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1. IlctuXog d TToffroXog, oux d Tr dv^pui TTMv, ovds di dvOprivov, XX did 
v XpiffTOv, %ai &sov tfarpbg rov eytipavrog dvrbv sx vexpuiv, Paul an 
apostle, not of [acr called by~\ men, nor by [<5/a, instructed through 
the instrumentality of] man, but through Jesus Christ and God 
the Father, who raised Him from the dead) A remarkable anti 
thesis, in which, while Paul asserts his apostleship, he mentions 
also his divine vocation, ou/t acr dvdp^ojv, dXXa (supply 5/a) @eov 
varpbg, not of man, but (by) God the Father ; comp. ver. 15, and 
the following verses; and his immediate instruction, ou& b! avQpuvou, 
X>.a 8ia lr,<fo\j XpiffTou, not by man but by Jesus Christ. Instruction 
is generally effected by one individual, for example, as Paul was 
instructed by Gamaliel; calling, by more than one; hence the dif 
ference of number, of men, by a man. Artemonius page 211, 212, 
contends, after Le Clerc, that we must insert u<nl from after xai : 
but dia, by is rightly supplied from the last clause, and the force 
of the particle dia by in this passage includes the meaning of the 
particle d^b, from, but not vice versa. Paul, when he men 
tions the Father and the Son in connection, often uses a single 
preposition. 1 Tim. vi. 13. did, by} He had just used did with 



an apostrophe ; it is now without the apostrophe, for the sake of 
emphasis. sys/puvro$, who raised) Tlie seeds preparatory to the 
discussion of his subject are [here already] scattered. The re 
surrection of Christ is the source of righteousness and apostle- 
ship, Rom. i. 4, 5, iv. 25 ; 2 Cor. v. 19. 

2. UUVTSS, all) This short verse adds to this epistle the form of 
a creed. e%x\q<fiai$, to the churches) He uses the plural on account 
of the multitude of churches and towns in Galatia. Nor does he 
add the epithets, which he applies to the Romans, Corinthians, 
etc. r?.r/ac, of Galatia) 1 Pet. i. 1. 

4. ToD Mvros, who gave) Paul adds such a periphrasis nowhere 
else to the prayer for grace and peace : who gave himself, ii. 20. 

&/j,apriuv, for our sins) which had enslaved us to this evil 
world. ggs>.7jra/ ? might deliver) Paul describes the whole benefit 
of redemption on that side, on which the Galatians, carried away 
by the mischievous influence of Jewish teaching, experienced 
greatest difficulty. evsaruros, present) This present lasts as long 
as wickedness prevails, aiuvog xovripov ; evil world), A rare mode 
of speaking by which the whole economy of sin under the autho 
rity of Satan is denoted. The ages of ages (for ever and ever) in 
the following verse are opposed to this world \_which is both de 
praved and unhappy. V. g.], on which comp. Rom. v. 6 : and 
by it the Galatians had been almost entirely led away. The 
present world obstructs the glory of God, and is under the autho 
rity TOU tfovripov, of the Wicked One. Paul speaks of Satan 
nowhere more sparingly than in this epistle. %r, according to) 
construed with, wlw gave ; John x. 18, at the end. TO QehiH&a 
the will) without any merit of ours; comp. John vi. 38, 39. 
%ai, and) See Rom. xv. 6, note [of Him who is at once God (the 
Creator) and our Father]. 

5. *H <3&a, the glory) for this will, which brings salvation. A 
delightful introduction. 

6. au//,aw, I marvel) Paul, writing to all the other churches, 
begins with an expression of thanksgiving and praise to God, 
which, although the subject here requires something different, 
has however been virtually expressed, [has been represented by 
an equivalent] ver. 5. He also delays giving them the appella 
tion of brethren. We give this summary of the epistle. There 
are three divisions. 




I. He reproves them, 6-10. 

II. He asserts the divine authority of the Gospel preached by 

himself: because he 

1) From a persecutor has become an apostle by heavenly 

calling, 11-17. 

2) Never acted as if he had not been Peter s equal, 18, 19 : 

21, 22. 

in. He vindicates justification by faith, anew reproaching the 
Galatians, iii. 1, 2, 15 iv. 11. 

IV. He explains the same subject to the Galatians, with the 
most tender affection, by the allegory of the son of the 
bond maid and of the son of the free woman, iv. 12. 

v. He then exhorts them to maintain their liberty, v. 112, 
dissuades them from its abuse, and admonishes them 
not to walk after the flesh, but after the Spirit, 13, 
14, 16. vi. 5, 6-10. 

III. CONCLUSION, 11, 12, 17, 18. 
See also the note at chap. ii. 16. 

ouru ra^sus, so quickly) Paul had been with the Galatians 
not long before. See Ordo temp, (arrangement of dates) p. 
281 [Ed. ii., p. 242, No. 6.] tterarMsfffa, you are removed) 
transferred [you have changed your place from Him] A 
weighty expression, having an excuse blended with it. Jerome 
says : Galatia in our language implies transference, [removal 
from one place to another]. anb rou xaX stuvrog v/uag, from 
Him, who called you) One s calling, is therefore the channel of 
grace, the rule for the future ; ch. v. 8, 13. We have here, 
ver. 610, a Proposition [statement of the subject, viz. the 
calling] and a sort of Division of it into parts [diafytfrt] ; and the 
calling in [" into the"] grace [ver. 6] is treated of in continua 
tion from ver. 11 : the words "there be some that trouble you" 
are treated of, ch. v. 7., etc. Iv %p/r/, in grace [Engl. Vers., into 


the grace] Acts xv. 11. Xp/tfrod, of Christ) The construction 
is with d^ro from. 1 ) 

7. O, which) This word relates to ^e Gospel, not to the words 
a different gospel ou/t j<rr/i/ aXXo, is wo another) XXo [aliud] rm- 
o/i0 differs from srs/w, [alterum] a second and different. 2 Paul 
not merely rejects that so-called Gospel, which the Galatians 
had allowed to be thrust upon them, but any other whatever. 
r/vsj, some) unhappy persons, ver. 8, ch. v. 10, 12. rapdtffovreg, 
that trouble) ch. v. 10. llXovrsf, wishing) They really were not 
able, but yet they were earnestly wishing to do it. Paul often 
glances at the Galatians and their seducers by this expression ; 
ch. iv. 9, 17,21, vi. 12, 13. So Col. ii. 18. ^r 

isn is frequently translated by this word. TO 
XpiGTov, the Gospel of Christ.) Those, who troubled them, did 
not quite deny Jesus Christ ; but Paul acknowledges nothing 
but the pure Gospel. 

8. ll/xs/Y) We, many as we are, ver. 2. 5j ciy-yeXos l^ ovpavov, 
or an angel from heaven) whose authority, with the exception of 
God and Christ, is the highest, ch. iv. 14. o svr l yye kiffdfjt,eQa, 
which we have preached) This proves the apostolic infallibility. 
avdfapaj let him be [accursed] anathema) Deprived of all part 
in Christ and God. The antithesis is at vi. 16. sWw, let him 
be) Controversies not only cannot, but not even ought to be 
carried on without strong feeling ; but that strong feeling ought 
to be holy feeling. 

9. nc, as) He speaks deliberately. He seems to have paused 
between the writing of each verse. A similar asseveration is 
repeated, ch. v. 2, 3, 21. ffpoeipyjxaf&ev, ice said before) In the 
plural : for in ver. 8 he wrote we have preached, also in the 
plural. Xs/w, / say) in the singular. All knew the truth of 
the Gospel ; Paul knew that the minds of the Galatians had 

1 This word XPHJTOV itself, although it is not considered as a reading fully 
established by the margin of both Ed., is, however, expressed in the Germ. 
Ver. E. B. 

Gff Cypr. Lucif. omit Xpurrov. But ABIID [adding I^oS with/] Vulg. 
support it ; TOV x.ex. hiaoivrog agreeing with yLpiarov, and both governed by 
dTro ; but Engl. Vers. and Vulg. make Xpiarov be governed by % ( o/r;. ED. 

2 aAAo?, one of many; erepos, one of two. Diversity is more strongly ex 
pressed in trtpog than ^ AAo? ED. 


been truly impressed with the Gospel ; he now therefore says, 
ye have received, and by this expression there is an epitasis [em 
phatic addition, or augmentation of force] in the repetition. 1 
si) if. This is more positive than tav [though it should happen 
that], ver. 8. \>{LUC, tvayy&Jfyrai, furnish you with any other 
Gospel \_preach to you\ ) Here l^ac, is put before the verb svay- 
/gA/^gra/, though in the 8th verse v/tTv is put after ; this is for 
the sake of emphasis ; moreover we are not to suppose that 
there is no distinction intended in the different cases [y^Tv 
and y//,a>] : We have preached the Gospel to you, has the 
dative of advantage : To furnish any one [Accusative] with a 
Gospel, is fitted to direct a sneer against the false teachers 

10. "Apr/ yap, for now) The reason why even now he writes 
with such asseverations : now is repeated from ver. 9. av6pu>Kov$, 
men) This word is without the article, but presently after, rbv 
Qtbv, God, with the article. Regard is to be had to God alone. 
TTg/tta) ITS idea nva, is much the same as the word ap sffxu, which 
presently occurs, / seek to please any one : xsidziv nva, to obtain 
the consent or indulgence of any one. Plato de Leg. lib. 10, 
at the beginning; comp. 2 Cor. v. 11, note. avfywcro/$, men) 
The antithesis is, of Christ. en, yet) The meaning is, I have 
not heretofore sought, nor do I yet seek to please men ; comp. 
yet, ch. v. 11. The particles of the present time, apn, now, and in, 
yet, refute the words of him who troubled the Galatians. They 
here distinguish the present from the former time, not only 
when he was a Pharisee, but likewise when he \vas an apostle. 
As to the time when he was a Pharisee, Paul neither denies 
nor affirms in this passage. Paul not long before had circum 
cised Timothy for example. They w r ere wishing to turn that 
circumstance as a conclusive argument against him with the 
Galatians. dvdpu--oi$, ?nen) for the feelings of men are at variance 
with those of God and Christ ; hence, the evil of this present 
world, ver. 4. ^peffKov, I pleased) apeaxu, I seek to please, Rom. 
viii. 8, note. A man generally either pleases or displeases him, 

1 See Append, on Epitasis. In the first use of the words, ver. 8, 
" Though we, etc , preach any other Gospel," there do not occur the words 
" than that ye have received." The addition of these words, ver. 9, on the 
second use or repetition of the former words, constitutes the Epitasis. Ki>. 

6 GALATIANS I. 11-16. 

whom he either seeks or does not seektoplease. Xp<ffroZ,of Christ) 
whom I seek to please, as is becoming in a servant, Tit. ii. 9. 

11. AfoXpo/, brethren) He now at length calls them brethren. 
jeara, according to [_after~]) Kara includes the meaning of the 
prepositions -TO, dia, and ^apa, in ver. 1, 12. My Gospel is 
not according to the estimate of men. 

12. HapsXafSov, I received) This differs from I was taught it 
[IS/Sa^TjiT] ; for the one is accomplished without labour ; the 
other is acquired by the labour of learning. di d-TroxaXv^wg, 
by revelation) viz., / received. 

13. H/couffarg, ye have heard) before I came to you. crorg, in 
time past) when Paul was no way desirous of promoting the 
cause of the Gospel. enfydovv, I wasted) This word denotes 
what is quite the opposite of edification [the building up of the 

14. Ilpos/cocrrov, / ivas becoming a proficient [/ profited*]) in my 
very acts. crui^X/x/wrag, my equals in years) who were at that 
time in their full vigour. crarp/xwc ^ou, of my fathers [of my here 
ditary and national traditions]) which were very dear to me, as 
if they depended on me as their sole patron. A mimesis. 1 

15. Eu5o x>j(rgi/, it pleased) The good pleasure of God is the 
farthest point which a man can reach, when he is inquiring 
with respect to the causes of his salvation. Paul attributes 
nothing to merit ; presently he adds, from the womb ; comp. 
Rom. ix. 11. 6 apoplffug, wlio separated me) that he might show 
to me this good pleasure. Ix xo/X/ag fjwirpos /xou, from my mother s 
womb) Jer. i. 5. 

16. AtfoxaXicxJ/a/, to reveal) construed with it pleased God. 
A remarkable word. rov v /ov auroD, His Son) ii. 20. sv spot) in 
me, not merely by me ; for that after all is but the consequent 
[which must be preceded by the revelation in the preacher]. 
The Son of God had been formerly revealed, now He was also 
revealed in Paul, in relation to Paul, i.e. [He was revealed] to 
Paul. So, in, presently in this verse, and ver. 24. &v ro?g e0ve<ri, 
among the heathen) whose calling corresponds in many respects 
to my own. There was the less need therefore to repair to 

1 See App. Here he imitates the language which himself formerly, and 
which the Jewish legalists used in speaking of the traditions. ED. 

GALATIANS I. 17, 18. 7 

Jerusalem. ev6 eu$, immediately) This is chiefly connected with 
atfijXQov, I went away. The sudden fitness of the apostle is 
denoted, Acts ix. 20, he straightway preached. [Moved, how 
ever, by peculiar modesty, he willingly yielded the palm to his 
senior colleagues, if at any time they were present. V. g.] Jerome 
construes sinews with iva evayysXt^u/j^af, that I might forthwith 
preach. ov Vfttfawtifm*) I had not recourse to flesh and blood, 
for the sake of consulting them. The same verb, and aved spriv, 
occur ii. 6, 2. The dictionaries (which see) make no distinction 
between the single and double compound verb. But the 
apostle seems to have considerately made the distinction, so 
that vpbs means, besides, further, i.e., divine revelation was suf 
ficient for me [I went no further than it]. trapx/ Kai a/]aar/, to 
flesh and blood) i.e., to man or men, ch. ii. 6; comp. Matt. 
xvi. 17, note. 

17. Ovds avyXQov) Neither went I up ; so dv5jX0s, John vi. 3. 
lepoffoXvpa, to Jerusalem) the seat of the apostles. Apafiiav, 
Arabia) a country of the Gentiles. KaXiv wfstfrpt-4 oi, again I re 
turned) Paul here takes for granted that his journey to Damascus, 
on which he had been converted, was previously known. 
Aaf&attxbvy Damascus) of Syria. There is no other Damascus 
than that of Syria, but I have added the mention of Syria, 
because he had been formerly speaking of Arabia, etc. 

18. Tpiaj three) After he had given proofs of the apostolic 
office. /tfropTjtfa/) a weighty expression, 1 as referring to an im 
portant matter. He did not say idsTv [though Engl. Vers. so 
renders it, to see}, but i<rropri<rai, " which," (says Chyrs.) " is said by 
those who accurately observe (o/ xara^avQavovTsi) great and splendid 
cities." Plutarch represents Solon and many others as having tra 
velled for the purpose of acquiring great wisdom and information 
(/Vrop/ag). Julian, when he was about to consult the diviners 
in the cities of Greece, alleged as the cause of his going, the 
extensive information of Greece (xaff hropiav r^g EXXadoc), and 
of the schools there. Greg. Naz., Or. 4, Cresoll. theatr. rhet., 
p. 163. lisrpov, Peter) Therefore Paul preferred him to the 

Th. lorap, i vyui; to become acquainted with anything by visiting 
and inquiry, Pol. ix. 14, 3. Ivrop. rivet, to become acquainted with one by a 
face to face interview. ED. 
See Wahl. Clav. 


other apostles, ch. ii. 7. dexairevre, fifteen) during so short a 
time, Paul means to say, Peter would not have been able to 
have made me an apostle.. [It is profitable to observe rather 
carefully, what are the dealings of God with thee, that when cir 
cumstances permit, thou mayest confidently appeal to them even 
after a long interval. V. g.] 

19. Tbv ddsXpbv ro\j Kvplov, the Lord *s brother) cousin of Jesus. 
There was no other James, the Lord s brother, and an apostle. 

20. idou, behold) viz. l<rr/, it is ; for on means tliat. } 

21. T HX0ov, I came) with the Gospel, ver. 23. 

22. TJJS Iwdafag, of Judcva) with the exception of Jerusalem. 

23. *o diuxuv, he who persecuted) He had been very well 
known by this name, nor was the name Saul itself so celebrated, 
as that of the persecutor. 

24. Ed6%a?ov 9 they glorified) And in the present day the 
Church glorifies God in Paul. [Remember thou to observe the 
same thing (to glorify God) as often as a good report (about 
some one converted from ungodliness), has been brought to thee. 

V. g.] sv l//,o/, in me) comp. note to ver. 16. They glorified 
God previously, they now glorified Him also on account of 


1 . A/a, after) At an interval of fourteen years between the 
two journeys to Jerusalem. 

2. Kara avoxaXv^iv, by revelation) As Paul had revelations he 
had no need to learn from men. This revelation had been com 
municated to him for an important reason. avede/^v) set before 
them [communicated], as equals are wont to do, not that they 
should confirm me, but that they should confirm others, Acts 
xv. 2. Oro/>, to them) at Jerusalem. This is treated of ver. 
3, 4. xar /a/ai/) apart, privately) all were not capable of compre 
hending it. ro?; doxovffi, who were held in reputation) In anti- 

1 It is the case before God, that, etc. ED. 


thesis to Paul, who was less acknowledged. [The apostles are 
principally intended, ver. 9. V. g.] comp. 2 Cor. xi. 5. Hesy- 
chius ; doxowrss, 01 tvdo%oi. This is brought under consideration, 
ver. 6, 7. WKUC,, lest by any means) this word depends on avsfe- 
wv, I set forth [communicated]. I should run, says he, or had 
run in vain, if circumcision had been judged necessary. rps^ca, 
I should run) with the swift victory of the Gospel. 

3. Ovdi, not even) We did not even allow the necessity of cir 
cumcising Titus, who was with me, to be laid upon us. 

4. A/a ds) But this matter concerning Titus happened on ac 
count of, etc. dsj but [Engl. Vers. And that] is here a particle ex 
planatory and intensive. Kaptiadxroug) <rapa here and in 
fffjXdov, denotes by the way, stealthily, underhand. 4 

false brethren) He had shown greater respect to those, who were 
professed Jews, as in the case of Timothy, Acts xvi. 3. o /nveg, 
who) Comp. Acts xv. 1, 24. xarcwxwjjrfaw) to spy out, and 

5. T/j JcrorayJj, by subjection) There is here a limitation. We 
would willingly have yielded for love [but not in the way of 
subjection], 55 dxfidsia) the truth of the Gospel, the pure Gospel, 
not another, ch. i. 6 : which false brethren attempt to substitute. 
The same mode of speaking is found, ver. 14 ; Col. i. 5. Truth, 
precise, unaccommodating, abandons nothing, that belongs 
to itself, admits nothing, that is inconsistent with it. 
vp&s, you) Greeks. We defended for your sakes, what you now 

6. A-TTO) Supply o l, 01 avb, x.r.X., and construe, ovdev poi diapepzi, 
oKoTo! ffoTt ijVav dtfo, x.r.X. It is of no importance to me, what sort 
of persons in particular [* whatsoever ] those were, who were of 
the number of those more distinguished. The preposition is put 
in the same way, while the article is omitted, Mark v. 35 ; 
Luke xi. 49. Not only the three, James, Peter, and John, were 

highly distinguished. He therefore says dxb ruv. o/ 
viz. o/ it^sp \iav dftoffroXoi ; 2 Cor. xi. 5. slvat n) to be (ac 
counted) something, among those, who did not so esteem Paul. 
oirofoi KOTS) norl is here enclitic, not an adverb of time. &sbg, 
God) Paul followed the judgment of God. He asserts the 
Divine authority ; he does not disparage that of the apostles. 
yap, for) The reason assigned [aetiologia] not of the thing but 

10 GALATIANS II. 7-9. 

of the word. Paul had just made a preface, and points out the 
reason why he did so, and proposes the subject itself. In like 
manner, for occurs, ch. vi. 7. The preface is, that he does not 
depend on the consent of others ; afterwards, however, he shows 
that consent. ov&v ffpoffav sQsvro) they added [imparted] 1 nothing 
to me, i.e. they found no fault in my doctrine. It often hap 
pens that a man, who wishes to find fault or admonish, does it 
modestly, under the appearance of communicating information. 
" Those, who took the lead," antecessores, as Tertullian calls 
rovg 3oxoDvra, used no such method in regard to Paul. I set 
forth, aveQe/tqv, to them, ver. 2 ; they had nothing to add. 2 

7. iftwrei) seeing from the effect itself, which I pointed out 
to them, ver. 8 ; Acts xv. 12. rfc, axpofSvffriag, of the uncircum- 
cision) i.e. of the Gentiles, who were to be brought to the faith 
without circumcision. 

8. E/ g ra e6vq 9 to the Gentiles) i.e. to the apostleship of the 

9. rvovrsr, wlien James, etc., perceived) After having heard 
and seen me. dodsfaav, given) comp. respecting Paul, 2 Pet. 
iii. 15. laxu(3og 3 ) James. He is put here first, because he 
mostly remained at Jerusalem, or even because he took the 
principal lead in tins matter, and Paul might have seemed to 
differ more from James than from Peter, more from Peter than 
from John. For many circumstances would lead us to con 
clude, that James and Paul, as well as Peter and Paul, etc., had 

1 Wahl. Clav. renders the verse here in the middle, " Animus est, novum 
aliquid imponere ;" i.e. they were not disposed to impose any new burden or 
obligation on me. ED. 

2 KpoffavifavTOi the ?rpo; implying addition. ED. 

8 Tlirpoc Kotl Idxcafios, the marginal reading in this verse is equal in both 
Ed. to the reading Ifix&ifios x.cai KYi<p/xg adopted both in the Germ. Vers. and 
in the Gnom : ver. 11, the name KY,<P* S , which had been left doubtful in the 
larger Ed., is openly preferred in 2d Ed. and Germ. Ver. to the other ; finally, 
ver. 14, the reading K-/j(px added to the genuine readings on the margin of the 
larger Ed. on the margin of the 2d Ed. is placed among those that are less cer- 
tain, and in the Germ. Ver. is exchanged for the reading Trtrpu. E. B. 

.u.1 KnQei; is read by BC Orig. and Cod. Amiat. of Vulg. 
*,. la,x,uQoc; is read by D(A)G/# Vulg. (Fuld. MS., etc.) Iren. A 
omits KO.I Kj<pa ? . In ver. 11 ABCH Vulg. read Kjj<p ? . But D(A)G# Vulg. 
arid Rec. Text have Tlerpos. In ver. 14 ABC have Kj@. D(A)G# Vulg. 
and Rec. Text have Tie-row. En. 

GALAT1ANS II. 10. 11 

that in their nature and in the feelings of their soul, which 
would demand that the one should exercise love and forbear 
ance, along with self-denial, towards the other, without, how 
ever, any compromise of the truth recognized by all. Hence it 
happens, that one and the same man, or one and the same as 
sembly cannot with equal facility comprehend both James and 
Paul. This is proved in the failure of Luther, who called the 
epistle of James " an epistle of straw ;" but let those who 
violently arraign him on this account, look at the monstrous 
feelings which they themselves cherish against Paul. Christ is 
the only Head, the only Sun ; the greatest apostles were only 
members ; nor did these, as individuals, all equally receive the 
rays of that Sun, but the whole together represented Christ in 
the apostleship ; cornp. on their variety, Rev. xxi. 14, 19, 20. 
And the affairs of the Church were so directed by its Divine 
Head, that James, who was more tenacious of the law, preached 
to the Jews ; Paul, who did not copy others, and was more 
eager for faith and liberty, preached to the Gentiles ; and that 
thus every one might bring a character and endowments as 
much adapted as possible to the province assigned to him. 
Kqpoig, Cephas) In some way or other, I know not how, this word 
has the sound of greater veneration than Peter. If Peter had 
held that supremacy, w r hich men afterwards attributed to him, 
Paul would have had the strongest reason for mentioning that 
supremacy on the present occasion, or at least of naming him as 
in an exalted position. cruXo/) This word corresponds to the He 
brew term Tioy Prov. ix. 1, and wherever it occurs. dsfyag 
so, Supsv dzfyav, let us make peace, 1 Mace. vi. 58, etc. 
) fellowship, which refers to colleagues Hva, that) viz. 
we might go, viz. with the Gospel. s/$ ra idvq, to the Gentiles) 
especially. For Paul also taught the Jews, Peter and John 
the Gentiles, but the former followed out his career beyond 
Judea, the latter had continued in Judea, so long as it con 
tinued to exist as a nation. If Peter came to Rome, he cer 
tainly had no fixed abode there. 

10. Tuv TTTU^UV, the poor) From among the Jews. (j,nyj#vtv&- 
,utv, we should remember) The antecedent for the consequent ; 
for Paul was forward, not only to remember, but to assist. 
, I was forward [anxious, zealous]) even among the 

13 GALAT1ANS II. 11-14. 

Galatians, 1 Cor. xvi. 1. Paul did not cast away his zeal for 
good works. 1 

11. "Ors, when) The argument at last reaches its highest 
point. Paul reproves Peter himself, therefore he owes not his 
doctrine to man. Avrifyeiav, Antioch) at that time the citadel 
of the Gentile Church. xarce ^oVwcrov, to the face) comp. ver. 
14, before all , so the LXX., 1 Kings i. 23, twice; 1 Chron. 
xxviii. 8; Ps. 1. 21; Dan. xi. 16, etc. Below, xara, iii. 1. 
avr sff-yv, I withstood [resisted]) A stern word. xargyvwc^lvos) 
xaraxgxp//Ag ;oc, condemned, on account of contrary actions, of 
which the one condemned the other ; see the following verse ; 
comp. ver. 18. The participle has a reciprocal meaning. For 
Peter had condemned himself by his own judgment, by his own 

12. 2u^r<J/gi/) lie ate, like as we did, along with the Gentiles. 
uT2<rr>.As, he began to withdraw 2 } gradually. apwp/ev ? separated) 
entirely. poftovpsvos, fearing) The fear of man is very injurious. 

13. O/ \oi-~oi) The others, believers. xatyeven Barnabas, whom 
you would by no means think likely to do such a thing. 

, was led away) The power of frequent example. 

14. T E/<5oy, 1 saw) A happy observation [of their error]. 

) they walk \with a straightforward and open step] ac 
cording to the rule, vi. 16; in the right way, or rather with 
body erect [as Engl. Vers. translates it uprightly], so that it is 
opposed to lameness, and to what is properly called straddling. 
Straightness of the feet is the thing intended. The Greeks say 
also op6oj3arsTv y opflodpa/^tTv. rov etiayythiov, of the Gospel) For 
the Gospel teaches, that righteousness from the works of the 
law and the necessity for observance of the ceremonial law are 
inconsistent with redemption by the death of Christ. g/^rov, / 
said) Paul alone maintained the point in this place, without 
associates [to support him], against Judaism ; afterwards also 
against heathenism, 2 Tim. iv. 16, 17. rG)) The authors of this 
conduct ought to be attacked. s/tvpocdsv vavruv, before all) 1 
Tim. v. 20. si <rO, if thou) In this argument Paul reminds 
Peter of the argument which the latter had used against the 

1 Though denying justification by them. ED. 
- This is the force of the Imperfect ED. 

GAL ATI AN S II. 15.* 13 

Pharisees, Acts xv. 10, 11. Here commences a proposition 
consisting of two members, of which the first, if thou, etc., is 
treated of in ver. 15, 16; the second, why the Gentiles, etc., at 
ver. 17, 18. lou<3a/bs ucra^wv, being a Jeiv) and therefore more 
closely related to the law. stivmug Qc, livest after the manner of 
Gentiles) So Paul speaks, Kar Avtipwrov, i.e. [using the ad homi- 
nem argument, turning Peter s own practice as an argument 
against him] For Peter, retracting his former mode of living, 
declared for the Gentile mode, since it was right in itself. Tak 
ing away this figure, the proposition itself, we must not live 
after the manner of the Jews, is presently discussed. ra e0vq, 
the Gentiles ) set free from the law. avayxa fyie, thou compellest) 
by thy conduct. They would have held it necessary that the 
Gentiles should either follow the Jewish ritual, or be deprived 
of communion with the Church. lovdaigeiv, to live as do the 
Jews [Judaize]) what had been formerly obedience to the law 
is now mere Judaism. 

15. Hpeis, we) Paul, sparing the person of Peter, dismisses 
the second person singular, and passes to the first person plural, 
then figuratively to the first person singular, ver. 18 ; lastly, 
/in its proper [literal] meaning, ver. 19, 20. We, although 
Jews by nature, and not sinners of the Gentiles, viz., we have 
been: comp. the preterite knowing we have believed. This we, 
after the reason 1 has been interposed in the way of parenthesis, 
is taken up again in the following verse with epitasis [an em 
phatic addition, viz., even we] and reaches to we have believed. 
<p-jffei, by nature) not merely proselytes. ou/c l"^ IQvZv apapruho}, 
not sinners of the Gentiles) Paul openly declares it as a thing 
acknowledged, that the Gentiles, inasmuch as they did not 
even possess the law, are sinners, while the Jews, on the con 
trary, had the law or even works; Tit. iii. 5. Then by the 
way he grants, that it is only in Christ that the Jews can have 
communion with them ; but he especially declares, as a thing 
acknowledged, the justification of the Gentiles by faith, and he 
also infers the same thing concerning the Jews. To this refers 
the expression sinners, ver. 17, note. 2 

1 By aetiologia. See Append. 

2 Sinners such as the Gentiles heretofore were justly regarded. ED. 

14 -GALATIANS II. 10. 

16. E/ doYeg, knowing) i.e. since we have come to know. 
s, a man) every man, whether Jew, or Greek. Ig ipyw 
by the works of the law) The followers of Galatism, from 
not clearly understanding and not rightly interpreting the 
nature and end of the moral law, earnestly maintained the cere 
monial law ; and, acknowledging little or no distinction between 
the moral and ceremonial law, they comprehended both under 
one word, the law, and therefore sought to be justified in the 
observance of the whole law. The apostle therefore in a similar 
manner refuting them, includes the two in one word ; or, where 
he uses the word law more strictly, he means the moral law 
itself; he calls the ceremonial law by a different appellation, 
elements, etc. But the state of the controversy came more 
prominently under notice, in so far as it regarded the cere 
monial law, than in so far as the same regarded the moral 

7 O 

law : since the matter of the former being about times, cir 
cumcision, meats, etc., met the eye more than that of the 
latter ; and the abrogation of the former, which was complete, 
was more conspicuous, than that of the latter, which was only 
abrogated in some one respect. Hence it happens that some 
arguments serve particularly against justification by the cere 
monial law ; there are more, however, which serve against 
justification by the law taken universally, including even the 
moral law. The whole is more clearly evident from the economy 
of the epistle to the Galatians ; for in ch. i. and ii. the apostle 
shows that he was sent and taught by God, and was in no 
respect inferior to the other apostles, as his conferences for pro 
moting peace, nay even his controversial debates, held with 
them, and with Peter himself, plainly evince. In the third 
chapter, there is the discussion on the moral law ; whence at 
ch. iv. 111, arguments are deduced regarding the ceremonial 
law, and, after an allegory has been interposed in reference to 
both, in ch. v. the question is raised respecting circumcision in 
particular. This is the sum: Moses and Jesus Christ; the 
law and the promise ; doing and believing ; works and faith ; 
wages and the gift ; the curse and the blessing, are represented 
as diametrically opposed to each other. And the Decalogue is 
left by Paul either altogether untouched, or it is included under 
the term law ; nay, the Decalogue is properly that law, which, 


though it is declared, that it cannot justify, is yet established 
by faith ; for, truly the ceremonial law is entirely abolished : 
[2 Cor. iii. 13] ; Rom. iii. 31. But Sinai, Gal. iv. 24, is much 
more celebrated for the Decalogue than for the ceremonial law. 
Nor was the ceremonial law a yoke intolerable in itself, but it 
derived its strength from the moral law, Acts xv. Therefore 
the moral law is, so to speak, more legal than the ceremonial, 
which was at the same time, as it were, an elementary and 
preliminary Gospel. See also Rom. iii. 20, note. lav ^ [but 
by] if not] a particle to be resolved into aX/.a, but, though with 
greater force. Man is not justified by the works of the law, 
and therefore in no other way save by faith. We find the 
same meaning attached to the particles, and not, which occur 
presently after. dia, by) by is used concerning the Gentiles ; 
from \}K eg] presently after, concerning the Jews, Rom. iii. 30, 
note. lyffov Xp/tfrou, of Jesus Christ) i.e. in Christ Jesus, as 
the expression follows presently after with the names transposed. 1 
The name Jesus was the name that became known first to the 
Gentiles ; the name Christ to the Jews. Wherefore the order 
is not always indiscriminate, where both names are used as 
here ; Rom. xv. 5, 6 ; 1 Tim. i. 15, 16, ii. 5, vi. 13, 14 ; 2 Tim. 
i. 9, 10, notes : and generally in more solemn discourse Christ 
Jesus is used ; in that which is more ordinary, Jesus Christ. 
xai Jiptfi) we ourselves also ; how much more the Gentiles. 
Itfufrsvea/Aev, we have believed) i.e. we began to believe long ago. 
dion, because that) The consequence is proved in reference to 
the Jews. 

17. E/ ds, but if) When Peter withdrew himself, and refused 
to hold any longer that communion in living [food] with the 
Gentiles, which he had begun ; it was the same thing as if he 
had said, that he had lived a heathen sinner, by the fact of and 
during the continuance of that communion. But Christ had 
formed a close relationship with the Gentiles, on account of 
which he had very properly eaten with them. Wherefore if 
Peter committed sin in eating with them, the consequence will 
be that Christ was the minister of that sin. Paul so shrinks 

1 Engl. Vers. has We have Relieved in Jesus Christ. But ACD(A)(ty Vulg. 
have the order Xpurrov IWQVV. B/ Memph. and later Syr. support the order 
Iwr. ED 

16 GALATIANS II. 18, 19. 

back from the impropriety of such a consequence, that he not 
only subjoins, God forbid, but immediately softens the expres 
sion by turning it into an interrogation, and by using also the 
word diaxovog, minister, which is well adapted to mark the in 
dignity implied in this passage. There is no blame attached 
to Christ, conferring righteousness and holiness upon the Gen 
tiles ; but the whole blame lies with him, who renews [builds 
again] a separation from the Gentiles, after they had been 
converted to Christ ; see following verse. fyrovvrei) while we 
seek, ever since we have received faith and freedom from the 
law. This word, to seek, is represented [virtually expressed] in 
the preceding verse ; and " if while seeling we are found," is 
a strong antithesis to it. svp eQr,fj,sv 9 we are found) now, anew. 
xa) avroJ) we ourselves also, of our own accord. xp/arog, Christ) 
by [in] whom, however, we seek to be justified. 

18. KarsKvga, I destroyed} By the faith of Christ. craX/t/ 
oix.odo/j;j, I build again) by subjection to the law. vapafSdrqv) a 
prevaricator, 1 a transgressor of the law, while I seem to observe 
it, [retracting, as it were, my former change (abandonment) 
of Judaism. V. g.] The word (<ra^a/3arj) was dreadful in 
the eyes of those who were more zealous for the law. [This 
was, to ivit, to transgress the law of faith. V. g.] ffuviffrr^i, 
I commend) Peter had wished to commend himself, A r er. 12, at 
the end ; Paul shows by this mimesis, 2 the sad fruit of that com 

19. E/w yap, for I) The reason assigned [aetiologia] for, God 
forbid. Christ is not the minister of sin and death, but the 
Establisher [Stator] of righteousness and life. I am entirely 
in Him. This is the very sum and marrow of Christianity. bia 
vo/orou vopy) by the law of faith [I am dead] to the law of works, 
Eom. iii. 27. I do not do an injustice to the law; I depend on 
a law, not less divine. This is set forth as it were enigmatically, 
and is presently explained by the definition of the law of faith. 
In the same sense in which transgressor [vapa^dr^g] is used, 

1 Prsevaricator, a shuffler, one guilty of collusion, a sliam- defender, as Peter 
here seeming- to be a maintainer of the law, though being a transgressor 
against it. ED. 

2 . Imitation of the \v< rd characterising Peter s aim, viz. to commend him 
self. ED. 

GALATIANS II. 20, 21. -III. 1. 17 

law, 1 is used, in speaking of faith. amQavov, Iva QI& ^ffw) Rom. 
vii. 4, 6, note. 

20. Zvvsffrabpupui, I am crucified with) Death is included in 
the cross, as is evident from the antithesis, I live ; comp. Phil, 
ii. 8. On communion with the same ; Phil. iii. 10. w &, 
nevertheless I live) after that death. ovx en lyw) [Engl. Vers., 
yet not 7.] No longer /, as a Jew : Col. iii. 11. 

21. Ovx afaroJ, I do not frustrate) As the Judaizing teachers 
do, but embrace it with my whole soul. rqv %apiv rou Qsov, the 
grace of God) by which Christ died for us. s/ yap, for if) 
Christ is our righteousness in Himself; not in so far as [inas 
much as] He fulfils the righteousness of the law in us. This 
is evident from the consequence which Paul here shows would 
follow, if the case were otherwise. dwefavw, He died) and so 
rose again. There \vould have been no need of these, if right 
eousness had been from the law. 


1. r n, 0) He abruptly attacks the Galatians. a 
foolish Galatians) inasmuch as not having followed up, and held 
fast, a subject which had been most distinctly set before them, 
ver. 3. He does not call them aya^ro-j^ beloved, because they 
were not to be loved, but to be reproved ; although He really 
loved them. l/Satfjtavg, bewitched) [that is, produced in you a 
change so sudden, and at the same time so very great. V. g.] 
What follows more closely agrees with this word, if the phrase, 
not to obey the truth, were to be laid aside ; 2 for the eyes are so 

1 Referring to the law of works. ED. 

2 The margin of both Ed. with the concurrence of the Germ. Vers. implies 
that it should be laid aside. E. B. 

ABD corrected later (A), Gfg Vulg. (many MSS., but Cod. Amiat. the 
best, has"veritati non obedire") omit rJj A^deief, ^ vsifaffOcu. Rec. Text 
with C retains the words. Jerome 7,418c writes, " Legitur in quibusdam 
codicibus, l Quis vos fascinavit non credere veritati. Sed hoc, quia in exem- 
plaribus Adamantii non habetur, omisimus ;" and 7,487a, "licet et Gneca 
exemplaria hoc errore confusa sint."~ ED. 


18 GALATIANS III. 2, 3. 

obstructed by fascination [that a man is either of opinion that he 
does not see what he sees, or thinks that he sees what does not 
exist. V. g.] xar ixpQaXftovs, before the eyes) Very clearly. vpos- 
ypdpri, hath been distinctly [evidently] set forth by writing) Things 
are said npoypdpzffOai, to be set forth, which are placed publicly in 
writing before the eyes of all, as H. Valesius shows, Not. in 
Harpocr, p. 116. Jesus Christ had been so written or por 
trayed before the eyes of the Galatians by the Gospel. sv v/j,/v 
hravpupevog, crucified among you) The form of His cross exhibited 
in your heart by faith, that now henceforth you might also be 
crucified with Him, ch. ii. 20 ; iv. 19, note. This crucifixion 
with Christ is realized especially in the Lord s Supper. 

2. Movovj only) A weighty argument. /^a^/i , learn) What it 
is that you think [what sentiment you entertain]. Here is 
the point of his questions : you have learned many things 
from me ; I wish to learn this one thing alone from you. Jg 
spyuv vopov, from the works of the law) In which you seek right 
eousness. rb nvsv/ta, the Spirit) [in (through) whom you addressed 
GOD as Father. Y. g.], and whose presence [among the Gala 
tians] was conspicuous by means of the gifts, which He bestowed ; 
ver. 5 ; Markxvi. 17 ; Heb. ii. 4. The gift of the Spirit accom 
panies righteousness [justification], ver. 14 ; Eph. i. 13. There 
fore the one is often put for the other ; comp. note on Rom. vi. 
18. This argument is repeated, ver. 5 : and it receives addi 
tional weight by the verses interposed, viz. ver. 3, 4. Further, 
Paul, in this one epistle of his, although he so often names the 
Spirit, does not, however, even once add the epithet, Holy ; and 
this he does not appear to have done without good reason; namely, 
the epithet Holy is a very joyful one, but this epistle is de 
cidedly severe. %, or) Two things directly opposed. lg axofa 
versus, from [by] the hearing of faith) The nature of faith is 
thus exquisitely denoted faith [consisting in] not working, but 

3. Ourwg avoTjro/, so foolish) ourug, makes an [Epitasis] em 
phatic addition [in ver. 1 it was merely at/oVo/] ; you not only 
neglect the evangelical portraiture of Christ [referring to irpoe- 
ypatpy, ver. 1], but also the gift of the Spirit, which came much 
more under your notice ; see at 1 Cor. i. 6. svapga^svo/, having 
begun) The progress corresponds to the commencement. There 

GALATIANS III. 4, 5. 19 

is no second [subsequent] justification given by the works of the 
l aw> v o Vj now) Whereas having left the flesh, you ought to have 
become more and more spiritual. ffapxt, in the flesh) Heb. ix. 10. 
[Phil. iii. 2 ; Rom. ii. 28]. No doubt the Galatians thought 
that they were going more deeply into the Spirit. The flesh 
may be easily taken for the Spirit, even by those who have made 
progress, unless they continue to maintain a pure faith. eV/re- 
Xe/irtg, are you consummated [made perfect ?]) when verging to 
[aiming at] the end [rsXog, contained in sV/rgXg/ijtfg, the end or 
consummation ], you follow the flesh. All things are estimated 
by the end and issue. 

4. Ecra&rg) have you suffered ? While you suffered and bore 
with me most patiently (and this patience is the fruit of the Spirit), 
when I portrayed before your eyes Christ and His cross, ver. 
1, note, and laboured among you in the weakness of the flesh ; 
as he speaks more explicitly afterwards at iv. 1 1 (where the word 
g/x5j, in vain, is repeated), 13, etc. He does not say, have you done 
(comp. 2 John ver. 8), because he refutes in this passage those 
that work ; but he says, have you suffered, with great propriety 
of language (for he suffers, who is brought to the birth 1 [in 
Christ], iv. 19 ; as also, he who runs, v. 7) ; also appositely to 
his argument, in order to amplify the indignity of their loss. 
There is a use of this verb not dissimilar, at Amos vi. 6 ; Zech. 
xi. 5. Sometimes &u <na<s-yjiv, ayafov irdtiy^tiv, is to receive [to be 
favoured with] a benefit, Baruch vi. 33 (34) : but this is not the 
notion of the word adopted by Paul. g/ yg xal g/ xSj, if it be yet in 
vain) This is as it were a correction ; 2 ye have not suffered so 
many things in vain ; for God has given you the Spirit, and has 
wrought mighty works [< virtutes/ miracles, ver. 5] in you. 
Comp. Heb. x. 32. 

5. *O eiri%ppii yuv xai svtpyuv) He that ministered and wrought 
[viz. God] : so Chrysost. For the participle of the imperfect 
tense is contained in the participle of the present : V/, in the 
first of these participles, is emphatic ; for he who preaches mi 
nisters (xW g ) God, in the strict sense, g 

1 The patitur qui paritur of the original cannot be imitated in a trans 
lation. TB. 

2 See App. 

3 p, to supply from above and abundantly gifts and graces, ap- 


powers) miraculous. Ig, by) Supply, did He it. Ig 
vfareus, by the hearing of faith) This expression along with 
the following verse constitutes the proposition, and in xa8u$, even 
as, assumes the force of an affirmative. 

6. ABpaafA, Abraham) See Eom. iv. 3, note. The genealogy 
[pedigree] the armoury of Paul, ver. 6, 8, 16; ch. iv. 22 ; for 
we must have recourse to our origin [the first beginnings of 
things], Matt. xix. 4. 

7. Tivwffxere, know ye) The imperative; comp. 2 Tim. iii. 1. 
Neither the slow T iiess of the Galatians nor the commencement of 
the discussion admitted of an indicative. o i IK ^fareus, those ivho 
are of faith) For Abraham believed. euro/) these, and these 
alone, the other descendants of Abraham being excluded. v /oi, 
sons) ver. 29. 

8. Upoidovffa 8s 9 but \_and moreover] foreseeing) As, but [and 
moreover^ being an emphatic addition (ttnrar/x&v), extends the 
force of the argument to the Gentiles also. The term foreseeing 
implies divine foreknowledge, more ancient than the law. The 
great excellence of sacred Scripture is, that all the points likely to 
be controverted are foreseen and decided in it, even in the most 
appropriate language. n ypoupr), scripture) A mode of expression 
abbreviated and condensed in a manifold degree, as will be 
evident to him who evolves the ideas involved in it, thus ; it is 
God who has given testimony to these things ; God foreknew that 
He would act in this manner with the Gentiles ; God therefore 
already at that time acted in a similar manner with Abraham ; 
God also caused it to be consigned to writing, and that too when 
at the time that it was written, it was still future. All these things 
are included in that expression, foreseeing --- All these 
ideas could not be so briefly expressed in our mode of speaking, 
otherwise [or if they could] they might be considered obscure. 
But the ardour of the apostle s mind, which, being filled with 
the Spirit, was directed to one topic, and that too of principal 
importance, produces this effect [the combination of great brevity 
with freedom from obscurity]. What was spoken to Abraham, 
was written out in the time of Moses. IK -Trttrtug, by faith) not 

plies to God. Xojpwye?*, to minister those gifts to others as the servant and 
instrument of God, applies to the minister. ED. 

GALATIANS 111. 9, 10. 21 

by works. BiKaioT, justifies [instead of would justify^) The pre 
sent, in respect of Paul then writing ; so, they have the blessing 
[are blessed, luXnyeDmw], ver. 9. ^osu^/ygX/Varo, preached the 
Gospel before) A word, which very sweetly approaches to a 
Catachresis. 1 The Gospel was preached to Abraham before the 
times of the Gospel. The Gospel is therefore older than the 
l aw . ivtvXoyyditfwrw) 131331 Gen. xii. 3 : then more expressly 
1313HH1 Gen. xxii. 18 ; Ps. Ixxii. 17. There is the mere pro 
mise of blessing ; nothing is said as to works. Moreover, jus 
tification and blessing are -conjoined. At the same time the 
nature of faith is evident from the form of the Hebrew verb : 
they shall bless themselves^ they shall congratulate themselves re 
garding the blessing. Is. Ixv. 1 6 ; comp. Deut. xxix. 18. ev <rol, 
in thee) as in the father of the Messiah ; therefore much more 
in Messiah [Himself]. The Gentiles, as believers in Christ, 
are the seed of Abraham. Seed first, then blessing, was pro 
mised to Abraham. Add note to ver. 16. 

9. O/ Jx Kiffrwg) they who are of faith, all, and they alone ; 
as is evident from its opposite in the following verse. ffvv r& 
KigTti, with the faithful) The blessing was conferred on Abraham 
himself by faith ; with whom those, who believe, are blessed. 
Observe, he says now, ffvv, withy not li>, in. In thee was said before 
Christ was born of the seed of Abraham ; subsequently to that 
event, with, nay even previously ; compare the heirs with him, 
Heb. xi. 9. 

10. Y-TTO xarapav, under the curse) Sub, Under, here and after 
wards, is joined to the accusative with great force. The curse 
and the blessing are opposed. s/aiv, are) This verb is repeated 
with great force. ysypaxrai, it is written) Deut. xxvii. 26 : 
e<7nxardparo$ <7rag (irtfOMTOS, offng ovx sfifAsvsi <rra6i roTg \dyoic, rov VO/AOV 
roi/rou, To/5j<ra/ avrovc ; where KU$ and nafft are not in the Hebrew, 
but in the Samaritan. Perfect obedience is required by the 
expression, in all things, and continual obedience by the expres 
sion, continueth (fau evei). No man renders this obedience. ro?$ 
yeypa/j,{j,evois sv r& /5//3x/w, written in the book) Paul adds this as a 

1 See Append. A turning aside of the term Gospel here from its strict 
sense, in order to apply it to what was akin to it, viz. the promise given to 
Abraham. ED. 

22 GALATIANS III. 11-13. 

11. EK vopu, in the law) Paul somewhat eagerly urges this 
matter, lest any one should say, I acknowledge that righteousness is 
not by the works of the law, but yet it is by the law itself. Many 
depended on the law, although they did not keep it, Rom. ii. 
17, 23. He answers, it is of no advantage to them that do it 
not, ver. 12. Ta/?d r& &eti, before God) whatever it may be 
before men, Rom. iv. 2. (3JjXoi>, on, it is evident, because [or 
that]) The phrase refers to what follows: 1 Tim. vi. 7 ; 1 Cor. 
xv. 27. AjjXovor/ is used by the Greeks as one word, correspond 
ing to the Latin id est. As concerns the fact, that no one is 
justified in [by] the law before God, it is beyond all doubt true, 
that the just shall live by faith. The former is alleged [referred 
to] as if still open to doubt, but the latter is TO d?jXov, a thing quite 
manifest, by which even the former ought to be placed beyond 
a doubt. 6 d/xa/og Ix -r/Vrswg, the just by faith [he who stands just 
by faith]) See Rom. i. 17. ^tfera/, shall live) The same word is 
in the following verse. 

12. Oyx stfnv sx irfffrsug, is not of faith) It does not act the part 
of faith ; it does not say, believe, butc?o. 6 To/^ag aura, the man 
that doeth them) Rom. x. 5. 

13. Xp/<rro, Christ) Christ alone. This is an abrupt exclama 
tion without a conjunction, and with some degree of indignation 
against the doers of the law. There is an Asyndeton not unlike 
this, Col. iii. 4 : where the apostle is likewise speaking of Christ. 
wag, us) The curse chiefly pressed upon the Jews ; for the bless 
ing also was nearer to them. The antithesis is, on the Gentiles, 
ver. 14 : comp. iv. 3, 6. s^opa^v, hath redeemed) He set us 
free by purchase from the state in which we were held. The 
same word occurs, iv. 5. Ix rJjg xardpa$, from the curse) under 
which they lie, who trust either to the law, or the works of the 
law. yevopevos v^sp JJ/AUV Kardpa, being made a curse for us) We 
have here the abstract, not the concrete noun. Who would 
dare without the fear of blasphemy so to speak, if the apostle 
had not led the way 1 The word curse, xara^a, means more 
than anathema, Rom. ix. 3 : for the curse is inflicted by another, 
the anathema is spontaneously incurred. In like manner fro* 1 , 
JgoXofysu^tfgra/, shall be cut off, is said of Christ, Dan. ix. 26 : 
comp. ver. 24 with the annot. of C. B. Michaelis. r*ep, for, 
instead of, is also used here with the utmost propriety ; for Christ 

GALATIANS III. 14, 15, 23 

became the curse, which we were, in our stead, that we might 
cease to be a curse. yiypaKrai, it is written) Deut. xxi. 23, 
xsxarqpa/Asvoc U-TTO &sou rfas xps/Ad/Atvog swi ^uXoi. Jcr/ ^i/Xou, on a tree) 
between heaven and earth. Our mother-tongue calls it the 
gallows. The apostles, in treating of redemption, mention the 
cross, rather than the agony on the Mount of Olives, 1 Pet. ii. 
24. Had not the punishment of the cross been long ago abo 
lished, the stupendous power of the cross of Christ would be 
more obviously before our eyes. 

14. "Ivot, ha, that- that) The first that corresponds to, being 
made (a curse), the last to, hath redeemed us ; comp. that occur 
ring twice, iv. 5, note. e/$ ra tQvri) on the Gentiles, who were 
afar off, ver. 8. rqv sTrayyt\ia,v ro\j Kvtvftarog, the promise of the 
Spirit) Luke xxiv. 49, note. Xa(3u/Mv, we might receive) we 
Jews, nearly related in Christ to the blessing. The nature of 
faith is expressed by this word ; the promise and faith stand in 
relation to each other. dia r%g irforeus, by faith) not of works, 
for faith depends on the promise alone. " The Spirit from 
without kindles within us some spark of faith, whereby we lay hold 
of Christ, and even the Spirit Himself, that He may dwell within 
us." Flacius. 

15. "O/AWS) yet; although it be only a maris testament or 
covenant, from which the comparison is taken. avOpuirov, of a 
man) whose purpose it is of far less importance to maintain. 
xexvpup svriv, confirmed) when once all things have been ratified, 
for example, by the death of the testator, Heb. ix. 16. So %ai 
sxvpuQTi o aypbs, Dp* 1 !, Gen. xxiii. 20. ovdsig) no man, not even 
the author himself, unless some unexpected cause either in his 
own mind or from without should happen (such a cause as can 
not occur to God) : much less any other person [since he is here 
indeed speaking of a point of equity (the matter of right), for in 
point of fact testaments or bequests made by men are sooner or 
later infringed not without incurring heavy guilt. V. g.] ; and to 
that other person the law corresponds in the Apodosis. For 
o v6fto$, the law, is here considered also, as a second person dis 
tinct from the promise of God, as it were by personification, in 
the same way that sin and the law are opposed to God, Rom. vi. 
13, viii. 3 ; and Mammon, as if it were a master, is opposed to 
God, Matt. vi. 24 : and the elements of the world are compared 

24 GALATIANS 111. in. 

with the tutors, and the law is called a schoolmaster, presently 
after, ver. 24, cli. iv. 2, 3. The promise is looked upon as more 
ancient, and as spoken by God : the law, as more recent, and 
as distinguished from God the lawgiver ; because the promise 
more peculiarly belongs to God ; the law is, as it were, some 
thing more extraneous; see ver. 17, 18, 21, 22. MtnTn sKidia- 
rdoffsrai, disannuls or adds to it) in whole or in part : by abolish 
ing, taking away legacies, or adding new charges or conditions. 
Makes of none effect, ver. 17, corresponds to both words. 

16. Eppsfyffav, were spoken) a weighty expression. a/ kvay- 
yeXiai, the promises ) In the plural ; the promise frequently re 
peated [ver. 17, 18] : and it was twofold, of things on earth and 
things in heaven ; of the land of Canaan, and of the world, and of 
all the good things of God, Rom. iv. 13. But the law was 
given once for all. xa/, and) Gen. xiii. 15, xii. 7, xv. 18, xvii 
8. X tyti, He says) God. ug kni -roXXwv, as of many) as if there 
was one seed before the law, another under the law. us If evbs, 
as of one) See how Paul draws a conclusion of great w r eight 
from the grammatical accident, number ; and this is the more 
wonderful, because jnt is never put in the plural, unless in 
1 Sam. viii. 15, where it however denotes lands, not seeds. 
Indeed, in the LXX. Int. the force of the singular number is 
more apparent. Moreover, Paul has not here determined that 
seed denotes one single offspring alone, and that seeds, and they 
alone [i.e. that it is the plural alone, which must], signify a numer 
ous offspring : for seed in the singular very often implies a 
multitude ; but he means to say this, that there is one seed, i.e. 
one posterity, one family, one race of the sons of Abraham, to 
all of whom the inheritance falls by promise, [after Moses, as 
well as before Moses ; of the uncircumcision not less than of the 
circumcision. V. g.] not to some by promise, to others by the 
law, Rom. iv. 16. But you will do well to distinguish between 
the promise of the blessing and the promise of the inheritance 
of the world or of the earth ; in the former, not in the latter, the 
appellation, seed, has regard to Christ. For the blessing is ac 
complished in Abraham, not by or in himself (per se), inasmuch 
as he died before the Gentiles obtained the blessing, but inas 
much as he has the seed ; and it is accomplished in the seed of 
Abraham, not because that seed is innumerable ; for Abraham 


himself did not bless, but received the blessing ; how much less 
can his posterity bless, who only receive with him the blessing 
by faith. Therefore the blessing is accomplished in Christ, who 
is the one Seed most excellent and most desired, who in and by 
Himself bestows the blessing. But yet, because all the posterity 
of -Abraham are akin to Him [Christ], therefore, the blessing is 
said to be accomplished in the seed of Abraham in common, but 
to come to the Gentiles, ver. 14. The promise of the earth, and 
therefore of the inheritance, was given to Abraham and his seed, 
i.e. to his numerous posterity, ver. 19, 22, not, however, to Christ, 
but in relation to Christ [in Christum, "until Christ should come," 
ver. 19 ;" with a view to Christ," ver. 24, tig Xptarbv, and ver. 17 
in Rec. Text]. og sffri Xpiffrbg, who is Christ) og, who, is not to 
be restrictedly referred to the expression, to the seed, but to the 
whole of the foregoing words in this sense : [all of which God 
says in reference to Christ] that which God says is wholly in 
reference to [with a view to] Christ. 1 [i.e. to Abraham and his 
seed belong the promises, or, in other words, the blessing promised 
in Christ. V. g.] For Christ upholds all the promises, 
2 Cor. i. 20. In Greek and Latin the gender of the pronoun 
often corresponds to the substantive that follows. Cic. Ignes 
quce (attracted to the gender of sidera, instead of that of 
ignes) sidera vocatis. [So here og, attracted to the gender of 
Xpiffroc, instead of o, referring to the whole antecedent dis 

17. ToDro de \syu, but this I say) He shows to what the com 
parison, ver. 15, refers. Siadyjx^v) The word is taken here in a 
sense a little more extensive than that of a testament, for o 
diade/tsvog, the party entering into an arrangement, who is referred 
to here, is the immortal 2 [undying] God. And yet the term 
testament is more consonant with this passage than covenant, 
ver. 18, at the end. Comp. note on Matt. xxvi. 28. vpoxexvpu- 
confirmed before) Confirmed, ver. 15, corresponds to this : 

1 Beng. seems to take o?, who or which, i.e. as the subject of the whole pre 
vious discussion, and of all the promises, just mentioned, Avhich God has made, 
is Christ. ED. 

2 Whereas a testament implies the death of the testator : Heb. ix. 16. 

3 The words following ti; Xptvrov by the margin of the larger Ed. had been 


but Kpb, before, is added on account of those four hundred and 
thirty years. The testament was confirmed by the promise 
itself, and that promise repeated, and by an oath, and that too 
many years before : en, in ver. 18, agrees with this word before. 
ftsra, after) It will be said : The epistle to the Hebrews (vii. 
28, note) everywhere prefers to the law those things which were 
confirmed psr&, after the law ; how then is that preferred here, 
after which the law was given ? Ans. Those things are noticed 
there, in which the new confirmation [thing confirmed, cove 
nant] was expressly derogatory to the old confirmation [thing 
confirmed, covenant] : but that the law was derogatory to the 
promise, which is here urged, was added neither in the time of 
Abraham, nor of Moses. To cr apyjns, that which was from the 
beginning, is preferred in both cases : comp. Matt. xix. 8. 
Everywhere Christ prevails. irr t , years) The greatness of the 
interval increases the authority of the promise. /s/oi/wg, which 
was, came into existence) This also has the effect of attributing 
inferiority to the law, and of imparting elegance to the personi 
fication. He does not say, given, as if the law had existed be 
fore it was given ; nor does he add, by God, as he had said 
concerning the testament or covenant. There is another reason 
for these words, John i. 17. vopog, the law) He speaks in the 
nominative case ; so that God who promises, and the law which 
does not detract from that promise, may be distinctly opposed 
to each other, and the hinge of this antithesis is the personifica 
tion previously noticed. ovx axvpoT, does not make void) A 
metonymy of the consequent [for the antecedent], i.e. the law 
does not confer the inheritance. ilc, rb xarap^ttai) to make of no 
effect the promise. But it is rendered vain or of no effect, if the 
power of conferring the inheritance be transferred from it to 
the law. 

18. E/, if) A conditional syllogism, of which, when the conse 
quent is taken away, the antecedent is taken away ; so that 
the conclusion is, therefore the inheritance is not from the law. 

judged as deserving rather to be omitted, but by the excellent decision of 
the 2d Ed. they have been received into the Germ. Ver. E. B. 

DGr/cj Vnlg. and both Syr. Versions support the addition in Rec. Text d$ 
Xo/oroV But ABC, some of the best MSS. of Vulg., Memph., and Syr. re 
ject the addition. ED. 

GALATIANS III. 19, 20. 27 

6 &&bg, God) Here the promise is expressly predicated of 

19. T/ oiiv o VO/AOS;) Some use this punctuation, / olv; 6 vo>o?, 
x.r.X. Indeed r/ OUK is often put by itself; sometimes, however, 
the interrogation is given at length, ri olv py/ai ; 1 Cor. x. 19 : r/ 
olv rb -Trspiffffbv rou loyda/ou ; Rom. iii. 1. WJiat then is [the use of] 
the laiv, i.e., one might say, was the law therefore given in vain? 
rS>v KapafSdasuv y^dpiv, because of transgressions) that they 
might be acknowledged and might gain strength. Transgres 
sions committed by men are noticed not so much before, Rom. 
v. 13, as after the giving of the law. The same word occurs 
at Rom. iv. 15, where see the note ; and in the plural at Heb. 
ix. 15. The antithesis is continueth, ver. 10. The thing itself 
is explained at ver. 21, 22 : namely, all are "concluded under 
sin." sred?), it was put, given) He does not say, put instead of, 
substituted [for the promise]. Many have Kpoffsredr), 1 but ersdq 
is more consistent with ver. 15. eX0j, should come) comp. came, 
ver. 23. rb an sp/Aa, the seed) viz., believers of the New Testa 
ment, to whom is given the fulfilment of the promise ; ver. 22. 
w e-TnjyytXra/, to whom the promise was made) or rather to 
whom God promised; comp. IcnjyygXra/, Rom. iv. 21 ; Heb. 
xii. 26. 5/arays^, ordained) not gV/<5/arays/ ; 2 comp. ver. 15, 

addeth thereto any new ordinance]. di ayyeXuv, 
by angels, in the hand of a mediator) A double 
mediation. Angels being the representatives of God, Heb. 
ii. 2 : a mediator standing as representative of the people. God 
delegated the law to angels as something rather alien to Him 
and severe : He reserved the promise to Himself, and gave 
and dispensed it according to His own goodness. Moses was the 
mediator ; hence it is frequently said, HK D *V<1, by the hand of 
Moses. We have the definition of a mediator, Deut. v. 5. 
Moses, as a mediator, is quite different from Christ the one 
keeps back [repels] the other brings forward [attracts]. 

20. O ds peffirqs, now a Mediator) The article has the meaning 
of the relative. That Mediator, Moses, who was far later than 

1 ttpoasriOn is read by AB (judging from silence) C, both Syr. Versions, 
etc. Er^Yi by GD(A) corrected later, fg Vulg. (positaest), Iren. 182, 318. 


2 Ordained as a new thing to supersede the promise. ED. 


the promise, and at the same time severe. svoj, of one) The 
middle term of the syllogism, of which the major and minor 
proposition is expressed, the conclusion is understood, One does 
not make use of that Mediator (that is, whosoever is one [one 
and the same unchanging being] does not transact first without 
a mediator, then the same one through a mediator ; nor does he 
afterwards withdraw himself [after having first dealt with His 
people immediately and directly], so as to transact through a 
mediator ; for familiar acquaintance does not generally decrease, 
but increase) : but God is one. Therefore God did not transact 
first without a mediator, then through a mediator. Therefore 
that party, to which the mediator belonged, is not one and the 
same with God, but different from God, namely the law. 1 6 & 
sbg eTg earn, but God is one) There is not one God before and 
another after the giving of the law, but one and the same God. 
Before the law He transacted without a mediator ; therefore the 
mediator at Mount Sinai does not belong to God, but to the 
law ; whereas the promise belongs to God ; comp. on the unity 
of God, in reference to the same subject, Rom. iii. 30 ; also 
1 Tim. ii. 5 : and the oneness of God before and after the law 
agrees most beautifully with the oneness of the seed before and 
after the law. Thus Paul infers from the very manner of giving 
the law, that the law was given on account of sin ; and thus 
the new objection in the following verse is in consonance. 

21. OUK, then) This objection may be taken from the circum 
stance, that the law is said to have been given because of trans 
gressions. The answer is, that the law is not against the pro 
mises, and in regard to the answer two considerations are pre 
sented : The one is, the law in itself, though it were willing, 
cannot give the life that has been promised, ver. 21 ; the other 
is, nevertheless, as a schoolmaster, it assisted the promise of life ; 

1 The syllogism is one of the first figure in Ferio. The major prop, is : 
One does not make use of that mediator. The minor is : But God is 
one ; and the conclusion is, therefore God does not use that mediator. But 
the conclusion drawn by Bengel is not directly from the major prop., 
but from the explanation of it within the parenthesis, and is perfectly sound 
according to his statement. The conclusion in the last sentence is not quite 
so clear. Let it be remembered, however, that there was a double media 
tion. God delegated the law to angels, who gave it to Moses : therefore 
Moses came between the law and the people.TRANSL. 


ver. 22 iv. 7. The first consideration is proved by this Enthy- 
meme 1 (of the same sort as at ver. 18) : If the law could give 
you life, righteousness would be by the law ; but righteousness 
is not by the law ; supply [the conclusion], therefore the law 
cannot give life. The major proposition is evident, for only the 
just shall live, ver. 11. The minor proposition, and at the same 
time the second consideration itself, is proved by ver. 22 : and 
that too by Epanodus ; 2 for of these four terms, to give life, righte 
ousness, sin, promise, the first and fourth, the second and third, 
have respect to each other. v6,uos, the law) It is called the law, 
not the law of God : but we say, the promises of Godj not, the 
promises absolutely. / yap, for if) The conditional force does 
not fall upon was given, for the law was certainly given, but 
upon was able (could have). 6 dwapsvos, that was able) The 
article shows that the emphasis is on 8&vapau. The law would 
wish [to give life], ver. 12, for it says, he shall live, but it is not 
able. JwoTo/Sjtfa/, to give life) In this expression death is taken 
for granted as threatened [by the law] against the sinner, and 
therefore the language becomes very distinct. The law offers 
life conditionally, ver. 12 ; but does not confer it, because it 
cannot, being deprived of all power to do so by sin. oVwg, 
verily) not merely in the opinion of those maintaining justifica 
tion by works. The matter in hand [justification] is a serious 
one [the question at issue is a serious reality], although it be 
now beyond the power of the law. ^ dmaiotivvri, righteousness) 
For righteousness is the foundation of life. The antithesis is 
sin, ver. 22. 

22. AXXa, but) So far is righteousness from being of the law, 
that the acknowledgment of sin is rather what comes of the 
law. tfui/sxXs/tfgv, hath concluded) It has comprehended sinners, 
that were formerly unconcerned [free from all alarm], and has 
concluded them all together ; comp. inclosed [vsxXg/<rav, of the 
multitude of fishes in the net], Luke v. 6. y ypa<p7), the Scrip- 

1 See Append. A covert syllogism, where one or other premiss is under 
stood. Here it is the oratorical Enthymeme, where an argument is con 
firmed from its contrary : If the law could, etc., ivhich it could not, etc. 

2 See App. It is the repetition of the same words, either as to sound or 
sense, in an inverted order. 

;50 GALATIANS III. 23~27. 

ture) The Scripture, not God, is said to have concluded all 
under sin ; although a * concluding of that sort is elsewhere 
ascribed to God, Kom. xi. 32. Moreover, it is worthy of notice, 
that he says, the Scripture, not the law. Scripture began to be 
written, not at the time when the promise was made, but at the 
time w r hen the law was given ; for God stands to His promises 
even without writing : but it was necessary, that the perfidy 
[faithlessness to God s commands] of the sinner should be re 
buked by the written letter. Furthermore, in the subsequent 
clause also, that, etc., Paul touches upon something, w r hich goes 
beyond the sphere of the law, not beyond that of Scripture. 1 
ra favra, all) Not only all men, but also all the things, which they 
are and have in their possession. 

23. Tr t v vrfffriv, the faith of Jesus Christ) So the following 
verses. sppovpovfttQa GvyKw^ticptvoi, we were kept shut up) These 
two words elegantly disjoin the law and faith. The being 
kept in custody is the consequence of the shutting up. Wisd. 
xvii. 16 : s(ppovpe?ro s/c rqv dffidripov sipxrrjV xaraxXiitidstg, he was kept 
shut up in a prison without iron bars. ffwyxsxteiff/Asvoi tig) So the 
LXX., tfyyxXg/g/v s/s Qdvarov, Ps. Ixxviii. (Ixxvii.) 50, xxxi. 9 ; 
Amos i. 6, 9. But it is an abbreviated phrase : shut up, and 
therefore reserved and forced to the faith, etc. \_so that there 
remained to us no refuge but faith. V. g.] Polybius says, sis 
avrdc GvvtxXziffQrj rag sv ibioig o//tsraig nai (pi koig AT/<5a, a he was 
shut up to those very hopes which were among [which depended 
on] his own domestics and friends ;" and so it often occurs in the 
same writer. See Raphelius. Irenaeus has, the sons of God are 
shut up to the belief of His coming : 1. iii. c. 25. 

24. naidaycd ybs, a schoolmaster) who has kept us under disci 
pline, lest we should slip from his hands. ^cr/o/, infants [_ chil 
dren ], need such discipline, iv. 3. There is again a personifica 
tion of the law. 

26. T/o/) Sons, emancipated, the keeper being removed. 

27. Xpiffrbv evdbffaoOt, ye have put on Christ) Christ is to you 
the toga virilis. 2 You are no longer estimated by what you 
were, you are all alike in Christ and of Christ ; see the follow- 

1 And for this reason also, Y, ypxtpvj is here said, not o vopog. ED. 

2 Among the Romans, when a youth arrived at manhood, he assumed 
the dress of a full-grown man, which was called toga virilis. TJB. 

GALATIANS III. 28, 29.-IV. 1-3. 31 

ing verses [ver. 28, There is neither Jew nor Greek, etc., for 
ye are all one in Christ]. Christ is the Son of God, and ye 
are in Him the sons of God. Tho. Gataker says, if a person 
were to ask me to define a Christian, 1 would give him no defini 
tion more readily than this : A Christian is one, who has put on 
Christ : 1. 1, misc. c. 9. 

28. Oux ivi, there is not) These were formerly differences, now 
they are at an end, along with their causes and signs : &/ for 

with the preposition to which sv presently corresponds. 
oe, x.r.x, the Jew, etc.) Col. iii. 11, note. aptev nat 05jXu, 
male and female) In the circumcision there was the male : for 
the weaker sex, by which the transgression began, was with 
out it. %, one) A new man, who has put on Christ, Eph. ii. 15. 
sv Xpiffrti ijjc-oD, in Christ Jesus) construed with one. 

29. v Apa, therefore) Christ sanctifies the whole posterity of 
Abraham. sirayyi kiav, the promise) given to Abraham. 


1. Asyw ds, Now I say) He explains what he said, iii. 24, con 
cerning the schoolmaster. 6 xhypovopog, the heir) This term is 
brought from ch. iii. 29. vfaiQc) a child, under age. oufrsv dia- 
pspsi dovXov, differs nothing from a servant) Because he is not at 
his own disposal, regarding deeds and contracts. ^ravrwi/, of all) 
Those things which relate to the inheritance. 

2. ET/rpoVouj) tutors of an heir. O/XOI/O/AOI/S) curators of goods. 
[Engl. Ver. not so well, governors]. 

3. YTO ra ffroi^sTa rov xotpov, under the elements of the world) 
Sro/^s/bv, an element) A certain first principle, from which other 
things arise and are constituted ; in the universe, 2 Pet. iii. 10, 
see note : and in letters (learning), Heb. v. 12 (comp. ffroi^siuffig, 
respecting the child in the womb, 2 Mace. vii. 22) : thence by 
Metonymy, elements of the ivorld in this passage, likewise weak 
and beggarly elements, presently, ver. 9, i.e. principles of living, 
which depend on times marked out by the motion of the elements, 
i.e. of the sun and moon ; likewise principles which refer to 

32 GALATIANS IV. 4, 5. 

meat, drink, and other sublunary matters, all these being only 
material and external objects, iii. 28. Comp. Col. ii. 8, 16, 20, 
etc. They are called tutors in the concrete, elements in the 
abstract. The Son of God, sent down from heaven, and the 
Spirit of the Son of God, iv. 6, are opposed to these worldly 
things. - dedovhu/t evoiy reduced to slavery [in bondage]) This an 
swers to, He differs nothing from a slave [servant], ver. 1. 

4. To -rX^w/xa rov %povou, the fulness of the time) This has 
reference to as long as, and to the time appointed, ver. 1 [" as long 
as he is"] ; 2, [" until the time appointed"] : for the Church also 
has its own ages. i^aKsffreifav, sent forth) Out of heaven, from 
Himself, as He had promised. The same verb is repeated, ver. 
6, concerning the Holy Spirit. [The infinite love of the Father ! 
V. g.] Comp. Is. xlviii. 16, where Castellio and others give this 
interpretation : The Lord Jehovah sent me and His Spirit. Be 
fore this visitation men did not seem to be so much the object of 
God s care ; Heb. viii. 9 : afterwards a new appearance of things 
was presented. rbv vibv auroD, His (own) Son) The Author of 
liberty, auroD, in a reciprocal sense, His own. What that means 
is evident from the train of thought in this passage, for we have 
received first adoption, then the Spirit of adoption. Therefore 
Christ Himself is not the Son of God, merely because He was 
sent and anointed by the Father. 

5. "Iva ro-jc, %.r.X. JVa rqv, that that) An Anaphora. 1 The first 
that is to be referred to made under the law: therefore the 
second has respect to born of a woman. There is a Chiasmus 
very much resembling this, at Eph. iii. 16, v. 25, 26, which see 
with the annot. Christ, in the similitude of our condition, made 
our condition good ; in the similitude of our nature, He made us 
the sons of God : ytvQptvQv is repeated, giving force to the mean 
ing, He might have been born of a woman (yeveffQai s 

and yet not have been made under the law (ysvsffdai 
but yet He w as born of a woman (iy zvtro sx ywaixbg), that He 
might be made under the law. The first yevopevov, made, with 
the addition of ex ywaixbc, of a woman, takes (adopts) the mean 
ing, being born. e^ayopaffvi, might redeem) from slavery to 
liberty. rqv v/oQetiav, the adoption) the dignity of sons, a privilege 

1 Append. The frequent repetition of the same words to mark beginnings. 

GALATIANS IV. 6-8. 33 

in which those who are of age delight, along with the actual en 
joyment [usufructu] of the inheritance. airohdfiupev) we might 
receive ; ano shows the suitableness 1 of the thing, which has been 
long ago predestined by God. 

6. "Or/, because) The indwelling of the Holy Spirit is the con 
sequence of the condition of sons [their status as sons], the latter 
does not follow the former. IcW) you are; even you of the 
Gentiles. viot sons) who are of age, living with the Father on 
terms of free-born liberty. A/3/3& 6 nar^p, Abba Father) The 
Hebrew noun is here delightfully used ; comp. Mark xiv. 36 ; 
and the union of the Hebrew and Greek idiom is consonant 
with the one mixed cry [in prayer] of the Hebrews and Greeks 
[made one in Christ]. The Hebrew says, Abba, the Greek says, 
Father, both, Abba, Father ; comp. Rev. i. 8. 2 So peace, peace, 
is redoubled, in like manner, for the Jews and Greeks, Isa. 
Ivii. 19. Individuals also no less [than the whole Church] re 
double their call upon the name of the Father. This is a pledge 
of sonship in the New Testament ; comp. Matt. vi. 9, note. 

7. E/" v/b$, thou art a son) Paul passes with a sweet eifect 
from the plural to the singular, as in ch. vi. 1 ; and there is at 
the same time expressed in this passage the fatherly answer of 
God towards [in relation to] individuals who cry out, Abba, 
Father, in the spirit. dovXog, a servant) in the manner of in 
feriors. xXqfonl/Ko?) an heir in reality. 3 

8. Tors, then) when we were children [ver. 1]. ouz g/ <5oYs; sbv, 
not knowing God) The very wretched state of the Gentiles. edov- 
Xevffars, ye did service) being under a different bondage from 
that of the Jews, ver. 3. You worshipped gods not true with a 

1 ATTO in the compound expresses often something appropriate or due, 

2 " I am Alpha and Omega (Greek), the Beginning and Ending" (ex 
pressed in Hebrew, s and n). The Greek and Hebrew are often so conjoined. 
Or rather it is vers. 7 to which Beng. refers, veti (Greek), K/XVJV (Hebrew). 


3 eov, of God) See App., p. 11, on this passage, where the great variety 
renders it probable that 0goD was inserted from Rom. viii. 17. Not. Grit. 
Yet the margin of the 2d Ed. gives less countenance to the omission, and the 
Germ. Vers. expresses the words of God, as if they were not doubtful. E. B. 

ABC corrected later, g Vulg. Memph., read dia (dtciv. G reads /# &eov. 
Ilec. Text reads o, W XJCWTCV, with D(A)f. 


34 GALATIANS IV. 9, 10. 

worship not true. You had not been accustomed to the Mosaic 
worship ; and therefore it is more a matter of wonder, that you 
now desire [affect] it. You attained to the truth without those 
elements, and now at length [for the first time] you follow them. 
roTg jtATj <pvffJ ouffi Czo?g) So the LXX., rui ^ ovn $, 2 Chron. 
xiii. 9. 

9. Tvovres &ebv, knowing God) The true God, who is a Spirit. 
When you know Him, and yet follow eagerly after those elements, 
it is the same thing as if a master should wish to return to learn 
the alphabet [his A B c D child s book]. /^aXXov, rather) it is 
the gift of God. He acknowledged and declared you to be His 
sons; comp. Ex. xxxiii. 12, 17. What belongs to God, is of 
the chief consequence as concerns our salvation, rather than 
what belongs to ourselves ; comp. Phil. iii. 12. </rw, how ?) An 
interrogation expressing much wonder ; i. 6, / marvel. 
again) as we have formerly been in bondage. affQevq xai 

iceak and beggarly) Weakness opposed to filial boldness, beggar- 
liness, to the abundance connected with the inheritance. o%, 
to which) to elements, not to God. -/raX/v avudev (back) again 
afresh) You wish to be in bondage again : now to elements, as 
formerly to idols ; and afresh, you are in bondage to the same 
elements anew, by which Israel had been formerly enslaved ; 
comp. the word again, Rom. viii. 15, note. dov^eveiv, to be in 
bondage) in a manner unworthy of freemen. DsXsrs, you wish) 
See ver. 21, and Mark xii. 38, note. [It is not every kind of 
readiness in wishing or desiring, that is good, Col. ii. 18, 23. 

v.g.] ( 

10. Hftepag) days : Rom. xiv. 5, i.e. Sabbaths, Col. ii. 16, 
note. The time of the Sabbath was held the most sacred of all. 
Therefore the order of gradation is to be observed, comp. 1 
Chron. xxiii. 31 ; 2 Chron. xxxi. 3 : <ra/3/3ara, vnwvtac, toprac, 
Sabbaths, new moons, feast days, in an affirmative sentence ; but 
in a prohibition, the order is inverted, as in the passage quoted 
from Colossians above. vatparriptfafa) you observe, as if there 
were anything beside 1 faith. xa< xaipovg, and times) longer 

1 The votpoc, in the compound verb is evidently understood by Beng. in 
this sense, as often nape* is used elsewhere, sc. of something added inciden 
tally, besides what is really essential. So d *&>oc irapeifffafav, the law entered 
stealthily, and as something superadded incidentally, Rom. v. 20. ED. 

GALATIANS IV. 11-13. 35 

than months, shorter than a year, i.e. feasts C3HVO, which the 
LXX. frequently translate xaipovg. sviauro-jg, years) anniversary 
solemnities, for example, the commencement of the year with 
the month Tisri ; for it cannot be said that the sabbatical years, 
which had been fixed for the land of Canaan, were observed by 
the Galatians, although this epistle was written about the time 
of the sabbatical year, which ended (Dion, era) A.D. 48 ; see 
Ord. Temp, (arrangement of dates), p. 281, 423 [Ed. ii. p. 242, 

11. YfAag,you) I do not fear this for my own sake, but for 
yours. els vpaig) on you ; an emphatic expression. 

12. riveade, be ye) He suddenly lays aside rove \6youg, the ar 
guments suited for instruction, and has recourse to %6n nut vddrj, 
arguments that are calculated to conciliate and move, ver. 1120 : 
of which whoever has not the ready command (and no carnal 
man has it), is not a perfect teacher. It is in this respect 
especially that the tenderest affection of the apostle humbly bent 
itself to the Galatians. u$ I/a/, as I) Brotherly (referring to 
* Brethren ) harmony of minds has the effect of causing the 
things which are taught to be the more readily received; 2 
Cor. vi. 13. He says therefore, " Join yourselves with me in 
my feeling towards Christ." The particle ojg, as, denotes the 
closest union, 1 Kings xxii. 4. xcpyti, I also) viz. am. ug 
&//,%, as you) I consider your loss as my own. dso/j,ai vpuv) I 
beseech you, that you may think as I do. ovd ev ^ fidixfaar?, ye 
have injured me in nothing) He who offends another, or thinks 
that he is offended, stands aloof from him ; but this is not your 
case. Some will say, Had they not offended Paul, by rendering 
his labour among them almost vain? ver. 11. Paul answers: 
I have pardoned this, I do not recall it to My mind. There is 
at the same time a Meiosis [or Litotes, less expressed than is 
intended to be understood], i.e. you have embraced me with the 
kindest affection, ver. 14, 15. 

13. A/ afffavefav) 3//i, on account of, by reason of infirmity. 
Infirmity had not been the cause of his preaching : but yet it 
proved an advantage [an assistance], owing to which Paul 
preached more effectively ; 2 Cor. xii. 9 ; though it might have 
seemed that the Galatians would have been the more easily dis 
posed to reject him on account of it. 

36 GALATIANS IV. 14-17. 

14. Tbv vsfpaff/Aov fjt,ou, my temptation} i.e. me with [i.e. notwith 
standing] my temptation. Holy men, even apostles, in former 
times did not conceal their temptations, as men do now, not even 
in public. sv ry craprJ pov, in my flesli) He mentions Paul in the 
flesh, 2 Cor. xii. 7. ovx e%ovd&vqffare, ye did not despise} through 
natural pride. ovds e%e<7rrveare, nor rejected) through spiritual 
pride, with still greater contempt. There is a distinction 
(1.) In respect to the object, the temptation in the flesh ; 
and these temptations might have seemed worthy of con 
tempt in a twofold way. (2.) In relation to the antithesis, which 
is twofold : 

a) you did not despise [efyvQsvyjffare] me, but as an angel : 
who might be greatly esteemed from the place which he occu 
pies in creation, for he has a most excellent nature, on account 
of which even carnal man cannot but magnify the angels : 

j8) nor rejected [s%s<7rrvffare], but as Christ : this is more from 
a spiritual point of view [His spiritual relation to us]. 
ayycXov, an angel) The flesh, infirmity, even temptation, are un 
known to angels ; wherefore to receive one as an angel, is to re 
ceive him with great veneration. Xf/tfrov, Christ) who is greater 
than the angels. 

15. MaxapHfpbs) Ma/caf>/ov/,k is an expression derived from 
paxapi^u [I congratulate]. You were thankful for [You con 
gratulated yourselves on account of] the Gospel, and for me its 
messenger : what cause was there for this thankfulness [congra 
tulation of yourselves], if you now treat me with disdain I 1 
opOahfAovs, eyes) very dear. 

16. E^pbg, an enemy) He, who speaks the truth, is a friend, 
and truth ought not to produce hatred against him in your 
minds. aX>^g;W, speaking the truth) preaching the pure [un 
mixed] truth, even apart from my former temptation. 

17. Zr^ovffiv, they zea lously affect) They zealously solicit [cajole] 
you. He does not name his rivals. ou xaXug, not well) not 
[being] in Christ, although they seem to do what is good [well]. 
The antithesis is, sv xaXZ, in a good thing, ver. 18. Neither the 

1 iQux.oc.rt pot, you would have given me) You would thus testify a grateful 
mind, on the ground that you obtained so great blessedness through me. 
That spontaneous affection is not to be looked for on the part of any mere 
mercenary. V. g. 

GALATIANS IV. 18, 19. 37 

cause in their case, he says, nor the manner is good. 
fy*&$) exclude you from us, from me. They think, that we shall 
be excluded from you ; but they would not exclude us from you, 
but you from us : IxxXg/fra/, I am disposed to think, is not used 
in the sense, in which the Latins say that chickens are hatched 
(excludi, thrust forth from the shell). 

18. KaXov 8e, but it is good) He advises them not to allow 
themselves to be excluded. rb ^XoDotfa/) After the active he 
uses the middle. It is the duty of Paul in the name of Christ 

2 Cor. xi. 2 : it is the part of the Church, as the bride, 
i, to respond to the ardent love [of the Bridegroom and 
of His minister], to kindle zeal by zeal (see Chrys.), to be zeal 
ous for one another [zelare inter se, to love zealously among 
themselves] ; rb makes an emphatic addition [Epitasis. See Ap 
pend.] ev xaXti, in a good thing) when the matter in hand is 
good, ev rti vrapsTvaiy when I am present, answers to this ; and so 
also vdvrors, always, corresponds to it. The latter is the time 
in general, while the expression, when I am present, is the time 
in particular, and that too modified so as at the same time to 
comprehend the ground of that zeal on their part, viz. that they 
had been able to exult, as they had done, at the presence of 
Paul : the sv xaX is in consonance with sv r& vapsTvai, and may 
be taken with always for one idea, Whensoever any good thing 
is presented in your way, and not merely when I am present. 
ev rti <!rape/vai fte, when I am present) They Ijacl formerly shown 
towards Paul, when present, great earnestness [zeal] of love, 
and had in turn sharpened the zeal of Paul, ver. 15. 

19. Tsxvia povj my little children) A father should be *jXwro, 
i.e. affectionately and zealously honoured by his children. This 
closely agrees with [ver. 17, they zealously affect] you, as de 9 but, 
which occurs in the following verse [ver. 18] shows. Paul ad 
dresses the Galatians, not as a rival, but as a father, comp. 1 
Cor. iv. 15, with authority and the tenderest sympathy towards 
his little children children that were weak and alienated from 
him. The pathetic style often accumulates figurative expres 
sions. Here, however, the figure, derived from the mother, 
prevails. In the note on ^XoDtfda/, conjugal affection (5jXog) 
was assumed from the parallelism. Even in spiritual things, 
love sometimes descends, rather than ascends ; 2 Cor. xii. 15. 

38 GALATIANS IV. 20, 21 

i/, again) &s formerly , ver. 13. udivu, I travail) with the 
utmost affection (zeal) ; 2 Cor. xi. 2 ; accompanied with crying 
[referring to (puvqv, voice ], ver. 20. [ When Paul wrote these very 
words, he exerted himself to the utmost, straining every nerve. 
_ V. g.] He speaks according to the exigencies of the case, for 
in the natural birth, formation precedes the pains of labour. 
ayjic, o5, until) We must not cease to strive. Always is the cor 
relative, ver. 18. fAoppudfy be formed) that you may live nothing 
but Christ, and think nothing but Christ, ii. 20, and His su- 
ferings, death, life, Phil. iii. 10, 11. This is the highest beauty. 
This form is opposed (troi^eiuffsi to worldly formation [the ffroi^eTa 
of the world, ver. 9]. X?/<rroc, Christ) He does not say here 
Jesus, but Christ ; and this too by metonymy of the concrete 
for the abstract. Christ, not Paul, was to be formed in the 
Galatians. kv vpft, in you) Col. i. 27. 

20. AS, but [indeed]) although my presence is not the one and 
only cause which ought to kindleyour zeal. vapeTvai, to be present) 
ver. 18. apn) Now it would be more necessary than formerly ; 
comp. again, ver. 19. dXXaga/) [to change] to accommodate the 
varying tones of the voice to the various feelings. They usually 
do so, who have zeal [are zealously affectionate in entreaties] 
whilst striving to recover the affections, that have been alienated 
from them. He writes mildly, ver. 12, 19, but he would wish 
to speak still more mildly. rr t v (puvqy pov, my voice) The voice 
may be rendered more flexible than writing, according as the 
case demands. The art of speaking occupies the first place, 
that of writing is only vicarious and subsidiary ; 2 John ver. 
12 ; 3 John ver. 13, 14. affopovftai, / stand in doubt) I do not 
find the way of coining in and going out among you. Paul 
aimed at the greatest ease in speaking to the Galatians. He 
accommodated his discourse as much as possible to the dulness 
of the Galatians, with a view to convince them. The doctrine of 
inspiration is not endangered by this fact ; see 1 Cor. vii. 25, note. 

21. Aeysrt poi, tell me) He urges them, as if he were present, 
tell me. ovx dxov&rs ; do ye not hear ?) when it is publicly read. 
You therefore act, as if you heard nothing of Abraham written 
in the law. He has recourse to an allegory only by the force 
of extreme necessity. This is, as it were, a sacred anchor, ver. 

GALAT1ANS IV. 22-24. 39 

22. Tsypanrai, it is written) Gen. xxi. Af3paa/j,, Abraham) 
whose sons you wish to be. 

24. AXXyyopou/Azva) is compounded of a\\og and ayop su, to say ; 
so that an allegory is, when one thing is said, another more ex 
cellent is signified, for example, in mythology ; see Eustathius, 
or at least the index to his work. This scheme will assist the 
comparison : 



Hagar, the Bond-maid : The Free Woman. 

The Son of the Bond-maid : Isaac, the son of the Free 



She who has a husband : The Desolate. 

Those who are from Mount Those who are of the pro- 
Sinai : mise. 

The Mountain (that is now) : She who is upwards (that 

shall be afterwards). 

Jerusalem, which now is : Jerusalem, which is above. 

The Flesh : The Spirit. 


The Mother : brings forth brings forth free-born chil- 

slaves. dren. 

The Offspring, abundant at more abundant afterwards. 

first : 

persecutes : . suffers persecution, 

is cast out : rejoices in the inheritance. 

But the language of Paul is of the most extensive application, so 
that his discourse may comprehend the doctrine both of the Law 
and the Gospel, and the Old and New Dispensations ; and not 
only all these things together in the abstract, but also the 
people belonging to each doctrine and dispensation, as if they 
were two families, with their respective mothers, in the concrete. 


Hence that declaration, Agar is the covenant from Mount Sinai, 
to which we is opposed, ver. 28. Hence, by parity of reasoning, 
the quick passing from the one to the other in the allegory. 
fiia, the one indeed) But (ds), in ver. 26, corresponds to this 
indeed (i^) ; and there follows at ver. 28, express mention of 
the promise, as an antithesis to Sinai or the law ; and the same 
term, promise, swallows up the expression, the other covenant, 
which would seem to be required in the Apodosis. 2/w*, Sinai) 
Therefore Paul chiefly treats of the moral law ; comp. iii. 19 ; 
Heb. xii. 18, etc. t/g doutefav y?wuffa, which gender eth to bondage) 
For she has children, and those too at first numerous. %ng, 
which) The predicate. Hagar is the subject, 1 if the enuncia 
tion be considered within the context ; on the other hand, with 
out the context, it is the predicate, as is the case in the alle 
gorical discourse, Matt. xiii. 37, 38. 

25. To yap 2/v Zpo$, /c.r.X., for Sinai is a mountain in Arabia, 
and [but] ansiuereth to Jerusalem that now is, for it is in bondage 
with her children) Hagar, ver. 24, and Isaac, ver. 28, are opposed 
to each other, where we must observe, that Hagar is mentioned 
by her own name, not so Sarah ; arid yet Isaac is named, whilst 
Ishmael is not ; inasmuch as the child follows [and is included 
under] the mother, a bond-maid ; but the son of the free woman 
is distinguished [is taken into account] by his own name. Thus 
the introduction of Hagar in this section stands on a clear and 
well-defined footing. In the meantime, the covenant from 
Mount Sinai, and the promise, are opposed to each other in ver. 
24 and 28; in like manner, at ver. 25 and 26, Jerusalem that 
now is, and Jerusalem above. Some consider these words, 2/v 
opo$ scriv sv Tjj Afa/3/a, which are found in all the copies, as a 
gloss ; but they are wrong. For thus Paul s argument is 
weakened, when he brings forward the bondage engendered 
from Mount Sinai [as answering] to that of Jerusalem, which 
now is ; ver. 24, 25. Proper copies, quoted in the Apparatus, 
and rb, the neuter gender of the article, show, that the word 
ttagar rather was brought from ver. 24 to ver. 25; for Hagar 
is feminine, but Sinai is neuter. 2 Nor do those words, for she is 

1 Beng. thus translates it, " Which Hagar is," not " Which is Hagar." 

2 Hence the omission of the word "Ayap in this verse, not so much approved 


in bondage with her children, require Ha gar to be mentioned : 
For [wit/i] her is to be referred, as not to Sinai in the neuter, 
so much the less to Hagar ^ but to Jerusalem which now is. The 
former (Hagar) had a son, but the latter (Jerusalem) had sons. 
These remarks relate to the whole passage ; we shall now ob 
serve some things on each portion in detail. 2/va o/?oc, Sinai, a 
mountain) Ver. 24 has from the Mount Sinai ; now the order of 
the words is changed \_Sinai going before mount here ; but mount 
before Sinai in ver. 24] (comp. Eph. ii. 1, note). In the former 
passage, more regard is had to the mountain, inasmuch as it was 
upon it that the law was given, whatever name it might have 
[the name Sinai not being taken into account there] ; after 
wards, it is rather considered as Sinai [the name Sinai being 
the prominent idea], a mountain in Arabia. ffuffroi^sT ds) de, and 
yet [but], although it is in Arabia ; ffvffroi^sTv is used of that 
which agrees with something else in a comparison. This agree 
ment is evident in itself, for it is one and the same people that 
received the law on Mount Sinai, and that inhabit the city of 
Jerusalem ; and the people at both periods stand on the same 
footing. 1 It is to be added, that Sinai and Jerusalem were 
nearly under the same meridian, and were united with slight 
interruption almost by the same chain of mountains. rjj v\jv, that 
now is) The antithesis is, that is above. vvv, now, refers to time, 
above to place ; the antithesis of either must be supplied from 
the other in the semiduplex 2 oratio. The Jerusalem which is 
present ["that now is"], and earthly; the Jerusalem which is 

of on the margin of the larger Ed., is reckoned among the fixed readings by 
the margin of the 2d Ed., in which the Germ.^Vers. concurs. But the things 
deserve to be compared which Michaelis has in der Einleitung, T. i. p. m. 
646, where he shows that Hagar in the Arabic idiom denotes a rock, and there 
fore the words ro"Ayotp 2/K opos svTtv tv ry Apotfiia, ought to be thus trans 
lated : "The word Hagar signifies in Arabic the Mount Sinai." E. B. 

Lachm. read To yap 2/v with CG0r Vulg., omitting "Ayap: Tischend., 
To yoip "Ayetp 2/i>, with both Syr. Versions and Rec. Text. B also has 
To "Ayxp. AD(A) Memph. read TO "Ayetp. ED. 

1 " Eadem populi utroque tempore ratio." What holds good of the 
people at the one time, holds good of them at the other, as to their status 
and principles. ED. 

2 See App. An abbreviated mode of expression, when two members of a 
sentence stand in such a relation, that each needs to supply some words from 
the other. ED. 

42 GALATIANS IV. 26-29. 

above, and eternal. The expression, which is above, is said with 
the greater propriety on this account, that it alludes to the 
higher and nobler part of Jerusalem, and rises above Mount 
Sinai : and the Jerusalem which is above, inasmuch as she is 
already our mother, could not be suitably spoken of as future 
[as that which is about to be, in antithesis to the Jerusalem that 
now is ] ; not only is she future [" about to be," as regards the 
future], but also more ancient [as regards the past], than jj vvv, 
[the Jerusalem] which now is, inasmuch as the latter has not 
existed for a long period, nor will it exist in time to come. 
&>yXsue/, is in bondage) As Hagar was in bondage to her mistress, 
so Jerusalem, that now is, is in bondage to the law, and also to 
the Romans, her civil state thus being in accordance with her 
spiritual state. 

26. *H 62 avu, but she who is above) Heb. xii. 22 ; Rev. xxi. 
sXevdepa, free) as Sarah was. ring, who) Jerusalem. wrrtp, 
mother) The ancients said of their own Rome : Rome is our 
common father-land. ndvruv, of all) as many as there are of us. 
To this refer the many [children] in the following verse. 

27. rsypflwrra/, it is written) Is. liv. i. svtppdvQqri, rejoice) with 
singing. ffrefya, barren) Sion, Jerusalem above. p^ov, break 
forth) into crying. xai j36r,cov, and shout) for joy. r^c, sp^ov, 
of the desolate) i.e. The New Testament Church, collected for 
the most part from the Gentiles, who had not [answering to rJjg 
epqpov) the desolate ] the promise ; and as this New Testament 
Church was made up of those who heretofore were seen to have 
had no such aims, it is called " not bearing," " not travailing," 
rrig %ouff?2, than she who hath) the Jewish Church. 

28. Kara itfaax, [as] after the similitude of Isaac). Icray/sX/as, 
of the promise) ver. 23 sapev) we are, and ought to wish to be 
so, ver. 31. 

29. E&/MXI, persecuted) wantonly, Gen. xxi. 9. Persecution 
is the work of carnal, not of spiritual men. [Take care lest you 
esteem it of little importance, whatever is done against the children 
of the free woman. V. g.] rbv xa,r& wvsvpa) viz. yevvqQ evraj him 
who was born after the Spirit. Paul, having the Apodosis in his 
mind, so frames his discourse respecting Ishmael and Isaac as to 
apply it to carnal men and believers. Where the Spirit is, there 
is liberty. 

GALATIANS IV. 30, 31. -V. 1. 43 

30. *H ypapn, the /Scripture) Sarah [said], concerning Isaac 
[literally] ; the Scripture [saith so] by allegory. exjS^Xe, cast 
out) from the house and the inheritance. rqv vaidlffxyv xai rbv u/ov 
avrqs, the bond-maid and her son) The servile condition of itself 
deserves expulsion ; but persecution [on the part of the bond 
servant] against spiritual sons furnishes a handle for putting the 
punishment in execution. ov yap py ftfajpoiup^d*}, for he shall not 
be heir) Sarah looks to the Divine appointment regarding Isaac 
as the one and only heir, although Ishmael also had been cir 

31 - 1 Trig sXsv&spag, of the free) In the liberty follows. An An- 
adiplosis. 2 


1. Ty eXevfapicf, ffrqKire, stand fast in the liberty) The short 
clause, wherewith Christ has made us free, has the force of aetio 
logy, or assigning the reason. Liberty, and slavery (bondage), 
are antithetic. It is without any connecting particle, iii. 13 : 
rfi eXevfapfcfr [by virtue of the] liberty, is emphatically put with 
out sv, in : liberty itself confers the power of standing. HXsuds- 
puffe signifies has rendered free, and J coheres with free [rather 
than with the rendered^ : stand, erect, without a yoke. irdX/v, 
again) ch. iv. 9, note. Q>y$ dovteiae, with the yoke of bondage) 
This expression is applied, not merely to the circumcision which 
was given to Abraham as the sign of the promise, but to circum 
cision as connected with the whole law, given long after on 
Mount Sinai, ch. iv. 24, iii. 17. For the Jews had been accus 
tomed to look upon circumcision rather as a part of the law 
received by Moses, than as the sign of the promise given to 
Abraham, John vii. 22. Nor was circumcision so much a yoke 

1 Ovx, iapev, we are not, i.e. we neither ought nor wish to be. V. g. 

2 See A pp. The repetition of the same word in the end of the preceding 
and in the beginning of the following member. Here the 7% thsvOspac at 
the end of this ver., and the conjugate word Tj? s^v^eptef at the beginning of 
ch. v. 1, constitutes the Anadiplosis. ED. 

44 GALAT1ANS V. 2-5. 

in itself, as it was made a yoke by the law ; and the law itself 
was much more a yoke. Therefore Paul, by a weighty meto 
nymy, puts the consequent for the antecedent : Be not circum 
cised, for he who is circumcised, along with this part of it, comes 
under the whole law, and revolts from Christ, ver. 2-4. Nor 
does the apostle oppose Christ so immediately to circumcision as 
he does to the law. He speaks according to their perverse 
custom, while he refutes their Galatism and Judaism ; and yet 
he does not at all deviate from the truth. Peter also, Acts xv. 
10, calls it a yoke. evs^sffde) evs-yj^ai, in the middle voice, / 
hold fast by, obstinately. That passage in Xiphil. in Epit. Dion, 
concerning a pole fixed in the ground, and which cannot be 
pulled out, shows the import of the word : sv rfi yfi ?vsff%sro, ugffp 
e/jwrspvxus, "it held a fast hold in the earth, as if it had grown 

2. Eav tfspirs/jsvqffQs, if ye be circumcised) This should be pro 
nounced with great force. They were being circumcised, as 
persons who were seeking righteousness in the law, ver. 4. 
ovdev, nothing) ch. ii. 21. 

3. OpsiXsrr, , a debtor) Endangering salvation. oXov, the whole) 
A task which he will never be able to perform. 

4. Karr l f> yr / dr l rs a^b rot Xpirtrov [Engl. Vers. Christ is become of 
no effect^) Your connection witli Christ is made void: so the Vul 
gate. 1 One might be inclined to say in German, ohne werden, 
" to become without." Comp. ver. 2 ; Rom. vii. 2, 6. dixaiovfffa, 
are justified) Seek righteousness. In the middle voice. rqs 
^dpirog e!*<7rsffars, ye have fallen from grace) Comp. ver. 3. You 
have fallen from the New Testament, in all the wide compre 
hension of that expression. It is we that are and stand in grace, 
rather than grace is in us ; comp. Rom. v. 2. 

5. H^g/g /dp, for we) I and all the brethren, and as many of us 
as are in Christ. Let those, who differ from us, keep their views 
to themselves. crveu^ar/, in the spirit of grace) Without circum 
cision, etc. l/c xigrsus) from the faith of Christ ; comp. the pre 
ceding verse. l\-~iba 8ixonoc{jv^S) hope of righteousness) Righteous 
ness is now present ; and that aifords us hope, for the time to 

1 " Evacuati estis a Christo." Wahl renders it, <( divelli et prorsus dimo- 
veri a Christo," to be torn off and utterly parted asunder from Christ. 
Comp. aot-T /ip /riTau aTro rov vo^bV) Rom. vii. 2. ED. 

GALATTANS V. 6-8. 45 

come. Rom. v. 4, 5. a^^b^d^a) We wait for, and obtain by 
waiting for it. A double compound. Paul includes and con 
firms present things, while he mentions those that are future. 

6. I0%u6/) prevails, avails. The same word occurs, Matt. v. 
13; James v. 16. ovrs at,xpo@v<Jria>, nor uncircumcision) This re 
fers to those who, if they regard themselves as free from the 
law, think that they are Christians on that account alone. tfiffns 
di ayaxris svtpyovf&svfy faith working by love) This is the new 
creature ; vi. 15. He joined hope with faith ; now he joins with 
it love. In these the whole of Christianity [the being in Christ] 
consists; evepyovfAevq is not passive, but middle, 1 Thess. ii. 13 ; 
nor does Paul put love as a form of faith, but shows that, along 
with faith, nothing else than love remains, ver. 13, 14 ; in which 
very truth, however, he teaches the same thing as James, ii. 22. 
Faith is recommended to those who defend circumcision ; love, 
to those who think that uncircumcision is [avails] something, 
[that they may be reminded that the law is not set aside by faith, 
but confirmed. V. g.] Love is opposed to the enmities which 
prevailed so virulently among the Galatians : ver. 13, 15, 20, 
26. Those seeking justification by ivorks are at a very great 
distance from love. The Spirit is a Spirit of faith and love* 


7. Erps^srs xa\Z>$, ye did run well) in the race of faith, as 
your calling required, ver. 8 ; comp. Phil. iii. 14. This implies 
greater activity than to walk. He again comes to arguments 
calculated to conciliate and move the feelings. ri$, ivho) no one, 
to whom you ought to have listened. So, who, iii. 1. Jvsxo-4/s, 
hindered) in running. 

8. H wff/j,ovri) Most commentators interpret it persuasion, 
also with the addition of this, that, or your [ha3c, ista, vestra], 
according to the testimony of Lubinus on this passage. Comp. 
Clirysost. This word very rarely occurs, and Eustathius alone, 
as I can find, has it at Odyss. %., where he shows that " tfg/ir^a 
and ireigpovJi are said respecting those that start difficulties and 
set themselves in the way [r/ ruv evffranxuv stubborn, obsti 
nate persons], and are figuratively taken from the cables 
[*tf6p&ruv]j that is, the hawsers used in ships." But a pertina 
cious and obstinate man is given to starting difficulties [is 

; and therefore that man has vetffftovw, self-confidence, 

46 GALATIANS V. 9-1 i. 

who, having left off running, svs^srai, holds fast to [the law] 
obstinately, and who persuades and trusts to himself alone, and 
does not obey [^si&srai] another, ver. 1, 7 ; and in this way w 
veiOeaQa/, and } nziffpovri, and irtKoiGa, form an Antanaclasis, 1 a 
figure, which is frequently used both by Paul, as many con 
stantly observe, and by the other sacred writers, as Glassius 
well demonstrates. Whether it be a metaphor or not, at least 
this verbal noun, like other nouns in-o^, is intransitive 2 [not 
a persuading of others, but a persuasion in one s self], oux, not) 
supply is ; is not of (God), who called you, but from a power 
truly hostile ; and there is subjoined a metonymy of the abstract 
for the concrete, as appears from the previous word, who, not 
what. %a\ovvro$) ivho called you ; comp. ver. 13, you have been 
called. So 1 Thess. v. 24 ; comp. Phil. iii. 14. The calling is 
the rule of the whole race. 

9. Mixpa u,a>j, a little leaven) One turbulent person, ver. 10. 
[One wicked man destroys much good, Eccles. ix. 18. The malice, 
cunning, or violence of a single person, often produces immense in 
jury. V. g.] 

10. "AXXo, different) from what ["none otherwise minded" 
than as] I write. (ppovfasre, you will think) when you read these 
things; comp. Phil. iii. 15. 6 8e, but he who) A distinction is 
drawn hereby between the seducer, of whom there is less hope, 
and the seduced. rapacauv xpi/Aa, offrig, troubleth judgment, 
whosoever) ch. i. 7, 8. /3a<rra<rs/, will bear) as a heavy burden. 
rb xpipa, the judgment) which certainly hangs over him for so 
great a crime. The article gives force to the meaning. oor/g 
av y, whosoever he may be) The disturber among the Galatians 
was a clandestine one. fang, whosoever, of whatsoever cha 

11. 3 "Er/) still [as yet], ch. i. 10. x^tWw, I preach) Hence 

1 See App. When a word is put twice in the same passage in a double 

2 Wahl notices the paronomasia in the words KtiQeaQau and Trtia^ovvj. He 
gives the latter word a transitive meaning, Studium persuadendi aliis ea quae 
nobis placent et probantur The desire to persuade others of what pleases 
ourselves and meets our approval. ( Ueberredungskunst. ED. 

i This particle in the larger Ed. is reckoned rather as an uncertain read 
ing, but by the margin o/the 2d Ed it is considered among the more certain, 

GALATIANS V. 12. 47 

we gather what had been said by this turbulent person, " that 
Paul himself preached circumcision ;" and perhaps he took as 
a pretext the circumcision of Timothy ; and yet the reason for 
his having done so in the case of the latter, a long while back, 
was quite different [from the grounds on which it was advocated 
by the disturber]. 3/wxo/o.a/, / suffer persecution) They perse 
cuted Paul, because he did away with circumcision. It was now a 
useless rite, which, if Paul would have conceded to his opponents, 
there would have been immediate peace ; but he did not yield. 
See how keenly the truth should be defended. /?, then) If I 
were to preach circumcision, he says, there would at present be 
no offence of the Cross ; but the offence still burns hotly. There 
fore it is a false assertion, that I am a preacher of circumcision. 
<rxav<5aXov, an offence) among carnal men. roD <rraupoD, of the 
Cross) the power of which is inconsistent with circumcision ; 
ch. vi. 12, 14. The Cross of Christ itself is intended. There 
was a great blending together of Jews and Judaizers. Many 
more easily endured the preaching of the Cross of Christ, by 
mixing it up with circumcision and the preaching of circumci 
sion. They thus still retained something. 

12. 9 Airoxo-fyovrai, shall be cut off) Immediately after the re 
proof concerning the past, Paul entertains [and expresses] good 
hope of the Galatians for the future ; but he denounces punish 
ment against the seducers in two sentences, which, by disjoin 
ing in the meantime the particle opfXov, are as follows : 6 ds 
rapdfftfMV vf/^ac (Baffraffsi rb xp/ /^a, x.r.X., xai a-roxo-vj/oyra/ 01 avaffra- 
rovvrsg v(j,$.g. That one concealed troubler, worse than the 
others, ver. 10, who boasted that Paul himself agreed with him 
about circumcision, is here, cursorily in passing, refuted, ver. 
1 1 ; but the others also, who are disturbing the Galatians about 
the status of the Gospel [in relation to circumcision and the 
law], are threatened with being cut off. Thus the particle xa/, 
and, retains its natural meaning, and these words cohere, 
ftaffraffst oe xa/ avoxo-^ovrat, as well as those, ytpmre ds xa/ 
1 Cor. v. 12, 13: atfoxo-^ovrai is the future middle, 

and therefore also in the Germ. Vers. It is twice expressed in this verse. 
E. B. 

D corrected later, Gfg, omit &/. But AB Vulg. and Rec. Text retain it. 
C has efn. ED. 

48 GALATIANS V. 12. 

which, as often happens, so here, has a passive signification : it 
corresponds to the Hebrew word JVO, and is a conjugate of the 
verb JyxoflTg/v, ver. 7. Either the whole, when a part is cut off 
[the whole has the part cut q/f], or a part cut. off from the whole, 
is said respectively affoxotfrsffQai. Some ascribe the former sense 
in this passage to the zeal of the apostle, so that the mutilation 
of the body of the circumcised [viz. by taking away not merely 
the foreskin, but the whole member] may be denoted ; and, in 
deed, the LXX. often translate JTD by xoVr-w, a-roxocrw, etc., 
especially Dent, xxiii. (1) 2, where a-roxsxo/^evos is used for that, 
which the French here translate more than circumcised; but we 
can scarcely receive what is said by the apostle but by metony 
my, i.e., that as persons cut off they may be debarred from the 
Church. Deut. as above. The second sense is more consistent 
with the gravity of the apostle, that he should speak thus : As 
the prepuce is cut off by circumcision, as a thing which it be 
comes an Israelite to want, so those shall be cut off, as a worth 
less prepuce, from the communion of the saints, and shall be 
accursed (anathema) : ch. i. 7, and following verses. With a 
similar reference to circumcision, Paul, Phil. iii. 2, speaks of 
xararo/tTiv, concision; nor is it altogether foreign to the subject, 
what Apollon. in Philostr. v. 11, says of the Jews, already of 
old time, they not only cut themselves off from the Romans, but 
also from all men. Now, what is to be done with the particle 
opsXov? Most construe opeXov not,) airoxo^ovrai ; but o peXov, though 
it is a particle of sufficiently frequent occurrence, is nowhere to 
be found construed with the future of the indicative. The Com- 
plutensian Edition acknowledging this fact, to avoid this difficulty, 
have given d-roxo 4/wvra/ ; but it is unsupported by the copies. 1 
There are many imprecations in the sacred writings, and this 
word o pgXev is not used in any of their formulae : nor would 
Paul in this passage, after a categorical (unconditional) denun 
ciation, finally make war by a prayer against the disturbers of 
the peace. 2r/y/^, the point, is put after o pgXov in the sixth Au 
gustan. I think it will be found so in many MSS., if philologers 
would notice such things ; for the comma is certainly in some 

1 Bong, errs in this. D(A)G support d^ox.o^/avreti : and fg Vulg. have 
abscindantur. But ABC, the weightiest authorities, have dirox 
the difficulty of explaining which gave birth to d-Troxo-^avTcti. ED. 

GALATIANS V. 13-15. 49 

ancient editions, especially in that of Basle, 1545. Nay, o<pzXoi> 
may be very conveniently connected with the preceding words : 
apa xar^py^rai TO dKa\iba\ov rov ffravpov ; o<ps\ov, was then the offence 
of the Cross taken away? I wish it were. "Of?Aov is subjoined 
in reference to a thing desirable (such as is also noticed 1 Cor. 
iv. 8), as pn yevoiro, iii. 21, is used in reference to a matter by 
no means pleasant ; and as sTev among the Greeks in cases of 
concession, or esto among the Latins. And, as in ch. ii. 17, after 
apa is put pi] ysvoiro, so here, after apa is put opsXov. I wish 
that the Cross were a scandal to no one / wish that all, along with 
Paul, may hereafter glory in the Cross, ch. vi.14, 15. 01 avaerowre; 
Ifj^ag) The same word as at Acts xvii. 6. It denotes, to remove 
a man entirely from the station which he occupies. 

13. !>%, ye) So far am I from preaching circumcision, that I 
would rather show you liberty. sie sXtvfepia, [unto~\ concerning 1 
liberty) that you might rejoice in liberty. Your calling is not 
to KsifffAovqv, self-imposed restraints, but to liberty. povov i*n) An 
ellipsis of the imperative, having the svXafisiav, pious precaution, 
subjoined, {&6vov /&% eXsud&poi TJT& rqv iXzudspiav, /c.^-.X., only ye were 
not made free with this freedom, etc. [for an occasion to the flesh] : 
or else the accusative, rfo eXsvfcptav, is put absolutely. upopjAqv, 
an occasion) for which tliQ flesh is eager. ry capKi, to the flesh) 
ver. 16, 17. dia rJjg dycwnjs, by love) ver. 14, 22. foutebsre, serve) 
A beautiful antithesis. 2 

14. HXypourai, is fulfilled) Rom. xiii. 9, note. 

15. At, but) The opposite of the service to be rendered by 
love. daKv&rs, ye bite) [backbite] in reference to character. 
xarstr&isre, devour) in regard to possessions [resources]. -avaXu- 
QrjTs, be consumed) strength of soul, health of body, character, 
and resources, are consumed by broils and sorrows. \_AIi ! how 
lamentable the extraordinary number of those, of whom the one 
cuts off the life of the other. Men of harsher disposition, careless 
and unthinking, consume others those of softer disposition, silently 
swallow down (suppress the expression of) their anxiety, and die 
prematurely. V. g.] 

1 " Super libertate." With respect to, with a mew to a state of liberty. 

2 If you will have the bondage of service, then serve one another : in anti 
thesis to ttevtifpioi!/. ED. 


50 GALATIANS V. 16-19, 

16. Asyu 8s, but I say) He goes on to explain what he pro 
posed at ver. 13. irvevpari, in the Spirit) See [ver. 18, 22, 25, 
ch. vi. 18] Rom. viii. 4, note. ov f&$ rsXs^rg) ye shall not 

17. To ds Kvevpa) and, on the other handy the Spirit against the 
flesh. The word etnOvpsT itself, or, inasmuch as that word is 
taken in a bad sense, another analogous to it [not lusteth, but 
desireth, tendeth] is to be supplied. There is certainly an ele 
gance in the ellipsis or zeugma [use of emOvfis? in the double 
sense]. avr/xs/ra/, are contrary) am^rpay/a, in a mutual serious 
contest. a &v y whatsoever) Carnal men do whatsoever they will; 
although sometimes the flesh wars with the flesh. In regard to 
those who repent, their condition is different, and that too a 
wonderful condition ; for the Spirit strives against the flesh, and 
its bad course of action : the flesh against the Spirit, and 
its good course of action ; so that (/Va) neither the one nor the 
other can be fully carried out. In such a state, as being doubt 
ful, many bad and many good actions are prevented ; but where 
the Spirit conquers, ver. 18, the issue of the conflict is decided. 
This more summary statement in some measure corresponds to 
those things, which are fully explained, Rom. vii. 14, etc. ; 
although, in the present case, the state presupposed is rather one 
already spiritual. 

18. Uvsvpari, by the Spirit) of God, Rom. viii. 14, and of 
liberty. aysaQe, ye be led) The middle voice ; x see Rom., as 
above, with the annot. virb VO/AOV, under the law) Rom. vi. 
14, 15. 

19. Qavspa, &, now manifest) The flesh concealed betrays it 
self by its own works, so that its discovery is easy. ra spy a, 
the ivorks) unfruitful [as opposed to " the fruit of the Spirit," 
ver. 22], The works, in the plural, because they are divided 
and are often at variance with one another, and even severally 
[taken each one by itself] betray the flesh. But the fruit, being 
good, ver. 22, is in the singular, because it is united and har 
monious. Comp. Eph. v. 11, 9. anva, which) He enumerates 
those works of the flesh, to which the Galatians were most prone ; 
on the other hand, also those parts of the fruit of the Spirit, 

1 Ye give yourselves up to the leading of. ED. 

GALATIANS V. 20-22. 51 

which needed to be most recommended to them ; comp. ver. 15. 
He maintains this order, that he may enumerate the sins com 
mitted with our neighbour, those against God, those against our 
neighbour, and those in regard to ourselves ; and to this order 
the enumeration of the fruit of the Spirit corresponds, axa- 
Qapria, arfsXys/a, uncleanness, lasciviousness) 2 Cor. xii. 21, note. 

20. Oaftaaxs/a) See LXX., Exod. vii. 11, and in many other 
passages. That Paul is not speaking here of natural poisoning 
by potions, but of magic, is evident from this, that he joins it 
not with murder, but with idolatry. Comp. Rev. xxi. 8, note. 
<5ro<rra<j7a/, seditions} respecting civil affairs. atpefcis, heresies) 
respecting sacred things : 1 Cor. xi. 19. 

20, 21. ZyXoi pdovoiy emulations [jealousies] envyings) Both 
emulation [jealousy] and envy are dissatisfied with the advan 
tages enjoyed by another ; emulation [jealousy], for the sake of 
the man s own advantage ; envy, even without any advantage to 
the person himself. spifeTai) This differs from epsig : ipig, Hader, 
quarrel, dispute ; spifafa, Triitz, brawling, defiance. tpiQtia, im 
plies a wish to be greater, epi$ wishes at least not to be less. 1 
wpoteyu, 1 tell you before) before the event. fytft, to you) The 
maintainers of justification by works are often careless. 2 

22. 3 A/OCTTJ, love) It is this grace, as the leader, that 4 intro 
duces the family. Fewer words are used with respect to what 
is good, because good is more simple, and one virtue often has 
many things contrary to it ; comp. Eph. iv. 31. %pa, joy) 
concerning things that are good. ^pjjoronjs, aya&uffvvq) differ. 5 

1 Engl. Vers. renders it weakly strife, and epis previously (or Ijoe/^Bec. Text 
in oppos. to AB), variance. Wahl derives eptOeta from eptfas, a man who 
does bodily work for pay : and explains it, the utmost envy shut up in the 
breast, and a proneness to scheming plots. Here spiOeiott will thus be factions, 
and the bad artifices of the factious. ED. 

2 roc. rotoivTot,, such things) If any man is guilty, not indeed of all those 
things, but at least of some or one of them, he has lost the kingdom of God. 

-v. g . 

3 C O x.a.pirog, the fruit) Singular, not plural. The works of the flesh are 
many, and these, too, scattered ; the fruit of the Spirit constitutes an entire 
whole, and that, too, united. V. g. 

4 Or else, " With this Grace as the leader Paul introduces the family." 

5 Jerome, Comm. ad Oal. v. 22, explains wwnvrw as Benignity concilia 
tory towards others : but u.yu,$u<jvvv\ as goodness, which, though ready to do 

52 GALATIANS V. 23-26. 

Xfqffrorqs is rather to be referred to another, ayaQuffvvq, goodness, 
as it were pouring out, viz. spontaneously. m<rn$) roitf, con 
sistency [steadiness], fidelity, to which are opposed seditions and 
heresies. Weigh well also the order of the words. 

23. Tuv roiovruv, against such [persons]) This is the same, as 
if he had added, after temperance, the expression, and things 
similar to these ; although the very w r ant of the copulative con 
junction [the asyndeton] has this force, Matt. xv. 19, note : 
ruv TOIO-JTUV is in the masculine ; with which comp. ver. 18, 21, 
at the end ; where tpaffffovrsg is added, which is now as it were 
compensated for by roiovruv [such persons] : 1 Tim. i. 9, 10, at 
the beginning. ovx sffri v6/tog, there is no law) The law itself 
commands love. [And therefore the kingdom of God is judged 
not to be unworthy of such persons. V. g.] 

24. O/ 8s ro\j XpitfroZ, Moreover they icho are Christ s) He re 
sumes the proposition laid clown at ver. 18. rrjv ffdpxa, the flesh) 
of which ver. 19, 20. -sffruvpuaav, have crucified) They do so 
with Christ^ Rom. vi. 6, by having received baptism and faith. 
They have it crucified at present [they have the flesh now in a 
state of crucifixion]. Supply, and the Spirit is strong within 
them. This is included in ver. 24 from ver. 22. vaQwaai, 
with the passions) The lusts spring from the passions., and are 
nourished by them. The affections and appetites both deserve 
the same punishment as the flesh. [The passions are those that 
are violent, boisterous, and outrageous. The lusts, on the con 
trary^ calmly seek after ivhat is calculated to minister food to the 
senses. V. g.] 

25. E/ , if) He returns to exhortation ; Walk, he said at ver. 
16, now, ffroixupev, let us tcalk. From the beginning of the 
spiritual life, the walk which is 6 Kara crofyov, i.e. -/.ara rafyv, a 
walk in due order or regularity (says Eustathius), ought to be 
maintained. Comp. concerning the wicked, Col. iii. 7. <rro/;/- 
usv, let us walk) The same word occurs, vi. 16. {They live in 
the Spirit, are moved (by the Spirit), and are spiritual- -V. g.] 

26. My yivui/A&Oa, let us not become [Engl. Vers., not so well, 
le]) Those who do not carefully w^alk in the Spirit, fall in the 
next place into the desire of vain-glory, of which two effects are 

good to others, is not of such a winning aspect and of such sweetness of 
manner as xpwrtTw. Comp, w/os xpwrog, Matt. xi. 30. E. 


here mentioned. xevodo^oi) See Chrys. de Sacerd. 1 587. 
vpoxaXovpivoi, provoking) to envy. The relative exists on the part 
of [has reference to] the stronger. pQovowres, envying) The 
correlative exists on the part of [has reference to] the weaker. 


1. A(5sXpo/, brethren) An admonition peculiarly suited to the 
Galatians now follows. lav xat, if even) He who provokes, often 
considers another as the person provoking ; but if another has 
been really overtaken in a fault, still we ought not to consider 
ourselves provoked, but rather to consult [to have regard to] the 
benefit of the other : lav xai denotes a thing easy to occur, but not 
of too frequent occurrence with spiritual persons. cjy>oXjjp05j, has 
been overtaken) The passive, as well as the appellation, man, re 
fers to the procuring of pardon ; but the preposition Kpo, before 
[the over in overtaken], is to be referred either to the offence, 
comp. Wisd. xvii. 17, irpQ\q<p&tiS) or rather to the party injured, 
so that he is said to have been overtaken [first taken, i.e. before 
we injured him without our injuring him] who, without re 
ceiving any injury, has injured us. As Herodian says, I. 5, rot)g 
, those who have been formerly benefactors. 
in some fault) for example, vain-glory, v. 26 : 
or a return to legal bondage ; comp. the (r& auruv *a,pct#rju(4ttft) 
through their fall [i.e. the Jews fall into legal bondage, and 
consequent rejection of Jesus], Rom. xi. II, 12. o/ Kv&v^ariKoi) 
you, who are strong in the Spirit, and watchfully observe that fall. 
So, the strong, Rom. xv. 1. This agrees with in the Spirit, 
which immediately after occurs (comp. ch. v. 25). xarapri^srz) 
restore him, as a member of the Church. All, who can, should 

1 What then, says he, is the food of those wild beasts ? (he means the 
affections of the soul) : the food of vain-glory (x?o3o/?) is honour and praise ; 
and of folly (dTrovotot^, the greatness of power and authority ; and of envy 
(/3otffx,stvtot,g), the celebrity of our neighbours ; of avarice, the ambition of 
those who supply the occasions ; of licentiousness, luxury, and the perpetual 
intercourse with women and the one is the food of the other. E. B. 

54 GALATIANS VI. 2-4. 

assist. npqorrirog, of meekness) In this is the power of curing: 
this is the pre-eminent characteristic of the spiritual man [comp. 
ch. v. 22]. ffjiortuv, looking) The singular after the plural. 
Everv one ought to attend to himself. *a/ en), tliou also) When 
one is tempted, another is easily tempted ; especially if he wishes 
to cure another, and does not maintain meekness. -TrtipaffQyi;, thou 
mayest be tempted) in the same or in some other way. 

2. Ta (Sdpy, burdens) Eveiy fault is indeed a burden : in ver. 5, 
<popriov ; popriov is a burden proportioned to the strength of him 
who bears it ; ftdpri are burdens which exceed his strength. 
fiaardfyrs, bear) constantly and steadily : do not give your help 
once and no more. xa/ ourwg ava^Xjjpwtfarg, and thus fulfil) [ad- 
implete]. The imperative, including the future of the indica 
tive, as John vii. 37 : ava presupposes some defect to be made 
good [or, to be repaired^ by the Gralatians. rbv vo/uov rou Xp/trroD, 
the law of Christ) A rare appellation ; comp. John xiii. 34 ; 
Rom. xv. 3. The law of Christ is the law of love. Moses has 
many other precepts. These words, burdens and the law, involve 
a Mimesis 1 in reference to the Gralatians, who were eagerly trying 
to come under the burden of the laiv. 

3. Aoxs/ sTvai r/, seems to be something) in the Spirit. Who 
ever does not think himself to be something, he and he alone 
bears the burdens of others. 

4. To 8s spyov, but his own ivork) Again by anticipation another 
extreme is obviated, lest, whilst assisting others, we should forget 
ourselves. ipyov) a real work, not a mere opinion concerning 
one s self. s/g eavrbv /AOVOV, in regard to himself alone) Many, 
while they compare themselves with others, who seem to be in 
ferior to them, are apt to glory : therefore Paul dissuades them 
from this comparison. We should not even glory over our own 
good qualities and deeds ; much less over the vices of others, 
from which we are free. While he excludes glory from the 
latter, he seems to concede glorying over the former ; but the 
concession is not great, for the proving of a man s own concerns 
will at once start many objections, by which glorying will ne 
cessarily be diminished : moreover, presently after he speaks not 

1 See App. An allusion to the opinions or words of him whom you wish 
to correct. ED. 

GALATIANS VI. 5~7. 55 

of glorying, but of popnov, a burden. Nay, the very word glory 
ing, used by Mimesis, 1 at the same time includes the contrary. 
rb xav^r^a, glorying) that, by which he says : I am something. 
fgg/, shall have) he himself being judge. 

5. Qoprlov, a burden) either heavy or light. Comp. pdpy, 
ver. 2. Gaaraffsi, shall bear) in the Divine judgment. The 
future, the antithesis to which is in the present [Bear ye] in 
ver. 2. There is however a " semiduplex oratio" in these words, 
so that the one is simultaneously indicated by the other. 2 Glo 
rying is used as an " ad hominem" argument, because the other 
exhibits [shows on his part] false glorying : this is taken away 
from him, and the peculiar testimony of a good conscience is 
also in the meantime called glorying, in the way of paraphrase. 

6. Koivuveiru ds, but let him communicate) [The connection is 
this :] Paul means to say, When I said [Every man shall bear] 
his own burden, that should not be turned to an argument for 
the diminution of your liberality, xoivuvw, just in the same 
way as the Latin participo, includes the idea both of receiving 
and giving a share ; here, the idea is of giving, as in Phil. iv. 
15, very elegantly. !i> iraeiv ayaQofg, in all good things) in every 
kind of resources, as the occasion may require [as the case 
may be]. 

7. &sbg ov {jwKrrjpi^zrai) The verb is in the middle voice. God 
does not permit empty promises to be made to Him [empty words 
to be imposed on Him : lit. smoke to be sold to Him, " Sibi fumos 
vendi"]. The expression, which is by no means common, 3 
seems to allude to the LXX., and indeed to Prov. xii. 8, vudpoKap- 
dio$ ftuKrypifyrai, so that the meaning is : God is not vuQpoxdpdiog, 
slow of understanding [like the man in Proverbs], but judges 
truly, and does not keep silence without a purpose, or for ever ; 
Ps. 1. 21. They endeavour to mock Him, who think thus: I 
will sow to the flesh, and yet I will persuade God to give me 
the harvest of life. 6 sdv, whatsoever) whether bad or good. 

1 Alluding to the opinion of the Galatians, not to his own opinions. ED. 

2 See App. The present is understood in ver. 4, where the future is used ; 
and the future is understood in verse 2, where the present is used. 

3 Th. ftvxrvip, the nostrils : properly, to sneer at one with the nostrils 
drawn up in an expression of contempt. Wahl here takes it " patior illudi 
mihi." ED. 

5G GALAT1ANS VI. 8-11. 

a man soweth) especially of his resources ; 2 Cor. ix. 6. 
a man) any man. rovTo, that very thing). Qspiasi, he 
shall reap) The epistle seems to have been written in the time of 
harvest. Prov. xxh. 8, o GKtipuv pavXa Qepiaei xaxa, he that 
soweth worthless things shall reap evil [" iniquity vanity," Engl. 
Vers. from Hebr.] 

8. Els, into) as into [upon] the ground. 7-6 vvsupa, the Spirit) 
Here his is not added [as in " his flesh"]. In ourselves we are 
carnal, not spiritual. The flesh is devoted to selfishness. ^uqv 
atuivtov, eternal life) The article is not added, for the question 
here is not about faith, but about the fruit of faith. 

9. To) When we do good, perseverance ought to be added. 
TO xaXbv KoiovvTSf, doing good, well-doing) The expression is diffe 
rent in ver. 10, epya^wj&sda TO ayaQbv, let us work what is good : 
comp. in all good things, ver. 6. /dfy, at the proper season) after 
the sowing. We must wait in the meantime. Add the note 
to 1 Tim. vi. 15. Then sowhlg will be beyond our power. 
f^Yj sxhvcifAsvoi) Exxaxs/v, to be weary of, is in the will (velle) : 
exXuscOat, in the power (posse). ^ exXveffdai, to faint, is some 
thing more than exxaxslv. Both are to be referred to the sowing ; 
for exX-jzcdai arises from an internal relaxation of the powers. 
So the LXX., "HS&I /ATI sxXvofAevoc, be not faint, Prov. vi. 3. Chry- 
sostom therefore interprets it, that no one should be fatigued in 
it, as in a worldly harvest. 

10. sis) as, as far as, at whatsoever time, in whatever manner 
and place. Comp. Eccles. ix. 10, "jrD3, LXX. us j 3iW/x/c <rou, as 
thou art able, ivhilst thou art able. xaipbv) time, viz. that of the 
whole life, and in it the more convenient part of that time. So 
xaipbv s%pvrsg } 1 Mace. xv. 34. eftofAsv, we have) For we shall not 
always have it. Satan is sharpened to greater zeal in injuring 
us by the shortness of the time ; Rev. xii. 12. Let us be 
sharpened to zeal in well-doing. TO-J$ oimiovs *%$ mffrecas, the 
household of faith) Every man does good to his relatives ; be 
lievers do good to their relations in the faith, especially to those, 
who are entirely devoted to the propagation of the faith, ver. 6. 
So the apostle commends faith itself in this passage, which forms 
the end of the discussion. 

11. "JdsTs, see) The conclusion. TTJA/XO/C ypa^adtv) in how 
large letters, i.e. how large a letter ; just as long letter^ [longze 

GALATIANS VI. 12-14. 57 

literas] is the expression used for a long epistle ; the quantity is 
not to be referred to the single letters, but to them when joined 
together. The Epistle to the Hebrews is longer, which however 
is said to be short, xiii. 22 ; but this is said to be long, because 
it was on one subject, by the hand of Paul himself, and on a 
point regarding which the Gralatians ought to have been long 
ago well established. Also the former is compared to horta 
tory, the latter to polemic theology. 1 He had not heretofore 
written a longer epistle. 

12. "Offoi) as many as. tfarpMfwtfiffcu) to make a fair show before 
you : comp. 2 Cor. v. 12. dvayxafyvtiv, constrain) by their 
example, ver. 13, and importunity. The same word occurs, 
ch. ii. 3, 14. /AO VOV, only) Such persons therefore wished to be 
considered in other respects as Christians. diuxuvrat, they should 
suffer persecution) from the Jews, or even from the Gentiles, who 
now bore more easily with the antiquity [antiquated usages] of 
the Jews, than with the supernatural novelty [new doctrine and 
rule] of the Christian faith. 

13. Ai/ro/, they themselves) So far from it being their interest, 
that the law should be observed by you. <rafx/, in your flesh) if 
it be circumcised. 

14. E/a,o/ <5s, but as for me) I should be sorry to be a partaker 
of such things as those. ^r\ ysvoiro xau^a^a/) Josh. xxiv. 16, 
rpvn, {Ay ysvoiro y]f^7v xaraXiirt/v Kvpiov, God forbid, that we should 
forsake the Lord. xau^a^a/, to glory) We have a specimen of 
this sort of glorying, 2 Cor. v. 1519 ; Phil. iii. 8, etc. ev r& 
ffravpti, in the cross) which has nothing to do with circumcision 
of the flesh. To glory in the cross 2 is an Oxymoron. dta o5, 
by which) the cross : for the apostle is speaking here chiefly of 
the cross ; and if the 81 ou should even be referred to Christ, still 
the cross must be regarded as the ground on which this reference 
would be made. That, by which anything whatever is such as 
it is, possesses the same nature in a higher degree. %.6<rpos strav- 
pwrai, the world has been crucified) The world, with its 6 elements, 
has no longer dominion over me ; ch. iv. 3. There is a grada 
tion from the flesh [ver. 13] to the world [in this 14th verse]. 

1 And as compared respectively with their subjects, the Epistle to the He 
brews was short, that to the Galatians long. ED. 

2 The cross, and to glory, being contraries. ED. 

58 GALATIANS VI. 15-17. 

xayw r& XOO/A ^, and I to the world) The world is at variance 
with me : I could not, though I were willing, henceforth gain 
any favour from the world. This cross includes death, Col. 
ii. 20. 

15. Ours yap rttpirofArj n sffrlv ovre axpofiuffria 1 ) So it is accord 
ing to a very old reading. The more recent reading is in con 
formity with ch. v. 6. 2 Both circumcision and uncircumcisioii 
are not merely of no avail [/V^us/], but they are ptfr/v] nothing : 
but there is truly [something, nay, everything in] the new 
creature and glorying in the cross of the Lord Jesus Christ. 
xaivri jtrfaig) the new creation arising from the cross of Christ, 
Eph. ii. 15, 16. This is opposed to "old things," 2 Cor. v. 17. 

16. Kavo y/, rule) This refers chiefly to teachers. e/Vw, peace) 
May it be, and it shall be. On peace, comp. Eph. ii. 1417. 
IT avroug, on them) In antithesis to the uncircumcision [those un- 
circumcised, viz. the unbelieving Gentiles]. /ca/ g Xsog, and 
mercy) Rom. xv. 9. xa/ eirt rbv itfpa^X roD 0soD, and on the 
Israel of God) In antithesis to the circumcision [the Jews]. 
The Israel of God are believers of the circumcision, or Jewish 
nation [Phil. iii. 3]. The meaning of the apostle, which is by 
no means Jewish, has beautifully seized on an expression incon 
sistent with the idiom of the people ; for the Hebrews do not 
say, Israel of God ; nor do they even use the proper name in 
the construct state. 3 

17. ToD Ao/^oD, from henceforth) The mode of breaking off the 
discourse. xoVoug, labours [trouble]) Polemic theology, seriously 
discussed, is a laborious task to godly men; ver. 11, note ; and 
iv. 20. See the second Antisturmius of L. Osiander, p. 87, 107 : 
xoVoi, labour and anxiety of mind, Matt. xxvi. 10 [Why trouble 

1 Tischend. reads ovrt yap, omitting \v yoip ~Kpiffru Iwov, with B Syr. and 
Theb. But Lachm. and Rec. Text read the latter words, with ACD(A)G 

fff Vulg. Rec. Text has lazuli with Vulg. ; but ABCDG/^ Origen have IW/*. 

2 The Germ. Vers. agrees with the Gnomon here, although the larger Ed. 
has reckoned the shorter reading among those less sure. The margin of the 
2d Ed., by the mark ft, agrees with the Gnomon and the Vers. There is the 
same reason for the word l<rri, to which, by a more recent decision, iar^vet 
ought to yield. E. B. 

i.e. They do not put two proper names together in such a construction 
as the Israel of God." ED. 


ye the woman ?]. p-qbtig vapexsru, let no man 
cause me) Herein there is Acroro/A/a, severity r , by virtue of his 
authority as an apostle. syu 70^, for /) Affliction should not 
be added to the afflicted. ra <rr/7/>t,ara, the marks) from the lash, 
Acts xvi. 23. These marks of stripes rendered Paul infamous 
in the eyes of the world, but in reality conferred on him great 
dignity, for by these he was known to be a servant of Christ. 
Marks in the body are opposed to the mark of circumcision, the 
body of Paul [himself] to the flesh of others, ver. 13 [the false 
teachers " glorying in the flesh" of their followers when circum 
cised]. rou Kup/oD, of the Lord) Col. i. 24, " of the afflictions of 
Christ." jSa<rra, I bear) so that I consider it an honour to 
me, ver. 14. Therefore they will be disagreeable to me, who 
please themselves in any other way. 1 

18. *H %p/s, grace) This is in consonance with the whole 
epistle. ftsra rov wvevftarof vpuv, with your spirit) having van 
quished the flesh, ver. 1 ; comp. 1 Thess. v. 23 ; 2 Tim. iv. 22 ; 
Philem. ver. 25. a&Xpo/, brethren) The severity of the whole 
epistle is thus softened ; comp. i. 6, note. 

1 Who seek occasion for glorying in anything but the Cross of Christ. 




1. 0gX^//,aro, the will} So ver. 5, 9, 11. ro/g ay/o/$ ro/g ouov, xa/ 
Tc, to the saints and faithful, who are) in all those places to 
which Tychicus went with this epistle. It appears from the 
records quoted in the Apparatus, that no city was mentioned 
by name 1 in this inscription, whence some have supplied Lao- 
dicea (although all that had a separate reference to the Lao- 
diceans, was explained by Paul in the epistle written to the 
Colossians about the same time, ch. iv. 15, 16) ; others, Ephesus : 
either of them might be before the mind of the apostle; for 
Paul no doubt told Tychicus whither he should go, to Lao- 
dicea, for example, and thence to Colosse, which was in the 
neighbourhood of Laodicea, and either first or last to Ephesus. 
Wherefore our annotations are now and then specially applic 
able to the Ephesians. Nevertheless, in this passage, rol c, olffiv, 
i.e. those who are present, 2 is said absolutely, as Acts xiii. 1, 

1 Lachm. reads !:/ E<po-&>, with AD(A)Gy^ Vulg. and marg. of B corrected 
later ; but B omits it, and Jerome, 7,545a, attests that Origen did not know 
of the words. Basil mentions that old fathers before his time in some ancient 
copies omitted them. Marcion in Tertullian is accused of having added ad 
Laodicenos. Jerome says, that some suppose the saints at Ephesus were 
addressed by a title, or " vocdbulum essentice, so that those who are should be 
so called from Him who is ;" whilst others read simply " those who are at 
Ephesus." ED. 

2 The saints that there are. ED. 


rr^v olffav sxxhqffiav, in the church that was at Antioch ; and 
Rom. xiii. 1, a/ <5 oucra/ sgoutf/a/, ancZ the powers that be [the 
existing powers]. Paul, when writing to the churches planted 
by himself, generally mentions many circumstances concerning 
present and former events, having reference to himself or the 
churches ; but he had been at Ephesus, and that too for a long 
time, not many years before, Acts xx. 31. Why then does he 
write as a person unknown, ver. 1 5, ch. iii. 2,4? and why does 
he descend less to particulars in this epistle, than in any other ? 
Why, at ch. vi. 23, 24, does he conclude in the third, arid not 
in the second person, as he always does on other occasions ? 
Why does he add no salutations, which, however, he does not 
omit even in the case of the Colossians ? Why does he not 
mention Timothy, whom, however, he joins with himself, Col. 
i. 1 ? For, the close resemblance of the style of writing [the 
texture of composition] in both, the same mention in both of 
their bearer, Tychicus, and many other circumstances, confirm 
the fact, that each of these epistles, this and the one to the Co 
lossians, was sent at one time. Why does he only call them 
brethren at ch. vi. 10? Ans. All these things are indeed 
proofs, that Paul so drew up the whole letter, that it might be 
publicly read, or privately perused, both at Ephesus and in 
many of the churches of Asia, to which, as having been perhaps 
pointed out to him by name, Tychicus would go, and that all 
might receive it as if it had been addressed to themselves ; 
comp. Col. iv. 16 ; 1 Thess. v. 27. So far as this matter was 
concerned, full liberty (a carta bianca) was granted. " We 
must observe," says Usher, at A. M. 4068, " that, in some 
ancient copies, this epistle was inscribed in general terms, as 
was usually done in writing evangelical letters, to the saints who 
are . . . and to the faithful in Christ Jesus : as if it had 
been sent first to Ephesus, as the principal metropolis of Asia, 
and was thence to be transmitted to the other churches of the 
same province, with the insertion of the name of each, etc." It 
may be said : Paul wrote this epistle before he had seen the 
Ephesians. Ans. He had formerly [previous to his visit to 
Ephesus, Acts xix., xx.] suffered no bonds so well known and 
so long, Acts xvi. 35, xviii. 10; but these, which he mentions 
[in this epistle], were remarkable and distinguished, Eph. iii. 13, 


vi. 20. As regards the rest of the inscription, holiness is put 
before faith, ver. 4, 11, 12, where also the word xX^ou<r0a/ is 
before hope ;* moreover, at 2 Thess. ii. 13 ; 1 Pet. i. 2. It belongs 
to God to sanctify [set apart as holy to Himself] and claim us 
to Himself; to us, according to the gift of God, to believe. 

3. EuXo/Tjrig evXoyfufag 211X07/0, Blessed who has blessed 
with blessing} An Antanaclasis. 2 God has blessed us in one sense, 
we bless Him in another. The doxologies at the beginning of 
the apostolic epistles are quite in consonance with the sense of 
the grace which characterizes the New Testament. It is almost 
in this way that the first Epistle of Peter commences, which was 
also sent into Asia, and therefore to Ephesus. Paul writes with 
an affection that had been greatly elevated [sublimed] by ad 
versity ; and this epistle furnishes a remarkable specimen of the 
evangelical mode of discussion on the thesis [proposition, i.e. the 
broad general truth of the Gospel] ; and, from the third to the 
fourteenth ver. of this ch., it presents an abridgment of the 
Gospel [respecting the grace of God. V. g.] ; [and that, too, in 
such a way, that the blessed work of Christ, ver. 7, and of the 
Holy Spirit, ver. 13, is inserted each in its proper order. V. g.] 
Hence he refutes no error, and rebukes no fault in particular, but 
proceeds in a general way. And how great soever may be the 
light which may be obtained from ecclesiastical history, with 
respect to the Epistle to the Colossians, in other respects parallel, 
it is less needed in this epistle. He writes with great propriety 
to the Ephesians, too, regarding the recent union of the Jews 
and Gentiles ; for the temple at Ephesus had been the strong 
hold of Paganism, as on the contrary the temple at Jerusalem 
had been the stronghold of Judaism. 

Here follows a summary of the Epistle : 



I. Blessing God for the whole range of heavenly blessing 
bestowed by Him, ver. 3-14 ; and then thanksgiving 
and prayers for the saints, 15-ii. 10. 

1 Kpoy h TrfxQTots, which Engl. Vers. renders trusted, instead of hope. ED. 

2 See App. It is the same word occurring in a different sense. 

64 EPHES1ANS I. 3. 

II. A more special admonition concerning their formerly 
miserable, but now blessed condition, ver. 11-22 ; and 
then the apostle s supplication, that they might be 
strengthened, iii. 1, 2, 14, 15; with the doxology, 
20, 21. 


I. General that they should walk worthily, as 

1. The unity of the Spirit and diversity of gifts, iv. 1, 2, 


2. As the difference of their heathen and Christian state 

require, 1724. 
IT. Special 

1) So that they should avoid 

1. Lying, 25. 

2. Anger, 26, 27. 

3. Theft, 28. 

4. Corrupt conversation, 29, 30. 

5. Bitterness, 31-v. 2. 

6. Impurity, 314. 

7. Drunkenness, ver. 1520 ; the virtues being every 

where commended to which those vices are opposed, 
with the addition of submission, 21. 

2) That they should do their duty, 

1. As wives and husbands, 22, 23, 25, 26. 

2. As children and fathers, vi. 1, 2, 4. 

3. As servants and masters, 5, 6, 9. 

3) And, lastly, an exhortation to the spiritual warfare, 10, 

11, 19, 20. 

IV. CONCLUSION, 21, 22, 23, 24. 

There is a great resemblance between this epistle and that to 
the Colossians, which has been already noticed ; wherefore the 
two writings may be advantageously compared together. sv 
Truer,, with all) Paul describes the source and the archetype of 
this blessing, He has chosen us, having predestinated, ver. 4, 5 ; 
also its nature, He hath embraced us in His grace, ver. 6 ; also 
its parts, remission, etc., ver. 7, 8. svXoyta, ivith blessing) The 

EPHESIANS I. 4, 5. 05 

very term denotes abundance. fln>eu/*ar/x5j, spiritual) a thing pe 
culiar to the New Testament. sv rote, svovpavtoig, in heavenly 
places) The term spiritual is hereby explained. Often in this 
epistle he mentions the heavenlies : ver. 20, ch. ii. 6, iii. 10, vi. 
12. The glorious abode of the heavenly inhabitants. lv Xpi<tr&, 
in Christ) To this is to be referred the following verse, according 
as in Him. Here now he somewhat slightly touches upon the 
three persons of the Godhead, who are concerned in our salva 
tion. The Heavenlies belong to the Father [the First Person] : 
he expressly names Christ Himself [the Second Person] : the 
Holy Spirit [the Third Person] produces spiritual blessings. 
Paul treats of all in succession subsequently. [Certainly the 
apostle had before his eyes, in this passage, the ivhole career of 
Christ, from His birth to His ascension. He contemplates His 
birth in this verse, then His circumcision, wherefore at ver. 5, and 
not till then, the name, Jesus, given to Him at His circumcision, 
is expressed ; at ver. 6, 1 the baptism of the beloved Son is pointed 
to by implication ; which, at ver. 7, the bloody suffering of death 
follows, and finally His resurrection and ascension, at ver. 20, 
etc. Y. g.] 

4. Ka&ug s^sX e^aro was, according as He has chosen us) The 
blessing corresponds to the [prior] election, and follows upon it 
and makes it manifest. sv Aura), in Him) iii. 11. These things 
presuppose the eternity of the Son of God ; for the Son, before 
the world was made, was not merely the future, but even then 
the present object of the Father s love ; John xvii. 24, 5 ; 
otherwise the Father would not have loved Him in [or for] 
Himself [per se], but likewise through another [per alium : God 
would have loved in connection with the Church, not in Him 
self purely]. irpb, before) John xvii. 24. eJvai, to be) i.e. rov Jvai, 
that we should be. ay/ ous, holy) positively. a/^w/^ou^, without 
blame) without evil and fault [ch. v. 27]. 

4, 5. Ev ayacr5 irpoopfaas ^j having predestinated us in love) 
Many construe these words with the preceding, holy and without 
blame before Him in love. The terms, / love, love, loved, are very 
prevalent in this epistle both ways, so that either the love of God 
to us, or ours to Him, may be denoted ; but it is most consistent 

1 " Accepted in the Beloved." As the Voice at His baptism said, This 
is my beloved Son, in whom, etc. ED. 

OL. IV. E 


with the very beginning of the epistle, that love should be con 
strued not with lioly and ivithout blame an expression which is 
likewise used without express mention of love, ver. 27 but with 
the subsequent description of adoption ; x comp. ch. ii. 4, 3 ; 1 
John iii. 1 : and that the love of God should be celebrated be 
fore ours. In this way the sum of those things which follow, 
will be in love, ver. 5, at the end. So love is put at the be 
ginning of the section [tmematis], ch. iii. 18. And in turn, on 
the other hand, the word having predestinated is much more 
emphatic, if we consider it to be placed at the beginning : and 
everywhere the apostle, especially in this chap., closes the period 
with some clause, which, in respect of what goes before, is equi 
valent to a Syncategorema, 2 and in respect of what follows, is 
equivalent to a Thema [the main proposition]. If this be at 
tended to, and the connection by participles and relatives be 
observed, the analysis will be cleared from all difficulty. This is 
the custom of the ancients, quite different from our present 
method, which proceeds by many divisions and sub-divisions 
(sub-distinctions) set forth expressly and prominently. KPO- 
opiffag, having predestinated} The participle depends on He has 
chosen : Kom. viii. 29. Chosen from among others, they are 
predestinated to all things which belong to the obtaining of 
blessedness, ver. 11. -tar a rr t v zudoxiav, according to the good 
pleasure) We are not allowed to go beyond this good pleasure 
either in searching into the causes of our salvation or of any of 
the Divine works, ver. 9. Why needest thou to philosophize 
about an imaginary world of optimism ? That which thou 
oughtest to take care of is, lest thou thyself be bad. Nor was 
there anything in us which deserved love. roi> fa Xq^aToc, of His 
will) ver. 9, 11, 1. 

6. E/, to) The end aimed at. znatvov do ^g rr t c, ^dpirog, the 
praise of the glory of His grace) The praise of His glory, ver. 12, 

1 The margin of the larger Ed. had preferred this mode of connecting the 
ivords by punctuation; the margin of the 2d Ed. leaves it an evenly balanced 
question as to that other, by ivhich the words li/ a-ycncy are referred to the pre 
ceding ; and the Germ. Vers. distinctly exhibits it. E. B. 

Both Lachm. and Tischend. join h dyu Try with 7rp(*6piaoi; : but Engl. 
Vers. with xctrsvu Triov otvrov, " Without blame before Him in love." ED. 

2 See App. An accessory proposition added to the principal one. ED. 

EPHES1ANS I. 7-9. 67 

14. The praise of grace takes its rise first in order, ver. 7, then 
afterwards the praise of the glory [concerning " the glory" comp. 
ver. 6, 17, 18. V. g.] kv r\) x&pin. Words that are conjugate 

s^ctpiruasv], as aydtrriv Tiyd^ffsv, ch. ii. 4. s^aptruffsv) 
of the same form as dyaQou, dvva/j,6u, svrwTTou, suodow, ?jXoa>, 

, pcaxow, xuxXow, x.r.X., signifies to render acceptable, to embrace 
in the arms of grace ; of which the immediate consequence is 
blessing : comp. Luke i. 28 [XGC//J? Ks^apiroj/^sv^, which is followed 
by the blessing Kvpio$ pera <roD]. To this refer of His grace-) here, 
and in ver. 7. yj-ya^^sv^, in the Beloved) the Only Begotten 
Son. A suitable Antonomasia. 1 Love signifies more than grace. 
See 1 Pet. ii. 10, where, concerning those who have (t obtained 
mercy" things are spoken such as that the title, The beloved, 
stands far pre-eminent above them. "EXsog, mercy, necessarily 
presupposes previous misery, but not so love. 

7. "Exppev, we have) in the present. rqv aKoXvrpuffiv rfo 
apefftv, redemption forgiveness) The peculiar benefit derived 
from the New Testament ; Kom iii. 24. [Another redemption 
(viz. "of the purchased possession" hereafter ) follows, ver. 14. 
V. g.] 2 rbv ffXoZrov rSjg ^dpiros, the riches of His grace) ch. ii. 7 : 
the riches of the glory, ver. 18. Comp. ch. iii. 8, where we have 
the riches of grace, and consequently of glory ; likewise in ver. 
16, where the exceedingly rich glory of the Father Himself is 

8. r Hg) [attraction] for, r t v, viz. %ap/v. stfzpiffffzuff&v, hath 
abounded) viz. God. ffo<piy) in wisdom, concerning the past and 
present, in regard to the things which God does, ver. 17. 
tppovfasi) in prudence, concerning the future, in regard to the 
things that we may do. 

9. Tvupfaas, having made known) This word depends on hath 
abounded. The same word occurs, ch. iii. 3, 5, 10, vi. 19. 
rb fjtsvffrrjpiov, the mystery) ch. iii. 3, 4, 9, vi. 19 ; Rom. xvi. 25 ; 
Col. i. 26, 27. vjv, which) good pleasure. irpoeQero) [purposed ] 
proposed to Himself. Thence purpose, ver. 11. kv avrti, in Him) 
in Christ. [But Engl. Vers. " purposed in Himself" i.e. God 
the Father.] 

1 The substitution of a descriptive name for a proper name, by way of 
pre-eminence. See App. ED. 

?, of blood) ii. 13. V. g. 

(i8 EPHES1ANS I. 10-12. 

10. E/, in) Construe with yvupiaas, having made known. 
o/xovo/x/av TOU TX>j^w//&aroj TUIV xaipojv, the dispensation of the fulness 
of the times) Fulness ruv xaipuv, of the times, } is in some degree 
distinguished from the fulness rov xpovou, of the time, Gal. iv. 4, 
for it involves the fulness of the benefits themselves, and of 
men reaping these benefits, Mark i. 15. Still each fulness is 
in Christ, and there is a certain peculiar economy and dis 
pensation of this fulness, Col. i. 25. Paul very often uses 
the words <jr\qf>6u and -srX^w^a in writing to the Ephesians and 
Colossians. avaxspaXa/wtfaotfa/) that all might be brought under 
one head. All things had been under Christ ; but they had 
been torn and rent from Him by sin : again they have been 
brought under His sway. Christ is the head of angels and 
of men : the former agree with Him in His invisible, the 
latter, in His visible nature. ra Kuvra, all things [the whole 
range of things]) not only Jews and Gentiles, but also those 
things which are in heaven and upon the earth : angels and 
men, and the latter including those who are alive as well as 
those long ago dead, iii. 15. roTs ovpavoTs, in the heavens) in the 

2 11. *EV avrti, b f, in Him, in whom) This is repeated from 
ver. 9, so that ver. 10 is a parenthesis. JxXjjfuJ^/a-sv) He here 
speaks in the person of Israel, we were made H?ru, xXypog or 
xXTj/wo/x/a, the lot, the inheritance of the Lord. Comp. Deut. 
xxxii. 9. The antithesis is you, ver. 13. He is, however, 
speaking of a spiritual benefit: xXnpovtQai is not only to obtain 
the lot : see Chrysost. on this passage : he interprets it, l/g^- 
QTI/ASV xenXyipufAsvoi, we ivere put in possession by lot. ra irdvra) all 
things, even in the kingdom of His Son. jSouXjjv, the counsel) 
which is most free. 

12. H//,C, us) Jews. rovs KpovXtfixoras, who before or first 
hoped or trusted) This is the predicate. The Jews first obtained 
hope in Christ when manifested to them (1 Cor. xv. 19) ; after 
wards the Gentiles, Acts xiii. 46. The word before or first, here, 

1 Seasons rather. ED. 

2 Ver. 11, 13. qpeisvptis, we you) Israelites Gentiles. V. g. 
Ver. 13. TlvevfABtri, in the Spirit) Comp. ver. 17. V. g. 

Ver. 14. Tijf KhvipovofAiei; ijftav, of our inheritance) which belongs to sons, 
ver. 5 ; mentioned afresh in ver. 18. V. g. 

EPHESIANS I. 13-15, 69 

is not to be referred to Old Testament times ; comp. on the sub 
ject of hope, ver. 18 ; ch. ii. 12 ; iv. 4. 

13. r n, in Whom} To be referred to in Christ, ver. 12, or to 
in Him, ver. 10. aKovffavreg, having heard) The sense is suspend 
ed, 1 till the participle having believed [" after that ye believed"], 
which is correlative to having heard, be added. r^g aXqQsiag, of 
the truth) Hence it is called the hearing of faith. The mention 
of truth occurs again, ch. iv. 15, 21, 24, 25 ; v. 9 ; vi. 14. sv f 
Kai, in whom also) In whom, after the intervening clause, is here 
taken up again ; comp. in Himself, ver. 10, note. stfpfoy/Vtfijri 
og sffnv dppa^uv, you were sealed who is the earnest) 2 Cor. i. 
22, note. rut Hvsv/Aan rtjg l^ayysX/ag r) //V, with the Holy Spirit 

of promise) The Holy Spirit was promised by the word ; there 
fore when the Holy Spirit was given, those who believed the 
word were sealed ; and those who have the Holy Spirit, know 
that every promise will be fulfilled to them. 

14. Hpuv, of our) He here includes Jews and Greeks. slg 
artoXvrpuffiv, unto redemption) Construe with you were sealed) ; iv. 
30. This future deliverance or redemption, by the addition of 
T%g wepiiroifitfsug, of preservation \_ ( conservationis, Engl. Vers., of 
the purchased possession], is distinguished from the redemption 
made by the blood of Christ. So irepiiroiiias (rurqpias and 4 u %fo> 
1 Thess. v. 9 ; Heb. x. 39. irspivroiiiffig is said of that which 
remains still, when all other things perish : 2 LXX., 2 Chron. xiv. 
12 (13); Mai. iii. 17. 

15. Axobffas, having heard) At a distance. This may be 
referred not only to those who were unknown to him by face, 
Col. i. 4, but also to his most intimate acquaintances, Philem. 
ver. 5, in accordance with their present state. cr/Vr/v) Faith to 
wards God in the Lord Jesus. xa/, and) Whosoever has faith 
and love, is a partaker of the whole blessing, ver. 3, etc. Hope 
is added, ver. 18. vdvrag, all) The distinguishing characteristic 

1 Ev &j, at the beginning of the ver., is not, as Engl. Vers. takes it, 
governed by jAw/x*, ye trusted, understood from the previous ver., but by 
TrwTevffotvTSc below. ED. 

2 Wahl, in his Clavis, takes ireptiroiwis passively, " res acquisita ; Treptovyiog 
AO, quern Deus hoc consilio elegit ut sit sibi proprius : populus Deo pro- 
prius : rov Aaoy, ov vtptsTror/iffXTo to$." The full redemption of His pur 
chased people. ED. 

70 EPHESIANS I. 16-19. 

of Christianity. 1 Paul often includes all ; ch. iii. 8, 9, 18 ; iv. 
6, 13 ; vi. 18, 24. 

16. Ou flrauo/Aa/, I do not cease) Paul made mention of all the 
churches in his prayers ; Col. i. 9. 

17. "Iva, that) A subject of prayer for true Christians. 6 irar^? 
rrig 86%r t $, the Father of glory) That infinite glory, which shines 
in the face of Christ ; nay, more, [the Father] of the glory, 
which is the Son of God Himself; by whom also the glorious 
inheritance will become ours, ver. 18. Hvevpa aoyiug xat avoxa- 
Xv4>eug, the Spirit of wisdom and revelation) The same Spirit, who 
is the Spirit of promise, is, in the progress of believers, also the 
Spirit of wisdom and revelation. Wisdom works wisdom in us ; 
revelation knowledge. Jv, in) Construe with may give. aurou, 
of Him) God. 

18. nspwr/tf/Agvous, enlightened) The accusative absolute, as 
Acts xxvi. 3, when the eyes of your understanding (heart) shall 
have been enlightened. The article roue, with 6>0aX//,<rj, pre 
supposes that the eyes are already present [inasmuch as being 
no longer in the darkness of unbelief] ; and does not allow that 
they can be considered as about to be given now or hereafter, as 
if for the first time. But if otpQaX/uoug were without the article, it 
might be taken in an abstract sense, and construed with may 
give. nvg o<p6a,\ttovg rr^c, xapftiag, the eyes of the heart) Comp. iv. 
18 ; Matt. xiii. 15. The heart is that by which we perceive 
matters so important, ch. iii. 17. So Theophilus speaks of the 
ears of the heart, 1. i. to Autol. c. 3 ; add the note on Chrysost. 
de Sacerd., p. 429 : and plainly the eyes of the heart. Smyrn. 
ep. concerning Polycarp, 2. [xa^5/aj, 2 a remarkable reading. 
Not. Crit.] rig T/g TV, What what what [ver. 19]) Comp. 
the following verse. Three remarkable points of time, in regard 
to the future, the present, comp. iii. 6, and the past. rJjg xXfatug 
auroD, of His calling) The calling by which He called you. In 
the saints follows, as the apostle often names together the called 
and saints. 

19. Tovc Kiarzvovrag, who believe) Faith is therefore something 
living and efficacious. TW evspyeiav, the working) This is the 

1 Is implied, in its embracing all in love. ED. 

2 Rec. Text, without any of the oldest authorities, reads ^lewoictS) of the 
understanding. But ABI)(A)G# Vulg. read Kotpbtas. ED. 

EPHESIANS I. 20-23. 71 

action [the actual putting of the might into exercise]. roD 
xpdrou?, of might) This is exhibited in the action [i.e. when the 
might is so put into actual exercise] : Job xxi. 23, 1n DVjn, 1 LXX. 
sv xpdrsi Itiyvoc, auroD, in the might of his power. r3j$ /0%uo, of 
power) This is the Divine power itself. 

20. "Hf, ivhich) viz. svspysiav, working ; evzpysTv svspysiuv, as aya- 
crav dydtfriv, ch. ii. 4. systpas KUI exdQifcv, having raised He set 
Him) Often from the participle the sentence is turned to the 
indicative ; ch. ii. 17 ; Col. i. 6 ; Rev. iii. 7. 

21. rvrepdvu) A compound word. Christ not only takes the 
precedency, but is ruler above all. dpy/fig %ai l^oucv ag xa/ dvvd- 
peug) 1 Cor. XV. 24, note. xa/ xt^/or^rog) Col. i. 16. xa/ -ravros 
6vo//,arog, cmc? every name) We know that the Emperor goes before 
all, although we cannot enumerate all the ministers of his court ; 
so we know that Christ is placed above all, although we cannot 
name them all. sv r& /^sXXoi/r/) A/wi/, age, or the world [order of 
things], denotes here not time, but a system of things and opera 
tions revealed at its own proper time, and permanent. It is 
called future, not that it does not yet exist, but because it is not 
yet seen. Authorities, powers, etc., are in the future [aluv] ; but 
yet they are named also in this world [a/wv] ; but even those 
things also, which are not even named at the present time, but 
both in the name and in reality will be at length laid open to us 
in the future, are subject to Christ. 

22. Ildvra vKsrafyv, hath put all things under His feet) 1 Cor. 
xv. 27. sduxs) gave. Not, however, that Christ was not for 
merly Head of the Church, ch. v. 25 ; John iii. 29. lies? navra, 
above [over] all things) The Church, as being above all things, 
above authorities, etc., the Head of which [ver. 10, ava-xspa- 
Xa/wtfa^a/, together under one Head, etc.] is Christ, Col. ii. 10, 
may say, Christ is my Head : I am His body. The dative of 
advantage to the Church is in contradistinction to the over, or 
above [all things]. 

23. To ffXfipuj&a rou "-a Tacra tv waft ir h. yipovfA&vov, the fulness of 
Him, that filleth all in all) This is neither predicated of the 
Church, as most think, nor is it construed with gave, according 

1 Engl. Vers., " In his full strength ;" and margin, " In his very perfec 
tion," or "in the strength of his perfection." ED. 


to the opinion of others ; but is put absolutely in the accusative, 
as rb f&aprvpiov 9 the testimony, is construed in 1 Tim. ii. 6. For 
it is an Epiphonema, 1 put after those things which are spoken of 
at ver. 20, and by it the apostle implies, that there is in Christ 
the fulness of the Father, who fills all in all. See on the fulness 
of God, of Christ, and of the Spirit, ch. iiL 19, iv. 13, v. 18; 
likewise ch. iv. 10 ; John i. 14 ; on the fulness of the times, ch. i. 
1 0. The glory of Divine love fills all things, and in Christ 
extends itself over all. The passage has an analogy to 1 Cor. 
xv. 28. What I have just now explained, the apostle means to 
say, vividly exhibits to us the fulness, etc., which, as mathemati 
cians say, was the thing to be demonstrated [quod erat de 
monstrandum]. The whole of this (the whole of the preceding 
statements) may be reduced to [be brought under] this title or 
brief description, rb vXypvpa . . sv nati, in all) The neuter 
including the power of the masculine. crXjjpou/^gvou, i.e. -/rX^ouv- 
rog. But the force of the Middle voice is stronger [than that of 
the active] in denoting the mutual relation of Him who fills, 
and of those who are filled. 


1. Ka} vftas, and you) This is very closely connected with He 
wrought in ch. i. 20. You is construed with hath quickened to 
gether (<fw6 > 6!)o<ffoii>iff&v), ver. 5. is/tag ovrag, you when you were) as 
there is found when we were, in ver. 5. The former word, in 
both cases respectively, is emphatic; 2 as Phil. ii. 7, note. vexpovg, 
dead) What can be more wretched 1 ro/& crapa-rrou/xacv) Although 
the genuine ra?g a/tapr/aig intervenes, we must refer to the 
the neuter oTg, in which, ver. 3 : comp. [ro?$ <3/wy/Ao%, 
] o/a, o/ oug [diayftovs], 2 Tim. iii. 11, where the gender 
is in like manner twofold. ra% apaprfais, in sins) Refer to this 
word aTg, in which, ver. 2. A/ apapriai, sins, are chiefly applied 

1 See App. An exclamation subjoined to the relation or proof of some 
important topic. 

In ver. l, vft s precedes ovrag, and is therefore the emphatic word. In 
ver. 5, WTS precedes VH*.&S> and therefore the emphasis fells on the Svretc. 


to the Gentiles, who are ignorant of God : ret crapcwrrw^ara, 
trespasses, to the Jews, who have the law, 1 and yet revolt from 
the light ; ver. 5. Moreover the latter obeyed the flesh ; the 
former, the prince of the power of the air ; see following verses. 

2. Kardt rbv aJ>va rov xotffAov rovrov) Atuv and MfftAoc, differ ; 2 1 
Cor. ii. 6, 12, iii. 18, 1 9. The former regulates the latter, and 
in a manner gives it form : K6<t/j,og is something more external ; 
uiuv something more subtle and internal in its character. Time 
is spoken of not only physically, but also morally, there being 
included in its signification [in the notion of it] the character of 
the men who live in it ; and so atuv applies to a long series of 
times, in which one bad age follows another bad age ; comp. 
Acts xiv. 16; 1 Pet. i. 18. Kara rbv ap^ovra, according to the 
prince) Thus the fact becomes more expressly represented and 
realized. All men are sensible of the existence of the world ; 
but they are not aware that this prince lurks beneath it ; ch. 
vi. 11, 12 : comp. John xii. 31. rfo e%ov<r/a$ rotf aepog, of the 
power of the air) This power is widely diffused and penetrating : 
comp. Job i. 15, etc. ; but yet it does not reach [it is beneath] 
the sphere of believers, ver. 6 ; 1 John v. 18. See Buxt. Diet. 
Rabb., col. 1495. Even the celestial orbs themselves are various. 
Christ however is superior to Satan, although the latter also 
holds himself [keeps a position] in heavenly places ; Eph. vi. 
12 [kv roTg knovpavhig, in the heavenlies, Engl. Vers., in high places }. 
roD arw6/wxr*c, the spirit) In apposition to r^c, iou<r/<x, ro\j vvev- 
parog. Here the prince himself is not called a spirit ; but the 
spirit in this passage is that internal principle, from which the 
actions of unbelievers flow, and is opposed to the spirit of the 
believing sons of God : comp. Luke iv. 33. v\Jv, now) in the 
present day ; or rather, [that] now most of all ; for he does not 
say, still, or as yet, but now. Those who despise the Gospel 
through disbelief, remain the slaves of that spirit, and are more 
and more captivated by him. Express mention of Satan is 
principally made in the description of the state of the Gentiles ; 

1 KetpotTrrapot, from vapour fora, I fall away from the law, I transgress. 
For " sin is the transgression of the law." ED. 

2 See note, Eph. vi. 12. KoV,co? is the world, mundus, in its wide exten 
sion ; Ala* the age, sceculum, the present world, in its distinguishing cha 
racter, its course, and the estimate to be formed of it. ED. 

74 EPHESIANS II. 3-5. 

Acts xxvi. 18. sv roTg vtoT$ rr)$ awsideias, in the children of dis 
obedience or disbelief) Disobedience, or disbelief, in regard to 
the Gospel, shows of itself how powerful that spirit is. Akin 
to this is the phrase, children of wrath, ver. 3. Wrath abides 
upon unbelievers , John iii. 36. 

3. Ka/ JUA&TS) we also, viz. Jews. In the last times of the 
Old Testament sin had greatly prevailed, even among the Jews, 
in order that grace might more abound ; Rom. v. 6, 20 ; Tit. 
iii. 3; Luke i. 17, 79; Matt. iv. 16. avscrpd^^sv, we were 
conversant \_had our conversation or way of life]) This is some 
what more specious J [outwardly decorous] than to walk, ver. 2. 
rqg ffapxbc, of the flesh) without the Spirit of God. rtjs <tapxb<; xai 
ruv diavoiuv, of the flesh and of the thoughts) The thoughts imply 
the more subtle and practised purpose of sinning ; the flesh 
rushes on with a blind impetuosity [impulse]. pi<re/, by nature) 
Nature denotes the state of man without the grace of God in 
Christ. We owe this to our nature [although we have been 
Jews, Isa. i. 13. V. g.], that we are the children of ivrath. 
opyris, of ivrath) whilst we all the time thought that we were the 
children of God. The antithesis is in ver. 4. oi XOIKOI) 1 Thess. 
iv. 13 : the others, who do not believe, or at least not yet. 

4. nXourf/og, rich) "over all," Rom. x. 12. l^ szi a/a^v, in 
mercy love) Mercy takes away misery ; love confers salvation. 

5. K/, even) This is connected with you, when you were, ver. 
1. was, us) both, Jew T s and Gentiles. <rwgwocro/>j< rti Xpiffrti 
^dpiri sars csffufffA&voi, hath quickened together with Christ ; by grace 
ye are saved) Quickening precedes the " raising up " [ver. 6], 
and ch. i. 20 ; the raising up presupposes life. We were made 
alive at the time when Christ was made alive ; comp. 2 Cor. v. 
15, concerning the death of Christ, and so of the other steps. 
But when faith is received, all those things are applied to man 
by God, and they are considered as ratified by man. The 
apostle, enumerating this very order of salvation, shows that 
grace is the beginning and the end [proram et puppim] in this 
and in the eighth verse, and sometimes he uses indiscriminately 
the first and second person, on account of the equal footing of 

1 The Gentiles (ye) openly walked in sins. The Jews (we 7so), in the way 
of life and inward character, though not openly walking in the grosser sins 
of the former, were essentially like them in living to the flesh. ED. 

EPHESIANS II. 6-10. 75 

the Jews and Gentiles. r& Xptffrp, together with Christ) Hence 
He is the fountain-head, ver. 610. 

6. Swsxddiffsv, made us sit together) Believers are already 
spiritually raised ; they will be raised in the body ; and to each 
of the two resurrections the sitting in heavenly places corre 
sponds. They are not, indeed, present in heaven in the body, 
but they are so in point of right, and virtually in the spirit, and 
they have individually a seat expressly assigned to them, which 
is to be taken possession of at the proper time. They are for a 
while hidden in God ; Col. iii. 3. Iv roTg evrovpaviois, in the heaven- 
lies) He does not say, on the right hand. To Christ this is left as 
His own peculiar pre-eminence [prerogative]. Xpitrti ijj<roD, in 
Christ Jesus) In this sublime discourse, especially, Paul calls 
Him Christ Jesus ; oftener on other occasions, Jesus Christ. 

7. 9 Ev rots a/Ziffi ro?$ sKsp^ofAsvoig, in the ages to come) The 
plural, in opposition to the one bad age \_rlv aluva roiirou xltfjaou], 
ver. 2, which blessed ages effectually succeed [upon which the 
blessed ages come unexpectedly with power]. This expression 
is in accordance with Paul s idea regarding the last day, the 
approach of which he believed not to be immediate [2 Thess. 
ii. 2]. v<7rpj3d\Xovra, the exceeding) Rom. v. 20. 

8. T>3 xdp/n) ry has a relative meaning, in reference to ver. 
5, "xapin /ap, for) He does not say, therefore) but for, because 
he concludes [infers] from the effect to the cause. dia rr^c, 
viffnuc, by faith) which arises from the resurrection of Christ, 
chap. i. 19, 1 [whence it is not at all mentioned in ver. 5, but 
for the first time in ver. 8. See Col. ii. 12. V. g.] The 
antithesis is, not of works ; an antithesis of the same kind as 
that between grace and boasting [" lest any man should boast"]. 
xai rovro) and this, namely, believing, or faith, is not of your 
selves. The antithesis is : this is the gift of God alone. 

10. AuroD, of Him) of God. yap, for) He proves, that 
salvation is by faith, not of works, and that faith itself is 
entirely of the gift of God. cro/V,a, workmanship) The word 
rarely occurs in this sense, and its force is increased by the 

1 Which passage implies, not merely that faith believes in Christ s resur 
rection, but that also it is the same Spirit, which raised Jesus, which raises 
the spiritually dead and creates in them faith. Comp. " the power of the 
resurrection," Phil. iii. 10. ED. 

76 EPHESIANS II. 11, 12. 

s, created; comp. ver. 15, ["to make," or " create, in 
Himself of twain one new man"], made spiritually out of nothing. 
We are elsewhere said to be regenerated. Nothing produces 
nothing. Believers of after ages are not only 170 DJ?, a people 
born, Ps. xxii. 32 (31), but also K"QJj a people created, cii. 
19 (18). twi) for the sake of good works ; so that thenceforth 
at last we should devote ourselves to them. 1 On that ground, 
Paul never calls the works of the law good. o7$) o7$ sv avroTg, 
Di~Q ~\W$, for sv o7g, in which. ffpoyroifAaffw) The irpb ascribes the 
whole matter to God. firo iftaoev is used as a neuter verb with 
great force, LXX., 2 Chron. i. 4, on qroipaffev avry Aavid, because 
David made preparation for it. So uars Iroi^aGai avr&, so as to 
make ready for Him, Luke ix. 52. God hath so prepared? 
[Grace, therefore, with (as well as) salvation, precedes works. 
V. g.] ffspttfarjiauftsv, that we should walk) not, that ive should 
be saved, or, we should live. 

11. Mvj/ttovetifrg, remember) Such remembrance sharpens gra 
titude and strengthens faith, ver. 19. ra shy) D^n, the Gentiles. 
sv <rapx}, in the flesh) Paul purposely joins this expression with 
Gentiles, for the Jews simply called the Gentiles the uncircum- 
cision, not the uncircumcision in the flesh. o t \sy6/&svoi axpofSvffrfa, 
who are called uncircumcision) intended as a great insult to you. 
The word called, masc. and neut. (Xsyo/^svo/, Xeyo/Agi^s), applied 
to the uncircumcision and the circumcision, shows that these 
words are no longer in use, since the distinction is taken away. 
h&yoftevyig, called) This word is construed with the circumcision, 
apart from the epithet, in the flesh made by hands. 8 And the 
circumcision is used in the concrete for the people circumcised ; 
in the flesh made by hands, in the abstract. 

12. "On, that) On this word, you were [ver. 12], and you are 
made [ver. 13], depend ; but the particle is repeated from ver. 
11. xupls, without) The antithesis is in Christ, ver. 13. Their 

1 Postea demum, i.e. After we have been created anew in Christ, and not 
till then.ftD. 

2 Thus Beng. does not take irpovrrotftourw actively and governing , implied 
in o% (attracted to spyoi;) : but intransitively, " Created unto good works, in 
which (o/V w ot JToHs) God hath so prepared and ordered the matter, that we 
should walk." ED. 

3 i.e. "heya^ivng does not apply to these last words. ED. 

EPHESIANS II. 13, 14. 77 

misery is detailed under these three heads : without, and strangers 
and without God [a6eoi, atheists] : you were without Christ, with 
out the Holy Spirit, without God ; comp. ver. 18 and the follow 
ing verses ; ch. iii. 6, iv. 4, 5, notes. ^upis X?/<rroD, without Christ) 
He proves this in the following clause, being alienated from 
(airri hXoTpiuiJsivbi) ; nor does he say, aliens (aXXoY^/o/) : * comp. 
note at iv. 18. rJfe xoXir&iag rou iffpafa, from the polity of Israel) 
The whole commonwealth of Israel had respect to Christ. nal 
%svoi, and strangers) destitute of share in. ruv diatiqxuv ryg 
?<TayysX/a, the covenants of promise) God, the gift of Christ 
being presupposed, had above all promised the Holy Spirit ; 
i. 13 ; Gal. iii. 14, note ; Luke xxiv. 49 ; Acts ii. ; and the 
covenants had been subservient to that promise, Rom. ix. 4. 
This clause is proved by the following, having no hope ; for if 
they had had a promise, they would have had the hope corre 
sponding to it ; but they had no hope ; and therefore they had 
not even a promise. &6eoi, atheists) They had not come to the 
fixed opinion, that there were no gods ; for they had even Diana 
and Jupiter, Acts xix. 35 : but, so far were they from having 
the true God, 1 Thess. iv. 5, they were even ignorant of Him, 
who He was. He says first, you were out of [without] Christ ; 
afterwards he infers, you were ivithout God. Iv r& HOC/AM, in the 
world) Paul proves the latter also, that they were without God ; 
and he does so on the ground, that they wandered in the world, 
which is wide (2 Cor. i. 12), and vain (Luke xii. 30 ; John i. 
10, at the end), serving the creatures, enjoying the things, that 
perish, removed far off [from God]. 

13. Maxpav) far off from the people of God, and from God, 
ver. 17, note. />ar/, by the blood) ch. i. 7. 

14. Avrbs) He. 2 We have here Emphasis. 3 % s/pqvq) peace, 
not merely, the peace-maker ; for at the cost of Himself He pro 
cured peace, and He Himself is the bond of both (Israel and the 
Gentiles). 6) Apposition: Peace; He who hath made, etc. 
A remarkable saying, ver. 14-18. He imitates poetry [canti- 
cum, a song of joy] by the very tenor of the words, and almost 

1 Engl. Vers. loses this point by its rendering, aliens from. ED. 

2 He alone and pre-eminently. ED. 

3 See App. An addition to the ordinary meaning of a word, with the 
power of increasing its force on either side. 


by the rhythm. We have a description (a.) the union of the 
Gentiles with Israel, ver. 14, 15; and then (j3.) the union of the 
Gentiles and Israel, as now one man, with God, ver. 15, middle 
of verse ver. 18. The description of each is subdivided into 
two parts, so that the first may correspond to the first, concern 
ing the enmity that has been taken away ; the second to the 
second, concerning the ordinances of the Gospel. rn a/j,<p6repa,, 
both) The neuter for the masculine, ver. 18 [o/ a/jt,<p6rzpoi~], pro 
perly, because ev, one [neuter], follows. /^sfforoi^ov rov <ppay/uov, 
the partition wall of the fence [the middle wall of partition^) It 
is called rofyog, a wall, because the separating space between 
[Jews and Gentiles] was very strongly fortified ; p/?ay//^, a 
fence, because it is easily removed at the proper time. The 
partition wall separates houses ; the fence separates tracks of 
land ; comp. ver. 19. 1 Therefore the distinction between cir 
cumcision and uncircumcision is hinted at. The very structure 
of the temple of Jerusalem, was in conformity with it. The 
wall and the fence prevent an entrance; and the Gentiles were 
prevented from entering, inasmuch as they were not permitted 
to approach so near as the Israelites, even as those who were in 
the humblest rank. Xu<rag, who hath broken down) Who hath 
broken down ivho hath abolished, and not being repeated, very 
closely cohere. This short clause, and hath broken down, is ex 
plained in ver. 15, in the first half of the verse ; He hath 
abolished the enmity in His flesh ; comp. ver. 16, at the end. 
The law of commandments, which was properly adapted to the 
Israelites, He hath abolished, in the universal ordinances of 
grace ; 2 comp. ver. 17, at the beginning of the verse. 

15. TW t-^Qpav, enmity) The Jews held the Gentiles in abomi 
nation ; the Gentiles treated the Jews with scorn on account 
of circumcision, the Sabbath, etc. sv rip ffapx,} alrov, in His 
flesh) So, in one body, ver. 16, [i.e. by His suffering and death. 
V. g.] TOV vopov ruv SVTOA.UV) the law of commandments, viz. 
ceremonial. sv doy^affi, in ordinances, in decrees) belonging to 

1 Where %&VQI refers to the separation of countries by the fence, 
iroteotKoi to the separation of houses by the peaoToix,o$, or partition wall ; to 
which are opposed respectively avpTro /Cnai and olxs ioi. ED. 

2 But Engl. Vers. takes ev loypuaiv with ruv tvro huv, " the law of com 
mandments contained in ordinances." ED. 

EPHESIANS II. 16, 17. 79 

the Gospel, by which mercy was set forth to all. Col. ii. 14, 
note. [See the same words with the very same meaning, Acts 
xvi. 4, xv. 28. V. g.] xarapyfaas, having abolished) Each h 
[sv doypaoiv and ev rfi <rapx<~] is construed, as we have already inti 
mated, with this participle. Christ abolished, by ItLis flesh, the 
enmity ; [He abolished] the law of commandments by spread 
ing over the whole world the ordinances of the Gospel. But if 
the expression, in ordinances, belonged to svroXuv, of command 
ments, the expression, in His flesh, would not have been placed 
before, but after it. It is written, as it were, in the style of a 
lapidary [stilo lapidari]. 1 

v, the enmity, sv ry capxi avrov, in his flesh ; 

rbv vo/Aov TUV evro\uv, the law of sv doy/uaffiv, in ordinances, 


xarapyfjffac, having abolished. 

rovg duo, the two) He elegantly omits men ; for formerly they 
had scarcely maintained the name of men. The two, who were 
Jew and Greek. naivbv, new) by taking away the oldness of 
the letter. KOIUV, making) The participle making depends on the 
verb, might create (xr/jj) ; and having slain depends on might 
reconcile : each of them has the power of explaining, which is 
derived from what immediately precedes. e/pww, peace) This 
peace-making precedes its publication, ver. 17. 

16. *Ev tvi (tutsan, in one body} fixed to the cross. To this is 
to be referred in (by) one spirit, ver. 18 ; comp. iv. 4. a-roxrg/Vas 
ri]v s^dpav, having slain the enmity) By His death, He slew the 
enmity against God Himself. sv O,VT&) in Him, viz. in His 
body. 2 Comp. what goes before. 

17. E\duv, having come) from death, from His descent into 
hell, and from His resurrection, He, Himself a joyful conqueror, 
spontaneously 3 preached. A remarkable expression ; 2 Tim. i. 
10 ; John xiv. 18. sujjyyeX/Varo, preached) The verb for the 

1 The arrangement being such that the alternate pieces of stone match. 

2 Engl. Vers. has thereby, seemingly referring to the cross; "by it." But 
ver. 15, " Having abolished the enmity in His flesh " shows Bengel s view to 
be correct. ED. 

3 Implied in tK6uv. ED. 

80 EPHESIANS II. 18 20. 

participle ; comp. To/^as, ver. 14. He announced peace with His 
own mouth to the apostles, Luke xxiv. 36 ; John xx. 19, 21, 26 ; 
and by them to others. s/pyjv^v lif^Tv rote, {taxpav, jc.r.X.) Acts ii. 39, 
note. %ai ro/c) There is great elegance in mentioning s/pr^Vy 
peace, only once in this passage. The peace of both is undivided. 

18. "Or/, because) ~npo$ rbv Tlarspa) to the Father , as to [our] 
Father. In this verse mention is made of Christ, of the Spirit, 
of the Father, in the same order in which Christ, the Spirit of 
promise, and God, are referred to at ver. 12 ; [comp. ch. i. 3, 5]. 
In a different order [the Three Divine Persons are mentioned] 
in Rev. i. 4, 5. 

19. OV-/.STIJ no longer) Antithetic to their former state. gsi/o/, 
strangers) Its opposite is citizens, a metaphor derived from a city 
or state. <ra/>o/%o/, foreigners [* inquilini, sojourners in the city, 
from a foreign state]) Its opposite is, domestics [home-born mem 
bers of the household] : the metaphor is taken from a house. 
ruv ayfuvy of the saints) [the holy commonwealth] of Israel, ver. 
12 ; comp. iii. 18. ro\j sou, of God) Again the Holy Trinity 
is indicated, ver. 19 [God], 20 [Jesus Christ], 22 [the Spirit]. 

20. EvoixodQ/AriQsvrzg, built upon) A phrase frequent with Paul, 
writing to the Ephesians, iii. 18, (comp. Acts xx. 32) ; and to 
Timothy, bishop of Ephesus, a metaphor taken from architec 
ture; 1 Tim. iii. 15 ; 2 Tim. ii. 19. l<zl r& QepeMy, on the foun 
dation) As the foundation supports the whole building, so the 
testimony of the" apostles and prophets is the substruction or 
support of the faith of all believers ; by them the foundation 
was laid ; Christ Jesus is here said to be the head of the corner. 
The same Person is spoken of as the very foundation, 1 Cor. iii. 
11. Kccf Kpopyruiv, and prophets) Prophets of the New Testa 
ment, who are next to the apostles ; iv. 11, iii. 5. ovros cwpo- 
yuviafov auS, being chief corner stone of it) Paul briefly in 
dicates the passage in Isaiah xxviii. 16, as very well known ; 
comp. 1 Pet. ii. 6, note. Christ Jesus is the chief corner stone 
of the foundation. The participle ovros, at the beginning of this 
clause, is strongly demonstrative in the present tense. The 
pronoun auroD is to be referred to flg/xgXfy; 1 for if it were con- 

1 But Engl. Vers. takes it, Jesus Christ Himself, Beng. renders it, 
" Jesus Christ being the chief corner-stone of it" viz. of the foundation. 

EPHES1ANS II. 21.-IIT. 1, 2. 81 

strued with Xp/<rroD, it would be in this form : a-JroD TOT 1 X?/<rroD 
ij<roif, as we read avrbg 6 IWCCWTJC, x.r.X., with the article, 2 Matt, 
iii. 4 ; Mark vi. 17 ; Luke iii. 23, xxiv. 15, 36 ; John ii. 24, 
iv. 44 ; 2 Cor. xi. 14. 

21. Ev w, in whom) In Christ. This, by Anaphora [repetition 
to mark beginnings], is repeated in the following verse. mvap- 
poXo yovfAsvr) au%ei, fitly framed together, groweth) Words that have 
relation to a living mass, ch. iii. 18, note ; and 1 Pet. ii. 5. So 
ffvyap/AoXoyov/Asvov, fitly joined together, ch. iv. 16. 3 So the branch 
and the house are combined, Zech. vi. 12. i/aov, a temple) It is 
a house, and that too a holy house, to which the temple of 
Diana of Ephesus must yield. ay/ov, holy) i.e. of God, ver 22 
[which answers to d-yiov, ver. 21]. sv Kvpiu, in the Lord) in 
Christ. To this expression [ver. 21], the words, [through or] in 
the Spirit, correspond in ver. 22. So also ch. iii. 17, 16. 


1. Touroy %^/f) for this cause. This subject is resumed at 
ver. 14. \_Such is the rich abundance of the apostolic spirit. 
V. g.] o dsff juoi) The ambassador, and he too bound [a pri 
soner]. v*ip bftuv, for you) The persecutors were incensed against 
Paul s zeal in behalf of the Gentiles, so that they imprisoned 
him ; and his very bonds were profitable to the Gentiles, ver. 
13 ; 2 Tim. ii. 10. rv tfo&^for the Gentiles) This is explained 
in the following verses. 

2. E/ /s ?jxoi<rars, since 4 indeed ye have heard) The things which 

1 Whether the reading X.pttrrov Ijjo-ov or Iww XJB/OTOV should be preferred 
is left doubtful on the marg. of both Ed. The Germ. Vers. separates I*jroy 
by a parenthesis. E. B. 

2 AB Vulg. Memph. Orig. read the order Xptaroi IwoD. But D(A)G^ 
and Rec. Text have I>?ffoy X/5/<rroy. (Ace. to Lachm., C supports the former 
order. Ace. to Tischend., C supports the latter.) ED. 

3 It occurs nowhere else in New Test. The two images here are com 
bined of a building and of a living growing organism. ED. 

4 Or if: but the Indie, favours since ED. 

VOL. IV. * 


they had heard concerning Paul (comp. note on i. I 1 ) were a 
testimony that he, ver. 1, spoke the truth concerning himself. 

3. Kara vro?ca7.i-\j/;v, by revelation) Gal. i. 12 ; Acts ix. 3, 4. 
tyvupuf s pot) made known to me) God, by His grace. 

the mystery) of Christ ; see the following verses. 

l\ ij w) / wrote before, in a few words. He refers to i. 9, 10, and 

he repeats the words from that passage here. 

4. Upbg 6, whereby) This expression is not exclusively to be 
referred to in a few words, but to the whole thought ; and "rpbg 
marks the analogy, according to [" from which ye may under 
stand"] : as in the common saying, the size of the lion may be 
inferred from the size of his claw. 2 From what I have written 
above, you may, etc. 8vva60e 9 you may) The word is modestly 
and ingenuously used. dvayivuffxovTsg, when you read) This book 
is very sublime, and yet it is put into the hands of all to be read. 
voyffai rr,v cwsffiv ftov, understand my knowledge [perceive my 
understanding in]) and therefore profit by me. Paul wrote with 
greater plainness and sublimity in this epistle, than he had for 
merly done in any other. 

5. "o, which) This refers to ver. 3, as the repetition of the verb 
yvupi^u, I make known, indicates. srspais ywaTc, in other ages) 
Time in the ablative, as Acts xiii. 36. ovx eyvup usQq, was not 
made known) He does not say ovx airsxahvp&r)) was not revealed. 
Making known by revelation (ver. 3) is the source of making 
known by preaching. Revelation is somewhat more special; 
making known, is done in the hearing of others also : revelation is 
only made to the prophets. roTg u)o?g ruv avOpuwv, to the sons of 
men) A very wide appellation, expressing the cause of ignorance, 
natural descent, to which the Spirit is opposed ; comp. Matt, 
xvi. 17. He speaks of their former state in the idiom of the 
Hebrew language. Moreover, the antithesis of the apostles and 
prophets of the New Testament to the sons of men leads to the 
conclusion, that by this appellation the ancient prophets are prin- 

1 Viz. They had heard of his bonds, and of his being persecuted by the Jews 
for his preaching to the Gentiles. This hearing was not restricted to the 
Ephesians ; but applies to all, to whom, in the different churches, this ency 
clical letter was to be carried by Tychicus. ED. 

2 Joh. Michaelis quotes a similar phrase from Thucydides : vpos rdt$ 

they suspected him by reason of his letters. E. B. 


cipally intended ; for example, Ezekiel, who is often called D1^ p, 
son of man, and has copiously described the city and house of 
God, as Paul does in this place. Iv nvsu^ar/, in the Spirit) the 
gift of whom was reserved for the New Testament, with a view 
to the glorifying of Christ. 

6. EJvai) that the Gentiles are; and that they should be. 
<ruyxXjgovo>a, felloiv-heirs) in the inheritance of God. tvoffupa, of 
the same body) under the head Christ. oi^sro^a r^g IcrayyeX/as, 
fellow partakers of His promise) in the communion of the Holy 
Spirit. The same fjt,ero%Ji 9 participation, is mentioned Heb. vi. 4 ; 
the same promise, ch. i. 13 [" that Holy Spirit of promise"] : 
comp. on the Trinity, ch. iv. 4, 5, 6, 18, 21, 30 ; v. 1, 2, 18 ; 2 
Cor. xiii. 14. sv r& Xf ior&, in Christ) Construe with, should be. 1 

7. Oi>, of which) viz. the Gospel. xara r^v evspytiav, according 
to the working) ver. 20 ; ch. i. 19. 

8. T& IXa^/tfroripw, less than the least) The idea of the name 
Paul, 2 increased by a comparative which rises higher than even 
the superlative ; whereby it is implied that he scarcely reckons 
himself among the saints. This is modestly and very elegantly 
expressed. ruv ayiuv, of the saints) The saints here are opposed 
to the Gentiles ; comp. the note on Acts xx. 32. dvgg/^/affrov, 
unsearchable [never capable of being fully traced out]) ver. 18, 19. 
There is a similar epithet found at ver. 10, manifold. irXovrov, 
riches) Here heavenly riches are commended ; presently after, 
wisdom, ver. 10. 

9. <x>wr/Va/) to make see, to show ; comp. Col. i. 28. For min, 
LXX. purify, 2 Kings xii. 3, and in other places. rig % o/xovo^/ a, 
what is the dispensation) Col. i. 25, 26. [The reading oixovo/j,fa, is 
acknowledged by the most earnest defenders of the more received 
readings? Not. Crit.] ev rti Qe&, in God) An antithesis to 
creatures, even the most excellent, ver. 10. r& ra 

1 But Engl. Y. connects thus : "His promise in Christ. 1 " ED. 

2 Paulus seems to be derived by Beng. from paulus, a diminution of 
paucus, little. This would give point to the k^ot-^iaroripu ; not only paulus, 
little, but less than the least ; but the Roman name, Paulus, probably had 
no connection with the adj. paulus. Cruden makes Paul Hebrew = a 
worker : as his former name Saul = a sepulchre, or destroyer. ED. 

3 Rec. Text has xotvuvia, with hardly any authority. So Engl. V. the 
fellowship. But ABCD(A)G^r Vulg. Hilary 54, read oUovoftfoi. ED. 

84 EPHESIANS III. 10-15. 

who created all things} The creation of all things is the founda 
tion of all the rest of the economy, most freely dispensed, accord 
ing to the universal power of God. The expression, all things, 
includes rue, d^ag, x.r.X., principalities, etc. 

10. NDi/) note, first : comp. ver. 5. ruJi c, dpyj^ zai TCUC, l^ou<r//f, 
to the principalities and powers) good, or even bad ; but in a dif 
ferent way to the one, as compared with the other. dice, by) 
from those things which happen to the Church ; for it (the 
Church) is the theatre in which the Divine works are displayed. 
Comp. 1 Cor. iv. 9. coXu-ro/x/Xog) Syr. Vers. renders it, full of 
varieties. <rop/a, wisdom) The angels are particularly conversant 
about this object. 

11. Hpo&sffiv ruv aittvuv, the purpose of the ages [eternal purpose"]) 
concerning the ages, and before the ages, 2 Tim. i. 9. fi/, which) 
Tins refers to vpodtGiv, purpose. qpuv, our, of us) viz. believers, 
who are the Church. 

12. Tqv Kappqffiav, liberty) of the mouth, in praying. rfiv 
jrpoectyuyrtv Iv <7rt<xoi&r l Gti, access, admission in confidence) in reality 
and with the heart. 

13. A/YoD//,a/) / desire, 1 ask God : comp. ver. 20, 12. So, 
asking absolutely, Col. i. 9 ["We do not cease desiring (a/Votive/) 
for you :" viz. desiring God ]. w exzaweTv, not to faint) that I 
may not prove wanting [that there be no defect on my part], 
but that I may speak boldly and allure many. The infinitive 
referring to the same person as the finite verb / ask. 2 0x/^<r/ 
pou wre? vfttav, in my afflictions for you) ver. 1. o6%a) [your] 
glory spiritual ; inasmuch as your faith is assisted thereby [1 
Cor. iv. 10]. 

14. Ka/xcrrw rd yovard j&ov, I bend my knees) If Paul had been 
present, he would have bent his knees with a breast kindling 
into a glow of devotion. Acts xx. 30. crars/pa) Its conjugate is 

15. Ej ou) of Whom, viz. the Father of Jesus Christ. The 
foundation of all sonship is in Jesus Christ. T<ra) the whole, of 

1 Not, I desire you not to faint,"etc. ; but, * I ask of God that /may not 
faint." ED. 

2 If the Engl. V. were right, I desire that ye faint not," there would 
have been vp&s expressed : but as it is not, the nom. of the finite verb is 
naturally the subject of the infin. which follows. ET>. 

EPHESIANS III. 16-18. 85 

angels, of Jews, of other men. irarpia) family, depending on 
Him as the [its] Father. Comp. varpia, Luke ii. 4 ; Acts iii. 
25. ovofA&fsrat, is named) In the passive or middle voice. They 
are called the sons of God by God Himself, and delight in this 
name, Isa. xliv. 5, comp. I will call, Rom. ix. 25, 26. 

1 6. Awufjt,si, with might) This accords with the mention of the 
Spirit. sic Tftv <tu civ8pu<rov, in the inner mail) The inner man is 
the man himself with all his faculties, considered as to the things 
within, ch. iv. 22, 24 ; 1 Pet. iii. 4. The inner man is to the Spirit 
of God what the hearts of the saints are to Christ, ver. 17. The 
inner men is mostly taken in a good sense ; because with the 
wicked all things are in full harmony with wickedness, and there 
is no need of limitation or distinction. 1 The Scripture has re 
gard chiefly to things internal. The Chiasmus must be noticed : 
in the first sentence we have, that He would grant to you ; in the 
second, to dwell ; in the third, in love that you may be able : 
in the fourth, that you might be filled. The third relates to the 
second, the fourth to the first. In the first and fourth God is 
mentioned ; in the second and third, Christ. If we suppose a 
colon placed after avtipuvov and after Xpiffrot, the matter will be 

17. Karo/xJjffs/) that Christ may dwell for ever. It is without 
any connecting particle [Asyndeton]. Where the Spirit of God 
is, there also is Christ. 

18. Ev ayaK-fo in love) of Christ : ver. 19, note. eppifypevoi 
xa,} r0,ttgX/w//,i>o/, rooted and founded [grounded]) The root is, of 
a tree the foundation, of a house. A Syllepsis 2 precedes, which 

1 i.e. Both the inward and outward man are all of one kind in the bad, 
viz. they are all alike bad. Whereas in the godly there is a distinction 
between the inward new nature and the old nature, which, though still in 
them, is, as it were, something foreign and external to them, and no longer 
constituting their true and inner self. P^D. 

2 A syllepsis is when the regular syntax of the parts of the sentence is set 
aside, so that more regard in the construction is paid to the sense, in the 
mind of the writer, than to the words and their connection. As here the 
nom. eppigapivoi is put as if the sentence were, " that you may have Christ 
dwelling in your heart, etc., you being rooted." etc. As the sentence stands, 
syntax would require epptgafteinav to agree with vpav. I think there is at 
traction exercised by the k^ia-^vaYns. as if eipt. were agreeing with its sub 
ject. En. 


must thus be explained : that you may have Christ dwelling in 
you, being rooted, comp. Col. ii. 2, note ; unless the Nominative 
rather agrees with you may be able, 1 as the ardour of Paul was 
eagerly intent on what follows. So, in the middle of the sentence, 
if and how are placed, 1 Cor. xi. 14, 15, xiv. 7, 16 ; and /va itself, 
that, 1 Cor. xiv. 12 ; 2 2 Cor. ii. 4 ; but the words which precede 
these particles render the earnest striving [of his prayers] very 
emphatic. !{-/fl%6<j jjr) you may be able: even still further. 
xaraXajSsffQai) to attain, to comprehend. ri rb K\dro$ xat wxog 
xai (3a6o$ xai u-vj/og, what is the breadth and length and depth and 
height) These dimensions of the spiritual temple refer to the ful 
ness of God, ver. 19, to which the Church according to its capa 
city ought to correspond ; comp. ch. iv. 10, 13, concerning Christ. 
For the breadth of the fulness and of the love of Christ is signi 
fied, and that too in respect of all men and all peoples ; and its 
length, extending through all ages, ver. 21: as also its depth, 
which no creature can fathom ; and its height, iv. 8, such as no 
enemy can reach. Comp. Ps. cxvii. In regard to this breadth, 
length, depth, height, all which are one magnitude, there is no 
thing broad, long, deep, high in any creature. By Chiasmus 
the order of the ideas is, love [ver. 17], breadth [length, depth, 
height, ver. 18] : [then in ver. 19] love, fulness; of these four, 
the third corresponds to the first, therefore the second to the 
fourth. In ver. 19 the love is at length expressly mentioned; 
but in ver. 18 the fulness of God in itself; but this very fulness 
is also tinctured with love. 

19. Tvuva/ rs rw v<7rp@d\\ouGav rJjg yvwtfswg, x.r.X., and to know 
what passes knowledge, etc.) This clause also depends on that you 
may be able. This is a very charming correction of himself, so 
to speak ; 3 he had said, to know : he immediately denies that our 
knowledge can be considered adequate ; we know only this, that 
love is more abundantly rich than our knowledge. The love of 
Christ to us always exceeds our knowledge ; and so in ver. 20 

1 The margin of both Ed. favours this connection of the words, and the 
Germ. Vers. agrees with it. E. B. 

2 ^Y t Ti7ri ivce, KtptGasvyTt, for >JT. tvee. vrtpiffff. sv OIKO^O^YI. So 

here eppiga/xevot ivct gf/o^o-jjrg, for "ivot, Ippi^u^vot t&fffc ED. 

3 See App. When we take away what has been said, and put in something 
better or more important : correctio. 

EPHESIANS III. 20, 21. 87 

the power of God exceeds our knowledge. /Va, that) without a 
conjunction ; comp. /Va, that, ver. 18. Spiritual knowledge and 
fulness are joined together. sis, unto 1 ) This is the goal. 

20. Tnip tfdvra) Kavrat, is governed by cro/?5<ra/, whence we? is 
put adverbially, as presently after vKspsxtftpiffffov, and iiirspXiav, 2 
Cor. xi. 5 ; wetp may however be construed with -ravra : comp. 
ch. i. 22, where Mp navm means, that which is above all : this 
[His exaltation as Head of the Church] is above all exaltation, 
that He Himself is the Head of the Church, etc. 2 vKepex<7rspi<fffov, 
exceedingly abundant) Construe with to do. uv) The Genitive is 
governed by the comparative, which is contained in Ktputffov. 
r\ voovftsv, or think) Thought takes a wider range than prayers. A 
gradation. %ar, according to) Paul appeals to their and his 

21. 9 Ev ry\ sxxXriffici, in the Church) ver. 10. sig vdffas, into all) 
ver. 11, ch. ii. 7 : comp. again Ps. cxvii. Into all generations, 
which 6 ai&v, the age, comprehends, and which terminates in the 
everlasting ages, rove, aiuva$. rag ytvsac, generations) A generation 
is properly a period of human life, whilst we proceed from parents 
to children ; aluveg are periods of the Divine economy, passing on 
as it were from one scene to another. Here both words, for the 
sake of amplification, with a metaphor in yevea, generation, are 
joined together, so that a very long time may be implied. For 
there are in aiuve$ no longer generations. 31 

1 Not with, as Engl. V. ; but, " that ye may be filled even as far as unto 
all the fulness of God." ED. 

2 Beng. would render ch. i. 22, " He hath given Him to be Head over 
the Church, an elevation which is above every other kind of elevation 

7fO,V1Ct). ED. 



1. *O felloe, the prisoner) The bonds of Paul were subservient 
to the calling of the Ephesians ; and these ought to be so affected 
by them (his bonds) as to delight Paul with their obedience ; a 
striking instance of feeling, r t Qo$. Iv Kvplu, in the Lord) construed 
with prisoner. 7% xX^tfswj, of the vocation) ver. 4. This is de 
rived from ch. i. 18 ; nay, rather from ch. i., ii., and iii. [For the 
second part of the epistle begins here, comprehending exhortations, 
and especially those which flow from the doctrine already discussed. 

-V. g.] Comp. Col. iii. 15. 

2. Msra fj^sra, with with) To these refer the two following 
participles, avz%6/j,svoi, cKouddfyvrsc, forbearing, endeavouring dili 
gently, which, being in the nominative, depend on the preceding 
imperative implied, walk ye. \_The man, who is affected, as he 
ought to be, with a sense of the Divine calling, will be found to be 
adorned with the virtues mentioned in this passage,- 1 Pet. iii. 9 ; 
Phil. i. 27. V. g.] cratfTjg, with all) To be construed also with 
meekness [Vfaunjros] (as well as with raxsivoppoGuvyg, loivliness), 
Col. iii. 12, 13. ramivotppocvvris, lowliness of mind) From a sense 
of grace, Rom. xi. 20. z\> aya^y), in love) In the bond of peace, 
ver. 3, corresponds to this expression. " In love" occurs again, 
ver. 15, 16. And here, love is preached [inculcated] : faith, in 
ver. 5 ; hope, in ver. 4. 

3. Typify to keep) Even where there is no division, there is 
need of admonitions. rr,v kvorqra, the unity} So far as we are 
concerned, for the Holy Spirit in Himself remains one, ver. 4. 
ev TU> ffuvdsmy, in the bond) The bond, by which peace is main 
tained, is love itself; Col. iii. 14, 15. 

4. "Ef tfw^a 6v nvsu/Aa, one body and one Spirit) In the 
Apostles Creed, the article relating to the Church properly follows 
the article relating to the Holy Spirit. xal sv 9 and one) Spirit, 
Lord, God and Father : the Trinity ; comp. the following verses. 
sv fj.iu gX-r/5/, in one hope) The Spirit is the earnest, and there 
fore the hope of the inheritance is joined with the mention of His 

EPHESIANS IV. 5-8. 89 

5. M/a <7fi(Srig, ev {SdnrKSpa, one faith, one baptism) into Christ, 
the Lord. Sometimes baptism, sometimes faith, is put first ; 
Markxvi. 16; Col. ii. 12. 

6. ndvruv, of all) This word occurring thrice, and naffiv pre 
sently after, both are masculine ; for all are reduced to unity 
[are brought together as one, under the one God and Father]. 
k jfi) high above all with His grace.- did, ndvruv) Working 
throughout ally through [by means of] Christ. ev oratf/t/, 1 ) in all 
dwelling, in (i.e., by) the Holy Spirit. 

7. A?, but) The antithesis is the word one [sTg Kupioc and tv 
fi&irrnrpa, t7g s6s] in the foregoing verses. 2 edify, has been given) 
This is taken from the psalm in the following verse. 

8. Af/g/, he says) David, nay, rather God Himself, Ps. Ixviii. 
(19) 20, dv&/3rig eig v-^og, rj^j^aXuirsuffag a/%/j,aXuffiav sXa(3$g bo/uara, 
sv dv&putfu. Some also in the LXX. read avafidg. But in the 
version of the LXX. that reading is generally inferior, which too 
closely agrees with the text of the New Testament, because it 
has been (probably) made to be in conformity to it. U-vJ/og, on 
high) So the heavens are called in Hebrew poetry ; likewise in 
Is. xxxii. 15. ^aaXwrs-uKTs a/^aaXwtf/av, led captivity captive) A. 
frequent repetition ; for example, 2 Chron. xxviii. 5. Here the 
forces of hell are denoted, 2 Pet. ii. 4, that are opposed to men. 
Christ, at His ascension, led them captive ; nor, however, does it 
fare the better for that reason with the malefactor, who is to be 
tried for his life, when he is led from prison to the forum or 
court of justice. This leading captive did not interfere with their 
condition in hell ; [it gave them no respite from torment.] If 
ever there had been for them any hope of escape, that would have 
been the time ; comp. ch. vi. 12, and Col. ii. 15. Nor does every 
ascension, but only the ascension which has captivity taken cap 
tive joined with it, presuppose and infer a descent into the lower 
parts of the earth. iduxe do^ara, He gave gifts) To this expres- 

1 ABC Memph. read h * only. DGfg Vulg., both Syr. Versions, 
Iren., Firmilian ad Cypr. 150, Hilary, add ^ij>. Rec. Text, with no very 
old authority, reads vftlv. ED. 

The larger Ed. had preferred the omission of the pronoun, whether 
vfAtv or iiftiv ; but the Germ. Vers., following the decision of the 2d Ed., re 
ceived the pronoun ^7i/. E. B. 

2 i.e. Though there is one Lord, etc., to us all. yet to each of us there is 
given grace according to, etc. ED. 

90 EPHESIANS IV. 9-11. 

sion may be referred He gave, ver. 11, and is given, and of the 
gift, ver. 7. In Hebrew, nnp7 is an abbreviated expression ; to 
wit, Christ received gifts, which He might immediately give. 
Comp. np^>, Gen. xv. 9 [" Take me an heifer," abbreviated for, 
Take and sacrifice to me] ; 2 Kings ii. 20 ; where sudden action 
is denoted by a concise expression ; so Xafi sruffav cot, Ex. xxvii. 
20 ; Lev. xxiv. 2. roTs avfyuvois, for men) The dative of advan 
tage for DlfcO. Gifts are of advantage, not only to those who 
receive them, but to all. 

9. To ds, a/spy, Now this fact, namely, that He ascended) Paul 
proves that the language of the psalm is to be referred to Christ ; 
and the ascension is inferred from the descent ; John iii. 13. 
All beheld the sojourn of the Son of God upon the earth : they 
ought, from this fact, to have believed His ascension, which they 
did not see. There is a similar mode of reasoning at Acts ii. 29, 
etc., xiii. 36, 37 ; and especially at Heb. ii. 8, 9. The humble 
characteristics predicated of the Messiah were fulfilled in Jesus ; 
therefore the glorious things also predicated of the Messiah ought 
to be referred to Him. xarefiTi npurov, He first descended) Paul 
takes for granted the Deity of Christ ; for those who are of the 
earth, although they did not previously descend, obtain the pri 
vilege of ascent. sis ra xarurspa ptpr} rr\c, y?\g) not merely to the 
earth itself, but to the loivest parts of the earth [so that through 
all its depths nothing did He leave unvisited; comp. ver. 10. V.g.] 
The highest heavens, or all the heavens, are opposed to the lowest 
parts of the earth, or to all parts of the earth. Christ, by His 
own power, took possession of all, first of the earth, then of 
heaven. Men are joined with the mention of the earth ; the cap 
tivity is joined with the mention of the lower parts. r%g y5j$, of 
the earth) in which men are. 

10. Avrbg) He, not another. vvzpdvu ^dvruv ruv ovpavuv, far 
above all heavens) A very sublime expression. Christ not only 
ascended into heaven, Mark xvi. 19, but through the heavens, 
Heb. iv. 14, note; above all heavens ; the heaven [heavens] of heavens, 
Deut. x. 14. wXTjpwtfjj, might fill) by His presence and opera 
tions, ivith Himself. ra vavra) all things, the lowest and the 
highest ; comp. Jer. xxiii. 24, where also the LXX. use the word 

11. Aurog, He himself) by His supreme power. This 



is repeated from ver. 10. Ministers have not given themselves. 
[ The apostle, we might think, takes a wonderful leap in descend 
ing to these from the comprehensive subject of the whole universe, 
just now spoken of. He no doubt has regard to the body of 
Christ. In like manner, ch. i. 22 (after having just before 
spoken o principality, power, might, etc.) V. g.] anoffToXovg 
irpo<pqra$ suayygX/rfraj, x.r.X., apostles prophets evangelists, etc.) 
Inferior offices might be conjoined with the highest grades ; for 
example, the apostle John acted at the same time as a prophet 
when he wrote the Apocalypse, and as an evangelist in the 
Gospel ; but not the contrary [" vice versa," the highest offices 
joined with the lowest grades]. All the apostles had also at the 
same time the prophetic power. Only that the very high de 
gree of prophecy, by which the Apocalypse was written, was 
peculiar to John. But prophets and evangelists were not also 
at the same time apostles. The prophet takes precedence of 
the evangelist ; for the prophet testifies infallibly of the future, 
the evangelist infallibly of the past : the prophet derives all 
from the Spirit ; the evangelist puts on record a matter which 
has been perceived by the senses of sight and hearing, and 
yet he is fitted for an office of the highest importance, by a 
gift superior to that of pastors and teachers. Workers of miracles 
are not added here ; for their actions have now somewhat less 
reference to the perfecting, etc. And perhaps already, before 
the last days of the apostles, the gift of miracles was more rarely 
exercised ; comp. Heb. ii. 4. ffoipsvas xai didatfxdXovg, pastors 
and teachers) The appellation of shepherd (pastor) is everywhere 
else given to the Lord alone. Pastors and teachers are here 
joined ; for they chiefly feed by teaching, as also by admonition, 

12. Upbg eig tig, to [ad, towards] for for [in, for the 
end, unto. Engl. Vers. renders all for]) To this refer, into, 
unto, unto [as respectively answering to the previous vpbc, s!$, ei$], 
in the following verse ; although to [npbs, ad, towards ], and 
into [tig, in, unto, or into ], somewhat differ, Kom. xv. 2. 1 
The office of the ministry is denoted in this verse ; in the fol- 

1 E/ dyatQw irpos o/^oSo^t/, unto his good, towards edification. The for 
mer expressing the internal end in respect to God : the latter, the external 
end in respect to man. ED. 

f>2 EPHESIANS IV. 13. 

lowing, the goal which the saints have in view ; in ver, 14, 15, 
16, the way of growth ; and each of these has three parts, 
expressed in the same order. There are three paragraphs, 
divided severally into three parts. The first three parts have a 
mutual relation ; then the second three ; lastly, the third ; and 
all without a Chiasmus. xaraprigftbv, perfecting [* aptationem, 
the mutual adaptation ]) This in the greatest degree has the effect 
of producing unity. 

13. Msyspi, till) Not even the apostles thought themselves to 
have reached the goal, Phil. iii. ; much less the Church. They 
had always to go forward, not to stand still, much less to fall 
behind. And now the Church must not contemplate from 
behind the idea of its own excellence, but keep before its eyes 
that idea as a future one, which is yet to be attained. Attend 
to this, ye who do not so much follow antiquity as make it an 
excuse. xaravrfaupsv, till we arrive at) This tense, following 
the past tense, is imperfect [He gave some apostles, etc,, till, 
and in order that, we all might arrive at]. This ought to have 
already taken place at the time when Paul wrote ; forfaith [which 
he speaks of, " the unity of the faith"] belongs to travellers. 1 c/ 
vdvrz^all, viz. the saints. MC, s/g sl^unto unto unto) [Asyn 
deton] The repetition is without a connective particle. The 
natural age (life) grows up towards wisdom, strength, and 
stature. The things which correspond to these in the spiritual 
age (life), are, unity of faith, the mind strengthened [ver. 13, 
Ts\stov avfya, and ver. 16, answer to this], and the fulness of 
Christ. svorriraij unity) This unity is placed in friendly opposition 
to the variety of gifts, and to the whole body [" \ve all" ] of the 
saints ; and the contrary of this unity is every wind, ver. 14. 
r^g Kjffr&ug KOLI rr t g swyvuffsus, of faith and knowledge) These two 
words both agree and differ ; for knowledge means something 
more perfect than faith. rt>5 r/oC rou sou, of the Son of God) 
The highest point in the knowledge of Christ is, that He is the 
Son of God. ei$ avdpa rsXsiov, to a perfect man) The concrete 
for the abstract ; for unity and measure are abstract nouns : 

1 The sense seems, though not very clear, owing to Bengal s extreme 
brevity, All ought to have been by this time on the one and the same path 
of faith. For faith is the distinguishing characteristic of those who, as 
travellers, are seeking to arrive at the goal. ED. 

EPHEStANS IV. 14, 15. 93 

concerning perfection, comp. Phil. iii. 15. ^X/x/ct?, of the stature) 
that Christ may be all and in all : fam/a, spiritual stature is 
the fulness of Christ. 

14. Myjxsri) that we may be not, as formerly and as yet. 
VJJT/O/, children) NJJT/O/, children, are opposed to a man in the second 
degree, and to a young man in the first : a perfect man, who 
can no longer increase in stature, but yet in other respects be 
comes more perfect ; a child, who scarcely begins to grow. 
xX&dftw^M4vo/, tossing to and fro [as billows]) inwardly, upward 
and downward, even without wind. xspipspo/tsvoi <xdvri dvs^u, 
carried about with every wind) outwardly [with every wind that 
comes from without], hither and thither, others assaulting us, 
wptfcfr by the sleight) A metaphor taken from the player at dice, 
who frames his cast of the dice, so that the numbers may always 
turn up which may suit his purpose. /cw0od/av) The Methodists 
of the Church of Rome are much disposed to use this word : 
see ch. vi. 11 [where rag {teQodsias is expressly joined to rov 
diafSoXov], note. Add D. Michaelis Inaugural Dissertation on 
the exertions and methods (tricks) of the Church of Rome. 
rye K\dv7)g, 1 of error) i.e. of Satan. The Metonymy of 
the abstract [for the concrete : error, for the Parent of error, 
Satan] expresses the concealed mode of acting which the 
enemy uses. 

15. AXi;4f6omf, speaking the truth) In antithesis to error 
[irXdvYig]. On this same word, truth, see ver. 21, 24. sv ay any, 
in love) by which the body is compacted together. Here we have 
the beginning [the prow], and in ver. 16 the end [the stern : 
prora puppis~\. The words, speaking the truth, and in love, are 
conjoined. The latter is the more simple. av%7)<ru>j,sv, we may 
grow) This depends on that (/Va), in ver. 14. This av^fftg, in 
crease, [as it is expressed in] ver. 16, comes in between the [state 
of] children [ver. 14] and that of the full-grown man [avfya r&Xeiov, 
ver. 13]. e<$ avrbv, into Him) Paul has Jesus in his mind, and 
first says Him, and then afterwards shows of whom he is speak 
ing. rd iravra, all things) supply Kara, according to, in : we 

1 Ej/ vetvovpyta, Trpo; TVJV petiodeioiv rq$ TrXavYi;, " by craftiness, with a view 
to a methodized plan of deception." Beng., however, because of the anti 
thesis uvfyuvuv, takes Tc ha.vvig = Satan, and perhaps takes the sense thus, 
By the methodized craftiness of the (parent of) error." ED. 


severally, one and all, in all things. of, who) This refers to 
Christ. The Head is put in the way of a distinct clause. 1 6 
Xpiarbc, Christ) Ploce, 2 emphatic [the Christ]. For previously 
it had been said, into Him; though o Xpwrbg is nevertheless 
afterwards mentioned at the end very emphatically, as if he 
were to say, Christ is (the) Christ. To Him all things are to 
be referred. 

16. Eg, from) The source of growth. ovvaip/AoXo yobfAsvov xat 
ffv/j,[3/[3afy/Asvov) the body fitly joined together and compacted; 
the concrete for the abstract ; i.e. the compacting and joining 
together of the body by right conformation and solid compact 
ing together : ffuvapfAoXciyovfAsvov refers to what is according to 
rule, so that all the parts may be rightly fitted in their proper 
position and in mutual relation ; (rupfiipafoftevov denotes at once 
firmness and consolidation. bia ira,Gr t s >?? rfg s^i^op^ yiai) 
[ u By every handle of mutual assistance." Engl. Vers. By that 
which every joint supplietli\. In the wrestling ground the / 
are the means by which the antagonist to be assailed is laid hold 
of; for the opponents threw over each other dust and sand, so 
that each might be able to seize his adversary, even though the 
latter was anointed with oil. Here the means [handles] of 
mutual assistance are called apai r%g s^i^op^/iag. A/a, by, con 
strued with <7ro/g/ra/, makes. 5 xar !vs/?yg/av, according to the work 
ing) The power ought also to be put into active exercise ; comp. 
%ar rqv ev spysiav, ch. i. 19, iii. 7. But the article is wanting 
in this place ; because he is speaking of the particular efficacy of 
single members. 4 svbs t%d<rrov, of each one) To be construed 
with sv spysiav b /uerpu. rov ffu/uaroc, of the body) The noun for 
the reciprocal pronoun [viz. increase of itself, eavrov] ; therefore 

1 Beng. seems to translate thus : " Grow up unto Him, who is Christ, 
the Head." Not as Engl. V., Unto Him, wlio is the Head, (even) Christ. 

2 See App. The same word, Christ (Him, ver. 15, = Christ, ver. 13), twice 
put; previously as the proper name : here as an appellative, or distinguish 
ing title. ED. 

3 "Makes increase by every handle of mutual assistance." But Engl. V. 
joins it with ffVf&fyfiot^ofteiHiv, compacted l>y that which every joint supplieth. 

4 Whereas in ch. i. 19 he speaks of the general working of God s power. 

EPHESIANS IV. 17-19. 95 

is used, not -To/g^. 1 sv ay airy, in love) Construe witli the 
edifying of itself. 

17. ToS olv X eyv, this I say then) He returns to the point 
with which he set out, ver. 1. pyx sri vpag ntptirartTv, that ye 
henceforth walk not) This is an antithesis to ver. 1. sv paraiorqri, 
in vanity) The root of such walking, departure from the know 
ledge of the true God, Rom. i. 21 ; 1 Thess. iv. 5 : in (sv) is to 
be construed with they walk pdvjj vepiirartfy not with u/*a; 
flrep/flrargfo]. Vanity is explained at large in ver. 18 ; walking in 
ver. 19. 

18. EffxonfffA&voi rfi diavoiaovr&g, Having the understanding dark 
ened) This verse has four clauses. The third is to be referred 
to the first, and in it ovffav answers to ovreg ; the fourth, to the 
second. For ovreg is connected also in Tit. i. 16, as here, with 
the preceding epithet [jS&Xuxro/ ovrt$]. The participles, darkened, 
alienated, take for granted, that the Gentiles, before they had 
revolted from the faith of their fathers, nay rather before Adam s 
fall, had been partakers of light and life ; comp. be renewed, ver. 
23. 2 r%g w?j, the life) of which, ch. ii. 5. roD sou, of God) 
The spiritual life is kindled in believers from the very life of 
God. 3 <7rwpuffiv [Engl. Vers. blindness], hardness) The antithesis 
is life : life and feeling (opposed to hardness) exist and fail to 
gether. Comp. Mark iii. 5, note. Hwpuais, hardness, is contra 
distinguished from blindness, where the latter is . expressly 
noticed ; otherwise it includes it in itself. xapdiag, of heart) 
Rom. i. 21. 

19. A.xvpi- ynxfait) A very significant term, in which pain 
(aXyog) is used by Synecdoche for the whole sensibility of the 
affections and understanding, whether painful or pleasant. For 
pain urges us to seek the means of a cure ; and when the pain 
is removed, not only hope, but also the desire and thought of 
good things are lost, so that a man becomes senseless, shameless, 
hopeless. That constitutes hardness, ver. 18. Despairing (Des- 

1 The middle being reflexive, i.e. the object relating to the same person as 
the subject. ED. 

2 Implying a previous state of innocence. ED. 

3 A/ rv\v &y vo ton/, n account of the ignorance) This of itself is the com 
mencement of their wretched condition. Rom. i. 21, 23, [also ver. 28]. 

% EPHKSIANS IV. 20, 21. 

perantes), in the Vulgate and Syriac Version, is worthy of con 
sideration, and illustrates its signification. In this way r, avaXywia, 
(insensibility) and r\ awyvuffig (despair) are conjointly noted by 
Chrysostom, Homil. vi.,on Heb.iii. 13. But the very word a<xa\ye?v 
Cicero seems to paraphrase, lib. ii. famil. Ep. 16, when he says, 
" Diuturna DESPERATIONE rerum obduruisse animum ad 
DOLOEEM novum," that by long-continued DESPAIR at existing 
circumstances the mind has become hardened to new PAIN. There 
fore aKuhysTv is more than to despair. Raphelius has given a 
beautiful disquisition on this word out of Polybius, where, of two 
examples ascribed to Polybius by Suidas,the one exists in the same 
w r ords in Xiphilinus. saurovs 7ra/?!5axai ,they gave themselves over) 
of their own accord, willingly. cracks, of all) affsXytia, lascivious- 
ness, the species ; ajiaQapria, impurity, the genus. Those who 
are occupied with these works of the flesh, as being hurried away 
(seized) with the heated desire of material objects, fall also into 
greediness [-TAsovsg/a, avarice, covetousness] ; and gain made by 
unchastity was frequent among the Gentiles. 

20. l>g% dz ov% ovrag epafare rbv Xpiffrbv, but you have not so 
learned Christ) The same form of expression is found at Deut. 
xviii. 14, 15, GOI ds OL^/ ovruc sduxe Kvpiog o g&j ffov irpopqrqv 
auroD axovctffQe. Christ is one, 1 says Paul (comp. 2 Cor. xi. 4) ; 
as then you have heard Him, i.e. so you ought (in conduct) to 
represent (copy) Him. As [ver. 21, xa6us sffriv aXrjfaia b rti Tjj<roD], 
which afterwards occurs, is to be referred to [ye have] not so 
[ver. 20] ; not so is opposed to uncleanness, ver. 19 ; if so be that, 
etc., to vanity, ver. 17, 18. rbv Xpiffrlv, Christ) He uses the name 
Jesus, more expressly denominating the Lord, in the following 
verse. Jesus, most perfectly and brilliantly completed the idea 
of Christ. 

2 1 . Efys, if so be that [or rather as the Indie, follows, Since, 
seeing that ye have heard]) The particle does not diminish, but 
increases the strength of the admonition. avrbv, Him) This word, 
and in [Engl. Vers. by] Him, which presently occurs, are brought 
in here from the following clause : as you, Gal. iv. 11. To hear 
Christ has a fuller meaning than to hoar of Christ. ^xou<rarg, ye 

1 i.e. If there were some other Christ, whom you could serve and yet obey 
your lusts, ye might walk still as in past times. But there is only one 
Christ, and He, one that requireth holiness, 2 Cor. xi. 4. ED. 


have heard) Even the first hearing about Christ takes away sins. 
It/ avrti, in Him) i.e. in His name, as to what concerns Him. 
edidd%07irs, ye have been taught) you have received the doctrine. 
The consequent of hearing and of being taught is to learn [spaders, 
ver. 20]. xad&jc, even as) i.e. so as : comp. xadug, in such a way 
as, 1 Cor. viii. 2, so, as the truth is really in Jesus. The anti 
thesis is according to, ver. 22 [your former conversation accord 
ing to the deceitful lusts]. aX^de/a, the truth) This is opposed to 
heathen vanity in general, ver. 17 ; and is resumed ver. 24, that 
it may receive a fuller discussion. Truth, viz. the true know 
ledge of the true God. kv rp l^tfoD, in Jesus) Those who believe 
in Jesus, speak the truth, 1 John ii. 8. 

22. A<!ro6 e<rQai, that ye put off) This word depends on / say, 
ver. 17: and from the same verse the power of the particle no 
longer \jwKtn, Engl. Vers. henceforth not] is taken up, as it were, 
after a parenthesis without a conjunction in the equivalent verb, 
put off [== that ye henceforth walk not, ver. 17] : for the reverse 
of those things, which are mentioned ver. 18, 19, has been al 
ready set forth and cleared out of the way in ver. 20, 21 ; and 
yet this verb atfoQ ettQai, to put off, has some relation to the words 
immediately preceding ver. 21. Patting on, ver. 24, is directly 
opposed to the putting off [ver. 22]. Kara rqv irpor&pav awtrfrpof^r, 
according to the former conversation) according as you have for 
merly walked. The antithesis is the whole of ver. 23 : according 
to shows the force of the verb, which has relation to it, put 
off, not merely abstain. rbv faXaibv avQpurtov, the old man) The 
concrete for the abstract, as presently, at ver. 24, "the new man:" 
comp. ver. 13, note. The abstract, for example, is lying, ver. 
25. rov pdtipofAsvov, who was corrupt) The Imperfect, as xXl^rwi/, 
who stole, ver. 28. The antithesis is, ivas created [in righteous 
ness, ver. 24], and that too in the aorist or imperfect [xri<r6 evra 9 
not as Engl. Vers. " which is created"], in respect of the first 
creation and the original intention [of God in making man at 
first pure and innocent]. Kara rag eiri6vf&ias, according to the 
lusts) The antithesis is, according to God, in righteousness [ver. 
24], etc. rag eiridvpiag, the lusts] The antithesis is, righteousness 
and holiness. rr\g aie&rqs) of heathen error. The antithesis is, 
of truth [rfo ak^iag, lit. " the holiness of truth;" so true holiness, 
ver. 24]. 

VOL. IV. Gc 

98 EPHESIANS IV. 23-2G. 

23. Tti vvivftart ro\j vcb$, in the spirit of the mind) 1 Cor. xiv. 
14. The spirit is the inmost part of the mind. 

24. Tbv xaivbv] Tbv v eov is used, Col. iii. 10, of that which is 
native [the new man becomes natural, i.e. the true nature] in be 
lievers ; but here dvavcoDctfa/ has been used by him just before. 
[Therefore he does not repeat vsov, the conjugate]. Vice versa in 
the passage of Col. just quoted, avaKaivov/wvov is subjoined [v zov 
having gone just before] concerning the aims and pursuits of 
believers. 1 %ri(t6evra, which has been created) at the beginning of 
Christianity. This new man is created in Christ : comp. ch. 
ii. 10. 

25. To -^si/dog, tying} The mentioning of lying and truth in 
conversation 2 is properly added to the universal commendation 
of truth. 6V/, because] Col. iii. 11, note. aXX^Xwy, of one another) 
Jews and Greeks, ibid. ,a/^, members) ver. 4. 

26. 9 Opyi?eaQs Kai fjur, apapravere, be angry and sin not) So the 
LXX., Ps. iv. 5. Anger is neither commanded, nor quite prohi 
bited ; but this is commanded, not to permit sin to enter into 
anger : it is like poison, which is sometimes used as medicine, but 
must be managed with the utmost caution. Often the force of 
the mood [the Imperative mood] falls only upon a part of what 
is said, Jer. x. 24. 3 6 jX/o, the sun) The feeling kept up during 
the night is deeply seated. /AJ) Icr/cbsrw, let not go down) Deut. 
xxiv. 15, oux sxidvffsrai o rf^ioc, IT aurip, the sun shall not go down 
upon it. IT! r& <rapop yi<rft& v/tuv, upon your wrath*) Not only 

1 Neo$, recent, lately originated, in opposition to what was originated some 
time back. Ka;j<oV, new, not yet used, in opposition to that which has existed 
long and been in use: vtov olvoy, but xotivws dyxov;. Matt. ix. 16, 17. So 
vsos oivdpaTTog in Col. refers to the dvayewwic;, whereas the x,a,i<jos is one 
who differs from the former man : the veo$ is one who is oiuotxotivovftsvos 
K<x,r iix,ova of God. Tittm. Syn. Gr. Test. Kotivos more applied to the 
results of renewal on the Christian character and walk. Nsog-, the new 
nature of believers. Nso$ is applied to persons in the sense young, which 
%aivo$ is not. Kxtvo; is what is fresh, as opposed to what is ivorn and trite. 
It is also said of what is strange and foreign. ED. 

2 AAflJte/**, truth, ver. 21, 24. V. g. 

3 " O Lord, correct me, but with judgment, not in thine anger." Where 
the force falls on the imperat. correct, not in its full extent, but with the 
limitations, with judgment, and not in thine anger : in fact, the main force 
rests on these limitations. ED. 

4 Ilapopyia/xog is not = opyv]. The former is absolutely forbidden : the 

EPHERIANS IV. 27 2!) . 99 

should wrath cease, but a brother should be put right without 
delay, and reconciliation take place, especially with a neighbour 
whom you will not see afterwards in this life, 1 or whom you have 
seen for the first time in the street, at an entertainment, or in 
the market-place. 

27. MJJ, Neither) Place is given to the devil by persisting in 
anger, especially during the night ; comp. [the Rulers] of the 
darkness, ch. vi. 12. 2 pyre is used as xa/ /&), ver. 30. 

28. *o xXsflvwv, ivlw stole) This a milder expression than 6 
xXgflrnjg, the thief. The participle is that of the imperfect tense, 
while the present here is not excluded. /^aXXov ds) but even 
rather [let him labour more] than [he would] if he had not 
stolen. In every kind of sin which a man has committed, he 
ought afterwards to practise the contrary virtue. xo-T/arw, let 
him labour} Often theft and idleness go together. rt> ayadbv, good) 
An antithesis to theft, first committed in an evil hour with 
thievish hand [lit. with a hand covered with pitch 3 ]. rate, xepffh, 
with the hands) which he had abused in committing theft. iva 
e%i>ij that he may have) The law of restitution ought not to be 
too strictly urged against the law of love. [He who has stolen 
should also excercise liberality beyond the restitution of what was 
taken away. Y. g.] 

29. 2a,<jrpbS) corrupt) Having the savour of oldness [of " the 
old man"], ver. 22 ; without grace, insipid, Col. iv. 6. Its oppo- 

latter not so. See Mark iii. 5, where 6p /yj is applied to the sinless Jesus. 
The sense is not, Your anger shall not be imputed to you if you put it away 
before nightfall ; but let no -ret /jo/jy/ff^oV, irritation or exasperation) mingle 
with your anger, even though your anger be righteous,. Trench, Syn. Gr. 
Test. Engl. V. loses this point by translating wrath. However, I think 
there is also included the notion, that even righteous anger, if kept up too long, 
is likely in us to degenerate into irritation. ED. 

1 Beng. seems by this to take the sun going down as also figurative, for 
life coming to a close without a reconciliation. 

2 This reference also implies that Beng. takes the night, during which 
anger is retained, as figurative of the darkness over which the devil is prince. 
This does not exclude the literal sense. The literal keeping of anger during 
the night is typical of spiritual giving place to the devil, the ruler of dark 
ness. ED. 

3 Said of hands to which others property seems to stick ; thievish 
Mart, viii. 59. ED. 

100 EPHESIANS IV. 30-32. 

site is good. ,</-?) exiropswtfQuy let not proceed) If it be already on 
the tongue, swallow it again. si rig) if any [whatsoever], as 
often soever : However, equal facility of expression is not de 
manded of all. Trpbg ofaodofAqv ro^c axovo jffi, for edifying to the 
hearers) This mode of speaking is not such as tends to no profit ; 
it does not subvert the hearers, as those words of which we read, 
2 Tim. ii. 14. d& %apiv, may give grace) There is great efficacy 
in godly conversation. 

30. My Xutfg/s-g, grieve not) by corrupt conversation. The 
Holy Spirit is grieved not in Himself, but in us [or in other men 
(by reason of our conversation) Y. g.], when His calm testi 
mony is deranged. The LXX. often use Xwen for mn and ^Vp. 
gVp/xxy/V&jrg, ye have been sealed) that you may know that there 
is not only some day of deliverance, but also that that day will 
be a day of deliverance to you, as being the sons of God ; and 
on that account rejoice [opposed to grieve], s/t jjft epav acroXurpw- 
osug, to the day of deliverance \_redemptiori]) This is the last day ; 
of which there is a kind of representation [present realization 
a pledge given in hand] in the day of death ; it takes for 
granted all previous days, Rom. ii. 16. On that day especially 
it will be a matter of importance to us, who shall be found to be 

31. n/%f/a, bitterness) Its opposite is in ver. 32, ^TJOTO/, kind 
to all. 8i>f&b$, harshness, cruelty [ssevitia]) Its opposite is merci 
ful, viz., to the weak and the miserable. -/cat opyy, and anger) Its 
opposite is forgiving, viz., towards those who injure us. Thus 
far the climax descends, in reference to things forbidden. /3Xa<r- 
pq/Ma, blasphemy) [evil-speaking] an outrageous (heinous) species 
of clamour. Love takes away both. x%/) wickedness. This 
is the genus, therefore ivith all is added. [It denotes that depra 
vity (evil-disposition, malice), by which a man shows himself ill- 
natured and troublesome to those who associate with him. V. g.] 

32. E^apiffaroy has forgiven) He has shown Himself kind, 
merciful, forgiving. 

EPHESIANS V. 1-4. 101 


1. Mipyra}, imitators) in forgiving (comp. the verse above, 
ch. iv. 32), and in loving ; for beloved (rsxva dya^ra, beloved 
children) follows. O how much more glorious and blessed is it 
to be an imitator of God, than of Homer, Alexander, Apelles, 
etc. ! ojg rsxva, as children) Matt. v. 45. 

2. mp/tfars/rs, walk) The fruit of our love, which has been 
kindled from [by the love of] Christ [to us]. 1 vvep j)fjt,uv,for us) 
The Dative, to God, is not construed with the verb, gave Himself, 
but with an offering and sacrifice, which immediately precede it. 
For Paul is alluding to Moses, in whose writings such words are 
common : oXopcaur&yxa rw Kup/w, stg off^v euudtag, duffiafffta ru> Kvptu) 
soW, /e.r.x., Ex. xxix. 18, 25, 41; Lev. xxiii. 13, 18, etc. <r?o<r- 
tpopav xa} Qvffiav, an offering and a sacrifice) Comp. Heb. x. 5, 
etc. ei$faf&Jiv evudiag,fora sweet-smelling savour) By this sweet- 
smelling odour we are reconciled to God. 

3. Tlopvsia, fornication) impure love. % crXsovsg/a, or covetous- 
ness) ver. 5, ch. iv. 19. ^fie Ivoftafyffdca, let it not be even 
named) viz. as a thing (ever) done ; comp. 1 Cor. v. 1, axousra/, 
it is reported commonly that, etc. ; or (let it not be named) with 
out necessity : comp. ver. 4, 12. TT^S^S/, becomes) Its opposite is 
oux avjjxoira, which are not convenient [proper], ver. 4. 

4. Aiffxporqs, filthiness) in word, or even in gesture, etc. 
//,wfoXoy/a, foolish talking) w T herein a mere laugh is aimed at 
even without wit [the salt of profitable discourse, Col. iv. 6]. 
# ebrpairtMa) or jesting. 2 This is more refined than filthiness or 
foolish talking ; for it depends on the understanding. The 
Asiatics delighted much in it : and in former times jesting pre- 

1 And also kindled by the Holy Ghost as the agent. ED. 

2 Wahl translates this word, which is found here only in the New Testament, 
Scurrilitas. Its classic use conveys no idea of censure ; Th. tv and 
T/)7r<y, one who happily accommodates himself to his company : pleasantry, ur 
banity. In ^apoAoy/ofc, the foolishness, in a/o-^jooAoy/ot, the foulness, in evrpu- 
TT&ia, the false refinement of discourse, not seasoned with the salt of grace, 
are noted. Trench, Syn. Gr. T. ED. 


vailed for some ages, even among the learned. Why so ? (Be 
cause) Aristotle considered jesting to be a virtue ; and they 
made much use of Plautus. Olympiodorus observes, that Paul 
rebuked evrpa<rrzX!a, jesting, in such a way that wtfrg ovdt ra 
affrtTa dsxreov, there is not even a place for urbane conversation 
(pleasantry). ra ou% avrjKovra,, the things which are not befitting 
[convenient]) An epithet [not the predicate]. Supply the predi 
cate, let them be kept out of the way. 1 soapier ia 9 thanksgiving) 
Supply ctv?jx/, is convenient. The holy and yet joyful use of the 
tongue is opposed to its abuse, ver. 18, 19. The abuse and the 
use are not compatible with one another. evrpaw& Ma and ivyjz- 
ptffrta are an elegant Paranomasia : 2 the former disturbs (and 
indeed the refined jest and subtile humour sometimes offend the 
tender feelings of grace), the latter exhilarates the mind. 

5. "Etrrsy be ye) [knowing. Engl. V. makes it Indie., Ye know]. 
The imperative, Gal. v. 21. 6 g s<trtv fidwhoX&rpvje, who is an idola 
ter) Col. iii. 5. Avarice (covetousness) is the highest act of 
revolt (desertion) from the Creator to the creature, Matt. vi. 24 ; 
Phil. iii. 19 ; 1 John ii. 15 : and it too in the highest degree 
violates the commandment concerning the love of our neighbour, 
which resembles the commandment respecting the love of God. 
It is then idolatry, and therefore the greatest sin, 1 Sam. xv. 23. 

rou XpiffTov Kai sov, of Christ and of God) The article only 
once expressed indicates the most perfect unity [of God and 
Christ], 1 Tim. v. 21, vi. 13 ; 2 Thess. i. 12. Comp. Mark xiv. 
33. Elsewhere it is double for the sake of emphasis, Col. 
ii. 2. 

6. KevoTg Aoyo/s, with vain words) by which the anger of God 
is despised, and by which men strive to withdraw themselves 
from their duty, to consider good as nothing, and to extenuate 
and varnish over evil [in which moreover all things everywhere 
abound. V. g.] This is the genus ; there are three species at 
ver. 4. So the LXX., //^ fjjtpi/JbvdrMGav sv \oyoig nsvoTC) Exod. V. 9. 

<5/d ravra, because of these things) because of fornication, etc. 
57 bpyri rot sod, the anger of God) The antithesis to the recon 
ciliation [on God s part to man, by His forgiving in Christ], 

1 Taken by Zeugma out of /j*jjSg o yo^ae^ler&a, ver. 3. ED. 

2 See Append. A similar sound and form in two nouns, producing a 
pleasant antithesis. ED. 

EPHESIANS V. 7-13. 103 

ver. 2, ch. iv. 32. J-TT/ roue u/oig rJjs affeifa/ae, on the children of 
disobedience) in reference to heathenism. 

7. MJJ, &e no) lest the anger of God should come upon you. 
Two parts; be not willing, and be not willing, ver. 7, and 11. 
Fellowship both with wicked men, ver. 7, and with wicked 
works, ver. 11, must be avoided. 

8. Sxoro s <pas, darkness light) The abstract for the concrete, 
exceedingly emphatic ; for, children of light, follows. 

9. C O Kapirog rov <purb$, 1 the fruit of light) The antithesis is, the 
unfruitful works of darkness, ver. 11. Iv, in) is in, consists in, 
etc. ayaduffvv?) xat dixaiotfuvr) nai aXqfaicf,, in goodness, and righte 
ousness, and truth) These are opposed to the vices just before 
described, from ch. iv. 25, and onwards. 

10. Ao/i/^a^oi/rgj, proving) Construe with walk, ver. 8. 

11. As, xa/) KOLI, even : it is not enough to abstain [yourself, 
you must also reprove others]. sX eyfcsre, reprove) by words and 
deeds worthy of the light. 

12. Tap, for) The reason why he speaks indefinitely, ver. 11, 
of the works of darkness, whereas he described definitely the 
fruit of light, ver. 9. At the same time the kindness, the jus 
tice, the wholesomeness of the reproving of them, are distinctly 
shown from this circumstance. xpvpfy secretly) in avoidance of 
the light, and most frequently. \>v alruv) by them, who are in 
darkness. aiff^pbv, it is a shame) Writing rather familiarly to 
the Corinthians, he names them ; in like manner to the Romans, 
because it was necessary ; here however he acts with greater 
dignity. xa/) even to speak of, much less to do them. Xeysiv, 
to speak of) They may be judged by their contraries [ver. 9], 
goodness, righteousness, truth. 

13. As) but ; although those things cannot be spoken of or 
named. sXsy^o^sva, reproved) by you, ver. 11. L/TTO rov <purb$ 
puvspovrai, are made manifest by the light) <pdo?, pavipoz, are con 
jugates. pavzpourat, are made manifest) that their shamefulness 
may be known, whether those who have been guilty of doing 
them treat their reprovers with scorn or repent of them. irav, 
everything) The abstract for the concrete ; for the subject here 

1 Rec. Text has -a-vevftaros with later Syr. But ABD(A) corrected later, 
Gfff Vulg. Lucif. have QUTO$. ED. 


104 EPHES1ANS V. 14-1(5. 

is the man himself; comp. the following verse, wherefore [He 
saith, Awake, etc., which proves that the KM here refers to the 
man reproved]. yap, for) For makes an emphatic addition 
[Epitasis 1 ] in a gradation. rb pavepovpevov, an Antanaclasis [the 
same word in a twofold sense], for pai/spoDra/ is passive ; pavspou- 
ftsvov is middle, 2 ivhat does not avoid being made manifest; comp. 
afterwards eysipai, and avaera. pus, light) a Metonymy, as 
ver. 8. 3 sffTi, is) becomes, and afterwards is light. 

14. A/o \sysi, Wherefore He says) The chief part of this ex 
hortation is in Is. Ix. 1, >wr/ou J9wr/oUj lg?ou<raX?j//, %xsi yap 

rb poJc, Heb. TIN Dip ; so ibid. ell. Hi. 1, 2, Jggyg/>oy a 
But the apostle speaks more expressly in accordance with (out 
of) the light of the New 7 Testament, and according to the state 
of him who requires to be awakened. At the same time he 
seems to have had in his mind the particular phraseology which 
had been ordinarily used at the feast of trumpets : Arise, Arise 
out of your sleep ; awake from your sleep, ye who deal in vain 
things, for very heavy sleep is sent to you; see Hotting, ad 
Godw., p. 601. And perhaps he wrote this epistle at that time 
of the year: comp. 1 Cor. v. 7, note. sysipai avdara) Ammo- 
nius : avaffryvai, gV/ epyov syepdqvai, Ig Ucri/ou, to rise up, viz. so as to 
engage in ivork ; to be awakened, viz. out of sleep. IK ruv vsxpuv, 
from the dead) ch. ii. 1. empavtsi) will begin to shine on thee, 
as the sun, Is. Ix. 2. The primitive word, eV/pa6<rx, is in the 
LXX. ; SO from yripdffxw, yrtpdffw, ap&ffxu, apsffu. 

15. BXscrsrs, see) This word is repeated, ver. 17. TWJ, how) 
True solicitude looks even to the manner. As [wise] corresponds 
to it. uxpt(3ug) circumspectly \_Man soil es genau (precise, accu 
rate, fitting exactly) nehmen. V. g.] Comp. Acts xxvi. 5. 
M ug affopoi, not as fools) who walk irregularly. 4 

16. E^ayopafy^woi rbv xatpbv, redeeming the time) So the LXX., 

virtually repeated in K&V with the Epitasis of yxp added to the 
latter, so forming a gradation. ED. 

2 E eery thing which allows itself to be made manifest. Not as Eng. V., 
which takes it actively, Whatsoever doth make manifest. ED. 

3 Abstract for the concrete is light, for, is luminous is a child of the 
light. ED. 

4 Prater propter viam, thereabouts, about, i.e. in and out of the way, un 
certainly. ED. 

EPHESIANS V. 17. 105 

rs, Dan. ii. 8, ye (would) gain the time. The 
days, says Paul, are evil, and are in the power of wicked men, 
not in your own power. Wherefore, since you see that you are 
hard pressed, endeavour, until the hostile intervals of this un 
happy period pass away, to pass through and spend your time, 
if not with profit, at least without loss, which is done by keeping 
quiet, or at least by acting with moderation. This is the force 
of the verb DDT in a passage of Amos, which will be presently 
quoted. Wisdom and fieia, circumspection, are commanded, 
not sloth. There is however one mode of acting in summer, 
another in winter, even with greater labour [in the former than 
in the latter]. Those who in evil days seek meanwhile no fruit 
of time, but [the mere gaining of] time itself (according to the 
example of the Magi, Dan. ii., or like a besieged city waiting 
for assistance), these act wisely, and in the end will the better 
use the time, which they have thus redeemed (gained). Sir. x. 
(27) 31, MJ) do^afyv sv xatpu ffrsvo%upfag ffov, boast not in the 
time of thy distress. A similar expression occurs in Polycarp s 
Ep. to the church at Smyrna, where the martyrs are said, & 
fua$ upag rqv atuiviov xoXaffiv s^a-yopa^o^svoi, to have bought off 
(gained exemption from) everlasting punishment by the sufferings 
of one hour. 2. The opposite is to lose (throw away) time. 
Tj/Mspai, days) ch. vi. 13. Kovqpat, evil) Amos v. 13, 6 ffwt&v sv r& 
xaipti sxsivw (OT 1 ) ffiuirqfferai) on xaipbg irovqpog stfriv, he who has un 
derstanding at that time will be silent, because it is an evil time. 

17. SwisvTsg, understanding) Amos, as we have seen, has 
ffwiuv : hence we may conclude that Paul had reference to that 
passage. ri TO ^X^a 1 rov Kvp/ov, what the will of the Lord is) 
not only universally, but at a certain time, place [as occasion 
may arise], etc. 

18. Mr, ftsQvaxsffQe o tvu, be not drunk with wine) So the LXX. 
plainly, Prov. xxiii. 31 (30). Appropriately to the exhortation 
against impurity, he subjoins the exhortation against drunken 
ness. sv u>) in which, viz. wine, so far as it is drunk without 
moderation. affuria) "Atfurog is used for d<rw<rro$ : hence 

1 In this verse the Germ. Vers. prefers the reading Qeol>, which has been 
left by the margin of both Ed. to the pleasure of the reader. E. B. 

B (adding ypav) D(A)G# Vulg., Rec. Text, and Lucif. 158, read 
A/ and several MSS. of Vulg. read @goy. ED. 

10G EPHES1ANS V. 19-22. 

denotes every luxury inconsistent with frugality. See its oppo 
site, ver. 19, concerning the effect of spiritual fulness. d 
So generally the LXX. in Prov. quoted above : aXXa 
avdpuKoig dixaloig, but associate with righteous men. 

19. AaXoumg gauro%, speaking among yourselves) The anti 
thesis is, to the Lord; comp. Col. iii. 16, note. The Spirit 
makes believers eloquent [disertos], -v^aX^o/;, in psalms) of the 
Bible, of David, new and unpremeditated, with the addition of 
an instrument. ly/i/o/j, in hymns) to be used in the express 
praise of God. <f>da?$) songs, which are or may be sung on any 
sacred subject. Kvsu/Aarr/.aTs, spiritual) not worldly, as those of 
the drunkards are. rti Kupiy, to the Lord) Christ, who searches 
the hearts. 

20. Ev%apiffrovvTsg, giving thanks) Paul often urges this duty, 
and diligently practises it : it is performed by the mind, by the 
tongue, and by working. Col. iii. 17. -rravrwv, for all things) 
The neuter, including the power of the masculine ; comp. 
1 Thess. v. 18. l7j<roD, of Jesus) by whom all things become ours. 

21. AX\q\oig, to one another) Now he proceeds to treat con 
cerning our duty to others ; and the foundation of this is the 
fear of Christ, 2 which derives its motives from the Christian 
faith ; 1 Pet. ii. 13. A rare phrase; comp. 2 Cor. v. 11 ; 1 
Cor. x. 22. 

22. A/ ywaTxeg, wives) Inferiors are put in the first place, then 
superiors, ver. 25 ; ch. vi. 1, 4, 5, 9 ; 1 Pet. iii. 1, 7, because 
the proposition regards subjection ; and inferiors ought to do 
their duty, of whatsoever kind their superiors are. Many of 
those that are inferior become superiors ; and he who acts well 
as an inferior, acts well as a superior. 3 Moreover, all these are 
addressed in the second person ; therefore it is the duty of all to 
hear and read the Scripture; comp. 1 John ii. 13. IMoie, to 
your own) Wives should obey their own husbands, even although 

1 Beng. says this in contrast to Horace s praise of wine, as making 
eloquent, " Frecundi calices quern non fecere disertum ? " ED. 

2 Namely, this reading, tv (pofiu XptaTov, which the older Ed. had judged 
not quite certain, both the margin of the 2d Ed. reckons as quite certain, and 
the Germ. Vers. expresses it. E. B. 

AB Vulg. read Xpiarov , I) (A)/ read Iwov ; Gg read I>jo-oy 
Rec. Text, Qtov, without good authority. ED. 

3 " Qui bene subest, bene prseest." 

EPIIESIANS V. 23-26. 107 

elsewhere they should seem to have superior prudence : 
ffoftsvoi is to be supplied from ver. 2 1. 1 It is said of children and 
servants, obey [ucraxoisrs], ch. vi. 1, 5. There is a greater 
equality in the case of husbands and wives ; 2 comp., however, 
Rom. xiii. 1. ws, as) The subjection which is rendered by the 
wife to the husband, is at the same time rendered to the Lord 
Christ Himself. It is not compared with the obedience which 
the Church renders to Christ, but with that which the wife 
herself ought to render to Christ. Obedience is rendered to 
the husband, under the eye of Christ ; therefore also to Christ 

23. Kai a-jrbcy and He Himself) But the husband is not the 
saviour of the wife ; in that Christ excels. Hence but follows. 

24. A AX ufftfsp, but as) The antithesis is, husbands., ivives. 
vKOTaaffsrai, is subject) Supply here also [from the end of the 
verse], in every thing. a/ yui/a/xe?, let wives) be subject [be subor- 

25. ECCKTOV crapsdwxgi , gave Himself up) from love to the 

26. Ay/affTj, might sanctify) Often holiness and glory are 
synonymous ; wherefore here also follows, He might present it to 
Himself a glorious Church. xadapicas, cleansing) Cleansing pre 
cedes the bestowal of glory and the formation of the nuptial tie. 

/Va, that) The construction is, He gave Himself cleansing 
(i.e. and cleansed) ; that [/Va] depends upon both \_irapsduxev and 
xaQapfaas], being put twice [/Va ayidff /i and /Va Kapaarqfffr ver. 26, 
and ver. 27] in the text. Sanctification is derived from the 
death or blood of Christ ; comp. Heb. xiii. 12 : cleansing or 
purification, as we shall see presently, from baptism and the 
word. Holiness is internal glory; glory is holiness shining 
forth. Why did Christ love the Church and give Himself for 
it? that He might sanctify it. Why did He cleanse it ? that 
He might present it to Himself. The former is the new right 
acquired by Christ over the Church ; the latter shows how He 
adorned His bride, as befitted such a bride of such a Husband. 

1 Wherefore in the Germ. Vers., ver. 22 is only put in a parenthesis. 

E, B. 

2 Therefore vTroToujaopivoi, subordinate, not vTroc-xoveTs, is said in their case. 

108 EPHES1ANS V. 27-30. 

And the mentioning of the bath [Xwrpti, washing] and the word 
is presently urged conjointly, although the word is to be referred 
to the term cleansing}- The cleansing power is in the wordy 
and it is put forth through the bath [the washing]. Water and 
the bath are the vehicle : but the word is a nobler instrumental 
cause. roD Xovrpfi rou vdarog Iv pjjpari, by the washing with 
water [lit. the bath of water] by the word) A remarkable testi 
mony for baptism; Tit. iii. 5. sv py/uan, in [by] the word) Baptism 
has the power of purifying owing to the word, John xv. 3 ; in 
[by] to be construed with cleansing. "iN, ftpa. 

27. "iva KapaGrriffp, that He might present) This holds good, in 
its own way, already of the present life ; comp. ch. iv. 13. 
eavru, to Himself) as to a Husband betrothed. svdo^ov, a 
glorious Church) We should derive [draw] our estimate of sanc- 
tification from the love of Christ : what bride despises the orna 
ments offered by her husband? njv) that [the: emphatically] 
Church which answers to His own eternal idea. ff^Xov) a spot, 
from any wicked disposition whatever. pvrida) wrinkle, from 
old age [senile debility and decay]. 7i/a r) tJiat she may be. 
aftu/tog, without blemish) Cant. iv. 7. 

28. Eavrbv, himself) ver. 29, 31, at the end. 

29. Ou5e/g) TIC man, unless indeed he revolts from nature and 
from himself. rr t v saurov tfdpxa, his own flesh) ver. 31, at the 
end. exrpepei) very much nourishes it, within. $aXT/) cherishes 
it, without. The same word occurs in Deut. xxii. 6 ; Job 
xxxix. 14 ; 1 Kings i. 2, 4. This has respect to clothing, as 
nourishes has to food. rqv eKxXqffiavy the Church) Nourishes and 
cherishes to be supplied. 

30. "Or/, because) The reason why the Lord nourishes and 
cherishes the Church, is the very close relationship, which is 
here expressed in the words of Moses regarding Eve, accommo 
dated to the present subject. The Church is propagated from 
Christ, as Eve was from Adam ; and this propagation is the 
foundation of the spiritual marriage : for this cause, ver. 31. 
rot owparog avrov, of His body) The body here does not mean 
the Church, which is contained in the subject, we are, but the 
body of Christ Himself. IK, of) Gen. ii. 23, 24, in the LXX. 

follows xotQ#piff, not hwrpw. ED. 

EPHESIANS V. 31-33. 109 

roDro vvv offrouv ex ruv offreuv /AOU, xa/ ffap^ g x rr\c, ffapxos 
ftov. Aurv) x\q6r]ffsrai yvvq, on IK rou avdpb<; aur>j$ IX^p0?j. "Evsxev rovrov 
xaraXs/ -vJ/g/ avQpuffoe rov narspa, avrov xa/ rr t v pyre pa xa/ TpotfxoX- 
a/ r?j yuva/x/ aurou, xa/ g tfovra/ o/ 56o g/g cdpxa //-/av. 1% r^j 
auroD, x.r.X., o/ His flesh) Moses mentions &ones first, 
Paul j^^sA ; because it is the bones chiefly that support the 
natural structure, of which the former (Moses) is speaking ; but 
in the new creation [of which Paul is speaking], the flesh of 
Christ is more considered. Moreover, Moses speaks more fully ; 
Paul omits what does not so much belong to the subject in hand. 
It is not our bones and our flesh, but we, that are spiritually pro 
pagated from the humanity of Christ, which has flesh and bones. 

31. KaraXsi-^sij shall leave) Ver. 30 presupposes a Protasis, viz. 
in regard to natural marriage, [to be supplied] out of Moses ; it 
expresses the Apodosis, viz. respecting the spiritual marriage ; 
now, in turn, vice versa, ver. 31 here expresses the Protasis, and 
allows the Apodosis to be supplied : comp. ver. 32, in the middle. 
Christ also, so to speak, left the Father, and was joined to the 
Church. /r^otf^coXXTj^o sra/, shall be joined} by matrimonial unity. 
g/ s ffapxa /A/av, shall pass into [shall be as] one flesh) not only as 
formerly, in respect of origin, but in respect of the new relation 

32. Ms/a, great) Paul felt more than those to whom he wrote 
could comprehend. It is not a marriage among men that is 
called a mystery^ ver. 33, but the union itself of Christ and the 
Church. [There are in all three kinds of duties which the Law 
prescribes to the husband, Exod. xxi. 1 0. The apostle had men 
tioned the two former in a spiritual sense, ver. 29 ; now the order 
would lead him to the third, of which that expression of Hosea is 
a summary, ii. 20 (see ver. 19 also), Thou shalt know the 
Lord. But the apostle suddenly breaks off. Minds of the rarest 
character and capacity are required? V. g.] 

33. nx^v, nevertheless) Paul, as it were forgetful of the mat 
ter in hand by reason of the noble character of the digression, 
returns now to his subject. iva, that) Supply I will, or / wish, or 

1 Or sacrament, as the Romanists argue from this passage. ED. 

2 To appreciate spiritually the third of the three duties, " food, raiment, 
the duty of marriage," requires a spiritual mind. A carnal mind cannot 
comprehend it save carnally. Ei>. 

110 EPHESIANS VI. 1, 2. 

something similar ; comp. 1 Cor. iv. 2, note, vii. 29 ; 2 Cor. 
viii. 13. The particle gives force ; the ellipsis, in a feeling of 
courtesy, restrains that force. 


1. Ytfaxovere, obey] This expresses even more than be subject, 
be subordinate (ch. v. 21, b<7rora<fff6psvoi), [comp. ver. 5.] To obey 
is the part of one who is less experienced ; to be subject or subor 
dinate^ of an inferior. dixaiov, right) even by nature. 

2. T//X/CC, honour) Their duty is more expressly prescribed to 
children than to parents ; for love rather descends than ascends ; 
and from being children men become parents. si/roXjj, command 
ment) Deut. v. 16, Honour thy father and thy mother, as the 
Lord thy God ENETEIAATO, COMMANDED thee, that it may be 
well, etc. Kpury sv iffct yysMfy the first ivith promise) The com 
mandment in regard to having no strange gods, 1 carries indeed 
a promise with it, but likewise a threatening, and of these, either 
the one or the other belonging to [applying to] all the command 
ments. The commandment respectingthe profanation of the name 
of God has a threatening. For our duties to God are espe 
cially due, and most necessary ; therefore they are guarded with 
such sanctions : our duties towards men are due in a less degree 
to men, and so far [in that point of view] are not so necessary ; 
they have therefore a promise attached to them. The command 
ment about honouring parents, of which Paul is speaking, has 
a peculiar promise above them all, if we look at the whole Deca 
logue : if we look only at the second table, it also alone has a 
promise ; moreover, it is the first with a promise, even in respect 
to all the commandments, subsequent to the Decalogue. And 
very properly so, too ; for, taking for granted the pious affection 
of parents in training their children to submit to the command 
ments of God, the honour, which is shown to parents chiefly by 

1 Beng. joins in or.e our first and second commandment (it being the 
second to which a threat and a promise are attached ; whereas to our first 
commandment there is attached neither). ED. 

EPHESIANS VI. 3, 4. Ill 

obedience, includes obedience to all the commandments in the 
early period of life. This apostolic observation is a proof that 
the observance of the law in the New Testament is not abolished. 

3. Eu ffot, well with thee) Let young persons attend to this 
statement. ?ca/ <% and thou mayest [shalt] be) The LXX., in 
both passages, viz. that in Exodus, and that in Deuteronomy, 
where the Decalogue is recounted, have it, that thou mayest 
become long-lived, xai iva {j,a /.po%p6iuof y svr,, but Deut. xxii. 7, that 
it may be well ivith thee, and thou mayest have many days Iva sy 
ffoi y tvyrai xat in\9Qftp*t efffo from the cod. Al., where the ed. 
Rom. has ytv/i : sty, in the future of the subjunctive, is rare. He, 
who lives well for a long time, long experiences the favour of 
God, even in his children rendering him honour, and he has a 
long season of sowing the seed of an eternal harvest. ftaxpoxpo- 
vios, long-lived) The more tender age of childhood, according to 
its capacity of apprehension, is allured by the promise of long 
life ; the exception of the cross is more expressly added to those 
that are grown up, and are of mature age. But length of days 
is promised, not only to single persons who honour their parents, 
but to their whole stock. lit] TTJS yqg, upon the earth [the land^) 
Moses, writing to Israel, says, in the good land, l<xl r^g yjfc ayaflfo, 
which the Lord thy God giveth thee. At present godly men live 
equally well in every land, as Israel did in that which God gave 

4. K/ o/ Kar epeS) and ye that are fathers) And is also pre 
fixed at ver. 9, and ye masters. It is not put before husbands, 
ch. v. 25. Parents and masters more readily abuse their power 
than husbands. He spoke of parents, ver. 1 ; he now addresses 
fathers in particular, for they are more readily carried away by 
passion. The same difference in the words, and the same admo 
nition, occur, Col. iii. 20, 21. ^ -Trapop-ylfyre, do not provoke) 
lest love be extinguished. sxrp epere, but bring them up in the 
nurture) kindly. tv vaidsia xai vovfatiq, in the nurture [instruc 
tion] and admonition) The one of these counteracts (obviates) 
ignorance ; the other, forgetfulness and levity. Both include the 
word, and all other training. So among the lawyers, vovfervfta, 
and admonition, is mentioned, even such as is given by stripes. 
Job v. 17, "ID1D, admonition; 1 Sam. iii. 13, Eli ovx svovQsrei, did 
not admonish his sons. 

112 EPHESIANS VI. 5, 6, 7. 

5. O/ douXoi, servants) He here speaks broadly, namely, of 
slaves, and of freedmen as a species next to slaves, ver. 8, at the 
end. rofg xupioi$ Kara ffdpxa, to your masters according to the flesh) 
It was not proper, after making mention of the true Master [the 
Lord], ver. 4, that such persons should also immediately be abso 
lutely called masters; on that account the rather, he adds, 
according to the flesh. {Asrd <p6f3ou -/.al rpof^ov, with fear and trem 
bling) precisely as if threatening s^ so far as believing masters are 
concerned, were not taken away, ver. 9. He has regard to the 
condition of slaves in ancient times. acrXoV?jr/ rv\c, xapdiag,in single 
ness (simplicity) of heart) So the LXX. for the Heb. IB* 3X>, 1 
Chron. xxix. 17. This is explained in the following verses, whe 
eye-service is chiefly opposed to singleness ; comp. Col. iii. 22. 
Slavery is subjected [made subordinate] to Christianity, and not 
to be considered as joined with it [non committenda cum illo]. 

6. ng dvQpu rrdpsffxoi, as men-pleas ers) The antithesis imme 
diately follows, as the servants of Christ, doing, etc. Whom does 
he call the servants of Christ ? Ans. Those who do the will of 
God. Such persons are anxious to please God (dps wow). We 
have the same antithesis, Col. iii. 22, where it is thus expressed, 
fearing God : for doing the will of God, in Eph., and fearing 

God, in Col., are parallel. IK -^vyj^, from the heart [soul~\) 
So Jx ^VXT,;, Col. iii. 23. So 1 Mace. viii. 25, 27, xapdt a 
nXripii and IK -^v/Jnc, are parallel. 

6, 7. E?e -xJ/u^Sjs t^tr swo!a$, 1 from the heart [soul] with good-will) 
Raphelius well remarks, from the economics of Xenophon, that 
good-will was considered the principal virtue of a slave, by which 
he promoted the interests of his master ; and he possesses this 
virtue, who does not give eye-service, but whose service is from 
the heart. Xenophon says of the slave that is overseer of a 
farm, svvoiav ds /jffsi avrbv s^siv, si ///iXXo/ apx sffeiv ANTI SOT -TapoJv, 
it will be necessary that he should have good-will \a hearty regard 
to thy interests ], if, when being present in THY PLACE, he is likely 
to give satisfaction [to fill thy place adequately]. Not even the 
severity of the master extinguishes the good-will which is in the 

1 Beng stops, as Lachm. more recently, -ov, tx, yv%qs per suvoi xg dov- 
hs jovres, " serving with good will from the heart." Vulg. as Engl. V. puts 
the comma or semicolon after -J/v^ijj-, " doing the will of God from the 
heart." ED. 

EPHESIANS VI. 8-10. 113 

slave ; as in the case of pet dogs. ra 1 ) Ku?fy, to the Lord. 
The dominion of Christ ought to be the moving principle to 
all, and to govern men, even in rendering external service. The 
Lord looks at the heart. 

8. "o edv n) A Tmesis for on eav, Col. iii. 23. ayatov, good) 
in Christ. 

9. T a-ira, the same things) Do to them those things, which 
are the part of good-will, by way of compensation. Love regu 
lates the duties of servants and masters, as one and the same 
light softens [attempers] various colours. Equality of nature 
and of faith is superior to difference of ranks. avisvrss Tr t v 
asre/Xijv, forbearing threatening) Actual severity was generally 
laid aside by the masters when they became believers ; now 
they are even to forbear threatenings, and not (in words) make 
a display of their power to their slaves for the purpose of terri 
fying them, DJ?t, LXX. a^s/X^. avruv Kai bftuv, 2 theirs and yours) 
We have an expression almost similar in Rom. xvi. 13. ev 
ovpavofsj in heaven) who is Almighty. As the Lord hath treated 
you, so treat ye your servants ; or, as you treat your servants, 
so He will treat you. 

10. To XO/TOI/, finally) The particle or form of concluding, and 
of rousing the attention, as it were, to an important subject ; 
2 Cor. xiii. 11. adsApo/, 3 brethren) He thus addresses them in 

1 The reading as r$, which was considered not quite sure in the larger 
Ed., is preferred by the marg. of the 2 Ed., and by the Germ. Vers. E. B. 

ABD(A) corrected later, Off Vulg., read as r$. Sicut et in/. Rec. Text 
omits as, without good authority. ED. 

2 This reading, depending on the margin of the larger Ed., is removed by 
the marg. of the 2 Ed. to those that are less certain ; hence the Germ. Vers. 
has acknowledged its use, auch euer Herr. E. B. 

Avrait Kctl vpav is the reading of ABD(A) corrected later, Vulg., Memph. 
Avrav vpav is the reading of Gg. T/nav xvrav, is that of/ and Rec. 
Text, and Syr. Cypr. reads vpuv *i ctvtuv. Engl. V., your Master. 

3 By some accident or other, the pronoun pou, the omission of which is 
countenanced by both Ed., has crept into the Germ. Vers. E. B. 

Gg Vulg., later Syr., read do&(pol, but omit pw, which Kec. Text adds. 
BD(A) Lucif. omit both words. A adds ocX<po< after intvtxpovafe, instead 
of before it. The fact of this being the only place where the dlt^ol is 
read, and also this being an encyclical letter, make it probable, t&A<oj is 
an interpolation. ED. 


114 EPHESIANS VI. 11, 12. 

this one passage of the epistle. Nowhere do soldiers use to one 
another the title brethren more than in the field of battle. ivdwa- 
poufffa, be strong) Those, and those only, who are strong in them 
selves, are fitted for putting on the whole armour [the panoply]. 
jc/) a Hendiadys. xpdrei r%$ /0%i/oc, by the power of His might) 
This is said of Christ, as i. 19 of the Father. 

11. HavoKtJav, the whole armour) ver. 13. <rr5jva/, to stand) 
A word taken from the arena and the camp ; comp. note on 
Matt. xii. 25. The power of the Lord is ours. peQofaias, the 
wiles) which he frames both by force and by craft. [j/eQodog, a 
way opposite to the direct [straight] way, a circuitous road, 
which they take who lie in wait, 2 Mace. xiii. 18 ; whence 
pMsvsiv, 2 Sam. xix. (27) 28, LXX. Esth. xe<p. p6, concerning 
Haman : KoXwrXoxoig {MQoduv -TrapaXoy/^o/i;, with manifold deceits 
of wiles [plans]. Chrysostom has used Ms&odsia in a good sense 
in Homil. iv., de penit. : " We ought to be thankful to God, who 
through much discipline (<3/<jb <TTO\\UV /Jt,&6o8eiuv) cures and saves our 
souls," did croXXwv ftsQodeiuv, through the alternations of prospe 
rity and adversity. D 8ia(36Xov, the devil) the chief of the ene 
mies, who are pointed out at ver. 12. \The same who is called, 
ver. 16, o ffwqposy the wicked one. V. g.] 

12. Ovx iffnv, is not) The evil spirits lurk concealed behind 
the men who are hostile to us. ^ vdXy) the wrestling. Kpo$ afya 
xai ffdpxa, against blood and flesh) Comp. Matt. xvi. 17, note. 
"iO1 D*7, blood and flesh, viz. (mere) men, were weak, even at 
Rome, where they kept Paul a prisoner. AX, but) After a 
very distinct mention of good angels, ch. i. 21, iii. 10, he thus 
appropriately speaks also of bad spirits, especially to the Ephe- 
sians ; comp. Acts xix. 19. The more plainly any book of 
Scripture treats of the Christian dispensation and the glory of 
Christ, the more clearly, on the other hand, does it present to 
our view the opposite kingdom of darkness. wpbg, against) 
Against occurs four times [after aXXal. In three of the clauses 
the power of our enemies is pointed out ; in the fourth, their 
nature and disposition. xoo Mxpdropeg, the rulers of the world) 
6 mundi tenentes, The holders of the world, to use the word of 
Tertullian. It is well that they are not holders of all things ; 
yet the power not only of the devil himself, but also of those 
over whom he exercises authority, is great. There seem to be 

EPHESIANS VI. 12. 115 

other kinds of evil spirits, that remain more at home in the 
citadel of the kingdom of darkness : principalities, powers. This 
third class is different, inasmuch as they go abroad and take pos 
session, as it were, of the provinces of the world : rulers [holders] 
of the world. rou axorovg, of the darkness) Herein they are dis 
tinguished from angels of light. This is mostly spiritual dark 
ness, ch. v. 8, 11 ; Luke xxii. 53, which has wickedness presently 
after as its synonym ; yet even to them natural darkness is more 
congenial than light. The contest is much more difficult in 
darkness. roD aiuvos rovrov, of this world) The word xo^oxpdropag, 
the holders (rulers) of the world, directly governs the two geni 
tives ffKOTovg and atiuvog, of the darkness and of this world, according 
to [in relation to] either part of the compound word. KO<T/AO, 
world, and aluv, age, are to be referred mutually to each other, 
as time arid place. 1 The term, Holders (rulers) of the world, is 
the ground on which this wickedness is practised. There are 
princes of the darkness of the world in the present age. The 
connection between %6ff/j,og, world, and aiuv, age, is not gram 
matical but logical : XOG/AOC, world (mundus), in all its extent ; 
atuv, world, age (saeculum), the present world, in its disposition 
(character), course, and feeling. I cannot say xotf^og rou aluvos, 
as, on the contrary, I can say aiuv rov XOG^OV. ra ffvevparfxa, the 
spiritual things) The antithesis is blood and flesh. These spiritual 
things are opposed to the spiritual things of grace, 1 Cor. xii. 1, 
and are contrary to faith, hope, love, the gifts [of the Spirit], 
either in the way of a force opposite [to those graces], or by a 
false imitation of them. Moreover, as in the same epistle, ch. 
xiv. 12, spirits are used for spiritual things, so here spiritual 
things are very aptly used for spirits. For these spirits make 
their assault with such quickness and dexterity, that the soul 
does not almost think [generally is not aware] of the presence 
of these foreign existences lurking beneath, but believes that it 
is something in itself within which produces the spiritual tempta 
tion ; and even <ffvsvftar/x6v 9 spiritual, in the singular, may be 
taken as a kind of military force, in the same way as rb itfwtxbv, 
horsemen, is applied in Rev. ix. 1 6, and rb ffrpanunxbv is else- 

refers to place ; adav to time : The world-rulers of the age ; the 
world-rulers of the darkness. But Engl. V. makes Mns governed by 
f, of the darkness of this world. ED. 


where used of an army ; so that here rd Kvevfjt,ar/xa 9 viz. 
may be used as in Zosimus, 1. 3 : rd xz^rta rdy^ura, %svix6v, The 
bands of infantry, & foreign force. Aristot. 3, pol. 10, p. 210. 
sv rri?s sKovpavioig, in places above the heavens) Even enemies, but 
as captives (ch. iv. 8, note), may be in a royal palace, and 
adorn it. 

13. AmXdlSsrs, take unto you) ver. 16 "tin Deut. i. 41, LXX. 
dvaXa/Sovrsg. rqv Kavortl.iav, the ivhole armour) A lofty expression. 
Paul (says Yict. Strigelius, in summing up the contents of this 
chapter) gives to the Christian soldier integuments, defences, and 
offensive iveapons. The integuments are three, the breastplate, the 
girdle, and the shoes ; the defences or puAaxr^/a are two, the shield 
and the helmet; the offensive weapons, a/awry pia, 1 are also two, the 
sword and the spear. He had regard, I think, to the order of 
putting them on, and held the opinion that Paul proceeds from 
those accoutrements which adorn the man even when outside of 
the battle-field (as the breastplate of any material whatever), to 
those which are peculiar to the soldier ; and indeed the phrase 
above all is put in between integuments and defences. He adds 
the spear, prayer. Although Paul rather introduces prayer with 
this reference, viz. that we may rightly [duly] use the whole 
armour. Iv T^ w tpq rj vovqpa, in the evil day) Ps. xli. 2, LXX. 
iv qpepcf, wovqpjp. The war is perpetual. The battle rages less on 
one day, more on another : the evil day, either when death assails 
us, or during life, being of longer or shorter duration, often vary 
ing in itself [When the wicked one assails you, ver. 16, and 
malignant forces are infesting you, ver. 12. V. g.]. Then you 
must stand, you must not then at length [then for the first time 
begin to] make preparation. avavra xarspyaffd/tsvoi) having rightly 
prepared all things for the battle. So xarg^ya^stf^a/, 2 Cor. v. 5 
jo xarepyaaapsvos ii/iag, He who hath wrought, i.e. prepared us]; 
Ex. xv. 17, xxxv. 33, xxxviii. 24 ; Deut. xxviii. 39. The re 
petition 2 is very suitable, to stand, stand ye. 

3 14. TIspi^uffd/Asvoi, being girt about) that you may be unen 
cumbered [ready for action]. Comp. Luke xii. 35 ; Ex. xii. 11 ; 

1 Usually said of defensive, here evidently of offensive weapons. ED. 

2 Anadiplosis, the repetition of the same word in the end of the preced 
ing, and in the beginning of the following member. Append. ED. 

3 STJJVOJ/, to stand, for the sake of fighting, ver. 14. V. g. 

EPHES1ANS VI. 15-20. 117 

Is. v. 27. rqv otfpuv vpuv sv aXqfciq,., your loins with truth) accord 
ing to the example of the Messiah, Is. xi. 5. ivdvffa^evot rbv 
Qupccxa rr,c dixaioffvvqg KCLI rqv vspr/ttpaXafav rov (fur /ip/ov) having put 
on the breastplate of righteousness and the helmet of salvation. Is. 
lix. 17, And He put on righteousness as a breastplate, and placed 
the helmet of salvation on His head. The seat of conscience is in 
the breast, which is defended by righteousness. r^c, dixaiotwys, 
of righteousness) Is. xi. already quoted. For often truth and 
righteousness are joined, ch, v. 9. The enemy is to be van 
quished by all things contrary to his own nature. 

15. To-j$ nodag, the feet) The feet are often mentioned in con 
nection with the gospel and with peace, Rom. x. 15, iii. 15, etc. ; 
Luke i. 79. ev i-o/^aff/a) iroipaffia, often corresponds to the He 
brew word ("DD, for example Ezra ii. 68, iii. 3 ; Ps. x. 17,. Ixxxix. 
15. The feet of the Christian soldier are strengthened [steadied] 
by the Gospel, lest he should be moved from his place or yield. 1 
[1 Pet. v. 9. Y. g.] 

16. Ecr/ <7cu<siv) above [over] all [the pieces of armour], what 
ever you have put on. ra Kswpupeva) properly set on fire, fiery. 
To quench is in consonance with this. 

17. ToD (twrripiov, of salvation) i.e. of Christ. Acts xxviii. 28, 
note. The mention of the Spirit elegantly follows ; and 
therefore, by comparing ver. 13, we have here mention of the 
holy Trinity. 2 The head is exalted and defended by salvation, 
1 Thess. v. 8 ; Ps. iii. 3, 4. 8e%a<r0e, receive [take to yourselves]) 
what is offered [implied in de%a<r&e, receive] by the Lord. pqf&u 
&sov, the word of God) Matt. iv. 4, 7, 1 0. 

18. A/a, [by] with) As often as you pray, pray in the Spirit, 
inasmuch as He is at no time shut out from you. 

19. Aodjf, may be given) Paul did not depend on his natural 
and acquired power. avo/^si rou <rro//.arog) ns pnnB. kv Kappri&a 
yvup usai, to make known with boldness) Therefore boldness [plain 
ness] of speech is required, because it is a mystery. 

20. Hpefffavu ev Xu<re/, / am an ambassador in bonds) A para- 

1 Wahl translates iv erotpataity dum habetis animum promptum, quern gignit 
TO euet yye Aio j, " having the feet shod, or sandalled, in your having the prompt 
and ready mind which the Gospel of peace produces." ED. 

2 Salvation Christ : the sword of the Spirit, the word of God ; so the 
whole armour of God, ver. 13. ED. 

118 EPHES1ANS VI. 21-24. 

dox [an ambassador, yet in bonds]. The world has its ambas 
sadors surrounded with outward splendour. "Iva 9 that, which 
immediately follows, depends on this expression. 1 Iv aura), in it) 
in the mystery. u$, as) construed with to make known. 

21. Ka/ vfjksTg) ye also, as well as others. xdvra, all things) A 
salutary relation. viarbg, faithful) who will declare to you the 

22. Hpbg b{Aoi$, to you) afar off. -TrapaxaXsc 1 ??, might comfort) 
lest ye should take offence at my bonds. 

23. Eipqvq, peace) peace with God and the love of God to us. 
A recapitulation is contained in this word peace, comp. Jude ver. 
2. V " Ktffrwg, with faith) This is taken for granted, as being 
the gift of God. 

24. ndvruv, with all) whether Jews or Gentiles, in all Asia, 
etc. 3 sv dpOapffia, in incorruption, sincerity) construed with grace, 
viz. let it be : comp. iii. 13, py Jxxaxgft, not to faint, which is a 
proof of sincerity (dpQapffta, incorruption). Add 2 Tim. i. 10. 
We have its opposite, iv. 22. apdaptia, implies health without 
any blemish, and its continuance flowing from it. This is in 
consonance with the whole sum of the epistle ; and thence 
a<p6apff!a redounds to the love of believers towards Jesus Christ. 

1 Engl. V. by the stopping connects Iv* rather with irpoffevxtftsvot, ver. 18 
Praying that therein / may speak boldly. ED. 

2 To7f A<po?f, to the brethren) In this conclusion he does not say to you, 
as in ver. 21. It was, it seems, an encyclical epistle. V. g. 

3 Tav ciyctKuvTav, that love) See of how great importance is that love, 1 
Cor. xvi. 22. V. g. 




1. AoDXo/, the servants) Paul writes more familiarly to the Phi- 
lippians than to those to whom, in writing, he calls himself an 
apostle. Under this common predicate, he very courteously 
joins Timothy with himself, who, by his means, was called to be 
a disciple, and who, having recently joined Paul, had come to 
Philippi, Acts xvi. 3, 12. <tvv, with) The Church is superior to 
the bishops ; and the apostolic writing is sent more directly to 
the Church than to the presiding ministers ; Heb. xiii. 24 ; Eph. 
iii. 4 ; Col. iii. 18, etc., iv. 17 ; Rev. i. 4, 11 ; 1 Thess. v. 12. 
l-Tr/tfjcoVo/g xal diaxovoig, with the bishops and deacons) At that time 
the former properly managed the internal, the latter the external 
affairs of the Church, 1 Tim. iii. 2, 8 ; the latter, however, were 
not excluded from care about the internal affairs, nor the former 
about the external. Sometimes Paul, in the inscriptions, calls 
them churches ; sometimes he uses a periphrasis, which either 
signifies something greater, as we have remarked at 1 Cor. i. 2, 
or is used because, as in the instance of the Romans, they had 
not yet been fully reduced to the form of a church. This epistle 


to the Philippians alone is so inscribed as to connect the mention 
of the bishops and deacons with the emphatic paraphrase. l 

2. Ev^apiffroj, I give thanks) In this place we shall give a 
synopsis of the epistle. We have in it 


9, 10. 


FOR THE FUTURE, ver. 12, 13, 18, 19. 

Whence he exhorts the Philippians : 

1. Since he is to continue to live, that they should walk wor 

thily of the Gospel, 25 ii. 16. 

2. Although he should be put to death, that they should 

rejoice with him, 17, 18 ; and promises that he will very 
soon give them all information by Timothy, ver. 19, 20 ; 
and in the meantime sends Epaphroditus, 25, 26. 

IV. HE EXHORTS THEM TO REJOICE, iii. 1, admonishing them 

to avoid false teachers of righteousness, and to follow the 
true, ver. 2, 3 ; and commending peace and harmony, 
iv. 1-3. In like manner he exhorts them to joy, accom 
panied with gentleness and calmness of mind, ver. 
4-7, and to do all things that are excellent, 8, 9. 

LIPPIANS, 10-20. 


E-TT/, upon) The mention, the remembrance is the occasion of 

1 Michaelis (in der Enleitung, etc., T. I. p. m. 165, sq.) confirms the 
venerable antiquity of the Syriac Version of the N. T. from the fact, thai in 
this passage it uses the word elders for bishops, and therefore it was made at 
that time when the real difference between bishops and presbyters ivas not yet 
knoivn E. B. 

PHILIPPIANS I. 4-7. 121 

thanksgiving. ndey, every) Paul s heart was large : comp. the 
following verse, where it occurs thrice. 

4. T<rsf>, for) Construe it vtiih praying. f^era y^apac, with joy) 
The sum of the epistle is, / rejoice, rejoice ye. This epistle on 
joy aptly follows that to the Ephesians, where love reigns ; for joy 
is perpetually mentioned, ver. 18, etc. ; likewise ch. ii. 2, 19, 28, 
iii. 1, iv. 1, 4. The fruit of the Spirit is love, joy. Joy parti 
cularly gives animation iv prayers. ryv dsqfftv, [my request], the 
prayer) of which he had just spoken. 

5. ETT/, for) Construe with / thank. xo/i/<w/, fellowship) 
which has come to you from above, 1 and is practised by you in 
holy liberality, ch. iv. 10, 15, 16; comp. 2 Cor. ix. 13. TO, 
from) Construe with / thank. qftspag, day) when ye became 
partakers of the Gospel. 

6. ns<To/$w, being confident) This confidence constitutes the 
sinews of thanksgiving. o evap^dpsvos sv vf&?v } who has begun in 
you) sv twice emphatically. ipyw ayaQw, a good work) It is the 
one great and perpetual work of God for our salvation, ch. ii. 13. 
J^/T-sXso g/, will perfect) The beginning is the pledge of its final 
consummation. Not even a man begins anything at random. 2 
&XP<CI wen to) Believers set before their minds, as the goal, the 
day of Christ, rather than their own death. fift spas, the day) 
ver. 10. 

7. KaOug, even as) He explains the reason why he speaks so 
kindly as to the Philippians. d/xa/ov, just) I find just reasons in 
my own case, from the relationship of faith, and these reasons 
are not trifling. I am both justly bound by them, and demand 
them as a right. ppovs/v) to think. 5/, for this reason, because) 
This is the connection : I have you in my heart as partakers of 
grace (2 Cor. vii. 3), and long for you, and this not merely from 
natural affection, but from devotedness to Jesus Christ ; hence 
I clearly perceive, that it is rather the Lord Himself who has the 
same affection for you, and He will carry on the work from the 

1 If only the one or the other part of this fellowship, and that too the 
latter, must be understood, which is performed by the exercise of liberality, 
and this is the opinion of some, I scarcely understand how the words t*x,p<$ 
Vftipots IYIVOV Xpiffrov, at the end of ver. 6, can be made to agree with it. 
E. B. 

2 Much less does God. ED. 

122 PHIL1PPIANS I. 8, 9. 

beginning to its termination. fag/toft a-TroXoy/ot, in my bonds in 
defence) AHendiadys [My bonds in defence of the Gospel]. Bonds 
do not restrain my love. d-TroXoy/a, in defence) The Romans 
brought accusations against the Gospel. -g/3a/w<rg/, in confirma 
tion) This is something more than a defence. rov guayysX/ou, of the 
Gospel) by which grace is announced. ovyxo/j wvoOs upas oVag) 
He said above, you ; therefore here is the accusative for the 
genitive, as Acts vii. 21, where see the note. 

8. Et> ffcrXay^vo/s ifjtfoD Xptarov, in the bowels of Jesus Christ) 
Not Paul, but Jesus Christ lives in Paul ; wherefore Paul is 
not moved in the bowels of Paul, but of Jesus Christ. 

9. Ka/ rovro, and this) He declared, from ver. 3 and onward, 
that he prayed for them ; he now shows what was his prayer in 
their behalf. jj dya^nj, love) Love makes men docile and [spiri 
tually] sagacious, 2 Pet. i. 7, 8. Hence arose the form used 
formerly in the assemblies of the Church, 1 and which is verna 
cular among us : Caritas vestra, your love (charity), in a wider 
sense. vpuv, your) Correlative to the love of Paul, ver. 7, 8. A 
previous [anticipatory] allusion to the love which they had shown 
to him ; ch. iv. 10, 18. In ^aXXov, yet more) The fire in the 
apostle s mind never says, It is sufficient [past and present attain 
ments are enough]. ev eKiyvuasi xuiwaa?) afodfaeiyin all knowledge 
and perception [judgment^) Knowledge is a very noble species, as 
sight is in the body : a/V^tr/g, perception, is the genus ; for we have 
also [included under it] spiritual sight, hearing, smelling, tast 
ing, touching, i.e. the senses for investigation, and those for 
enjoyment, 2 as they are called. So part of the perception [sense ] 
is joy, frequently mentioned in this epistle. And all is an in 
dication that it is the genus ; 2 Cor. viii. 7, note. In philo 
sophy, the Peripatetics referred all things only to knowledge 
[which is the principal fault of the modern philosophers also, 
when they come upon spiritual subjects. V. g.] The Pla- 
tonists referred all things to the remaining word, sense, or 
perception; for example, in lamblicus. Regard is to be had 
to both in Christianity : each is met with in the Cross, and 
renders men fit to approve. Here, after love, expressly men 
tioned, he describes faith and hope in the following verse. Paul 
everywhere describes Christianity as something vigorous ; 

1 Or else in sermons. 2 Sensus investigativi et fruitivi. 

PHILIPPIANS I. 10-14. 123 

wherefore the doctrine of the Mystics on Privation is so to 
be received, as not to be in any respect injurious to that prac 
tical ardour of mind. 

10. Aoxipdfyiv) prove and embrace, Rom. xii. 2. ra diap spovra, 
the tilings that are excellent) not merely good in preference to 
bad, but the best among those that are good, of which none but 
those of more advanced attainments perceive the excellence. 
Truly we choose accurately in the case of things external, why 
not among things spiritual I Comparative theology is of great 
importance [from which they are farthest distant, who cease not to 
inquire (who are always asking), how far they may extend their 
liberty without sin. V. g.] ei\ixpivsT$, sincere) According to 
knowledge. awpoffxoiroi, without offence) According to all sense or 

11. nfl"Xjpw,avo/ xapwbv dixaioovvrjc, x.r.X., filled with the fruits 
of righteousness) The same construction is found at Col. i. 9, 
/Va vXripuOqrs rqv sniyvwciv ; and the fruit of righteousness is gene 
rally used in the singular number, Heb. xii. 11 ; James iii. 18 ; 
also Rom. vi. 22, precisely as Paul elsewhere speaks of the fruit 
of the Spirit, of light, of the lips. The more common reading is 
iTZ TrXripu/Asvoi xap<7ru>v, x.r.X. 1 

12. Tivuffxsiv, to know) The churches may have been prepos 
sessed with contrary rumours [which the apostle wishes to coun 
teract]. p&XXov, rather) So far from my bonds having been inju 
rious. /, into) Faith takes in a favourable light all that is ad verse, 
ver. 19, 28, ch. ii. 27. sX^Xi^gv, [have fallen out] came) easily. 

13. ToOg dsff/tovs, bonds) Paul, delivered up along with other 
prisoners, seemed on the same footing with them : afterwards it 
became known that his case was different, and so the Gospel 
prevailed. pavspovg, manifest) Col. iv. 4. wpairupify in the prce- 
torium) The court of Caesar ; comp. iv. 22. xa/, and) then. 
rots XO/TO/S, in the other) places outside of it ; 2 Tim. iv. 17. So 
other, 1 Thess. iv. 13. 

14. T&v adsXpuv, of the brethren) who had formerly been 
afraid. sv Kvpiy, in the Lord) construed with are bold. ro% 

by my bonds) They saw Paul both constant and safe 

1 ABD(A)Gfg Vulg. (except Puld. MS. corrected by Victor of Capua), 
read x.ot.p Trov. No old authority except Syr. supports the xocpTrav of the 
Rec. Text. ED. 

124 PHIL1PPIANS I. 15-18. 

in his confession of Christ. &<p6(3ca$, without fear) no one terrify 
ing them. Fear often is no longer felt by [flies from] those 
who make an attempt. 

J 15. Tivsg /j,ev nvsg ds, some indeed and some} A separation 
[Sejugatio ; see Append.] : for two clauses are laid down, which 
are afterwards more fully treated. di evdox/av) of good-will : 
evdoxia often corresponds to the Hebrew word f1i. 

16. 2 Eg pi8ziag, of contention) Construed with preach. ov% 
ayv&g., not sincerely) not with a pure intention, or, not without 
a Jewish leaven; comp. Gal. vi. 12, 13. They spoke of and re 
lated what Paul taught : they either did not believe it them 
selves, or did not confess that they did so. Rumour, report, 
general preaching, is useful for rousing the attention of many, 
and requires no great ability [/x-avorjjra] in them that preach, 
which is necessary, and demands purity of mind and doctrine in 
closer application ; as, for example, among the Galatians ; comp. 
Gal. i. 7, etc. oiopevoiy thinking) They thought that the Gentiles, 
when they observed the increase of the Gospel, would be indig 
nant with Paul in particular ; but the efforts of his opponents did 
not succeed with them, nor did Paul consider it as an affliction, 
therefore he says, thinking. Qxtyiv, affliction) even accompanied 
with the danger of death. scr/^s^f/v, to add) His bonds were 
already an affliction : they were adding affliction to the afflicted. 

17. Ej a/a-r^c, from love) towards Christ and me. g/3orgj, 
knowing) An antithesis to thinking. sig d-roXoy/ai/, for the de 
fence) not oil my own account. %?///,/, / am laid, set) in one 
place. Lying [laid aside in imprisonment], or running, Paul 
still made advancement, 2 Tim. ii. 9. He abode at Rome, as 
an ambassador does in any place 011 account of a somewhat 
lengthened negotiation. 

18. T/ //?, what then?) What does it matter? That is, I 
am helped [the cause I have at heart is furthered] either way, 
ver. 12. vrX ^, yet) nevertheless. Kpo$d<rei, in pretext) Such 

1 TOJ/ Aoyopj the word) which, he says, I preach. V. g. 

2 The Germ. Vers. places the 17th verse before this clause of the 16th, 
following the marg. of the 2d Ed. rather than the larger Ed. E. B. 

ABD(A)G Vulg. place ol ptv If dyeivvis xetfteti before oi %s l| ipid. 
,uov. The Rec. Text order is supported by none of the very old authorities 
except the later Syr. ED. 

PHILIPPIANS I. 19-22. 125 

men, says he, make the name of Christ a pretext : they really 
design to excite against me ill-will. aXyQstci, in truth) from the 
heart, seriously. 

19. rap, for) [aetiologia]. The reason assigned, why he 
should rejoice. rouroftoi rtiroprjffsrai tig ffurripiav, this shall turn to 
my salvation) So evidently the LXX., Job xiii. 16, with whom, 
in that one book, the verb d-ro/Sa/vw is of frequent occurrence ; 
and in the same passage, Job. xiii. 15, 16, the question relates 
to sincerity, which is purity (ayvug) with Paul, ver. 16. sis 
ffurqpiav, to salvation) not only not to affliction, ver. 16. dsriffzug, 
prayer) ascending to heaven Jw/^opjjy/ac, supply) coming 
down from heaven ; 1*1 indicates the relation. 

20. 9 Ev oudsvi tt/Vpgw&jtftyfMM, dXX ev -Tracy vrappqaicf, ftfyaXvvQii- 
ffsrai Xptarbg, in nothing shall I be ashamed, but in all boldness 
Christ shall be magnified) He removes the ignominy from him 
self : he ascribes the boldness to himself, the glory to Christ. 
ffw/Aari, in my body) in bonds. s /re dia WTJ, S /TS dia Qavarou, 
whether by life or by death) The disjunction follows, ver. 21, 
22. In what way soever it shall fall out, says he, it will be 
well. I cannot lose. Paul himself was ignorant what would be 
the issue ; for the apostles were not omniscient, but rather in 
what referred to themselves they were exercised [disciplined] 
by faith and patience. 

21. E/AO/) tome, at the beginning of a section, means, so far 
as I am concerned ; for he treated in the preceding verse of what 
regarded Christ. rb jji/, Xpiarog, to live is Christ) The article 
denotes the subject, as again in the next clause. Whatever 
may be the life 1 live (in the natural life), its principle and 
end is Christ. 1 [ While I live in the world I consider the cause 
of Christ to be my own. V. g.] rb avodavslv xspdog, to die is gain) 
Although in dying I seem to suffer the loss of all things. 

22. El ds, but if) Here he begins to discuss the first member 
of the period : the second at ch. ii. 17, yea, and if 1 am offered. 
Moreover, he uses 8s, but, because, from the disjunction [two 
alternatives] laid down in the preceding verse, he now assumes 
the one ; and on this assumption, presently, as if repenting, he 
begins to doubt, in such a way, however, as not to avoid assum 
ing it in the meantime. rb ^yv, viz. sffri /AO/) if living is to me : 

1 Literally, / live Christ, " Christum vivo." 

126 PHIL1PPIANS I. 23. 

if I am to live. iveapxi) This is a limitation; for even they 
who die, live. KOL^C, tpyou, the fruit of my labour) I derive this 
fruit from it [from living], that I may thereby do the more 
work; a noble work, ch. ii. 30 ; desirable fruit, Rom. i. 13. An 
other seeks fruit from [by means of] his labour ; Paul regards 
the labour itself as the fruit. This living is the fruit of my 
labour. The expression, xapvbg spyov, the fruit of labour [= the 
labour (is) my fruit] ; as, the river of the Rhine, the virtue of 
liberality [for the river Rhine ; the virtue, liberality]. The price of 
the labour is its immediate result. 1 Cicero says, " I propose to 
myself as the fruit of friendship, friendship itself, than which 
nothing is more abundant." a /pvjffoftai, I shall choose) He sup 
poses the condition, viz. if the power of choosing were given to 
him. This is the reason of [the ground on which he uses] the 
Future. [The lot of the Christian is truly an excellent one. It 
is only of things that are good that the choice can be made, so as 
to perplex or put his mind in a strait ivith hesitation. He never 
can be disappointed. Y. g.] cv yvupi^u) I do not explain, viz. to 
myself ; i.e. I do not determine. 

23. Zw s fcOfAai, I am in a strait [I am perplexed]) He suitably 
expresses this hesitation, when he dwells upon this deliberation. 
dt, but [for]) He hereby declares the cause of his doubt. 
s^tavy having) The participle, expressive of the feelings of the 
mind, for the indicative. sis rb avaMaai) to depart from bonds, 
from the flesh, and from the world. There is no need to seek 
for metaphor. The use of this word is of wide extent [applica 
tion], Luke xii. 36 ; 2 Tim. iv. 6. ativ Xpiarti, with Christ) there, 
whither Christ has gone before him. Paul takes it for granted 
as a certainty, that, after his martyrdom, he will be immediately 
with Christ, and that his condition will be greatly superior to 
what it was in the flesh. [How delightful it is to rejoice in this 
hope I Reader, dost thou love Christ ? Think then what will be 
the feeling of thy mind, if, after an interval of some months or 
days, thou shalt be with Christ. If that were indeed sure in thy 
case, what wouldst thou think should be done ? See then that thou 
art doing this very thing at the present time. Y. g.] CTOAX& //-aXXoi/ 
xptTffgov, far the more preferable [far better]) This short clause is 

1 The reward which the labour itself affords is an immediate result, inde 
pendent of its future rewards. ED. 

PHIL1PPIANS I. 24-27. 127 

to be referred to the verb to be, not to depart, whether we take 
it as a predicate, or rather understand it absolutely, by supplying 
ov, in this sense, since that is much better. For the comparative is 
cumulative ; comp. 2 Cor. vii. 13, note. To depart is better than 
to remain in the flesh ; to be with Christ is far far better. The 
Vulgate alone, so far as I know, has rightly, multo magis melius, 
much more better [preferable]. To depart was always a thing 
wished for by the saints, but to be with Christ is in accordance 
with the New Testament [a privilege peculiar to the New Tes 
tament] ; comp. Heb. xii. 24. 

24. Eflv^m/i/, to abide longer) avayKatortpov, more necessary) 
It appertains more to me [I feel it more desirable], he says, 
even with a view to the perception of my love [on your part] ; 
more than even the access to blessedness just now mentioned. 
The Philippians might have said, This man is necessary to us. 
Egotism has ceased in the mind of Paul ; he therefore acknow 
ledges that circumstance [the personal gain it would be to him 
to depart] ; comp. ch. ii. 25. He however adds this also : It is 
more important for me to be serviceable to you, than a little sooner 
to enjoy heaven. Heaven will not fail to be mine [at last, notwith 
standing the delay]. 

25. Ka/ rovro, and this) While he was writing these things, he 
had a prophetical suggestion in his mind concerning his conti 
nuance among them. KevoiOus o/Sa, / confidently know) He knew 
by spiritual confidence ; he did not yet know from the report of 
men, ver. 17, ch. ii. 23. /xsvw, that I shall continue) in life. 
ffvpvapapivZ), remain with you) I shall remain for a considerable 
length of time with you. Ps. Ixxii. 5, the LXX., ffv^apa^svzT r& 
yXiw, He shall continue along with [as long as~] the sun. There is 
no doubt that Paul returned from his first captivity into that 
country, Philem. ver. 22 ; Heb. xiii. 19. 

26. Tb xavxwa vpuv, your glorying [rejoicing]) concerning my 
restoration to you, who were praying for that very thing. It is 
correlative to the words, to my rejoicing \_glorying over you], 
ii. 16. Glory is joy, proceeding from virtue ; gloryingis the expres 
sion of joy, an affection full of joy : from virtue, either true or false ; 
whence glorying is also true or false ; comp. Is. Ivii. 1 2, where 
righteousness is called, though it is falsely so called, righteousness. 

27. Movov, only) Make this one thing your care ; nothing else. 

128 PHILIPPIANS I. 28-30.-IT. 1. 

[ whatever happens as to my arrival. By supposing this 

or that event, not a few persuade themselves, that they will be at 
last such as it is proper for them to be ; but it is better alivays to 
perform present duty, without evasions. V. g.] roD guayysX/ou, 
the Gospel) For the sake of propagating which I delight [feel it 
desirable] to remain. [There is plainly taught in this very pas 
sage all that is worthy of a Christian man, who desires to be called 
evangelical. Faith is mentioned, ver. 27, hope, ver. 28, love, 
ch. ii. 2. V. g.J iduv axovffu, seeing I may hear) Comp. ver. 
30. a-xoutfw) / may hear and know ; for dcxoi/crw is to be referred 
also to coming and seeing you. ev tvi <zvsv t uan, in one spirit) one 
among you. //,/ 4^/^j with one soul [mind ]) There is sometimes 
a certain natural antipathy among saints, but this feeling is over 
come, when there is not only unity of spirit but also of soul. 
cvvadXovvres) striving along with me. Paul was struggling in a 
conflict, ver. 30. 

28. M?} tfrvpopsvoi, not terrified) with a great and sudden terror ; 
for tfrvpu is properly said of horses. jjr/g, which) the striving. 
aurofc) to them. svdsi^/c, an evident token) 2 Thess. i. 5. 

29. "Or/, because) The force of the declaration falls upon the 
word exaptadfy God bestowed it of grace. The gift of grace is a 
sign of salvation. rb vvsp) It is repeated after the intervening- 
clause, ro -jTrtp auroD <7rdff%siv. ffufrsveiv Kaff^stv, to believe to 
suffer) ver. 27, at the end. 

30. E^ovrsg, having) construed with ye stand fast, in nothing 
terrified, ver. 27, 28. s /ders, you have seen) Acts. xvi. 12, 19, 
20. sv spot, in me) who am not terrified. 


1. E7 rig) If it be thought preferable that this word be read four 
times, we may thus explain it : if therefore exhortation ] in Christ 

1 The Greek word Ku.peix hwis signifies either exhortation or consolation. 
The Engl. Vers. has taken the latter, Bengel the former. 

PHILIPPIANS II. 2, 3. 129 

be any (joy), if the comfort of love be any 1 (joy), if the fellow 
ship of the Spirit be any (joy), if bowels and mercies be any (joy), 
fulfil ye my joy ; so that the predicate supplied four times may 
be joined with the subject expressed. See on a similar ellipse, 
Mark xv. 8, note. Certainly Paul s joy was most present and 
vivid; even with the common reading, V/ rig s / nva, if any 
if any, the joy is still by implication denoted, being about to be 
fulfilled by harmony, etc. ovv, therefore) This corresponds to 
ch. i. 27, in one spirit, with one mind. vapd AAyais sv XpiarZ, 
exhortation [consolation] in Christ) This has as its adjunct, com 
fort of love ; and fellowship of the Spirit has as adjuncts, 
bowels and mercies. The four fruits correspond to these four 
influencing motives in the same order, that, etc., in the follow 
ing verse, as even the mention of love, put twice [viz. both in ver. 
1 and ver. 2], in the second place indicates ; and the opposites of 
each pair are put away [as unworthy of Christians] in ver. 3 
and 4. All things are derived from Christ and the Holy Spirit. 

2. To avrb <ppovr t re, be like-minded) The participle that follows 
depends on this. ^a-^y^o/, of one mind) viz. that ye be. On 
this the following participle also depends. TO lv, the one thing) 
The previous, that ye be like-minded, implies that the feeling of 
the mind ought to tend to the same things : the latter expression, 
being of one mind, implies that the feeling of the mind itself ought 
to be the same. 

3. Mqdev, nothing) viz. mind or think, do. spifaiav, strife) 
which has no anxiety to please others. x,vobo%iav, desire of vain 
glory) which is too anxious to please others. b^sps^ovrng, 
superior) in point of right and in endowments. That may be 
done not only externally, but by true humility, raKiivotppoffvvriv, 
when a man, in the exercise of self-denial, turns away his eyes 
from his. own privileges and rights, and studiously contemplates 
the endowments of another, in which he is his superior. 

1 ABCG/gr Vulg. and Rec. Text read e? ri Trapapvdiov. Only D(A) corrected 
reads rtg. ED. 

2 Which both the margin of each Ed. and the Germ. Vers. seem to pre- 
fer.-E. B. 

ABCD(A)G read it rig o-TrAay^vat. And so Lachm. Vulg. has " Siquid 
(siquis) viscera." fg Rec. Text and Tisch., with less authority, read ef rivet 
OK htt.yfcVot,. ED. 



4. M^ ra saurojv) not merely your own interest, nor on your own 
account: comp. ver. 21. //,?} ra ro) Perverted Usefulness is 
manifold ; true usefulness is simple and one. 1 This is the differ 
ence between ra and ro. 2 

5. <bpove?<!8u, let the mind be) He does not say ppovs/rs, think ye, 
but <ppoveiGt}&}, cherish this mind, sv Xptcrti l>j<rou, in Christ Jesus) 
Paul also was one who had regard to what belonged to others, 
not merely what belonged to himself: ch. i. 24 : and this circum 
stance furnished him with the occasion of this admonition. He 
does not, however, propose himself, but Christ, as an example, 
who did not seek His own, but humbled Himself. [Even the 
very order of tlie words, as the name Christ is put first, indicates 
the immense weight of this example. V. g.] 

6. "Og) inasmuch as being one who. sv poppy Ssov u^rap^wv, 
subsisting in the form of God) The name God, in this and the 
following clause, does not denote God the Father, but is put in 
definitely. The form of God does not imply the Deity., or Divine 
nature itself, but something emanating from it ; and yet again 
it does not denote the bewg on an equality with God, but 
something prior, viz. the appearance [outward manifestation] 
of God, i.e. the form shining forth from the very glory of the 
Invisible Deity, John i. 14. The Divine nature had infinite 
beauty in itself, even without any creature contemplating that 
beauty. That beauty was the poppy &sov, form of God, as in 
man beauty shines forth from the sound constitution and elegant 
symmetry of his body, whether it has or has not any one to look 
at it. Man himself is seen by his form; so God and His 
glorious Majesty. This passage furnishes an excellent proof of 
the Divinity of Christ from this very fact ; for as the form of a 
servant does not signify the human nature itself for the form of 
a servant was not perpetual, but the human nature is to continue 

1 Therefore the plural, rot, is used in the former case; the singular, TO, in 
the latter : a distinction lost in the reading of the Engl. Vers. ED. 

2 The margin of the older Ed., which has the suffrage of the Germ. 
Vers., prefers the reading py roc, x.ecl TO, but the margin of the 2d Ed. de 
clares the reading TO, I know not whetfeer at the beginning or end of the 
verse, not quite certain. E. B. 

None but inferior uncial MSS. read TO in the second position. ABC 
Vulg. and Rec. Text read xocl roc. D corrected Gfff read roc rav. Ed. 


for ever yet nevertheless it takes for granted the existence of 
the human nature : so the form of God is not the Divine nature, 
nor is the being on an equality with God the Divine nature ; but 
yet He, who was subsisting in the form of God, and who might 
have been on an equality with God, is God. Moreover the form 
of God is used rather than the form of the Lord, as presently after 
on an equality with God : because God is more an absolute word, 
Lord involves a relation to inferiors. The Son of God subsisted 
in that form of God from eternity : and when He came in the 
flesh He did not cease to be in that form, but rather, so far as 
the human nature is concerned, He began to subsist in it : and 
when He was in that form, by His own peculiar pre-eminence 
itself as Lord, it was entirely in His power, even according to 
His human nature, so soon as He assumed it, to be on an 
equality with God, to adopt a mode of life and outward distinc 
tions, which would correspond to His dignity, that He might 
be received and treated by all creatures as their Lord ; but He 
acted differently. ou^ acxray/Abv j^rfaro, He did not regard it a 
thing to be eagerly caught at as a prey) as a spoil. Those, to 
whom any opportunity of sudden advantage is presented, are 
usually eager in other cases to fly upon it and quickly to lay 
hold of it, without having any respect to others, and deter- 
minately to use and enjoy it. Hence apcraXea, with Eustathius, 
means, ra -TTOCVU -Trspiffvovdaffra, the things which a man may with all 
eagerness snatch for his own use, and may claim as his own : and 
the phrases occur, ap^ay/^a^ apvayfAw, ep/Muwy supy/ia., vofAifyiv, 
KosTffQai, jiytfffdai, ap*dfy/v. E. Schmidius and G. Kaphelius have 
collected examples from Heliodorus and Polybius. But Christ, 
though He might have been on an equality vnth God, did not 
snatch at it, did not regard it as spoil. 1 He did not suddenly 

1 Many think rightly, from a passage of Plutarch, quoted by Wetstein, 
that ap-Tret /pos signifies the act by which anything is greedily seized, and 
the desire which leads to it ; but that ocj07ry^, having a neuter ending, in 
dicates the object desired, the thing seized, the prey. Drusius, in Grit. S.S., 
Lond., tries to show that xpTrcfy^og-! as well as up-Truyftcx,, though both 
strictly signifying an act, may signify the thing which is the object of the act. 
Wahl renders a^TT-ay^oV, " res cupide arripienda et necessario usurpanda." 
So Neander, " Conscious of Divinity, He did not eagerly retain equality with 
God for the mere exhibition of it, but emptied Himself of the outward at 
tributes and glory of it." The antithesis favours this view. However, there 


use that power ; compare Ps. Ixix. 5 ; Gen. iii. 5, etc. This feeling 
on His part is at the same time indicated by the verb fyetirQai, 
to regard, to treat it as. It would not have been robbery (rapina), 
if He had used His own right ; but He abstained from doing so, 
just as if it had been robbery. A similar phrase at 2 Cor. xi. 8, 
where see the note, may be compared with it. TO sJvai Taa sf) 
laa, the accusative used adverbially, as happens often in Job, on 
an equality with and in a manner suitable to God. To be on an 
equality with God, implies His fulness and exaltation, as is evident 
from the double antithesis, ver. 7, 8, lie emptied and humbled 
Himself. The article, without which poppriv is put, makes now 
an emphatic addition [Epitasis]. It is not therefore wonderful, 
that He never called Himself God, rather rarely the Son of Go<l, 
generally the Son of man. 

7. A?A , but) To this word the two clauses refer: He emptied 
Himself, to which the form of a servant belongs ; and He 
humbled Himself, on wdiicli His obedience depends. The former 
is opposed privatlvely, the latter also in direct contrariety to 
being equal with God ; wherefore these two words are used in the 
way of gradation, and He humbled is put before Himself} 
(Comp. James ii. 18, note). For, to take an example, when 
Philip V. ceased to be King of Spain, whose doings were 
agitating the public mind while we were engaged in these me 
ditations, he so far emptied himself, yet he did not equally humble 
himself : he laid down the government of a kingdom, but he did 
not become a subject. eavrbv ex evuffe, Re emptied Himself ) TDnn, 

seems no very valid argument against xp^xy^o; being taken in the strict 
sense, as Engl. V., thought the being on an equality with God no act of 
robbery, or arrogation of what did not belong to Him. It is true the anti 
thesis, as Olshausen argues, *AA IKSVUOSV, may seem to suit better Wahl s 
rendering. But etyway^eV, in the only passage where it occurs, Pint, de 
puer. educ , 120, means raptus or actio rapiendi, not res rapta. It is only 
by metonymy it can be made even res rapienda. As to the antithesis, AA 
plainly means, And yet: Though having been in the form of God, etc., yet, 
etc ED. 

1 eavTw sKsi/uffsv (the kotvTov coming first, because HIM&ELF, viewed in re 
spect to what He had heretofore been, is the emphatic word and thought) ; 
but erotTrelvaffSv sxvrov (the eavrw coming second, and trovvtiyuaea first, because 
the emphatic word is erMirtivaaev, which forms a climax to thepreviousl^ojffgj/, 
He not only emptied Himself of what He was and had, but submitted to 
positive humiliation) . ED. 


LXX., KSVOV Tro/Jjtfa/, Is. xxxii. 6, where the matter discussed is 
indeed quite different, but yet Paul, when he uses sxsvuffsv, 
translates by it the verb ion, Ps. viii. 5, with which comp. Heb. 
ii. 7. Wherever there is emptying, there is a thing containing 
and a thing contained. The thing containing, in the emptying 
of Christ, is Himself ; the thing contained was that fulness, which 
He received in His exaltation. He remained full, John i. 14 : 
and yet He bore Himself in the same way as if He were empty ; 
for He avoided the observation, so far as it was expedient, of 
men and angels, nay, even of His own self: Rom. xv. 3: and 
therefore not only avoided observation, but also denied Himself, 
and abstained from His rights. ^o^v, form) These three words, 
poppy, o/AofufAa, Gyyi pa, 1 form, likeness, fashion, are not synonymous, 
nor even can they be interchanged the one for the other ; but 
yet they are closely related : form signifies something absolute ; 
likeness denotes a relation to other things of the same condition ; 
fashion is to be referred to the sight and sense. Xa/3wv, having 
taken) The act of emptying carries with it [contains in it] His 
taking the form of a servant. Moreover He was able to take it, 
because He was in the likeness of men. o^o/o^ar/ avdpunuv, in 
the likeness of men) He was made like men, a true man. 

8. K/ 6-yjipuTi, and in fashion) a distinct and lower degree of 
emptying. The antitheses are, the form of God, and the form of a 
servant. Yet such a division of the parts of the sentence remains 
as joins the two words, emptied, humbled, by and, without an 
asyndeton. 2 AXXa, but, ver. 7, divides into its two distinct parts 
the whole antithesis, which, after the og, who, in the former part, 
has two clauses; more clauses in the second. ff^pari tvpsfats u$ 
avOpuwog, being found in fashion as a man) <r%^a ? fashion, dress, 
clothing, food, gesture, words and actions. svpsfaig, being found) 
showing Himself such, and bearing Himself so in reality. ug 
avQpu-TToc) as a man, a common man, as if He were nothing else 

1 The word a-^^a,, habitus (Th. a-^u habeo), condition, * appearance, 
4 bearing, has a wider application than poptyq, forma. Oftoiorns is the 
similarity itself : Oftoiaai; the image or likeness according to which anything 
is conformed : Qptoiafta the thing itself so conformed or made like. ED. 

2 So Lachm. rightly punctuates with comma after dvt)pc>>7r&>is ytvo/xti/og, 
and x,ul ffxvftoiTi SToiTrsivaasy eotvrov, without asyndeton. But Tisch. joins 
ytyofcsfof and evpeQsis by xa.1, putting the comma after dy$ptMro{, so that 
there is an asyndeton between tKtyuatu and STOWS [yuani*. ED. 

134 PHILIPP1ANS II. 9, 10. 

besides, and as if He did not excel other men ; He assumed to 
Himself nothing extraordinary. fravsivugev MVTOV, He humbled 
Himself [Engl. Vers. made Himself of no reputation^) The state 
of emptying gradually becomes deeper. yevo^svog u-Trqxooc) became 
obedientjHeb.v. 8, viz. to God. This ellipsis expresses wXafaiav, the 
dutiful condescension of Jesus Christ ; obedience becomes a slave. 

peffli, even to [as far as to]) construed with humbled, also with 
obedient. There is the greatest humiliation in death ; ch. iii. 21 ; 
Acts viii. 33 ; Ps. xc. 3, LXX. ; and the greatest obedience, John 
x. 18. araupoij, of the cross) which was the usual punishment of 
slaves [servants, whose form He took upon Him]. 

9. A/o xai, tvherefore also) The most appropriate reward of 
emptying is exaltation ; Luke xxiv. 26 ; John x. 17. That 
result could not but follow it ; John xvi. 15. Whatever be 
longs to the Father belongs to the Son. Those things could 
not so belong to the Father, as that they should not belong to 
the Son ; John xvii. 5. Paul elegantly leaves the fact to be 
supplied, that they also will be exalted who humble themselves 
according to the example of Christ ; nay, he expresses it, ch. iii. 
21. o 0oj, God) Christ emptied Christ; God exalted Christ, 
comp. 1 Pet. v. 6, and made Him to be equal with God. 
vKspv-tyuae, highly exalted) It was thus the humiliation was com 
pensated. A lofty compound. %a< s^apiffaro, and hath given) 
It was thus the emptying was compensated, to which also the 
fulness is more expressly opposed, Eph. i. 23, iv. 10. By the 
verb xapifyff&ai, to give, is denoted, how acceptable the emptying 
of Christ was to God, and with how lowly a mind Christ, after 
He had gone through all that state of servitude, received this 
gift. wopa) a name along with the thing, i.e. dignity and praise. 

v<7rtp <jrav ovopa, above every name) Eph. i. 21, not merely above 
every name among mankind. 

10. Hav yow -vata yXufftfa, every knee every tongue) A Synec 
doche ; l i.e. that in every way they may worship and acknow 
ledge Him as Lord ; comp. Rev. v. 13. -/.d^ri) may bow, viz. 
itself, either with [in token of] applause or with trembling. 

[supracselestium], of the beings dwelling in the upper 

1 Bowing the knee, the part put for every kind of worship, the whole. 

PH1L1PPIANS II. 11-13. 135 

heaven] The heavenly inhabitants bow their knees, for Christ 
the Lord has taken heaven. smystuv, of things on earth) For 
He dwelt upon the earth. xara%doviuv, of beings under the earth) 
See Mark iii. 11 ; Job xxvi. 5 [Eph. iv. 9 ; Rev. v. 13. V.g.] 
Afterwards He also presented Himself to them. This division 
goes further into the height and depth than that, Ex. xx. 4. 

11. Ejo/AoXoy?7<r7jra/, should confess) expressly. Kvpiog, Lord) 
no longer in the form of a servant. f/ g, in) That Jesus Christ 
is Lord, inasmuch as He is in the glory of God the Father [not 
as Engl. Vers. " to the glory"]. So g/$, John i. 18 [ei$ rbv xoXvov, 
" in the bosom," not into or to the bosom, etc.]. Qsou Uarpbg, of 
God the Father) The Son acknowledges, and those who see the 
glory of the Son also acknowledge, that the Son has this glory 
with the Father, and from the Father ; comp. 1 Cor. xv. 28. 

12. "n<rre, therefore) He sets Christ before us as an example, 
and infers, that we should maintain the salvation which Christ 
has procured for us. wnjxoiuj arf, ye have obeyed) me, exhorting 
you to salvation, and have obeyed God Himself; comp. obedient, 
ver. 8. /Agra <po(3ov xai rp6/j,ov, with fear and trembling) You 
ought to be f servants, according to the example of Christ; ver. 
8 : moreover fear and trembling become a servant ; Eph. vi. 5, 
i.e. humility ; comp. Rom. xi. 20. Joh. Jac. Wolfius has ob 
served, in his MS. exegesis of the Ep. to the Phil., Paul, though 
filled with joy, still writes seriously. savruv, your own) In this 
department, indeed, look each of you at his own things ; comp. 
ver. 4, your own, he says ; because I cannot be present with you, 
be you therefore the more careful of yourselves. ffurqpiav, salva 
tion) that which is in Jesus. xarep ydfyffdz, work out) even to the 

13. O 0& yap, for God) God alone ; He is present with you 
even in my absence. You want nothing, only be not wanting 
to yourselves ; comp. 2 Pet. i. 5, 3. [ You can do nothing of your 
selves ; avoid security. Some, trusting too much to their exalted 
condition, think that they may hold the grace of GOD on the same 
footing as the Israelites held the food sent down from heaven, 
Num. xi. 8, and therefore that it is at their own will either to 
struggle against it or anew to grant it admission. V. g.] TO 
8 sXsiv, to will) that you have willed salvation in my presence, 
and still will it. rb IvepyiTv, to do) even now in my absence. 

136 PHIL1PP1ANS II. 14-17. 

^g svboxfag, of His good pleasure) To this refer, to will; and 
to do, to, who worketh. 

14. Hoisfrs, do) with His good pleasure. Sons ought to imi 
tate their father, ver. 15. y^wpis yoyyvapuv, without murmurings) 
in respect of others. To this refer a^s/^-rro/, blameless. Not 
only brawlings and clamours, from which the Philippians had 
now withdrawn, are opposed to love, but also murmurings. 
Doubting is joined to these, as well as wrath, 1 Tim. ii. 8. [A 
man may either cherish both in himself or rouse them in others. 
V. g.] Inquire or accuse in my presence ; do not murmur be 
hind my back or in secret. xa/ 8/aXoy/o^wv, and doubting s, 
disputing s) in respect of yourselves. To this refer ax tpaiai, 
indelibati, ver. 15, unimpaired [Engl. Vers. harmless], viz. in 
the faith [ver. 17]. Many words of this sort are both active and 
passive at the same time ; comp. Rom. xvi. 19, note. Axepaiov is 
applied to a patrimony, that is uninjured) unimpaired, in Chrys. 
de Sacerd. 17. 

15. sov, of God) who is good. ctxoXiag) crooked. (pafvsffdf) 
ye shine, namely, by having kept this exhortation. Of life 
follows, as the mention of light and life is frequently joined. 
ev Koffftw, in the ivorld) among the human race, of whom many 
are yet to be converted, others are to be reproved. 

16. Aoyov w?jf, the word of life) which I have preached to 
vou. There is frequent mention of life in this epistle, ch. iv. 3. 
l-Tri^oms) holding fast, upholding, 1 lest you should give way to 
tlm world. sis xau^u-a, for a source of glorying to me) Construe 
with holding fast. ei$ v)fjt,epav,in [against] the day) The Philippians 
thought the day of Christ so near, that the life of Paul might be 
lengthened out even till that day. Paul did not consider it ne 
cessary to confute this. ov% sJ$ xsvbv, not in vain) with your fruit. 

17. 5 AXX si xai, but if even) Look back at i. 22, note. s/ 
xai ffKsvdoftai s<rt ry QvG/a 7.0.1 Xtirovpyta, Engl. Vers. if I am even 
offered upon the sacrifice and service; Bengel gives, if I am 
poured out on the victim and sacrifice) The Philippians, as well 
as the other nations converted to the faith, were the oblation ; 
Paul was the minister [not here primarily, the offering, or obla- 

But Engl. V. Holding forth, referring to the metaphor in 
Hffhfhouses, which hold forth a beacon-light to warn the unwary, ED. 

PHILIPPIANS II. 18-21. 137 

tion, as Engl. Vers. implies], Rom. xv. 16 ; and as at the holo 
causts, a libation of wine, was usually made, and it was poured out 
at the base of the altar, so Paul rejoices that his blood should be 
poured out. The future accomplishment of the sacrifice was 
matter of joy to both. Here is the superior excellence of 
martyrdom. The phrase is in consonance with the punishment 
of the sword, which awaited Paul. Qvricp, the victim, the sacrifice) 
To this refer, I rejoice with you, rejoice ye. Xs/rot^y/o, service) 
To this refer, / rejoice, and rejoice ye witli me. 

18. Suy^a/^ers pot) rejoice with me, congratulate me, on being 
poured out as a libation. 

19. As) but: although I have no grounds at present for writ 
ing categorically about my death. vp/v) to [for] you : This 
[" fo r vou ?" i" e f r y our gd 7 to .your satisfaction] is more ex 
pressive, than if it had been the accusative with the preposition 
g/f [which would be merely " to you"]. xayw) I also ; that not 
only you [may be of good comfort], upon your knowing [receiv 
ing information as to] my affairs, ver. 23. sv^u^u, may be of 
good mind [comfort^) He is anxious about the Philippians ; and 
yet he has good hope. 

20. Oudsva, no one) None other, him alone [He is the only like- 
minded one I have]. Who depends on him, as the antecedent, 
understood. ho-^v^ov, like-minded) Paul s second self, viz. 
Timothy : So Ps. Iv. 14, 31JD trGK nnKI, but thou, man like- 
minded (/o^4/u^i); Deut. xiii. 7 (6), 1B>aJ3 "i>K, who is like-minded 
with thee (6 7<roj rj -^vy^ <fov). [Wliere Timothy is, says Paul, 
there you may consider that I myself am present. V. g.] 
yvqfffus, Sincerely, like a brother, [Engl. Vers. naturally^) ver. 22 ; 
1 Tim. i. 2. 1 pspipwjffi) will care [will be solicitous in all that 
concerns you], whilst among you : and will give an accurate 
report to me. 

21. Of -Travrss, they all [the whole mass of men]) If at that 
time, so distinguished as it was, Paul quite approved of only one 
out of, as it were, his own band (ch. i. 14, 17), speaking of 
those who were then present, ch. iv. 21, and that too writing 
at such a distance to the church of the Philippians, how many 

a, a genuine son : Engl. V. " my own son." So here, in the 
genuine spirit of a brother. ED. 

138 PH1L1PP1ANS 11. 92. 

do we suppose in our times approve themselves unto God I 
[This fact may be put to the test, when a man ought to have given 
his assistance to a laudable undertaking, either near or at a dis 
tance, which either he has not under his charge, or which he does 
not perceive will be of advantage to him, Judg. v. 23, viii. 6. Nay, 
even it sometimes happens, that he who possesses some extraordi 
nary gift or endowment, if in any way he has found an oppor 
tunity of refusing the benefit of it to others, derives much self- 
gratification from this very fact. Christians, unworthy of the 
name! V. g.] It was a very nice a /fffytig, sense, by which Paul 
perceived this. rn tavruv, their own) ver. 4. O how many are 
godly on their own account ! although they are not enemies, 
iii. 18. fyrwffi, seek) A godly intimation may be given to godly 
hearers as to the character of these or those ministers. oO ra l 
Xpiffrov iTjffoD, not the things which are Jesus Christ s) They expe 
rience this, who from their heart seek to promote the common 
edification. They find few to assist them, Judg. v. 17, 23, viii. 
6, 8. They are abandoned, when there is no obligation close in 
view, no hope of reward or fame. When the advantage of the 
kingdom of Christ is consulted by most persons, it is generally 
done in the way of a safe or secure expediency. 2 When some 
sacrifice must be made, the man does not fight, but flees, and 
excuses himself with the hope of fighting at another time. 

22. AS, but) This marks the antithesis between, ver. 21, all, and 
of him. Rare praise, Neh. vii. 2. y/j wtfxsrg) ye know ; comp. 
Acts xvi. i. 12. T SXVOV ffw, as a son with) He speaks with great 
elegance, partly as of a son, partly as of a colleague : so in 
ch. iii. 17, he presents himself as the type [TVKOV ; " an ensample," 
Engl. V.], and yet he commands them to be ffv/^i^Tac, fol 
lowers with him, not merely followers [just as here he makes 
Timothy a son following him as a father, and yet also a colleague 
with him]. 

1 The marg. of both Ed., and also the Germ. Vers., give their decision 
in favour of the reading Iwov XptaTov in this passage. E. B. 

Iwov Xpiffrov is the reading of ACD(A)G$r Amiat. MS. of Vulg. But 
Xp;<7To Ijffe>y, B (judging from silence) Memph. and later Syr. Ed. ED. 

2 i.e. Where consulting Christ s advantage is consistent with consulting 
their own, so as to be free from hurt or loss : " per modum innoxise utilitatis." 

PH1LIPPIANS II. 23-30. 139 

23. ll civ atf/<w) a-7nds?v ) l to carry off or acquire^ to obtain in 
formation. s^aurrjc;, presently) The relative force implied in 
the avrr t $ of the compound has regard to the phrase, / shall 
have obtained the information (of your state). 

25. Ertappodirov, Epaplwoditus) iv. 18. tfuffrpar/wr^ a fellow- 
soldier) ch. i. 27, 30. V/AUV ds a-roffT-oXov, and your deputy QY mes 
senger) The Philippians had deputed him as a messenger to Paul 
[iv. 18]. Xiirovpybv r/jg %?/ /^ou, the minister to my necessity) To 
this also refer your [viz. your minister, the one sent by you to 
minister to my necessity] ; for he had been serviceable to Paul 
in the name of the Philippians. Also see how highly even ex 
ternal ministration is estimated : ver. 30. Tg/^a/, to send) He 
says, to send) not to send back ; for he had come to Paul for the 
purpose of remaining with him : ver. 30. 

26. 2 AdqfAovojv) Hesychius has, ddri/^ovuiv^ dyuviuv adrj/JtOVhj) ax?j5/w, 
dyuvtZi. A xqdiuv, worn out with grief. A cedia, languor in spiri 
tual things. yxovffarz, ye have heard) and on that account have 
been anxious. 

27.,K\fiffiov, near) He speaks (at first) rather mildly, lest 
he should at once terrify the Philippians : then ver. 30, he says, 
#77/<rsi>, he drew (was) nigh unto, and by this verb greater danger 
is indicated. aurbv fasriffev, had mercy on him) by restoring health 
and life. xa/ !,as, and on me) The saints were allowed to con 
sider all things as given to them. XUTTTJI/, sorrow) for the death 
of Epaphroditus sorroiu, opposed to the joy, of which the 
whole epistle treats. 1*1 Xu$rj, on sorrow) for the sickness of 
Epaphroditus, for his own bonds, etc. 

28. 2Tou<3/orf>w, the more earnestly, anxiously [carefully^) 
sooner than Timothy, ver. 19. %a^7-g, ye may rejoice) Godly 

*men may receive joy from all things. aXworepos w, / may be the 
less sorrowful) when I know, that you rejoice. 

30. M&xpi davdrov, even unto death) This appertains to the 
comparison of duties [to the question of the prior claim among 
comparative duties]. To minister to Paul, seems in itself to be 

1 Wahl, Clavis, translates, " Simulac Gognovero rerum mearum event um." 


2 E-rr/tf-o^iwy, longing for} Something of nature may have been mixed up 
with this ; but when grace is the predominant element, all things are esti 
mated by love. V. g. 

140 PH1LIPP1ANS III. 3. 

a matter of somewhat less importance than the danger to the 
life of Epaphroditus, who however most rightly purchased by 
this disadvantage [the danger to his life] that important benefit 
[the glad reception at Philippi, ver. 29, and the love and prayers 
of Paul, ver. 27, 28] : 2 Tim. i. 16, 17. rr/yufe, drew nigh) Epa- 
phroditus, when setting out from Philippi, does not seem to have 
been aw r are that he would become sick ; but yet, inasmuch as he 
undertook the arduous journey, not shrinking back through fear 
of whatever might happen to him either from the enemies of 
Paul or from any other cause, the sickness, although unforeseen, 
is attributed to him as if it were undergone out of kindness to 
Paul. ffapapovXevffdfAsvos rr\ ^u/^) T y 4 /y %?3? the dative. Hesy- 
cllillS : irapafiovXevadfAsvos, sig Qavarov savrov sxdovy, exposing one s 
self to death. vapapovXebo/iAai properly signifies, / take counsel, or 
rather, I form a design contrary to my interests. It is a Parono 
masia [the signification of a word changed by a slight alteration 
of letters] on the word cra/ja/SaXXo/^a/, / rashly dare, I cast my 
self recklessly into danger, which the apostle seems to have skil 
fully avoided, comp. iii. 2, at the end, note. rb vpuv vffr spqpa, 
your deficiency [Engl. V. lack of service]) This deficiency existed 
not so much in the estimate of Paul, as in the feeling of the 
Philippians themselves, on account of the love which they bore 
to him, ch. iv. 10, 11. 


1. To Xombv, Furthermore) a phrase used in continuing a dis 
course, 1 Thess. iv. 1. So \oivbv and rot Xo/<roD are used. Vd 
aura, the same things) concerning joy. \Tlie proper principle 
on which to rest our rejoicing is presently presented, nameli/, to be 
in communion with Christ. V. g.] ova oxvypov, is not trouble 
some) For it is pleasant for a person w r ho feels joy to write : 
rejoice. The contrary is found at Gal. vi. 17. vpTv ds 

1 Xetipere &v Kvpiu, rejoice in the Lord) dost thou thyself rejoice with all 
diligence (earnestness) and constancy in the Lord Jesus Christ ? ch. iv. 4. 


but for you it is safe) Spiritual joy produces the best safety 
against errors, especially Jewish errors, ver. 2. 

2. BXs^srg, see) A vehement Anaphora, 1 See, and you will avoid ; 
a metonymy of the antecedent for the consequent. 2 The antithesis 
is ffjunrefa, observe, mark, 3 ver. 17 ; for ver. 17 returns to this topic, 
wonderfully tempered by reproof and exhortation. roug xvvag, the 
dogs) Undoubtedly he used this appellation often in their presence, 
ver. 18, and he now brought it to the recollection of the Philip- 
plans ; and hence they would more easily understand it than we. 
Comp. 2 Thess. ii. 5. The three members of the following verse 
correspond, by a retrograde gradation (descending climax), to the 
three clauses of this verse ; so that the dogs are the false apostles 
and carnal men, who do not trust in Christ, but in the flesh, 
and are slaves to foul lusts [utter strangers to true holiness, 
although exulting in the name of Jews. V. g.], ver. 19. So the 
term dogs is applied to ej38e\vyfjt, evois, those to be abominated, Rev. 
xxii. 15 ; comp. Rev. xxi. 8 ; or in other words, the abominable, 
impure (jS&Xuxro/, f^i^ia/^svGn;), Tit. i. 16, 15, strangers to 
holiness, Matt. vii. 6 ; quite different from Paul, living and 
dying ; for in life they abound to overflowing in the vices of 
dogs, in filthiness, unchastity, snarling, 2 Pet. ii. 22 ; Deut. 
xxiii. 19 (18) ; Ps. lix. 7, 16 ; and they are most of all the ene 
mies of the cross of Christ, ver. 18 ; comp. Ps. xxii. 17, 21 : and 
in death they are dead dogs (by which proverb something of the 
vilest sort is denoted) : comp. ver. 19. That saying is appli 
cable to these, which is commonly used, Take care of the dog. 4 
The Jews considered the Gentiles as dogs ; see at Matt. xv. 26 ; 
they are now called dogs, who are unwilling to be the Israel of 
God. rovg Kuxoug spyarac, evil workers) who do not serve God ; 
comp. 2 Cor. xi. 13. r^v Kararo^v, the concision) A. Parano- 
masia [See Append.] ; for he claims for Christians the glorious 

1 Repetition of the same word at the beginnings of several clauses. ED. 

2 See, instead of avoid, which is its consequence. ED. 

3 So as to follow ; not as here, See so as to avoid. ED. 

4 Et<Aa/3o raj* KVVU., cave canem, used to be written near the door of 
ancient houses to guard strangers against the dog kept in the ostium or 
janua. At Pompeii, " in the house of the tragic poet," there is wrought in 
the Mosaic pavement, " Cave canem," and the figure of a fierce dog. See 
Gell s Pomp. ED. 


name of the circumcision (^spiro/j^g) in the following verse. The 
circumcision of the body was now useless, nay hurtful. See 
xarars/AVM on the prohibition of cutting the flesh, Lev. xxi. 5 ; 
1 Kings xviii. 28. He speaks not without indignation. 

3. Tap, for) This gives the reason why in ver. 2 he separates 
and banishes the others to such a distance, [and also why he 
calls the external circumcision of the flesh only concision. 
V.g.] YI xepiro/jLri, the circumcision) The abstract for the con 
crete ; the true people. nvtv^ari, in the spirit) not in the letter, 
Rom. ii. 29. cmu/xar/ s& \arpevovrzc;, serving God in the spirit) 
So Rom. i. 9. 1 /cair/w/^gyo/, glorying^ rejoicing) This is more than 
irtTroiGoTsg, trusting, having confidence. 

4. Kaitftp syu, although I) The singular is included in the 
preceding plural : we glory, and I glory, although I, etc. ; but 
because the discourse proceeds from the plural to the singular, / 
is interposed and is added, because the Philippians had been 
Gentiles. Paul was of the circumcision. Comp. Rev. xvii. 8, 
note. e^v, having) for the construction depends on those 
things which go before 2 : Having, not using. tine, aXXog, if any 
other) a word of universal comprehension : other is sweetly re 
dundant; comp. note ad Gregorii Neocaes. Paneg. p. 195. 
kyu /.//aXXov, / more) i.e. syu ///aXXoc T~o/0a, / have more ground 
for being confident. He speaks of his former feeling with a 
Mimesis 3 of those who gloried in such outward carnalities ; see 
the following verse. 

5. Ils/p/ro/a^ oTcrajj/^spog, 4 circumcision on the eighth day) These 
heads [of carnal glorying], counted very briefly as it were on 
the fingers, render the discourse very plain. Moreover, for the 
sake of brevity, he puts together the abstract and concrete 
circumcision, a Hebrew : as in Col. iii. 11. oxraqpspos, on 
the eighth day) not putting it off until full age. Bsv/a/^/V, Ben- 

\v ffetpx.1, not in the flesh) in carnal circumcision and origin (stock), 
ver. 5. V. g. 

2 tya being included in the vj^iis o/ /re-rotors?, constructed with the 
verb sapsv. ED. 

3 An allusion, in the way of imitation, to his opponents mode of stating 
their grounds of confidence. ED. 

* The oldest authorities have ntpiropYi, i.e. Being an eighth day person in 
respect to my circumcision. &offf Lucif. " circumcisione :" Vulg. u circuin- 
cisus octavo die." ED. 


jamin) son of Rachel, not of the maid-servant. s? Efipatuv, of 
the Hebrews) not a proselyte, and neither the one parent nor 
the other being of the Gentiles. <E>af/<ra/b?, a Pharisee) of the 
most rigid description [" of the straitest sect," Acts xxvi. 5]. 

6. A/wxwv, persecuting) He formerly thought that he was act 
ing most meritoriously. 

7. "Ar/i/a, those things which) Referring to the things just now 
enumerated. x ep&fy gains) A. very comprehensive plural. 
riyvpai, / counted) A most Christian profession respecting the 
past, present, and future ; extending as far as the 14th verse. 
did, rbv Xp/ffrbv, for the sake of Christ) To these words are to be 
referred the words following in ver. 8, 9, i va, x.r.X., that, etc. 
^Tj/A/at/) loss. 

8. Msvouv 9 yea) There is an amplification of the language, 
namely, in the employment of this particle, and then by the em 
phatic addition \JEpitasis. Append.] of synonymous terms ; also in 
the fuller appellation of Christ Himself. xai ^yoD/xa/, even I 
count) xai, even, intensifies the force of the present tense in 
yyovpai, I count. Righteousness, not only at first, but always 
throughout the whole career of the saints, is of faith. crai/ra, all 
things) not only those which I have now mentioned, but all 
things. <3/ yvoiffswg, x.r.X., for of the knowledge, etc.) Con 
strued with / count 1 , and refer to this, ver. 10, 11, roD yvuvai, 
that Irnay know. TO v^epe^ov r%g yvuatuc, the excellency of the 
knowledge) Excellency properly belongs to Christ ; but when He 
is known, the knowledge of Him likewise obtains excellency. 
roD Kupiov pou, of my Lord) The appropriation of the [Saviour by 
the] believer. ifyujuudw) not only / counted them loss, but in 
reality / cast them away. <r/cu/3aXa) There is an amplification 
here in regard to the believer s self-denial as to all things : 
fy/Aia, loss, is incurred with equanimity ; <r/cu/3aXa are hastily 
thrown away, as things not afterwards to be considered worthy 
either to be touched or looked at. The Hebrew word, BHB, 
contains an Antanaclasis 2 in relation to the Pharisees ; 3 see P. 

1 On account of the excellency, etc., I count all things loss : not with 
efaett fyfttetv, to be loss on account of the excellency of the knowledge. Eel. 

2 The same word, in the same context, used in a double sense. See 
Append. ED. 

8 Of whom Paul, ver. 5, had said he was one. Pharisee, Th. Thar ash, u\ the 

144 PTIILIPPIANS 1IT. 0, 10. 

Zornii, T. ii. Opusc. sacr. p. 514. Gataker says : " f 
marks out any worthless thing, that is to be cast away, such as 
the excrements of animals, the dregs and grounds of liquors, the 
dross of metals, what falls from plants, the refuse of the crops, 
the bran of meal, the crumbs of the table, the wipings of the 
hands, which are destined for the dogs. 1 See this very fully in 
Adversar. misc. posth. cap. 43." Iva, that) The two things are 
incompatible, both to retain other things and to win (obtain) 
Christ. xep8Jiffu xai supedu, that 1 may win and be found) Each 
of the two is antithetical to ^/av, loss. Pie who loses all things, 
not even excepting himself, wins Christ, and is w T on in Christ. 
Christ is his, and he is Christ s. More still, Paul speaks as if he 
had not yet won. 

9. EvpsQoj sv avrti) viz. OIP. ^ s%wv, not having) The words, to 
suffer loss, to win, to be found, to have, are figurative. The 
immediate consequence of being, and being found, in Christ, is to 
have righteousness by faith in Christ. The book "Wno, the col 
lection of prayers for the Jews, has WIVI Dnjtt &!B> D^yDD "3K 
TID3 NTI PHI?, i.e. In regard to works I am quite empty and bare, 
and Thy righteousness alone is my clothing. ?/^r,v, my oivn) The 
antithesis is, that (the righteousness) which is of (from) God; 
but e/uviv without the article serves to indicate oblivion of the 
past. 2 rriv ex VO/AOU, that which is of the law) ver. 6 ; comp. of, 
Rom. iv. 14. The antithesis is, that which is by faith. <5/r/ 

Xpiffrou) by the faith of Christ, viz. in Christ. svri ry 
[which rests] upon faith. 

10. Tot yvuvai, that I may know) The genitive, rov, is con 
nected with nfffrei, faith ; and resumes the mention of rJj? 
yvojffsug, knowledge, made at ver. 8, and now to be more fully 
explained. avrov) Him. d-jva>jnv, the power) Rom. i. 4. rfc 
avaffTuffsuz auToD) It is consonant to the order of the discourse 
that the verbal noun avaffraas should be taken, not for the re 
surrection from the dead, which is expressed in ver. 11 with a 

sense separate: and yet one who counted all else but Christ &*%, in the sense 
dung. ED. 

1 According to the derivation assigned to c-xy/SatAoi/, tig KVVCX-S /S^AAg/v, as 
a>copoe.>ct^M^ from dg x,6pa,xa.g, ED. 

2 i.e. A wish to forget his former kind of righteousness, as if not his at 
all. ED. 


change of the word pgai/affraovv], but of the rising of Christ, 
Heb. vii. 14 [The Lord sprang out of Juda], as the verb avac- 
ojrfa/ is used in Acts xiii. 32, where see the note [cbaarjja a; 
lytfotv " quum suscitavit et nobis prcesentem exhibuit ;" adding 
that this absolute suscitatio is distinct from the " suscitatio e 
mortuis"]. For avdaraag is not always put for the resurrection 
of the dead, Luke ii. 34 [avderaav ToXX^v sv rti i^a^X, the 
spiritual rising again, etc., not their actual resurrection], 
(vii. 16) ; Lam. iii. 63 ; Zeph. iii. 8 ; and truly the very rising 
or coming of the Messiah has its own power, on the knowledge 
of which believers depend; 2 Pet. i. 16. T^V xoivuviav, the fellow 
ship) Gal. ii. 20. sufAfAoppripsvoc, being conformed [" made 
conformable"]) The nominative case after the infinitive is fre 
quent with the Greeks, although here it may be construed with 
the following finite verb [xaravrfaoi]. Believers are conformed 
by faith. Imitation is not excluded, but most assuredly follows 
after [conformation by faith], Gal. iii. 1, note ; comp. <ru//,- 
ftoppoV) conformed) fashioned like, ver. 21. 

11. E/Vw, if by any means, in any way) This denotes the 
struggle of Paul s faith ; so, g/ , if, ver. 12. xaravr^w, / may 
attain) He gradually passes from the figure of loss and gain to 
that of a race. Karavrav is to come up to, the very act of 
attaining and gaining possession. e%avd<fTaav l ruv vsxpuv) i.e. 
avaffra&v (Xp/<rroD) ex, ruv vsxpZjv, the resurrection (of Christ) 
from the dead ; comp. Horn. i. 4, note [2 Tim. ii. 11] ; for the 
style of Paul ascribes avdffrativ to Christ ; sgavdffraav to Chris 
tians. 2 But the resurrection of Christ and our resurrection are 

1 Tyv I*, is read by ABD(A)j^r Vulg., Iren. 309, Lucif. 166. Tw ex, is 
read by G. T^y by Memph. and Rec. Text. ED. 

The Germ. Vers., following the decision of the 2d Ed., adopts the reading 
TJJP tx, MX/WIT, which was reckoned among those not to be approved in the 
larger Ed. E. B. 

2 This fact ought to have led Beng. to take dvotaroiffsaf above of the 
resurrection) not the mere appearing of Christ. The phrase, " power of 
His resurrection," expresses a parallel idea to Eph. i. 19, 20, "The ex 
ceeding greatness of His power to usward who believe, according to the 
working of His mighty power, which He wrought in Christ when He raised 
Him from the dead." Comp. Col. ii. 12, iii. 1 ; Rom. vi. 5. The same 
power is needed to quicken the soul as was needed to raise Jesus from the 
dead. To have that power (the Holy Spirit) in us, is a pledge of our 



considered as one resurrection, by reason of the xoivuvia, fellow 
ship. After the mention of the resurrection, he brings in some 
things suited to his own present state, and interweaves the rest 
[of the discussion of the resurrection] at ver. 20, 21. 

12. Ou;/ or/, not that., not as though) In his highest fervour, 
the apostle does not let go his spiritual sobriety. sXa/Sov, / had 
received [attained]) the prize. rsT-sAs/w^a/) rsXsiog and rsrsAg/w- 
,usvos differ. The former is applied to the man fully fit for run 
ning, ver. 15, 16 ; the latter to him who is nearest to the prize, 
at the very point of receiving [attaining] it. 1 xa,} %ara\a(Bu) 
Kat, even, is intensive ; for xaraXce^/Sayw, to apprehend (compre- 
hendere), is more than Xa/A/Savw, to take hold of (prehendere) : 
happdvziv, to take hold of, is done at the moment when the last 
step has been made ; xaT-aXa/^Savs/v, to apprehend, is done when the 
man is in full possession. There is an example of one " on the 
very point of receiving" [attaining] at 2 Tim. iv. 7, 8 [Ps. Ixxiii. 
23, 28]. y u, since [but Engl. Yers. that for which ]) The 
perception of the power of Christ influences the Christian. %/ 
xargX5p07ji/, I have been also apprehended) by a heavenly calling, 
ver. 14 ; Acts [ix. 6] xxvi. 14, 19 ; 2 Cor. v. 14. Christ, the 
author and finisher [consummator], when He consummated His 
own * race of faith, also consummates His people, Heb. xii. 2 ; 
where the very appellation, df>wyou, prince (author), implies His 
relation to His followers. Ka/, also, is again intensive, so that 
the force of the first aorist [" I am apprehended"] may be ob 
served denoting the present state of the apostle. 

13. Ade\<pol, brethren) He makes his confession in a familiar 
manner. l^w,/) Others might easily think this of Paul. ou Xoy/- 
fypai, I count not) It is proper for the saints, and conducive to their 
activity, to consider themselves inferior to what they really are. 

hereafter attaining the I%otveurroiais 9 Rom. viii. 11. This word probably 
implies the rising of the saints first out of the rest of the dead, 1 Cor. xv. 
23 ; Rev. xx. 5. E^avaaTxaig is nowhere else found in N. T. ED. 

1 TgAg/o? means often not absolutely perfect, but one having attained the full 
limit of stature, strength, etc., which constitute the man s rtAof, opposed to 
ytoi or nettles, youths or children. See 1 Cor. ii. 6. So Paul here, ver. 15, 
claims to be Tfrtiog, fully established in the things of God, no longer a 
babe in Christ. Yet in ver. 12 he denies that he is as yet rtT^tiupii/os (a 
race-course expression), i.e. crowned with the garland of victory, his course 
completed, and perfection absolutely reached. See Trench Syn. ED. 

PHILIPPIANS 111. 14-16. 147 

14. Ev, one thing) viz. / do. ra OT/CTW, /*e things that are be 
hind) even the very part of the course that has been finished. 
s-TTsxruvo/Atvog) that is literally, extending myself over. The eye 
goes before (outstrips) and draws on the hand, the hand goes 
before (outstrips) and draws on the foot. Kara ffxonbv, along, 
after [towards] the mark) straightforward. <3/wxw, / follow [I 
press]) It is used as a neuter verb, as in Luke xvii. 23. 
SpafaTov, the prize) the crown of life. avu, [higJi] above) ver. 20. 

15. TsXs/o/, perfect) ver. 12, note. roDro) this one thing, ver. 
14. srepus) otherwise than perfect (for the person is changed, 
let us be minded, ye are minded). He does not, however, say 
srepov or XXo [fpcvi/H ; which would mean difference or disagree 
ment of mind] : nor does he mean aught of " minding earthly 
things," ver. 19. Comp. also Gal. v. 10, xai rouro) even this, 
which we, that are perfect, mind, expressed in ver. 14. 6 0og, 
God) even though I do not write it. U/A/J/, to you) striving at 
perfection. dtfoxaXu^g/, will reveal) Eph. i. 17. 

16. nXr/i , nevertheless) The expectation of a new revelation 
should not make you yield the position which you now firmly 
hold. elg o) in that, to which we have attained. tyOdaafAev, we 
have attained) at a greater or less distance. They are ad 
monished in order that the others should act with them that are 
perfect. errors ty to walk) The infinitive, mildly for the impera 
tive ; Eorn. xii. 15. xavow) 1 Al. Boern. Clar. Colb. 7. Copt. 
both the Hilarys* leave out this word; Facundus too, or, by com 
paring Pelagius, even Sedulius. The clauses thus correspond, 
rti avr& ffrot^sTv, and ro abrb <ppove?v. Nor even do we follow the 
Latin Vulgate copies, which transpose the clauses, Covelianus 2 
following them in this, since s<p{)dffa/j,zv and <rro/^g?i/ more nearly 
cohere with one another, and cro^f/P, which is metaphorical, is 
explained by the ppoveTv which follows after. The word xavovi 
seems evidently to have been brought hither from Gal. vi. 16. 
ro) There is here an Asyndeton. TO avrb <ppovt?v, to mind the same 
thing) He returns to this topic, ch. iv. 2. 

1 AB Memph. Theb. read only ru xvru ortHxtw : Hilar. 1097, " in ipso 
ingrediamur." DG<7/" ( convenire, for arot-^iia) read ro otvro (ppoi/tiv, ry 
avru GTQixtiu. Vulg., with Rec. Text, retains xowovt, but transposes the 
order. Rec. Text has ru> otiira arot^lv X.O.VQVI ro otvro (Ppovttv. ED. 

2 Viz., Hilary the deacon, and Hilary of Poitiers. ED. 

148 PUILIPPIANS III. 17-19. 

17. 2u^a,//A>jra/, imitators [followers] together with) Paul him 
self was an imitator [follower] of Christ ; the Philippians, there 
fore, were to be imitators [followers] together with him. 
ffMTTsTre, regard [marfc]) with unanimity. OVTM$, so) The inferior 
examples of friends of the Cross of Christ ought to be tried by 
the standard of those that are superior and nearer to perfection. 

18. l Hspi<ra7oijoiv, walk) before your eyes. <roXXax/g, often) 
There ought to be a constant demonstration. xXa/ wv, weeping) 
We may suppose that Paul added this word, after he had mois 
tened the epistle with his tears ; in joy, there is still sorrow, 
Rom. ix. 2. ro jg s^Qpovg ro\j cravpou, the enemies of the Cross) 
Gal. vi. 12, 14. 

19. r f>v, whose) The nominative is implied ; comp. o/, which 
presently after occurs and is dependent on Kepifrarouffiv, walk. 
ro rsXoc, the end) This statement is put before the others, that 
what follows may be read with the greater horror. It will be 
seen in the end. [The end, to which the plans of every man tend, 
shows truly wliat is his condition. Y. g.] a-TrwXs/a, destruction) 
The antithesis is tarr^a, Saviour, ver. 20. uv 6 fabg r\ xoitJa, 
ivhose god is their belly) Rom. xvi. 18. The antithesis is Kvpio*, 
Lord, ver. 20 ; and TO <tupa, body, ver. 21, as 1 Cor. vi. 13. 
Their belly is sleek, our body is wasted ; the fashion [s^fia out of 
fjt,era<fxri[Aari<iei] of both will be changed. jj <3&Ja, glory) The pre 
vious, God, and glory, here are set down as parallel ; and there 
fore 86%a, glory, in this passage denotes a god, or glorying con 
cerning a god. Hos. iv. 7, LXX., rqv do^av avruv zig 
dqffopai, " I will turn their glory to dishonour." a/V^ui/jj, 

It corresponds to the Hebrew word ntSO, for example, Hab. ii. 
10. Comp. respecting this prophet, the note at Col. ii. 23 ; like 
wise nny below, 5^ %o/X/, the belly. But at the same time the 
word alludes to an idol, to which D^3, aiayj^vr^ shame, corre 
sponds. The LXX. have sometimes a/o-^u^, shame, for nny, 
nakedness ; therefore in this passage Paul seems to denote rqv 
%araro/j,yv, the concision, to indicate, that the circumcision now 
was not glorious, but a subject for shame. So the belly and 
shame are closely allied. They worship that of which they 
ought to be ashamed, and they will be miserably ashamed of it at 

1 TT.oAXoi, many) To follow many in the way of imitation is dangerous. 


PH1LIPPIANS III. 20, 21. -IV. 1. 149 

the proper time, although even now they want frankness. 1 oi ra 
siriyem <ppovovvrs$, who mind earthly things) The antithesis is at the 
beginning of the following verse. 

20. Hpuv, our) whom you have as a type or example [ver. 17]. 
7p ? for) This gives the reason why the Philippians ought to 
imitate them. TO KoXirev/ua) the community, country, city, OY state : 
for l^ap /st, has its existence, follows. Therefore it is the ante 
cedent to s% ov, from which. 2 <rw7%, the Saviour) This furnishes 
the ground on which we rest our expectation, 2 Tim. iv. 18. 
Kvpiov, the Lord) now exalted, ch. ii. 11. This furnishes the 
confirmation of this expectation. 

21. "Og ^gratfp^Tj^ar/Vg/, who will transform) not only will give 
salvation, but also glory; 2 Tim. ii. 10. rJjj ra-Trs/i/ujtfsws, of 
humiliation) which is produced by the Cross, ver. 18, ch. iv. 12, 
ii. 17 ; 2 Cor. iv. 10. K31 is in the LXX., ravsivuae, Ps. xc. 3. 
xara, according to) construe with He will transform. The work 
of the Lord s omnipotence. rqv evspyuuv ro\j dvvatQai, the working 
efficacy of His power [Engl. Vers. according to the ivorking, 
whereby Pie is able]) The Infinitive instead of the noun. [His] 
power will be brought forth into action. xa/) even ; not merely 
to make our body conformed to His. ra vavra, all things) even 


1. "fttfrs, therefore) Such expectations being set before us. 
dya^njro/, beloved) This word is twice used with great sweetness ; 
first as at the beginning of the period ; and then, for strengthen 
ing the exhortation. !wwo0jro/, yearned after, longed for) so he 
speaks of them in their absence, ch. i. 8. crepavog /AOV, my crown) 
ii. 16. ovru) so, stand ye, as ye now stan.d; comp. ourw, 1 Cor. 
ix. 24, note. (trqxert, stand) i. 27. 

1 Beng. seems to mean, Even now they deprive themselves of that 
Gospel freedom which they who place no trust in carnal ordinances enjoy. 

2 roVow, implied in ovpauoi$, might seem otherwise to be the word to which 
ov refers. ED. 

150 PH1LIPPIANS IV. 2, 3. 

2. UapaxaXu, I \beseech], exhort) He uses this word twice, as 
if exhorting each of them apart face to face, and doing it with 
the utmost impartiality [implied by repeating the like word to 
each separately]. 

3. Na/, yea) an agreeable [conciliatory, affectionate] particle, 
Philem., ver. 20; Heb. NJ. It is put, as it were, into the 
mouth of the man who is being besought, so that, upon merely 
pronouncing it, he may give his assent. 0uuyg yvjjtfif, true 
[genuine] yokefellow, or yokefellow without disguise) 6 nut % 
ffvfyyog, persons joined together, properly in marriage, and then in 
other things ; so, however, as that the word is applied to two, and 
denotes some degree of parity ; yvfaiog also is of the common 
gender. Some say, that Paul had at one time a wife, but we 
are convinced, on good grounds, that he is here addressing a man. 
He had many ffuvspyoug, fellow-workers ; not many <ruuyou, yoke 
fellows, first Barnabas, afterwards Silas ; and he seems to address 
the latter in this passage.; for Silas had been his yokefellow 
among the Philippians themselves, Acts [xv. 40] xvi. 19. \_0r, 
as I am more inclined to think, Epaphroditus. V. g.] He was 
also [like Paul] at all events a minister, whom Paul here en 
treats. ffvXJMf&fSavov aura/g, assist those) that thou mayest main 
tain harmony among them, by removing impediments. a /nvsg, 
who) It is proper to afford help to a person who once stood well, 
even when he is wavering. tfu^XTjo-ai/ //-o/, laboured (wrestled) 
together with me) They seem to have been involved in that 
danger, which is described at Acts xvi. 19. f^sra, with) This 
word depends on <ruMj0Xj<rav, they have laboured together. 
KX^svrog, Clement) They had imitated the great men, among 
whom Clement was of distinguished excellence. The women 
were thus highly favoured and honoured. ra foof&ara,, the names) 
though not here mentioned. The allusion is to the victorious 


competitors in the public games, whose names were openly read 
and became famous. ev /3//3Xw w?j, in the book of life) viz. are, 
or, I pray may be. The optative must be often supplied, ver. 23. 
They seem, to have been already by that time dead, for we 
generally follow such with earnest wishes 1 of that sort. Who 
would not help the surviving companions of these departed ones, 

1 Wishes that they may be found among the saved, not prayers, which 
are contrary to Scripture. ED. 

PHILIPPIANS IV. 4, 5. 151 

(jy"? 1 Being associated with those who have died with honour, is 
to younger survivors a great recommendation to him who thus, 
as it were, stands in the middle place between those who are 
dead and those who are alive ; for example, it formed a recom 
mendation of Timothy to the Philippians, because he had been 
the intimate friend of Paul. [Those have also excellent materials 
for concord, of whom some have good reason to think others (who 
have good reason to think of one another that they are) partakers 
of eternal life, 1 Pet. hi. 7. Y. g.] 

4. Xa/psrs sv Kvpiy ffdvrors, craX/i/ spu, ^aipSTs, rejoice in the 
Lord : again I say, always rejoice) The particle, again, requires 
an Epitasis, 2 as in Gal. i. 9, where the Epitasis is in irapeXd^srt, 
comp. ver. 8 ; so the Galatians are more strongly bound, because 
[not only Paul preached, ver. 8, but] they also received or took 
up the Gospel which was preached. Add Gal. v. 3, where / 
testify makes an Epitasis to Xsyu, I say, ver. 2 ; and iravri, to every 
man, has an Epitasis to unto you, ver. 2 ; and 6p/Xgrj, he is a 
debtor, to shall profit you nothing, ver. 2 : here the word, always, 
forms such an Epitasis with rejoice ye, repeated. At the begin 
ning of the verse, it is said, rejoice ye in the Lord, as ch. iii. 1. 
Some join xdvrors with the preceding words. 

5. Tb Iflr/g/xeg, your kindly spirit [aequitas 3 ]) Joy in the Lord 
produces true kindliness in regard to our neighbour, and proper 
unconcern [freedom from over-carefulness] about one s own 
affairs, ver. 6 ; likewise true candour towards men and God Him 
self: and this candour is expressed by the words, yvbitfyru, let it 
be known, i.e. in acts, and, ytupitttfa, let (your requests) be made 
known, viz. by prayer, ver. 6. Moroseness is the companion of 
sadness and care. yvwtf^rw, let be known) from the thing itself. 
There are some who cherish gentleness (sequitas, a yielding and 

1 Buxtorf, de Abbrev. Hebr. p. 84, writes, li Vt = n^aV ^?! memoria ejus 
sit in benedictione (may his memory be blessed). De pluribus n^?! memoria 
ipsorum (their memory): nomini piorum virorum defunctorum subjici solet : 
aut in genere sapientum vel Rabbinorum commemoration!." The ^ and t 
are the initials used as the abbreviation for the whole words. ED. 

2 See Append. 

3 Wahl, Clavis, N. 1, renders it humanitas, kindness and gentleness 
towards others. He adds, others interpret it modestia, moderation. 
Beng. has sequitas, which includes both fairness and kindliness towards 
others, and equanimity in one s own mind. Th. gfo, I yield. ED. 

152 PHIL1PP1ANS IV. 6, 7 

kindly spirit) in their mind, and wish no ill to the unkindly, but 
yet they conceal their benignity ; these do not act rightly. 
craovi/ avdpuiroig, to all men) good and bad, or the unkindly, ch. 
ii. 15, even that the wicked may be gained. No one is so harsh 
in spirit as not to show himself kindly to some one, from sympa 
thy, fear, hope of gain, emulation, etc. The believer does this 
to all. [But if, among all men, you know even one who has expe 
rienced the contrary conduct at your hand, see that even yet you 
show to him kindliness. V. g.] 6 Kvpios, the Lord) Christ the 
Judge, favourable to you, but executing vengeance upon the 
wicked. This consideration produces kindliness ; James v. 9. 

6. Mwdev pepif&vare, be careful for nothing) When others do not 
treat you with kindliness, when different things are pressing upon 
you, be not over-careful, rather pray. Care and prayer, [and 
likewise care and joy. V. g.] are more opposed to one another 
than fire and water. ev cravr/) in every thing. pera, sv^apiffria^ 
with thanksgiving) This is the best characteristic of a soul freed 
from cares, and of prayer joined with resignation of the human 
will. Accordingly peace follows, ver. 7 ; and thanksgiving and 
peace are united together also in Col. iii. 15. All things are 
thereby safe and tranquil. r a/V^aara, requests) A thing sought, 
the subject dtqffsug, of supplication. yvupityaQuj be made known) 
Those who veil, stifle, and restrain their desires, with preposter 
ous shame and distrusting modesty, as if they were tod small 
or too great, are tortured with cares. Those who lay them 
before God with a generous and filial confidence, are freed from 
difficulties. The Psalms abound in confessions of that sort. 
vrpbg rov so i/, to God) Even though often men should be ignorant 
of them, and you should modestly conceal them from your fellow- 
men. Paul had not even asked aught from the Philippians. 
[But the exercise of unaffected candour towards men, ver. 5, and 
here towards GOD, is perfectly consistent. Y. g.] 

7. H s/pqviij the peace) Peace, free from all anxiety [the com 
panion of joy; COinp. ver. 9. V. g.] r, uvepexouffa tfdvTa vovv) 
that exceedeth all understanding, and therefore every request; 
Eph. iii. 20. <ppovpqsn) will keep ; it will defend you against all 
inroads (assaults) and anxieties, and will correct whatever is 
wanting to the suitableness (dexteritati, to the spiritual skilful- 
ness, happiness of expression) of your desires, Rom. viii. 26, 27. 

PI1ILIFP1ANS IV. 8, 9. 153 

g vo^ara, hearts thoughts) The heart is the seat of the 

8. To) The summing up. In ch. iii. 1, ro XO/TOV concludes 
the particular admonition to joy ; and here ro Xoivbv concludes 
the general exhortation to every duty. 6Va, whatsoever things) 
in general. "A, Those things which, ver. 9, specially in regard to 
Paul. Xj03j enaivof, true praise) Eight nouns, in two rows 
of four members each, of which the one has regard to duty, the 
other to the commendation of it. If we compare both rows of 
nouns with one another, the first noun corresponds to the first, 
the second to the second, the third to the third, the fourth to 
the fourth. It is a manifold and elegant Chiasmus, compre 
hending the duties of children, parents, husbands, and wives, and 
the other (relative) duties. X?j0?j, true) in words. <rs//,i/a, honest) 
in action. Mxaia,just) towards others. ayva, [pure] chaste) in 
respect to yourselves.- vpoapiXri, loveable, lovely) ^o<rp/A?j ffwayuyfj 
ceavrbv noisi, make thyself a person to be loved by the synagogue) 
Sir. iv. 7. o ffoipbg sv X6yu> savrbv KpoffQiXri ffoiqfftt, the wise man 
will make himself a person to be loved in what he says, Sir. xx. 
12 (13). 6 <ra gypjj^a, whatsoever things are of good report) 
rpoffpiXy, lovely or loveable, face to face : gupj/Aa, of good report, 
is used with respect to the absent: comp. i. 27.- apery, virtue) 
Paul uses this word only in this passage. It refers to d/xaia, 
whatsoever things are just. For every virtue is included in 
righteousness, sv ds dixaioffvvrj <ruXX?j/36?jv crao* apsry] son. e t 7roe,ivog,praise) 
even in those things which belong less to your neighbour than to 
yourselves. raDra Xoy/^o^g, have respect or regard to these things) 
This refers to the things that are true, and which have been prac 
tised or are now practised even by others, that we may approve, 
remember, help forward, promote (advance), imitate such things. 
We should not only do them when they fall in our way, but 
also take care, beforehand, that they be done. TaDra vpaaffsrs, 
do these things, follows with Asyndeton, which [the absence of a 
connecting particle between ravra Xoy/fytQe and ravra ypdffffsrs] 
denotes that the one kind of good things [viz. those in ver. 8] 
does not differ from the other [those in ver. 9]. 

9. "A xai) Those things which also [But Engl. Vers. " which 
ye have both learned and," etc.] Ka/, also, connects this verse 
with the following words, not with the preceding words. He 

154 PHILIPP1ANS IV. 10, 11. 

makes a transition from what is general (ota, whatsoever) to 
what regards Paul. There would have been place for the xa/, 
and, before a, which [i.e. but for the Asyndeton], the word xa/, 
also, still remaining [i.e. in order to connect this ver. with what 
follows bearing on Paul in particular]. faovffare, ye have heard) 
although you have not yet sufficiently (vapXu[3&ri) received them. 
eider e, ye have seen) although ye have not as yet sufficiently 
learned them (e/ttdQere). l o sbg r^g eipqnis, the God of peace) not 
only the peace of God, ver. 7, but God Himself. 

10. Ms/aXws, greatly) This would scarcely have pleased a 
Stoic. Paul had large affections, but in the Lord. j3jj srorg, 
now at length) He shows that the gift of the Philippians had 
been expected by him ; with what feeling of mind, see ver. 11, 
17, now, not too late at length, not too soon. The time was the 
suitable time. Heb. cyan fiKT. aveQdXere, ye have flourished 
again or revived) as trees: comp. the same metaphor, ch. i. 11, 
with fruit : avaOaXXu is here a neuter verb, on which the infini 
tive tppoveTv, to think [your care~] depends, by supplying xara, in 
respect to ; you have flourished again, in the very fact of the exer 
tion which you have made. The deputation from the Philip 
pians seems to have been appointed in Spring, from which, 
accordingly, the metaphor is taken. The phrase, you wanted 
opportunity [referring to the past time] agrees with Winter. 
ro weep epov) The accusative TO is governed by ppove/v ; rb vvep I/AOU 
is said, as ra nap vpuv, ver. 18. e<p w, wherein) in proportion, or 
according to that which, according to the fact that : e t ffi&epa<ffeia. 2 
r, xaipeTffQe) Kaipbg, by Synecdoche, denotes all ability and opportunity. 

11. Katf vffrepriffiv) in respect of want. syoj, I) in so much 
adversity. i^aQov) I have learned, from on high, Heb. v. 8. 
There is a direct Chiasmus in the four words, / have learned, I 
know, I am instructed, I am able. The phrase / am instructed is 
added (as an expansion of the idea) to / have learned; I am 
able, to / know. Often words referring to the understanding 
infer also power in the will. sv oJg tl^i) in what circumstances I 
am, in my present state, Heb. xiii. 5. avrdpzqs) content. 

1 Kai o so ;, and the God) This refers also to (think on) have respect or 
regard to (Aoy/W#g). 

2 See App. An after mitigation or qualification of the previous words by 
way of conciliating the readers. ED. 

PHILIPPIANS IV. 1216. 155 

12. Tafftivovadai, to be abased) in dress and food. irspifftftvuv, to 
abound) even in relieving others. The order of the words is 
presently inverted, so that the transition from few to many, and 
from many to few, may be marked. sv vavr}, in everything 
[Engl. Yer. everywhere]) A Symperasma, 1 as all things, ver. 13. 
ev cra<7/, in the case of all) in respect of all men [Engl. Ver. In all 
things]. /^//,uj//<a/) 1 am trained (initiated) in a secret discipline 
unknown to the world. xa/ xoprdfyadai, both to be full) construed 
with / am initiated. yyprafyaQat %al veivav, to be full and to be 
hungry) for one day. nspiffffsvsiv xai um?ffrfaf, to abound and to 
suffer need) for a longer time. The repeated mention of the 
abounding is consonant with the condition of Paul, who then 
abounded in consequence of the liberality of the Philippians. 
Abasement had preceded, and need would perhaps follow. He 
who can relieve others has ample means and high position (am- 
plitudinem), to which abasement is opposed. 

14. 2wyxoivuv7}ffavre$) since you have communicated (imparted) 
to me in my affliction of your resources. It is indicated by the 
compound verb, that different persons also had communicated 
(xoivuvfaavrai) in a different way. 2 

15. O /dan, ye know) He shows that he was mindful even of 
former kindnesses : you know signifies remembrance in respect of 
the Philippians ; knowledge, in respect of other churches. 
fc/Xmnjovo/, Philippians) The proper name indicates an anti 
thesis to the churches of other towns. h apyjf t , in the beginning) 
of the Gospel preaching in your case. He had gone forth from 
them some time ago. ore, when) Join this with the following 
words, no, etc. olbz^ia, no) They might have said, We will do 
it, if others have done it : now their praise is greater on that 
account ; that of the others, less. IxxXTjtf/a, church) Therefore 
the church of Philippi sent to Paul in common. g/g Xoyov, as 
far as concerns) This is a limitation. doeeug, of giving, of what 
has been given) on your part. X^sug, of receiving, of what has 
been received) on mine. /AOVOI, alone) in a manner worthy of 
praise. He hereby shows his need. 

16. Ka/ aVag xal dig) A/c, an ordinal member in this passage ; 

1 See App. It is the comprehending in a brief summary what has been 
previously stated. 

2 avv implying they joined together in doing so. ED. 

156 PHlLiPFIANS IV. 1721. 

i.e. not once and twice, which would be equivalent to thrice, but 
once and again, so that under big, twice, d<ra%, once, is compre 
hended. So 1 Thess. ii. 18. 

17. Ou;^ on, not that) He explains why he uses many words. 
evifyruy I seek) having welcomed your kindness. sig Xoyov 
vpuv) [to your account] in respect to you. 

18. ATS^W) The apostle s receipt. 1 irepKHrevu, I abound) Be 
hold the contented and grateful mind ! ra <xa.f vpuv, the things 
(which came) from you) They had sent money or clothes and 
what might be serviceable. ha^v elubiag, the odour of a sweet 
smell) He describes their conduct by a beautiful figure. 0u<r/av, 
a sacrifice) Heb. xiii. 16. 

19. o ds @s6g pov, but my God) who will recompense what is 
given to His servant. In ver. 19 this particular statement 
regarding the liberality of the Philippians is concluded by the 
word 8s, but ; but in ver. 20 the conclusion of the whole of this 
joyous passage is made by 8s, but [_ now?~\ whqpuHtsi) may God 
supply, nay, He will fully supply. [_We may perceive that this act 
of kindness on the part of the Philippians was indeed excellently 
laid out, if even it only produced this prayer of the apostle. 
V. g.] x,P* av ) need) As you have supplied and relieved my 
need, what is empty of yours will not remain empty [it shall be 
filled, K^WUGSI Qsog]. sv 86Zp, in glory) This should be referred 
to the whole sentence. There are riches in glory, glorious 
riches, immediately at hand ; then besides, God will fully sup 
ply in glory, i.e. gloriously. 

20. H 3o ga, glory) in return for His gift, 2 Cor. ix. 15. The 
doxology flows from the joy that pervades the whole epistle. 

21. nai/ra ay/ov, every saint) individually. So presently in 
ver. 22, All the saints. %ai oi, and the, viz. saints, so called in a 
wide sense. Therefore, brethren, ver. 21, may rather be under 
stood of the Jews, (comp. Acts xxviii. 21), and these too be 

1 Apocha. may either be his acknowledgment of having received in full 
the debt of kindness due to him from them, or else Beng. uses d7ro%v) as 
Epictetus for forbearance, moderation in desires. In the a-pocha there 
is a direct allusion to the d^A-^u of the text. ED. 




2. 5 Ev KoXo<r<ra%, at Colosse) a city of Phrygia. dy/o/, to the 
saints) This has the force of a substantive. It implies union 
with God : to the faithful brethren, implies union with Christian 
men. The word brethren suggests union. These were be 

3. Eu^apiffTov/^sv dxovffavrsg, we give thanks since we heard) 
Comp. Eph. i. 15, 16. For the Epistle to the Colossians bears 
considerable resemblance to the two epistles to which it is sub 
joined : to the Epistle to the Ephesians, in its general subject 
(thesis) and mode of exhortation (paraclesis) ; to the Epistle to 
the Philippians, in its opposition to the false teachers, and in 
their refutation. More of these coincidences will be noticed in 
their proper places. The Epistles to the Ephesians and Colos 
sians were sent at the same time by Tychicus, iv. 7 ; Eph. vi. 
21. -Trdvrors, always) Construed with praying: Rom. i. 10; 
Phil. i. 4. 

4. ndvras, all) present and absent. 

5. A/a, for) From [the greatness of the object of] hope, it is 
evident how great a cause of thanksgiving there is for the gift of 
faith and love ; for (did) is construed with we give thanks, ver. 3. 
[Faith, hope, love, ver. 4, 5, the sum of Christianity. Comp. 
ver. 9, 10, 11. V. g.] d^oxsi^vriV, laid up) so as to be without 
danger [of its being lost]. w, which) hope, comp. ver. 23. 

158 COLOSS1ANS I. 6~9. 

ye have heard of] before I wrote. ev r& Xoyw r%g 
g, in the word of the truth) Eph. i. 13. The truth of 
i knowledge/ ver. 6 [ye knew the grace of God], corresponds 
to the truth of preaching in this verse. Neither admits of arti 
fice (being tricked out for show). 

6. E/s) tic, and ev here are parallel. xal SGTI, and is) After the 
participle, the form of expression here takes again the indicative 
mood; see ver. 26, ch. ii. 13, 14; [of the Gospel] present, i.e. 
ivhich is come to you, and (repeat which from the preceding 
clause) is producing fruit. Kap<zo(popovfj,t\iov, 1 producing fruit) 
viz. [supply] in all the world. zaQug, even as) when travelling 
abroad they recognise with great joy the same fruits of the 
Gospel in every clime ; and its fruits prove that it is the word 
of truth. Comp. presently after, even as, ver. 7. For there is 
an interchange, 2 and at length a movement or tendency [of 
Gospel fructification] towards the Colossians for the propagation 
of the word. [An inclination arises on the part of the Colossians 
in their turn to propagate the truth]. a<p %<;, from what) con 
strued with in you. ev afydzfcf,, in truth) i.e. in the truth of the 
Gospel testimony, and of faith flowing from the testimony and 
directed toward the testimony. 

7. Kad&s, even as) Paul thus confirms and approves the doc 
trine of Epaphras, which perhaps some had despised. It was 
Paul s duty to write rather than Epaphras. fipuv, our) Paul and 
Timothy. vvsp vpuv) for you, on your account. ayacnjv sv 
Tlvtvftan, love in the Spirit) Love, the fruit of the Spirit ; 
spiritual love ; comp. ver. 9, at the end. 

9. Hxou<ra,ttv ? we have heard) ver. 4. ^poffsv^o^svoi, praying) 

1 Ketpwo(popov(x,eov av&vopwov, the fuller reading, is referred to those 
not quite certain on the margin of the older Ed., but is considered better 
established by the margin of the 2d Ed. and the Germ. Vers. E. B. 

ABCD(A) corrected, Qrfg Vulg. read xal etv%a6fAevoy. Rec. Text omits 
the words without any sanction of the oldest authorities. ED. 

2 " Permutatur enim et tandem ad Colossenses inclinatur, ad propaga- 
tionem sermonis." The Gospel has come to you, even as {>ca,6ug) it has 
come to all the world, and brings forth fruit in all the world, even as (xoiQus) 
it does also in you. Beng. seems to mean, There is that kind of interchange 
whereby the Gospel, being seen by the Colossians when travelling to bear 
fruit in all the world, reacts on the Colossians themselves by a reflex effect, 
tending thus to the propagation of the word. ED. 

COLOSSIANS I. 10-12. 159 

He made mention of prayers for them generally, ver. 3 : he now 
states what he prays for. KXypuQqre, ye may Refilled} This verb, 
with its derivatives (conjugates), often occurs in this epistle, as 
far as ch. iv. 12, 17. rqv liriyvutiv rov QsXq/Aarog avrou, with the 
knowledge of His will) There is a gradation in the following 
verse, in the knowledge of GOD. rou faXqftaros, will) Eph. v. 17, 
i. 9. <rop/a, in wisdom) a word often used in this epistle ; that 
they may be led the more from false wisdom and philosophy, 
Eph. i. 8. [There seems to have been a want of knowledge 
among the Colossians, who were otherwise of an excellent spirit ; 
wherefore the apostle urges that point with so great earnestness 
throughout the whole epistle, ver. 11, 28, ii. 2, 3, iii. 10, 16, iv. 
5, 6. V. g.] Knowledge is less recommended to the Corin 
thians, who were more apt to be puffed up. Wisdom denotes 
taste: 1 comp. Matt, xxiii. 34, note. ffwetrei, understanding) 
that you may discern what is consistent with, or opposed to 
the truth, and may not pass by what requires consideration. 
Wisdom (ffop/a) is something more general ; ffwsgi$ is a kind of 
sagacity. So that on every occasion, there may suggest itself 
something which is suited to the place and time. GVVZGIS is in 
the understanding ; wisdom is in the whole compass (complexu) 
of the faculties of the soul. omy^ar/xSj, spiritual) not natural. 

10. HepiKarfiffai) that ye may walk. Such walking is derived 
from the knowledge of the will of God. ag/wg roD Kuptov) as it 
is worthy of Christ the Lord, Eph. iv. 1. ap etxeiav, the desire of 
pleasing) on your part ; so far as (even to that degree that) in 
reality you may please the Lord. }n, LXX., apzaxstai, Prov. 
xxxi. 30. xapffopopouvreg, bearing fruit) The participles, bearing 
fruit, increasing, strengthened, depend on the verb -rX^w^rs, 
ver. 9, that ye may be filled. 

11. AwdfLsi, with might) Eph. i. 19, iii. 16, vi. 10. do^c, the 
power of His glory [Engl. Vers. His glorious power]) Rom. vi. 
4. {taxpoOufttav, long-suffering) Eph. iv. 2. ft&ra "xapag, with joy) 
ver. 24. 

12. EvxapHtrovvrsi;, giving thanks) i.e. and we give thanks. It 
depends on ver. 9 [we do not cease, etc. giving thanks] : Us 
presently follows, and you, ver. 21. [He gives thanks, namely, in 

1 A relish for spiritual things. Sapientia is from sapere, to have taste. ED. 


behalf of the Israelites, ver. 12-20, on account of the Gentiles, 
ver. 21, etc. Comp. Eph. ii. 3, 11. V. g.] rfi ixavuffavn, who 
hath made us meet) For we had been formerly not meet. The 
same word is found at 2 Cor. hi. G. g/ g, for) i.e. that we 
might receive a part of the inheritance of the saints ; comp. the 
following verse, and Eph. i. 11, or rather Acts xx. 32, xxvi. 18. 
/tsptda rov xX^ou) a part given by allotment, not for a price. 
ev 9 in) construed with a part. Light is the kingdom of God, 
and believers enjoy a blessed share in this kingdom : li>, in, 
is, so to speak, a preposition of place. The opposite, Matt. iv. 
16, should be compared, where in occurs twice. rti part, in 
light) an antithesis to of darkness, ver. 13. Comp. Eph. v. 8. 
It is the light of knowledge [recognition and perception] and joy. 

13. "Og, who) the father. s^ouffiag, from the poiver) The anti 
thesis is kingdom : power detains captives ; a kingdom fosters 
willing citizens ; comp. Eph. ii. 2, v. 5, vi. 12. axorovg, of dark 
ness) the darkness of blindness, of hatred, of misery. rov T/oD rq$ 
aydnric, avrov, the Son of His love) [His dear Son, Engl. Vers.] 
John xvii. 26; Eph. i. 6. This is treated in the 15th and fol 
lowing verses. 

14. EC f>, in Whom) the Son, Eph. i. 7. rfy a<no\vrpto<fiv, the 
redemption) This is treated of, ver. 18 (from the middle) and 
in the following verse. 

15. " Og sffriv, who is) He describes the glory and excellence of 
Christ as even above the highest angels, and hereby scatters 
those seeds by which he will prove, next in order, the folly of 
the worshippers of angels. [lie teaches believers to make applica 
tion to Christ Himself, as their Saviour, and at the same time the 
head of all. V. g.] Those, in short, obtain this full knowledge 
concerning Christ, who have experienced the mystery of re 
demption. six&v ro\j 0oD, the image of God) 2 Cor. iv. 4, note. 
rov aopdrov, of the invisible) A most glorious epithet of God, 1 
Tim. i. 17. The only begotten Son alone represents the invi 
sible God, and is Himself His image, invisible, according to the 
Divine nature ; visible, according to the human nature [John 
xiv. 9], visible even before the incarnation, inasmuch as the in 
visible things of God [Rom. i. 20] began to be seen from the cre 
ation, which was accomplished through Him [by Him as the 
instrument]. To this refer ver. 16, things visible and invisible. 

COLOSSIANS 1. 1C, 17. ^ 101 

the first-begotten of every creature) He 
was begotten ; and that, too, before the creation of all things. 
The vpb, which is contained in ^rpwroVoxoj, governs the genitive 
xriffsug. Time is an accident of the creature. Therefore the 
origin of the Son of God precedes all time. 

16. "On, because) The second part of the 15th verse is here 
by explained. I v, in) Iv <L denotes something prior to dia and e!g, 
which presently occur. There is here noticed the beginning, 
the progress, the end. The same is summarily repeated in 
the following verse. avr&, by Him) He Himself, often used 
here, signifies His great majesty, and excludes every creature. 
- sxrttffy, were created) It is evident from the enumeration 
which immediately follows, that the discussion here relates to 
that creation which is described, Gen. i. ; comp. ver. 23. rd 
sv ro?$ ovpavoTs, those things that are in the heavens) and the 
heavens themselves. But those things which are in the heavens 
are rather named, because the inhabitants are more noble than 
their dwellings. rd opara, the visible things) There follows by 
gradation, and invisible, of which the species are subjoined. 
[Since visible things, such as the sun, moon, stars, are named 
first, invisible things subsequently, in succession, it may not be 
unworthy of consideration, ivhether the visible things may not 
have been created during the period of the six days, and the in 
visible things on the seventh day ? Gen. ii. 1, 2 ; Exod. xxxi. 17. 1 
V. g.] S/TS Qpovoi f/rg %vpi6rr t rsg, whether thrones or dojninions) 
The former greater than the latter. The abstract for the con 
crete. s/Vs ap^al s /rs s^ovffiat, whether principalities or powers) 
The former stronger than the latter. Both of these two express 
an exercise of an office in respect of the creatures ; but thrones 
and dominions seem rather to have their appellation in their 
exalted relation to God, in so far as they are o^^ara, the 
chariots, on which He displays His majesty, Eph. i. 21. 

2 17. "Ear/, He is) He does not say, He was made ; nor, He 

1 The statement, that God rested on the seventh day from ALL His work, 
seems to oppose this notion ; and still more, Job xxxviii. 7, and other passages, 
which recognise angels as existing at the time of the earth s creation. Per 
haps Beng. means invisible things, strictly, not invisible beings. ED. 

2 Ets OCVTOV, to Him) All things are referred to Him Himself. Not any 
thing was made without Him, John i. 3. E. B. 


162 COLOSS1ANS I. 18, ID. 

was, of which the latter might, however, have been used in a 
dignified sense, comp. John i. 1 ; but He is, in the present ; 
comp. John viii. 58. <rpb ndvruv, before all things) even before 
time, i.e. from eternity. xa/ ra vdvra iv aurw <7uvg<rrj7cg) and all 
things in Him came together into one system [Engl. Vers. By 
Him all things consist, i.e. are maintained.] The universe found 
its completion in Him. LXX. ra ffvffTr^ara ruv bddruv, Gen. i. 
10. He is the first and the last, Rev. xxii. 13. [Is. xli. 4, in 
regard to the origin : I the Lord am first, and I am with the 
last. V. g.] 

18. Ka/, and) He now comes down from the whole to the 
principal part, the Church, comp. Eph. i. 22, note. 05 effn, 
tvho is) The Anaphora [repetition of the same words in begin 
nings], comp. ver. 15, shows that there is here the beginning of 
a new paragraph, and its own on, because, is added to each 
member. /?%?}, beginning) This word corresponds to the He 
brew word G?&n, especially concerning Christ, Hos. ii. 2, and 
JVtWi, concerning a first-begotten in particular, Deut. xxi. 17, 
but chiefly of Christ, Prov. viii. 22. a^apy^, first fruits, is the 
term used, 1 Cor. xv. 23, the word being rather restricted to 
the resurrection of the dead : ap^, beginning, more expressly 
denotes distinguished excellence; comp. ii. 10; Ps. Ixxxix. 27. 
apW in the singular is antithetic to ap^al, principalities, in the 
plural, ver. 16. irpuroroxos e% ruv vexpuv, the first-begotten from 
the dead) Christ, even before His resurrection from the dead, 
nay, before the creation of the world, was the first-begotten, 
ver. 15; but He is said to be first-begotten from the dead, be 
cause, for this reason, inasmuch as He was the Son of God, He 
could not but rise again, and because, in consequence of His 
resurrection, He is acknowledged [recognised] to be the Son of 
God ; comp. Acts xiii. 33, note ; and especially since there flows 
from His resurrection the life of many brethren. Kaffiv, in all 
things) In the neuter gender, ver. 1 7. avrbg, He) by Himself, 
without deputies or substitute. ^wrsuwc, holding the first place) 
for example, in His resurrection, ascension, etc., John iii. 13. 
Victorinus translates it, primarius, " the pre-eminent One." 

19. 1 EuSoxjjffg, He was well-pleased) viz. God [Engl. Vers. the 

airy, in Him) namely, the Son. The words regarding either the 

COLOSSI ANS 1. 20, 21. 163 

Father]. This must be supplied, in accordance with the mind 
of Paul, who, while he mentions the benefit conferred by Christ, 
never fails to remember the Father. As to the Father s being 
well-pleased in the Son, comp. Matt. iii. 17 : For u<3oxw with 
the accusative and infinitive following, see 2 Mace. xiv. 35. 
Moreover, on gu5oxjj<rg, He lias been well-pleased, depend to re 
concile, and having made peace. trav rb ^X^<w//,a, all the fulness) 
ch. ii. 9, 10, 2, iv. 12, 17, i. 9, 25 ; Eph. i. 23, note. Who 
can fathom the depth of this subject? xaro/x?j<ra/, to dwell) con 
stantly, as in a temple, in which it [the fulness] is ready at 
hand for us. This indwelling is the foundation of the recon 

20. AcroxaraXXaga/, to reconcile) Eph. ii. 16. rd vdvra, all 
things) Eph. i. 10. tig ai/row, unto Himself) i.e. unto God, ver. 
22 ; 2 Cor. v. 19. g/^i/o-Tro/^tfag, having made peace) Eph. ii. 14, 
17. The nominative depends on He has been well-pleased. 
did rov a lfAaros rcu ffravpou avrou) by the blood shed on the cross, 
and therefore by His death on the cross ; or there is an apposi 
tion with a Metonymy [see Append.] : by the blood, that is, His 
cross. The effect of the crucifixion (although not of the cru 
cifixion alone) is the shedding of blood. & avrov, by Him) This 
repetition both adds to the emphasis, and shows that the all things 
are straightway explained by it, whether the things which, etc. 
This phrase, all things, includes also the dead. eV/ rij$ yqg, on 
the earth) It was on the earth that there had arisen the begin 
ning of the enmities ; therefore the earth is put first. ra kv ro?s 
ovpavo?$, the things which are in the heavens) Luke xix. 38. It is 
certain that the angels, the friends of God, were the enemies of 
men, when they were in a state of hostility against God. 

21. Ka/ u/xag, and you) Eph. ii. 1, 12. d^7i\\orpiuf^svou(; xai 
s^dpoi/5, alienated and enemies) Actual alienation makes habitual 
enemies. r5j biavoicf) in the original and inmost force [bias, 
Vulg. ( sensu, in feeling ] of the mind, which draws after it the 
other faculties. vwf) now, when you have received that faith, 
by which you have been brought to the reconciliation made on 
the cross ; i.e. you were formerly alienated, but now He has 

Father or the Son must be carefully distinguished both in this and in the 
following chapter. V. g. 

164 COLOSS1ANS I. 22-24. 

reconciled you ; although you were enemies, nevertheless He 
has reconciled you. The Apodosis is to be referred to the 
words immediately preceding, although they do not render 
the sentence complete. dcroxar^/^aggj , reconciled) i.e. God 

22. Ev rui ffb)fj,ari rr\c, alrov, by the body of His flesh) 
By this appellation, taken as a whole, He is distinguished from 
the Church, which is called the body of Christ : and at the 
same time the body denotes the true and entire humanity of 
Christ, Rom. vii. 4. Flesh implies the capacity of suffering, 
and the suffering itself; Eph. ii. 15. Kapaffrqffai, to present) 
Eph. v. 27. 7/Vj, holy) towards God. d^ui^ovg, spotless) in 
respect of yourselves. dcvgy/cXTjrous, unreproveable) in respect of 
your neighbour. 

23. E/ ye, if indeed) This word depends on the finite verb, 
He hath reconciled, ver. 21, rather than on the infinitive xapaff- 
r^ai [ver. 22] ; and this -ra/?aor/j<ra/, being the ultimate [final] 
object, is itself the most delightful fruit of reconciliation ; whence 
it is not the truth of the reconciliation which has been accom 
plished, that is suspended [is made to depend] on the persever 
ance of the Colossians, but the most delightful fruit for the 
time to come, which is not to be obtained, unless the Colossians 
shall have persevered ; comp. ti 72, Eph. iv. 21 ; sawsp, Heb. 
iii. 6. ry vjffTti) in faith, viz. in confidence ; to which hope 
is usually joined. rtfa^sXiu/js svoi) secured to the foundation 
[grounded] : IbpaToi, stable [settled], firm within. The former is 
metaphorical, the latter less figurative ; the one implies greater 
respect to the foundation, by which believers are supported ; 
but edpaToi, stable (settled), suggests the idea of internal strength, 
which believers themselves possess ; just as a building ought 
to lean (rest) uprightly and solidly on the foundation first of 
all, but afterwards to cohere securely, and firmly to stand to 
gether, even by its own mass [compact solidity of structure]. 
xa/ tfyafa Kai, and stable and) 1 Cor. xv. 58, note ; Eph. iii. 18. 
rou suayygX/ou, of the Gospel) by which reconciliation is declared. 
naffy, to every) ver. 20; Markxvi. 15, note. didxovog, minister) 
ver. 25 ; Eph. iii. 7. 

24. NDc, now) This is in antithesis to from (since) the day that, 
ver. 9. xa/, and) This is to be explained thus : in my sufferings, 

COLOSSIANS I. 25-27. . 105 

in which I Jill up in turn. And is used as but, 1 Eph. v. 27. 
avrava 7r\wZ)) I fill up in turn) The measure of sufferings was 
fixed, which the whole Church must endure. The more of them 
therefore that Paul endured (drained out), the less is left for 
himself and others ; the communion of saints produces this effect. 
[ While the measure of sufferings destined for Paul was filling 
up, the Gentiles attained to the full communion (participation) 
of the Gospel. V. g.] Hence the Papists infer the doctrine of 
merit in behalf of others, as very many errors in their system 
have sprung from a subtle (nice and profound) truth, received 
without discrimination. wrep, for) Eph. iii. 1, note. 

25. TW o/xovoftiav rou sou, the dispensation of God) Thence 
Paul (was) a steward [1 Cor. iv. 1, one having dispensation ] of 
the grace of God, Eph. iii. 2. s/$ v/&a$, to you) Gentiles, ver. 
27. wXTipuffai) to fulfil, to bring it fully to all. Paul every 
where aims towards the farthest point ; comp. Rom. xv. 19, 
-TrivrXripuxsvai [round about unto Illyricum I have fully preached]. 
The fulness of Christ and of the times required that. 

26. To pvffrfipiov, the mystery) A Hendiadys : rbv Xoyov, TO ^a- 
rqpiov, i.e. the word concerning the mystery. The mystery is de 
clared in the following verse, Eph. i. 9, iii. 9. Glory is the 
object of the mystery. avo%sxpv/j,/Aevov, concealed) So are con 
cealed (artoxpixpoi), ch. ii. 3. avrb ruv afuivuv, from the ages) 
during which the silence had been greater. dvb ruv yeveuv, from 
the generations} during which the revelation of other things was 
gradually made. The * Ages are to be referred to angels, the 
( generations to men. tyavspuQri, has been manifested) the verb 
again after the participle. ro% dy/o/g, to His saints) Eph. iii. 8, 

27. o7g) inasmuch as being persons, to ivhom. An explana 
tion. WsXyosv, it was the will of God) most freely. 6 vrXovros, the 
riches) [descending] upon all men ; see Eph. i. 7, note. og, who) 
for o, ivhich. Xpiffrbs sv vpTv, Christ in you) The parallel expres 
sions are, sv ro?<; eQveffiv, and sv vp/v 9 in the Gentiles, and in you. 
Christ in (among) the Gentiles was the greatest paradox at that 
time. Comp. in, Eph. iii. 8, (17) ; 1 Tim. iii. 16. 2 vj 

1 Not having spot, etc. BUT that it should be holy, for, but holy. ED. 

2 Bengel. therefore, not attending to mere emphasis, also acknowledged 
here the same signification of the word ev, which Ernesti approves, in 

166 COLOSSIANS I. 28, 29.-1I. 1. 

do&g, the hope of glory) Christ in us is a most delightful thing 
in itself, but much more delightful in respect of those things 
which shall be revealed, ch. iii. 4 ; Eph. i. 18. So Rom. v. 2. 

28. H/^g/c, we) ver. 1 [I and Timothy]. cravra av^wcrov, every 
man} This expression, so often used, has the greatest dziv6rr,$ 
(vehemence) and force, and contains the reason why he writes 
even to them who are unknown to him, ch. ii. 1. The distri 
bution of the all [" every man every man every man"] may 
be compared with ch. iii. 11. xai diddffxovrsc) and teaching. 
voudsrouvrai (they are admonished) is said of those who have been 
already taught, as the Colossians ; dtddffxovrai (are taught) is said 
of the ignorant and uninstructed. rsXg/ov) See Eph. iv. 13 : 
perfect, without the elements of the world. 

29. A/ww^o/Agvog, striving) In ch. ii. 1, the conflict (comp. iv. 
12) refers to this word. xara, according to) Paul would not be 
able to strive in himself: he is only mighty, according as Christ 
works in him. auroD, of Him) of Christ. 


1. 0sXw /Ap, for I would) He explains, why he used the word 
striving, ch. i. 29, for, conflict, presently follows. ayuva, a con 
flict) of anxiety, eager desire, prayers, with which I try to make 
amends for those things which I am unable in my absence to per 
form. KUI offot, and as many) Among these may be comprehended 
the Christians who were at Hierapolis, ch. iv. 13. Paul con 
stituted himself a debtor to all the Gentiles. ov% wpdxaffi, have 
not seen) For this reason Paul does not use the familiar titles, 
brethren, beloved, in this whole epistle, and in it alone. [More 
over, he writes to those churches which he had instructed face to 
face concerning their particular affairs, which were to be put to 
rights on his return to them; he suggests many things, and now 

Attone Bibl. th. T. x. p. 130 ; but in the Germ. Vers., on the margin, he 
has not hesitated to intimate, that that maturer communion with Christ, 
which assuredly surpasses all human reason, is the delightful consequence 
of preaching among the Gentiles, by the quotation of Eph. iii. 17. E. B. 

COLOSSIANS II. 2, 3. 167 

and then uses a reproof, which savours of paternal authority. 
But to those places where he had not been personally present, he 
sent such letters as may be compared to persons preaching to 
strange hearers (Gastpredigten) ; presenting to them a compen 
dious view of the whole doctrine of salvation. See that you have 
profited by both kinds of discussion. V. g.] rb vpotfuKov pov, my 
face) Even the aspect of Paul had a power of comforting (vapa- 
xXJjcvg), ver. 2 ; Acts xx. 38. 

2. XuftptfbmMfnw) The participle categorically affirming : they 
are united together (" knit together"), says Paul, in love ; comp. 
ver. 5 ; the other things should be added. If you would read 

this will be the solution : Jva tfapaxX^wcv ra% 
avruv, <tv{t6i(3affQsvreg, that they, being knit together, may be 
comforted in their hearts. Comp. 1 Cor. vi. 16, note. Iv aydwri) 
in the mutual love of God and believers. xai) even. tig tig, to 
to) An Anaphora [repetition of the same words in beginnings ; 
Append.], of which the second part explains the first in two 
clauses. rov &sou xa,} vaTpbg nat rov Xptffrov, of God and the Father 
and of Christ) The article is accurately put. He here lays clown 
a proposition regarding God and Christ, and discusses it at ver. 
8, 9, 12, 13 : for all the fulness of the Godhead is in Christ, 
ver. 9. 

3. Ev f) in Whom, rather in which, viz. the mystery of God 
and the Father and of Christ. He who possesses this ought to 
ask for nothing more, so far as wisdom and other good things are 
concerned. Regarding Christ Himself, the question is taken up 
at ver. 9. g/V/, are) Construe : all hidden treasures are in that 
mystery [But Engl. Vers. makes artoxpvpoi predicate, In whom 
are hid, etc.] : a<7roxpv<poi, without the article. vavrsc, all, cor 
responds to the all, ver. 2. o/ fytavpoi, treasures) Hence are 
derived crXoDrog, the riches, ibid. rqg tio^iag, of wisdom) Hence 
comes the avvsffig, understanding, ibid. r^g yvutsug, of knowledge) 
Hence sxr/vufftg, the full knowledge, 2 ibid : comp. 1 Cor. xiii. 

1 So indeed the margin of the 2d Ed., rather than the larger Ed., advises 
the adoption of this reading. E. B. 

Svftflipotffterres is read by ABCD corrected, (A). / Vulg. have instruct!. 
Hilar. 1025, instituti. ZvpfiiQctaQivTuv has none of the oldest MSS. in 
its favour. ED. 

2 Engl. Vers. acknowledgment. E^/Vj/aov? is more than yauvt;. ED. 

108 COLOSSIANS II. 4-6. 

12, note. anoxpvpoi, hidden) for it is a mystery, ibid : comp. 1 
Cor. ii. 7, 8. 

4. M?j ng, lest any man) So ver. 8, 16, 18. cra^aXoy/^ra/ J v 
KiQavoXoyia, beguile you with enticing or plausible words) Comp. 
Eom. xvi. 19, with what goes before. That is, an enticing 
plausible speech, which, for example, makes a show of humility, 
ver. 18, 23. Some mixed together Judaism and the Eastern 
philosophy. See Budd. eccl. apost., pp. 466, 467. 

5. Xa/puv xat fihiiruv, joying and beholding) i.e. beholding with 
joy. rd^iv, order) lest anything should be out of joint ( lame ), 
Heb. xii. 13. Both individuals and those who are joined 
together should maintain order. Paul looks to those joined 
together, that they be knit together, <sv/Jt*(Bi(3a,(i6evrs$ 9 ver. 2. 
(rrspeuf&a, stedfastness) that it may not easily lose order. Sted- 
fast faith does not permit anything to be removed out of its 
order. This stedfastness is required in individuals, as the full 
assurance in ver. 2. Order is understood to belong to love. 
Faith is stedfastness when it is itself stedfast. 

6. Tbv Kvpiov, the Lord) The article shows that they had re 
ceived Christ as the Lord. Jv aur& leepiKarsTre, walk ye in Him) 
This is the scope of the epistle. We give the following summary : 


II. THE DOCTKINE, by which the apostle pathetically explains 
the mystery of Christ, in the way of thanksgiving for the 
Colossians, ver. 3 seq., and prayer for the same, 9, 10, 
12, 13, 15, 16,21,22 : 

Along with a declaration of his affection for them, 24, 25 ; 
ii. 1, 2. 


1) General, by which he stirs them up to perseverance in 

Christ, 6, 7 : 

And admonishes them not to be deceived, 8. 
Here again he describes the mystery of Christ, in order, 

9, 10: 

And in the same order derives his admonitions from 
Christ, the Head, 16 : 

And from His death, 20, et seqq. : 
And from His exaltation, iii. 14. 

2) Special. 

1. That vices should be avoided, 5-9 : 
And virtues practised, 10, 11 : 
Especially love, 12, 13 : 

And the study of the word of Christ, 16, 17. 

2. That they should do their duty. 

1. Wives and husbands, 18, 19. 

2. Children and parents, 20, 21. 

3. Servants and masters, 22, 23; iv. 1. 

3) Final, To prayer, 2, 3. 

To spiritual wisdom, 5, 6. 

IV. CONCLUSION, 7, 8, 10, 11, 15, 16, 18. 

7. Ep/5/w,ttsvo/, rooted) Eph. iii. 18. Time past instead of the 
commencement. 1 J</ro/xo5o^oi / agvo/) The present, as being even 
still in progress, Acts xx. 32. sv aura), in Him) in Jesus Christ, 
as Lord. In the faith is the parallel, which presently follows. 
Iv svxapHrriq, with thanksgiving) This constitutes and shows the 
lawful and joyful use of (external) things, which some burden 
with prohibitions, ver. 21 ; 1 Cor. x. 30 ; 1 Tim. iv. 3, 4. 

8. Mr, rig sffrcu) So, /va iffrai, Rev. xxii. 14. ffvXayuyuv) who 
not only makes spoil out of you, but makes yourselves a spoil. 
Both to this word tfuXa^w/wv, and to the word xgvJjs, vain, are 
opposed fulness, riches, treasures [ver. 2, 3, 9]. 8ia, by) This 
expresses the instrument. p/Xo<rop/ xat xsvyjg drtdryg, phi 
losophy and vain deceit) a Hendiadys, as ver. 18. Philosophy 
is in itself a kind of thing indifferent (midway between good 
and bad) ; but its abuse, however, tending to deceit, is more 
easy [than its use for good], especially in that Jewish philosophy 
of which they at that time boasted, and which they endeavoured 
to accommodate to the purity of the faith ; for Paul does not say, 
that we are brought to Christ by philosophy. Paul maintains 
that what his opponents boasted to be philosophy and 6 wisdom, 

1 i.e. Their faith was already long established, not merely beginning. 

170 COLOSSIANS II. 9, 10. 

ver. 23, was vain deceit. Kara, according to) This definitely 
points out what philosophy is intended, and restricts the general 
appellation to the Jewish philosophy. This is indicated in the 
discussion, ver. 11, 16, 20; wherefore the proposition in ver. 8 
ought not to be more widely extended, as if also applying to 
the Gentile philosophy, although the Jews had taken their phi 
losophy from the Gentiles ; and, by parity of reasoning, this 
remark applies to all philosophy. ruv avfyurtuv, of men) The 
antithesis is, of the Godhead, ver. 9. ra ffroi%s?a 9 the elements 
[rudiments]) The antithesis is, bodily, ver. 9, 17 : comp. elements, 
Gal. iv. 3, note. xal ov nark Xputrbv, and not according to Christ) 
He ought therefore peculiarly and solely to approve of the doc 
trine that is according to Christ. 

9. "Or/) for, since. The reason is hereby given, why those 
alone should be attended to, who teach according to Christ. 
sv avr&, in Him) John xiv. 10. xaroixe?, dwells) ch. i. 19, note. 
nav TO KXvipupa rqg dsorqros, all the fulness of the Godhead) Be 
lievers are filled with [rather into, s/g rb vfXqpuf&a,, so as to enter 
into a living participation of] all the fulness of God ; Eph. iii. 
19. But all the fulness of the Godhead, i.e. the Godhead in its 
greatest fulness, dwells in Christ ; not merely the Divine attri 
butes, but the Divine nature itself; ch. i. 19. The abstract 
word is most significant. 1 ffupanxus, bodily) God is the head of 
Christ, 1 Cor. xi. 3, and Christ is the head of all, ver. 10 ; and 
Christ is related to God, as His body, the Church, is to Christ ; 
but Christ could not with propriety be called the body of God. 
Therefore the language is varied. The Godhead itself, as it 
were the very entire substance (essence) of the Godhead, dwells 
in Christ, in a manner most immediate (vividly present) and 
most real. The type was God s glory dwelling in the temple 
of Solomon. S^a, the body, does not always denote the body 
properly so called; ver. 11, 17 

10. Ka/) and therefore. sari) ye are. ^STATJ^W/ASI/O/, filled up, 
made full [complete ]) John i. 16. The fulness of Christ re 
dounds to the Church ; Ps. cxxxiii. 2. Therefore His fulness 
is infinitely more abundant. He Himself is full ; we are filled 

1 u Of the Godhead," in its essence : not merely foiorwogt of the godlike 
character. ED. 

COLOSSIANS II. 11-13. 171 

[by and from Him] with wisdom and power. ^ xep aXy vatrqs, the 
head of all) Eph. i. 10. ndtrw apxys, of all principality) There 
fore we ought to present our petitions to Christ, not to angels. 

11. Kai) also. Paul now enumerates the steps in the pro 
gress of those, who have become partakers of the fulness of 
Christ. rttpisrwQqrs, ye are circumcised) As circumcision, so 
baptism, refers to initiation. veepirofwi, with the circumcision) 
of the heart. a^sipo^oi^r^, not made with hands) An epithet 
very suitable for the New Testament ; comp. Eph. ii. 11 ; Heb. 
ix. 11, 24. atfsxdvff&i) a word most significant ; ver. 15. roD 
ffu/tarog, of the body) This, as a whole, is opposed to the part, 
uncircumcision : aTrsxduovg ffw^aroj, the putting (stripping) off the 
body, a mild definition of death. It is different therefore from 
baptism : it is the circumcision of the heart ; it is death spiritual, 
in a good sense, whereas baptism is compared to burial. [Com 
munion with (joint participation in) the death and burial and 
resurrection of Christ is described in this and the following verse. 

V.g.] r5jc ffapKbg, of the flesh) There is an apposition between 
the body of sins and the flesh [not the body of the sins of the flesh, 
as Engl. Yers., but the body of the sins, that is to say, the flesh], 

sv ry irepirofjwi rou Xpiffrou) by the circumcision of Christ, which 
accords with the New Testament ; a circumcision, to which 
that of Moses, in the flesh, gives place. 

12. Bacrr/V/Aar/, in baptism) As death is before the resurrec 
tion, so in this third or middle term of the comparison, baptism 
naturally precedes matured (full-grown) faith. sv <, in which) 
An Anaphora [the frequent repetition of the same words in the 
beginnings], comp. ver. 11. dta rijg niffrtug r%$ evipytiag rov 
0soD) A remarkable expression : faith is of Divine operation, 
and Divine working is in believers ; Eph. i. 19, ii. 8 ; 1 Thess. 
ii. 13. 

13. Kai vftag, and you) The discourse, ver. 1012, was inde 
finite under the form of the second person, whereas now he 
speaks strictly in the second person ; and, indeed, there is a re 
markable Asyndeton [want of the copulative conjunction], by 
which ver. 13, 14, 15, are connected, vexpolg ovrag, being dead) 
Eph. ii. 1, 2. ry axpofivtrtq r5js ffapxbs, in the imcircumcision of 
the flesh) An exquisite term for original sin. <rvveuoirofi>i<re <riv 
ai/rw) God hath quickened you together with Christ; comp 

172 COLOSS1ANS II. 14. 

Eph. ii. 4, 5. The words, took away (ypxsv, ver. 14), and made a 
show (efaytAdritevj ver. 15), which have no copulative conjunction 
connecting them, either with one another or with ffwe^uovo/TiffM, 1 
depend on this expression, along with the annexed participles, 
all of which (viz. both the verbs and the participles) are to be 
referred to God the Father. xapiffdpevog) The aorist is deter 
mined by the tense of the verb, to w r hich it is added. Now, I 
adopt this reading, ^apiffd/^svog vp/v, 2 and connect this clause with 
the preceding words. In this view, ver. 13, along with those 
that precede it, addresses the Gentiles ; and ver. 14 introduces 
the Jews speaking. capa-rrw/^aT-a, offences) from which death 
had arisen. Deliverance from the reproach of sin, ver. 14, and 
deliverance from the power of darkness, ver. 15, are united with 
this deliverance from sin. 

14. Ega/.s/4-ag, having blotted out) A word appropriate in 
regard to writing : join it with qpxsv, took away. natf JI/AUV, 
against us) This verse brings in the Jews speaking. [Not only 
was the law against us, xce0 ^wy, by its demands, but also an ad 
versary to us, vvsvdvnov jj^ft (Engl. Vers. contrary to us), by its 
accusation. V. g.] xzipoypatpov, handwriting) When a debt has 
been contracted, it generally follows, that the debtor by his hand 
writing acknowledges himself to be bound. The debt is for 
given : and then, and not till then, the handwriting is blotted out. 
Our sins were debts : our sins themselves were not the hand 
writing, but that which flowed from them as a consequence, the 
undeniable stain, the remembrance, the outcry (see Jer. xvii. 
1, 2), not so much in our conscience, as in the presence of God, 
while the law in various ways accuses and condemns us. [All 
this constitutes the handwriting.] Heb. x. 3, 17 : 1 Cor. xv. 
56. To be against (xatf qpuv), and to be our adversary or inimi 
cal (vKtvdvTiov ^/x?v), differ, as a state of war and an actual engage 
ment. The handwriting was against us, but God blotted it out. 

1 For the xa,l before O.VTO qualifies it, and is not a copulative of the verbs, 
as the Engl. Vers. makes it ED. 

2 For the reading vfAiv, in the larger Ed., is considered not so certain: 
whereas by the margin of 2d Ed., with the concurrence of the Germ. 
Vers., it is reckoned among those that are more certain. E. B. 

H,t7v is read by ABCDG^r Hilar. 204, 773. TfAiv is supported by 
Vulg. Hilar. 990, 1067, and according to Lachm. by B (but Tisch. claims 
B for 5?,n/. ED. 


The handwriting was an enemy to us, but God took it out of 
the way, Eph. ii. 15, seq. roTg bdy^aaiv, by the decrees) the deter 
minations of His good pleasure. These are the decrees of grace. 
[But Engl. Vers. the handwriting of ordinances, viz. the legal 
ordinances.] The mention of the writing is included in that 
which was against us, not in that by which we were relieved. 1 
The letter killeth, 2 Cor. iii. 6. See Yen. D. Hauberi tract, ad 
h. 1. vvsvavriov, an adversary [Engl. Vers. contrary ]) u-ro does 
not mean, secretly, underhand, in this compound, as is evident 
from the LXX. 2 xal avrb) it also. 3 qpxsv SK rov p stou) So xarap- 
yqffag, Eph. ii. 15. <7rpoffq\u>(fa$, having nailed it to) The allusion 
is to the nails of the cross of Christ. The handwriting, being 
pierced through, is considered as abolished. It may be resolved 
into, after He had nailed it to His cross ; for ypxev, He took away, 
refers to the fruit of the resurrection. So also ver. 15, after He 
had triumphed over them. The full exercise of power over the 
vanquished is now the beginning of the triumph, when the van 
quished are bound, and are made ready for becoming a show. 
The triumph takes for granted the victory, and follows it after an 
interval. It perhaps took place when Christ descended into 

15. AKsx,dvffdpsvo$, having stripped off, having spoiled) Matt, 
xii. 29. rag ap^ag %ai rue, e%ovffia$, principalities and powers) 
Those, who worshipped good angels, at the same time feared the 
bad ; neither with good reason : comp. ver. 10. sdsiypdnffiv, 
made a show) This was done at His ascension, Eph. iv. 8. 
sv Kappnffia, openly) While both they themselves beheld it in their 
turn, and good angels, and then men, and God Himself. The 
nakedness of the vanquished enemy was manifest from the fact 
itself, and in the Gospel. aurov$, them) The masculine refers to 
the angels. sv auroD, in Him) in Christ. So Hilarius the deacon 
explains it. This (sv airw) refers (belongs) to the whole para- 

1 i.e. No writing is mentioned in connection with the decrees of grace, as 
it is in the case of the law. ED. 

2 Tittmann, however, says, TVgjvr/o? and ev&vnos certe sic differunt ut 
illud denotet adversarium, nulla manifestos vis notione, potius contrarium : 
somewhat contrary, having a latent opposition to us. N. T. Syn. ED. 

8 Not, as Engl. Vers., the xotl joining o-vj/g^uoTro/Vsj/ and qpiui, : there is 
Asyndeton. ED. 

174 COLOSSIANS II. 16, 17. 

graph, [which treats of GOD down from ver. 12. V. g.] and 
which is here concluded. [Evidently as Eph. i. 20, ii. 5. V. g.] 

16. Olv, therefore) The therefore is deduced from ver. 81 5. 
See ver. 16 (comp. note on ver. 20), ch. iii. 1, 5, 12. xpmru, 
let no man judge) A Metonymy of the antecedent for the conse 
quent, i.e. attend to no one who attempts to judge you ; so 
ver. 18. sv (Bpufci, in meat) He says less than he wishes to be 
understood (Tapeinosis). 1 sv p spst soprr^, [in part or partly^ in 
respect of a holiday) The expression, [in part ov partly] in respect, 
here seems to have the power of separating. One might dis 
turb believers on the subject of meat and drink (ver. 21), 
another again about holidays. The holiday is yearly ; the new 
moon, monthly; the sabbaths, weekly. Comp. Gal. iv. 10, note. 
75 ffapBaruv, or of sabbaths) The plural for the singular, Matt. 
xii. 1 : but it is used here significantly [with express design] ; 
for the several days of the week are called Sabbaths, Matt. 
xxviii. 1 [6-4/s 8s ffa(3f3druv. See Gnom. there] ; therefore Paul 
intimates here that all distinction of days is taken away ; for he 
never wrote more openly concerning the Sabbath. Christ, after 
that He Himself, the Lord of the Sabbath, had come, or else 
before His suffering, in no obscure language taught the liberty of 
the Sabbath ; but He asserted it more openly by Paul after His 
resurrection. Nor has it yet been expressly defined what degree 
of obligation is to be assigned to the Sabbath, what to the Lord s 
day ; but this has been left to the measure of every one s faith. 
The Sabbath is not cited as authoritative [laudatur], is not com 
manded ; the Lord s day is mentioned, not enjoined. An ap 
pointed [a definite and fixed] day is useful and necessary to those 
who are rather deeply immersed and engrossed in the concerns 
of the world. They who always sabbatize [they who keep a 
continual Sabbath], enjoy greater liberty. The Sabbath is a 
type even of eternal things, Heb. iv. 3, 4 ; but yet its obligation 
does not on that account continue in the New Testament, other 
wise the new moons should be retained, Is. Ixvi. 23. 2 

17. 2/o, a shadow) Heb. viii. 5, x. 1. A shadow, without 
life. ffupa, the body) the very truth shadowed forth by the old 

1 See App. 

2 For there we find in a future state an antitype to the new moons as well 
as to the Sabbath, which would prove too much. ED. 


ceremonies. The body, as well as the shadow, to which it is 
opposed, is the predicate ; and therefore it may be thus resolved : 
meaty drink, etc., are the shadow of things to come ; but the body 
of Christ is the body [the substantial thing], or, in other words, 
that which belongs to Christ is the body. Allusion is made to 
the very body of Christ, but Christianity is understood ; rb roD 
Xpiffrov sffri ffupa,. If you suppose that body 9 is to be supplied 
in the subject, it will be a Ploce. 1 

18. Models vfta$ xa,ra(3paf3&v sru, let no man assume the office of 
umpire to dictate to you \let no man beguile you of your reward^ ) 
A word closely connected with judging (xptv eru), and establishing 
ordinances or dogmas (fayft&rfydi)) ver. 16, 20 ; for (3pa.(3evu, I 
guide or regulate prnoderor; Engl. Vers. rule], see iii. 15, 
note; from which xa,Ta(3paj3svcd differs, as xara^pdo/^ai [abuse] 
differs from ^pdo/^ai [use] ; and the verb itself, which is com 
pounded with xara, governs the accusative, //, you, for the 
preposition xara would require the genitive : Hesychius has 
xura!3pdf3&rai (read Karappafisverai) xaraxpivsrai, xarayuvtfyrai. 
Therefore Paul means to say, Let no one, usurping the autho 
rity of judge [arbitrator] of the prizes, and accordingly abusing 
it, guide and regulate you in the race which you are running, 
and mislead you by prescribing what you, about to receive the 
prize, should follow, what you should avoid A French inter 
preter has skilfully used the word maitriser, " to domineer ; " for 
the apostle is not speaking of a rival snatching the prize of the 
race before you, but of an odious, perverse, insolent judge 
(umpire). On this verb depend four participles, through as 
many sentences, of which the first and third, the second and 
fourth, have respect to each other. The manifold advantage of 
this Chiasmus, now noticed, will by and by appear. eXuv sv 

1 See App. A word put twice, once in the meaning of the simple word, 
then to express an attribute of it. The body of Christ is the body, i.e. the 
substance, the essential thing. ED. 

2 This is the Engl. Vers. Bengel translates it, let no one treat you ac 
cording to his own whim (pro arbitrio). The verb KoiToiftpxftsva signifies to 
decide against any one in adjudging the prizes at the public games. It ap 
pears, from a passage in Demosthenes, to imply fraud and injustice in the 

Wahl, Clavis N. T., renders the verb,palma or prcemio fraudo. " Properly 
it means, to be umpire in a contest to the detriment of some one" ED. 


Often f*SH, with 2 following it, is expressed by the 
word 6eXu, sQ sXu, evdox5>, SovXo/uai sv nvi, for example, 1 Sam. 
xviii. 22, 25 ; comp. the compound ifrXolfjjtfxi/a, ver. 23 : s>.wi<, 
07ie w/w does something with his will [with inclination : a volun 
teer in doing]. Comp. Mark xii. 38, note. raifeivoppoffvvfi xat 
Opriffxtlq ruv ayyiXouv, with humility of feeling (sentiment) and 
worshipping of angels) A Hendiadys. They worship angels 
under pretext of humility and modesty, as if they dared not 
immediately and directly address themselves to God and Christ. 
" This error," says Alexander Moms, " had driven its roots so 
deep into the earth, that not even after three centuries could it 
be pulled out ; for the 35th canon of the Council of Laodicea 
was framed against it ; and this city was the metropolis of 
Phrygia, where Colosse also was. That canon condemns the 
Angelici, for so they w r ere called." " The Angelici" says Au 
gustine Haeres. 39, "are those inclined to the worship of 
angels." By this authority, the invocation of saints and in 
tercourse with spirits, how plausible soever they may be, are en 
tirely taken away. a py supansv, sf&(3arevuv) Heinsius observes, 
This language is similar in principle to that of the Greek trage 
dians, Ks/v l/A/3areuwv, ottera ^ (BXeKiiv 6tpic, intruding into those 
things at which it is unlawful to look. Eupaxsv, saw with the 
eyes, and l/A/3arg6v, intruding with the feet, are spoken meta 
phorically of the mind. The foot should not get before the 
eyes : l////3argi/w, / go in, I enter in, I pass through (penetrate). 
It is used concerning a hostile invasion, 1 Mace. xii. 25. It is 
figuratively applied to the understanding, and signifies, I pry 
into or search, I handle, Chrys. de Sac. For how should Christ, 
6 rag axavruv epfiarevuv xapdiac, who searches the hearts of all, 
ask for the sake of learning ? On this passage we have made 
several observations, T. I. p. 376. Moreover, there is a com 
pound, xntfAJSarity said of the vain study of abstruse subjects, on 
which see Suicer s Thesaurus ; and the same Al. Morus proves 
by the examples taken from Damascius, that this word was used 
by Plato. And there is little doubt, that Paul himself had in 
his mind the word of Plato, when he was refuting those who 
held the same opinion as Plato concerning angels ; cornp. 
ver. 8. But yet, when he might have said, py eupa 

he yet does not say so (for the things into which the 

COLOSS1ANS II. 19-22. 177 

intrudes, are not in themselves utterly xsva, vain, 
but only not seen by him) ; but he lays down something even 
more weighty, since the e/&(3anvsiv rather expresses the haughti 
ness of the xaraftpaSevtav. On the opposite side, the xparety to 
hold the Head, corresponds, which is not done in vain, but tends 
to increase. pvaovpevos, puffed up) The antithesis is, humility of 
sentiment (racrg/voppotfuvTj) ; and yet these two are joined together. 

19. O5 Kparuv, not holding) He who does not hold Christ 
solely and above all others, does not hold Him at all. r^v MVOL- 
\7iv, the Head) Here faith has a foundation whereon it may be 
fixed. The opposite is, a w eupaxsv, s^/SarsiW, he who flies be 
yond things placed in the middle (within reach), and tries to catch 
those that escape his grasp. e% ov, from which) [not from which 
Head, but from which hold] from holding the head ; or else, from 
whom, viz. Christ, the Head. dia ruv a<puv) by the joints (ties), 1 
viz. of faith, Eph. iv. 16. It is to this word that 6<7ri%opi)yov/Atvov 
refers. xai ffwd stpuv) and bonds (bands) of { love and ( peace/ 
Eph. iv. 3. It is to this that tvpfiilSafyfAevov refers ; comp. ver 2. 
i<r%opriyov(Aswv) receiving s^i^op^yiav, ministration to it (being 
ministered to) ; so 3 Mace. vi. 38, fl-avtf u-ro rov (3a<n\ sug %o^- 
yovpsvof, supplied with all things by the king. 

20. Ei, if) The inference, begun at ver. 16, is continued ; 
and at ch. iii. 1, a new inference follows. atfeQdvsre avb, ye are 
dead from) An abbreviated expression, i.e. dead, and. so set free 
from the elements, etc. a-r& r%v 0roi%eiuv 9 from the elements) ver. 
8. 87/tar/e<r0s) in the Middle voice, you receive (take up) 
dogmas, ordinances. 

21. M^, not) Thus the dogmatists commonly spoke. a-^/j, 
touch) The genus ; the species are, to taste (ytvcf) with the 
tongue, and to handle (My (is) with the hand. 

22. "A JOTI, which are) Those things, namely, which are 
touched, tasted, etc. els pQopav, [are to end in destruction] to perish) 
and which therefore do not defile; 1 Cor. vi. 13; the middle 
of Matt. xv. 17. rJj airoxpriffei) in the using up (entire consump 
tion), not strictly so called [not the abuse~], but so far as it de 
notes the use, which is natural, civil, external, truly indifferent, 

1 Beng. here translates &<pav t nexus; but see the somewhat different expla 
nation in Gnom., Eph. iv. 16. ED. 



and removed from superstitious fear and severity (rigour). 
/.ara, according to) as the commandments of men are wont to be. 
ra IvraX^ara xa/ didaffxaXiag, the commandments and doctrines) 
Matt. xv. 9, note. 

23. "Anva, which) An Anaphora [repetition of the same word 
in beginnings] : comp. a, which, ver. 22. ten, are) Construe, 
are for, to the satisfying (l<rr/i/ <7rpb$ TXTJO/XOV^V), as ver. 22, are 
for perishing (e<sr iv stg pQopav); therefore resolve s^ovra into though 
(whereas) they have, that it may form a clause : t<tn, are, and 
tffoc, to, being disjoined, the sentence becomes appropriately 
(appositely) suspended. Xfyov) a name and a plausible appear 
ance. fAsvj indeed) The force of the particle 8s, but, which makes 
an Apodosis,is concealed in the finite verb ian, are. 1 - 
ivill-worship) sQsXoQpqffxsia, as well as humility of sentiment 
(ppoffvvy), has a plausible appearance. For this word, as E. 
Schmidius well shows, denotes worship (whether right or wrong), 
performed willingly and with ready inclination : such euneiQsia, 
ready promptness or obsequiousness, has the appearance of wisdom : 
comp. James iii. 1 7 ; for it seems to be removed from obstinacy, 
as humility of sentiment (ra<7rsivo<ppoffvvq) seems to be removed from 
pride. ravsivoppoevvri, humility of sentiment) ver. 18, note. xa/ 
atpeiMq ffufAarog, [Engl. Vers., neglecting of, etc.] and with severe 
treatment of [not sparing^ the body) which is the case when 
many things are witnheld from the body, which might be af 
forded to it, ver. 21 ; nay, the body itself is purposely worn 
down [mortified]. This also looks plausible, for it becomes 
saints, 1 Cor. ix. 27 ; although a<pei8iu expresses something more 
odious, than TO uvuKiafyiv xa/ SouXaywygfy in the passage quoted 
from first Corinthians. These three things, plausible in appear 
ance, involve a threefold relation : to God, to angels, to one s 
own self; and therefore they have, when joined together, a 
perfect appearance. oi>x sv n^ nvi, not in any price or estima 
tion [honour]) This clause closely coheres with the preceding ; 
and the latter, sv, in, is opposed to the preceding sv, in. The 
LXX. avsu n^g, i.e. without price, for nothing, Is. Iv. 1 ; Ps. 
xliv. 13 ; Job xxxi. 39. It becomes the man who is ennobled 

1 Which, though having indeed (/^tv) a name of wisdom, etc., yet (Be under 
stood and implied in sari) are to the mere satisfying of the flesh. ED. 


by faith, to have a just estimation of himself not in himself, 
but in his Lord Jesus Christ alone, whereby he is not unworthily 
to degrade himself, inasmuch as having been redeemed at such 
a price, and striving for such a great reward, for example, 
through the appearance of JdeXofyjjtfxs/as, will-worship : Acts 
xiii. 46 ; Kom. ii. 7 ; 1 Cor. vi. 15, iii. 21 vii. 23 ; 1 Thess. 
iv. 4. This estimation produces holy (piXonpiav, ambition (p/A&- 
rif&oupev, we labour with ambition), 2 Cor. v. 9 ; but it is 
restrained by true self-denial, and again is tarnished by the 
commandments of men [ver. 20, 21], which, because they bring 
to us nothing worth while, nothing worthy of estimation [nothing 
sv n/j,r, nvi], comp. ITeb. xiii. 9, have an entirely empty and 
vain appearance of wisdom and every good thing : comp. by all 
means, e/xJj, vainly, ver. 18. This passage is in consonance 
with Phil. iii. 19, where see the note ; and both accord with 
Hab. ii. 16, IIAH2MONHN ATIMIA2 ex dofyg, x.r.\., Thou hast 
filled thyself with shame for glory ; drink thou therefore also, and 
let thy foreskin be uncovered. But true ri^n, price or estimation 
[ honour ], is theirs who see the glory of the Lord, Ib., ver. 14. 
TT^og TXjjf/ttoni)* r>j ffupxbi) to the satisfying of the jlesh : ^ k^a^ovri, 
satisfying to tlie full, satiety, generally denotes excess : cap%, 
Jlesh, does not signify the body, but is put as at ver. 18. 1 
Hilarius the deacon, whose commentary on the thirteen epistles 
of Paul is found among the works of Ambrose, on this pas 
sage, says : " Sagina carnalis sensus, traditio humana est," 
human tradition is the overloading (surfeiting) of the carnal sense 
or appetite. A golden sentence. Tradition puffs up ; it clogs 
the sense of heaven (the perception of heavenly things). EQsXo- 
Opvioxeia, x.r.x., and KXycftovfi rfa aapKog, are therefore in antithesis, 
and yet joined together. They put away true n^v, price, value, 
or estimation [< honour 9 "], that they may satisfy to the full the 
flesh ; vpbg denotes that which is regarded as the important 
concern, or the end, for the sake of which the other things 
(practices) are assumed (adopted). 

v, of his fleshly mind : i.e. flesh, not literally, but 
in the spiritual application carnality. ED. 



1. T f<w jrg/rg, seek the things that are above) Christ, after 
the resurrection, immediately directed His eager thoughts 
towards heaven, John xx. 17, note. 1 So also believers, Eph. 
ii. 6. 

2. <&povsTrt, Have a relish for, set your mind, or affections) 
They who truly seek the things that are above, cannot but relish 
or set their affections on the things that are above. The apostle 
says, relish in the second place, not seek ; for there is an anti 
thesis to earthly things (ra ?V/ rvjg 7^c), which we are said to 
relish or set our affections upon, to care for, but which we could 
not properly be said to seek, because they are present with us. 

3. ArtsQdvere, ye are dead) to the earth and to the world, 
spiritually, ch. ii. 20. n ^n WMV xsxpwTrrai, your life is hid) An 
abbreviated expression in this sense : ye are dead to the world, 
that ye may live to God ; but that life is as yet hid. -/.txpvKTou 
ffvv rti Xpiffrti, is hid with Christ) The world knows neither Christ 
nor Christians, and Christians do not even know distinctly 
themselves, i.e. one another. 

4. "Orav, when) This word, used absolutely, strikes (flashes 
upon) the whole mind of the reader, as if he had been un 
mindful of the preceding words, with a sudden light, so 
that it is doubtful whether and or but should be supplied. 
(pavspuQy, shall be manifested) in glory, 1 Pet. iv. 13. j? w?} v/uuv, 
your life) This expresses the aspect (in relation to you), under 
which He will be manifested. TOTS, then) We should not de 
mand it sooner. KUI iW/c, ye also) This hope draws men off 
from the earth. sv d6%?i, in glory) a glorious life. 

5. Ngxpw<rarg, Mortify 2 ) [not knowing to spare. 8 V. g.] ra 

1 Comp. note, Luke ix. 51. Jesus ever kept His eye fixed on the goal to 
which He was hastening. So, in John xx. 17, He says, as if a present 
thing, / ascend, not, I will ascend : He hastened in feeling over the inter 
mediate forty days to His actual entering heaven. ED. 

2 Lit. Punish with every kind of death, 

3 Strangers to all tender-heartedness, such as would lead you to spare 
the flesh. ED. 

COLOSSIANS III. 6-11. 181 

), your members) of which united the body of sin consists, ch. 
ii. 11. [Here all impurity, without exception, is repelled and 
excluded. V. g.] fat rr\g yfa, upon the earth) where they find 
their support. These things are presently enumerated. vopveim, 
x.r.X., fornication, etc.) Eph. v. 3, 4. vaQog, passion [inordinate 
affection]) the disorder of lust within. liei&vpiav, concupiscence) 
the disorder of the external senses. rqv vXsovsfy av, covetousness) 
The article has the effect of Epitasis [an emphatic addition], and 
includes the whole genus of vice, which is different from the 
genus of the species just now enumerated. Avarice most of all 
makes men cling to the earth. 

6. A/ a, for which things) Eph. v. 6. 

7. E^r?, in which ye lived) as if in your essential first principle, 
origin, \i.e. these sins were the very air which you breathed from 
your birth, they were your] native element. Comp. Gal. v. 
25, on the spiritual life. 

8. Ka/ vpefg, ye also) This answers to the ye also, ver. 7. In 
ver. 7 it was, ye also, as well as the other " children of unbelief" 
( 4 disobedience ). In ver. 8 it is, ye also, as well as other believers. 
ra-ravra) all old things, especially anger, etc. So in the antithesis, 
above all, ver. 14. opyyv, Qvpw, anger, harshness or cruelty [Beng. 
translates Mpov, scevitia, Engl. Vers., wrath]) Eph. iv. 31 [where 
also Qvfiov is scevitia, harshness], /tax/an) faults connected with 
the mind [evil-disposition] ; for example, suspicion, perversity, 
impatience [Engl. Vers. renders it malice]. (3Xao<pwiav, 
a/<r^;poA07/av, blasphemy, filthy communication) The words, Out of 
your mouth, have respect to these two. 

9. M^ 4 fu3g(rt)g, Lie not) Eph. iv. 25, eii) to, or against. 
See History of Susanna, ver. 55, 59, s-^svffu e/s rqv (ttaurov Kt<pa,\iiv, 
thou hast lied against thy own head. avsxdvffd/uMvoi, having put off) 
Eph. iv. 22. 

10. Tbv v&ov rbv dvaxaivov Asvov, the new man reneived) Ib., ver 
24, note. i!c tniyvuGtv, to [or in] knowledge) of the truth (ch. i. 
6, 9, 10), by which all love of lying is destroyed. XO.T s/xova, 
according to the image) This image consists in perfect truth. 
roD xriffavroi; aurov, of Him that created him [viz. the new man]) 
i.e. of God, Eph. iv. 24 : compare ib., ch. ii. 10. Regeneration 
is indicated by the word creation, from which the image results. 

11. "OTOU) where, i.e. in whom, or in which thing. oux ivi, there 


is not present) In the estimation of God and of believers there is 
present neither Jew, etc. "EXXjjv xal lovdaTbg, Greek and Jew) 
The concrete for the abstract, as afterwards also Christ is used : 
for circumcision and uncircumcision, which occur presently, are 
abstract nouns. a%f>oj8utfr/a, uncircumcision) Even the Greek 
might have been circumcised. Therefore the mention of uncir- 
cumcision renders the expression more distinct. Bdpfiapog, ^-/M^c,, 
Barbarian, Scythian) These two words, put by Asyndeton with 
out a conjunction, make equally a pair ((rvfyyiav) as bond, free. 
The Greeks were on the west, the Jews on the east ; the Bar 
barians on the south (for Scaliger shows that the term Barbarians 
is an Arabic word properly applied to the Numidians), the Scy 
thians on the north, more barbarous than the barbarians (properly 
so-called). And with this impression Anacharsis, as Galen 
relates, was reproached by, I know not whom, on (Sapfiapoc, efy xai 
^x,v6yjg, that he was a barbarian, and [what is tantamount to] bar 
barous, a Scythian. Every nation, as it prefers some one other 
nation to itself, so again, under whatever pretext, prefers itself 
to all the rest. Therefore the Barbarian, as occupying the 
middle place between the Greeks and Scythians, gave the palm 
to the Greek, but at the same time considered himself superior 
to the Scythian. Faith takes away this distinction. Perhaps 
at Colosse there were one or tw T o Scythian Christians. ra ^dvra 
KUI ev wan Xptffrbs, Christ is all and in all) The apposition is Xpt<rrb$ 
(wv) ra vdvra xai sv <rraGt. A Scythian is not a Scythian, but 
Christ s. A barbarian is not a barbarian, but Christ s. Christ 
is all, and that too in all, who believe. The new creature is in 
Christ, ver. 10 ; Gal. vi. 15. 

12. ExXexro/, elect) This is equivalent to a substantive ; its 
epithets are, holy and beloved. He calls them the elect of God, 
as Rom. viii. 33. The order of the words admirably corresponds 
to the order of the things [< elect before holy, and < holy before 
1 beloved ] : eternal election precedes sanctification in time. The 
i sanctified feel the love of God, and then in consequence after 
wards imitate it. ff<7rXd<y%va, bowels) Eph. iv. 32. 

humility of feeling, humbleness of mind) ib. iv. 2 

"with all lowliness"]. These virtues are kept in exercise by 

( forbearing and forgiving. [See next ver.] 

13. Avs^o/^svoi, forbearing) in regard to present offences. 

COLOSSIANS 111. 14-16. 183 

forgiving) past offences. On these depends the 
clause, so also ye [i.e. the vptfs is construed with Ave^o^evoi]. 
o XpHtrbg, Christ) who had the greatest cause of complaint 
against us. 

14. ET/, above) Here the climax reaches its highest point ; 
love, superior to all things, 1 Pet. iv. 8. -rr\v aydnriv, love) viz. 
put on. ovvdsffpos, the bond) Love comprehends the whole range 
of the virtues (graces), 2 Pet. i. 7. rsXsior^rog, of perfection) 
DD, rsXeiorqs, Judg. ix. 16 ; Prov. xi. 3. He who has love, 
wants nothing : he is not kept bound by the elements of the 
world. Particular duties are also derived from this source, 
ver. 19, 21. 

15. Kai) and) so. The connection may be inferred from Eph. 
iv. 3. 1 57 e/pqvii TOV 0goD, the peace of God) Phil. iv. 7. j 

a remarkable word. Hesychius has, ppafav eru 
Aqvvt&ru, iQvv sfQu, Wisd. x. 12 : Wisdom [gave Jacob the 
victory, Eng Vers.] was the guide and director of Jacob in a sore 
conflict : therefore /3pa/3?ug/v, is to regulate or direct a person run 
ning, until he reaches the goal. Keep in safety (ppou^tfi/), Phil. 
iv. 7, is nearly akin to it. Give yourselves up to the peace of 
God, that directs and regulates all things. An imperative after 
an imperative involves the signification of a future indicative. 2 
Antithetical to ppafaveiv here, is /caroc/3pa/3gug/v, ch. ii. 18 (where 
see the note), having in it the notion of excess. IpcX^rs, you 
have been called) Eph. iv. 4. gu^a^/oro/, thankful) for that call 
ing. This stands as a statement of subject (Propositio) in 
relation to what follows. The same duty is commanded, Eph. 
v. 4. 

16. o 7.070?, the ivord) by which ye have been called. svoi- 
xeiru, have its indwelling in you) as in a temple, for ever. 
sv v/u/v, in you) in your inner man ; comp. full, Rom. xv. 14. 

richly) The distribution follows : in all wisdom* one 

1 Where " forbearing one another in love " is followed by " endeavour 
ing to keep the unity of the Spirit in the bond of peace," as the consequence. 

2 " Put on charity, and let the peace of God regulate :" equivalent to, 
" put on charity, and then the peace of God shall regulate" or, be the regu 
lator, ED. 

3 Engl. Vers. loses this distribution of the rich indwelling of the word 
of Christ, by putting a semicolon after wisdom, " Let the word of Christ 


another [savrovg, admonishing yourselves] : ivith grace in l your 
heart, i.e. mutually and apart. In ivisdom, with grace., occur 
again, ch. iv. 5, 6. sv trd<f/i <rop/a diddaxovrzc, teaching in all ivis- 
clom) So it must be construed, comp. ch. i. 28. The nominative, 
by Syllepsis, 2 depends on evoiKsfru, " let the peace dwell in you" 
i.e. have ye it dwelling in you [and therefore diddff-/.wrt$, agreeing 
with vest s, is put] ; and this construction is the more suitable on 
this account, that yiveafa, be ye, which occurs a little before, has 
possession of the readers mind. iauroC?, yourselves) 
one another. There are parallel expressions at ver. 13. 
fj,o?s, in Psalms) Eph. v. 19. sv y^dpin, with grace) %ap/? ? |H, Ps. 
xlv. 3. 

17. rio/Sjre, ye do) The word is used in a wide sense, so as 
also to include the act of speaking. wavra, all things) viz. do 
ye. Iv ovopan, in the name) so that it may be just the same as 
if Christ were doing it, ver. 11 ; or at least that you may be 
able to prove all things to Christ [to do all things so as to gain 
His approval]. The man who can say, Jesus Christ, I have 
done this in Thy name, certainly proves his conduct to Christ. 
In the name of Christ, i.e. for the sake of Christ : comp. the 
following verses. Bi ad-roD, by Him) not by angels. Theodo- 

18. Chap. iv. 1. A/ yuva/kec, /c.r.X., wives, etc.) Eph. v. 22 
vi. 9. sv Kvp/u, in the Lord) These words are construed with 

s, submit yourselves ; comp. Eph. vi. 1 : or else with 
as it is fit ; comp. in this view ver. 20, unless vvaxowrt, 

obey, ver. 20, be there likewise construed with iv KiWw. It may 

be construed either wa. 

dwell in you richly in all wisdom ;" Lachm. rightly puts (o Aoyo^ rov 

sv vplv n hovaias) in a parenthesis, and thus Iv Koiay ootyioe. ^i^cta- 
;, etc., is joined with the previous kv^atpiortu y-isssaQe.Ei). 

1 The 2d Ed. prefers, and the Germ. Vers. distinctly expresses the 
plural, sj> rctis xetpbictts, which is not approved in the margin of the older 
Ed. E. B. 

ABCD(A)G/y Vulg. read ralg Kxphiottg. So Lachm. Tisch., without any 
of the oldest authorities, reads as Rec. Text, r>5 x-xp^ice,. ED. 

2 Where the concord of the parts of speech is regulated not by strict 
syntax, but by the meaning in the rnind, as here, Iv vplv S/SrxoTg?, for 
${$ax,ovffii>. But Lachmann s punctuation makes this needless. See my note 
above. ED. 

COLOSSIANS III. 19-25. -IV. 1~3. 185 

19. M^ yinpaiveffde, be not bitter) n/xp/a, hateful conduct 
(offensive behaviour) mixed with love. Many, who are polite 
to all abroad, notwithstanding without scruple treat their wives 
and children at home with covert bitterness, because they do 
not fear them ; and when this feeling is vanquished, it affords a 
specimen of great softening of natural ruggedness of temper. 

21. l "lva pi) advpuffiv, lest they be discouraged) aQvpia, despon 
dency (a broken-down spirit), the bane of youth. 

22. &&bv, God) who knows the heart. 

23. "On lav Koiyre, whatsoever ye do) in your service. 6 edv n, 
Eph. vi. 8. 

24. T% K^povopiaS) of the inheritance) Although you have no 
inheritance in the world, but are part of an inheritance passing 
from your Master to His children. Xp/<rr, Christ) who rewards 
them that serve Him. dovXzvsrs, ye serve) while you thus serve. 

25. Adr/.v, he that doeth wrong) In actual deed and from the 
heart. ou?c g<rr/ sTJotfawroX^/a, there is no respect of persons) Men 
of low rank and poor circumstances often think that they should 
be spared on account of their humble condition. That is denied. 


1. To dixaiov xai T^V faorqra, justice and equity) Comp. ra airdc, 
[ye masters do] the same things [unto them], Eph. vi. 9, note. 

2. T^ vpoffevxffl, in prayer) Eph. vi. 18. 

3. H/zwv, for us) Ch. i. 1. avoi^y dvpav roD Xoyou, would open 
the [but Engl. Vers. not of the mouth ; therefore, " a door"] door 
of utterance) i.e. the mouth, Eph. vi. 19 ; Mic. vii. 5. A great 
opportunity is elsewhere called a door [and so Engl. Vers. 
here], 1 Cor. xvi. 9. dsds/^ai, iva pavspuffu, I am in bonds, that 
I may make it manifest*) a paradox ; as in 2 Tim. ii. 9 ; Phil, 
i. 12, 13. 

1 O/ Kotrtpss, the fathers) The husband is the head of the wife ; where 
fore power is principally attributed to the fathers. V. g. 

2 But Engl. Vers. puts a colon after bonds ? so that iva is thus connected 
with woetvotsvoi, not BtSw*/. ED. 

186 COLOSSIANS IV. 4-10. 

4. fig, as) This depends on Xa>.5j<ya/ ? to speak, ver. 3. 

5. Ev (rof>/a, w wisdom) Eph. v. 15, note. 

6. riavrors, always ] Supply jjVw, /# i &<?. Jc %a^/r/) joined 
spiritual grace, Eph. iv. 29. Xr/) imYA Ae sa/ of wisdom. 

#r0 should be anything corrupt and tainted under it. 
V. g.] eld&vai) [by your knowing how]. The infinitive used 
as an ablative case. 

7. T xar s/ts, the things concerning me) Eph. vi. 21. 

8. Tvu) ra <7rept V/AUV) yvojrs ra ffipi qpuv is found in Al. Colb. 
7, etc. It has been transferred to this place from Eph. vi. 22. 
See App. Grit. Ed. ii. 1 on this passage. The two epistles 
[Ephesians and Colossians] truly have many points of resem 
blance to one another, but yet so as that the things that need 
to be changed are changed in each respectively (mutatis mu 
tandis). And generally in parallelisms of this sort, which the 
officiousness of transcribers has mixed together [blending the 
parallel readings of two epistles into one], one reading in the 
one place, and another in the other, is the genuine reading. 
Tychicus, and through Tychicus (as it appears) Paul, was to 
learn the state of the Colossians (whence, instead of yvSj [third 
person, viz. Tychicus], yvu [first person, viz. Paul] may be 
also read), just as he learned the state of the Thessalonians 
through Timothy ; that of the Corinthians through Titus ; that 
of the Philippians through Epaphroditus ; and more especially 
did Paul wish to learn that of the Colossians, because he had 
a great ( conflict on their account [ch. ii. 1]. Moreover the 
knowledge of the Colossians concerning Paul is sufficiently in 
dicated (marked), not only by the preceding words, as in the 
Epistle to the Ephesians, but also by those following, which are 
peculiar to this Epistle to the Colossians : -jraj/ra vpTv yvupiova ra 

10. 2ui/o6/^aaXw7-o s /^ou, my fellow-prisoner) This was the state 
of Aristarchus (viz. that of a prisoner), not so Epaphras, ver. 
12 : but it is Epaphras, not Aristarchus, that is spoken of as 
his * fellow-prisoner in Philem. ver. 23, 24. Perhaps Epaphras, 
when he came to Rome, was imprisoned, and presently after 

1 TV UTS TIX, Tipl ypav is the reading of ABD corrected, (A), Gfg, and so 
Lachm. But yvu vpaiv in C Vulg. and Rec. Text, and so Tisch. ED. 

2 Therefore Beng. rejects the reading yvart rx vtal qftav. ED. 

COLOSSIANS IV. 11-15. 187 

liberated. Paul might have so called Aristarchus, because he 
had been formerly imprisoned. 6 ave-fyibg Bapvdfia, [sister s son, 
Engl. Vers.] kinsman to Barnabas) Barnabas was better known 
than Mark ; therefore the latter is designated from the former. 
tftpl ou, concerning whom) namely Mark ; the o5 refers to the 
nominative, not to the oblique case, of Barnabas [though 
Bapvd@a immediately precedes]. s\d(3srs) ye have received. 
Tychicus and Onesimus seem to have borne these command 
ments to the Colossians, along with this epistle. Ye have re 
ceived, he says, not, you will receive ; for the ancients suited their 
language to the time when the epistle was read, not to the time 
when it was written, as we should do. Thus, / have written, 
for / write, Philem. ver. 19. svro\dg, commandments) These 
are put in antithesis to the writing. sdv, if) This is the sum of 
those commandments. 

11. o/ ovresy who are) namely, Aristarchus, Marcus, Jesus. 
u,6voi, alone) of the circumcision. veanyopia) The propriety of 
the word should be observed; what <7rapa,u,v&ta is in domestic 
sorrow, Kapyyopia is in forensic danger. 1 

12. Tsteioi Kai <irsir\ripuf* svoi, perfect and complete) This is in 
troduced from the former discussion. 2 sv -nuvri, in all) Construe 
with, ye may stand. 

13. Tap, for) The reason (setiologia : see Append.) is properly 
in, he hath. The verb, / bear him record, is modal. 3 SjXo, 
zeal) lest you should be seduced, ch. ii. 4 : comp. 2 Cor. xi. 2. 

14. O iarpbs, the physician) He is so called, either because 
he had practised, or was practising, medicine. He calls him 
Luke, as being sufficiently known to Timothy by his name 
alone, in 2 Tim. iv. 11. He calls him the physician here, as 
being unknown to the Colossians. Aj//,a, Demas) He alone 
is put without any descriptive epithet ; comp. 2 Tim. iv. 10 : 
but perhaps the reason for this was, that Demas wrote the 
epistle under the dictation of Paul. 

15. Nu/^pav, Nymphas) of Laodicea, as may be collected from 

1 Inasmuch as TlapapvOtot, comes from pvQos, word of advice : 
from dyopoc, the forum, dyopsvai. ED. 

2 Ch. i. 28, ii. 2, iii. 14. ED. 

3 Expression of feeling; opposed to categorical. See Append, on modus, 
modalis/ ED. 

188 COLOSS1ANS IV. 16-18. 

this passage. The house of Philemon was open to the congre 
gations of believing Colossians, Philem. ver. 2. 

16. Avayvufftyj shall be read) publicly, in the church. Comp. 
1 Thess. v. 27 ; Rev. i. 3 ; Deut. xxxi. 11. T\ S-TTIGTOX^ the 
epistle) this very one. woiqaart, cause) So also 1 Thess. as 
above. rr t v IK Aaofaxsiag, the one from Laodicea) Mill is of 
opinion that the Epistle to the Ephesians is intended, which 
was to be got from Laodicea, and to be brought to Colosse. It 
is certainly not without a reason that Paul mentions the town 
from which the epistle was to be procured, rather than those 
to whom he sent it. 

17. E/VaT-g, say) Speak ye, in my name, as witnesses. This 
was more affecting than if he had addressed Archippus himself. 
And perhaps Archippus, a minister, was prevented from going 
to the public assembly by weak health or old age. For that he 
was near the end of his career, may be inferred from the word 
fulfil, Philem. ver. 2. Moreover it is not the different overseers 
of the Church, but the Church itself, which is commanded to 
speak to Arcliippus. Therefore the epistle was directed to the 
Church, although its subject is very sublime. [Why then are 
laymen, as they are called, to be prevented from reading the 
Scriptures ? V. g,] %v <7rape\a(3s:, which thou hast received) by 
a mediate calling [i.e. through the mediate instrumentality of 
men, who ordained him] ; for there does not follow, from the 
Lord, but in the Lord. 

18. O affvaffpos, the salutation) Paul adds this verse with his 
own hand, acknowledging that all which goes before, proceeded 
from himself. /^^/xovfusrg, be mindful) especially in prayer, 
ver. 3. 




1, TiauXo^ Paul) Paul, in this epistle, which was the first 
of all that he wrote, uses neither the title of an apostle, nor any 
other, because he writes most familiarly to the godly Thes- 
salonians, who did not require a preface regarding his apostolic 
authority, ch. ii. 6. 

The divisions of the epistle are as follows : 


II. In the course of the discussion, he celebrates 

(makes honourable mention of) the grace of 
God towards the Thessalonians, ver. 2, et 
seqq. ; adding a notice of the sincerity of him 
self and his colleagues, ii. 1 ; and of the 
obedience of the Thessalonians, . . 13, 14 

III. He then declares, 

1. His desire, . . . . ii. 17 

2. His solicitude, . . . . iii. 1 

3. His joy, with his prayer, . 6, 7, 10, 11 

190 1 THESSALOMANS 1. 2, 3. 

IV. He exhorts them to progress, 

1. In holiness, . . . . iv. 1, 2 

2. In brotherly love, combined with pru 
dence, . . . 9, 10, 11, 12 

V. He teaches and exhorts them, 

1. Concerning them that are asleep, 13, 14 

2. Concerning the times, . . v. 1, 2 

VI. He adds miscellaneous exhortations, v. 12, 13, 

14, 15 ; with prayer and consolation, . 23, 24 

VII. CONCLUSION, ... 25, 26, 27, 28 

There is a kind of unmingled sweetness in this epistle, which, 
by a reader not accustomed to the expression of sweet affections, 
is less relished than the others, that act upon the palate with a 
certain degree of harshness. The expectation of the coming of 
Christ among the Thessalonians was unclouded. So exalted 
was their condition, and so clear of impediments and encum 
brances (unencumbered) was the state of Christianity among 
them, that they were able hourly to look for the Lord Jesus. 
The epistles to them were written before the others ; afterwards 
various evils crept into the churches. sovraXov/xswy, of the Thes 
salonians) Jac. Mehrningius says, " In the memory of our 
fathers, there were two Greeks, first among the Moravian 
brethren, afterwards in Belgium, who asserted, that even now 
both of St Paul s epistles to the Thessalonians are well preserved 
by them in autograph." Hist, baptismi, A. 1647, Germanice 
edita, p. 739. ev, in) Union with God is indicated. 

2. Mvsiav ad/aXs/Vrwg, mention unceasingly) Comp. Rom. 
i. 9 ; 2 Tim. i. 3. 

3. Ypuv, your) This depends on rJjg T/crrtws, of faith) etc. 
spyov xoVou virofjuniiS) work labour patience) These have 
the force of epithets, joined to i faith , i love, hope. Work is 
opposed to mere empty words \_lv Xoyy fjt,6w, in word only^ ver. 5], 
and in the singular signifies something lasting and efficacious, 
which faith has in itself, exercising itself in the very fact of be- 

1 THESSALONIANS I. 4-6. 191 

lieving, not proceeding merely from love. 1 xoVoo, labour) in 
spiritual and external acts of kindness. Those who evade all 
exertion that gives them trouble, in consideration of their own 
interest and quiet, love little. [Some one may say. Who will pro 
cure for me leisure to undertake this labour ? Nay, but beware of 
losing time in the indulgence of sloth, in protracting social enter 
tainments longer than is proper, and in vain conversation; and 
you will find abundance of time for performing the labour of love. 
V. g.] roD Kuf>/ou, of our Lord) Construe this with patience 
[but Engl. Vers. hope in our Lord Jesus, etc.], as at 2 Thess. 
iii. 5 [yiropovJiv rov Xptfrov, the patience of Christ] : as I might say, 
the heavenly devotion of sighs [meaning, The heavenly devotion 
expressed by sighs : so the patience of our Lord, i.e. Patient] 
Perseverance for the name of Christ. epirpoffOsv, in the sight) 
This is construed with ftvufMttvovrtf, remembering. 

4. Eldortg, [we] knowing) Construed with ive give thanks, ver. 
2. ddeXpoi qyairyfAsvoi u-ari Qsov, brethren beloved by God) Comp. 
2 Thess. ii. 13. JxXoy)v, election) 1 Cor. i. 27, note. 

5. "Or/, because) This because extends its power beyond this 
verse. g/g v/jt,ag) so far as you are concerned [in your case]. sv, 
in) These words refer both to the teachers, as appears by compar 
ing the end of this verse, and to the Thessalonians, by comparing 
the following verse. h dwd/uei, in power) for example, in reference 
to (having the effect of producing) faith. sv Hv&vftow Ay/w) in 
the Holy Ghost, and His saving operation, for example, having 
the effect of producing love ; also in His miraculous operation. 
sv *\qpopopfqj borne along in full course (pleno latu) [in full as 
surance]) for example, in reference to (producing) hope, ver. 3. 
o/fWg, ye know) E/dong, knowing, in ver. 4, corresponds to 
o /da,T here. Both [Paul, Sylvanus, and Timothy, on one 
hand, and the Thessalonians on the other] knew. oToi, what 
sort of persons) imparting to you the word with joy. <3/ v^ag, 
for your sakes) that we might gain you. 

6. M//A7jra/, imitators [followers]) Imitators [Followers ] be 
come rfaoi, types, patterns [ensamples], ver. 7. rot Kvpiov, of the 
Lord) Christ, who acted as the apostle 2 of the Father, brought 

3 niaTsug d-ydiFYis lAsr/Boff, of faith oflove of hope) ch. v. 8 ; 2 Thess. 
i. 3, 4. V. g. 

2 Heb. iii. 1. ED. 

192 1 THESSALONIANS I. 7~10. 

the word from heaven, and taught it under adversities. 
with) Construe this with having received (d&^a^&voi). 

7. Tu^ous, 1 types, patterns) Ensamples of faith; see presently, 
and in the following verse. 

8. Tap, for) The intensive particle. s^^rai) was given 
(spread) abroad with a clear sound. roD Kvpiov, of the Lord) 
Christ. uars, so that) It is lawful to speak where the subject is 
the conversion of souls. Paul takes this for granted ; and he 
himself would have taken also the subject of his remarks from 
the conversion of the Thessalonians, had not others known the 
fact already before, and spoken about it. XaXgft r/, to speak any 
thing) concerning your faith, ver. 9. 

9. Tl&pi jjpuv, concerning us) both teachers and believers [both 
us who taught, and you who believed]. dovXtUiv Qsu, to serve 
God) The Thessalonians are thus distinguished from the Gen 
tiles ; so also from the Jews, in the following verse. 

and true) This denotes the truth of [His] nature. 

10. Kai ava/Asvetv, and to wait for) The compound, a 

is applied to Him who has so gone away, as that He is 
about to come [again], John xiv. 3, note; Acts i. 11, note. I 
do not altogether deny the return, but I say that the coming is 
elegantly used for His return, because the glorious coming has 
very many things altogether new connected with it. [To be 
waiting for [Him], is the most certain characteristic of the true 
Christian. V. g.] ov tfytipsv ?% vsxpuv, whom He raised from 
the dead) The pre-eminent (palmarium) argument is here 
brought in, from which [viz. His resurrection] it is evident, that 
Jesus is the Son of God. pufasvov, Who delivers) Christ once 
eXurpuffaro, hath redeemed us, He alway pvsrai, delivers us. ano 
T7)$ t>pyr t c, r^c, epftopevvis, from the wrath to come) The wrath 
comes at the last judgment, ch. v. 9. 

1 The Germ. Vers. expresses TVKOV in the singular ; a reading which, by 
the margin of both Ed., is held of equal authority with the plural. E. B. 

BD(A) corrected, df Vulg. Memph. Theb. read TVTTOV. So Lachm. and 
Tisch. ACG#, Later Syr., and Rec. Text, have rv^ovg. ED. 



1. Tap, for) This refers to ch. i. 5, 6 ; for what was there laid 
down as the proposition, is now taken up again to be discussed, 
and that, too, regarding Paul and his companions, ver. 1-12 ; 
regarding the Thessalonians, ver. 13-16. ov xsvy, not vain) but 
foil of power. 

2. npotfaMvreg, having suffered before) that which might have 
deterred others from preaching. 

3. Tap, for) For occurs again, ver. 5. There is a double 
reason assigned (^Etiologia), , in the thesis, concerning their 
(his and his companions ) regular and constant practice ; /3, in 
the hypothesis, how they behaved (proceeded) among the Thes 
salonians, ver. 5 and the following verses ; comp. with 2 Cor. i. 
12, concerning his general and special mode of proceeding to 
wards others. -rapa/a^ov?, exhortation) The whole preaching of 
the Gospel is so called, seasoned as it is with the sweetness of 
sufferings ; see ver. 2, with which comp. 2 Cor. i. 3, et seqq. 
napax^Tjovc, Zuspruch, has an extensive meaning ; when he 
rouses the slothful, it is exhortation (vapdxXrjffii) : when he ap 
plies balm to sorrow, it is comfort or consolation (napafAvdtov) ; 
comp. ver. 11, note. ovx ovds ourg, not nor nor) He dis 
avows evil intentions, in relation to God, himself, and others. 
The antithesis to this is similarly universal, in the following 
verse, which should be compared with ver. 10 [where see the 
note on the similar threefold relation]. O-JK J/c -TrXat^g, not from 
[of] deceit} namely, is ; comp. we speak, in the present, ver. 4. 
oudg If axa$ap<r/ag, nor from [of ] uncleanness) This uncleanness is 
when the fruit of the flesh is sought after : comp. Phil. i. 16. 
The fruit of the flesh is somewhat subtile : Eigenheit, self-seek 
ing (seeking one s own honour or gain), peculiarity* Concern 
ing its antithesis, purity, see Acts xv. 9. 

1 Beng., I conceive, contrasts purity, in the sense of singleness of aim for 
God s glory and Christ s, Matt. v. 8, with carnal seeking of self, the want 
of a pure intention, ov-fc a,yva$, not purely, Phil. i. 16. Comp. James iv. 8, 
Purify your hearts, ye double- i.iin&d. ED, 



4. &e&oKit*dfffAeQay we have been proved [approved]) Refer to 
this word, doxi/udfyvn, who proveth and trieth, which presently 
occurs. apsffKovres) careful to please. 

5. Ev Xo^w xoXaxsias, in flattering words) The antithesis is in 
ver. 7, 8 ; even as a cloke of covetousness has its antithesis in 
ver. 9 ; and the word glory , ver. 6, has its antithesis in ver. 10. 
%oXaxg/a, of flattery) which they chiefly use who are anxious 
to please men. xa0ws o/3ars 0so$ pdprug, even as ye know God 
is witness) These two clauses [neither ye know ; nor witness~\ 
correspond to each other, just as the double confirmation of the 
third member of the sentence [nor of men sought we glory], 
which is placed in the next verse, follows in the same ver. 10. 
He appeals to men, as the witnesses of a matter generally known ; 
to God, as the witness of a matter which is concealed in the 
heart ; to men and God, as the witnesses of a matter in part 
generally known, and partly concealed. ^oparfg/) with the spe 
cious pretext (cloke), under which we might cover avarice. 

6. ACT aXXuv, from others) those, to wit, who would have ad 
mired us, if we had treated you more haughtily. dvvu 
when we might have, although we might have. sv (3dpsi 
[Engl. Vers. been burdensome] been in honour and authority) 133 
Bdpog, weight, dignity, authority ; the splendour which the majesty 
of the Lord communicates to His ambassador. Aoga, glory, in 
the preceding verse, is nearly akin to it ; comp. (3dpo$ 86%iis 9 2 
Cor. iv. 17. Brightness produces a iv eighty or powerful effect 
(gravis) on the sight, as a weight upon the sense of touch, and 
a loud sound on the hearing ; and hence such things are said to 
be borne or not to be borne, 1 Heb. xii. 20. The conjugate, 
sV//3af Jjcra/, presently occurs, ver. 9. Both ideas, weight [autho 
rity], and a burden, must be included. But the apostles re 
frained from both. 

7. "H-TTIOI, gentle) A very sweet word, which is wont to be ap 
plied chiefly to parents and physicians. It is opposed to flattery 
[ver. 5] : for he is called #r/oc, who has true gentleness. sv peffu 
Ipuv, in the midst of you) like a hen surrounded by her chickens. 
They did not act as if from the chair (ex cathedra, from the autho 
ritative chair), which is said to belong to Peter, and which calls 

1 ov x. s(pepov, they were not able to bear, properly said of a weight. ED. 

1 THESSALONIANS II. 8-13. 195 

the style of its court apostolical. rpopbi) a mother, and at the 
same time a nurse. Weigh well the expression, her own. The 
spiritual are analogous to the natural affections, ver. 1 1 ; 1 
Tim. v. 1, 2. 

8. Oiirwg, ipsipofAsvoi vpuv, evdoxov/Asv) and seeing that it was so, 
i.e. inasmuch as ive felt the strongest affection for you, we were 
ready, etc. The text has been at once suited for (pronunciation em) 
correct delivery, whilst in the marks of punctuation a more 
careful stopping of the sentence is equivalent to a note. The 
same word, ipsipovrai, is found in Job iii. 21. Evdoxovfjuv, even 
without the augment, may still be the imperfect tense : in the 
whole 1 of Paul s statement all the facts proceed in the preterite, 
which the versions here also retain. -^v^ag, souls) Our soul 
desired as it were to enter into your soul. 

10. 2 lie orius xai dixafus xat afj,/j.<7rruc, how liolily and justly and 
unblameably) Those who seek no glory from men attain to this 
character, that they conduct themselves liolily in divine things, 
justly towards men, unblameably in respect of themselves. roTg 
ffiffTtvovtfiv, among [in the eyes of, towards] you that believe) 
although we might not appear to others to be so. 

11. rig sva exa<rrov, how every one) They do not act in this way 
who seek [their own] glory, ver. 6. wj crar^p, as a father) Mild 
gravity is the characteristic of fathers. sra^ axaXoums, exhorting) 
This depends on eytvjtfafiw, we became (behaved), ver. 10. 

exhortation, rouses one to do something willingly; 
consolation, to do it joyfully ; rb {taprvpsTffQai, earnest 
entreaty, testifying \_charging~], to do it with awe. 

12. BacvXs/av xai do%av, His kingdom and glory) A magnificent 

13. A/a rouro, for this cause) i.e. because you have had such 
teachers. sv^apiffro^iv, we give thanks) The naked and cate 
gorical sentence would be, You have received [the word of God]. 

1 In the last Ed. of the Gnomon, published at Berlin, and in the 
Tubingen Ed., 1773, I find nota instead of tota : the translation in that 
case would be, in a well-known narrative. Tota seems to suit the sense 
here. TB. 

Tota is the reading of Ed. 2, quarto, A.D. 1752, and is doubtless the true 
reading. ED. 

of) ye are witnesses, and what is of much more 


Affection has rendered the language modal 1 by adding thanks 
giving, Kapahafovreg) KapaXapfidw signifies simply receiving; 
de^o/tai, includes also in the signification, pleasure and inclination 
in receiving. 2 ou Xoyov dvQpwruv, not the word of man) This is an 
explanation of what he just now said, " the word of God." Ye 
have received it, namely, not the word of men, etc. 05, who) viz. 
God, 3 who thereby shows [viz. by its effectual working in you] 
that the word is truly the word of God, ch. iv. 8, 9 ; Acts xiv. 
3. evepytfrai, works effectually) Gal. iii. 5. [It, for instance, 
worketh in you patient endurance, ver. 14. V. g.] 

14. Tap, for) Divine working is most of all seen and felt in 
affliction. sv ry loudaia, in Judea) The Jewish churches were 
distinguished examples to all the others. ra avra,the same things) 
So, auTw, the same [conflict], Phil. i. 30. The sameness of the 
fruit, the sameness of the afflictions, the sameness of the experi 
mental proofs and characteristics of believers, in all places and 
at all times, afford an excellent criterion of the truth of the 
Gospel. Idiuv, your own) Matt. x. 36; Lukexiii. 33, at the end. 
ovppvhsTuv, fellow-countrymen) [liter. " persons of the same 
tribe."] These were Thessalonians, Jews and Gentiles. Acts 
xvii. 5. 

15. Atfcxrsivavruvj wlio have killed) This is indeed the sin of 
the whole people, their greatest sin, and one not yet acknow 
ledged. Tfojra, the prophets) This word is construed with ivho 
have killed. That former guilt of theirs [in killing the prophets] 
woke up in all its strength then especially, when they slew the 
Lord Himself. was, us) the apostles. sKdiu^dvruv, who have 
cast out by persecution) Luke xi. 49, note. ^ apeffKovruv) not 
seeking to please. evavrfuv, and are adverse [contrary^) The Jews 
regarded the Gentiles with aversion, and were unwilling at that 
time that the word should be preached to them. 

16. AaXSjtfa/, to speak) Less is said than he wishes to be 

consequence, God is witness. The language is not inconsistent with pro 
priety, as the Jews falsely represent it to be. See Josh. xxii. 22 ; 1 Sam. 
xii. 5, as showing whence it is derived. V. g. 

1 See App. under the title, " Modalis Sermo." 

2 " When ye received the word ye welcomed it." The distinction of the 
verbs is lost in Engl. Vers. ED. 

3 But Engl. Vers. makes the antecedent of oj, not to?, but A&yo.c : which 
effectually worketh ED. 


understood by Tawsivuffis. sig rb dva-rX^^wo a/j that they may fill up) 
Obstinacy against receiving the word above all fills up the mea 
sure of sins. avruv, their) the sins of the Jews. ^avrorg) as 
always, so now also. sis r &Xog, [tending] to the end) A sad 
closing catastrophe [Engl. Vers. to the uttermost]. The same 
phrase occurs at Luke xviii. 5. Under Herod Agrippa the 
Jewish state had begun again to flourish, but after his death, 
Acts xii. 23, the Roman procurators returned. Cumanus and 
Felix, and their successors, more and more harassed the Jews. 
This epistle was written in the year of our Lord 48, and about 
that time a tumult arose at Jerusalem during the feast of the 
passover, and an immense multitude were slain : some say, more 
than thirty thousand. The wrath of God closely pursued these 
miserable men, and sis r&Xog, [at the last] at length, destroyed their 
city and temple. 

17. Adstyol, brethren) He begins a new division of the epistle. 

oMroppavurQivrsf, having been bereft of you) as parents, in the 
absence of their children. *p&s xaipbv upag, [lit. for the space of 
an hour] for a brief space) xaipbg means time indefinitely; upa, a 
definite period, Ex. xiii. 10, mjRD^j LXX., Kara xaipols upuv. 
idM, to see) 2 Tim. i. 4. 

18. "A-Trag KOL) big) So the LXX. Nell. xiii. 20. 6 2arai/a?, 
Satan) Paul wisely considered that there lurked beneath this the 
first cause of evil a cause, of which we should have had no 
suspicion otherwise, when reading the history in Acts xvii. 13, 
14. Satan acted by means of wicked men. 

19. Tig yap) So, rig yap, LXX., 1 Sam. xi. 12. Jtar/V, Jt.r.X.) 
our hope, etc. : comp. the end of this verse. It is great praise. 

Gripavog xav%yasus, a crown of [rejoicing] glorying) So LXX., 
Prov. xvi. 31. xa! v^sTg, even ye) He does not exclude others : 
he chiefly reckons these among the number. Jv, in) Regarding 
this particle, comp. ch. hi. 13 ; Rom. ii. 16, note [In the day 
expresses something more than against the day]. So far is hope 
extended ! [So far does his hope reach ! even to the day of 



1. A/o {ATix sri dreyovrec, wherefore no longer being able to forbear) 
This is resumed at ver. 5, as if after a parenthesis. ,aovo/, alone) 
Observe how highly Timothy was esteemed, since at Timothy s 
departure Paul and Silas seemed to themselves to be alone, in 
asmuch as in a city altogether estranged from God. Comp. 
Ord. temp., p. 278 [Ed. 2, p. 239]. 

2. Evr sfA-^aftsv, we sent) I and Sylvanus sent. 

3. 2a/v<r0a/) [that no man should be moved, seduced and 
cajoled out of his faith] : catvu from a su, to move. Eustathius 
shows, that it is properly applied to dogs, when they fawn by 
wagging the tail ;* by metaphor sic rovg virovXovc nal xoXaKixws, 
applied to those that are deceitful at heart and prone to flatter ; and 
this is obviously the idea here. For in afflictions, relatives 
and opponents, and the heart itself, mingle their flatteries, and 
when these are overcome, believers are confirmed. raura/c, in 
these (present) afflictions) The present time. xsfasQa, we lie, i.e. 
are set, are appointed unto this) An argument from our calling : 
comp. ch. v. 9, God sdsro, hath appointed us. 

5. *O treipa^uv, the tempter) i.e. Satan, ch. ii. 18. The expres 
sion contains an Euphemism. Often this enemy is near [lurks 
underneath] when one would not think that he is. Comp. at 
Matt. iv. 3. 

6. " ApTi, now) Immediately after the arrival of Timothy, he 
writes these things with fresh joy and the most tender affection. 
Consonant with this is the euay<ysXiffa/j,svov, a striking participle. 
Jflwo0oDi/rgc, desiring greatly [having a yearning desire]) This is 
the sign of a good conscience. 

7. A/a T?}c, <7ri6rsoj$, by faith) Construe this with irapsjcXvidrr 
jjstv, we were comforted. 

8. NDv w/a,si>, now we live) now we feel that we are alive. 
The form of testifying the highest joy ; comp. Ps. Ixiii. 4. 

1 So Latin ceveo in Persius ; Th. cieo, to move or shake, as aaivu from 

fftU) aSlCa. ED. 

1 THESSALON1ANS 111. 10-13.-1V. 1~3. 109 

10. Nuxrog, night) Alluding to his holy thoughts during the 
2 Tim. i. 3. ra uffrspyj^arce,, the things which are wanting) 

[the deficiency, that which is lacking]. Even the Thessa- 
lonians had points in which they were in need of improvement. 

11. Auros, Himself) Both epistles to the Thessalonians have 
almost all the several chapters singly sealed and distinguished 
by single breathings of prayer [each chapter sealed with 
its own prayer], ch. v. 23 ; 2 Thess. i. 11, ii. 16, iii. 5, 16. 
l?j<rou, Jesus) Prayers and vows are also addressed to Jesus 
Christ ; for the word nar&vQvvai, direct, extends both to Him [as 
the subject] and to the Father : comp. 2 Thess. ii. 16, 17. 

12. !>, you) whether we come or not. -rXsovao-a/ xa/ yrepiff- 
fftvffat) On the difference between these two words, comp. 2 Cor. 
iv. 15, note. 1 xa/ w^g, even we) namely, even as we are full of 
love [towards you]. 

13. Msra, with) Construe with sv rr\ Kapovffi q,, at the coming ; 
comp. 2 Thess. i. 7. TCCVTWI/ rwv ayiuv, with all the saints) This 
phrase comprehends angels and the elect of the earth. 

His) Christ s, Acts ix. 13. 


1. Apeffxeiv, to please, to show yourselves pleasing, acceptable) 
to the Lord. 

2. ricepayygX/aj, commandments) Paul uses this word at this 
very early time, when writing to the Thessalonians, whose piety 
took it in the right spirit, as did also the piety of Timothy, to 
whom he gives his commands with the greatest sternness. The 
same word occurs, ver. 11, 2 Thess. iii. 4, 6, 10, 12. In ad 
dressing other churches subsequently, when his authority was 
established, he uses it very seldom. 

3. &tXr,/ua, a will) [a thing which God wills]. So ch. v. 18, 
without the article. There are many wills, Acts xiii. 22. 6) 

<y has a positive force : Tn-piavsuu, the force of a comparative : 
The Lord make you full and even abound. ED. 


The mark of the subject. ayiaff^bg V/IAUV, your sanctiftcation) 
The word, your [i.e. present sanctification, as contrasted with the 
past], recalls to the memory of the Thessalonians their former 
profane condition. Sanctification especially includes chastity. 
d Trb TTJS nopveias, from fornication) Exalted Christians as they 
were, yet they required to be admonished respecting this sin ; 
for the Gentiles had no scruples as to carnal lewdness. 

4. E/ <3aa/, should know) o/ 6a, I know, not only denotes know 
ledge, but power of mind [mental self-control so as to], Phil. iv. 
12 : comp. [husbands, dwell with your wives] according to know 
ledge, 1 Pet. iii. 7. Both are certainly required for matrimonial 
chastity. a-/^og, vessel) his body, 1 Sam. xxi. 5 ; 1 Cor. vi. 18. 
xTaaQai, to possess, is illustrated from Luke xxi. 19. %,} r//>^, 
and in honour) The contrary is ar//x/a ? disgrace, Rom. i. 26, 24 
[cr$?j ar//A/a, affections of dishonour, i.e. vile; arif^d^sffdai tfw///ar, 
to dishonour their bodies]. 

5. My ev <7rddei e<7ri8v/Aia$, not in the lust of concupiscence) As 
concupiscence gains the mastery, it at length waxes strong, so 
as to become a wretched passion and disease, 2 Sam. xiii. 4. 
ra eQn), the Gentiles) These are also denoted at ver. 12, 13, by 
different periphrases [" them that are without," ver. 11 : 
6 others, 01 Xo/cro/, ver. 13]. ra /^ /<5oVa, wlw know not) Igno 
rance is the origin of unchastity, Rom. i. 24. [Look at the 
serenity of heaven, and thou wilt conceive a loathing of impurity. 

-v. g.] 

6. To ,uri v-TTspfiamiv xaj wXsovexreTv) The article TO makes an 
emphatic addition [Epitasis], which falls upon the verb uc 

siv. Eustathius explains lirtpffiva.! as, TO na$ vKepfioX 
dsovTog, to miss the mark as to wliat is in the highest degree neces 
sary. Therefore Paul does not seem to be speaking here of 
avarice, which however is joined to sins of impurity in Eph. 
v. 5 and Col. iii. 5 (whence also the article makes an Epitasis or 
emphatic addition), and which, as being a capital transgression, 
is called idolatry ; but of the deceptions and arts of adulterers, 
Heb. xiii. 4 ; for the Asyndeton [no copula between g/6lva/, ver. 4, 
and TO /^ vKsppaivsiv, ver. 6] indicates that the same subject is 
continued ; and he is speaking of a i matter of such a kind, as 
that the blame attached to it is greater than that attached to 
theft, Prov. vi. 30 : and in ver. 7 he returns to the mention of 

1 THESSALONIANS IV. 7-11. 201 

impurity and holiness alone. It is by a Euphemism that the 
apostle does not call it adultery. sv r& irpdy^ari, in the matter or 
business) The article points out the particular business in hand 
at this or that time, 2 Cor. vii. 11. afatybv, brother) The reason 
assigned (^Etiology) for avoiding the transgression [rb ixr*f$a/WM*, 
viz. adultery]. gx&xos, avenger) Heb. xiii. 4, note. 6 Kup/o, the 
Lord) Christ, the Judge. 

7. Ev dyiatfftti, in sanctijication) SKI, for, on account of, rather 
expresses the end ; sv, in, the nature or character of the thing 
[viz. of our calling]. 

8. O dderuv) he who despiseth this thing. rbv xa/ dovra, 
WJio has also given) The word also intimates that a new 
importance is here added to what immediately precedes. 
rb TIvsv/Aot, avrov rb aytov stg v/^ag, His Holy Spirit to you) Eph. 
iv. 30. 1 

9. Oy xpeiav expftsv, we have no need) Heb. viii. II. 2 faoftf- 
daxroi, taught of God) God imbues [not teaches, strictly] us with 
love by regeneration ; therefore the word taught has a Cata- 
chresis [an application of a word not in its strictly regular sense], 
that it may be opposed to the writing [ypdpziv vpTv]. eis rb dyavtiv, 
with respect to loving) The force of Divine doctrine flows into 
(has its confluence in) love. 

11. c^/Xor/^g^a/ ijtfvy/d^siv) that you study (be ambitious) to be 
quiet) An Oxymoron. 3 Political ambition is ashamed to be quiet. 
Its opposite is -mpttpydfyffdou [to be busybodies, opposed to, with 
quietness work], 2 Thess. iii. 11, 12. It is therefore added 
here, <xpd<s<teiv rd } dia, to do your own business. There is, however, 
a strict propriety imparted to the word (fnXon^sTffdai from ver. 12, 
at the end. 4 epydfyaQou, to labour) It was necessary to mention 
this to men who had acquired a taste for heaven. Men im- 

is the reading of BDG/^: "in vobis " is that of g and Vulg. ; 
but JipAs of A and Rec. Text. ED. 

2 B (ti xoftsv) D corrected, G Vulg., later Syr.j^r, support the first per 
son plural. The MS. Amiatinus of Vulg., like B, has the past tense, 
habuimus. "Ewftw is Lachmann s reading. But Tisch., as Rec. Text, 
exere t with Syr. and Memph. ED. 

3 See App. The figure by which things contrary (as here ambition and 
quiet) are acutely and wisely joined together. 

* i.e. " Having nothing which you need " to solicit ambitiously from 
others. ED. 

202 1 THESSALONIANS IV. 12-15. 

mersed in the world labour of their own accord. The admoni 
tion increases in force at 2 Thess. iii. 6, 7. 

12. Evffxwovug, becomingly) Lest men should be able to say 
that Christianity leads to sloth and poverty. The opposite is 
the disorderly (unruly), v. 14 ; 2 Thess. iii. 6. pvifavbs) of 
nothing, which you require to solicit from those without. This 
is the highest degree of svwopia, i.e. freedom from entanglement 
in matters of property, and is to be desired by a Christian, on 
account of the liberty which it bestows. 

13. 1 "Iva fj,fj Xucr3j<r0e, that ye sorrow not) for those who have 
lately died, being in the faith ; for hope in regard to them is 
well-grounded [is a valid hope]. The efficacy of the Christian 
religion is even in an especial degree evident from this circum 
stance, that it does not take away or embitter, but sweetly 
soothes (modifies), regret for the dead ; the finest of the affec 
tions, whether their death has taken place recently or in former 
times. 2 

14. r&p, for) The Scripture, from among so many topics of 
consolation in regard to death, generally brings forward this one 
concerning the resurrection, as principal and pre-eminent. 
air sQavt, died) This word is usually applied to Christ ; whereas 
to fall asleep is applied to believers, 1 Cor. xv. 3, 6, 18, 20, 51. 
ourw) in like manner, as Jesus Himself rose, so we believe 
that we shall be conducted alive by the path of death. dta roZ 
ijjtfoD, in Jesus) This is construed with xoifJLVjfevrasf who have 
fallen asleep. For the verb, will lead [bring], which follows, has 
accordingly the with Him standing in apposition, and answering 
to the words, dia rov l^jaoD, in Jesus. 

15. YftTv) To you, who are worthy of knowing this. Xeyo/Aw 
sv Xo y^o Kvpiov, we say by the word of the Lord) The Lord, the 
Christ, has spoken to us ; we have spoken to you : comp. 
1 Kings xx. 35, nirp "1113, lv xdy^ Kup/ou, by the word of the 
Lord. Phrases such as these are used in respect of a matter 
which is now for the first time opened up (disclosed). [Many 

1 IIspl TUV xtxoifAYiptvuv, concerning those ivho have fallen asleep) This is 
consolation offered in a case of recent grief, not for those who have been 
long dead. Not. Grit. 

2 EXTT/Sa, hope) and joy. V. g. 

8 Lit. Those lulled to sleep by Jesus. ED. 


matters connected with an altogether extraordinary subject, which 
would be in vain sought for elsewhere, are here discussed. V. g.] 

qpeTsj we) The saints, by speaking thus in their own age, have 

greatly added to the obligation resting on those of following ages 
to look for the Lord. The we is presently explained by the 
following words, who are alive, and further on, who remain. 
01 wi/rg 01 rtspihsivopsvo/, who live, who remain [who live, surviv 
ing ]) So also ver. 17. This is equivalent to an apposition. 
Who live, is an antithesis to, who sleep. There is at the same 
time intimated the small number of those who live, compared 
with the multitude of the dead ; likewise the good condition of 
those who are asleep, so that the living may desire to be 
gathered to them. Men of all ages conjointly have a lively 
anticipation of [realize to themselves the immediate fulfilment 
of] some one thing ; * and so believers, who are now long wait 
ing, and who regard themselves in the light of persons who are 
to live at the coming of the Lord, have spoken in accordance 
with this their character (spake in the manner that became 
the character they represented, viz. those who shall be alive 
at the Lord s coming). Those who live, and those who remain 
till the coming of the Lord, are the same, and these are denoted 
by the pronoun we. Each generation, which lives at this or 
that time, occupies, during that period of their life, the place of 
those who are to live at the time of the coming of the Lord. 2 
So the we is put here, as elsewhere the names Cajus and Titius, 3 
and that, too, with the greater propriety, because believers of 
that age [i.e. of each successive past age] have not yet been 
allowed distinctly to know the vast period of time to elapse till 

1 Or reprsesentant means, Men of different ages aiming conjointly at 
some one object (for instance, the House of Commons in successive ages 
seeking civil liberty and good government) are joint representatives of that 
one idea : and so the men of each particular age might regard themselves as 
the representatives of it in their particular age. ED. 

2 That is, they are called on to live in daily and hourly expectation of 
the Lord s coming in their time, since the time of His coming was left un 
certain for that very purpose, Matt. xxv. 13. Such watchers in each 
generation are representatives of those who shall actually be found alive 
when He comes. ED. 

8 Imaginary persons put in law as representatives to exemplify some 
principle. ED. 

204 1 THESSALONIANS IV. 16-18. 

the end of the world. The present tense in both participles 
is in reference to [i.e. in order to suit] the coming of the 
Lord itself, as in Acts X. 42 [-ra^ /yg/Xst/ xqpv^ai on avrog Jtfr/v], 
and elsewhere frequently. Hence Paul has not hereby asserted 
that the day of Christ is so near ; see 2 Thess. ii. 2, 3. A 
similar phrase is found at Rom. xiii. 11 ; 1 Cor. xv. 51 ; James 
v. 9 ; 1 Pet. iv. 5, 6 ; Matt. xxiv. 42, note. ro\j Kup/ou, of the 
Lord) Jesus Christ. ou p) $Qa<fufAfv 9 we shall not [prevent] get 
before or anticipate) This assurance sweetly counteracts the 
fear of the survivors regarding the dead, and reckons the ad 
vantage of the former, including himself, not to be greater than 
that of those who are asleep. 

16. Avrbg, Himself) A word of high import. sv xgXguo/o,ar/, 
lv <puvy ap^uyyeXM) xai sv tfd\<7riyyi 0soD, with a shout, with the 
voice of the archangel, and with the trumpet of God) A gradation 
(ascending climax), comprehending three things. xiXeufl^a is 
applied, when a multitude is ordered to do something, for 
example, by a herald. It is not used by the LXX. a^ayysXou, 
the archangel) Michael, or some other. The article is not in 
serted. kv <rcc/.<T/yy/ 0?ou, with the trumpet of God) and there 
fore great. irpurov) previously} 

17. " A t ua) Ammonious, ,aa [MV effn ^povjxbv gfrippyjfj/a o/xou 8 i, 
roKiKov, " a,aa is an adverb of time, o//,ou of place." You see here 
the propriety of the apostle s language. stg aepa, in, or rather, 
[caught up] into the air) The ungodly will remain on the earth. 
The godly, having been acquitted, will be made assessors in the 
judgment. xa/ ourw, and so) When Paul has written what 
needed to be written for consolation, he treats of [lit. he wraps 
up] the most important matters in this brief style. <ravrorf, 
[ever] always) without any separation. evv Ku^fy, with the 
Lord) not only in the air, but in heaven, whence He came. 
ho/ada, we shall be) both [the living and those raised from the 

18. napaxa>./rg aXX^Xoug, comfort one another) in your grief. 
Comp. also ver. 11. 

1 Previously to the act of the living along with the dead saints being 
caught up. Not, " the dead in Christ shall rise before the other dead" as it 
is often explained. ED. 

1 THESSALONIANS V. 1-3. 205 


1. Hepi ruv xfovuv, of the times) When these things shall happen, 
which I have mentioned. Kaipoi, seasons, are parts xpovuv, of 
the times. 1 ou x>f s av *% sr2 > y e nav ^ n need) Those who watch 
do not require to be told when the hour will come ; for they 
are always ready. 

2. rig xXtrtrqg, as a thief) 2 Pet. iii. 10. A usual expression 
with the apostles, agreeing with the parable of the Lord, Matt, 
xxiv. 43. sv wxrt, in the night) Refer those words to a thief, just 
now mentioned [not, the day of the Lord cometh in the night ; 
but, as a thief cometh in the night]. The night is there, where 
there is unconcern and quiet ; comp. however, Matt. xxv. 6. 2 
ovrus) so, as we shall describe in the following verse. Comp. 
so after 3 for, Matt. i. 18, [" The birth of Christ was so ; for 
when His mother Mary was espoused," etc. : o-Jrwj %v. ^vjOTtufaiffris 
yap, etc.] spiral, comes) The present expressing a sudden 
event with great emphasis. So ver. 3, Sudden destruction 
cometh ; comp. Luke xxi. 34. 

3. Aeyufftv, they say) all the others (the rest, o/ XO/TO/), who are 
of darkness, ver. 5, 6 [ch. iv. 13]. e/pqvq xai aapdXsia, peace 
and safety) They will regard it as an established fact, that the 
world is eternal. 

gives the notion of indefinite time ;. Katpog, the time, the op 
portune point of time, when a thing should be done. Ammonius says well, 
o Koupo; indicates quality (KOIOTYITOI) of time ; and xpovos, quantity (iroffo- 
TTiroi). ED. 

2 " At midnight there was a cry made, Behold the Bridegroom cometh ;" 
which seems to imply that it shall not be merely in a figurative, but in a 
literal sense, that the Lord shall come in the night. ED. 

8 Here, however, yap, for, is thought to be better omitted by the margin 
of both Ed. The Germ. Vers., for the sake of connection, puts nemlich. 
E. B. 

AG/, Iren. 329, Cypr. 326, and Syr. Version, omit yxp, and so Tisch. 
Lachm. reads Sg, with BD(A), Memph. and later Syr. Rec. Text reads 
with Vulg. ED. 

206 1 TIIESSALONIANS V. 6-10. 

1 6. Ka/ vfitpupsv, and let us be sober) This denotes the state, 
avavjjpu, exvqpu, the act, 2 Tim. ii. 26 ; 1 Cor. xv. 34. vqpu is 
a milder term. 

7. MedvtrxofAevoi ft&Qvovffiv, those who are drunken, are drunken) 

denotes the act, fjt,s6vu 9 the state or habit ; so in 
xad?.{jdovfft, the Ploce 2 is apparent. For first, x 
dovrs$ has the inchoative power, falling into sleep ; then 
expresses continuance, they go on in sleep. wxrbg) in the night 
time, for the most part. Even constant somnolency and 
drunkenness render the very night worse. Such persons are 
averse (shrink) from the day. 

8. EXcr/da ffwrjjp/ac, the hope of salvation) Refer to this the 
next verse. 

9. "Edsro, hath appointed) So the LXX., Ps. Ixvi. 9, roD Oep svou 
rv\v -^VXTJV /AQV stg fyjjv, who hath placed (holdeth) my soul in life ; 
Judg. i. 28, S&STO rbv XavavaTov s!g popov, put the Canaanite to 
tribute ; where indeed the Vatican reading has Icro/jjtfg, but efaro 
was a phraseology certainly not unusual with the transcriber. 
vspiwoiqffiv tfurqpfai) Salvation of that sort is intended, by 
which they who are saved are taken out (excepted) from the 
multitude of those that perish. 3 

10. Aflro0avovro, who hath died) That appointment for a pecu 
liar preservation (ffep/ffofq&v ffurqpfus), consisted in the death 
of Christ itself. i/n- xadsvdupev, whether we sleep) as to the body, 
in natural sleep or in death. //,) at the same time as the 
coming takes place. Or are we rather to take it, together with 
Him, in the same place where, and in the same manner as, He 
lives ? I cannot think so. The whole subject is " concerning 
the times " (ver. 1), and at the end of the discussion the dis 
course returns to those things with which it began. They had 
always set before themselves the coming of Christ as a thing 
near at hand. So also does Lubinus explain it. 

1 Keti ov ftvj txQv yafft, and they shall not escape) how anxiously soever 
they might desire it. V. g. 

2 The figure by which the same word is twice put, once in the simple 
sense, next to express an attribute of it. Append. ED. 

3 See note on Eph. i. 14, as to the meaning of TrepiTrotwis. It is said 
of that which remains, when all else is lost. So here of the elect saved, 
when all others are lost. ED 

1 THESSALONIANS V. 12-19. 207 

12. Epurupev, we pray or beseech) Paul beseeches, making the 
cause of those labouring in the word as it were his own : an 
other verb follows, viz. cra^%aXoi//x.v, we exhort, ver. 14. s/dsvai) 
to know, to have respect and a regard for ; a metonymy of the 
antecedent for the consequent. xo-rr/wvrag, labouring) Some 
times one and the same person may labour, rtpotaragQai, be over 
or preside, vovdtrs/v, admonish ; sometimes different persons, ac 
cording to the variety of gifts. To labour is not only the genus, 
but it denotes different functions, which are not comprehended 
under presiding and admonishing ; for example, Rom. xvi. 2. 
Phcebe was lepooran^ a superintendent ; on the contrary, ver. 12, 
Tryphcena and Tryphosa had indeed laboured, but they had 
not been KpoGranfag, they did not preside or act as superintendents. 
Acting as superintendent implies authority ; vouOsr&Tv, to admonish, 
denotes zeal and skill, which one exercises more than another. 

13. Ev lauro/^, among yourselves) Mutually. 

14. Tov$ ardxrovg, the disorderly [unruly]) Such persons were 
not wanting, how flourishing soever that church might be. 
And a rag/a, disorder, presently increased, 2 Thess. iii. 6, 11. 
avre%e(ffe) pay attention to, "1BB>, avr ^za&ai, to have regard to, 
Prov. iv. 6. lefis vavrag, to all) There is no believer to whom 
long-suffering (paxpoQvftia, implied in f&axpotivfwfa) may not be 
shown ; none, to whom a believer ought not to show it. Many 
show it more to strangers than to their own families, more to 
the powerful than to the more humble ; but it should be shown 
towards all. 

15. opars, see) Let every man watch over himself and the 
other (his neighbour). A person who has received an injury, 
and is in a passion, sees too much ; his neighbours therefore 
ought to see (for him). 

18. EI> cravr/, in every thing) although it may seem adverse ; 
[and that, too, not only generally, but, like David, in particular 
cases. Y. g.] roDro, this) that ye should give thanks. fe^r^a, 
will) which is always good, always keeping in view your salva 
tion in Christ Jesus. 

19. To cmD/Aa) the Spirit, i.e. spiritual gifts. A Metonymy. 
f&% ffpevvun, quench not) Where the Spirit is, He burns ; there 
fore He ought not to be quenched, either in ourselves or in the 
case of others. 

208 1 THESSALONIANS V. 20-23. 

20. npotpqrtiag, prophesyings) Which should be exercised 
more than the other gifts ; 1 Cor. xiv. 1, 39. i^ efyuQsvsfre, do 
not despise) The other gifts were more showy. 

21. navrce 1 ) all things, viz. spiritual things, which, without 
any carelessness and undue curiosity, you may be liable to 
consider as in any way belonging to you, and as not exceeding 
your ability. 

22. Atfb Kavrbg e /dovs crov?jpoD, from every bad species or kind 
of thought, act, or word) Species, in the sense, " appearance of 
evil" [as Engl. Vers.], would be sJdoc TOT a-o^oD, with the 
article, which TO /taXov, that which is good, has, ver. 21. But 
sJdog Kovypbv is a bad kind or species : sJdog, species, Germ. Gattung; 
LXX., Jer. xv. 3 [" I will appoint over them four kinds the 
sword the dogs the fowls the beasts"] ; Sir. xxiii. 21 (16), 
xxv. (2) 3. We ought to abstain from every species of evil 
[evil species of thing], lest we be deceived. The whole genus 
of good is simple, belonging to the " spirit, soul, and body," 
[ver. 23] ; the species or kinds of evil are many, 2 Cor. vii. 1 ; 
comp. the antithesis in the following verse. 

23. Avrbi) [The very] Himself. You will be defended, says 
Paul, not by my zeal, but by the Divine protection. 6 eo? r%s 
eipqvijs, the God of peace) who gives all that is good, and takes 
away all that is evil : etpqvq and oXorsX?^, in the Hebrew DPK>, are 
conjugates. [Therefore the following prayer shows what this title 
implies (involves in it). V. g.] oXorsXg/^ oXoxX^ov) He wishes 
that collectively (oXoreXs/s) and as individuals (oXoxX^pov) they 
should be claimed for God [as His], and being so claimed, should 
abide in Him : collectively, all the Thessalonians without excep 
tion, so that no one should fail; individually, every one of them, 
with " spirit, soul, and body." The exposition of this verse 
will perhaps be more matured in course of time. There might 
be supposed an elegant Chiasmus, and if oX&xX?jpoi/ were taken 
adverbially, it would cast new light on the exposition. 2 If we 

1 The Germ. Vers., following the decision of the 2d Ed., subjoins the 
word Ss. E. B. 

Lachm. adds le, with BD(A)G$r Vulg. and later Syr. But Tisch. omits 
it, with A, Orig. 4,289c (3,825c). ED. 

2 The Chiasmus would make faoxhYipov answer to aupu,, and Trvtvpa. to 
&vx,v) : meaning, May your body be wholly preserved, as also your spirit and 
soul ! ED. 

25. 209 

give the passage another sense, oXoxXypov vpuv, would constitute 
the genus and the whole; the three following words (m/gfyta, 
would be the parts. l^v rb wsv/^a nai T\ ^v^n 
your spirit and soul and body) You ; he just before 
has called them universally : and the same persons he now de 
nominates from their spiritual condition, my wish being, saith 
he, that your spirit (Gal. vi. 18) may be preserved 6XoxXjpo>, 
whole and entire ; then from their natural condition, and soul 
and body, for the nature of the whole man absolutely consists 
of these two parts, my wish is, that it may be preserved blame 
less. 1 The mention of the body agrees with the preceding 
discussion, iv. 4, note 16. 

24. 2 O xaX&Jc upas) He, who has called you, so that He will 
not even now change His [purpose of grace in] calling you. 
This verse exhibits much of a triumphant spirit. cro/^ere/, will 
do it) will preserve you, ver. 23. So that His calling of you 
may attain its designed end, Phil. i. 6 ; 1 Pet. v. 10 ; Rom. 
viii. 30. 

25. Ilspi wuv, for us) as we for you, ver. 23. [Paul begs the 
same thing in the second epistle to the Thessalonians, also in the 
epistle to the Komans, Ephesian, Colossians, and Philemon, and 

1 The Germ. Vers. exhibits on the marg. this periphrasis of the pas 
sage : " May your Spirit, i.e. you yourselves be most fully preserved ac 
cording to your spiritual state, which you have attained in respect both of 
soul and body." In accordance with this view, I may observe, is the fact, 
that Kvivpot is a heavenly principle the life from above linking us to a 
higher order of beings, and imparted by " the second Adam," who, in 1 
Cor. xv. 47, is called uo7rotouv MM pot,, " a quickening Spirit." Hence 
wivpa, is seldom if ever found associated with unbelievers. Passages are 
found where this word is used of good and bad alike " yielding up the 
Ghost." But these mean rather breathed their last," nvtvpa being used 
simply of the breath. Yvxvj, anima, on the other hand, is the inferior prin 
ciple, common to bad and good, linking us to the first Adam, the ^ua 
^vyM, living soul ; from which we derive the aupa, ^V^IK.OU , the natural or 
animal body a body animated by the -fyvxAt as contrasted with the au^ot, 
vi/tvftotTixov, body animated with the Spirit, spiritual, which shall be given 
to the believer hereafter, 1 Cor. xv. 44-47. Comp. Rom. viii. 11 ; Jude 
19, ij/v%txoi. ED. 

2 Kiarog, faithful) In this short clause the whole summary of consolation 
is included. If you will enjoy your calling, rejoice in the faithfulness of 
Him who will do it. V. g. 



in passing, in the second epistle to the Corinthians, as well as to the 
Philippians. He does not make this request in the epistle to 
Timothy and Titus, because he either addressed them, as sons or 
was sure of their spontaneous intercessions. He did not indeed 
ask this of the Corinthians in his first epistle, nor of the Gala- 
tians ; for he required to rebuke them in the exercise of his pater 
nal authority. V. g.] 

27. Of/t/w v t uag, I adjure you) In the Old Testament Moses 
and the prophets were publicly read. In the New Testament 
this epistle, as being the first of all that Paul wrote, is, as a 
sample of what they should do in the case of the others, recom 
mended to be publicly read, as afterward the Apocalypse, ch. i. 3. 
This was the very important reason, why Paul so adjured the 
Thessalonians [and these too so greatly beloved by him. V. g.] ; 
and there had been seme danger, lest they should think, that the 
epistle should be concealed on account of the praises given to 
themselves. rbv Kvpiov, the Lord) Christ. The divine worship 
of invocation is presented to Him, Ps. Ixiii. 12 (11). fl-acv, to 
all) at Thessalonica, or even in the whole of Macedonia. 
ddt\<po?$, the brethren) The dative, in the strict force of it. 
The epistle was to be read, whilst all gave ear to it [in the 
hearing of all], especially those, who could not read it them 
selves ; women and children not being excluded. Comp. Deut. 
xxxi. 12 ; Josh. viii. 33, 34. What Paid commands with an 
adjuration, Rome forbids under a curse. [Those who stealthily 
take away the Scripture, and render the reading of the word of 
God so difficult to the common people, beyond all doubt deal un 
fairly in their own treatment of it (they must themselves in their 
mode of handling it evade its meaning by subterfuges and per 
versions) ; they therefore are shunners of the light. But how 
sadly will they be struck dumb, when the Judge shall inquire, Why 
have you so violently forbidden others to read My word ? Why did 
you take it from those, who would have used it better than your 
selves ? " It would be desirable (and this is the remark of a 
Wittemberg divine of high character) that in many places, and 
those too of a more exalted condition, instead of the sacred 
prayers, which seem to be often more numerous than was suit 
able, the reading of certain chapters of sacred Scripture should 
be appointed in the Church, and should be a solemn and regular 


usage," etc., Franz, de Interpret., p. 47. That would be indeed 
quite right. At present it is so much the more our duty to lament, 
that many esteem the dignity of the public assemblies of the Church 
to be greater only in proportion as the regard paid to Scripture is 
the less. V. g.] 




3. OpsiXoftiv, we are bound) Urged by exultation of mind on 
grounds so manifest. So also ch. ii. 13. [There is herein shown 
a generous sense of a debt of that kind. V. g.] i;/oi/, worthy, 
meet, befitting) On account of the magnitude of the fact. Comp. 
1 Cor. xvi. 4. [Are the proofs of thy Christianity worthy of 
thanks being given to God on account of them by those who know 
thee ? V. g.] ^ Kfartr 9i ay any, faith ; love) Of hope, ver. 4, 5. 
For these three graces are usually joined. 

4. H{ta$ auroOg, we ourselves) Paul himself, with Silvanus and 
Timothy, gloried, as being a witness ; he not merely heard of the 
fact from witnesses. b^sp, for) construed with ev^apiffrsTv, to 
render thanks , ver. 3. Hence at the end of ver. 3 we must put 
a comma; comp. Col. i. 5, note. The parallelism [the clauses 
and words in ver. 3, 4, standing parallel to one another] gives 
force. xat viffrsug, and faith) Faith here denotes faithful con 
stancy in confession of the truth. 

5. "Ev^g/y/^a) namely, ov [It being a token, etc.] The Accusa 
tive absolute ; comp. Acts xxvi. 3, note. The fact of your 
avt^sffOai, enduring, ver. 4, is a proof or token. d/xa/ag, just, 
righteous) What is stated as a Proposition in this clause is dis- 

214 2 THESSALONIANS I. 6-9. 

cussed at ver. 6, 7. sis rb xarafyudqvat) that you may be counted 
ivorthy) This clause is connected (coheres) with ye endure. 
JTrsp i}$} for which. The suffering (tfd<r%ers) makes them worthy 
of the kingdom. 

6. Uapa sf), with God) Although good and bad men do not 
estimate the injuries done by the latter, and the sufferings 
endured by the former, as of so great importance. QMfSovaiv 
6Xtyiv, affliction [tribulation] to them that afflict [trouble]) 
The lex talionis [compensation in kind]. To this refer ver. 
8, 9. 

7. K/ U/A/V, and to you) To this refer ver. 10, 11. ro/& 
QXif3ovfAevoi$j who are afflicted) In the middle voice, who endure 
affliction; comp. ver. 4, at the end. avsoiv, rest) 6\i\ng 9 affliction, 
and avs(H$, rest, are opposed to each other with great propriety, 
2 Cor. vii. 5, viii. 13. Moreover rest includes also abundance 
of good things, ver. 10. [M& qpiuv) with us, i.e. with the saints 
of Israel, ver. 10, note. Comp. 1 Thess. ii. 14. pir ayy&Xuv 
dwapecas, with angels of might, mighty angels) The angels serve 
Christ in the putting forth of His power. 

8. *Ev vvpi pXoybg) Others read sv pXoy/ Kvpbg. 1 The same 
variety occurs, Acts vii. 30 : sv 9X07; vvpbg, LXX., Is. Ixvi. 15. 
roTg pn sidoti &sbv) to those who are living in heathen ignorance of 
God, 1 Thess. iv. 5 ; Ps. Ixxix. 6. So Job xviii. 21, ^ J>T , 
ruv fty eldoruv rbv Kvpiov, of those 2 ivho know not the Lord. &% 
wraxovovffi, who do not obey) chiefly by the Jews, to whom the 
Gospel concerning Christ* had been preached. 

9. A-TTO, from) It is & judicial procedure from the Divine pre 
sence itself, that will inflict punishment upon them. "ODD, from 
the face. Devils will not be the tormentors ; for even in this life 
bad men are not punished by devils, but rather by good angels : 
and in Ps. Ixxviii. 49, the phrase, angels of (bringing) evil, 

1 Lachm. reads Iv @Aoyi vvpos with BD(A)G < 9 Vulg., Iren. 273, 265. 
Tisch. reads Iv irvpl cpAoyoV with A/ and Rec. Text. ED. 

2 The Hebrew is sing., of him that knoweth not God. TR. 

3 It is considered, however, by the margin of the 2d Ed., that the name 
of Christ should rather be omitted in this verse, and therefore the Germ. 
Vers. has rejected it. E. B. 

BD(A) omit XjO/<7To, and so Tisch. But AG/</ Vulg., Iren. 265, and 
Rec. Text, support it. Lachm. therefore retains it, but in brackets. 


may even denote good angels. 1 Ex. xii. 23 ; 2 Sam. xxiv. 16. 
awtfov, the face) This face will be intolerable to them ; they 
shall not see it, but they shall be made to feel it. Face and 
glory are generally parallel. /V^iW, of His might) Lay aside 
your fierceness (haughty confidence of might ) ye wicked 
men ! 

10. Ei/, in) Saints and believers shall not only behold Him, 
but by them the admirable glory of Christ will put itself forth in 
its fulness. See the following verses. //&/, the saints) The 

lention of glory, and the saints, is sweetly joined, as is also the 
mtion of admiration (Christ coming " to be admired"), and, 

ilievers (" them that believe"). iraai, all) This word, not added 
the saints, but to them that believe, intimates, that the term 
believers [ u them that believe"] has a somewhat wider significa 
tion than saints. See Acts xx. 32, note. So all, Phil. i. 9, 2 
note. ( Saints are those of the circumcision ; < believers are 

icy of the Gentiles, among whom were also the Thessalonians 
[who, when the testimony of the Apostles had reached also them, 
received it with praise-worthy firmness of mind. Y. g.]. Comp. 
the two expressions 3 standing in antithesis to these, ver. 8, note. 
or/, because) The motive of 6 admiration [which shall prompt 

lem to " admire Christ"] will be, that the testimony of the 
Apostles concerning Christ, having obtained faith among the 
Thessalonians, proves to be what it professed [stands forth un 
shaken] in that day, on which truth alone stands firm. Comp. 
Phil. ii. 16 ; 1 Thess. ii. 19. eviarevOq) p&O, warty stood forth as 
faithful [was proved to be trustworthy and stedfast], and as such 
was received [credited] by you, upon whom it (the testimony) 
had come. i<f upas \among you, i.e. ] even to you) coming 
as far as to you, in the w r est. IM 7r\) construe with 

1 "He cast upon them the fierceness of His anger by sending evil 
angels among them." LXX. S/ dyythtuv Trovripuv. ED. 

2 "I pray that your love may abound in knowledge and in adjudgment:" 
where the all is prefixed before judgment as being the more general 
term ; but not before knowledge as being more special and limited. So 
here, all before " them that believe," but not before the more restricted 
term, " the saints." ED. 

3 Viz. rots ^>j tiloai tov, " them that know not God," namely, Gentiles ; 
and roi> ^53 V7ra,x.ovovaw, u them that obey not, namely, the Jews who re 
fused to believe, though the Gospel was preached to them. ED. 

216 2 THESSALONIANS 1. 11, 12. -II. 1. 

When He shall come [not with gV/<rrgu^, was believed or accounted 

11. E/ g o, for which object) We strive for this in prayer. 
ag/w<r?j, would make you worthy) There is no dignity in us before 
we are called, 2 Tim. i. 9. It is not until afterwards conferred 
upon us in that way, which is presently described. o Qzbg ^uv) 
our God, whom, we serve. zvdoxiav, good pleasure) on the part 
of God. wiffrzus, of faith) on your part. 

12. To ovo/xce, the name) We confer nothing on the Lord, 
whereas the Lord really confers upon us salvation ; and hence 
His name is glorified in us ; and we ourselves moreover in Him. 
;^a/>/v, grace) with this grace in view, he mentioned a 

of goodness, ver. 11. 


I. Epurupev, we beseech) There are five divisions of the epistle, 
of which the principal one begins here. 



With prayer, 11, 12. 


is to come before Christ, ii. 1, 2, 3, 4. 
Whence he comforts the saints against that calamity, 9, 

10, 13, 14. 
With the addition of exhortation and prayer, 15, 16, 17. 

IV. AN EXHORTATION TO PRAYER, accompanied also with a 

prayer for them, iii. 1, 2. 

And an exhortation to reduce to order the brethren who 
are walking disorderly, with a prayer also for them 
subjoined, 6, 7, 16. 

V. CONCLUSION, 17, 18. 

2 THESSALONIANS II. 2, 3. 217 

with respect to [not by, as Engl. Vers.]. The particle 
is intended for clearly indicating the subject in hand, not for 
adjuration ; although the subject under discussion ought in itself 
to rouse the Thessalonians : comp. vvrep, 2 Cor. v. 20. 1 Jnvrfuv- 
ayw/Jjs, (final) gathering together) which will take place at the time 
of the coming of Jesus : care must be taken lest any falls away. 
Believers are already gathered in to the Lord ; but that gather 
ing together then at last will be the complete and crowning one. 
This is the force of the double compound when it is broken into 
its component parts : comp. Heb. x. 25, note. 

2. 2Xsu05ji/a/, 2 be moved) in mind. Qpos?ffdai 9 be troubled) in 
your affections or emotions. That readily occurs in the case 
of those who are too eager to know future events. vvsu/uarog) 
vvevpa, a prophesying spirit. Xo you kvtfroXSfc, word letter) 
ver. 15. u$ di ypuv) as coming through us. This was the ground 
on which the Thessalonians might be moved. A genuine 
epistle of Paul might indeed be wrongly explained ; but there 
might also be fraudulently imposed on them a letter written by 
another person ; ch. iii. 17. us on sv earrjxev, as if it were immedi 
ately at hand) This word signifies to be exceedingly near ; for 
svsffr&s means present. It is therefore declared that the day of 
Christ is not so immediately near. The epistles to the Thessa 
lonians are the oldest of the apostolic epistles. Hence it is evi 
dent that the apostles, in speaking of the nearness of the day of 
Christ, were not in error, but spoke with full knowledge. roD 
Xpicrov, of Christ) to Whom Antichrist is opposed, in a sense of 
the word long used in the Church. 3 

3. Kara /ayd tva rportov, by no means) He indicates three means 
in which they might be deceived, ver. 2. 6V/, because) Supply 
from what goes before, the negative particle with the substantive 
verb, it does not come to pass (that day shall not come), unless, 
etc. But this ellipsis shows euXa/Ss/a, pious, reverent caution. 

1 " We are ambassadors for Christ," i.e. with respect to Him. He and 
His Gospel are the foundation of our mission. ED. 

2 Literally, tossed, agitated as persons on the sea, o-aAof. ED. 

3 The Germ. Vers., however, prefers the reading Kvpi ov, following the 
margin of both Ed. E. B. 

ABD(A) corrected, Grfg Vulg., Orig. 1,668ft, read Kvpiov. Rec. Text, 
without good authority, Xpwrov. ED. 


He is guX/3^ 7 reverently cautious, who comprehends well, and 
receives in a right spirit, the matter set before him, not with an 
unseasonable and foolhardy rashness, sachte, scheu, etc. EuXoc- 
j3s/a is shown in the fact, that Paul does not expressly say : The 
day of Christ does not come, unless, etc. He speaks mildly 
(moderately) ; he abstains from words to which the lover of the 
coming of Christ would not willingly listen. lac /^, unless) 
What we read in ver. 3-8 demands a fuller consideration. 
And, first, we shall look closely into this paragraph by itself; 
then we shall compare the Apocalypse with it. The former 
aspect of it comprehends something like the following positions : 

I. The object of Paul is to admonish the Thessalonians not to 
think the day of Christ nearer than it really is. The expectation 
of future events, which is supposed to rest upon Divine testi 
mony, and which after all is discovered in the end to be false, 
occasions great offence (raises a great stumblingblock in the 
way of religion). Such an expectation of the day of Christ 
might occasion very great offence : wherefore Paul anxiously 
obviates it. The Thessalonians had been prepared to receive 
the Lord with joy, ch. i. 11; 1 Thess. i. 10: and indeed a 
desire of that sort presupposes hope and faith ; but yet this very 
desire may be out of due order. It is therefore reduced to 

II. Paul especially teaches, that some great evil will first 
come. Paul does not enumerate all the events which were to 
intervene between that age and the day of Christ; but he 
points out a certain one thing, especially remarkable, the ex 
plicit declaration of which was even already at that time season 
able and salutary to the Thessalonians. He therefore describes 
the apostasy, the Man of Sin, etc. 

III. Not only does the apostle point out the evil, but also the 
check upon it. He who hindereth or checketh, 6 /.ari ^uv, is made 
mention of, the person who checks or holds back the Man of Sin. 
That check is in some measure prior to the evil itself, and there 
fore the announcement of it appertains much (in a great degree) 
to the design of the apostle, which is, that the time may be defined, 
though with a proper latitude, when the adversary is to be 

IV. The evil extends itself from the times of Paul, even up to 


the appearance of the coming of Jesus Christ. That evil is not 
only most widely extended, ver. 4, 10, 12, but also very long 
continued ; and although it rises up by various degrees, yet it 
is also continuous from its first beginnings (staminibus, threads 
in weaving the web) even to its end. Now already, says the 
apostle, the mystery of iniquity is working. It already wrought 
in the time of the apostles, but more after their death, most of 
all after the death of the men who were the contemporaries and 
immediate successors of the apostles (i.e. the apostolic fathers). 
They do not arrive at the best and wisest conclusion, who enter 
tain the opinion, that the ideal and rule of the Church lie in the 
ancient practice (the antiquity) of some of the earliest ages, 
rather than in the truth itself, seeing that those ages merely re 
buke the greater declension of posterity [and do not, by the fact 
of their antiquity, establish their own complete coincidence with 
the truth]. 

V. There ivas also a check in the time of Paul, and that check 
then, and not till then, ceases to exist in the way, when the evil 
breaks out in all its force. He who now holdeth (the evil) back 
[" letteth," Old Engl.], says Paul, until he be taken out of the 
way. Hence it is evident, that the restraining check was not 
the preaching of the Gospel, either universal or apostolical. 
The check remained even after the time of the apostles, who 
finished their course long before the check ceased to act as a 
check ; but the preaching of the Gospel is never wholly taken 
from among men [" out of the way"]. 

VI. The evil is described first in the abstract, then in the con 
crete. The mystery of iniquity is said to be now already work 
ing ; but after an interval, that Iniquitous one ( Wicked) himself 1 
shall be revealed. The event turned out corresponding with 
this order. Not dissimilar is the fact, that in ver. 3, previously, 
the appellation given is first apostasy, then the Man of Sin. In 
preaching of Christ, it was said first, in the abstract, the kingdom 
of heaven is at hand ; then Christ Himself, with His glory, was 
more openly manifested. So, on the opposite side, the testi 
mony is similarly framed concerning [the coining] evil. The 

ver. 8, the embodiment and incarnation of the previous 


vicious humour is drawn together, and breaks out at length in 
one abscess. 

VII. The apostasy and the mystery of iniquity are a great evil. 

The description of the evil in the abstract and concrete has 

different parts, and these mutually explain each other. Apos 

tasy is a falling away from the faith, and is clearly described, 

1 Tim. iv. 1. This apostasy is not determined in its extent by 

any particular place ; as widely as the faith extended, so widely, 

for the most part, does the apostasy extend ; yet it prevailed in 

the greatest degree among the Jews. There is also the apos 

tasy of those to whom faith had been offered, although they did 

not receive it. Some of those who had received it l dreiv back 

[" departing from the living God"] : comp. Heb. iii. 12. The 

people is treated as equivalent to one man, whether regard is 

had to the Divine grace, which offers itself, or to man s refusal 

of it, under whatever circumstances. It was apostasy in the 

people who refused to enter into the promised land, LXX. Num. 

xiv. 31. The bitterness of the Jews was excessive, especially at 

Thessalonica, Acts xvii. 5, 11, 13 ; and Judaism at Rome occa 

sioned great damage to Christianity. In like manner, iniquity, 

the mystery of which was then already working, is not ini 

quity of any kind whatever, although it be manifold, Matt. 

xxiv. 12, but that from which the Iniquitous one ( Wicked : 

avo/j,os) himself is denominated, ver. 8, with which comp. ver. 

3, 4. The mystery of this iniquity was then already working 

(comp. Dent. xxxi. 21, 27), and was so concealed, that it crept 

in among men almost without themselves being conscious of it, 

and went on increasing for many ages. But even yet it is 

working, until the working of Satan shall bring forth the 

Iniquitous one himself (" that wicked") : ver. 9. Judaism, infect 

ing Christianity, is the fuel ; the mystery of iniquity is the spark. 

VIII. The Iniquitous one ( Wicked?) himself is the greatest evil. 

He is the Man of Sin, the son of perdition, opposed to and exalted 

above all that is called God, or that is worshipped ; so that he 

tits himself as God in the temple of God, and declares himself to 

be God (a god). He is the very Iniquitous (* Wicked 9 ) one, 

1 Perhaps the italicised resilierunt of Beng. refers to the i 
and vTfoaro-hi) of Heb. x. 38, 39, which see; also Psalm Ixxviii. 57. ED. 


whose coming is according to the working of Satan, etc. These 
points we shall afterwards consider one by one. 

IX. The check is used indifferently in the masculine and 
neuter gender [o xars^wv and TO Kars^ov] : unless the neuter be 
put first in the text for this purpose, namely, in order that 6 
xari^wv, He who holdeth back ( letteth, viz. the evil), may be 
afterwards opposed to the adversary, who is described in the sin 
gular [ver. 8], HE WHO NOW holdeth back ( letteth 9 ), says he, 
will cease to be in the way (to be among men) ; and a little before, 
Now ye know THAT WHICH withholdeth (holds back), so as that he 
may be revealed in His TIME [and not sooner ; but for rb xars^ov, 
he would be revealed sooner than the proper time}. 

X. That check, whatever it is, does not restrain the apostasy 
and the mystery of iniquity but the Man of Sin himself, that ini 
quitous, or wicked one. The mystery of iniquity, and he who 
holdeth back ( letteth ), fall upon one and the same time [are co 
incident in time] ; but, when he who holdeth back, and that which 
holdeth back ( withholdeth ), have ceased to be in the way, then 
the Iniquitous one (Wicked) is revealed. 

XI. At length out of the apostasy arises the Man of Sin ; more 
over, the political power of Rome, as a check, holds this very per 
son back. We clearly see, from the mutual comparison of the 
evil and the check upon it, and of the qualities of each, what 
both are. That Iniquitous one (* Wicked ), besides marks of 
falsehood, has also a certain degree of majesty, set off under a 
spiritual disguise, as if he were a god. The civil authority acts 
as a check upon him ; and this authority was assuredly in the 
hands of the Romans in the time of Paul, and comprehended 
Jerusalem; Rome, and Corinth, from which he was writing, as 
also Thessalonica, to which he was writing, etc. 

XII. The date of this epistle in no small degree helps the in 
terpretation. It was written in the time of Claudius ; comp. 
Acts xviii. 2, 5, with 1 Thess. iii. 1, 6 : and this very circum 
stance utterly refutes Grotius attempt to interpret the prophecy 
of Paul concerning Caligula. The ancients were of opinion, 
that Claudius himself was absolutely this check ; for from this 

. circumstance, as it appears, it came to pass, that they considered 
Nero, the successor of Claudius, to be the Man of Sin ; and when 
the wickedness of Nero, how furious soever it might be, had 


not, however, filled up that measure, they accounted Domitian, 
and the other emperors of a similar character, as a kind of com 
plement to make up the full measure of the evil. They cer 
tainly did not by this interpretation exhaust the prophecy ; but 
yet they attained to some part of the truth, namely, that some 
thing connected with Rome is here intended, whatever might be 
the mode of its exhibition. 

Let us go a little closer. The check is something with 
which the Thessalonians were unacquainted when Paul had 
been with them not long before : and i now, w r hen the same 
apostle wrote these things, they ( knew it, from the fact of the 
beginnings of the events corresponding [to his words] more than 
many, a little before, would have thought. This is evident from 
the antithesis between the fifth and sixth verses. The epistle 
was written about the eighth year of Claudius, 48 of the Dion, 
sera, as we show in Or do temporum, p. 278. At that period 
Claudius had expelled from Rome the Jews, whether believers 
or unbelievers, and this because the latter were constantly rais 
ing tumults ; and in Judaea itself, too, Cumanus was grievously 
oppressing them. Therefore, in the provinces, the prefects and 
procurators, in Italy and at Home the Emperor himself, was 
holding back the evil. It is a remarkable proof of this fact, 
that the Jews did not kill James until after the death of Festus, 
and before the arrival of Albinus. Whatever they did on that 
occasion, they would willingly have done on other occasions 
against Christ, but could not for the Romans. So Gallio held 
them back at Corinth, Claudius Lysias at Jerusalem, Acts 
xviii. 14, 21, 32. In the time of Paul, the Roman power cer 
tainly held back the evil ; not immediately (directly) : there 
fore it must have been mediately (indirectly). Moreover, the in 
strumentality or medium of holding it back was severity towards 
the Jews, who would have proceeded farther, if they had been 
permitted by the Romans. I shall willingly listen to an easier 
and simpler (I should be glad to hear a more ready and probable) 

XIII. When the check ceased to be in the way, that Iniquitous 
one [ Wicked* } is revealed. This position agrees with the fifth, 
and yet it also differs from it. The former marks the long 
continuance of the check ; the latter, the time of revealing the 


Iniquitous one [< Wicked ]. The coming of the Iniquitous one 
[ Wicked?] is according to the working of Satan in all power, and 
signs, and lying ivonders, etc. This coming has not yet taken 
place, although its preludes are for a long time not wanting ; 
therefore the check still exists. And it is evident from this 
most powerful argument, that the political power in the hands 
of the Romans is the check. For no other check, so powerful 
and so long-continued, will anywhere be found. This check, 
however, did not restrain the working of Satan, but the setting 
up of the dominion of the Iniquitous one [ Wicked ] ; and when 
it is removed, Satan lends his aid to the Iniquitous one 
[< Wicked ]. 

We shall now take the assistance of the Apocalypse. 

XIV. That Iniquitous one [ Wicked*"] is the beast ascending 
out of the bottomless pit. So long and so continuous is the 
evil described by Paul, iv., that it cannot but fall in at some 
period with the times of the apocalyptic beast ; and the resem 
blance between the Iniquitous one [* Wicked ] and the beast is so 
great, the power so widely spread and so exalted, that they 
can only be one subject [they must be one and the same person 
or existence]. The Iniquitous one [* Wicked ] will not finally 
perish [his destruction will be deferred] until after the de 
struction of the beast ; for in that battle, which is described in 
Rev. xix., the Lord s enemies are so completely destroyed, that 
the calamity described by Paul cannot be extended to a period 
farther on. Moreover also the Iniquitous one [* Wicked ] will 
not perish previously [before the destruction of the beast, etc., 
in Rev. xix.] : for he remains even till the appearing of the 
coming of the Lord, [2 Thess. ii. 8.] 

XV. Therefore the whole evil described by Paul is strictly and 
intimately connected with the Roman empire. What tie of re 
lationship the apostasy and the Man of Sin himself had with 
the city Rome, could not be known by the Thessalonians, unless 
Paul taught them it face to face. The Apocalypse and the 
event teach us, and will teach posterity more and more fully. 
We then, according to our present ability, will institute a com 

XVI. That Iniquitous one [ Wicked^ is yet to come. It is 
one and the same beast which ascends first from the sea, then 


from the bottomless pit. That beast has very much to do with 
the woman, who is Babylon, Rome. Sometimes it carries the 
woman, at length it destroys her with the assistance of the ten 
horns [Rev. xvii. 16]. The beast out of the sea is the papacy 
of Hildebrand ; but the beast from the bottomless pit, excepting 
the succession in the papacy (which does not take away the 
ancient tradition concerning the rise of Antichrist from the Jews, 
but leaves it in its own place [just as it finds it]), will have a 
quite new and singular character of wickedness, on account of 
which he is called the Man of Sin, etc. All these observations are 
demonstrated in my German and Latin interpretation of the 
Apocalypse. Antichrist, or the Man of Sin, as being about to 
come in the nineteenth century, could not be retarded by the 
Roman power of the first and following centuries, on which 
comp. Rev. viii. ix. Therefore the Roman Emperor will be 
among the ten kings ; and when he, with the nine others, shall 
give his power to the beast, he w r ill be taken out of the way, 
and will give place to the Man of Sin. The Roman power is 
the check even up to the time of the rising of the Iniquitous 
one [ c Wicked ], who, after he has arisen, makes the whore deso 
late, with the assistance of the ten horns. 

XVII. Rome is, notwithstanding, the channel in which the 
apostasy and the mystery of iniquity have flowed for many ages. 
Claudius did not long exclude the Jews, and along with them 
the Christians, from Rome ; a short time after, they returned, 
and with the good the evil also obtained abundant opportunity 
of being increased. The two parts of the evil are, the apostasy 
["falling away"], and the mystery of iniquity. Apostasy from 
the faith, and ^r^ocraGiai or divisions, which lead men to for 
sake the doctrine of the apostles, are very closely connected ; 
and the latter already at that time were arising at Rome on 
the part of some, who were under the influence of Satan ; Rom. 
xvi. 17, with which comp. ver. 20. Moreover, apostasy from 
the faith, bringing in doctrines concerning the worship of inter 
mediate divinities (intercessors), 1 concerning the avoiding of 
marriage under pretence of spiritual perfection, and abstinence 
from meats, only indeed some kinds of meat, 1 Tim. iv. 1, 3, 

1 Alluding to the "doctrines of oxipoysg" 1 Tirn. iv. 1, not devils/ as 
Engl. Vers. ; but inferior divinities, genii, etc. ED. 


is peculiarly applicable to Rome, although it was long untainted 
by other heresies. The iniquity [atop/a, ver. 7] chiefly con 
sisted in the most deadly sin of pride, ver. 3, 4. The beginning 
of man s pride was his apostatizing from God ; since his heart 
withdrew itself from Him who made him. Fon* pride is the be 
ginning of all sin. 1 Sir. x. 14, 15. The seeds and commencing 
fibres lay concealed in the elevation of human authority, in 
Petrism [" I am of Cephas"] ; 1 Cor. i. 12, note. Hence by 
degrees arose the primacy of the Bishop of Rome, and the whole 
system of the papacy. 

XVIII. A Iso, now and then, the Pope very closely approaches 
the characteristics of the Man of Sin himself. The Pope is in 
some respects the Man of Sin, while he eagerly promotes the 
transgression of the Divine law and the Divine commandments, 
and greatly impedes the observance of them, but defends with 
the utmost severity his own decrees : he is the son of perdition, 
in that (whilst) he has plunged innumerable souls into destruc 
tion, and has delivered to death immense multitudes of men 
either devoted to himself or in any way resisting him : he is 
opposed [ver. 4] to the majesty of Caesar, formerly his master, 
and is exalted above all that is called God or worshipped, by the 
fact of his claiming as his right the highest authority, the 
highest worship, by his commanding angels, and subjecting the 
Emperor to himself. It is not merely once that the paroxysm 
of pontifical pride has broken out to such degree, that he called, 
or permitted himself to be called, god or vice-god [vicegerent of 
God] ; and the solemn titles, Most Holy Lord (for godhead and 
holiness are synonymous in the language of Scripture), and, 
Most Blessed Father, have the same meaning : comp. Matt. xix. 
17. Sometimes the Pope, as if he were the divine image 2 [or 
pageant representing God], is placed with his chair [comp. 

1 The Wisdom of Sirach, x. 12, 13 ; Ap%q vvepqQouiias, avOpvirov Atpiara.- 

plVW OC7TO KvptOV, X,0ti M7TO TOV TTQiYiaOlVTO; XVTOIS OC.7rffTYl t] KOtp^lOt CIVTOls. 

"Ort dpxq viFipytQauttcts ot-pupriot,. ED. 

2 The Latin word isferculum, one of whose meanings is, " bearing in the 
hands the images of the gods." Csesar had a ferculum decreed to him, 
which implies, that his statue was to receive the same honour as those of 
the gods. If I understand this passage aright, it means, that the Pope, as 
the earthly image or representative of God, was to be placed on the altar of 
God, to receive the same honour as God. TEANSL. 



sitteth, ver. 4] upon the altar [comp. in the temple, ver. 4], by 
princes acting as bearers. Their due praise remains undi- 
minished to the first bishops of Rome ; but yet in the progress 
of time, by gradual advances in spiritual and civil authority, 
according to the order in the text, the lineaments are to be seen 
of that form which will put itself forth before the world as 
palpably as possible in that Iniquitous one [* Wicked ] in its own 

XIX. First lie who withholdeth, next that which withholdeth, 
ceases to be in the way. We have mentioned this circumstance 
already, ix. : but here it comes to be repeated more strictly. 
He ivho withholdeth, is he who hath Rome under his sway ; that 
is, heathen, or Christian emperors at Rome, or Constantinople ; 
the kings of the Goths, and Lombards ; again the Carlovin- 
gian and German emperors, from whom comes the wound of the 
sword, Rev. xiii. This is He that withholdeth, going far into 
the middle of the times of the beast that arose out of the sea. 
Those princes so held back the papacy, as even notwithstanding 
to give it help ; they so helped it, as notwithstanding to hold it 
back also. In the last time that wliicli withholdeth is the power 
of Rome itself, when the beast carries the woman, and itself is 
not [Rev. xvii. 8]. When that shall be removed out of the way, 
the Iniquitous one [ Wicked ] will be revealed. 

XX. The Iniquitous one [* Wicked ^ is revealed, when he begins 
to act ivith open wickedness. Revelation is opposed to mystery, 
and the former is thrice mentioned, ver. 3, 6, 8. Therefore that 
is not called revelation by which the Iniquitous one [ Wicked ] 
is convicted through the testimony of the truth ; but that by 
which he himself, after the check is removed, acts with open 
wickedness, although few perceive (see through) the wickedness. 

XXI. The appearance of the coming of Jesus Christ, by which 
the Iniquitous one [ Wicked^ ivill be destroyed, will precede the 
actual coming itself, and the last day. This appearance, with the 
destruction of the beast, or the Iniquitous one [< Wicked ], is 
described, Rev. xix. 11, etc. : where these two, the beast and the 
false prophet, are cast alive into the lake of fire, that burns with 
brimstone ; moreover the kings of the earth and their armies are 
slain, ver. 20, 21. Lastly, the captivity of Satan and the king 
dom of the saints follow. For the Apocalypse clearly interposes 


a thousand years between the destruction of the beast and the 
last day. But how mil these years be reconciled with the lan 
guage of Paul? Ans. Paul, looking back (referring here) to 
Daniel, as we shall afterwards see, at the same time implies 
those things, which are marked by the same prophet as about to 
happen between the destruction of the little horn and the end of 
the world, vii. 7, 9, 14, 22, 26, 27. Many things long prior to 
the destruction of the beast, as well as also the entrance of Jesus 
Christ through suffering into glory, are connected with His 
coming in the clouds ; Matt. xxvi. 64 ; John xxi. 22, notes. 
Therefore the same coming might be connected with the destruc 
tion of the adversary, which is a matter of very great import 
ance between the two comings of Christ. And as the end of 
the world admitted of being (was able to be) connected with 
the destruction of Jerusalem, because the revelation of the 
intermediate events was not yet mature ; so Paul might connect 
the coming of Christ with the destruction of the adversary, be 
cause [the revelation of] the thousand years were reserved for 
(against the time of giving) the Apocalypse, which much more 
clearly explains these points, so that the prophecy of Daniel 
itself may obtain light from the Apocalypse subsequently given. 
However, Paul appropriately [skilfully] terms it, the appearance 
of the coming, not the coming itself. It was not yet the time for 
more special information, and yet the Spirit of truth dictated 
those words to Paul, that they might exactly agree with the 
very things, which were afterwards to be more particularly 
revealed. The prophecy proceeds gradually. The Apocalypse 
speaks more explicitly than Paul ; and Paul in this passage 
speaks more explicitly than the Lord Himself, before He was 
glorified ; Matt. xxiv. 29 : where see the notes. Moreover we 
ought to interpret the more ancient and more involved expressions 
by such as are most recent and most distinct, and not abuse the 
former for the purpose of weakening and eluding the latter. Nay, 
even in actual fact the destruction of the adversary coheres 
(is connected) with the coming of Christ ; for there are two 
things especially illustrious in the glory of Christ, namely, that 
He is the Son of God, and that He is coming to judgment. 
Concerning each of these the Scripture has a similar mode of 
speaking, which we should carefully observe. It alleges the 


generation of the Son as a thing then present [then vividly 
realized], as often soever as anything very worthy of the only- 
begotten of the Father occurs ; Acts xiii. 33, note. And thus 
it also represents [vividly presents to us] the glorious coming 
under the aspect of the judgments, which are altogether worthy 
of the Judge of the living and the dead ; comp. Kom. ii. 16, 
note. The beast and the false prophet are first of all cast into 
the lake of fire at the appearance of the coming of the Lord 
Jesus; and when He actually comes, all who are not found 
written in the book of life are cast into the lake of fire. The first 
judgment is a prelude and altogether peculiar specimen of the 
second judgment ; nay, it is in reality one and the same judg 
ment, only separated by time, and out of the whole period [Rev. 
viii. 2-xi. 1 5], falling under that portion which is marked now 
by the trumpet of the seventh angel. 

The principal points of the subject-matter have been, I think, 
cleared up ; and we shall now proceed to illustrate what remains, 
viz. the phrases or particular expressions. q anotfraffia, the apos 
tasy [falling away]) The Greek article is frequent in this para 
graph, 7) dtfoffraffia, 6 avoftog, and it is to be referred (ascribed) 
either to what Paul had previously said, or to the prophecies of 
the Old Testament. o avfyutfog rqg a t uapriag, the Man of Sin) 
who is the greatest enemy of true righteousness. Paul so de 
scribes him, as to allude by way of contrast to Jesus Christ, 
and especially to the passage, Zech. ix. 9, 10 : for the King of 
Zion is, 1) Righteous; 2) Full of salvation; 3) Meek, and 
riding on an ass : in short, He is the author of peace. But His 
enemy is, 1) The Man of Sin ; 2) The son of perdition ; 3) He 
opposes and exalts himself : in short, he is the Iniquitous one 
[Wicked ]. For where justice and equity [as opposed to the 
Iniquitous one : nefarius, fas] flourish, peace flourishes. The 
whole benefit derived from Christ is indicated by peace. But 
the Iniquitous one [Wicked] occasions all misery and calamity. 
The law is holy and just and good ; the avo/toc, on the other 
hand, is profane and unjust and evil. Moreover, what Paul 
principally declares elsewhere concerning Jesus, he declares the 
exact reverse concerning the enemy, ascribing to him revelation 
and mystery, coming signs, etc. o vlbg r%g dTwAg/a^, that son of 
perdition) who will both consign as many as possible headlong 


to destruction, and will himself go away to the deepest perdition, 
Rev. xvii. 8, 11. 

4. O avrixsipsvog, x.r.\., who opposeth, etc.) The two preceding 
names correspond by direct antithesis to the name of Jesus. 
What follows correspond by antithesis to the majesty of Christ. 
So Dan. xi. 36, et seqq. : Ka/ u^w^<rsra/ xai 
/3a0V/.)g s<ffi wdvra 8tbv xai eft} TOV Qsov ruv deuv, xai XaX^tfs/ 
And the king shall be exalted and be magnified above every god, and 
against the God of gods, and shall speak high-swelling words. This 
then is what Paul means to say: The day of Christ does not come, 
unless the prediction of Daniel given in these words concerning 
Antiochus be so fulfilled (in the Man of Sin), that it shall even 
be more applicable to the Man of Sin, who corresponds to 
Antiochus, and is worse than he ; comp. on Rev. xiii. 1, Thes. 
vii. Non motnentanea, etc., " It was not by an instantaneous 
transformation that the Pope passed," etc., at the end. These 
two words, (6) avnxsiftevos xai fatpcuptfuvof [" who opposeth and 
exalteth himself"], stand under the one article : for it is for this 
reason he opposes himself, in order that he may exalt himself. 
He exalts himself in heart, tongue, style, and deeds, by himself 
and by his adherents. eiri vdvra Xsyopsvov Qebv y ffspaffpa, above 
all that is called god or is worshipped) Angels are wont to 
be (sometimes) called gods, as are also men who possess great 
authority, 1 Cor. viii. 5. Above every such god, the Iniquitous 
one [Wicked] will exalt himself: oi/3a<r//,a is, that which is wor 
shipped; and the Roman Emperor is distinguished by the peculiar 
title, 6 2s/3a<rrog, Augustus, Acts xxv. 21. Therefore the majesty 
and power of Caesar, which are most conspicuous at Rome, con 
stitute the principal (rs/Sa^a, object of worship, on the earth. 
Now the Iniquitous one [Wicked] exalts himself so, as that he 
not only arrogates to himself greater power and worship than 
any one who is called god or is worshipped possesses, but also so 
as that every one who is called god or is worshipped is forced to 
be subject to him, i.e. on the earth, or is feigned to be so, so far 
as the inhabitants of heaven are concerned. Clement VI., in 
his Bull concerning the jubilee, commanded the angels of 
paradise to introduce the souls of those that died on their journey, 
being entirely set free from purgatory, into the glory of paradise. 
wtfrg, x.r.7.., so that, etc.) Comprehending the spiritual and 

230 2 THESSALONIANS II. 5, 6. 

civil power, and in both cases the highest degree of power. 
g/ rbv vaov ro\j sou, in the temple of God) in that temple of God 
which is mentioned, Rev. xi. 1. For in ver. 7 of that passage 
this adversary is the subject of discussion. xaQitai, sitteth) by 
virtue of his authority? atfodsixvvvra eavrbv, declaring himself 
[" showing himself "J) avodsixw/M, to mark out, to designate, to 
declare. Herodian uses more than once the phrase, d-rods/ga/ 
Kafaapa, to name, or declare the Ccesar. on sffrt sog, that he is 
God) The strong asseveration of the Iniquitous one [* Wicked ] 
concerning himself is here expressed. He will not say, that he 
is very God, the Creator of heaven and earth, but still, that he 
is a god superior to any other that is called god. 

5. Ou ^vjj/Aovsusrfi ; do ye not remember^) The apostle intimates, 
that he neither contradicts himself, nor helps out his former 
statement by some sort of new declaration, as men under the 
influence of a fond imagination (conjecturers) are wont to do 
after being the cause of offence : that he had not said, the day 
of the Lord Avas near in such a sense, as that other important 
great events would not occur in the meantime. In, yet) The 
Antithesis is vvv, now, ver. 6. T^O; &,,, with you) In the pre 
sent day Judaism greatly prevails at Thessalonica, and at the 
proper time the opportunity will be given of observing whether 
the Iniquitous one [ Wicked ] is to have a great party, especially 
in that city. Some even of the tribes \_<pv"Kuv ; not as Engl. Yers. 
kindreds] of Israel, before the death and resurrection of the two 
witnesses, will stand by the beast, Rev. xi. 9, and after the ascen 
sion of the witnesses into heaven, and the earthquake, will repent. 
In my opinion, it may happen, that a concealed Jew may be 
come Pope ; comp. Thes. xvi., on ver. 3 above. I do not 
assert this positively. e Xgyov i///,/v, I told you) So, ver. 15, ye have 
been taught. 

6. To xarl^ov, that which withholdeth, holdeth back) Some in 
terpret it of one obtaining authority ; but o xarsp/wv is not thus 

1 For the marg. of both Ed., as well as the Germ. Vers., intimate that 
the words a; 6tw before x.a,diaat>i should not be considered as a various read 
ing, but should be retained. E. B. 

ABD(A) corrected, / Vulg., Orig. 1,424J, 669, Iren. Memph. and 
Theb. Versions, omit $ faw ; Rec. Text reads as faov, with Syr. and later 
Syr. Versions, and, according to Tisch., with G. But Lachm. quotes Gg 
for tvoe, 0t6v. ED. 

2 THESSALONIANS II. 7, 8. 231 

used absolutely, much less rb xare^ov : Kare^siv, is to detain, to 
delay, in LXX., Gen. xxiv. 56, ^ KaTs^srs fj,s, Hinder me not. 
On xaTs%ov, s/s ro --- , coming presently afterwards, depends. 
If there were not the rb xars^ov, the Wicked would be sooner 
revealed. o /dars, ye know) They knew from the present informa 
tion given to them in this epistle, and by adding a view of exist 
ing events. He speaks safely [with prudent caution], nor was it 
necessary to say anything more openly. sv rut auroD /ca//?w, in his 
proper time) not sooner. 

7. rap, for) Hereby is given the reason why he just before 
spoke of the revelation as still future [ver. 6]. For there is 
subjoined /JJ-DOT^/OV, the mystery, which is already present. 1 
2 svspysTrai, is at work) The verb is in the middle voice (as Rom. 
vii. 5), with the personification, indicating the most secret con 
duct of the enemy. povov, only) This word shows, not the short 
continuance of the person, or power, " who holdeth back" the 
evil, nor the speedy full realization of the event, but the fact of 
the person or power who holdeth it back being the one and only 
check to its development, eug, until, presently after, denotes 
delay. The subject is, he, ivho now holdeth back [* letteth ] : the 
predicate is elliptical, holdeth back, or continues to be in the way, 
till Tie be taken out of the way or ceases to exist, so that he can 
nowhere be a hindrance to the Iniquitous one [* Wicked ]. The 
power of him that holdeth back, as a whole, possessed of authority 
[an authoritative whole], has been successively divided into many 
parts : and yet the Withholding power or person is but one. 

8. TOTS, then) immediately. o avo/^oi) This is the last and 
most weighty appellation, comprehending the force of the pre 
ceding ones. That unjust, iniquitous, lawless one, and (by a 
more nervous term used by Plautus and Nonius, ( illex*) the 
outlaw, yen, LXX., attftfa, ungodly, Isa. xi. 4 : He shall smite 
the earth with the word (rod) of His mouth (ro\j aro^arog auroD), 
and with the breath of His lips shall He slay the ungodly (sv vvsu- 

t ave\s? aasfiri). ov, whom) after having long enough acted 

1 Beng. means, The revelation of it is still future ; for (*/*p), though it is 
in a sense already present and at work, it works now only as a mystery, not 
as a thing revealed. ED. 

2 "H^/i, already) It is the one and the same impurity, diffusing itself over 
many ages. V. g. 

232 2 THESSALONIANS II. 9-12. 

the part of a man of violence. 6 Kvpiog, 1 the Lord) the Lord of 
lords, Rev. xix. 16. r& irvs-j^arf rov croparoc auroD, by the breath 
[or rather, the Spirit] of His mouth) There also proceeds out of 
this mouth a sword (poppaia), Ib. ver. 15, 21. ^ J^/pavs/a rSjg 
Kapovatag aurou, with the appearance of His coming [But Engl. 
Vers., with the brightness of His coming]) In some places ap- 
pearance, in others coming [-ra^outf/a], is mentioned, the latter in 
ver. 1, both being used in the same sense ; but here the appear 
ance of His coming is before the coming itself, or at least (it 
expresses) the first dawn of the brightness of His actual coming, 
as scr/pai/s/a r%$ ^epag [expresses the appearance or dawning 
of day}. 

9. Ou, of ivhom) viz. the Iniquitous one [Wicked], Paul now 
subjoins a more lengthened description of the calamity, with the 
design that in the way of contrast he may console the Thessalo- 
nians ; ver. 13. ro\j Sarava, of Satan) As Christ is related to 
God, so on the contrary is Antichrist to Satan, standing mid 
way between Satan and lost men. -/.at ff^e/o/c, and signs) These 
signs will be shown by the false prophet, who serves the interest 
of the beast, and that too even before the ascent of the beast from 
the bottomless pit, Rev. xiii. 13. 

10. T% &\q6eias, of the truth) which is in Christ Jesus. oux 
id s^avro, they did not receive) The Jews were mostly chargeable 
with this conduct, John v. 43 ; and that Iniquitous one [Wicked] 
will be particularly hurtful to the Jews. The remarks, which 
we a little before threw out concerning the Jews here and there 
in the positions laid down, refer to this point. 

11. nXav?jc, of error) [Engl. Yers. svspyuav a-Xai/jjs, strong delu 
sion^ which is in Antichrist. 

2 12. nai/rgg, all) That error then is to exhibit extensive, long- 
continued, and violent prevalence. 

1 The 2d Ed. prefers the fuller reading 6 "Kvptos Iriaovs ; and the Germ. 
Vers. follows it. E. B. 

Tisch., with B (judging from silence), Rec. Text, Orig. l,668rf, reads 6 
Kvpio$. But Lachm. better, with AD(A) corrected, Gfg Vulg., Orig. 
4,3216, Iren. 182, 323, Hilary, reads 6 Kvptog I^oyj. Orig. l,424e has 
Kvpios o Qeog. ED. 

2 E<V TO, that) Endeavour therefore with all your might to believe the 
truth V. ff. 

2 THESSALON1ANS II. 13~15. 233 

13. Heel s ds, but we) Comfort after the prediction of mourn 
ful events. So 2 Tim. ii. 19. It may be said, What need was 
there of comfort at that time to the Thessalonians 1 Ans. The 
mystery of iniquity was even then in operation ; and instruction 
may be equally derived from the distant future, as from the 
remote past, 1 Cor. x. 1, et seqq. ops/Xo^si/, we are bound) 
ch. i. 3. VTTO Kvpiov, by the Lord) Christ. i/Xsro &ie apxfii) 
He does not say sgsXsgaro, but in this one place, and on this 
subject, he uses s /Xsro. That effect was produced by the success 
of evangelical calling ; and yet there is added, from the begin 
ning, i.e. from eternity, comp. 1 John i. 1, because believers 
are fortified and claimed as such by the eternal decree, Eph. i. 
4, in opposition to those who worship the Man of Sin, Rev. xiii. 
8. Comp. Deut. vii. 7, X. 15, -r^os/Xgro Kvpiog v/j^ag xai 

the Lord preferred and chose you, etc. Ibid. xxvi. 18, 
has avouched (s/ Xsro, has taken to Himself) thee this day to be His 
peculiar (mpiouffiov) people. The decree is truly from eternity, 
as truly as the generation of the Son of God is from eternity : 
yet the decree is one thing, the generation is another. 1 ev ayiaff^tt 
Tlvevparos, in sanctification of the Spirit) The Holy Spirit sanc 
tifies us, and sanctification is the test of election, 1 Pet. i. 2. 

14. E/ s o, Whereunto) The phrase, to salvation, is hereby ex 
plained. g/g Trepj-Troiqaiv, [to the obtaining, Engl. V.] to the deliver 
ance) g/g is resumed the second time : supply, namely. There is 
no vepiKoirifftg, or mere deliverance (preservation 2 ), from the ship 
wreck of the world, but as it is conjoined with glorification, 2 Tim. 
ii. 10. xtpiovffiov, in Deut., cited above, is in consonance with 
this. rov) [Kvpiov] construed with <irspwotri<fiv [not with do^g, as 
Engl. Vers.] 

15. "Apa ovv, therefore then) The conclusion. xpaTslrs, hold) 
adding nothing, subtracting nothing. rag irapadoffsa;, the tradi 
tions) I wish that those who are most urgent on the subject of 

1 Just as God s decree and His eternal adoption of believers are distinct 
things. ED. 

2 Beng. understands Kepiiroiww of "that which remains when all else 
perishes." He translates it conservations in Eph. i. 14, and distinguishes 
it from redemption by the blood of Christ. Here liberatio, viz. final de 
liverance, which is connected with glory, and which is to be the gift of our 
Lord Jesus. ED. 

234 2 THESSALONIANS II. 16, 17.- III. 1, 2. 

Traditions, had also from this passage held, and would hold, the 
traditions which Paul has furnished in this chapter. Tradition 
is a very great benefit. God bestows traditions by means of the 
messengers of the Gospel. Paul taught many years before he 
began to write. Tradition is given either by speaking [comp. 
ver. 5] or by writing. li Jcr/oroX^c, by letter) He had written 
on this subject, 1 Thess. iv. and v. 

16. *O Kvpiog, the Lord) Refer to this the words, through 
grace. o sos, God) To this refer the words, who loved ; 2 Cor. 
xiii. 13. a/uv/av, eternal) Nothing then can destroy believers. 

17. IlapaxaXtaai, comfort, console [ adhortetur, liter, give con 
soling, comforting exhortation]) This is deduced from who hath 
given (us) cra^cUXTjovv, consolation [ver. 16]. cr^/j-a/, establish) 
This is deduced from who hath given (us) good hope through grace. 
Xoyw, 1 in ivord) by cra^axX^tf/, consolation. tf/y, work) by 

iv, establishment, 1 Cor. xv. 58. 


1. Tpeffl, may run, have free course) quickly ; comp. Ps. 
cxlvii. 15 ; without impediment [liter, without a drag on the 
wheels of its course ], 2 Tim. ii. 9. do^d^rai, may be glorified) 
Acts xiii. 48. 

2. AroVwv) arovog, inept [liter, out of place"], unreasonable. 
ou n&vruv, does not belong to all) Tapeinosis, 2 i.e. of fear. The 
Thessalonians, who had believed with great readiness, might 
easily suppose that all would be equally ready. Paul declares, 
from his own experience of the very reverse, that it was quite 
otherwise. ^ -r/Vr/c, faith) viz. in God through Christ. It is this 
alone that takes away rb arovov xa/ tfwqpov, what is inept [unrea 
sonable] and wicked. 

1 The margin of both Ed. and the Germ. Vers. prefer the reading 
x.xl Ao yp in the inverse order. E. B. 

ABD(A)/ Vulg. read epyy l hoyu. Gg and Rec. Text read 

"oyw. ED. 

2 Less said, than is to be understood. Append. ED. 


3. Uiffrbs 8s, but faithful) After stating a very distressing fact, 
he immediately subjoins what may serve as a consolation ; so ch. 
ii. 13. In opposition to the unbelief [want of faith on the part] 
of men, he praises the faithfulness of the Lord. So 2 Tim. ii. 
13. ffrqpifyi upas, will establish you) although all others may not 
even receive faith. awl rov vovqpov) from the wicked one [Engl. 
Vers. from evil], from Satan ; not merely from wicked men, by 
whom he assails faith. 

4. Ev Kvpiy, in the Lord) Trust ["Have confidence in"] no 
man by himself. -ra^ayylXXo/xst/, we charge or command) for ex 
ample, that ye pray for us, that ye fortify yourselves. See 
ver. 1 [2, 3]. 

5. Kvpiog, the Lord) Christ. stg rqv aydvw rov sou, into the 
love of God) You will thus favour the running (free course) of 
the word of God, and will not be &TOVOI, unreasonable. stg v*o- 

vfiv rou Xputrov, to the patience of Christ) It is thus you will 
endure the hatred of the wicked enemies of Christ. Each 
must be taken objectively : love towards God, patience shown 
on account of Christ [But Engl. Vers. patient waiting for 

6. 2rsXXg<rda/) This word is properly applied to sailors and 
travellers, to be bound for some place, or to set out from some 
place. Hence to avoid ; comp. ver. 14. He keeps the Thessa- 
lonians in suspense, until at ver. 11 he brings out the matter, 
at which he was aiming. They seem to have given up labour 
on account of the near approach of the day of Christ. The 
admonitions of the first epistle were more gentle ; in the second, 
there is now some degree of complaint, although that complaint 
regards a slip of that kind which only tempts minds of high 
(spiritual) attainments. vavrog, from every) although he may 
be otherwise walking speciously [with a fair show]. ardxrug, 
disorderly) Therefore the Order of Mendicants is not an order, 
but a burden [ver. 8, ixifiafn***] upon the republic, ver. 8. If 
the Thessalonians had bound themselves by a vow, what would 
Paul have said 1 

7. Hug) [* how ] in what manner of living 1 

8. Epyafyfisvoi, working) This is construed with spdyo/Mv, we 
ate. Iflri/SapSjtfa/, to be a burden to) Whilst waiving (yielding) his 
right, he expresses what might have been viewed as a matter of 

236 2 THESS ALONIANS III. 10-14. 

justice (his just claim to maintenance) by a somewhat unfavour 
able term. 

10. "Ore, when) They had already seen the necessity of this 
commandment among the Thessalonians. si Tig ou ehei, if any 
will not) To be unwilling is a fault. ^ds saQteru, let him not eat) 
An Enthymeme. 1 Supply, But every man eats : therefore let 
every man labour. Paul does not mean, that such a man should 
have his food immediately withdrawn from him by others ; but 
he proves from the necessity of eating the necessity of labouring, 
by throwing out this pleasantry, let such a one shoiv himself as 
an angel. 2 There is a similar Enthymeme at 1 Cor. xi. 6. 3 

11. AXXa, but) From a state of idleness, the disposition of men 
is naturally prone to pass to the indulgence of curiosity. For 
nature always seeks something to do. 4 ffepiepyafyftevovg) busy- 
bodies [curiously-inquisitive]) Opposed to doing one sown business, 5 
1 Thess. iv. 11. 

12. Mere* ^ffu^/ac, with quietness) Laying aside curiosity \_over- 
officiousness or inquisitiveness]. laurwv, their own) not another s. 

13. KXoflrwoDiTg, doing well) even with the industry of your 

14. 6 A/a rr t g gV/<rroX?js roDrov <ty//,/oD<j$, note this man by (this) 
letter) This same epistle is meant ; comp. 1 Thess. v. 27, where 
the article has the same demonstrative meaning : w^ticvodt, mark, 
with a note of censure ; using this epistle for the sake of ad 
monishing him, and inculcating it upon him. Comp. DJ!> Wi, 
Kai eysvqQqffav ev ffri/ttiu (said of Korah and his company), and they 
became a sign, Num. xxvi. 10. The signification of the verb 

iv is akin to this. It may be done to others either 

1 This is the oratorical Enthymeme, wherein the argument is confirmed 
from its contrary. The logical Enthymeme is a covert syllogism. ED. 

2 i.e. Let him do without food, as the angels do. ED. 

3 " If the woman be not covered, let her also be shorn." (But she is 
not shorn ; therefore let her be covered). ED. 

* And if not doing one s own business, a man for want of something to do 
meddles with his neighbour s business. For "Nature abhors a vacuum." 


5 The antithesis is conveyed by the very sound of the words in the 
original, ftYi^tv epyotfyf&evovs, d rChoc. Treptspyoi^ofiivovf, doing none of their 
own business, and yet over-officious in the business of others. ED. 

6 T Ao yw yjftuv, our word) already spoken, ver. 10. V. g. 

2 THESSALONIANS III. 15-17. 237 

by letters, if they are in a foreign land, or face to face, if present. 
This diversity of circumstances does not alter the meaning. 
iva hrpovjrvi) that, having seen the judgment of others (respecting 
him), he may humble himself [be ashamed, Engl. Vers.]. 1Jtt33 
they humbled themselves, 2 Chron. xii. 7. 

15. Kai pri, and yet do not) Caution is given us on all sides, 
lest we fall into extremes. vovQersTre, admonish) It is not enough 
not to hep company with a person : ver. 14 ; the man Bought to 
know [ought to be made sensible] why it is so done. 

16. O Kvpioz rr^g e/p7jvq$) the Lord of peace) Christ. r^v s/pqvrjv, 
peace) with the brethren. Iv navri rpoiru) [" by all means"] in 
every mode (way) of living, even as to what concerns the doing 
of work ; comp. ch. ii. 3, xara {tyd eva r ovov, by no means. Paul 
uses vwri rpovu without sv, Phil. i. 18. 

17. Ty spy ^zip}, ivith my own hand) Therefore the greater 
part of the epistle had been written by another hand. G^/AS/OV, 
token) We have reason to believe that Paul [with a view to guard 
against fraud of every kind, ch. ii. 2. V. g.] distinguished, by a 
peculiar and inimitable painting (tracing) and formation of the 
letters, the words of the salutation, grace, etc., ver. 18. Jv vrdffri 
en.ffroXri, in every epistle) He had at that time, therefore, already 
written more. ourw, so) not otherwise. He hereby meets any 




1. A^orfroXos, an apostle) This title serves to confirm Timothy. 
Familiarity must be laid aside, where the cause of God is con 
cerned. xar tKtrayw, according to the commandment) So Rom. 
xvi. 26 ; comp. 1 Cor. i. 1, note. trarJjpog JI/AUV, our Saviour) So 
God the Father is also called, ch. ii. 3, iv. 10 ; Tit. i. 3, ii. 10, 
iii. 4 ; Jude ver. 25 ; Luke i. 47. The reason [for the Father 
being so called] is explained, 2 Tim. i. 9. r$js !X?r/do JIJAUV, who 
is our Hope) Synonymous with Swr/jpog, our Saviour. 

2. Tiftodsu, to Timothy) The epistles sent to Timothy, Titus, 
and Philemon, as being addressed to individuals, have some 
things which are rather sealed, than explicitly set forth, for 
example ver. 18. If there were no epistle to Timothy extant, 
we should have particularly wished that there was one, in order 
that we might see what Paul would chiefly recommend to 
Timothy; now, since there are two, we ought the more earnestly 
to turn them to use. rsxi/w, son) Acts xvi. 12. x, c *f"$> ^ g > 
sipwfy grac^ mercy, peace) Paul, when addressing the churches, 
writes, grace to you and peace. When writing to Timothy, he 
adds mercy in this passage, and many years after, in 2 Tim. i. 
2 : comp. Jer. xvi. 5 ; Gal. vi. 16. Mercy implies grace, as it 
were, of a more tender kind towards the miserable, and the ex 
perience of this divine mercy produces fitness for the Gospel 
ministry; ver. 13, 16 ; 2 Cor. iv. 1 ; 1 Cor. vii. 25 : comp. Heb. 

240 1 TIMOTHY I. 3. 

ii. 17. Xpiffrou l7j<rou, Christ Jesus 1 ) Paul often, especially when 
writing to Timothy, puts the surname Christ before the name 
Jesus, in respect of [as having a view to] the promises of the Old 
Testament concerning the Messiah, which were fulfilled in Jesus 
and were well known to Timothy, 2 Tim. iii. 1 5. 

3. K0w, even as) The Protasis ; the Apodosis is at ver. 18. 
[In the meantime Paul refutes those who taught other doctrine, 
by the very striking example of his own conversion. V. g.] 

There are three divisions of this epistle : 


II. THE INSTRUCTION or TIMOTHY in regard to the holy 
administration of the church affairs at Ephesus in the 
absence of Paul : where 

1) In general, he commits to him a charge to be delivered 

to those who erroneously taught the law, the sum of 
the Gospel being established and confirmed by his 
own example, ver. 3, 4, 8, 9, 11, 12, 18, 19. 

2) In particular, 

1) He prescribes the order of prayer, ch. ii. 1, 2, 

chiefly to men, ver. 8 ; moreover to women 
good works, ver. 9, 10, with modesty, ver. 11, 

2) He enumerates the requisite qualifications of a 

bishop, iii. 1, 2. 

And also the duties of deacons and women, ver. 
8, 9, 11, 12, 13. 

3) He explains what Timothy ought to teach, after 

he had very weightily set forth the most mo 
mentous points, ver. 14-iv. 3; in 4 and 5, 
also what he ought to avoid, and what he ought 
to follow, 7, 8, 12, 13 : 

Then how he should deal with men and women, 
v. 1, 2 ; 

With widows, 3, 4, 9, 10, 11, 12, 16; 

1 So the order of Xp/trrov !>J<TO stands in AD(A)G/<7 Vulg. But other 
MSS. of Vulg., Orig. 2,7396, and Rec. Text, read ! W o5 Xpt<rrov. ED. 

1 TIMOTHY I. 4. 241 

With elders, ver. 17, 18; 

With offenders, ver. 20, 21 ; 

With Timothy himself, ver. 22, 23 ; 

With those of whom he is in doubt, ver. 24, 25; 

With servants, vi. 1, 2. 

ver. 3, 4, 6, 7 ; but Timothy is admonished 
and incited forward, ver, 11, 12, and a charge 
is given to him, ver. 13, 14; and precepts are 
prescribed to be enforced upon the rich, ver. 
17, 18. 


to abide) The same word occurs in Acts xviii. 18. 
The presence of good men is a restraint upon the wicked. 
Timothy at Ephesus, Titus at Crete, were not bishops, but were 
directors of the bishops, and, so to speak, Vicars Apostolic. w 
erspodidaffnahsiv, to teach no other doctrine) than that which I have 
taught. Let them not substitute anything else for it, let them 
not add [liter, impart by rubbing, affricent ] aught to it. Comp. 
the address of Paul to these same Ephesians, Acts xx. 28, 29, 
30. The same word occurs, ch. vi. 3, where those things which 
are contrary [to wholesome doctrine] are condemned, just as at 
the beginning of the epistle, the things which are good are com 
mended. Even the things which seem to be only different 
(" other doctrine"), carry with them something which is posi 
tively contrary [to the true doctrine]. They taught the law, in 
opposition to the Gospel, ver. 7, 11. 

4. Myds vpofftxsiv, nor give heed) in teaching. /uvdoig xai ysvsa- 
Xoyiaig, to fables and genealogies) A Hendiadys. Comp. on fables, 
ch. iv. 7 ; 2 Tim. iv. 4 ; Tit. i. 14 ; on genealogies, ib. ch. iii. 
9. And because these two things are joined together, and be 
cause those who taught such doctrines boasted of the law, it is 
evident that the apostle is not speaking of the genealogies of the 
Jewish families, but of the genealogies of the osons, against which 
Irenaeus and Tertullian quote this very passage. Nay, even Paul 
opposes to them the true consideration of the aeons, ver. 17 [r& 
(SaffiXsT TUV aluvtov d/i^a et$ TO-J$ aiuvag ruv aluvuv, " to the King 


242 1 TIMOTHY 1, 5. 

of the aeons (ages) be glory, throughout the aeons of aeons"]. 
But if there be any doubt, whether those who taught another 
doctrine used the word ceons already at that time, the wisdom of 
God [" the only wise God," ver. 17] should be the more ad 
mired, which confutes (by anticipation) words not yet framed ; 
comp. note to Matt. xxvi. 27. ysvta and a/av are kindred words. 
The more inquisitive Jews had at that time very much mixed 
themselves up with the Gentiles. Paul casts no reproach on 
civil genealogies : he puts fables before this word ; a fact quite 
inconsistent with his meaning the genealogies of families, which 
were evidently uotfalulous. At least Paul would not have cared 
whether they were true or false. There was on the part of 
those men a certain degree of boasting, that they can search 
more deeply than others into the mysteries contained in the law 
a circumstance which greatly impeded the power of the Gos 
pel, especially around Ephesus. ^njtfg/g, questions) Questions 
to be terminated by no decision, nothing at all desirable ; pure 
truth is profitable. Coinp. on these, and on " strifes about 
words," ch. vi. 4 ; 2 Tim. ii. 14, 23, 24 ; and presently after, 
ver. 6, 7 ; Tit. iii. 9. olxovo^iav 0goD) [godly edifying]. OJKOVO- 
fiia, in this passage, implies the act, not the state ; moreover, 
the constant act [* edifying ]. Where time is wasted in useless 
questions) there the necessary and salutary functions in the house 1 
of God are neglected. 

5. To r&og, the end) to which all things tend. The article 
denotes the subject. Whoever rightly looks to the end, cannot 
suffer his energies to be diffused on other things. Paul does 
not, even to Timothy, write about profound mysteries in parti 
cular, in order that he may the rather rebuke the Gentiles ; the 
governor of a church ought to look to the things which are ne 
cessary, not to such as are sublime (too high-flown), in discharg 
ing the duties of his office. rr^ Kupayys/Jag, of the command 
ment) which you ought to urge upon men at Ephesus, ver. 3, 
18. ayd<7rv, love) The foundation is faith, ver. 4 : the end is 
love, ver. 14; Tit. iii. 15. Contentions are unfavourable to this 
love. zadapag, pure) 2 Tim. ii. 22 ; Tit. i. 15. tfui/g/^tfewg 
aya<%, a good conscience) clj. iii. 9 ; 2 Tim. i. 3 ; 1 John iii. 

1 In allusion to the derivation of oix,ovof*,i from ofxoj- and vtpu. So sedi- 
ficatio, edification, from sedes facere. ED. 

1 TIMOTHY I. 0-8. 243 

.9, note. 1 Here, with Paul, conscience is in the understand 
ing ; the heart is the seat of love. The former would be in 
idea, the latter in the desire ; comp. Matt. xxii. 37, note. 2 - 
sus, of faith) Faith towards God becomes stronger when the 
leart is purified in respect of our neighbour, and when the con- 
;ience is cleansed (rectified) in respect of one s self; wherefore 
faith is put in the third place. Pure faith and a good con- 
^ience are also treated of conjointly, in ver. 19, and ch. iv. 1, 2. 

6. V fiv 9 from which) a pure heart, etc. arfro^tfams) The 
le word is found at ch. vi. 21 ; 2 Tim. ii. 18. affro^zTv is 

dd of him who misses the point at which he aimed, who does 
lot obtain his end. JgsrpeiMnjtfav, have turned away) Not only 
lid they not become better, but worse. A false and prepos- 
^rous elevation and extent of knowledge renders its possessor 
lore estranged from the faith, and from the sense of good and 
jvil, etc., than is any illiterate person. eig parouoXoyiav, unto vain 
ingling) Tit. i. 10, iii. 9. He comprehends in this one term 
le empty (vain) babblings and oppositions, ch. vi. 20. It is the 
jatest vanity where Divine things are not truthfully discussed ; 
>m. i. 21. 

7. sXovre$, desiring) rashly. {tyre f&ijrs, neither nor) A 
good teacher ought to be intelligent, and at the same time well- 
informed. Paul says, both of these qualities are wanting to 
those of whom he is here speaking. a) those things, which : 
vepi rivuv, concerning what things [whereof]. o$ and rfe differ. 
pyre a \syov<fi, neither what they say) Thence arise the profane 
vanities of words [" vain babblings"], ch. vi. 20. pyre qespt rivuv 
8/aj3sf3auouvrai y nor whereof they affirm) Thence arise the opposi 
tions of science, falsely so called, ch. vi. 20. f3?(3aiog and 
firm and position, accord with one another. 3 diafi 
affirm) Tit. iii. 8. 

8. o v6fjt,os loflffAuc) Conjugate terms: vo/^i/^ug, according to 
what is agreeable to the law. They used to " strive about the 

1 Peter and Paul alone use the term avvefitwis, conscience. John uses 

instead. ED. 

2 Joh. Jam. Sirbius says, " there are three foundations of all that is 
found in man, Idea, Desire., Motion." 

3 le. The /3g/3<*/o? in tiixfefisctovvTeu here, answers to the 6sat; in the 

f, ch. vi. 20. ED. 

244 1 TIMOTHY I. 9, 10. 

law," Tit. iii. 9. %p5ka/) Sophocles has the phrase, i/o>w 
which is explained as equivalent to vo^odsnTv by the Scholiast ; 
and so Paul is speaking in this passage, not of the hearer of the 
law, but of the teacher. 

9. E/ <3o>5, knowing) construed with -/j^rai, use. dixai^fora 
righteous man) Many things which follow are put in antithesis 
to this one word. Therefore righteousness is widely spread. 
ov xs/rai) is not in force, doth not exist among us, in its applica 
tion is not intended [" is not made"~\. Therefore a true teacher 
ought not to use the law against a righteous person, Gal. v. 23. 
The antithesis is avrfaeirai, in the following verse. avopoif, for 
the [lawless] unrighteous) Paul here names the unrighteous ac 
cording to the order of the Decalogue ; from which it is evident 
that the commandment, Honour thy father, is fourth, not third. 1 
avo Mie nat avvvordxroi$, lawless and disobedient) Referring to 
the first commandment, the foundation of the law, the founda 
tion of all obedience. ateftsff/ xal &/jux,pru\o%, for the ungodly and 
sinners) not reverencing the i name of God, and thereby in 
volved in great guilt, 2 Ex. xx. 7. avo<r/o/$ fafifaois, for un 
holy and profane) despising the true worship of God with a 
profane mind. 3 Such were those very persons whom Paul 
notices; comp. iv. 7. Be/S^ogis compounded of the inseparable 
preposition, (3&, Lat. ve, and fir^og, a threshold, especially a sacred 
threshold : whence P s(3q\oi roVo/, o/ j8ro/ xai rots ru^oDov, places 
accessible to the common people. See E. Schmid. on Matt, xii., 
and Eustathius. 

10. AvdpaKoBiffraTii) who make free men avfydvofta, slaves, by 
violence. They do not differ far from these, who do not levy 
(legally enlist) soldiers, but take them away by allurements, 
fraud, violence. erepov, any other thing) inconsistent with the 
ninth and tenth commandment. 4 rj vyiaivobffy) didaffxaXia, to 
sound doctrine) So 2 Tim. iv. 3 ; Tit. i. 9, ii. 1 ; and wholesome 

1 The Church of Rome suppresses the second commandment, and divides 
the tenth into two. So Beng. also. Thus our fifth is \i\$ fourth. To make 
our fifth into third, their third and fourth must be joined and made second. 

2 Referring to the third commandment, as we divide them. ED. 

3 This will answer to our fourth commandment. ED. 

4 i.e. Our tenth divided into two, ninth and tenth. The t7riopx,ot$ and 

answer to our ninth, Bengel s eighth. ED. 

1 TIMOTHY I. 11, 12. 245 

words, ch. vi. 3 ; 2 Tim. i. 13 ; and to be sound in regard to 
believers, Tit. i. 13, ii. 2. The contrary is, votuv, morbid 
["doting"], ch. vi. 4 ; a canker, 2 Tim. ii. 17. 

11. Kara, according to) This is construed with sound doc 
trine, ver. 10. Paul hereby establishes the authority of his own 
commandment. Those who know the glory of God from the 
Gospel, vehemently detest all kinds of profligacy. The law is 
thus established by faith. Or else Kara is construed with 
Xpqrai, if a man use it, ver. 8 ; although I know not whether it 
can be said, that we must use the law according to the Gospel ; 
or with tffarsus, from faith, ver. 5. r^c dofyg, of the glory) Glory 
redounds to the Gospel from the Divine blessedness, and thence 
there results soundness of doctrine. rot paxapiovj of the blessed) 
Tke same epithet is applied to God, ch. vi. 15. A peculiar 
phrase, indicating immortality and supreme happiness, which 
inest powerfully move men to confess the Gospel. The highest 
pinnacle of praise is blessedness ; comp. notes on Chrysostom 
de Sacerdotio, p. 371. The Blessed blesses : thence He is called 
the Saviour, ver. 1. o eiriffrevQriv lyw, with which I was entrusted) 
Tit. i. 3. This sets forth the peculiar and extraordinary privi 
lege of Paul, Rom. xv. 16 ; Eph. iii. 8 ; Col. i. 25. 

12. xdpiv g%w, / thank) A modal expression. [See Append, 
on Sermo ModalisJ] These are correlatives : Christ entrusted 
Paul with the Gospel : Paul, being " accounted faithful," 
* thanks Christ. He thanks Him at ver. 17; and in all his 
epistles and in their introductions. ivduva^ffavn, who hath en 
dued me with power) True conversion and calling confer power, 
Rom. v. 6. T/tfrov /AS riyfitaro, counted me faithful) A Metonymy 
of the antecedent for the consequent ; i.e. He hath entrusted to 
me the office of the Gospel ministry : fepsvos, while he put (in 
that He put me), denotes the very act. The fact that He en 
trusted the ministry to me, is the moral aspect : the fact that 
He put me into it, is as it were the physical aspect of His act. 
In the phrase, He counted me faithful, we have an example of 
flfftMr<Kra6f/a (the actions of men attributed to God). For if I 
count any one faithful, and trust him, this is a kind of thing- 
opposite of actual knowledge. 1 But the Divine judgment con- 

1 That is to say, Trust in the faithfulness of a man can only strictly ex 
ist on the part of man. God knows all that is in man, and what he is 

246 1 TIMOTHY I. 13-15. 

cerning Paul, that he would be faithful, is infallible. God 
sees and knows all things. Therefore, in the active sense, -r/Vr/g 
does not properly apply to Him. Faith and vision are things 
antithetic. I wished to convey all this idea by the expression, 
Metonymy, which I used above. 

13. BAatf>7j/Aov, a blasphemer) against God. di^xr^v, a perse 
cutor) against holy men, lest others should be converted. 
vjSpiffTTiv, despiser) [Engl. Yers., injurious], in rejecting my own 
salvation. This threefold relation to God, his neighbour, and 
himself, is frequent in this epistle especially, and in that to 
Titus; see presently at ver. 14, which forms an antithesis to 
this verse : likewise ver. 5, 9. Tit. ii. 12, where the word 
suffifiug, godly, is opposed to aasfSsfa, ungodliness, and yet the 
two words, soberly, and righteously, are opposed to worldly lusts. 
So here love (ver. 14) alone has a threefold relation : it is love 
towards God, of which the opposite is a blasphemer ; it is love 
towards the Church, of which the opposite is a persecutor ; it is 
love towards himself, of which the opposite is a despiser. jjXe^jjv, 
/ obtained mercy) This word is resumed, as if after a parenthesis, 
in ver. 16. This sense of mercy was perpetual in the mind of 
the apostle, ver. 2, note. on, because) Ignorance does not de 
serve pardon in itself; but in classifying the reasons which 
might impel a man to reject salvation, it is opposed to pride 
and every higher degree of wickedness. 

14. Ymps-Tr/.sovafft 8s, and was exceeding abundant) He explains 
how he obtained mercy, namely, with faith, etc. The epistles to 
Timothy, in a peculiar degree, breathe this abundance. 
v] x&pis, grace) by which / obtained mercy, ver. 13. Kvpiou, of 
the Lord) Jesus. fj,sr& xiarsuc, with faith) Its opposite is, in un 
belief, ver. 13. xai a/acr/jc, and love) Its opposite, as we have 
said, are the three, a blasphemer, a persecutor, a despiser. The 
words, mercy and grace (in ver. 13, 14), correspond to each 
other. Unbelief and faith are opposed. 

15. n/orog, faithful) A very solemn form of preface. Paul 
knows what he says, and whereof he affirms (ver. 7), and refutes 
the false teachers by the very simplicity of his language, treat 
ing, but with great beauty, of common topics, so much the 

about to do. Therefore trust in a mn^s faithfulness only applies to God by 

1 TIMOTHY 1. 16/17. 247 

rather, as others affected to treat of those which are more ab 
struse. So also Tit. ii. 1. cra<njf, all) Even faith is a kind of 
acceptation. This statement deserves all acceptation by all the 
faculties of the whole soul : a^obo-^ (from 8e%6ffQai, Luke viii. 
13), is when I am thankful, and speak of a thing as a good 
deed (a boon conferred on me) : comp. the correlative, avofaxrbv, 
acceptable, ch. ii. 3. Xpurrbg l^tfoDg) Christ, viz. as promised : 
Jesus, as manifested. Franckius, in Hornil. on this passage, 
shows that in this sense the name Christ here is put first, and 
Jesus after it ; comp. 2 Tim. i. 9, note. XO O/AOV, world) which 
was full of sin, John i. 29 ; Rom. v. 12 ; 1 John ii. 2. 6t,/&ap- 
Xoi>$, sinners) great and notable sinners. He saves also those 
whose sins have been not so aggravated ; but it is much more 
remarkable that He saves so great sinners. It can scarcely 
happen, but that they who themselves have tasted the grace of 
God, should taste its universality, and, in like manner, from it 
entertain favour towards all men. Paul draws the conclusion 
from his own individual case to all men. npuros, first) This is 
repeated with great force in the following verse [a force which 
is lost by the Engl. Vers., chief ~\. The example of Paul is 
incomparable, whether we consider sin or mercy. [There had been 
then no such example from the ascension of the Lord. V. g.] 

1 16. AXXa, but) Although I am the first (foremost and chief) 
of sinners. <5/ rouro) for this very cause. r^v naffav /AaxpoQvftfav) 
all long-suffering ; whereas even a less proportion (of long-suf 
fering), so to speak, may restore such as are not so great sinners ; 
comp. Ex. xxxiii. 19, that expression "OILD fa, all the goodness of 
the Lord, in respect of a people exceedingly guilty. npog vnorv- 
KUOIV, for a pattern) that others might so u^orycroL/^a/, be con 
formed to the pattern, or might revolve it in their mind, and 
make it the subject of their serious consideration. If you be 
lieve, as Paul did, you will be saved as Paul was. [In like 
manner, David also desired to be an example, Ps. xxxii. 6. 
V. g.] The same word occurs, 2 Tim. i. 13. lit AOrp) on 
Him, on (rod. si$, to) This may be construed with pattern. 

17. To) &) The doxology flows from a sense of grace. BautXsT 
TUV aiuvuv, to the King of aeons or ages [eternal^) A frequent 

1 E/ ( tu, / am) I am, he says, not I was, including the very moment of 
writing. V. g. 

248 1 TIMOTHY I. 18, 19. 

phrase with the Hebrews. The thought of eternity is parti 
cularly delightful to those assured of grace, while it miserably 
terrifies others. acpdrw, invisible) This attribute is given Him 
in the way of praise. See how perverse they are who affirm 
that there is no God, because they do not see Him. //,ovw s&, 
the only God) So, the only Potentate, ch. vi. 15 ; comp. Ps. 
Ixxxvi. 10; John v. 44 ; Jude 25. [A magnificent reading! 1 
Not. Grit.] TV//,?}, do^a, honour, glory) Such an Asyndeton is 
commonly used, where circumstances and feelings would tend 
to render the words much accumulated (tend to produce some 
what of an accumulation of words) : for example, honour and 
glory and strength, etc. ; and where nevertheless he leaves them 
to be supplied in the mind of the hearer. Such an Asyndeton 
is very suitable to the ardour of the apostle in doxologies, ch. 
vi. 16 ; 1 Pet. v. 11 ; although the transcribers have very gene 
rally inserted xaL The omission of this particle in so many 
passages is not accidental ; but its addition is due to the over- 
busy officiousness of transcribers. 2 

18. Haparidsf^ai tot, I commit to thee) to lay before thy hearers, 
ver. 3. [Its sum is indicated in ver. 5. Y. g.] ^oayoutfaj, 
that went before} When hands were laid on Timothy, the spirit 
of prophecy showed that many things of great importance were 
about to be entrusted to Timothy, ch, iv. 14. irpo<pqrtiat,g) Divine 
predictions (Acts xi. 27), given forth regarding thee by many 
witnesses, ch. vi. 12. (trparevfr mightest war) A comparison 
taken from military concerns. In the following verse the com 
parison is from naval concerns. aura/Y) irpopyrziaig, viz. the 
predictions. rfy xaXrjv ffrparsiav) that good warfare. 

19. "EXUV, having) Whilst the warfare has to be maintained. 
frianvj faith) Faith is like a very precious liquor ; a good con 
science is like clean or pure glass. qv, which) good conscience. 
affuffdpevoij having thrust aivay) It withdraws unwillingly; it 
always says, Do not injure me. He who retains it, does not 

1 So AD(A) corrected, Gfg Vulg. But Rec. Text adds aotpu to ftwu, 
with later Syr. He who alone is God gives a more striking sense than the 
only wise God. ED. 

2 Unfortunately for Bengel s argument, the best authorities, which 
Lachm. and Tisch. follow, read the x,otl. However, many secondary authori 
ties omit it. ED. 

1 TIMOTHY I. 20.- II. 1. 249 

easily make shipwreck of his faith. svavdyrjffav, have made ship 
wreck) Therefore they had entered on the voyage of faith. 
Hesychius explains evavayytav as sxivdvvsvaav. 

20. Tftevaios %al A\e%avdpo<;, Hymenceus and Alexander) A 
reproof, with the names expressed : comp. on Hymenseus and 
Alexander, 2 Tim. ii. 16, 17, iv. 14, 15. oS?, whom) though 
absent. They were at Ephesus ; Paul was at Rome. This 
was the part of an apostle ; it was the part of Timothy merely 
to avoid them and to be on his guard. Kapsduxa, / have de 
livered) for [or to] the destruction of the flesh [1 Cor. v. 5]. 
W (3XaG<p7]/jL?Tv) lest they should fall into blasphemy, and wholly 
complete their guilt by becoming more hurtful to themselves 
and others. [The danger of blasphemy is near at hand to the 
man tvho has made shipwreck of his faith. Satan might harass 
them: he could not force them to blaspheme. V. g.] 


1. na^axaXw, / exhort) In this chapter he describes public 
worship : I. In regard to prayers ; II. In regard to doctrine, 
ver. 11, 12. ovv, therefore) This exhortation flows from that sense 
of grace [spoken of, last chap., ver. 14]. Paul intimates not 
only what he himself wishes, but what Timothy ought to incul 
cate. tfpurov rtdvruv woiswdai, first of all to make) The highest 
duty. [The apostle here furnishes sufficient employment to pre 
vent any aX\orpioeTiffx.offia$, curious investigation into irrelevant 
questions, ch. i. 4. "V. g.] 6g^<rs/, ffpotftv^ag, Ivriu^f/^ ev^apiff- 
ria,$) The plural number indicates force : d eqtns (from &/) is the 
imploring of grace in any special necessity : ^rpoffsv^r,, prayer, is 
exercised, when on any occasion we offer our wishes and desires 
to God : tvrsvfyc is earnest intercession for other men or crea 
tures, ch. iv. 5, even if they cannot pray for themselves : *%- 
piffria;, giving of thanks, is becoming to be made also for all 
men, because, for example, God wishes all men to be saved, and 
Christ is the Mediator of all. vvsp, for) This is connected with 

250 1 TIMOTHY II. 2. 

supplications thanksgivings. All, at separate times, have special 
necessities. -rai/rwi/, for all) ver. 4, 6. 

2. T rrsp /3a<r/Xgwv, for kings) on whom other men depend, [and 
who frequently enjoy less opportunity of arriving at the knowledge 
of saving truth. V. g.] Kavruv, all) Often the humblest magis 
trates, even in villages, do much harm, or else are of much 
benefit. sv \j<ni?oyr^ in eminent stations, authority} as for instance 
the counsellors of kings, or, where there is no king, other magis 
trates. /Vet, that) The reason, why we must pray for kings. 
jjpfpov, quiet) free, aliens being removed out of the country. Chry- 
sostom, for example, applies r^f^iav to the Holy of Holies in the 
temple ; and the word agrees with sp^og, lonely, by Metathesis. 
ycvyjov, peaceable) free ; those who are aliens, if allowed to 
reside, at least giving us no disturbance. svtsfaiq,, in godliness) 
piety towards God. The word is frequently used in the epistles 
to Timothy and Titus. [Luke uses the same word in the Acts, 
and Peter in his second epistle. It may be mentioned among the 
vile rabble of a most perverse world as a remarkable stratagem, 
contrary to the kingdom of God and advantageous to the aims of 
Satan, that piety, in name at least never hitherto lightly esteemed, 
has at length been converted into a term of reproach, Pietist, 
by an anonymous person of the worst character, whose death, as 
ice are informed, was shocking. Nor even does the termination 
itself involve anything bad in itself, as it corresponds to the 
words, Statist, Copyist, Linguist. But if the intention is to dis 
tinguish by a peculiar name fanatics and men assuming the appear 
ance of holiness (in which case it ought to be made certain, that a 
blow is not dealt at those really innocent), why, pray, is piety 
hereby virtually punished ? A serious matter is at stake. Expe 
rience cries out in witness of the fact ; in conversations and social 
meetings, wlien a man, having said not as much as a word for the 
cause of religion, has conducted himself somewhat more modestly, 
he is easily assailed by this title, of which not even the pronun 
ciation is in some instances well known to the common people. It 
can scarcely be told, what a number of sparks of piety have been 
quenched by the use of the scoffing term, pietist. GOD will 
execute judgment for all this, Jude, ver. 15. V. g.] GS/M- 
V&YTJTV, [honesty] propriety) on the part of men towards one 

1 TIMOTHY II. 3-5. 251 

3. Touro yap, for this) The reason, why we must pray for all. 
It may be asked, why are not more converted ? We do not 
sufficiently pray. It is a religious duty, that in behalf of our 
selves, and in behalf of others, we should meet the will of God, 
which is favourable to us. xal) and, therefore. rou 2wr?jpos qpuv, 
our Saviour) who has actually saved us that believe. The anti 
thesis is in the following verse : Who wishes that all, even in 
cluding those who do not believe, should be saved : comp. ch. iv. 
10. It is strange if a soul, having found in reality the salva 
tion of God, can deny the universality of grace. 

4. udvrag) all, not merely a part, much less a very small 
part ; ver. 3, note. avfyuwovs, men) lost in themselves. 6 efai, 
\_ ( wills ] wishes) in serious earnestness of wish : ibid. GuS^vat, 
to be saved) This is treated of, at ver. 5, 6. Ka/ g/V, and unto) 
This is treated of, at ver. 6, 7. dX*j0f/{) of saving truth. 
sXfaTv, to come) They are not forced. 

5. E%) one, common to all. They who have not this one God, 
by one Mediator, have none, [ and therefore they are not 
saved. Yet GOD wishes all men to be saved by the saving know 
ledge of God and the Mediator ; but there is a legitimate and most 
holy order in the exercise of that will, wherewith men ought to 
receive it. All mankind constitute as it were one man before God ; 
wherefore it is right, that they who have obtained salvation should 
intercede for those who are farther distant from it. If that were 
done, how much better would be the condition of the human race I 
Let him pray, I request, who knows how to pray. V. g.] yap, 
for) ver. 4 is proved from ver. 5 ; ver. 1 from ver. 4. The whole 
is universal. Comp. Isa. xlv. 22. sTg %ai, one also) [who is 
Mediator."] He does not say, also one ; therefore the stress of the 
voice does not so much fall upon the adjective, one, as upon the 
substantives. We could not rejoice that there is a God, if we 
did not rejoice also in the Man Mediator. &7g sT$, one one) 
Mark xii. 29, 32 ; 1 Cor. viii. 6 ; Eph. iv. 5, 6. pta trw. Me 
diator) This is as it were an epithet of the noun, man ; and the 
word, one, coheres at the same time with both of these. avfyuKos, 
man) The Saviour, not without reason, is here called man, rather 
than God ; that the reason may be marked, why all men should 
be converted to this Mediator, who [i.e. inasmuch as He, a man^ 
has given Himself for all [men] : coinp. Rom. v. 15, note. 

252 1 TIMOTHY II. 6-8. 

The article is not added. Again, in turn, he calls Him God, 
ch. iii. 16. 

6. To paprvpiov, the testimony) The accusative absolute, as 
evhiyfta, 2 Thess. i. 5. A word suited to the character which 
Paul and Timothy sustained ; for they were witnesses. The 
testimony of universal redemption is intended. xatpoTg 18101$, 
in its own due times, or His own due times) ch. vi. 15, 

7. K^ug) [Eng. Vers. preacher] a herald solemnly appointed, 
sent by God. A word of large import, as 2 Cor. v. 20 ; 1 Thess. 
ii. 6, at the end. anoffroXcg, an apostle} of Christ. aX^De/av Xsy , 
/ speak the truth, od ^svdo^ai, I lie not) This affirmation belongs 
to the preceding clause ; for there are added to the subsequent 
clause the parallel words, Ii/ tffarei xal dX?j$/a, in faith and truth ; 
[i.e. parallel to dX>j$. xlyw, and ou -4/611 5.] 

8. BouXo,uai ovv, I will therefore) The apostolic authority is 
represented in this expression ; ch. v. 14 : comp. presently ver. 12, 
I suffer not. The particle therefore takes up again, ver. 1. 
tfpoffev%6(r6ai roug uvdpag, that men pray) So also in 1 Pet. iii. 7, 
prayers are assigned to men, in a certain particular point of 
view. He is speaking here of public prayers, in which the heart 
of the people follows close after the language of him who prays : 
comp. the next verse concerning worn-en. ev iravri TOKU, in every 
place) construed with avdpag, men. Paul also appeals elsewhere 
on this subject to a similar practice in all the churches. Wher 
ever men are, there are those by whom and for whom prayers 
are to be made. &ra/povrag, lifting up) They turned up the 
palms of their hands to heaven, as those asking for help are wont 
to do. bffiovg xffyag, holy hands) Wrath and doubting are in the 
soul : but the hands also ought to be holy. The contrary is 
found at Is. i. 15, at the end. The word bcioug is especially 
used in the propriety of the Greek idiom for freedom from all 
violence. opyqc, wrath) which [molesting men especially. V. g.] 
is the reverse of love (comp. 1 Pet. iii. 7, at the end), and the 
mother of doubting. <5/aXoy;<r/AoD, doubting) which is opposed to 
faith. Christianity consists of faith and love, and comprises 
grace and truth : it therefore ought to form the principal object 
of our desires, that we may both pray, and live and die, without 
doubting and wrath. The exercise of prayer, and of the whole 

1 TIMOTHY II. 913. 253 

of Christianity, is at once either true or vain. 1 Grace cherishes 
faith ; truth, love, Eph. iv. 15. 

9. Karaffro^y) A well-chosen word. 2 Women are delighted 
with elegant clothing ; and to this the apostle alludes in this pas 
sage. They were rich at Ephesus, ch. vi. 17. XOC/A/W, elegant, 
becoming, ornamental [modest, Erigl. Yers.]) spiritually, as it is 
presently described at ver. 10. at dots, shamefacedness) ver. 11, 
12. tuppoGvvrig, sobriety) A word of frequent occurrence in the 
epistles to Timothy and Titus. This virtue governs the whole 
of private life. V^) ou denies, ^ forbids, in a discourse of this 
kind. There is a great difference between ou and //,?}. OO indeed 
might even here be used, because there is not here a finite verb ; 
and so in the case of participles. But otherwise the particles 
cannot be exchanged. 

10. E TrayygXXo/^ii/a/s) promising (engaging to follow), profess 
ing. The same word is at ch. vi. 21. di spyojv, with works) 
construed with adorn ; with works, without speaking, which is 
competent for (the province belonging to) men, ver. 8, 11, 12 ; 
1 Pet. iii. 1. There is a very frequent mention of works in the 
epistles to Timothy and Titus, and those are adorned with the 
appellation of good works, which come to be performed in the 
ordinary affairs of human life. 

11. Mavdavsru, let the woman learn) The antithesis of to teach, 
ver. 12. Itorayri, in subjection) The antithesis is to the phrase, 
to use (usurp) authority, ver. 12. 

12. OUK sKirpsKu) I do not commit to the charge of the woman 
[su/er\ ; i.e. I cannot commit or entrust it. Litotes (see Append.). 
avQevrzTv avdpbg) to use authority in respect to [over] the man, 
viz. by teaching, by speaking, for example, in prayer. avdpbs, 
in respect to [over] the man) This implies not merely a husband, 
but the whole race of men. 

13. A^a^, yap, for Adam) The reason which applies to the 
first man, holds good for all men ; and that which applies to Eve, 

1 That is, Prayer and the whole sum of Christianity stand or fall 
together. If one is true, both are true ; if one is false, both are false. 

2 Plutarch uses it of moderation or simplicity in dress. ED. 

3 Koff/aeHv eavTovs, to adorn themselves) construed with 
ver. 10. V. g. 

254 1 TIMOTHY II. 14. 15. 

holds good for all women. Again, what is said of the salvability 
[safety] of the woman, ver. 15, is also appropriate to be under 
stood of the first woman. <xpuro<-) first ; so that the woman was 
created for him, 1 Cor. xi. 8. 9. 

14. Ov% fr-rrarridri, was not deceived) The Serpent deceived the 
woman ; the woman did not deceive the man, but persuaded him : 
Gen. iii. 17, tlwu hast hearkened to the voice of thy wife. In the 
preceding verse, we are taught why the woman ought not to 
exercise authority, now, why she ought not to teach ; more easily 
deceived, she more easily deceives; comp. Eccl. \ii. 29. 
Deceiving indicates less strength in the understanding; and this 
is the strong ground on which a woman is not allowed to teach. 
aKarqOtfffa Iv <7rapa{3dffei y tyovt, being deceived, fell into 1 the 
transgression) i.e. was guilty of falling into the deception (Gen. 
iii. 13, o 6<pi$ fiirarqfft ut), and so she began to be in the trans 
gression. It is not said, sv KapafSdfci ytyovvia ^crar^Tj, having 
come to be in the transgression, she ivas deceived. Therefore 
y syove does not apply to the very origin of the woman ; for the 
deception followed not until after that ; but ygyovs closely agrees 
with sv KapajSdcsi, which has the meaning of a noun ; see Acts 
xxii. 17 \jv exffrdffsiy in a state of trance] ; and comp. note on 
John i. 15. The state of transgression which quickly followed 
the deception, once for all admitted, is here intended. A 
phrase very like this is found at Num. xxvi. 10, e 

15. SuQqaerai de, but she shall be saved) She shall be rescued 
from that offence (and from its consequences). dia, rfc rgjcvoyov/ag, 
in child-bearing) The part of the woman is here described, in 
antithesis to the duty of teaching and governing : rgxi/oyowa, 
bringing forth and training children. He is not speaking here as 
to the properly-called cause of salvation ; for many who bring 
forth children nevertheless perish: many, who do not bear 
children, are saved ; but the state or condition is denoted, in 
which a woman may be likely to obtain salvation, although she 
be not mixed up with the duty that belongs to the man. 
Wherefore the if has a stronger force here than bia, in : and the 
continuing takes for granted the standing in faith, etc. peivuffiv, 

1 " Was in," Engl. Vers. ; rather, " Came to be in." For it is yeyov?, not 
/>. ED. 

1 TIMOTHY III. 1, 2, 255 

if they continue) Namely, the women. A Syllepsis 1 of the 
number. For sobriety, which is presently praised, is competent 
for (a grace peculiarly becoming in) women : comp. ver. 9. Let 
them remain within these bounds. irfaret xai ay any, in faith and 
love) General divisions. aytaff/Ap perb g&xppoffbwn) in holiness with 
sobriety. A special part of sanctification is modesty or modera 
tion, a grace which regulates man in respect of himself, as faith 
in respect of God, love in respect of our neighbour: ay/a<r,a&c, 
holiness, especially chastity: tfwpforfuvfy moderation, self-control, 
ver. 9, 11 


1. n/cro; o \6yog, this is a faithful saying) This preface is used, 
because it does not seem so to the world. opsysrai faidv/At?) 
There is here great propriety in the words : opsyu, to stretch out, 
thence opeyo^ai, to ask eagerly with outstretched hand, to grasp : 

of the mind, seeking rb x.a\bv, a good thing, produces 
; again opsfys indicates evi&vfAiav : opsy tadat, tpevysiv, are opposed 
to each other : see Arist. 1, Rhet. 10, n. 12. In human affairs, 
those things are more agreeable, which a man confers or performs 
of his own accord, than when he is asked : how much more in 
the affairs of religion? 1 Cor. xvi. 15, at the end. But away 
with sacrilegious solicitation of favour and interest. There were 
not wanting persons who wished to obtain it, James iii. 1. Paul 
does not altogether reject their desire, but he reduces it to order. 
xaXoD) an honourable good, excellent, demanding noble virtues. 
To this is to be referred the then or therefore (ovv) in the follow 
ing verse. spyov, work) It is a work, a business, not ease ; Acts 
xv. 38 ; Phil. ii. 30. 

2. AfT; must) Paul shows what Timothy ought to look to in 
the appointment of bishops, ver. 15 ; wherefore he so in parti 
cular describes the virtues as they meet the eye. olv, therefore) 

1 A figure whereby vj yvvy, the singular, is here expressed, whilst the 
plural is meant. And accordingly the plural verb ptivuaiv is put, agreeing 
with ywalKts, women, understood. ED. 

25G 1 TIMOTHY III. 2. 

A good office must be entrusted to good men. rlv e-T/<rxo?rot/, the 
bishop) Deacons are directly opposed to bishops, ver. 8 ; therefore 
the presbyter is included in the bishop ; Acts xx. 28, note. 
avsT/Xfjcrrov, blameless) without crime, bad report, and just sus 
picion ; comp. Tit. i. 6. sTvai, be) not only during the time of 
discharging his duty, but at the time when he is being appointed: 
ver. 10. The order of the virtues, which follow, should be 
attended to. ^tag ywaiKog civdpa, the husband of one wife) So ver. 
12, ch. v. 9 ; Tit. i. 6. This element of the blameless man s 
character is put in the first place. It is the ancient nature of 
marriage, that one man should have one woman. The husband 
(man) of one wife (woman) is therefore a simple periphrasis of 
husband ; ch. v. 9, note. The opinion as to successive polygamy 1 
being forbidden here to bishops, seems formerly to have been 
drawn from "the Canons of the Apostles ;" 2 since the 17th Canon 
runs thus : " Whosoever after baptism enters into a second mar 
riage 3 or keeps a concubine, he is disqualified from being a 
bishop." Some have understood it, as if second marriages were 
forbidden, and certainly the old translation gives this meaning : 
4 If any one after baptism is joined in wedlock for the second time, 
etc. ; whence the unfavourable interpretation of the Canon was 
easily transferred to Paul. But of what importance is it, whether 
a man has for his help one woman during twenty years, for 
example, or two after a term of widowhood? But why does 
Paul, rather taking for granted than requiring that the bishop 
should have one wife, not add 5) a/a^ov, or be unmarried? 
Unmarried persons were then rare, nor does he exclude the 
latter from the sacred office, but yet he assumes that the father of a 
family was somewhat better fitted for the discharge of these duties: 
and that, of two candidates, if they be equal in other respects, 
he who has a wife and virtuous family, is to be preferred to a 
bachelor, who has less testimony from actual practice (experience), 
ver. 4, 5 ; for he who is himself bound to discharge the domestic 

1 That is, the marrying a second time after the death of the first wife, 
which was forbidden by the subsequent canons of the Church in less pure 
ages. ED. 

2 A work of later ages, wrongly so called. ED. 

3 o^val yeipoi; GVft Tr hce.x.sis. 

4 Si quis post baptisma secundis fuerit nuptiis copulatus. 

1 TIMOTHY III. 3. 2r>7 

duties, which are here so frequently mentioned, is likely to be 
more attractive to those who are in like manner attached by 
ties to the world, and is of advantage to the community by a 
more popular example : ver. 4. It is to be added to this, that 
indiscriminate celibacy has rendered many open to blame. 
The Jews also teach, that a priest should be neither unmarried 
nor childless, lest he should be unmerciful. v?jpaX/o!>) vigilant in 
mind; so ver. 11 [vytpaXiove, which Engl. Vers. renders sober] ; 
Tit. ii. 2 ; for vfyu is to watch. See on Chrys. de Sacerd., p. 428. 
This is opposed to slumbering and sloth, which are sins in defect. 

jjpw, when it is used alone, denotes both watchfulness and 
sobriety, and by Metonymy the one is put for the other (comp. 
1 Thess. v. 8, Let us be sober, vqfuf/bm) ; but when ypq yopeu 
and vqpu are joined (as at 1 Thess. v. 6), the latter verb 
has the strict signification, to be sober, and is opposed to 

Mtfxstfda/, to be drunk. ffuxppova) of sound mind [ sober* ,] 
under self-control. It is opposed to vehemence (impetuosity) of 
mind, which sins in excess. The derivatives, (tuppovu, cwtppocvv^ 
K.r.\., have a consonant signification. Comp. Tit. i. 7, 8, where 
vapoivos (which in Greek implies a bold and rash man, such as 
drunkards usually are) and <ru<ppuv are opposed to each other. 

tfAiw, decorous, orderly [of good behaviour]) What the cuppuv 
is within, the xoapios is without. Hesychius defines XCC/A/OUS as 
<x,ve<7ri\7)<7rrovg ; Plato, XOO/A/O/ xa! suxoXo/, men moderate and good- 
natured. The new man bears somewhat of a sacred-festival 
character, and is at variance with every species of pollution, con 
fusion, disorder, excess, violence, laxity, assumption, harshness, 
depravity, mutilation, meanness; he sparingly and in private obeys 
the necessity of nature, and of the material food, which is put in 
motion by ingestion, digestion, and egestion, and keeps all the 
traces of the corruptible body concealed; Phil. iv. 8. <piX6%svov y 
hospitable) to strangers, especially to the needy and exiles, whom 
many treat with disdain, didanrtxbv, apt to teach) See 2 Tim. ii. 
24, note. 

3. MTJ Tapo/i/ov, not given to wine) AXX g-rm/xJj, but patient, 
lenient, reasonable, is to be referred to this expression. For 
vapoivia here, as everywhere else, not only signifies drunkenness, 
comp. ver. 8 ; Tit. ii. 3, but also the violent and unreasonable 
conduct towards others, proceeding from it. w ^.r t Krr t v, no 


258 1 TIMOTHY III. 4-6. 

striker) with the tongue or the hand. For there is nothing to 
prevent this word from being taken in its proper sense, 2 Cor. 
xi. 20, note. 1 Refer to it aX>. a^c^/ov, but no brawler, not using 
the fists ; comp. 2 Tim. ii. 24. 

4. ToD idiov o/ xou, his own house) Many men, for instance, are 
mild abroad, but are the less disposed to restrain their passion 
at home, which they direct against their wives, etc. xaXug 
T/?o/<rra//,gvov, one who ruleth ivell) To this ap/Xapyu/>/a chiefly 
refers. ,asra wdffqs tfg/a.vonjro?, with all gravity [propriety]) so 
that there may be no luxury [affurfa, riotous living] : Tit. i. 6. 

5. O-j/c oTdsj if a man does not know) Paul intimates that the 
man who rightly rules his own house will have well-behaved 
children. KUS, how) It requires higher qualifications to rule the 
Church, than a family. 

6. MJ? veopurov) not a man recently converted from heathenism. 
Such persons might be more easily and more safely set over 
others who have also been newly converted, Acts xiv. 23, than 
over old and experienced .Christians, who were numerous, and 
among whom the number of candidates was greater. It is a 
metaphor taken from plants; John xv. 2, note, [Rom. vi. 5, 11, 
17, 18 ; 1 Cor. iii. 6, 7.] The young plants generally exhibit 
a luxuriant verdure ; the newly converted man has not yet been 
macerated by the cross. 2 The antithesis is an aged disciple, 
Acts xxi. 16 [Mnason of Cyprus, a^a/w ^.a^rJj], rv<pu0fis, 
lifted up with pride) The same word occurs, ch. vi. 4, note ; 2 Tim. 
iii. 4. rupw is xa/u, to burn : rvpo$, a smoking heat without 
flame : whence they are said rvpovffdai, whom wine, as w 7 ell as 
those whom a high opinion of their knowledge and pride [haughti 
ness], render no longer masters of themselves, and affect with 
giddiness [puffed up, having the head turned with conceit] : see 
Is. xxviii. 7, Lutheran version. s/c xpipa, into condemnation) i.e. 
into the same condemnation into which the devil fell, being 

1 " If any strike you on the face" under the plea of divine zeal ; Isa. Iviii. 
4 ; 1 Kings xxii. 24 ; Neh. xiii. 25 ; Acts xxiii. 2. ED. 

2 In every kind of life, it may be observed, that those who immediately 
begin at the highest point of elevation can hardly adopt wise measures for 
their own advantage, scarcely condescend to inferiors, cannot be affected by 
the condition of the afflicted, and cannot rule themselves, and maintain 
moderation in all things ; but all these qualities particularly apply to the 
office of a bishop. V. g. 

1 TIMOTHY III. 7-9. 259 

lifted up, at the very beginning of his most blessed (brilliant) 
state, like a novice ; comp. Job xxxviii. 15 [the high arm shall 
be broken], concerning the proud (vKipypdvuv, LXX.). " He 
seems to have been raised and exalted more than the other 
angels, to the government of many angels, though he was 
younger than many of them ; and this very circumstance be 
came the occasion of pride to him." Artem. ad init. Joh. prsef., 
p. 23. The words of Paul do not bear out the whole of this 
statement. The condemnation here is taken passively ; and 
yet ovei8i(r/&b$, reproach, in the following verse, is active; for 
condemnation corresponds to the internal condition of the soul : 
reproach is opposed to "a good report from those that are without;" 
and the devil may bring a reproach upon men, he cannot bring 
them into condemnation ; for he does not judge, but is judged. 

7. Ka/ papTvptav, also a good report) Not even former life 
should be open to any reproach. Mere report is not sufficient ; 
but there ought to be a good report along with the practice of 
the virtues, nay, a good testimony. Paul wishes that the 
character of Christians should be in high esteem; comp. ch. 
v. 14, note. d-ro rvv eu0ev 9 from those that are without) that 
they may be more easily gained over, and the glory of God be 
promoted. ovsifaffpbv, reproach) Comp. ch. v. 14. The devil 
may occasion the greatest trouble to the minister who is sub 
jected to bad reports, by himself (the devil), and by means of 
the calumnies of men. xat vaytda, and a snare) Comp. Matt, 
xxii. 15. 

8. A/axovouf, the deacons) Supply it behoves to be. ^n fl/Xoyoug, 
not double-tongued) saying some things to some men, and other 
things to others. The deacons might take occasion to commit 
such sins, in performing the duties of their office. The deacons 
should not be double-tongued, nor the deaconesses calumniators, 
ver. 11 [slanderers] : it seems the deacons visited more houses 
than the deaconesses. ^ o"vu, not to wine) The danger of 
drunkenness threatens those who in the way of duty visit many 

9. T% Ktffrws, of the faith) The deacons were often speaking 
of the Christian faith, as opportunity offered, in the discharge 
of their duty ; and even though they should not speak, still 
they were bound to attend to the duties of their office, and go 

2GO 1 TIMOTHY 111. 10-15. 

to the church with a holy mind, and with the desire to show a 
good example. 

10. Ka/ ovroi de, and these also) The bishop was bound to 
have more and greater virtues (qualifications) conspicuous, and 
he was of greater dignity ; wherefore in his case no further 
scrutiny ( c proving ) is required ; but the deacons were bound 
to give proof of what they were, in performing the duties of the 
deaconship, before that they be fully admitted into the office. 

11. TwaTxac, wives) This depends on t^ovrag, having, ver. 9. 
uaavrus, in like manner) This refers to ver. 8. py 5/a/3oAou, 
not slanderers) especially among those that are without. -/ncrra;, 
faithful) This refers to ver. 9. 

13. Bafy/,0!/) a degree, from the humble deaconship to the 
higher offices in the church. He who is faithful in an inferior 
degree, is promoted to a higher station. eavroTs, to themselves) 
They do not merely promote the interests of others. woXX?ji> Kapprr 
fftav) great boldness with regard to God and man, from being 
well exercised. Iv T/OTE/, in the faith) that they may perceive that 
they are made most richly partakers of His faith and benefits. 

14. TaZra, these things) The whole epistle. JXcr/^wv, hoping) 
Paul, however, did not put off necessary admonitions. e\6eft, 
to come) ch. iv. 13. 

15. ? Ev bs ppadvw, but if I tarry long) Comp. ch. iv. 13, at 
the beginning. ;V, that) The scope of the epistle. vug dsT, how 
it is becoming) comp. ch. iv. 11. Iv o /xu Qsov, in the house of 
God) God is 6 SstfTorjjg, the Master, 2 Tim. ii. 12. r t rig, which) 
It indicates the universal Church, not universally, but so far as 
a part of it was then at Ephesus, committed to Timothy. s%- 
xXyffta Qtov, the Church of God) the community of those who 
are the Lord s ; 2 Tim. ii. 19. tyvrog, of the living) The Church 
of the living God is opposed to the temple of Diana of the 
Ephesians. The life of God, the foundation of our hope ( trust ), 
ch. iv. 10, and the fountain of truth, in this passage. The 
epithet is not added, in the first instance, to the same name 
(God ; the living God) it is afterwards added for the sake of 
Epitasis (see Append.), as in 2 Cor. vi. 16. 2x&g xai efyaiupa 
ryjg aXrj&t/ag KGLI o/AoXoyov/ASvug ft eya, x.r.X.) Jac. Cappellus, ill his 
Observations on this passage, says, That this was the original 
reading of this place, was the opinion of the distinguished men, my 

1 TIMOTHY III. 15. 2(11 

beloved colleagues, Andrew Melvin, John Cameron, John Fabri- 
cius ; and not without good reason. Respecting the same read 
ing or the pointing of the words, I have made some slight ob 
servations in the Apparatus, p. 709, 710 [Ed. ii. p. 399, sq.], 
which I would wish to be carefully noticed ; but I have reserved 
further remarks for the Gnomon here. At ver. 14, 15, the 
apostle evidently concludes the former paragraph, which began 
at ver. 1, and was brought down .to this point, and he now com 
mences a new paragraph, which is continued in ch. iv. 1 in so 
close connection, that the old interpreters, according to R. 
Stephanus and others, reckoned a seventh chapter of this epistle 
from iii. 16, inclusive, to ch. iv. 7. The almost universal opinion 
)f interpreters in the present day, among Protestants, fixes the 
commencement of the period at the word <rXoj. I have quoted 
a great number of them in the Apparatus ; G. G. Zeltnerus 
and J. C. Herzogius are added. Certainly this clause, trvXos 

edpaiupa rr\g ahq&eiag, is not at all advantageously connected 
with the preceding words, although Lightfoot says that the 
jat Sanhedrim was everywhere dignified with this title ; but 
this same clause is much more inconveniently separated from 
fhat follows. For the particle x/, xa/ opoXoyov/Asvuc, is unsuit 
able at the beginning of a new paragraph. Suppose o/^oXoyoy- 

z to have been written without xa/, then indeed one might 
acknowledge it to be a suitable commencement of the new divi 
sion ; corap. ver. 1 and ch. iv. 9, in which passages, for very 
much the same reason, the sentence is begun thus, m<srb$ 6 Xo /oj, 
without xa/. Now, when xa/ is in the way (occurs), the words 
between which it is placed are connected by it : oruXog xa/ 
efyaiufAM r5j aX?j0/ac xa/ ofMo^oyo^^vuc, {Asya, x.r.X. The Rab 
binical phrases, which are not dissimilar, are usually brought 
forward, in which the strength and gravity of the subject which 
comes to be discussed are declared ; but the phraseology of 
the apostle should be considered in the first place. For in 
this epistle, which is intended to confirm and rouse Timothy, 
the form of a preface is frequent, by which Paul commends 
some topic about to be presently discussed by him, as true and 
good, solid and salutary, and to be laid hold of by all the force of 
the understanding and the will [the desires] : niffrbg 6 
j/or, x.r.X., ch. i. 15, iv. 9, 6, where 

262 1 TIMOTHY III. 15. 

[iv. 6] agrees with merle, [ver. 9], xaXrjs [ver. 6], with 
5/o [ver. 9]. He expresses that formula, consisting of two 
members, in this by far the most magnificent passage, through 
the medium of loftier words, which are to be met with in the 
writings of the Hebrews ; for example, R. Levi of Barcelona 
gives this reason, why so many memorial signs of the deliver 
ance of the Israelites from Egyptian bondage are appointed in 
the fifteen precepts bearing upon the Passover, because that is 
the great foundation and strong pillar of the law, as well as of the 
Jewish religion. And Maimonides says, This is the foundation 
of the foundation, and the pillar of wisdom, that we may know, 
etc. Therefore Paul says : <rruXos KUI efyaiufAa, rye, aXqfefag, KU) 
o/AoXoyovpsvug ft eya iffri rb rr}g evffefisiag /AUffrripiov : i.e. This mystery 
of godliness is the pillar and groundwork of the truth (equivalent 
to <riffrbv), and is something confessedly great (equivalent to d-ro- 
dtxrov). Let us examine the words one by one. These two 
terms, cruXog xai sdpafupa, are equivalent to one word, expressing 
something very solid, by which is denoted the mystery, exceed 
ingly high (whence tfruXog, from ffrdu) and exceedingly deep 
(whence sfyau capa, from e), Iren. i. 3, c. 11. The Gospel is 
the pillar and ground of the Church. In Hebrew, nDtf, truth, 
and }&O, xnfrbv, faithful, are conjugates. In like manner, 
quoXoy/a (whence o/^oXoyou/Agi/wg) and a<7rodo^r,, each referring to 
the heart and the lips, are equivalent ; comp. 2 Tim. ii. 19 ; 
Heb. in. 1 ; John xx. 28. Hence also Tao^g anodo%iis &%iov and 
o/AoXoyoti/Asvws ftsya are equivalent ; /uts s-ya is not an epithet which 
is to be construed with l^a/w/xa, or with ^nor^/ov, but is put 
absolutely, ft tya, a great thing, as in 1 Cor. ix. 11 ; 2 Cor. xi. 
15 ; in the same way as a/acnjrog, our beloved, Philem. ver. 1, 
is used absolutely. The mystery is a thing great in itself; 
a thing to be with the greatest earnestness confessed, and 
embraced with all the force of confession ; is a thing, the 
magnitude of which, in regard to the great salvation, all 
the sons of truth experimentally know and confess. Paul did 
not mention rb atfodsxrbv without rb irtfrbv in this passage, but 
he praised both ; just as rb mffrbv */ rb naXbv are commended 
together. The mystery of godliness is the subject ; the remain 
ing words are the predicate. And godliness is joined with truth, 
as in Tit. i. 1. The Gentiles also had their mysteries, but they 

1 TIMOTHY 111. 16. 263 

were distinguished by ungodliness and error. Departure from 
the faith, lying, and fables, are opposed to the truth (iii. 16), a 
thing which is most especially to be noticed, ch. iv. 1 (the par 
ticle fc being interposed in ver. 1) : in ver. 1, 2, 7, the hypocrisy 
of those who speak lies, and have their consciences seared, is op 
posed to confession [o/tohoyou/Asvug, confessedly, iii. 16], in ver. 2 : 
the dotage of old women [ver. 7, ypau>dsi$ f^vdoug, old wives fables ] 
to that which is great \jitya, iii. 16], and profanity to godliness 
[iii. 16], ver. 7 [ch. vi. 3]. Finally, there is a remarkable Oxy 
moron [see Append.] : o^oXoyoii^&vus and ^uffT^piov, confession and 
yet mystery. This doctrine of godliness is celebrated in the 
whole Church, but in the Church alone. Now, reader, read 
again the text, if you are at leisure, from iii. 14 to iv. 7, 8 ; and 
consider the subject with an unbiassed and religious judgment. 

16. Qiog, God) He had called Him Man, ch. ii. 5. He now 
compensates for what might there seem to have been derogatory 
to Him, calling Him here God. 1 (See however Apparat., 
p. 710, s.) [Ed. II., p. 400, seqq.] ; for even the greatness of 
the mystery depends especially (even most of all) on the 
greatness of the subject, God. Paul, writing to Timothy and 
Titus, whose faith was greatly advanced, calls the Father 
Saviour, and in turn the Son God ; and he subjoins three pairs 
of predicates, in which the w r hole economy of Christ, from His 
departure to His return or assumption, is summarily compre 
hended. The sum of these predicates, viz. He was taken up in 
(to) glory, is ascribed to the same Subject, God, in Ps. xlvii. 
5, 6 ; and this one place compensates for the ambiguity in the 

1 oV of the Rec. Text has none of the oldest MSS. in its favour, no 
version as early as the seventh century ; and as to the fathers, ex. gr. Cyril 
of Alex, and Chrysostom, quoted for 0goV, see Tregelles on the printed 
text of N. T., in which he shoAvs these fathers are misquoted. Theo- 
doret, however, does support it. Liberatus, Victor Tununensis (both of 
6th cent.), affirm that Macedonius, under the Emperor Anastasius, changed 
off into go? in order to support Nestorianisin. AC corrected, G, read off. So 
Memph. and Theb. The old Latin fg and Vulg. have quod, referring to 
pvffTvipiov, taken as a personal designation for the antecedent. The Syr. 
Peschito, and in fact all the versions older than the seventh cent., have the 
relative, not Qsog. D(A) corrected, alone of the uncials, favours o. The 
silence of the fathers of the fourth cent., though so$ would have furnished 
them with a strong argument, is conclusive against it. ED. 

2fH 1 TIMOTHY ill. 10- 

reading of Paul, if any such there be, in this passage. 
pdodq sv capx/, was manifested in the flesh) The same verb occurs, 
1 John i. 2 ; the same noun, John i. 14. This manifestation 
applies to the whole economy of Christ, who was at one time 
conspicuous (visible) to the eyes of mortal men. 15/xa/w^jj ev 
Kvsvj&aTi, ivas justified in the spirit) Christ, while He was mani 
fest in the flesh, walked among sinners and men subject to 
death. He was thought to be just such a one as any of them 
selves, and in reality bore their sins ; but afterwards, by His 
death which He endured in the flesh, He abolished sin, that had 
been laid upon Him, and claimed for Himself and His people 
eternal righteousness, with the entire approbation of the Father, 
withdrawing from the sight of men, and entering into the 
spiritual and glorious state, which was suitable to His righteous 
ness, by His resurrection and ascension. See respecting the 
notion of flesh and spirit, Rom. i, 3, 4 ; 1 Pet. iii. 18, note. 1 
He was in this sense justified in the spirit. At the most pre 
cious and actual moment of His death, He ceased to be mortal, 
and to be burdened with the sin of the world. Comp. on the 
righteousness and justification of Christ, Matt. iii. 15 ; Luke 
vii. 35 ; John xix. 30, xvi. 10 ; Acts xxii. 14 ; Rom. vi. 10, 7 ; 
Heb. ix. 28 ; Isa. 1. 8 ; 1 John ii. 1. And He Himself, going in 
spirit to the spirits in prison, preached that righteousness, and 
from that time powerfully put it forth into exercise (operation) : 
comp. Rom. iv. 25. This clause accords with the passage of 
Peter already quoted ; as the expression, He icas preached 
among the Gentiles, with 1 Pet. iv. 6. u$bn ayyeXoic) He was 
seen, chiefly after the resurrection, by angels, good or even bad ; 
of whom the former were at the same time made acquainted 
with His dispensation [the plan of redemption by Him], the 
latter were struck with terror, Eph. iii. 10 ; in which passage 
the mention of angels, properly so called, is in consonance with 
this summary of Paul here. Jx7jf>u;0jj, was preached) This ele 
gantly follows. The angels enjoyed the most immediate admis 
sion to Christ (" the Lord of angels") ; the Gentiles, in their 
admission, were the furthest removed (in the greatest degree 

1 Flesh and Spirit do not denote strictly the human and divine nature of 
Christ respectively ; but either of the two, according as it is His state of life 
among men, or as it is His glorified state with God. ED. 

1 TIMOTHY IV. 1. 265 

" afar off/ Eph. ii. 17). And the foundations of this preaching, 
and of the faith existing in the world, were laid before Christ 
was taken up (" received up") into heaven ; John xvii. 18. The 
preachers and first believers were as it were the seed of the rest. 
sffiffrsvQq) He was believed on. sv KOG/AU) in the world, i.e. the 
whole world. [A circumstance calculated to Jill us with astonish 
ment. V. g.] The world, or globe, is opposed to heaven, into 
which He, being God, was taken up. He fills all things. dveXypdr) 
sv do^p) was taken up in glory [" received up into glory" Engl. 
Vers.]) Supply, And He is now in glory, and comes in glory. 
The first thing is, manifest in the flesh ; the last, He was 
received up in glory. These things even, especially refer to the 
greatness of the mystery. Even this single expression, He was 
taken, or received up, confutes what Artemonius has on this pas 
sage, Pref. p. 27. 


1. As, [now] but) The antithesis is between sdpaiupa, the 
ground, ch. iii. 15, and aKoarfawrai, shall depart or fall away; as 
also between " the mystery of godliness," and " the mystery of 
iniquity," of which the apostle speaks here by description, and 
by name at 2 Thess. ii. 7. farue) expressly, as of a thing of 
great importance, which will speedily come to pass, in a set form 
of words. Xiyg/, speaketh) by the prophets in the time of Paul, 
or by Paul himself, who also was a prophet ; hence he says, 
" This know," 2 Tim. iii. 1. tv bffr spois xaipoTs, in the last times) 
Paul shows that these times, following after the ascension of the 
Lord, ch. iii. 16, were then already in existence, inasmuch as 
he uses a present remedy for the then existing evil, ver. 5, 6 ; 
comp. 2 Tim. iii. 1, et seqq. vsr epos is used comparatively (lat 
ter), for vararos expresses a different idea (the last times of all). 
dKocrriffovrai nveg r%g viorsuc, some shall depart, or fall away, from 
the faith) Comp. 2 Tim. ii. 18 ; shall depart, viz. by denying 
what is true and adding what is false. rivzg) some, i.e. many, 

266 1 TIMOTHY IV. 2. 

and gradually more ; Rom. iii. 3, note. 1 Their names are not 
mentioned. There are not wanting those who suspect the per 
son meant to be Apollonius Tyanseus, who came to Ephesus in 
the lifetime of Timothy. They do not deserve well at the hands 
of the truth, who too much extenuate the heretical doctrines of 
the first century. rr { c, mareus, from the faith) which in all its 
exactness maintains Divine revelation, ver. 6, [and of which the 
foundation was a little ago described (iii. 15, 16). Y. g.] vviu- 
/jt,affi tfXdvoig xat bioatiKa\iaig ftai/Aovftov, seducing spirits and doctrines 
of demons) Seducing spirits are those who speak by false pro 
phets, and are called spirits, not only in respect of their own 
nature, but because they inspire 2 (with their deceit) these false 
prophets ; therefore the word spirits is parallel to doctrines [not 
to demons~\. Aa/,aowwv, of demons, is the genitive of the cause 
(the source from which the doctrines now). Aai/j,6viov is often 
taken in a good sense by the Greeks ; for example, by the 
Athenians, Acts xvii. 18 : but with the LXX. interpreters and 
the apostles, it always denotes evil spirits. 

2. .Ev vtfozpiffet -vJ/gonSoXoywi*, [Engl. Vers. speaking lies in hypo 
crisy] through the hypocrisy of liars) This is construed with they 
shall fall away, or depart. That hypocrisy, which is the charac 
teristic of liars, shall carry them away. Ttvsg, some, viz. they, are 
the seduced ; the liars are the seducers. -^sudo\6 r yuv, the genitive, 
depends solely on u-rox^/Vg/. The expression, of liars, implies a 
relation to others, and therefore the antithesis is in ibiav, their 
own conscience. xe-Aaurripiaff/Aevuv rfy ibiav foviidyffw, having their 
own conscience seared with a hot iron) As faith and a good con 
science are joined in ch. i. 5 (where see the note 3 ), so, hypocrisy 
(i.e. unbelief, Matt. xxiv. 51, note 4 ) and a depraved conscience 
in this passage ; where, on the contrary, * faith and " the know- 

1 Some, for many. An Euphemism. And moreover unbelievers, though 
they be many, are spoken of as some, indefinitely, because they are not much 
taken into account. ED. 

2 The use of spirant in connection with spiritus, cannot be imitated in a 
translation . TR AN SL. 

3 Faith is as the precious liquor, a good conscience as clean glass. Faith 
is towards God ; conscience, towards one s self. ED. 

4 In Matt. xxiv. 5, " Shall appoint him his portion with the hypo 
crites ;" in Luke xii. 46, "with the unbelievers. " The two are therefore 
akin. ED. 

1 TIMOTHY IV. 3. 267 

ledge of the truth," and thanksgiving (ver. 3, 6), are presently 
after commended. The medical use of cautery is for the pur 
pose of curing ; here, therefore, a different use is denoted, it is 
for the purpose of branding men as infamous. Those who are 
a-jroKardxpiroi, condemned of themselves, are here intended, Tit. 
iii. 11 ; those who are infamous of themselves in their own con 
science, which is branded with spots (scars) of deceit ; having a 
conscience not good and pure, because they have cast it from 
them, but ^s/x/a^s^v, polluted. For so, in Tit. i. 15, those 
seared as with a hot iron here, are described by the expression, 
their conscience is defiled; just as liars (-^sudoXoyoi) here, are de 
scribed by the words there, their mind is defiled. Kavrqp, a 
branding iron, denotes the same thing, in a bad sense, as tppayis, 
a seal, in a good sense, 2 Tim. ii. 19 ; although Macarius uses 
both words in a good sense, concerning the flock of Christ, 
Homil. xii. 13. Plato, in Gorgias, speaks of "the soul marked 
with stripes (dia^^affri /u^s^v) and covered with scars (o&Xuv 
ftearriv), in consequence of perjury and iniquity, which every 
man s own conduct has deeply impressed (egw/^Jaro) upon his 
soul." Claudian says, " Why do you foolishly deny what is 
manifest? lo ! branded spots disfigure the breast." 1 r^v /Wav, 
their own) while, however, they urge others. 

3. KuXvovruv yaftelv, d irs^sffdai (Bpupdruv, forbidding to marry 
to abstain from meats) The hypocritical appearance of false 
doctrines, very austere and plausible, which gains a show for all 
the rest of their dogmas (giving colour to them in the eyes of 
the dupes), is here expressed : comp. Col. ii. 23. Explain the 
sense by analysis thus, commanding, not to marry, to abstain from 
meats. KwXuw is the same as / command, that not, not to. To 
marry and to abstain are construed with commanding ; the ne 
gative belongs only to the expression, to marry. Pricaeus has 
pointed out examples of this Zeugma, of which examples that of 
Chrysostom corresponds most nearly to the present instance : 
Tat/rot \tyu, ou xqdeuziv xwXuwv, aXXri [Atra, ffv/j,fj,erpi(x,$ TOIITO wasti/, 
" I mention these things, not forbidding you to take care, but 
desiring you to do this only in due measure." Paul refutes the 
more specious error respecting meats. He considers it enough 
1 " Quid demens manifesta negas? En pectus inustte 
Deformant maculae." 

268 1 TIMOTHY IV. 4-G. 

here merely to mention that respecting marriage (unless the a, 
which 9 that follows, is to be referred to this also), and he refutes 
it also below, ch. v. 14. fipupdruv, meats) They shall not forbid 
all kinds of meats (therefore the article is not added) ; for who 
would listen to such prohibitions ? therefore it is only some kinds 
that they forbid. Also it is implied here, that he who forbids 
even one kind does a wrong to his Creator and to believers. 
The old heresies are chiefly denoted ; but their remains, how 
ever, have come down to those who pride themselves on antiquity. 
ro?i) the Dative, as the Hebrew i>, signifies, so far as concerns 
believers. For God hath created meats, even for those who are 
without faith and do not give thanks. Paul turns away from 
them who are without faith and the knowledge of the truth, and 
leaves them, as it were, to themselves ; he declares that he is 
speaking of believers. cr/^rro/g xa/ s-Trsyvuxoffi, to them ivho believe 
and have known) The words are synonymous. The second 
synonym, knowing the truth, gives occasion for presently declaring 
the truth, 6V/ -rav, x.r.X., and forms a more express antithesis to 
lying, -^evdog, which is contained in ^evdoXoyuv, ver.2. rr^ aXqQsiav, 
the truth) This is explained in the following verse. 

4. KaXov, good) Gen. i. xa/, and} The particle connects the 
two propositions, of which the second has this subject, every thing 
which is received with thanksgiving; the predicate, is not to be re 
fused. /MTU sv^apiffriasy with thanksgiving) This includes a good 
conscience. Rom. xiv. 6, " He that eateth, eateth to the Lord, 
for he giveth God thanks 7 

5. Ay/a^sra/, is sanctified) Lev. xix. 24. </ Xoyou sou, by 
the word of God) The word of God enters into all thanksgiving, 
nay, also into the creation and granting of meats. KO.I evrsv^tug, 
and intercessory [or consecratory] prayer) It is the duty of the 
children of God to offer intercessory [ch. ii. 1 ; or consecratory] 
prayer for the creatures which they use. It is a high dignity. 
Not only Christians, but also Jews and Heathens, consecrated 
the table with prayer. 

6. TvQriQsfjLevog) bringing unda the notice, suggesting mildly. 
Eustathius says, voeTv on the one hand implies perceiving at once 
and spontaneously ; lirodeffQau, on the other, to cause to perceive, by 
admonition. x,a>.o$ 3/axovog, a good minister) 2 Tim. ii. 15. 

g) The present combined with reference to the preterite, 

1 TIMOTHY IV. 7-10. 261) 

ished up, 2 Tim. i. 5, iii. 15. Continued nourishment. 
Trie, Ktffreu?, of the faith) in thy behalf [for thine own good], 
rqg xaXfo fadaffxa,Ma$, of good doctrine) in behalf of others [for 
the good of others]. j vctp ^oXou^/tac) which thou hast commenced 
(undertaken) to follow up (i.e. in all its details). Concerning 
this word, see Luke i. 3, note. 

7. Bf/3/7/vouc, profane) The antithesis presently follows, godli 
ness. Whatever is not profitable to this godliness, though 
specious, is profane, 2 Tim. ii. 16. V^<ws, fables) The antithesis 
is faithful, ver. 9. crapa/roD) refuse, reject them, so as not to 
suggest them to the brethren. yv/Ava^i ds ffsaurbv, but exercise thy 
self) A rare expression (as 1 John v. 2 1 2 ) for yy^mgou ; comp. 
Notes on Chrys. de Sacerd., p. 393. Paul had been accustomed 
to exercise Timothy when present with him ; he now com 
mands Timothy to be a Paul to himself. 

8. H ffuparixri yvpvaffia, bodily exercise) and that, whether 
violent or pleasant. ~pbg bxiyov, is profitable to but a short extent) 
viz. its benefit extends only to the private fortune, to one s repu 
tation, to one s enjoyment, to the promotion of long life ; and 
therefore it is terminated in this life of the body. Timothy, as a 
young man, seems to have sometimes used some bodily exercise 
[ch. v. 23], which Paul does not so much forbid as not praise. 
He mixes up a similar admonition, salutary to a young man, with 
the same argument against profane doctrines, 2 Tim. ii. 22. 

, unto all things) in the case of body and soul. tvay- 
promise) on which hope (* trust ) is brought to bear, ver. 
10. Whatever does not serve this purpose is scarcely profitable. 
w?j r?jg vZv, of the life that now is) the advantage of which they 
who exercise the body seem in other respects to consult. 

9. n/<rro, faithful) The following verse is joined to this short 
preface by the for, as in 2 Tim. ii. 11. Godly men appear 
often to suffer loss with respect to the enjoyment of the present 
life. Paul refutes this notion. 

10. E/ roDro, it is with a view to this, that) on this account, 

1 Kxl ypctufai;, and old wives ) Both old wives fables and youthful lu*ts 
are equally to be avoided, 2 Tim. ii. 22. V. g. 

2 The active verb with the reciprocal pronoun (<pvX|Tg kxvrovf, Jce*p 
yourselves from idols), is elegantly used as expressing more than 

Be on your guard. Ev. 

270 1 TIMOTHY IV. 11-13. 

for this end, with this hope. jca/ XOCT/W//.SV *a/ oveifafype&a,, we 
both labour and suffer reproach) despising the advantages and 
aids (safeguards against suffering) of this life : ove/d/^o/^a, in 
the Middle voice [we suffer ourselves to be reproached]. ^X-r/x- 
CC/AI-V, we have hoped) we have placed (rested) our hope, viz. for 
the future, despising present things. IT/, living) who will 
also give life to us, ver 8 ; 2 Tim. ii. 18. irdvruv avdpunuv, ^d- 
Xiffra Kiffruv, of all men, especially of those that believe) Paul 
shows that he, and men like him, hope for a double salvation 
from God : salvation [or safety] in this life, for God saves [or 
else preserves ^ all men (nay, even He wishes all men to have 
salvation for ever) : as also, what is of greater consequence, in the 
life that is to come, for He especially saves [or preserves] them 
that believe, who even in this life also experience greater pro 
tection, on account of their greater temptation. //-aA/ora, most of 
all) There lies hid beneath this word the strength of the argu 
ment from the less to the greater. 1 

2 11. Taura) these things, dismissing all other things. 

12. Mjjfo/V, no man) Conduct thyself so, that no one can de 
spise thee on the ground of being a young man. Worthless old 
men are glad to do so. rturos, a type, an example) The way of 
obtaining true authority. h "hoyy, in word) public and private. 
sv dvaffrpotpr) in daily intercourse or conversation. sv 

sv tfvevftar/, in love in the Spirit) 2 Cor. vi. 6, note. 3 sv 
in faith) Faith, considered apart from its office in justification, 
enters often into the middle of an enumeration of this kind, and 
denotes sincerity of the mind trusting in God, in prosperity 
and adversity : ch. vi. 11; 2 Tim. ii. 22: comp. Gal. v. 22, 
which passage has faith likewise in the middle of the enumera 
tion. sv ayvsicc, in purity) ch. v. 2. 

13. T/j dvayvwo-e/, to reading) of the Sacred Scripture in the 
Church. To this are added two principal genera : exhortation, 
which refers to conduct ; and doctrine, which refers to knowledge ; 
ch. vi. 2, at the end ; Rom. xii. 7, 8. 

1 If God saves, in a sense, even the ungodly ; a fortiori, the godly. ED. 

2 Tltaruv, of believers) who place their hope in the living GOD. V. g. 

3 By the Holy Ghost, by love unfeigned." Love follows immediately 
after mention of the Spirit, as being its principal fruit, and that which 
governs the use of spiritual gifts. ED. 

1 TIMOTHY IV. 14-16. 271 

14. M^ />./, do not neglect) They neglect, who do not exer 
cise the gift, and who think that they cannot fall away. xatpfa- 

the gift} 2 Tim. i. 6. diu po>jr/ag {ASTO, s<7ri6sffsus ruv 
ov irpsffffurspfov, by prophecy r , with the laying on of the hands 
[viz. by prophecy] of the presbytery) Construe the prophecy of 
the presbytery. For Paul laid his hands on Timothy, 2 Tim. i. 
6 ; i.e. the presbytery consisted of Paul himself (comp. 2 John 1 ; 
1 Pet. v. 1) and Silas, or others also. Many Latin copies have 
presbyteri, " of the presbyter." The imposition of the hand is 
properly done by one person, and that, too, a person more dig 
nified. But prophecy was also exercised by equals, viz. by 
more than one, who, while Paul was laying his hands on 
Timothy, were offering congratulations, and augured every 
good thing; perhaps even in the absence of Timothy. This 
is an energetic young man, they said ; God will do much good 
by him. 

15. MsXira, meditate) MsXsrav is also applied to the gymnastic 
exercises ; comp. ver. 7, yu/wa^s tfgaurov. Let this, he says, be 
thy study. He directed Timothy to continue in the same study 
when he was further advanced in life, Ep. 2, ch. iii. 14, etc. 
Who would not desire to be engrossed with the same study as 
long as he lives ? There are vicissitudes in all other studies ; 
some are the fashion to-day, others will be the custom to 
morrow. The one study which is devoted to (bestowed upon) 
Sacred Scripture never seems to be very conspicuous, but at the 
same time it alone never becomes obsolete. It has an everlast 
ing kingdom, without tyranny and superstitious fascination, a 
solid reward, an use which will cause no regret. sv rovrotg 7<rd/, 
give thyself wholly to them) He who gives himself wholly to 
them, will be less in worldly boon-companionships (convivialities) ; 
he will less engage in the study of other things, in collecting 
books, shells, coins, in which many pastors, unawares, waste a 
considerable part of their life. fl-poxewnj, profiting) which is main 
tained by exercise. 

16. "E</rg^g, take heed) Hesychius has the following : ^yj, 
fafafuto, Kp(jff%s, xars^s, svifieve ; Job xviii. 2, IJ Or), s^iff^g, give 
heed, < mark ; and so, often the son of Sirach. airo/g, to them) 
Refer this to raDra, these things, ver. 15 ; or to what follows 
(roj)s axovovrdg aou), i.e. (continually attend) to them that hear 

272 1 TIMOTHY V. 1~4. 

thee. ffuffsig, thou shalt save) viz. so as not to be seduced, ver. 1. 
roi>$ aKovovrag, them that hear) with obedience. 


1. nptfffSvrepu, an elder) The word here denotes age. M 
sT/crX??^, do not rebuke) This belongs also to the words which 
follow. uc, <5s>.>oi), as brethren) So an old man ought to exhort 
the young men as children. 

2. n$ d<3sAcc, as sisters) Such respectful treatment is well 
fitted to promote purity. 

3. Xypas. widows) Chrysostom speaks at great length of 
widows, de Sacerd., p. 166, et seqq. r///-, honour) by acts of 
kindness, ver. 17, 18. ovrug yjipn^ widows, indeed) Ploce ; J the 
word indeed excludes those who have children or live luxuriously 
(ver. 6). 

4. MavQav eruffav, let them learn) i.e. let the sons learn ; and 
rather the grandsons, for in the correlative progenitors (ro?s vpo- 
ywoii) alone are mentioned. There is an elegant Metonymy 
of the antecedent for the consequent ; the consequent is, that 
the widows should remain with their relations (viz. their sons 
or grandchildren). vpZrov rbv "duv, first their own) before they 
are put into any public office (duty). oho* evffsf3sft, to treat their 
family with dutiful affection) We have the same word with the 
accusative, Acts xvii. 23. The reason (ground) for the dutiful 
conduct enjoined, is evident from the end of the verse. d^oifSac 
nirodidovai ro?g Kpoywoig, to requite their progenitors [parents, Engl. 
Vers.]) Some think that the duty of widows who have families, 
is here intended ; and Pricaaus compares with this passage that 
of Augustine regarding his mother Monica, She had requited her 
parents, she had treated her family with pious affection, 1. 9, Con 
fess, c. 9. That saying of the Roman censors in reference to 
old bachelors is quite in accordance with this : Nature writes in 

1 A word put twice, first in the simple sense, afterwards to express an 
attribute of the simple word. Widows, in the second instance here, means 
one who realizes the description given in ver. 5. ED. 

1 TIMOTHY V. 5-9. 273 

m the law, as of being born, so also of begetting ; and your 
parents, by supporting you, have bound you, if you have any 
shame, to pay the debt of bringing up grandchildren (for them). 
Yal. Max., 1. 2, c. 4. But the word pavQavtruffav, let them 

mm, and its plural number, shows that the matter under dis 
cussion, is the duty of children and grandchildren. Therefore 
the widow in ver. 5, who has no children, is opposed to the 
widow who has children, because the former has no one from 
whom she can receive requital, and she therefore has her hopes 
placed solely in God. 

5. Mspovup evri) desolate (reduced to desolation). The idea 
of the word yj]f>a, signifying orbity [bereavement], is here un 
folded. %X-7rixsv, hath put her trust) The antithesis is in ver. 4. 

og/j,vsi rate, derifctff, continueth instant in supplications) The 
antithesis is in ver. 6. 

6. 2caraXw<ra) She that liveth in pleasure (luxuriously). 
James v. 5, erpvpfaare xai effiraTaXfaare. Hesychius explains 

aXa, as rpupcc. w<ra rttvqxe, though living, she is dead) This 
remark may be applied to any ungodly man, although he may 
be actively engaged in the business of life, but especially to a 
widow devoted to pleasure. Although she seems to her own 
self still to enjoy life, yet she is dead while she lives, because 
she is now no longer of benefit (profitable or serviceable), either 
naturally or spiritually, and therefore she deserves no honour 
(ver. 3, i.e. no share in the public maintenance). 

7. TaDra, these things) which have been just now spoken. 
udiv, may be) viz. true widows. 

8. idiuv, his own) even out of his house. ruv olxstuv, those of 
his own house) Such even especially as the mother or lonely 
(helpless) widow, at home, ver. 4. Many parents make this an 
excuse for their avarice ; but this passage chiefly treats of the 
duty of grandchildren, which ought to flow from love, riot to 
be opposed to faith. ou -rpovog/; does not provide) with food and 
necessary clothing. r^v vicriv fyvqrat, has denied the faith) Paul 
hopes that there will be no one among Christians who does not 
provide for his mother. Faith does not set aside natural duties, but 
perfects and strengthens them. aniffrov, an infidel) whom even 
nature teaches this, although he has never embraced the faith. 

9. KaraXgyg<r0w) let not a widow be taken into the number.- 


274 1 TIMOTHY V. 10. 

/u,j sXarrov eruv g^xovra) The genitive here does not depend on 
the comparative, for in that case it would have been written 
sXarruv, 1 but on ^pa ; sXarrov (for xara sXarrov, as Lat. summum, 
minimum, for ad summum, ad minimum, at most, at least) is 
used adverbially. So Plato, rdXavra oux eXarrov sKarov (at least 
a hundred talents ; literally, a hundred talents not less). STM 
l&xovra, of sixty years) The antithesis is in ver. 11. Even 
virgins of this age might be reckoned among widows. But the 
apostle would by no means praise those who would thrust their 
younger daughters into monasteries, where they may remain 
from their youth up to their death. svog, of one) i.e. who has 
been lawfully married, or has had one husband, or one and after 
wards a second. 

10. "Epyoig xaXo%, good works) These are presently enumerated, 
among which is also this species, Kavri Ipyy ayaGp svaKoXovfeTv, 
where aya6b$ is more than xaXoj. erexwrf>6<p i r)<f6v) if she have 
rightly brought up children, either her own, or those of others, 
for the benefit of the Church. s^svodo^ffsv, lodged strangers) 
that she may be worthy of being publicly compensated by the 
Church for the benefits which she has conferred on its members. 
irodas ivt-^tv, has washed the feet) A Synecdoche of the part, 
for every kind of humble offices. QXiSo/t &voig, the straitened 
[the afflicted^) with poverty. 2 IsnjxoXoudjjtfg, has followed up) It 
is the part of ministers and men to take the lead in good works, 
Tit. iii. 8, 14 (vpottraffQat, not as Engl. Vers. to maintain, but 
to take the lead in good works) ; of women to follow up, by 
assisting so far as they are able. The glosses in Pricaeus are, 

1 A widow having attained the age of sixty years not less. ED. 

2 IloiVTi ipya dyaDa, every goed work) Wherever any good springs forth, 
either near or at a distance, it is a sacred duty for us to go to its support. 
If it was the duty of widows, who subsequently were glad to enjoy the as 
sistance of others, how much more does it become men, and those, too, 
appointed to offices? Many pay attention to their sons perhaps, their 
relatives, neighbours, or countrymen. But, indeed, they consider it 
altogether alien to them (an uncalled for act) to bestow anything on 
persons unknown and on strangers ; or if any case occur seeming to be 
rather unconnected with them, or a little more remote, to attempt anything 
in its behalf ; 1 Sam. xxv. 10. Whoever has attempted a good work will 
experience the truth of this. V. g. 

1 TIMOTHY V. 11-14. 275 

11. Hapairov, refuse) Do not take up their case. The same 
word occurs. Tit. iii. 10 (reject, vapairov). orai/ yap xaraffrpri- 
viaffu(n rov Xputrov) when they have begun to wax wanton (to in 
dulge in luxury) against Christ, viz. with regard to ecclesiastical, 
benefits. The genitive is governed by xara; what ffrpyvos is, 
see Rev. xviii. 3 ("The abundance," or " power," of her deli 
cacies, trpfaoug). Extravagance (wantonness) and Christ are 
by no means compatible. roD Xf/<rrou, Christ) to whom they 
had entirely devoted themselves. 0eXou<r/v, they will) the matter 
being no longer undecided. 

12. "E^outfa/, having) for certain, by this time. on) because. 
ri\v Kpurriv wtffnv Jidsrqffav) Ktffnv ddzrzTv, as Raphelius shows from 
Polybius, is not to keep the faith ; comp. ver. 8. It is called 
irpwrii flr/tfr/f, their first faith, the faith of their early life, which 
they had before they were enrolled among the widows. Their 
second vows break this faith, and are opposed to it ; comp. " thy 
first love," Rev. ii. 4. 

13. MavQdvovGi Ktpisp fcOfAsvai, they learn going about) This par 
ticiple is not put for the infinitive, but the genus, i learning, is 
reprehended : the species follows, they learn the things which are 
learned by going about from house to house, i.e. they curiously 
pry into the state of families. The Mimesis 1 lies in this, that 
the expression used is, they learn. For elsewhere those things 
are only said to be learned which are good. But these women 
learn by going about, they search out all things ; and thence 
their progress is progress in the wrong direction. rag ofaiaf, 
houses) 2 Tim. iii. 6. <p\vapoi, [tattlers] triflers) in respect to 
words. Ktpiep yoi, busybodies) in respect to deeds. XaXou<r/, 
speaking) This word is construed with they learn. They speak 
out all that they have learned. ra ^ dsovra) a ^ deT, Tit. i. 11. 

14. N&ur tpag, the younger women) He does not add, widows, 
for the widow in this passage is properly she who remains a 
widow. And this arrangement (mode of acting), which the 
apostle mentions, equally applies to the unmarried and to 

1 A figure, whereby the word which the party reprehended would use is 
alluded to ; as here these young widows would call their inquiries by the 
favourable term, learning. They learn (the genus), says Paul ; but the 
species of learning they learn is what is to be learnt by going about visiting- 
houses. ED. 

276 1 TIMOTHY V. 15-18. 

widows under sixty years. The monastic system regarding 
nuns is quite inconsistent with the whole meaning of the 
apostle ; and Paul does not write to Timothy about the govern 
ment of any company of monks, for there were none such in 
existence. yaptfv, rexvoyoveTv, otxodsffKortTv, to marry, to bear 
children, rule their family [guide the house]) Three successive 
steps in domestic society. So they shall have full employment, 
without idleness or curiosity. r& avrixzi/tsvu, to the adversary) 
The word ft3G? ? Symmachus, in Ps. xxxviii. (20) 21, has trans 
lated by the word avrfxeipat, and in the following verse men 
tion is made of Satan : yet the w T ord avnxeipevos, adversary, 
may be in this place understood of wicked men ; comp. ch. 
vi. 1 ; Tit. ii. 8, 10. \ot8optas xapiv, for the sake of calumny 
[by way of reproach]) which is eager to exaggerate the vices 
of a few, and to impute them to the whole Church and its 

15. "Hdyi, already) A particle used for the purpose of appeal 
ing to experience. rmg, some) rashly professing widowhood. 
e&rp& x qffav, have been turned aside) and thereby have given oc 
casion to calumny. fatou rot ^arava, after Satan) who turned 
them aside from Christ. 

16. ETa/p/cs/Yw, let him (or her) relieve them} ver. 10 [0X/j8o^!vo/ 
sKflpxsGsv, " relieved the afflicted"]. J sxx^ffia, the Church) in 
relieving the widows. eieapx sfffa in order that it may have enough 
for relieving) viz. the Church. 

17. At^Xr^, double) On account of their being older, and on 
account of their office. The eldership involves of itself venera 
tion on account of age. Even Peter opposes the elders to the 
younger men (vsurspoig), and yet he speaks as concerning an 
office, 1 Pet. v. 5, 1, etc. Double, i.e. large, Rev. xviii. 6. 
ftdXiffra, especially) Some then were able to rule, and to 
rule well, although they were not employed in word and 
doctrine, viz. in sacred studies, and in the instruction of others. 
But those who had been so employed (xoxiuvrss), were less 
at leisure for working, and for acquiring fortune, and were 
worthy of compensation. 

18. Ka/, g/o, and, worthy) The apostle quotes this, either 
as Scripture, or as a proverb approved of by the Lord, Matt, 
x. 10 ; Luke x. 7. 

1 TIMOTHY V. 19-21. 277 

19. nptfffiurzpov, an elder) ver. 17. xar^yop/av, accusation) 
According to the law of Moses, a private person might be sum 
moned, but not condemned, when there was only one witness : 
Paul directs that an elder should not even be summoned; for both 
his character as an innocent person stands higher, and he is more 
exposed to envy and calumny. ^ napuS s^ov, do not receive) 
Timothy had therefore the power of judging in the Church, ver. 
21, 24. 

20. Tov$ aftapravovrag) them that sm, the elders convicted by 
witnesses. The others are contradistinguished from those. o/ 
XO/TO/) the others in the flock, Vho have either committed the 
same sin, or lest they should commit it. <p6j3ov, fear) suitable to 
those who are prepared to sin. 

21. Ei/oikr/ov, before) Paul presents vividly to Timothy the last 
judgment, in which God will be revealed, and Christ will be 
seen face to face with His angels; comp. 2 Tim. iv. 1. And 
yet the words, face to face, do not shut out reference to the pre 
sent time, ver. 4 (evuiriw roD 0soD) ; 2 Cor. viii. 21. See ch. vi. 
13, etc. xal Kvpiov, and the Lord) The article is not added, 
though it is immediately added with respect to the angels. 
Therefore the appellations, God and Lord, refer to one subject 
[before Him who is at once God and Lord, Jesus Christ] j 1 
comp., however, 2 Tim, iv. I. 2 The old reading has not Kup/ov. 3 
sxXexruv) An epithet, which sharpens the reverence of 
Timothy ; sKXsxrb$, choice, 1 Pet. ii. 6. xnptg vpoKpfaaroi) ^plg 
roD fpoftsrug xai di^a KSxpifAevqg j9cuX)} fpStai ffs r/. 4 Glos. ap. 
Pricseum. Kpoxpifta, prejudice (prejudging), is the failing of him 
who determines, before the matter fully opens itself out ; ver. 22, 

1 This is a principle laid down by Bishop Middleton, that where the one 
article precedes two appellatives, they must refer to one and the same 
person ; a most important canon against Socinians. See Tit. ii. 13. ED. 

IVUKIOV TOV &soi>, xai X0taTov lyaov. But Middleton s canon does not ap 
ply there ; for Xptarov Iwov are used as proper names, not appellatives. So 
here, too, if the Kvpiov be not read. Therefore Qeov is God the Father. ED. 

8 Wherefore it is omitted in the Germ. Vers., which follows the margin 
of both Ed. E. B. 

AD(A) corrected, Qfg Vulg., Hilar. 328, Lucif. omit Kvpiov. Rec. Text 
has no good authority for it. ED. 

4 i.e. Without thy doing aught precipitately and apart from decided de 
liberation or counsel. 

278 1 TIMOTHY V. 22-24. 

note. There ought to be judgment, not prejudice (prejudging) ; 
ver. 24. Kara -TTpoVxX/ff/v) The glosses by the same writer are, 
Kara KpoffxXiffiv, Kara ")(a?iv, vpoff-Trddziav, ^ zrepofA&psiav, In short, 
prejudice through hatred, parta afo ft/ through favour. \_0ften 
a man is hurried headlong by some impulse, and treats this 
or that person either well or ill accordingly ; but we should act 
considerately, and think, what is suitable to the Divine will. 


22. XsTpag, hands) It was the duty of Timothy to lay his 
hands on the presbyters. ra^s^g, hastily) without previous 
examination. ^^ xo/vwi/g/, nor be partaker) They do so, who 
do anything hastily. [And indeed, in this passage, the sudden 
imposition of hands is that upon which a check is placed. But 
certainly, in the other departments of life, the participation of other 
men s sins is very frequent. That happens either before or after 
the act, in our thoughts, affection, gestures, words, writings, works ; 
by doing, omitting to do ; in regard to superiors, equals, inferiors, 
ministers, subjects ; while- a greater or less portion of the fault 
falls sometimes on the one side, sometimes on the other. V. g.] 
Ver. 24, 25, show that waiting for a time is salutary, and 
an admonition is introduced parenthetically ("keep thyself 
infirmities"), which young Timothy was meanwhile carefully 
to observe. 

23. Sgaurop, thyself) The antithesis is, other men s. Timothy 
is admonished, in passing, how he should regulate his own con 
duct, while he is engaged in regulating the conduct of others ; 
and this parenthesis very elegantly imitates the delay that ought 
to be allowed to intervene in such matters. w/.in, no longer) 
A safe admonition, always keeping in view the precept, keep 
thyself pure. 

24. T/vSJv, of some) Not only is the aspect of the sins which 
are committed [i.e the footing on which they stand, the point of 
view from which they are to be regarded] different, but also of 
the men, though committing the same sins. a i a^apriai, the 
sins) their evil deeds, and their evil habits to be known from 
the former. vpodqXoi) manifest before any inquiry is made, or 
anything determined concerning the men. vpodyovffai) going 
before, preceding him that commits them, so that he is imme 
diately seen to be unworthy of the imposition of hands. The 

1 TIMOTHY V. 25-VI. 1, 2. 279 

antithesis is, follow after. s/$ xpitiv) [Engl. Vers. to judgment] 
so far as concerns the judgment to be formed of the men. r/<r/) 
That is more emphatic than if he had repeated rwuv ; some also 
their own sins follow. !TaxaXou0ot/<r/, follow after) Meanwhile 
we must wait patiently, till the matter fully discloses itself, and 
we must not inquire too harshly. God, however, directs His 
faithful servant to do and say what is seasonable. The prepo 
sition \<al implies no long interval. 

25. Ta aXXwg s^ovra, the works that are otherwise) Those which 
are not beforehand manifest. The saying, which is found at 
Eccl. viii. 14, is remarkable, and should in the present day be 
especially attended to. xpvjSqvai, be hid) long. ou dvvurai, cannot) 
although they who do them may often wish to keep them con 


1. YTO uyov) under the yoke-) viz. of heathen masters. The 
antithesis is, but, ver. 2. Service therefore, in the case of be 
lievers, is not a yoke. Idioug, their own) Let them not turn from 
them, and attach themselves to others. Confusion [confound 
ing of the existing order of things] is forbidden. n^g, honour) 
although they are without, i.e. not Christians. The opposite, 
despise, occurs presently. dg/ ous, worthy) although they be 
without virtue [any remarkable merit]. yyiffffafas, let them 
count) with affection, and in their actual conduct. /Va ^, that 
not) For the masters would say, that this was the cause of their 
contumacious disrespect ; comp. Tit. ii. 5. 

2. A<5sX<po/, brethren) and in that respect equal. g/V/V, are) 
viz. the masters. Servants (slaves) might seek a pretext for 
refusing obedience, whether they had believing or unbelieving 
masters. Both sins are met (counteracted). dovXeusruffav, let 
them do service) let them remain in the household. mffrof g/V/ 
xa/ ayacr^ro/, are faithful and beloved) Supply, the masters, be 
loved, having experienced the Divine love, and then in conse 
quence showing love to their servants (slaves). o/ rv 

280 1 TIMOTHY VI. 3-5. 

dvri\a/j,(3av6/j,syoi, [Eng. Vers. partakers of the benefit, but Bengel] 
subserving the [divine] beneficence) Beneficence is the beneficence 
of God, as the word, the name, the Spirit* the wrath, stand for the 
word of God, the name of God, etc. Believing masters, as being 
benefactors [ivspy&rai, taken out of guspygcv ag], subserve this bene 
ficence. Believers experience the heavenly beneficence towards 
men, and subserve it ; for example, masters towards their house 
hold, and through their household towards others. This by 
implication teaches also believing masters their duty : ver. 17 
also teaches it. 

3. Erspodioa,<f>ta\e?j teach otherwise) The antithesis is, teach, in 
ver. 2. The conclusion thus corresponding to the beginning of 
the discussion, ch. i. 3. pr\ -TrpoGsp^srai, accede [consent] not) 
Seneca has, " accedere opinioni," to accede or consent to an 
opinion : and so others, as we find in Pricseus. 

4. TsT-jpcijTai, /Aqdsv sviffTu/Asvoi;) Harpocration : rsru^w/a-a/, avrl 
roD sfAJSefSpovrTifAaiy l^w ruv ppsvuv ysyova, x.r.X. reTvtpuf&ai for 
s/jt,(3s(3p6i/rr)/j,ai, I am gone out of my senses. Compare Raphelius 
ad Polyb. f^dsv zward Asvog, knowing nothing) although he claims 
knoivledge to himself: comp. ch. i. 7. votuv Kepi, sick [ doting ], 
or morbid, about) The antithesis is ivholesome, ver. 3. Plut. : 
voffsTv vspi do^av, Ktpi (uppuyidia roXurgXSj, to be sick for glory, for 
expensive seals (signets). Xo/o/^a^/ac, strifes of words) 2 Tim. 
ii. 14, note. 1 Jg uv y mrai, from which cometh) Ib. ver. 23. 
6pi( 9 contention) Tit. iii. 9. vvowiai Kovr t pai, evil surmisings) by 
which those who do not at once agree to all things, are regarded 
as enemies (objects of odium). 

5. AiawaparpifBot,}) 5/arp//3^, a scholastic disputation or treatise. 
The insertion of ca/?d renders it significant of something per 
verse, as xara,70fj,q for vepiro/Ariy Phil. iii. 2. It is opposed to 
accede (consent), ver. 3. dia<7raparpi(3ai die<p0ctpft evuv avdpunuv) per 
verse disputings, which only become men of corrupt minds, 
2 Tim. iii. 8 : men corrupted in mind. wpifyvruvj thinking) 
i.e. inasmuch as they think, for there is no and put before it ; 
comp. Rom. ii. 18, 20 ; 2 Tim. ii. 21 ; Heb. vi. 6, where the use 
of the participles is the same. vopie^v) a gain 2 (means of 

1 Not as Engl. Vers. of 2 Tim. ii. 14, " Strifes about words," but strifes 
in (i.e. by means of) words about" most momentous subjects. ED. 

3 The article before sites Ssixv, and not before Trooiapov, show the construe- 

1 TIMOTHY VI. 6-9. 281 

making gain), a thing given for the sake of procuring pro 

6. "Etn 8i } but is) He does not wish altogether to deny that 
godliness is a gain. iropitipbg) a ready and sure ( expedite ) mode 
of providing a living. 1 ft eyac, great) for it produces 

a mind contented with its lot, unknown to all others. / 
auTupxsiag, with contentment] This is the companion of godliness. 

7. Ovdevy nothing) A man, when he is born, consists of soul 
and body : all other things are to him foreign and external. 
eiG7jV yxafj,sv, we have brought in) Supply, and yet we have obtained 
life (including a livelihood) ; see Matt. vi. 25. dqXov or/) to wit 
[Engl. Yers. and it is certain that] ; a form of declaring. ovd? 
Jggwyxgfr, nor carry out) Why then do we heap up much wealth ? 
The only object to be aimed at is that we may have vopw, an 
unembarrassed journey, till we reach our true country. 

8. "Exovrtg, having) It is by implication affirmed, that we shall 
have them. diarpopai) food (means of sustenance), by which we 
may in the meantime be nourished. This is the meaning of 
did. ffxeffaur/tara, clothing) also a covering or shelter. rotroi$) 
with these, although money be wanting, ver. 10. &pxtts$w6p.tfat) 
we shall have enough in fact : why then not also in feeling ? 

9. wishing) This wish is the enemy of a mind con 
tented with its lot ; it is not the wealth itself (that is the enemy 
of contentment) : rich men are not therefore commanded to cast 
away their wealth, ver. 17, 18. tfXoyrgfy to be rich) to have 
more than food and clothing. J^cr/Vrouff/ j3y0/outf/, fall into 
drown) A sad gradation. xtipatfpbt) There is a Paronomasia 
[the signification of a word changed by a slight change of the 
letters] : cro^/<r/x^, irsipas^s. Temptation is opposed to food, like 
wise to faith : a snare is opposed to i clothing and to righteous 
ness : < lusts 9 are opposed to " a contented mind." Tay/5a, a 
snare) Therefore they do not find TO/?OV, true gam. oXeQpov, 
destruction) of the body. cwrwXg/av, perdition) also of the soul : 
comp. of all, ver. 10. This is opposed to that expression, great 
gain, ver. 6. 

tion to be, "that godliness is a gain," a way to advance one s worldly interest : 
not as Engl. Vers., "that gain is godliness." ED. 

1 noptvpos is strictly the act of providing a living, means of gain : 
the living thus gained, gain. ED. 

282 1 TIMOTHY VI. 10-12. 

10. Tidvruv ruv xaKZv, of all evils) For it destroys faith, the 
root of all that is good : at first sight, the love of money seems 
to take away the nutriment or food that supports many crimes, 
as luxury, wantonness, etc. ; but it is in reality the root of all 
evils. All evils in ver. 9 are comprehended under temptation, 
a snare, lusts, destruction, perdition ; although the article ruv 
does not precisely relate to those evils, but is added to -ravrwv, 
according to custom, for the purpose of amplifying or heighten 
ing the effect, without its relative power. piXapyvpia, the love of 
money) When money is loved for itself, it is not used for procur 
ing " food and raiment." yg) ptXapyvpiag, viz. apyvpov. r/i/sg) 
some: the Ephesians, ch. v. 15. opeyof&evoi, having coveted) ch. 
iii. 1, note [having grasped at]. btivmig croXXa/s, with many sor- 
roivs) of the conscience, producing remorse for property badly 
acquired ; also of the mind, urging to the laying up of more. 
The remedy of these sorrows is faith. 

11. T n avdpuxe rou eoD) man of God. So the LXX. for the 
Hebrew, man of God, i.e. a prophet, a mediating messenger of 
God to men, one removed from earthly things. ravra <pt\jyt, 
flee these things) He resumes, after the parenthesis, the words 
which he had spoken at the end of ver. 5. Therefore the ex 
pression, these things, is to be referred to ver. 4, 5 : for both 
enumerations form an evident antithesis [to what follows in ver. 
11] : to this antithesis y?6<e, follow, belong. dixaioffvvqv, righteous 
ness) This comprehends all the other things, and is again put in 
the first place, 2 Tim. ii. 22. tvffe&iav, godliness) The antithesis 
is the abuse of godliness, ver. 5. -r/Vr/v, dyd^v, faith, love) Their 
antitheses are envy, strife, ver. 4. UTO/^OV^V, patience) by which 
even calumnious railings are endured, ibid. -rpaor^ra, meekness) 
by which evil surmisings are overcome, ibid. 

12. Tbv xa\bv dyuva, the good fight) In antithesis to strifes of 
ivords, ver. 4. J$r/Xa/3oD, lay hold of) as something that is within 
reach and near at hand. Leave to others their own questions, 
ibid. A Metonymy of the consequent for the antecedent, with 
the argument drawn from what is easy [laying hold of eternal 
life is easy as contrasted with the questions and strifes in ver. 4]. 
The same expression is found at ver. 19. It is a simile taken 
from the race-course and the prizes ; comp. 2 Tim. iv. 7, etc. 

%ai w/AoXoy^rfas, thou hast been called and hast professed} 

1 TIMOTHY VI. 13-15. 283 

The divine calling and profession of believers are correlatives. 
Both take place in baptism. [If at any time thou hast made a 
promise to GOD, He Himself deems that thou art bound to Him ; 
and that is remarkable good-will on His part. V. g.] TTJV xa\w 
6/AoXoy/ai/) that [not a, as Engl. Vers.] good profession, [viz. that 
concerning the kingdom of Christ, ver. 13. V. g.] So also in 
the following verse [" Christ Jesus, that witnessed that good 
profession "]. But the words differ : Thou hast professed, ac 
companied with the assent of witnesses : He witnessed, though 
Pontius Pilate did not assent. JVWT/OV -roXXwi/ ^aprlpuv, before 
many witnesses) who would testify against thee, if thou wert to 
fall away. 

13. IlapayysXXw, I give thee charge) See how important is the 
office of preaching the Gospel ; 2 Tim. iv. 1. 

vdvra, who quickeneth all things) LXX., Neh. ix. 6 \_ 
KO,} GV woTo/g% ra <7rdvra~]. Here the creation of all things, which 
is there mentioned, is taken for granted. Part of the hymn 
is expressed, the whole hymn is implied. The power of God 
quickens (gives life to) thee also, O Timothy, in the discharge of 
thy duty, and will raise thee up to everlasting life. rou paprv- 
pTjffavrog, who witnessed) The confession of Christ quickens [gives 
life to] all confessions (professions, ver. 12). To witness a con 
fession was the part of the Lord ; to confess a confession (profes 
sion, ver. 12) belonged to Timothy. siei novr/ou n/Xarou, before 
Pontius Pilate) A. well-known chronological era. ryv) that 
which all Christians know was made by Him, viz. that concern 
ing Sis kingdom, ver. 15. 

14. TW) this. atfTT/Xov, em<7r/X?j<Trov, without spot, unrebukeable) 
in the masculine gender. 1 //<%?/, until) Believers, in regulating 
their practice, used in that day to set before themselves the day 
of Christ as near at hand : we are accustomed to set before us 
the hour of death. l^ave/ac, the appearing) This word often 
occurs in the second Epistle to Timothy and in the Epistle to 

15. Ka/po% jdioic, in His own fitting times) The plural number 
is to be noticed, which does not much abridge (does not confine 
within very narrow limits) the shortness of the times: His own, viz. 

1 i.e. Agreeing with c-s, not with rvv !>TO?UJZ/. ED. 

284 I TIMOTHY VI. 16, 17. 

of which the reason (the regulating principle), power, knowledge, 
and revelation, is in His own hand. So 7<3/og, ch. ii. 6 ; 2 Tim. 
i. 9 ; Tit. i. 3. A divine reservation. fai%ei, He shall show) To 
be shown is an expression used of what formerly existed. God 
will show Him (Acts iii. 20), of whom a most magnificent 
panegyric follows, involving in it the glory of Christ itself [as 
well as that of God the Father]. o ^a /.dpioc, xai povog dwdtrris, 
the blessed and only Potentate) These are two predicates i 1 the 
first, with the addition also of only, is treated of in ver. 16 ["who 
only hath immortality"] ; for the word paxdpios and dx^aro; 2 
have the same derivation, and signify immortal; and hence 
honour (ver. 16) is due to Him : the second is treated of pre 
sently after in this verse, and hence power everlasting (ver. 16) 
is due to Him. This is the reason why men in power, and death 
threatened by them, should not be feared in the confession of 
the Gospel. So eternal power is mentioned at Rom. i. 20. 
ruv paffiXevovrvv xvpiev6vruv, of those reigning of those ruling) 
Spiritually and politically. 

16. Mo voc, only) This word only was properly put off in being 
treated of till now, because another similar phrase follows, 
l( Whom no man hath seen, nor can see." s^uv) having, and 
therefore about to give to us. aQavuffiav, immortality) The 
adjective Mdvarog, immortal, is not found in the New Testament, 
but apQaprog, incorruptible. The LXX. has neither d6dvaro$ nor 
adavaffia. The Book of Wisdom, which never existed but in 
Greek, has both. pug, light) After life, mention is immediately 
made of light. avrpoffirov) inaccessible to creatures, unless in as 
far as they are both admitted by Him and He goes forth to 
them. ovdetg dvfyu-Truv, no man) So Exod. xxxiii. 20 : That 
which is denied to mere men, John i. 18 ; 1 John iv. 12, will be 
vouchsafed to the saints ; Matt. v. 8 ; 1 Cor. xiii. 12; 1 John 
iii. 2 ; Rev. xxii. 4. 

17. To/$ -rXouff/o/s, the rich) There were many rich men at 

1 Who is the blessed and only Potentate, o Ivuuarvis is not the subject 
of 3g/fg/, but a predicate of its subject. ED. 

2 Bengel derives p<x,Kpio$ from py, and xqp, death ; and so dxqpetfros fr m 
* privative, and, death. The derivation of d^patrog is rather from 
a. and Mpavvvpi : and fAettdipios is of dubious etymon. Some give #*// (?). 

1 TIMOTHY VI. 18, 19. 285 

Ephesus. This forms the Appendix (the Postscript) of the 
epistle, which is of great importance. ^X-Tr/xera/, to have trust) 
This bad trust/ which nerves the grasp with which they cling 
to riches, checks the enjoyment (aoroXaixr/v), which Paul pre 
sently mentions. dS^XoV^r/, uncertain) [lit. the uncertainty of 
riches ]. We ought for this reason not to trust in wealth, because 
it is most uncertain, as regards the time to come (sis rb /^sXXov, 
ver. 19). lirl r& Qe&, upon, or in God) Al. Aug. 6, Boerner. Clar, 
Colb. 7, even more than these have IT/. So the antithesis is 
more expressly marked to the words, kiri irXovrou d^Xo njr/. 
Trust, when leaning upon God, is strong. The common read 
ing has sv, subjoining r& sti r wvr/, taken from ch. iv. 10, as 
I think; for AL Boern. Colb. 7, Rae. 2, Aeth. Lat. m M.S., 
Reutling, Gildas, Haimo, have not r& tyvn. 1 nXovoiug, richly) 
otherwise no one would be <rXou0vo, rich. ilc, aKoXauffiv, to enjoy) 
Enjoyment consists in giving, not in holding fast. Inactivity 
(i.e. the state of non-employment) should be far removed, as 
from man, so also from his resources : James v. 2, 3. 

18. AyaQozpyw) to aim to do good. To be rich in good works 
follows as the consequence of this diligence : ayaQbv and xaXot/ 
differ ; dyatfog involves at the sametime the idea of (divine) 
blessedness (comp. Mark x. 18, note) : xXo? includes in its 
notion, beauty. svpsradoroug, ["" ready to distribute"] liberal) in 
imparting, viz. individually. xo/cwv/xoOg, willing to communicate) 
by lending, by contributing for the common good, viz. along 
with many. In ordinary cases \i.e. where the grace of God 
does not change them], the rich are chiefly delighted with a divi 
sion [i.e. individual monopoly, as opposed to communicating^ in 
proceedings, plans, and properties, and are imperious and insolent. 

19. Aflro0j<rauf/ovrac sauro/g, laying up in store for themselves) 
The best kind of property w r hich is laid up " against the time 
to come." The antithesis is xoivuvixoug, willing to communicate. 
So Tob. iv. 10, [AV\ po/SoD rtots/v fr.sqfAQffww QS/UMX, >,ap ayaGw Qqtfau- 

t/g tip s pav avdyK7j$ : u be not afraid to perform works 

1 E*r2 is the reading of Lachm., with AD(A) corrected, G Orig. 1,7096 
cod. Tisch., with less authority, viz. f Vulg. Orig. cod., and Rec. Text, 
reads I*. These latter, except Vulg. (best MSS.), add TU gam to 
0w ; and so also D(A) and both Syr. Versions. But AG Orig. cod., g 
Vulg. (Amiat. ) Memph. and Theb. omit r$ m.- ED. 

286 1 TIMOTHY VI. 20. 

of charity, for thou wilt lay up for thyself a good deposit for 
the day of necessity." Otherwise the rich do not collect 
treasures for themselves, but for others. To collect by giving, 
forms a pleasant Oxymoron [see Append.] The preposition 
OOTO has admirable force in avodyiffauptfyvrag, apart [in store] for 
a distant time. fapehiw xaXov, a good foundation) An elliptical 
apposition, i.e. uvodviffavpffyvras dyaavpbv, namely, Qs/tsXiov %a\6v. 
The metaphor is cumulative, as in Ps. xxxvii. 5 (6), with the 
explanation of Gejer. He calls works of beneficence a good 
foundation, to which is opposed the uncertainty of riches. 
0tyteX/os, "ip % that on which we depend as a security (a bond), 
a pledge. [It is commonly called a basis (fundum). V. g.] 
ilc, TO fj,sX\ov, for the time to come) The antithesis is, in the present 
world (sv TU> vvv aiwi), ver. 17 ; comp. ch. iv. 8. sc/Xa/Swvra/, 
may lay hold) as persons emerging from shipwreck. The 
merchant saved from shipwreck [in this case, as contrasted 
with all other cases of shipwreck], finds his treasures sent home 
before him. In ver. 12 mention is made of a fight : the ex 
pression is the same, but the figure is different. rq$ l ovrut 
&%) Comp. ovrusy ch. v. 3, 5, 16. True life [that icJdch is life 
indeed ] from the living God. 

20. r ll Tifio&ss, Timothy) He calls him familiarly his son, ch. i. 
18, with gravity and affection. What comes last in ver. 20, 21, 
corresponds to the beginning of the epistle, and is to be explained 
from it. TVV KapaQfixqv, what is committed) i. 18. So the com 
mandment, ver. 14 ; 2 Tim. i. 14, note. The opposite in this 
passage is vain babblings, emptiness of words. rag (3s(3faove xevo- 
puvtag, profane and vain babblings) LXX., rov$ xzvoXoyovvras for 
D s 2SDn, Is. viii. 19. Barbarous words were formerly used by 
the Magi, which are said to have a secret power, though they 
have in reality none, and are altogether vain. Paul seems to have 
had respect to this circumstance, as he has substituted the more 
significant term; for <pwri, a voice, an utterance, expresses vehe 
mence; comp. 2 Tim. ii. 15, 16, note, [where r 

1 This reading, to which the larger Ed. had given rather little counte 
nance, is preferred to the reading <Wou. by the margin of the 2d Ed., 
with the concurrence of the Germ. Vers. E. B. 

AD(A) corrected, Gfg Vulg. read rw ovrvg. Rec. Text has r 
with only inferior uncial MSS. ED. 

1 TIMOTHY VI. 21. 287 

is opposed to xevopuviag ; the <puvr t , implying vehemence of voice, 
being opposed to temperate speech or word, Xoyog ]. Moreover, 
the word yvuffig agrees with the Hebrew \njrP, a wizard, in the 
passage quoted above, which the Greeks, in the books of Samuel 
and Kings at least, have interpreted yvw<rnjv [as we use the term, 
" a wise man," of a dealer in magic, a wizard]. And in this 
way, Paul calls the false teachers by the terms signifying magi 
and magic, to show how much he held them in abomination : 
comp. yoVsg, 2 Tim. iii. 13. Clemens Al., 1. 2, Strom, f. 280, 
puts under these words of Paul the following : u-ro ravrqg i 

r^g (puvqg 01 aero ruv a /psosuv, rag vrpbg TiftoQcov 
dg, " the heretics being reproved by this word (voice), 
reject the Epistles to Timothy." */ avriQsfcic, and oppositions) 
A false yvuffig, knowledge, curiously set forth (puffed off) various 
oppositions taken from philosophy, pretending that there are 
two Gods opposed to each other as rivals (avnrs^vovg), the one 
good and the other bad ; and in both, that there are wonderful 
avnffroi^tag, corresponding oppositions. Paul notices these oppo 
sitions, and at the same time severely ridicules them by a play 
on the words ; because their teachers oppose themselves to the 
truth, and their 6 scsig, positions [taken out of avrtQsaeig, op 
positions], are contrary to the * foundation already laid. See 
the conjugates, wnfaaridtfAevow; and depsXiog, 2 Tim. ii. 25, 19. 
On the other hand, Paul himself, in his epistles, especially to 
Timothy, handles most wise oppositions or &vri6i(tttg : for example, 
1 Tim. i. 7, 8 ; iii. 16 ; iv. 1, 6, 7, vi. 2, 3, 5, 6, 10, 11, where 
we have expressly, But thou [marking an antithesis]. More 
over 2 Tim. ii. 15-23, in which again the phrase, But thou, is 
frequent; ch. iii. 10, 14, iv. 5. ^svdwjpou yvutsug, of science 
falsely so called) which in ver. 21 is to be referred to science, 
by separating it from its epithet. The Gnostics, who are here 
denoted by a Metonymy of the abstract for the concrete, boasted 
of and applied the name science to their teaching; but Paul 
says that it was so named falsely ; they are without understand 
ing, ch. i. 7. 

21. TLspi rqv <rri(sriv r^To^ffoiv, they have erred concerning the 
faith) Although they attempt to appropriate to themselves 
v, science, and yvuaiv, knowledge, ver. 4, 20, and its 
v, accurate reasoning [Jiitting the mark, opposed to across , 

288 1 TIMOTHY VI. 21. 

1 miss the mark, err] and sagacity, yet they have lost the true 
sagacity, which is connected with faith, not comprehending 
what is to be believed, and what it is to believe ; comp. 2 Tim. iii. 
7, 8. i] xapic, grace) not unknown to thee. He briefly indicates 
it. [Atra <roD, with thee) No salutations to others are here added, 
for the epistle was not to be read in public. 




1. naD>.o, Paul} This epistle has three divisions. 

hinted at. 

1. He expresses his affection for Timothy, 3, 4, 

And kindly exhorts him : BE NOT ASHAMED OF ME, 
ver. 6, 7 ; to which are subjoined sad instances of 
abandonment, ver. 15, and blessed examples of 
attachment, 16, 17. 

2. The twofold proposition, BE STRONG, and COMMIT thy 

office to faithful men, ch. ii. 1, 2. The first part is 
treated, ver. 3-13 ; the second, ver. 14, with an ex 
hortation to Timothy to behave himself as a man of 
God before his journey, 15, 16 ; iii. 1, 2 ; iv. 1, 2. 

3. COME QUICKLY, ver. 9. Here Paul 

1. Mentions his solitary state, 10, 11. 

2. He orders his books to be brought, 13. 

3. He admonishes him concerning the adversary, 

14, 15. 

4. He points out the inconstancy of men, and pro 

claims the faithfulness of God, 16, 17. 

290 2 TIMOTHY I. 2-3. 

4. COME BEFORE WINTER. This invitation is encom 
passed with salutations, 19, 20. 


Paul wished Timothy to come to him in prison without fear ; 
and he was about to deliver up to him before his decease the 
lamp (torch-light) 1 of the evangelical office, ch. iv. 5, 6. This 
epistle is the testament and last words [" cygnea cantio," swan- 
like death-song] of Paul. It was written long after the first 
Epistle to Timothy, and yet the tone of both is very much alike. 
xar sKayyt/.iav, according to the promise) Paul subserves the 
fulfilment of this promise in the discharge of his office. So xarb, 
according to, in accordance with, John ii. 6 : comp. on the particle 
and on the truth itself, Tit. i. 1, 2. w5jg, of life) prepared both 
for me and thee and the elect. This is the secret spring of the 
power, which he exhibits in exhorting Timothy, ver. 10 ; ii. 8. 
[In fact the journey whick he wishes to le undertaken ly Timothy 
did not seem to le without risk of life. A r . g.] 

2. AyacTTjr&D, dearly beloved) An appropriate epithet ; for the 
strongest declaration of love follows. In the first epistle he had 
written, my genuine [yvj<rfy] : that is compensated for here in ver. 
5 [by the expression, rr^ & <roi awzoxpirov <riorew$, the unfeigned faith 
that is in thee, which corresponds to it]. 

3. xdpiv s;/w, 1 feel thankful) Drawing very near to his mar 
tyrdom, still he gives thanks. Paul feels thankful to God for the 
faith bestowed on Timothy, ver. 5. Therefore from ug 

as [not that, as Engl. Vers.] without .ceasing., to y^pac, 
might I e filed with joy, is put as a parenthesis, to explain those 
things which follow, vv6/j,vr,giv >.a//,/3avwi/, calling to (or rather, 
receiving a) remembrance, etc. : for wg, even as, inasmuch as, is an 
explanatory particle. f t.arptvu, ichom I serve) Rom. i. 9, note. 
d-~o Kpoyovuv, from the [our] [not my, as Engl. Vers.] forefathers) 
Paul means the forefathers ; not Abraham, etc., whom he calls 
rovg crar^ac, tJie fathers [Kom. ix. 5], never Kpoyovov;, forefathers 
or ancestors, but the immediate progenitors ; and signifies their 
long continuance in the true religion all along from an earlier age 

1 Alluding to the ancient torch-races of the hetftTrotbvjQopot, in which the 
torch was handed by the runners from hand to hand. ED. 


of mankind, whether Paul s ancestors were themselves godly men, 
which is highly probable, or not ; for he does not add, my. The 
memory of those who have gone before, and to whom he is being 
[i.e. about to be] gathered, delights him, now that he is pre 
pared to die. He even calls to remembrance Timothy s grand 
mother and mother, ver. 5. This epistle especially has some 
thing of the ripeness of old age, mild and good-natured [con 

4. E4tMrodn <fs /defy earnestly desiring to seethee) He begins his 
invitation to Timothy at first gradually. f^sf^v^vog aou ruv 
dauipvuv) remembering thy tears) He seems not merely to speak of 
the former tears of Timothy shed at bidding Paul farewell (for 
tears are usually elicited at parting, comp. Acts xx. 37), but of 
his habitual tears under the influence of pious feeling. In this 
respect also he had him like-minded [Phil. ii. 20] with himself: 
Acts xx. 19, note. Tears, the flower of the heart, indicate either 
the greatest hypocrisy or the utmost sincerity. Turning tears 
into ridicule is a proof of the depravity of our age. /W, in 
order that) Construe with !8sTv } to see thee [not with 

5. Tffo/xvjjo /v Xa/,/3ai/wi/, receiving a remembrance) [a reminis 
cence reminding me] Some external occasion, or a message from 
Timothy, had brought his faith to Paul s remembrance [not as 
Engl. Vers. " When I call to remembrance"]. Ammonius says, 
" ava/j,vr)fftg is, when a man comes to the remembrance of things 
past IvfavwiS) when they are suggested to him by another 
[whether person, or thing]. 1 cr/Vrsw;, of faith) Among all the 
virtues of Timothy, faith is most to the purpose which Paul has 
in view. svu/^ffe, dwelt in) This word conveys the idea of con 
tinuance [had its fixed dwelling in]. Kp&rov) first, perhaps be 
fore the birth of Timothy. So far the remembrance of Paul 
reaches. What the condition of the parents of Lois was, is not 
mentioned. papf&fo grandmother) The remembrance of the dead 
is pleasant to intimate friends, especially to those whose death is 
at hand, and to the posterity of the dead. wrp}, mother) She had 
married a Greek. Evvsixy, Eunice) That name is found in 

1 They differ as the German Andenken and Erinnerung : pvypYi and 
memory or recalling to mind, and the act of putting in mind or the 
being reminded. See Tittm. Syn. and Wahl Lex. ED. 

292 2 TIMOTHY I. 6, 7. 

Hesiod s Theogony. Lois seems to have been the mother of 
Eunice, and both were dead. 

6. A/ r,v ahiM, for which cause) namely, because I have been 
reminded, vKtfAvqffdriv [referring to ver. 5, vxopvqffiv Xu/jt,f3dvuv~], 
avafiifAvrjffKu^ I put thee in remembrance) Being reminded himself, 
he puts others [sc. Timothy] in mind. ava^uvvpeTv) to stir up. 1 
The same word occurs, Gen.xlv. 27, 1 Mace. xiii. 7 : fyxvpsu, of 
raising the dead, 2 Kings viii. 1, 5. The opposite gpswveiv, to 
extinguish ; Matt. xxv. 8 : 1 Thess. v. 19. Timothy, being long 
without Paul, seems to have become somewhat remiss ; comp. 
note to ch. ii. 22 : at least he is now stirred up to greater exer 
tions. TO xapuf/jM, the gift) which is joined with faith, ver. 5 : 
and is energetic and lively, ver. 7. 

7. H.vs\jij,a,y spirit) That is, the spirit which God has given us 
is not the spirit of fear, but of power, etc. Hence arises the tes 
timony which believers give, spoken of in the following verse and 
in John xv. 26, 27 [ye also shall Lear witness, etc.]. ds/X/ac) 
Eustathius says, dsiXos o Bsdiug rag /Xas, one that is afraid of troops 
of soldiers ; 2 comp. Sir. xxxvii. (11) 12. This derivation is quite 
in consonance with the sense here; comp. ch. ii. 3. The fear 
meant is that, of which the causes are in the mind, rather than 
from without. This fear within in too great a degree exaggerates 
the causes which are -without. The act of fear always has its 
cause in the mind, but a courageous disposition repels and over 
comes external causes. duvd/Aeug) of power. Avvd,uis, power, 
strength, is opposed to fear. Divine power in us, not our own, 
is intended ; see ver. 8 ; and so of love and sober-mindedness. 
[They also, the ayacn? and ffuppoviff/ubg (which Engl. Vers. renders 
a sound mind) meant, are not our own, but are created by God 
in us]. All these operate in us, and animate us to the discharge 
of our duties towards God, the saints, and ourselves. Power 
[strength] and sober-mindedness are the two extremes, but these 
in a good sense ; love is in the middle, and is the bond, and as it 
were the check upon both, taking away [counteracting the 
liability to] the two bad extremes, timidity and rashness. Con 
cerning strength or power, see ver. 8, etc. ; concerning love, ch. 

1 Lit. to rekindle or revive the spark of; Th. oivx ucv Trvp. En. 

2 This is one of the fanciful etymologies of Scholiasts. The Aoc is 
simply a common adjectival termination ; the root is of course Sg/o^. ED. 

2 TIMOTHY I. 8, 9. 293 

ii. 14, etc. ; concerning sober-mindedness, ch. iii. 1, etc. [These 
gifts are preferable to any miraculous powers whatever. V. g.] 
xa/ d/aTTjg, and of love) Moreover love embraces even those who 
are prisoners [in a spirit of bondage], by driving out fear ; comp. 
1 John iv. 18. xa/ ffuppoviff/tou, and of sober-mindedness) This is 
a verbal noun [the being sober-minded]. The duty of young 
men is truppovifyatOai, to act with sober-mindedness, Tit. ii. 4, 6 : 
and Timothy was a young man, ch. ii. 22 ; 1 Tim. iv. 12. He 
is therefore admonished to give up all the advantages and plea 
sures of life, ch. ii. 4, and to remove the thorns, by which he 
may be entangled; Luke viii. 14. The Spirit teaches this 
lesson ; and he who learns it, is delivered from fear, and heartily 
embraces the testimony of his Lord. 

8. Mij ouv svaiffxvvQfjs, be not thou therefore ashamed) Shame is 
the companion of fear ; if fear be overcome, false shame flees 
away. Comp. ver. 12, 16, w r here Paul proposes his own 
example and that of Onesiphorus, adding, in conjunction with 
this, examples of a contrary character in ver. 15. ro\j Kvpfou 
ripuv, of our Lord ) A rare Antonomasia. 1 Elsewhere Paul either 
omits our, or adds the name of Jesus Christ. Now, when he 
says our Lord, he places Him in opposition to Caesar, whom his 
courtiers so called. ^8s s^s, nor of me) The cause of the ser 
vants of God cannot be separated from the cause of God. 
rov diction, His prisoner) Men are easily ashamed of those that 
are in prison, especially at Rome. tfyyxaxota^tfov, but be thou 
partaker of the afflictions) Suffer afflictions [Endure hardness], 
ch. ii. 3, 4, 5 : and that too together with me and with the Gospel. 
duvapiv, power) This, which is far above all things beside, is 
nervously described, ver. 9, 10 ; and at the same time the pre 
vious exhortation, ver. 8, is deduced from the subject itself", and 
derives its strength from the following description, ver. 9, 10. 
sou, of God) Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit are mentioned, 
ver. 13, 14. 

9. 2w<rvrog, who has saved) by conversion ; Acts ii. 47. There 
is here an excellent description of the love of the Father, of the 
grace of the Saviour, and of the whole economy of salvation, 
for the propagation of which it is worth while to suffer and die. 

1 A common or general designation, used instead of a proper name : 
Kvpiov for Invov. Append. ED. 

294 2 TIMOTHY I. 10. 

This salvation is not merely a thing to be acquired (acqiiisitiva), 
but a thing to be applied (applicativa), for this very reason, that 
it is so closely connected with the calling. All the things which 
are placed, ver. 9, under Kara, in actual fact [in the very act] 
precede salvation and calling. Salvation and calling, in point of 
fact, follow. If a man comes into the state of being called, this 
is already the beginning of his whole salvation ; and in this 
sense calling is a part of salvation : salvation is the whole, but 
both are very closely connected. The anxiety itself of the 
Shepherd is prior to the actual time of the little sheep hearing 
the voice of the Shepherd. -/JKfan //>/, with a lioly calling} 
which is entirely from God, and claims us entirely for God. The 
holiness and Divine origin of this calling is afterwards more fully 
described, especially as the epithet iolav, Ills own, excludes our 
own works. idtav, His own) liom. ix. 11; Eph. ii. 8 ; 1 Tim. 
vi. 15, note. rr t v doQiftav, given to us) Before we existed, it was 
given to us, the Mediator even already at that time receiving it. 
sv Xpiffrw ljtfoCJ diat, *Ij<roCf Xp/tfroD, in Christ Jesus by of 
Christ Jesus) The name Christ is very skilfully put first when 
the old economy is mentioned ; the name Jesus, when the new 
economy is mentioned. <r/?o yj>ww aiwiuv, before eternal ages) 
Tit. i. 2 ; Rom. xvi. 25, note. 

10. ^avepadsTeav, manifested) Those remarkable words, rr,$ 
l-jrKpuvziac, the appearing, and purfaavros, bringing to light, agree 
with this expression. J ;?/ i^/a;, appearing) in the flesh. It 
does not merely mean here the very act of His coming, but the 
whole time of the abode of Christ among men. -rbv ddvarov, 
death) The article is used here emphatically and designedly. 
Paul in this passage, as it were, directly abolishes death. 1 Hence 
the soldier of Christ ought now no longer to fear death. purl- 
ffavrog, bringing to light [exposing to the light]) An abbreviated 
expression : implying, and has procured for us (that should be 
supplied from the antithetic word Kurapyviffavrog, who has abo 
lished) and has brought to light by the Gospel ; comp. Eph. ii. 
17. fyriv xai apQapffiav) A Hendiadys. did, ro r j) Schoettgenius 
construes this with /c/J<Tvroc, ver. 9. We may construe thus : 

1 The article is often used to express a thing in the abstract. Death, 
not merely in some particular instance, but in all its aspects and bearings, 
and in its very essence, being, and idea, is abolished. ED. 

2 TIMOTHY I. 11-13. 295 

/ rr^ (xa/) dia rov evayyeXiov, made manifest by 
His appearing (and) by the Gospel. 

11. Edvuv, of the Gentiles) Construe this not only with teacher, 
but also with preacher and apostle. There are three designations, 
preacher, apostle, teacher. I. A public preacher is one who may 
discharge his office even in one and the same place. II. An 

tile goes about everywhere ; but he would have fully satisfied 
the requirements of his apostolic office, if he had once for all 
declared his message. III. Teacher. Here we have in addition 
diligence and perseverance in teaching ; from which arose suf 

12. TaSra xdffy^u, 1 suffer these things) These adversities hap 
pen to me. yap, for) Confidence as to the future drives away 
shame. w) He says f, not r m. I know Him, in tvhom 1 I have 
placed my faith, although the world knows Him not. Ts^/Vrsuxa) 
I have believed, and committed to Him my deposit. Here the 
faithfulness of God is intended ; comp. ch. ii. 13 : His power 
also is presently afterwards mentioned [He is able]. ^s^&ia^ai, 
I am persuaded) Rom. viii. 38. dwarbg, able) against so many 
enemies. rqv irapaQfaw, my deposit) There is one deposit which, 
committed to us by God, we ought to keep, ver. 13 $ comp. ch. 
ii. 2, vapdQov, commit : there is another which, committed to 
God by us, and mentioned in this verse, He keeps ; and this is 
indeed our soul, 1 Pet. iv. 19 ; comp. Luke xxiii. 46, that is, 
ourselves and our heavenly portion. Paul, with death imme 
diately before him, had two deposits, one to be committed to the 
Lord, and another to Timothy. <p uXaga/, to keep) even in death. 
Ixe/vjjv, that) ver. 18, ch. iv. 8. 

13. TKorviruMv 2 ) YtforvTroopai, I revolve in the mind. Therefore 
Paul wishes that those things which Timothy had once heard, 
should be always kept in view, and should remain impressed on 

1 Not T/W, Who the person is, in whom : T/W. ED. 

2 Engl. Vers. translates the form. Beng. takes it, a lively and lasting 
mental impression. ED. 

However Wahl, Clavis, translates it, delineatio, forma, * a delineation," 
" a form," from vKorvvoofAott, adumbro, delineo, Poll. xxii. 13,6, " I give 
an outline or sketch of." If any particular form of sound words were 
meant, TJZ/ would have been prefixed. The Engl. Vers., without warrant, 
gives the article. The absence of it makes Bengel s interpretation likely. 

296 2 TIMOTHY I. H-16. 

his mind. It is from this that an outward profession must de 
rive its strength. Paul placed before Timothy faith and love : 
let Timothy i express and represent in turn [alluding to 
vKorwruffig, rucro?] faith and love. s^s) hold : a word suited to 
the context, which is respecting a deposit. He uses g^e, not 
;//. Nor was it the intention of Paul to give as a teacher 
information to Timothy about the sum of sound words [a verbal 
summary of the plan of salvation]. -Trap J/xoD #xouraf, which 
from me tlwu hast heard) Comp. ii. 2, where thou hast heard of 
me, occurs in a different order of the words. Here indeed, 
ver. 13, the authority of Paul is urged as a reason, why he 
should hold it the more on that account ; hence from me 
is put first. But ch. ii. 2, thou hast heard, and commit, 
are the words in antithesis ; hence thou hast heard is put 
first. ev } in) Construed with iy^, hold ; comp. 1 Tim. 
iii. 9. 

14. T^ xaX^v tfctpaQqxviy, this good deposit) namely, the sound 
words [words of salvation] which I have committed to thee ; 
comp. ch. ii. 2. fi/a Tivsv^arog Ay/ou, by the Holy Spirit) He is 
the earnest of the heavenly deposit, which he who keeps, also 
keeps the deposit committed to him ; whence His indwelling is 
pressed upon our notice. 

15. ATTBffrpdipriffuv //,, have turned away from me) at Rome, 
ch. iv. 16. sv ry At/a, in Asia) They therefore returned thither. 
Not so Timothy, although he was also in Asia at Ephesus. 
<btiyAXo Tial Efiu-oygvTjf, Phygellus and Hermogenes) One might 
perhaps have thought, that these would have been more steady 
than the others. 

16. Aw??, give) He does not make use of any imprecations 
against those who had been unfaithful to him, ver. 15. Pie 
offers the most excellent prayer for those who had stood fast. 
The categorical or absolute sentence implied is this : Onesi- 
phorus was beautifully consistent. The feeling forms a modal 
discourse [gives the sentence its modal form. See Append., 
" Sermo modalis"]. SASOC, mercy) Onesiphorus had abounded 
in works of mercy. 6 Ku^/o;, the Lord) Christ. r% Ovr)ffi<p6pov 
o/xw, the house of Onesiphorus) at Ephesus, ver. 18, ch. iv. 19. 
Onesiphorus himself was absent, or was already then dead. 
Paul therefore honours the survivors by his wish, nay, 


also himself, 1 ver. 18. -roXAax/s, often) at Ephesus and 

17. Ka/ sups, and found) by Divine aid. A great thing in so 
great a city, where not many would care for Paul a prisoner. 
The word, find, in ver. 18, corresponds to this expression. He 
found rne in so great a crowd : may he find mercy in that day 
of the general assembly of all men. A similar allusion occurs 
twice, ch. ii. 9, note. 

18. AWTJ, give) A pathetic Anaphora [the frequent repetition 
of a word in beginnings of sections. See ver. 16, " The Lord 
give" ] ur#, to himself) An antithesis to his house. 6 Kbpio$, 
the Lord) Christ, for whom he so acted [to whom he rendered 
that service, Matt. xxv. 45]. cra/?a Kup/oy, from the Lord) The 
same Christ, who shall reward him. The noun for the reciprocal 
pronoun, with emphasis, as Luke xi. 17, note; 2 Thess. iii. 5. 
divixovritie, ministered) even after my departure ; 1 Tim. i. 3. 
(3 sXnov) better than I [not as Engl. Vers. very well]. 


1. 20, thou) The exhortation is intensified ; ver. 3, ch. iii. 10, 
note [in antithesis to the previously mentioned backsliders, 
ch. i. 15]. r exvov ftov, my son) An argument why Timothy 
should imitate Paul, viz. from his spiritual relationship. evdwa- 
IM\J) i. 7, be strong , and show thyself to be so. [This is treated 
of in ver. 313. V. g.] sv ry %p/r/ ? in the grace) Common 
grace incites and strengthens us even for extraordinary duties. 
It is an incentive and stimulus. 

2. A/a, by) before, 1 Tim. vi. 12. irapafov, commit) before 
thou comest thence to me. -7r/<rro/c, to faithful men) This is to 
be the distinguishing grace to be sought for in those to whom 

1 That Onesiphorus was dead is a gratuitous assumption. The fact that 
Paul nowhere else prays for the dead, is fatal to the notion here. Beng., by 
the word < voto, wish, probably implies that Paul does not here pray, but 
wish, that in that day it may be found Onesiphorus is among those who 
are to obtain mercy. ED. 

21)8 2 TIMOTHY II. 3-8. 

them committest this trust or deposit. [This is treated of in 
ver. 1421. V. g.] etfovrai, shall be) after thy departure. 

3. 2.) ovv, thou then) An Anaphora; 1 com p. ver. 1. Timothy 
is here, ver. 3, called to higher duties ; comp. ver. 2. 

4. Ovdsis, no man) The word abstain (abstinence) is recom 
mended in this verse : sustain 2 (endurance) is added to the 
recommendation in the next. ffrparsvopsvot:, warring} Do with 
all thy might what thou art doing. xpuy/jtareiaig, with the affairs 
[matters of business] of this life) in which merchants and work 
men are involved. upttfr,, may please) being entirely devoted 
to the duties of a soldier. 

7. N&e/) attend to, consider, what I say : ffuvsovg, understanding, 
is of the divine gift ; vosfy to consider, is the part of a well- 
minded man. Paul says this, if you compare ver. 6 with 
ver. 5. If the husbandman (Timothy) hath (or shall have) 
laboured, then first he ought (he is entitled) to partake of the 
fruits (in which the resurrection of Christ abounds, ver. 8, 11, 
12) ; but if this were the whole meaning of Paul, he would have 
said, TOV ftsraXvi ^opsvov cuT -/jj^iav. Therefore from this seventh 
verse we may gather that a thought rather different is involved 
in this expression, which amounts to this : Paul trained the 
mind of Timothy, i. 6 ; therefore fruits are chiefly due to him 
from Timothy. In tins view, Paul does not openly require, 
as is necessary in addressing dull men, but by amphibology 
and enigma, that Timothy should ingenuously acknowledge 
and perform the duty ; and this he does by three comparisons 
taken from the employment of the soldier, the wrestler, the 
husbandman. d Jr/i yap ffot, for may the Lord give to thee) The 
meaning is, He will give ; there is thus a connection between 
consider and for ; but affection adds the modus or qdos [see 
Append, on "Modalis Sermo." Here the imperative mood ex 
presses the feeling ]. 6 Kif/oc, the Lord) Christ. sv vracv, in all 
things) He had already given him understanding in many things : 
this being taken for granted, Paul says, May He give it in all 

8. Mvtytt&i/gys) remember, so that thou mayest follow. Paul, 

1 Frequent repetition of the same word in beginnings. Append. ED. 

2 It is here in the sense of withstand. It was thought right to use it to 
give the reader an idea of the antithesis in the original. TR. 

2 TIMOTHY II. 9-13. 299 

as usual, quickens (gives life to) his own example by the 
example of Christ. lyriyspittw sx vsxpuv) An abbreviated ex 
pression, i.e. Who died and was raised from the dead; so we 
[if we are to share His resurrection, must share His death], 
ver. 11. Kara, according to, depends on these words. IK tivsp- 
jtarog Aau/d, of the seed of David) He wishes Timothy to attend 
to this one genealogy [as opposed to the other * genealogies, 
1 Tim. i. 4], which serves as a proof that Jesus is the Christ. 

9. Ev f>, in which) viz. in the Gospel. zaxo<7rat)Sj, / suffer 
[trouble]} xaxofyyos, an evil-doer, is the conjugate. The evil of 
suffering [is my portion], as if the evil of doing had preceded 
it [on my part]. faffpuv, bonds) Ou dsdsrai, is not bound, is 
the conjugate. ug xaxoupyos, as an evil-doer) attended witli 
danger of life and with disgrace. ou dsdsrai) is not bound, i.e. 
makes progress without hindrance. 

10. A/d rovro, for this cause) because the Gospel runs forward, 
while I am bound. ff^r^piag ///srd Sogjjg, salvation with glory) 
There is an exquisite propriety in the words : fiurypia, salvation, 
viz. the deliverance from evil, is the privilege of those receiving 
faith : d6%a, glory, viz. the abundance of good things, is the 
privilege of those reaching the goal, Acts ii. 47 ; Rom. viii. 24, 
21 : [comp. Ps. Ixxxiv. 12.] 

11. SuvaffMvdftev) The e-jv occurs thrice in the compound verbs 
here : viz. with Christ : ff-jva^dvo/^sv, in the sense of the preterite, 
having respect to them that hope for life. 

12. YiroftsvofMv, we endure) The present and something more 
significant, and reaching further than to die ; therefore also there 
is a further reward than life, viz. the kingdom. si apvobpsdu, if 
we deny) with the mouth. If we do not believe, viz. with the 
heart, follows in the next verse. The denial is put first, for 
it extinguishes the faith which had previously existed. xqattTvos, 
He also) Christ. 

13. Hiffrbg j&svei, remains faithful) This expression, by corn- 
paring with it, lie will deny, most sweetly affects beyond his 
expectation the faithful (believing) reader, 1 who is not to be 
denied : He remains faithful to Himself, viz. towards [in rela 
tion to] us, who are unlike Him. \_It is therefore our own fault, 

1 Comforts him by the implied promise coming in unexpectedly in the 
midst of threats. ED. 

300 2 TIMOTHY II. 14, 15. 

if we fall away. V. g.] Thus the subsequent axiom corre 
sponds to it, He cannot deny, etc. So in Dent. vii. 9, 10, He is 
praised as the faithful God, 6 sb<; 6 KHSTOS, who both rewards the 
godly and takes vengeance on them that hate Him. ou dvvarai, 
He cannot) This impossibility is worthy of our praise: Jer. 
xliv. 22. 

14. TaDra) of these things, which thou hast heard of me, 
ver. 2. vyroftifAvqaxe, put in remembrance) them, over whom thou 
presides! ; Tit. iii. 1. ev&iriov rov Kvp/ov, before the Lord) Comp. 
1 Tim. v. 21, note [referring to the last judgment, but includ 
ing also the present time]. /^ ^cyo/Au^ti) Logomachy here 
does not mean a battle about words, but a battle which is en 
gaged in by words, ver. 23, 24, about the most important matters, 
ver. 17, 18- Comp. Acts xviii. 15. yj^Gi Mv, useful) viz. ov 
[" which tends to nothing useful to no profit" *]. The accusative 
absolute, as in Luke xxiv. 47. E^p^drov, admirably useful 
["meet for the Master s wse"], ver. 21, corresponds to it. 
IT/, tending to, or resulting in) They are not only not profitable, 
but they are also injurious and subvert. ET/ expresses the con 
sequence, as in 1 Thess. iv. 7, ou/t IT/ axaQapaiq,, not to unclean- 
ness. Subversion is opposed to edification. 

15. 2fl-ou5a(ro!>, be diligent [study]) A word suited to the cha 
racter of the whole epistle. ffeavrov, thyself) An antithesis to 
the work [ver. 21], of which workman is the conjugate. doxi/uov) 
approved unto God ; not reprobate unto every good ivork, Tit. 
i. 16, but having his work perfect, James i. 4. Hesychius : 
d6xi,Mov, xpqffi/Aov., rsXsiov. spydrriv avi<7raiff%vvrov, a workman not 
ashamed) to whom thy own conscience can occasion no shame. 
The Scholiast quoted by Pricaaus explains ave^aia^vvrov by 
tfappqffiafyfievov ; comp. Phil. i. 20. Op&oropovvra, follows, viz. one 
who will extend the word of truth among all others. 6p9oTo/j,ovvra) 
Here many are of opinion that the idea of cutting is implied ; 
but the Vulgate translates it, " recte tractantem," rightly treating 
or handling : an excellent rendering ; comp. LXX., Prov. iii. (5, 
xi. 5, opOoroptfv odoi)$, the same as in Latin, secare viam, " to 
travel a road" to make one s way. 2 Nor clo Ktvoro/Aia, xepropfa, 

1 Or, perhaps, Bengel construes it rather. " Which is useful for nothing," 
Xpqfftftov sis oiJ^ev. El). 

2 In which the idea of cutting does not enter; so Tttivtiv o Bo y. ED. 

2 TIMOTHY II. 16. 301 

mean cutting in the literal sense (xeap, the heart is cut, meta 
phorically, by xeprofAiav), nor xaivorop scij, PV/AOTO{ASU idvrofiog oJ/&og. 
The literal meaning and force of the opdos is rather to be re 
tained in opQoro/jLoiivra : for in the passages quoted [where bpSoro^v 
is in the LXX,] we find the Hebrew word "it^, and this form of 
the verb might have been expressed by the same Greek verb 
in 2 Chron. xxxii. 30, concerning a water-course, and Ps. cxix. 
128, concerning the Divine word itself. Therefore the meaning 
of Paul is, that Timothy may prepare a right course (may make 
ready a straight way) for the word of truth, and may himself 
walk straight forward according to this line, turning neither 
to the right nor to the left hand, teaching no other doctrine, 
1 Tim. i. 3 ; and in this view the antithesis of the word, will 
go forward, 1 which presently occurs, ver. 16, is more clearly 
perceived. rbv X6yov rr\g aXqdsias, the word of truth) The anti 
thesis occurs presently after, x.zvo<puvia,g, of which the first part 
of the compound, signifying empty, is opposed to truth (X>j0/a$) ; 
the last part, involving vehemence of voice, is opposed to the 
temperate word (rbv Xoyov). 

16. Tag de) So ver. 21, 22, by Anaphora [The frequent repe 
tition of words at beginnings. Append.]. Therefore profane 
vain babblings, which maintain great errors, differ from questions 
(1 Tim. vi. 4) about things not worth a straw ; the former are 
pernicious, the latter useless (unprofitable), Tit. iii. 9. Trsp/iVrarfo) 
The same word, ibid. : in which ffspl elegantly means the same 
thing, as in ffsp/yivo^ai ; but Kepiyivo/Aai [I am over and above, I 
overcome, I get the better of another] denotes the act of separat 
ing and overcoming ; Kspitarapai, the state. Timothy had never 
entangled himself; therefore Paul exhorts him to continued 
stedfastness : remain thou separate. \<xl crXs/bi/ affs(3siag) to a 
greater degree of ungodliness. So IKI cr?,g/bv KaKt ag Kpofiaivuv, to 
advance more in vice. Diodorus Siculus quoted by Pricseus. 
ffpoKo-^ovct, they shall go forward) namely, those who give utter 
ance to such vain babblings. To this subject ( those ) we also 
are to refer the word their, ver. 17. There is in it a Mimesis, 2 

w, Engl. Vers., " will increase." The metaphor is from 
pioneers clearing the way before an army, by cutting down all obstacles : 
TTjoo and XOTTTM ; hence, to make progress, to advance. ED. 

2 An allusion to the language which those seducers used. They no 

302 2 TIMOTHY II. 17-19. 

as afterwards in the phrase vo^v g Jg/, will have pasture, will eat. 
These men think they are going forward in sacred things. The 
future is used in its strict sense ; for it is a prediction, as in will 
have pasture (will eat) in the next verse ; comp. iii. 1. 

17. T/t&$, Hymenceus) who continued pertinacious ; comp. 
1 Tim. i. 20. 7.0.1 <b r/.r~og, and Philetus) who assented to 

18. Tr t v avaffraffiv, the resurrection) Perhaps these Ephesians 
had laid hold of a pretext taken from Paul s own Epistle to the 
Ephesians, Eph. ii. (5. Clemens Al. says, that the defamers of 
marriage interpreted the resurrection [wherein " they neither 
marry nor are given in marriage "], Luke xx. 35, concerning 
this life. [/So the hope of eternal life was taken away. V. g.] 
AmrpsKouffij subvert) The figure is derived from a foundation, a 
house; see the following verses. 

19. O pswi ffTspeo; [ ; nevertheless, Engl. Yers.], indeed sure) 
The antithesis is, tliey subvert., ver. 18 : add by all means the 
note on 1 Tim. iii. 15. Indeed (/Agvro/) has its Apodosis in the 
os, but, ver. 20. de/A&ios rot eov, the foundation of God) Hebr. 
"ip^, foundation, that is, the subject which is the point at issue 
(the matter in question) ; for example, in a contract [the subject- 
matter, which is the foundation on which the contract rests], as 
Sam. Petitus observes, Yar. Lect. c. 10. The foundation of God, 
on which they who are His depend, so that they cannot be over 
thrown, is the immoveable faithfulness of God. sffrqxev, hath 
stood and stands) It is said to stand, for to remain unmoved as a 
sentence, a decree, is said to stand [to be fixed]. The word desist, 
presently occurring, corresponds to it [ Acrotrr^rw and egrqxev are 
conjugates]. Paul expresses the meaning of D^pn to be firm, sure. 
(fppayTdct, the seal) Sentences in former times were wont to be 
engraven on seals. 7-a-j~r,v, this) to which the whole remaining 
part of this verse is to be referred. syvu K-jpiog, the Lord knows) 
-7Tsff/(:~~ai "/.a/ svrsyvo) o Qsog rovg ovrag uv~o\j, zat rovg ay/ov* 
wpoffrr/dyzro xpb; eavrov, God has looked upon and knoivs them that 
are His, and draws His saints near to Him, Num. xvi. 5. He 
knows His own in love, nor ceases to know them, but always 

doubt flattered themselves they were going forward (TrpoxoTrrsm), and had 
spiritual pasturage or eating (i/o^j/ t^st). To this Paul replies by allusion, 
using the words in a bad sense. ED. 

2 TIMOTHY II. 20, 21. 303 

preserves them as His ; and that fact jni 11 He will make known, 
ibid. xa ; ? and) Observe, says Petitus, according to Paul, that 
some words were written on both sides on the round surface of 
the seal ; for on the one face of the seal these words are read, 
the Lord knows, etc., but on the other, let him desist, etc. 
a-irb dd/x/ag, let him desist from iniquity) Ibid., ver. 26 : 
TS afto TC/JV ffK^vuv TMV avQp&fruy r&v ffxhqpuv rovrwv, be 
separated from the tents of these wicked men. Paul uses the 
abstract, iniquity, for the concrete ; comp. ver. 21 (note), if a man 
by purging himself shall go forth from these ; and at the same time 
he has regard to that passage of Is. lii. 11, AIIO2THTE, etc., 
(AKA0APTOT) ; be ye clean that bear the VESSELS (2KETH) of 
the Lord." The Imperative, let him desist, pronounced in the 
name of God, implies power to depart; and also implies the 
blessedness of those who depart. crag 6 bvo/ud^uv) every one that 
names the name of Christ, as his Lord : comp. Acts xix. 13, 
note. That is done by preaching, Jer. xx. 9, and by celebrating 
His name, Ps. xx. 7. rb ovo/o-a, the name) Concerning the name 
of the Lord, concerning the Lord knowing none save His own, 
concerning unrighteousness, comp. Matt. vii. 22, 23. 

20. MgyaX??, great) Such is the Church. yjpMu. xa/ apyupa, of 
gold and of silver) of precious materials, hard, able to endure 
fire. ^vXiva xa/ (xtrpdxiva, of wood and earth) of viler materials, 
fragile, and fearing the fire. xa/ a psv a ds) and the former in 
deed, viz. those of gold, to honour ; but the latter, viz. those of 
wood, to quite a different purpose. Even the gold vessel may be 
applied to dishonourable purposes ; that of wood, to such as are 
honourable ; but that does not easily happen in a well regulated 
household. Members of the Church inferior in point of gifts and 
degrees of faith and sanctification are not vessels for dishonour, 
nor ought any one exxaQafpeiv, to purge himself from these. 

21. Eav olv ng, if a man therefore) for example, Timothy. 
ixxaldpfj eatvrrjv anl rovruv) by purging himself, shall go forth from 
the number of these vessels, to dishonour. The active voice with 
the reciprocal pronoun indicates the utmost freedom of pow r er on 
the part of believers. fiyiaap svov, sanctified) The peculiar pro 
perty of God, and entirely devoted to Him. xa/, and) s!g rtfj^v 

v, for honour prepared, forms four clauses ; of 

304 2 TIMOTHY II. 22-24. 

which the first is explained by the second, the third by the fourth. 
Therefore and connects these two pairs. Cornp. iii. 17, apnog 
sfypTiffft evos. r& dsffKorr,, truly-serviceable to the Master) viz. God, 
whose house Paul in his epistles to Timothy calls the church. 
crav ipyov dyadbv, every good work) ch. iii. 17 ; Tit. i. 16. 

22. Nswrsp/xas, youthful) in which young men indulge; 1 
John ii. 16, note ; and which are hurtful to the purity of hearty 
spoken of presently in this ver. and ver. 21. Paul had formerly 
warned Timothy against old wives fables and against the drink 
ing of watery 1 Tim. iv. 7, v. 23 : now he warns him against 
the other extreme, youthful lusts. <5/xa/o<n!/y?jv, righteousness) 
This is put in the first place, in opposition to iniquity, ver. 19. 

/Aird, with) Construed with peace. 1 Zeal for party, w r here that 
party is holy, is holy zeal; Horn. xii. 9; 3 John 11. ruv 
smxaXov/Asvuv, them that call upon) Comp. note on ver. 19 (Every 
one that nameth, etc.), Acts ix. 14. TOV Kup/ov, the Lord) Christ. 

xadapag, pure) ver. 21, sxxaQdpr,. Lusts are hostile to this 
purity ; its attendants are righteousness, faith, love, peace. 

23. Mupag xai dtfaidsvrovs, foolish and unlearned) For thou 
oughtest vaidsvziv, to instruct, ver. 25, and to be wise, iii. 15 ; 
comp. foolish. Tit. iii. 9. //,;/, strifes) Ibidem. 

24. Ou ds? /jLa^B^ai; ought not to strive) ought not to be a bitter 
controversialist. ytfiov, d/daxr/xor dvsfyKOLXOv, vaidtvovra, mild, apt 
to teach : patient, instructing) A Chiasmus. In respect of all, 
the servant of the Lord ought to be mild, so he will be apt to 
teach : in respect of adversaries, he should be patient, so he will 
be able to instruct. 2 He ought neither to attack, nor resist : lie 
ought to be mild, lest he should be the occasion of evils : and 
patient, so that he may endure evils. didaxnxbv, teaching) i.e. apt 
to teach. This implies not only solidity and ease in teaching, 
but even especially patience and assiduity. For we must 
avr exeff&ai, hold fast, Tit. i. 9, note, and that too with gentle 
ness, James iii. (17), and perseverance, Acts xx. 31, in all long- 
suffering and doctrine, below, ch. iv. 2. avs^ixomov) enduring 

1 " Peace with them who call on the Lord." Not as Engl. Vers., putting 
a comma after peace; i.e. "Along with them who call, etc., follow peace." 

2 Ailuffxa implies teaching, imparting knowledge. Tlotfavu implies 
training, disciplining, tutoring. ED. 

2 TIMOTHY II. 25, 26. 305 

evils. There is sometimes need of zeal, always of gentle 

25. M^org) w interrogative : with this expectation, if at any 
time, etc. 5<2 avroTg 6 dc, God may give to them) For it does not 
belong to human power. A motive for patience. [He who 
attempts to use violence, so much the less accomplishes aught: 
nor, yet, should he give way to sluggishness. V. g.] /tsrdvciav, 
repentance) This is antecedent to knowledge or acknowledgment. 
sis, to or for) So tig in the following verse. 

26. Kai) and so. di/ai^-vj/wrf/v) This depends on if at any time : 
if they may awake, and shake off sleep. ex rr\c, irayidos, from 
the snare) There are here two evils, captivity and sleep ; and there 
are two good things, awaking and deliverance. An abbreviated 
expression. efyypw &voi) Luke v. 10 ; taken captive willingly. 
wf avrou, by him 1 ) by the servant of the Lord. Where God 
goes before, ver. 25, the work of His servant (ver. 24) is suc 
cessful. God rouses : His servant draws them out of the snare. 
sig rb) Construed with, if at any time they may awake. Ex 
marks the terminus from which they set out, els that to which 
they are to go. The former terminus is, oppose themselves, 
ver. 25, and the snare of the devil, ver. 26 : the latter is the 
acknowledgment of the truth and the will of God. Ixs/vou, of Him 2 ) 
God. Q eXri/j,a, will) which is entirely free, and gives freedom ; 
1 Pet. iv. 2. The opposite is, from the snare. Paul himself was 
awakened to conversion, so that he might " know the will of 
God ;" Acts xxii. 14. 

1 Not, by the devil, as in the Engl. Vers. They are taken so as to be 
saved alive, as eaypnfAeoi literally means. So our Lord uses the same 
word, and of the same thing, to Peter, Luke v. 10. ED. 

2 EW;/ov being evidently distinct from XVTOV ; the latter referring to 
the servant of God, the former to God. Not as Engl. Vers., both referring 
to the devil. ED. 


306 2 TIMOTHY III. L G. 


1. ToDro 8s y/wtfxe, but know this) The apostle s statement is 
quite distinct, 1 Tim. iv. 1. sv l<r^ara/$ tips pang, in the last days) 
which had at that time begun to be, ver. 5, at the end. A 
similar expression is found at 2 Pet. iii. 3 ; Jude ver. 18. evarq- 
covrai) shall come unexpectedly. The future, in respect of pro 
phecies that had gone before. x/po/ ^/aXg-ro/, perilous times) 
when it will be difficult to discover what should be done. 

2. "Etovrai 01 avQpuiroi, men shall be) Such shall be of higher 
rank and of greater number in the Church than ever formerly : 
ver. 5. They shall be worse even than those who had abused the 
light of nature alone, Rom. i. 29, etc. : where we explain many 
things in the notes, which are here repeated. <p/Xat>ro/, lovers of 
their own selves) The first root of evil. piXdpyvpoiy lovers of 
money) The second root. yovevav aKtiQsTg, disobedient to parents) 
The character of the times is to be gathered even especially from 
the manners of the young. a^dpiffroi, ungrateful) The obliga 
tion of a grateful mind is next to that of filial duty. 

3. Axpars?$ 9 avfaspoi, incontinent, fierce) at once both soft 
(yielding as to self-indulgence) and hard. ap/Xa^a^o/, haters of 
those that are good) Its contrary is a lover of good, Tit. i. 7, note 3. 

4. UpoKsreTs) rash, those who are headstrong [Engl. Vers. 
heady ] in acting, etc. rervpuftsvoi, [high-minded^ puffed up) 
1 Tim. vi. 4, note ; as if a person should be so suffocated with 
smoke (rupw), that he has no longer power over his mind. Such 
is the condition to which pride brings men. <piXj)8ovoi, lovers of 
pleasure) An epithet of the Epicureans. Pleasure destroys the 
love and sense of God. Such are our Epicureans. 

5. Mopputiv) the outward appearance, not without some inter 
nal rudiment of godliness. a^or PSKOV) Tpsxsrai is said of one 
who, when he is forced, flees : a^cr^era/, of one who ava^upsTj 
withdraws, and spontaneously shuns any one. Eustath. 

6. E% rovruv, of these) See the preceding verse, these (such). 

2 TIMOTHY III. 7-10. 307 

The expression is clearly demonstrative. oi svdwovrts, they who 
ereep in) privately. ywaixdpta) silly women, who are presently 
described as like those (in ver. 5). emdv^iais cro/x/Xa/g, with 
various or divers lusts) of the mind and of the flesh : iv. 3. Even 
this variety is a source of delight. 

7. Mav&avovra, learning) for the indulgence of curiosity. 
pjldeirors, never) Whence they are easily led captive, ver. 6. 

8. lavvqs KUI laftfipqsj Jannes and Jambres) Euseb., i. 9, 
Prsep. Evang., quotes the following passage from Numemius : 
" Jannes and Jambres, understood to be Egyptian sacred scribes 
fytpoypafiflarsTg, a lower order of priests in Egypt), men of no 
small skill in magical operations, at the time when the Jews 
were driven out of the land of Egypt," etc. Jannes and Jambres 
were names very well known in Paul s time ; for they were very 
often mentioned in the ancient books of the Hebrews, as two of 
the principal magicians among the Egyptians. The very acute 
Hillerus, according to the Abyssinian language, interprets 
Jannes, a jester or trickster, and Jambres, a juggler ; for he is of 
opinion, that the appellatives were changed into proper names 
in the lapse of time. Onom. S., p. 671, 843. Certainly, if 
they were entirely proper names, we may believe that they were 
formerly psaa (terms intermediate between appellatives and 
proper names), which indicated the profession of the art itself 
(as well as the person) ; comp. Acts xiii. 8. avrsffrqffav Maoy, 
ivithstood Moses) by rivalling to some extent his wonders. 
avMffravrui, resist) The opposite is, shall suffer persecution, 
ver. 12. adoKi^ot) reprobate, having no power to approve : comp. 
Rom. i. 28. 

9. Ou vrp&xtyowriv ewl TAJ/OV, they shall proceed no further) not 
so as to seduce others, although they themselves, and those like 
them, shall proceed (<7rpo%6^ov<riv) to worse and worse, ver. 13. 
Often malice proceeds deeper down when it cannot extend 
itself. civoioi, folly) though they may think themselves wise. 
sxci^Xt;) brought from (sx) concealment into open day. h exefvuv, 
theirs) Ex. vii. 12, viii. 18, ix. 11. A very severe punishment 
is denoted by the moderate expression, used by the apostle in 
reference to a well-known fact. 

10. 20 ds, but thou) An antithesis : so again after new descrip 
tions of evils, ver. 14, ch. iv. 5. <7rafy;xoXou#>jxa$, thou hast fol- 

308 2 TIMOTHY III. 11, 12. 

lowed out) [fully followed up, traced out and known]. Timothy 
became the companion of Paul after the persecutions mentioned 
in this place, Acts xiii. 50, xiv. 5, 19, xvi. 3. This is therefore 
a well chosen word to employ here, as in Luke i. 3. So An- 
tiochus concerning his son : " I am persuaded that he, under 
standing my mind (KapaxoXouQouvra, following up my mode of 
thinking) ; 2 Mace. ix. 27. ry ayuyy) ayuyy, mode of life, Fr. 
conduite. rr, Kpo&efci, purpose) His purpose for the future follows 
close after his (present) mode of life ; comp. Acts xi. 23, note; 
and long-suffering follows close after faith, as in Heb. vi. 12 : 
patience follows close after love, as in 2 Thess. iii. 5. 

11. Ev Avr/<r/a, Iv lxovtu>, iv A.v<trpoie, at Antioch, fconium, 
Lystra) Acts xiii. 14, 51, xiv. 6. oTa) oTog shows the weighti- 
ness of the matter in hand : 1 Mace. v. 56, " he heard the valiant 
and warlike deeds, oTa tKoiritiav, how great ivere the acts which they 
did? ofovg diuypoi/g, how great persecutions) The noun repeated 
after the interposition of another adds perspicuity and weight 
to what is said. Aiuy t uog and cra^^a are species and genus : 
persecution is properly, when they drive a man from one city 
to another, or when they attempt to apprehend him in his 
flight ; but suffering is any calamity in general, for example, 
when Paul was stoned, etc. u^wyxa, / endured) The mark of 
an apostle. sppixraro, delivered) Another mark, to be miraculously 
preserved ; Ps. xxxiv. (xxxiii.) 17, in iracuv ruv Oxtyeuv avruv 
sppvffaro avrovg, He delivered them out of all their afflictions. 
6 Kvpiog, the Lord) Christ. 

12. Ka/ vrdvreg ds, yea and all) all, and they alone. The 
third mark, to have persecutors ; so far should persecution be 
from being a stumbling-block to any one. At the beginning 
of persecution, it does not yet appear that that is the mark of 
an apostle : it at length appears from the help that is afforded, 
and from the endurance of them. In this, however, is the third 
mark of an apostle : UTTO/AOJ^, patience, is a great thing in the 
eyes of the apostle ; he prefers it to all the others. All other 
things may be taken from a man, so that he may suffer their 
utter loss and he himself fall away ; but when he has U-TTO/AO^, 
all things are preserved. Hence Timothy might at the same 
time gather that he would also suffer persecution. There is 
a similar transition from Paul to all godly men, ch. iv. 8. 

2 TIMOTHY 111. 13-15. 309 

those wishing or willing} Consider therefore whether 
you are willing ; comp. the word wishing (intending), Luke 
xiv. 28. Even a persevering will has a beginning. svasfiuc 
%fiv) to live godly ; the whole energy of their life being devoted 
to Christian piety, Phil. i. 21. Qfy to live) to pass life, Gal. 
ii. 14. sv xpiffrti, in Christ) There is no godliness out of Christ 
Jesus. [And indeed the world easily ivears that mask of religion 
which depends on itself ; but the piety which flourishes directly 
Jesus Christ is very hateful, as it was to the old Jews, so 
to the modern Christians, who are without any token of good. 
V. g.] huxpfaovrat, shall suffer persecution) Nor will they 
indeed refuse it, Gal. v. 11. They shall proceed to worse and 
worse, ver. 13, stands in opposition to this future. 

13. novTjpo/, evil men) The antithesis is godly, ver. 12. These 
are xXavupevoi, with a middle signification, who permit themselves 
to be seduced. y^ng) seducers, enchanters, like those of Egypt, 
ver. 8. These are whavuvresj seducers. vf*xfa\*wtt9, shall pro 
ceed to) so that no one will persecute them, but they will per 
secute the godly. vXavwrs; xai -rXavw^gvo/, deceiving and being 
deceived) He who has once begun to deceive others, is the less 
easily able to recover himself from error, and the more easily 
embraces in turn the errors of others. 

14. 2;) de, but thou) Whatever they may do. He takes up 
again what he began to say at ver. 10. wr/tfrcWjj;) T/Vrow, I 
make sure a thing on the mind : sv oTg iiriffrufyg, in which thou 
hast been rendered viffrbg, faithful and firm (thou hast been 
assured) [out of the Scripture, ver. 15. Y. g.] Comp. LXX., 
Ps. Ixxviii. 8, 37, where veiffTovadai corresponds to p&O. zidug 
nai on oTda$, knowing and because thou hast known) A double 
^Etiology [assigning of a reason : see Append.], of which the 
first part is to be referred to in those things which thou hast 
learned, the second to thou hast been rendered faithful (assured). 
A similar construction, fi/a %a/ 6V/, occurs, John ii. 24, 25 : 
also sV/yi/oOc */ or/, Acts xxii. 29. Ta^a rivo$, from whom) 
from Paul, an approved teacher, ver. 10, 11. 

15. Ka/, and) Even after the death of Paul, Timothy is the 
more bound to the Scripture. Paul does not bind Timothy to 
himself alone, but enjoins him who, however grown up, was 
his son in the faith, to use the Scriptures. They ought to 

310 2 TIMOTHY III. 16, 17. 

consider this, who are so devoted to their teachers, under whose 
training they have been once for all brought up, that they 
admit nothing beyond their circle which is afterwards presented 
to them from Scripture. Sometimes slothful over-fulness 
of the mind and aMade/a, self-complacency, creep over men 
under the name of stedfastness (steadiness) and sobriety. fab 
g, from childhood [a child]) Tender age is best adapted for 
i, being made faithful (assured), so that faith may be 
impressed upon it, diffusing firmness throughout the whole life. 
ra, /spa ypa^i^ara, the sacred Scriptures) the books of Moses 
and the prophets. For these existed when Timothy was a 
child. oTdas, thou hast known) by the instructions of thy mother, 
ch. i. 5. ra Suvd/ieva, which were able) The force of a preterite 
redounds from thou hast known, to the participle. This ability 
(of Scripture) expresses (its) sufficiency and perfection. as, thee) 
in such a way as if they were written for thee alone. eopfaai, 
to make wise) A grand expression. The antithesis is avota, folly, 
ver. 9. s/s ffurqpiav, to salvation) thy own and that of others. 8ia 
xiffrtug, through faith) He who does not believe, does not receive 
wisdom and salvation. Through is construed with salvation. 

16. nata ypapn, all Scripture) The sacred Scripture, in all 
its parts. All the latest epistles of Paul as much as possible 
recommend the Scripture. faoffvwaros, given by inspiration o 
God) This is a part, not of the subject (for what Scripture or 
class of writings [as Scripture means] Paul intends, is evident 
in itself, as elsewhere, so in this passage), but of the predicate. 
It was divinely inspired, not merely while it was written, God 
breathing through the writers ; but also, whilst it is being read, 
God breathing through the Scripture, and the Scripture breath 
ing Him [He being their very breath]. Hence it is so profitable. 
Trpbg d/daffxaX/ av, for doctrine) Doctrine instructs the ignorant ; 
reproof convinces also those who are labouring under error and 
under prejudice ; correction recalls a man from wrong (obliquity) 
to right (rectitude) : training [* eruditio, Engl. Vers. instruction] 
in righteousness positively instructs ; ch. ii. 24 ; Sir. xviii. 13. 

17. "Apnog y], may be perfect) in his duty. 6 rov Qsov avQf>u<iro$j 
the man of God) 1 Tim. vi. 11, note. crpog TV, for every good 
icork) These kinds of such works are enumerated, ver. 16. 
For the man of God ought to teach, reprove, correct, train or 

2 TIMOTHY IV. 1, 2. 311 

i7istruct ; comp. iv. 2. JJ;>jpr/<r//,i/o ? thoroughly fitted or perfected 
[furnished]) by Scripture. He ought s^aprffaQai, to fo tho 
roughly perfected., then he will be apriog, perfect. To become and 
to fo differ. 


1. Ovv, therefore) This is deduced from the whole of ch. iii. 
lyw, /) whom thou hast known, ch. iii. 14. wi/rag xa/ vsxpoi>$, 
/*6 living and the dead) Paul s death was at hand, while Timothy 
was to survive. Kara) then when He shall appear ; Kara refers 
to time, Heb. i. 10 [Kar dp^dg]. simpdveiav) ewtpdveia xai 
SafftXsia is a Hendiadys : snpdvsia is the revelation and rise of the 
kingdom, 1 Tim. vi. 14, 15. 

2. Ecr/0y?j$/) &6 instant, be urgent. svxajpus, axa/pwg) Pricseus 
understands the word as it were proverbially, for assiduously, or 
ewry time; and brings in support of his view the examples 
which follow : Nicetus Choniates : <ra/<5aywy ifj,(3piQeT soixuc, 
evxatpus dxafpuc. aKSKXqrr&Vj (t like a severe schoolmaster, he was 
always beating, in and out of season." Such is that expression 
of the Tragic writer Seneca : Incipe quicquid potes, Medea, quic- 
quid non potes, " Medea, attempt whatsoever thou canst do and 
whatsoever thou canst not do ;" i.e. anything whatever. Of 
Plautus : qui comedit quod fuit, quod non fuit, " one who eats up 
what there was, what there was not ;" i.e. who devours every 
thing. Of Terence : cum milite isto prcesens absens ut sies, 
"that whether present or absent, thou mayest be with that 
soldier." Of Catullus : Hoc facias, sive id non pote, sive potest, 
" Do this, whether it be impossible or possible ;" i.e. it must be 
done. Of Julian : stfop&vsro IT/ rag r&v <pi\uv o/ x/ag axXyroi, 
JtwtXij/ifyog, diaXXdffffuv rovg olxziordrov/; dX>^Ao/j, il he went to the 
houses of his friends, whether invited or not, reconciling those 
most nearly related to one another." Of Aristophanes : 3/xa/ws 
xa/ dd/xwg, "justly and unjustly," where the Scholia say, " for in 
every way? Of Virgil : digna, indigna pati, " to suffer things, 
worthy and unworthy ;" where Servius says, it i* a proverbial 

312 2 TIMOTHY IV. 37. 

expression for all things. Of Terence: justa injusta, " things 
just or unjust ;" where Donatus says, expressions of this kind are 
proverbial "fanda nefanda" right or wrong ; " digna indigna" 
worthy or unworthy. Pricasus has collected these examples, and 
more, all of which do not rest on the same footing as the example 
in the text. This is the meaning of the apostle : Be instant at 
ordinary and proper times, and beyond these, whether it be con 
venient for thyself and thy hearers or not, night and day ; Acts 
xx. 31. sXsyJov, s-TTiTi/Aqcov, reprove 9 rebuke) The want of the con 
junction is here appropriate. All these things do no violence to 
long-suffering [ch. iii. 10, ii. 24, 25], but require it. dt^a^j, in 
doctrine) ch. ii. 24, note. 

3. "Etfrui) will be, and now is, ch. iii. 1. 8i8a<txaMa$, doctrine) 
The concrete follows, teachers. He who despises sound doctrine, 
leaves sound teachers ; they seek instructors like themselves. 1 
sm&vfifag) carnal lusts, in the indulgence of which they are un 
willingly interrupted by true teachers, and the seasoning of which 
they seek in the sweetness of softer (laxer) doctrine. eKieuptu- 
aovffi, they shall heap up) A weighty compound, denoting abun 
dance. Variety delights those who have itching ears. 

4. Tr t v axor t v, their hearing) The ear of man does not brook 
teachers who are opposed to the lusts of the heart. 

5. NJjpe sv naffi, watch in all things) in all circumstances, so as 
never to fall asleep. So Kepi xavra, Tit. ii. 7. tpyov, the work) 
1 Tim. iii. 1. wo/Vov, do) The journey to Paul is chiefly included. 
eua/ysX/ffroD, of an evangelist) Amagnificent term. vXqpopopqffov, 

fulfil) by resisting those (followers of their own lusts), and coin 
ing to me. The same word occurs, ver. 17. 

6. E/w yap, for I) A cause which should influence Timothy 
to the discharge of his duty, the departure and final blessedness 
of Paul. The end crowns the work. #5?j, now by this time) As 
the time was indicated to Peter, 2 Pet. i. 14, so also to Paul. 
GKsvdo/Aat, I am poured out as a libation \Iarn ready to be offered^) 
Phil. ii. 1 7, note [His converts were the sacrifice or offering, he 
the minister officiating ; and his blood the libation to be poured on 
the sacrifice]. avaXyrfews, of my departure) Ibid., ch. i. 23, note. 

7. Tov dy&m xa\bv) that good fight. Conip. 1 Tim. vi. 12, 

1 " Similes labra lactucas qucerunt." Our proverb is, " like teacher, 
like pupil," or " like priest, like people." TR, 

2 TIMOTHY IV, 8, 9. 313 

note. ryv wiffnv, the faith) The real thing, twice expressed by 
metaphor, is now in this the third instance expressed without a 
figure. rerjjpTjxa, I have kept) to the end, Rev. ii. 10. 

8. AO/-TOV, Henceforth) How delightful is this particle ! the 
decisive moment. Paul, in accordance with the actual moment 
of his departure, looks to his three states: 1. the past, 1 have 
fought; 2. the immediately present, there is laid up ; 3. the future, 
the Lord shall give. a-roxs/ra/, there is laid up) after all hard 
ship and danger have been for ever overcome. dwaioavvqc) of 
righteousness, for which I have contended. The righteous refers 
to this. tfT-gpai/oj, a crown) The crown used to be bestowed after 
wrestling, running, fighting. anoduxfu, will award) The word 
righteous accords with this, 2 Thess. i. 6, 7. o Kvp,o$, the Lord) 
Christ. Of whom also, ver. 1, 14, 17, 18, 22, speak. sv exeivp 
ry wipa,, in that day) Whether or not Paul knew of the first re 
surrection, and claimed any such thing for himself, I do not know. 
That day is the last the day of the universal judgment. A 
great part of the glory will then, and not till then, be added to 
the elect, 2 Cor. v. 10 ; a passage which ought to be understood 
universally. There is nothing to prevent the partakers of the 
first resurrection from receiving a crown also at the last day, and 
from obtaining in that general assembly of all men an entirely 
new award of praise. The number of the brethren, Matt. xxv. 
40, will be far less than that of the others who conferred benefits 
upon them. Therefore the favourable sentence passed upon 
those < brethren is taken for granted as already awarded. 1 
g/xo/, to me) Individual application. T<r/, to all) This is a great 
additional source of joy to Paul ; it is calculated to sharpen 
Timothy. Paul had gained many of these. ^/a^xoV/, who love 
and have loved) This has a higher signification in the preterite, 
than aya-r^ffac, ver. 10 ; where see a mournful antithesis. This 
desire of the appearing of the Lord presupposes in the individuals 
the whole state of sincere Christianity, especially faith. A 
Metonymy of the consequent for the antecedent. J^r/paw/ai*, His 
appearance) viz. the first and the second. 

9. 2-rou3a<rov, do thy diligence] This word is repeated, ver. 21. 
eXQsTv wpog pe, to come to me) That which Paul handled hitherto 

1 The brethren are supposed as already having had glory awarded to 
them, and as sitting beside the Judge as His assessors in judgment. ED. 

314 2 TIMOTHY IV. 10-13. 

somewhat covertly, he at length, in the epilogue of the epistle, 
states openly, ver. 21. Timothy was both about to be a comfort 
to Paul the martyr, and about to be strengthened by him, and 
afterwards was about to carry on the work of the Gospel, perhaps, 
for some little time at Rome. He is reported to have become 
a martyr at Ephesus. 

10. ] E/$ i<tffa,\QViHV)v) The Scholiast M.S. in the Medic. Library, 
xai SKI? (at Thessalonica) hpevs e/duhuv yevopevosj " and (Demas) 
became there (at Thessalonica) an idolatrous priest ;" of ivhich I 
have read nowhere else: Pricseus. TaXar/av, Galatia) This read 
ing seems to have crept in here owing to the rhythm it forms to 
AaX/xar/av. Adequate authorities have ra?.X/ai/; 2 and some who 
retain raXar/av, refer it to Western or European Galatia, i.e. 
Gaul. See Pregizeri Suevia Sacra, page 499, seq. ex P. de 
Marca. Tiros, Titus) He therefore departed from Crete, after 
the affairs of the churches were " set in order" there, Tit. i. 5. 
These persons had either attended or visited Paul. 

11. AGMUS, Luke) Luke has not brought down the history of 
the Acts of the Apostles to this period. ^ovoc, alone) He is 
speaking of his companions ; for he had many other friends pre 
sent : ver. 21. sv^p^cros, profitable) more than formerly, Acts 
xiii. 13, xv. 38 : comp. Philem. 11. Demas apostatizes: Mark 
recovers himself: but he (viz. Mark), who had gone away in the 
case of an easier undertaking, ought now to be present in a time 
of more serious difficulties. 

12. Tvjfixbv, Tychicus) whom Timothy might set over the 
Church [in his own absence when going to Paul] ; but Paul 
leaves this to himself [without even suggesting that he should do 
so] : comp. Tit. iii. 12. 

13. Tov pa/XGjv, the cloak) Some take it for a book-case ; but 
it would not be called a case apart from the books. a^fX/crov, / 
left) The cloak, perhaps, when they first laid violent hands on 
Paul, might have been taken from him at Rome, if he had 
brought it with him. Now when Timothy is desired to bring 

1 r / c *P>f or ) Paul is almost left alone. V. g. 

2 Hence the margin of the 2d Ed. raises the reading Ya. h hiav, formerly 
marked e, to y, and the Germ. Vers. has entirely adopted it. E. B. 

AD(A)G/# Vulg., Iren., and Rec. Text, read r*A*T/j/. C is the only 
very old MS. which supports YaKhiotv : so Epiphanius and Jerome. ED. 

2 TIMOTHY IV. 14-17. 315 

personal security is not obscurely promised to him. -rapa 
, with Carpus) The man must have been very faithful, to 
whom the apostle would entrust this most precious deposit. 

14. Ei/sds/garo, exhibited towards or occasioned me [did me]) 
at Ephesus, or even at Rome. <rodul?j, reward) The apostle 
knew that he would not be unavenged ; he therefore [does not 
hereby indulge in revenge, but] expresses his acquiescence in 
the judgment of the Lord. X/av, greatly} Therefore he will not 
discontinue. Jifterepoig, our) Believers have a common cause and 
interest : and Timothy already at that time was the companion 
of Paul. This adversary was there, where Timothy was, and 
where Paul had been, viz. at Ephesus, and Timothy must there 
fore be on his guard against him. 

16. upury, in the first) (defence). It was now therefore the 
second ; and at it he wishes Timothy to be present with him, 
and is confident that the Lord will stand by him, that he may 
overcome. ffvpnupvyeviro) The <n)v indicates that they were in no 
great danger. ^zarsX/vroi/, forsook) from fear. ^ avroT$ Xoyiff- 
6eiri, may it not be laid to their charge) The greatness of the sin 
is hereby implied, as well as the wish of Paul : the auro%, to 
them (to their charge), as being put before the verb, intimates, 
that it will be laid to the charge of those who had deterred the 
godly from standing by him. 2 

17. O Sz Kvpios, but the Lord) the more on this account. 
KapsffTvi, stood by me) This is more than Trapa^mo^a/, to be pre 
sent. ivsdwapurt, strengthened me) The opposite is, forsook. 
i vet di s/xoD, that by me) One single occasion is often of the 
greatest moment. cravra raedv?), all the Gentiles) of whom Rome 
was the capital. sppvffdqv e% ffrof^aroc Xsovroj, / was delivered out 
of the mouth of the lion) Ps. xxii. 22, ffwffov ps k-/. ffr6/.^aros Xeovroc. 
We may suppose that Paul had seen a vision under the form of 
a lion. The lion signifies either Nero, or some one who threat 
ened danger. It is at all events a figurative expression ; for he 
would have said, from the mouth of the lions, if he intended 

g, all) Lamentable to hear. V. g. 
2 That is to say, the eturofs is emphatic, being put first, " May it not be 
laid to their charge," to the charge of the godly who were intimidated : im 
plying, that will be sure to be laid to the charge of those who intimidated 
them. ED. 

316 2 TIMOTHY IV. 18-22. 

beasts without a figure. / was delivered, he says, not He de 
livered me, because, that the Lord had done it, was not out 
wardly apparent. 

18. K/, and) Hope draws its conclusions from the past to the 
future. pvfcrui /us, shall deliver me) Paul understands (views) all 
things on the side of salvation. Does he live 1 He has been 
delivered. Shall he be beheaded ? He will be delivered ; the 
Lord being his deliverer. spyov wovqpov) The antithesis is aurou, 
His. xai, and) A sweet conjunction. He is the Lord, and the 
Deliverer, 1 Thess. i. 10 ; and Saviour, Phil. iii. 20. He takes 
away evil, He confers good things. cuaei, will preserve) This 
word was in Paul s mind from the Psalm quoted above. pao/faiav, 
kingdom) better tkan that of Nero. f> q M%a, to whom be the 
glory) The very hope produces a doxology : how much greater 
will be the doxology, which the actual enjoyment will produce ! 

20. "Epaffrog Tpopiftov, Erastus Trophimus) The reason 
why these do not send salutations, is by implication indicated. 
efteivsv, remained) while I was prosecuting my journey. The 
second imprisonment of Paul was not long ; for he wrote these 
things a short time after his journey, a little before his death. 
sv KopivQu, at Corinth) his native country, Rom. xvi. 23. ! lv 
MiXqrtft, at Miletus) Miletus was near Ephesus. Whether 
Timothy knew of the sickness of Trophimus or w r as ignorant of 
it, still Paul might have mentioned it. And perhaps Trophimus 
accompanied Timothy afterwards to Rome. The Scholiast on 
this passage in Pricseus says : " Trophimus, Aristarchus, and 
Pudens, after they had suffered severely with the apostle in the 
persecutions, were at last beheaded along with him." 

21. ttpb -fczipuvos, before winter) In former times, during the 
actual winter, there was almost no sailing ; and the martyrdom 
of Paul w r as at hand. iXQsTv, to come) He is invited by the men 
tion of Eubulus, etc., who were with Paul, and were notwithstand 
ing alive [therefore Timothy need not be afraid of his life in 
coming]. xa/ Aivog, and Linus) He is put third in order ; he was 
not yet a bishop. 

22. Me0 vpuv) with you, ver. 19. 

j/, I left) Therefore Paul had returned from Asia to Rome not 
very long before. V. g. 




13. UoivXos, Paul) A title suitable to the character of Paul, 
and to the office of Titus. Kara, according to) Comp. xara, ver. 
4, 9 ; 2 Tim. i. 1, note. It is the duty of an apostle to propa 
gate the faith, Rom. i. 5. wfanv, faith) faith hope are the sum 
of Christianity ; and these things Titus ought to regard in all 
his teaching, and avoid everything else ; comp. 1 Tim. i. 5, iii. 
15, 16, iv. 1, 3, 10. JxXexrwv goD, the elect of God) for whose 
sake we ought to do and endure all things, 2 Tim. ii. 10. The 
elect were from among Jews and Gentiles ; and their faith was 
common, ver. 4 ; 2 Pet. i. 1 : of the former was Paul ; of the 
latter, Titus. 

2. EXcr/3/ w5j$ a/Wou, in the hope of eternal life) ch. iii. 7. 
Hope has reference to the promise. rjf, which) life. a-^wdrtg, 
who cannot lie) The foundation of our confidence. ^6 %p6vuv 
aluviuv, before eternal ages, before the world began) The pro 
mise of eternal life is already contained in the appellation, the 
God of Abraham, etc. [Luke xx. 37]. There is here implied 
an explicit promise to men. See Gen. iii., etc. The %p6vot 
a/Wo/ followed the creation and the fall. 

3. KaipoTg) xpovoi were longer than these. 

4. Koivfo, common) Otherwise Titus, who was born of Gentile 
parents, would fall short of i* 

318 TITUS I. 5, 6. 

5. TOUT-OU xapiv, for this cause) The divisions of the epistle 
are four. 


II. THE INSTRUCTIONS given to Titus, to this effect : 
1 ) Ordain good presbyters, 5, 6. 

2) Such are needful among the wicked Cretans, 10, 11. 

3) Rebuke them sharply and admonish them, 13, 14. 

4) Teach old men and women, and young men, showing 

thyself an example of good works, ch. ii. 1,2 ; and 
also teach servants, ver. 9, 10 ; where an excellent 
motive from the very marrow of the Gospel is intro 
duced, 11-14, 15. 

5) Admonish them to obey magistrates, and to show 

gentleness to all men ; wherein the same motive is 
repeated, iii. 1-7. 

6) Good works should be performed, foolish questions 

avoided ; one that is a heretic should without hesi 
tation be left to himself, 811. 

III. AN INVITATION to Titus to come to Nicopolis ; and an 

admonition to attend to some necessary directions, 
12, 13. 


1 ra Xe/Vovra, the things that are wanting) the things which I 
could not accomplish when I was there, in consequence of the 

shortness of my time. sirtdiop6u<fp) Paul diopduffaro (set in order), 
Titus evidiopQovrai (completes the setting in order). us, as) Paul 
had stated the qualifications which the presbyters ought to 
have ; he now repeats them. 

6. n/o-r-a, faithful) For he who could not bring his children to 
the faith, how shall he bring others ? a<rwr/g, of luxury, of riot) 
which would be wrongfully supported at the expense of the 

1 Ey Kjojjrij, in Crete^ which is now called Candia, a populous island. 
V. g. 

TITUS I. 7-9. 319 

7. ru oixovopov, as the steward of God) The greater that 
the Master is, the greater virtues should be in His servant. 
Paul calls the ministers of the Gospel the stewards of God, 1 Cor. 
iv. 1, note. The power, therefore, of a bishop is indeed cir 
cumscribed, but he has still some authority. He is a steward, 
and the steward of God ; but a steward has at least some autho 
rity and power, something is entrusted to his fidelity and skill ; 
he does not merely use the power of locomotion, he is not an 
instrument or a machine : the steward of God is not the slave 
of men, not a drudge or a sutler ; only let him be a true 
steward. This remark needs to be made in opposition to the 
false politicians, who desire that the ministers of Christ, and the 
princes, whose name they abuse, and believers and all things, 
should belong, not to God, not to believers, but to themselves. 
/&n) aMddii, not harsh or self-willed) The antithesis is in ver. 8, 
a lover of hospitality ; for avQafyg, a man harsh, inflexible, ne 
glects humble guests, as Nabal did, 1 Sam. xxv. ; he cares for 
himself alone, and whatever is connected with himself: others 
also he bids to keep their own affairs and anxieties to themselves. 
W opyfaov, not soon angry) The antithesis is a lover of good. 
py ndpoivov, not given to wine) The antithesis is sober. /&% wXjjxrqv, 
no striker) The antithesis is just, who decides by reason and 
equity, not by violence. pq ai<r^/poxepdvi, not covetous of filthy 
lucre) Base gain (filthy lucre) might be acquired in a matter 
honourable in itself, as in the work-shop, in bargains and mer 
chandise, in the office of a bishop ; ver. 1 1 ; 1 Tim. vi. 5 ; 2 Cor. 
xi. 12, 20 ; Phil. iii. 19 ; 1 Pet. v. 2 ; 2 Pet. ii. 3. The anti 
thesis is otiov, holy. 

8. ? Eyxpar?j, temperate) Eyxparfo and axparfo are sometimes 
taken in a wider sense ; comp. Matt, xxiii. 25 (axpafffa$, excess), 
note. The opposite, axparfe, is clear, so that it was not necessary 
to express it ; and axpaaia, so far as it is opposed to r5j vapoivfa, 
would not come so much under the eye of Titus. 

9. Afrgj^^nrw) one who will holdfast, defend, zealously urge. 
By this word the LXX. mostly translate the Hebrew verb ptn. 
xara) 6 xara rqv $180,%$* Xoyog [Engl. Vers. the word as he has 
been taught^, the word appertaining to doctrine. cr/crrog, firm, sure 
[lit. to be relied on], from which exhortation and power to convict 

receive their strength. x/ xai) both and. 

320 TITUS I. 1012. 

10. Mara/o/.d^o/ xa/ ppevaffara/, vain-talkers and deceivers) 
Two nouns, GJ which the epithet is dvuworaxro/, unruly. As to 
who are vain-talkers, see 1 Tim. i. 6, 7. ppsca<rara/, those who 
deceive men s minds : awTroraxroi, unruly ; like horses, that hold 
the bit with their teeth, they are unwilling to submit to the 
obedience of the faith. 

11. E-Tr/tfro/A/^s/i ) to stop the mouth; to reduce to silence by 
the power of the Spirit, as the unruly deserve. SXovs o/ xou;, 
whole houses) A great loss to Paul. [But in the present day 
wliat takes place as regards whole streets ? What is done regard 
ing country hamlets and cities ? V. g.] avarpsnovgi, they sub 
vert) as deceivers. didaffxovrsg a fj^rj ds?, teaching things which they 
ought not) as vain-talkers. a/o^oS xspdovg xdpiv, for the sake of 

filthy lucre) Construed with, they subvert. Baseness is seen 
most of all in (vile) contemptible gain ; Ez. xiii. 19. [1 Tim. 
vi. 5.] 

12. E/fl-e rig, one said) Those who are too much devoted to 
the study of profane writers ought not to applaud themselves 
because Paul quotes from Menander, Aratus, Epimenides ; for 
he does not even mention their names : Acts xvii. 28 ; 1 Cor. 
xv. 33. Ig aurai/ 7dio$ avruv, of their own) in origin and condi 
tion. That circumstance increases the authority of the witness. 
Testimonies of the wickedness of the Cilicians were also brought 


forward, but by others [not by one of themselves, as in the case 
of the Cretans] ; therefore Paul, a Cilician, might quote this 
without reproach. wpopqriis, a prophet) Epimenides, according 
to the statement of Diogenes Laertius, uttered many predic 
tions; and he acted in the character of a prophet when he 
spoke these things which Paul quotes. azt, always) Every 
natural man is at times guilty of lying, but always is a more 
heinous matter. xJ/sDtfra/, liars) unlike God, ver. 2 ; liars also 
in their doctrine concerning God, since they love fables, ver. 14. 
The Cretans had the sepulchre of Jupiter ; therefore they were 
called liars by the poets. xaxa Gyp/a, evil beasts) Crete was 
considered a %wpa a%og, a country without wild beasts ; whether 
that be true or false, Al. Morus considers Epimenides (in this 
line of hisj drew the point of his pleasantry from the fact. 
yacrspis ap yai) Pasor is of opinion that apyb$ is here used by 
AphaBresis for [tdpyos, voracious ; comp. ch. ii. 26. But the 

TITUS I. 13 16. II. 13. 321 

common idea is satisfactory : bellies are slow which are useful to 

13. *AXj0k, true) Although it comes from a Cretan. g Xe/^s, 
rebuke) The chief part of the rebuke follows. 

14. Mu$o/, fables) The antithesis is truth. 

15. Hdvra fj^v, all things indeed) The defenders of fables and 
of the commandments of men used this pretext, which Paul 
sweeps away. ro?$ /.adapo?z, to the pure) Supply, and to the faith 
ful, taken from the antithesis (unto the unbelieving) ; 1 Tim. iv. 
3 ; Acts xv. 9 ; Rom. xiv. 23. All outward things are pure to 
those who are pure within. ^s/^ia^svoig, to them that are defiled) 
This is discussed presently. a^ffroig, to the unbelieving) This is 
discussed in ver. 16. ovdsv) nothing, either within, or conse 
quently without. vovg, their intelligence, mind) Rom. xiv. 5. 
tfuvfi/ &jflVf, conscience) concerning things which are to be done, or 
that have been done ; 1 Cor. viii. 7. 

16. Qebv, God) Whom to know is the highest wisdom. 
ofioXoyovffi eid svai) profess, and by profession claim to themselves 
knowledge ; 1 Tim. vi. 20. apvowrcu) deny God. (3ds\vxroi) 
abominable. This agrees with the LXX., Prov. xvii. 15 : dxa- 
ddprog jcai (3dsXvxr6g, unclean and abominable. adom/aoi) This 
may here be taken actively for those who are not fit for any 
thing, because they cannot approve what is good either in 
themselves or in others. 


1. AaXs/, speak) with unrestrained lips ; carefully, vigorously, 

2. Upstffivrac, aged men) Supply exhort from ver. 6. r/jpaX/ot/, 
watchful) in feeling. ffs/^vovg, grave) in actions. ff<Jj$pova$, sober) 
in their mode of living. rJj vvofAwri, in patience) A virtue chiefly 
becoming old men. 

3. E\> Kara6r?]{j,an 1 hpovpe<7re7 ) hpotrpeirrii;, observant of sacred 

1 The larger Ed. had preferred the plural Itpovpeiretst but the marg. of 

322 TITUS II. 4-11. 

decorum. ytaracr^a, behaviour , dress [* habitus exterior], is 
used here of the ornament of the virtues, which are presently 
enumerated. jcaratfrjj/Aa is used in a large sense, as we find in 
the Greek Lexicon formerly printed at Basle in fol. 5s3ou>.w- 
ftsvas, enslaved, under slavery to) It is indeed slavery not to 
overcome the appetite ; 2 Pet. ii. 19. xaXodidaffxdXovc) teachers 
of good things, as follows. 

4. 2u<ppov/%u<ri rag vsccg, that they may teach the young women to 
be sober) Titus is enjoined to treat the Cretan women with 
somewhat greater severity than Timothy was to treat the women 
of Ephesus, 1 Tim. v. 2. He himself was to admonish the 
latter; Titus is to admonish the former, by means of the 
women who were more advanced in age. 

*7. Tlspl Trdvra) in all things. csavrbv, thyself) Even thou, 
Titus, though rather young thyself. w ry dida<f%aXiq, in doctrine) 
Public doctrine or teaching is intended, to which Xoyog, the word, 
in daily practice is presently opposed. In the case of the for 
mer, &<p&opia and tfg/Ai/oV^ are required, to which the epithets 
iyiri and axarayvuffrov correspond in the case of the latter, so 
that the subject-matter and the form may be rightly framed in 
the case of both. apdopiav) viz. vctps^ofAevos : here we must not 
repeat asavrov. 

8. EvrpaKfr may be confounded) The great force of truth and 

9. AouXouj, servants) namely, exhort, ver. 6. 

10. A/a^v, good) in things not evil. xotftuffiv, may adorn) 
The lower the condition of servants, the more beautifully is their 
piety described. [Even such as they should not cast themselves 
away, as if it ivere of no importance what sort of persons they were. 

-v. g.] 

11. E TTspdvr) yap 97 %/>/, for the grace has appeared) There is 
a double appearance, viz. that of grace and that of glory, ver. 
13. ffuTvjpiof, that bringeth salvation) as the very name, Jesus, 
indicates [comp. ver. 10]. TTOCOVV, to all) [of whom so many 

the 2d Ed. refers ispoirpeirei to the more certain readings, which the Germ. 
Vers., corresponding to the Gnomon, imitates. E. B. 

AD(A)GH Rec. Text read lepoirptiretg. But Cfg Vulg. read lepoTrpeKe t. 

ver. 5, properly, those who keep the house, Prov. vii. 11. 

TITUS II. 12-15. 323 

different classes are mentioned, ver. 29. V. g.] even to ser 
vants, even to the Gentiles ; comp. ch. iii. 2. 

12. Tyv affspziav, ungodliness) In antithesis to evffs(3u$) godly. 
rac, xo<r/z/xa, worldly) which prevent men from living soberly 
and righteously. ffuppovug xal <3/xa/w xa/ U(rs/3w, soberly and 
righteously and godly) The three cardinal virtues, from which, 
either single or united, all the others spring. 

13. Upoffds^o/^svoiy looking for) with joy. eXirida 0soD, hope 
of God) This may be referred to Christ. 1 ffurfpoc, Saviour) 
ch. iii. 4, 6, where the mention of the Father and of the Son is 
made in very close connection, as here, ch. ii. 11, 13. [Hope 
corresponds to the name of Saviour ; the appearance of the glory, 
to that of God.V. g.] 

14. "iva XvTpuiffqrou, that He might redeem) An allusion to re 
demption from slavery. 2 Xaov -ygp/ourf/ov, a peculiar people) The 
adjective would be translated into Latin by superfactum. Co- 
lumella writes, villica debet separare, quce consumenda sunt, et 
quce superfieri possunt, custodire, " a farmer s wife should se 
parate what is to be consumed, and keep what may be left over 
and above." Comp. -rs/wo/V^ 1 Pet. ii. 9, note. [The #epi in 
composition often expresses something remaining over and above. 
So KepiKoiriffis, in Peter, something which God reserves to Himself 
out of all. And vrepiovaos, a people peculiarly God s own above 
all nations, Ex. xix. 5, 6 ; LXX.] 

15. Mjj3g/s, let no one) 1 Tim. iv. 12, note. ^/^ovs/Vw, de 
spise) The minister of the Divine word, defenceless, unwarlike, 
is certainly despised by those who do not submit themselves to 
the word of God, but think that it is only political defences that 
are of any avail. But perverse hearers much more despise him 
who teaches somewhat slowly : they ought to be made to feel 
sTr/ray^v, i.e. what is inculcated, as coming from authority ; not to 
draw it to themselves [to wrest the authority from the minister 
and draw it to themselves]. 

1 See my note on 1 Tim. v. 21. This must refer to Christ; for l7r/<a- 
si* is never applied to God the Father, but always to the Son. And when 
two compatible attributives joined by a copula are thus preceded by but 
one article, they must refer to the one and the same person : of Him who 
is at once the great God and our Saviour : TO, viz. WTO$ ^y. Qsov KOCI 


2 He had been speaking of slaves or servants, ver. 9. ED. 

824 TITUS III. 1-5. 


1. KpyjyJic, xa! s^ouffiaig, to principalities and powers) Crete was 
a Roman province. ItbraactKsdcu, midapyjTv, to be subject, to obey) 
The words, avoqroiy foolish (comp. Ps.xxxii.9), d^sidsTg, disobedient, 
ver. 3 3 are opposed to them. 

2. AfAa^ovg, no brawlers) Such as do not attack. sKisixe/t, 
gentle) Such as yield to any one attacking them. Kavrag, all) 
Crete was an island much frequented by men engaged in mer 
cantile transactions) ; and they w r ere generally such as are 
described, ver. 3. 

3. Tap, for) As God has treated us, so we ought to treat our 
neighbour. xa! y/AsTg, we also) Eph. ii. 3. avoyroi, foolish) We 
have not come to the knowledge of God of our own accord (of 
ourselves). [This is the very exact image of human life without 
grace. Grace, and grace alone, is the remedy even for foolishness. 
Some, wliicli may appear wonderful, though they excel in some 
things by singular skill and sagacity, yet in other things, when 
godliness or even mere natural equity is the point at issue, make 
the most wretched blunders, and permit themselves to be imposed 
upon, and their authority to be basely exercised. Y. g.] axeiOtTf, 
disobedient) We did not obey God when revealing Himself. 
qdovaTg, pleasures) which consist even in evil speaking, not merely 
in the taste of the tongue (i.e. the pleasures of the palate). 
<To//aXa/s, various, divers) 2 Tim. iii. 6. A remarkable epithet. 
Variety delights. 

4. *H %p9)(fr6rvis xai tpi\avQpu<7ria, kindness and love to men) 
Human vices of a quite contrary character are enumerated, ver. 
3. ffurqpos, our Saviour) The conjugate, zffuasv, fie saved, occurs 
ver. 5. 

5. O-j?c s% cpyuv, not of [by] works) The negative belongs to 
the whole sentence : we had not been in a state of righteousness ; 
we had not done works in righteousness ; we had no works by 
which we could be saved. So Moses to Israel, Deut. ix. 5. 

TITUS III. 6-8. 325 

l dia Xovrpou iraXfyyevsffias xai avaxcuvufcuz nvg-^aarog Aytov, by the 
ishing of regeneration and renewing of the Holy Ghost) The 
renewing is immediately construed with by ; for as washing and 
regeneration, so renewing and Pie shed on us, are closely connected. 
Two things are mentioned : the washing of regeneration, which 
is a periphrasis for baptism into Christ ; and the renewing of the 
Holy Spirit. Comp. Heb. ii. 4, note. For in both places the 
benefits are praised, which have come to us by Christ and by the 
Holy Spirit. So it is called the work of divine grace, not only 
in respect of individuals, but in respect of the very abundant 
economy of the New Testament. This regeneration and renewing 
takes away all the death and the old state, under which we so 
wretchedly lay, and which is described, ver. 3 : 2 Cor. v. 17. 

6. Ou) Ilvsvparos Ay/ ou. 5/, through) This depends on He 
saved, etc., ver. 5 ; as the conjugates saved and Saviour prove. 
[Through Jesus our Saviour is not to be connected, as in Engl. 
Vers., with He shed on us.~] 

7. "iva, that) This depends on He saved. dixaiud evreg, being 
justified) For formerly we were without righteousness, ver. 5. 
sxfivov, His) God s, ver. 4, 5. sKttiog, He, or that person, points 
often to something remote. That which is more remote (as 
expressed by Ixs/tos) is estimated from the position of the words, 
not exactly from the thought itself. The grace of God is an or 
dinary phrase ; and it is of that grace that the kindness and love 
to men have appeared, to which all things are here attributed. 
God is supremely good, we are exceedingly evil. %ap/r/, by 
grace) An antithesis to works. xar sXmfia, according to the hope) 
which we did not formerly possess. [This hope truly softens 
the mind, 1 Pet. iii. 9. V. g.] &%$, of life) Construed with 

8. n/<rro$, faithful) The reference is to what goes before. 
nip} rovTuv, concerning these things) not concerning things 
frivolous : 1 Tim. i. 7, at the end. ppovT/w<r/, that they be careful) 
no longer foolish, ver. 3. [Diligence is necessary. V. g.] 
xaXa, good) entirely and substantially so. The antithesis is, 
vain, in the next verse. upsXipa, profitable) The antithesis is, 
unprofitable, ibid. 

ificig, He saved us) Christianity itself, as opposed to for 
mer misery (ver. 3), brings a most real and present, salvation. V. g. 

326 TITUS III. 10-14. 

10. Aiperixbv, a heretic) one following, according to his own 
will, the things which are found fault with at ver. 9. -rapa/roC/, 
reject) cease to admonish him, for of what advantage is it ? We 
should be labouring in vain. 1 Matt. vii. 6. 

11. Egitfrpafl-ra/) It is thus the LXX. translate the Hebrew 
"jDn, Deut. xxxii. 20. apaprdvei, sins) Whatever he does and 
thinks, he is wrong. uJv avroxaraKptroz) xpiffig sa-jroC, his own 
judgment, accompanies sin (apapriav), and/taraxf/<r/, condemnation, 
follows close after ; Rom. xiv. 22, 23. 

12. Aprs/tan r, Tv%r/.bv 9 Artemas or Tychicus) into whose hands 
Titus might deliver the lamp of the Gospel. eXQeft vpog fit, to 
come to me) when affairs in Crete shall have been more fully set 
in order. exe?, there) He does not say here, Paul was not yet at 

13. "iva ftqdev, that nothing) Titus therefore had the means. 
They did not go empty. 

14. Mavdavsrucravj let them learn) by thy admonition and 
example. xai o t viperepoi, ours also) not only we, but also ours, 
whom we have gained at Crete. These seem not to have given 
sufficient assistance to Zenas and Apollos, when they ought to 
have done so. [It is not proper that some should ever and anon 
devolve the business in hand from themselves upon others. Y. g.] 
Zenas and Apollos were already in Crete with Titus ; for 
this is the reason why he distinguishes them from Artemas 
and Tychicus, who were not until afterwards to be sent. e/g rag 
avayxsias yjtiac, for necessary uses) even as spiritual necessity 
[i.e. the tie which necessarily binds saints to help one another] re 
quires ; so xpeia, Acts vi. 3. Spiritual necessity [< necessitudo, 
tie of necessary obligation or relationship] lays the foundation of 
obligations, so that one cannot withdraw from another [so as not 
to help him]. 

1 The proverb is, we should be washing a brick. 



1. TlauXog, Paul) A familiar and exceedingly courteous 
s, urbane) epistle, concerning a private affair, is inserted 

among the books of the New Testament, intended to afford a 
specimen of the highest wisdom, as to the manner in which 
Christians should manage civil (social) affairs on more exalted 
principles. Frankius says : The single epistle to Philemon very 
far surpasses all the wisdom of the world. Prsef. N. T. Gr., p. 
26, 27. dsff^ios, a prisoner) and therefore one to whom why 
should Philemon refuse his request? ver. 9. Tifjk66eos 9 Timothy) 
This epistle (ver. 22) was written before the second Epistle to 

2. Acr^/a, to Apphia) the wife of Philemon, who had some 
thing to do with the business of Onesimus. o7x.6v <rou, thy house) 
viz. Philemon s. 

5. AXOUWV, hearing) Paul had gained over Philemon, ver. 19, 
and here he praises his consistent character. From Onesimus 
himself he might hear of his love and faith. ayavriv irionv qrpbe 
Iriffovvxa} si$ ay/ou, love faith to Jesus and unto saints) 
So Eph. i. 15 : but in this passage there is a Chiasmus in 
regard to Philemon. The first is connected with the fourth, the 
second with the third ; but love is put in the first place, because 

328 PHILEMON 6-9. 

it is to a specimen of love that he is exhorting Philemon, to whom 
the order of faith and love had been long known. Paul gives 
thanks to God for this blessed state of Philemon. 

6. "Otfug, that) This depends on tliou hast, ver. 5. r\ xoivuvia, 
rrig Kiart&g ffov, the communion [the communication^] of thy faith) 
i.e. thy faith, which thou hast in common with us and exercisest. 
IvspyriS ytvrirai, may become effectual) Paul speaks at first in 
definitely. ev sKiyvuffei vavrb$ ayaQov, in [by] the acknowledging 
of every good thing) Every good thing is all the riches which 
JESUS procured for us by His poverty, when he lived as a poor 
man upon the earth. He briefly intimates to his friend what 
he lays down more expressly in 2 Cor. viii. 9, where there is 
also, ye know. JESUS ought in turn to enjoy (in His own people) 
those benefits which He has conferred upon us. An elegant 
circle. ayattv, good or benefit, occurs presently afterwards, ver. 
14. s/c, into) Construed with may become. The good shown 
to us ought to redound unto Christ. 

7. Xapav xa,} tfapax^avc, joy and consolation) These words 
are usually put together [a customary Syntheton] : 2 Cor. vii. 
4, and I rejoice, says he, for thanksgiving, 1 Cor. xvi. 1 7, note. 
[Paul, in respect of God, returns thanks, when he might have 
said, / rejoice : but when he writes to men, instead of, / return 
thanks, he says, / rejoiced] ruv ayiuv, of the saints) The house 
of Philemon was open to them, ver. 2. 

8. A/o, wherefore) I exhort depends on this particle. !#/- 
rdffffe/v, to command) Implying great authority, of which the 
foundation is the obligation of Philemon, ver. 19, requiring 
obedience, ver. 21. 

9. A/acr^v, love) Mine to thee, thine to Onesimus. Phile 
mon s love to Paul was previously mentioned. Paul asks 
lovingly one who loves him. /^aXXov, rather) He does not say, 
if you refuse you will incur my indignation and that of Peter, 
according to the style of the Koman court, a style which is by 
no means apostolical. ^a^axaXw, / beseech). 

There are three divisions of the epistle : 

II. Having mentioned the flourishing condition of Philemon 

PHILEMON 10-12. 320 

in spiritual things, ver. 4, etc., HE BEGS him to re 
ceive Onesimus, a runaway slave, 1217. 
And desires him to provide a lodging for himself, 22. 

m. CONCLUSION, 23-25. 

-rotoijrog, such) He lays down three arguments why he would 
rather affectionately exhort and ask him, than issue a command : 
his own (Paul s) natural disposition, long ago well known 
to Philemon, his old age, and his imprisonment. Old age 
renders men mild : comp. Luke v. 39 : but even before old 
age, Paul was still Paul ; he formerly depended on the kindness 
of others, and now, in no respect happier abroad, he still depends 
upon it. The graceful courtesy in this epistle is mixed with 

10. napaxaXw, / beseech) This word is repeated with great 
force, as if after a parenthesis. <rept roD J/AOU T&KVOV, concerning 
my son) Besides other things, he puts first a favourable descrip 
tion of the person, having suspended the sense till he mentions 
the hated (offensive) name of Onesimus. And the whole epistle 
savours of the recent joy for Onesimus, who had been gained as 
a convert, and from whom it seems he concealed the circum 
stance that he was writing so kindly about him. 

have begotten) He was the son of Paul s old age. 
Onesimus) He alludes pleasantly to this name in the following 

11. "A^pjjc-rov, unprofitable) A Litotes [see Append.] for he 
was guilty of injury. In like manner there is a mild expression 
in the use of the word, was separated [departed], ver. 15 ; like 
wise ver. 18, but if he oweth. coi xat epos, to thee and me) He 
courteously puts Philemon before himself. He treats of himself, 
ver. 13, 14; of him, ver. 15, 16. Chiasmus [see Append.] 
ev%priffrov, truly profitable) The allusion is to the name of 
Onesimus ; so ova//^, ver. 20. Not even does a servant 
do his duty without godliness. With godliness any man is 
profitable. avi-rg/^a, I have sent back) Onesimus even be 
fore he had attained true profitableness, had however thought 
well of Paul, and fled to him on the occasion of his own crime. 

12. Ta spa trcrXcey^a, my bowels) An example <rropyjs, of 

330 PHILEMON 13-18. 

spiritual affection, ver. 17. irpoe Ka.Bov, receive) A mild word, 
occurring again in the same verse (17). 

13. "Oc, whom) He shows that Onesimus was now worthy to 
be trusted. vvsp <rov, for thee) on thy account [in thy stead]. 

14. nr, as it were) A mitigating particle ; for although 
Philemon had not been compelled, yet his willingness would 
not have so much appeared [had Paul kept Onesimus without 
formally asking Philemon s leave]. avdyxyv, necessity) for 
Philemon could not have resisted. 

15. Ta^/a, perhaps) The apostle speaks thus after the manner 
of men, as 1 Cor. i. 16. Because the judgments of God are 
concealed; see Hieron. on this passage. s^upied^ departed) [was 
separated]. A mild expression. aluviov, for ever) in this life, 
Ex. xxi. 6, and in heaven. A very elegant amphibology, quite 
true in both cases. The whole time of the absence of Onesimus 
was but a short hour compared with that lengthened duration. 
acrg;^) thou shouldst have him for thyself. 

16. Ovx en ug dovXov, no longer as a servant) He had been a 
servant. Imp doDXou, above a servant) This is equivalent to an 
epithet. But is connected with a brother : above a servant from 
whom thou art about to derive greater benefit than from a 
servant. Yv spdouXog is a compound word according to Apol- 
lonius, 1. 4, de Syntaxi, c, 3 ; but what it means, or whether it 
has any relation to the matter before us, I do not know. 
ddiXcbv, brother) He does not add u$, as [which he had used 
before servant]. He evidently recommends him for a (true) 
brother. a/acr^rov, beloved) Love is borne to a brother and a 
friend, not to a servant. //-aX/ora J//,o/) especially to me, before 
all others, who are however not excluded. aoi) to thee, even 
before me : to me and thee are construed with a brother beloved. 
In the flesh he is vvep &>DXov, above a servant, a freedman (comp. 
v*sp 9 ver. 21) ; in the Lord, a brother. 

17. "E%zig) thou hast, without a figure [but Engl. Vers., If 
thou count] ; for receive comes in after it. xoivuvfa, a partner) 
that what is thine may be mine, and mine thine. 

18. E/ c> rs, but if anything) A gentle expression. Onesimus 
had confessed to Paul what he had done. % cxpeiAsi, or owes) 
A milder synonym is put after the verb wronged. IXXoys/) 
Hesychius, IXXoyg/, i.e. xarat.oyr^ai. Consider me the debtor. 

PHILEMON 19-24. 331 

19. E/w llauXos, I Paul) It was his handwriting. sy 

I will repay) as a parent is wont to pay the debt of his son. 
The prisoner writes in good earnest, and with confidence that 
he would not want the power [of fulfilling his engagement]. 
But yet he promises conditionally, viz. if Philemon would 
exact it, ver. 21. ffeaurbv, thyself) It cannot be told how great 
is the obligation which is owed to those who have won souls. 
External property is due for spiritual benefits, but not by 
political obligation. vpoffopsfasisj tlwu even owest) This refers 
to owes, ver. 18. It is not only fitting that the pardon of 
Onesimus be granted to me, but thou even owest me thyself. 

20. Eyw, /) Thou shouldst have had profit from Onesimus, 
I should now have it from thee. ovaipw, let me profit) An allu 
sion to the name of Onesimus. dvacrautfov, refresh) by receiving 

21. node s/?, thou wilt do) towards Onesimus. 

22. Seviavy a lodging) where others may come to visit me. 
See the power of hope. Paul, a prisoner, makes this arrange 
ment (appointment) at so great a distance. 

23. Suva/^aaXwroc, my fellow-prisoner) On this very account 
Epaphras is placed before the others. 

24. Aovxa$, Luke) He, who was most closely connected with 
Paul, is named after the others. There is a note in two Greek 
copies, in the possession of Mill and Kuster, intimating, that 
the blessed Onesimus died a martyr at Rome, having suffered 
the punishment of breaking the legs. 



MANY anonymous writers, though unknown, endeavour to be 
useful to their readers ; but the writer of this Divine Epistle 
shows, that he was known to those to whom he writes : xiii. 19. 
And the Apostle Paul is said to be the writer of the epistle, 
with the general consent of antiquity. Above all, Peter, writ 
ing to the elect strangers scattered through Pontus, Galatia, 
Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, praises the letters of Paul, 
which he wrote to them also. But the other epistles of Paul 
were sent to Gentile converts ; this one alone to the Hebrews, 
although he himself does not call them Hebrews ; and in the 
title, no doubt old, but not prefixed by the hand of Paul, they 
are with less propriety called Hebrews, instead of Judaico- 
Hellenistic Christians, to whom we have observed below that he 
wrote, ch. vi. 10. Moreover the method and style of Paul may 
be easily recognised : for he puts the proposition and division 
before the discussion, ch. ii. 17. He distinctly and separately 
subjoins the practical to the doctrinal part : he puts the practical 
part at greater length at the end of the epistle. He quotes the 
same words of the Old Testament which he does elsewhere, ch. 
ii. 8, x. 30, 38 ; also, i. 6 : he uses the same ideas and expres 
sions. See note on ch. i. 3, 6; ii. 2, 5, 8, 9, 10, 14, 15; iii. 1, 
6, 12, 16 ; iv. 9, 16 ; v. 6, 11, etc. ; vi. 1, 9, 10, 11, 12 ; vii. 2, 


5, 18, 19, 22, 25, 26, 28 ; viii. 1, 6, 11, 13 ; ix. 1, 10, 11, 15, 
28 ; x. 5, 39 ; xi. 7, 11, 13, 19, 35, 37 ; xii. 1, 4, 10, 12, 22, 
23, 27; xiii. 1, 5, 9, 10, 14, 18, 20, 21, 23, 25. In former 
times, some thought that Barnabas, or Luke, or Clemens Romanus 
was the author : in fact, because every one of them had this epistle 
without the author s name in his hands, each of them was con 
sidered as the author himself. But why did not Paul prefix to 
this one epistle his name, which, from ch. xiii. 1 9, was evidently 
dear to those to whom he was writing ? He did not prefix it, 
because he did not use an inscription ; for men in former times 
did not always use it in accordance with primitive simplicity. 
Comp. 2 Kings v. 6, x. 2, 6, where the word 1E&6, placed before 
them, scarcely permits us to believe that excerpts are given 
rather than the epistles themselves. And also the ardour of 
spirit in this epistle, alike as in the First Epistle of John, burst 
ing forth at once into the subject, the more effectively strikes 
the hearers : but he compensates at the conclusion of the epistle 
for the absence of salutation and thanksgiving, which were 
usually placed by Paul at the beginning of the other epistles. 
This epistle of Paul, and the two of Peter (to which may be 
added those of James and Jude, which are very similar), were 
written to the same believing Israelites, scattered abroad in 
Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia, and much 
about the same time. Three years before the destruction of 
Jerusalem, Paul and Peter were put to death at Rome ; there 
fore this epistle was also written to them when the temple was 
standing, ch. viii. 5. Peter wrote both of his epistles a little 
before his martyrdom ; and in the second, praises the epistles 
of Paul this one by name (expressly), which was then new 
(recently sent), many of the first hearers of the Lord being by 
this time dead ; Heb. ii. 3. 

As Peter, James, Jude, wrote in Greek, not in Hebrew, so 
Paul did the same here ; for he quotes the Greek translation of 
Moses and the Psalms, where the reading is different from that 
of the Hebrew, ch. i. 6, x. 5. He comprehends in one Greek 
word, xara-/rau<T/, the meaning of the two Hebrew words, 
mt? and nn\DD, ch. iv. 4, 5. He translates the Hebrew words 
into Greek, ch. vii. 2 ; and insists upon the proper idea attached 
to the Greek word diaQyxy ch. ix. 16. 


The whole application of the discourse is, to confirm the faith 
of the brethren in Jesus Christ, ch. xiii. 8, 9. Moreover, he 
confirms it, by demonstrating His glory. He calls this the sum 
(the principal point), ch. viii. 1. Hence all the divisions of the 
epistle, abounding in the sharpest admonitions, and the most 
powerful incitements, are set forth in one and the same form of 
discourse ; and doctrine and practice are everywhere connected 
by the word, therefore. 

This is the SUM : 

The glory of Jesus Christ shines forth 
I. From a PKEVIOUS comparison with the PROPHETS and 

ANGELS, i. 1-14; 
THEREFORE we ought to give heed to what He says, ii. 14. 

H. [His glory shines forth] PRINCIPALLY from a comparison of 
here observe 

1. The proposition and sum from Ps. viii., 5-9. 

2. The discussion : We have the Author of salvation and glory 

PERFECTED [consummated] ; who SUFFERED first for 
OUR sakes, that He might become (1) a MERCIFUL, 
and (2) FAITHFUL (3) HIGH PRIEST, 10-18. These 
three things are one by one explained, being most 
suitably from time to time interwoven with His 

A. He has the virtues of the priesthood : 
I. He is FAITHFUL : 

THEREFORE be ye not UNFAITHFUL, iii. 1, 2, 

7-iv. 13. 

THEREFORE let us draw near with CONFIDENCE, 

14; v. 3. 

B. He is called of God a PRIEST. Here 

I. The SUM (of His priesthood) is set forth from Ps. ii. 
and ex., and from His actual performance of the 
duties of the office, 4-10 ; 


And hence the hearers are SUMMARILY ROUSED TO 

ACTION, ii.-vi. 20. 
II. The fact itself is copiously 
(1.) Explained. He is to us 


I. Such as Psalm ex. describes ; 

1. According to the order of MELCHISEDEK, 

vii. 1-19 : 

2. With AN OATH, 20-22 : 

3. FOR EVER, 23, 24, 26-28. 

II. And therefore peculiarly excellent ; 

1. A HEAVENLY Priest, viii. 1-6 : 

2. And that of the NEW Covenant or Testa 

ment, 7-13. 


(2.) It is turned to a practical exhortation. THERE 

I. Evince your faith, hope, love, x. 1939. 
These three things are urged more at large : 

a. FAITH with persevering endurance, which is 
to be exercised according to the example 
of the OLD saints, xi. 1-40 ; xii. 1 : 
And of JESUS Himself, 2, 3 ; 
And it ought to be exercised, 4-11 
/S. HOPE, 18-29. 
y. LOVE, xiii. 16. 

II. For improvement in these graces, call to remem 

brance your former MINISTERS, 7-16 : 
And make use of the watchfulness of your present 

MINISTERS, 17-19. 

The PRAYER, the DOXOLOGY, and the calm CONCLUSION 
are suitable to this paragraph, and to the whole epistle, 20-25. 

The addresses to those to whom he writes for example, 
Brethren are not inconsiderately used, but indicate either a 
new division of the epistle, or an outburst of affection. There 
fore the apostle for the first time addresses them in ch. iii. 1, 
12 : and says, Iwly brethren, partakers of the heavenly calling, 

HEBREWS I. 1. 337 

and simply, brethren : and so again not until ch. x. 19. For 
two principal and special exhortations begin at these passages. 
Besides, he calls them brethren at the Conclusion, ch. xiii. 22 ; 
and beloved, after that sharp admonition, ch. vi. 9. He who 
will weigh well, in this Synopsis of the epistle, these ad 
dresses, and the Divisions marked by them, ch. ii. 17, x. 19-21 
the one of which is followed immediately by its own discussion in 
the text, whilst the other is preceded by it, and also the particle 
therefore, will readily perceive that this very Synopsis is not a 
thing of our invention, but is drawn from the epistle itself; and 
he will derive profit from it. 

In the same Synopsis we have noticed some comparisons ; but 
the epistle itself has many more, which, however, may be 
generally referred to two heads. I. There are great prophets, 
angels, Moses, Joshua, Aaron, etc. ; but Jesus infinitely greater. 
The opinion of the old Hebrews is, King Messias is greater 
than Abraham and the patriarchs, than Moses and the minis 
tering angels. This opinion is quoted in this connection by 
Schoettgenius, whose Horae on this epistle is an especially 
profitable work. II. The condition of the ancient believers was 
good, but the condition of Christians is better ; and this second 
fact is chiefly treated of in ch. xL But everywhere bad and 
wretched examples also are interspersed among those that are 
good and blessed. We find, then, in this epistle the recapitula 
tion of the whole of the Old Testament, and at the same time 
the setting aside of Judaism as obsolete, and the promulgation 
of the New Testament carried to its axftq and utmost height, at 
the very boundary of the fourth and fifth thousandth year. See 
Ord. temp., p. 288. [Ed. ii., p. 247, 248.] 


1. Ho\\)[Mtpuc, xal Ko\vrpoKuc) GOD spoke #o\vpspS>s, in many 
portions. The creation was revealed in the time of Adam ; the 
last judgment in the time of Enoch ; and so from time to time 
knowledge was given more fully unfolded. He also spoke 
ieo\\irf>faus, in divers modes of revelation, in dreams and visions. 


338 HEBREWS I. 1. 

Therefore vroXvpspug refers to the matter, ^oXurpoVwg to the form. 
In both there is an antithesis to one total and most perfect 
communication of GOD to us in Jesus Christ. The very multi 
tude of prophets shows, that they " prophesied in part ;" there 
fore, says he, you ought not to be frightened at the novelty of 
Christianity. TaXa/, in time past) For a very considerable 
space of time there had arisen no prophets, in order that the 
Son might be the more an object of expectation. \J\Ialachi, the 
last of the prophets of the Old Testament, prophesied at the inter 
val of some ages before the birth of Christ. V. g.] 6 &tbg, God) 
The apostle treats of GOD in this passage ; of Christy ch. ii. 3 ; 
of the Holy Ghost, ch. iii. 7. XaX^ag, having spoken) A 
Synecdoche 1 for every sort of communication, as Ps. ii. 5. So 
"ill pv/*a, a ivord, is used in a wide sense. sv, in) [Not as Engl. 
Yers. by] Therefore God Himself w r as in the prophets, as also 
especially in the Son. A mortal king speaks by his ambassador, 
not, however, in his ambassador. If the apostle had not used 
the sv, in, with a view to what follows, in order that it might 
apply to the Son, he would doubtless have put dia rZ>v Kpopyruv, 
by the prophets. For this reason it is not inconsistent to urge the 
use of the ev, in. sv ro?s vpotpqraig, in the prophets) Artemonius, 
Part I., cap. 43, contends that Luke wrote ev rote, ayysXoig ; for 
he is of opinion, that Luke wrote this epistle, p. 98 ; and this 
opinion is not inconsistent with Clem. Alex, adumbr. on 1 Pet. 
v. 13, where Luke is said to have translated the Epistle of Paul 
to the Hebrews, although we have proved above that it was 
written in Greek by Paul himself. All the copies 2 have sv ro?$ 
ffpocpqrais ; and the epistle, showing the excellence of Christ by 
using so many comparisons, certainly prefers Him to the pro 
phets also, and to them all : Matt. xi. 13, xii. 41 ; John viii. 53. 
But it prefers Him to the prophets, if not in this passage, then 
nowhere else ; and here, indeed, it touches upon it, as it were by 
the way, at the very beginning, as this comparison is immediately 
after swallowed up by others more illustrious. In the mean 
time, this mention of the prophets summarily, made at the very 

1 A part for the whole. See Append. 

2 The original word, momimenta, does not only refer to the MS. copies of 
this Epistle, but to any writing in after times, in which this passage may be 
quoted. TR. 

HEBREWS I. 1. 339 

beginning of the epistle, admirably anticipates objections, and 
presents a conciliatory argument ; so that the apostle hereby 
declares, that he embraces the whole scripture of the Old Testa 
ment, and asserts nothing contrary to it. Wolfius has more on 
this passage. 

Moses occupies the first place among the prophets, of whom 
Paul afterwards speaks separately. The antithesis of the pro 
phets and the Son is the same as in Matt. xxi. 34, 37, and the 
very appellation, Son, indicates His excellence above the pro 
phets : and whatever is presently said of the angels [as to their 
inferiority to the Son] is intended to be understood as holding 
good much more of the prophets. sir sa^arou ruv Jiftspw rovrw, 
in the last of these days) There is a similar expression in Num. 
xxiv. 14, D^DM rTHnfcQ, LXX., IT J<rp/aroi/ ruv qpspuv ; ill like 
manner, 1 Pet. i. 5, 20, and in a different sense 2 Tim. iii. 1, 
note. The antithesis is craXa/, in time past. The apostle inti 
mates, that no further speaking was afterwards to be expected. 
This whole epistle, concerning which comp. 2 Pet. iii. 1 5, sets 
before us the end of all things as at hand : ch. ii. 8, ix. 26, 28, 
x. 13, 25, 37, xi. 40, xii. 23, xiii. 4. JXaX?j<rv, hath spoken) all 
things, in one most perfect way [as contrasted with the many 
ways of revealing Himself formerly]. j)/j,Tv 9 to us) The antithesis 
is ro/g varpdffiv, unto the fathers. sv T/u), in the Son) EV often 
denotes by, but here it has a higher meaning ; comp. John xiv. 
10. How great & prophet is the very Son of God \ The name, 
Son, is put here by Antonomasia, 1 as equivalent to a proper 
name ; but a proper name in Hebrew is without the article ; and 
so in the present case the article is omitted. It is also omitted 
in ver. 5, iii. 6, v. 8, vii. 28. So 13, Ps. ii. 12. God hath 
spoken to us in the Son alone. The apostles were also spoken 
to ; who themselves also are considered in the light of persons 
to whom the word was spoken, before that they could speak the 
word to others : they w r ere virypzrai ro\j Xoyou, ministers of the 
word ; but the apostles taught nothing new after Christ, and as 
the Father spoke in the Son, so the Son spoke in the apostles. 
The Son also spoke by the prophets in the Old Testament : but 
in a different manner. The majesty of this Son is SET FORTH, 

1 See Append. 

340 HEBIIEWS I. 2, 3. 

I. Absolutely, a) by the very name of Son, ver. 1 ; j3) by 
three glorious predicates, expressed by as many finite verbs 
along with the pronoun who : Whom He lias appointed, by 
Whom He made, Who sat down ; and in this way His course, as 
it were, is described from the beginning of all things till He 
reached the goal, ver. 2, 3. II. In comparison with the angels, 
ver. 4. The CONFIRMATION presently after corresponds to this 
proposition, and the very name of Son is presently proved at 
ver. 5 ; as also the inheritance, at ver. 69 ; the making of the 
worlds, ver. 10-12 ; the sitting on the right hand^oi ver. 13, 14. 
Let us consider them one by one. 

2. "Ov sOqxs xXvipwofLov Trdvruv, ivhom lie appointed heir of all 
things) Immediately following the name of Son, mention is appro 
priately made of the inheritance or heirship ; and God really ap 
pointed Him heir, before that He made the worlds, Eph. hi. 11 ; 
Prov. viii. 22, 23 ; hence in the text the making of the worlds 
follows after the heirship. As the Son, He is the first-begotten : 
as the Heir, He is the heir of the whole universe, ver. 6. <3/ ou 
xai s-Troiyas TO-JC, aluvag) This is the ancient order of the words : 
by whom also lie made the ivorlds. The emphasis of the particle 
xafy also, falls on the verb made in this sense : He not only ap 
pointed the Son heir of all things before creation, but also made 
the worlds by Him. 1 The particle dia, by, takes away nothing 
from the majesty of the Son. On the fact, see ver. 10; and on 
the particle, comp. eh. ii. 10. By the Son He made the vwrlds, 
and all things that are therein ; ch. xi. 3. Therefore the Son 
was before all worlds ; and His glory is evident, looking back 
wards to anterior times, although it is not until these last days 
that God has spoken to us in Him. Indeed in this way He has 
conferred on these last days complete salvation. 

3. "Og 64^X0%, who on high) This is the third of those 
glorious predicates, He sat down on the right hand of the Majesty 
on high. Again, three points of importance are introduced into 

1 Therefore in the Germ. Vers., which has put the word gemacht last, we 
must compensate by pronunciation for what the author has here conceded 
to convenience of arrangement. E. B. 

ABD(A) corrected, f Vulg. Memph. Syr. read the order as Bengel does. 
But Rtc. Text, without any very old authority, save Orig. 4, 60c. and later 
Syr., read TOV$ a,luuetg ivroiviffsit. ED. 

HEBREWS I. 3. 341 

this predicate, by the three participles. Paul mentions these 
>ints in the same order, Col. i. 15, 17, 20. The first participle 
and likewise the second, from the finite verb exMitev, sat down, 
being the aorist, have the meaning of an imperfect tense, and 
may be resolved into because, &v, <pfyuv rs, because (inasmuch as) 
le was, because (inasmuch as) He was upholding (comp. d\, 
i. v. 8) ; but the third, as being without the particle r\, and, 
>hering more closely with the same finite verb, is to be resolved 
into after that : cro/?j #//, i/og, after that He made. e8v p spuv , 
because [inasmuch as] He was and upheld) That glory, on 
which the Son entered when He was exalted to the right hand 
of the Father, no angel was capable of taking, but the Son 
took it ; for He also had it formerly in respect of God, whose 
jlory shines refulgently in Him, and in respect of all things, 
which He upholds ; John vi. 62 ; Rev. i. 18. airavyafffta, the 
brightness) Wisd. vii. 25, 26 : For she (wisdom) is the breath of 
the power of God, and a pure influence flowing from the GLORY 
(AOSH2) of the Almighty : therefore no defiled thing falls into 
her. For she is the BRIGHTNESS (AnATFASMA) of the everlast- 
light, and the unspotted mirror of the power of God, and the 
ige of His goodness. ATO has in this compound word an 
itensive power as in a-Troar/X/Sw, dToxusw, d<ror/xrw, avt fcw, not 
le power of diminishing. It does not imply less or greater, 
but propagation [extension of the Father s glory]. r5js dofyc, of 
the glory) Glory denotes the nature of God revealed in His 
brightness, the same as His eternal power and Godhead, Rom. i. 
20. xapaKrqp, the impress, the express image) Whatever the 
hypostasis (personal essence) of the Father has, that is repre 
sented in the Son, as His express image. \j<noGra<izug, of His 
hypostasis) [of His personal essence]. If we gather from the 
LXX. the meaning of this word, variously used by them never 
however concerning GOD it denotes here the immoveable ever- 
lastingness of the Divine life and power ; comp. ver. 11. There 
fore the parallels are 86% a, the glory, always undefiled [* incor 
ruptible ], Rom. i. 23, and WoVrarf/g, the hypostasis or personal 
essence, which always holds as it were the same place. It was 
with this feeling that the old Rabbins, as it would seem, called 
God Dlpo, Place, or rather State. ra vavra, all things) [the uni 
verse^. The article is to be referred to vdvruv, of all things, ver. 2. 

342 HEBREWS 1. 4. 

r& pfoan, by the word) The Son of GOD is a person ; for He 
has the word. avrov) The same as tavrov in the next clause. 81 
lavrou) by Himself, i.e. without the external Levitical instrumen 
tality or covenant. This power of His shines forth from the 
titles already given. xaQapiffpbv, purification) There lies hidden 
here an anticipation. 1 When Christ lived in the flesh, it did 
not appear that so majestic things should be predicated of Him ; 
but the apostle replies, that His sojourn in the weakness of the 
flesh was only for a time, for the purging of our sins. In this 
chapter he describes the glory of Christ, in that light chiefly, as 
He is the Son of GOD ; then subsequently he describes the 
glory of Christ as man, ch. ii. 6. He mentions the actual glory 
of the Son of GOD before His humiliation in a summary man 
ner : but His glory after His exaltation, most fully ; for it was 
from this exaltation in particular, and not before, that the glory 
which He had from eternity began to be most clearly seen. 
And the purging of our sins, and subsequent sitting on the right 
hand of the Majesty, are most fully treated of in ch. vii., etc. 
sxaQitsv, He sat down) by the will of the Father ; comp. g ^xe, 
He appointed, ver. 2. On this sitting, see ver. 13, 14. The 
ministering priests stood ; the sitting therefore denotes the accom 
plishment of the sacrifice, and the glorious kingdom begun. By 
this finite verb, sat down, after the participles, is implied the 
scope, subject, sum of the epistle; comp. viii. 1. rqg pzya\u- 
ffvvrig) of the Majesty, i.e. of GOD. sv u-^Xo/c, on high) in the 
heavens, viii. 1. 

4. Toffovru, so much) This verse has two clauses, of which, by 
Chiasmus, the second is discussed in ver. 5, but the first in ver. 
13 ; and the Interrogation gives a point to both. The Chiasmus, 2 
ffX/),ua %iaffrbv, oratio decussata, is so frequent in this epistle, that 
the observation of this figure alone contributes very much to the 
explanation of the epistle. See ver 9, ch. ii. 9, 12, 17, iii. 1, 8, 
iv. 14, 15, 16, v. 7, vi. 7, vii. 6, viii. 4, 10, ix. 1, x. 20, 23, 33, 
38, xi. 1, 33, xii. 22, 23, 24, xiii. 10, with the annott. It may 
be asked, Why, in this one epistle, does that figure occur in every 
chapter f A ns. It is shown, at some of those passages which I 

1 Occupatio. An anticipation of an objection that might be raised, 
and which is therefore answered beforehand. See Append. ED. 

2 See Appendix. 

HEBREWS 1. 5. 343 

have just now quoted, that Paul uses the Chiasmus even else 
where, but more frequently to the Jews; and Surenhusius 
shows, in the /3//3Xog xaraXXayJjg, p. 78, etc., 607, 608, that 
their teachers greatly delight in this figure of speech in their 
writings. Therefore the apostle, who became all things to all 
men, has adapted his style to the Hebrews; and these men, 
who were guided by the Spirit, had quite ready at their com 
mand all the forms of discourse, in a greater degree than the 
most practised rhetoricians. xpstrruv ysvoftsvoc, being made better) 
by His exaltation, ver. 3, 13. The antithesis is vXarru/tevov, 
made loiuer or less, ch. ii. 9. This may be compared with Mark 
x. 18, note, [where Jesus, in His voluntary humiliation, saith, 
Why callest thou Me good ? " etc.] xpzfrruv, better, more ex 
cellent, more powerful : o/ xpeirrovts, the gods, among the ancient 
heathens. ruv ayy eXuv, than the angels) whose excellence is 
elsewhere spoken of as great. iea,f auroiig) cra^a denotes great 
pre-eminence above [as compared with] others. Comp. vapa, ver. 
9, ch. iii. 3. Angels are excluded in part explicitly, ver. 5, 13, 
and in part by implication ; for while none of them has taken 
this name, the Son of GOD, from that very circumstance they 
are not the heirs of this name, and therefore not the heirs of all 
things ; but they are a portion, no doubt a distinguished one, of 
the inheritance of the Son, whom they worship as Lord, ver. 6 : 
nor were the worlds created by them, but rather they them 
selves were created, ver. 7. xixfypovowxzv ovopa, He hath in 
herited a name) The name of Son is proper for the Son, because 
He is the Son ; and in this name principally the inheritance con 
sists. All things are an addition to the inheritance, ver. 2. The 
inheritance of the name is more ancient than the worlds them 
selves. The inheritance of all things is as old as all things them 

5. T/w yap, for to which [whom]) A frequent argument in 
this epistle is derived from the silence of Scripture : ver. 13, 
ch. ii. 16, vii. 3, 14. ruv ayyshuv, of the angels) For none of 
them took [was capable of taking] this glory. ribs, the Son) 
Acts xiii. 33. eyw r /bv) So the LXX., 2 Sam. vii. 14. That 
promise, / will be to Him a Father, and He shall be to Me a 
Son, had regard to Solomon, but much more, considering how 
august the promise is, to the Messiah ; otherwise Solomon also 

344 HEBREWS I. G. 

would be greater than the angels. The seed of David, or the 
Son of David, is one name, under which, according to the 
nature (relation) of the predicate, sometimes Solomon, some 
times Christ sometimes Solomon, and at the same time, in a 
higher sense, Christ is intended ; an ambiguity well suited to 
the times of expectation, Ps. Ixxxix. 27, 28. The apostles are 
the true interpreters of the Divine words, even though we should 
not have arrived at such an idea (such a mode of interpretation) 
as this without them [had it not been for then: interpreting 
Scripture so]. 

6. "Orav ds vrdXiv eiffaydyri rbv tpuroroxov stg rr^v oixov/AsvrjV, and 
again, when He brings His First-begotten into the world) Comp. 
with orav, when, orav in James i. 2, joined with the 2d Aor. 
subj. The particle de, but, intimates that something more im 
portant is to follow. Not only is the Son greater than angels, 
but He is worshipped by angels. 53 ofaovpsvi), is the world subject to 
Christ, ch. ii. 5, as the First-begotten ; see the psalm last quoted, 
and presently about to be quoted. This introduction implies 
something more than a mission, or mere sending. Both, how 
ever, take for granted rqv wpovwapfyv, the pre-existence of the Son 
of GOD ; and His entrance into the world corresponds to that 
pre-existence : ch. x. 5. He entered, by the will of GOD, when 
He presented Himself to do the will of GOD, ch. x. 5 ; with 
which comp. ch. ix. 11 ; when He came into the world, as He is 
everywhere said to have done. Udtjv, again, is brought in, cor 
responding to the common word, likewise, where scripture upon 
scripture is quoted, ver. 5, ch. ii. 13, x. 30; but the meaning 
of this particle is more clearly seen when it is enclosed in a 
parenthesis, the verb, / say, or some other of that kind, being 
supplied, in this manner : But when (I shall again state what 
GOD says concerning His Son) He brings in His First-begotten. 
So John xii. 39, They could not believe, because (I shall again 
quote Isaiah) the same prophet says, He has blinded, etc. Matt, 
v. 33, Ye have heard (I shall again bring forward an example) 
that it was said to the ancients. For the forms of quotation are 
somewhat freely introduced into a speech ; ch. viii. 5, Spa yap 
pyffi, instead of For, He says, See. 

The appellation, First-begotten, includes the appellation, Son, 
and further shows the force of its signification. For it involves 

HEBREWS I. 7. 345 

the rights of primogeniture, which the Only-begotten most emi 
nently possesses. Paul also uses similar language, Rom. viii. 
29 ; Col. i. 15, 18. In this passage, the appellation, First-be 
gotten, includes the description of the subject of Whom the 
Psalm is treating, with the ^Etiology 1 or reason given for the 
predicate, viz. He is brought in, for He is the First-begotten. 
Xsys/, He says) An abbreviated mode of expression. When the 
bringing in was predicted, the word was given ; when the bring 
ing in was accomplished, the same word was fulfilled. He says, 
viz. GOD ; comp ver. 5. Therefore the word avr&, Him, pre 
sently after, refers to the Son. K&1 KpoffxvvTjoaruffav aur) wdvrsg 
ayy&Xot Qzov, and let all the angels of GOD worship Him) LXX., 
Deut. xxxii., before ver. 43, has these words : su^pav^rs ovpavoi 
dpa, avru> xai irpoffxvvTjffdruaav aiiroD iravrzc, uyy&ot &tov, which are 
wanting in the Hebrew text and in the Chaldee Paraphrase. 
Mill is of opinion that the omission was occasioned long ago by the 
recurrence of the verb IjTin. Then [after the words in the LXX. at 
the beginning of ver. 43] there follows in Moses, tvppavdqre shy 
fAtra rou XaoD aurou, IfDJ? D^U IJTin (where i after D is wanting), 
which Paul, Rom. xv. 10, also refers to the times of the Messiah. 
Moses, especially in the Song, wrote of Christ. Nevertheless, 
Ps. xcvii. 7 has, <7rpoffxv\>7)ffars ubrtfj navrsg o/ ayysXoi aurou ; and 
Paul refers to this psalm, for the bringing in of the First-begotten 
into the world, in this passage, corresponds to the inscription of 
the psalm in the LXX, rti Aa/3/5, OTS q yq avrou Ka&iffrarai, that is, 
of David, when the land is brought under his authority, as 
Oederus has observed. 

7. ttpog, unto) [Engl. Vers. of, i.e. in reference to~] " He saith 
to the angels," by an indirect speech ; comp wpbg, to, xi. 18, note, 
[" In reference to whom it was said, In Isaac shall thy seed be 
called."] The apostle seems also to have had in his mind ver. 20 
of 103d Psalm, which immediately precedes the passage, Ps. civ. 
4. X syv, He saith) viz. GOD, by the prophet. 6 -TTO/^V <pX6ya) 
LXX., in exactly as many letters, Ps. civ. 4. Uv&vpara, spirits, 
and nupbs <p Xo ya, a flame of fire, signify not only the office of 
angels, but their very nature, which is no doubt of surpassing 
excellence, as the metaphor is taken from things the most effica- 

1 -/Etiologia. See Append. 

340 HEBREWS I. 8, 9. 

cious and the most subtile, but yet very far inferior to the ma 
jesty of the Son. Therefore the expression, cro/v, who maketh, 
intimates that the angels are creatures, made by His command ; 
but the Son is eternal, ver. 8, and the Creator, ver. 10. The 
subject, viz. ayysXo/, angels, and Xsiroupyol, ministers, as is proved 
by their being put with the article, 1 has its antithesis in ver. 8, 9. 
Moreover, the antithesis of Who makes, intimating the creation 
of the angels, is found in ver. 10, 11. I consider it to be the 
predicate of the Father ; comp. ver. 8. 

8. Upog rbv Y ibv to the Son) by a direct speech. Comp. vpb$, 
to, ver. 7. 6 fyovos /^ro-^ovg ffov) So again, the LXX. say dis 
tinctly, Ps. xlv, 7, 8, Thy throne, GOD, is for ever and ever : 
the sceptre (rod) of thy kingdom is a sceptre (rod) of righteousness. 
Thou hast loved righteousness, and hast hated iniquity ; therefore 
GOD, even thy GOD, has anointed thee with the oil of gladness 
above thy fellows. Concerning the Throne, comp. Lam. v. 19. 
[Government over all is indicated. V. g.] 6 Qz b$, God) The 
vocative case with the article is in the highest degree emphatic. 
They clearly do violence to the text, who hold the opinion, that 
it is the nominative case in this passage, as Artemonius does, 
Part. ii. c. 2. The Throne and the Sceptre are joined ; nor did 
God say, / will be thy throne, but, / will establish the throne of 
the son of David; Ps. Ixxxix. 5, 30, 37. aio^va evQvrqrog, for 
ever : of righteousness) Eternity and righteousness are attributes 
very closely connected, Ps. Ixxxix. 15, where the words }13D and 
IDIp" 1 should be well considered. See also ver. 3 of this Ps. xlv., 
where D^#i> may be taken into consideration. 

9. A/a roDro, therefore) From the love of righteousness, in 
which Christ excels, there is deduced here not so much His 
anointing, as the duration of the office for which He was 
anointed. This discourse has four parts : the throne the sceptre 
thou lovest therefore. Of these the first and fourth, the 
second and third, are parallel by Chiasmus ; for the former de 
scribe the supreme happiness of the King ; the latter, His virtue. 
o gog, 6 &sog <fov) It may be resolved thus : God, who is thy 
God. Comp. Ps. xliii. 4, Ixvii. 7 : but the Son Himself is called 

1 The article always distinguishes the subject from the predicate : there 
fore we cannot translate, " Who maketh winds His angels, or messengers, 
and a flame of fire His ministers." ED. 

HEBREWS I. 10, 11. 347 

GOD, as in the preceding verse. zt.aiov aya\\ia<swg) the oil of 
gladness, and everlasting joy, is the Holy Spirit. Kapa rovg 
(j,er6%ou$ ffov, above [as compared with] thy fellows) These fellows 
may seem to some the angels ; for even the angels have the name 
of gods, sons of God, morning stars, although in a far lower sig 
nification ; and the name of A ngel is wont to be given to the Son 
of GOD, although with a more majestic meaning. And indeed 
the Son of God has the angels as His companions, Gen. xviii. 2 ; 
Job xxxiii. 23 ; Ps. Ixviii." 18 ; 1 Tim. iii. 16 ; Matt. xxv. 31 : 
and it might have seemed proper that He should rather assume 
[take to Himself as associates] angels than the seed of Abraham, 
if a different economy [dispensation] had not demanded some 
thing different, ch. ii. 16 ; and that very humiliation, of which 
Ibid., ver. 7, takes for granted intercourse with them. In short, 
the 45th Psalm itself addresses Christ as God in this very verse, 
and a little before as "VQJ, brave, strong, ver. 4 ; a term applied to 
the angels, Ps. ciii. 20. Therefore the angels may appear to be 
called the fellows of Christ, especially since Paul refers all the 
sayings here quoted to the superiority of Christ above the angels. 
Nevertheless the peculiar relationship of Christ to men leads us 
to conclude, that men are here meant by " His fellows," ch. ii. 
11, etc. For the Bridegroom has His companions, as the Bride 
has hers, Ps. xlv. 14 : and there is the same comparison, ibid. ver. 
2, Thou art fairer than the sons of MEN. 

10. Ka/, and) This particle connects the testimonies. ai> %ar 
apX&S OL/JC xXe/-\}/oytf/) Ps. cii. 26-28 ; LXX. xar ap^as rf:), Kvpis, 
rqv yqv, etc., the remainder in the same words. The time of the 
creation is intimated, to which the end of the world is opposed ; 
and by this very fact, Dissertation iii. of Artemonius is done 
away with. <n), Thou) The same to whom the discourse is 
directed in the preceding ver. Kvpis, Lord) The LXX. have 
repeated that from ver. 23 of the same psalm. Christ is 
preached (proclaimed) even in those passages, where many 
might contend that the writer was principally speaking of the 
Father. yw, the earth : ovpavot, the heavens) A gradation. There 
is no reason why the angels may not be included in the word 
heavens, as the creation of man is included under the word earth, 
which passes away. 

11. Auro/, they) the earth and heaven. acroXoDvra/, shall 

348 HEBREWS I. 12-1 4. -II. 1. 

perish) There is the same word at Luke v. 37 ; James i. 11 ; 1 
Pet. i. 7 ; 2 Pet. iii. 6. 

12. AXXaJg/s, Thou slialt change. dXXay^ffovra/, they shall be 
changed) Many read for <xXXaJg/g, k^J^ng : but there is the one 
verb *pn twice in the Hebrew, which the LXX. often translate 
a\Xdffau, never by sX/Vtfw. 1 6 avToi) Kin, the same, never another 
(anything different), without old age and change. See Hiller, 
Onom., p. 71, 262. So 1 Sam. ii. 10 mif, LXX. Auro s. 

13. As, but) An Epitasis. [See Append.] 

14. Hoarse, all) although distinguished into various orders by 
various names, implying even some dominion : Eph. i. 21. 
heiroup yixu atfotfTsXXc/^si a, who minister who are sent) They 
minister before God [are employed in praises. V. g.] ; are sent, 
viz. abroad, to men [in order that they may execute the com 
mandments of GOD concerning other created things. V. g.] 
Both are opposed to sitting at the right hand. Comp. Luke i. 
19. rout; {AsXXovrag xXripovo/AsTv, those who shall receive the inherit 
ance of) i.e. the elect, and them who believe or who are about to 
believe. A sweet periphrasis. rfwr^/av, salvation) from so many 
and so great dangers. 


1. AS?) Elsewhere he uses the verb opg/As/v, to owe ; here dsT, 
it behoves. The former implies obligation ; the latter urgent 
danger, ver. 3. Now the discourse is verging towards exhorta 
tion, point by point corresponding to the preceding chapter, 

1 It must be observed, however, that the marg. of the 2d Ed., differing 
from the larger Ed., does not assign a greater value to the reading XA|^ 
than to lA/|g/. Umwenden, which is read in the Germ. Vers., accords with 
this. Therefore the latter views of Bengel are not refuted but confirmed 
by the decision which Ernesti gives, Bibl. th., T. vi., p. 6. But the same 
learned man, T. v., p. 216, reminds us that AA|-s/f and g?\./!g/f, in the 
idiom found in Hebraizing Greek, are the same as, Thou shalt abolish, 
shalt reduce to nothing. Let them so consider who can. E. B 

AB and the oldest MS. of Vulg. Amiat. have faf&is. D(A) corrected,/, 
and Victor s Vulg., have AA#fs/c. ED. 

HEBREWS II. 2. 349 

concerning Christ the prophet, the king, the priest : concerning 
Him as the prophet, for it is said, He hath spoken, ver. 2 : con 
cerning Him as king, for it is said, Thy throne, ver. 8 : concern 
ing Him as priest, for it is said, He hath made purification, ver. 
3. And so ch. ii., concerning Him as prophet, presently in ver. 
1, etc. : concerning Him as king, Thou hast crowned, ver. 7 : con 
cerning Him as priest, everywhere. The exhortation begins in 
the first person; then becomes stronger in the second, ch. iii. 1. 
vsptfffforepus, the more abundantly) The comparative in the strict 
sense ; comp. the following verses : it is construed with 6s?, it 
behoves. ^poff s^stv, to attend, to give heed) by obedience ; comp. 
ver. 2, note. roTg axouffOsfa, to the things which we have heard) 
The reference is to ch. i. 1, at the end : and comp. below ver. 3, 
ch. v. 11. The part (office) of speaking and hearing is, there 
fore, superior to that of writing and reading. f&vjirore vapappvufisv) 
2d Aorist pass, with an act. signification, from psvu, I flow, and / 
pour out: lest at any time, he says, we should [let them slip, Engl. 
Vers.] flow past (them) ; i.e. allow them to flow away with ex 
treme levity of mind ; comp. Gen. xlix. 4. The apostle had 
respect to the LXX., Prov. iii. 21, vis, ^ Kapappurts, do not flow 
or slip by them, my son, let them not depart from thine eyes ; 
where also, ver. 20, we read, v stpq eppvq fyoau, the clouds dropped 
with dew, in an active sense ; and so everywhere. Zosimus, 1. 2 : 
j) Pupaiuv ap^r, vKsppuq Kara, (Spa^v, the empire of the Romans 
gradually failed. Greg. : iva w s^irn^a rti xpovu ysvv\rai ra xa^oc 
KO.I py wapappuri, that what is beautiful should not be effaced by 
time and should not slip away. This word frequently occurs in 
a metaphorical sense. Hesychius : Kapappuupsv, igoX/dtfw^iv. The 
punishment of the slothful is expressed by a similar word, 
erdxTjffuv, they wasted away, or were consumed, Wisd. i. 16. The 
word stands : the slothful man slips away. 

2. A/ ayy&Xw, by angels) A/a, by, is taken in the strict sense, 
as in the following verse, comparing the words of Paul, Gal. 
iii. 19. Otherwise the apostle s argument from angels to the 
Lord would not hold good, ver. 5. GOD therefore spoke by 
angels, Ex. xx. 1, [in such a way, however, as that it was the 
very sound of GOD S voice, xii. 26. V. g.] In the New Testa 
ment God spoke by the Lord. ey svsro (3 s(3aio$, was made sted- 
fast) its authority being established by the penalties incurred 

350 HEBREWS II. 3. 

on the part of those who were guilty of its violation. 
every) without respect of persons. Kapa[3aff/g %ai 
vapdpaaig, transgression, by doing evil : Kapanori, disobedience, 
by neglecting to do good. The Metonymy of the abstract for 
the concrete, viz. for the transgressor and disobedient, who 
properly receive the recompense of reward. The antithesis in 
the concrete is, ice neglecting [if we neglect], ver. 3 ; the 
antithesis to which in the abstract is, ver. 1, vpoffs^tiv TO?$ axovg- 
Oetirij to give heed to those things which have been heard. As?" has 
the accusative with the infinitive. Thence the sentiment : We 
(the subject) ought to give heed to those things wliicli are heard (the 
predicate). This predicate has the antithesis in the abstract. 
sXafisv, received) not only in the sanction, but in the execution. 

3. n ri&t ic, t-Apsv^uzQa) how shall we escape the just and 
severe retribution ? So xii. 25, They did not escape ; (therefore) 
we shall not escape. ffurqpiag) salvation, in the world to come, 
joined with glory, ver. 5, 10, notes. The term salvation, which 
is repeated in the tenth verse, is akin to the name Jesus, which 
resounds in the gospel of salvation. upx?^, beginning) Formerly 
there had not been preached so great a salvation, and by so 
august an interpreter [exponent or mediator of it]. XaXe^a/, 
to be spoken) from His baptism up to His ascension, Acts i. 2. 
dia rov Kvptov, by the Lord) A majestic appellation; comp. 
eh. iii. 4, and the following verses ; Ps. ex. 1. He does not 
say here, by our Lord ; for he intimates that He is also Lord 
of the angels, whom the angels themselves call Lord : Luke ii. 
11 ; Matt, xxviii. 6. [Whatever is mentioned, ch. i., and after 
wards, ver. 7-10, is included in this appellation. V. g.] The 
antithesis is, by angels, ver. 2. Comp. ver. 5, and the following. 
VTTO r&v axoutfdvTMv) by those ivho had heard it face to face from 
the Lord Himself. They also had been eye-witnesses and 
ministers, Luke i. 2 : but the apostle mentions their having 
heard Him here, agreeably to what he began with, ver. 1, 2. 
The apostle has regard not only to the evangelical history in 
general, but even to particular heads of it, for example, that 
concerning the supplication in the garden, etc., ch. v. 1, note. 
Paul, writing to the churches of the Gentiles generally, speaks 
much of his calling, and of the fruits of his labour ; but here, 
when he writes to the brethren of the circumcision, he most 

HEBREWS II. 4, 5. 351 

especially appeals to the apostles who had been long with the 
Lord; comp. Acts i. 21, x. 41, xiii. 31, note; and he only 
appeals to the testimony of those apostles in a general way, in 
order that he may bring the Hebrews to the Lord alone. sis 
was, to us) This denotes that age then present. spsSaiuQq, has 
been confirmed) not by penalties, but by spiritual gifts. This 
word corresponds to (S&@aio$, firm, stedfast, ver. 2. 

4. Suveiripaprvpovvros) A double compound. It is the office of 
Christ to testify, it belongs to God to super add testimony : and 
He did so, both when Christ was walking upon the earth, by 
signs and wonders, and when He was taken up into heaven, by 
divers miracles, Acts ii. 22, 33. The whole of that testimony 
refers to the Lord Jesus Christ, Acts ii. 36, x. 36, 42 ; Rom. 
xiv. 10 ; 1 Cor. xii. 3 ; Phil. ii. 11. If any one should be in 
clined to refer the divers miracles also to Christ, whilst He was 
still upon the earth, I have no objection. The parallelism 
mentioned in the following note, if I am not mistaken, has led 
me [to refer the divers miracles to the apostles after the ascen 
sion]. KotxiXatg, by various or divers) The parallel is f^spiff^oT g, 
divisions, distributions [Engl. Vers., gifts ] ; comp. 1 Cor. xii. 
11. Kara ryv avrov d sXrjffiv, according to His will) most freely, 
most abundantly, most mercifully, not according to the will 
(caprice) of them who receive them. Whence it is evident 
that the gift is quite supernatural, alrov, of God Himself. 
[tin, LXX., 8eXr}ffi$. 

5. Ou yap ayysXoig, for not to angels) The ^Etiology [assign 
ing of a reason ; Append.], referring to ver. 3, where the terms 
salvation and Lord are skilfully introduced, serves the purpose 
of beginning a new paragraph. The greater the salvation, 
and the more glorious the Lord, that are despised, the more 
aggravated is the oifence of them who despise them. God 
subjected both angels and all things, not to the angels, of whom 
nothing was written to that effect [implying any such intention], 
but to man, or the Son of Man, Jesus Christ. The angels had 
more to do in the Old Testament ; but in the New Testament, 
when human nature was exalted by Christ, the angels are our 
fellow-servants. I ventured to say, more to do ; and it may be 
also supposed from the antithesis, that greater reverence was 
due to the angels in the Old Testament than in the New Testa- 

352 HEBREWS II. 5. 

ment, where they are now our fellow-servants. And from this 
very circumstance, that they are our fellow-servants, we under 
stand that they are not inactive under the New Testament, 
but merely that they act under a different relation from that 
under which they acted under the Old Testament. As in this 
passage angels are opposed to the Lord, so ver. 16, they are 
opposed to the brethren [ver. 11, 12]. The apostle couples 
believers alone with Christ alone. vvsraZe, subjected) This verb 

is now brought forward at once from the eighth verse. God 

subjected; for the language refers to ch. i. 1. rqv oixovpeniv rr t v 
psXXovffav, the world to come) There is but one earth, otxovfteni, 
belonging to all times, ch. i. 6. Therefore the expression, the 
world to come, is used as we say to-morrow s sun, although there 
is but the one sun of all days. Kin in Hebrew is expressed by 
/j/sX\ovffa in Greek. The world is one (and the same world), 
under grace and under glory ; the epithet, to come, is added to 
it, not because it is not already existing, but because it was 
formerly predicted. The newness which was introduced by 
Christ in the New Testament is considered of so much import 
ance in Scripture, that there arises from it a twofold division 
(dichotomia), viz. between the times of the Old and those of 
the New Testament, with one and the same eternity depending 
upon them. These latter taken together are called % 
55 psXXovffa, the world to come. They are ever and anon 
about to come, when regarded from the Old Testament point of 
view, which prophetically looks forward to the New Testament ; 
but in the New Testament they are present Good things, obtained 
by Christ ; which commence while the world to come is in 
the course of being subjected to Him, at the time when first 
He was crowned with glory and honour. Concerning this ex 
pression of Paul, comp. note at Rom. iii. 30. Although, even 
in reference to the time of this epistle, it is to come, /^sX^ouffa, 
in its own way, viz, at the time when all things shall be made 
subject to Christ, even including death, 1 Cor. xv. 24, 25. 
Consider the not yet, ver. 8, and the actual description of " the 
world to come," ch. xii. 26, etc. The noun, world, is of very 
wide meaning. See the psalm which is presently quoted. 
Uarrip rou MEAAONTO2 aiuvoc, Pater futuri seculi, Is. ix. 6, in 
the Greek and Latin versions ; the Father of the world to come ; 


in our translation, " the everlasting Father." mpi %$ 
of which we speak) We speak, we teachers, ch. v. 11, note. By 
this clause the force of a proposition is obtained for [is imparted 
to] this short verse. And the proposition is, all things shall be 
subjected to Jesus Christ. 

6. Aie/tctprbfan de vov rig, but one in a certain place testified) 
one, viz. a witness. David did not here speak of himself; 
wherefore it was not necessary to introduce his name. Nor 
should we stop short with the intermediate messengers, but 
should look to the word of GOD, when it has testified once for 
all. David testified in Ps. viii., to which this chapter often 
refers, even from the tenth verse, as we shall see. As, but, forms 
an antithesis between the angels and Him to whom the psalm 
testifies that all things are subjected. ri striv voduv auroD) So 
altogether the LXX., Ps. viii. 57. That clause, and Thou hast 
set Him over the works of Thy hands, the apostle does not 
assume, at least in his reasoning, but deduces the " all things" 
from what goes before and follows in the psalm. There are 
mentioned in that clause the works of GOD S Jiands, i.e. heaven, 
the moon and stars. (The sun is wanting, either because, as the 
slavery and deliverance of his seed was shown to Abraham in 
the night time, Gen. xv. 12 ; so the humiliation and exaltation 
of the Messiah were shown to David and sung by him during 
the night ; as also the word of the Lord seems to have come 
to Job by night, Job xxxviii. 7, 31, 32 ; or because Messiah, 
when forsaken on the cross, saw the moon and stars after that 
the sun was darkened.) But the authority of Christ continues 
beyond the duration of these. ri eonv avfyurtoi) what is man 
with respect to the works of GOD, the heaven, etc. ; but what 
is man with respect to God Himself? The expression is thus 
more humble than if he had said : Who am I ? A man, 
without the article, as one of many. 6^13 N, a man, 
subject to sufferings and death. or/ fAi/Avfaxy) avrov, that Thou art 
mindful of him) Such is the description of the Messiah s con 
dition, in which He might seem to have passed away from the 
remembrance and care of God. Whence, with wonderful 
humilty, He is astonished Himself at this very thing, the re 
membrance of Him : how much more at so great glory prepared 
for Him ? It could not be otherwise, Acts ii. 24 ; but He prays 


354 HEBREWS II. 7, 8. 

as if it could scarcely be so. 5j, or) Dltf p, the son of man, in 
this passage, conveys the notion of something more insignificant 
than D1X, man. viog avtydvou) D1K p, comp. Ps. xlix. 3. 1 Again 
without the article. lieuti&Krv) avrbv, takest account of him, visitest 
him) An increase in the force of the expression ; for remem 
brance refers even to the absent; Iflvtfxwrrwda/, to visit or look 
after, denotes the care of one present. 

7. ~Bpa%v n, a very short time) The same word occurs at Luke 
xxii. 58. vap d/ygAou?) In Ps. viii. 6, the Hebrew DVD imDnrn 
DTitaft has this meaning : Thou hast made the Son of Man to be 
a little less than God, that is, than Himself. The beautiful para 
phrase of Christopher Corner is as follows : Christ having become 
man, humbled Himself under the cross, and abased Himself BELOW 
GOD, when the Divine nature remaining quiescent, and not exerting 
its power, God Himself and the Lord of Glory was crucified and 
put to death. Expos. Psalm, p. 24. This is the force of Mem 
prefixed, 2 Chron. xv. 16 ; Is. lii. 14. See Nold. Concord, on 
this particle, 21. Mem following "lono itself, Eccl. iv. 8. 
This mode of expression we find in another of Paul s phrases : 
^ c8v JffaQiti and %evu<fa$ gaurov ; Phil. ii. 6, 7, note. But Paul 
retains the interpretation of the LXX interpreters as suited to his 
purpose ; for the homonymy 2 of the Hebrew word DTPK signifies 
an invisible nature, and therefore, whether angelic or divine, 
superior to the human nature ; and Pie, who was made lower 
than the angels, was certainly made lower than GOD : but He 
as it were anew supplies the appellation, GOD, in ch. iii. 4. 
For so the apostle is accustomed to use appropriately to his 
purpose the words of the LXX interpreters, and to bring before the 
reader anew the force of the Hebrew words, when they are more 
to his purpose ; ch. x. 8, xii. 6, notes. 

3 8. udvra vveragas) See 1 Cor. xv. 27, and what goes before 
with the annot. yup, for) The apostle shows the reason ivhy he 
quoted this passage, namely, because we are taught in it that it 
was Jesus to whom all things w r ere subjected, and therefore 

1 See the Hebrew ni*c *. Also Ps. cxliv. 3. ED. 

2 Things differing in nature called by one name by analogy. Append. 

3 Tx spyx ruv xtipav aw, the works of Thy hands ) The sun, moon, stars, 
etc., Ps. viii. 4. V. g. 

HEBREWS II. 9. 355 

the world to come, ver. 5. Often yap, for, is useful for the 
^Etiology of [assigning a reason for] what is said; ch. vii. 14, 
ix. 24 ; and so Paul, Rom. iii. 28. avrti, avrp) under Him, 
under Him, the man of whom he is speaking, the Son of Man. 
This is explained in the middle of ver. 9, concerning Jesus, the 
application to Him having been most suitably put off till that 
place. rot, -ravra) ra in the second and third place has the force of 
a relative to the -rccvra, all things, which precedes. The same 
force of the article may be found at John xix. 5, 7 ; Gal. v. 
13, vi. 14. ovdsv, nothing) not even angels ; ver. 5, ch. i. 6. 
affixsv, left) in the language of the psalm, to which the events 
partly correspond, partly will correspond. vw ds O UKU, but now 
not yet) NDv, now, serves the purpose of an Anthypophora ; l for 
the time is denoted in ovvu, not yet, and the latter is construed 
with opupsv, we see, in antithesis to the present fiXsvofttv, we per 
ceive. 2 More things are already subjected to Christ than we see ; 
and all things will be entirely subjected to Him at the proper 
time, and we shall behold it; Eph. L 22 ; 1 Cor. xv. 27, 28. 
But why not yet all things ? Because both His body, the Church, 
is in distress, and He Himself is not acknowledged, at least is not 
seen. The verb /3Xs7rw, / look, I perceive, denotes something more 
definite ; fydu, I see, something more extensive and more august. 
9. As, but) The antithesis is between that in the psalm, which 
we do not yet see, and that which we already perceive fulfilled 
in Jesus. But what do we perceive I We perceive, as regards 
Jesus, who was made a little lower than the angels, that He, on 
account of the suffering of death, has been crowned with glory 
and honour. In this paragraph, qXarrupsvov (&A etfnpavufttvov) 
fa u$, x.r.x., is a Chiasmus, such as Paul has, Gal. iv. 4, 5 : and 
in the present clause, 5/a, x.r.X. (which clause requires no point 
before 3dj), that for (on account of) which Jesus was crowned, 
namely, the suffering of deatJi, is mentioned according to the 
natural order of the subject, and not without emphasis, before 

1 Part of a refutation of an objection that might be made by anticipation. 

2 BxsVg/i/, to look, to use the eyes, whether seeing something or not. 
Qpoiv, to see something; and is never used absolutely. Thus the Greeks 
never used opciv, but always /3AgVg/j>, of the situation of a region. Tiltm. 
Syn. ED. 

35^ HEBREWS II. 9. 

the actual crowning. The apostle takes away from tlie Jews the 
offensive scandal (stumbling-block) of the cross : and so refutes 
the argument, which might be drawn from the sufferings of 
Christ against His glory, and that glory the source of glory to 
us also, as that he even inverts it [turns it into an argument for, 
instead of against Christ]. He shows that the suffering of death 
is so far from obstructing the glory and honour of the Messiah, 
that it rather confirms them to us. Whence he infers, that the 
fact of Jesus being " made lower than the angels," which was 
only for a little, did not refer to the circumstance that He should 
continue under the power of death, but that, after He had once 
suffered death to the utmost, He should have everything made 
subject to Him. It is Jesus to whom the humbling and crown 
ing, as described in the psalm, apply. It is therefore the same 
Person, to whom also the power over all appropriately belongs, 
which (power) follows close after, in the gradation of the psalm, 

{Spayjj n, for some little time [a little]) Some hours on the cross, 
days of suffering, years of toils, how little are they all, when 
compared with eternity ! tap ayyt /.w$, than the angels) who are 
incapable of suffering and dying. ^XarT-uyxsi/ov) made loiver, less, 
a worm : comp. Luke xxii. 43. The participle implies, that 
Jesus of Himself, and for His own sake, might have entered 
upon glory without suffering ; but the good of His brethren 
was likewise to be regarded. /SXscro//^, ive perceive) The act of 
looking, saith he, speaks (of itself). The same word occurs, 
ch. iii. 19, x. 25. The fact and the issue agree with the faith of 

/ 7) 

the previous testimony ; ver. 6, at the beginning. TO cra^aa ro\j 
Qavdrov, the suffering of death) The suffering of death is the main 
feature [in His sufferings, and so is put for all the rest] : ch. v. 1. 

3ogj -/.at TI/J^J with glory and honour) becoming the Son of God. 
[Glory presupposes death ; honour, suffering. -V. g.] sorspavu- 
[j/tvov, crowned) after death. 6Vws, that) This ought to be con 
nected with being made lower, and therefore denotes the end (the 
final cause). y^pin 0soD, by the grace of God) Some formerly 
read ^upis 1 go-j, except God. Both readings give a good sense ; 
let us look at each. The clause with %upi$, except, stands thus : 

1 ABCD(A)/Vu]g;. read %*otTt. Grig. 4Alc, 3926, 393c, 4506, reads 

: but in the two first places quoted be mentions the reading 
but evidently not as the generally received one. ED. 

HEBREWS II. 9. 357 

Christ tasted death for every one except God. This sentence is 
to be explained by its members. I.) Ilavrog, as the KUVTM, occur 
ring five times in ver. 8, 10, is neuter, which is acknowledged 
by Orig. Theod. Ambros., quoted in Estius ; for in the mascu 
line it is wont to be plural, virep vdvruv, 2 Cor. v. 1 5 ; 1 Tim. ii. 
6 : and the plural, ifavruv and -/raff/, is generally masc., some 
times neuter ; but -ravroj, -yam, put without a substantive or a 
participle, are always neut. [but Engl. Yers. " for every man"~\. 
See above, at 2 Cor. xi. 6 ; Mark ix. 49. The apostle shows 
the glory of Christ from the eighth Psalm, and especially from 
the clause, Thou hast put , everything, under His feet ; and he 
supplies the emphasis of the singular number (He put every 
thing), which is contained in that significant syllable io, and was 
omitted by the LXX. transl., when he says, and only in this 
place, which is the leading strength (sinew) of his argument, 
vavr6$. For navrbg, neut., without the article, is good Greek, 
since it is used by Hesiod, nXsov r,^iffv v&vroc, the half (obtained 
by fair means) is more than the whole (obtained unfairly). This 
flrav, this all, to which obdev, nothing, likewise in the neuter, is 
opposed, ver. 8, and in which all, in the masc., are included, 
John iii. 35, 36, chiefly comprehends angels, than whom Christ 
had been made a little (or for a little) lower ; and thus the Pro 
tasis and Apodosis correspond to each other, We do not yet see all 
things subject to Him, but yet that for which Pie tasted death is 
ALL (<rav), i Omne. II.) To taste death, implies the reality, 
and yet in this place also the shortness, of death ; as Chrysostom, 
Sedulius, Haymo, Flacius, on this passage, acknowledge. III.) 
Hence we at length gather the meaning of faep, for all (<rravrb$, 
omni) ; Germ, wn alles, not fur alle : vvrep denotes here the 
thing to be obtained, as in John xi. 4 ; 2 Cor. i. 6, xii. 8, 19 ; 
2 Thess. i. 5. He tasted death for all (omni), that He might 
claim all ( omne ) for Himself, that He might obtain power 
over all things : or in other words, for this, that what was 
written might be fulfilled to Him, Thou hast put ALL (OMNE) 
under His feet. IV.) That All has a very manifest and proper 
exception. Paul, 1 Cor. xv. 27, treating of the same psalm, 
the same verse, and the same word, io, all, adds, it is manifest 
that He is excepted, who put all things under Him. The same 
exception therefore is made in this place, %upit 0o.D imp 

358 HEBREWS II. 9. 

ally but God) is subject to Christ : xupi$ is used to express an 
exception. So Epiphanius, 6/d Kavrbg, %wp/g ^svrjjxotfrTjj, at all 
times except Pentecost : ligeres. Ixxv. Thomas Magister writes, 
rb crX^v xai rb Jxrog, TO %upig drjXouffi ; %w/>/ is explained by trt^ 
and sxrbg, except. Theodoritus acknowledges that %p/s in this 
passage expresses an exception ; and the parallelism of the 
psalm shows us what the exception is. And the exception itself 
very significantly, and yet, lest the discourse should be inter 
rupted, very briefly, points out the vast extent of the things 
subject to Christ, which are absolutely all but God; and the 
exception is properly put before the subject, from which the 
exception is made. The same clause, if %a/?/r/, by grace, be re 
tained, will be thus explained : that by the grace of GOD He might 
taste death for everything. By the grace of GOD in regard to us, 
Gal. ii. 21 ; Rom. v. 8, and to Jesus Himself. His enemies 
thought that Jesus suffered and died in consequence of the wrath 
of GOD, Ps. xxii. 8, 9, Ixix. 27 ; Isa. liii. 4 ; John xix. 7. But 
it was altogether by the grace of God, that He suffered and died, 
of which grace the gift is honour and glory : Phil. ii. 9, I%a^/Varo, 
" God hath given Him," etc. ; Luke ii. 40, 52 ; Eom. v. 15. 
And this noun, %a/?/r/, expresses the same idea as the verbs, /&//*- 
vfaxri) V/0KfiT;/j, rememberest (" art mindful"), visitest, ver. 6, 
from that eighth Psalm. In this interpretation, wlp vavrbg 
might be equivalent to for all (men), Germ, fur alle, so far as 
the preposition is concerned, but the neuter, ^ravroc, is an objec 
tion [therefore it must be for everything : in order that everything 
may be subject to Him]. We now inquire which reading is 
genuine. I am not ignorant that x&pin is more favourably 
received than %w/?/g, and I would be disposed, without any 
trouble, to dismiss the latter and adopt the former. But when 
the question concerns the word of GOD, even one little word of 
GOD, we ought to settle nothing merely to gain time. The 
over-officiousness of the transcribers, which seeks after all things 
plain, more easily changed %upl$ into %a/>/*v, than %dpin into 
y^pts ; and yet %&>?}$ remains in ancient, numerous, and import 
ant documents. The list is given in App. Grit. To them may 
be added the book of the Abbot Anastasius against the Jews, 
who flourished in Palestine in the eighth century, directly exhi 
biting this reading. Nor will any one, I hope, call in question 

HEBREWS II. 10. 359 

this reading, nor the interpretation which has been here pro 
posed by us ; yet it is open to the reader to consider the matter 
more fully. La Croze, lib. iii., de Christianismo Indico, c. 3, 
64, shows the consistency (unanimous agreement) of the 
Syriac copies in joining both readings. ygu<njra/, might taste) 
The reality of death is implied in this phrase, as everywhere 
else ; and here, as we have said, at the same time the shortness 
(rb Ppaw) of its duration, for denoting which the gen. Qavdrov 
is well fitted ; comp. ch. vi. 4, note. To taste a part of death is 
one thing ; a part or the shortness of the time, in which the whole 
of death is tasted, is another. 1 Matt. xvi. 28 does not present 
any objection to the signification of shortness of duration ; for 
there the expression is negative, as in Luke xiv. 24. Moreover, 
Ps. xxxiv. (8) 9, gives weight to this view, ygu<raer0g xa/ 7&, 
i.e. Only taste and you will see ; otherwise taste would not be 
put before sight. 

10. "Eirpsire, it became) So Ps. viii. 2 (1), "pin, LXX., i\ //,5/a- 
sid ffov, " Thy becoming magnificence (to which it be 
came here alludes) is set above the heavens." Moreover (for 
the rest) in the whole of this verse 10, the proposition, which 
in verses 8, 9, was clothed in the words of the same psalm, is 
now set forth in words more nearly accommodated to the purpose 

the apostle ; but with this difference, that ver. 8, 9, treat 
more expressly of glory, (taken) from what goes before, ver. 7 ; 
whereas ver. 10 treats more expressly of His sufferings, thereby 
preparing us for the transition to what follows. The predicate 
of the proposition is, It became Him, on account of whom all 
things, and by whom all things exist : The subject follows, to 
make perfect, or consummate, through sufferings the Captain of 
their salvation, who thereby brings many sons to glory? Ayayovra. 
might be resolved into iva ayayuv rsXttuffy. But this is the con 
struction, ayayovra, rbv apw/bv, that the first Leader or Captain of 
salvation may be also the One bringing unto glory. Apwyb$ is 

1 It is the latter, not the former, that is true of Jesus ; for He tasted the 
whole of death, though its duration was short. ED. 

2 Or, perhaps, Beng. takes retetaaeti thus : that the Captain of their sal 
vation, in bringing (ocyotyovTot) many sons to glory , should make consumma 
tion (viz. of His own work and glory, and so of theirs) through His suffer 
ings. Heb. xii. 2 favours this. ED. 

360 HEBREWS II. 10. 

compounded of &P-/TI and /w ; and dp%r, looks forward in the 
text to reXsiuffat (coinp. ch. xii. 2), but /w looks back to aya- 
yo vra. Therefore the proposition comprehends a number of im 
portant sentiments, which may thus be unfolded : 

1. Jesus is the Captain of salvation. 

2. It was necessary to procure salvation by suffering. 

3. He was perfected (consummated) by suffering. 

4. The glory of the sons was united with that consummation. 

5. The sons are many. 

6. This whole plan was highly becoming God, though unbelief 
considers it a disgrace. 

7. It became God, that Jesus should suffer and save the sons ; 
because for Him are all things. 

8. It became God, that Jesus should be made perfect (consum 
mated), and sons brought to glory ; for by Him are all things. 

We set down four of these points, marked by as many letters, 
at the same time observing the order of the text : 

A. B. 

The glory of the sons : The Captain suffering . 

C. D. 

The salvation of the sons : The consummation of the Captain. 

These points are referred to God, for whom and by whom all 
things exist, i.e. to whom are to be attributed the beginnings 
and ends of all things. B and C refer to the beginnings of 
things, D and A to the ends of things. But the same four 
points are transposed in the text by Chiasmus, so that the dis 
course proceeds in most beautiful order from the end, A, to 
those intermediate, which are included in B C D. avr&) Him, 
God the Father, who is mentioned in ver. 9, and is to be under 
stood in ver. 5. 8i w m di o5, for whom : by whom) Paul gene 
rally accumulates prepositions by a nice and elegant discrimina 
tion. croXXoyg, many) as many as possible, whence exxXtsia, the 
general assembly, in ver. 12. u/oyg, sons) In the style of writing 
usual in the Old Testament, they are called -ra/5/a, children ; 
comp. ver. 13, 14, note : in the style of the New Testament 
they are u/o/, sons, whose condition is opposed to slavery or 
bondage, ver. 15 ; as with Paul, Rom. viii. 15 ; Gal. iv. (>. 
Jesus Himself is the Son; He makes us sons of God, He con- 

HEBREWS II. 11. 361 

siders us as His own offspring : DHT*, vaidia (soboles), offspring, 
are synonymous. Comp. Ps. xxii. 31 ; Is. liii. 10. s/s do^av, 
unto glory) This glory consists in this very circumstance, that 
they are sons, and are treated as sons ; Rom. viii. 21. Examine 
John xvii. 10, 22, and that whole prayer ; and comp. ver. 7 of 
this second chapter. Glory and holiness, bringing unto glory 
and sanctification, have a very closely connected meaning ; ver. 
11. Tr { $ Gurypfas auruv, of their salvation) This word presupposes 
destruction ; and that we might be delivered from it, Christ must 
suffer. Ao ga, glory, follows salvation, in the style of Paul, 1 2 
Tim. ii. 10, note. rsXg/wera/, to make perfect, to consummate) 
Bringing to the end of troubles, and to the goal full of glory, 
ch. v. 9, is included in this word. A metaphor derived from 
the contests in the public games. For rgXs/oDo^a/, r&X&iog, re\eio- 
rq$, rzXsluais, rsXsiurfc, regarding Christ and Christians, are fre 
quent in this epistle. This perfecting by sufferings includes two 
points : I. The glory of Christ, inasmuch as all things are sub 
jected to Him, now that He has been made perfect. II. His pre 
vious sufferings. He presently afterwards treats directly of 
His sufferings, ver. 11-18, although he has slightly referred to 
them in the preceding part of the chapter. He has put the 
discussion concerning Glory in this very passage first, for the pur 
pose of sharpening (giving the more point to) his exhortation, and 
meeting beforehand the scandal attached to His suffering and 
death. But he has interwoven a fuller consideration of both points 
with the following discussion respecting the Priesthood, which 
is brought forward at ver. 17. And indeed, as regards His 
Sufferings, the fact is evident (openly stated) : but he describes 
the Glory (by implication), while he mentions, at convenient 
places, that Jesus was consummated or made perfect, that He is 
in heaven, that He is made higher than the heavens, that He sits 
at the right hand of God, that He will be seen a second time, that 
His enemies will be made His footstool : in this verse, and ch. iv. 
14, v. 9, vii. 26, 28, viii. 1, 2, ix. 24, 28, x. 12, 13, xii. 2. 

11. Tap, for) The closest relationship was the reason why it 
was becoming that Jesus should not be made perfect (consum- 

1 Note once for all the frequent Italicising of Paul s name in such cases, 
is to show that his style accords with that of the writer of this Epistle : a 
proof that Paul was the writer. ED. 

362 HEBREWS II. 12. 

mated) without us. o dy/a^wv, He that sanctifieth) Christ, ch. xiii. 
12. Christ is called He that sanctifieth) on account of that whole 
benefit, viz. that He by Himself makes us holy, i.e. divine [be 
longing to God]. 01 dy/ao>)/o/, they ivho are sanctified) the people, 
ch. x. 10, 14, 29. To sanctify, to bring to God, to be sanctified, to be 
brought to GOD, to draw near, to have access, are synonymous. 
He who sanctifies was begotten by the Father, and appointed 
the Sanctifier; they who are sanctified, are those created by 
God and appointed to receive sanctification ; comp. UUK&V, " The 
children whom God hath given me," ver. 13. This is the origin 
of His brotherhood (with us), and of His communion with flesh 
and blood (ver. 14). Jg Ivk, of one) that *7g, one, is Abraham, 
as Mai. ii. 15 ; Is. li. 2 ; Ezek. xxxiii. 24. All men are of 
one, Adam ; all the descendants of Abraham are of one, Abra 
ham. In this whole passage, Paul, writing to the descendants 
of Abraham, accommodates his discourse to them apart, ver. 16, 
17, ch. xiii. 12 ; as also in Ps. xxii., which is here quoted, ver. 
12, the writer is speaking of Israel, ver. 22, etc., but of the 
Gentiles, ver. 2531 ; and the whole of the subsequent discus 
sion respecting the priesthood and sacrifices is chiefly suited to 
the comprehension of the Hebrews. Wherefore, this epistle 
will at some time contribute much to the salvation of Israel. 
If this one meant God, the angels should be included, who are 
put away at ver. 16. navng, all) This is construed with dy/a- 
fy/Asvoi, who are sanctified; for he says wavrsg, all; he would 
have said both, if he intended to include Him that sanctifies in 
the vrdvrss, all. ov% s^aiff^vsrai) He is not ashamed, whereas, 
but for this cause (that they are of Abraham, who is considered 
not as a sinner, as in need of salvation, but as the common 
ancestor, as he who had received the promise), there might 
have been many things for which he might be ashamed [to call 
them brethren] ; for, far from being holy, we had been exceed 
ingly guilty, ver. 14, 15: yet He is not ashamed; nay, He 
accounts it a glorious thing to Himself, because of the holiness 
and glory unto which He has brought us. It becomes God to 
have such sons restored to Him. Christ is not ashamed of such 
brethren ; comp. " God is not ashamed" ch. xi. 16, note. /caXs/v) 
to call, to declare by calling. 

12. A syuv, saying) Here three things are quoted from the 


Old Testament, by which the preceding discourse of the apostle 
is admirably confirmed, by Chiasmus, in retrograde order. For 

the apostle mentions 
Ver. 10, Sons. 

Ibid., The perfecting, or con 
summation by sufferings. 

Ver. 11, The relationship of 
Him who sanctifies, and 
of those who are sanctified. 

Christ says, in the words of the 

Old Testament, 
Ver. 13, at the end, / and the 

Ver. 13, at the beginning, I will 

put My trust. 
Ver. 12, Unto My brethren. 

And again, ver. 14-1 7, in inverted order, the children, and the 
successful work of Christ, and brethren, are mentioned. The two 
chains of quotations, ch. i. on the Glory of Christ, ch. ii. on Re 
demption, most sweetly correspond to one another. uwyyeXu 
vfAvfau ) Ps. xxii. 23,LXX., dwyfaof&ou: as to the rest, the words are 
the same. Messiah declares the name of the good Lord, which 
was unknown to His brethren, that the brethren may also praise 
Him. Ps. already quoted, ver. 24. U^VJJ<TW, 1 will sing) as the 
leader of the choir : comp. Ps. viii. 3. 

13. E/w effopou irzvotQus sir ai/rp, I will put my trust in Him) 
LXX. xal ffsffoiQ&c stof&ou IK avrti, in Isaiah immediately before the 
place from ch. viii., which will be afterwards quoted : vreiroifas 
etropai sir avrp, 2 Sam. xxii. 3, which the Church imitates, Is. xii. 
2. The filial confidence of the Messiah is indicated, fleeing 
from His sufferings to the Father [and by no means disappointed : 
comp. ver. 10, at the end. V. g.], ch. v. 7 : comp. 2 Sam. xxii. 
4, etc. A small portion is quoted ; the whole passage is in 
tended by the apostle. Our Theologians rightly blame the 
Schoolmen, who are of opinion, that the atonement of Christ 
was not simply and in itself condign or meritorious. See Calov. 
Matasol. pass, in Dedic. But yet the most fragrant part of this 
atonement is the exceedingly pure confidence by which solely 
He was supported in His approach to the Father ; Ps. xxii. 10 ; 
Matt, xxvii. 43. For He did not show His merits, but rather 
confessed the sins that were laid upon Him, Ps. Ixix. 6. As He 
therefore by Himself confidently (by faith) trusted in the Father, 


so we confidently (by faith) put our trust in Christ, and through 
Christ in the Father. The argument is very important against 
the merit of men s works. But Christ exhibited this confidence 
not for Himself, for He and the Father are one, but for His own 
people, ver. 16. Every instance of present assistance gave 
assurance of assistance for the future (comp. Phil. i. 6), until He 
obtained a complete victory over death and the devil. idol 
o Qsog) Is. viii. 18, LXX., in the same words. He calls them 
iraidta DH7*j children, sons, using an expression well becoming the 
First-begotten, who intimates that the same are both His 
brethren and His inferiors (juniors) ; and He presents all these, 
to be glorified alike with Himself, before God, who has given 
them to Him to be saved. 

14. E TTSI ovv ra <7ra/c>/a, forasmuch then as the children) The 
children here, ra -ra/5/a, is not a noun denoting a natural age, 
but is brought down from ver. 13. The Messiah here could not 
be suitably placed in the company of the children according to 
the flesh ; He is speaking of His spiritual sons ; out, therefore, is 
an inference from ver. 10, etc. /cgxo/i>wijxi> a /ftarog KUI ffapxbg, 
were partakers of flesh and blood) The past, in respect of the 
greater part, who had already lived at the time of the testimony 
given in the psalm. He mentions brethren in the psalm, children 
in Isaiah : in relation to that time in which David and Isaiah pro 
phesied, many of the brethren and children were then living, and 
had lived, whom He was to reconcile unto God. These are not 
excluded but included. Koimvsu, with the genitive, Prov. i. 11, 
where also, ver. 18, pers^ca is used with the same meaning : 
xotvuvfiGoig odou, Job. xxxiv. 8. In this passage, however, the 
change of the words is elegant ; so that JUST S #%& may express the 
likeness of one to the rest [here, of Jesus to those whose nature 
He took part of] ; xoivuveft, to the likeness of many among one 
another. 2a^J xa/ ///, are sometimes used by metonymy for 
man, Gal. i. 16 ; but here they are more properly taken in the 
abstract, as in 1 Cor. xv. 50 : although in that passage of Paul 
to the Corinthians <ra/>J xa/ afpa include the notion of the oldness 
of the corrupt nature. Elsewhere, as we have just now seen, 
cap% xai afya is the expression used (is the order of the words), 
the principal part, viz. flesh, being put first, which is also some 
times written alone : here /,W xa/ ffap % (although some have 


transposed the words) is the order of the words, just as in Eph. 
vi. 12, vpbs aTpa xat ffdpxa. Whether the expressions are used 
indiscriminately, or aJ^a is put first sometimes for a certain de 
finite reason (which may be sought for in this passage from 
those who write on Physics), I dare not determine. Although 
my commentary does not descend to such things, yet it with 
difficulty avoids the stigma of too curious refinement, in the 
estimation of those who generously weigh heavenly words. 
uro$) Close after this, there sweetly follows ruv avr&v. 
T^aTA7j0v w5, in like manned) vapa in crapaTATjovoj sometimes, like 
the Latin sub, diminishes the signification of the compound, just 
as in Kapsyyug ; but here it is almost the same as presently 
Tavra, in all things, ver. 17 : ch. iv. 15. Therefore 
in like manner, serves the purpose of the apostle, as he enters 
upon this discussion, in the way of reverent caution (suAaSs/ai/), 
that he may gradually speak what he thinks ; comp. Phil. ii. 
27, note : and the particle that is less significant 1 is the more 
convenient on this account, that the expression, without sin, is 
not yet added in this place. Therefore the reality of the parti 
cipation remains, which is asserted by Raphelius in his annot. 
on Herodotus. TUV nvruv) This is not a mere relative, as the 
article shows : ra ai/ra, the same things, which happen to the 
brethren labouring under flesh and blood, without even except 
ing death. /Va, that) Here the subject is briefly noticed: it is 
more fully explained, ch. v. 7, 8, 9. It will be of advantage to 
compare .both passages together, ch. v. and ii., and seriously 
meditate upon them, till it be perceived how both terminate in 
a eulogium on the great High Priest. dta ro\j Oavdrou, through 
death) A paradox. Jesus suffered and overcame death ; the 
devil, wielding death in his hand, succumbed. Jesus in turn 
imparts to us life through His flesh and blood ; John vi. He 
assumed our nature, that His body might be delivered up, and 
His blood poured out. Therefore the delivering up of the body 
and the pouring out of the blood are the facts which are chiefly 
had regard to : John vi. 51. xarapyijffrj, might destroy) This is 
an inference from the verb u^&ra^ag, thou hast subjected, ver. 8 : 

ag, expressing that He took part of flesh and blood in a 
somewhat similar manner as the children partake of flesh and blood not in 
an altogether similar manner for He was without sin. ED. 

366 HEBREWS II. 15, 16. 

comp. 1 Cor. xv. 27 with the preceding, where Paul uses the 
same synonyms, xarapysTv, viroTdffffsiv. So Ps. viii. 3, IYQB>ni> rou 
xaraXvaai, that thou mightest still the enemy and the avenger. 
rb xpdros, power) great indeed, Matt. xii. 26, 29. s^ovra) having 
[who had] by a certain law [right], namely, in so far as no injury 
was thereby done to the captives : comp. pHV, Is. xlix. 24, where 
the devil does not seem to be called just, morally, but a mighty 
tyrant, who had Igoutf/av, authority, over the captives ; Col. i. 13 ; 
2 Pet. ii. 19, at the end : although here it is called power in a 
restricted sense, not authority. Death was the executioner and 
minister of the devil as a cruel master, delivering up men to him 
whom he led away in sin : but Jesus dying made them dying His 
own, Rom. xiv. 9. roD Qavdrov, of death) by sin. rovr stri, that is) 
His power was manifest : who it was that lurked beneath this 
power as wielding it, escaped the notice of mortal men. 

15. A-raXXa^) might deliver from the devil, who had the 
power of death. rovrovg, these) A demonstrative with relation to 
what precedes. pojSy, through fear) even before they experi 
enced the power itself, for that followed ; concerning fear, comp. 
ch. xii. 19, 20; Ex. xix. 21, 22 ; 2 Sam. vi. 9. favdrou, of death) 
Sudden deaths were inflicted, in the time of Moses and after 
wards, even on unwary transgressors. did cravroc, through all) 
This is an antithesis to for a little, ver. 9. There are many ages, 
and these coming one after another, of the brethren. rot r t v, 
life) That kind of life was not life. 5ou>.g/aj, to bondage) The 
antithesis is, sons unto glory. Paul brings out the same anti 
thesis, Rom. viii. 15, 16. Politicians define liberty to be rb 5j 
us (BovXerai ng, living as we choose ; slavery to be rb ffi ^ u$ 
(36v\erai, to live not as we choose. 

16. ATJTOU) [you will grant, we may suppose]. A particle ex 
pressive of courtesy, and implying some degree of conjecture, 
ffTo^afffj,bv ; but by the oux being added, promoting peffaiuffiv, con 
firmation [ver. 3, assurance]. The whole verse has a wonderful 
power of explanation ; comp. vpofyXov, ch. vii. 14. Not angels, 
therefore us ; there is no third party. ayy sXuv, of angels) with 
out the article. That is, they are not angels without flesh and 
blood, of whom He lays hold. Jcr/Xa^/Savsra/) Christ lays hold 
of, or takes, in the words quoted; about to bring assistance, about 
to deliver, ver. 15, 10, 11. The same word occurs, ch. viii. 9; 

HEBREWS II, 17. 367 

Matt. xiv. 31. If the apostle were speaking of the very incar 
nation of the Son of GOD, there would be in the antithesis the 
singular number ay/IXoy, an angel, or the angelic nature ; as it 
is, since ayy sXuv occurs in the plural, ^p^nrog, seed, is taken as 
a collective noun. 1 G^sp^ccToc^AjSfaa^seed of Abraham) So he 
calls the whole human race, but by Synecdoche, because the refer 
ence is to Genesis; and there the promise is found which was given 
to Abraham, and which belonged especially to his descendants : 
and Christ was born of the race of Abraham. It is to be added 
to these observations, that the apostle is writing here to the 
descendants of Abraham, and it was not suitable to say, <$KI?IL&- 
rog Ada/*, of the seed of Adam, because the first and second 
Adam are opposed. And yet the Gentiles are not excluded ; 
for " the seed of Abraham " is not opposed to them, but to " the 
angels ;" and all believers are the seed of Abraham. [See ver. 
12, respecting "the great congregation ;" comp. Ps. xxii. 23, 26, 
28. V. g.] I think the omission of the article before ffn swuros 
corresponds to the construct state of the Hebrew. The omis 
sion of the article would not so much include the Gentiles, as 
exclude the carnal Jews. 

17. o8sv) The particle Uw occurs six times in this epistle, but 
never in the epistles to which the apostle has affixed his name ; 
and yet it occurs in Paul s speech, Acts xxvi. 19. wp/Xs, 
it behoved Him) A grand expression, ch. v. 3. It behoved Him 
from the relationship of consanguinity, and because He had un 
dertaken it in the Old Testament, ver. 12, 13. He now 
exhibits greater confidence in the tone of his speaking ; comp. 
ver. 11, He is not ashamed. Kara, -ravra, in all things) in all 
sufferings and temptations. ro% adsXpo%, to His brethren) ver. 
11. opoiudrivai, to be made like) This is a recapitulation of those 
things which precede. The sum of those which follow is im 
mediately added. /Voc, that) The apostle thrice glances at the 
High Priesthood, till he comes to its full discussion, ch. vii. He 
touches upon it in three successive steps. I. He ought to be 
made like to His brethren, THAT He might BECOME a merciful 

Of, as a collective noun, expresses not the seed or nature which 
He assumed, but the whole race which He, as it were, takes by the hand to 
help. Thus ffTreppstroi;, collective, is a just antithesis to the plural, d 


,%8 HEBREWS II. 17. 

and faithful High Priest, in the passage before us. II. HE- 
WAS CALLED a High Priest at the time when He was made 
perfect ; ch. v. 10. III. He was MADE High Priest when 
He entered into that which is within the veil ; ch. vi. 20 ; 
and when this entrance was made once for all, He always, 
as a Priest for us, presents Himself before the face of 
God ; ch. ix. 24. sXs^uv, merciful) This word, as well as 
cr/croc, faithful, is construed W 7 ith ap^ispsi/c;, high priest; ch. iv. 
15, v. 2. He was made merciful to the people labouring under 
sins : TT/OTO?, faithful, so far as GOD is concerned. There is a 
Chiasmus here. 1 We have the Priest and the High Priest, who 
has the right of drawing near and of bringing men to GOD. 
The word faithful is treated of, ch. iii. 2, w r ith the addition of 
the practical application : the word IXs^awv, merciful, ch. iv. 14, 
etc., with the practical application also added : the word 
ap^ispsvg, fligh Priest, is treated of, ch. v. 4, 5, vii. 1, 2 ? with the 
practical application added, ch. x. 19. The proposition or 
statement of many things at Rom. i. 16 (where see the note), 
very much resembles this. Of these three points, one, sXs^uv, 
merciful, is put before f ysvr i rat, that He might become, because it 
is deduced from what was previously said. The other two are 
properly connected together, because they come to be treated of 
afterwards along with the first. But the word merciful, and, 
conjointly with it, faithful High Priest, elegantly have in this 
proposition a rather absolute signification, because again (in turn) 
the subsequent discussion contemplates faithfulness without the 
priesthood in the case of Moses, and mercy with the priesthood 
in the case of Aaron. First, Jesus is merciful. No one can 
suppose that Jesus had more mercy before He suffered, and 
that now He has more severity. Only let us now flee (escape) 
from the wrath of the Lamb, which is even yet to come. 
Apxispzvc) High Priest. The Latin Pontifex was so called from 
the fact, that he built a bridge at Rome, or sacrificed on a 
bridge ; and the pontifex, hpsvs, was either alone or with others ; 
but the apxizptiic, high priest (pontifex mcucimus), was exalted 
above the others, over whom he presided. In the Evangelists 
and Acts, where the Jewish high priests are frequently men- 

(1) referring to A#o (4) : and 7r/oW<(2) to fytov (3). ED. 

HEBREWS II. 18. 369 

tioned, the term pontiff (pontif&s), used by the Vulgate and 
other translations, will not, I think, offend any one ; but in this 
epistle, in which Christ is the principal subject, I do not know 
whether that term may be as well suited to the style of Paul as 
to the institutions of Numa. At least Seb. Schmidius uses it 
with reluctance, and occasionally substitutes for it chief priest 
(princeps sacerdos) ; but a single word is better, especially when 
other epithets are added, as here merciful and faithful ; for we 
cannot conveniently say, ch. iv. 14, a great chief (greatest) 
pontiff (pontificem maximum magnum). High priest (archisacer- 
dos) is the most convenient term which the learned have long 
used, and which sounds as well as archigubernus, in the writings 
of Jabolenus, archiflamen, archiprcesul, archipontifex, and 
various other terms, which Vossius stigmatizes in his work, 
De vitiis Latini Sermonis, p. 371, and some other writers. With 
respect to the subject now before us, this glorious title of High 
Priest occurs presently again, ch. iii. 1. But nowhere, except 
in the 110th Psalm, and Zech. vi. 13, and in this epistle, is 
Christ expressly called a Priest ; and it is only in this epistle 
that the priesthood of Christ is professedly discussed. Whence 
it is evident, how extraordinary in its character, and how neces 
sary, is this book of the New Testament. However, in all 
these passages, which are even of the Old Testament, there is 
added the mention of the kingdom, which is oftener spoken of 
elsewhere without the priesthood. Nay, on the Cross, on which 
this Priest offered His sacrifice, He had the title (inscription) of 
King. The priesthood, as well as the kingdom, is appropriate 
(belongs fittingly) to this First-begotten. rot, <rpb$ rbv Qebv, 
towards God) So ch. v. 1. tie rb iXatxiffQui) to make atonement 
or reconciliation. rag apaprtas, the sins) which bring death and 
the fear of it. roD XaoD, of the people) the people, whom he 
called the seed of Abraham, ver. 16. He Himself knew no 
sin. He made atonement for the sins of the people, Isa. 
liii. 8. 

18. Ev f>, in that) This is like an adverb ; Rom. ii. 1. 
dwurai, He is able) This ability of mind (viz. His power to 
sympathize) is treated of, ch. iv. 15, v. 2. /3o^?j<ra/, to succour) 
Hence Paul infers the poqdeiav, help, ch. iv. 16. 


370 HEBREWS III. 1. 


1. "ofav, ivhence) An urgent particle. From those very things 
which have been said in ch. ii., consideration ought to flow. 
dfaxpol, brethren) He now for the first time addresses those to 
whom he is writing. And the title, brethren, from ch. ii. 11, 
has in it the idea of sanctity. d-ytoi, holy) There is a Chiasmus 
in this verse. xXfaeus sxoupaviw, of the heavenly calling) made 
by the Lord from heaven, and bringing them on to that place, 
whence it was made, ch. xii. 25, of the calling of God from 
above (r^g aw xXfasuc), as Paul says, Phil. iii. 14. The correlative 
of calling is 6/aoXoy/a, confession ; concerning which the writer 
treats presently : so Paul in 1 Tim. vi. 12. i^royjn, partakers) 
There is the same word, ver. 14, ch. vi. 4, i. 9, xii. 8. rbv 
uvroffroXov, the apostle) the Ambassador of God the Father; Him 
who pleads the cause of God with us. Thence we are said to 
be partakers of the heavenly calling. xai ap^ief sct, and High 
Priest) who pleads our cause with GOD. On this account we 
are called holy. This Apostleship and High Priesthood are in 
cluded in the one term Mediator. He compares Jesus as an 
apostle to Moses, and as a priest (and this appellation is taken 
up again, iv. 14) to Aaron, and at the same time prefers Him 
to both ; He alone holds both dignities united, and in a more 
eminent degree, which those two brothers [the duumvirate of 
brothers] held apart. Here He is called in a relative sense 
cr/rr6g, faithful, as X?j^j, true, John v. 31, unverwerflich, a 
testimony which cannot be refused. rye o^oXoyfag, of our con 
fession or profession) The confession or profession is intended, 
not that which is made to men, but that which is made to 
GOD. This word admirably expresses the nature of faith, 
which is borne with a ready response towards (in respect to) 
the promise : GOD, who sent His Son and gave Him as a priest 
to us, Xeysi, speaks : man opoXoye?, declares his agreement, assents, 
subscribes. So ch. iv. 14, x. 23. They did that most solemnly 
in baptism. The opposite is avr/Xcy/a, contradiction, ch. xii. 3. 

HEBREWS III. 2-4. 371 

2. Tliffrbv ovra, who is faithful) Num. xii. 7, at the end, 

Kin flow TP3 ^33 n^o, LXX., o fapavuv pov (comp. presently after 
wards, ver. 5) MwD<r5j sv oXw rw o/xw /AOU -r/<rro lor/. He calls 
him faithful, who is both himself so, and is acknowledged to be 
so by GOD, and is praised on that account. From this flows 
faithfulness in office, and the faith of the hearers without ex 
ception, for this very reason that Moses is jDfcU ; comp. Num. 
same chap., ver. 8, likewise at the end. r& -ro/^avr/ avrbv, to 
Him that appointed Him) His heavenly Father made or appointed 
Jesus Christ to be both His Apostle and High Priest, ch. v. 5 ; 
where rb ysvytyvai, to be made, viz. by the word of the Lord, 
corresponds to r qeoifawri. Add Acts ii. 36. And this rouses 
us to the exercise of faith. There is an expression which very 
much resembles this in 1 Sam. xii. 6, 8 : " It is the Lord who 
made [Engl. Vers., advanced] (LXX., 6 iroifoag) and sent Moses 
and Aaron" uc, %at Mu Ja^g, as also Moses) So Deut. xviii. 15. 
He praises Moses, and thus conciliates the Jews, before that 
he prefers Christ to him ; although he has prepared their minds 
for hearing it, by his preferring the same Jesus even to angels. 
in His house) A rare appellation in the time of Moses. 
, His, of Him) of GOD, ver. 6, note. 

3. nXg/o!/o, of more) Christ, a prophet as Moses, Acts iii. 22, 
note (whereas the other prophets only explained Moses) ; and 
yet He was different from Moses, ch. viii. 9 ; John i. 17. He 
is greater than Moses according to this passage. yap, for) 
The reason assigned (^Etiology) has relation to 

consider. do^g, glory) Presently afterwards, n/^v, honour : 
here rather denotes something internal ; floj-a follows it. roD 
o/xou) The genitive is governed by -rXs/o^a, the comparative ; for 
it is an Enthymeme [a covert syllogism, wherein one or other 
premiss needs to be supplied], as follows : Christ is greater than 
the house (for the house is being prepared [ built, xara- 
tfittvdfyrai] ; Christ hath prepared p built ] the house and all 
things, and so Christ is God) : therefore Christ is greater than 
Moses. The reason is : for Moses is less than the house, as a 
minister and as in some measure a portion of the house ; comp. 
Matt. xii. 6, note. 

4. f o d?, but He) Christ. The article points out the subject, 
and also possesses in this passage a relative meaning, as in ch. 

372 HEBREWS III. f>, G. 

vii. 6. &tbc, GOD, is the predicate. 0s 0$, GOD) absolutely. 
Moses was a < god to Aaron, but he was not GOD absolutely. 

5. Ka/, and) Another reason for the superiority of Christ to 
Moses. Oepdvuv, servant) So the LXX., Num. xii. 7. This 
intimates the excellence of Moses in comparison with all other 
prophets ; but again it speaks of Moses as inferior to Christ 
the Lord. g/, for) He was a servant, in order that testimony 
should be given by him. rw \a%.7idvieof&6vwvy of those things which 
were to be spoken) which Moses was to speak (ch. ix. 19), chiefly 
of Christ ; arid subsequently Christ Himself was about to speak. 
In ch. ix. 19, there is a verbal parallelism, which however at 
the same time infers a like reason, viz. what Moses, in accord 
ance with the time, Num. xii., both had spoken and was about 
to speak. Miriam did not assail the authority of Moses respect 
ing the past ; but she wished to claim just as much for herself 
for the future, on account of certain past specimens (of God 
speaking by her and Aaron). 

6. Xpiffrbg de, but Christ) Moses yields to Him. An am 
bassador, in the absence of the king, is very highly distinguished 
in the presence of the king, he falls back among the multi 
tude. Here also supply T/OTO S sffn, is faithful. The Son shows 
His faithfulness in all that belongs to His Father and in all that 
is His own. SKI, over) This J-r/, fe, over, shows His surpassing 
power : ev, in, is applied to Moses, ver. 5. ai/roD, His, of Him) 
of GOD, ch. x. 21. o$) This reading is very old. 1 Some read 
ou, from its alliteration with auroD. In this case Paul should 
have written oS o ohoc, as Erasmus showed at the beginning. 
For we Say, ou rb CTT-UOV, rj$ o adeXtpoc, >v rb ffTo/j,a, uv ra ovopara, 
ou 7) crXjjyfy uv ra. /cwXa, ou y] pcwy, ou ^ o/ /c/a. The question here 
is not, Whose house is it ? for that very point is just now 
denoted by the auroD, His ; but, What is the house ? as distin 
guished from that of which Moses was a portion. lav, if) The 
same sentiment is found at ver. 14. An abbreviated expression : 
the house are we, since we have confidence : the house we shall be, 

1 The Gnomon here agrees with the 2d Ed. and the Germ. Vers., having 
changed the decision of the older Ed., which had given the preference to the 
reading ov. E. B. 

O5 is the reading of ABC and Rec. Text ; 6V of D(A) corrected, / Vulg. 
Lucif. ED. 

HEBREWS 111. 7-9. 373 

if we retain our confidence. There is an expression of Paul s 
very similar. Col. i. 23, note. TTJV nappriffiav) A word of frequent 
occurrence in this epistle: ffapfaffia, ch. iv. 16, x. 19, 35; and 
, ch. vi. 11, 18, vii. 19, x. 23, in like manner 
ffiav, confidence, viz. towards GOD : 
glorying, with respect to enemies. xardcxupsv, if ive liold fast) 
So ver. 14 ; ch. x. 23. So xparefi, iv. 14, vi. 18. 

7. A/o, wherefore) A choice inference, and the strength of 
this whole passage. Jesus is Kutrbg, faithful : be not ye a^/cro/, 
unfaithful, ver. 2, 12. l \tyei rb Tlvsvpa rb Ayiov, the Holy Ghost 
saith) So ch. ix. 8, X. 15. ffqptpov rtffffapaxovra try dtb 

xa/ s/Va, dsi) Ps. xcv. 7, at the end ; LXX., ffq/tspov 

?rpoffu)^diffa. The word a^a^oc, to-day, is an expression of 
David s, and is opposed to that day, which was in the time of 
Moses, ver. 8. lav, if) If you will obediently hear His voice. 
Under this hearing, there is included any sort of hearing what 
ever, ver. 16, ch. iv. 2. The force of this clause (hemistich) is 
joined in the Hebrew with what goes before, and thence it re 
dounds upon what follows. pwv5j$, voice) which is full of grace, 
in these words of the prophet, to be heard on that very account. 

8. Tlapairr/ipatf/Ati T?/pa<r/AoD, in the provocation in the tempta 
tion) By Chiasmus, in ver. 9, as compared with ver. 8, tempta 
tion is first treated, then provocation ; vtrepov nportpov &(3paidbv, as 
Franc. Junius says, when he observed the same figure occur 
ring several times in this epistle. Both refer to the History, 
Ex. xvii. 7, as the first offence ; comp. below ver. 16, they that 
came (went) out. The first offence ought to be guarded against ; 
for more very easily spring up from it, and the first is wont to 
be most severely reproved. xara, according to) that is, as in the 
day. So the Hebrew text, kv rr\ spypu, in the wilderness) the 
theatre of very great events. 

9. o5) viz. Ktipaff/Aov, Attic for $. stfipaffav Mi, they tempted 
Me) [to try] w r hether I was able or willing. o/ var spes v^uv, your 
fathers) whose hardness of heart is very often mentioned. 
Therefore the authority of the ancients is not conclusive. 
sdoKt^affav, proved) i.e. searched out, put Me to the test ; not ap 
proved. Weigh well what follows. sTdov, they saw) evidently, 

?, even as) The Apodosis is at ver. 12. Not. Grit. 

374 HEBREWS III. 10. 

but without improvement. rd spya pw 9 my works) most glorious 
in affording help, partly also in executing vengeance. naffap- 
dxovra err), forty years) This is joined with vpoau^&iffa in the LXX. 
and in the Hebrew, arid below ver. 17. At the same time the 
people both sawthe PVD, work of GOD, and offended GOD, until they 
filled up the full measure of their guilt. Here it is joined with g/8ov, 
they saw ; and therefore the hard heart of the people is implied. 
10. A/o, wherefore) This particle is not in the Hebrew, nor in 
the LXX. irpoauxdHta) A word of very frequent occurrence in the 
LXX., but scarcely to be met with anywhere else. Eustathius 
has o%&o$ (or o%^, in general a high place ; in particular, a bank): 
irapa rb %^/v, i.e. ^%/i>, to be high, to be prominent. It denotes 
rowxbv sKavdarqpa, a local eminence : thence b^dsu and o^^w, 
applied to the mind, signifies / am roused, Trpogu^diffa, I was dis 
pleased with them, so that they should not enter into the land, 
when they wished too late to do so. The phrase, to walk con 
trary, Lev. xxvi. 24, 28, is closely connected with it. r5j ysvsy 
Jxg/vj) exeivfo with that, has the meaning of removal and aliena 
tion ;* Heb. "rilS absolutely, with the same meaning. xal eJva, 
and I said) I declared with my lips the displeasure o/my soul. 
Observe the subsequent gradation : first displeasure with those 
who sinned made Him say ; then anger, more severe than 
that displeasure, viz. towards those who did not believe, made 
him swear; comp. ver. 17, 18. The first temptation, Ex. xvii., 
was presently the cause why God was grieved or displeased. 
The complaint regarding the erring of their heart, then anger 
(wrath) and the oath followed. So the displeasure and anger, the 
complaint and the oath, respectively, are the better distinguished. 
avroi, they) DH in Heb. is repeated with great force. The accents 
[in the Hebrew] here begin the hemistich of this clause. There 
fore it is not included under sTirov, I said, but this is the meaning : 
they perceived that I was displeased with them ; auro/ ds, and 
yet they, the same persons, did not a whit the more wish to know 
My ways. There is a similar antithesis, they and /, ch. viii. 9 ; 

1 The margin of both Ed. prefers the reading THVTV), and the Germ. 
Vers. follows it. Therefore the explanation of the pronoun eyeing is at least 
hypothetical. E. B. 

*Eg/# is the reading of C. and Rec. Text. But Tavry is read by 
ABD(A) corrected and Vulg. ED. 

HEBREWS III. 11, 12. 375 

comp. ver. 10. So but they, Ps. cvi. 43 ; comp. also Luke vii. 
5 ; Is. liii. 7, in the Hebrew. oux tyvutav, they have not known) 
This is the aireiOeia, not to believe ; the apapria, sin, is described, 
ver. 9, iKSipaffav, they tempted. Concerning both, again, ver. 12, 
13, and ver. 17, 18. rag odovg ftov, My ways) in which I wished 
to lead them as My flock into a place of rest. 

11. fig u/Aoffa, as [so] / sware) The oath preceded the forty 
years. si, if) The Apodosis omits something for the sake of 
euphemism, which has the force of the oath itself: si here is 
negative, as r\ ^ is affirmative, ch. vi. 14. s/VgXgu<roi>ra/, they 
shall enter) by My ways. sig rr,v xardiravff/v [LQV, into My rest) in 
the promised land. The people, the sheep ; Ps. xcv. 7. nnUE, 
rest, is their benefit [their peculiar privilege], Ps. xxiii. 2. 

12. EXISTS) This word depends on dib, wherefore, ver. 7 : the 
Apodosis here to ver. 7 [where see the note] not incorrectly also 
brings in the word brethren ; 1 Thess. iii. 7. The same word 
is found at ch. xii. 25. We must not trust to the heart; Jer. 
xvii. 9. w vors amffriag, lest of unbelief) Observe the con 
nection. Christ is vusros, faithful, ver. 2 ; therefore we ought to 
be Kiaroi, faithful to Him, not unfaithful (unbelievers), as our 
fathers were in regard to Moses; ver. 18, 19, ch. iv. 2, 3, vi. 
12. In like manner Paul places in opposition the faithfulness 
of God and the faithlessness of men, Rom. iii. 2, 3 ; 2 Tim. ii. 
13. earai, lest there should be) Care must also be extended to 
the future on account of the greatness of the danger. He uses 
the fut. indie, in preference to the pres. subj. Kovypa, evil) An 
amffroc, unbelieving people ; JH an evil nation and unhappy ; comp. 
xaxoug xaxws, Matth. xxi. 41. sv rti anoffrrivou, in departing) The 
antithesis is -rporfsp^w/^a, let us come unto, ch. iv. 16, and 
u-7ro<rra<r2w, substance [i.e. solid confidence], presently at ver. 14 ; 
comp. Jer. vi. 8, w a^offrrj y 4^?rf / /<OL "^ ffo ^j ^ n t m y S0l( l 
depart from thee. This whole passage of the apostle agrees with 
Jer. xvii. 5, 6 : EniKATAPATOS 6 avQpWTrog, og ryv EAIIIAA 
fc^g/ IT avfyuvov nai AHO KTPIOT AIIO2TH rj Karfia aurou 
oux o-vjxsra/ orav eXfy ra, AFA0A. CURSED is the man who TRUSTETH 
in man, and whose heart DEPARTETH/? om the LORD: he shall 
not see when GOOD cometh. <r6 0soD wvrog, from the living God) 
The life of GOD most powerfully and effectually animates our 

faith. The living God is also praised, ch. ix. 14, x. 31, xii. 22. 

376 HEBREWS III. 13-15. 

He who revolts from Christ, revolts from GOD ; ch. iii. 12-19. 


13- -17 

13. EOWTOVS, yourselves) Let every one exhort himself and 
another ; so far ought you to be from instigating and provok 
ing one another [to unbelief]. ^spav, e^spov, daily, to-day) 
Conjugates ; ch. iv. 7. uyjtc, o5, whilst) as long as. This to 
day will not continue for ever. ro) the relative. 

is called) while that psalm is heard and read. iva 
ng, that no one be hardened) This is repeated from ver. 8. 
anarri, through the deceitfulness) This corresponds to ^Xavwvra/, 
they err, ver. 10. rye a/j,a,priag, of sin) aT/tfr/a, a/jt,apria, unbelief 
and sin, which are much the same thing, John xvi. 9 ; Neh. 
vi. 13 : where ?r/<rr/a and a/^apria are mentioned together, 
they differ as species and genus ; and unbelief, as the principal 
species of sin, has in its nature something more sad and destruc 
tive. But if sin be put by itself, the genus a^apria is contracted 
into this particular species, namely, unbelief: as a/tapria is 
properly, when the main aim is missed, which is a result pro 
duced in the greatest degree through unbelief, a^icriav, in con 
sequence of the grace of God having been neglected. 

14. MSTO^OI XptfroZ, partakers of Christ) ver. 1, 6. So /jt,sro%oi, 
"partakers of the Holy Ghost," ch. vi. 4. apxf t v pe^pi r sXovg, the 
beginning to the end) comp. ch. vi. 11, xii. 2. A Christian, so 
long as he is not made perfect, considers himself as a beginner. 
ry$ vKoffrdatug, of our solid confidence) [lit. substance ], xi. 1 ; 2 
Cor. ix. 4, note. fafSaiav, stedfast) A word of frequent occur 
rence in this epistle, with its synonyms, 

15. Ev rSj XeyeffQai, while it is said) The connection is with 
ver. 13, in reference to KapaxafaTre. Even in the psalm the 
Divine exhortation (paraclesis) precedes, viz. O come ye. Comp. 
DVn, Ps. xcv. 7, taking into consideration the preceding 
Athnach, which is a subdistinctive of the latter hemistich [in 
the Hebrew] ; i.e. it entirely depends on you that this may not 
only be a mere invitation and offer, in the first instance, but 

HEBREWS III. 16. 877 

also [the source of] real enjoyment, in the second. So sv r& 
Xiysiv, in that He saith, ch. viii. 13. u$ sv rSj <7rapa,<mxpaff{A>, as in 
the Provocation) rO HDiD ; it is taken as a proper name, with its 

16. Tfveg, who) Many write rtvtg, some; but the argument of 
the apostle is thus rendered somewhat feeble : rmg, dXX 5 oy ndvres, 
some-) but not ally is rather a general expression concerning the 
Provocation, ch. iv. 6 ; Ex. xvii. 2. Ttvzg is plainly interro 
gative, as ch. i. 5, 13, and at the same time a very weighty 
Anaphora, 1 rives, riai, /<, ver. 16, 17, 18 ; and there are 
brought under our notice in these three verses, 1. The begin 
ning of the Provocation, soon after the departure from Egypt ; 
2. The forty troublesome years in the wilderness ; 3. The re 
fusal of the entrance into the land of rest. AXX ou is used, ver. 
16, as si w, ver. 18 ; for neither is properly interrogative, but 
both stand under the interrogative word, rives. That the power 
of the particle may be more clearly seen, suppose some one to 
say, rjffav avOpwTToi TrapaKixpaivovreg, aXX ov% ovroi 01 s^sXtjovrsg, There 
were men who provoked, but not those that went out. The apostle 
denies that, and therefore says, rives %ffav, XX ? oO^ euro/ ; who 
were they, but these ? i.e. these were the very persons. There are 
similar particles in Luke, rig, XX ovyj, xvii. 7, 8 ; and in Paul, 
rig, j) ov^i xal, x.r.X., 1 Thess. ii. 19. lldvrsg, in this passage, is 
none else but, merely those, a meaning of the word tag which Ea- 
phelius, at James i. 17, beautifully explains, ex Ariano. Germ. : 
Diejenige, die eine Erbitterung angericlitet haben, wer waren sie ? 
es warenlauter solche Leute, die von Egypten ausgegangen waren 
dureh Mosen. These are not in this passage said to have been 
led out, but to have come out. They had already the pledge of 
Divine assistance, and had followed the Divine guidance ; but 
their future progress did not correspond to that excellent begin 
ning (comp. ver. 14). Chrysostom evidently reads r mg : rivwv 
(ts/Avrirai tpqffi ffxXrjpwQ svruv ; who, says he, have been mentioned as 
being hardened ; where tfxXq/wlfmg (comp. ver. 15) are the same 
as ffapa Tr/xpdvavreg. axovffavrsg, after having heard) ver. 15. 
vapevfapavav, provoked) the Lord, namely, by chiding with 
Moses, Ex. xvii. 2. d/ Mwutflws, by Moses) whose words, when 
they heard them, they should have obeyed. 

1 The frequent repetition of the same word in beginnings. ED. 

378 HEBREWS III. 17-19. IV. 1. 

17. r lv, ivhose) The event proves the fact. So also ver. 19. 
wv ra xwXa sffeffsv sv rr\ spy/Aw) Num. xiv. 29, LXX., sv ry spy/Aw 
ravrrj ytffsTrat ra xuha bftuv. This appellation, D HJD, xwXa, car 
cases, mere bodies, subject to decay, always indicates indignation. 
KwXa, limbs, properly feet, according to Eustathius. If the forty 
years be resolved into days, and the average number of those 
that died daily be computed, every day had forty deaths of men. 
A great cause for writing the 90th Psalm ! 

19. Oux qdvvMviaav, they were not able) though they afterwards 
had wished it. 


1. <$o/3j0^gv, let us fear) Since many have fallen, there is 
cause for fear. xara Asivo/Asvys IcrayysX/ag) Since a promise has 
been left and reserved for us, after the others have neglected it. 
The same word is found, in the same sense, Rom. xi. 4. A 
kindred verb is dcroXs/Vsrai, is left, remains, ver. 6, 9, ch. x. 26. 
This expression, interwoven with the exhortation, is a proposi 
tion which is proved, ver. 3. The verb J-ray^^Ao/^a/, I promise, 
is very often found in this epistle, as well as the noun, k-ayysX/a, 
a promise. In this chapter the apostle is speaking of the rest 
of eternal life ; for to-day still continues, when (since) there re 
mains the danger of falling, if we give way to hardness of heart. 
To-day, well improved, terminates in rest. Rest is that which, 
once obtained, is not again lost. We now (comp. ch. ii. 5, note) 
are urged to look still further. Foretaste in this life is not de 
nied : full rest is. All foretastes of rest are evidently small, when 
compared with things above. doxy rig, any one should seem) 
Euphemism. Every man should so run, that it may be said of 
him, without any appearance of the contrary, This man runs, 
ti, in this passage, Mdeiy/ta, an example, ver. 11, and svdetx- 
i, to show, ch. vi. 11, are conjugates : 8ei%u, pret. mid. d e- 
doxa, thence doxzu, and the ideas agree ; for he who shows a desire 
does not seem to remain ; he who seems to remain is an example 
of obstinacy. vorspwevai, to have failed) to have come short. 

HEBREWS IV. 2, 3. 379 

The same word occurs, xii. 15. The examples, xii. 17 ; Num. 
xiv. 40; Luke xiii. 25 : ijtfrspzTv <ro/?j<ra/ rb waa^a, to fail to keep 
the passover, Num. ix. 13. Yffr&ptiv, with Plato, at the beginning 
of the Gorgias, is to come after the festival is ended. 

2. Pap, for) This refers to pofiqQuftsv, let us fear. evq-yyiXifffAsvoi, 
to us was the Gospel preached [we have had the Gospel preached 
to us]) We should think that this expression is spoken especially 
to us, who are called Evangelical : ver. 6. xaxsTvoi [as well as 
they], as well as to them) The promise of the land of Canaan 
had been proclaimed to those men of old, ver. 6. ov% u<p sXri<fev, 
did not profit) There is less said here than is intended (Meiosis). 
On the contrary [so far was it from profiting them], the unbe 
lievers incurred the greatest guilt and punishment. Supply, 
nor will it be profitable to us without faith. w ffvyxexpap&vos, 
not being mixed with) The word is entirely mixed with and in 
sinuated into the believing soul ; and when it is thus mingled, it 
makes its way wonderfully, as a health-giving draught, and 
something more powerful even than that, ver. 12, 13. ry K usnt) 
with faith, the dative. rotg axovaaav) So far as concerns them 
that heard it. Comp. Rom. iv. 12, note. To these are opposed 
o/ viorevffavreg, those who believed, in the following verse. 

3. Tap) This word refers to the expression, a promise being 
left, ver. 1. xadug, as) Unbelief alone acts as a hinderance. 
xairoi, although) The Protasis is, although the works were finished 
from the beginning of the world. The Apodosis is, yet He said, I 
have sworn. But because the Apodosis in the text comes first, 
yet is omitted. The proposition is, a rest remains to us. This 
proposition, ver. 3-11, is proved thus. Rest is mentioned in the 
psalm ; and yet there it does not signify, I. the rest of God from 
creation ; for this was long before the times of Moses. Therefore 
another rest was to be expected in the times of Moses, of which 
those during the same period, who had heard, evidently came 
short. Nor yet, II., does that rest which they obtained by 
Joshua, support the title to this rest ; for it was not until after 
wards that the Psalmist sung of it. Therefore, III., he sung of 
a rest more recent than all these kinds of rest, viz. a rest which 
would be enjoyed in heaven. ruv zpyuv anb xarafioXrig xoffftou ytvn- 
Qtvruv) The genitive absolute, i.e. although the works of the Creator 
were finished and perfected from the foundation of the world. 

380 HEBREWS IV. 4-9. 

4. E /pqxe, He said) viz. GOD, who also speaks in ver. 5, 7. 
g/Sdo/^Tjj) viz. y]{Aspa$. xa/ xargVauffsv 6 Qzbg sv ry, x.r.X.) Gen. ii. 2, 
LXX., Kai xar&Kuvoe rr\ y^ spa ry efSdofAri a<7rb vdvruv roJv spyuv avrov, wv 
sVo/ /3<yg, He rested, He withdrew Himself, so to speak, to His 
eternal tranquillity. It is remarkable that Moses has mentioned 
the end of the former days, but not of the seventh : Heb. from 
His work. It was one work, comprehending many works. The 
single term xarsravaiv corresponds to the Heb. niTOE and rQE>, 
by most suitably connecting the two passages Ps. xcv. and 
Gen. ii. 

5. Ev rourw) in this, viz. saying of the psalm. So sv kr&pw, in 
another, ch. v. 6. 

6. ETS/ olv, seeing therefore) GOD does not wish that His rest 
should be empty (not filled with guests) : Luke xiv. 23. vpoTtpov, 
first) in the time of Moses. guayygX/o^gvr^) A rare use of the 
word applied to the men of old. He is no doubt speaking of 
the promise of the land of Canaan, but with a view to the Gospel- 
preacldng of eternal life. 

7. IlaX/v, again) Who would have thought that there is a 
sermon so important and so solemn in the 95th Psalm ? Let us 
highly value the words of GOD ; comp. ch. x. 8, note. op &i, 
He limits) viz. GOD. ^tpav, a day) This is deduced from the 
quotation, ff^^spov, to-day, which is presently brought forward. 
See how beautifully he lays stress on the word, DV, a day, 
and single words in the same manner often, ch. ii. 8, 11, 
12, vii. 11, 21, viii. 13, x. 9, xii. 5, 27 : the day, viz. that of 
striving for the heavenly rest : ver. 8. sv, in) So ch. i. 1. 
roaovrov ^povov) so long a time, more than four hundred years from 
Moses and Joshua to David, who sung this psalm. %adu$ 
tfpoejpyrai, as it was before said) The apostle refers his hearers to 
the whole text, as repeated above from the psalm. 

8. iTjffoDg) Joshua. OVK av) There is a similar mode of reason 
ing, ch. vii. 11, viii. 4, 7, xi. 15. vzpi aXX^jj w spas, of another 
day) By observing which an access would be opened also to 
another rest. 

9. "Apa, therefore) For this reason, because He speaks of 
another day. <ra/3/3ar/c;uo, sabbatism, rest) The word is changed 
for /LaTd-Travffiz, rest ; comp. the following verse. In time there 
are many sabbaths ; but then, there will be a sablatism, the 

HEBREWS IV. 10-12. 381 

enjoyment of rest, one, perfect, eternal. The verbal noun is 
extremely emphatic : it is not met with in the LXX. There will 
be no elementary sabbath in heaven ; because earthly labour 
shall have passed away : but the rest will be perpetual, which, 
however, itself will again have its own various modes (ways, 
divisions), according to the different state of the priests and of 
the rest of the blessed in their resurrection bodies (carnis beatse), 
and according to the intervals of the heavenly times to which 
the new moons and Jewish Sabbath corresponded : Isa. Ixvi. 21, 
23. rti XaoD roD 0soD, to the people of GOD) He had said abso 
lutely, of the people, ch. ii. 17, when he was treating of recon 
ciliation : but now, when he is treating of eternal rest, he says, 
to the people of God, that is, to the Israel of God, as Paul 
speaks, Gal. vi. 16. He therefore specially intends the Israel 
ites (inasmuch as he is writing to the Hebrews), and them, too, 

10. Yap, for) Verse 9 is proved thus : He who has entered 
into the rest of God, rests from his labours ; but the people of 
GOD do not yet rest : therefore they have not yet entered in. 
It remains, that they enter in. a-ri ruv spyuv ai/roD) from his 
works, even from those that were good and suitable to the time 
of doing work. Labour precedes rest ; and that would have 
doubtless been the case, even in paradise, Gen. ii. 15. uaxep, 
as) The work and rest of GOD are that archetype to which we 
ought to be conformed. 

11. xf/irjp, that) future, great. ev r avr&) in, or after the 
same, as those men of former times. vnodsr/fAan, example) The 
same word is found at viii. 5, ix. 23. He who falls through 
unbelief, is an example to others, who then say, Behold, 6 dsTm, 
that man, has in like manner fallen. ir sdr) fall, with the soul, 
not merely with the body : ch. iii. 17. Moses speaks without 
reference to the ruin of souls, when he recounts the destruction 
of the people in the wilderness. 

12. z&^ yap, for quick, lively) The efficacy of the word of 
GOD and the omniscience of GOD Himself is described as 
saving to those in the case of whom the word of GOD is mixed 
with faith on their part [ver. 2], but as terrible to those 
who are obstinate : comp. 2 Cor. ii. 15. o Xo yos roD 0soD) the 
word of GOD that is preached, ver. 2, and which is the Gospel- 

382 HEBREWS IV. 12. 

word, ib., and is joined with threatening, ver. 3. For Christ, 
the hypostatic Word, is not said to be a sword, but to have a 
sword (comp. Jos. v. 13, to which passage this passage, relating 
to Joshua, ver. 8, seems also to refer) ; nor is He called xpinxbc, 
judicial, but xp/rfo, the Judge. The appellation of Sword, 
given to God, Deut. xxxiii. 29, is suitable to the song, not to the 
ordinary style of epistolary writing. ropuTepos) more cutting, 
sharper. faixvovpsvos uyj>i psp/ff^oZ, piercing even to the dividing) 
Its parallel presently, xpinxbs, judicial, judging, discerning. 
*l/v%ys re Kai Kvsvparoc, of soul and spirit) Hence it is evident 
that soul and spirit are not synonymous, but the spirit is in the 
soul. Man, contemplated according to his nature, consists of 
soul and body, Matt. x. 28 : but when he has in him the work 
ing of GOD S word, he consists of spirit, soul, and body. The 
inmost parts, and the recesses in the spirit, soul, and body of 
man, are called by Synecdoche 1 ap^oi %ai pv&ol, joints and mar- 
row (marrows). Moses forms the soul, Christ the spirit, 2 Cor. 
iii. 6. The soul attracts (draws with it) the body, the spirit 
both, 1 Thess. v. 23. The spirit is divided from the soul by the 
efficacy of the word of GOD, when the former is claimed for 
GOD ; the latter is left to itself, in so far as it either does not 
attain to, or does not follow the spirit. And as the joints are 
not only divided from the marrow, but the joints and marrow 
respectively are divided into their own parts : nor are the inten 
tions only distinguished from the thoughts, but the intentions 
themselves, as well as the thoughts themselves, are discerned 
[decided upon] : so, not only is the so ul divided from the spirit, 
but as it were a part of the spirit is divided irom part of the 
spirit, a part of the soul from part of the soul : Luke ii. 35. 
Flesh and spirit are also separated : 1 Pet. iv. 6, note. ev6v- 
/uTjffeuv xal iwo/oJv, of the intentions and thoughts) He comes from 
the greater parts as soul and spirit, and from the less as joints 
and marrow, to the faculties of the mind. EvQvf&qffis, intention, 
involves feeling ; there follows by gradation swoia, thought, which 
expresses something simpler, previously existing and internal. 
Both nourish and foster either good or evil. vpbs from 0bu, 
vooc from v eca KivoZ/Aat. 

A. part for the whole. Append. ED. 

HEBREWS IV. 13, 14. 383 

13. Kriais, a creature) A word quite general : presently after 
wards we find rtdvra, all things. SVUKIOV aurov, in His sight) His, 
GOD S, ver. 12. The analysis of the statement will be easy, if 
both of its parts are put in the nominative case : It is GOD, 
whose word is quick or living : it is GOD, before whom there is 
no creature that is not manifest. So, in ch. xi. 23, the nomi 
native case is to be understood : By faith the parents of Moses 
concealed Moses. Ibid., ver. 30 : By faith the Israelites went 
round the walls of Jericho, that they might fall down. The 
omniscience of GOD is laid open to men by the word ; and those 
who have not the word still feel that omniscient power in their 
consciences. A remarkable argument for the truth of religion 
from its efficacy. rzTpa^^iff^sva) rpa^Xi^u, I throw one on his 
back, is used in Greek and Latin for 1 lay open. Bodies which 
lie on the belly are scarcely considered naked, for they cover 
themselves : those lying on their back are laid open to the view 
in all their noblest and most distinguishing parts. Show, O 
man, shame and fear towards thy GOD ; for no veil, no twisting, 
bending, colouring, or disguise, can cover faithlessness. 

of Him) This again is to be referred to GOD. vpb$ ov fa/ii 
with whom we have to do) We have to do with Him, with God, 
with such a one as is described, ver. 12, 13, [whose face and 
judgment we cannot escape. V. g.] We have therefore need of 
earnestness [ver. 11, Vifov&dintf*ri]k The relative ov, whom, has the 
power of the demonstrative pronoun : Aoyoc, "ill, concern, busi 
ness. So the LXX., Judg. xviii. 28, \dyog ovx sffnv avroTf 
avfyuKou, they had no business with any man ; 2 Kings ix. 5, 
pot vrp6$ <r& ; comp. Acts xix. 38. There is the same expression 
in Chrysostom, Kepi hpu<t., p. 336, at 6wyar &pe$ ruv isp suv, a/g ovdsis 
vpos ryv hpuffwriv \6yog, the daughters of the priests, who have no 
thing to do with the priesthood. 

14. "EXOVTSC, having) The exhortation begins in the same way, 
ch. x. 19, xii. 1. ouv, therefore) He resumes the proposition 
which he had laid down, ch. ii. 17. peyav, great) for Pie is the 
Son of GOD, higher than the heavens. He is called absolutely 
in Hebrew phraseology, a High Priest, ch. x. 21 : but here the 
Great High Priest, greater than the Levitical high pri,est. 
&XjXt>Mra) who has passed into, not merely has entered the 
heavens: ch. vii. 26. xparu/uev, let us hold fast) From. ch. iii. 1 


to ch. v. 3, there are four points explained by Chiasmus, inas 
much as they contain the doctrine and practical application, 
the practical application and the doctrine. Look back again, I 
request, at the summary view (Synopsis) of the epistle. 

15. Od, not) The apostle institutes, by Chiasmus, a comparison 
between the Levitical high priest and Christ, 1) So far as 
qualities are concerned : 2) So far as calling is concerned. 
In the first there are an Apodosis and a Protasis ; in the 
second, a Protasis and an Apodosis : ch. iv. 15, 16, v. 1, 2, 
4, 5. <s\j^ad^ai, to be touched with a fellow-feeling) He is 
touched ivith a fellow- feeling, as having suffered the same 
things, Is. 1. 6, 4 : mercy is a cognate noun, ver. 16. The 
reference is to ch. ii. 17. ra% aadevtlaig, with our infirmities) A 
suitable expression : ch. v. 2. The idea of sin, in respect of us, 
is included ; in respect of Christ, is excluded. The words, 
without sin, presently after follow. xatf 6/o-o/oV^ra, in the likeness) 
Inasmuch as He was made like us ; ch. ii. 17. xupls apapriag, 
without sin) So ch. ix. 28 : but how can one, tempted without 
sin, be capable of sympathising with those who are tempted 
with sin ? With respect to the understanding, the mind of the 
Saviour much more acutely perceived the forms of temptation 
than we who are weak ; with respect to the will, He as quickly 
repressed their assault as the fire represses a drop of water cast 
into it. He therefore experienced what power was necessary to 
overcome temptations. He is capable of sympathising, for He 
was both tempted without sin, and yet He was truly tempted. 

16. nportpxwpeQa, let us draw near) The same word occurs, 
ch. vii. 25, x. 1, 22, xi. 6, xii. 18, 22 : in like manner, eyyifyiv, 
ch. vii. 19 : eissp^e&ai, ch. vi. 19 : e"co8o$, ch. x. 19. So Paul 
also, Rom. v. 2, xpoaayuyri. ru fyovu, to the throne) ch. viii. 1, 
xii. 2 ; Is. xvi. 5. r^s ^dpirog, of grace) This word is also of 
frequent occurrence in this epistle. Xafiupzv, K.T.\.) The mercy 
of Christ being shown, is obtained (is taken, Xa/Sw/^sv) : and 
farther, the grace of God is found (svpupsv). The appropriate 
verb is put before the one noun, and put after the other : 
Chiasmus. 1 sXiov, mercy) This refers to touched with a fellow- 
feeling. %ap/i/, grace) This refers to of grace. euxa/fov, in the 
needful time, seasonable) Believers do not feel at once the pre- 

1 See Append. 

HEBREWS V. 1, 2. 385 

parations of grace made for a long time to come ; l but when 
the time comes, they find it present with them ; and this 
seasonableness especially falls on the times of the New Testa 
ment, Rom. iii. 26, v. 6, and under it on the times of persecu 
tion (the cross). fioqfaiav, help) ch. ii. 18. 


1. Tlac) Every priest of the house of Levi. An antithesis to 
Christ ; for the apostle is speaking of the Levitical priesthood, 
ver. 1-3 : and the Apodosis is not added, because it is included 
(contained virtually) in the antecedent observations. But in 
ver. 4, there is a Protasis in a new part of the comparison 
with the Apodosis subsequently following it. This is the sum. 
Whatever is excellent in the Levitical priests, that is in Christ, 
and indeed in a more eminent degree ; whatever is defective 
in them, that however is also in Christ. s% avQpuvuv >.a/A/3avo //-i/og, 
taken from among men) A part of the predicate. Before they 
were taken, they were evidently of the same condition. ucrsp, 
for) from among men, for men, an elegant (neat) expression. 

is ordained) The present ; is usually ordained. rn 
rov &ebv, in things pertaining to God) So the LXX., Deut. 
xxxi. 27. dupaj gifts) referring to things without life. Qvffias 
Imp apapnuv, sacrifices for sin) consisting of animals. 

2. Msrp/ocra0g/i/, To have a feeling of moderation [have compas 
sion^) Hesycllius, {AtrpiovaQyig, ftiKpa ftdff^uv YI ffvyytvuffxuv srfisixug. 
To ftsrpov, moderation is opposed to severity and rigour, which 
are shown towards none but the obstinate ; ch. x. 28. duvdpevos, 
who is able) who does not please Himself; comp. Rom. xv. 3. 
ayvooixsi xai ffljxwft evoif, to the ignorant and them that are out 
of the way [in error]) those that sin through ignorance and 
error: iW, LXX., dyi/oe/v, to be ignorant. Simple ignorance is 
merely want of attention and memory ; but error (being out of 

1 A supply of grace is in store for believers against all future needs : but 
believers are not permitted to know and feel it all at once, but only accord 
ing as the need arises. ED. 


386 HEBREWS V. 3-G. 

the way) interchanges [confounds] good and evil, truth and 
falsehood. aafavsiav, infirmity) which is sinful and to be expiated 
by sacrifices. 

3. A/a ravryv, on account of this) Supply infirmity : or ravryv, 
this, is put for the neuter, as in Matt. xxi. 42. 

4. Ka/, and) The apostle here commences a discussion on 
the actual (very) priesthood of Christ. r/c, any) Levitical 
priest. rw TI^V, honour) The priesthood is an honour. Its 
synonym is fio Ja, glory, ver. 5. Adp&v, Aaron) received it by 
being called. 

5. Apxisp ea,, High Priest) So Christ is often called ; and yet 
at the same time often, and presently at ver. 6, He is termed a 
priest (simply). He is a priest absolutely, because He stands 
alone in that character without an equal. He is High Priest in 
respect of the Aaronic type, and in respect of us, whom He has 
made priests by His access to God and guidance of us. 6 

vpbg alrov, He ivho spoke to Him) vK "IDS HilT, Ps. ii. 7. 
my Son) The apostle does not mean that the Father 
conferred the honour of the priesthood on the Son at the time, 
when the Father said, Thou art my Son ; for the generation of the 
Son is certainly prior to His priesthood : but declares, that the 
Son, who can do nothing of Himself, and who is always under 
the authority of the Father and does only what the Father 
wills, and receives only what the Father gives, has also received 
from the Father the honour of the priesthood, of which none 
but the Son Himself was capable. Hence the connection, 
%a8uc, as, in the following verse. In this manner David had 
(treated) his sons (as) priests [Engl. "Vers., chief rulers], i.e. 
admitted to terms of closest intimacy. 2 Sam. viii. 18, with 
the Scholia of Michaelis : and the name of Son and Priest, 
quoted from the Psalms in ver. 5, fi, is presently afterwards 
repeated ver. 8, and ch. vii. 3, 28. 

6. *Ev sr sp j), in another) So Paul also, Acts xiii. 35. Xsy?i, 
He says) GOD. <n)) Ps. ex. 4, where the LXX. have it in as 
many words. Ms\%i<tedx, Melchisedec) It is of no importance to 
know in other respects who Melchisedec was, beyond what is 
mentioned of him ; nay, the very silence respecting the other 
parts of his history contains mysteries. He was certainly a 
king and priest at that time, and of the human race. 

HEBREWS V. 7. 387 

7. "Oj, who) namely Christ, the Son of God, the Priest. This 
is not said, but who, with great significancy in the relative pro 
noun ; for the subsequent discourse corresponds to the names 
given in ver. 5, 6. A summary of those things, which are to be 
discussed in ch. vii. and the following chapters, is contained 
in ver. 7-10, and introduced with a remarkable anticipatory 
caution 1 and preparation, ver. 11, 12. And there is most ex 
quisitely comprehended in this summary the onward progress of 
His passion, with its most secret (inmost) causes, from Geth- 
semane even to Golgotha, and the expressions used here are the 
same as those used by the evangelists : comp. also Ps. xxii. 3, 
20, etc., 25, Ixix. 4, 11, cix. 22. sv raig y]^spaic rrjg ffapKog aurou, 
in the days of His flesh) in those days, the two especially, during 
which He suffered those things, and in order to suffer them, He 
assumed flesh like to that, which was sinful and mortal : ch. ii. 
14, x. 20 ; Matt. xxvi. 41, at the end : when by reason of weak 
ness He seemed to be a mere man, John xix. 5. fafais rs */ 
ixerypiasj both prayers and also supplications) plural ; for in 
Gethsemane He prayed thrice. The particle re, both, indicates 
that the words are not mere synonyms in this passage : prayers 
refer to the mind ; supplications, also to the body, as the origin 
of the word, faerevu, / supplicate shows, in Eustathius. Regard 
ing both see Matt. xxvi. 39. irpbg rw dwd/j^vov cufyiv avrbv sx 
Oavdrov, to Him that was able to save Him from death) Abba 
Father, says He, all things are POSSIBLE to Thee; let this cup 
pass from Me. Mark xiv. 36 : comp. John xii. 27. This possi 
bility of all things to God is opposed to the weakness of Christ s 
flesh. <ru)7eiv, to save) ffufyiv, and presently ffurr.piac, are conju 
gates, to save, salvation. IK} Presently; afterwards dcro. The 
two words, in other respects, equivalent, agree here with the 
difference of the subject : out of death, from terror. He, how 
ever, in obedience to the will of the Father underwent the death, 
out of(sK) which the Father might have delivered Him, so that 
He should not have died : He was altogether delivered from 
(TO) its horror, in that He was heard. /asra xpavyris }a%vpu$ nai 
daxpuuv, with strong crying and tears) On the cross, He is said to 
have cried, not to have shed tears. Both of these particulars, as 

See Append, on w 

388 HEBREWS V. 7. 

the series of the events shows, refer to Gethsemane. xpdfyiv and 
xpauyy, in the LXX. correspond to the verbs pjtt, and PJJS, and y\W, 
and denote a cry from the depths of the soul, or vehement de 
sire ; exrsveffrspovj more earnestly, Luke xxii. 44 ; ivith a most 
willing spirit, Matt. xxvi. 41, whatever may be the words uttered ; 
these occur very often in the Psalms, as 1DK, to speak, to say, 
signifies also thought. Indeed, the cry of the mind, while the 
lips are closed, is more suitable to tears and sorrow ; and yet 
there is no doubt, that Jesus added to His prayers in Gethse 
mane an incitement by uttering at intervals short cries, as well 
as to His supplications by tears (observe the Chiasmus) which 
were drawn forth not only from the eyes, but from the whole 
face and body, during that extreme heat [agony"]. See Luke as 
quoted above : comp. with Rev vii. 17, 16. xaD//,a, ddxpvov, heat, 
tears. The sweat and blood of Christ were poured out like 
water. During the whole of His passion He alternately cried 
and was silent. Matt. xxvi. 37, etc. ; Ps. xxii. 2, 3, 15, Ixix. 2, 
etc., cix. 21, etc., where silence is an intimation of a wounded 
heart. xai e/ffaxovadeig, and being heard) JT"lH LXX. etffaxoveiv, Ps. 
Iv. 17; Tty in like manner, 2 Chron. xviii. 31 : therefore in this 
passage aufyiv ands/Vaxovg/v,o save,smd to hearken to, are very nearly 
the same. The agony and its issue are here referred to, ^V5 aro 
ddq/uovsTv, He began to be sorrowful and very heavy. 
, unto death, Matt. xxvi. 37, 38. Jx0a/A/3g/tra/, Mark 
xiv. 33 : Luke xxii. 44 mentions the agony and sweat. When 
the cup was presented, there was also presented to the soul of 
the Saviour the horrible image of death, which was joined with 
sorrow, ignominy, and cursing, and was of a lingering nature, 
and He was moved to pray for the removal of the cup. But the 
purity of filial affection in the Saviour with the exercise of holy 
reason and moderation instantly softened that horror, and sub 
sequently absorbed it completely, as the serenity of His mind 
returned. And He was heard, not that He should not drink the 
cup, but that He should now drink it without any horror ; 
whence also He was strengthened by an angel. The fear was 
a something more horrible than death itself; when the feeling 
of horror was taken away before the coming of His enemies, He 
lays it down as a fixed principle, that the cup which he had 
wished conditionally not to drink, now cannot but be drunk. 

HEBREWS V. 8. 389 

John xviii. 11. d-ro) An abbreviated expression, siataxwffQels avb, 
as eppavrutpevoi a<7ro, ch. x. 22. So Ps. cxviii. (cxvii.) 5, OJS 
SrnftH sKrixouffs |ttou tic ffXaruff/Aov. TO rric, suXafiziac; [not as Eng. 
Yer. in that He feared] from horror). The Greek word here has 
singular elegance and denotes something wore subtle than if one 
were to say fear. No Latin word more suitable than horror 
occurs to us. Comp. ivXaftriQeit, ch. xi. 7. He had lately used 
Qavdrou, without the article ; now he has rfg g&Xaj&/ag with the 
article, of which the relative power indicates that the significa 
tion of evXa&ias is included in the mention made of death, which 
was horrible in its assault. 

8. Kafoep &v vibg, though He was a Son) This paragraph, in 
the days, etc. has two parts. The first is, in the days obedience 
by the things which He suffered ; the second, and being made per 
fect of eternal. The first part speaks of things very humble ; 
for death and to be in horror, and, although the horror of it be 
removed, to die, and to learn obedience from such suffering, may 
appear somewhat servile : wherefore, by this clause, although He 
was a Son, precaution is taken, that nothing said in that part, 
before and after, should be a stumbling-block to any. The 
second part is altogether joyful and glorious, and he insinuates 
(implies) that we must repeat from ver. 5, because He was the 
Son : comp. ch. vii. 28, at the end. In His agony in Geth- 
semane He so sweetly, so frequently, appealed to the Father, 
Matt. xxvi. 39, etc. : and from this fact we have the clearest 
confirmation of the truth that Jesus was not the Son of God 
merely because He rose from the dead, and not previously. 
spafav, He learned) The word learning put before the word suf 
fering, elegantly points to Christ learning with the utmost readi 
ness and willingness. He learned obedience whilst He began to 
suffer, whilst He set Himself to drink the cup. The word to 
learn implies a kind of beginning, and the making perfect corre 
sponds to this beginning, of which we shall afterwards speak. 
There is a pleasant paronomasia 1 in spaQev a<puv tirade. He also 
had experience of the adage, cra^/xara jj,a6foara [sufferings, the 
means of learning]. Christ alone fortified [secured] the path of 
obedience in a way consonant to the will of the Father. Obe- 

1 See Append. 


dience may be performed without prayers. 1 a.<p uv) So 
Matt. xxiv. 32. rr,v viraxoriv, obedience) That kind of humble 
obedience which is shown in suffering and dying. Phil. ii. 8, note. 
He says to the Father, as Thou wilt. elffaxovffQeJg, and t/-raxo?jv, 
are conjugates. The Father hearkened to the Son, and the Son 
to the Father. In like manner Christ obeyed the Father ; 2 we 
obey Christ ; see the following verse. 

9. Ka/ reXsiudeig, and being made perfect) by sufferings, ch. ii. 
10. ro?s uKaxovovffiv avrp, to them that obey Him) 2 Cor. x. 5. 
We must obey likewise through sufferings and death [as Christ 
obeyed the Father. V. g.] and chiefly by faith, ch. xi. 8. -s-atf/v, 
to all) Great power, ch. ii. 10, 11, 15. a/V/og s^r^ptag a/uvfov, 
the author of eternal salvation) Dessen habe der liebe Herr Jesu 
Dank von uns in Ewigkeit. " For which the beloved Lord Jesus 
may have thanks from us in eternity." E. Schmidius, piously. 
Moreover /V/o is a word extremely worthy of Him and (comp. 
1 Sam. xxii. 22, a/r/os tyxuv) one by which it is intimated, that 
Christ, being made perfect, pleads the cause of the brethren, from 
this circumstance, because it now evidently belongs to Him to 
accomplish [to make good] their salvation ; for He is able : comp. 
dwapsvov, who was able, ver. 7, ch. vii. 25 : and ought (it behoved 
Him) to do so, comp. wpg/>.s, He ought, ch. ii. 17. [Der/tfr 
Etwas stehety an der man sich halten kann. He stands for 
something to which one can clino;. V. .1 We must also ob- 

O C5 O J 

serve the epithet, eternal salvation, which is opposed to the 
shortness of the days of Jesus flesh, and flows (is derived) from 
ver. 6, for ever. Concerning this salvation, look back to ch. ii. 
10, 14, etc. The eternity of salvation is mentioned, Is. xlv. 17. 
iffpafa tfw^sra/ b^b Kupiw ffurr t pfav a/wv/ov, Israel is saved by the 
Lord unth an eternal salvation. 

10. HpotrcvyopevQtls) called. His name was the Son of God; 
His surname, His appellation was Priest : ffpotviyopia, His being 
called a priest, not only followed the perfecting of Jesus, but also 
preceded His passion at the period mentioned in Ps. ex. 4. 
The same word occurs 2 Mace. xiv. 37, where it is said that 
Razis was called (ffpoffayopsuoftsvos) the father of the Jews. 

1 But Christ joined botli prayers and obedience : and this is the Father s 
will. ED. 

2 Equivalent to hearkened to, so as to obey, obedio, Th. ob audio. ED. 

HEBREWS V. 11, 12. 391 

11. llepi ou, of whom) ou, masc., comp. og, Wto, ver. 7. He 
now enters upon that very long anticipatory or precautionary 1 
preface or preparation, which consists of rebuke, admonition, 
exhortation, and consolation. The Rhetoricians call it the 
securing (Captatio) of the kindly feeling of the reader or hearer. 
The preparation of the heart [of the hearer by the teacher], to 
which the doctrine is committed, often requires greater exertion 
than the teaching of the doctrine itself. croXuc) 11, much, i.e. too 
much: 2 comp. ch. xiii. 22. -/j/^Tv, to us) Paul includes, as usual, 
Timothy or others : comp. ch. vi. 1, 3, 9, 11, ii. 5, xiii. 18. 
dvgeppqvevros, hard to interpret) not from any fault in the writer, 
but in yourselves. Xeyg/v) a correlative to cbcoa/g. Mytiv is not 
redundant, speaking is opposed to writing, as ch. xiii. 22. Hard 
to be uttered, harder to be written, and yet the more necessary 
to be written on that account. vudpoi) ch. vi. 12. The root 
implies ffrspqav rov fafy the negation of running 3 ) verlegen u to 
loiter" on the road. ygyovare, ye have become) The state of the 
Jews needed to be noticed, as well in so far as it was good, as 
also in so far as it was bad, v. 12, vi. 10, x. 25, 32, 33, xii. 4, 
5, 12. 

12. A/datrxaXo/, teachers) A term not of office, but of ability in 
this passage. The antithesis is ro\j diddtxtiv fy*as, that one should 
teach you. bib, rov yspowv) by reason of the length of time. So 
Arist. 1. 7, Polit. c. 9, uses this phrase. The antithesis is dia rfo 
s%iv, by reason of the matured faculty [habitual use], ver. 14. 
Time or age is used here either in the abstract for years ; or in 
the concrete for strength. Age either brings vigour with time, 
or is impeded by it. -raX/v %pg/av ep^ere, ye again have need) 
reyovars %ps/ av gp^omg, ye have need, follows. The former has 
respect to the doctrinal articles of the Old Testament, the latter 
to those of New Testament. r/va) You must not only be taught 
the very elements, but also (r/i/a) what they are. They are 
therefore enumerated, ch. vi. 1, 2. oro/p^g/fr) elements. A word 
used by Paul, Gal. iv. 9. And this passage to the end of the 
chapter plainly abounds in expressions peculiar to Paul. 
Letters, Buclistaben, elements, first (primary), simple. The 

1 See Append, on irpoOepavretei. ED. 

2 More than it would be expedient now to say. ED. 

3 An improbable derivation. Rather akin to vu6q$ and 11660$. ED. 

8t)2 HEBREWS V. 13, 14. 

articles of the Old Testament are to the perfection of the doc 
trines of the New Testament, as letters are to further learning. 
But yet letters, Buchstalen, denote by a trope the principles of 
learning, which are called rudiments. So every kind of learning 
has its own elements, and the title elements is often given to a 
system by no means subtle. Comp. the end of the note on 2 
Pet. iii. 10. Tjjg apx/t*? of the beginning} first principles, ch. iii. 
14, where the one phrase illustrates the other : although the one 
refers to theory, the other to practice. The antithesis, by the 
introduction of a resemblance from meats, is explained at the 
beginning of ch. vi., where the same word again occurs. rw 
Xoyiuv rov QsoZ, of the oracles of God) Rom. iii. 2. yaXccxr&r, of 
milk] Milk is here the doctrine brought from the Old Testament ; 
1 Cor. iii. 2. xa/) and so. To this refer yap, for, in the follow 
ing verse. 

13. O fter exuv, he that partakes) Even strong men feed on 
milk, but not on milk chiefly, much less on milk alone. There 
fore they are intended in this passage, who, in short, either take 
or seek nothing but milk. uTeipcs, unskilful) not expert, without 
strength and practice. Xoyou dixaMffvyqc, in the ivord of righteous 
ness) A/xa/ov from dfya : comp. diaxpioiv, discernment, in the fol 
lowing verse. For dtxaioevvfy righteousness, is such perfection 
(D DD Jos. xxiv. 14, LXX.) as after having put away evil from it, 
attains to the just (proper) degree of good : yeyvpyafffAsm (ver. 
14), exercised, is in consonance with it; comp. xii. 11, where in 
like manner exercise and righteousness are joined. Such a word 
of righteousness is the doctrine of Christ in the New Testament. 
^Righteousness of faith and of life is understood, and each on 
either side, according as circumstances have arisen. vfaios, a 
babe) The antithesis is rg?^/wv, of them that are perfect : comp. 
Eph. iv. 13, 14. 

14. TsXs/uv, of them that are perfect) rgXg/orjjra, perfection, ch. 
vi. 1, is the conjugate term. TS/^IOI xai pavQavovreg are opposed 
to each other, 1 Chron. xxv. 8, TD^rrDJJ pB. sVr/v, is [belongeth 
to]) They who are perfect both desire and take solid meat. dia) 
In/ reason of. rr t v s%iv, habitual strength of understanding^ [ wsg ]) 
The LXX. use this word, Judg. xiv. 9 ; 1 Sam. xvi. 7 ; Dan. vii. 

1 Latin habitum, Th. habco : as i^tg from e^u. ED. 

HEBREWS VI. 1. 393 

15 ; and also Wisd. xxx. 14. It is said of a whole, in which the 
parts have themselves and are had in turn, hold and are held in 
turn ; and here it denotes the strength of the faculty of percep 
tion (discernment) arising from the maturity of the spiritual age: 
not habit acquired by practice, dux. rfy g g/v, because they are pos 
sessed of more habitual strength of understanding. Exercise 
follows habit (habitual faculty) ; and strength makes a man put 
his faculty in exercise with alacrity, dexterity, profit, without 
affectation or the perverse imitation of others. TO, a/V^r^/a) 
properly the organs of the senses, for example, the tongue, the 
organ of tasting: comp. ala^^t, in perception, sense, Phil. i. 9, 


1. A/O, wherefore) It might be thought that we should say ds, 
but : but the particle dib, wherefore, is better fitted to rouse. So 
Paul also, Rom. ii. 1, note. 1 a<p svre$, leaving) in this discussion. 
In other respects these heads of doctrine are not thrown away, 
but are taken for granted. The apostle speaks, in his own name 
and in the name of the other teachers, in the plural number. 
rbv "koyov, the doctrine, the word) ch. v. 11 [o Xoyo^]. rqg ap%ris 
roO Xpiffrov, of the principles of Christ) Three pairs of particulars 
(heads), which are enumerated in this and the following verse, 
were of that kind, that a Jew, well instructed among his country 
men out of the Old Testament, ought to have applied them for 
the most part to Christianity. Regarding repentance, the resur 
rection, and the judgment, the point is clear ; for inasmuch as 
eternal life is only mentioned by implication among these, and 
expressly in the antithesis, ver. 5, it also agrees with the system 
of both testaments : as also the apostle speaks of faith toward 
GOD, not toward the Lord Jesus ; comp. Acts xi. 21, note. He 
speaks of baptisms in the plural, of which the Jews had various 
kinds for the purpose of initiation ; and the imposition of hands 

1 The illative particle, as being the stronger, absorbs the transitive par 
ticle. ED. 

394 HEBREWS VI. 2. 

(Num. xxvii. 18, 23) was very much practised among them. 
Whosoever was well acquainted with these two, quickly com 
prehended the doctrine of Christian baptism and of the imposition 
of hands by the apostles ; and this is the very reason why these 
two particulars are interwoven with other points more funda 
mental ; namely, because the gift of the Holy Spirit corresponds 
to these in the antithesis, of which each refers to perfection, not 
to initiation. Therefore these six particulars were the principles 
of the oracles of God, ch. v. 12 ; likewise the ^ upyji ro\j Xpicrov, 
principles of the doctrine of Christ, viz. among those learning 
Christ ; for Christ is often used by Paul, by Metonymy of the 
concrete for the abstract, for Christianity : Gal. iv. 19 ; Phil, 
i. 21, " my life, or abiding in the flesh, is Christ" that is, 
is the work of Christ. Add Col. iii. 11, note. These particulars 
had been, if we may say so, the Christian Catechism of the Old 
Testament ; and such Jews, who had begun to recognise Jesus as 
the Christ immediately upon the new light being brought to 
bear (being shed) on these fundamental heads, were accounted 
as having the principle of the doctrine of Christ. Perfection i.e. 
the perfect doctrine concerning Christ Himself is opposed to this 
beginning principle (y ap%ri) [ver. 4, 5]. (psp JJ/^sOa, let us go on, or 
be carried forward) A word implying active exertion. He pro 
perly puts this subjunctive before the indicative, -iroir^o^v, we will 
do, ver. 3. era/ay, again) Again, ver. 6, accords with this. 
Qi jstXtov, foundation) A synonym of ap /rjC, of the beginning prin 
ciple. xara(3a\\6fjt,voi, laving) An architectural term. ^ravo/ac, 
x.r.X., of repentance, etc.) He might have said, concerning GOD and 
faith in Him, concerning sin and repentance ; or at least, concern 
ing repentance from dead works, concerning faith in GOD ; but he 
forthwith says, the foundation of repentance, etc. Therefore we 
ought not to delay in the consideration of sin, but to begin with 
active repentance. Therefore we ought to connect faith with the 
first mention of GOD. Therefore Theology is practical. TO 
VSKPMV spyuv, from dead works) So ch. ix. 14. This term implies 
a loathing of sin. 

2. Bavriff/Auv dida^ic) Ka/ is not put before Bairnffttuv ; for 
three pairs of chief particulars (heads) are enumerated, and the 
second particular (head) in every pair has the conjunction ; but 
only the third pair is similarly connected : from w r hich it is also 


evident, that (Bairriff/Auv and dida%ri$ must not be separated. 
Baieriff/toi dida^/is 1 were baptisms which were received by those 
who devoted themselves to the sacred doctrine of the Jews ; 
therefore, by the addition of d^a^g, they are distinguished from 
the other Levitical washings ; ch. ix. 10. Kpf/tarog aiuviov) of 
eternal judgment. See Mark iii. 29, note. 

3. ToCro, this) The reference is to <pepups6a, let us go on. 
sav <7rsp, if indeed) For, in the following verse, refers to this. 
Without the Divine blessing, the cultivation of the ground does 
not succeed; ver. 7. 

4. Advvarov) it is impossible for men, however qualified. 
aVag, once for all) The adverb does not extenuate the matter, 
but renders the expression precise. pwr/<rdei/ras, enlightened) 
Christianity is the Whole, into which men get an entrance 
through the Gospel received by faith, and through baptism. 
There follow here the three parts in respect of the three principal 
benefits in the New Testament, proceeding from the Son of God, 
from the Holy Spirit, from GOD. So, enlightened (illuminated), 
ch. x. 32. Whence the use of this word is very frequent in the 
writings of the Fathers concerning baptism. Life and light 
are often mentioned conjointly ; the one is often observed to be 
included in the notion of the other. Therefore, as regeneration 
is said to take place in baptism, so also enlightening. And this 
phrase is particularly suited to the Israelites, who had not been 
without life by faith, according to the Old Testament, when 
they abstained from dead works, ver. 1 ; but yet afterwards 
they were bathed in the new light of the New Testament. 
yivtfa/AgvovC rs rqg dwpzag rijg svovpaviov, who have tasted the heavenly 
gift) The enjoyment of light is in vision : now to vision is added 
taste, by which believers, being allured, ought to be always re 
tained. *H dupsa YI sKovpdviog, the heavenly gift, is the Son of GOD, 
as it is expressed, ver. 6, Christ, who is tasted by faith, and 
also in His own sacred Supper ; 1 Pet. ii. 3 ; and this taste in 
volves more than repentance from dead works, and faith toward 
GOD. The participle, ygutfa^svous, although the genitive [ver. 4] 
and accusative [ver. 5] are often used promiscuously, seems, 
however, in this passage to carry with it a difference in the 

1 Bengel evidently understands these words, baptisms of or into doctrine, 
not as Engl. Vers., the doctrine of baptisms. ED. 


cases. The one (Genitive) denotes a part ; for we do not ex 
haust the tasting [enjoy the whole fulness, but only a part] of 
Christ, the heavenly gift, in this life : the other (Accusative) ex 
presses more, inasmuch as the ichole tasting of the Word of 
GOD preached belongs to this life, although the powers of the 
world to come are joined to this Word. ^ro^ovg, partakers) 
This partaking, as we have observed at ver. 1, involves more 
than the doctrines of baptism and the imposition of hands. In 
this clause the word taste is not used, because the Holy Spirit 
here is considered as rather producing the taste, than as its ob 
ject. Hvzv.uarog Ayfov, of the Holy Ghost) He is often mentioned 
in connection with Christ ; Acts ii. 38. 

5. rsutra/xbous, who have tasted} A new taste, likewise involv 
ing more than the knowledge of the resurrection of the dead and 
of eternal judgment. xaXoi/ pr^a, the good word) Jer. xxxiii. 
14, niDn ITin nx, the Gospel. dwd^eic, powers) of the most 
exquisite taste. The plural is highly significant. The same 
word occurs, ch. ii. 4 ; comp. xi. 34. Both passages show the 
emphasis of the word, 8wd/jMi$. /xsXXoi-ros aiuvoc, of the world to 
come) Eternal glory is principally intended ; comp. ver. 2, at 
the end ; as the city to come is spoken ofj ch. xiii. 14 ; but the 
present time is not excluded under the New Testament, for in 
this sense things to come are also mentioned, ch. ix. 11, x. 1, 

,ii. 5, note. 

6. Ka/ KapavsGovrag, and who have fallen away) A word of 
weighty import, suddenly occurring, strikes us with just terror. 
It is thus the LXX. translate the Hebrew i>y. He does not 
merely speak of those relapsing into their former condition, but 
of those falling away (prgsterlapsos, lapsing aside) from that en 
tire state of highest glory, and at the same time from faith, hope, 
and love, into a new species of ruin, ver. 10, etc. ; and that, too, 
of their own accord ; ch. x. 26. A fall such as this may be 
separated from the blasphemy against the Holy Ghost, but yet 
the bitter state of their soul is nearly the same ; comp. ch. x. 
29, note. The apostle does not say, that they to whom he is 
writing are such as these, but he hints that they may become 
so. The egg which held and lost the stamina of the chicken 
is not even fit to be eaten : the man who has lost his faith is in 
a more deplorable condition than he who ncA er believed. 

HEBREWS VI. 7. 397 

iv, to form anew [rmew] again) A renewal (a form 
ing anew) had been already made; therefore vdXtv, again, is 
added, and it corresponds to the <raj, once, ver. 4. But we 
must particularly observe, that avuxaivtfyiv, to make anew or re 
new, is used in the active voice ; it is impossible for men, not for 
GOD. Therefore the apostle undertook the doing of this which 
he is doing, on this very condition, if GOD permit ; ver. 3, note ; 
Matt. xix. 26. \There is a similar admonition, x. 26. V. g.] 
Men, ministers, have already done for such persons what they 
could; Tit. iii. 11. Ministers have a certain measure, and 
those obstinate persons have gone beyond it in their opposition : 
it remains for ministers to leave them to GOD, and (whether 
they in the meantime admonish them more or less, and enter 
tain hopes concerning them) to wait w r hat GOD will give, 2 Tim. 
ii. 25, by means of special afflictions and operations. The 
Grseco-Latin copy, Claromontanus, has in this place ddvvarov, 
1 difficile. 71 s/ ptravofav, unto repentance} He appropriately men 
tions that, which is first in the foundation, ver. 1. But the 
other things are left to be supplied, considered either by them 
selves or in their effect. dvagravpovvrae, since they crucify afresh) 
He has described the subject by former participles : he now sub 
joins the reason (^Etiology, Append.) of that impossibility. The 
preposition in dvaffravpovvras signifies upwards in Herodian, but 
in this passage again, for it is the echo of ava in dvaxawifyiv. 
Eavro?$, to themselves, which is added, makes an antithesis to 
^otfadsi /fAari^ovratf making an open showing, viz. to others : see 
oraupou with the same case, Gal. vi. 14. From which it is 
manifest, that he is speaking of those who scoff at Christ from 
hatred and bitterness of spirit, for the sake of indulging their 
humour (deliberately and intentionally) : truly, if these men 
had it in their power, they would do to Christ what the Jews 
did under Pontius Pilate. Those who deny the efficacy of 
the cross of Christ, which has been already endured, or think 
that He was justly crucified by the Jews, do the same as if they 
were to say, that He must still be crucified ; Rom. x. 6, 7. 

7. T /j, the earth) This is figurative. svoD<ra, drinking) not 
merely on the surface. IK aurSfe, upon it) This is more signi- 

Vulg. has " impoesibile." ED. 

398 HEBREWS VI. 8, 9. 

ficant than if it had been e-r avryv, over it ; for it denotes the 
unceasing (continuous) bounty of heaven. Ko\Xd/ng, often) 
Hence the <rag, once, is softened, ver. 4. sp^opevov, coming) 
spontaneously. rixrovffa, which bringeth forth) by the regular 
mode of generating. The antithesis is xs/?ou<ra, that which 
beareth, without law and order, in the following verse. The 
LXX. transl. also use sjup epu in a good sense ; but here the force 
of the particle ds, but, falls upon exp epovaa, that which beareth. 
evQsrov, meet) The antithesis is adompog, rejected. di ovg) for the 
sake of whom. nai, also) This particle gives an intensive power 
to the present tense of the verb yeupyeTrai, is constantly dressed : 
cultivation, blessing ; cursing, burning, are opposed by Chiasmus 
(i.e. the first to the fourth, the second to the third). /^ra/.a//,- 
fidvei, is partaker of) The antithesis is, nigh. The Divine 
blessing on good land is lasting : the Divine curse follows bad 
land. Concerning both, comp. Jer. xvii. 5, 7. d-ro rov Qzov, 
from God) It is not merely cultivated by men. 

8. ExpspovGot, bearing) This also coheres with wiovffa, drinking. 
axdvQas xal rpi(36hovg, thorns and briars) entirely, or at least 
chiefly. adoxipog, rejected) so that it may be left uncultivated. 
xardpag syyjg, nigh to cursing) so that it may be overwhelmed 
with all evil. %g) viz. y^g, of which land. tig -/.avtiv, for burning) 
These words in this passage are expressive of great a-roro/ct/a, 
severity. Supply BXevrei or spiral ; comp. LXX., Prov. xiv. 12, 
13, xvi. 25 ; or earl, comp. LXX., Isa. xliv. 15, iva ft avOpuxog sig 
xavffiv. The same ellipse is found at ver. 16, v tpag sig (3ej3cifa6iv. 
Fire is the punishment of the Jews, Matt. xxii. 7, and of their 
land. A prophetical stricture a very few years before that the 
city Jerusalem was burnt. Those of the Jews were the most 
desperate, who resisted the faith in the city and around it. 

9. HsKsiffpeda dyaTjro/, we are persuaded beloved) 1 Cor. 
xiii. 7. In this one place he calls them beloved, namely, for the 
sake of exhortation. For Paul often gives exhortations without 
this title, but he never uses it except for the purpose of exhorta 
tion. So in the epistle to the Romans, in like manner once, 
viz. ch. xii. 19, but oftener to the Corinthians and Philippians. 
ds y but) A remarkable Epitherapia 1 and softening of what 

1 See App. An after mitigation of what has been said. 

HEBREWS VI. 10 11. 399 

might have appeared harsh. mpt u//,wv, of you) An antithesis, 
in the hypothesis, to those, who are stigmatized in the thesis, 
ver. 6, 7, 8. ra Kpsiaciova, better things) more consistent with 
godliness, ver. 10. s^o^svoiffurviplag, which [accompany] are near 
to salvation) An admirable expression. GOD, conferring upon 
us salvation, e%ei, holds us : we, leaning upon Him by faith, are 
held, s^6/Msda ; in which way we say e%effdai ayxvpac, to hold 
one s self resting on the anchor : comp. ver. 19. Salvation itself 
will retain [hold safe] good men. 

10. Ou yap eidixog, for God is not unrighteous) i.e. He is en 
tirely just and good. a/acnjg, of love) He is treating of hope, 
ver. 11 : of faith, ver. 12 : of love in this verse. So Paul, 
1 Cor. xiii. 13, and elsewhere often ; likewise below, ch. x. 22, 
23, 24. He lays hold of their love, as an occasion for sharpen 
ing their faith and hope. sndif%aff6t, you have shown) Even 
where hope is somewhat small, from whatever cause, in present 
circumstances, the past is often calculated to be of great advan 
tage : Rev. iii. 10. Paul uses the same word, 2 Cor. viii. 24. 
etc rb ovopa, avrov, toward His name) In like manner the Hebrews 
use D>. Comp. 3 John 7 ; Matt. x. 41 . The name of GOD 
excites true love. d/ajcoi^tfavrgg roTg ayfoig, in that ye have minis 
tered to the saints) This is the phraseology of Paul, Rom. xv. 25 ; 
1 Cor. xvi. 15. It was to the poor saints at Jerusalem that the 
ministry of beneficence was afforded : it was the brethren in 
Greece and Asia who afforded it. See the passages quoted. It 
thus frequently happens with Paul, that although he be speak 
ing to Jews and Gentiles indiscriminately, he nevertheless em 
ploys those motives which affected either party in particular. 

11. EffidufjwvjMv ds, moreover we desire) therefore we thus 
speak. sxaorov, every one) not merely as you have hitherto 
done, in common [jointly, but also individually]. r^v eevr^y) the 
same in hope and faith, as in love. This epistle rather held the 
necessity of urging faith ; that of James, works : ch. x. 36, xiii. 
7. evfafavuaQai, to show) The verb is repeated from ver. 10. 
Kpt>i) i.e. as far as concerns. r^v KXqpopoptav rr,g sXtfidog, the full 
assurance of hope) Long-suffering is closely connected with it, 
ver. 12. So sv KXypopopiq KiffTsug, in full assurance of faith, ch. 
x. 22 : and Paul often, for example, Rom. iv. 21. uXwopopia, as 
it were, a full march, implies fulness either of employment, 

400 HEBREWS VI. 12 Ifi. 

2 Tim. iv. 5, 17, or [full persuasion] of the mind, 1 Thess. i. 5, 
and in this passage; Eccl. viii. 11, LXX. ayji, even unto) Con 
strued with svdfiKvvffOai, to show. 

12. NuQpol, slothful) There follows presently after the anti 
thesis, dia tfiffreusj by faith, etc. They were vuQpo! rafc, axoaTs, 
dull of hearing, ch. v. 11 : he now cautions them, not to be 
come slothful absolutely, viz. also in mind. 3/a Kiffreug xul pampo- 
Qv^iag, through faith and patience) So Paul, 2 Tim. iii. 10, and 
James v. 8. There is the patience or long-suffering of love, 1 Cor. 
xiii. 4 : there is also the long-suffering of faith, ver. 15. 
xXTjpovo/j-ouvrwv) The participle of the imperfect tense ; comp. ver. 
15 : for Abraham is referred to. IcrayysX/af, promises) By this 
very word their confidence is roused ; and ewy ysiXaf&evos, hav 
ing promised, presently follows. 

13. Kar ovdtvbs, by none) This epistle abounds in compari 
sons : here we are informed that no comparison [none to be 
compared with God] was to be found. w/xoog, He swore) He 
now affords consolation by the oath of God s grace, to those 
whom, in ch. iii. and iv., he had admonished by the oath of God s 
wrath, although indeed the oath of His wrath did not extend its 
force beyond the wilderness for ever ; for David and Paul bring 
down nothing of that oath to their own times : but the oath of 
grace is in force for ever. 

14. H fA /iv) \D, Geil. xxii.17, LXX., %ar s/uavrov & {toff a, Xeysi Kvpiog, 
% p^v evXoyuv ? yXoyjjtfw ffs, x.r.X., " I have sworn by Myself, saith the 
Lord, that blessing I will bless thee," etc. So n pw, Gen. xlii. 1 6. 
Devarius, when he had collected examples of the particle T\ ^v, 
infers that this word is used merely by the way of ornament, when 
it is applied to a promise or an oath : it is quite different in simple 
affirmations, in which it is necessarily (not merely ornamentally) 
used. But it may be resolved thus : ^, let there be, whatever 
shall happen, i.e. occur what may, ^v, yet this shall be done. 

15. Muxpodvftfiffas, after he had patiently endured) This is 
evident from the life of Abraham. everv^s rJjg s^ayyeXiasj he 
obtained the promise) he got what was promised ; ver. 14. 

16. Kara ro\j ptifyvoc, by the greater) generally by GOD Him 
self. xa/, and) and so, on account of the authority of the 
greater, which is appealed to. avnXo-yiaz x spas tig j3z/3aiutfiv, an 
end of contradiction, or strife, unto confirmation) by which a con- 

HEBREWS VI. 17-20. 401 

troversy is terminated in the confirmation of the point in dis 
pute, beyond all exception : Prov. xviii. 18, D^HD, amXoy/as 
craus/ xXqpog. 6 opxo$, the oath) The last resource, which we 
ought not to use, so long as any other method of removing strife 

17. EI/ w, in which) in which case. xtfHtswnpvi) more abun 
dantly than it might seem to have been done, had it been with 
out an oath. jSouXo/o-evos r^c, (3ov\^g) are conjugates. The utmost 
benignity is here expressed. epeffimrtv) He came down into the 
midst of us : GOD [who might require of us to have the greatest 
faith in His mere word. V. g.] drawing nearer to us with won 
derful condescension by an oath, although He is the greatest, as 
it were acts as a Mediator, and comes in between Himself and 
us ; as if He were less, while He swears, than Himself by whom 
He swears. Dost thou not yet believe, thou that nearest the 
promise ? 

18. Auo, two) The one the promise, the other the oath. sv 
o%, in which) This refers to duo, two. /V^ufob, strong) So as that 
it may swallow up all strife (contradiction) arising from distrust. 
Bgj3a/av, firm, stedfast, follows, ver. 19. Both words are joined, 
ch. ix. 17. iff^upog implies that strength by which a man is able 
to inflict hard blows on his enemy : /3s/Sa/oj, that firmness by 
which he does not allow himself to be moved from the position 
which he occupies. o/ xarapu/w-ss, who have fled for refuge) as 
from a shipwreck : aynvpav, an anchor, follows. Kpoxsi/t evrii) set 
before us. The same word occurs, ch. xii. 1, 2. 

19. "HV) which hope. The following things are compared : 

A ship ; The soul : 

A sure anchor ; Hope, i.e. heavenly good things 

set before us by GOD, hoped for 
by us : in a complex sense. 

The connection of the ship and The consolation through the 
the anchor ; promise and oath of GOD. 

sure) in respect of us. fiepafav, firm) in itself. ro\j 
the veil) He gradually returns to the priesthood, 
ch. ix. 3, x. 20. 

20. npofyopog, forerunner) swift. A very significant word : a 

402 HEBREWS VII. 1-3. 

forerunner has those who follow him. He is elsewhere called 
the first, the first fruits, the first-begotten. Kara., according to) 
is put at the beginning of the clause for the sake of emphasis. 


*. . 

1. Ovrog) The subject, namely, This man, who is mentioned 
ch. vi. 20 from the psalm, and the same who is mentioned in 
Genesis. The Predicate is, ver. 3, dvdrup g/ g rb diqvsxeg, 
without father for ever. The summary of this chapter is : 
Christ, as is shown by the type Melchisedec, who was greater 
than Abraham himself, from whom Levi is descended, has a 
priesthood truly excellent, new, perfect, stedfast, everlasting. 
/3a<r/Agi) iepevsj king priest] Christ is also both. hpsi/s rou &sou 
v^tffrou) So the LXX., Gen. xiv. 18 ; that is, Priest of the Most 
High GOD. 6 tiwavrqtfag A(3p<xd/A vffotfrpepovn aero r5jg xocojg) The 
LXX., ibid. ver. 17, J^3jA0g de fiaffiXzvs "Sodoftuv sis GvvdvTTjGiv avrw {Atra, 
TO vwoffTpt-^ai avrov ana ryjg xoKqs, x.r.A. In the Ordo Temporum, p. 
176, I have taken rqv KO^V, in the strict sense, for the slaughter 
and destruction of the kings ; but the meaning, flight, is also one 
consistent with the word iron (LXX. xovf), Gen. xiv. 17 ; comp. 
ver. 15. Therefore this passage does not prevent us from be 
lieving that Arioch, king of Ellasar, lived and reigned after the 
disaster. There I did not venture to affirm that Arioch is the 
same as Arius, and I am less disposed to do so now. To such a 
degree is the antiquity of the Assyrians uncertain abroad, which 
L. Offerhaus speciously discusses in the second book of his 
Spicilegia. svXoyqtfai) LXX. euXdyjjtfg. 

2. Afxar^jv aero cravrwi* 4. sSuxev) LXX. eduxsv avry dsxdrqv 
d ffb iravruv. trpurov, first) from his own name : eveira, then, from 
the name of the place. There are often mysteries even in the 
proper names of men and places. dixaioffvvqc eipqvije) So righteous 
ness and peace are often mentioned together by Paul, Rom. v. 
1. ds Kai) viz. &v : for 6 sffri corresponds to sp/M^vsvo^&vos. 

3. Airdrup, d{A7irup,d yvea.X6 yv)rog, without father, without mother, 
ivithout genealogy [descent]) The parents, ancestors, children, 

HEBREWS VII. 4. 403 

posterity of Melchisedec are not descended from Levi, as was 
required to be the case with the Levites, ver. 6, and they are 
not even mentioned by Moses ; and this silence is full of mys 
tery, which is immediately unfolded. There are even few of the 
Levitical priests whose mothers are mentioned in Scripture ; but 
yet their Levitical sanctity (as to their wives) is universally 
enjoined, Lev. xxi. 13, 14 ; and, at all events, the wife of Aaron, 
from whom all the priests are descended, is mentioned, Ex. vi. 
23 : and Sarah, the wife of Abraham himself, Is. li. 2. WTI 
nor beginning) The eternity of the Son of God is intimated. 
having) with Moses, who nevertheless relates the death 
of Aaron. foepuv, of days) It was not so suitable to say, the 
beginning of life or the end of days, ver. 16, where power is men 
tioned along with life. dpupoiuMsvog ds rti T/ roD 0sou, but made 
like to the Son of GOD) de, but, properly has respect to the oppo 
sition between the negatives, which precede, and the positive, 
which follows, and takes the former for granted. The likeness 
of Melchisedec to the Son of God refers both to the former and 
the latter ; but it is also more directly connected with the latter, 
because it has more reference to the purpose in hand. The 
Son of GOD is not said to be made like to Melchisedec, but the 
contrary (vice versa) ; for the Son of GOD is more ancient, and 
is the archetype ; comp. viii. 5, [where in like manner heavenly 
things are set forth as more ancient than the things belonging to 
the Levitical priesthood. Y. g.] p evei, remains) The positive 
for the negative in respect of Melchisedec : he remains and lives, 
ver. 8 : i.e. nothing is mentioned of his decease or succession. 
But it holds good in its strict meaning from Christ. 

4. 0supsire) you see ; comp. Acts xxv. 24, note ; or rather see, 
consider. For Paul begins to teach in this passage, and at the 
same time excites our admiration : ourog, this man, accords with 
this view. f, to whom) as greater, and as a priest. xaf) even. 
The greatness of Melchisedec is described in all those things 
which precede and follow this clause ; but the principal thing is 
receiving the tithes. For this is the privilege of a superior. 
SK rZ>v axpoQiviuv) of the spoils, which had properly belonged to 
Abraham as the conqueror. Hesychius explains : AxpoQiviov, 
aprt&v, q tfxDXa, \af>bpQtV anap-fcai. AxpoQiviov, u<ffap%7i ruv 
Qivsg ds stffiv oi ffupoi ruv irvpuv q KfiQw* 

404 HEBREWS VII. 5-9. 

v is first fruits, or arms, clothes, the first fruits of 
spoils : axpodivlov, the first fruits of Qivsg, and dives are heaps of 
wheat or barley; or any first fruits whatever." 6 ^arpidp^s, 
the patriarch) He highly praises Abraham, that Melchisedec 
may be made the greater. The patriarch is even greater than 
a king, as being the progenitor of kings. 

5. Tbv Xabv, the people) An abbreviated expression, to be re 
solved into a subject and predicate consisting each of two 
members. The priests (and Levites) tithe (the Levites and) the 
people } Num. xviii. 21, 26; Neh. x. 38. So the style of Paul 
admits, Rom. v. 16, note. xstra rbv VO/AOV) according to or in the law, 
ch. ix. 19. adsh<pov$, brethren) with whom, they are of the same 
natural condition. To these, however, are preferred the Levites; 
to these latter, the priests ; to these again, Abraham : to Abra 
ham is preferred Melchisedec. 

6. Eg a,v<ruv)from them, as he was more ancient even than they. 

xai, and) This verse has two propositions, of which the expla 
nation precedes the first, follows the second : Chiasmus. And 
at the same time this second point the superiority of Melchisedec 
to Abraham namely, the blessing, is conveniently connected 
with the former point concerning tithes, because its description 
is afterwards completed. rbv $%ovra, who had) This both increases 
Abraham s dignity, and intimates that even the posterity, who 
had been then already promised to Abraham, would yield the 
superiority to Melchisedec. rac, JcrayyeX/aj, the promises) plural. 
Where Christ is the subject, it is called the promise : promises 
refer to other things. Already GOD had twice promised to 
Abraham, Gen. xii. 2, xiii. 15, before the blessing of Melchisedec. 

e\j\6 r yq%s, blessed) The blessing which the priests pronounced on 
the people, is also by implication contained in the Protasis con 
cerning the Levitical priests. 

7. EuXoys/ra/, receives the blessing) namely, if the blessing be 
given, for instance, with sacerdotal authority. 

8. Maprvpovpsvos) He of whom it is witnessed (Who was 
honoured with the testimony). 6V/ 5j, that He liveth) The death 
of Melchisedec is not mentioned in the Old Testament. That 
circumstance is positively expressed by the term, life, for the sake 
of the Apodosis, respecting Christ. 

9. fis *vos e/Ve/v) When, in the explanation of any subject 

HEBREWS VII. 10, 11. 405 

something of the highest importance must be unexpectedly said 
after the other parts, which had been and might be treated of, 
where the particle denique is an apt expression in Latin, this 
courteous phrase, us swos s/Vs/i/, or w? g/Vg/P, not to be met with 
elsewhere in the New Testament, has been generally used by 
the Greeks to avoid hyperbole and the prolixity of a somewhat 
precise discourse, or for the sake of anticipatory mitigation l and 
softening the expression, by which it was intimated that the 
matter can scarcely be told unless it be expressed in the present 
words, and yet that it must be told. See Not. ad Chrys. de 
Sacerd., p. 494. Asut, Levi) the progenitor of the priests. 
\a t u{3dvuv, who receiveth) ver. 5. 

10. "Er/, still) He says, stilly not already now. The oifspring, 
after withdrawing from the power of the parent, become their 
own guardian ; but while they are under the power of the 
parent, nay, in . his loins, they follow his condition. It may be 
said, Was not Christ Himself, according to the flesh, as well as 
Levi, in the loins of Abraham ? Comp. Acts ii. 30. Ans. 
Christ is expressly set forth by the psalm as a priest after the 
order of Melchisedec, and that too in such a way that Melchisedec 
is made like to the Son of GOD, not the Son of GOD to Mel 
chisedec : nor is Christ subjected to Abraham, but stands in 
opposition to the sons of Levi. And Abraham, when Mel 
chisedec blessed him, Gen. xiv. 19, already had the promises, 
Heb. vii. 6 ; namely, those in which were included both the 
blessing expressed more generally and the natural seed, and so 
also Levi, Gen. xii. 3, 7, xiii. 15, 16 : but those promises under 
which Christ was comprehended, followed Abraham s meeting 
with Melchisedec, as well as the faith of Abraham, which was 
in the highest degree commended, Gen. xv. 1, etc., where we 
have the remarkable beginning, After these things. 

11. E/ f&sv cue, if then) Now, the apostle, by referring to the 
110th Psalm, shows that the Levitical priesthood yields to the 
priesthood of Jesus Christ : because Melchisedec, according to 
whose order and likeness Jesus Christ is a priest, (1.) is opposed 
to Aaron, ver. 11-14 ; (2.) has no end of life, ver. 15-19. 

perfection) The LXX. put this word for the Hebrew 

. Append. 

406 HEBREWS VII. 12, 13. 

Ex. xxix. 22, etc. ; Lev. vii. 37, viii. 22, 28, 29, 31, 33, 
where the writer is treating of Levitical perfection ; but here 
rsXsjuffis rtXsia, absolute perfection, is intended: comp. ver. 19. 
The article is not added, and therefore Paul increases the force 
of the negative expression. %v) if were. So %v, ch. viii. 7. 
o >vao<; yap, for the people) The conjunction /p put after the noun, 
as in ver. 28, intimates that the noun people is here emphatic : 
the whole people of GOD. It at the same time shows why any 
one might perhaps ascribe perfection to the Levitical priesthood, 
and why it is necessary that that opinion should be confuted : 
comp. yap, for, which is likewise subjoined to the word zi, if, ch. 
viii. 7, 8. SK avrri, under, or in connection with it) Under the 
Levitical priesthood. E-TT/ with the dative, on, upon, concerning, 
in the case of, etc., often denotes the object, and that too having 
the force either of cause or effect, ch. viii. 1, 6, ix. 10, 17, xi. 4. 

vsvo/Ao^sr^ro, had received the law) The Pluperfect, because a 
time intervened before the 110th Psalm was given. As min is 

the law, ver. 12, so the LXX. translate the verb min 
nva, to instruct any one : Ps. xxv. 8, xxvii. 11, cxix. 33, 
102. The people were only instructed about the Levitical 
priesthood, with which the whole law is occupied, and speaks of 
no other priesthood, ver. 5 ; but the 110th Psalm introduces a 
different system of instruction, namely, because God has changed 
the priesthood. ric in, what any longer now) This now any longer 
is very urgent. %p/a, necessity) for GOD does nothing in vain. 

srtpov, another) Comp. the epithets, new, second, ch. viii. 13, x. 
9. aviaratfOai) should arise anew, ver. 15. The antithesis is 
XeysffQai, should be called, according to the old form of instruction. 

Xsysrf^a/, should not be called) in the psalm, at the time of 
which Aaron, i.e. the order of Aaron, flourished. 

12. Msraridspivqs, being transferred or changed) from order to 
order, from tribe to tribe. yap? for) He shows why, in ver. 11, 
he presses the words of the psalm concerning the order of Mel- 
chisedec, because it follows from this, that the law was also 
changed along with the priesthood, and that both are brought to 
Christ. vopov, of the law) ver. 5, 16, 19, 28 ; ch. viii. 4. Taf/c, 
order (not vfaog), is the expression used of Christ. 

13. Ep ov) He, respecting whom these things are spoken by 
the Psalmist. ^sTsff^y,-^^ belonged to, had part in) We have 

HEBREWS VII. .1418. 407 

the same verb, ch. ii. 14. r& fogiatrypiu, at the altar) Le- 

14. TlpodyXov) it is manifest. Therefore, at that time the genea 
logy of Jesus Christ laboured under no difficulty ; and this very- 
circumstance entirely sweeps away the difficulties that after 
wards arose. It is both evident and sufficient, that this point 
was formerly clear. J| lou&x, from Judah) See Luke i. 27, 39, 
note, and ch. ii. 4, 5. For the Tribe is what is particularly re 
ferred to ; not, however, to the exclusion of the city where our 
Lord was born, Bethlehem-Judah ; nay, even there is reference 
to Hebron, a city of Judah, where Lightfoot says, in Chron. 
N. T. Part I. sect. 3 and 4, and in Harmon, evangel, on Luke 
i. 39, that it is very probable He was conceived. on dvarsraXxsv, 
that our Lord sprang) as the Branch (avuroXri) of Righteous 
ness. sl$ %v) in respect of which. So g/ s, Eph. v. 32 ; 1 Pet. 
i. 11. 

15. Kara&jXov effn) it is evident, namely, that which is asserted, 
ver. 11, [that there was no perfection realized by the Levitical 
priesthood Y. g.] g/, if) An elegant particle for 6Vg, when, 
in reference to those to whom this point might seem to be either 
new or doubtful ; as Acts xxvi. 23. bpoiornra, similitude) which 
is included in rafyg, order, and is called similitude, because 
here the discourse is designed to show the everlasting vigour 
and freshness of the priesthood in the following verse, from 
the phrase, sig rov a,tuva,,for ever, ver. 17. 

16. "Og yiywtv) who is made a priest. Karcc, according to, is 
construed with the word, priest. i>o>oi> IvroXSjg <ra?x/x5j;, the law of 
a carnal commandment} Power is presently opposed to the law ; 
life to commandment ; endless to carnal. Commandment occurs 
again, ver. 18 ; law, ver. 19. Concerning the flesh, comp. ch. ix. 
10. dvvapiv w5j, the power of life) Both words occur again, 
ver. 25. 

18. Aderqffig, a disannulling) So uvaipeT, takes away, ch. x. 9. 
y mrai, takes place) in the psalm. ^oayou^g IvroXJjg, of the 
commandment going before) This commandment is denoted in 
the abstract, ver. 16, and in the concrete, in conjunction with 
men, ver. 28 ; in the same manner as the first testament or 
covenant, ch. viii. 7, 8. a<t6eve$ */ avwpsXsg, weakness and un 
profitableness) So Paul uses the term, weak elements, Gal. iv. 

408 HEBREWS VII. 19-24. 

9 ; and he also often desires and has regard to that which is 
profitable, ch. xiii. 9 ; comp. Epistles to Timothy and Titus. 

19. Ovdsv ere\eiuffsv 6 vo t u,oc, the law made nothing perfect) Paul 
speaks much in the same way of the powerlessness (rb dduvarov) 
of the law, in that it was weak through the flesh, Rom. viii. 3. 
eTs/craywyj?) properly, the bringing in afterwards [superintro- 
ductio]. It is construed with ymrai, takes place, ver. 18, 
[ in the psalm, to wit. V. g.] The antithesis is manifest : a 
disannulling indeed, but the bringing in. ETT/ in l<3-/<raywyj? is 
opposed to the TI^O in ^oayou^g, and is the same as psrd, after, 
ver. 28. npitrrovog, of a better) that is, not weak and unprofit 
able. The epithet, Hpeirruv, often occurs in this epistle, as well 
as a/wv/oc, dXqdivbg, dsvrspog, diapopwrspog, snpog, ^Sjv, xaivbg, ftsXXuv, 
veog, KpofftpaTog, rshsiog. eyyifyf&sv, we draw near) This is true 
r&Xzfuffig, perfection. 

20. Ka0 offov, inasmuch as) Supply from what follows, He was 
made a priest. The Apodosis is in ver. 22, xara rocovrov, by 
so much. opKUfJUMficti) A magnificent compound. 

21. A/a rou Xsyovrog wpbg O.VTOV, by Him that said to Him) On 
other occasions, he who receives the office swears ; here, He 
who conferred the priesthood swore. There is nothing about 
this oath in Moses, but in the psalm. See how great authority 
belongs even to the Psalms ! ver. 28. w/xotfg Kvpiog xat ou 
/Asra/AtXriQfiffzrai, the Lord hath sworn and will not repent) So 
LXX. It is intimated by the oath itself that the decree is one 
dfjusrafAsXriTov, not to be disannulled by any repentance. 

22. Kpeirrovos, of a better) testament or covenant, not to be 
repented of, eternal, ch. xiii. 20. diaQqxyg, testament) After 
this passage this word is of frequent occurrence, ch. viii., ix., x. ; 
likewise, ch. xii. 24, xiii. 20. Paid also uses it often in other 
places. It denotes a divine appointment, comprising the rela 
tions and bearings, partly of a covenant, partly of a testament. 

surety) Hesychius, e yyuos, dvddo-^og. Its synonym is 
mediator, ch. viii. 6. 

23. HXs/ovsg, many) one after another. -ra^a^si/g/v) to remain 
together on earth. The antithesis is pevsiv, to remain absolutely 
in heaven, ver. 24. 

24. M &vsiv, because that He continueth) in life and in the 
priesthood. avrbv) because He Himself continues : 20, Thou 

HEBREWS VII. 25, 26. 409 

art a Priest, in the singular. dvapafiarov, not passing away) 
into the hands of successors. 

25. "Ofcv, whence) From this, that He remains. %/, also) 
He not only remains, but also saves. <rwg/v, to save) by His 
own name, Jesus, ver. 22. etc rb vavreXsg, to the uttermost) So 
Luke xiii. 11. The meaning of ^amAws is, in all ways, 1, 2 
Mace, often. It is construed with dvvarai, He is able ; as Trai^- 
rort, always, with wv, living. rot s xfeftfXpflttfOUS) those that come 
near) by faith, ch. iv. 16, x. 22. di auroD, by Him) as by a 
priest. r& 0su), to GOD) ch. xi. 6, xii. 22, 23. -Travrors wv, 
ever living) Because He always lives, therefore He is able to the 
uttermost. He is not prevented by death ; comp. ver. 23. sig, 
to) that is, even so as that He intercedes for them. The gra 
dation may be compared in a passage of Paul s very like this, 
Rom. viii. 34, and &/g rb below, ch. xi. 3. There was but one 
offering, ver. 27 ; but evrevfys, intercession, for our salvation is 
continued in the heavens, ver. 26. Whence it results, that we 
can never be separated from the love of GOD in Christ. See 
again Rom. viii. 34, 38, 39. 

26. Toiovrog, such) From what goes before, great exultation 
and holy boasting are diffused into this and the following verse. 
evpeirev qpTv, became us) who were by no means godly, etc. Thus 
the verb, became, renders the expression a paradox, such as Paul 
loves, when he kindles into applause. The same word occurs, 
ch. ii. 10. o<r/os, pious) with respect to GOD. axaxog, harmless, 
without a fault) with respect to Himself. D^Dn, LXX., axa/tog. 
aftiavTog) undejiled, deriving no stain from other men. The 
same word is found at ch. xiii. 4. All these predicates conjointly 
make the periphrasis of the word, dyiog, holy, and are illustrated 
by the preparation of the Levitical high priest for the feast of 
expiation, when he also was bound to remain in solitude, and in 
the high place [as Jesus was separate and made higher, ver. 26]. 
Our High Priest must be entirely free from sin, and, after He 
had tasted death once for all, also from death. /es^wf/tr/Asvog d-7ro 
rZ>v apapruMv) not only free from sin, but also separate from 
sinners. He was separated when He left the world. Examine 
the following clause, and John xvi. 10 ; 1 John ii. 1. U-^TJAO- 
rspog roJv ovpavuv) higher than the heavens, and therefore than the 
inhabitants of the heavens. [He is therefore the true GOD : 

410 HEBREWS VII. 27, 28. 

comp. Job xxii, 12 ; Ps. Ivii. 6 ; Prov. xxx. 4. V. g.] Eph. 
i. 21, iv. 10. y evopsvof, made) Christ both was formerly higher 
than the heavens, and was made so afterwards ; comp. ysvo/j,&vo$, 
being made, ch. i. 4. We have the same force in the participle, 
rsrsAs/w^si/oi/, made perfect, at ver. 28. 

27. Ou, not) The Negation has a double force, and is thus to 
be explained : He has no necessity to offer, 1. daily : 2. for His 
own sins also. Not daily, for He has done that once for all. 
Not for His own sins, for He offered Himself, a holy sacrifice. 
There is besides in it an inverted Chiasmus. The first follows 
from the second, the second is confirmed by the 28th verse. 
Often in Scripture two positions (theses) are laid down, and are 
proved by the yap, for, twice following them. %a& ypspav, daily) 
xar eviavrbv, year by year, properly, ch. x. 3. The Hebrews 
speak of the day, instead of the day of expiation ; whence some 
translate xatf qpspav, on every day of expiation : but it retains 
here its usual meaning, so that there is as it were a kind of in 
dignant hyperbole (such as at ch. x. 1, tic, TO biqvtxtg, for ever), 
intimating that the high priest was of no more avail by offering 
yearly on a stated day, than if he had offered daily with the 
common priests, ch. ix. 6, 7. ro\Jro) this is simply to be referred 
to His offering, not to His offering also for Himself. Jpa^rag, 
once) Rom. vi. 10, note ; so below ch. ix, 12, x. 10. 

28. O vopog yap o \dyoc, ds, for the laiv : but the word) The an 
tithesis is very express, as the conjunction is put after the nouns. 
6 ">Jr/o$, the word) rendered as strong as possible in consequence 
of the oath. r%g /ASTO, rbv VO/MV) Not only the word, but the oath 
of God, is said to have been given after the law (comp. v. 18) in 
the time of David, and that too by David, as GOD very often 
swears by the mouth of the prophets. Comp. Acts ii. 30, where 
Peter speaks of the kingdom of Christ sanctioned by an oath 
in that same age. Paul is reasoning from the order of revelations, 
as Gal. iii. 17, note. Below, ch. x. 7, 16. Tibv) Son of GOD. 
The antithesis is, men having infirmity. e/e rbv aluva, for ever) 
It is thus resolved : The Son (once made perfect) was constituted 
a priest for ever, ch. v. 9, 10, note. Absohite eternity is here 
intended. Jesus continues a priest for ever. His work being 
finished, His state remains. 

HEBREWS VIII. 1-4. 411 


1. KspaXaiov, the head, the sum) The Accusative absolute, which 
Paul uses, 1 Tim. ii. 6, note. The head, that is, the principal 
point. IT/ roTg Xeyo/tsvo^) while these things are being spoken of, 
while we are treating of this object, while we are stating all 
these things concerning our High Priest, the sum of the whole 
discourse, as the arrangement so requires it, comes now to be 
mentioned : comp. SKI, ver. 6, ch. ix. 10, 15, 17, x. 28. The 
force of the Greek prepositions ought sometimes to be taken by it 
self, nor does it admit of an adequate Latin or German periphrasis. 
See note 3 on ver. 15, ch. ix. I did not quote that verse at ch. 
vii. 11, note 5 ; wherefore the words of this note 5 are not to 
be extended to ch. ix. 15. E-TTI also applies to concomitancy, 
which is expressed by while. rotourov, such) The capital propo 
sition standing out very prominent. For, after having finished 
the explanation of the type in Melchisedec, he begins simply 
(without type) to discuss the excellence of the priesthood of 
Christ above the Levitical priesthood. sxdQiffzv, sat down) after 
having presented His oblation. [This is the very sum of the 
whole discussion, says the Apostle, that Christ, sitting in heaven, 
performs His office of priest, ch. x. 12. V. g.] rqg ^ya\^a\iv^g, 
of the majesty) i.e. rou 0soD, of GOD, ch. xii. 2, at the end. 

2. Tuv ayiwv, of the holy things) the sanctuary, so called abso 
lutely, the true, not made with hands, ch. ix. 8, 12, x. 19. 
Xsirovpybg) namely, wi>: so heirovpyia, ver. 6. We may say in Latin, 
but in a very solemn sense, officialis, officium. rfc (rxwTis, of the 
tabernacle) ch. ix. 11, note. r^c, aX^/i^g, of the true) ch. ix. 24. 
svq^sv, pitched, fixed) firmly. ovx avdpuvog, not man) as Moses, 
ver. 5. 

3. Tap, for) The reason why he called Him Xtiroupybv, ver. 2. 
avayxaTov, necessary) viz. ivas ; for the aorist follows, vpoffsveyxri, 
should offer. 

4. Tap, for) The reason why he said lv roTs ovpavoft, in the 
heavens, ver. 1 : a Chiasmus : comp. ver. 2, 3. SKI yyi) If our 
Priest were a priest upon the earth, if His priesthood terminated 

412 HEBREWS VIII. 5., G. 

on the earth, He would not even be [in the true sense] a priest 
at all. Christ, whilst He discharged the duties of the priesthood, 
entered into heaven. ovruv) inasmuch as there were already at 
the time priests existing. 

5. TKodsiyftan -/.at ffxia) A Hendyadys. The latter is added, 
lest the former should be understood in too august a sense: each 
is repeated apart, chap. ix. 23, x. 1. But it is the ablative in 
this passage, after the example and shadow. So woSs/y^ar/, ch. 
iv. 11. Xarpguoutf/j serve) The same verb, ch. ix., often ; x. 2, 
xiii. 10. Pie speaks in the present tense, as the temple was not 
yet destroyed, ch. ix. 6, xiii. 11. ruv snovpaviuv, of heavenly things) 
which are both more ancient in design and more far-reaching in 
the finishing. Comp. Rev. xi. 19. The mentioning of the mount 
accords with heaven. Ks^pyj/u^ariffrai) he was commanded by God. 
opa, yap pqffi, vror/jffpg ndvra Kara rbv rucroi/ rov dsi^Q svra ffoi Iv ru> 
opsi) Ex. xxv. 40, LXX., is the same as the above, with the excep 
tion of rov ded ciy/usvw instead of rbv dn^svra, and so ibid. ver. 9, 
xxvi. 30, xxvii. 8. 

6. NUJ//, now) This is opposed to the s], if, ver. 4. l rnv^s) 
The same phrase is found, 3 Mac. v. 32, (Soqdsias r&rsu^orsg. 
coy, by how much) The character of the duty [of Christ as our 
mediating Priest] follows the nature of the testament, viz. that 
the promises, which it contains, may come to their accomplish 
ment. diKdTjXTjt; j^Girr^ l<7rayyz7Jatc, vsvo/toQsrrirai) These are all 
Pan? s expressions, 1 Tim. ii. 5 ; Rom. ix. 4. s^ayyi/Jaig, on 
promises) which are enumerated, ver. 10, 11. The old promises, 
considered in precise strictness, referred to the things of this life, 
and they were exactly fulfilled, so that the people, being satiated 
with them, might then the more eagerly embrace the heavenly 
promises. vsvo/^odsr^rai) By an elegant difference in the words it 
is said of the Old Testament, 6 Xabg vsvof&oderriro, the people was 
established in the lain, ch. vii. 11 ; but the New Testament itself 
vsvo/AoQ&rqrai, has been established on the law. Man violates it : 
God keeps it. 2 The Greek word, vevoftoQ erqrai, does not admit the 
particle, as if; and yet the meaning is durch ein Gesetz, or durch 
Gesetze, ver. 10, v6/&og, a laic, a thing established. 

1 AtetQopwripetst ^ore excellent) heavenly. V. g. 

2 This is the reason of the difference in the wording here and ch. vii. 11. 

HEBREWS VIII. 7-9. 413 

7. H vpurr), the first) A Metonymy ; for blame (finding fault) 
does not fall upon a divine institution, but upon a real and per 
sonal object. AitroTe, with them, is said ver. 8 ; from whicfy it is 
plain, that not only the New Testament itself was faultless, but 
also its people. sxemj, that) The pronoun adapted to a past event. 
g^jrg7ro, should have been sought) A suitable expression : that 
first covenant would have anticipated all. 

8. Me/&<p6/j,svog) A choice expression, as a^e/^rog in the last 
verse. Ammonius : Mep^is, afAsXowros xartiyopia, Blame is an 
accusation against a careless person ; and a^sXsia, disregard, care 
lessness, was the fault of the ancient people. There was active 
(practical) carelessness or disregard, on the part of the people, 
which provoked God not to care for or regard them ; ver. 9 
(j^sXTjtfa avruv), note. avroTg) finding fault with them who were 
under the Old Testament : ^//-po/xa/ governs the dative. /5ot), 
behold) Jer. xxxi. 31-34. We shall point out where the LXX. 
differ. Xsyg/) LXX., <pr t ffj ; and so ver. 9, 10 : for the very solemn 
phrase, saith the Lord, is used thrice. <rumX<r) LXX., 

/j,ai, the Heb. Troi; for which word the LXX. give 
Jer. xxxiv. 8, 15. The expression is suited to this passage, / 
will perfect ; comp. with the antithesis at the end of ver. 9, and 
with the promise at the end of ver. 10. 1*1) LXX., r& o /xu 
l<rpafa xai r& O IKU lovda : Heb. fitf, with. The dative is retained, 
ver. 9, as to the Old Testament ; but the preposition sV/, con 
cerning, with respect to (super), is more significant in respect of 
the New Testament. itpafa lovda, Israel Judah) There 
fore the Ten Tribes, as well as Judah, are partakers of this 

9. Efl-o/Tjtfa, / made) LXX., dieQepqv, / have arranged or dis 
posed. To perfect is more than to make and dispose. wspa, in 
the day) Days, in the plural, are opposed to this one day, ver. 
8. These many days are the days that intervened between the 
day of the Exodus and the New Testament. sV/Xa/So^vou /AOV 
rJjc xsiplg avToJv, when I took them by the hand) Whilst their sense 
of the Divine help and power was recent, these men in old 
times obeyed ; but they were wont soon to revolt and turn God 
from them. This was their custom ; comp. presently after, they 
continued not. It was not merely one singular act. ex yqg 
A/yicrrou, out of the land of Egypt) There are three periods : 

414 HEBREWS VIII. 10. 

1. That of the promise ; 2. That of instruction (psedagogiae) ; 
3. That of fulfilment. The instruction (as children) began at 
the time of the departure from Egypt, with that which was des 
tined to become old (ver. 13). avrot OVK tve^eivav sv rri diaOiixr) 
pou, ndyu fifAsXyffa avruv, they did not continue in My covenant, 
and I did not regard (care for) them) Correlatives, as ver. 10, 
from the opposite, I will be to them a GOD, and they shall be to 
Me a people; but the method of proceeding is now reversed : the 
people had begun first to put an end to the covenant : God 
both begins and perfects all things in the new covenant, ver. 10, 
11. Xfyyolj rifi s hriGa aur&v) LXX., %a,l syu TjfAsXqffa, avruv, and I did 
not regard them. Dl VPJD OJN i, and I ruled over them ; although 
some claim for the verb ?JD, the meaning ?JW, disregard, from 
the Arabic idiom. God s ruling and disregard may, in some 
measure, be reconciled in this view : / treated them as if they 
were not Mine ; Hos. i. 9 : nor was I propitious to their sins ; 
Deut. xxix. 19, xxxi. 16, etc. They are not regarded over 
whom such lordly rule is exercised ; they do not rejoice in (are 
not privileged with) that access, in which those who are in cove 
nant or in friendship rejoice; John xv. 15 : but they are treated 
as slaves ; nor are they held in great consideration, whatever 
may befall them ; Ezek. xxiv. 6, at the end ; Jer. xv. 1,2. The 
passages, Jer. iii. 14, Ezek. xx. 33, 37, express a somewhat 
similar idea : but in both places there is rather a promise than a 
threatening ; nay, even in the present, Jer. xxxi. 32. The 
Hebrew Masters, as Surenhusius shows, in /3//3X3 xara?,Xay5jg, 
p. 628, understand the word T&JO to apply to the dominion of 
love and good pleasure ; and it is not, save by an error in writ 
ing, that they turn it into the contrary, T&m, / have disdained 
or disregarded (fastidivi). The LXX. seem evidently to have 
read D2 T6yj, which very word Jeremiah uses, ch. xiv. 19, 
I^TI avb 2/wt> an sffrri (n^j) 55 -^vyjk ffov ; hath thy soul loathed 
Sion ? 

10. A/a^xjj) diaQfavi <aou, LXX. iffpafa, Israel) Here Judah 
is to be understood. A new union together of the people. 
There were two houses in the Old Testament, ver. 8 : they be 
come one house in the New. didovg) The participle for the verb ; 
2 Pet. i. 17 : Sidovg Suffu, LXX. So a/Soy?, Is. xl. 29. There are 
four sentences arranged by Chiasmus. The first, I will give 

HEBREWS VIII. 11. 415 

(put) ; the second, and I will be ; the third, and not ; the fourth, 
because (for) all. The second explains the first ; the fourth, the 
third. v6pov$ ftou) Heb. Win DK, my law. We have the sum 
of these laws presently, / will be to them a GOD, and they shall 
be to Me a people. th rfiv didvoiav aurwv) D2 "ip2, into the midst of 
them, that they may obey willingly (from the heart). sir) 
xapdfas) Genitive, ch. X. 16. faiyf&tyto ctvroug) LXX., ypd-^u 
aurovg, Kai o-^o/^at avrou$. 

11. Oi w dtdd^uffiv, they shall not teach) A Metonymy of the 
consequent for the antecedent : i.e. All will be taught by GOD 
Himself especially the love, which is the sum of the law. The 
exertions of brethren in teaching are not absolutely denied ; for 
men must first be taught, whilst the covenant itself is being 
promulgated to them ; Acts iii. 25 ; Is. ii. 3 : then the instruc 
tion of brethren is plainly no longer necessary, at least to those 
who attain to the very power of the covenant in the remission 
of sins, and in the knowledge of the Lord. We have no need to 
write, nor you to be written to, says Paul, 1 Thess. iv. 9, 
v. 1. There will be a very full accomplishment of these pro 
mises when that which is perfect has come, even eternal life. 
But on the way to it every man should certainly teach and ex 
hort himself and his brother ; xiii. 22, Jude 3. In short, even 
the doctrine, which is either solid meat or milk for the strong 
and for the weak, both alike being godly, delights the godly ; 
Heb. v. 12, 13, xiii. 7 : nay, these very persons now at last, and 
not till now, fully comprehend doctrine (< teaching ) ; 1 Cor. ii. 6, 
iii. 1 ; and the apostle himself, both here and in the whole of his 
office, teaches. That precept of highest importance, Know the 
Lord, is learned from the Lord. One proclaims to another 
every doctrine (every kind of teaching) that is agreeable to this 
one, which stands highest : and admonition has the principal 
place ; 2 Pet. i. 12. In the mean time the doctrine is not diffi 
cult and forced, because grace renders all very teachable ; for it 
is no longer the ministry of the letter, but of the spirit ; 2 Cor. 
iii. 6, note. Nor does the firmness of believers depend on the 
authority of human teachers. This is also the reason why the 
scripture of the New Testament is shorter, and why some things 
are not so clearly decided. GOD Himself teaches His people. 
rbv ads\<pbv, his brother) This implies a closer relation than a 

1-16 HEBREWS VIII. 12, 13. 

neighbour or fellow-citizen. 1 2 a<rro /A/xp&D, /mm a 

feastf]) J^e /ia is feeble among them shall be as David, Zech. 

xii. 8. 

12. "Or/, because) The forgiveness of sins, the root of all 
benefits and of all knowledge of the Lord. raft d3/x/a/s aurwv, 
to their unrighteousnesses) The abstract for the concrete : sin is 
abolished ; sinners obtain grace or favour. xa/ ruv avopiSiv 
avruv, and their iniquities) This is not found in the Hebrew nor 
in the LXX. ; but the apostle adds it for the sake of giving to the 
discourse greater weight ; ch. x. 17 : comp. ibid. ver. 8, 5. ou 
/Ay {AvqffQu en, I will remember no more) Comp. x. 3. 

13. Ei>) in. The time is hereby denoted, wherein the pro 
phecy was spoken by Jeremiah. crecraXa/wxe, He hath made old) 
For place cannot be found at the same time for both. The em 
ployment of the preterite of the verb fi-ecraXa/wxs implies that it 
was become old at the time when He spoke by Jeremiah. The 
New covenant was only once promised in the Old Testament 
under this very appellation. And yet the apostle urges this 
appellation very much : of so great importance are the very 
words of the prophets. TO TraXa/ou/Agvov, that which is made old or 
antiquated) by the declaration of GOD. So also in 2 Cor. iii. 14, 
Paul calls it the old testament. */ yjjpatfxov, and that which be 
comes old) by the revolt of the people. naXa/oj and Kaivb$ are 
opposed : so also yz?w and vsoc ; thence 8iaGqx.ii vsa, ch. xii. 24 : for 
there is a new life, ch. x. 20 ; 2 Cor. v. 17, 15. 770?, near) 
Jeremiah uttered these prophecies in the time of the Babylonish 
captivity, almost in the last age of the prophets, at a long interval 
[i.e. of 899 years. V. g.] after the departure from Egypt, not 
very long [namely, about 627 years] before the coming of the 
Messiah, whose propinquity (nearness) was being proved by this 
very circumstance. 

1 A citizen, he says : for the reading Tcfhirw is preferred to that of 
w hviaiov on the margin of both Ed., and is translated in the Germ. Vers. by 
the word Mitbiirger. E. B. 

ABD(A), and almost all the oldest authorities, read Kohiryv. But 
Vulg. reads, as Rec. Text, TrAWo*. ED. 

2 E/c^oroiW pe, they shall know Me) from the utmost experience of My 
grace ; Jer. ix. 24. V. g. 



1. *H irp&rri, the first) Supply d/a^x??, testament or covenant ; 
not ffxrivfi, tabernacle. For the tabernacle itself was the worldly 
sanctuary, which we shall presently see. By a very elegant 
ellipsis, the word d/a^joj is left out, because it is rather appro 
priate to the New Testament; whence also, ver. 15, it is called 
dia$7)xr,g xaivyg, the substantive being put before the adjective. 
\_We have here an admirable description of Christ s entrance into 
the true sanctuary, as far as to ch. x. 18. V. g.] 3/xa/c^ara, 
regular duties, or ordinances) those by which the duties of the 
sacred office were fulfilled [ver. 6]. The same word occurs, ver. 

10. Xarpefag, of worship) external. ay/ov XO^IKOV, the worldly 
(mundiale) sanctuary) An Oxymoron. That sanctuary was 
worldly (which word [mundiale] of Sidonius is well fitted to 
express the idea * material ), or mundane \_mundanum] (as Paul 
speaks of the elements of the world, Gal. iv. 3), and carnal, ch. 
vii. 16. It consisted of precious materials, but still it was ma 
terial. This verse may be thus divided : first, the duties are set 
before us (as the Proposition), then the sanctuary ; there follows 
the discussion, first, concerning the sanctuary, ver. 2-5, next 
concerning the duties, ver. 6, etc. (Paul has a very similar 
Chiasmus, 1 Cor. ix. 1, note) : the antithesis to both is in ver. 

11, 12. 

2. H KpuTri, the first) the anterior tabernacle. r\ n Xu^v/a xa/ 
jj rpdve^a, the candlestick and the table) A type of light and life. 

j? KpoQefts ruv apruv, the setting forth of bread) A Metonymy of 
the abstract for the concrete, i.e. the loaves which were set forth. 

ay/a) The accent is on the first syllable ; * and the feminine 
yrig, is no objection to this construction, for we have a similar 
phrase presently, ^ Xgyo,ttsi/j ay/a dy/wi/. Ta ay/a often in this epistle 
signifies the holy of holies ; but here ay /a without the article de- 

1 That is, in other words, the last syllable is short, and it is therefore the 
neuter plural : not long, which would make it feminine singular. ED. 

413 HEBREWS IX. 3, 4. 

notes the holy place or sanctuary, in antithesis to ay/a 
Aoty o/ holies. Some have ay/a in this place. 1 

3. H Xtyopsvy, which is called) So ver. 2, Xi/sra/, ^s called. 
The opposite is rv aX^/i^y, o/ /^ true, ver. 24. 

4. XpvffoZv, golden) The apostle uses such words as signify 
something precious and glorious, as do^g, q/ glory, ver. 5. 
OvtAiarripiov) censer. So the LXX. express miapD, a censer for 
frankincense ; not /* ALTAR o/ incense, which had no more need 
to be mentioned than the altar of whole burnt-offering, which is 
not mentioned. But the censer alone, along with the ark of the 
covenant, is named in this verse, because it was the principal 
part of the furniture which the high priest used on the day of 
expiation ; and although it was on that day alone that he both 
carried in and again carried out the censer, yet the participle 
g^outfa, having, is consonant with the fact. 2 Further, this is put 
first, because a description of the ark follows at greater length. 
sv fi, in which) namely, xi(3ur&, the ark; for to it also is to be 
referred alrr t c, over it, ver. 5. cra,avos /JP^G^ &%ov<ta TO ^dwa, 
the golden pot that had manna) pdwa, manna, has the article, not 
<frd{Avo$, the pot ; for the thing contained was of more importance 
than the golden vessel which contained it. Ex. xvi. 33,rin^ roJ ; 
LXX. ffrupvov yjutow eva. Some suspect that this pot and rod of 
Aaron, two most remarkable memorials, which were furnished 
with a perpetual miracle, had been taken out of the ark before 
the building of the temple : others, that they were put in not 
until afterwards, because in 1 Kings viii. 9 mention is only made 
of the tables laid up in the ark. But in the same passage it is 
distinctly affirmed, that Solomon acted according to the example 
of Moses ; and the apostle refers to the times of Moses, ver. G, at 
the beginning ; ch. viii. 5 : cornp. ch. xiii. 11, where there is no 
mention made of the city, as here none of the temple. What 
then shall we say ? The tables were alone in the ark itself, but 
the pot and the rod nnyn ^?h, before the testimony, and therefore 
before the ark, Ex. xvi. 34 ; Num. xvii. 25, in the Ilebr., very 

1 Lachm. reads oi-/ia, ay/wi-, with AD(A) corrected /. B reads TX 
&yta, ; Vulg. * sancta ; Tisch. and Elzev. Rec. Text, eiyia, : Lut Stephens 
Kec. Tex 4 **//*. ED. 

2 The Holy of Holies continually had the censer ; though it was only on 
the day of atonement that the high priest used it. ED. 

HEBREWS IX. 5-8, 419 

near the ark, as appendages to it ; in the same way that the book 
of the law and the deposits of the Philistines [the five golden 
emerods and mice] were put on the side of the ark : Deut. xxxi. 
26 ; 1 Sam. vi. 8. Therefore sv in this passage is used with some 
latitude, as Luke ix. 31, etc. rb pawa, the manna) A memorial 
of God s providential care of Israel. v\ pd[3do$, the rod) A me 
morial of a lawful priesthood, Num. xvii. 16, etc., in the Hebr. 
a/ vXdxeg rqg dia,6qxri$, the tables of the covenant) Deut. ix. 9. 
These are put in the last place by gradation. 

5. Xfoy//>, the Cherubim) Ex. xxv. 20, xxxvii. 9. 5ogjs, of 
glory) They were formed of the most precious materials, and 
represented the Glory of GOD riding upon the Cherubim ; 
Ezek. x. 4. xaTaffxidfyvra) LXX., ffuffxid?ovrs<;, in the passages 
quoted above. Ktpi &v, concerning which) The pronoun relates 
to the whole enumeration, from ver. 2. O-JK sen v\Jv Xsynv, we 
cannot now speak) The apostle had determined to treat, not so 
much of the sanctuary and its furniture, as of the sacrifices ; 
and he does not say, we cannot afterwards, but we cannot now, 
implying, that each of these things also might be profitably dis 

6. Eiffiaffiv) enter, in the present. So ver. 7, 13, 22, 25, ch. 
x. 1. 

7. "Acrag ro\J Iv/ay-roD) So LXX., Lev. xvi. 34, once every year ; 
on one day of the year, and on that same day but once. See 
A. A. Hochstetteri Ex. de Ingressu Summi Pontificis in 
Sanctum Sanctorum, pp. 1924. vnsp savrou) for himself. The 
Vulgate has pro sua, for his own, viz. error of ignorance ; I do 
not think, however, that \JK\? TOJV savrou was in the Greek copy 
from which it was translated. Although the priest was exempt 
from the errors or ignorance of the people, yet he was not without 
sin, and therefore stood in need of sacrifices, ch. vii. 27. K/I/OTJ- 
(Adrw, ignorance, errors) This term has a very extensive meaning, 
as, on the contrary, svtyvufft$, knowledge. See Num. xv. 2231. 

8. Ar,l.oijvro$, signifying) as it were a thing which would have 
otherwise remained concealed from us ; so dyXo?, showeth or sig- 
nifieth, ch. xii. 27. <nrspavepu<s6ai, was made manifest) The same 
word occurs, ver. 26. ruv a//wv ; the holy place or sanctuary) 
[viz. the heavenly sanctuary ]. The plural in the Greek cor 
responds to the singular in the Hebrew. As the holy place was 

420 HEBREWS IX. 0, 10. 

to the holy of holies, so the whole Levitical tabernacle was to 
the heavenly sanctuary ; then, as the holy place prevented the 
people from having access to the holy of holies, so the whole 
tabernacle prevented an entrance into the heavenly sanctuary. 
Therefore --paj-/,c, first, which immediately follows, has a para 
bolic amphibology : if we understand it of place, it denotes the 
anterior part of the tabernacle, as opposed to the holy of holies ; 
but if of time, it denotes the whole Levitical tabernacle, as op 
posed to heaven. 6dw, the way) much less efaodov, entrance; 
comp. ch. x. 19, 20. sy^lo^g ffrdffiv, having as yet a standing) A 
suitable phrase. "T&J7B, LXX., ffrdt/g. When Paul was writing, 
the temple, or first tabernacle, was not yet destroyed ; but still 
it had no standing (or status) any longer, from the time that 
the veil had been rent ; and when its standing was broken up, 
the tabernacle itself soon after was utterly destroyed. 

9. ilnq tfotpotpoXy, which is a figure) r,nc for o, before the 
feminine, cra^a/3oX?j. This relative has regard to the three pre 
ceding verses. li/stfnjjcoYa) present, in respect of that standing. 
The standing, emphatically as such, now no longer existed, 
although YI axqvJi, the tabernacle, was not yet broken up, was not 
yet destroyed, w T as not yet razed to the foundation. The anti 
thesis is, psXXovruv, of things to come, ver. 11. 8upd rt xui Ovc/ai 
//y y dwapsvai, x.r.?.., gifts and sacrifices not able, etc.) The victims 
(sacrifices) might seem to be more efficacious than the other gifts : 
therefore with great elegance the efficacy is more expressly with 
held from the [by dwd^svai being made agree with 6ve/ai, 
not dupoi], ffvvslfygiv, conscience) The same word occurs, ch. x. 
2, 22. The antithesis is capxoc, of the flesh, ver. 10, as ver. 13, 
14 [1 Pet. iii. 21]. rw tMrpevovru, him that did the service) the 
priest, who offered for himself; or the Israelite, for whom the 
priest offered. 

10. MO JW, only) The commandments concerning meats are 
as it were an appendage to the commandments concerning 
sacrifices ; and this particle lessens the weight of that append 
age. Sacrifices do not purge the conscience ; meats have respect 
to the flesh. Concerning both, comp. ch. xiii. 9, etc. Paul 
often puts fAovov, only, absolutely; 1 Cor. vii. 39 ; Gal. ii. 10, v. 
13; Phil. i. 27 ; 2 Thess. ii. 7. SKI, on) IT/, with the Dative, 
implies something concurrent, as we have already remarked 

HEBREWS IX. 11, 12. 421 

regarding the appendage; comp. ver. 15, 17, 26. Sacrifices 
concur in public worship, and meats also in daily life ; while the 
same ceremonial law treats of both, and is wholly occupied with 
these and similar matters. /3pw//,acv, in meats) of which some 
have never been allowed to any, others not to all, and not 
always, nor everywhere. KU^UM, in drinks) Lev. xi. 34 ; Num. 
vi. 3. dfu,p6poi$ fiarrufjMtTf, in different washings) These were 
manifold, of the priests, of the Levites, of other men. dixaiu- 
para) The apposition of the nominative and an oblique case, 
as Luke xxii. 20, where see the note. 8iopQuffeu$ 9 of reforma 
tion) ^DTi, LXX., diopQovv, Jer. vii. 3, 5 ; therefore the verbal 
BiopdutfiSy reformation, corresponds to the adjective xpefaTuv, better, 
ver. 23. sKixzipsva, imposed, lying upon) as a burden, without 

11. Xpiffrbs apfttpeiiC) Christ High Priest) So Lev. iv. 5, 
6 tepwe o xpiffrog, the priest that is anointed. Paul also here has 
respect to Christ as the Priest, but with Moses ^piffrbs, anointed, 
is an epithet. Kapaysvo^svog, being made present, being come) 
He then said suddenly, Withdraw, ye sons of Levi, ch. x. 5, 7. 
ruv /tsXXovruv dyaduv, of good things to come) So ch. x. 1. Those 
good things are described at the end of ver. 15. did, by) Con 
strued with iff%X8sv, entered, ver. 12. /u-i/ovo;) which was 
greater and more noble. So, fl-Xe/ova, a more excellent, ch. xi. 4. 
oxqvqs, tabernacle) That was His own Body, ch. x. 5, 20 ; comp. 
John ii. 21. His body is opposed to the tabernacle, as His 
blood to the blood of goats, etc., ver. 12. Schomerus says cor 
rectly, in exig. on this passage, p. 33, the tabernacle is here taken 
for the way to the inner sanctuary. For the subsequent appel 
lation, xriffsug, of this institution or building, proves an abstract 
notion of that sort ; so that, not the Tabernacle itself is denoted, 
but the building or institution, die Anstalt (establishment or 
arrangement). Therefore the Body, or Flesh (for flesh is inse 
parable from the body), is the veil, and the sanctuary is Heaven. 
Thus, as I hope, the matter is distinctly explained. ou ^ipoKoiii- 
rov, not made with hands} Therefore this was greater, ver. 24. 
So, Paul, Col. ii. 11. ov ravrric, not of that) The Tabernacle, 
through which Christ entered, was not of that workmanship or 

12. Tpdymv xai pofyuv,- of goats and calves) One goat and one 

422 HEBREWS IX. J3, 14. 

bullock was sacrificed at one time, Lev. xvi. 9, 3 : but that par 
ticular animal was not by itself better than all the animals of 
the same species ; therefore it is here put in the plural number. 
An additional reason besides, for the plural, was the annual re 
petition of the sacrifices. IB, LXX., ^(xs-yjic,, Lev. xvi. 9, 3, and 
elsewhere. tig rd ayta, into the holy place) into heaven, ver. 24. 
aiwlav, eternal) not merely for a day or a year. zipd/jus^s, 
having found or obtained) So, / have found a ransom. Job xxxiii. 
24. The zeal of Him who has found or obtained, as also His 
fidelity and wisdom, are denoted : the newness and joyousness 
of the finding or thing found, ch. x. 20. The access of Christ 
to the Father was arduous ; ch. v. 7. No one previously had 
trodden the way of life ; Acts ii. 28 ; John iii. 13. Christ 
could not but find : but yet to seek was a matter of labour and 

13. Tap, for) He confirms the fact, that the power of the one 
sacrifice of Christ is as great as he intimated at ver. 12. ravpuv 
%a/ rpdyuv) of bulls and goats, which are mere brutes. Extenua 
tion. 1 dapd^suc, of a heifer) which was to be red, Num. xix. 
Andr. Christ. Zellerus has enlarged the treatise of Maimonides 
on this subject, and compares with it this passage of the apostle, 
p. 504. It is a tradition among the Jews, that nine heifers of 
that sort were sacrificed from the time of Moses to the destruction 
of the second temple ; see ibid., pp. 416, 417. rovg xsxoivupswug, 
those defiled or made unclean) A participle [defiled on some par 
ticular occasion] : less strong than xvvovg, [habitually] common 
or defiled. Construe with dyidfyi, sanctifies; compare what fol 
lows. xaDaporyra, cleanness or purifying) Purifying was per 
formed by sprinkling, not by washing ; but washing followed by 
inseparable connection : Num. xix. 19. This fact is exceedingly 
useful for making a distinction between justification and renew- 
in o\ 


14. TO ///,) The blood, and death : see the following verses. 
bin Ylvsv/uarog aluviov, by the eternal Spirit) See Luke iv. 18 : 
and comp. Rom. i. 4, xv. 16. The Spirit is opposed to the con 
dition of irrational animals, ver. 13. The epithet eternal is un 
derstood from ver. 12, 15, ch. vii. 16, and is opposed to the heifer 

1 See App. The same as Litotes. The blood of bulls, etc., a less forci 
ble expression than is the meaning, viz. sucrif.*. ED. 

HEBREWS IX 15-17. 423 

reduced to ashes [ashes of a heifer~\. a^^ov, without spot) Supe 
rior as contrasted with every Levitical victim. xaQapis?, shall 
purge) It corresponds to xatfa^oYjjra, purifying , ver. 13. So ver. 
22, 23, ch. x. 23, i. 3. It is put in the future as an antithesis 
to the present, a^/a^g/, sanctifies , Levitically, ver. 13. d^b) dirb, 
ej$, from, to, denote things contrary. vexpuv spyuv, from dead 
works) Things dead most of all defile. The antithesis is wvr/, 
living. The power of sin and death was abolished by the 
blood of Christ. g/ g rb Xarpsvetv, to serve) for ever, in a manner 
most blessed and truly sacerdotal, [ver. 12 ; Rev. xxii. 3. 

15. AiaQjtKqs xa/i/ijc, of the new testament) Here the testa 
ment is rather urged, than the newness of the testament : comp. 
ver. 16. Qavdrov yevoftsvov, by means of death that took place) that 
is, at the time when the death had taken place. The moment 
of this (His) death properly divides the Old Testament from the 
New. g/ dtfo h.vTpuffiv ruv ZKI -y -TrpwrTj diuQrjXV) I 7rapa(3dffsuv, for the 
redemption of the transgressions, that were under the first testament) 
There is a passage of Paul very like this in Rom. iii. 24, 25. 
The preposition J-r/, under, not merely denotes the time, but in 
timates that the first testament had no power of redemption, and 
that the people of old were more on account of it transgressors. 
A<7ro\vrputfi$, the compound, occurs here : Mrpuas, the simple 
word, occurs, ver. 12. Icra/ysX/av, the promise) given to Abraham. 
XdfSuffiv, might receive) for formerly they could not. ol xwtK^vo/) 
those called, named heirs (ch. iii. 1). xXypovofAiag, of the inherit 
ance) An apposite appellation ; for there is an allegory : testa 
ment, death, inheritance. 

16. AiaQfavi) testament. This is the peculiar force of the 
Greek word, as compared with (above, prae) the Hebrew Wft. 
The article r\ omitted agrees with the general sentiment ex 
pressed, as in Gal. iii. 15. p epeffQai) be shown, or made good, ful 
filled (prasstari). The Greek words, tpspsadai, vrpoffpept&fau, ver. 14, 

allude to each other. roO fl/a&^gvou, of the testator) Christ is the 
testator in respect of us. This agrees with the words of the 
Lord before His death ; Luke xxii. 29. 

17. ET/ vz /.po?c, over [super] the dead) briefly expressed, instead 
of this expression, over or upon the death of the testators. So 
LXX. Lev. xxi. 5, lirl vsxpti, over the dead [upon the death of a 

421 HEBREWS IX. 18, 19. 

relative]. fj,q<rore) Tins particle plainly implies an interrogation; 1 
moreover, ecre/, with an interrogation, has great force, Eom. iii. 
6 ; 1 Cor. xiv. 16, xv. 29. See Not. ad Chrys. de Sacerd., 
p. 424. 

18. "Ot)e\>, whence) The two words mil and had fay differ; but 
yet they signify the same thing, in so far as both denote an 
agreement or an arrangement of that sort, which is ratified by 
blood. Where the agreement is ratified by the blood of another, 
viz. of animals, which cannot make a covenant, much less testify 
or make a testament, it is not properly baQfafy a testament ; but 
yet JV"a, a covenant, is not very much different from the char 
acter (nature) of a testament, on account of the victims slain. 
Where the arrangement is ratified by the blood of him that makes 
the arrangement, i.e. by his death, it is properly diaQfavi, testa 
ment, which is also expressed by the Hebrew word JTHS, having 
(taken in) a wider signification. The particle ofav, whence, ought 
not to be pressed too far, as if the Old Testament were also con 
secrated by the blood or death of the testator : but still it has its 
own proper force, in so far as it is intimated, that the New Tes 
tament, and therefore also the Old, needed to be dedicated 
with blood. syxtKaivitfTai, was dedicated or initiated) So the 
LXX. express the Hebrew word "pn. On the very day of initia 
tion or dedication, the Old Testament most properly began, and 
it continued till the night and day when the Lord was betrayed 
and died. 

19. AaXjjdg/tfjjs, having been recited or spoken) Ex. xxiv. 16, 
etc. irdffyg evToXyg Kara vo^ov, every precept according to the 
law) Moses had recited or read those commandments which 
occur in Ex. xx., and perhaps also those which occur in the 
following chapters. And the brief indication of the written 
book was tantamount to a recapitulation of all that was recited. 
ruv [MG-yjuv xai rpdyuv, of calves and goats) In Ex. xxiv. 5 they 
are expressly called ^off^dpta, little calves : the word oXoxauro;- 

in that passage implies the rpdyovs, spoken of here. ;^rd 
g xai spiou xoxxfoov nai VGGUI^O-J, with water and scarlet wool 
and hyssop) These are not found in the passage quoted, but are 
taken for granted as already well known from other passages in 
the writings of Moses, Lev. xiv. 5, 6. The scarlet wool corre- 
1 So Lachm. rightly has an Interrogation marked at o hiaQk^wog ; ED. 

HEBREWS IX. 10. 425 

spends to the Hebrew njinn w. The LXX. translate njin xox- 
x/voi>, W xXuarbv dmXovv, double spun (twined), from its form : the 
apostle terms it from its material (wool) ; scarlet colour, viz. as 
being like blood. ftiftXiov) Many, and the Latins too from the 
Vulgate, construe this word with sppdvnffs, he sprinkled; but it 
should evidently be construed with XafSuv, having taken, as Ex. 
xxiv. 7, xa/ Xa[3uv rb /3//3x/ov r^g &a$?jxj, and having taken the book 
of the covenant. There is an elegance in the conjunction, rb aTpa 
avro n rb /3//3x/ov, as appears by comparing those words, rovro rb 
///, rr,g diad?r/,riz ; that in this ceremony the blood may be shown 
by itself; the testament, by the showing of the book ; and that 
gyxawc^oc, the dedication, may be perfected by that double exhi 
bition (showing) : avrb, itself, is added, because the testament 
described in the book, was of more importance than that blood. 
Tg does not always refer to the following xa/, ver. 1 ; John ii. 15, 
where the n connects the discourse rather with what goes before, 
than with what follows : also the sheep and the oxen : comp. 
moreover Acts xxvi. 1 1 ; wherefore it is not necessary here to 
construe avro ri rb /3/jSX/on Kai tfdvra rbv Xabv sppdvnffe. The other 
things which are here mentioned by the apostle, and yet are not 
found in the 24th chap, of Exod., may be derived from other 
passages ; but respecting the sprinkling of the book, which not 
withstanding, if true, would constitute a very large portion of 
that ceremony, we find nothing in all the books of Moses. 
Furthermore, if the book had been sprinkled, and if the apostle 
had spoken of that sprinkling, he would have joined it, not with 
the sprinkling of the people, but with the sprinkling of the taber 
nacle and the vessels, and therefore of the altar ; comp. Van 
Hoeke, p. 190. See, however, Jun. 1. 1209, 1. 54. But indeed it 
was not befitting that the book itself should be even sprinkled, for 
the, book, containing the word of GOD, represented there GOD Him 
self, as Flacius in Gloss, says; where, however, he is of opinion that 
the book was also sprinkled. No doubt the tabernacle along with 
the vessels [the tabernacle being at that very time adapted to the 
altar, Ex. xxiv. 6-8, xxv. 8. V. g.] needed purification, ver. 21; 
Lev. xvi. 16, 19, 20, 33; 2 Chron. xxix. 21 ; but the book, or 
the word of GOD, did not need it. And since these things are 
so, yet x/ before ndvra is not only no disadvantage, but has much 
elegance. For the sentence is copulative : KAI Trdvra r 

426 HEBREWS IX. 20-24. 

s, " Moses sprinkled all the people," on the one side ; KAI 
ds sppdvnffsv (ver. 21), "and the tabernacle indeed 
he the same sprinkled," on the other. The Latins say, et, et 
vero, both, and indeed, or, non modo, verum etiam, not only, but 
also. So OUTS %a/ o-j, Rev. ix. 20, 21. cravrot T(J\I Xaov sppdvTitfs) 
LXX., xareffx edace rot XaoD, in the place quoted above. But else 
where they often put faivu, pavr/^u, X.T.A. 

20. ToDro TO a//xa Ttjg faadqxqg, r,c, svzreiXaro irphs v/uag o tbg) 
LXX., Jdoij TO a////a TY^C, djaQriKwc, r\c, di sdsTo Kvpiog e irpk$ u///a <7rzpi TTOLV- 
TUV TC!JV Xoyuv rovTuv. evsTsiXctro Kpoz u^ag) commanded me to bring 
to you. 

21. Ta tixsvT}, the vessels) also the garments. sppavricte) LXX., 
TO y/Aiffv TO\J a ifiaroc, vpoGt^ze vpb$ TO duffiaffrypiov. 

22. s^gSoi/, almost) [with blood for the most part]. The force 
of this restrictive particle does not fall upon Tavrcc, all things ; 
for it admits of no exception : but upon the next word, with 
blood ; because other material things besides the blood were also 
used, ver. 19. %wp/g aif&aTSK%vfffag, o-j yivsrai aptffi;, tJtere is no 
remission, without shedding of blood) This axiom is found in so 
many words in Tr. Talmudico Joma. See especially Lev. xvii. 
11. apsfftg, remission) Levitical. 

23. Olv, therefore) The particle intimates that the execution 
of those things which were mentioned at ver. 18 is compre 
hended in this passage. xpsirroci Qufftaig, with better victims or 
sacrifices) The plural, corresponding to the Levitical plural, 
is used for the singular, on account of the excellence of the one 
sacrifice of Christ, which was perfect in all its parts. If a Jew 
asks, What are your sacrifices ? We answer : Our sacrifices con 
sist in the one matchless sacrifice of Him who was crucified. 
In this Apodosis, the word xa0ap/g<r0a/, to be purified, which is to 
be supplied, makes a Hypallage ;* for the heavenly things are pure 
in themselves, but we needed to be purified in order that we 
might enjoy them, ver. 14. So a^/a^ra/, is sanctified, 1 Tim. 
iv. 5, 4, i.e. the use is rendered holy in respect of us. Comp. 
Lev. xvi. 16, 19; Num. xviii. 1. 

24. O-j, not) Jesus never went into the inmost recesses of the 

1 See Append. A change, whereby a thing is attributed to one subject 
which ought to be attributed to another. Here purification is attributed to 
the heavenly things, which really applies to ourselves. ED. 


temple at Jerusalem ; never caused a sacrifice to be offered for 
Himself, during the whole period that elapsed between His bap 
tism and the offering up of Himself. dvriru-Tra r&v at.rrftvuv, the 
figures of the true) The true were the more ancient : those made 
with hands were imitations of them ; viii. 5. els avrw rev ovpavbv 9 
into heaven itself) and there is nothing beyond it. vw, noiv) So 
ver. 26. e/tpaw#7v*/, to present Himself] to appear) An appro 
priate word in respect to GOD : in respect to us, irspavepurat, 
He hath been manifested, ver. 26, and 6p0j<rera/, He shall be seen, 
ver. 28 [The Engl. Yers. loses the distinction, translating all 
alike, appear^. r& vpoffw-Trijj ro\J sou, before the face [in the 
presence] of God) More than Aaron in the tabernacle before 
the ark. 

25. Oufl ha) He did not enter for this purpose, viz. that. 

26. E-TS/ sdeiy for then it would have been necessary) Here it 
is taken for granted that Christ suffered for the sins committed 
from the beginning of the world : ver. 15. Christ in the be 
ginning already was He who is according to the divine na 
ture. 1 Philo shows that the high priest of the Hebrews offered 
sacrifices for the whole human race, de mon., p. 637. irafan, 
that He should often have suffered) Therefore the offering is not 
(there can be no oblation) without suffering. a-raj, once) This 
once is absolute, being shadowed forth in the once, relative, 
which was Levitical : ver. 7. tnl ffuvrsXeiq,, at the consummation) 
when sin had reached its height ; coinp. note to John i. 10. 
ruv a/ ouvcov, of ages) The beginning of these ages is not to be 
computed from the time of Moses, but from the foundation of 
the world : comp. ch. i. 2, note : and therefore the consummation 
here is not the end of the Old Testament, but of the world. 
*H euvrtXsia rou atuvoz, is the very consummation of the world or 
age (seculi), a phrase which we often find in Matthew : r t twreXeia 
ruv a/uvuv in this passage includes times nearer our own, as being 
in the plural number. The sacrifice of Christ divides the age 
of the world into two portions, of which the first is certainly 
not shorter than the second. apaprias, of sin) The singular, 

1 Beng. seems to mean, that Christ from the very beginning sustained His 
character as the WORD OF GOD, John i. 1 a title implying His divine 
nature, at the same time implying also His coming into the world, as sent 
by the Father, to be its Saviour. ED. 

428 HEBREWS IX. 27, 28. 

with great force. 1 vspav spurai, has been manifested) in the 

27. Ka$ Sffov, inasmuch as) This expression has the force of com 
parison, and of giving intensity to the Apodosis. acroxs/ra/, it is 
appointed, it is reserved) by Divine sanction. VaJ, once) The 
once in the following verse is to be referred to this. a^odavsn, 
to die) The verb for the noun ; death and its condition. ^tra bs 
roDro, and after this) Death and judgment are immediately con 
joined, because the intermediate state of man is uniform. 2 
xpiMs, judgment) at the time when Christ shall be seen (appear) ; 
and comp. with this the same ver. (28), and also Matt. vii. 22, 

28. OVTU, so) i.e. Christ hath delivered us from death and 
judgment, notwithstanding that, as death, so also judgment 
remains, as far as the name is concerned. ^rpoffsvs^&eis sis rb 
aveveyxsTv, having been offered to bear) There is a difference be 
tween the words ; comp. 1, Pet. ii. 24, rd; a/j^apTiac avrivsyKtv, 
He bore our sins : Our sins were laid on Him by the Father : 
while therefore He was lifted up on the cross, He bore (took) 
up our sins along with Him. The LXX. use the same expres 
sion, Num. xiv. 33, avofaovai rqv Kopvtiav vfAuv, they shall bear your 
whoredoms. In other places they are put indiscriminately : 
ch. vii. 27. ToXAwv, of many) A pleasant antithesis : once ; of 
many, who lived during so many ages. Isa. liii. 12, in the LXX. 
version, xa/ avrog a/^apria^ croX/vwv avjjvs^xg, and fie bore the sins 
(sin, Heb.) of many. Tims the absolute power of the one 
sacrifice of Christ is very clearly evinced. The word again, 
John xiv. 3, accords with a second time, here. Both places treat 
of His coining, regarded as to itself (secundum se). But His 
coming, for the first time in the flesh, was in the strange form 
of a servant : His second coming is in His own glory. In the 
eyes of all, who had not formerly seen, [not only so] but had 

1 All the sins of all men of every age are regarded as one mass laid on 
Christ. /Sin is here put in the abstract, to express that He destroyed sin 
itself, as well as atoned for actual sins. ED. 

2 Beng, probably does not mean to deny a difference in the intermediate 
state of bad and good : see Gnomon on Luke xvi. 23 : but only that the 
term oi^y; is applied to all alike in that state. The definite separation to 
heaven and hell (Gehenna) is not till after the judgment. ED. 

HEBREWS X. 13. 429 

not either acknowledged Him, He is at that time Coming (6 
spysopsvoc, The Comer). Let us suppose the arrival of a guest, the 
intimate friend of the father of the family, but unknown to the 
family. The father of the family will think, A brother RETURNS ; 
whereas in the family it will be said, A guest is COMING. 
6p07j<rwa/, He will be seen) in His glory. dTsjtds^o^si/o/g, to them 
that look for Him) The dative of advantage. The unrighteous 
also will see Him, but not for salvation. To them that look for 
Him, He will be the Saviour, Phil. iii. 20. sis aurripiav, unto 
salvation) and therefore to set us free from condemnation. 


1. 2%iav, shadow) The antithesis is etxova, image. avrqv rqv 

the very image) the archetype, the original and solid 
image, ch. ix. 24, note. The shadow, 1 although it was the pre 
lude of future events, did not however precede, as in a picture, 
but followed a little after. See by all means ch. viii. 5. y.ur 
eviavrbv, yearly) This refers to the whole sentence to the end of 
the verse. ra? aira/, with the same) the same, not in the num 
ber, but in the kind of sacrifices. as irpo0<p epov<riv s/g rb di^vs^g, 
which they offer continually) offer, viz. those who offer, who draw 
near and perform the service. They offer for ever ; that is, they 
do not cease to offer, nor will they cease, unless they be com 
pelled. oudswore dvvarai, never can) So. ver. 11. 

2. Eve}) So, altogether, ITS/, with an interrogation, in ch. 
ix. 17, note. 

3. Ev aura/;, in those) sacrifices. di/d/^tr/s, a remembrance) 
public ; comp. ver. 17. a^apriuv, of sins) viz. those of the last 
year, and of all years. The day of expiation was not on that 
day on which Christ was crucified, but on the tenth day of 
Tisri, of which see Ord. Temp., p. 22. The forgetting [the "re 
membering no more"] of sins is opposed to this admonitory re- 

1 Used here of the first outline or sketch drawn, preparatory to a paint 
ing. ED. 

430 HKBREWS X. 4, 5. 

membrance : ver. 17. xar s\navrbv, yearly) An Epanalepsis ; T 
comp. ver. 1. He is speaking chiefly of the solemn yearly 

4. Apa/pg/i>, to take away) Ktpirt.tTv, 2 to remove entirely; ver. 
11. In the writings of Moses, great effects are ascribed to these 
elementary ordinances of worship, in o