he is 
sulky or sullen. 

" You've yer back up to-daay like a peggy otchin goin' a crabbin'," is a 
contemptuous remark made to an ill-natured person. Hedgehogs are 
believed to carry crab-apples to their haunts by rolling or falling on 
them, and causing the fruit to stick upon their spines. 

BACK UP, v. To support ; usually in a bad cause. 

If thaay summon ye up to Winterton, I'll go an back ye up. 

He duzn't want noa backin" 1 up at all ; his caase is as clear as daayleet. 

BACKWATER. (i) The ebb of the tide. 

(2) The water near the side of a river which, when the current 
is strong, flows the contrary way to the stream. 

(3) The superabundant water in a mill-dam, by the force of 
which the machinery of the water-mill is hindered from 

BACON-CRATCH. A wooden frame made by bars crossing 
each other suspended in farm-house kitchens and larders 
and used to support bacon. 

BACON-FLY. An insect, the larva of which eats bacon. 


BACON-HOOKS, s. pi. Hooks fastened into the beams of a 
kitchen or larder on which bacon is hung to dry. 

BAD, adj.-(i) Difficult, hard. 

Haxey field's bad to beat fer grawin' taaties an' wheat year efter year* 
(2) 111. 

He's tekken bad wi' th' ohd complaaint, an' I doan't think he'll get 
oher it this time. 

BAD COMPLAINT. Bad disease. Lues vemrea. 

BADDER, BADDEST, adj. comp. and superl. Worse, worst. 
I've knawn badder things then this happen to a man, a vast sight. 
It was the baddest year we iver hed fer wild ducks. 

BADGER, t;.(i) To tease. 
(2) To beat down in price. 

BAD HEART. To have. 

" Well it maay live, but I've abad heart on it ; " that is, I am doubtful 
of its Teco very. 

BAD-HEARTED, ^'.Melancholy, miserable, downhearted. 

BADLY. Unwell, sickly. 

I'm a poor badly creatur nog. 

BAG. (i) The udder of a cow or sheep. 

(2) The womb of any animal. 

(3) The stomach of any animal. 

"I .... have frequently found the principal stomach or bay, 
as the farriers term it, nearly eaten through by these destructive 
vermin." 1810, Complete Grazier, p. 143. 

BAG, v. (i) To steal. 

(2) To cut peas with a reaping-hook. 

(3) To cut peat for fuel. See BAGS. 

BAG AND BAGGAGE. All a person's household goods. 

Thaay've to'n'd us oot i'to New Frodingham toon-streat bag an' 

BAG-FOX. A fox which has been captured, and is brought in 
a bag to be turned out to be hunted. 

BAGGAGE. A worthless person of the female sex (often used 
jocosely without offensive meaning). 

BAGMENT. (i) Rubbish. 
(2) Silly talk. 


BAGMENTALLY, adj. Rubbishy ; usually applied to an 
utterly worthless person. 

BAG O' MOONSHINE. An illusion, a foolish tale. 

BAG O' TRICKS. The whole set or quantity; any combina- 
tion of things which are naturally connected together. 

Th' poany com doon an' brok th' shavs, an' smash'd th' whoale 
bag 0' tricks up intirely. 

A young man at W , lately " broht in " at chapel, prayed for the 

conversion of his " faather, muther, bruthers an' sisters, an', yea Loord, 
all th' bag o' tricks on "em." 

BAG-PUDDING. Any pudding which is enclosed in a bag or 
cloth before it is cooked. 

BAGS, s. pi. Peat cut for fuel ; the upper part consisting of 
peat intermixed with roots of grass, when cut for fuel was 
called bags ; the lower consisting of peat only was called 


" It is laide in paine that none of the said inhabitantes shall grave or 
shote any bagges beneath Micklehouses or Triplinghouses, or beneath 
any sik, betwene them in paine of every load to the contrarie, xiid " 
Scotter, Manor Roll, n Oct., 1599. In Archalogia, vol. xlvi., p. 388. 

Bagmoor, near Burton-upon-Stather, possibly derives its name from 
these bags. There is a place called Newington Bagpath, in Glouces- 
tershire. The spot on which the battle of the Standard was fought 
was, it is affirmed, at one time, called Bagmore, perhaps because bags 
were wont to be cut there.' A mediaeval annotator of Roger de 
Houedene tells us it was so named because the Scots fleeing from the 
victors " Sarcinas suas a se projecerunt." Rog. de Houed., Ed. 
Stubbs, vol. i., p. 101. 

Laurence, of Durham, says of this : 

" Porro locum competenter Baggamorain nuncupant, 
In quo Scotti mendicosas sarcinas exuerant." 

Laur., Durh., Dial. (Surtees Soc.), 75. 

There was in the time of King John, a meadow called Baggethwaite, 
part of the possessions of the nunnery of Rosedale, co. York. Mon. 
Aug., vol. iv., p. 317. 

BAIRN. A child. 

Theare's moore bairns then business agaate n DO. 1886. 

BAIRN, v. (I) To beget. 

(2) To conceive. 
BAIRN ISH, a^.Childish. 
BAIRNISHNESS. Childishness. 
BA1RNLESS, ^'.Childless. 

BAIRN-PLAY. Foolish sport. 

I call this croakey (croquet) that gentlefoaks is soa fond on noht but 
bairn-play. 1875. 

" Shooting of kings is no bairns-play" Kingsley, The Red King. 


BAIT. A rest from labour, generally for the purpose of taking 
food. Commonly used in relation to animals, but sometimes 
to men also. See BELOW. 

BAIT, BATE, v.(i) To tease. 

(2) To cease from labour for a short time. 

Noo then, chaps, we mun baa-it a bit. 

(3) To give horses a short rest for the sake of taking food. 

Thoo mun baait thy herses twice atween here an' Gaainsb'r. 

(4) To cause to feed ; also to feed, to take refreshment. 

"That no man shall teather nor bate ther herse within the meares, 
within the corne landes, except every man of his owne." Scotter, Manor 
Roll, 26th March, 1578. 

" King Athelstan . . . found a woman bayting of a cowe upon the 
waye called the Fosseway. . . . This woman sate on a stoole, with 
the cowe fastened by a rope to the legge of the stoole." 1686-7. J onn 
Aubrey, Remaines of Gentilisme and Judaism (Folk Lore Soc.), p. 136. 

"The horses' playful neigh, 

From rustic's whips, and plough and waggon free, 
Baiting in careless freedom." 

John Clare, Sunday Walks. 

The two verbs bate (from abate] and bait to feed, or cause to bite, seem 
to have become confused together. 

BAKED. Encrusted with mud. 

Look at that theare soo, Master Edward ; she's fairly baaked wi' sludge. 

BAKED MEAT. Roast meat, as distinguished from boiled. 
" Look to the bak'd meats, good Angelica." 

Romeo and Juliet, Act 4, sc. iv., 1. 6. 
" The funeral bak'd meats 
Did coldly furnish forth the marriage tables." 

Hamlet, Act i, sc. ii., 1. 180. 

BAKED ON THE SOLE. Bread is said to be baked on the, 
sole when it is baked on the oven shelf, without being 
confined in a tin. 

BAKER'S-BREAD. Bread made by a baker, as distinguished 
from home-made bread. 

BAKIN', lit. A baking ; all the loaves of bread, or pieces of 
pastry, baked at one time. 

We hev' a heavy baakin' this weak. 

BAKSTON, lit. A bakestone. An iron plate with an iron bow 
to hang by, on which muffins are baked. Cf. Atkinson, 
Cleveland Gloss., p. 25. 

BALD-FACED. White faced, said of horses. 


BALL, v. To stick together ; said of snow. 

It was pag-rag daay five-an-fo'ty year sin', an' I roade my black 
mare to Brigg, an' th' snaw balVd soa I thoht noht else but that she 
wo'd be doon ivery minit. Bottcsford, 1887. 

BAM. A deceitful tale told for temporary amusement. 
BAM, v. To deceive for amusement. 

BAMBOOZLE, v. To deceive ; to make fun of by some foolish 

BANBURY-TALE. Silly talk. The phrase Banbury Glosses 
is used by Bishop Latimer in a contemptuous manner. 
Vol. ii., p. 299. (Parker Soc.) 

BAND (i) Anything twisted such as a rope or a string. 

(2) A leading string for controlling the movements of a child 
or an animal. 

I mind when \ve was bairns we hed a moudiwarp e' a band, soa as we 
could sea how it thrust itsen i'to th' grand, wioot lettin on it getawaay 
fra us. G. T. t 1880. 

(3) The iron work on a door to which the hinges or sockets 
are fastened ; frequently used for the hinge itself. 

BAND-END, v. To beat. 

If ye doan't giv oher maakin' this here row I'll band-end ye, and quick 
an all. 

BAND-MAKER. A woman or child who makes bands with 
which to tie sheaves in harvest time. 

BANDS. Banns of marriage. 

M. Do it respectable wi' parson an' bands o' marriage. 
N. Naay, not fer me thenk ye. I weant tie mysen fer good to noa 

BANDY. (i) The stick with which the game of hockey is 
played ; and hence (2) the game itself. 

BANDY, v. To toss backwards and forwards. 

BANDY-BALL. A game called fives in Scotland, and rackets 
in the south of England. 

BANG, v. (i) To throw about, to beat, to shut a door violently. 
She was that mad she bang'd th' door efter her as thof she'd been th' 

(2) To surpass, to excel. 

Peatmoor Parson bangs ony body I iver heard at preachin.' 

A squire having asked a farmer some questions as to the best way of 

cultivating his land received for a reply, "Well, sir, God's seasons 
bangs all manigement." 


BANGER. (i) Something very large. 

Well really them sweades is bangers ; I niver seed noht like it. 
(2) A great lie. 

Noo then, Jim, noan o' your bangers, remember it's Sunda". 

BANGING, adj. Large, strong, excellent. 

BANGSTRAW. A nickname for one who thrashes with a flail. 
We've no bangstmws noo as we ewst to hev afoore threshin' machines 
cum'd up. 

BANG UP, adj. (i) Very good; quite up to the mark. 
He's chollus e' his talk, but h?'s bang up at sattlin' daay. 
Bang up is sometimes used as a nickname for a person who represents 
himself as very strong, powerful, or rich. 

(2) Close up. 

I've a saage tree grawin' bang up e' yon corner. 

BANKER. (i) A person who makes banks, a drain-digger, an 

" The writer of this article remembers . . . the judge and bar 
being equally puzzled by being told that a disreputable fellow, whom, 
if we remember rightly, the police had found asleep under a straw-stack 
was a banker. " A banker" exclaimed the judge ..." Yes, sur, 
and he is a banker, that I'll tak my bible oath on, for I seed him mellin' 
doon kids at the' stathe end not ower three weeks sin'," replied the 
witness. A philologist was at length found in court, who explained 
that a banker was, in the Lincolnshire Folk-Speech, a man who made 
banks, that mell meant to hammer with a wooden mallet or mell, and 
that kid was a faggot." Stamford Mercury, yth August, 1874. 

" One of these men (from the Bedford Level) who was examined as a 
witness at Cambridge Assizes, being asked, as usual, what he was, said, 
" I follow fowling and fishing." On another occasion a poor man, a 
witness in the court, said in answer to the same question, " A banker." 
The judge remarked, " We cannot have any absurdity." The man 
replied, " I am a banker, my Lord." He was a man who repaired the 
banks of the dykes." Geo. Pryme, Autobiographic Recollections, p. 146. 

" He told me that cranberries had not been discovered at that place 
(Dersingham) till within his memory, and that the discovery was made 
by some bankers (men who work in the fens) from Lincolnshire." John 
Freeman, Life of William Kirby, p. 155. 

" They observed six men, apparently bankers, proceeding in a direction 
leading from Holbeach Marsh to the huts at Sutton Wash." Boston 
Gazette, i2th January, 1830. 

' Navvies and bankers were busy there in shoals under the direction of 
the great Sir John." Lawrence Cheny, Ruth and Gabriel, vol. i., p. 7. 
Cf. Murray, Diet. 

(2) Stones piled up for the purpose of making a firm founda- 
tion for the stone on which a mason is working. 

BANK UP, v. To heap up. 

Th' muck was bank'd up three foot high agaain Bottesworth Chech 

BANTLING. A pet name for a child. 


BAR. A crow bar. 

Fetch th' bar an' prise it up. 

BAR, v. To stop, to forbid, to prohibit. 

He's barred takkin' stroa off o' land by th' custom o' th' cuntry (a law 
term) . 

BARBER, v. To shave. 

I alus barber my sen o' Setterda' neet ready for Sunda'. No real 
Christian iver barber' 'd his sen o' a Sunda', thoo knaws that thoo 

About forty years ago, Thomas Carr, a poor man, living at Kirton- 
in-Lindsey, called on the Rev. Robert Ousby, the curate, and said 
Sir, I've heard a straange, bad taale, aboot you. I knaw it isn't trew, 
but I want to hear you contradict it fra yer awn mooth. A man tohti 
me last neet 'at you alus barber'd yersen on a Sunda' mornin'. The 
clergyman had to admit the charge was true, and poor Tommy Carr 
went away exceedingly sorrowful. 

On 5th December, 1732, the barbers in town (Arbroath), compeared 
before the session in answer to their citation, and the record bears 
" Being accused of profaning the Sabbath-day by shaving people and 
dressing the wigs before and in the time of the sermon." Geo. Hay, 
Hist, of Arbroath, p. 239. 

In 1700 a fine of five shillings was imposed by the authorities of 
Pontefract on all barbers who shaved persons on Sunday. Pontefract 
Book of Entries, p. 2^5 cf. J. Horsfall Turner, Haworth, Past and 
Present, p. 81. 

BARBERER. A barber. 

BARE AS A BO'DS TAAIL, i.e., as a bird's tail. Said of a 
person who has lost everything which he possessed. 

BARE BACK. To ride bareback is to ride without a saddle, 
horse-cloth, or other covering on the horse. 

BARE-BUB. An unfledged bird. The names boys give to 
young birds are bare-bubs, pen-feather' d uns,flig'd uns andflig'd 

BARE CART, BARE WAGGON. A cart or waggon whose 
wheels are not protected by iron hoops or tiers (obsolescent). 
Before the great enclosures of the last century almost all the 
highways were unstoned, and carts and waggons frequently 
had not their wheels protected by iron. 

" j ironn bound wayne and j other onbounden." Inventory of Priory 
of St. Thomas, near Stamford, 1538, in Archaologia, vol. xliii., p. 212. 

"One shodd wayne and one bare wayne liij>." Inventory of John 
Nevill, of Faldingworth, 1590 MS. 

" In 1599 it was ordered that no shod cart that is, a cart, the wheels of 
which were bound with iron should go over any gutter or pavement 
of stone within the town for fear of doing damage." Charles John 
Palmer, Perlustration of Great Yarmouth, vol. i., p. 24. 

The wheels of bathing machines in Britain and elsewhere are, at the 
present day, sometimes left unshod where the surface they have to 
traverse is not of shingle but of sand. 


BARGEST (baargest). A ghost, an evil spirit. 

Listenin' to Peggy Richard telltales about bargests.Ralf Skirlaugh. 
vol. ii., p. in. Cf. Scott, Border Min., vol. i., p. 207, ed. 1861. 
Murray, Diet , Barghest. 

BARING. The process of removing the upper soil previous to 
digging stone, clay, or iron-stone. 

BARKED, BARKLED, pp. Said of dirt dried on the skin and 
hard to remove. 

Yer ban's is fairly barked wi' muck. 

I was that barkled wi' muck when I com oot of Cleugh Head, I thoht 
I should niver get mysen clean no moore. 

BARM. (i) Yeast. 

" For salt and barm, 3jd." Records of Corp. of Winchester, 28. Hen. 
VIII. in Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. vi., 604. 

(2) The brown froth which collects in running water. 

BARMY, adj. Weak, foolish. 
A soft barmy fool. 

BARN. A bairn, a child. 

Bessy Morris's barn ! tha knaws she laaid to mea. Lord Tennison, 
Northern Farmer, st. vi. 

BARN, v. To put in a barn. 

"Barn or stack it after harvest." Arth. Young, Agric. of Co. Line., 
1799, p. 164. 

BARNACLES. Old-fashioned spectacles which were held on 
the nose without lateral supports. 

BARN-YARD The fold yard. 

BARREN, BARON. The external part of the sexual organs 
of a cow. 

Particular attention should be given that the pudendum, or baron, as 
it is sometimes called, be not lacerated. Treatise on Live Stock, 1810, 
p. 41. 

BARONY LAND (Obsolete). 

" Sir John Thorrolde hathe land (in Corringham), pretended to baronie 
Lande, a terme given to all suche lande within the Soke which are 
not of the Soke." Norden's Survey of the Soke of Kirton-in-Lindsey, 
1616, p. 356. " In others, there are Barony lands that owe no ttit or 
service to the prince, so that two courts are not unfrequently held in 
these parishes, one for the prince, or lord of the manor of Kirtori, in 
that parish, aud the other for the lord of the barony -lands." Survey of 
Manor of Kirton-in-Lindsey, 1787. 

BARRING, prep. Except. 

I'll goa wi' ye ony day barrin' Thursda', that's Brigg markit. 


BARROW, v. To wheel in a barrow. 

Barm' them few taaties i'to steam-hoose. 

BARROW-DRILL. A small drill which is pushed forward by 
hand like a wheel-barrow. 

BARROW-HALE. The handle of a wheel-barrow. 
BARS, s. pi. The ridges on the roof of a horse's mouth. 

BARTLE, BARTY. Short forms of Bartholomew. 
Bartle is a Lincolnshire surname. 

BARTON BULLDOGS. The water of a part of the Humber, 
near Barton, which is often turbulent. See HEZZLE 

BASS (a, as in lass). (i) A kind of rush from which matting 
is made. 

( 2 ). Matting, including Russia matting, whether woven or in 
strips, as used for tierng up garden plants. 

(3). A hassock made of rushes. 

(4). A limp basket made of rushes in which carpenters carry 
their tools. 

(5). The lime tree, Tilia par vi folia. 
(6). Bass in Music. 

BASS-COLLAR. A collar for horses, made of rushes or 

BASSINS, 5. //.Dressed sheep skins. 

BASSOCK. (i) A thick sod used for fuel. 

" That none shall grave any sodes, nor turves, nor bassocks of the 
Sowthe Easte syde of the Grene Gaitte and abuttinge of the South 
Weste of Grene Howe in pena vp. viij d ." BotUsford Manor Roll, 1578. 

(2) A hassock (1551). 

" For nattes and bassockes for J>e quere ij 8 . ix d ." Louth, Ch. Ace. ii. 97. 
" For abassecke for Mr. Bulmer, iiij d . Kirton in Lindsey, Ch. Ace., 1633." 

BASS-WOOD. A term vaguely used by carpenters to indicate 
several kinds of soft wood. 

Arthur Young mentions having seen in the South of Lincolnshire a 
wood of the poplar class which the woodmen called Pill Bass. Line . 
Agric., 1799, 213. 

BAST. The fibre of hemp or flax. 

" Spread it on stubbles for three weeks or a month till the bast clears 
easy from the bun." Arthur Young, Line. Agric., 1799, p. 159. 


BASTE, v. (i) To beat. 

If I was nobud t' tell the school maister he'd baaste th' whole lot on 

(2) A term used in sewing ; to run together with long stitches. 

BASTING. A beating. 

He gev him a good baastin' for thrawin' stoans at th' turkey cock. 

BAT. (i) A habit. Compare a policeman's beat. 

Oor parson's at his ohd bat preachin' agen Methodises and Ranters. 

(2) Rapidity of motion. 

Thaay do go at a straange bat on them theare raailroads. 

(3) A sharp blow. 

He fetch'd me such a bat o' th' side o' my head, it maade all my 
teath chitter. 

(4) A sheaf of threshed straw or reeds. 

I alus mak th' last wheat stack I hev into bats agen harvist time. 

(5) A turf used for burning. 

BAT, v. To cover with bats. 

Stacks are batted down as soon as they are " topped up," i.e., finished, 
by having bats pinned on them with thatch pegs. After the harvest has 
been got in these bats are removed and the stack is thatched. 

To cover a potatoe-pie or a heap of turnips or mangel-wurzels with 
straw preparatory to putting earth upon it, it is called batting down. 

BAT-EYED, adj. Near sighted. Cf. Murray's Diet. 

BATE, A. A habit of going or doing. 

Sam's herse hed gotten a bate o' stoppin' at ivery public-hoose atween 
Barton Watter-side an' Riseholme To'npike. 

My lad's gotten a bate o' swearin', all thrif goin' to that damn'd 
school o' yours. 

BATE, v. To abate, to diminish, to take off something in a 

I wean't baate noht at all ; so you tak her [a cow] or leave her just as 
you hev a mind. See BAIT. 

BATE, //.A bite. 

My gran'muther, she naayther bate nor supt afoore goin' to th' 
sacrament, an' niver cum'd oot on her room afoore goin' to chech. 

BATH, v. To bathe, to apply fomentation. 

BATTEN. A board of foreign timber not more than seven 
inches wide and two and a-half thick. See Murray's Diet. 

BATTEN, v. To cover with battens. 


BATTEN-DOOR. A door made of boards nailed to cross 
pieces is called a batten-door, to distinguish it from a panelled 

BATTER. (i) Soft, horse-trampled mud. 
(2) A slope, as the side of a drain, a bank, &c. 

BATTER, v. A surface is said to batter when it slopes from 
you ; as the side of a ditch, bank, wall, or tower. 

BATTERFANGED, adj. Bruised, beaten. 

" Th' Blyton cabinet hes been that batterfang'd aboot so as no 
carpenter can mend it." J. B., Messingham, 1867. 

He'd been a so'dger i' th' Roosian war, an' com hoame reg'lar 

" The Pastor lays on lusty bangs, 
Whitehead the Pastor batterfangs." 

Thomas Ward, England's Reformation, 1716, 
p. 124. Cf. Murray, Diet. 

BATTING-BOARD i.e., a beating-board ; a piece of wood 
used by thatchers to beat down the thatch. 

BATTLEDOOR. A piece of cardboard on which was printed 
the ABC, the Lord's Prayer, and a few short syllables, 
employed as a substitute for the horn-book. Battledoors 
were in use here, in dame's schools, in 1.843, and probably 
much later. 

The saying, " He duz n't knaw his ABC fra a battledoor," refers 
to this, and not to the battledoor with which the game of shuttlecock is 
played. Cf. Murray, Diet. 3. 

BATTLE-ROYAL. (i) A cock-fighting term. 

"Battle-royal . . . a fight between three, five, or seven cocks all 
engaged together, so that the cock which stands longest gets the day." 
Sportsman's Diet., 1785. 

(2) A fight between several persons, where each one is the 
antagonist of all the others. 

BATTLE-STAG. A game cock. 

Ther' was a man as com fra Kettering side as tell'd me as he knaw'd 
a woman as hed hed a battle-twig creap into her ear, an' when she deed 
an 1 th 1 doctors oppen'd her head, it hed bred her braains full o' worms. 


BAUK. (i) A beam in a building. 

(2) The beam of a plough, a pair of scales, or a steelyard. 

"J balhe ferri cum les scales et ponderibus." Fabric Rolls of York 
Minster (Surtees Soc.), p. 336. 

(3) A squared beam of timber. 

(4) An upright post in a stud and mud building. 

(5) The strip of unploughed land which separates one 
property from another in an open field. 

" Richard Welborne for plowing vp the kings meere balk vjd" 
Kirton-in-Lindsey Fine Roll, 1632. 

Under a raised ground or bank, parallel to a balk, the only one in 
the field. History of Lincoln, 1810, p. 240. 

" The slips of cultivated land . . . were divided by green balks. "- 
Alf. John Kempe in Archczologia, vol. xxvi., p. 369. .Cf. Fred. Seebohm, 
Eng. Village Community, pp. 4, 19, 20, 119, 382. 

" Down narrow balks that intersect the fields.' 1 John Clare, Sunday 

(6) The little ridges left in ploughing. 

More balks, more barley ; more seams, more beans. 

(7) An irregularity or ridge on the ground. 

(8) A line marked on the ground to jump from. 

BAUK. To hinder, to disappoint. 

An ignorant man came into a large property, and as a consequence 
married a lady. A friend whom he had asked to dinner had neglected 
to keep his appointment, and the host had told the other guests that 
Mr. . . . had banked him. The wife, when the guests had departed, 
rebuked her husband for having used such anungenteel word, telling him 
that he ought to have said that he had suffered a disappointment. The 
next day the husband was drawing sheep, and requiring some red ochre 
with which to mark those he had selected for market, he called to one 
of his farm lads saying, " Come yow here, Jack, an' fetch me that rud 
fra o'ffn th' disappointment i' th' laathe." 

BAUKER. A bauk, q.v. 

BAUK-FILLING. The filling up with bricks, small stones 
or plaster, of the angle between the wall-plate and the roof 
of a building. 

The word bemfillinge, signifying the like thing, occurs in the Norham 
Accounts for 1344 5. Raine, North Durham, p. 276. 

B AUK-HOOKS, s. pi. Iron hooks fastened into the beams 
of a kitchen or larder on which to hang bacon, cooking- 
vessels, &c. 

B AUK-TREE. The principal beam in a building. 

" I'll niver hev a theiif like that undefnean my bauk-tree." 

BAUM. -(i) Barm, i.e., yeast, 

(2) The pot-herb balm, Mellissa Officiate. 


BAUM-TEA. An infusion of the herb balm used both for 
drinking and for fomentations. 

BAWCOCK. A foolish person. 


BAWTRY-SALLAD, the weeds which come down the river 
Trent in summer, when the drains and ditches which com- 
municate with it in the earlier part of its course are being 

BE. By. 

"You'll not get him to do that be noa means whativer, I am sewer 
on it." 

BEAK. (i) The out-shoot of a spout, a gurgoyle. 

(2) The pointed part of a blacksmith's anvil. 

(3) The reckin-hook, the hook by which a pot is suspended 
over a fire. 

BEAKER. A large glass or cup with a stem. 
BEAL. The lowing of oxen. 

BEAL, BEAL-OUT, v. To shout, to bellow, to cry with 
much noise. 

"Th" bairn beard oot that bad, I was clean scar'd, but it was at noht 
bud a battle-twig 'at bed crohled up'n his airm." 

BEALING COW. A cow whose calf has just been taken from 

" A bedling coo soon forgets it cauf. 1 ' Proverb. 

BEAM. A steelyard. 

"Them oats '11 weigh tho'teen stoan to th' seek at th' beam this 

" Waying at the King and Quene's beame, in thole fourteen thousand 
five hundreth, one half hundrethe and fyve poundes." Account of 
Lincolnsh. Bell Metal, 1483 Miscel. Excheq. B 9. i, k. 5. 

BEAN-SWAD. The pod of a bean. 

"Chuck them bedn-swads to pigs, wilt ta'." 

BEANT. Is not. 

It bednt his an 1 niver was. 

He bednt a gentleman if he hes lots o 1 brass. 

BEAR. A coarse kind of barley. 

BEAR A HAND. To help to assist. 

" Cum noo, bear a hand, I can't get this peace o' wood oot 'n hohle by 
mysen." East Butterwick, May, 1884. 


BEARANCE. Toleration, submission. 

This is beyond all bedrance ; I shall give warnin' to leave tomorra' 

BEARD. A hedge made by setting branches of thorns upright 
in the ground. Making hedges of this kind is called 

BEARER. (i) A corbel. 

(2) A floor of timber submerged in a ditch or drain, for the 
purpose of affording a safe drinking-place for cattle. Cf. 
Ralf SkirlaugTi, vol. ii., p. 89. 

(3) A person who assists in carrying a corpse to burial. 

(4) The horizontal support of a wooden bridge. 

BEAR UP, v. To recall to memory. 

I knaw his naame well enif, but I can't bear it up just nco. 

BEAST, BEAS. Beast is often used as a plural for horned 
cattle, the more common form is beds. 

" Eighty short-horn beast." Sale Bill, 1880. 

" Ry chard Holland hath taken of straungers vj. beas to gyest in the 
Lordes commene." Scatter Manor Roll, 5 & 6 Ph. & Mary. 

" Richard Richardsone for making the common beas foulde vjs viijd . 
Kirton-in-Lindsey Ch. Ace., 1597. 

"All ye bease both old & young 23!!." Invent, of John Johnson of 
Keadby, 1703. 

" Them Scotch beds' was dear ; thaay'll eat their heads off afoore gress 
begins to graw." 1876. 

BEASTINGS. The first milk of a cow after calving. 

Puddings are commonly made of it ; and it is the custom to send 
small quantities of it to the neighbours as presents. It is very unlucky 
not to distribute gifts of bedstlings, or to wash out the vessels in which 
they have been sent. 

"The beestings, or first milk drawn from the cow." Treatise on Live 
Stock, 1810, p. 44. 

BEAT. A bundle of flax or hemp. 

"Bind the femble into sheaves or beats." Arthur Young, Line. 
Agric., 1799, p. 159. Cf. North Riding Record- Soc., vol. iii., p. 365. 

BEAT 'EM. The conqueror ; a term used in cock-fighting. 

BEATER. (i) A flat piece of wood with a shaft inserted 
diagonally in its upper surface, used for crushing the seed 
vessels of flax. 

(2) A stick with a knob at the end, used for mashing potatoes. 

(3) The projecting pieces of wood inside a churn. 



BEAUTIFUL, adj. Anything pleasing or good without any 
relation to the artistic, picturesque, or poetical faculties. 

" Them's the bewtifulkst pills I iver took ; thaay run thrif one like 

BECK. A brook, as Grains^, Bottesford Beck. 

This raain hes fill'd all th' becks an' dikes; ther'll be sum banks 
brustin' or I'm mistaan ! May 14, 1886. 

BECKSTOANS. Stones placed at intervals in the bed of a 
beck for persons to step upon. Their places have now, in 
most instances, been supplied by bridges. 

There was a row 6' beckstodns at th' boddom o' Cruchinland fer 
foaks to get oher into Messingham parish by. 

BECK-BOTTOMS, BECK-SIDES, 5. //.Low lands beside 
a beck. 

BECK-RAILS, s. //.Rails placed across a beck to hinder 
cattle from straying. 

BECOMED. Become. 

What's becum'd o' Soaphy ? I hevn't sean her for years. 

BED. (i) The piece of wood which lies on the top of the axle- 
tree of a cart or waggon for the soles to rest on. This is 
also called packing. 

(2) A seam in clay or rock. 

There's no iron to speak on e' th' second bed. 

(3) A woman is said to get her bed, or to be brought to bed, 
or to get into bed, when she gives birth to a child. 

She's just aboot ready to get into bed agean, if her husband hes been 
e' Americaay better then a twel'-munth. 

(4) " He's getten oot o' th' wrong side o' th' bed this mornin'," 
is said of one who has arisen in a bad temper. 

BED, v. (i) To lay stones evenly in a wall. 

If them stoans is n't dresst square they weant bed reight. 

(2) To go to bed. 

"When female virtue beds with manly worth, 
We catch the rapture and we spread it forth." 

Bell Inscn'pt., Kirton-in-Holland, ii. bell. 
" And we will wed, and we will bed, 
But not in our alley." 

S alley in our Alley. 

(3) To lay litter for horses or cattle. 

Noo then, get them beas' bedded, it's omust neet. 

(4) To lie flat, even, and compact. 

Thoo mun watter that thack well, or it weant bed to noa meanin'. 


BEDDED, #>. (i) In bed. 

" f)e king hire hauide wedded and haueden ben samen bedded." 
Havelok, 2270. 

(2) Matted as corn is by climbing weeds. 
BEDDING. (i) Bedcloths. 

" And also Nappery and Beddynge sufficient ffor thejr lodginge." 
Lease of Scatter Manor, 1537, Pro. Soc. Ant., II. series, vol. vi., p. 417. 

(2) Stable litter. 

We mun thresh next weak or we sha'nt hev noa beddin' for th" herses. 

BEDE, inter/. Exclamation to horses, meaning " Go to the 
right " (obsolescent). 

BEDE-HOUSE. An alms house. There were formerly three 
sides of a quadrangle of cottages at Alkborough, called 

bede- houses, 

BEDFAST, ^'.Confined to bed by illness. 

He could n't cum, he'd been bedfast iver sin' Lammas. 

BED-HAPPIN'. Bed-clothes. 

Yer faather's sich a man for bed happin', I can't put him enew 
blankits on. 

BED-ROPES, s. pi. The ropes which knit together the harden 
cloth, between the bed stocks which supports the mattress. 

BED- RUG. A counterpane, a coverlet. 

BED-STAFF. A pole for tucking in the clothes of a bed 
which stands with one of its sides next a wall. 

BED-STICK. A bedroom candlestick. 

Must I maake the shuts and bring a bed-stick. 

BEDSTOCK. The wooden frame of a bed, sometimes also the 

" Three bedstoks " are mentioned in the inventory of Robert Abraham, 
of Kirton-in-Lindsey, 1520. Gent. Mag. 1864, v l- *> P- 5 01 - 

Thomas Paulden, in his MS. account of the taking of Pontefract 
Castle, has "contracting all his strength & making a violent passe, 
hitts vpon the bed-stocke with his rapier & breaks it in three or foure 
pieces." In his printed account of the same transaction the word has 
been changed into " bed-post." Archtfologia, vol. xlvi., p. 57. 
Somer's Tracts, vol. vii., p. 5. 

BED TWILT. A bed quilt. 
BED-WOUNDS. Bed sores. 


BEE-BEE. Nurses interjection, meaning go to sleep. The 
same as lye-bye. 

BEE-BREAD. A substance found in beehives, not honey or 

BEE-FLOWER. The wall-flower. 

BEELD. A shed. 

BEELD, v. To build. 

BEERAWAY. A bat. Vespertilio. 

BEERY, ^/.Somewhat drunk. 

BEES. Certain kinds of large flies not unlike bees. 

BEE-SKEP. A bee-hive. 

I was once at Kirton Sessions when a woman was tried for stealin' 
a bee-skep full of beds. 

Some old ruinous beshepp." John Day, Parliament of Bees. Ed. A. H. 
Bullen, p. 18. 

" He's set th' bed-skep in a buzz ;" that is, he has stirred up anger or 
raked up scandal. 

BEETLE. A large mallet. 

BEEFING, BEFFLING,/ra.#w*. (i) Barking. 
(2) Coughing. 

BEGGARLY. Land which has become exhausted from 
wanting manure is said to have become beggarly. 

BEGINNER. One who begins something, a founder. 

The first beginner o' th' New Connection Methodists, was Alexander 
Kilham, of Ep'uth. 

" Of all things great, thou great beginner, 
Take pity on a garter'd sinner." 

Burlesque Epitaph on John Sheffield, Duke of Buckingham, 
Add. MS. 5832, fol. 160. 

BEGONE, WOE-BEGONE, disagreeably surprised. 

I lighted on'em boath ahint t' stroa stack, an' my wo'd, bud thaay 
did look begone when thaay seed me. 

BE-JEGGERS. Forms of imprecation. 

BEHAVE, v. To conduct oneself properly. 

Cum, behaave I is a caution often given to obstreperous children, 


BEHAVIOR, BEHAVOUR. Good manners. 

You see she'd been laady's maaid to Miss , soa she'd gotten to 

knaw bshaaviour as well as ony laady e' Linki'sheere. 

BEHOLDING, part. Beholden to, obliged to. 

I'm much beholding to you, sir, for them sticks you've gin us. 

I'll not be beholding to you for a farden. 

I am informed that beholding is the regular form in Shakespere which 
is preserved in the Cambridge and Globe editions, but altered to 
beholden in most others. 

"The victory is much beholding to him. 1642.'' Relation of Action 
before Cirencester, p. 6. 

"You are much beholding unto them." 1650, Oliver Cromwell in 
Carlyle, Lett, and Speeches of 0. C., vol. ii. ( p. 131. ' 

" Aquinas had before lighted upon the former and refused it, and he is 
beholding to St. Austin and the school of the Platonists for the latter." 
1687, John Norris, Miscellanies, p. 194. 


" Bein' as ye weant be back to dinner you'd better tek sum bread an* 
chease wi 1 ye." 

" Bein' she can't abide back-bitin', I wunder she lets her tung run on 
as it duz." 

BELAGGED, //.Muddied. 

" I was that belagged wi' pickin 1 taaties I could hardlins get hoam." 

BELCH. Worthless conversation flavoured with dirt or 

BELDER, v. To roar. 

What are ta belderin' e' that how fer ? 

BELFRY. A shed made of wood, sticks, furze, or straw ; 
sometimes also a rick-stand. 

Symeon of Durham tells us that Henry I. " ligneam turrim quam 
Berefreit vocant erexit." Siirtees Soc. Ed., vol. i., p. 124. 

Many other spellings of the word may be found in Du Fresne Gloss. 
sub voc. Belfredus. 

The Scatter Manor Roll of the first of Mary says that Richard 
Robinson, of Messingham, removed " ligna sua super le belfrey et jacent in 
communi via" for which he was fined ten shillings. 

In the Inventory of John Nevill, of Faldingworth, taken in 1590, 
occurs " the belfrey with other wood xxs. " 

A complaint was made to a Lindsey justice of peace, sitting at 
Winterton in 1873 that the belfry of ... was ruinous and liable to 
fall on passers by. 

BELIKE, adv. Probably, apparently, perhaps. 
Belike I maay, but I doa n't gie noa promise. 

BLK. Force, violence. 

Th' chimley pot blew off wi' such an a belk, I thoht noht bud that it 
wo'd ha' cum'd thriff th' roof. 


BELK, v. (i) To belch. 

(2) To bask. 

That theiire ohd dog's alus a belkin' i' th' sun noo. He did n't do e 1 
that how when I fo'st remember him, he was nobbut a pup then. 
Doant lig belkin' theare, Bill, but get up an' mind thy wark. 

BELKING, adj. Big, clumsy, unwieldly. 

A great belkin 1 chap like that, scarcelin's fit for ony thing bud to eat 
taaties oot 'n th' road. 

A methodist preacher recounting his experiences during a sojourn in 
Ireland said, '"' an' when I got into th' hoose, niver mind if ther' was 
n't a gret belkin' pig ligged e' frunt o' th' fire. 

BELL. The cry of deer. 

BELL-CHAMBER. The chamber in a church tower where 
the bells hang. 

BELLER, v. To bellow. 
BELL-FLOUR. A campanula. 

BELL-HOUSE. The room whether on the ground floor or 
otherwise, where the ringers stand when they ring the 
church bells. 

BELLY-COURAGE. Brag, boast. 

BELL-MAN. A town crier. 

A family at Louth took their name of Belman from one or more 
members of it having held this post. 

BELL-OVEN. A vessel of iron, somewhat like a flat-topped 
bell, with a handle at the top, used for baking cakes. 

The hearth where the wood or turf fire had burnt was swept clean, 
the cakes laid upon the sole, the bell-oven inverted over them and 
covered with hot ashes. They are probably out of use in this part of 
England, but we believe are still employed in the North. 

BELLS, s. pi. The large bubbles formed in water by violent 

" It bells, it bells, it bubbles i' th' dike," is a child's exclamation on 
seeing these bells. 

BELLUS, v. To bellow ; to low as oxen do. 

BELLY-BAND. The strap under a horse's body in harness ; 
the girths of a saddle. 


BELLY-FULL. Enough, a sufficiency. 

He's gotten his belly-full this time, said of any person who has been 
completely beaten. 

Divert one another with lies, till we have our bellies full." N. Bailey, 
Erasmus' Coll,, 1725, p. 25. 

BELLY-NAKED, #. Entirely naked. 

" Some in their shirts, some in their smockes, 
& some starke belly-naked. 

Percy Folio, Loose Sengs, p. 24. 

BELLY-PIECE. The fleshy portion of a pig near the hind 


Annona cara est. " Corne is at a high price; victuals are deare ; 
belly-timber is hard to come by." Bernard Terence, p. 73. 

" An ass minds nothing for a cudgel . . . especially if you give 
him belly-timber." N. Bailey, Colloquies of Erasmus, 1725, p. 514. 

BELLY-WORK. The colic. 

BELONG, v. (i) To be the property of. 
That pickin-furk belongs to me. 

(2) To live at, or work at. 

I belong to Scotter, though my forelders caame fra Blyton side, an' 
afoore that fra Haxey. 

Do you belong to Peacock farm ? 

(3) To relate to, to appertain to. 

It niver belonged to my business, so I let it aloane. 

II It duz n't belong to bairns to knaw ivery thing 'ats talk'd on. 

(4) To form part of a set ; to form the proper complement of 

This here king o 1 clubs belonged to a ohd pack o' cards my 
gran'muther hed.- 

BELT, //.Built. 

This house was belt by my faather. 

BELTER- WERRITS. A teasing child. 

Oh deary me what a belter-werrits thoo art, bairn ! 

BEMAUL, v. To maul ; to bruise or dirty by fighting or 
rough play. 

BEMASED. Astonished, dazzled. 

I was real bemaased when I seed him ; I thoht he was in "Merica. 
The thunner an 1 lightnin' bemaased me while I o'must fell i'to Car 


BEMOILED. Dirtied by work. 

He was bemoil'd all oher wi' cleanin' oot Smith warpin' drean. 

BENEFIT. A reward, used ironically for punishment, 

I'll give thy bairn a benefit next time he puts his foot in my gardin. 

BEN-KIT. A round wooden vessel with a cover. 

BE-NOW, adv. By this time. 

She'll hev' gotten her things on be-noo. 

BENSIL, v. To beat. 

I'll bensil you if iver I find you here agean. 

BENSILLING. A beating. 

Dick stoal hairf th' pears off yon tree, soa I gev him a good bensillin\ 
an' he hes n't been near-hand sin'. 

BENTALL. A composite drag ; an iron instrument used for 
tearing up the surface of the land, named after its inventor, 
Edward Hammond Bentall, of Heybridge, Essex. 

BENTALL, v. To use a lentall. 

BENTS, s. pi. Dry stalks of grass. 

" Lady-fly with freckled wings, 
Watch her up the tall bent climb." 

John Clare, Solitude. 

BEOUT, conj. and prep. Without, unless. 

He was soa scar'd he run awaay beoot his coat an' waais'-coat. 
I can't goa beoot you lend me a herse to ride on. 

BERRIES, s. ^.Goose-berries. 

" I've sell'd a many berries e' my time." Yaddkthorpe, John Dent, 1841 

BERRY-PIE. Goose-berry pie. 
BERRY-TREE. A goose-berry bush. 

BERTH. A fixed occupation. 

He's gotten a good berth noo if he nobbut hohd's steady an' can 
keap it. 


' I slit a sheet, a sheet I slit ; 
A new beslitten sheet was it." 

These words form a trial of skill for the tongue like the well-known 
Peter Piper, &c. 


BESOM. (i) A broom made of birch twigs or ling, for stable 
and out-door use. 

She's as good fer milkness as a birk-trea is fer bedsoms. 

(2) " He's as fond as a bedsom" signifies that the person spoken 
of is very foolish. 

(3) A man is said to have " the bedsom oot," when his wife has 
gone from home, and he in consequence thereof invites his 

BESOM-BET. A ploughboy, who, at plough -jagging time, 
impersonates an old woman with a besom. 

BESOM-BUSKS. The thick abnormal growth of small 
branches, somewhat like birds' nests, frequently found 
in birch trees. 

BESOM-HEAD. A foolish person. 

BESOM-STUFF. Birch twigs, ling, or other small sticks of 
which besoms are made. 

A place in the parish of Messingham is called Besom Car, probably 
because besom-stuff used formerly to grow there. 

BESPEAK. (i) To speak to; to converse with. 

I niver bespeak him noo ; he fell oot wi' me aboot that foal o' mine 
among his tar's. 
We ewse'd to keap cump'ny, bud I hevn't bespodk her sin' Martlemas. 

(2) To promise. 

He'll not fall to hev it, bein' as I've bespodh it fer you, Miss. 

BESSY. (i) An ill-mannered girl. 
(2) A harlot. 

BEST. To get the better of any one in a bargain or other 
matter of business. 

B hes bested 'em all at Scotton. 

Ohd Squire Heala' says to me, says he, "'tak noatice o' what I saay, 
Tim, fer it maay be o' ewse to ye sum daay. When you get i'to 
truble, alus employ sumbody gaain-hand hoam, ony fool can best a 
London lawyer." 

BESTOW. To put away carefully. 

1 bestow my Sunda' cloas awaay i' a chist o 1 drawers as soon as I tak 
'em off. 

" He took them from their hands, and bestowed them in the house." 
2 Kings, ch. v., v. 24. 


BEST PART. The greatest part or number. 

A clergyman was talking to a sceptical parishioner on matters 
pertaining to theology. The layman remarked, after listening to an 
account of heaven and hell, " Well, sir, what you saay maay be' all 
very trew for them that's straange an' good or straange an' bad-like, 
but i' my opinion th' best part goas noawheare." 

BET, pp. Beaten. 

I'm clean bet, worn oot, an' dun for. 

BETIMES, adv. Early. 

You mun call me betimes i 1 th' mornin', I'm goin' to Lincoln. 

BETTER, adj. and adv. (i) More. 

He'll be better nor fifty-five year ohd efter next Saaint Thomas daay. 
It's better then a year sin' I seed him. 

(1514). "j, towell diaper iiij yerdes & 'better." Louth Church Ace. 
MS., vol. i., p. 225. 

(2) Quite well. 

Jim's better, m'm, an 1 's goan to Scotter Shaw, but Jemima's nobut a 
sore poor creatur yit. 

BETTERING. Making better. 

He went to Austraal'a i' th' hoapes o' betterin' his sen'. 

BETTERMENT, BETTERN ESS. Amendment, improve- 
ment, especially in health. 

Well, th' doctors says he's better, but I can't see noa betterment in him. 
He's in a bit less paain noo, poor thing ; bud I sea noa real betterness. 


She's gotten her bettermore behaaviour on to-daay wi' her Sunda' goon. 
" The Club, where the bettermost parties go of a night time, to get rid 
of their wives." John Markenfield, vol. iii., p. 99. 

BETTER THEN SHOULD BE. A man, woman, or thing 
is no better then should be, when the character or position 
is somewhat doubtful. 

I doa n't knaw th' reight end o' noht agen her, but it braaids o' me 
she's no better than she should be. 


BETWIX, adv. Betwixt. 

I met him e' th' laane betwix Greenhoe an' th' brick-yard. 

" Sir Christopher satt betwex the seid John Copuldyke and the seid 
William Tyrwhytt." Star Chamber Proceedings, Temp. Hen. viii. in 
Proceedings of Soc. Antiq., agth April, 1869. 


BETWIXT and BETWEEN, phr. (i) In an intermediate 

Sarah : " Was it daayleet or dusk ? " 
George : "Well, just betwixt an' betwedn." 

(2) Shuffling, full of excuses. 

He's what I call a betwixt an' betwedn soort 'n a man, alus puts you 
off wi' some leein taale or anuther ! 


She teaches school an' duz sowin' betwednwhiles. 

1 ' Before which time he doth not take him in unless it be betwixtwhihs 
to worke him." Tho. Blundevill, The Four Chiefest Offices Belonging to 
Horsemanship, circa 1593, c. v. 

BEW, BEU GH. A bough of a tree. See BIFF. The gutteral 
gh is still heard in this word occasionally. 

BEWER. A gnat. 

Them bewers hes bitten me that bad, I hevn't hed a wink o' sleap 
all neet. 

BEWLT. Built. 

Oed John Smith, Jack's granfaather, be wit th' barn at the Moors e* 
1805. (The ew in bewlt sometimes approaches the German ii in sound.) 

BEYONT, prep. Behind. 

BEZZLE, v. To drink very much. 

He's allus bezzlin'; I fun' him last harvist in Clarke's marsh aside on 
a beer barril, as still as a bea. 

BIB. (i) A child's pinafore. 
(2) The upper part of an apron. 

BIBBLE-BABBLE. Childish talk. 

BIBLE-OATH. A very solemn oath. 

I'd tak' my bible-oath on it if it was th' last wo'd I was iver to speak. 

BIBLE-TRUTH. God's truth, q.v. 

BICKERMENT. Quarrelling. 

Ther' was a straange bickerment among 'em all aboot draains an' 

BIDDY BASE. A game; prisoners' base. 

BIDE, v. (i) To bear, support, endure. 

Put it up o' my shou'ders I can bide th' waaight. 
I've hed a deal o' illness to bide e' my time. 

(2) To tarry. 

Bide a bit in Scallows laane an 1 I'll cum to the* 


BIFF. The bough of a tree. 

Th' K . . . parson leant a stee agen a biff o' an' apple-trea an 1 
then saw'd it off, soa he tum'led to th' grund an' brok' his airm. 

BIG, adj. (i) Strong, violent. 

I ca'nt bear to be oot in a big wind. 
(2) Big wi' bairn, pregnant. 

AS A HOUSE SIDE. -Very big. 

She cot me a shive o' chease iv'ry bit as big as a barn side. 
Faather's maade a blotch up o' th' parlour floor as big as a barn door. 

BIGGEN, v. To increase in size, to grow bigger. 
Tonups is bigennin* fast wi' this raain." 

BIGGEST,/*^. The greatest part or number. 

The biggest part o' them men e' Parliament knaws no moore aboot 
farmin' consarns then a swalla' knaws aboot snaw-blasts. 

BILE (beil). A boil. "To smart like a bile" is a common 
expression used to describe anything that is very sore. 

BILK, v. To cheat. 
BILL. A bill-hook. 
BILLETING. Fire-wood. 

BILLY-BOY. A sloop or river craft. 

" A Humber or east-coast boat of river-barge build, and a try sail ; a 
bluff-bowed North-country trader, or large one-masted vessel of burden." 
Smyth, Sailor's Word-Book, sub voc. 

We remember hearing the judge of the assizes fairly puzzled by an 
old Isle of Axholme witness, in a question of right of way, who said, 
" He were an awd man, and he cud mind 'em hugging taters oot o't 
billy-boys ower't bank intot t' rawd." Sir C. H. J. Anderson, Bart., 
Lincoln Pocket Guide, p. 15. 

"The Humber-keel was a small sea-going vessel trading between 
Yarmouth and the Humber; also called a billy-boy." Palmer, 
Perlustration of Yarmouth, vol. ii., p. 353. 

BILLY-BOYS. Small black clouds. 

It'll raain afoore foher-an'-twenty hooer end ; th 1 billy -boys is cumin" 
in fra Marnum hoale. 

BILLY-BUCK. A fool in the game of Plough-bullocks, q.v. 

BIN (bin), pp. Been. 

Wheare hes ta' bin ? I've biA noa wheares, 


BINCH (binch). A bench. 

I mun hev a new binch gotten for th' carpenters' shop, that theare 'at 
thy faather maade 's rotten. 

" With that Sir Christopher Ascought, knyght, rose of the bynch." 
Star Chamber Proceedings, temp. Henry VIII. in Proceedings of Soc. Antiq., 
2gth April, 1869. 

BIND, BINDWEED. Pronounced with short i. The wild 

BINDER. Pronounced with short i (bind'ur). (i) A person 
who binds sheaves in the harvest field. 

(2) A long wand of willow or hazel, used for binding the top 
of a newly plashed or dead hedge. 

(3) A person who binds shoes and boots, commonly the shoe- 
maker's wife or daughter. 

(4) A broad, soft piece of linen wound round the body of a 
newly-born babe. 

(5) A large stone put in a rubble wall to act as a tie. 

BING. A bin, a large box in a stable used for containing corn 
or cut-meat. 

" To cover the bottles in the bings with saw-dust " 1777, Barry, On 
Wines, p. 82. Cf. Murray, Diet. 3. 

BINGE (binj), v. To cause a wooden vessel to swell by filling 
it with water or by plunging it into water. 

Chuck that theare bucket i'to th' pond an' let it binge, it runs like 
my ohd aunt tung ! 

BINK (bingk.) (i) A workman's bench. 

(2) A bench to sit upon. 

(3) A wooden hutch to put coals in. 

BIRDS, Names of. 

Billy Biter Blue Titmouse 

Black-cap (i) Bullfinch 

(2) Great Titmouse 

Blackhead Blackheaded Gull, Larus Ridibundus 

Bog-bull, Bog-bumper Bittern 

Bottle Tit Longtailed Titmouse 

Butterbump ..Bittern 

Cad Craw , Carrion Crow 

Crane Heron 

Crow (pronounced craw) Rook 

Cuddy Hedge Accentor 


BIRDS. Names of (continued). 

Dab Chick Water Hen 

Develin Swift 

Dish Washer Pied Wagtail 

Dollpopper Water Hen 

Feather Poke Willow Wren 

Felfur (i) Fieldfare 

(2) Missel Thrush 
. Giller Wren, Gilliver Wren. . . .Wren 

Gip-gip Fly Catcher 

Glead, Gled A Kite or any kind of Hawk larger 

than a Sparrow-hawk 

Glimmer Gowk Owl 

Gooly , .Yellow Hammer 

Gowk Cuckoo 

Green Plover Lapwing 

Grey-backed Craw Corvus Comix 

Grey Linnet Linota Cannabina 

Heronsew Heron 

enny Hoolet Owl 

enny Wren Wren 

inty Wren 

iCet Craw Carrion Crow 

Larrocks Lark 

Maggot Magpie 

Magullat Owl 

Meggit Magpie 

Megullat Owl 

Mick-mick Green Woodpecker 

Midda' Creak Landrail 

Nickill Green Woodpecker 

Peeweet, Peewit Lapwing 

Peggy Whitethroat Common Whitel hroat 

Pheasan Pheasant 

Pink Chaffinch 

Popinjay Green Woodpecker 

Py wipe Lapwing 

Redcap Goldfinch 

Reed Sparrow (i| Sedge- Warbler 

(2) Black-headed Bunting 

Royston Crow Corvus Comix 

Sand Pigeon Stockdove 

Sea Maw Sea Mew 

Starnil Starling 

Shit-your-Breetches Red Shank 

Sturm Cock Missel Thrush 

Wet-my-Neck A bird whose cry is supposed to 

represent these words, and to 

foretell rain. Possibly the Green 


Whaup Curlew 

White Ciaw Black-headed Gull 

Willa' Biter Blue Tit 

Wipe Lapwing 

Wood Pigeon Ring Dove 

BIRDS-NESTS. Besom-busks, q.v. 


BIRK. The birch tree. There is a place in the parish of Lea 
where birch trees formerly grew called Birkhah or Birka. 

" The carline wife's three sons came haine, 
And their hats were o' the birh." 

" It neither grew in syke nor ditch, 

Nor yet on any sheugh ; 
But at the gates o' Paradise, 

That birk grew faireneugh." 

Wife of Usher's Well, Scott. Border Min., 
vol. iii., p. 259, ed. 1861. 

BIRK-WINE. Wine made from the sap of the birch tree. 
BISHOP, v. Milk is said to bishop when it is burnt in boiling. 

BIT. (i) A little. 

I'm a bit better to-daay. 

(2) A while, a short time. 

Waait a bit, I'm cumin'. 

(3) The wards of a key. 

" For one new bit for a key, 4d." Louth Ch. Ace., 1644, vol. iv., p. 167. 
(5) A diminutive. 

He's a little bit of a fella', not higher then his muther chen-dash. 

BITE. Food, commonly a very small portion. 
I've nobbut hed just a bite o' bread an' chease. 

BITE, v. (i) To take food. 

I ha'nt bitten a moothful sin' bra'fast. 

(2) To hold fast, said of screws, cogged wheels, levers, and 
the like. 

(3) To vex. 

He can't tell what end's cum'd to her, it's that as bites him. 
" Male habet virum : It grieveth him, it biteth him." Bernard, Terence, 
p. 40. 

BITE AND SUP. Food and drink. 

I hev'nt hed aather bite or sup e' my husband's hoose for a 

BITE AND SUP, v. To take food and drink. 

Ther' was a man at Brumby, Miss, at ewsed to saay efter ther'd 
been a nist sup o' raain e' summer time, " Heigh, bud th' little taaties 
will bite and sup efter this." 

BITTERSWEET. Solanum dulcamara, the harmless nightshade. 
BLAB. A gossip, a tell-tale. 


BLAB, v. To divulge what should remain secret, to bear tales, 
to gossip. 

BLACK, adj. Angry, sullen. 

What's goan wrong, thy faather looks uncommon black this mornin' ? 

BLACK. Mourning clothes. 

BLACK, v. (i) To clean boots, shoes, or ironwork. 

I've blacked my awn graates many a time, and could do it agaain. 
(2) To blacken the character, to defame. 

BLACK AND BLUE. Livid, said of bruised flesh. 

Her shou'ders was all black and blew thrif him a-kickin' on her. 

BLACK AND WHITE. In writing. 

Ther's no chanch o' his gettin' oot on it, fer I hev it all doon e' 

black an' white. 

BLACKBERRY. The black-currant. 

BLACK-BEAR-AWAY. The bat; vespertilio. Children sing 
when a bat appears 

Black bat, bedr-awaay, 

Fly oher here awaay, 

An' cum agean anuther daay ; 

Black bat, bedr-awaay. 

BLACK BULL." Th' black bull's trodden on him," that i 
he is in a very bad temper. 

Bernard uses a like phrase to mean misfortune, " Prosperitie hangs 
on his sleeue ; the blacks oxt cannot tread on his foot." Terence, p. 94. 

BLACK CATTLE. Horned cattle. 
BLACK-CLOCK. Any sort of black beetle. 
BLACK-COAT. A minister of religion. 

BLACK-DEATH, BLACK-FEVER. Typhus or typhoid 

BLACK DOG. " He's gotten th' black dog on his back this 
mornin'," that is, he is in a bad temper. 

BLACKEN. To make black, to cast evil imputations on the 

Noo then, drop that, thoo was iv'ry bit as bad as him, an' wo's ; an' 
thoo knaws wittericks hes noa call to blacken clubtaails. 

BLACK GLOVE. Rain, only used in the following riddle : 
Q : Roond th' hoose an' roond the hoose, an' leaves a black gluv i' th' 
winda' ? 
A ; Rain. 


BLACK JACK. (i) A leathern jug for ale. Vessels of this 
kind were common in farm-house kitchens in the last 

The author possesses a black jack mounted with silver, which was 
made for one of his forefathers, inscribed " The gift of George Barteran 
to Abigail, 1682." 

BLACK-JAUNDERS. Jaundice of a more than usually severe 
kind ; so called from the dark colour of the skin and fceces, 
and perhaps also from its highly dangerous character. 

BLACK-LEG. A disease in horned cattle. 
BLACK-MOUTHED, adj. Foul mouthed. 

BLACKS, 5. pi. Small particles of soot which float in the 
atmosphere. See SMUTS. 

The house-door key. 

BLACK'S MY NAIL, pkr. Anything evil. 

Noabody niver so much as said black's my naail to me, when I liv'd at 

"Ah defy onny body gentle or simple to say blacks my nail.' 1 ' 1 A 
Dialogue from the Register Office in Halliwell's Yorkshire Anthology, p. 21. 

BLACK-WATER. A disease in sheep. 

BLACK-WET, adj. Thoroughly wet, sodden with water. 

" Last Thursda' I hed to goa doon twice to th' drean head, for a peace 
o' wood hed gotten into th' hohle, an' was lettin' tide in, an" as I 
cum'd back th' last time, I got real black-wet." 1 June 27, 1886. 
February fill dyke, 
Be it black, or be it white. 

BLACK W T IND. A cold, wintry wind, when the sky is over- 
cast with dark clouds. 

" Is it goin' to raain ? Noa, I think it's nobbut a black wind cumin' 
on." ist Nov., 1875. 

" When the nights are dark and dreary, 
And the black wind harps on the trees." 

The Hawthorn, May, 1872, p. 92. 

BLACK WINE. Port wine. 

BLADE. A leaf of grass, corn, sword grass, or any oth^r long 
and narrow blade-like leaf. Never applied, as in the 
dialect of the South of Scotland, to broad flat leaves such 
as cabbages, lettuce, turnips, docks, and the like. Cf. Dr. 
Murray in Notes and Queries, vii. series, vol. ii., p. 9. 


BLAMED. An intensitive often used instead of damned, 
confounded, &c. 

" Them blaam'd beas hes been oher beck agean among oor wheat ; 
this is nint or tent time wi'in last fo'tni't." 28 July, 1887. 

BLAME, v. To condemn. 

She did it, bud I shall alus be Waam't for it. 

BLAME, BLAME YOU, interjec. An exclamation of anger. 

BLANK, adj. Disappointed. 

When he didn't cum she did look sum blank. 

BLANK WINDOW. A sham window. 

Squire: " Why did Mr. B have that blank window put in his 

new drawing-room ?" 

Mason : 'Cos he's afeard o' seein' oher much." 

BLANKET-PUDDING. A long, round, boiled pudding, 
made by spreading jam over paste and then rolling it up. 

BLARING. (i) The lowing of oxen. 

A local preacher, discoursing on that which followed Saul's capture 
of Agag (i Samuel, chap, xv.), said: " You sea Samuel was a prophet 
o' th' Looid, an' was not to be sucked in wi' Saul's lees, soa he said unto 
him, ' Saul,' says he, ' your goin' aboot to tell me 'at you'd dun as the 
Lord tell'd ye is all a heap o' noht at all. Do ye think I can't hear 
them theare beas' blarin' and bloorin, an' them sheap bedlin' oot ? 
Naaither God nor me is deaf man.' " 

(2) Noisy, senseless talk. 

BLASH. (i) A splash. 

(2) Silly talk. 

(3) Soft mud. 

That foot-trod oher Mr. Peacock's wood-cloas' is that full of blash, I 
niverseedoht like it ; if he'd to foot it theare reg'lar as I hev daay efter 
daay he'd hev it reightledl 

(4) A small, shallow pool of water, such as gathers in the 
hollows or furrows of a field. 

BLASH, v. To splash. 

If ye swill watter aboot i' that how, you'll blash th' wall roots all 

BLASHY, adj. Thin, poor, watery, muddy. 
Well, this is blashy tea, muther. 
Th' road fra Gunness to Burringham 's blashwrnoo then iver I seed it. 

BLAST. (i) Long continued frost. 

It was a tedious blast, it lasted tho'teen weaks. 

(2) A blight. 

Th' wheat i' th' plantin' cloas' is blasted wi' mildew. 


BLATE (blait), v. To bleat as a sheep. 
BLAW. A blow, a stroke. 

BLAW, i-. (i) To blossom. 

(2) To blow. 

" For Waiving organs by the hole yer iijs iiijd" (1506). Louth Ch. 
Ace., vol. i., p. 131. 

(3) To breathe. 

(4) To pant. 

You've ridden middlin' hard or yer herse wo'd n't blaw like that. 

BLAWD, jW. t. and pp. (i) Blew, blown. 

" My wod ! It was a wind fifteen year sin' last Wissun Munda' ! It 
blawd Brigg goods-staation flat doon to th' grand." 1877. 

(2) Fly-blown. 

Meat's that blawd it isn't fit fer Christ'ans ; thoo ma' gie it to Gip as 
soon as ta likes. 

(3) I'll be blawd, a form of cursing similar to blast me. 

BLAWD ON, pp. Blown upon ; spoken ill of, with or without 
just cause. 

Her character hes been blawd on high an' low. 

BLAWER. A blower, a machine for winnowing corn. 
BLAW- OCT. A very hearty meal. 

BLAW-PIPE. A child's toy for blowing peas or arrows ; 
commonly made of the stalk of hemlock. 

BLAW-UP. (i) An explosion. 

Ther's been anuther blaw-up at Frodingham fo'nises. 

(2) A quarrel. 

Him an' her hes hed a straange blaw-up. 

BLOW-UP, v. (i) To swell. 

His eyelid was tang'd wi' a bea an' was that blawd-up it was a reg'lar 

(2) To scold. 

She blaw'd-up sky high. 

(3) An embankment or sluice is said to blaw-up when it bursts. 

"The barrier bank hes blawed-up at Gaainsb'r, an' th' watter's eaght 
foot deap up o' th' wrong side." May 26, 1886. 

(4) Anything inflated by wind or gas is said to be blawn-up. 

His steers got among red-cloaver, an' three on 'em was bad heav'd ; 
one on 'em was that blawd-up 'at it deed. 


BLAW-WELL. (i) A blow-well, q.v. 

(2) An intermittent spring. 

(3) A place in boggy land, where marsh gas rises up to the 
surface in bubbles. 

BLAZE. A white mark on a horse's face. 

BLAZE, v. (i) To spread tales abroad. 

He blaazed them mucky lees all thrif cuntry-side, he did. 

(2) To mark a tree for felling. 

(3) When a tree is struck by lighning, it is said to be blazed. 
BLEARING. (i) Crying. 

(2) The lowing of oxen, the bleating of sheep. 
BLEB. (i) A bubble. 
(2) A blister on the skin. 

BLEE. Colour, complexion, only occurs coupled with blench. 
She niver blenched a blee, whativer he said to her, that is, she never 
changed colour. 

BLENCH, v. To change colour. 

He niver blench' d noht, though he was swearin' false all time. 

BLEND-CORN. Rye and wheat mixed. 

BLESSED. An intensitive, often used in the sense of damned 
or confounded. 

A similar transfer of meaning occurs in the Vulgate versionof Job, j. 5. 
" Ne forte peccaverint filii mei, et benedixerent Deo in cordibus suis." 

In some editions of the Douay version there is a note on this passage : 
" For greater horror of the very thought of blasphemy, the scripture 

. . [here] uses the word bless to signify its contrary." 

That haail o' Sunda' brok ivery blessed paane e' th' winda's o' th' 
sooth side o' th' hoose. 

What a blessid fool ... is ; he's alus aaither drunk or carryin' 
on wi' women. 

BLETHER, BLATHER. (i) A bladder. 

Missis a blether o' saam. 

There exists a parody, which I have never seen in a printed form, of 
the song, " I'd be a butterfly," which begins: 
" I'd be a bottle flee, 
Born e' a blether." 

(2) Soft mud, such as is scraped off roads, and other things of 
such-like consistency ; often used figuratively. 

Well, ther' is sum blether upo' them theare Gloucestersheere roads ! 
Doa'nt you be oher contented Jack ; satisfied foaks hes gen'lins 
blather e'steiid o' braains, an' alus falls moore wark then waages. 

(3) The lowing of a calf. 

(4) Noisy or foolish talk. 


BLETHER, v. To cry, to weep with much noise. 

BLETHER-DICK. (i) A character among mummers. 

(2) A boy armed with a blown bladder, attached to the end of 
a long stick by about half a yard of string, with which he 
pursues his playmates. 

BLETHERHEAD. A foolish noisy person. 

I can't tell wheare all them bletherhedds cums fra' at runs yawpin 1 
aboot at 'lection time ? 

BLETHERMENT. Noisy talk. 

BLETHER O'' SAAM. A nickname for a man with a bald 

BLIND (with a short i). A pretence, a stratagem. 

He pretended to be deaf for a blind ; he could hear as well as I could. 

BLIND-BOIL. A boil that does not come to a head. 
BLIND-DRUNK, adj. Very drunk. 

BLIND-EARS, s. pi. Ears of corn with no grain in them. 

BLIND-HELTER. The head-gear of a horse. 
BLIND MOUSE. The shrew. 

BLIND POTATOE. A potatoe is said to be blind when it 
is thought to have no " eyes," or when the "eyes" have 
been destroyed. Geo. Todd, 4th April, 1878. 

BLINK. A wink. 

BLINK, v. To wink, to wince. 

Th' sun mak's one blink. 

He'll not blink at oht when ther's ony thing to be gotten. Cf. 
Havelock, 307. 

BLINKER. A horse-bluft. 
BLINKERS. Spectacles. 
BLISH-BLASH. Idle talk. 


BLOB, (i) A splash. 

He did maake a blob when he tum'l'd i'to th' beck. 

(2) A large drop. 

The waiter was hingin' e' blobs up o' th' eave straws. 

(3) A pear-shaped piece of lead which forms the weight of a 
mason's level. 

BLOBBING. A method of catching eels by means of worms 
strung on a worsted thread. 

BLOB-KITE. A fish, the barbolt or eel-pout. 

The first blob-kite I iver caught was e' Peacock warpin' drean ; I 
thoht it was sum kind on a toad an' dar'n't tuch it, soil I hammer'd it 
all to bits off the hook agean a yaate stohp. 

BLOOD, v. To bleed. 

Th' hoss was blooded three times, but he deed for all that. 
(1664) " For Will. Walker blooding and other charges, September 
i5th, is. 6d. Kirton-in-Lindsey Ch. Ace. 

BLOOD-HORSE. A thorough-bred race-horse. 

BLOODING-IRON. A fleam for bleeding horses. We are 
told in the ballad of the " Death of Robin Hood" that the 
Prioress of Kirkless went down to him 
" With a pair of blood-irons in her hands." 

And that 

" She laid the blood-irons to Robin Hood'.s vaine. 

Alacke, the more pitie ! 
& pearct the vaine & let out the bloode 
That full red was to see." 

Percy Folio, vol. i., p. 56. 

BLOOD-STALE. A disease of horses, in which the urine 
passes away mingled with blood. Cf., L. Towne, Farmer 
and Grazier's Guide, 1816, p. 21. 

BLOOD-STICK. A knobbed stick for striking the fleam in 
bleeding horses. 

BLOOD-SUCKER. A gad-fly. 

BLOODY, adj. (i) Well-bred, coming of a good stock. 
Commonly used with regard to animals, but sometimes 
also as -to human beings. 

That's a bloody tit th' Squire rides noo. 

He cums of a bloody stock, that's why he's kind to poor foaks. 

(2) Before the French Revolution put all previous history 
out of men's heads, at convivial meetings in these parts, 
there was a common toast 

" May times mend and down with the bloody Brunswicks." 


BLOOR, r. (i) To bellow as oxen do. 

(2) To cry loudly, commonly used in relation to children. 

BLOSSOM. An ironical term for an untidy girl. 
BLOT. The report of a gun or pistol. 

BLOT, v. To shoot. 

I'll not hev thoo blottin' aboot \vi' that theare pistil, thoo'll be 
shuttin' sumbody. 

BLOTCH. A blot. 

BLOTCH, r. To blot. 

Noo, lads, doant blotch yer books nor suck yer pens. 

BLOTCH-PAPER. Blotting-paper. 

BLOW- WELL. A spring in the bed or foreshore of a river. 

" From the treacherous and boggy nature of the soil and the many 
concealed blow-i;'eUs." Cordeaux, Birds of the Humber, p. 61. 

BLUBBER, v. To weep noisily. 

" Forthwith the \voman left her web and all to be blubbered her 
cheekes with weeping." Bernard, Terence, p. 195. 

BLUBBER-LIPPED, <//'. Having thick lips. 

BLUE. The Liberal colour in Lindsey. 

I've been Bten 1 all my life, an 1 my fore-elders was an' all, an' I'm not 
agooin to chaange just becos a woman \vi' a title cums to sea me an' 
butters me doon at 'lection time. 

BLUE-BOTTLE. (i) A large prismatic-coloured fly; a 
meat fly. 

(2) A plant having a blue flower, which grows among corn. 
Centaitrea Cyanus. 

BLUE MILK. Milk frcm which the cream has been taken. 
BLUE MILK CHEESE. Cheese made of blue milk. 

BLUE NOSED BARLEY. Barley which turns blue at one 
end of the grain before it is ripe. 

BLUFF. A halo round the moon. 
BLUFT-HELTER. A halter to which blinkers are attached. 

BLUNDER, r. To make turbid. 

Please sir, sum lads hes been blundt-rin' th' watter e' Saaint John 


BLUSTERLY. (i) Windy. 

It's been the blusterliest summer e' all my time. 

(2) Violent in temper or language. 

BLUSTRATION. The act of blustering. 

You sea we've gotten oor man i'to Parliament for all the blustraation 
of you Tories. 

BOAK, v. To retch, to be on the point of vomiting. 

" Bake, vox agro Lincoln, familiaris nobis significat nauseare, ad 
vomitum tendere, etiam eructari." Skinner, Etymologicon. 

BOAN (boa-h'n.) A bone. 

BOARD CLOTH. A table cloth (obsolete.) 

" Item bordcloythes xiijs. iiij " Inventory of Richard Allele, of Scal- 
thorpe, 1551. 

BOARDEN-BRIG. A bridge made of timber. 

There is a bridge in the parish of Bottesford which was built of 
stone about twenty-two years ago, but as it replaced a timber structure 
it is still called the Bodrdcn Brig. 

boards when not in use, but boardening when employed. 

We mun hev' sum bodrdenin' fixed up atwean th' corn-chaamber an' 
the malt-hoose. 

BOARDEN-TRAY. A tray (q.v.) covered with boards, used 
in lambing-tirne and in bleak weather to afford shelter to 
the ewes and lambs. 

BOAR-SEG. A boar which has been castrated when fully 

BOAT, v. A horse is said to " boat well " or " be a good 
boater " when it willingly goes into a ferry-boat. 

BOAT-CHOCKS, s. pi. The blocks of wood on which a boat 
rests when on land or on the deck of a vessel. 

BOAT-GEAR (boat'gear). The furniture of a boat, such as 
oars, boat-hook, and bucket. 

BOATH (boa-h'th). Both. 

BOB. (i) The weight of a plummet. 

(2) A technical term used in bell-ringing. 

(3) A knob-like lump of hair or fibre. 

She duz her hair e 1 a little bob o' weak daays. 


BOB, v. (i) To duck the head, to stoop, to bow, to curtsey. 

He was on th! top o' th' coach, an' did n't bob his head, as he went 
under th' archway, an' thrif that he \vas very nigh kill'd. 

(2) To form into a " bob," hence, to set in order. 
Bob up thy hair lass, its all aboot thy faace. 

Bob up that stack eavins, or all th' watter will run down th' sides 
when it raains. 

BOBBERY. A disturbance, an altercation. Query, modern 

BOBBIN. A cotton ball, a cotton spool. 

BOBTAILED, 0^;. Having the tail cut off close; said of 
horses and dogs. 

Brumby's bobtaailed mare is th' fastist trotter atween here an' 

BO'D (bod). A bird. 

" When bobs hes two taails," that is, when it is spring and the swallows 

BO'D-BOY. A bird-boy, a boy employed to scare birds from 

BODDOM. (i) Bottom. 

It's at boddom o' th' kitchin' stairs. 
(2) Principle. 

" There's noabody hes a better boddom then him ; bud he's curus to talk 
to." Said of the compiler, 1870. 

BO'D-EYED. Bird-eyed, near sighted. 
BODGE. A botch, a clumsy patch. 

BODGE, v.(i) To botch, to patch. 

(2) To ram, to pound. 

Mind an' bodge th' muck aroond that stohp well, or it weant stan 

BODILY. Entirely. 

He carried all th' plums awaay bodily ; ther' wasn't one left up o' th' 

BO'D-KEEP, BOD-CORN (lit. bird-keep, bird-corn). Very 
lean grains of corn mixed with the seeds of weeds which 
the winnowing machine separates from the better portions 
in the operation of dressing. 

BODLE. A small coin. 

I don't care a bodle for naaither you nor him. 


BO'D-MOOTHED, adj. Bird-mouthed, i.e., shy, afraid of 
giving an opinion. 

BO'D-TENTING. Driving birds away from corn or other 

BODY. (i) A person, commonly though not exclusively 
applied to girls and women. 

She's as clever a body as ony missis nead hev' aboot a hoose if it 
wasn't for one thing ; she's alus runnin' after th' lads. 

(2) The abdomen. 

(3) The nave of a church. 

BODY-HORSE. The horse between the shafts in a team. 

BOGGART, BOGGLE, BOGIE. Something of an unearthly 
nature with which it is terrible to come in contact; a 

Ther' ewsed to be a boggart like a great, hewge, black dog to be seed 
agean Nothrup chech-yard ; I niver met it my sen, but ther's scoars 
that hes. 

What's 'ta scar'd on bairn duz 'ta think as a boggle 'all get 'ta ? 

BOGGINS. Plough-bullocks, q.v. 

BOGGLE. (i) Dried mucus nasi. 
(2) See BOGGART. 

BOGGLE, v.(i) To shy, to take fright, applied to horses. 

(2) To hesitate. 

He can read just midlin', but he boggles a deal when he teks to spellin'. 

(3) To draw anything into puckers when it is being sewn. 


BOG-SPAVIN. A soft swelling on a horse's leg. 

BORDER. A boulder, a waterworn stone larger than a 
cobble, q.v. 

There's a big bohder wi' a ring in it agean th' blacksmith shop at 
Laughton ; thaay ewsed to tie bulls to it to baait. 

BOHT. A bolt. 
BOHT, v. (i) To bolt. 

(2) To run away. 

He bohted awaay as soon as we clapt ees on him. 

(3) Bought. 

I boht thease here specteckles o' a hawkin' man. 

BOIL. The condition of boiling. 
Put it upo 1 fire an' gie it a boiL 


BOILING SPRING. A spring which gushes out of the 
ground and overflows. 

Ye sea Moor- Well's aboilin' spring, so it niver faails ; but Brank-Well's 
been a dug well i' sum-body's daay, soa it's dry noos an' thens. 

BOIL OVER. " I sha'n't tak' it upo' my sen to saay oht, bud 
if I'm not sorely mista'en th' pot '11 boil oher afoore long," 
said when a quarrel or a scandal is anticipated. 

BOILY. Boiled bread and milk for children. 


BOLD, adj. Large, fine, well-filled out ; said of grains of corn. 

BOLLED, adj. Said of corn or flax in the ear. 

"The barley was in the ear and the flax was boiled." 1 Exodus, ch. 
ix., v. 31. 

BOLL. The seed vessel of flax. 
BOLSTER. A bolt. 

[1503]. "For making of ij lockes and bolsteres." Leverton Church 
Warden's Ace. in Archaologia, vol. xli.,p. 341. 

BOLT, v. (i) To abscond, to run away. 

(2) To swallow food without mastication. 

(3) To shy, said of horses. 

He was a good 'un to goa, but he bolted reight roond at ivery stoan 
heap as he past. 

(4) To sift meal. On the title page of Artachthos ; or, a New 
Booke Declaring the Assize or Weight of Bread, 4to, 1638, is 
represented a man engaged in the process of sifting flour, 
out of whose mouth proceeds a label inscribed " I bolt." 

BOLTER. A horse that shies. 

BOLT-HOLE. (i) The hole by which a rabbit makes its 
escape when the ferret pursues it. 

(2) Any unknown hole by which a person makes his way into 
or out of a house or other building. 

He lock'd th 1 barn doors fast enif, bud, you sea, th' sarvant chaps 
stoal th' corn for th' herses thrif a boht-hodle behind th' machine. 

(3) Used figuratively as a means of escape. 

Thoo'lljust hev' to gie in, Jack, becos we've maade all boht-hodks 
agen the an' thoo can't get oot o' this business noa waays. 

BOLTING. The process of sifting meal. 

BOLTING CLOTH. A cloth used in mills for sifting meal. 

In 1534 the Gild of Saint Mary, of Boston, "possessed a bultynge pipe 
covered with a yearde of canvesse and also ij bultynge clothes." 
Peacock, Eng. Ch. Furniture, p. 189. 


BOLTING-HUTCH. The tub, box, or enclosure into which 
meal is sifted. 

" In the boultinge house, one dough trough ij bolting-wittches. Union 
Invent., 1620, p. 29. 

BOLTINGS, s. pi. The coarse meal which is sifted from the 

BOLT-ON-END, phr. Upright. 

He deed e' his chair sittin' up bolt-on-end. 

BOLT OUT, v. To speak suddenly, rashly, unadvisedly. 

He bolted Got all he knew, though we bed telled him to keap squat. 

BO'N (bon), v.(i) To burn. 

I mun hev them theare wicks bo'nt as soon as thaay 're dry. 
(2) " Bo'n it," " bo'n thoo ;" forms of cursing. 

BOND-COURSE. A heading-course, a course of bricks or 
stones inserted at intervals crosswise in a wall for the 
purpose of tieing the other courses together. 

BOND-STONES, s. pi. Large stones put in a rubble wall for 
the purpose of tieing the other courses together. 

BONE-DRY, adj. Very dry, as dry as a bone. 

BONE-FIRE. A bonfire. 

" At the bonrires on the fifth of November it was a practise to throw 
one or two fragments of bone among the glowing embers." Cf., 
Archaologia, vol. xxiij., p. 42. Gomme, Geut. Mag. Lib. (Dialect, &c.), 
p. 339. Monasticon Angl., vol. iii., p. 359, col. i. 

BONE-IDLED. Very idle. 

He's strong enif fer onything, but he's bodne -idled ; that's his 
complaaint, an' noa doctor can cure it. 

BONES. " To make no bones" is to go to work on any matter 
without hesitation or ceremony. 

He maade noa bodns aboot it, but lock'd up th' yaate-stead at once. 

BONE-SETTER. A person who sets bones, commonly one 
who has not a legal qualification, but used occasionally for 
a surgeon. 

[1732] . " She was very much hurt, so that ^bone-setter was sent for." 
Fretwell's Diary (Surtees Soc., vol. Ixv.), p. 211. 

BONE TO PICK. " To have a bone to pick" with some one 
is to have a cause of quarrel with him. 

BONING STICK. An instrument used for setting out the 
depth of drains or other cuttings in the soil. 


BONNY, BONNYISH. (i) Well in health, commonly used of 
a woman after childbirth. 

(2) Handsome, pleasant to deal with, respectable, of good 
conduct, well off. Said of men and things. 

C 's wife is a very bonny woman, I reckon. 

Them's th' bonniest carrots I've seen to year. 

He's a bonny man ; just tell him how things is an' you'll get yer 
answer at once. 

She's a bonny woman, wi' a hoose an' gardin on her awn, an' thaay 
saay a lot o' munny e' th' Lincoln bank besides. 

The cuckoo, in the following verses, is "bonny" as a har- 
binger of summer and fair weather, and the bringer of good 
luck : 

" The cuckoo is a bonny bird, 

She sings as she flies, 
She brings us good tidings 

And tells us no lies. 
She sucks little birds' eggs 
To make her voice clear, 
And then she sings cuckoo 
Three months in the year," 

(3) Frequently used ironically. 

You're a bonny creatur, you are ; this is tho'd time you've plaay'd 
traun. What do you think th' school-maister '11 saay ? See BLOSSOM. 

BONNY DEAL. A large quantity. 

Ther's a bonny deal o' taaties to year. 1887. 

Ther's been a bonny deal o' rain cum'd this maaydaay-time. 1886. 

BONNY GO. Something uncomfortable or irritating, but which 
has a humourous side to it. 

BONNY PENNY. A large sum of money. 

I reckon he 's lost a bonny penny oher that theare incloasin' job. 

BOOBY-OTCH. A booby, a simpleton. 

BOOKS. To be in anyone's books is to owe him money ; to 
be in his " black books " is for him to owe you a grudge. 

BOOL. (i) A ball. 

(2) A hoop. 

When we was bairns, we ewsed to goa to th' coopers an' buy wooden 
cask-hoops for bools. 

BOOL, v. (i) To trundle a hoop. 

" Goa thy waays, bairn, an' bool thy hoop," said to a child when 
its presence is troublesome. 

(2) To walk or ride fast. 

He's boolin' along at a bonny raate. 


BOON, v. To repair a highway. 

Skinner notes it as a Lincolnshire word, and says that it was 
communicated to him by Michael Honywood, Dean of Lincoln. He 
glosses it " vias hyeme corruptas aestate reparare, resarciare & 
instaurare." Etymologicon, sub. voc. 

A Lincolnshire marsh-man, who entertained a vehement dislike to 
the clerical order, once said to a friend of the author, "I'd hev all 
Cheches pull'd doon to boon th' roads wi', an' parsons kill'd to muck 
th' land." 

BOON-DAYS, s. pi. The days on which farmers send their 
teams to cart materials for the repair of the highways. 

BOON-MAISTER. Surveyor of highways. 

BOOR. The woody material in which the fibre ol flax and 
hemp is enclosed. 

" When the flax was to be prepared for use, the seed was taken 
from it by n^.eans of a mill ; the boor was taken from it by other 
machines." Stonehouse, Hist, of Isle of Axholme, p. 29. 

BOOT. Profit, advantage. 

" I went about it while there was any boote, but now it bootes not." 
Bernard, Terence, p. 78. 

"When bale is at hyest boote is at next." Sir Aldingar, 1. 133, in 
Percy Folio, vol. i., p. 171. 

" When the bale is hest, 
Then is the bote nest, 

Quoth Hendyng." 
Prov. of Hendyng in Morris's Specimens of Early Eng., p. 100. 

BOOT, v. To profit. 

" It duzn't boot a penny to me whether ther's a brig builded oher 
Bottesworth beck or noa." 1874. 

BOOT, TO. Said of anything given in exchange. 

I'll swap herses wi' ye, and gie ye my saddle and bridle to boots. 

BOOTS, OLD. " To go it like ohd boots," means to do 
anything with all the energy that is possible. Probably 

BORN DAYS, IN ALL MY. During my whole life. 

In all my born daays I niver seed a bairn one hairf so awk'erd as 
thine is. 

" I wish I'd noht else to do but to smooke bacca like that o' thine all 
my born daays." ist Oct., 1878. 

BORN FOOL. A very unwise person, but one whose lack of 
sense is believed to arise from sloth and inattention, not 
from idiotcy. 


BOROUGH ENGLISH. The custom by which the youngest 
son succeeds to real estate, ' instead of the eldest, as by 
the common law. It prevails in that part of the Manor of 
Kirton-in-Lindsey, which is within the parish of the same 
name, in the Manor Keadby, in the Isle of Axholme, at 
North Thoresby, in a part of the parish of Hibaldstow, and 
several other places in Lincolnshire. 

BOSSACKS. A fat, idle woman. 

BOSWELL (boz-1), BOZZEL. A gipsy. The word is said 
to be taken from the name of Charles Bosvile or Boswell, 
a Yorkshire gentleman, who " established a species of 
sovereignty among .... the gypsies, who, before the 
enclosures, used to frequent the moors about Rossington." 
He died in 1709. Hunter, South Yorks., vol. i., p. 68. 

Aug. 21 (1848). " Pursuing some Bossills to put them out of Carr, 
35. " Blyton, Constable's bill. 

BOTCH MENT. An ugly patch, or addition to anything. 

"That theare beeldin' looks a queer botchment aside th 1 chech-steaple." 
This was said of a temporary workshop, which was used by the masons 
when Bottesford Church was restored. 

Botheration is sometimes usedinterjectively as a kind of oath. 
" Botheraation ! what a truble you are, bairn ." 

BOTHERSOME, troublesome. 

I'm scar'd we shall find th' flees very bothersum to-year, noo ther's 
hardly ony swalla's to catch 'em. May 29, 1886. 

BOT'NY BAY. Botany Bay. 

To send to Bofny Baay means to transport, no matter where. 

" He's gone to Bofny Baay and theare he maay staay," is a reply 
given to a person who asks where someone is when the person 
questioned does not wish to give the true answer. 

BOTTLE. A bundle of hay, straw, furze, or sticks. 

" That no man shall get anie bottells of furres, and to pay for everie 
bottell that is gotten iiijd." Scatter Manor Roll, 1578. 

" Gather and tie in bottles." Young, Line. Agric., 1799 , p. 162. 
" For he shall tell a tale by my fey, 
Although it be not worth a botel hey." 

Chaucer, Manciple's Prologue. 

(1621). " Will Lee, of Northallerton, for stealing a bottle of hay." 
Quarter Sessions Records, North Riding Record Soc., vol. iii., p. 113. 
" So the unhappy sempstress once they say 
Her needle in a. pottle lost of hay " 

Hen. Fielding, Tom Thumb edit., 1730, 
Act ii., sc. 8. 


BOTTLE JACK. A machine in the shape of a bottle used to 
turn meat in roasting. 

BOTTLE-FLY. Probably a Blue -Bottle, q.v. See also 

BOTTLE-NOSE. A porpoise. 

BOTTLE-NOSED. Having a swollen and inflamed nose. 

" He is a big man, bottle-nosed, wrinkled, fat, fleshie, and eyed like a 
catte." Bernard Terence, p. 340. 

BOTTLE-RACK. A wooden frame in which empty bottles 
are kept. 

BOTTOM. (i) The low land in a valley land adjoining a 

Squire boht them beck-bottoms uncommon dear. 
(2) A cotton ball. 

BOTTOMING SPADE. A hollow spade used for levelling 
the bottoms of the trenches in which the tiles of underdrains 
are laid. 

BOUGE OUT, v. To bulge. 

BOUGH-POT, BEAU-POT, BO-POT (bou-pot, boa-pot.) A 
flower-pot ; a vase for cut flowers ; a vessel containing 
flowers or branches of shrubs put in an empty fire-grate. 
" Four bow-pots constitute my fields ; 
This but a scanty harvest yields." 

Monthly Mag., May, 1806, p. 324. 

BOUGHT BREAD. Baker's bread, as distinguished from 
home-made bread. 

" In the north of England bought bread is still, or was lately used to 
signify the finer kind purchased of the baker, in opposition to that of a 
coarser quality, which in almost all families is baked at home." 1802. 
Edmund Turner , in Archceologia, vol. xv., p. 10. 

BOULDER. A large water-worn stone, larger than a cobble, 
q.v. (See also BORDER). 

" He gripen sone a bulder-ston 
And let it fleye, ful god won, 
Agen J>e dore, ]>at it to-rof." 

Havelok, 1790. 

BOUNCER. Anything very big. A fine child, a large turnip, 
or an astounding lie are all bouncers. 

BOUNCING, adj. Big, large, fine. 

" In very truth there is a jolly bouncing boy born." Bernard Terence, 


BOUND, Certain. 

" He is bound to do this or that " does not imply legal or moral 
obligation, but that he cannot help doing it. 

He's bound to get on, he's alus at his wark. 

She's bound to hev su'muts bad befall her, for she hardlin's thinks 
o' ony thing but what belongs to sarvant chaps. 

He's bound to kill his sen if he goas on drinkin' e" this how. 

BOUNDER, BOUND STONE. A boundary stone. 

In 1579 Richard Parkin " eripiebat & removebat vnum lapidem 
vocatam bounde-stone . . . inter campos ville de Asbye . . . et 
Brumby." Kirton-in-Lindsey Court Roll. 

" De Johanne Willson quia vxor eius effodebat vnum le bounder 
existentem inter se et vicinum suum." Scatter Court Roll, 1599. 

BOUT (bowt). A struggle. As with sickness, with an enemy, 
or in a game. 

He's hed a bad bowt this time ; we thoht noht bud he wo'd dee. 
Awiver, he's cum'd roond. 

BOW (bow). A bow for shooting. 

BOW (bow). (i) A willow twig bent in the form of a crescent 
or a circle, to which a fishing net is fastened. 

(boh). (2) An ornament of ribbon on a woman's head-dress 
or other part of her person. 

(boh). (3) A piece of cap-wire, formerly used for the purpose 
of making the borders of women's caps stand off. 

(boh). (4) The semi-circular handle of a scuttle or pail. 

(boh). (5) The handle of a key. 

(1628). "For mendinge the bowe of the church dore key iiijd- " 
Louth Ch. Ace., vol. iv., p. 35. 

" Item ij little bowed pannes." 1594, Inventory of Sir Will. Fairfax in 
Archisologia, vol. xlviii., p. 132. 

(boh). (6) The arch of a bridge, or in a church. 

An arch spanning the street at Lincoln is called the Stone Bow. Cf. 
Craven Gloss., 2nd ed., v. i., p. 45. 

BOW, v. To curve, to bend. 
BOWK. The belly. 
BOWLER. A child's hoop. 

BOW-WINDOW (boh). A pregnant woman is said to have 
her bow- window out. 

BO WY-Y AN KS. Leather leggings. 
BOX HARRY, phr.To save all you can. 

BOX IRON. An iron for ironing clothes, with a hollow cavity 
for receiving a. heater. 


BOXING-TIME. The time between Christmas Day and the 
end of the first week of January. 

BOYKIN. A little boy. 


BOZZELLING. Living on commons and in lanes after the 
manner of gipsies. 1885. 

BRABBLE, BRABBLEMENT. A noisy quarrel. 

" For me, a stranger, to goe follow sutes and brabbles in law, how 
easie & profitable a matter were that." Bernard Terence, p. 76. 

Ther' was a deal o' brabblement aboot th' Messingham causeys, but 
it's been oher an' dun wi' years sin'. 

BRACK, ft. t. Broke. 

He brack th 1 seein-glass all e' peaces, an' we've not hed noa luck 
sin'. 1887. 

BRACKEN. The common fern. 

" O bury me by the bracken bush, 

Beneath the blumin' brier ; 
Let never living mortal ken 
That a kindly Scot lies here." 

Battle of Otterburn, in Aytoun's Ballades of 
Scotland, vol. i., p. 17. 

BRACKLE, adj. Brittle. 
BRACKY, adj. Brackish. 

BRADE, v. (i) To rub off, to abrade. 

It braades the skin. 
(2) To desire to vomit. 

BRADELY, adv. Bravely. 

BRADE OF, v. (i) To be like another in figure, taste, or 

That bairn braades o' it's gran'feyther. 

" Ye brayde of Mowlle that went by the way." Towneley Mysteries, p. 88. 

(2) To hold a strong conviction. 

Braade o' me, that lad 'all be a preacher when he's grawd up. 

BRAFAST, BRAK'EST. Breakfast. 
BRAID, v. To embroider. 

BRAIN-PAN. The skull. 

Cf. II. Henry Sixth, Act iv., sc. 10, 1. 13. Marston, Antonio and Mellida, 
Act ii. 

BR AMBLING. Gathering brambles. 


BRANDER. The dogs in an old-fashioned fire-place. 

BRAND-IRON. A branding-iron used for branding cattle or 
dead farming stock. 

BRANDRETH, BRANDRIFF. (i) A tripod used for sup- 
porting a pot upon a fire. 

"One brass pott, iij pannes, brandryt, cressyt iiijs. " Inventory of 
Thomas Robynson, of Appleby, 1542. 

(2) A rick stand, whether of stone and timber or iron. 
BRANDY-SNAP. Thin gingerbread. 

BRANDONS. Brandlings, a sort of red and yellow earth- 
worm found in old dunghills, much esteemed as a bait for 

BRAN-NEW, BRAND NEW, adj. Quite new. 

She'd a bran-new goon on, wi' a pair o' shoes I'd not ha' pick'd of on 
a muck-hill. 

BRANGLE, v. To entangle. 

You've gotten them things into sich a brangled mess it'll tak' me 
better then a nooer to reightle 'em. 

His bisniss was that brangled it took three lawyers most on a year to 
put things stright. 

BRANGLEMENT. Entanglement. 

BRANT. (i) Perpendicular, steep. 
(2) Fussy, consequential. 

BRASH. (i) Rubbish, such as clippings of hedges, briars, 
garden weeds. 

(2) Nonsense, worthless talk. 

Hohd yer brash. 

(3) An eruption on the skin. 

BRASH, adj. Brittle. 

BRASS. (i) Money. 

He's that rich, he fairly stinks o' brass. 

(2) Impudence. 

Charlie's brass eniff for oht ; wheareiver he goas he mun be th' very 
fo'st man. 

BRAT. A dirty or ill-mannered child. 

" Bratt, sic nobis appellatur puer seu infans parentibus vilissimis, 
imo mendicis natus, spurius, expositus." Skinner, Etymolog. 
"A penniless wench, a beggar's brat." Bernard, Terence, p. 373. 


BRAT. An apron of rough material, a coarse cloth. 

Skinner says it is a Lincolnshire word, meaning " Semicinctium ex 
panno vilissimo." Etymolog. 

BRATCH. A bitch (obsolescent). 
BRATTLE. Brittle. 

As brattle as cheany. 
BRATTY. Dirty, used in relation to children. 

BRAUNGE, v. To strut ; to carry oneself in a conceited 

He went braungin* along Brigg Markit-plaace as thof it was all his 

BRAVE, adj. In good health, better than could be expected. 
Said especially with regard to women after lying-in. 

She's been straange an' braave this last weak, straange an' braave she 

BRAWN. (i) A boar. 

(2) Muscle. 

(3) The feet, head, and tongue of a pig, with the bones 
removed, spiced, boiled, and pressed into a mould. 

BRAY. The edge of a bank or ditch. 

Ohd ducks quacks little uns on to braay o' bank an' broodies 'em, but 
them as runs wi' hens gets off to dykes by the'r-sens, an' traails aboot 
while thaay're clear bet. I've lost a many that waay. 

If ye plew so near hand th' braay you'll be hevin' th' dike-side cauve in. 

" Fleckford Beck was full from bray to bray." Mabel Heron, vol. i., 
p. 103. 

" A palizado above the false bray.' 1 Symonds's Diary, 1645, p. 231. 

BRAZEN, adj. Impudent. 

She's braazenest huzzy I knaw ; ther's noht to cap her in Lunnun. 

BRAZIL. " It's as hard as brazil " is a common saying. What 
brazil is seems to be forgotten. Query Brazil wood or 
brass ? 

In 1616 there was, at Kirton-in-Lindsey, " One piece of waste lande 
there to buylde a melting hows, for ther hath bene sometimes a brasse 
mine, as it seemeth." Norden's Survey of Kirton-in-Lindsey, fol. 8. 

BRAZIL DUST. Powdered Brazil wood, used for making 

BREAD (bri-h'd). Breadth ; usually applied to land or textile 

He's two breads o' land e' Ep'uth field. 

" All their tails were interwoven like so many strings in a breade." 
Wallis to Smith in Letters in BodL, vol. i., p. 12. 


BREAD AND BUTTER DOG. A dog kept for amusement, 
not for use. 

M. : Whose dog's that, Dick ? 

N. : It's th' parson's new un. 

M . : Oh, it'll be nobbut a bread-an' -butter dog, I reckon then. 

BREAD AND CHEESE. (i) The cheese-shaped seeds of 
the common mallow. See CHEESECAKES. 

(2) The leaf buds of the hawthorn. 

BREAD-CORN. Corn to be ground into bread-meal (q.v.), not 
to be used for finer purposes. 

It was, until the recent fall in the price of corn, a common custom 
with farmers, when they engaged a bailiff, to contract to give him a 
certain sum of money per annum, and to allow him his bread-corn at 
the rate of forty shillings a quarter. Cf. Monasticon Anglic., vol. v., 
p. 298 ; Piers the Plowm, B. vi., 64. 

BREAD-MEAL. Flour with only a portion of the bran taken 
out, from which brown bread is made. 

BREAK. (i) A toothed instrument used in dressing flax 
and hemp. 

Instruments of this kind are represented on the seals of the North 
Durham family of Brankston. Raine, North Durham, App., p. 139. 

(2) A strong carriage used for breaking horses to harness. 

BREAK, v. To become bankrupt, to fail in business. 

"Before I brake, as also after I become bankrout." Bernard, Terence, 
p. 113. 

BREAK-NECK. (i). A great discomforture. 

This (Sedan) is as gret a braake-neck for this Emp'ror as Watterloo 
was for th' ohd un. 

" A break-necke light on these envious persons who are willing to tell 
these sad newes." Bernard, Terence, p. 341. 

(2) When a job is more than half finished a person is said to 
have broken the neck of it. 

BREAK ONE'S DAY. (i) Not to keep an appointment. 

He said he'd cum to sattle on Monda', bud he brok his daay, an' hes 
n't been near hand yit. 

(2) To have one's time wasted by interruptions. 

I hev my daays brokken reg'lar by different foaks cumin' botherin' all 
aboot a pack o' nonsense. 

BREAK UP. When a frost goes away it is said to break up. 

BREAKINGS, s. pl.(i) The division of a tree trunk into 

(2) The marks in polished wood caused thereby. 

Daughter : Faather's wem'led th' inkstand oher up o' th' best room 

Mother : Naay sewerly, bairn. 

Daughter: Yes, he hes, just agean th' bra-akin' i' th' taable top. 


BREAM. A boar. 

BREAST. The iron front of a plough. 

BREAST-PLATE. A strap of leather running from one side 
of the saddle to the other, over a horse's breast, for the 
purpose of hindering the saddle from slipping backwards. 

BREAST-PLOUGH. A paring spade : an instrument for 
paring the surface of land. 

BREATHE, v. (i) To take breath after strong exercise. 

I'd been huggin' corn into th' laathe, an' was breathin' my sen e' th' 
crew-yard whilst such times as I could lock all up. 

(2) To give a horse time to take breath. 
/ " And many a gallant stay'd perforce, 

Was fain to breathe his faltering horse." 

Lady of the Lake, i., 4. 

BREECHBAND. Part of the harness of a horse which goes 
behind the breech. 

BREEDER. A boil, often surrounded with other smaller ones ; 
a carbuncle. 

BREEDING IN AND IN. The practise of breeding from 
animals near akin to each other. 

BREEKS. Breeches. 

BREEZE. (i) Perspiration; perspiration from quick walking. 

He was all of a breeze. 
(2) Very quickly ; said of walking, 
He did go by with a breeze. 

BRERE. A briar. 

BREW-LEAD. A leaden vessel used in brewing. 

BREWSTER. A brewer (obsolescent). 

" Of Richard Cook, a common brewster, breaking the assize of bread 
and ale, vjd." Kirton-in-Lindsey, Manor Fine Roll, 1632. 

BREWSTER SESSIONS. The petty sessions at which 
justices of peace grant licences to public-houses. 

BRIAN. Brine. Wheat was formerly dressed with brine to 
hinder the smut ; arsenic is now commonly used. See 

In 1645 Abel Barker, a Rutlandshire gentleman, ordered his 
servant to buy wheat and have it brined after the Lincolnshire fashion 
to avoid blasting. Hist. MSS. Com., vol. v., p. 384. 


BRICK A BREAD, lit. A. brick in breadth. A wall is so-called 
when but of the thickness of the width of a brick. 

BRICK OVEN. An oven made of bricks, commonly with a 
domical top, in which bread and pies are baked. A baker's 

BRIDEWELL. A prison. When anyone spoke of the bridewell 
he meant the now disused prison of Kirton-in-Lindsey. 

" I will all to becurry thee or bethwack thy coate, and then put thee 
in bridewell to draw at the mill as long as thou livest." Bernard, 
Terence, p. 16. 

BRIDGE, v. To abridge, to beat down in price. 

BRIDLE TOOTH. A tooth of a horse which grows out of 
the side of the gum. There is a silly superstition that when 
this malformation occurs in mares the animals will be 

BRIDLE, TO BITE. To suffer well-deserved hardship. 

Thaay niver minded what end went fost when times was good, soa 
thaay hev to bite the bridle noo. 

BRIDLE ARM. The left arm. 
BRIDLE HAND. The left hand. 

BRIDLE UP, v. To raise the head scornfully. 

She did bridle up when thaay tell'd her what he'd been a saayin*. 

BRIG. A bridge. 

" Where the waters, winding blue 
Single-arch'd brig flutter through." 

John Clare, Solitude. 

BRIGS. (i) A frame used in brewing to set the terns on. 

(2) A similar frame used in a dairy to set the sile on. 
BRIMMING. The restless state of sows when at heat. 
BRINDLED. Variously coloured, said of oxen. 

BRING UP, v. To rear young. 

Oor bitch broht up three pups last time, an' did well by 'em. 
I shall nobbut bring up one o' th' white cat kitlins. 
" Whatsoever God sends vs, or be it boy or girle that shee shall be 
delivered of, they have purposed to bring it vp." Bernard, Terence, p. 18. 

BRING UP AGAINST, v. To accuse, to charge with. 

He broht up agedn me that my muther hed a bairn afoore she was wed. 
I wod niver bring up agedn an ohd man what he did when he was a lad. 

(2) To come in contact with. 

His herse run'd awaay an' broht up agedn George Todd hoose corner 
an' knock't a lot o' stoans oot. 


BRISTLING, adj. Brisk, said of the wind. 
Ther's a bristling breeze to-daay maaster. 

BRISTOWE-RED (obsolete). A textile fabric. 

" One Kyrtyll of bristowe read whiche were her mothers." Witt o 

Roland Staveley, of Gainsburgh, 1551. 

BROACH. (i) A spit. 

(2) The tap of a barrel. 

(3) The spindle on which yarn is wound. 

(4) A church spire. 

Mr. Stoanehoose pot a broach upo' Butterweek steaple but it's a sore 
poor thing ; just for all th' warld like Sir Robert injun chimla.' 

BROACH, v. To tap a barrel. 

BROAD AS IT'S LONG, phr. Equal ; the same one way as 
the other. 

Well, if he hes call'd you, you've called him an' all, soa fer all I sea, 
it's as broad as it's long. 

BROADCAST, pp. Sown by the hand from the hopper, as 
distinguished from drilled. A farming term. 

BROAD-SET, adj. Stumpy, muscular. 
BROADSHARE. An agricultural implement. 
BROCK. (i) A badger. 

(2) A small green insect, cicada spumaria, which surrounds 
itself with a white froth commonly called cuckoo spit, q.v. 

A man or animal in a profuse perspiration is said " to sweat like a 
brock." The insect, not the quadruped, is certainly meant. 

BROCK, v.,pt. t. t and pp. Broke, broken. 

Th' wind last Gaainsb'r fair brok hairf th' top off one o' th' munk's 


BROD. (i) A round-headed nail made by blacksmiths. 

(2) An instrument for cutting up thistles. 
BROD, v.(i) To prick, to poke. 

(2) To cut up thistles. 

Hannah Todd's broddin' e' th' Ramsden. 

BROG, v. To push with a pointed instrument. 
BROGGLE, v. To poke. 

You're alus brogglin' at th' fire ; noa wonder it can't bo'n. 
Th' suff fra' th' drean was stopped up, an' I hed to brogglc iver soa 
long afoore I could get it oppen. 


BROHT IN. Converted; having convictions of sin and 
certainty of grace. 

He's been broht in at th' chapil, but I doant sea as it hes mended his 
waays a deal. 

BROILING-IRON. A grid-iron. 

" One broyleing iyron " occurs in the Inventory of William Gunas, of 
Keadby, i8th September, 1685. 

BROKE, pp. Exhausted, used up. 

We're brodh for kindlin', we hev'n't soa much as a stick aboot th' 
All on us 11 be brodk fer to'nups next winter. 1887. 

BROKEN-BACKED, Damaged, worthless. 

I doan't think as I iver seed sich 'n a lot o' broaken-back'd rattle-traps 
e' my life as ther' was at . . . saale. 

BROODLE. To brood, to fondle. 

Ther 's hens as 'all broodle straange chickins. 

I niver but once afoore seed a cat broodle a yung duck. 

BROTHER-CHIP. Fellow workman. Query, modern slang. 

BROTH, BROTHS. Broth, whether it takes the plural ter- 
mination or not, is always a plural. 
Will 'ta hev a few broth ? 
Put th' broths up o' th' taable, lass. 

" To warm up old broth " is to renew an engagement of marriage that 
has been broken off. 

BROWN-CLOCK. A brown beetle, a cock-chafer, Melolantha 

BRUFF. A ring of pale light around the moon. See BURR. 
BRUFF, v. To cough. 

BRUSH, v. (i) To disturb, to drive away. 
Brush that theare hen oot o' th' stick-hill. 
When he pot th 1 ferrits in, my wo'd, them rats did brush. 

(2) To trim hedges with a hook. 
BRUSH-OUT, v. To flush a drain or sewer. 
BRUSHINGS. The small twigs trimmed off hedges. 

BRUSSEN. Burst. 

That theare herse hes eat soa many tars, he's o'must brussen his-sen. 

DAY. Maundy, Thursday, Friday, and Saturday. 


BRUSSEN-GUTS. A very greedy eater. 

BRUSSEN-GUTTED. (i) Broken bodied, ruptured. 
(2) Very fat. 

BRUSSEN-HEARTED. -Broken hearted. 

BRUSSELS, 5. //.Bristles. 

BRUST, v. To burst. 

BRUZZ, BRUZZEN, v. To bruise. 

BUB. An unfledged bird. See BAREBUB. 
His skin was as black as a bub-craw. 
As bare as a bub, i.e., quite naked. 

BUCK. A smartly-drest young man. 

BUCK, v. To copulate, said of the deer and the rabbit. 

BUCKET. A pail, whether made of wood, metal, or leather. 
Sometimes, however, a distinction is made, a wooden vessel 
of this kind being called a bucket and a tin one a pail. A 
man who lived at Brumby, a new-comer from southern 
parts, wanted a bucket for the purpose of catching the blood 
when he bled his horse, so he said to his servant, " Fetch 
me a pail, lad." The boy had never heard the word before, 
and, misunderstanding it, brought his master a pale from a 
neighbouring fence. At the petty sessions held at Winterton, 
September 3, 1875, a witness stated that some men were 
running races in the parish of Frodingham, and that beer 
was supplied to them in a bucket. Another witness con- 
tradicted this, saying, u it wasn't a bucket, it was a paail ;" 
the vessel was made of tin. 

BUCKET-EARS. The eyes in which the kilp (q.v.) of a bucket 

BUCKHEAD, v. To buckhedd a hedge is to lop off the top 
branches, so as to leave branched stumps about three feet 

BUCKLE TO, v. To begin work with a will. 

Cum, I can't dally noa longer ; we raun buckle to, lads. 

BUCK-STICK. An old-fashioned man ; a dear old friend. 
BUCK-THISTLE. The large meadow thistle. 
BUCK-THORN. The black thorn. 


BUCKT UP. Dressed very smartly. 

BUD, conj.But. 

First Mother : He did. 

Second Mother : Bud I tell ye he didn't. 

First Mother : I saay he did then. 

Second Mother : Then thoo lees ; it was thy awn bairn an' noabody 
else nobbud him, fer oor Jim seed a lad 'at seed anuther lad, 'at 
seed him do it with his awn ees, soa noo then. 

Epworth, 1874. 

BUDGE, v. To move on. 

BUFF. To strip to his buff. 

" To be in his buff" is to strip, or to be naked. 

BUFFET. A hassock. The difference between a bass and a 
buffet seems to consist in the former being covered with rush 
matting and the latter with carpet. 

" Buffet-stool, vox agro Line, usitatissima est autem sella levior 
portatilis, sine ullo cubitorum aut dorsi fulcro." Skinner, Etymolog. 
' Go fetche us a light bujfit." Towneley, Mysteries, p. 199. 

BUFFLEHEAD. A weak or silly person. 

He's as big a bufflehedd as thaay could fin' e' all sheere ; he wean't 
sink noa well to get watter 'at's fit to drink, bud lets his wife an' 
bairns an' sarvants drink stuff 'at's noa better then sipe fra' a manner- 
hill. He wants real bad to hev th' newsenser doon of him. 

BUG, adj. Proud, officious. 

He's as bug as th' Queen's coachman. 

As bug as a lop, i.e., a flea. 

As bug as my lord. 

" He looks very bug of it." Skinner, Etymolog. 

My ohd man's that bug aboot takkin' care o' th' Squire's herses 
when groom goas to Sheffield shaw. H. T., 3rd August, 1886. 

" Major Knight, on Monday, October the gth (1643), summoned the 
castle (of Bollingbroke, co. Lincoln), in the Earl of Manchester's name, 
but was answered that his bugg words should net make them quit the 
place." Rushworth, Hist. Coll., Part III., vol. ii., p. 281. 

BUGABOO. A bugbear, with which children are frightened 
by parents and nurses. 

BUILD ON, v. To depend on. 

He built on keapin' th' farm wheare his faather deed, but . . . 
to'n'd him oot, soa he took to drinkin' an' soon ended his sen'. 

BULKER. A wooden hutch in a workshop or a ship. 

Skinner says Bulkar is a Lincolnshire word, meaning " Tignum, 
Trabs." Etymolog. 

BULL, FELL AS. Very angry, fierce, savage. See FELL. 

He look'd as fell as a bull when I met him at laane-end, bud I niver 
suspicion'd what a do he'd hed wi' 'em all. 


BULL, TO PLAY WITH THE, //^.Signifying doing some 
dangerous thing without reasonable cause. 

" You'll plaay wi 1 th' bull while (i.e. till) you get a horn in yer ee, or 
yer arse," are common forms of caution given to reckless persons. 

"BULL-BAITING. This cruel amusement was formerly 
enjoyed in almost every village. It gradually went out 
during the last century. A superstition still lingers that 
bull beef is not wholesome for food unless the animal has 
been baited. Cf. White, Worksop, p. 60 ; Notes and Queries, 
V.S., vol. i., pp. 181, 274, 312, 455. 

BULLDOGS, s. p. Rough waves on the Humber are called 

Barton Bulldogs. 

BULLFINCHER. A high clipped hedge ; a fox-hunting term. 
To get a bullfincher is for horse and man to fall over one of these 

BULL-HASSOCKS, sb. //.Large round tufts of grass standing 
above the common level of the turf. 

There is a place in the Isle of Axholme called Bull-Hassocks. 

BULL-HEAD. A tadpole. 
BULL-HOLE. A deep pool in a beck. 
BULLIES. The bullace or larger sloe. 
BULLING. A cow at heat is said to be " a-bulling." 

BULLOCK, v. (i) Bellow. 
(2) To use loud-mouthed abuse. 

BULLOCKING. Imperious. 

BULLS, BUNS, s. pi. The cross pieces of harrows in which 
the teeth are fixed and through which the slots (q.v.) pass. 

BULLS AND COWS, s. //.Flowers of the Arum Maculatum. 

BULL-SEG. A bull castrated after maturity. 

BULL'S EYES, s. pi. A coarse, round sweetmeat, flavoured 
with peppermint. 

BULLY-RAGGING. Blustering, foul, loud-mouthed abuse. 

He gev him a straange bully-mggin' last Winterton stattis. 


BUM, v. (i) To buzz. See BUZZARD-CLOCK. 

" Bumming gad-flies ceas'd to tease." John Clare, Recollections after a 

(2) To swell after a blow. 

It bumm'd up as big as a egg. Scotton. 

BUMBLE-FOOT. A thick, clumsy, or misshapen foot. 

BUMBLES, s. pi. Rushes, such as are used for chair bottoms- 
I like pews best e' cheches ; I can't abide them bumble -seated chairs. 
As ohd Squire Heala' ewsed to saay ; it's makkin' onessen like a Paapist 
to set doon 'e one on 'em. 

BUMBLING, BUMMING. The humming of insects. 

BUMEL-BEE, BUMBLE-BEE. A humble-bee. 

" An old woman, being asked what she thought of a certain somni- 
ferous preacher, replied sharply, ' What ! parson ! why, thoo mud as 
well he v a bum'el-bea upov a thistle-top.'" Sir C. H. J. Anderson, 
Bart., Lincoln Pocket Guide, p. 16. Cf. Britten & Holland's Eng. Plant 
Names, Flap Dock. 

BUMPER. (i) The buffer of a railway carriage. 
(2) The heavy weight used in driving piles. 

BUN. The stalk of hemp or flax, or any long dry stalk that 
resembles them. 

BUN,//. (i) About to go somewhere or do something. 
I'm bun for Brigg stattus. 
He's bun to fetch th' ky off o' th' common. 

(2) Bound. 

He's dead afore noo, I'll be bun for it. 

(3) Bound as a book. 

I mun tak' this here hymn-book to Jackson's to be bun, all th' 
inside's a cummin oot. 

" One olde boke bun with ledder. . . . One lityll colet-boke bun 
withoute burdes." (1514.) Louth Ch. Ace., vol. i., p. 255. 

BUNCH. A bundle of laths. 

BUNCH, v. (i) To kick savagely. 

" Defendant came to him in a field and bunched him because he would 
not drive the horses steadier." Gainsburgh News, igth May, 1877. 

"He actually saw him bunching an old man." (1647. Depositions 
from York Castle (Surtees Soc.,) p. 10. 

(2) Used with reference to the blows a calf gives with its head 
to the cow's udder to make the milk flow. 

Cauves bunches the'r muther's bags as soon as thaay can stan wi 1 oot 
ony larnin. 


BUNCH-CLOT. Clodhopper. 

BUNDLE, BUNDLE OFF. To dismiss with contumely, to 
remove hurriedly. 

I bundled him oot o' th' hoose quick. 

He bundled him off theare an' then vvi' oot pay in' him his waage. 

BUN-FEAST. A feast where buns are eaten. 

Ther' was a.bun-fedst at Butterwick Methodis' Chapil, an' the maazes 
maade th' plaace smell that strong Sarah o'must swoun'd awaay. 

BUNG UP, v. To stop up. 

Th' mohds hes bung'd up the suffs in Naathan-Land. 

BUNK, r. To run away. 

BUNS, 5. //.Sec BULLS. 

BUNNY. A child's name for a rabbit. See BUNT. 

BUNT. The tail of a rabbit. 

BUNTER. An old harlot ; a procuress. 

" While bunters attending the archbishop's door 
Accosted each other with cheat, bitch, and whore, 
I noted the drabs, and considering the place, 
Concluded 'twas plain that they wanted his grace." 

A Collection of Epigrams, 1737, vol. ii., 
p. Ixxiii. 

BUNTING. A term of endearment used to children. 

BURGESS. One who holds his land by burgage tenure. 

" The word is used at Gainsburgh to signify one who holds an 
ancient messuage of the Manor of Gainsburgh, and pays a rent to the 
lord called burgh-rent. Cf. Stark, Hist. Gainsb., p. 541. 

BURGREVE, BURGRAVE. An officer belonging to the 
Manor of Gainsburgh. Cf. Stark, Hist. Gainsb., p. 531. 

BURLY MAN. A manorial officer (obsolete). 

" There be appointed foure burley men for to see all paines that are 
made to be kept." Scatter Manor Roll, 1586. Cf. Hist. MSS. Com. 
Report, vol. iv., p. 368, I. Whitaker, Hist. Whalley ed., 1876, vol. ii., 
p. 227. Athenceum, I2th July, 1879, p. 41 ; 26th July, 1879, p. 115. 

BURN, //.Born. 

He was a gentleman burn, you see, not a chap 'at hes to wark fer 
his livin' like thoo an 1 me. 

BURN CANDLES AT BOTH ENDS. To be very wasteful. 



BURN DAYLIGHT. To light candles before dark. 

BURNER. A man who burns bricks or lime. 

" To brickyard hands: Wanted, two steady men as burners." Line. 
Chron., 4th December, 1874. 

BURNING GLASS. A lens. These instruments were com- 
monly used for lighting pipes out of doors before the 
discovery of lucifer matches. 

BURNING-IRON. A branding iron. 

BURNING SHAME, phr. An exceedingly shameful 

BURNING THE GRASS. Mowing with a blunt scythe. 
BURNT SAND. Hard lumps of sand of a dark red colour. 

BURR. (i) The halo round the moon. 

(2) The adhesive prickly fruit of the burdock. 

(3) The centre of a millstone. 

BURY-HOLE. A grave, a child's word. 
BURY-CAKE, BURYING-CAKE. A funeral cake. 

BURYING. A funeral. 

Ther' niver was a buryin' that ony body knaw'd on o 1 th' no'th side 
'o' Bottesworth chech afoore Lizzie Ashton's, bud all th' grund's full o' 
boans. 1876. 

BURYING-TOWELS, Towels used for carrying a coffin. 

BUSH. Two circles of iron lining the nave of the wheel of a 
cart or waggon, within which the axle works. Cf. House- 
hold Books of Ld. William Howard (Surtees Soc.), p. 100. 
Pro. Soc. Ant., ii. series, vol. vi., p. 372. 

BUSH, v. To stick thorns on land for the purpose of hindering 
poachers from netting partridges. 

BUSH-HARROW. A harrow made by inserting bushy thorns 
in a frame of wood. 

BUSH-HARROW, v. To harrow land with a bush-harrow. 


BUSHEL. One-fourth of a quarter of corn, not one-eighth, as 
in most other parts of England. 

The strike or half bushel represents here, and in some other parts of 
Lindsey, the legal bushel. The earliest mention I have yet met with of 
this local measure is the following : The churchwardens of Kirton-in- 
Lindsey farmed certain lands set apart for maintaining the church and 
its services. During the reign of Edward the Sixth the precise year 
is not noted they sold several parcels of " lyane," that is line or flax- 
seed. The account they rendered to the parish is as follows : " Md : 
thys ys )je perrselles of lyane delyvered hereafter followjng. It 
delyvered to master subdene vj quartorys ixs viijd. ... It to 
Thomas Smythe of brege iij quarters iiijs. It to Wylliam redar of j>e 
same j quarter xvjd. . . . It to }>e glover of barton a boivssyll. iiijd. " 
Kirton-in-Lindsey Ch. Ace., p. 13. Cf. Marshall's Prov. of Midland 
Counties (E. D. S. Gloss., B. 5). Symond's Diary (Camden Soc.), p. 127. 

BUSINESS COW. A cow which gives a good supply of 
,;V milk and cream. 

BUSK. (i) A bush. There was in 1672 a place in the manor 
of Scotter called Goute Buske. 

" For out of towne me list to gone, 
The sound of birdes for to heare 
That on the bushes singen cleare." 

Chaucer, Romaunt of the Rose. 

(2) A piece of wood, whalebone or steel, worn in the front 
part of a woman's stays for the purpose of keeping them 

BUSK, v. (i) To hasten, to hurry forward. 

Noo busk thy sen off an' doant stan' theare gawmin' for a weak. 

(2) To drive off. 

I'll busk that hen fra' off 'n her nest. 

(3) To drive out. 

If he cums across my door stoan agean I'll busk him. 
Theare's a man at . . . that's alus saayin' ' I'll busk ye,' an' soa 
he's gotten th' naame w' iviry body of Buskem .... 

BUSS. A kiss. 
BUSS, v. To kiss. 
BUST,//*. Burst. 

BUSTLE. -An article of women's dress used to make the gown 
stand off behind. 

"I bought you some . . . muslin to make you a bustle, but the 
tiresome folks did not send it with the other things, so I have been 
obliged to make it of some calico." Northorpe Letter from 
M. P. Circa, 1825. 


BUT. Used reduntantly in phrases such as " I couldn't help 
but see ; " "I couldn't but get weet o' my feat." 

BUTCHER, v. To slaughter animals as a butcher does. 
He's butchered that sheap real well. 

BUTCHERING. The business of a butcher. 
He was a farmer, but he's taken to butchering. 

BUTT. A flounder, or any kind of flat fish. 

BUTTALL. That portion of a piece of unenclosed land which 
abuts on another property (obsolete). 

" Thebuttalls and boundaries thereof." Lease of Brumby Warren, 1628. 

BUTTER AND EGGS. The pace of a horse between a trot 
and a canter. 

BUTTERBUMP. The bittern, Botaurus Stellaris. 

A farm-house on the site of Thornholme Priory is called Butterbump 
Hall. Bitterns were formerly very common in the marshes around. 
The name of one of the hamlets of Willoughby-in-the-Marsh is 
Butterbump, and Mr. Boulton, in the Zoologist for 1864 (p. 8960) writes 
that ... a particular bend in the river Hull, known as Eske, was 
formerly called Butterbump Hall from the booming of these birds that 
lived around it. Cordeaux, Birds of the Humber, p. 104. 

BUTTER DOWN, BUTTER UP, v. To flatter. 

He butter'd her doon so wi' talkin' to her aboot her bairns, that she 
lent him three hairf-croons an' her husband dikin' boots. 

It's noa ewse butterin' on me up i' this how bairn, thoo wants to staay 
awaay fra chapil an' play wi' 'Liza, an' thoo's not agooin, soa noo then. 

BUTTERED EGGS, s. //.Eggs beaten up with butter and 
cooked over the fire. 

BUTTERFINGERED. Careless in holding things, especially 
crockery (in almost general use). 

Thoo's th' butterfinger'dest lass I iver seed ; that's three plaates an' a 
wine-glass thoo's brocken this very weak an' Frida' is n't here yit. 

BUTTER GOB. A large front tooth. 

BUTTER-MONEY. The money made of butter, milk, eggs, 
&c., which is commonly the perquisite of the farmer's wife. 

BUTTERSCOTCH. A confection of butter and sugar, other- 
wise called "toffee;" it is said to have been first made at 
Doncaster by a Scotchwoman, whence the name. 


BUTT-HILLS, s. pi. Mounds which have been used for butts 
in archery. They are frequently barrows. Two bearing 
this name exist at Twigmoor, and one at West Halton. 
There was in the seventeenth century an enclosure at 
Bottesford called Btitt-close, and until about twenty years 
ago there was a pasture at Northorpe which went by the 
name of the Butcliff close. 

BUTTON OFF. A person is said to have a button off who is 
half idiotic. 

BUTTONS, (i) Small mushrooms such as are used for 

(2) Small round cakes of gingerbread. 
BUTTON UP, v. To be silent. 

BUTTRISE (but-ris). A blacksmith's tool used for paring 
horses feet before they are shod. 

BUTTS. The ends of ridges in an open field which abutted 
on other ridges that were at right angles to them. 

BUTTY-SHOP. A shop where goods are given on account of 

BUZZARD-CLOCK. A kind of beetle, a cockchafer. 

"Au 'eerd un a bummin' awaay loike a buzzard-clock ower my yead." 
Tennyson, Northern Farmer, 18. 

BY. The termination of many names of places : as Crossby, 
Brumby, Roxby, Risby, signifying "town." The village 
well at North Kelsey is called the Bye-well. 

BY. Of, concerning. 
Well, what by that. 

BY. Passed, understood. 

Mr. Spillman was by here this mornin'. 

BY. Nigh unto. 

He lives by Frodingham Station. 

BY, conj. By that time. 

I'll hev it ready by you cum back. 

BY ALL MANDER O' MEANS, phr.By all means. 

Bv all mander o' means you mun sleek oot that fire afoore you goa 


BY AND BY, phr.Mter a time, shortly. 

" lam hie adero. Ill be heere by and by againe." Bernard, Terence, p. 67. 
" With that [I] conueied my selfe from them, by & by weeping." 
Ibid, p. 337. 

BY BLOW. A bastard. 

BYE-BILL. A bill that is statute-run ; anything that is out 
of date. 

There was an old woman who acted for twenty years as parish 
clerk at Normanby-by-Spital. She was very well educated, but a Papist 
at heart all the time. When she was dying some of the neighbours 
wanted to read the Bible to her, but she said she would have nothing 
to do with it, it was naught but a bye-bill. John Thorpe. 

BYGONES, s. //.Things past, more especially past troubles. 

What's th' ewse o' reapin' up.bygongs ? Th' ohd man's in his graave. 
" The bygones of her husband's stipend." Decisions of the Eng. Judges 
during the Usurpation, p. 30. 

BY GOOD RIGHTS (raits). Fitly, properly, injustice. 

Them two cloasis is mine by good reights, but I ha'n't munny to try it 
wi' him. 


BY-LANE. A private way, or a parish road, not a highway. 

" He turned down a narrow by-lane, fenced from the open fields on 
each side by deep and wide ditches." Ralfh Skirlaugh, vol. ii., 
p. 99. 

BY-NAME. A nickname. 

BY NOW, adv. By this time. 

I should o'must think he'll be at Brigg by noo. 

BY PATH. A private footway or bridle-road, or if a public 
path one that is little used. 

" His modyr, Ion and ou];er kyn 
Went by a by-pa]> to mete with hym." 

Manning of Brunne, Meditations, 1.' 480. 

BY RAW. In order, let by the row. 

He knaws th' naames o' all th' kings and queens o' England 

by raw. 

BY TAKE. (i) A house or farm taken of the tenant, not of 
the landlord. 

(2) A farm on which the tenant does not live. 

He hed th' cliff farm as a hy-tak, he alus liv v d beloa th' hill. 


BY THAT. At once, in an instant. 

What a dog Rob is ! When I ligg'd doon th' hoss-rug he was on it 
agean by that. 

BY-TIME, BY HOURS. Time not included in the ordinary 
day's work. 

He could n't write when he was thoty year ohd, bud he toht his sen 
at by-times. 

BY-WIPE. (i) A bastard. 
(2) An indirect sarcasm. 


CABBAGE. " Thaay 're baacon o' one side an' cabbage o' th' 
uther," said of exceedingly fine cabbages. September, 1875. 

CABBAGE, v. To steal. Used of petty thefts only. 

CABBAGE-HEAD. A simpleton. 

I niver heard o' sich an' a cabbage-head in all my life. He pot white 
o' egg an' soot on his head to mak' his hair ton black. 

"Thou foul, filthy cabbage-head!" Aphra. Behn. The False Count, 
1682. ed. 1724, vol. iii,, p. 146. 

CABLE. A long, narrow strip of ground in an open field. 
CACK. Human dung. 
CACK, v. To dung. 

CACKLE. When a hen cackles she is believed to say 

" Cuca, cuca, cay it, 
I've laid an egg, cum ta' it." 

CACKLING. pres. pi. Gabbling; tale bearing, commonly 
used regarding women. 

CAD. Carrion. See KET. 

CADDIS. A narrow woollen binding. 

" They come to him by the gross ; inkles, caddises, cambrics, lawns." 
Winter's Tale, act iv., sc. iii. Cf. i. Henry the Fourth, act ii., sc. iv. 

CADDY, adj. Hale, hearty. 

Robert Lockwood was the caddiest ohd man as I iver knaw'd. When 
hs was better then ninety I've seed him huggin' two buckets o' watter 
at a time up Yalthrup Hill as nim'le as a bairn. 

CADE. (i) A lamb reared by hand. 

" Three cade lambs were playing near the door." John Clare, 
Shepherd's Calendar, p. 126. 

(2) A child that is babyish in its manners. 
CADGE, v. To do odd jobs ; to live by " catch- work," q.v. 


CADGER. One who cadges. The term is often applied to 
men who do odd jobs as grooms, such as making up horses 
for fairs. 

CAFFLE, v.(i) To entangle. 

You've caffled them cottons togither shaameful. 

(2) To prevaricate. 

He caffled a bitjwhen he was afoore th' magistrates, bud it were to noa 

GAGGLE, v, To stick together, to coagulate. 

The drain of a sink being stopped, the maid servant explained that 
she never washed any earthy vegetables at it but that " its th 1 hard 
watter, th' soap an' things that caggles all together." 

CAG MAGS. (i) Old geese. 
(2) Unwholesome meat. 

CAILES. Nine pins (obsolescent). 

" Le jeu des quilles, the game at nine pins." Miege, Fr.-Eng. Diet., 

CAINGE, v. (i) To waste through sickness or declining health. 
Poor thing ! she'll not bide it a deal longer ; she's caaingin' awaay, 
poor bairn ; said of a child that had swallowed a halfpenny. 

(2) To decay, said of things without life. 

CAKE (kai-h'k). (i) Bread baked on the sole, not in a tin. 

" The women near Burton-Stather are very lazy . . . Mr. 
Goulton's expression was, ' they do nothing but bring children and eat 
cake.' " Arth. Young, Line. Agric. 1799, p. 413. 

(2) Linseed or other cakes used as food for cattle. 

(3) A silly person, especially one fat and sluggish. 

He was a sore caake, wo'd n't stir his-sen so much as to maw his 
muther gress-plat. 

(4) Anything very bad to bear is called hard caake. 

CAKE-BREAD. Bread of a fine quality, made of flour such 
as cakes are made of. 

CALCIE (kal'si). A causeway (obsolescent). 

" Calseys, they are common passage wayes upon the land, made of 
stone, sand, or gravel, and they have the name a cake, the usual stone, it 
should seem, whereof most calseys have formerly been made." Instruc. 
for jurymen in the Commission of Sewers, 1664, p. 28. See CAUSEY. 

CALEVER. A culverin, a hand-gun (obsolete). 

" For mending ye calever vfi-"Kirton-in-Lindsey, Ch, Ace,, 1569. 



CALL. Reason, occasion. 

If suppoasin', she bed bed a misfo'tun, her faather hed no call to 
ewse th' lass e' that how. 

CALL, v. (i) To miscall a person, to call a person out of his 
name, that is, by a nick-name, and hence, by an easy 
transition, to use foul words, to abuse. 

" No child in the Band of the Cross must use bad Iangua5e, or call 
any one." Rules of the Epworth Band of the Cross. Crowle Advertiser, 
December 19, 1874. 

I'm cum'd to sea, Squire, if I can't hev sum rem'dy . . . caird 
me shaameful yesterda' afoore all the foaks as was cumin' fra' 

"They call our place (Gainsburgh) for being dirty ; look at Retford." 
Gainsb. News, Feb. 9, 1878. 

" David when Simei did call him all to nought, did not chide again." 
Homiby against Contention, pt. II., ed. 1815, p. 98. 

(2) To proclaim by the town crier. 

It was call'd on three market-daays at Brigg, bud it was n't fun. 

(3) What do they call you ? What is your name ? 


He was call'd hodm on th' sixt o' November. 

CALLING IN CHURCH. Publication of banns. 

CALLlS, v. To harden or indurate : applied to soil, sand, 
gravel, and the like. 

CALLIS-SAND. White scouring sand. 

CALL OF. Call for. 

He said I was to call of him when I was ready. 

CAM, i\ Came. 

Fie cam at six o' clock e' th 1 mornin'. 

CAMBRIDGE, v. To roll with a Cambridge roller. An 
agricultural implement which takes its name from its 
inventor, Mr. William Colbirne Cambridge. 

" We Caambridg'd them to'nups as soon as thaay was sawn." July 
io, 1882. Yaddlethorpe. 

CAMERILL, CAMBERILL. The hock of an animal. 


CAMERILL-STICK. A somewhat curved piece of wood 
with several notches in it at each end, used to put through 
the hamstrings of animals when dressed, by which the 
carcase is suspended. 

CAMP. An encampment. 

Ther' ewsed mostlin's to be a. camp o' gipsies i' th 1 laaneagean Shawn 

CAMPERS, 5. pi. Persons who live in tents gipsies. 

CAMP-MEETING. A meeting for religious purposes, held in 
the open air, by the Primitive Methodist Connection. 

CAN, v. May. 

" Can I chen to-daay ? " enquired a woman servant of her mistress, a 
lady from Devonshire, " Yes, I have no doubt you can, Mary," was 
the reply, " for you did it very well last week ! " 

CANARY, CANARY PLANT. (i) Covydalis Lutea. 
(2) Tvopceolum Canariensis. 

CANCH (kansh). A small but uncertain quantity of unthreshed 
corn, straw, hay, or clover. 

Ther's just one little canch o' oats left an' that's all. 
" ij canckis of barly xxvs. . . . Canch Rie and Crushen Rye 
xiiijd." Kirton-in-Lindsey Court Roll, 1519. 

Stuck together by rust, pressure, or other means. 

" She lost him one night in the great frost upon our common, and 
there he was found in the morning canded in ice." Th. Killigrew, The 
Parson's Wedding, act i., sc. i. 

I. fun a lump o' sneel-shells what would fill a barra' e 1 th' inside d' 
a holla' esh trea, all candied togither. 

A. labourer, who came Upon a " find " of bronze celts at West Halton, 
said, " Thaay was all candied togither." 

Shakspere speaks of " The cold brook candied with ice." Timon of 
Athens, Act iv., sc. iii. 

CANDIED PILL. Candied lemon-peel. 

CANDLE, SALE BY.-- An auction where a short piece of 
candle was burnt, and the last bidder before the candle^ 
went out became the purchaser. Cf. T. L. O. Davies, 
Supplementary Eng. Gloss., sub. voc. Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. 
IV. 1.03 ii. Palmer Perlust. Yarmouth, vol. ii., p. 109. 
Archaologia, vol. xxxvii., p. 389. Briscoe, Old Nottingham- 
shire, i. series, p. 65. Cox and Hope, All Saints, Derby, 
Y> 68. Russell, Haigs ^ of Bemerside, p. 357. -Fleet, Sussex 
'Ancestors, p. 4-5. 


CANDLE LEET TIME. Dusk,'the time when candles ought 
to be lighted. 

CANKER. (i) Rust. 

(2) The hair-like gall on the wild rose, caused by the cynips 

" The canker-blooms have full as deep a dye, 
As the perfumed tincture of the roses ; 
Hang on such thorns, and play as wantonly, 
When summer's breath their masked buds discloses." 

Shakspere, Sonnet liv. 

(3) Inflammation in the ears and mouths of animals. 

" Washed my horses mouthes for the canker, which were foule eaten 
therewith." Adam Eyre's Diary (Surtees Soc.), p. 69. 

(4) A diseased place in the bark of a tree. 

(5) Caries of teeth or bones. 

CANKER, v. To rust. 
CANKERED. Ill-tempered. 

He's alus real cankered when times is bad. 

11 Wee had never such a cank'red carle, 
Were never in our companie." 

Percy Folio, vol. i., p. 48. 

CANNON-MOUTH. Part of a horse's bit. 

" A round, long piece of iron, consisting sometimes of two pieces that 
couple and bend in the middle ... so contrived that they rise 
gradually towards the middle, and ascend towards the palate ; to the 
end, that the void space left underneath may give some liberty to the 
tongue." Sportsman's Diet. 1785 sub. voc. 

CANNY, adj. Knowing, well-skilled in the small duties of life. 

CANT. Part of a buttress wall, or other building which is 
sloped off. 

CANT, v . (i) To set on edge. 

(2) To cut diagonally, to slope. 

(3) To deceive by pious pretences. 

CANTER. One who deceives by pious pretences. 
Moast foaks calls 'em ranters, I call 'em canters. 

CANT-HOOK. A tool used for turning over timber. 
CANTING. The fondling ways of a child. 

CANT-WINDOW. A bay window, the angles of which are 
bevelled off. 


CANTY. Lively, cheerful. 

CAP, v. To surpass. 
Well, this caps all. 

CAPE, CAPEING. The coping-stones of a wall. 

CAPES, s. pi. Ears of corn and fragments of ears, broken oft 
in threshing. 

" We make the miller sitte on his knees and rye it, that the dirte and 
dust may goe through, and the chaffe-capes and heads gather togeather 
on the top." Best, Rural Economy in Yorkshire, 1641, p. 103. 

CAP IN HAND, phr. Humbly. 

He's alus cap in hand to ... when he's theare, but when his 
back's ton'd he calls him a leein' nazzle, like th' rest o' foaks. 

" Doth hee thinke . . . that I will come to entreate him cap in 
hand? Bernard, Terence, p 341. 

CAPPER. (i) Something very superior. 
(2) Something very puzzling. 

CAPPING SHEAVES. -The hood sheaves of a stock. 

Ten sheaves make a stook of corn ; when it is probable that rain will 
fall, two of these sheaves are taken and put at right angles upon the top, 
so as to make a hood for the others. 

CAPPING STONES. Coping stones. See CAPE. 

CAP-SCREED. The edging of a woman's cap when the 
borders were worn full and broad, as they were about 1838. 

Master Edward's setten my cap-screed a-fire, as I was huggin' him up 
to bed. 

CAPTAIN. The chief person in a gang of labourers. 

CAR. Low, unenclosed land, liable to be flooded. 

" Sire Thadok ]>e erchelischop of jork, 
He livede in tterres as do])]>e stork." 

Robert Manning of Brunne, 

Story of Engl. ii., 805. 

" Yt ys ordered that euery inhabytant of Scotter shall put ther geyse 
on the carre, or else clyppe ther wynges, or pull theym vpon payne of 
eurye flocke iijs. Hid Scatter Court Roll, 1556. 

C AR^ KTER. Character. 

" Consider, sir, a servant's bread depends upon his carackter." High 
Life Below Stairs, Act i. 


CARE, A PRETTY. Said of any person or thing which 
causes much trouble or inconvenience. 

He's a. pretty care poor creatur', strong as he ewsed to be, he can't do 
one thing for his sen noo'. 

CAR FIR, CAR OAK, CAR WOOD. Timber and roots 
of trees dug up in the cars and moors. 

CARF. The incision made by a saw in cutting timber. 
Messingham, cf. Ray, South and East Country words (E.D.S.), 
B 16, p. 85. 

CARGRAVE. A manorial officer who has custody of the cars. 
See CAR. 

. (2) A man who digs turves and buried timber in the cars. 

CARPET. When servants are sent for into the parlour to be 
scolded, they are said to have been up o' th' carpet. 

CARL-HEMP, Le., male hemp. The female plant of the 
cannabis sativa. 

" It is curious that this name is always given to the female plant by 
the old writers, who called it the male plant, although they observed 
that it bore seed." Britten and Holland's Eng. Plant Names. 

Hemp was much cultivated here until the end of the wars of the first 
French empire. My father informed me that carl-hemp was used for 
ropes, .sack-cloth, and other coarse manufactures; the .fimUe-hemp was 
applied to making sheets and other household purposes. 

CARPETING. The material from which carpets are made, 
before it is cut up into lengths, shaped and stitched to- 
gether ready for use. Several similar words are employed 
as strainering, the web from which strainers are made, 
sheeting the material for sheets. Shirting has already passed 
from English into German. 

CARRAWAY SEED. Used as the type of something quite 
worthless, because so very small. 

I wo'dn't gie a carrawaay-sedd to hev it one waay or tuther. 

CARRIAGE. A vehicle for riding in, having springs and four 
wheels. A two- wheeled vehicle is never called a carriage. 

You call that basket-work thing you ride in a carriage, but it's noht 
o' th' soort, it's a gig, for ther's nobbut two wheats undernean it. 

CARRITY-POLL. A nickname for a person with red hair. 

Cam^-beard is set down as a nickname in Symond's Diary (Camden 
Soc.), 1645, p. 275. 


CARRY ON, v. (i) To flirt, to romp. 

She's a steady enif lass when th' missis is by ; but when her back's 
ton'd, she does carry-on bonnily wi' th' chaps. 

(2) To use violent language. 

He carri'd on aboon a bit when him an' th' chaps cum'd hoame, an' 
ther' wasn't noa dinner ready. 

He carries on shaameful when he's e' drink. 

(3) To act in a wild and foolish manner in any crisis of affairs. 

" An' theare thaay stans' bealin an' carryin' on, till thaay'd o'must 
wept enif to fill a wesh-tub." Mabel Peacock, Tales and Rhymes in the 
Lindsey Folk-Speech, 62. 

CARRY-TALE. A tale-bearer. 

She's the newsyest ohd carry-taale i' all Blyton, an' that's saayin 1 a 

" Some carry -tale, some please-man, some slight zany, 
Some mumble-news, some trencher-knight, some Dick." 

Love's Labour Lost, Act v., sc. ii. 

CART. A cart is said to be too light on, when there is not 
sufficient weight to keep down the shafts. It is too heavy 
on when the pressure on the shafts is too great. 

CART, TO GET INTO. To get into a bad temper. 

" Na, noo, thoo neadn't get into th' cart, for I wean't draw thee." 
Winterton, August 6, 1875, cf. Bare-cart. 

CART-ARSE, CART-TAIL. The hinder part of a cart. 

" When from Fleet-bridg to Westminster, at cart's arsse I was whipt, 
Then thou with joy my soull uppheld'st so that I never wept." 

John Lilburne, The Work of the Beast, 1638. 

Last page. 

" That they take out theire forkesand rakes out of the waines arse." 
1641. Best, Farming Book (Surtees Soc.) p. 47. 

" That Margaret Justice be whipt the next day att 2 o'clock in the 
afternoon att a cart's arse, and Ann Blevin and Jane Justice be carryed 
in the cart att the same time, from the Exchange to Jane Justice's 
house in Dale Street." Record, 1708, in Sir James Picton's Municipal 
Archives of Liverpool, 81. 

CART-EARS, s. //.Iron eyes at the end of the shafts, to 
which the traces of the fore horses are attached. 

CARTE-BOTE. The right of getting wood for making and 
mending carts (obsolete). 

" Et carte-bate ibidem et non alibi annuatimexpendendum." Lease of 
Lands in Brumby, 1568. Cf. Mon. Ang., v. iiii., p. 209, i. 

CARTEE. A lightly-built cart having springs. 

" To be sold by auction by Mr. John Thorpe . . . wagon, carts, 
cartee, harrows, ploughs, machines, and a general assortment of farming 
implements." Gainsburgh News, March 23, 1867. 


CART GUM. The black compound of grease and tar which 
exudes from the axles of carts and waggons. 

When I was a lad I liv'd sarvant wi' Dook up ov Motton Car, an' 
ther' was a chap wi' me what wanted straange an' bad to hev' sum 
whiskers graw ; so I tell'd him if he nobbut rubb'd his cheaks wi' cart- 
gum oher-neet he'd find 'em grawin' e' th" mornin,' an' th' soft blether- 
head hed no moore sense then to do as I tell'd him, an' he hed to 
scrub th' skin awaay afoor th' cart-gum wo'd cum off." Th. Stocks, 

CART-SADDLE. The saddle placed on a shaft-horse in a 
cart, waggon, or carriage. 

In Piers the Plowman the " comissarie " is called cartesadel. B. text, 
pass, ii., line 179. 

CARVE. A measure of land. Probably a carucate (obsolete). 
" In 1626 Vincent Codder, of Scotter, surrendered a carve of pasture 
to William Beck." Scotter Court Roll. 

CAR-WATER. Water coloured by peat. 

CASE-HARDENED, adj.(i) Hard on the outside only. 
This bread's nobbut caase-hardened, it's not hairf fit e' th' inside. 

(2) Obdurate, obstinate, incorrigible. 

He's a real case-hardened, theaf. It's not long sin' he stoal a uven to 
sell to get drink wi'. 

CASSELTY, adj. Plap-hazard, chance. 

Casselty meat is the flesh of an animal that dies by accident, such as 
the flesh of drowned sheep. 

Casselty weather, is weather that is uncertain, now rainy and now 

CASSEN,/^. (i) Cast, warped, twisted. 

That door's cassen soa as it duzn't fit th' standard. 

(2) Overthrown. 

Ther's a sheap cassen i' th' Fimblestangs. 

(3) Beaten in a lawsuit. 

He went on for ten year or better, but was cassen at last, an' he'd th' 
expences all to paay. 

CASSON. Cow dung. 

" When I cum'd oot o' Ketton prison, I was that dry for a sup o' gin, 
'at if I'd seed ony o' th' top o' a casson I should hev sup'd it." B. J., 
Oct. 4, 1882. 

I alus reckon a ugly lass wi' a smart bonnit on to be just like a 
primroase e' a casson. 

" Cow-cassons until the time of the enclosures supplied the poor with a 
great part of their fuel. They were dried in summer and stacked for 
winter use. This practise is common all over Central Asia, and even 
in Egypt and Syria." E. J. Davis, Anatolica, p 304. 

" In the 43. of Elizabeth there was a place in Brumby called Casson- 
lands." Kirton Court Roll. Cf. Ralf Skerlaugh vol. ii., p. 104. 


CASSONING. (i) Getting cassotis for fuel. 

(2) Breaking cassons and spreading them on pastures. 

CAST. (i) Style, manner. 

I knaw'd by th' cast o' his faaca that he was leein'. 
(2) A second swarm of bees from the parent hive. 

CAST, v. (i) Sheep and cows are said to cast their young when 
they are born dead. Pick is the more common word, but 
cast is considered the refined term. 

(2) An animal is said to be cast when thrown down for the 
purpose of shoeing, or any surgical operation. 

" The animal is first cast or thrown, and his legs bound together." 
Treatise on Live Stock, 1810, p. 63. 

C AST-BYS, CAST-OFFS, s. ^/.-Things thrown on one side as 

These Ritualists are bringing in all sorts of old things which I 
thought had been cast-bys ever since P.opery was done away with. 

CASTINGS, 5. pL(i) The curled lumps of earth cast up by 

(2) The dung of birds. 

(3) The lumps of undigested matter which certain birds void 
from their mouths. 

CASTING-TOOL. A wooden spade shod with iron used by 
" bankers." 

CAST-METAL. Cast-iron. 
CAST OUT. To quarrel. 

CAST OHER, v.(i) To meditate. 

I've been cast hi' ohev what you said iver sin 1 I seed you last. 
(2) To become overcast. 

CAST UP. (i) To vomit. 

(2) To reckon up accounts. 

(3) To recriminate, to recall former quarrels, to remind of 
unpleasant things. 

He cast things up at me, that happen'd afoore we was wed. 
" But a cost oop, that a did, 'boot Bessy Harris's barn." Tennyson 
Northern Farmer, 4. 


CAST WATER. A person is said to cast another's water who 
pretends to discover diseases and their cure by the inspection 
of urine. These impostors, of whom several yet exist, are 
called water-casters or water-doctors, q.v. 

CAT. A soft cake made of clay, salt, meal and some aromatic 
ingredients, employed to lure pigeons into a dovecote. The 
use of the cat is said to have been illegal. Perhaps it was 
forbidden by the regulations of some manor court. 

CAT, proveyb. As lame as a cat. 

CAT, v. To vomit. 

CAT-BLASH, CAT-LAP, CAT-WAB. (i) Weak, worthless, 

You call this tea maay be ; I call it sore cat-blash ; why it hes n't 
strength to run oot o 1 th 1 spoot. 

(2) Worthless talk. 

I can bear to hear bairns chitter, for thaay knaw noa better, bud I 
wean't listen to cat-ii'ab like this, soa I tell ye. 

CATCH. (i) A keel, a small river boat. 

" And after that tooke a Scottish barke, and a Dover barke, and a 
pram or hute and a catch.'' Husband, Coll. of Orders, Ordinances and 
Declarations, 1643, vol. ii., p. 261. 

(2) A latch of a gate or door. 

" For . . . a catch & a ringe for the west gate." Louth Ch. Ace., 
1610, vol. iii., p. 196. 

CATCHED, pt. /.Caught. 

" I catched the fellow alone." Bernard, Terence, p. 404. 
" The animal has catched cold." Vegetius Renatus, Of the Distempers 
of Horses, 1748, p. 108. 

" Over the principal door there is a large picture . . . repre- 
senting the woman catched in adultery." Udal Ap Rhys, A Tour 
through Spain and Portugal, 1780, p. 88. 

" There was a noble lord, in the list then did stand, 
Threw Devonshire a sword and he catched it in his hand." 

Lord Delemert. 

CATCH-FLY. A snapdragon. Antirrhinum majus. 
CATCH HOLD ON. To catch. 

CATCH IT. A threat of punishment. 

My eye, but if you doant cut off quick you'll catch it. 


CATCHMAN. (i) The master of a catch, q.v. 

(2) A man who earns his living by "catch work." See CADGER. 

CATCH-WATER. A drain at the foot of a hill, for the 
purpose of catching the water that comes from thence, and 
taking it direct into a main drain, thus hindering it from 
overflowing the lowlands. 

CATCH-WORK. A man is said to be at catch-work when he 
does not work for any regular employer, but catches a day's 
labour now from one master and now from another. 

CATERWAUL. The cry of the female cat when she desires 
the male. 

"As little regarded as the caterwauling of a cat in a gutter." 
Ivanhoe, chap. xvii. 

" To a similar cause the caterwauling of more than one species of this 
genus is to be referred." Shelley, Peter Bell, part iii., note. 

CAT-CRADLE. A game children play with their fingers and 
a piece of string. 

CAT-FAT. " As short as cat-fat," signifies something that 
breaks very readily and in an unexpected manner. 
This warp is as short as cat-fat, it weant hing together a bit. 

CAT-GALLOWS. Two forked sticks stuck in the. ground, with 
one laid across to form a leaping-bar. 

CAT-HAW. The fruit of the hawthorn. 
CAT-HEAD. A kind of apple. 
CAT-ICE. Thin ice with no water under it. 

CAT-IN-PATTENS. He fraames like a cat i' pattens, said of 
a person who does anything in an unworkmanlike manner. 

CAT-JINGLES. Herpes Zoster, the shingles, a disease with 
which elderly persons threaten children who are fond of 
nursing cats. The symptoms are said to be large red spots 
which grow around the waist, one fresh one growing on 
each side every day. When they meet over the spine the 
patient dies. 

CAT-LEGGED, adj. Lanky; used of animals. 


CAT'S AUNT. When a person talking of another, says 
" she," without mentioning the name of the woman referred 
to, the hearer often says by way of reproof, " She's the cat's 
aunt.''' Common in London and elsewhere. 

CAT-TAIL. I wish I'd hohd o' oor cat taail, i.e., I wish I 
was at home. 

CAT-TAILS, s. //.The heads of the great bulrush, Typha 
lati folia. 

CATTLE-RAKE. The extent of pasturage on a common, 
or in an open field, on which the stock of a certain parish 
were permitted to depasture. 

CATTLES, Plural of cattle (obsolete). 

" Keep from biting, treading underfoot, or damage of beasts, horses 
and catties.'" Lease of Lands in Brumby, 1716. 

CAT WASHING DISHES. The sunlight reflected from a 
pail of water, upon a wall or the floor. Bottesford, October 
i, 1878. 

CAUDLE. A warm drink. 

Mrs. Baayley of Messingham, she ewsed fer to mak' sum very fine 
caudles fer badly foak. 

CAUF. (i) 'A calf. 

(2) The calf of the leg. 

(3) A silly fellow, a coward. 

A gentleman was enlarging to a Winterton lad on the virtues of 
Spanish-juice. " Ah, then, ye'll ha' been to th' mines, wheare thaay 
gets it," the boy exclaimed ; whereupon the mother broke in with " A 
great cauf. Duz he think 'at thaay dig it oot o' th 1 grund, saame as 
thaay do sugar ?" 

What a cauf it is ! Why, he's as scar'd o' a toad as I am o' a mad 

CAUF-HEART. A coward. 
CAUF-HEARTED, adj. Cowardly. 

CAUF-LICK. A portion of the hair on the head that will not 
lie in the direction in which it is brushed. 

CAUF-TOD. Literally calf dung, but used as a name for a 
kind of sweet-meat sold at Messingham and Ashby feasts. 


CAUKINS, 5. pi. Projections on the hinder part of horses' 
shoes, used for the purpose of enabling the animals to 
hold their feet on the pavements of streets, and on high- 
ways in slippery weather. 

" Drive her coursers . . . and strike bright daylight out of the 
azure rocks with their steeled caiihins." John Day, Peregrinatio 
Scholastica, chap. xiv. See CALKINS. 

" The iron rims placed on the under side of clogs are called caakers 
in Lancashire." Morris, Furness Gloss., p. 15. 

CAUL. (i) A thin membrane which is said to be found 
encompassing the heads of some infants at birth. It is 
believed to act as a charm against shipwreck. Cf. Palmer, 
Perlust. Yarmouth, vol. i., p. 163. Thiers Traite des Sup., 
vol. i., p. 319, Le Brun., Sup. Anc. et Mod., vol. i., 116-148. 
Stallybrass, Trans, of Grimm's Tronic Mythology, vol. ii., 874. 

(2) The thin fatty membrane to which the intestines of a pig 
are attached. 

(3) Perhaps a staithe (obsolete). 

" Thomas Abbott, of Stockwith, shall make one caule against his banks 
lying in the aforsaid Goule." Inquisition of Sewers, 1583, p. 5. 

In the i4th of Elizabeth in the Manor Roll of Little Carlton the 
word caul is used for a pigsty." 

CAULIFLOWER. A little fungus-like knot on the top of 
the wick of a candle, which enlarges, becoming first red 
and then black. Cf. Georgica i., 392. 

CAULK (kaulk). Chalk. 

"The materials are a mixture of brick, freestone, and cauk. . . . 
The internal walls, for the most part soft cauk, found in the neighbour- 
hood." William Fowler, Discrip. ofTho.nton Coll., 1824. 

" Bits of brick, slate, and cauk set in curious figures." Diary of 
Abraham de la Pryme. (Surtees Soc.), p. 212. 

CAUSEY. (i) A footpath, especially when made of flagstones 
or paved with cobbles. 

(1659.) " For paving the causey in the church-yard." Louth Ch. Ace.. 
vol. iiii., p. 286. 

(2) A highway over boggy land, that has been made by raising 
a bank above the level of the water as it stands in flood time. 

" jx>row myres, hylles & vales, He made brugges & causes.'' Robert 
Manning of Brunne, Story of Eng., i., no. 

" That no manner of person nor persons shall grave near any cawsey, 
by xx tj fott of eyther syde in payne of vjs viid." Bottesford Manor 
Roll, 1578. 

" In 1582, Thomas Dawber surrendered a piece of land called " Cawsey 
furlong," within the manor of Scotter, to Nicholas Hickes." Scatter 
Court Roll, sub ann. 

Brumby caucee is mentioned in the Court Roll of the Manor of 
Kirton-in-Lindsey, of 4th Edward iv. 


CAUSEY. (2) continued. 

" Brumby causey & the dikes on either side of them shall be sufficiently 
scowred and cleansed." 

"There is one causey or highway within the Lordship of Coulby 
. . . defective." Inquisition of Sewers, 1583, pp. n, 15. 

(1643.) " There was a stone causey thorow a bog, where but two horses 
could march in front, where the rebels had cast up a ditch on each side 
of the causey.' 1 Rushworth, Hist. Coll., part iii., vol. ii., p. 509. 
" From this place, sir, I further travell'd 
Upon a causey that was gravell'd." 

(1702.) Burlesque of Sir Roger Lestmnge's 

s Trans, of Visions of Quevedo, p. 192. 

" Look, look, on the causey yonder, 
Rides the Moorish king away." 

Rodd, Spanish Ballads, vol. ii., p. 325. 

CAUSEY, v. To pave. 

We mun hev' oor coort-yard causied, it clicks up soa e' a raainy time 
ther's noa gettin' in an' oot. 

" These London kirkyards are causeyed with through stanes panged 
hard and fast together." Fortunes of Nigel, chap. iii. 

CAUVE, v. (i) To calve. 

(2) To slip down as earth does in a cutting or in a bank 
undermined by water. 

' He was sitting cleaving stones when the rock calved in upon him." 
John Wesley, quoted in Notes and Queries, iv. series, vol. xii., p. 166. 

CAVE IN, v.(i) To break in. 
(2) To yield, to submit. 

CAVEL. A measure of land. See Stonehouse Hist. Isle of 
Ax holme, p. 92. 


CAVING RAKE. A rake used for separating the long bits 
of straw from the corn before it is winnowed. Cf. Best, 
Rural Economy in Yorks. (Surtees Soc.), p. 121. 

.CAVING RIDDLE. A riddle used after threshing for 
separating the corn from the bits of short straw which 
have come down the machine with it. 

CAVING UP. Sweeping the barn floor and throwing the corn 
into a heap preparatory to u dressing." 

CAVINGS, 5. pi. Bits of straw and dirt mixed with small 
corn separated from the good corn by the threshing 

" The short chaffy substance thus separated is in some districts 
termed cavings." R, W. Dickson, Practical Agriculture, ed. 1807, vol. ii., 
p. 298. 


CAVVASSING ABOUT. Wandering about ; said of sickly 
people who cannot rest. 

CAW. Power of breathing. 

He run'd so fast up th' hill he'd lost his caw afoore he got to th' top. 
I'll mak thee caw for it, i.e., I will knock the wind out of you. 

CAWK. A blow. 

He gev him a big 'cawk o' th' side o' th' head 'at sent him awaay 
roarin' like a bull. 

CAWKER. Anything very big, as a blow, a lie, a turnip. 

Well, Charlie, this is a cmvker an' noa mistaake ; why, ther' was twenty 
foaks heard th' saay it, an' noo thoo've th' faace to deny it. 
Them sweades is cawkers, thaay're like real picturs. 

CESS. (i) An assessment ; a local tax. 

Th' draainige cess is higher then iver t' year. 

(2) A space of ground lying between a drain or river and the 
foot of its bank. 

" The occupiers of the land adjoining the cesses of the Navigation 
. . . are authorized to discharge all persons trespassing thereon." 
Ancholme Navigation Notice, October 6, 1874. H {-* 

(3) The foreshore of a drain or river. 

(4) Fidget, irritation, trouble in domestic life. 

CESS, v. (i) To cast back earth. 

Noo then, Bob, get thy spaade an 1 help Abraham to cess that theare 
muck back, we shall be hevin' e' th' drean else. 

CESS-GETHERER. One who gathers a local tax. 

John Lockwood, th' cess-getkerer's been for th' coort o' sewers raate. 

CHAAIN. A chain. 

CHAAMBER. : A chamber; an upper room in a house or 

Well, you see it wasn't a chaamber, becos it was upo' th 1 grun' floor, 
bud him an' her ewst to sleap theare. 

CH A AMBER-LEE. Human urine. It is frequently kept in a 
vat for a considerable time to be mixed with lime as a 
" dressing " for seed wheat. It was formerly much used 
for washing clothes and also as a "drink" for horses to 
"make them look well in their skins;" also for outward 
application to harden horses' feet. 

CHAFER. A brown-coloured beetle. 

Chaafers hes maade pretty wark wi' leaves o' yon elmin-treii. 


CHAFF-CUTTER. If a person gives information with great 
reserve, it is said to be " like choppin' it oot on him wi' a 
chaff '-cutter '." 

CHAFFER, r.~ (i) To haggle over a bargain. 

He chaffers as long oherbuyin' hauf a scoore lambs, as thoo wo'd oher 
five hunderd poond woth o' beas. 

(2) To interchange irritating remarks, short of a serious 

He duzn't saay 'oht that's much wrong, bud he's alus cha/erin' at me. 

CHALK, v. To mark on a board with chalk the number of 
pints of beer a person is in debt to a publican. 

Benny Maason's been to th' Gohden Cup, an' hed two quarts o 1 aale 
chalk' d doon to you. 

" Thence to Daintree with my jewel, 
Famous for a noble duel, 
Where I drank and took my common, 
In a tap-house with my woman. 
While I had it there I paid it, 
Till long chalking broke my credit." 

Drunken Barnaby, Ed. 1805, p. 6. 

CHALK-SCRAWL. The chalk marks made in the above kind 
of account-keeping. 

CHALLENGE, v.(i) To claim. 

I challenge that theare plevv as mine, an' you'll get wrong if you sell 
it, I can tell ye that. 

" Therefor tille helle now wille I go, 
To chalange that is myne." 

Towneley Mysteries, p. 244. 

(2) To recognize. 

I hed n't seen him for moore then ten year, but I challenged him at 

CHAMBERED, adj. A house is said to be chambered when it 
has a second storey. 

" Within it stood a great copper, just under the thatch, the room not 
being chambered.'" Account hoiv Mr. Reading's House at Sandtoft happened 
to be burnt, 1697. 

CHAMP. Appetite. 

You're off your champ to-daay. What's matter wi' ye? 

CHAMP, v. To chew. 

CHANCE. If a mare has a foal without its being known that 
she has had intercourse with a stallion, the off-spring is 
commonly named Chance. 

CHANCH (chaanch). Chance, risk. 


CHANCH, v. To risk. 

I'll chanch it once moore, though ther's noa saayin' what maay happen. 

A bastard. 

CHANCH-CUM. (i) A bastard. 

(2) One of the lower animals whose paternity is unknown. 

(3) Any object which has been acquired by chance. 

CHANGE. (i) To turn sour or rancid, to decompose. 

That milk's chaanged ; fling it i'to th' swill-tub. 

He was a straange han'sum kerpse an' did n't chaange a bit afoore 

(2) When a child, usually good tempered, becomes suddenly 
irritable without any obvious reason it is common to remark 
" Bless th' bairn, he must hev been chaanged.'" Allusion is 
here made to the old superstition of changelings. 

(3) Said of fruit when it passes out the green state and 
assumes its final colouring. 

Plums, aw yis, you can get 'em ; I seed sum at New Holland an 
thaay was beautiful chaanged. 

CHANNEL. A kennel, an open sewer, a gutter. 
CHANNEL-BONE. The collar bone. 
CHANNELGE. To challenge, i.e., to recognise. 

CHANNER. The suppressed noise between a bark and a 
whine which a dog makes when watching for a rat. 

CHAP. (i) A fellow. The servant chaps are a farmer's 
unmarried yearly servants. When a man takes a wife he 
ceases to be a chap even if he continues to " let his-sen by 
th' year." 

(2) The acknowledged lover of a maid-servant. 

Oor 'Liza's gotten a chap agean. 

(3) Impertinence. 

Noo then noan o' thy chap. 

She niver gev me naaither sauce nor chap i' her life. 

(4) The jaw, more particularly the jaw of a pig. 

Pigs chap and chap-ham are dainties in the farm-house kitchen. 

CHAP, v. To retort impertinently or angrily. 

He chapped agean when I tell'd him what I thoht on him. 


CHAP A HALTER is to tie a knot on the cord of a halter so 
as to hinder it from twitching. 

CHAPEL ANNIVERSARY. A festival held in commemora- 
tion of the opening of a Methodist chapel, at which time 
children say their " pieces." See PIECE (2). 

CHAPPY, <w#. Impertinent. 

He's as chappy as Lord Yarb'r's nineteen! staable-boy. 

CHAPTER-FIGURES, 5. //.The Roman numerals; so called 
because they are used for numbering the chapters in the 
authorized version of Holy Scripture. 

CHAR, CHARE, v. To do odd jobs about a house. The 
word is only used in relation to women's work. 

CHAREING (chair-ing). Performing the work of a charwoman. 
She's a loan woman an' gets her liviug by charein. 

CHARES, s. pi. Odd jobs about a house. 

We doan't keap noa sarvant, bud I send oot noo an' then for Sally 
Knox to cum an' do bits o' chares. 

CHARWOMAN, CHAREWOMAN. A woman who assists 
at odd times in household work but is not a regular servant. 

CHARK, v. To line a well with stones or bricks. 
Saaint John Well is all chark'd wi' gravil stoans. 

CHARRING. The lining of a well. 

CHARKING-BRICKS, s. //.Curved bricks made for lining 

CHARM, v. To eat as rats or mice do. 

If you doan't get them oats sell'd th' mice '11 charm 'em all awaay. 

CHARMINGS, s. //.The husks of corn or malt. 

CHASTISE, v. To scold, to rebuke, not to beat. 
I chastised him well, but I did'nt tuch him. 

CHATS, v. sp. /. (i) Small or diseased potatoes unfit for 

(2) A worthless person. A Trent-side farmer said to the 
author on the eve of a general election, " I reckon, Squire, 
we shan't hev noa voatin' this time i' this part, but it's 
matterless one waay or th' uther, for all th' markit-stuff 'Jl 
goa for Mr. Winn an' Sir John ; ther'll be noht but th' chats 
left for th' tuther chap." 

(3) Fircones. 

(4) An exclamation used to drive away cats. 


CHATTER, v. To shatter, to scatter, to rend in pieces. 

He's taa'en it to school wi' him an' chattered th' best part o' the leaves 
oot, said of a Bible. 

When hoose-thack gets to be rotten like oors th' sparras chatters 
it aboot soa 'at ther's noa keapin' th' doar-stoan clean fer a minnit. 
Sarah Stocks, 1877. 

CHAUDER. A chaldron, four quarters of grain ; one and 
a-half tons of coal. 

CHAVLE (chavl), v. To chew badly. 

That herse chavles queerly ; he wants his teath film'. 

CHAW, v. To chew, to masticate. 
CHEAN (chee-h'n). A chain. 

CHEAN-HARROW. A harrow which has no wood about it, 
but is made entirely of iron chain-work. 

CHEANY. China. 

CHEAT. The " elbow " at the bottom of a bottle, q.v. 

CHEATERY. Cheating. 

He calls it business ; I call it reight doon chedtsry. 

CHECH (i) A church. The church regarded as a spiritual 

(2) The church service. 

We've check twice a daay on Sunda's an' once i' th' weak besides. 
Faather's fall'd oot wi' th' parson consarnin' oor pew, so we've check 
at hoam. 

CHECH-GARTH. A church-yard. 

WARDNER. A churchwarden. 

Bob went to Patrin'tone' Yerksheeran'thaaymaadehimr/w/j-wafl/sfrT. 
He's chech-warner at Bottesworth though he is a Paapist. 

CHECH-WARNER. A long clay pipe. 

CHECK. A crack, a flaw. 

That theare esh is full o' checks ; it'll niver do to mak ferk shafts on. 

CHECK, v. To rebuke. 

CHECK-CHECK, interjec. Words used in calling pigs, as 
"choo-choo" and " huigh-huigh " are in driving them 


CHECKER. A small stone, a pebble. 

I mun tak my boot off; I've gotten a checker in it. 

CHEEK, v. To accuse. 

I cheeWd him \vi' it, an' he couldn't saay a wod. 

CHEEK BY JOWL. Side by side. 
CHEEP. The cry of a young bird. 

CHEESE. A kind of cement was formerly made by putting 
ale and cheese into common mortar. The practice if now 
obsolete has only become so of late years. 

"2 quarts of ale & 2 pound & a half of cheese" were used for this 
purpose in Louth Church in 1714. Ch. Ace., vol. iiii., p. 887. 

CHEESE-BRIG. The frame which supports the cheese- 
mould when the cheese is being made. 

CHEESE-CAKES, CHEESES, s. //.The seeds of the 
common mallow. 

CHEESE-FAT, CHEESE-VAT. The mould in which cheeses 
are made. 

CHEESE-LOP. The dried stomach of a calf used for curdling 
milk for cheese. 

CHEESE-RACK. A frame on which cheeses are put to dry. 

CHELP, CHELT. (i) The chirp of a young bird. 

A chelpin' chicken's sewer to dee. 
(2) Saucy or impertinent speech. 

Ho'd thy noise, an' let's hev noan o' thy chelp. 

CHELP, v. (i) To chirp as a young bird. 
(2) To talk saucily. 

" While she stands chelphtg 'bout the town." John Clare, Summer 

CHELTERED, //.Congealed, clotted. 

All his head an' neck was cheltered vvi' blood. 

CHEN (chen). A churn. 
CHEN, v. To churn. 

CHEN-DASH, CHURN-WORKS. The machinery in the 
interior of a churn by which the cream is kept in motion. 


CHENEY. China. 

I once boht sum cheney cups an 1 saucers for a penny a peace at a 
saale at Messingham, an' ther' was a man here fra Hull last weak 'at 
bid me ten shillin' a peace for 'em. 

CHEN-MILK. Buttermilk. 
CHERRY-HOB. A cherry-stone. 
CHESFAT. A cheese-fat, q.v. 
CHESLOP. Cheese-lop, q.v. 

CHESS. A tier. 

I've been tell'd that 'e plaaces wheare thaay graw silk-worms ; thaay 
keaps 'em on traays, chess aboon chess, like cheney i' a cupboard. 
Bottesford, July 4, 1875. 

CHEW, v. To ruminate, to meditate. 

I've gin him sum'uts to chew as 'all last him all his life. 

CHEWSE, v. Choose. 

CHICK-CHICK, interjec.A call for poultry. 

CHICKEN-CORN. Inferior corn such as is given to poultry. 
The " tailings " or " hinderends." 

CHICKEN-RAWED, adj. Barley is said to be chicken-rawed 
when it is cut too soon, and the grains retain a brown stripe 
upon them which they lose if allowed to become fully ripe. 

CHICKEN-WEED. Chick weed. 
CHIEV (cheev). To achieve. 
CHILDBED. The womb. 

CHILDER, s. pL Children. In Amcotts church-yard there 
is the following inscription : 

" Here lieth the body of Jane, wife of Timothy Belton, who departed 
this life April the 24th, 1774, aged 38 years. 

Then take these tears mortality's relief. 
Until we share thy joys, forgive our grief ; 
And let thy once-lov'd friend inscribe this stone 
And with thy childer's sorrows mix his own." 

CHILDERMAS. The feast of the Holy Innocents. 

CHILL, v. To make warm; said of water given to horses. 
I doan't reckon to give oor hosses cchd waiter ; I alus chill it. 

CHIMLEY, CHIMLA' (chim-li). Chimney. 


CHIMLEY-BAWK. An iron bar fixed across the chimney on 
which the " reckin-hooks " are hung. 

CHIMLEY-BREAST. The front of the chimney over the 

CHIMLEY-CHEEK. The side of the chimney-piece. 

CHIMLEY-DOCTOR. A person who professes to cure smoky 

A chimney-doctor is mentioned in the Doncaster corporation accounts 
of 1772. Tomlinson's Doncaster, p. 337. 

smoke-pennies. A payment which was made in some 
parishes to the rector or vicar, and in others to the Lord of 
the Manor, by all persons who had chimnies. It is almost 
obsolete, but has been paid to the Vicars of Kirton-in- 
Lindsey and Messingham within human memory, and at 
North Kelsey, very recently. 

"I reckon nothing for my owne labour and chimney-money, which I 
hope you will allow." Kirton-in-Lindsey Ch. Ace., 1671. Cf. North, 
Chron. of St. Martin's, Leicester. Notes and Queries, vi. series, vol. iii., p. 377. 

CHINCH. Black, mingled with various shades of brown or 
other colours. 

I shall buy her a chinch dress next time I goa t' Ep'uth ; Reed hes a 
lot o' new-fashion'd peaces just cum'd fra wheare thaay mak' em. 

CHINCH-CAT. A cat of mingled colours, black yellow and 
brown ; when white is mingled with these the cat is called 
a tortoise-shell cat. 

Mrs. Ashton o' Nothrup Hall hed, when I was a little bairn, the 
prettiest chinch-cat I iver seed. 

CHIN-COUGH, -Hooping-cough. 

CHIN-UP. A game somewhat resembling hockey. 

CHIP, v. (i) To crack as the hands and lips do from cold ; or 
as an egg does when the bird is about to come forth. 

(2) To quarrel. 

Thaay chipp'd aboot th" election for coroner, an' hev n't spok' to one 
anuther sin. 

CHIRP, v. (i) To cry as a young bird. See CHEEP. 

(2) To argue saucily with a superior ; to answer impertinently. 

CHISCAAKE. Cheesecake. 
CHISSELLS. The coarsest kind of flour. 
CHISLOCK. The lower portion of the gullet. 


CHIST. A chest. 

That carved chist ft' Bottesford chech ewsed to be ohd William 
Stocks meiil ark. 

" This is Esther Hobson chist, 1637," 1S inscribed on a linen chest at 
Bottesford Manor. 

" Wan it was gouen, ne nicte men fmde 
So mikel men micte him in winde, 
Of his in arke, ne in chiste." 

Havelok, 222. 

CHIT, v. To germinate, said of corn only. 

It's not sprooted to no meanin', but ther's here an' theare a graain 
'at's chitted a bit. 

CHIT. A pert female child. 

CHITTER. The noise made by a door or window which does 
not fit tightly ; a shrill vibration or slight rattling sound 
such as church windows sometimes make when the organ 
is played. 

CHITTER, v. (i) To gabble. 

I can't abide to go near th' hoose; she's alus a-chittering. 

(2) To chatter, as the teeth do from cold or weakness. 

(3) To chatter as birds do. 

" No music's heard the fields among, 
Save when the hedge-chats chittering play." 

John Clare, Autumn. 

CHITTERLINGS, 5. //.The small intestines of animals. 
Cf. Snrtees Soc., vol. ix., p. 57. 

CHITTY-FACED. Baby-faced. 

CHITTY PRAT. A small breed of fowls. 

CHOAK (choa-h'k). The core of an apple or an artichoke. 

CHOAK-BAND. A thong of leather by which a bridle is 
fastened around the jaws of a horse. 

CHOAK-FULL. Quite full. 

Th' ceestren's chodk-full o' watter. 

A person is said to be chodk-full when he cannot possibly eat any 

" When choakful of water and hung in the air, 
They are forced into motion." 

B. D. Walsh, Aristophanes, p. 311. 

CHOAK-ROPE. A rope or piece of cane used for putting 
down the throats of oxen when they are choaking. 

CHOCK, CHOG. A small block of wood or stone used to 
chock or scotch the wheel of a cart or waggon. 


CHOCK, r. The act of stopping a wheel by putting a piece of 
wood or stone before it. 

CHOLLUS. (i) Harsh, stern. 

(2) Strong clay land is described as cJiollns. 

That theare Wood Cloas' is chollus ; ten load o' lime on a aacre wo'd 
reightle it finely. 

CHOO-CHOO, interjec. A word used in driving pigs. 

CHOP, v. (i) To change. 

He's alus choppin' and chaangin' aboot, can't be easy nowheares. 
Th' wind's chopped roond to th' nor-eiist ageJin. 

(2) To exchange. 

He chopp'd his graay mare awaay at Scotter Shaw for a blind hoss. 

(3) The hands and face are said to be chopped when the skin 
is cracked by cold. 

CHOPPING-BOY. A fine and healthy male child. 

"Chopping boy. Quod dicimus de puero grandiusculo & pro aetate 
robusto." Skinner, Etymolog., sub. voc. 

CHOPPY. Hay, oats in the straw, or clover cut in short 
lengths for cattle food. 

CHOP-STRAW. A person fond of arguing. 
CHOW, v. To chew. 

CHOWL-BAND, JOWL-BAND. The strap of the bridle 
which goes under the jaw. 

CHOWSEL, v. To masticate. 

CHRIS-CROSS. The signature of a person who cannot write. 

CHRISTEN, CHRISTIAN. (i) A human being as dis- 
tinguished from one of the lower animals. Not a follower 
of our Blessed Lord as distinguished from the adherents of 
other faiths. 

" All Christians hes souls to be saaved, whether they be white or 
black, and whether thaay saay the'r prayers to God Almighty as 
Protestants do, or to idols, stoans, an' bits o' rags as Papists, Heathens, 
and Mahomet's men do." Missionary Sermon by a local preacher, delivered 
in Messingham Wesley an Chapel, circa 1842. 

A teetotal advocate said to the author about ten years ago, "Brewtes, 
as we call 'em hes moore sense then Christ' ans ; thaay won't so much as 
look at alcool if you put it under the'r very noases." 

" Lack-a-day, sir, it was only the cat ; they sometimes sneeze for all 
the world like a Christian." High Life Below Stairs, Act 2. 

(2) Human ordure, as distinguished from that of other 

Thoo stinks sorely ; thoo must ha' troad e' sum Chrishten. 


CHRISTEN, v. To give a nickname. 

His name was .... but \ve christen' d him Hell Fire Dick up o 1 
accoont o' his darin'. 

CHRISTMAS. Evergreens used for Christmas decorations. 
CHRISTMASING. Going begging at Christmastide. 

C HRIST-T1DE. Christmas (obsolete). 

" Gathered at Chrtstide, xiijs. 5d." Kirton-in-Lindsey Ch. Ace., 1627. 

CHUCK. A child's name for a hen. 

CHUCK, v. To throw. 

He'd as well chuck his munny oot o' th' winda' as go on drinkin' e' 
this how. 

CHUCK-CHUCK, interjec.The call for poultry. 

A game played by boy^s. A circle is marked on the ground, 
in the centre of which' is a small hole. Each person in the 
game throws a coin or button at this hole. He whose 
missile hits the hole and remains therein (or in case no one 
hits it, he who has come the nearest thereto) wins the game. 
If all the objects thrown roll outside the ring it is a " dead 
heat," and each boy reclaims his penny or button. 

CHUCKLE-HEAD. A large-headed, weak-minded person. 

CHUCK-STONES. Stones used by children in playing a 

CHUCK-UP, f. (i) To break a contract. 

He let his sen at Ketton Stattis for foherteen poond waage, bud chuckt 
up an' hes gotten sixteen noo. 

If I doan't find things reight when I get theare I shall chuck up. 

(2) To vomit. 
CHUMP, CHUMP-HEAD. A stupid person. 

CHUNK. A lump. 

I can do very well wi' a bit o' baacon an' a chunk o' bread. 

" If a man or a woman dare to stand before you blow them to hell 
with a chunk of cold lead." Speech of Gen. Atchison in Gladstone's 
Kansas, 1857, p. 31. 

CHUNTER. (i) To mutter. 
(2) To murmur, to grumble, 


CHURCH (chech). The north side of. 

"Thaay bury them as kills the'r-sens wi' hard wark o' th' no'th side 
o' th' check." This saying has reference to the superstition prevalent 
in many parishes against burial in the north portion of the church- 
yard. Cf. Stockdale, Annals of Cartmel, p. 109. Elias Owen, Old Stone 
Crosses of the Vale of Cluyd, pp. 196, 197, 198. See CHECH. 

CHURCH HEADLANDS, s. //.There were in the parish of 
Kirton-in-Lindsey certain lands so called in the open field, 
the crop of which was sold yearly for the benefit of the 

" Churchheadlands, sold by the consent of the whole parish to George 
Kent, price iiijK-" Ch. Ace., 1590. 

CLACK. Worthless talk. 

Hohd yer clack, I'm stalled o' hearin' ye. 

" Like Robert Southey, King of Rhyme : 
Who now gets yearly butt of sack, 
As payment for what we call clack."- 

A Nineteenth Century . . . History of . . . 

Abeillard and Heloisa, 1819, p. 33. 
" Brazen magpies, fond of clack, 
Full of insolence and pride, 
Chattering on a donkey's back, 

Perch'd and pull'd his shaggy hide ! " 

John Clare, Recollec. after a Ramble. 


CLAG, v. To muddy. 

Thy petticoats is clagg'd all oher, lass. Wheare hes ta been ? 

CLAGS. (i) Dirt sticking to anyone after walking in mud. 
(2) Dirty wool cut from sheep. 

CLAG-TAIL. A girl whose garments are clagged with mud. 

CLAM. (i) Thirsty. 

I am clam ; I wish I was 'long-side on a beer-barril. 

(2) Cold, damp. 

Thoo's as clam as a kerpse. 

(3) Tenacious, sticky, adherent. 

Th' muck's that clam it wean't slip off 'n th' sluff when ye dig it. 

CLAM, v. (i) To snatch, hold of. 

He clammed hohd on her, or she'd hev tippled head fo'st i'to th' warpin' 

(2) To stick, to adhere, as sheets of wet paper do to each 


CLAMMED, CLEMMED,//. Parched with thirst. 

I'm fairly clamm'd wi' this raape threshin' ; do, Sarah, pleiise g'e 
me a sup o' beer. 

" Ye'll be choak'd and clamm'd to death." John Clare, Noon. 

CLAMMER, . To climb. 

Oor Uriah's clammered into th' parson's cherry tree, muther, an' he is 
swalla'in' on 'em aboon a bit. I shouldn't ha' tell'd ye nobbut he 
weant chuck me ony doon. 

CLAMMUX. Clamour. 
CLAMOURSOME. Clamorous. 

CLAMP. (i) A pile of bricks or limestone for burning. 

(2) A pile of rubbish for burning. 

(3) A piece of iron used to repair broken flagstones or 
strengthen buildings. 

CLAMP, v. To tread heavily. 

CLAMS, s. pi. (i) The nippers that shoemakers and saddlers 
put between their knees. 

(2) Iron braces used for binding together stone-work. 

CLAN. A considerable number of persons having a common 
object, or being bound together by a common tie. 

Ep'uth was full to-daay ; ther' was th' whole clan o' th' Foresters 

CLAP.--(i) A blow with the open hand. 

(2) Silly talk. 

Stint thy dap, thoo'd tire a toad to dead. 

(3) At one clap, i.e., at one time, all on a sudden, together. 

Thaay all cum'd at one clap. 

CLAP, v. (.1) To strike with the open hand. 

" And si]>e clapte him on )>e crune." Havelok, 1814. 

(2) To put, to place, as " clap the kettle on the fire." 

(3) To slam. 

I niver seed onybody so bad for clappin' doors, as Ted is. 

(4) To pat. 

You've troiid on Crab, go clap him. 

CLAP-DOOR. A fall-door such as is used to gain access to a 
loft or cellar. Not a half-door as in Northamptonshire. 
See Baker's Northamp. Gloss., vol. i., p. 121, 


CLAP EYES ON, phr.To see. 

The fo'st time I clapt eyes on her was at No'thrup Staation, an' th' last 
time was at Retford. 

Eleanor was th' han'sumist woman I iver clapt eyes on ; I dolin't care 
who tuther is. 

CLAP-GATE. A gate set across a foot-path, which hits 
against two posts. A gate of this kind hinders cattle from 
straying, but is easily opened by human beings. It is 
frequently called a " kissing gate." 

CLAP HOHD ON. To seize, to snatch. 

Th' p'liceman clap't Jwhd on him just as he was gettin' upo' th' New 
Holland boat. 

CLAPPER. (i) An instrument used by boys to frighten birds. 
Two or three thin pieces of board are united loosely by a 
strap. These are attached to a handle ; when it is shaken a 
loud noise is made. A clapper of this kind was used in 
Catholic times to summon people to church on the last 
three days of Holy Week, when the church bells were 
silent. Peacock, Eng. Ch. Furniture, 42, 118, 126, 138. 

(2) The fan of a winnowing machine. 
CLAPPER CLAW, v. To attack with the finger nails. 

CLAP-POST. The post against which a gate claps in shutting. 
The opposite one is called the " hing post," q.v. 

CLAP TO, v. To enter into, as cold does. 

It was that cohd as I com' fra' Brigg on Christmas Eave, it clapt to 
my very heart. 

CLART. (i) Sticky dirt. 

(2) Silly or exaggerated talk. 

(3) Flattery. 

CLARTING ABOUT. Idling away time. 

Noo then, you lads, I'm not gooin' to hev you dartm' aboot wi' that 
prickly-otchen, when you oht to be pullin 1 ketlocks. 

CLARTY. Dirty, sticky. 

I doit n't beleave as ony plaace is soa clarty as Lincoln laane is ; it's 
muckiest road i' sheere. 

CLASH. A quarrel. 
CLASH, v. To quarrel. 


CLAT. (i) A tell tale. 

(2) Anything dirty or sticky. 

(3) Useless fidget. 

(4) Spoon-meat. 

(5) Ridiculous or exaggerated talk. 

(6) Flattery. See CLART. 

CLAT, v. (i) To work in an aimless or fidgetty way at some 
useless employment. 

(2) To bedaub. 

Th 1 bairn'll clat her-sen all ober wi' that treacle. 

CLATTING. (i) Tale-bearing. 

(2) Running in and out of doors. 

(3) Making litter or dirt in a house. 

CLATTY. Dirty. 

What art ta' cumin' i' to this clean kitchen wi' them clatty boots on 
for ? See CLARTY. 

CLAUM, v. (i) To paw about with the hands. 

Thy bairns is real fond o' 'Liza, thaay're alust a-claumin' aboot her. 
(2) To touch with dirty or sticky fingers. 

Nelly's claiim'd my book all oher wi' her treackly han's. 

GLAUMING. Sticky, dirty, said of roads. 

I want it to dry a bit afoore I go, it's so damn in' under foot. 

CLAW, v. To scratch. 

Th' cat's claw'd th' sideo' my Sunda' silk goon fra' top to bottom. 

CLAY, v. To put clay upon the land. 

CLAY-LANE. An unstoned parish road. When a lane of 
this kind has grass on its sides it is called a green lane ; 
when its surface is strong clay, and there is little or no grass 
at the sides, it is called a clay -lane. There are two clay-lanes 
in the parish of Kirton-in-Lindsey. 

CLAYS, THE. Strong clay land. 

It's dryish here, but it's weet up o' th' claays yit. 

CLAY-TAIL. A dirty girl, " a draggle-tail." See CLAG-TAIL. 

CLEAN, adj. (i) A woman after she has been churched is 
said to be clean; before that time it is held among old- 
fashioned people, that it is sinful for her to go out of doors 
beyond the eaves-dropping. 

(2) Among Roman Catholics a person is said to be clean who 
has just been to confession. 

(3) Land is clean when there are few weeds on it. 

(4) Grain is clean when properly winnowed. 


CLEAN, v. To perform the afternoon toilet. 

Cum, Mary, my lass, get thy sen clearid, it's just tea-time. 

CLEAN, adv. Entirely. 

I've clean forgotten what thaay call him. 

Stop a minnit, I shall have clean dun when I've sarv'd th' pig, an then 
I'll goa wi' ye'. 

Them caakes is clean fit. 

"I am clean forgotten, as a dead man out of mind." Psalm xxxi., v. 
14, Prayer Book Version. 

"Wee must preserve mechanicks now 

To lectorize and pray, 
By them the gospel is advanc't 
The clean contrary way." 

Rump Songs, part i., p. 151. 

CLEAN DIRT. Earth or mud, in distinction from anything 
foul or offensive. 

Mother: "Bless me! Why sitha', oor Ned's all oher muck agean ; 
this is tho'd time this very daay." 

Grandmother: "Well, niver mind, Jaane, it's nobbut clean do't this 

CLEANING UP TIME. The month before May-day, when 
scrubbing, whitewashing, and such-like work is done, before 
the old servants leave. In the Isle of Axholme where the 
servants follow the Yorkshire custom of leaving their places 
at Martinmas, this work is frequently done in the Autumn, 
and is called " the back-end cleaning-up." 

CLEANSING. The placenta or after-birth of any of the 
lower animals. 

" The after-birth in the North is termed the cleansing." Treatise on 
Live Stock, 1810, p. 42. 

CLEAR, adv. (i) Entirely, quite. 
She's clear, bonny, really she is. 
It's clear unreasonable, like axin' watter to run up-hill. 

(2) Free from blame or punishment. 

Thaay'd hed him afoore th' magistraates, but he caame off clear. 

CLEAR PROFIT. Net profit. 

CLEAS (cli.h'z),s.^. The claws of birds or animals. 
CLEATS. Colt's foot. Tnssilago favfava. 
CLEAVERS. Hairiff, q.v. 

CLEG. A gadfly. 

You ma' knaw it's Scotter Shaw-daay [July 6] ; th 1 clegs hes cum'd. 
Stoned-herse-men when thaay dee to'n i'to clegs. 
" He had a littill we leg, 
And it was cant as any cleg." 

Border Min., vol. i., p 268. 


CLETCH. A brood of young birds, especially of the domes- 
ticated kinds. Sometimes used jestingly for a family of 
young children. 

CLEUGH. (i) The outfall sluice of a river or drain com- 
municating with a tidal river, and provided with floodgates. 
The eu in this word is sometimes pronounced like the ew in new, and 
sometimes nearly like the German ii. The gk is very rarely gutteral. 

" They began to work at a place on Humber side called Callow 
Clowe." Rep. Hist. MS. Com., vij. 568, col. i. 

(2) A shuttle fixed in the gates or masonry of a lock which is 
capable of being raised to admit or discharge water, so as 
to allow vessels to pass. A similar arrangement by which 
the admission of water to the wheels of watermills is 
regulated. Cleughs of this kind usually wind up by a handle 
or winch. 

CLEUGH-HOALE. A deeper or wider part of a drain just 
above the sluice. 

CLEW. (i) A ball of worsted, cotton or silk thread. 
(2) See CLEUGH. 

CLEW-LINE. A line attached to a sail. 

CLICK. (i) The ticking of a clock or watch. 

(2) The noise a swing-gate makes on fastening. 

(3) The sound of the death-watch. 

(4) A snatch. 

We've hed a fox aboot th' decoy, an' hev' hed five clicks at him, but 
hev'nt gotten him yit. 

CLICK, perf., CLUCK, v. To snatch. 

Johnny alus liked when he cam hoam to hev hot caakes ready for 
clickin' . 

I should hev hitten him if Tom hed n't cluck hohd o' my airm. 

We ewsed to hev straange clickin 1 aboot for watter afoore you put that 
pump doon." Yaddlethorpe, Geo. Jackson, June n, 1881. 

"The vicar . . . 
Clickt up a rail that they had broke, 
And to close battel him betook." 

Th. Ward, England's Reformation, 1716, p. 353. 

CLICKS. Colt's foot. Tussilago farfara, Winteringham. 

CLICKETY-CLACK. The noise made by a person walking 
in pattens. 


CLICK, HOLD OF, v. To snatch hold of. 

If I hedn't clickd hohd o' th' herse head he wo'd ha run'd oher her as 
sewer as could be. 

CLICK UP. Mud clicks up when it adheres in large flakes to 
the feet. 

CLIFF. (i) The oolite range of hills which runs north and 
south from the Humber to Grantham. 

"The cliffs lie fallow every other year." Survey of the Manor of 
Kirton-in-Lindsey , 1787. 

(2) Stone, commonly chalk, put to hinder certain portions of 
the Trent banks from being washed away by the tide. 

CLINCH,*;. (i) To clench. 

You mun drive that spike thrif, an' clinch it o' tuther side. 
(2) To grasp. 

I clinch' d him fast by th' scuff o' th' neck, or he'd hev bitten me. 

CLINCHER. An unanswerable argument. 

Ther' was a man doon fra Lunnon lectur'in, an' he says, " You maay 
depend upon it, my friends, ther' niver was noa Noah's flud." So, says I, 
" You talk like a fool, you do ; why, how did them cockles an' oysters 
get i'to th' stoans if it hedn't been as th' Scriptur' says? So noo then, 
Maister Lunnoner, that's a clincher for the," says I. 

CLINK. A sharp blow. 

CLINKER. Something very good, large, or fine. 

Well, that is a clinker ; I'm blessed if I iver seed sich an a bull e' all 
my life. 

CLINKERS. (i) Small hard bricks used for paving stables. 

(2) Bricks that have been burnt in too hot a fire, so that parts 
of them have become fused. 

(3) Iron slag used for mending highways. 

CLINKING,^'. Good; excellent. 

A clink in' good un' for th' wark I want her for, but a reg'lar slug up 
o' th' road. 

" The driver no doubt praised it highly, when he declared that it was 
a clinkin* good one." L. J. Jennings, Rambles Ainyny the Hills, p. 95. 

CLINK OFF, v. To run away. 

When he begun t' talk aboot lumberin', I thoht it was best to clink off . 


CLIP. (i) Speed, rapid motion. 

Them traains goas wi' a clip, duzn't thaay ? 

(2) "A clip of wool " is the quantity shorn by one farmer in a 
single season. 

He'd a good clip this year ; all his hogs will tod threes. 

When S. ... T. ... deed, he'd eleven years clip by him. 

(3) A small internal projection in a horse's shoe, formed to 
hinder it from slipping. 

(4) A blow, commonly a slight one. 

Justice : Did he assault the boy ? 

Witness : Well, noa, yer warship, I can't saay as he did, he nobbut 
fetch'd him a clip as he was ruunin' awaay like. 

CLIP, r. (i) To cut with scissors. 

My gran'muther hed sum ohd tap'stry bed-hingin's, wi' dogs an' men 
on herseback work'd e' silk on 'em, but we clipp'd 'em up for doll-cloas 
when we was bairns. 

(2) To shear sheep. 

We clip to-morrow ; can you lend us George Todd to wind wool ? 
" For xxj clippers for clippynge of my ms. shepe ixs. iiijd. " Household 
Ace. of Le strange' s, 1520, mArchaologica, vol. xxtv., p. 438. 

(3) To cut the hair. 

We mun hev oor Bill's hair dipt. 

(4) To embrace. 

I seed 'em clippin' an' cuddlin' one anuther agean th' pin-fohd. 
"Qua]> blauncheflur ich com anon, 
Ac floris deppen here bigon." 

Floris and Blanch/, p. 67, line 594 . 
" She clypped and kyssed Governar, 
Oftentymes with good herte " 

Arthur of Little Britain, Ed. 1814, p. 35. 

(5) To shorten ; said of the daylight. 

The daays clip off sorely ; we shall hev winter here agean afoore we 
knaw wheare we are. 

CLIPPER. (i) One who shears sheep. 

" I mun goa to As'by to neet to see efter sum clippers" June 4th, 1886. 
(2) Something very excellent. 

He says she trots twelve mile an hooer reg'lar ; she m un be a clipper. 

CLIPPERS. Shears. 
CLIPPING. Sheep-shearing. 

CLIPPING-BOARD. The board on which a sheep is held 
while it is being shorn. 

CLIPPINGS. Bits of cloth, silk and the like, cut off by tailors 
and dress-makers in cutting out clothes. 


CLIPPING-TIME. The time of sheep-shearing. 

I remember her straange an' well ; th' last time I seed her was in 
clipping-time, an' she cum'd to us e' th' laathe an' broht us sum aale. 

CLIPS. An eclipse. 

"And }?at is cause of Jns clips that closeth now \>e sonne." Piers, the 
Plowman, B. text, pass, xviij., 1. 135. 

GLITTER-CLATTER. (i) A rattling noise. 
(2) Idle, noisy talk. 

CLOAS (kloa-h'z). (i) An enclosure. See CLOSE. 
(2) Clothes. 

CLOAS, adj. Close, silent, reserved, secret, miserly. 

He's a real clods man, an' knaws waay to hohd his tung ahind his 

CLOAS-BED. A close-bed ; i.e., a bed which, when not in 
use, shuts up and looks like a chest of drawers. 

CLOAS FISTED, adj. Penurious, stingy. 

CLOAS-HERSE, CLOAS-HOSS. A frame on which clothes 
are hung to dry. 

CLOASIN. An enclosure. 

She's goiin to pick wicks e' th' cloasins. 

" A tied my herse t' the steel, an' ran hoam thruff theclosins agean." 
Samuel Wills, The Lincolnshire Labourer. See CLOSE. 

CLOCK. (i) Any of the larger kinds of beetle. 

" Flies, grasshoppers, hornets, clegs and clocks. 1 ' Sylvester, Dn. 
Bartas' Ed., 1633, p. 361. 

(2) The seed of the dandelion. Children have a notion that 
the hour of the day, or the number of years we have to live, 
may be told by the number of puffs it takes to blow all the 
seeds from a dandelion-head. 

(3) The ornamental part of a stocking which runs up the 

CLOCKSMITH. A clockmaker (obsolete). 

" The clocksmyth , for a gods pene ijs. " Kirton-on-Linclsey Ch. Ace., 1573. 

CLOCK-WORK. Any person or thing which does its work 
thoroughly well, without bustle and without delay is said 
to go like clock-work. 
Ohne Hast, ohne Rast. 

CLOD, #. To throw violently, generally used with regard to 
some heavy body. 

" He's bundled them two chaps as came wi'you out o' th' house . . . 
clodded 'em into th' carriage, an' teld Reuben th' coachman to drive w i' 
'em to Hell." Ralf Skerlaugh, vol. i., p. 187. 


CLODDY. An awkward, ill-dressed man. 

What a cloddy he is ! he looks as thof he'd goan to Gresham shop an' 
putten his sen into th' fost suit o' cloas thaay shaw'd him. 

CLOG. (i) A log of wood. 

(2) A log of wood furnished with a chain, by which it is 
attached to one of the legs of a horse or cow that will not 
come from the pasture when called. 

(3) A wooden-soled boot. 

(4) A wooden-soled over-shoe worn by women. 

CLOGGED-UP, //.Stopped up. 

That suffs fairly clogged-up wi' esh tree fangs. 

His lungs is that clogged-up wi' asthmy, he can't blaw. 

CLOOF. The hoof of an animal. 

CLOOT. (i) A blow. 

He fetched him a cloot o' th' side o" his head that maade all his teath 

(2) A cloth, a clout, a rag. 

" Put now these old cast cloots and rotten rags under thine arm- 
holes." Jeremiah, ch. xxxviii., v. 12. , 

While May is oot, 
Cast not a cloot. 

"There's moore cloot then pudding." The allusion is to the cloth in 
which a pudding is boiled, the meaning being that there is more outside 
show than worth or wealth in the person to whom it is applied. 

(3) A patch, especially a patch on a shoe, or a piece of board 
nailed on a door or a wall to block a hole. 

(4) A plate of iron nailed on an axle-tree to hinder its being 
worn away by friction against the bush of the wheel. 
Among the expenses incurred by Simon de Eya, Abbot of 
Ramsey, on his journey to London, Circa, 1338, was ij 1 ?- for 
ij. caitecloutes. Mon. Ang., vol. ii., p. 584. In The Apparel 
of the Field of Henry, Earl of Northumberland, in 1513, mention 
is made of cloutes, clout nailles, wheles [and] axilltrees. 
Arcktologia, vol. xxvi., p. 405. Robert Abraham, a shop- 
keeper at Kirton-in-Lindsey, had at the time of his death in 
1519, iii dosan wayncloutes. Kirton-in-Lindsey Court Roll. 

(5) A mean, base or ignorant person. The Isle of Axholme 
men who resisted the drainage works, undertaken by Sir 
Cornelius Vermuyden, declared in 1650, that they would 
give no obedience to the Parliament, that "they could make 
as good a parliament themselves ; some said it is a parlia- 
ment of clouts." John Lilbnrn y Tried and Cast, 1653, P 86. 


CLOOT, v.(i) To strike. 

If ta duz n't slot off, I'll cloot the. 

(2) To patch. 

" Old shoes and clouted." Joshua, ch. ix., v. 5. 

CLOOT-NAAIL. A nail used for attaching clouts to axletrees, 
and otherwise for nailing iron to wood. 

CLOP, v. To attach an additional sole to a boot by wooden 

CLOSE, CLOAS, CLOASIN'. The plural sometimes, though 
rarely closen. An enclosure, whether grass or under plough, 
as distinguished from afield, q.v., which is unenclosed land 
under plough. In recent days, this distinction has in a great 
measure fallen into disuse, and we constantly hear persons 
speaking of a field, when they mean a close. 

" No man having any closes in Thonock or Sumerby, or in the Parke 
shall make chase of horses through thecorne fields." Gainsburgh Manor 
Records in Starh's Hist. Gainsb., p. 91. 

" A closse called Spencer Close." Plumpton Corresp., 16. 
" Drew to the bottom of a great close, or pasture, ordering themselves 
there among the trees beyond a great hedge, which parted that close 
from our field." Prince Rupert's beating up the Rebel's Quarters, at Post- 
comb and Chinner." 1643, p. 5. 

" The king approached near us . . . and his army lay in closes 
hard besides him." Letter of Earl of Essex, Sept. 3, 1644, in Rushworth, 
Hist. Col., part iii., vol. ii., p. 701. 

" Through grassy close or grounds of blossom'd bean." John Clare, 
Sunday Walks. 

CLOSING. An enclosure. See CLOSE. 

CLOT. A clod. 

Theare's noht iver cum'd up fer clots like a Caambridge roll. 

CLOT-HEAD. A stupid person. 

For shaame on thee sen, thoo great clot-head. 

CLOT-MELL. A mallet for breaking clods. 

CLOTTED, CLOTTERED,//. Entangled, coagulated. 
All its mane was clotted togither. 
Ther' was a deal o' clattered blud on his cloas. 

CLOTTING. Breaking clods with a wooden mallet. 

CLOUD. A large number or quantity of anything. 

Ther's cloods o' sparra's e' th' ivin upo' th' no'th side th' hoose. 
Hester's spilt cloods o' ink upo 1 th 1 lib'ry floor. 
We've hed cloods o' bread fra As 'by. 

" Sparrows are to be found in clouds along the hedgerows of our corn- 
fields at the present time." The Scotsman, August 28, 1886. 



CLUB, r. Turnips are said to club when they go to " fingers 
and toes," q.v. 

CLUB-TAIL. The stoat, mustela erminea. 

CLUCK. (i) The noise made by a hen when calling her 
chickens or when desiring to sit. 

(2) A similar noise made by children when going to sleep. 
CLUCK, pt. t. of CLICK, q.v. 

CLUMP, v. To tread heavily. 

CLUMPST. (i) Clumsy. 

(2) Benumbed by cold. 

(3) Stolid, surly, uncouth, morose, taciturn. 

Clumps, ignavus, ineptus . . . vox agro Line, usitatissima. 
Skinner, Etymologicon. 

I couldn't mak onything on him. He was that clumpst he wo'dn't 

CLUNCH. (i) Close, hot, cloudy. 
(2) Sullen, morose. 

CLUNCH-CLAY. Stiff, hard clay. 

CLUNG, adj.-(i) Stiff, tenacious, sticky. 

Ther's a deal o' clung land mud be meller'd wi' suffin' an' dreanin'. 

(2) Stern, sour-tempered. 

"There's no rulin' childer unless you're clung wi' 'em." John 
Markenfield, iij., 115. 

CLUTCH. A handful. 

A clutch o' bread an' a bite o' chease is all I want. 

CLUTHER, v. To cluster, 

Th' bo'ds was all cluther'd together like a swarm o' beas. 

CLUTTER. Loud, meaningless noise, senseless babble. 
What a clutter she mak's all aboot noht. July 5, 1886. 
" Our chaplains quite grumble, nay openly mutter 
That for mere religion there should be such a clutter." 

The Camp Guide, 1778, p. 14. 

CLUZZEN, t-. To clutch. 

Th' dogs hed cluzzen'd hohd o' one anuther afoore I seed "em. 


COACH AND SIX. If a person wishes to describe any small 
thing as very large, it is common to say that it is big enough 
to turn a coach and six in. 

I tell'd her to mind what she wasa-dooin' on, an' I hed n't gotten th' 
wo'ds well oot o' my mooth, when she tour a hoale i' her frock big enif 
to to'n dicodch-an'-six in. 

"Is there not a hole in my belly that you may turn a coach-and-six in ?" 

Th. Otway, The Atheist, Act v., Sc. i. 

COACH-HORSE. A dragon fly. 
COAL-BINK. A wooden hutch for coals. 

COARSE. The opposite of fine. 

It' a coarse mornin' this here. Sir. Bottesford, Dec. 13, 1887. 
For a man to leather his sarvant gell e' that how's a coarse waay o' 
gooin' on, I reckon. 

COARSE TIME. One who has been very ill, or who has 
endured much trouble is said to have "had a coarse time 
on it." 

COARSE WEATHER. Bad, rough, unpleasant weather. 
COAT (koa-h't). As in pigeon-cote, dove-cote. 

COAT. (i) To have " a good coat on," signifies to be in good 
condition ; said of horses and oxen. 

(2) To " cast the coat" is to change the hair. 

COAT-FEATHERS. The feathers on the body of a bird, as 
distinguished from the pen-feathers, or quills of the wings. 

COB. (i) The stone of fruit. 

(2) The pips of apples, oranges, &c. 

COBBLE. (i) A round pebble large enough for paving. 
Brigg markit plaace ewsed to be paaved wi' cobbles. 

(2) Pavement made with cobbles. 

His herse legs flew up i 1 th' chech laane on th 1 cobbles, an' brok' boath 
th' gig shavs. 

(3) A large boulder. 

Ther' was a cobble fun when thaay was makkin 1 a undergrund passige 
at Blybur. It was that big thaay hed to tunnil roond him. 

COBBLE, v. To pelt, to throw stones. 

Sum lads lies been cobblin' th' chech winda's. 

" Them carrots is that bad, I wodn't ewse em to cobble a dog wi'." 
Ashby, March 25th, 1883 


COBBLE-STICK. The set-stick or piece of wood used to 
keep a horse's traces the proper distance apart. 

COB-HALL. A small house in the south-west corner of the 
market-place at Kirton-in-Lindsey. There is some reason 
for believing that it stands on the site of the prison of the 
lord of the manor, the late Mr. VV. E. Howlett, told me that 
this building occupies the place of the weigh-house of the 
market, and that the word cob is akin to the A. S. Ceap. 
Cob Castle a prison . . . North, Wright, Gloss, sub voc. 
The north-east tower of Lincoln Castle is called Cob Hall, 
perhaps from the practice of beating delinquents there with 
a leathern belt called cobbing. Sir C. H. J. Anderson's 
Lincoln Guide, p. 152. This place is mentioned by Henry 
Norris in 1781, and is called Cobs Hall. He thought it was 
a chapel. Archceologia, vol. vi., p. 265. 

" These two dayes they played their ordnance very thick upon the 
cobb." Rushworth Hist, Coll., vol. iii., part ii., p. 679. 

The ordnance map shews a place called Cobbe Hall, near Snettisham, 
in Norfolk. 

COB-IRONS. (i) The dogs of a fire-place. 
(2) The irons by which a spit is supported. 

COB-NUT. A large filbert. 

COCK. " He's heard the ohd cock craw," said of children who 
repeat sentences or opinions which they have picked up from 
their fathers. 

COCK- A-DOODLE-DO. The crowing of a cock. 

Cock-a -doodle-do, 
My daame hes lost her shoe, 
My mester's lost his fiddlestick 
And duz n't knaw what to do. 

COCK-BRAINED, adj. Weak, silly, flighty. 

" Dost thou aske, cockbrained foole." Bernard, Terence, p. 162. 

COCKELTY, COCKLING, ^/.Rickety, standing unsafely. 

This boat's raather cockelty ; I should'nt like for us to be e' th' waiter. 
That chair is n't fit to sit in, it's oher cocklin' ; it's gotten three long 
legs an' a sho't un. 

Braade o' me things is cockelty e' that quarter. He'll be hevin' a 
man wi' a red collar (a bailiff) cum sum neet to drink tea wi' him. 
" And on the cockling dirty stones 
Drop'd down upon his marrow-bones." 

Edward Ward, Don Quixote, 1711, p. 105. 


COCKELTY-BREAD. A game played by children. 

This is the waay you maake cockelty -bread ; 
This is the waay you maake cockelty-bread ; 
Up with yer heals an' doon wi' yer head, 
This is the waay you maake cockelty-bread. 

The children turn head-over-heels after repeating the third line. 

COCKER. A person who keeps cocks for the sport of cock- 
fighting ; one who fights cocks. 

William M. . . . was a great cocker, but he hed to do it on th' sly 
of laate ; ther's a law cum'd up agean sich like things. 
" Thise dysars and thise hullars, 
Thise cokkers and thise hollars, 
And alle purs cuttars, 
Bese welle war of thise men." 

Processus Tallentorum, Toii'nsley Mysteries 
(Surtees Soc.), p. 242. 

COCKER, i'. To indulge. 

He's cocker'd his wife up so, that noo she can't walk roond th' gardin 
wi' oot takkin' cohd. 

COCKEREL. A young cock. 

Ant. : Which, of he or Adrian, for a good wager, first begins to crow ? 

Seb. : The old cock. 

Ant. : The cockerel. The Tempest, Act ii., sc. i., 1. 31. 

COCK-EYE. A squint. 

She's a real cock-eye ; one eye oot o' th' winda', an' tuther watchin 1 
th' kettle boil. 

COCKING. Cock-fighting. 

COCKLE UP, v. To blister, to expand irregularly, to curl up 
as paper does when wetted. 

The blight's cockled up all th' cherry tree leaves. 

He niver can paaper ony thing wi oot its cocklin' not fit to be scan. 

COCKLOFT. A small upper chamber. 

COCK-MA-DO. A fussy young fellow. 

That theare cock-ma-do weant craw so lood when he's as ohd as you 
an' me. 

important person in a household, parish, or district. 

COCK- PIT. A kind of apple. 

COCK-ROSE. The gall on the rose, Isle of Axholme. See 


COCK- WEB. A cob-web. 

" Ther's a vast mess o' cockwebs all oher th' barn."- Gvayingham, 1878. 

COCK'S EGG. A small yokeless hen's egg which ignorant 
people think is laid by the cock. 

COCK-STRIDE. A small distance. 

He might ha' taa r en it for the ; its nobbut a cock-stride fra his hoose 
to the carrier's. 

" Days lengthen on their visits a cock's-stride." John Clare, Shepherd's 
Calendar, p. 32. 

COCK-TREDDLE. The embryo in an egg. 

COD. (i) The pod of beans and peas. 

(2) A pillow ; perhaps obsolete. 

" iij. coodes, one payre of fembyll sheyttes, one lynnyn sheytt and a 
halfe, iiijs.i" Inventory of Tho. Robynson, of Appleby, 1542. 

CODDER. A saddler. 

CODDLE, r. To pet, to nurse, to be over careful of. 

CODGEL. A stupid man. 

CODGER. A dirty, mean old man. 

CODLIN. An early kind of apple. 

COFFIN. (i) A small oblong cinder which flies out of the fire 
accompanied by a report. The appearance of such a thing 
presages death. When the cinder is round it is called a 
purse (q.v.), and, presages good-luck. 

(2) A pork-pie mould. 

(3) The hoof of a horse, that is "all the horn that appears 
when he has his foot set on the ground." Sportsman's 
Diet., 1785, sub. voc. 

COFFIN BONE. The large bone of a horse's foot. 

COG. A kind of boat or ship formerly used on the Humber. 
Cf. Statute 23, Henry VIII., chap, xviii. Blount, Law 


COG, v. To recover from sickness. 

He's been very bad, but he'll cog agean sewer enif. 

COGGLE. A large gravel stone, a cobble, q.v. 

COHD, adj. Cold. 

Its cohd eniff to skin a toad. 

COHD AIR OFF. To "tak th' cohdairof" is to warm slightly. 

Set his beer up o' th 1 hud-end for a minnit to tak th' cohd air off. 


COHD CAKE, lit. Cold cake ; something very painful or hard 
to bear. 

It's straange cohd caake for that poor lass, at Spaldin', to be sent to 
prison just for pullin' a flooer. July 24, 1875. 

COHD CHILL. A shivering fit, a bad cold. 

COHD CHISEL. A strong steel chisel used for cutting iron. 

COHD COMFORT. Unwelcome news. 

COHD FIRE. The materials for a fire laid, but not lighted. 

COHLCH, v. To trim and cleanse the slopes or batters of a 
ditch or drain. 

COHTER-HOALE. The hole in the beam of a plough into 
which the coulter is fitted. 

COIL. Fuss, bustle. 

You mak as big a coil aboot th' ratcatcher bein' here, as thof th' 
Queen was cumin' to bra'fast. 


To take one cold on the top of another, means taking a new cold ere 
you are rid of the old one. 

COLLAR, COLLAR-HOHD-ON, v. (i) To seize, to snatch. 
I doan't think ony body .could be a better hand at collarin 1 brass then 
John Little was. 

(2) A cooking term, a method of pickling eels and pork. 

COLLOGUE, v. To colleague, to plot. 

Thaay're colloguin together to pull Charlie thrif, but it's to noa ewse. . 

" Why, look ye, we must collogue sometimes, forswear sometimes." 
Webster, The Malcontent, Act. v., sc. ii. 

"As parasites to flatter and collogue." Rob. Burton, Anatomy of 
Melancholy, 1652, p. 7. 

COLLOP. (i) A thick slice; commonly of bacon. It was, and 
perhaps is, the practise in serious families for the younger 
members of a household and the guests each to repeat a 
text of Holy Scripture in the morning at breakfast. In or 
about the year 1847, a boy who had not been accustomed to 
this form of devotion, went to visit a family where 
it was practised. The head of the household was a 
remarkably fat man. From deficiency of memory or some 
other equally potent cause, the lad never had his text ready 
and daily received rebuke for his inattention. On the last 
morning of his stay, on being asked for his portion of 
Scripture, he repeated without a moment's hesitation, 
" He covereth his face with his fatness, and maketh collops 
of fat on his flanks." yob, ch. xv., v. 27. 
(2) An unfortunate circumstance, a mess. 


COLLOPS AND EGGS. Fried bacon and eggs. 
COLLOP MONDAY. The day before Shrove Tuesday. 
COLLYFOGLE. Connyfoble, q.v. 

COLOURBINE, COLUMBINE. Aquilegia vulgaris, used in 
making stuffed chine, q.v. 

COLT. A new hand at any work, before he has paid his 
footing or admission money. 

COLT-EVIL. A disease to which male horses are subject. 

COLTING. A beating. 

COM. See CUM. 

COMASSING. Begging at fair times. Scotter. 

COME AGAIN, v. To appear after death as spirits are reported 
to do. 

Thaay do saay he ewsed to cum agean. I doan't knaw how it ma' be, 
but I've slep' for three weaks together e' very room wheare he was 
mo'der'd an' I niver seed oht warse then my sen. An' seein' as he was 
a forelder o' my awn one would think it a deal likelier thing he should 
shaw hissen to me then to them soft sarvant lasses. 

COME AT. (i) To attain. 

Th' apples was soa high I couldn't cum at 'em. 

(2) To ascertain. 

I ax'd him agean an' agean, but I could n't cum at reight end o' taale . 

COME-BACK. A guinea fowl, so called from its cry. 

COME-BY-CHANCE. (i) A bastard. 

(2) A foal or calf the paternity of which is not known. 

COME ERA. A person's native place, or the place where his 
home has long been. 

He lives at Brigg but Yalthrup's his eum fra. 

COME-HITHER, WOHEY. Said to horses to make them 
turn round. 

COME INTO PROFIT. A cow is said to come into profit when 
the milk comes after calving. 

COME OFF. An excuse. 

It's a bonny cum oj to talk e that how. 


COME ON. To grow, to thrive, to improve, said of infants 
and young animals. 

Them Scotch beas hes cum on aboon a bit sin we got era. 

COME OUT. Said to a dog in scolding it. 

COME OHER. To deceive, to wheedle. 

He tell'd all soorts o' fine taales at 'lection time but he couldn't cum 
oher me. 

COME ROUND, v.(i) To recover from sickness. 

(2) To become reconciled. 

(3) To wheedle. 


I niver seed so many aimers and goers e' ony hoose e' my life as 
ther is theare. 

COME THROUGH. To recover. 

He'll cum through this time but it's been a sore bout for him. 

COME THY WAYS. Come on ! make haste ! 

Cum thy waays, on wi' thes, whativer hest 'a been doin ? I've been 
litein' o' thee this hooer. 

COME TO BE. To be, to become. 

When you cum to be an ohd man like me an' hev bairns o' yer awn 
grow'd up you'll see different. 


Well, he was tied to cum to his end like uther foaks, but I niver 
thoht he'd be taa'en e' this how. 

COME TO SEE. To make love to. 
Jim cums to see oor 'Liza. 

COME UP, inter] ec. Said to horses to urge them on. 
COMFORT. A comfit ; a sweet-meat. 

COMINGS IN. Receipts. 

His cumings in is. all fra land ; I reckon it at five hundred a year. 

COME TO. (i) To recover. 

I thoht I should dee, but I'm cumd to agean nistly noo. 
(2) To become friendly. 

He wodn't speak one while, but he's cumd to noo. 

are used, without anything to qualify or explain their 
meaning, the Commission of Sewers is always meant. 


COMMON, v. A road that has not been stoned is said never 
to have been communed. 

COMMON DAYS. (i) The days on which farmers cart 
materials for the highways. 

" Parsyvall norton quia non observabat le common-dayes." Bottesford 
Manor Records, 1586. 

(2) Work days ; all days except Sundays, Christmas Day, 
and Good Friday. 

COMMONS. To do commons is to cart material for the repair 
of the highways. 

COMPACTED TOGETHER,^. (i) Lying very closely, as 

birds do in a nest. 
(2) Adhering together as nails do from rust. 

COMPANY-KEEPER. A female companion to a lady. 
Faber wife ewsed to be cum'p'ny-kedper to Miss Alexander. 

COMPOSITY. Comprehension. 

He's gotten no composity aboot him. 

COMRADING,//'<?s. pt. Gadding about from house to house, 
associating with loose company. 

She's niver within doors ; alust comraadin' aboot sumwheare. 

CON. Words compounded with con are accented on the first 
syllable, e.g., confinement. 

CONCARN (i) Concern. 

I'll hev no concarn wi' him, i.e., I will have no dealings with him. 
" Defendant called the affair a strange concarn." Gainsburgh News, 
May 19, 1877. 

(2) An intrigue. 

Thaay'd a concarn together for years, an' he'd two bairns by her, 

(3) A person, used as a term of extreme contempt. 

What a leein' concarn she is. 

He is a concarn to hev to do ony business wi'. 

CONCARN, v. To concern. 

" If the inhabitants of the toune where he is not consumed to cleanse 
will sweep up their manor, his cart and horses shall carry it away." 
Gainsburgh Manor Records, 1692, in Stark's Hist. Gainsb., p. 266. 

CONCARN YOU, interjec. An objurgation equivalent to 
" confound you." 

CONDEMNED. Money is said to be condemned if it be owing 
before it is earned. 

All them theare stacks is condemned for rent an' moore things besides 
them. C 


CONFINED LABOURER. A farm labourer hired by the 

" A confined labourer, a married man who can clip sheep and work on 
a farm." Gainsburgh News, June 27, 1868. 

" An 1 'er brother is a confined labourer at Earby wi' a farmer Brown." 
Samuel Wills, The Lincolnshire Labourer. 

CONIES, sb. ^/.Rabbit-skins. 

CON NY, adj. Pretty, comely, suitable. 

CONNYFOBLE, CONNYFOGLE, v. To deceive, to entice 
by flattery. 

CONSATED, adj.(i) Conceited. 
(2) Firmly of opinion. 

I'm consated he'll kill his sen wi' drink afoore many munths is oher 
if he goas on e' this fashion. 

CONSITHER, v. To consider. 

" I thoht it was a goast at fost, for I'd been tell'd ther' was a woman 
wi' oot her head ewsed to walk theare, but when I'd consither'd my sen a 
bit, I fun oot it was moon shinin' on a fledge o' waiter e' Tommy 
Waakefield dykein' boddum." Robert Lock wood. 

CONSTERNATED. Astonished. 

CONVARTED, ^/.Converted. Having convictions of sin 
and certainty of grace. 

Mason : I've cum'd to ax you, sir, if you've ony objections to me 
tonin' Methodist ? 

Squire : No ; I've nothing to do with your religion. 

Mason : Then I'll goa next prayer meetin' as ther' is, an' get convarted, 
for Mr. Waakefield hes a pair of cottages to build, an' if nobbut I'm 
broht in, I'm sewer to get th' job. Messingham, circa 1859. 

About th' year 1860, an old man at Willoughton was convarted to 
Mormonism. On being asked what the process felt like, he replied, 
" Aw, it wer' bewtiful ; just for all th' warld like treacle runnin' doon 
my back." Dowse. 

CONY. A rabbit (obsolescent). 

CONY-GARTH. A small enclosure for rabbits (obsolescent). 

COO. A cow. 

11 My faather's bad wi' a stroak, he'll niver get noa better, an' what's 
warse oor coo went an' deed last neet. M., June, 1886. 

COOL. A lump or swelling on the head. 
COOP. A chicken hutch. 

COOSLOP. Cowslip. 

Cooslop peeps meks real good wine. 


COOT. A water hen. 
As bare as a coot. 
As lousy as a coot. 

COP, v. Schoolboy slang. 

You'll cop it, i.e., you will catch it. 

Cop him a hot 'un, i.e., give him a hard blow. 

COP, COP (kop). Call- word for a horse. 

COP-HORSE. (i) A child's name for a horse. 
(2) A child's toy like a horse. 

COPY-LAND. Land held by copyhold tenure. 

Afoore th 1 enclosure a deal o' land e' Scotter was copy-land, bud it's all 
free-land noo. 

CORDWAINER. A shoemaker. 

CORE. The inner part of a hay or clover stack, when all the 
outside has been cut away. See CRAWK (2). 
"The sweet remnant of the hoarded rick 
Sliced to the core." 

James Hnrdis, The Favourite Village, 120. 


CORN. (i) Any kind of cereal, but more especially wheat. 

(2) A single grain of wheat, &c. 

I got sum co, ns e' my boots when I was dressin', an' thaay laam'd me. 
" Except a corn of wheat fall into the ground and die, it abideth 
alone." St. John, chap, xii., v. 24. 

(3) A single grain of shot. 

Mr. E. . . . shot him e' th' leg, an' he carri'd sum o' th'wns wi' 
him to th' daay of his death. 

(4) A small quantity of tobacco, not sufficient to fill a pipe. 

(5) "He duzn't carry corn well," said of any person who 
cannot bear prosperity. 

CORN, v. When the ears of cereals begin to fill they are said 
to corn well, or badly, as the case may be. Curne occurs in 
this sense. Piers the Plowman, C. text, pass, xiij., 1. 180. 

CORN-BIN (korne*bin). Wild convolvulus, convolvulus arvensis. 
CORNED. Slightly drunken. 

CORNED-BEEF. Beef that has been a few days in pickle, 
but is not fully salted. 


CORNISH. (i) A cornice. 
(2) The penis. 

CORPSE-CANDLE. A light said to be seen over graves. 

CORPSE-WINDER. A woman who prepares the dead for 
the coffin. 

CORRAN, CORRANBERRY. The garden currant. 

CORRUPTION. Pus " matter." 
All blud an' corruption. 

'COS, cotij. Because. 

He hes n't cum'd just 'cos I tell'd him ; he's that stupid. 

COSSES, pr. sing. Costs. 

I should like to goa to Drypool Fair, bud it cosses so much up o* th' 

COST THAN WORSHIP. When anything costs much more 
than it is worth it is said to be of " moore cost then warship" 

COSTIC, adj. Constipated. See INFAMATION. 

COT. (i) A sheep's fleece that has become -matted together 
during growth. Cotted fleeces are frequently used for door- 
mats, and, in the place of sponges, for fomenting sick 

(2) A boy or man who cooks or does other womanly work. 

COT, v. (i) To entangle, used of hair, skeins of thread, &c. 
(2) To become entangled. 

COT, prep, of cut. 

A boy at Winterton school, when undergoing instruction in the 
biography of Jonah, said in reference to that prophet's imprisonment 
in the whale's belly, " I should ha' cot my waay oot." 

COTCH, pp. Caught. 

Him as steals what isn't his'n 
When he's cotch'd mun goa to prison. 

COTCHER. A cottier ; a cottager. 
COTE. A pig-sty. See COAT. 

COTE, r. To fasten up swine in a pig-sty (obsolete). 

" Of Mathew Vause for not hauing a swine cote to cote up his s\vine 
in, iiijd " Kirton-in-Lindsey Fine Roll, 1630. 

CO'TSEY. A curtsey. 


COTTED, //.Matted, entangled. 

Thy hair's that cotted one wod think thoo hed n't reightled it sin last 
Asby feast. 

COTTER. (i) An iron bolt with a large flat head used for 

fastening window shutters. 
(2) A kind of wedge or key used for various purposes. 

COTTERED, pp. (i) Matted, entangled; applied to hair or 


(2) Crumpled, shrunk, run-up ; applied to woollen or cotton 

COTTERELL. (T) A washer, or broad thin ring of metal 
placed below the head or nut of a bolt to hinder it from 
crushing the wood. 

" For xxx. cotterelks and viii. wedges to the belles, ijs. iiijd." Louth 
Church Ace., 1570, vol. iii., p. 66. 

(2) A piece of leather of similar shape to the above used for 
keeping the strands of a mop together. 

COTTON, v. (i) To get on well together, to agree. 

Thaay cotton togither well eniff noo, but thaay did ewse to fall oot 
a part when she was yung an' giddy. 

(2) To grow, to improve (obsolescent). 

" I perceive how this geare cottens" Bernard, Terence, p. 42. 

(3) To beat, to thresh. 

COTTON-DOWN, v. To humiliate ones self. 

I weant cotton-doon to a chap like that for all his brass. 

COTTONER. Something very striking, either good or evil. 

When that cousin o' mine, in America, that I niver so much as seed, 
deed an' left me fifty pund ; " Well," says I, " this is a cottoner." 

Th 1 bairn hed been e' mischief all daay thrif ; at last when I was sidin" 
awaay th' tea things, what duz he do but tum'le i'to th' well. So, 
says 1, " Well, this is a cottoner, we shall hev to send for Mr. Iveson 
(the coroner) noo, I reckon." 

COUNT, v. To anticipate, to reckon upon. 

She coonted up o' bein 1 married afoore th' bairn was born. 

COUNTRY-SIDE. The neighbourhood; the surrounding 

" The whole country-side abounds with sepulchral records." 
Streatfield, Lincolnshire and the Danes, p. 114. 

COURAGE-BATER. A castrator. 

" Buried Eliezar Huddlestone, a stranger, who was a couragebater." 
Holbeach Par. Reg., May 17, 1723. 


COURT. When used without any other word to fix its 
meaning it signifies the county court for the recovery of 

COURT-CARDS. (i) The kings and queens in a pack of cards ; 
formerly called coat-cards. 

(2) " He's gotten to be a coort-card noo," said of some one who 
has risen very much in social position. 

COURTING. A court, an enclosed yard. 

He said he'd kick my arse roond th' coortin', soa says I to him, 
thoo'd better try ; it'll maay be bo'n thy boots if 'ta duz. Whitton, 
Feb., 1872. 

COVERLID. A coverlet, a bed quilt 

COW, v. To subdue. 

COW-CASSON. Cow-dung. See CASSON. 

COW-CLAP. Cow-dung, perhaps so called from the noise 
which it makes in falling. 

She's as common as coo-claps are on Butterwick Haale at harvist time. 

COW-EASINGS. Cow dung. 

COW-GATE. The pasturage for a cow in a village cow- 
pasture, or on a common. 

" I scarcely ever knew a cow-gate given up for want of ability to 
obtain a cow." 1804 A. Hunter, Georgical Essays, vol. ii., p. 126. 

COWL. (i) A metal hood for a chimney. 
(2) A lump, or swelling on the head. 

Draaton did n't ho't Lusby to speak on, but he'd a great cowl up o' th' 
side o 1 his head for iver so long efter. 

COW-LADY. A lady-bird. 

" A bluish black-beetle about the size of a cow-lady has made its 
appearance in Wingland." Stamford Mercury, Aug. 24, 1877. 
" Coo-laady, coo-laady, flee awaay hoam, 
Yer hoose is o' fire an' yer childer '11 b'on." 

COW-LICK. Curled locks of hair on a cow, which are believed 
to have assumed the form they bear from the animal 
constantly licking them. 

COWL-RAKE. A mud-scraper, formed like a large hoe with 
a long shaft. 

" For a cowle-rake makyng, xijd." Louth Ch. Acc. t 1596, vol. iii., p. 160. 
Cf. Th. Otway, The Atheist, Act i, sc. i. Rob. Burton, Anatomy of 
Melancholy, ed., 1624, p. 52. Cotton and Woollcombe, Gleanings from 
Municipal . . . Records . . . of Exeter, p. 146. 


COW-PASTURE. (i) A grass field which is always de- 
pastured, in which the farmer's cows run. 

(2) A pasture set apart in some parishes for the sole use of 
the cottager's cows. There is a pasture of this kind at 
Appleby, and before recent unhappy changes there was one 
at Scotton. 

COW-TO'D. Cow-dung. It is said of a man who after much 
display suddenly comes to poverty, that " he went up like 
a' arrow an' lighted in a coo-to 'd." 

COWS AND CALVES. The flowers of the arum maculatum. 
COY. A decoy for taking wild ducks. 

COY-DUCK, 5. pl.(i) A tame duck kept in a decoy for the 
purpose of enticing the wild ones into the nets. 

" The greatest varieties that are to be seen for ponds, waterworks, 
groves, conveniences of coy-ducks." Rushworth, Hist. Coll., part iv., vol. 
ii., p. 1263. 

(2) A person employed for purposes of deceit. 

She's a real coy duck, no sarvant lass is saafe wheare she is. 

COYL (koil). Coal. Probably a form imported from the 
West Riding of Yorkshire. Coal is the common pronuncia- 
tion here. 

She'll mak' most o' fo'ty pund if sum o' them foaks that knaw doan't 

CRAB, v. To divulge a secret. 

She'll mak' most o' fo'ty pund 
crab her ; said of a blemished mare that was to be sold 

CRAB-APPLE. The fruit of the crab-tree. . 
CRABBING. Gathering crabs. 
CRABBY. Crabbed, cross, bad-tempered. 

CRAB-FISH. The crab. 

I can eat ony soort o' fish bud crab-fish, them I can't abide. May, 

CRAB-STICK. A bad-tempered child. 

CRAB-VARGIS. An acid liquid, similar to vinegar, made 
from crabs. 

CRACK. (i) A boastful lie. 

" Leasinges, backby tinges and vainglorious crakes." Spencer, Faerie 
Queue, Bk. ii., canto xi., v. 10. 

(2) To do anything " in a crack " is to do it very quickly. 


CRACK, r. (i) To boast. 

He cracks his sen off as tho'ff he was Lord Mayor o' Yerk. 
Her bairn's noht to crack on ; you should see mine. 

(2) To curdle ; said of milk in possets or when changing, q.v. 
CRACKLING. The skin of roast pork. 

CRACK SKULL. A noisy and mischief- making gossip. 
An ohd crackskull nobut fit to be stuck in a dykein' boddom. 

CRACKY. Not quite sound in mind. 

C RADGE. A small bank made to keep out water. 

CRADLE-COUGH. A cough thought to betoken pregnancy. 

CRAG, v. To crack by bending. 

Sumbody's catch'd hohd o' a bew o' that tree an 1 cra^g'd it. 

CRAKE, v. (i) To creak as the hinge of a door. 

(2) To make a harsh noise as certain birds do. 

"Where the partridge is craking, 

From morning to e'en ; 
In the wheat lands awaking 

The sprouts young and green." 

John Clare, To Jane, Life and Remains, 

CRAM, v. (i) To crumple. 

Them lasses hes cramm'd cloth till it is n't fit fer a deacent taable. 

(2) To force food down the throat. 

(3) To force down anything very tightly. 

(4) To impose upon a person by humourous lies. 

CRAMBLE, v. (i) To get out of shape. 

The wo'st of thease here shoes is thaay cramble soa. 

(2) To move as if stiff in the joints. 

He's ninety year ohd an' he's not cram' I in ta speak on yit. 
I shall soon be as cramUiti 1 as Tom Herringshaw is my sen. 

CRAMP, CRAMPER. A piece of iron used to join stones 
together. See CLAMP (2). 

CRAMP, CRAMPLE. To crumple. 

If you cramp that writing paaper you'll clean spoil it. 


CRAMP-RING. A ring worn to keep off the cramp. Robert 
Lockwood, late of Yaddlethcrpe, found an old copper 
wedding-ring which had become fastened upon the point of 
the tooth of a harrow with which he was working his land ; 
he gave it to his wife to wear and she assured the author 
that it had quite cured her of the cramp. 

" I ewsed to hev it bad afoore, bud it hes niver been near me sin' ", 
she said. 

Rings for the cure of the cramp were formerly blessed by the Kings 
of England ; the service for this purpose may be seen in Maskell's 
Monumenta Ritualia Ecclesia Anglicance, vol. iii., p. 335. Cf. Brand, 
Popular Antiquities, 1813, vol. i., p. 128. Nares' Gloss., sub. voc. Pro. 
Soc. Ant., i. series, vol. ii., p. 292. Journal of British Archaological Ass., 
vol. xxvii., p. 280. Notes and Queries, v. series, vol. ix., pp. 308, 514, 
Household Books of Lord Will. Howard (Surtees Soc.), p. 147. Atkinson. 
Cleveland Gloss., sub. voc. Jones, Credulities Past and Present, p. 200. 
Academy, vol. xvi., p. 232. Parker Soc. Index, Nares' Gloss., sub. voc. 

CRAMPT, ^/.Limited for space. 

We're straange an' crampt for room here, nobbut one bedroom for 
nine foaks. 

CRANCH, v. To crunch, to crush as wheels do the stones on 
'a newly repaired road, or as children do when eating apples. 

CRANE. A heron. 

John Marcham Bottesfnrd. 

Crane Bushes in Campo de Morton are mentioned in the Kirton-in 
Lindsey Court Roll of 12, Henry vj. They probably took their name 
from this bird. The true crane was, however, by no means a rare bird 
in England in former days. See Athencsum, March 2, 1878, p. 289. 

CRANE. A bar of iron turning on a pivot affixed to the back 
of a chimney, for the purpose of suspending cooking vessels 
over a fire. 

CRANK. (i) The handle of a turnip-slicer, a " blower," a 
grindstone, or any similar machine. 

(2) A machine used in some prisons for finding employment 
for prisoners. There was one in the now disused prison of 
Kirton-in -Lindsey. 

CRANKY. (i) Weak, decrepit. 

(2) Ill-tempered, irritable, disobliging. 

Doant ax him for it till th' poast's cum'd ; he's alus cranky in a 

CRANNY. A crevice. 

CRAPS, SCRAPS, s. pi. Scraps of pig's fat which remain 
after the lard has been extracted by boiling. Some persons 
eat them with mustard, vinegar and pepper. 


CRATCH. (i) A cradle (obsolete). 

(2) An open frame on which hay is put for cattle. 

Thomas Teanby, of Barton-upon-Humber, had at his death, in 1652 
" 5 sheep-era tches." Gent. Mag., 1861, vol. ii., p. 505. 

(3) A pig-cratch, q.v. 

(4) A bier. A Winterton man on seeing a new bier which 
had been provided for the church, said, " That's just th' 
soort'n a cratch I should liketobetakkentochech on." 1882. 

CRATCHES, s. pi. Swellings to which horses are subject. 
CRATCH-YARD, CRETCH-YARD. A crew-yard, q.v. 

CRAW. (i) A rook ; not a carrion crow. When the latter is 
spoken of it is always called a " ket-craw." 

" Never tho' my mortal summers to such length of years 

should come 

As the many-wintere'd crow that leads the clanging 
rookery home." 

Tennyson, Locksley Hall. 
" I want to hear the call 

O' th' pywipes i 1 th' marsh-land 
An' th' craws ahind th' ploo." 

Mabel Peacock, The Lincolnshire Poacher. 

When th' craws plaays foot-ball it's a sign o' bad weather. That is 
when the rooks are restless, gather together in large bodies and circle 
round each other. 

My bairns 'all niver do th' saame like for me. It is n't offens yung 
craws sarves ohd uns, said by a parent who had made great sacrifices 
for his children. 

When a child asks a question that it is difficult or unwise to answer, 
the mother replies, " How should I knaw, bairn ; why does craws pick 
lambs eyes oot." 

(2) A crowbar. 

(3) The crop of a bird. 

CRAW, v. (i) To crow like a cock. 

A whis'lin' wife an' a crawin' hen 
Is naaither good for God nor men. 

(2) To brag, to boast. 

I wo'dn't craw soa aboot thy plaace if I was thoo ; thoo'll be leavin' 
afoore Maayda' if ta' duz. 

CRAW T DEN. A task, commonly used in a humourous sense. 

I'll set thee a crawden, my lad ; if thoo'll swarm yon theare tree an 
fetch me them maggit eggs fra th' nest, I'll gie the sixpence. 

CRAW-FEET, s. pL Wrinkles on the cheeks and temples. 


CRAW -FULL, CRAW -BELLY -FULL. A very small 
quantity, commonly of flesh or food. 

He's gotten that waake an' thin he hesn't a craw-full on his boans. 

CRAWK. (i) The core of fruit. 

"The mellerest apple hes a crawk i'side," a remark made to teach 
that no one is without faults. 

(2) The hard lump in the middle of a potatoe that has not 
been sufficiently boiled. 

(3) The inner part of a hay or clover stack when all the 
outside has been cut away. 

(4) He's good at th' crawk, signifies that the person of whom 
it is said is sound in constitution and character. 

CRAWL, v. To be infested with, used regarding vermin. 
That dog fairly crawls wi" lops. 

CRAWMASSING. Going round begging gifts at Christmas, 
or to gather up the remains of a feast. 

CRAW-OVER, v. To triumph over. 
CRAWS, BLACK. Dried mucus nasi. 

CRAWS. To climb. Infants are said to " climb craws" when 
they first begin to use their feet by climbing up their 
mothers' breast. 

Cum along an' climb craws then, that's a little blessin'. 
CRAW-TREES, s. pi. Trees on which rooks build. 

CRAZY, adj. Rickety. 

That chair's craazy, thoo moant sit thy sen doon on it. I nobbut 
keep it 'cos it was Lord Yarburs'. I boht it at the Manby Hall saale. 

CREAM, v. To froth, as ale. 

CREAM-DISH. A shallow metal dish, with a handle on one 
side and small holes in the bottom, used in creaming milk. 

CREATUR. A term ol contempt. 

A sore leein' credtitr ; as poor a credtur as iver I seed. 

Did you iver sea two such poor, white-faaced credturs. I tell "em that 
thaay 're a vast deal moore fitter for the'r graaves than cumin' here a 
huny-moonin'. 1882. 


CREDDLE. (i) A cradle. 

(2) A frame of rods fastened by cords which is put round the 
neck of a horse that has been blistered, or has been hurt, to 
hinder it from biting the sore. 

(3) A frame round a young tree placed there to preserve it 
from cattle. 

(4) A frame in which glaziers carry glass. 

"To my broder Robert all my toels and scroes and a credill of 
Normandy glase." Will of John 'Petty, Test Ebor (Surtees Soc.), vol. 
iv., p. 334- 

CREDDLE-BAIRN. An infant. 

I was nobbut a creddle-bairn then, soa I knaw noht concarnin' it. 

" An made hem rowte, 
Als he weren kradel-barnes." 

Havelock, 1912. 

CREE, v. To simmer grain until it is tender. 

Squire alus gies his herses creed lineseed, that's why thaay shine in 
the'r coats soa. 

CREEL. (i) An osier basket in which fish is carried. 

(2) A pannier. 

(3) A frame in which glaziers carry glass. See CREDDLE (4). 

(4) A wooden rack in which plates stand. The difference 
between a "rack" and a creel is this. A " plate-rack" is 
the frame in which plates after washing are put to dry ; 
a set of shelves fastened to a wall with ledges to keep the 
plates from slipping is a plate-creel. In the " rack " the 
plates stand edge-ways to the spectator ; in the creel they 
stand side by side, or partially over-lapping each other and 
facing the spectator. 

CREEPER. A grapnel used for recovering the bodies of 
drowned persons. 

When thaay fun' his body ther' wasn't a mark on it, except that th 1 
credpers hed just catch'd it aside one o' th 1 ears. Circa, 1840. 

CREEPING. A cold sensation in the skin, caused sometimes 
by fright, or others by illness. 

CREEP UP THE SLEEVE. To deceive by coaxing or 

You see, he's crept up her shave till he can do ony thing wi' her he likes. 

CRESSET. An iron frame used to contain an out-door fire. 
Cf. " blazing cressets" Milton, Paradise Lost, bk .1., 1. 728. 
Rites of Durham (Surtees Soc.), pp. 2, 3. 



CREW. A confused crowd. Crew may be applied to lifeless 
things as well as living. 

You niver seed sich an' a crew o' plew-jags as we bed to-year. 
Ther' was a straange creiv o' mucky ohd things ton'd oot at S. . . 

CRETCH-YARD. A bedded fold for cattle. 

" With hay and straw and use of crews and sheds . . . with the 
use of the crew-yards until the 5th of April next." Stamford Mercury, 
Sept. 20, 1867. 

" Confined in the house, or in a crew-yard, and kept wholly on hay or 
straw." Th. Bateman, Vicar of Whaplode, Treatise on Agistment Tithe, 
1778, p. 61. 

" The crew-yard will soon be required, and it would be unsafe to use 
with this excavation . . . under it." W. E. Hewlett in Gainsburgh 
Times, Jan. 21, 1881. 

Sir Charles Anderson informs me that there is a place in the parish 
of Lea called Cre w-hills, because cattle were formerly kept there in 

CREWELL. Fine worsted. 

Miss Baker says : " Fine worsteds, made hard and smooth by 
twisting, which distinguishes them from common worsted of various 
colours, used for the purpose of ornamental needle-work, and by the 
angler in the composition of artificial flies. Lexicographers have 
mistaken the distinctive difference of this article, and describe it 
simply as worsted." North-amp. Gloss., sub. voc. 

" Bless yer heart, my good man ... it was my owd grandmother 
gave me that name, when I was clear a little bairn, along o' my runnin" 
away wi' her crewell ball, and making a blobb for eels wi' it." John 
Markcnfield, vol. i., p. 113. 

In 1529 there was in the church of Kirton-in-Lindsey a vestment 
of " greyne croylle.'" Ch. Ace., sub anno. Cf. J. R. Daniel-Tyssen, 
Inventories of . . . Ornaments in the Churches of Surrey, p. 16. 

CRIB-SUCKER, CRIB-BITER. A horse that gnaws and 
sucks the manger. 

CRICK. (i) A crevice. 
(2) A twist of the neck. 

CRIED DOON,//>. Evil spoken of, slandered. 

At 'lection times ivery body cries them doon that's o 1 the uther side. 

CRIED UP, //.Praised. 

She's cried up noa end by sum foaks up of acoont o' her singin' and 
plaayin' up o' th 1 pianna. 

CRIMP. An agent employed to trapan sailors into the clutches 
of the press-gang (obsolescent). 

CRIMP, v. To wrinkle, to crumple. 


CRIMPING-MACHINE. An instrument with two indented 
rollers, in which heaters can be placed. These rollers 
revolve upon each other. It is used for crimping women's 
frills and cap borders. 

CRINKLE, v. To wrinkle. To form into loops as is the 
custom with unwound thread or silk. A brook in the parish 
of Roxby, the course of which is very circuitous, is called 

CRISSELLED UP (kris-ld). Twisted up as leaves are 
through the effects of cold. 

CROAK, v. To complain. 

CROFT. A small plot of enclosed land adjoining a homestead. 
" The maids hang out white clothes to dry 
Around the elder-skirted croft. 

John Clare, Shepherd's Calendar, p. 25. 

CROHLE, v. To crawl, to creep. 

I fun this here yung theaf crohlin' thrif my otchard hedge, \vi' his 
pockets ram full o' pears. 

" 'Th devil an' all them things, 
'At's creepin' an 1 crowlin 1 below." 

Mabel Peacock, Lincolnshire Poacher. 

When the late Archdeacon Stonehouse was collecting materials for 
his History of the Isle of Axholme he asked one of the older inhabitants 
what was the meaning of the name Crowle, the place where this person 
lived. The reply was, " Well, sir, I doant knaw for sureness, but thaav 
do saay as afoore Vermuden time this was omust th' only bit o' land e' 
this part that was unflooded, so folks crohled up here an' built hooses." 

CROOK. (i) An iron hook by which cooking-vessels are 
suspended over a fire. 

(2) A similar hook by which bacon is suspended from the 

He found her hanging from a crook in the ceiling quite dead." Leeds 
Mercury, Sept. u, 1883. 

(3) The hinge of a gate or door. 

"Tek th' gate off the cyooks, Joab." Lawrence Cheny, Ruth and 
Gabriel, vol. i., p. 27. 

CROOKLED. (i) Crooked. 

A crookled stick 'all do to beat a bitch wi'. 
As crookled as a dog's hind leg. 

There is a public-house at Gainsburgh and another at Owston having 
for a sign the Crooked Billet. Both these go by the name of the 
Crookled Billet. 

(2) Bad-tempered. 

(3) Awkward. 


CROON. A crown. See CROWN. 
CROONER. A coroner. 
CROOPY. Hoarse. 

CROPPING. The crops. The proper rotation of crops is 
said to be as follows : 

Efter wheat, to'nups, 
Efter to'nups, barley, 
Efter barley, cloaver, 
Efter cloaver, wheat, 
An 1 so oher and oher agean. 

CROSS. The signature of a person who cannot write. 
It is noteworthy that while now the sign of the cross is 
almost universally used for this purpose in former days 
down to the middle of the last century arbitrary rigns and 
letters were frequently employed. 

CROSS-BARS, 5. pi. The upright bars of a gate which cross 
the ledges or horizontal bars. 

CROSS-BOW. These ancient pieces of artillery are still, or 
were until very recently, used for shooting young rooks. 
The arrows were made very heavy with a knob at 
the end. 

CROSS-CLOTH. (i) A hanging or veil by which the rood 
and other images in the rood-loft were hidden during Lent 

(2) A banner attached to a processional cross (obsolete). 

(3) An article of female dress, probably a kerchief which 
was worn across the bosom (obsolete). 

Margaret Saunderson on September 10, 1602, stole from John Shaw 
gent. " Vnum le crosse-cloth et vnum le handerchiff precium, x^-" 
Bottesford Manor Roll, sub ann. 

CROSS-CROPPING." Taking crops out of the accustomed 
rotation tend to exhaust the soil and are there called cross- 
cropping." Thomas Stone, View of Agric. Line., 1794, p. 54. 

CROSS-CUT-SAW. A saw used for cutting timber across. 

CROSS-CUTTING. -Ploughing land across, after it has been 
ploughed the ordinary way, so as to cut the soil into square 


CROSS-EYED, ##.- Squinting. 
CROSS-GRAINED, ^/.Bad-tempered. 
CROSS-PATCH. A peevish child. 
CROSS-QUART. - Cross-corner. 

CROWN. The head or top of anything, as the crown 
of an arch, of a road, of a bee-hive, a saddle, or a 

That Burringham road's all flooded except just th' croon. May 
15, 1886. 

CROWNATION. Coronation. 

" For rynginge on the crownation day, thexxvij. of March, ijs. " 
Klrton-in-Lindsey Ch. Ace., 1638. 

I can remember three crownaation daays, of two kings an* a queen ; 
my faather could nobbut remember one, an' that was King George the 
Tho'd. Northorpe, Mary Richards, circa 1840. 

CROWN DOUN, v. To dig down in various places in search 
of a " suff," or of stone, or clay. 

Them suffs i' th' hoss-cloas is stopp'd up ; Sam mun' croon doon an' 
find 'em. 

CROWNER. (i) A coroner. 

" In Scotland he is called crowner, which is still in this country his 
vulgar appellation." Jervis, On Coroners, 1866, p. 2. 
" 'Tis true the crowner sat, and sent, 
This verdict died of non-content." 

Newspaper Cutting, 1832. 

(2) Something surpassingly beautiful or excellent. 
CROWNER'S QUEST. A coroner's inquest. 

CRUDDLE, v. (i) To lie close together for the sake of 

Look how them yung bods is cruddled up'n a heap. 

(2) To curdle. 

CRUDDLED-BERRIES.- Stewed gooseberries eaten with fat 

CRUDDY. Oat-meal gruel. 


CRUDS, Curds. 

My muther when I was a gel wo'd as soon ha' expected for to see 
Humber afire as fer foaks to mak' chiscaakes oot o' new milk cruds. 

" Hast thou not poured me out as milke, and turned me to cnids like 
cheese ? " Job, ch. x., v. 10, Geneva Version. 
"A few cruddes and creem and an hauer cake, 
And two loues of benes and bran y-bake for my fauntis."^ 

Piers the Plowman, B. Text, pass, vi., 1. 284. 

CRUEL. Very, exceedingly ; always with some allusion to 

It's a cruel coh'd neet. 

CRUM, v. To crumble. 

You mo'ant crum yer bread, Sarah Ann. 

That motters all cmmiri 1 awaay i' th' gardin wall Bars Smith built. 
"Thou thyselfe didst crum it, thou therefore must eat it vp all." 
Bernard, Terence, p. 385. 

CRUiMBS, (i) Loose earth that falls into the trench in 

(2) A man or one of the lower animals recovering from 
sickness is said to " pick up his crumbs." 

CRUMMY, adj. Fat, in good condition ; rich in good humour 
My maaster's al'us crusty afoore dinner an' crummy efter. 

CRUMP, v. To crush. 

" I'll crump your onion " is equivalent to " I'll break your skull." 

CRUMPINS, sb. pi. Three or more small apples growing to- 
gether on one stalk. 

CRUMPY, adj. Crisp, said of bread or pastry. 

CRUST. The outside plank of a tree. 

" For a crust of a plank to a brigge . . . xvjd.," 1563. Louth Ch. 
Ace., vol. iii., p. 28. 

CRUSTY, adj. Ill-tempered. See CRUMMY. 
CRUTCHY. A nick-name for one who walks on crutches. 

CRYSON. A person disfigured by dress. 
What a cryson she looks e' that cloak. 

CRY SHAME ON, v. To hold up to public contempt 

I very body's crying shaame on ... for th' waay he ewsed 
that lass his dead wife was aunt to. Ashby, 1885. 

CRY UP, . To praise. 

They cry up . . . as th' best preacher e' England barrin 


CUCKOO-FLOWER. Cardemine pratensis. 
CUCKOO-LAMB. A lamb born in May or June. 

CUCKOO-SPIT, TOAD-SPIT. The white froth on plants 
produced by the larva of the cicada spumaria. See BROCK. 

" The froth on willows, caused by the cicada spumaria, we call kukubs- 
speichel, Swiss, guggerspeu, Engl. cuckoo-spit, Spittle, Dan. giogespyt, but in 
some places witch's spittle, Norweg. trold-kiaringspye." Grimm, Tent. 
Myth., &c., Stallybrass, vol. ii., p. 682. 


CUCKSTOOL. A ducking stool. 

A kvckstowle was ordered to be made for the manor of Bottesford, in 
1565; and in 1576 it was ordered by the Court, "that euery woman 
that is a scould shall eyther be sett vpon the cockstoll & be thrise ducked 
in the water, or els her husbandes to be amercied, vjs. viijf. The use 
of the cuckstool was only abandoned at Gainsburgh in the last decade of 
the eighteenth century. The stool was in existence under the charge of 
the constable in 1837." Stork's Hist. Gainsb., p. 528. 

The author has seen a memorandum written by a Yorkshire gentle- 
man who died in 1840, which states that in his memory there was a 
ducking-stool at Little Hemsworth, on Shafton Green, on Cudworth 
Green and in Houghton Green. He goes on to say that they 
became rotten and were removed between 1770 and 1780. 

An engraving of a cuckstool occurs in Gay's Shepherd's Week, 1514, in 
illustration of the lines : 

" I'll speed me to the pond, where the high stool, 
On the long pla nk hangs o'er the muddy pool, 
That stool, the dread of every scolding quean." 

Bk. iii., 1. 105. 
" The power to rule 
With pil'ry, stocks, and ducking stool. 
The ale-wife in the pool to drench, 
The wandering whore and railing wench 
Who swore the parson was too civil 
With honest maids ; and played the devil 
With caps and kirtles, eyes and hair, 
Of chaster or of fairer fair." 

Quoted in Gentleman's Mag., 1861, 
vol. i., p. 441. 

CUDDLE, i'. To fondle, to embrace. 

" Who would in spite of wedlock run 
To cuddle with the Emp'rour's son." 

Edw. Ward, Don Quixote, 1711, p. 158. 

CUDDY. (i) Short for Cuthbert. The surname Cuthbert is 
similarly contracted. 

(a) A name for an ass. 


CULBERT. A culvert ; an underground tunnel for conveying 

CULL, v. (i) To separate sheep or other live stock, the good 
from the bad. See CULLS. 

" In the Mill holme of culliuge ewes, xxjd. " Sheep Bill of Sir John 
Spencer, 1580, in Northampton sh. Notes and Queries, April, 1884, p. 37. 

(2) To pluck. 

Cull me sum flooers, Phoebe. 

CULLIDGE ENDED. Houses or stacks are said to be 
cullidge- ended when the ends of the roofs are sloped to the 
ridge, not carried up perpendicularly. 

CULLS. Inferior articles of any kind picked out from others. 
The word is specially applied to inferior sheep that have 
been separated from the rest of the flock. See CULL. 

CULTIVATE, r. This word has nearly lost its true meaning 
and become restricted to the working of land with a steam 
" cultivator." 

CULTIVATOR. A large iron drag worked by steam power. 
CULVER. A pigeon (obsolete). 

CUM,/*. t.-(i) Came. 

I was scar'd when he cum by agean. 

(2) Become. 

I doan't knaw what's cum o' th 1 tap-kaay ; I've looked high an' low 
for it. 

(3) pres. subj. When it comes ; used in regard to time. 

It will be three weaks sin 1 cum Sunda 1 . 

" Thursday next come three weeks." House of Lords Records, 1646, 
Rep. Hist. MSS. Com., vi., p. 97. 

" To-morrow come never 

When two Sundays come together," 

is an emphatic way of expressing never, still used in Cheshire. (See 
Wilbraham's Gloss., 28.) It does not seem to occur here. 

(4) Butter is said to cum at the moment when the cream 
begins to clot. 

is utterly useless. 

CUNDIFF, CUNLIFF. A culvert or conduit, an under, 
ground tunnel for conveying water. 

CUNGER. A conger eel. 



CUNNING, adj. Wise, sharp, clever, in a good sense. 
She's a long-headed, cunning woman among pigs and pultry. 
" He was a more cunninger man in his occupation." Friar Rush, 1620, 
in Thorn's Prose Romances, p. \o. 

CUPBOARD LOVER. A man who makes love to a female 
servant, not for herself, but for the sake of the good things 
she gives him from her mistresses' pantry. 

CUPS AND SAUCERS. A child's name for acorns and the 
cups that contain them. 

CURLY-FLOWER. (i) A cauliflower. 

(2) A little clot of hot wick in a candle called also a " shroud " 
and " winding-sheet," q.v. 

CUR'OUS. Curious. 

CURRAN, CURRAN-BERRY. The garden currant. 

CUSH-CUSH, CUSH-A-COW. The call for a cow. 

Cushy-cow bonny, give down thy milk, 
And I will give thee a gown of silk ; 
A gown of silk and a silver fee, 
If thou wilt give down thy milk to me. 

The two last lines sometimes run thus : 

A gown of silk and a silver spoon, 
If thou wilt give down thy milk very soon. 
" Cusha ! Cusha ! Cusha" calling, 
P'or the dews will soon be falling." 

Jean Ingelow, The High Tide. 

CUSTARD. A large kind of apple which ripens early. Cf. 
Skeat, Did., sub voc., Costcrmonger. 

CUSTOMABLY, adc. According to custom, habitually. 

Th' carrier goas customably to Gainsb'r iv'ry Setterda', but 'e 
harvist time he knocks off. 

" He threateneth to do with him as customably is vsed to be done to 
whore-masters; that is, he will geld him." Bernard, Terence, p. 162. 

CUSTOMARY LAND. Land held by copyhold tenure 

" His highnes priuileges infringed ... in raseinge so manie 
freehold estates by deede of Landes apparentlie custumarve." Norden's 
Survey of the Soke of Kirton-in-Lindsey, 1616. Preface. 

CUSTOM AT. To go to one shop regularly for the sake of 
purchasing articles. 

I ewst to buy things heres an' theares, but noo I alus custom at 


CUT. (i) Any pictorial representation. A woman, referring 
to a stained glass window, asked, " Please will you tell me 
what that theare cut is. Is it Mrs. . . . and Miss . . . 
e' th' otchard ? For I've been saayin' as it is." 

(2) A drain for draining land, not a sewer ; commonly, though 
not always, one newly made. 

" A cut or drain to be cut at the said Bycarsdyke. . . . Also a 
sluice out of Bycarsdyke into the said new cut.'" Proceedings of Court of 
Sewers, circa 1635, in Stonehouse's Hist. Isle of Axholme. 

" They made several cuts or artificial rivers from 16 to 100 feet wide." 
Geo. Pryme, Autobiographic Recollections, p. 145. 

" Some valuable cuts and rivers had been made." J. M. Heathcote, 
Reminiscences of Fen and Mere, p. 24. 

CUT, v. To castrate. 

CUT-GILT. A female pig that has had the ovaries extracted. 

CUT-HOUSE. A place where fodder is cut for cattle or where 
cut-meat (q.v.) is kept. 

" He discovered some oats and barley hidden in the cut-house under 
some oat sheaves." Gainsburgh Times, Feb. 2, 1880. 

CUTLASH. A cutlass. 

CUT-MEAT. Hay, oats in the straw, and such like, cut into 
short lengths for cattle-food. 

CUTS. A carnage used for conveying timber. It consists of 
two pairs of wheels with a long pole as a coupling between 
them, so as to place them far apart. Waggon wheels are 
commonly used for this purpose. 

We're goin' wi' th' cuts to fetch John Bell's wood fra Scawby plantin'. 

CUTS, TO DRAW. To cast lots by means of straws cut of 
unequal length. These straws are held in the closed hand, 
and the person who draws the longest straw wins. 

We can't boath on us tak th' laanes to year, soa we'll draw cuts to sea 
which on us is to hev 'em, 

" Let se now who shal telle the first tale, 
As ever mote I drinken win or ale, 
Who so is rebel to my jugement 
Shal pay for alle that by the way is spent. 
Now draweth cutte, or that ye forther twinne 
He which that hath the shortest shal beginne." 

Chaucer, Prolog, to Cant. Tales. 
" Let us all cutte draw, 

And then is none begylt." 

Towneley Mysteries, p. 228. 

11 To draw cuts is, in the language of the rustic population, to draw 
lots." Archcsologia, vol. xlii., p. 126. 

11 By drawing cuts or casting lots." Edw, Ward, Don Quixote, i., 394. 


GUTTED (kut-ed), pt. t. Cut. 

Ther's a lass been an* cutted them yung trees e 1 th' Panfield. 

CUTTEN,// Cut. 

" i've cutten my sen reight thrif my boot wi' th 1 little fur-bill." 

CUTTER. (i) A castrator. Until about the beginning of the 
reign of George the Third, these persons used to carry a 
horn on which they blew when entering a village to give 
notice of their coming. (Cf. Hudibras, part ii., c. ii., 1. 610.) 
The Horn Inn, at Messingham, derived its sign from a 
person who practised this art, who used the well-known 
badge of his business as a sign. When the use of the horn 
was discontinued, castrators were wont to indicate their 
calling by a small horse-shoe in silver or white metal, 
which they wore stitched on the front of the hat. This 
badge was common until quite recently, and may perhaps 
yet be seen. 

(2) A machine for cutting hay, oats in the straw, and such 
like, for food for cattle. 

CUTTING-KNIFE. A large knife with a handle set at right 
angles to the blade ; used for cutting hay from stacks. 

" She's to noa moore ewse to kitchen-wark then a cuttin -knife is to a 
swarm o' beas." 

CUT-WORK. (i) Open-work, carving. 

(2) Open-work patterns cut in flannel or other textile fabrics. 
" I'll make Italian cut-works in their guts 
If ever I return." 

Webster, The White Devil. 

CUT YOUR LUCKY. Go away! An order of instant 

CUZEN (kewzen). A strangely dressed or odd-looking person. 
What a cuzen Phoebe is, she gets to look offiller iv'ry time I see her. 

CYPHERING. Arithmetic. 

CYPHER-UP, v. To measure a person's character in one's 
own mind. 

I've cyphered up that gentleman years sin', an' wo'd raayther give him 
five shillin' then lend him a sovr'in. 


DA. Father. A child's word. 

My da says I moant plaay wi' matchis. 

DAB. (i) A child's pinafore. 

(2) One who is clever at anything. 

Fred's real dab at larnin. 

(3) A slight blow. 

(4) A wipe with a sponge or wet cloth. 

DAB HAND. One who is clever at any kind of manual 

He's as dab a hand at thacking as iver I seed. 

DAB WASH. The washing of a few clothes by themselves at 
a time distinct from the washing-day. 

DACIOUS, adj. Audacious. 

Of all the daacious lads I iver seed oor Sarah's Bill's th' daaciousest. 

DACKER, v. (i) To waver, to shake fitfully; applied to the 
effects of high wind on the sails of ships, on trees, or on 

It didn't fall, but I could see th 1 chimla' dacker ivry gust that caame 
e 1 th' big wind o' Wissun Monda'. 

(2) To equivocate. 

I knew he was leein,' he dacker'd an' slew'd i' his talk. 

(3) To idle about, to be irregular. 

She dackers aboot no end, if I'm not runnin' efter her noht niver 
gets dun. 

'Dacker, vox in agro Lincoln, usitata, signficat antem vacillare, 
mi tare." Skinner, Etymolog. 

(4) To have relapses in sickness. 
DACK, DACKY, interject The call for pigs. 
DACKY-PIG, A child's name for a pig. 


DADDY-LONG-LEGS. A crane-fly. 

"The crane fly or daddy-long-legs." Lloyd, Science of Agriculture, 
p. 279. 

"Old daddy-long-legs would n't say his prayers 
Take him by the right leg, 
Take him by the left leg, 
Take him by both legs, 
And throw him down stairs." 

Nursery Rhyme. 

DAFFING, pres. part. Jesting. 

She's alus daffin' i'stead o' mindin' her vvark. 

DAFFY-DOWN-DILLY.-The daffodil. 

The fo'st flooers th' bairn seam'd to tak noatice on was th 1 daffy -doon- 
dillies that grawd anean th' crew-yard wall o' th' no'th side o' th' gardin 
them he'd pull up by handsful. 

" Daffy -doon-dilly's cum'd to the toon, 
I' a yaller petty-coat an' a grean goon." 

Nursery Rhyme. 

" Strowe mee the grownde with daffa-down-dillies, 
And cowslips, and king-cups, and loved lillies." 

Spencer, Shep. Cal., April, 140. 

DAFT, DAFTED. Foolish, slightly insane. A child looks 
daft or dafted when it is bewildered, scared, or unable to 
answer a question. 

DALE. A division in an open field. Norden's Survey ef the 
Manor of Kirton-in-Lindsey, 1616, furnishes the names of 
many of these dales. In the parish of Messingham, before 
the enclosure, " When any person had six lands altogether 
it was called a dale." Mackinnon Ace. of Messingham 
(written in 1825) 1880, p. 18. 

DALLACKED, DALLACKED-OUT, //. Over-dressed, 
dressed in gaudy colours. 

Was n't sarvant lasses dallack' d-oot at Gainsb'r Stattis! 

DAMNIFIED. Injured. 

I've been damnified a matter of two year rent thriff th' beck bank 

DAMP. Rainy. 

DAMPER. (i) An instrument in a fire-place used for closing 
a flue. 

(2) Anything that is said or done to dispirit another. 

DANCE. When a person has had to go from place to place 
in search of some person or thing, he is said to have had 
" a fine dance'"* after him or it. 


DANDRIL. (i) A knock, a blow. 

(2) A curved stick with which hockey is played. 

DANG IT, interjec.A form of oath used by silly people who 
think to escape sin by changing the final letters of damn. 

DANGLE. (i) To loiter. 

(2) To make promiscuous love. 

He's alus efter th' lasses. If a broomstick bed a head an' sum petti- 
coats on, he'd be danglin' aboot it. 

DANT (dant), v. To daunt. 

He was swearin' shockin' fer onybody t' hear, till a thunner-clap cum 
an 1 then he seam'd clear danted. 

" Percussit mihi animum. It smote me to the heart ; it danted me." 
Bernard, Terence, p. 12. 

DAR (dar), v. To dare. 

Don't dar me to it ; when I'm mad I dar do oht. 

DARK, adj. (i) A secret. 

He keeps it very dark, noabody knaws how things is, barrin" him an' 
his lawyer. 

(2) Wicked. 

Thaay saay ther's been sum dark deeds dun theare afooretime. 

DARK BUSINESS. Some very wicked action. 

It was a dark &J 
knew, but him as 

It was a dark business. How the poor lass caame by her end noabody 
is was tried for it did not do the deed. 

DARKEN THE DOOR." Niver darken my doors ony moore," 
i.e., never come inside my house again. The strongest 
possible form of letting another know that he is unwelcome. 

DARKLINS. Twilight. 

DARKLINS, adv. Darkly. 

I could nobut darklins mak oot what he meant ; for he's hed a fit an' 
talks real queer. 

DAR N'T, DARS N'T. Dare not. See DAR. 

DARTY, DATY, adj. Dirty. 

DASH. The internal machinery of a churn. 

DASH, v. To thwart, to destroy. 

This dashes all the hoapes I've hed o' gettin that job. 

" Out, alas! the matter is dasht." Bernard, Terence, p. 210. 

DASH, DASHBOARD. The splashboard of a carriage. 


DASHT, pp. (i) Shy, timid, as a dog is when beaten. 
(2) " Well, I'll be dasht," a mild form of imprecation. 

DATELESS, rt^'. Stupid, having the faculties failing through 

DAUB AND STOWER.~-The same as STUD AND MUD, q.v. 

DAUBER. A builder with DAUB AND STOWER. The word is 
perhaps obsolete, but it has given rise to a not uncommon 

DAUBING. Plastering with mud or clay. 

"The seid barn is ruinous in wallying as in dawbyng and ground 
sillyng." Survey of Priory of S ha dwell, co. Staff., temp. Hen. viij., i:\Mon. 
Angl., vol. iii., p. 191. 

DAUBY, adj. Dirty. 

What a dauby bairn thoo art. 

DAUL, v. a. To weary. 

If thoo walks all th' waays fra here to Lincoln an' by agean thoo' 11 
daul thy sen aboon a bit, I knaw. 

DAVID. The notice-board that used to be fixed on the singing 
gallery in churches, to shew what psalm was to be sung. 
It sometimes bore a representation of David with his harp. 

DAVY. An affidavit. 

I'll tak my davy on it ivery thod wod he says is a lee. 

DAW. A chattering fool. 

What's good o' listenin' to a daw like that. When I fall oot it's wi' 
men, not wi' maggits. 

" And with that he turned to the seid John Copyldyke and said 
tho [u art] a fool and a da we, and the said John Copyldyke answered, 
dawe of thy hede." Star Chamber Proceedings, 1533, in Pro. Soc. Ant., 
ij. series, vol. iv., p. 321. 

DAWDLES. An idle person. 

What a dawdles thoo art sewerly. 

DAWKED OUT, #>. Dressed in slovenly finery. 

She dawked hersen cot aboon a bit, just like them herse-riding 

DAWKIN. A simpleton. 

DAWKY. Over-dressed. 

Well, that lass duz look dawhy ; why see, she's a green bonnit, a 
violet raerina gcon, an' yalla' ribbins on, the dear-y me. 


DAVER, v. To tremble. 

DAY. " The lost days " are the eleven days which were omitted 
when the new style was introduced in 1752. The day 
following Wednesday the 2nd of September of that year 
being called Thursday the i4th. (Bond's Handy-book of 
Rules for Verifying Dates, p. 10.) Many persons have not 
yet forgiven those who made the change, as it has thrown, 
say they, all the fairs in the country wrong. Persons who 
were born before 1752 were never weary of denouncing 
those who had in their opinion robbed them of their 

DAY-MAN. A labourer hired from day to day, not a regular 

DAYSMAN. An arbitrator. One who settled the amount of 
work each man in a gang of bankers ought to do, and how 
much of the sum paid for the whole " tak " his share should 
be. I myself have never heard the word used, and it may 
possibly now be obsolete ; but it was in common use both 
in the Isle of Axholme and on the east side of the Trent, 
at least as late as the year 1825. In Brayley's Graphic 
Illustrator, 1834, P- J 4 (quoted in Notes and Queries, j. series, 
vol. j., p. 267), we are told that " A dais-man is still a 
popular term for an arbitrator in the North." 

" Master Elles & Master Tryll was chossen daysmen to make anend of 
a matter betwene Rye. Sowthey & Robt. Tyndley." Document, 1553, 
in Jupp's Hist, Ace. of Comp. of Carpenters cf London, p. 139. 

"Neither is there any dayes-man betwixt vs that might lay his- hand 
vpon vs both." Bible, authorised version, 1634, J ob ix -. 33- 
The Geneva version, 4*0., 1615, here reads " Vmpire." 

"What art thou 

That mak'st thyselfe his dayesman, to prolong 
The vengeaunce prest ?" 

Spencer, Faerie Queue, ij., viij., xxviij. 

" In Switzerland .... they had some common arbitrators, or 
dayesmen, in every town." Burton, Anat. Mel., vj. ed., p. 50. 

" They have made me vmpire and dates-man betwixt them." Bernard, 
Terence, p. 204. 

DAY-WORK. Work done by the day as distinguished from 
" taken work." 

DAZED, ph. t. SLndpt.-(i) Dazzled. 
The lightnin' clear daazed me. 

(2) Astonished, confused. 

I thoht heM been dead years, soa when he cum up to me I felt clear 
daazed an' couldn't speitk. 


DEAD (de-h'd). (i) Dead. 

Billy's dead an' th' ohd man's e' Mericay. 

(2) Death. 

Them foaks as starved th' bairn to dead at Gaainsb'r bed fifteen year 
for it. I wish thaay'd hing'd 'em boath. 

"That pey receyue in forme of bred, 
Hyt ys goddes body pat soffered ded." 

My re, Instruc. for Parish Priests 
(E.E. T. S.), 8. 

DEAD AGE AN. Violently opposed to. 

She's a good soort o' woman, but a Papist, an' dead agean th 1 

DEAD AS A DOOR-NAIL. -Quite dead. The author of 
Piers Plowman tells us 

41 pat Fey withouten fait is febelore pen nou3t 
And ded as a dore-nail." 

Text A., i., 161. 
Ct. Will ofPalerne, 11. 628, 3396, ii., Henry VI., Act iv., sc. x. 

DEAD HEDGE. A fence made of dead material, commonly 
thorns, sometimes willows. 

DEAD HERSE. "Working the dead-herse" is taking goods 
for work done in payment of money ; working to pay off a 
debt to the person who employs you. 

DEAD- LICE. Vermin which sometimes appear on a corpse, 
or on the dead body of one of the lower animals. 

Th' ohd poany goas as if he'd th 1 dead-lice crohlin' oot on him. 

DEAD-LIFT. When a man puts out all his strength to do 
anything he is said to do it at the dead-lift, hence anything 
of very great hardship is a dead-lift. 

DEAD LOCK. A lock the key of which is lost. 
" Key to dead lock, iod. " Ironmonger's Bill, 1887. 

DEADLY (di-h'dli), adj. and adc. A strong superlative. 

He's a deadly rogue. 
This is deadly strong tea. 

DEAD MAN'S FINGERS. A part of a crab, which is held 
to be unfit for food. 

DEAD NETTLE. The stingless nettle. 

DEAD ON, DEAD UPON. Very energetic about or against. 
He's dead on been a injun driver, though I've said a deal to to'n him 
fra' it. 
Th' young Squire's dead upo' th' poulchers. 


DEAD RIPE. Very ripe. 

Them plums is dead ripe, thaay mun be gether'd to daay or the wasps 
'11 hev ivery one. 

DEAD-STARVED. To be so cold as to have lost the use of 
one's limbs. 

I was that dead-starved cumin' hoam fra' Brigg on Christmas Eave 
'at I hardly kna.w'd wheare I was. 

DEAD-WALL. A wall without any doors or windows in it. 
DEAF (di-h'f), #. Blighted, empty. 

DEAF-EARS. (i) Blighted ears of corn that have no grain 
in them. 

(2) The auricles of the heart. 

DEAF-EGG. An unfertilized egg. 

It's to noa good settin' thease here duck eggs, thaay'll all be deaf. 
G. T., BottesfoYd, 1880. 

DEAF-NETTLE. The stingless nettle. 
Deffe nettylle. Archangelus, Prompt. Parv. 

DEAF-NUT. A nut without a kernel. 
DEAF-PAP. A cow's pap that will not give milk. 

DEAL. Much, a great quantity. 

He's taa'en a deal o 1 doctor's stuff, bud he's noa better. 
You mun gie me a deal o' puddin' ; I'm that hungry I could eat a 
hoss wi' his saddle on. 

" The fair Diana, whom the amorous swains, 
Had strove to vanquish with a deal of pains." 

Roxburghe Ballads, v. vi., p. 58. 

" So j>at j>e meste del of heymen ]>at in England be)>, 
Be|> yicome of ]>e Normans." 

Rob. of Glouc., Chronicle Ed., W, A. Wright, 
1. 7582. 

DEAL, v. To distribute. 

Ther' is them as hes gotten it to saay 'at he duz n't deal oot the 
doiile fairly. 

DEAL DIFFERENT TO. Very different from. 

He's a deal different to what he ewsed to be afoore he caame to knaw 
that offil lass. 

DEAL OF DOING." It taks a deal of doiri," that is, it is a 
tedious or laborious process. 


DEAR HAND. A tradesman who has not credit with those 
of whom he purchases his wares, but who has to buy them 
in small quantities just when he wants them, is said to buy 
at the dear hand. 

DEARY, adj. Very small. 

What deary little apples ! Thaay 're not noa bigger then plums. 
I'll hev a deary sup moore tea, if ye please. 

DEARY ME, DEARY ME TO DAY, interj.An expression 
of surprise. 

Deary me, I niver can expect th 1 poiist bein' so laate as it alus is. 
Why, deary me to daay it raains agean. 

DEATH LAX. The diarrhrea which is premonitory of death. 
We knew o' Thursda' he couldn't last long ; he'd th' death lax so bad. 


DEATH'S DOOR. (i) To be at death's door is to be very near 

(2) The door of a church through which corpses are commonly 
carried is called death's door. 

" The north or Death's door of a church." Arch^ologia, vol. ij., p. 49. 

DEE. To die. 

When R. . . . E. . . was a yung man an' hed his health, he 
ewst for to saay he should n't think noht at all o* deein\ an' 'at when 
he was dead he should be dun wi', but noo he's gotten th' rewmatics 
he says he's straange an' scar'd when he thinks he must cum to dee at 
last. September i, 1880. 

DEEK. A dyke. 

DEEP, adj. Cunning. " As deep as a well," " As deep as 
Wilkes," " As deep as Garrick," are common expressions. 

DEEPNESS. (i) Depth. 

Noane o' them wellsat th 1 Moors is moore then nine or ten foot e' deepness. 
(2) Cunning. 

For deepness he passes ony body I iver heard tell on. 

DELF, DELFT. (i) A drain that has been delved (not a 
natural river), a pond, clay-pit, railway cutting, or any 
other large hole that has been delved out. 

" For setting fences and cutting a del/, 14 days, 2 2- "Bottesford 
Moors Accounts, 1812. 

" Some lesser delfts, the fountain's bottom sounding, 
Draw out the baser streams." 

Phineas Fletcher, Purple- Island, ed. 1816, iij., 13. 

(2) A cut at the back of an embankment, whence the earth 
has been obtained for forming the bank. 

(3) Delft-wart. 


DELF CASE. A rack for holding plates and dishes. 
DELIGHTSOME. Delightful. 

I went on a trip wi' oor Robbud to Scarborough ; it is a deliglitsum 
plaace. Thaay've a hoose theare wheare ther' 's all th' fishes e' th' 
wo'ld e' tubs maade o 1 glass ; except whaales, an' them gret hewge soort 
o' things. Hannah Todd, Bottesford. 

DEM, n. and v. A dam, to dam. 

I'd as soon try to dem Trent up wi' a dish-cloot. 
Theare hed niver no reight to be a dem e' Car Dyke. 

DEMMIC, DEMMUC. (i) An epidemic. 

(2) A whitlow or thecal abscess. 

(3) The potatoe blight. 

DEMMUC, r. To suffer from the potatoe blight. 

His faather went off in a decline like, an' onybody can see 'at he 
teks efter him. He's caaingin 1 awaay like a demmiick't taatie. 

DENT. A dint. 
DENT, v. To dint. 

DENTER. An indenture. 

Please, sir, we've cum'd to ax you to fill up thease denters atween me 
an' my 'prentis'. 

DEPART, v.To die. 

It was a sore job ; not one o' his bairns was nigh him .when he 
departed, it came soa sudden. 

" All false executores )>at maken false testamentes and despose the 
goodes of him Jjat is dede oj>er wise than his will was at his 
departyng." Myrc, Instruc. for Parish Priests, pp. 23, 83 (1502-3). 

" John Vavasour of Newton is departed to the mercy of God, sence 
ye departed from home." Plumpton Corresp., p. 175 (1566). 

" One alter stone sold to William Thixton, and he caused yt to be 
laideon his grave when he departed," 1566. Peacock, Line. Ch. Furniture, 
p. 121. 

" Another childe beyond the Rhine, saw a grave opened & upon the 
sight of a carcase, was so troubled in minde, that she could not be 
comforted, but a little after departed, and was buried by it." Rob. 
Burton, Anatomy of Melancholy, 6th Ed., 1652, p. 147. In the 2nd Ed., 
1624, p. 131, the word died is used. 


DESARVE, v. Deserve. 

" He desarves moore then he'll get, whativer th' justices gives him." 

DESPUT. Desperate, used as an adverb. 

" It's a desp'tt't'-tohd daay ; I've been desj'u't badly." 


DEVIL'S-BIT. (i.) Scabiosa snccisa, the root of which ends 
abruptly as if bitten off. 

(2.) A three-penny piece. So called because proud people 
will not give copper at collections, and therefore provide 
themselves with the smallest silver coin which is current. 

DEVIL'S COACH-HORSE. The common black cocktail, 
Ocypus olens. 

DEVIL'S DUNG. Assafoetida. 

DEVIL'S TOE NAIL. The Milncr's Thumb, q.v. 

DEWLISH, ^'. Low-spirited, sad, melancholy. Isle of 
Axholme. See DOWLY. 

DEW-RATE, pp. Said of flax which is rated (see RATE) on 
the ground, not by steeping in water. 

DIACLUM. Diachylon plaster. 
DIB. A child's pinafore. 

DIBBLE, v. To make conical holes in the ground for receiving 
seeds dropped by the hand. 

I reckon dibblin' is far afoore barra'-drillin 1 for beans. 
A woman employed .... dibbling beans. Gentleman's Mag., 
1799, vol. i., p. 392. 

DIBBLER. (i) An iron instrument by which the holes are 
made when seeds are dibbled. 

(2) A man who makes dibble holes. 

DICE. A kind of slaty clay found in the Isle of Axholme. 

" The slaty, though finer grained, is not so easily disintigrated. The 
workmen sometimes call it dice, probably from its breaking, on exposure 
to the air and moisture, into cubizoidal pieces. Will. Peck : Ace. of 
Isle of Axholme, p. 14." 

DICK ASS. A male ass, but often applied to the female also, 
whose proper designation is Jin Ass. 

DICK'S HAT BAND. It's as queer as Dick's hat band, that 
went nine times roond an' would not tie," said of any 
person or thing which it is well-nigh impossible to manage. 
Common in the greater part of England. 


DICKY. (i) The loose front of a shirt. 
(2) A louse. 

DICKY-BO'9. (i) A child's name for a bird. 

(2) A louse. 

I'm sure, bairn, thoo's gotten dicky -bo' ds e' thy head. 

DIFFER, v. To quarrel. 


DIG. (i) An instrument used for stubbing up loots, more 
commonly called a stub-dig. " As straight as a dig" is a 
common proverbial expression. 

(2) The trench made in digging out rabbits. 

DIG, v. To drive in ; used in regard of driving knowledge into 
the head of a stupid person. 

I've tell'd the oher an 1 oher agean, an' I can't dig it into the. 

DIGHT UP. (i) To repair; to put in order. 

I mun hev theaseyaates an' stohps dighted up afoore th' steward cums, 
or mebbe he'll be sayin' summuts. 

(2) To be clogged up. 

That sink-hoale's fairly dighted up wi' muck ; watter weant run 
doon it. 

DILL. Anethuni Graveolens. 

" Vervain and Dill, 

Hinder witches of their will." 
" Trefoil, vervain, John's wort and Dill, 

Hinder witches of their will." 

DILL, v. To soothe, to ease pain. 

We fomented him wi 1 lodlum to dill his paain. 

DILLY. A vehicle used for removing manure. 
DIMES, 5. //.Tithes (obsolete) ; used by Wyclif. 

DING. A blow. 

I'll fetch the a ding oher thy head if ta ses anuther wo'd. 


DING, v., DUNG,pt. t.(i) To strike, to dash down. 

Ding them wedges in, that '11 rive her ; said to a man splitting ash- 
tree roots for fire- wood. 

(2) To talk too much on one subject ; to babble. 

Doan't ding so bairn. 

(3) To surpass. 

Well, this telegraphin' dings all waays o' gooin 1 on I've heard tell on. 

(4) To force knowledge into the head of a stupid person. 

DINGLE, v. To tingle. 

I've nettled my sen an' my fingers dingles unbearable. 

DIP. A liquid in which sheep are dipped to kill fags and 

DIP-NET. A small fishing-net attached to a willow rod bent 
into a circle, and affixed to a long handle. 

DIP O' TH' KIT. A rustic game (obsolescent). 

DIRT-PIES. (i) Imitations of pies made by children out of 
clay or road dirt. 

I will learn to ride, fence, vault, and make fortifications in dirt-pies. 
Tho. Otway, The Atheist, Act v., sc. i. 

(2) A person who has been much humiliated is said to have 
eaten dirt-pie. 

DIRTY, adj.-(i) Mean, dishonest. 

To ax for anuther man's farm oher his head is as do'ty an action as 
any man can do, let him try his best. 

(2) Rainy. 

We're hevin' straange do'ty weather this harvist. 

DISCHARGE. A notice to quit. 

DISCHARGE, v. To forbid. 

I discharge you fra iver speakin' to oor 'Melia ony moore. 

Noo, mind my lass, you're discharged fra readin' them Famla' Heralds 
ony moore ; if 'ta wants to read ther's thy muther Bible an' a hymn 
book up ov th' parlour taable for the. 

DISGEST, i\ To digest. 

DISHBINK. A rack in which to place dishes and plates. 

DISH-CLOOT. A dish-cloth. 

" Go thy waays or I'll pin a dish-cloot to thy tail " is not unfrequently 
said to men and boys who interfere in the kitchen. 


DISHED, pp. Cheated, disappointed. 
" A consummation greatly wish'd 
By nymphs who have been foully dish'd. 

Nineteenth Cent., Abellard and Heloisa, 1819, p. 10. 

DISJECTED, //.Dejected. 

DISLOCATED. Thrown off anything. 

I said I hoaped 'at Mr. Fooler didn't goa a ridin 1 on one o' them two- 
whealed things [a bicycle], for if he did he'd kill his sen ; and Alice 
she says "Noa, but he's been thrawn off'n his 'at hes three wheals." 
Why, I says, I thoht 'at noabody could be dislocaated off on them theare 

DISMALS. A fit of melancholy. 

Theare's noht matter wi' her, she's nobut gotten th 1 dismals. 

DISMIT, //.Dismissed. 
DISPRAISE. -Evil words, slander. 

DITCHWATER. " As dead as ditchwatter." ''As dull as 
ditchwatter." Said of something utterly tasteless, vapid, or 
stupid. There seems to be a contrast intended between 
the almost stagnant water of ditches and the living water 
of running streams or bubbling springs. 

DITHER, v. To shake with cold, to quiver, to tremble. 
Look muther how that jelly dithers when I shak th' taable. 
We can't get noa good by goin' to chech when we're ditherin an' 
shakin' all th' time. 

" Hark ! started are some lonely strains; 

The robin-bird is urg'd to song ; 
Of chilly evenings he complains, 

And dithering droops his ruffled wing." 

John Clare, Autumn. 

AN'-POP, DITHERUM-SHAK. Trembling with cold, 
trembling like a jelly. 

I was all o' a dit/ierum-shak like a hot egg-puddin'. 

DITHERS, DITHERUMS. Shaking palsy; paralysis agitans. 

DIVIL. The devil. Old-fashioned people at the end of the 
last century used to make it a matter of conscience when 
they read Holy Scripture, or talked on religious subjects, 
to speak of the devil ; but when they had occasion to use 
the word in oaths or in talk of a lighter sort, they were 
careful to say Divil. 

" Some sinners lab'ring to be civil 
Politely call the devil, divil" 

John Brown, Psyche, 1818, p. 189. 

Proverb: "What's gotten o' th' divil' s back goas oot under his 
belly ;" that is what is gotten wrongfully soon passes away. 


DIVILMENT. Mischief, confusion. 

DIX'NERY. A dictionary. 

DIZEN (deiz-n). A woman dressed in slovenly finery. 

DO (doo),pl. DOS (doas). A doing. 

" This is a poor do," signifies that something has turned out much less 
successfully than was hoped for. "A grand do " means that the success 
was great. 

Thaay tell me chech foaks hed a straange grand do at Gainsb'r when th 1 
bishop cum'd fra Lincoln ; bud I doant hohd wi' such like carryin's on 
mysen, what business hes clargymen, as hed oht to knaw better, 
a dressin' ther'sens oot like a lot o' idled plew-jags. 

DO, v. (i) To grow, to increase, to improve. 

Them tonups hev a lot to do yet, squire, afoore thaay 're a crop. 
(2) A person is said to " hev ta'en it to do " when he does 
anything with very great earnestness or determination. 

DOABLE. Practicable. 

It's liks gooin 1 to th' moon it's not doable no how. 
If he's taa'en it under hand, he'll do it if it's doable. 

DO AWAY WITH, v. To destroy. 

Th' screan was dun awaay with in Bottesford Chech, by Dr. Bayley. 
To do away with oneself is to commit suicide. 

DOBBIN. An old horse. 

He's worth noht in a waay o' speakin', a real dobbin. 

DOCK, v. To cut off. To dock sheep is to cut off the locks of 
dirty wool from them. Cutting foals' or lambs' tails is docking 
them. The act of topping a clipped hedge is called docking. 

DOCKIN. Various species oiRumex. 

" The reeds they grew long i' the warp by the bank, 
An' the dockins an' mandraakes an' humlocks soa rank." 

Ralf. Skirlaugh, vol. iii., p. 240. 

DOCTOR. Anyone who practises medicine or surgery, 
whether he be legally qualified or not. A child in 
Winterton school being asked what she meant by " false 
doctrine," replied, " curin' foaks badly." 

DOCTOR'S SHOP. A surgery. A little girl being asked in 
the Kirton-in-Lindsey Sunday School what kind of a place 
the temple was, replied, " A doctor's shop, please m'm." 
On investigation it turned out that she had recently heard 
read the narrative of our Lord being found " in the temple,' ' 
sitting in the midst of the doctors (St. Luke, ch. ii., v. 46), 
and had understood the doctors there mentioned to have 
been persons who practised medicine. 


1 OCTOR'S STUFF. Medicine. 

I've taa'en as much doctor's stuff e' my time, what drink an' w,hat 
pills, as wo'd fill Bill Summer's stoan-pit up levil by th' grund awaay. 

DODIPOLL (dod-ipoal). A blockhead. 

" The filthy family of doting dodypoles, priests, and unlearned lawyers." 
John Bale, Image of both Churches (Parker Soc.), p. 429. 

DOFF AND DON. Having two suits of clothes, one off and 
the other on. 

DO FOR, v. To attend upon, to wait upon. 

She duzn't keap a lass, but ther's an ohd woman cums in an' duz for 
her two or three times a weak. 

DOG. (i) Used as a form of comparison. 
As tired as a dog. 
As hungry as a dog. 
As stalled as a dog. 
As laame as a dog. 
As fierce as a dog. 
As mad as a dog. 
As mucky as a dog. 
As howerly as a dog. 
As sick as a dog. 

(2) Proverbs. 

" Every dog has his day and bitch her afternoons." Cf. Hamlet, Act 
v., sc. i. 
As pleased as a dog with two tails. 

DOG, v. (i) To chase cattle with dogs. 

If mares an' foals was well dogged when thaay get into toon streats 
ther wod n't be soa many bairns kick'd to dead as ther is. 

William Elvysh was fined at the Bottesford Manor Court in 1591, 
for "dogging beast vicinorum super communem pasturam." 

"Their (sheep) being over-heated in being . . . dogged to their 
confinement." Th. Stone, View of Agric. of Line., 1794, p. 62. 

(2) To tease. 

I'm omust dogg'd to dead wi' him, he cums clartin' about ivery day as 
ther' is. 

DOG ABOUT, v. To ill-treat, "to drive from pillar to post." 

DOG CHEAP, adj. Very cheap. 

He boht Greenhoe dog cheap, not moore then tho'tesn poond an aacre. 
" Grapes were dog cheap" N. Bailey, Colloquies of Erasmus, 1725, p. 531. 

DOG DAISY. The common daisy. 

DOG-LEG. A carpenter's tool. A kind of claw used for 
holding a piece of wood firmly on a bench. " As crookled 
as a dog-le%," is a common form of comparison. It probably 
refers to this instrument, not to the leg of the animal. 

DOG-LEG-STAIR-CASE. A stair with angular turns in it, 


DOGMOUTH, DOGMOOTH. The garden snapdragon. 

Clergyman : " Can you tell me anything else that God made ? " 
Boy aged six: " Yes, sir, Marygohds, Dogmooths, an 1 Lad-luv-lass." 

DOG-POOR. Very poor. 
DOG ROSE. The wild rose. 

DOG-SHELF. Part of the sole, in the furrow, left in 
ploughing, between two lands. 

DOG'S-NOSE. A cordial drink very popular in the beginning 
of this century. 

" He is not certain whether he did not twice a week, for twenty years, 
taste dog's-nose, which your committee find, upon enquiry, to be com- 
pounded of warm porter, moist sugar, gin. and nutmeg (a groan, and 'so it 
is ! ' from an elderly female)." Dickens, Pickwick Papers, ch. xxxiij. 

DOG TEETH. The large teeth of a horse. 

"The dog teeth or tusks." Vegetius Renatus, Of the Distempers of Horses, 
1748, p. 48. 

DOG TIRED. Very tired. 

DOG TRICK. A mischievous, mean, or unworthy action. 

DOG-WHIPPER. Till about sixty years ago almost every 
church had an official so named whose duty it was to drive 
dogs out of the church. In the reign of Queen Elizabeth, 
date not given, William Dobson performed that office at 
Kirton-in-Lindsey. In 1658 a charge of 2s. for dogs whipping 
occurs, and in 1817 Robert Robinson charges 6s. 8d. for 
performing the like office. I have not been able to trace it 
further in that parish. In a plan of the seats in Alkborough 
Church, made in 1781, a pew near the south door is marked 
" the dog-wipper." In Northorpe Church, until about seventy 
years ago, there was a small pew on the south side, just 
within the chancel arch, known as the Hall Dog-Pew 
in which the dogs that followed the author's grandfather 
and family to Church were imprisoned during Divine 
Service. A dog-iuhippey is still appointed at Ecclesfield, near 
Sheffield ; there he is called the ^-noper". Eastwood, 
Hist. Ecchsfield, p. 219. 

The Cartmel Church Accounts for 1641, contain an entry of a 

payment of four shillings, for " keepinge doogs furth of Churche one 

year." Stockdale, Annals of Cartmell, p. 64. 

In The Injunctions . . . of Richard Barnes, Bishop of Durham 

(Surtees Soc.), under the year 1579, it is recorded that at Branspeth, 

Rouland Bell " will not suffer his doge to be whipped out of the Church 


in tine of devine service, but kepithe him uppe in his armes, and 
gevithe frowarde words," p. 122. Cf. Notes and Queries, v. series, vol. 
iv., p. 167. Archtfologica, vol. xli., p. 365, xlv., pp. 180, 182. H. 
Edwards, Coll. of Old Eng. Customs, pp. 221, 222. Cox and Hope, Citron, 
of All Saints, Derby, p. 45. Margerison, Reg. of Par. Church, of 
Calverley, vol. ii., p. 18. 

DOHTER, Daughter. 

DOING ON. Doing. 

I can do as well agean if I nobbut knaw what I'm djin' on. 

DOINGS, s. pi. Food and drink ; festivities. 

It was a shabby funeral, ther' was straange poor doins'. 

DOIT. A jot, a tittle. 

I doant care a doit for him. 

DOLE, v. To distribute a dole. 

DOLLOP. A large quantity. 

Ther's a huge dollop o' soot cum'd doon th' hoose chimla'. 

DOLLUPS. An untidy woman. 

She's as offil a dollups. as ony man could leet on at wean Tindaale 
Bank an' Garthrup Shore. 

DOLLY. A machine for washing clothes. 
DOLLYING. Washing clothes in a dolly. 

DO MEN T (document). A rejoicing, a festivity, or other 
exciting matter. Sometimes, though rarely, used when 
the cause is a painful one. 

Ther'll be a fine doment when yung .... cums at aage. 

Thaay kicked up no end on a doment 'cos thaay thoht as . .' . . 
was lost, when he'd nobut missed his traain. 

I thoht when I heard as Mr warn't cumin' back, 'at 

ther' wo'd n't be noa early Sunda' mornin' doment noa moore. The 
doment here mentioned was the early celebration. 

DONE, v. (i) Put. 

Wheare hes ta dun it ? I've been lookin' high an' low for it. 

(2) Got into trouble or difficulty. 

Theare, you've dun it finely noo ; it'll be a justice job this time. 

(3) Beaten, overcome. 

" Go at it, chaps, I'm dun t " said by a wounded man in a row. 

DONE DOWN, pp. Overcooked. 

Them chickens is so dun doon thaay're not wo'th eatin'. 

DONE TO. Put. 

I can't tell wheare th' bairn hes dun his hat to. 


DONE UP. Wearied, exhausted. 

I'd hed noht to eat all daay, an' was fairly dun up when I got into th' 

DO NOHT. An idle person. 

She's a real idled do noht; like a fine laady, can't dress hersen wi'oot 

DON'T OUGHT. Ought not. 

You dodii't ought to read newspaapers upo 1 Sunda's. 

DON'T THINK. Do not think. Used affirmatively after a 

He'll niver do noa moore good to noabody I dodii't think. 

DON'T WANT. Should not. 

You dodn't want to wear yer Sunda' cloas iv'ry daay. 

DOOK. A handful. It seems only to be used of thatch, straw, 
or stubble. 

If ther's a witch ony wheare aboot an' ye'r scar'd 'at she'll oherlook 
ye, you mun goa an' pull a dook o' thack oot 'n her hoose eavins, an 1 
bo'n it, then she can't do noht to ye. Hannah Todd, Bottesford, 
September 2, 1884. 

DOOM. A dome. 

DOOM, v. To make a dome. 

A well is best to be doom'd oher with brick, leavin 1 a man-hoale vvi" a 
flag oher it. 



" After taking a deliberate peep at Scott out by the edge of the door- 
cheek." Lockhart, Life of Scott, chap. vi. 

" Strike the lintell and the doore-cheekes with blood." Exodus, chap, 
xii., v, 22, Geneva, Version. 

" The lining of the great door -cheeks were, although plain work, 
accounted as wainscot." Will. Blnndell, Crossby Records, p. 200. 

I shall alus remember Robert Newton preachin' e' oor chapil, for I 
fetch'd my head that neet such an a clink up o' th' door-jaw it aached 
for a munth efter. Biirringkam, 1850. 

DOOR-SILL. Door-threshold. 

DOOR-SLOT. A bar of a door which, when not in use, slips 
into a horizontal hole in the wall. 

" Taking out his well-known walking cudgel from its nook beside the 
door-slot. 11 Yorkshire Mag., May, 1873, p. 378. 

DOOR-STEAD. Door-way. 
DOOR-STEP. Threshold, 


DOOR-STONE. The large stone commonly placed at the 
entrance of an outer door ; it is often the whole, or a 
part of an old mill-stone. It was the custom to leave hollow 
spaces under door-stones which were filled with broken bits 
of iron for the sake of keeping off witches. 

BOOT. A doubt. 

DOOT, v.(i) To doubt. 

I doot I shan't find it ony moore. I've look'd high and low, I hev, 
bud it's to noa ewse. 

(2) To fear. 

I doot that bull very much, he'll be stickin' sumbody afoore thaay'll 
tak him oot o' th' Beaucliff cloase. Northorpe, 1848. 

" The which people were greatly doubted in battaile or warre, for 
they were without pyte, and dydde eate raw fleshe like dogges." Arthur 
of Little Britain, ed. 1814, p. 41. 

DOOTSOME. Doubtful. 

I'm not clear sewer, but I'm very dootsum aboot it. 
DO OUT, v. (i) To wash out, rub out, obliterate. 

It's seventy year sin a gell brok" a blood-vessel \vi' dancin' e' Ketton 
Coort Hoose, an' thaay've niver been aable to do oot th' marks o' th' 
blood fra that daay to this. 

(2) To cleanse a stable or cow shed. 

(3) To cheat. 

He's dun him oot o' five pund. 

'DOPT, v. To adopt. 

DORCASSED. Dressed in absurd finery. 

She was dorcassed oot last Brigg Stattus just for all th' warld like a 
Hull street -walker. 

DORN. Down. The seed of the thistle and dandelion. 

Them Butterwick farmers lets ther land graw ram full o' thistles, an' 
when a west wind cums all th' dorn blaws up o' my land, an' ivery bit 
on it graws. 

DO'ST'A. Durst thou. 

Do'st'a send little lad all waay to Lunnun wi' hissen. 

DO'T. Dirt. 

DOT. A little child. 

It's a dear little dot, it is. 

DOT AN' GO ONE. A lame person. 

" He rose with the sun, limping dot and go one." Ingoldsby Legends, St. 



DO THAT, i.e., do so. A meaningless addition to a sentence 
for the sake of emphasis. 

I'm very fond o' eggs an' baacon ; I like 'em, I do that. 

DO TO DEAD, v. To kill. 

Thaay did th' poor bairn to dead by inches. 

' Done to death by slanderous tongues was the hero that here lies." 
Much Ado About Nothing, act v., sc. in. 

" Onely let her abstaine from cruelty, 
And doe me not before my time to dy." 

Spencer, Sonnet xlij. 

DOTTEREL. A dotard, a blockhead. 

" Why, then .... do you mocke me ye dotrells, saying like 
children, ' I will not, I will, I will, I will not.' " Bernard, Terence, p. 423. 

DOTY, adj. Dirty. 

DOUBLE. A duplicate. 

She's the very duble o' her sister. 

This here's my lease, an' th' Squire hes th' dubbk on it. 

DOUBLE, v. (i) To turn about as a hare does when pursued 

by dogs. 
(2) To prevaricate. 

DOUBLE-BEER, DOUBLE ALE. Very strong beer. 

" Ij. stonds of dobyll ale, vjs. viijd. 1560. E. B. Jupp, Hist. Comp. 
Carpenters, London, p. 201. 

DOUBLE-RIBBED. With child (obsolescent). 

" Great with childe she is by him ; she is now double-ribbed." Bernard, 
Terence, p. 18. 

DOUBLE-TONGUED, adj. Lying, deceitful. 

DO UP. To fasten up. 

Do up Nell, Sam, she'll be worrying them hens. 

DOUT, v. (lit, do out). To extinguish a candle. 
DOUTER. An extinguisher. 

DOWDY. An ill-dressed woman; a woman dressed in old- 
fashioned clothes. 

" You see what a ragged condition I am ; so he lets me go like a 
dowdy." N. Bailey, Colloquies of Erasmus, 1725, p. 159. 

DOWEL (dou-el). (i) A copper or iron pin used for fastening 
two pieces of stone together by making a hole in each and 
inserting the dowel therein, 

(2) A jack-to wek 


DOWEL, v. (i) To fasten two pieces of stone together by a 

('2) Futuo. 

DOWK (douk), v. (i) To duck, to drench with water. 
(2) To hang downwards. 

DOWK ARSE. A breed of oxen whose spines slant much 
towards the tail. 

DOWLY, DOWLISH (douli), adj. Weak, wearied, low- 
spirited, sad, melancholy. 

I feel real dowly ; I've not hed no sleiip for two neets. 
I hed a terrible dowly time on it. 

DOWN, adj. (i) 111. 

He's doon agean wi' th' feaver. 

(2) In child-bed. 

It's just ten year sin 1 , for I remember it was when my missis was 
doon wi' Martha. 

(3) Dull, languid, in low spirits. 

I met Skinner upo' th' Brumby Road yisterdaay, an 1 he was doon 
aboot th' Scotton Common enclosure. March 30, 1878. 

(4) Used to add additional force to the sentence, and often 
preceded by " real." 

You're a real doon good hand -wi" yer tung. It wo'ds ud addle waages 
you'd be best man at a job atwixt Barton, Watter-side, an' Lincoln. 

She's gettin' aaged, but she's not a doon ohd woman yit. February 
12, 1880. 

DOWNCOMELY, adj. Ruinous. 

My hoose is a doonciimly ohd plaace. Burton-on-Stather, 2ist August, 

DOWNFALL. (i) Rain, snow. 

There'll be doonfall afoore long ; all th' baacon's ton'd as weet as 

(2) Bad luck, misfortune. 

(3) A disease in cows. 

DOW r NFALLY. Ruinous. 

DOWN-LIGGIN. (i) Lying down. 

Fra doon-liggin' to up-risin' I scarcelins cloas'd my ees, I've been that 
pestered wi' faace-aache. 

(2) A lying-in, a confinement. 
DOWN-POUR, A heavy fall of rain. 


DOWN TO TH' GROUND. Quite, entirely. 

To be " suited doon to th' grund" means that entire satisfaction has 
been given. 

To be " called doon to th' grund " means that all possible evil things 
have been said. 

DOWSABELL.- A female Christian name. 
A variety of Dukibella. Winterton Par. Reg. 

DOWSE, v. To drench with water. 

DOXY. A slovenly girl or woman, not necessarily one of bad 
repute. See Th. Otway, The Atheist, act iii., sc. i. 

DOZZEL (doz-1). (i) A staff or pole, which is stuck into the 
top of a stack, to which the thatch is bound. It is 
sometimes gaudily painted and surmounted by a weather- 
cock in the form of a fish, bird, fox, or man. 

(2) A prim, stiff-looking person ; a person oddly dressed. 
DRAB, v. To associate with harlots. 
DRABBLED, adj. Muddy, wet. 
DRABBLE-TAIL. A slattern. 
DRAD, //.Dreaded. 

DRAFF. (i) The grains of the malt left after brewing. 
(2) Dregs, rubbish. 

DRAG (i) An agricultural implement drawn by horses, used 
for dragging up the surface of the ground. 

(2) A hand instrument used for dragging up turnips. 

(3) A large iron hook with a strong chain attached, used when 
fires happened for pulling the burning thatch from build- 
ings. As thatched houses have now become rare these 
implements have gone out of use. 

" Delivered to Mr. Gardiner and Mr. Kent xxs to provide two draggs 
and buckets for the vse of the town." Kirton-in-Lindsey Ch. Ace., 1594. 

(4) A wooden instrument with iron teeth, somewhat like a 
large harrow. Before the roads in the Isle of Axholme were 
macadamized drags of this sort were used for levelling them 
and filling in the ruts. One of these drags existed at West 
Butterwick until about the year 1843 when it was broken 

DRAGGLED, adj. Muddy, wet. 


DRAGGLETAIL. A dirty, slovenly girl. 

DRAKES' FEET. Early purple orchis Orchis mascula. 

DRAPE. (i) A cow whose milk has gone. 

(2) A cow that has missed being with calf. 

(3) An ewe whose milk has gone. 

" Fatten the old drape ewes on turnips." Arth. Young, Line. Agric., 
1799. P- 316. 

DRATE, v. To drawl. 

DRATED, pp. as adj. Mournful, slow, spoken of music* 

DRAW. (i) The depth which a spade goes in digging. 

" I fun that theare bell, just a draw deap e' what's noo th' east end o' 
th' gardin'." John Dent, 1855. 

(2) A spadeful of earth. 

Bill chuck'd a draw o' muck e' Jim's faace, that was what begun it. 

DRAW, v. (i) To strain. 

Th' sun's drawn that door all to one side. 

He's hed a stroak as hes draw'd his faace o' one side. 

(2) To separate sheep one from another ; to select some for 
market ; to cull out such ewes as are not to be put to the 

I'm fair alive wi' fags ; I've been drawin' sheap all th' mornin'. 

(3) To exhaust land. 

"They think that flax draws the land more than woad." Arthur 
Young, Line. Agric., 1799, p. 197. 

(4) To stimulate a sore. 

Sugar an' soap's a very drawin' thing. The term is also applied to 
boots when they make the feet sore. 

DRAW-BORE-PIN. An iron pin used by carpenters for 
drawing tenons tight. 

I can't remember how many year it is sin', but it happen'd th' very 
time as Maason clooted Nichols wi' a draw-bore-pin. 

DRAWED, pt. t. Drew. 

I draw'd him a pint o' aale. 

Thaay draw'd the Grayingham cuver twice, bud fun noa sign on a fox. 

DRAW-WELL. An open well with a windlass, by aid of 
which the water is drawn up. 

DREAN. A drain. 


DREAP, v. To drain ; said of clothes and other such things 
saturated with water. 

Put th' umbrella outside th' door to dredp. 

DREDGE. A harrow made by fastening bushy thorns to a 
frame of wood. 

perforated lid, used for scattering flour on the paste-board 
to hinder the paste from sticking. 

DREEP, v. To drop slowly. 

Th' waiter's dreepin* oot o' th' tub side. 

DRESSER. A winnowing machine. 

DRESSING. (i) The act of winnowing. 

(2) Preparing anything for use. 

If you've gotten them tonups dressed gie 'em to th' kye. 
You mun dress them ducks for dinner. 

(3) Removing dirty wool from sheep ; also applying sheep 
dressing to them for the purpose of killing parasites. 

(4) Skinning, disembowelling and cutting up an animal into 

(5) Applying manure to land. 

(6) Putting a solution of arsenic, " Farmers' Friend," lime, 
soot, or any such thing upon seed wheat before it is sown, 
for the purpose of hindering the crop being affected by 

(7) The act of cleaning out a ditch or drain. 

" Fir cones . . . are ye easiest to be met with uppon digging of 
new dikes or ye dressing of old ones." Letter of Abraham de la Piyme, 
1701, in Archaologia, vol. xl., p. 228. 

(8) Artificial manure. 

(9) Substances used for killing lice in the wool of sheep. 

(10) A beating. 

My wod, I will give you a dressin' this time, an' noii mistaake ; I've 
of'ens teli'd ye aboot it, but noo it's cumin'. 

DRIBBLE. To drop slowly. 
It just dribbles wi' raain. 



DRIED UP. A person is dried up when he can get no further 
credit for drink at any public-house in the neighbourhood. 

Oor Jack's clean dried up, thaay weant trust him soa much as a gill o' 

DRIFT. (i) Meaning, intention. 

I could sea his drift well enif though he thoht he'd blinded me. 

(2) The act of driving the cattle on an open common into one 
place for the purpose of counting them. 

" The Lord is entitled to make one drift of the Commons between 
May-day and Midsummer in order to ascertain whose cattle are 
pasturing thereon. Persons chosen and sworn by each parish may 
afterwards make drifts as often as they think proper." Customs of the 
Manor ofEpworth, 1766, in Stonehouse's Hist, of Isle of Axliolme, p. 145. 

(3) An unenclosed road, a road across a common, mainly used 
for driving cattle (obsolescent). Cf. Mon. Ang., vol. ii., 
p. 122. 

DRIFT, v. To drive away ; to turn off. 

Drift them hens oot o' that yew tree. 

You maay saay as you like, squire, an 1 I shall do as I like. If I 
find oot that ony o' my laab'rers voates blew I'll drift 'em. Said to 
the author a few days before the general election of 1885. 

DRIFT-HOLE. An underground channel for conveying water 
from one drain to another. 

DRILLMAN. A man who goes with a drill and superintends 
the operation of drilling corn. 

"Wanted, at Michaelmas, a married man, with small family, as 
working foreman. He must be a good stacker, thatcher, and drillman" 
Stamford Men., September 20, 1867. 

DRILL ON. To keep in suspense. 

Thaay behaaved real badly to Isaac aboot that farm ; thaay drilled him 
on and on, and then let it oher his head to this uther chap. 
" With faint resistence let her drill him on, 
And after competent delays be won." 

Congreve's Trans, of Ovid's Art of Love, 
bk. iii., 1. 752. 

DRINK. A drench for cattle. 

DRINK, v. To give a drench. See above. 

As soon as iver I get hoam I shall drink all th' lambs. Bottesford, 
June 9, 1887. 

DRINK-HORN, DRENCH-HORN. The left horn of a cow, 
by aid of which a drench is given to horses and cows. 

DRIN KINGS. Beer given to men in harvest, or when corn is 
being threshed, 


DRIP, DREEP, DRIPE, v. To drop. 
" As weet as drip," that is very wet. 

DRIVING THE COMMON. Driving all the stock on a 
common into one place that the parochial or manorial 
authorities may find out if any of them have infectious 
disorders, or if any one holder of a common-right has turned 
on more cattle than his " stint," or if any " foreigners" (q.v.) 
have turned stock thereupon. 

" Some of the inhabitants of Ashby or neighbouring villages had got 
into the habit of putting stock into the commons who had no common- 
rights, and the process called driving the common was resorted to."- 
Affid. of James Fowler in Beauchamp v. Winn, 1867. 

" To John Browne pynder for dryving of ye felled ijd. " Louth Ch. 
Ace., circa 1548, vol. ii., p. 80. 

DROLL, adj. This word, though it occasionally has the 
ordinary sense of laughable or odd, more commonly signifies 
rude, vulgar, obstinate, cruel, or unmanageable. A lad at 
Messingham, on the 25th of August, 1877, threw half a 
brick at his master's head, because he was bidden by him 
not to over-drive the horses working a reaping-machine. 
The brick struck the farmer on the face and hurt him 
severely. A neighbour who was narrating the circum- 
stances to the writer said, " I hoape you'll send him to 
Lincoln, sir ; he's a droll lad an' wants correctin'." The 
notion that anything funny or laughable had happened 
was by no means intended to be conveyed by the speaker. 

DROP. A small quantity of liquid. 

I'll just goa oher to th' Horn an' get a drop o' gin, I shall be by agean 
in a minnit. 

DROP, V.' a. To knock down. 

It was th' blaw o' th' head that dropt him. 

DROP-EGG. An egg dropped on the ground, not laid in a nest. 

DROP-DRY. Water-tight. 

Ther' isn't a bed-room i' th' hoose that's drop-dry in a beatin' raain. 

DROP IT! interj. Cease! 

Noo, then, drop it, or I'll drop you. 

DROP ON. (i) To come on suddenly. 

I dropt on him with his airms roond her neck i' th' pantry. 
(2) To beat, to punish. 



That was a dropping time, that was, we'd raain daay in daay oot for a 

" The seed-time was dropping, as the farmers call it." R. W. Dicksoii, 
Practical Agriculture, 1807, vol. ii., p. 52. 


There's a sight o' droppings off noo, m'm. Messingham, Nov., 1887, 

DROSS, v. (i) To win all a playmate's marbles. 
(2) To over-reach another in a bargain. 

S . . . hes dross'd R . . . oot o' all his brass, 

DROSSED UP. (i) Broken. 

That waggon is fairly dross'd up at last. 
(2) Failed, liquidated, made a bankrupt. 

He's fairly dross'd up noo, thaay've sell'd ivery stick and stoan he heS. 

DROUGHT (drout). (i) A team of horses. 

Th' droughts went 'liverin' this mornin'. 
(2) A cart horse. 

That roand mare you boht o' Harry Drury, is as fine a drought as is 
to be sean e' all Linkisheere. 

" No cottiger that kepes a draught in somer and not aible to kepe the 
said draught in wynter, do cari any turues forth to any other townes in 
somer." Bottesford Manor Roll, 1572. 

DROVE. An unenclosed road, a road across a common, 
mainly used for driving cattle. Cf. Mon. Ang., vol. ii., p. 122. 

DROWND,^. t. and//'., DROWNDED. To drown. 

He was drownded e' Kidby Canel most of fo'ty year sin'. 
" Helpe, helpe, or else I'm drownded." The Baffled Knight, Percy's 
Relics, ed. 1794, vol. ii., p. 350. 

" Drowndead, said Mr. Peggotty." David Copperfield, ch. iii. 

DROWNDED LAND. Land that has been flooded by water. 

" There is much drowned lande, neare by supposition 3,000 acres, which 
mighte without great difficultie be drayned." Nor den's Survey of the 
Soke of Kirton-in-Lindsiy, 1616, p. 17. 

" Of little use & almost constantly drownded,'" De la Pryme's Hist, of 
Winterton, in Archaologia, vol. xl., p. 240. 

" The drownded lands," as these marshes are called." Yorkshire Mag.^ 
May, 1873, p 377. 

" Perhaps in this treacherous soil the ground may sink when it is what 
they call drowned." Rob. Southey's Letters^ ed. by J. W. Water, vol. iv., 
p. 108. 

DROWNDED MUTTON. The flesh of sheep which have 
been drowned. Often eaten in the farmer's kitchen or sold 
to his labourers at a low price* 



I desire you would doe so much as goe into Lumbard Street to one 
Mr. Whyte, a dmgster. Letter ol Anne Barker, 1647, in Hist. MSS. 
Com. Rep. v., p. 389. 

A BESOM, DRUNK AS MUCK. Very drunk. 

It was gettin' laate, an' hauf on us was as drunk as mice. 

" Some wilbe dronken as a mouse." Songs and Carols of Fifteenth Cent., 
p. 90. 

" Monckes drynk an bowll after collacyon till ten or xii. of the clock, 
and cum to mattens as droncke as myss." Beerley to Lord Cromwell in 
Wright's Lett. rel. to Suppression of Monasteries, p. 133. 

" We faren as he that dronke is as a mous.'^ Chancer, KnigJites Tale, 
1. 403. 

" Thou comest home as dronken as a mous." Wif of Bathes Tale. 

"Dronke as Rattes." Occurs in Stubbs' Anatomy of Abuses, ed. 1836, 
pp. 122, 174. 

" I've been waiting for him till I don't know what time at night, as 
drunk as David's sow ; he dees nothing but lie snoring all night long by 
my side." N. Bailey, Colloquies of Erasmus, 1725, p. 160. 

DRU V, //.Driven, drove. 

When I'd druv to Spital, I baaited my herse. 

DRY. (i) Thirsty. 

I'm as dry as a fish, do gie us a drink o' aale. 

" And they said I was a mery gentylman, desyeryng me to gyve theym 
xxd. to drynke, for they wer drye, the wether was whotte; to whome I 
made answer, that they shuld drynke horspyse, or they had any money 
of me." Petition of Ric. Troughton in Archceologia, vol. xxiii., p. 37. 

(2) A cow that has ceased to give milk is said to be dry. 

" It would prove a source of profit to a farmer ... to have 
three or more cows drv at one time." Treatise on Live Stock, 1810, p. 39. 

DRY, v. To take means to cause a cow to become dry. 
DRY-HAND. A sarcastic person. 

DRYING-DRINK. A drench given to a cow to stop the flow 
of milk. 

DRY PIPE. Smoking without any drink thereto. 

I can't abide a dry pipe, its like salt wi' oot ony beaf to it. 

DRY WALL. A wall built without mortar. 

DUBBINGS, s. pi. Evergreens with which churches and 
houses are decorated at Christmas* 


DUBBLER. A large dish. 

" With wille ful egre, 

j?at dishes and dobkres befor Jus ilk doctour, 
Were (molten) led in his maw." 

Piers Plowman, B. Text, Pass, xiii., 1. 81. 

DUBBUT. For do but. 

Dubbut cum hoame lass, an' all 'all -be reightled. 

DUCK. A linen material used for men's summer clothing. 
DUCK-COY. A decoy for taking wild-ducks. 

DUCKEN. Plural of duck (obsolescent). It was used by old 
Mrs. Penn who lived at Kirton-in-Lindsey, but who had 
spent her early life at Laughton. She died about the year 
1846, aged 92. 

DUCKING. Catching wild-ducks. It now means shooting 
them ; in former times they were taken by means of nets. 

"No man of the inhabitantes of Scoter or Scawthorpe shall fishe nor 
goe a ducking, within the lordes seuerall watters." Scatter Manor Roll, 

" The citizens that come a ducking to Islington ponds." 

Ben Jonson, Every Man in his Humour, Act i., sc. i. 

DUCKS. The effect of the manners of fidgety people upon 
those over whom they have power, is not unaptly compared 
to the nibbling of ducks. A girl said to the author, of a 
woman with whom she had been living for a short time as 
servant, " I'd raather be nibbled to dead wi' ducks then live 
with Miss P She's alus a natterin'." 

DUCKS AND DRAKES. To play at ducks and drakes 
is to throw a flat stone, or any such like thing, over water so 
as to make it glance along the surface. When this is done, 
the following jingle is repeated 
A duck and a drake, 
And a penny white cake, 
And a skew ball. 

DUCKSTONE. A game. A small stone is placed on a big 
one, and others are thrown at it. 

DUDS, s. pi. Workmen's tools, clothes, personal possessions 
of small value. 

" Clocke dudes " are mentioned in the Louth Church Accounts for 1501. 
They were probably small wheels belonging to the clock. 

There was a place for the sale of woollens at Stourbridge Fair called 
the Duddery. C. Walford, Fairs Past and Present, p. 77. 

DULBERT. A dull, stupid child. 



Ohd woman, ohd woman, 

Thoo mun goa shearin' ; 
Noa, maister, noa, 

For I'm dull o' hear-in'. 

Ohd woman, ohd woman, 

Thoo mun shear or thoo mun bind ; 
Noa, maister, noa, 

For, you see, I'm stoan blind. 

Ohd woman, ohd woman, 

Then thoo mun goa beg ; 
Noa, maister, noa, 

For I'm laame o' my leg. 

DULSOME. Dull, heavy hearted. 
It's dulsum weather for August. 
He looks dulsum noo he's cum'd hoam. 

DUMP. A suffix to some local names, as Michlow Dump, 
Pingle Dump, Wife-hill Dump, in the parish of Messingham. 
Mackinnon's Ace. of Messingham, p. 17. 

Mr. Atkinson, in his Glossary of the Cleveland Dialect, explains Dump 
to mean " a deep hole in the bed of a river or pool of water." 

DUNCICAL. Dunce-like. 
DUNDERHEAD. A block head. 

" 'Tis only dunderhead's and sinners 
Who basely clamour for their dinners." 

John Brown, Psyche, 1818, p. 41. 

DUNG, pi. t.Ot Ding, q.v. 

DUNK, DUNKY. (i) An ass. 

(2) A breed of short, thick-set pigs. It has been suggested 
that this word is a corruption of Tonquin ; Messrs. Miller 
and Skertchly suggest Sw. tung, heavy, thick, gravid ; 
O. N. thung, heavy ; Prov. Dan. tmtn, thick, fat. The 
Fenland, p. 128. Cf. Tonkey in E. D. S. Gloss. B. 5. 

DUNKIRKS, s. //.Pirates irom Dunkirk (obsolete). 

" To a traulier the xxiith day of May that was taken with Dunhirhes, 
iih'd." Kirton-in-Lindsey Ch. Ace., 1629. Cf. Hist. MSS. Com. Rep., 
iv., pp. 29, 36, 45, 47, 76, 79, 83, no, 113, 114; Webster, Northward Ho, 
Act i., Sc. 3; Rous, Diary (Camden Soc.), pp. 9, 55; Buckle, Misc. 
Works, pp. 553, 572 ; Gardner, Hist. Dunwich, p. 19 ; Husband, Orders 
a'id Dedar., vol. ii., p. 261 ; Rushworth, Hist. Coll., vol. iii., pt. ii., pp. 
312, 556, Commons Journals, vol. i., p, 820, 


DUNTY, adj.-(i) Stunted, dwarfish. 
(2) Of a dun colour. 

DURMANT, adj. Dormant, inactive. 

It's my opinion that Miss . . . was niver cutten oot fer to be 
durmant, she must be a doin 1 

An old man after he became blind remarked sadly of his old bass- 
fiddle, " She's durmant noo." 

DURST'A (durstaa-). Durst thou. 

Durst' a go thrif oor chech yard at neet ? Noa, I should be scar'd ; 
dost thoo ? 

DUST. (i) A quarrel, an uproar, confusion. 
He kick'd up a dust all aboot noht. 

(2) Small coal, blacksmith's slack. 

(3) Money. 

Doon with th' dust, that is, put down the money. 

DUST, v. To cheat. 

He dusted him wi' that badly coo. 

DUTCH. Unintelligible language. 
What he said was all Dutch to me. 

DUTHER, v. To shake with cold. See DITHER. 

DWINE, v. To dwindle. 

Poor lass she's dwinin' awaay all to noht. 

DWINNEL, v. To dwindle. 

DYKE (deik). (i) A ditch or drain. Mr. William Hall, when 
mayor of Hull, was shooting wild-ducks on his property on 
Ashby Moors. He slipped into a warping drain and was on 
the point of being drowned by the rising tide when Jonathan 
Berridge, an Ashby carpenter, rescued him. The mayor 
gave his preserver sixpence for his trouble, who pocketted 
the coin, saying as he did so " I thoh't a mare wo'd be 
wo'th five shillin', we alus hev hauf-a-croon for pullin' a 
foal oot on a dyke. 

" Here winds the dyke where oft we jump'd across !" 

John Clare, Childish Recollections. 

(2) A natural lakelet, mere, or pond as Shawn Dyke, 
formerly on Brumby Common ; Wellicar Dyke, a mere on 
Messingham East Common, drained at the enclosure. 


DYKE, v.(i) To dig a ditch. 

(2) To put hemp or flax in water to steep. See Arthur 
Young, Line. Agric., 1799, p. 164. 

(3) An animal which has got into a ditch, and is unable to 
escape from it, is said 'to- be dyked. 

DYKEGRAVE, DYKEREVE. A manorial or parochial 
officer, whose duty it is to superintend the dykes. 

" Of John Slater and William ~E\\ysdykegreaves for not executing their 
office viijd." Kirton-in-Lindsey Fine Roll, 1637. 

" Digmve . . . '. exactor pecuniarum ad fossas purgandas et 
aggeres reparandos contributarum." Skinner, Etymologicon. 

DYKER. A man who makes or cleanses dykes. 

Dyheres and delueres. Pier's Plowman, B. text prol., 1. 223. 

DYKING (deik-in). (i) A small dyke. 

I'd raather be droonded in a dykin boddom then marry thee, thoo 
mangy whore. 

(2) The act of cleansing a dyke. 

John Skinner hes twenty-three daays o' dykin. 

DYMONITE. Dynamite. 


? p re p m l n ' that how," in that manner. 
Sarah's brokken a plaate slap e' two. 


'EAR. Year. 

Last 'ear was cohd an' weet an' all. 

EARAND (eerund). Errand. 

EARBRED (eer-bred). The piece of wood at the bottom of a 
cart or waggon, in the front and back, into which the 
slots go. 

EARDEN (eerd'n), adj. Earthen, earthenware. 
An ear den pot. 

EARDLY (eerd-li), adj.(i) Early. 

(2) Unusually large, unwieldly as a gret eardly tonup. 

EARLS. Earnest money. 

" Thomas Sheppard, John Oxley, and David Hill took 12 acres 2 roods 
of wheat at 8s. 6d. per acre, and 2s.6d. for earls." Northorpe Farm Ace., 

EARN (ern), v. To curdle with rennet. 

EARNEST (enrest). Money given to fasten a bargain. 

EARNING (ern-in), EARNING-SKIN. Rennet used for 
making cheese. 

" A calf-head and a piece of earning skin" Family Ace. Booh, 1778. 

EARS WARMED. (i) To get enough or more than enough 
to drink. 

I'll uphohd it thaay've getten their ears warmed rarely. 
(2) To have the ears boxed. 

I'll warm thy ears for th', if ta duz n't euhi oot o' that muck, 


EARTH, EATH, v. To cover with earth. 

You mun set all ban's on to earth th' taaties tomorra 1 , we shall hev 
frost cumin' else, afoore thaay're taa'en care on. 

EASE ONE'S SELF. To relieve the bowels. 

" Master Suthcoat desired libertie to ease him self e, and two musquetiers 
conveyed him downe staires to an house of office." A True and Byiefe 
Rel. how .... the Isle of Wight was secured in August, 1642, p. 3. 

EASEMENT. (i) A relief from pain. 

I've taa'en poonds wo'th o' doctors' stuff, but can't git noa easement. 
(2) Evacuation. 

EASINGS. (i) Dung. 
(2) The eaves of a building. 

EAST. Yeast. 
EATH (i-h'th). Earth. 
EATH, v. See EARTH. 

EAT AWAY, v. To destroy, consume. 

Th' rust hes eaten thease furk tines clean awaay. 

It's noa ewse sawin' barley up o' that theare land o' Chaafor's, th' 
wicks is sewer to eat it all awaay. Bottesford, Oct., 1887. 

EAT THEIR HEADS OFF. Cattle bought at too high a 
price are said to be sure to eat the'r heads off. 

EAU, pronounced EA. A river which falls into the Trent, in 
the parish of Scotter. In a lease granted of the Manor of 
Scotter, dated 1537, it is called the Ee. The spelling tau 
is undoubtedly false, and due to the notion that the word 
is French. It is really the A. S. Ea, a stream. 

EAVES DROPPER. One who listens at doors and windows. 

It was formerly the duty of the jury of the Manor Court to enquire 
for and fine eves droppers. See John Wilkinson's Method for the Keeping 
of a Court Leet, 1638, p. 120 ; William Sheppard, Covrt Keepers Guide, 
1650, p. 48; Giles Jacob, Complete Court Keeper, i78i, p. 34. 

"Johannes Jonson (husbandman), Henricus Lucy, Radulphus 
Ormesbe, Johannes Hegge, Wilelmus Helyfeld, Ricardus Webster, 
sunt communes night stalkers & ewys droppers tempore incongruo in 
nocte." Kirton-in-Lindsey Manor Roll, 1493. 

EAVINGS. The eaves of a building. 

A little mouse 
Streight she presents on th' evins of the house. 

Ogilby's sEsop's Fables, 1665, p. 187, 


ED. This termination of the preterite is often left out. 

Maister R., when he was corrected, he alus stunt ; but Maister J,, 
oh, how he stamp. Winterton. 

EDDISH. The grass that grows after the hay- crop is cut. 

" The husbandmen or any others that are employed or concerned in 
loading the hay out of .... Humble Car shall not, with their 
cattle, willingly and wilfully eate up the eddish of the said meadow." 
Gainsburgh Manor Records, in Stark's Hist, of Gainsburgh, p. 189. 

" Twenty-one acres of eddish to be stocked with beast and sheep, until 
the i3th day of November next. Apply to S. Howard, Auctioneer, 
Kirton-in-Lindsey." Gainsburgh News, 6th July, 1867. 

" They had been kept upon the eddish or after-grass of lands, which in 
the same year had been mown." Th. Bateman, Treatise on Agistment 
Tithe, 1778, p. 15 ; Cf. Arthur Young, Line. Agric., 1799, pp. 162, 164 ; 
Seebohm, English Village Community, pp. 377, 378, 379." 

EEL-LEAP. An eel-trap made of wicker-work. Mid. Eng. 
lepe, a basket. An engraving of an eel-leap is given in 
Seebohm's English Village Community, p. 152. 

EEL-TRUNK. A box with holes in it, in which eels are kept 
alive till wanted for the table. 

E'EN (een). Evening. 

EEN, EES (een, eez), s. pi. Eyes. 

EFT. A lizard or newt. 

EFTER, prep. (i) After. 

(2) Engaged in doing. 

I could tell what he was efter, though he kep' very squat. 

(3) According to, in the manner of. 

He said his peace wo'd for wo'd efter th' book. 

EFTERNOON. Afternoon. 

EGRIMONY. Agrimony, used for making egrimony tea. 

EH. See A. 

EH (ai), interjec. Ah, oh. 

Eh, but she was a bonny lass, th 1 flooer o' 'em all. 

EIGHTEENER. An eighteen-gallon cask. 

EL ATS (ee lats). Exclamation used in setting dogs on any- 
thing. A contraction of " Heigh lads." 


ELBOW. (i) An angular turn in a bar of iron. 

(2) The conical hollow in the bottom of a wine-bottle. It is 
commonly believed that these hollows are formed by the 
glass blowers putting their elbows into the bottom of the 
bottle while the glass is soft, 

ELBOW GREASE. Energetic manual labour. 

It's all reight noo, an* wants noht bud elbow grease to mak' it trundle ; 
said by a carpenter of a wheel-barrow which he had mended. 

" It had no elbow grease bestowed on 't. Nee demorsos sapit 
ungues." Adam Littleton, Lat. Diet., 1735, sub. voc. 

ELDER. The udder of a cow, mare, or sheep. 

Aw, Timothy, poor senseless cauves bunches the'r muthers' elders, 
but bairns like thee, it's the'r muthers' hearts thaay bunches. 

ELDER-ROB. A preserve made of elder-berries. 

ELDIN, FIRE-ELDIN. Wood for fires; small sticks for 
lighting fires. 

You mun thank my laady for letting me gether th' eldin e' th 
woods. Scawby, circa 1855. 

It is n't fit for naaither hedge-staake nor eldin" said of something 
quite worthless. 

Jewbilee-daay doan't talk to me o' yer jewbileein' ; what I saay is 
"at ther's scoores o' foaks hed n't bread for the'r bairns, nor fire-el din 
to keep 'em warm wi' last winter, an' mebbe thaay'll be e' that fix 
agean when next cums. Why doant thaay pot what thaay've scratted 
together e' th' bank e'stead o' flingin' it awaays that fashion. H. T. 
Bottesford, June, 1887. 

" To blind Sutton wife for elding." Kirton-in-Lindsey Ch. Ace., 1648. 

" Eldin & stocks & blocks, IQS Inventory of Francis Gunnas of Keadby, 

A correspondent informs me that the word eldin may still be heard 
in the remoter nooks of Lancashire, and on the moorlands between 
Lancashire and Yorkshire. Cf. Notes and Queries, iv. series, vol. xi., 
p. 454 ; Atkinson's Cleveland Gloss,, sub. voc. 

ELEM (el-urn). The elm. 

ELLER. The elder. 

I ewsed to hev a eller that grew white berries at th' Moors, bud it's 
dead noo. 

" Yt ys ordred that none of thinhabytantes of the town of East- 
butterwycke shall cutt down nor gyt no ellers." Scatter Manor Roll. 

" Judas he iaped with iuwen siluer, 
And sithen on an eller honged hym after." 

Pier's Plowman, B. text, pass, i, 1. 68. 

ELLER-PILE. An arrow point made of elder, used by boys. 


ELSIN. A shoemaker's awl. 

" Elssen, an aule, a shoemaker's aule." Hexham, Nethenluytchc 
Dictionarie, 1660. 

END. (i) " Set my end in," i.e., begin my sewing for me, is a 
common request of little girls of their mothers. 

(2) "He duz n't care what end cums fo'st," i.e,, he is utterly 
careless or wasteful. 

(3) Death, 

It's no ewse mindin' what th' doctor says, I knaw it's cum'd for 
my end. Yaddlethorpe, January, 1887. 

END, v. (i) To spoil, to make an end of. 

I ewsed to hev sum carved oak pannils wi' men an' bo'ds on 'em, 
but th' bairns ended 'em all by makkin' rabbit-hooses on 'em. 

(2) To "sit up on end" or "oher end," is to sit upright, as 
contrasted with lying down. 

He hes not been oher end thease three weaks, said of a person 
confined to bed. 

(3) To commit suicide or kill one's self by drink or narcotics. 

I knew he wodn't last long, but I did n't think he'd end his sen e' this 

ENDARDS, adv. Forward, onward. 

Goa endards, sir, goa endards, said when one man gives place to another 
in entering a door. 

ENDEAVOUR, v. To work. 

He's endeavoured for his livin' well ; thaay saay he's saaved fifty pund. 

ENDEAVOURING, adj. Active, energetic. 
I've been a real endeavourin' man all my life. 

ENDLONG, adv. and prep. Directly forward in the direction 
of a road, river, furrow, &c. 

Go for'ads endlong an' you can't get oot o' th' road. 

Th' ramper runs endlong stright awaay fra Appleby to Lincoln. 

"Her walk was endlong Gretaside." Roheby, Note 3, B. 

ENDS AND SIDES, ALL. What he likes is to hev foaks 
waaitin' on him all ends an' sides, bud he weant get it, fer 
doctor's said particler 'at he is n't to be incorriged e' thinkin' 
'at noabody hes n't noht to do bud run efter him. Bottesford, 
March, 1887. 

ENEW, adj. pi. Enough, sufficient. 

We've craws (to stock Manby woods wi'. 


ENGLISH. Coloured snail shells, as distinguished from those 
nearly white. Coloured butterflies, as distinguished from 
white ones. A schoolboy's term. During the long war 
with France, children used to kill all the white butterflies 
they could find, looking on them as symbols of the French. 

ENIF, adj.-(i) Enough. 

We'd enif dry weather for oht last summer. 

(2) Sufficiently cooked. 

Gentlefoaks likes the'r meat rear, bud I like mine to be dun till it's 
enif. See KNEW. 

ENJOY. Endure. 

She enjoys very bad health noo. Scatter, 1884. 

" My mother had enjoyed but a weak state of health some time before 
my father's death." Will Stukeley, 1720, in Mem. of Will Stukeley 
(Surtees Soc.), vol. i., p 34. 

ENOW. In a short time, presently. 

I'm just goin' across to th' Horn ; I shall be by agean enow. 

ESH. The ash. 

There is a widespread opinion that if a man takes a newly cut esh 
plant not thicker than his thumb, he may lawfully beat his wife with it. 

ESH, v. To beat with an ash plant. 

If we catch boys gettin' bod nests we esh 'em.Normanby, July 25, 

ESH-HOLT. A small grove of ash trees. 
ESH-KEYS. The seed vessels of the ash. 

ESSES, 5. //.Links for traces in the form of the letter S. 

" Jan. 20, 1881. 2 links & 3 hesses." Yaddlethorpe Blacksmith's Bill. 

ETTIDGE (et-ij.) The same as EDDISH, q.v. 

EVEN DOWN TO THE GROUND. Upright, straight- 

You maay believe ivry wo'd he says; he's a punct'al man, an' eaven 
doon to the grand as can be. 

EVER AND A DAY, adv. Always, for ever and ever. 

" For ever and a day, Longum." Adam Littleton, Lat. Did,, ed. 1735, 
sub. voc. 

EVER SO. Very much. 

She fret ever sod when Harry 'listed. 

EVERY DAY LIKE, adv. Constantly. 
I see her o'must ivery daay like. 


EVIL. The King's evil. 

EWT (eut), pt. t. Owed. 

The pronunciation of the ew in ewse, cwt and chewse, varies between 
that of the ew in the word news, and a sound nearly approaching the 
German it. 

EXPECT, v. Suppose, believe. 

I expect that theare's been a good deal o' leein' o' boath sides. 
" Well, I expect I hev 1 han's, but I can't tell 'em by th' fealin'," said 
by a person whose hands were " perished " by cold. 

EY, AY. Yes, yea. 

Ey is used more frequently than yes in answering a question 

EYE (ei). (i) A brood of pheasants. 

(2) The bud in a tuber from which the stalks shoot. 

(3) To put an eye into any kind of drink is to put a small 
quantity of spirit into it. 

"It'll do .... very well when I've just put an eye into it, 
and he took a flat bottle from his waistcoat pocket and poured the eye 
into his cup." Mabel Heron, vol. iii., p. 13. 

(4) The following rhyme is believed to indicate the character 
from the colour of the eyes 

" Blue eye, beauty ; 

Black eye, steal pie ; 
Grey eye, greedy-gut ; 
Brown eye, love pie." 

Another version runs 

" Black iy*, beauty ; 
Grey eye, greedy-gut ; 
Eat all the padding up." 

EYE, adv. Aye, yes. 

" Did you voate for th 1 school board ?" " Eye, all five for th' chech 
an' noht at all for th' chapil." 

EYEABLE, adj. Pleasant to look upon, sightly. 

" Ther's a many things that's eyeable, but is n't tryable, or buyable ; 
but thease things is eyeable, an' tryable, an 1 buyable an' all," said by a 
man selling ready-made clothes at Brigg Market, 1876. 

EYES BIGGER THAN BELLY. A person is said to have 
his " eyes bigger then his belly " who takes more food upon 
his plate than he can eat. 

EYE SEEDS. A plant whose seeds, if blown into the eye, are 
said to remove bits of dust, cinders, or insects that may 
have lodged therein. (Query what plant ?) 


FAATHER (feyhdhur). Father. 
FACE ACHE. Tooth ache. 

FACES, TO MAKE. To distort the face. 

Daughter : Oor Jim's makkin'' faaces, muther. 

Mother : Naay, bairn, thoo's leein' ; it's nobut God as waks faaces. 
Jim, thoo bad lad, give oher ; how should you feal if th' Almighty 
was to fix you soa for iver ? Thoo might be struck soa in a moment. 

FACULTIES OF THE HEAD. The brain, the intellectual 

The doctor, he said, "Noo if you go on lettin' that gel study that a 
Avaay, you're doin' very wrong. You can do it if ye like, but I till ye 
it'll injure the faculties of her head." 

FAD. (i) One who troubles about insignificant matters. A 
man who busies himself about women's work. 

(2) Any fancy about which a person unduly troubles himself. 
FAG. A parasitic insect, " a sheep fag" 

FAG-END. The end. 

We'd scarce onything but th' fag-end o' a leg of mutton to dinner. 

I was born at th' fag-end o' th' year, daay efter Christmas. 

"The fagge-end of the House of Commons .... passed a 
thing they call an Act." Clement Walker, Hist, of Indcpcncy, 1649, 
pt. xi., p. 215. 


FAG-WATER. A liquid used for killing fags on sheep. See 

FAIR. (i) Level, even. 

Th' taable top duz n't stan' fair. 

(2) Easy, plain. 

Lincoln Minster's fair to see fra Barton Field. 

(3) adv. Easily. 

We can see Kidby lamps very fair to-neet fra th 1 top o' Yalthrup 


(4) A word frequently used as an intensitive. 

Lops! why he's fair wick wi' 'em, an 1 he's that idled he weant jpick 
'em off. 

She was fair oher setten when she heard her lad was run'd oher by 
th' traain. 

FAIRING. A present brought from a fair. 

FAIRISH. Fairly. 

Oats was fairish to year, bud noht to swagger on ; it's been oher 
dry for 'em. Gunness, Dec., 1887. 

FAIRY-PURSES. A kind of fungus which grows on sandy 
land in Autumn, and is something like a cup or old-fashioned 
purse with small objects inside; probably Nidularia 
Campanulata. See Britten & Holland's Eng. Plant Names. 

FAIRY-RING. A circle in the grass, believed to be made by 
fairies dancing thereon. 

Eliza B a young woman once in the author's service, 

knew a woman, who was then dead, who said she had seen fairies 
dancing on Brumby Common. Eliza fully believed the story. 

FALL. A woman's veil. 
FALL, THE. The Autumn. 

FALL, v. (i) To get, to receive. 

You nead not good thy sen up o' them apples cumin', thoo'll fall 
noane on 'em. 

(2) To be obliged. 

Hester's sent fer me, soa I shall fall to goa. 

(3) Ought. 

What time duz th' packit fall to cum ? 
FALL-DOOR. A trap-door. 

FALLED, #. Fallen. 

Jim's fall'd doon an' ho'ten his sen. 

FALLEN MEAT. The flesh of an animal that has died a 
natural death. 


" To a pore woman that had the j 'ally ing evell iijd." Kirton-in-Lindsey 
Ch. Ace., 1584. 

FALLINGS, s. //.Fallen fruit. 

" Ther's been a many fall-in' s in oor gardin thriff yisterdaays high 
wind." Bottesford, September 28, 1875. 

FALL OF TIMBER. The quantity of timber felled at one 
time in a certain place. 


FALL-OUT. A quarrel. 
FALL-OUT, v. To quarrel. 
FALL-TABLE. A table with a falling leaf. 

FALL TO PIECES. To be delivered of a child. 

She was to go to Ann weddin', bud as it's been putten off, braade o' 
me, she'll fall to peaces her sen afoore time cums. 

FALL Wr BAIRN. To become pregnant. 

FALSE LINE. A cord used in ploughing to hinder the fore- 
horse from going too far forward. 

" Foure paire of false ranes & one old yate iis. " Inventory of Will. 
Hatley of St. Neots, 1597. 

FALSE ROOF, FALSE LOFT. That part of a house or 

other building between the ceilings of the uppermost rooms 

and the roof. It is often floored and made into a store-room. 

"It (a barn) was thatcht and false-lofted." Diary of John Hobson 

(Surtees Soc.), p, 274. 

FAMBLING. Eating without an appetite. 

FANCY DOG. A dog kept for pleasure not for use. 
Sir Charles : " What sort of a dog was it ?" 
Defendant: " A fancy dog." 

Petty Sessions Report, Gainsburgh Times, February 20, 1880. 

FANNEL. The fanon or maniple; one of the ecclesiastical 
vestments in use before the reformation (obsolete.) 

"Wintertonne . . . one old vestment, one amys, one corporaxe, 
one/a**i/." 1566, Line. Ch. Goods, p. 164. 

" Wrought in the Isle of Axholme . . . one amis, one albe, a 
stole, a belt, a ffannel, a corporax." Ibid, p. 169. 

FAR AWAY. By a long way. 

He beats him far awaay. 

My coo's better then thine far awa-ay. 

FARDEN (faad-en). A farthing. 

FARE, v. To get on ; used of the manner of living, as regards 
animal enjoyments. 

Well, an' hoo did ta cum on then? Oh, fo'st raate II fared very 
well, I can tell the. 

FAR END. Extremity, conclusion. 

The far end on it '11 be he'll get his sen sent to Ketton. 

Lady (addressing a child with a packet of sweetmeats in her hand) : 
So you've been getting some goodies, have you, Mary ? 

Child : Why, yes, I hev, if you must be gettin' to knaw the far end 
o' things. 



FAR ENIF. Far out of the way. 

Th' parson's alus clartin' aboot oor hoose, I wish he 


PARISH pN (far, with the suffix-f'sA), adj. Well advanced, 
far on in years, or with an undertaking or a journey. 

He must be farish on by this time ; I knaw he was born aofore th' 
eaghteen hundreds cum in. 

He's farish on his waay by noo ; I should saay he'll be 'e Lunnon 
by three o'clock. 

FARMER. A jesting name for a toad. 

FARMER'S FRIEND. A material used for dressing seed- 
wheat to hinder the smut. 

FARNAL. For infernal. 

What afarnal lear thoo art. 

FAR SIDE. The furthest part of anything as of a room, 
field, close, parish, or what not. 

He's goan to live reight o* th' far side o' 'Merica. 3oth June, 1886. 

FARWELTED, FARWELTERED, adj. Overthrown ; said 
of sheep. 

FASHED, adj.(j) Weary. 
(2) Troubled in mind. 

FASSENS TUESDAY. Shrove Tuesday. 

FAST, adj.(i) Costive. 
(2) In difficulties. 

FAST ENIF, adv. Easily. 

You see, sir, I could ha' hed him fast enif li I'd hed a mind, but then 
I liked this here chap I'm talkin' on better, and so you see .... 

FASTEN PENNY. Money given by the master to fasten a 
bargain on hiring a servant. 

'To Mauger for & festynpenny iiij d -" Kirton-in-Lindsey Ch. Ace., 1573. 

FAT. A vat. 

FAT, v. To fatten. 

I shall fat all them beas, an' hev 'em off afoore Jenuerry puts in. 

FAT-HEN. A weed growing among corn and on the sides of 
dung-hills.' Chenopodiwn album. 

FATHER, v. (i) To swear to the paternity of an illegitimate , 
child before the justices of the peace. 

She faathered bairn upo' . . . Foaks duz saay 'at . . . gev 
her a ten-pund noate not to f anther it upo' him. 


(2) To ascribe, to impute. 

When lees is goin' aboot it's easy to feyther "em to th' wrong mooth. 

FAT I' -TH' FIRE, TO HAVE THE. To get into trouble ; 
to make trouble. 

FATNESS. (i) Grease. 

(2) Condition, richness, applied to land. 

If he nobbut graws plenty o' taaties he'll soon tak th' fatness oot on it. 

FAUCET. The outer part of a wooden tap used for drawing 
off the liquor from a brewing-tub. The interior part or 
screw is called the spicket. 

Ira was a straange man for romancin' in his talk. One daay he 
prickt his sen oher th' finger a little dearie bit, you could hardlins see it, 
an' up he cums to me an' says, " I've prickt my sen while blud flew oot 
like a spicket and faucet, and bled a piggin full." 

FAUSE, adj. Cunning ; often used in a good sense. 

Yon little tarrier o' yours is as wick as a flea, an' as fause as a fox ; 
ther' is n't noa gettin' shut on him when he thinks he wants to goa 
wi ye. 

FAUT. (i) Fault. 

" Most curious of all is the fate of the word fault. In O. F. and 
M. E. it is always faute, but the sixteenth century turned it into F.faulte, 
E,. fault, by the insertion of I. For all that, the / often remained mute, 
so that even as late as the time of Pope it was still mute for him, as is 
shewn by his rhyming it with ought (Eloisa to Abilard, 185. Essay on 
Man, i. 69) ; with thought (Essay on Criticism, 422. Moral Essays, 
Ep. ii. 73) ; and with taught (Moral Essays, Ep. ii. 212). But the 
persistent presentation of the letter / to the eye has prevailed at last, 
and we now invariably sound it in English, whilst in French it has 
become 'faute once more. The object no doubt was to inform us that 
the F. faute is ultimately derived from Latin fallere ; but this does not 
seem so far beyond the scope of human intelligence that so much pains 
need have been taken to record its discovery." W. W. Skeat, 
Principles of Eng. Etymology, 1887, p. 325. 

(2) A decayed place in timber ; a place where the scar of 
a severed branch has been covered by newly grown wood. 

(3) A perpendicular deposit of sand in a bed of clay. 

FAVOUR, v. To resemble. 

Mary's bairn faavours Bill a deal. 

FEARD, //.Afraid. 

Silly bairn he's feard to go thrif th' chech yard i' th' daay leet. 

FEARFUL, adj. A. strong superlative. 
Ther's a fearful lot o' apples to year. 

FEARNS, sb. pi. Ferns, bracken. SCOTTON. 


FEARSOME. Terrible. 

FEAT, adj.(i) Having skill, or tact. 
He's a feat hand at oht. 

(2) Active, good-looking, tidy, plentiful. 
She's a /mMookin' lass. 
Ther's a.fedtish crop o 1 pears upo' that tree. 

When King George the Fourth passed through Yorkshire, a man who 

had travelled some distance to see his Majesty went home and said, 

" Thaay be fedtish lears e' Swillin'ton ; thaay tell'd me "at King's Arms 

was a lion and a unicorn, and blow me if thaay ar'nt just saame as mine." 

" And look how well my garments sit upon me ; 

Much/eater than before." The Tempest, Act ii., sc. i. 

FEATHER. A linch-pin ; a pin used to keep machinery tight. 
"To Watter Smythe for mendyng of the /ethers and wedgis about 
the trinitie bell, xviijd." Louth Ch. Ace., 1566. 

FEATHER-POKE. When it snows we say, " Th' ohd woman 
is shakkin' her feather po tike." 

Clare alludes in his Shepherd's Calendar to the belief on which this 
saying has been founded : 

" And some to view the winter weathers, 
Climb up the window-seat with glee, 
Likening the snow to falling feathers, 

In fancy's infant extasy; 
Laughing with superstitious love, 

O'er visions wild that youth supplies, 
Of people pulling geese above, 

And keeping Christmas in the skies." p. 97. 

FEATLY. Neatly ; dexterously. 

FEBRUARY." February fill-dyke, March muck it oot agean ;" 
that is, in February the dykes are filled with snow, rain 
comes in March and " mucks them oot." 
" February fill-dyke, 
Be it black or be it white." 

That is, there will be much downfall in February either of rain 
or snow. 

FEED, tv (i) To fatten. 

Hefedds five and twenty steers every summer. 

(2) To grow fat. 

Duzn't he fead just! He ewsed to be th' sparest lad e' th' toon, an' 
noo he weighs nineteen stoan. 

(3) To graze. 

I doan't knaw which o' them two gress peaces I shall fedd to year, 
and I o'must think it 11 be th' hoam cloas. Bottesford, March 7, 1888. 

" Land that is fed in common by the parish." Survey of the Manor of 
Kirton-in-Lindsey , 1787, 


FEEDER. (i) A cloth used to keep the clothes of infants 
clean while they are being fed. 

(2) A pinafore. 

FEEL. Feeling. 

A straange queer feal alus cums oher me when I see a toad ; I durstn't 
handle one at noht. 

FEETINGS, s. //.Stocking feet. 
FEFTED, v. Enfeoffed (obsolescent). 

FEIGH, FEY, v. To clean out a drain, gutter, or sess-pool. 
George Todd v&feighing oot the sink-hoale. 

" To John Lavghton, in harvest, for feigliinge the milne becke," 
Kirton-in-Lindsey Ch. Ace., 1582. 

FEIGHT. A fight. 

FEIGHT, v. (fait). (i) To fight. 

(2) To beat, when the person beaten has no thought of 

I shan't let oor Bob goa to school noa moore ; th' maaster f eights th' 

FEIGHTIN' IT SEN. An infant is said to have been feightin" 
it sen when it has scratched or bruised itself. 

FELFS. The curved pieces of wood which form the outer 
part of a wheel. 

FELL. The skin of an animal after it has been removed from 
the body. 

" I wad hae had you, flesh and fell" Battle of Otterburne, Aytoun, 
Battles of Scotl., vol. i., p. 14. 

" In the slaughter-house oifelles, v." Sheep Bill of Sir John Spencer, 
1580, in Northamptonshire Notes and Queries, vol. i., p. 37. The editor 
says that these felks are I suppose fleeces. This is clearly an error. 

FELL, adj. Fatal, deadly, savage, fierce. 

I shall look as fell as a bull at Scawby man next time he cums. 
Bottesford, 1887. 

It's a very fell complaaint. 

"He hath made his gentle father the fellest man in the world." 
Bernard, Terence, 382. 

" Bees is as fellas owt." Tennyson, Northern Farmer, No. 2. 

FELL, v. To cause to fall ; commonly confined to felling 
timber, knocking down one you have a quarrel with, and 
the killing of oxen. 

FELLING AXE. An axe with a Jong and narrow head used 
for felling trees. 


FELLOE. The pieces of wood which form the rim a of 
wheel are called felloes. There are six of them in a 
common cart-wheel of twelve spokes, but seven if the 
wheel have fourteen spokes. 

FELLON. (i) A whitlow. 
(2) A disease in cattle. 

FELLOW-FOND, adj. Amorous ; said of women. 
FELTER, v. To entangle. 
FELTERIC. A disease in horses. 

FEND, v. To support. 

Noht bud a few rabbits can fend o' Alkborough hill sides e' a dry 

" The Otterburn is a bonnie burn, 

'Tis pleasant there to be ; 
But there is nought at Otterburn 
To fend my men and me." 

Battle of Otterburn, Aytoun Ballads ofScotL, 
vol. i., p. 15. 

FEND AND PROVE, v. To argue ; to endeavour to prove or 

I niver goa near hand him at 'lection times, he's alus fendin' an' 
provin' aboot Mr. Gladstone. Said of the author July i, 1886. 

" To fend and prove," i.e., to wrangle vitilitigo, altercor. Adam 
Littleton's Lat. Diet., 1735, sub. voc. 

FEND FOR ONE'S SELF. To provide for one's self; to be 
dependent on no one. 

He's fended for his sen sin' he was sixteen year ohd. 
" Peter's children went out one by one into the world to fend for 
themselves.' 1 Laurence Cheny, Ruth and Gabriel, vol. i., p. 34. 

FENIAN. This word, though usually employed in its current 
modern sense, is by mental confusion sometimes used for 

Them ohd hens set on poor bo'd like a pack o' Fenians. Bottesford t 

FENT. (i) A remnant of cloth. 
(2) The binding of a woman's dress. 

FERMEL. Formal. 

She dress'd her girls so plaain an' fermal. 

FERRER. A cask having iron hoops. 


FERRET, v. To worry. 

Mr. C he puts his head oher th' pew top, an' he says 

" Mr. S is dead." He meant it well, but I was soa on it 

'at I hed n't been to see him, I felt quite upset ; it ferrcttcd me all 

FEST. Fasten-penny, q.v. 

FETCH. A dodge. 

He goas reg'lar to chech an' chapil, that's a fetch o' his to mak 
foaks believe in him. 

FETCH, v.(i) To give. 

Hefetch'd him a clink oher th' side o' th' head. 
(2) To draw the breath with difficulty. 

I could tell ther was sum'ut bad th' matter, he fetch'd so. 

FETCH OFF, v. To cause to come off. 

This damp weather hesfetch'd all th' paaper off o' th' parlour walls. 

FETTLE. Condition, order. 

His land's alus e' good fettle, let seasons cum what thaay've a mind. 
How are you to-daay, Mary ? Oh, I'm nobbut e' poor fettle thenk 

FETTLE, FETTLE UP, v. -To furbish, put in order, make 
clean, make tidy, repair. 

We mun hev oor plaace fettled up afoore th' feast . 
" Then John bent up his long bende-bowe, 
Andfetteled him to shoote." 

Robin Hood and Guy of Gisbovne, 1. 65. 

FETTLE STRAP. The strap which sustains a pannier. 



FEZZAN (fez-n). A pheasant. 

FEZZON ON, v. To seize with violence, as a dog seizes a 

FIDDLE, v. (i) To touch or handle anything in a purposeless 

(2) To fiddle on the right or the wrong string is to say some- 
thing very appropriate, or very much the reverse. 

" He's hing'd his fiddle up o' th' door-sneck," means that he is in a 
very bad temper. 

He can tell sum real good taales when he's upo' his roonds, bud 
ther's them 'at knaws says he alus hangs up fiddle when he gets hoam. 


FIDDLE ABOUT, v. To waste time. 

Them men we send to Parliament fiddles aboot wi' Bradlaugh an' 
Ireland estead o' gettin' on wi' business. 


FIDDLERS'-MONEY. Groats, threepenny pieces, pennies, 
half-pence, and farthings, small change such as is given to 
wandering musicians. 

FIDDLES. Water-figwort, Scrophularia aquatica, the stalks of 
which children rub together for the sake of producing a 
squeaking sound, which they think musical. 

FIDDLESTICKS. Interjection, expressive of contemptuous 

Maid Servant : Oh, m'm, I've just seen Mrs. Slarum up o' th' chease- 
chaamber steps. 

Mistress : Fiddlesticks I It 's a bag of bread meal. Northorpe, circa 

FID FAD, v. To waste time. 

She's alus fid-faddiri efter th' chaps e'stead o' mindin' her wark. 

FIDGETS. (i) A tingling sensation in the limbs. 
(2) A fidgety person. 

FIECE (fees), adj. Fierce. 

FIELD. (i) The correct meaning is unenclosed land under 
plough, as Haxey Field, Scotton Field. 

(2) In common speech it now is often used for Close, q.v. 

FIERCE, adj. (i) Pleasurably excited. 

Thoo's fine an' fierce oher that bairn o' thine, Mary. 
(2) Eager ; impetuous. 

If thoo's soa fierce oher thy wark e' th' mornin', thoo'll be daul'd oot 
afoore neet. 

FIGUREIN'. Arithmetic. 

He's to noa moore ewse aifigurein' then a bee-skep is to plug a bung- 
hoale." Wroot, 1878. 

FILLERS IN. Small stones in the inside of a rubble wall. 

FILLY-TAILS. Greymare-tails ; long clouds, which are 
believed to presage wind. See HEN-SCRATTINS. 

FILTH. Parasites which infest men, animals and vegetables 
in great numbers. 

Roase-treas is cuver'd wi' filth to-year. 


FILTHY. Infested with parasites. 

FIMBLE-HEMP. i.e., Female hemp, but really the male plant. 

FINAKIN (fin.ukin), adj. Giving much attention to small 

He's a very good soort on a man, but he hes such finahin' waays I 
can't live wi' him. 

FIND (with i short). Find. 

FIND HIM OUT. That is, retribution will follow. 

It's a scan'lous thing ; but niver fear you waait a bit, it'll find him oot 

FIND HIMSELF. A servant finds himself when he provides 
his own food and lodging. 

" By husbandry of such as God her sent, 
She found herself & eke her doughters two." 

Chaucer, Nounes Priestes Tale, 1. 9. 

FINELY, adv. Healthily, successfully, rapidly. 

Thaay're gettin' on finely wi' diggin'iron-stoan at Frodingham. 

FINGERS AND TOES. A disease in turnips caused by a 
small insect piercing the tap-root and causing it to branch, 
producing instead of a bulb something not very much 
unlike human fingers and toes. 

"They complain much of the distemper called fingers and toes ; the 
roots, instead of swelling, running into strings of that form, and rot 
and come to nothing." Arthur Young, Line. Agric., 1799, p. 136. 

" Turnips are not much sown on account of their liability to produce 
fingers and toes." J. A Clarke, Farming in Lincolnshire, 1852, p. 102. 
Spence's Observations on the Disease in Turnips called Fingers and Toes, 
Hull, 1812, is referred to in Kirby and Spence's Introdnc. to Entomology, 
vi. ed., vol. i., p, 154. Cf. Fred James Lloyd, Science of Agriculture, 
1844, p. 257. See CLUB. 

FINGER STALL. A rim of metal worn by women on the 
finger to hinder thread from cutting in sewing. See HOVEL, 

FIRE, THE. Syphilis. 

FIRE, BACK. (i) The iron or brick-work at the back of a 

(2) The back part of a fire, or the fire generally. 

It's good to noht at all; you may fling it upo' ^ fire back. 

FIRE-BAUK. The beam in the front of an open chimney on 
which the wall is built. 


FI REBOOT. The right to take wood for burning. 

" 12 carect. subbosci pro le heybote el octo focal, pro fyrbot." Lease 
of the Manor of Scatter, 1484. 

"To have, perceive, and take in and upon the aforesaid premises 
sufficient houseboot, hedgeboot, fircboot." Lease of Lands in Brumby, 
1716; Cf. Archaologia, vol. x., p. 443; Scroggs' Practice of Courts Leet 
and Courts Baron, p. 208. 

FIRE-POTTER. A fire-poker. 

FIRE-SCONCE. (i) An iron basket used for containing a 
fire out of doors. 

(2) A fire-screen. See Notes and Queries, V s -, vol. ii., p. 207. 

FIRE-STEAD. (i) A fire-place. 

(2) A place where a fire is made out of doors. 

FIRING. Fuel. 

FIRING-IRON. An instrument with which horses are fired. 

FIRM. A form, a bench. 

Draw ih' firm to, lads, an' let's hev wer suppers. 

" Item, iwofirmes, iiijs." Inventory of Sir William Fairfax of Gillenge, 
1594, in Archceologia, vol. xlviii., p. 125. 

FIRST AND LAST. The sign of a public-house at Kirton- 
in-Lindsey, near the railway station. It is believed that 
this sign originated with the introduction of railways. 

FIRST BEGINNING. The beginning. 

Th'/o'stf beginning of the row was sum'ut 'at happen'd at Gaainsb'r. 

FIRST BLUSH. The first impression. 

At th' first blush I thoht it was a lee, but I soon fun oot it was all 
trew enif. 

FIRST END. The beginning of a thing. 
It's at th'fo'st end o' th' book. 

FIRST OFF. The beginning of any business. 

At th'/o's^c^he did middlin' well, bud in a bit he taaper'd off to noht 
at all. 

FISH,- A small silvery insect, probably in a larval state, which 
eats wood, paper, and parchment. 

Me an' my lad hed to shift a lot o'ohd paapers an' things at . . ., 
an' we fun' th' fishes hed eaten an' spoilt lots on 'em, 


FIT, adj.- In 2. fit condition for anything; ready, ripe, cooked. 
My heiid aches_/^ to split. 
Is them caakes fit ? 

Corn'll befit in anuther weak if it hohds warm. 
I'm fit to faaint. 

I'm fit to think it'll raiiin though th' glass keiips steady. 
" So they were all fit to go together by the ears." Diary of Abraham 
tie la Pry me (Surtees Soc.), p. 10. 

FIT, v.(i) To suit. 

I wo'd n't leave here at noht, I'm }\ist fitted wheare I am. 

(2) Fought. 

FITTING, adj. Properly, orderly, modest. 

It is n't fittm' for a yung woman to be walkin' oot wi' a yung man 
unless thaay be reg'lar sweathearts. 

FITTY, FITTIES. The outmarsh, or land lying between the 
sea or Humber and the bank, generally intersected by 
numerous reticulating creeks. 

FIVE-LEAVED GRASS. Potentilla reptans. 

FIX, v. To arrapge, to appoint. 
l\& fixed dinner for one o'clock. 

FIXED OFF, TO BE. To be furnished with, or attached to 
something which is very inconvenient, disagreeable, or 

If you was fixed off, Mr. Peacock, wi' a wife such as I've getten, I 
maake noa doot you'd leather her sumtimes. Messingham, May, 1875. 

FIXINGS. Arrangements, embellishments, trimmings, as the 
fixings for a Church opening, or of a dinner table. 

FIXMENT. (i) A dilemma. 

(2) A contemptuous term for any construction that .will not 
act or acts very badly. 

Squire Heala' hed a thing for cat chin' th' flees 'at eats yung to'nups. 
Such 'n afixment as you niver seed. It was to noa ewse at all. 

(3) The furniture of a house. 

"Completely swallowed up the whole of his little fixment" Stamford, 
Mercury, August 20, 1875. 

FIXMENTS. The tools of a workman. 

FIZGIG. An ugly woman ; a woman dressed in a strange or 
unbecoming manner. 

FIZOG, lit. Physiognomy; the face. 

FIZZLE-FARTING JOB. Tedious and unprofitable labour. 


FIZZLE-UP, v. To be sharp, lively. Boys playing at taw 
(q.v.), one says to another " cum, fizzle-up" 

FLABBERG ASTER, y.-To astonish. 

FLACKER, v.(i) To throb, to flutter. 

Well R . . . . how is your wife's foot ? Why m'm, it seam'd 
a deal better, but last neet she said 'at it flacker d sorely." 

(2) To hesitate. 

FLACKET. A little barrel or a leather bottle shaped like one 
used by harvest men for beer. 

" yj lether flacketts." Inventory of John Nevill of Falding-worth, 1590. 

FLAG, v. To pave with flags. 

FLAGS, s. pi. (i) Stone slabs used for paving footways, &c. 

(2) The footways so paved. 

(3) The iris, or fleur-de-lys, sword-grass, reeds, and other 
such-like plants which grow in or near water. 

" There are 100 swathes of marish grasse and flaggs in the West 
Carr." Norden's Survey of the Manor of Kirton in Lindsey, 1616, p. 22. 

FLAKE. A fence-hurdle. See FLEAK. 
FLAM. A falsehood told in jest. 
FLAMMATION. Inflammation. 

FLANDERS CHEST (obsolete). Chests so named are 
common in wills and inventories. 

" Lego Roberto filio meo, meam optimam ollam eneam & meam 
optiman patillam eneam & unam mensam flandrensem & meam optimam 
cistam flandrensem." Will of William Ely ton of Kirton-in-Lindsey, 1507. 

" One oke pannell chiste, one fflaunders chist." Inventory of Thomas 
Teanby of Barton-on-Humber, 1652. 

It is probable that flandevs does not in all cases indicate that these 
chests were of Flemish manufacture, but only that they were carved, or 
otherwise ornamented, after the manner of the Flemings. 

FLAP. An instrument with which butchers kill flies. A 
" Wapfly," q.v. 

" Seek a defence, 

In the great shambles, from the butcher's flap, 
That kills whole hundreds like a thunder-clap." 

John Ogilby, Fables of SEsop, 1665, p. 80. 

FLAP, v. (i) To throw down any flat thing in such a way as 
to make a noise. 

He flapped th' newspaaper doon upo' th' floor. 

(2) To crush, to rumple. 

"The maid out of hope to please her went to bed, leaving the ruffe 
flapt together as her mistress had stamped it," 'Richard Cukner, 
Cathedral N ewes from Canterbury, 1644, p. 5. 


FLAP-JACK. A pancake. 

" Puddings and flap-jacks " Pericles, Act ii., sc. i. 

FLASH. A sheet of shallow water. There is a mere called 
Ferry Flash, near Hardwick Hill. 

FLASKER, v. To flutter as a bird. 
FLAWPS. An idle person. 
FLAWPY, adj. Idle, foolish. 

FLAXMEN. (i) Persons who rent land for a single season 
for the purpose of growing flax. 

"Let it to flaxmen at 3 or ^"4 per acre." Arthur Young, Line. 
Agric., 1799, p. 197. 

(2) Men who work flax. See LINEMAN. 

FLEABANE. Erigeroii acyis ; it is believed to kill or drive 
away fleas. 

FLEA-BITE. Some trouble, accident, or misfortune which is 
of but slight consequence. 

He lost five pund wi' th' job, but that's nobbud a. flea-bite to a man 
like him. 

She alus hes such easy times when she gets her bed, why it's nobbud 
like a flea-bite to her. 

FLEAK. A hurdle of woven twigs, commonly hazel. The 
difference between a tray (q.v.) and a fledk is that the 
former is made of wooden bars mortised into the heads, 
and the latter of wicker-work. The distinction is old. 

We find in the Louth Churchwarden's Account, 1505, "traas and/f/ys," 
spoken of as separate things, vol. i., p. 113. See FLAKE. 

FLEAM. (i) An instrument for bleeding horses. See 

(2) Phlegm. 

FLECK. A spot, commonly a large and irregular one. 

Them harvist-bugs hes maade big flecks cum oot all oher my airms. 

Th' feaver broht oot red flecks all oher his body. 

It's a han'sum chimla'-peace, back marble wi' yd.\\a? flecks in it. 

FLECK, v.(i) To spot, to be spotted. 

Mind you doant fleck th' paaper upo' th 1 wall wi' that whitenin*. 

A woman describing a damask table-cloth with a cloud-like ornament 
in it said, " ther' was noii pattern but it wasfleck'd all oher. 

Was that Mr. Fox's bull 'at brok into th' Well-Yard ? Ey, if it 
wer a red-fack'd un ; if it wer a white poll'd un it wod be Gibson 


" To Wylliam Baynton, sone of John Baynton, one flekyd qwee." 
Will of William Rananl, of Appleby, 1542. 

" The horse eke that his yeman rode upon, 
So swatte, that unnethes might he gon. 
About the peytrel stode the fome ful hie, 
He was of fome as flecked as a pie." 

Chaucer, The Canones Yemannes Tale Prol. 

(2) To blow into fragments. A term used in shooting. 

That bod's fleck' d all to peaces. 

(3) To flutter, to throb. 

My thumb, I knew it was getherin' \t fleck'd soa. 

FLEE. (i) A Fly. Scawby feast ^is held in October. The 
reason why flies disappear at this time is because they are 
all made into pies for that festival. 

(2) The flee signifies the turnip-fly, a small beetle which does 
much damage to the young turnips as soon as they come up. 
" The turnip fly is a little jumping beetle, Haltica Nemorum, some- 
times also the allied species, Haltica Concinna" Kirby and Spence, 
Introdnc. to Entomology, Sixth Ed., vol. i., p. 153. 

FLEE-BLAWN. (i) Fly-blown. 
(2) Damaged in character. 

He was a-fool to marry aflee-blawn bitch like that. 

FLEER. A mock ; a jibe. 

She's niver reight bud when she's flingin' oot her fleers at sum on us. 

FLEER, v. To mock, to jibe at. 

" Shall we suffer him to get away so much money from vs, to fleer & 
geere at vs in euery corner ?" Bernard, Terence, p. 424. 

FLEET. A drain. 

" A new and sufficient head like unto Stockwith new fleet shall [be] 
made and lade there." Sewers Inquisition, 1583, p. 8. 

There is a drain called the Fleet-dyke at S&lt-Jtetby. Compare Fleet 
Street in London, which is so called from the Fleet Ditch. 

FLEET-HOLE. A hole or hollow left by a drain having been 
diverted, or a bank having broken and washed away the 

" The West channel would then naturally warp up, and leave what 
is usually termed in such cases a. fleet hole." Stonehouse, Hist, of Isle 
>--* of Axholme, p. 263. 

" The inhabitants of Essex have a particular way of draining lands in 
such grounds as lye below the high-water, and somewhat above the low- 
water mark, that have land-floods or fleets running thro' them, which 
make a kind of small creek." Dictionarium Rusticnm, 1726, sub voce 

FLESH. Flesh-meat ; butchers'-meat as distinguished from 



FLESHER. A butcher (obsolete). 

" And Volero, theflesher, his cleaver in his hand." 

Macaulay. Lays of Ancient Rome, Virginia. 

FLESH-FLY. The common blue-bottle. 

FLESH-RENT. Laceration of muscular fibres from a strain. 

FLICK. A flitch of bacon. 

A child coming late to Winterton school, on being asked by her 
teacher whether she could not have looked at the clock, replied, 
" Pleas' m'm, muther hes hing'd a. flick o' baacon afoore it." 

FLICK, v. To lash very slightly with a whip. 
Flick that theare cleg fra off Ranger head. 

It's that hot I'm oher idled to flick flees awaay fra my meat. 
July 4, 1886. 

FLIG'D (fligd ),/>/. Fledged, said of young birds. 

FLING, r. To throw aside. 

It's a curus thing, whatsoiver soort on a hoss ohd Potter got, it 
was sewer to fling him upo' a Tuesda' cummin' fra Gaainsbr' Markit. 
He could sit a hoss well enif at uther times ; I can't tell what was 
meant on it. Northorpe, 1848. 

FLING OUT, v. To kick, said of horses. 

FLING UP. (i) To repudiate a bargain. 

(2) To cast upon a person odium for long past errors. 

It's not fair to fling up at th' ohd man what he said oher fifty year 

(3) To vomit. 

FLIPE. (i) A flap. 

(2) The brim of a hat. 

(3) The tail or lap of a coat. 

FLIT, v. To remove from one house, or place, to another. 

Upo' th' east side o' th' Trent sarvants flits the'r plaaces at Maay- 
da'-time, but e' th' Isle it's at Martlemas. 

" It was a goodly heape for to behould, 
And spake the praises of the workman's witt : 
But full great pittie, that so fair a mould 
Did on so weak foundation ever sitt : 
For on a sandie hill, that still did flitt 
And fall away, it mounted was full hie." 

Spencer, Faerie Queene, Book I., c. iv., st. 5. 


FLITE, v. To mock, to sneer at. 

I niver pass her but shejlites me wi' sum slither or aiuther. 

Bernard uses flite in a somewhat different sense. 

" Jurgavit cum eo. He didflite or chide with him." Terence, p. 79. 


FLOCK-BED. A bed stuffed with tailors' clippings that is, 
bits of waste cloth. A wool flock-bed is one stuffed with 
locks (q.v.) 

FLODGE. A puddle. 

" He himself saw and beheld, in all the gutters and rivulets of water 
in the streets, and in the /lodges, great quantities of little young jacks, 
or pickerels." Diary of Abraham de la Pryme (Surtees Soc.), p. 81. 

" Here and there miniature lakes, which we, Lincolnshire men, call 
flodges, stretched across the whole path." Ralph Skerlaugh, vol. i., 
P. 195- 

FLOES (floaz.) Great sheets of ice in the Trent and Humber. 
FLOOD. The tide. 

FLOOD O, FLOOD A HOY, interj. Exclamation on the 
appearance of the tide in the Trent. 

FLOOR. (i) A measure of capacity used in earthwork ; 400 
cubic feet. 

(2) Anything level and flat whereon a person or thing stands 

as the ground, a road, the bottom of a cart. 

If ta' duz n't mind thoo'll hev that theare furk up o' th' floor ; that 
is, will drop it from a stack upon the ground. 

FLOOR, v.(i) To knock down. 
(2) To overcome an argument. 

FLOORER. (i) A blow that knocks a person down. 

(2) A convincing argument 
I heard him speak at Mess 
awaay, " Well, this is a floorer for them blews." July 4, 1886. 

I heard him speak at Messingham o' Frida', an^ I says efter I cum'd 
", this 

FLOP. A sound like liquid jerked in a cask ; the sound that 
a flat body makes when falling into water; the dull noise 
made by a heavy body, such as a sack of corn, or a fat 
man, falling from a considerable height. 

Th' tenter hook brok', an' th' ham fell doon wi' a great fop uro' th' 
floor an' crack'd th' plaaister. 

FLOT, v. To fidget, as a horse does that is kept waiting. 
She'd be a good little mare if she didn't flot soa at startin' 


FLOUR-BALLS. A kind of potatoe. 

FLOUT.- -Perhaps the same as FLEET. 

" One sewer in Scotter Ings at the ould jlont shall be sufficiently 
diked." Sewers Inquisition, 1583, p. 8. 

FLOUTER (flout'ur). A flutter. 

I was in aflotiter when I heard that th' bank hed bick'. 

FLOUTER, v. To flutter. 

FLOWERING, FLOWERS. The paste ornaments on the 
crust of a raised pie. Ashby, December 4, 1874. 

FLOWER PLANTS. Domesticated flowering plants in house 
or garden. 

I ax'd him if he could sea flooer-plants i' \vinda', an' he said, "Noa," 
soa I expect he hes n't reight ewse o' his ees yit. M. T., 1886. 

FLUKES, Hydatids. Animals of a bladder-like 
shape found in the livers of rotten sheep. 

(2) Large maggots. 

(3) A kind of potato. The variety and the name are said to 
have originated in Lancashire. 

FLUMMOXED,//. Defeated in argument. 

FLUSH, v. (i) To cause to grow. 

This supo' raain hesflush'd th' gress nistly. 

(-2) To disturb, to frighten game or vermin. 

Joseph Jackson flush' d eaghty-three rats oot on one stack. 

(3) To clear a drain by holding up the water and then letting 
it go with a rush. 

FLUSH OF MONEY. Having plenty of money at comrrland. 

He's gotten a big property, bud he is n't very flush of money. 
" When thus the knight -was flush of money." Edw. Ward, Don Quixote, 
1711, vol. i., p. 261. 

FLUSH WI', FLUSH BY. Even with. 

Watter was flush by th' bank top ; if ony moore raain hed cum'd it 
wo'd ha' been oher. 

FLUSKER. (i) A flutter; a fuss, a bustle. 

She was in a biggish flush er when she fun' that the'r landlord was 
cumin' to see 'em. 

(2) The noise that a bird, more especially one of the larger 
sort c , makes in rising for fligh f . 


FLUSKER, ?. To fluster. 

You mo'iin'tflusker them hens doon noo that thaay're goan to bed 
if ta' duz thaay'll lose ther sens. 

" Not a sound was there heard, save a blackbird or thrush, 
That startled from sleep, flusker'd out of a bush." 

John Clare, Crazy Nell. 

FLUTHER. (i) To fly out in a disorderly manner, used in 

relation to birds and featherlike objects. 
(2) To flurry. 
FLY. The turnip-fly. 

FLY-BE-SKY. A gaudily dressed woman. 

She was ribbins an' floonces fra head to fut when she run'd awaay wi' 
anuther woman husband. I says it's abargans what end cums fo'st to a 
fly-be-sky like that. June, 1886. 

FLYER. The fan-wheel of a wind-mill, that turns the sails to 
the wind. The part of a spinning-wheel armed with hooks, 
used for guiding the thread to the twill or spool. 

FLYING-HORSE SOVEREIGNS. Sovereigns with the 
Saint George and the Dragon on the reverse. 

FOAK, FOAKS. Folk, folks. 

Fodk is occasionally heard, but/oaks is the usual form, being always 
used in phrases equivalent to " they say." 

Them is queer fodks at ... an" noa mistaake ! 
Fodks says 'at goodness brings it awn reward, bud I saay bad uns 
hes best time on it here onywaays. 

FOAL FOOT. Colts' foot, tussilago farfara. 

Robert Burton enumerates " foalefoot " among plants good for the 
lungs. Anat. Mel., 1624, p. 300. 

FOAST (foast),^. Forced. 

FODDER. A certain weight of lead ; Cf. E.D.S., Gl. B. 9, 
Bailey Diet., ed. 1749, sub voc., Archtfologia, vol. v., p. 374. 

FODDIN, FODDUN. Contraction of the Christian name 

Foddin Moody ewsed rnoastlins to buy Mr. Peacock line. 

FOG. (i) The rough coarse grass which is found in pastures 
in the spring, which cattle will not eat unless suffering from 
scarcity of food. 
(2) The latter-grass, after-math, or eddish. 

" Fog for 60 head of cattle." Crowle Advertiser, Oct. 19, 1878. 
" A fogge or aftergrasse of hey." Henry Hexham, Netlierdnytch 
Diet., 1660. 

The earliest instance I have met with of this word occurs in Early 
English Alliterative Poems in the West Midland Dialect of the Fourteenth 
Cent. (E E> T, S.) The writer is telling of what befal Nebuchadnezzar ; 


" His hert heldt vnhole, he hoped non 'o ber 
Bot a best bat he be, a boll ober 'an oxe. 
He fares forth on alle fa.ure,fogge wat} his mete, 
& ete ay as a horce when erbes was fallen, 
bus he countes him a kow, bat wat? a kyng ryche." 

p. 88, 1. 1683. 

FOHD. A fold. 

You mun get afohd setten for them sheap afoore neet. 

" For dyking atfoudes, viijs. " Kirton-in-Limhey Ch. Ace., 1565. 

FOHD -GARTH, FOHD -YARD. A bedded farm-yard in 
which stock is kept. 

FOIST, adj.(i) Damp. 

A foist day. 

Them cloas is foist yit, hing 'em to th' fire agean. 

(2) Stale, unwholesome, clammy. Applied to uncooked 
animal food. 

FOLDBOOT. The right of taking wood for the construction 
of cattle-folds. 

" Also competent and sufficient hedgebote and foldbote." Lease of 
Lands in Brumby, 1758. 

FOLDBREACH. The act of forcibly taking stock from a 

"Of William Steeper for a foldbreacJi, iiis. iiijd." Kirton-in-Lindscy 
Fine Roll, 1637. 

FOLLOW, v. (i) To practise a trade, profession, or art. 
He did keap a public, but noo he folia's mohdin'. 
" I follow fowling and fishing." Geo. Pryme, Autobiographic Recollec- 
tions, p. 146. 

(2) To make love to. 

Thaay saay as Jim folia's Mary Anne ; but, braade o' me, noht '11 
cum on it, 'cos boath Squire an' her faather is sore setten agean him. 

FOLLOWER. (i) A foal, calf, or lamb, while it follows its 

In 1597 William Dinedyne, of Scotter, was fined iijs. iiijd-, because 
he permitted " unum le followers " to trespass in the sown fields there. 
Manor Roll Sub. Ann. 

" Yows an' their followeys was uncommon low last Ketton market." 
5th May, 1875. 

(2) The acknowledged lover of a maid servant. 

(3) A thorn or briar which has attached itself to a woman's 

crop, the produce of which, exclusive of straw, belongs to a 
farmer after he has left his farm, 


FOLLY. A building considered by the neighbours to be 
absurdly constructed or out of character with the object for 
which it was built, or the conditions of the builder. There 
is an eighteenth-century house on the Trent bank near 
Susworth, the popular name of which is " Carnley's Folly." 
A row of houses at Winterton, called " Bonby Folly" or 
" Bonby Fancy," was built by a Bonby man. Matthew, of 
Westminster mentions under the year 1228, that a castle 
built by the Hubert de Burgh was called " Hubert's Folly." 

" Propter ipsum castrum Stultitiam Hubert! appellarunt." Flons 
Historiarum, ed. 1601, p. 287. 

At a place near Swanscombe, Kent, is an earth-work called The Folly. 
The ancient roads from Winchester and Salisbury crossed each other 
at a place called Folly Farm. Gent. Mag. Lib., Rom. Brit. Rem, ii., 
448, 530. Cf. Artkaologia, vol. xxxv., p. 393. Hist. MSS., Com. Rep. 
vii., p. 442, col. i. T. L. Peacock, Gryll Grange, chap. iii. 

FON,/#. Found. 

FOND, fl^'. Foolish, half-witted. 

I've heard on a many soft things e' my time, bud niver noht hairf soa 
fond as this row is aboot th' Ows'on graave-stoan. May, 1875. 

As fond as th' men of Belton 'at hing'd a sheap for stealin' a man. 

" The Romish doctrine concerning Purgatory . . . is a fond 
thing, vainly invented." Thirty-nine Articles, Art. xxii. 

FONDY. A fool ; a simpleton. 
FOOL. A fowl. 

FOOL, adj. Foul, ugly, disgusting. 
FOOND. Found. 

FOOT (foot). The oo frequently long as in boot. 
To knit afoot to a stocking. 

FOOT-BRIG. A foot-bridge. 

" Down lane and close, o'er foot-brig gate and stile." John Clare 
Shepherd's Calendar, p. 32. 

FOOTEN, v. To trace by the foot-marks. 
It'll be bad tofutten 'em th' land's soa dry. 

FOOT FOLKS. Persons who go on foot. 

As well as gentlemen that rid an' druv ther was a sight o' foot fodks 
caame an' all. 

" Fot-folk |>at come to & fro." Rob. Manning of Brunne, Story of 
Engl. t i., 390. 

FOOTING. (i) Money paid by apprentices, or a new man, on 
entering on a job. 


(2) The first layer of rough stones in a wall wider than the 
wall itself. 

(3) Rank. 

He's not on afnttin wi' th' gentlemen. 

(4) A foot-print. 

" Can't miss 'em if we nobut follow the footins." Ralf Shrrlanqh, 
vol. ii., p. 181. 

FOOT IT, v. To walk. 

Well, as th" carrier's goan I reckon I mun fut it. 

FOOT ROT. A disease in the feet of sheep. 

One o' my bairns hes nearly kill'd his sen ; he got to a pot o' foot-rot 
stuff as I keep e' th' dairy an' thoht it was summut sweat like an' 
begun of eatin' it. 

FOOT-TROD. A foot-path. 
FOOT-UP, v. To add up an account. 
FOR, adj. Far. See below. 

FOR, prep. (i) Going towards. 

" Where is ta for?" " I'm bun' for Norumby ; how fur is it off?" 
(2) In spite of. 

I'll do hfor all you saay. 

FORCE PUT. A necessity. 

I should n't hev fall'd oot wi' him if it hed n't cum to a real force put. 

FORE END. (i) Beginning. 

Bottesworth feast is e' th' foore end o' harvist. 

(2) The front. 

Foore end o' th' cart. 

(3) The spring. 

It was sumtime e' th' foore end afoore Maa'da' as I seed her last. See 

FORE-ENDS. The best corn ; that is the grains which fall at 
the fore-end when corn is winnowed. See HINDERENDS. 

FORE-HAND, adj. Beforehand. 

FORE-HORSE. The first horse in a team. 

FOREIGN, adj. Not from the immediate neighbourhood. 

FOREIGNER. (i) A person or thing not belonging to the 
immediate neighbourhood. It is not meant thereby that 
they come from over-sea lands, but only that they are 
strangers to the immediate district, 


' I think he cum'd fra Raasen, bud it might be CaaisLor, onywaays 
he was a foreigner." W. S. Yaddlethorpe, 1887. 

" She's Yerksheer-bred ye see, an them foreigners is alus offil e' ther 
tempers." John Markenfield, j. 135. Cf. Parish, Sussex Dialect, sub 
voc., Foreigner; Archceologia xiij., 315. 

(2) A person whose cattle stra) 7 s in a manor wherein he does 
not live, and in which he holds no common-right. 


FORESHORE. That part of the side of a tidal river which 
is submerged at high tide, but dry when the water is low. 

FORESIDE. In front. 

Ther's a many pretty flooers up o' th' fooreside o' his hoose. 
"The Colonell perceiving the garden wall . . . too high to be 
entred on the foreside, found a way to get into it on the backside." 
Relation of the Action before Cyrencester, 1642, p. 8. 

FORETURNS. The angular pieces in the soles of a waggon, 
used to provide a place for the fore-wheel to go into when 
the waggon turns. 

FOR GOOD AND ALL. For ever. 

" It's no ewse dally in' as if you could reightle things efter a bit, at 
noos an' thens ony time. Remember th' script urs says, if God damns 
you it '11 stan' for a doin'. He's of ens a long time aboot it consitherin' 
like but \\hen he duz damn, he damns for good an' all." Local 
Preacher's Sermon in Messingham Methodist Chapel , circa 1842. 

FORKIN-ROBIN. An earwig. 

FORM. (i) Way, manner. 

If ye want to get on wi' yer wark ye mun do it e' this form. 
I'm e' noa form for singin' to-neet," said by a man who had a 
bad cold. 

(2) A bench or seat. 

" Wintertonne . . . the roode loft taken downe in Anno 1563, 
and formes and seate[s] in our churche made thereof." Invent of Line. 
Ch. Goods, 1566, p. 164. 

(3) The seat of a hare. 

FORTNIT. A fortnight. 

It's zfortnit cum Thursda' sin I seed him. 

" I tooke her (the clock) all in peses and fyld her new, and had a 
fortnet work about her." Kirton-in-Lindsey Ch. Ace., 1582. 

" Hee is to have a.fortnit's time to give his answer." Document of 1653 
in Cox and Hope's Hist, of All Saints', Derby, p. 22. 

FORTUNE, FOTUN (fot-un), v. To chance, to happen. 

If it fotuns I'm at next Ketton 't Andra' fair; I'll go sea Mary 

" If it fortune that the said rente . . . to be behinde," Lease of 
Manor of Scotter, 1537, 


FORWARD. A visitor is requested to " walk forward " when 
coming in-doors is meant. 

FORTY-FOOT. A right of forty-foot which the tenants of 
certain manors had over the soil of an adjoining manor. 
This right se^ms to have existed on the commons only, 
not in the open fields. It may have originated in the 
necessity of digging sods for making banks or division 

FO'ST (fost). First. 

Fo's; cumfo'st sarved. 

FOSTER. Forester (Obsolete). 

" No man shall . . . gette anie woode in the Lordes wood with- 
out leave of the Lorde or his lawful /oster." Scatter Manor Roll, 1578. 
" A. home he bare, the bauldrick was of grene, 
A foster was he, soothly as I gesse." 

Chaucer, Prologue to Cant. Tales. 

Foster is a local surname which may be traced back to an early 
period. There is no reason to suppose that the Fosters here are of kin 
with the north country families of Foster, Forster, or Forrester. 

FOTHER. (i) Fodder for cattle. 
(2) A certain weight of lead. 

" For three father of lead iijs. iiijf" Gainsburgh Ch. Ace., 1614, in 
Stark's Hist. Gainsb., p. 95. See FODDER. 

FOTHER, i-. To fodder, i.e. to give food to cattle. 
" With her mantle tucked up 
Shee fathered her flocke." 

Percy Folio, Loose Songs, p. 58. 

FOTHERUM. The room in which fodder is kept. 

FOT'NATE, adj. Fortunate. 


FO'TUN. Fortune. 

He'd a big fo'tun left him, but it will all be goan e' a quick-stick. 

FO'TY.- Forty. 

FOUL. (i) Ugly, disgusting. 

It's as /owMookin' a plaace as iver I seed." 
(2) Angry, bad tempered. 

He's a straange foul chap when onybody duz n't suit him. 
^ He was that foul aboot gravil leadin 'at I went my waays an' left 

FOUL-FINGERED, adj. Thievish, 


FOUL-TONGUED, adj. Given to bad language. 

She's as foul-tung'd a woman as iver cross'd ony mans' door-threstle. 

FOUTY. Musty. 
POWER (fou-ur). Four. 

FOWER-LAANE-ENDS. Cross-roads. 

They fun some men's boans at th' fower-laane-ends up o' Yalthrup 
Hill ; I reckon thaay hed belong'd to sumbody 'at hed maade an end o' 
his sen. 

"A certain esquire on the Baron's side was also slain in the 
action ... he being also anathematized, was interred at a four- 
lane-end without the city." Samuel Pegge, in Archaologia, vol. 
viij., p. 203. 

FOX, v. To carry one drain under another by means of a 
tunnel of wood or masonry. 

FOXY, adj. Decayed, rancid. 

Turnips when they turn leathery are said to be foxy. 
"The substance will be what is termed foxy." R. W. Dickson, 
Practical Agriculture, 1807, vol xi., p. 260. 

FRk,prep. From. 

" Wheare's ta cum/ra ? " In Havelok the form is fro. 

FRAID, FOR FRAID , is frequently used instead of the 
phrase " for fear." 

If I was you, Maaster Edward, I wodn't talk e' that waay aboot 
coffins an' dead foaks boans, an 1 them soort o' things, for frdaid. One 
niver knaws what'll come next, or what maks things come. 
She weant goa by trip-tr&ains for fraaid o' sum'ats happenin'. 

FRAIL, adj. Weak in mind or body ; fragile in construction 
or condition. 

FRAME, v. To set about a thing, to contrive, to do a job in a 
workmanlike manner. 

He hes n't been at it long, but he fraames well enif. 
Noo then, fraame is an injunction given to anyone who is doing his 
work awkwardly. 

" He could not frame to pronounce it." Judges, ch. xii., v. 6. 
"Thoo fraames like a cat e' pattens," said of one who frames ill. 

FRANGY (franj-i), adj.- Spirited, unmanageable, said of 
horses ; and by a figure of speech of men and women. 

FRANNEL. Flannel. 

FRATCH. A petty theft. Burton-upon-Stathw. 

FRAUNGE. - A village feast (obsolescent), 


FRECKENED, pp. Freckled. Fraknes occurs in Chaucer, 
meaning freckles. 

"His nose was high, his eyen bright citrin, 
His lippes round, his colour was sanguin, 
A tevfefraknes in his face yspreint." 

The Knight cs Talc, 1. 2171. 

FREE, adj. Affable, courteous, condescending. 

You maay knaw a real lady or gentleman, thaay're alus so free. 

FREEBOARD. A strip of land beyond the boundaries of a 
manor or beyond the limits of the property of a private 
individual, over which the tenants of the manor or the 
private owner exercise rights more or less limited. 

" In all cases where any of the lands .... intended to be 
. . . . inclosed shall adjoin on any freeboard, screed, or parcel of 
land left on the outside of the fences." Epworth Enclosure Act, 1795, 
p. 25. See FORTY-FOOT. 

FREE LAND. Freehold land, as distinguished from copyhold. 

FREE-MARTIN. When a male and female calf are produced 
at the same time, the female is called a free-martin) and is 
believed to be usually barren. 

FRENCH, adj. Applied to white butterflies, as distinguished 
from the coloured varieties ; pale snails as distinguished 
from those of a darker tint. A schoolboy's term. During the 
great war with France boys used to wage relentless war 
upon all white butterflies and light-coloured snails. 

FRENCH WILLOW. The Willow-herb. 

FRESH. The fresh water of the Trent after rain or snow as 
distinguished from the tidal water. 

" The frequent and heavy pressure of both ebbs and freshes." Will. 
Chapman, Facts and Remarks Relative to the William and the Welland, 
1800, p. 35. 

FRESH, adj. (i) Slightly the worse for drink. 

(2) In good condition ; improving ; said of horses and cattle. 

FRET. To weep, to be in trouble of mind. 

She bears up well, bud you may see she frets her sen aboot him as i s 

FRETHERICK. The Christian name Frederick. 

FRIDGE (frij 1 ), v. To graze, to chafe, to wear away by 

FRIM, adj. Sour; said of grass. 


FRIT, pt. *. Frightened. 

Did the rats kill the pigeons ? No, but thaay frit 'em oot. November 
24, 1874. 

" The coy hare squats nestling in the corn, 

Frit at the bow'd ear tott'ring o'er her head." 

John Clare, Sonnet, xlviii. 

FROG. (i) A writer in Notes and Queries who dates from 
Winterton, and signs "J.T.F.," says that "A man at 
Winterton, Lincolnshire, lately related this experience in 
answer to inquiries as to his wife's health. 

He said, " She's a deal better then what she was, but there's a 
somethink illive what rises up in her throat. I know what it is, but I 
don't like to tell her. It's a live frog." On some doubt being expressed 
as to this being the true explanation of his wife's sensations, he went on 
to say, " O, but there's a woman at Ferriby 'at hed one for years just 
the same, an' it allus started croakin' every spring at generin' time." 
Sixth Series, vol. i., p. 311. Cf. p. 392. 

(2) The thrush, a disease in the mouths of infants. 

" Why, m'm, my bairns was niver bother 'd long wi' th' frog, for I alus 
wipt the'r mooths oot wi' the'r piss-cloths, an' thaay scarcelins iver 
aail'd ony moore. It's a pity 'at people duz n't knaw o' such things, but 
I've tell'd a many, a many I hev." 

FROG-LOHP, FROG-LOHPIN'. The boys game of leap- 

FROG-TAIL. " Thoo's a mem'ry like afrog-taail, i.e., you have 
no memory. 


FRONTSTEAD. Probably the frontage of a house, croft, or 

" All and every the messuages, cottages, tofts, frontstcads, garths, . . . 
in the said parish of Haxey." Epworth and Haxey Enclosure Act, 1795, 
p. 36. 

FROST, v. To turn up a horse's shoes, or to put frost-nails in 
them, to hinder the animal from slipping on the ice. 

FROSTED. (i) Having chilblains. 

(2) Frozen. 

All them blessed wo'zels hes gotten frosted '. 

FROST-NAILS, s. pi. Nails with projecting heads put into 
horses' shoes for the purpose of enabling the animals to 
hold their feet in frosty weather. 

FROST OILS. A liniment used for frost-bites. 

FROUZY, adj.(i) Ill-dressed. 
(2) Slovenly. 


FRUGGANS. A slovenly woman. 

FRUGGIN. A fork with which sticks are put into a brick 

" Fourgon ... a coal-rake or an oven fork." Boyer, French- 
Eng. Diet. 

"In the kitchen ... on fniggin." Inventory of Tho. Tcanly, of 

FRUMERTY. A preparation of creed-wheat (q.v.) with 
milk, currants, raisins, and spices in it, given to the servants 
at harvest suppers. 

FRUMERTY-SWEAT. A great fidget. 

She was in a real frumerty -sweat ; her maaster broht hoam six gentle- 
men to dinner an' ther' was noht at all for 'em but th' fag-end of a cohd 
leg o' mutton. 

FRUMPS. An ill-tempered old woman. 

FRUNDEL, FRONDEL. Two pecks (obsolete). See Bailey's 
Diet., sub. voc., FRUNDELE. 

" From Martyngmes to Mydsomer j frondallle off malt." Bottesford 
Manor Records Temp., Edward VI. 

" j frundell, of barlye, to be sowne to the common vse of the town." 
Kirton-in-Lindsey Ch. Ace., 1547. 

FRUSH, v. To rub ; to rub bright ; to polish. 

FRUZ (fruz), ?. To rub the hair the wrong way on ; to 

" It was his practise ... to feed them [his cattle] from his 
neighbour's hay-stacks, and so cunning had long practise made 
him . . . that he could . . . smooth the place down, and 
fmzz it up from beneath so deftly, that no one could tell that any hay 
had been taken." Yorkshire Mag., May, 1873, p. 378. 

FRUZZY (fruzz-i), FUZZY, adj.-(i) Rough, said of the hair. 
(2) Spongy, said of wood, fruit, and vegetables. 

t " Turnips are rarely of good quality on peaty land ; they are produced 
either very large or fruzzy, or very close, rindy, hard, and stunted." 
J. A. Clarke, Farming in Lincolnshire, 1852, p. 146. 

impetuosity or violence. 

FULLOCK (fuol-uk). Force ; violence. 

Th' big wind blew doon one o' oor chimla' pots wi' a fine fullock. 
Th' tonups hes n't started to graw yit, but th' lands full o 1 muck; 
when thaay do begin, my eye, thaay will go wi' a fullock. 

FULLOCK, v. To shoot a marble with the hand as well as 
the thumb, considered by boys an unfair advantage. 


FULLOCKER. Any person or thing that is very large, or 
goes with great force and violence. 

FUM'LER. A fumbling awkward person who cannot succeed 
in what he tries to do. 

FUM'LIN', adj. Clumsy; awkward. 

I'm nobbut fum'lin' noo, I'm gettin' an ohd man you see. 

FUMMED (funrurd). A polecat. 

FUN', FUND,//. Found. 

Sum pots wi' ashes in 'em was fun' at Frodingham a while back. 

FUNNEL. A mule whose sire was an ass. 

FUNNY. Strange, mysterious, offensive, as used without any 
sense of amusement. 

Ther' ewsed to be such a funny noise heard theare, foiiks was scar'd 
to live e' th' hoose. 

To keap fun'rals waaitin' time efter time is a straange funny waay for 
a parson to go on. See DROLL. 

FUNT. A church-font. 
FUR, prep. For. 
FUR, adj. Far. 

FUR. A furrow. 

Th' /wrs was all full o' watter on pag-rag daay, an' soa th 1 taaties 
rotted. 1886. 

FUR-BILL. A bill-hook ; perhaps a furze-bill. 
FUR-BUSK. A bush of gorse. 
FUR-STACK. A stack of gorse. 

FURDER, adj. and adv. Further. 

Whitton's a long waay furder no'th then Appleby. 
" Which on occasion may be easilie scene by the furder searche of the 
recordes." Norden's Survey of Manor of Kirton-in-Lindsey, p. 10. 

FURK. A fork. 

FURLONG. (i) The boundary upon which the separate lots 
abut in an open field. 

(2) The separate lots in an unenclosed field. 

"The furlong is the furrow-long, i.e., the length of the drive of the 
plough before it is turned ; and that this by long custom was fixed at 
40 rods, is shown by the use of the Latin word quarmtena for furlong." 
Seebohm, English Village Community, p. 2. 

FURM. Form (q.v.) 


FURNIS. (i) Furnace. 

(2) A fire under a copper or set pot (q.v.) 

(3) The copper itself. 

FURSKIN. The prepuce. 

FUR-STOCK-HOLE (obsolete). A hole made by digging fir- 
trees, or their roots, out of the peat on the moors. 

" No person shall leave any fur-stock-holes vnfilled in paine of euery 
offence xf." Scatter Mandr Roll, 1599. 

FURZE. Gorse. It is noteworthy that Fur is never used in 
connection with Furze, except in composition, as Fur busk, 
Fur stack (q.v.) 

FUSTY-LUGS. A dirty person. Lugs are ears (q.v.) 


GABBING, pns. //.Gabbling. 

He's alus gabbin' aboot, i' stead o' stickin' to his wark. 


" Gavelock . . . , a pick or iron bar to dig holes to put stakes 
into the ground." Th. Dytche, Eng. Diet., 1777. 

GABY. A blockhead. See GAWBY. 

GAD. (i) A goad ; an instrument with a sharp iron point, 
used for driving oxen (obsolete). 

(2) A measure of grass-land, equal to a swathe, that is, six 
and a-half feet. Gad occurs in the Kirton-in-Lindsey Court 
Roll for 1593. 

" All the lands in the Ings are laid out in gads or swaths ; they are 
called gad-meadows." Survey of Manor of Kirton-in-Lindsey, 1787. 

GAD ABOUT. -A light, unsteady, young girl. 

She's a real gad aboot ; I'm scar'd sum'uts as is noht '11 be happenin' 
to her. 

GAD-WHIP. A whip used by farm labourers for horsss, and, 
while the custom continued, by church dog-whippers. 
The essential difference between a modern cart-whip 
and a gad-whip is that the stock of the gad-whip is 
stiff, not elastic, and the thong much heavier. An estate 
in the parish of Broughton was held by the service of 
cracking a gad-whip every year, on Palm Sunday, three 
times, in Caistor Church-porch, while the minister was 
reading the first lesson. At the beginning of the second 
lesson the bearer of the gad-whip approached the minister, 
and kneeling opposite him, with the whip in his hand, 
having an old-fashioned purse at the end of it, he waved it 
three times, and then continued in a steadfast position 
while the lesson was ended, when the ceremony was 

11 The whip has a leathern purse tied at the end of it, which ought 
to contain thirty pieces of silver, said to represent, according to 
Scripture, ' the price uf, blood.' Four pieces of weechelm tree (wych- 
elm, ulmus montana), of different lengths, are affixed to the stock, 


denoting the different Gospels of the Holy Evangelists. The three 
distinct cracks are typical of St. Peter's denial of his Lord and Master 
three times, and the waving it over the minister's head as an intended 
homage to the blessed Trinity." William Andrews, The Gad-whip 
Manorial Service, p. 2; Cf. Gent. Mag., Nov., 1799, p. 940; Arthur 
Young, Line. Agric., 1799, p. 21 ; J. Ellett Brogden, Provincial Words in 
Lincolnshire, p. 76. 

GAFF, GAFFER. (i) An old man. 

(2) The foreman on a farm, the leader of a body of workmen, 
the head man in any kind of business. 

When ohd Beaconsfield was gaffer we hed n't bad times like theiise 
here. August, 1887. 

GAIN, adj. (i) Expert, handy. 

She's very gaain wi' milkness. 
(2) Nigh to. 

" Mr. Lamb told him to get it [sand] at the gainest place." Tho. 
Brock, of East Ferry, in Gainburgh News, March 30, 1878. 
" Hov, wide was it ?" " Very gaain three foot." 
" The Lion Red received him safe, 

A gain back-door he spied. 
The Isle ne'er saw such legs, I ween, 
As down that by-street hied." 

Election Song, 1852. 
See GEAN. 

GAIN-HAND, adv. Nigh to. 

You're as gaain-hand Cath'lics as iver you can goa wi'oot gettin' yer 
goons pull'd off, said to a high-church clergyman by a Protestant 

GAINSBURGH. The old church at Gainsburgh was de- 
molished about the year 1740, and a classical building 
erected in its room ; the mediaeval tower was not destroyed, 
but remains to this day. 

" Gains 'br' proud people 
Built a new church to an old steeple." 

GAINSOME. Expert; handy. 

GALE. The fragrant bog-myrtle, often called " sweet-gale." 
It is reputed to have the power of driving away moths and 

GALLIVANTING. Gadding about; flirting. 
GALLOND. A gallon. 

GALLOUS (gal-us), adj. Mischievous, wild, rakish. 

" I alus thoht you'd be a noht, you was so gallons when you was 
yung." Ric. Elsome, 1875. 

I tell'd oor school missis that I dooted she'd niver mak' noht on oor 
Mary Louisa, she's such an a gallons lass, bud she said, " She dar say 
she'd ton oot all reight ; she alus did like a gallons lass." 


GALLOWAY. A pony, irrespective of its breed. 

GALLOWS. " Thaay bury them as kills ther' sens wi' hard 
wark anean th' gallas." 

This saying refers to the custom once common of burying executed 
criminals beneath the galloivs. The bodies of Oliver Cromwell, John 
Bradshaw, and Henry Ireton, after their graves had been desecrated, 
were hanged at Tyburn and afterwards buried in a deep hole under the 
gallows. MercuriusPiiblicus, Feb. 7, 1660, quoted in Cromu>eliiana,p. 186. 

There was in former days a gallows at Kirton-in-Lindsey ; a place 
known in 1787 as Gtf/Anc'-hole-dale probably marked the spot. 

GALLOWSES, s. pi. A pair of braces for holding up the 

GALLY-BALK. An iron bar in an open chimney from which 
cooking vessels were suspended. 

GALLYGASKINS, s. //.Gaiters. 

"My friend was very uneasy about his hapless galligaskins." Journal 
of William Kirby, 1797, in Freeman's Life of Kirby, p. 96. 

" 5 December, 15, Elizabeth. True bill that . . . Richard Sutton 
. . . stole a felt hatt with fifteen shillings and a pair de le galligas- 
coyns panni lanei coloris nigri ad valenceam xxxiiif-" Middlesex County 
Records, vol. i., p. 77. 

GALLY-POT. A small white pot used by chemists for sending 
out ointments and salves. 

I was once omust poison'd all thnf a gaily -pot. My ohd woman hed 
maade sum apple-pies, an' she hed taa'en a gally-pot she'd fun an' putten 
it inside o' one on 'em to raaise up th' crust. It look'd clean enif, bud it 
hed hed blisterin' sauve in it that I'd hed for Smiler, oor ohd black 
mare leg, an' th' hotness o' th' fire broht all th' poison oot o' th' pot 
into th' pie. 

GAM. (i) A game. 
(2) A trick. 

He's up to his gams, said of a mischievous person or animal. 

GAME LEG. A disabled leg. 

GAME, TO MAKE. u To make game" of a person is to make 
fun of him, to turn him into ridicule. 

GAMMISH, adj. Gamesome; playful. 

GAMMON. Used as an interjection to signify rubbish! 
nonsense ! 

GANGER, GANGSMAN. The foreman, or head-man over a 
gang of workmen. 

GANT (gaant), adj. Gaunt ; thin ; lanky. 


GANTREE, GANTRY. (i) A wooden frame used to support 
a barrel. The Dictionarium Rusticum, 1726, has " gaun-tne, a 
stillirg, stand, or wooden frame to set casks on." 

(2) A low shelf of wood or masonry on which milk pansions 
(q.v.) are placed in a dairy. 

(3) The shelves on which coffins stand in a burial vault. 

GAPE-SEED. Something to stare at. 

She's goan to Brigg Stattus to gether gaape-sead. 

GAP-MAKER. (i) A hedge breaker. 
(2) A poacher. 

GAPSTEAD. A hole in a hedge or wall. 

" That the said Lorence make a sufficient yate into the little field 
and that he raise his gapstead and make a trough through it for the 
conveyance of his water before Candlemas next in paine of vjs-" 
Court Roll of Little Carl ton, 1651. 

GAP TOOTHED. A person who has lost one or more front 
teeth is said to be gap toothed. 

GAPY. Given to gaping. 

GAR, v. To cause (obsolete). 

" Jesu, for yi modir sake, 
Save al the savls that me gart make." 

Inscription on a bell in Aukborough Church. 

" Prie3 for ye gild of Corpus Xpi, quilk yis window garte make." 
'Inscription formerly in Blyton Church, Harl. MS., 6829, fol. 198. 

GARDIN (ga-din). A garden. 

Common foaks like me, you see, says gardin ; but them as tries to 
talk fine is very partic'lar to saay garding. 

GARE, GAREING. A term used in ploughing to denote a 
triangular piece of ground in a field or close which has to 
be ploughed \vith furrows of differing length. 

" vij landes and ij garinges cont. iij acres." Terrier of Lands of John 
Dyon, in Little Caiiton, 1574. 

" In 1787 there was at Kirton-in-Lindsey a piece of land described as 
' the gare in the great Ings.' " Survey of Manor. 

GARGASED. Ulcerated. 

GARLANDS. It was formerly the custom in most of the 
Lincolnshire villages for a garland to be suspended from 
the roof of the church, the screen, or some other con- 
spicuous place, when a young unmarried woman died. 
Several of these garlands were in existence in Bottesford 


Church until the screen was destroyed in 1826. There is 
one in Springthope Church, near Gainsburgh. 

It would seem that these garlands were placed upon the bier or coffin, 
and so carried to the grave with the body, before they were hung up in 
the church. There is an engraving of one being borne upon a coffin in 
The Roxburghe Ballads (Ballad Soc.}, vol. ii., p. 644. 

A correspondent informs me that " funeral garlands were once 
common in the Bishopric of Durham. When the practise of suspending 
them in the churches there was discontinued is uncertain " Cf. an 
article by L. Jewitt, in The Reliquary, vol. i., p. 5 ; Jackson's Shropshire 
Folk-Lore, p. 6. 

The idea that the blessed dead wear garlands is widespread, and may 
be seen illustrated in many Christian pictures. The three drowned 
sons, in the ballad of The Wife of Ushers Well, when they returned to 
their mother, wore hats made 

"O" thebirk; 
It neither grew in syke nor ditch, 

Nor yet in ony sheugh ; 
But at the gates o 1 Paradise 
That birk grew fair eneugh." 

Scott, Border Min., 1861, vol. iii., p. 259. 

" The Jews have a like tradition. The spirit of a holy man who 
died at Worms is recorded to have appeared, crowned with a garland, 
to the Rabbi Ponim. The Rabbi asked, ' What is the meaning of that 
garland ? ' The apparition answered, ' I wear- it to the end, the wind 
of the world may not have power over me, for it consists of excellent 
herbs of Paradise.' " Traditions of the Jews, abridged from the Latin of 
BUXTORFF, 1734, vol. ii., p. 20. 

" It is the virgin's crown, being, I suppose, an emblem of the old 
and beautiful idea that young virgins are snatched away by death that 
they may become the ' brides of Christ,' like those who dedicate 
themselves to Him living when they take the veil." Notes and Queries, 
iv. series, vol. xij., p. 480. 

GARTH. (i) A stackyard. 

(2) A yard in which cattle are folded. 

(3) A small enclosure near a homestead. 

" Of William Hodshon for not keeping a sufficient fence betweene hes 
garth and Thomas Jepsey close, according to order." Kirton-in-Lindsey , 
Manorial Fine Roll, 1630. 

There are enclosures at Winterton called Catile-garths, Ha.\\-garths, 
and Hemp-garths. 

11 In 1799 there was a house and three acres of land in Kirton, called 
Stockgw/A." Petition of the Pindar. 

"A garden for potatoes of a rood or half an acre called a. garth" 
Arthur Young, Line. Agric., 1799, p. 412. 

Cf. Line. Notes and Queries, I., 42. 

GARTH, v. To feed cattle in a garth. 

Shelton ewst to garth at th' Moors afoore he was fooreman. 

GARTH MAN . The man who attends on stock in a fold-yard. 

GARTHSTEAD. (i) A homestead. 

(2) A stack-yard. 

(3) A yard in which cattle is folded, 


GASH. Gas. 

GASKINS, 5. //.Gaiters. 

"Paid for his gaskins.'' Leverton Ace. of Overseers of Poor, 1594, in 
Archaologia, vol. xli., p. 370. See GALLYGASKINS. 

GATE. (i) Way; manner. 

If you go on at that gaate we shall soon hev dun. 

(2) A road (obsolete), except in compounds as Yearls^afc, 

" Thou canst full well |>e ricthe gate, 
To Lincolne ]>e gode borw." Havelok, 1. 846. 

" John is gone to Barnsdale; 
The gates he knowes eche one." 

Guy of Gisborne, Percy Folio, vol. ii., p. 229. 

(3) The right of pasture for cattle. 

I've hired a gaate upon Butterwick Haale. August, 1875. 

In 1613, Richard Plomer surrendered to Thomas Wells " a gate for a 
beast or horse in le seuerall pasture in Scotter." Scatter Manor Roll. 

" That none shall lett any gates in the Inges, but to those that have 
gates of ther awne, on payne of eurie beast iijs. iiijd. " Hibbaldstow 
Manor Roll, 1613. 

" On the north and south cliffs [at Kirton-in-Lindsey] are several 
commons, called Old Leys, and Lodge Leys, which were formerly 
plowed ; but by length of time are become unknown land and are 
therefore stocked by gaits like other commons." Survey of Manor of 
Kirton-in-Lindsey, 1787. 

" In all this country [the neighbourhood of Winterton] the common- 
gate for a cottager's cow is 2 acres for winter, and i for summer." Arth. 
Young, Line. Agric., 1799. p. 413. 

GATE AND STOUP. Totally ; entirely. 

He'll be sell'd up gaate and stohp sum o' thease daays if he duz n't 
leave off drinkin' an' stick to his wark. Yaddlethorpe, May, 1886. See 

GATEBOOT. The right of cutting wood for making gates 
(obsolete) . 

" To have, perceive, and take . . . sufficient houseboot, hedge- 
boot, . . . gateboot andstakeboot." Lease of Lands in Brumby, 1716. 

GATE-ROW. A street, a narrow lane (obsolete). 

" In hac habitat platea ; hedwels in this street or gate-row." Bernard, 
Terence, p. 76. 

At Kippax, near Castleford, in the West Riding of Yorkshire, there 
is a narrow bye-lane called the Gate-row. 

The tramways in coal-pits at and near Nostell, Yorkshire, are called 

GATERS, TO GO, r. To go a gaaters with a person is to 
accompany him part of the way home or on a journey. 

GATES. Go your gaates a form of dismissal for one who is 
troublesome. See GATE. 


GATH. GARTH, q.v. 

GATHER. (i) An abscess. 
(2) A collection of money. 

GATHERS, GATHERINGS, s. //.The folds in a woman's 

GATHMAN. Garthman, q.v. 
GAWBY (gaub-i). A blockhead. 
GAWK, GAWKY. An awkward person. 

GAWM (gaum), v. To stare vacantly. 

She's th' idledist lassatwixt here an' Lincoln, niver cares for noht at 
all, bud to dawk her sen oot e' fine cloas an' goa to chappil. So I says 
to her one neet, says I, " Why, Mary, it's not to hear th' preacher 
thoo goas, it's for noht at all else bud that th' sarvant-chaps may gawm 
at thy garments." 

GAW-MAN. One who stares about vacantly. 

GAWMY. Awkwardly. 

That theare stohp oor missis hes hed setten doon agean ohd 
George's looks real gawmy. 

Noa body can build moore gawmy then thoo duz. 

GAWP (gaup), v. To gape. 

" This is sneezing to which is frequently added gaup ing or retching." 
Francis Fuller, Medicina Gvmnastica, 1718, p. 6. 

GAWSTER, v. To laugh loudly, awkwardly, or impudently. 

GAWSTERING. Noisy ; talkative ; ungraceful in manner. 

I can't bear to live in a yard wi' so many gawsterin' women aboot. 
Winterton, Sept. 29, 1877. 

GAY, adj. (i) Convalescent, well after being ill. 
I heard thoo was badly bud thoo looks gaay enif. 

(2) Flourishing, said of crops or cattle. 

This raain '11 mak' tonups look gaay. 
Them's a gaay lot o' hogs o' yours. 

(3) Light in conduct, having the manners or appearance of a 

GAZEBO (gaizee'boa). An artificial mound ; a tower or lofty 
outlook platform on the roof of a house. There is a 
little building so-called at Walcot. It stands on a mound 
planted with shrubs near Kellwell. T. T. de F. 

At'Harpswell . . . there is ... on the north-western side 
of the grounds an artificial mound, some twelve or fifteen feet in height, 


and about fifteen or twenty yards in circumference, which goes by the 
name of the gazebo. There have been terraced walks round it, and it 
has evidently been planted with ornamental shrubs. . . . The 
tradition of the village is that the gazebo was a place for outdoor 
musical entertainments. 

GEAN (gi-h'n), adj. Near. 

Ther's a gciin waay 'cross cloases for them that's on foot. 

GEAR. Goods, furniture, wealth, circumstance, condition 

" Lord when wilt thou amend this geared Sternliold and Hopkins, 
Psalms xxxv., 18. 

GEAR, OUT OF. In bad health, spirits, or circumstances. 

I thoht as pinks wod lose Squire afoore we heard ; you look'd all 
oot o } gear fost when I seed you. Briyg, July 7, 1886. 

GEARS, GEARING. (i) Harness of draught-horses. 

" Geers or chains ; these are general terms for trappings, harness and 
all other things that belong to draught-horses or oxen." Dictionarinm 
Rusticum, 1726, sub voce. 

(2) The furniture of a threshing-machine, cut-box, turning- 
lathe, or any other such-like thing. 

GEE. The word cf command to a horse to go to the right. 
In the Messingham "Vicarage Terrier," of 1686, a place is 
mentioned, called u Jee Close Nook." It not improbably 
took its name from its being a spot where a turn to the 
right was made in ploughing. 

GEE Y' AT (gee yut). Give you it. 

" I'll gee y' at, you little divil ; nobbut let me catch ye, an' I'll skin ye 
alive." Mother's Address to her child, Kirton-in-Lindsey, 1853. 

GELL (gel). A girl. 

GEN (gen), pp. (i) Given. 
(2) In the habit of. 

My mester is gen to drink a sup noo an' then, that I mun awn. 

GEN (gen), v. To grin. 

When he's mad he gens like a dog. 

GENDER. Frog spawn. 

GENDERING TIME. The time when frogs spawn. 

GEN'RALINS. Generally. 

I gcn'ralins goas to Gaainsbr' of a Tuesda'. 

GENTLF, p. To tame, to make gentle 


GENTLEMAN. A person who has sufficient property to live 
without working. A real gentleman signifies one of family 
or culture. Gentleman is often prefixed as a title like " Lord," 
as Gentleman Stocks, Gentleman Rowbottom, to distinguish 
the person meant from others of the same surname. 

GERMAN LAYLOCK. Valerian, Centranthus ruber. 
GERN (gern). To grin. See GEN. 

GERRAWAY WI' YER. Get away with you. 

I didn't insult her, sir ; noa not one bit, I nobbut said, gerraa-ay -ii'' 
yer, ye can'le-faaced mucky whore, if I'd a bitch one hairf as foul as ihoo 
is I'd hing her up of a esh tree top for th' craws to pick at. 

GERT, adj. Great. 

GESSLIN'. A gosling ; a young goose. 

GET, v. (i) Used as an auxiliary ; as to get shaved ; to get 
married ; to get starved, to get agate. 

(2) To beget. 

(3) To grow ; to become. 

She's gotten all reight agen sin' she'd th' feaver. 

(4) To gain, said of a clock or watch. 

She gets sorely ; we mun hev Dick Wraay to her. 

GET AGATE. To begin. 

Noo, then, stir yer sen, it'll be eaght o'clock afoore you get agaate else. 

GET A HEAD, v. To grow, or increase in a greater degree 
than something else. 

Them ketlocks is get tin' a head fast ; thaay'll choak all th' barley if 
thaay're not seen to. 

GETHER, r. (i) To gather. 
(2) To catch. 

When I was leavin' Slaate Hoose, I'd getten a cart full o' things 
ready for startin' ; well, the herse bohts awaay wi' me a-top o' th' load, 
I jumps off, runs alongside, an' gethers him ; ohd Johnson, th 1 rat- 
catcher, was stannin" long-side an' thoht noht else bud I should ha' been 

GETHERING. (i) An abscess. 
(2) A collection. 

Thaay'd a pretty good getherin* at th' missionary meetin'. 

GET INTO BED TO, v. To cause severe mental affliction 
which deprives the sufferer of his power of sleep. 

I doant knaw how it was wi' you, squire, bud when I thoht that 
drean head o' yours was gooin awaay, it got into bed to me reg'lar ivery 
neet ;" said by an East Butterwick man at a time when high tides were 
caus : ng much danger to the sluices on the Trent banks* 


GET IT UP. To invent or circulate gossip or scandal. 

Thaay've got it up at As'by 'at I'm gooin' to marry her, bud I'd as 
soon wed a fur-busk as a woman wi' a tung like hers. 

GET OFF. To commit to memory. 

Oor bairns gets off a collect iv'ry Sunda'. 

GETTEN, />/.(i) Gotten. 
(2) Begotten. 

GETTEN. Used as an infinitive. 

She's goiin upstairs to getten cleaned. 

GEV (gev), 

GHOST CANDLE. Candles which are kept burning around 
a dead body before burial, now said to be used for the sake 
of warding off ghosts, in former times used also as an act 
of worship. 

"We could not deem that her soul was lost, 

So we lighted the ghost candles round her bed." 

A Crone's Tale, in The Academy, 
Sept. 29, 1885, p. 204. 

GIANTS' CAUSEWAY STONES. Small fossils; joints of 
pentacrinites ; 'star-stones.' 

GIB (gib). (i) A gosling. 

(2) A very young woman whose manners are childish. 

" She's a silly yung gib yit, though she's been married a twel 1 munth 
an' hes a babby." Bottesford, 1886. 

(3) The blossoms of the willow. 

GIBBLE-GABBLE. Silly chatter. 

I niver heard, barrin at chech an" chapil, sich gibble -gabble e' my life. 

GIBLETS (jib-lets), s. pi. The head, feet, and edible internal 
parts of a goose or duck. 

GIDDY, adj. Sheep are said to be giddy when they have 
water on the brain, or have hydatids therein. 

GIE, v. To give. 

GIF, conj.ll. 

Son : Parson says I've besn a bad lad, an' wean't hev me at th' 

Mother : Naay sewerly bairn. 

Son : Ey, he did ; so as I wor cumin' by the ohd fellas' yaate I 
chuck 'd a stoan doon his pump barril. 

Mother : Then thoo is a bad lad, an' gif ta duz n't tak it oot agean, 
an' quids, I'll leather the mysen. Blyton, 1843. 


GIFTS, s. pi. White specks which appear on the finger or 
thumb nails. They are supposed to indicate that a present 
will soon come. 

Gift on the thumb, is sure to come ; 

Gift on the finger, is sure to linger. 

GIG, TO PULL A. A person wishing to describe any very 
small thing as very large of its kind is wont to say that it 
is big enough to pull a gig. 

When I was e' Holland I itched straangely when I "was e' bed one 
neet, so I leets can'le an' lawsy me, if ther' was n't a grut huge lop e' 
bed big enif to pull a gig. 

GILL (jil). Half a pint. For some unexplained reason 
"genteel'' people object to using the word gill, though no 
exception is taken to gallon, pint, quart, &c. When the 
word gill is required they always say " half a pint." 

GILLEFAT (giHfat). A brewing tub. 

" A lead, a mashefatt, agylfatt, with a sooe xvs- " Inventory of Roland 
Staveley, of Gainsburgh, 1551. 

GILLERY (gil-eri). Over-reaching; cheating. 
Ther's gillery in all traades. 

GILLIMBER. The late Rev. John Mackinnon, writing in 
1826 (A cc. of Messingham, p. 33), gives Gillimber, a labyrinth, 
a puzzle. The author has never heard the word ; it is 
almost certainly a form of Julian Bower (q.v.) 

GILLIVER-WREN, GILLER-WREN (jiHver, jil-er). The 

" The Robin and the Giller-wren 
Are God Almighty's cock and hen." 

GILL RUN BY TH' GRUND (jil). Ground ivy. 

GILLY- FLOWERS (jiH-flou-urz), s. p. W T all - flowers. 
Stocks are called Siock-gilliflowers. 

GILT (gilt).- A female pig before she has had a litter. 

GILTED (gilt-ed), #>. Gilded. 

His shop's gotten gret gilted letters oher th' frunt, ivery bit as big as 

11 As for their tongue, it is polished by the carpenter, and they 
themselves are gilted, and laid over with silver, yet are they but lyes 
and cannot speak." Baruch, ch. vj., v. 7 (Geneva version). 

GIMLET-EYED, adj. Used of one who has a cast in his 


GIMLECK. A gimlet. 

GIMMER, GIMBER. A female sheep that has not been 
shorn. Arth. Young, Line. Agric., 1799, p. 320. 

GIN (gin),//. Given. 

He's gin eleven hundred pund for th' coney-garth an' th' long cloase. 

GINGER. A light red or yellow colour, applied to the hair. 
You'll easy knaw him, he's a tall man wi ginger whiskers. 

GIP (jip). A common name for a shepherd-dog. 

GIPSEY-ROSE. The bedeguar, that is a hair-like gall on the 
wild-rose. See CANKER (2). 

GISTE (jeist). (i) A joist. 

(2) The taking in to graze of another person's cattle. See 
COWELL, Law Diet, sub voc. A gist ; Du Fresne Gloss., Ned. 
Lat. sub voc. Agistare. 

" Richarde Hollande hathe taken of straungers vj beas gyest in y 
Lordes commene, & therefore he is in ye mercie of ye lorde iijs. iiijd." 
Scatter Manor Roll, 1558. 

"De Thoma Easton quia cepit le giste-horses in commune pastura, 
iijs. iiijd." Ibid, 1598. 

" They are forced to sell their heeders, and joist their sheeders in the 
spring." Arth. Young, Line. Agric., 1799, p. 325. 

GIT (git), v. To get. 

I can git noa sense oot on him. 

" Th' inhabitantes of the towne of East-Butterwycke shall cutt 
downe nor gyt no ellers." Scatter Manor Roll, 1556. 

GIVE AGEAN, v. To thaw. 

GIVE HOLD OF IT. To rate, to punish, to beat. 

I'll give ye hohd on it th' very next time I clap eyes on ye. 

GIVE IN. (i) To yield. 

He's clear bet, but he weant give in. 

(2) To give way ; used regarding floors. 

If them bawks is not putten across, th' graainry floor '11 be givin' i t 
an 1 we shall hev' sumbody kill'd oher th' job. 

(3) To tender an estimate. 

GIVE IT IN. To give judgment ; to state a positive opinion. 
I thoht he'd ha' hed to goa to prism, but th' jury wodn't gie it in noa 
uther waays then for him. 


GIVE OUT. To fail ; to become exhausted or weary. 

Yon well e' th' Aacre-gap cloas alus gives oot e' a dry time. 
Them 'ats as fierce as fierce can be e 1 mornin' of'ens gics oot afoore 

GIVE OVER, v. To leave off. 

Bairns alus gies oher gooin' to school when taatie-time puts in. 

GIVEN,/)/. In the habit of. 

He's straangely given to drink. 

" Lord, Lord, how the world is given to lieing." i Henry IV., Act v., 
sc. iv., 1. 149. 

GIZEN (geiz*n). An ill-dressed person. 

GIZZEN (giz-n). (i) The gizzard of a bird. 
(2) The human stomach. 

GIZZEN (giz-n), v. To stare vacantly. 

Thoo's alust gizzenin' aboot at foaks passin' 'estead o' mindin' thy 

GLASS. A barometer ; a thermometer. 
GLAZEN, v. To glaze. 
GLAZENER. A glazier. 

GLEAMY. Weather that is fitful and uncertain. Rain-clouds 
and sunshine blended is called " gleamy " weather. 

GLEAN. A sheaf of hemp. Instrttc. for Jurymen on the Com. of 
Sewers, 1664, p. 41. Arth. Young, Line. Agric., 1799, p. 157. 

GLEANT (gleent),//. Gleaned. 

I'm not gooin' to hev my cloases glednt afoore th' stooks is all shifted. 

GLEG. A glance. 

"I've niver been afore any magistrates in this part i' my life, and 
would n't mind hevin' a gleg on 'em." Mabel, Heron, vol. i., p. 108. 

GLEG, adj. (i) Sly. 
(2) Sharp, active, quick. 

GLEVVED, ^.Fondly attached. 

Her fond o'chech ! She's that glewed to it you cculdn't get her to goa 
nowheare else if you was to paay her. 1875. 

" Call off men who were glew'd unto earthly cares." N. Bailey, 
Colloquies of Erasmus, 1725, p. 222. 

GLIB, adj. (i) Quick, sharp, active. 

He's glibbest bairn at cypherin' we hev i' school. 


(2) Slippery, smooth. 

Mind how ye walk, th' roads is that glib wi' ice I o'must fall'd doon 
three times 'e cumin' across chech-yard. 


A glimmer-gowk's afoore ony cat fer mice. 

GLINT. A glimpse. 

I nobbut just got a glint o 1 my laady as she was walkin' doon to th' 

GLINT, v. To gleam. 

Th' sun glinted upo' th 1 glass winda's that bad I was omust blind 
wi' it. 

GLISTER, v. To glisten. 

GLOAR, GLORE, GLOWER, v. To stare vacantly or 

Doan't stan' glodrin* e' that how. Did n't ta iver see an almanac on 
a hoose wall afoore ? 

" How under the wenches' fine bonnets he'd glower, 
As smiling they came in the porch." 

John Clare, The Disappointment. 

GLUMPS, adj. Surly, taciturn, ill-natured. 

GNAG (nag), v. (i) To gnaw. 

(2) To talk at a person, to weary with continual finding fault. 

GNARL, v. (i) To gnaw. 

(2) To grumble. 

She's alust a. gnarlin' at me aboot sumthing. 

GO, v. (i) This verb, followed by the conjunction " and," is 
frequently used redundantly. 

If he'd ended like uther foaks I should n't ha' cared, bud to god an 1 
dee e' that fashions. 

(2) To die. 

She was gooin 1 all neet, an' she went just as th' sun begun to shine 
into th' room winda'. 

In the Northern English gang is used in the same sense. 
" Sail we yung Benjie head, sister, 

Sail we young Benjie hang, 
Or sail we pike out his two grey een, 

And punish him ere he gang.'" 
Young Benjie, in Scott, Border Min., Ed. 1861, vol. iii., p. 16. 

GOAL, v. To wash away ; said of earth washed out of a hole 
in a bank by rushing water. 

Th' rats hes maade a hoale thrif th' bank, an' when Taacey taks in a 
tide, th' waiter goals it awaay. Ashby, Oct. 21, 1876. 

Th' waiter's goal'd a big hoale e 1 my beck boddoms ; it'll tak Johnson 
a weiik to staaithe it up agean. 


GOAFER (goaf'r). A cake made of batter baked over the fire 
in an iron instrument somewhat like a pair of tongs with 
very large ends. 

Goafers are commonly square, but sometimes round. The inner part 
of the instrument in which they are baked has many square projections 
that form holes in the goafer, which should be full of butter when 

The goafer is said to have been introduced into Lincolnshire and 
the West Riding of Yorkshire from the Netherlands in the seventeenth 
century. I have seen precisely similar cakes exposed for sale in bakers' 
shops at Rotterdam. French, gofre, gaufre, a wafer. Cf. Tomlinson's 
Hatfield Chace., p. 170. Line. Notes and Queries, i., 41. 

GOAFERING IRONS. The instruments in which goafers are 

GOAN,//. Gone. 

GOAT, GOTE, GOWT. A sluice. 

"A. goat, or as you more commonly call it, a sluice." Instruc. for 
Jurymen on the Commission of Sewers, 1664, p. 22. 

"The present new sluice or goat, as they call it, at the end of 
Hamond Beck." The Ancient and Present state of the Navigation . . . of 
Lyn, Wisbeach, Spalding, and Boston, 1751. 

" Vast quantities of water were discharged, which used to enter 
through the Gout at Langare." Will. Chapman, Facts and Remarks 
relative to the Witham and the Welland, 1800, p. 29. 

There was formerly a drain in the township of Burringham called 
Goat dyke which probably acquired its name from one of these goats. 

GO AWAY. (i) When a sluice or the bank of a river or drain 
breaks, it is said to go away. 

" Yisterdaay th' Trent bank went awaay on Sir Robert's land at 
Butterwick for sixty yards together." 10 March, 1875. 

(2) Young plants, such as wheat or turnips, are said to go awaay 
when they are eaten by insects, or die from too much or 
too little moisture. 

GOB. (i) The mouth. 

(2) A large thick expectoration. 

GOBBED UP. Stuffed up ; probably a modern introduction ; 
an iron-worker's term. 

GOBBLE (i) The noise made by a turkey. 
(2) A deep, thick, resonant voice. 

GOBBLE, v. To swallow food without mastication. 
GOBBLE-GUT. One who is greedy. 

GOBBLER. (i) A turkey-cock. 
(2) A goblet, 


GO-BY. To give a person the go-by is to leave him in the lurch, 
to desert him. 

GO-CART. (i) A machine in which children learn to walk. 

(2) A small carriage in which children are drawn about. 

"The perfectly true plea that tens of thousands of people need to 
be kept in moral go-carts for the whole of their lives, and that the 
church go-cart is the safest." Church Times, July 9, 1886, p. 526. 

(3) A child's toy like a cart. 

GOD BLESS YOU. Said to a person after sneezing. 
GOD'S EYE. Veronica Chamcedvys. 

GOD'S PENNY. A small payment made to fasten a bargain ; 
a fasten-penny (obsolete). 

" Recyvyed of Roberte Johnson for a godes pennye of the headlandes 
xijd." Kirton-in-Lindsey Ch. Ace., 1567. 

John Lawston for a godes penye iijjd Ibid, 1575. 

GOD'S-TRUTH, BIBLE-TRUTH. The very truth; the 
exact truth on some matter of great importance. 

It's th* God's-trewth ; I wish I may niver speak anuther wo'd if it 
was n't just as I'm tellin' ye. 

GOED, v. Went. 

Efter we'd talk'd a bit, he goed one way an' Igoed anuther. 

GO ENDERDS. Go ends wi' you ; go on ; go along with you. 
GOFF. One who laughs without cause or beyond measure. 

GOGGLES. (i) Fruit of Ribes Grosmlaria. 

(2) Spectacles. 
GOHD. Gold. 
GOHDEN.- Golden. 

GOINGS ON, Doings. 

When she's at hoam all's reight enif, bud when her back's nobut 
ton'd, ther's fine gooin's on I can assewer you. 

GOMERIL (gonruril). A silly person, especially one who 
talks much or loudly. 

GONE. Milk is said to be gone when it has turn'd sour. 

GOOD AND ALL, adv. Entirely, for ever. 

When I went awaay, I thoht it was nobbut for a weak or two, bud it 
to'n'd pot to be for good and all. 


GOOD BRED. Well bred, said of horses and cattle. 

Ther's two fine things e 1 this wo'ld, Squire a man 'ats afeard o' 
noht, an" a good bred hoss wi' plenty o' boane. 

GOOD-DOER. An animal that keeps in healthy and thriving 

GOODEN, v. To grow, to improve. 

My bairn goodens nistely, duzn't he ? 

Them hogs goodens fast noo the're upo' th' sweades. 

GOOD-FEW.. GOOD-MANY. A fair quantity ; many. 
How are you off for apples to year ? We've a good-few. 
" Ther's gotten to be a good many graaves e' this bit o' time e' oor 
chech-yard." Burringham, 1873. 

GOOD GOER. A horse who does his work well. 

GOODIES, s. //.Children's sweet-meats. 

Oor parson's as fond o' goodies as a bairn, he'd be suckin' 'em all daay 
long if he hed 'em. 

GOODISH, adj.-(i) Excellent. 

He'll mak' a goodish thing this year o' his taaties. 
(2) Often used ironically. 

You've maade a goodish thing on it this time, th' packit's goan an' 
you'll be laate for th' traain. 

GOOD LIKE, adj. Goodly. 

What do you think to her ? Why, she's as lean as a witterick an' 
not hairf so good like. 

GOOD MIND. A strong desire and intention. 

She said she'd a good mind to hing her sen, soil I ax'd her if I mud 
send for Mr. Holgaate (the coroner) to be ready like. 

GOOD ONESELF. To look forward to, to anticipate. 
Thoo nead n't good thy" sen on it, fer thoo'll niver fall it. 

GOOD-STUFF. Sweetmeats. 

Mr. Moore broht sum good-stuff fo me all th' waays oot o' France. 

GOOD TO LIKE. Satisfactory. A wound not going on well 
is " not good to like.'' 

Sin' this raain's cum'd th'to'nups is a deal better to like then th' was. 

GOOD TO NOHT. -Good for nothing. 

GOOD-WOOLLED, adj.-(i) Said of sheep with good fleeces. 
(2) Plucky, with a good will. 

He's a good-woolled un ; one o' that soort as duzn't knaw when he's 


" May you have good by it," commonly said by way of 

A man called . . . hes gotten my farm. God good him ni' it, an' 
send him a weet summer to mak' th' wicks graw. 

" Mary, said John Copyldyke, flood you uith //." Star Chamber Pro- 
ceedings Tnnp., Hen. VIII,, in Pro. Soc. Ant., Second Series, vol. iv., p. 321. 

GO ON., v. (i) To scold ; to complain. 

' I really wonder you can go on soa; ther's noht to complaain on, 
barrin' th' noise you mak' yersen. 

(2) To be in the habit of misconducting oneself; generally 
used with regard to the social proprieties. 

GO, ON THE. When anything is popular or much used, it 
is said to be on the go. 

Peram'laators is all on th' god noo; thei' wasn't sich an a thing 
when I was a little lass. 

Cath'lics is on th ' god noo ; we ewsed to reckon 'em as bad as Aatheists 
when oor ohd curate was here, bud things hes sorely chaanged sin he 
left us. 

GOOSE.- Chimnies used to be swept by letting a cord down, 
and having attached it to the legs of a goose, drawing the 
bird slowly up and down. 

" This recalls to my memory ... a certain ingenious gentleman, 
who proposed, as the best and most effectual method of sweeping 
chimnies, to place a large goose at the top, and then by a string tied 
around her feet to pull the animal gently down to the hearth. The 
sagacious projector asserted, that the goose being extremely averse to 
this method of entering a house, would struggle against it with all 
her might, and during this resistance would move her wings with such 
force and rapidity as could not fail to sweep the chimney completely. 
' Good God, Sir!' exclaimed a lady who was present when this new 
method was proposed, ' How cruel would that be to the poor goose ! ' 
' Why, madam,' replied the gentleman, ' if you think my method cruel 
to the goose, a couple of ducks will do.' " John Moore, View of Society 
and Manners in Italy, 6th ed., 1795, vol. ii., p. 246. 

The writer seems to have regarded this method of sweeping chimnies 
as a suggestion only. It was, however, a common practise here in the 
beginning of the present century. 

GOOSECAP. A fcolish person. 

" Euery man seekes his acquaintance, his kindred to match with him, 
though he be an anaufe, a ninny, a monster, agoosecap." Rob. Burton, 
Anat. Mel., 1624, p. 138. 

GOOSE-FLESH, GOOSE-SKIN. The roughening of the 
skin caused by cold or fear. 

GOOSE-GRASS. Silver-weed, Potentilla Anserina.See Th. 
Stone, Rev. of Agric. of Line., 1800, p. 189. 


GOOSE-TOD. Goose-dung. The dung of the goose was, and 
is, used here and elsewhere as a medicine for men and 
animals. See BLACK-JAUNDERS. 

Richard Symonds, in 1645, mentions it as forming part of a 
compound for a blow in a horse's eye. Diary, 226. 

GOPPEN, GROPPEN. As much as can be contained in both 
hands, when held so that the little fingers touch each other. 

I gev him his goppens full o' nuts. 

GORE. (i) A cut in a bank. 

" Cores, these according to the vulgar use of the word, I conceive to 
be ... nothing else but great breaches cr great cuts wilfully 
made." Instruc. for Jurymen on the Com. of Sewers, p. 42. 

(2) An angular piece inserted in a woman's skirt. 

(3) The core of a boil. 

" I pot a lily-root pultis on it, an' then it started an' stang'd while I 
could scarcelins bear my sen, but efter a bit oot (,orc cums like oht." 
H. T., Bottesfoni. 

GORSE, GOSS. Furze. There is a place in the parish of 
Messingham called G0ss-acres, which probably takes its 
name from this shrub. It is mentioned in the Terrier of 1686. 
" Therefore leave the shadeless goss, 
Seek the spring-head lin'd with moss." 

John Clare, Noon. 


GO, THE. In fashion. 

It's all the god noo to be a teetoataller ; when I was a lad a man was 
noht thoht on if he could n't drink his five or six glass an' walk strlght 
efier.Ashby, 1880. 

GO THY WAAYS. Begone with you. 

GOTTEN,//. (i) Got. 

Mistress : What ! ha'nt you gotten your sen clean'd yit ; why, it's 
foher o' clock e' th' efternoon if it's a minnit ? 
Maid: Noa, I sha'n't naaither yit ; I ha'n't gotten dun by a deal. 

(2) Begotten. 

GOULE. Probably the outfall of a drain (obsolete), 

" Thomas Staveley shall make one sufficient stathe at the south side 
of his goule ." Inquisition of Sewers, 1583, p. 4. 


GOWK (gouk). (i) A cuckoo. 
(2) A fool. 


GOWL (goul).- A lump or swelling on the body. 

My husband fetch'd me a knock oher my head 'at raais'd a greiit 
'at's here for you to see noo, sir. 

GOY, GUM. A form used by vulgar people who desire to 
swear, but wish to avoid using the Divine name. 

GOZZARD. A fool. 

GRAFT, GRAFF. A drain ; commonly one newly cut. 

A deep graffe and wide, full of water. S} monds' Diary, p. 231. 

Oliver Cromwell, on i5th of November, 1648, writing of Pontefract 
Castle, speaks of "the depth and steepness of the graft," meaning 
thereby the moat. Carlyle, Cromw., vol. i., p. 331. 

" Parapett wall of the graff, and at the west end of the same gra/." 
CJiatsworth Building Ace., in Jour, of Derby sh . Arclicfological Soc., vol. iii., 
p. 41. 

GRAFTED, //.Having dirt dried in the skin. 

GRAFTER. A long iron spade used for digging hard ground, 
especially by workmen engaged in making drains and 

GRAIN, GRAINING. (i) The junction of the branches of a 
tree or forked stick. 

" The misseltoe-thrush hes begun to build i' iti graain of th' Hessle 
pear tree." Bottesford, 1866. 

" If you cut the cherry-tree top off abuv the graaining it will be sewer 
to graw; if you goa below them it will be sewer to dee." Yaddlethorpe, 

" 'Neath a spreading shady oak, 

For a while to muse I lay ; 
From its grains a bough I broke, 
To fan the teasing flies away." 

John Clare, Recollections of a Ramble. 
" And as he rode still on the plaine, 
He saw a lady sitt in a graine." 

Sir Lionell, Percy Folio, vol. i., p. 75. 
(" Icel. gmn, a branch." W. W. S.) 

(2) The groin. 

(3) The fork of a boat-hook or stower. 

GRAINS, 5. pi. Malt after it has been used in brewing. 
Thoo mun give them graains to th' pigs. 

GRANNY-SNEEL. A snail having a large grey shell. Some 
of us believe here that all snails are born without shells, 
but that as they grow up they find shells and creep into 

GRANMOTHER. Grandmother. 


GRAPE-FEET. The wild orchis, orchis mascula. This may be 
an error of pronunciation for crake-feet. See Britten, Eng. 
Plant Names (E.D.S.), sub voc. 

GRAPPLE. To struggle, to exert one's self to the utmost. 

What wi' swimmin' an' what wi' grafplin' to get to bank-top them 
little ducks was lagged whiles thaay could n't chirrup. 

GRASS-TREE. A child's toy made of grass. 

GRAVE, v. To dig, and especially to dig turves and peats for 

" No man shall graue any turves in th'east car nor in Rany [how] , 
vpon payne for euery dayes work, iijs. iiijd." Scotter Manor Roll, 1557. 

" None shall grave any sodes or turves nor bassockes of the sowthe- 
easte syde the grene gaitte and abut'tinge of the south-west of Grene 
Howe in pena, vjs. viijd." Bottesford Manor Roll, 1578. 

GRAVIL (gravil). Gravel. 

GRAVING-TOOL. A spade used in making drains. 

GRAW, v. (i) To grow. 
(2) To cultivate ; to rear. 

Thaay ewsed to graw a deal o' line by th' Trent Side. 
I doan't graw beas, I stick to sheap. 

GRAWSUM, adj. Growing ; favourable to growth ; applied 
to the weather. 

It's a gyawsum time noo, pasturs hes cum'd on real well this last weak. 
April igth, 1888. 

GREASE. Flattery. 

I should like him a vast sight better if he hed n't soa much on his 

GREASE- HORN. (i) A horn formerly used by mowers for 
carrying grease for their "strickles" (q.v.) 

" The tooles that mowers are to have with them are, sythe, shaft, 
and strickle ; hammer to pitte the strickle with, to make it keepe sande, 
sande-bagge and grease-horned Best's Rural Economy in Yorkshire, 1641 
(Surtees Soc.}, p. 32. 

" Sir Walter (Scott) got from Dr. Elliot the large old border war- 
horn which you may still see hanging in the armory at Abbotsford. 
. . . . I believe it had been found at Hermitage Castle, and one of 
the doctor's servants had used it many a day as a grease-horn for his 
scythe, before they discovered its history." Lockhart's Life of Scott, 
ed. 1844, p. 54. 

(2) A flatterer. 

GREAT, adj. (i)"Far gone in pregnancy. 
(2) On very intimate terms ; in high favour. 

Sam's very great wi' . . . . If he'd nob but keap fra drink he 
mud stop theare till he's past doin' onything. 


GREEDY-GUT. A voracious eater. 

" ' To bed, to bed,' says Sleepy Head ; 
1 Tarry a while,' says Slow ; 
' Put on the pot,' says greedy-gut, 
' We'll sup before we go.' " 

GREEN CHEESE. (i) Cheese before it is thoroughly dry. 
(2) Cheese coloured or flavoured with sage or other herbs. 

" Two fjrene cheses." Piers Plowman, B. text, pass, vi., 1. 283. It is not 
obvious to which of the above meanings this passage refers. 

GREEN-GIBS, 5. //. Young goslings before their feathers 
begin to grow. 

GREEN-GOOSE. A goose killed at midsummer time. A 
goose under four months old. 

GREEN -HORN. An inexperienced person. 

GREEN -LANE. A road that has never been stoned or sanded. 
Willerton fjrcdn laane is th' offilest road as is, barrin' noiin. 

GREEN MALT. Malt before it is dry. 

GREEN-SAUCE. Ground-sorrel, Rimiex Acetosa. 

" We had allso a boy about 9 yeares of age, as he was getting of 
(ireeiie-sa-u'te, without Swillington tower, was dangerously shott in the 
belly." Drake's Siege of Pcntefract Castle (SiirUcs Soc.}, p. 37. 

I am informed that this plant grows plentifully at the present time on 
the sides of the great mound whereon Pontefract Castle stands. The 
poor boy was no doubt gathering it for sorrel-sauce, a relish much 
esteemed in those days, and one that would be particularly acceptable 
to men cut off from fresh provisions. Gerrard tells us that " the juice 
hereof, in summer time is a profitable sauce in many meats and 
pleasant to the taste," and that the leaves, " taken in good qnantitie, 
stamped, and strained into some ale and a posset made thereof, coole 
the sicke body, quench thirst and allay the heat of such as are 
troubled with a pestilent feuer, hot ague or any great inflammation 
within." -Herbal, 1636, p. 398. 

Rembert Dodoens had heard " that this roote hanged about the 
necke, doth helpe the kinges euill or swelling in the throte." Herbal, 
Lyte's trans., 1578, p. 560. 

Green-sauce is still held here to be a useful medicine in cases of 
scurvy. Cf. Sir Thomas Urquhart's Trans, of Rabelais, Gargantua, 
book ii., chap. 31. 

GREET-STONE. Stone of a coarse texture; millstone grit; 
sometimes the softer beds of the oolite. 

GRESS. Grass. 

Th' nigher th' boan th' sweeter th' flesh, 
Th' nigher th' grun the sweeter th' 

" Warkmen to fell all gresse and cornel kottcsford Manor Records, tcmb 
Edw, VL 


GRESS-PLAT. A grass-plot. 

GRESSONMYS, s. pi. Fines (obsolete). Lat. Gersumx.Du- 
fresne, Gloss. Med. Lat. Spelman, Gloss. Archa^olog. Cowel, 
Law. Diet. Aug. Sax. Gcersuma, a treasure, a fine. 

"The sayd Abbott and Conuent have by theys presents grauntyd 
. . . goodes of outlawyd persones, fynys or gressonmys for landes 
and tenementes, lettyn or to be lettyn." Lease of Manor of Scatter, 1537. 
Cf. Stockdale, Annals of Cartmel, p. 66. Pnimer, Perhtst. Yarmouth, vol. 
iii., p. 33. Ace. of Lord High Treasurer of Scotland, vol. i., p. 418. Notes 
and Queries, vi. series, vol. iv., p. 250. Dawson's Skipton, p. 58. 
Pilkington's Works (Parker Soc.}, p. 462. 

GRET. Great. 

We fun sum rivet slabs o' stoan when Yalthrup Hill was lowered. 
Them gret hewge tonups is n't one hairf so good for sheap as smaller 
sized uns. 

GREW, GREW-DOG. A grey-hound. 
GREW. Pain; grief. 

GREWS. The outmarsh or foreshore ; the land lying between 
the edge of a tidal river and its bank. 

GREWSOME. Melancholy ; complaining. 

He's a very <jrewsum lookin' man when he's badly. 

GREY MARE. A wife who rules her husband. 
The grey mare is the better horse. 

GREY-PAPER, Brown paper. 

GREY-STONE. Oolitic limestone. 

It is n't noa better then muck for mendin" roads wi'.is n't that graay- 


GRICE. (i) A sickly or deformed child. 

I hope A ... T ... 's bairn '11 niver live ; I niver seed 
such an a grice e' my life. 

(2) A person, especially a child, whose dress or manners 
indicate deformity. 

Goa tak them things off an' clean thy sen; doan't look a grice like 
that all th' daay thrif. 

GRIFT. A channel shaped out by water for itself; a runnel. 
GRIM, adj. Grimy; dirty; dusty. 
GRIME. Soot. See GRIM in Gloss, to Havelok. 
GRIME, v. To besmear with soot. 


GRIMY, adj. Sooty. 

"j gryndehton xxd. " Records of Nottingham t 1411, vol. ii., p. 86. 
" Unum crank ferri de uno gryndylston." 1433, Ibid, p 140. 

GRIP. A small temporary surface drain. Friesic grope, a 

" Than birjje ought] men casten hem in poles [pools] or in a grip, or 
in the fen." Havelock, 1. 2101. 

"To grip, dressing out." Bottesford Accounts, 1811. 

"Making a ditch hole or grip he in the Kinge's highwaie." 1611, 
North Riding Record Soc., vol. i., p. 236. 

" One Lenton, found a great pot full of Roman coyn digging to make 
a grip round a haystack in the parish of Fleet." Will. Stukeley, 
Memoirs (Snrteei Soc.), 1700, p. 310. 

GRIP, v. To make grips. 

" The objects . . . were found by a man while gripping or cutting 
a deep narrow grip across the ground, in order to let off superfluous 
water." John Evans in Architlogia, vol. xlviii., p. 106. 

" That every man gripp his lands in the corne fields." Gainsbiirgh 
Manor Records, 1601, in Stark's Hist, of Gainsb., p. 91. 

GRITS. Groats (q.v.) 

GROATS. Oats from which the husks have been taken, but 
which have not been ground. 

GROBBLE, v. To grope, to poke, to feel about as one does 
in the dark. 


GROUND-ESH. A young ash-plant that lias grown in the 
place where it is found from seed, not a planted ash, or one 
that has sprung from the root of a felled tree. There is a 
superstition that if a man beat his wife with a ground-esk, 
the justices have no power to punish him for assault. 

GROUND-KEEPER. A farm bailiff. 

Lyon was ground-keeper for Mr. Skipworth at the Slate House. 

GROUND LAYLOCK. Red Valerian, Centranthm ruler. 

Th' grand laaylochs hev flooer'd well this dry time, when noht else 
hes. July, 1887. 

GROUND-SWEAT. Dampness springing from the ground. 

GROUND-SYPE. Surface water which runs through the 
upper soil into a well, as distinguished from spring water. 

" The water obtained from the wells which have been sunk into this 
warp is not spring water, but merely . . . a.ground-sypc, i.e., water 
filtering through from the surface." Stonehouse, Hist, of Isle of 
Axhohne, p, 25. 


GROUND-THAW. A thaw which seems to spring from the 
earth, not from the atmosphere. 

GROUT. (i) Thin mortar which is poured into the inside of 
rubble walls. 

" That thin mortar which is termed grout" Storehouse, Hist, of Isle 
of AxJiolme, p. 22. 

(2) Concrete, that is, thin mortar mixed with stones used for 
foundations of buildings. 

GROVES, s. //.Land ends (q.v.) 

" No man shall teather within the north Inges, or about the Trent 
bankes or groves vntill the haaye be gotten awaye." Scatter Manor Roll, 


The word is no doubt related to grave, to dig, because the groves 
were the places where soil was graved for repairing the banks. 

GROWD, v. Grew. 

GROWZE, v.(i) To eat steadily and constantly at a thing 
as grazing animals do. 

(2) To eat in a noisy or dirty manner. 
GRUB. A miser. 

GRUB AWAY. When young corn dies from the roots, being 
eaten by the larvae of insects it is said to grub away. 

" Them oats at Greenhoe 'at looked so well when thaay cumed up is 
all grubbin' awaay." loth July, 1886. 

GRUBBY. Dirty. 

GRUN', GRUND. The ground. Cf. GRESS. 

GRUN, i'. To grind. 

Them bricks is bad uns ; if thoo nobut treads on 'em, thaay ymns to 


As roond as a grun-stodn. 

GRUNSEL. (i) The threshold ; lit. ground-sill. 
(2) Groundsel, senecio rulgaris. 

GRUNT, v. To complain. 

" I tell'd him ther' nead be noa gruntin' ; if I did n't suit him, he 
was to paay me my waage an' let me goa." Bottesford, 26th August, 

GRUT. A rut, a grip, or small surface-drain. 

GRUT, adj. Great. 

What oot o' th' waay grut stoans ther' is upo' th 1 sea-side e' 


GUANNER. Guano. 

It stinks like a 

The earliest known English mention of guano is to be found in 
Albaro Alonso Barba's Art oj Metals, translated by the Earl of 
Sandwich. See 'Athenaum, May 2g, 1875, p. 722. 

It was first used as a manure in England in or about the year 
1840. See Notes and Queries, second series, vol. i., p. 482. 

GUANNER-WEED. A weed which grows in ditches, the 
seeds of which are absurdly believed to have been imported 
with guano. 

GUDGEON. An iron pin at the end of the axle of a wheel- 
barrow, on which the wheel turns ; a similar pin used for 
other like purposes. 

GUGGLE. A bubbling noise. 

GUGGLE, r. (i) To gargle. 
(2) To bubble. 

GUIDE, v. To rule, govern, restrain. 

I can't guide my awn bairns, soa much less them as belongs to uther 

GUIDE ONE'S SELE. To behave well. 

Noo then guide thy sen, or else I'll tell thy faather on the. 

GUIDER. A tendon. 
GUIDE-STOHP. A guide post. 

GUIDES, Part of the hind gear of a waggon attached 
to the middle pole. 

GUM. See GOY. 

GUMMY, adj. Thick ; swollen ; applied to the legs of horses. 

GUMPTION. Comprehension; sense. 

GUNNER, One who gets his living, or occupies his time by 
shooting wild fowl. 

" Clarke, of Brumby, who died in ... was always known as 
Gunner Clarke because his whole time was spent in shooting wild fowl 
on the commons." E. S. P., 1860. 

" One of the oldest of our local gunners.'' Cordeaux, Birds of the 
Humber t p. 91. 


GUNSTICK. A ramrod. 
As stright as a gunstick. 


GURT, adj. Great. See GRUT. 

GUT. A narrow lane or passage. 

" The gut so familiar to Oxford men. \V. G. Palgrave, Central and 
Eastern Arabia, vol. i., p. 57. 

There is a footpath at Kirton-in-Lindsey called Greedy-Y-Lane. 
It is highly improbable that this->name has anything to do with 

GUTS. The whole of the intestines between the heart and the 

GUTTER. A roof-spout. 

GUTTER, v. A candle is said to gutter when the melted wax 
or tallow runs down the side. 

GUY-ROPE. A rope used to steady a falling tree. 
GUZZLE, v. To drink without moderation. 

GYKES (geiks). Way; method. Perhaps a corruption of 


I'll shaw you th' gyltes on it. 

GYLE (geil). Wort ; a term in brewing. 

GYLE-FAT (geil-fat). A brewing-vat. 

" A lead, a mashefatte, gyl fatt with a sooe xvs." Inventory of Roland 
Staveley, of Gainsbitrgh, 1551. 

GYME (geim). A hole washed out of the ground by the 
rushing water when a bank breaks. 

GYZE, GYZEN (geiz, geiz-n), v. To warp ; to twist by the 
sun or wind. 

Soft fool, he mud knaw th' sun \v'd n't gyze th' doors o' th' no'th side 
o' th' barn. Flixborovgh, May 19, 1875. 

Thoo's left that theare bucket oot o' doors empty e' th' sun, till its 
gotten gizcn'd soa as onybody mud shuv a knife atwean th' lags. 
It's th' dry weather that's gizen'd chen soa as to mak' it run. 



The aspirate is usually silent in the dialect of northern Lincolnshire, 
unless it forms part of the word on which the emphasis falls, then it is 
fully sounded. Words beginning with a vowel are also aspirated for the 
sake of emphasis, as are, as a general rule, all words commencing with 
the letters EW, (usually pronounced like EW in NEW, but occasionally almost 
like the German ij) whether emphatic or not. The H is als) commonly 
sounded in the word HETHERD. 

HAAKING (haik-in), pres. part. Idle. 

HAAMES (haimz), s. pi. Pieces of wood or iron attached to a 
horse's collar to which the harness is fastened. 

HABS and NABS. One way or another. 

I've scratted it together by /tabs an' nabs. Said of rent, 1888. 
" By hab or nab, hooke or crooke." Bernard Terence, p. 17. 

HACK. (i) See HECK. 

(2) An axe for dressing stone. 

HACKER. One who dresses stone. 

HACKER, i). (i) To stammer. 

He hackers soa in his talk I can't tell what he means. 

(2) To shuffle. 

He'll be hackerin' aboot wi' foaks till he gets his sen atween th' foher 
walls o' Ketton prison. 

HACKSLAVER. An idle dissolute man or boy. 
He's a love-begot an' a real hackslaver. 

HAG. A bog. 

Ther's many a hoss hes been lost e' them peat moor hags. 

HAG, v. To cut or chop awkwardly. 
Doan't hay thy meat e ( that how, lad. 


HAGGADAY. A latch to a door or gate. A haggaday is 
frequently put upon a cottage door on the inside, without 
anything projecting outwards by which it may be lifted. 
A little slit is made in the door, and the latch can only be 
raised by inserting therein a nail or slip of metal. 

Old men alus calls them wooden snecks wheare you hev to put yer 

finger thrif a roond hoale e' th' door to oppen 'em, haggaday s. G. H., 1875. 

" To John fflower for hespes ... a sneck, a haggadaay, a catch & 

a ringe for the west gate, ijs. vjd-, 1610." Lonth CJi. Ace., vol. iii., 

p. 196. 

HAGGLE, v. (i) To cut awkwardly. 

(2) To argue. 

(3) To beat down in price. 

HAG-WORM. A snake (obsolescent). 

HAIR-BREED. A hair's-breadth. See HAND-BREED. 

HAIRF. Half. 

HAIRIFF. Galium apanne^ cleavers. 

HAIRMS. Haames (q.v.) 

been drunk over-night is advised by his jovial companions, 
when he complains of a headache the next morning, to 
take a hair of the dog thai bit him. When a dog bites a 
person it is still customary to extract some of its hairs and 
put them in the wound, as a preventative of hydrophobia. 

HAKUSSING (haik-usin), Moving about violently, as 
people do when in anger ; doing work in a violent or angry 

I could see sum'ats was wrong as soon as I went in ; she was puttin' 
dinner things by, an' hakussin' aboot all th' time. 

HALE. (i) A " garing " in an enclosure or open field that 
is an angular piece which has to be ploughed separately. 

(2) A bank or strip of grass which separates two persons' 
lands in an open field. 

(3) A sand-bank. See Notes and Queries, V. series, vol. iv., 
p. 27. 

(4) An angular pasture in the township of East Butterwick, 
adjoining Bottesford Beck on the North, is called 
Butterwick Hale. It has been used from an early period as 
a rest for the high-land water in flood time, until it could 
flow into the Trent. It is affirmed in the Survey of the 


Manor of Kirton-in-Lindsey, taken in 1787, that haile is " a 
term given to roads or dry hard banks in the boggy parts 
of the moors, upon which carriages may pass or anything 
be haled." Both definition and derivation are inaccurate. 
(Certainly a bad guess Cf. A. S., heal, a corner, an angle ; 
Icel. hjallij a ledge of rock. W. W. S.) " The derivations 
of words, like the use of words, must be strictly judged ; 
and the student must learn the painful, but wholesome 
lesson, to abandon upon cause shown the most favourite 
effort of his ingenuity." W. E. Hearn, The Aryan Household, 
p. 287 n. 

HALES, s. pi. The handles or stilts of a plough or wheel- 

"To be sold by auction .... 30 plough hales." Stamford 
Mercury, 2Oth September, 1867. 

He's fit for noht but to tramp fra mornin' till neet atweiin a pair o 1 

HALF-THERE. Weak of intellect. 

"As they say in Devon half-baked" C. Kingsley, Westward Ho! 
vol. i., p. 91. 

HALLIDAY. A holy day. 

HALLONTIDE. All Saints (obsolete). 

" Ffor bred & wyne ffor the comunion at hallontid, vjs. viijd." 
Kirton-in-Lindsey Ch. Ace., 1597. 

HALLY-BREAD. Holy-bread (q.v.) 

H ALLY-LOO-DAY. Holy rood day (a corruption). 

HAM. The thigh. 

HAM KIN (dirnin. of ham). The hock of a pig. 

HAMMER, v. To stammer. 

HAMMER and PINSONS. The clatter made by a horse 
which catches its hind feet against its fore ones in trotting. 

MAMMOCKING. Tearing violently about. 

Ther's been sum herses hammockin' aboot e 1 Mr. Sorsby's barley e' 
th' marsh. 

HAMPER, v. To hinder. 

She can't go oot taatie pickin', she's so hamper' d wi' bairns. 
I'm well enif if it warn't for this here cough that hampers me. 


HAND. Help, assistance, a lift. 

I alus lend 'em a hand when ther's onything goas wrong. 

HAND and FOOT, TO WAIT ON. To attend on a person 
with great assiduity. 

HAND, BLOODY. The badge of a baronet of Great Britain. 

Argent, a sinister hand, erect, open, couped at the wrist 

gules ; the arms of the province of Ulster. 

" Yo see, sir, thaay've been steady foiiks enif iver sin' we knew oht 
aboot 'em, which goas a good long waay back, ye knaw, bud one o' 
the'r forelders committed a cruel mo'der a many years sin'. As he 
was a great man, thaay did n't hing him as thaay'd hed reight to ha' dun. 
He was letten off upo' condition 'at he put a bloody hand on his shield, 
an' 'at him an' all as caame efter him should alus keap it theare, an' 
you maay see it noo up o' th' carriage door th' very next time as it cums 
past." The above narrative was told to me by a Scawby woman some 
five and thirty years ago. I am informed that the badge of Ulster has 
given rise to similar legends with regard to several other families, 
whose ancestors have been innocent of homicide. 

HAND-BREED. A hand's-breadth. See HAIR-BREED. 

HAND-CLOOT. A hand-towel. 

HANDER. A person who acts as second in a fight with fists. 

HAND-HOLD. Anything that may be grasped or taken hold 
of by the hands. 

I darn't climb noa higher, ther's naather hand-hohd nor foot-hohd for 

KERCHEEVES. A handkerchief whether a neck-handker- 
chief or a pocket-handkerchief. 

HANDLE, v.(i) To secure; to get hold of. 

Times is straange an' bad, I niver handled soa little money as I hev' 
this last year. July 6, 1886. 

(2) To touch. 

I weant hev you bairns han'lin bull, he'll be stabbin' on you. 

(3) To use, to employ ; not necessarily with the hands. 

An old woman who was lame said, I can't han'le my feet so well as I 
ewsed to could. 

HAND OUT. To distribute. 

Ey, Miss, it's Loord 'at hands oot iv'rything 'e riches an' poverty, an' 
sickness an' health. It's him as duz it all, an 1 fer best. 

HAND-RUNNING. In succession ; one after another. 
Ther' was six deaths from that feaver hand-running. 


HANDS, s. pi.- Women and children who work upon a farm. 
The labourers and servant " chaps " are not hands. 

Though the meaning is almost always clear, the use of the word 
hands to signify workpeople not uncommonly leads to verbal incon- 
gruities. A writer of the last century tells of " a captain of a privateer, 
who wrote an account to his owners of an engagement in which he had 
the good fortune, he told them, of having only one of his hands shot 
through the nose." Letters of Sir Tho. Fitzosborne, 8th ed., 1776, p. 115. 

HAND-SPEAK. A wooden lever ; a hand-spike. 

HAND-STAFF. The handle of a flail to which the swivel is 

HAND STIR. (i) A very small distance. 

I've heard them saay as hes been e' Lunnun, that- th' roiik's ofens soil 
thick theare 'at you can't sea a handstir afoore you, reight e' th' middle 
o' th' daay. 

(2) The smallest possible amount of labour. 

" Here you are clartin' aboot an' not a handstir of wark dun yet. 

HANDSTROKE. A very small amount of labour. 

I'd hardly struck a hand-stroak when doon she cums. Said by a man 
who had felled a rotten tree. 

HANDY. (i) Near at hand. 

Oor chech Stan's soa nice an' handy that .1 mostlin's goa theiire e'stead 
o' to chapil. 

(2) Convenient. 

It's handy th' coo's cauved, we shall hev sum milk for the chaps noo. 

HANG, v. To hang a gate or a door is to fix it in its place by 
crooks or hinges. 

HANG-DOG-LOOK. A villainous appearance. 
HANGING FOR. Desirous of. 

Well Mary Ann, thoo can do as ta likes, bud I hang for ye goin' to 
Mrs. . . . plaace ; its a knawn good un. 

HANGING FOR RAIN. Threatening rain. 

It's been hang in' for raain three or foher daays but noiin cums. July 
10, 1886. 

HANK. A skein of cotton, thread, or silk. 

" Her curls, like hanks of gold, hung waving." John Clare, The Banks 

of Ivory, Life and. Remains, p. 348. 

H ANKLE, v. To entangle. 

He's a honest chap his sen, bud he's gotten hanhled in wi' a straange 
lot o' rogues. 


HANKY- PANKY-WARK. Shuffling, cheating, deceitful 

Noo goa strlght, lets hev noa hanky -panky-wavk this time. 

HANSEL. (i) Luck money. 
(2) The first use of anything. 

HANSEL, v. To try or use for the first time. 
I'm gooin' to hansel that new plew. 

" It was one of that profession [baker] that first hansell'd the 
gallows." Th. Brown, Works, 1730, vol. iv., p. 230. 

HAP. A misfortune ; an accident. 
A sore hap. 

HAP, v. To happen. 

If it haps to raain I shan't goa. 

HAP-DOWN, v. To cover up. 

Noo then, get them taztieshapped-doon, it '11 freeze to-neetlike smack- 

HAPPEN. Perhaps. 

Happen I maay cum doon o' Sunda' at neet, bud I'm not sewer. 

HAPPEN, HAPPEN ON, v. To meet ; to meet with. 

I happened on her just agean Bell-hoale. 

He happen 'd an accident up o' Magin Moor ; his herse flung him 
and brok two on his ribs. 

" The restless hogs will happen on trie prize." John Clare; Shepherd's 
Calendar, p. 74. 

HAPPING. Covering, such as clothes on a bed, or earth on a 

I've knawn farm hooses, a many, wheare sarvant chaps hed niver enif 
happiri 1 o' the'r beds. 

MELL. By chance ; in confusion ; without order or 

HAPT. Wrapped ; covered. 

It was hapt 'e a peace o' broon paaper. 

" Hapt in the cold dark grave." 

John Clare, Sonnet, xxv. 

HAP-UP, v. (i) To cover up ; to wrap up. 

" Th' ohd chap's happed up by this time, I reckon," said of a friend 
on the day of his funeral. 

(2) To conceal. 

Thaay maay try as thaay like ther's noa happiri a thing o' that soort 
up e' thease daays. 


HAR. (i) Fog; mist, especially when it is cold. 
(2) A cough. 

HARBOUR. (i) Shelter. 

It power'd doon wi' raain an' ther' was noa harbour to find noa wheare. 

(2) A house, a home. 

Thaay was to'n'd oot i'to th' streat, an' noa harbour was to be gotten 
for 'em noawheares, soa I let 'em lig e' my barn. 

HARBOUR, v.(i) To shelter. 
(2) To find house-room for. 

HARD, //.Heard. 

HARD, THE. The stoned part of a road as distinguished 
from the sides. See Notes and Qtieries, vj. series, vol. iv., 
p. 38. 

HARD, adj.(i) Quick. 

Th' gress'll graw hard enif noo this sup o' raain's cum'd. 
(2) Sour. 

This aale o' yours is uncommon hard. 

" Beer from getting acetous or what is called hard." Drakard's 
Stamford News, Oct. i, 1833. 

HARD AND SHARP. Hardly ; scarcely; with difficulty. 

I did catch th' traain, bud it was hard an' sharp, she was movin' when 
I got in. 

HARDEN - FACED, adj. The reverse of shame-faced ; 

A harden-faaced huzzy. 

CHEESE. A hard lot, a sad misfortune. 

Poor chap, it was hard-lines for him. Bottesford, 1849. 

It's hard-does for a man and his wife and bairns to be thrawn oot o' 
wark wi'oot warnin'. Frodingham, 1874. 

HARD-HEAD. Centaurea nigva. 

HARD LAID ON. Much burdened, hard at work. 

HARDLING, HARDLINGS. Hardly ; scarcely. 
Ther's hardlin's time to catch th' packit noo. 

HARDNESS. Strength, applied to the voice. 

I shooted wi' all my hardness, that is, I called as loud as I could. 

HARD OF HEARING. Slightly deaf, 


HARDS. (i) The worked fibre of flax or hemp. 

"For 22 stone of hards." Corporation Rec. in Tomlinson's Doncaster, 
P- 337- 
(2) The refuse of the same. 

HARD-SET. In difficulties. 

We shall most on us be hard set if thease prices hohds on a year or two 
longer, 1885. 

HARD WATER. Spring water as distinguished from soft or 
rain water. 

HARD WOOD. Oak and ash as distinguished from poplar, 
willow, beech, and resinous woods. A carpenter's term. 

"William Chapman, iij. lode of hardwodde."Kiyton-in-LindseyCh. 
Ace., 1568. Cf. Mon. Ang. vol. iii.,p. 360. 

HARKAUDIENCE. A corrupt form of accordion. 

H ARL. A state of great excitement. 

" Jimmy H .... is e' such 'n a harl as niver was aboot this 
here jewbilee." Yaddlethorpe, June, 1887. 

HARL, v. To couple rabbits by threading one hind-leg through 
the ham-string of the other. 

HARP ON ONE STRING. To talk too much on one subject. 
" The Cardinall made a countenance to the t'other Lord, that he 
should harp no more vpon that string." Sir Thomas More's Worhes, 
1557. P- 49 b. 
HARASSMENT. A harassed condition. 

Dr. P. ... he says to me, " Mrs. D " he says, " it's 

owe? -harassment o' th' liver 'at yer sufferin' from." 

" I have known little else than privation, disappointment, unkindness, 
and harassment." Laetitia E. Landon, in Life, By 'Layman Blanchard, 
vol. i., p. 56. 

HARRIED, HARROWED,/^. Tired, wearied out. 

HARROW-BULL. The cross pieces of the harrow in which 
the teeth are fixed. 

HARROW-REST. Rest-harrow (q.v.) 
HARUM-SCARUM, adv. Disorderly, confusedly. 

HARVEST-BUG. A very minute scarlet mite, which burrows 
into the skin in July and August. Unrefined people who 
wish to appear what they think "genteel" have, during 
the last few years, taken to speak of them as harvesters. 

" My eldist lass hes been o'must eaten up wi' harvest-bugs this hot 
weather, an' thaay bite th' hosses an' dogs a shaame to sea." Bottesford, 
ist August, 1887. 


HARVEST-HOME. The feast made by a farmer when the 
harvest is got in. 

HARVEST-MAN. A spider with very longlegs. 

" One of the Phalangida;." Cf. Ann. &> Mag. N. H., 1855, series II., 
vol. xv., pp. 393-416, pi. x., xi. ; also a Suppl., 1861. 

HASK. The same as ASK (q.v.) 

HASSOCK. A thick and large tuft of coarse grass. 

HASSOCKY, adj. Land is said to be hassocky when it has 
many " hassocks " growing on it. 

HASTER. A hastener ; a screen put before the fire to keep 
in the heat when meat is roasting. 

HAST TA. Hast thou. 

Hast ta gotten thy dinner ? 

HAT. " That's what I hing my hat upon " i.e., "That is 
what encourages me." 

HATE. To dislike. 

I'm gooin' to flit, I am ; I haate livin' wi' poor gentlefoaks as hes to 
look at boath sides on a slaape sixpence afoore thaay do'st spend it. 

HAUK, v. To clear the throat ; to spit. 

" Stop his nose, liauk and spit, and curse the stinking cargo." N. 
Bailey, Colloquies of Erasmus, 1725, p. 367. 


HAULING-PATH. The path on which the hauling -horses 
walk by the side of a canal or river. 

" The occupiers of land . . . where there is no hauling-path are 
authorized to discharge ; all persons trespassing theiton."Ancholwe 
Navigation Notice. Oct. 6, 1874. 

HAULM, HAUM. (i) The straw of beans, peas, tares, and 
the stalks of rape and turnips. 

(2) The stalk of flax and hemp. 

(3) The chaff of grain. 

HAUVE. A direction given to horses, meaning turn to the left 
side. Possibly a form of the word half, i.e., side. 
" I looked on my left half, as J>e lady me taught, 
And was war of a \vooman, wortheli yclothed." 

Piers Plowman, B. Text, Pass, ii., 1. 7. 

HAUVE, v. To stare idly or vacantly. 
HAUVEN. A lout ; a rude, coarse fellow. 


HAUVENISH. Loutish. 

'HAVELESS, adj. Having ill manners (a contraction for 

She's as 'haaveless a bairn as lives. 

HAVELESS, adj. Wasteful, incompetent (probably formed 
from the verb have]. 

A haveless chap that's run'd thrif three fo'tuns. 

HAVER. Wild oats. In 1629 there was a place in Scotter 
called Haverland. Havercroft is a place in the parish of 
Felkirk, Yorkshire. Havercroft is a Lindsey surname. 

HAVERMEAL. Oatmeal (obsolescent). 
HAW. The berry of the hawthorn. 

HAW, interj. Jaanie Smith hes gotten fine i' her talk wi' gooin' 
to staay at Lincoln ; when ony body says oht to her she 
duz n't saay " haw " as we do ; she says, " W r ell, you 'stonish 


HAWBAW, HAWBUCK. A lout ; a coarse, vulgar lad. 
HAW T KSPAUN. A tall ungainly woman. 
HAWM (haum), v. To move about "awkwardly. 

HAY, v. To turn into hay ; said of grass newly cut. 

Its haying nistly, if it nobbut hohds fine we can lead o' Tuesda'. 

HAYBANDS, A rough kind of rope made of twisted hay, 
employed instead of string for fastening thatch on stacks. 
Sixty years ago it was almost universal, now it is rarely seen. 
Haybands were formerly used by labouring men as a pro- 
tection to the legs instead of gaiters. They became, however, 
to be considered as a mark of extreme poverty and con- 
sequently dropped out of use. Cf. Ben Jonson, Every Man 
in his Humour, Act i., sc. 2. 

John's tekken to haaybands, it'll be th' work-hoose next. 

HAYBOOT. The same as HEDGEBOOT (q.v.) 

"12 carect. subbosci pro le heybote." Lease of Manor of Scotter, 1484. 
Cf. Mon. Aug., vol. iii., p. 431. Scroggs, Practise of Courts Leet, p. 208. 

HAYCOCK. A hillock of dried grass made by raking together 
a certain length of the swathe. Grass remains grass while 
it is in the swathe; when it has been put into "cock*" it 
becomes hay. 

" The whole world belike should be new moulded, when it seemed 
goode to those all-commanding powers & turned inside out as we do 
hay-cocks in harvest, top to bottom, or bottom to top." Burton, Anatomy 
of 'Mel., 1652, p. 245. 


HAY-SPADE. A cutting knife (q.v.) 

HAYWARD. A manorial officer whose duty it was to take 
order as to the stock, and to see that the fences were in good 
order. Cf. Cowel, Law Diet., sub voc. Archaologia, vol. 
xxxv., p. 471. The family name of Howard had probably 
its origin in this word. See letter by the author in The 
Standard, 4th Nov., 1885. 

HAZE, v. (i) To beat. 

(2) To bail water. See OWSE. 

HAZING. A beating. A writer in the Gentleman's Magazine 
for 1825, says, " that this word is undoubtedly derived from 
the name of the instrument originally used in the beating, 
that is, a twig of the hazel-nut tree ; " p. 396. This guess 
is almost certainly wrong. 

HAZZEL. The hazel. See HEZZEL. 

HAZZEL, TO GIVE SOME. Is to give a beating. 

HE, pron. He and she are used as nominatives, when they 
stand alone in a sentence as " He went," " She said so," 
but when they are coupled with a noun or another pronoun 
they change into him and her, as " Him and me went," 
" Her and him said so," " Him and Jim was feightin'," 
" Sarah and her was shillin' peys." This rule also holds 
good when the pronoun is separated from the verb in direct 
relation with it by an intervening clause, as " Him 'at 
pull'd doon th' ohd manor-hoose was this squire's gret-gret 
gran' feyther," and in such interjectional phrases as " Him 
respectable ! you'll beleave onything if ye beleave that ; " 
" Her tekken to drink ! who iver tell'd ye sich an a lee ?" 

HE, prep. In. 

You'll find it he th' carpenter's shop. 

" Robert ffyscher tanner, his moder he law gafe of her goode will 
vs." Louth Ch. Ace., vol. i., p. 332. 

HEAD (hi-lrd). (i) The doors of a clough or sluice, with the 
masonry thereto belonging. 

(2) To ask for a farm over a man's head is to ask for another 
man's holding when he has not had notice to quit. 

(3) " Let him hev his head" is said to an unskilful rider or 
driver who holds in his horse too tightly. 

b CORRI^GHAM woRfts. 263 

HEAD-ACHE. The common scarlet corn-poppy, Papavev 

" More hedd-aaches then arnin's," said of bad sand land whereon 
these plants grow in such profusion as to eat away the corn. 
" Corn-poppies, that in crimson dwell, 
Call'd ' Head-achs ' from their sickly smell," 

John Clare, Shepherd's Calendar, p. 47. 

HEAD-ACHE WINE. A drink made of the petals of head- 

"An' it's real bewtiful, m'm, I do assewer ye. When we liv' at 
boddom o' Botton Hill Side, p'liceman fra Noramby, he hed a glass on 
it wi' us one daay, an' he said as it went reight through him, an' 'at if 
it wo'd n't be incroachin' he wo'd like anuther glass." 

HEADLAND. That part of an open field or enclosure where 
the horses turn round, and which is consequently ploughed 
the last, and in a transverse direction to the rest of the 
land. In the open fields these headlands are often the 
boundaries of property, and therefore headland is sometimes, 
though rarely, used as an equivalent for boundary. Cf. 
Seebohm's Eng. Vill. Com., p. 4. 

HEAD OF GRASS. The growth of grass at any given time. 
" They have a tolerable head of grass in the spring." Arth. Young, 
Line. Agric., 1799, p. 194. 

HEAD, QUEEN'S. When postage stamps were first intro- 
duced they were called Queen's Heads. There were then but 
two varieties, the penny stamp which was black, and the 
two-penny stamp which was blue ; since many kinds have 
been made the term has gone out of use. 

HEAD-PIECE. The head, and hence figuratively intelligence, 
mental capacity, quickness of intellect. 

You've gotten as poor a head-peace for larnin' oht 'at "11 do you ony 
good as iver I seed. 

HEAD-STALL. That part of a bridle or halter which goes 
around the horse's head. 

HEAD- WARK. Thought ; consideration. 

Ther's been a deal o' head-wavk putten into that carvin* sum time or 

HEAD- WASH ING. Drinking a newly-born infant's health. 

Ther'll be sum hedd-weshin* to do this time, I reckon, noo that they've 
gotten a son at last. 


HEADY, adj. Rash ; violent. 

"Are you so Jicadic-minded that you wish the death of the child"? 
Bernard, Terence, p. 344. 

He's such a heady chap you can't talk \vi' him for five minnits wi' oot 
his fallin' oot wi' you. 

HEAPS. A great quantity. 

There was heaps o 1 raain on Tho'sda'. 

Ketton's heaps farther fra Gaainsb'r then Notherup is. 

We've heaps o' wells at Bottesford. July 16, 1875. 

HEARD (hi-h'rd), /#. and/*, t. Heard. 

HEARSE. (i) A triangular frame for holding candles in a 
church (obsolete). 

(2) A frame of wicker work, timber, or metal, placed over the 
body of a dead person for the purpose of supporting the pall 
while the funeral service was being read (obsolete). 

(3) A similar frame attached to a tomb for the purpose of 
supporting hangings and light (obsolete). 

" A hearse sold to John Banton of Aukeborow ... in anno 1865, 
who hathe put it to prophane vse." Line. Ch. Furniture, p. 36, cf. 
127 n., Notes and Queries, Sixth Series, vol. i., pp. 212, 297, 343, 426. 

HEAR TELL, v. To hear, to be informed. 

I doa n't think as I've heard tell o' ony body o' that naame e'this part. 

HEART. Oh, dear heart. " Dear heart alive ; " exclamations, 
commonly of pain or sorrow. 


HEART, BAD. (i) A person easily cast down has a bad heart. 

(2) A bad heart is attributed to one who is cruel or otherwise 
very wicked. 

HEART-BRUSSEN, pp.(i) Heart broken, in the sense of 
spent with gallopping, pulling, or running. 

(2) Heart broken in the sense of dicing from grief. See 

HEARTEN, v. To encourage. 

Well, I'm heart'n'd a good deal by th' waay thease here elections is 

HEART-SKE'T, HEART-SKIRTS. The pericardium of 
man or of one of the lower animals. 

" My bairns ewsed to pull at my goon-sfo'fc once, bud thaay pull at 
my heari-sket's noo. 


HEART-SLAIN, pp. (i) Exhausted by over exertion. 

He druv th' poor herse 'till it was clear heart-slaain. 
(2) One who has died of grief is said to be heart-slain. 

It was n't no illness that'kill'd her, poor thing; she was heart-slaain. 

HEART-WHOLE. (i) In good spirits. 

I thoht to hev fun' him doon-cast, but he's clear heart-whodle. 

(2) Not in love. 

He's sweethearted a good bit, by offs an' ons, here one lass, an* theare 
anuther like, bud I reckon mysen as he's heart-whodle yit. 

HEASTER (heast-ur). Esther and Hesther, a female Christian 

HEAT. A round, a bout. 

He was dead bet th' fo'st heat. 

HEAT, v. Hay or corn is said to. heat when it becomes hot in 
the stack by being carried when damp. 

Squire Heala's stacks got a fire thrif a fother stack 'at heated. 

HEAVE, v. (i) To throw. 

She was that mad wi' me, she hcav'd th' bread and butter up o' th' fire 

(2) A cow or ox is said to be heaved when it has eaten two 
much green food, such as clover, and is inflated thereby. 

HEBBEL. Perhaps a wooden bridge. Cf. Atkinson's 
Cleveland Gloss, and Halliwell's Diet, sub voc. HEBBLE 

" Nulli ibunt cum auriga . . . super le hebbels." Bottesford Manor 
Records, 1563. 

Thoresby, in his letter to Ray, 1703, says that hebble is a "narrow, 
short, plank-bridge." E. D. S. , No. 6, p. 101. 

HECK. (i) A hedge (rare). 

It ewsed to stan' up by yon heck yonder agea'n th 1 beach tree. Geo. 

(2) A rack for fodder in a stable or pasture. 

We mun hev them hecks mended e' th' coo staables, th' beas' waaste 
the'r fother theare shaameful. 

" Let the rack or heck, as the common people call it, be in proportion 
to the horse's stature." Vegetius Renatus, of the Distempers of Horses, 
1748, p. 99. 

(3) A shuttle in a drain. 

HECKLE, v. To prepare the fibre of flax or hemp by means 
of heckles. 

HECKLER. One who heckles flax or hemp. 


HECKLES. A machine made of steel pins fixed in blocks of 
wood, by means of which the fibre of flax or hemp is worked. 

HECKSTAVER. A bar in a heck (q.v.) 

HED,pt. t. Had. 

He never hed noht bud what she gev' him. 

HEDER (hee.dur). A male animal, most commonly used of 

"They are forced to sell their heeders, and joist their sheeders in the 
spring." Arth. Young, Line. Agric., 1799, p. 235. 

HEDGEBOOT (obsolete). The right of getting wood for 
mending hedges. HAYBOOT (q.v.) is another form of the 

" To have . . . sufficient houseboot, hedgeboot . . . and stake- 
boot yearly." Lease of Lands in B nimby, 1716. Cf. Mon. Aug., vol. iv., 
p. 209, col. i. Kitchen, on Courts Leet, p. 116. 

HEEL-TREE. A swingle-tree (q.v.) 

HEFT. The handle of a knife, hammer, chisel, or any small 

HEIGH, LADS ! An exclamation used in setting a dog on a 
cat or rat. 

HEIGHT, inter] . Word of command to horses, meaning " go 
to the right." W.S., Bottesford, June, 22, 1886 (obsolescent). 

HEIR, v. To inherit. 

He heir'd it all fra' his feyther. 

HEIRED PROPERTY. Property under settlement. 

HELL-CAT. A very small and troublesome black insect, a 
midge, a " Little man of Wroot " (q.v.) 

HELL GAD, HELL STANG. An augur or spear for catching 

HELM. A shed built on posts. 

" Stacked on the helm in the stackyard 16 loads of short wheat, 20 
stooks to the load." E. S. P., Bottesford Farm Ace., August 21, 1830. 

HELTER. A halter. 

HELTER-SKELTER. In great confusion, one after another. 


HEM, intcrj. A note of approval, disapproval or question, 
according to the way in which it is said. 

"All gave a general hemme after Goffe's speech in token of satis- 
faction." Letter of Sir Ric. Temple, 1658, in Hist. MSS. Com. Rep. v. p. 
172, col. i. 

gardens attached to old cottages commonly went by one of 
these names as theyjwere in former days used mainly for 
growing hemp. 

HEMP-PIT, HEMP-DYKE. A pit in which hemp was 
steeped. Traces of these pits are to be found near most of 
our villages. There are four or more at Bottesford. 

" Drowned in a hempe pitt near a litle sink of hempe." Haxey, ijth 
Cent., Add. MS. 31,028, fol. 7. 

HEN-BAUKS. The perches or rafters on which poultry sit. 

HEN-CHALK. A kind of gypsum. 

"Fibrous gypsum, provincially called hen-chalk."- Will. Peck, Ace. 
of Isle of Axholme, p. 17. 

HEN-PENNY, HEN-RENT. A payment made to the Lord 
of the Manor for hens. It is probably obsolete. See 
DUFRESNE, Gloss. Mfd. Lat., sub voc. Gallinagium ; Cowel's 
and Jacob's Law Dictionaries, sub voc. Henedpenny. 

"Winterton . . . there was also vjd- rent for six hens, payable 
at the feast of Christe's natiuatie." Norden's Survey of the Manor of 
Klrton-in-Lindsey , 1616, p. 66b. 

" The lord or steward of this mannour of Broughton formerly had 
every year ... a capon of every husbandry, and a hen of a whole 
cottagry." Diary of Abraham de la Pryme (Surtee's Soc.), p. 159 ; Cf. 
Mon. Aug., vol. iv., pp. 292, 576 ; Kitchen On Courts Leet, p. 209. 

HEN-SCRATTINS (lit. hen-scratchings), s. pi. Small dappled 
clouds, or light thin clouds like torn locks of wool. 
" Hen-scrats and filly-taails 
Mak lofty ships hug low saails." 

The first line sometimes runs 

" Hen-scrats and graay mare taails." 

HEN-STEE. A small ladder made of laths, by which the hens 
ascend to roost. 

HEPPEN, adj. Handy, clever, deft, neat. 

Charlie's a heppen soort o 1 a chap ; he can do o'must oht that belongs 
to his traade, an' a lot o 1 uther things an' all. 

All th' stacks is thack'd, an' th' plaace looks real heppen noo. 

/wz. Frequently used as a nominative. See HE. 


HERBEGRASS. Herb of grace, rue ; Ruta gmvcolens. 

" There's rue for you ; and here's some for me ; we may call it herb- 
grace o' Sundays." Hamlet, Act. iv., sc. v., 1. 182. 

HEREAWAY, HEREAWAYS, adv. This way; in this 

" Sequere hac me intus. Follow me in this way, or hereaway.'" 
Bernard, Terence, p. 94. 

I hev n't seen him hereawaays sin' Jewne. 

HERES AND THERES. In various places. 

Noo then, iv'rything is all heres and thedres, noht wheare it should be. 

A married woman said : " When we fost set up hoose-keapin 1 I ews'd 
to get my shopthings heres and thedres, but noo I alus stick to one plaace. 
May, 1886. 

HERN, pron.Hers. 

HERONSEW. The heron. 

Heronsews hev built e' Manby Woods time oot o' mind. 
" I wol not tellen of hir strange sewes, 
Ne of her swannes, ne her heronswes." 

Chaucer, Squire's Tale, 1. 68. 

HERRICANE. A hurricane. 

It's them herricaanes m'm, thaay tears th' cloas soa as we durs' n't hing 
'em oot. Said by a washerwoman, at Scotton, March, 1877. 

HERRING-GUTTED, ^7. Thin, bony, wiry. 

HERSE. (i) A horse. 

A clergyman, in the Isle of Axholme, a new comer from Southern 
parts, had a call of business made upon him by a person who lived 
some distance off. The clergyman asked his visitor how he had come, 
and the reply was, " I rode on a herse." The Southerner understood 
him to mean by herse, not a horse, but a carriage in which 
the dead are conveyed, and thinking that a funeral was arranged for, 
of which he had had no notice, snatched up his hat and rushed to the 
clerk's house to make inquiries. See Hoss. 

(2) A frame on which clothes are dried before a fire. 
HERSE-STANG. A dragon-fly. See HOBBY-HERSE. 

HES, v. Has. 

Hes he been ? " No, he lies n't. 

HES BEEN. (i) A man or woman to old or feeble to work. 

It stan's to reason at yung college-gentlemen like you knaws a vast 
sight moore then a worn-oot lies-been like me, bud you weant better God 
Almighty an' ten commandments e' my time, an' soil I'll just stick to 
'em while I'm happ'd up. 

Compound words of this kind often occur in seventeenth century 
literature. Ben Jonson uses hang-by for what we should a hanger-on. 
Every Man in his Humour, Act iij., sc. j. 


(2) An antiquity. 

" That's a fine ohd hes-been is n't it," said of an old carved chair. 

HESP. A hasp. A hook used for fastening a gate or door. 

HESSLE WHELPS. The water of a part of the Humber 
near Hezzle, which is often turbulent. See BARTON 

HETHERD. An adder. 

" When I was helpin' to pare Brumby common, me an' sum moore on 
us cum'd on a hetherd wi' her yung uns agean her, an' when we 
wakkend 'em th' yung uns all crep doon the'r muther throat. An' thaay 
tell me as Parson Frederick seed th' saame thing happen upo' Scotton 
common, bud that's a vast o' years sin noo." G. S., Messingham, 
June 9, 1887. 

HETHERD-BROTH. A broth made of the flesh of an adder 
boiled with a chicken. A specific for consumption. It was 
till about fifty years ago the custom for certain wanderers 
to come yearly during the hot weather of summer from the 
West Country (q.v.) to search on the sand-hills for hetherds 
which they said they sold to the doctors for the purpose of 
making hetherd-broth. 

HETHERD-STONE. That is an adder-stone ; an ancient 
spindle-whorl. It is still believed that these objects are 
produced by adders, and that if one of them be suspendell 
around the neck it will cure whooping-cough, ague, and 
adder-bites. See Anselmus Bcetius de Boot, Gemmarum et 
Lapidum Historia, 1636, p. 346; Archaologia, vol. xl., p. 229; 
Gibson's Camden's Britannia, vol. ii., p. 64 ; Notes and 
Queries, iv. Series t vol. ix., p. 155. 

HETHERD-STUNG, #. Bitten by an adder. When a 
swelling suddenly arises upon any animal without the cause 
being known it is said to be hetherd-stung ; the remedy is a 
poultice compounded of boiled onions and rotten eggs. 
Hedgehogs and shrews are also said to bite animals and 
produce all the symptoms of the * sting ' of the hetherd. A 
similar remedy is used. 

HEV, v. Have. 

" Hev you seed Garner ? " " Ey, he was here a bit sin." 

HEWST, //.Used. 

HEWT, pt. t. Owed. 

He heiat his sarvant chaps o'must a year waage when he brok', an" 
thaay did n't get a penny o' the'r munny, 

HEY. Yes, 


HEY, interj. -Hey ! but it was a big un. 
HEZZEL. The hazel, see HAZZEL. 

HICKING-BARROW. A frame used for lifting sacks of corn, 
" Hicking and running barrows." Gainsb. News, April 8, 1876. 

HICK UP, &'. To lift as with a hicking-banow. 

HIDE. The human skin. 
I'll tan thy hide for the. 

HIDING. A beating. 

If I iver catch the agaain mislestin' that duck on her nest I'll gie 
the a straange hidin\ 

"Will save the purgatorial hiding.''' AbciUard and Heloisa, 1819, 
p. 228. 

HIDE-BOUND. Hard on the surface. 

This land's that hide-boond ther's noa gettin' a pleugh in till raain 
cums. July 8, 1886. 
Trees are hide-bound when the bark shows no signs of growth. 

HIG. To put a person in a hig is to offend him. A person is 
in his higs when in a bad temper. 

HIGGLE, v. (i) To barter. 

(2) To argue over a bargain. 

I'd raather traade wi' ony body then N . . .he higgles soa, one 
can't get dun wi' him. 

(3) To heap up earth round growing potatoes. 

(4) To cut food badly. 

If ye higgle yer meat e" that how you shan't hev noan. 

HIGGLER. A huckster. A man who goes about with small 
wares, buying and selling. 

11 Like hirjkrs pad, or packhorse drone." Edw. Ward, Don Quixote, 
1711, vol. i., p. 43. 

HIGGLETY-PIGGLETY, adv. In great disorder. 

HIGH. Proud. 

He's that high noo, he weant move to poor foaks when he meats 'em. 
I shall be tellin' on him sum fine daay, 'at them as hes gotten to top o' 
stee hes n't noa call to kick ther ohd maates doon. 

HIGH-LARNT. Learned. 

It is n't th' liigh-larntist men that's fittest fer business. 

HIGH-TIME. Full time. 

It's high time you was off to chech ; the sarmon-bell's ringin', 


HIGHT (heit), v.(i] To raise; to tip up. 

Hight th' barril-end, th' tap weant run. 

(2) To move up and down, as children do in the game of 

HIGHTY-TIGHTY, adj. (i) Slightly crazy. 

"Well, you see, he's not fit for th' 'sylum, maay be, bud he's Mghty- 
tighty like. 
(2) Haughty ; overbearing. 

HIGHTY-TIGHTY. A see-saw. 

HIKE OFF. To run away. 

I said sum'ats to him aboot bein 1 laate in at neet, soil wi' oot ony 
moore to do he hiked off an' niver com by agean. 

HILDER. The udder of an animal. 

HILL, v. (i) To earth up potatoes. 

" A rof shal hile [cover] us bothe o-nith." Havelok, 1. 2,082. 
(2) To make manure into a heap. 

" Mr. Lloyd is much against hilling of manure." Arth. Young, Line. 
Agric., 1799, p. 266. 

HIM. Frequently used as a nominative. See HE. 

HINCROACHIN', adj. Encroaching. 

She's the moast hincrodchinest woman that iver set foot in a hoose. 

HIND. A foreman on a farm ; a farm bailiff (rare). 
" ]>ine cherles, )nne hine." Havelok, 1. 620. 
Are you my cousin Thomas Peacock's hind ? T. P. Crowle. 

HINDEREND (i short as in Binder). The back part of 

Th' pickin' furk's e' th 1 hinder end o' th 1 barn. 

I was born at the hinderend o' th' year, the daay efter Saaint Thomas. 

HINDERENDS (i as in cinder). Lighter, and therefore 
inferior, corn; so called because in winnowing it falls at 
the hinderend of the heap. 

We send forends to markit, seconds to th' miln for wer-sens, an' 
chickens gets th' kinder ends. 

" If thaay had white bread it was a luxury, and then they ate the 
hinder-ends." Lawrence Cheny, Ruth and Gabriel, vol. i., p. 5. 

HING, v. To hang. 

" For hinging her " (a bell). Kirton-in-Lindsey Ch. Ace., 1630. 
He'd said times many that afoore he'd marry her he'd king his-sen 
up o' th' highest tree e' Notherup. 

" Where the snow-drop hings." 

John Clare, Shepherd's Calendar, p. 3<|.. 
" The lane path where the dog-rose hings." 

Ibid, Sonnet xx, 


KING-LOCK. A hanging lock, a padlock. 

HING-POST, HING STOHP. The post on which a gate 

HINT. Hinder. 

Th' hint-wheels o' th' red waggon wants greasin'. 

HIP. The fruit of the wild rose. 

HIKINGS, s. pi. Statute fairs for hiring servants. 


HIS SEN. Himself. 

HITCH, v. (i) To move. 

(2) To move on. 

(3) To change crops in an open field. 

" In fallow years no hitching is ever made in any of the fields, and 
consequently no clover or turnips are raised.'* Survey oj Manor of 
Kirton-in-Lindsey, 1787. 

HITCH ON, v. To move on. 

Hitch on a bit ; ther's anuther to cum i'to this pew. 

HITCH UP, v. To pull or push upward. 
Hitch up th' bed cloas a bit, it's stingin' cohd. 

He did n't wear gallowses, soa he alus hed to be hitchin' up his 

HIT ON. To meet with, to find, to think of. 

I've hit on just reight ; this is th' very thing I wanted. 

I knaw'd all aboot it, but I couldn't hit on it just when you axed me. 

HITTY-MISSY, adv. Promiscuous ; without order, regularity, 
or care. 

Sum fciiks likes flooers set in pattrens, bud I like 'em all ony-how, 
hitty -missy like. 

Hitty-missy ; Recte an secus. Adam Littleton's Lat. Diet., 1735, 
sub voc. 

HITTY-MISSY WINDOW. A window made of upright bars 
of wood, one half of them attached to the frame, the other 
half to the slide. When the window is shut no light enters ; 
when open, the bars pass behind each other, and light and 
air are admitted. 

HIVY-SKYVY. Confusion. 
HOAM (hoa-h'm) Home. 

HOARST, HOST. A cold on the chest, a hoarseness. 
I've gotten such a liotirst I can hardliu's specie a \vod, 


HOARSE, adj. Hoarse. 

HOB. (i) A cherry-stone. 

(2) The mark at which aim is taken in playing at marbles, 
pitch and toss, quoits, &c. 

HOB, HOB-END, HUD, HUD-END (Hud pronounced like 
hood). The flat-topped side of a fire-place, on which a tea- 
kettle or small pan can be placed. 

HOB, v. To cut down roughly, nettles, thistles, or long coarse 
grass. See Arth. Young, Line. Agric., 1799, p. 174. 

HOBBLE. (i) A limp. 

He goas wi' a strange hobble. 
(2) Trouble; difficulty. 

HOBBLE, v. To limp. 

HOBBY-HERSE. (i) A hobby-horse, a child's toy, like a 
horse on wheels. 

(2) A rocking horse. 

(3) A dragon-fly. These insects are in Nottinghamshire called 
hoss-tangs, and it is believed there that " three on 'em will 
tang a hoss to dead." A neighbour of the author's affirms 
that when he lived in the " Isle " (q.v.), a hobby- herse stung 
a horse of his so badly that it caused its death. 

(4) One of the " plough-jags " dressed so as to look like a 
horse (q.v.) 

HOB-NAIL. A nail with a flat head put into the soles of 

HOCKERED UP, v. Stiff ; lame. 

I've gotten th' frost e' my feat, an' I hev to goa cram'lin' aboot ; I'm 
sorely hocher'd up. 

HO'D (hod), v. (i) To hold, 

Ho\i fast till I cum to you, or you'll be fallin' an' braakin' sum'ats. 
(2) To continue. 

I hoape it'll nobbut ho'd fair till I get hoam, then it maay raain as it 

HOE. A hill. Obsolete as a single word, but occurring fre- 
quently in names of places, as Black/w<?, Greenhoe, Scallows, 
" Bi his hened and by his har 

Forth J)ai his maistir droght, 
And rugged him vnrekinli 
Beth ouer hill and hogh." 

Cursor Mtindi, 1. 15826. 


It is a Scandinavian word represented by the Icelandic haugr, a hill, 
a mound. The A. S. he&Ji, Gothic hauhs, high, are closely related 

HOG. A lamb, separated from its mother, but unshorn. 

Thomas Fowler, of Ashby, put sheep called hogges in the ings and 
was fined 4<i Kirton-in-Lindsey Court Roll, 2& of James I. 

" 200 lambed and in-lamb ewes and gimmers, 200 he hogs, 140 she 
hogs." Gainsb. News, 23rd March, 1867. 

HOG-MANED. When a horse's mane is cut short, so that it 
stands erect like a brush, the animal is called hog-maned. 

HOGS, 5. pi. Castrated male pigs. 
HOHD, v. See HOLD. 

HOHLE. A wooden tunnel under a bank or road for the 
conveyance of water. 

" J hundred nales for a owle, 6d. ; crooks & bands for an howl, 2s. 6d. ; 
to Wm. Stainforth for an howl, i is. od." Bottesford Moors Ace., 1809. 

HOLD, v. (i) To continue. 

If th' raain hohds like this I shall not goa to Brigg. 
(2) To be pregnant. 

If she (a mare) hohds we can't work her next spring. 

HOLD, TO GET HOLD OF, phr.To become possessed of. 

Sally's that setten up wi' her bairn onybody wo'd think she was fo'st 
woman as bed larnt how to get hohd o' childer. 

HOLDFAST. A clamp in a building. 

HOLDING. An over-year pig. 

" xviij ould swine & viij houldiitgs iiij to xvis." Inventory of John 
Nevill, of Faldingworth, 1590 ; Midi. Cos. Hist. Coll., vol. ii., p. 29. 

HOLD OUT, v. (i) To continue steadfast. 

(2) To keep alive. 

He's livin' yet but he can't hohd oot much longer. 

HOLLER. (i) A hollow, a slight depression in the surface of 
the soil. 

You mun goa let th' watter off fra them hollers. 

(2) A plane used for making hollow trenches in wood. 

HOLD UP. To continue fair. 

Will it hohd up to-daay, I wonder ? Th' glass is droppin' fast. 

HOLD WITH. To be in agreement with. 

It's no ewse talkin' noa moore, I shall niver hohd wi' you aboot them 
theiire things. 


HOLLER, adj. Hollow. 

To be beaten holler is to be entirely beaten. 

HOLLER-GOUGE. A gouge, a hollow chisel. 
HOLLER-TOOL. A tool (q.v.) 
HOLLIN. The holly. 

HOLLOA. A loud shout. When a person holloas to any one 
at a great distance, a person near him often says : 

" Holloa's dead 
An' I'm cum in his stead." 
At other times : 

"Holloa's dead, an' his wife lives at Hull, 
Kept a coo but milk'd a bull." 

HOLLOND. The holly. 

"The people here invariably call holly prick holland, and for that 
reason the natives called this part of the lordship Holland woods." 
J. Mackinnon, Ace. of Messingham, 1825, p. 18. 

HOLLOW WIND. A moaning wind. 

" The wind sounds low and hollow, 
As a watchdog howls in pain ; 
Now softly beats, now ceases, 
The intermittent rain." 

Local Verses, 1847. 

HOLM. A hill, an island ; obsolete except in place names, as 
Holme, a hamlet in the parish of Bottesford ; Thornholme 
Priory and Haverholme wood in the parish of Appleby ; the 
Holmes at Winterton. The Icelandic holmr generally means 
an islet. 

HOLT. A small plantation of ash or willow. A. S. holt. In 
Mr. John Earle's English Plant Names it is stated that holt 
is now used only in local names, p. xcvi. It is constantly 
employed here. If anyone talked of a plantation of willows 
instead of a willow-holt he would be laughed at. 
" The holies that now are hoare, 
Both bud and bloume I sawe." 

Geo. Turberville, Edit. Chalmer's, p. 598. 
" To Whittlesea's reed-wooded mere, 
And osier-holts by rivers near." 

John Clare, Shepherd's Calendar, p. 4. 

HOLYBREAD (obsolete). The eulogia or panis benedictusthat 
is, common leavened bread blessed by the priest after mass, 
cut into small pieces, and distributed among the people. 
It had no connection with the sacramental elements, but 
was used as a symbol of brotherly love. See The Antiquary, 
May, 1888. 

" For a mand for hallybred." Kirton-in-Lindscy Ch. Ace., 1546. 


HOLY -WATER STOCK. A post or pillar containing a 
receptacle for holy water (obsolete). 

" A holliwater-stock of stone . . . broken in peces and sold to 
Christopher Baudwine in Anno 1565." Awhborough Inventory, in Line. 
Ch. Goods, p. 35. 

HOMAGING. Flattery. 

Ther's noa gettin' on wi' her she wants soa much homaagein'; it's that 
she lives on. 

HOME. Whom. 

"The former of home died Aug. igth, 1826." Mon. Inscrip. Wintcrton 
Ch. Yard. 

HOMESPUN. Linen or woollen spun at home as distinguished 
from the purchased article. 

HOMESPUN, adj. Rude, unpolished. 
She's a hodmespun un ; she is that. 

garden, paddock, or grass close near a homestead. Home- 
field is rarely used ; when it is employed in this connection 
an error is made. See FIELD. 

" In the home-yaids two sorts of hemp were grown." J. Mackinnon, 
Ace. of Messingham, 1825, p. 12. 

HONEY. A term of endearment, usually from a lover to his 
sweetheart, or a husband to a wife. 

HOO. How. Rare; the current English pronunication is 
commonly employed. 

HOOD. A game played at Haxey, in the Isle of Axholme, on 
the sixth of January. 

The hood is a piece of sacking, roiled tightly up and veil corded, and 
which weighs about six pounds. This is taken into an open field, on 
the north side of the church, about two o'clock in the alternoon, to 
be contended for by the youths assembled for that purpose. When 
the hood is about to be thrown up, the plough bullocks or boggins, as 
they are called, dressed in scarlet jackets, are placed among the crowd 
at certain distances. Their persons are sacred, and if amidst the 
general row the hood falls into the hands of one of them the sport 
begins again. The object of the person who seizes the hood is to carry 
off the prize to some publ c-house in the town, where he is rewarded 
with such liquor as he chooses to call for. This pastime is said to have 
been instituted by the Mowbrays, and that the person who furnished 
the hood did so as a tenure by which he held some land under the 
lord. How far this tradition may be founded on fact I am not able to 
say ; but no person now acknowleges to hold any land by that tenure. 
Stonehouse, Isle of Axholme, p. 291. Peck states that this game is also 
played at Epworth. Isle of Axholme, p. 277. 


HOOD. To have one's hood on, is to take offence, to be angry. 
Harry got i'to truble on Frida', an' his muther's hed her hood on iver 

HOOD-END. The hob at the side of a fire-place of the older 
sort ; a kind of corner shelf on which a kettle may be set. 
See HOB. 

HOOK. A bend in a river. Thus, in the Trent, there are 
Morton Hook, Amcott's Hook, &c. 

Th' packit pick'd up th' body just agean th' Hook. 

HOOK IT. To run away. 

" Soa I says to my maate, Bill, let's hook it:' Crowle. 

HOOK, TO TAKE. To run away. 

E' stead o' cumin' to Winterton, he took his hook anuther road. 
April 19, 1877. 

He heard p'liceman cumin' soa he took his hook, an' I seed noa moore 
on him. 

HOOK OR CROOK. By one way or another. 

" By hab or nab, hooke or crooke." Bernard, Terence, p. 17. 

HOOKS, OFF THE. Ill; in a bad temper ; unsettled. 
Is oht wrong, missis, maaster seems clear off th' hooks to-daay. 
" The heaviness and impertinence of his scholars could seldom throw 
him off the hooks." Jeremy Collier, The Emperor Marcus Antoninus, his 
Conversation with himself, 1701, p. iv. 

HOOSE (hoos). A house. 
HOOZE (hooze), v. To wheeze. 

HOPPER. (i) A wicker-basket worn slung over the shoulder, 
in which the sower carries the grain. 

" Hange myn hoper at myn hals in stede of a scrippe." Pier's 
Plowman, B text, pass, vi., 1. 63. 

(2) The receptacle for grain, over the mill-stones. 

HOPPER CAKES, s. //.Cakes given to farm-servants and 
labourers when seed time is over.^ .... Green, of 
Scotter, informs me that when he was a boy and young 
man, that is, between sixty and seventy years ago, hopper- 
cakes or offer-cakes, as they were sometimes called, were 
given away accompanied by spiced beer, at Scotter, by 
the farmers when the last seed was sown. It is to be 
feared that the custom and the name are alike obsolete. 

HOPPLE, v. To tie together the hind legs of an animal. 

" That noe man hoppcll noe cattell in the Forthe vpon paine of euerye 
defalte, xijd." Scotter Manor Roll, 1586. 


HOPPLES, s. pi. Cords made of horse-hair, used for hoppling 
the hind legs of cows when they are being milked. 

HORNBOOK. A paper on which was printed the alphabet 
and the Lord's Prayer, which was attached to a small 
square board with a projecting handle, and protected by a 
sheet of horn. See Halliwell's Cat. of Chapbooks, 1849, 
p. 124. An engraving of a hornbook fronts the title. Horn- 
books were used here in dames' schools until about a 
hundred years ago. 

HORROR-SLAIN. Killed by fright. 

She was o'must horror-slaain by what happen'd ; we noan o' us thoht 
she'd get oher it. 

HORSE. An iron stool used for setting things on before a 

HORSE-COUPER. A horse dealer. 

Thy faather was noht bud a horse-cohper . Circa 1830. 


I'll hoss-course ony o' you lads I find ony moore e' my otcherd. 
It wo'd hev been a vast sight better to "hev gen him a good hene- 
coursin', an' not to hev hed noa justice do aboot it. 

HORSE-GODMOTHER. A large coarsely-made woman. 

HORSE-HEAD. Anything very big, awkward, or ungainly is 
said to be " as big as a hoss-htdd. 

Alfred Stocks hes putten stoans upo' th' Scalla' laane as big as 
hoss-hedds . M essingham . 

HORSE-LEG. A bassoon. 

HORSE-LEG DUMPLING. Rowly-powly pudding (q.v.) 

HORSEMAN. The man who attends upon and travels with a 

HORSE-MUSSEL. The large fresh-water mussel. 

HORSE-TREE. The piece of wood to which the swingle-tree 
of a pair of harrows is attached. 

HORSE'S NAMES. The following names of draught horses 
are in use ; all of them are fifty years old ; many might be 
traced to a much earlier date : Badger, Ball, Barley, 
Beauty, Berry, Bess, Bessy, Bill, Billy, Blackbird, Blossom, 
Blucher, Bob, Bonny, Bounce, Bower, Bowler, Boxer, 
Brandy, Bright, Brisk, Briton, Brown, Bute, Captain, 
Careless, Chance, Charley, Chestnut, Daisy, Damsel, 


Dapple, Darby, Darling, Depper, Diamond, Dick, Dobbin, 
Doctor, Dragon, Drummer, Duke, Fanny, Farmer, Filly, 
Flower, Gilbert, Jack, Jelley, Jenny, Jerry, Jet, Jewel, 
Jockey, Joe, Jolly, Kitt, Kitty, Lady, Lightfoot, Lion, 
Lively, Lofty, Merry, Merryman, Mettle, Mike, Miller, 
Milner, Mole, Nettle, Nob, Nonsuch, Pedler, Peg, Pilot, 
Pincher, Pink, Polly, Pride, Prince, Punch, Rambler, 
Range, Ranger, Rattler, Roger, Samson, Shanks, Sharper, 
Short, Shot, Smart, Smiler, Smut, Snip, Spanker, Spring, 
Star, Taffy, Tartar, Tet, Tiger, Tinker, Tippler, Tommy, 
Tramp, Traveller, Trip, Trooper, Turpin, Vanity, Violet, 
Wasp, Whitefoot, Whitethorn. 

The will of Nathaniel Fiennes, jun., of Brumby, dated April 27, 
1672, mentions mares called Maid and Fowler and a little black nag 
called Pipsee. 

HORSES' SHOES are nailed on doors and on the out and 
inside of houses to ward off witchcraft. The practice is 
becoming obsolete. 

" On corner walls, a glittering row, 
Hang fire irons less for use than show ; 
With horse-shoe brighten'd as a spell, 
Witchcraft's evil powers to quell." 

John Clare, Shepherd's Calendar, p. 8. 

HORSES' SPURS, s. pi. The callosities on the inner sides of 
the legs of a horse. 

" A cancer in the breast . . . Take horses' -spurs and dry them by 
the fire till they will beat to a powder ; sift and infuse two drams in 
two quarts of ale ; drink half a pint every six hours, new milk warm. 
It has cured many." John Wesley, Primitive Physic, 1755, p. 38. 

assist persons in getting on horses; they were especially 
used by women for mounting on pillions. 


HOST-HOUSE. A cottage where lads and lasses meet of an 
evening. A place of assignation. 

" No good '11 cum to her; her's is a reg'lar host-hoose." Scotton, cf. 
Earle, Eng. Plant. Names, p. xcvi. 

HOT, pt. t. Hurt. HOTTEN, pp. Hurt. 

" A big bew tum'l'd oot o' th' elmin tree agean my hoose end this 
mornin' wi' a fine bang ; my missis was real scar'd when she heard 
it ; she thoht no uther bud one o' th' bairns hed been climbin' an' 
tum'l'd an' hot it sen." Bottesford, July 29, 1875. 

Ther's two men been hotten at th' fo'nises. 


HOT, v. To make hot. 

Hot me this iron Alice, my lass, an' bring it by agean as soon as ta 

" The surface of the river [Trent, at Keadby] was a vast sheet of 
ice, as even as a billiard table. The Union Jack was hoisted amid 
general rejoicing, and afterwards a large fire was kindled, water hotted, 
and a steaming bowl of punch prepared by the proprietress of the 
hotel." Society, 2nd Feb., 1881. 

HOT- ACHE. Pains in the flesh which come on when a person 
is warm by the fire or in bed. 

HOTCH, v. (i) To trot slowly. 

(2) To get upon a pillion (obsolescent). 

(3) To cook cockles by heating them in a pan. 

HOTCHEL, v. To hobble. 

I'm that bad wi' rewmatics I can hardly hotchcl along. 

HOT-FOOT. Immediately, without hesitation or delay, im- 

As soon as she heard on it she went off hot-foot to oor Tom's, an' 
tell'd him what foaks was saayin'. 


HOTTER.' A half-circle of iron attached to the upper side of 
the axle-tree of a cart or waggon to hinder the wheels from 
having too much play. 

HOT UP. To make hot, used especially with regard to food 
that has been already cooked and become cold. 

Mrs. S. . . . , a lady who had recently come to live in the Isle 
of Axholme, told a servant to heat something for dinner. The girl, 
who had the usual indifference to an H more or less, misunderstood 
her mistress's orders and ate it. Had Mrs. S. . , . said hot it up 
she would have been understood. 

HOUGH, i'. To hamstring. 

" Hough t the horses of the charets." 2 Samuel, ch. viii., v. 4 (Geneva 

HOUSE. The living room of a cottage or small farm-house. 

"The cottages had only a house and parlour." Macldnnon, Ace. of 
Messingham, 1825, p. 25. 

HOUSEBOOT. The right of getting wood to build or repair 

" To have . . sufficient houseboat, hedgeboot . . . and 

stakeboot yearly.' 1 Lease of Lands in Brumby, 1716. Cf. Will. Nelson, 
Lex Maneriorum, p. 190, 


HOUSE-KEEPER. One who stays very much in-doors. 

I'm a real Iwosc-hcdpcr noo, I hev' n't been to Brigg markit for oher 
a twel' munth. 

She's a good hoose-keaper niver runs clartin' efter th' lads. 

HOUSE-PROUD. A person is said to be house-proud who 
takes care that the furniture and arrangements of her 
dwelling are neat. 

She's not a bit hoose-prood, iv'rything is alus at sixes and sevens. 

HOUSE-REARING. A feast given when the roof of a new 
house was put on. 

" Spent at ye houses rearing 2$- " Lea, Overseer's Ace., 1752. 

HOUSE-ROW. (i) Before the Act of Parliament was passed 
for rating poor-law unions as a whole, it was customary 
for the farmers, instead of giving a pauper direct relief, to 
let him go by louse-row, that is, each farmer employed him 
at a low rate of wages for a time proportionate to the land 
which he occupied. 

(2) To call at every house in a street or village, as rate- 
collectors and distributors of handbills do, is to go by 


HOUSE-WARMING. A feast given to friends or workmen 
by one entering into the occupation of a new house. 

HOUSEN,^/. of house (rare). 

HOUSSELS. Household furniture. 

If in caase I was to dee behoot a will would my missis get th' 
houssels ? 

HOVEL. A finger-stall (q.v.) 

HO YEN, ^.Overburdened with food. 

HOVER. The act of hesitation. 

I was all in a hover when he cam' up whether I should say noh or 
speak to him. 

HOVER, v. To hesitate. 

HOW. Manner, way, method. 

See bairn, thoo shou'd do it e' this how. 

HOW, interj. Used in driving cattle. 

HOW ABOUT. An indefinite interrogation in very common 

Pleas' m'm how aboot dinner ? 

"How aboot this here herse o' yours ? Why, noht at all aboot him, 
I wean't sell him. 


HOWERLY, adj. Dirty, indecent, foul. 

I'd a real howerly jo'ney to Gaainsb'r, it raain'd all th 1 waay theare 
an' by agean. 

\f ye talk e' that howerly waay when we're gettin' wer vittles, I weant 
gie the noan. 

HOWK OUT, v. To pull out ; to grub. 

If I was him I should hev them ketlocks howk'd oot o' yon barley. 
July 13, 1886. 

HOWMSWEVER, adv. Howsoever. 

" Howmswever, just when he got about a hundred yards past Mottle- 
Esh Turnin.'" Ralf Skirlaugh, vol. i., p. 37. 

HOYDEN. A bold, rough young woman who romps about 
with men. 

HUCK. The hip. See HUGGIN. 

When I was a sojer e' Egypt, I was wounded e" th' huck. 

HUCKLE-BONE. The astragalus ; a small bone of a sheep 
used by children for playing a game called in some parts of 
England, " dibs." The floors of summer-houses used 
frequently to be paved with these huckle-bones. There 
is, or was, a floor of this sort in a summer-house at 


HUDDLE, v. (i) To embrace, to fondle, to kiss. 
(2) To put on clothes in a disorderly manner. 

HUFF. The condition of being offended. 

I tell'd him one or two things aboot his sen, soa he went awaay in a 

HUG, v. (i) To carry. 

"He cud mind 'em huggiii' tatees." Sir C. H. J. Anderson, Bart., 
Lincoln Pocket Guide, p. 15. 

" Can ta hug a seek o' beans ? " 

(2) To embrace, to kiss. 

(3) He's gotten moore then he can hug, that is, he is drunk. 

HUGGER-MUGGER, adv. In disorder, all-upon-heaps. 
HUGGIN. The hip. See HUCK. 

HUIGH-HUIGH, inter/. An exclamation used in driving 

HULKING, adj.-(i) Big, unwieldly. 
(2) Idle. 


HULL." From Hull, Hell, and Halifax Good Lord deliver 

Hull, in the" beginning of the great Civil War, refused to admit 
Charles I. ; Halifax was notorious for its stern gibbet law; they are, 
therefore, bracketed with the place of torment. 

As strong as Hull, i.e., very strong indeed. The allusion is to the 
fortifications of that town, which were formerly much renowned in 
these parts. 

HULL. A pod ; the husk of grain. 

HULL, v. To take beans or peas out of their pods. 

HULLET, lit. OWLET. An owl. 

HUMBLE-PIE. To eat humble-pie is to suffer humiliation. 

HUMBUG. A sweetmeat, a large kind of pin-cushion, (q.v.) 

HUMLOCK. A hemlock. 

HUMMER, v. To hum. 

HUMOURS. (i) A rash. 
(2) Bad temper. 

HUMP-BACKED. Hunch-backed. 

HUNCHT, adj.(i) Ungenial, bad-tempered. 

A ... 's a straange huncht an' queer man, he weant let noabody 
cum along side on him wi'oot slaatin' 'em. 

" I will do thee some good turne for this thou hast done me without 
any hunching.*' Bernard, Terence, p. 224. 

(2) Cold, bleak, cheerless ; used regarding the weather. 
" A huncht back-end, and melch spring." Lincolnshire Proverb. 

HUNDERD. Hundred. 

HUNG-BEEF. Salted beef hung up to dry. It was formerly 
the custom for the larger farmers to kill and salt one or 
more bullocks in the autumn as food for their men servants. 

"Bacon hung beif & fyve cople fyshe xijs. " Inventory of Roland 
Staveley, of Gainsburgh, 1551. 

HUNK, HUNCH. The same as CHUNK (q.v.) 

HUNKS, OLD. A dirty and miserly old man. 

" The most penurious, sordid old hunks that ever cheated the 
gallows," Th. Brown, in Sir Roger L'Estrange's Colloquies of Erasmus, 
1711, p, 348. 


" I quite enjoy the thought of appearing in the light of an old hunks 
who knows on which side his bread is buttered, a warm man, a fellow 
who will cut up ^well." Ld. Macaulay, in G. O. Trevelyan's Life, 
vol. i., p. 373. 

" Parker is an old hunks." Mortimer Collins, \Vho is the Heir, 1865, 
vol. i., p. 55. 

Hunks is a character in Robert Drury's Farce of The Rival Milliners. 

HURLY-BURLY. Riot ; confusion. 

" Good Lord in heaven, what hurlie-burlie is yonder in the market !" 
Bernard's Terence, p. 72. 

" When the hurlyburly's done." Macbeth, Act i., sc. i., 1. 3. 

HURR. Roughness in the mouth, tartness, hoarseness. 
That beer hes gotten a hurr wi' it. 
I've gotten such an a hurr on me I can hardlin's speak. 

HURR, adj. Tart ; rough in the mouth. 

HURST, HIRST. A wood ; only used in place names, as 
Hurst Priory, Short-/Vs, a piece of land at Gunthorpe. 


I've hurtcn my sen wi' clootin' my head agean a bauk. 

HURTLE, v. To crouch on the ground as young birds do 
when alarmed. Cf. Mid. Eng. HURKLE, to cover down. See 
also HURKLE, HURPLE, in Halliwell's Diet. 

HUSKING. A beating. 

HUSKY, adj. Hard, dry, coarse. 

" Producing sour, coarse, husky, sedge or sword grass." Th. Stone 
View of Agric. of Line., 1794, p. 74. 

HUSSIF. That is, house-wife ; a roll of flannel with a pin- 
cushion attached, used for the purpose of holding pins, 
needles and threads. 

HUSSLEMENT. Household goods. 

" Various hussUmcnts."- Inventory of Sir John Anderson, of Bronghton, 
1671, in History of Lea, p. 24. 

" Th' landlord's ton'd ivery bit o' hnsselcmcnt thaay hed oot into th' 
bare streat. 

HUT, lit. A hood, (i) A finger stall (q.v.) 

(2) A small hovel, such as a dog-kennel or rabbit-house. 

HUTCH UP. Same as HITCH UP (q.v.) 

HUTCH. (i) A cupboard in a wall. 

(2) The finger of a glove, used to protect a cut finger. 


HUZZING. Making a whirring noise. 

" Huzzln' an 1 maazin' the blessed fealds with the divil's can team." 
Tennison, The Northern Farmer. 

HYPE (heip), v. (r) To poke at anything as oxen do with 
their horns. 

(2) To go. 

Cum, hype off wi' ye. 

(3) To fetch forth anything hidden. 

He soon hyped it oot when I begun to question him. 

(4) To lift up, or to reach down; the word is employed to 
. indicate great muscular exertion. 



ICE-CAN'LES, s. pi. Lit. ice candles, icicles. 
I 'CO (i koa). In company, league, partnership. 

IDLED, adj. Idle. 

Ira was the idledist chap that iver cum'd aboot a hoose. 

IDLED-BACK. (i) An idle person. 

(2) A stand with projecting forks placed before the fire for 
toasting bread. 

(3) A nangnail, (q.v.) 

IDLE MAN. A man employed in a farm yard who has no 
regular work, but does odd jobs. The title idle man does 
not imply that his time is wasted. 

IF, conj. (i) Used redundantly as "//in case;" "// sup- 

//suppoasin' she hed dun it, he'd no call to ewse her e' that how. 

(2) Though. 

I'm not gooin' to be mester'd by him ?/he is a parson. 

P FAITH. Marry *' faaith. 

Exclamations, " Naay, marry i' faaith, I'll not do that." 

IFS AND ANDS. A man is at his ifs and ands when he 

" If ifs and ands was pots and pans 
There'd be noa wark for th' tinkers." 

I FT. Way, manner. 

I knawed he'd soon be at th' ohd iff agean ; ther's no moore chanch 
o' keapin' him fra that thing then ther is a sheJip-worryin' dog fra 

IKE, v. To run off with, but not necessarily with a felonious 

He's iked off wi' my shod tool, an' noo I want it it's noan here. 
Them bairns hes iked off wi' all th' band, ther' isn't a bit left. 


ILDER. The udder of an animal. 

ILL-DOER. An animal which does not thrive. Cf. Dow, 
E.D.S. Gloss., B. 2. 

" As soon as a grazier is convinced that he has a beast which is not 
kindly disposed to take on fat, or is an ill-doer ... he should 
dispose of the unthrifty animal." Treatise on Live Stock, 1810, p. 128. 

ILL-FARED, adj. Unlucky, unsuccessful. 
ILL-THRIVEN, adj. Haggard, lean, sickly. 

ILLIFY, v. To villify, abuse, slander, depreciate. 

" Dick's been illifying my foal, soa as I can't sell him fer hairf what 
he's wo'th." Messingham, 1873. 

I'LL UPOHD IT. I will uphold it, i.e., I am quite certain of 
it ; am prepared to swear to it. 

IMPROVE. To grow larger. 

" Sam is n't long for this wo'ld ; th' tumour's improved that much 
this weak 'at he wean't hohd oot a deal longer." June, 1887. 

IN, prep. On. 

Put it in th' floor, Mary, for th'_cat to lap. 

IN'ARDS, s. pi. Inwards, i.e., intestines, bowels. 

" I'd a straange paain e' my in'ards, so I went an' boht sum stuff an 1 
took it, an' it wer oher strong by hairf; it clear salivaated me. 
ist Aug., 1875. 

IN-CALVING, adj. With calf. 

" For sale, one in-calving cow. Apply to Mr. J. Herring, Willingham, 
Gainsborough." Gainsb. News, 23rd March, 1867. 

INCOME. A boil. 

INCH PIECES. Very small fragments. 

I'd raather be cutten e' to inch peaces then do what thaay want. 
I've fun it at last, but it's to noa mander of ewse; it's all brok e 1 to 
inch peaces. 

INCREASE. Interest for money. 

"Thomas Oth pool vjK ]>e incresse xvjs. viijd., Robert Wynbye 
Sewetye." Kirton-in-Lyndsey Ch. Ace., 1546. 

He niver taks less increase then five pund e' th' hundred. 

INDEPENDENT, adj. Uncourteous ; not willing to oblige. 

Sarvants are soa independent noo a daays, ther' is no gettin'on wi' 
'em at all. 

A baker once said to the author, " I alus strive niver to shaw myself 
independent, that's how I keap my customers together." He did not mean 
that he was not independent in the good sense, but only that he 
endeavoured to be courteous and obliging. 


INDETTERMENT. Injury, damage, detriment. 

INDIFFERENT, adj. Poorly; bad. 

How's your wife to-daay ? Oh, she's nobbut indifferent thank you. 
Oor Jaane's gotten an uncommon indifferent plaace ; I shall tell her 
o gie warnin'. 

IN-DOOR SERVANT. A farm servant who does not work 
out of doors. 

INFAMATION. Inflammation. 

Th' ohd boss deed o' infamaation, though we fermented him all neet. 

INGLE-NOOK. The corners in which persons can sit in an 
open chimney. 

INGLES. The corners of an open fire-place where pots and 
kettles can be placed. 

INGS, s. pi. Low-lying grass land. 

" 1000 acres of ings or common meadow." Arth. Young, Line. Agric." 
1799. P- 179- 

INJUR'US. Injurious. 

INK-HORN. An inkstand (obsolescent). 

INKLE. A kind of tape used for shoe-ties. 

INLAMB, adj. With lamb. 

" 170 lambed and inlamb ewes." Gainsb. News, March 23, 1867. 

INLET. A branch drain used for conveying water from a 
warping drain to the land to be warped. 

INMEATS, s. pi. The edible viscera of pigs, fowls, &c. 

INNER-GIRL, INNER MAID. A kitchen maid in a farm- 

INNICENT, adj. (i) Innocent. 

(2) Small, pretty ; generally applied to flowers, though some- 
times to the patterns on women's dresses, hangings, and 
wall papers. 

(3) Idiotic. 

I'NOO, adv. E'en now, shortly, very soon ; but implying a 
little delay. 

Waait a bit, I'm cumin' -fnoo. 


IN SENSE, v. To make a person understand a thing, to drive 
it into him, to impress it very strongly. 

Deary me. how num thoo is ; thoo taks as much insensin' as a naail 
duz dingin' into a oak plank wi' a dish-cloot. 

" Sir, I may tell you, I think I have 
Insens'd the lords o' the council that he is, 
For so I know he is, they know he is, 
A most arch heretic, a pestilence 
That does infect the land." 

Henry VIII., Act v., sc. i., 1. 43. 

" To stirre and insense them [the people] to sedition." Proclamation, 
1530, in Wilkins' Concilia, vol. iii., p. 740. 

" To insense, informo." Elisha Coles, Eng, Lat. Diet., 1764. 
INSIDE. The stomach, the bowels. 

I'm straange an 1 bad o* my inside, squire ; I wish you'd gie me a drop 
o' gin. 1858. 

INSIGHT. Intelligent appreciation. 

Sum goas aboot and knaws noht when thaay cum by ageanr. It 
maks a deal o' difference, I alus saay, whether foaks goas for sight or 

A woman who went to attend upon a neighbour who was lying in, 
till a doctor or midwife could be got, said, " If I can't do noa good I 
can goa for insight." 

INSOULING. The outfall of a ditch or drain ; sometimes the 
drain itself ; sometimes also a soak-dyke. 

" Quilibet escuerent omnes insoyllynges." Scatter Manor Records, 1553- 
" Eurie man within Messingham & Butterwicke shall make ther 
I e:ke and insowlinge before All Sowles Day nexte." Ibid, 1581. 

In 1562 the Manor Court of Bottesford ordered that no one should 
put " retas suas neque lee lepes inter communem suer vocatam Insidyng 
tempore die," under penalty of ijs. vjd. 
There is a soak-dyke in Ashby called the Insouling. 

INSULT, v. This word is constantly confounded with assault. 
An insult is often called an assault and an assault an insult. 

INTAK. (i) Land taken in from -a common. 

In 1629 Richard Huggit surrendered to Thomas Stothard land in 
Scotter called ' le long intaa/tes." Manor Records. 

(2) Land taken from a tidal river. 

There was a field in Winteringham called the intake, which had 
been taken from the Humber in iSSi ; it has been almost entirely 
washed away again. 

IN THE STRAW. Lying in. 

INTIMATED, adj. Intimate. 

He's been clear different sin' him an' her hes been intimaated togither. 

INVITORY, INVITTERY. (i) An inventory. 
(2) Tenant right on going out of a farm. 


IN WITH. To be in favour with. 

He's in with squire an' th' missis, an' that maks a lot o' difference. 
Thay'll not do a deal at him, he's in wi' two or three o' the 

ISLE. The Isle of Axholme. 

" All the clergy and neighbourhood in the Isle go for me." Sir 
Geo. Whichcot, 1698, in De la Pryme's Diary (Surtees Soc.), p. 185. 

" At Butterwick, in the Isle, wheat after potatoes on their inferior 
soils . . . does not succeed well." Arth. Young, Line. Agric., 
1799, p. 145. 

" The Isle a reputation had, 
For Tory votes secure, 
Which griped the knight, Sir Montague, 
And his committee sore." 

Election Song, 1852. 

I S'LL. I shall. 

/ s'll leave at Maa'da', howiver much waage thaay bid me. 
Still further abbreviated to 1's in some of the Northern dialects. 
See Ise in Halliwell's Diet. 

ISLONIAN. A native of the Isle of Axholme. 

"The Islonians destroyed his crops." Stonehouse, Hist. Isle of 
Axholme, p. no. 

" At one time he organised a band of the disaffected Isleonians." 
John Tomlinson, Level of Hatfi eld Chace, p. 7. 

IT. He, she, him, her ; commonly used of infants only ; but 
sometimes for grown up people as a mark of contempt. 
What a hawbaw it is to call itsen a parson. 
What a gib it is to hev a babby. 

ITCHING. " Maay you hev perpetiwel itchin 1 wi' oot iver 
scrattin'." A humourous form of curse common with 
women when they quarrel. 

IVIN ( Ivy. 
IVORY. Ivy. 

IZLES (, s. pi. Floating particles of soot or smuts. 
A.Sysela a fire-spark, an ember. 


JAANE. Jane, female Christian name. 

JACK. (i) A quarter of a pint measure. 

(2) The quantity of fluid contained in a. jack. 

" I'll tell you a tale 
Of a jack of ale, 
A hen, a cock and a sparrow ; 
My little dog has burnt his tail, 
And won't get home to-morrow." 

(3)^ An instrument used for supporting the axle-tree of a cart 
in order to remove one of the wheels. 

(4) Jacket (obsolete). 

"Te ulciscar. I will be reuenged on thee. I will sit on thy skirts. 
I will bee vpon your iacke for it." Bernard, Terence, p. 58. 

JACK ASS. (i) A male ass. 
(2) A simpleton. 

JACKBOOT. A long boot coming above the knee, such as was 
worn in the seventeenth century. It is now used to 
indicate any boot, not a top-boot, which is bigger than a 

JACK-CHAIN. A chain made of thin links of iron. 

"An iron chain of twenty-eight links, somewhat larger than a 
modern jack-chain.' 1 Samuel Lysons, 1807, in Archaologia, vol. xvi., 
p. 132. 

JACK-IN-PRISON. Nigella damascene 
JACK-IN-THE-HEDGE. Erysimum alliayia. 
JACK-IN-THE-PULPIT. Arum maculatum. 
JACK PLANE. A large plane. 
JACK-RABBIT. A half-grown rabbit, 


JACK-UP. To break a contract, to repudiate a bargain. 

You see lawyer Hooletl bed a warehoose to sell, doon at Borringham, 
by th' Trent side ; well, this offil fella' as I was tellin' you on, went to 
th' saale an' boht it, an' thenjackt it up. 

JACK WI' A LANTHORN Ignis fatuus. 

JACKET, v. To flog. 

I'll jacket you, young man, next time I light on you. 

JACKETTING. A flogging. 

Please sir, Bill Ratton's been jacketting me. 

JACKS, 5. pi. The woodwork between the shafts of a waggon 
where they are attached to the fore -shears. 

JACOB'S STEE, i.e., Jacob's ladder. 

(1) A stitch let down in knitting a stocking. 

(2) The rays of the sun falling through a cloud and seeming 
to touch the earth. 

JAMB. The post of a door. See JAUM. 
JANGLE, v. To wrangle. 

JANNICK, adj. Satisfactory, pleasant, jolly, in good trim. 
Well, this is realjannick. 

JARMANS, s. pi. Germans, especially used of those who play 
in itinerent bands. 

JAUM. The post of a door. See JAMB. 

' The chymney peece andjawmes are black graved marble." Survey 
of Wimbleton, 1649, in Archceologia , vol. x., p. 403. 

JAUM, v. To strike another's head against any hard object, 
such as a door-post or wall. 

JAUNDERS. Jaundice. 

JAUP. (i) The sound produced by liquid shaken in a half- 
empty cask. 

(2) Senseless talk. 

Ho'd thejaup wi' the; dos't ta want ivery body to knaw how soft 
thoo is ? 

JAUP, v. To beat. 

Noo then, Bill, I shall jaup thy jacket for the if thoo duz n't mind. 
Epworth, 1886. 


JAW. Coarse, rude, jesting conversation. 

N . . . bed been warkin' doon at th' boddom o' a -well, soa I 
ax'd him, at dinner-time, for jaw like, if he'd seed oht o' ohd Sam, as 
he'd been gaain hand wheare he cums fra. 

" And should you kick them for their jaw, 
They'll take the blows and take the law." 

Abeillard and Heloisa, 1819, p. 234. 

JAW-BREAKERS, s. pi. Words that are hard to pronounce. 
I can't do wi' them theiire gardeners ; thaay mak ewse en sich jau-- 
braakers when thaay talk aboot the'r flooers, 'at I can't tell a wo'd 
thaay saay, nor tung it efter 'em. 

JAW OHER, v.(i) To talk over, to persuade. 

(2) To talk about a person or a thing in a loud or offensive 

I doan't want to hev my lass's naame jaw'd ohey e' ivery public-hoose 
e' all th' cuntry side. 

JEALOUS, adj. Suspicious. 

" I'm very jealous that th' corn weant to'n oot well t' year." 
2oth August, 1875. 

JEE JAW, v. To rock backwards and forwards. 

JERICHO, AT. A long way off; nowhere. 

I've cutten my hand to th' boan upo' this offil ohd steamer lid ; I 
wish th' nasty ohd thing was at Jericho. (In general use.) 

JERRY-SHOP. A beer-house, a public-house that has not a 
licence to sell spirits. 

JESSOPS. An ill-conditioned woman. 
JET, v. To throw with a jerk. See JOT. 

JEWS-LIGHT. (Obsolete.) 

" The Jewcs-light " was one of the articles destroyed in the second 
year of Elizabeth, in Winterton Church. Lincolnsh. Ch. Goods, p. 164. 

JEW-TRUMP. The Jews' harp. 

Child : " What an ugly noise that thing makes, Sarah ? " 
Nurse : " O, Master Edward, you should not say so; don't you know 
it's a jew-trump like what King David played his Psalms with." 

JIFFLE. A fidget. 

He's alus up o' th' jiffle an' flit, like a ill-sittin' hen. 

JIFFLE, v. To fidget. 

JIFFY. An instant, a very short time. 

I mun goa noo, bud I'll be by agean i' a jiffy. 

JIMMERS, s. //.Hinges of a door or box* 


JIN, JINNY. Contraction of Jane, or Joan. 

Jinny is the ordinary family contraction, used as a matter of course. 
To call a woman Jin is an insult. 

JIN ASS. The female ass. 

JINGLE-HARROWS, s. pi. Harrows, the bulls of which are 
curved so as to run free of each other. 

JOB, v. (i) To dung, a child's term. 

(2) To push ; to thrust commonly, though not always, with a 
blunt instrument. 

(3) To grub up weeds with a spud. 

(4) To deal in cattle. 

He's a bit o' gress land, an' he jobs a bit besides. 

JOBATION. (i) A scolding. 
(2) A long and dull discourse. 

JOBBER. A cattle dealer. 

" When times are good half the folks in Messingham turn jobbers" 
E. S. P., 1850. 

" With their ready money they could get the cattle cheaper than the 
jobbers could buy them." Thos. Stone, Rev, of Agric. of Line., ijgg, 
p. 290. 

Jobber was a surname in Shropshire in 1659. Commons Journal, 
vol. vii., p. 869, col. ii. 

JOBBER-NOWL. A blockhead. 

JOBBING ABOUT. Doing odd jobs. 

I hev n't been idled, bud ther's not much to see as I've dun, for I've 
been jobbin' aboot all th' mornin'. 

JOBBLE. (i) A state of shaking or disquietude. 

" We found a harrassing jobble of a sea." Sir J. C. Ross, Voyage in 
Antarctic Regions, 1847, vol. i., p. 41. 

(2) A state of fidget. 

She's in a straange jobble because ther's noa letter cum'd fra her son e' 
th' army. 

JOCKEY. (i) A term half contemptuous, half affectionate for 
a boy or man. 

He's a gallous jockey, bud ther's noa harm e' th' lad. 
Bill's a straange jockey for spendin' munny. 

(2) Sometimes used in a similar manner in speaking of the 
lower animals. 

" Oh, the little jockeys, thaay all hev the'r tricks," said of a colony of 
ants under a flag-stone. 


JOGGLE, v. To shake. 

If ye joggle that bew a bit th' plums '11 tumble. 
Doan't joggle this taable soa, George. 

JOG ON, v. To move on. 
JOG-TROT. A slow trot. 

JOHNNY-RAW, JOHNNY-WAP. An awkward person; one 
not acquainted with the manners of the class to which he 

He's a real Johnny-raw, niver knaws wheareto put his han's an' legs. 
" Poor Johnny Raw ! what madness could compel, 
So rum a flat to face so prime a swell." 

Blackwood's Mag. 1819, vol. iv., p. 728, 

JOHT, v. To jolt. 

JOHTY, $. Shaking jolty. 

Messingham's gotten the johtiest roads I iver druv oher. 

JOHTER-HEAD. A stupid person. 
JOINED-HOUSES, s. #/. Semi-detached houses. 
JOIN GIBLETS. To go halves. 
JOINT-SLIP. A dislocation of the joints. 

JORUM. A large quantity. 

What a jorum you've gen me ; I can't eat it hairf. 
" The rascally jorum of soup that I've boused." Walsh's Aristophanes. 
The Clouds, Act i., sc. iv. 

JOSEPH. A woman's cloak or overcoat (obsolescent). 

JOSKIN. A stupid person. 

He's a real joskin; one wo'd think he'd niver been further then Haxey 
, e' his life. Epworth, 1886. 

JOSS (jos).--A treat. 

If you'll goa to George Soresby's or Hydes's I'll stan'/oss roond. 

JOT, v. To jerk. See JET. 
I can jot as far as thoo can, 
Doan't jot thy herse head e' that how. 

JOWL. (i) A jolt; a knock. 

(2) A pig's face. 

(3) The fat hanging cheeks of a human being* 


JOWL, r. To jolt ; to knock together. 

" That skull had a tongue in it, and could sing once ; how the knave 
jowls it to the ground as if it were Cain's jaw-bone that did the 
first murder." Hamlet, Act v., sc. i., 1. 84. 


JOYS. A mischievous frolic. A chicken scratching on a bed in 
a garden, is said to be " plaayin'/ojs among them flooers." 


JUG. A stone bottle, not a " pitcher " (q.v.) It is in this part 
of the world a note of an unrefined person who wishes to 
seem " genteel," when he or she follows the south-country 
habit of calling a pitcher a jug. 

JUGGLE-PIN. The pin which holds the body of a cart from 
tipping up. When it is removed, the cart is " slotted up," 
and its contents " shot out." 

JULIAN-BOWER. A maze; a labyrinth. There is a maze 
so called on the hill, near Trent Falls, in the parish of 
Alkborough, engravings of which may be seen in Proceedings 
of Yorks. Architec. Soc., 1858, p. 258. Andrew's Hist, of 
Winterton, p. 78. Hatfield's Terra Incognita, and J. G. 
Constable's Hist, of Alkboro' Parish Church. In the sixteenth 
century there was a Julian-bower at Louth. 

"To Nych Mason for makyng at Gelyan-bower a new crose, iijs-" 
1544, Louth Ch. Ace., vol. ii., p. 68. 

" In the parish of Appleby, so late as the year 1719 there was a 
julian-bower, near the old street, of which no trace is now remaining." 
Andrew's Hist, of Winterton, 1836, p. 39. 

JUMBLEMENT. Confusion. 

JUMP, adv. Opportunely (obsolete). 

" Comes he this day so hnnpe, in the very time of this marriage." 
Bernard, Terence, p. 88. 

" Thus twice before, and jump at this dead hour." Hamlet Act i , sc. i., 
1. 64. Some editions here read "just." 

" But since, so jump upon this bloody question, 
You from the Polack wars, and you from England, 
Are here arrived." Ibid, Act v., sc. ii., 1. 387. 

JUMP, v. To match ; to agree. 

Them two cart-mares o' yours jump uncommon well wi' one anuther. 
Your business an' mine jump togither exactly, soa we'd as well join at 
a gig an' drive oher. 

" The sad aspect this prison doth afford, 

Jumps with the measure that my heart doth keep." 
Webster, The FamousHist. of Sir Tho. Wyatt. Ed, Dyce, 1837, P 2OI > 

JUMPERS, 5. pi, Maggots, 


JUMPING-JACK. A skip-jack ; a child's toy made out of the 
merry-thought of a bird. 

JUMP OVER THE BESOM. A man and woman who 
cohabit without marriage are said to have jumped over the 

Thaay was n't married ; it was a jump oher the bcdsom job, for she'd a 
husban' livin' e' 'Merica, bud she stuck to him till he got killed up o' 
th' raailwaay. 

JUNK. (i) A lump ; commonly of meat or cheese. 

(2) The remaining portion of a hay or clover stack, when a 
considerable portion has been removed. 

(3) Stacks are said to be made in junks when they have 
perpendicular divisions in them, so that a part can be 
taken away without disturbing the rest. Barley and oats, 
especially the latter, are commonly stacked in this way. 

JUSTICE DAYS. The days on which magistrates hold petty 

JUSTICE DO. A cause before magistrates. 

JUSTICING. Appearing before magistrates either as prisoner, 
plaintiff, defendant, or witness. 

JUST NOW, adv. Almost now, after a very short time. 

I'm cumin' just noo, nobbut wait a minnit whilst I -tie my garter. 

He was this waays on just noo. 

It's alusjust Hoawi' you, you're niver ready when uther foaks is. 

JUTS, s. pi. Struts, supports in the roof of a building. 

JUTTING. A punishment which school-boys inflict on each 
other. Two strong lads take the culprit, the one by the 
legs the other by the arms, and beat his buttocks against a 
post or tree. See JOUT. 



KAAY. A key. 
KAD-BUTCHER. Ket-butcher (q.v.) 

KARF. The way made by a saw through a piece of timber. 

Ray gives among South and East-Country words Kerfe with the 
above meaning. E. D. S., B. 16. 

RAVING, CAVING, pres. part. Raking long straws from corn 
before it is winnowed. See E. D. S. Gloss., B. 16. 

KAVING-RAKE. A wooden rake, with about six teeth, set 
wide apart, used for raking the straws from the corn when 
it was threshed with a flail. See above. 

KAVING-RIDDLE. A riddle for separating straws from corn 
before it is winnowed. See above. 

KAY (kai). A key. Frissic kei. 
KEA. A key. 

KEAK UP, v. To tip up a cart by taking out the "juggle- 
pin " (q.v.) 

KEDGE. (i) The belly ; the stomach. 
(2) Rubbish. 

Tak that hedge awaay an' fling it up o' th' muck hill. 

KEDGE, adj. Stiff, tight. 
KEDGE, v. To fill ; to stuff. 
KEDGE-BELLIED. Full bellied. 

KEEL. A small vessel commonly used on the Humber and 
the Trent for carrying coal and potatoes. Cf. Smith's 
Sailors' Word Book, sub voc. AS. Coel, a boat. 
" Weel may the keel row." 

Newcastle Song. 

KEELMAN. The master of a " keel " (q.v.) 


KEEN, adj.(i) Miserly, penurious. 

John L . . . was a oot o' th' waay kedn man, an' his wife was 
wo's then him ; she was that kedn she'd skin flints an' mak broth on 
'em for th' sarvant chaps to sup. 

(2) Eager. 

He was kedn enif o' th' job fo'st off, but he's hed his bellyfull noo I 

" He's straange an' kedn,' 1 said of a horse that pulls violently, or of a 
dog too eager after vermin. 

KEEP, KEEPING. Farm produce, such as grass and clover, 
employed as food for cattle. 

He's plenty of heap for his things this summer, bud what's to becum 
on 'em e' th' winter for ther's hardlin's a tonup to see. 1887. 

" The remaining turnips and keeping will be sold at a future time, of 
which due notice will be given." Stamford Mercury, Sept. 20, 1867. 

KEEP ERA, v. To avoid. 

She could n't kedp fra laughin'. 

KEG-MEG. Bad food. 

I wo'd n't eat sich keg-meg, it is n't fit for dog-meat. See KEDGE. 

KELCH, KELK. A blow. 

KELL. (i) i.e. caul; the inner fat of an animal, especially of 
a pig. 

" The fat pannicle (or kell) wherein the bowels are lapt." Guy 
Miege, Diet., Fr.-Eng., 1679, sub voc. Coeffe. 

(2) The bag in which an animal is confined before birth. 

Oor ohd mare, she foal'd e' th' neet, an' th' foal could n't braak th' 
kell, so it was droonded. 1883. 

" Guianerius . . . speakes of a silly jealous fellow, that seeing his 
childe new born included in a kell, thought sure a Franciscan that used 
to come to his house, was the father of it, it was so like the Friar's 
coule." Rob. Burton, Anat. Mel., 1652, p. 614. 

KELP. " To hang a kelp" is to drop the lip previously to 
weeping, said of children. 

Just look at Miss . . . she first hangs a keif an' then she beals. 


What iver do you keap sich-like kelter for ? 

Fling that theare kelterment up o' th' fire, it's not wo'th hoose-room. 

(2) Silly talk. 

When oor George begins to talk aboot politics he teams oot sich an 
a mess o' kelterment it wo'd sicken a toad to hear him. 

KELTERLY, #. Rubbishy. 


KENSPECKLE, KENSPECKLED, adj. Good to know; 

He's ken-speckle enif, you mud knaw him onywheare. 
Thaay're a kenspeckled lot is them Irish hoss-dealers. 

KEP, v. To throw up in the air; sometimes also, though more 
rarely, to catch anything so thrown. 

" He kcpped the ba 1 there wi' his foot 

And catched it wi' his knee, 

Till in at the cruel Jew's window 

Wi' spied he garr'd it flee." 

The Jew's Daughter of Lincoln, st. ii. 

KEP-BALL. (i) The game of catch-ball. 
(2) The ball with which it is played. 

KEPPINGS. Underskimmings of cream (q.v.) 
KEP UP, v. To throw up in the air. 
KERCHY (kerch-i). A curtsey. 

KERK (kerk). A cork. 

" Maad' e' Bristol 
Sell'd e' Yerk 
Puttsn e' a bottle, 
An* call'd a kcrk." 

KERNEL. A lump under the skin ; an enlarged gland. 

When I was a bairn I'd a lot o' kernils e my neck bud thaay went 
awaay as I graw'd up. 

KERPS. A corpse. 
KESLOP. Cheese-rennet. 

KESSELS and POSSELLS, s. //.Small fossils, joints of 

KESTER. Contraction of Christopher. 

KET. Unwholesome meat ; carrion. 

" That no man throwe no kytte or caryon vnto the heighe waye to the 
annoyaunce of his neighbours, but shall pitt the same vpon paine of 
everye defalt xijf ' Scatter Manor Roll, 1586. 

KET-BUTCHER. One who deals in unwholesome meat or in 

KETCH. A small vessel. Cf. Smyth, Sailors' Word Book, 
sub voc. 

" The description of vessel navigating the Trent above Gainsburgh 
is a flat-bottomed boat called a Trent boat or ketch." Stark, Hist, of 
Gainsburgh, p. 514. 

" Sir John Hotham . . . dispatch'd a ketch to Captain Haddock 
and other parliaments' ships abroad." Rushworth, Hist. Co//,, part iii., 
vol. ii,, p, 264. 


KETLOCK. Charlock, wild mustard ; sinapis avvensis. In the 
neighbourhood of Yealand Conyers, in North Lancashire, 
these plants are called ketlocks, but in the valley of Saint 
John, near Keswick, they bear the name of kayles. 

KETLOCKING. Gathering ketlocks. 

KETTON. Kirton-in-Lindsey. To be sent to Ketton formerly 
meant to be sent to the prison there. 

KETTY, adj. Peaty, said of the soil. 

" On the hill was a bit, by the river was more, 
Rotten, and ketty, and bad." 

Local Verses. 

KEWSE, KOUSH, KOUSHLE. The hemlock. 

KEX. The hemlock. 

" Miserly and dry as a kix." Bernard, Terence, p. 207. 
" And as glowande gledes gladieth nou^te ])is werkmen, 
)>at worchen & waken in wyntres ni^tes, 
As doth a hex or a candel )>at cau3te hath fyre & blaseth." 

Piers the Plowman, B Text, 

pas. xvij., 1. 219. 

" You're so thin a body may see through you, and as dry as a kecks." 
N. Bailey, Colloquies of Erasmus, 1725. p. 7. 

" Half hid in meadow-sweet and kecks high flowers." 

John Clare, Rustic Fishing. 

KEY. A tuning-fork. 

KEY BIT. A kind of bit used by horsebreakers with objects 
like keys hanging from it which cause the saliva to flow 
and hinder the mouth from becoming sore. 

KEYS. Seed-vessels of the ash, sycamore, and maple. 

KIBBLE, v. To put the cord_of a halter into a horse's mouth 
by way of bit. 

KICKING ABOUT. Existing in great profusion. 

When IJwent oher to Rotterdam bacca was that cheap it was hichiri 
aboot e' th' toon streat an" squealin' oot to be smookt. 

KID. A faggot, a fascine. A bundle of sticks used for staithing 
or repairing the slopes of a river bank. 

" I seed him mellin' doon kids at th' staithe end." Stamford Mercury, 
Aug. 7, 1874. 

" Burned nothing but one stack of kids at the back of Mr. Wilbraham's 
house." Magnolia Dea ; a Relation of . Remarkable Passages in 

Cheshire, 1644, p. 6. 

" The use of thorns and also of long thin kids may be named as 
among some of the earliest attempts of draining.' 1 Hen. Hutchinson, 
Treatise on the Practical Drainage of Land, 1844, p. 58. 

" The woodman then ceas'd with his hatchet to hack, 
And bent his way home with his kid on his back." 

John Clare, An Evening Walk. 


KID, v. (i) To make kids (q.v.) 

(2) To use faggots for staithing, or for securing sod walls 
against the attacks of rabbits. 

" 2 % miles of kidding at a kid a yard." Arth. Young, Line. Agric., 
1799- P 383- 

KIDCOTE. The name of the town prison at Gainsburgh, now 

" 1772 . . . that they procure a pair of moveable stocks to be 
kept in the kidcoat." Gainsburgh Town Records, in Stark's Hist. Gainsb., 
p. 285. 

In 1594 there was a prison at York called the Ousebridge hidcote. 
See Athenaum, Jan. 27, 1877, p. 112. 

" In the northe syde of the same gatehouse ys there a prison for 
offenders within the towne called the kydcott." Survey of Bridlington 
Priory, circa xxxii., Henry VIII., in Archaologia, vol. xix., p. 271. 

KILL. A kiln. 

KILL THE LAND. Any kind of farming which much reduces 
the fertility of the soil is said to kill the land. 

" Potatoes have quite killed the land." Arth. Young, Line. Agric., 
1799, p. 145. 

KILL-COW. An accident of a serious but somewhat 
humourous nature. 

She'd laaid a lot o' cloas up o' th' gress-plat to bleach an' th' ohd soo 
rooted th' sty door oppen, an' her an' her pigs run an' shitted all oher 
'em, so says I, Well this is a kill-coo for the, missis. 

KILP. The semi-circular iron handle of a bucket or metal pot. 

" One brasse pott with kilpes." Invent, of John Nevil, of Folding- 
worth, 1590. 

" Item pro scitulis emptis Ebor xd. Item pro uno kylpe de ferro ad 
eosdem, id." Ripon Fabric Roll, 1425-6. 

KILPS. A loose, disorderly, or otherwise good-for-nothing 
person ; more often used in relation to women than men. 

What a kilps it is, fit for noht at all, but to find p'licemen an' 
magistraates a job on Winterton daays. 

KIMLING. A large tub made of upright staves hooped 
together in the manner of a cask. Kimlings are used for 
salting meat, in brewing, and for other similar purposes. 

" Th' difference atween a kimlin an' a tub's just this: a kimlin's maade 
by a cooper, an' a tub's maade by a carpenter." Richard Elsom, 
May 18, 1875. 

" On led & kemnel & a pair of mustard werns, vjd. viiid. " Inventory of 
Richard Alkie of Scalthorpe, 1551. 

" Kimling in Lincolnshire, or a kimnel, as they term it in Worcester- 
shire; vascoquendcs cerevicia." Adam Littleton, Lat. Diet., 1735, sub voc. 
" He goth, and geteth him a kneding trough, 
And after a tubbe, and a kemelin." 

Chaucer, Milleres Tale. 


Cf. Pro. Soc. Ant. 29 April, 1875. Ripon Act. Book (Surtees Soc.}, p. 169. 
Midi. Cos. Hist. Coll., vol. ii., p. 31. 

KIN' (kin). Kind. 

What Mn' of a plaace is it ? 

KIND, #. Grateful. 

I'm very kind to Mrs. . . . 'cause she sent me them coals e' th' 

KINDLE, v. To bring forth young ; applied to hares and 

11 The males or bucks should be parted from the does, or females, till 
the latter kindle." Treatise on Live Stock, 1810, p. 170. 
" Orlando : Are you native of this place ? 
Rosalind : As the cony, that you see dwell where she is kindled." 

As You Like It, Act. iii., sc. ii., 1. 358. 

KINDLING. Sticks or chips for lighting fires. 

KINDLY, adj. " I tak' it kindly on you," i.e., I accept it as 
kindly meant. " I thank you kindly," i.e., I thank you much. 

KIND ON. In love with. 
Jim's kind on oor Bessy. 

KING-COUGH. The whooping-cough. See KINK, in E.D.S. 
Gloss. B. 15 ; also KINK, below. 

KINGS AND QUEENS. The flowers of the AmmMaculatum. 
KINK. A twist or hitch in a rope, cord, or chain. 

KINKED. Twisted. 

Muther, this thread is that kink'd an' twis'n I can't wind it. 

KIRK. A church. Spelt kirke in Havelok, 11. 1132, 1355. 
Perhaps obsolete here, but the word is still current in the 
north-east of Lincolnshire. 

11 To be disposed of to >e welfare of J>e kirk of Winterton." Agree- 
ment between the Prior of Malton and the Parish of Winterton, 1456, in 
Archceologia, vol. xl., p. 238. 

" For wascheyn of ]>e kerke clothe, xd." Kirton-in-Lindsey Ch. Ace., 

KIRK-GARTH. A church-yard (obsolete). 

" My body to be beried in the kirkgayth of our lady of ffrothingham." 
Will of Roger Childers in Kirton-in-Lindsey Manor Roll, sub anno. 

KIRK-GRAVE. Churchwarden (obsolete) . 

KIRK-MASTER. Churchwarden (obsolete) . 

" J?e sayd Prior & Convent of Malton and their successors shall 
yearly give IQS. to ]>e kirkmasters of )>e kirk of Winterton." Agreement 
between the Prior of Malton and the Parish of Winterton, 1456, inArchteologia, 
vol. xl., p. 238. 



KISSING-CRUST. Rough crust at the side of a loaf near the 
top ; that portion of a loaf which has run over the baking - 
tin. J. F. once asked a little Sunday-school girl why it was 
so called. She replied, dropping a curtsey, " Because it's 
sweet, sir." 

KISSING-GATE. A clap-gate (q.v.) 

KISS I' TH' RING, KISSING RING. A game played by 

KISS-ME. The wild heart's-ease. 

KIST. A chest, spelt chiste in Havelok, 1. 222, but kist'm 1. 2018. 

KIT. A vessel into which cows are milked, formed of staves of 
wood hooped together, with one of the staves longer than 
the others, which is used as a handle. Kits have of late 
years been almost entirely displaced by tin vessels ; these 
are called pails. 

KIT. Abbreviation of Christopher. 
KIT-BRUSH. A scrubbing brush. 

KITCHEN PHYSIC. Household remedies as distinguished 
from those supplied by medical practitioners. 

KITE FLYING TIME. The time when the spring winds 
" put in." 

Why m'm, when I miss a pocket-handkercher, this kite -fly ing-time, 
I go stright to my lads' kite taail, an' if thaay hev'nt lost it, theare it is 
sewer enif ; one o' my best was theare wi' two on it corners off wi' 
tyin' it on an' tearin' it off agean. 

KIT-PAD. A circular pad used by women who carry the milk- 
kit on their heads. 

KITTLE, adj. Shy, nervous, tickle (q.v.) 

" Kittle cattle to shoe," is a phrase used of persons who are very 
bad to get on with. 

KITTLE, v. (i) To tickle. 

(2) To bring forth young ; said of cats. See KINDLE. 

KITTLIN (kit-lin). A kitten. It is common to say to a young 
man about to marry, " Thoo mun sea, my lad, that thoo 
gets a kittlin' 1 of on a good cat," i.e., a daughter of a virtuous 

" Gude safe's!" said the good-natured elder, "if it's true that we 
breed faster than the Lord provides for us, we maun drown the poor 
folks' weans like kittlings." Blackwood's Mag., 1820, vol. vii., p. 468. 


KIX. See KEX. 

KNACKER. A person who buys worn-out horses, for the 
purpose of slaughtering them. 

KNACKERS, (i) Flat pieces of wood with which children 

beat time. 
(2) The testicles. 

KNAG (nag). (i) To gnaw. 
(2) To tease. 

KNAGGLE, v. To gnaw. 
KNAP. A slight blow. 

KNAP, v. To knock. 

I've bed noht to knap at wean my teeth sin' sunrise, i.e., I have had 
nothing to eat since that time. 

KNAP-KNEED (nap-need), adj. Knock-kneed. 
KNAPPER-HEAD. A very stupid person. 
KNAPPERS, The knees. 

KNAPSTRAW (nap-strau). A thresher with a flail ; a term of 

KNAP-TO (nap-too), v. To go together with a slight noise 
such as is made in shutting a gate or turning a lock. 

KNARL (naal), v. To gnaw. 

That pup hes knarl'd th' boddum o' th' dog-kennil door awaay. 

KNAUP. (i) The head. 
(2) A blow on the head. 

KNAW (nau), v. To know. Knawe in Havelok, 1. 2,785. 

KNAWED (naud), pi. t. Knew. Knawed is -a past \pavt. in 
Havelok, 1. 2,057. 

KNEE-BAND. A cord used for the purpose of tieing one of 
the forelegs of an untractable horse or cow to its head, so 
that it may be the more easily caught. 

KNEE-CAPS, sb. pl.(i) Caps of padded leather strapped 
around the knees of young horses when they are being 
broken to preserve the knees from injury. Knee-caps are 
sometimes used for horses crossing the river Trent, to hinder 
them from damaging their knees in getting into or out of 
the boat. 

(2) The human patella or knee-pans, 


KNICK-KNACKS (nik--naks), s. pl. (i) Small articles of 
curious construction, such as toys, carvings, miniatures. 

(2) Pieces of wood which boys put between their fingers and 
therewith make a noise by beating them together. 

KNIFE, v. To stab. 

I thoht he'd ha' knifed me afoore I could get awaay fra him. 

KNIFE, TO GRIND. People are said to have a knife to grind 
who visit their neighbours, not out of friendliness, but with 
the intention of gaining some end. 

There's ohd Mrs. S . . . cumin' ; she's gotten a knife to grind, I 

KNITTEN. (i) Knitted. 

Oor Sarah's knitten yards an" yards on it. 
(2) Knitted, i.e., joined as a broken bone. 

Th' Brigg Doctor's bringin' him roond nistly, his airm's knitten agean 
real well. 

KNOCK-ABOUT, v. To see the world; to go much from 
place to place, and into different kinds of society. 

KNOCK OFF, v.(i) To take something off a bill. 

I'll pay you ready munny doon if you'll nobbut knock off th' shillins. 

(2) To cease from work. 

Carpenters knocks o/wark at foher o' Setterda's. 

(3) To discontinue some ordinary practise. 

Oor parson alus knocks 0/his bacca e' Lent. 

kill, not necessarily by a blow. 

We'd two kitlins 'at we wanted for to knock o' th' head, an' we put 'em 
i' a bucket o' watter ; but th' ohd cat, she com an* fetcht 'em boath 
oot agean. 

KNOHL. (i) A knock. 

I'll fetch ye sich an a knohl upo' th' side o' th 1 head as '11 mak ye see 
stars as big as fryin'-pan boddoms. 

(2) The tolling of a bell. 
KNOHL, v. (i) To knock. 

KNOP, KNOB (nop). A flower bud or compact head, as 
" clover knops" " lavender knops" especially used of the seed 
vessels of flax. 

"My muther maade cloaver knob vinegar iv'ry year as cum'd roond." 
H. T., Bottesford, 1886. 

"And the cedar of the house within was carved with knops and open 
flowers." i Kings, ch. vi., v. 18. 


KNOP, v. To become dry; said of ploughed or dug land; 
also of clothes. 

It's oher weet to drill ; we mun waait till it knops a bit. 

KNOTS, The joints in straw, grass, &c. 

(2) The rings on the horns of cattle. 

" These swellings become so many annual knots, by which the age 
may easily be reckoned.'' L. Towne, Farmer and Grazier's Guide, 
1816, 16. 

KNOTTING. A material which carpenters put on the knots 
in planed timber before it is painted, to hinder the knots 
from discolouring the paint. 

KNOW HIS OWN. To say that a person does not know his 
own, is a courteous way of stating that he is a thief. 

KNOWLEDGEABLE, adj. Acute, able to be instructed. 

KNOWN-LAND. Where lands are unenclosed ; if a person 
knows his own land, and it is marked off from that of others 
by merestones or natural boundaries, it is called known-land 
to distinguish it from land not held in severalty. 

KNOWSTER. A knock. 

KNUR (nur). (i) A hard wooden ball with which children 

(2) The head. 

KULAMITE (kul'umeit). A New Connexion Methodist, so 
called from Alexander Kilham, of Epworth, the founder of 
that body. 

KYAN. Cayenne pepper. See Notes and Queries , V. series, vol. 
iv., p. 67. 

KYE (kei), s. pi. Cows, A.S. Cy. 

Thomasina was hired to goa to ... bud noo she weant goa, for 
she's heard ther's seven kye to milk. 












Parle patois, s' il le faut. II n' y a pas de sottes langues ; et le Saint- 
Esprit les parle toutes. JOSEPH Eoux, Nouvelles Pensees. 






GLOSSARY (L to Y) 309-623 










LABBER, v. To daub, to besmear. 

He was labber'd all oher wi' muck. 

She labber'd butter on boath sides on her bread. 

LACE, v. (i) To beat ; to flog. 

Noo, cum thy waays fra them berry-treas or I'll laace the. 

(2) To walk or ride with great speed. 

She did cum laacin' past. 

(3) To put a small quantity of spirits into any kind of drink, 
LACK A DAAYS E' ME. An exclamation of surprise. 
LAD, LADE, LADDLE, v. To bail water. 

LADDLE (lad-1) A ladle. 

LAD-LOVE-LASS, LAD'S LOVE. Southernwood. 

" Sweet briar and lad's-love swelling into leaves." 

John Clare, Shepherd's Calendar, p. 32. 


LAD OF WAX. A sharp, clever fellow. The nurse in Romeo 
and Juliet says : 

" Why he's a man of wax." 

Act i., sc. iii., 1. 76. 

LADY. (i) A woman who has sufficient property to enable 
her to live without working. To be distinguished from a 
real lady. See GENTLEMAN. 

(2) Prefixed as a title, especially to widow ladies (obsolescent). 

LADY DAY, THE FIRST. The feast of the Annunciation 
of the Blessed Virgin Mary, March 25. This festival used 
to be called the First Lady Day to distinguish it from other 
festivals of the B. V. M. 

" Euery one shall take vppe ther tuppes or rammes before the First 
Ladie Daye, in payne of euery one founde in the same default iijs. iiiid. "- 
Scatter Manor Roll, 1578. 

LADY'S CUSHION. -drafts albida. 

LADY'S FINGERS. The kidney vetch. 

LADY'S SMOCK. The cuckoo-flower, cardamine pratensis. 

LADY'S THIMBLE. A game played by children. All but 
one sit in a circle, and the one who does not, takes a thimble 
and goes round to each person, and pretends to give it to 
each one, saying as he does so, " I give you my lady's 
thimble; you must hold it fast, and very fast, and very fast 
indeed." The thimble is really given to one of the children, 
and the giver chooses one of the others to guess who has it. 
Every one in the circle tries to seem as if he or she had it. 
For every wrong guess a fine is paid. The person who 
guesses right takes the thimble round the next time. 

LAG, v. To tire. 

LAGGED OUT, adj. Very tired. 

I've gi'n them two herses a rest to-daay, thaay was lagg'd oot cumin' 
all th 1 waay fra Stow Green. Bottesford, June 14, 1888. 

LAGS, 5. pi. The staves of a tub, " kit," or barrel. 

LAID, pp. Corn or grass is said to be laid when it is beaten 
down by wind, rain, or hail. Lodged is the equivalent in 
newspaper English. 

" If laid it will not do for seed." Arth. Young, Line. Agric., 1799, 
p. 162. 

"Corn laid by the driving showers!" Sir F. Palgrave, Normandy 
and England, vol. iv., p. 48. 

" Several fields between this place and London are much laid by the 
late rains." 1819. John Hodgson, in Raine's Memoir of J . //., vol. i., 
P- 2 57- 


LAID-IN. Grass-land is said to be laid-in when the stock is 
removed from it, that the grass may grow for meadow. 

" I do not remember ever seeing them in our best feeding-marshes, 
which being laid-in during the winter, as a rule are full of grass." 
Cordeaux, Birds of the H timber, p. 91. 

LAID OUT, pp. (i) A dead body is said to be laid out when 
clad in burial garments ready to be put into the coffin. 

(2) Decked, adorned, over-dressed. 

She was that laaid oot iv'ry body was cryin' shaame on her. 

LAI LOCK. The lilac. 

LALDER, v. (i) To lounge. 
(2) To put out the tongue. 

LALL, v.(i) To cry out. 
(2) To put out the tongue. 

That herse lalls his tung oher th' bit. 

LALLUP, v. (i) To walk among soft mud. 
(2) To beat. 

LALLUPS. An untidy woman. 

She's a sore lallups, noht she hes is iver fit to be sean. 
LALTHRUM. Noisy, worthless talk. 

LAMB. A vagrant committed to the prison at Kirton-in- 
Lindsey for three days only, so that he would have but 
one entire day in confinement. 

Here's anuther o' parson Pooley's lambs a cumin'. 

LAMBASTE (lambaist-), v. To beat. 

LAMB-BLASTS, s. pi. Passing showers of rain or hail 
accompanied by high wind, which occur at the time sheep 

LAMB LADY. The cow-lady (q.v.) 

LAMBSKIN. (i) A cloudy sediment sometimes found in beer 
and vinegar. 

(2) A kind of ulva or conferva that grows in ditches. 

LAMMING. A beating. 

" Horse-breakers lamming into young horses." The World, i2th 
January, 1881. 


LAMPUS. A clumsy scrambling fall. See Holderness Gloss. 
(E, D. S.) sub voc. cat-lampus. 

He fell doon lampus up o' th' cobbles agean Jackson shop wi'oot 
bein' aable to saave his sen a bit. 

LANCH OUT, v. To be guilty of sudden extravagance. 

He'd fifty pund left him, soa he lanch'd oot till it was all dun, an' then 
took to laab'rin' wark agean. 

" What then, did he never lanch out but in autumn." N. Bailey, 
Colloquies of Erasmus, 1725, p. 531. 

LAND END, TO BE AT THE, //jr. To be quite worn out 
or exhausted. 

I could sea as thaay druv past that th' herse e' th' cart was clear 
at th' land end. Roxby, June i, 1887. 

This here cart 's gotten to th' land end at last, we may knock it e % 
peaces for kin'lin 1 ony time. 

LAND ENDS. (i) Small portions of cultivated land between 
the Trent-bank and the road at the end of the lands in 
open fields, more commonly called groves (q.v.) The word 
seems to have been used in this sense in the North-Riding 
of Yorkshire. 

" Tho. Skelton, of Snaynton . . . , tooke vjd. a daie for himselfe 
and his boye, with meat and drinke, and a land end of grass besides, of 
Geo. Osborne of the same." Quarter Sessions Records, 1610 (N. R. Record 
Soc., vol. i., p. 202). 

I have not the necessary local knowledge to be sure of the meaning 
of this. It seems probable that the land end here spoken of was a 
portion of a land in an open field severed from the rest by a road. 
" An' the eller tree blossoms like snaw was besprent 
On the land ends 'at ligs by the side o' the Trent." 

Ralf Skirlaugh, vol. iii., p. 240. 

(2) The ends of the lands in ploughing, where the plough 
turns, afterwards ploughed cross-wise and called headlands 

"For reping doune ye corne yt growyde at mens landds endds je 
wiche was sooyd to farre upon the comon viijd." Churchwarden's Ace., 
Stanford-in-the-Vale, Berks, 1555, in Antiquary, vol. xvii., p. 119. 

LAND IRON. Probably the iron balk from which cooking 
vessels were suspended over the fire in an open chimney 

" One iyron potte and one land iyron with spitts & racks & crookes." 
Inventory of Christopher Wetherill of Keadby, i5th May, 1685. 

LAND OF NOD. Sleep. 

LAND-REAK, LAND-ROAK. Fog arising from the soil, not 
coming from the sea or H umber. 


LANDS, s. pi. (i) Long and narrow strips between the 
furrows in open fields. 

" Another [groom] who had a box, wherein was money, apparrell 
and other things of value, left it in a land of standing corne." Rel. of 
Apprehension of Cavaliers at Brackley, 1642, p. 7. 

(2) The portions of land included between the water-furrows 
in enclosures. 

LAND SIDE. The left side of a plough, so called because it 
goes next to the unturned soil. 

LAND SUCKER. A tenant who takes a farm with the 
intention of running the land. See RUN THE LAND. 

LAND UP. To silt up. 

It gets fairly landed up wi' th' sand that weshes off 'n Manton 
common. Messingham, 1877. 

" Your water courses ... be landed up and want ditching." 
Instrnc. for Jurymen on the Com, of Sewers, 1664, p. 35. 

" A serpentine fish-pond, about 200 yards long, but partly landed up." 
W. Marratt, Hist. Line., 1815, vol. Hi., p. 243. 

LANE. A highway, as well as a private road. 

"The people who have no fodder will turn out their cattle into the 
lanes." Survey of Manor of Kirton-in-Lindsey, 1787. 

When the herbage on the sides of the highways is let by the surveyors 
to depasture it is called " letting the lanes." 

LANEING. A lane. 

LANE-ENDS, FOUR. Cross roads. 

When I was a bairn thaay ewsed to bury them as kill'd the'r sens at 
foher-laane-ends, bud that's dun awaay wi' noo. 

LANES, LAINS.' An iron ring at the end of a plough to 
which the horses are yoked. 

LANGUAGES, s. pl.A. person is said to use " all sorts of 
languages" and "strange languages" when he is guilty of 
employing foul-mouthed abuse. 

LANSH, LANSHET. A lancet. 
LANSH, v. To cut with a lancet. 
LANT. A game at cards called "loo." 


LAP, v. To wrap, to fold up. 

Lap them tacks e' a newspaaper an' put 'em e' th' chist. 
" Men sayde forhungered he was & lapped in lead." Hardy ng's 
Chron., ed. 1812, p. 357. 

"The good old prelate lies lapp'd in lead." Scott, Harold the 
Dauntless, c. i., st. 20. 

" We laid two blades across and lapt them round, 
Thinking of those we loved ; and if we found 
Them linked together when unlapt again, 
Our loves were true." 

John Clare, The Rivals. 

LAP UP, v.(i) To wrap up. 

(2) To bury. 

When I'm dead you mun lap me up beside th' foot trod e' th' 
chech-yard among my forelders. Belton, 1844. 

(3) To conceal. 

He's lapp'd it up very snug for a long while, bud all them as reads 
newspaapers hes getten to knaw on his goins on at last. Messingham, 
April, 1887. 

He was as near as near, an' as awk'ard as a grund toad, bud his 
wife was a real nist woman, an' soa you see she lapp'd him up a bit, 
that is, her virtues in part concealed his faults. 

(4) A business is said to be lapped up when it is quite finished. 

I've gotten th' will prov d an' th' legacies paaid, an' all th' ohd man's 
affairs lapt up an' dun wi'. 

LAPE. A walk along a wet and muddy road. 

Thoo'll hev a straange laape if ta goas by th' warpin' drean bank 

LAPE, v. (i) To walk or wade through mud or dirt. 
Them gells is alus laapein' aboot e' that mucky streat. 

(2) To bemire. 

Thoos laaped thee sen all oher, wheare hes ta been ? 

LAPED UP, pp. Mud-bespattered. 

She was o'must laap'd up to th' eyes when she got hoame. 

L ARGUS (laarjus), i.e., Largesse. 

The cry of the plough-jags when they go from house to house to 
perform and beg. Cf. Peck, Ace. of Isle of Axholme, p. 278. 

LARN. (i) To learn. 

(2) To teach. 

An ungodly youth, overhearing his brother praying in the chapel for 
his conversion, waylaid him on his return, kicked him severely, and 
said, "I'll larn you to praay fer me, my lad." 

LARRUP, v. To beat. 


'LARUM. A long wearisome tale. 

He ewsed to tell sich long 'larums aboot them times afoore th' 
warpin' was on th' goa, I was stall'd wi' hearin' him. 

LASH. Soft, watery. 

Isle of Axlwlme, rare. 

LASH OUT, v.(i) To kick, said of a horse. 

When he fun th' swingle-tree cumin' on his hocks, he lash'd oot an' 
brok th' splash-board. 

(2) To spend money recklessly. 

LASK (laask). Diarrhoea; commonly used regarding cattle, 
but sometimes applied to human beings also. See LAX. 

LAST. A measure used for rape-seed, turnip-seed, and oats ; 
ten quarters. 

When ohd George Sorsby fo'st plew'd up yon marsh Squire 
Peacock hes noo, he sew it wi' raapes an' hed moore then a last an 
aacre o' sead. 

LAST END. (i) The end of anything. 

I caame at th' start, an' I've seed th' last end on it, said of a sale. 
3rd April, 1888. 

We was here afoore thease H . . . 's was iver heard on, an' noo 
I've seed th' last end on 'em," said at a funeral. 

(2) Death. 

She's been aailin' a long time, poor thing, bud her last end's cum'd at 

LAST LEGS. A person is on his last legs when near death or 

LAST AGE. The same as EDDISH (q.v.) 

LAT. A lath. 

" Pd to William Bains for lats las. " Lea, Overseers Ace., 1754. 

LATESOME (lait-sum), adj. Late. 

I mun be gooin' or it'll be laatesum afoore I get hoam. 

LATHE. (i) A barn. 

"Lathe floor levelling." Bottesford Moors Ace., 1811. 

" Yt ys ordened that none dwellynge within the paryshe of Scotter 
shall gyue any sheues of corne in harvest for bynding of corne but only 
at the lay the dore, and not in the field vpon payne of euerye sheif xij d - " 
Scatter Manor Roll, 1556. 

" The said stone stondyth under a post-fote in a lathe at Dygby." 
Document dated 1503 in Sketches of New and Old Sleaford, 1825, p. 341. 

(2) A stage or platform in a barn on which unthreshed corn 
is placed. 

(3) A calm ; an absence of wind after a storm* 


LATHER, v.(i) To froth. 

Look how that watter lathers wi tum'lin oher th' dem. 

(2) To perspire so as to produce a lather like sweat. 
This melsh weather maks th' herses lather. 

'LATION. Relation. 

Noan on his 'laations wo'd awn him when he was alive, bud thaay gev 
him a gran' funeral. 

LAUGH AND LIE DOWN. A game at cards. 

LAW, v. To go to law. 

If ta duzn't paay me, an soon an all, I shall goa to Mr. Hoolett an' 
he'll law the for it. 

LAWS E' ME, i.e., " Lord have mercy upon me," an exclamation 
of surprise, anger, or delight. 

LAX. Diarrhoaa. See LASK. 

LAY. An assessment, a local tax, as distinguished from the 
Queen's taxes. 

" For assessing and settynge of leyes and taxes." Gainsburgh Jury 
Book, 1635, in Stark's Hist. Gainsb., p. 96. 

" Spent when the lays was granted is. 6d." Lea, Overseer's Ace., 1754. 

LAY, f>. (i) To lie. 

I alus laay e' bed an' smooke a pipe o' bacca on a Sunda' mornin' 
efter th' wife's getten up. 

(2) Strictly to bet, but commonly used as a strong form of 

You'll wesh that mucky faace, I laay, afoore thoo's oht to eat. 

(3) To lay a hedge is to cut the tall thorns half through near 
the roots and bend them down in a horizontal position. 

LAY TONGUE, TO." He call'd me iv'ry mander o' thing he 
could laay his tung to, fra a cat to a dog," i.e., " He used all 
the foul words he was master of. 

LAYER (lair) (i) i.e., lair. The place where cattle lie ; the 
land on which sheep are folded. 

Warp land is not one-half such bad layer for tonup-sheep as a sight 
o' th' top-land is. 

" The wetness of their layer . . . the scab, the rot, and every 
circumstance attend them which can delay their being profitable." 
Th. Stone, View ofAgric., 1794, p. 62. 

(2) A stratum of rock, clay, or earth. 
LAYLOCK. The lilac. 
LAZYBACK. An ang-nail (q.v.) 


LEACHEWHITE. Lairwhite, lecherwite. 

" A fine or custom of punishing offenders in adultery and fornication, 
which privilege did anciently belong to the lords of some manors in 
reference to their villains and tenants." Blount, Law Diet., 1717 

" Al maner of seruices of the tennantes, there marriages, leache whites, 
marcheates . . . Lease of Manor of Scatter, 1537, i n P ro - S c - Ant. 
second series), vol. iv., p. 416; Archaologia, xii., 37 ; Seebohm, Eng. 
'. Com., 30, 56. 


LEAD, v. To carry by cart or waggon. 

This use of the word seems to point to a time when the traffic of the 
country was carried on by pack horses, which it was the custom to 
lead in single file. 

We can't lead wheat to-daay, th' stroa's as weet as muck. 
Wheare's yer faather ? He's leddin' bricks for th' squire. 

" Owre carte shal he lede 
And fecchen vs vy tallies." 

Piers the Plowman, B. text, pass, ii., 1. 179. 

" To leade the medow awaye there growing, accordinge to ]>e custome 
there used." Agreement between the Prior of Malton and par. of Winterton, 
1456, in ArcJuzologia, vol. xl., p. 238. 

LEAD-EATER (led-eetur) .India-rubber. 
LEADER. A tendon. 

LEADINGS. The price of carting anything. 

A newly-built house is said to have cost such a sum, including 


LEAF, A NEW. Reformation; change. 

You'll hev' to to'n oher a new leaf, or we shall hev' to part, an 1 that 
afoore long. 

LEAF-FAT, LEAF. (i) The inner fat of a pig, duck, or 

What a fine goose that is o' thine ; why it hes a leaf like a pig. 

(2) Sometimes, though rarely, used in relation to the similar 
fat in a human being. 

His puddin's hed gotten oot o' ther' plaace, you sea, an' wedged 
the'r-sens in among the leaf-fat ; an' Doctor co't him oppen an'reightled 
'em. He's a straange high larnt man that Doctor, an' a clever un an" 

LEALOCK. The lilac. 

LEAN-TO. A building at the side of another, the roof of 
which leans against the main building. 

41 A lode of hey lyyng in a leyn to ijs. " Inventory of Walter Mawd, 
of Rypyngale, 1542. 


LEARN, v. To teach. See LARN. 

" Or, rather will some cherub stand, 
By special office charg'd at hand, 

To learn me immaterial mysteries." 

J. Reynolds, A View of Death, 1735, p. 16. 

LEAP. (i) A long wicker basket used for catching eels. A 
representation of a leap of this kind is in the foreground of 
the engraving of Puttchers on the Severn, near Tidenham, in 
Seebohm's.g. Vill. Com., p. 152. 

(2) A large basket used for carrying " cut meat" (q.v.) Isle 
of Axholme. Cf. E.D.S., B. 16. 

LEAS, s. pi. The annular marks on the trunk of a tree. 
LEATHER, v. To beat. 
LEATHER-HEAD. A blockhead. 
LEAVE HOLD, LEAVE GO, i'. To let go. 

LECK, v. (i) To leak. 
(2) To bail water. 

LECK-BOWL. A tool used for bailing water over a cradge 
or small dam, to enable a drain to be cleansed. 

LECK ON, t>. To pour on ; a term in brewing. 
LEDGE. The horizontal bar of a gate. 

LEDRUM, LELDRUM. A got up story, an improbable tale. 
I can't abide my bairns for to read them novels ; ledrums like them, 
all aboot sweetheartin' '11 not do noabody noa good. 

I reckon thease here leldrmns aboot witchin' is all a noht. 

LEE. A lie. 

LEE, v. To tell lies. 

LEET. Light. 

Clergyman : Do you say your prayers, my little boy ? 
Boy : Yes, sir, I alus says 'em at neet. 
Clergyman : Why don't you say them in the morning also ? 
Boy : 'Cos it's alus leet then an' I'm not scar'd. 

LEET ON, v. (i) To light on. 

Wheare did ta ket on that peace o' ohd coin ? 

(2) To settle, as birds and insects do. 

Th' black-heads leeted upo' th' grun' e' oor hoam cloas, soa as it was 
very nigh white oher wi' 'em. 


LEETS, s. //.The lights ; the lungs. 

Master alus gies th' liver an' leets to poor foaks. 

LEFT-HANDED. Illegitimate. 

LEFT TO HIS SEN. A person is said to be left to his sen who 
does something remarkably foolish. 

I niver seed noabody moore left to they sens then oor Claudina was 
when she married a fella' like . . . .Why he's brokken o'must ivery 
boan e' his body, barrin' his neck, thrif cumin' hoam fresh fra Gaainsb'r' 
markit. If he'd brokken that an' all it wo'd hev been a good job fer 
oor poor lass. 

(2) Left by himself. 

He got foul wi' me, soa I put on my hat an' just left him to his sen, to 
cool like. 

LEG. Anything is said to have all its legs on when it is very 

Your sarvant lass she maade me a cup o' coffee ; my wod it was 
good ; I tell'd her it hed all it legs on, an' it hed an' all. 

LEG-TIRED. Very tired. 

LEG UP. To give a leg up is to assist a person in mounting a 
horse, climbing a wall, &c. 


LEND, v. To give ; commonly used either in irony or anger. 

I'll lend ye sumuts you'll not like if ye cum slivein' aboot here agean. 
" Whyle he was blynde, 
The wenche behinde, 

Lent him, leyd on the flore 
Many a ioule, 
About the noule, 

With a great batyldore. 

Sir Tho. More, Workes, 1557, P- "" 

LENT. The loan of anything. 

It is n't oors, bud we've hed the lent on it thease three years. 
" Thanking him exceedingly for the lent thereof." De la Pryme's 
Diary, p. 163. 

LENT-CORN. Barley and oats ; also beans, if sown in the 

LERRY. (i) A whim, a fancy. 
(2) A fib. 



LESSIN'. (i) A lesson. 

(2) Undue influence/ secret instructions. 

She's been writin' advisin' her not for to goa; she's larnt her Icssin', 
no doot. 

LET. (i) Pt. t. of LIGHT, in the sense of alight. 

A swarm o' beas let on one o' them stohps e' that creddle roond th' 
walnut trea, an' I maade my sen sewer oor missis wo'd dee e' her 
confinement, but when it caame to she did noht o' th' soort. 

(2) Pt. t. of LIGHT, to illuminate. 

I dreamt that all th' chech was let up wi' wax can'les. -Margaret 
Richards, Northorpe, 1843. 

LET DOWN. An infirmity, such as deafness or lameness ; 
or a misfortune, such as having a bad wife, husband, or 
child, is spoken of as a great let down. 

LET DRIVE, v. (i) To begin anything very energetically. 
(2) To strike out with the fists, or to kick as a horse. 

LET INTO, v. To attack. 

Them craws is lettiri 1 into th' taaties e 1 th' Naathan Land aboon a bit. 
If thoo lets into th 1 bairn e' that how, I'll fetch th' p'liceman to the. 

LET OUT, r. (i) To let anything by the day or the week. 

He lets his herses oot to do falla'in. 
(2) To tell something secret. 

Jim got mad, so he let oot th' whoale consarn. 

LEV, pt. t. of live. 

We lev at Haxey then. 

LEVELS. The Level of Hatfield Chace. 

" This person lived upon the Levels." Archaologia, vol. xl., p. 225. 

LEW. (i) Interjection used in driving geese. 
(2) Contraction for the Christian name Lucretia. 

LEY (lai).- Unenclosed grass land. It seems to mean land 
that has once been ploughed and afterwards laid down to 

" One of the common fields called the Leys in the Ings has not been 
plowed within memory. ... On the north and south cliffs are 
several commons called the Old Leys and Lodge Leys, which were 
formerly plowed, but by length of time are become unknown land, and 
are therefore stocked by gaits like the other commons." Survey of the 
Manor of Kirton-in-Lindsey, 1787. 

LIABLE, #. Likely. 

Jack's a good soort 'n a chap, but very liable to get fresh. He's 
been fined fo'ty-three times for gettin' drunk. Messingham, Aug., 1875. 


LIBERRY. (i) A library. 

(2) A book borrowed from a library. 

A young servant at Winterton said " As soon as I caame hoame from 
Sunda' School yisterdaay I set doon by the fire and soon got buried in 
my liberry," meaning the book she had just borrowed from the library 
of the school which she attended. February 16, 1880. 

LICK, v. (i) To beat ; to thresh. 
(2) To surpass ; to excel. 

Well, this licks all I iver seed, or heard, or read on. 

LICK AND A PROMISE. To wash, dust, or do any like 
thing in a slight or imperfect manner, but leaving hope that 
the work may be performed more thoroughly in the future. 
It's nobut a lick an' a promise this time, bud I'll finish it off rarely next 
time I tak it e' hand. 

LICKSPITTLE. A parasite ; a sycophant. 

LIDYATE. A gate between ploughed land and meadow, or 

pasture and meadow, in an open field. A gate at the entrance 

of a village used to hinder cattle from straying from the 

unenclosed fields or commons among the houses (obsolescent). 

",That euerie man shall make ther lydyeates sufficient before St. Markes' 

daye, in payne of eureye one found in the same defalt iiis. iiijd. " 

Scatter Manor Roll, 1578. Cf. Lidgitt's in Hallewell's Diet. 

LIE (lei). (i) Urine. 

" Sciatica . . . Apply flannels dipt in stale lie boil'd with salt, 
as hot as you can bear, for an hour." John Wesley, Primitive Physic, 
1755. P- 94- 

(2) Water in which wood-ashes have been boiled to soften it 
for washing purposes ; horse chesnuts are sometimes used 
for this purpose. 

LIEF, LEVE, LEAVE. As soon ; rather. 

I'd as leave goa wi'oot oht as eat eels ; thaay look like noht but hetherds 
an' snaakes. 

LIEVER, adv. Rather. 

I'd liever marry a bozzil then a prood stuck up thing like her. 

LIFT. (i) Literally ; help in lifting anything, as " Noo, then, 
gie us a lift wi' this here stoan," but frequently used for 
assistance of any kind. 

I wish, Squire, you'd gie me a lift wi' C . . . D . . . , he 
awes me foher pund an' weaht pay a fardin. 28th August, 1876. 
I once gev ohd Brewer a lift e' my gig, doon agean Squire Heala's. 

(2) Half a round of beef. 


LIFT, v . To be in great profusion. 
This meat lifts vvi' mawks. 
Th' bed lifts wi' lops. 

LIG, v. To lie, to lay. 

He call'd me all th' foul naames he could lig his tung to. 
I'll lig this stick aboot thy back. 

" I've nowt bud liggiu 1 here waaitin' 
An' deein 1 left to do." 

Lincolnshire Poacher, in Mabel Peacock's 
Tales and Rhymes, p. 127. 

LIG-ABED. A sluggard. 

LIG DOWN. A woman is said to be " gooin' to lig her sen 
doon " when she is about to be confined. 

LIGHT, v. To alight, as a bird or insect does. See LITE. 

LIGHT CAKES, 5. pi. Bread cakes, i.e., cakes made of 
fermented dough taken off the paste which is about to be 
baked into bread. 

LIGHT CART. A cart having springs. 

LIGHT DUMPLING. Dumpling made of light dough, that 
is, paste made with yeast. 

LIGHTNING. There are understood to be three sorts of 
lightning, " forked-lightning," " spear-lightning," and 
" sheet-lightning." 

LIGHT UPON, LIGHT ON, v. To find, to hit upon. 

I lighted on it [a flint arrow head] as I was walkin' oher th' top o' 
Manton Common.- 1847. 

I lighted on thease here two cauves at Brigg, last markit. 

LIGHTS, s. pi. The lungs of an animal. 

" Hooks baited with the lites of a beast." Will. Blundell, Crosby 
Records, p. 222. 

" Cleon, that rapscallion true, 
Whom I'll cut up, liver and lights, 
Into shoe-soles for the knights." 
Walsh, Aristophanes, The Acharnians, Act ii., sc. ii., 1. 302. 

LIGHTSOME, adj.(i) Well lighted. 

Th' gas maks th' chappil a deal moore light sum ; I wish we'd hed it 
years sin'. 

(2) Cheerful, lively. 

LIG OUT, v. (i) To prepare a corpse for burial. 

(2) To expend. 

lie's ligg'd oot a sight o' munny upo' that farm. 


LIG GOT O' DOORS: To be, to exist, said of land. 

It's as good a farm as iver ligged oot o' doors, an' wo'th a sight moore 
then that theare ketty stuff 'at ewsed to be Hall's. 

LIKE. A termination equivalent to ly, being another form of 
the A. S. lie, as vretlike, winter/^. Cf. Robinson's Whitbij 
Glossary ', E. D. S. sub voc. 

LIKE, adj. adv.-(i) Likely. 

Very like I maay, bud I'm not sewer. 
(2) Compelled. 

I've getten a summons fra 1 th' magistraates, soa I shall be like to goa 
whether I will or noa. 

LIKE. " Good to like," " bad to like," satisfactory or unsatis- 
factory, as the case may be. 

A wound not going on well is said to be " not hairf so good to like 
as it was a bit sin'." 

A very little boy, who was thought by his parents too backward. 

was pronounced by the schoolmaster " none the worse to like for that." 

A pure and innocent girl, who had an objectionable mother, was 

said to be " midlin' in her sen, bud bad to like when you nobbud knaw 

who she's cum'd off "n." 

LIKE CASE,'a<fo. Also, in the same manner as. 

Thaay chuckt th' watter tub oher, like cause thaay brok th' tap on it. 
" Payd wytsonday for ij ponde sope for weching cherche clothes iijd. 
Paid at lammes lyke case iiid." Kirton-in-Lindsey Ch. Ace., 1534. 

LIKELY. Of promising appearance, as "A likely lad," "A 
likely foal." 

LIKEN'D, LIKEN'D O', /Ar. Likely, nearly, in danger of. 

I'd liken d to hev been lock'd oot all neet. 

I'd liken' d o' been droonded once in crossin' th' Trent, at Borringham, 
i' ohd George time. 

41 We'd liken d o' hevin a lot o' kitlins e' oor best bed." 2gth April, 

LIKING, ON. A servant or an animal on liking is one taken 
on trial. 

LIKE THAT.- (i) In that way. 

What are you pinchin' me like that for ? 
(2) Very quickly or urgently. 
It's raainin* like that. 
Thy muther's mad, she's callin' o' the like that. 

LILLYLOW. (i) A bright flame. 

When we got theare ther' was five corn -stacks all i' a lillylow. 
(2) The quivering of the flesh which takes place when cold 
hands are held close to a fire. 



LIMMOCK, LIMBER, #. Flexible, pliable. 

Her limbs is gettin' moore limmock, bud she's a poor creiitur' yit. 

LIMMOCK, v. To make pliable. 

Foaks says as I should keap movin' aboot to limmock my joints ; it's 
all very fine talkin', if thaay was e' that paain I offens am thaay'd get 
rest when thaay could. 

LIN. Linen (obsolescent). 

All the lin sheets and towils was spun at hoame when I was a lad. 
Will. Stocks, Yaddlethorpe, May, 1887. 

LINCH. A balk in a field. A.S. Mine (obsolete). 

" The lands in the fields are called dales and thelinches or green strips 
on each side are called marfurs or meerfurrows." Survey of Manor of 
Kirton-in-Lindsey , 1787. 


" What a wonderful country is Linkisheer, 
Wheare the pigs shit soap and the coos shit fire." 

The allusion is to the practise of using pig-dung instead of soap 
in washing clothes, and cow-dung as fuel. Both these practises, 
if now obsolete (which is doubtful), have become so in very 
recent days. 

LINE. (i) Flax. 

"It is laid in paine that no man shall lye hemp nor line neare no 
chimney." Scatter Manor Roll, 1581. 

" The tempering of steel materials for the purpose of dressing line." 
James Taylor, of Crowle, Travels in Upper Canada, p. 74. 

(2) The worked fibre of flax. 

(3) The lime tree. 

LINE, v. To copulate ; said of dogs only. 

LINE-BREAK. A flax-brake; a machine for dressing flax. 

"One dishbench, 2 old kitts, i pare of line bracks 35. 4<i. " Inventory 
of Will. Gwinas, of Keadby, Sept. 18, 1685. 

LINE-DYKE. A ditch wherein line is steeped. 

LINE-MAN. (i) A person who takes land for a single season 
for the purpose of growing line. 

(2) A man who works line. 

LING. Heather. 

" Still keeps the ling its darksome green." 

John Clare, Wanderings in June. 

LING-BESOM. A broom made of heather. 


LINKS, s. pi. Strings of sausages, so called from their likeness 
to a chain. 

LIN-PIN, LIM-PIN, LINCK-PIN. A linchpin of a wheel. 

'LINS. A termination equivalent to ly t as in hard/ww, most/zws, 
scarce/z'ws, sure/ms. 

LINSY-WOOLSY. " Vestis ex lana et lino simul mixtis 
confecta." Skinner, Etymologicon. 

Some Lincolnshire people hold the foolish opinion that this fabric 
takes its name, not from line, but from the parts of Lindsey in this 
county, and as a consequence misspell it Lindsey -Woohcy. 
" For now the commons are ta'en in, 

The cottages pulled down, 
And Moggy's got no wool to spin 
Her linsy-woolsy gown." 

Lincolnshire Enclosure Song, i8th cent. 

"As to the Jewes, a garment made of linzy-woolsie might not be 
worne." John Preston, Sermons Preached before His Majestie, 1630, p. 19. 
The reference is to the Mosaic command : " Thou shalt not sowe thy 
field with mingled seede, neither shall a garment of diuers things, as of 
linen and woollen, come vpon thee." Leviticus, chap, xix., v. 19. 
" Peel'd, patch'd, and pyebald, linsey-woolsey brothers, 
Grave mummers ! sleeveless some, and shirtless others." 

Pope, Dunciad, book iii., 1. 107. 

Mary Eyrick, of Leicester, in her will executed in 1612, leaves to 
Lady Eyrick one ' ' payer of blanketes of linsy-wolsy of my own makinge. ' ' 
Transac. of Leicester sh. Architec. and Archaeology Soc., vol. vi., p. 130. 

LINTS, s. pi. Lentils, tares, vetches. 

LIPPY. Saucy. 

Noo then doant be lippy or I'll send the to bed. 

He was the lippiest bairn ony body iver hed aboot a plaace. 

LIQUOR. (i) The wort in brewing. 

(2) Strong drink of any kind, more especially spirits. 

LIQUOR, LIQUOR^UP, v. To drink strong drink. 

LISK. Sometimes, though but very rarely, lesk. The groin, 
the flank. 

" The laste was a litylle mane that laide was be-nethe 
His leskes laye alle lene and laitheliche to schewe." 

Morte Arthurs, E.E.T.S., 1. 3280. 

" The manner is to give lambes a tarre marke before they goe to the 
field, and our usuall way is to give them onely the botte on the far 
buttocke, and sometimes to runne the edge of the botte downe the 
neare lisk, makinge a stroke therewith." Hen. Best, Rural Economy 
in Yorks., 1641, (Surtees Soc.), p. 12. Cf. Halliwell's Diet., sub voc. Lesk. 
Catholicon Anglicum E.E.T.S., p. 214. 

LIST. Liveliness, attention. 

O poor thing she'd noa list aboot her when I seed her at all. Isle of 


LIST, v.To enlist. 

11 The horse are to be listed on Thursday next at the Christopher in 
St. Alban's." 1644, Hist. MSS. Com. Rep., vi., p. 36, col. i. 

LISTEN AT, . To listen to. 

Listen at th' raain how it 's beating upo' th' slaates. 

LISTING. List ; the border of cloth. 

LITE. The act of waiting for a person or thing. 
I'd a straange long lite for your parshill. 

LITE (leit), . (i) To wait. 

I've been litein' on ye for th' last hooer. 

Lite a bit, I'm cumin 1 when I've laac'd my boots. Cf. led Icita, 
to seek. 

(2) To alight. 

Thaay lited up' o' oor craw-trees. 

LITHE, v. To thicken hot milk with flour. 
LITHEING. Thickened milk. 

LITTLE DEVIL. A small black beetle of the genus Goeriits, 
which turns up its tail when touched or alarmed. 

LITTLE FAIR DAY. The pleasure fair, or second day of 
the fair at Kirton-in-Lindsey and Brigg. 


LITTLE-JACK. At Belton, in the Isle of Axholme, in the 
early part of the reign of Elizabeth, there was an Easter 
Sepulchre, with litle Jack." Line. Ch. Goods, p. 46. 
By this term was probably meant the little chest or box, in 
which, during a part of Holy Week, the Holy Eucharist 
was reserved and enclosed within the sepulchre. 

LITTLE MEN OF WROOT. Very small black insects which 

come in great numbers during the hot weather in summer 

and autumn. They are believed to breed in marshes, and 

to come into these parts from Wroot, in the Isle of Axholme. 

" In Surrey they are called " thunderbugs." W.W.S. 

LITTLER, adj. Less. 

He'll be a deal littler man then his faather. 

LITTLEST, adj. Least. 

This has been the littlest Brigg markit I iver seed ; all th' foaks hed 
gone to Lincoln Agricultur' Shaw. July 22, 1886, 


LIVE BLOOD. Sudden quivering of the flesh. 

"That curious muscular sensation, or quiver, to which the vulgar 
pive the name of live blood." B. W. Richardson, Diseases of Modern 
Life, 2nd ed., p. 163. 

LIVEN, LIVEN UP, v. Enliven. 

I'll sarvehim wi'a writ if he duzn't paay ; that'll liven him up noa end. 
Kirton-in-Lindsey . 

I'd a glass o' gin, an' it livened me up finely. 

very earnestly. 

It's to noa ewse yer hangin' yer liver on that theare meat, for th' 
doctor said as you was n't to hev noan. 

'LIVER, v. To deliver. 

Oor teams hes goan liverin' taaties. 

'LIVERABLE, adj. Potatoes which are fit for market are 
called liverable stuff ; the small and diseased potatoes which 
are not liverable are called chats. 

LIVER OF ANTIMONY. Black antimony ; a drug commonly 
used to make horses have fine coats. 

" Do yon ever use black antimony, or liver of antimony, with any of the 
horses ?" Daily Telegraph, July 27, 1876, p. 3, col. 5. 

LIVERY, adj. Clay or warp land is said to turn up livery, 
when, on ploughing the soil, it is found to be sad and 
heavy, without tendency to crumble into mould. 

LIVING WATER. (i) A natural overflowing spring as dis- 
tinguished from a well that has been dug. 

(2) The water in rapidly running streams. 

LOAD. A load of corn is three strikes, i.e., twelve pecks. Corn 
is commonly sold by the load in Doncaster market, and it is 
the measure generally used in the Isle of Axholme. 

" The load at the end of the seventeeth century was at Appleby, 
Westmoreland, for peas, wheat, and rye four bushels, for barley and 
bigg five bushels." Rogers, Hist. Agric. and Prices, vol. v., p. 255. 

LOADEN, v. Loaded. 

"A vine . . . loaden with grapes of a curious purple colour. " 
N. Bailey, Colloq. of Erasmus, 1725, p. 143. 

LOADENED, v. (i) Loaded. 

I wean't hev loddencd guns broht e 1 th' hoose ; we shall be hev>n' 
sumbody gettin 1 shutten else. 

(2) Laden. 

Bill's keel is that loa'dened you could n't cram anuther taatie intil her, 


LOBSIDED, LOPSIDED. With one side bulging more than 
the other ; said of a badly made bread-loaf, a pork-pie, an 
earthen pot, and such like things. 

" They are mostly of very rude execution, so lopsided that they very 
often do not even stand perpendicularly." J. M. Kemble, in Archaologia, 
vol. xxxvi., p. 274. 

LOCAL. A local preacher among any of the various Methodist 
bodies. A local preacher is a resident who generally follows 
some other calling. A travelling preacher or regular preacher 
is one who comes to reside in the neighbourhood for a limited 
period, and who devotes himself entirely to the ministry. 

Peatmoor Parson, as we ewsed to call him, was a lodcal among th 
Ranters for years an' years, bud he niver larnt his sen to read and 

LOCK BEAM. A collar beam or tie across a roof from the 
centre of one rafter to the centre of the opposite one. 

LOCKER. (i) A small box or chest. 

(2) A little box attached to the inside of a larger one. The 
old carved oak chests, once common in farm-houses, were 
usually furnished with one or more internal lockers. 

LOCKS, s. pi. Small pieces of dirty wool cut from sheep before 
they are shorn. They are washed and employed as stuffing 
for horse-collars, spinning into mop-yarn, and other such 

" A few days ago, the granary of Mr. Peter Hand, farmer, of Burwell, 
was broken open, and 63 fleeces of wool were stolen, besides a large 
quantity of lochs." Boston Herald, Dec. 15, 1840. 

LOCKS AND KEYS. The seed vessels of the ash, sycamore 
and maple. See KEYS. 

LOCKSPIT, n. and v. A breadth of earth taken from the 
bottom of a drain of the same width as an ordinary 
draining tool. 

I lockspitted her oot fra one end to t' uther. 

LOCUST. A cockchafer. 
LODGING-ROOM. A bedroom. 
LODLUM. Laudanum. 
LOFT A gallery in a church or chapel. 
LOH. A blaze. 


LOH, i-. To blaze. 

" Every individual brick shone and lowed with intense heat." Ralf 
S'kirlaugh, j., 197 

" On All Hallow Even, the master of the family used to carry a bunch 
of straw fired about his corne, saying : 
Fire and red low, 
Light on my teen now." 
Hamper, Life Diary and Corresp. of Sir Will Dugdale, 104. 

LOHP. A leap. 

It's a good lohp oher Car-dyke. 

LOHP, v. (i) To leap. 

" And bigan til him to loupe " Havelok, 1. 1801. 
(2) To copulate ; said of horses. 

LOHPING-POAL. A leaping-pole. 

LOHSE, adj.(i) Loose. 

(2) Used of a person free from his apprenticeship, a servant 
free from his or her contract of service, or of one who has 
broken off from a matrimonial engagement. 

LOHSE, v. To let loose (the o longer than in the adjective). 

Doan't lohse that dog, he'll be bitin' of the. 

" Arthur . . . came to the damoysell, where shee was fast bounden 
to a tree and did lowse her." Arthur of Little Britain, ed. 1814, p. 61. 

"Bryan Smythe for that 'he keped his cattele louse in the Inges 
contrary to order, ijd. " Hibbaldstow Fine Roll, 1576. 

LOHSE END. To be at th' lohse end is to be without employ- 
ment, unsettled or dissipated. 

I'm at th' lohse end to daay, soa I'll just goa an' sea what's stirrin' at 

LOHSE E' TH' HEFT. That is, loose in the handle. A 
person of a wild, profligate or wasteful disposition is called 
" a lohse e j th' heft." 

Jack's alust been a real lohse e 1 th' heft, niver easy bud when he's 
flingin' aither his awn or sumbody else munny aboot. 

" Steven's never been convarted ; he's all lowse i' th' heft yet." Ralf 
Skirlaugh, ij., 115. 

" She's loose i' the hilts; 
Grown a notorious strumpet." 

Webster, Duchess of Malfi, Act ij., sc. v. 

LOHSENING. A feast given by an apprentice when out of 
his time. See LOHSE. 

LOHSE OOT, v. To take a horse out of harness. 

LOHSING TIME, The time for people to leave church, 
chapel, or school, or for men or horses to leave off work. 


LOHSE TINES. To redeem forfeits. 

Bairns bed bean plaayin' at my-lady's-tbimble, an' was lohsin^ tines 
when I cum'd in. 

LOITCH, adj. Cunning, clever ; said of dogs. 

Jet's that hitch she'll meat th' ohd hare at that theare smuice sewer 
en if. 

LONDON TUFT. Sweet William. 

LONE WOMAN. A woman who lives in a house by herself; 
either one who has never been married or who is a widow. 

LONG, adj. Tall. 

You're as ugly as you're long; a common phrase used by mothers and 
nurses to children as a censure for bad temper. 

LONG ARM, TO MAKE. To stretch out the arm for the 
purpose of taking hold of something nearly out of reach. 
I mun mak a long airm an' try to get it doon wi' oot fetchin' th' stee. 

LONG ENOUGH. A long time. 

He'll not be by agean yit for long eniff you'll sea. 

LONG FORTNIGHT. The meetings of the Justices of 
Peace at Winterton were commonly held on every alternate 
Friday ; sometines however three weeks intervened, this 
period was called th e long fortnight. 

LONG GEARS, s. pi. The traces of a cart or waggon. 
LONG-HEADED, LONG-CROWNED, fl<f/.Clever ; acute. 

LONG HUNDRED. Six score. 

" Five scoare's a hundred 

Of men, money, and pins ; 
Six scoare's a hundred 

Of all other things." 

Cf mpare with this " Eine Riibe ist keine ; zwei sind Eine ; Drei ist ein 
Riibendieb," Maurer, Dorfveyfassung, vol. i., p. 330. It alludes to the 
right of wayfarers to gather fruit, &c., as they pass along. 

LONG LIFE. A pigs spleen. 

LONG ON, prep. On account of. 

It was all long on her that I lost my plaace. 
" And when I lay in dungeon dark 

Of Naworth Castle, long months three, 
Till ransom'd for a thousand mark, 
Dark Musgrave it was long of thee." 

Lay of the Last Minstrel, c. v., St. xxix, 

LONG RUN. The end, 

Leein maay do for a bit, bud it '11 let a man doon e 1 th' long run* 


LONG-SETTLE, LONG SADDLE. A long wooden Fe .it 
with back and arms like a sofa, once common, and still 
sometimes to be found, in public-houses and farm-house 

LONG-SLEEVE HAT. A tall hat. 

LONG-TONGUE. (i) A tale-bearer. 
(2) A pigs spleen. 

LONG-TOWEL. A jack-towel, an endless towel on a roller. 

LONG WAYS. I don't think much to her muther, but she's a 
long-waays better then her. July 23, 1886. 

LONG WAYS ON, phr. Sharp ; quick ; precocious. 

LONG-WINDED. Dilatory in making payments. 

He's a straange long-winded gentlem'n ; he'll tak two or maaybe three 
year credit, an' then at last of all it's like drawin' a fast duble tooth to 
bring him to book. 

LONKERED. Entangled; twisted; matted. 

Oh, my lass, if thoo nobbut seed thy hair, it's that lonkered. 
This band's gotten lonker'd soa as I can mak noht at all on it. 
Hairiff lonkers corn wo's then oht. 

LOO, inter] . Word used in setting a dog upon anything. 

Farmer's Wife : Was it thoo that set Nell on them theare chickins ? 
Child : Noa, muther, I nobbut clap't my ban's and said loo ! 

LOOK FOR. (i) A person is said to look for anything (almost 
always something evil) when his conduct is such as to 
ensure its coming upon him. 

He's gotten taa'en care on at Ketton at last ; he's been lookin* for 
it a long time. 

(2) To watch for, hope for, anticipate. 

I've been loo kin' for raain for a long while, an' at last it's cum'd. 

LOOK SLIPPY, interj. Make haste ! Go quick ! 
All th' kye is e' th' gardin', look slippy an' dog 'em oot. 

LOONGING (g soft), adj. Lounging. 

Thoo knaw'd th' coo wo'dn't gie noii milk, when thoo sell'd her me 
thoo loongin' theaf. 

LOP. A flea. See LIFT. 

LOP, v. To pick off fleas. 

Ugh, thoo good-fer-noht ; goa hoame an' lop th' cat. 

LOPPER, v. To curdle ; to coagulate. 

Th 1 milk was all lopper'd wi' th' thunnen July 22, 1876, 


LORDS AND LADIES. The arum maculatum. 

' ' Ladies and Lords ; 

So name the rural folk the speckled cowls, 
That sheath the tender arum." 

James Hurdis, The Favourite Village, 1800, p. 137. 

LORDSHIP. Properly signifies a manor, but is often used to 
signify parish or township. 

A Northorpe lady said : " I am sure no one of that name ever lived in 
this lordship since I was a little girl." Nearly the whole of Northorpe 
is a member of the great manor of Kirton-in-Lindsey. 

LOSS, v. To lose. 

Noo then, Bill, sitha here, here's a knife for the, thoo moant loss 
it, mind that. 

If ta losses this here good handketcher, I'll niver gie the anuther as 
long as iver I live. 

LOST E' MUCK. Sometimes 7osonly; said of a person or 
thing in a very dirty condition. 

When I com' hoam th' whoale hoose was lost e' muck. 
Bless the, bairn ! why,, thoos clear lost; thoo looks as if ta'd been 
buried i 1 a muck-hill. 

LOT. (i) An indefinite quantity. 

We've a goodish lot o 1 apples to-year, but noht like what we hed last- 
It'll be a lot better to sattle atweiin wer sens noo, then to goa to th' 

She's a lot warse noo this cohd, ask weather's cum'd. 

(2) A certain defined portion of a drain or bank which is kept 
in repair by one person or parish. 

"The Willowbeck & lotts leading to the sewer aforesaid shall be 
sufficiently ditched." Inquisition of Sewers, 1583, p. n. 

LOUT. (i) A heavy clumsy person. 

(2) One who has bad and coarse manners. 

(3) A blow. 

I fetch'd him a lout upo 1 th' side o' th' head. 

LOUTER. (i) The number of eggs which a hen lays before 

she desires to sit. 

(2) A great quantity of anything, more than was expected or 
hoped for. 

"Jackson's sell'd a straange louter o' them theare books already." 
July 24, 1886. 

LOUTING. A thrashing. 

Sexton : Sum lads is cobblin' at th' chesnuts up o' th' trea by th' 
chech-yard gate. 

E. P. : Go tell 'em then I'm cumin' wi 1 a stick to give 'em a good 


out of legal wedlock. 

"A bastard." Cf. Trench, On the Study of Words, second edition, 
p. 49 ; Don Juan, canto vi., st. xciv. ; Rye, Hist, of Norfolk, p. 233. 

'LOWANCE. (i) Allowance, i.e., beer allowed to workmen. 

(2) Beer generally. 

" He's hed his 'lowance," said of one who is rather tipsy. 

LOW-BELL. A bell used for netting partridges at night 

" Your Low-Bell, which is a bell of such reasonable size as a man 
may well carry in one hand, and haueing a deepe, hollow, and sad 
sound." Gervase Markham, Hunger's Prevention, p. 93. Cf. Archaologia, 
vol. xv., p. 162. Ralf Skirlaugh, vol. i., p. 237. 

LOW-LIVED, LOW-LIVERLY. Of base propensity. 

He's a real low-lived chap, fit for noht at all but drinkin' an' swaggerin 
aboot his brass. 

He cares for noht bud sittin' talkin' to low-liverly chaps e' th' corner 
o' th' Fo'nis-Arms kitchin. 

LOW-TOWNS. The villages on the side of the range of hills 
called the Wolds. Ferriby and Horkstow, for example. 

LOZENGE. A lollipop ; sweetmeat made of treacle, &c., 
whether in the form of lozenges, lumps, or sticks. 

LUBBER. (i) A blockhead. 
(2) One who is clumsy. 

fasten a bargain. 


." Luddington poor people, 

With a stoan chech an' a wooden steeple." 

The stone church and wooden steeple have been replaced by a modern 

LUDLAM'S DOG. "As laazy as Ludlam's dog that lean'd 
his sen agean a door to bark." 

LUG. (i) The ear. 

(2) The ear of a mug or pitcher. 

" On the neck are two small lugs." Stamford Mercury, Aug. 16, 1878. 

LUG, v. To pull, haul, drag along, or carry. 

He'd gotten sich an' a load e' th' cart, that th' herse could scarce 
lug it. 

I lugg'd him on by th' airm. 
Doan't lug my hair like that. 


"If you offer to step but one step out of the door you're lugg'd back 
again just like a criminal that had poison'd her father." N. Bailey, 
Colloquies of Erasmus, 1725 ; p. 152. 

" And you, poor ragged outcasts of the land, 
That lug your shifting camps from green to green." 

John Clare, The Village Minstrel. 

LUGGERY-BITE. A game boys play with fruit. 

" One bites the fruit and another pulls his hair, until he throws the 
fruit away." Brogden, Line. Prov. Words. See LUG-AND-A-BITE in 
Halliwell's Diet. 

LUMBERED UP. A room or yard is said to be lumbered up 
when it is overcrowded with furniture or implements. 

Deary me, we are lumber d up ; one wo'd think we was gooin' to hev 
an auction saale. 

LUMBERING. A beating. 

LUMBERSOME, adj. Lumbering, awkward, clumsy, heavy. 

I reckon 'at drivin' staakes wi' mells i'to staaithes is as lumbersum a 
job as ther' is for a man ; it shaks his airms so bad. 
Lasses is cumbersum, 
Lads is lumbersum. 

LUMMING. A beating. 

" Noo, then, if thoo doant pick up that theare taw an' walk thy 
chalks I'll gie the a lumming." Keadby, 1877. 

LUMPER. A man who helps to unload timber ships. So 
called because such workmen take their jobs by the lump. 

LUMPHEAD. A blockhead. 

" What a lumphead thoo is, sewerly." Epworth, 1866. 

LUMPING, adj. Great. 

She's a great hewge him pin' woman. 

" A. lumping penniworth ; vilissimo pretio emptus." Ainsworth, Lat. 
Diet., 1783. 

LUMP IT. " If you doant like it you maay lump it as dogs duz 
dumpling," is said to a person who is compelled against 
his will to do some very disagreeable thing. 

LUNCH, LUNCHEON. A large slice of bread. 

LUNGIOUS, adj. Rough, violent, broad-built, strong, heavy. 

A little chap like him hed no chanch wi' a great lungious fella 1 like 

Them stoans at th' drean head is lungious things to lift. 
It's lungious cohd this mornin' wi' this here black east wind, 


LUNKERED, adj. Tangled, said of the hair. 
LUNNUN (lurrun). London. 

LUSK. An idle worthless fellow (obsolete). 

1 What thou great luske . . . art them so farre spent that thou 
hast no hope to recover." Bernard, Terence, p. 113. 

" I cannot sufficiently maruile whither that idle luske could goe 
farre hence." Ibid, 141. 

LUTHA, inter/. Look thou ! 
she's off. 



MAAKE, v. To make. 

MACADAM. Granite broken small, used for mending roads 

MAD, adj. Angry. 

that has been disturbed by digging or ploughing as 
distinguished from the undisturbed subsoil. 

It's maade land foher foot deap e' oor gardin ! Cf. Leicestersh. 
Gloss. E.D.S. 

MADE HEDGE. A dead hedge (q.v.) 

" How comes it that all your made hedges are green too ? " Sir Roger 
L'Estrange, Select Colloquies of Erasmus, 1711, p. 76. 

MADE WINE. Home made wine. 

MAFFLED. (i) Puzzled. 

(2) Slightly insane. 

She's not craazy but just majfled like. 

" She was what they call in the country maffled, that is confused in 
her intellect, 1820." Southey's Lett., Ed. by]. W. Warier, vol. iii., p. 186. 

MAGGOT. A whim ; a fancy. 

"There comes a maggot into his head to turn padder." Abraham de 
la Prymes Diary, p. 76. 

MAGGOT HEADED, adj. Whimsical ; fanciful. 

MAIDEN ASH. An ash of the first growth, i.e., one raised 
from seed, not one that has grown from the ' stool ' where 
a former tree has been felled. 

MAIDEN'S LIGHT. A light so named was burnt, before the 
change of religion, in the Church of Winterton. 

" Item the Jewes light, the pascall post, the sepulcre, the Maydens 
lighte were burned in the Anno 2, Eliz." Line. Ch. Furniture , p, 164. 


MAIN, adj. Very much ; very greatly. 

I'm maain tired o" this huncht weather. Bottesford, June 21, 1888. 
I should maain like to goa to Lunnun if it was nobbut to sea th' 

MAISTER (maist-ur). (i) A master. 

(2) A husband. 

A lady who was born and brought up in a south-western shire 
married a clergyman who had a living in this neighbourhood. One 
day a poor woman met her in the village and asked her if her maister 
was at home. At first she did not understand who was meant, when 
she arrived at the conclusion that it was the parson who was enquired 
after she supposed that the woman had made a mistake and taken her 
for one of the servants at the rectory. 

" My master is much concerned that he was so unhappy as to miss of 
seeing you at Epworth." Susanna Wesley, 1709, in Peck's Axholmc, 
p. 206. 

MAISTER BEAST. The most powerful beast in a herd, and, 
therefore, figuratively, the most influential man in a 
community, or the victor in a game or a lawsuit. 

He's th' maister beast at ... Iv'ry body but one or two e' th 1 
parish is sewer to voate that way he tells 'em. July, 1886. 

Most foaks said as B ... 'ud win, but I alus said as we should 
prove th' maister beasts e' th' long run. 

MAK, v. To make. 

MAKE, MAK, v. (i) To compel. 

If thoo says thoo weant, I'll maake the. 

(2) To earn. 

He can mak foher shillin' a daay at bankin'. 

(3) To fasten a gate or door. 

Mak th' yate efter the, or th 1 pigs '11 be 'th gardin'. 

MAKE AWAY WITH, phr.To destroy. 

My maister hed a leather pitcher mounted wi' silver, bud he toare th' 
bindin' off, an' maade awaay wi' it." Clarke, Ashby, 1850. 
A person who takes his own life is said to maake awaay wi' his sen. 

MAKE BOLD, v. To presume. 

I've maade bold to ride doon your bank, wi' oot axin'. 

MAKE COUNT ON, v. To reckon upon. 

I alus mek coontonhevin' sixty seeks o' flewkes an aacre to sell, but if 
I've twenty t' year that's what. 

MAKE ON, v. To make much of. 

That theare little dog wo'dn't run efter you as he duz, if you didn't 
mak on him as you do. May, 1877. 


MAKES AND SHAPES. " It's all intakes and shaapes," said of 
anything which is very irregular, ill or strangely formed. 
Londoner : What is a reaping-machine like ? I never saw one. 
Lincolnshire Labourer : Why, if thoo hes n't scan one I can't tell the, 
for it's all maakes an' shaapes. 

MAKE SHIFT. A substitute. 

" Well, this here bottled stuff is n't a bad maake-shift, but it's not like 
beer oot 'n a barril. 

MAKE UP, v. (i) To fasten up. To shut up. 
Maake up that dog, or he'll be runnin' awaay agean. 
If hens is n't maade up thaay pick ivery berry off bushes. 

(2) To make up a horse is to get the animal into good 
condition for selling. 

Sam's gone to John Skill's agean to mak up his herses fer Lincoln 

MAKE UP TO. (i) To court; to make love to. 

Mother : Uriah's coortin' oor Cordelia, an' I niver seed noa two foaks 
goa on soa soft e" all my born daays. 

Grandmother : Noa moore did I my sen, niver bud once, an' that was 
when thy husband was a maakm' np to thee. Why, that cohd Christmas 
Have, when bods was frozzen fast up o' th' trea bews, I fun thee an' 
Sam stannin 1 wi' oot a bit o' yer heads e' kitchen poarch ; soanoo then, 
thoo nead n't be so hard o' th' bairns. 

(2) To flatter ; to endeavour to please for a selfish motive. 

MAKE WARK. To do damage. 

Them pigs o' thine hes maade wark among my taaties. 

MALANCHOLY, ^'.Melancholy. 

MALICE, v. To bear malice. 

Thaay saay he's malic 'd him for years. 

" I know that he maliced me." John Shaw's Diary (Surtees Soc.), 
P- 153- 

MALICEFUL. Malicious. 

" She's quick in her tempers an" hes getten a foul tongue, but she's 
no ways maliceful or she would n't do as she hes." Kirton-in-Lindsey, 

MALT-COMB. The dried sprouts of malt ; often used as 
sheep food. It is also used to pack bacon in for the 
purpose of keeping flies away from it. 

MALT-QUEARNS (mault-kwi-h'rnz), s. pl.(i) Stones for 
grinding malt. 

(2) A mill with steel crushers for the same purpose. 
MAMMY. A child's word for mother. 


MANAGEMENT. Yard manure, as distinguished from guano 
and artificial manures. 

" It was n't that boht stuff fra Lunnun, it was th' manigement he put 
in 'at maade his taaties graw." Yaddlethorpe, 1874. 

MAN ALIVE, phr. Exclamation of surprise. 

Man alive ! what are you talkin' on ; there is n't sich an' a thing as 
boggards an 1 witchin 1 noo-a-daays. 

MAND, MAUND. A basket (obsolescent). 

I remember very well as Mrs. Ashton, o' Nothrup Hall, alust call'd 
a long narra' baskit a maund. 

" For a mand ffor hallybred ijd." Kirton-in-Lindsey Ch. Ace., 1546. 

MANDER (mand-ur). Manner, kind. 

I could n't think what mander o' thing it was cumin' when fo'st I 
seed a traction engine. 

MANDRAKE. Quacks profess to sell something which they 
call " the true mandrake." They tell their dupes that it is a 
specific for causing women to conceive. In England it is 
almost always the white bryony, Bryonia dioica. Cf. Gerard's 
Herbal, 1636, p. 351. Geo. Smith, Assyrian Discoveries, 1873-4, 
p. 161. Hen. Phillips, Flora Historica, 1829, vol. i., p. 324. 
Gent. Mag., 1857, vol. ii., p. 597. Le Brun, Sup. Anc. & 
Mod., vol. i., p. 116, b. Romeo and Juliet, Act iv., sc. iii. 
Webster, Duchess of Malfi, Act. ii., sc. v. 

MANG, v. To mangle ; to break in pieces. 
MANGLES, s. //.Mangold wurzel. 

MANGMENT. Anything mangled or broken in pieces. 

What an' a mangment ther' was when H . . . 's pot-cart was 
fling'd oner up o' Mottle Esh Hill. 

MANGY (main-ji). (i) Having the mange. 
(2) 111 conditioned; dirty; foul. 

MAN-HOLE. A small hole in a wall, floor, or roof, for a man 
to get through. 

" One of our men . . . was about to descend through a man-hole." 
Lteds Merc., July i, i8S5, p. 3, col. iii. 

MANIFOLD. The stomach; the bowels of man and the 
lower animals. 

MAN-KEEN, MAN-FOND, adj. Libidinosa. See FELLOW- 


MANNER. Yard manure as distinguished from artificial 

A lady of this neighbourhood read aloud to her children, Farrar's St. 
Winifred's, in which occurs some verses containing the couplet : 
" Where the angels shout Hosanna, 

Where the ground is dewed with manna." Ed. vi., p. 228. 
The children better acquainted with rural affairs than with Israel's 
desert wanderings, roared with laughter. On inquiry it was discovered 
that the word manna conveyed to them the idea of manure only. 

" We do lay on payne that no inhabitant shall bring his manner into 
the streete." Gainsburgh Town Records, 1661, in Stark's Hist. p. 261. 

MANNER-HILL. A dung-hill. 

MANNERS. Behaviour, conduct, deportment. 

" Thoo mun leave a bit for manners' saake," said to a greedy child. 
" Noo then, bairn, wheare's thy manners" said by a parent to a child 
who neglects to make a bow or curtsey to the squire or the parson. 

MANTY-MAKER. A mantua-maker, a dress-maker. 
MAN WI' TH' RED COLLAR. A sheriff's officer. 
MARCHANT. A merchant. 

MARCHET, MERCHET. A tax paid by bondmen and 
manorial tenants, .who were not free, on giving their 
daughters in marriage (obsolete). 

Marchets are mentioned among other rights conveyed in a lease of 
the Manor of Scotter in 1537; an ^ in the Court Roll of that Manor 
for 1519 we find Alice Overye " filid Willielm's Overy nativi domini," 
seeking licence from the lord " spontanie & voluntarie maritari," 
which she received " & dat domino de marcheta ut in capite, 1 ' i.e., five 

" So much nonsense has been written by grave and learned persons 
on the sublect of the ' mercheta mulierum ' that it is not out of place 
here to state that it was merely a marriage tax paid to the lord by a 
bond-woman to compensate the lord for the loss of her services." See 
Spelman and Cowell's, Glossaries sub voc. ; Blackstone, Commentaries, 
xvi. ed., vol. ii., p. 83 ; Cosmo Innes, Scotch Legal Antiquities, p. 53 ; 
Archaologia, vol. xii., p. 34; Elton, Orig. of Eng. Hist., pp. 87, 404 . 
Dawson, Hist. Skipton, p. 12; Rep. Hist. MSS., Com., vii. 585 i, viii., 
632 i ; Lees, Paisley, p. 165 ; Th. Brown's Works, vol. iv., p. 174. 

" The fable is fully exposed in the Jus Primes Noctis : erne geschichtliche 
Untersuchung" of Dr. Karl Von Schmidt. 

MARCY (maarsi). Mercy. 

MARFUR (maarfur). A mure-furrow (q.v.) 

MARKET. (i) "He's ta'en his cattle to a good or a bad 
market " said of one who has been successful or the reverse 
in some undertaking. 

(2) " He's made his market," said of one who has recently got 


MARKET-STEAD. A market-place. 

" A certaine friend of mine brought mee erewhile from the marked 
stead hither." Bernard, Terence, p. 289. Cf. North Riding Record, 
Soc. iii., 270. 

MARKET-STUFF. (i) Anything that is sold in a market in 
bulk, not by sample, but more especially vegetables. 

(2) The larger potatoes, when they have been sorted for 
market, by having the chats (q.v.) picked out from among 

MARL. (j) This word here means chalk; in other districts I 
am informed that it signifies hard clay. The properties of 
marl as a fertilizer are thus set forth in rhyme : 
" If you marl land you may buy land ; 
If you marl moss there is no loss ; 
If you marl clay you fling all away." 

(2) Tarred string. 

MARL, v. To put marl upon land. Marl was used by Lord 
Berkeley, " for the betteringe of his grounds in the Manor 
of Alkington, in the fortieth year of Henry III." Smyth, 
Lives of the Berkeleys, vol. i., p. 141. This is the earliest 
instance I have met with of marl used as a fertilizer. 
Marteria, a marl-pit occurs, circa 1270. W. D. Macray, 
Muniments of St. Mary Magd. Coll., Oxford, 141. 

MARLOCK. A game of romps. 
MARNUM HOLE. The south west. 

Marnum Hodle is generally used in relation to rain. 

We hev n't dun vvi' doonfall yit, th' wind's gotten i'to Marnum Hodle 

The allusion is probably to the village, Marnham, in Nottinghamshire, 
near Tuxford. People at Brigg speak of Ketton (Kirton-in-Lindsey) 
Hodle, and at East Halton of Wrawby Hodle in a similar manner. 

In Leyland hundred in Lancashire " Bosco Hole" is spoken of in 
exactly the same way, and Burscough, the place intended also lies to 
the south-west. Notes and Queries, Fourth Series, vol. v., p. 432. 

MARQUERRY. (i) Arsenic; lit. mercury. 

I alus dress my sead wheat wi' marquerry ; its best thing ther' is 
agean th' smut. 

(2) Mercury Chenof odium bonus henricus. It is boiled and eaten 
like spinage. 

MARRIAGE LINES. A marriage certificate. 

MARSH. Low land commonly skirting the boundary of a 



^ In 1562 the Manor Court of Bottesford forbad under penalty of 
iiis- iiijd. any one to keep his sheep "infra communem pasturam 
vocatam lee marshe, preterquam signatur cum metis." 

This marsh yet bears the old name, though now enclosed ; it is on the 
extreme south of the parish immediately adjoining Bottesford Beck, 
which is the boundary between that parish and Messingham. Since the 
first edition of this work was published I have come to the conclusion 
that our people do not use the word marsh to signify low land, which is 
at times flooded by water. The idea of a boundary seems always to 
be conveyed by it. 

MART. A fair held at Gainsburgh on the gth of October, and 

the Monday in Easter-week. Stark, Hist. Gainsl., p. 100. 

"A mart is a great fair holden every year, derived a merce, because 

merchanises and wares are thither abundantly brought." Coke, 

Institutes, 1681, part ii., p. 221. 

MARTLEMAS. Martinmas; the feast of St. Martin, Nov. 
ii. Old Martinmas Day, the 231: J of November, is the 
time commonly observed by the people, and is the day on 
which new servants come to their places in the Isle of 

MARVIL. (i) Marble. 

(2) A marble with which children play. 

MARY AND JOSEPH. Garden forget-me-not. 
MARYGOHD. Marigold. 

MASH, MAS', v. To smash, to break. 

I'd once a craate o' pots all mas'd to peaces e' gettin' off o' th' packit. 

MASH, v. To pour a little water on tea-leaves, so as to expand 
them " and fetch the goodness out," before filling the tea- 
pot up with water. 

MASH-FAT, MASH-TUB. A brewing-tub. 

"A lead, a mashe-fatt, a gyl-fatt, with a sooe, xvs. " Inventory of 
Roland Staveky, of Gainsburgh, 1551. 

MASKER, v. To decay; to rust. 

Th' sap of oak soon maskers all awaay to noht. 

Them ohd iron spoots is that masker'd thaay weant hohd waiter at all. 

MASLIN, MESLIN. Blendcorn ; wheat and rye mixed 

" Item, 12 quarters of malt or thereaboutes with 2 quarters of mashlin, 
XV H Inventory of Thomas Teanby, of Barton-upon-Humber, 1652, in Gent. 
Mag., 1861., vol. ii., p. 506. 

"A strike of Maslin, 35." Northorpe Ace., Aug. 2, 1730. 
The word is still used in West Somerset. See F. T. Elworthy, 
West Som. Word Book. 


MASONER. A mason. 

Them Smiths hes been maas'ners hereaboots for oher a hunderd year 
whativer moore. 

MASSY (mas-i). Mercy. See MARCY. 

MASSY 'PON US ALL, i.e., (Lord have) mercy upon us all; 
an exclamation of grief. 

MASTER. Husband. See MAISTER. 

MATLER. Match, form, similitude. 

Thaay're the very matter o' one anuther, as like as two peys. 
" One a' kill'd but yesterday an' its mattler the day afoor." Samuel 
Wills, The Lincolnshire Labourer. 

MATTER. An uncertain number. 

I doan't knaw how many ther' was, maaybe a matter of two scoare. 

MATTER, v.To like, to approve. 

" Steam cultivaators is all very well for th' hill-side, bud I matter 
'em noht for law-land." 1876. 

MATTERLESS, adj. Of no consequence. 

" It's matterless which waay you tak' th' watter, for be it how it maay 
my land is alust flooded." Burringham, Geo. Oates, December 10, 1875. 

MATTERS, NO. (i) Poorly, in bad condition of mind, body, 
or estate. 

A : " How's Mary to-day, John ? " 

13 : " Thank ye, m'm, she's nod matters. 1 ' 

(2) Few. 

A : " How are you off for gooseberries this year ? "_ 
B : We've nod matters, I niver seed so few." 

(3) No great matters, i.e., nothing out of the common way. 

Thaay've built a new chech at Borringham, bud it's nod great matters 
to look at. 

MATTLED, a**;. Mottled. 

MATTOCK. An instrument similar to a pick, but with one of 
its ends formed like an axe or adze, used for stubbing 
hedges and the roots of trees. 

MAUDLINS. A disease in the hoofs of horned cattle. 

MAUGER, MAUGRE,^/. In spite of. 

"Theiire's a right of waay by the Milner's Trod, and I'll goa by it 
when I want, manger the teath of all th' lords and squire's i' 
Linkisheer ." 1 853 . 

"William Tyrwhytt saed, nay, yt ys my rowme, and I wyll haue yt 
mawgry of thy hede." Lincolnsh. Star Chamber Proceedings, temp. Henry 
VIII., in Pro. Soc. Ant., second series, vol. iv., p. 321. 


" You haue got you a house and wife & children and all mattgre your 
father's heart." Bernard, Terence, p. 84 ; Cf. Twelfth Night, Act iii., 
sc. i ; Faerie Qnecne, iii. 5, vii., v. i., xxix., vi. 4 xl. ; Havdoh, 11. 1128, 

MAUL. (i) A heavy wooden mallet. 
(2) The mallow. 

MAUL, v. To beat, to bruise. 

He got agaate o' feightin' at th' Blew Bell at Scunthrup, an' th 
iron-stoane men maul'd him sorely. 


MAUNDER, v. To mutter, to complain with querulous 

" He's been maunderin' all the mornin' aboot sum'ats 'at happen'd 
twenty year sin'." Cf. Antiquary, ch. xxii. 

MAUNDRIL. A plug inserted in a hollow piece of wood, 
which has to be turned in a lathe, in order to connect it 
with the revolving part of the machine. See Notes and 
Queries, fifth series, vol. ix., p. 116. 

MAUNGE. The mange; a disease in dogs. 
MAUNGER. A manger. 

MAW (mau), v. To mow. 

" You'll hev to gie five shillin 1 a aacre for th' seads-cloase 
mawin." July, 1875. 

" Payd for mawyng of ]>e kerkgar]>es xvjd. and makyng of saym vijd." 
Circa 1520 ; Kirton-in-Lindsey Ch. Ace., p. 14. 

MAWK (mauk). A maggot. 

He looks as white as a mawk, said of anyone who is unhealthily 

She was that mucky she niver reightled oot her hair fra one 
munth end till anuther, an' e' them daays women wore poother, so e' 
summer-time it ewsed to get full o' grut hewge mawks. Cf. Icel., 
madkr, a maggot, a grub. 

MAWK-FLY. A blue-bottle fly. 

MAWKIN (mauk'in). A scarecrow ; an effigy of a man or 
woman, made of old clothes stuffed with straw, put up in 
fields to scare birds. 

He's moore like a mawkin then a man. November 7, 1874. 
" What thou luske dost thou thinke to fight with a mauhin that thou 
bringest it hither ? " Bernard, Terence, p. 150. 

MAWMY (maunri), adj. (i) Vapid, tasteless; applied to meat, 

fruit, &c. 

(2) Warm and damp, applied to the weather. 
It was that cloiis an 1 mawmy it maade me real badly. 


MAWPING (, adj. Moping, suffering from melan- 

MA WPS (maups). A silly person. 

MAY. The month of May, concerning which we have the 
following jingle : 

" A weet Maay 
Brings plenty o' corn 
An' plenty o' haay." 

MAY. May-flower. The blossom of the hawthorn. 
MAY BE. Perhaps. 

MAY DAY. Old May Day, i^ih May, on which day servants 
come to their places on the east side of the Trent. 

MAY DAY, v. To do the spring household cleaning, and often 
by a figure of speech to do any extra cleaning whatsoever. 

I can't begin to maaydaay th' cupboards oot to-daay for I've gotten 
my best frock on. M. G. W. P., May 13, 1887. 

I mun hev that there room maaydaayed oot, an' a fire in it ; its a shaame 
to be seen an' as weet as manner. October 8, 1887. 

MAY-HAPPEN. Perhaps. 

Maay-happen I shall goa to Garthrup o' Sunda', bud I'm not sewer. 

MAYING. (i) Playing at May-games (obsolescent). 

(2) Wheat is said to go a maying when the growing crop looks 
yellow about the middle of the month of May. 
Th 1 wheat's off a maayin? agean to-year I see. 1882. 
It's middle o' Jewne, bud I see that wheat o' thine e' th' Crawtree 
cloas is agaate o maayiti' yit." Yaddlethorpe, 1888. 

MAY-MONTH. The month of May. 

" Cohd, why it 's not near as cohd as it was last maay-munth." I 
have never heard this compound formed from the name of any other 

MAY-TREE. The hawthorn. 

MAZE, v. To frighten ; to astonish . 

" But summun 'ull come ater mea mayhap wi' is kittle o' steam 
Huzzin' an' madzin' the blessed fealds wi' th' Divil's oan team." 

Tennyson, Northern Farmer. 

MAZES (maiz-ez). Ox-eyes, large daisies. 

MAZZEN, MAZZEL (maz'n, maz-1), v. (i) To make dizzy; 
to stupefy. 

(2) To be half drunk. 


MEADOW. Grass land which is " laid in" for mowing as 
distinct from pasture. 

I gen'lins eats th' hoame cloas', but it's midda' to-year. 1886. 

MEADOW-CRAKE, MIDA'-CREAK. The corncrake. 

MEADOW-CRAKE-CUT-BOX. An old-fashioned machine 
for cutting fodder, worked by hand, which makes a noise 
which is thought to be like the cry of the corncrake. 

MEADOW SWEET. Spircea ulmaria. 

MEAGRIMS, Freaks, oddities. 
(2) Pain in the stomach. 

MEAL. (i) Flour, and more especially coarse flour. 

(2) The yield of milk from a cow given at one time. Milk is 
said to be two, three, or four meals old ; that is, two, three, 
or four half-days have passed since it was milked. The 
" pancheons " in which the milk is kept have each a chalk 
mark put on them every morning and evening, so that their 
age may be remembered. 

" Thaay do saay that Miss Metcalfe was that near while she kep' her 
milk foherteen meal ohd." William Smith, Ashby, 1855. 

MEAL-ARK. A meal-bin. 

MEALING. Taking meals. 

Thaay 're alus mealing i 1 that hoose. 

MEALY. Floury; said of potatoes. 

MEAN, adj. (i) Shabby; stingy. 

(2) Applied to food or drink of inferior quality. 
This tea's very mean, that is, weak and tasteless. 

MEAN, v. To be of value, worth, consideration. 

You maay get a few shillin's, bud you'll not get oht to mean onything 
oot on him. 

MEANING. Matter, consequence. 

Niver mind doiint truble thy sen aboot it, it maks no mean in' which 
awaays it is. 

MEANT (mi'h'nt). The meaning of. 

I seed a deal o' things belongin' to ships when I was at Hull last 
pottery fair, but what was th' meant o' most part on 'em I could n't 


MEAT. (i) Food. Cf. Psalm cxlv., v. 15. Prayer Bock 


(2) Bacon as distinguished from butcher's meat. 

(3) An ox or sheep when fit for the butcher is called meat. 

We may sell them six yohs as soon as ther's a chanch, thaay 're meat 
ony time. July 29, 1886. 

MEAT AND DRINK, phr.A pipe o' bacca's meat an' drink to 
me ony time. 

" Malis gaudet . . . It's meate and drinhe to him to do mischiefe." 
Bernard, Terence, p. 62. 

MEAT-BOARD. A board on which food is dressed. 

" On copbord, on meyt bord & a chair, vjs. viijd." Inventory of Ric. 
A llile of Scalth erop , 1551. 

MEDDLE NOR MAKE, pkr.I naayther meddle nor maake wi' 
chech consarns, i.e. t I do not interfere with them. 

" I'll not meddle nor make no further. He that will have a cake out 
of the wheat must needs tarry the grinding." Troilus and Cressida, 
i. j. 1. 14. 

MEED. Desert, reward, commonly in a bad sense. 

He's gotten sarved reight ; that was just the meed for him. 
It is used in a bad sense in Havelok 

" And he shal yelde )>e ]>i mede 
By crist J>at wolde on rode blede" 1. 2402. 

MEERE, MERE (meer). A mark or boundary of any kind 
between one person's land and another's, or between one 
manor, parish, or township and another. 

" Where a person knows his own land by meres or boundaries." 
Survey of Manor of Kirton-in-Lindsey, 1787. 

" Oh countrie clounes, your closes see you keepe 
With hedge and ditche, and marke your meade with means." 

Geo. Gascoigne, Fruites of Warre, 
ed. Chalmers, p. 24. 

MEERE BAUK. A strip of unploughed land between one 
property and another in an open field. 

"Of Richard Welborne for plowing vp the kings meere balk." 
Kirton-in-Lindsey, Fine Roll, 1630. 

MEEREFURROW, MARFUR. (i) A boundary furrow in 
an open field. 

(2) Now frequently used to signify the boundary fence between 
OLC property and another where the meerefurrow has been 
before the land was enclosed. 

Did I knaw W . . . P . . . ? I should think I did, an' a 
straange droll un he was an' all. He ewsed to do a bit o' butcherin' 
at A . . > an' was a loacal preacher. I remember very well one 


Setterda' neet him an' me bed been at th' Horn an' he'd hed moorethen 
he could hug, soa when he was gettin ootside he soon ton'd stupid, 
an' flops his sen doon e' a dikin nigh-hand th' foot-trod agean 
J . . R . . . 's marfnr. I was gooin' to chech next mornin' an' 
sees him liggin' theiire as fast asleep as oht. I wakkent him up an' he 
stares aroond for a bit, daazed like, an' then ax'd what o'clock it was. 
I says " omust eleven duz n't 'ta hear th' bells a gooin' ? " " The Devil 
it is, says he, " why I oht to be preachin' e' Yalthrup chappil at this 
very minit.'' 

MEERE STONE. A boundary-stone. 

" Thou shalt not remove thy neighbour's meerstone." Bullinger, 
Decades, Tr. H. I. (Parker Soc.) t iii., 230. 

"For iij bushells of wheat & rye, the wiche dyde growe to the 
churche by a forfeiture yt ys to wytte by the meayns yt an order was 
taken and made by the stuerd & ornage of this lordeshyppe yt who soo 
euer he wer yt dyde plowe & sowe his landds eny farther then to ye 
comon merestones, whether hit were in lenketh or brede he & they ytsoo 
dyd shulde forfett & loose the same corne and grayne what kynne 
soeuer hit bee, or hereafter may be and the cawsse was be cawse yt 
shulde not encrooche of the comon contrary to ryght & consyens ; for 
ye forfeture of wiche corne hit was agreed yt hit shulde be employed 
to the use of this churche." Churchwardens' Accounts of Stanford- in -the 
Vale, Berks., in The Antiquary, xvii., 119. Cf. Archtfologia, vol. xlii., 159. 

MEERESTOUP. A boundary post. 

TERY. The pansy ; Viola tricolor. 

MEG. An ugly or ill-dressed person. 

An ohd meg ! what's she cum here to-daay for ? Northorpe, 1837. 
She's th' ugliest ohd meg I iver seed ; I should tak her for a scarcraw 
if she was n't alus a singin' oot to th' lasses. Messin^ham, 1860 . 

MEGGIE. A moth. 

Iv'ry meg-ullat thinks her awn bubs best. 

MEK, v. To make. 

MELCH, adj. Mild, soft, damp ; used with regard to the 

Ther's a deal of foaks is badly an 1 its all thruf this mdch weather. 
We're hevin' a melch back-end, soa we shall hev a huncht spring. 

MELL. A mallet. See MULL-HEAD. 
MELL, v. To beat with a well. See BANKER. 

MELL A', adj. Mellow. Good and tender meat is spoken of 

as mella . 

That Scotch beast '11 mak' mella,' beaf when he's kill'd. 


MELL-HEAD. A very stupid person. 

Thoo's a straange mell-hcad, thoo taks noa noatice o' what fosiks says 
to the. 

" He's getten a head an' so hes a mell," is a common form of expressing 
contempt for one who is regarded as very dull or unintelligent. See 


MENAGERY. The whole taken together. 

He wrote it all doon, what he said, an' what she said, an' what thaay 
said, and what thaay hed for the'r suppers, and what thaay paaid, and 
the whoale menagery on it. 

MEN AND HORSES, phr.When soil is of a very good, rich 
nature it is said to be such fine land that it will grow 
men and horses, or nearly. 

MENSE. (i) Neatness, tidiness, order. 

It was a fam'ly wi'oot ony mense among th' whoale lot. 
He hes naather sense nor mense, said of an ignorant and slatternly 
person. Cf. " N. & Q.," vj. S., vol. vj., p. 474. 

(2) Freshness ; gloss. 

That black velvit coat o' mine '11 wear a long time yit, bud all th' 
mense hes goan off on it. 

MENSFUL, adj. Decent ; orderly. 

MERRY GO RpUND. A machine provided with seats which 
revolve horizontally, on which children ride at fairs and 
village feasts. 

MESLINS. Measles. 

MESS. (i) Dirt. 

What an a mess you've maade o' yer sen wi' plaayin' e' that theare 
mucky road. 

(2) Disorder. 

When iver I goa her hoose is alus in a mess, be it when it maay, 
mornin' or neet. 

(3) A large quantity of anything. 

He'd a big mess o' carrots last year, but thaay took badly this. 
41 I'll lay in your castle a fine mess of gold." 

A new song called Skewball, iSth cent. 

MESS ABOUT, v. (i) To do useless work, or useful work in 
a careless or inefficient manner. 

If Bill messes aboot e' this how among tonup sheap I shall paay him off. 


(2) To cause irritating delay. 

I wean't sell my 'taaties onny more to ohd . . . whativer he's a 
mind to bid. When he boht 'em two year sin he mess'd aboot that bad 
I thoht we should niver hev dun wi' him. 

MESSENGERS. Little clouds sailing below big ones ; thought 
to be a sign of rain. 

The messengers is cum'd agean soa we shall hev raain whativer th' 
glass maay saay. Owston, 1848. 

MESSMENT. A mess. 

Afoore th 1 trods was dug oot, when ther' was a heavy thunner shoor, 
th' watter ewst to run into th' chech an' mak' a straange messment. 
Bottesford, April 2, 1888. 

HESTER. (i) Master. 

(2) Husband. See MAISTER. 

METAL. (i) Cast iron. 

It's not iron, sir ; it's noht but a ohd peace of metal, said of the cast 
iron bottom of a fire-grate. 

(2) Material of any kind used for mending roads. 

MEW,/tf. t. Mowed. 

I mew th' gress afoore th' raain caame. This form occurs in 


MICH, adj. Much. 

I did n't knaw mich aboot it ; I was nobbut a lad then. See Mik in 
Havelok, 1. 2342. 

MIDA'. A meadow. 

"The common middow was lett for three years." Messingham Church 
Ace., 1736. 

MIDDEN. A dung heap. 

MIDDLE. The waist. 

She's strange an' thin e' th' middle ; braade o' me she'll be killin' her 
sen wi 1 tight laacin'. 

MIDDLE-POLE OF A WAGGON. The gear which attaches 
the hind to the fore-wheels. 



M : How art 'a to-daay ? 

N : Well I'm middlin', thenk you; that theare rewmatis hes goan 
wheare it cum'd fra I reckon. 

A labourer's wife on her death-bed was consoling herself by descanting 
on the fact that she had always been a good wife to her husband. The 
husband listened attentively for some time ; at length he shook his 
head and said solemnly, " middlinish, my lass, middlinish." 


(2) Not very well. 

M : How's Sarah Ann ? 

N : She's nobbut middlinish; she's alus agaate \vi' her cough. 

(3) To be nobbut in the middlins means to be in a poor way 
whether as regards health, condition, or circumstances. 

MIDSUMMER. The feasts at Thealby, Winterton, Crosby, 
Broughton, and other villages, which are held about mid- 
summer time, are called midsummers, not feasts. Going out 
into the village at this time is called, " going into the 
midsummer" or "going a midsummering ." 

" Midsummer thistles are better than Michaelmas hay," is a proverb 
meaning that the summer grass makes better hay than that of autumn . 

MIFF. A slight quarrel ; a tiff. 

MIFFLE, v. To shuffle. 

He miffles aboot so, a body duzn't knaw wheare you hev' him. 


Steers is a midlin price, but milk-beasts an' draapes is bad to sell. 

"To the wardens of the Church of Saint John aforesaid, iij. milch- 
bestes to kepe myn annyuersary or obit yerely." Will of Rob. North, 
alias Parsonage, of Hertford, 152.1. 

MILK-FACED. Shy; timorous. 

She was that milk-faacd she hardlin's dost speak to a man when she 
seed him, an' noo ther' is n't a braazender whore upo' Sheffield streats. 

"I shall be tame and timerous, 
That milk-faced mercy will come whimpering to me." 

H. H. Milman, Fazio, Act iij, sc. j. 

MILK-LEAD. A shallow leaden vessel for holding milk, with 
a hole in the centre, fitted with a plug having a long 
handle, so that the milk may be drawn off without dis- 
turbing the cream. 

MILKMAIDS. Cowslips. Winterton, May 14, 1883. 

MILKNESS. Whatever pertains to a dairy ; the furniture 
and management thereof. 

I can give her a good character for iverything, except she knaws 
noht aboot milkness. 

MILKS, Cows. 

John's gotten two real good milks to sell, but he wants a sight o' 
munny for 'em. 

"That noe man put any milhcs on the North Marsh, or in Humble 
Carre, but euery man of his owne." Gainsburgh Manor Records, 1601, 
in Stark's Hist., p. 92. 

MILK-SILE. A milk-strainer. 


MILL TAIL. The waste water from a water mill. 

MILN. A mill. 

There ewsed to be a wind-////7 agean th' Messingham watter-;//w, 
but she's been pull'd doon most o' fo'ty year. 

" Also theyr \vynde-mylne of Scotter afforsayd." Lease of Scatter 
Manor, 1537. cf - Icel - mylna, a mill. 

MILNER. A miller. 

MILN-POSTS, MILN-STOHPS, s. pl.(i) The posts on 
which a wooden mill is erected. 

(2) Very thick legs. 

She's gotten two straange miln-stohps on her awn sartanly. 

common fossil in the Lias, the gryphaa incurva. 

" 1696, April 10. I was with an old experienced fellow to-day, and I 
was shewing him several great stones, as we walked, full of petrifyd 
shell-fish such as are common at Brumbe [Brumby] ,&c. He sayd he 
believed that they grew i' th' stone, and that they were never fish. 
Then I ask'd him what they call'd 'em : he answer'd milner's thumbs, 
and adds that they are the excellentest things in the whole world, being 
burnt and beat in powder for a horses' sore back ; it cures them in two 
or three days. He says that there has carryers' men come out of 
Yorkshire to fetch the fish thither for the said purpose." Diary of 
Abraham de la Pryme (Surtees Soc.), p. 90. The belief that milner's 
thumbs and other fossils grew where they are found is still the prevalent 
opinion, though the theory that they were deposited where we find 
them by the universal deluge has its advocates. It is stated in 
Tennent's Ceylon, that the Arabs of former days, and the Chinese at 
the present, use fossil crustaceans, when made into a powder, as a specific 
for diseases of the eye. Vol. i., p. 14, n. 

(2) A hard boulder, somewhat flat in shape, and often of 
large size, found above the oolite. 

MILNER'S TROD, lit. MILLER'S PATH. A now disused 
bridle-path from Burton Stather to Brigg. 

MINCH, v. To mince. 

MINCH-PIE. A mince-pie. It is said that mince-pies and 
minch-pies are not quite the same. M inch-fits, we are told, 
have meat in their composition ; mince-pies have not. 

MIND. Inclination. 

I'm sleapy, I've a good mind to go to bed. 

MIND, inter/. Remember ! Take care ! 

Dinner's at noon, noo mind ! We sha'nt waait. 
Mind ! or you an' th' cart an' bosses will all be i 1 th' drean a-top on 
one anuther. 


MIND ON, v. (i) To remember. 

I hev n't sean him sin' 'at I mind on. 
(2) To bring to another's remembrance. 

He'd forgotten all aboot it till I minded him on. 

MING-MANG. Confusion. 

When I com' into th' hoose th' bairns hed ohersetten th' taable, an' 
plaates an" dishes, an' meat and beer was all brokken in a ming-mang up 
o' th' hearth-rug. 

MINIKIN, adj. Very small ; as minikin pins, the least kind of 
pins commonly sold. 

MINSTER-HOLD. Land held on lease of the Dean and 
Chapter of Lincoln. 

MISBEGOT. A bastard. Cf. Antiquary, chap. xiii. 

MISERY. Physical pain. 

I shall hev the old poany killed ; I can't bear to see him in misery. 

MISFIGURE, v.(i) To disfigure. 

(2) To disguise. 

" He may misfigure hissen next time as he likes, I shall knaw him." 
Ralf Skirhnigh, vol. iii., p. 99. 

MISFIT, v. To be unsuited to a position, place, or occupation. 
I can't saay as it's a bad plaace, but me an' my missis misfits badly. 
She married him for luv, foaks says, but thaay misfit one anuther 
finely noo. 

MISFITS, s. pi. Shoemakers' or tailors' unsuccessful pro- 

I shall send them boots by agean thaay 're real misfits. 

MISFORTUNE. An illegitimate child. 

She's hed a misfortune, poor lass, an' thaay do saay as th' faather 
wean't awn it. 

"One of our maids happened a misfortune." Southey's Letters, Ed. 
J. W. Warier, vol. iii., p. 457. 

MISLEST, v. To molest. 

You mun see 'at sum'ats is dun aboot Chafer's bull, he mishsts iv'ry 
thing. It was nobbut last Setterda' that he troad doon haaf George 
Todd wheat, an' to-daay he's scared a lot o' bairns soil as thaay durst 
n't goa doon the laane to th' school. 1885. 

Oh you must n't mislest Miss F . . . she's on Her Majesty's 
service. 1887. Cf. Notes and Queries, Seventh Series, vol. i., p. 34. 

MISLIKE, v. To dislike. 
MISRECKON, v.To miscalculate. 


MISS. A concubine. 

MISS, v. Not to grow, to fail ; said of crops. 

"The turnips have all missed." Memorandum by E, S. Peacock, 1826. 

MISSIS. (i) The mistress of a house. 

(2) A wife. 

If I'm not at hoatn my missis will show you what you want. 

MISS MYSEN. To make a mistake. 

I miss'd mysen sorely when Lord Yarbur caame, I thoht he was a man 
hawkin' pills, an' tell'd him to goa aboot his business, becos we wanted 
noht on him but to sea his back. 

MISS OF, MISS ON, v.To miss. 

I miss'd on him yisterdaay, though I look'd high an' low fer him. 
" My master is much concerned that he was so unhappy as to miss of 
seeing you." Susannah Wesley, 1709, in Peck's Axholme, p. 207. 

MISTAEN, //.Mistaken. 
MISTEACHED. Ignorant, vicious. 

MISTLETOE. A bunch of evergreens, generally formed on a 
hoop. It is suspended from the ceiling at Christmastide, 
decked with oranges and trinkets, and is used for the same 
purpose as the real mistletoe is in those parts of England 
where it can be readily procured. It is sometimes called a 
" kissing-bough." 

MITE. A very little of anything. 

Give me a little deary mite'o' saut. 

MITEY (meit'i), adj. Having mites in it ; said of cheese. 

MITTEN (mit'in). A thick leather glove, with one pouch for 
the thumb, and another for the four ringers; worn upon the 
left hand by workmen when plashing hedges. 
" E'en the poor hedger in the early morn, 
Chopping the pattering bushes hung with dew, 
Scarce lays his mitten on a branching thorn, 
But painful memory's banish'd thoughts in view, 
Remind him, when 'twas young, what happy days he knew." 

John Clare, The Village Minstrel. 

MITTS, s. pi. Gloves without fingers. See MITTEN. 

MIZZLE, v.--To drizzle. 

It's been mizzlm' all daay, but ther's been no waiter cum'd to signify. 

MOAKY. Dull, hazy ; said of the weather. 
MOANT. Must not. 


MOAT. A pond near an ancient residence. The moats which 
have surrounded old houses are always called moats, but the 
meaning of the word is extended so as to include fish- 
ponds, but only when of considerable antiquity. 

MOB-CAP. A woman's cap with coverings for the ears, and a 
lace or frilled border. 

MOCK-METHER-HAUVE. An exclamation used to horses, 
meaning, to the left (" This apparently unintelligible phrase 
is possibly due to " Mog, come hither half," i.e., move on). 
See MOG. Come to the nearer side, i.e t to the left ; if the 
driver be on that side, as seems to have been usual. In 
Surrey, they say, " Mother, woot," i.e., come hither, wilt 
thou (formerly wolt thou)." \V. W. S. 

MOCK ORANGE. Philadelphus coronarius. From the shape 
and perfume of the flowers bearing some resemblance to 
those of orange blossoms. 

MODERATE. Weak, of poor quality. 

To'nups '11 be very moderate to-year it's been soa dry. 1887. 
My wife's nobbut moderate thank ye ; she's omust alus th' rewmatis 
sumwheare or anuther. 

MOG, v. To move on. 

MOHD. A mould. 

Fo'st mohd can'les 'at I boht at this shop runn'd awaay all to noht, 
an' did n't bon ten minutes. 


I've catch'd mohds for you an' your faather better then thoty year. 
Crossby, 1865. 

We mun hev them mohdiwarps kill'd upo' th' beck bank. 1870. 
"William Hobson for catching moulds." Bottesford Farm Ace., 1812. 

MOHD, v. To catch moles. 

Rusling ewst to mohd fer me, but noo Lyon hes th' job. 
" To William Creasie when he tooke the field to moulde, vjd." 
Kirton-in-Lindsey Ch. Ace., 1633. 

MOHD-BOARD. The mold-board. The piece of wood abov 
the breast of a plough. 

MOHDER, i). To moulder ; to crumble. 
MOHD-HEAP. A mole-hill. 
MOHDS. Mold, earth, soil. 


MOIL, v. (i) To toil. 

He's alus moilin' among th 1 muck like a mohdiwarp. 
(2) To be fidgetty or restless. 

Theare's noa gettin' noa rest wi' him at neets ; he's tewin' an 1 
moilin' aboot for iver. 

which the baker forms his loaves. Cf. Mon. Ang., vol. v., 
p. 485. 

MOLLY-NOGGIN, pres. part. Haunting the company of loose 

MONEY. " He's noa moore of munny then a dog hes of a soul." 
A strong form of expressing an opinion of another's 

MONEY SPIDER. A small spider which sometimes drops 
from the ceiling on the heads of those below. When such 
an event happens, it is held to be a sign that money will 
shortly be left to the person on whose head the spider falls. 

MONKEY'S CUP. An excrescence, the upper surface of 
which is concave on the midrib of the leaf of a cabbage. 
Hardwick's Science Gossip, Aug., 1875, p. 189. 

MON'T, MUN'T, v. Must not.- 

MOO (moo). The bellow of an ox or cow. 


" A Setterda's moon, 

Cum it once in seven year, it cums too soon." 

Because it is believed that a Saturday's moon is the forerunner of a 
rainy week. 

It is a very good moon. That is, there is plenty of moonlight. 

MOON-EYED. Half blind, used with regard to horses. 

MOONLIGHT-FLIT. Leaving a house or farm by stealth, 
commonly in the night, to escape payment of rent. Cf. 
Athenaum, Oct. 13, 1866, p. 474. 

MOOSE (moos). A mouse. 

Oor caase clock wod n't goa do what we wod to her, soa I maade my 
sen sewer as sum'ats was brokken e' her inside, an' sends for Dick . . . 
to reightle her up. An' lawks i' me, when he took th' faace off, if ther' 
was n't a moose nest reight among all th' warks wi 1 foher yung 
uns in it. 

MOOSY, adj. Foggy. 


MOOTH (mooth). The mouth. 

" He oppens his mooth an' lets it saay what it likes," a remark made 
concerning a person who talks wildly, foolishly, or without due 

Them as gi'es noht gets noht ; you mun put it in at th 1 mooth if you 
want it to cum oot at th' pap. 

MOOZLES. A stupid person, one who is very slow. 

MOPHRODITE (mof-rudeit). (i) An hermaphrodite. 
(2) A waggon that can be converted into a cart. 

MOPPET, MOPSY. A term of endearment used to children. 

MOP-YARN. Coarse wool loosely spun into a thick soft cord 
for making mops. 

MORAL. Likeness. 

She's the very moral o' her faather boath in her looks and her speaks. 

MOREISH (moarr'ish), adj. Desiring more. 

I feel mooreish yit, I can tell ye; I've nobbut hed one plaateful. 

MORRIS-DANCERS, s. pi. Persons who perform rude plays ; 
now much the same as plough-jags, though formerly there 
seems to have been a clear distinction. 

MORTAL, adj. Used as an intensitive. 
I shall do it ony mortal how I can. 
He cam hoame drunk, an" brok iv'ry mo'tal thing e" th' room. 

MOSKER, v. To decay, to crumble. 

Th' ohd elmin-tree stump's all moskerin' awaay. 

MOSTLINS (moast-lins), adj. -Mostly, commonly. 

I moastlins goas to chech e' th' efternoon, an' to chapil at neet. 

MOT. The mark at which boys aim in playing at marbles, 
pitch-and-toss, quoits, &c. 

MOTHER (mudh-ur). A filament in beer, vinegar, or other 
such fluids. 

MOTHER BAIRN. (i) A child that resembles his mother. 

I ... 's a real muther bairn, he's just like her. 
(2) A spoilt child. 

MOTHER- WOOD. Southern wood. 
MOTTAL (mot-ul). Mortal (q.v.) 
MOTTER (mot-ur). (i) Mortar used in building. 
(2) A mortar for pounding. 


MOUSE-TRAP. " He hes n't sense enif to baait a moose-trap; 
i.e., he is very foolish. 

MOVE TO, v. (i) To bow ; to salute by an inclination of the 

Sutnbody in a gig moved to me, but I didn't knaw who it was. 

(2) To suggest. 

I'll move it to him th' next time I see him. 

MOW (rhymes with now). 

(1) Hay, or corn in the straw, deposited in a bay, or on an 
upper stage in a barn. 

(2) A raised stage in a barn, commonly with a room beneath 
it, in which threshed corn is kept. 

(3) Since large barns have gone out of use, junks (q.v.) of 
barley and oats are often called mows. 

MOYSED. Amased ; bewildered. See MAZE. 

MUCH MATTER, phr.A term of slight disapproval, or of 
indifference. Used with the negative only. 

Sum foaks says he's a good preacher, bud I doant much matter him. 
I doan't much matter hevin' to goa afoore th' Winterton magistraates 
on a soft earand like that. 

MUCH OF A MUCHNESS. Very much alike. 

Them two wheat cloases is much of a muchness, bud I think I like 
that alongside th' road best.Bottesford, August n, 1888. 

Emma an' Fanny's much on a muchness, noht to saay to onybody ; one 
wod think thaay'd niver spok to noabody bud the'r faather an' muther 
sin thaay was born. April 9, 1888. 

MUCK. (i) Mud. 

(2) Fold-yard or stable manure ; not artificial manure. 

(3) Anything obscene, disgraceful or disgusting. 

I doant let my bairns read sich muck as that ; th' Bible an' hymn- 
book is plenty for them, barrin' here an' theare a bit oot on a news- 
paaper on a Setterda' neet. This was said relative to some selections 
from Milton, which had been given to a child by the village 

A person offering prayer in a chapel said : We thank The for th' 
good sarmon 'at we've heard aboot herse-raacin' an' gamlin' an' sich 
muck, if I maay ewse sich an' a wo'd to Thee, Lord. 

(4) "As happy as pigs e' muck," means having one's fill of 
sensual pleasure. 

MUCK, IN. Not having the person or the house clean, 

When she's in her much she's varry mucky. 

Oh yes miss, I'm alus 'e my muck, bud I could n't be no comfor tablet', 


MUCK, v. To put fold-yard or stable manure upon land. 
MUCK-BING. A manure-stead, with a low wall around it. 
MUCK-CART. A manure cart. 
MUCK-CHEAP. Very cheap ; as cheap as dirt. 
MUCKENDER. A pocket-handkerchief. 

MUCK-FORK. (i) A manure fork. 

" Item spads and muk forks vijd." Inventory of John Nevil, of Falding- 
worth, 1553. 

(2) To " rain muck-ferks tines doon'ards," or, "to raain three- 
tined muck-ferks, 11 are superlatives of "to rain cats and 

Robert Burton uses the simile of " raining daggers with their points 
downward." Anat. Mel., 1652, p. 524. 

MUCK-HACK. One who does low, mean, or dirty work. 

I'm noht bud a muck-hack noo, whativer I maay hev been. Said by a 
woman who worked in a brick-yard. 

MUCK-HEAP. A dung-heap. 

MUCK-OUT, v. (i) To remove straw and dung from stables 
and cattle sheds. 

(2) Used sarcastically for cleaning rooms. 

When our mester goas fra hoam missis alus hes his sittin'-room 
muck'd oot ; an' it is a sight, you may depend ; bacca-ashes an' bits o' 
ohd paaper fra end to end, soa as you can hardlins see th' floor. 

MUCK-RIPE, adj. Over-ripe ; rotten ripe. 

MUCK-STEAD. A place where dirt, refuse, and manure are 

MUCK-SUTTLE. One who is very dirty or who likes doing 
dirty work. 

Ohd George an' William fell to arglin which on 'em hed feighed 
oot th' moast privies e' the'r time ; soa I tell'd 'em thaay was a cuple o' 
muck-suttles , an' thaay was to hohd the'r noises boath on 'em. 

MUC^-SWEAT. Extreme perspiration. 
I'm all in a muck-sweat. 

MUCKY. (i) Dirty. 

(2) Rainy. 

A real mucky haay-time, maasten 


(3) Weedy. 

Land's that mucky its noa good thinkin' aboot ony sweiides if them 
wicks is n't getten oot. 

(4) Shabby, dishonest. 

Ther' can't be a mucMev action then to goa an' ax for a farm awaay 
fra a wida' woman. 

MUD, v. Might, must. 

Thoo mud hev getten hoam afoore this ,time o' neet if thoo'd tried 

Cf. A. S. mot, the present tense of moste, which is our modern must. 

MUD-BLISTERS, MUD-FEVER, s. //.Blisters on horses' 
legs caused by the mud of the road adhering to them. 

MUDDER (mud-ur). Mother. 

Leave off cobblin' them ducks, or I'll tell thy mudder on thS. See 
bell-inscription, s.v. Gar. 

MUDDY, adj. Muddled ; thick ; said of beer or other such 

MUDFANG. (i) When two properties are divided from each 
other by a hedge only, without a ditch, the hedge has 
usually been planted at the extreme limit of one of the 
properties ; and in that case the owner of the hedge has a 
right to a mtidfang, if it be an old enclosure ; that is, 
a certain portion of land, usually two feet wide, in which 
the roots of the hedge grow. These mudfangs are rare 
except as the boundaries of gardens, or enclosures on dry 
land where ditches are not required. 

(2) The earth in which a hedge grows, and about two feet on 
each side, even when there is no division of property, is 
sometimes called a mud-fang. 

MUDN'T, MUN'T. Might not ; must not. 
Mester said we mudn't smooke e' th' stack-yard. 
You mun't be oot efter ten o'clock, mind that. Cf. MUD. 

MUFFLE. A bunch of feathers under a hen's throat. 

MUGGY, adj. Damp, close ; applied to the weather. 

11 On warm days, however, and particularly in what is called muggy 
hot weather." Abel Ingpen, Instruc. for Collecting Insects, 1839, p. 36. 

MULDER (muld-ur), v. To moulder, to crumble. See 


MULL, MULLY, interj.-The call for cows, oxen, or calves. 
" That rural call ' Come mulls ! come mulls I ' 

From distant pasture-grounds, 
All noises now to silence lulls.'' 

John Clare, Evening. 


MULLY CALF. A child's name for a calf. 
MULLOCK. Rubbish, trash, "kelter" (q.v.) 
MUMPER. One who begs alms on St. Thomas's Day. 

MUMPING WHEAT. Wheat given in alms on St. Thomas's 

MUN (lit. man). A comrade ; a companion ; used in addressing 
both sexes. 

Sitha mun, duz ta sea them wild geese ? 
I tell the mun he's been dead this eaght year ! 

The A. S. man is like homo, of either gender. Thus we find to J>am 
untruman men ge-eode, ad languentem fceminam intraret." Beda. v. 3, 
W. W. S. 

MUN, V. Must. 

Thoo mun do as I tell the. 

" I wene that we deye mone 
For hunger." 

Havelok, 1. 840. 

"'Slid, a gentleman mun show himself like a gentleman." Ben. 
Jonson, Every Man in His Humour, Act i., sc. i. 
Cf. Icel. mun, must. 

MURN, v. To mourn. 
MURNING. Mourning. 

MURPHY. A kind of potato now extinct, or called by another 
name. Murphy, as a^ general name for the potato, is 
sometimes, though rarely, heard. It is probably modern 
slang introduced by Irish workmen. 

MURTHER (murdh-ur). Murder. 

" A method for banishing . . . self murther out of the kingdom." 
John Wesley, circa 1790, in Notes and Queries, Fourth Series, vol. xii., p. 
126. A. S. mordor. 

MUSH, v. To crush. 

Messingham gravil is n't wo'th noht ; it mushes to muck th' fo'st time 
a heavy load goas oher it. 

MUSHAROOM. A mushroom. 

MUSICIANER. A musician. Cf. Archaologia, vol. xv., p. 159. 

MUSIC, PIECE OF. A musical instrument. 

I thoht that cabinet yvi' gilt on it was a peace 0} music afoore you 
oppened it. August 28, 1876. 

MUST. May. 

Must I goa oot wi' Jaane, muther ; we'll be back e' time to get tea 


MUST NA. Must not. 

MUTTON. A sheep. 

Muttons is higher this Laady Daay then iver I knawd 'em. 

MUTTON, LOOK AT YOUR TAIL. A phrase used in 
scolding a dog ; probably in allusion to the offence of sheep- 

MY DEARY ME, MY DEAREST A ME, /An Exclamations 
of surprise and annoyance. 

My deary me here's Maason's bill cum'd in, an' it's poonds moore then 
I was ware on. 

I was at ... e' th' West Ridin' o' Yorkshire, last 22nd o' Jewne, 
an* my dearest a me, how the foilks do drink. 

MYSEN. Myself. 

MY SOW'S PIGGED. A game at cards. 



NAAITHER. Neither. 

NABBOCKIN'. Small corners of land left by a newly made 
railway, road, or drain which has been carried across 

You'll hev to mak them raailwaay foaks tak to them theare bits o' 
nabbockin's, thaay '11 be to noil mander o' ewse to you noo. 

NAB, v. To catch. 

NACKER. A drum. 

" Pipes, trompes, nakeres, and clariounes." Chaucer, Knightes Tale, 
1. 2513. 

Cf. Dufresne, Gloss. Nacara. 



NAIL, v. To catch in the act. Perhaps slang. 

NAIL-PASSER. A gimlet or pricker. 

NAILS. " I hear that cart's on thenails" is a common remark. 
It refers to the noise made by a particular jolt given by a 
cart in frosty weather, when the whole wheel does not bite 
the ground, but only the large-headed nails with which the 
several lengths of the tire are fastened. Now that tires 
are manufactured all in one piece this expression will die out. 

NAME. Children do not respond readily to " what is your 
name?" except when the question occurs in the catachism. 
If you ask for information in that manner they will commonly 
remain silent and look puzzled, whereas " what do they call 
you ? " will at once draw forth a reply. 

NAME, v. To baptize. 

Oor Mary has been naamt, bud we've not hed her christen'd yit, i.e., 
Mary has been privately baptized, but not as yet received into the 
congregation. The term is applied both to public and private baptism. 

NAN BERRY. An Anbury, i.e., a spongy wart on horses and 
oxen. See Anbury in Murray's Diet. 


NANGNAIL. (i) An agnail; that is a partly detached piece 
of skin beside the finger nails, which gives pain. 

(2) A corn ; a bunion. 

Th~re is a black resinous ointment largely sold under the name of 
Nangnail salve for the cure of corns. See Murray's Diet., Agnail. 


NAPERY. Bed-linen, table-linen, linen in the web. 

" N apery and beddynge sufficient for theyr lodginge." Lease of Manor 
of Scatter, 1537. 

NAPRON. An apron (obsolete). 

In the sixth year of Edward VI., Isabella, the wife of John Alkok, 
was proceeded against in the Court of the Lord of the Manor of 
Kirton-in-Lindsey for stealing "inapron.'' Court Roll. See Apron in 
Murray's Diet. 

NAR, adj.-(i) Near. 

It's agean Skippendaales, or very nar. 
(2) The left side of animals and vehicles. 

A hoss we was a gettin' ready for Ho'den brok his nar fore-leg. 
" I marked my sheepe ... on the nan sholder." Adam Eyre's 
Diary (Surtees Soc.), p. 113. 

NAR-SIDE. The near side (q.v.) 

NASTY, adj. Ill-tempered. 

I sent my fooreman oher to meat him at Doncaster last Setterda', 
but he was that nasty I could mak noht on him. August i, 1888. 

NATE, adj. Neat. 

NAT'LY (naHi),0^., lit. Naturally; really, certainly, without 

I'm nat'ly stall'd wi 1 talkin' to them two ; th' ohd un's craazy, or next 
door tul it, an' tuther tells noht but lees. 
I'm not bet wi' it, but I nat'ly can't do it. 


Noabody but a real nat'ral would hev dun sich an' a thing. 
" He is a natural foole, neither hath he any lustinesse, activity, or 
spirit in him." Bernard, Terence, p. 171. 

NAT (nat). A mat. Cf. Archaowgia, vol. xli., p. 353. Raine, 
Hist, of North Durham, p. 177. 

NATTER (nat-ur), v. To worry ; to tease, 
NATTY, adj. Neat. 


NATUR' lit. nature. (i) The sap of vegetables. 

We mun begin harvist e' Popple Cloas' to-morra 1 ; all th' naatur's 
gone fra th 1 stroa. 

(2) The nourishing property in food. 

This here meat's been boil'd till all th' natures goan oot on it. 

NAUP. (i) The head. 

(2) A blow on the head. 

(3) A hillock. 

Th' road ewsed to goa up i' a naup agean Franky Quickfall hoose. 

NAUPHEAD. A stupid person. 

Ned Woodhouse said to a man who had cheated him about a cow, 
I nivver mind bein' suck'd in wi' a clever chap, bud to be dun by a 
nauphedd like thoo, is oher bad for oht. 

NAUPINS, s. //.Perquisites. 

Bill's gotten fo'ty pund a year an' naupins, soa he's not badly off. 

NAUTHER (naudh-ur). Neither. 

NAVE, NAFF. The nave of a wheel of a cart or waggon. 
There are twelve holes in it for the spokes. If it be a light 
wheel, there are fourteen spoke-holes. 

NAY BUT, NAY THEN. Exclamations of surprise. 

NAY; NAY SURELY. Surely not. An exclamation of 
surprise, coupled with sorrow or anger. 

He'll be to'n'd oot'n his plaace all thriff that theare gaame-keaper. 

Naay sewerly. 

NAY-SAY. Contradiction. 

I shall hev it dun, soa ther' nead n't be noa moore naay-saay aboot it. 

NAZZLE. A low, mean, insignificant, vulgar fellow. 

NAZZLY, adj. Low, mean, insignificant. 

You've th 1 advantige oher me wi' yer ashfeltin' bein' e* th' shaade. 
Yisterdaay when th' sun was oot atwean twelve an 1 one o'clock them 
nazzly childer, thaay cum an' brogged a duzen hoales e' oor causey if 
thaay maade one. 

NEAP. Low water. 

" Ships of over 500 tons register can come to Sutton Bridge at dead 
neap." White, Line. Directory, 1882, p. 750. 

There is a farm house adjoining the Trent, near Flixborough Stather, 
called Neap House. 

NEAR. The kidney of an animal. Cf. Icel. nyru } G. 


NEAR, adj. Stingy, miserly, mean. 

He's that near he'll hardlins part wi' his noase droppin's. 
She's soa near she watches iv'ry moothful one eats, as if iv'ry bite 
and sup was a fo't'n. 

NEAR, adv. " Ax near, sell dear;" that is, ask near the value 
of a thing at once, not far too much, if you would sell 
dearly. A miller is said to grind near when he grinds 
among the flour all the bran he can. 

NEAR BY. Near to. 

He lives near by th' Calvin capil, a bit o' this side. 

NEAR-END. The near-end of a loin of veal is the part next 
the kidneys. See NEAR. 

NEAR-FAT. The fat about the kidneys. See Near. 

NEAR-HAND,/^/. Nigh unto. 

Doa'nt thoo go near-hand Ned, he's gotten th' itch. 

NEAR-SIDE. The left side. 

" It was the near-side fore-wheel which ran over the woman." Affid, 
of James Fowler, Beauchamp v. Winn, 1867. 

NEAT AS A NEW PIN, phr.Very neat. 

NEAT-HERD. One who has the care of horned cattle 

" Elegerunt etiam Nich. Cakwell ad serviendum in officio de le 
netterd & swineherd." Bottesford Manor Records, 1616. 

NEAT'S-FOOT-OIL. Oil made from the feet of calves or 

" A rundyll off neytt oyl " was among the goods of Robert Abraham, a 
Kirton-in-Lindsey shopkeeper, who took his own life in 1520. Manor 
Roll, sub ann. 

" A bruise . . . rub it with one spoonful of oil of turpentine and 
two oineats-foot-oil." John Wesley, Primitive Physic, 1755, p. 35. 

NEB. (i) The bill of a bird. 

(2) The part of a scythe which the mower takes hold of. 

(3) The human nose is sometimes sarcastically called the neb. 

NECESSARY. A privy. 

An old woman, whose landlord had added an out-house to her cottage, 
said, " I doan't knaw what thaay've built me a necessary for ; I've shitten 
at random all my life." Cf. Sixth Report of Dep, Keeper of Public Records, 
app. ii., p. 142. 

NECK, v. (i) To drink, to swallow. 

He neck'd a good share o' beer that neet o' th' jewbilee. 
(2) Barley is said to neck when the heads fall off from being 
too ripe before it is cut. 


NECK AND CROP. Head over heels. 

My ohd woman fell neck and crop doon th' stee e' th' parlour pantry. 

NECK-HOLE. (i) The back of the neck. 

If I was to walk to Willerton across th' cloases a daay like this I 
should be weet up to th' neck hodle. 

(2) That part of the opening in a garment which surrounds 
the neck. 

NECK OF, ON THE." One bad job alus falls on th' neck of 
anuther," is a common saying when misfortunes follow 
each other quickly. 

" One mischief in necke of another." Bernard, Terence, p. 164. 

NECK TOWEL. A small cloth used for drying crockery. 

NEEDLE. Things are said to be sewn with " a hot needle and 
burnt thread " when the work is badly done or the thread 

NEEDLES. Scandix Pecten, A weed with sharp needle-like 
seed-pods, which grows among corn. 

NE'ER DO WEEL. A good for nothing person. Cf. Hist. 
MSS. Com. Rep. v., p. 392. 

NEET (neet). Night. 

NEGLECTFUL, adj. Negligent. 

"Did you ever see anything in such a neglectful condition'} "--Mabel 
Heron, vol. i., p. 24. 

"Amongst the agreeable productions of Blois it would be neglectful 
not to name its pears." Louisa Stuart Costello, A Summer Amongst the 
Bocages and the Vines, 1840, vol. ii., p. 223. 

NEMONY. An amemone. 

NEP, v. (i) A horse is said to nep when he makes a slight 
noise by clashing his teeth together. 

(2) Also when he makes a similar noise while biting another 
horse's back. 

NESH, adj. Delicate ; tender ; coddling. 

She's a sight oher nesh aboot her sen, scarcelins soa much as gt>as to 
th' ash-hoale wi' oot her bonnet on. 

NESP, v. To knap ; to bite (rare). 

Th' dog nesp'd hph'd 9' th' rat as it run roond th' hoose corner. 


NESS. A promontory; a projecting point of land running out 
into the Trent or Humber. There is a village on the eastern 
bank of the Trent, nearly opposite Keadby, the proper name 
of which is Gunness. This place has, in recent days, 
frequently been written and printed Gunhouse. A person 
once informed the author's father that " Gunhouse got its 
name from the Danes having lodged their guns there," a 
guess not more absurd than many derivations of place- 
names which appear in topographical literature. 

11 Between Trent Fall and Witten-;^ss 
Many are made widdows and fatherless." 

Diary of Abraham de la Pvyme (Surtees Soc.), p. 139. 
" He would likely gallop like mad down the warps to the ness." 
Ralf Skirlaugh, vol. ii., p. 87, 

NEST. A collection of things, such as boxes, counters, or 
weights, one fitting within another. For a notice of a nest 
of coffins made at Gainsburgh see the author's English Church 
Furniture, p. 186, and Stark's Hist, of Gains., p. 471. 

NEST-EGG. The egg which is left by the gatherer in a nest 
to hinder the bird from forsaking it. A lump of chalk cut 
into the form of an egg is sometimes used for this purpose. 
Imitation eggs of earthenware are also employed. 

NESTLING. The smallest bird of a brood. 

NETTING. (i) Stale urine. It was formerly preserved in 
large jars, to be used in washing coarse clothes. It was 
believed to make the water soft. 

(2) Nets for folding sheep. 

NETTLE, v. To irritate. 

" I nettle the fellow now." Bernard, Terence, p. 114. 

NETTLE IN, DOCK OUT. Proverb, i.e., the juice of the 
dock is believed to be a specific for the sting of the nettle. 
1 But canst thou plaien raket to and fro, 
Nettle in, dock out, now this, now that.' 

Chaucer. Troilus, iv. 

NEVER HEED, phr. Never mind ; do not take any notice. 
NEVY (nevi). Nephew. 

NEW-BAA'D-COO. A cow which has recently had a calf. 
NEWS. Gossip. 

NEWSING. Gossipping. 

She niver sticks to her wark, she's oher fond o* newsin' for that. 


NEWSNER, i.e., nuisancer, inspector of nuisances. 

Th' neivsner's alust a-cumin' an rowtin' aboot wheare foaks duz n't 
want him, just as if that wo'd do ony good. Feavers wo'd n't cum if 
thaay was n't sent. 

NEWSY (neuz'i) adj. Fond of gossip. 

She's th' newsiest carry-taale e' all Waddingham ; I doan't care who 
t* uther is. 

NEWT. A lizard. Proverb, " As sick as a newt" 

NEXT DOOR. (i) Almost, similar. 

If it is n't cancer it's wo'st soort o' tumour, an' that's next door to it. 
(2) On the verge of. 

I knaw thoo's next door to liquidaatin' an' I'll hev' my munny 
whether or no. 

NIBBLER. A miserly person. 

NIBBS. The wooden handles fixed in the shaft of a scythe. 

NICK. The devil. 

NICKER. The short imperfectly sounded neigh of a horse. 
Also as a verb to neigh slightly. 

" I'll gie thee a' these milk-white steeds, 
That prance and nicker at a speir." 

Johnnie Armstrong in Scott's Border Min. 
Ed. 1861, i., 408. Cf. Monastery ch., 53. 

NICKING. A cruel operation performed on a horse's tail to 
make the animal carry it gracefully. Blane, Outlines of 
Veterinary Art, Ed. ii., p. 602. See note on Nicked in Introd. 
to Glos., B. 15 (E.D.S.), p. xviij. 

NICK OF TIME. The exact time ; just in time. 
NIDIOT. An idiot. 

He's sich 'n a nidiot as I niver heard tell on i' all my born daays. 
This is an instance of the n of the article becoming joined to a 
following vowel. 

Sir Thomas More remarked of a foolish thing that "a very nodypool 
nydyote myght be ashamed to say it." Workes, 1557, p. 709. 

Tusser has " a nads" for an adze. Good Husbandrie (E.D.S.), p. 36. 

" A nold mylne " occurs in Monastican Anglic., vol. iv., p. 520, i. 

"Anauter cloth," in Stratton, Cornwall Church Ace., 1558, and "a nell 
of fuschian '' in Archaologia, vol.'xxv., p. 507. Many other examples 
might be given. 

NIGGLE. To hack ; to notch. 

Ned, you're nigglin* that theare meat a shaame to be seen. 
" She doth not wish you to looke how she hath nigled her throat," 
Epworth, i7th cent, in Add. MSS., 31028, fol. 16. 

370 MAtfLfiY Attt) CORRlrtGHAM WORDS. 

NIGH-HAND, adv. Nearly. 

It's nigh-hand time to go to bed. See NEAR-HAND. 

NIGHT. The time to leave off work. 

We'll drop it maates, it's goan six, it's neet. Crossby, July, 1865. 

NIGHT, LOOKING FOR. An idle workman is said to spend 
his time looking for night. 

Well, he was honist, I will saay that of him as is dead an' goan, bud 
no sooner did I start him on his wark than he begun looking for neet, an' 
he fun it sooner then uther foaks an' all, for if I did n't see efter him he 
wod slot off hoam by foher o'clock. 

NIGHT-RIPENED, adj. Corn that is blighted, or has died 
before the ears have become filled is said to be night-ripened. 

NIGHT-STALKER. Night-walker (obsolete). 

" The night-walker [is] he that sleepeth by day and walketh by 
night." Will. Sheppard, Court-keeper's Guide, 1650, 48. These persons 
were subject to a fine at the court of the manor. 

" Wilelmus Helyfield, Wilelmus Chapman, sunt communes nyght- 
stalkers, tempore incongruo." Kirton-in-Lindsey Manor Records, 1492. 
Cf. Middlesex County Records, vol. i., p. 135. 


He's a poulcher or sum'ats as is warse ; he's alus oot at a night-time 
when honist foaks is e' bed. 

NIM. (i) A very slow trot. 

(2) The motion of a nurse's knee in rocking an infant thereon. 
" My lady goes to London, nim, nim, nim ; 
Gentlemen follow after, trot, trot, trot ; 
Baby goes gallopy, gallopy, gallop." 

Song of a mother nursing her infant. While the first line is being 
said, she moves very slowly, rather more rapidly at the second, and 
very fast at the third. 

NINCH. An inch. See NIDIOT. 

She wo'd n't sell me so much as a ninch o' taape. 

NINE-BOB-SQUARE, adj. Of very irregular form, much 
out of shape. 

NINE-CORNS. A very small quantity of tobacco, about as 
much as half fills the bowl of a pipe. 

NINE-MEALS. A very long fork, for lifting up sheaves or 
bats to the top of a stack. 

NINE -PENCE -TO -THE -SHILLING, phr. Below the 
average in common sense. 

How's Mr. . . . ? Thaay do saay as he's nobut nine-pence-to- 
^M.. F,, Scotton, 1876. 



" Cram all the ninny-hammers gullets with pills as big as pistol bullets." 
A Poetical Petition agaiust Tractorizing Trumpery ... by Christopher 
Caustic, 1803, p. 89. 

NIP. A little bit or pinch of anything. 

You mun put a nip o' salt in, Mary, to bring oot th' taaste. 
Gie me a nip o' 'bacca, I ha'n't noan e' my box. 

NIP, v. (i) To slip through quickly ; to do anything stealthily, 
but with rapid motion. 

Th' foal nipp'd thrif th' yaate on us afoore we was aware. July 
i, 1875- 
(2) To pinch, to twitch. 

Please, sir, Bill's been a nippin' an 1 luggin' me. 

Th 1 band that tied it up hes nipp'd that tulip tree till its dead. 

NIP OFF, v. To run off quickly. 

Noo then, nip off an fetch yon hoss. Brumby, June 22, 1876. 

NIP UP, v. To snatch up. 

He nipp'd up his hat an' went his waay afoore I could speak. 

NIPPED, pp. Griped or otherwise uneasy in the bowels. 

A local preacher in the chapel at Normanby once said in the middle 
of his discourse, " You mun excuse me a bit, if ye please, my friends, 
I feal raatherly nipped." 

NIPPER. Something very good or excellent. 

That shire-bred mare o 1 yours is a nipper an' noa mistaake ; I wodn't 
part fra her at noht if she was mine. 

NIPPING. Miserly. 

Well, he was n't a bad soort on a man, bud nippin' ye knaws, real 

NIPPY, adj.(i) Active ; merry ; cheerful. 

Ohd Mrs. M ... is a wunderful ohd laady, she's oher ninety, 
an' as nippy as onything. 

(2) Miserly. 

He's a nippy ohd skin-flint. 

NIST (neist) adj. Nice. 

A ; " Thoo's gotten a straange nist bairn this time, Sarah." 
Z : " Why, what's th' matter wi' ony o' th' tuthers." 
A ; " Nah ! noht lass ; bud th' last as hes cum'd is alus th' eyeableist 
at fost like." 

NISTLY (niesfli), adv. Nicely. 

She duz her patch-work nistly for a little bairn, 

NIT, A louse, 


NIT, AS DEAD AS NITS. Quite dead. 

" It was the packman ; his box behind him ; his face smashed in, and 
as dead as nits." Laurence Cheny, Ruth and Gabriel, j. 27. 

NOA, NOAH (noa-h). No. 

A " foreigner " once denounced to a native the people of these parts 
for their extreme ignorance of Holy Scripture. The native replied : 
" The first three persons I meet will certainly answer correctly a 
question I will ask out of the book of Genesis." A bet was laid on the 
subject, and the two friends sallied forth to look for objects on whom 
to try the experiment. They encountered in succession, an old man, a 
middle-aged woman, and a child. The native asked of each if they 
knew " what was the name of the man who was saved in the ark when 
the world was drowned." In each instance the reply was " Noah, sir," 
so the " foreigner " lost his bet. 

NOAH'S ARK, TOMMY BOD'S ARK. Clouds elliptically 

parted into small, wave-like forms. If the end point to the 

sun, it is a sign of rain ; if contrary to the sun, of fine 

weather ; if across the wind it is also a sign of rain or wind. 

"As oft from Noah's ark great floods descend." 

John Clare, The Woodman. 

NOAN, adj. (i) None. 

Child: " Mother's sent to ax if you'll be soa good as to lend her six 

Farmer's Wife : " Tell her as I'm very sorry, bud I hev'n't nodn. I've 
sent ivery one to Brigg by th' carrier." 

(2) adv. Not. 

Speak! You'll nodn get him to speak if helduz n't want. He can 
mak hissen as awk'ard as a pump wi' a bad sucker when he likes. 

NOB, NOBBY. (i) A child's name for a foal. 

(2) The call for a foal. 

(3) The head. 

I'll crack thee nob for thee. 

NOBBING. Drinking with a companion. 

NOBBLE, v. To hit on the head with a club or thick stick. 

NOBUT, NOBBUT (nob-ut), NOBBERD, adv.-(i) Only 
(lit. not but). 

What ar 1 ta' say in' as Jack Black's gotten twenty childer for when 
thoo knaws he's nobbut tho'teen yit. 

He's nobberd haaf rocked, poor chap ; he can't do noa better for his 
sen, an' that's a fact. 

" You nobut waait while I get oot on a staate o'graace agean, an' I'll let 
ye see." Said by a man newly brought in at chapel to a neighbour 
who had insulted him. 

(2) If, if but. 

He said he'd cum nobud it kep' fair, 


NOD DEN, v. To knead bread (obsolescent), said to be 
common in the West Riding of Yorkshire. [In Mid- 
Yorkshire nodden is used as the past part, of the verb to 

NODDIPOL, v. A silly person. 

" Whorson nodipol that I am." Bernard, Terence, 43. See NIDIOT, 


NODDY. A fool. 

"They'll call us all a pack of noddies." S. Taylor, Reynard the 
Fox, 69. 

NOG. The small piece of wood which fits into the hole in 
the axle-tree of a wheel through which the linch-pin is 
drawn out. 

NOGGIN. (i) A lump. 

Put a noggin o' coal upo' th' fire. 
(2) A mug. 

NOG-HESP. The catch which fastens the nog into the axle- 
tree of a wheel. See NOG. 

NOHT, A. (i) Something quite worthless. 
It's a noht, chuck it up o' th' fire. 

(2) An evil or worthless person. 

I alus thoht he'd t'on oot a noht, an' I hev n't been mistaa'en. 
A drunken shackbag, a real noht. 

NOHT. Nothing. . 

She was sittin' by th' fire doin' noht. 

A carrier who wished to be humorous sent the following message to 
one of his customers : " Tell yer missis I've broht her noht this time, 
soa if she'll nobbut paay ready munny I'll do it for half price. 

NOHT. " That that's noht's niver e' daanger," a proverb used 
when a worthless person is prosperous, or a worthless thing 
escapes destruction. 

He went reight thrif th' Crimea war, an' th' mutiny e' th' Indies, wi' 
oot soa much as a scrat on him, soa I says whenhe cums hoame, says 
I, that 'at 's noht's niver e' daanger. 

I've hed this here crack'd baasin iver sin' I was a gell, an' it wer my 
gran'muther's afoore it wer mine ; that 'at's noht's niver e' daanger, 
thoo sees. 

NOHT. Evil. 

I'd a dream last neet, an' I says to my ohd lass when I wakken'd, that 
means sum'ats a cumin on 'at's noht, I am sewer o' that. 


NOHT A DEAL. Not much. 

Master : " What have you being doing to-day ?" 
Foreman : " Why noht a deal, it's rain'd oher hard. 

NOHT 'ATS OHT. Not of any value. 
Fling it upo' th' fire, it's noht 'at's oht. 

NOHT O' ALL NOHT'S. A person who is utterly worthless 
and depraved. 

Him a preacher ! a real noht o' all nohts like him ! Why he's not 
conduct to keap a Tom-an'-Jerry. August 23, 1876. 

NOHT O' TH' SOORT. Nothing of the kind. 

I niver said noht o' th' soort e' all my life. 

NOHT TO NAIL TO. Feeble, weak, infirm, in declining 

Noa, I doan't get noa better. You see, I've noht to naail to. 
The doctor said, if he'd hed a good constitution he could hev reighted 
him up, bud you sea he'd drunk soa hard, ther' was noht to naail to. 

NOISE, TO MAKE. To scold. 

He's alus makiri a noise aboot sum'at ; you should nobbut hev 
heard him 'cos he could n't find th' kerk-screw. He said he'd a drawer 
full on "em, and sumbody hed hidden 'd 'em all. 

NOISING, NOISING ABOUT. Making a noise. 

" Rook, crow and jackdaw noising loud." 

John Clare, Shepherd's Calendar,^ p. 4. 

" I doan't like Drewry's Raw an' th' Skreeds, ther's alus sich an a 
many bairns noisin' aboot." Ashby, 1885. 

NOM. See NUM. 

NO MAN'S FRIEND. Two almost circular loops which 
formerly existed in the course of the river Trent, in the 
parish of Lea. The river broke through the more northern 
one in 1792. In 1795, an engraver, of the name of Gurnill, 
who lived at Gainsburgh, published a. map of these loops. 
Copies exist which present variations from each other. 
All are very rare. The one now before me is entitled, 
" A draft of the two remarkable rounds in the river Trent, 
near Bole and Burton, Nottinghamshire." 

NO MAN'S LAND. Small portions of land that have not an 

" In other cases little odds and ends of unused land remained, which 
from time immemorial were called no man's land, or any one's land, or 
Jack's land, as the case might be." Seebohm, Eng. VilL Community, p. 6. 

In a charter of Withlaf, King of the Mercians, to Croyland Abbey, 
dated on the feast of St. Augustine, " apostoli nostrae gentis," 833, 
mention is made of " crux lapidea distans a namanlandhirne per quinque 
perticatas." Birch, Cartulariuin Saxonicitm, i., 568. This document is, 
however, either a mediaeval forgery [or a genuine charter, the text of 
which has been tampered with, 


Stowe, the chronicler, mentions a place near the battle-field of 
Towton called " No Man's Lande," p. 413, as quoted in Archaologia, 
xxi:;., 344, n. 

At Thorington, Suffolk, there is a cottage called Nowhere House built 
on a piece of ground which was formerly extra-parochial. See Hill, 
Registers of Thorington, p. 49. 

NO MATTERS. Unwell, poorly. 

Aunt : 
Niece : 
A unt : 
Niece : 

How's thy muther ? " 

Thank you, she : s nod matters." 

Hev you sent for th' doctor yit ? " 

Noa; she's nobbut e' th' ohd waay, noht warse then 

NO-NATION-PLACE. A place that is lonely, difficult of 
access, or far away. 

I'd sooner go to Gaainsbr' Ewnion then let mysen to live in a no-naation- 
plaace like that. 

NONSENSE. Anything that the speaker strongly disapproves 
of, though by no means nonsense in the strict meaning of 
the word. 

Noo then, you'll cum awaay, I'll hev noa nonsense atween you an" a 
trolloppin' lass like that. 

I'll hev noa moore nonsense wi ye ; you'll paay me th' munny this 
very daay, or I'll law ye for it. 

NONE-SO-PRETTY. Saxifrage. 

NO-NOHTLY. Worthless, evil. 

I alus knew he was a no-nohtly soort on a man, bud I did n't think 
he'd hev been up to a trick like this here. 

NOO. Now. See Now AND AGAIN. 

NOODLE. A foolish person. 

If you talk in that waay, Tom, iv'rybody will think you 're a noodle. 

NOOK. A corner, now only used in place-names as 

a place where the Manor of Kirton-in-Lindsey abuts on 
Risby and Appleby ; Black-walk-wo0, a place where the 
townships of Scotter, Manton, and Cleatham join. 

NOOKINS, s. pi. The corners of a stack. 
NOPE. A blow on the head. 

NOR. Than. 

I've gotten a vast sight moore brass nor thoo hes. 

'NORMOUS. Enormous. 


NOSE, v. To reproach. 

He's alus nodsin him wi' it, meet him wheare he will. 
I'll nodse him wi' it, you may depend, as soon as he cum's oot o' 
prison. Messingham, April, 1887. 

NOSE, TO PUT OUT OF JOINT. To become possessed 
in some unfair manner of a right or favour that was 
another's. Commonly used in affairs of love. 

" Lest the wench . . . should put your nose out of joynt." 
Benard, Terence, 107. 

NOSE-HOLES. The nostrils. 

NOT ALL THERE. Not right sharp; half idiotic. 

NO'TH (noth). The north. 

NOTHE^l, A. An other. 

" New wheel and a nother mending, 75. 6d. " Northorpe Ace., 1782. 

NOTHINK (the o as o in dog). Nothing. 

NOTTINGHAMSHIRE TIDE. The Fresh (q.v.) in the 
river Trent. 

When there is a Nottinghamshire tide our clew-head doors at 
Butterwick don't open, sometimes, for a week together. G. L., East 
Butterwick, July 19, 1881. 

NOUNCE. An ounce. 

A quart en o' tea fer my missis, an' a noonce o' bacca' fer my sen. 

NOW AND AGAIN. Very frequently. 

I ve tell'd her now an' agedn to shut doors efter her, bud it's all tonoa 

NOWS AND THENS. Now and then ; occasionally. 

" He could have a labourer ; if not always, nows and thens to help 
him." Lawrence Cheny, Ruth and Gabriel, i., 39. 

NOWSTRIL (noust ril). (i) The nostril. 
(2) A blow on the head. 

NOZZLE. (i) The nose. 

(2) The spout of a pump, a tap or any such thing. 

In 1614, the authorities of Corpus Christi College, Oxford, bought 
six nuzzles for 55 Rogers' Hist. Agric. <&> Prices, vol. vi., p. 588. 

NUDGE. To follow after closely. 

Mr. . . . goas his sen to th' shop, if it be but for a penn'o'th o' 
salt, bud he alus hes his sarvant lass nudgin a hint him, to hug it hoam. 


NULL, v. To lull, allay, or assuage pain. 

Mary's tooth stangs soa, I'm gooin' to gie her sum lodlum to mill it. 

NULLAH. A drain (probably obsolete). 

"The dikes or nullahs by which the fresh waters in time of flood 
found a more direct course to the Trent." Stonehouse, Hist. Isle of 
Axholme, xv. 

NUM BANK. When a breach happens in a bank, it is often 
impossible to make another bank on the exact spot where 
the old one stood ; in that case, a circle of earth is made 
round the breach which is called a num bank. The act 
of doing this has acquired the name of Humming, or 

"For making num bank 20 roods at is. 3^." Bottesford Moors 
Ace., 1812. 

You knaw wheare that gyme is at Mo'ton ; well, when th' Trent bank 
brust, it wesh'd a grut hoale, an' thaay'd it to nom roond afoore thaay 
could stop it. East Butterwick, 1876. 

NUMB-HEAD, NUMB-SKULL. A blockhead. 

There used to be a house at West Butterwick called Numb-skull 
Hall. PP. E. H. 

NUMERATE, v. To increase in number. 

Them primroases nnmeraates fast, Miss. Bud a few year sin ther' was 
hardlins one to see e' th' wood, an' noo ther's cloods on 'em. Hannah 
Todd, March, 1878. 

NUNTY. Slovenly; dowdy; unfashionable. 

NUR. (i) A small ball such as that used in the game of 

(2) The head. 

41 I'll fetch the a cloot oher thy nur if ta' duz n't ho'd thy noise, an' 

NUR-SPELL AND DANDY. The game of hockey. 

NUT. (i) The head. 

I'll warm thy nut for the. Nov. 27, 1874. 

(2) The cavity in the head just below the ears. To put up 
the nuts, that is to press the thumbs into these cavities, is a 
cruel punishment inflicted by boys on each other. 

NUZZLE, v. To caress, as a baby does it's mother by pressing 
its face against her. 


" Makes my coy minx to nussell twixt the breasts of her lull'd 
husband." Marston, What You Will, Act iii., sc. i. 
" The blackbird on her grassy nest 

We would not scare away ; 
Who, nuzzling sat with brooding breast 
On her eggs for half the day." 

John Clare, Life and Remains, p. 162. 

NYFLE, v. To steal. 

It's to noa ewse hevin' apple-treas i' hedge-raws. Th' bairns alus 
nyfles all th' apples afoore thaay're mella'. 

I want sum correction doin 1 , squire ; them foaks fra As'by cums an' 
nyfles all my mushrooms afoore we 're stirrin' in a mornin'. 1886. 



O. Who. 

" Praise him made the night." Sampler wrought at Winterton, 1802. 

OAK APPLES. Oak-galls. 

OAT-GRASS, Avena pratensis. 

" On the oat-grass and the sword-grass, and the bulrush in the pool." 
Tennyson, New Year's Eve. 


" If you cut oats green 

You get both king and queen." 

That is if oats be not cut before they seem fully ripe, the largest 
grains which are at the top of the heads will probably fall out and be 

OAVER. Over, more than. 

OBBUT,^. Oh! but. 
Child: "I shan't." 

Mother : " Obbut you will, or I'll leather you as long as I can stan* 
oher you." 

OBEDIENCE. A bow or a curtsey. 

You mun alus mak yer obedience to th" parson. 

OBJECT. A deformed, diseased, slatternly, or ill-dressed 

She duz look a object wi' that ohd bonnet on. 

OBSTEER. Stubborn, sulky, awkward. 

Charlie's a real obsteer man, bud he's noht so bad as his faather ewsed 
to be. Yaddlethorpe, May 29, 1887. 

OBSTROPOLOUS, ^'.Obstreperous. 

OCCUPATION ROAD. A private road ; a road only used by 
the owners of lands which adjoin it. 

OCEAN. A large quantity of anything. 

Ther's odceans o' taaters here to-year, bud I tell the, mun, that th' 
better part on 'ems getten th' demmuck. Amcotts, September 6, 1877. 

My dearest a me what odceans o' books ther' is in this here room, 


OCKER (ok-ur). Ochre. 

OCTOBER-SUMMER. A few warm days coming together in 

'OD. A contraction of the word God, used after the manner of 
an oath. 

ODD, adj. Single ; lonely. 

An odd hoose, odd tree, odd kitlin', puppy, pig, chicken, stocking, &c. 
A person lamenting over the present bad times, said to the writer, 
We feals it e' iverything, sir; why, oor parson ewsed to keap two 
curates, bud noo he's a gooin' to mak shift wi' a odd un. 

A Primitive Methodist local preacher in the Messingham Chapel 
about forty years ago, was advocating the missionary cause. Describing 
the heathen, he said, Them poor creaturs weds as mony wives as iver 
thaay've a mind to, but th' Testament says, as clear as daayleet, we're 
nobbut to hev a odd 'un a-peace. 

He lives e' a odd hoose upo' th' Warpin' Bank side. 
" The king's son have I landed by himself; 
Whom I left cooling of the air with sighs 
In an odd angle of the isle." 

The Tempest, Act i., sc. 2, 1. 223. 

ODD END, THE. The odd trick at whist. 

ODD JOBS, s. pi. Various small things on a farm, or in a large 
household, which require doing, but belong to no person's 
regular work. 

ODLING (od-ling). (i) An orphan ; a solitary person or thing. 
My wife's dead, an' all my bairns is dead, an' I'm noht noa better 
then a odlin 1 noo. Kirton-in-Lindsey. 

(2) A single chicken or duck of a brood, when all the others 
have died. 

ODDMENTS, s. ^/.Fragments, trifles, odds and ends. 

ODD MAN. A labourer ; usually an old man employed on a 
farm to do odd jobs (q.v.) 

ODD-OVER-EVEN. A boys' game, played with buttons, 
marbles, or halfpence. 

ODDS. (i) Consequence. 

What's the odds noo, how thoo was treated when thoo was a bairn ; 
it's all past an' dun wi'. 

(2) Variance. 

Thaay fell at odds sum'ats aboot dreanin' Naathan Land. 

ODDS BOBS, interj.A. humourous exclamation indicating 

Odds Bobs I who wo'd ha' expected to see you a weet daay like this. 


ODER. Other. 

1529. " On vestment of blayk chamelete & on oder of greyne 
croylle." Kirton-on-Lindsey Ch. Ace. 

IT, 'OD GO'S IT. Oaths. 

OF, prep. (i) On. 

It happen 'd of Christmas Daay neet five-an-tho'ty year sin. 
" For rynginge of the crownation day." Kirton-in-Lindsey Ch. Ace., 

(2) For. 

I've been hollerin' 0/thee for th' last hairf hoor. 

(3) In (obsolete). 

" That none shall keep commons but those that are resident of their 
house which they keep commons for." Hibbaldstow Court Roll, 1613. 

OPENS (auf-nz), adv. Often. 

I of ens heard tell o' fairies, bud I niver seed noan my sen, though I'm 
sartan sewer 'at ther' is sich-like things, for I knaw'd a lass real well, 
an' her awn muther seed 'em hersen dancin' upo' Brumby Common. 

OFF AND ON. (i) Now and then ; without regularity. 

I doant do it at noa set time, bud off an 1 on like. 
(2) Variable ; changeable. 

He's niver steady, alus off and on like a weather cock in a strong wind. 

OFFER, v. To try ; to attempt. 

If he offers to stir knock him doon streight off. 

I shan't offer to speak to him aboot business if he cums. 


OFFIL, OFFILOUS. (i) Bad ; worthless. 

She's a sore offil lookin' creatur as onybody could leet on in a twelve- 

He's a offilous chap. 

" For chippes and off all wood of the tree felled to make the churche 
porch ijs. iiijd." Churchwarden's Ace., Stamford, Berkshire, 1596, in The 
Antiquary, May, 1888, p. 211. 

(2) In bad health. 

Master : " How's your wife to-day, Smith ?" 

Labourer : " Well, thank you, sir, she's nobbud offil, very offil, I doanf 
think as iver she mends oht. 

OFFILS. (i) Refuse of any kind, but more particularly refuse 
of corn. 

(2) Pigs' feet, ears, &c, 


OFF'N (lit. off from). Off. 

If ye fall o/'n that stee you'll kill yer sen. 

OFFISH, adj. Distant in manner; unapproachable. 

He Stan's no chanch o' gettin' into Parliament ; he's oher offish. 

OHD. Old. 

SAM, UN. The devil. 

OHD-FASHIONED. Sharp, witty, clever, precocious. 

Our "Liza Jaane's that ohd-fashion'd 'at one wo'd think her head hed 
been roahlin' aboot e' a chech yard for a hunderd year afoore she was 
iver born. 

OHD-FERRAND, OWD-FARRAND,^. (i) Old-fashioned. 
Ther's a real ohd-ferrand stoan walled i'to Creole chech. 

(2) Sharp, witty, clever, precocious. 

He's a ohd-farrand bairn he is ; he'd mak a pig laugh when he's 
up to his gams. 

OHD HUNX. (i) A dirty old man. 
(2) A miser. 

OHD MAN. (i) A kind of apple. 
(2) A husband. 

OHD MILK. Skimmed milk. 

OHD PARTIC'LERS. Very old friends. 

Him an' me's ohd partic'lers ; we'veknaw'd one anuther for sixty year. 

OHD SOW. See Sow. 

OHD STANDARDS. (i) Aged people who have long lived 
in one neighbourhood. 

Ohd standards ewst to call th' plaace e 1 Bottesford chech, wheare 
your laadies sits, th' Paapist quere, on accoont o' it belongin 1 e' former 
times to th' Morla's o 1 Holme. 

(2) Old families. 
11 They had b 
ohd standards by the rustics around." Mabel Heron, i. 56. 

They had been there quite long enough to be counted among the 

OHD STREET. The Ermine Street ; the Roman way from 
Lincoln to the Humber. 

OHD WOMAN. Wife; a term of endearment. 

When me an 1 my ohd woman was wed, an' th' parson an' th' clerk 
was paaid, we'd nobbut a ha'p'ny atween us, an' we chuck't it into 
Moor Well for luck. 


OHD WOMAN'S LUCK, phr. Having the wind in your face 
going and returning. 

OHEN, OHER OHERD, OHERN, J>rep.(i) Over. 

He was cuvered wi 1 spots all ohen him. 
Sumbody's been an 1 chuck'd th' swill-tub oher. 
It's ohern that theare wall. 

(2) Above. 

It weigh's oher eaghteen stoan. 

(3) Too. 

Thoo's broht oher mony apples by hairf. 

(4) More than. 

It's oher twenty year sin'. 

OVERALLS, s. pi. Loose garments which fit over the lower 
parts of the body, and button up on the outside of the 
legs, used for the purpose of keeping the breeches or 
trousers clean in riding. Something not unlike them seems 
to have been worn in the last century and called trowsers. 
See James Parry, True Anti-Pamela, 1741, p. 189. 

OHER AN' OHER AGEAN. Very frequently. 

OHER-DO. To weary ; to exert oneself too much. 

He oher-did his sen wi' warkin 1 e' th' harvist field, an' was niver. 
reight efter. 

(2) To injure by taking too much of anything, as drink or 
or medicine. 

I soon underfun" 'at I'd oher-dun mysen wi' pills as druggister gev 
me agaain indisgest'on. 

OHER-END. Erect. 

" What hair he had on his head stood over end." Gainsburgh News, 
April 24, 1875. 

Set them sheaves oher-end, its cumin' up fer raain. 

Wheat's back'ard, but it's nistly oher end. Aug., 1886. 

I niver drink no tea except it's that strong that th 1 spoon'll stand oher 
end in it, or a-nearly. 

He's that badly he can nobbut sit oher-end for a few minutes at a 

OHER-GROW. To out-grow one's strength. 

Poor thing oher-graw'd hersen, an' went off e' a decline when she was 
e' her teens. 

OHER-LIG. To lie too late in bed in the morning. 

I ohcr-liggjd my sen, an' when th' missis, she com' doon, I hed n't 
gotten a thing dun. 


OHER-LOOK. To bewitch. 

Th' doctors maay saay what thaay like aboot that bairn, I tell the 
its oher-look'd an' noht else ; an' if I'd a mind I could mak a near guess 
of who's dun it. 

I've hed a dreadful bad paain e' my faace ; missis says it's tick, bud I 
think noht better then that I've been oherlook'd by Billy . . . . 
Bottesford, 1858. 

OHERNENST, prep. Overagainst. 

Th' hohle is reight ohernenst Butler's stack-yard. Burringham, 
December 10, 1875. 

QHER-RUN. To get the better of; to become beyond control ; 
said of intangible things, such as various kinds of sickness. 
Bud thoo mun do as th' doctor tells us, my lad ; if thoo duz n't 
inf'ammation '11 oher-mn us, an' then we can't do oht fer the. 

OHER-SET. (i) To overcome. 

Ther' was sumats e' th' letter as real oher-set her. 
(2) To recover. 

I did not think he'd oher-set it, bud he did. 

OHER-TAKEN, pp. Drunk. 

He was oher-taaken agean las' neet an' 11 hev to goa to Winterton. 

OHER-THE-LEFT, phr.In debt. 

He's gotten sorely oher-the-left wi' his farm, as a good many besides 
him hes e' thease times. Corringham, February, 1885. 

OHER-WELTED. Overthrown ; said of sheep. 
OHRISH, adj. Wet, dirty, muddy. 

OHT. Aught ; anything. 

A farmer given to grumbling said, " When trier's oht, it maks noht, 
an' when it maks oht, ther's noht." Scotton, 1875. He meant that 
when there were good crops, prices were low, and that when prices were 
high there was nothing to sell. 

Fools and gentlemen should never see oht on a job till it's finished. 

Thoo'd better do oht then noht. 

" To be busied in toyes is to small purpose, yet hear that divine 
Seneca, better aliud agere quam nihil;" better do to no end than 
nothing. R. Burton, Anat. Mel. ed. 1652, p. 5. 

It is said, that the fathers of the Desert, for the sake of employment, 
" made baskets of palm leaves which they burnt at the end of the year, 
they having laboured only for the sake of employment and to avoid 
idleness." Alphonsus Rodriguez, Christian Perfection, Eng. Trans., 
part i., ch. i. 

OHT, pt. t. and pp. Ought. See OUGHT. 

Bairns an' wimmin' oht to do as thaay 're tell'd. 
Mother : " Did ta do what thy faather tell'd thee ?" 
Son : " Noa." 

Mother : " Then thoo should hev oht to ; if ta duzn't he'll sewer enif 
hide ta when he cums fra' wark." 


OILED SLIPPERS, TO HAVE ON, ^Ar. Meaning to be 
much pleased or in high glee concerning anything. 

He's been upo" Crossby Common an' fun' a flint arrow-head. He 
hes gotten his oiVd slippers on, you maay depend o' that. 

OIL OF STRAP. A jocular name for a thrashing. It is the 
custom on All Fools' Day to send boys to the saddlers or 
shoemakers for a pennyworth of oil of strap. 

OILS. Any sort of liniment, whether oil forms a portion of it 
or not. 

Father: " Goa to doctor ! That he shan't. Noabody ax'd him to 
clod hissen off cart that how, an' I weant hev wark neglected." 
Mother : " Bud he's all e' a peace wi' brewsis, an' that stiff." 
Father : " Well, then, we've oaceans o' hoss-oils, he mun tek a to'n at 
them ; he's not agooin' to slatter munny away wi' docterin'. 

OISIER. The osier. 
OLD SOW. See Sow. 

OLD STREET. (i) The Ermine Street; the Roman way 
leading from Lincoln to the Humber. Cf. Barton and 
Riseham Turnpike Act, 1795, i. 

There is a Roman road in Berkshire, between Wantage and 
Thatcham, called the Old Street-way. Archzologia, xv., 184. 

(2) Any old highway. This use of the word seems to be 
founded on the assumption, in which there is some truth, 
that many of the highways which were in existence before 
the time of the great enclosures are of Roman origin. 

OLD WOMAN. Aconitum napellus. 

OLLIBUT (oHbut). Halibut, the fish so called. 

'OMETER. A gasometer. 

On a certain occasion the gas at Winterton suddenly went out 
leaving the little town in darkness. The explanation given to an 
inhabitant was, " Please, sir, thaay 're trying a new 'ometer at the gas- 

OMUST (om-ust), adv. Almost. 

I wanted to laugh bud I omust could n't. July i, 1875. 

ON, prep. (i) Of. 

Some on 'em cum'd past here, bud I did n't see noan on 'em. 

(2) As adj. Tipsy. 

He was a bit on last neet, bud ther' was n't much matter for him 

(3) Even with; revenged upon. 

I'll be on wi' him th' next time he gies me a fair chanch. 


ON END. (i) Upright ; perpendicular. 

You'll find them pohls in on end agean th' bat-stack. 

(2) Direct, without stopping. 

He went his waay strlght on end an' fetch'd th' policeman. 
He swore at her fer ten minutes strlght on end. 

(3) Sitting up. 

He's on end yet ; bud if he duzn't tak' care, he'll soon be e' th' bed- 
. boddum. 

ONE O'CLOCK. Despatch ; rapidity. 

She's a bad 'un at startin', but when sh * sets off she goas like one 

ONE SIDE. (i) To put a thing on one side is to put it away 
to preserve it. 

I've put that cheney inkstand on one side, afeared it should be gettin 1 

(2) To decline ; to reject. 

He showed me a lot o' cheap pots beside them I boht, bud I put 'em 
on one side, for I didn't want 'em. 

(3) To be put on one side is to be put away ; rejected ; turned 

Thaay was to hev been married this here Martlemas, bud he put her 
one side, when he fun he'd a chanch wi' Mary Ann. 

ONION. Any bulb which is in appearance somewhat like an 
onion; as a snowdrop, a jonquil, or a hyacinth. 

ON IT, /^.Distressed. 

He's sorely on it yit, 'cause his wife's runn'd awaay fra him. 
June 4, 1887. 

ONLY. But. 

He caame, only you was gone. 

I should hev maade th' crew-yard door, only th' bull cum'd up to me 
an' I to'n'd scared. May 20, 1887. 

ON TO. One who talks to another about any special subject 
in a disagreeable manner, either in the way of ridicule or 
reprobation, is said to be on to him or her about this or that. 

He ewst to be fond o' pickin' up curus stoans ther' is theare, like 
shells an' things, an' his foaks was alus on to him aboot it till th' poor 
bairn could hardlins bear his sen. 

iim was alus on to uther foaks aboot sweetheartin', scan'lus, an' noo 
e hesn't goan an' getten married his sen. 

ONY (on-i). Any. 

ONY-HOW, adv. In any way ; by any means. 

You alus do things ony-how, you do ; if ye can't do 'em reight you'd 
better not do 'em at all, 


ONY-TIME. (i) Any time. 

Ony-time next weak that suits you 'all do fer me. 

Ony-time's noa time, do it this minnit and then it '11 be done wi'. 

(2) Ony-time often means now ; at once. 

Mother : " Jaane, when can ye goa wi 1 me to fetch th 1 kye up ?" 
Daughter : " I'm ready ony-time." 

ONY-WHEN. At any time. 

I'll goa any -when you like, if nobbut it duz n't raain. 

GOT (oot), prep. Out. See OUT. 

She was oot o' doors that cohd daay for more then a nooer, an' hed 
n't been confined eight an' fo'ty hooers. 

OPPEN (op-n). Open. 

OPPEN, THE. An open or unshaded place. 
It's very cohd e' th 1 oppen. March 21, 1884. 


" I fare as doth an open ers; 
That ilke fruit is euer linger the wers, 
Til it be rotten in mullok, or in stre." 

Chaucer, Reve's Prologue. 

"As useless as open-arses gathered green." Th. Killigrew, Parson's 
Wedding, Act ii., sc. 2. 

OPPEN-GILT. A female pig that has not been operated upon 
to hinder her from having young. 

OPPEN OOT. (i) To mow a portion of grass or corn for the 
purpose of making a starting place for a reaping machine 
to begin work. 

(2) To use violent language. 

He did oppen oot at Brigg at th' 'lection time ; I really could n't hev 
beleaved it on him if I'll not heard it." Said of the author, April, 1880. 

OPPEN WEATHER. Warm, genial weather in winter, not 

ORANGE-FLOWER TREE. Philadelphia coronarius. From 
the shape and perfume of the flowers bearing some 
resemblance to those of the orange-blossom. 

ORDER, TO TAKE.- To take order with a person is to compel 
him to do orderly or rightly. It does not necessarily signify 
to punish, though punishment may be often included in its 


ORDINARY. Poor in quality; third rate ; ill. 

Ohd taaters gets very ordinary afoore new 'uns cums in. 
W ... S ... is nobbut very ordinary noo. I doant think 
my sen he's long for this warld. 

ORIGINAL, ORYGINALD. A male Christian name. 

" Oryginald Smyth was fined at a Court of the Manor of Kirton-in- 
Llndsey, held in the aoth of Elizabeth, for an assault on John Base." 
Manor Roll, sub anno. 

Original Peart, was a burgess of Lincoln during the time of the 
Commonwealth . A person called Original Skepper was living at or near 
Saxilby, about the year 1855. 

"There was an Original Sibthorp living in the Sixteenth Century." 
See Life of R. W. Sibthorp, p. 375. 

"jOriginall Byron, of Stoakham, was one of the apprisers of the goods 
of Gervase Markham, a Nottinghamshire gentleman, in 1636." 
Academy, May 13, 1876, p. 458. 

" The Babingtons of Rampton, co. Notts ; and the Markhams, of 
Lambcote Grange, co. York, used Original for a Christian name in the 
Seventeenth Century." See Hunter's Sonth Yorks, i., 259, 

ORIGINAL, adj. "This epithet of original is frequently made 
use of in the Isle [of Axholme] , to designate anything highly 
esteemed. It has arisen probably from its being applied to 
the old inhabitants to distinguish them from the Dutch 
settlers. So even now, we have it perpetually used when a 
man gets a little joyous over his cups, " You are my original 
friend," i.e., as was meant by those who first used the 
expression, " You are not one of those scamping Dutchmen, 
but one of the original, or aboriginal inhabitants of the 
country." Stonehouse, Hist. Isle of Axholme, p. 244. 

ORTS, (i) Worthless things; rubbish; especially the 
waste left in spinning. 

(2) A term of contempt. 

Thaay mak orts o' me noo, 'cos thaay think I'm a worn-oot ohd man, 
an' good to noht. Thaay didn't ewsed to do so once. Kirton-in-Lindsey. 

O'T. Of the. 

Get oot o't' hoose wi 1 the, thoo loongin 1 theaf. 

OTCHARD. Orchard. 

O'TCHEN. An urchin, that is, a hedge-hog. 

You're as full o' lees as a otchen is o' prickles. 

He's getten his back up like a otchen gooin' a crabbin' ; said of a person 
who is in a very bad temper. 

" Wheare . . . th' otchins ligs hid i' winter.'' Mabel Peacock, 
Tales and Rhymes in the Lindsey Folk Speech, 1886, p. 129. See 


OTHER SOME, adj. pi. Others. 

I grew seventy aacre o' taaties that year ; sum I sell'd afoore 
Christmas at twelve shillin' a seek, uther sum I kep' while May-da', an 1 
nobbut maade eaghteen pence on 'em. 

OTHER WHERE. Elsewhere. 

I've been lookin' for it all oher an' can't find it ; mester mun hev 
hidden'd it uther whedre. 

" Mr. George, a Parliament man, was taken otherwhere." Rel. of Action 
before Cirencester, 1642, p. n. 

" I saw this gent, in consultation there and at several other places, 
at Sir William Brereton's, and otherwhere." Trial of the Regicides, 
1660, p. 162. 

OTHER WHILES, adv.M other times. 

Sumtimes I goas oot taatiein', utherwhiles I mak' a bit by knittin'. 
" Me may yse a bondemannes sone o]>er wule kni3t bi come." Rob. 
of Gloucester, Chronicle ed., W. A. Wright, p. 157, 1. 2213. 

OTTER. An iron affixed to an axle-tree for the wheels to butt 
against, for the purpose of keeping them at their proper 
width apart. 

OUGHT. We use phrases such as " did 0^," and " didn't 
ought ;" " had ought " and "hadn't ought ;" " should ought" 
and " shouldn't ought" 

Thaay shouldn't ought to press a strlght-gooin' man for his rent up to 
th' very daay, i" times like thease. November, 1886. 

Now, Master Edward, you doan't ought to talk in that waay, it's real 

I should n't have ought to ha' dun it. 

OUT. (i) From home. 

I've been to see him three or foher times, bud he's alus oot when 
iver I goa. 

(2) To turn out ; to eject. 

Matthew Emerson was ooted fra his farm thrif poisonin' Dr. 
Parkinson's pheasants. 

" Digby was the cause that I was outed from my command in 
Wales.'' Symond's Diary, 1645, p. 269. 

" How many were outed of their freeholds, liberty and livelihood." 
James Howell, Sober Inspec. into Carriage of Long Parl., 1656, p. 156. 
Cf. Chaucer's use of outen. 

OUT AND OUT. Excellent ; first rate. 

I reckon John Bright oot an' oot the best speaker that ther' is. 

OUTBEARING, adj. Outrageous ; outraging common-sense, 
decency, or religion ; monstrous. 

" It's a straange oot-bedrin 1 thing fer onybody to saay as thaay can 
raaise the sperrits of dead foaks, or to try to do sich an' a thing." 
W. T., 1877. 

"I was at B ... last week, an' thaay tell 'd me theare, that 
W . . . was the oot-bedrin' est man onybody iver cum'd across ; it's 
a good thing as he's e' prison." F. M., June 9, 1877. 


OUTCASTS, Inferior sheep culled out of the rest of the 

"Fifty-two weathers and hogges, outcasts." Inventory of Sir John 
Anderson, of Braughton, 1671, in [Sir C. H. J. Anderson's] Hist, of 
Lea, 25. 

OUT-DOOR WORK. Work done outside the house, such as 
chopping sticks, washing, or sweeping a court-yard. 

I've gen noatice to leave ; I was hired as a in-door sarvant an' noo 
thaay want to put all th' oot-door wark upon me. 

OUT END. The ultimate end, used of a funeral. 
Poor ohd Thomas, I've seed th' out end on him at last. 

OUT OF ALL REASON. Quite unreasonable. 
It's oot o' all reason to paay twice oher fer one job. 

OUT OF FETTLE. In bad condition, said of cattle, land, 
&c. See FETTLE. 

OUT-OF-HIS-HEAD, OFF-HIS-HE AD. Delirious ; insane. 
Poor chap, he's oot of his head ; thaay've sent him to a watterin' 
plaace, an' if that duz'nt do he'll hev to gca to th' 'sylum. September 
6. 1888. 

OUT OF SORTS. (i) Poorly. 
(2) In bad spirits. 

OUT OF SQUARE. Irregular ; lobsided ; untrustworthy in 

" He brought all out of square." Bernard, Terence, 61. 

OUTS, AT. In a disagreement. 

Thaay fell at oots last Brigg fair was three year, an' hev' n't bed a 
good word for one anuther sin'. 

OUTWEN. Backwater (q.v.) 

OVEN SIDE. The side of the fireplace next the door of the 
oven ; a place where the good man of the house does not sit, 
least he should often have to " remble " (q.v.) 

OVERCAST. Overthrown ; said of sheep. 

Run an' reightle yon yoh, she's gotten her sen oher-cast, an" '11 soon 
dee this hot daay. 

OVER-STOCKED. Too much distended ; commonly applied 
to the udder of a cow that has not been milked at the 
proper time. 

OWDACIOUS, *#. Audacious. 

He's the owdaaciousest lad i' ten townships. 


OWLER. The alder. 

The form ouller is used in Brereton's Travels, 1635, and owler in 
Cotton's Angler. See quotations in Murray's Diet., sub voc. alder. 

OWN (oan), v.(i) To confess. 

I seed you steal it mysen, so you'd as well own it. 
(2) To recognise. 

I own'd 'em at once as soon as I seed 'em. 

OWN MAN. To be one's own man is, be sensible, able to 
control one's words and actions and to transact business. 

I bed bed a sup o' drink, I awn that, but I was my own man sewer 
enif, an' could manage a horse then as well as I could noo. Ashby, 
January, 1881. 

A woman who had suffered from erysipelas in the head said, " I'm 
not my awn woman yit. bud I am a woman to what I vfa.s."-Winterton, 
January 15, 1880. 

OWSE, v. To bail water. 

OXG ANG. An ancient measure of land. The quantity varied 
according to the nature of the soil. The oxgang was in use 
as a measure in the manor of Kirton-in-Lindsey in 1787. 

OX-HARROWS. Harrows furnished with hales (q.v.) and 
long teeth, drawn by four horses ; perhaps so called because 
they are the kind formerly drawn by oxen. 

"Item ij harrowes with yron tethe ij oxe harrowes of wodd & ij horse 
harrowes of wodd." Inventory of John Nevell, of Faldingworth, 1553, in 
Midi. Cos. Hist. Col., i., 231. 


PACK. A worthless person. 

He's as sore a pack as walks shoe-leather ; not wo'th his meat. 

"Pamphilius . . . used this strange naughty pack euen as his 
wife." Bernard, Terence, u. 

"What does this idle pack want?" N. Bailey, Colloq. of Erasmus, 
1725. P- 37- 

PACKING. (i) Part of the under-gear of a waggon. 

See BED. 
(2) The wood into which iron axle-tree ends are fixed. 

PACK OFF, 1). To send away. 
I pack'd her off wi' oot warnin'. 

PACKS, s. pi. Heavy masses of cloud. 

PACKY WEATHER. When there are packs in the air. 
See above. 

PAD. (i) A path. 

Ther' ewsed to be two pads oher th' Well-yard, bud Mr. Fox stopp'd 
'em boath up. Northorpe, 1879. 

(2) The ordinary course of doing anything. 

" It \vas his reg'lar pad to goa hev a glass o' gin at th' Ewnicorn at 
eleven e' th' foorenoon." W. E. H., Kirton-in-Lmdsey , 1880. 

PADDED. Beaten smooth by the footsteps of man or beast ; 
said of a path across a newly-ploughed field or of one covered 
with snow or newly-laid gravel. 

If ye 're gooin' to Yalthrup you mun walk e' hoss-road ; snaw is n't 
padded upov causey. 

PADDICK. A paddock. 

PADDLE. (i) To wade in shallow water. 

My faather once catched me paddlin' e' th' beck agean th' watter 
miln ; bud my wo'd he soon bundled me off hoam. 

(2) To walk to and fro with wet, muddy, or ungainly feet. 
Them bairns hes been paddlin' yon clean floor fra end to end. 
Mrs. . . . ducks hes paddl'd them pay-raws o' oors while noht 'H 
graw, you'll see. 


PADDY. A bricklayer's paddy is his labourer who brings him 
stones or bricks and mortar. 

PADDY NODDY. A long tedious tale. 

The lawyer begun to tell a straange paddy-noddy aboot a chap thaay 
call'd By water; but as Id heard it a hunderd times afoore, I slotted 
off i'to th' kitchen. 

PAG. (i) To carry. 

It's oher heavy, I can't pag it. 
(2) Used when one person carries another on his shoulders. 

PAG-RAG-DAY. The fourteenth of May, which is the day 
on which yearly servants, on the east side of the Trent, 
leave their places ; so called because they pag their rags 
away on that day. See above. 

"His poor father was slaain last pag-rag-day." A Lincolnshire 
Dialogue, Notes and Queries, iii., s., vol. vii., p. 31. 

" Molly was at liberty on pag-rag-day." Lawrence Cheny, Ruth and 
Gabriel, vol. i., p. 41. 

" Caistor . . . From pag-rag morning daily the town was visited 
with troops of lads and lasses." Stamford Merc., May 24, 1878. 

PAIN, v. To suffer pain. 

That theare yoh paains hersen, she'll aither lamb or dee soon. 

PAINTINGS, PAINTS. Painted woodwork of a room, as 
doors and skirting-boards, not pictures. 

I was weshin' th' paaintin's e' th' drawin' room, all e' my mucky 
cloas, when who should ring at th' frunt-door bell bud Lord 
Yarbur. 1845. 

M'm, me scrawk th' paaintin's, m'm ! I know my wark better. 

PAIR. A set, not necessarily two only, as a pair of stairs, a 
pair of drawers. Chaucer tells us of the Prioress in the 
prologue to the Canterbury Tales : 

" Of smale corall about hire arm she bare a paire of bedes, gauded 

all with grene." 

Pairs of beads are mentioned on several occasions in the church- 
wardens' accounts of Louth. 

PALE. One of the upright bars of a paling. 

PALES, s. ^/.Paling. 

That grew o' thine jumpt clean oher th' paales, an' was awaay agean 
by that. 

PALM. A steel shield with holes in it, like a thimble, and 
straps to fasten it on, applied to the palm of the hand for 
pushing the needle in mending sacks, sewing leather, &c. 


PALMS, s. pi. The flowers of the willow, so called because in 
old times they were used instead of palms in the religious 
service on Palm Sunday. Cf. Brand, Pop. Antiq., 1813, i., 
105 ; Gent. Mag., 1854, ii., 41. Chapter Acts of Rip on (Surtees 
Soc.), 334. 

PAN. A piece of timber laid lengthwise on the top of a wall, to 
which the roof is attached. 

1575, " Great tymber as postes, balkes, & pannes excepted." Kirton- 
in-Lindsey Ch. Ace. 

PANCAKE TUESDAY. Shrove Tuesday. 
PANNIKIN. A small earthenware pan. 

PANSHION (pansh-yun). An earthenware vessel glazed in 
the interior, commonly, though not always, black ; used as 
a milk pan. 

"Pots and panshions." Northorpe Ace., 1782. 

" Continually annoyed her by rattling her milk puncheons /'* Trollope, 
Sleaford, 368. 

PANT, v. When manure or clay rises up after it has been 
trodden upon it is said to pant. 

PANTLE, v. To patter about. 

Them bairns hes been pantlin' all oher my clean steps. 

PAPER. A begging petition, written by a clergyman, justice of 
peace, or other man in authority for a person who has lost 
a horse, cow, or pig, or suffered other grave misfortune. 

PAPPY. Potatoes are said to be pappy when they have one or 
more very small ones adhering to them. 

PARCENER. A partner. 

PARF1T, 0#. Perfect. The usual middle-English form. 

PARGE, v. To do plaster-work, and especially to plaster the 
inside of a chimney. 

PARGETTING. Plaster-work. 

PARISH, v. A hamlet is said to parish to the place to which it 
is ecclesiastically attached. 

Amcotts ewsed to parish to Authrup, bud oher tho'ty year sin' thaay 
built a chech an' set it up for its sen. 

Hairf o' East Butterwig parishes to Bottesworth and t'other hairf to 


PARLE. A conversation. 

Him an' me was hevin' a park when oot flew watter-tub tap an' 
wetted him to his skin. 

PARL, PARLEY, v. To speak to; to converse with. 
We was parting together hairf a nooer. 
It's no good parleying noa longer, we shan't niver agree. 

PARLOUR. The inner room of a cottage where the bed is. 

" The cottages had only a house and parlour, the parlour being used as 
a dormitory for the whole family, both male and female." Mackinnon, 
Account of Messingham, 1825, 25. 

PARLOUS, adj. Venturesome, bold, dashing, extraordinary. 

Ben Maason was a. parlous chap for drink. 
He maks a parlous noise when he preaches. 

PARRATOR. An apparitor (obsolete). 

1610. " To theparrator for exhibitting the registers vjd : " Kirton~in* 
Lindsey Ch. Ace. 

PARSHIL (paa-shil). A parcel. 

Mind an' call at Elwood's, an 1 th' Aangel, an' sea if ther' 's ony 
parshils for me. June 9, 1887. 

PARSON. A sarcastic name for a guide-post, because it 
shews the way but does not go it. 

" Like the rude guide-post, some a parson call, 
That points the way, but never stirs at all." 

The Banquet, 1819, p. 59. 

PARSON CORN. Corn affected by the smut. The writer 
once suggested to a farmer that corn having the smut was 
called by this name because the flour in the grains had 
become a black dust ; he was told that the real reason was 
that when tithe was paid in kind, the sheaves that had the 
most smuts in them were always given to the parson, if he 
could be seduced into taking them. 

PARSON IN HIS SMOCK. The Arum maculatim. 

PART. (i) Some. 

We've part ketlocks e' th 1 oats yit, bud not soa many as we ewst 
to hev. 

(2) Many, as part potatoes, weddings, miscarriages, funerals. 

" We've part apples this year, trees is ragged." S. S., Bottesford, 1871. 

(3) Sometimes ironically for very few. 

Radical : " Ther' was a many foaks at oor meatin' last Tuesda' ? " 
Tory : " Yes, you'd part ; ther' was three shopkeapers, an" five or six 
lads thaay'd gien pennies to for hollerin'." 


PARTICIPANTS. The original contractors for the drainage 
of the Isle of Axholme and Hatfield Chace, and those who 
succeeded to them in their rights and duties. Cf. Hunter, 
Hist, of South Yorks., i., 164. Peck, Hist, of Isle of Axholme, 
0,1. Read, Hist, of Isle of Axholme, 23, 58. Pro Soc. Ant., 
ii., series vi., 

PARTIC'LERS. Ohd partic'lers (q.v.) 

PASCH FINES.' Certain yearly payments which were 
anciently paid by the tenants to the lord of the manor of 

PASH. Rottenness. 

The apples is as rotten aspash. 

PASS THE TIME OF DAY. To exchange greetings on 

He's that prood he won't so much as pass th' time o' daay to a working 

" None would look on her, 
But cast their eyes on Marina's face ; 
Whilst ours were blurted at, and held a malkin 
Not worth the time of day." 

Pericles, Act iv., sc. iii., 1. 35. 

PASTE. (i) Dough. 

(2) A cat is said to make paste when it kneads with its fore 
feet preparatory to composing itself to sleep. 

PASTY (pai-sti). adj. Pale ; sallow. 

He looks that paasty, it's my opinion he's sum soort on a illness 
cumin' on. 

How paasty-fa&ced she looks ; not a bit o' culer in her cheeks. 

PAT. Expert ; ready. 

He's straange an' pat wi 1 his lessins. 

PAT ABACK. A game. 

PATRON (pat-run). A pattern. 

Th' manty-maaker hes a book wi' a patron o' a new soort on a collar 
in it. 

" Sacred to the memory of Samuel Belton, who died November the 
i2th, 1827, aged 27 years. The patron of patience and resignation." 
Winterton Churchyard. Used also in Cambridgeshire. 

PATTEN (pat-n). A kind of clog with an iron ring on the sole, 
used to keep the wearer out of the dirt. Crippled men who 
have one leg shorter than the other frequently wear one patten. 


PAULTERY, PAULTERLY, adj. Paltry ; worthless. 
I niver seed sich little paultery things as his taaties is to-year. 
"Thou lewd woman, can I answer thee any thing, thou dealing thus 
paulterly with me." Bernard, Terence, 107. 

PAUM (paum). The palm of the hand. 

PAUSY. Slightly the worse for drink ; said of persons who 
combine an amiable desire to impart information with an 
incapacity to call to mind all the necessary words. 

"Drunk! naw he was n't what you'd call drunk, nobbud he was 
pansy like." W. S., 1886. See POWSE. 

PAWKY (pauk-i), adj. Artful, cunning, often used in a good 

John Marcham was a nist pawky ohd man ; I could hev listen'd to 
his talk for a daay thrif. 

PAWT (paut). The paw of an animal. 

PAWT (paut), v. To paw. 

I wish we hed n't noa cats, really, thaay're alus pawtin' at one, when 
one's gettin' one's meat. 

PAX- WAX. A ligament in the neck, Ligmnentum mucha. See 
Ray, 5. & E. Words; E.D.S. GL, B 16, p. 88. 

PAY, v. To beat. 

Them school-lads hes been payin' oor lass. 

PAYMENT. Damage, injury. 

" Why t' gardin hes ta'aken no payment." A Lincolnshire Dialogue in 
Notes and Queries, iii., S., vol. vii., p. 31. 

PAY NIGHT. The night on which labourers receive their 
wages, commonly every alternate Saturday. 

PEA. A pea. 

PEACHING. Very cold. 

It's been pedchin' weather for this last month, niver a daay beoot 
snaw ; noa wonder as drowt bosses hes inf'aamation. Bottesford, April 
5, 1888. 

PEAR. A pear. The r is frequently almost silent, so that the 
word, especially in the plural, sounds very nearly like peas. 

PEART (peeat), adj. Brisk; lively; vigorous. 

I thoht Jennie's foal wo'd dee, but it's straange an' peart noo, 
Mary Ann's last bairn's grawin'/ea^ enif. 


There was a family of the name of Peart resident at Lincoln in the 
middle of the seventeenth century. Dr. Edward Peart, a graduate of 
Leyden, was in practice as a physician in the Isle of Axholme and the 
neighbourhood about seventy years ago. 

PEASCOD. The pod of a pea. 

When you've dun shillin' chuck th' peas cods to th' pigs. 
"Of . . . Shuttleworth of Holme for gathering peascodscon.tra.rie to 
order, xijd." Kirton-in-Lindsey Fine Roll, 1631. 

PEASON, s. pi. Peas (obsolescent). 

PEAT-EARTH. Decomposed peat. 

"Peat is often so far disintegrated as to present an uniform earthy 
appearance, but is still inflammable, and does in reality contain but a 
very small portion of earthy matter. When changed in this manner it 
is here called peat-earth." Will. Peck, Ace. of the Isle of Axholme, 24. 

PECK OF TROUBLES. Much trouble or vexation. 

My wife's in a peck o' trubles this mornin'; she's fun oot she's lost her 
bunch o' kays. Brade o' me, it dropp'd i'to th' Trent yisterdaay as she 
was gettin' off fra th' packit. 

" A tradesman at Boston has a peck-skep full of human teeth exposed 
in his window, and labelled a peck of troubles .'" J. E. Brogden, Provincial 
Words in Lincolnshire, 1866, 147. 

PECK-SKEP. A peck measure. 

PEDDLING. Trifling; worthless. 

I once boht sum hogs at Ketton winter fair for tho'teen shillin' a 
peace. Thaay was dearest sheep I iver hed oht to do wi'. Thaay cum 
off Scotton Common, an' was little peddlin' things, not much bigger than 
cats in a waay o' speakin", an' wo'th noht at all ; hairf on 'em deed e' 
th' winter. Bottesford, June 8, 1887. 

PEDIGREE. A long and intricate story. 

It's bad to remember, but Ralf knaws all th' pedigree on it. 

PEEL. (i) A baker's shovel. Cf. Georgina F. Jackson, 
Shropshire Word Book, sub voc. 

(2) The rind of apples, pears, oranges, &c. 

" Fill this bucket with water, break these green peels of walnuts to 
pieces and put into it." N. Bailey, Colloquies of Erasmus, 1725, 53. 

PEELINGS, s. //.-Parings. 

PEEP. The corolla of certain plants, as the cowslip and the 

PEEP-HOLE. A small hole in a wall, door, or roof through 
which it is possible to look. 

They did n't knaw noabody was watchin', but I seed all as went on 
thrif ape"p-hodh e' th' door. 

" The dull gleam through the thick of glass of my small round peep- 
hole." T. N. Talfourd, Vacation Rambles, 1845, i., 174. 


PEEWIT. The lapwing ; Vanelhis cristatus. 

PEFF. (i) The pith of a plant. 
(2) A cough. 

PEFF. To cough. 

PEFFING COUGH. A hard, harsh, dry-sounding cough. 

PEGGY. (i) A machine for washing clothes. See DOLLY. 

(2) A night light. These were formerly made of sheep's fat 
surrounding a wick formed of a lavender stalk wrapped 
round with cotton. 

PEGGY OTCHEN. A hedgehog. See OTCHEN. 

PEGGY WI' HER LANTERN. An ignis fatnus. 

" Dazed it may be, by the brightness of the Gospel, so as not to 
discern the flicker of a peggy wV her lantern from the light of day." 
Ralf Skirlaugh, ii., 31. 

PEGGY WHITETHROAT. The whitethroat, curruca cinena. 

PELT. A skin ; commonly, though not universally, confined 
to the skins of sheep and rabbits. 

" They are also objected to for not being so hardy as the Lincoln, 
from thin pelts and less wool." Arth. Young, Line. Agric., 1799, 321. 

PELTING, adj. Heavy; violent; used regarding hail and 

PEN-FEATHERED, adj.(i) Not fully feathered. 
(2) Worn ; pale. 

My lad works a deal oher hard ; he looks real pen-featherd, he duz. 

PEN FEATHERS. Small undeveloped feathers of the wings 
of birds. 

To " pull out his pen feathers" means very seriously to injure another. 

PENNY, adj. A fowl on being plucked, if it has many 
undeveloped feathers, is said to be penny. See above. 

PENS, s. pi. Long bits of hard grass which the scythe, on 
mowing, does not cut. See STANDARDS. 

PEPPER. A cheating horse-dealer. 

" Laughin' to his sen at the lees he'd been tellin' to them Yorkshire 
peppeys." Ralf Skirlatigh, i. 37. 

PEPPER, v.(i) To wound slightly with shot. 
(2) To cheat as a pepper does. See above. 


PEPPER-CAKE. Gingerbread with sweet pepper in it. 
PEPPERMENT. Peppermint. 

PERAMBLE. A long rambling story. 

Ohd Mr. H . . . ewsed to tell sich perambles aboot th' corn laws 
that I got sick to hear him. Ashby, 1852. 

PERAMBLE, v. To talk in a tedious, wandering, or uncon- 
nected manner. 

When I was badly he cum'd of'ens an" talk'd an' praayed wi' me, bud 
I thoht noht to it ; he niver got no fo'ther, bud was alus peramblin? 
aboot roond two or three wo'ds. 

PERAMBULATION. Beating the bounds of a manor, 
parish, township, or estate. Since the time of the 
enclosures this practice has been, for the most part, 
discontinued. About forty- five years ago the boundary 
between East Butterwick and Burringham was perambulated. 
The writer, then a little boy, was present. According to the 
old custom certain boys were compelled to stand on their 
heads on the boundary stones and afterwards were whipped 
to make them remember the circumstance. 

11 To Richard Vason for bread & ayle when we went a perambulation, 
iiijs. ixd." Kirton-in-Lindsey Ch.Acc., 1640. Cf. Brand, Popular Antiq., 
i8i'3, i., 175. Acts of Chapter of Rip on (Surtees Soc.), Append., i. 

PERFORM, v. To fore-ordain. 

Oh, my dear gell, weddin's an' buryin's is performed e' heaven. What 
th' hand o' th' Loord hes written weant niver be disannulled. 

PERISHED, pp.(i) Overcome by cold. 

(2) Grain is said to have perished when it is killed in the ground 
by frost or wet. 

PERKY. (i) Saucy ; impudent ; vainly proud. 

He's been a sight oher perky iver sin' th' ohd man willed him that 

Sabina's Bill is perkier then ony uther lad as I iver clapt eyes on ; I 
sent him wo'd he wasn't to mislest that theare maggit nest e' my plantin', 
an' I gets wo'd back fra him as he wo'd consither it, bud if I'd send 
him sixpence he was sewer he wo'd n't. 

(2) Bright ; lively. 

I was tekken very bad o' Sunda', bud I'm perky agean noo. 

PERSECUTE, v. To prosecute. 

He was persecuted at th' assizes for stealin sheap. 

"A vestre houlden on the 2^. day of June, consarning hedges braking, 
and hoever is taken in the fact shall be percicuted according to law, by 
the parish expens* This agreed on in the year 1784," Scotton Parish 


PEST, v. To tease. 

That theare dog o' thine is alust pestin' oor ky. 

PESTILL (pest-il) A pestle. 

" Do things by degrees as th' cat aate pestill," a proverb. 
Thoo knaws that theare brass motter o' mine that ewst to stan' upo' 
th' kitchen chimla'-peace at No'therup. It's getten roases an' croons 
on it. Well, my faather hed brok' th' pestill belonging to it, so says he 
to William Bland, " William," says he, " tek that oud gun-barril oot 
o' th' pigeon-coat, an hug her to th' blacksmith shop, an get anew pestill 
maade on her. William did as my faather tell'd him, an' was omust 
shutten thrif her ; for noa sooner hed th' barril gotten hot e' th' fire, 
then off she went, and shut William's coat-lap clean awaay. Th' ohd 
thing hed been chuckin' aboot theare for maaybe fifty year, wi' oot'n 
a stock, an' noa livin' man knew ther' was oht in her. 1841. 

PETTY (pet-i). A privy. 

PEWTHER (peuth-ur). Pewter. 

PEY (pai). A pea. 

PHEASAN' (fez-un). A pheasant. 

PHYSICS, ON THE. Suffering from diarrhoea. 

PIBBLE (pibl). A pebble. 

" A grey pibbte stone of great bignes." Symonds's Diary, 1644 
(Camden Soc.), 151. 

PICK. (i) Pitch. 

As dark pick. 
Pick dark. 

PICK, v. (i) A sheep, cow, or mare is said to pick its lamb, 
calf, or foal when it is brought forth prematurely. 

(2) To pitch ; to toss. 

(3) To lift up sheaves of corn to the stack. 

PICK-A-BACK, PYE BACK, TO CARRY. To carry on the 

" So they carried the sack a pick-a-back." Southey, The Surgeons' 

PICK AT. To speak against; to back-bite; to annoy by 
constant criticism. 

I'd be shaam'd to call mysen a gentleman, an' then pick at my awn 
wife as thoo duz. Oct., 1886. 

game of. 


PICK UP. The last train at night which runs on the 
Manchester, Sheffield, and Lincolnshire Railway from 
Sheffield to New Holland is called the pick up. 

PICK UP, v. To vomit. 

PICKENHOTCH. The game of pitch and toss. 

PICKER. (i) The man who picks [see PICK, v. 3] the sheaves 
up to the stacker. 

(2) A potatoe gatherer. 

PICKING FORK. A long fork used for lifting sheaves up to 
the person who is building a stack. 

PICKING-HOLE. A hole, commonly square, closed by a 
wooden shutter, through which sheaves of corn are put 
into a barn. 

" The projecting stone sill of one of the picking-holes at the" north end 
of the barn." Cordeaux, Birds of the Humber, 14. 

PICTUR (pickt-ur). (i) A picture. 

(2) A likeness. 

He's the very pictur o' his gran'faather. 

PICTUR', v. To represent by drawing, engraving, or painting. 
"The Dutch have picter'd the army here . . . shooting at 
butterflies." Dela Pryme's Diary, 1686, 8. 

PICTUR'-CARDS. The coat-cards in a pack. 
PIE. (i) A tart. 

(2) A heap of potatoes covered with earth to preserve them 
from the frost. 

"The pyes (preserving pits) being ready 6 inches deep, and 6 feet 
wide, the carts take them (the potatoes) home." Arth. Young, Line. 
Agric., 1799, 143- 

PIE, v.' To earth up potatoes. 

" Taking up and pying 2 o s - o d -" Arth. Young, Line. Agric., 
1799, 144. 

PIECE. (i) A concubine; a harlot. 

(2) A tale in verse or prose, not necessarily one that has been 
printed or committed to memory. 

I'm gooin' to chapil to-neet to hear th' bairns saay the' r peaces. 
Thoo mun hear all thrif th' peace I'm agooin' to tell theeafoore ta says 
oht. I heard it fra Mr. Buckley th' preacher, an', " Laws e' me," says I, 
when he'd dun, " well, this is a entertaainin' thing to tell oher fire-side 
at a neet time." An" he says, "Well, yes, it is middlin'," Bud thoo knaws 
it isn't ivery preacher as can make his sen as entertaainin' as that. Them 
high-larnt men is like uther foaks, sum on em's a deal entertaamin'e.r 
then uther sum." 


(3) A short space of time. 

Stop a bit, I shall be by agean in a. peace. 

(4) A portion of land in an open field, sometimes a small 
enclosure. There was, until the recent enclosure of Scotton, 
a plot of grass called "the Bull Piece." 

PIECE, ALL OF A. (i) All of the same kind or pattern. 

" She's makkin her sen a patchwork bed-twilt, an' it's all of a peace 
like, iv'ry bit on it maade o' silk." Laughton, 1840. 

(2) Stiff. 

I'm very badly ; this weet weather maks me all of a peace wi' th' 
rewmatics. 1884. 

(3) Adherent ; stuck together. 

We fun a strike skep full o 1 sneel shells, e' th' ohd esh tree, e' th' 
Wood-cloas hedge, an' thaay was all of a peace; stuck together as fast as 
could be. 

PIECE O' WAYS. Part of the way. 

He went peace o' waays home wi' her that neet. 

Sam's gettin' to read nistly, he's begun his testament, an" is peace o' 
waay thrif Mark. 

He's dull o' hearin", so I ax'd him if he could hear th' preacher, an' 
he nodded his head, just e' this how, an' said, "pedceo'waay, nobbut peace 
o' waay. 

PIECE OF WORK. Fuss ; disturbance. 
Here's a peadce o' wark all aboot noht. 

PIEMENT. Confusion; dirt; mess. 

What an' zpiement them bairns hes maade all oher this clean floor. 
A mass of confused type is by printers called pie. See Notes and Queries, 
ii. s., vol. iii., p. 393. 


PIG.' (i) A person wishing to explain the merits of a pig that 
had recently become bacon, said, " It was a beautiful/^;" 
Thomas said when he seed it, " Why, missis, it's all pig 

To take your "pigs to a wrong market " is to be disappointed in some 
matter in which you confidently hoped for success. 

"We don't kill a pig every day," that is, we have not every day a 

To kill a person's pig for him is to cause him serious disappointment 
or injury. 

To " get a. pig out of the way," signifies the cutting up of the animal, 
after it is killed, salting the flesh, making pork-pies, mince-pies and 
sausages. " Ther's noabody likes gettin' a pig oot o' th' waay better 
then me, bud I'm fairly stall'd to-year." 

The dung of pigs was frequently used for washing purposes instead of 
soap till the middle of this century. See LINCO'NSHEER. 

(2) The Armadillo wood-louse. See Sow. 


PIG, v. (i)To lie in bed with another. 
(2) To pitch off a horse or ass. 

PIG-CHEER. Dishes made from fresh pork, such as pork- 
pies, mince-pies, sausages, &c. 

When we kill oor pig we sh'll send a hamper o" pig-cheer to oor Tom 
wat lives e' Lunnon. 

When Dr. Baayley lived at Messingham ohd Nanny . . . went 
an' tell'd him a long taale how her fat pig was dead just when it wer 
fit for baacon. Th' doctor was sorry for th' ohd lass an* gev' her a 
nve-shillin' peace an' wrote her oot a paaper (q.v.) as well. Nanny hed 
tell'd him th' trewth ; her pig was dead eniff, bud then it wer kill'd an' 
salted. Her neighbours all said efter this trick she'd plaay'd off on th' 
parson, least she could hev dun was to send him a basket o 1 pig-cheer. 

PIG CLUB. A society whose members are mutually bound to 
help each other to purchase a pig in place of one which has 
died a natural or accidental death. 

PIG-COTE. A pig-sty. 

PIG-CRATCH. A kind of low table or bench with handles, 
on which pigs are killed and dressed. Cf. John Markenfield, 
* 135- 

PIGEON-TOED. Having the toes turning inwards. 

PIGGIN (pig-in). A small vessel used for lading water made 
of staves hooped together, one being left longer than the 
rest to form a handle. 

" Here's the Bailey o' Haltwhistle 
Wi' his great bull's pizzle, 

That sup'd up the broo an' syne in the piggin." 

Robert Surtees, Death of Feather stonhaugh. 
It is there glossed " an iron pot with two ears." 

PIGEON'S MILK. An imaginary fluid which simpletons are 
sent to purchase on April Fool's Day. See OIL OF STRAP. 

PIG-FRY. The fried liver, lungs, heart, kidneys, &c., of a pig. 
PIG-HEADED, adj. Stubborn. 

PIG IN A POKE, TO BUY. Is to buy something without 
understanding its nature and properties. 

PIG IN A WELL. A child who has no parents or guardians, 
or a person who has no visible means of subsistence, is said 
to be like a pig in a well. 

PIG-KILLING-TIME. Winter, because pigs are slaughtered 
at that time. 


PIG-MINSTER. A pig-sty. 

" I'm buildin' squire sum pig-minsters." John Smith, Messingham t 

PIGS. The divisions of an orange. 

PIG'S FOOT. If a child has any small inflamed spot or lump 
on the face it is customary to cause it terror by telling it 
that there is a pig's foot coming. 

PIG-SWILL. Hog wash. - 

PIG-TROUGH. (i) A child's name for a goafer (q.v.) 
(2) A broken or water- worn ammonite, shewing the cavities. 

PIG-TUB. The swill-tub ; the tub in which refuse food is put 
to be given to the pigs. 

PIG-YOCK. A wooden yoke put around the necks of pigs to 
hinder them from forcing their way through hedges. 

" Euery one dwelling in ye Coote howses or Suswathe shall both 
ring and yock ther svvynne before Seynt Ellin daye next, ye defalt 
vjs. viijd-" Scatter Manor Records, 1557. 

'" ' What is the use of that wooden yoke on your neck ?' " ' To keep us 
from breaking through our drivers fences.' " Person, Catechism for the 
Swinish Multitude. 

PIKELET, PIFELET. A soft cake baked on an iron plate ; 
a crumpet. 

PILE. The point of an arrow. 

PILL. (i) Anything very difficult or unpleasant. 

It'll be a sore pill for him at his time of life. 

Gettin' taaties up was a straange pill that year [1846] , you may 
depend; raain, raain ivery daay ; I niver seed noht like it. 

(2) See Sow. 

PILL, PILLING. (i) Peel; rind. 

Ther' 's a queer smell. Yis, bud it's noht bud th' pill o' them cringes 
me an' Ann's been eatin'. 

(2) The candied peel oriemons. 

PILL, v. To peel. 

I seed 'em pillin 1 bark e' Mr. Nelthorpe woods as I cum fra Brigg 
to-daay. June 9, 1887. 


PILLACATER. A caterpillar. 


PILLOW-BEAR. A pillow-case (obsolete). 

" Schetts & pelow-berys, iiii." Invent, of Richard Allele, of Scaltherop, 
1551. See Chaucer, Prol. 696. 

PILLOW-SLIP. Pillow-case. 

PIN, v. (i) To fasten. 
Pin that yate. 

(2) To convince, to overcome in argument. 

He begun to lee soa I pinn'd him by tellin' him I was theare. 

(3) To hold a person tightly by the arms. 

PINATION. Want ; deficiency of food. 

Them bea's at Grayingham deed of real pinaation. 

PINCH-GUT. A miser. 

" Did old pinch-gut devour all his grey-pease by himself?" Tho. 
Brown, in Sir Roger L'Estrange's Colloquies of Erasmus, 1711, p. 356. 

PIN-CUSHION. A sweetmeat. 
PIND, *;. -To empound. 

PINDER. A manorial or parochial officer whose duty it is to 
empound cattle. 

PINE, v. To starve. 

" He seized a horse . . . and pined it to death." Trollope, Hist. 
Sleaford, 459. 

PINE-HOUSE, PINING-HOUSE. A place where cattle for 
slaughter are confined for some time without food before 
they are killed. 

" To be let ... butcher's shop, with slaughter-house, pining- 
house, and every convenience." Gainsburgh News, Sept. 25, 1875. 

PINFOLD. A pound. 

"You mistake ; I mean the pound, a pinfold." Two Gent, of Verona, 
Act i., sc. i., 1. 114. 

11 If I had thee in Lipsbury pinfold I would make thee care for me." 
King Lear, Act ii., sc. ii., 1. 9. 

Cf. Scroggs, Practice of Courts-Leet and Courts-Baron, 79. Archaologia 
x., 444. Manchester Court Leet Records, ii., 252. 

PINGLE. A small enclosure (obsolete). 

In 1619 John Chipsey and Elen, his wife, surrendered lands in 
Scotter at " le Clowehole and apingle at the wood-side to Agnes Shad- 
forth, wife of Robert Shadforth." Manor Records. 

There is at the present time a small plot of old enclosed land on 
the east side of the Eau, in the parish of Scotter, called the Pintle, 


There was in 1825 a place in the parish of Messingham called Pingle 
Pingle Hill is the name of a place at Gainsburgh. 

PIN -HORSE. The middle horse in a team. 

TINIATED. Opinionated, that is, of the opinion. 

Tm piniaated we shall hev a long blast this winter ; winter bo'ds hes 
cum'd so early. 

PINK. (i) The Conservative colour in Lindsey. 

What I doan't like 'aboot Pinks is thaay 're soa terrible scar'd o' 
warkin'-foaks ; just as if God hed n't created us all o' one mak'. 

(2) The chaffinch ; Fringilla coelebs. 
PINK-EYE. A kind of potatoe. 
PINNER, PINNY. A pinafore. 

PINS AND NEEDLES. (i) A pricking sensation caused by 
returning circulation to a part of the body that has been 

(2) Anxiety ; fidget. 
PINSONS. Pincers. Cf. Archaologia, xvii., 292 ; xliii., 240. 

PIP, PIP-HOLE. A peep-hole (q.v.) The small sliding doors 
of the cells in the old prison at Kirton-in-Lindsey were 
called pip-holes. 

PIPE. (i) One of the small canals branching off from the 
central pool in a duck decoy. 

(2) To put a person's pipe out is to subdue or silence him. 

Noht put Dr. Kenealy's pipe oot like gettin' into th' Hoose o' 

PIPES, The larger vessels of the lungs and heart, 
the veins and arteries, more commonly used in relation to 
the vessels of the lungs only. 

He's bad in his pipes when he^walks up hill. 
(2) The larger veins in meat. 

If you doan't tak care to cut the pipes oot e'th' shoh'der-peaceo' a pig 
it weant tak salt, an' then the meat '11 soon begin to stink. 

PIPS, s. pi. (i) The corolla of certain plants, as the cowslip 
and the primrose. 

(2) The seeds of apples and pears. 

(3) The spots on playing-cards, dominoes, women's dresses, &c. 


PISH, inteyj. Signifying'conternpt. 

When oor ohd squire heard "at Mr. Heala' was agooin' to graw 
chicory doon at Borringham he look'd real solid and said just 'Pish,' 
that 'was all. J. L., Burringham, 1880. 

" Nathaniel Hole, quartermaster to Major Fountain, came with 
twenty soldiers and cried pish at their lordships' order." 1643. House 
of Lord's Papers, His. MSS. Com. Rep., v. 93. 

PISMIRE. An ant. Chaucer says : 

" He is ay angry as a pissemire, 
Though that he have all that he can desire." 

Sompnoures Tale. 

PISSABED. The dandelion. 

PISSBURNT. (i) An animal's hair is said to be pissburnt 
when it is bleached by the^sun. 

(2) Leaves or straw that are blighted, or the bedding of 
animals damaged by their urine. 

"And on his wet and pissburnt litter, 
Made a good meal for want of better." 

Edw. Ward, Don Quixote, 1711. 

PISSLES, s. pi. Small fossils ; joints of pentacrinites. See 

" The astroites are called pissles and possles." W. Peck, Ace. of Isle 
of Axholme, 28. 

PISS-PROPHET. A water-doctor (q.v.) 

PIT, v. To bury. 

" William Crosbie for not pittinge his dead mare, iiijd-" Bottesford 
Manor Records, 1615. 

" It is ordered that euery inhabitant in Bottesford and Yadlethorpe 
that haue any cattle that die of the fellon or morren vppon the comons 
or wastes of Bottesford and Yadlethorpe shall sufficientlie pitt the same 
to the sight and discretion of the cargraeuers or two or three sufficient 
and honest men of the said townes, and likewise shall burne the place 
where the said cattle dye vppon payne for euerie defalt xs. " Ibid, 1617. 

PIT-A-PAT. The beating of the heart or any noise thought to 
resemble the sound thereof. 

I could hear their feet pit-a-pat on the stairs. 

PITCH. The quantity of anything set out or pitched in a 
market or fair, most commonly used with regard to cheese. 
Doncaster market is called a pitched market because sacks 
or loads (q.v.) of corn are pitched there by way of sample. 

Ther' was a good pitch o" cheese last Gaainsb'r mart, but noht like 
what it ewsed to be afoore thease raailwaays was on the goa. 


PITCHER. An earthen vessel with an ear and a lip to pour 
from ; to be distinguished from a jug (q.v.) Cf. Holy 
Scripture, authorized version, Gen. xxiv., 14 ; Judges vij., 
16; EccL xii., 16; Lament iv., 3 ; St. Mark xiv., 13; St. Luke 
xxii., 10. 

" En effet la premiere esp&ce de vases, dont il y avail 5 ou 6 individus, 
est de ceux que Ton nomme en Normandie pickets, et en Angleterre 
pitchers." L'Abbe Cochet in Archaologia, xxxix., 118. 

PITTER-PATTER, v. To beat incessantly, as rain. 
PIXTURE. A picture. 

PIZZLE. The penis. 

" When he kills a bull he gives away the pizzle," said of a miserly 

PLAACIN' (plarh'sin). Place service. 

She's not e' plaacin'; she 's a manty-maaker at Loughtoii. 
Hes ta getten a plaacin' this stattus ? 

PLAAIN (plai-h'n). (i) " What the plaain do you mean?" is an 
emphatic mode of asking a person what he means or what 
his intentions are. 

You see he ewst to cum coortin' oor Selina, bud he niver lets me sea 


begins to hammer him wi' it, an' says to him, " If ta wants a bit o 1 
nonsense tak mine ; its gaainer to remember then Selina." 

(2) A person is said to "hev & plaain waayo' gooin' on" when 
he behaves in an indiscreet or irreverent manner. 

He niver ewst to get into his pew till th' parson hed begun th 1 second 
lessin, soa I says to him one daay, " Maaster" says I, "you've getten 
a plaain waay o' gooin' on regardin' this here chech. If I couldn't 
rowt my sen oot o' bsd a bit sooner on a sabbath mornin' I'd lig theare 
altogither if I was thoo'." 

(3) Homely. 

Thaay 're real plaain foaks. 

(4) Ugly. 

She's a good sarvant but th' plaainest lass atwixt Trent an' Tetney 

(5) Awkward, uncomfortable, as "plaain weather," that is rough 
weather ; "plaain ro&ds," bad roads. 

" Maaster Edward's gettin" to talk straange an' plaain " was said of 
the author in his childhood ; meaning, not that he was good to under- 
stand but that his speech was, as it continues to be, highly flavoured 
with the vernacular. 

PLAAT (plarh't). A plate. 


PLAGUE, v. To tease; to chaff. 
PLAISTER. A plaster. 

has had a stroke of paralysis. 

PLANTIN'. A plantation. 

Ther's a straange lot o' hetherds e' th' Snaake-P/aw^V. 

" A small planting called, from its shape, the Cocked-Hat plantation, 
near Temple Bruer." The Bishop of Nottingham in Line. Arch. Soc. 
Rep., 1868, 152. 

PLASH. (i) A pool of water. 

" Plash, a place full of standing water, a puddle." Dictionarium 
Rusticum, 1726, sub voc. Cf. Star Chamber Rep. (Camd. Soc.), 145. 

(2) A slight splash. 

" The plash 
Died on Cocytus while its depths were stirred." 

C. L. Smith, Tr. of Tasso, Jerusalem Delivered, 
Canto iv., st. viii. 

PLASH, v. (i) To lay a hedge, that is, to cut the stronger 
thorns half way through, and force them into an oblique 
or horizontal position, in which they are sometimes held by 
stakes and binders. 

" Thomas Cook and John Blackborne for iij dayes plashyng at 
Wroughlond hedge at vj'a- the daie.-" Kirton-in-Lindsey Ch. Ace., 1584. 

" Plashing or laying down the live fences has been very improperly 
performed." Th. Stone, View of Agric. of Line., 1794, 33. 

" William Needham, of Tumby, farmer, was summoned at the 
instance of William Stubbs, of Tumby, labourer, for non-payment of 
the sum of g. ics. for plashing a hedge." Boston Advertiser, June 30, 
1840, p. 2, col. v. 

" High hedges to be trimmed or otherwise plashed so that the sun 
and wind may have free action on the road." James Thropp, Circular 
concerning Main Roads of Lindsey, June, 1884. Cf. Archaologia, xxiii., 37. 

(2) To splash. 

This raain's plashed th' walls reight up aboon th' winda' sills. 
" Sounds of thickening steps, like thunder-rain, 
That plashes on the roof of some vast echoing fane." 

Mrs. Hemans, The Forest Sanctuary, xiv. 

PL ASH ER. One who plashes. See above. 

Tommy Lee was th 1 best plash er I iver heard tell on. 
1742. " Buried . . . May 26th, William Johnson, labourer & 
plasher." Scatter Par. Reg. 

PLAT. A grass-plot. 
PLATE (plait). A pleat. 
PLATE (plait), v. To pleat, 


PLAY FOR LOVE. To play without stakes. 

I shan't plaay wi' oot ther's sum munny on it ; it's agaain my 
conscience to plaay for luv ; I farm a conscience as well as uther 
foaks. 1858. 

PLAY UP, v. To make much noise or confusion. 

Thaay're still eniff when the'r faather's at hoam, bud thaay do plaay 
up when thaay're to the'r sens. 

PLESSUR. Pleasure. 

PLET, v. Perfect of plait. 

" Iplet it my sen last week," said of a book-marker. 

PLEUGH, PLEW, PLOO. Plough. The gutteral gk still 
lingers among us in the first form Of this word, but the less 
harsh pronunciation is rapidly extinguishing it. 

PLOUGH-BALK. (i) The beam of a plough. 

(2) An irregularity in ploughing, caused by the ploughshare 
being allowed to vary in depth, and thus to spoil the 
uniformity of the furrow. Hence the Lincolnshire proverb : 
" More balks, more barley ; 
Less balks, more beans." 

PLOUGHBOOT. The right of taking wood for the purpose 
of making ploughs (obsolete). 

"To have . . . sufficient houseboot, hedgeboot, fireboot, plowboot 
cartboot, gateboot, and stakeboot . . , to be used on the premises 
and not elsewhere." Lease of Lands in Brumby, 1716. Cf. Scroggs, 
Practice of Courts-Leet and Courts-Baron, 208. 

PLOUGH-BULLOCKS. Plough-Monday mummers. 

" The next day the plough-bullocks, or boggins, go round the town to 
receive alms at each house, where they cry " Largus." They are 
habited similar to the morris-dancers, are yoked to, and drag a small 
plough ; they have their farmer, and a fool called Billy Buck, dressed 
like a harlequin, with whom the boys make sport. The day is concluded 
by the bullocks running with the plough round the cross in the market- 
place, and the man that can throw the others down and convey their 
plough into the cellar of a public house receives one shilling for his 
agility." Will. Peck, Ace. of Isle of Axlwlme, 1815, 278. See Plough- 
slots in Whitby Glossary, and PLOUGH-JAGS below. 

A correspondent informs me that plough-bullocks were common in 
Leicestershire and South Nottinghamshire a few years ago, though the 
word was unknown. 

PLOUGH-HALES, s. //.Handles of a plough. 

PLOUGH-JAGS. Plough-Monday mummers. 

" Ther's been plew-jags iver sin" th' flood. When thaay cum'd oot 
o' th' ark an' put th' fo'st plew into th' grund, thaay dress'd the'rsens 
up e' bits o' things an' danced an' capered aboot, an' thaay 've dun it 'e 
mem'ry o' that iver siuV' H, C\, Winterton, 1880* 


PLOUGH-LAND. (i) Arable lai 

(2) An obsolete measure of land. 

"An oxgang is an eighth part of a Plow-land." Survey of Manor of 
Kirfcn-in-Lindsey, 1787. Cf. Middlesex County Records, i., 101. 

PLOUGH-MONDAY. The first Monday after Twelfth-day. 

PLOUGH-SLEAD. A sledge shod with iron used for removing 
ploughs from place to place. 

PLOUGH-STILTS. The handles of a plough. 

He's been a good hard-workin 1 chap iver sin he was big enif to 
walk atween a pair of plew-stilts. See PLOUGH-HALES. 

PLOVERER (pluvurur). A man who catches plover, or 
gathers their eggs. 

PLOYING (pluvin). The cry of the plover. Isle of Axhohm, 
E.A.W.P., Sep. 8, 1875. 

PLUCK. The lungs and liver of animals. 

PLUCK A CROW, phr." To pluck a crow" is to quarrel or 
have altercation with anyone. 

PLUCKSH. A word used to frighten chickens. 
PLUM, adj. Perpendicular. 
PLUM, . (i) To fathom. 

(2) To tell if a building be perpendicular by the use of a 

PLUM-BOB. The weight of a mason's plummet. 
PLUM-BREAD. Bread with sugar, raisins, and currants in it. 

PLUMP. (i) A patch or clump of flowers. 

Ther's a plump of French willa's in Manby Wood, just aboon 
Mottle-esh Hill, upo' th' No'th side. 1862. 

(2) Wild-ducks and wild-geese are said to fly in a plump when 
they fly closely together. Cf. Arthur of Little Britain, edit. 
1814, 81. Marmion i., 3. 


POANY. A pony. 

POCK-AR'D, ^/. Marked with the small-pox. 


POCKET. Holes in stiff clay in which rain-water accumulates. 

"The hopeless, currentless, remorseless condition of water, whose 
unhappy fate has fallen or melted upon fields as flat as a billiard-table, 
and without even a pocket to run into for escape or concealment." 
Hoskins, Talpa, 1852, p. 3. 

POCKMANKLE. A portmanteau. 
POETERY. Poetry. 

PQHLE. A pole. 

Sum men's fer all warld like teakle-/>0to, fit fer noht when th're 
seperaated, up to oht when th're banded togither. 

POINT GRUND. A man or beast so lame as to walk with 
much difficulty is said to be " hardlin's aable to point 

POKE. (i) A sack ; a bag. 

" The millers doe sett theire sackes and pokes of corne vpon the 
pevement before Michael Pimblet shope, which is to the stopeage of 
the high way, prejudiciall to severall of [the] king's subjects." Man- 
chester Court-Leet Rec., 1686, vol. vii., p. 251. 

(2) A woman's side-pockeV(obsolescent). 
POKE, v. To pry, to intermeddle. 
POKE-BAG. A sack ; a bag, 
POKE-BLOWN. Out of breath. 

POKE-NEEDLE. A large needle used for mending sacks. 
POLL. A hornless cow. 
POLL, . To cut the hair of the head. See 2 Sam. xiv., 26. 

POLL,//. Pull. 

He poll his coat off an' wanted to feight e' Brigg markit. 

POLLARD. The coarsest kind of flour. 

POLL EVIL.; An abscess near the upper vertebrae of a horse's 
neck. Cf. Leonard Towne, Farmers' and Graziers' Guide, 
1816, 38. 

POLLY, POLLY-COT. An effeminate man, a man who takes 
delight in doing women's work. 

He was a straange potty ; he'd get up at foher e' th' mornin' to rub 
th' dinin'-room taable bright. Gainsburgh, 1843. 

POOND, PUND. Pound. 


POOR, adj. (i) Of bad quality, worthless ; said of land. 

Ther's sum o' them hills e' Messingham that poor noabody can farm 
'em to noa sense. 

(2) Good land when out of condition is also said to be poor. 

When Godfrey left it it was e 1 good condition an' wod graw oht. 
George hes hed it noo eaght year an' 'ull leave it as poor as Hardwick 
hill side.Bottesford, Sept., 1887. 

(3) Thin ; emaciated. 

If that theare Nottinghamsheere woman hed n't ha' been rich an' what 
sum foaks calls a laady she'd ha' been sent to jaail fer pinin' her herses 
and things while th're that poor thaay hev n't strength to stan'. 


Them beas o' Butterwick Haale's all as poor as wood ; sum on 'em '11 
be deein' if thaay 're let to oher-stock it e' this how. April, 1887. 

He could n't eat, an' was as poor as a craw, soa missis hed him 
shutten. 1886. 

POOR CREATURE. A term used to designate anyone weak 
in body or mind. 

I ewsed to be strong an' hearty, bud I'm a poor creatur' noo. 

POOTHER (poodh-ur). Powder. 

" Hard upo' poother an' light upo" shot, 
An' then you'll kill dead o' the very spot." 

Local Rhyme. 

POPINJAY. The green wocdpe.cker. 

POPPLE. Corn cockle ; a flower found growing among corn, 
the seeds of which are difficult to separate from or " dress 
out " from among the grain when thrashed. There is a 
field at Bottesford called Popple Close which has been 
mistakenly thought to have taken its name from this plant. 
It was really called Popple Close from the name of a tenant 
who occupied it about the year 1805. 

POPPY-SMACK. The vessel in which the poppies which 
were formerly much grown at Whitton and in the neigh- 
bourhood were sent to Hull. 

POPPY-TEA, POPPY- WATER. A decoction of poppies 
taken as a narcotic, or used for fomentations. 

PORK, v. To fatten pigs for pork. 

PORKET. A pork pig. 

"Pigs . . . 4porkets." Gainsburgh News, April 14, 1877. 

PORPUS. A very fat man. 

He's a real porpus, scar'd o' sittin' doon e' a arm chair, fear'd he 
should n't be aable to get oot agean, 


PORPUS-PIG. A porpoise. 

We have heard that the word "pig" was added because " it hes a 
inside just for all th' warld liks a. pig." 

" Pd for a porpes pygge iijs. " Household Ace. of Lestrange's of 
Hunstanton, 1552, in Archceologia, xxv., 448. 

" In the Netherlands a troop of porpoises is popularly called ' the 
farmer and his pigs.'" Notes and Queries, iv. s., xi., 347. 

PORTESS. A portifory or breviary (obsolete). 

1566. " Blyton . . . one portess and one manuell, defacid this 
yeare." Line. Ch. Goods, 52. 

PORTMANTLE. A portmanteau. This was a common 
form of the word in the seventeenth century. 

POSEY. (i) A bunch of gathered flowers. 

(2) The bouquet or scent of hay or clover. 

If th' raain ho'ds ther 1 '11 be noa posey e' oor haay to year. 

POSH. To slip down ; to fall in ; said of a wall, the side of a 
well, ditch, or drain. 

I'm scar'd when I get to wheare th' sand pipe is, th' side o' th' 
draain will come posh in wi" th' wall a top on it. Ashby, May 5, 1888. 

POSSEDE, v. To possess (obsolete). 

" To haue ayene, reteyne and possede any fermor clause or 
article . . . notwithstandynge." Lease of Manor of Scatter, 1537. 


POST AND PAN. Stud and mud building (q.v.) 

A deal o' Gaainsb'r Ohd Hall's not stoan nor brick, it's podst an' pan. 

POST-MILL. A wooden mill supported on posts, as 
distinguished from a smock-mill (q.v.) 

POT. (i) A vessel of earthenware or glass. 

A servant, having broken a glass tumbler, said : Please m'm, I've 
brok' this here ; I haate to braake a pot, but I did n't do it a' purpose. 

(2) A deep hole in a brook. 
POT, pp. Put. 
POT-ALLEY. A marble^made of earthenware. 

POTATOE-PIE. (i) A heap of potatoes covered with straw 

and earth. 

(2) A pie in which the main ingredient is slices of potatoe, 
with only a very little meat therein, for the purpose of 
giving it flavour. 


POT-CART. The van or other vehicle of an itinerant seller 
of earthenware. 

POTCHED. Poached, said of eggs. 

POTHER. Bother ; fuss; confusion. 

You maake as much pother all aboot noht at all as th' Haxa' clerk did 
when he'd lost th' chech kea upo' Sunda' mornin'. 

" After all this poother." Sir Christ. Wyvill, Pntentions of the Triple 
Crown, 1672, p. 141. 

POT-MAN. A dealer in earthenware. 

POT MARJORAM. Origanum. 

POT-SHOP. A shop where earthenware and glass are sold. 

POTTER. A fire-poker. 

POTTER, v. To poke. 

Noo then, Anne, potter that fire, or it '11 be dead oot in a minnit. 

POTTER ABOUT. (i) To loiter ; to waste time, or to do 
work in a lazy or inefficient manner. 

He's potterin' aboot doin' noht, just e' th' ohd fashion. 
(2) To do odd jobs which are needful, but are not a part of 
any one person's regular work. 

POTTER OUT, v. To pay. 

Cum potter oot, or I'll see what th' coort '11 do for you. 

POTTIN, POTTUN. Contraction for Ferdinand. See 


POULCHER. A poacher. 

" Success to every polcher that wants to sell a hare." Lincolnshire 
Poacher, in Middl. Cos. Hist. Col. ii., 320. 

POULCHING. Poaching. 

11 Till I took up iopokhing, as you shall quickly hear." Ibid. 

POUTHER. Powder. 

POVERTY-PURSE. The shepherd's purse ; perhaps so called 
because it grows on bad land. 

POWER. Many ; a large quantity ; a large sum. 
Ther 1 was a power o' foaks at th' camp-meetin'. 
He'll hev a power o 1 brass when his faather dees. 
It wo'd do a fella' like you a power o 1 good to be sent to Lincoln 
prison for a munth or two. 

POWER, POWER DOWN (pou-h'r-down), v. To pour. 
It begun to power doon wi 1 raain when we was e' chech. 


FOWL (poul). A pole. 

There ewsed to be apowl across th' beck to firm a brig for foot foaks. 
For a furr powk for the clocke iiijd Kirton-in-Lindsey Ch. Ace., 1630. 

POWSE. (i) Rubbish. 
(2) Silly talk. 

PRATE, v. (i) To chatter; to hold forth on uninteresting 

When he's not talkin' aboot his hoose an' furniture, he's alus praatin' 
aboot eatin'. 

(2) A hen is said to prate when she makes a noise which is 
understood to be a sign of her being about to begin laying. 

PRATT Y (prat-i), ^.Pretty. 

" Pratty is that pratty duz." That is good conduct is the chief 

PRAY-BOOK. A prayer-book. 

What's all them gran'faathers an' gran'muthers'e' th' pray -book for ? 
The questioner alluded to the table of kindred and affinity. 

PRECIOUS, adj. or adv. (i) Remarkable ; remarkably. 

Ther' a precious few berries t'-year. 

There "11 be a precious lot of trippers at Nostell o' Wednesda'. 

(2) Often used ironically for something remarkably small in 

Ther was a precious yield o' beans e' th' marsh ; not a seek a' aacre, 
I'll be bun'. 

PREG. A peg. 
'PRENTICE. An apprentice. 
PRESENTLY. Now; immediately. 

PRICE, IN. A person is said to have a thing in price who has 
had the offer of it for sale, but has not yet concluded or 
broken off the bargain. 

I can't tell you what I shall want for her (a cow), for Mr. . . . 
hes her i' price. 

PRICK, v. (i) ^To decorate a church or chapel with holly for 

(2) To mark in a list of names those who are defaulters. 

Mr. George Chatterton rode Brumby sewer, an' ther' was one man 
'at hed n't dun his lot ; soa Chatterton prickt him, an' th' Commissioners 
rriaade him do it. Scunthorpe, Oct. 6, 1875. 

PRICK-HOLLIN. Prick-holly. 


PRICKLE. A prick ; a spine. 

Thoo's as full o' awk'ardness as a otchen is o' prickles. 


PRICK-STOHP, PRICK-POST. A post used in post-and-rail 
fencing, which is not set in a hole dug for the purpose, but 
is hammered down with a "mell" or a "gablock." 

PRIEST'S CROWN. The dandelion. 

PRIME. In first-rate condition or manner. 

He'd sum as prime stock e' his yard this last year as ony body. 
I doan't think much to his conduct oot o' th' pulpit, bud as a preacher 
he's real prime. 

PRIMED,//). Slightly the worse for drink. 

PRIMITIVE. A member of the Primitive Methodist 

Them chapil foaks thinks a powerful deal o' ther 1 sens; one on 'em 
was tellin' me a peace back "at e' heaven Primitives wo'd stan 1 upo' 
chech foaks's heads. "Why, bless ye," says I, "If I can nobbut get 
saafe up theare, thaay maay lig full len'th o' mine for all I care." 

Winteringham, 1884. 

PRIMP. Privet. 

PRINCES, PRINCE-REGENTS. A variety of potatoe. 

PRIVY-SESSIONS. Petty sessions (obsolete). 

" At the privie-sessions at Gainsborough, the xxij. day of Januarie, 
ijs. " Kirton-in-Lindsey Ch. Ace., 1639. 

PRIZE. A lever. 

PRIZE, v. To raise with a lever. 

PROCESSION, v. To walk in procession. 

The Foresters alus processions Messingham toon street ivery year. 

PROD, PROG, v. To poke ; to goad. 

"Prog the hous'd bee from the cotter's wall." 

John Clare, Rural Evening. 

PROOD, adj. Proud. 

PROPPED UP. Helped, supported. 

He'd hev goan all to smash years sin bud Mr. W. . . propped 
him up. 

I should hev been dead afoore noo hedn't th' doctor propped me up 
wi' stuff he sends. 


PROTESTANTS. A kind of potatoe. 

PROUD, PROOD. (i) Conceiled. 

(2) Earth or manure is said to be proud when it lies lightly, 
before it has had time to settle. 

We've fill'd th' graave up real proud, but it'll sattle a deal. 

PROUD-FLESH. Unhealthy flesh in a wound or sore. 

In the centre of the tumour . . . she perceived a small substance 
. . . which at the time she took for proud-flesh. Lincolnshire news- 
paper cutting, recent. 

PRUDENT. Chaste, virtuous. See Notes and Queries, vj. s., 
j. 293, 480. 

PUBLIC-HOUSE-BARGAIN. A loose bargain; a bargain 
of an unprofitable or bad character. 

Them carrots isn't wo'th moore then hauf what George hes gen for 
'em. It's been a real public-hoose-bargain. 

PUCKER. (i) A wrinkle made in sewing. 

(2) Embarrassment ; trepidation about small matters. 

PUCKER, PUCKER-UP. (i) To make wrinkles in sewing. 
(2) To distort the face. 

PUDDING-FAT. The fat adhering to the viscera of a pig. 

PUDDINGS, s. pi. The intestines. A person who suffers 
from strangulated hernia is said to ' have got his puddings 

PUDGE (puj). A small pool of water or mud. 

PUFF. Breath. 

I soon lose my puff gooin' up hill. 

PULK. A coward. 

PULKS. A heavy, lethargic woman. 

PULL. (i) To pick, pluck, gather. 

We was/>M//w' apples e' th' new otchard th 'daay th' mare deed. 
I mun hev them corran's pulVd or th' bods '11 hev ivery one. 

(2) To pluck the feathers from a bird. 

If ye doant get them chickens pulVd missis '11 be efter ye. 
" People pulling geese." 

John Clare, Shepherd's Calendar, 97. 

(3) To pull up is to stop on riding or driving ; sometimes, 
though rarely, used of walking or stopping in conversation. 
One who decreases his expenditure is said to pull up, and 


a person who has had further credit refused by the bank, or 
a shopkeeper with whom he deals is said to have been 

pulled up. 

(4) A person is said to be pulled down who has been weakened 
by sickness, sorrow or poverty. 

FULLBACK. A drawback. 

He's a rich man yit, bud theasebad times hes been a sore fullback for 

It was a real bad pullback for her to braak her airm afoore she was oot 
agean fra her lay in' in. 

PULLEN. Poultry (obsolescent). 

" My stomach's not so nice or sullen, 
But I could make a shift with pullen." 

Edward Ward, Don Quixote, i., 361. 

Cf. Archceologia, x., 436. Midi. Counties Hist. Coll., ij., 29. Manchester 
Court-Leet Records, iv., 212. 

PULLY-HAWLY-WORK. (i) Romping play among lads 
and lasses. 

I haate such pully-hawly-wark ; ther's niver noii good cums on it r an' 
of'ens misfo'tuns happens. 

(2) Unskilful bell-ringing. 

PULPER. A machine used for grinding turnips and other 
roots into pulp for cattle-food. 

PULPIT. (i) An auctioneer's stand. 

(2) A square box sunk in a wash-dyke in which a man 
stands who washes sheep. 

PULSE. Chaff. 

PULTIS (pult-is). A poultice. 

PULTRY (pult-ri). Poultry. 

PUMP WITHOUT A HANDLE, phr.-A.ny person or thing 
that is quite unfit to discharge the office which he or it has 
to fill. 

I reckon a parson what's not a good hand at preachin' is just a pump 
wi'oot a handle. 

PUN, v. To ram or beat earth so as to consolidate it. Lit. to 

PUNCH, v. To beat. 
PUNCHY, adj. Broad; thick-set, 


PUNCTAL (pungkt-ul), ^/.Punctual ; upright ; straight- 
forward ; truthful. 

He's a. punctual man to speak efter. 

" Thomas Stocks . . . was always a very punctual man." E.S.P., 
Bottesford, 1853. 

PUNCTAL PROMISED. Promised in a manner which -is 
quite distinct and clear in all particulars. 

- It's to noa ewse saayin' ony moore aboot that pig, for I tell ye it's 

punctual promised. Broughton. 

PUND (pund). A pound. 

PUNISH, v. To cause pain, out of anger, wantonness, or 

PUNISHMENT. Pain; suffering. 

How's John ? 

Oh, poor bhd man, he was e' sore punishment when I left him. 
Put that poor ohd hoss oot on his punishment, it's a shaame to let 
him live e' that how. 

PURELY, tfd/. Nicely; favourably; very well. 
She's gooin' on purely, thank you. Yaddhthorpe. 

PURGE, v. To cleanse a ditch or drain. 
PURL. A fall from horseback. 

PURPUS, PURPUS-PIG. A porpoise. See PoRPus-PiG. 
Thaay mak boot-laaces of purpus skins. 

PURSE. (i) The scrotum. 

(2) A hollow bit of coal which flies out of the fire, and is 
believed to portend a purse of money coming to him in 
whose direction it flies. 

PUSSY-CAT. (i) Child's name for a cat. 
(2) The catkins of the willow. 

PUTHER. To pour in ; to pour out ; to pour down. 

Th' soot cum putherin' doon chimla'. 1841. 

Thoo moan't leave th' winda's oppen e' a wind like this ; if th' duz 
sand an' leaves an' all soorts o' muck '11 puther in like all that. 
May 3, 1888. 

Th' bag brusted an' meal cum' d puther in' oot upo' th' hoose floor. 

Smook was putherin' oot o 1 iv'ry crack an' chink as ther' was. 

PUT IN, v. To begin to lengthen or increase. 

Daays begin to put in nicetly when March hes cum'd in. 
Spring winds put in early this year an' lasted laate. 
I sha' n't thresh no oats awhile March puts in, then thaay '11 goa for 



PUT UP TO. To instruct. 

He knew noht at all aboot aither suffin' or hedge-plashin' when he 
cum'd here, but I soon put him up to 'em. 

PYANOT. Pceonia offic-inalis. 

PYCHIN ABOUT (peich-in),/m. /^.Listening ; skulking; 

"Let me lock the door, for feerd madam should come; she's alm'st 
&\us pychin' about." Ralf Skirlaugh, j. 185. 


PYWIPE (pei-weip). The lapwing, vanellus cristatus. There is 
a public-house called the Pywipe, near Lincoln, on the 
Foss-dyke; and there is, or was within human memory, a 
place called Pyewype Hall, near Redburne, and another 
house bearing the same name near Aylesby. 



Q WITH A LONG TAIL. A measuring-tape which winds up 
into a box. 

QUAKERS. Trembling grass. 

QUALIFIED (al as in alley). Able ; competent. 

He's not qualified to write a letter, but he can read writin 1 . 
Th 1 graainry floor, noo the new bauks is in, is qualified to bear 
hundred quaarter. 

QUALITIES, (al as in alley) Abilities. 

If Maria was nobbud as good e' her behaaviour as she is e' her qualities 
she'd be clear different to what she is. 

She's reight e' her qualities, her book-larnin', an 1 all that theare, bud 
she's so maisterful, that's th' wo'st on her. 

QUALITY (al as in alley). The gentry. 

QUANDARY (an as in an). Perplexity. 

"He brought him into aquandare that indeed he knew not whether he 
might better obey shame or loue." Bernard, Terence, 320. 

QUARREL (ar as in are). A quarry or square of glass. 

QUARTERN (ar as in are). A quarter of anything. 

"Three quartrans of one oxgange of land." Will of John Clarke, of 
Scawthorpe, 1647. 

QUAVER, v. (i) To shake ; to reel ; to tremble. 
He was n't real fresh but he quaaver'd a bit in his talk. 

(2) To equivocate. 

Noo doan't quaaver, bud tell us streight just what you seed. 

(3) To go about any kind of occupation in an uncertain 

QUEE. A female calf. 

Ey, thaay speak clear different e' Yerksheere to what we do. I mind 
hearin' a woman 'at was fra that-awaays-on tellin' on her naaibour 
she'd gotten a nist " why," an' when I went to see what it was, it was 
noht bud a quee-cauf. 1887. 

" I bequeath to Esabell, my doghter, one black qwye." Will of James 
Smith, of Scatter, 1550. 

" Six steares and three quees 29^." Invent, of Sir John Anderson of 
Bt'oughton, 1671, in Sir Charles H. J. Anderson's Ace. of Lea., 25. 


QUEEN, THE. To call the Queen one's aunt signifies the 
greatest honour or distinction that can happen to any one. 

An old woman at Winterton, who was receiving parish relief, said, 
" Oh, sir, if th' board wo'd nobut put me on anuther sixpence a week I 
wo'd n't thenk ye to hev th' Queen for my aunt." 

QUEEN OF THE MEADOW. Spima Ulmaria, Queen of the 
Meadow, is a translation of the old Latin name, Regina Prati. 
See Britten and Holland, Eng. Plant Names. 

QUEER-STREET. A mess; a difficulty ; probably modern 

She's alus e' queer-street aboot sum'ats. 

QUERE (kweer). (i) The choir or chancel of a church. 

" My husband's laaid under th' quere winda" " was said September 
5, 1877, by. a woman of Winterton, aged ninety. 

(2) The persons who sing in the choir ; the choristers. 

(3) Sometimes, though rarely, the transept of a church. The 
north transept at Bottesford is called the Holme, or the 
Papist quere, because it was the burial place of the old 
Catholic family of Morley, of Holme Hall. 

QUERN. A handmill (obsolete). In Derbyshire the upper 
stone of a quern was called the " runner," the lower the 
"ligger." Archaologia, vij., 20. I have not met with these 
words, thus used, here. 

QUEST. An inquest. 

QUICK, adj. Alive. 

I hed it i' my mind all them yung treas e' th' Pan Field wo'd dee, 
but noo raain's cum'd thaay're quick eniff. 

" I give to Thomas Younge, my son, my wagons, harrowes, plows, 
and utensils of husbandry, and also all my other quick cattle." Will 
of Arthur Younge, of Keadby, 1709. 

QUICK, QUICKWOOD. Young plants of thorn, of which 
hedges are made. 

You mun cut doon that quick or it'll graw crookled. 

Quickwood 'at you get oot o' hedge-boddums an' plantin's isn't noht 
near as good as what you buy. 

" 1 observed many of the quicks much neglected." Arth. Young, 
Line. Agric., 1799, 91. 

QUICK-STICK, IN A, ^.Immediately. 
If thoo's not off in a quick-stick I'll help the. 

QUICKEN, QUICKEN-WOOD. The mountain ash. 


QUIET, adv. Quite. 

I was quiet stall'd wi' listenin' to his gab. 

" We shall do here quiet well, bud thaay'll soon be wantin" raain 
soorely upo' th' hill-side." Bottesford Moors, 14 June, 1887. 

QUIETEN, v. To quiet. 

II The wedding had better be put off until they had become more 
quietened." Leeds Merc., 27 July, 1875. 

QUILT, v. To beat. 
QUILTING. A beating. 
QUIRK. A trick; a dodge. 

QUIRKLE. A twist. 

There's a lot o' quirkles e' this band. 


It's a straange bit o' quirkly road atween Eastoft an' Luddington. 



RABBIT, i'. To catch rabbits. 

RABBIT. A form of curse. 
'Od rabbit it. 
Rabbit you, you ohd theaf. 

RABBIT-MEAT. Anthriscus Sylvestrea, Heraclentn Sphondyliuni, 

and any other similar plant which rabbits are fond of. 

You can't gether rabbit-meat wi' oot findin' nettles. Proverb. 

RABBLEMENT. A crowd of disorderly persons; a rabble. 
Ther' was a straange rabblement o' foaks to see the wild beast shaw. 


RACE, v. To beat in a race. 
I can raace the. 

RACK. (i) A frame for holding fodder in a building or out of 

(2) A frame for holding plates and dishes. See CREEL, 4. 

(3) Clouds or mist driven before the wind. 

"Thin clouds, fleeting under the thicker and heavier, that which 
in English wee call the racke." William Pemble, A Short and Sweete 
Exposition vpon the First Nine Chapters of Zachary, 1629, p. 164. 

RACK AND MANGER, phr.To live at rack and manger is to 
live plentifully ; without stint. 

RACK AND RUIN. Total destruction. 
RACKAPELT. A riotous, noisy child, or pet animal. 
RACKAPELT, RACKAPELTERLY, adj. Riotous, noisy, 

RACK OF MUTTON. A neck of mutton. A.S. hracca, the 

RACK-YARD, A fold-yard, 


RADDLE, .(:) To beat (properly to beat with a rod). 
(2) To smear with rud. See RUDDLE. 

RADGY. Extremely anxious; violent; highly irritated. 

Flower's foal deed as soon as it was foal'd, soa I've taa'en that graay 
Shire mare, Beetrice, foal fra her, an* gen it to Flower, an' she is radgy 
efter it, you ma' depend. Bottesford, 1888* 

RAFF. (i) A rafter. 

(2) Foreign timber. 

(3) a term of contempt for a worthless fellow. 

He's a good for noht, a real raff. 

RAFFLE, v. To ravel ; to entangle ; to confuse. 

You've raffled all that sowin'-silk, soa that noabody can wind it. 
It was such a raffled mess that ther' wasn't a lawyer e" th' cuntry 
could mak' onything on it 

RAFFLE-CAP. A disorderly person, 

RAFF-MARCH ANT. - A timber-merchant. 

RAFF- YARD. A timber-yard. 

RAG, RAGSTONE. A whetstone. 

RAG, v. To tease. 

RAGAMUFFIN. A dirty or disorderly person. 

RAG-CHAIN. A small chain. 


'RAGEOUS. Outrageous. 

RAGGED, pp. Covered ; used of fruit-trees. 

The trees doon at th' warp is ragg'd wi' apples. 
Oor corran'-treas is ragg'd wi' berries. 

RAG-RIME. A white frost, when much frozen dew hangs on 
the trees like white rags. 

RAGS. Meat is said to be boiled or roasted to rags when it is 
much over done. 

RAIL, v. To sew with big stitches ; to tack. 

RAIN. When it rains violently it is said to " raain cats and 
dogs," or to " raain pitchferks wi' th' tines doon'ards." 

RAIN-BEETLE. The shard beetle, 


RAINY DAY. To " lay by agaain a vaainy daay" means to 
provide for the future. 

He hedn't much to start wi', but he alus said, " I'll lay by agaain a 
vaainy decay," an' noo, you see, he's gotten to be real well off. 

RAISEMENT. Rise, increase, advance. 

Ther' was a great raisement e' prices when we'd th' Russian war agaate. 
I wish we'd anuther like it. Nov., 1886. 

This isn't the time to talk o' raisement o' rent, wi' wheat at tho'ty 
shillin' a quarter. Oct. 8, 1887. 

RAKE, v. To stray ; said of cattle, and sometimes of other 

That bull o' Chafor's is a\nsr (taking aboot th' toon sumwheares. 
I alus thoht oor ohd bitch wo'd cum to a bad end ; she ewsed to 
raake efter rabbits among th' sand hills. May, 1886. 

RAKE ABOUT, v. To wander about ; said of children, 
servants, and animals. 

Cats '11 goa fer miles at nest raakin' aboot. 

RAKE OF PASTURE. Right of pasture on unenclosed land. 
There was a place in the Manor of Scotter called Long 
Rayke. Manor Records, 1591. Cf. Icel. Reika, to wander* 
to stroll. 

RAKE UP, v. (i) To collect ; to bring- together. 

Oor squire's raak'd up a lot o' ohd-fashion'd things. 
(2) To collect or repeat scandal or calumnies. 

She's alus raakin 1 up sum bad taale or anuther agaain sumbody. 

RAKINGS, sb. pi. The ears of corn which are raked up in a 
cornfield after the mowers have " stooked " the sheaves. 
These rakings are not made up into sheaves, but into large 
bundles, which are commonly put on the top of a stack. In 
a wet harvest they are often much damaged, and are then 
made into a stack by themselves and thrashed for pig-corn. 

RAM, v. (i) To beat down. 

I remember th' time very well. Thaay was rammin' piles that da> at 
th' Beck-head. 

(2) To push violently. 

He ramm'd agaain me as I was gooin' thrift th' door-stead. 

RAM ABOUT, v. To knock about ; to push violently. 

Doant ram aboot e' that how, thoo '11 be aaither laamin 1 thy sen or 
else braakin' sum'at. 

RAM FULL. Quite full. 

It was ram full reight slap Up to th' top, said of a cess-pooli 
That theare tree's ram full o 1 apples. 


RAMIFIED. Choked with weeds, said of corn. 

Hares doan't like to be e'stan'in corn when Its ramified wi' heiidaaches. 
Bottesford, August 22, 1882. 

RAM IN. To burst in. 

" Me an' my muther was so scar'd when we seed her [a boggard*] 
that we run'd hoam, an' went at door as if we was ready for th' 'sylum ; 
a'i' my faather, as did n't knaw what was up, holla's oot, ' Hohd hard 
while I get her oppen or you'll be rammw' in.'" Account of a Spectre seen 
at Wifiteringham, circa 1835. 

RAMMIL. Rubbish of any kind. The Craven Glossary gives 
Ramillj underwood, twigs ; Lat. ramulus. The derivation is 
certainly wrong ; the interpretation has probably been 
brought into unison with it. Miss Baker, in the Northampton- 
shire Glossary, defines it as "stone, rubbish, or rubble, the 
refuse left by masons, such as is used for the filling in of 
walls." Mr. Sharp, of Coventry, says that it occurs 
in the municipal muniments of that city as early as 1448. 

" Tak' that rammil back ; I don't want none on it." Ralf Skirlaugh, 
i., 194. 

" For carry inge ye stones & rammell away where ye crosse stoode." 
1569. North. Chron. of St. Martin's. Leicester, 172. 

" Paid the scavengers f ^r carryin' ramcl from the churchyard." 
Ch. Ace., 1754 ; Cox and Hope's Chron. of All Saints, Derby, 199. [See 
Ramel, rubbish, in Halliwell. Cf. Swed ramla, to tumble down. The 
word is Scandinavian. W.W.S.~] 

RAMMING. Big; fine. 

What a great rammin' bairn that is o' thine, Keturah. Ct. Icel. ramr, 
strong, big, mighty. 

RAMMOCK, v. To rush about violently. 

Iwean't hev them thearepups rammockin' aibootupo' my clean kitchen 
floor, soa that's all aboot it. 

RAMP, v. (i) To move about violently. Cf. Notes and Queries 
7.S., vj. 6, 115, 275, 297, 413. 

(2) To grow very rapidly. 

Thease few warm daays hes maade th' wheat e 1 them two foherteen 
aacres ramp awaay finely. -June 13, 1887. 

I niver seed noht rump awaay as woodbine duz when once it gets a 

" And the cow-boy seeks the sedge, 
Ramping in the woodland edge." 

John Clare, Noon* 

RAMPAGING, pres. part. Acting violently either in speech or 

Oor Jim's alus rampaagin' aboot sum'ats. 

He's rampagin up an' down wi' his gret horsewhip i' his hand." Ralf 
Skirlaugh, i., 187. 


RAMPER. (i) The Ermine Street, the Roman way leading 
from Lindum, Lincoln, to Ad Ahum, Winteringham. 

(2) Sometimes, though not commonly, other old roads which 
have existed time out of mind, are called vampers, to 
distinguish them from the new roads made by enclosure 

(3) One who acts violently or destructively. 

My faather, he coonts me a ramper in boots. That is one who Wears 
them out very fast. 

RAMPER, v. To rush about, or otherwise act violently. 

RAMPER-JACK. Mud scraped off roads. Ramper -jack was 
much used in former days, and is still occasionally employed 
as a substitute for lime-mortar, in building stone walls. 
See above. 

When I laaid oot my gardin I maade a bank upo'theno'th side agean 
th' wall o' ramper-jack ; I thoht it wo'd be fine mella' stuff, bud blaame 
it, it was that poor noht wo'd graw e' it. Bottesford, 1882. 

RAMP UP, v. To heap up. 

John Roberts hes vamped up th' road-muck o 1 boath sides th' narra' 
laane gooin' to As'by, so as its umpossible for two things to pass in it. 

(2) To grow rapidly as climbing plants do. 

Them 'sturshuns hes ramp'd up sin' I was here last. 

(3) To grow, said of children who grow fast. 

That lad o 1 your's ramps up finely, he'll be a man afoore you knaw 
wheare you are. 

RAMSHACKLE. A wild, worthless fellow. 
He was alus a real ramshackle. 

RAMSHACKLE, adj. (i) Wild; disorderly. 

" What ramshackle wark ha' ye been after." Ralph Skirlaugh, ii., 121. 

(2) A building or article of furniture much out of repair is 
said to be in a " straange ramshackle staate.'' 

RAN-DAN. A loud and discordant noise. 

Sum foaks says she plaays the pianna' well, bud I call th' noise she 
maks a real ran-dan. 

RAN-DAN, adj. Idle, disorderly. 

I weant hev sich van-dan wark e' my hoose, so noo then. 

RAN-DAN, v. To ride the stang (q.v.) 

RANDOM-WALLING. Building without arranging the 
stones in courses. 


RANDY. An orgie ; a drinking bout ; a revel. 

We'd a reg'lar randy last neet.' 

Bill's upo' th' randy to-daay. 

What, you've been hevin* a small-beer randy, hev you ? 

" Ey, lad, thoo should ha' sean Redburn-Randy ! We hevn't noa 
such gooin's on noo-a-daays ; bud laws, I of'ens wish 'at ohd times was 
back. G. T., 1884. 

Cf. Randies, " Itinerant Beggars and Ballad-singers." West Riding 
of Yorks. Gloss., E.D.S. B. vij. 

RANDY. Wild, mischievous ; given to drink. 

Nelson was a randy chap when he was yung, but he's a loocal- 
preacher noo. 

RANDY1NG, adj. Brawling, drinking. 

" I never get in his way, barrin' it be an odd time by chance, when I 
fetch him hoome fra' that big hoose yonder, after he's been randyin 1 
ower long." Ralf Skirlaugh, iij:, 62. 

RANGELING (rainj-ling). The promontory pains of child- 

RANK, adj. (i) Strong smelling. 

(2) Growing too luxuriantly. 

That wheat i' th' middle Naathan Land 's oher rank by hauf. It'll 
all be laaid afoore harvist. Bottesford, June, 1888. 

(3) Expressive of religious or political hatred. 

A rank Papist, a rank Calvinist, a rank Methodist, a rank Tory, a 
rank Radical. 

(4) Ardently desirous. 

I was rank to goa to 'Mericay when I was a gell. 

RANNING. A scolding. 

" Oh, miss, you mun give him a good rannin'." Willoiiyhton. 
RANNISH, adj. Rash, violent. 
RANTER. A Primitive Methodist. 

RANTY. (i) Excited, impatient. 

" Noa, miss, I can't remember King George jewbilee, bud I mind 
th 1 daay 'at thaay leeted up toon fer Waterloo well enif. Me an' my 
sister was that ranty oher it, ther' wasn't noa keapin' on us quiet. 
H. T. Bottesford, June 10, 1887. 

(2) Under sexual excitement. 

RAP AND REAR, phr. To gather together by any means. 

He's sell'd all he can rap and rear an' slotted off to Canada. [See 
Rap, Atkinson's Cleveland Glossary']. 

RAP OUT, v. To swear ; to use bad language, 



RARE, adj. adv.-(i) Very good. 

Scotter's a rare plaace for carrots ; I've knawn a man sell one crop 
for as much as th' land was wo'th. 1881. 

(2) Very extremely. 

When I was a bairn I was rare an' fond o' S . , . bud I doant 
think much to her noo. Nov., 1886. 

RARELY, adv. Well, excellently. 

RASH, adj. Corn is said to be rash when it comes out of the 
husk very easily. 

RASHEN, v. (i) To dry ; to become ripe. 
The wheat rashens fast. 

(2) To air or dry clothes after they have been mangled. 

RASPER. Something very extraordinary. 
Well, this is a rasper. 

RASPS, s. ^.Raspberries. 
RAT, v. To catch rats. 

RATCH, RETCH, i.e. reach, (i) A definite piece of earth-work 
set out to be done, or let to a gang of bankers. 

(2) A long straight course in a river. 

RATCH, RAX, v. (i) To stretch. 

I shall hev to get thease here boots ratch'd; thaay nip sorely. 
(2) To exaggerate. 

He duz n't lee, bud he ratches a bit. 

You mun remember, bairns, that ratchin's just for all th' warld th' 
saame thing as leein*. Oht that sucks onybody in is a lee. 

RATCHET, v. To tear. 

Thoo'll be ratchetin' thy cloas if ta duz n't cum off fra that stick-hill. 

RATCH-MONEY. When bankers (q.v.) took a drain to cut, or 
other work to do, they used to receive from their employer so 
much a day during the time the work was going on, when 
it was finished the sum that remained was handed over to 
them. This was called vatch-money. It was usually put into 
the hands of some publican and reserved for drink. W. M., 
Messingham, August 27, 1877. 

RATCHY, adj. Said by shoemakers of leather that stretches. 

RATE, RET, v. (i) To soak hemp or flax in water, for the 
purpose of disengaging the fibre, 


"Frodingham . ; . of Roberte Westabie, for rateing hempe in 
Skinner Beck, contrairie to paine." Kirton-in-Lindsey Fine Roll, 1630. 

(2) Hay or clover is said to be rated when, by exposure to rain, 
it has become well-nigh worthless for fodder. 

RATE, v.~ (i) To scold ; to revile; to rail at. 

He alus rotates his sarvants when oht mak's him mad when he's been 
fra hoam. 

" So- the Shepheard sets his dog vpon his sheep to bring them in, but 
when they are brought in he rates his dog." John Preston, The New 
Covenant, or the Saint's Portion, 130, p. 124. 

(2) To impose a rate. 

"You commissioners (of sewers) alus mateoor parish, an' you've niver 
dun usony good, ony one on ye iver sin' you've been born." -Laugh ton, 
1879. - 

RATE PIT. A pit in which hemp or flax was 'rated.' Traces 
; of these pits are to be seen at Bottesford, Holme, and many 
other places. 

" Ricardus Home dimisit vnum le ratepitt vxori Parkin .contra penam 
inde positam." Bottesford Manor Records, 1571. 


I'd raatherly bury all my bairns then thaay should live to graw up 
drunken shackbags like him. 

I will if ta likes, but I'd raatherlins not. See NIPPED. 

RATIFY, v. To scold ; to use clamorous vituperation. 

She's a straange still body; you weant hear noa rdtifyin' wheare 
she is. 

RATTING. Rat catching. 

When I was a bairn ther' was noht e' th' warld I took delight in like 
rattin' : an" to tell you the solid trewth I'm a bit partial to it yit. 

I alust thoht e' my awn mind like as that poor lass wod goa wrong. 
I 'stead o larnin' what belonged to women's wark she was oot wi' th' 
lads' daa,y oot an' daay in, raftin', an' efter sich like kelter. 

RATTLE-JACK. A plant, Rhinanthus Cristagalli ; also in 
some parts called cock's-comb, and yellow-rattle. 

" When the fruit is ripe the seeds rattle in the husky capsule." 
Flowers of the Field, by C. A. Johns, 466. 

RATTLE-TRAPS. (i) A talkative person. 
(2) Worthless lumber. 

RATTLING. Great ; large ; extreme ; good. 

Yohs an' lambs maade a rattlin' price at th' Ranthrup saale. 
That was a rattlin' good sarmon he preached last Sunda 1 . 
If this fine weather ho'ds ther' 11 be sum rattlin' wheat doon by th' 
Trent-side. July, 1887. 


RATTON. A form which the surname Drayton commonly 
assumes in popular speech. 

RAVE, v. {i) To make a loud noise ; to cause uproar. 

He's alus raavin' an' tearin' aboot sum'ats. 
(2) To rout out ; to disturb. 

I did n't knaw ther' was ony sacrament o' Sunda' mornin' as th 1 
parson was fra hoiime ; soa I thoht ther' was no ewse gettin' up raavin' 
when I did n't want. 

RAVE UP. To take up ; to pull up. 

We mun hev' them suffs e' th' Herse-Cloas raavd up ; thaay doan't 
utter noa watter, raain as it maay. 

(2) To repeat evil stories relating to by-past time. 

RAW. A row. 

The mice hes run'd along th 1 pey raws an' gotten iv'ry blessid pey. 
She lives in Drewry's Raw at As'by. 

RAW, adj. (i) Uncooked, unboiled. 

" Ther's sum foa'ks can't drink milk that's not boil'd, but I like it raw 
my sen best."Bottesford, April u, 1882. 

(2) Cold, uncongenial. 

We've hed a raw spring, but it's a real growin' Jewne. June 15, 1887. 

RAW, v. (i) To sow or plant in rows. 

" A deal o'foaks raws the'r to'nups noo ; when I was a bairn thaay was 
alust sawn broadcast. 1 ' R. T. Yaddlethorpe^ 1879. 

(2) To come up in rows. 

Oor carrots raws nistly ; one can see 'em noo all th' len'th o' th' 
peace, bud th' soft fella' as drill'd 'em did n't put hairf enif seed on th' 
Beck-side. Bottesford, July, 1888. 

" There's ae thing I had 'maist forgot, 

Perhaps there may be twa, Gordie ; 
Indite us back when ye gang hame, 
How they received ye a', Gordie. 
And tell us how the lang kail thrive, 
And how the turnips raw, Gordie, 
And how the seybos and the leeks 

Are braidin' through the snaw, Gordie." 

Up and Run Awa, Gordie, in the 
Scots' Mag., 1882 ; 461. 

RAW-HEAD. -A ghost or spirit that haunts wells. 

RAWM, v. (i) To push about violently. Cf. Icel. Ramba, 
to rock a chair, &c. Dan. Ramme, to ram, to thrust. 

(2) To make a loud noise. Cf. A. S. Hryman, to cry aloud. 

"This judge (Jefferies) is reckon'd to be a very impudent, rawming, 
conceited fellow." Diary of Abraham de la Pryme (Surtees Soc.), 9 



REACH. (i) A reach of meadow is a stretch of meadow land. 

(2) Also the right of cutting a certain quantity of grass in a 

REACH, v. To retch ; to strive to vomit. 

REACH TO, imp. mood. Help yourself. 

Noo, then, doan't be on yer manners bud reach to. [In Shropshire I 
have heard " catch hold," meaning help yourself. W.W.S.] 

READ, v. To understand character or motives. 

His muther duz n't knaw what he's maade on, bud I can redd him 
strlght off to be noht bud an idled leein' good-for-noht. Jan. 17, 1881. 

He's nobbud just been fun oot, bud ther's been them as could read 
him well eniff ony time thease tho'ty year. 

REAL, VERY. As "real fine," very fine; "real raainy," 
very rainy; " a real shaame," a great shame. 

A boy recently gave it as his reason for being good, that " My daddy 
says we moan't be naughty 'cos ther's a real hot fire gettin' ready for 
us, an 1 a big smell o' matches." 

REANS, s. //.Reins. 

REAPER. A reaping machine. 

Reapers duz very well for corn, bud I think noht on 'em fer haay ; 
thaay niver cuts grass clean by grund. 

REAPER, v. To cut with a reaping machine. 
I alus reaper mysen e' harvist-time. 

" I doant think much on a man that can't reaper foherteen or fifteen 
aacre a daay." W. S., Bottesford Moors, Sept., 1886. 

REAP UP, v.(i) To spread evil reports. 

He's alus rea'pin' up sum'ats foul aboot sumbody. 
(2) To recount long-past grievances or scandals. 

He rept up things that was past an' dun wi' afoore thoo an' me was 

REAR, adj. Half cooked, said of meat. 
This meat's so rear, I can't eat noan on it. 

REAST, v. To wrest. 

Redst oppen that door, th' lock's brokken. 

REASTY, adj. (i) Restive. 

"To be plain wi' ye, our powny reists a bit." The Antiquary, 
chap. xv. 

(2) Said of bacon when it becomes yellow or brown in colour 
and acquires a peculiar flavour. 


RECKIN'-HOOK. The recking-hook ; the -hook which hangs 
in the reeks ; the hook by which a pot is suspended over 
a fire. 

RECKLIN'. (i) The smallest pig in a litter ; one that has riot 
a pap from which to suck. 

(2) The smallest chicken in a cletch. 

(3) The youngest child of a family. 

(4) Anything weak, sickly, or deformed. 

RECKON, v. (i) To determine ; to intend. 

I reckon I shall hev to goa to London aboot this here business afoore 
Jewly's oot, Juno 15, 1887. 

(2) To suppose. 

I reckon ther' '11 be foher or five on ! em 'e 'Mericay, bud I'm not 
clear sewer. 

RECKON UP, v. (i) To estimate the value or number of 

I've reckon'd them taaties iip, an' I underfind ther's been better then 
sixty seeks an aacre. Bottesford, 1887. 

What wi' one thing an' anuther, I reckon it up it cums to a hund'rd 

I've reckon'd him up a long while sin', an 1 fun noht to speak on when 
I'd dun. 

(2) To recognize. 

I could not reckon him up at fo'st, but when he com gaain-hand I knew 

REDCAP. The goldfinch; carduelis elegans. 

RED LANE. The interior of the throat. 

"But see! the Gin! Come, come, thou cordia drop! 
Thou sovereign balsam to my longing heart ! 
Thou husband! children! all! We must not part! 
[Drinks] Delicious ! O ! Down the red lane it goes : 
Now I'm a queen, and trample on my woes. 
Inspired by Gin I'm ready for the road ; 
Could shoot my man, or fire the king's abode. 
Ha! my brain's cracked The room turns round & found. 
Down drop the platters, pans I'm on the ground ; 
My tatter'd gown slips from me what care I ? 
I was born naked, and I'll naked die." 

Verses in The Lincoln Pier aid, July 15, 1831. 

RED PORT. The generation which is passing away, and their 
predecessors, always spoke of port wine as red port. 

"One pipe of red port for mansion house vault." Corporation Records , 
1803, in Tomlinson's Doncaster, 256* 


RED SEA. Anywhere a great way off; used as an evil wish. 
Probably an unconscious allusion to Tobias, viii., 3. 

I wish her an' ajl her belongin's was at th' boddom o' th' Red Sea. 

RED SHANK. Polygonum Per sicaria, Poly gonum Aviculare, and 
allied plants. 

RED WATER. A disease in sheep. See Arth. Young, Line. 
Agric., 1799, 376. A. Hunter, Georgical Essays, 1803, iv., 257. 
Leonard Towne, Farmer and Grazier's Guide, 1816, 21. 
Communications to the Board of Agriculture, 1819, 245. 

REEF. A sore in the head. 

REEK. (i) A cock of hay ; a rick (obsolete). 

" Tresseman londe . . . the tenantes were to keepe prisoners in 
the stockes to gather rodds for herdells for the Lords fold, and to make 
the Lordes hay in a reehe." Norden's Survey of the Manor of Kirton-in- 
Lindsey, 1616, p. 9. 

(2) Smoke. 

(3) The steam which proceeds from a brew-house or from a 
newly-turned manure hill. 

(4) A very dense fog. 

REEK, v. (i) To smoke. 

(2) When fog arises the land is said to reek. 

REEK-PENNIES, s. pi, A small tax paid to the rector or 
vicar on all chimnies that had fires in them (obsolete). 

REEL. A spool ; a bobbin. 
REFFATORY (ref-atun), ^'.Refractory. 

REFFUGES, s. pl.(i) Refuse, commonly used of corn and 

I'll send you sum refuges for your hens. Amcotts, 1877. 
I've sell'd all th' ware, and th' seed, bud I've a few refuges left as '11 
do for th' pigs. 

(2) Inferior persons, socially, intellectually, or morally ; a 
term of jocose abuse. 

. All them that's wo'th oht's pink, it's nobbut th' reffuges an 1 th' Irish 
that's blew this time. General Election, 1886. 

REFUSAL. The chance of refusing. 

I hev n't sell'd my hogs yit, but John Leigh hes gotten th' refusal on 
'em. May, 1887. 


REGISTER. A registrar. 

" It was provided by a statute of the Commonwealth, anno 1653, 
chap, vi., that the parochial registers were to be kept by a person 
chosen by the parish and approved by a justice of peace, and it was 
enacted that 'the person so elected, approved, and sworn shall be 
called the Parish Register. 1 " Scobell's Acts and Ordinances, ii., 237. 

. May the , 5 th. z6 54 . 

11 William Collison, of Northropp, being chosen by ye inhabitants 
of ye said towne to be their parish Register^, to_ enter all Marriages, 
Births, and Buriales that shall happen in their said towne according to 
ye Act of Parliament in that case prouided, was sworne and approued 
by me whose hand is here vnder subscribed, being Justice of Peace for 
ye parts afore said." Chris. Wray, Northorpe Par. Reg. 

In Archaologia, j., x., 1770, we are told that William Hakewill was 
Register to the Society. 

The registrar of births, deaths, and marriages is always spoken of as 
the register. 

REGULAR. Fully, entirely. 

He was regular black an' blew wi 1 feightin". 
It's a regular shaame. 

REGULAR PREACHER. A travelling preacher among the 
Wesleyans or Primitive Methodists. 

REIGHT (rait). A common right. 
REIGHT, adj. Right. 

REIGHT, v. To put right ; to put in order. 

We mun hev them suffs reighted e' th' Craw-Trea cloas, or it's to noa 
ewse sawin' noa wheat. September 10, 1884. 

REIGHT AWAAYS, adv. (i) All the way. 

I went with him reight awaays theare. 
(2) Quickly. 

Thoo mun go reight awaays, not stop a minnit. 

REIGHT-END-FO'ST. That is, right end first. In the direct 
or proper manner. 

He niver starts o' oht reight-end-fo'st. 

REIGHTLE, REIGHTLE UP (rait-1), v. To put right; to 
put in order. 

It's very good to sea as oor Sarah Ann isn't well. When she is, she's 
alust aither reightlin' her hair or singin' hymns. 

Ther' was an ohd man as hed been clerk an' saxton at Rudstone, e' 
th' East Ridin' o' Yerksheer fer moore then fo'ty year, an' when he 
was a gooin' to dee he says, says he : " Whativer you do, you mun bury 
me upo' th' no'th side o' th' chechyard." His "lations were all on em 
setten agean this, bud he was n't to be to'n'd. " I've alust been of a 
very accommodaatin' soort," says he, " an' I've been clerk an' saxton 
here for a straange while, an' knaw what'n a plaace Rudstone chechyard 
is fer boans. Th' Loord '11 hev plenty to do at th' last daay wi' reightlin' 
uther foiiks's boans wi' oot been bothered wi' mine an' all." 


" I doan't knaw how them foaks duz what reightles the'r hair ivery 
mornin'. I nobbut coambmine oot o' th'Setterda' neet afoore th' feast, 
an' it is a job, you ma' depend." Messingham, 1865. 

REIGHTLIN-COMB (raiHin-koam). A comb for dressing 
the hair. 

Sir Robert Steward, Mr. Barker, once shaw'd me th' plan o' his 
Butterwick land. It's omust all e' long narra' skreeds mix'd up wi' 
other foaks's an' looks for all th' warld like th' teeth o' areightlin-codmb. 
Barton-upon-Stather, 1855. 

That skreed o' trees atween Messingham an' Manton lordships looks 
e' winter, when the leaves is off, for all th' warld like a reighthn'-codmb. 

" I once fun upo' th' top o' th' Holme lordship a big broon pot, as I 
was diggin' for rabbits, bud when I oppened it ther' was noht at all i'side 
but white ashes, an' a peace o' anohd retgfytlin-coamb." John Marcham, 
Bottesford, 1850. 

REIGHTLY. Certainly ; exactly. 

I doan't knaw nightly wheare it is, bud I could soon find it if I was to 
start lookin'. 

REIGHT OFF. Immediately. 

He sell'd up reight off an' went to New Zealand. 

REIGHT-ON-END. Upright. 

Them wadsticks is stan'in' reight-on-end far side th' Irish hoale. 

REIGHT-SHARP. Quite sane. 

If thoo goas on e' that how, foaks '11 think thoo arn't night-sharp. 
If you will ewse envelopes wi' picturs on 'em like them, when thoo 
writes to foaks, thaay'll be thinkin' thoo arn't reight sharp. 

REIGHT-UP. To put in order; to make tidy. 

Kinsley's reightin'-up th' buildings at the Warp. He's seven pund for 
th' job. 

We alus reight things up afoore th' feast. 

REIGHT UP AND DOWN. Open ; candid. 

He's a reight up an' doon soort on a man wi' no screws aboot him. 

REMBLE, REM'LE, v. To remove. Cf. Swed. rymma, to 
remove, clear; lit. to make room. The word is connected 
with our room, not with the Lat. removcre. W.W.S. 

"Rembling and raving, 
Tewing and taving, 
Noising and clatting, 
Rightling and scratting." 

May in Lincolnshire, in Once a Week, 

June 8, 1872. 
"A niver rembles the stoans." 

Tennyson, Northern Farmer, xv. 

REM'DY. Remedy. 



Remember me to tell Shelton we shall soon hev no herse corn. 
You mun remember me on to get sum on them big matches when I goas 
to Brigg, or we shall run oot. 

RENCH, v. To rinse. 

" And like a glasse 
Did break i' th' wrenching." 

Henry VI II., Act i., sc. i. (first folio). 

RENDER, v. (i) To melt. 

(2) To extract lard from pigs' fat by boiling. See CRAPS. 

REPITERRY, ^/.Peremptory. 

Tax-getherer's is straange npiterry soort o' foaks. 

RESEMBLE, v. To compare. 

He resembled him to iv'ry foul thing he could laay his tung to 

RESOLUTE, adj. (i) Obstinate. 

Dick's that resolute, th' school-maaister can't larn him noht. 

(2) Restive; said of horses. 

Th' ohd hoss is very resolute. Messingham, September 22, 1848. 

RESPE, RESPER. A disease in oxen and sheep. 

14 Therespe has also made considerable ravages." Arth. Young, Line. 
Agric., 1799, 376. 

REST, v. To sleep. 

I could do middlin' o' daays if I could nobbud get rest at neets, bud I 
can't wi'oot takkin' sleepin' stuff, an' then I'm fit for noht at all when 
I'm wakken. October, 1887. 

REST-HARROW, HARROW - REST. A plant, Ononis 

RETCH (rech), v. To reach. 

Retch me yon ferk, will ta ? 

RETIRE. Retired from business. 

He's a gentleman noo, he lives retire. 

RETURNS, Inferior flour. 
(2) A kind of tobacco. 

REVEREND." The Reverend," or " our Reverend," are 
common terms used in speaking of the parish clergyman. 
See Rev. R. E. G. Cole, Gloss, of S.W. Line. (E.D.S.), 
sub voc. 

RIBBON -GRASS. (i) Ph-alaris amndinacea or any other 
variegated grass that grows in gardens. 


"With marjoram knots, sweet-brier, and ribbon-grass, 
And lavender, the choice of ev'ry lass." 

John Clare, Shepherd's Calendar, p. 58. 

(2) Sword-grass, or any other plant with a ribbon-like leaf. 

RIBBON -TREE. The birch; so called because the bark of 
the young trees can be pulled off in long ribbon-like strips. 


RID. Rode. 

Him an' me hes ofens rid along this here bit o' road together, bud 
all that 's dun \\i' noo, poor lad. 

RIDDING. A division of land, sometimes meaning a third 
part, at others a clearing (obsolete). 

" Ye midle Hddinges butting upon Robt. Beck." Ashby Schedule, 1606- 

RIDE. A bridle-road through a wood or plantation. 

RIDE, r. The surveyor of the Court of Sewers is said to ride 
the drains when he goes to inspect them. 

RIDE AND TIE. Alternate walking and riding, when two 
travellers have but one horse between them. 


RIFF-RAFF. (i) The rabble. 

" The filthy riff -raff of the port, 
Mingled with those of better sort ; 
Women, who gaze with silly stare, 
While infants in their arms they bear ; 
Unconscious brats, whose gloating lust 
Is fix'd upon a mumbled crust, 
That, deviously d.rected, comes 
At times in contact with their gums." 

Leaving Port, in Blackwood's Magazine, 1823, 

vol. xiv., p. 530. 
(2) Rubbish; trash. 

Thraw that riff-raff i'to th' fire. 

RIFT, sb. and v. Belch. 

That was a rare glass o' gin you gev me, it maade me rift like a volcanic. 
"Vox agro Line, usitatissima pro ructare." Skinner, Etymologicon , 
sub voc. 

RIG. (i) A ridge; hence, house-rig, plough-rig, rig-tile, &c. 

We was scar'd 'at sum on flaakes o' stroa wo'd fall e'to th' crew-yard 
when th' oat stack was bo'nin', bud th 1 wind niver got it carried oher 
the barn-ng'. Bottesford, May 16, 1887. 

"It was white oher, was tiles upo' my rig," said by a person who was 
speaking of snow in September. 

" The sparrow on the cottage rig." 

John Clare, Autumn, in Life and Retrains, 215. 


" The houses grown up as if they were sown in the seed-time with 
the corn, by a drill machine, or dibbled in rigs and furrows like beans 
and potatoes." The Ayrshire Legatees in Blackwood's Mag., 1820, 
vol. vii., p. 265. 

(2) The back of a human being or other animal. 

I slipped upo' th' ice an' fell flat o 1 my rig. 

(3) A monorchidous horse or sheep. 

RIG-BAULK, RIG-TREE. The piece of wood which runs 
along the roof just beneath the ridge. 

RIGHT YE, RIGHT THEE. Said to cows to induce them 
to stand in a convenient position for milking. 

Ray's North Country Words, 1691, has " Rynt ye, by your leave, stand 
handsomely as ' Rynt you, witch, quoth Besse Locket to her mother.' 
Proverb Cheshire and the list of Yorkshire words. Thoresby's 
Letter to Ray, 1703, contains ' Ryndta, used to cows to make them give 
way, and stand in their stalls or booyses." Eng. Dialect Soc., No. 6. 
pp. 61, 105. Some persons have seen a connection between these and 
the word Aroint twice used by Shakspere ; Macbeth, Act i., sc. 3, 1. 6. 
King Lear, Act iii., sc. 4, 1. 129. The identification seems fanciful. 
See Murray's Diet., Aroint. 

RIGS, TO RUN, v. (i) To play mischievous tricks. 

(2) To ridicule. 

I knaw I did it, bud doant thoo run noan o' thy rigs upo' me. 

RIGWELT, v. To flog. 
RIGWELTING. A flogging. 

RIG-WELTED. (i) Overthrown ; applied to a sheep which 
is helplessly lying on its back. 

Ther's anuther sheap dead this mornin' thriff bein' rig-welted. 
(2) A person is said to be " rig-welted in bed " when confined 
there by severe illness. 

RIGGIN'. The ridge of a building. 

That theare riggin' upo' th' coo-hoose is perishin' fast 

RILE, v.' To vex. 

RIM. The hoop of a tub or cask. 

RIME. Hoar-frost. 

RIME-UP, v. To increase. 
You see he spent noht, a 

RING. A circular drive or walk. 

You see he spent noht, an' he'd a deal cumin 1 in; soa it rimed-up 


RING, v. To put rings in the noses of pigs. The perfect is 
often rung, though the correct form ringed is also in use. 

" No swine were to be put in the fens unrung." Document of 1548 
quoted in Thompson's Hist, of Boston, 1856. 643. 

" Men were often prosecuted .... for keeping unrung pigs." 
Walt. Rye, Hist, of Norfolk, 1885. 114. 

RING-FENCE. A farm or estate is said to be in a ring-fence 
when no land of other owners lies within its boundaries. 

RING IN, v. (i) To ring the church bells when a bride comes 

(2) A clergyman is said to " ring himself in " when, on being 
inducted to a living, he receives the church key from the 
churchwardens, and rings a few strokes on the bell as an 
act of taking possession of the church. 

RING OUT OF TOWN. The ringing of the church bells 
when an unpopular person is leaving a village. 

" When .... went awaay for good thaay was all so thankful 
that thaay rung him oot o 1 th' toon." Crowle, February, 1887. 

RHINO, READY RHINO. Money. Probably slang, but if 
so, of some antiquity. It may be traced back here for at 
least a century. 

He'll do well enough while th' rhino lasts. 

He's married a gell wi 1 plenty o' ready rhino, an' she's not foul to look 
at naaither. 

RINKING. Piercing the dewlap of young cattle for the 
purpose of hindering the Blackleg (q.v.) 

RIP, v. (i) To rage ; to swear ; to storm. 

He ript an' swoore aboon a bit, all aboot noht. 
(2) To cut or tear so as to cause a sharp noise. 

RIP ALONG, v. To work with energy. 

Noa body rips along wi' wark faster then L . . . when once he's 
gotten started. 

RIPPER. A very excellent thing ; anything first class. 
Well, I will saay that mare is a real ripper. 

RIPPLING. Removing the seed-vessels of flax by drawing 
the stalks through an iron frame like a comb. 

RIP-STICH. Aboistrous child given to tearing its clothes, and 
hence, by a figure of speech, a wild or dissolute person is 
called a " real rip -stick. 

RIP-STICK. A " strickel " for sharpening a scythe, 


RIP UP, v.(i) To unfasten stitches. 

(2) To recount long-past grievances. See REAP UP. 

RIPTORIOUS, adj. Uproarious ; refractory. 

RISE. Sticks, thorns, brushwood (obsolete), A.S. Am. 

A correspondent of Notes and Queries says that this word is in 
common use in Northumberland, Durham, and Lancashire. When a 
fence is made of stakes with dead thorns twined in, it is there called a 
11 rice hedge." vj. s. iv., 53. 

RISE, v. To raise. 

Rise it up a bit, will you ? 

RISE A PEG, v. To improve in circumstances. 

" Very few, if any, of the breeders I have seen in this county seem, 
however, to be sufficiently impressed with the idea of rising a peg." 
Arth. Young, Line. Agric., 1799, 316. 

RISING OF THE LIGHTS. Hiccup brought on by 

RISS, RIZ, v. per/. Rose. 

" Gainstrop . . . Tradition says that that town was . . . 
exceeding infamous for robberys, and that nobody inhabited there but 
thieves ; and that the country haveing for a long while endur'd all their 
villanys, they at last . . . riss, and with one consent, pulld the 
same doun about their ears." Diary of Abraham de la Pry me, 1697, 
p. 128. 

I doan't think much o" them ; thaay nobut riss fra noht an' moastly 
by mucky actions. 

(2) Risen, used of dough. 

I'm sewer it hed viz afoore I pot it i' uven. 

(3) Raised. 

I riss all them theare treas fra nuts. 

RIT, v. To trim or pare the edge of a drain, path, &c., by 
means of a ritter or ritting-hntfe. [The same word as our 
write; A.S. writan, to cut.] 

RIVE, v., RlV,pastpart.To split. 

RIVE-RAGS. A child who tears its clothes. 

That gell's a reg'lar rive-rags; she can't cum back fra school but 
what she's sum'ats torn. 

RIZZLE. (i) A little ridge. 

Ther's a rizzle e' th' gress shaws wheare th' gardin-wall ewsed to be. 
(2) A small shelf. 

ROAD. Way. 

Get oot o' th' road, can't you. 


ROADING. A road, commonly used for a private road, or, if 
for a highway, one that runs across enclosures and is little used 

ROADING. Repairing roads; picking in the ruts, or putting 
material in them. 

ROAD, OUT OF. Expensive; dear. 

I would hev boht his wool, but he ax'd that oot o' th' road for it that I 
dars^i't gie him a bid. June 16, 1887. 
Them sheep was n't oot o' th' road for cost. 

ROAD, TO PUT OUT OF. (i) To disappoint. 

He was rare an' putten oot o' th' road when th' letter wi' th' cheque e'it 
did n't cum. 

(2) To trouble. 

Thoo's as much putten oot o' th' road wi' that one bairn o' thine as 
Jim L . . . 's wife was when she'd twins twice within a twelvemunth. 

(3) To kill. 

We've oher many cats ; I shall hev sum on 'em putten oot o' th' road. 

ROAK. Fog; mist. 

Ther's a heavy rodk cumin' in fra th' Hum'er. 
(2) Smoke. 

What a rodk yon wick-heap maks. 

ROAKY, ROAPY. Foggy ; misty. 


He gev me good measure rodked up. 

ROALER. A garden or agricultural roller. 
ROAN. The roe of a fish. Icel. hrogn, the same. 

ROAPY. Foggy; misty. Isle of Ax holme. Perhaps a corruption 
of ROAKY (q.v.) 

ROARING. Crying. 

ROAST-BEEF CLOTHES. The best clothes. 


ROBIN- RUN -NARED. A game at cards; beggar-my- 

ROCRMAJOCR. A kind of sweetmeat. 

"The children were given pence to buy rockmajock, gingerbread, and 
nuts at the stalls which stood about the Cross-Tree. John Mackinnon, 
Ace. of Messingham t 1825, n. 


ROCK, ROCK-STICK. A distaff. 
" Thriff a rock, thriff a reel, 
Thriff an ohd woman's spinnin'-wheel, 
Thriff a milner's hopper, 
Thriff a bag of pepper, 
Thriff an ohd mare's shink-shank boan, 
Such an a riddle I hev knawn." 
The answer is a worm. 

RODSTER. An angler. 

" Yesterday /ioo in money and 130 other valuable prizes were given 
for competition among the anglers of England in the Keadby Canal, 
near Crowl Wharf, Doncaster. The affair was under control of the 
Sheffield Amalgamated Anglers' Association, and there were close 
upon 500 competitors, who included in their ranks rodsters from all 
parts of the three kingdoms." The Leeds Mercury, July 8, 1879. 

ROHL, ROLL. A garden or agricultural roller. 
ROIL, v. To become thick, as beer does. 
ROILY, adj. Somewhat intoxicated. 
ROMAN WILLOW. -The lilac. 
ROOND. Round. 
ROOVES,//. of roof. 

ROPER. A maker of ropes, sheep nets, and tar marl (q.v.) 

411 To ye Roper for ij bell stringes iijs. iiijd. " Louth Churchwarden's 
Ace., 1580. 

ROPES, s. pi. Strings of sausages or onions. 

ROPY. Stringy ; applied to stringy bread or thick beer. 

ROSE. (i) A rosette ; a bow, in tying ribbon. 

Doiin't mak' a knot ; tie it on a roase: 
(2) The division of the hair on horses and oxen. 

ROSE, v. (i) To praise; to flatter. Icel. Nrosa, to praise. 

(2) Corn, when beaten down by wind or heavy rain, is said 
to be rosed or rosed about. 

ROSSIL. Rosin. 

ROSSIN, or ROSSIL UP WF LIQUOR. To make drunk. 

ROT. (i) A disease in sheep. 

" The scab, the rot, and every circumstance attend them which can 
delay their being profitable." Tho. Stone, View of Agric. of Line., 
1794, 62. 

(2) Foolish or indecent talk, 


ROT, v. An imprecation. 
'Od rot it. 

ROT AWAY. A bodily ailment, when it gradually disappears, 
is said to rot awaay. 

ROT-GUT. Sour beer. 

ROTTEN LAND. (i) Soft, peaty soil, KETTY (q.v.) 
(2) Land on which sheep suffer from the rot. 

" It bears the appellation of rotten land, because sheep depastured on 
it are constantly destroyed by the rot." Tho. Stone, Rev. of Agric. of 
Line., 1800, 173. 

There are fields called Rotten Sykes in the parish of Winteringham 
which have probably acquired their name from this reason. 

ROTTEN STONE. A soft kind of stone used for cleaning 
stone steps and hearths. Stones of various formations go 
by this name, but it is most commonly applied to a soft 
kind of oolite. 

ROUGH. (i) A tale made out of the rough is one invented on 
the spur of the moment. 

(2) To cut up rough is to become angry. 

ROUGH, v. To make rough ; commonly applied to roughing 
horses feet in frost time. 

ROUGH-CAST, adj. Said of a wall when it is roughly 
plastered or pebble-dashed. Shakspere uses rough-cast as a 

"Some man or other must present Wall, and let him have some 
plaster, or some loam, or some rough-cast about him." Midsummer 
Night's Dream, iij. i. 71. 

ROUGH-LEAF. (i) Seedlings, especially turnips, when they 
have got their second leaves are said to be in rough-leaf. 

(2) " He is in rough-leaf now," a figurative expression 
meaning that the person spoken of has made a good 
beginning in some undertaking. 

ROUGH-MUSIC. The clashing of pots and pans. This 
music is sometimes played when a very unpopular person 
is leaving a village, or when someone very hateful is being 
sent to prison. A man who is known to beat his wife is 
sometimes serenaded with rough-music. Cf. Elworthy, West 
Somerset Word-Book^ 632. 


ROUGH-RIDER. (i) A horsebreaker. 

(2) Sometimes, though incorrectly, the groom who rides a 
second horse for his master in the hunting field is called a 

ROUND. A plane for working a rounded surface. 

ROUNDY COAL. Large-sized pieces of coal, as distinguished 
from the small coal, called dust or "sleek." Perhaps 
originally applied to thick pieces of charcoal. 

ROUSIN', adj. Great ; fine. 

Give him nobbut a pipe an' a glass o' gin, and set him afoore a rousin' 
fire, an' he '11 be as happy as thof he was e' heaven. 

ROUT. (i) A noise. 
(2) Hoarseness. 

ROUT ABOUT, v. (i) To mix things up in a confused heap. 
(2) To make useless bustle. 

ROUTING, pres. part. Grunting as a pig. 

" He is a naturall foole ... he lyeth routing and snorting all 
night and all day." Bernard, Terence, 171. 

ROW (roh), v. To set ridges for planting potatoes or sowing 

ROWAN TREE. The mountain ash. 

It's all very well for' you to saay you're not scar'd o' witches ; what 
hev you hed them rowan-trees setten e' yer gardin fer I should like to knaw. 

ROWEL. (i) A circular piece of leather with a hole in the 
centre, used by farmers for the purpose of inserting under 
a horse's skin to cause inflammation of the surface. 
French, rouelle. 

"Rowelsact like blisters." Elaine, Outlines of Veterinary Art, 2d. ed. 646. 
(2) A loop or ring, made of a cord formed of horsehair, which 
is inserted in the dew-lap of cattle for the purpose of 
hindering the black-leg (q.v.) 

ROWL. A roll of paper, cloth, &c. ; not a roller for crushing. 
ROWLER. A roller such as is used in farms and gardens. 

ROWLY-POWLY PUDDING. A pudding made by spread- 
ing preserves on paste and rolling it up. 

ROYSTON CROW. Corvus Comix. Royston is in Cambridge- 
shire. The people here think that these birds live at 
Royston all the year round. 


RUB ALONG. To continue in the same state as heretofore. 

We shall nib along maaybe, but ther's noa munny to be maade times 
like thease. 1886. 

RUBBISHLY. Rubbishy. 

RUCK. All; everyone. 

Th' whoale ruck on 'em past here at eleven o'clock last neet. 

RUCKEYTOON, RACATOWN. A small portable apparatus 
used by spinners to suspend from the waist, on which to 
wind the thread from the spool into balls or bobbins. With 
this a woman could go gossiping among her neighbours, and 
take a ruck (walk) through the town. W.T., of Winterton, 
being asked why a Rttckeytoon was called by that name, 
replied, "Becos th' wimmen could ruck aboot e' th' toon wi' 
it." This derivation is probably wrong. 

RUCKET. One who gads about. 
RUCKING. Wandering about. See RAKE. 
RUCKLE, v. To breathe with difficulty like one dying. 

RUCTION. A row ; a riot. 

" Four hundred dirty vagabonds, 
All ready for a ruction." 

Election Song, 1852. 

RUD, RUDDLE. Red ochre. It is commonly used for 
marking sheep. 

" Rude figured things in different colours shone, 

Some made with ruddle which the shepherd swain 
Employs that he may know his sheep again." 

John Clare, The Rivals. 

RUD. Red (obsolete). 

" Manton . . . one vestmentt of rud russells and one aulbe was 
sold to William Brombe and Edward Poste." 1566. Line. Ch. 
Goods, 115. 

RUD, RUDDLE, v. To colour with rud. 

I hed just ruddled gantry, an' if she did n't cum in e' her clean white 
frock an' set her sen slap doon on it, wet as it was. 

RUE-BARGAIN. Money given to annul a bargain that has 
been repented of. 

He boht th' beas oher dear, son. he gev him a sovran for a rew-bargain. 

RUE-PIE. To eat rue pie is to repent. 

Them 'at's e' a horry to wed gen'lins eats rew-pie afoore thaay 'vebeen 
married a year. 


RUINATE, v. To ruin. 

Th' taaters hes been clean ruinaated by thease laate-cum frosts. 

"Ruinating thereby the health of their bodies." Robert Burton, 
Ana*. Mel., 1652, 26. 

" In Areley Kings churchyard, Worcestershire, an/inscription on the 
tomb of William Walsh says that he was ' ruinated by three Quakers, 
three lawyers, and a fanatic to help them."' Phipps Onslow, Dioc. 
Histories, Worcester, 314. 


" It's ruinaation to hedges to stick dead thorns i'to th' gaps ; it kills 
all th' live wood gaain hand." Coleby, 1874. 

RULE THE PLANETS, v.- To solve problems in astrology. 

RULLY. A low cart or waggon used for carrying heavy 

RUMBUSTICAL, adj.-(i) Violent in conduct. 

You nead n't be so rumbustical, you '11 hev to to'n oot if we traail you 
wi' herses. 

(2) Huddled together. 

All rumbitstical on a heap. 

RUMMLE (runrl), v. To rumble. 

RUMP AND STUMP. Entirely; completely. 

Thaay "ve sell'd him up rump and stump. 

RUMPLE, v. To crease ; to crumple. 
RUMPTION, RUMPUS. A disturbance. 

RUN. (i) A small channel of water ; a runnel. 
(2) The track of an animal. 

RUN, v.(i) To run after; to chase. 

If thoo runs them ducks, I'll run thee, my lad. 

(2) To run away from. 

He did n't like th' job so he run'd it. 

(3) To melt or to be melted. 

If you put that theare glass (or lead) e' th' fire, it '11 run like fun. 

Winterton, circa 1840. 

(4) To cast. 

I was runnin' oor beas-wax into mohds when she com. 
" If you would know when we was run, 
It was March the twenty-second, 1701." 

Bell Inscription, Alvechurch, Worcestershire. 

(5) To land smuggled goods. 


RUNABOUT. (i) A wanderer ; a man who hawks matches, 
writing paper, clothes-pegs, and other small wares. 

(2) A man who never works for more than a few days at one 
job or under the same master. 

RUN ABOUT, v. To go anxiously in quest of. 

I've bed Shelton runnin' aboot at two or three markits to get me 
some seed barley, and a strange job he hed to find ony ; th' farmers is 
all sell'd oot. May 3, 1888. 

RUNAGATE. A runaway; a person leading an unsettled 

" Letteth the runagates continue in scarceness." Psalm Ixviij., 6, 
Prayer Book Version. 

RUN AWAY, v. (i) To become beyond control, said of bells 
rung by unskilful ringers. 

(2) Grass is said to run away when it is under-stocked, and 
from not being cropped by animals much cf it becomes so 
coarse as not to be fit for food. See Arth. Young, Line. 
Agric., 1799, 194. 

RUN BILLS, v. To delay the settlement of tradesmen's bills 
for an unreasonably long time. 

" He never run bills, and didn't want trust of anybody, thank God." 
Yorkshire Mag., May 1873, 378. 

RUN DOWN, v. To slander; to calumniate; to depreciate. 

He hed his faults, bud I doan't like to hear him run'd doon noo he's 

She's as nist a mare as iver was foal'd, soa it's to no ewse your runnin' 
her doon, Bill. 

RUNG. (i) The step of a ladder. 

" Luigi Settembrini, though standing many rungs of the political 
ladder lower than Poerio, was nevertheless a hardy and enthusiastic 
jpatriot." Louis Pagan's Life of Sir Anthony Panizzi, 1880, vol. ii., p. 67. 

(2) One of the pieces of wood at the top of a cart or waggon 
into which the slots fit. 

(3) One of the cross pieces joining the legs of a chair. 
RUNG,^tf. part. Ringed, said of pigs. See RING. 

RUNNER. A smuggler. 

New Holland, wheare th' ferry is across Hum'er, got its naame fra 
th' runners runnin' in Dutch gin thereaboots e' fermer times. Ohd 
Braady Nicholson, him that th' plaace ewsed to belong to, tell'd me soa 
his sen. 


RUNNING. (i) A kind of sewing. 

"Take three threads, leave three, and in order that the work maybe 
kept as firm as possible, backstitch occasionally." The Ladies' Work-table 
Book, 33. 

(2) Darning stockings before they are worn in order that they 
may last longer. 

RUNNING BARROW. An upright frame on two small 
wheels, used for moving sacks of corn and potatoes. See 


RUN OFF, v. To become thin or unhealthy. 

That bairn o' her's hes run'd off a deal sin I seed it afore. 

We mun hev th' beas' putten' into th' yard as soon as ivver ther's 
time to thresh to get sum stroa ; I can see as thaay're beginnin' to run 
o/.Bottesford, October 8, 1888. 

RUN OUT, v. To exhaust. 

That farm was clear run oot when he took to it, but it's e' rare 
condition noo. East Ferry, 1884. 

RUN THE LAND. A farmer who cross crops, or otherwise 
farms badly for the purpose of getting all he can out of the 
land in the first years of his tenancy, is said to run the land. 

RUN THE NEST. When a hen forsakes her nest she is said 
to run it. 

RUN TO. For a servant to have everything to run to, means 
that access is given to all household stores ; that there is no 
locking up. 

RUNTY, adj. Short ; stiff-set. 
She's a queer runty little lass. 

RUN UP, . (i) To contract in washing. 
I doan't like frannel for sheets, it runs up soa. 
(2) To repudiate a contract. 

I oncesell'd ohd Tock sum taaties, bud as I'd noht e 1 writin', when he 
seed he'd gettin "em oher dear he run'd up. 

RUN YOUR OWN CONVOY. To go your own way ; take 
your own course. 

RUSSEL, (rus-1), v. To wrestle. 

RUSSELS (obsolete). Probably a kind of satin. See RUD. 
It is "believed to take its name from Rysell, the Flemish 
name of Lille. See Notes and Queries, vj. s. viij., 198. 


RUST. Mildew in wheat. There seems, however, to be a 
distinction made between rust and mildew. I have heard 
that when the ears only turn brown, black, or white, that 
the wheat has the rust ; but that when the straw also is 
affected, that it is suffering from mildew. 

RUSTY BUM. A rough game played by boys. At York it is 
called " Ships and Sailors." 

RUT. (i) To cut into ruts. 

" The lane was moreover much rutttcd and broken up." Ivanhot- 
Abbotsford ed., 454. 

(2) To fill in ruts. 

RUTTING. (i) A rut. 

Th' ruttin's e' Ranthrup Hill laane want pickin' in sorely. 
(2) The desire of the sow for the male. 

RUTTLE (rut-1). The rattling or gurgling in the throat made 
by the dying. 


S. The apostrophe 's is commonly omitted as " a lad hat ; " 
" a lass bonnet ; " " a herse foot ; " " John book ; " " Heala' 
plantin's ; " " oor Tom wife." 

" He likewise gave to ye poor of this and some other neighbouring 
parishes seven pounds, and acquitted his tenants of half a year rent." 
Burton-on-Stather Church. Inscrip. to Thomas Cullowhill, 1748. 

SA, adv. So. 

SACK (with the verb to 5^). Dismissal. 

He's gotten th' sack at last. I maade mysen sewer them waays o' 
gooin 1 on wod'nt last for iver. Yaddlethorpe, June, 1887. 

SACK, v. To dismiss. 

If he duz n't do as he's tell'd sack him wi' oot ony moore on it. 

SACKING. Sackcloth ; a sacking-bottomed bed-stead is one 
that has sackcloth stretched from side to side instead of 
light bars of wood. 

SAD, adj. and adv. (i) Grave; serious. 

(2) Stiff ; heavy. Land is sad when the frosts of winter have 
not mellowed it; bread is sad when it has not properly 

(3) An intensitive used in a bad sense. 

He's a sad offil chap. 
It's a sad bad job. 

SAD CAKES. Cakes made without yeast. 

SAD DUMPLING. A dumpling made of flour, water and 
" shortening " (q.v.) ; called sad to distinguish it from light 
dumpling (q.v.) 

SAFE, ^'.Certain ; sure. 

It's saafe to thunner. 

Bairns ! noabody 'at knawed onything aboot 'em wo'd iver want to 
be bothered wi' 'em. Thaay 're noht bud a truble an' a expense when 
th're little, an' when thaay get big enif to addle the'r vittles th're saafe 
to dee, an' then ther's coffin an' buryin' to paay for. Mrs. L 
East Butter wick, circa 1882. 


SAFE. A cupboard in which meat is kept, with a net at the 
sides and in the door, for the purpose of letting in air and 
keeping out flies. These nets were formerly made of hair 
or hemp strands. Wire net was afterwards used; their 
place is now commonly supplied by perforated zinc. The 
inventory of John Nevill, of Faldingworth, taken in 1553, 
states that the deceased had in "the neder buttery . . . 
an ambrey of heare." This was no doubt a meat-safe with 
the sides made of hair-net. 

SAFE-GUARD. A skirt which was formerly worn by women 
when they rode on a pillion. 

SAFFRON. As dear as saffron. Cf. Elworthy's West Somerset. 
Word-Book (sub voc.) Why saffron is used in this sense I do 
not know. 

SAG, v . To bend ; to warp ; to sink in the middle. 

That swing-gaate at th' beck-raails is sagged iver soa, it '11 be breakin ' 
'e too. 

I've no opinion o' larch gaates, thaay sag soa bad. 
Rebecca's inaade my Sunda' goon to sag o' one side. 

SAG-BAR. A bar in a gate or door, which runs diagonally 
from the top to the bottom, intended to hinder it from 

sagging. ; 

SAGE CHEESE. Cheese with the juice of sage added to the 
milk before the curds are made. 

SAGA. Sago. 

SAGES OF THE TOWN. The elders or wise persons of the 
town (obsolete). 

" Fora fortnight last past there has been a fortune-teller in this town, 
which as soon as I heard on I caused him to be apprehended and 
brought before the sages of the town." Abr. de la Pryme's Diary, 
1695, 56. 

SAGE WOMAN. A midwife. 

SAIM (saim). Lard. Cf. Welsh saim. 

I've not boht ony butter for a twel' munth, bud get a bit o' saim to my 
caake noo an' then. 

SAINT ANT'NY FIRE. Erysipelas. 

SAINT LUKE'S SUMMER. A few warm days coming 
together in October. 


SAINT MONDAY, SAINT'S DAY. The idle day at the 
beginning of the week, called Saint's Day or Saint Monday 
because drunkards, having received their wages on Saturday 
evening, spend that day in consuming them at the beer-shop. 

You nead n't expect Joa to-daay, it's Saaint Munda' wi' him agean. 
" He's off on his Saint's Day." Cf. Life of James Lackington, 1830, 38. 

SAKERING-BELL, SANCE-BELL. The sanctus bell; a 
bell rung during mass. Sometimes it was a small bell 
which hung in a little cote, that stood on the ridge of the 
roof, between the nave and the choir of the church; at 
others it was a handbell (obsolete). 

"Awkeborowe . . . a sakeringe-bell and one hand-bell broken to 
peces." Lincolnshire Church Goods, 1566, 36. 

A sanctus bell was discovered walled up in a putlog-hole in Bottesford 
Church, in August, 1870. An engraving of it is to be seen in Pro Soc. 
Ant., ij. S., v. 24. The cotes of the Sanctus bell yet remain at Goxhill 
and Boston in this county; at Kingsland, co. Hereford; Lilbourn, co. 
Northampton; and Newark, co. Nottingham. Gent. Mag., 1797, 913; 
1800, i., 25; 1826, i., 393. 

SAL, often contracted to S'L. Shall. 

He's e' Austraalia, an' I s'l niver sea him no moore e' this warld. . 
"Sal I neuere freeman be." Havelok, 628. 

SALLACKING, SLALLACKING. Walking clumsily ; 
walking in shoes that are too large, or which have the heels 

SALLERY. Celery. 

SALLUP, SALLET. A violent blow. 

Tek care the door duz n't fetch the a gret sallup oher th 1 head. A . W., 
East Butterwick, September 30, 1876. 

SALMON-PITS. "There are particular places in the river 
(Trent) to which the salmon resort that are called Salmon 
Pits.' 9 Suyvey of Manor of Kirton-in-Lindsey , 1787. 

SALTS. -Epsom salts. 

SALVE. Flattery. 

Noo noan o' yer salve; if yc want ony thing speak it oot plaain an' 
hev dun wi' it. 

SAM, v. To act with energy or violence. 

"Noo then, sam into it;" that is, get on with your work as fast as 
you can. 

"Sam off with you;' 1 that is, be off this minute. 

"Sam hohd on him;" a form of encouragement given to dogs in the 
sport of rat-catching. 


SAMELIKE, adv. -In like manner. 

I com in an' spok, saamclike as I'm doin" noo. 

Beans was real bad, an' saamelike was oats an' barley. 

SAMMY, SAMMY-NODDY. A foolish person. 
SANGS. An oath. 

My sangs. Broughton. 

SARMUN (saa-mim). A sermon. 
SARPENT. A serpent. 

SARRA, v. To serve ; to feed. 
Hes ta sarra'd th' kye. 


SARTAN-SEWER, SARN-SEWER. Certain sure; quite 

I'm sartan-sewev I did n't saay noht o' soort. 

SARTANTY. Certainty. 

Upon a sartanty I should n't ha' knaw'd wheare to hev gotten sich a 
letter as this is written if I'd paaid iver so much for it. I should n't 


upon a sartanty. 

SARVANT (saa-vunt). Servant. 

Them sarvant lasses e' Lunnun is that ig'rant noabody as hed n't 
been among 'em wod beleave it. When I lived wi' Squire ... we 
ewsed to goa up theare ivery summer time to a hoose he hed, an' once 
ther' was a straange mess o' mice ; thaay run'd ivery wheare an' charm'd 
ivery thing. An' th' hoosekeeper she says to us lasses, " I hoape 
thaay'll not be makkin the'rsens a nest e' the green room bed." An' a 
peace efter me an' a lass as thaay call'd Jaane hed that theare room to 
get ready for one o' our master sons that was a cumin' fra Oxford 
Collige; an' Jaane says to me when we was agaate o' puttin' sheets upo 1 
the bed, as innicent as oht like, " It weant matter noo whether them 
theare mice hes maade a nest for thersens here or no, for Master 
Frank '11 be sewer to break all th' eggs, if ther' is onny , wi 1 liggin on 'em." 

SARVE, v. (i) Serve. In the sense of to receive one's due. 
He's been sent to prison fer two munths, an' it sarves him well right. 

(2) To serve; to feed animals. 

Noo then, 'Bina, get off wi' thee, an' sarve them pigs. 

SARVIS (saa-vis). Service. 


SASSE (obsolete). "A kind of weir with a floodgate, or a 
navigable sluice." Smyth, Sailors' Word-book. 

"Sas, a sluice." Sewel, Dutch Diet. 

" The people of Epworth Manour and Misterton . . . pulled up 
the sluices and navigable sasses." A Brief Ace. of the Drainage of Hatfield 
Chace, in Pro Soc. Ant., ij. s., vj., 488. 

"Digging the foundation for the sasse at Salter's-hole." Ancient and 
Present State of the Navigation of . . . Lyn, Wisbeach, Spalding t and 
Boston, 7. 

SATE-ROD. A twisted rod, commonly of hazel, used by 
blacksmiths for holding the punches employed for making 
the holes in horse-shoes. 

SATTLE. A settle ; a wooden seat like a sofa. 

SATTLE, v. (i) To settle. 

That muck-hill's sattled a good bit sin Sunda'. 

(2) To settle an account. 

Oor maaster's niver ready wi' his munny to sattle wi' us on a Setterda' 

(3) A servant says she or he can't sattle, that is, suffers from 
home-sickness, or that the manners of the household are 
disagreeable. Boys and girls at "boardin' school " 
frequently complain that they can't sattle. 

(4) To fall in price. 

Red wheat was up to tho'ty-eaght a fo'tneet sin, bud it's saft/zVagean 
noo Brigg, June 16, 1887. 

SATTLEMENT. Settlement. 

SAUCE (saus). Rudeness ; insulting language ; impudence. 
Noo then, let's hev noan o' yer sauce, for I wean't stan' it. 

SAUCE BOX. (i) The mouth. 
(2) An impudent child. 

SAUCEPANS. The vertebra? of fishes, so called from the 
dish-like cavities on either side. 

SAUCEPAN-STONES, Fossil vertebrae found in Lias 

SAUGH (sau). The goat- willow; Salix capvea. 

SAUL (saul). The soul. 

SAUL, SOUL (saul, soal). The lungs of a fowl or a goose. 

SAUT (saut). Salt. 

Gie me a little deary wee bit o' saut. 


SAUVE. (i) Salve. 
(2) Flattery. 

SAUVIN' ABOOT. Going about in an idle or foolish manner. 

She went sauvin' aboot e 1 noa-how, e'stead o' helpin' me to wesh up th 

SAVIN-TREE. The savin; Junipems saUna. A "tea" is 
sometimes made of savin which is taken by women for the 
purpose indicated in the following passages : 

"And when I look, 

To gather fruit, find nothing but the savin-tree, 
Too frequent in nuns' orchards, and there planted, 
By all conjecture, to destroy fruit rather." 

Tho. Middleton, A Game at Chess, act j., sc. j., 

Dyce's ed. iv., 321. 

"The leaues of sauine boy led in wine . . . draw away the after- 
birth, expell the the dead childe, and kill thequicke." Gerarde, Herball, 
1636, 1378. 

" She's gane to the garden gay, 

To pu' o' the savin-tree; 
But for a' that she can say or do, 
The babie it would not die." 

Scott, Border Minstrelsy, ed. 1861, 299, 

quoting Motherwell, p. 317. 

In a seventeenth century satirical tract, entitled, A New Bill, drawn 
up by a Committee of Grievances, in reply to the Ladies' and Batchelors 1 
Petition and Remonstrances, reprinted in The Harlean Miscellany, the 
following passage occurs: "Lastly . . . that a clause be inserted 
to root out of all the female physick-gardens, and indeed from out the 
whole commonwealth, those dangerous plants called cover-shame, alias 
savin, and other anti-conceptive weeds and poisons; those notorious 
restoratives of slender shapes and tender reputations, to the loud and 
crying shame of 'love lost, and a good thing thrown away,' " vol. iv., 
p. 440. 

The name " cover shame " does not seem to be known here. 
Robert Burton mentions savine in his list of plants good for the 
womb. Anat. Mel., 2d. ed., 1624, p. 300. 

In West Somerset this plant goes by the name of "bastard killer." 
Elworthy, West Somerset Word-book (sub voc.); and in some parts of 
Yorkshire it is known as " kill-bastard." 

Savin is sometimes given by farm servants to their master's horses 
for the purpose of making their coats shine. It is highly injurious to 
the health of the animals. 

SAW (sau), v. (i) To sow. 

Thaay -saw noa line to speak on upo' th' wohds. 

I've better then foher hunderd purple sycamores all self sawn. June 
18, 1887. 

"For bred & ale when >e cherche hedlands were sawen, xiijf" 
Kirton-in-Lindsey Ch. Ace., 1535, 

(2) To sew. 


SAWDER (sairdur). (i) Soda. 

(2) Solder. 

" For a pound and a half of saii'der." Kirton-in-Lindsey Ch. Ace. 1615. 

SAWER (sairur). A sawyer. 


SAXTON. A sexton. See REIGHTLE. 

SAY. A speech ; a statement ; a remark. 

I've said my saay, an' shall talk noht moore aboot it. 

SAYCRAMENT. A sacrament; used almost solely for holy 

SAY-SO. A remark made for the sake of talking only, some- 
thing said solely to please another. 

Thaay tell'd me 'at thaay reckon'd I look'd real welle' it, bud mebbe 
it was nobbud a saay-sod to please me. 

SCAB. A disease in sheep. 

SCA'CE. Scarce. 

Apples is very scarce to-year. 

SCAFFLE, v. To equivocate. 

What do you scuffle e' that how for ; if you must lee why doan't you 
tell a good thumper an' hev dun wi' it. 

SCALD. Pigs after they are killed are put into very hot 
water for the purpose of making the hair come off easily ; 
this process is called scalding. 

Ah, Miss, it's a straange good thing Henry's sa steady. He's for no 
drink at all. His muther ewsed to fret oher him straangely, and praayed 
for him an' all. It would have been a great comfort to her to ha' lived 
to see him so altered. Why, Miss, I said to her one day, Muther, says 
I, you've shed as many tears oher that theare lad as wo'd ha' scalded a 
pig an' she did, Miss, a can assewer you. 

SCALPY, adj. Thin ; poor ; said of land. See SCAUP. 

All cliff-land hes n't the like goodness in it ; sum's so near the rock 
it's scalpy, an", in a way o' speakin', good to noht. 

SCALY, adj. Mean ; penurious. 

SCAMBLING, pres. /art. Scrambling. 

"I'll not hev you bairns scamblin' aboot among th' chech-bells, I can 
tell ye; you'll be killin" yer sens." Junior Churchwarden, Bottesford, 

SCAMP, v. To do work in a bad or careless manner. 

I doan't want to hev oht to do wi' him ageiin, he scamps his work 


SCAN'LUS, adj. and adv. Scandalous; scandalously. 

SCAP. An escape. 

I'd a straange narra' scap once o' bein' runn'd oher at Frodingham 

SCAR (scaar'), v. (i) To scare. 

I'm not scar'd o' boggards, bud I knaw witchin's trew, for I've seed 
things on it my awn sen. 

(2) To cut deep, horizontal, and perpendicular nicks, crossing 
each other in the skin of the chine of a pig. 

SCARCELINS. Scarcely. 

I was cumin' hoam fra fetchin' pig-meal, an' I bed n't scarcelins 
getten to th' corner afoore I seed him off into th' Cross-Keas, an* says 
I to my sen, Noo he's gettin' into th' wrong track agean, an' this time 
e' th' mornin" an' all, for it was n't oher nine o'clock. 

SCARCRAW (scaa'crau). A scarecrow. 

SCARIFIER. A drag for detaching weeds from the soil. 

SCARPED. Spliced ; a carpenters' term. 

SCATTER-WITS. A light, vain, foolish person. 

She's a real scatter-wits, fitter a deal to wear fine cloas an' look at 
her sen e' a glass, then to hev a husband an' bairns to see to. 


SCAUP. (i) The scalp or top of the head. 

I'll break thy scaup for the. 

(2) A flat-topped rock in the Humber, between Whitton and 
the Trent Falls, is called the Scaup or Scaups. It is only 
visible at the very lowest tides. 

SCHOLARSHIP. (i) Learning. 

(2) Loose talk. 

Noo then, noan o' yer scholarship. 

Village lads frequently meet at some well-known corner for the 
express purpose of talking scholarship, in which the youngers are 
instructed by their elders. 

SCHOOLIN'. Education. 

Ther's been a deal o' good schoolin' thrawn awaay on him. 

SCIENCING, pres. part. Boxing. 

"They were sciencing together." Gainsburgh News, April 24, 1875. 

SCITHERS (sidh-urz). Scissors. 
SCOHD, SCAUD, v. (i) To scold. 


SCOHP. A large hollow shovel for moving potatoes or grain, 
and for lading water. Usually made of wood, but now 
sometimes of iron. 

SCOHP, v. To use a scohp. 

SCOLDING WIFE. A watchman's rattle. 

An implement of this kind was, before the enclosure, used at Brumby 
for the purpose of frightening the rabbits. Mr. Pindar of the Hall in 
Brumby wood, leased of the Duke of Cornwall, of whose manor of 
Kirton-in-Lindsey Brumby formed a part, the right of stray of rabbits, 
and therefore caused holes to be made in the walls of the warren that 
the rabbits might go forth to feed on the lands of the adjoining 
freeholders. It would have been illegal for these men to kill the 
rabbits, so they employed a person to walk at night along the sides of 
the walls, making as much noise as he could with a scolding wife, for the 
purpose of frightening them from coming out of their enclosure. Tests, 
Robert Lock wood. 

SCOOT. A term of contempt. 

He's a loongin' scoot. Epworth, 1886. 

SCOPPERIL. (i) The bone foundation of a button. 

(2) A nimble child. [Possibly because a scoppevil with a small 
peg through it is used as a teetotum, and is then nimble 
enough. W. W. S.] 

(3) A small lively animal. 

He's a gaame un, is that little scopperil ; I wish I'd a tarrier like him. 

SCOT. (i) A Scotch beast. 

(2) A Scotch fir. 

(3) A local tax as distinguished from a Crown tax (obsolescent). 

SCOTCH, v.(i) To cut; to trim a tree or hedge. See 


(2) To scorch. 

(3) To stop a wheel of a cart or waggon by putting a stone 
before it. 

SCOUR, THE. Diarrhoea. 

SCOUR, v. To cleanse a ditch. 

" The sewer called Langdike from Trent to the old head shall be 
diked & scowred." Inquisition of Sewers, 1583, p. 6. 

" That eurie one shall scower North Carre dyke sufficiently against 
his own ground betwixt this and Whitsontyde." Hibbaldstow Court 
Roll, 1613. 

This dry weather hes been a rare time for scourin' oor dykin's. - Thaay 
're all as reight as can be."Bottesford, October 5, 1887. 


SCOURING SAND. Disintegrated oolite, sold for scouring 
wooden tables, floors, &c. 

SCOUR THE KETTLE. To go to confession; a Roman 
Catholic term. 

SCRAB. A sickly, undergrown, stunted, animal. 
SCRABBLE, v. To scratch. 

Th' broon cat's scrabblin' at th' winda' to be letten' in. 

"He . . . .scrabbled on the doors of the gate." j. Sam. xxj., 13. 

SCRAG. The neck. 

I boht a scrag o' mutton for Sunda's dinner. 

SCRAG, v. To break the neck ; to hang. 

" Like a kite scraggin' a whitterick." Ralf Skirlaugh, j., 189. 

SCRAN. Poor food. 

Bad scran to you. 

SCRANKY, adj. Lanky. 

SCRANNY, adj. Crazy. 

Noo then, we doan't want scranny talk aboot Gladstoane like that 
theare ; it's not 'lection time remember. 

"The people must go scranny once a year." Ph. James Bailey, The 
Age, 178. 

SCRAPE. A mess ; a difficulty. 

Th' head clerk at . . . hes gotten into ascraape wi* his maaisters ; 
he'll hev to flit sewer eniff, an' soon an' all. 

A writer in The Athenceum suggests the following derivation : "The 
deer which, in the olden time, as elsewhere at the present period, were 
addicted, at certain seasons, to dig up the land with their fore-feet, in 
holes to the depth of a foot, or even of half a yard, contributed a new 
word to our language. These were called " scrapes." For a wayfarer 
to tumble into one of these was sometimes done at the cost of a broken 
leg ; and, ultimately, any Cambridge man who found himself in an 
unpleasant position, from which extrication was difficult, was said to 
have ' got into a scrape.' " Sept. 27, 1862, p. 391. 


SCRAT. The devil. 

Be a good bairn or Scrat '11 be sewer to cum for the. 

SCRAT. (i) To scratch. 

"It is an ordinary thing for women in such cases to scrat the 
faces ... of such as they suspect ; as Henry the Second's 
importune luno did by Rosamund at Woodstock." Rob. Burton, 
Anat. Mel., 1652. p. 610. 

^' To scrat where it itches 
Is better then fine cloas or riches." 

Proverb, C. A. H>, Kirton-in-Lindsev. 


Mary : " Art 'a realins gooin' to leave, Jaane ? " 

Jane : " Ey, I am, for I'm sewer ther's gooin' to be a baaliff do. 
Naaither maaister nor missis hes so much as a sixpence to serai ther' 
arses wi'". Yaddlethorpe, Dialogue in a Maid-servants' Bedroom, circa 1846. 

(2) To gather together ; to accumulate. 

I've been scrattin' all my life, an hev gotten a nist bit together, I'll 
awn that. 

SCRAT ALONG, v. To progress under unfavourable 

I've scratted along so far, but I doan't knaw how it '11 be for th' 

SCRAT TOGITHER, v. To scrape together ; to accumulate 
hardly, or by little and little. 

He's scratted togithet a midlin' bit o' munny off o' that bad land o' his. 

SCRAUK, SCRAWL. A scratch. 

Sum bairns hes been makkin' scrawls upo' th 1 stoans e' th' chech- 

SCRAUK, SCRAWL, v. To scratch. 

Tell 'Liza when she cleans this here glass she mun mind an' not 
scrawk it. April 17, 1887. 

My faather's drunk at Winterton, an 1 I've gotten maaister o' my 
muther, an' soa I'm scrawlin' yaates. . 

SCRAWM, v. (i) To crawl ; to scramble ; to throw out the 
limbs awkwardly. 

I can just scrawm aboot upo' two sticks, but I'm real laame yit. 
(2) To scratch. 

Them bairns hes been scrawmin' upo' paaper e' th' best chaamber. 

SCRAWMAX. Anything very badly formed or out of shape. 
This here egg is a real scrawm ax ; I niver seed noht to beat it. 

SCRAWMY, adj. Lanky. 
SCRAY. A bush. 

" The ihorn-scray grows at the horn of the river. 1 ' 

The Two Deaths; Once a Week, March 27, 1869. 

SCREE-OUT, v. To scream. 

She wo'd scree-oot when she seed a clock as thof onybody was killin 1 her. 

SCREW. A dishonest trick ; an imposture ; a cheat. 

I really weant sell my taaties to ohd . . . ony moore as long as 
I live; he's oher mony screws aboot him. April, 1886. 

SCRIMMIDGE (skrim-ij). (i) A scuffle. 
(2) A noisy argument. 

SCRIMP. A miser. 


SCROG, SCRUB. (i) A bush. 

"I have gathered nuts from the scrogsof Tynron." Blackwood's Mag., 
1820, vol vi., p. 568. 

(2) A piece of land covered with bushes. There was, until a 
few years ago, a tract of land near Gainsburgh called 
CorringhsLm-scroggs. In the Court Roll of the Manor of 
Kirton-in-Lindsey, Nov. 8, vj. Henry viij., this place is 
called Coryngham Scrobsse. It is shewn on the Ordnance Map, 
published in 1824. Cf. Britain Plant Names,' E.D.S., 420. 

The late Mr. Beriah Botfield has the following passage in his paper 
on the History of Shropshire : " It is probable that Pengwern, or the 
Hill of Alders, was first covered with the rude dwellings of the Britons 
some time after the Saxon invasion ; and that it formed their place of 
refuge after the destruction of Wroxeter, from the natural defence 
afforded by its situation on the bend of the Severn. But if they found 
it a Hill of Alders, they left it nearly in the same condition, as the 
Saxons termed it Scrobbes-Cyrig, meaning thereby a briary or general 
eminence, overgrown with scrubs or shrubs." Collectanea Archaologia, 
vol. i , p. 10. 

In John Leyden's ballad, called Lord Soulis, we read : 
" Now shall thine ain hand wale the tree 

For all thy mirth and meikle pride ; 
And May shall choose, if my love she refuse, 
A scrogbush thee beside." 

Border Min. ed., 1861, vol. ii., pt. ii., p. 253. 

SCROGGY, adj. Stunted; bushy; having many short 
branches ; said of trees. 

SCROOGE, v. To squeeze. 

Thoo sits scroog'd up e' a corner, like a otchin in a holla' tree. 


SCRUDGE (skruj), v. To squeeze ; commonly applied to 
being squeezed in sitting. 

Doan't scrudge up agean me soa's I ha'n't room to move. 

SCRUNCH, v. To crunch. 

SCUD. (i) Scum. 

This here raain's maade a deal o 1 scud cum doon th' Trent fra 

(2) Light, fast travelling clouds. 

Scuffs drivin' oher th' moon at a fine raate, ther 1 '11 be raain afoore 

SCUFF, SCUFT, SCRUFF. The nape of the neck. 

" His mother was out when I went in, but she was brought in by 
Drant by the scruff of the neck." Stamford Mercury, Oct. 20, 1876. 

"Two of my orderlies . . . took him by lhescru/o[ the neck." 
Sir Steph. Lakeman, What I saw in Kaffir Land, 24. 


SCUFF, v. To cuff; to scuffle. 

" Thaay maay scu/'it oot at ween the'r two sens ;" said by a man who 
saw his own and a neighbour's wife fighting. 

SCUFFLE, v. To work land with a scuffler. 

SCUFFLE ALONG, v. (i) To walk awkwardly. 

She's th' baddest walker I iver seed ; I call it noht bud scufflin' along. 
(2) A person in bad circumstances who still " keeps his head 
above water " is said to scuffle along. 

SCUFFLER. An agricultural implement ; a drag. 

" Plaintiff had sold defendant a scuffler." Gainsburgh News, Nov. 18, 
1876. See Arth. Young, Line. Agric., 1799, 93. 

SCUM. To have the scum over the eyes is to be drunk. 

SCUTCHING. The process of removing the fibre of flax from 
the bark and woody matter of the stem. 

SCUTTLE. A wide and shallow wicker-basket used in gardens 
and stables. 

SCUTTLE, SCUTTLE OFF, v. To run away. 

SCYTHE-SWEEP. The width of ground mown by one sweep 
of the scythe. A person may enjoy a right of scythe-sweep 
over another's property ; that is he mows and appropriates 
a " breed " (breadth) of grass across the land. 
" A scythe-sweep, and a scythe-sweep, 

We've done our task together." 

W. Allingham, The Mowers, mAthenaum, 
July 26, 1856, p. 931. 

SEA-DOGS, SEA-HORSES, s. //.Rough waves in the Trent 
and Humber. 

SEA-HAW, SEA-ROKE. A fog coming from the sea. 
SEA-MAW. A sea-mew. 

SEAM. A measure used for corn, lime, &c. (obsolete). 

" Seam of corn . . . eight bushels." Bailey, Eng. Diet., 1749. 
The word is still in use in West Somerset. See El worthy's West 
Somerset Word Book, sub voc. 

SEANEY. Senna. Salts and sedney form a well-known 

SEAT. (i) The basis of a bank. 

(2) The soil on which the foundation of a wall is laid. 

There'll be room for th' wall seat atween th' trees an' this here suff 
I'm puttin' in." G. J., April 26, 


SECK. A sack. 

"For a secke of pease of Misteir Kent vjs." Kirton-in-Lindsey Ch 
Ace., 1586. 

Seckes occurs in Havelok, 2019. 

A seek o' taaties is sixteen stoane o' this side th' Trent, but it'snobbut 
foherteen on yon. Burringham, 1880. 

SECK-ARSE. The bottom of a sack. 

Them sech-arses is rotten oot wi' stannin' e' th' Irish hoale. 

SECK-POKE. A bag made to contain a sack that is, four 
bushels of corn. 

SECKIN'. Sack-cloth ; the material of which sacks are made. 

SECONDS. (i) Corn or flour of the second quality. 
(2) The second treble in music. 

SEE, v. (i) To ascertain ; to acquire knowledge, not neces- 
sarily by the use of the eyes. 

I can get no reight end o' things, soa I'm gooing oher ; I want to see 
what he says my sen." Kirton-in-Lindsey , Nov. 9, 1874. 

This extension of the meaning of the word see, so as to mean the 
acquiring of knowledge by the other senses, is common to many 
languages. Saint Augustine mentions it. 

" Dicimus autem non solum, vide quid luceat, quod soli oculi sentire 
possunt ; sed etiam, vide quid sonet ; vide quid oleat ; vide quid sapiat ; 
vide quam durum sit." Confess, lib. x., xxxv., Opp. ed., Benedic. Antw., 
1700, Tom. i., col. 142. 

(2) To see a person home, or part of the way home, is to 
accompany him the whole or a portion of the way. 

" I offered hints to see her safely home." 

John Clare, The Memory of Love. 

(3) A person haying good ability, or acquirement in any art 
or undertaking, is said to be well seen in it. 

"A schoolmaster 
Well seen in music to instruct Bianca." 

Taming of the Shrew, Act i., sc. 2, 1. 135. 
" Well seen in everie science that mote bee." 

Faerie Queene, iv., 2, xxxv. 

" Well seen in the foreign affairs of the world." Life of Bishop 
Frampton, 44. 

I niver hed to do wi' noabody that was better seen e' well-sinkin, 
then Lings was. Messingham, 1852. 

SEE AFTER, SEE TO. To look after. 

I mun goa to see efter them hands at taatie pie ; thaay'll get noht dun 
bud talkin' if thaay're not well seen to. 

I doan't like grawin' onions, thaay want sich an a deal o 1 seein' to. 

SEED, pt. t. Saw ; seen. 

I niver seed it raain so fast e' all my born daa> s. 


SEEDS. Land under clover or grass, not permanent meadow 
or pasture. 

SEEING-GLASS. A looking glass. 

We've hed noht bud bad luck sin that theare see in' -glass was brok ; 
fo'st th' oat-stack got afire, an' noo the lambs hes started a-deein like 
mice. .fio/tes/bn/, June, 1887. 

SEEM. Used redundantly, cannot seem. 
I can't seam to reckon it up no how. 
He scarcelin's iver could seem to larn his lessins like uther bairns. 

SEEMLY. Seemingly. 

Seemly it is soa, bud I should n't hev thoht it aither of him or her. 

SEET. (i) A sight. 

It's a seet enif to sicken a dog 'ats lived upo' ket, an' ligg'd on a 
manner-hill all it daays. 

(2) A large quantity. 

Ther 1 was a seet o' rats an' mice bo'nt e' th' oat-stack, poor things. 
A seet o' top land's warse dreant then oor warp land is. 
Ther's sects an' sects o' laadies gets their deaths o' cohd by wearin' 
them theare low necked dresses. 

SEG. (i) A boar that has been castrated when full grown. 

(2) Sedge. 

(3) The fleur de lys. 

SEG, v. To sag (q.v.) Isle of Axholme. 

SEGELING. Said of the wild or unsettled flight of birds. 

I knew we should hev heavy wind ; th' black-heads was segelin' aboot 
iver-soa yisterdaay. 

SELION. A portion of land of uncertain quantity ; probably 
the same as " land." See LANDS. 

"DERRYTHORPE. On Monday last, Messrs. Hatnell & Ducker 
offered for Sale at the Keep Within Compas Inn, in Derrythorpe, part 
of the Estate, situate at Derrythorpe, of J. W. D. Johnson, Esq., of 
Temple Bel wood : Lot 2 (oa. ar. 23p.), a Sclion of Land on Low 
Furlong, was sold to Mr. Benjamin Whiteley, for 88 ; Lot 3 
(la. or. op.), another Selion in Great Ings, to Mr. John Snow, for 109 ; 
Lot 4 (oa. 3r. 28p.), a Selion in Mill Field, to Mr. William Crackle, for 
/ioo; Lot 5 (oa. 3r. 26p.), another Selion in the Mill Field, to Mr. 
James Whiteley, for ^98 ; Lot 6 (oa. 3r. ip.), another Selion in Mill 
Field, to Mr. T. J. Brown, for 86 ; and Lot 7 (oa. ir. 28p.), another 
Selion in the Mill Field, to Mr. T. J. Brown, for 65. Lot i, consisting 
of a Cottage and Garden was not sold." Epworth Bells, Aug. 19, 1876. 

The word is in constant use in the Isle of Axholme, but seerns to 
have become obsolete on the Eastern side of the Trent. 

" Selion of Land (Selio terrae). Fr. Sellion, i.e., Terra elata inter sulcos, 
in Latin Porca, in English a Stitche or Ridge of Land, and in some 

E laces only called a Land ; and is of no certain quantity, but sometimes 
alf an acre more or less." Tho. Blount, Law Diet., 1717, sub voce. 


^SELL'D, pt. t. and pp. Sold. 

. . I've selVd my taaties for a rattlin' price. 

CELLING. Proverb, relating to. ' 

M Ax near, sell dear."* - 

.$|EMI-PEMI. One who is weak; small; of no account. 
'Derived from demi- semi- quaver in music. 

I call him nobbut a semi-demi wheare a real man cums. 

SEN. Self; used also in. compounds, as " mysen ;." " their- 
sens ; " " hissen ; " " wersens ; " " yoursens." 

A man of weak intellect" had been accustomed from childhood 
regularly to attend Flixborough Church, and Sir Robert Sheffield, the 
grandfather of the present, baronet, used every Sunday to give .him a 
-' '."' friendly salute 'and a sixpence; On one occasion, in response to- the 
customary "Good morning,. Bob, how are you to-day," the man, for 
some reason resenting the salutation as too familiar, replied sharply 
" Bob thy sen, not me," . --. v 

" And soon as chance offer'd that she could begin, 
She 'gan weigh her doubts to her sen.' 1 

John Clare; The Disappointment. 

SENNIT; Seventh night. 

'SENSE,-^' He hes n't sense to baait a moose-trap ;" that is, he 
is very foolish. 


That suff s choakt real full o' sentiment. 

SERMON-BELL. One bell sounded alone at the end of 
chiming or ringing for service when .there is to be a sermon. 
In the,rst instance the term, was probably applied to 
a bell calling people to sermons preached apart from 

" I ring to sermon with a lusty boome, 

That all may come, and none may stay at home." 

1 \---~- ,v Bell Inscription, Banbury, Oxfordshire. 


SERRY. Silly; weak-minded (possibly a form of sorry). 

Fve seed a many serry uns e' my time, bud that theare parson caps 
~a.\\:Wtiioughton, f88o. 

SERVICE-ABLE. (Pronounced as it were two separate 
words) ; able-bodied. 

Jim's hed to leave his place an" cum hoame ; he's not service-aable* 

''SESS 'SESSMENT. An assessment ; 'a rate.. 



SET. (i) A potato, or a part of one, used as a plant for a 
future crop. 

We did ewse to cut th' sets e' three or foher peaces, just leavin' 'em 
one eye apeace, but sin th' demuck (q.v.) hes cum'd we most gen'lly 
plants 'em whoale. 

(2) A young plant of any kind used for bedding out. 

SET. To set a person on his way home is to go a part of the 
way with him. 

SET. pt. t. Sat. 

He set his sen doon by th' fire'side. 

SET AGATE, r. To set agoing. 

Cum, Bessie, set that copper agaate. 

SET-POT. A large iron pot set in brickwork for the purpose 
of having a fire made underneath it. 

SET UPON END, v. To put in an erect position. 

Set that stee upon end agean th' barn. 

SETTEN UP, pp. (i) Pleased. 

He's straangely setten up wi' that new top-coat he's getten. 

(2) Provided with. 

Thaay was as poor as poor till he deed, bud noo thaay're setten-up wi' 
ivrything onybody could nead to hev. 

(3) Rendered proud. 

She is setten up, she is, just becos a gentleman hes mis-married hissen 
wi 1 her doughter. 

SETTERDA' (set-urda). Saturday. 

SEVEN-YEAR-END. A long but indefinite period. 
He niver cums near me fra seven-year-end to seven-year-end. 

SEVERAL. Many; a large quantity. 

Parson : "Are there any plover on Ferry Flash ? " 

Keeper : " Yes, several." 

That is, there is a flock, not a few single ones. East Ferry, 1879. 

SEW. A shrew mouse. 

SEW,^. t. (i) Sow. 

I sew th 1 oats broadcast to-year, it was oher weet to drill 'em. 

(2) Sew. 

She's a poor creatur, she is ; niver sew oht fit to be seen sin she caame 
fra school. 

(3) Saw. 

It was when I sew the dead biffs oot on th' pear tree. G. T., Bottesford, 
June 21, 1878. 


SEWER (seu-h'r), adj. Sure. 

I'm sewer I hev n't tell'd him noht o' th' soort. 

SEWERLINS, flrff. Surely. 

He'll be goan agean soon, sewerlins. 

SEWERLY, adv. Surely. 
SEWGER. Sugar. 

SEWING. When sewing is done with brittle thread, or other- 
wise so badly that it breaks easily, it is said to have been 
done " wi' hot needle an' bo'nt thread." 

SEE-YA! SEE YA HERE NOO. See! Listen! 

SHACK (shak). (i) A shake. 

Thoo's gin this taable a straange shak. 

(2) A small crack in timber or stone. 

That walnut treas so full o 1 shaks ther' 's noa gunstocks in it. 

(3) A disorderly person ; a scamp. 

I alus reckon'd he was a reg'lar shak, bud I've begun to ehaange e' 
my waay o' thinkin' along o' this here. When thaay 'd Primroase do 
at Norrumby all us foaks went to it, an' did n't leave scarcelins 
onybody i' toonship bud Mrs. ... as could n't goa. Well, when 
she "s oot fetchin' coos up, bull to'ns awk'ard an' cums at her an' 
knocks her doon. She knaws as she 's a dead woman ony time, seein' 
as ther' is n't a Christ'an wi' in cry on her, bud awiver she falls to 
screalin' as hard as she can, an' by good luck ... is gooin' by an' 
hears her an' tears i' to pastur' full pelt to knaw what 's up. An' when 
he seas how things is he catches hohd on a cloas'-prop as Stan's handy 
an' cums tilt at beast, an' sends him clean oher like a nine-pin. " Up 
wi 1 ye an' run," says he; "I'll keap him i' tow while you get tuther 
side o' gaate." Bud noo coos begins on her an' hypes at her wi' the'r 
horns while she's runnin' doon wi' blood, an' her cloas is all i' rags. An 1 
soa he hes to start on them an' all, an' when he 's getten 'em awaay fra 
her soa as she can up an' run, bull's upov his legs agean an' cumin" 
stright for him lookin 1 as fell as thunner. Well, he gies him sum'ats 
fer hissen an' then teks anuther goa at coos, an' hes to stick at 
it this how, while Mrs. ... is well awaay. An* efter she 's gotten 
clear off he to'ns taail an' bolts as quick as he can. An' what I saay 
is, if he is a shak he 's a good-plucked un, an' he can't be very caase- 
hardened, becos if he was he 'd tent hissen fra trustin' to God's marcy 
that fashion. June, 1887. 

SHACK, v.- To shake. 

I'll goa shack sum cherries doon if ony on 'em's fit fer fallin 1 . 

SHACKBAG. (i) A large game-cock (obsolete). 

" If one may judge of the rest from the fowls of Rhodes and Media, 
the excellency of the broods at that time consisted in their weight and 
largeness (as the fowls of those countries were heavy and bulky) and of 
the nature of what our sportsmen call shakebags or turnpokes." 
Samuel Pegge, in Archceologia, iij., 142. 


" Sir Hackle's arm supports a shake-bag's load." The Gamblers, 1777, 52. 

" Fierce shake-bag flap the wing." Ibid, 63. 

Cf. T. Lewis O. Davies, Supplementary Eng. Gloss. 

(2) A worthless fellow ; a scamp. 

He's a real shackbag if iver ther' was one.Messingham, 1876. 

SHACKBAGGERLY, adj. In a loose, disorderly manner. 

Foaks is saayin' a deal aboot the shackbaggerly waay as John , , 
managed that saale. 

SHACK-FURK. A fork used for shaking manure. 

There was, about the year 1840, a parody on the history of the three 
children who were flung into the furnace, in which their names appeared 
as Shackfurk, Muckfurk, and Away-We-Go. The author cannot hear 
that this unseemly story has ever been printed. He has himself 
forgotten the words long ago. 

SHACK-RIPE. (i) Said of fruit so ripe that it will fall off the 
tree when it is shaken. 

We mun hev them pears pull'd, thaay're shack-ripe. 

(2) Anything much decayed. 

" You'll hev to hev a new door at the clew-head next summer, the ohd 
un's gettin' real shack-ripe." A. W., East Butterwick, Jan. 19, 1876. 


We driv in a shack-ripely ohd cart that I thoht wod tum'le e' bits. 

SHACKLE-BONE. The wrist-bone. 

SHACKS. (i) The ague. 

(2) " He's noa great shacks'" said of a person or thing that is 
poor, mean, or third-rate; one little worthy of esteem. 

He's noa great shacks at noht, bud he's wo'st o' all at what he's paaid 

"Ten years ago the young Whig was 'non sordidus auctor,' consider- 
able shakes, but now they are all asses." Blackwood's Magazine, 1820, 
vol. viii., p. 89. 

SHADE. A shed. 

under the harra's in the sand shaade. 

SHAFF. (i) Nonsense; loose talk. 
(2) A shaft. 

SHAFFL1NG, adj. Shuffling. 

If it's shafflingtricks you're talkin' on I'll uphohd it ther' was niver e' 
this earth ony body to beat ohd Squire ... at them gams. Why, 
he got hohd o' th' land belongin' to ... chapil an' then bon't th' 
writin's^so as noabody could get no reight end o' noht ; an' he stopp'd 
up foaks's watter coorses, an' then swoore 'em doon thaay'd no reight o' 
flow that-a-waays. 


SHAFT-EAR. The iron hook or ring at the end of the shafts 
of a cart, by which the first horse pulls. 

SHAFT-HORSE. The horse in a team which goes between 
the shafts. 

SHAG. (i) The loose fringe at the end of a web of cloth, &c. 

(2) The ear of oats. 

(3) A mass of hair that has become entangled or clotted 

That foal's cuver'd wi' shags, he'll look poonds better when thaay've 
cum'd off. 

"And then shag to shag descended down between the tangled hair 
and frozen crusts." John A. Carlyle, Dante, Inferno, canto xxxiv. 

SHAG-FOAL. (i) A foal with its first year's coat on. 
(2) A hobgoblin like a foal. 

SHAKERS. Trembling grass. 

SHAKY, adj. (i) Feeble through illness or age. 
(2) Poor ; impoverished. 

SHAM'LES. Shambles. 

SHAMMOCKING, adj. Slovenly; of awkward gait. 

SHANDRY. A spring-cart. 

SHANDY, adj. Half-crazy. 

is said to ride on one of the above animals when he goes 
on foot. 

"Here again we must travel post, in a cart, on horseback, or on 
shank's nagie." Blackwood's Mag., 1820, vol. vi., p. 570. 


He's sent hoame that theare wesh-tub. Did ta iver see oht e' sich 
'n a shap e' all thy life ? 

SHARP. (i) Quick in motion. 

Noo, Mary, be sharp wi' that pitcher, I'm as dry as a fish. 
(2) Quick in intellect. 

He's sharp at readin' an 1 writin', bud no ewse at all at figurein'. 

SHARPS. Very coarse flour containing a considerable 
quantity of bran, 


SHAR-THACK. A kind of coarse grass, perhaps identical 
with Star-thack (q.v.) 

SHAV, //. (shavs). A shaft. 

SHAW. (i) A wood (obsolete). Still used in place-names ; 
e.g., Bell Shaw Wood in the parish of Belton ; Beckenham 
Shaw Wood, Sea why. 

(2) A show; an exhibition. 

(3) A horse-fair held at Scotter, on the sixth of July, is called 
Scotter Shaw, that is show. A charter for this fair was 
granted by Richard I., Monasticon Anglicanum j., 392. 

(4) A kind of potato said to have taken its name from the 
person who raised it from seed. 

SHAWL. An old woman who was present at a service in 
Redbourne church, in which the Bishop of Lincoln took a 
part, dressed in mediaeval episcopal vestments, was heard 
to say, " His shawl's real pratty, but I doant think much to 
his bonnit. ' 

SHAW WILLING, phr.To be willing ; to shew willingness. 
I'll goa if I can, that '11 shaw willing. 

SHE. She is, I think, never used for her. If it occurs at all 
it is probably a lately introduced idiom. The feminine 
pronouns she and her are used for many inanimate things, 
as an oven, a clock, a stee, a pianoforte, a suff, and a 
church bell. See HE. 

SHEAF, v. To tie corn in sheaves. 

Stir your sens, I mean to hev this cloas' sheafed to neet. 

SHEAF-ARSE. The bottom of a sheaf. 

Go tell Sam to chuck th 1 stocks ohere'th' Hoss-Cloase, th' sheaf '-arses 
is as weet as muck. 

" One can scarce tell which is the heade and which is the arse of the 
sheafe." Best's Farming Book (Surtees Soc.), 49. 

SHEAR. A sheep once shorn is called a one-shear sheep, twice 
shorn a two-shear sheep, and so on. 

"His four or five shear ewes at 585." Arth. Young, Line. Agric., 

1799, 315- 

" Sheep, Mr. Culley observes, generally renew their first two teeth 
from fourteen to sixteen months old, and every following year about the 
same time, until they become three-shear, that is, turn three years 
old." Treatise on Live Stock, 1810, 114. 

SHEAR, v. to cut corn with a sickle. 


SHEARER. A reaper with a sickle, not with a scythe. 

We ewsed to hev cotton-spinners an' naail-maakers fra the West 
cuntry for shearers, bud noo ther's noan cums bud Irishmen. 

Bottesford, 1845. 

SHEARLING. A once-shorn sheep. 

SHEARS (shearz). That part of a waggon to which the 
shafts are affixed. 

SHED. The division of the hair. 

SHED, v. (i) To divide the hair with a comb. 

(2) To come off; said of leaves, hair, and feathers. 

(3) To drop on the ground ; said of over-ripe corn. 

SHEEDER. That is she-deer ; a female animal. Now 
commonly, but by no means exclusively, confined to sheep. 

" They are forced to sell their heeders and joist their sheeders." Arth. 
Young, Line. Agric., 1799, 325. 
That cat's a sheeder, bud she's niver hed ony kitlin's. 

SHEEP-DRESSING. A fluid used to kill insects in the wool 
of sheep. 

SHEEP-DYKE, SHEEP-WESH. A place in a stream or 
pond where sheep are washed. 

My faather maade a sheep-dyke i' th' second Marsh cloase, bud it has 
been filled in this five-an'-tho'ty year. Bottesford, June 18, i88/. 
Ther's a good sheep-wesh e' Scotter toon, agean th' ohd brig. 

SHEEP-FAG. A parasitic insect that infests the wool of 

SHEEP-MARK. An order was made by the Bottesford Manor 
Court, in 1550, that no one should turn his sheep into the 
Marsh without their being distinguished by the^ mark of 
their owner. A similar regulation was made in many 
other manors. When the commons were unenclosed it was 
necessary for everyone who had a right of pasture to have 
a sheep-mark that could be easily distinguished from those 
of his neighbours. 

A letter written by Archbishop Cranmer, probably in 1534, shows 
that these marks were sometimes used for other purposes. He says : 
" Touching my commission to take oaths of the King's subjects for His 
Highness' succession, I am by your last letters well instructed, saving 
that I know not how I shall order them that cannot subscribe in 
writing; hitherto I have caused one of my secretaries to subscr[ib]e 
for such persons, and made them to write their shepe-mark or some 
other marks as they can . . . scribble. Now, would know whether 
I shall, instead of subscription, take their seals." Cranmer, Miscel- 
laneous Writings (Parker Soc.), 291, 


Some of the cattle-marks of the towns in the neighbourhood of 
Boston are engraved in Thompson's Hist., Boston, 1856, 642. 

There is much information concerning the sheep-marks of the North- 
West of England in the Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmoreland 
Antiquarian and Archaological Society, ij. 171, 354- 

SHEEP-SALVE. Ointment used for killing fags on sheep. 
SHEEP-TROD. A path made by sheep in pastures, 

SHEETING. The linen or cotton web of which sheets are 

"Her home-spun sheeting, recent from the loom. 1 ' 

James Hurdis, The Favourite Village, 1800, 146. 
" Can your lady patch hearts that are breaking 

With handfuls of coals and rice, 
Or by dealing out flannel and sheeting, 
A little below cost price." 

Charles Kingsley, A Rough' Rhyme. 

SHELF, " Shelves is high to-daay," a figurative expression, 
meaning there is no food within reach. 

SHELL-OUT, SHILL-OOT, *;. To pay. 

Tell him he's to shell-oot or I shall put him i'to the coort as I did 
Broon. May, 1887. 

He's not a man that '11 stan' nonsense, so you'd as well shill-oot noo, 
an' hev dun wi' it. 

SHELVINGS, Loose flat boards or frames which are 
attached to the bodies of waggons and carts for the purpose 
of enabling them to carry greater loads. 

11 4 strong broad wheeled carts and shelvings." Gainsburgh News f 
March 23, 1867. 

SHEP. A shepherd, 

" Cook was shep to Mr. Sorsby then, but he's left noo." So, in 
Piers Plowman, B, prol. 2, the phrase "As I shepe were," means 
" As if I were a shepherd." Lydgate has it too, in his "-Chorl and 
Bird," where the birds says to the churl 

A chepys croke to the ys better than a lance. See Ashmole, Theatrum 
Chemicum, 223. 

GLASS. The pimpernel ; Anagallis avvensis. 

SHEPHERD'S PURSE. Capsella Bursa-pastoris. 

SHERRIFF-TURN (obsolete). " The sheriffs' court kept 

twice every year, viz., within a month after Easter and 

within a month after Michaelmas." Cowel, Law Diet., 1727. 

" The proffittes of fayres and marketes there, perquisites of courtes 

leates, Sheriff es Turnes holded within Scotter afforsayd." Lease of 

Manor of Scotter, 1537. 


SHERT (shert), adj.(i) -Short. 

Neets is gettin 1 shert noo. 
(2) Hasty in temper. 

Oor missis is uncommon shert to-daay ; she was fit to snap my head 
off as soon as she cum doon e 1 th' mornin', an' noht's suited her sin'. 

SHET. A shirt. 

I'm not agooin to do onything o' soort, an' soa you nead n't tew yer 
sliet, i.e., you need not trouble yourself about it. 

SHIFT. A term of work. When one set of men are employed 
at any work and are replaced by another set of men at the 
same work, each set is called a shift. At iron-furnaces and 
other works where labour has to be continued night and 
day, the day-labourers are called the day-shift, and the night- 
labourers the night-shift. This word is used in Yorkshire, 
and probably all over England. 

SHIFT, v. To move. 

Noo then shift, can't ye. 

SHIFTINESS. Craft ; cunning ; sometimes, though rarely, 
used in a good sense. 

SHIFTY, adj. Cunning ; deceitful ; sometimes, though rarely, 
used in a good sense. 

SHIG, v. To shirk ; to avoid. 

He's shigg'd his job an' goan to th' fo'nisis. 

SHIG-SHOG. A pace between a walk and a trot, or any 
shaking motion, like it. 

SHILL (shil). To separate peas, beans, nuts, &c., from their 
pods or shells. 

I was shillin' peys when he cum up to me an' says, " Jaane will ta' 
marry me ? " an' I consither'd a bit an' then I says, " ay, Jack, I will if 
ta' likes," an' wi'oot moore ado he flings his airms roond my neck an' 
kisses me.oher an' oher agean. 

" Will. Fawcett, of Aiton, yeomn> for buying of oates in the Kinges 
markett to skill and convert in oatmeal, without the lawfull license of 
anie J.P." 1631, North Riding Record Soc., iij., 310. 


SHILTER. A shelter. 

Ther' is n't a bit o' shilter for stock e' them warp cloasins that was 
Heala's. Burringham, 1879. 

SHILTER, v. To shelter. 

Thoo mun rig up sum'ats to shilter th 1 lambs fra the wind or thaay 
'11 be perish'd. 

"For . . . skittering bricks." Bottesford Moors Ace., 1811. 


SHIMMEE, SHIMMY. A woman's shift. 

SHINDY, SHINE. A disturbance (probably slang). 
Ther's most gen'lins a shine at Ep'uth at 'lection times. 

SHINE, TO CUT, v. To live in a more showy manner than 
one's means allow. 

He did ewse to cut a shine wi' carriages and herses when he lived e' 
thease parts ; I wonder how he like th' inside on a jaail noo he's getten 
into one. 

SHINE, TO MAKE, TO KICK U P, v. To make a disturbance. 
He did kick up a shine when Jaane Anne run'd off wi' crookle-back'd 

SHINUP, SHINTY. The game of hockey. 

SHIT. A term of contempt. 
He's a regular shit. 

If I was you, Mary Ann, I'd be aboon soortin 1 my sen wi' a shit-arsed 
fella' like that. 

SHIT YOUR BREETCHES. The common redshank, Totanus 
calidris, so called from the cry it makes. 

SHITTLE. (i) A weaver's shuttle. 
(2) The shuttle of a drain (q.v.) 

Th 1 shittle agean th' fish pond is o' noa ewse noo. 
" The same sewer from the foresaid fields end to the shittle shall be 
diked, scowred, and cleansed ... by Mr. William Dalyson." 
Inquisition of Sewers, 1583, 7. 

SHIVE, SHIV (sheiv, shiv). The woody part of flax and 

SHIVE (sheiv). A thin slice. 

Just give me a shive of bread and cheese. 

SHIVER. A splinter. 

Ther's a shiver run'd i'to my hand ho'ts me real bad. 

SHIVER, v. To splinter. 
SHOCK UP, . To stook (q.v.) 

SHOD-CART, SHOD-WAIN. A cart or waggon whose 
wheels are hooped with iron, as distinguished from those 
whose wheels are bare (obsolete). 

" Nuli ibunt cum auriga vocata a shod-wayne or carte super le 
hebbels." Bottesford Manor Records, 1563. 

For unshod carts see Midland Cos. Hist. Coll., ij. 29, 325, 362 ; 
Palmer, Perlust ; Yarmouth,]. 24; Monasticon Anglicanum, iij. 229. 

For shod-carts see Monasticon Anglicanum, v. 485; Archaologia, xj. 
4375 xlj. 345; xliij. 220. 


SHOE. (i) A horse-shoe-shaped piece of net or lace in the 
back of a baby's cap. 

(2) A slipper for a waggon wheel ; sometimes called a skid or 

SHOE LEATHER. Used figuratively for shoes. 
She's as tidy a lass as iver troad shoe leather. 

SHOG, v. (i) To move on slowly. 

I mun be shoggin'; I doant walk very fast noo. 
(2) A slow trot. 

" The true plebeian shog which had given himself and his riders no 
small degree of appetite." Mackinnon, Ace. of Messingham, 1825, n. 

SHOLL. A piece of wood, whittled into thin shavings, which 
are left attached at one end ; used for lighting a fire. 

SHON,pp. Shone. 

Th' moon shon soa it was clear leet, omust like daay. 

SHOOL (shool). A shovel. 

" I, said the owl, 
With my spade an 1 shool, 
I'll dig his grave." 

Cock Robin. 

SHOOLER. An intruder. 

SHOOT, v. (i) To pare sods with a paring spade (obsolescent). 
"It is laide in paine that none of the said inhabitants shall grave or 
shoote any bagges beneath Micle howses or Tripling howses or beneath 
any sik betwene them." Scatter Manor Records, 1599. 

(2) To twist a rope. 
SHOOTING. Diarrhoea in oxen. 
SHOP-THINGS, s. //.Groceries. 

This groacer's licence is a real bad thing ; women goas to th' groacers, 
slives off wi' a bottle o' gin, an' gets it setten doon as shop-things. 

SHORE. A prop or stay to a building. 
SHORE, v.~ To prop up. 

SHORE, pt. t. Sheared. 

When my bruther was ill I shore all his corn for him my sen. 
C. S., Flixborough, July 30, 1875. 

SHORT CAKES. Cakes made of flour, water, and " short- 


SHORTENING. Lard, beef-fat, or butter, put into paste to 
make it eat crisp. 

Caathlics won't eat onything vvi' lard shortenin' in o 1 fast daays. 

SHORT OF PUFF. Short-winded. 
SHORT-TONGUED, a#. Lisping. 

SHO'T (shot), adj.(i) Short. 

It 's a dog o' must like oor tarrier nobbut it noase is shorter. 

(2) Liable to crumble. 

As sho't as cat-fat. 

Sho't reckonin's mak long friends. 

This warp's straange an' sho't ; it crum'les wi' lookin' at anearly. 

(3) Brittle and with a straight cleavage. 

(4) Of hasty temper. 

SHOT. Payment. 

" On cast down her schott and went her wey." 

Songs and Carols of i$th Cent. 
(Percy Soc.), 94- 

SHOULD. Often used for shall. 

Should us two goa a gleanin' to-daay. 


That bairn o' thine should oht to goii to boardin' school ; he larns to 
talk real plain wi' alus playin' wi 1 farmin' lads. 

You should n't oht to squeal oot e' that how, Mary Anne, just becos a 
black clock 's gotten upo' thy frock. 

SHOU'DER, SHOU'THER. The shoulder. 

SHOU'DER-PIPES, s. pi Drain tiles, with a collar attached 
to each, so that they fit one into another. 

SHOUT, v. To call. 

I shooted you all over an' you niver cum'd. It's my opinion you've 
been asleap e'stead o' gettin' on' wi' your wark. 

SHROUD. A small fungus-like concretion of soot in the wick 
of a burning candle, which becomes enlarged and red ; or a 
small piece of wax or tallow which curls up at the side of a 
burning candle. Both these objects are signs of death to 
the person to whom they are opposite. 

SHUCKY. Mean ; shifty. 


SHUT, v.pp., SHUTTEN. To shoot. U3 

I wish sumbody wo'd shut ivery rabbit as ther* is. 

Doan't hawm aboot e' that how wi' that gun, thoo'lKbe shuttin' 

It's my opinion as it's T ... an' noabody else, aslte! s/ji&lt 
oor bitch. , . 

SHUTHER (shudh-w'r), v. To shudder ; to shiver, 
SHUTNESS. Riddance. 

Good shutness to him. 
Good-bye and good-shutness. 

Phrases commonly used when an unwelcome" guest ' has ^ taken his 

SHUTTLE, SHITTLE. A door which may be raised or 
lowered in a groove, put across a drain for the purpose of 
holding up water. 

SHUT OFF, v. To go quickly away. 

"When he seed oor Sam he shut off wi' oot a wo'd. 

SHUT ON, SHUTTEN ON, pp. Rid of. [*) 

I've bed th' rewmatics a long while, bud I'm shut on 'em at last. 
I should be straange an' glad to be shutten on him; he cums here 

clartin' aboot ivery blessed daay as ther' is. 

" Given to Susan Stokham, being at her time and ready to labour, 

to get shuts of her, is. " Doncaster Corporation Ace., 1655, in Tomlinson's 

Done aster, p. 150. 

SHUTTEN UP.--Shut up. 

" Its all luck, an' gen'lins bad luck an' all. A woman niver knaws 
what a man is whilst she's wedded to him, an' thaay shutten up e' one 
hoose together, an' then it's oher laate to rew," Bottesford, July 27, 

SHUTTS, 5. />/. Shutters. 

It's gettin' dark, put th' shutts up. 

" In the Best Chamber ... 4 window shuttes, an iron chimney, 
and a pair of tongs." Inventories of Sir William Fairfax, bf goads at 
Walton, Yorkshire, 1624, in Archaologia, xlviij., 136. - ;'*' 

SHUT UP, v. To make silent ; to counteract. 

SHUVEL. A shovel. East of the Trent this form of the 
word prevails over shool (q.v.) 

SHY, v. To throw ; to pelt. 

SIB, adj. Related to (obsolescent). 

Oor Marmaduke 's sib to all the gentles in th 1 cuntry, though he hes 
cum doon to lead coals. Ashby, 1856. 

Cf. Myrc, Instruc. for Parish Priests (E.E.T.S.), 41 ; Sir Th. More, 
English Workes, 1557, 469; Ramsay, Scottish Life and Character, 145; 
Scott, The Antiquary, ch. xxxiij ; W. E. Hearn, The -Aryan H'ottsehold, 290. 


SICH, adj. Such. 

I doant think I iver seed sick 'n a fine bull as that is as oor squire's 
getten fra Berkeley. Bottesford, April, 1887. 

SICK. Disgusted ; weary in mind. 

I'm sick to dead o 1 thease here" 'lections, I wish ther was n't gooin' to 
be anuther for the next hunderd year to cum'. 

" He hath the reliques, and the wefts, and the remainder of swine 
still in him, yet he issicke of them, hee fights against them, hee resists 
them continually, as health resists sicknesse, or as a living fountaine 
resists the mud that fals into it." John Preston, Sermons Before His 
Majestic, 1630, p. 39. 

SID. The fine mud which accumulates in a drain or gutter. 
SID-HOLE. A cesspool. 

SIDE. (i) A district, as " Ketton side" " Gaainsbr' side" 

" It pleased God to interrupt them by sending Colonel Cromwell to 
them from Northampton side." Rel. of Cromwell's Proceeding Against 
Cavaliers, July 24, 1643, 2. 

(2) A thing much out of shape is said to have " neither end 
nor side," or to be " all ends and sides." The same remark 
is applied to incoherent and ignorant talk. 

I wod n't hev hed th 1 ohd thing at noht. It hed naaither end nor 
side belongin' to it. 

I can't bear talkin' to him ; what he says hes naaither end nor side. 

SIDE AWAY, SIDE UP. To put away ; to put in order. 
I've nobbut just sided dinner-things awaay. 
Side up yer things noo, it's bed time. 

SIDEBOARDS, s. pi. Loose boards sometimes attached to 
the sides of carts and waggons to increase their capacity. 

" i waggon with shelvings and sideboards." Gainsburgh News, March 
23, 1867. 

SIDELINGS. By the side of. 

Butterwick Moors runs sidelin's o' th' Haale o'must th' whoale 
length on it. 

" 3yf any connyng man of |)O 
Stande> stille, or sidlyng can go, 
He may stande on J>e brynkes 
All so lange as hym god }>ynkes." 

Robert Manning, of Brunne, 
Story of Eng., i., 361. 

SIDE, PAIN IN. When any one is weary of a long story, or 
one that he has heard many times before, he exclaims, " I've 
a pain in my side." 

He begun saayin' th' saame thing oher and oher agean aboot Miss 
Braddon books, so I says to him, " I've a paain e' my side," an' leaves 
him to talk to my lasses. 


SIDE-POCKET. A large loose pocket worn by a woman 
under her gown. 

Go up stairs, Sarah, an' fetch th' nutmeg oot o' ray Sunda' side-pocket. 

Anything very useless is said to be "of no moore ewse then a side- 
pocket is to a toad." 

A person dressed in a very absurd manner is said to look like a sow 
wi 1 side-pockets. 

SIDE SLIP, ON TH'. Somewhat on the side of. 

On the side slip o' Wroot. 

" The scite of this manor house being placed on the side slipp of a 
rising ground." Survey of the Manor of Wimbledon, 1649, in Archaologia, 
x., 434. 

SIDES, TO HAVE TWO. " To have two sides" is to take 
different views of a matter, and so to quarrel. 

We nearly hed two sides aboot Roaver, 'cos Jim wo'd gie him butter'd 
caake at tea-rime. 

SIDE-W AVERS, s. //.Purlins. See Glossary of Architecture. 
SIDE-WIPE. A sarcasm. 

SIGHT. A great quantity. See SEET. 

"An infinite sight of rare flowers." Wm. Stukeley, Memoirs, 1752, 
(Surtees Soc.), j. 83. 

SIGN, v. To assign. It is often impossible to tell when this 
word is used whether assign or sign is meant. In a sentence 
like " He signed his property to his son," either assignment 
or signature may be in the mind of the speaker. 

SIGNIFY. " So it does not signify" is a strong form of clinching 
an order, argument, or affirmation. 

I'll hev all my sarvants in by nine o'clock, so it dnz not signify. Them 
as duz n't like it can leave. 

SILE. A wooden bowl with a linen bottom used for straining 

SILE, v. (i) To strain milk. 

(2) To rain heavily and steadily with drops very near together. 
Cf. Rob. Ferguson, River Names of Europe, 168. 

"What kind on a daay was it here on Frida', Mary ?" " It siled 
doon all day long as fast as it could power." 

(3) To fall as heavy rain does. 

14 By the spring head, whose water, winter-chill, 
Boils up the white sand that is never still, 
Now swimming up in silver threads, and then 
Slow siling down to bubble up again." 

John Clare, The Memory of Love. 


(4) To faint. 

She sited reight doon, an' fell into a panshion o' paaste afoore th' 
kitchen fire. 

She used to. like to pretend to be a jaady, an' wo'd site awaay when 
iver oht com to vex her. 

.!'^he.5^;on. the floor.",:; 

John Clare, Crazy, N-e.U.- 

SILL.-(i) The threshold of a door. 

(2) The bottom part of the frame of .a window. .:,-. 

(3) The bottom part of a fixed bench, pew, or other like 
wood en 1 erection. 

(4) .The bottom part of a plough which slips , along the 
J ground in ploughing. 

iSILiL-HAJSIK.'-r-The liocxks in -the ; shafts Of a cart or waggon 
for the shaft horse to pull by. 

, A child's CAUL (q.v.) 
SILLYING-ABOUT, prest. ^w*. -Acting foolishly. 

SILT, (i) Sandy warp. 

(2) A sandy stratum, containing much .water, which lies 

, below the clay bed, and above the gypsum in the -Trent 


-SIMPLE-SIDES. A foolish person. 

........._.. . . . . . 5 

SIMPS, s. ^/.Shrimps. 

SIN, adj. Since. 

." .Faatherless a' mutherless, 

Born wi' oot a skin,. ..'..-. ... 
Spok' when it caame i'to th' wo'ld, . 

- ...... : ..... ..... An' niver^pok' sin''-- - ..... - . - wI12 

The answer is crepitus ventris. 

SINGER. A chorister. .. . . ,. 

SINGLING. When turnips are sown much more seed is iised 
than is required ; when they come up men with hoes 
: " strike " them, that is, cut up most of those not required. 
After them follow boys who pull up such of the remainder 
as are not wanted to grow. This latter process is called 

"Their boys and girls released from . . . " wicking " and 
" singling " turnips." John Markenfield, iij., 113. 

SING OUT, v. To. call out. 


SING SMALL, v. To retract; to give in. 

HOLE. (i) A drain for carrying off dirty water. 

(2) A stone table with a ledge round it, fitted with a drain 
for carrying off dirty water; used as a table for washing 
dirty crockery upon. 

" ij alter stones, one Mr. Sheffield haith made a sinck of in his kitchine 
and thother maketh a bridge in the towne." Croxby, Monumenta 
Superstitionis, 1566, p. 65. 

(3) The quantity of hemp or flax sunk in one place at one 

"Drowned in a hempe pitt neare a litle sinke of hempe." Haxey, 
ijth cent., Coroner's Inquest 'Papers, Add. MS., 31,028, fol. 7. 

SINK, v. To sink hemp or flax is to put it in a pond or drain 
with turves on the top to weight it for the purpose of 
rotting the non-fibrous parts from the stalk. 

" That no man synke anie hempe that is bought out of the 
lordshippe in the North more." Scatter Manor Records, 1578. 

SINK IT. 'Od sink it. A curse. 
SINNEY. A sinew. 

SINNEY GRAWD. Stiff in the sinews or joints. 

Thoo 'd better be exercisin' that knee o' thine, or it '11 be gettin 1 sinney 
grawd as sewer as can be. 

SIPE, v. To ooze ; to percolate ; to dribble. 

Th' waiter's nasty; sum'ats bad mun be sipcin* i'to th' well. 
Th' left hand beer-barril sipes real bad. 

SISS. (i) A hissing noise made to excite a dog. 

(2) A noise made by grooms when they are engaged rubbing 
down horses. 

(3) The noise made by steam escaping through a kettle 
spout, or the safety valve of an engine. 

SISS, SISSLE, v. To hiss as a snake or a kettle. 

I doant at all beleave e' iverlastin' punishment o' fire ; it wo'd bo'n 
ye all up, an' ther'd be a end on it. I beleave it is 'at ther' '11 be all 
soorts o' great elephants an' snaakes, an" dragons, a sissin* at ye, an' 
turmentin 1 ye. 1875. 

SITHA, SEE THOU. See Notes and Queries, vjs., x., 164. 
Sit ha ! sitha I mun, how it lightens ! 

SITHERS. Scissors. 


SITTING OF EGGS. The number of eggs on which any 
domesticated bird sits. A hen must have thirteen, other- 
wise the incubation will be unlucky. But with thirteen she 
will have twelve chickens and one bad egg. 

SIT UNDER, v. To attend the ministration of any one at 
church or chapel. 

We've no truble aboot can'les an' sich kelter, you see ; we sit under a 
Christ'n minister "at preaches the real gospel. 

'SIVVER, adv. or conj. Howsoever ; whether. 

Sivver it dees or lives I sha'n't alter my opinion. 

SIZABLE. (i) Well grown. 

" It has stretched to a sizable tree." 

John Clare, The Old Shepherd in Life and Remains, 275. 

(2) Of appropriate size. 

He's buildin' his sen a good, sizable hoose, just as you goa i'to Brigg, 
this awaays on. 

SIZES, s. pi. Assizes. 

He was tried at Lincoln sizes sum five an' twenty year back. 

SKEG, v. To peer ; to peep. 

Braade o' me, th' mare's getten sum'ats amiss wi' her ees ; she's alust 
skeggin' aboot soa. 

SKEG O' TH' EYE, BY THE. By sight, not by rule or 

I reckon, sir, all thea'se ohd carvin's was dun by th j skeg o' th* eye. 
J.B. t Messingham, 1869. 

SKELDED. When a textile fabric, having in it various 
colours, becomes blotchy after washing, it is said to be 


SKELETED. Like a skeleton. 

Th' poor fella' was clear skeleted afoore he deed. Amcotts, Aug. 
14, 1878. 

SKELL, v. (i) To twist as a piece of wood warps in the 
sun. Isle of Axholme. 

(2) To overturn. 

(3) To set on one side or awry. 

SKELLET, SKILLET. A saucepan. See Walker, Sufferings 
of the Clergy, ij. 399. 


SKELLUM. A rogue ; a scamp. 

I'll hev noht to do wi' sich 'n a drunken skellum. 

See Rushworth, Hist. Coll., pt. iii., .vol. ii., 384; Rabelais, 
Urquhart's Trans., iij. 48; Wallington, Hist. Notices, ii. 253; Burns, 
Tarn o l Shunter; Sir Roger L'Estrange, Select Colloquies of Erasmus, 
1711, p. 308. 

SKELL UP, v. To turn up a cart by the removal of the 
juggle-pin. See SLOT-UP. 

Hev ye sUelVd up that cart yit? Bottesford, Sept. 12, 1878. 

SKELP. A slap with the open hand over the breech. Cf. 
Gent. Mag., 1825, i. 396. 

SKELPER. Something very large. 

I niver seed sich skelpers as them Northum'land men an' wimmin is. 

SKELPING. A thrashing. 

SKELPING, adj. Large. 

Thaay 've gotten a skelpin' big chech at Lincoln, bud to my thinkin 
it's noht to compare to th' ohd chech at Gaainsb'r. 

SKEP. (i) A wooden measure of capacity; as a peck-skep; a 

"In 1709 two persons were appointed to measure all the coals that 
came there by one of the skeps that is prepared on purpose." Town 
Records in Stark's Hist, of Gainsburgh, 540. 

(2) A hive for bees. 

(3) A wicker basket used in stables for carrying small 
quantities of horse-corn, or for removing dung. 


SKET. A skirt. 

Wheare hes ta been ? Thy skets is clagged w' streat-muck up to th' 
knees awaay. 

SKEW, v. (i) To twist. 

Doan't skew aboot soa, bairn ; how am I to reightle thy hair if thoo 
duz n't stan' still ? 

(2) To equivocate. 

It is n't of a bit o' ewse tryin' to skew aboot wi' me my lad. 

SKEWBALD. A parti-coloured horse. 

A new song called Skewball was printed as a broadside by C. 
Croshaw, of York, about the beginning of this century; it is probably 
a reprint of an Irish original. This ditty is reproduced in Notes and 
Queries, v. s. iv., 115. 


SKEW-BRIG. A bridge constructed obliquely. 

Ther's a skew-brig on th' raailwaay oher th' road as you goa to Ketton 
this a waays on. Messingham, 1858. 

SKEWSIDE, ON, adv. Askew; aslant; obliquely. 
He naail'd it on skewside, not fit to be seen. 

SKID. The shoe in which a wheel which it is intended should 
not revolve is placed in coming down hill. See SHOE (2). 

SKID, v. To arrest the motion of a wheel in coming down 
hill by means of a skid, or in any other manner. 

" To skid a wheel, to stop the wheel of a coach or cart with a hook 
on the descent of a hill." Dictionarium Rusticum, 1726, sub voce. 

SKIEF (Skeef). A thin iron wheel, sharp at the circumference, 
fitted on to some ploughs instead of a coulter. The use of 
skiefs is almost entirely confined to warp land, as they 
cannot be employed where there are stones. In an 
engraving olThe Lincolnshire Plough, given in the Dictionavium 
Rusticum, 1726, a skiff is represented. The writer does not 
seem to have known its name; he says, " The coulter is a 
sharp turning wheel that cuts the roots of the grass or 
sedge across by its motion as it goes round." 

SKIEF PLOUGH. A plough fitted with a skief. 

SKILLY, SKILLYGALEE. (i) Linseed porridge prepared 
for calves. 

(2) Oatmeal porridge given in workhouses and jails. 

SKIM-MILK. Milk from which the cream has been taken. 

" Craft's blue skim-milk is best for Fools to lap." The Love-Feast, 
1778, ii. 


SKIMMINGS. The thinnest sort of cream, used in farm-houses 
for tea and coffee. 

11 Put three lumps o' sugar in and cream, not milk-skimmin's." Mabel 
Heron, iii., 13. 

SKIMP, v. (i) To work carelessly, and, therefore, badly; to 
work without sufficient material. 

He's skimpt that-thackin 1 straange an' bad. 

(2) When tiles are put on the roof of a building if they do 
not overlap sufficiently, either perpendicularly or 
horizontally, they are said to be skimped. 


When John Smith built oor barn at th' Moors he skimp' d th' tiles 
soa that thaay are n't fit to be seen. Thaay'll hev to be taa'en off an' 
put on agean. June 21, 1887. 

SKIMPING, SKIMPY, adj. Scanty; niggardly. 

Ther" is n't a hoose wheare theare's moore shimpin' doins then hers. 
He's skimpy i' all his actions, when ther's noht to get by shawin r off. 

SKIN ALIVE, v. Parents often threaten children with 
skinning alive. See JOHN MARKENFIELD, iij., 113. 

" If thoodoa n't cum off that theare muck this minnit I'll skin the 
alive." Kirton-in-Lindsey, Aug., 1853. 

There is a horrible tale told to children to frighten them about a 
boy who was skinned alive, all but the palms of his hands and the soles 
of his feet. This threat seems to be a traditional recollection of a 
punishment actually inflicted in former times. " In the romance of 
Garin, the Lorraine? , there are constant threats of flaying alive . . . 
which, however, one is bound to note, are never represented as carried 
into effect." J. M. Ludlow, Popular Epics of the Middle Ages, ij., 137. 
There is a picturesque description of this process in Havelok, 11. 2476-- 

SKIN AND BONE. "All skin and bone;" that is, very lean. 

SKINCH, v. To stint. 

" We're a bit skincWd for room," said by a man who had a small 
house and a large family. Bottesford, Jan. 18, 1881. 
Doan't skinch th' soap. Brigg, 1876. 

SKINCHING, adj. Niggardly. 

Why it's a new hoose anearly, bud oor maaster got oot a barra'-ful 
o' snaw fra th' false-roof, thaay 've been so skinchin* o' a few tiles. 

SKINGY, SKINNY. Stingy; mean. 

SKIP-JACK. A child's play-thing, made of the merry-thought 
of a goose or duck. 

SKIR. The whirring noise made by certain birds in taking 

" Niver hear a pheasant craw, nor th' skin o' a partridge wing." 
Mabel Peacock, Tales and Rhymes in the Lindsey Folk-Speech, 128. 

SKIRL, . To shriek. 

SKIRRIT, v. To cry out as an animal does when in fear or in 

SKIRT. The side of a bank, wood, or plantation. 

"None in casting or amending the aforesaid banks shall take any 
earth within two yards on the skirt of them." Inquisition of Sewers, 
1583. 4- 


SKIRTS, phr. To sit on a person's skirts is to annoy, baffle, or 
impede him. 

" Te ulciscar. I will be reuenged on thee. I will sit on thy skirts" 
Bernard, Terence, 58. 

SKIT, SKITTERS. (i) Diarrhoea in sheep and rabbits. 

"They [lambs] die of the skit or scouring." Arth. Young, Line. 
Agric., 1799, 376. 

(2) A lampoon. 

SKRAUM, v. To throw oneself about awkwardly. 

I niver seed noabody hawm aboot as he duz e' all my born daays. 
He dropp'd a parshil by th' road-side, an" he skraumed aboot all legs an' 
airms getherin' things up agean, as thof he'd been a spider. 

SKREED. (i) A shred; along and narrow piece of board, 
paper, cloth, or any such thing. 

(2) A long and narrow enclosure. At Ashby in the parish 
of Bottesford there was a long and narrow pasture-field 
called the Skreeds. It is now for the most part built over, 
and some of it is called Kirton Terrace. 

"Any freeboard, screed, or parcel of land left on the outside of the 
fences." Epworth Enclosure Act, 1795, 25. 

"Mr. Thomas Peacock . . . did some time since give unto Mr. 
Edward Robson, of the township of Yaddlethorpe, a certain narrow 
screed of land from his Old-street Close, in the township of 
Yaddlethorpe." Memorandum, circa 1823. 

(3) A narrow plantation. 

Them screeds o 1 Scotch firs at Cleatham wants fellin' ; thaay've gotten 
the'r growth. 

(4) A long tale ; a long piece of verse or prose. 

John Marcham ewsed to hev straange. slweeds to tell aboot what th' 
Morla's of Holme did i' fermer times. 

Th' bairn wo'd saay skreeds o' poeterry for a daay thrif, if onybody 
wo'd listen to him. 

" Long skreeds from Dante and Ariosto." Mortimer Collins, Frances, 
J-. 239- 

(5) A cap frill, or any frilled border. 

SKREEK, SKREAK. A harsh scream; a shriek. 

She mad' sich an a skreck, I thoht noht else bud she'd killed her sen. 
" I fear lest this fellow should perceiue her to be in labour, if he should 
often hear her scrikes." Bernard, Terence, 338. 

SKREEK, SKREAK, v. To shriek. 

Th' fo'st time I iver seed a hare shutten was e' Dicky Barley corner 
cloase, wheare th' brick-yard is noo, an 1 she skreek'd oot, as I thoht, for 
all th' warld like a cat yawlin'. 

SKREEL. A screen for dressing corn, or for separating the 
rger from the smaller stones in a gravel-pit 


SKREEL, SKREAL, v. To scream. 

SKREELINGS. Screenings ; that is the small gravel which 
goes through the skreel when gravel is skreened. The larger 
stones are used for mending the highways, the small pebbles, 
or skreelings, are employed for footpaths and walks in 

SKULK, v.(i) To bend the head. 

Thoo mun skulk as ta goas thrif th' door-stead, or thoo'll hit thy sen. 
A goose wo'd skulk if it was gooin' thrif a barn door. 

(2) To hide oneself. 

I heard th' missis cumin', soa I skulk't behind a green trea ther' was. 

SKYME (skeim). (i) To squint. 

(2) To scowl. 

(3) To look out of the eye-corners ; to give stealthy and 
furtive glances. 

I seed her skyming at me as I went by, bud she niver spok. 

SKY-WANNOCK. A person is said to tumble down sky- 
wannock when he falls with legs, arms, and clothes flying 
about in an ungraceful manner. 

I was ridin' wi' him doon Sawcliff Hill ; his boss gev a bit on a 
stumble, an" he flew clean oher it head sky-wannock. Aug. 18, 1866. 

SLAB. (i) An outside'plank when a tree is sawn into boards. 
"The outside sappy plank or board, saw'd off from the sides of 
timber." Dictionarium Rusticum, 1726. 

(2) A thin flag-stone used for making footways, more 
commonly called a " Yerksheer flag." 

SLACK. (i) A hollow or depression in a road or field ; a very 
small valley. 

(2) A part of a stream or river where the water runs slowly. 

(3) The hollow of the back. 

It's beginnin' to catch me e' th' slack o 1 th' back noo, an' it stangs 
reight doon my leg. June, 1887. 

(4) See SLECK. 

SLACKER. A shuttle or stop-gate to hinder the passage of 

SLACK-TRACE. (i) A slovenly woman. 
(2) A woman of unchaste life. 

SLACK-TRACELY, adv. (i) Idly. 
(2) Unchastely. 


SLACKWATER. (i) Still water in a running stream. 
(2) The opposite to BACKWATER (3), q.v. 

SLAG. The refuse from ironworks ; used in the repair of 

SLAIN, pp.^(i) Killed. 

My poor bairn 'at was slaain wi' a boss. 

(2) Those ears of corn are said to be slain which are beaten 
down before the grains in them have come to maturity, and 
which have, as a consequence, little corn in them. Not 
" smutted or mildewed corn," as in the Craven Glossary. 

(3) Corn, or any other plant where the seedlings grow closely 
together, is said to be slain when so injured by frost, blight, 
or overcrowding as not to be able to come to maturity. 

SLAKE. (i) To smear. 

Liza Ann's slaak'd th' taable-cloth all oher wi' treacle. 

(2) To dry crockery or glass badly so that dirty marks 
remain on it. 


SLAMBAGS. (i) One who dresses untidily. 

(2) An unworkmanlike person. 

M . . . is a real slambags at cuttin' up a pig. 

SLAMMOCK. General untidiness. 

SLAMMOCK, v.(i) To be untidy. 
(2) To move awkwardly. 

SLAP. (i) A blow with the open hand. 

(2) The mark of fluid spilt on a flat surface. 

(3) The act of going with great speed or violence. 

When thaay heard on it thaay all run'd full slap. 

(4) " At a slap" all together. 

Th' poastman wi' a letter fra my sun e' th' Indies, an' th' doctor for 
my ohd man leg, an' th 1 butcher, an' th' parson to praay wi' him, all 
cum'd at a slap ; an' top on 'em all ther' sliv'd in th' tax getherer wantin' 
iver soa much for raates. 

" But we are losing our time in describing, 
Here at a slap we throw the whole tribe in." 

Blackwood's Mag., 1829, vol. viii., p. 676. 

SLAP, adv. Quite ; entirely. 

She wo'd goa i'to my room, an' ewse my reightlin' coamb o' Sunda's 
when I was at chapil ; an' I should niver hev fun her oot, bud one 
daay she brok it slap e' two. 


SLAP, r. (i) To strike with the open hand. 
(2) To spill. 

SLAPE, adj. (i) Slippery. 

" I am very sorry I could not get on Monday morning, it was so 
slape ; I will come to-morrow morning if weather permits. Letter from 
E. C., Messingham, Nov. 24, 1880. 

(2) Deceitful ; wily ; sly ; crafty ; smooth-tongued. 

Th' ohd man bed nobbut two suns, an' one was as blunt as a hatchet, 
an' t'uther slaape as oil. 

When he hed to do wi' men like you an' me he was reight enif, bud 
if he com across little Billy ... or ohd ... he was as 
slaape as dike watter. 

(3) Soft and sweet ; mellow ; applied to beer. 
SLAPE-BOWELLED. Subject to diarrhoea. 

SLAPE-SHOD, adj. Smooth shod ; said of horses whose 
shoes are not roughened for frost. 

SLAPENESS. (i) Slipperiness. 

He fell an' brok his airm that fo'st slaapeness we had last back-end. 
(2) Craftiness ; wariness. 

You mun be careful what ye saay to him ; he's as full o' slaapeness as 
a lawyer, a exciseman, an' a winda'-peeper all e' one. 

SLAP- HOLE. The mouth of a drain for conveying dirty 
water from a house. 

When she gets her back up ther's noa sich thing as rewlin her ; why, 
that time as Dick hed blew devils, if she did n't power ivry blessid 
drop o' drink i' th' hoose doon slap-hoale. 

SLAPPING. Large ; good; fine; excellent. 
A slapping fine woman. 
A slappin' crop o' wozzels. 
A slapping fast trotter. 
A slappin' good preacher. 

SLAPS. Refuse fluid. 

SLARE. (i) A scratch on ice made by someone having slipped 
upon it. 

(2) A smear. 

(3) A sarcasm. 

SLARE, v. To make a noise by rubbing the boot-soles on an 

uncarpeted floor. 

(2) Crockery-ware when washed in dirty water or dried 
badly so as to leave marks thereon is said to be slaved. 
See SLAKE. Cf. Notes and Queries, vij. s., ij., 2. 


SLAT. (i) A slot (q.v.), 3 and 4. 

(2) A lath. 

(3) A flat bar of wood such as serves to support the bed on a 
wooden bed-stead. 

SLATE, v. To rebuke ; to revile. 

" Only think how he went away like a slated dog rated I should 
have said when you only just spoke to him." Mabel Heron, j., 80. 

SLATES. A person sent to the prison at Kirton-in-Lindsey 
was commonly said to be " putten under th' slaates ;" that 
having been one of the first slated buildings in the 
Northern part of Lincolnshire. 

SLATTER, v. (i) To scatter. 

Thaay 've slatter'd a lot o' swede seed e' th' sixteen aacre ; it's cumin' 
up e' a great plump. 

(2) To waste in a purposeless manner. 

SLATTERING, SLATTERY, adj.(i) Wasteful. 

(2) Rainy. 

" The weather since being what is commonly termed slattery." 
Stamford Mercury, Sept. 17, 1880. 

It's a straange slattering time for hay and clover, mester. 

(3) Slovenly. 

SLATTERY HARVEST. A rainy harvest. 

SLAVER. (i) Spittle. 

(2) Wild, foolish, flattering, or indecent talk. 

SLAVER, v. (i) To waste. 

He'd a nist little plaace on his awn, clear an' all, bud he slaver'd 
aboot an got thrif it all e' two or three year. 

(2) To talk foolishly. 

" Let's have no slaverin' talk like that ! " Ralf Skirlaugh, j., 192. 

SLAVERING -BIB, SLAVER-BIB. A pinafore; a small 
piece of linen worn by infants on the breast. 

SLAW (slau), adj. Slow. 

SLAWK. Slimy weeds found in ditches. 

SLEAD. (i) A sledge used for removing ploughs, harrows, 
gate-posts, &c., from place to place. 

(2) See SHOE (2). 
SLEAD ROOF. A sledge roof. 


SLECK, SLACK. (i) Small coal, as distinguished from 
roundy coal (q.v.) The small coal used by blacksmiths 
is called blacksmith's sleek. 

(2) Fluid to drink. 

Tea 's straange good sleek for harvist. 

SLECK, v.-(i) To extinguish a fire. 
(2) To quench thirst. 

SLECK-TROUGH. The trough in which a blacksmith cools 
his iron. 

"No sooner was King Harry made 
Of English Church the supreme head, 
But he a blacksmith's son appointed 
Head in his place ; one who anointed 
Had never been, unless his dad 
Had in the sleek-trough wash'd the lad." 

Thomas Ward, England's Reformation, 

1716, 38. 
SLEED, SLED. A sledge. 

SLEEK, v. To make the hair smooth and tidy. 
Sleek thy hair oot lass ; what a seet thoo is. 

SLEEPER. A piece of timber buried in the ground, used as a 
support to any superstructure. 

SLEEP ROUGH, TO, v. To sleep with the clothes on. To 
sleep in an outhouse among straw, or under sacks, or horse 

SLEW (sleu), v. (i) To swerve ; to turn to one side. 

Slew this end oher thease trees. April 4, 1868. 
When it com up'n her hocks she slew'd roond. 

(2) To equivocate. 

He dacker'd an' slew'd aboot, an' soa I knew he was leein. Dec., 1871. 

SLEWD (drunk). Drunk. 
SLING, v. To move along quickly. 

SLIP, v. To miscarry ; used of the lower animals only. 

"It sometimes happens that cows slip or slink their calves." R. W. 
Dickson, Practical Agriculture, ed. 1807, II. 488. 

" Cattle feeding upon ergotised grass are apt to slip their young." 
Academy, Aug. 14, 1875, 173. 

SLIP. (i) A small piece of earth which overhangs, or has 
partially slipped into a ditch. 

I'm not reg'lar cleanin' her oot, Squire ; I'm nobbut takkin' a few 
slips fra th' sides. Yaddlethorpe, Oct. 4, 1876. 

(2) A child's pinafore. 


SLIPE. The flat sheet of iron on the land or left side of a 

SLIPE (sleip), v. To slice off. 

He sliped a. nice peace off'n his thumb-end wi' that new knife. 

SLIP INTO, v. To do anything with great energy. 

I mun slip into my wark or it wean't be dun afoore neet, I see. March 
27, 1878. 

SLIP OFF, SLIPE OFF, v. To run away; to go away 

He slipped off io 'Mericaay wi'oot ony body knawin. 

SLIP ON, v. To put on clothes hastily. 
SLIPPER. A drag for a wheel. See SHOE (2). 
SLIPPY. Quick. 

Noo then, look slippy, I'm i' a big horry. 

SLIP SIDE. Somewhat to the side of. 
Caisthrup's o' th' slip side o' Brigg. 

SLIP THE COAT. To shed the hair; said of horses. 

SLITHER. (i) A slide. 

Th 1 magistraates hes been finin 1 sum bairns for cuttin' slithers e' th' 
toon street. 

(2) A sneer ; an impudent suggestion. 

Thaay threw oot all soorts o' foul slithers at me. Burringha'm, 
November 6, 1864. 

" I expect it is a bit of a slither." Gainsborough News, Sept. 25, 1875. 

SLITHER, v. (2) To slide. 

(2) To slip. 

A chimney-sweep, who was a town councillor of a Yorkshire 
Borough, after entertaining Arthur Orton, whom he believed to be a 
baronet, said to his wife, " Eh Sally, my lass, we are slitherin into 
society noo." 

SLIV, pi. t. of Slive. 

SLIVE (sleiv), v. To slink about. 

Jim's alus a slivein' aboot th' hoose efter Mary Jaane. 
" What are you sliving about you drone ? You are a year lighting a 
candle." N. Bailey, Colloquies of Erasmus, 1725, 33. 
" Now love-teased maidens, from the droning wheel, 
At the red hour of sun-set shyly steal. 

They slive when no one sees, some wall behind." 

John Clare, Shepherd's Calendar, p. 34, 


SLIVERLY (sleivurli), adj. Slinking. 

"Asliverly fellow, vir subdolus, vafer, dissimulator, veterator " 

Ray, E.D.S., B. 15, p. 64. 

He's a real doon sliverly chap, I wo'd n't hev noht to do wi' him if I 
was you. 

SLOBBER, v. To slaver. 

Get yer meat clean, lad ; doan't slobber like a bairn. 
" Nor bryng us in no dokes flesche, 
For thei slober in the mer." 

. . Songs and Carols of Fifteenth Cent. 
(Percy Soc.), 63. 

SLOCKENED, //.Soaked. 

Th' land is that slockerid wi' watter it'll tak a munth o' dry weather to 
reightle it. 

SLOP. (i) A pinafore. 

(2) A wide apron of coarse material used by women when 
engaged in dirty labour. 

(3) A short smock reaching only to the waist. 

SLOP WASH. A wash of a few things, performed at some 
time other than the regular wash-day. 

SLOSH WAY ON, adj. Awry; askew. 

The fo'st time I seed onything aboot it, his cart an 1 hoss was slosh 
waayon o' th' road. Northorpe, Sept. 18, 1875. 

SLOT. (i) A juggle-pin, q.v. 

(2) A bolt or bar. 

(3) Slots, pi. The upright bars of wood which support the 
boards forming the sides of a cart or waggon. 

(4) Slots, pi. The thin pieces of wood in harrows which hold 
the bulls (q.v.) together. 

(5) The place in the mouth of a bag, or of a woman's dress 
in which a string works. 

SLOT, v. To bolt. 

Slot th' door, Mary, here's parson cumin', an' I want noane on him. 

SLOT OFF, v. To go away quickly. 

" I'm a quiet chap, and when there's owt like that goin' on I alust 
slots o/."Ralf Skirlangh, ij., 284. 

SLOT UP, v. To turn up a cart by the removal of the juggle- 


SLOUCH. A broad-brimmed hat of unstiffened felt. 


SLOUGH, SLUFF. The skin of fruit : a berry slough; a plum 

SLOUGHT. A sewer ; a drain. Isle of Axholme. 

SLUBBER, v . (i) To kiss in a loud manner. 

You slubber th' bairn as if you'd niver seen it for a twel'-munth. 

(2) To throw food about or break it up in a wasteful or 
disgusting manner. 

" How vncleanly they bee . . . how they will slubber & sosse vp 
brown bread in pottage." Benard, Terence, 160. 

SLUDGE, SLUSH. These words are nearly, but not quite, 
the same in meaning ; sludge is mud of a stiffer consistency 
than slush. 

SLUFF. A wooden spade used by bankers (q.v.) for casting 

This muck's that clam it weant slip off'n th' sluff when ye dig it. 

SLUG. A horse whose paces are very slow. 
She's a good mare to look at but a real slug. 

SLUIES (sleu-iz), s. pi. Sloes. 
SLUR, t>. To slide. 
SLUTHER. Watery mud. 

SLUTHER, v. To slide ; to slip. 

Sluther expresses more intensity of action than slither. If one person 
slips, he slithers; if two or three fall over him they all sluther. 

SMACK. A blow with the open hand. 

11 She fetched him a smack with her open hand, whereupon he seized 
her by the throat." Gainsburgh News, March 22, 1879. 

SMACK, adj. Quite; entirely. 

He tore his coat-lap smack e 1 two. 

SMACK, LIKE. Very quickly. 

I seed him drivin' like smack along th' ramper not oher an hooer sin. 

SMACK-SMOOTH. Very smooth. 

He says we ha' n't mawn th' Ramsil well ; why, it's as smack-smooth as 
a gress-plat. 

SMALL-SEEDS. Grass and clover seeds. 

Small-seeds, like ivery thing else, is a lot less munny then thaay ewsed 
to be. May, 1887. 



When [mester cums an' finds what thoo's been efter thoo'll hev to 
goa thrifth' small sieve, I'll be bun for it. 

SMART-MONEY. (i) A fine. 

(2) Money paid on a rue-largain, q.v. 

SMELL, v. (i) To seem ; to appear. 

It smells as if ther" was sum'ats wrong when laabrers can't get the'r 
waage at sattlin' neet. 

"It smells of a lie." Bernard, Terence, 18. 

(2) "Smell o' this, it smells o' dead men," is a challenge to fight. 
It is commonly accompanied by shaking the fist in the face 
of the person challenged. 

(3) " Smell a rat." To suspect. 


She's brok my best seein '-glass all to smithers, 

SMITTLE, SMIT, v. To infect. 
SMITTLE, adj. Infectious ; contagious. 
SMITTLING. Infection. 

SMITTLING, adj. Infectious. 

A man had a servant who was very ill of delirium tremens. The master 
was himself shortly after taken ill, and asked the doctor whether 
his servant's complaint was smittling. 

SMOCK-FACED, adj. Pale ; sickly-looking. 

SMOCK-FROCK. A long loose frock made of unbleached 
linen, worn by farming men and shepherds in lambing time. 
Butchers used, until recently, to wear blue frock-smocks, but 
the garment is now out of fashion, and is despised even 
when ornamented with gathered-work. 

SMOCK-MILL. A windmill built of masonry, as distinguished 
from a wooden or post-mill ; so called because in form it is 
not unlike the figure of a man in a smock-frock. 

SMOKE-PENNIES. Smoke and reek ; chimney-money. See 


SMOKE-REEKED, a^/. Smelling or tasting of smoke. 
Them broths is straange an' smooke-reek'd. 

SMOOK (smook). Smoke. 


SMOOR. (i) To smother. 

Thaay do saay that in ohd daays thaay ewsed to smoor foaks at bed 
gotten the'r sens bitten wi" mad dogs, bud I doan't knawhow trewit is. 

"A flaming firebrand casts more smoke without a chimney than 
within it. I'll smoor some of them." John Webster, The White Devil, 
ed. 1857, P- 44- 

(2) To cover up plucked fruit to make it ripen faster. It was 
formerly no uncommon thing to smoor pears by putting 
them between a bed and a mattress. 

SMOOTH, r. To iron clothes. 

SMOOTING, SMOOCHIN. (i) A narrow passage between 
two houses. 

(2) The run of a hare or rabbit through a hedge. See SMUICE. 

SMOPPLE, ^/.Brittle. 

It's that smopple you can't tuch it, it cums to peaces e 1 yer han's. 

SMUDGY, adj. Damp ; hot ; used regarding the weather. 

SMUICE (smeus). the run of a hare or rabbit through a 
hedge. See SMOOTING (2). 

I fun this here hare snared in a smuice e' th 1 sixteen aacre nigh 
Midmoor drean, agean that thear owler tree as ther' is. 

Thaay thoht 'at thaay 'd leet on him yonder, did tha'. Tom knaws 
a trick wo'th two o' that. It's a easy catch'd hare 'ats nobbut one 

"Traps in the paths of woods, coppices . . . and in the muishes 
of hedges." Gentleman's Mag., 1856, 180. 

SMUT. (i) A disease in wheat, in consequence of which the 
flour of the grain becomes a black powder. 

I niver seed sich an a many smuts nowheare as ther' was to year e' 
Titla' Sooth Naathan Land. I dost bet oht if thaay 'd been coonted 
ther' was one head oot o' ivery three. Bottesford, Oct. 20, 1888. 

Smuts are much more common on land where the previous crop has 
been potatoes. 

There is a common opinion that smuts are more plentiful by the side 
of roads and footpaths. The writer's observations confirm this. The 
same idea is prevalent in Switzerland. 

(2) Obscene talk. 

SMUTS, s. pi. Small particles of soot which float in the 
atmosphere. See BLACKS. 

SNACKS, s. ^/.Shares ; halves ; in the phrase " to go snacks." 
Bill an" me ewsed to goa snacks at th' apples we stoale. 

SNAG. A projecting piece of wood from the root of a tree or 
a post that has been broken off. 


SNAGGY, adj.(i) Rough ; full of sharp protuberances. 
(2) Bad tempered ; irritable. 

I couldn't live wi' a snaggy man like him if I was paaid for it. 

SNAKE. The grass snake, never the viper. 

Ther' ewst to be a vast o' snaakes, an 1 hetherds an' all, e 1 Brumby 

SNAKE STONE. An ammonite. 

Thaay saay 'at them things foaks call snaake-stodns is real snaakes 
ton'd to stodn, bud I niver seed noan wi' heads to 'em mysen. 

SNAP. (i) A short period of cold. 

I think I catch'd this here cough e' th' cohd snap we hed efter them 
warm daays. Bottesford, March 27, 1888. 

(2) Food taken at an irregular time, not at one of the 
customary meals. 

I'd noa dinner, nobud just a snap as I cum'd back agean thrif 
Blyton. April 6, 1888. 

SNAP-DOG. A half-bred greyhound. 

SNAPDRAGON, WILD. Linaria vulgaris ; yellow toadflax. 

As snapple as a carrot. 

SNAPPY. Irritable. 

SNARE, v. To lop trees. 

George Emerson went an' snared Mr. Soresby's trees wi'oot so much 
as iver axin leave. 

SNAW (snau). Snow. 

When it snows we say, " The old woman is shaking her feather-poke 
or plucking her geese." A similar idea occurs in Germany, where 
they say, " De aule wiver schiiddet den pels ut.'' Jacob Grimm, 
Teut. Myth. (Stallybrass's Translation), iij., 1088. 

" Paid to Joh. Bradepull castyng down snaw jd."Louth Ace., 1502. 

" Paid ij men for brynghyng of a ded corse to town ]>t was found ded 
in Hayrgarthers in J>e great snaw iiijd-" Ibid, 1540. 

SNAW, v. n. To snow. 
SNAW-REEK. A snow-drift. 

SNECK. (i) A latch or catch ; e.g., a door-sneck. 

"The evidence shewed that the defendant had knocked his head 
against the sneck of a door." Gainsburgk News, March 15, 1879. 

(2) A corner or bend; e.g., a sneck in a hedge; a corner in a 
close or field. 

Ther' ewsed to be a stunt sneck e' th' hedge afoore you get to Blyton 
long laane gooin' fra Notherup. 


SNEEL, SNEE. A snail. 
SNEEL-GALLOP. A very slow pace. 

SNEEL-GATED, SNEEL-SHELLY, adj. Trees are thus 
spoken of when they suffer from the attacks of the larvae 
of the Cossus Ligniperda. In this neighbourhood the attacks 
of this insect are almost confined to the ash, though the 
elm, the poplar, the willow, and the oak sometimes suffer. 
Cf. West wood's British Moths, j. 48. Trees thus affected 
are called "bee-sucken" in the neighbourhood of Pontefract. 

SNEER. The snort of a horse. 

" The mare she was right swift o' foot, 

She didna fail to find the way, 
For she was at Lochmaben gate 

A lang three hours before the day. 

When she came to the harper's door, 

She gave mony a nicker and sneer ; 

1 Rise up,' quo' the wife, ' thou lazy lass, 

Let in thy master and his mare.' " 

The Lochmaben Harper, Scott's Minstrelsy of 
Scottish Border, 1861, vol i., p. 425, 

SNEET, v.-~ To sneer. 

SNELL, adj. (i) Keen; piering; said of wind. 

Them snell east winds we hed e' th' spring hev back'arded ivery thing. 
(2) Quick ; sharp ; acute. 

That's a snell bitch you 've gotten. 

SNEW (sneu),/*. *. Snowed. 

Chaucer says of his Frankelein 

" It snewed in his hous of mete and drinke." 

Prol. to Canterbury Tales. 

SNICKERSNEEZE, SNICKERS. Words, now meaningless, 
used to frighten children. 

If you rem'le ony o' them things agean I'll snickrsneeze you ; th' snickers 
is all ready hingin' up e' th' passige. 

" Give it o'er, ye dull sots ! let the dull-pated Boors, J 
Snic or snee at their punch-bowls or slash for their whores." 

Tho. Brown, Works, 1730, iv. 17. 

[This word had a sense once. A snicker-snee was a large knife. To 
snick is to snip or cut pieces out of or off a thing. A snee means 
provincially, a scythe. Cf. snare, to lop. Snickers are snippers, i.e., 
shears." W. W. 5.] 

11 The old family of Sneyd of Keel, co. Stafford, bear for arms Argent, 
a scythe, the blade in chief, the sued and handle in bend sinister sable, on 
the fess point, a fleur-de-lis of the second." E. P. Shirley, Noble and 
Gentle Men of England, 1859, 225. 

SNICKLE. A running noose, a snare made of wire, used for 
catching hares and rabbits, also pike. 


SNICKLE, .(i) To snare. 

I've snickled mony a hare aside o' Winn's plantin's an' niver been 
fun oot. 

(2) To pucker ; to wrinkle. 

That paaper's gotten raain'd on, an 1 is all snickl'd up. 
Th' ohd dog '11 bite ye if ye doan't mind ; he's snicklin' up his noase 

SNICK-SNARLS, s. ^/.Hitches, loops, twists, knots. 
That skean o' wu'sted's all snick-snarls. 
I'd cramp soa bad that th' cauves o' my legs was all snick-snarls. 

SNIFF, v. To snuff. 
SNIFFLE, v. To snuffle (q.v.) 

SNIFFLE UP, v. To snuffle. 

Noo then, Vi'let, you gie oher that theare snifflin' up. If thoo hes a 
cohd thoo needn't do e' that how; ther's a pocket han'kercher e' th' 
drawers yonder. 

SNIG, v. (i) To haul or drag timber along the ground by 

means of a chain or rope. 
(2) To hang. 

She snig'd hersen e' a pair o' bridle reans. 

SNIGGER, v. To laugh in a half-suppressed manner. 
Thoo silly yaunax, thoo's alust sniggerin' at sum'ats. 

SNIP, SNIPPING. A very small piece of anything. 
SNIZY (snerzi), adj. Looking cross. 

SNOB, SNOBBY.' Sometimes used as a term of insult to 
tailors. (Query, modern slang.) 

" Thomas Smith, the husband of complainant, deposed that 
defendant began to swear and use tantalizing language towards him, 
calling him snobby. Cross-examined : They often call tailors snobbies 
I expect it's a bit of a ' slither.' " Gainsburgh News, Sept. 25, 1875. 

The word snob seems to have emerged from dialectic use into the 
literary language about sixty years ago. The earliest occasion on 
which the author has met with the word it is used as the surname of a 
vulgar person. 

" Sir Samuel Snob that was his name 

Three times to Mrs. Brown 
Had ventured just to hint his flame 
And twice received a frown." 

The Keepsake, 1831, p. 307. 

SNOHLER. Something very large, strong, or powerful. 

Well, this is a snohler. 

SNOOZLE. (i) SNUZZLE (q.v.) *b 

(2) To doze comfortably. 
SNOT. The mucus of the nose. 


SNOT-HOPPER. A pocket-handkerchief. 

SN OTTER, v. (i) To permit mucus to run from the nose. 

(2) To weep violently. 

SNOW-BALL. The Guelder rose. Viburnum opulus. 
SNUFFINGS, Refuse flax. 

SNUFFLE, SNIFFLE, v. To speak through the nose, as 
one having a cold in the head ; to draw the air sharply up 
the nose. 

SNUG, adj.(i) Close. 

It's snug agean th' bean stack. 

Goa when you will he's alus snug at his wark. 

(2) Secret. 

Doctors an' lawyers is beholden to keap things snug 'at foaks tells 

(3) Compact. 

Ther'd been so much raain th' "grund was real snug. 

SNUGGEN, v. To make compact. 

Them walks want snuggenin' ; Spencer mun traail th' rohl oher 'em. 

SNURL, v. To snarl. 

SNUZZLE (snuz'l). To caress as babies do their mothers by 
pressing their faces against them. 

SNYDE (sneid), adj. Cold ; cutting; said -of the weather. 
It's a straange snyde mornin', sir. Burton Stather. 

SNYTE (sneit). To blow the nose by means of the finger and 
thumb, without a handkerchief. 

He snyted his noase at me. Burton Stather. 

SO A, SOE (soa). A tub ; commonly used for a brewing tub 
only, but sometimes for a large tub in which clothes are 
steeped before washing. 

" He kam to the welle, water updrow, 
And filde ther a michel so.' 1 

Havelok, 932. 

" A lead, a mashefatt, a gylfatt with a sooe xvs. " Inventory of 
Roland Staveley of Gainsburgh, 1551. Cf. Dan. saa, a pail; Icel. sar, a cask. 

SOA AND STANG. A large tub, two of the opposite staves 
of which project above the others and are pierced so as to 
admit a long pole being run through them. The soa and 
stang is used for carrying water by two persons. 

SO AD. A sword. 


SOAK, SOCK. Water which percolates through the soil, not 
a true spring. 

SOAK-DYKE, SOCK-DYKE. A ditch beside a large drain or 
canal, for the purpose of receiving the water which 
percolates through the bank. 

SOAKED, pp. A term applied to bread or cakes when the 
dough has not been thoroughly baked. 
Them caakes is n't haaf soaked. 

SOAKER. One who drinks much without becoming drunk. 

SOCK. (i) A furrow (obsolescent). 

"The ancient name of the primitive plough, which consisted of a 
pointed, crooked, piece of wood, is in Lithuanian szahd, bough, tooth, 
prong, the end of a stag's antlers ; old Slavic, sokka, piece of wood, 
stake." Victor Hehn, Wanderings of Plants and Animals, ed. by J. S. 
Stallybrass, p. 435. 

(2) SOAK (q.v.) 

SOFT, adj. (i) Moist ; as, a soft day ; soft sugar. 

(2) Foolish. 

He's that soft aboot cats he niver leaves off talkin' aboot 'em. 
" This is the only thing that he's sojt in ; he's as sharp as a needle in 
any thing else." N. Bailey, Colloquies of Erasmus, 1725, 277. 

SOFTNESS. Foolishness. 

He's noa harm i' him, it's nobut his softness. 

SOFT-WATER. Rain-water as distinguished from spring- 

SOGGER (sog-u'r). Something very heavy. 
It was a real sogger : it took three men to lift it. 


SOKE. The man or and soke of Kirton-in-Lindsey extended over: 


Aseby Glentworth Risby 

Ashby Greyingham Saxby 

Atterby Harpswell Scunthorpe 

Blyton . - Heapham Snitterby 

Bottesford Hemswell Somerby 

Brumby Hibbaldstow Spital 

Burringham Kirton-in-Lindsey Springthorpe 

Burton-on-Stather Messingham Stockwith 

Butterwick, East Missen (the part that is in Sturgate 

Corringham, Great Lincolnshire only) Waddingham 

Corringham, Little Morton Walkerith 

Frodingham Northorpe Wharton 

Gamblethorpe Pilham Winterton 

Gilby Redburne Yaddlethorpe, 


In many of the townships the whole area was included in the manor 
and soke, in others but a very small portion ; for example, in Bottesford 
there was but seventy-six acres, and somewhat less in Yaddlethorpe. 
In Messingham there was but " vnum tenementum cum gardino," 
consisting of one rood and ten perches and a bit of meadow adjoining 
extending over one acre and a rood. Norden's Survey, 1616, fol. 70. 

It has been surmised that the manor of Kirton-in-Lindsey consisted of 
that parish only, and that the soke was the territory contained in all the 
other townships, but this can be demonstrated to be a mistake. In 
this instance manor and soke have, for a very long period, indicated the 
same thing. I believe originally in this case manor meant the territorial, 
and soke the civil jurisdiction, but the question is by no means free from 

SOLE. (i) The hearth. 

(2) The bottom of an oven. Bread baked on the sole is bread 
baked on the hearth, or on the oven floor or shelf, as dis- 
tinguished from that baked in a tin. 

(3) The bottom of a furrow. 

(4) The seat of a window. 

SOLES, s. pi. The wooden bars that support the bottom of a 
cart or waggon. 

SOLE-TREE. A piece of wood used for sustaining something 
fixed to the ground. 

Ther'll hev to be a new sole-tree to th' crewyard pump. 
" For a peice of wood to make a soale-tree for the seates iijs. iiijd." 
Kirton-in-Lindsey Ch. Ace., 1632. 

SOLID, adj. Grave ; serious ; sad. 

That bairn alus looks straange an' solid when iver it sees picturs o' 
men feightin' ; my opinion is he's lotted oot to be a sodger. 

A person, on looking at some photographs, said : "That theare little 
lass noo hes a deal solider look then Sabina hes." 

He can look as solid as solid when he 's romancin'. 

SOLID, adv. Very ; extremely ; seriously. 
A solid hard job. 
A solid hot day. 
A solid great lie. 
A solid big mare. 
I'm not gamin'; I mean it solid. 

SOME. (i) A large quantity. 

Ther's sum stitchin' e' thease boots. 
Ther's sum beer drunk at Frodingham o' paay neets. 
By gows, ther' hes sum sheep an' beas' goan to Scunthrup this mornin'; 
this here market's a gran' thing. 

(2) A very small quantity ; used ironically. 

We've gotten sum berries ta year hev'n't we ? Just aboot enif to mak 
a puddin' on that's all. 

Ther' was sum foaks at ther' Atrocity meetin', my eye. Ther' was th 1 
parson, G ... J ... an' six or seven lads an' lasses. 


SOMERING. A kind of apple which is ripe very early. 

SON OF A BITCH, SON OF A WHORE. Terms of abuse 
which are used without any reference to the moral character 
of the mother of the person against whom they are directed. 

SOON. Proverb. 

Soon ripe, soon rotten. 

SOORD. A sword. 
SOORT. Sort. 

SOOT (the oo as in boot). Soot. 
As black as soot. 

SOPPY, 04;'. Saturated with moisture. 

SORE, adj. Very ; always used relating to something bad. 

11 Sore poor talk, George; sore poor talk!" was the only reply ot a 
farmer to an ignorant person who had spent much time in endeavouring 
to instruct him in agricultural concerns. 

" Sore given to revel and ungodly glee." 

Byron, Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, j., ii. 

SORE EYE. Eyesore. 

This ohd coat's raather shabby, bud it is n't much on a sore eye yit. 
East Stockwith. 

SORRY, adj. (i) Painful; unhappy; lamentable. 
That's a sorry daay's-dooin, that is. 
Well, you hev cum'd hoame wi' a sorry taale. 

(2) Awkward ; uTiaccommodating. 

He 's a sorry poor tool to dig wi'. That is, a very awkward person to 
have to get on with. 

SORT, v. To associate with ; to consort with. 
I doan't soort mysen wi' drunken fools. 

" Sort with such as are able to do or receive good." Sam. Clarke, 
Lives of Eng. Divines, 1677, 337- 

SO-SO, inter/. Hush ! 

SOSS (sos). The noise made by a heavy body falling into 
water. Misterton Soss, an outfall of a large drain where 
there are some pumping engines, may perhaps be so called 
from the noise of the falling water. 

SOSS, adv. Noisily and heavily. 

I troad on a bit o' glib snaw, an' I caame soss o' my back. 
If that stee braakes thoo'll cum doon soss. 

" She fell backwards soss against the bridge." Tristram Shandy, zoth 
ed , ij., 224. 


SOSS, v. (i) To throw anything violently into water. 
Tak that ramil an* soss it 1'to th' Trent. 

(2) To prepare or eat food in a dirty manner. 

'Doan't soss it aboot so," said by a nurse in reference to pudding. 

"How they will slabber and sosse vpon brown bread in pottage." 
Bernard, Terence, 160. 

SOUGHING (sou-ing). The noise the wind makes among the 
branches of trees. 

SOUL-DO. A religious revival meeting. 

Joey Maw was sent clean off his head by a soul-do thaay hed at 
Yalthrup a few year back. 5. 5., Yaddlethorpe, April, 1877. 

SOUL INTO. (i) To beat violently; to attack fiercely. 
(2) To do work with great energy or rashness. 

SOUR, adj. (i) Green ; said of hay and clover. 
Th' gress is oher sour to lead yet. 

(2) A heavy, strong-limbed cart horse with much hair about 
its legs and feet is said to be sour. 

Them's two as sour, fine-looking mares as onybody nead want to 
hev. May, 1886. 

SOUSE. The feet and ears of a pig made into jelly, which is 
eaten with vinegar. 

SOUSE, v. To throw water upon a person or thing; to plunge 
a person or thing in water. 

"So shamefully sowsed in the myre." Sir Tho. More, English 
Workes, 513. 

SOW. "As happy as a sow e' muck," or " in a muck hill ; " a 
phrase setting forth the contented state of those who live 
for sensual pleasure only. 

SOW, SOW-BEETLE, OLD SOW. The Armadillo wood- 
louse, Armadillo vulgaris, which curls itself up into a little 
black ball like a pill. When the author's father was a little 
boy he had these creatures alive, administered to him as 
pills, for whooping cough. They are still taken for the 
same purpose. 

SOW-DINGLE. Sow-thistle (Sonchus oleraceus), and other 
plants not much dissimilar in appearance. 

SOW-DRUNK. Very drunk. "As drunk as David's sow " is 
a simile conveying the idea of the deepest state of 


SOW-GELDER. A castrator. 

" Hoarse as a soiv-gelder's horn." Account of the last distemper of Tom 
Whig, Esq., pt. i., 10. 

SPANG. (i) To throw down violently. 

She was mad, and spang'd it doon upo' th' taable. 
(2) To clap a door. 

She spang'd th' door to so hard she brok th' paane o' glass that was 
in it. 

SPANISH JUICE. A sort of sweet made of liquorice. 

SPANISH JUICE WINE. A wine made of the above, taken 
for colds. 

SPANK, v. To beat with the open hand. 
SPANKER. Something large, fine, excellent. 

SPANKING, adj.(i) Tall; powerful. 

That's a spanking mare thoo's gotten. 
(2) Extravagant. 

" He lives at what folks call a spanking rate." Philip James Bailey, 

The Age, 1858, 61. 

SPARE-RIB. The ribs of a pig taken out with little flesh on 
them, and roasted and eaten with dried sage-leaves and 
apple sauce. 

SPARROW-GRASS (often contracted to grass). Asparagus. 

" Oh do, Mr. A ... let me give you a little more grass. 
Burringham, 1856. 

I have met with the following charade : 

" My first about the garden hops, % 
My second comes with summer crops, 
My whole you eat with mutton chops." W.W.S. 

SPEAK (pi. speaks). A saying ; a proverb ; literally a speech. 

A woman, on being remonstrated with for telling one of her children 
that she would skin it alive, said, " Oh, sir, I doan't mean noa harm by 
th' bairn, it's nobbut a speak we hev." 

A Scotchman once wanted to marry oor Lizzie, bud she'd hev noht 
to do wi' him, an' I says to her, says I, " You 've reight on it, my lass ; 
I can't abide naather th' waays nor th' speaks o' them foreigners." 

I alust liked Tom an 1 Jack for th' straange queer speaks thaay hed. 

SPEAK, v. 

" Speak when 'tas spokken to, 

Do as 'tas bid ; 
Shut th' door efter tha' 

An' thoo'll niver be chid." 

A Child's Rule of Duty. 

SPEAR LIGHTNING. Forked lightning. 


SPEECHED, pt. t. Spoken to ; addressed. 

I've seed him, bud I niver spedch'd him 'at I mind on. 

" He stood up upon the bulks in Westminster Hall and speech'd 
against him from morning till night." Account of the last Distemper of 
Tom Whig, Esq., pt. j., 9. 

SPELL. (i) A job of work, or rather, the time it takes 

I've hed a good spell at suffin' ; I've been three munths at it wi' oot a 

(2) The trap used in the game of trap-ball. 

(3) A piece of folded paper or thin chip used for lighting 

(4) The transverse bars of a chair. 

(5) One of the steps of a ladder. 

(6) A thin shiver of wood. 

(7) A small wooden peg or pin. 
SPELK. See SPELL (3). 
SPELT, v. To split. 

SPEND UP, v. To brace up the hames of harness. 
SPERRIT. A spirit ; a ghost. 

SPERRITS, s. pl.(i) Spirits. 

He's e' good sperrits aboot his taaties this to'n. 
(2) Ardent spirits. 

SPEW-GREWEL. A delicate and foolish person. 

He's a real spew-grewel, not good for noht at all naather e' mind nor 
carcase. Bottesjord, Sept. 19, 1878. 

SPICE. Sweetmeats. 

The churchwardens of Hollywell, in this county, made a return in 
1565 that the church service books had been sold by them to John 
Craile, a mercer, " who haithe defaced the same in teringe and breaking 
of them to put . . . spice in." Monumenta Superstitionis, p. 107. 

Robert Burton, speaking of the passion for authorship which existed 
in his days, says : " Not only our libraries and shops are full of our 
putrid papers, but every close stoole, and iakes ; they serve to put 
vnder pies, to lappe spice in, and keepe roast meat from burning." 
Anat. Mel., 2d ed., 1624, p. 6. 

SPICE-BREAD. Bread with currants, raisins, and sugar in it. 
SPICE-BROTH. Frumenty. 

" All plumbs the Prophet's sons defie, 

And spice-broths are too hot ; 

Treason's in a December pye, 

And death within the pot.'' 

Marchmont Needham, Hist, of Eng> Rebellion, 55. 


SPICE-CAKE. Plum-cake. 

SPICE-SHOP. A shop where sweet-meats are sold. 

SPICK AND SPAN NEW, adj. Quite new; quite fresh. 
He'd a pair of spick and span new breeches on. 

SPICKET. The inner part of a wooden tap. See FAUCET. 

"My noase runs like a spicket," said by a boy whose nose was 
bleeding. Holme, 1855. 

SPIDER. " It's enif to deafen a spider" is a remark made when 
one has suffered from some long and uninteresting discourse, 

SPIDLING. Earthing up potato rows. Isle of Axholme. 

SPIFF. Very fine or excellent (probably modern slang). The 
author first heard the word in the hunting field in 1850. 

SPILE, v. To put a vent-peg in a cask. 

11 Going to Rossington to spile the court ale." Corporation Records, 
1772, in Tomlinson's Doncaster, 337. 

SPILE, SPILE-PEG (speil). The vent-peg of a cask. 
SPILE-HOLE. The vent-hole of a cask. 
SPINDLE. A round step in a ladder. 

SPINDLE, v. (i) To shoot up into a stalk. 
Wheat's spin'lin' fast t' year. 

" In the spring time was the passover holden, when first the corn 
began to spindle, or turn into ears." H. L, Trans, of Bullinger's Decades 
(Parker Soc.), iii., 163. 

4 ' The Power must reign 
Who rules the year and shoots the spindling grain." 

John Clare, Sunday Walks. 

(2) Corn is said to spindle when it grows into a tall straw 
instead of developing ears. 

SPINDLE WHORL. The distaff and spindle were in common 
use in this county during the sixteenth century, and probably 
to a much later period. 

Among the church furniture which sacrilegious hands destroyed at 
Wroot, in the Isle of Axholme, in 1566, was one " crewet . . . 
whearof was made wharles for spindels." Eng. Church Furniture, 170. 

Cf. John Yonge Akerman, On the Distaff and. Spindle, in Archaologia, 
xxxvij., 83-101. 

SPINNER. A spider. 

SPINNER-WEB. A spider's web. 

SPIRES, s. pi. The horns of barley and horned wheat. 


SPIRY, adj. Sharp ; hard ; coarse ; applied to grass. 

SPIT. (i) The depth which a spade goes in digging. 

That dike's foher spit deep. 
(2) A spadeful. 

SPIT, v. (i) To rain very slightly. 

It just spitted wi' raain a week sin' to-daay, bud ther' was noht cum 
to do noa good. Bottesford, June 25, 1887. 

(2) It was formerly the habit, when stock was sold at a market 
or fair, for the vendor to spit in confirmation of the bargain. 
The practice, though going out, is by no means obsolete. 

Emphatic forms of in spite of. 

" Now I have my place in the spyte of thy tethe." Star Chamber Pro- 
ceedings, temp. Hen. viij., in Pro Soc. Ant., ij., s. iv., 321. 

" When you are twenty-one you can marry in spite of their teeth." 
Stamford Mercury, Oct. i, 1885. 

SPITTER. (i) To rain or snow slightly. 

It begun to spitter as me an' Sam was to'nin' th' beas' fra th' laane 
into th' seads cloas. Bottesford, May 26, 1881. 

(2) To sputter. 

SPITTLE, v. To cut down weeds, especially thistles, with a 

"To John Stokes for spettylyn abowt the cherche walles." Kirton-in- 
Lindsey Ch. Ace., 1544. 

SPITTLE-STAFF. An implement used for cutting weeds, 
especially thistles ; otherwise called a brod or a spud. 

SPLASH, v. To plash, q.v. 

SPLATHER. (i) A splash. 
(2) Noisy talk. 


"Where have you been with your spatter-lashes?" Sir Roger 
L'Estrange, Select Colloquies of Erasmus, 1711, p. 163. 

"Your splatterdashes, why they are quite the potato." Blachwood's 
Mag., 1822, vol. xi., p. 601. 

SPLAUDER, v. To spread out the arms or legs. 

SPLAUDERING. Wide; ungainly; said of the feet. 

Brahma hens hes sich splauderin' feet thaay break best part o' the'r 

SPLAUDERS, THE. Weakness in the legs or backs of young 
ducks, which causes them to go out sideways. 


SPLAW. A hand or foot. 
I did n't move a splaw. 

SPLET. (i) A split. 
(2) A quarrel. 

SPLET, v. (i) To split. 

(2) To quarrel. 

(3) To reveal a secret. 

Jaane maay trust me, I'll niver splet on her. 

SPLICE, v. To marry (probably slang). 

SPLORE (sploar). A jest ; a trick ; a practical joke. 

" He's to be hanged in a day or two for some little splore he did when 
th' gentle folks was all a feightin' years sin." Rolf Skirlangh, iij., 63. 

SPLUTHER, v. To splutter. 

SPOLE, SPOOL (spoal, spool). A reel on which cotton is 

SPONGE, v. "A dead body is said to sponge when liquid comes 
on the lips." C. H. Holgate in Stamford Mercury, Sept. 20, 

SPOOT. A spout. 

Clean watter of'ens cums oot 'n a mucky spoof. H.T. Bottesford, 1886. 
That is, a good person may spring from a disreputable family. 

SPOOTIN'S. Hinderends, q.v. 

SPRAG. (i) A kind of small nail. 

(2) A bar of wood, about three feet long, tapering towards 
the ends, used for locking the wheels o'f railway trucks. 

SPRAWL (spraul), v. To fall down awkwardly with legs and 
arms extended. 

(2) To walk with legs and arms extended. 

He spraivls aboot e' his walk as if his legs an' airms was saails o' 

SPREAD (sprrh'd), v. To grow fatter; lit., to spread. 
SPRECKLED, adj. Spotted ; speckled. 

SPRETCH, v. (i) An egg is said to be spretched when the shell 
is partly broken, but the bird has not yet made its way out. 


(2) To severely injure another, to do for him; probably a 
metaphorical allusion to the cracking of an egg-shell. 

You'd better keep off; if you cum one foot gaainer hand, I'll 
sf retch ye. 

SPRIG. A small headless nail. 

SPRING. A young wood. 

" Keep from biting, treading underfoot, or damage of beasts . . . 
whereby mischief may be done to the springs during the time limited 
by the statute for such kind of wood." Brumby Lease, 1716. 

There are many places in Yorkshire and other parts of the North of 
England that go by the name of Spying Wood. 

SPRING WIND. An equinoctial gale, whether in spring or 
autumn. Aug. 26, 1876. 

SPRINK, SPRINT, v. To sprinkle with very small drops of 

SPROOT. A sprout. 

SPROOT, v (i) To sprout. 

White wheat sproots a deal sooner i' th 1 stock then red, soa I niver 
saw noan. Bottesford, 1888. 

(2) To take sprouts off potatoes. 

Them taaties mun all be sprooted ; this melsh weather hes made 'em 
graw like mad. 

SPUD. An implement for cutting up weeds ; a BROD, a 

SPURN. (i) An offset to a post, used for the sake of steadying 

(2) A similar offset to the corner of a wall, used for the 
purpose of keeping off carts and waggons. 

SPURRING. The publication of banns of marriage. When 
a person has been once asked in church, the friends say 
" Why, thoo's gotten one spur on thee ; " when twice asked, 
it is called " a pair of spurs." [This is a pun ; the word 
really means an asking ; from the verb to spur, or speer. 
W. W. S.] Cf. Ornsby's Dioc. Hist. York, 301. 

SPURRING-PENNY. The fee for the publication of banns. 

SQUAITCHED (skwaicht), #. Crooked ; twisted. 

What a leein' concarn ohd Bess Sensicle is for sartan ; she cum 
beggin here to me a week as last Setterda', an 1 , says she to me, " I'm a 
poor loan creatur; ivery soul belongin' to me 's dead an' buried;" soa 


says I to her, " You squaitch'd-mooth'd ohd bitch, you lee, why, ther' 's 
Daave, an' Sam, an' all, thaay 're boath thy bruthers, an'thaay 're 'live 
enif an 1 addles plenty, an' all ;" " Oh, bless yer life, says she, tha,ay 
niver gie me noht, so that's as good as bein' dead to me." 

SQUANDER, v. To run away. 

When thaay seed squire an' missis cumin' thaay did squander. 

SQUARE. A pane of glass of any shape. 

Th' squares o' glass e' that paainted winda' e' Cleatham chech is all 
mander o' shaapes an' sizes. 

For mysen I liks squares o' glass diamond-shap'd as you see 'em e' 
chech winda's. 

SQUARE, ON THE SQUARE. Upright ; honest. 

He's a real square man up an' doon. 

Leet on him when you will, he's alus up' o' th' square. 

SQUARE, SQUARE ABOUT, v. To assume a fighting 

SQUARE TOES. An offensive word for father. 

" Finding old square toes in the study, 
Stern, gloomy, sulky, dark, and muddy." 

Nineteenth Cent., Abeillkard and Heloisa, 1819, p. 219. 

SQUARE UP. To settle accounts. 

SQUARING ABOUT, pres. fart. Fussing about in a strutting, 
conceited fashion. 

SQUASH (skwosh), adj. Weak or poor; applied to drink of 
any kind. 

This is squash tea ; th' tea-pot an' kettle maade it by the'r sens when 
th' caddy was oot a-visitin'. 

SQUAT (a as in hat), adj.(i) Silent. 

I should hev kep' that very squat if I'd been him. Kirton-in-Lindsey , 

(2) Broad; low; thick-set. 

What a squat little stack that is. 

SQUAUMISH (skwau'mish), adj. Sickly; over-nice; over- 
particular; lit., squeamish. 

SQUAWK. A short cry resembling a squeak, but not so shrill. 
She made such an a foul squawk, thinks I, she's kill'd her sen; 
when it was noht bud a white cloot she'd seen hingin' upo' th' 

SQUAWK, v. To scream. 

" The rooks 

Quawh clamourous to the spring's approach." 

John Clare, Last of March. 


SQUEAL (skwi'h'l), v. To cry out loudly and shrilly. 

SQUELCH. To crush. 

" Besides your guts, if fat it squelches, 
And causes fumes and sower belches." 

Edward Baynard, Health, 6th Ed., 1740, p. 30. 

SQUIB, v. To run away. 

SQUIB ABOUT, v. To run to and fro in a playful 
inconsequent manner ; used of children and little animals. 

SQUOZE, SQUOZENED (skwoaz, skwoaz-nd). Squeezed. 
SRIMPS, s. pi. Shrimps. See SIMPS. 

STAB THEE, STAB THY VITALS. Forms of imprecation. 

STAFF. A measure of walling or digging. Quarter of a floor, 
i.e., i oo cubic feet. 

STAFF-HOLD ''Agreed at the said vestry that no person 
whatsoever should tend their cattle, nor staff-hold them in 
any of the said highways and lanes." Scotter Parish Records, 
July 30, 1828. 

STAG. (i) A colt. 

(2) A young cock. 

"Many people who keep hens for their eggs alone do not allow a stag 
with them." L/w Stock Journal, July 23, 1886, 99. 

STAGE. Staid; steady; used of servants of mature age, 
commonly though not universally of women only. 

Mr. ... is a bachelor, and lives with his sister, and they have 
a stage woman to do for them. 

STAGER, OLD. Some person, animal, or thing that has been 
long in use. 

" He's a real ohd staager: he's been e'Parli'ment iver sin I was clear 
a bairn. 

This taable^s an ohd staager noo, my gran'faather boht it at a saale 
eaghty year back. 

STAGGARTH. A stack-garth; a stack-yard. 

STAIL. The handle of a broom or brush. 

" Blows with a brush stail on the arm." Leeds Mercury, Feb. 14, 1880. 

STAIRCH (stairch). Starch. 


STAITHE (staidh). A landing place. Now frequently used 
to denote the foreshore of a river, that is kept up by means 
of faggots or kids, or by timber or stonework. 

" All necessary railways . . . tramways, sidings, tips, staiths." 
Hull and North-Line. Times, Dec. 13, 1879. 

In a survey of the demesnes of the Abbey pf^Selby, taken in the reign 
of Henry VIII., mention is made of a " waste grownd in the towne of 
Selby lyenge upon Ouse bank called th' Stayth." Mon. Ang., in., 506. 

STAKEBOOT. The right to take wood for stakes (obsolete). 
To have, perceive, and take, in and upon the aforesaid premises 
sufficient houseboot, hedgeboot . . . and stakeboot yearly." Bmmby 
Lease, 1716. 

STALE (stail), v. To empty the bladder; said of horses and 
horned cattle. 

STALE, v. pret. of STEAL. 

Sumbody's stale th' well-bucket, muther. See STEALED. 

STALE-FOUL. A disease in horned cattle, when the urine 
passes mingled with blood. See L. Towne, Farmer and 
Grazier's Guide, 1816, 21. 

STALKING-HORSE. (i) An artificial horse employed by 
sportsmen as a means of concealment in shooting wild-fowl. 
The use of the stalking-horse has only been discontinued here 
during this century* Sometimes a real horse was trained 
for this purpose and called a "live stalking-horse." See 
Gervase Markham, Hunger's Prevention, 1655, 47. 

(2) One put forward by another, who remains concealed, to 
do some painful or mean action. 

You maay very well see as S . . . is P . . . 's stalking-horse. 
Th' ohd un maks bullets an' th' yung un shuts 'em. 

STALL, v. To tire; to surfeit; to become weary. A person 

is tired by a long walk, but stalled by a chattering companion. 

One of my sons saw a boy pelting some cows in the lane. On his 

asking him why he did so, the reply was, "Becos I'm stall' d o'hevin' 

noht to do." 

"Why them 'at gets sent up to heaven, 
Mun be stalVd when a week's runn'd oot." 

Mabel Peacock, Tales and Rhymes in the 
Lindsey Folk-Speech, 129. 

STALLACKING. Big ; strong ; tall. 

Well, she is a stallakin' lass an' noa mistaake. 

STALLIONS, The flowers of the Arum maculatum. 

STAMPERS, s. //.The shins of beef, 


STAN (stan). Stone. 
STAN', v. To stand. 

STANCH, STANK. A shuttle or stopgate for hindering the 
passage of water. 

STANDARD. A young tree left in a felled wood to grow into 
a large one. 

"After such felling or cutting thereof shall leave sufficient storers or 
standards in every acre of the said woodland." Brumby Lease, 1716. 

STANDARDS, s. pi. Long, hard grass which the scythe does 
not cut in mowing. 

STANDARDS, OLD. People who have resided for many 
years in one parish. 

Iv'rybody 'at wants is to goa to th' jewbilee tea, an' ohd standards is 
to sit at th' top o' th' taable. 

STANDING, STANNIN'. (i) A stall for horses or cattle. 

Ther' wasn't a bit o* floor fit to be trodden on left e' th' sta'nin's e 
George Chafor staable. Feb. 19, 1888. 

I alus hev th' stannin's cleaned, an' th' staable walls coal-tarred an' 
varnished iv'ry summer. Bottesford, June 27, 1887. 

" I had given my Friend a description of that horse, and told him his 
very standing.' 1 Sir Roger L'Estrange, Select Colloquies of Erasmus 
1711, p. 212. 

(2) The place on which a stall stands on market days, or at 
fair time. 

Th' p'lice hes maade th' stall foaks shift ther stan'in's this Messing- 
ham feast; thaay block 'd th' road up soa as noabody could pass. 1879. 

(3) Conduct; behaviour. 

He'll get i'to his reight stannin' in a peace, he duzn't knaw his sen yit. 

STAND WORD. To hold to a bargain. 

Noo then, tho'ty poond's my price, bud I shan't stan wo'd efter 
Setterda' neet, mind that. 

He promis'd to marry th'lass, bud he wod n't stan' wod when it caame 

STANG, STONG. (i) A measure of land; a rood (obsolescent) . 

" 32 acres and three stonge of beanesand pease." Inventory of Thomas 
Teanby, of Barton-on-Humber, in Gent. Mag., 1861, ij., 507. 

In 1672 William Pinches surrendered, on behalf of himself and 
Anne, his wife, certain lands in the manor of Scotter called " Nether 
Barlands," and a " broad-land " called a " stong." Manor Records. 

Stang or stangs is sometimes used as part of a place-name, as Thimble- 
stangs or Fimble-stangs, land in the township of Ashby, and Five-stongs 
in West Halton. 


(2) Riding the stang is a form of public censure still some- 
times practised when a man beats his wife. The lads of 
the village assemble with tongs, old kettles, pans, and 
horns, by aid of which they make as much noise as 
possible ; one of them is placed astnde on a pole, or 
sometimes on a ladder, and thus they go in procession to 
the door of the unlucky couple. The person who rides the 
stang then sings some verses. These vary in different places. 
The first here given is from Sir Charles Anderson's 
Lincoln Pocket Guide, 17. The second from Peck's, Axholme. 
In both cases the concluding lines have been left out as too 
coarse for publication. 

" He banged her wi' stick, 
He banged her wi' stean, 
He teeak op his naefe, 
An' he knocked her doon. 

With a ran, tan, tan, &c." 

" With a ran a dan-dan, at the sign of the old tin can, 
For neither your case nor my case do I ride the stange, 
Soft Billy Charcoal has been banging his wife Ann ; 
He bang'd her, he bang'd her, he bang'd her indeed, 
He bang'd her, poor creature, before she stood in need." 
Peck states that in the Isle of Axholme it was the custom, after 
reciting the above verses at the delinquent's house, to go round the 
town repeating them at the street corners, and that this ceremony was 
commonly gone through for three successive days. The author has 
been informed that this practise is still followed in Durham and 
Yorkshire. Cf. Marshall's East Yorks. Words, E.D.S., j., 39 ; Notes and 
Queries, vij., s. iij., 367; El worthy's- West Somersetshire Word-Book , 
p. 674. W. H. Dawson's Hist, of Skipton, p. 295. 

(3) An eel spear. 

(4) A sudden spasm of pain. 

STANGSMAN. One of the officers in a gang of plough-jags. 

STAN' NEED. Stand in need of; ought. 

Are you gooin' to give Bessy your plaated tea-pot when she's gotten 
wed ? Noa; I doan't stari* need. 

STAN' OHER. A command given to horses or cattle to make 
them stand conveniently in their stalls. 

STANYEL. A stallion. 
STARE (stair). A starling. 
STARK, adj.-(i) Stiff. 

The ferryman at Burringham when hauling a tricycle up the sloping 
landing, discovered that the break was on, and said ; " I thoht she was 
runnin' straange an' stark." Sept. 27, 1886. 

This smock's a deal oher stark, I can't wear it while it's weshed. 


(2) Hard to do; difficult. 
A stark job it was an' all. 

STAR-SHOT. A kind of white jelly often found in poor 
pastures; it is believed to have fallen from the stars; 
Tremella nostoc. See Archaologia, xxxvij., 3. 

STAR-STONES, s. pi. Small fossils ; joints of pentacrinites ; 
kessels and possels (q.v.) 

START. A handle, as the shaft of a fire-shovel, or the handle 
of a saucepan, old-fashioned porringer, or basket. 

START, v. To shrink as boards do. See Academy, Sept. 15, 
1888, p. 170. 

START, START OF, v. To begin, not merely motion forward, 
but any kind of work. 

We shall start harvist on Munda'. 

We start of cuttin' th' Ramsden cloas gress to-morra', if it duz n't 

George Todd started o 1 drinkin' aale thriff livin' wi' ohd Walker. 
Tom's started to cum to chech reg'lar sin his wife deed. 

STAR-THACK. A coarse grass which grows on sandy soil. 

"The habitations of the poorer people were . . . covered with 
ling, turf, or star-thack." Mackinnon, Ace. of Messingham, 1825, 8. 
11 He bar the turues, he. bar the star." Haveloh, 939. 
Cf. Icel. storr, bent grass. Archaologia , j., 175. 

STARVATION. Suffering from cold, never, or very rarely, 
from want of food. 

STARVE, t>. To chill ; to suffer from cold. 

It was soa cohd I was o'must starved to dead. 

Naay noo, I did n't saay as thaay'd starve, I tell'd ye thaay'd pine to 
dead if thaay was n't fed. Said of bees which failed to gather sufficient 
honey in the sunless summer of 1888. 

STATHER. A landing place; e.g., Burton Stather; Flix- 
borough Stather. 

STATTIS, STATTUS. A statute-fair held for hiring servants 
about May-day and Martinmas. 

STATTUSIN'. Anything bought at a STATTUS; usually a 
slight gift bought for a friend. 

STATUTE. A statue. 

STAVER. (i) A step of a ladder. 

"A ladder of viij. stavirs." Inventory of Goods of Guild of St. Mary, 
Boston, 1534, in Eng. Ch. Furniture, 190. 


(2) One of the bars of a hay-rack. 

STAY. (i) A short prop. 

(2) A small frame like a ladder for plants to climb up. 

STAYS, s. /'/.Stairs. 

'STEAD. Instead. 

I telPd him to goa to Ketton, bud 'stead o' that he stopp'd at Messing- 
ham an' got fresh. 

STEADY, adj.- Sober ; of decorous life. 

He's a real steady man, reg'lar at his wark, an' niver fresh except 
maaybe at a feast time. 

STEALED, pt. t Stole. 

Th' last thing he steal'd was a uven. See STALE. 

STECHE (obsolete). Of uncertain meaning ; perhaps a narrow 

" Robert Ponton for his son carrying ij hors tyed together up the 
steche ijd." Hibaldstow Fine Roll, 1576. 

STEDDLE, ST ADDLE. (i) The foundation or seat of a 
stack or haycock. 

" The size of the staddle or stack bottom should be proportioned to 
the quantity of hay." R. W. Dickson, Practical Agriculture, ed. 1807, 

".. 457- 

He, Stan's askew on his steddle is equivalent to saying that he is out 
of balance in mind, body, or estate. 

(2) The root of a tree that has been felled. 

" Reserving all timber trees . . . and also sufficient staddles in 
every acre of the said woodlands." Brumby Lease, 1733. 

STEDDLE-BURNT. Said of the seat of a haycock which has 
remained so long covered that the grass has died or become 

STEE. A ladder of any kind. 

If I live anuther year I'll hev a new stee maade forth' chech steeple. 
June 27, 1887. 

" To John Pickerin for a stee" Kirton-in-Lindsey Ch. Ace., 1623. 

" I could always frighten them well by going a few steps up the stee 
and showing my black head, of which they were afraid." John Hodgson, 
in's Memoir, j., 25. 

STEEL. A stile. 

There wants a new steel maakin' on th' foot-trod as you goa to th 1 
toon.Willoughton, 1882. 

" That Thomas Lacies shall make a sufficient steel and footway for 
passengers to go through his yeard in wynter." 1601, Gainsbtirgh 
Manor Records, in Stark 's Hist,, 92. 

" Mr. Rich. Ffox for want of a steele at garden's end," 1648, 
Manchester Coart Leet Records, iv., 17. 


STEEPING, fl#. Soaking. 

Well, this hes been a steepin' raain. Dec. 5, 1876. 

STEER. A young ox. 

11 And lowing steers the hollow echoes wake." 

John Clare, Rural Morning. 

STEER, adj. Steep. 

That brig's so steer you can nobbut just get ohern it. 

Thoo wants to put that stee moore steer, or she'll sluther oot at foot. 
Bottesford, April 23, 1877. 

[On asking my way up the western side of Ingleborough, I was told 
I should find it " a steer clim," and so I did. W.W.S.] 

STEERAGE. A disturbance. See UPSTEER. 

There was a straange steerage when th' so'jers cum to Butterwig. 

STEG. A gander (obsolete). 

"Item vj gees with one stegg." Inventory of Thomas Robinson of 
Appleby, 1542. Cf. STAG. 

STEIGHE. A stile (obsolete). 

" One little dale in ye midle Riddinges butting upon Robt. Beck 
South and Brumby Common Marfeere North and bounden from ye 
steighe betwixt twoo thornes of ye meare for ye west end." Ashby 
Schedule, 1606. 

STEM, v. To soak a bucket or other wooden vessel so as to 
cause it to hold water. 

STEP,/m. /. of to steep. 

STEPPER. A horse is called a good or a bad stepper when his 
action is pleasing or unpleasing. 

" Mare, 4 years old, by Pride of the Isle, a very fine stepper" 
Stamford Mercury, Sept. 20, 1867. 

STEPPINGS. The footprints of animals, especially of men, 
horses, and oxen. 


STEW. (i) A bustle; a fidget. 

He's in a rare stew aboot th school-mester. 

(2) A small pond in which fish were kept to be immediately 
ready for the table (obsolescent). 

STEW, v. To rain slightly. 

When we set off it just stew'd wi' raain, bud ther' was noan cum to 
speak on 


STEWARD. There are in a village pig-club (q.v.) usually two 
members called stewards, whose duty it is when pigs are 
reported as ill to visit them, for the sake of ascertaining 
that no imposture is being practised. 

STICK v. (i) To stick in the ground rods for peas and other 
climbing plants to attach themselves to. 

(2) To run a moulding. 

Them oak cornishes tak a deal o' stickin'. 

(3) To decorate a church or chapel with evergreens. 

When I was helpin' to stick the chech who should cum in bud . . 

STICK AND STOUR. (i) Stud and mud (q.v.) 

(2) Often used to signify all a person's goods and chattels. 
Thaay've sell'd him up, stick an' stour 

STICK-LICKING. A beating. 

STICKS. To "beat all to sticks" is to beat or overcome entirely, 
or absolutely. 

I thoht he'd hev' a chance'at startin', bud I soon seed he'd be beaten 
all to sticks. 

" Before eleven o'clock we have made shift to swallow a pound of 
stot-beef, which, in the West Country, beats our stot-beef here all to 
sticks." Blackwood's Mag., 1820, vol. viii., p. 85. 

STIDDY. A blacksmith's anvil. 

STIFF, adj. A short, stout man, who is also strong, is said 
to be stiff or stiff-built. The word is also applied to horses 
of similar make. 


STIFF-SEEDS. When clover stubble is thin-furred (q.v.) 
over, and has wheat sown on it at once, the wheat is said to 
be sown on stiff seeds. 

We alus ewsed to saw oor wheat on stiff -seeds, an' it grubbed awaay, 
an' ther" wasn't hairf a crop ; noo we alus work 'em well afoore harvist 
an' we get twice as much. W.S., Bottesford, 1887. 

STIKELEDER. Aikind of leather (obsolete). 

" One deker of stikeleder." Inventory of Roland Staveley of Gainsburgh, 

STILL, adj. Quiet ; reserved. 

She's a real still woman, an' hes n't a wo'd to saay agen noabody. 

STILT. The hale (q.v.) of a plough. 

He's to no good at schoolin' ; he likes bein' atween a pair o' plew- 
stilts a vast seet better. 


STILT, v. A stocking is said to be stilted when the worn-out 
foot is cut off and a new foot is knitted to the old leg. 

STING-BEE. A bee as distinguished from various sorts of 
flies which are in appearance not unlike bees. See TAME 

STINGING COLD.- Extremely cold. 

STINGY (stinj-i). (i) Piercing cold. 

It's been stingy weather this Christmas time, that it hes. 

(2) A horse is said to be stingv which does not go about its 
work freely. 

She's a good little mare but she'd be of no mander o' ewse to me, 
she's stingy at startin'. 

STINK. A very proud man is said to "stink wi' pride ;" a very 
rich one to "stink o' brass." 

STINKING, adj. Bad, abominable, but not necessarily having 
any relation to the sense of smell. 

It's a stinkin' shaame that sarvants should n't be let to get the'r 
dinners e' peace. 
It's stinkin' bad weather. 
He's a stinkin' liar. 

STINT. An allotment of work. 
Hev you dun your daay's stint. 

STINT. To deprive of a just share of anything. 

I can't abide to stint my bairns ; thaay'll hev plenty o' stintin' an' 
pinin' when thaay're grawd up. Cf. Walrond, Hist. Notices, j., 201. 

STINTED. (i) A common is said to be stinted when the manor 
court has put a limit to the number of cattle which may be 
depastured on the common by each common-right holder. 

(2) An animal is said to be stinted when its growth has been 
arrested by ill health, cold, or bad food. 

STINTING. A portion of the common meadow set apart for 
the use of one person. A stinting did not, I think, become 
the freehold of the person who occupied it, but was changed 
from time to time. In an Amcotts rental of the sixteenth 
century, I have met with a place called the ''upper stinting.'' 

STIR, STIRRINGS. Bustle ; confusion. 

This here 'lection hes made a bonny stir all aboot. 
Arn't you gooin' to see th' stirrings at Gaainsb'r' Mar 

STIRK. A young bullock. 


STIRRING. (i) Prevalent. 

Coughs is stirrin' noo thrif this ask east wind. 

(2) Getting up, 

Thaay've been stirrin' early; thaay was agaate o' mawin' e* th' 
Rams'en afoore hairf past three this mornin'. June 29, 1887. 

STIRRUP-OIL. On "All Fools' Day," April ist., boys are 
sent to some ill-natured person for a "penno'th of stirrup-oil,' 
which they sometimes get in the form of a^ beating with a 
stirrup leather. 

STIRRUP-SUNDAY. That is Stir-up Sunday. The last 
Sunday after the feast of Holy Trinity, so called, it is said, 
on account of the first words of the collect in the Book of 
Common Prayer for that day: " Stir up, we beseech Thee, 
O Lord," which is a translation of a collect in the Salisbury 
use. On this day, or on the one following, the mince meat 
for the Christmas pies, and the Christmas plum pudding, 
should be stirred by all the members of the household. 

STITCH. (i) The depth that a plough goes into the soil. 

We've plew'd that theare No'th Naathan Land a good stitch this 
time. Jan. 26, 1882. 

(2) A pain in the side. 

11 no, O no, my noble Queen ! 
Think no such thing to be ; 
'Twas but a stitch into my side, 
And sair it troubles me." 

The Queen's Marie, Border Min., 
ed. 1861, iij., 300. 

STITCH UP, v. To plough asMeeply as possible. 
STITHERUM. A long, prosy tale. 
STOAN (stoa-h'n). A stone. 

STOCKEN, v. (i) To check the growth of anything. 
If you rem'le big trees like them you stocken 'em for years. 
That cauf was stocken'd wi' bein' pin'd e 1 th' winter, an' '11 niver get 
oher it as long as it lives. 

(2) To choke with food or drink. 

Oh, doctor, th' poor bairn was o'must stocken'd. 

stockings. A person who has taken off his shoes is said to 
be in his stocking- feetings. . - 

I was e' my stockin' -feet when he cum'd. 

STOCK-LOCK. A lock fastened upon a door by aid of nails 
or screws, as distinguished from a padlock or a mortice-lock. 


STODGE (stoj), v. To cram with food. 

STODGY. (i) Thick; stiff; as rice pudding, clay, mud. 
(2) A short, broad-built man is said to be stodgy. 

STOHP. A post. 

" As they digged deep to set down a stoop for a yate." Abraham 
De la Pryme, Diary, 79. 

" 10 stoops for stack-yard at as. " Bill of Witt. White, of Scatter, 1821. 

STOHP-MILN. A post mill; that is, a wooden mill erected 
on posts as distinguished from a smock-mill (q.v.) 

STOPHS AND RAILS. Mortice posts and rails. 

To fly like stohps and raails is a figure of speech for any widely- 
extended " smash." 

STON. (i) A stone. 

That ston th 1 libr'y's built on was dug at th' boddom o' th' plantin' ; 
it cost him three shillin' a yard diggin'. 

" Payd for bred & alle at Trent syde when I & my neburs did dige 
vp stons yd." Kirton-in-Lindsey Ch. Ace., 1535. 

(2) A stone weight. 

STONE, adj. Quite; as in "steam-dead" " stoane-deaf" "stotine- 

STONED-HORSE. A stallion. 

" Three stoned horses 24^. Inventory of Sir John Anderson of Broughton, 
1671, in Sir Charles Anderson's Lea with Lea-wood, 25. 

STONED-HORSE-MAN.-A man who has the care of a 
stallion, and who commonly leads him from place to place 
to serve mares. 

STONE JUG, STONE BOTTLE. An earthenware jug or 

STONE-THACK. Large flat stones used for covering build- 
ings, as we now use tiles or slates. They were here usually 
thin Yorkshire flags, but they were occasionally formed of 
thin stones found in the neighbourhood (obsolescent). 

Molly Keal ewsed to saay that your ohd Hall was cuvered wi' stodne- 
thack. Cf. Archcsologia, xlij., 404. 


STOODEN, past pt. Stood. 

I've stooden here lightiu' o' the for an hooer. Yaddlethorpe, 1884. 


STOOK, STOWK. Ten sheaves of corn, set with their heads 
together in a slanting position for the purpose of drying 
preparatory to being stacked. 

" They [the whin-chats] may then be seen in small family parties, 
half-a-dozen together, perched on stocks of corn." Cordeaux, Birds of 
the Humber, 30. 

" It is mostly set up into what are provincially termed stocks, stouks, 
shocks, or hattocks." R. W. Dickson, Practical Agriculture, ed. 1807, 
vol. ii., p. 280. 

" He lets it [barley] remain longer in the stook, but the storm comes 
some days sooner than usual and soaks the sheaves to the heart." 
Blackwood's Mag., Nov., 1817, p. 235. 

Cf. Walter Young, Diary, 1609, 19; A. Hunter, Georgical Essays, i. f 
436 ; North Riding Record Soc., i., 243, iii., 125, 281. 

STOOK, STOWK, v. To make into stooks. 

It was a real dry time, like as this is, bud at harvest time when 
faather got his barley sheared an' stook'd ready fer leadin' it lighten'd 
an' thunner'd that hard we thoht noht better then corn wo'd catch fire 
an' be bo'nt e' th' cloas ; an' efter that raain cum'd doon e' a sheet, 
an 1 it power'd stright on end fer a week. July 23, 1887. 

STOOL. The surface of the root of a felled tree. 

You mun cut th' stools o' them eshes levil, an' mind an' not hack 'em, 
or thaay'll not graw no moore. 

STOPGATE. A shuttle (q.v.) 

STOKER. A tree ; probably nearly the same as STANDARD, 
q.v. (obsolete). 

" Shall preserve and maintain the same storers and standards." 
Brumby Lease, 1716. 

STORM. Long continued frost or snow, even if unaccompanied 
by wind. See STURM. 

STORM-BREEDER. A mild day before rain, cold, or frost. 

STORY. (i) The " genteel " word for lie. 

(2) A story-teller. 

Oh you wicked story you. 

STORY-TELLER, STORIER. A liar. The terms story-teller, 
storier, and liar express three degrees of comparison, liar 
being the superlative. 

STOT. (i) Stots are iron bars used to hinder wood from 
rolling off cuts (q.v.) 

(2) A steer. It has been suggested that this word has been 
introduced here in modern days by North-country drovers, 
but this is certainly not the case, for in the Inventory of 
Richard Allele, of Scalthorpe, taken in 1551, we find " viij 
yong stottes & quyes & a old cowe iiijV 


STOUR AND DAUB. Stud and mud (q.v.) 

STOWER. (i) A stake. 

(2) A boat-hook. 

(3) A pole used for pushing boats along. 


STRADDLE, v. To stride. 

He was stood straddlin' across a dike that ewst to run doon th 1 
middle Naathan Land, fo'st time I seed him. 

" Hence they step short and straddle stiff." Edward Baynard, Health, 
1740, p. 10. 


STRAIGHT OFF. Immediately. 

He did n't answer noht, bud knock'd him doon strlght off. 

STRAIGHT UP AND DOWN. Honest ; upright. 

'STRAIN, v. To distrain. 

STRA1NERING. The web of which strainers are made. 

STRAKES, pi. The segments used in making up the tire of a 
wheel which is not hooped in one piece. 

STRANGE, adj. Very; exceeding. 
It's straange cohd weather. 
He's a straange big chap. 
We're hevin' a straange dry time to year. 
Strange is in very common use before all kinds of adjectives. 

STRANGER. (i) A small knot on the wick of a candle, 
which, when burned, becomes enlarged and red. It is a 
sign that a stranger will come to-morrow. 

(2) A small bit of tea-leaf, or stick, which floats on the surface 
of tea. If you stir the tea and it sinks it counts for nothing, 
but if it swims it is a certain sign that a stranger will arrive. 

STRANNY, adj. Excited ; wild ; beside oneself with pain or 

Doan't goa on e' that how, bairn; foaks '11 think you stranny* 

STRAP. An iron plate which goes the length of the arm of 
an axle. It has a shoulder upon it for the wheel to abut 
upon and is used instead of an otter. 

STRAPPING. A beating. 


STRAPPING, adj. Fine ; large ; muscular. 

She's a fine, strappin' wench an' noa mistaake ; I'd raather hev her 
for a wife, if she hes no edicaation, then one o' your sickly fine laadies 
'at gets a cohd 'e her head if she hears it raain up o' th' winda.' 
"You see how large a troop he guides, 
Of lusty strapping tanners." 

, Aristophanes, p. 212. 

STRAWBERRY. A strawberry-like birth-mark. 

STRAWING. Covering heaps of potatoes with straw pre- 
paratory to the earth being put upon them to shield them 
from the frost. 

STRAW-JACK. A straw-elevator ; that is a machine affixed 
to a steam thrashing machine, by which the thrashed straw 
is carried to the top of a stack. This word must have been 
made in very recent times. The straw-elevator was not 
introduced until some time after thrashing by steam became 

STRAY-GARTH. A small close used before the time of the 
enclosures for stray cattle. There is a ditch in the parish 
of Kirton-in-Lindsey called Stray -garth Drain. 

STRAY OF RABBITS. The right claimed by certain owners 
of rabbit-warrens for their rabbits to stray and feed on 
lands not their own. 

STRAYS, s. pi. Cattle that have strayed, and for whom no 
owner can be discovered. 

" All the strays upon the Soke-land in this parish [Winterton] belong 
to the Prince, the others to the lords of the Barony Lands." Survey 
of Manor of Kirton-in-Lindsey t 1787. 

" It was an immemorial custom in the parish of Appleby that all strays 
were seized, and on the succeeding Sunday a man with a bell pro- 
claimed the same to the public ; this he did on three barrows . . . 
lying opposite to Thornholme ; if they were not redeemed within twelve 
months and a day they were disposed of by public auction. These 
barrows are now levelled, and the ancient right has never been in force 
since the ground inclosure took place." W. Andrew, Hist. Winterton, 
1836, 39. 

STREAKINGS, s. pi. Stroppings (q.v.) 

STREAMERS. The flame-like glimmer of the Aurora 

STREAN. A strain. 
STREAN, v. To strain. 
STREET. Road ; highway. 


STREET MUCK. Hamper Jack (q.v.) 

STREET- WALKER. Not as in London and elsewhere ; 
harlot, but a person of either sex, without reference to 
morals, who strolls about on Sundays instead of going to 
church or chapel. 

STRESS. To overcome by too hard work. 

He stresses them bosses real bad wi' that theare brick leadin' up 
Yalthrup Hill ; it's a shaame to see 'em poor things. 

STRETCHER. (i) The chain which connects the horse-tree 
with the harrows. 

(2) A brick placed lengthwise in a wall. 

STREWING. Rushes ; hay or straw used for strewing the 
floors of churches (obsolete). 

"For mowinge strewinge for the church at midsomer vjd." Kirton- 
in-Lindsey Church Account, 1662. Cf. H. Edwards, Collection of old 
English Customs from the Charity Reports, 1842, 217. Fabric Rolls of 
York Minster, 225; Stonehouse, Hist. Isle of Axholme, 236. 

STRICKLE. The instrument with which a scythe is sharp- 
ened. See Marshall's East Yorks. Words, E.D.S., j., 39. 

"When I was a yung man ther' was noa strickles as we have 'em 
noo. A strickle was then nobbut a plaain flat peace o' wood, and when 
a man went to maw he alus took wi' him a horn o' greas' and a bag 
o' sand. When he wanted to sharpen his scythe he fo'st daubed the 
strickle with greas' an' then dusted sum sand oher it." Bottesford, 
John Marcham, Aug. 27, 1867. 

The strickle at present in use is a kind ot wooden strop with coarse 
emery on one side and fine on the other. A dry whetstone is often 
used instead of a strickle. 

STRICKLEBAG. A stickleback. Probably not truly dialetic 
but merely a corruption. I have, however, heard the word 
used as long ago as 1837. 

STRIDDEN, adj. Said of wheels of carts, waggons, and 
carriages, when they get too wide apart by running in the 


He set hissen stridlins upo' wall top wheare I could n't get at him, 
an' then he call'd me shaameful. 

STRIGHT, adj. (i as in right). Straight. 

He hes n't getten his hat on very stright to neet, is said of someone 
who is the worse for drink. 

STRIGHTLE, v. (i as in right). To make straight. 

Get thy hair strightled lass; it looks for all th' warld like a cotted 


STRIKE.- A bushel ; that is, eight pecks. 

"Thre strikes of lyme for drawinge the church steple xviij." 
Kirton-in-Lindsey Ch. Ace., 1638. 

STRIKE, v. To strike turnips is to cut up with a hoe such of 
the young plants as are not required. Clumps are left 
about ten inches apart ; these are thinned by SINGLING (q.v.) 

STRIKE-SKEP. A bushel measure. 

The strike-skep should be furnished with a roller or " rolling-pin" for 
the purpose of removing the superfluous corn. 

" Two horse-drags, gig lamps, hand-cut box, turnip cutter, strike and 
roller, wheel-barrow, two salting boards, swing-plough, three horse 
drags." Gainsburgh News, March 23, 1867. 

STRIKER. (i) The man who wields the heavy hammer in a 
blacksmith's shop. 

" Wanted ... a few strikers." Lin. Chron., Dec. 4, 1874. 
(2) A man who strikes turnips. 

STRINE, STRIND. A stride, 
STRIKE, STRIND, v. To stride. 

STRINKLE, v. To sprinkle, 

Thaay've gotten a straange good cart at Brig* to strinkle watter 
aboot to laay th' dust. 
Strinkle a bit o' Indian corn for them pigeons. 

STROA (stroa). Straw. 
STROA-KNOTS. The joints in straw. 
STROAKINGS. Stroppings (q.v.) 

STROKE OF, STRIKE OF. (i) Just on the point of striking, 
said of a clock, or of the time when there is no clock to 
measure it by. 

It was just on the strodke o 1 nine, I knaw, bud it was oher dark for 
me to see my watch. 

(2) Stroke of work, used as an equivalent for any slight 
amount of labour. 

He niver gets a strodke o' wark dun afoore bra'fast time, an' of'ens 
for a long peace efter. 

STRONG. Great ; large. 

" A strong lot," that is, a large quantity. 
" A strong draw," a large demand. 

STROP. A church bell-rope. 


milk that comes before a cow's udder is empty. 
Mind an' get all th' stropping, Sarah Ann. 
She milks that badly, hairf th' stnakin's gets left behind. 
11 Few persons are ignorant, that milk which is taken from the cow 
last of all at milking, which is called stroakings is richer than the rest 
of the milk." A Hunter, Georgical Essays. 1803, iij., 255. 

STRUCK, pp. Used to children distorting their faces, 

You moan't do e' that how, Ted ; who knaws bud you mud be struck 
soa ? That is, fixed suddenly and unalterably in that grimace. 


STRUCK OHER. Given to the admiration of; under the 
influence of. 

She's that struck oher Mr. East, she'd do oht e 1 th' warld he tell'd 

STRUM. A wickerwork basket somewhat like a bottle, used 
in brewing to put before the bunghole of a mash-tub, when 
the liquor is drawn off, to hinder the hops from coming 
through. A wisp of straw is sometimes used for this 

Nephew : " Whativer's th' matter wi' this beer, aunt ; it's straange an* 
nasty ?" 

Aunt : " Why, you see, Henry hed lost strum when he was agaate o' 
brewin', an' ewsed a han'ful o' haay 'estead, an it's maade it taaste a 

STRUNCHION (strun-shun). A long involved story. 

He tell'd me a straange long strunchion ; sum'ats aboot Midmoor 
drean, an' Ran-dyke, but I could mak noht on it. 

STRUNG,//, as adj. In difficulty; overpowered. 
He's fairly strung wi' that job. 

STRUNT. The denuded tail of a quadruped or bird. Cf. 
Marshall's Yorks. Words, ,>.., j., 39. 

STRUNT, adj. Rough ; foul ; applied to the weather. 

STRUNT, v. To dock the tail of a horse ; sometimes, though 
very rarely, used with regard to sheep also. 

" Strunied sheep ... so called when their tails are cut off to 
keep them from dunging that part, and breeding maggots therein." 
Dictionarium Rusticum, 1726 (sub voc.) 

STRUT. A prop or stay in a roof. Cf. Glossary of Architecture, 
1850, j., 449. 


STUB. (i) A horse-shoe nail. 

(2) A splinter which has run into the flesh. 

STUB, v. (i) To grub up roots of trees, thistles, &c. 

" But a reads wonn sarmin a weeak", an' I 'a stuWd Thornaby 
waaste." Tennyson, Northern Farmer, vij.. 

(2) To wound the flesh with a splinter of wood. 

STUB-DIG. An instrument used in grubbing up old hedges, 
roots of trees, &c. 

STUBBLE-GOOSE. A goose fed on stubbles. 

STUD. An upright bar of wood to which laths are nailed in 
making a lath and plaster partition-wall. 

STUD AND MUD WALLING. Building without bricks or 
stones, with posts and wattles, or laths, reeds, or furze 
daubed over with road-mud. Almost all the cottages built 
here before the beginning of the present century have stud 
and mud walls. Cf. Artkaofogia, ix., iii. 

STUDY. Thought ; anxiety. 

All his study is to get e* uther foaks's waay. 

Well, the deary me, I niver tho'ht it wa'd cum to this, though I alus 
knaw'd he wo'd do his sen harm by all that theare study. 

STUDYING. Thinking. 

Well, I think my sen as oher much studyin' duz n't do noabody ony 
good, an' very of'ens a vast sight o' harm. 

A person plunged in a reverie is said to be studying. 

STUFF. (i) To cram with food. 

(2) To impose upon. 

Doan't stuff th' bairn head full o 1 taales aboot boggarts an' ghoasts ; if 
ta duz she weiin't dar' to goa to th' well-trough by her sen. 

STUFFED CHINE. The salted and dried chine of a pig, in 
which slits are made, which are stuffed with various herbs. 
It is then boiled and eaten cold. 

STUMP, v. To kick. 

He call'd me a theaf, an' my missis a whoare ; soa I stump'd his 

STUMP AND RUMP, adv. Totally ; entirely. 

The baailiffs hes clean'd him oot stump and rump. See GATE AND 


STUMPS, s.pL The legs. 

" For Witherington needs must I wayle 

As one in too full dumpes, 
For when his leggs were smitten of 
He fought vpon his stumpes." 

Chevy Chase, Percy Folio, ii., 14. 

STUMPY. Short; thick-set. 

STUN (stun). (i) A stone. 
(2) A stone in weight. 

STUNT, adj. (i) Obstinate ; impassive ; sullen. 
As stunt as a hammer. 
As stunt as a naail. 
As stunt as a dead worm. 

(2) Cut off abruptly. 

That theare trea top's taa'en off clean stunt. 
It's broken off as stunt as a carrot. 

STUNT, v. To be stunt. 

Doan't saay noht ; I'd let her stunt it oot if I was thoo. 
Master Robad, O, how he stunt. 

STUPID, adj. Obstinate ; not dull of comprehension. 
It's no ewse to'nin' stewpid, I shall hev it dun. 

STURGEON. (i) This fish when caught in the Trent, who- 
soever may be the captor, is the property of the lord of the 
manor, in whose jurisdiction it is taken. The customary 
fee for bringing a sturgeon is 6s. 8d. 

(2) A short, stifHy-built man. 

STURM. (i) A storm. 

(2) A blast, that is, the period of time during which frost and 
snow lasts. 

I niver knaw'd noht o' that soort my sen, bud my faather ewst to 
saay as he could remember a sturm 'at begun o' Christmas Eave an' 
lasted wi'oot a braake fer tho'teen weeks. 

(3) The stem of a tree. 

STURRUP. (i) A stirrup. 

(2) The endless band by which a shoemaker fastens his work 
to his knee. 

STURRUP OIL. Oil of strap (q.v.) 

STURM-COCK. The storm-cock, that is, the missel-thrush. 

STYE, STYNE (stei, stein). An inflamed spot on the eye-lid. 


SUB (sub). A shrub. Compare SIMPS. 

" Ther' 's noa plaace wheare subs graws soa well as up o' warp 
land." John Dent, Yaddlethorpe, circa 1841. 

SUCH, SUCHEN. Such. These two forms are not used 
indefinitely ; suchen has always the indefinite article after it. 
I niver heard suchen a storier as thoo is e' all my life, Eliza. 
Suchen a spree as that nobbut cumsonce or twice i' a man's life-time. 

SUCH LIKE. In the same or the like state. 
John : " How's Mary ? " 

William: "Oh, she's such like; I can't see noa difference sin' you 
seed her last. 

SUCK, SUCK-IN. (i) An imposition ; a cheat. 
(2) A disappointment. 

SUCKER. A sucking pig. 

SUCKHOLE. One who deceives or cheats. 

SUCKHOLE, v. To deceive ; to cheat. 

SUCK-IN, v. To deceive ; to cheat. 

He was nistly suckt-in by her ; he thoht she'd three thoosand pund 
e' th' bank, an' ther' was noht at all, as he fun oot when thaay'd gotten 


He'd a sudden call, well at dinner-time, an' dead afoore tea. 

SUDS, TO BE IN THE. To be in a mess; to be in trouble. 
Always used in a half jesting way. 

"We may hap to be in the suddes ourselves." Dicke of Devonshire, 
quoted in The Academy, Sept. 15, 1888, p. 170, where the phrase is 
stated to occur also in Captain Underwit, 1640, and in Elvira, 1667. 

SUFF (suf). An under-drain. This word is pronounced 
" sough " in the West Riding of Yorkshire. 

Th' land at Sawcliff 's e' rig an' fur, an' th' men "at put in th' suffs 
hes follow'd th' levil o' th 1 top o' th' land, soa thaay 're not to a bit o' 

A school-inspector some years ago asked a child at Willoughton 
" What is the name of that which carries water away from the 
buildings?" The boy replied, "a suff." The inspector did not 
understand what the lad meant, and asked for an interpretation from 
the clergyman's wife, who was standing by. She was, however, a lady 
from southern parts, and, therefore, unable to tell him. 

SUFFING. The act of putting in under-drains. 
SUGG, v. To deceive. 


SUIT, v. To be satisfied or pleased. 

Oor Bill's just suited noo he's getten into th' quere wi' a white 
svrplice on. 

I was n't suited wi 1 what he said, soa I gev warnin' to leave. 

Maaster was n't suited by a long waay upo' accoont o' dinner bein 

SUKY. A child's name for a tea-kettle. 

" Suky set the kettle on and let's have some tea," is a line of a once 
popular song which I cannot recover. 

SUM'ATS (surrruts). Something; somewhat. 

Gie me sum'ats to drink, I'm o'must clamm'd. 

The wife of a small farmer said to a lady : " Hey, miss, when I was 
a lass I ewsed to think as I should like to be rich, an' a great lady a 
coontess or sum'ats o' that soort but noo, when I read e' th' paapers 
Cox brings us, what them poor things hes to gea through, I'm well 
contented wi' my sen as I am." The paper from which the old woman 
derived her biographies of countesses was The London Journal. 

SUMMER, v. To depasture cattle in summer. 

I've hed to sell eleven yung beas' ; th' pasters is soa laate ta year I 
could n't summer 'em. See WINTER. 

SUMMER-EAT, v. To use land for summer pasture. 

SUMMER-TILLED, ^'.Summer-fallowed; ploughed in 
summer, said of land. 

SUMMERINGS, s. pl.K kind of apple which is ripe early. 

SUN. A person who is intoxicated is said to have been " in the 

SUNDAY. (i) To look both ways, or nine ways, for Sunday, 
is to gaze about in a vacant or foolish manner, indicating 
that you are not giving attention to what is being said to 
you. This perhaps alludes to a belief which is prevalent 
elsewhere, though not here, as far as the writer is aware, 
that a child born on Thursdays is sure to squint, because 
it must "look both ways for Sunday. ," Monthly Packet, 
Jan., 1875, 10. Craven Gloss., ij., 180. 

(2) To tell a person that you will do this or that "some 
Sunday in the middle of next week," means that you will 
never do it at all. 

SUN-DOGS, False suns. 

I think we shall hev moore raain; I've been seem' sun-dogs all daay. 
Bottesford, Feb. 3, 1868. 

SUNDOWN. Sunset. 

MANLEY ANb cokkiNckAM WORDS. 53? 

SUNHOLES, s. pi. The round windows in the Norman 
tower of Winterton Church are called sunholes, probably 
from their shape, as we speak of a rose-window or a 

SUP. A small quantity of liquid. 

Muther's very poorly, an' hes sent to see if you'll gi'e her a deary 
sup o' brandy. 

Ther's been a nist sup o' raain this last daay or two. That is, a fitting 
quantity, neither too much nor too little. 

SUP, v. (i) To drink. 

(2) To swallow liquid with a spoon. 

Sup that broth up, an' then I'll gie you sum puddin'. 

SUPPER UP, v. To give horses or cattle their evening 

" On Saturday night when I was suppering up my pony." Stamford 
Mercury, Oct. 20, 1876. 

" And far and near, the motley group, 
Anxious claim their suppering up." 

John Clare, Summer Evening. 

SUPPOSE. To understand, or know certainly. 

I suppodse he's dead, for I was at th* funeral. 

Parson : "Is that lad driving the cows your son, Tom ? " 

Yeoman : " Well, I suppoase soa ; his muther alus says he is. 

SURELINS. Surely. 

He'll be hoame to neet sewerlins. 

SURENESS. Certainty. 

I believe it was him, bud I could n't saay for sewerness ; he was oher 
far off. 

SUSPICION, v. To suspect. 

My faather alus suspicion'd him o' stealin' his baacon. 

SUTHER, v. To simmer. 

I got a sup o' vinegar an' a bit o 1 sugar, an' suther'd it e' th 1 uven, an 1 
it cured my cough, or nearly. 

SWAD, SWOD. (i) A pod. 

When you 've pull'