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3 2044 106 468 549 






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J. B. KILLEBREW, A. M., Ph.D., 
Oommiationer of Affrioulfure, Statiatios and Mine*. 



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Xnlored •eoaidiiig to A«t of GoagreM by J. B. KOMfmw, ComniiipiaDtt, fa Qnb offlee of 
ttitt libnrlan oi Obttgreii, WMhlagton, D. a 

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In the preparation of this woi^ all available Bources of information 
to be bad in Europe or America have been consulted. Free use has 
been made of the standard works of Gray, Flint, €k)uld and Howard, 
and also of the reports of the Agricultural Department at Washington, 
as well as the numerous State reports. The admirable works of Prof. 
S. W. Johnson, of Yale College, have supplied me with valuable in- 
formation. I have had access to the various publications of Baron 
liebi^ the pioneer in agricultural science, and have also derived much 
aid from the p^nstaking researches of Wolff and Enop, of Germany; 
of Johnson, Way, Sinclair, Mechi, Voelcker, Lawes and Gilbert, of 
England, and from the reports of the Highland Society of Scotland. 
The little work of Edmund Murphy, of Ireland, has been suggestive. 
I have relied mainly, however, upon the experience, observation and 
snccess of the best fanners of our own State. Keference is made 
flsewhere to the great assistance received from Dr. W. M. Clarke, Dr. 
Gattinger and Prof. Hunter Nicholson. The work is the result of much 
labor, and I indulge the hope that it may be instrumental in directing 
the minds of our farmers to the importance of the grasses in the solu- 
lotion of the problem of agricultural thrift and proeperity. 

It is due to Mrs. Clare Snivel}, of Nashville, to say that the cuts 
which appear in the work were executed by her, many of them from 
original drawings. 

Several verbal errors escaped the proof reader, many of which were 
detected and corrected before the full edition of the book was worked 
off. On page 14, fifteenth line from the top, there is an error in the 
statement made. There are in fact about eighty species of sedges and 
rushes found growing in the State, very few of which are eaten by 
cattle. The " broomsedge,** so called, is not a sedge, but a true grass, 
belonging to the genus andropogoriy and forina the chief summer graz- 
ing of the Camberland Mountains. It should be called broom grass. 

July 27, 1878. 

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To His JEbsceUency, Oovemor James D, Porter : 

Herewith is sabmitted a treatise on the Grasses and Forage plants of 
Tennessee. The geographical position of Tennessee eminently fits it to be- 
come a great grain and stock-growing State. In 1840, Tennessee was the 
largest corn-producing State in the Union. Difficolt and tedious trans- 
portation made it necessary to feed this com at home, and so in 1850, it 
took the foremost rank in the production of hogs. The Northwest, with 
its yirgin soil, was able to supply meat and bread cheaper than Tennessee, 
and it became necessary for her people to turn their attention in another 
direction. The demand for mules by the cotton-growing States opened z. 
new avenue to agricultural industry, so that in I860, she became the largest 
mule-producing State in the Union. 

The shock given to all her industries by the war, and especially to her 
agricultural interests, by the destruction of her labor system, so disabled 
her that she bore off no prize in the census returns of 1870. The destruc- 
tion of her labor system, however, has tended to direct the minds of her 
farmers to a system of agriculture in which less labor will be required. 
The sowing of more grass, and the raising of beef-cattle and improved 
hogs and sheep, will probably show the direction of her growth in the 
future. The estimates by the Agricultural Department at Washington 
»how a gradual increase in the acreage of land devoted to hay, as indi- 
cated by the following table : 

The amount, acreage and value of hay produced in Tennessee each year, 
lince 1870, are as follows : 








The United States census shows the production of hay in Tennessee : 

1850 74,091 tons 

1860....„ 143,499 " 

18T0 / 116,682 «* 

The total production of hay in the United States for 1870, was 27,316 - 
MS torn, or about 1,400 Ibsi per head for each inhaMt int, while io TeniMs 

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■ee there were not quite 200 pounds per head, ehowing th&tf per capiicty the 
people of Tennessee produced onlj one-seyenth as much hay as the aver- 
erage production of the people throughout the United States. 

This is to he regretted, for the world orer, agricultural prosperitj 
may be measured bj the amount of land det in permanent meadows and 

Believing that the tendency of the farmers of our State is to decrease 
the aniount of land devoted to cultivated crops, and to increase the acre- 
age in grass, I have felt that some practical treatise on the management 
of the grasses would have a great tendency to stimulate the movement in 
this direction. To meet this want, this work was prepared. In its prepa- 
ration I have had the aid of Prof. Nicliolson, of the Ea«Jt Tennessee Uni- 
versity ; of Dr. Qattinger, of Nashville, one of the most accomplished 
botanists in the South, who has devoted the leisure of many years to the 
study of the flora of Tennessee ; and of Dr. W. M. Clarke, who ha? kindly 
assisted me in preparing the work for the press. The substantial and 
ready assistance which these gentlemen have rendered, fully entitles them 
to share with me in the authorship of the work. I am also indebted to 
many other gentlemen in various parts of the State, whose contributions 
will be found scattered throughout the work. 

I trust you will p.irdon me, Governor, for adding, that to no one am I 
more indebted than to yourself. In discharging the long line of duties de- 
Tolving upon me by my office, I have been constantly sustained by your 
gentle encouragement and assisted by your judicious advice. I am sure 
I utter a truth when I say that no one now takes, or heretofore has ever 
taken, a deeper or more lively interest in the agricultural prosperity, men- 
tal progress and mineral development of the State than yourself. 
I have the honor to be, 

Your obedient servant, 


March 12, 1878. 

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In this part, besides giving a general statement as to the importance of 
grasses in a national point of view, and setting forth the best method of 
preparing, sowing and treating meadows and pastures, a good deal of 
tcientific matter has been introduced. This has been done becaust 
there is epringing up all over the State a class of young farmers who, 
recognizing the value of scientific acquirements in connection with 
practical skill, earnestly desire to increase their knowledge in scientific 
agricolture. Just science enough has been incorporated to arouse tht 
ambition of this class to excel in their vocation and to become familiar 
with the scientific terms, without some knowledge of which it is im- 
possible to make any permanent progress. The description of the 
grasses is impossible without employing some technical terms, and the8« 
terms should be familiar to the ambitious farmer. 

A*table has also been prepared by which any one of studious habits 
and an enquiring mind may soon learn to t ame the grasses with which 
he is brought into daily contact. 

The strictly scientific chapters have been designated by a star, so that 
the practical farmer who desires only practical information may pasa 
OTer them. In the other parts of the work the technical or scientific 
descriptions will be put ifi small tyi>e. 

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The value of grass in agriculture is aptly stated in the 
old English proverb: 

* **No grass no cattle, 

No cattle no manure, 
No manure no flcrass.*' 

Each line embodies a truth, and the three form an epi- 
tome of successful farming. No surer test of the degree of 
agricultural advancement of a country can be found than 
the relative acreage of land laid down to grass and devoted 
to tillage. Wherever the grass is most abundant there is 
the highest farming. This statement is most strikingly es- 
tablished by comparing the agricultural systems of France 
and England. In France 53 per cent, of the tillable land 
is annually sown in some kind of grain, while in England 
the grain-bearing per cent, of land is only 25. On the 
other hand, while France has but 22 per cent, in grass, 
England has 50. Notwithstanding this difference in the 
amount of land devoted to grain, the yield of wheat to each 
inhabitant is almost identical in the two countries. E^ery 
acre of grain land in England receives, on an average, the 
manure from the animals fed off three acres of gras^ In 
France, on the contrary, the manure made from each acre 
of grass has to be spread over 2 J acres of grain. In other 
words, each acre of grain in England gets nine loads of 
manure to one load given to the acre in France. 

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A fiuiber oomparison would show that the acknowledged 
saperioiity of English cattle^ sheep and other domestif 
animals^ over those of Franoe^ or any other coontrj for 
that matter^ is due more to the superiority in quality and 
quantity of the meadows and pastures of that wonderful 
island than to anything else. If we turn our attention to 
other countries we shall find that the amount and character 
of grasses grown may always be tpken as a measure of th^ 
deigree of advancement to which their agriculture has 
reached. It must be borne in mind that this statement holds 
good only of the cultivated grasses, but of these it is perhaps 
universally true. 

Under this test the agricultural system of Tennessee falls 
very low. It is a notable fact, often observed and com- 
mented upon, that the great leading, dominating error in 
the £Eirming of Tennessee has been, and is, the putting 
too much land in com and oats, and too little in grass. 
Under this system a very large breadth of the land has been 
well-nigh ruined. Indeed the damage is so serious that 
some change has come to be absolutely necessary. Judging 
from the experience of other countries, the one and only 
thing capable of redeeming this almost ruined land and 
saving the farmers from absolute bankruptcy, is grass. 

Fortunately, the climate, soil and geographical locality 
of Tennessee all combine to render it by nature a grass 
r^ion. In all the essentials to success in this great branch of 
agriculture, but few sections of the United States surpass 
East and Middle Tennessee, while the northern part of 
West Tennessee is well suited to many grasses. It is not 
unreasonable to anticipate at no distant day, under an im- 
proved system of farming, these natural capabilities will be 
thoroughly and judiciously developed, and where now 
are only vast wastes and forest wilds, trackless and unculti- 
vated, rich pastures will bloom and countless cattle roam. 
But no such result can come without a radical change in 

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the farming system; and the furmers themselves must make 
the change. 

^ Providence helps those who help themselves/' 

So, also: 

" Providence neglects those who neglect themselves." 

It is not to be expected that this most desirable change 
will be made in one year, or in any small number of years ; 
it is not even assumed that the change could be made in a 
short time. All that can be reasonably hoped for is that 
some of the more enterprising farmers may take the 
initiative and make a beginning. By examining the list of 
grasses given elsewhere, it will be seen that Tennessee bears 
an abundant harvest, and that a large selection is offered 
the farmer. But it will not be in attempting experiments, 
in new or untried grasses that such enterprising farmers 
will find their interest. For years to come it will bn wise 
and prudent for the great majority of farmers to confine 
themselves to the improved grasses. Fortunately among 
the grasses that haVe been tested are kinds adapted to each, 
even of the widely various soils of Tennessee. 

From the circumstance of the peculiar position of Ten- 
nessee as a border State to the cotton belt, she has lost much 
time in agricultural progress. The large returns of the cot- 
ton planters South, and the wonderful ease with which they 
achieved great wealth, induced those living near to attempt 
the same role that succeded so well further south. 

With how much success this plan met, can be seen in th« 
dilapidated farms, the huge gullies yawning with their ugly 
yellow faces on every hill -slope. This condition of our 
State is the more reprehensible when, by our side, are seen 
the lovely meadows and the sloping, grassy hill-sides of 
Kentucky, with the inevitable accompaniment of fat cattle 
and browsing sheep. 

Tennessee possesses in her bosom all the elements of a 
grazing counti^. Scarcely a foot of land exists in all her 
borders that will not in an eminent degree meet the ^ants 

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of some one or other of the gramineas. Living streams of 
water, fed by perennial springs, as sweet as those of Cas- 
talia, hasten down the mountain slopes and lazily meander 
through the beautiful valleys. Being midway between the 
lakes and the gulf, we live just where the warm, moist 
southern winds encounter the condensing blasts of the 
north, so that we are rarely the sufferers from droughts. 
In feet nature intended this State as a grassing region, while 
man in his thirst for riches has made it what it is. But 
circumstances are driving us with an irresistable impulse 
into our proper channel. Blessings on even a large scale 
are seldom recognized when given, but the roll of years will 
soon make them visible to all. Had our slaves continued 
with us, we should probably not have assumed our proper 
sphere for many decades to come. But, at last, we find 
ourselves with a large breadth of land that, though greatly 
worn, is still full of fertility, and without due labor to 
cultivate it in the old style. What is more, the only way 
in which these lands can be restored to their pristine condi- 
tion is the very way to redound to the permanent wealth 
of the State. This is by removing Tennesssee from her 
geographical position. Not changing her longitude or 
altering her latitude, but by simply converting her from a 
fourthrrate cotton State into a first-class grazing country. 

Grass is wealth. As lowly and humble as it appears, it 
oomprises about one-sixth of all the vegetation of the 
world. It nourishes more animals than all other food 
combined, and furnishes all the elements for the growth of 

It is true man cannot, like Nebuchadnezzer, feed as a 
beast of the field, but he can and does appropriate this food 
after it has been assimilated to his requirements by the 
ruminants. Not only this, but through its wonderful 
diemieal and vital properties it extracts from the great 
laboratory of nature — the atmosphere — certain gases and 
fluids hostile to man's respiratory organs, thus purifying 

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the air for his use, and deposits these elements in the soi^ 
thereby enriching the earth. Hence the adage with which 
we set out^ ^^no grass no cattle, no cattle no manure, no 
manure no grass/^ 

This explains it all. Grass enriches the land and fattens 
cattle, cattle feeds man and makes manure, manure enlivens 
the soil and makes crops. There is an eternal revolution 
in this. Nothing is lost in this circle. Nature repeats her« 
her great law of the indestructibility of matter. 

But all soils are not good producers of any one kind of 

Nature, in her benificence, has provided for this, for be- 
sides the legumens that are classed as artificials, we have 
about one hundred and thirty different varieties of the true 
grasses, including cereals. Thus the marsh and the sandy^ 
thirsty hill-sides, the loamy valleys and the rock-ribbed 
mountains, the shrubby barrens and the alluvial bottoms, 
are all alike provided with a congenial growth. The love 
of the pastoral has ever existed since man took possession of 
this rich heritage. It has ever held a first place in the songs 
and poetry of the world. While the grand epics of Homer 
have stirred the hearts of the warlike, and made them clash 
the spear against the sounding shield, the gentle idyls of 
Virgil have recalled man to the sweets of domestic hap- 
piness. The piping reed of the peaceful shepherd has no 
less charm for humanity than the spirit-stirring drum and 
fife, or the joyous vibrations of the passionate violin. Art 
has also emulated poesy in portraying its lovelinesa, 
and the landscape is never perfect on the canvass, unless 
gamboling lambs or grazing herds occupy some prominent 
place in the picture. A traveler passing through such a 
scene has his eye constantly delighted with the ever change 
ing panorama. The hay wagon, with its fragrant loads, 
passing to the teeming barns ; the beautiful hill-sides, car- 
peted with its cloth of green; the grain field, with its bil- 
lowy waves, swayed back and forth by the gentlest kisses of 

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tfae breeze^ while the tall plumes of the maize keep watch 
and ward over the plains, all contribute to the joy and hap- 
piDess around. 

Fat cattle and bunchy sheep fitly adorn the deep green 
of the meadows, and is one of the highest evidences of a 
high civilization. 

There are many kinds of grasses, and they seem to be so 
fiu- apart in appearance, habits, etc., that they would 
scarcely be considered as being allied; yet the necessary 
dassification, depending upon the flowers, leaves, stems and 
roots botanically connects them. 

They are divided into two general classes, natural and 
artificial. The former includes those grasses with long, 
simple, narrow leaves, with a prominent mid-rib or vein in 
the center, and smaller ones running parallel to it, and at 
the base, the leaf divides and clasps the stem in such a way 
that the stem seems to pass through it. As a rule the stem 
ia hollow and closed at the joints, though a few are solid 
stemmed. The classification of grasses would be impossible 
were their general appearance only considered. So great 
are the changes, produced by modes of culture, by soil and 
climate, botanists, to arrive at the precise plant, therefore, 
have adopted characteristics that undergo no change, such 
as flowers, etc. From the rule of botanists in giving all 
plants technical names, it would be a difficult matter to 
recognize an old familiar friend under the new guise of a 
generic term, but we will endeavor, by giving also the 
name in common use, to remove this difficulty and bring 
them within the comprehension of any one who will take 
pains to properly read the descriptions. 

Artificial grass includes all leguminous plants, such as 
clover, peas, beans, etc., while cereals, such as maize, 
wheat, oats, barley, rye, rice, sorghum, dhouro, chocolate, 
com and broom-corn, though really true grasses, are gen- 
erally classed with the artificials. 

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In the limits of this work it would be impossible to give 
a full disoription of all known graminese^ so those will be 
considered only that are indigenous or acclimated to the 
soils of Tennessee, and especial attention will be given to 
the proper application of the grasses as adapted to the 
differing soils of the State. For our botanic descriptions 
we will, for sufficient reasons, follow those laid down by 
Dr. Gray in his standard work on botany. 

But it is not our intention to. describe them under the 
scientific arrangement adopted by all writers on the subject 
into orders, genera and species, for this book is not intended 
as a purely scientific work, but rather as a practical hand- 
book for farmers. Hence, although the botanical names 
will in each species be given, they will be treated under a 
practical head. Therefore, all grasses will be classified as : 

IsL Meadow, or hay grasses. 

2nd, Pasture, or grazing grasses, 

3rd. Wild, or grasses of no known agricultural value. 

4th, Cereals, 

The term wild is not to be taken in a literal sense, for 
many of them will grow on spots too rocky, sandy or barren 
to produce other kinds, and they serve a useful purpose in 
many ways- Sheep and goats will eat many of the wild 
grasses rejected by horses or cattle, and all furnish seeds to 
feed the feathered denizens of the air ; besides, thejf assist in 
pulverizing the soil, disintegrating rocks, promoting mois- 
ture, beautifying the earth with a carpet of living green 
and in their death leave a rich legacy of fertility to the 

There is an innate love of the beautiful in man, and 
many who turn in disgust from the most fragrant exotics 
will contemplate with great satisfaction the little spot of 
verdure at their door-stoop. 

These grasses perform important functions in nature ; 
extracting saline matters from the rocks, nitrogen and car- 
bon from the soil, ammonia, oxygen and hydrogen from th« 

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moisture, and by their vital forces, they assiiiiilate these 
elements into the necessary nutriment for man^s use. 

As has been already stated, one-sixth of the vegetation 
of the world is composed of grasses. There are not less 
than 3,000 distinct species known to botanists, and in the 
following pages we have a list of 130 for Tennessee, in- 
cluding the cereals. A botanist of eminence took up a 
square foot of sward in a rich pasture, and was able to iden- 
tify on that one square foot, 1,000 plants, composed of 20 
distinct species. 

Nor are grasses confined to any particular part of 
Ae earth. They thrust their tiny leaves out of the 
8D0WS of the arctic regions, and rear their majestic heads, 
io the form of canes, in the jungles of the tropics, rivalling 
in height the forests around. They push their green tufts 
from the crevices of the tallest Alps, tempting the chamois 
to marvellous leaps, and on the sandy, arid deserts of Ara* 
bia they quicken the pace of the camel of the caravan. No 
marsh so brackish but has its fringe of luxuriant grass, no 
spot so bleak but has its cloak of verdure. Nor are they 
confined entirely to the surface of the earth, for who has 
not admired the beautiful winter bouquets filling the vase 
with feathery loveliness, or the tussocks of the gardener 
adorning the pit or the green-house ? 

To one acquainted with the subject, the facility with 
which grass scatters and diffuses itself is very surpris- 
ing. But it seems that so important a vegetation should 
notf be subject to the fancies or caprices of man. Therefore, 
the seeds are prepared in such a way, that they are self- 
sowers. It is this remarkable facility of transportation that 
has given rise to the surmise of many, that it grows by 
spontaneous generation. Some of the seeds have hooks, and 
by these they fasten to any passing animal and are carried for 
miles. Others lie undigested in the crops of birds, or maws 
of animals^ and are scattered with the dejectae. Snows 
gather them on the hill-sides and bear them far aw&y on the 

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melting torrents, and scatter them, mayhap, along some for- 
eign shore. The air also assists in this, and lifts them on its 
wings and they fly in all directions. When grass once stands, 
even if a passing beast cuts off its annual supply of seed, 
its rhizomes or creeping roots thrust their tender spongioles 
through the yielding soil, and thus, many a field is clothed 
with verdure. And besides, many of the grasses are peren- 
nials, and though torn and tramped by stock, they gather 
new strength for another year, and push on their foothold. 

There is a large class of so-called grasses, purposely 
omitted, from the fact they are but little known and of no 
agriculturyd value, with only one or two exceptions. These 
are the rushes and sedges. There are about 600 varieties 
of those plants growing in the United States, principally on 
the borders of salt marshes on the coast, but with the ex- 
ception of the broom-sedge Garex scopariaf the species are 
almost unknown in Tennessee. 

However, on the sea-coast, these plants form an important 
part in feeding the stock ; their stems when young and ten- 
der, are eaten by cattle, when nothing better presents itself. 
The rushes enter also, considerably into manu&ctures, the 
reeds being used for many purposes, such as chair bottoms, 
baskets and hats. Some farmers also annually cut these 
marsh grasses, and feed to stock during the long, seveve 
winter. It is commonly known as swale hay. 

Many of the large, coarse grasses that border our ponds 
and mat in our swamps, and are looked upon as sour grasses, 
belong to these species. They serve their purpose in elimi- 
nating the miasmatic gases that are continually being gen- 
erated in die ponds, from the atmosphere, thus protecting 
man from their deleterious influences. Besides, tfaey fringe 
with their green, wavy heads, these collections of water, 
giving a beuity to the otherwise repulsive swamps. 

Their roots are perennial, and witii but few exceptioite, 
oreeping. Hence the folly of assaying their destruction by 
digging them up. A tuft of broom^sedge may be easily 

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dug np, but its rhizomes, or creeping roots, are in the ground 
for yards abound, and a piece left an inch long, is sufficient 
to give it another start. The only way to destroy it is 
by cultivation and seeding to a more vigorous grass. Japan 
clover is said to have the quality of rooting out and destroy- 
ing broom-sedge effectually, but has not received sufficient 
trial to give it full credence. 

There is a simple method of separating the grasses from 
these rushes and sedges, which will be briefly stated. 

The sheath of sedges is a hollow tube, through which the 
items pass, and it cannot be removed without tearing it 
open. This is not the case with grass, as the sheath can be 
stripped down, it being open to the joint. Besides, the 
leaves of all grasses are two-ranked, that is, the stem has 
leaves on each side, some opposite, others alternate, but 
always only on two sides. The leaves of sedges are three- 
ranked, or come out on three sides of the circle of a stem. 
In other words, the stem forms a circle of 360 degrees. The 
grass leaves are 180 degrees from each other, and the sedge 
leaves are 120 d^rees apart. 

In the grass-like rush the flowers are divided into six 
points, within which are six stamens and a triangular ovary 
containing three seeds. A grass has never but one seed U> 
the ovary. 

The object of this work is not merely to talk of the many 
varieties of grasses and their wonderful beauty, but to add to 
die intrinsic value of the farming lands of the State. The 
ignorance of the di^erence between the many species of 
grasses is vast and general. It pervades all classes and oc- 
cnpations. The fiormer, himself, who depends so greatly on 
Ais provision of natut^, is not exempt from this want of 
knowledge. Ask him the name of a grass of unusual char- 
acter, and he MU refer you, probably, to a son or daughter 
who, he will tell you, has been studying botany. As for 
Mm, he htm no titne to fool ^th such stuff. And yet this 
want of knowledge has given a tfm foothold to some of the 

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greatest pests the fermer ever experienced. A gentleman 
in New Orleans, importing some exotics from Cuba, found 
a delicate sprig of grass in a pot, and thinking it might 
possibly be some rare plant, set it out in his garden, and 
thus was introduced the terrible scourge of the South, the 
Cocoa grass, and from this small start, it has spread and 
diffused itself over half the country. The same want of 
knowledge brought from Europe the seeds of the cheat, and 
it will ever remain as a curse to the wheat grower. Our 
lands are everywhere covered with grasses of various kinds, 
but few are the farmers who can tell the kinds most sought 
by stock in grazing. But a careful perusal of the following 
pages will disclose the fact, that, of the many varieties in- 
digenous to the State, but few have a sufficiently nutrient 
character to make them valuable or desirable. 

Farmers should be able to make- important discrimiua- 
tions, and when they find a fertile soil covered with noxious 
weeds or useless grasses, they ought to be able to eradicate 
them, and substitute such as will improve the value of the 
land and also add to its beauty. 

A case has been brought to my notice, in which the value 
of such knowledge proved quite profitable. A gentleman 
of Davidson county, some 26 or 30 years ago, owned a large 
and fertile tract of land. He became impressed with the 
value of blue-grass, and bought at one time fifty bushels of 
blue-grass seed, and scattered it over a woods lot containing 
75 or 80 acres of rich, black limestone land. That woods 
lot became the pride not only of the farm, but of the neigh- 
borhood. It proved a blessing, for many years, to his horses, 
cattle and sheep, and when, by the exigencies of the hard 
times, he was compelled to sell his land, it was divided into 
small tracts and put up to the highest bidder. That blue- 
grass lot was sought by all the bidders, and. at last was 
knocked down at more than double the price per acre of any 
of the other lots, though it was, aside from the grass, of no 
more value than the remainder. 

Digitized by 



Thns^ if we wish to make our &rms not only a beauty 
and a pleasure, but also to make them profitable, we ought 
to sow them down with good grasses. Look over the list, 
examine the land desired to be sown, and select the one most 
suitable to its requirements. There is no fear but what one 
can be found. If it is such as will not grow blue-grass, 
there is the fescue, or vernal, or clover, or timothy, or herds 
grass, and many others equally good. We have them for 
limestone or sandstone soils, for rocky or gravelly, for up- 
lands or lowlands. Let no one be afraid to try, if one kind 
fails, through any mistake, try another. If the frosts or 
sanshine destroy the first stand, sow for another. The seeds 
are, or should be, but a small obstacle to the general results. 
If one should ever want to sell, it will be less di£Scult to 
make the sale, and at a higher figure. Should a fiurmer 
never wish to sell, it will repay him an hundred fold with 
its cheering aspect, with fat cattle,, fat sheep and sleek 

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Cotton has been for so many generations recognized as 
the king of all agricultural products, that the people of 
Tennessee were long disposed to accept his prerogative 
without questioning, but when the subject is fully investi- 
gated, grass takes precedence. The cotton crop of the Uni- 
ted States ae a general thing reaches about 4,000,000 bags, 
worth about on an average $250,000,000, while the aggre- 
gate of the hay receipts annually reach the enormous sum 
of $300,000,000, and the value of pasture will fully equal 
this amount, though its results are not so immediately 
apparent, as its sales are combined with those of cattle, 
sheep and hogs. Before the war, the lands of Tennessee 
had a certain fixed or rising value. A great depreciation 
of prices has taken place. But this falling in price does 
not apply to those well arranged stock farms, scattered here 
and there, at long intervals through the State. They are 
still in demand at prices far in advance of those lands that 
have been, and are still being devoted to cotton and other 
exhaustive crops. 

The English farmer is able to take long leases of farms 
from the rich landholder, at from $20 to $60 per an- 
nual rent. How does he pay this extravagant rent and 
support his family ? He could not do it in any other 
manner than by improving, manuring and increasing the 
ipeadows with which they are constantly set. A Tennesseean 
will manure his garden, and sometimes his corn land, but 
whoever thinks of spreading manure on his meadows. Yet 
the Englishman will spend large sums of money, and de- 

Digitized by 



vote labor through the whole winter, in accumulating a 
large compost heap to apply to his meadows I The result 
may be imagined. While the Tennessee meadows will 
average from 800 to 1,500 pounds of hay to the acre, Eng- 
lish meadows will make fix»m two to five tons oji land that 
has no other advantage than the care bestowed on it by the 

Besides this, the grass grown in a damp cold climate is 
never so sweet and nutritious as that raised under a warm 
Km and with a quick growth. In this State there is an 
occasional drought that begins in June or July, interfering- 
seriously vnth the development of the later crops. But 
inch a condition of climate is scarcely known in the earlier 
months daring the growth of the grass crops. Yet there is 
with the spring rains a degree of temperature imknown to 
the Englishman, a degree sufficiently high to give grass all 
the necessary heat to enable it to attain its full supply of 
BQgar and nitrogen from the soil. 

The beautiful lands of Kentucky and Missouri, to say 
nothing of the Northern States, still retain a great value, 
and are in great demand at high prices. It is because 
these States have more land in meadows, while broad 
stretches of valuable pastures and prairies dot the landscape 
in every direction. Poor land will not make much grass, 
and without a great outlay of capital land cannot be placed 
in first-class order at once. But it only requires a start, 
and then the persevering, provident farmer will soon see 
his fiurm blossoming as the rose. Land in Europe not in- 
frequently reaches the sum of $1,000 per acre for purely 
agricultural purposes, while here it is a difficult matter 
to extract, with our best farming, $50 per acre, and then 
the expenses are to be drawn from that meager sum. 

Let us draw a comparison between our leading staples. 
Cotton here will make on average land 800 pounds seed cotton 
per acre. This at the usual price makes $20 per acre. Corn 
will produce on good land eight barrels per acre, and at 


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12.00, the laborer will get $16. Tobacco, our most remri- 
neratiye crop, on good land will make 800 pounds of leaf, 
which is about $50 to $60 per acre. Whieat will make, on 
good land, fifteen bushels per acre, and at $1 will yield 
about $15. Taking the cost of production from these 
amounts, the average &rmer will not have left, at the best, 
more than twelve dollars per acre. A good meadow, in full 
bearing, with ordinary care, will yield, with two cuttings, 
at least two tons per acre. The cost is altogether in har- 
vesting, while the trouble of sending ta market is no greater 
than either of the other crops. This, at the price for which 
it has been selling for several years, will be $20 per ton. 
Here, then, is a difference in actual receipts of almost 
double that obtained from other crops, nothing paid out for 
production, and besides the land can be enriched year by 
year, until it attains an almost fabulous fertility. Nor is 
this all. The amount of hay produced from a single acre 
can be increased almost to any extent by the applica- 
tion of stimulating manures. If then, land in Europe can 
produce five tons of hay per acre, and sell for $1,000 per 
acre, why cannot Tennessee lands, far better naturally, and 
in a more genial climate, be made to rival these results ? 
One thing only prevents, and that is the fatal apathy and 
want of enterprise on the part of the land owners. It is 
the thirst for immediate returns. To create this state of tillage, 
it will be necessary to proceed slawly, and look for no re- 
turns of consequence for one or. two years. Pressing neces- 
sities weigh upon the fiurmer, and he thoughtlessly drives 
en in the same interminable furrow, regardless of the loss 
of i;ime and fertility. The Northern husbandman bales his 
hay, and is able to ship it taall parts of the South in search 
of a market, and af);er paying heavy railroad charges^ is 
still able to sell his prodocee at a remunerative price. The 
Southern man has no freight charges to tax his hay, and 
yet he is content to let his Northern rival enjoy, without 
competition, this great market. When will our eyes be 

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opened to our interests, is a question often asked, but diffi- 
cult to answer. 

A capitalist invests his money in United States bonds, 
and without risk or labor 6ontentedly cuts off his coupons 
and enjoys his ease, while the merchant, with the same cap- 
ital, is harrassed to death meeting bills, collecting accounts, 
and watching with unceasing vigilance the turn of the 
markets. So it is with farmers. A prudent farmer wiH 
invest his farm-capital in grass, and he contentedly watches 
the growth of the grass and the browsing of his cattle, 
while his neighbor raising corn and cotton, is bus}^ all the 
year in cultivating his crops, watching his laborers, buying 
mules, bacon and hay from his more prudent frienJ, and 
when he counts his receipts at the end of the struggle, he 
will find his neighbor has absorbed the greater part of 
them. Not only this, but a stranger appears in the coun- 
try desirous of investing in land, and while he would turn 
from the cotton plantation at ten or twelve dollars per acre, 
he would gladly invest in the grass farm at forty or fifty 
dollars per acre. 

Land that will yield ten or fifteen dollars per acre clear 
of the expense of cultivation, cannot be supposed, and is 
not entitled, to the same value with land that will produce 
thirty to forty dollars on the same breadth. And yet the 
&nner8 of Tennessee hesitate to pursue this course. Dr. 
Gulliver, in the midst of^his extravaganzas, uttered a 
truism that will go down to all ages when he said " the 
man who makes two blades* of grass grow where one grew 
before, is a great public bene&ctor ; ^^ and when the citizens 
of Tennessee look at their own interest in a proper light, 
ibey will realize this truth, and then by acting on it, double 
or even quadruple the intrinsic value of the lands of the 

Grasses mean less labor, less worry, fewer hands, more 
enjoyment, finer stock and more charming homes, and as a 
consequence, happier families, more education, more taste 

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and refinement^ and a higher elevation of the moral char- 
acter. Let grasses be sown and our homes beautified and 
there will be more contentment, more satisfaction, less 
gloom and despondency, less carping and discontent. 

It is almost impossible for us to realize the splendid fu- 
ture that would await us in such an event. We are groan- 
ing under the burdens of a heavy debt incurred by our 
State in a more prosperous time. Now it is with diffe- 
culty the interest can be paid, and our creditors are alarmed 
at the possible loss of the debt Should more mea- 
dows and pastures be established, and the lands prove 
themselves to be, as we know they are, a tide of im- 
migration, of a character to be desired, would pour into our 
borders, the lands would be quickly cut up into smaller 
farms, and the returns would so increase their value, we 
could pay the whole debt as easily as we can now meet 
the interest. 

But, some will say, how can this be done? On the gen- 
eral principle that what has been done by one man can, 
under the same or similar circumstances, be done by all. 
The amount of hay, on a given amount of land, can be 
raised from 800 pounds to the acre, to five tons or 10,000 
pounds, simply because it has been done. 

Were we confined to any one species of grass, with the 
great diversity in the character of our soils, we might well 
exclaim against the chances of success, but fortunately such 
is not the case. There are a great many to select from, and 
he who has a farm with several kinds of soil, can make 
such selections as suit the different requirements, or he can 
mix the seeds of various kinds, if he labors under any un- 
certainty in regard to its capability. 

The cultivation of the grasses in Tennessee is yet in its 
infancy. It is true some have been engaged in it for years 
with eminent success, but to the masses it is a sealed book. 
Many have attempted it, and from a want of knowledge of 
judiciously selecting seeds and the proper time and manner 

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of sowing, have failed, and, discouraged, abandoned it. 
Many, and a majority, are content to secure such precarious 
•pots as are self-sown, or where seeds have been distributed 
by nature, and still exhaust their lands by cultivation. 

C. W. Howard, of Georgia, who devoted years to the 
investigation of the influence of the grasses upon civiliza- 
tion and material progress thus presents the subject in a 
strong light : 

A planter owning one thousand acres of fair average land in the 
healthy portion of the cotton States is a poor man. He could not sell 
his land probably for more than $5,000. He looks to the North, and 
finds lands ranging from $50 to $200 per acre. He looks to England, 
Holland and Belgium, and finds the price averaging from $300 to $500 
per acre. Why this difference? Is the land in these countries better 
than ours? Not by nature — if it be better it is by the difference of 
treatment. Is their climate better than ours? The acknowledged 
superiority is on our side. Are the prices of their products any better 
than ours ? On an average not so good. Are the taxes lighter than 
oars ? If we were compelled to pay their tax either at the North or in 
England our lands would at once be sold for taxes. Have they val- 
uable crops which tbey can raise and we cannot raise ? There is not a 
farm product in either Old England or New England which we cannot 
raise in equal perfection at the South. Is the labor cheaper than ours? 
The cost of labor at the North nearly doubles the cost of labor South. 
In England labor is cheaper than with us. But the difference is per- 
haps compensated by the poor and church rates and excessive taxes 
paid by the English farmers. 

If our climate is as good as that of the countries referred to, if our 
lands are as good as theirs, if our products bring as good prices, if we 
can grow all they can grow, if labor is cheaper with us than at the 
North, and if difference in taxes compensate for the cheapness of labor 
in England, why is it that their lands are so valuable and ours so value- 

We shall find the map of use to us m answering this question. If 
we take the map of the United States, and put our finger upon the 
States or parts of States in which lands sell at the highest price, we 
thaU find that in those States, or parts of those States, the greatest 
attention is paid to the cultivation of the grasses and forage plant*. If 
we open the map of Europe .we shall find that the same rule holds 
good. The cheapest lands in Europe are those of Spain, where little 
attention is paid to the grasses. 

The value of land rises exactly in proportion to the attention which 

Digitized by 



is given to them, in England and Holland, reaching, for fanning pnr- 
poses, $1,000 per acre. Holland is almost a continuous meadow. 
This land value culminates in Lombardj, where irrigated meadow 
lands rent for $60 to $100 per acre. Without exception, in Europe 
and America, where a large portion of Isnd is in grass or forage 
crops, the price of the land is high, reaching the figure as above men- 
tioned. On the other hand, without exception, wherever in either con- 
tinent the grasses do not receive this attention, landed estate is compar- 
ative of low value. 

These remarks are more applicable to Tennessee than to 
Georgia, for the latter State is strictly within the cotton 
belt, while Tennessee belongs strictly to the great grain 
and grass-growing region of America. Her natural destiny 
is to feed the population of the Cotton States, and supply 
them with domestic animals, and she will never realize the 
full wealth of her real estate and climate until grass and 
stock take the place of cotton and com. 

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Although, since the time of the oldest records, a large 
proportion of mankind have *been " keepers of flocks and 
herds.'' it is only within the last century that any systematic 
and successful eflbrts are known to have been made toward 
selecting and improving the grasses of the meadow and 
pasture. And even to this day the value of a large major- 
ity of the grasses known remains to be tested by any ex- 
haustive and trustworthy experiments. The knowledge 
which botanists have of the grasses would be of but little 
value to the farmers if they possessed it, since it is confined 
almost entirely to the mode of blooming, shape and flower 
and leaf, and other minor details, quite important and 
essential to classification, but almos); useless for any prac- 
tical purpose on the farm. What the farmer needs to 
know about a grass is its nutritive value, its time of bloom- 
ing, its habit of growth, and favorite locality. He is inter- 
ested in knowing how much food it will furnish, at what 
time of the year, in what form, and from what character of 
soil. These are questions with which botanists have not, 
heretofore, concerned themselves, but which must be an- 
swered, now that farmers' sons are beginning to learn bot- 
any and chemistry. 

The first impulse was given to grass cultivation in Eng- 
land by the London Society for the Encouragement of Arts, 
Manofiaicturers and Commerce, which, in 1766, oflered prizes 
for ''gathering by hand the seeds of Meadow Foxtail, 
Meadow Fescue and Sweet Vernal Grass." The success of 

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this ofifer was such as to induce the same society to offer, in 
1769, a gold medal to-the person who should give the best 
account of the properties and comparative values of anj 
two or more natural grasses. Previous to this sufficient 
attention had been given to the grasses to establish the 
terms natural and artificial grasses — the latter being ap- 
plied to the plants selected fer cultivation in meadows and 
pastures, but which are not really grasses. As yet, however, 
no systematic efforts had been made to test, by experiment 
or analysis, the relative values of the several grasses. In 
1822 this attempt was made by the Duke of Bedford, Vhti 
set his gardener, George Sinclair, to work fco collect all the 
natural grasses of England into a grass garden, the first of 
the kind ever attempted in England. In this garden, and 
another, subsequently established for himself by Sinclair, 
a long series of experiments were tried with the various 
grasses, testing with admirable patience and skill their 
properties and qualities. While it is true that the chemical 
tests applied by Sinclair were too meager and simple to 
command our implicit confidence, more valuable lessons con- 
cerning the grasses have never been taught than are con- 
tained in Sinclair's accounts of the " Woburn Experiments,'^ 
in his book called "Graminea Woburnensis." Many of 
these lessons have come to be accepted as fundamental 
truths. He first taught, that from early spring. to late in 
winter there is no time when there is not one or more of 
the grasses in prime condition, some containing most nutri- 
ment before flowering, some while in flower, others while in 
seed, and others still, owing their chief excellence to 
their aftermath. He -taught also what grasses flourished 
best in dry weather, and what in wet. In short he laid the 
foundation for the scientific study of the grasses, and all 
subsequent investigations have but enlarged upon his work. 
In 1846, Prof. Way, Consulting Chemist of the Royal 
Agricultural Society of England, undertook the analysis of 
the principal grasses with a view of ascertaining their rela- 

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tive values as flesh, fat aud heat producers. These analyses 
were conducted with that consumate skill and patience 
which characterized all of Prof. Way's work, and their re- 
salt stands to-day as the best authority of the laboratory on 
the values of the different grasses. 

Between the writings of Sinclair and Way a revolution 
had taken place in chemistry. Organic or physiological 
chemistry had developed relations between the mineral, 
vegetable and animal kingdoms, not even suspected in the 
time of the earlier writer, and, far from being fully under- 
stood even at the present time. It was this chemical pro- 
gress that induced Prof. Way to undertake his work. He 
was fully aware, and was careful to state, that his analyses 
were only so many facts, to be taken along with many 
other known and, unknown facts in physiology, before a 
true estimate could be formed and a final conclusion ar- 
rived at. 

Next in order came the experiments of Messrs. Lawes 
and Gilbert, of Bothamsted, England, which were designed 
to ascertain "The Effects of different Manures on the Mixed 
Herbage of Grass-land.'^ The experiments extended over 
a period of seven years, and were conducted with every 
conceivable caution and care, and with a minuteness un- 
equaled in any other experitnents. The results of these 
experiments, while they modify in many points, and in 
some overturn, the conclusions of both Sinclair and Way, 
on the whole add value to their works by furnishing a bet- 
ter interpretation of their facts. To the &rmer the experi- 
ments of Lawes and Gilbert are invaluable. 

In England, in the meanwhile, quite a number of books 
and pamphlets had been printed on the grasses by botanists, 
agriculturists and seedsmen, all of more or less value, but 
none of material importance 1x) the American farmer. 

In America, too, books have been written on grasses, 
one entitled "Grasses and. Fobage Pulnts" — "A prae- 
tical treatise, comprising their natural history ; comparative 

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28 THE GBA'^SEb 

nntritive value; methods of cnltivating, catting and earing, 
and the management of grass lands in the United States 
and British Provinces/' by Charles L. Flint, Secretary of 
the ^fassachusetts State Board of Agricaltare. The other 
entitled *' The Grasses and their Oaltnre/' by John Stanton 
Gtonldy of the New York State Board of Agricaltare. Mr. 
Flint's book was pablished in 1859, and at once took rank 
as a hand-book of the sabject. It was based apon the pre- 
ceding works of Sinclair and Way; and is the best applica- 
cation of their several experiments made ap to the year 
1859. The work is profusely illastrated, and will be found 
exceedingly useful by every intelligent farmer. The essay 
of Mr. Gould was prepared for the transactions of the New 
York Agricultural Society, and has not been pablished in a 
separate book, that we know of. It is, however, well 
worthy of such publication. 

So far as to the literature of the grasses in book form. 
In the agricultural journals, and in the transactions of the 
various State and County Agricultural Societies, there have 
appeared from time to time many excellent essays apon the 
grasses. The late Dr. Wm. Gordon contributed many ex- 
cellent papers to varioas journals in Middle Tennessee on 
the grasses of that section, but so far no attempt has been 
made to form a complete list of the grasses of the State. 

The following are the natural grasses examined by Prof. 

Digitized by 







11 ill 

^ t-p *-» t-p H^ 





Digitized by 














> iH 00 00 CO CO 

« P p P p 3 g « 3 D S p 3 P»S D S S3 3 3 


a a 






-H rt (M ©KM Tl* Cq ft C!l i-l <M r- 1-1 <M r-i (M « <M « 

.-1 St| 





r-l T-H T-l tH (N rH iH 1-1 rH t-( iH tH 

CO to 

iun3 *qajB^8 




rH»-tT-('>» -H»-lrHi-lf-lC!|THi-HTHr-lrH(M 

00 00 


qsag jo 






Digitized by 




This table exhibits the theoretical value of these grasses 
as they are gathered from the field, and may stand for their 
pasture value. It must be borne in mind^ however, that 
pasture grasses are rarely allowed to come into bloom be- 
fore cattle are turned in on them, so that these estimates 
will not hold absolutely true. Grasses differ widely in the 
amount and character of their foliage, which is an import- 
ant element in any estimate of their value for pasturage. 
Again, some of the most esteemed grasses owe their value 
chiefly to the fact that they appear at a time when they are 
much neede^ that is, in early spring, rather than to their 
absolute richness. 

We give below another table of the same grasses dried 
at 212^ Fahrenheit : 



Alopecnrns pratensis. 

Arrhenatheram avenacum. 

Avena flavescens 


Briza media 

Bromus erectus 

. Bromus mollis 

Cynosuiis cristatos 

Dactylis glomerata 

Dacty lis, seeds ripe 

Festnca doriuscula 

Holcus lanatus. 

Hordeum pratense 

Lolium peremie 

Lolinm Italicmn 

Pblemn pratense ' 

Poa amiua 

Poa pratensis. 

Poa trivialiB. . 























e 80 
























61. 7o; 























This table may be used as a basis for estimating the hay 
value of the several grasses, it being understood that hay, 
however dry, is never absolutely free from water, as these 
specimens were. The usual amount of water in well made 

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hay is about 16 per cent. A comparison of the relative 
values of these grasses in t)ie hay and pasture state cannot 
but be interesting, and may be instructive. It must never 
be forgotten^ however, that the presence or absence of a 
large amount of water in a grass is not always to be ac- 
cepted as conclusive proof of its value, since the same spe- 
cies of graps grown on an upland meadow, and under irri- 
gation, will differ in the amount of water which it contains 
quite as widely as any two species grown under the same 
conditions. Again, the amount of water found in the same 
grass will vary widely at di&rent stages of j;rowth, from 
the first shooting up of the -leaves to the ripening of the 
seeds. This fact is strikingly illustrated in the common 
old field broom sedge, which, when young, is eaten quite 
greedily by some cattle, but when the stem begins to shoot, 
nothing will eat it. This table, therefore, like all the oth- 
ers, is to be used, not as a standard of absolute values, but 
as an approximation and guide in forming estimates. 

The following table will be found useful, being a report 
to the Higland Society by Mr. Stirling, of Glenbervie : 

Column I. contains the scientifie names. 

Column II. contains the common name* 

Column III contains the average weight of the seed per 
bushel in pounds. 

Column lY. contains the average number of seeds in 
one ounce. 

Column V. shows, in inches, the depth of cover at which 
the greatest number of seeds sprouted. 

Column YI. shows, in inches, the depth of cover at which 
only about half the number of seeds sprouted. 

Column YII. shows, in inches, the least depth of cover 
at which none of the seeds- sprouted. 

Digitized by 



Digitized by 



Composition of the ash of agricultural plants and products, giying 
the average of all trustworthy analyses published up to August, 1865, 
by Prof. Emile Wolff, of the Royal Academy of Agriculture, at Hohem- 
heim, Wirtemberg: 



Digitized by 




Composition of fresh or air-dry agricultural products, giving the aver- 
age quantity of water, sulphur, ash and ash-ingredients, in 1,000 parts 
of substance, by Prof. Wolff : 




















1 I 

Metdow Hay 

Dead ripe hay.... 

B«d cIoTer , 

White dover 

Sw^ish cloTer..A 

Lucern ~ 


Green vetches... 
Oieen oaU , 

Meadow gngs, in blossom.. 

Young graw 

Bye'^rraM a 


other graMee 

Otta, beginning to heMd 

** in bloeeom 

Barley, beginning to head... 

** in bloesom 

Wheat, beginning to head... 

** in bloeaom.*.^^ 

^ fodder. 

Hangarian millet 

Bed dover 


Swedlah clover 



AiititjfUia eulneraria 



*^rape » ^..> 



















.81 8.8 >i 























7 0..7 









8 0,7 









9 0.8 









9 2.1 


















































































































































































































































Digitized by 




Proximate composition of agricultural plants and products, giving the 
average quantities water, organic matter, ash, albuminoids, carbohy- 
drates, etc., crude fibre, fat, etc., \)y Professors Wolff and Knop,* 



Meadow bay, medium quality 


Hed clover, fall blossom 

" " ripe 

White clover, f\ill blomom... 
Swedish, or Alsike clover (2V 

** clover, ripe 

Laoem, yonng 

»* iablossom 

Sand laoem, early blossom (J 

Esparsette, ia blossom 

Incarnate clover ** (TV 
YeUow *• " {M 

Vetches, in blossom 

Peas ** ** 

Field sparry, in blossom {Sp 

'• •* after blossom 

Berradella ** ** {OmUhoput gatUnu)... 

before ** 

Italian rye grass (Lolium ItalieHtn) , 

Timot)iy {Phleum praUuu) 

Early meadow gram {Poa annua) 

Greeted dog'A tail (Cbiiontriu CTMtatiM) „. 

Soft brome grass (flromw* moUU^ 

Orchard gr9«B(Dacli/li$ glomerata) ^ 

Barley grass {Hordenm pratente) 

Meadow foxtail {Alopecmmu pratmtis) 

Oat grass, French rye grass (ArrhencUherMm aoena- 


English rye grass (LoUm* permtne) 

Barter Schwmgel \Fetiwsaf) 

Sweet-cented vernal grass {Anthoxouihvm odoro 

iwn) „ 

Velvet grass UELokm* loMtm) 

Spear grass, Eentnoky blue grass iPoa pratennM). 

Rough meadow grass {Poa (Hviotit) 

Yellow oat grass {Avewt flaveteem) 

Quaking grass {BrixatMdia).,,,,^ 

Average of all the grasses ^ 







.2 6.81 













































40.0 2.5 




85.1! S.0 





27.1 2,6 





33.8 3.0 





26.2 S.S 



















.«..,. ^.5 






16.7 77.7 






16.7 76.8 






14.3 77.9 











14.3 83.3 











14.3 80.7 






14.3 i 81.1 

































----- .0 
















































*Xhls table is. as regards water and aefh, a repetition of last taUa, bat inoladeB the 
newer analyses of 1866-7. Therefore the averages of water and ash do not in all cases 
agree with those of the former tables. It gives besides, the proporttona of nitrogenous 
and non-nitrogenoas oompoonds, i. e., slbominoids and carbohydrates, etc. ^ also 
states the averages of crude fibre and of fat, etc. The diseaasion of the data of this 
table belongs to the subjects of Food and Cattle-Ftoeding. 

t Organic matter here signifies the combustible part of the plant. 

t OarbohydriMtM, «to., includes fivt, starch, sugar, peoUn, etc., all in fkot of Org, mofter 
except albuminoids and crude fiber. 

i Crude fiber is impure cellulous. 

IT Fat, ete,t is the ether-extract, and contains besides fat, wax, tMorqphjIl, and In 
some esses zeains— fVq/«ctor Sammel W. Johneon, im *^How Orope (?roi0.** 

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OF T£N^'E88££. 


Proximate composition of agricultural plants and products: 









OfMB, before bloflsom 






f 1 


19 9 

7 01 


•* 'after ** \ 

16 2 
14 6 






Bedclorer before bloeaom 


fall '* 


White ** ** " 

8.0 6.0 
6.7' 4.6 
6.3 6.6 
7.8 6.0 
7.0 12.6 
6.6' 9.5 


Swedish clorer, earhr bloMom « 

LwMTD. very y^Tunsf 


** in blcMwim 


Ssod looem early blossom^ ^... 


Eaparsette in '* 

3.2 8.8 1 6.6 


Incarnate doTer in ** (Trifotinm inoamatum).... 

Yellow clover in " (Medioago lupulina) 

SeradeU* «• " {(>rnUkopu$ $aitnu) 

Yetchee " " 

Pcae ** ** 


6.7' 7.5 
9.0; 6.0 
7.0 8.1 
7.6 5.5 
8.2 6.6 
8.8! 6.6 
14.9, 7.3 


Oata, early bloesom 




Maize lat« m<l Angnrt 




** 'early " " 




Hungarian' ndllet, in bloaaom, {Panicum germamcum] 
Sorgkmm $aceharotum 


_ .0 



Sorgkmm vulffort > 

neid sparry in bloeeom ^ 




1 2.0 





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TO USE. • 

Grasses, as they are to be cut^or hay or fed oflp by stock, 
are called meadow grasses or pasture grasses. By their 
structure some grasses are fitted only for the meadow, while 
others are fitted only for the pasture ; a few are suited to 
both uses. Grasses with tuberous roots are purely meadow 
grasses. It is the nature, of such plants to store up in their 
bulbs one year the material of growth for the next. It re- 
quires therefore a certain time for maturing the bulbs^ and 
they must not be interfered with when formed. Manifestly 
cattle cropping over a field would prevent the formation of 
bulbs, or, if already fornied, would soon destroy them, 
either by tramping or biting off their crowns. Timothy is a 
type of this grass. For the meadow it is almost without a 
rival — for permanent pasture it is scarcely worth sowing. 
Again, among meadow grasses some are valued on account 
of the amoqnt of nutritious seed they yield, as is the case 
with timothy, while others, as redtop or herds grass are 
principally valued for their forage. 

A pasture grass needs the property of springing up rap- 
idly after being bitten down and resisting the tramping of 
cattle. Blue grass is the best known type of the pasture 
grass. * 

A few grasses, if left to themselves, grow rank, form 
thick bunches or tussocks, and get hard and tough, but if 
sown along with other grasses that cfowd them remain 
slender and tender. Such is orchard grass, which also 
submits to frequent and close^ cropping, and is therefore an 
excellent pasture, as well as good meadow grass. 

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OF TEKN£SdE£. 88 

Again^ grasses are esteemed for the time when they begin 
to grow in spring* and ripen their seed in summer. The 
grass that comes forward in spring when other green food 
is wanting is especially valuable in the pasture ; nor is the 
gra^ that yields an early crop of hay less valuable for the 

The amount and quality of the aftermath^ or second crop 
of hay^ is also an important item in estimating the eco- 
nomic value of any grass. 

Furthermore, the value of any given grass to any par- 
ticular firmer will depend upon its adaptability to his land. 
Some grasses thrive on low lands but will scarcely live on 
aplands^'wbile others confine themselves to uplands entirely. 
Soils, and exposure too, have much to do with the success 
and value of different grains. So that the farmer who 
comes to consider the subject of grasses, will find it no easy 
matter to select the best grasses for his farm. It will re- 
quire no small degree of study and reflection. 

As an aid to farmers desiring to lay down land to grass, 
a selected list of long-tried pasture and meadow grasses is 


Kentucky blue grass Poa pratensis 

^ire grass ; P. compressa 

Spear grass P. amiua 

Rou^ stalked meadow P. trivialis 

Orchard grass^ *. Dactylis glomerata 

Meadow fescue , Holcus lanatus 

Meadow foztaU Alopecurus pratensis 

Sweet-soented vernal Anthoxanthum odoratum 

White clover Trifolium repens 


Orchard grass Dactylis glomerata 

Bed clover. Trifolium pratenee 

"Kinothy. Phleum pratense 

Hangariaa grass. Panicum Gh^rmanicum 

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There are many other grasses included in most of the 
lists to be found in all the books from the time of Sinclair^ 
and it may be that a better pasture or meadow can be made 
by adding them, but it will be quite enough gain for one 
generation if the farmers of Tennessee will put in the few 
given. A caution is needed in sovnng meadows, not to sow 
clover or orchard grass with timothy, because they do not 
ripen with it. Clover and orchard grass, however, do ad- 
mirably together, and if a small proportion of sweet vernal 
grass be mixed with them, they make a hay of the very 
finest quality. As a rule, however, red clover should not be 
sown in a permanent meadow, because by so doing one of 
its most valuable properties, viz., preparing the ground for 
other crops, is lost, and because, being a biennial, it is 
likely to run out on ground not already rich. It is doubt- 
ful if red clover should ever be introduced into a permanent 
pasture. White clover, however, may be so used in many 
localities, especially wher« milk cows are kept. 

Though not exactly to the point of this paper, it may not 
be amiss to state that land too poor to carry a stand of red 
clover ipay be brought up by sowing it down in white 
clover and turning under the white clover after it has been 
well pastured. Peas are also a good crop for the same 
purpose. Rye is an excellent pioneer crop for red clover, 
when sown in August, whether pastured or turned under 
in March. One of the chief values of red clover itself 
is as a preparation for wheat. A good clover sod is better 
than a heavy coating of manure for the wheat crop. In 
like manner, land that is to be put down in permanent grass 
can be better manured at less cost by turning under a good 
clover sod than in any other way. Where this course has 
been followed, however, care should be taken not to apply 
mineral fertilizers to the grass, else the clover seeds that 
have been shattered into the soil may be brought forward 
so much as to take the grass. 

On any but the richest soils the establishment oC a firsts 

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class pastare or meadow is the work of many years, and 
of much care and attention. On the best limestone soils, 
where the blue grass is indigenous, it is a comparatively 
easy matter to get a good turf, but, unfortunately, a large 
portion of Tennessee is not blessed with such soil, and 
for these regions preparation and care are needed. It is es- 
pe(;ially for such sections that these pages are written, 
though it cannot be denied that the pastures and meadows 
on the very richest •f Tennessee lands would be all 
the better if the advice here given we^e followed. 

It would perhaps be most convenient for the majority of 
fiurmers to begin rightly with pasture lands. A large deal 
of the woodland of the fiirmers of Tennessee may, . 
with comparatfve ease, be converted into very good pas* 
lures, simply by clearing out the undergrowth, sowing 
down in good pasture grasses, and depasturing ohsely with 
cattle. In many woodlands all that is needed for a fair pas- 
ture is clearing up and putting on the cattle. The indige- 
nous grass, if allowed a chance to grow, will make a passa- 
ble pasture. But even the best of such land will be much 
benefitted by a generous seeding of improved grasses and a 
good top dressing of manure. In addition to clearing 
out the undergrowth, the leaves should be raked off, and if 
a heavy harrow be passed over the ground it will be 
all the better. The seeds may be sown just after the harrow 
and followed by a light brush harrow; or, they may be sown 
on the first snow which, in melting, will carry them into 
the ground evenly and to about the proper depth. Once 
the grass is set it needs only to be fed properly to improve. 
It may be slightly grazed, by young cattle, the first summer; 
but an no account shovldsheep he ailowedrun on young grass. 
It is a generally acApted notion, and doubtless a true one, 
that on old pastures sheep are a help, but they are certainly 
very destructive to young grass. 

In addition to the woodland pastures, every farm needs 
other pastures that have been cultivated. The preparation 

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of these is similar in every way to the preparation for mea- 
dows. It should be borne in mind, however, that bottom 
lands that are at all inclined to be wet are unfitted for 
pastures. Wet or even moist land will pack under cattle. 
Since land once laid down in grass can never take the 
plow while the grass lives, all the necessary cultivation or 
plowing must be given it beforehand, and, since it is to te 
once for all, this preparation should be as thorough as pos- 
sible. Thoroughly prepared land should be entirely free 
from standing water. The soil should be so loose and 
friable that the heaviest rain will not render it soggy, nor 
the longest drought make it crack. An easy and simple 
, test of the presence of too much tightness in land is to dig 
a few holes, say two feet deep, and notice after a rain how 
long the water stands in them. If it s^nds for twelve hours 
after the rain has ceased, unless the rain has been of long 
continuance, say several days, th^n the land needs loosening. 
It is too tight — holds too much water. For this the best 
known remedy is under-draining. This is not only the 
most effectual but also the most profitable remedy, and will 
pay wherever properly applied. The next best thing, and 
the thing that should always be done, whether the land is 
under-drained or not, is subsoiling. This can be done as 
thoroughly with a properly made bull-tongue plow as with 
the best subsorler ever patented. The bull-tongue only 
needs to be made long and narrow, and sent down as deep 
as it can be made to go in the track of the best turning 
plow to be had, Aft«r it has been thoroughly plowed, a 
good top dressing of air-slacked lime should be given, say 
250 bushels to the acre. Then the ground should be well 
harrowed. It will pay to cross-harrow, to be followed by a 
generous top dressing of manure, thw the seed put in. 
This last operation should be thoroughly well done. The 
common error among American farmers in sowing grass 
seed is the putting on too few seed, and of too small a 
variety. There are undoubtedly pastures in Kentucky 

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where one kind of grass^ blue grass^ is made to answer almost 
excellent purpose, but the favoring circumstances which 
render this course practicable do not occur in many other 
sections, and nowhere outside of the blue grass regions. 
Even on this favored soil there is good reason for believing 
that the addition of several other kindred grasses would add 
much to the best pastures. Be this as it may, there can be 
no doubt as to the very great advantage to be derived from 
a variety of grasses in other localities. One of the first 
things observed by Sinclair in his experiments was the fact 
that there is naturally a constant succession in the time of 
blooming of different grasses. As a result of this condition 
of things, it is practicable to make a turf which shall 
continue in good heart from early spring to late winter. 
By reference to the table on another page, the time of 
blooming of the various grasses may be learned. 

Another mostimportant point to»be determined in seed- 
ing down land to pasture is the adaptability of the grass to 
the location and soil. It is by no means to be supposed 
that a grass that is rich and luxuriant in one place will be 
equally so in every place. The very reverse is more likely 
to be the case. Again, it is by no means the rankest grass 
that makes the finest pasture— on the contrary, the finest 
beef* and the finest mutton are both grown on grass com- 
paratively short though rich and nutritious. Indeed it is 
the experience of the best grass farmers that great fineness 
of grass is incompatible with great luxuriance. 

The notion too commonly prevails that when once a 
farmer has put his grass in the ground his work is done^ 
that for the future he must trust to Providence, or, more 
commonly, to luck. Nothing could be further from the 
troth. His work is by no means done. It is only begun. 
In the case of meadows and pastures, fiiith without works 
is ot no avail. Providence never asks to be trusted, but 
demands to be obeyed. Luck is a myth^ — there is no such 
tiling. Besults good or bad flow naturally and inevitably 

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from Wise attention to, or unwise neglect of the laws of 
nature. In the matter in hand these laws are few, simple 
and easily ascertained. Perhaps they may be embraced in 
two short sentences, viz : To preserve a good stand of grass 
it needs to be abundantly fed. Different grasses require 
different foods. 

If we may judge from the practice that prevails almost 
universally in Tennessee, farmers do not seem to be aware 
that pastures or meadows ever need to be manured. If 
there is a &rmer in the State who habitually spreads ma- 
nure over his pastures or his meadows, he is a rare excep- 
tion to his class. It cannot be that this neglect comes from 
ignorance of the fact that every hay crop and every season's 
grazing extracts from the land an enormous bulk of plant 

It is difficult to corfceive how any one can fail to see so 
large a fact. It must be, therefore, that the notion prevails 
because land laid down in grass does not wash away or 
run out so rapidly as land under the ploM% that therefore it 
need not to be kept in heart. Such a notion is entirely 
erroneous. The roots of the natural grasses are almost 
entirely fibrous. They descend only a few inches below 
the surface. Of necessity their food must be obtained*in a 
thin layer of top soil. There is no chance for the air with 
its warmth, or the rain with its moisture to penetrate it, 
and the ammonia of both air and water is almost entirely 
cut off from the soil. There is, therefore, no source left 
open to the soil whence it can renew the supply of plant 
food taken off annually, either as hay or depastured by stock. 
In the latter case some return is made in the droppings. 
This, however, is never entirely equal either in kind or 
quality to the materials removed from the soil. But the 
every-day experience of the farmer is of itself the best proof 
that can be made, if only he would think of it. Why do 
fio'mers say that their meadows have " run out,'' or that 

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their pastures are "run out?^* Simply because they have 
failed to feed them. Because year after year they have 
taken oflF ton after ton of hay without returning a single 
pound of plant food. 

The preparation of land for a meadow is so nearly the 
same as fhat given for a pasture that it need not be re- 
peated. The grasses specially adapted to the meadow are, 
however, quite different from those given for the pasture. 
Timothy^ which stands at the head of the meadow grasses, 
is altogether unfit for the pasture, because it will neither 
bear tramping nor close cropping. 

There are, however, many most excellent grasses to be se- 
lected for the meadow. In making this selection it is of 
exceeding importance to note the time of flowering, and 
care should be taken not to have in the meadow, grasses 
that ripen at different times, for if this is allowed really 
good hay cannot be made. Part of the hay is obliged to be 
cut either too green or too ripe. It is always desirable to 
have more than one meadow^ and so arranged that they 
shall ripen in succession. This point is readily gained by 
selecting for the different meadows, grasses that ripen in 
succession. \ 

For convenience and as a help we give a list of the 
grasses that experience has proved to be well adapted to the 
nasture. These lists are given more as suggestions than as 
guides or recipes. Aft^r all, each farmer must exercise his 
own judgment as to what grasses are best suited to his pur- 
poses, and best adapted to his soils. 

The labors of Professor Way and other chemists were 
chiefly of value in explaining certain facts long noted by 
observing farmers concerning the relations of the grasses 
and soils. Long before any attempt at chemical analysis of 
the soil or the grasses had been made, it was well known 
to the best fiirmers that certain grasses were admirably 

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suited to certain soils, but wholy unsoited to others. It 
was also well known, though by no means so generally, 
that certain manures stimulated the growth of certain 
grasses and seemed to retard the growth of others. Chemi- 
cal analysis disclosed that the soils that were suited to dif- 
ferent grasses were composed of different ingredients, or if 
containing the same ingredients, they 'Were present in 
different proportions. Also analysis showed that the grasses 
that flourished on a given soil were composed largely of 
the plant food that characterized that soil, and on the other 
hand that a grass that ran out quickly on a given soil con- 
tained a large amount of some ingredient in which the soil 
was deficient. 

From these facts it seems but an easy step to infer that 
certain manures might be relied on to stimulate the growth 
of certain grasses ; yet simple and easy as the step seems it 
was not taken with anything like assurance until those dis- 
tinguished experimenters, Lawes and Gilbert, of Rotham- 
sted, England, demonstrated by a series of field experiments 
continued through several years, that the character of the 
herbage in different parts of any given pasture or meadow 
may be entirely changed by the continued and abundant 
use of different manures. The reports of these experiments 
were made to the Royal Agricultural Society of England, 
and are to be found in the journals of that society from 
1858 to 1865. The general results of these experiments 
may be briefly summarized as follows: 

I. Mineral Manures, (super-phosphate of lime, sulphate 
of soda, sulphate of magnesia), stimulated the growth of 
the leguminous plants, (clovers), but scarcely affected the 
natural grasses. 

II. Nitrogenous manures, (guano and ammonical salts), 
stimulated the natural grasses and discouraged the l^umi- 
nous herbage. 

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III, A judicii^us mixture of mineral and nitrogenous 
manures increased the growth of grasses far beyond the sum 
of increase attained by the two used separately. 

rV, Farm-yard manure stimulated the growth of both 
the grasses and leguminous herbage, but chiefly the 

V. A mixture of mineral manures, (consisting of« 200 
pounds of bone ash, 160 pounds sulphuric acid, 300 pounds 
sulphate of potash, 200 pounds sulphate of soda, 100 pounds 
sulphate of magnesia, and 400 pounds each of muriate and 
sulphate ammonia, exceeded in increase by more than a ton 
per acre the increase produced by 14 tons of farm-yard ma- 
nure of good quality. , 

It may perhaps be useful to relate how these experiments 
were tried. A piece each of meadow and pasture of uniform 
quality and condition was laid off and a careful examination 
and record made of the kinds of herbage and their propor- 
tions. The lands were then laid off in plats and the several 
manures applied year after year. At the close of every 
growing season each plat was carefully examined and a 
record made of the proportions of the different plants pres- 
ent. Two of the plats were kept unmanured as standards 
of comparison. The hay cut from the meadow plats was 
carefully weighed and analyzed, so that the experiments not 
only show how much increase each manure gives in bulk, 
but also what plants it increases and how it influences the 
quality of the hay. These results render the experiments 
by far the most valuable yet made in grass culture. With 
the exception of the chemical analyses these experiments 
made be repeated by any intelligent farmer. It is 
only through such experiments that new facts may be 
learned or old notions put to the test. This is the kind of 
work waiting the educated farmers. 

As a practical conclusions from their experiments, Messrs* 
Laws and Gilbert advise the farmers to apply a large 

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ttmount of barn-yard manure^ in a well rotted state^ every 
four or five years^ and a small quantity of commercial ma- 
nure every year, say in January or February. Under the 
most favorable circumstances, however, and with the best of 
treatment, the establishment of a really good turf is the 
work of years. But when once established it is a thorough- 
ly safe and exceedingly profitable investment. 

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Plants are living organic beings, deriving their origin 
anconditionall7 from other like beings (parentage), as de- 
tached particles of the same by fission, budding, or seed 
prodaction, which, under the influence of light, heat and 
moisture, possess the faeulty of growing and developing 
into bodies exactly like those from which they have been 
first detached. This growth they accomplish by attracting 
and taking within themselves simple elements or inorganic 
compounds from their surroundings, which, by their power 
of assimilation they convert into organic compounds or tis- 
sues like their own.^ At a certain period of their growth 
and development they become able to reproduce themselves, 
which is called their state of maturity, after which their 
cycles of life are either closed, and the parental plant 
decays — annual pldnts, or they repeat indefinitely that pro- 
oeas of reproduction and individual growth — ^perennials. 

This simple sketch of vegetable life is within the univer- 
sal assemblage of individual plants, which we call the vege- 
table kingdom, carried out under a wonderful variety of 
forms and methods. The human intellect, in its endeavor 
to understand the meaning of this untold number of forms, 
has, since the dawn of civilization, attempted to group the 
like and the unlike until it in recent days succeeded in 
establishing a rational system of classification. 

For this purpose it has been agreed upon, that the aggre- 

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gate of individuals, descending from one another and from 
common ancestors, and those which resemble them as strongly 
as they resemble one another, should be called Species. 

Groups of similar or related species are called Genera. 

Groups of genera similarly related as the above constitute 

The highest generalizations are denominated Classes and 

All these divisions have received special denominations, 
and the identity of an individual is recognized by the ex- 
pression of the name of its generic and specific name, e. g. 
viola odorata, scented violet ; Rlicum candiduniy white lily. 

All plants, from the minute to the gigantic, simplest or 
wonderfully complex, whether aquatic, terrestrial orparisitic, 
in considering their method of propagation, can be grouped 
into two series : 

Series L Phsenogamous, or flowering plants, which pro- 
duce flowers and seeds, the latter containing a ready-formed 
embryo. - 

Series II. Cryptogamous, or flowerless plants, whose 
organs of reproduction are not flowers, but some more or 
less analagous apparatus, and which are propagated by 
spores or specialized cells. * 

Omitting the cryptogamous series, which has no repre- 
sentatives amongst our meadow and forage plants, except as 
occasional intruders and fearful enemies to their life and 
development, in which respect they will be hereafter shortly 
mentioned, and scrutinizing the structure of the Phsanoga- 
mous series, we shall find that their growth or increase takes 
place either by an annual addition upon the periphery — 
exogens, "outside growers" — or the newly formed woody 
matter is intermingled with the 9ld, or deposited towards 
the center, which becomes more and more occupied with 
the woody threads as the stem grows older, and the increase 
in diameter takes place by gradual distension of the whole ; 
such plants are called endogens, or " inside growers." 

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The two great classes of Phaenagamous plants^ indicated 
by this difference of the stem, possess also a marked differ- 
ence in the structure of their seeds. The embryo of all 
endogenous plants sprouts with only one cotyledon or seed 
leaf. Hence they are called Monocotyledonous plants. The 
embryo of the exogens bears a pair of cotyledons, hence 
exogens are also called Dicotyledonous plants. 

The Monocotyledons, with a stately assembly of fami- 
lies, furnish us with the families of the Grasses {gramineca) 
and the Sedge family {Ch/peracece), while the Dicotyledons 
embrace several families, which constitute more or less val- 
uable pasturage herbs, but the Leguminous or Pulse family 
is the most important one, and deserves especial attention. 

It has been stated that Phsenogamous plants possess vis- 
ible organs of Reproduction. When these organs are en- 
closed within envelopes for their protection, this envelope 
is called flower. The flower is called complete when the 
envelope consists of two circles of flowering leaves, the 
outer and lower one called the calyx, the interior and gen- 
erally delicately colored one, the corolla. The parts or 
leaves forming the calyx are termed the sepals, the parts of 
the corolla — petals. The petals, however, are frequently 
absent when the flower is said to be apetalous, or petals and 
sepals both wanting, when the flower is called incomplete. 

The essential organs of flowers are likewise of two kinds, 
and disposed in two circles, one including the other. The 
outer ones are called stamens. A stamen consists of a col- 
umn or stalk called the filament, to the apex of which is 
attached a rounded case, called the anther, filled with a 
powdery substance called the pollen, which it at length dis- 
charges through one or more slits. The remaining seed- 
bearing organs which occupy the summit of the flower are 
termed the pistils. A pistil is distinguished into three parts, 
the ovary, the hollow portions at the base which contains 
the ovules or bodies destined to become seeds ; the style or 
columnar prolongation of the apex of the ovary, and the 


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stigma^ a portion of the sur&ce of the style denuded of 
epidermis^ often assuming a great diversity of appearance. 

Flowers possessing both these essential organs are perfect 
(hermaphrodite or bi-sexual)^ although from absence of the 
floral envelopes they may be incomplete. 

Whenever either 'of these essential organs is wanting or 
abortive in one flower of the same individual or species, 
and present on another, the flower is said to be diclinous or 
unisexual. The flower which has the stamen only is called 
the male or sterile flower, and the one with pistils only 
female or fertile flower. 

In separated flowers the two kinds of blossoms may be 
borne either on difierent parts of the same individual, or 
upon entirely difierent individuals, the flowers in the first 
instance, like those of Indian corn or oak, art called monoe- 
cious (living in one house), or they are borne upon entirely 
difierent individuals, like hemp or sassafras, and then they 
are called dioecious (living in two houses). One is called 
the male plant, the other the female. 

Sometimes both these conditions occur upon the same spe- 
cies, and plants with such flowers are called polygamous. 
In some flowers the floral envelopes are developed, while 
the pistils and stamens remain undeveloped, and are there- 
fore said to be neutral. 

In some grasses and other plants all parts of a flower are 
sometimes reduced to a mere rudiment. 

The supremacy in the vegetable world, in regard to struc- 
ture, is by no means so undisputed as in the animal, and 
several families are contesting for the prize. 

The power of voluntary motion is one of the essential 
qualities of superiority of animal over vegetable life, and 
wherever an approach to such power of self-motion is ob- 
served, we concede such species of plants a higher rank in 
relation to their less gifted brethren. 

The Leguminous &mily, which concerns us so much for 
agricultural reasons, and as a large shareholder in our meA- 


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dows and pastures, embraces within it& ranks many a mem- 
ber capable of patting into motion certain parts of their 
bodies either as a response or reaction to external mechani- 
cal or chemical irritation, executing them with considerable 
dispatch and regularity. Or again, some others possess the 
feculty of giving gradual direction to some of their organs 
by which unmistakeable advantages are gained for the posi- 
tion, the growth or seed production of the individual. 

In selecting one type of this family, and explaining its 
parts and functions, the characteristics of the Leguminous 
lamily, and along with it the process of fructification and 
seed production in all Phsenogamous plants will be ex- 
plained. Take the bean plant. The principal member of 
it is the axis, which rises into the air; erect, with one part, 
while the other is imbedded in the earth and forms the root. 
The appendages of the stem are leaves, developed from 
the opposite sides of successive nodes, the parts between 
these nodes are called inter-nodes, which become shorter 
and shorter towards the sutnmit of the stem, which ends in 
a terminal bud. Buds are also developed in the axils of the 
leaves, and some of them grow into branches which repeat 
the characters of the stem, but others, when the plant at- 
tains its full development, grow into stalks which support 
flowers, each of which consists of a calyx, a corolla, a stam- 
inal tube and a central pistil ; the latter is terminated by a 
style, the free end of which is the stigma. The staminal 
tobe ends in ten filaments, four of which are rather shorter 
than the rest, nine of them are grown together into a tube, 
one is free to its point of insertion. Such an arrangement 
has in botanical terminology been called " diadelphous,^^ 
(die — ^two aldephus — brother). The pistil is hollow, and 
within, along the ventral side, (the side turned towards the 
axis), is attached, by short stalks, a longitudinal series of 
minute bodied, the ovules. Each ovule consists of a central 
conical nucleus, invested by two coats, an outer and an 
inner. Opposite the summit of the nucleus these coats are 

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perforated by a canal, the micropyle, which leads down to 
the nucleus. The nucleus contains a sac — the embryo sac— 
in which certain cells, one of which is the embryo cell, and 
the rest the endosperm cells, are developed. A pollen grain 
deposited on the stigma sends out a thread-like prolonga- 
tion, the pollen tube, which elongates, passes down the style, 
and eventually reaches the micropyle of an ovule. Tra- 
versing the micropyle, the end of the pollen tube penetrates 
the nucleus, and comes into close contact with the embryo 
sac. This is the process of impregnation, and the result of 
it is that the embryo cell divides, and gives rise to a cellu- 
lar embryo. This becomes a minute bean plant, consisting 
of a radicle or primary root; of two relatively large pri- 
mary leaves, the cotyledons ; and a short stem, the plumule, 
on which rudimentary leaves soon appear. The cotyledons 
now increase in size, out of all proportion to the rest of the 
embryonic plant ; and the cells of which they are composed 
become filled with starch and other nutritious matter, 
legumin). The nucleus and cq^ts of the ovule grow to 
accommodate the enlarging embryo, but, at the same time, 
become merged into an envelope which constitutes the coat 
of the se6d. The pistil enlarges and becomes the pod ; this 
when it has attained its full size, dries and readily bursts 
along its edges, or decays, setting the seeds tree. Each seed, 
when placed in proper conditions of warmth and moisture, 
then germinates. The cotyledons of the contained embryo 
swell, burst the seed coat, and becoming green, emerge as 
the fleshy seed leaves. The nutritious matters which they 
contain are absorbed by the plumule and radicle, the latter 
of which descends into the earth and becomes the root, 
while the former ascends and becomes the stem of the 
young bean plant. 

The tissues which compose the body of the bean plant are 
bounded at the surface by a layer of epidermic cells, within 
which, rounded or polygonal cells make up the ground 
substance or parenchyma of the plant, extending to its very 

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centre in the younger parts of the stem and in the roots ; 
while in the older parts of the stem the centre is occupied by 
a more or less considerable cavity^ full of air. This cavity 
results from the central parenchyma becoming torn asunder 
after it has ceased to grow, by the enlargement of the peri- 
pheral parts of the stem. Nearer to the circumference than 
to the centre, lies a rilg of woody and vascular tissue, 
which, in transverse sections, is seen to be broken up into 
wedge-shaped bundles, by narrow bands of parenchymatous 
tissue, which extend from the parenchyma within the circle 
of woody and vascular tissue (medulla or pith) to that which 
lies outside of it. Moreover, each bundle of woody and 
vascular tissue is divided into two parts, an outer and an 
inner, by a thin layer of small and very thin cells, termed 
the cambium layer. What lies outside this layer belongs to 
the bark; what lies inside it, to the wood and pith. 

The cells composing the cambium retain their power of 
multiplication, and divide by septa parallel with the 
length of the stem, or root, as well as transverse to it. 
Thus new cells are continually being added, on the inner 
side of the cambium layer, to the thickness of the wood, 
and on the outer side-of it, to the thickness of the bark; 
and the axis of the plant continually increases in diameter, 
so long as this process goes on. This is the developement 
of exogens. 

The soft parts of plants as far as they are exposed to the 
light, and as far as their epidermis is transparent, are green 
colored. This green color results from the presence, im- 
mediately below the epidermic tissue, and imbedded in the 
parenchyma, of minute, soft granules, called chlorophyll or 
leaf green. These corpuscles, through the agency of light, 
have taken ^heir origin in the "protoplasma," a complex 
chemical compound essentially produced by the union of a 
few chemical elements, oxygen, hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, 
which the plant absorbes by its roots and leaves, together 
with some mineral substances from the surrounding earth 

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and atmoBphere. These elements dissolved in water begin 
their circulation in the roots and leaves oi the plants and 
under the influenpe of light, air and heat, and by the. con- 
tact with preformed protoplasm, they are gradually 
brought over into one or the other form of this won- 
derful substance. The instability of the juxtaposition of 
its molecules endow it with ^n internal and external 
mobility not possessed by any other body. It possesses the 
power to arrange and re-arrange the above elements and 
some others, when they come into contact with it, into 
organic compounds. Protoplasm is the basis of all life upon 

The chlorophyll once formed, induces the respiration of 
plants. The epidermis especially, or the leaves, which are 
the organs of this function, possess innumerable openings^ 
stomata, through which the air passes, to be absorbed by 
the fluids in the tissues, and to give up to the chlorophyll 
its carbonic acid. Now the most important chemical pro- 
cess in the economy of the plant is effected, the carbonic 
acid is decomposed and carbon and oxygen are mutually 
set free. The carbon passing over into a new combination 
with hydrogen and oxygen to form cellulose — the general 
material of vegetable fabric of cell formation. The greatest 
part of the inhaled oxygen is returned again into the at- 
mosphere. All the woody fibre now forming upon earth, 
and all the coal and coal oils are derived that way. 

It is evident, that the nitrogenous and mineral constitu- 
ents of plant food, absorbed by the roots from the soil have 
to pass from them through the stem to the leaves. 

That some sort of civculation of fluids must take place in 
the body of a plant, therefore, appears to be certain, but the 
details of the process are by no means clear. There is 
evidence to show that the ascent of fluid from the root 
to the leaves takes place to a great extent through the 
elongated ducts and spiral vessels that make up, together 
with parenchymatous cellular tissue, the body of the plant^ 

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and which not unfreqnently opon into one another by their 
appfied ends, and by that way form very fine capillary tubes 
of considerable length. 

The mechanism by which this ascent is effected is of two 
kinds; there is a pull from above and a push from below. 
The pull from above is the evaporation which takes place 
at the surface of the plant, and especially in the air-passa- 
ges of the leaves, where the thin- walled cells of the paren- 
chyma are surrounded on almost all sides with air, which 
communicates directly with the atmosphere through the 
stomates. The push from below is the absorptive action 
which takes place at the extremities of the rootlets, 
and which, for example, in a vine, before its leaves have 
grown in the spring, causes a rapid ascent of the fluid (sap) 
absorbed from the soil. A certain portion of the fluid thus 
pumped up from the roots to the surface of the plant 
doubtless exudes, laterally, through the walls of the vessels, 
and, passing from cell to cell, eventually reaches those which 
contain chlorophyll. The distribution of the compound 
containing nitrogen and carbon, whatever it may be, which 
is formed in the chlorophyll bearing cells, probably takes 
place by slow diffusion from cell to cell. 

It also can hardly be doubted that all the living proto- 
plasm of the plant undergoes slow oxydation, with evolu- 
tion of carbonic acid, and that this process, alone, takes 
place in the deeper seated cells. The supply of oxygen 
needful for this purpose is suflSciently provided for, on the 
one hand, by the minute air-passages which are to be found 
between the cells in all parenchymatous tissues, and on the 
other, by the spiral vessels, which appear always to contain 
air under normal circumstances in the woody vascular 

The replacement of the oxygen of the air thus iibsorbed, 
and the removal of the carbonic acid formed, will be sufiB- 
ciently provided for by gaseous diffusion. 

From what has been said, it results that, in an ordinary 

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plant, growing in damp earth and exposed to the sunshine, 
a current of fluid is setting from the root toward the sur- 
face exposed to the air, where its watery part is for the 
most part evaporated, while gaseous diffusion takes place 
in the contrary direction from the surface exposed to the 
air, through the air-passages and spiral vessels which ex- 
tend from the stomates to the radicles; the balance of ex- 
change being in favor of oxygen, in all the chlorophyll 
bearing parts of the plant, which are reached by the sun- 
light, and in favor of carbonic acid in its colorless ^nd 
hidden regions. At night, the evaporation diminishing with 
the lowering of the temperature, the ascent of the liquid 
becomes very slow, or stops, and the balance of the exchange 
in the air-passages is entirely in favor of carbonic acid ; 
even the chlorophyll bearing parts oxydizing, while no 
carbonic acid is decomposed. 

In the foregoing has been given in plain and untechnical • 
language approved facts, which, under proper guidance, 
every person of ordinary intelligence may be thought to 
study and to observe for himself. The general principle of 
respiration, nutrition and reproduction of plants are, after 
a century's scientific work, pretty well understood, although 
a great deal of detail is yet to be investigated. 

Often, from impure motives, is science denounced as 
'^speculation.'^ The growth of the pollen tube, and its 
entrance into the ovule can be as clearly seen with the aid 
of a medium power of a microscope as the stomata and 
air- passages. That kind of speculation which is really to 
be feared lies within the boundaries of ignorance. For ii:- 
stance, one can often hear assserted that the rust in the wheat 
is caused by the iron present in the soil of the field. The 
Agricultural Department in one of its recent volumes has 
given to the farmers a very exact analysis of this distressing 
phenomenon. In this, like in ever so many instances, it is 
again proven that the greatest evils and plagues that affect 
man and his operations, take their roots in the dispersion 

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and endless multiplication of exceedingly minute agencies, 
that often bring the wealth of nations on the verge of ruin, 
like the phylloxera of the grape vine, the pebrine on the 
silk worm, and scarlet fever and diptheria amongst our 
children. And, one need not expect to success- 
fully combat those enemies before the great mass of the 
people is able to partake and to assist in a scientific inves- , 

To determine the differences between the various grasses 
requires careful study from even an advanced botanical 
student. The graminese spread over the whole globe, are a 
very numerous family, forming, in fact, one twenty-second 
part of all phaenogamous plants, and containing about 300 
genera and 4000 species. Of these, 74 genera with 287 
species belong to the flora of the United States east of the 
Mississippi, and as they unmber amongst them all cereals, 
they are unquestionably the most important part of the 
vegetable kingdom for the interest of mankind. The fol- 
lowing description of the family characters is given accord- 
ing to Gray's Manual: 

Grasses, with usually hollow stems (culms) closed at the joints, alter- 
nate two-ranked leaves, their sheaths split or open on the side opposite 
the blade ; the hyi)ogynou8 flowers imbricated with two-ranked glumes 
or bracts ; the outer pair (glumes proper) subtending the spikelet of one 
or several flowers ; the inner pair (palese or paleta) enclosing each par* 
ilcnlar flower, which is usually furnished with two or three minute hy- 
pogynous scales (squamulffi.) Stamens one to six. commonly three ; 
anthers versatile, two-celled, the cells distinct. Styles mostly two or two- 
parted; stigmas hairy or feathery. Ovary one-celled, one-ov\iled, form- 
ing a seed-like grain (caryopsis) in fruit. Embryo small, on the outside 
and at the base of the floury albumen. Roots fibrous. Sheath of the 
leaves usually more or less extended above the base of the blade into a 
scarious appendage (ligule. ) Spikelets panicled or spiked. Inner (upper) 
palet usually two-nerved or two-keeled, enclosed or partly covered by 
the outer (lower) palet. Grain sometimes free, sometimes permanently 
adherent to the palots. 

For an easier understanding of the structure of the grass- 
flower and seed; and the technical terms used in describing 

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them, a few species are selected and analyzed^ such as are 
known to everybody. 

1. Timothy. First described properly by the Swedish 
botanist, Carolus Linnaeus. A type of grass inhabiting North 
and Middle Europe, and made up by fourteen different 
forms, resembling one another so closely that they suggest 
to the observer a close relationship. To the aggregate Lin- 
naeus applied the name Phleum. To one particular phleum 
that shows a predilection^ for pasture lands, he gave the spe- 
cific name "pratense." Meadow Cats-tail or Timothy grass. 
It is a botanical practice to put after the name of the plant 
also the name of the botanist who first discovered it. There- 
fore, Phleum pratense, L. 

Select a flowering specimen from the meadows, but one 
from the haystack may do as well. It is tall ; (not branch- 
ing laterally.) The flowering or top end is called " inflo- 
rescence.'^ The spike is cylindrical and tolerably long, 
therefore an elongated spike ; it is also dense and harsh. It 
is terminal and solitary, sometimes spikes are terminal^ 
spreading and numerous, like in the Crab grass, digitate like 
in the Bermuda or barn-yard grass. They are lateral some- 
times, sessile or peduncled. If arranged shortening toward 
the apex like the tassel of the Indian corn, this is called a 
pyramidal raceme. If instead of shortening toward the 
apex they are of about equal length, arranged around their 
rachis like in that delicate reddish grass by some called 
^^ old man's beard,'' that abounds late in the season in gar- 
den plots and com fields, (Leptochloa mucronata) then we 
say the spikes are racemed. 

The manner in which the single flowers, spikelets, are ar- 
ranged along the spike is also very different. 

In this species the spikelets are closely clustered in glom- 
erules of 3-4 nearly sessile, densely joining one another at- 
tached to the rachis or main axis of inflorescence. In the mea- 
dow Fox-tail (Alopecurus pratensis) which greatly resembles 

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the Timothy, 3-4 spikelets are similarly arranged to a consert- 
ed cylindrical spike. But if these single clusters are more or 
less distant from another, like in the Sweet Vernal grass 
(Anthozantum odoratum) it is said to be panicled-spiked. 
The barley bears a bilateral spike, spikelets^in threes on each 
side. Hordeum hexastichum. In the Crab grass (Digi- 
taria or Panicum sanguinale) the spikelets are arranged to 
one side of the rachis ; the rachis may also be feathered 
on the back like in the related genus Paspalum. In the 
bam-yard grass the spikelets are imbricated (like the shin- 
gles on a roof) on a one- sided spike. 

To analyze so small an object as the spikelet of the Tim- 
othy^ or other yet more minute and delicate species, some 
care and patience are required. 

The spikelet should be moistened first with a little water, 
after being placed upon a slip of glass, then the parts spread 
in a manner to expose the interior structure. The moisten- 
ing prevents the flying away of the tiny membranes when 
they are dissected or distended with a fine knife or a pair 
of sewing needles. A lens to magnify the object is indis- 

First two pairs of membranaceous leaflets are conspicu- 
ous. The lowest pair is called " glumes." They are oppo- 
site one another, but not exactly upon one and the same 
level. There is always an upper glume and a lower glume, 
and the observance of their mutual relations is of great import- 
ance. Sometimes they are nearly of one size, like in this 
instance, but generally one is larger, often out of all propor- 
tion, or either is minute, abortive or wanting, awned or va- 
riously shaped, or represented by a bristle-like organ called 
an awn. (Beard.) They are boat-shaped (carinate), ciliate 
on the back (beset with short, bristly hairs), pointed and 
tipped with a short bristle. Glumes serve as the common 
involucre for the upper and interior part or parts of the 

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The upper or inner pair of leaflets or palets, (palete) is 
here only half the size of the former, truncate (the apex cut 
off) and include the ovary with two distinct styles termi- 
nated by feathery stigmas. From the base of the ovary 
ascend three stamens with thread-like filaments, versatile 
bilocular and comparatively large anthers. 

2. Blue grass — Poa prafensis. L. Inflorescence a pant-- 
de. It will be remembered that above the tassel of" Indian 
corn has been designated a pyramidal raceme ; i.e. from the 
rachis or flower-bearing prolongation of the culm radiate 
secondary axis, pyramidally decreasing toward the apex. 
Those lateral axes again and often redivided constitute the 
panicle. This panicle is short pyramidal. In Poa com- 
pressa (wire grass) dense and narrow, in Orchard grass clus- 
tered and dense; Oat (a vena sativa) is also panicled. Pani- 
cle at the time of fructification open and spreading at length 
drooping. Widely and loosely is termed diffuse, erect if 
the branches point upward, contracted if the branches are 
drawn close to the rachis, which often is the case after the 
flowering period. 

The spikelets are ovate lanceolate ovate, crowded, and 
most of them almost sessile on the branches. Each spike- 
let consists of a pair of glumes shorter than the flowers, of 
which there are three to five ; the uppermost flower remains 
small and undeveloped. (Timothy we have seen to contain 
in each spikelet only one flower.) 

Lower palet stouter in structure than the npper one, mem- 
branaceo-herbaceous, with a delicate scarious margin, com- 
pressed-keeled, pointless, five-nerved, (the intermediate 
nerves more obscure or oDsolete) hairy at the margin and 
keel ; upper palet very delicate, two-toothed at the' apex. Sta- 
mens two to three^ stigmas plumose. 

The presence or absence, number and condition of the 
nerves (vascular bundles) in the glumes and palese are of the 
greatest importance in the analysis of grasses, for not only 

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the distinction of species, but even of genera is often de- 
tennined thereby. 

A nerve often extends over the lamina of the glume or 
palet, either at the apex, or underneath, from the dorsal or 
keel-nerve. If this extension is small and delicate, it is 
named a bristle or bristly apex, if stout and lengthy, an 
avm or beard. 

3. The common Oat. Avena sativa. L. Panicle large, 
simple, lax (spikelets remote). Spikelets two-flowered on 
capillary peduncles. Peduncles and branches rough down- 
ward. (Roughness felt by motion of the fingers down- 

Glumes larger than the flowers, many-nerved, (eight to 
ten) thin membranaceous, awnless, persistent. (The glumes 
holding fast to their pedicels after the grain hat? fallen off.) 
Lower palet herbaceous, rounded and awned on the back, 
above the base, at the point almost bicuspidate; the upper 
one bicarinate, awnless. Bicarinate means presenting the 
form of a Greek omega or transverse section. Awn 
twisted, geniculate (bent with an angle) one, to one and a 
half inches long. 

Stamina three, stigma, two plumose, palets investing the 
long, slightly tufted caryopsis, which is internally marked 
by a longitudinal furrow, hairy at the point. 

The seed of grasses (coryopsis) is either free, dropping 
ont from the palets like in Sporobolus and Diarrhena, or 
may be easily detached from the same like in the Wheat. 
At other times it is invested (firmly wrapped up in) one or 
both palece, like in Oat, or firmly connected with adhesions, 
like in the Barley. 

A significant feature in the comparison of grasses affords 
also the Ligule (see above) whether it be truncate, acute, 
maooth, hairy, bearded, papillary, etc. Characters are also 
derived from the root, from the nodes, mode of ramifica- 
ti<Mi by the branching of the culms. 

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The root is annual, perennial, creeping, stoloniferous, 
fibrous. Culms solitary, in tufts, recumbent, ascending, 
3mooth or rough, the nodes are sometimes bearded, in Herds 
grass (Agrostis vulgaris) from the lowest nodes, bulb-like 
intumescences. A creeping root is in fact a subteraneous 
stem. See fig. 

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As before stated, it is deemed necessary to speak only of 
those grasses indigenous to or growing in Tennessee. It will 
be endeavored to make the reader well acquainted with each 
species, and this will not be difficult if ordinary attention 
is paid to the directions. In speaking of each grass, both 
the common name and the botanic will be given. The bo- 
tanic names will be enclosed in brackets, and the first will 
denote the genus and the second the species to which the 
grass belongs ; for instance, blue-grass (Poa-pratensis), here 
Poa is the genus, and pratensis the species to which it be- 
longs. If farmers would make it their business to inspect 
and classify all strange grasses that may fall under their 
observation, a state of intelligent inquiry would be aroused 
that would greatly redound to the interest of agriculture. 
For the benefit of such, a table is hereby appended, so that 
any one may analyze grasses and locate them. But little 
practice will be necessary to familiarize the student with the 

Let the flowers of the grass be first examined. If but 
one is found in each spikelet, refer to No. 2, the left hand 
eolumn, and then examine and see if they are arranged in 
panicles or spikes ; if the former, then refer to No. 3 of the 
left hand column, and see whether or not they are awned. 
If awned, refer to No. 4, if without awns, to No. 12 of the 
left hand column. If unawned, and having two glumes, 
refer to 13, and so on. If without glumes and aquatic, it 
18 a Zizania or wild rice. If in the first examination the 
ipikelets are found to have two or more flowers, refer to 26 
at the left hand column, and see whether the inflorescence 

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m in panicles or spikes. If the former, refer to 27 of the 
left hand column. If the latter^ in spikes, refer to 39, 
and then see whether the spikelets are two-rowed, or one- 
sided. If the latter, refer to 45, and see whether the 
spikes are digitate and the spikelets in two rows. If thej 
a»e, refer it to the genus Eleusine. 

For convenience of reference a glossary is attached to this 


1 Spikelet with but one flower 2 

1 Spikelet with two or more flowers 26 

2 Flowers arranged in panicles 8 

2 Flowers in spikes 16 

5 With awns or beards 4 

I Without awns or beards 12 

4 Glumes large 5 

4 Glumes minute, unequal, one hardly seen 11 

4 Glumes none, grass aquatic /. . .2 Zizania 

^ Without abortive rudiments ' 6 

$ With an abortive rudiment of a second flower 62 HolcuB 

6 Paleae two 7 

6 Paleee three, upper awned, flowers polygamus 66 Sorghum 

T Paleae, with one awn 8 

7 Lower pale® with three twisted awns^ 15 Aristida 

8 PalcflB cartilaginous or gristly 9 

8 PaleflB herbaceous 10 

8 Pale» membranaceous, panicle open 7 Agrosfcis 

8 PvAesd membranaceous, panicle contiacted 8 Polypogon 

9 Flowers sessile or joined to stem at base IS Oryzopsis 

9 Flowers stipitate, fruit black 14 Stipa 

10 Flowers naked, with one stamen 9 Cinna 

10 Flowers hairy, stamens three 12 CalamagroetSa 

11 Stamens three 10 Muhlenbergia 

11 Stamens two 11 Brachyelytmm 

12 Glumes two 13 

IS Glumes none, leaves rough from the end backwards 1 Leersta 

II Paleee membranaceous 14 

II Palese leathery, spikelets all cauline 56 MilUnm 

II Palese leathery, fertile spikelet radical 57 Amphicaipon 

14 Fruit coated or covered with a husk 16 

14 Fruit naked 6 l^robohu 

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16 Flowers stalked 7 Agrostis 

15 Flowers sessile 5 Vilfft 

16 Flowers awned 17 

16 Flowers without awns 22 

17 Spikes solitary 18 

17 Spikes many, awnless, unilateral, pales cartilaginous. ..59 Panicum 
17 Spikelets two, fertile 68 Erianthus 

17 Spikes two, polygamous, sterile, flowers bearded. ..^64 Andropogon 

18 Spikes simple or nearly so 19 

18 Spikes paniculate, or lobed 21 

19 Involucre none 20 

19 Involucre of two or more bristles 60 Setaria 

19 Involucre burr-like 61 Cencbnis 

20 Palese with awns one to three tiroes their length 8 Alopecurus 

20 Pales with awns five times their length 44 Hordeum 

21 Both glumes and palese awned 10 Muhlenbergia 

21 Glumt 8 awnless, single palesB awned 54 Anthoxanthum 

21 Palese two, lateral flowers staminate, 58 Hierochloa 

22 Flowers perfect or polygamous 28 

22 Spikes monoecious .»*-•. 25 

28 Spikes one-sided 24 

23 Spikes cylindrical, solitary teflfiinal 4 Phleum 

24 Spikes two or more, spikelets suborbioular 58 Paspalum 

24 Spikes digitate or verticillate, linear 69 Panicum 

24 Spikes pedunculate, in a two-sided panicle 16 Spartina 

24 Spikes sessile, in a one-sided panicle 41 Lepturus 

25 Spikes all terminal, sterile above, fertile at base 62 Tripeacum 

25 Fertile spikes lateral, sterile ones terminal panicled 66 Zea 

26 Inflorescence in panicles 27 

26 Inflorescence in spikes 89 

27 Flowers awned 28 

27 Flowers without awns 88 

28 Lower palese awned on the back 29 

28 Lower pales awned on the apex 82 

89 Awn near the base of the pales 80 

29 Awn near the ai)ex of the pales 81 

SO Apex bifid, awn bent 60 Avena 

30 Apex bifid, awn bent, lower flower sterile 61 Arrhenatherum 

50 Apex multifid 47 Aira 

51 Pales with two bristly teeth 49 Trisetum 

II Pales bifid 87 Bromui 

tt Lower pales rounded, obtuse 85 Briia 

19 Lower pales entire, pointed, fruit coated. . ; 86 Festuca 

n Awn between two teeth, twisted 48 Danthonia 

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88 Terminal flower perfect 84 

88 Tenninal flower abotive, or a mere pedical 86 

84 Pale® entire, outer onemucronate 86 

84 Glumes unequal, like the lowe|^ abortive palese 09 Panicum 

84 Glumes equal, longer than the palese 65 Phalaris 

84 Lower pale® truncate, mucronate, inner bifld 88 Uniola 

84 Flowers silky-bearded on the rachis 89 Phragmites 

84 Spikelets terete, pale® seven-nerved 81 Glyceria 

84 Spikelets two to six, flve nerved 83 Poa 

84 Spikelets two to twenty, three nerved. 84 Eragrostis 

84 Spikelets flat, lower pale® laterally compressed 82 Bryzopyrum 

86 Scales two, styles two . . 36 Festuca 

86 Scales and styles three 40 Arundinaria 

86 Panicle contracted 87 

86 Panicle large, diffuse 8o MelicB 

87 Lower palea one-pointed or mucronate 88 

87 Lower palea pointless 29 Eatonia 

87 Lower palea three-cleft 24 Tricuspis 

87 Lower palea awnless , 25 Danthonia 

88 Stamens three 28 Eoehleria 

88 Stamens two 26 Diarrhena 

89 Spikelets two ranked T 87 

89 Spikelets unilateral 48 

40 Glumes broad 41 

40 Glumes subulate 42 

40 Glumes none 46 Gymnostichum 

41 Glumes two, in the tipper spikelet only 42 Lolium 

41 Glumes two, in each spikelet 48 Triticum 

42 Glumes collateral, spikelets in twos or more 46 Elymus 

42 Glumes opposite, spikelets solitary 45 Secale 

48 One perfect among several neutral ones 17 Ctenium 

48 One perfect flower below several neutral ones 44 

48 Spikelets conglomerate or paniculate 27 Dactylis 

48 Spikelets with more than one perfect flower 46 

, 44 Spikelets dense , 18 Boutelona 

44 Spikes filiform, racemed 19 Gymnopogon 

44 Spikes slender, digitate 20 Cynodon 

46 Spikes digitate, glumes and palea awnless, blunt 22 Eleusine 

46 Spikes racemed, slender 28 Leptochloa 

The grasses whioh we purpose to describe in the follow- 
ing pageS; are named in the following list. It is intended to 

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make the article on each grass final, as to that species, and 
then a few observations will be given on the adaptability 
of the different soils to each genus of grasses. The list is 
fiur more nnmerous than here given. Xhe others are confined 
either to the sea coast, salt marshes, or to points of altitude 
&r higher than is attained hy any lands within our States 

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In Part II, we shall treat of the Meadow Grasses, in the order named 
below : 

Timothy— Red-Top or Herds Grass— Tall Red-Top grass — Orchard 
grass — ^Wood Meadow grass— Rough-stalk Meadow grass — Willard's' 
Brome or Chess — ^English Rye grass — Italian Rye grass — ^Many-flow- 
ered Darnell — Crab or Crop grass — Millet — Hungarian grass — Bam 
grass — Bengal grass — Gkima grass — ^Egyptian grass — ^Meadow Oat grass — 
tfeans, Johnson or Egyptian grass — ^Red Clover— Alsike or Swedish 
Clover— Sapling Clover— Crimson Clover — Alfalfa or Lucerne — Japan 
Clover — Esparsette or Sainfoin — Vetch. 

Timothy — Herds Grass or Reb-top. 

TIMOTHY— (PWcttm Pratense). 

Spikes cylindrical or elongated, glumes hairy on the back, tipped 
with a bristle less than half their length ; leaves long, flat, rough, with 
long bheaths ; root perennial, on moist soils fibrous, on dry ones bul- 
bous, moBlly bulbous. 

This grass is known in New England as Herds grass^ 
from a Mr. Herd, who found it growing wild in New Hamp- 
shire^ and introdaeed it into cultivation. Further south, 

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however^ this name is only applied to Eed-top^ or Agrosiia 

Mr. Timothy Hanson carried it from New York to Caro- 
lina^ and from him it is known as timothy grass. 

There is much dispute as to its parent- 
age^ some claiming it as indigenous to 
the United States, while many others^ 
among them Dr. Gray, give it an Euro- 
pean origin. It is of little consequence 
where it sprang fi^m, it stands confes- 
sedly at the head of all meadow grasses^ 
not only in the amount of its yield, but 
in its superiority as a nutritious food for 
stock. It is eaten with more avidity 
than any other perennial grass, although, 
it has a very coarse, rough stem, and less 
fodder than many others. 

Its leaves are abundant near the 
ground, but those on the stalk are com- 
paratively few. Like most other mea- 
dow grasses it attains its greatest value 
as a food before the seeds are ripe. Tlie 
latter are very abundant and highly nu- 
tritious. From ten to thirty bushels are 
made on good land. 

It ripens late, and consequently favors the farmer very 
much, as he is able to save his wheat before cutting and 
curing his hay. It was a common custom at one time to 
sow it with clover, as it added to the value of the hay, and 
from the strength of its tall stems, it prevented the clover 
from lodging, but the fact of ripening so much later than 
clover, causing a great loss from shrinkage, has done 
away with this practice, especially as orchard grass is so 
much superior in that respect. Timothy is not suitable for 
pasturing, having scarcely any aftermath. Besides, the 

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roots are easily destroyed if the stems are taken off be- 
low the first joint, this mnch being required for their vital- 
ity. For this reason, also it is necessary to be careful to 
set the blade of the mower mfficiently high to leave the first 
joint intact. As has been stated, the roots are both fibrous 
and bulbous. These bulbs have but few rootlets starting 
out from them, the plant depending for its support princi- 
pally on the store of nourishment laid up within the bulbs. 
If, therefore, the stem is shaved off entirely, the bulbs^ 
being deprived of all nourishment, throw out tubers all 
around, and these send up shoots, seeking food in the air, 
but they are feeble, and if spared by the frosts of win- 
ter are so crippled they fall an easy prey to the scorch- 
ing suns of summer. For the same reason pasturing 
will effectually destroy a timothy meadow if persisted 
in. The stock will bite off all vegetation, leaving the 
roots to perish, or if hogs are allowed to run on it they 
quickly discover and destroy the succulent bulbs. When 
about half the blossoms turn brown, and at least the upper 
part of the spike or head is still purple, a yellowish spot 
will make its appearance at or near the first joint, and 
this is the true indication for the harvest to begin, for this 
spot will soon extend if allowed to remain, to the spike, and 
the whole plant will be a stem of wood. The appearance 
of this spot also tells of the maturity of the bulbs, and they 
are not so liable to injury from cutting as before. If this 
joint is lefl, the tubers will remain green and fresh during 
the entire winter ; but their destruction is inevitable if it 
is taken away at any time during the year. These remarks 
do not apply with equal force to timothy when it has a fi- 
brous root, but the two kinds are so intimately mingled 
there is no practical difference. 

Timothy stands at the head of all grasses in its nutritive 
qualities. A specimen taken from the field according to 
the above directions, yielded on analysis, water 57.21, flesh- 
forming principle 4.86, fiit-forming principles 1.60, heat- 

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producing principles 22.85, woody fibre 11.82, and mineral 
matters 2.26, in one hundred parts. (Way.) A compari- 
son of its relative value as a food will be made further 
on. But the above nutritious specimen will never be pro- 
duced, if the plant is allowed to stand too long. On the con- 
trary, as a fipod it would become woody and worthless, all 
its starch, sugar, albuminoids, and other nutritive princi- 
ples having been deposited in the seeds, and the stalk i« 
nothing more than a woody support. 

Cattle fed on this kind, or on hay that has been allowed 
to get wet and ferment, will quickly lose their flesh and the 
hair become rough. ' 

Timothy is exhaustive to the soil, and being a heavy 
feeder, requires attention. No crop can be raised on ground, 
that will not extract a certain amount of its vitality, but 
unless something is taken the farmer would receive nothing. 
Therefore, it is the duty of the farmer to supply by ma- 
nures, tlie deficiency that occurs. And this is made the 
more apparent from the fact, that, the man who applies the 
most manure will invariably get the best returns for his labor. 
On good, rich land, bottom is best, timothy will make two 
tons per acre. By a heavy application of compost or manure 
from the barn-yard, it can be raised to five tons, and the 
straw lengthened from two feet, its usual height, to five and 
even six feet, and from the same cause, the heads from two 
inches to twelve inches in length. 

It is a great and sufe bearer of seeds, but.the seeds are 
easily destroyed by heat in the mow, unless precautions are 
used in caring for them. In fact, so many adulterations, 
and non-germinating seeds are thrown upon the market, it 
would be well for each farmer to save his own seed, by de- 
voting a certain amount of ground to it. Let the timothy 
get fully ripe, and, by adjusting the mower, save as little stalk 
with the seeds as possible. This should be carefully spread 
and beat out as soon as convenient, and it is easily done. 

The time of sowing is various. If sown in the spring it 

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is liable to be killed by summer heat, and if sown late in 
autumn, 4t runs the same risk with frost. It is, therefore, 
bad policy to run the risk of not only losing the cost of seed 
but also the labor of preparing the ground. Much must 
be left to the judgment of the farmer in selecting a suitable 
day, but it is safe to say that it should always be sown in 
the fall, early enough to get a root strong enough to resist 
winter killing. If sown in a very dry soil it will incur the 
farther danger of germinating from dews, and of being killed 
by the sun. Select the time when the ground is moist and 
the days not excessively hot. The quantity of seed per acre 
is various, but the sower who spares his seed will reap in 
proportion. Not less than 12 pounds if mixed, and if alone 
at least three gallons of clean seed will be required to se- 
cure a good stand. But it will be better to test the seeds 
beforehand, for a failure from bad seeds will cause a year's 

Timothy does best on rich, alluvial, moist land. But any 
rich land, whether upland or lowland, will produce it, if 
proper attention is given. Wherever calcareous loam exists 
it can be profitably put to timothy. It will not grow to any 
extent at a greater elevation than 4,000 feet above the sea, 
but on any less height there is no grass capable of greater 
diflusion. In order to secure a stand of timothy, the follow- 
ing simple rules may be adopted : 

1. Be sure of your seed by testing them before sowing. 

2. Put plenty of seed oa the ground ; if too thin, it will 
require time to turf over, if too thick, it will quickly ad- 
just itself. 

3. Sow early enough to enable the seed to get a foothold 
before winter sets in. Late fall and winter sowings are always 
precarious. September is best if there is no drought, other- 
wise wait for a "season.^' 

4. Unlike other grasses, timothy will not admit of pas- 
turage. The nipping of stock will destroy the tubei^. 

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80 the gbas8e8 of tekkessee. 

5. Nevek cut the swabd below the fibst joint. 

6. Be sure to have the' ground well pulverized. 

It is necessary to impress one idea that has already been 
stated. Do not allow the timothy to stand longer than 
the time that the yellow spot appears near the first joint, 
as it will from that time ripen very rapidly, and be worth- 
less. General Harding, before the Farmers^ Club, called 
attention to the fact, that, the greatest enemy of tim- 
othy is blue-grass. If stock is allowed to pass from a 
blue-grass pasture, at will, to a meadow of timothy, they 
will quickly sow the meadow in blue-grass, and the latter 
will, in a short time, supersede the former. In the meet- 
ing above alluded to, timothy being the subject of discus- 
sion, Gen. Harding being called on for his views, said 
"he had had considerable experience with timothy. He 
regarded timothy the most valuable of all the grasses for 
hay, and more especially for hay that must be handled or 
shipped or baled. He had tried several varieties. Many 
years ago timothy was a grass of which it was a very easy 
thing to secure a stand, and also a considerable amount of 
grass, and the meadow lasted lor many years. He used to 
have meadows twenty, and even thirty years of age, but 
were, even at that age, good, productive meadows. Timo- 
thy was introduced into this country before blue-grass.^' The 
General remarked, he considered blue-gras8 a great enemy 
of timothy meadows. Before the introduction of blue- 
grass, our timothy meadows lasted almost without limit, 
and produced year after year, for twenty or thirty years. 
"But since we have been growing blue-grass more extensively, 
it gets into our timothy meadows in a few years and will 
root out the timothy ; so now, in buying my timothy seed, 
I look more carefully for blue-grass seed than for the seed 
of any noxious weeds. I would rather sow dock — I 
would rather sow anything in my timothy than blue- 
grass. Still I value blue-grass in its place, as the 
first of grasses, yet it causes more trouble in our mea* 

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dows than anything else. Again^ our seasons have be- 
come dryer, and there is mach greater difficulty in getting a 
stand^of timothy than formerly. When I commenced- sow- 
ing meadows, I had no trouble in getting a stand of tim- 
othy, whether I sowed the seed in the fall or in the spring, 
whether I sowed in the fall with wheat or barley, or in the 
spring with my oats. For many years I never failed. Now 
I sow in the fall, and the timothy is frequently winter- 
killed ; I sow in the spring, and it is killed by the long 
droughts of summer, but these difficulties should not deter 
us. We should continue to sow, and persevere unljil we get 
a stand. Hence, if I sow in the fall and my timothy is 
killed, I sow in the spring, if it is then killed, I sow again 
and again, until I succeed. I have never given up, and 
have never entirely failed, after repeated efforts. My sow- 
ing last spring Was very fortunate; I have a very fine and 
promising young meadow now, of one hundred acr^, that I 
sowed last spring a year ago. I am satisfied, however, that 
under the changed state of our climate, we must sow more 
«eed than we have been in the habit of' sowing. I got a 
good stand of timothy many years ago with a gallon of seed 
to the acre, now I would recommend not less than one and 
a half gallons, or even a peck of seed to the acre. Again, 
the better the stand you get, the' thicker your grass comes 
up the more will it keep out the weeds. The white blossom, 
like the blue-grass, has also increi^ed largely, and seems to 
be yet increasing. That is a troublesome weed for our mea- 
dows. Still that is not as pernicious as it seems to the inex- 
perienced. True, you cannot sell white blossom in the mar- 
ket, but if you expect to consume the hay at home, and 
make your timothy with a large amount of white blossom 
in it, you will find you will have good hay. Stock will eat 
it^ and readily ; mules and cattle seeming to do almost a» 
well upon it as upon the timothy alone.'' 

^'I know that some differ from me in considering the whitt 
blossom as troublesome as any other plant^ and throw it 

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away. I have some hands to run along the windrow and 
pick out the white blossoms, and tnake hay of the white 
blossoms alone ; it pays very well for the labor of separat- 
ing it. I would rather not have to do it, for all the labor 
is needed at that season of the year; but I ^yill not throw 
the white blossoms away, for it is valuable. I stack it In 
my pastures, and let the cattle go to it at will during the 
winter. I also stack my straw, and that helps the cattle.^' 

" Sometimes there is also a fine growth of crab grass, and 
some fox-tail and rag weed. I rake this up ; you cannot 
sell it in the market, but it largely pays for the labor of 
saving it. I have this winter kept a large number of steers 
that I expect to bring into the market next spring, and they 
have had nothing else but straw, and this kind of weed. I 
sprinkle a little salt on the stack, and the stock eat it and 
do well on it. I have no doubt but they would do better 
on the better hay, but I cannot afford to feed beef-cattle on 
first-class hay, worth one dollar per hundred pounds in the 
market, while I can save that which is not worth one cent 
vin the market and feed it to them.'' * 

"It is valuable in another respect. It comes on at the con- 
clusion of your harvest, and after corn is laid by. The 
clover comes on at the busiest season of the year, and hence 
I prefer the timothy." 

"Now, what is the proper time to cut timothy ? Some 
would say as soon as it blooms ; others would say, after it 
has bloomed and the bloom has fallen. If I could cut it 
all on the day I thought it would make the best hay, I 
would cut it just about the time it has lost the largest por- 
tion of its bloom. If you cut it too green— like green fod- 
der — the stalk will shrivel, and after being cured, the stalk 
will break short, but if allowed to get a little riper the stalk 
will bend." 

*'How much sun should it have ? That is a question that 
can only be determined by experience. The proper time to 
put it up is when it has had as little sun as possible^ so you 

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are assured it will not mould. If there is too much 
moisture in it, it will mould, and thereby injure the hay. 
If the weather is settled, it will cure better in cocks, but 
all these things must be governed by circumstances.'' 

"The best time to cut hay is just after the bloom stops. I 
think timothy pays best sowed alone. It can be cured bet- 
ter in cocks, but sometimes in bad weather it will not do to 
risk it in cocks. I pasture my timothy meadows, but it ' 
assists in introducing blue-grass. I would prefer to sow in 
the fall, as early in September as possible. I have tried 
plaster on timothy, but do not know that I have derived 
any benefit from it. The best blue-grass land is the best 
for timothy, and I would prefer it to be rich limestone 

It is highly probable one cause of the General's meadows 
failing in six or seven years, is the fact, he admits, of pas- 
turing them. It is a well ascertained fact, that timothy • 
will not bear pasturing, and attention to this and leaving 
the first joint uncut will most probably make our meadows 
again live twenty or thirty years. 

At the meetipg of the Stock Breeders' Association, in 
February, 1878, Gen. W. H. Jackson, who is farming with * 
Gen. Harding, said that they found the best forerunner of 
timothy to be Hungarian grass. If this is sown in the 
summer and harvested in August or September, and timothy 
sown upon the stubble and harrowed in, the very best stand 
could be obtained. The Hungarian grass destroys all 
noxious weeds, and gives a certain degree of compactness to 
the soil necessary to secure a good stand of timothy. 

The porosity of the soils of the Central Basin makes 
this, or rolling of the land, essential conditions of success. 
On the clayey lands of the valley of East Tennessee or the 
Rimlands, there is no more diflBculty in securing a stand of 
timothy than of herds grass or clover. I have seen as much 
as three tons of timothy hay cut from a bottom field on Eed 
river in Montgomery county, nine months after seeding. 

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BED-TOP'-HEBDS GRABB—iAffrosti^ vulgearis,) 

Erect steins, slender, smooth, polished, round; roots creeping, pan- 
icle oblong, leaves linear, ligole very short, lower pale® mostly awnless^ 
and stem nerved. Flowers in July. 

It was introduced from England^ where it was known as 
Bent grass. When first cultivated it went by the name of 
English grass. There are many species now raised in 
England, which are still known as Fine Bent. It is scattered 
over the whole State and but few old pastures are free from 
it, but there it is so dwarfed by close grazing and treading 
that it shows to but little advantage. It is commonly 
called in these situations fine-top. 

Next in importance to timothy as a meadow grass stands 
Herds grass. Unlike the former, it also makes a good 
grazing grass — in fact grazing is necessary to its preserva- 
tion, as, if allowed to go to seed a few years, it dies out. It 
loves a moist soil, and on swampy places that will grow 
scarcely anything else, herds grass will thrive wonderfully. 
It is the most permanent grass we have, 
and by means of its long, creeping roots, 
will even, if sown too thin, quickly 
take possession of the ground. It is 
greedily eaten, while young and tender, in 
the spring by all kinds of stock, and affords 
a fine nourishing hay, though in less quantity 
per acre than timothy. It grows from two 
to three feet high, and with its purplish 
panicles, when in full bloom, presents a 
most charming sight in its soft feathery un- 
It is oflener mixed with other grasses than sown alonei 
especially with timothy and clover. But it fails to come 
into harvest a^ early as clover, and the same objections may 
be urged against it that are to timothy. It yields, on moist 
bottom land, from one and a half to two tons per acre, but 
on uplands it is not a good producer. On thin lands it will 

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BED-TOP. 86 

not gain a sufficient height to justify harvesting at all. It 
withstands the effeets of drought much better than timothy. 
In England it is supposed to grow best on sandy soils. 
8ach soils suit it in West Tennessee. Its efifects when 
fed to milk cows are to greatly enrich and yellow the butter, 
and European dairymen think they cannot do without it in 
their pastures. By the Woburn experiments at the time of 
flowering, it yielded 10,209 pounds of grass, which lost in 
drying 6,615 pounds, and furnished 632 pounds of nutritive 
matter. Cut when' the seeds were ripe, it yielded 9628 
lbs. of grass, which lost exactly half its weight in drying and 
afforded only 261 lbs. of nutritious matter. From this it would 
appear that this grass is doubly as valuable for feeding pur- 
poses when cut at the time of flowering. A writer in the 
Rural Sun, under date of February 18, 1878, institutes a 
comparison between the value of this grass and timothy. 

"The experience of Mr. Smith, that timothy lasts but a few 
years, while red-top remains permanently, corresponds with 
the general experience of the country, viz : that timothy 
lasts about three years and red-top until it is replowed. 
While the yield per acre on our best lands would not be so 
much as timothy, yet our poorer soils which will not pro- 
duce timothy, will bring fair crops of red-top. Timothy, 
having bulbous roots, is subject to be killed by being closely 
cut in hot, dry weather, and is not fit for pasturage, because 
the bulbs where bitten or bruised by being trod upon, die, 
and it is also likely to form tussocks. Herds grass, on the 
contrary, has fibrous roots, occupies the entire surface, makes 
a sod and bears close pasturage. Sown with clover, it will 
occupy the soil by the time the clover dies out. Herds 
grass seedflfare now very cheap, and half a bushel of Herds 
grass seed sown to the acre with the clover sown in the spring, 
would pay well for the small expenditure. There are 
425,000 seeds in an ounce of Herds grass seed, and this 
imall amount evenly distributed over an acre would giv^e 
about nine and three-fourth seeds to each square foot, while 

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th,e amount recommended, say one-half bushel of six pounds^ 
would give, say 936 seeds to the square foot, or six and a 
half seeds to the square inch/' 

For stopping gullies in old fields it is superior to blue 
grass, as it will throw its long, searching roots from the top 
down the sloping banks of the washes, and fasten to every 
patch of good soil at the bottom, and then^rom every joint 
starts up a stalk to get a {reeh hold. It afibrds a very 
good aftermath from which, in wet falls, a fair crop may be 
out. Unless well tramped in the late fall it is liable to 
form tufts that rise out of the soil from the effects of 
freezing, and are destroyed. Therefore, after cutting, let 
on the stock and their feet will insure a good turf, and 
besides, will destroy weeds. But the cattle should be taken 
off the pasture after rains have filled the earth with water, or 
it will become too rough for the proper use of the mower. 

The quantity of seed per acre, when sown alone, is about 
half a bushel. The seed is usually sold in the chaff, it 
being difficult to separate it. When badly cleaned a bushel 
per acre will not be too much. 

The time for harvesting is when it is in full flower, or as 
soon thereafter as possible, when all the ejiements that are 
necessary to form the seeds are still in the stalk and leavesv 
Left to ripen fully, it becomes woody and innutritions. 

Many pursue the plan of mixing the timothy and Herds 
grass together, as they ripen together, and the Herds grass 
being much lower than the former fills in well, and the two 
will make a more abundant yield than either separate. But 
one requires pasturage and that will destroy the other. 

It should be sown in September, unless sown on wheat, 
and then as early as practicable, to enable the roots to get 
sufficient depth to resist the cold of winter. If sown alone 
it will, like timothy, make about a half crop the ensu- 
ing year. But it is a difficult matter to induce our Ten- 
nessee farmers to forego a crop of something every year, 
consequently it is usually sown over a grain field, either 

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RED-TOP. 87 

wheat, rye or barley. There are a great many marshy spots 
in Tennessee, especially on the Tennessee and Mississippi 
rivers, so full of water that nothing can be Culti- 
vated on them, and on these fine crops of Herds grass 
could be secured every year, which would certainly be far 
preferable to allowing them to run to waste. These bot- 
toms are usually of surprising fertility, and would go far to 
supply the great deficiency of hay and obviate the necessity 
of importing from our more thrifty northern neighbors. 
It is a perennial, and if properly tramped every autumn 
will keep good an indefinite length of time. 

This grass also finds a most congenial soil throughout 
West Tennessee, in many places in that division of the 
State attaining the height of five feet. It is probably bet- 
ter adapted to all the soils of the State than any other 
grass. I have seen it growing in princely luxuriance 6000 
feet above the sea on the bald places of the Uri'aka Moun- 
tains. It flourishes upon the slopes and in the valleys of 
East Tennessee. It yields abundantly upon the sandstone 
soils of the Cumberland Table-land, and beautifies the 
rolling surfaces of the Highland Rim. In the Central 
Basin it sparkles in the beauty of its verdure, and ii 
second only to red clover and timothy as a meadow grass. 
No other grass is sown so much for hay ijpon the landi 
lying at the western base of the Cumberland Table-land. 
In Warren county especially it is highly esteemed for its 
longevity and fruitfulness. In reply to a communication 

jiHf^rf'a»sPrl tn him in rpcrard to this graSS, Mr. P. H. Mar- 

Oakuam, Wabben County, Tbnn. / 
January, 26, 1878. J 

ille, Tennessee: 

for Herds grass and the best time fbr 

n the damp, marshy swamp lands, as 
will grow in sandy lands, but the land 
or treading of stock. 

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It should be sown the last of September or first of October — any time 
after the equinoctial rains to the 15th of October. It is better to be 
sown alone, but will do very well sown with wheat. When sown in 
the spring it is usually overrun vnth weeds. 

As a meadow or grazing grass it is very valuable. It yields on 
good soil from a ton to one and one-half tons of superior hay, the 
stems and blades much fewer and somewhat softer than timothy. I 
prefer it to timothy — my stock prefer it 

For grazing it is very valuable. Upon land where limeptone is ab- 
sent it flourishes, has greater tenacity of life, makes a sod almost im- 
pervious to hoof and tooth — in fact it is the blue grass of the mountain 
district. We have but little lime in our soils and therefore blue grass 
does not grow well. For a meadow I prepare the soil well with plow 
and harrow and sow one bushel of clean seed per acre, one-half one 
way and then sow the other half across the first so as to avoid leaving 
spaces unoccupied. A light brush may be dragged over it or not, as ia 
preferred. I prefer to leave it without brush or roller. The roller it 
the best ; in fact for a meadow it prepares the surface well for the 
mower or sythe. If sown by the first of October, alone, a crop of hay 
the next season may be cut. perhaps equal to any it will ever after- 
ward yield, and worth more than a crop of wheat o- com. 

Tlie time to cut for hay is just before the seeds rii)en, but if seeds are 
desired let them ripen, and if cut immediately will still make fine hay. 
For pastures I would advise a mixture of orchard grass with it. Orchard 
grass grows well in the same soil with Herdb grass. 

I am gratified that you are giving to the country so much general in- 
formation upon the subject of agriculture. It is yet possible to reno- 
vate our exhausted soils, and restore prosperity to our country again. 
Our soils and our mines are our wealth, but our people must be taught 
to understand the value of manures, the rotation of crops and the breed- 
ing and feeding of domestic animals. 
TALL BED-TOP— (2Vict«/)w«e8ferM)wfe8.) 

Spikelets, three to twelve flowers, glumes unequal, rachis of the 
•pike bearded below each flower, lower palea much longer than the 
upper, oonvex, hairy on the back, three nerved and three pointed bf 
projection of the nerve, stamens three, stigmas dark purple. 

The Tricuspis, three pointed, is a meadow grass and 
thrives best on sandy soils or old fields. When in fall 
bloom it makes a good show bat does not yield a sufficiently 
large crop to justify sowing in preference to several 
others. It is said to be harsh and wiry. 

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ORCHABD GRABS— {Dactylis Qlomeraia,) 

With broadly linear, rather rough, pale and keeled leaves and a 
dense panicle of one-sided clusters, on which the spikelets are much 
crowded, each three to four flowered, both the glumes and the lat- 
erally compressed-keeled flower palet tapering into a short awn, 
rough-ciliate on the keel. Flowers in early summer. (Gray). 

Whether a native of America or 
Europe, or indigenous to both coun- 
tries, it is well known that Orcnard 
grass is diffused more extensively than 
almost any other grass, growing all 
over Europe, the northwestern parts of 
Africa, and in Asia Minor. Known 
as Cock's foot in England for many 
centuries, it was not appreciated as a 
I forage plant until sent to that coun- 
try from Virginia. It is a perennial, 
and grows upon congenial soils any 
where between 35 and 47 degrees north 
latitude. It likes a soil moderately 
dry, porous, fertile and inclined to be sandy. On stiff, clay 
soils, retentive of moisture, the roots do not acquire such a 
vigor as to give a luxuriant top growth. The feeble- 
ness of the roots upon such a soil makes them liable 
to be thrown up by the earth. It may be grown successfully 
on a lean, sterile sort, by a top dressing of stable manure, 
yielding during a moderately wet season from two to three 
crops. In its rapid growth in early spring lies one of its 
chief merits, furnishing a rich bite for cattle earlier than 
almost any other grass. It also grows later in the fall. It 

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is very hardy when well set, makes a great yield, grows 
rapidly and vigorously upon suitable soils, supplies a rich, 
nutritious hay, which, compared with timothy, is in value 
in the proportion of 7 to 10. It starts out early in spring, 
and comes into blossom about the time of red clover. It 
attains a height, upon good soils, of three feet, though upon 
soils of great fertilitv it sometimes reaches the height of 
five feet. After Uaing out, it springs up rapidly, sometimes 
in rainy weather growing three or four inches within a 
week. This quality of rapid growth unfits it for a lawn 
grass unless cut every week. 

Nevertheless this very quality makes it stand unrivalled 
as a pasture grass. The Hon. John Stanton Gould says in 
his essay upon this grass: "The laceration produced by 
the teeth of cattle instead of injuring, actually stimulates 
it to throw out additional leaves, yielding the tenderest and 
sweetest herbage." 

The chii^f objection to Orchard grass is that it grows too 
much in stools or tussocks. This can he remedied by sow- 
ing e larger quantity of seed per acre. Never less than two 
bushels (14 pounds to the bushel) per acre should be sown, 
and two and a half bushels wouU even be preferable. Mr. 
Gould says that if the meadows are dragged over in spring 
with a fine toothed harrow, and then rolled, this disposition 
will be completely over^come. The disposition to stool can 
also be checked by sowing with other grasses. A half gal- 
lon of clover seed, one gallon of herds grass, and two bush- 
els of Orchard grass,per acre, sown about the 25th of March, 
in our latitude, will mate an excellent pasture. By the 
middle of June, upon good soils, the amount of forage will 
equal the best fields of clover. It should not, however, be 
pastured the first season until August, however tempting it 
may be. In this many Tennessee farmers have made a mis- 
take. By pasturing before the roots are well established 
much of the grass is pulled up and destroyed. I have met 
with many far^lers who condemned the Orchard grass for 

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want of hardiness and endurance, but in every case the fault 
was with the farmer himself in pasturing too early. 

Orchard grass grows well in the shade, and hence its 
name. It withstands hot, dry weather better than any 
other valuable grass. Three good crops of leafy hay, if 
the iiieather is seasonable, may be counted on after the first 
year, but only one will blossom. 

The analysis Prof. Way of the green grass in blossom by 
gives the following result : 


Water : 70. 

Patty matter ' 0.94 

Flesh formers 4.06 

Heat producers. 13.30 

Woody fibre 10.11 

Ash 1.59 

Analysis by Scheven and Ritthausan gives : 

Water 65.00 

Fat 80 

Flesh formers 3.00 

Heat producers. 12. 60 

Woody fibre 16.10 

Ash.. , 2.40 

The Woburn experiments developed some interesting 
fau^ pertaihing to this grass. Grown upon a rich, sandy 
loam, and cut the middle of Aprii, the green grass weighed 
10,209 pounds per acie, in which there were 1,190 pounds 
of nutritious matter. Cut, when in f^ill bloote, the green 
produce weighed 27,905^ pounds. This lost in dessication 
16,045 pounds^ or a little more than half, and furnished 
1,089 pounds of nutritious matter. After the seed^ were 
fully ripe, the green produce weighed less by 1,361 pounds 
per acre, but there were 1,415 more pounds of dry hay, 
with an excess also of nutritive extract of 363 pounds. The 
aftermath, however, was not so good, and in the loss of 
tiiis the advantage of an increased yield of hay was coun- 

The hay made of orchard grass, as analyzed by Wolff 
sod Kiiop, gives: 

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Water , 14.3 

Organic matter 81. 1 

Aflh 4.6 

Albuminoids 11.6 

Carbohydrates ,. . ..40.7 

Crude fibre 28.9 

Fat 2.7 

The albuminoids are the nitrogenous compounds or flesh- 
formers ; the carbohydrates are the non-nitrogenous com- 
pounds, and includes the fat, starch, sugar, pectin, etc. Mr. 
Sinclair, by a series of experiments carefully conducted, 
demonstrated that Orchard grass, more than any other grass, 
when young, yields the greatest amount of nutrition. 

It is of great importance that the seed from hardy plants 
be sown. In no department of agriculture does the old 
maxim " like produces like '' obtain in a greater degree than 
in this grass. Seed from weakly, sickly plants will pro- 
duce the same kind of offspring, however fertile the soil 
may be. Messrs. Lawson and Son, by selecting the best 
seed, and sowing for several years none but the best of each 
generation, established a new variety of Orchard grass, 
known by its great size and vigor as the Giant Cock's foot. 
Let farmers be careful, therefore, in saving seed to sow from 
the most vigorous growth. * 

The reason why so many bare spots are seen in pastures 
and meadows of this grass is due to two causes : 1st, the 
land is generally not half prepared to receive the seed ; and 
2d, there is a penny wise and pound foolish policy in sow- 
ing too few s«ed. Let the land be well broken by deep and 
thorough plowing, and then be finely pulverized by repeated 
harrowings. Sow the seed, the thicker the better, and run 
a light brush or harrow over the land, so as to cover the 
seed slightly. Mr. W. D. Gallagher sums the whole mat- 
ter up : " Plow the land deep, pulverize the soil well, be 
generous as to the quantity of 'seed, let that seed be good, 
sow it evenly, give the land as good treatment afterwards 
as is given to meadow lands in timothy.'^ 

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Its chief superiority over timothy lies in the valae of its 
aftermath. It will improve under depasturing when a tim- 
othy meadow would be rendered worthless. 

To sum up the merits of this grass: 

1. It is better suited to every variety of soil than any 
other. I have seen it growing with vigor on mountain 
heights and in valley plains^ on sandy loams and calcareous 
soils: on the coarse sandstone soils of the Cumberland 
Mountain^ and on the tertiary loess and alluvium of West 
Tepnessee as well as upon the cretaceous sands of that di- 
vision. I have grown it upon the siliceous soils of the 
Eimlands, and have seen it enliven the landscape of 
the Central Basin with its mantle of verdure. It is 
best adapted to the sandy loams of West Tennessee and to 
the lands of the Central Basin having a porous subsoil. 
On lands having a tenacious clay foundation^ the roots are 
checked in their descent, and the growth is not so luxuriant, 
nor is the duration of the pasture so great. 

2. It will grow with greater rapidity than any other 
grass, and for this reason will sustain a large number of 
animals, and is excellent for soiling purposes. 

3. It will grow in the shade. This quality will enable 
the farmers to utilize their woodlands as pasture, and so 
make them a source of profit. 

4. It will resist drought better than any other grass. 
The hot summers make this a very valuable quality 
in any grass. Often in July and August the pastures be- 
come so parched as to afford but a small amount of grazing. 
Orchard grass then comes to the rescue and supplies the 
deficiency. According to Col. Bowman, of Kentucky, 
Orchard grass, owing to its capacity to resist drought, and 
in consequence of its rapid growth, will yield more pastur- 
age than the best blue grass sod. 

5. It is both a pasture and a hay grass. After a crop of 
hay has been taken off in June, the aftermath will furnish 
a good pasture throughout the remainder of the summer. 

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A prominent sheep raiser of Tennessee who has been carry- 
ing a thousand sheep or more, says, during the summer it 
will carry double as many sheep as blue grass, acre for acre ; 
but that blue grass will furnish more and better winter 

6. It may be sown in the spring or fall with small grain 
or alone. It is best not to sow it with grain, as the extra 
production of grass, when sown alone, is worth more than 
the grain and grass grown together. It may be mown as 
hay or cut with reapers or cradles, and bound in shoavei 
like oats. 

WOOD MEADOW GRASS— (Poa nemoralis), 

Spikelets <: vate, compressed, flowers two to ten in' an open panicle ; 
glumes shorter than the flowers; lower palea compressed, keeled, 
pointless, five nerved ; stamens two or three, seed oblong, free ; stems 
tufted ; leaves smooth, flat and soft 

This, together with many others, be- 
longs to the same family with blue grass. 
It grows from one and a half to two 
feet high ; has a perennial creeping root, 
and an erect, smooth, slender stem. It 
grows in swamps or watery soils, and 
very rank, and flowers in June, ripening 
its seed the following month. 

It has not been utilized as a meadow 
grass in Tennessee, but from its luxu- 
riant foliage, it would appear to be a 
good kind for mixing in swampy soils 
with other grasses, as stock are exceed- 
ingly fond of it, affording, as it does, a 
very fine, succulent, nourishing food. 
On analysis it yielded water 87.58, 
flesh-forming principles 3.22, fat-form- 
ing principles .81, heat-producing prin- 
ciples 3.98, woody matter 3.13, min- 
eral matters 1.28, from 100 parts, cut green. It is thus. 

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as will be seen, but little inferior to blue grass. It is best 
sown in September or February, on the snow, and requires 
two pounds of seed per acre. It is a fine pasture grass as 
well as meadow. 

BOUGH STALK MEADOW— (Poa trivialu). 

This species of the Poa is a favorite in England, and 
stands there in the same estimation as the blue grass does 
here. It may be said to be a giant blue grass, as it grows 
very tall, and yields about a ton of hay the first cutting. 
It can with difficulty be distinguished from the blue grass, 
except in size, and wanting the wooly covering of the seeds, 
as in the latter. However, it does not resist the inclemen- 
cies of the weather as well as blue grass. Jn this climate 
it would be a valuable mixture with other grasses, as it 
afibrds a good aftermath, but alone it does not turf well. 
On analysis, it yields almost identically the same ingredients 
with blue gra&s. It is eaten greedily by all kinds of stock, 
and though it does not make a very early pasture, it yet 
grows rapidly when the weather becomes warm. It is well 
adapted to moist, clayey soils. When sown alone, twelve 
pounds of seed per acre are used. Pastured too heavily, 
the roots become exposed to the sun, and it is liable to be 
destroyed by the heat. It mixes well with orchard grass. 
Calcareous loams are best suited to it. 

WTTiTiAKDS BBOME— CHESS OR CHEAT— (^r(mitc8 seealinus. 

It belongs to the family of Bromes, has panicled flowers with spike- 
kts, from five to many flowered ; glumes not quite equal, shorter than 
the flowers, mostly keeled, the lower ones five, the upper three to rdne 
nerved, palea herbaceous, lower one convex on the back or compressed, 
keeled, five to nine nerved, awned or bearded from below tne tip, 
upper palea at length adhering to the groove of the oblong gndn, 
fringed on the keel, stamens three styles attached below the apex of 
the ovary. 

This pest and scourge of the wheat grower is not treated 
of here for the purpose of encouraging its growth as a food 

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for stock, but rather as it has been lauded by some writers 
as a good food, to expose its worthless and deleterious effects 
when once engrafted on our fields. 

We have given in the " Wheat Culture of Tennessee/^ a 
resume of its history and character more fully than will be 
necessary here, to which the reader is referred. 

The grasses of this series are coarse, with large spikelets, 
generally, when ripe. A few years ago this terrible pest was 
heralded by a great many agricultural^ papers as being a 
fine hay for cattle, and the seed was advertised and 
sold at enormous prices. The public, always anxious to be 
humbugged, and ready to get a crop without adequate work, 
readily took the bait, and it at once became popular. A 
Mr. Willard was mainly instrumental in giving popularity 
to this scheme, and hence, fastened his name to it. Several 
agricultural societies lent their influence to the humbug, 
and so it ran its short course of popularity. In fact, it is 
only eaten by cows when they can get nothing else. It h^ 
some nutritious properties about it, as has almost every other 
kind of grass, but its injury to the farm &r surpasses any- 
supposed virtues it may possess. The seed is a mere point 
of albumen, sheathed in such a matting of hulls as to be 
almost impervious to moisture. Placed below the vivify- 
ing influence of the sun and air, it will remain uuinjured 
in the earth many years, and then when, by stirring the 
ground, it is brought to a germinating depth, it will at once 
raise its baleful head, as if triumphant at its victory over 

Thus, when once introduced into a farm, it is years before 
it can 'be destroyed, in fact this can only be done by persistent 
cultivation. It will ruin wheat, both by impairing its 
quality, and hence its sale, and also by appropriating the 
fertilizing que^ities of the soil, which should go to the sus- 
tepance of the wheat. 

A common error, that it belongs to the same order as 
wheat or triticum may be exposed at once by reference to 

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CHEAT, 97 

the botanic description given above. It is a well known 
axiom, .that each order of grasses is maintained indefinite- 
ly, though different species hybridize with each other. 
Thus, for instance, many species of the Bromes may be cre- 
ated by hybridization, and many species of wheat can be 
generated from a like hybridization of Triticii ; but never 
has there been, nor will there ever be, an instance in which 
wheat can be changed into chess or blue grass. Aj3 easiljr ^ 
one as the other. The laws of nature forbid it, otherwise * 
there would soon be no regular order of vegetation, or in 
point of fact, of animals, for one rule would govern all, and 
cows would mingle with horses, dogs with man, and lions 
with hogs. 

Dr. Flint instituted some experiments as to the relative 
value of cheat as a food, and with singular good sense se- 
lected the only competent judges to determine the fact — a 
jury of cows. Being placed in a stable, they were fed in 
the same manger with timothy and herds grass mixed, and 
cheat. The hay was eaten and the cheat left. With swale 
hay (a mixture of wild grasses and sedges, a very inferior 
hay),- the swale hay was eaten and the cheat left. With 
reed canary grass (the most inferior hay of New England) 
they were both eaten alike. With cheat and oat straw, the 
cheat was eaten first. 

With reed canary grass and hay, the hay was taken first. 

With reed canary grass and swale, the latter was selected. 

With reed canary and corn stalks, the latter were pre- 

With cheat and millet, the millet was taken, cheat left. 

With cheat and corn-stalks, both were eaten alike. 

These experiments demonstrate its character as a food, as 
being by no means commensurate with its character as a 

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ENQLISH BYE QBASS— (Xo^tvm perewnS:) 

Introduced into this country from Europe, a good pasture grass, one lo 
two feet high, with loose spikes five to six inches long, seven to nine flow- 
twelve to eighteen of them arranged alternately on 
the flezuous rachifl, glumes single, fine nerved, linear — Ian- 
^ceolate, mucronate. Palese herbaceous, equal, the outer palea 
of the lowermost floret shorter than the glumes. Panicle 
spiked, about six inches lonj?. Culm one to eighteen inches 
high, erect, bearing five lo six leaves. Joints purplish, the 
first and second rather remote. (Oould.) 

This was the first grass cultivated in England, 
and is a great favorite, occupying the same posi- 
tion there that timothy does with us. It is but 
little cultivated in the United States. It is said 
to impoverish land rapidly, and will run out in 
a few years. The shortness of its roots will not 
permit it to^endure drouth, but it is adapted to a 
great variety of soils. It is of quick growth, 
and will sometimes yield forty bushels of seed 
per acre. It produces a nutritious herbage 
There are no less than seventy varieties produced 
in England. Wolfi^'s and Knop's analysis shows 
the hay to contain : 


Flesh formers 10.2 

Heat producers 38.9 

Crude fibre. 30.2 

Fat 2.7 

Ash 6.5 

Water 14.3 

One of the most valuable species of this grass 
is the Lolium Italicwm mentioned below^ We do not re- 
gard the ordinary English rye grass of special value to 
Tennessee farmers. 

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ITALIAN BYE GnAB8—{Lolium Italicum). 

Spikeleta manj flowered, solitaiy, on each joint of the coatinuoua rachis 
edgewise, glame only one, and external. Distinguished from Darnell by 
(he glomes being shorter than the spikelets. 

) following analysis of this 
, flesh-forming principles 
f heat-producing principles 
2, mineral substances 2.21. 

in lately introduced from 
aid to be more universally 
f climates than any other 
alar there. It grows from 
, and on moist, rich land, 
ng as frequently as a soil- 
crop, as any other grass, 
yf greiBn cuttings until late 
e forced by manures and 
stent than any other known 

I seen from its analysis, it 

y half less nutrient proper- 

i unless the farmer wishes 

food, it has no advantages 

an annual with a fibrous 

5 well. The time of sow- 

ien pounds of seed are re- 

(Mishel weighing eighteen 

Ae grass for Southern farm- 

and high. Being «6own in 

labled to cut it early in 

a change from corn alone 

fully tested in Georgia, 

It gives a fine color to 

ad they eat it with great 

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relish. It withstands the hottest suns of summer as well 
as the frosts of the severest winter. It must be sown alone, 
as it will quickly choke and destroy clover or other grasses. 
Its yield per acre, according to received authority, is some- 
thing immense. Mr. Dickens, of England, sowed it on a 
stiff, clay soil, well-manured, cut it ten times during one 
year ; the first time, ten inches in March ; April 13th again ; 
and May 4th a third time^ May 25th a fourth time; June 
14th again ; July 22d a sixth time, with ri^e seed and 
three loads hay to the acre. Immediately after each cut- 
ting it was manured with liquid manure, the produce of 
each crop increasing with the temperature of the atmos- 
phere, from three-quarters of a load, the first cutting, to 
three loads the last. He discontinued manuring now, 
thinking its growth would be terminated in bearing seed, but 
he afterwards cut four crops from it. On the 26th January 
following, it measured sixteen inches in height. The last 
cutting was October 30th ; and on the 8th April a crop of 
twenty-two inches high was cut from it. " I was desirous 
to know the exact amount taken per acre for the year, and 
it amounted, on a careful measuring and weighing of green 
hay, thirteen tons and eighteen hundred and twenty-seven 
pounds per acre ! " (Coleman's European Agriculture.) 

It presents a most dbarming view, with its broad, dark- 
green foliage, and especially in a dry year, when vegetation 
is parched up all around, it does not show any signs of los-^' 
ing its fresh, living, luxuriant growth. Although an annnaj, 
a n)|eadow of this grass may be made perennial by; 
scattering fresh seed over the ground every second year- 
and scratching it with a harrow with sharp teeth. Its onJ 
usual ability to withstand the vicissitudes of heat and oolc 
would make it a desirable grass in any thirsty soil, as wel 
as in^moist ones, and might possibly be a valuable additioi 
to the soils of the western portion of our State. At leeusi 
it is worthy pf a trial. 

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Google I 


Mr. Grould thinks the valuable qualities of this grass 
may be sommed up as follows : 

" Its habit of coming early to maturity. 

** Its rapid reproduction after cutting. 

" Its wonderful adaptation to all domestic animals, which 
is ^own by the extreme partiality they manifest for it, 
either alone or when mixed with other grasses ; whether 
when used as green food for soiling, as hay, or as pasturage, 
in which latter state its stems are never allowed to ripen 
and wither like other grasses. 

" Its beneficial influence on the dairy, not only augment- 
ing the flow of milk, but improving the flavor of the cheese 
and butter. 

*' Its uncommon hardiness and capacity to withstand the 
vicissitude^ of both wetness and dryness." 

MAKY FLOWEBED DABNEL— (Xo/m^ Muitifiora). 

This is almost identical in appearance with the preceding, 
and with very much the same qualities, surpasses all other 
in showiness of appearance. It has been cultivated long in 
France, and about forty years ago it was ca»i4ed to Eng- 
land, and from thence to this country. It resembles, and 
is often taken fgr another species of Lolium, or tares of 
Scripture, that is an exceedingly troublesome weed, and has 
poisonous seeds, hence the parable of separating tares from 
wheat had a forcible application, and was reaiTily compre- 
h^ded by the hearers. 

OBAB OB OBOP QMABS—i Panimm Sanguinak.) 

Srectf one U/ two feet, leaves and sheaths oftener heavy, spikes five to 
tSmtf dictate, spreading from four to six inches, rachis flexuouH, spikelets 
dimg, lanceolate one and a half lines, npper glomes one-half as long as 
At&nrer, lower one minnte, waste grounds. ( Wood.) 

Hiis grass must not be confounded with the Eleusme 
hJ^ea, also called Crab grass, from its supposed resem- 
blance to a crab. 

This species is so familiar to every Southern farmer that 

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it would seem to be superfluous to notice it. Bat as little 
as it may appear, it is one of our most valuable indigenous 

Crab grass is an annual, and so AiU of seeds is it, that it 
is never necessary to sow it. It is never cultivated alone, 
which could be easily done by sowing the seed on a smooth 
surface about Ihe first of June. When the cultivation of a 
piece of ground ceases, it at once takes possession of it, and 
soon furnishes a fine pasture. It grows not onfy in the cul- 
tivated fields, but in old pastures, yards and woods. 

It is a fine pasture grass, although it has but few base 
leaves, and forms no sward, yet it sends out numerous stems, 
branching freely at the base. It serves a most useful pur- 
pose in stock husbandry, and the northern farmers would 
congratulate themselves very much if they had it to turn 
their cattle on while the clover fields and meadows are parched 
up with summer heat. For want of it they have to resort 
to soiling with green forage raised for the purpose. It fills 
all our cornfields, and many persons pull it out, which is a 
tedious process. It makes a sweet food, and horses are 
exceedingly fond of it, leaving the best hay to eat it. 
Should it be desired to secure a good crop of it, do not pas- 
ture the wheat or oat stubble, except with hogs, until the 
crab grass gets a good start,, then take ofl^ the hogs, and 
aljow it to get into bloom, and if the land is good, there 
will be a paying quantity to save. But be extremely par- 
ticular about getting it wet, as from its porous character it 
will not stand the slightest rains after it is cut. Or if it is 
desired to fallow a piece of land for wheat, break it up in the 
spring, allow the weeds to come up a few inches, and about 
the first of June break again, plowing under well the weeds, 
and then harrow and roll, and in September there can be 
cut a large quantity of good, though light hay, from the 
piece. The freedmen of the State secure large quantities 
of it from surrounding fields for their stock.^ 

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Millet — Barnyard Grass, Bengal Grass, Gama 
Grass, Egyptian Grass, Meadow Oat Grass. 

Millet — (Pamcum MUiajcewtn), 

Spikelets panicled or racemed, sometimes spikes; glumes two, tht 
lower one short minute or wanting ; lower flower neutral, rarely awned, 
upper perfect ; stamens three ; stigmas usually purple. 

This description covers the general characteristics of the 
millet family, though each one differs in some respects from 
the other. 

The common millet has flowers in large, open, nodding 
panicles, leaves lance-shaped, broad stem one to three feet 
high ; a native of Turkey and an annual. German Millet 
and Tennessee Millet have a thick, nodding spike, com- 
pound, six to nine inches long, purplish, afterwards yellow- 
ish, bristles two and Ihree in a cluster. Introduced from 

MISSOUBI MIIiIiET*-(Bintcum Italiea), Same description aa 

These grasses have been cultivated extensively in the 
State for many years. Besides the species mentioned, there 
are many others, but they are only varieties of one plant. 
In Europe and in the Indian Islands, the seeds are used 
extensively as food for man, the seeds abounding in nitro- 
genous principles. Great quantities of seed have been 
raised in the State for exj^rtation, and the yield per acre is 
very large when properly cultivated. The low prices it ha8 
y elded for the last two years, has almost put a stop to its 
cultivation. The reason, no doubt, of the want of demand 
is its inferior character as a cattle food. It at one time, en- 
joyed a wide-spread fame, and it was only the starving 

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appeamnoe of stock, that led people to depend less apon it. 
At one period, it was deemed suflScient food for any stock, 
without the aid of anything else. The fodder was hay and 
the seed was corn. But later investigations have demon- 
strated the fact, that when hay ripens seed, its usefulness 
as a hay measurably ceases. Were stock fed exclusively on 
seed-heads, with a sufficiency of good hay, they would 
thrive exceedingly well, or if the millet is cut while in 
the flower, or even when the seed is in the milky state, and 
fed to stock in combination with grain, they would do well. 
But even then, it is much inferior to oats, timothy', or herds 
grass. Its only special recommendation is, that it yields a 
larger proportion of hay than other grasses. It requires a 
rich, dry soil, and will stand almost any amount of 
droughts, seeming to dry up during the heat, but when it 
rains it will start off with renewed life, and do as well as 
ever. It makes large quantities of seed per acre, the Hun- 
garian, yielding 30 bushels; the Missouri 40; the Tennes- 
see 60 ; and the German from 60 to 80 bushels per acre. 
The Hungarian millet is a better hay than either of the 
others, but its yield is much less.* The Tennessee millet 
perhaps yields more hay than either of the other three, but 
the Missouri has more reputation as a feed for cattle. 
Should it be wished, however, to sow for a money crop, it 
will be far preferable to sow the German millet. The Hun- 
garian has a small head, a simple spike, while the others 
have compound spikes, most notably the German. It is 
easily raised, at less cost than corn, and makes, on good 
ground, nearly double as many bushels as the latter per 
acre. It is a good grain for stock of any kind, if crushed, 
the smallness of the seed preventing comminution by the 
teeth. Should it be desirable to raise it for stock, it will 
make an excellent food, to feed it in the head, without the 
expense of threshing. For all kinds of fowls it is unsur- 
passed, and it is a powerful stimulant to laying eggs. 
"^hickeuB having a supply to go to, will continue to lay 

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through the whole winter, and at the prices it has been sell- 
ing for, for two years, nothing is cheaper; 

To sow for hay prepare the ground in a thorough man- 
ner, pulverizmg it completely, and when the ground is in a 
sufficiently moist condition, in June, sow the seed, a bushel 
to the acre. Never sow if the ground is too dry or too wet. 
If too dry, the seed near the surface will parch in the rays 
of the sun, and a stand will fail to appear. If too wet the 
usual injury to the land occurs and the crop " frenches '' or 
tarns yellow and dwarfs. After sowing, harrow well and 
the labor ig over. The millet will require seventy or 
eighty days to mature, unless it is sown in July, when it 
will require a few days longer. 

Two crops of Hungarian grass can easily be raised from 
the same ground annually. A farmer of Davidson county 
raised a most excellent crop of Hungarian grass, sown the 
1st day of September and cut on the 10th of October. 
Another, of Williamson county, secured a good crop of 
Gremman millet sown on the 13th day of August, and cut 
on the 12th day of October. So, if a farmer, by any kind 
of misfortune, fails in the earlier months to secure a suffi- 
cient quantity of forage for his stock, he can, as a dernier 
resort, start very late in supplying himself, by crops of 
millet. Should it be desired to use the hay as a green 
forage, it can be cut three times at least, provided it is done 
before it begins to throw up the seed stalks. It is a com- 
mon custom in the Southern States to use it in this manner 
instead of buying the expensive baled hay of the North. 

For seed, prepare the ground as above described, and then, 
with a light bull-tongue or skooter plow, run light parallel 
rows thirty inches apart, and with a tin cup or old oyster 
can that has three or four holes punched in the bottom 
with a 4-penny nail, walk rapidly along the furrow, and 
the seed will sift into it from the cup about right for a 
stand. Cover very lightly with a cotton coverer, and then, 
just when the seeds begin to sprout, but before they show 

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the sprouts above ground, run oVer the field with a harrow, 
and there will be no further trouble. Afterwards cultivate 
with a cultivator and double-shovel, one plowing with each 
being all that is required. It will be necessary to thin 
out the Tennessee millet with hoes, leaving a mere thre^id 
of stems, as it stools prodigiously, but this will be unneces- 
sary with either of the other three, as they scarcely stool 
at all. 

It must be cut with reap hooks, taking just enough of 
the head to enable the laborer to make it into bundles ; or 
if preferred, it can be broken off at the head, taking only 
the seed, leaving the stubble to renew the soil. ' If it is in- 
tended to thresh it, the reap hook must be used, as it will 
not thresh clean alone, but if the farmer wishes to tread it out 
on a barn-floor with horses, the straw \yould involve much 
waste, as the seeds become entangled with the straw, and 
will not easily separate from it. They are, after treading, 
separated from the chaff with an ordinary wheat-fan. 

This grass is of great value to the renter who has no 
opportunity of continuing in possession of the land long 
enough to set a meadow. But for the landowner, there is 
no excuse for not providing himself with the best hay the 
climate and soil affords, and there are plenty of good 
grasses to suit every variety of soil in the State of Tennes- 
see. If a farmer who is a landowner wishes to indulge the 
pride, and it is an economical pride, of having fat horses, 
sleek cattle, and plenty of bacon, let him at once see to his. 
meadows, for a good meadow is next to a corn-crib to pre- 
pare pork for the smoke-house, as well as to fatten all kinds 
of stock. A crop of millet is a good forerunner for a 
meadow, as it destroys all the noxious weeds, and leaves 
the land in fine condition for timothy or herds grass. 

An analysis of Hungarian grass by Wolff when green 
shows : 

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A«h .• 7.23 

Potash ...^ : 37.4 

Magnesia 8.0 

Lime 10.8 

Phoepboric Acid 6.4 

Sulphuric acid « 3.6 

Silica „ 29.1 

Chlorine 6.4 

BABNYABD aBASS—( Jhnietim cnu-gaiU), 

This grass is quite common in wet, swampy places, and has spikes 
alternate and in pairs, sheaths smooth, rachis bristly ; stem from two 
to four feet high, stout, erect, or somewhat procumbent leaves half an 
inch broad ; panicle dense, pjrramidal, glumes acute ; arms variable in 
length, sometimes wanting ; outer palea of the neutral flower usually 
awned. It flowers from August to Ocy>ber. 

It is a species of millet, but K&s received but little atten- 
tion here as yet, though some efforts have been made to test 
it. It has never been utilized in Tennessee, but is cut on 
the coasts of England as a constituent of swale hay. It 
will, probably never supersede any of the many excellent 
meadow grasses we have. It is succulent and nutritive, 
and when green, is eaten by stock with a relish, and it 
gives a very large yield of hay. 

BENGAIi GJ3LABB—(Setaria Qermaniea). 

A species of millet introduced from Europe, and de- 
scribed under the head of millets. 

GAMA GBASS— (IHpscuncm daetyUndes). 

Spikelets in jointed spikes, staminate above, fertile below ; staminate 
spikelets two, both alike ; two flowered, lower glume nerved ; upper 
boat-shaped ; pale, thin, awnless ; anthers opening by two pores at the 
apex; stems tall and large, solid, from thick creeping roots; leaves 
broad and flat 

This is in some sections called sesame grass. It is the 
largest, and one of the most beautiful grasses we have, 
growing to the height of seven feet. It is abundant through- 
out the Mississippi Valley on moist, slushy places. When 
young and succulent^ it is eaten with avidity by stock, and 

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makes from its rapid growth a good soiling or forage crop, 
but when it gets large its stem is^so woody stock refuse to 
eat it. Its leaves are very large, equal in size to the leaves 
of corn^but they are rough and hairy. 

The grass may be cut three or four times a year, and 
though in its native state it grows in swamps, it thrives almost 
equally well on dry or sandy ridges. It will grow where 
X timothy or herds' grass will not, and consequently is well 
suited to a large section of our StUte. The quantity of hay 
taken from one a(fre is simply enormous, and resembles 
very much corn fodder, and as a hay is fully equal to it, 
and it can be saved at one tenth the labor required to save 
fodder. The roots are as strong and large as cane roots, so 
let it be sown where it will not be desired to remove it. 
However, close grazing for a few years will destroy it. 

It is very nutritious and succulent when cut green. The 
great mass of roots it has will serve to open, loosen and 
improve the land upon which it grows. It should never be 
allowed to shoot up the seed stem when desired fol* hay. 

It is with difficulty the seed can be made to vegetate, and 
therefore it must be propagated by dips from the roots*. 
Prepare the land well, lay off the furrows with a bull- 
tongue plow two feet apart, and drop a small piece of root 
about two feet apart in the furrow, covering with a board. 
The creeping roots will soon meet, and the ground is quickly 
turfed with it It should be planted early in September. 
Of course, the richer the land, whether upland or bottom, 
the greater the yield, as the time has never yet come when 
poor land will make better crops of anything than fertile 
land. I have seen it growing with great luxuriance in 
Montgomery county. 

EGYPTIAN QBJiB8—iI)a(^loeU7ihmEgjj^pt^^ 

This grass is a native of Virginia, and has diffuse stems, often creep- 
ing at the base ; spikes four or five, leaves hairy at the base. 

This is an annual grass, is found in yards, is very trouble- 
somc; and is entirely worthless. It is not a meadow grass 

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at all, but is placed in the list simply to warn buyers of 
seeds not to purchase it, as the Means' grass under the name 
of Egyptian grass, has obtained a considerable reputation, 
and it would be easy for a swindler to palm off this for the 

MEADOW OAT QRABB^(Avena prqfensis), 

Spikeleta three to many flowered, with an open, large, diffuse pan- 
icle ; lower pale a seven to eleven nerved, with a long, usually twisted 
awn on the back, grain oblong, grooved on the side, usually hairy and 

This is a perennial grass, and is a native of Great Britain, 
It is one of the few grasses that do best on a dry soil. It 
grows to the height of only eighteen inches in its native 
pastures. But here it is quite a different grass, and rises to 
the height of from five to six feet. It will not grow well 
on moist soils, but on rich upland or good sandy land it 
grows with vigor. It deserves a place on every farm, as 
the hay is excellent, and is greedily eaten by stock, and be-» 
sides, the yield is extremely large. Another advantage is 
that the seed will be ripe before the hay turns yellow, so 
that not only the hay will be saved, but a large amount of 
seed can be secured ; upon a barn floor enough will shatter 
out to supply the wants of most farmers. Or if the farm- 
er wishes to sell the ^ked, he can cut off the heads with a 
cradle, and let the mower follow for the hay. 

Should the autumn prove a wet one, a second crop can be 
cat, but if there is not suflBcient aftermath to justify cut- 
ting, do not pasture it, but allow it to grow on as long as it 
will, and it will about Christmas turn over, the tops turn- 
ing yellow, but underneath there will be a magnificent pas- 
ture, all prepared for the hungry stock, and it will con- 
tinue to sdBtain^them until other grasaes tajke its plaoe. 
However, should it be desired to use it for hay the succeed- 
ing 7^^i ^be stock should be removed about the middle of 

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It will seed in the fall, after being sown in the spring, 
which is the proper time to sow it. Sow two bushels per 
acre. The seed is very light and cha%. It is a tussock 
grass, and does not spread from the roots, consequently the 
seed must be depended on for a stand. . After the first sow- 
ing, there will be no difficulty in obtaining seed, as the 
yield is large. It affijrds both for hay and pasture, perhaps 
more green food than any grass we have. Dr. Flint de- 
scribes this grass under the name of Perennial Rye Grass 
{Lolium perenne), and thinks the best time to cut is while 
in the ' flower, and the experience of every one in other 
grasses would seem to justify this opinion. 

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80RQHUM. Ill 



> Rises with a stem from four to twelve feet high, according to the 
soil on which it grows, erect, smooth ; leaves linear, flexuous, gracefal, 
curling down at the end like com ; flowers in a panicle at the top, at 
first green, changing gradually to a yellow. 

A few years before the late war, Capt. Means^ of South 
Carolina, who commanded a trading vessel to the Mediter- 
ranean Sea, brought from Egypt a lot of seeds^ from which 
he got a spoonful of seeds of an unknown kind. He handed 
them to some one with a request that they be sown in his 
garden. They came up and proved to be the grass named 
above. It was of an unknown quality, and but little atten- 
tion was paid to it, until it nearly took his garden. He had 
the plants dug up by the roots and thrown into a neighbor- 
ing gulley, where they soon began to grow, stopping the 
wash and spreading all around. It was now seen for the 
first time that it was greedily eaten by stock. This was 
suggestive in a country where all the hay had to be im- 
ported, and so seed was gathered and sown, and the wind 
spread the seed all around from the growing grass. It 
puzzled farmers to know it from corn, and it was often left 
for com in the field when thinning out, so that the negroes 
abbreviated the local name and called it ^^mean grass.'' 

In 1860, Capt. Johnson, of Marion Station, Alabama, 
paid a visit to some relatives and heard of this grass, that 
had in the meantime acquired a great reputation, and on 
his return he carried home with him a bushel of seeds and 
sowed them on his plantation. Soon aft;er he went into the 
Ck>nfederate service and was killed, leaving two little girls. 
These girls were sent to school at Tuscaloosa, but having 

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no guardian and no meaas, the president had a gentleman 
appointed guardian who went to Marion to see if his wards 
had anything. In the meantime the plantation was left 
alone, no one earing for it, and it was unrented. He found 
it a large place, and almost entirely covered with the 
Means grass, the winds and stock having pet it everywhere. 
Being a shrewd man, he saw its capability and at once ad- 
vertised it as a stock farm, and soon rented it to Mr. R. C. 
Gardner and J. C. Copeland, Esq., of Nashville.* They saw 
their opportunity, and at oncje, securing a number of baling 
presses, set to work cutting and baling hay for the Southern 

The hay proved popular and sold well wherever tried, ajB 
stock delighted in it, leaving all other kinds to eat it. Ap- 
plications naturally poured in for some of the grass, and so 
they sold immense quantities of the seed, and also of the 
roots, getting large prices for both. So great was its popu- 
larity that at the end of their five years lease a company of 
Northern men out-bid them, and have resorted to steam to 
assist in the baling process. 

Egyptian Sugar Cane, as its proper name is, is a daughter 
of the Nile, where it grows fifteen or twenty feet high. So 
great is its luxuriance there that it has filled kll the upper 
Nile so that a canoe cannot be driven through it. Great 
numbers of cattle and wild animals resort to it, and, in foct, 
it is the chief sustenance of ruminants in that country. 

When young it is very tender and sweet, the pith being 
full of sugary juice. The leaves are as large as com fodder, 
and very nutritious. It has a perennial root, and so vigor- 
ous that when once planted it is a difficult matter to eradi- 
cate it. So care must be taken to plant it where it is not 
intended to be disturbed. ^ The roots are creeping and 
throw out shoots from every joint. It ia a fine fertilizer, 
and sown on a piece of poor washed land will, in a few 
years, restore it to its pristine fertility. But there is reallj 
not much difference where it is sown, for a fitrmer onoe 

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SOBGHUM. 113. 

getting a good stand will not want to destroy it. It will 
bear cutting three or four times a year, and in fact, it has to 
be done, for when it matures the seed, the stem and leaves 
are too coarse and woody for use. 

Jno. B. McEwen, Esq., of Williamson county, procured 
a bushel of seed from Dr. Gardner, and last year cut it four 
times, getting a large amount of hay each time. He is de- 
lighted with it, and says it is the best hay he raises, and his 
dictum is of value, as he stands deservedly among the best 
of our farmers. 

The ground must be well prepared as in other grasses, and 
in September, the earlier the better, let it be sown, one 
bushel to the acre. 

It can be propagated also by the roots, by laying off the 
rows each way and dropping a joint of the root two feet 
apart and covering with a drag. 

It gives the earliest pastures we have, preceding blue 
grass or clover a month. Hogs are fond of the rootb, and 
any amount of rooting in it will not injure it. In fact it is 
a stick tight It not only thrives well on bottoms, but it 
will grow just as well on upland, and though poor upland 
will make but little hay, yet it makes a fine pasture. It 
disappears in the winter altogether, but the first warm 
weather brings it up, and it grows with astonishing rapidity. 
On our lands and in our climate it will grow from five to 
seven feet high, while in South Carolina it will grow 
twelve feet high. 

For soiling purposes it is not equaled by any grass in our 
knowledge, as it can be cut every two or three weeks. 

There is a vast amount of land in Tennessee now de- 
voted to gullies that would pay at least the taxes, and after 
a while richly remunerate the owner, if put in this grass. 
It is not a pre-requisite that the land should be broken up 
to start it. A few sprigs of the roots set here and there in 
the richest spots, will secure a good stand. 

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Many persons object to it on account of its great tenacity 
of life, matting the soil in every tiirection with its cane- 
like roots, and the rapidity with which it will spread over 
a field, and the difficulty of eradicating it. But these very 
objections should be its recommendation to owners of worn- 
out fields; and if it is desired to destroy it, it is only neces- 
sary to pasture it closely one year, and then in the fell 
turn the roots up with a big plow to the freezes of a winter, 
renewing the breaking up once or twice during the winter, 
and then cultivating the next spring. The seeds are quite 
heavy, and weigh 35 pounds to the busBel. Every one who has 
tried it recommends it to the public. But some allowance 
must be made for the partiality of friends, and it would be 
well to give it a trial before engaging in its culture to any 
large extent. There would, however, certainly be no risk 
in so\^ng it upon those worn-out hill sides, so many of which 
form an unsightly scar upon the face of nature in Tennessee 

, — ^the tokens of the past. 


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BED CLOVEB— (TW/o^tum praierue,) 

The stems are ascending, somewhat hairy, leaflets oyal or somewhat 
suboyate, often notched at the end and marked with pale spots on the 
upper side, heads oyate/md set directly on the end of the stalk, instead 
of being on the branches. 

This valuable forage plant 
was first introduced into 
England in 1645, during the 
stormy times of Charles I, 
and rapidly met with favor 
throughout the kingdom. It 
properly •belongs to the legu- 
minous family, which in- 
cludes a considerable num- 
ber of other forage plants 
that are called artificial 
grasses, to distinguish them 
from the true or natural 
grasses called 5Tawii?ica. The 
botanic name trifolium comes 
from two latin words, tres, 
three, and foUum, a leaf, and in England it is often called 
Trefoil. It may always be known by having three leaves 
in a bunch, and the flowers in dense, oblong globular heads. 
There is no grass, natural or artificial, that is more useful 
to the farjd^er or stock-grower, than Red Clover. It has 
been styled, with some show of reason, the corner-stone of 
agriculture, and this not only on account of its vigorous 
vitality, but because it adapts itself to a great variety of 
soils. It is widely diffused, and abounds in every part of 
Europe, in North America, and even in Siberia. It fur- 
nishes an immense amount of grazing, yields an abundance 

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of nutritious hay, and is a profitable crop, considered with 
reference to the seed alone. But beyond all these, it acts as 
a vigorous ameliorator ot the soil, increasing more than any 
other forage plant the amount of available nitrogen, and so 
becomes an important agent in keeping up the productive 
capacity of the soil, increasing the yield of other crops, and 
adding to the wealth, refinement and culture of the &rmer 
who sows it. 


Red Clover is a biennial plant, and under judicious till- 
age may be made a perennial, and is specially adapted to 
argillaceous soils, but it will grow well upon sandy soils^ 
when a " catch'' is secured, by the application of a top- 
dressing of gypsum or barn-yard manure. I have seen it 
growing vnth vigor upon the feldspathic soils of Johnson 
county, upon the SMdstone soils of the Cumberland moun- 
tain, and upon the sandy loams of West Tenneasee, but it 
finds a more congenial soil in the clayey lands of the valley 
of East Tennessee, on the red soils of the Highland Rim, 
and on the limestone loams of the Central Basin. But the 
deep, black, porous soils of this division are not suited for 
clover. Such soils become very dry in summer, and opens 
in great cracks or fissures. The clover grows well enough, 
but is apt to be killed by the dry, hot weather of summer. 

The clayey lands of West Tennessee have no superior for 
the production of clover. It often grows upon these lands 
from four to five feet in height, and forms a mat when it 
falls, of great density and thickness. As much as four tons 
of clover hay have been taken from a single acre. There 
is also a soil derived from the Dyestone or Clinton forma- 
tion in East Tennessee that grows clover with surprising 
luxuriance. On such soils in MoMinn county, I have seen 
the ordinary Red Clover six and a half feet in height. 
Probably three-fourths of the lands in Tennessee will grow 
clover remuneratively, and of the soils which will not, a 
large portion is included in the old gullied fields that oon- 

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stitute the shame and mark the shiftlessness of too many of 
the farmers. It may be set down as an infallible rule in 
the State of Tennessee, that good farming and abundant 
elovering go together. 


Clover may be sown in the latitude of Tennessee upon 
wheat, rye or oat fields, or alone. Instances have been r«- 
ported to me where a splendid stand was obtained* by sow- 
ing after cultivators in the last working of corn in July. 
This is unusual, however. So is fall sowing. The best 
time to SOW is from the first of January until the first of 
April.- If sown in January or February, the seed ought to 
be sown upon snow. This is not only convenient in ena- 
bling one to distribute the seed evenly over the land, but 
the gradual melting of the snow, and the slight freezes, bury 
the seed just deep enough to ensure rapid germination when 
the warm days of March come on. For the same reason, if 
sown in March, the seed ought to be sown when the ground 
is slightly crusted by a freeze. If the sowing is deferred 
until too late for frosty nights, the land should be well har- 
rowed and the seed sown immediately after the harrow. 
Upon land seeded to wheat, this harrowing will not only 
serve to secure a good stand of clover, but will add greatly 
to the yield of wheat. It will hasten germination 
and cause a larger proportion of seed to grow, to harrow 
the land after the seed is sown. With oats, the seeds 
should be sown aflier the last harrowing or brushing, with a 
slight after-brushing to cover them. 

It often happens when clover seed is sown with wheat or 
oats, especially if the land be much worn, that a " catch" 
will not be obtained. The practice is go universal through- 
out the State, of sowing clover with small grain, that many 
&rmers labor under the impression that this is the only way 
of seeding land to clover. This idea is erroneous. A bet- 
ter stand of clover with less seed, may always be secured 
Jby sowing upon land prepared for clover alone. I have 

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often obtained an excellent catch upon ^^galled'^ places^ by 
breaking the land well, and sowfng ' the seed without any 
previous or after harrowing. In nine cases in ten, a stand 
will be secured in this way upon soils where clover sown 
with small grain will fail nine cases in ten. 

The quantity of seed to sow per acre depends upon the 
character of the soil, its state of pulverization, and also 
upon the fact whether the land has ever been seeded to 
clover. Upon good, fresh, rich soils where clover has not 
previously grown, one bushel for eight acres will be suffi- 
cient. If the soil is thin and unproductive, one bushel for 
six acres ought to be sown. If the land has been regularly 
rotated with clover, one-half the quantity of seed mentioned 
above will suffice, sometimes much less: Clover seed owing 
to the large quantity of oil which it contains, is nearly in- 
destructible when placed ten or twelve inches beneath the 
surface. I once purchased a field jBvhieh had been cropped 
continuously for ten years without rest, and almost with- 
out any rotation. It grew a crop of com the year before. 
I purchased it in February, plowed it deeply with a large 
three-horse plow, and sowed it in oats. The oat crop was 
excellent, and I never saw clover spring up so thickly upon 
any land. After the* oats were harvested the clover grew to 
the height of eighteen inches, and covered the whole field 
with its rich mantle of green. I did not sow one seed on 
it, and no clover had been permitted to grow upon it frona 
1859 to 1869, the year I seeded it to oats. 

The frequent failure to secure a good stand of clover ad- 
monishes the farmers of the State to exercise more care in 
the seeding. When sown late in tlje spring many of the 
seeds sprout, and are killed by dry weather. It would be 
all the better if the clover seed could be buried a half-inch 
(or even an inch on loose soils) beneath the surface after the 
middle of March. The common practice in England, is to 
sow not only clover, but all other grass seeds, with oats or 
barley, in spring. After the seeds are sown the field is bar- 

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rowed and afterwards rolled, so as to cover the seeds and 
smooth the surface of the field. Farmers are often too 
sparing of the seed. While upon well prepared soils a 
bushel to eight acres is sufficient, yet a bushel to six acres 
will, in a majority oi cases, give better and more satisfac- 
tory results. In England 24 pounds are usually sown to 
the acre when the crop is intended for hay. The smaller 
the stem the more acceptable it is to cattle. When thin, 
the woody fibre is greatly increased. There is no greater 
blunder committed by the farmer, than to be sparing of 
grass seed. It is difficult for grass to be too thick. The 
plants shelter one another; they retain all the dew and 
moisture when thickly set, and they must push upward, as 
there is no lateral space to occupy. 


Red Clover rarely makes much growth the first season if 
sown with grain. Should the weather be very seasonable 
after harve^, and the land fertile, it will sometimes attain the 
height of thirty inches and put out blooms, making an 
excellent fell pasture. When sown alone, it will always 
blossom in August. 

Sheep are very injurious to young clover, and should never 
be allowed to run on it until the second year. Grasshop- 
pers, too, often eat out the crown and destroy it. Dry 
weather in a stubble-field where the rays of the sun are re- 
flected and repeated a thousand times from the surface of the 
yellbw stubble, is very trying to its vitality. Yet if the 
land has been well and deeply broken and is moderately 
fertile, a sufficient stand may be depended upon. 

As soon as it begins to grow, in early spring, an applica- 
tion of two bushels of gypsum or land plaster, upon granitic 
or sandy soils, is absolutely necessary to get a good growth. 

Some interesting experiments were made in Grermany by 
Dr. Pincus, respecting the action of gypsum (sulphate of 
lime) upon clover. Three plats of land of about f of an 

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acre each, were selected in May, from the middle of a large 
clover field. The plants were then about an inch high. 
One oi the plats was manured with 128 lbs. of gypsum, the 
second with the same quantity of sulphate of magnesia, and 
the intervening plat Was left without the application of 
any fertilizer. 

On the plat treated with gypsum the clover plants soon 
showed a deeper green and a more vigorous growth. The 
clover on the unmanured plat bloomed four or five days 
earlier than on the manured. On the manured plats the 
clover was in full flower on May 24, when it was mown. 
The results were from each plat 

Cwt. of Clover Haj. 

Without manure 21 . 6 

With gypsum 30.6 

With sulphate of magnesia 82 . 4 

It was ascertained by a closer examination, that the in- 
crease in weight obtained from the plats manured with the 
sulphate did not extend equally to all parts of the plant, 
but was greatest in the production of stems. There were 
fewer leaves, fewer flowers, but more stems on the manured- 
than on the unmanured portions. Taking 100 parts of hay 
the following results were obtained : 


Leaves . . 
Stems. .. 







17.15 11.72 

27.45 26.22 



5 o ^ 


Or putting in another form : 




Clover hay unmanured 

Manured with gypsum 

Manured with sulphate of magnesia. 




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This shows that the action of the sulphates increased the 
woody fibre at the expense of the flowers and leaves. The 
relative proportion of flowers, leaves and stems was : 

Clover hay unmanured 

" manured with gypsum 

*' manured with sulphate of magnesia.. 
















The entire crop on each plat was as follows: 


with gyp- 

with sul. of 




1196 6 


778 7 




Flowers .... 


2110 lbs. 

3060 n>s. 

3240 IbB 

The ash constituents were increased in the same propor- 
tion as the crop. Phosphoric and sulphuric acids were 
"much increa.sed in quantity above the other ash constituents. 
Thp ash of the air-dry clover hay was : 


In the entire crop 

Containing sulphuric acid . . . 
Containing phosphoric acid 


150. tt)S. 
2. " 
11.95 '• 

with gyp- 

with sul of 

248. tt)s. 
8. *' 
21 55 ** 

257. tt>8. 
6. '• 
21.82 " 

From an inspection of these tables it will readily appear 
that the sulphates checked the development of the flowers 
and also of seed. A larger crop of leaves and stems may 
be secured by the application of gypsum, but not of seed, so 
that an application of gypsum is not favorable for the de- 
velopment of the seed crop, but well suited to increase the 

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yield of hay. Here, as is often seen in the production of 
wheat, the abnormal development of straw is attended with 
a decrease in the yield of seed. 

These experiments demonstrate that the quantity of sul- 
phuric acid applied to the field, bears no proportion to the 
increase in the crop. Baron Liebig, after numerous exper- 
iments made with gypsum upon clover, comes to the con- 
clusion that the action of gypsum is very complex ; that it 
indeed promotes the distribution of both magnesia and pot- 
ash in the soil. He thinks that gypsum exercises a chemi- 
cal action upon the soil, which extends to any depth of it, 
and that in consequence of the chemical and mechanical 
modification of the earth, particles of certain nutritive ele- 
ments become accessible to and available for the clover plant, 
which were not so before. 

Though having my mind constantly directed to this point, 
I have rarely found an application of gypsum beneficial 
upon clayey loams, but its effects are very apparent on 
strong limestone soils, such as are found in the Central 
Basin. On the chocolate-colored soils of Warren, Mont- 
gomery, Stewart and Robertson, gypsum benefits clover 
very little. Upon the soils of the Unaka and Cumberland 
mountains, it is indispensable to secure a remunerative yield 
of foliage. Red Clover has two growing seasons. It makes 
its most vigorous growth from the first of April until the 
15th of June, beginning to bloom usually in the central 
parts of the State about the 15th of May, and attaining its 
full inflorescence about the 1st of June- After this, unless 
depastured by stock or cut for hay, the heads begin to dry 
up, and stems and leaves begin to fall, forming a mat upon 
the land. Sometimes this mat is so thick as to catch and 
concentrate the heats of summer to such a degree as to scald 
the roots and destroy the clover. Usually it is "best after 
clover has attained its full bloom, either to cut it for hay or 
pasture with stock until about the first of July. When the 
^Brt^ck is removed, or the clover hay cured and taken off, and 

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there is rain enough, a second crop will spring up from the 
roots. This second crop is the most valuable for seed, the 
seed maturing about the last of August, and sooner, if there 
be copious rains. To make the most abundant yield of clo- 
ver for grazing, it should be allowed to grow all it will, 
but never let it make seed, always grazing it down when in 
foil bloom. When grazed down, take off the stock until it 
blooms again. Several successive crops may thus be made 
during the summer. The crop of August is unfit for graz- 
ing, the large quantity of seed having the effect of salivat- 
ing stock to such a degree as to cause them to lose fiesh. 

It is a fact, well attested by English writers, and by ob- 
servant farmers of this country, that when clover has been 
frequently sown upon the same land, it not only fails to 
produce a heavy crop, but fails to appear at all. The land 
is then said to be " clover sick.^^ The remedy for this is 
by extending the number of crops in the scale of rotation, 
80 that clover will not come so often upon the same land. 
By Liebig, clover- sick land is supposed to be caused by the 
roots'of clover impoverishing the subsoil. 

Mr. Keene, of England, ascribes the failure of crimson 
clover in that country to the fact that only clean seed is sown. 
He thinks the seed should be sown in the pellicle, which 
acts as a protection to the young plant. The hint is worthy 
of a trial. Many farmers believe that fewer failures to get 
a catch occur when the seed is sown in the chaff. 

Clover has no superior as a grazing plant. When in full 
vigor and bloom, it will carry more cattle and sheep per 
acre than blue grass, herds grass or orchard grass. After 
it has been grazed to the earth, a few showery days with 
warm suns will cause it to spring up into renewed vitality, 
ready again to furnish its succulent herbage to domestic an- 
imals. Though very nutritious and highly relished by cattle, 
it often produces a dangerous swelling called hoven, from 
which many cows die. When first turned upon clover, cat- 
tle should only be allowed to graze for an hour or two, and 

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then be driven off for the remainder of the d^fy gradually 
increasing the time of grazing, until they become less vora- 
cious in their appetites, never permitting them to run upon 
clover when wet. Clover made wet by a rain at mid- 
day is more likely to produce hoven than when wet by dew- 
This is because when wet by rain at midday or after the 
stalks and leaves are heated by the sun, when taken 
into the stomach of a cow, this heat generates fer- 
mentation much sooner than when the herbage is cool, 
though wet with the morning dew. Cattle are more easily 
affected. by clover than horses, because being ruminantsi 
they take in the clover rapidly, filling' the stomach at once, 
without chewing. Digestion is for the time checked and a 
rapid fermentation sets in. The remedy found most effect- 
ive for hoven is to stick a sharp pointed knife about six 
inches in front of the hip, to the lefl side of the backbone, 
and far enough from it to miss the spinal protuberances, and 
in the thinnest part of the flank. A Cow should never be 
run when affected with hoven, as this treatment only inten- 
sifies the pain without affording relief. 

Stock should never be turned upon clover until it blooms 
The practice of many of our farmers, to turn all the stock 
upon a clover field early in April, is very destructivn. Th« 
crown of the clover is eaten out, causing it to perish. The 
tread of heavy cattle has the same effect. 

As a soiling crop Red Clover is excelled by no crop grown 
within the State. The practice of soiling in thickly set- 
tled communities is one much commended by agricultural 
writers. An half-acre of clover will supply one cow through- 
out the months of June, July and August, if cut off and 
fed in a stall, while twice the amount in pasture, according 
to some English experimenters, will barely subsist a cow 
during the same period, and this will depend, of course, 
upon the luxuriance of the growth. Soiling (that is cut- 
ting the grass and feeding it green) is a very desirable prac- 
tice, near small towns, where many persons own small 

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lots and desire to keep a milch cow. No other grass, per- 
haps, will produce a larger flow of milk, 


The nutritive value of clover was long known by feed- 
ers before chemical research demonstrated the same fact. 
It contains, when cut in bloom, nearly 4 per cent, more ni- 
trogenous food than timothy, and four and a half per cent, 
more than blue grass. According to Professors Wolff* and 
Knop, in its green state it contains 800 parts in 1,000, of 
water; about 100 parts more than timothy, and 37 parts in 
a 1,000 of albuminoids or flesh formers. When made into 
hay, cut when in bloom and well cured, Red Clover contains 
134 parts in 1,000 of albuminoids, but cut when fully ripe 
only 94 parts. The albuminoids contain about 16 per cent, 
of nitrogen. Timothy hay has 9.7 per cent, of flesh-form- 
ing matter, and therefore contains less nitrogen, in the pro- 
portion of 16 to 21, than clover hay. Barley has 10 per 
cent, of albuminoids, Indian corn 10.7, rye 11, oats 12, 
clover 13.4 per cent., so that it appears clover hay will fur- 
nish more muscle-producing or nitrogenous food than either 
corn, rye, oats or timothy, which gives strength to the state- 
ments of many practical farmers, that a crop can be made 
by feeding clover hay alone "to the working animals, and 
they will keep up under it 

Prof. Way gives the following analysis of the Red Clover 
when green : 

Water 81. 

Albuminoids 4.27 

Fatty matter 69 

Heat producing 8 45 

Woody fibre 8.76 

Ash 1 82 

One hundred pounds dried at 212 F., gives the following: 

Albuminoids or flesh-formers 22.55 

Fatty matter ; 8.67 

Heat-producers (starch, sugar, gum, etc.) 44.47 

Woody fibre 19.76 

Aflh 9.66 


zed by Google 


The analysis of clover hay made by Dr. Pinciis in the 
course of his experiments, though diflfering slightly in its 
results from the analyses made by Wolflf and Knop and Dr. 
Anderson, is far more interesting, because it shows the rel- 
ative value in a nutritive point of view of the difiFerent 
parts of the plant. The analysis is given in the subjoined 
table : 

Digitized by 





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1 rH '-' 

gg^SS 8 S § 

s ^ 


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1 . rH r-l 

§e§^3 8^5? 

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S 1 

IS^gSSS g § s 


rH <N 1-1 CO O ^ _V 

1 rH ^ 

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i-«OM<*Ot* O OO « 


rH rH f-l "^ O CO •_! 

rH '"' 

i§gSfe§ 8 S S 

r-.,HrHC^CO O CO •: 
r1 ^ 


iot--«o<yico Q 00 C* 



•SUia^g CO oa CO r^ oi d d <?i 


|-co THcq o ^ ;^ 

iCaOiOOiO Q to QO 

a>xoit»io q « -^ 

nireid ainuu 

cq 00 CO ^' CO o 1-5 N 

1-1 « rlCO O ¥D 

r^ r-t 

§§§s§ g s s 




SS*^*;^' 8 § <^ 


rH i-l 

SSS§§ 8 S e 




COIOrHO^iod d d r-i 



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c!5o5»6dco d co so 

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rH f-l 


1 : 



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Digitized by 



The proportion of fat in the various vegetable products is 
given in the following table taken from Prof. S. W. John* 
son's "How Crops Grow'^ 

Red Clover (green) . . 

Meadow hay 

Clover hay 

Wheat straw 

.: 0.7* 

.. 8.0 
.. 82 
. 1.5 
.. 2.0 
.. 1.5 
. 0.8 




Wheat kernel.. . 


Indian corn.... 

i Pea 

Cotton seed 


.... 1.6 

.. . 7.0 

...80 * 

Oat straw 

Wheat Bran 

...34. «* 

Potato, iHsh 

It appears from this table that clover hay has not quite 
one-half the fat of Indian corn, but having more albumi- 
noids it has nearly 3 per cent, more nitrogenous food. Both 
should be fed together, the clover to give muscle and the 
corn to give fat. It also appears that the clover hay is 
richer in fat than meadow hay. 


Numerous facts have taught the farmers of every country 
where agriculture has flourished, that in many cases the 
value of the after crop depends upon the preceding crop. 
In other words, a proper rotation is a necessary antecedent 
to successful farming. The cultivation of some crop with 
extensive root ramifications, will prepare the soil for the 
subsequent growth of a cereal. But the farmer sh(5uld not 
deceive himself. Every crop takes away a part of the 
available plant-food, and the field has not increased in fer- 
tility, but the plant-food has been made more rigidly eflFect- 
ive for the production of a crop. "The physical and chem- 
ical condition of the fields has been improved, but the 
chemical store has been reduced." ^^AU plants/' says Lie- 
big, ^^without exception, exhaust the soil, each of them in its 
own way, of the conditions for their reproduction.'^ 

A field, then, which produces more kindly after rotation, 
is not necessarily more fertile, but is in belter physical con- 
dition. It has already been mentioned, that the mechanical 

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effects of clover upon soils is not [the least among its valua- 
ble properties. The reaction rendered possible by the pen- 
etration into the soil of the long tap roots, and the effect of 
the dense shade upon the land have a tendepcy to increa.^e 
the productiveness, but may not add to the fertility of the 

The composition of the ash of Red Clover is variable, de- 
pending upon the soils upon which the clover grows, and 
consists of potash, soda, magnesia, lime, phosphoric acid, 
sulphuric acid, silica and chlorine. Prof. Emil Wolff, of 
the Royal Academy of Agriculture, at Hohenheim, Wir- 
temberg, collected all trustworthy analyses of the clover 
plant, in all fifty-six, and found the average anjount of ash 
m air dry clover to be 6.72 per cent. In the ash there 
were : 

Potash 84.5 per cent. 

Soda ^ 1.6 ** 

Magnesia 12.2 ** 

Lime 84.0 " 

Phosphoric acid 9.9 " 

Sulphuric acid 8.0 •* 

Silica X 2.7 " 

Chlorine 8.7 " 

The analysis of Red Clover indicates what manures would 
increase its growth. Sulphate of lime or land plaster, the 
phosphates, wood ashes, are all excellent top dressings for 
the clover field. Common stable manure, containing as it 
does all the elements of a good fertilizer, is suitable as a 
top dressing for any pasture or meadow. 

Prof. Levi Stockbridge, of Massachusetts, has made some 
interesting experiments at the Agricultural College at Am- 
herst, with mineral fertilizers, on nearly all the field crops 
and grasses. Making a careful analysis of each plant, he 
prepares formulas for fertilizers suited to the nature and 
constitution of the plant. To produce one ton of clover 
per acre more than the natural yield of the soil would be, 
he gives the following formula : 

Digitized by 



Nitrogen 43 lbs' 

Potash 40 

Phosphoric acid 11 

in the 
fonn of 

Sulph. Ammonia, 24 per cent 

dry salt ..215 lbs. 

Muriate potash, 80 per cent. 

dry salt 80 lbs. 

Superphosphate, 13 percent 
sol acid 80 lbs. 

This is sown over the clover broadcast, in early spring, 
I suppose, though the time 19 not mentioned. 

Guano is also found, on clayey soils, to largely increase 
the growth of clover. When used on a wheat field seeded 
to clover in early spring, a "catch" of clover will be secured 
on the thinnest spots, and grow luxuriantly. The greatest 
benefits from an application of guano upon wheat are often 
obtained in this way. A good stand of clover, however 
secured, is the best possible preparation of land for a suc- 
ceeding crop of wheat. And this arises not only from the 
available nitrogen which a clover crop supplies, but from 
the deep and thorough subsoil ing which is effected by the 
deep, penetrating tap-roots of the clover. They often de- 
scend to the depth of four feet in search of food, while its 
broad leaves " absorb carbon from the atmosphere, changing 
it into solid matter, and causing elements in the soil to as- 
sume organic forms, rendering them more available as food 
for other crops." If the soil be robbed of its fertility, the 
deficient elements must be added before clover will "take." 

As clover derives or is supposed to derive a large per- 
centage of the constituents necessary to its growth from the 
atmosphere, it is all important that there should be a good 
top growth. Its value as a renovator of the soil depends 
largely upon the quantity of the roots, and the roots will 
always be proportioned to the amount of top. For this rea- 
son it is better to cut clover off than to feed it off. A 
writer in the American OuUivalory speaking of this subject, 

" Where a clover sod is desired for future grain or other 
crop, it will be found that the cutting of clover is generally 
better than feeding it off, because every leaflet upward has 

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rootlet downwards, and if a leaflet be taken off the rootlet 
will not grow, so that if sheep or pigs be fed upon the sur- 
face, the constant cropping of the leaves diminishes the 
under production. Always feeding the top will leave but 
few roots below. This was illustrated by a practical expe- 
riment on a field of clover, divided into two parts. The 
whole was cut in July; half was left to grow again, and the 
other half fed off. In October the roots of each division 
were dug up, carefully cleaned and weighed, with a result 
that showed a proportionate weight of 3,920 pounds to the 
acre where the clover was cut once and fed afterwards, 
while the part on which the clover was cut twice yielded at 
a rate per acre of nearly 8,000 pounds of roots. The system 
of cutting instead of feeding resulted in leaving two tons 
extra of vegetable matter, valuable in nitrogen, and which 
had a perceptible effect on the corn crop that followed." 

The best method of pasturing is to wait until about the 
last of May, when the clover is in bloom, then turn on 
stock and pasture during the months of June and July, al- 
ternating every two weeks with other clover fields, if pos- 
sible, and turning off the stock the first of August and al- 
lowing the second crop to come forward for seed. 


The saving of clover hay is a very easy task when under 
stood, but to a novice it appears fraught with insuperable dif- 
ficulties. The precise period for mowing clover for hay is a 
question about which there has been much discussion. All 
will agree that it should be mowed at the time when the 
nutritive elements — those elements which give strength 
and produce flesh — are at their maximum. Those who are 
in the habit of feeding stock find that clover cut about the 
time of full bloom, when a few of the seeds begin to dry up, 
and just as thS reproductive functions are being brought into 
play for the maturing of seed, will, pound for pound, pro- 
duce more fat and muscle than that cut at any other time. 
The only art in curing hay is to retain as many of the life- 

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giying constituents in it as possible^ or to preserve it as 
near as practicable in the same condition in which it is cut^ 
with the water only abstracted. 

The plan generally adopted is to mow the clover in the 
morning and let it lie in the sun several hours until a wisp 
taken up and twisted will show no exudation of moisture. 
It is then thrown up into small cocks, say four feet in 
diameter and four feet high. In these, unless there is ap- 
pearance of rain, it is allowed to remain for a day or two, 
when it may be hauled to the barn and stored away with- 
out danger of damage. Care should be taken not to let the 
dew fall upon it as it lies scattered by the mower. The 
dew of one single night will blacken the leaves and destroy 
the aroma for which good clover hay is so much prized. 

Another plan practiced is to mow it and let it lie just 
long enough in the sun to wilt, and then wagon it to an open 
house and lay it upon beams or tier-poles, where it can 
receive the free action of the air. After a few days it may 
be packed down without any danger of fermenting. Cured 
in this way, in the shade, it retains its green color, is fra- 
grant, and makes a most excellent feed. The only objection 
to this plan is the great amount of room under cover re- 
quired for curing, and the additional burthen of hauling 
while green. 

Another plan is to haul it up as soon as it wilts, using 
about half a bushel of salt to the cured ton of hay. A layer 
a foot or more in thickness may be laid down, over which 
salt is scattered pretty freely, then another layer and salt, 
continuing to repeat the operation until the space set apart 
for hay is filled. A rapid fermentation will ensue, and the 
hay will be cured by the heat of thb fermentation, the salt 
acting as a preventive against putrefaction. Instead of 
salt, layers of wheat straw can be substitutes. By using 
straw the clover may be put up in the field. The quantity 
of straw to be used in the rick or stack depends upon the 
DMisture in the clover — the greener the clover the thicker 

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should be the straw. The straw will act as an absorbent^ 
and daring the process will itself be greatly increased in 
value as food for stock, having imparted to it the flavor and 
aroma of the clover plant. All the wheat straw on a farm 
could be utilized in this way, and the amount of manure in 
the farmer's barn largely increased. 

Still another method of curing clover hay is the one 
practiced in Ireland. By this method the hay is also 
cured by self fermentation. Cured in this way it retains all 
its nutritive properties and only parts with its water. The 
sap vessels are by this process supposed to be expanded by 
the circulation of the liquid juices by heat, and the super- 
fluous moisture exhaled. On cooling, the sap vessels con- 
tract^ and thus future inner fermentation is prevented and 
the nutritive elements preserved. The Irish Farmers' 
Journal, in giving an account of this process of curing 
clover hay, says : 

" The clover intended for hay is mown and left to lie in 
the swath until 4 o'clock in the afternoon of the following 
day to dry. Of course these swaths are twelve or eighteen 
inches thick. They are then raked together in small shocks 
which are afterwards made into larger ones, such as would 
require six or eight horses to draw. Two or more men are 
kept upon the large ones tramping them down, so as to make 
them more compact and induce a more speedy fermenta- 
tion. If the weather is warm, fermentation will begin in 
a few hours, as will be known by the honey-like smell. 
When a proper fermentation has begun, the cocks, on being 
opened, will appear brownish and may be spread. After 
drying it may be carried to the hay loft without any dan- 
ger of a second fermentation.'' 

It should always be borne in mind that clover hay will 
not shed rain. When stacked out in the field, it should 
either be thatched of have a thick top-covering of wheat 
straw or other hay. The tedder is thought by many to be 
indispensable in saving good clover hay. Unquestionably 

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it is of great service, and the hay made by the use of the 
tedder in dry, hot weather, is superior to that made without, 
but good hay can be and is made by many farmers who 
never saw a tedder. Clover hay is more diiBcult to cure 
than hay from any of the real grasses, and this arises from 
the fact that it contains more water than other grasses, in 
the proportion of 8 to 7. For this reason also, it is more 
difficult to keep, being more liable to heat in the mow. 
It will not bear handling or transportation, and while it 
will always be a favorite hay for home consumption, it will 
never be valuable for market purposes. For horses, good 
grass hay is probably better than clover, because it is more 
digestible, and is not so liable to produce colic. On the 
other hand, clover is a superior hay for cattle, producing in 
milk cows a fine flow of milk. 

The following table, compiled from analyses made by 
Wolff, Knop and Way, will exhibit the comparative value 
of clover and grass hays : 



:3 fl 


Red Clover, in bloom . 
*' '* ripe.... 

White ** 

AJsike '* in bloom. 

'' •* ripe 

Orchard grass 


Kentucky blue grass. 

14 8 




e 3 


18 4129.9 


34 3 

39 2 

40 7 

25 6 



It has often been a matter of surprise that Tennessee 
farmers have not more generally saved their clover seed. 
The amount of money yearly paid out for an article which 
is now considered a prime necessity to good farmings has 
been estimated to be more than $250,000 annually. Were 
the lands of Tennessee incapable of producing clover seed, 

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there would be reason for this expenditure. In point of 
fiict, however, no section of the Union will produce, acre 
for acre, a larger quantity of clover seed. Three bushels 
per acre have often been gathered, although the usual 
average is about one and a half bushels. 

As the first crop of clover, coming to maturity in June, 
will not perfect its seed, it is necessary to take off the first 
crop, either by feeding or by mowing for hay, and rely for 
the seed upon the after crop. The quantity of seed of this 
crop will depend much upon the weather. Should there be 
much rain or heavy winds, the yield of seed will be small, 
but when the weather has been fine and calm and the seed 
free from dock or other noxious seeds, the crop will be found as 
remunerative as any other grown by the farmer. A bushel 
of clover seed will weigh usually about 64 pounds, though 
60 pounds is the standard bushel in market. 

The second crop of clover should be allowed to stand 
ODtil the husks have becone quite brown and the seeds have 
passed the milky state. It should then be mowed and per- 
mitted to lie upon the ground until it is well cured. After 
it is cured rake it up into swaths. Rain will rather benefit 
than injure it, making it easier to separate the heads from 
the haulm, which is done by passing through an ordinary 
wheat separator. A clover huller attachment is adjusted to 
the separator below tlie vibrator, which hulls the seeds, 
and they are separated from the chaff by the fan, care being 
taken to shut off as much air as possible by closing the 
sliding doors. 

The crop of seed can be largely increased by mowing or 
feeding off the first crop of clover about the first of June, 
and then top-dressing with stable manure. 'J'he earlier the 
first crop is cut the larger will be the crop of seed. By 
treating the clover fields in this way, as much as three 
bushels of seed have been obtained from an acre. Uplands 
will yield more seed than bottom lands, but they should be 
enriched by a liberal application of manure. About the 

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first of September is the time to mow for seed, and the 
straw will thresh all the better for being exposed to the 
weather for three weeks. The threshing is usually done in 
the field, though the haulm may be hauled up alter being 
thoroughly dry, and stacked with a good straw covering, 
or else stored away under shelter on a good tight floor 
until it suits the convenience of the farmer to thresh. Care 
should be taken not to run over or tramp upon the clover 
after it is dried, as many seeds are thus shelled out and 
lost. The better plan is to haul to the thresher just as soon 
as the straw is in a proper condition to thresh. This will 
save the trouble and expense of stacking. 

Mr. J. K. P. Wallace, writing from Anderson county to 
the Rural Sun, thus describes the method in use in that 
county : 

^^ We take a six or eight horse (the latter the belter) 
power lever threshing machine, and attach to it the ordinary 
box, that is, such as does not have the grain-cleaning ap- 
paratus, because this would fan seed and all away. We 
first run the clover straw through, which takes all the seeds 
off and thoroughly tears up the heads. Then we plank up 
the (box) machinery, leaving a small opening in front of 
the cylinder, say six or seven inches square, and leave a 
smaller one at the opposite upper corner at the rear of the 
cylin<der. Then with a small handled paddle we feed the 
threshed-off heads through again. The seeds are then 
thoroughly hulled, ready for the fanning mill. Every fifth 
bushel is taken by the threshers as toll. A thresher of this 
kind will thresh and hull from five to seven bushels per 

With the separators, one bushel in three is taken for 

Some farmers prefer to sow in the chaff, believing that a 
better stand of clover is thus secured. Usually about 
thirty bushels in the chaff are considered equivalent to one 
of cleaned seed. Of course this will depend greatly 

Digitized by 



upon the yield of seed, and experiments ought to be made 
to determine the relative amount to sow when in chaff 

It is a^curious fact, and one, I believe, first mentioned by 
Mr. Darwin, that the bumble bee plays an important part 
in the fertilization of this plant. Careful observation will 
no doubt reveal the fact that the amount of clover seed 
gathered from a j)articular field will, other things being 
equal, be in proportion to the number of bumble bees that 
feed upon the flowers. In the act of feeding they gather the 
pollen from one flower and transfer it to the next one upon 
which they alight, thus acting as important agents in the 
fructification of the flower, and consequently in increasing 
the production of seed. 


No question at the present day pertaining to agriculture 
is more deeply interesting to the farmers of Tennessee than 
how to increase the yield of the wheat crop per acre, for 
upon this depends the profits of this standard crop, one 
probably more generally grown in the State than any other. 
It has long been noted that a soil well suited to clover is 
generally well adapted, to wheat, but not until the pains- 
taking investigations of Dr. Voelcker, of England, was the 
fact established that the clover plant, by increasing the 
amount of available nitrogen in the surface soil, is the very 
best fore-runner for wheat, unlocking, as it were, the ele- 
ments in the soil necessary to a full and perfect develope- 
ment of the wheat crop. 

Frof. Way has established the fact that the carbonate of 
ammonia of rain-water and of manures are so absorbed and 
80 firmly fixed by the soil that no free ammonia can be 
present in it. Neither pure nor carbonic acid water can 
extract this fixed ammonia from the soil. It must be ex- 
tracted by the roots of plants. A plant, therefore, with ex- 
tensive root ramifications, such as clover, will extract a 
much larger quantity than those plants with feebler roots. 

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The clover roots bring this ammonia or nitrogen to the 
surface, and on their decay these nitrogenous matters are 
converted into nitrates in which the wheat plant finds a 
most congenial food. In addition to this, the leaves formed 
by clover contain a large amount of nitrogenous matter, and 
these are dropped upon the surface, increasing the amount 
of nitrogen available for wheat or other crops. 

A synopsis of Professor Voelcker's article on the causes 
of the benefit of clover as a preparatory crop for wheat, 
cannot fail to be interesting. Prof. Voelcker, writing in 
1869, says : 

It is well known to most practical farmers that if they can eucceed 
in growing a good crop of clover they are almost certain to get a good, 
paymg crop of wheat You see how all agricnltural matters depend 
upon each other. I have come to the conclusion that the very best 
preparation — the very best manure, if you will allow me to thus ex- 
press myself, is a good crop of clover. Now, at first sight, nothing 
seems more contradictory than to say you can remove a very large 
quantity of both mineral and organic food from the soil and yet make 
It more productive, as in the case of clover. Nevertheless, it is a fact 
the larger the amount of mineral matter yOu remove in a crop of clover, 
and the larcjer the amount of nitrogen which is carried off in clover hay 
the richer the land becomes. Now, here is really a strange chemical 
anomoly which cannot be discarded, and invites our investigation, and 
it is an investigation which has occupied my attention, I may say, for 
more than ten years. 

This clover investigation has very much interested me, but only 
during the last season have I been able to bring it to anything like com- 
pletion, so as thoroughly to explain the strange anomoly that is pre- 
sented to us in the growth of clover as a preparatory crop for wheat. 
The explanation is very simple though puzzling when you know not 
the chemical points that are involved in the investigation. I cannot 
deny myself the gratification of showing you a few figures that in a 
thoroughly chemical point of view, show that clover is the most ex- 
haustive crop that you can possibly grow, while in a thorough practical 
point of view it is the most restorative crop and the best preparative 
crop for wheat that you can possibly grow. 

Now if we examine what is taken from the land in the shape of 
clover, we shall find that, assuming an acre of land to four tons of 
clover hay, these four tons of clover hay will remove 672 pounds of 
mineral constituents, and not less than 224 pounds of nitrogen which 

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ifl equal to 272 pounds of ammoDia. Four tons of cloyer hay, the pro- 
dace of one acre, must contain a large amount of nitrogen, and remoye 
from the soil a large quantity of mineral matters abounding in lime, 
potash and also much phosphoric acid. Now comparing what is re- 
moved by a crop of wheat, we find that in a clover crop we remove 
fully three times as much of mineral matter, and a great deal more — 
six times as much I believe — as we do in a crop of wheat. The total, 
to give the exact figures, of mineral matter removed in an average crop 
of wheat amounts ts 175 pounds per acre. 

Assuming the grain of wheat to furnish 1.78 per cent of nitroccen, 
and wheat straw .64 per cent., and assuming also that 1500 pounds of 
wheat and 8000 pounds of straw represent the average produce per acre, 
there will be in the grain of wheat per acre 26.7 pounds of nitrogen, 
and in the straw 19.2 pounds, or in both together 46 pounds of nitrogen, 
in round numbers equal to about 56 pounds of ammonia which is only 
about one-fifth the quantity of nitrogen in the produce of an acre of 

Wheat, it is well known, is especially benefitted by the application 
of nitrogecous manures, and as clover carries off so large a quantity of 
nitrogen it is natural to expect the yield of wheat after clover to fall 
short of what the land might be presumed to produce without manure 
before a crop of clover was taken from it. Experience, however, has 
proved the fallacy of this presumption, for the result is exactly the 
opposite, inasmuch as a better and heavier crop of wheat is produced 
than without the intercalation of clover. 

I believe that a vast amount of mineral manure is brought within the 
reach of the com (wheat) crop by growing clover. It is rendered avail- 
able to the roots of the com crop. Clover, by means of its long roots, 
penetrates a large mass of soil. It gathers up, so to speak, the phos- 
phoric acid and the potash which are disseminated throughout a large 
portion of the soil ; and when the ground is plowed the roots are left 
in the surface, and in decajring they leave in an available condition the 
mineral substances which the wheat plant requires to enable it to 

Although in clover hay these manurial matters are removed in great 
quantity, yet the store of mineral food that we have in six or twelve 
inches of soil is so great that it is utterly insignificant in comparison 
with what remains. In other words, the quantity of mineral matter 
which is rendered available and fit for use for the succeeding wheat 
crop is very much larger than the quantity which is removed in clover 

Bat the accumulation of nitrogen after the growth ot clover in the 
soil is very large. Even when the clover crop is insignificant, a larg« 

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quantity of nitrogen, amounting to tons, is accomnlated in the surface 
soil, and the better the clover crop the greater is the accumulation of 
nitrogen. In one of my experiments I tried to determine the amount of 
nitrogen which is left in the portion of a field where the clover was 
comparatively poor, and I found that on the brow of the hill in that field, 
(for it had a considerable declivity), where the clover was weak the 
amount of nitrogen per acre was 1 ton, 11 cwt., 99 lbs, while at the 
bottom of the hill where the clover was stronger, there being more soil, 
it was 2 tons, 2 cwt. and 61 lbs. Observe too, that at the bottom of 
the hill the wheat was always better. Now it is in virtue, I believe, of 
this nitrogen that the wheat grew so much more luxuriantly. 

Dr. Voelcker, in his very able article, sums up the con- 
clusions at which he arrived in the following words : 

1. A good crop of clover removes from the soil more potash, phos- 
phoric acid« lime, and other mineral matters, which enter into the com- 
position of the ashes of our cultivated crops, than any other crop 
usually grown in this country. 

2. There is fully three times as much nitrogen in a crop of clover as 
in the average produce of the grain and straw of wheat per acre. 

8. Notwithstanding the large amount of nitrogenous matter and of 
ash-constituents of plants in the produce of an acre, clover is an ex- 
cellent preparatory crop for wheat. 

4. During the growth of clover a large amount of nitrogenous mat- 
ter accumulates in the soil. 

5. This accumulation, which is greatest in the surface-soil, is due to 
decaying leaves dropped during the growth of clover, and to an abun- 
dance of roots, containing when dry from 1} to 2 per cent, of nitrogen. 

6. The clover roots are stronger and more numerous, and more 
leaves fall on the ground when clover is grown for seed, than when it 
is mown for hay ; in consequence more nitrogen is left after clover 
seed than after hay, which accounts for wheat yielding a better crop 
after clover seed than after hay. 

7. The development of roots being checked when the produce, in a 
green condition, is fed off by sheep, in all probability leaves still less 
nitrogen6u8 matter in the soU than when clover is allowed to get riper 
and is mown for hay ; thus, no doubt, accounting for the observation 
made by practical men that, notwithstanding the return of the produce 
in the sheep excrements, wheat is generally stronger and yields better 
after clover mown for hay than when the clover is fed off green by 

8. The nitrogenous matters in the clover-remains on their gradual 
decay are finally transformed into nitrates, thus affording a continuous 

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source of food, on which cereal crops specially delight to grow. 

9. There is a strong presomptiye evidence that the nitrogen which 
exists in the air in the shape of ammonia and nitric acid, and that which 
descends in these combinations with the rain which falls on the ground, 
satisfies^ onder ordinary circumstances, the requirements of the clover 
crop. This crop causes a large accumulation of nitrogenous matters, 
which are gradually changed in the soil into nitrates. The atmosphere 
thus furnishes nitrogenous food to the succeeding wheat indirectly, 
and, so to say, gratis. 

10. Clover not only provides abundance of nitrogenous food, but 
delivers this food in a readily available form (as nitrates) more grad- 
ually and continuously, and consequently with more certainty of a good 
result, than such food can be applied to the land in the shape of nitro- 
genous spring top-dressings. 

I have thus given a larger space to clover than to any 
other grass, natural or artificial, because I believe it is the 
most important plant that ^can engage the attention of 
Tennessee farmers, not only valuable in itself, but prepar- 
ing the land for crops that bring the highest price in the 
market. Upon whatever farm clover is grown in regular 
rotation, there will be found abundant crops, fet stock and 
improved husbandry. It is the main pillar of TennesseKe 
agriculture, and it is worse than folly to attempt to make 
fiurming pay for any number of years without it. A farmer 
who is too poor to sow clover seed is too poor to own a 
iarm, and however great may be his exertions (unless with- 
in reach of a large town where manures are abundant) if he 
does not sow clover he is doomed to a hopeless poverty. 

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AIiSIKE OJjOYlSR-'(Trifolium hybridvm). 

This species of clover was introduced into England from 
Sweden, hence it is sometimes called Swedish clover. It 
gets the name Alsike from the parish of Alsike, in the 
province of Upland. It is a perennial found wild through- 
out many parts of Sweden, Norway and Finland. 

Alsike Clover, as compared with common red clover, has 
a slenderer stalk, narrower leaf, and paler colored flowers 
and foliage. The flower stalks are longer and the blossoms 
more fragrant and sweeter to the taste. When first open, 
the blooms are but faintly tinged with pink, subsequently 
they deepen into a pale red, and stand up. When the pe- 
riod of flowering passes the heads droop and turn brown. 
The seed pods contain three or four seeds, which are kidney 
shaped, and from dark green to violet color, and consider- 
ably smaller than the seeds of red clover. 

This clover does not make much growth the first year, 
and attains full growth only in its third year. It yields 
less than the red clover, and has but little or no aftermath.^ 
It is hardier and sweeter than red clover, and being a pe- 
rennial, is more lasting, and it makes a finer hay. 

Wherever it has been tried, experience has taught that 
it is best to seed it down with red clover, or some grass, 
preferably orchard grass, for the reasons that it does not 
occupy the ground the first year, and is liable to fall and 
lodge badly if sown alone. I have noticed that it is much 
frequented by bees. 

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It does not stand the long dry summers of our latitude 
well, but seems to like cool, moist regions. 

A Michigan correspondent of the Western Rural, who 
appears to have had much experience with it, says : 

Alsike Clover is not adapted to light sandy, or sandy and gravelly 
ftoils, with porous or leacby subsoils. With good clay subsoil, it suc- 
ceeds better. But it luxuriates in rich, thoroughly worked clay loam 
soils, ricli bottom lands, prairie, and all marsh or swamp lands where 
they can be plowed so as to kill tho wild grasses. Flowering through 
winter and spring does not injure it. Here it will accept the situation 
and display its magnificent products on the scale of five tons of finely 
cured hay to the acre. But mark I deeply stirred, rich, moist land, 
nnderdrained or subsoiled, or both, will only produce this burden. The 
chemical action of plaster is strikingly manifest on this plant. Blos- 
soms are developed mo e or less when the plant is from eight to tea 
inches in height ; and when three and a half feet. It is a perfect sea of 

Millions of dollars may be added to the wealth of this country, es- 
pecially the West, in a few years by sowing one acre this year, and 
gradually extending its area. For Foiling cows, horses, etc., when pas- 
tures fail, it is equal or superior to green com and attended with much 
less trouble in the gathering and feeding. During the past year, I cut 
three crops from the same ground, standing at the first cutting from 
two to three feet in height ; last cutting, one foot in height, as thick as it 
coold staod, small delicate stalks, with numerous branches, and per- 
fectly glorified with a mass of small peach -blow colored blossoms, fill- 
ing the air with the most delightful and exhilarating perfume, and 
swarming with bees every fair day. The root is like red clover, but 
longer and more fibrous. The haulm is small, tender and nutritious ; 
when well cured as it should be, in full bloom, every spear will be 
ettlcn with avidity by all kinds of stock. 

There is no plant known that will produce so much good honey, but- 
ler, cheese, beef, mutton, wool and hay per acre, as this plant, not 
even excepting cor . In using the latter for soiling, you get only the 
liaiilm, while in the Alsike you get the haulm and a large yield of 
htmey; and if the ground is prepared as well by deep tilth, manure,. 
gad plaster, or other fertilizers, as for com you will get as much by 
Weight of the haulm. 

1% bears feeding to an enormous degree. I think its fattening quali- 
tfei anperior to the famous blue grass of Kentucky ; and as it will 
ftoiffish well on such soils as I have designated, from the Gulf to Lake 
Saperior, farmers can easily divine its immense advantage to their pock- 

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ets. Beside, the expense of "seediBg down" every three or four years 
is saved. It is a great renovator and disintegrator of hard, tenaciom 
soils. Its long tap roots and numerous fibers reach deep for its pabn- 
lum, and thus loosen the soil and endure drought well. Some think there 
are two kinds of this clover. I think not. The difference in growth, 
etc., in diverse localities, is owing to the character of the soiL I never 
saw any but the large kind on land once covered with beech, maple, 
oak, bass, lever wood, etc., and I never saw any but the small kind on 
light, sandy, and gravelly soils. Also, on pebbly soils with calcareous 
debris, and good tenacious subsoil it succeeds well It is no humbug 

As compared with red clover, the hay is richer by two 
per cent, in flesh formers — both cut in bloom. The analyses 
of both, as given by Professors Wolff and Knop, show : 

Heat pro- 
ducing sub- 




Red Clover 








The great difference in the amount of crude fibre is no- 
ticeable, and shows decidedly in favor of Alsike clover. 

SAPLING BED CIjOY'E'R—{Trifoliumereetum). 

This is precisely the same plant as the common red 
clover, and is used in the same manner, and for the same 
purposes. The only difference in it is, that the stems being 
stouter, it is not liable to lodge, but will stand erect, and 
so be in a better condition to mow, and admits the sun to 
its roots better. As to which may be preferable, is a mere 
matter of taste or prejudice. Either is good, the sapling 
clover being about two weeks later. 

CBIMSON ChOYBB,—{7yi/d%tm intxirncUum). 

This is an annual presenting a beautiful crimson flower 
when in bloom. It is principally valuable as a green food, 
though the hay is thought to be equal or superior to that 
made of red clover, but being an annual it interferes more 

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with the operations of the farm^ it being necessary to sow 
it as a separate crop. 

An analysis of the hay cut in bloom^ as made by Wplff 
and Knop, show : 

Flesh formers 12.2 

Heating properties 80.1 

Crude fibre 83.8 

Fat 8.0 

Aah. 7 2 

It is said to be earlier than lucerne or the common red 
clover. It may be sown upon wheat or grain stubble in 
the fall^ the land being simply harrowed and the seed sown. 

Few things, it is said, in the vegetable world, presents 
a more beautiful sight than a field of crimson clover in full 
bloom. It is not grown to any extent in this State, a few 
bunches appearing sometimes in fields with other clover. 
Its chief value is in its quick return. Sown in autumn it 
may be mown early the succeeding spring, and so meet any 
scarcity of provender. 

AIiFAIiFA: liUOSBlSrB—iMedicago Sativa). 

Cultivated for green fodder; belongs to the luguminous famUy; 
stems erect, one to two feet high, from a long, deep root ; leaflet obo- 
TSte-oblong ; racemes oblong ; pod several seeded, linear, coiled about 
two turns. (Gray.) 

This is, beyond doubt, the oldest cultivated grass known^ 
having been introduced into Greece from Media 500 B. C, 
and the Romans, finding its qualities good, cultivated it 
extensively, and by them it was carried into France when 
Ciesar reduced Gaul. It is emphatically a child of the 
Sao, and revels in a heat that would destroy any other 
species of clover. But cold and moisture are hurtful to it. 
On the rich, sandy lands of the South it is invaluable, and 
will grow luxuriantly, making enormous yields of hay. 
Its nutritive constituents are almost identical with red 
clover, but it has one property not possessed by the latt^^ 
and that is, it is a pereAaiid* It does not stool as freely as 

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red clover^ and therefore must be sown rather thicker. It 
will continue to fiirnish green pasturage later than red 

It does not grow well on any soil that has a hard pan, 
nor on thin soils. To secure a stand, the ground must be 
in a thorough state of tilth, well pulverized and mellow. 
A want of attention to this requisite has caused many to be 
disappointed in the result. But in well prepared, rich, 
gravelly or sandy loam, it succeeds remarkably, sending 
down its long tap roots many feet into the subsoil, pumping 
up moisture from below, and thus will thrive when all other 
plants are drooping. In this respect it is far superior to 
clover. For the latter, a suitable sur&ce soil is of equal 
importance with the subsoil, but for Lucerne a suitable sub- 
soil is absolutely necessary, as the roots are not fibrous, only 
rootlets shooting off from the main tap root. This tap root 
grows to be as large as a carrot. This enormous quantity 
of roots permeating the ground to the depth of several feet, 
necessarily prepares the land for increased production, the 
leguminous plants deriving the larger part of their suste- 
nance from the atmosphere, and storing it in the roots. 

So that; as a fertilizer, it stands deservedly high. The 
soil is not only fertilized to the amount of several tons per 
acre, but it is mellowed from the mechanical displacement 
of the soil and the admixture of decayed vegetable matter. 
As a preparation for wheat it is equal to clover, and for 
com better. Besides, a large amount of the leaves is neces- 
sarily strewn on the ground, and it shades it effectually. 

The seed of Lucerne is yellow, and heavy, when good. 
J£ brown, it has received too much heat in the mow, and if 
light colored, it indicates that it was saved too green. And 
the same precautions are necessary to be observed in regard 
to red clover. The time of sowing is the same with the 
either species of clover, that is Spring time. It should be 
sown in drills, and cultivated the first year, so as to keep 
da:vm the weeds. It is easily smothered. 

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It derives its name, Alfelfa, from the Chilians. It grows 
spontaneously all over Chili, among the Andes, as well as on 
the pampas of that country, and of Buenos Ay res. The French 
and Spanish settlements of the Southern States adhere to 
it, and cultivate it in preference to all other forage plants. 
It would be a good addition to the fiurms of West Tennes- 
nessee, especially in the sandy bottoms. It would also 
thrive upon the alluvial bottoms of any part of the State 
where the sun has fair play .on the ground. 

When properly managed, the number of cattle which can 
be kept in good condition on an acre of Lucerne, during 
the whole season, exceeds belief. It is no sooner mown 
than it pushes out fresh shoots, and wonderful as the growth 
of clover sometimes is, in a field that has been lately mown, 
that of Lucerne is far more rapid. Lucerne will last for 
many years, shooting its roots — tough and fibrous almost as 
those of liquorice — downwards for nourishment, till they 
are altogether out of reach of drought. In the dryest and 
most sultry weather, when every blade of grass droops for 
want of moisture, Lucerne holds out its stem fresh and 
green as in the genial spring. 

Although so luxuriant in France, it will not flourish in 
England for the want of sun. It has generally failed in 
the Northern States for the same reason, superadded to the 
oold, while in the South it is a fine, thrifty plant. It has 
been fully tested in Georgia and Alabama, and has given 
universal satisfaction. Horses there, it is said, require no 
other food when not constantly engaged in work. Five 
tons of good hay have been made to the acre. It is esti- 
mated that five horses may be supported during the entire 
year from one acre of it. It is. ready for the mower a 
month before red clover, and springs up long before the 
usual pasture grasses. In saving it for hay, care must be 
exercised, as in red clover, not to expose the plant too long 
to the sun, as it will shrivel and dry up the leaves, and 
they will be lost^ The time for cutting is whm it>is in full 
bloom^ as in red dover. 

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Occasionally it is attacked by an insect^ when it begins 
to turn yellow, then it should at once be cut, as it will 
quickly dry up otherwise. Owing to the scarcity of seed, 
and the small amount cultivated, it is quite expensive, but 
the farmer can test it on a small quantity of land, and at 
the same time secure seed for future sowing. The first year 
it is apt to be troubled by the presence of weeds, but these 
can be-€asily exterminated if the precaution is observed to 
run the mower over it before the weeds go to seed. After- 
wards no fears need be entertained on that subject. 

This plant is well adapted to the use of persons living in 
small towns or villages, who have a small lot they wish to 
devot« to hay for a single hoise or cow. No other kind of 
clover or grass will equal it in quantity, while the quality 
is as good as the best. 

On the whole, the fitrmers cannot do better than adopt 
the cultivation of this grass. It has proved, with all who 
have tested it, worthy of all the extravagant encomiums 
bestowed upon it. 

An analysis shows the hay to contain : 

Flesh formers 14.4 

Heating properties • 22.5 

Crude fibre 40.0 

Fat 2.6 

Ash 6.4 

It will be seen that in flesh-forming constituents it sur- 
passes red clover by one per cent. 


From two French words, meaning sacred grass. It is a perennia], 
legominons plant, partaking more the character and appearance of the 
pea tlian clover. It has stems from two to three feet long, straggling, 
tapering, smooth ; leaves in pdrs of pointed, oblong leaflets, slightly 
hairy on the nnder side ; flower stalks higher than the leaves, ending in 
a spike of crimson or variegated flowers, succeeded by flat, hard pods, 
toothed on the edges, and prickly on the sides; roots perennial, ^bird 
and woody. Flowers in July. 

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Experiments have been made with this grass, and though 
80 valuable in France as to be called sacred, it has not 
proved a success here. It requires two or three years to 
arrive at maturity, and during that time has to be watched 
closely, or it will be choked up with weeds or grasses. It 
does not yield as much hay as either red clover or lucerne, 
but is of a very superior kind, and is much vaunted as a 
good butter making hay. It does not give cows the hoven, 
however much they may eat of it. Its seeds are also said 
to be superior to oats, and more nutritious, and are very 
fine for fowls, inciting them to lay. It does best on lime- 
stone soils, though succeeding well on gravelly or sandy 
land, and will stand a large amount of heat, though not 
much cold. It would probably suit the country further 
south better than Tennessee, though I have seen it growing 
in Stewart county, having been brought there by a Swiss 
family. It would probably grow on all our calcareous soils. 

VETCH, TABES— (FtciaJ-mericana). 

Flowers, seyeral or many on a slender peduncle ; i>ods seyeral seeded; 
with ten to fourteen oblong, and very blunt, veiny leaflets, and purplish 
flowers oyer one-half inch long. 

This legumen is common throughout the whole United 
States^ though sparingly raised in Tennessee, from the fact 
that the ordinary cow or stock pea answers our purpose 
equally well for all kinds of stocky and is a savory food for 
man^ and on this account the latter will be treated further 
OB under the head of Cereals^ both of man and beast. 

This closes the chapter on meadow grasses, cultivated or 
experimented with in Tennessee. There are many others 
which may be worthy of a trial. 

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THE QBAfiSES OF T£KK£88££. 16t 



Whfle there are oyer 200 varieties of grasses cultivated in England 
for the use of domestic animals, in the occupied territory embraced 
within the United States there are not more than twenty-five, although 
there is a much greater diversity of soils, surface configliration, climate 
and latitude. The grasses constituting our meadows are nearly all 
derived from the eastern continent, where the abundance of the rich 
pasture lands teem with a great variety of nutritious herbage. All the 
cereals — oats, rye, wheat and barley, are indigenous to the old world. 
Indian com is the greatest and almost the only valuable cereal contrib- 
nted by the new world to the old. The great prairies east and west of 
the Mississippi abound in a charming and luxuriant vegetation, but the 
supply of food which they afford for the herds grazmg upon them in 
comparison to the overwhelming quantity of worthless herbage, is very 
scanty. Exactly the reverse is the condition of the pastures of the 
eastern hemisphere, where almost every plant that springs from the 
fiorface of the earth is rich in nutritive elements. The extensive plains 
along the eastern slopes of the Rocky Mountains, extending to the 
western borders of Kansas, are the only natural pastures where the 
growth of an indigenous grass of suitable texture and highly nutritive 
qualities prevails to the exclusion of almost all other vegetation. Tlie 
Buffalo grass, BuchlcB dadyloides delicate and low growing species, but 
very nutritious and exceedingly tenacious of life, possesses dominion 

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over the entire surface. It eorviyes equally well the seyerest droughts 
and the tramping of the buffalo. The range of this grass is said to be 
identical with that of the buffalo. 

The western slope of the Sierra Nevada, from the upper Sacramento 
to San Biego, has hundreds of square miles covered with the wild 
oats of California. This is also excellent natural pasture grounds. 

I do not pretend to say that the jpoa pratenHs or blue grass, our most 
valuable pasture grass, is a true indigenous species. It is found over 
such an extensive range and often in such wild and inaccessible places, 
for from settlements, that it is impossible to believe that the seeds could 
have been disseminated by the settlers or their stock. Besides, we know 
of numerous other plants which belong unquestionably to both conti- 
tinents. It is also evident that the spread of this grass has been favored 
by the expanse of cultivation and the increase of stock. 

It is still an open question whether, among the few indigenous grasses, 
there may not still be some which would submit to artificial treatment 
and become useful and profitable meadow, or, at least, pasture grasses. 
Here is a field well worthy the attention of the Agricultural Depart- 
ment at Washington. The numerous geological and geographical sur- 
veys now persecuted with such vigor by the General €k)vemment, should 
be charged with the duty of collecting seeds of the wild grasses that 
promise to be valuable, and skillfully conducted experiments made at 
the botanical gardens at Washington. 

There are many other wild grasses that might be domesticated, many 
of which are common in Tennessee. The following furnished by 
Dr. Gattinger, are not rare, but veiy generally distributed, and good for 
grazmg. Experiments should be tried with these under culture: 

Sporobulus Indicus. 
Bouteloua curtipendula, 
Foa compressa. 

— serotina. 

— ^flexuosa. 

— ^brevifolia. 
Feetuca elatier. 


Bromus E[almii. 
Elymus Y irginicus. 

— Canadensis. 
Paspalum distichum* 

— ^l«ve. 

— racemulocnm. 

— undulatum. 


Some of these, under cultivation, might become importaat pasture 
grasses, especially the Poas. 

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In this part I shall treat the Pasture Grasses in the following order: 
Meadow Foxtail, Mexican Mnhlenbergia, Kimble Will, Hair grass. 
Black Oat or Prairie grass, Bermuda grass, Hairy Muskit, Pointed 
Slender grass, Annual Spear or Gtoose grass, Wood Meadow grass. Wire 
grass, Blue grass, Rough Meadow grass, Creeping Meadow grass. Strong- 
scented Meadow grass. Slender Meadow grass. Meadow Comb grass. 
Quaking grass, Small Fescue, Sheep^s Fescue, Meadow Fescue, Com- 
mon Reed grass. Cane, Couch grass. Velvet or Lawn grass, Barley 
grass. Tall Meadow Oat grass, Wood Hair grass. Crab or Finger grass, 
Sweet-Scented Vernal grass, Prolific Panic grass, Pampas grass, 
Ramie, Florin, White Clover, Japan Clover, Herds grass and Orchard 

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MEADOW FOXTAIL.— (^^opeetintf prateruU.) 

This grass has an erect, smooth stem, one to two feet high, with 
swelling sheaths; spikes cylindrical, obtuse, equalling the sharp, cone- 
like glumes; awns twisted and twice the length of 
the blossom. It flowers in May and June. The spikes 
are not so long or large as timothy, but, except a* 
to size, it yeiy closely resembles it. It has only one 
palea, and the head is soft, while timothy is rough. 

What the blae grass is to Tennessee the 
Foxtail is to the Northern States. There it is 
regularly so wn^ and the seeds command a high 
price. When young, and, in fact, up to blos- 
soming, it is eaten with relish by stock, es- 
pecially sheep, but after it forms seed it is of 
but little service in the support of anything. 
It is never sown here; in fact it is rather re- 
garded in the light of a pest by most farmers, 
as it forms one of the grasses to be specially 
contended against in the cultivation of field 
crops. It grows without care, almost every- 
where, especially on abandoned fields, and 
generally, with broom-grass, roots out other 
vegetation. In the fall, after it has seeded, it 
makes a very luxuriant aftermath. The nu- 
tritive value of this grass will surprise many 
I farmers who have always looked upon it with 
^ disfiivor. According to Way's analysis, it has 

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in 100 parts, when green, of fleih formers, 2.44; fatty mat- 
ter, .62; heaters, 8.50. When dried the same grass yielded 
of flesh-formers, 12.32; fetty matter, 2.92; heaters, 43.12 in 
100 parts. Wolff's and Knopfs analysis of this grass may 
be seen on page 36. 

MBXICAN MXTHLEKBEBGIA. — {Mtthlenbergia Meinoanci,) 

This grass has an erect stem, two to three feet high, with a great 
many branches; panicles lateral and contracted, branches closely spiked, 
in dastera, green and purplish; glomes pointed, awnless and unequal. 
It flowers in July and is perenniaL 

This grass thrives best in bottoms, where it grows freely. 
It is slower in mataring than most grasses, and hence, fills a 
vacuum caused by the seeding and dying out of the earlier 
grasses. It is eaten with avidity by cattle, and is a good 
grass in its place. From its wonderful strength, and its 
rapidly spreading roots, it is not advisable to allow it to be 
sown or planted in gardens or fields. 

NIMBLE WlLL.''(MithUnbergia diffusa,) 

A species of the preceding; has stems diffusely branched, from eigh 
to eighteen inches high; panicles slender and contracted; glumes mln 
nte; awns nearly twice as long as the palea. It flowers in August and 
September, and is a perennial. 

It is hardly necessary to do more than mention this 
grass, which forms, in many sections the bulk of the pas- 
tures of the woods. It does not grow in fields, but in 
woods, where, in the fall, after rains have set it, it carpets 
the earth with living green. Various opinions are enter- 
tained as to its nutritive qualities. Some farmers contend 
that their stock are fond of it, and, on a sufficient range, 
cattle, horses and sheep will go into the winter sleek arid 
fat from this vigorous grass. Others regard it as well- 
nigh worthless. 

It freely propagates itself in all woods where the cover- 
ing of leaves is not so great as to exclude the rays of the 
sun &om the soil. Like other grasses, it does beat on good 

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lands, and the rich, black, loamy woods in many parts of the 
State are set with it. 

It is said to be an excellent butter making grass, and 
gives a particularly fine flavor to this article of foq^. It has 
never, to the knowledge of the writer, been sown, though, 
as it produces seed in a limited quantity, there is no reason 
why it should not be if it is really a valuable grass. 

HAIB GB,ABB.^(Muhlenbergia eapUlaris,) 

Another species of the same. Has spikelets, one-flowered hi con- 
tracted, slender panicles. Glumes minute; palea hairy or bearded at 
the base, herbaceous, the lower three nerved, pointed or nerved at the 
tip; stamens, three ^ 

These grasses, together with several not growing in the 
State, were named from Dr. Muhlenberg, a distinguished 
botanist, who gave them a name and description. 

The hair grass is a beautiful, graceful grass, and is often 
sold by florists as an ornamental grass, and forms a feathery 
addition to bouquets. It has no great agricultural value. 

BLACK OAT aBASS--PBAIBIE aBASS.-.(iS^ aoenaoea.) 

Spikelets one-flowered; flowers stipitate, or borne on slender stalks; 
glumes equal, membranaceous; pales longer than the glumes, thick and 
leathery, the lower tipped with a very long awn; bent above and twisted 
at the base; seed scale rounded or cylindrical, infloresence in spreadhig 
panicles. PerenniaL 

This grass is found in the fence corners of most df our 
fields, and, to some extent, in the woods in sandy places. It 
resembles very much the black oat, and hence its name. 
Cattle and sheep will eat it after it has seeded, but it is 
not of much value. It grows on almost all of the prairies 
of the Western States. It is oflen seen in vases as an orna- 
mental plant. 


Glumes nearly equal; spikes, four to five; pales smooth; stems smooth^ 
hollow, prostrate at the base, with four or five leareB flat or folded. 

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acute, rigid, hairy, rough at the edges; lower Joints coyered by the 
sheath; infloresence digitate, parplish; stamens three; stigmas feathery; 

Bermuda grass is a native of the West Indies, and is the 
principal grass of that torrid country. It has only lately been 
brought into notice as a valuable pasture grass for this State. 
In Louisiana, Texas and the South generally, it is, and has 
been, the chief reliance for pasture for a long time, and the 
immense herds of cattle on the southern prairies subsist 
principally on this food. It revels on sandy soils, and has 
been grown extensively on the sandy hills of Virginia and 
North and South Carolina. From the extreme vitality of 
its long, rhizome roots, it is very difficult to eradicate when 
once it gets a good foothold. Occasionally the travel^ir* 
meets with patches of Bermuda grass in the cotton fields of 
the South, and it is carefully avoided by the planter, any 
disturbance giving a new start to its vigorous roots. §ome 
ditch around it, and others enclose it and let shrubbery do 
the work of destruction. It is used exten^vely on the 
southern rivers to hold the levees and the embankments of 
the roads. It is the only yard grass in that section. It 
forms a sward so tough it is almost impossible for a plow to 
pass through it. There is a saying in the South, "that it 
would take a team of six bull elephants to draw a thumb- 
lancet through it.'' 

It will throw its runners over a rock six ftet across, and 
soon hide it from view; or, it will run down the sides of 
the deepest gully and stop its washing. 

The parks of the South, set with it, present a very beau- 
tiful appearance if kept mown, and its pale green color acts 
as a great relief to the landscape when burning with the 
summer suns of the South. Hogs thrive upon its succulent 
roots, and ' horses and cattle upon its foliage. It has 
no seed, but can be easily propagated by dropping cuttings 
in a furrow two or three feet apart. It, however, does not 

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endure a shade, and the weeds mast be mown from it the 
first year. 

In some of the worn and gnllied fields of Tennessee, on her 
mountain sides and on the sandy hills of many parts of the 
State, the cultivation of this grass would be a grand im- 
provement, making the waste places to bloom, where 'now 
only sterility reigns. During the winter it, unlike blue 
grass, disappears from view, but with the warming influ- 
ences of the sun it springs up and affords a constant graz- 
ing through the spring, summer and autumn months. The 
farmeilB of the South, before the war, looked upon it as a 
curse rather than a blessing, and used every endeavor to 
destroy it. But a change of opinion has taken place in this 
respect, and it is encouraged in its growth. 

It would be a good grass to mix with blue grass, as, when 
it disappears in the winter, the blue grass and white clover 
would spring up to keep the ground in a constant state of 
verdure. It grows luxuriantly on the top of Lookout 
Mountain, having been set there many years ago. This 
mountain is 2,200 fe^t high, and has, as a matter of course, 
excessively cold winters; so, if it thrives there, no fear 
need be entertained as to its capacity to endure our cKmate. 
Cattle are very fond of it, and will leave clover to feed 
upon Bermuda. It also has the capacity to withstand any 
amount of heat and drought, and months that are so dry as 
to check the growth of blue grass will only make the Ber- 
muda greener and more thrifty. The experiment of mix- 
ing the two grasses, spoken of above, has been tried with 
eminent success. 

It is also used in the South as a meadow grass, but Ten- 
nessee has so many^ other grasses of more value, thut it 
would not be profitable to employ this, other than as a pas- 
ture grass. 

Where it is indigenous, it has a great reputation as a 
fertilizer, and many fields so worn out as to be worthless^ 
have been reclaimed by it. The labor of plowing it up is 

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considerable, but the many improved plows of the present 
day would be easily dragged through it. There is a sacred 
grass in India called the Daub, and it is venerated by the 
inhabitants on account of its wonderful usefulness. This is 
said to be preeisely the same as the Bermuda, except the 
changes made by the differences of climate and soil. 

Mr. Affleck, in a letter to H. S. Kandall, says of the 
Bermuda grass : 

*' We are fully aware of all the oljections made to the 
spreading of this grass, and have a practical knowledge of 
all the trouble it occasions; and having also had several 
years' experience of its great, its incalculable value, we 
have no hesitation in stating that the latter is many-fold 
greater than the former. The time is not far distant when 
all the rough feed consumed on plantations will be made 
from this grass; and when the planter will consider his hay 
crop as of much more importance than his sugar or cotton. 
The excellence of this plant for pasturage is evinced by two 
circumstances. It is preferred by stock of every descrip- 
tion to all other grass, and it grows luxuriantly in every 
kind of soil. It possesses an additional advantage, that of 
binding the loosest and most barren sandy tracts. But 
when it has once taken possession of close, rich soil, its ex- 
tirpation is so difficult as almost to defy all the skill, indus^ 
try and perseverance of farmers. It is used to bind the 
levees on the banks of the Mississippi, and of railroads. 
We saw it at Macon, 6a., Charleston, S. C, and so on, as 
fiur north as City Point, Va., where it partially covers the 
wharf. One hundred pounds of grass afford upward of 
fifty of hay; and we do Cfui^ as a regular crop, five tons of 
hay per acre each season. Were we to state how much more 
has been cut, we might strain the belief of our readors. No 
other grass will yield such an amount of valuable hay; sur- 
pass it in nutritive qualities; support on an acre of pasture 
such an amount of stock; will improve the soil more 
quickly; or so effectually stop and fill up a wash or gully. 

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Bat; on the other hand^ its extArpcMony when once well es- 
tablished; is almost impossible^ though to check and weaken 
it; 80 far as to grow a grain or cotton crop^ is easy enough* 
To do this, pursue the course of the best farmers of Ken- 
tuckj in their management of blue grass sod — with a good 
breaking plow, having a wheel and coulter^ and a stout 
team, turn over evenly and nicely a sod four inches thick 
and as wide as the plow and horses are capable of; following 
in the same furrow with another plow which casts the dirt 
well; and throw out as much of the fresh earth on top of 
the sod as possible; or the depth of the soil will admit oi. 
The crop that follows can easily be tended without disturb- 
, turbing the sod; and its gradual decay will greatly increase 
whatever crop may be planted on it — and that should be a 
shading onC; corn and peas or pumpkinS; or winter oats 
followed by peas. Good &rmers will understand that heavy 
crops of hay cannot be removed; for many successive years, 
from any land without some return in the shape of manure. 
To the careful; judicious fiu'mer, who wishes to improve his 
land and his stock;; and who does not expect to grow any 
crop without trouble; and who uses good plows and keeps 
a stout team; and that in prime order; we earnestly recom- 
med to try an acre or two of this grasS; in a situation where 
it cannot readily spread. To the careless farmer we say 
touch it not. 

'^ Bermuda grass well set; which affords the finest and 
most nutritious pasturage I have ever seeU; will keep 
almost any number of sheep to the acre — ^three or four times 
as many as blue grass.'' 

HAIBY MIJSEIT-MEZQUITE— MBSQniT.-(B(>tito{oiia eur- 

Spikes short, solitary, racemed; spikelets alternate, two or three 
flowered the terminal flower imperfect; glumes two; keeled, the upper 
layer shorter than the flowers; stamens three ; anthers orange or red; 
rachis extending beyond the spikelets. PerenniaL 

Moskit grass has come into very general use in some 

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parts of Virginia, North Carolina, and, to some extent, in 
Tennessee, and where used, has given much satisfaction. 
It is the grass of the northern and western prairies, and is 
very nutritious. In the absence of grasses better suited to 
this climate, the Muskit might become a very popular 
grass, but such is not the case. Great quantities of it are 
annually cut and sold as prairie hay. It would be well for 
some enterprising farmer to experiment with it. 

POINTED SLENDEB GBA.88."{Lepiochloa mueroncUa.) 

This is an annual, growing from two to three feet high, and flowcre 
m August. Sheaths hairy; spikes from twenty or more, two or three 
inches long, in a long panicle-like raceme; glumes pointed, about equal- 
ing the three or four awnless flowers. 

It grows in fields and pastures and affords a small 
amount of grazing during the hot months; while the 
r^ular pasture grasses are parched up with heat. But it 
is not of much agricultural value in the presence of so 
many others that are successfully grown. 


Spikelets ovate, crowded, three to seven flowered; panicle one-sided 
often; stems spreading, flattened, tufted; lower palea more or less 
hairy on the nerves below; leaves of a bright green, sword-shaped, flat, 
often crumpled on the margin, smooth on both surfaces, rough at the 
edges; seeds oblong, free; glumes shorter than the flowers. 

This is one of the species of the valuable genus Poa to 
which blue grass belongs, and is a very common grass on 
all our swards, and known as Goose Grass. It is so very 
like blue grass that, to a casual observer, it would be 
taken for it. But the florets are not webbed, and in blue 
grass the roots are creeping, while this is tufted. It is a 
valuable grazing grass and sows itself. It is a common pas- 
ture grass of the Northern States, and is highly prized. It 
flowers through the whole summer, unless dried up by a 
drought, to which it easily yields. It forms the principfe 
grazing of the Unaka Mountains, in Tennessee. 

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According to Prof. Way^ this grass is less nutritious 
than blue grass, when green, and more nutritious when dry. 
A comparison of the two when green and cut in bloom and 
dried is as follows : 





Poa annua 





Poa pratensis. 


When dry, the comparison shows as follows : 




Poa annua. 




Poa pratensis 


The analysis of Wolff and Knop, on page 36, show a sim- 
ilar difference. 

WOOD MEADOW aBASS.--(B)a nmaraUs.) 

This grass grows in moist, shady woods, is rank and 
luxuriant^ and is, like the other Poas, greatly relished by 
stock. It will thrive we.ll in thickets and barrens, and is an 
early grass. It has been treated of under the head of 
Meadow Grasses. 

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Stems ascending, flatten ed, the nppermoBt joint 
near the middle; leaves sliort, green; panicle dense 
and contracted, expanding more at flowering; short 
branches often in pairs, covered with from four to 
nin6 flowered flat spikelets; flowers rather obtuse, 
linear, hairy below the keel, ligule short and blunt; 
hight about a foot to eighteen inches. 

This is the Blue Grass of the North, and 
^^\ygS it thrives on poor sandy knolls, and 
% fif^ though the foliage is not so luxuriant as in 
^^^4^ . other grasses, it is very valuable. It is found 
principally in the mountainous portions of 
East Tennessee, though it is seen everywhere 
over the State. It is very hardy and, even 
in paths that are trodden, it does well. Its 
color has given it the name of ^'blue grass'' 
all through the North, but it must not be 
confounded with Kentucky blue grass, to 
which it is closely allied, differing principally 
in having a flat stalk and a darker green 

BLUE GBA8S— (1^ pratenns.) 

Lower florets connected at the base by a web of long, silky fllamentp, 
holding the calyx; outer palea five ribbed, marginal ribs haiiy; upper 
sheath longer than its leaf ; hight from twelve inches to two feet; root 
peieniiial, creeping ; stem erect, smooth, round ; leaves linear, flat, 
iente, roughiah on the edges and inner surface; panicle diffuse, spreading. 

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erect. The plant is of alight-green color, the spikelets often varie- 
gate with a purplish brown color. Flowers in June and July. In 
addition to the name of Blue Grass it also in certain localities takes 
the names of June Grass, Common Spear Grass, Green Meadow Grass, 
Kentucky Blue Grass. 

This is the king of pasture grasses 
in the Central Basin of Tennessee, 
and on soils suited to its growth it 
4^^ ^ k is useless to attempt the cultivation of 
^^^(g^ f^ a^y other kinds, except as auxiliary 
^^k^^ /^^l^ to this. It is valuable, both for sum- 
^0^^ r ▼ mer and winter pasturage, and no 
^^1^ farmer occupying soils suited to its 

^^^^^\ ^^^ growth is justifiable in being without 
^W ^*^ ^^W^j^ ^*' ^^ ^® easily started, and the seeds 
are readily procured, and once start- 
ed, it is perennial. No amount of 
pasturing is sufficient to destroy it 
utterly, and, though eaten until no 
appearance of it is seen on the ground, 
with rest for a few days, the earth is 
again carpeted with its soft green 
foliage as luxuriantly as ever. "Who- 
ever has blue grass has the basis for 
all agricultural prosperity; and that 
man, if he has not the finest horses, 
cattle and sheep, has no one to blame but himself. Others 
in other circumstances may do well, he can hardly help 
doing well if he will try." 

Its parentage is claimed by many States, and it is proba- 
bly indigenous to some of them, though some authors say it 
was introduced from Europe. Let that be as it may, it 
grows readily in all parts of the United States north of lati- 
tude 40°, and lower down on suitable soils. It flowers in 
earliest summer, and gives a rich pasturage, except in 
the dryest months, all the year. It varies in size in dif- 

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ferent localities according to soil and climate. From the 
unexampled saccess its cultivation has met with in Ken- 
tucky, it has acquired the name of Kentucky Blue Grass, 
though in the New England States it is known by the name 
of "June Grass." 

In all the middle portion of the United States, it forms 
the principal constituent of the turf, though its excellence is 
rather depreciated in the Eastern States, the formers there 
prefering the Meadow Foxtail, and in England it is almost 
driven from the country, the moist condition of the land 
there not being favorable to its development. 

In some sections it has been used as a hay, and from the 
analysis hereunto appended, it is full of all the constituents 
of nutrition. But it is not a success as a meadow grass, 
its chief excellence being exhibited as a pasture grass. It 
endures the frosts of winters better than any other grass 
we have, and if allowed to grow rank during the fall months, 
it will turn over and hide beneath its covering the most 
luxuriant of winter croppings. Many farmers pass their 
stock through the entire winter on it alone, feeding only 
when the ground is covered with snow. 

As a lawn grass, it stands pre-eminent among all others, 
its rich Paris-green foliage, its uniform growth and its con- 
stant verdure making it beautiful both summer and win- 

It would seem a work of supererogation to try to argue 
as* to the advantages of cultivating this grass. All know 
its benefits, and all see around them the great increase in 
the value of the land covered with it. It requires but little 
expense to secure a stand, and little time and then the re- 
ward comes. A farm well set in blue grass will yield at 
least $10 per acre in grazing, and yet men who have farms 
with all the constituents necessary to produce the best of 
grass will persistently wear it out in cultivation from year 
to year, with less net receipts by far than the yield of a 

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In the work on Wheat Culture, issued from this office, it 
has been shown that a large proportion of Middle and East 
Tennessee abounds in limestone rocks, in fact, it underlies 
the basin of Middle Tennessee and forms most of the founda- 
tions of the Eastern mountains. The Blue Grass of Ken- 
tucky is made from soil produced by precisely the same 
strata of rocks here seen. Any farmer having land show- 
ing an outcrop of limestone, may be assured he has the nec- 
essary soil. These rocks are looked upon as a curse; yet, 
without their presence, we could not have the magnificent 
parks of blue grass seen around 

Never was a time more propitious than the present for 
securing a fine blue grass farm. The depreciation of the 
price of land is unequalled in our time. Its intrinsic value 
is as great as ever, and farms, favorably located, can now 
be bought for from ten to twenty-five dollars per acre, that 
would, after being stocked with this grass, bring from forty 
to fifty dollars per acre. Our hillsides are the best for it, 
as the crumbling debris from the degradation of the rocks, 
carried down by rains, will be a perpetual top-dressing to 
the pastut-es. Besides, a dry, rich soil is better suited to its 
production. No level country could produce so continually 
good blue grass, from the simple fact, it could not receive 
regular supplies of lime as a stimulant to the soil. 

These lands do not exist everywhere in the United States, 
and that should increase their value. They will be in de- 
maud, and that soon. The tide of immigration is already set 
towards us, and the thrifty sons of the North will readily 
see the great advantage of these limestone soils and secure 
them. The wild grasses that now are such an attraction to 
immigrants, on the table-lands of Tennessee, will ultimate- 
ly be exhausted by the increase in population, while the de- 
mand for food and every variety of dpmestic animals will 
be proportionably augmented according to the great increase 
of the population. Then every acre of land that will pro- 
duce Blue Grass, will be in active demand and will be de- 

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voted to stock raising^ for which it is so well adapted^ and 
sheep and cattle will then truly fleck every hillside. 

The fame of Kentucky Blue Orass is so great, that the 
majority of people suppose Tennessee cannot produce as 
good, and they demand practical evidence of the fact. We 
have that very evidence here spread out before our eyes in 
the magnificent pastures of those, who have adopted the 
proper management. Kentucky has famous pastures, be- 
cause in the outset of her cultivation of the Blue Grass, a 
system of management was adopted that proved a success, 
and others seeing it, also adopt it, and all who will now 
follow this plan will meet with the same remunerative re- 
turn. That system has been thoroughly tested both in 
Kentucky and in some counties in Tennessee, and no one 
has made a failure that has attempted it. Those who have 
put themselves to the trouble of learning that system, and 
patting it in practice, have made as good grass as can be 
made in Kentucky or elsewhere. As in other crops, the 
quantity and quality of grass are in exact proportion to the 
care and management bestowed upon it, and the sod is as 
good, the blades as wide and long as can be seen anywhere; 
but this all depends on the skill and attention of the farmer. 
Some will sow a lot and then put in cattle, horses, sheep 
and hogs to keep it eaten to the ground throughout the 
year. Under such treatment the grass disappears, and such 
&rmers conclude their soils are not adapted to grass. Let 
the grass get a vigorous start. Protect it from stock for 
the first year, and fertilize it with stable manure, or some of 
the superphosphates, and be sure not to over-crowd the pas- 
tore with stock. This is the true secret of having good 

The question may pertinently be asked, if our State can 
bring as good Blue Grass as Kentucky, why is there not 
good pastures here as well as there? "Why is not every acre 
in Tennessee capable of producing it, set down with this 
magnificent bounty of nature^s hand? Most farmers believe 

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it will grow here. They cannot but know it, for in almost 
every neighborhood there is one or more luxuriant pastures; 
and further, they know they are very profitable to their 
owners, and lend a charming fascination to the landscape. 
Every farmer knows what a convenience it is to have a 
Blue Grass pasture, and when its value is considered, it is 
diflBcult to account for the fact why there are so few. Many 
a farmer has land suited for it, possibly so rocky, it is not 
worth anything for cultivation, and thinks every year that 
he will set that rocky lot down in Blue Grass, and yet 
he waits and waits, year after year, and is still found mak- 
ing the same resolution after the time of sowing has passed. 
There is no excuse for this delay. When the sowing time 
arrives one has a job he wants to finish, and when he is 
through that he imagines it is too late. Another has not 
the money to spare for the seed, yet all are going to sow, 
and thus procrastination keeps in sight the rocky, fruitless 
slopes instead of having them with a green sod of Blue 
Grass to contrast with the lichen of the rocks, and crowd its 
green spires in every crevice, to supply nutriment to hun- 
gry sheep and cattle. 

It may seem that it is so costly, many will not make the 
ejBTort. One man has a large farm, and to get a stand over 
the whole, it would really cost a considerable sum, and so 
he cannot make up his mind to spend that much at once, 
but rather than sow one lot one year, and another lot an- 
other year, he waits until he can sow all at once, and that 
time never comes. 

But if the farmers will watch the system of managing 
Blue Grass and learn it from those who have succeeded, they 
will soon become so enthusiastic that every acre, capable of 
producing it in Tennessee, will be seeded, and we shall have 
a country as beautiful as the world-wide famous Blue Grass- 
region of Kentucky. It may be interesting to know how 
and when that region began the cultivation of it. Dr. F, 
H. Gordon, of Smith county, early became impressed with 

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its importance and visited the neighborhood in which its 
culture began, for the express purpose of investigation, and 
here is the result of his visit : 

"Some seventy years ago, says Dr. Gordon, writing in 
1871, two young men, named Cunningham, came from the 
south branch of the Potomac, in Virginia, to Strode^s creek, 
in Bourbon county, Kentucky. They had studied and prac- 
ticed the Blue Grass system on the Potomac. They jointly 
purchased two hundred acres of land on Strode's creek, and 
sowed the whole tract in timothy and Blue Grass. In a few 
years their whole tract was covered with a luxuriant coat of 
grass. They had brought with them the seed, on a pack 
horse, all the way from Virginia. Their farm soon attracted 
the attention of their neighbors, who began to visit and 
learn how to manage grass. In 1835, I too, went to see the 
Cunninghams and many other farmers in the Blue Grass re- 
gion, in order to learn the system. I devoted many weeks 
to the study of the system — going with the best farmers over 
their farms and seeing their management; asking biany 
questions and writing down their answers. Then the Cun- 
ninghams, like many others, had grown to be wealthy on 
the profits of the Blue Grass. One of them, Robert, then had 
two thousand acres in Blue Grass and Isaac had three thou- 
sand. Nearly all the farmers I visited, owed the luxury of 
their Blue Grass to the direct instruction of the Cunning- 
hams. To me it Was a feast to travel over and view the 
fine sod of grass on the first two hundred acres which had 
caused the whole Blue Grass region to become so beautiful, 
prosperous and wealthy. 

While learning the Blue Grass system, I saw in every 
neighborhood that those who had studied the system closest, 
had the best pastures invariably. You can see in all that 
region of Blue Grass, some farms where all the lots look like 
some of ours in Tennessee, which are gnawed all the 
year round by calves, sheep and geese. This is because 
the owner does not think enough about its management. 

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He does all the work and incurs all the expense necessary 
to make the richest pastures and then wastes it all by bad 
and thoughtless management. But there are some farmers 
in almost every county in Tennessee, who well understand 
the Kentucky system. Those who intend to sow grass may 
learn the system from them. What a scene of comfort, 
beauty, luxury and wealth, will this whole Middle Tennes- 
see present, when it shall be covered with the richest Blue 
Grass ! Such will be the future of this fine country." 

"Much has been published lately about immigation. But 
in justice to our own Tennesseeans, who own this valuable 
soil, I will say that we can ourselves sow all our valuable 
hills with Blue Grass, without the aid of labor from abroad. 
We do not need many laborers to make grass. It will al- 
ways pay a good profit. Every acre will pay its taxes and 
a good profit besides. We now till too much land. We 
ought to till less and make more grass. Let not an acre be 
idle. There is our true interest. We need grass more 
than voters or laborers. Cotton, tobacco, rice, hemp and 
sugar need laborers, but grass does not. If we sow our 
lands in grass we can do without so much labor. The in- 
disposition of farmers to take advantage of experience, is 
shown in the following case, which is in point :" 

"I know a rocky lot of about six acres which I myself 
sowed in 1835. During last year (1870), it afforded a 
profit to the present owner of full ten doftars per acre. The 
owner has no grass on the balance of his land, and does not 
intend to have any. He has lived, during his whole lifis, in 
sight of rich pastures of Blue Grass, and knows thai his 
whole tract will produce as good grass as those pastures. 
Yet he will not sow grass. The reader will say that this 
farmer, with his six rocky acres of Blue Grass, is a singular 
man. But he is not very singular. Because hundreds of 
farmers here know just as well the value of Blue Grass 
as he does, and yet they do not sow it. Doubtless many 
readers know it as well, and yet do not sow. They know, 

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too, that it 18 very profitable, still they do not make the 
pastures. Why? Why? Why? Will every reader who has 
no Blue Grass answer? Yes, many of them have answered 
me hundreds of times. One. is not ready just now. An- 
other cannot spare the money to buy seed. They are all 
going to sow when they get ready. I know some farmers 
who have been, for thirty years, going to sow grass before 
long, and the time has not yet come for them to begin." 

''Again comes up the seemingly meddlesome question, 
why? I will give the true answer. Our farmers have as 
much intelligence as farmers anywhere; but thefy do not sow 
grctsSy because they do not understand well the system of man- 
ctgement. They have not studied it in good earnest. There- 
fore, they do not know how little labor and expense are 
necessary to get a stand of grass. Their own reasoning 
teaches them wrongly, that the making of grass is a big 
and costly process; therefore, they slowly undertake it. If 
they knew how little labor and expense will set a large tract 
in grass, they would not delay one instant. If they will 
decide in their own minds that they do not understand how 
to make grass, and will apply to those who understand it, 
then they will all learn, that they are able, and have time 
enough to set their lands in grass. Then they will do it 

"They must first learn how to get a stand. Then they 
must learn how to manage, so as to make a dense and profit- 
able sod. It requires much more thinking than expense 
and labor to make good grass. Those farmers who have 
well studied the Blue Grass system, and have themselves 
covered their lands with rich pastures, can, and will freely 
instruct all who may apply to them to learn the system. 
If our farmers here will do as the Kentuckians did, they 
will all soon have plenty of good grass." 

We cannot but commend the above sensible extract from 
this eminent writer on agriculture, to the attention of all 
readers. And if the traveler will notice, as he passes through . 

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Smith county, from Lebanon to Carthage, he will see, on 
every side, the result of his teachings and example. In 
order to give point to the foregoing remarks, we will now 
proceed to treat on the best plan to secure a good stand of 
Blue Grass, and in doing so, will not be governed only hy 
our own experience, but also by our observation of the suc- 
cess of others. 


It is generally conceded that the lands most productive 
of Blue Grass are the calcareous soils. Lime is a natural 
stimulant to it, and it flourishes best where natural supplies 
of this salt are found. Go into a pasture that has an occa- 
sional out-cropping of limestone and the sprigs of grass, 
surrounding the rock will be found more luxuriant than 
anywhere else. Our lower silurian formation then, where- 
ever found, may be safely sown in this grass. The Basin 
of Middle Tennessee, the mountains and valleys of East 
Tenneseee, and the black alluvial deposits of the rivers of 
West Tennessee being supplied with lime from the sources 
whence the streams flow, are all well suited for this grass. 
It also grows upon many places amongst the hills of the 
river, though not so luxuriantly as in the black loams of the 
silurian and devonian formations. Lime, though a great 
stimulant to its growth, is not an essential ingredient in the 
soil. It grows on the sandy hills of Alabama and Georgia, 
but not so rank as on limestone soils. Blue Grass will always 
grow well under walnut trees. 

We have in Middle and East Tennessee the same charac- 
ter of soil that exists in the Blue Grass country of Kentucky, 
and, owing to our milder climate, can produce a better win- 
ter pasturage than can be produced in the colder climate of 
Kentucky. Little land exists in Tennessee but what will 
produce this grass profitably. 

Select the lot to be sown, and clean ofi* all brush, leaves 
and briars. If it cannot be done with a stalk-rake, use hand 
rakes, as the seed must come in contact with the soil. Seed 

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sown on a bed of leaves will soon germinate, but the root- 
lets, being unable to burrow in the soil, will quickly 
parch up and die. If the land is thickly covered with trees, 
it will not thrive well, therefore, it is necessary the timber 
should be thinned out. Leave the tallest trees that are 
really the more valuable, taking ofl the low, bushy kinds 
that make too much shade. It is an admitted fact, that 
Bine Grass does better in partial shade than when there is 
none. It does not endure a drought as well as some other 
grasses, and consequently some degree of shade is essential 
to protect it from the scorching rays of midsummer. 


So many seasons have been recommended as the proper 
time of sowing, that it may be said each one, under fa- 
vorable circumstances, is a good time. One Kentucky far- 
mer says: "Any time in the winter, when snow is on the 
ground, sow broadcast from three to four quarts 6f clean 
seed to the acre. With the spring the seeds germinate and 
are very fine and delicate in the spouts. No stock should 
be allowed for the first year, nor until the grass seeds in 
June for the first time, the second year. The best plan is 
turn on your stock when the seeds ripen in June. Graze 
ofiT your grass, then allow the fall growth, and graze all 
winter, taking care never to feed the grass closely at any 

Another authority says: "Follow nature and obey her 
dictates. The seeds ripen in June, and are scattered by the 
winds and rains as soon as ripe, and therefore, sow your 
seeds as soon as they can be gathered." 

This plan might be a proper one in a colder or moister 
climate than ours, but here it would result in the grass being 
oflen dried up by the drought that are almost invariable 
in the latter part of summer. 

Many sow, as stated in the above quotation, on winter 
snows, and that is a very good plan, but care should be 

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observed to have the ground free from leaves before the 
snow falls. 

There are others who sow in the latter part of February 
or first of March, and this sometimes does as well as any 
provided time is given for the grass to get sufficient hold to 
resist the withering effects of the summer's drought. The 
main care to be taken, is to get the grass large enough to 
live through freezing or dry weather. It will resist the 
effects of frost better than heat however, and taking this 
into consideration, the most approved time of sowing is in 
the latter part of August or first of September. If sown at 
this time the autumnal rains will germinate the seed, 
and besides, at this season there is comparatively little 
trash on the ground, the leaves having not yet fallen. The 
ground being prepared, the seeds are sown broadcast, at the 
rate of one bushel per acre, and the sower should be fol- 
lowed with a harrow, or if the ground is very loose, with a 
stiff brush. This will give them a sufficient covering. It 
is a fact, demonstrated by actual experiment, as shown in 
one of the tables herein contained, that grass seeds will veg- 
etate best at a depth of one-quarter of an inch. It may be sup- 
posed that, with no more covering than will be given by a 
harrow or brush, a great many seeds will be uncovered. 
This is very true, but in one pound of Blue Grass seeds, 
(clean seed) there are 3,888,000 seeds. By a computation 
every square inch of surface contains from ten to twelve 
seeds. With this amount on the surface, one scarcely need 
fear a stand, when, if one or two take root, there will be in 
a year an excessively close turf. 

There can be but little difference of opinion in regard to 
the treading of stock after sowing. All writers and farmers 
agree, that for one year, at least, it should be kept from all 
stock. After that, there is some difference. 

Dr. Gk>rdon, who, as before stated, paid more attention 
to it than any one else in the State, adopted a plan of man- 
agement that has been repeatedly tested, with uniform suc- 
cess. It was this : 

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He sowed^ either in the autumn or spring months indis- 
criminately^ as suited his convenience. He usually sowed 
with rye, wheat, or barley, if sowed in an open field, but if 
in a woods lot, he sowed with rye, or after a crop of millet. 
At any rate, the soil must be well cleaned off and broken 
up, as well as the nature of the land permits, then afler the 
grain is sown the land is harrowed^ and if possible, rolled. 
After thib, the grass seeds were sown and brushed lightly. 
Immediately afterwards all the cattle, horses and sheep were 
turned in that could be secured. If there was not enough 
on his place he borrowed his neighbors^ stock, and let them 
run on it until the ground was well packed all over the 
surfiice, and then, and not until then, were they removed. 
If aft«r millet, (and that is greatly recommended, as it de- 
stroys more effectively than anything else all weeds,) harrow 
about the first of September thoroughly, sow the seed, 
brush as before, and then turn on the stock. If it is 
desired to sow in the spring, in the latter part of February 
or early in March, if not practicable sooner, harrow the 
grain field, the ground having been well prepared in the fall 
sowing, sow the seed and then turn stock on the wheat, 
rye, or barley, as the case may be. Oat land may be sown 
in the same way. The treading of the stock packs in the 
seeds and prevents the grass from drying up in the summer 
heats, or freezing out in frosts. Dr. Gordon considered an 
open, loose porous surface, to be unfiivorable to the safety 
of the young grass, but if packed as directed, the grass will 
quickly spring up, get a firm hold, and the loose condition 
of the subsoil will fiivor the transmission of the roots to a 
good depth. 

The after treatment is simple, and that is to allow no 
stock on during the first year, but as soon as the seed stalks 
b^n to shoot up the next year, pasture it so closely that 
it can not go to seed. 

Dr. Gordon differs in this respect from other authors, who 
allow it to seed one time for purposes stated below. He 

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would not let it seed at all. His great success in this branch 
of agriculture will, in every country where he is known, 
give weight to his authority. 

Others say no stock should go on it for at least two years, 
or at least until after the first seeding, which will take place 
in June of the second year. Some of the best Blue Grass 
lots in Middle Tennessee have been started by following 
either of the above plans. Of one thing, there cannot be a 
doubt, and that is the ground should not be well broken up. 
On the surface it should be as firmly packed as possible to 
secure a perfect stand and form a perfect turf. When the 
surface is too loose, the grass easily dries up, and is much 
easier frozen out, the seeds not going into a germinating depth. 
Under favorable weather, seed sown in the spring on a crop 
of oats, will do as well as fall sowing. What is meant by 
favorable weather, is that no unusual dry weather super- 
venes. But there is always the risk of meeting with unfa- 
vorable weather in spring sowing, and on that account we 
would recommend sowing in autumn. But it is better the 
sowing should take place as early in the fall as the weather 
will permit, or, indeed, the latter part of summer, if there 
is a proper degree of moisture in the soil. Some farmers 
sow a limited amount of seed daily and over the same sur- 
face sprinkle shelled corn, then turn on their hogs. They 
root in search of the corn and thus plant the^seed, doing the 
work of plow and harrow. This, to say the least, is a slov- 
enly plan, and though possibly securing a good stand the 
ground is so roughened, it can never make a beautiful pas- 

If the land is loose as some soils are, it will answer a 
very good purpose to scratch up the surface well with a 
sharp toothed harrow, and this is especially the case where 
the roots of undergrowth exist to a great extent. 


Of one fact, there cannot be a doubt, and in this lies the 
whole secret of having remunerative pastures of Blue Grass, 

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and that is^ do not pastare it to death. It is true^ it will 
stand almost unlimited grazing, but there is a point beyond 
which it will cease to be profitable, and that limit should never 
be passed. The better plan, is to have the lots divided, and 
allow the stock on one until it is cropped down, and then, when 
no longer any pickings can be taken from it, do not allow 
the stock to continue to tread it, simply to have them on a 
grass, lot. It will not only do the stock no good, but, by 
constant tramping, the grass is unable to throw up any fo- 
liage, and in time it will die, for the roots must draw 
some nourishment from the atmosphere, or they will perish. 
Allow the grass to recuperate, by changing the stock from 
one pasture to another, and n$ver overstock it. Grass that 
will keep ten oxen in growing order, will fetten five oxen 
quickly. Stock of all kinds are constant feeders, and there 
should always be forage enough to enable them to get plenty 
to eat without the labor of hunting for it. 

There is much variety of opinion on the amount of stock 
that ought to be put on an acre. This arises from the dif- 
ference in the capacity of the land, some soils being rich, 
dry and porous will stand much heavier grazing than 
others. It is safer to err on the safe side, and it is better 
to put in too few than too many. If stock are fattened 
quickly, they are more re^nunerative than when fitttened 
slowly. Then, when one lot is sold out, they can be re- 
placed by others. Ordinarily two acres of good grass are re- 
quisite for one three-year old ox, and what will fatten one ox 
will fisitten ten head of sheep. 

Blue Grass should be allowed to go to seed once or twice, 
or until the ground is well set or turfed over, and then never 
more. It is a grass that propagates itself by its. creeping 
roots or rhizomes, and it is the disposition of all plants and 
animals to lose vitality in the process of reproduction. 

Though perennial, this habit is upon it, and though it 
does not actually die, its vitality is so lowered by the effort, 
that it lies dormant for some time afterwards, before start- 

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ing again its vigorous growth. Stock should be kept out 
at seeding time, or before, in fact, so as not to eat down the 
seed stalks, as they will do. 

It sometimes happens that dry weather sets in during the 
summer months, and the grass becomes so dry it will bum. 
Still stock will greedily eat it. The grass having dried 
full of nourishing juices, it is equal to the best of hay, and 
stock will still fatten upon it unless the dried grass has 
been drenched with rains. 

The fall growth of some lots should be kept untouched 
by stock, and in this way, a fine winter pasturage will be 
secured. The grass will get high enough to fall over and 
protect the surface foliage, and stock will keep up their 
flesh on it during the winter without feed. When snows 
&11, cattle will require to be fed^ but horses, mules and 
sheep will paw off the snow, unless it is too deep, and get at 
the grass. It is the first deciduous plant that puts forth 
its leaves in the spring. Good fisit lambs can be sent 
into the market earlier than from any other grass. It 
makes milk rich in butter, and gives the latter a fine golden 
color, without cl^anging its taste, or, like clover, imparting 
its peculiar flavor to it. 

The following is an analysis of this grass as compared 
with some other well known grasses : (Way.) 

1st. dried at a temperature of 212°. 


Blue Grass give 


Orchard Qras} 


White Clover 

Sweet Scented Vernal 

18 76 



48 06 
68 86 


88 02 


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2nd. as taken from the field in blossom. 


Blue Grass giye 

Orchard Grass 


R«d Clover 

White Clover 

Sweet Scented VemaL 

70 00 

« s 

S 5 ^ 

8 41 
4 86 


t4 B o 








10 11 





Wolff and Knopfs analyses differ some from these^ as will 
be seen by referring to page 36. 

It will be seen from these tables that Blue Grass ranks 
close up to the best and most popular hay grasses culti- 
vated in Tennessee^ and is about equal to sweet scented 
vernal grass^ which stands at the head of the pastoM 
grasses in the Eastern States, but is not really so productive 
as the former. 

There is, in all pastures, a number of bare spots that 
seem to resist the efforts of Blue Grass to sod. By mixisg 
other seeds with the Blue Grass, these spots can be made to 
produce as well as other places. In a natural meadow, by 
careful counting, several species are often found growing 
intimately on every inch of earth. A table found elsewhere 
details the result of an actual count, and it is there seen that 
on a good natural pasture in one square foot of sod, there 
were 1,000 plants, consisting of twenty distinct species. This 
is nature's own arrangement, and may safely be copied. In 
such a pasture not an inch of surface is unoccupied. It 
may be thought an inch or two here and there, makes but lit- 
tle difference in the space occupied. But every blade of grass 
is of some importance, and it is astonishing the aggregate 
of these barren places. Below is a table of seeds that is 
respectfully reoommended to those wishing to start a go^d 

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Orchard Grass flowers in May and June 4 lbs. 

Sweet Scented Vernal flcrwers in April and May 2 " 

Sheep Fescue flowers in May and June. 4 " 

Herds Grass flowers in June and July 4 '' 

Blue Grass flowers in May and June • 8 '^ 

Italian Rye Grass flowersin June 4 ^' 

Bed Clover flowers in May and June. 6 ^' 

This mixture is enough for one acre of ground and none 
too much. Remember the old adage : ^^He that sows spar- 
ingly shall reap sparingly." It is better to sow too much 
seed than too little. K too much the weaker sprigs will die 
and the grass will soon accommodate itself to the capacity of 
the soil; but if too little is sown^ it will require years for the 
pasture to be sodded, and the owner will be lying out of the 
use of so much soil during all that time. The wisdom of 
this mixture is seen at a glance by examining its several 
constituents. The blue grass) orchard grass, fescue, vernal 
and rye grass will be permanent. The clover takes posses- 
sion first and affords for two years an immediate pasture or 
meadow, as may be desired. By the time the clover gives 
out, the grasses have a fine foothold. In the Northern 
States fiinners invariably mix white clover with their seeds, 
but iu Tennessee this is unneceesary, as that valuable forage 
plant comes up as it were spontaneously every where. And, 
though many farmers are prejudiced against white clover, 
no more valuable native forage plant exists in Tennessee. 

Now, once more, let it be urged on the &rmers of Ten- 
nessee to look into this matter of pastures, and provide 
themselves with this highly important adjunct to every fiurm. 
No home is complete without pastures, and yet there are 
many who will depend either upon the fortuitous wild grasses 
for grazing, or feed from the crib, their stock all through 
the year. With a rich Blue Grass lot, no stock need be fed, 
except while %t work, and, indeed, it is sometimes the cafe 

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that in dry, scarce years, crops have been made with horses 

and mules, that had no other provender than a Blue Grass 


BOUGH MEADOW QBA8S-(Pba Trmali$,) 

CulmB roaghish backwards, leaves rough edge, the lower elongated; 
I'igules long, pointed; panicles dense lance shaped spikelets subsessile, 
two to three flowered oblong acute, five veined, flowers in May and June 
in the latitude of Tennessee. 

This is a perennial, and to the common observer, very 
much resembles blue grass. In the North it is a common 
meadow and pasture grass, mixing well with orchard grass, 
making twice as much when mixed with other grasses as 
when sown by itself. It delights in shady places, and is 
admirably adapted to wood pastures and the banks of streams. 
It stands tramping as well as herds grass, but will not bear 
cutting, as the exposure of the roots to the sunshine soon 
kills it. The seed weighs fifteen pounds to the bushel, and 
two-thirds oi a bushel is amply sufficient for an acre. 

Cattle are very fond of it, preferring it to almost any 
other grass. Way's analysis of it cut in flower, shows the 
following result: Water, 73.60; flesh-formers, 2.58; fat, 
0.97; heat-producers, 10.54; woody fibre, 10.11; ash, 2.20- 
Messrs. Scheven & Bitthauseu's analysis shows: Water 
78; flesh-formers, 2.3; fat, 0.8; heat producers, 8.4 j 
woody fibre, 8.8; ash, 1.6. Wolff and Knops' analysis 
may be seen on page 36. Woburn experiments by Sinclair 
gave 7,486 pounds per acre cut in flower; loss in drying^ 
5,246 pounds; nutritive matter, 233 pounds. Cut in seed 
produce of one acre, was 7,829 pounds; loss in drying, 4,304 
pounds; nutritive matter, 336 pounds. The produce of the 
aftermath was 4,764 pounds and 223 pounds of nutritive 
matter. The chief destinction between this and the blue 
grass is, that the blue grass has a wooly web which en- 
tangles the seeds, making it difficult to sow them. In the 
Poa Trivialis the seeds are comparatively free. We have 
spoken of it under the head of Meadow grasses, though it is 
far better for the pasture. 

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CBEEPINQ MEADOW GBJiB&.''{EragroaU reptans) 

This is an annual grass; flowers in July, and grows eight to eighteen 
inches high. It has short, nearly awl-shaped leaves, smooth, long 
spikelets, loose sheaths, slightly hairy on the margin; panicles from one 
to two inches long. It has long, creeping roots. — Mint, 

It is very common in open pastures and fence corners^ 
mnd is relished hj stock; but^ being an annaal is not worthy 
of being sown. 


Another species of the same genus is this grass, with flat and smooth 
leaves; lower sheaths hairy, spikelets containing from ten to twenty 
florets, of a lead color, and flowers in August Found mostly on road- 
sides and in old gravelly fields. It has a strong, disagreeable smell but 
handsome in appeamce. 

8LEin)EB MEADOW Q'RASS."(Era^oai$ pilosa.) 

Large, loose, pyramidal panicle; spikelets from five to twelve flow- 
ered, of a purplish lead color, glumes and lower palta obtuse; grows 
from six to twelve inches high. — Flint, 

This, like the former, is found in old fields or sandy 
barrens. It is one of the grasses occupying the "barrens," 
and serves a good purpose in sustaining cattle in these un- 
occupied places. It is also cultivated in gardens, like the 
preceding, as an ornament for bouquets. Annual. 

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MEADOW COMB QBASS.— (J^tx^ostis pedinacea,) 

Panicles widely diffuse; spikelets flat, five to fifteen flowered, purple; 
glumes and flowers acute; lower pale three nerved; leaves rigid, long 
and hairj. Perennial —FlinL 

This is also a species of the same with last two, and, like 
the others, forms a large constituent of the barren and 
mountain grasses. When dry it is the sport of the winds. 

The importance of these great natural pastures has never 
hitherto been appreciated in Tennessee, but it has been the 
constant effort of this bureau to call the attention of stock- 
raisers, and especially sheep husbandmen, to the importance 
of these highway pastures for the economical rearing of 

QUAKING GBASS.--(^ma Media and Maxima.) 

Glumes roundish, unequal, of a purplish 
color; spikelets many-flowered, heart- 
shaped; lower pale roundish, entire, upper 
pale smaller, egg-shaped, flat; leaves flat; 
stamens three. — Mint. 

As seen in the name, there are 
two sizes of this grass, one larger 
than the other. It grows wild in 
the mountanious parts of the State, 
but is chiefly seen in gardens, 
where it is cultivated for its beau- 
ty, making, with its heart-shaped 
spikelets,a fine addition to bouquets, 
for winter vases. The slight- 
est movement causes it to shake, 
making a noise like the rattles of 
a rattlesnake. The Briza Media is 
perennial, but the Briza Maxima 
is an annual. Cattle eat it with 
relish, but it is a poor pasture 
grass, and is only suited to very 
sterile soils. Mr. Sinclair ascer- 

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tained that an acre of the Briza media cut in flower, weighed 
9,628 pounds, which lost, in drying, 6,481 pounds. The 
amount of nutritive matter was only 409 pounds. Cut 
when the seeds were ripe, the produce weighed 9,528 pounds 
and furnished 483 pounds of nutritive matter. The after- 
math weighed 8,167 pounds, with only 255 pounds of nutri- 
tive matter. A thin, sandy soil gave 10,890 pounds, with 
453 pounds of nutritive matter. A moist, clayey soil gave 
8,167 pounds and of nutritive matter 293 pounds. A rich, 
black, loamy soil furnished 9,689 pounds, and 462 pounds 
of nutritive matter. Sandy soils, as is shown by these ex- 
periments, are better suited to it than rich clayey or cal- 
careous soils. It would suit the soils of the Cumberland 
Table-land, and many parts of West Tennessee. The seeds 
weigh from ten to twelve pounds per bushel. Analysis 
shows the dried grass to contain, of flesh-formers, 5.2; heat 
producers, 42.8; fat, 2.6. It rank among the poorest of the 
grasses, but is hardy and better than none at all. 

SMALL 'FlSiSCJJ'E."(Festuca teneUa.) 

The small fescue has a spike-like panicle, somewhat one-sided, from 
seven to nine flowered; awn awl-sbaped, palea slender; leaves bristle- 
formed; stem slender, six to twelve inches high; leaves slender ; flowers 
harsh, often purplish, panicle nearly erect; has a grayish green color. — 

Flourishes on dry thin soils. Not of much value. 

SHEEP'S FESCUE .--(JPeshim omna,) 

Has a narrow panicle, short, tufted, hristle-shaped leaves, of a grayish 
green color, somewhat tinged with red; spikelets two to six flowered; 
awn often nearly wanting. Perennial. — Mint. 

The Fescue grasses are very popular in New Ekigland 
and grow well in Tennessee, having been introduced in some 
localities. They are perrennial and grow in tufts, and ffom 
their profuse foliage they form excellent pasturage for cattle 
and especially for sheep, hence the name of one variety. 
Mixed with other grasses the Sheep's Fescue would be a good 
addition to our native grasses. It would be especially use- 

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sheep's fescue. 



fill on dry hillsides, or sandy, old fields, where blue grass 
will not thrive well. It has long leaves, and they are 
much sought for by cattle. It has been grtwn extensively 
in East Tennessee, and is grown in some 
localities in Davidson county, without 
much success. The Hon. Staunton Gould 
says this grass forms the great bulk of the 
sheep pastures of the Highlands of Scot- 
tg^^^Sy jij ijfc land, where it is the fiivoritefood^of the 
^g^S. M^^ sheep, and where the shepherds believe it 
nl^^/y^ to be more nutritious for flpcks than any 
other. Gmelin says the Tartars choose to 
encamp during the summer where this 
grass is most abundant, because they be- 
lieve it to be the most wholesome for all 
cattle, but especially for sheep. Linnaeus 
asserts that sheep have no relish for hills 
and heaths without it. It grows in dry 
sandy soils where all other vegetation 
parches up. The roots are long, turf short 
and dense, making it well suited for lawns. 
It retains its verdure during the most ex- 
tended droughts. It will not bear ma- 
nuring, for then it is dispossessed by other 
grasses. Its great value is for pasturage 
upon sandy soils. It will suit the Cumberland Table-land. 
The Woburn experiments showed that, cut at the time of 
flowering, the product of one acre was 6,445 pounds, which 
gave 212 pounds of nutritive matter. The same number of 
pounds was obtained, cut when the seeds were ripe, but 
there were only 127 pounds of nutritive matter. The after- 
math yielded 3,403 pounds of hay, having 66 pounds of 
nutritive matter. From this it appears that there is a dif- 
ference between the results obtained by chemists and prac- 
tical feeders as to its nutritive properties. 

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GRASS.--(i^e8fiioa pratensia.) 

Its panicle is nearly erect, branched close, inclined to one side; 
spikelets linear; from Qve to ten cylindrical flowers; leaves linear, of a 
glassy green, pointed, striated, rough on the edges; stem round, smooth, 
from two to six feet high; roots creeping. Perennial. — Flint. 

This grass has received some attention in different parts 
of the State, and has met with a warm reception from those 
testing it. It ripens its seed long before any other grass, 
and, consequently, affords a very early 
nip to cattle. It has been raised under 
various names, in Virginia, as "Randall 
Grass,'' in North Carolina as "Evergreen 
Grass." In the mountain lands of Vir- 
ginia, a writer says : "The variety of for- 
age best adapted to sheep-grazing on the 
mountain lands is the "Randall," a tall, 
coarse grass, growing freely on the rocky 
soil to a hight of six feet, remaining green 
and affording fine herbage all the win- 

Mr. James Taylor, writing to the Ag- 
ricultural Bureau from North Carolina, 
says : 

"The Evergreen Grass is very good for 
pasturing through the fall and winter. I 
have no knowledge of its origin. It will 
I do best when sown on dry land, and is 
well adapted to sheep. It grows well on 
rocky soil, to the hight of four or five 
feet when ripe, continuing green in the 
spring, and affording fine herbage through- 
out the winter. It is best to sow in the spring with oats. 
A peck of well-cleaned seed is enough for an acre, or a 
bushel in the chaff. It ripens about the first of June, or a 
little before rye harvest, and is cut with scythe and cradle 
as we cut rye If sown in the spring this grass will not 

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go to seed before the next year, but if sown in the fall it 
^11 bring seed the next spring. I do not know its yield of 
hay to the acre, but believe it to be equal to any other grass 
^e have.*' 

From the limited cultivation it has met with in Ten- 
nessee, it seems rather to Jbe better adapted to moist, low 
lands, though I have seen it growing on some of the high 
ridges of East Tennessee, at least 1,500 feet above the sea. 
There it thrives luxuriantly, and makes a very superior 

Some of this grass was sown in Davidson county as early 
as 1850, upon the farm now owned by Col. D. H. Mc- 
Gavock. The place selected for sowing was low, wet and 
almost marshy. The same spot is yet green with it, 
still flourishing in unrivaled luxuriance, furnishing 
more grazing, according to Col. McGavock, than any jother 
grass. The roots penetrate much deeper than the roots of 
blue grass, descending, indeed, as deep as red clover. In 
consequence of this it bears droughts remarkably well. 
Nor do overflows affect it, but rather seem to add to its 
vigorous vitality. 

A small plat of upland was also sown, but it disappeared 
in about five years, but its disappearance was hastened 
by the presence of the army worm. ■ " 

The same rules are to be observed in propagating it as in 
blue grass. 

In Europe this grass is one of the standard meadow 
grasses, and might be found by further experiment to form 
a fine addition to the list here. Its name of Evergreen 
originated from its habit of remaining green under the 
snow and when it was clear of it, affording fine croppings 
for cattle. It will grow on a greater elevation than the 
blue grass. 

The seeds weigh about fourteeen pounds to the bushel. 
An analysis by Messrs. Scheven and Bitthausen found it to 
contain, when green, water, 74.8; flesh-formers, 2.4; fat, 

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0.8; heat-formers, 10.2. The Woburn experiments gave 
at the rate of 13,612 pounds to the acre, cut when flowering, 
which lost 7,046 in drying, and furnished 967 pounds of 
nutritive extract. It is a good hay grass. 

TALL FESOXJE QBABB."(Fe8tuea eUOior,) 

This is a variety of the same, naturalized from 
Europe, and suited to a rich loam, such as is found 
in the^ Central Basin. The Woburn experiments 
show it, to yield more nutritious matter per acre, when 
cut in flower, than any other grass, cut either in flower 
or seed. The number of pounds obtained was 61,046, which 
weighed, when dry, 17,866 pounds, loss in drying, 33,180 
pounds and furnished 3,988 pounds of nutritive extract. 

There are several other fescue grasses, as the Bpiked 
Fescue, {F. loleacea), Hard Fescue, {F. duriuscula), and the 
Nodding Fescue, {F. utana), all indigenous to this country. 
The last two are good hay grasses, as well as the Meadow 
Fescue. The Hard Fescue was analyzed by Way and found 
to contain water, 69.33; flesh-formers, 3.70; fat, 1.02; heat- 
producers, 12.46; woody fibre, 11.83; ash, 1.66. The Wo- 
burn experiments gave as the produce of one acre, 18,376 
pounds, cut in flower; loss in drying, 10,116 pounds; nutri- 
tive matter, 1,004 pounds. Cut in seed, the produce 
weighed 19,076 pounds, loss in drying, 10,481 pounds, leav- 
ing nutritive extract, 446 pounds. It grows well on a 
sandy loam. The seeds weigh t^n pounds to the bushel. 

COMMON BEED GBASS,-(l%ra^ite8 oommtmts.) 

Glmnee shorter than the flowers, kteled, sharp-pointecU and very un- 
equal; rachis silky-bearded; palea slender, the lower thrice the length of 
the upper, stiles long, grain fiee.--^Flint. 

It grows in swamps and on the borders of ponds. It is 
found in the Mississippi bottoms from six to twelve feet high, 
and serves as a fringe to nearly all the swamps of that 
that river. At a distance it very much resembles sugar 

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cane. Its large seeds serve as food for the swarms of wild 
dacks and geese of that region. When young and tender 
cattle browse on its succulent foliage^ but when it gets 
vlargt it becomes lough and woody. In England it is used 
in thatching houses and farm buildings. A roof made of 
this is said to be better than a slate roof^ because it keeps 
the cold out in winter and heat in summer. Such a roof, 
it is said, will last eighty years if care is taken to 
keep the moss cleared away. It is universally diffused, 
both in the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. 

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CAN£ — (Anmdviana maerogperma,) 

Glumes concaye, awnless, small, lower smaller than the upper, scales 
three, longer than the ovarj; stamens three, stems woody. Flowers in 
March and April, leayes linear, green on both sides, smooth, spikelets 
from seven to ten flowered, purple, smooth. 

When the first settlers came to Tennessee^ the whole face 
of the country was covered with Cane, and while it existed, 
afforded abundant pasturage to stock of all kinds, both 
winter and summer. The shoots of young cane are both 
succulent and nutritious. Not only are they eaten by beasts, 
but, when young and tender, they are boiled and eaten by 
man. In 1812 and again in 1864 a famine was averted in 
India by the opportune seeding of the Cane, the people 
gathering the seeds and boiling and eating them like rice* 

The Cane requires about thirty years to mature and form 
the seed, then the plant dies, and it again springs up from 
the roots. It is propagated by suckers from the roots, and 
it if several years before it is strong enough to serve the 
purpose of fishing-poles. Its stem has a coating of almost 
pure sllex, and was used by the Aborigines for knives, cups, 
fans, pipe-stems, fishing-poles, spear-handles, fishing-spears, 
chairs, tables, bedding, wigwams, etc., etc.. Like all other 
grasses, it grows from the centre, and though it has gra- 
minaceous affinities in all its internal structure, it partakes of 
the nature of a tree in size, as it often attains a height of 
of forty, and even of fifty feet. 

It belongs to the same family with the bamboo of the 

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CANE. 191 

Asiatic and African jungles. There, it is applied to more 
purposes than any other species of vegetation, and is regu- 
larly cultivated. It is there planted in spring or autumn, 
and is considered ready for cutting at the end of four or five 
years. Some of the most delicious sweetmeats we have, are 
made from the young and tender shoots of the Cane 
by the Chinese. The family of Cane comprises twenty gen- 
era and one hundred and seventy species. The switch 
cane is the seedling, and as the roots becomes older, they 
thow up from year to year larger stems, provided it is not 
too much trodden, in which case, it dwar& and remains 
switch cane, until it flowers, seeds and dies. 

It varies in diameter from i of an inch, to three inches, 
and in Asia eight inches. The distance between nodes is 
from four to eight inches, and in some highly prized Chinese 
varieties, it is from four to five feet. In Asia it is used 
for an endless variety of purposes, for making houses, boats, 
masts, furniture, water-pipes, floats for children to learn 
swimming, life-preservers, and by softening the sections in 
boiling water and flattening them out, they are used for 
planks, boards, umbrellas, and in fact, for almost every do- 
mestic purpose. 

The only uses to which it is applied here,%re for pipe- 
stems, fishing-poles, and for making baskets. It forms 
most excellent winter pasturage, besides sheltering stock 
from the inclemency of the weather. Several large farmers 
in Middle Tennessee still have their pastures of Cane. Al- 
most any portion of Middle Tennessee, if enclosed and un- 
used, will soon send up small Cane, and if unmolested until 
it attains some size, it will stand very constant grazing. In 
the bottoms of West Tennessee, in some of the valleys of 
East Tennessee and on some isolated spots in Middle Ten- 
nessee, it yet exists in pristine beauty. But it is fast dis- 
appearing, with wild game, before the encroachments of the 
plow. One of the grandest and most sublime sights to be 
seen, is the burning of a cane-brake. Sounds as if a terrific 

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battle raged are heard and a blaze goes up that effectually 
destroys all vegetation within its fiery circle. 

It grows best on the richest land^ but if the poorest soil 
is once set with it^ it acts as a fertilizer. This is to be at- 
tributed to its wonderful net-work of roots, the inxmense 
foliage it deposits on the soil, and to its dense shade. It is 
a very difficult matter to break up cane land, but once broken, 
it quickly rots and adds to the fertility of the soil. The roots 
run to a surprising length and depth, and serve as pumps to 
raise dormant fertilizing principles from below the reach of 
any plow. 

The farmers living near the Missbsippi bottoms find the 
immense cane-brakes in that region exceedingly beneficial, 
as they are in the habit of driving their stock to them, and the 
most luxuriant pasturage is- obtained, both summer and win- 
ter. It will not grow in standing water, as the presence of 
water destroys its roots. Therefore, it is only found on parts 
of ground elevated above the swamps. 

Botanists reckon another species called Arundinaoea tecta, 
small cane, which is believed by many close observers to be 
the switch cane spoken of. The A. tecta has a peculiar mode 
of inflorescence. From the creeping root are thrown up 
simple leafless culms from six to twelve inches high with a 
few spikelets in a simple raceme. These spring up in April, 
and are highly relished by every kind of stock. 

COTJOH QRA889 Twitch Qrass^ Ohandlar Qrass, Dog Grass, 
Witch Qrass, Quaok Qrast, Quake Qrass, Squitch and 
Wheat Qpass— (2Vaujiim repena,) 

Has creeping roots; stem erect, roand, smooth, about two feet high 
striated, haying fiye or six flat leaves, with smooth, striated shcnths; the 
joints are smooth, the two uppermost veiy remote, leaves dark green, 
acute, upper one broader than the lower ones, roughish, Boiuetimes 
hairy on the inner surface; smooth on the lower half. Inflore cence in 
spikes. Flowers in June and July. — Flint 

This grass, though more a troublesome weed than an agri- 
cultural aoquisitioni was brought firom Europe by some one, 

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under the supposition it was a good grazing grass. It creeps 
with its vigorous roots rapidly, and though having an abund- 
ance of foliage, it is too coarse and rough for fodder. £ach 
joint will produce a new plant, which, in turn, sends out in 
every direction new scraggy roots, that reproduce other 
plants. When young and tender it is eaten by stock, and it 

is a favorite grass with dogs, who 
eat it to excite vomiting. It is 
apt to take possession of wheat 
lands^ and is exceedingly trouble- 
some to get clear of, a single root 
in the ground serving as a nucleus 
for a plantatation of them. The 
only way to get rid of this trouble- 
some pest, is to gather, dig and 
burn ; or, if while the land is dry 
and the weather hot, it is plowed 
frequently, it may be killed. But 
to interfere with it during wet 
weather, by either digging or 
plowing, is only to assist in its 
propagation. Its principal growth 
takes place in autumn, when its 
roots spread horizontally and 
obliquely in every direction, and 
continue to grow rapidly until 
arrested by cold weather. 

The roots are succulent, and 
are industriously hunted for by 
hogs^ who eat them with avidity. 
In some ol the poverty-stricken 
countries of Northern Europe, the 
roots are dug, dried and ground 

into meal, which is made into bread by the poorer classes, 
who are thus enabled to sell their wheat to the rich They are 
also fed, in some locality, to cattle and horses. It belongs to 

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the family of wheats and it has been argued by some^ that 
it hybrid rizes with wheat, and by others, that it is the pa- 
rent of wheat. From the large amount of salts in its com- 
position, land that has been infested with it, produces won- 
derfully large turnips. It is said, however, to impoverish 
land, as to other crops. It exists principally in the North- 
ern States, but has acquired a foot-hold in some sections, 
being brought in with seed wheat, the seeds resembling 
wheat exactly, except they are smaller. The heads are also 
very much like the wheat heads. 



SpikeleU two flowered, jointed with the pedicels; glumes boat shaped, 
membranaceous, enclosing, and exceeding the flowers; lower flower 
perfect; its lower palea awnless and pointless; upper flower staminate 
onlj, bearing a stout bent awn below the apex. Stamens three, grain 
free, slightly grooyed. It grows from one to two feet high; stem erect, 
round; root fibrous, perennial; leaves four or five, with soft, downj 
iheaths; upper sheath much longer than its leaf, inflated, ligule obtuse; 
joints usually four, generallj covered with soft, downy hairs, the points 
of which are tamed downwards; leaves pale greeen, flat, broad, acute, 
soft on both sides, covered with delicate hairs. Inflorescence compound, 
panicled, of a greenish, reddish or pinkish tinge; hairy glumes, oblong, 
tipped with a minute bristle. Florets of two palets. Flowers in June. 

This is one of the most beautiful grasses we have^ and 
grows wild on swampy moist lands. It abounds on the 
marshy flats of the Cumberland Mountains^ but it* is not of 
such tempting relish that stock will not eat it ravenously. 
It grows well in West Tennessee. 

As a grass for lawns^ however^ or yards^ unless it is de- 
sired to use them as pastures^ it is unequalled^ and is easily 
propagated. It needs but to be sown slightly, and after- 
wards will quickly sow itself. A yard turfed over with 
this grass presents a most lovely appearance, and looks as 
it spread with a velvet carpet. 

But, Mr. Gregory, of North Carolina, says: "It was 
on my place 35 or 40 years ago when first bought, and is 

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found in several other places in this county (Oxford). It 
would seem from this it is indigenous to our clay lands. I 
gathered the seed on my land, and have now some two acres 
sown, and have just cut (June 29th,) the prettiest lot of 
hay 1 ever saw. Orchard grass in the same field will not 
compare with it." 

Several analysis of this grass have been made, which art 
given below : 







Analyzed by 








2.8i 0.5 




Scheven & Ritthausen* 

The hay, as analyzed by Wolff and Knop, shows water, 
14.3; flesh formers, 9.9; fat, 3.1; heat producers, 36.7; fibre, 
33.6; and, ash, 5.5. 

BVom the experiments of Sinclair, at the Woburn farm, 
we learn that the produce from an acre cut in flower, was 
19,057 pounds; loss in drying, 12,395 pounds, retaining 
nutritive elements, 1,191 pounds. The grass weighed the 
same cut when in seed, and lost 15,246 pounds in drying, 
and yielded 818 pounds of nutritive matter. The after- 
math yielded 6,806 pounds of grass and 373 pounds of 
nutritive matter. 

The chief merits of this grass are its soft beauty, its pro- 
ductiveness, and its tenacity of life. When once well set; 
it bids defiance to all other species. Enriching the soil is 
the only way to get rid of it. It grows well upon thin 
sandy places, and will therefore suit the sandstone soil of 
Uie Cumberland Mountains. The seeds weigh about seven 
pounds tx) the bushel, and as many as eighty bushels have 
been grown to the acre. 

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BABLEY QBABB"{Hordeum jmssiUum,) 

Spikelets one flowered, with an awl-shaped rudiment on the inner 
side, three at each joint of the rachis, the lateral ones usually abortive 
or imperfect, short stalked; glumes side by side in front of the spike- 
lets, slender and bristle-form; lower pale convex, long awned; stamens, 
three; grain long, adhering to the pales. — Flint 

Barley Grass is found usually in brackish marshes, and 
grows from 6 to 12 inches high. It looks very much like 
barley, and is much relished by cattle, and when full of 
seeds, it is very nourishing. It could be sown on places 
that would scarcely produce anything else, as in swampy 
localities. It is not of much value in an agricultural point 
of view, though stock will eat it. 
TAIiL MEADOW OAT GRABS—i Arrhenatherum avenaeewm.) 

Spikelets two flowered, and the rudi- 
ments of a third, open; lowest flower 
staminate or sterile, with a long bent 
awn below the middle of the back; 
leaves flat, acute, roughish on both 
sides, most on the inner; panicle 
leaning slightly to one side; glumes 
very unequal; stems from two to 
three feet high; root perennial, fi- 
brous, sometimes bulbous. It has two 
florets, the lower one having a long awn 
rising from a little above the base of the 
outer palea, and this peculiarity distin- 
guishes it from all other grasses. It 
Flowers from May to July. — FlirU. 

This grass is very popular in 
France, from whence it was in- 
troduced, and is there known by 
the name of "Ray Grass." 

It will grow well on any land 
that produces clover. Its limit is 
about 1,600 feet above the sea. 
It grows quickly and forms a 
very excellent grass for early pas- 
turage, probably earlier than any 
other. It is mown down for hay, 

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and, after cutting, it throws up a perfect mat of aftermath, 
that will yield an extremely rich pasture. It was only in- 
troduced into Tehnessee a few years ago, and it has received 
extravagant praises, as is usual with new introductions. 

It succeeds well in West Tennessee, and will proba- 
bly suit that locality better than any other grass, except 
Herds grass. It would form a good grass to mix with 
others, such as timothy, Herds grass, clover or blue grass. 

The analysis of the hay by Way, is as follows : Flesh 
formers, 12.95; fatty matters, 3.19; heat-producing princi- 
ples, 38.03; woody fibre, M.24; mineral matters, 11.59. 

Other analyses may be found on 
pages 30 and 36. 

This shows it to rank as a nu- 
tritious grass, among the best 
of the meadow grasses, and al- 
most equal to any of the pas- 
ture grasses, though it is said 
cattle and sheep do not like 
to be confined to it alone. The 
produce from an acre from 
' Mr. Sinclair's experiments at 
Woburn, was 17,015 pounds; loss 
in drying, 11,635 pounds; nutri- 
tive matter, 664 pounds. Cut 
when the seeds were ripe tht 
weight was 16,335 pounds; loss in 
drying, 10,617 pounds; nutritive 
matter 255 pounds. Weight of af- 
termath, 13,612 pounds; nutritive 
matter of which was 265 pounds. 

WOOD HAIB GBASS-(^ira /lex- 

Stems slender, one or two feet 

high, nearly naked; leaves dark 

green, often curved, bristle-formed; branches of the panicle hairy, 

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' ipreading, mostly in pairs; lower palea slightly toothed; awn starting 
near the base bent in the middle, longer than the glumes, which 
are purplish. Perennial. Flower • in June. — Flin^ 

This grass grows on all the rocky hills, and extends to the 
tops of ordinary mountains, flourishing in sandy soils. It is 
readily eaten by cattle and sheep. It is often transplanted 
to gardens for ornament, its delicate stem and spreading 
panicle, making a charming addition to bouquets. On soils 
suited to it, it yields more forage than sheep fescue. The 
Woburn experiments show at the time of flowering the pro- 
duct of the grass was 10,209 pounds per acre, which lost 
6,891 pounds in drying, and yielded 319 pounds of nutri- 
tive matter. Cut when the seeds were ripe, the grass weighed 
9,528 pounds; loss in drying, 5,955 pounds; nutritive mat- 
ter, 297 pounds. It will not thrive on a clayey soil. 

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COMMON CRAB G73iAB8.''(Banieum SanguinaU.) 

The history and uses of this native grass have been fully 
given with the Meadow grasses, on page 101, to which the 
reader is referred. 

FBOLIFIC PANIC GBASS.-( Panunim prol^erum.) 

Another species of above, differiDg only in haying the culms 
thickened, succuleDt branched and bent, ascending from a procumbent 
base, and spikelets appressed, lance— oval, of a pale green color. — Flint 

It inhabits, as a general thing, river bottoms, though 
sometimes appearing on dry hills. In its value as a graz- 
ing grass it is almost identical with the preceding. Cattle 
are fond of it, and it grows spontaneously. 

SWEET-SCENTED VEBNAL QBJL88."'{AnthoxarUhum od^ 

Spikelets spreading, three flowered; lateral flowers neutral, with one 
]>alea, hairy on the outside, and awned on the back; glumes thin acute, 
keeled, the upper twice as long as the lower; seed ovate, adhering to 
the palea enclosing it; root perennial. Flowers in May and June. 
Stems from one and a half to two feet high — Flint 

This grass was introduced from Europe, and possesses 
rather poor qualities as a pasture grass, as neither sheep nor 
cattle relish it. It is early, however, and hardy. It is one 
of the first as well as one of the last grasses that appear. 
Its nutritive qualities are said to ex;st to a much larger 
extent in the fall than in the spring, and greater when cut 

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at maturity than in bloom. It has a mixture of benzoic 
acid among its constituents, which imparts to it a highly 
aromatic character, and this is so strong that other grasses 
with which it may be mixed are affected by it. It is not in 
general use in Tennessee, but would pro- 
bably add to the value of pastures if sown 
with other grasses. Cows running on it 
are, by some, said to give a rich milk 
and highly flavored butter, but Mr. 
Gould thinks this is an error. It may be 
known by rubbing its green leaves in 
the fingers, to which it yields its scent. 
On certain soils favorable to its growth, 
it will root out almost every other kind 
and take complete possession. Its seeds 
have a spiral awn, and when taken in 
the hand, affected by its moisture, the 
^ awns will uncoil, and the seeds will ap- 
pear to move as insects. There are six or 
seven pounds in a bushel, and nine hun- 
dred and twenty-three thousand two 
hundred in a pound. Its analysis, ac- 
cording to Way, ranks it, when dry, a 
little higher than blue grass, as follows; 
Flesh-formers, 10.43; fatty matters, 3.41, 
and heat-producing principles, 43.48. Blue grass gives, 
fesh-formers, 10.35; fat, 2.63; heat producers, 43.06. 

The same chemist gives the following as its composition 
when green : Water, ^0.35; flesh-formers, 2.05; fat, 0.67; 
heat- producers, 8.54; woody fibre, 7.15; ash, 1.24. Scheven 
and Ritthausen's analysis, grass green, gives the following 
I'esult: Water, 72; flesh -formers, 2.1; fat, 0.8, heat-pro- 
ducers, 11.2; woody fibre, 12.3; ash, 1.6. Still another 
analysis may be found on page 36. 

Sinclair showed that when grown upon a sandy loam 
well manured, the produce of an acre, cut in flowering time, 

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was 7,827 pounds, which lost 5,723 pounds in drying, and 
yielded only 122 pounds of nutritive matter. But when 
the seeds were ripe the produce per acre was 6,125 pounds, 
which lost, in drying, 4,287 pounds, and yielded 311 pounds 
of nutritive matter. The produce of the aftermath was 
6,806 pounds per acre, which yielded, of nutritive matter, 
239 pounds. The experiments of Sinclair and the analysis 
given by Way show very diflPerent results. The reader 
should constantly bear in mind that these analyses and ex- 
periments are not conclusive, and they should be repeated 
many times to command implicit confidence. The best 
test of all grasses is their effects upon animals. If animals 
thrive and fatten upon any grass, and that grass is peren- 
nial, hardy and durable, it is a good pasture grass; other- 
wise not, whatever individual experiments in the laboratory 
may indicate. We know that stock of all kinds eat blue grass 
voraciously and thrive upon it; we know, also, that they do 
not like the anthoxanthum. Both are alike hardy and 
durable. Therefore the blue grass, upon suitable soils, is to 
be preferred, whatever chemical research may determine. 

PAMPAS QRAQS.—iOynerium argenteum.) 

Tall, reed-like grass, with large tuft of rigid linear and tapering, re- 
ourved, spreadiug leaves, several feet in length ; the flowering stem 6 
U> 12 feet high, flowers in antumn, silky, downy, silvery panicle. — Gray, 

This is the grass of the historic plains or pampas of South 
America^ and is only cultivated for ornament here. Its 
beautiful, feathery panicles make a fine ornament for vases. 
It must be protected to survive our winters, by brush or 
straw thrown over its roots. It is not included in the list 
of grasses given on page 70, and is really to us only 
a curiosity, and not of any value in a commercial point of 

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Flowers dioecious, or intermixed, clustered in spikes; lough, fibrous 
bark, the fertile flowers with a tubular or urn-shaped calyx, barelj 
toothed at the apex, inclosing the ovary, and closely investing the 
oblong flat akene; leaves ovate, white, downy beneath; three to four 
feet high. 

This, though called the China cloth plant, really is not a 
grass or allied to the grasses, but belongs to the Nettle 
genus and is akin to the Hera p. 

It has been lately introduced and cultivated for its fibre, 
of which goods, cloth, and paper are made. 

It has only been known within a few years to possess 
nutritive qualities, but from the appended letter from Col. 
Sam'l. D. Morgan, of Nashville, it will be seen it has no 
mean virtues as a forage plant. The yield per acre is said to 
be enormous, as much as 1,200 pounds of the dried bark hav- 
ing been taken from one acre. It has never, to the k nowledge 
of the writer, been raised in Tennessee, nor is it certain 
that it would grow in this climate, it being a native of India, 
but it can be easily tested, and if its virtues here are equal 
to the test given ^j Col. Morgan, it would be a most ex- 
cellent green soiling crop, and would take a stand by the 
side of com fodder or clover. It is not included in the list 
of Tennessee grasses given elsewhere. 

Nashyillb, Nov. 23, 1877. 
J. B, KillebreWy Oommisaioner of Agriculture, etc. 

Deab Sm: — I have a letter from Commissioner W. G. LeDuc, asldng 
to be informed by me of the result of exp riments made in the cultiva- 
tion of "Ramie, or China grass plant." 

Some ten or more yeara since I obtained a package of the seed, but 
having no convenience for growing the plant, I sent them to my son-in- 
law, Dr. J A. Dmican, of Barnwell Court House, South Carolina, who 
planted them in his garden, where they grew and flourished vigorously. 
Some two or three years later his wife prepared a small quantity of the 
fibre and sent it to me to be exhibited at our State Fair, which I did, 
and where it was greatly admired for its perfect lustre and exceeding 
great strength, and though there was no premium for such fibre offered 
by the society, she was awarded a handsome one for her exhibit. In a 

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word, I consider it a plant well adapted to the climate of South Caro- 
lina, if not further North, 

But whether it be desirable to cultivate it for its fibre or not it 
proved in Dr, Duncan's hands an admirable forage plant, **none like 
it," as he says. He informed me that **his cow and horses devoured it 
with great gusto," passing through good pastures to get to his garden, 
even breaking down his fences to get at it. He further informs me 
that it is quite succulent, and wonderfully nutritious, not ooly fatten 
ing, but giving to the hair of the animals using it a very smooth and 
satin-like appearance. 

This is certainly a plant worthy of exertions being made to introduce 
into the South. 

Respectfully. S. D. Morqah. 

It is a plant very susceptible of cultivation by both seeds 
and suckers. Its growth is rapid, vieing with tropical 
weeds in luxuriance. It thrives best in a moist climate, 
but is not very particular as to soils. In Jamaica it grew 
six and a half feet in fourteen days, according to the au- 
thority of Mr. Simmonds, of the "Technologist." It was 
brought into Calcutta from Bencoolen in 1803, and there 
cultivated in the Botanic Gardens for some years until he 
disseminated it. The seeds are sown on a light sandy soil, 
it being thoroughly pulverised first, and not covered at 
all except by the soil with which they are mixed be- 
fore sowing. The beds must be watered until ger- 
mination takes place. When the plants are four inches 
high, they must be transplanted into rows three feet wide and 
six inches apart. The soil may be any rich, stiff kind of 
land. This plan is for getting a start when the seeds are 
scarce. The roots will soon throw up numerous suckers 
that may be drawn and set like sweet potato slips. How- 
ever, after the seeds are secured by the farmer, he can sow 
in rows very lightly, and chop across with a hoe to give 
the plants room to spread. 

The proper time to sow is as early as the land can be 
prepared. It will be ready to cut in June, and, if desired, 
can be again and again cut until frost begins. In the last 
catting the soil should be thrown over the stubble to pro- 

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tect the roots during winter, and no more planting will be 

necessary for several years, as the roots are perennial. 

They are fleshy tubers and will be quickly eaten up by hogs 

if they are allowed to get to them. The plant is a very 

promising one for green soiling, and a citizen of a village or 

town having a small lot may be able to supply a horse or 

cow with green forage through the whole summer. It has 

never before been recommended as a forage plant, and 

should anyone interested in this account wish to test it, 

seed doubtless can be procured from 

the Agricultural Bureau at Washington, 


RIBBON QB.ABS.-'iPhalansarundinacea.) 

Panicle very slightly clustered, somewhat spread- 
ing when old; glumes wingless, rudimentary florets, 
hairy; stem round, smooth, erect, from two to 
seven feet high; leaves five or six in number, broad) 
lightish green, acute, harsh, flat-ribbed, central 
rib most prominent on highlands, with white stripe 
down centre, solid green on wet lands, roughiah 
on both surfaces, edges minutely toothed; smooth, 
striated sheaths. 

This grass is exceedingly hardy and 
showy, but is of but little value as a hay 
or pasture grass. It is raised in almost 
every garden, on account of its beautiful 
foliage. It is called also Fortune grass. 
Hon. John Stanton Gould says of this 
grass : 

** Its roots interlace very closely, and 
after a few years swamps are so com- 
plely covered with them as to bear a 
wagon and horses without breaking 
through. It is also very useful in pro- 
tecting river banks, but in narrow brooks 
it is apt to fill up the channel and thus 

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convert a large area into swamps. Its flowers vary greatly 
in their hue according to position. Their general color is 
whitish or pale green, but they are met with when they 
exhibit rich shades of purple and yellow, and with red in- 
stead of yellow anthers. The rudimentary flowers on either 
side of the fertile palese are not invariably to be met with. 
We have seen flowers that have had only one of these, and 
sometimes neither is present. Its seeds weigh from forty- 
eight to fifty pounds to the bushel, and the birds are very 
fond of them. Haifa bushel to the acre is quite enough to 
sow under any circumstances, but it is most commonly 
propagated from cuttings of the root, one piece being de- 
posited to every square foot, in the early spring, in ground 
that has been well prepared and pulverized by frost. 
Linnaeus says that it is extensively used for fodder in 
Sweden and is liked by the cattle. In the province of 
Scania it is mown twice a year. The peasantry there use it 
as a thatch for their cottages and hay stacks, and find it 
more durable than straw, It is very certain that cattle in 
our own country do not relish it, either as pasture or hay, 
and they will not touch it so long as they can get anything 
better. It might, however, be utilized even here by the 
proprietors of marsh lands. When cut very young, say 
when about one foot high, and used for soiling, cattle eat it 
better than in any other way. When it becomes older it 
is very rigid and becomes distasteful, and should never be 
used as fodder. The creeping roots are probably nutritious; 
they have a sweetish flavor, and pigs will devour them with 
avidity. Its composition, as stated by Messrs. Scheven and 
Ritthausen, is: Water, 68.9; protein, 1.9; fat, 0.4; heat-pro- 
ducing principles, 12,6: woody fibre, 13.5; ashes, 2.6. Ac- 
cording to the Woburn experiments, a black sandy loam in- 
cumbent on clay at the time of flowering yielded from an 
acre 27,225 pounds of grass, which lost 14,973 pounds in 
drying, and afforded 1,701 pounds of nutritive matter. 
From a strong, tenacious clay the produce was 34,031 

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pounds of grass^ which lost 17,015 in drying, and afforded 
2,126 pounds of nutritive matter. If these experiments are 
trustworthy, it seems that a clay soil produces 4,764 
pounds more of dry hay to the acre than a black sandy 
loam, and that 100 pounds of grass from it affords 6.3 
pounds more of nutritive matter. If it is chemically true 
that this grass yields so much more nutriment than timothy, 
redtop, fescue and other favorite grasses, it is equally true 
that the stomachs of cattle are not so organized that they 
can extract it, and tj^t it will not lay on anything like as 
much flesh nor give fts liberal a flow of milk.'' 

OANABT GRABS.— (P^oZaris (xmarieTwia.) 

SpiBelets from five-sixteeuths to six-sixteenths of an inch long, oval, 
compressed closely, imbricated and beautifully variegated with green 
and white, as shown in the illustration where the dark part represents 
the green shades. Glumes flattened, ovate, unequally distributed 
about the central rib, about twice as long as the palea, clothed 
with short appressed hairs, nerves with greenish margins. Ru- 
[ dimentary flowers half the length of tljc perfect one, smooth 
below, Flightly hairy at the apex. Palese of the perfect flower 
ovate lanceolate, hairy ; the lower one obscurely five nerved. 
Panicle spike-like, with very short branches about one-seventh 
of the length of the spikelcts, oval, compact. Culm eight 
to eighteen inches high, bearing three or four leavee. 
Sheaths inflated, somewhat roughish. Ligule acute, the upper 
one pointed. Leaves from one-fourth to three-eighths wide, 
one to three inches long, pale green, glaucous. Seed ovate, in- 
vested with the hardened palea. Flowers in July. — GfoiUd, 

Canary grass is a native of the Canary Islands^ and 
may often be seen in waste places. It has flowen^ 
very similar to the preceding, and belorigs to the 
same species. Cattle devour it when young, but 
being an annual, and not a very luxuriant grower, it 
is not of much value as a forage crop. It yields from 
thirty to forty bushels of seeds per acre, which are ex- 
tensively used in feeding canary birds. 

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FIOBIN, BENT QnASS.^(Agro8tui alba,) 

Btem hollow or soon becoming so, spikelets in panicles, sometimes 

crowded, but never so as to form 
a spike, flowers one and perfect in 
each Bpikelet, with or without ru- 
diments of others, stamens three, 
rarely fewer, stems with procum- 
bent or creeping base, ligule long 
and conspicuous, panicle' more 
dense, greenish or slightly purplish. 

Fiorin is quite popular in 
England as a meadow grass^ 
and is known as ^Bent grass' 
or White Bent. It belongs 
to the same family as the 
herds grass, and is very like 
it. It is nourishing, and 
makes a good grass for pas- 
tures. In Tennessee it can- 
not hold rank with many 
others as a meadow grass, but 
it is of sufficient value to de- 
serve mention. 

WHITE CLOVBB.~(!ZW/b/tumrcpe7M.) 

Its stems are spreading, slender, creeping; leaves inversely heart- 
ihaped; flower heads small, white; pods four-seeded, roots perennial; 
flowers from May to September. 

White Clover has been lauded to the skies by some, and 
by others depreciated as a vile weed. It is beyond question 
next to blue grass, one of our most valuable grazing plants. 
Its analysis shows it to be equal to red clover in most re- 
spects, and superior as a &t producing plant 

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It 18 to the pastare what red clover is to the meadow, 
and is a suitable food not only for cattle and horses, but 
for hogs. They thrive amazingly on it. After the first 
flowering it salivates horses, but it 
has no such effect on cattle or sheep. 
As a honey-producing flower, the 
White Clover is not surpassed by any 
plant, the florets, some years, being 
almost full of syrup. 

It varies very much in different 
years, sometimes almost disappearing, 
P then again, another year, being thick 
in every pasture. So much is this the 
case, that we have what are called 
"White Clover years." This is due to the presence or ab- 
sence of rain. When there is a wet spring White Clover 
appears in great luxuriance everywhere, and in dry weather 
it only shows itself in abundance on moist lands. 

It is indigenous to both Europe and the United States, 
and, though growing everywhere here, it has to be sown on 
the Northern pastures. Here it comes spontaneously, almost 
taking every other grass, and sometimes destroying other 
grasses. It is an invaluable accompaniment of blue grass, 
especially triumphant where the blue grass is pastured too 

The comparative value of White and red clover, cut in 
bloom, may be seen by the following by Prof. 





Red Clover .... 1 81.01 
White Clover. . 79.71 






Other analyses may be found on pages 34, and 37. 

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Leaved pinnately three folio late; stipules small and free or falling 
early. Flowers purple rose color or white; stamens diadelphoas; an- 
thers uniform; pod flat and thin, ovate or articular, reticulated. 

It has been but a few years since this plant has been 
brought to notice in this country^ though its existence was 
mentioned as early as 1784 by Thunberg, a German chemist^ 
who saw it growing in Japan. About the year 1849 it was 
noticed in the vicinity of Charleston, S. C, the seeds having 
been brought probably from Japan or China in tea boxes. 
A short while afterwards it was discovered at a distance of 
forty miles from Charleston, and still later near Macon, Ga. 

Within the last six years it has developed itself in many 
of the counties of this State, especially in Henderson and 
Warren, where it is covering all old fields, and in many 
instances rooting out broom grass and other grasses, show- 
ing itself well worthy of the name given it by Mr, Pendle- 
tou; of King Grass.' 

It seems especially adapted to the Southern States, not 
flourishing above 36^, growing with great luxuriance on the 
poorest soils and retaining vitality in its roots in the sever- 
est droughts. It is said to be a fine plant for grazing, and 
being perennial in warm climates, needs no re-sowing and 
but little attention. On soils unfit for anything else it 
furnishes good pasture and supplies a heavy green crop for 
turning under and improving the land. It cannot stand 
severe cold, and in high latitudes cannot be depended on as 
a good pasture grass, although it comes up and supplies an 
abundant forage lor a few months. It should be sown in 
January or February in the Southern States, and about one 
bushel of seed to ten acres is required to secure a good stand 
the first year. It is said to be an excellent renovater of old 
fields, and to bring them up to a high degree of fertility in 
an incredibly short space of time. 

Mr. E. M. Pendleton, of Georgia, speaking of it, says: 

''I am willing to concede to it several things that do not 

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apply to any other plant we have ever grown in this lati- 

1. It grows on poor land with more luxuriance than any 
other grass or weed I have ever seen ; and as it has a small 
leaf, rather contravenes the general idea of vegetable physi- 
ologists, that large leaved plants feed mostly on the atmos- 
phere. I suppose, however, that this deficiency is counter- 
acted to a large extent by the number of leaves, for they 
are legion. 

2. It has great powers of endurance, so far as the roots 
are concerned ; but the branches and leaves will parch and 
die out under a burning sun very soon, especially where it 
grows sparsely. During a wet summer it luxuriates where- 
ever propagated on poor hill-sides as well as meadow lands. 
It loves, however, rainy seasons on thirsty lands, and I fear 
will not prove to be all we desire in such localities. It, 
however, reminds us of an anecdote of Mr, Dickson, when 
he was showing some gentlemen his farm during the pre- 
valence of a severe drought. As they passed through a 
cornfield in which some of the stalks were actually dying 
for lack of moisture, one of them called his attention to 
several in that condition. "Yes," said he, "I perceive the 
fact — but it dies game,'^ And so of the Japan Clover, it 
dies from severe drought, but rallies again as soon as the 
rain sets in. 

3. It is good pasturage for stock, and I think would make 
good hay, if cut and cured. This I intend to test-the pres- 
ent season. But I do not believe that our stock like it as 
well as the native grasses, and I doubt whether it is as nu- 
tritious as the Bermuda. As cattle love variety, however, 
this may subserve a good purpose in that way. My opinion, 
however, is, from not a very close observation in the matter, 
that they would soon tire out on it exclusively, 

4. It furnishes a large supply of vegetable matter to the 
soil, and I believe will prove to be the best humus making 
plant we have at the South, where so much is needed from 

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our clean cotton culture. As it is said to be difficult to 
gather the seed in large quantities, I intend to plow up the 
surface where it has seeded, and rake up the grass and top 
soil, and sow this dirt over my oat and wheat fields, and 
especially on the poor places. My opinion is that a most 
luxuriant growth of this clover will follow, which can be 
turned under in the fall while green, and thus furnish not 
only humus but nitrogen to the soil. 

5. Another rare quality of this plant is indicated in the 
name I have given it — King Grass — in the fact that it abso- 
lutely roots out and destroys every living plant in its wide- 
spread path. Not even old Bermuda, which has so long 
held undisputed sway over his circumscribed fields, can 
resist its encroaches. I have a bottom long since given up 
to the Bermuda. Recently I passed through it and found 
that the Lespedeza had almost completely throttled it, though 
like Mr. Dickson's corn, it died game, as here and there, 
peering above its enemy, could be seen an isolated sprig of 
Bermuda, which, as it cannot stand shade, will have to yield 
entirely before the close of another season. I have but 
little doubt that any pest like Coco or Bermuda could be 
rooted out by this King Grass in a few years in any locality^ 
and would recommend it to be sown on such fields if for no 
other purpose. I intend to give it a fair trial myself on one 
or two similar localities.'' 

In like manner the Hon. H. W. Ravenel, of South Caro- 
lina, regards it with great favor, and thinks its timely ap- 
pearance will be ultimately a source of great wealth to the 
people of the Southern States. Many places that were re- 
garded as worthless before its appearance, are now made 
profitable as a pasture, with the aid of this grass. 

Mr. Samuel McRamsey, of Warren county, says this 
clover made its appearance in that locality in 1870. It is 
fast covering the whole country. It supplies much grazing 
from the first of August until frost. It is short, but very 
hardy. Sheep are very fond of it, and cattle will eat it. It 

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is killing out the broomsedge wherever it appears. It grows 
exceedingly well on red clay, and with a little care covers 
red hillsides that are much too common all over the State. 
If it will do this and destroy the broom grass, it should be 
cultivated. It is not good for meadow and is only valuable 
for pasture. 

The Hon. M. T. Polk considers it almost worthless for 
grazing, having made many experiments with it. His 
opinion is entitled to great weight. 


These grasses have been treated at length under the head 
of Meadow Grasses. Both are favorite pasture grasses, in- 
deed, preferred for the pasture to the meadow. In my ex- 
perience and observation I knew of no grass which will 
give more general satisfaction upon every soil as a pasture 
grass, than Herds Grass. It is nutritious, hardy, tenacious 
of life, a luxuriant grower upon wet or dry soils, and is 
highly relished by stock. In low places where water is 
likely to stand after heavy rains, it will flourish and retain 
its vitality. Many swampy places can be made profitable 
by being sown in this grass, as its interlacing roots consoli- 
date the ground, making a tight surface over which cattle 
can feed without miring. It has never been valued at its 
actual worth. 

Orchard Grass is not so hardy as Herds Grass, though 
probably it is more nutritious, or at least, more* palatable to 
stock. I have observed on two pastures, side by side, the 
one sown with Orchard Grass and the other with Herds 
Grass, that stock will prefer the Orchard Grass to the Herds 
Grass. This may be owing to the fact, that Orchard Grass 
has a more rapid growth, and is therefore tenderer and more 
succulent. Both are good, but the Herds Grass will stand 
more tramping and grazing than the Orchard Grass, and 
will thicken into a sward while the Orchard Grass will be- 
come thinner year after year. The first season after sowingi 

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Orchard Grass will make the better pasture^ but every suc- 
ceeding year will show the Herds Grass to advantage. 

This closes the list of valuable pasture grasses for this 
State. Others now regarded as of no importance, may 
prove valuable by culture. One fact is certain, we have more 
useful grasses than we cultivate. Any three or four of the 
best varieties sown and properly cared for will prove a boon 
to the farmers of the State. 

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The object of this contribution is to impart some specific knowledge 
about those plants which constitute the natural food supply of the 
grazing animals. I had never expected that my casual and accidental 
observations in this particular direction would ever come into pub- 
licity, and, besides the request for this met me unprepared. Yet I have 
considered it my duty to accept Mr. Killebrew^s friendly and polite re- 
quest, as an opportunity to conduce some to the public welfare and to 
general information. 

During a thii'ty years^ residence in this State, for many of them 
with the ample opportunities of a country physician, I have devoted the 
time unoccupied by professional duties, to the study and collection of the 
flora of this Slate, which I have traversed on botanical explorationa 
from the summit of the Blue Ridge to the sandy banks of the mighty 

The grasses and leguminous plants enumerated I know, from 
their aspect in nature, their mode of growth, time of inflorescence, the 

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soil to which they are addicted, and their uses where such are known. 
They are, forthennore, in my private collection, and I intend to con- 
tinue my labors. The description of the plants are given according to 
the excellent works of Prof. A. Gray, A. W. Chapman's Flora of the 
Southern United States, Torrey's Botany of the State of New York. 
The wood cuts illustrative of a few genera of grasses are from Gray's 
Manual Some information I have also derived from the Agricultural 

Two families of plants, the Gramineae (grasses and cereals) and 
Leguminosae (wild vines, peas, etc.), contribute in such a degree to the 
support of the herbivores, that all the rest is, for this purpose, almost 
insignificant. What plants are suitable or not ca9 only be learned 
from observing stock in pastures, what they eat or reject, when they 
are in a well-fed condition. 

From a list of grasses given in a former chapter I have selected the 
most frequent and valuable for the subjoined special descriptions. 

In that portion of the United States lying east of the MiBsissippi and 
extending to the Atlantic, there are at present known to exist 287 
species of the graminese indigenous to the solL In the territory west of 
the Mississippi, and extending to the Rocky Mountains, there are 148 
species, of which only 52 species belong to this region exclusively, 
ninety-one of them belonging also to the eastern region. So it appears 
that we have 889 species over this wide domain. About one-half of 
these are found within the limit of the State of Tennessee. 
Many of them are valuable for forage, but many are worthless' 
or noxious to the agriculturalist. 

Digitized by 





ANDBOFOQON, 'L.— iAndropogon.) 


Commonly called broomsedge, a great eye-sore if it takes 
possession of meadows, but a good pasture grass before it 
shoots up its culms, after which time stock will touch it no 
more. It <lisfigures, with its straw-bundle-like tussocks, the 
pleasanfr verdure of a spring landscape, and the half decayed 
stalks, if mixed with new hay, incline to make it mouldy. 
Another such compatriot is 

AKDBOPOaON PUBCATUS, Mnhl...( Aluo called Broom Grtm) 

Taller and stouter than the former, the culm terminated 
with 2-4 digitate flower spikes, in ^the manner of crab 
grass. It is not so much at home in open meadows and 
old fields but prefers open woods, fence comers and out-of- 
the-way nooks. A third associate is the 


Closely resembles the first, but the flower spikes are near- 
ly wholly wrapt up in leaf-like grass blades or sheaths, and 
the spikelets are very much silky bearded. It is found in 
all sorts of localities, dry and wet, but rather dispersed over 
widely distant localities, and consequently not so common 
as the first two. 

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Ain>BOFOaON MACBOTTBUS, Michx.-( C/itster-yWered Beard 

This has stems two or three feet high, branched, with many spikes, 
bushy, forming thick clusters; rough, hairy sheatbs. 

It differs from the preceding species of same genus in growing in 
swampy lands Like the others, it is worthless. 

AKDBOFOaON ABGENTEXTS, L.-(iSiZt«r Broom Orass), 

Spikelets in pairs, on peduncles exceeding the sheaths, dense and silky. 
Flowers in September. 

Not frequent. East Tennessee along the mountains. It 
is useless to the agriculturist. 

Another interesting i^pecies of the division of the Andro- 
pogoneae ij- the Sorghum nutans. Gray, a tall and elegant 
grass^ 3-6 feet high, with a narrowly oblong panicle at 
length drooping, of russet brown and shining color. It 
grows either single or but few culms from one root and 
passes under the name of Wood Grass or Indian Grass, 
and is one of the most conspicuous objects ih open barrens 
and waste places during the late fall season. The farmers 
in the Western countries, in default of meadows cut this 
and A. Scoparius and Furcatus before heavy frost, and store 
it as hay. 

Two other species related to the above are found in the 
State, viz : Erianthus alopecuroides and Erianthus strictus, 
both growing on siliceous soil, (Tullahoma, White-bluflF, etc. 
etc). The first deserves to be cultivated as a garden orna- 
ment for its large and plume-like spike which is exceeding- 
ly graceful. 

TBIPSACT7M DAOTYLOIDES, L.-(l^ Gama Grass), Perennial 

This species is frequently overlooked for it resembles 
greatly a depauperate form of Indian corn from the outline 
of the flowerspike and the broad leaves, which look exactly 
like those of corn. But the tassel which is only male in com, 
bears here both female and male flowers, and the lateral 
spike of the com is absent. Where it is abundant and better 
supplies not on hand, it is cut and dried for fodder. 

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SETARIA VEBTICIT.T.ATA, Beauv.-(Sn8</y Foxtadl.) 

Spikelets awnless^ with short peduncles, cylindrical spikes two or 
three inches long, pale green, somewhat interrupted with whorted, short 
clusters, bristles smgle or in pairs, roughened, or barbed downwards, 

This is one of the foxtail grasses, some of which are very 
good grazing when young. They are found on all old 
fields, about yards — in fact wherever man is there are the 
foxtails. They are all annuals and take good care to sow 

SET ASIA GLAUCA, Beauv— (S/i£« Foxtail). 

Stem from one to two feet high, leaves broad and hairy at the base, 
sheaths smooth, ligule bearded, spike two or three inches long dense, 
cylindrical, bristV^s six to eleven in a cluster, rough upwards; perfect 
flower transversely wrinkled. 

Flowers in July and inhabits the territory appropriated 
everywhere by the foxtail family, that is cultivated lands. 

SETABIA VIBIDIS, Beauv.-( C/reen FoxiaU). 

Has a cylindrical compouned green spike, bristles longer than the 
spikelets, few in cluster, perfect flower stirate lengthwise and dotted. 
Annual, and flowers in June. 


Is a genus rich in indigenous species. The Subdivis- 
ion Setaria is well known through the German and Italian 
Millet, Panicum Italicum, etc. P. sanguinale is a common 
grass, abounding in cornfields at the end of summer, fur- 
nishes the principal picking to stock aft«r corn-gatherings 
but its value at that time is but small, the saccharine matter 
being then converted into cellulose, and the seeds drop- 
ping oiit as they ripen, the spike is mostly empty. 


Abounds in orchards and pastures, and resembles the 
former very much, but the whole plant is glabrous, while 
the former is mostly very hairy. 

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PANICUM PAUCIPLOBUM, Emot'Sptu-sely - flowered JPlomU 

Stems upright, from oce to two feet high, rough, open panicle. Flow- 
ers in June and July. 

It is peculiar to swampy, boggy soils, and is of no value. 

PANICUM PILIPOBME, Ii.'-(Slender Crab Graaa). 

Loves siliciouB soil ; the plant is very smooth and delicate, the spikes 
2-6y erect and filiform like the culm, spikelets in two or threes, all pedi- 
cellate. Leaves 1-2 inches long, smooth underneath, sometimes a little 
hairy above, upper sheaths smooth, the lower ones sparsely clothed 
with fine spreading hairs. It is annual, like the preceding ones, but 
more succulent. 

The above Bpecies of Panicum all bear their spikelets crowded 2-3 
together in simple and mostly one-sided clustered spikes or spike-like 
racemes, wholly awnless and pointless ; lower flower neutral, of a single 
palet, lower glume minute, sometimes obsolete or wanting. They are 
also known under the name Digitaria, (Gray). 

The next division, Panicum proper, bears spikele^ scattered in pani- 
cles, awnless. 

PANICUM AGItOSTGIDES, SprengL — {Agro8ti84ike Panic 

Perennial, growing July and August in wet places, and very common. 
Culms 2-3 feet high, leaves forming a tuft at the base of the culm 2-4 
lines wide ; ligiile very short, obliquely terminate. Panicles usually 
several, the terminal one longest ; branches mostly in pairs or somewhat 
fasciculate, a little flexuous, finally horizantal. Spikelets three-fourths 
of a line long, mostly purplish, somewhat crowded and one-sided, 
smooth. Lower glume about half the lens^th of the upper, very acute. 
Palea of the perfect flower slightly bearded at the tip. Cattle eat it 

PANICUM A'UTTJMTS[AIi'E"{ Autumnal Panic Grass). 

This is similar to the last, but has branching slender stems, 
and only grows about one foot high. It is found on sandy 
hillsides, and old fields. Of no value as a grazing grass, 
though eaten when nothing better presents itself. Similar 
to this is the 

PANICUM AMABUM, Ell.-(Si(ter Panic Grass), 

It is very like the preceding, and grows almost every- 

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where in the United States. It affects, however, the banks 
of streams especially. From its bitter taste it is not eaten 
by stock. 
PANTCUM ANCBP8, MicllZ.-( VariabU Binie Orass), 

Stems flat, from two to three feet high ; spikelets panicled or recom- 
ed. Bometimes spiked ; glumes two, the lower one short, and sometimes 
wanting. Worthless. 

PANIUM FBOLIFEBUM, Is."( Proliferous Rinui Orass), 

Annual, growing in wet meadows, river banks. Cattle are very fond 
of this grass. Culm 1-3 feet long, succulent. Leaves 8-12 inches or 
more in length, and half an inch wide. Sheath* a little hairy at the 
throat. Panicles large and pyramidal ; the branches much divided, 
straight and capillary. Lower glume very broad rather obtuse^ upper 
one acute, about 7-nerved. Perfect flower shorter than the glil 
acute, smooth, anthers orange. 

PAWICUM CAP LLABE, I^(Old Witch Grass), 

Exceedingly common around Nashville. Annual. Culm 1-2 feet high^ 
branching at the b%se and forming a tuft Leaves flat 2-5 lines wide, 
hairy with long fine spreading hairs ; panicle large, pyramidal made up 
from very fine, brittle branches, getting easily diffracted when they 
become old. Spikelets very small. Old fields when covered with it look 
like a smoke or haze were spreading over them. Cattle wOl not touch it. 

PANICUM LATIPOLnTM-C-BroocWeawd Panic Grass). 

Perennial. Common in barrens, especially in moist thick- 
ets around Nashville. It stands in full vigor in May. A 
very good pasture grass, bearing the closest grazing, and 
constantly reviving. Unfortunately it prefers to live scat- 
tered intermixed with other plants, not socially. 

Culm 1-2 feet high, simple or somewhat branching. Leaves 3-4 
inches long, and an inch or more in breadth, cordate and clasping at the 
base, commonly smooth, but often hairy, spreading horizontally, sheaths 
about half t lie length of the intemodes, ciliate at the throat, or on the 
entire margin. Panicle about 2 inches long, bearing usually but ten spike- 
lets, which are about a line and a half long. Lower glume ovate, 
loose, upper one strongly nerved, 

PANICUM CLANDE8TINIJM, L'-iHidden-fiowered Ptmic Grass), 

Perennial. Similar, and growing intermixed with the above, but a 
month later. Culm with short axillary branches, 1-8 feet high, very 

Digitized by 



leafy. The leaves broadly lanceolate, somewhat cordate, but not 
clasping at the base, 3-6 inches long, and an inch or more in breadth, 
spreading, strongly nerved Panicles few flowered, terminal or lateral, 
the former either wholly concealed or only partly exserted. Glumes 
acute. Lower flower with inferior palea resembling the glumes, upper 
palea membrauaceous, oblong, obtuse, about two-thirds the length of the 
lower one Perfect flower triandrous, anthers and stigma purple. Val- 

PANTCUM DICHOTOMUM IsM^olymorphua Fank Grass) 

Perennial, growing in copses and woods, flowering and 
growing all summer and fall. Daring its growth it assumes 
a very variable habit. 

Culm 8-24 inches high, at first simple, mostly erect, but sometimes 
procumbent, especially when growing in tufts in open places ; smooth 
or pubesent. Radical leaves, short and very broad, often purplish 
and usually smooth. Primary panicle more or less exserted, and usually 
rather compound, the branches mostly flexuous. Late in the season 
this panicle breaks off, and the culms produce branches which are usual- 
ly fastigiate and crowded with small simple paQicle| either exserted or 
partly concealed among the clustered leaves. Spikelets very small, 
about one-half line long, obtuse. In shady thickets it grows sometimes 
2-3 feet upwards in crawling and scrambling beiween bushes. Medium 
quality. , 

PANICUM VIBGATUM, 'L.^-iTaU smooth Panic Grass), 

This species grows in wet and sandy soil, one of the largest of the 
indigenous Paaicums. Sometimes it attains a hight of seven feet, leaves 
very long, flat of a yellowish tinge when old ; spikelets about two 
lines long; branches of the compound, loose and very large panicle, (9 
inches to 2 feet) drooping. Not valuable. Flowers in August. 

PAKICUM CBUS GAIiLI, L.-(i;am-yard Grass), 

Likes manured soil, occurs everywhere in yards, ditches and miry 
places. Annual; Culm 2-3 feet high, stout, erect or somewhat procum- 
bent ; leaves \ inch or more in breadth. Panicle dense, pyramidal, the 
spikelets crowded in dense, spike-form racemes. Glumes acute, awn- 
ed, or awns wantmg. Glumes and lower palea hispid, rhachis bristly ; 
sheaths smooth. Medium quality — rough food. Eaten by battle. 

PASFAIiUM, Jj.'^iPaspalum). 

The various species which represent this genus within the 
border of the State of Tennessee, rank, in my opinion, fore- 

Digitized by 




most by the number of individuals, nutritious qualities and 
tenacity of life, amongst the whole of the grazing herbage. 
They are perennials, with thick, strong, running roots, often 
making a dense matting. Wherever they take hold other 
plants disappear. The blue grass is specifically known to 
the farmer, and he recognizes it amongst other wild- 
growing species. The manifold other species waving their 
culms in the breeze or creeping along the ground, he is ac- 
•customed to speak of as wild grasses, and to pass over them 
without any especial care or notice. Should he once^ be able 
to discriminate those superficially resembling forms, he 
would certainly pass a very different judgment about the 
relative importance of the blue grass and the other na- 
tive species. Blue grass and Paspalum are frequently 
intermixed, but the latter succeeds the 
former by four to five weeks, and comes in 
full force after the former has long 
perished away. Of the twelve species 
known to exist in the Southern States, 
seven have been found in this State. 
They are vigorous growing, succulent 
grasses, with heavy culms, large and 
smooth seed grains, with a smooth and 
thin epidermis. They must surely be very 
nutritious, and their habit under cultiva- 
tion ought to be studied. 

Infio (scence Paspalum laeve (1); a closed spikelet magnified (^); the 
same with llie parts displayed (3). 

PASPALUM PLUITAK8,Poir.-.(-P/oa<in^ Paspalum). 

Annual; growing in swampy places along Cumberland 
river. Its appearance differs from the rest of the genus, 
from tiie arrangement of the spikes in a simple raceme. It 
is rare, and for that reason of no importance. 
PASPALUM LAEVE, Michx.-(-Swoo<A Paspalum). 

PerenDial ; flowers in August. Inhabiting open, grassy, moist places. 
Culms upright, 1-8 feet high ; the pretty large and long leaves, with 

Digitized by 



their flattened sheaths, smooth or somewhat hairy ; spikes 2-6, the later- 
al 0DC8 somewhat approximated near the summit of an elongate naked 
pedimcle, spreading; 2-4 inches long, smooth, except a bearded tuft at 
their base; spikelets broadly two-awned, over one line wide. 

FASPAIiUM CIMATIPOLIUM, Michx.-Clfairy Slender Pospo- 

Perennial. With the former, flowers in Augustaijid September. Culm 
mostly prostrate, 1-2 feet long, smoothish. Leaves about two lines 
wide, commonly very hairy and ciliate on the margin. Peduncle of the 
terminal spike 2-6 inches long, arising from the uppermost sheath. 
From the same sheath usually proceeds another spike, on a much shorter 
peduncle, but sometimes it is only partially or not at all exserted. Rha- 
chis very narrow, convex on the back, hairy at the base. Spikelets two 
on a short forked pedicel, which is closely appressed to the rhachis, less 
than a line in length. Perfect flower as long as the glume, very smooth 
and shining. 

FASFALUM DIGITAIHA, Foir- (-Fm^cr-«Aaped Paspalum). 

Culms ascending 1-2J feet high, spikes slender, rather 
sparsely flowered, 1-4 inches long, both sessile at the apex 
of the slender peduncle; spikelets ovate — lanceolate, 2 lines 
long; common in the barrens. 

FASFAIiUM DISTICHUM, Ii,-(J<nn< Grass, PerennuU.) 

In wet places sometimes partly submerged. Nearly glab- 
rous, nearly glaucous; culms ascending, about one foot high 
from a long, creeping base; leaves linear — lanceolate, spikes 
short, 1-2 inches long, closely flowered, one shortly pedun- 
cled, the other sessile; rhachis flat on the back; spikelets 
ovate, slightly pointed, about Ij line long. Frequent 
around Nashville. Excellent forage; cattle very fond of it. 

Paspalum Racemulosum and Undulatum are two species 
resembling the former very much; the one is a perennial, 
the other an annual, and are good pasture grasses. 

GYMNOSTICHXJM HYSTBIX, Schreb.-- {Bouh-hnuh Qrw».) 

Belongs to the tribe of Hordeacese, of which our wheat 

and barley are also members. It bears a general resemb- 

Digitized by 




lance to them. Spike loose, the spreading spikelets tipped, 
with an awn about one inch long. Root perennial. The 
foliage of the tufts is very tender before appearance of the 
culm. Flowers in July, and is very common in the Stat€. 
Good forage. 

ELYMU8 VIBGnnCUS, L.-( Virginian Lyme Onus. Wild Eye. 

I erenniul.) 

The two spikelets of one joint of the spike of 
E. Virginicus, ab.;ut the natural size (1); the 
glumes and the flowers of one spikelet, enlarged 
and displayed (2); and an open flower more mag- 
nified (3). 

Spii^ e erect, dense and rigid, spikelets in pairs, 
2-8 flowered, the flowers nearly smooth, glumes 
lanceolate, strongly nerved, as long as the spike- 
let. Culm 2-4 feet high. Forms large tufts of 
broadly liner bright green, rough leaves, which 
commence putting out in March, and afford a good 
early pasturage. It is very valuable, and ought 
to be tried in cultivation. 

ELYMUS STRIATUS, Wmd."{SmaU Lyme Orass). 

Pubescent or villous; spike dense and thickish, upright 
or slightly nodding; spikelets in pairs^ 1-2 flowered, bristly 
hairy; glumes awl-shaped, bristle — awned, 1-3 nerved, 
about twice the length of the flowers, exclusive of the ca- 
pillary awn, which is about 7 inches long. Very common 
in dry, sandy places. Poor grass. 

ELYMUS CANADENSIS.-COznodtan Lyme Onus. Wild Rye). 

Perennial, common, flowering in July. Spike loose, nodding at the 
extremitv; glumes lanceolate, subulate, awned, prominently nerved. 
Culms 8-4 feet high, spike 6-8 inches long. Glume strictly one line 

As good as E. Virginicus. 

Digitized by 


AIBA CAE8PITOSA L.-(ru/<ed Hair Grass,) 


Stems erect, round, rough, 
and in tufts; leaves flat, linear, 
acute, sheaths stridted, rough- 
ish, the upper one longer than 
its leaf, pyramidal, oblong; 
panicle large and drooping, 
but becomes erect as it ripens, 
and its branches spread in 
every direction. Short awns. 
It is like the "Wood hair 
grass,'' only in the latter the 
awn of the lower floret does 
not protrude beyond the 

It is peculiar to marshy 
lands especially where water 
stands, and may oft;en be seen 
in meadows or pastures, form- 
ing large unsightly tussocks 
over the field. Cattle will not 
eat it at all. 

DANTHONIA 8PICATA, Beauv.-( Wild Oat Gross). 

Is a perennial grass, with short leaves, narrow sheaths, 
bearded; stem one foot high, slender, panicle simple; spike- 
lets seven flowered; lower palet broadly ovate, hairy on the 
back, longer than its awl-shaped teeth. 

Dry sterile soil, one of the earliest grasses. April. 

HOBDEUM PBATEN8X, Hud8.-(iS^im^-IVit^ Gtosb). 

Alow, d-lS inches high grass, looking much like barley. It is an 
annaaL Not parUcnlarlj raluabls. 

Digitized by 



ABUNDINABIA MABCOSFEBMA, Mioliz~(Xarpe Cane,) and 
ABUNDJNABIA TECTA, Miohx...(6Wiatf Come). 
Are very generally known, and have already been mentioned. 

XJNIOLA LATIFOLIA Mioh^-iBroad-leaved Spike Qran). 

' This is a very graceful grass, well-known to ladies for making winter 
bouquets. Flowers in July on clifEs and river banks. Leaves nearly 
one inch wide, spikelets large, | inches loag and ^ broad, very flat, 
looking like compressed, ovoid, drooping from long capillary pedicels. 
Of little valu for forage. 


Another very difPerent looking species, deserves no discription. 


Spikelets, 4-8, flowered, glabrous or nearly so, glumes, 5-7-nerved, 
rhachis glabrous, but rough on the edges. Occurs here and there hi 
fields and gardens. Very troublesome. 

TBITICUM CANINVM^ Unn-iFibrowHrooUd Wheat Gnus). 

Spikelets four to five fljowered ; glumes 3-5 nerved ; 
rhachis rough and bristly on the edges; awn twice the length 
of palet, leaves flat and roughish. 

It resembles very much the "Couch^^ grass, only it has 
no creeping roots like the latter. It is perennial, and is 
usually found in cultivated fields. It grows from two to 
three feet high, and flowers in August It is greedily eaten 
by stock, but its habit of spreading in grain fields renders 
it rather a pest than useful. Its occurrence here is doubt- 

Digitized by 



Bbomus — Festuca — PoA — Eragrostis — Eatonia — Dl- 


Agrostis — Bromus — ZizANiA — Leebsia. 

BBOMUS L.-(^ome Oraas.) 

A epikelet of Bromus Secalimus, (1); a 
separate flower enlarged, (2). Bpikelets 5, 
many flowered, panicled, glumes unequal, 
membranaceous, the lower 1-5, the upper 
8-9 nerved, lower palet either convex on 
the back or compressed, keeled, 5-9 nerved, 
awned or bristle - pointed from below; 
mostly two cleft tip, upper palet at length 
adhering to the groove of the oblong or linear grain. Stamens three. 

BBOMUS SECAUNUS, It-(C%eae or Chess). 
Common in wheat fields, but too well known. 

BBOMUS BACEMOSU8, Jj^-iUprighi Chsss). 

Occurs with the above. The panicle of the first is always spreading, 
the one of the second narrowly contracted in fruit. 

BBOMUS MOLLIS, Js^(8ofi Chess.) 

Also in wheat fields ; the whole plant soft, downy. They are all 
three annuals, adventitious from Europe. Troublesome weeds as they 
are in wheat fields, if sown for themselves, they will make very heavy 
crops of hay, and will be eaten by cattle. 


Is the only indigenous kind. Perennial Culms 2-8 feet high. 
Panicle 8 inches long, the branches short and nearly simple, spikeleti 
drooplxig on capillary peduncles, closely of 7-12 flowered, densely sUkj 

Digitized by 



all over ; awn only one-third the length of the lance — oblong flower. 
Dry ground, scattered in the woodt*. Ought to be tried how it does 
under cultivation. 

BBOMUS CILTATUS, L--(Oi/iated Broom Grass), 

Has a compound panicle, loose, nodding, spikelets seven to twelve 
flowered, flowers tipped with awns less than their length, leaves large. 
Culms three to four feet high. Grows in old fields "Worthless. 

PB8TUCA, Linn-(i^escu« Grass), 

A spikelet of F. elatior enlarged (1); a se 
flower (2); lower part of a lower palet outspread, 

Spikelets 3 ; many flowered, panicled or race- , 
mose ; the flowers not webby at the base. Glumes 
unequal, mostly keeled. Palets chartaceous or ' 
alpiost coriaceous roundish on the back, more or 
less 3-5 nerved, acute pointed, or often bristle- j^ 
awned from the tip, rarely blunt ; the upper most- 
ly adhering at maturity at the enclosed grain. Stamens 1-8, flowers and 
leaves often dry and harsh 


Are both annuals, growing single, flowers awned, panicle cont' acted. 
They appear early and make good sheep pasture. 

PESTUCA ELATIOBylt-lTal^jPesoue Grass). 

Perennial, growing in wet grass lands ; panicle narrow, contracted 
before and after flowering, erect, with short branches ; spikelets crowd- 
ed 5-10 flowered ; flowers rather remote, oblong, lanceolate. 

PESTUCA NUTANS, Willd~(iVb(Wtn^ Fescue Grass,), 

Perennial ; 2-4 feet high, growhig in copses. Panicle of several long 
and slender, spreading branches, mostly in purs, drooping when old, 
rough, naked below the spikelets, on pretty long pedicels. It is a strong 
looking grass It never grows gregarious. Both these species are eat- 
en by cattle and are of medium quality. 

PESTUCA OVINA, L-fJHord Fesews Grass,) 

Is a low growing perennial, with a contracted one-sided panicle, 
grows gregarious, often covering extensive patches. Excellent for 
Bheep; flowers in May. The Fescues have been described in *'paalurt 

Digitized by 




POA, L.— (itfeacfotc Gross). 

Panicle of l*oa compressa, reduced in 
size (1); a magnified spikelets (2); a sepa- 
rate flower more magnified (3); a lower 
palet cut across and somewhat outspread 
^ ^ (4), 

W^ V l/>4r^ ^ ^^^^ ^^ lanceolate, laterally 

^tf T^^^^%fU^ compressed, several; 2-10 flowered in an 

1 piii.^le. Glumes mostly shorter 
than the flowers; the lower smaller. Low- 
er palet membranaceous; herbaceous, with 
a delicate scarious, margin ; compressed, 
keeled, pointless, 5 nerved, (the ^inter- 
mediate nerves more obscure or obsolete), 
the principal nerves commonly clothed 
at and towa ds the base with soft hairs ; upper palet membranaceous, 
2, toothed ; base of the flower often cobwebby. Stamens 2-8. Stigmas 
simply plumose. Grain oblong, free. Culms tufted from perennial 
roots, except Poa annua. Leaves smooth, usually flat and soft 

The softness and greater roundness of the spikelets, the absence of 
bristle awned tips, the open pyramidal panicle give this genus a habit 
which distinguishes it readily from the allied genus Festuca. 

Besides the species formerly described with the cultivated grasses, 
there remain to mention : 

POA AIiSODES, Gray-(Xea/y Meadow Oraas.) 

The uppermost leaves often sheatittng the capillary branches of the 
loose panicle, which generally stands in threes or fours. Lower palet 
very obscurely nerved, villose on the keel below. Woods. Flowers 
in April and May. It is a scattered growing grass. 

POA SYLVESTBIS, Gray-.(/Sy^mn Meadow Grass.) 

Spikelets very small, loosely 2-4 flowered. Culms flatish, erect; 
branches of the oblong pyramidal panicle short, numerous, in fives or 
more. A very light and tender grass, growing scattered through the 
woods. May. 

POA DEBILIS, Torpey--(TreaJfe Meadow Grass). 

Panicle loose, few flowered, somewhat spreading; the branches mostly 
in pairs, flezuous, a little rough ; spikelets ovate, obtuse, 3 flowered ; 
the flowers webbed at the base, smoothish lower palea oblong, obtuse, 
slightly S-neryed; leaves and sheaths smooth; llgule, obleng, acute. 
Perennial. Flowers m May ; a soft eatable, but too scattered growing 

Digitized by 



EBAGItOSTIS CAPIIiLABIS, Ness — {Hair^nided Meadom 

SpikeletB small, two to four flowered, greenish and purplish, leayei 
and sheaths hairy; panicle loose, delicate and spreading, and one to 
two leet long. 

It flowers in August and September, and grows in poor 
waste places. May be used in dried flower bouquets. 

EBAGBOTI8 TENUIS, Gray-(2>e/toale Specar Ora».) 

Glumes awl-shaped and very acute ; lower palea three-nerved, leaves 
from one to two feet long ; panicles very loose, one to two feet long. 
Flowers from August until frost sets "in. 

It grows on rich sandy soil, and is of no value for gras- 
ing. Exceedingly common on river banks. 

EBAGBOTIS FUBSHII, 8ohrad-(iSbu/Aem EragrosHa). 

Has a lengthened, widely spreading panicle, very loose ; branchiag 
stems spikelets two to seven-flowered; glumes and lower palea acute. 
Flowers in August. Nashville. No value. 

EBAGItOSTIS MEGASTACHYA, Iiink-(PWiye7a EroffrotUt.) 

Flowers in August or September, and emits a sharp, 
pungent odor, when fresh, hence its name. It grows on 
sandy fields; Nashville in all gardens as a weed. It is re- 
jected by stock. 

EATONIA BafE; (Eatonia)- 

Spikelets usually 2-flowered, and with an abortive rudiment or pedi- 
cel, numerous in a contracted or slender panicle, very smooth. Glumes 
sopiewhat equal in length, but very dissimilar, a little shorter than the 
flowers ; the lower narrowly linear, keeled, 1 -nerved ; the upper broad- 
ly obovate. folded round the flowers, 8-nerved on the back, not keeled, 
scarious margined. Lower palet oblong, obtuse, compressed, boat- 
shaped, naked, chartaceoas; the upper very thin and hyaline. Sta- 
mens 3. Grain linear oblong, not grooved. 

EATONIA PENNSYLVANICA, Gray- (Pennsylvanian Eatonia.) 

A perennial and slendtr grass with simple and tufted culms, polished 
and shining spikelets like no other of the indigenous grasses. It grows 
plentifully m Middle Tennessee, loves borders of woods and thickets. 
Cattle seem to prefer it to any other pickings in the woods. 

Digitized by 



DIABBHENA, BAff.—iDiarrhena). 

Spikelets several flowered, smooth and shining, one or two of the ap- 
permost flowers sterile, glumes ovate, mnch shorter than the flowers, 
coriaceous ; the lower one much smaller. Lower palet ovate, convex 
on the back, rigidly coriaceous, its 8 nerves terminating in a strong and 
abrupt cuspidate or awl-shaped tip. Squamulae ovate, ciliate. Sta- 
mens two. Grain very large, obliquely ovoid obtusely pointed, rather 
longer than the palets, the cartilaginous, shining pericarps not adherent 
to the seed. A nearly smooth perrennial, with running rootstalks, 
producing simple culms, 2-3 feet high, with long linear lanceolatt 
flat leaves towards the base, naked above, bearing a few short pedicelled 
spikelets in a very simple panicle. 


American Diarrhena, is the only species frequent in our woods, and 
in quality as food about equal to the cheat. 

ELU8INE INDICA, Cktert.— (Oofc Grow— Ford Qraaa). 

Spikelets 2-6 flowered, with a terminal naked ruiiment, closely imbri- 
cate-spiked on one side of a flattish rhachis; the spikes digitate. 
Qlumes membranaceous pointless, shorter than the flowers. Palets awn- 
less and pointless ; the lower ovate, keeled, larger than the upper. Sta- 
mens 8. Pericarp containing a loose oval, and wrinkled seed. Culms 
oblique compressed and flat at the base. Spikes 2-4. 

It is found in every garden^ around every bouse^ and is 
spread over most parts of the world. It is an annual^ but 
its roots holds so firmly to the soil that it is difficult to pull 
it up with the hand. It forms very good and lasting pick- 
ing for all stock. It is also called Wire-grass or Dog's-tail. 
MEUCA MUTICA, WBlt'"{BlurU'$piked Melioa), 

Spikelets one-five flowered; glumes convex, obtuse, and large. 
Stamens three, panicle loose, smooth and simple. On clifEs and in 
copses, l}-2 feet high, soft and eatable. One of the earliest spring 


Panicle erect, with hairy branches ; has few, linear, oblong spike- 
lets, from five to nine flowered ; lower palea oblong, minutely five- 
toothed; short, sharp- pointed, pale-green leaves; stems creeping at the 
base, from one to two feet long. 

It grows in shallow water, or very wet, boggy places, and 
is of no agricultural value whatever, as it will not grow on 
good, dry soils. 

Digitized by 




Has a spreading panicle, oblong, pyramidal, with drooping spikelets, 
six or eight flowered, long rough leaves, creeping perennial root, palea 
awnless, the lower rounded on the back, and flowers in July. 

It resembles quaking grass very much ; in swampy 
places^ and rises from two to three feet high. Doubtful 
whether it occurs in this State, 


Spikelets on long stalks, flower bearing only above the middle, low- 
er palea short awued, glumes pointed, leaves short, flat and thick) 
stigmas purple, pencil ehaped ; stamens three. 

This is a very rare grass. Found near Tullahoma% 

ABISTIDA GRACILIS, EU."(^/c7Mi6r TripU^wned Qnuss), 

Culms slender, erect, 6-18 inches high with a spike-like virgate pan- 
icle ; the esxerted latenl awns one third-one half the length of the hor- 
izontally bent middle one. 

Sandy soil on open sunny places^ very small and thin. 
July — September. 


Spikelets small, on short contracted racemes, closely crowded to- 
gether, very small awns at the sides of the palea, the middle one bent 
down. Grows in tufts stems greatly branched, and is from one foot to 
eighteen inches high. 

It is cnlled poverty grass because it is seldom seen except 
on old barren fields^ too poor for cultivation^ and contains 
no nutriment. 

STIFA AVBNACEA, l^',{BUitk Oat Orass). 

It stands generally about two feet high, has an open panicle, and its 
leaves are almost like bristles. Palea blackish, nearly as long as the 
glumes, terminated by an awn that is twisted below and bent above. The 
spikelets are one-flowered, and the flowers are borne on a very slender 
stalk. It is a perennial grass 

Not frequent in this Stat<;. Near Charleston, Bradley Co. 
Completely worthless. July — August. 

The Bermuda grass, formerly described, and the dispisa- 
ble Burr Grass, (Cenchrus), are extremely frequent on the 
shifting sands of the Mississippi river. 

Digitized by 




BOUTBIiOUA, Lagasoa.— (Ifiu^n^ Oraaa.) 

Spikelets crowded and closely seseile 
in two rows on one side of a flattened 
rbachifl, comprising one perfect flower 
below and one or more sterile or rudi- 
mentary flowers. Glumes convex keel- 
ed, tbe lower one shorter. Perfect flow- 
er with the 3-nerved lower palet 8- 
toothed, or cleft at the apex, the 2-nerY- 
ed upper palet 2-toothed ; the teeth, at 
least of the former, pointed or subulate, 
awned. Stamens 8, anthers orange col- 
ored or red. 
A portion of the compound spike of the natural size, (1): and a spike- 
let displayed and magnified, (2); the flowers raised out of the glumes. 

BOUTELOUA CUBTIPENDULA, Gray...(lforw Shoe Gnus). 
Culms tufted from a perennial root stalk which spreads in a semi-circu- 
lar form like a horse-shoe. Leaves narrow, spikes one-half inch or less 
in length, nearly sessile. Flowers scabrous. It grows abundantly in 
tbe pine barrens of Middle Tennessee, (Lavergne, Smyrna), and is one 
of the best pasture grasses. 

MUHXiENBEBQIA, Sohreb.-( Drop-seed Grass.) 

Spikelets one-flowered, in contracted or rarely in 
open panicles. Glumes mostly ovate, acute or brist- 
ly pointed, persistent ; the lower rather smaller or 
minute. Flower very short, stalked or sessile in the 
glumes ; the palets usually minutely bearded at the 
base, herbaceous, deciduous with the enclosed firrain, 
often equal, the lower 8 -nerved, mucronateor awned 
at the apex. Stamens three. 

The most species of this genus look like a diminu- 
tive decumbent cane, from the dry, somewhat stiff 
aspect of the leaves and the hard and polished, really 
cane-like condition of the stems. 

A magnified closed spikelet of Muhlenbergia syl- 
vatica, (1); the same with the open flower raised out 
of the glumes, (8); its minut^ and unequal glumes 
more magnified (4); and an open spikelet of the 
same, (5). 

Digitized by 



MUHliBNBBBGIA DIFFUSA, Sch.-(^tm6fe Witt). 

Culms diflfusely branched. 8-18 inches high, panicles contracted^ 
slender, glumes extremely minute awns once or twice longer than th« 
palet. August — September. Very abundant. 

MUHLENBEItaiA GLOMEBATA, Trm. ~ (Ckuter'Spiitd 


Panicle oblong, 2-3 inches long, contracted into an interrupted glomer- 
ate spike, long peduncled, the branches sessile, glumes awned. August. 

MXJHLENBEBGIA MEXICANA, !Frin. - (Mexican Muhim- 

Culms ascending, much branched, 2-8 feet high, panicles lateral and 
terminal often included at the base, contracted, the branches densely 
spiked, clustered, linear. Glumes awnless sharp pointed. With the 
former along the borders of creeks and river banks. Abundant. 


Culms ascending, much branched and diffusely spreading 2-4 feet 
long ; contracted panicles densely many flowered ; glumes almost equal, 
bristle pointed, nearly as long as the lower palet. which bears an awn 
twice or thrice the length of the spikelet. Woods, common. August — 

All the species of Muhlenbergia are but a very poor forage, and while 
other things are plenty, they are not sought after. Yet as all of them 
possess the quality of staying green until late in the winter, they are 
of great help for stook beating about on cold and dreary winter days. 
In cultivated grounds they are a great nuisance, their far-reaching, 
creeping roote being nearly unexterminable. 

SPOBOBOliUSy B. Br— (Drfjp-aeed gram.) 

I Spikelets one, rarely two-flowered in a contracted 
or open panicle, the palets longer than the unequal 
glumes. Stamens, 2-8. Grain a globular utricle 
(hyaline or rather coriaceous), containing a loose 
seed which drop out very readily at maturity. 

A spike of Sporobolus magnified, (1); the same 
with the flower open, the palets raised above the 
glumes, (2); and the fruit, (8), more magnified, 

« showing the seed loose in the pericarp. 

SFOBOBOLUS INDICUS, Brown-(/ndian Drop Seed). 
Culms erect ; panicle elongated, linear ; leaves long, flat ; palea twice 


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•s long as the glomes, the upper one truncated. Growing in large patch- 
es about Tullahoma, Cowen, etc. 

All parts of the plant are equally pliant and succulent ; 
it sprouts again^ after being pastured down, with numerous 
new culms, and its growing season lasts from May till frost. 
The culms stand about 2 feet high, and it is naturally social. 
As far as . I observed I found it always growing in 
patches. It grows in low and small tufts and sticks firmly 
to the soil. I would very earnestly recommend to try it 
under cultivation. In addition to my own observations, I 
would state that the Agricultural Report for 1870, in a pa- 
per on the grasses of the plains and the eastern slope of 
the Rocky Mountains, after enumerating 142 species of 
grasses indigenous over that region, and selecting twelve of 
them as the most valuable of them all, accepts Sporobolus 
Heterolepis, an allied species, as one of them. It is there 
said, "This species is peculiarly palatable to cattle, and they 
are seen roving over rich pastures of other species in search 
of it. This is also said to be the winter forage species of 
cattle, where it abounds, aflPording the rich winter pasturage 
of the farmers and herders of Kansas. It flourishes 
chiefly on the moister portions of the plains, and many local 
areas are almost exclusively occupied by it." 


Spikelets open, panicled two -flowered, with a rudiment of the third 
flower, the middle awn flower perfect, its lower palet barely bristle, point- 
ed from near the top ; the lowest flower staminate only, bearing a long, 
bent awn below the middle of the back. Looking much like oat. Pe- 
rennial. Has been tried with good results in cultivation. Flowering 
in June. 

Not very frequent in this State. Old fields, Clifton pike, 


Perennial ; culm upright, 8-5 feet high, very smooth, as are the 
flat leaves, panicle large and compound, the rigid, capillary branches 
spreading, naked below ; spikelets shining, purple. 

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A showy grass, but too hard to be eaten by stock. Fre- 
quent in light soil. July — August. 

VILPA VAQINiEFLOBA, Torr-i Southern Pwerty Orass). 

Annual, ciilms slender, 6-12 inches high, leaves, conrolute, awl-shaped, 
1-4 inches long. Panicle single and spiked, the lateral and often th« 
terminal concealed in the sheaths. 

Growing in the poorest places, and in the streets of Nash- 
CINNA ABUNDINACEA, Jj.— {Indian Reed,) 

Spikelets, one flowered much flattened, crowded in an open flaccid 
panicle, glumes lanceolate, acute, strongly keeled. Flower manifest- 
ly stalked in the glumes, smooth and naked; the palets much like the 
glumes, the lower longer than the upper, short, awned or mucronate on 
the back. 

A tall, sweet-scented grass, with ample terminal panicle. 
Damp woods. Flowering and fruiting, July to October. 

AQBOSTIS CANINA.-L. Brown Beni-Qrtm. 

Has an erect, slender, spreading panicle \ 
creeping, perennial root ; slender, erect stem ; 
and linear leaves ; glomes longer than the palea, 
a bent awn on the palea ; greenish spikeletft, 
afterwards turning brown, whence its name ; 
flower but one in a spikelet; open panicle; 
stamens three. 

It is a native of Europe, but intro- 
duced into the United States where it 
now is occasionally found in meadows. 
It flowers in middle summer, and is of 
no agricultural value. A variety of it 
(Agrostis Rupeslris, Chapman) occurs 
in the higher Alleghany mountains, 
where it is indigenous. 

AgrotlU Otmina. 

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AQBOTIS SCABBA, Willd.~-( Ticitfe Ortus). 

Another Bpecies of agroetis, with a loose spreading, purplish panicie, 
the branches having the flowers near the apex ; stems slender, and from 
one to two feet high; short narrow leaves. It flowers in July 

Its exceedingly delicate panicles when ripe, are easily 
broken from the stem, and carried away. On this account 
it is sometimes called "Fly-away-grass.'' It is of no value. 

AQBOSTIS PEBBNNANS, Tu.ckerm.—Everlasting Bent-Grass, 
Has a diffusely spreading panicle, pale green ; branches short, di- 
vided ; flower bearing from the middle, perennial. 

Doubtful whether in this State. Similar to the Herds 

ZIZANIA AQUATICA, L — ( WaUr or Indian Rice.) 

This is probably the only species occuring in this State, and this I have 
never seen yet myself, but from information I believe it to occur quite 
frequently in West Tennessee. It is a tall growing annual, culms three 
— nine feet high, leaves flat, two to three feet long. It bears its flowers 
in a large panicle, the lower branches of which bear the male flowers, 
and soon drop off, while the upper are female, consisting of two pa- 
leas, (glumes are absent in this genus), the lower one oblong, keeled, 
terminating in a straight awn. Seed terete, about half an inch long, 
blackish when ripe, but white and farinaceous internally. It grows 
in swamps, and on the borders of rivulets and lakes, very frequent in 
the northwest, where its grain is a favorite article of food among the 
Indians, and cattle are also very fond of the herbage. In inimdated 
regions, which are worthless for other cultivation, it ought to be sown 
like rice. An acre of it is about equdl in nutriment to an acre of 

If it should occur within our territory, is similar to the foregoing, 
and a perennial. 
LEEBSIA,Solander-(F%ito Orasa,) 

Spikelets one flowered, compressed, glumes none. Paleae two, awn- 
less, closed, equal in length, but the lower one much broader, carinate. 
Stamens 2-3. 

Panicle branched, diffuse ; rhlzoma creeping, perennial. Culms 3-5 
feet high geniculate at the base. Leaves 2-8 lines wide, very rough, 
with minute hooked prickles, as are also the sheaths. 
Growing in ditches and swamps. September. 

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Panicle simple ; the spikelets closely appressed ou the slender 
branches, aroond which they are partly curyed; palets greeniflh white. 
Wet woods, common. July, September. 

LEEBSIA LENTICULABIS, Michx— jFYj^-eoteA-^nup. 

Spikelets broadly oval, imbricately covering each other, 2J-3 lines 
long. Smoothish, panicle simple ; palets very flat, strongly bristly eil- 
iate, (said to close and catch flies). Wet places with the above, fre- 

Those three species, although they are of no value, are 
described here for their being frequently met with as pecu- 
liar grasses and easily recognizable. 

Descriptions of other native forage plants contributed by 
Dr. Gattinger^ will be found in the chapter on Leguminoue 

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Meadows exist in various sections of the State to a lim- 
ited extent^ and it being the object of this work to foster 
this branch of agriculture^ the best plans for encouraging 
and treating them will be discussed. The subject requires no 
argument to encourage it, as every right-thinking man will 
see at a glance the great importance of growing more hay. 
It is, in the observation of every one, that-va^t amounts of 
baled hay are brought by rail and river from those States 
already embarked in the cultivation of grasses. While we 
have the best climate in the United States for this purpose, 
as already stated, we have a soil unparalleled for fertility, 
and well suited to almost all the varieties of grasses des- 
cribed, and, besides, being on the border of the cotton 
States, we have a market at our doors for our surplus. We 

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certainly ought to het able to compete with the Northern 
States with these advantages; and then, to add to our ad- 
vant^es, there is a surplus of labor awaiting our orders. 
It is true, our labor is not educated, but we can supply that 
defeot by properly educating ourselves so as to meet any of 
of tlie requirements necessary to raise these crops. If we 
do this our country will assume such a charming appear- 
ance that it will delight the eye of every passenger who 
travels through it on the many lines of railroads, besides re- 
paying the owners all the care bestowed on it. Our citi- 
zens are not so much to blame for this backwardness in the 
ouUi vat on of the grasses as would appi'ar at first sight. The 
routine established before the war was hard to break up, 
but they are now looking around for some more profitable 
method of farming. To establish meadows is the part 
of wisdom. Just how to do this we propose to tell in this 
chapter more fiiUy than in the introductory chapters. We 
shall consider: 

1st. The preparation of meadow lands. 

2nd. Selection of suitable seeds for sowing and method of 

3rd. Times of sowing and the best methods of securing 

4th. Cutting, curing and storing the hay. 

6th. Improvement of meadows. 

6th. Manures and manner of their application. 

In oar remarks upon the different grasses, the most of 
the subjects have already, to some extent, been noticed, and 
therefore, we 'will be pardoned if some repetition takes 
place, but the subject is of so much importance that we will 
be justified by the ends to be attained. 


This is of the utmost importance when we reflect that 
any want of attention to all the details necessary to insure 
success involves a considerable loss, not only in money and 

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labor, but also in the length of time required to undo and 
correct the error. God sows the pastures to our hands, 
but man must sow the meadows. A man may think he is 
pursuing the most judicious course possible, but he may be 
in error, and an honest mistake does not free the farmer 
from loss. He must inform himself correctly on the char- 
acter of the land to be sown, and then, with every facility 
at his command, acquaint himself with the grasses best 
adapted to its requirements. 

In the first place, though many varieties of grass will 
grow well on moist land, it is not to be understood that 
they will thrive best on wet lauds. When the water stands 
on the surface all the year the character of the hay is nearly 
worthless, being full of moisture and with but little nutri- 
tive principles in it. Consequently it is very important to 
have soils properly drained, if they require it. It will 
largely increase the quantity and greatly improve the 
quality of the crop. With the soil full of moisture it be- 
comes sour and, though full of fertility, it is unavailable to 
the plant. With a wet soil, it is impossible to put the land 
in a proper state of tilth. So all things point to the neces- 
sity of drainage. 

It may be proper to state that every piece of ground on 
which water will stand two hours after a rain will be bene- 
fitted by a system of drainage. This seems to the South- 
erner to be such a stupendous undertaking that nearly 
every one is discouraged from making the effort. When it 
is supposed that draining can only be effected by ditching 
in every direction, and laying great stretches of pipes, the 
undertaking does seem indeed to be very costly. 

The method of pipe-laying is the best, and as our farmers 
see the good effects of a cheaper method, they will gradu- 
^ ally, and by slow degrees, come to practice the more sub- 
stantial methods. A Northern land owner does not hesi- 
tate to spend fifty or seventy-five dollars on a single acre, 
when he can bring into cultivation a choice piece of bot- 

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torn. But the Hollanders surpass every other people on 
earth in this particular. Nearly.very foot of land they own 
has been reclaimed from the sea by a system of dykes, 
levees and ditches. Their lands being lower than the water 
courses that run through them, their only resource is to lift 
the waters that are collected in the ditches by means of 
steam pumps. This is done, it is true, at the expense of 
the public, but the farmers pay an annual tax to keep it up, 
or they would soon be flooded by the accumulating waters 
that penetrate the soil from every side. Now, if by this 
practice, they are able to give one thousand dollars per acre 
for the land, and pay annual drainage tax to an amount 
equal to the value of our lands, why may we not pursue the 
simple act of putting our lands in as good condition at a 
tithe of the cost of theirs ? 

There are many methods of draining land, but we will con- 
fine ourselves to the method oi doing it as effectually as the 
Dutch, but at such an expense that even a renter can afford 
it, for the increase of one year's crop. A German gardener 
of New York leased ten acres of land that proved to be 
boggy, and the first three years his crops, in spite of all the 
attention he could give them, barely paid rent and support- 
ed him. He was advised to try draining, and although but 
seven years were left of his lease, he did it at a cost of $500. 
The result fully justified the expense, for in the remaining 
seven years he made, over and above all expenses, money 
enough to pay $12,000 for the farm he had drained. No 
land can produce well without the aid of heat and proper 
aeration. If the soil is full of water it will be impervious 
to the air, and the water will also counteract the effects of 
the sun's rays, and the ground will be cold and lifeless. 
Without the influence of heat and air necessary chemical 
changes in the constituents of the soil cannot take place, conse- 
quently the roots fail to find the nourishment they are seek- 
ing — they fail to penetrate the soil to a suflScient depth, and 
instead of a rich subsoil, there will only be surfiice soil t0 

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support vegetation. That soon becomes exhausted, and the 
land appears worn out. Draining opens up a mine of fer- 
tilizers below, the roots run quickly down to it, and there 
is no question that the crops are greatly increased. There 
is much land in our State that would be greatly improved 
by draining. The soils that will be improved can be 
ascertained, during the wet season, by digging a hole in the 
fields and watching the height to which the water rises. In 
many places it will remain almost on a level nearly all win- 
ter; in others showing itself one, two or three feet below 
it. And this, too, on rolling lands that are supposed to be 
dry enough. Not only are the wet lands made dryer, but 
the dry lands made wetter. This is effected by the soil be- 
coming porous, so as to better admit the moisture of rains 
and dews. It' is made warmer, and consequently frosts will 
have less effect, there being less moisture to freeze on the 
surface. And besides, by being warmer the crops come on 

Our Northern farmers practice almost exclusively tile 
draining. This is a costly mode, and if it were the only 
way our farmers would be frightened at once from the ef- 
fort. But so thoroughly is this plan practiced that it is no 
longer an experiment. Some counties in Ohio have spent 
the public funds in digging and draining the mains so that 
farmers can lay their drains into them. Wood county, 
Ohio, in 1867, spent in one year $500,000 in digging 
mains. One drain was dug 30 miles long, and six feet 
deep, while the districts dug 400 miles more. 

The Agricultural College of Michigan appointed a com- 
mittee to investigate the effects of draining. They bought 
twenty-five acres of swampy land, covered with bog-grass 
rusheS| flags and other worthless vegetation. They laid 
about 800 yards of tiles at an expense of $480, and sowed it 
in grass. At the first cutting the crop was sold for $1,570, 
leaving a clear profit, the first year, over all expenses, 
of $648.70, and the second year they cleared $975. This 

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was on land that, before draining, produced absolutely 

How many of our Tennessee acres are in a condition to be 
improved every one can guess. We have wet lands in 
abundance, not only on our river bottoms, but also on the 
uplandb. These lands are as full of fertility as it is possible 
for lands to be, and it only requires a small outlay for 
drainage, to develope and utilize this wealth. 

Tiles can be bought at any of the seed stores at about $16 
per thousand, and should be put in about three to four feet 
deep, the last depth being preferred, if there is slope 
enough to carry off the water. If a branch of water runs 
through a meadow it can be used as a main, the side drains 
running obliquely to it. The drains should be constructed 
so that water will run down them, and not stand in them. 
The side drains should be laid from thirty to sixty feet apart, 
according to the amount of water in the soil. The cost is 
from $50 to $100 per acre. But this is where the only 
method of ditching to plant the tiles is by a spade at 
twenty or thirty cents per yard. A much cheaper, and 
equally effective plan is to select and lay off the points for 
the ditches, and then, with a long, sharp, bull-tongue plow, 
run several furrows, with two horses, to the width desired, 
say eighteen inches or two feet, throw out the loose soil 
with shovels and then run again with the plow in the same 
track. When the ditch gets too deep for the plow, fasten a 
chain to the clevis so as to lengthen the distance from the 
horses to the plow, making the horses straddle the ditch, 
and by continuing to lengthen the chain there will be 
no difficulty in plowing to any desired depth. If this plan 
is pursued a ditch can be dug at a very insignificant cost, 
and then the tiles can be laid in the bottom and the ditch 
filled up. 

But a drain can be made in a much cheaper manner than 
this. Should there be plenty of surface rock near, lay one 
•n the bottom of the ditch, one on each side of the bottom 

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rock, and cover with a fourth. Or instead of using four 
rocks, a very good ditch can be made by tilting two flat 
rocks to each other so that a transverse section will form an 
A shaped tunnel, and if there is a firm bed to the ditch it 
will last an indefinite length of time, the water carrying off 
the loose crumbs of clay. 

Still another plan is to use, instead of the rocks, poles of 
any kind of wood, so they are straight. Lay two 
poles, say four or five inches in diameter, parallel to each 
other, leaving a space of six inches between them, and then 
lay another pole on the centre space so that its edges will 
rest on the other two, leaving an open space five or six 
inches in diameter. Then throw stubble, straw, weeds, 
leaves or cornstalks over the poles, and indeed over the 
rocks also, and there will be a good ditch without the out- 
lay of any money. Of course the loose dirt will be thrown 
over either the rocks or logs. Timber under ground in 
this way will last a long time. 

But there is still another plan, in case the soil has any 
descent, and there are few lands in Tennessee without it, 
and that is by means of a subsoil plow. Let a stout sub- 
soil plow follow in the furrow of a turning plow, both drawn 
by stout teams, and send the subsoiler at least two feet deep. 
Let the furrows run up and down the hill so as to give a 
regular descent to the water, and the hard pan broken up 
by the subsoil will carry off* all superfluous water after 
rains in a very short time. This process is so effective that 
it is pursued in some sections to the exclusion, entirely, of 
regular draining. It will have to be repeated at inter- 
vals of three or four years, and there will be but little dis- 
turbance to the sod, as the subsoiler has only an iron bar for 
a helve, which raises the surface so slightly it can easily be 
pressed back witH a roller. 

It may be truly said that by this system, properly fol- 
lowed, we extend our acres perpendicularly instead of later- 
ally, which is the true theory of cultivation. Man owns 

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the land from the surface to the centre, but how few ever 
utilize these under-ground acres. From all the testimony 
to be gathered on this subject, it U pretty apparent that the 
cost of draining a meadow will be paid the first year by th» 
increased production of the crop. The after-crops will be 
profits of the farmer. 

Now, it being understood the land is in a suflS- 
ciently dry condition, either by draining or natur- 
ally, the next thing is to put it in a state of tilth. 
After what has been said in regard to almost every kind of 
grass, it is almost needless to impress on the mind of the 
farmer the necessity of thoroughly pulverizing the soil. 

Let it be well and deeply broken up, and then with th« 
harrow, drag and roller continue to work it until it is 
smooth and not a clod appears on the surface. The roots 
of grasses are exceedingly delicate and cannot penetrate the 
hard, dry lumps of soil, but will exhaust their energies in 
going around or under them. Besides, in exactly the same 
proportion as the clods exist, are the nourishing elements 
locked up from the use of the grass. Another reason: when 
clods exist in great numbers, the ground will be rough and 
the seed will not get into the soil, or will get in too deep to 
germinate. Thus seeds are lost and the stand impaired. 

It is needless to say the soil must be fertile, for nothing 
will thrive well on poor soil. If it is not rich it must be 
made so. Should it be desired to sow a field that has been 
greatly exhausted, a plan pursued in England is com- 
mended. The fall previous to sowing, the field is put 
in turnips. During the winter, by means of hurdles, a 
flock of sheep is confined to a portion of the field, and they 
are not allowed to leave until every vestige of the turnips 
is exhausted. By this time the ground will be black with 
their droppings. In this manner the whole field, acre by 
acre is gone over and the ground has a fine covering of ma- 
nure. We will suppose this consumes the winter. In th« 
spring break up, or to break up just as soon as the sheep 

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are removed is better, and sow with peas. When this crctp 
is in full bearing let on both hogs and sheep, and it will 
amply repay all its preparation by the manner in which th« 
stock will thrive, and they will again bestow on it a cover- 
ering of fine manure. Now the ground is well manured 
and fully capable of giving, in return for the care I ecitowed, 
a bountiful crop the first year. Of course it must be again 
broken and pulverized as before mentioned. This not only 
pays better than letting it lie in fallow, but it keeps down 
weeds. When ground is fallowed, there* will be generally 
an interval of neglect, and the weeds, ever watchful for a 
chance, will spring up, mature their seeds and sow them, to 
the trouble and vexation of the farmer afterward. 


Whatever the character of the soil to be converted into 
a meadow, a suitable grass will be found in our list. There 
are grasses for rocky land, sandy land, bottom land, upland, 
or calcareous land, and we cannot do better than to refer 
the reader to the large list from which to select, as the kind 
of land to which they are adapted is clearly shown in each 
descriptive article. 

It is well known to every farmer that some grasses will 
not thrive on certain characters of soil. What grasses to 
sow must be left to the judgment of the farmer, as only 
an extended experience will be able to show under every 
circumstance the peculiarities of the land to be sown. Un- 
der certain conditions, too, it may be preferable to put the 
land down in clover, whatever kind of soil it may be, espe- 
cially is this the case where the land from long cultivation 
is not in good heart. It must be remembered that, if a 
field has, by long-continued cultivation, without rotation, 
been so reduced in fertility that it will not produce re- 
munerative crops, it will not produce any kind of grass im 
paying quantities, until some of its vitality has been re- 

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gtpred. If a farmer fattens stock from the produce of his 
farm, it follows that whatever goes to produce bone, mus-^ 
cle, and blood, is so much substance taken from the soil 
and restitution is demanded. 

When the earth is CQvered with grasses, and they are 
plowed under, and converted into vegetable mould, not 
only does the land receive what has been taken from it, 
but there is added, a vast amount of substances extracted 
from the atmosphere, such as carbon, ammonia, nitrogen 
and oxygen, and in that way the land is constantly im- 
proved. It is in this way that nature renews herself, and 
a piece of land left to her care, will, after the lapse of a 
few years, regain its lost fertility. But the. necessities of 
man are such he cannot await this slow process, and there- 
fore, it is that he must, to bring about the same result 
sooner, resort to the expedient of plowing in green 
crops. Various kinds of green manuring crops are used 
for this purpose. In the selection of a crcfp to plow under, 
one thing should be kept prominently in view, and that is 
select such crops as derive their nourishment in great part 
from the air. It has been demonstrated by many experi- 
ments that the Legumins do this more effectually than 
any other class. Among these none are so effectual 
asithe different kinds of clover. They not only enrich 
the land by the great mass of foliage and stems, but 
also by their penetrating roots, that by their mechanical 
displacement of the soil, loosen and pulverize it. Next to 
the clovers are peas. They, it is true, do not have the same 
extensive system of roots, but, if possible, they grow and 
exist more from atmospheric influences than any other 
plant. They will thrive and make good crops on poorer 
soils tlian any other kind of vegetation ; and if a year or 
two is spent in sowing in peas and plowing the crop under 
the soil will be made fertile enough to receive a permanent 
coat of grass, for we know that the atmosphere is full of 
those elements so essential to vegetation. Man can only 

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avail himself of these fertilizing qualities by the aid of snch 
fiubstances as embody them in their own growth. In this 
way he is able to secure them and place them back in the soil. 

After the selection of the kinds of grass to be sown the 
Bext consideration is to select good seed. How often has it 
occurred to every farmer to see the result of all his toil and 
expense culminate in failure for want of good seed! It does 
not always occur to the sower that his seeds are defective 
through age, or through mixing noxious seeds with the 
grass seeds. The high price that seeds command is a great 
temptation to the dishonest dealer. Sometimes it happens 
that good seeds are kept until they have lost their power of 
germinating. If it be possible, it is far better to save seed 
from the farm itself. It involves but little care to do so^ 
and is an actual saving to the farmer, and th^n he knows 
what he is sowing. Should it be necessary, however, to buy 
seeds, always delay a few days to test them. This is easily 
done by placing a certain ascertained number on a wet cloth, 
folded several times to retain moisture, and covering them 
over with a single thickness of the same. Keep the cloth 
damp a few days and the good ones will swell up and 
sprout while the defective ones will be covered over with 
mould. Count the sprouts, and by an easy computation, 
one can then ascertain the proportion of good seeds. Then 
sow in the proportion and there will be no difficulty in 
securing a stand. The wisdom of this precaution may be 
known when it is stated that nearly all the grass seeds are 
worthless at the end of three years, only a small proportion 
of them germinating. Even clover seeds that will keep 
their vitality when in the ground, and covered up, will 
lose this vitality in four or five years, if exposed to the 
atmosphere. The millets are scarcely worth sowing after 
the second year. The selection of the species being deter- 
mined on, the next consideration is the propriety of mixing 
or sowing alone, and in this connection, the best argument 
in favor of mixing should be taken from nature. 

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No pasture, However luxuriant, is found to consist of one 
grass alone. In all meadows sown alone, there will be 
found naked spots, and these seem to depend upon some 
incompatibility of the soil, at that point, with the grass 
sown. Th(\<e spots would be occupied possibly by other 
species if sown, and thus the whole surface would be cov- 
ered. Some grasses are disposed to turf tlie ground while 
others form tussocks, therefore it is best to mix, if sowing 
a tussock grass, a grass that will turf well. Some graases 
have a heavy under-growth of surface foliage while others 
have this sparingly. These two peculiarities would be 
done away with if the two were combined. 

It is not, however, proper to combine the pasture grasses 
with the nuadow grasses. As a rule the former have creep- 
ing roots and are more vigorous than the latter, and they 
would soon overpower them and destroy the meadow. This, 
of course, is spoken in reference to the perennial pasture 

Another condition of mixing is the number to be com- 
bined. As a rule, it is beyond question, that a meadow 
sown with a variety of seeds will do better and make more 
hay than when one kind is used. It is no easy matter to 
explain why, but nature does it, and she ran ly errs in her 
primitive growth. To show the variety of growth on a 
piece (»f natural meadow, the following table is given, which 
was made from a careful count by Mr. Sinclair. It shows 
that the greater the number of species, the greater the num- 
ber of plants to the square foot, and where the species are 
reduced the number of plants also decrease. The soil 
should be supplied with seed enough to suit every constitu- 
ent in it, and then if one fails another may answer the pur- 
pose, and the difference in cost of a few seed is but a small 
part to the vWue of a good meadow. 

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B O O 

1. A square foot taken from the richest nat- 
ural pasture capable of fattenmg one large ox or 
three sheep to the acre was found to contain . . 

2. Rich old pasture capable of fattening one 
large ox and three sheep per acre 

3. Another old pasture contained 

4. An old pasture of a damp, moist and mossy 

5. A good pasture, two years old, laid down 
to rye grass and white clover 

6. A sod of narrow leaved meadow grass {Poa 
cmgustifolia) 6 years old 

7. A sod of meadow foxtail by itself 6 years 

8. Rye grass by itself 6 years old 

9. Meadow irrigated and carefully managed . . 














> -^ 
O O 







1702' 96 

It will be seen by this table that numbers 1, 2 and 9 
have more varieties of grasses than any others, and accord- 
ing to the table, are more thickly covered with plants. 

A custom prevails among the grass farmers of the North 
an^ East to mix a great number together — some having 
as many as a dozen different kinds on one meadow. In 
this way those vacant spots we have spoken of will be filled 
ap with selected seeds, instead of seeds of an inferior or 
noxious sort. The ground will be covered, and it is better 
to select the best varieties. The more especially is this the 
case, when it is expected, as most farmers will do, to pas- 
ture, to some extent the meadow, or when it is wished to 
train it as a meadow a few years, and ultimately let it pass 
into a grazing lot. It is quite a common custom in this 
State to mix clover and orchard grass, or clover and herds 
grass, or clover and timothy, and sometimes timothy and 
herds grass are mixed, and this is about the extent of mix- 
ing done. 

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In the great meadows of the North Western and New 
England States where grass culture has been practiced for 
years it has been demonstrated often that the admixture of 
several varieties increases many fold the yield of grass, even 
if not wanted for pasturage. It secures an early stand, and 
if the ground fails to suit one species another will flourish, 
and thus, all vacant spots are covered. These spots of 
even an inch or two may seem insignificant, but when they 
are multiplied all over a large field they will materially 
affect the yield. The crop is made up of single stalks, and 
every stem is of importance in the aggregation. 

While we have the best evidence of the good effects of 
sowing several varieties together, it is strange that farmers 
of enlarged and intelligent experience will persist in putting 
down only one kind, unless it be to save seed. No man 
who has gone over a timothy or orchard grass meadow can 
Lelp but notice the many vacancies that could be filled. 
These oflen occur from freezes, the heat of the sun, birds, 
defective seed and incompatibility of soils. This would 
certainly not be the case if attention was directed to its pre- 
vention. Nature sets the example, and as a rule she is 
found to be the most trustworthy teacher. 

It is sometimes the case that the land is exactly suited to 
timothy, herds grass or clover, and by sowing these to- 
gether, or even separate, we succeed in covering the grounds 
but this is rarely found to be the case. 

It should be kept in mind in the selection of seeds to 
put those together that will blossom at the same time, unless 
it is intended for a pasture, in which case the reverse should 
be considered, for then it is best to so arrange it so as to have 
a succession of ripening crops, and the stock can be sup- 
plied throughout the year with such grasses as will be 
young, tender and succulent. But in the case of meadows 
it is desirable only to have such as will ripen together, as 
otherwise those cut too green will lose greatly by shrinkage. 
Another care to be thought of, is to put down grasses as 
nearly alike as possible as regards the aftermath. 

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Some require or are improved by the tramping of stock. 
If left to themselves they have a tendency to tuft or spring 
out of the soil until their roots are exposed, when they fall 
a prey to the sun or to the freezes. These tufts or tussocks, 
as they are also called, will leave at least half the ground 
bare, and thus, also, much of the hay is lost. But if tramped 
by stock the grass is pressed back into the soil and a turf is 
kept up that covers the whole surface. 

Some of the grasses, however, as timothy, do not require 
and will not bear grazing, for various reasons. These grasses 
ought not to be mixed with those that are benefited by tim- 
othy, and should such be disposed to tuft, the use of a heavy 
roller is the only remedy, and the vacant spaces can easily 
be reset by sowing seeds of the same or other varieties on 
them, and then giving them a light coat of manure. 

It may be assumed that in nearly all meadows or pastures 
clover should be a constituent. It is an easy matter to se- 
cure a stand of it. The clover will, in the course of two or 
three years, disappear from the meadow, leaving the grass 
in possession of the ground. But it has not left without a 
blessing, for it has reached up into the air with its long 
arms and drawn down great stores of ammonia, nitrogen, 
carbonic acid, and other valuable elements that grass re- 
quires, and has pushed them down into the soil; while on 
the other hand, it has pumped up immense quantities of 
potash and other salts that are, in their natural state insolu- 
ble, and not available to the grasses, and when it dies, it 
bequeaths these valuable manures to its successors. Nor is 
this all. Its long roots permeate the ground to a prodigious 
depth, for so humble a plant, and when the roots decay the 
soil is so honey-combed that rains penetrate to the sub- 
soil easily and the grass roots follows to a much greater 
depth than they could otherwise attain. And while all 
these services are being rendered the clover is giving to its 
owner large yields of the best of hay. What a faithful ser- 
vant is this plant ! 

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Before proceeding to the subject of the proportions in 
which seeds should be mixed^ we will give a table prepared 
by the Messrs. Lawson, of Edinburgh, the celebrated seeds- 
men^ who have demonstrated the truth of its statements by 
actual experiments. It contains the weight of seeds per 
bushels, the number of seeds in a bushel, the depth of soil 
in inches and fractions of an inch, at which the greatest 
number of seeds will germinate, the depth of soil in inches 
and fractions of an inch at which no seeds will germinate, 
the depth of soil at which half the seeds will germinate, 
and the average per cent, of loss in the weight of grass in 
drying, when cut at time of flowering. One thing is to be 
remarked, and it of the utmost importance too, and that is, 
seeds are much lighter when dry or old, than when fresh, 
and therefore, it is better to make a calculation by pounds 
rather than by measure, as in the case of old, light seeds, 
more of them by number would be sown, and a better 
chance for a stand be given in the increased number^ and 
thus an allowance be given for defective seeds. 

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White Top 

Red Top, Herds Grass. . . 

Tufted Hair Gra>8 

Meadow Foxtail 

Sweet Scented Vernal. . . 

Tall Oat Grast* 

Slender Wheat Grass 

Crested Dogs tail 

Orchard Grass 

Hard Fescue 

Tall FesciKi 

Sheep's Fescue , 

Meaclow Fescue , 

Slender-Spike Fescue.. 

Red Fescue , 

Red Meadow Grass . 

Common Manna Gras . . 
Meaidow Soft Grass. . . . 

Ital an Rye Grass 

Perennial Rye Grass. . . 

Millet Grass 

Ree«l Canary Grass 


Wood Meadow Grass . . 

Blue Grass 

RoQgh Stalk Meadow. . 

Beach Grass 

Yel ow Oat Grass 

Red aover 

Perennial Clover 

White Clover 


Salnf ain : . 







':%o^t 'sl.dS, C.:^^^ 
.aoSs dt^-^ ^1^-^^ 
'til* till ?.2f1 
IQ Q k3 

































500.000 to i' ito \ 
426.000 i I 

132.000 to it Ito 1 1 
76.000,0 to ill to \\\;o to i 1 to 1^1 
21.000li to ^jUtoli 
15.600 to il ito \ 

40.00 > to i 
39.000 to \ 

20.600,0 to 
64.000 to 

26.000 to 

39. 000 1 








]to 1 

|to I 

1 to IJj 

ftol I 

jto 1 




\ to i' Ito 1 2^ 

i to i 

to \ 

i to i 

i to i 

to i 

to i 

i to 1 

to i 

to i 

to i 

to J 

1 to 1 

fto 1 ' 
1 to 1^ 
1 10 U, 

|to I ; 

ito \ 

ito 1 
ito i 

2 to2v 












This table, though a partial repetition of the table on page 
33, will be found to contain some information which that 
does not, and that some which this does not. 

In these experiments the soil used was under the im- 
mediate supervision of the gentlemen and; it is supposed, 
it was kept moist^ so that an unusual number of the seeds 

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germinated. This would not be the case in the soil where, 
as the German adage has it — 

"One seed is sown for yourself, 
One seed sown for the DevU, 
One seed sown for the birds, 
And one for the stranger/' 

There will be, with the ordinary plan of sowing, a dif- 
ference of depth of corering, some below the point of ger- 
mination, some where only one-half come up, some on the 
surface, and these last are exposed to frosts, sun and birds. 
Besides, practically, it is impossible to get sound seeds 
throughout a whole purchase. 

In one acre of ground there are 6,128,640 square inches. 
In the table given, it will be seen there are in a square foot 
of a rich old pasture 1,000 plants, or on an average, of 
about seven plants to the square inch. Now, to make due 
allowances for all the mishaps of seeds, it will be necessary 
to put on the ground not less than 60,000,000 seeds to 
secure seven plants to the square inch, for the number of ' 
square inches multiplied by seven, will make to the acre 
43,908,480 plants. Some will say that if too many seeds 
are sown they will choke each other. That is precisely the 
case, and that is why it may not be feared to do so, for 
afler all the choking is finished, enough are lift to cover the 
ground, and the object in view is obtained. Sinclair, one 
of the most trustworthy agricultural writers, says on the 
point of overseeding: "When an excess of grass seed is 
sown, the seed, in general, all vegetate ; but the plants 
make but little, if any progress, until, from want of nour- 
ishment to the roots, and the confined space for the growth 
of foliage, a certain number decays and gives the requisite 
room to the proper number of plants; and that will be ae- 
cording as there are a greater or less variety of different 
species of grasses combined in the sward.'* 

Such a mixture should be made in the sowings as if one 
species fail another will take hold. Nor is it proper to sow 

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the same quantities on the different soils of the State. On 
rich bottoms there will be a necessity for using a free hand^ 
while on the sandy uplands we must withhold the quantity. 
It may be wished to pasture alternate years, or after the 
lapse of a few years altogether. All these reasons will 
modify the quantity of seeds to be sown. If a very early 
crop is wanted, such should be selected as come in early, or 
if a succession of crops be desired, it will be an easy mat- 
ter to take from our list those that will ripen, or rather 
blossom, one after another to the latest, thus enabling the 
farmer to save all his hay in good time. This custom pre- 
vails to some extent iu Ireland to sow the same quantity of 
seed to an acre of each kind as though no other sorts were 
io be sown, and enough of each kind to fully seed the land. 
We do not desire to dictate to any one, but we append 
some lists that have been tried together and have succeeded, 
as well as some, that from our knowledge, will make good 
varieties for that purpose. Of course these lists can be 
varied according to one's own taste or experience. 


Law80n*6 Mixtubb. 

Herds Grass , 

Italian Rye Grass. . . . 
Perennial Rje Grass.. 

Orchard Grass 


Red Clover 

Perennial Clover. 

Wliite Clover. 












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Seooni)— Punt's Miztush iob Bams Pueposb. 



Herds Grass 




Italian Rye Grass 


Perennial Rye Grass \ 


Orchard Grass. 




Rough Stalk Meadow. 


Meadow Fescue 



Meadow Foxtail 


Red Clover 



Perennial Clorer. 


White Clever 



87 ' 


Third — ^BIixtubb fob Obohabds ob Shadxd Places. 

Orchard Grass 

Hturd Fescue 

Tall Fescue 

Italian Kye Grass 

Perennial Rye Grass. . . . , 


Herds Grass 

Wood Meadow Grass 

Rough Stalk Meadow Grass 

Blue Grass 

Perennial Red Clover. 

White Clover 

«8 ^ 

a p 

S 3 







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^ a 

Orchard Grass 

Blue Grass 

Hard Fescue 

Tall Oat Grass 

Meadow — Soft Grass. 

Herds Grass 

Italian Rye Grass . . . 

Red Fescue. 

Perennial Rye Grass . 

English Bent 

Crested Dogs Tall.... 
Perennial Red Clover. 

Black Medic 

White Clover 

Salnf ain 





Fifth— Rboulimbd or Swamp Labdb. 



Herds Grass 

Hard Fescue 

Heado'v Foxtail 

Meadow Fescue 

Fowl Meadow 

Italian R^e Grass 

Perennial Rye Grass. 

Reed Canary Grass 


Rough Stalk Meadow Grass. 

Black Medic 

Red Clover. 

White Clover 





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Sixth — Fob TsmrxasBB Bottom Lands. 



Herds Grass 

Red Clover 

Italian Rye Grass , 

Tall Oat Grass 

Orchard Grass. 

Rough Btalk Meadow. 
Meadow Fescue 








TCfigiiflh Bent 

Tall Fescue 

Slender Fescue ...... 

Oanaiy Grass 


Herds Grass. 

Rou^ Stalk Meadow 
Fowl Meadow Grass . . 
Red Clover. • 



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Eighth — Mixtueb for Rooky ob Gbavblly Hills. 


® 3 



Herdft Grass. 

Tall Oat Grass 

Crested Dogs Tail 

Orchard Grass 

Red Fescue 

Meadow Soft Grass . . . 
Perennial Rye Grass . , 

Timothy • 

Wood Meadow Grass. . 

Blue Grass 

Rough Stalk Meadow.. 

Black Medic 

Red Clover 

Ninth — ^Mixtcibk fob Dbt Gra^ybllt Lands. 








Red Top 

Sweet Scented Vernal. 

Tall Oat Grass 

Sheep's Fescue 

Red Fescue 

Meadow Soft Grass. . , 
Creeping Soft Grass. . 
Perennia Rye Grass. . , 

Blue Grass 

Red Clover 





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Means, or Egyptian Bogar Com. 


Bough Stalk Meadow Grass 

Italian Rye Grass 

Tall Red-Top 

Orchard Grass 

Red Clover 





Eleventh— Mexttjbe fob Hat and to Run wto Pastubb. 


Orchard Grass 

Herds Grass 

Tall Oat Grass. . . . 
Italian Rye Grass 

Blue Grass 

Red Clover 




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Twelfth— Fob Wokh Fields With Gullies. 


Blue Grass 

Orchard Grass 

Qamma Grass 

Bermuda Grass 

Egyptian Sugar Com or Means . 
Red Clover 




1 peck roots 
1 peck roots 
\ bushel roots 


These twelve mixtures, mostly adopted from Dr. Flint's 
work, with alterations to suit climate and soil will, as a 
rule, meet the demands of almost every vanety of land 
in Tennessee. Of course any variation may be made in 
either the species or in the proportions, according to the 
fancy, bearing in mind the general amount of seed used 
in the above mixtures. 

The first mixture, or Lawson's, is prepared for Scotland, 
and we were induced to engraft both that and the Nos. 2, 3, 4, 
6, 8 and 9, which were arranged for a higher latitude, from 
the fact that much land in the State of Tennessee lies at so 
high an elevation that it is equivalent to a lower tempera- 
ture. For instance, in East Tennessee, we find grasses on 
the higher mountains, that are only found on the crests of 
the White Mountains in New Hampshire. So, in descending 
the mountains, and even in the higher valleys, these grass- 
es are in a flourishing condition, that will not grow at all, or 
very imperfectly, on the water courses of Middle Tennessee. 
In a visit to the Unaka Mountains, last September, in com- 
pany with some members of the Association for the Advance- 
ment of Science we saw some grasses growing in great lux- 
uriance on the "Balds'' of that range, and on the top of th« 
Roane Mountain that we had never seen elsewhere, but 
Prof. Chickering, of Washington City, recognized them as 
similar to those seen on Mt. Washington and in Canada. 

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There were Poa annua, the spear grass of Maine, but com- 
mon on low lands in the State; Agrostis perennans, or Thin 
grasS; a plant peculiar to marshy places ; Phleum alpin- 
um, Carex iuneea^ a rush-looking sedge, or rather a grasa- 
^ like sedge; Aira flexuosay or wood hair grass, an ornamental 
grass of the Northern latitudes ; Danthonia compressa, or 
wild oat grass, and Trisetum molle, or downy persoon. Be- 
sides these were many others not determined by any of the 
botanists in the company. These grasses afford an immense 
pasturage during the summer to vast herds of cattle that are 
driven by the citizens for miles around to summer on them. 
Gten. Wilder, who owns a large section of land there, in- 
formed us the grass, when enclosed from the stock, grew to 
the hight of four feet. Very many varieties existed, all 
growing promiscuously together. This goes far to show 
the great difference of the development of the species, in 
different localities, for at lower altitudes, with the excep- 
tion of the Carex juncea these grasses grow quite low. 

We think the lists given are sufficiently large to embrace 
almost every want of a grass grower in Tennessee. We di- 
rect special attention to No. 12 for use on some of the many 
worn out fields resulting from cotton culture. They stare 
at us on every side, and make an exceedingly unsightly ap- 
pearance on a well ordered farm. The long creeping roots 
will swing down into the gullies and soon put a stop to 
washes, and the immense herbage will, after a while, renew 
the fertility of the soil. No. 10 is another mixture designed 
for the same purpose. It is only a matter of judgment to 
be exercised by the owner which he will take. No. 1 1 is a 
good mixture to use for hay, a few years, but the blue grass 
will ultimately master the others and will thrive on the 
fertility induced by the others. Nos. 1 and 2 are regular 
meadow grasses, amply proven by use in the New England 
States, and number 3 is better adapted for orchards or thin 
woodlands, especially lawns, too large to be devoted solely 
to ornamental purposes. 

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On light sandy soils number 4 would be a good selection, 
and would be well adapted to the Rim counties as well a» 
to West Tennessee or that portion consisting of sandy soils. 
Number 5 would come in on any portion of the State where 
swampy lands that can be drained exist, and these lands are 
plentiful, both on uplands and bottoms. This character of 
land is exceedingly fertile when reclaimed from the coldness 
of water, abounding in all the elements necessary to pro- 
duce largely most excellent grass. Nunber 6 is intended 
for those bottom lands not swampy, yet moist during most 
of the winter months. There is a great quantity of land 
on every creek and river in Tennessee lying on the flood 
plateau, and ordinarily the meadows are so injured by 
frequent overflows that the grass is either destroyed or 
greatly injured. Number 7 will meet the indications on 
these lands and survive any ordinary deposit of water. 
Numbers 8 and 9 are intended to be sown on the hill lands 
or mountain sides whose soil is full of gravel or rock. 
These are mostly creeping grasses, and will run over and 
hide large ledges of rock. 

Clover is mixed with all the difierent numbers for tht 
especial purposes stated heretofore, and we think even if it 
had no qualities as a hay grass, it should enter into every pas- 
ture for its great fertilizing qualities. In the first few, or 
New England groups, white clover is selected as one of 
the constituents. We might safely leave that out, as it is 
indigenous here and will spring up quickly on every pasture 
and meadow in "clover years,'* as they are termed, for some 
years it seems to disappear almost entirely, and then it cov- 
ers the ground in the most unexpected manner every where. 
This is not the case in New England, and there it must b« 
gown to get a stand. 

These assumptions are not to be taken without verifica- 
tion by experiment, but are to be considered merely as the 
opinion of one farmer given to another, but a careful course 
of experiments could soon settle the question of the truth- 

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fulness of our opinion. Of one thing we are certain, and 
that is, that in following nature by a large admixture of 
species, we will get much quicker, and with but a small in- 
creased cost, a close firm turf or sward on both meadows and 
pastures. Some will say if we follow nature we ought to 
sow only those grasses that are natural to the soil. But it 
must be remenlbered that if this rule was observed we 
would deprive ourselves of the advantage of acquiring all 
those improved kinds found elsewhere. We would have no 
timothy or herds grass or blue grass, but only those kinds 
that may have been brought by winds or floods, or dropped 
by birds, and often seeds are brought in these ways that are 
not specially adapted to the soils where accident brings 
them. On the contrary, it should be the aim of every man 
to use his best endeavors to grasp that which is good, and 
improve that which he has. He should not hesitate to try 
everything that comes with a good character, and if he is 
deceived now and then, yet he sometimes gets a rich reward 
for his labor and expense. 


Up to 1810 the almost invariable rule among all farmers 
was to sow grass seeds in the Spring of the year on crops 
of grain. Since that time the practice has changed to a 
great extent, and while some still adhere to Spring sowing, 
the great majority of farmers sow in the early fall. Some 
few sow grass alone, but the most of them sow with some 
kind of grain. There are many who contend it is much 
better to sow alone, as the half crop that will be harvested 
the next year is fully equivalent to the value of the grain 
crop, while il the two are sown together, they both work 
in.uriously on each other. The stand of grass is injured, 
and the yield of grain is diminished. With all that, the 
general custom is to sow on grain fields, and wait until the 
second year for hay. Those who contend for the latter way, 
say, if the grass is sown alone it will be so delicate the first 

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year that the weeds will come up faster Ihan it will, and 
destroy to a great extent the young grass ; for at the time 
the mower should run over it to destroy the weeds, the 
farmer is so busy with the other crops, he neglects to attend 
to it, until the weeds have greatly injured the grass. But 
one thing is very essential, let it be sown with whatever 
it may, it must be in the ground long enough before frosts 
to take a deep root, or much of it will be destroyed by cold. 
Clover musv, however, in either case, be reserved until 
Spring, as, when young, it is very sensitive to the-effect« 
of cold unless it is sown in August. It is the custom of 
some farmers to sow clover and other grass seeds, mixed in 
the last plowing of late corn. Should that course be decid- 
ed on the corn must be late, and plowed on the level prin- 
ciple, and the clover sowed after the last plowing. Some 
crops have succeeded admirably, put in on this plan. But 
the better plan will be to prepare the ground well, as already 
stated, and sow the seed, if alone, from the 15th of Septem- 
ber to the 15th of October; if ^ith a grain crop as soon as 
it can be put in safely. Wheat is so\> n, as a general practice, 
too late to insure a stand oi grass that will resist the winter, 
, and it is therefore better to sow with rj^e or barley. Let 
the time of sowing be when it may, the farmer must watch 
for a season, otherwise the moisture brought up by plowing 
will be suflBcient to germinate the seeds, but not to make 
them live, and even if the moisture is not enough to make 
them germinate, there may be enough to sprout t{\em, and 
they will still be destroyed. 

If it is the intention to sow on a stubble, it is better, as 
soon as possible after harvest, to prepare the land and sow 
in some of the August seasons, and if sown then the clover 
sowing may not be deferred, but sown witly the Other seeds, 
aft they will have ample time then to root enough to with- 
stand the cold of winter. Timothy, or herds grass, sown 
in September or October alone, will always make a good 
crop the next summer. 

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As compared with spring sowing, we may safely preier 
fall. Both heat and cold are injurious to young grass plants, 
but of the two, cold is much less injurious than tht 
droughts of summer. It was the experience of the writer, 
on one occasion, to sow a large meadow. He began about 
the 1st of September and sowed on until rains stopped him, 
and again in the middle of October, and finished early in 
March. On the September sowing there was a magnificent 
stand that stood over the ground with a solid turf. On the 
October crop the stand was fair, but much was destroyed 
during the winter, and the weeds were very troublesome 
the next year. On the March sowing the stand promised 
as well as the September crop, but the droughts of summer 
destroyed it completely. 

But there will always be a difference of opinion on this 
subject, and this difference mainly arises from the difference 
in the character of soils. Some soils are better sown in the 
spring, while others secure better results by fall sowing — 
and in either case the successful farmer will advocate his 
plan. But in either case, as Gen. Harding truthfully says, 
a man will fail sometimes, let him sow when he will. No 
amount of prescience is sufficient to foresee all the casual- 
ties his labor is subject to, and for a man to give up or des- 
pair for one or two or even three failures, argues but poorly 
for his success as a farmer. He must contjnue to try, and 
when he succeeds he will have the proud satisfaction of 
knowing that he is master of the ground. 

A few words only are necessary in regard to the manner 
of sowing. In the first place, the ground should be thor- 
oughly prepared, and a season on hand, and if a rain has 
fallen since the ground was put in order, aud packed the 
surface, run a sharp toothed harrow over it to break up the 
crust, then sow the seed and roll it in, A light harrowing 
will also do on clayey soils. If its surface is too rocky, 
stumpy or sloping, to admit a roller, the next best thing is 
to brush it with a light full brush. If the surface is 

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perfectly smooth before the seeds are sown a light brushing 
does very well, but if it is not, a roller is preferable, as it 
will not cover so deeply as a brush. Remember that all 
seeds covered two inches deep will not germinate. If sown 
with grain, smooth the ground over with a brush after the 
grain is sown, and let a hand follow immediately behind and 
cast the seed into the brush. Never use a heavy thin 
brush, but if the limbs are full of twigs it will not mat- 
ter as to weight. Then it will not cover too deeply. 

It may be necessary, and generally is, to roll the land in the 
spring, especially if the meadow is a stiff clay soil, as the 
frosts of winter will usually heave up most of the soil, 
thereby carrying up roots and earth, and unless it is packed 
in again the succeeding droughts will surely destroy the grass. 
All these directions are not to be taken as applying to every 
locality, or situation, for as a difference of soil and climate 
affects the results, so only can experience, controlled by 
reason, govern the complete details of this, or any other 
species of planting. 


There has been, and still is more differences of opinion 
among hay farmers, as to the proper time of cutting, than 
upon any other point connected with hay. There are 
different times for the different varieties, but as a rule there 
should be but one way. The time of flowering is, unques- 
tionably,, the general indication for the harvest to begin. 
At this time the saccharine juices that go to the formation 
and development of the seed, are stored in the stalk and 
leaves, and if saved then, they will loose only their watery 
constituents, and the grass will be as palatable and succu- 
lent as when standing, and will be eaten clean by all kinds 
of stock. 

Still, some wait until the pollen falls and the seeds are in 
tiie milk, and those practising this plan contend that the hay 
irill not scour the horses so badly. But there is another 

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reason why some defer the cutting to so late a date, and that 
is, it will not lose so much water, and consequently will be 
heavier and so bring more money. 

A good authority says, "I cut in the blossom when the 
hay is designed for milch cows, or for fattening beeves, be- 
cause in that state it makes more beef, and induces the cows 
to give more milk; but if for work stock, liorses or oxen, I 
cut six days later, or thereabouts, because It does not scour 
or loosen the animal so much as when cut in the blossom." 
In either case, however, in an extensive crop, if the har- 
vesting begins at the blossoming period, it will be six days 
before it is finished. 

It is very evident if the hay is cut after the ripening of 
the seeds, the leaves will have but little sustenance, and the 
, stems will be only woody fibre, the nutritive elements 
having nearly all gone to the seed. It is the testimony of 
most farmers that the rowen or the afterneath is better for 
milcn cows, and for fattening purposes than the first cut- 
ting, which goes to prove that the earlier period, that is, at 
bloss(^ming, is the best, from the fact that the season gener- 
ally compels the farmer to cut the rowen before the grass is 
past the time of blossoming. 

Another reason for not allowing the grass to mature the 
seed, is, that the meadow will sooner run out. When the 
seed forms, the vitality of the grass becomes impaired, and 
It falls a victim much easier to either excessive cold or heat. 
It is the disposition of all vegetation to die afler it has 
made provision for perpetuation, and those grasses that have 
perennial roots are the exception to the rule, but all partake 
more or less of this principle. And besides it creates a 
heavier draft upon the soil than if cut sooner. 

Some exceptions exist in regard to some of the meadow 
grasses in the list, as will be seen by referring to the table 
at the end of this chapter. This refers only to some 
of the coarser grasses, not in general use in Tennessee. For 
instance, if the ''Means'^ grass is allowed to even blossom, 

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it is almost worthless. The Gamma grass and possibly the 
Lucerne should be cut as often as it is high enough to run 
the mower through them, as they become very hard, stiff 
and woody if they grow too rank, whereas, they are, if cut 
in time, very sweet and nutritious. 

There is also much difference of opinion in regard to the 
proper time for cutting clover. Some will take a stalk and 
tie a knot in it, and if much sap exudes from it, they will 
leave it until it will barely show moisture. Others will cut 
when the field is about half in blossom, while still others 
will defer it until about half the heads are brown and the 
seed are in a milky state. But the mass of testimony is in 
favor of cutting clover when a few brown heads show them- 
selves over the field. If the crop is exceptionally heavy, it 
is better to begin even before any brown heads appear. It 
seems strange that, the clover will be heavier when cut green, 
but it is nevertheless true, and it is more relished by stock. 
Besides when cut early the leaves are not so liable to shatter 
as it is when dryer or later cut. And the leaves form no 
inconsiderable portion of this mass of clover hay. 

It is a well known fact that just before the formation of 
the seed there is a larger per cent, of sugar, starch and glu- 
ten in the stalk than at any other time. When the grass first 
springs up it is filled almost entirely with water, as any one 
can satisfy himself by chewine: a stem in its different periods 
of growth. As the plant grows and matures, the water 
gradually becomes impregnated with these substances, and 
at its blossoming period, these elements exist in their great- 
est quantity — in fact nature is now storing up material from 
which to form the seed, and these stores are held ready in 
the stalk, to effect that purpose. These elements are all so- 
luble in water, and consequently, are easily dissolved by 
the juices of the stomach. But if these principles are al- 
lowed to go to the seed, they leave the stalk, and at once the 
plant starts on its downward course, becoming more and 
more woody, until finally decay sets in, and the hay is then 

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worthless; because the woody fibre is insoluble in the stom- 
ach. By reference to the table given at the close of this 
chapter of experiments on diflRerent grasses, it will be seen 
there are exceptions to this principle — some grasses giving 
more nutritive principles at seeding time, than others, while 
in blossom ; but still, with this fact in view, if the grasses 
are allowed to go to seed, they impoverish the soil, lessen 
the age of the meadow, and utterly destroy the chance for 
a second crop— and the quantity of hay saved is almost al- 
ways greater at any time before seeding than afterwards. 

Prof. Kirtland draws the following conclusions from 
many careful observations as regards timothy : 

1. "That timothy is a perennial plant, which renews it- 
self by an annual formation of bulbs,*^ or perhaps, more 
correctly speaking, tubers, in which the vitality of the 
plant is concentrated during the winter. These form in 
whatever locality the plant is selected without reference to 
dryness, or moisture. From these proceed the stalks that 
support the heads and leaves, and from the same source 
spread out the numerous fibres forming the true roots. 

2. To insure a perfect development of tubers a certain 
amount of nutrition must be assimilated in the leaves and 
returned to the base of the plant, through the stalk. 

3. As soon as the process of nutrition is completed, it 
becomes manifest by a state of desiccation or dryness, al- 
ways commencing at a point directly above either the first 
or second joint of the stem near the crown of the tubers. 
From this point the desiccation gradually progresses up- 
ward, and the last portion of the stalk yielding its fresh- 
ness is that adjoining the head. Coincident with the be- 
ginning of this processi is the full development of the seeds^ 
and with its progress they mature. Its earliest appearance 
is evidence that both the tubers and seeds have received 
their requisite supplies of nutrition, and that neither the 
stalk nor the leaves are longer necessary to aid them in 
completing their maturity. A similar process occurs in the 

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onion just above the bulb, indicating a maturity of that 

4. If the stalk be cut from the tubers before this evi- 
dence of maturity appears, the necessary supplies of nutri- 
tion will be arrested, their proper growth will cease, and 
an effort will be made to repair the injury by sending out 
small lateral tubers, from which weak unhealthy stalks will 
proceed, at the expense of the original tubers. All will ul- 
timately perish, either by the drought of autumn or the 
cold of winter. 

5. The tubers, together with one or two of the lower 
joints of the stalk, remain fresh and green during the win- 
ter, if left to take their natural course ; but if, by any means, 
this green portion be severed, at any season of the year, 
the result is the death of the plant." From these five propo- 
sitions, the following conclusions are drawn: 

1. "The timothy grass cannot, under any circumstances, 
be adapted for pasture, as the close nipping of horses and 
sheep is fatal to the tubers, which are also extensively de- 
stroyed by swine, if allowed to run in the pasture. 

2. That the proper time for mowing timothy, is at any 
time after the process of desiccation has commenced on the 
stalk, as noted in the third proposition. It is not very 
essential whether it is performed a week earlier or later, 
provided it be postponed till that evidence of maturity has 
become manifested. 

8. All attempts at close shaving the sward, should be 
avoided while using the scythe, and in guaging the mowing 
machines, care should be taken to run them so high that 
they will not cut the timothy below the second joint above 
the tuber." 

Any one can verify these propositions and conclusions, by 
going late in the fall to a meadow of timothy and examin- 
ing for himself. He will see that those tubers that have a 
green stalk, however short, will be large, full, healthy and 
and green, while on the contrary, those cut close will have 

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8 withered appearance, and often will be dead. I have 
often seen tussocks perfectly dead, and until this idea was 
brought to my attention, was unable to account for it. There 
is also, it is proper to state, a small insect that is peculiar 
to timothy, and sometimes the death of the plant may 
properly be attributed to its ravages. The presence of the 
insect or its burrows in the bulb will enable the observer 
to attribute it to its proper cause. 


Perhaps no invention of agricultural machinery, and their 
name is legion, has afforded more positive benefit to the 
farmer than the introduction of the mowing machine. Be- 
fore its invention, no farmer could, with certainty and suc- 
cess, secure a large amount of hay. It ripens in the hottest 
of the weather and at a time when the labor of the country 
is, as a general thing, all actively employed ; so if a man 
did get enough, it was at an exorbitant price, fearfully 
reducing his profits. Then the grass, if of one crop, all 
needs cutting at once, so it would be impracticable to save 
it all in prime condition. The oldest instrument used, was 
a sickle, and for many years the fitrmer had to content him- 
self with grasping with one hand what he cut with the 
other, and woe unto the back during this slow and painful 
operation. It was a great improvement on the sickle when 
the mowing blade or scythe came into use, though there 
were found then as now plenty nf old men who adhered to 
the way of their fathers, and thought the scythe an inno- 
vation that would soon disappear. Though a great im- 
provement, yet it is a most laborious operation, and a man 
that can cut down an acre a day is rarely to be found. It 
is a severe test of strength, and brings into play nearly 
every muscle of the body, so that there is no rest for any. 
But the mowing machine has rendered it unnecessary to use 
it, except in rocky or very broken spots, where the ma- 
chine will not go. It is altogether unnecessary to adduce 
any arguments to prove the superiority of the mower over 

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thex)ld plan. It will cut from six to eight acres in a day, 
and will spread the hay as it goes, better than a man will 
do it, and when cut by hand, it req aires one man to every 
four or five hands to do the spreading alone. 

Many persons object to the mowers, from the ease with 
which they are damaged. This can be obviated to a great 
extent, by buying in the first place, a well-constructed ma- 
chine. No man may expect to get a cheap machine to do as 
good work or to keep up as long at it as one that has been 
faithfully constructed and carefully arranged. Then a 
farmer must himself be a careful manipulator. He must 
not expect to run his mower with impunity over roots, 
rocks or grubs. But if carefully handled and properly 
driven, there is no reason why one may not last through 
many years. 

Another improvement is the horse rake* The first one 
used was the horizontal rake, that running under the swath 
heaped it up until the teeth were full, when by a slight lift 
of the handles, i1} turned over, leaving the hay in wind- 
rows. This it did very well, and still does well, but an- 
other has come into very general use, that is a little more 
extensive, but gives the driver a seat on it, and certainly 
gathers up the grass cleaner than the other. These are of 
various patents, and the selection is a matter of taste, all of 
them being good machines. 

The Tedder is another machine that is used extensively 
in the Northern States, where the weather is more uncer- 
tain than here, and the hay dries much slower than beneath 
the Southern sun. It is seldom used in Tennessee, and is 
but seldom necessary. It is used for the purpose of shak- 
ing up and re-spreading the hay. Should a rain overtake 
the hay before it is put into cocks, it will be a very useful in- 
strument to lift it from the ground and lay it down again 
lightly, thus allowing free circulation of air under it. 

Being now supplied with the necessary machines to 
commence harvest, it is necessary, as a preliminary, to pi^t 

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them in good condition, for the job. A carpenter would 
make but a poor progress, were he to commence a building 
without having sharp tools, so the mowing machine blades 
must not only be well ground, but they must be kept in that 
condition. When the blades become dull, their eflSciency 
will be greatly impaired, leaving bunches of grass over the 
meadow, and adding greatly to the draught of the horses. 
Not only must they be well sharpened, but all the nuts 
should be tightened, as a loose bolt will often produge a 
breakage. Oil must literally flow upon all the rubbing 
surfaces. Many of the journals require to be oiled every 
fifteen or twenty minutes — good, pure oil should be used — 
that will not dry and gum up the works. 

When starting in, select the longest ^'through,'* as the 
fewer turns the less loss of time. Keep an even, steady 
gait, as it will not be so apt to tire or fret the horses. Don^t 
get fretted or out of temper if some slight delay occurs from 
carelessness, or accidents, but resolve to profit by the expe- 
rience, and avoid like contingences in the future. There is 
a wonderful difference in the skill and effectiveness of dif- 
ferent drivers. Some seem to glide over the ground with- 
out difficulty, all day with the grass falling as gently before 
them as if laid down by the touch of fairies, while others 
will storm, fret and frown all day with but little work done, 
and both horses and themselves be worn out at night. 
- We have refrained from going into a history or descrip- 
tion of the various machines in use. They began at an 
early day, about 1830. Since the introduction of William 
Manning's, a great many different machines have come into 
use, and the very best evidence of the efficiency of all of 
them is that each man who owns one thinks that ^'make'' 
the best. It is usual to have a mower and reaper combined 
but when a man is farming on a sufficiently extensive scale' 
it is better to have them separate, lor the motion necessary 
to be given to the sickle, in mowing, is too rapid in reap- 
ing, and consequently does not do so well. 

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Do not fail to have spare nuts, and especially spare sec- 
tions for the blade, as the breaking of a section which will 
occasionally occur with the most careful management^ great- 
ly impedes the efficiency of the machine, and tires the horses 
with the harder pull it gives them. 

It is unnecessary to say, that in beginning the harvest of 
the hay, it must not be commenced with threatning weather 
overhead, but rather await a good day, if the hay needs 
cutting ever so much, as it is better to have well-cured, 
over-ripe hay, than hay with all the sugar gum and gluten 
washed out by repeated rains. 


This is a point upon which there is as much difference of 
opinion, perhaps, as on any other point connected with 
harvesting. Some prefer to let it get dry on the ground, 
just as it is left by the mower, while others cure it in the 
wind-row, and still others cure it in the cock. This refers 
to the true grasses, for almost every one who makes hay of 
the clovers pursues one plan, which will be spoken of di- 

This difference in the plans of curing, results chiefly from 
the great difference there is in the curing quality of the 
various grasses. Timothy cures much easier and quicker 
than herds grass, while the coarser grasses, such as Gamma, 
Egyptian and others, require still longer time than herds 
grass. Formerly, it was the universal custom to allow it to 
lie until it was almost dry, before raking, but that custom 
is fast giving place to a more rapid method. Now, with 
many of our best farmers, it is deemed sufficient to allow it 
to remain on the ground after cutting a time, only long 
enough for it to become wilted, and then with a rake it is 
put into wind-rows. Hands follow immediately with hand 
rakes, or pitchforks and throw it up into cocks. Some do 
not even cock it, but, if the weather is favorable, allow it 
to remain in the wind-row for a day, or the second evening 

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after cutting, and then gather it up in wagons and carry to 
the rick or barn. But, probaby, the surest plan is to put it 
into cocks the evening after it is cut in the morning, and 
allow it to remain in this state for two or three days, ac- 
cording as the promiee of good weather may be, then throw 
open the cocks and spread the hay before hauling up. It 
can be easily determined at this stage whether or not it 
is sufficiently cured. If, when examined, the cocks have 
become heated, by opening them out the heat that has been 
generated will readily become dissipated, and there is not 
much likelihood of its becoming again heated. One fact is 
well ascertained and that is, the sooner it goes into the rick 
or barn after cutting, without spoiling, the better will be 
the hay and the more will it be relished by stock. 

It is much better to run some risk of barn heat, than to 
allow it to get a wetting. In the green state in which it is 
when cut, nearly all the nutritious properties of the grasses 
are in a soluble condition. To allow the rains to fall on the 
hay, will quickly dissolve them, and when washed out, 
the hay becomes almost worthless. A slight amount of heat 
is advantageous, as it is the result of fermentation, by which 
sugar is evolved and all its nourishing qualities become in- 
tensified, but if it proceeds too far, the hay becomes sour and 
is greatly injured. Some farmers adopt the plan of arresting 
its disposition to heat by sprinkling salt upon it, as it is 
stored. This is a good plan; and increases the fondness 
of stock for it if too much is not applied. One hand should 
apply the salt as it is thrown in, at the rate of about two 
quarts to the two-horse wagon load. 

Should the farmer not wish to sell his hay, and is scarce 
of a supply, he can increase the quantity of provender by 
mixing, as it is put into the heap, a third or even a half of 
straw, or inferior hay, that has been left over, and in the 
curing process which takes place the juices of the new hay 
will penetrate and sweeten the straw, greatly improving its 
character, without deteriorating its own quality. 

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A most excellent farmer says, he waits until the dew is 
off, then starts his mower, and in the evening about 4 o'clock 
starts the rake, and has hands following with forks, and by 
the time the dew is falling, has it all in cocks. The 
next morning after the dews dry up, he opens and throws 
out the cocks, and immediately after dinner begins to haul 
to the barn. 

When it is intended to let it remain in the cooks for se- 
veral days, great care should be exercised in properly form- 
ing the hay into cocks in view of wet weather. We have 
no assurance of continued good weather, and should at all 
times be prepared for the worst. Cocks indifferently 
made would be, il possible, worse than if spread out, for 
the water would penetrate them all through and the hay 
would in a short time mould or rot. In the first place, they 
should be made large, not less than one hundred pounds in 
each at any time. Then make them as sliarp at the top as 
possible, so as to be stout and secure against winds. Make 
the sides nearly perpendicular, and lastly, comb them down 
well from top to bottom with a pitchfork so as to throw as 
many stems as possible parallel with one other, thatching it 
out well in order the better to shed the water. But even 
with the most careful management, all the outer layer and 
some of the interior, will be destroyed by long continued 

Some farmers in the Northern States provide themselves 
with cloth caps. These will effectually protect the cocks 
from injury, and if properly cared for, will last many years. 
It is true in our warm climate they are not so much re- 
quired as, with proper care, the entire crop can generally 
be saved without injury, but if any one should desire to al- 
low the cocks to remain for several days in the field, it 
would be a matter of economy to provide themselves with 
caps. They are made of 5-4 duck, cut square, with a twine 
tied at each corner, and fastened to a peg. After the cock 
is made, a man follows with the caps, and fastens the pegs 

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in the ground at the four corners, pulling the cloth out as 
far as necessary to tighten the cover, so that it will stand 
over the hay like an umbrella. With these covers on, the 
cocks can bid defiance to the heaviest storms, as, although 
a little dampness would penetrate at first, they will soon 
swell and tighten, so as to be water proof. 

In passing grass into hay and taking it into market, it is 
necessary to handle it quite frequently. The slovenly plan 
of some farmers to use forks made of a sapling, is to be 
greatly reprehended. Like all other trades, the use of good 
tools is essential to good farming, and no one should be with- 
out good three-pronged steel forks. It expedites work 
very much, and as a mere labor saving tool, is economical. 
Besides, it enables th« hand to take and pass the grass more 
completely, leaving no gleanings behind. And then it 
greatly relieves the strain on the laborer. So do not, in this 
work, begin until good forks and hand rakes are provided. 
Sometimes the rake is very necessary, especially if from ac- 
cident the hay gets beaten into the stubble by an unexpect- 
ed thunder shower. 

The farmers of the present day, enjoy an advantage un- 
known and unthought of by our forefathers. Heretofore 
we had weather prophets, men who would look wise, look 
all around at the clouds, and generally guess wrong as to 
continued fair weather. The moon was looked to as a har- 
binger of rain, and great stress laid upon the way it hung in 
the heavens when new moon began. There were, and are, 
many signs, portent and valuable, both to the mariner and 
farmer, and an observant person will often be able to see a 
storm in the mystic future. But all these signa pale 'into 
insignificance compared with the "probabilities" column of 
our daily papers. The chief of the signal office, stationed 
at Washington, receives from stations, all over the United 
States, information of coming storms, rains and winds, and 
by long experience, is able to tell almost with absolute accu- 
racy the beginning of a wet spell, for at least twenty-four 

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four hours in advance, and can give a very good idea of it 
for two or three days beforehand. In every daily postoffice 
in the United States a bulletin is posted, every morning, 
of these facts, so that it will not be difficult for those not 
seeing a paper, to become informed, through one or the oth- 
er methods, and most iarmers now base their time of harvest- 
ing on these predictions. The absolute necessity of getting 
a favorable time for this important work, will render the 
trouble and expense in procuring the necessary information, 
of small moment. The crop of the entire year, the health 
and comfort of all the stock on the place, depend upon the 
hay being properly saved, and a mistake or error on this 
point will entail a serious loss, one that will cost far more 
than the subscripti m to a good paper to say nothing of the 
useful information, to be derived from it besides. 

The foregoing remarks apply to the true grasses only. 
With clovers and the leguminous plants it is different. 
Several plans will be detailed, each good, and the reader 
can then make his own selection. 

Cut clover when the dew is off, let it wilt, and rake it into 
wind-rows. Allow it to remain in this state until the dew is 
off the next morning, and begin at once to haul and place in 
the barn, sprinkling salt in small quantities over every layer 
In this way the entire crop will be exposed only about 24 
hours, which is amply sufficient for it. It will heat and go 
through a heavy sweat, but this will not injure it, and it will 
look as fresh and almost as green when cured, as when 
standing. The salt is essential to its proper preservation. 

Another plan is to begin the formation of cocks on the 
evening of the first cutting, putting in all that was cut in 
the morning, and the next morning cocking what was cut 
the previous evening, thus giving each cutting twelve hours 
of sun. These grasses cannot take more sun than this with- 
out becoming so dry they will lose their leaves and blossoms 
A great risk is run by cocking clover unless the farmer is 
provided with cloth caps, as, from the crooked, tortuous 

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stems, it is impossible to shield the clover from the admis- 
sion of water. The cocks are examined from day to day as 
the curing process advances, until the farmer is convinced, 
from bis experience, the hay is well cured. Should no wet 
weather intervene the hay will be excellent, and will re- 
main, uninfluenced by heat, in the barn an indefinite length 
of time. Some farmers provide themselves with split sticks, 
about the size of pea sticks, three feet long, driving them 
into the ground, three together, open at the bottom and 
close at top, in the shape of a tripod, and form the cocks upon 
them, thus giving them air in the interior. Heating is thus 
prevented, and the process of curing advances with much 
greater rapidity, and good hay is soon made. By this plan 
the hay will be well cured in two days at most, while by 
the other plan it will require three or four days. How- 
ever, from the personal experience of the writer, which is 
considerable, the first plan detailed is the safest and best, 
and he has never failed to secure good bright nutritious hay. 
It would seem to many, that it would easily heat, mould 
and rot from the quantity of water in the stalks and foliage, 
but, there being a large percentage of sugar in it, it becomes 
candied and, after this, there is no difficulty in its 

Should the farmer have a quantity of good clean wheat, 
oat, or rye straw, it is a very good practice, and a safe one, to 
throw a layer of it between each load of clover. It will 
permit the passage of the air and the aroma of the clover 
will penetrate the straw, each in this manner benefitting the 
othei:, so that both will be eaten with a relish by cattle. 

For milch cows and sheep, clover hay, vetches, peas and 
beans are far superior to any other kinds of hay. Cows 
will yield more and better milk than from the other grasses, 
but for horses, the timothy and herds grass hays are superior 
to clover. 

There are some other kinds of hay procured from the 
cereals, that must be treated in a different manner from 

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any of the preceding grasses, but this subject will be treated 
under the head of cereals, as soiling crops. 


But little need be said on this subject, as the practice of 
every one now is to provide, as far as practicable, for stor- 
age under shelter. 

It was formerly deemed sufficient to stack the hay in the 
meadow, and enclose it with a pen, until wanted for use or 

Farmers often, instead of making conical stacks, put the 
entire crop into a long roof-shaped rick, In making either 
one or the other, care must be taken to carry it up with 
regularity, having no sink or depressions in it, as they 
would serve only to convey rains to the interior. The rake 
must be freely used on its sides to straighten out the stems 
and remove all loose hay that would otherwise be a 
waste. Of the two plans ricks are decidedly the better, as 
less surface is exposed to the rains, and consequently there 
is less loss. When it is desired to remove hay from a rick, 
it can be hewed from the end, either with an ordinary chop- 
ping axe, a broad axe, or with a regular hay knife, such 
being made and sold for the purpose. By this means, the 
roof of the rick will be intact, and the hay is not injured 
by exposure. On the other hand, in removing a stack 
it has to be attacked at the top of the cone, and unless 
it is all taken before it rains, the remainder is greatly 

But the stack and rick are both disappearing under the 
improved ideas of economic farming, and the hay shelter 
can now be seen on nearly every man^s farm. It consists of 
tall shelters of beams and posts, without side-boarding. It is 
cheaply made, and is an invaluable aid to successful hay 
making. These shelters or barns are indispensable to hay 
made of clover, as it will not stand any amount of moisture, 

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however slight. The same may be said of several of the 
true grasses, and of all the leguminous plants. 

Some, intending to feed all their hay, construct these 
shelters with a rack in the centre, and a set of joists about 
six feet from the ground, thus furnishing both food and 
shelter to the stock at the same time, and obviating the 
necessity of further handling. 

Another plan of feeding, is to build a shelter with a 
sliding roof, or one that will rest on a large stack, and 
descend with the hay as it is eaten underneath, while the 
bottom is planked up around about five feet high, to pre- 
vent the stock from treading on the hay. But this is more 
expensive and does not afford any shelter to the cattle, like 
the sheds provided with central racks. 

When it is not desired to have a number of sheds, and it 
is the intention of the farmer to soon dispose of his crop, it 
is customary to provide one shed, sufficiently large, in a 
convenient locality adjacent to the meadow, and stack all 
the hay just outside and around it, or near enough to be 
tossed under it to a hay press, and as soon as the crop is all 
secured the baling begins, and is continued until it is all 
stored in the form of bales beneath the shed, where it can 
safely await a favorable time for sale. Right here, let it be 
remembered that if a farmer wants a good price for his hay. 
it must be prepared with a view to sale from the beginning. 
It must be free of weeds, as no man, who purchases hay, 
wants to pay three or four cents a pound for worthless or 
noxious weeds, and however good these weeds may be, and 
there are some that are good feed, no man wants to pay hay 
prices for them. So should the meadow be infested with 
weeds, and they are cut with the hay, it will pay the farmer 
to have boys go over the windrows where they are all col- 
lected with the hay and pull them out. Of course they will 
not all be withdrawn, but many of them will be carried to 
the stack. In baling, it can be culled again and the greater 
part taken out, and should it not be done, it will enable the 

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purchaser to make a valid objection to really superior hay 
and get it at an inferior price on account of the weeds. 

Then in making the bales, be sure to have a good power- 
ful press. The heavier the bales, the less the cost of trans- 
portation and the smoother the look given the bale. Let it be 
neatly bound by either hoops, splits, or what is better, wire. 
The latter can be purchased at a cost but little higher than 
will be received for it again as weighed with the hay, and 
the bales will present a neater appearance than can possibly be 
given by the clumsier process of splits nailed to a board. 
This will of itself often decide a purchaser in favor of the 
sale. A buyer, going into a commission house to fill an 
order, will naturally be influenced by the neatness of the 
commodity to be purchased ; and while he may not be a 
judge of the nutritious character of the hay, he will, as all 
merchants are, be a good judge of a merchantable bale. So 
it is seen with all branches of business connected with farm- 
ing. A dairy that sends out nice yellow butter, will realize 
in the market, at all times, remunerative prices; while 
another, that puts on the market white puffy butter, will 
scarcely find a purchaser at a price great enough to save the 
producer from debt, although the cost of running the two 
dairies may be exactly equal. The merchant will be glad 
to sell for such a farmer, the hay will sell readily, and hence 
if there are profits he will be sure to realize them. 

Having already spoken of various shelters for the pro- 
tection of hay from weather, only one more will be mention- 
ed, and that is the ^'Sheltered Stack Pole,*' which is 
made in the following manner, viz.: 

Set a pole six inches square on a cross of timbers about 
the same size, and brace it well from each beam of the 
cross. It can be put on either by a mortise and tennon or 
toe-nailed. Let the pole be about fifleen feet high, and 
have a series of IJ inch holes bored every 12 or 18 inches, 
for about half its upper length. Have also a good stout 
wooden or an iron pin to go into these holes. Then make a 

Digitized by 



conical roof of some stout bat very light material^ cover it with 
half-inch sheeting, and let it be large enough to protect a 
space larger than the stack Frame it in such a 
manner that a square hole will be left in the top of the roof, 
through which the stack pole will pass. It will then slide 
to the bottom where it will rest, unless on hay. When it is 
wished to make the stack, raise the roof and confine it, by 
putting the pin through the pole underneath, and when the 
stack is completed let the roof drop on the top of the hay, 
and it will bid defiance to all manner of storms. Should it 
be necessary to move it, it can be readily carried on a wagon 
to any part of the farm and set up. Should it be the wish 
of the farmer to allow the cattle to feed on the hay in the 
stack, provide four batoned sides, like a door, say five feet 
wide, and in length the square of the circle made by the 
hay stack, provide them with stout hooks to fasten the cor- 
ners. The stack is then protected to the height of five feet. 
In making the stack, lay rails or poles across the bottom on 
the cross timbers, and that will keep it o£r the ground. 


There are several plants exceedingly troublesome to the 
meadows in Tennessee. Among them is the White Top 
{Erigeron Fhiladq>hicum), or Fleabane. This is a perennial, 
and sometimes infests meadows to such an extent as to ren- 
der them worthless. Meadows troubled with them should 
be mown several years in succession when the White Top 
begins to blossom. Broom Grass {Andropogon Soopariua) 
is also very pestiferous, destroying meadows after four or 
five years unless closely watched, and the broom grass cut 
up by the roots every spring. The Trumpet Creeper (Big^ 
nonia radicam) infests meadows in rich bottom lands^ and 
when cat oflF by the mower, lorms hard knots which will 
arrest the action of the sickle. This vine should be dug up 
" root and branch.'^ White clover and blue grass are both 

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great enemies to the meadow, and when they prevail to any 
extent it is best to use the meadow eis a pasture, and sow 
another meadow somewhere else. 

A top dressing of superphosphate, or of stable manure 
every fell, after a crop of hay is taken off, will also do 
much to keep down noxious weeds and grasses. The farmer 
should always bear in mind that meadows require to be 
regularly fed. It is too much to expect that they will 
grow heavy crops of hay year after year, without exhausting 
the elements in the soil which go to make hay. These 
elements must be supplied. Hestitution must be made if 
the farmer expects to have luxuriant and profitable mea- 
dows. The best rule to adopt is, never to take off a crop 
of hay without making a liberal application of manure. 

The following is the table referred to in this chapter. 

Digitized by 





O ' 









•0 jo« 9no ti| j «• ?! ;Z ?; 
'^luoAnwnK I c* '- « ''^ 

|9ab8 gm^jp t9 I "s'^cc^ 

•poup naqM 
9J39 J9d !)q(A\ 

a99jd a9qM. 

p.q»ieA aaiiAV. 

p9iCoi(Iaz9 nog 

H9lI0aiTIf 9^!}8 





« W »-« ^ 



Jl 31 — 



= eoo 



>5 X) 2s ; I- t- •* 
















: M 


CO ^ 

« oc?5 

« * « ; qa CO « 

fl fl • i a a J 





! IM 














Digitized by 




Digitized by 





The people of the South have much to learn in regard 
to the successful management of meadow lands. Many 
farmers seem to think it is possible to take large crops of 
hay from the same land, year after year, without adding 
any fertilizers. This is a grand mistake. One had just as 
well expect to check on his bank account day after day, 
without making additions to his deposits, as to check on 
the soil for large crops without properly feeding the land 
which grows them. 

The question we ought to consider is, how to man- 
age meadows after they are properly sown, and a stand of 
grass secured, so as not only to keep up iheif fertility, but to 
increase their power of production. 

This question is so well understood by English farmers, 
that they seldom take a crop of hay from a piece of land 
without making a large and expensive application of ma- 
nure. If the hay is cut several times a year, it is a heavy 
draft upon the soil, and some restitution must be made to 
the soil or it will soon cease to meet the expectations of the 
husbandman. The English farmer, enlightened by exper- 
ience, in order to strengthen the land and stimulate the 
grass roots to renewed exertion, will draw out upon the mea- 
dow various kinds of manure to supply whatever wants he 
may deem the land requires. 

There are not many kinds of manure in reach of a 
Tennessee farmer, unless he takes the forethought to pro- 
vide them. But if he does take this in mind, and watches 
closely for every thing that will contribute to this end, 
he will be surprised, himself, at the result in a very short 
time. Besides those elements that are at the command of 

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every ,careful farmer, there is another class of manures call- 
ed "artificial/' and these can be procured at any place by a 
sufficient outlay. But they are costly, and it requires a sci- 
entific acquaintance with their properties, before the ordina- 
ry farmer will have the courage to invest in them. In other 
words, he must be able to see why and how his money will 
be returned with interest. 

In order to properly understand the requirements of 
plants, it is essential the action of the different manures 
should be known, together with an approximate knowledge 
of the constituents of the soil. Soils are the result of the 
degradation, or breaking down, from various causes, of 
rocks. Through the great convulsions of nature, this tri- 
turated dust is mingled together, so that every species of 
rock formation is represented in every handful of clay. 
Were this not the case, we would have over limestone rocks a 
great mass of unproductive pulverized carbonate of lime; or 
over granite, we would see nothing but* the sparkling atoms 
of quartz and mica, and over each stratum there would be 
the constituents of that rock, and hence no vegetation would 
charm the eye or delight the heart, to say nothing of our 
digestive wants. Through the agency of perfectly natural 
causes, (water principally), the soils have been intimately 
mingled. By this wise provision vegetation, in every spot in 
the world, finds some elements necessary to its existence. 
But it sometimes happens, jbhat there is a deficiency of 
some of the elements, and again that there is a surplus^ In 
the great alluvial swamps decayed vege^ble matters exist 
to such an extent that some cereals do not thrive well, 
and on the other hand, "on the steep mountain sides, by the 
action of washing rains, this matter has been carried oft. 
Again, in many sections, the fertile matters have been ex- 
hausted, so nearly so, that the products of the soil cease to 
be remunerative. It is the province of scientific agricul- 
ture to point out these deficiendes and direct the remedy. 

The soil originally consisted simply of the debris of the 

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rocks or clay. It is composed of the elements of the 
rocks, together with an intimate admixture of some mineral 
substances. In limited patches the soil partakes of the 
character of the formations underneath. Thus, in iron 
districts, the soil in places shows the presence, in considera- 
ble quantities, of iron, making the earth red or brown. In 
sandstone countries the clay has a quantity of sand overly- 
ing it, and among the primitive rocks scales of mica glisten 
on every side. The weight of a cubic foot of thoroughly 
dried soil averages as follows : 

Siliceous sand , 111.3 pounds. 

Calcareous sand 113.6 " 

Sandy clay 97.8 " 

Loamy clay 88.8 '' 

Stifif clay 80.3 '* 

Slaty marl 112. '' 

Fertile mould 68.7 " 

Common arable soil 84.5 " 

Chemists, from the earliest times, have been struck with 
the great proportion of insoluble to soluble substances in 
the soil. These insoluble substances will resist the action 
of acid and alkali in any quantities short of destroying veg- 
etation. Analysts have strived by the aid of weak solutions of. 
acids and alkilies to effect this, and though the science is by 
no means perfect, they have succeeded in rendering much 
inert matter, that has hitherto cumbered the land, into plant 
food. In an average of many kinds of soil the proportions 
are, of 

Insoluble matters, 89.305; 

Soluble matters, 2.047; 

Phosphate, carbon and sulphate lime, 3. 1 60. 

Thus it is seen that, of the great mass of soil, ranging 
from a few inches to many hundred feet thick, only a very 
small per cent, is available to vegetation. Further, chemi- 
cal analysis has also developed the fact that all animal tis- 

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•lies are composed of these identical elements of the soil. 
Truly and literally, we are made of dust. But the animal 
kingdom does not derive its sustenance directly from the 
soil — that would be impossible. Our digestive organs are not 
constructed for that purpose, and could not assimilate such 
food, though in the great famine of Germany, in the 18th 
century, the starving millions did essay it only to die in 
torture. Nature has provided an intermediate agent, vege- 
tation, whose organs are nicely adapted to this purpose. 
They send down into the soil their sensitive feelers, and pick 
up such stray bits of food as men or beasts require. They 
•tore it away in their granaries until it is called for, and 
thehc kind friends, are thus the purveyors to animal life. 
Not only is man thus directly fed by these natural agents, 
but, to keep up a constant unceasing supply, a large propor- 
tion is sent back to the soil, in a form to invigorate man^s 
f<K)d. This refunded capital is variously called humin, 
ulmin, geine. Ulmin or ulmic acid, is the first fornjed; hu- 
min is formed from ulmin by the absorption of oxygen ; 
geine or geic acid from humin by the further absorption of 

We yill describe all these changes, however, under the gen- 
general term of geine. Under some form geine is essential to 
agriculture. It is the resultof decaying vegetable matter, or 
in other words, it is the active principle of mould, and is the 
direct result of putrefaction. It is carbon, oxygen and hy- 
drogen. It has a powerful affinity for nitrogen, one of the 
constituents of the atmosphere, and whenever it comes in 
contact, the hydrogen of the geine unites with the nitrogen 
of the air, and ammonia is the result. It also absorbs water 
freely, and this is why bottom lands, full of geine, fail to 
suffer from drought. The geine attracts moisture from the 
air and keeps the plant alive. These salts, humin, ulmin 
and geine, were formerly called extract of mould. They 
are, for the most part, soluble in water. For the sake of 
brevity, we will embrace all these salts as well as crenic and 

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and apocreic acids, convertible with the salts, under the 
general term mould. So far as nourishment is derived from 
the soil, this substance is the food of plants. It has been 
deposited over the clay, by the gradual decay of vegetation, 
through many ages, and according to the amount deposited, 
depends the value of the land. 

Why it is that plants live and grow, or how they grow 
is a mystery no philosopher has ever been able to explain. 
God gives the vital principle, and so long as that continues 
the plant is able to resist an opposing power, which is chem- 
istry. When life ceases, chemistry then asserts its power 
and decay begins, which leads to fermentation, and after 
this process is ended, putrefaction takes charge, which soon 
resolves the body into its original elements; and they are 
then ready to aid in the construction of another living body. 
Thus nothing is ever lost. It may change its location ; the 
plant that grew at the head of a mountain torrent, may ul- 
timately enter into the composition of a sugar cane in the 
delta of the Mississippi, but it is still in the universe, silent- 
ly performing its duties. 

What particular duties arc performed by this geine or 
mould? It has the property, as already stated, of com- 
bining with nitrogen and forming ammonia. Ammonia is a 
powerful solvent of the inorganic elements of the soil, and 
by this action, fertility is generated. Alumina, magnesia, 
and various oxides of iron and manganese, will also unite 
with this geine, and the combination is to some extent insol- 
uble, and thus stores of riches are, as it were, laid up for fu- 
ture use, and here it will remain an indefinite' length of time. 
Under proper solvents or manures, they are again freed 
and ready for use. Suppose, however, none of these ele- 
ments are in reach of the mould? Then the mould, dis- 
solving in water in the form of a dark powder, filters down 
to the subsoil, where it lies until plowed up and brought 
into contact with air and water, when it regains its activity 
in dissolving, or rather uniting with the earth, and metallic 

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salts It is in this form known to chemists as vegetable 

We see, then, that the fertile elements do not consist en- 
tirely of mould, there must be some inorganic substances 
mixed with the mould to make a fertile soil. The inor- 
ganic substances, it may be proper to say, are the dust of 
rocks and metals. 

Fertile soil, then, is composed of a combination of or- 
ganic and inorganic matters. A clay bank, (inorganic mat- 
ter), will grow nothing. A pile of rotton wood, (organic 
matter), will grow mosses, but no higher plants. Combine 
the two, however, in suitable proportions, and any kind of 
plant will spring up luxuriantly. Spread a heavy coat 
of stable manure on land and everything burns up; this 
18 from the presence of a powerful alkali, (ammonia), that 
destroys vegetation by its acrid quality. 

A neighbor thought he had a treasure house in a great 
heap of saw-dust left on his land by a mill. He poured 
wagon load after wagon load of it on his garden. What 
was the result? Such a mass of mould extracted large 
amounts of oxygen from the air, and acids were formed 
freely, making the land sour. Nothing would grow, and 
he lost the use of his garden for three or four years, and 
t then it was good enough. Had he known it, lime spread 
over it would have sweetened the soil, and he would have 
had a garden, rich in vegetable mould, all the three or four 
years. So, it may be seen, the soil is a great laboratory, in 
which constant chemical changes are taking place Will 
we aid in those changes and hasten the result to our ad- 
vantage, or wait the slow process of nature? 

I have already alluded to the great benefit resulting from 
a union of theoretic and practical farming. In no branch 
of agriculture are the good effects better seen than when we 
begin to analyze the soil, and supply whatever deficiencies 
may be required. It will be interesting to know how the ele- 

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ments of soil act on each other, so as to become soluble, 
and, therefol-e, convertible into fertilizers. 

The great component parts of soils are the silicates, 
(sands, quartz, etc.), salts, (as potash, soda, etc.), metallic 
oxides and vegetable mould. Silica exists in limestone 
rocks, in granite and in all sands. These silicates are 
slowly soluble, but elements of decay though slow are 
constant, and mountains have crumbled and been cast as 
hujj:e, misshapened masses over the plains. By this action 
salts (soda, and potash) are freed and enter the soil, or are 
washed away into the ocean. It is in this manner that the 
ocean is made salty. But the sjind is left, or rather the 
si lex, and the soil is made more friable thereby. But sup- 
pose, instead of awaiting the action of nature, we intro- 
duce some of the earthy salts into the soil, lime, for in- 
stance. The lime acts directly on the silica, forming a 
silicate of lime that is soluble. Not only this, but the car- 
bonic acid that is in the silica is freed, and this acts on other 
silicates, freeing their salts, and thus alumina is set free, 
the soil is impregnated with soda and potash, and instead 
of sand altogether, clay is formed. In this mfinner sandy 
soils are greatly improved by the addition of limes, either 
quicklime slacked, or land plaster, which is the sulphate. 
Some think this will impoverish the soil. So it will, if 
crops are raised on it, and so will crops impoverish any 
soil, but this store of mineral and earthy matters is useless 
if allowed to remain so, and, in its improved condition, 
nothing is taken out — it is only made available as plant 
food. Besides the supply is well nigh inexhaustible when 
.we consider that less than two per cent, has supplied all the 
fertility to vegetation in all the past ages. It is not to be 
supposed a few pounds of these applications will make the 
great mass of soil fertile. By no means, for it would re- 
quire well nigh the same amount of solvents as the matter 
to be dissolved. Still, it will enable the plants to get food 
where none existed before, that could be assimilated. 

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These free alkalies produced, as has just been stated, not 
only benefit plants directly, but they also act upon the 
mould, and will cause its decay. Or, more properly speak- 
ing, these alkaline earths will act on vegetable fibre, and 
change it into geine, which is synonymous with vegetable 
mould. But one strange thing is that this change in the 
soil is not apparent until a living body is applied. It is 
the great and mysterious effect of the vital principle, with- 
out which but few changes are noted. 

Were all the matters soluble, and constantly in a condi- 
tion to be washed out, the soil would soon, by the effects of 
water, be washed away and be deposited in the bed of the 
ocean. As it is, it is a great storehouse of food, that nc^ne 
unlock except those who have the " open sesame." 

It is on this principle that plaster acts on clover. The 
plaster is, or should be, scattered on the plant while wet 
with dews. It adheres to it and is quickly absorbed into its 
vessels and carried to the roots where it, in the remote pene- 
tration of the rootlets, comes in contact with the elements 
of the soil. Through the action of the plant, the sulphur 
is separated from the lime, and then both are prepared to 
act promptly. The result is a wonderful stimulation to 
the clover, for a great store of food is at once placed at its 
command. In the same manner, common salt acts. There 
is certainly no manure in salt, no plant food, yet sprinkle 
a small ^quantity on plants, and by them it is decomposed, 
and the^muriatic acid and soda act in dissociating other ele- 
ments, and the result is great benefit to the plant. 

If there were no salts nor mould in the soil, there would 
be no growth of plants. Mould is essential to plants, and 
without salts it is inert. So that when salts are active, 
mould is rendered active, and this will continue until 
one or the.other is exhausted. I^ng before exhaustion 
takes place, however, the plants will languish and fail, so 
that the intelligent farmer must add, here a salt, there 
mould, and then by prudent management forever keep up his 

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fields to a high state of productiveness. There are reasons 
for all these assumptions, but space forbids their mention. 

Many things contains salts available to the agricul- 
turist. Lime, ashes, plaster ot Paris, (sulphate of lime), 
saltpetre, common salt, phosphate of lime, bone dust, coal 
ashes, hair, haofs, horns, copperas and many others. Some 
of these substances have to be used sparingly, such as salt 
or copperas, but all are beneficial to growing plants. 

These substances act chemically, and free a great many 
inert matters. Growing plants absorb vast quantities of 
carbonic acid, through their leaves, and carrying it down, 
throw it into the soil, where it acts upon silica and allumi- 
na freeing salts for their growth. 

Wood and coal ashes are very rich in the salts, and furn- 
ish one of the cheapest and best additions that can be made 
to land. Coal ashes are not so rich in the various salts, 
but contain enough to merit a better fate than is generally 
awarded them. 

The composition of wood ashes is as follows : 
200 parts of unleached wood ashes contain. 

Carbonic acid, 58.53 

Sulphuric acid, 6.43 

Phosphoric acid, 3.40 

Muriatic acid, *. 1.82 

Lime, 50.35 

Magnesia, - 4.55 

Potash and soda, 67.96 

Silex, 5.22 

Oxide iron, 50 

Oxide Manganese, 1.10 

Water, 14 


Of this 27.14 parts are soluble at once in water, and 

leached ashes are deprived of it, and the balance, 172.86 

parts are insoluble, but act slowly on the soil freeing various 

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substances in the process of time. Coal ashes contain these 
same ingredients in a much less degree, or if soil is entire- 
ly deprived of its vegetable mould, it is identical almost 
with coal ashes. Each hundred pounds contain eight pounds 
that are at once valuable to the farmer, and another 
portion has a prospective value. Coal ashes are worth 
a good deal, simply as a mechanical loosener of the 
soil. Mixed with it, in even small proportions, it renders 
the soil friable and easily worked. 

Having now explained that there is a principle called 
mould or geine, and that this principle is necessary to 
fertility, and also, that this principle to be in an available 
form, must be reacted on by salts, it remains to inquire the 
best form in which these elements are united. Practically, 
every farmer in the country will at once answer stable ma- 
nure. And, as is generally the case, practice has long found 
out what science seeks a reason for. A careful analysis of 
cow manure, which is generally accepted as the unit of val- 
ue, shows that cow dimg consists, not to go into an ultimate 
analy^'is, of 

Water, 83.60 

Salts, 0.95 

Geine, 15.45 

This seems to be a small proportion of valuable matter, 
only one-sixth of the whole amount. But let us see what 
a careful farmer can do by saving for a year. In an ex- 
periment, conducted carefully and published a few years 
ago, an average cow was selected, and everything she ate 
or drank was carefully weighed, as well as all the voidings 
of dung. This experiment lasted seven days, and from a 
calculation, this cow would have made in one year, 4,800 
pounds geine, 71 pounds bone dust, 37 pounds plaster, 37 
pounds lime, 25 pounds common salt, 15 pounds sulphate 

This, carefully saved, furnishes salts of lime equal to four 
and a half bushels of corn daily, or 1,662J annually. Not 

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only is this amount saved, but in addition the nitrogen that 
is in it, by chemical affinity, creates a large amount of am- 
monia, that is fixed and amounts in a year to 677 pounds. 
To tlie nitrogen is due much of the excellence of this stim- 
ulant, and without the animal matter or nitrogen, it would 
be nothing more than decayed wood and salts. It is a com- 
mon idea that the activity of stable' manure is due entirely 
to the animal excrements. It is due rather to the happy 
combination of ammonia, geine and salts, such as no chemifit 
can manufacture from the food of the cow. Were this pos- 
sible, a pile of rotted hay and turnips would supply all 
these united elements. But effort has demonstrated that it 
cannot be done. Nor does the food of a cow affect, but 
little, the elements of dung. A cow fed on rich nitrogen- 
ous food, such as corn or oats, will give some more nitro- 
gen in the dung, and form more ammonia, but the salts 
and geine will be but little changed. 

Horse dung is much richer in manures than cow dung. 
But horse dung very quickly ferments, and, by fermenta- 
tion, it will lose one-third its value in one month. It is 
therefore very necessary to remove, as often as possible, the 
horse dung from the stable, and place it in the compost 
heap, witK the cattle dung, or with alternate layers of soil 
and sprinkled with lime or plaster. These salts will catch 
and fix the escaping ammonia and prevent much loss. 
After horse dung has fermented, if alone, it is of far less 
value than cow dung, but before it ferments, it is much 
more valuable. When that process is completed fully, 
nine-tenths of its value, according to our best writers, is 
lost. These are statements based on, not only experience 
and observation, but. also on absolute chemical analysis. 
How much it stands the farmer in hand then to observe a 
systematic saving and storing of these treasures of agricultu- 
ral wealth ! A compost heap, under a good shelter, is to the 
uninformed, a heap, reeking with filth, repulsive to the eye 
and offensive to the olfactories. But, to the scientific far- 

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ttier, it is a bed of power. In it are contained the yellow 
grain and the luscious fruit; over it hovers the spirit of the 
rose and the lily, and sweet odors are stored in it, to make 
the fragrant pink and the delicious heliotrope. Let every 
consideration of economy and enterprise, stimulate the far- 
mer, then, to save every waste of the farm. The Chinese 
are so sensible of the importance of manure, in a country 
teeming with an over-population, where the soil is tasked 
to its utmost to carry its population, they even save the 
parings of their finger and toe nails to add to its fertility. 
The farmer has a wonderful bank to draw upon for this 
purpose. Cattle and horse dung and urine, the scrapings 
of the barn-yard after every rain, straw, stalks, leaves of 
the forest, drifts on the banks of streams, all contrib- 
ute their share in the general enrichment of the farm. 
And any one would be surprised at the amount accumula- 
ted for the spring scattering, if systematically carried on 
forgone year. It requires but a little time too, if a regular 
time be given to it. Regularity and system are the grpat 
watchwards of improvement. 

Millions of dollars are annually wasted, by burning ?traw 
and stalks, which, if carried to the stables and barn-yard, 
would act as solvents, to catch this daily waste. If the 
ashes, resulting from the burning straw, were as good ma- 
nure as the straw itself, then burning would not be waste- 
ful. But a large amount of valuable matter goes into the 
air as gases, besides much is blown away by the winds. A 
Mr. Lawes, of England, determined this matter of burning 
manure in an experiment, that was both fair and positive. 
He took 28 tons of yard manure and divided it; 14 tons 
were reduced by fire, leaving 32 cwt. of ashes. He then 
scattered the 14 tons of manure left, on one acre of land 
and the 32 cwt. of ashes on another acre of land, and left 
another acre without any application. He cultivated them 
all well and alike. 

The manured acre made 22 bushels of wheat, the ashed 

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acre, made 16. and the unmanured acre made 16 bushels. 
This proves that the more nitrogen manure contains in 
combination with the salts, the more value it has. 

Night soil, or the excrement of human beings, is next to 
chicken manure, the richest and most stimulating of all 
manures. Then come that of fattening hogs and sheep ' 
horses and cows. But, as before stated, the disposition to 
waste is so great, that the *'cold*' manures, as that of cows, 
sheep and hogs, are more available to the farmer than the 
more active ones of man and horse. The analysis of the 
different manures are given in the table below. This table 
and the three following, are taken from American Ma- 
nures by Dr. Bruckner. 






8.0 IbB 

5.0 IbR, 

7 lbs 

8.5 Ibe, 

12.2 " 

28.0 *• 

5.4 ** 

6.5 " 

6.2 " 

10.7 •* 

3.5 '« 

4.2 '* 

]5.2 " 

5.5 << 

21.5 * 

26.1 '* 

22.7 " 

7.0 '* 

7.1 " 

8.5 " 

8.3 " 

1.0 '* 

15.0 ** 

18 2 ** 


Pig Dung 840 lbs. 

Horse ** 743 •* 

Cow ** 864 '' 

Chicken ** 850 " 

Sheep " 670 " 

Human ** 750 ** 

The following table shows about the amount produced 
annually by a single animal of the kind named, and its 
value, assuming the phosphoric acid to be soluble, and the 
nitrogen as actual ammonia. 


Amount. acid. Potash. Ammonia Yalae. 

Pig 200 lbs 1.6 lbs. 1.0 lbs. 1.7 lbs. $0.61 

Horse 2,000 •* 24.4 '* 56.0 *• 13.0 *• 9.94 

Cow 2,000** 10.4 '• 210 *• 8.5 '* 6.15 

Chicken.... 5** 0.076** 0.08** 0.13** 04 

Sheep 50** 1.27 '* 0.85* 0.42* .40 

Human.... 100" 0.88 ** 0.10** 1.80" .50 

We now give the value of the urine of different animals, 
as shown by the fertilizing salts contained in 1^000 pounds 
of each: 

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Water. acid. Potash Nitrogen. Ammonia. 

Pig Urine 9.29 lbs. trace 6.0 11)8. 11.8 ISs. 14.3 lbs. 

Horse ** 9.40 ** trace. 2.8 ** 15.4 '* 18.7 *• 

CoW ** 0.23 * trace, 4 5 *• 4 4 ** 5.3 *' 

Sheep *' IJ.uo ** 1.8 lbs. 7.2 * 13.1 * 15.9 '* 

Human ** 9.57 ** 4.0 '* 2.0 * 14.2 ** 17.2 ** 

The following table shows the amount produced annually 
by a single animal of the kind named, and its value as ma- 
nure, when fermented: 

Pig Urine... 


Cow *... 



...1,000 lbs. 

...2 000 »' 

...2,000 ** 

0.6 lbs. 
8.0 ** 

6.0 lbs. 
5.0 " 
9.0 * 
3.6 ** 
1.5 *^ 


14.3 lbs. 

37.4 •* 
8.8 * 
8.0 " 

10.7 ** 





Sheep "... 
Human '' . . 

. .. 600 *' 
. .. 760 *• 


Says Dr. Bruckner: **The sold and liquid excretions 
taken together, will show the following annual value: 

Pig excrements, solid and liquid $ 4.62 

Horse " ** ** 19.73 

Cow " *' " 8.07 

Sheep " " " 2.75 

Human " " '* 3.66 

From these tables, it is plain that too much care cannot 
be exercised in preserving the excrements of man and ani- 
mals. Every pound of ammonia that is lost or evaporates, 
represents the amount required for a bushel of corn ; and 
every pound of the urine of a horse or man, will furnish 
sufficient ammonia for a pound of wheat; and two and a 
half pounds of the urine of man will furnish the phospho- 
ric acid, and more than half of the potash required for a 
pound of wheat.^' 

It then remains for us to make the application of these 
remarks, and every right-thinking man will see at once the 
importance of gathering up and saving. It is money in his 
pocket. One man will burn a few bushels of soil, and set- 
ting it near the privy, will throw, every day, a few hands- 

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ful on the pile of excrement, and in a few months he will 
fill his barrels with the most valuable pondrette, that an- 
other man will go to the city and pay a large price for. 
One man will set a few barrels of ashes in a convenient 
place, and cause the house-cleaner to empty the urine of the 
night into them. In a few months he will have his ashes 
thoroughly saturated with salts, and organic matter the 
most valuable. 

In England, farmers do not consider it any hardship to 
dig cisterns, in which to save all the liquid excrements of 
the cows and horses, and with a water cart, spread it over 
their pastures and meadows. 

Many object to the use of human excrement, on account 
of its oifensiveness. This can be easily prevented, and at 
the same time by an agent that is a valuable addition to 
the manure heap. The sulphate of iron (copperas), is a 
powerful deodoriser, and a few cents worih added to the 
night soil will deprive it of any oflfonsive smell for a length 
of time, suflBciently long to remove it. 

A great many bones are wasted on every farm that make 
valuable manure, and are easily prepared for u^e. Let a 
barrel be devoted to bones, and whenever a bone is thrown 
into it, cover it up with unleached ashes. Let the barrel 
stand in the weather and in a few months the bones will be 
so friable they may be easily broken and converted into an 
unadulterated bone dust, better than can be bought in any of 
the agricultural stores. Or if he cannot wait this slow 
process, they are easily burned and crushed. 

In making soap, much fine phosphate of lime is thrown 
out in the shape of halt eaten bones and in spent lye. 
Soap suds are also a fine addition to the manure or compost 
heap. In these are found, not only the alkalis of soda and 
potash, but also much nitrogenous matter in the shape of 
grease. All these assist in enriching our heap. 

No farm yard is without the best guano. It is trne. the 
guano of the shops is from sea birds^ whose food is fish, but 

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the guano of the chicken house is exceedingly valuable and 
well worth saving. Mixing it with soil or ashes and sow- 
ing it over a garden plat, rather thinly, for it is very rich, 
its effects are seen to the row. However, the dung of fowls 
and especially of pigeons is best applied in the form of 
solution. It is not so apt to bum up the plant in this 
manner. One part of manure to ten parts of water will 
make a fine wash for vines, or for fruit trees it is unex- 
celled. Another addition to the heap is skins, carrion 
either of animals or fowls, scales of fishes, hair, hoo&, and 
in fact every kind of animal substance that may come with- 
in reach that is worthless. Instead of dragging off dead 
horses or cows, as an attraction for buzzards and dogs, cut 
them up and let them add to the manure heap. In this 
way a valuable addition will be made. 

Among the richest of all manures, not excepting animal 
matters even, is soot It is not only rich in salts, but in 
geine. It is said there are as much salts in 100 lbs of soot, 
as there are in one ton of cow dung. Nothing is better 
for v^etables, than an application of water with soot 
dissolved in it. Besides, bugs are not fond of it, and it 
drives them away. Throw all the soot of the chimneys, 
by all means, on the heap,. 

Sheep dung is one of our finest manures, and what is 
better, the animals do the spreading themselves. A worn* 
out meadow or pasture if given to sheep, and they are kept in 
it any length of time, will be restored to its pristine fertility. 
It is said that 1000 sheep run on a piece of ground one 
year will make the soil capable of yielding grain enough, 
over and above the capacity of the soil without the sheep 
manure, to support 1035 sheep an entire year. Unless the 
sheep are nightly folded, however, the manure cannot be 
gathered. If it can be collected, put it on the pile, by all 

We have now enumerated the principal sources whence a 
fiirmer can draw his supplies without drawing upon his 

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pocket. Many kinds, under our system of farming, are 
unavailable to the farmer. I mean the liquids. Without 
floors to the stables and pig-pens, the urine, which is the 
richest of manures, so far as salts are concerned, is wasted. 
But he can save his own, and the excrements of one man, 
properly saved for one year, will well manure one acre of 
land. Why let these rivers of wealth flow away from the 
farm ? He prefers going to the shops and buying worse 
than he can prepare on his farm. 

There are many artificial manures for sale. Plasters 
from Kentucky and Virginia; phosphate of lime from 
South Carolina ; bone dust from the large cities, and many 
other mixtures and compounds. But scarcely a farmer but 
what has at his command a manure, rich in every respect 
and with the addition of a cheap alkali, equal in chemical 
properties to cow dung: I mean the scrapings of ponds, and 
the mud of rivers and creeks. West Tennessee has an area 
containing pure muck, the balance of the State has no such 
advantage ; but next to muck, and nearly as valuable, is 
pond and river mud. By the addition of two pounds of 
sal soda or potash, such as is used for washing purposes, to 
100 lbs of muck, the mass becomes, as near as possible, cow 
dung. So here we have an almost inexhaustible supply of 
oow dung, without its smell or offensiveness. The green 
sand beds in West Tennessee also will supply fertilizers in 
unlimited quantities. 

Here then, the provident farmer has all that is requisite 
to enrich his grounds before seeding to grass^ It is need- 
less to say that clover, as a preceding crop to land that is 
about to enter the long and tedious travail of meadow, is 
absolutely requisite. But afler it is started, the farmer need 
not think, for one moment, that grass adds to its fertility. 
It does not, but on the other hand, detracts just what the 
fiirmer cuts off; and if he is a wise farmer, he will put 
it back in a shape to increase his drafts on it. 

When a meadow or pasture becomes packed^ from too 

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much pasturage, it will be well enough to run a subsoil 
through it occasionally. This loosens the under sod, and 
the narrow helve does not tear up the turf. Of course the 
land has been, if required, well drained. In addition to 
this, for the renovation of such lands, the application of 
manures is indispensable. It should be applied immediately 
after a cutting, as it will stimulate the roots, made weak by 
being deprived of their foliage, to renewed growth, and 
prevent much of it from dying. Of course it must be done 
by top dressing, and by far the most efficaceous plan is to 
apply it in the liquid form. It may be done by diluting 
the manure with from five to ten parts of water, and using 
a cart, such as is used for sprinkling streets. Anothei*, 
and the most common way, is to drive[^through the meadow 
with a load of good compost; such as we have described, 
and with two hands in the rear of the wagon with shovels, 
it can be scattered broadcast as fast as the team will walk. 

A few years ago, a machine for scattering manure was 
invented, by John W. York, of Williamson County, and if 
that machine could be sold at a reasonable price, it would 
save the most tiresome labor of the farm. It should by all 
means be so simplified as to reduce the expense, and place 
it within the reach of every farmer. With such a machine, 
scattering or drilling manure would be a work of no more 
labor than drawing up a load of wood, not as much. 

Pastures treated to a top-dressing after every cutting, 
could, like the English pastures, instead of three acres to 
the ox, feed three oxen to one acre, and the meadows would 
not yield a scanty ton to the acre, but we could continue to 
cut until stopped by cold weather. An English tenant will 
pay ten pounds ($50) rent per acre for meadows, and will 
get always two, frequently three, crops per year, yielding 
from three to five tons per acre. We could do this also 
by following the same system of farming, and that is, to 
run the manure wagon constantly. 

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Hie following Tabkarranged by Ezra E. Adarns, of the N.H. 
Agricultural CoUege, will show the amount of water , organs 
ic matter f nitrogen, and mineral ingredients in given quanti- 
ties of natural and manufactured fertilizers. 

In 1,000 PoirniM of 

Pbihoipal Ash Inob^ntb. 




Animal excre'nt, fresh are 
*' excrement rotted 

Dong-heap liqaid 


Human urine 

Night soil, fresh 

In 100 Pounds of 

Pemyian guano. . . . 

Dried Blood 

Bone meal, ay 

Bone black, fresh 

Baker guano 

super-phosphate . 
Navassa phosphate.. 

super-phosphate . 
Rectified P. guano. .. 

Sal. ammonia 

Nitrate Soda 




Ashes, ay 

Leached ashes. 
Goal ashes 























.4 .1 







8 610.9 



























































• . .* 









. • .. 







, , 













. . .. 




. . •• 

































. . .. 



1 2 

















Silica and small amounts of other ingredients not named. 

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Ihis Table indicates the various dements of plant food re- 
moved from the soU by crops, as'given by Prof. Atwater, in 
Connecticut Report 

Cbops and Amount 

Lbs. and Decimals of 




Grain, 26 bushels— 1,400 lbs 

Straw, 8,500 lbs. 

Total by whole crop 


Urain, 30 bushels— 960 lbs 

Straw, 2,000 lbs 

Total by whole crop 


Graln, 20 bushels— 1,200 lbs 

Straw, 8,000 lbs. 

Total by whole crop 


Grain, 50 bushels— 2,800 lbs 

Stalks, 6,500 lbs 

Total by whole crop 


liixed grasses, 1} tons — 3,000 lbs. 


TubePB, 150 bushels— 9,000 lbs 













































25 3 




































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3?^RT VI. 

Though this work is intended to be a treatiefl, eBpecially on grasses, 
jet, from the structure and conformation of their parts, the cereals are, 
botanically speaking, included in the list. 

In a work of this kind, intended as a hand-booK for the farmer, the 
description of these cereals would come properly before them, as 
useful additions only to such knowledge as they already possess, and, 
though the experience of every man in the State may embrace the cul- 
tivation of cereals, yet there are some whose knowledge has not yet ex- 
tended to the history, cultivation and care of all of them. Besides, there 
are always many beginners in the noble science of agriculture who, in 
the ordinary course of farming, learn some things by observation but 
mostly by experience — sometimes disastrous enough to dishearten 
some, deter others. Experience is always a costly teacher and is a 
work of years. To such this part is commended, hoping they may 
be helped over those difficulties by which so many have become 
wrecked. It is not proposed the rules here laid down should take pre- 
cedence over the approved plans of any one, but he may add the hints 
here given, to such experimental knowledge he already possesses, and 
thus make famung a success, founded upon the combined facts of 

Digitized by 



many here given» with such prmciples as have already been established 
by his own deductions. 

Scientific or theoretic fanning has been brought into disrepute too 
by the efforts of amateur farmers with no practical experience, 
which generally end in failures. Bcience will teach many things of 
Tital importance to the farmer, but, if applied improperly, it can effect 
no good result. In agriculture little, and seemingly unimportant dis- 
co veries are valuable. Nothing is to be dispised which may lead to a 
rational and true theory of agriculture; this can only lead to suceessful 
practice. Practice, founded on sound principles, can be taught only 
by a knowledge of the manner in which the elements of soil affect each 
other and vegetation. Tills knowledge cannot be obtained without 
the application of theoretic opinions. The opinions of merely scientific 
' men may be wholly theoretical; but, what is science ? 

Sir Humphrey Davy says, **Refined common sense, the substitutioa 
of rational practice for unsound prejudice." 

In no department of human industry is there so great a demand for 
the union of theory and practice as in agriculture. The book farmer 
and the practical farmer must now shake hands. They must harmonize 
their differecces and cease taunting each other. They have been too 
long wrestling and trying to get each other down, at arms^ length, but 
in the close embrace necessary for a throw they find they can stand 
longer. So it should be ; theory and practice should and do mutually 
support each other. 

The theoretic farmer and the practical farmer aim at one object. The 
latter is employing certain means to affect certain ends; the former un- 
folding the laws of nature which limit and control the operations which 
are performed to effect that end. Theory may teach a rational and suc- 
cessful practice; this last may lead to a rational theory. But without a 
knowledge of the laws of nature, and the action of certain elements of 
the soil which can only be obtained by study, the practical application 
of science to agriculture is but the delirous dream of fanatical enthu- 

The different cereals will now be taken up in the order in which they 
are named. The cereals, we may premise, are all annuals; tliat is, they 
grow and mature their seeds in one season, and then die; and, to per- 
petuate them, they must be planted once every year. 

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312 CEBEAU9. 

1. Barley. 

2. Broomcom. 
8. Buckwheat. 

4. Dhoaro com. 

5. Maize, or Indian com. 

6. Oat& 

7. Rice, 

8. Rye. 

9. Sorghum, or Sugar Cane. 

Wheat, the chief of cereals, is excluded from this list« as a monograph 
has already been issued from this office devoted exclusively to wheat, to 
which the reader is respectfully referred. 



COMMON BABIiEY~(Hor(i0iim wdgare.) 

An annual, with hollow stems, about three feet high; glumes six, at 
each joint, in front of the three spikelets, forming an 
involucre at the zigzag points of the rachis; spikes 
dense, the three spikelets at each end of the rachis all 
with a fertile flower; flowers six in each involucre; 
lower pale with very long awn. Flowers in May. 

Barley has a longer and more slender seed 
than wheat, set in rougher, stronger chaff, 
and has a very much longer awn or beard. 
Anciently a barley-corn formed a standard 
of measurement, the average length of one 
being .345 of an inch. The weight is fifty 
pounds to the bushel. 
Hordeum Vuigare. Thcrc are four Varieties of barley, viz: -Hbr- 
deum vuigare or Spring Barley, Hordeum diatiohum or Two- 
Bowed Barley, Hordeum hexaaiichum, or Six-Rowed Bar- 

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and Hordeum zeocrUony the sprat or battledore barley. The 
first named is used generally throughout the North^ and is 
sown in the spring, while in the South it is sown in the 

The grain of the six-rowed variety is much smaller than 
the others; but the yield is larger. 
When the grain is deprived of its husk 
by a mill it is called pot barley or 
Scotch hulled. If the skin of the grain 
or bran is taken off, it is then white 
and clear looking, and is called pearl 
barley. This ground into flour be- 
comes patent barley. 

The origin of barley is veiled in the 
misty past, and,* like many of the 
cereals is unknown. It grows wild in 
Sicily, as also in Asia. The ancients 
claim that Isis introduced it into 
ffontaM. HexaiUchtm. Egypt from Asia fifteen hundred years 
before the Christian era, while Pliny says it was brought 
by Ceres from Asia when she returned from the search for 
Proserpine, and she taught its use to the inhabitants of 
Sicily, at the same time she introduced wheat and rye, 
hence from her they were called Cereals. 

Moses, in Genesis, says, "the flax and the barley were 
smitten, for the barley ^as in the ear, and the flax was in 
the boU;^' this being one of the plagues that was sent on 
Pharaoh. Pliny says, further, it was the first food of 
mankind. That it formed a very important article of 
human diet is shown by the high estimation in which it 
was held by the earlier citizens of the world. God, in his 
promises to the Isrealites, speaks of the goodly heritage he 
had prepared for them: "a good land; a land of brooks of 
water, of fountains and depths that spring out of the valleys 
and hills; a land of wheat and barley and vines and figtrees 
and pomegranates; a land of oil and olive and honey; a 

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land wherein thou shalt eat bread without scarceness; a land 
whose stones are iron, and out of whose hills thou mayest 
dig brass/' Barley is here placed with all that is good and 
beautiful. Gideon heard in the camp of the enemy one 
soldier rehearsing a dream to his fellow, that "a cake of 
barley tumbled into the host of Midean, and came unto the 
tent and smote it that it fell/' Ruth also gleaning in the 
fields of Boaz until evening, and at night winnowed about 
an ephah of barley, which is about eleven gallons. 

It was a legal tender among the Jews, as Solomon paid 
Hiram, of Tyre, in part with barley, as did also the 
Ammonites pay tribute to Jotham in barley and gold. 
Solomon used it as food for his horses and dromedaries. 

By this it will be seen that barley has been in use from 
time immemorial, and in former times held a higher place 
as a food than it possesses now. 

By the following table will be seen a comparative analy- 
ses of the various cereals. 

100 Pabts of 








Wheat make 
Rye " . 
Barley " , 
Gate « , 
Corn ** . 
Rice " . 
































Barley has been cultivated in this country from its ear- 
liest settlement, as in the proceedings of tl^e colony^ at Mar- 
tha's Vineyard it is stated that barley was sown in 1622, and 
at Jamestown the '* London Company'^ sowed it in 1611 
and, only a few years later, it was shipped from the Island 
of Manhattan to Holland by the Dutch colonists. 

Little need be said about the cultivation of barley, as in 
most respects its growth and harvesting is similar to wheat. 

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BAELEY. 316 

It should be sowed either in the very early fall or very 
early spring. Of course the soil should be thoroughly 
plowed and pulverized. The land is greatly improved by 
subsoiling. By sowing in the latter part of August or 
early in September a large amount of pasturage will be 
available for the winter. Some farmers sow it with the 
last plowing of corn, in the latter part of July. If the field 
is accessible to stock, it makes but little diflcrence how early 
in the latter part of summer it goes in the ground, but if 
not pastured it will be liable to joint. The kind of soil 
best adapted to barley is a light, rather sandy loam, rich 
and deep. Cold, wet, heavy soils will not produce it at all, 
as it will be more or less winter-killed. It will not pay a 
farmer to sow it on old, worn-out land; his expectations will 
always meet with disappointments. The land must be 
good. The quantity sown to the acre varies according to 
the soil. On good, mellow, rich land, from two to two and 
a half bushels to the acre will do, but on thinner land it 
will require more than that, as it does not tiller as well as 
wheat. This is for broadcast sowing. With a drill it will 
require much less. Great care should be exercised in the 
selection of seeds, as it easily spoils if exposed to too much 
moisture, and the grain becomes dark or reddish Good 
seed should be of a pale hue, lively and uniform. Good 
seeds will throw up strong, vigorous stems, capable of re- 
sisting any extreme of weather, and will ultimately grow 
with more luxuriance and strength than if the seeds are 


The time of harvesting must be closely watched, as more 
care is necessary at this period of its culture than at any other 
time, and a little, very little, remissness noW; will cause the 
the farmer to lose his labor. It should not be allowed to 
get very ripe, and yet it should be ripe. The best way is 
*'to wait until the longitudinal red streaks on the grain 
-disappear, the head begins to hang down, and the straw 

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assumes a golden hue;'' so says the London Field. It is 
very apt to be destroyed by wet weather, on account of ihe 
great amount of water held by the long beard and the 
abundant husk on the grain, and then its value as a malt- 
maker is destroyed. Hence it should not be stored until 
perfectly dry. It should not, for the same reason, be 
shocked until the dew is off. The best plan is to thresh 
before stacking, but if that is impracticable, let it be tied 
in small bundles and loosely shocked, or put into hand- 
stacks, and be extremely.careful as to the capping. Let it 
be done so as to exclude every particle of moisture, and let 
it be threshed as soon as possible. When the heads once 
get wet, a stain appears, that will lower the grade and im- 
pair its value. 

In threshing also, much care must be maintained, as the 
embryos of the grain are easily knocked off, which will pre- 
vent it from sprouting, and therefore, it cannot be used for 
beer. So the thresher Inust be run light, with fewer spikes 
than for wheat. After separation from the straw, it must 
be noticed daily to prevent heating, and it is better to spread 
it and stir frequently and sell as soon as dry. 

Barley is capable of being cultivated in a greater diver- 
sity of climates than any of the cereals. On a very slight 
elevation near the Equator, it has, and is, successfully raised, 
and there two crops a year are secured, while it has also 
been cultivated in the frigid regions. Linnaeus found 
it growing in Lapland in latitude 67® 2(y, where the 
barley was harvested on the 28th of July, having been in 
the ground only six weeks. A gentleman in England 
sowed at the rate of five pecks on an acre on the 4th of Feb- 
ruary, and on the 4th of July harvested and secured fifty- 
two bushels and two pecks per acre. In both extremes 
of temperature it matures with astonishing rapidity, thus 
escaping the droughts of summer and the frosts of winter. 

Barley takes from the soil a large proportion of mineral 
substances almost equal t# wheat, and therefore it is necessary 

Digitized by 


BARLEY. 317 

that these substances^ such as lime, magnesia, potash, phos- 
phates, etc., should be applied to land sown with it* 
This is conveniently supplied in the form of ashes, land 
plaster, liquid manure, etc. Wolff^s analysis shows Barley 
to contain albuminoids, 10,6; starch, 60.3; gum and sugar, 
5.5; fat, 2.0; bran and crude fibre, 13.6; ash, 3.8; water, 

The quality of the grain is judged of by the quantity of 
water it absorbs when steeped in it; 100 parts of good 
barley gaining 47 parts of water. The old physicians used 
barley water very extensively in their practice, in febrile or 
inflammatory diseases, it being at once a cooling, soothing 
drink and possessing marked nutrient qualities. 

It yields largely ^r acre; in Great Britain, the average 
crop of the kingdom being from 30 to 48 bushels per acre, 
while in the United States, it often reaches 60 bushels per 
acre. It is raised throughout the United States, sparingly 
in the South, extensively in the North. In California, the 
crop of 1870, reached 4,415,426 bushels. It will grow there 
four or five years with one sowing, and yield good crops 
every year. In New York, in the same year, the crop was 
4,186,668 bushels; in Ohio, 1,663,868; in Illinois, 1,036,- 
338; Maine, 802,108; Wisconsin, 707,507; Pennsylvania, 
530,714, and Tennessee, 76,068. The average crop for that 
year in the United States, was 16,826,898 bushels, thus 
showing the South to have produced a small proportion of 
the general crop. 

The price has varied very much each year, sometimes 
reaching as much as two and a half dollars per bushel, and 
then selling at another time at fifty cents. The average 
price now for a number of years has been from 75 cents to 
one dollar. 

As already stated, from the early ages of man, as recorded 
by both the imspired and pagan historians, barley next to 
wheat, has been more extensively used as a material for 
bread, than any other cereal. At one time, in England, it 

Digitized by 



took precedence of even wheat, and now, on the Continent, 
it forms the staple bread of the poorer classes. It is eaten 
as bread in parts of South Wales, and in the northern 
countries of England, and on the Continent. 

Many writers say it is more nutritious than wheat. It is 
extensively used to make into a soup or broth to distribute 
from charitable institutions to the poor. The bread made 
from it is blackish, and has a strong odor, disagreeable to 
some persons. The Gladiators of Rome were fed upon this 
black bread, under the impression that its therapeutic quali- 
ties were such as to conduce to strength and endurance. It 
must have been an ignorant deduction, however, as gluten 
is the great strength producing principle of cereals and 
wheat, as will be seen from the table above, is largely in 
the ascendent in that ingredient, as compared with other 
grains. Barley bread is unknown to America, except on 
the prescription of a physician. 

As a food for animals. Barley enters largely into the cal- 
culation of farmers. Not only is it fed to them as corn, 
but the growing Barley is extensively employed to carry 
stock through the winter, in place of other grasses. Sown 
early in the fall, or even in August, it will aflTord a fine 
pasturage through the entire winter, and not show any in- 
jury in its productive capacity. It grows rapidly, and wil. 
soon recover itself when relieved of stock. It bears pas 
turing better than wheat, and yields far more than ryel 
having more herbage. It can be used in this respect until 
the 15th of March, or 1st of April, if the season is back- 

From the first use of Barley, it has been employed as 
food for stock. At first, it entered so largely into the food 
of man, stock did not get a full supply, but after the later 
introduction of wheat, the practice of giving it to the in- 
ferior animals became general. The cavalry horses of Rome 
were fed, on the long and tedious marches into the enemy's 
oountry, upon it, as the transportation was not so difficult 

Digitized by 


BARLEY. 319 

as other kinds of food, each soldier providing himself with 
a sack, which he strapped to his saddle. They were thus ena- 
bled to make long and secret expeditions. Mixed with 
oats and fed to horses, it makes a most excellent grain food, 
and even now, in some countries, swine, fattened with it, 
bring a large price for the peculiar sweetness of the fleshy 
which is not only made more tender, but is said to increase 
in boiling. 

Barley meal is a favorite swill feed for cattle and hogs 
in the portions of North Carolina and Virginia, where corn 
does not succeed well. It is fed to them in its first stages 
of fermentation. The grain is also, by some, soaked until 
it swells, and fed in that condition. Barley straw, cut -fine 
with meal sprinkled over it, is an excellent food for cattle 
and horses, but especially for milk cows, as it increases, 
both the flow and richness of milk. In Arabia and Egypt, 
where the most celebrated horses of the world are bred, th 
almost sole food they receive is Barley, in its natural state> 
without either cooking or grinding. There is a prejudice 
in the minds of some, that Barley, fed alone, possesses heat- 
ing properties, but when we see its good effects in this nursery 
of horses, and in a country naturally far warmer than this, 
we l^hould no longer hesitate in its use. It is comparatively 
free from diseases and from the depredations of insects ; it 
produces more to the acre than wheat or rye, and will make 
good crops with less cultivation and on poorer land than 
corn, and yet, in Tennessee, the use of this valuable grain 
as a stock food, is not what it should be. It has so long 
been consumed by the brewer, that any other use is not 
thought of. It can be used as a food, from the time the 
shoots come out of the ground first as a pasture; then as 
grain and hay. It fills every indication required, and be- 
sides, if the wheat bin becomes exhausted, there is a never- 
foiling supply of batter-cakesj equal to buckwheat, to carry 
the family to the next crop. 

As a theraputic agent, barley, as before stated, has a yery 

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320 CEBEAL8. 

considerable reputation among physicians. It has much 
less of the flesh-forming principles in it than wheat and, as 
a natural consequence, is admissible in all inflammatory 
affections, where a cooling diet is desired. However, there 
being a superabundance of starch in it, the gastric juice 
meets with more resistance, and it, with the bran that is 
unavoidably in it, produces a laxative efiect, so that it 
would not be suited to bowel affections, especially for 
diarrhoea or indigestion. But in kidney, lung or liver 
diseases, where a cooling, demulcent and nutritious food is 
desirable, it is well adapted. Bread, with three parts 
wheat and one of barley, is a good food to counteract the 
effects of constipation, both in infants and adults. Decoc- 
tions and infusions of barley were used formerly, as febrifuge 
drinks, more than at present, but are still good. 

It has been stated that the brewers get the largest pro- 
portion of the barley raised in the State. It is used by 
them for the purpose of making beer and ale. This is a 
comparatively new industry in the State of Tennessee, and 
is increasing at such a rate that a market for all the barley 
likely to be raised will be always at hand. This fact is 
well established, when it is known that the brewers of 
Nashville have to resort to the North for their main 

Beer or ale is becoming such an universal drink that 
more breweries are being constantly built up. As to the 
morale of its use, we have nothing to say ; but it is taking 
the place, in many &milies, of tea, coffee and milk, and 
there are numbers of persons who never drink water at all, 
quenching their thirst by the use of this beverage. It is 
strongly recommended by some temperance advocates as an 
antidote to intemperance; its mildly intoxicating qualities 
seeming to satisfy the cravings for stimulus. It may be 
interesting to the public to know, in a few words, the pro- 
cess of beer-making. Without going into details, the bar- 
ley is first soaked in water about two days, until it increases 

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BARLEY. 321 

about forty per cent, in weight, and until it can be easilj 
pricked with a needle. It is then piled in heaps to germi- 
nate, which it will quickly do, when it is spread on a floor, 
two or three inches thick, to secure uniformity of sprouting. 
This is a nice operation, and is stopped just as the gluten 
and mucilage ^has mostly given way to sugar, and if it 
should go too far the sugar would become acid and the 
barley lost. At the proper stage of fermentation the grain 
is kiln-dried, so as to destroy all vitality in the seed. Next, 
the grain is ground, then mashed, that is, it is stirred in 
just water enough, at 160°; to thoroughly wet it, then 
water, at 194°, is added, and it is allowed to stand three or 
four hours and then boiled in large copper vessels by means 
of steam pipes. At this stage, one pound of hops to a 
bushel of malt is added, and the whole mass frequently 
stirred. After being sufficiently boiled, it is strained, by 
being drawn into vessels with perforated bottoms, and then 
exposed in broad shallow cisterns, with a stream of air 
passing over them, for cooling rapidly. When cooled down 
to about 60°, it is drawn into vats and the yeast added, one 
gallon of yeast to 100 gallons of the liquid. Now is the 
critical time of making good ale or beer. In a short time 
fermentation begins, and the operator watches day and 
night the process, so as to take it at the precise point. 
Now is the time the different kinds of malt liquors are 
made. Ale, pale-ale, lager and bock beer, porter and all 
the endless varieties of these drinks are determined by the 
amount of fermentation; and this process is of so much 
consequence, that a man well skilled in it will receive, in a 
large brewery, enormous wages such as a man in^io other 
kind of business or profession will command, even $20,000 
a year having been given some. When the proper point 
has been reached, the liquor, to avoid the loss of the 
alcohol, the aroma of the hops, and also to escape souring, 
is put into hogsheads with the bung hole open. It here re- 
mains and the £roth escapes, carrying off all sediments and 

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foreign substances until the process is completed^ and then 
it is transferred to tight strong casks^ in a cool celler^ to 
await the consumer. 

Appended is an analysis of some of the celebrated brands 
of beers: 

London Ale 

London Pale Ale 

Double Porter 

Philadelphia Lager Beer 
Reading Lager Beer. . . . 
Walters Lager Beer.... 
Bavarian Li^er Beer. . . . 




























Malt-making can only be prosecuted in the winter 
months, or when the thermometer is below 46^, as in warm 
weather the grain becomes mouldy. 

BBOOM OOBN— ('Sbr^Aum/SbocAonKum). 

SpikeletB clustered or scattered in an ample panicle, each with one 
perfect and one central orstamhiate flower; without silky down; 
^umes russet brown, coriaceous; stems not hollow, pithy; leaves, 
linear: ligular, short and hairy; villous, oblong florets, and yellow 
oval seeds. Flowers in August ^ 

Broom Com is a native of India, and was introduced to 
the United States by Dr. Benjamin Franklin^ who acci- 
dentally saw a single seed on abroom^ in the possession of a 
lady, friend; imported from India. He planted it in his 
garden^ raised a stalky distributed the seed^ and hence its 
origin as an agricultural product in America. 

The credit for the industry of broom-making is due the 
Shakers; who in 1791^ at Watervliet, New York, first began 
to raise broom corn in their gardens. This they made into 
brooms, and i^ld them at 50 cents each. Their machinery 
was very simple, and the handles were made of white soft 
maple wood, and turned with an ordinary foot-lathe. The 

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Shakers at Union village, Ohio, soon learned the trade, so 
that it was, essentially, for many years a Shaker trade. 

Before the war, it was an almost unknown agricultural 
product of the South, at that time being confined to a few 
patches belonging to the slaves. But after the war it came 
into notice, and the fortunate few who began its cultivation 
realized such enormous profits, it attracted general attention 
and it at once sprung into popularity.' Soon, however, it 
was overdone, and the price fell in one year, from a surplus 
production, from 12j cents to 2 cents per pound. This so 
discouraged farmers, that it has been touched with hesitation 
ever since, and its price, since 1870, has never, at any time, 
ceased to be remunerative. At this time, its cultivation is 
very generally carried on throughout the United States, and 
it forms one of the staple productions of Tennessee. We 
have no statistics of its growth in either the State or general 
government, but that Tennessee produces more than she 
wants, is shown by the fact that a large quantity is annually 
shipped to Cincinnati, St. Louis and Boston, and several 
large broom factories are iu successful operation. 

No crop, at maturity, presents a more beautiful appear- 
ance than broom corn. Its stalks grow, on good land, from 
twelve to fifteen feet high, and its heavy panicle waves to 
every passing breeze like a plume. The stalks are hard and 
worthless, unless stock can be turned on a field immediately 
after cutting, or before frost, when they will strip the fodder 
to some extent. Some farmers will gather the fodder and 
use it as sheep provender during the winter, but though 
eaten, it is not with much relish. The seeds, formerly, 
were quite valuable, and in fact were fully worth the cost of 
production. But, of late, it has been ascertained that when 
cot while the seeds ^e in the milk, or at fisirthest in the 
dough state, the straw is much brighter and brings a higher 
price. Consequently, the seeds are not nearly so valuable. 
They are chiefly valuable for sheep, which are readily 
fattened by them. Qround, and mixed with com, oats, rye 

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or barley, they are good for any kind of stock, and are ex- 
cellent to fatten cattle. Mixed with wheat bran, their value 
is greatly increased, and a cheaper or better food for poultry 
cannot be foand. 

If intended for feed, the seeds should be taken up as 
threshed and spread on the barn-floors or scaffolds until 
thoroughly dry before being stored. Too often, however, 
the thriftless farmer, looking upon it as a small business, 
or being too busy with preparing the straw for market, will 
allow them to accumulate in a great heap, and, being yet 
green, they quickly heat and rot. That this is reprehensi- 
ble in the highest degree, is apparent, when it is stated that 
on the best land, as much as fifty bushels of seed are raised 
per acre, less in proportion to the character of the land. 
Thus, in a large crop, the farmer is throwing away good 
stock food, enough to supply all the animals on his place 
with an abundance of good grain during the winter, com- 
pelling too often during winter his cows and stock cattle to 
browse on barren wastes, with the bonus of a few shucks at 
night. No wonder that the March winds blow away so 
many of the cattle. 

The seeds should be planted in drills, three feet apart 
and about 12 or 18 inches in the drill. Four-quarts will 
be amply sufficient to plant an acre. In Tennessee, plantr 
[ug is done almost exclusively by hand, but there are ma- 
chines that will plant far more regularly and evenly, than 
can possibly be done otherwise, and by using one, there 
will be no necessity for laying off rows, covering, or thin- 
ning out* With a machine, the planting can be soon fin- 
ished, as one man will plant from 10 to 12 acres a day, the 
planting being in two rows at once. Any ground that pro- 
duces a good crop of Indian corn, being well prepared as 
in all other crops, is suitable for Broom Corn, but rich, al- 
luvial bottom is the best, and will make the largest returns 
Thin land will make, possibly more Broom Corn than any 
other crop, but still it will not make a paying quantity. In 

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four or five days, if the weather is favorable, the seed will 
germinate and the grass-lilte blades will make their appear- 
ance above ground. The after-cultivation is easy, by using 
the walking cultivator, and its growth is so rapid that it 
will not be necessary to go over it more than twice, if the 
ground is well harrowed before planting. By using this 
implement and a seed drill, one hand can easily cultivate 
thirty acres, and, even more, if he calls in assistance in pre- 
paring the land, for with a cultivator one row is plowed 
each time going across the field. So, with two horses, one 
man will clean well seven or eight acres per day. Of course; 
without these improved implements, and with less careful 
tillage, the crop would come down to ten or twelve acres 
per band. 

The time of planting, is from the middle of April to the 
middle of June. It must not be planted while there is 
danger of frost, and if it is delayed too long, the dry weather 
will lessen the product. 

As before stated, the best time to harvest the crop, is 
when the seeds are in the milk state, or, at furthest, in the 
dough state. At this period, the straw is light-colored and 
bright, and will bring the maximum price. If the cutting 
is delayed until ripe, the straw becomes more brittle, and 
assumes a red color, and that kind always brings the mini- 
mum price, and besides is not so strong or durable. 

And now begins the real labor of the crop. The old 
plan was to bend the corn down, three or four feet from 
the ground, and leave it thus four or five days to dry. 
But in this way, the work of after-harvesting is increased, 
and besides, the straw will become, to a great extent, bent 
or twisted, and this, also, detracts from its value. Now> 
the common custom is to ''table it,'^ and this process is per- 
formed in the following manner : 

It requires the united work of four hands to expedite the 
job, though any number can work at it. One hand on 
each row will break, the stalk off, or rather bend it about 

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four feet from the ground, at an angle, -so as to cross over 
the opposite row towards the rear. The two first stalks in 
each row must be twiAed together, so as to form a rest for 
the beginning. After that, they will lie on each other, 
forming a flat of^the two rows, the brush, with a portion of 
the stem, projecting rearwards on the opposite side from 
where it grew. The two hands following after on each 
side will cut off the bushj^with stems attached, six or eight 
inches long and lay it upoa> the "table'^ made by the bent 
. corn. It can here remain, according to the weather, until, 
if the latter is favorable, it becomes nearly dry. It must 
be carried to the barn, or other shelter, and ''poled,'' or 
spread on lathes, or resting poles, which extend across the 
barn, and left there until it becomes perfectly dry. In no 
other condition is it merchantable, except at an inferior 

In the meantime, while drying, it is also stripped of its 
seed, which is done, either by hand, horse or steam power, 
by threshers made for the business. A good horse-thresher 
will clean about three acres per day; steam, more; hand- 
power less. After threshing, the drying process is com- 
pleted, and it is ready to be baled. 

Every man who raises it to any extent, should provide 
himself with a press, which can be cheaply made, by putting 
a lever in a tree, post, or in the" side of a barn, having 
two, strongly batoned sides to shape the bale. Tobacco 
prizes will answer for baling. In baling, the farmer should 
use wire, and lay the corn straight; tie securely, and 
trim the ends squarely. A neat, tight, well-made bale will 
command a quick sale over a slovenly-made one, even if the 
corn is not so good. After the crop is off, the ground 
should be rolled and a three-horse plow passed over it, so 
as to turn the stubble into the soil. By so doing, it will 
rot, and tfie ground will be light, loose and fertile for an- 
other crop, the amount taken off being small in proportion 
to that raised on the ground. Some cut the stalks and carry 

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them into the barn-yard for littering purposes, others fill 
up gullies^ too many of which are seen on our fields, while, 
by far the largest number allow them to remain until spring, 
then drag and burn them. Some of the finest crops of In- 
dian corn I ever saw, were raised on burned land, the salts 
of the ashes simulating greatly the crop. 

The average crop of one acre in this State, may be put at 
five to six hundred pounds, dry bush. On good bottom 
land, one thousand pounds may be easily raised, and occa- 
■ionally on extra land, twelve hundred pounds may be se- 
cured. But no farmer must expect to raise even five hun- 
dred pounds on poor land, or disappoinment will be his por- 
tion, as it takes good average land to make even this yield. 
The cost of cultivating and marketing an acre is about as 
follows : 

Breaking up ground I 1.00 

Harrowing twice 1.00 

Planting with hand 1.00 

Plowing twice 2.00 

Breaking and cutting ^... 4.00 

Hauling, threshing and drying 4.00 

Wire and baling 2.00 

Rent of land 5.00 

Total cost of one acre $20.00 

Credit by 600 pounds bush, at 6 cents, the average 

price for the last few years 136.00 

By seed, 50 bushels, worth, say 25 cents 12.00 

Total $48.50 

Net profit, $28.50 per acre. 

In this estimate the seeds are placed at half the value of 
oats, there being no market value for them, and it is admit- 
ted, by all agricultural writers, that broom-corn seed are 
fully equal, in value as feed, to oats. Then, the quantity 
of seed per acre is fully low enough to make due allowance 

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for the shrinkage consequent upon early cutting. Besides 
the net profit,' much of the expense will go into the farmer's 
own pocket, as most of the work, or all of it, will be done 
by the ordinary labor necessary to carry on the farm. So, 
really, the profit of a crop of broom-corn is fully equal to 
that of any other crop now planted in the State, and great- 
ly surpasses many of them. Several objects must be kept 
constantly in view in the culture of broom-corn: 

1. Cut and cure it as green as possible, consistent with 
the ripening crop. 

2. Handle meatly and do not cut the stalks too long that 
go with the brush. 

3. Dry thoroughly as possible to prevent moulding, the 
succulent pith greatly favoring it. 

4. Bale tightly, and in all cases trim the ends of the bales 
with as much precision as possible, a ragged, jagged bale 
never bringing its value. 

There is another view to be taken of broom-corn. No 
farmer who carries on a farm of any size, whether with 
hired labor or with his own sons, but finds many unem- 
ployed days during the summer and winter, both from in- 
clemency of the weather and other causes. Let him raise, 
in addition to his market crops, a few acres of broom-corn 
for home manufacture. The cold, rainy days, and long, 
tedious nights of winter can be passed in making brooms. 
With special care he can always count on one ton of good 
straw, all raised by his own labor. One ton of brush 
will make from 1,200 to 1,300 brooms. The wire, handles, 
braces and twine in one broom will average three cents. 
The cost of a complete outfit for making brooms, the best 
machines, is fifty dollars. Two hands will make one broom 
every five minutes, so that, after supper, until nine o'clock, 
two hands will turn out not less than two dozen brooms, 
worth at this time, $2.50 per dozen, sometimes $3.00. If he 
would take the trouble to retail them, he would receive 
$5.00 per dozen. In this manner, without losing any time 

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from his other work^ a farmer could realize a good profit from 
every acre of broom-corn planted, and the work is not at 
all tedious, on the contrary, being noiseless, it would not in- 
terfere with conversation or reading by one member of the 
family. These suggestions are thrown out, particularly to 
that class of our fellow-citizens, who must pay rent, and 
find it so difficult to make the two ends meet, with large 
families to support; but they are equally applicable to all 
classes, who, by industry and economy, would escape that 
most horrible of all conditions, being in debt; for with the 
best of management, "he who sows land reaps more care 
than com." 

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BUCKWHEAT — {Polygonum foffopyrum.) 

This is one species of a weed comprisiBg many yarieties. It has al- 
ternate, entire leaves, having stipules in 
the form of scarious or membranous 
sheaths at strongly marked, usually tu- 
mid jomts of the stem; leaves triangu- 
lar-heart-shaped inclining to halberd- 
shaped or arrow-shaped on long petioles; 
sheaths half cylindrical; flowers white, 
or nearly so, in corymbose panicles; 
stamens 8, with as many honey-beaiing 
cells interposed; styles 8; acute, trian- 
gular, large akene. 

The botanic name is from the 
Greeks and the common name 
from the German, and both mean 
Buckwheat, from the similarity 
of the grain to the beech-nut. 

Buckwheat has never received that consideration due it 
as a field crop, from the fact, that other grains succeed, as a 
rule, better, in Tennessee. Where mostly raised even, it is 
generally sown as a substitute after the failure of other grain 
crops, the short period of growth allowing it to come in. Its 
cultivation thus is very fluctuating, one year the crop of the 
United States being only 14,972 acres, the next year being 
149,446 acres. It is rarely sown before the middle of June, 
and can be sown later in July, as it only requires from 80 to 
90 days to mature. However, it is never allowed to fully 
mature, as it continues to bloom and fruit until frost, and the 
judgment of the. farmer must be exercised as to the time when 

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it is full of kernals. It is not only a food for man, but is as 
good for stock, fattening horses, cattle and hogs. It is 
nearly as nutritious as oats, can be raised as cheaply, and 
the yield is about the same, ranging from 26 to 40 bushels 
per acre. 

It yields on grinding about 33 1-3 pounds of flour per 
bushel. The flour is used extensively in the United States 
for making breakfast cakes, but in Europe it is used for 
bread. East Tennessee has devoted a considerable portion 
of land to its culture for many years. A gentleman in 
Greene county sowed it the 6th of July, and harvested about 
30 bushels per acre, on the 9th of October. Two quarts 
sown one year made four bushels of the grain. It does not 
succeed well on rich land from its disposition to lodge, but 
on poor, thin land, especially with a good proportion of 
clay, it does exceedingly well. It would, no doubt, be 
a remunerative crop for the uplands of Tennessee, espe- 
cially the Cumberland table lands. It is exceedingly 
sensitive to cold, the slightest frosts destroying it, but it 
requires so short a time to mature that it can be successfully 
grown in our shortest summers and in the highest latitudes. 
It does not seem to injure the land on which it grows, and 
consequently can be raised successively for many years on 
the same soil. This is due to the fact that it derives its 
principal nourishment from the atmosphere, and for this 
reason it is that poor soil will make good crops. The flow- 
ers are abundant and abound in honey, though of an infe- 
rior quality, and from the time of inflorescence it is covered 
with bees. Some apiarians sow it solely for the use of their 
bees. * 

There are several varieties, each receiving a local name, 
and each having its defenders, as the best quality, There 
is the rough^ the smooth, the gray, the Scotch gray, and the 
silver hull, or serrazin argente, a French variety with a 
grayish colored hull. This last is named from the Saracens^ 
who were supposed to have introduced it into Spain in the 

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eighth century, and brought it thence into France. This 
variety is at present the favorite in sections devoted to its 
culture, its adherents claiming that it will produce more 
in a shorter time than any other variety. It can be sown 
in July, and harvested in September, and usually yields 
thirty bushels per acre. 

The proper quantity to sow is one bushel per acre. This is 
sown on ground previously broken up and plowed in. It 
produces such a mass of leaves that the ground is thoroughly 
shaded and all weeds are stifled. Twelve bushels will pay 
all the expenses of cultivation which leaves any surplus a 
clear profit. The average crop in the United States in 1873, 
was 18.1 bushels per acre, which is more than twice that of 
wheat. It does not stand extremes of heat or moisture, but 
in the middle States it is never too dry for it. It has been 
raised in South Carolina successfully, and in Virginia and 
North Carolina it is one of the standard crops. As far 
North as Wisconsin, Prof. Daniells experimented with it. 
He sowed eight quarts of seed (weighing thirteen pounds on 
seventy-two square rods of ground on the 28th of June. 
The growth was very slow on account of dry weather. 
When not fully ripe on the 30th of September, he harvested 
it, and got 526J pounds of grain, which was at the rate of 
27J bushels per acre. One bushel weighs 46J pounds. 
Had it been fully ripe the yield would have been much 
larger, but it had to be cut to escape frost. If it can thus 
be grown in the chilling atmosphere of Wisconsin, and on 
the hot sands of South Carolina, there is no reason why it 
should not be successfully and generally cultivated in all 
parts of Tennessee, especially as before stated on out thin 
lands. It would make a fine substitute for wheat for man, 
and of oats for animals, and nothing could be better than 
to sow it on the lands in such a year as the present, that 
have failed to bring good returns of wheat, and in fact, it 
can be sown any year after the harvesting of wheat and 
oats, on the same ground. It is sometimes plowed in while 

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green, as a manure, and often it is cut and cured as hay for 
■took, they eating it greedily. 

At the proper time for cutting it is cradled and set up to 
dry, there being no danger of its grains sprouting from wet 
weather. When dry it is placed on a floor of rails over a 
pen and beat out with the flail. It can be ground and 
bolted in any of the common mills of the country. Re- 
quiring no barn to be housed in, it is thus within reach of 
the pooest tenants as well as the rich farmer. Its average 
price for the last thirty years is one dollar per bushel, which 
is far better than can be procured from oats. 

It is a native of central Asia, and was brought into Eu- 
rope by the Crusaders, in the 12th century. ^ It was cul- 
tivated on the Hudson river as early as 1626, by the 
Dutch, and on the Delaware by the Swedish colonists, and 
was sent back to Europe in that year as a sample of the 
products of the country. At that time, however, it was 
chiefly ftd to horses, and it was not used extensively as 
human food until during the^last century. 

In 1840, the product of the United States was 7,000,- 
000 bushels; in 1850, 8,956,912 bushels; in 1863, 10,000,- 
000 bushels; in 1868, 1,052 acres were sown in Tennessee 
producing 12,000 bushels, at a value of $14,520. In 1874^ 
Tennessee produced 76,000 bushels, and yi 1875, 105,000 
bushels, while in the United States the same year, there 
were 10,082,100 bushels produced on 575,530 acres of land. 
In 1876, the last report we have in the United States, 9,668,- 
800 bushels were raised, and in Tennessee, 97,000 bushels on 
5,914 acres of land that brought into the State $80,510. It 
is thus seen, that though raised but little, except in one 
section of the State, its value is superior per acre, to the 
wheat crop. 

We cannot close without again urging the farmers of the 
Middle and Western Divisions to cultivate this crop. It 
is freer from diseases than any other crop of grain, re- 
quires less cultivation, is more easily harvested, requires no 

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heavy outlay for housing, can be sown after other crops are 
laid by^ or have failed, and yields as much per acre as oats 
or barley, and far more than wheat or rye. Its analysis is 
as follows, as given by Boussingault : 

Water 14.0 

Gluten 9.0 

Starch 48.0 

Gum 2.5 

Sugar 2.5 

Fat 1.6 

Woody fibre 20.8 

Mineral Matter 1.6 

Or economically. 

Water 14.0 

EJesh forpaers 9.0 

Fat Formers 52.1 

Accessories 23.3 

Mineral matters 1.6 

To show its relative value as compared with ether cereals 
we give a table of comparative equivalents of nutritive ele- 
ments of grains and seeds, flour being th^ standard, and 
placed at 100. 

Wheat flour, good quality 100 

Wheat ....-^ 107 

Barley meal 119 

Barley 130 

Rye Ill 

Buckwheat 108 

Indian com • 138 

Yellow peas 67 

Beans 44 

Rice 171 

This table, however, refers to their nitrogenous values 
and their fattening qualities differ greatly as will be seen by 
the tables appended to each grain as treated in the series. 
In the above table, 100 parts of wheat flour is equal to 107 
parts of wheat, 138 of corn, 108 of buckwheat, etc. The 
value of the green stalks of buckwheat as a hay is shown 
in the table below: 

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starch ,.. 

Woody fibre 




Patty matter. 

Phosphate of lime. 










S ^ 











A careful examination of this table^ prepared from the 
best American^ English and German authorities^ and a 
comparison of the many value of these articles of food^ 
modified as experience shall suggest^ with their feeding 
value as here given^ would be of immense benefit to the 
farmers and save them thousands of dollars often injudi- 
ciously expended. 

I append another table of analyses made hj Wolff and 
Knop^ showing comparative value of cereals. 


















74 1 







Winter wheat 

Wheat flour 

1 2 


Winter rye 

Rye flour 

1 6 

Winter barley 


Sammcr barley 













Beans (fleld) 


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LET — {Sorgkvm vulgare). 

Stems pithy, about eight feet high, spikeletB clustered, each with one 
perfect and one neutral or staminate^ floweF ; no sillcy down; glumee 
russet brown, coriaceous ; leaves long, linear^ and recurved as Indian 
com ; annuaL Cultivated for its seed. 

In the West Indies^ it is called Guinea Corn , in Arabia^ 
Dhouro, in India^ Jovaree, and in China, Nagara. In some 
countries it is cultivated as a forage plant, the stems con- 
taining a large proportion of saccharine matter^ and when 
dry affording a fine hay, though rough. The nutritive 
quality of the seeds nearly equals that of wheat. From 
its resemblance to Indian com, in the south of Europe it is 
called SmaU Maize. On rich land it grows from eight to 
twelve feet high, and it produces more bushels of seed, 
than an other known cereal, to the acre. 

There are several varieties of this cereal, being sports 
from the original. Chocolate corn, Tennessee rice. Chicken 
corn, are some of its synonyms. It is a native of Central 
Asia, and is cultivated extensively in Asia, Africa, West 
Indies, Brazil, and in the southern parts of the United States. 
It will grow to perfection from Pennsylvania to Florida. 
There are two varieties usually cultivated, the ''White'' and 
the " Red," both good, but the red produces a great many 
more seeds — some say as many as four times the quantity of 
the other. The red matures earlier, too ; the white, being in 
higher latitudes, is oflen caught by frosts. The latter> 
however, is preferable when intended for food. A failure 
of this crop in Arabia and Africa, would be as great a 
calamity as that of corn in the United States. The meal 
is white and makes delicious breakfast cakes, and is said to 
be much better than com meal. 

Its yield varies according to the soil on which it is sown. 
On rich sandy loam or alluvial bottoms, it will make from 
100 to 150 bushels per acre, but unlike the other cereals, 
except buckwheat, it will grow well on soil however poor. 

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DH0X7BA OOBN. 337 ' 

On rocky, clayey land, that will scarcely sprout foxtail, I 
have seen the most luxuriant crops. It will continue to 
grow until frost, and after the first head matures it throws 
out suckers from other joints, and makes smaller heads. 
This is expedited by going over it and culling out as fast as 
it ripens. Stock of all kinds are fond of it, and will 
greedily eat it. It is almost equal to Indian corn as a fat- 
tening food for hogs. 

The ground is plowed as well as possible, and then 
thrown into low ridges, or even better no ridges at all ; the 
seeds are then drilled three feet apart, with a seed drill. 
If sown by hand, the rows are made with a bull-tongue 
plow and covered with a harrow. A peck of seeds is enough 
for an acre, unless they are weevil eaten, w^en more should 
be used. They should be covered very lightly, not more 
than an inch and a half deep. When they come up they 
should be thinned out by chopping across the row, leaving 
the plants eighteen inches apart, then one or two good 
plowings are all the crop requires. There need be no fear 
of weeds or grass after it once starts out to grow, as its 
enormous foliage, and thickly clustering suckers choke out 
everything else on tlie ground. It grows very rapidly, and 
will soon be ready for harvesting. There are various ways 
for doing this, according to the fancy of the farmer. Some 
cat of the seed heads as they ripen, and turi^ stock on the 
stalks, which will eat them up quite clean. Others will 
cut the stalks just before frost, stacking them and feeding 
them as hay through the winter; and these stalks will keep 
better than any other of the pithy grasses, not souring like 
Indian corn or sugar cane. Still others wait until the 
largest quantity of seeds is ripe, and then cut, and house 
seeds, stalks and all together. If the fodder is pulled it 
makes excellent feed, in &ct every part of the plant makes 
good feed for some animals. Care should be exercised to 
protect it from fowls, as they are so fond of the seeds that, 
frequently, whole fields are stripped. 

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Tt is often planted in the missing places of corn, and it 
does far better than a replant of corn, as one stalk will 
throw oat numerous suckers, making several large heads 
and ripening with the com. Drought has but little effect 
in retarding its growth. It retains its dark green color 
and luxuriant foliage when other plants are shrivelled up 
by the heat. 

In the south it is sown thickly in drills, and cut for soil- 
ing stock, and if not allowed to flower, it will bear cutting 
until frost comes. Many sow it broadcast for hay. Pre- 
pare the ground well and sow one bushel of seed to the 
acre, harrowing it in. It makes an enormous yield of hay, 
but, from the succulent character of the stalks, it is difficult 
to cure, unless a good "spell" can be caught. However, if 
the farmer has a drove of mules or steers to fatten, he can 
cut a load or two at a time, throwing it into a rack, which 
can be replenished as required, and the hay will remain 
green on the ground until frosty so that there is no danger 
of its being lost by becoming too ripe. 

lu Germany the seeds are deprived of the chaff, and 
used as rice, and sells for the same price. In Asia and 
Africa it is made into a meal igid eaten, either in gruel, 
cakes or bread. It can be sown at any time from the first 
of April, (a light frost not injuring it,) until the first of 

If fed on the ground the stalks will remain in the way of 
the planter for a year at least, but if plowed under in the 
fall, like broom corn, they will rot by spring, and if lime 
is sown on them befare plowing under, it will greatly ex- 
pedite the process, and the soil will improve every year. 

Taking into consideration the fis^ct, that it will yield more 
seed, fodder and stalks on a greater variety of soils^ with 
less labor, in any kind of season, and return more litter to 
the land than any other cereal, and being a good food 
for man and beast, it may be justly considered one of the 
most valuable of the cereals. And with these firsts it is 
most surprbing that it is raised to the small extent it is. 

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About twenty-five or thirty years ago, it could be seen on 
the plantation of almost every farmer in the State. It 
gave very general satisfaction, and yet it went out as sud- 
denly as it came into popularity. This was due to the cry 
that it impoverished the land. This verdict was accepted 
without question, and its culture abandoned ; but it is 
manifest; from subsequent experiments, that it detracts as 
little from the fertility of the soil as any other cereal, much 
less than some. 

If the stalks are left and only the grain and fodder 
removed, and the former fed on the field, and plowed in as 
before stated, the soil will not be greatly injured. It will 
not kill cattle like clover, and no care is necessary but to 
salt and water them. One would be surprised how quickly 
cattle will fatten on the bare stalks, and besides they will 
leave the ground covered ankle deep with manured stalks. 

With all these facts before us, and our own experience in 
its cultivation, we most heartily commend its use to the 
citizens of Tennessee. There is no character of soil, from 
the rich alluvial bottoms of the Mississippi to the sterile 
mountain lands of East Tennessee, but what will make 
good crops of Dhouro Gom, and we would like to see it on 
every farm, if for no other use than as feed for fowls. 

The following analysis of 'the green fodder and green 
clover will show their comparative values : 











Bed Clover in bloesom 





It has more heating properties and more fat producing 
principles than red clover, but is not so rich in flesh 

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INDIAN COBlSf-iZea Maya,) 

Stem terminated by the clustered, slender spikes of staminate flowen: 

(the tassel) in two-flowered spikelets; 
the pistillate flowers in a dense and 
many-rowed spi^e, borne on a short 
axillary branch; (the ear) two flowers 
within eaeh pair of glumes, but the 
lower one neutral, the upper pistillate 
with an extremely long style, (the 
silk.) Stem strong, jointed, five to 
fifteen feet high, with large, alternate 
leaves starting from each joint, mo- 
noecious and annual. 

Each plant bears from one 
to six or eight ears which are 
cylindrical, and enclosed with 
a covering of leaves called 
shucks or husks. The centre 
of the ear is pithy called cob, 
and on the cob are arranged rows of grain, numbering 
from eight to thirty-six ; usually twelve to fourteen rows. 
The number of grains in a row is usually thirty to forty. 
These grains are rounded on the outer surface, flattened on 
the sides, and the germ is near the point, and from the 
germ a long, silk or style extends under the husk to the end 
where they all unite in a silky cluster. The pollen from 
the tassel falls upon these silks or flowers, thus fertilizing 
the grains. Without this pollen the seed would not ger- 
minate nor would the ear be completed, as may easily be 
tested by cutting off the tassel before the silk appears. Ob 
a bright day the pollen may be seen in the sunshine, rising 


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in clouds, with every stirring breeze. The name given by 
the Indians to this cereal was Mondamin, meaning life, and 
no the name given by botanists is in deference to the cog- 
nomen of the aborogines, Zea, meaning life in the Greek. 



It may be remarked that the early history of the bread 
plants is enveloped in obscurity, and come to us in the form 
of traditions, and myths, according to which the gods 
themselves descended to the earth to confer these great gifts 
on mankind. In India it was Brahma; in Egypt Isis; in 
Greece and Italy it was Ceres or Demeter, who not only 
brought them to the inhabitants, but taught them their uses. 
Maize being unquestionably of American origin, has its 
legend also of the birth of so noble a grain, and upon this 
allegory our Longfellow has founded his Indian Epic 
Hiawatha. The legend is given in Schoolcraft's history of 
the Indian tribes of North America, and is located among 
the Odjibwas. It is as follows: 

" A young man went out into the woods to fast, at that 
period of life when youth is being exchanged for manhood. 
He built a lodge of boughs in a secluded place, and painted 
his face a sombre hue. By day he amused himself in walk- 
ing about, looking at the shrubs and wild plants, and at 
night he lay down in his bower which, being open, allowed 
him to look up into the sky. He sought a gift from the 
Master of life and he hoped it would be something to ben- 
efit his race. On the third day he became too weak to 
leave his lodge, and as he lay gazing upwards he saw a 
spirit come down in the shape of a beautiful young man 
dressed in green, and having green plumes on his head, 
who told him to arise and wrestle with him, as this was the 
only way in which he could obtain his wishes. He did so, 
and found his strength renewed by the effort. This visit 
and the trial of wrestling were repeated for three days, the 
youth feeling, at each trial, that although his bodily 

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strength declined, a moval and a supernatural energy was 
imparted which promised him the final victory. On the 
third day the Celestial visitor spake to him: ^To-mor- 
row/ said he, *will be the seventh day of your fast, and 
the last time I shall wrestle ^ith you. You will triumph 
over me and gain your wishes. As soon as you have thrown 
me down strip off my clothes and bury me in the spot, in 
soft, fresh earth. When you have done this leave me, but 
come and keep the weeds from growing on the place. Once 
or twice, cover me up with fresh earth.' He then de- 
parted, but returned the next day, and, as predicted, was 
thrown down. The young man punctually obeyed his in- 
structions in every particular, and soon had the pleasure of 
seeing the green plumes of his sky-visitor shooting up 
through the ground. He carefully weeded the earth, and 
kept it soft; and fresh , and in due time was gratified at be- 
holding the m atured plant, bending with its rich fruit, and 
waving its green leaves and yellow tassels, in the wind. 
He then invited his parents to the spot to behold the new 
plant. *It is Mondamin' replied his father — *it is the 
spirit's grain.' They immediately prepared a feast and in- 
vited their friends to partake of it, and this is the origin of 
Indian corn." 

Among all the crops of the United States Indian corn 
takes precedence in the scale of crops, as it is best and most 
universally adapted to all conditions of climate and soil, and 
furnishes the largest amount of nutritive food. With 
proper attention to its cultivation, and the selection of best 
varieties, it may be accounted a sure crop, as well in the 
ice-bound regions of Canada as in the torrid sands of Cali- 
fornia, in fact its culture extends between the latitudes of 
45^ north, and the same in the southern hemisphere. 

Cotton has received the name of " King." But if in 
Amnrica any plant can be said to have dominion over all 
others, both on account of its universal use and its im- 
portance to mankind, both as human and animal food, 

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that title is due to com. Its cultivation is not like cotton, 
confined to one belt or to one soil, but it will grow on the 
sandy hills, or the alluvial bottoms, on the moist savan- 
nahs of the South, and upoii the highest peaks of the 
Eastern States, it having been successfully grown on eleva- 
tions eight thousand feet above the sea. 

An expressive mode of representing the range of this 
staple is, by reference to extreme points on the several 
meridians of longitude, from the Atlantic coast westward; 
and though we have no abrupt limits at the South other 
than those of the continent itself, or none in climate at 
least, we shall find the measure of distance on these lines of 
longitude of some service. The bay of Fundy and the 
valleys of New Brunswick bring this cultivation up to the 
46th parallel, at from 64° to 67° of west longitude. In the 
highlands of Maine it falls off to less than 45°, and in New 
Hampshire to 44°. But it then rises abruptly to 47i°at St. 
Anne's and at Quebec 72° west longitude. The moun- 
tainous parts of New York . and some parts of Western 
Canada, between the Ottowa river and Lake Huron, permit 
no cultivation of this crop ; but the river valleys and better 
portion of the country have some adaptation to it, to the 
46° of latitude, as far west as Lake Huron at 82° of west 
longitude. The influence of the lakes and the elevation, 
reduce the summer temperature so much at this point, as to 
throw the limiting line southward to 45° of latitude, and 
this line continues west almost to the Mississippi. Passing 
this elevated district and approaching the warmer summer 
of the plains, it goes abruptly north to 50° of latitude, at 
Lake Winnepeg 97° west longitude. This is probably its 
highest point, and measured on this meridian we have 23° 
of latitude in the United States, and the whole amount of 
35° for the American continent, as the range of a single 
cultivated staple, and everywhere on thi« line, it is at least 
equal to any other in value. Westward of this line the 
range becomes so irregular and exceptional between the ex- 

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treme points^ that the comparison is not of the same value. 
Localities of the upper Missouri permit some amount of 
cultivation to the base of the Rocky Mountains, and to 47 J° 
of latitude. On the west of these mountains it re-appeari 
in the same latitude, and in the lower valleys of the north 
fork of the Columbia it goes to Fort Colville, near 49° of 
latitude This is another extreme point of range, and 
though much the larger portion of this great elevated in- 
terior, southward to New Mexico, admits but a partial and 
imperfect cultivation, the climatic range is interesting at 
least. At 120° of longitude, the growth ceases for all lati- 
tudes on this continent, but between 97° and 120°, the 
whole continent is embraced south of the points just named, 
in its range of growth, except the Rocky Mountains and 
the plateau north of New Mexico. 

A brief reference to the European range will show the 
measure of contrast between the two continents in this re- 
spect. Africa is so entirely tropical that it has little place 
tor Indian corn, though it is cultivated to some extent near 
the Mediterranean. 

In Europe, Spain, a small part of the south of France, 
Italy, the valleys of Austria, Hungary and Turkey, 
with the islands of the Mediterranean, comprise its range. 
In almost all these districts it is also quite subordinate to 
other staples, though imperfect cultivation may be one 
reason of this inferiority. Over the more densely popu- 
lated and valuable portions of Europe, it scarcely grows at 
all; and the little grown in France, north of the mountains, 
and in Germany, Austria and Russia, scarcely gives it 
any importance. The single element of greater heat 
for one month of the summer is wanting ; and so pre- 
cise and imperative is the requirement, in this respect, that 
no skill seems likely to acclitnatize Indian corn in the more 
important European countries just named, and in the British 
Islands. From a table of mean temperatures for the various 
stations named above, it appears that this cereal is suscep- 

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tible of cultivation at any point where the mean tempera- 
ture of the month of July is not less than 64° Fah. 

The observations upon which the above facts are com- 
piled, were made priftcipally by military commanders and 
^ missionaries, at the outposts of the North, during a period, 
ranging from one to twenty-one years. 

The corn plant or its grain formed the subject of very 
imposing ceremonies among the Indians, and the "corn 
dance," at the time it came into its roasting-ear state, was 
looked forward to by both young and old as the foreruner of 
fun and frolic, with the belles of the wood, the aged for 
its more solid uses, as it then formed the great and nearly 
only luxury of the Indian. Although much has been 
written to prove its Eastern origin, it did not grow in that 
part of Asia traversed by Alexander the Great, as Nearhus 
the commander of the fleet has left a work giving the names 
of all the productions of the country, and describing them. 
Corn is not of the number. Nor is there any account 
of it among the works of any of the ancient au- 
thors. In fact, until Columbus discovered America, it had 
never entered the annals of the historian. But^in America 
it was not only found in cultivation, but it was subsequent- 
ly found growing wild all along the foot of the Rocky 
Mountain range, though here each grain was clothed 
in a separate husk which, however, it looses, in a few 
years, by cultivation. Nor was its cultivation confined 
by any means to North America, for La Vega tells us 
that one of the Incas of Peru had a miniature garden 
at his palace in which was maize of some size, and 
in quantity sufficient to represent a field made entirely 
of silver and gold, and that it had the grain, leaves, and 
even the tassels all complete, as in the natural state ; an ev- 
idence of the veneration of this people for this cereal. 

Among Europeans the " London Colonists,'^ on James 
River, have the credit of its first cultivation in 1608. They 
were taught by the Indians, and with some improvement in 

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implements this plan is still pursued by all the planters of 
the United States. 

The yield in the Virginia soil is said to have been im- 
mense — more than a thousand fold, far more than is ever 
raised at this day. In 1609 the first regular field, consist- • 
ing of forty acres, was planted by these colonists on James 
River, and these bold pioneers of the new world first felt 
themselves secure from famine. 

In 1621 two Indian chiefs, Somoset and Squanto, visited 
the Pilgrims at Plymouth, and greatly to the dissatisfaction 
of the other Indians, taught them how to prepare the soil 
and plant the corn. They also planted peas and barley, the 
seed of which they had brought over with them. They placed 
in each hill of corn an alewife, a species of herring, as ma- 
nure. The corn did so well that samples of it were sent to 
England, but the barley and the peas failed. The same 
year Stephen Hopkins and Edward Winslow went to the 
the village of Namasket, situated where Middleborough 
now stands, and they were received with great hospitality 
by the Indians, who instituted feasts in their honor, the 
principal constituents of which was corn bread, which they 
called mazinne, whence the specific name maize, which with 
venison steaks and shad formed a very savory meal to the 
half starved emigrants. In 1629 the settlers raised, on 
the Maseachusetts Bay large crops, which yielded about 
five hundred fold. Thirteen gallons of seed planted yield- 
ed three hundred and sixty-four bushels in one field, which 
at the present rate of planting would give about fifty-six 
bushels of corn to the acre. This was a very fair crop, but 
not so good as that of the Virginia colonists, who more than 
doubled the amount. But in the early settlement of Il- 
linois, on the bottoms and rich prairie lands, the yield often 
equalled that of the London colonists. 

It may be interesting to know the value of this cereal in 
that early day, and from a price list before us we see that in 
1630 corn sold in Massachusetts Bay at 10s. per bushel, 

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(?2 50) ; in New Netherland in 1650, 10 to 15 stivers per 
skepel, (15 to 20 cts. per bushel); in Virginia in 1821, 28. 
and 6d., (62 cts.) per bushel; in Rhode Island in 1670, 25 
cts. per bushel, and on the Piscataqua 75 cents pef bush- 
el. Taking the value of money at that early day, as com- 
pared with the present, these prices would be equal to about 
four times our currency. Since that day the price has fluc- 
tuated with the supply. There is always a demand for all 
that may be produced, but the seasons sometimes are so un- 
propitious that partial failures in sections create a brisk 
trade, and full prices in that section. Formerly these fail- 
ures entailed great distress on account of the difliculty of 
transportation, but the rail-roads have, to a great extent, ob- 
viated that difficulty. We all remember the drought of 
1854, when nearly the whole crop, except on the rii^er bot- 
toms, was a total failure, and then corn was in great de- 
mand, at from $1 50 to $2 00 per bushel. In 1874 anoth- 
er drought rendered it necessary for much of our supply to 
be brought from the Western States, but it was freely sold 
at $1 00 per bushel. A total failure of this important crop 
would entail a degree of distress on the United States incal- 
culable, but there is such a diversity of climate and soil, and 
its cultivation is so universal that a general drought will 
not in all probability ever take place, and the whole coun- 
try being intersected and threaded by rail-roads, the fa- 
cility of quickly supplying any deficiency at any point will 
always save, at least, a famine for man or beast. 


When first discovered in America there was but one va- 
riety known. But since that time, its importance has stim- 
ulated experiments, with the view of improvement, and the 
result is that the species has been divided into innumerable 
varieties. These modifications ai^e the result of differences 
in soil, cultivation, and climate, and subsequent hybridiz- 
ing. Many of these varieties are suitable to the section in 


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which they originated, and though making enormous yields 
there, carried to a warmer or colder climate, they do not 
fulfill the promise that seemed so fair. I have seen the finest, 
largest* premium com brought from the prairies of Illi- 
nois, and planted in rich land in this State, with the expec- 
tation of good crops, yet the yield so far from being good, 
was astonishingly small. It may be set down as a rule that 
the best plan is to select the good corn of the State or coun- 
ty and improve on that by cultivation. For instance — a 
farmer in Kutherford, many years ago, began with the white 
oob gourd seed corn, that had from twelve to fourteen rows 
of grains, and by prudent selections and close attention, in 
a few years he brought it up to 34 and 36 rows of 
grains to the ear, with a cob three inches in diameter, and 
this specimen will shell out a bushel of grain to fifty ears. 

As a general thing, the names of the different varieties 
are taken from the originator of some fancied resemblance, 
and so that in two sections the same corn will be 
known by different names. Some that have acquired a gen- 
eral reputation have a name common to the whole country, 
and to these we shall have to confine our remarks. The col- 
ors of corn are often taken as a distinction, and they depend 
on the epidermis generally, though sometimes on the oil of 
the grain. If, however, the epidermis be transparent th« 
color will depend either upon the oil or the combined parti- 
cles of which the grain is composed. If the hull is opaque 
of course the color depends entirely on the epidermis. 
Some corn is rich in a jellow oil, and the hull being trans- 
parent, the grain takes the color from the oil. Others have 
a yellow hull or epidermis, and the grain is white within, 
yet it receives its color from the external coloring matter. 

It is thus with the Golden Sioux, which has a yellow oil 
all through the grain but a transparent hull, and the White 
Flint, each taking its color from its oil and starch. But 
there are others, red, yellow, blue, and white varieties, that 
are colored by the epidermis alone. As an explanation of 

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these varying colors would no doubt interest the reader, if 
he will split a grain of corn longitudinally and let it drop 
into a solution of blue vitriol, (sulphate of copper), such 
as is used for soaking wheat, the germ will become green, 
because the phosphates only exist in the germ, and by the 
action of tne agent on these phosphates, the copper unites 
with them, and phosphate of copper, which is green, is the 
result. Or, by dropping it into a solution of the sulphy- 
drate of ammonia, the green will turn a dark olive color, 
which arises from the change of the salts of iron into a sul- 
phuret of iron. 

Thus it is apparent that the color is modified by whatever 
constituents are iound in the soil, and these changes, by 
constant application, become permanent. Many theories 
have been evolved in regard to the importance of improv- 
ing the kinds, and in fact starting new varieties, by selec- 
tion of seed fV-om the butts, tips and centres of the ear. 

In proof of the efficacy of this plan, many elaborate 
treatises have been written to prove the favorite spot from 
which to select seed, with, in all cases, very startling results. 
But Prof. Daniells of the University farm of Wisconsin, an 
accepted authority on all agricultural subjects, instituted a 
series sf experiments conducted with ^ great care, and long 
continued, and having grown corn from each end and the 
middle, came to the conclusion there was no practical 

Among other authors, however, is Dr. Flint, who claims 
to have seen it tested at the Massachusetts State &rm in 
1858, with the following result, viz : 

Value of crop planted from seed at large end, same 
number of seed planted in each case, and receiving same 
treatment and on same soil, 
738 pounds of sound corn at 1 cent, $7 38 

77 pounds sofl corn at i cent, 39 

1360 pounds fodder at $7 per ton, 4 76 

$12 63 

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Value of product of rows planted with corn taken from 
the middle of ear, 

663 pounds sound corn, at 1 cent per lb, $6 63 

164 pounds soft corn; at J cent per lb, 82 

1200 pounds fodder; ^ 4 51 

$11 96 

Value of product of rows planted with grain from small 
end or tips of the ears, 

747 pounds sound corn, $7 47 

53 pounds soft corn, 27 

1320 pounds fodder, 4 62 

$12 36 

He recommends a further trial, though the above was 
conducted on the fairest principles. However, it proves 
nothing, and we are inclined to accept the result of Prof. 
Daniells' Experiments. 

One thing should be borne in mind in selecting seed, bv 
those wishing to start a* new variety. In the first place, 
select the seed that is best adapted to^ the land to be culti- 
vated. Actual experience can only give the true solution 
as to which is the best. Select in the fall, while the corn 
is yet on the stalks, large ears, from those stalks only 
which have two or more ears. Also notice the length of 
the butt of the shuck, and get ears with short stems. And 
lastly, get ears that grow low on the stalk. Do this for a 
few years judiciously, and every man can have a variety of 
his own. 

The varieties are innumerable from this very reason, and' 
while it is impossible to collect all the names, it is equally 
unnecessary to do so. - But there are some of national 
celebrity, chiefly made so through the dessemination of 

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INDIAN CX>BN. ' 351 

seeds by the Patent Office or Agricultural Bureau at 

Among these are, Ist, the "Wild Corn/' of the Rocky 
Mountains, wi^ husk to every grain ; 2d, "Early Canada f 
3rd, "Improved King Philip or Brown Corn f 4th, 
"Golden Sioux;" 5th, "Tuscarora;" 6th, "New Mexican 
or Black Corn f 6th, "Stowells Evergreen ;" 8th, "White 
Gourd Seed;'' 9th, "Mexican While Flint;" 10th, "Yel- 
low Gourd Seed;" 11th, "Shoepeg;" 12th, "Eight-rowed 
Yellow;" 13th, "Twelve-rowed Button;" 14th, "Golden 
Flint;" 15th, "Sweet or Sugar Corn;" 16th, Adams* 
Early;" 17th, Runners' White ;" 18th, "Cooley's White ;" 
19th, "Kentucky Field;" 20th, "Wyandotte Gourd Seed ;" 
with many others, and last and least, but important, " Pop 
Corn" of which there are also several varieties, and the 
smallest and perhaps the best is Dixie Corn. 

Prof. A. E. Blount, of Cleveland, in this State, has by 
careful culture and selection, produced an exceedingly pro- 
lific variety which is highly commended. I learn from 
Prof. Blount that he produces over 100 bushels to the acre 
of this corn, sometimes as many as six and eight ears 
growing upon one stalk. 

In effect we have two general varieties, the f^White" and 
the "Yellow," and these are sub-divided into the "Flint" 
and "Gourd Seed." All the balance are modified forms of 
these. Of course this division excludes Pop corn, which is 
nothing more than the petit grandchild of the wild corn. 

Many of the above named varieties have been sent out 
by the "Agricultural Bureau," and their qualities have 
been tested all over the country, and the results, always 
enormous, given to the country in the "Reports." That 
these seeds have produced fine crops, is mainly due to the 
method of cultivation, being sent out in minute packages, 
they received extra attention. 

The practical conclusion of all these experiments is, that 
f we want good bread, we plant the "White Flint ;" if 

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good Stock corn, the "White Gourd Seed f while for hogs, 
the favorite sorts are the "Yellow or Red corn/' These 
kinds have proved themselves to be the corn for Tennessee, 
and whenever the Southern farmer sends n(rth of the Ohio 
for com seed, he will be ashamed of his corn field in 

It will be seen from the analyses here appended, that 
there are material differences in the very constituents of 
these varieties of corn, calculated to adapt them for the 
very uses to which they are applied. The White corn 
abounds in starch; and is almost destitute of oil, and so 
is well suited for bread and hominy; while the yellow 
corn contains a large proportion of oil, which, as a fat 
producer, is adapted to the fattening process. Many per- 
sons lay great stress on the size and color of the cob, and 
not without reason. In Middle Tennessee, the "Little red 
cob," or Willis corn, is a favorite with almost everyone. 
As a rule this is a gourd seed and the ear is nearly all 
grain, as the cob is very small, while the grains are very 
long and have very fine tips, barely touching the cob and 
crowding outward. 

The white cob is generally a' flint, and makes excellent 
bread, giving less bran than the gourd seed, but from the 
hardness of its grains is not so well suited for horses. 

One of these flint varieties is the "Hominy Corn," which, 
as its name implies, is used almost solely for the manufac- 
ture of hominy. The flints are much less apt to injure 
from exposure to the weather, the gourd seed being more 
pervious to moisture. The " Yellow" and " Red" are sup- 
posed to be more prolific, the ears being larger, the grain 
heavier, and the stalks more vigorous. The large crops of 
the country, to be hereafber noticed, are usually Yellow 

The subjoined tables of analysis will give a good idea of 
the composition of the several sorts. 

The relative proportions of the constituents of each corn 

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depend on the appropriating power of each species. For 
instance, the sweet corns take twice as madi of the phos- 
phates from the soil as white flint. Yet, these two have 
been planted together, and grains of each found on the same 
ear. Let these grains that grow side by side on the same 
ear and stalk, that received the same nourishment, be split 
and immersed in a solution of sulphate of copper, and the 
green color given indicates more than double the amount of 
phosphate in the sweet than in the flint. 

Take specimens of grains split as before directed and 
immerse them in tincture of iodine, and the limits of starch 
and dextrine will be exactly defined, the iodine making an 
intense blue with the starch, and a port wine color with the 
dextrine or gum. The horny covering of the grain has 
80 much oil combined with the gluten, its chief element, 
that it is protected from the action of the re-agents, though, 
if the oil be extracted by immersing in alcohol, the starch 
will be seen in this portion also. By these and the before- 
mentioned experiments, the precise amount of the phos- 
phates, oils, irons, dextrine and starch can be ascertained 
in each variety, and thus the fisirmers will be able to apply 
the precise elements requisite for the formation of the 

Now, one of the practical results of the knowledge ob- 
tained is, that the more phosphates contained in corn, the 
more osseous or bony matter supplied to the animal fed 
with it ; hence old animals fed lar^ly on corn are disposed 
to gout or stiffness, which is produced by the deposits of 
the superabundance of bony matter in the joints, forming 
small concretions of phosphate of lime. Every one has 
noticed about the knees of old horses these knots. 

With regard to the relative proportions of starch in the 
different varieties of corn, it has been observed that the 
white soft corns contain the most, but contain little or no 
oil or gluten. The Mexican Black is likewise chiefly com- 
posed of starch, while the Yellows have a large proportion 

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364 CEBEAL8. 

of oil. Pop com has the least starch of any of the varie- 
ties and the most oil. 

It will be remarked there is a great difference in the dis- 
tribution of the oily and glutinous parts of com. Many of 
our Southern kinds have it deposited on the sides^ while the 
starch is in the centre and extends to the top of the grain 
bulging it up in a rounded form, and when the grain be- 
comes dry the starch cells retract, causing the top of the 
grain to be rough, having little dints or pits in it. 

The horny outer covering of the grain is composed largely 
of oil and gluten, with some starch interspersed. In the 
process of the fermentation of malt in distilling com, this 
oil rises to the surface and is sometimes saved and used for 
illuminating purposes. As much as 11 per cent of oil is 
found in some varielies. On this oil depend its keeping 
qualities, as it retards decomposition. Thus corn, planted, 
is enabled to preserve, through its oily portions, a sufficient 
amount of pabulum to support the young plant, until it 
has time to throw out roots and get its support from the 
soil. Also meal made of the iSinty corns will keep well, 
its oil preserving it ; while the soft corn meal, unless kiln- 
dried, will soon sour. The abundance of oil makes com 
pop. The oil when heated to a certain point becomes 
suddenly decomposed, and in such a violent manner the 
cells are ruptured by the sudden expansion of the carburetted 
hydrogen gas formed by the decomposed oil, and the whole 
grain is retrofexed on itself. 

The proportions of oil in com varies with the variety, 
being as much as 11 per cent in some, and becoming less in 
others, down to none. One hundred bushels of ordinary 
flint com will yield fifteen gallons of oil. If com be 
placed in lye the oil next the hull forms with lye a soap, 
which causes the skin to slip off easily, and this is the 
manner in which lye hominy is made. The lye not only 
loosens the skin, but acting on the mucilage around the 
germ liberates that too. Flinty com meal will not rise 

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well on account of the oily portion preventing adhesion, 
and to make it rise there must be added rye/ wheat, or bar- 
ley flour. 

It is the presence of this large proportion of oil that 
makes corn so useful in fattening stock and poultry, as the 
oil goes, almost without a change, as a deposit into the ani- 
mal tissues. The starch also, not only tontributes to the 
heat by its slow combustion, but is largely changed into 
fat, and into the substance of the living frame. Dextrine 
and sugar are also, by a slight change of composition, 
passed into the tissues to serve the purposes of heating and 
building up. The salts of iron are taken up by the blood 
and it tlien undergoes oxydation in its passage through the 
lungs, which continues through the arteries, veins, and their 
capillaries, thus carrying oxygen to every part of the body. 
The phosphates contribute to the brain and nerve tissue and 
to the bones, and more solid portions of the body. Thus, 
every part of corn has its duties to perform in the body, 
and it is one of the substances that contain all the elements 
of nutrition in itself. 

For analyses see next page. 

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Pennsylvania Yellow Com " Churd SeedJ^ 




70 66 






1 an 




Albnminoids » 

8 71 






White Oourd Seed Oom from Maryland. 







Callulose — 

1 66 

It has always been a matter of womler with the people 
Norths why the people South live so much on corn bread. 
The truth is the bread-making qualities of Southern corn 
are greatly superior to that grown in the Northern States. 
It is far sweeter, and bread made of it has an entirely dif- 
ferent taste and flavor. In one pound of Northern com 
there are only 21 grains of sugar, as shown by the sub- 
joined analysis — while the sample analyzed of Southern 

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corn shows 200 grains. But to compensate for this the 
Northern corn contains more fet biit a smaller quantity of 


Water 2 oz. 105 grs. 

Gluten— nitrate ^. 1 " 402 " 

Starch) 9 " 262 " 

Sugar Vcarbonates " 21 *' 

Fat j 1 " 101 " 

Woody fibre waste " 350 *' 

Mineral matter — phosphates " 70 '^ 


Water 3 oz. grs. 

Gluten— nitrate 4 " 215. " 

Starch) 3 " 218 " 

Sugar Vcarbonates " 200 " 

Fat j " 20 " 

Woody fibre— waste 1 " 21 " 

Gum— waste " 200 " 

Mineral matter — phosphates " 250 " 

Another comparative analysis of •Northern and Southern 
corn with wheat gives the following result: 





Northern com 







Southern corn 




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It will be seen that Southern corn abounds in food for 
the muscle and brain^ being much richer in the nitrates 
than wheat, but not having so many elements productive of 

Considered as a food, corn is probably the cheapest in the 
world, except such as grows spontaneously." It is possible 
for an adult to subsist on a bushel of meal a month at a 
cost of fifty cents or even less, or say twelve bushels a year, 
costing six dollars. The amount of corn necessary to make 
this amount of meal can be grown on a fourth of an acre 
of land, or to put it in another way an average acre of tilla- 
ble land will grow corn enough to subsist four persons for 
twelve months, and they would feed as luxuriously as the 
rice-eating people of India. The capacity of the corn- 
growing belt of America to sustain a dense population, 
viewed in this light, is almost unlimited. 

A comparison of yellow and white corn shows: 

Yellow corn contained. 
White com contained. . 
















It may be observed that these specimens are both "gourd 
seed.'^ the yellow color being from the epidermis, so there 
is not the same difference's exists in the yellow corns, 
whose color originates from the oil. 

The cobs of these two varieties were also analyzed, giving 
remarkable results as to their nutritive properties. A cob 
of the yellow corn weighing 560 grains when burned, left 
7.6 grains of ashes or mineral substances, the rest being or- 
ganic and principally convertible into living tissues; and a 

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cob of the white weighing 290 grains when burned left 4 
grains. Of this residue there are just such minerals as are 
contained in the animal tissues. Thus, it may be seen^ that 
the cobs^ as well as the grains, take up substances from the 
soil according to the capability of each variety. 

Much judgment must be exercised by persons selecting 
seed corn. Those living on bottom land, rich in humus, 
will select any of the large kinds, assured of a crop of 
good corn, while those living on high elevations, with cool 
winds and short summers, will select, naturally, those 
varieties of flints that mature in a short time, ayd are ac- 
climatized to the cold. Should it be for fattening purposes 
the oily corns or "yellows'' are taken. But at last the 
farmer can be the best judge of what has done well on his 
soil, and will, therefore be governed by his experience. 


There is scarcely a farmer in the State of Tennessee but 
has some favorite method of cultivating com, which he 
learned by his own, or the experience of his ancestors, and 
because he has always succeeded well he is satisfied to con- 
tinue in the beaten path. But as the country thickens in 
population, land becomes more valuable, and labor cheaper, 
so if he should keep pace with the times, it should be his 
endeavor to produce the same surplus as formerly, with less 
land. This can be done by studying the plant food required, 
and supplying it in sufficient quantity. Vegetation is very 
adaptive, and corn planted on poor land, will make corn, 
though the ears are meagre and the yield sparse. But sup- 
ply a sufficiency of food to that corn through the same 
medium of soil and its gluttony becomes amazing, and in- 
stead of the diminutive stalks scattered sparsely on the land, 
behold the great proud plant, spreading its large, green 
leaves to the breeze, waving its tall, yellow plume on high, 
and thrusting out its huge aldermanic fruit in the middle. 
The outlay of manure, quickly returns manifold in the 

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shape of large, remunerative crops. Thus, it should be the 
emulation of every farmer to excel. No one is injured by 
his success, but he is the recepient of all the bounty result- 
ing from his labors. 

Any soil in our climate will produce corn, but 
not all in paying quantities unless specially prepared. The 
best corn land is the rich, black limestone upland, or the 
alluvial bottoms. If the land is wet it will be sour and 
the corn will " french " and no result accrue to the farmer. 
If possible the land should not be tilled in corn more than 
one year \jithout rotation, as this is necessary to keep up its 
fertility. By rotation, the ingredients necessary to produce 
any crop, will be renewed in the soil by the decomposition 
of its elements. This matter is treated of more fully 
under the chapter on manures. 

When the field to be planted is determined on it should, 
in all cases, where practicable, be broken up in the previous 
fall. By so doing, the weeds will be, to a great extent, de- 
stroyed, and the soil will be so mellow and ameliorated, 
that it will work kindly all the next year, and there will 
be little trouble in cultivation. Besides the broods of cut 
worms, those pestilent insects of the farmer, being exposed 
to the freezes of winter, will be greatly reduced, so that 
the farmer can plant as early in the spring as the weather 
will admit, whereas, if it is stubble land, or especially clover 
sod, the worms will often so efifectually thwart the labor of 
the farmer, that corn need not be planted until the latter 
part of April. Every farmer in Tennessee knows 
the good effects of the frosts of winter upon freshly broken 

Should it unfortunately be out of the power of the planter 
to break in the fall, the nearer he can come to it the better, 
as, if even one frost touches it, good effects will arise. 

The soil just before planting should receive all the atten- 
tion requisite to put it in a thorough state of tilth. Work 
done at this time is amply repaid in the subsequent culti- 


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vation. Among other things it should receive harrowing 
or rolling su£^cient to pulveriae every clod in the field. 

Much difference exists as to the time of plantings some 
planting early, others late. It will generally be seen that 
late planting, except in exceptional cases, makes light corn. 
It is true, it requires less work by probably one plowing, 
but the difference is more than compensated .in lessened 
yield. All other things being equal, the ground will be 
ready to plant so soon as nature gives the word, which she 
unerringly does, by throwing out the flag of dogwood blos- 
soms and redbuds. These signs have been acted on since 
the Indians taught their observance, and the man who fol- 
lows this signal will, as a rule, succeed. Some plant with 
the blossoming of the apple tree, but that is getting late, 
and he who plants late will, if there is a drought, strike it 
at the silking time of his corn. 

The corn well planted, is half the battle in the crop, in- 
deed the cr< p may be said to be half made. Let the planter 
stir the surface every ten days, thinning out to two, and in 
thin lands to one stalk to the hill. 

It was once thought best to stir deeply with every plow- 
ing, but experience has proved that the deep culture should 
be done before planting. The surface roots of corn are the 
ones that sustain it and make the thrifty plant, and it were 
better they should not be disturbed at all. But this is in- 
evitable, on account of the germination of weed and grass 
seeds, and the necessity for a circulation of air through the 
soil. Three things are requisite for the rapid growth of 
plants, viz: light, air and moisture, and to afford a con- 
stant supply of these necessities a gentle stirring of the sur- 
face is necessary. But, at the same time, the fact of the ex- 
istence of rootlets all over the ground will deter the prudent 
farmer from going too deep. By keeping the crust broken, 
air can pass in, giving stimulus to the disintegration of the 
nutrient elements, the chemical effect of light passes direct, 
ly to the roots, and a large amount of moisture is absorbed 

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from the atmosphere by the loose dirt, it acting as a sponge. 
The com should be planted 98 to distance, in accordance 
with the capacity of the soil. On good ground four feet 
each way, with two stalks to the hill, will be a good distance, 
or if drilled, let the drills be four and a half feet apart, and 
one stalk every eighteen inches in the drill. It is much 
easier to thyi out corn than to replant it. Put plenty of 
grains in each hill, four or five will not be too many, for 
should a heavy, beating rain supervene the planting, and 
the soil is afterward baked by a hot sun, it will require the 
cumulative force of all the plumules to break through to 
the surface. With a perfect stand there will be on land 
checked four feet each way and two stalks leffc in a hill, 
5,444 stalks. Allowing one ear to each stalk and 100 ears 
to the bushel, fifty-four and a half bushels ought to be the 
result. Yet, but few farmers even in practise realize on 
their whole crop this amount. Drilled corn, with a good 
stand, will not grow so many stalks; but there being only 
one stalk at a place, the ears will be larger, and the stock 
will more frequently bear two ears. 

The method of planting, is undergoing a change with the 
acquisition of agricultural implements. Though the usual 
plan is to plant by hand and cover with a plough, hoe, or 
drag, still there are many who have adopted one of the 
many corn-planters. The seed is distributed far more regu- 
larly, and uniformity of stands is secured. There are many 
patented machines, each good in the field, and many better 
than none. Besides, the labor saved is great, as there are 
no rows to be laid off and no covering to be done save that 
effected by the naachine. But the farm should be level to 
use such implements profitably. As to the subsequent cul- 
tivation the method of level culture has, of late years, 
proved so beneficial, that it commends itself to the favora- 
ble consideration of every farmer. With a great heap on 
each side of the corn-rows the plant is deprived, to a great 
extent, of two of the necessities of healthy growth, light and 
air. With level culture, this is obviated. Besides, with 

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level culture, the rootlets are not torn at every plowing, 
thus arresting for several days the growth of the plant. 

Corn should be plowed every ten days at least, and no 
one should over-crop himself in such a way as to fail to be 
able to do it. Many implements are used for plowing corn, 
the bull-tongue, shovel, mold-board, double-shovel, cultiva- 
tors of various patterns, and last, but not by any means 
least, the walking cultivator. Any one who has seen the 
operation of the last-named, will not hesitate to buy one. 
The corn can be plowed several days sooner than with any 
other implement, simply because, with a careful plowman, 
it is impossible to cover it up. Then it sifts just soil enough 
around the plant to smother any sprouting weeds, and the 
amount nan be regulated at every hill, at the discretion of 
the plowman. This cultivator can be used until the corn 
is three feet or more in height, and, if corn is in good con- 
dition at that height, it can be "laid by." One man and 
two horses, with a walking cultivator, will do the work of 
four men and four horses, and do it better. It is a diflScult 
matter for one man to attend twenty acres of com by the 
old plan; with a walking cultivator, one man, after the corn 
comes up, will easily cultivate forty or fifty acres. But 
this does not refer to rocky, grubby, or stumpy land, as in 
such lands the cultivator will be worthless. Lands of that 
character will have to be cultivated as best they may. 

Four or five plowings, under ordinary circumstances, are 
all that are necessary to produce a crop, and it is then 
turned over to the kindly influences of the heavens. With- 
out seasons man can do nothing, but he can, by deep and 
thorough tilth, counteract many unfavorable circumstances. 
If the land is deeply broken up at the beginning, it will 
pass the moisture from the surface below to the roots of the 
corn, and so save it from drowning out. By the same 
method, much water will be retained in the soil, so, in case 
of drought, it will rise up as the necessities of the plant 
may require. 

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To recapitulate, first, break up well and deeply, subsoil- 
ing if necessary, then pulverize thoroughly, and plant in 
rows four feet apart, or in drills four and a half feet apart, 
eighteen inches in the drill. Before it conies up, say in five 
or SIX days, run over it all with a heavy harrow, and as 
soon as it is well out of the ground begin with the walking 
cultivator, or at least with the double-shovel, and run over 
it every ten days. By this method the young grass and 
weeds will never gee a start, and will never be required to 
be wrapped up with dirt, as many seem to think is indispen- 

To show the difference between shallow breaking and 
deep, a list of experiments is here appended, made by Prof. 
Daniells, of the Wisconsin State Farm. The lots were 
of the same character and adjoining; but they were 
clayey with a clay subsoil and rather too wet. The experi- 
ments were continued for four years, but the last year the 
whole land was well drained, which at once changed the 
result, as shallow plowing had the advantage, until drained. 
Besides, the shallow-plowed was the highest point, and the 
deeply-plowed got all its water as well as its own, and so 
the corn was drowned. 










Plowed five inches deep 

Plowed twelve inches deep 

Plowed eighteen inches deep. .. 
Plowed and subsoiled 18 inches. 



It will be seen from these experiments, that draining the 
soil, worked a wonderful effect in the production. 

The Superintendent of the Kansas Farm reports an ex- 
periment on 2.95 acres on the prairie which had been en- 
closed in pasture for a few years, and from which he had 
cut less than a third of a ton of hay the previous year. The 
field was divided into six plats, varying in size from one- 

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third to two-thirds of an acre. Plats 4, 5 and 6 received a 
dressing of fresh stable manure/applied in winter and spring, 
before planting. Plats 1 and 6 were broken up in the usual 
way, two to three inches deep. Plats 2 and 5 were trench- 
plowed in addition to this breaking, that is to say, a com- 
mon turning plow followed the breaker and threw about 
four inches of soil over the inverted sod. Plats 3 and 4 in 
addition to the plowing received by plats 2 and 6, were also 
subsoiled, the subsoiler following the trenching plow and 
loosing the soil to the depth of ten to fifteen inches. The 
land was harrowed and planted immediately with yellow 
com. Cultivators were run through thie rows during the 
season to keep the surface open. The season was an unu- 
sually unfavorable one. Corn stood the drought well, and 
was cut and shocked in September and husked in October, 
both grain and stalks being very dry. 

The following table gives the result in shelled corn : 


Common breaking alone 

Common breaking and trenching 
Same as plat 2 and subsoiled. .T 

Same as 3, with manure 

Same as 2, with manure 

Same as 1, with manure 



5.68 1.86 
6.94 2.78 








'2 3 I 








One well marked difference is, the soft corn is reduced 
and the amount of stalks increased on the manured. 

Mr. John W. Murray, of Carroll county, Maryland, re- 
ports in the Agricultural Report of U. S., that in 1873 he 
raised thirty and a half barrels (152J bushels)- of shelled 
com per acre. The lot was below the road and the barn- 
yard, and received the washings from both, and had been in 
grass for fifteen years. In 1872, he broke and put it in com, 

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and got 26J barrels per acre that year. The next year he 
broke it very deeply, harrowed and rolled it. He scattered 
300 pounds bone-dust and harrowed it in. He then laid it 
off in drills thirty-two inches apart and scattered 200 
pounds superphosphate in the rows and planted the com on 
it, one and two grains, ten inches apart. The corn was 
"yellow." This was on May 17, and on the 4th of June he 
found the corn did not come up well, so he dragged and 
replanted, and on the 10th, ftill with many missing hills, 
he plowed it. 

On 17th, plowed, hoed and plastered weak spots. On 
30th, dragged, plowed and thinned. On 4th July, hilled 
with a potatoe plow, and occasionally thinned where com 
showed weak until it began to silk. 

These experiments are copied simply to show what can 
be effected by scientific attention to the production, and we 
leave it to the intelligent reader, especially that class who 
are in the habit of renting, if it is not better to rent five 
acres and put on it the expense usually given to twenty, if 
the returns will be the same or more? Land at $5 per acre 
would give a sum at least of the difference rented, 
making seventy-five dollars ; this sura, or a portion, ex- 
pended on manures and applied would, with a little extra 
work, make the five acres more than equal to the twenty. 
And then the proud satisfaction of having the best corn in 
the country would be a laudable ambition dear to any man's 

Before leaving this subject let the necessity of close, 
heavy and inexorable thinning be impressed on every one. 
No one can be a judge of the necessity like the fiirmer. 
After he has once thinned his corn, if he sees any of the 
stalks showing signs of distress go into it again and again. 
If not thinned there will be a certain failure, as many men 
will find to their cost who wanted to make large yields and 
did not use judgment in thinning out. 

Corn should not be gathered until several frosts havt 

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fkllen on it to check all flow of moisture. If put up at all 
damp it will injure by heating and moulding. Much corn 
is lost every year by garnering too early. Many cut it and 
leave it in the fields to dry, and of course it will dry 
sufficiently here if left long enough. By pursuing the 
latter plan, much valuable fodder is saved for stock ; for 
after it is shocked it is husked in the field, leaving the 
stalks, shucks, and fodder for the cattle. This fed in the 
rough, or passed through a cutter will amply repay the 
labor of saving it. 

Taken at^ the right time there is no part of the corn but 
what is nutritious. The stalks are full of pith that are rich 
in sugar, the shucks and fodder, while not being quite equal 
to the best English hay, are better than any other of the 
rough feeds, and the quantity from an acre is enormous. 
Below is an analysis of the stalk, shucks and fodder, in short 
just as it is usually cut and shocked, and to show its rela- 
tive value, I have added the analysis of pea vines and the 
best thoroughly dried English hay and wheat bran. 








Flefth forming principW .......... 







isVob' ' 


Heat and fat producing matters .... 
Woody fibre 


Mineral matters j 





TbiB table shows, not only the valuable character of the 
substances that are usually wasted and burned on the field, 
but it also shows that pea vines, that are rarely saved by 
any one, are for fettening purposes superior to the best 

Many fail to cut corn on account of the trouble, but in 
no other way can as much feed be saved in the same length 

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368 CEBEAL8. 

of time. Nor is the corn in the least injured if out when the 
grain is soft. There is always enough sap in the stalk 
to bring the corn to a healthy maturity. The stalks and 
fodder supply the best provender for cattle during winter, 
and they can be kept in our climate on this, without other 

It is a bad plan for a &rmer to lose the results of any 
part of his labor, and by close, rigid economy alone can he 

Should the farmer determine to cut, the time is just as 
the shuck begins to dry, and yet before the fodder is dead. 
By taking advantage of this precise time he will save every- 
thing, and the corn will extract juice enough from the 
stalk to fill out every grain, even if it is not yet full. The 
usual plan is, to cut so as to leave four hills in every tenth 
row standing, and by bending these together at the top and 
tying them into an arch, the shock has a foundation to rest 
against. Many plans are adopted in tying which will 
suggest themselves to the practical farmer. The stalks 
should have slope enough to the centre to prevent the 
shocks from blowing down. When the work of the year 
is over, the corn is gathered, leaving the shuck on or not. 
The stalks can then be shocked again. They are now ready 
for cattle, that may be fed on them in that or any other 
place, by either cutting them in stalk cutter or throwing 
them in racks, made temporarily on some poor spot to 
catch the manure. If cut up and fed at the barn, there will 
be such a manure heap as will gladden the heart of every 
good farmer. 

It is often difficult to decide whether a sale at the time of 
gathering is better than later, the small price early being, 
in the estimation of some, counter-balanced by the shrink- 
age. We are able to lay before the reader two well 
authenticated experiments on this subject that may be a 
guide to any one debating it. One was made by 
Prof. Daniells, of Wisconsin ; and the other by Mr. Shel- 

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mire, of Pennsylvannia. The latter measured ten bushels, 
and it weighed 401 pounds, on the 30th of October, 1870, 
giving an average of 40.1 pounds. The same corn, Decem- 
ber 12th, measured ten bushels but only weighed 35.5 lbs. 
to the bushel showing a loss of weight, by shrinkage, of 
11.5 per cent. The corn was shelled at the last mentioned 
date and showed the weight of the cobs to be 19.7 per cent, 
of the entire weight of the corn. Weight of one measured 
bushel of grain, 51.3 lbs, afiber fanning, 52 lbs; showing a 
loss by fanning of 1.24 per cent, in weight. 

Another test was made by the same gentleman the next 
year. November 10, 1871, ten measured bushels of ears 
weighed 399.5 lbs., an average of 39.95 lbs. per bushel. 
January 2, 1872, the same corn measured ten bushels but 
only averaged 34.45 lbs. per bushel. Loss of weight 13.8 
per cent. On shelling the grain weighed before fisinning, 
there were 260.25 lbs., showing the weight of the cobs to 
have been 24.4 per cent of the entire corn. After fanning 
there was a loss of 2.9 per cent, in weight. 


Weighed Oct 11th one hundred 
pounds each, and on Dec. 80, 
these varieUes weighed, 

Weight of ears, pounds 

Loss of weight in drying, pr. ct. 
Weight of shelled com, pounds. 
Weight of cobs, per cent 













80 00 



98.25 98.50 

6.76 ! 6.60 

74.50 I 76.25 

20.11 18.45 


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By this experiment the whole field lost in one acre as 
follows : 





Loss of 

weight m 


of an 

acre of 



of cobs 

in an 



com in 
an acre. 

Yellow Dent 





Early Yellow Dent 




White Australian 


Another farmer in Pennsylvania, by accurate weight and 
measurement, demonstrated that corn in one year would 
lose in shrinkage, by weight, 19 per cent.; by measurement, 
17 per cent., and shelled com would lose by weight, 17 per 

The cost of raising corn is so arbitrary it would be un- 
profitable to treat of it, were it not for the purpose of show- 
ing how the cost of one acre of corn can be very great, and 
yet give a handsome profit to the planter. This we will do 
by giving actual verified results. 

A New Jersey farmer gives the cost of 22 acres : 

Product per acre, 36.46 bushels. 

Value of corn stalks per acre, $4 55 

Sold corn at 70 cents per bushel, 25 51 

Total value per acre of crop, $30 06 

The expense account is for plowing, furrowing, dropping 
and covering, cultivating, hoeing, cutting, husking, and 
drawing com to crib, drawing and stacking, shelling, win- 
nowing, bagging com and taking to market, wear of imple- 
ments, and on land, all giving an expense of 39.65 cents per 
bushel, or $14 42 per acre, leaving a clear profit of $16 54 

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per acre, besides receiving nearly all the expenses himself, 
he having done the work. 

From a large number of estimates, the average cost of 
production without manure is $5 50 per acre. Of course 
this estimate is for ordinary culture without manures. We 
have added — to show what can be spent in manures with 
profit — a list of profits and expenses.. They are compiled 
from various agricultural essays and purport to be trust- 
worthy. It will be seen by these reports that the man who 
uses manure unsparingly, receives ample returns. 

J. J. Flint, 3f acres, 600 bushels, value $450; fodder and 
and stalks $124. Total, $574. Expenses, $329 50, in- 
eluding $192 /or manure. Net profit, $244 60, or $65 20 
per acre. 

Joseph Goodrich, one acre, lllj bushels corn and two 
tons roughness. Cost of production, $70 75, including 
$39 25 for manure. Stable manure, compost, plaster and 
superphosphate applied. 

James Carter, one acre. 111 J bushels corn anc^ three tons 
roughness. Cost, $49 50 including $27 00 for manure, 18 
loads compost, and a small handful of superphosphate in 
each hill. 

William Morris, one acre, 90 5-7 bushels, com expense 
$93 58, of which $58 50 is for manure. Plowed half of 
the land in November, and the other half in April. Re- 
sults from both pieces just the same. These results from 
the efiects of manure on com might be multiplied indefi- 
nately, but enough are given to establish the good effect of 
manures. Still a farmer should not go manure-mad and 
spend the product of the whole place in manure. Rather 
let him try to recuperate his land by proper rotation and 
frequent seeding down to clover. This is, at last, the cheap- 
est, most convenient, and most universal manure in the 
reach of farmers. Any man who will establish a system of 
regularity in making a manure heap, will be astonished at 
the result of a few minutes regular labor each day in build- 

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ing a large compost heap. Only have a barrow at the barn 
and let it be the business of one hand, while the others are 
feeding and currying, to gather with his shovel all the 
droppings of the stock, both in the stables and barn yard, 
and roll it to a central point and place it in a covered pen 
provided for the purpose. In the fall he can add forest 
leaves, weeds from the fence corners, and occasionally throw 
over the whole a layer of earth, and by spring he will have 
a compost heap that will, as far as it can be put on his' land, 
double his crop. And he cannot do better in the spring 
than to start early enough to draw eve;*y corn stalk, left 
standing, into the barn yard to make manure for the next 
year. It is only by close attention to these details of farm- 
ing that a man can derive any benefit or pleasure from 
country life, for surely, without profit there will be little 

The depth of soil over a grain of corn should not be 
more than one and a half to two inches. If planted very 
early still less. Corn planted six inches deep will rarely 
come up, at five inches it will come very sparingly. At 
one inch corn will come up in seven or eight days with suit- 
able weather, at one and a half inches in-^ine days, and at 
two to four inches it will require twelve or eighteen days, 
in early spring. 

A great stimulus was given to the cultivation of corn 
by the failure of 1874, the average that year per acre being 
only 20.7 all over the United States. The cultivation of 
cotton the next year dropped down amaringly, and corn 
arose. The average per acre the next year was 29.4 bush- 
els, but then the price went from 64.7 cents per bushel, in 
1874 to 42 cts. in 1875. So that the increase in breadth 
being about ten per cent, brought no corresponding increase 
in value of the entire crop. Tennesse, from having former- 
ly been a large cotton producer, has become a grain State. 
.The proportion of com to all the crops in the State is 45 
per cent., cotton 15 per cent, and other crops 40 per cent. 

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Id 1876 then^ were 181,842 bales of cotton raised in Ten- 
nessee, and four counties, Shelby, Fayette, Haywood and. 
Tipton, raised 73,127 of these, or four-tenths of the whole 

It may naturally be expected that corn will, if long con- 
tinued cultivation takes place, exhaust the land on which it 
is raised. But it deduces the fertility of the soil far less 
than may be supposed. Many fields are in cultivation in 
Tennessee that have been put to corn continuously for three 
quarters of a century, and yet' make handsome yields. 
Corn' is the largest production, not only of Tennessee, but 
of the United States, of any one crop. But, unlike wheat, 
much of it is returned to the soil. In fact, according to the 
prevailing method of culture, the land is not put to its full 
capacity, and much of its growing power is, therefore, in re- 
serve. Besides, the corn is, as a general thing, fed to stock 
on the place, and therefore is, in some measure, returned to 
the soil. Wheat, on the contrary, is almost wholly taken 
from the land, and as a result the cultivation of this cereal 
is continually te^nding westward in search of new fields. 
Should the plan laid down in this work be followed, that is, 
should the stalks be cut and fed on the fiirm, and the 
corn used to fatten the stock of the place there would be no 
loss whatever, except the actual weight of the stock sold, 
which would be a small drain on a fertile field. The sta- 
tistics of the cereal growths of the United States bonr out 
the assertion of the improved value of land put to corn over 
that put to any other product that is taken entirely off the 
land. And this increased value is seen in the improvements 
made on the farms of the corn growing coimties. It is said, if 
a man has a crib full of corn he has all that makes the farmer 
independent. He has bread, meat and many other luxuries 
his taste may require, and so well established is this fact it 
has given rise to the axiom ''he is as independent as if he 
had corn to sell." 

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The principal implements for cultivating have been inci- 
dentally mentioned, and it will only require a recapitnlation 
of them, together with the mention of some economic 
machines for the preparation of the grain for market or 

The planter about to engage in corn culture, will require 
good plows, and it will be a great economy in him to pro- 
vide himself with the best the market affords. There are 
many good plows put on the market, each possessing intrin- 
sic value, and all far in advance of the plows of twenty- 
five years ago. A good steel mould-board, three-horse, or 
large two-horse plow, capable of throwing up the soil to a 
depth of 10 or 12 inches, is indispensable, and this should 
be accompanied with a subsoiler. Harrows, rollers, and 
cultivatorb come, as a matter of course, for without them 
the soil could not be put in a good state of tilth. This 
process is greatly aided by a drag, cheaply made, by attach- 
ing three poles eight feet long by two chains, about three 
feet apart. This drag, on rough or stalky land, will pass 
over inequalities of the soil, and pulverise the surface better 
than a brush or harrow. A corn-planter, if the ground is 
level, should be in every man's possession who intends plant- 
ing largely. Some of them make the rows, drop the corn, 
and is so regulated that by pressure of the foot the amount 
of seed, and the depth of planting is under the control of 
the driver. The best of them will plant either in drills or 
checks. A good seat is provided for the driver, and with 
two good horses he can plant ten or twelve acres in a day. 

A walking cultivator is now being used, far in advance in 
efficency to the sulky cultivator. It has four hoes, all un- 
der control of the driver, and adjustible by the will of the 
laborer. With it four furrows are plowed at once, and a 
man can • plow as many acres in a day as he can lay off 
rows for in ordinary planting. This .implement can aJso 

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be used to advantage in plowing in oats, wheat and other 
small grains, as it can be set to go in any depth desired. 

A busker h^s been invented, but from all reports at our 
command, it does not fulfil its promise. A busker in con- 
nection with a sheller has been used to some extent, but one 
great disadvantage is that it does not separate the sound 
and rotten corn, though it is represented to do so by means 
of a fan attached. A good corn-sheller and a strong straw- 
cutter will about complete the equipments of the planter. 
It is surprising how small the quantity of stalks that is re- 
jected by stock when run through the straw-cutter. So 
much sugar is retained in the pith that only those portions 
near the butt are left uneaten. When the stalks are cut 
up the shucks and fodder are all devoured greedily. No 
man who has attended horses or mules to any extent but 
has observed the amount of cobs eaten by them. It is ne- 
cessary for the stomach to be distended to favor digestion, 
and when stalks are freely supplied they serve this purpose, 
besides contributing no mean supply of nutrition. 

A stalk-cutter has been used to a limited extent, to be 
driven through the standing stalks, and cut them in short 
pieces for the benefit of future plowing. I saw one of these 
in operation in Lake county among the rank stalks doing 
effective service. Should the planter wish to cook the food 
for his animals he will require a furnace, with kettles, or a 
sheet iron box to boil it in, also a mill to grind it into meal. 
Below we give a series of experiments to determine the re- 
lative value of raw and cooked food, and if the fiirmer after 
examining this subject, shall determine to adopt the latter 
method, then he can select the best means of accomplishing 
that object. Among the implements above named, the 
double shovel deserves especial mention. To those not able 
to supply themselves with the walking cultivator, it is in- 
valuable, and lessons the work of the farmer at least one- 
half. Mr. Thos. H. Bond, of Williamson county, planted 
a large crop of corn in 1877, and no other plow ever enter- 

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ed the fields^ and he made an average of 60 bushels per acre, 
over his whole farm. But a man must not expect to culti- 
vate with this, or the cultivator, in the usual slovenly man- 
ner of some farmers, that is, wait until driven into the field 
by the growth of weeds. To get the full benefit of them, 
he must keep ahead of the weeds and grass. So soon as he 
sees the ground broning with the. minute points of vege- 
tation, then is the time. If he lets them alone until they 
are one or two inches high, nothing then will do but to 
"wrap them up*' with a turning plow. It must not be said 
these plows will not do on hillsides. They may be more 
troublesome to hold there, but so is a bull tongue or a turn- 
ing plow, but still they are used, and so can the others be 
made available there. In fact they may be used any where 
except on very rocky, grubby, or stumpy fields. 


It has been said of the palm that it is the universal plant 
of the tropics, furnishing every thing required for the com- 
fort of the outer and inner man. While we do not make 
clothes of maize, I believe we use it for almost every other 
purpose. In its young and tender age, it makes one of the 
best forage crops for our horses and cattle, and so soon as 
the grain gets into the milky state it furnishes our tables 
with the greatest vegetable luxury of any country. In all 
its after existence it serves man and animals as food. Good 
sugar has been made of its tender pith, and the stalks make 
excellent shingling for out houses, or for houses if so 
desired. The grain is used in making starch. The plant 
gives to many all the hay they ever use. There are made 
from some portion horse collars, foot mats, hats, bonnets, 
slippers, pipes, potash, stable bedding. And the shucks go 
into the paper mills and furnish the paper or a portion of it 
on which the news of the world is sent to the breakfast table; 
it h|s lessened the agony of ducks and geese, in taking the 
place of their feathers in making our beds; in neighbor- 

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hoods remote from railroads it furnishes a cheap and ex- 
cellent article of fuel ; oil is distilled from it to light up the 
housesjivhiskey to sicken the well and to cure the sick; alco- 
hol, without which the druggist would be disarmed, comes 
from this precious grain. Beer, malt, and various other cool- 
ing and medicinal preparations^take the placeof milk, and the 
foreign adulterated poisons under the names of wine and 
alefc. Even the cobs are of important use in the mapufac- 
ture of vinegar and in the making of pipes. The tassels 
give a fine addition to the vases that adorn our rooms. 

It is cooked in more ways than any other food. It is parched 
and in this way is extensively used by travelers in India 
and other Eastern countries. It is cooked, when green, on 
the cob by boiling, or baking, or roasting, or is cut of and 
fried or made into the most delicious puddings. Cracked 
and deprived of its siliceous coating when dry, it makes the 
hominy of commerce. Deprived of its coating by lye, 
and left in whole grain, it makes lye hominy. Crushed 
into angular particles, resembling in size and shape gun- 
powder, it becomes grits. Ground up finer it makes the 
meal that is used by the people of half the continent of 
North America, making the corn cakes, batter cakes, hoe 
cake, johnny cake, ash cake and mush of the Southern 
States ; the tortilla of the Mexican, the stirabout of Ireland 
and the Polenta of the Italians. 

The Kaffirs have recently substituted maize in the place 
of millet as food, and its consumption in Great Britian and 
on the continent is increasing every year. The large pro- 
portion of carbonaceous substances which it contain makes it 
more stimulating than wheat. As a food it is not so pala- 
table as wheat, but its possibilities are far in excess, and for 
cheapness there is much in favor of maize. 

We all remember when, in 1846, the famine devastated 
Ireland by the potatoe rot, maize rushed to the rescue and 
saved millions of people from starvation. Even now, some 
philanthropists are trying to introduce it into general use 

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in Europe, to prevent, as it will, those periodical famines 
that, with their awful lieutenant pestilence, stalk so regularly 
over the older continents. Where maize grows there can 
never be a famine, as it supplies within itself all that is 
requisite to make man or animal. By its use we are able to 
sell meats at five or six cents, that a poor man in Europe 
never sees, and can only be bought at from fifteen to twenty 
cents per pound. 

Hog and hominy was the entire dish of the pioneer, the 
source of hospitality of the backwoodsman. It gave life to 
the wilds of America. Its delicious morsels are yet the pride 
of the palate. 

Nor does corn keep its^sweetness to itself, but through the 
aid of bees it stores for man's use tons of honey. And 
when stung by the aphides its very tears are honey dew, 
thus, in its destruction, holding out a dying gift to man. 

Without corn, the discovery of Columbus would have 
been long in benefitting mankind. The settlers could 
scarcely live with the meagre assistance aflforded from 
Europe, and many of them starved as it was. Tennessee 
certainly could not so soon have had the population it did, 
for our forefathers, profiting by the example set by the 
Indians, would parch a bag of corn, and with this bar to 
hunger fearlessly cross the mountains into an uninhabited 
region, where they could not by any means, except by the 
slaughter of wild animals, have subsisted otherwise. 

A war party of Indians will not hesitate to undertake a 
long and dangerous journey into an enemy's country, and 
endure hardships unknown to us, swimming rivers, climbing 
mountains, making journeys of wondrous distances, and 
yet their whole subsistance is a small bag of parched corn, 
crushed between two stones. 

Corn is undoubtedly fed too lavishly to horses. It is 
very rich in carbonaceous substances, its heat producing 
compounds being about 70 per cent, of its composition, and 
consequently creating great heat in the animal. 

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The subject of cooked or uncooked food has engaged the 
attention of agriculturists time out of mind, and it is yet 
an unsettled question. Those who have tried cooked food 
invariably testify to its worth, yet the trouble of carrying 
it out deters, and will deter, the many from its attempt. 
Its advantages are so marked that it is to be hoped it will 
become the general practice of the country. 

S. H. Clay, of Bourbon City, Kentucky, fed hogs with 
corn in the ear, boiled corn and boiled meal. After fully 
testing it he calculated that, 

lbs. oz. 

One bushel corn in the ear made of pork 5 10 

'' boiled corn " " 14 7 

" boiled meal " " 16 7 

" another case of meal " '' 18 

Prof. Mapes, of New Jersey, after numerous experiments, 
decided that thirteen pounds of cooked meal was equivalent 
to thirty pounds corn raw. 

But then the question comes up as to whether the fuel 
and other expense attending the cooking will not over- 
balance the surplus pork. That is a question to be decided 
only by investigation. 

In 1854, the corn crop of Middle Tennessee was almost 
a total failure. A gentleman in Davidson County, on the 
1st of September cutoff apiece of corn and planted turnips. 
The yield was enormous, and he put up a furnace and 
boiled a large amount of turnips daily, stirring in about a 
quart of meal for each hog. He fattened and killed thirty- 
five hogs as fine as he ever had when corn was plentiful, 
and that with only about two bushels of meal to the .og. 

In feeding one hundred hogs, the superintendent of the 
Iowa State farm reports that he has saved two-fifths of the 
grain by grinding it into meal, and feeding it dry, and 
finds still better results by souring it before feeding, and by 
steaming it, saved at least one half or over. 

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380 CEREAT^. 

Examples, well authenticated, of this kind might be 
multiplied indefinitely. But enough has been said to show 
that, all other things being equal, the ground corn, or if 
possible cooked, will go much further than in its natural 
state. For this reason still slops, though deprived of much 
of their nourishing qualities, will fatten hogs or cattle 
faster than if fed on corn with all its ingredients intact. 

Sir Humphry Davy, after numerous experiments, came 
to the conclusion that wheat contained 95 per cent, of 
nutritive matter, and corn 77 per cent. Therefore if a 
bushel of corn is worth 77 cents, a bushel of wheat is 
worth 95 cents, so far as nutrition is concerned.' But when 
it is remembered that the 23 per cent, of innutritions mat- 
ter, which constitutes a portion^of the maize, is desirable 
in man for food as "necessary not only to satisfy the craving 
of hunger, but to promote digestion by the stimulus of dis- 
tention, which bulk alone can give," it will be understood 
that the comparative value of corn is even greater than 
would appear from the^e analyses. 

But the prices of these two grains have never been con- 
trolled by their proportions of nutrition. Corn in 1877 
could be bought in abundance at 40 to 45 cents per 
bushel, while wheat brought $1.10 to $1.40, thus showing 
that however cheap, and however nutritious, the taste of the 
people impels them largely in favor of flour. 

Before closing this part of the subject it will not be irrele- 
vant to say a few words on the subject of preparation of 
corn for human food. In the first place, corn should never 
be ground too fine. It will never make as good bread 
when the cells are all broken, as it then has nothing to re- 
tain the gas or steam induced by heat, and so it is heavy. 
When intended to be made into plain bread, put nothing in 
it but cold water, and make it up with a large amount, and 
then put it in an extremely hot oven and let it remain only 
long enough to brown on the surface. This will make bread 
to suit the most fastidious taste. Every housewife has ways 

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of her own for making breads, and properly made, they 
are all good, but good, plain bread can never be made out 
of dry dough or with a slow heat. 

It is barely necessary to allude to the efficiency of meal 
as a butter-maker. Fed to cows, one-half gallon twice daily, 
dry, it will, with hay, bring down the milk in showers, and 
the^ butter will be yellow and rich. Many dairymen in the 
North have fed it alone for weeks without detriment to the 
milk or condition of the cow, but she should never have 
more than two quarts at a feed, and it should always be dry, as 
if wet it will pass at once into the second stomtlch and not 
be properly assimilated. Judge Owen, of New York, a 
large dairyman, testifies to the value of this as a dairy food 
in extravagant terms in the Agricultural Report of 1868. 


It would appear that corn, as a hay and forage crop, be- 
longs more especially to a work devoted to the grasses, and 
in this respect the people of Tennessee do not appreciate its 
importance. The dairymen of the North have for years 
been using it as a green food for their cows in that pecu- 
liarly dry time of July and August, alter the first pastures 
have dried out, and before the fall pastures have become 
green from the latter rains. 

We have seen already the vast amount of forage in the 
form of fodder, tops and stalks, that can be saved from one 
acre of corn. No one can imagine the amount of waste in 
this respect every year in our State. Mr. Mechi, the most 
eminent farmer in England, or the world, estimates every 
ton of corn fodder, which includes stalks, husks and leaves 
to be worth ten dollars per ton. He also estimates one ton 
of fodder to every forty bushels of grain. The total crop 
of Tennessee in 1876, our last published report, was 54,500,- 
000 bushels, which would make 1,365,500 tons of good 
fodder, this, at one-half of Mr. Mechi^s estimated value 
would be $6,812,500! How much of this is lost by sheer 

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382 CEREAI.S. 

waste, we leave to every farmer in the State to tell, com- 
paring the amount, he himself has lost. 

There is a numerous class of small farmers and tenants 
in the State, comprising a majority of the citizen, who do 
not have the land on which to raise hay. From the pecu- 
liar circumstances of their annual lease they cannot sow 
clover or set a meadow, and yet these men have their horses, 
cows, and possibly sheep that must be fed as regularly as 
the animals of the landlord. 

Nothing is easier than for these men, instead of belling 
their stock apd letting them browse on a precarious range, 
to provide an abundance of the very best hay for them 
This is done by sowing one, two or more acres in corn, ac- 
cording to their necessities. Should they desire to do so, 
they can raise two crops in the year, provided they will 
sow as soon as the frost is out of the ground. It only re- 
quires about ninety days for corn fodder to mature, and it 
can be cut some sooner. There are several ways of seeding 
down, and either one must be adapted to the ground ta be 
sown. After the ground is prepared by breaking, harrow- 
ing and rolling, the seed may, on very rich ground, be sown 
broad-cast, one bushel of seed to the acre. Another plan 
is to lay off the ground one way and drill in the rows, they 
being not more than eighteen inches or two feet apart. It 
should be plowed about twice, and then cut, when the 
grain that will form on some of the stalks gets in the roast- 
ing ear state. Another plan, if the &rmer owns a corn 
drill, is to drill the corn on freshly prepared land about six 
inches apart. It will soon come up, and prevent, by its ' 
shade, the growth of weeds or grass. Cut when in the 

A crop of 40 or 60 tons of green forage is not uncommon 
on an acre of land, and one farmer writes that he, by a fair 
calculation, in a drilled piece got 72 tons. Of course from 
its exceedingly succulent character, both of leaves and 
stems, it loses greatly, but on fair ground not less than 

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three or four tons of dry forage is easily obtained. Land 
sown in corn will not only furnish a large amount of hay, 
but the fodder, if cut and fed to stock as required, will keep 
three or four times as many as if the land was turned over 
to the stock themselves. This plan applies with peculiar 
force to those owning small parcels of land, to renters, or to 
persons owning a large town lot. Food of a good character 
may be grown in sufiScient quantity, on a mere town lot to 
feed a cow or a horse during the entire winter. 

There is some difl&culty in curing corn fodder properly, 
as it contains so much water. It should be cut and spread 
in good weather, or, if possible, let it be put in shocks, 
stand until cured, and then it must have shelter. This 
shelter may be provided in various ways, either barns, sheds 
or stacks. 

And immense saving will be made by cutting the whole 
up in a straw cutter. A farmer who once uses a good straw 
cutter, not only on stalks, but on hay and all roughness, 
will never feed without it afterward if Be has the industry 
to do that which his judgment approves. 

It has been a desideratum with all far farmers to secure 
green food for cattle all through the year. In the colder 
climates this is impossible, from the presence of snow 
through the long winter. But in the milder climates of 
the South, and generally in Tennessee, this can be done by 
sowing rye, barley and wheat, and also by having a winter 
pasture of blue grass and other grasses. But within the 
last few years, a plan has been invented in France, by which 
any man can have the best of green food, almost identical 
with that cut out of a field, all through the year. It was 
long known that the pulp of sugar beets left after extract- 
ing the sugar, was a very superior food, both for cattle and 
hogs. Various experiments were instituted by whict a 
plan for its preservation might be devised, and at last it was 
discovered that if preserved from contact with the atmos- 
phere it would remain a fermented food, and the process of 

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putrifaction would not set in. In this condition it waB as 
good for food as when first coihpressed. This beet pulp 
partakes of the same nature of the still slops of our distil- 
lery, only not so rich in nitrogenous qualities. An enter- 
prising farmer conceived the idea that green fodder could 
be saved in the same manner, and after various experi- 
ments, conducted through several years, he evolved the 
plan called "ensilage." This practice has now become an 
established plan, not only in France, but in ' nearly all Eu- 
ropean countries, and has received a long notice and recom- 
mendation from the Commissioner of Agriculture in Wash- 
ington. We will give the details so that any man can test 
it to his own satisfaction, and we know no reason why our 
horses and cows should not be regaled with green food 
through winter, as well as man with preserved vegetables 
and fruits, and the principle is the same. 

Ensilage embraces principally corn fodder, but is not con- 
fined to it, as it has been applied to hay, peas, oats rye, bar- 
ley and clover. But here is the plan : 

A pit is dug from five to seven and a half feet deep, th^ 
length of com fodder say six feet wide and twelve feet long 
at the top, but only ten feet long at the bottom. The fi)d- 
der is allowed to lay on the ground after cutting until it 
wilts, and is then packed evenly and closely in the pit until 
the pile rises as high above as the pit is deep. During the 
packing, it must be trodden as firmly down as possible. All 
the earth that comes from the pit is then thrown on the 
heap, it having previously been covered with straw. The 
sides and ends must be sloped so as to carry oft all rains 
and there must be at least three feet of earth on top. This 
is necessary for the benefit of the pressure, as it will not 
keep well unless well packed. In the course of a few days 
the pile will have shrunk to half its original bulk, and it 
will, in settling, dislocate the surface forming fissures in the 
soil. This must be noticed closely and the cracks stopped 
at once, and packed over, as if air gets to the mass, the fer- 

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mentation that is going on will become putrefaction, and 
the fodder will be lost. The success depends entirely on 
the extent of the exclusion of air. Sometimes when the 
crevices in the soil are not at once stopped the fumes of the 
alochol may be distinctly detected, showing that fermenta- 
tion is rapidly going to its next process, putrafaction. One 
case is noticed where an entire failure took place because 
the pit was covered with sand, its porosity admitting the 
air. In the beginning of this process simple pits were 
made, the sides being nothing more than earth, and they 
were lined with straw or boards, but since its su(x;ess has 
been assured, these pits are lined with brick and hydraulic 
cement to exclude moisture, as it was found that the fodder 
coming in contact with the earth was generally mouldy and 
worthless. For the same reason shelters are erected over 
them, though if the sides are properly sloped and ditched 
around, this will be unnecessary. Not only are the various 
kinds of forage preserved in this way, but all kinds of roots, 
such as beets, turnips, potatoes, carrots, etc., and apples may 
be kept. It appears from analyses carefully made that a 
slight degree of fermentation takes place in the fodder, re- 
ducing its water and increasing its azotized and fatty princi- 
ples. It is greedily devoured by all kinds of stock, and in 
every respect is equal to the green food as it stood in the 
fields. The fodder of corn does not change its color or ap- 
perance in the least, nor does clover, but other hays take on 
a slightly brownish tinge. When desired for use it can be 
taken up and placed in the barn, being careful to take out 
not more than a weeks supply at a time, unless the weather 
is freezing cold ; and the residue must be carefully covered 
as before. For this reason some farmers have their pits 
divided by partitions so that one compartment may be taken 
up at a time. The reason for sloping the ends of the pit 
is that equal pressure may be brought to bear on the entire 
pile, it being ascertained that unless pressure is made on all 
it will not keep well. Some French writers advocate the 

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mingling of straw with the fodder, and contend it improve 
the keeping qualities of the fodder, while the latter imparts 
a freshness to the straw, making it more palatable. 

The following is an analysis of the maize before and after 
eusilage : 









s 3 







Azotized matters 

Non-azotized matters., 

Fatty matters 

Crude culluloAe. 

Ashes . . 
































In this case the maize had undergone a good deal of dry- 
ing in the sun and winds before it had been put in the pit. 
Therefore there was less difference, or rather no difference, 
in the moisture. The advantage this form of hay has over the 
dried hay is the fecility of digestion, and its peculiar pow- 
er in promoting a flow of milk, in fact just the same differ- 
ence there is between the dry food of winter, and the juicy 
succulent grasses of summer. It haa never to our know- 
ledge been tested in Tennessee, but that it would succeed 
here as well as in Europe seems probable. It certainly 
would be an easy way to provide a large supply of green 
forage. The pits will contain about ten tons each. 


I am indebted to Dr. Edward Young, of the Bureau of 
stiatistics, for the necessary data to exhibit the exports of 

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this great cereal from the early history of the country to 
the present time. In an article on the early exportation of 
bread stuflfs, contributed by Dr. Young to the American Ex- 
porter, he says : 

"The first settlers of Virginia in the early years of the 
17th century, and of Massachusetts a few years later, as 
well as those of New York, Pennsylvtnia, Maryland anr" 
other States, were anxious to raise sufficient wheat, maize 
and other cereals to feed their families, so as to be indepen- 
dent of the mother country as regards food. Many years 
elapsed before the area of grain crops was sufficiently large, 
and the richer soils were brought under cultivation to enable 
producers to raise a surplus sufficient to supply the demand 
of tropical or semi-tropical countries. The first recorded 
export of grain from the United States occurred in 1646, 
when a vessel of 100 tons burden, built at New Haven and 
probably bound for the Canary Islands, was lost with 70 
}>ersons and a cargo of wheat. 

In 1678 there was considerable export of fiour and bread 
from New York, chiefly to the West Indies. 

In 1682 there was a grist mill at Hoboken, which was 
owned in New York. Flour and grain were that year 
mentioned as articles of exports from the eastern section of 
New Jersey. 

The total exports of bread stuffs from all the colonies in 
1770, was of bread, flour and meal 458,868 barrels, valued 
at about $2,862,190; of wheat, 851,240 busheb, and of In- 
dian corn, 578,349 bushels. This^ amount Lord Sheffield, 
after the war doubted the capacity .of this country to exceed. 
Up to that time England had usually exported grain, yet had 
at difiPerent times been forced to depend on supplies from the 
colonies ; and her West India possessions were mainly fed 
from this country. Hence in the traffic with the islands this 
branch of colonial industry was an exceedingly important 
one. Of the value of the Provinces to England, in this 
regard, Mr. Burke, in his speech in 1774, uses the follow- 
ing expressive imagery : 

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one. Of the value of the Provinces to England, in this 
regard, Mr. Burke, in his speech in 1774, uses the follow- 
ing expressive imagery : 

' For some time past the Old World has been fed from the 
New. The scarcity you have felt would have been a deso- 
lating famine, if this child of your old age, with a true fil- 
ial piety, with a Koman charity, had not put the full breast 
of its youthful exuberance to the mouth of its exhausted 
parent.' " 

Dr. Young furnishes me with the following statement, 
showing the exportation of corn and meal from the United 
States from 1790 to 1799, and to what countries they were 



Fruioe. Spain. 



b lands. 


Total to aU 

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Statement showing the quantity of Indian corn, and corn 
meal, exported from the United States during the 21 fiscal 
years ending September 30, 1820: 

PiscAx Years. 










Total in 1 1 years 











Total in 10 years 11,970,380 




1,944 878 








830 516 




• 588,741 










108 342 







58 521 










zed by Google 



Statement showing the values of exported Indian corn 
tnd meal each of the ten yearg, (ending September 30th,) 
from 1821 to 1830 inclusive : 












Total for decade 


224 823' 


345 180 
434 002 

$8 394 645 $4,581,489 

During that period the export of wheat amounted to only 
$181,732, of flour $49,043,089, and of rye, oats and other 
grain $766,747. The percentage of bread stuffs to total 
exports was .908; of Indian-meal .860; of flour 9.21. 

The values of exported Indian corn and meal for the 
next decade, from 1831 to 1840 inclusive, were as follows: 




1831 '. 

$ 896,617 
338 838 

$ 595.434 








629 389 




722 399 

1888 * 

1839 - 




Total for decade 



For this decade the value of the exports of wheat increas- 
ed fourteen fold, being $2,554,432. The exports of flour 
were valued at $56,579,601, and of rye, oats, and other 
small grain, including pulse for this same period, $900,- 
928. The percentage of corn to -other exports w^ .303 ; 

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of wheat .289 ; of other grain .102 ; of corn meal .70 ; of 
flour 6.42. 

Statement showing the values of exported corn and corn 
meal from the United States, for the decade ending June 
30, 1850. In consequence of the change of the fiscal year, 
in«1843, from September 30 to June 30, the figures given 
for that year are for a period of nine months only : 



Com Meal 


$ 812,954 










$ 682,457 






1845 ^ 




4 801,884 


1849 , 


760 611 

Total for decade 



The exports of wheat for the same period were valued 
at 115,641,878 ; of flour $100,431,897 ; of other grain and 
pulse $3,631,784. The percentage of Indian corn to all 
the other exports from the United States for this decade 
was 2.95; of corn meal 1.07 ; of wheat 1.40 ; of other grain 
.324 ; of flour 8.97. It will be observed the exports of In- 
dian corn and meal, for the year 1847, were largely increas 
ed. This was due to the famine which prevailed that year 
in Ireland. Immense quantities of corn and corn meal 
were sent from this country to the relief of her suffering 

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Statement showing the value of Indian com exported 
from the United States for each of the ten fiscal years end- 
ing June 30, from 1851 to 1860, inclusive : 











Indian Corn MeaL 

7,622 565 
8 259,089 

$ 622,866 



1 002,976 





994 269 


Total for decade !$37 501.880 $9,064,888 

The exports of wheat, same period, amounts to $75,028,- 
686; rye, oats and other grain, $7,717,102; flour, $180,- 
143,666 ; percentage of Indian corn to other exports, 1.62; 
of wheat, 3.23; of other grain, .332; of corn meal, .390; 
of flour, 7.76. 

Value of exported corn from the United States for each 
of the ten fiscal years, ending June 30, from 1861 to 1870, 
inclusive. The Southern ports were excluded during the 
years 1861, 2, 3, 4 and 5, because of the blockade and civil 

Indian Com Meal. 


$ 6,890.865 ^ A92.00S 

1862 ^ 



8,404 898 















1869 » 


Total for decade 



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The exports of wheat for the last decade were valued at 
$295,938,699; of flour, 1225,713,645; of rye flour, $582,- 
909 ; of rye, oats and other grain, $16,120,321. The per- 
centage of the value of Indian corn to other exports was 
2.60; of corn meal, .400; of wheat, 9.35; of flour, 7.13; 
of other grain, .509. 

Statement showing the value of exports of Indian corn 
and meal for each of the fiscal years, (ending June 30,) from 
1871 to 1878. 








1878 to April. 

Indian Corn. MeaL 

$ 7,458,997 
41,621 245 


Total for eight years, less two months $217,012,081 $10,878,889 

Exports of wheat for the same period were valued at 
$493,076,289. Exports of flour were valued at J181,396,- 

The amount of corn raised in the Unitied States, and in 
Tennessee, as taken from the census returns and the reports 
of the agricultural department, is as follows : 


U. S., bush. 

Tenn. bush 


838, 92,742 








52,276 223 

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The total quantity of the principal agricultural products 
of Tennessee, together with their value, will give a little 
idea of the power of king corn. This table is for 1876, the 
last iasued hy the Department of Agriculture at Washing- 


Acres in each 

Value per 

Total valua- 

Bushels per acre. 




Indian Corn 





$17.440 000 




1,856 626 






39 444 



Oats • 



866 818 















Potatoes . . . 






Tobacco, lbs 32,200,000, 



. 8 


Hay, cwt..| 165,000, 



13.56 2,237,400 

Total nurahfir of arrftft 


Ji35-915 110 

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The following table is from the Amerioan Alimnac re- 
cently issued. The prices given are the average prices in 
New York city for the month of January of each year: 






















1857 , 

1H58 , 

1859 , 














1873 , 





Pork, ■ 

Corn, Ba. 


Oatfl, Bu. 




» U 

$ 1 01 

$ 27^ 

$ 13 37 



11 75 




11 87X 


1 15 


14 I2I2 




IZ 26 * 


1 04 


11 50 


1 26 


13 87 


1 ^^H 


13 60 


1 19 


13 26 


1 (« 


14 50 


1 05 


13 76 


1 73 


18 2-T 

1 06 

1 77>i 

. 57 * 

23 60 


1 02 


21 di) 


1 24K 


83 25 


1 06 


14 26 


1 08 


13 25 


1 25 


9 62K 


88 J^ 


8 87H 


1 00 


10 12H\ 

1 51»^ 



9 31KI 

' 74 

1 31 


13 56 


1 02>i 


10 26 , 


1 26 


U 00 ; 




14 18 


1 26 


11 81 


1 20 


12 18 


1 09 


14 68 


1 32 


19 62 



13 43 


2 67 


12 62 


2 14 


17 87 


1 76 


19 67 


1 87 


15 75 


1 40 


17 57 


1 46 


16 18 




16 12 


1 38 


12 25 I 


1 53 


14 43 

1 26 



19 87 

1 95 

1 85 


36 26 



1 20 

29 12 




19 12 

1 20 



21 00 


1 70 


28 00 

1 12 



29 7^ 


1 42 


19 75 


1 50 


14 60 


1 67 


18 25 


1 66 


16 60 


1 26 


20 60 


1 80 


20 75 ' 


1 47 


17 50 





















Wool, lb. 






21 »i 












































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OATS— ^vena acUiva. 

The oat grows in panicles, the calyx bein;; two-seeded; seeds one 
bearded ; flowers and seeds alternate in each 
calyx Qonical in shape, the smaller awnlesfi, 
the larger having a strong bent awn of two 
colors; the branches of the panicle are erect 
when green, but bend and droop with weight 
of seeds as they ripen. The glumes or chaff 
of seed are nerved, pointed at end, longer 
than flower, and unequal. The stem is hol- 
low, two to four feet high, and is an annuaL 

The word oat is 'derived from the 
Saxon, and signifies ecU. Avena is a 
Latin word, meaning desire^ and re- 
fers to the fondness of stock for it. 
Sativa means sowTty and is also a Latin 

The oat, like wheat and the other 
small grains, has an origin in antiqui- 
ty far beyond the ken of man. Pliny 
speaks of it as a diet for the sick, and 
in many of the profuse histories it is 
spoken of as a food for horses. So 
soon as the continent of America was 
settled the oat was cultivated, and sam- 
ples sent back to the old country as an 
evidence of the prosperity of the colon- 
ists. The Virginians did not cultivate it to the same ex- 
tent as the Pilgrims, nor has it ever reached that degree of 

Digitized by 


OATS. 397 

popularity in the South it has in the North. Nor has it 
ever been exported to the same extent as the other grains^ 
the supply barely furnishing the home demand. In the 
early and middle ages it formed a chief constituent of the 
food of man, and even now, in several European countries, it 
is preferred by many people to any of the cereals. Oat- 
cake in Scotland is as common as "bakers' bread'' with us. 
Those who eat it claim that it produces long-windedness, 
and the mountaineer, with his loaf of oat bread, will walk 
over the steep, broken country of the Highlands with as 
much facility as an American will over his broad prairies. 
It is found growing wild in California, and in several of 
the Pacific islands, but it may have been scattered there by 
some of the voyafi:ers in their landings for water. 

This cereal forms one of the most important of the grains, 
and is, with the exception of wheat, more generally culti- 
vated than any other. In America it is only raised for 
stock. It contains more nitrogenous matter and more ^u- 
gar than corn, but less starch and fat, and where used for 
fiood for man it has maintained its popularity through all 

There are numerous varieties of oats, some quite distinct 
and well marked, while others are nothing more than the 
ordinary changes produced by good cultivation and climatic 
influences. The common "black oat," the "white oat," the 
"Spanish oat," "Chenailles oat," "potato oat," "Hopetown 
oat," "black Prussian," "great flag," "Cumberland," "white 
Swedish," "yellow Lithuania," "white Tartarian," "black 
Tartarian," "black Poland," "late and early Angus," 
"Egyptian," "Barbary," and an endless list of local names 
that only result from some particular circumstance of soil 
or cultivation, are the most common varieties in use. 

A few years ago some man professed to have found in a 
package of seeds received from Norway a few grains of oats, 
and by manuring well they were grown into a monster oat 
that sold at fabulous prices, as a distinct variety. In 1788 

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a gentleman in Cumberland^ England, discovered a stalk of 
oats coming up among some potatoes, and, carefully saving 
the seed, he originated probably the best variety of oats of 
that day, and it still maintains its popularity in the North 
as the Potato oat. Some gentleman visiting the deserted 
camp of the Choctaws, in Georgia, after their removal, 
found at their old stables, a few stalks of yellow or red oats. 
He gathered and sowed them, and gave it the name of "In- 
dian camp oat. This oat is now in the Southern States, and 
in portions of Tennessee the most popular variety grown, 
and will make from seventy-five to one hundred bushels per 
acre. It has such a coarse, strong straw that it will grow 
without any danger of lodging on the richest bottom lands. 
The husk is a reddish yellow, very much like the husk of 
the "golden chaff" wheat. This oat has not come into such 
general cultivation as it deserves, and it will, ultimately no 
doubt, attain a great popularity. Many farmers in the 
Elastern part of Williamson county, sow it regularly, hav- 
ing been introduced by a Mr. P. P. McArthur, a (Jeorgia 
immigrant. The Potato oat above referred to is very pop- 
ular in England where it originated, and is almost the only 
variety grown in Scotland. It is large, plump, rather thick 
skinned, white grains, double and treble, long straw, and. in 
England commands a higher price than any other. The 
•^Hopetown" is another English variety, originating from 
one stalk growing among the potato oats in 1824. It was 
distributed by the Agricultural Bureau from Washington, 
in 1873. 

The yellow oat was also distributed at the same time, and 
is giving very good satisfaction. The two last are both im- 
ported from Scotland, 

But the most popular oat of Tennessee is the Black oat. 
There are, like the White oat, several varieties of this kind. 
The Prussian, Poland and Spanish, are the best known. 

The Egyptian oat, about twenty-five or thirty years ago, 
attained a great popularity, both from the height of the 

Digitized by 


OATS. 399 

atraw, and the quantity of seed. It presented a peculiar 
appearance, from the fact the panicles all drooped to one 
side, looking like a plume. It was in its full tide of suc- 
cess wiien the rust made ite appearance in Tennessee, com- 
plely destroying, for several years, oat culture, and many 
persons attributed the outbreak of the rust to this variety 
of oats, and it has not been grown to any extent since. It 
is a very valuable variety, and well deservers to be restored 
to popular favor. 

The many varieties of oats cultivated in the North, where 
oat culture is more popular than here, are but little known 
to Tennessee farmers. And, really, it is of but little conse- 
quence, since the modifications of soil, climate and cultiva- 
tion would soon obliterate any small diflerence. We have, 
it may be said, four varieties that answer all the requisites 
f(^ successful farming. These are Black oat. White oat, 
Egyptian oat and Red or Yellow oat. Although the Black 
oat commands the higher price for seed, there are many who 
will only sow the White oat. The last two named are not 
sufficiently known to come in the market as favorites. 

Besides these, a variety of White Spanish oat has been * 
sown to a very limited extent, as a winter oat. In the 
South, winter oats are more common than Spring. There 
is, however, no material difference between the winter and 
spring varieties, as any of the spring oats can be converted 
in a few years into winter oats. This is done by sowing 
any variety wished in the fall, and saving what comes to 
maturity, and resowing next fall. The first harvest but 
little will be secured, the next harvest possibly half, and the 
third or fourth year a full crop will be secured. It would 
be well to acclimatize several varieties to the winter, as the 
heads will be heavier, though there is less straw. Besides, 
they afford a good pasture during the winter. 

Although the commercial weight of a bushel of oats is 
32 pounds, yet some varieties weigh as much as 40 to 45 
pounds. It is claimed that the Potato oat is the heaviest 

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of any variety. A winter oat, sown for many years past by 
Mr. Tom Crutchfield, of Chattanooga, furnishes an immense 
amount of winter pasturage. When I visited his farm, in 
November, the earth was matted with the rich, rank, dark- 
green herbage, fifteen inches high, looking like a thrifty 
wheat field in early May. I am satisfied that the amount of 
grazing which this crop will furnish until the middle of 
March, will equal that furnished by the same number 
of acres of the very best clover. This oat is an annual, 
hardy as rye, springs up, after being cropped, with more ra- 
pidity, and furnishes a larger amount of grazing than wheat, 
rye, barley, or any other winter grazing grass. It matures 
earlier than the common oat by ten days, is not attacked by 
the fly,, and can be seeded at a time when farmers, outside 
of the tobacco growing districts, have most leisure. By its 
aid stock may be carried through the winter for one-half 
what they can be with regular winter feed. I am satisfied 
that the cost of keeping sheep through the winter, with this 
oat will not exceed twenty-cents per head, nor a cow more 
than two dollars. 

The yield is as Various as the character of soils. Some 
thin lands will not make more than fifteen bushels per acre, 
while a good heavy, stifle loam will, with the some variety, 
yield seventy-five or eighty bushels per acre. The average 
may fairly be stated at thirty-five bushels on all sorts of 
lands. One gentleman sowed two acres of land as nearly sim- 
ilar as possible, and with the same cultivation. One acre 
he left in its natural state, while he sowed one hundred 
pounds of gypsum or land plaster on the other. On the 
first he got fifteen bushels of oats, while on the other he ob- 
tained sixty-three bushels, nearly fifty bushels the result of 
one hundred pounds of plaster. There ia^ prodably, no 
other crop that responds more promptly to the application 
of manures, or that better repays good cultivation, while on 
poor ground, with slovenly culture, it does not yield enough 
to pay the expenses incurred. With these facts before us it 

Digitized by 


OATS. 401 

should be the aim of every farmer to emulate with each 
other in developing the capacity of the land, and thus will 
the result bring its own reward. 


There is no difference of opinion as to the time an J 
manner of sowing. Every one knows that spring oats 
should be put in the ground as soon as the frosts will per- 
mit. If the weather is favorable, in the latter part of 
January, or as soon thereafter as practicable the land should 
be prepared and the oats sown. The soil should be deeply 
broken and thoroughly pulverized and the oats sown broad- 
cast over the field, and then either harrowed in or plowed 
in with a cultivator. If the seeds are plowed in with a 
a turning plow many of them do not come up, or if they 
do come at»all, they are too weak and feeble to grow off* 
promptly. A bull-tongue is used by some, and while this 
IB very good for the oats, it is bad for the farmer, as but 
little progress is made with so small an " implement. A 
double shovel or a walking cultivator is the best plow, pro- 
vided the farmer wishes to get the seed in deeper than a 
harrow will do it. But a shovel- tooth harrow will do it 
quickly, and, I think, more effectively than any other im- 
plement The farmer who delays sowing his oats until the 
latter part of March or in April, will tail to reap those ad- 
vantages due good labor Occasionally a farmer does sow 
late, and from favorable seasons makes a good crop, and this 
circumstance will injure succeeding crops for years, as 
dilatory men will refer to this success as a criterion, and 
thus excuse their habit of procrastination. Some may plead 
the effect of frost on an early crop. This is futile, for al- 
though the first blades may be destroyed by a freeze, it does 
not in the least injure the crop, as oats are the hardiest crop 
^vown on our farms. 

While the general opinion is in favor of early sowing, 
there is not the same observance in the quantity of seed per 

Digitized by 



acre. And, right here, our Tennessee farmers differ so 
widely from the Northern fiarmer that it is difficult to de- 
termine a just means of observance. In all the Northern 
States from three to five bushels are sown to the acre, while 
in Tennessee two bushels and a half is the limit of quantity. 
The man in Tennessee who sows thr^ bushels is considered 
extravagant. The agent of the State farm in Massachu- 
setts laid off four lots, consisting of one and a half acres 
each, to establish this fact of quantity of seed per acre. All 
lots were sown broadcast early in April, equivalent to our 
February. No. 1 received five bushels per acre; No. 2 had 
four bushels per acre; No. 3 had three bushels per acre, and 
No. 4 had two bushels per acre. They were manured with 
100 pounds of plaster per acre, spread broadcast, except a 
strip of one acre running across all the lots, which received 
no plaster. The oats were cut in three months and threshed 
about two months afterwards. No; 1 yielded 42 bushels; 
No. 2, 35 bushels; No. 3, 40 bushels, and No. 4, 26^ 
bushels. The acre that got no plaster yielded 20^ bushels. 
The crop was small, the land beiug unfavoiable for oats, 
and the season bad. Although the experiment was unsat- 
isfactory, yet it will be seen that the lot sown with three 
bushels did nearly as well as that sown with five; while that 
receiving two bushels fell off very considerably. But in 
our quick, hearty soil, three bushels will probably be the 
best measure to sow, though a quantity will often make 
a heavy yield, as many stalks often come from one seed. 
J, B. McEwen, Esq., of Williamson county, brought in one 
stool of oats this spring, (1878), that had from one single 
seed seventy-seven separate stems. This, of course, is un- 
usual, but it is no uncommon thing to see from fifteen to 
twenty culms from one seed. 

In the colder climates of the North, oats will mature 
much earlier than in Tennessee. This is due to the short 
summers, there vegetation seeming to be aware of the 
necessity of escaping the destructive effects of frost. Oats 

Digitized by 


OATS. 403 

there will be ready for the sickle generally in ninety days, 
while here it requires, if sown early, one hundred and 
twenty days. It is true, late sown oats will hurry up to 
escape the heat, as Northern oats do to escape the cold. 
Thus, oatsjown in the middle or last of April, will be ready 
for the harvest as soon as those sown in February, but the 
early oats will weigh more to the bushel and will yield far 
more to the acre. Oats should be cut early or late, as the 
crop may be desired for food or seed. If for the latter, they 
should be allowed to fully ripen, but if it is the inten- 
tion to feed to stock, the oats should be cut as soon the 
stem begins to turn yellow just below the head, and while 
the foliage is yet green. At this time the grain is in the 
dough state, and the stalk and leaves are yet full of saccha- 
rine matters, and in this condition the straw will make ex'^ 
cellent hay, far superior to corn fodder, and but little in- 
ferior to the best English hay, as will be seen by the 
analyses here appended. Another reason is that in harvest- 
ing, if the grain becomes fully matured, much of it will be 
lost by shattering in the many handlings it must receive 
before finally garnered. 

The manner of cutting is either by reapers or by cradles. 
This is a matter of taste or convenience to the farmer, and 
is of little consequence. But it must be borne in mind that 
all the juices remaining in the stem are of a soluble nature, 
and the stem, after drying, is very porous, so that if al- 
lowed to get wet the nutritive qualities are washed out. So 
then, in view of this fact, great care must be observed in 
properly shocking. Some bundles are, of course, exposed 
to the weather, but let there be as few as possible. The 
best manner is to make hand stacks, sloping the bundles in 
such a manner as to shed the rain from the heads to the 
stubs. Each stack contains about one hundred bundles 
and tapers to a point, which is neatly capped, and the cap 
tied. In this way but a small proportion of the straw will 
get wet, and none of the grain heads. As soon as the oats 




are properly cared, say in a week of sunny weather, they 
will be ready to house, and no delay should take place ui 
this. But there are many small farmers and improvident 
ones who have no shelter, consequently they must resort to 
stacks. It is not every man who can stack oats so as to 
preserve them from the weather. If carelessly done the 
oats will be a total loss. If properly done they will keep 
an indefinite length of time. Attention to the following 
necessity is all that is required to make a good stack, viz: 
Ke^ the heads of the bundles higher than the butts. This is 
easily done if the stacker will only bear it constantly in 
mind to elevate the heads. This can be easily done by oc- 
casionally laying a bundle under the upper head. At the 
same time be careful not to give it so much pitch that the 
superincumbent pressure will force out the bundles and let 
the stack tumble 

In the countries where oats form a large part of the 
regular crops, it is the universal practice to thresh the oats 
before feeding them, and then feed by measurement. In 
the South however we have adopted the very slovenly and 
wasteful habit of feeding in the bundles. It is true some 
are careful enough to pass the bundles through a straw 
cutter, hut the largest number will »mply throw a bundle 
loosely in the manger or rack. 

If the bundles are cut up finely they will be eaten, straw 
and all ; and this is a good plan, for the seeds are in this 
way dispersed all through the straw, and the horse, in 
seeking the grain, is perforce obliged to take all. Our 
more careful neighbors however will cut the straw, mixed 
with a modicum of good hay or bran, and then pour the 
grain, either whole or crushed, over the mass and their 
horses are kept in the best order without the use of corn, or 
at least with a very small quantity of corn, beans or 

Some farmers pass oats and barley through the thresher 
together, and the grain mixed is a very excellent stock 

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OATS. 406 

food. It brightens the hair, promotes digestion and gives 
a horse good health under heavy tasks. For many years it 
was the habit of farmers to only thresh out oats enough to 
serve as seed, and they looked at the resulting straw ap 
waste, most of it going to the stables as bedding, or left to 
rot where threshed. We give below an analysis of the 
straw as well as of the grain to show the loss they have 

Oats, both green and matured, form a most excellent 
food for hogs. Nothing wift start hogs to fatten more 
kindly than to be turned on an oat field when the oats are 
half grown. In a few days they will begin to look smooth, 
the hair gets sleek and by the time they have been on it 
two or three weeks they are almost fat. If a large apple 
or peach orchard is on the farm it will be a good plan to 
sow it in oats, and as the young apples or peaches begin to 
fall they, as well as the oats, are devoured by the swine, and 
thus, not only are the animals benefited but the eggs of 
insects that are in the fallen fruit are destroyed. In this 
way in a few years the curculio may be entirely eradicated 
from the orchards, as well as the borer and other insects 
injurious to the trees. 

We give, first, an analysis of the grain and then of the 

Oats contain, starch, 60.64; gluten and other azotized 
matters, 14.39; dextrine, glucose, etc., 9.25; fatty matters, 
5.60; cellulose, 7.06; mineral matters, 3.25: or, econom- 

Flesh forming principles, 18.447 

Heat producing principles, 73.376 

Fat producing principles, 8.178 

Wolff and Knopps analysis may be seen on page 336, 
(under buckwheat). 

According to the estimates ol Meyer, based upon actual 
experiments in feeding, one hundred and fifty lbs. of oat 

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straw are equivalent to 100 lbs, of good English hay, or 
65 lbs. of the grain of barley, or 60 lbs. oats, 58 lbs. rye, 
or 55 lbs. of wheat; and Thaer places the estimate still 

Bouissingault gives, for the green oat straw, water, 82.0; 
starch, 5.0; woody fibre, 7.5; sugar, 3.5; albumen, 1.0; 
fatty matter, 0,5; and mineral matter, 0.5. 

It has been remarked before, that but little of this crop 
is ever exported. On the contrary, in the year 1851, 
679,812 bushels of oats were imported, and also 302,400 
bushels of oatmeal. In 1858, this amount had decreased 
to 115 bushels oats, and 106,288 bushels oatmeal. 

In the year 1875, there were exported 504,770 bushels 
oats; and in 1876, 1,466,228 bushels. This however forms 
but a small portion of the crop, for in 1876 there were 
raised in the United States, 320,884,000 bushels. 

In 1876, there were raised in the State of Tennessee, 
5,400,000 bushels on 306,818 acres, averaging 17.6 bushels 
per acre, and the average price was 39 cents, making the 
value of the. crop $2,106,000. 

I have not deemed it necessary to speak of the Barbary 
oat, which is a two awaed oat, growing on the deserts of 
Asia and Africa. The long twisted awns or beards are so 
sensitive to moisture, that they will work like an insect 
under the influence of the weather, forming a poor hy- 
grometer. They were once sold as barometers all over the 
country, the awns being aflSxed to a index. 

BICE. — (Oryza acUiva.) 

This grass has a long panicle, resembling, when ripe oats, the seed 
growing from a short pedicel starting from a central stalk. Each ker- 
nal has an awn, glumes yellow. The stem is short, pointed, hollow 
and about three feet high. It is an annual. 

Rice is a native of Asia, but was brought from the 
Island of Madagascar to Charleston, South Carolina, and 
was first grown by Landgrave Smith in that city. The white 

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RICE. 407 

rice was first introduced, but afterwards the golden seed 
vsuperseded it, and that is now universally grown both in 
the swamps and uplands of the South, and is the same as 
that grown in China and Asia. It is used as human food 
by more people than any other cereal, feeding it is said, to 
the exclusion of other ceredls, over half the inhabitants. It 
is really a water plant, and thrives best when supplied with 
an abundance of it. In fact, to be grown in its best style ^ 
it is flooded the greater part of the time by means of banks, 
levees and flood-gates. It may be assumed than it has no 
place in a Tennessee work, but there are several varieties of 
rice, and we all remember, in the days of slavery, that 
many negroes owned little rice patches, where they were 
accustomed to grow rice and bes^t it out in a hominy 
mortar and hawk in the 'country. 

There is an upland or mountain rice which grows well 
on any rich soil, especially, however, if it is a marshy bot- 
tom. I once sowed rice in a seed millet patch, having on]y 
a few grains, and it grew very well and made a fair yield. 
I have seen it yield well in Stewart County. It was 
for many years grown there by a South Carolinian. All 
the upland counties of North Alabama, Georgia and 
Mississippi raise enough for home consumption. It is 
raised in the germinating gardens in Washington for dis- 
tribution. % 

Its method of culture is just as seed millet is raised. It 
matures about the same time, and should be cut with the* 
sickle just as the millet is. Let it be bound in bundles 
and stacked. After a week or two it will go through the 
stack sweat and be ready for cleaning. The husk adheres 
very closely to the grain, is very tough and difficult to 
separate. On a regular rice plantation this is done by largo 
stones, but here, in small quantities, it must be done by 
using warm water and the hominy mortar. It is a tedious 
process, but like all other processes it can easily be learned 
by application. It would not pay to raise rice in large quanti- 

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408 CEREAI^. 

ties, but nothing is like having a supply of all the good 
things of life on hand, raised on your own farm. We have 
become independent of the South, so far as molasses is 
concerned, let us now raise a home supply of rice, and 
then, with all the luxuries, as well as the necessities of life* 
' the farmer can snap his fingers at dull care and hard times. 
From 25 to 40 bushels of rough rice can be raised on an 
acre, and this will shell out enough to last a long time. 

A comparative analysis with other grains will be found 
on page 336. It is by no means equal to wheat in its nu- 
tritive qualities, containing more starch but fewer nitrogen- 
ous substances. 

BYE — {Seca'e cereale). 

Has long bearded ears, and a tall and very slender stem. The glumei 
are toothed on the edges, has a terminal spike, solitary, erect from two 
to four mches long, with beards four or five times the length of glnmep. 
Root fibrous, and annual. 

There are two varieties cultivated in Tennessee, besides 
many others with local names. These two are named from 
their habits, one being winter rye, the other spring rye, but 
the former is almost exclusively used. 

Rye will grow in a colder climate than wheat or barley, 
and on poorer soil. On the poorest sandy soils in the 
State, it will do quite well. It will grow on the Cumber- 
land and Unaka mountains six to eight feet high. Sown 
in almost any month of the year it will make a crop. Its 
principal use in Tennessee is for pastures, though some use 
is made of the grain as meal, as well as for stock food. 
From the fact that the seeds are rarely saved, tlie price is? 
in Tennessee, quite high, as compared with that of other 
grains, the range of value for several years being as great 
as wheat. 

Among the cereals, rye is cultivated, in Tennessee, least ; 
but in some of the States, it is extensively raised as a 
distilling grain. It is extensively used in making beer? 

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and rye whiskey is famous as a beverage 

tbe world over. The famous ^'Hollands" 

(s:in) 18 made from rye, flavored with juniper 


Sown early in the fall, and even in August, 

it affords a fine nutritious pasturage through 

the next seven or eight months, or, until it 

begins to " spindle " up, when it becomes 

woody, loses its succulent character, and is 

not relished by stock. In some countries it is 

sown with wheat, and ground into a meal that 

is particularly fine and nourishing, and is 

called meslin. It is famous as a healthy bread, 

,^ ,, ;// suitable for the sick. Rye meal makes break- 


wWi'f ^^^^ cakes, equal to the best buckwheat, and 

not easily detected from it. It is used quite 
extensively among the poorer classes for 
making coffee, and by dealers as an adul- 
terant for ground coffee. 
During rainy wet seasons, a fungous growth makes its 
appearance in the grains, causing them to be elongated and 
twisted, forming ** Spurred rye^* or Ergot, Men or animals 
partaking ol this diseased grain become poisoned, and the 
most fatal symptoms ensue, the extremities becoming gan- 
grenous and, if continued in, will finally result in death. 
Still this ergot is one of our most precious medicines and 
would be badly missed. 

The yield of rye is seldom more than fifteen or twenty 
bushels to the acre, though, like all cereals, it is greatly 
benefited by manure. The best manure is bone dust or 
phosphate of lime, the {>ho8phates entering largely into its 
composition. The quantity to he sown to the acre is a 
bushel or a bushel and a half, either for seed or pasturage. 
It is sown, as other cereals, on well prepared land, though 
if only wanted for pasture, it is a good plan to sow it 
broadcast over corn land just before the corn is laid by, and 

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then plowed in with the last plowing. By the time the 
corn is gathered, there will be as rich a pasture as may be 

Rye has been e^^orted but little, the home consumption 
being about equal to its production. It forms an important 
article of diet in Europe and Asia, being mixed with both 
wheat and barley to make cheap bread. It is supposed to 
be a native of Candia, and some say of Sicily, as it grows 
wild on both of these islands. But it is more probable it h; d 
its origin, with other cereals, on the slopes of the Himalaya 
mountains in Asia. It was introduced into Europe after 
the 15th century, and was brought to America at the same 
time with the other grains. Its straw is almost worthless 
as a fodder, stock not relishing it at all ; but it is exten- 
sively used in the manufactures, as hats, bonnets, mats, 
paper, slippers, and a great variety of other articles are 
made from it. 

In 1840, the product of the United States was 18,645,567 
bushels, and in 1850, it \¥as 14,188,813 bushels; in 1860, 
21,101,380 bushels; in 1870, 16,918,795 bushels. 

In 1876, there were 355,000 bushels raised in Tennessee, 
on 39,444 acres of land, being an average of 9 bushels per 
acre, and the average price that year was 92 cents per 
bushel. In the United States the same year, there were 
20,374,800 bushels, thus giving an increase, in thirty-six 
years, of less than two million bushels, although the culti- 
vated area of the United States has almost doubled, if not 
quite. This deficiency may be attributed to the falling off 
in the demand for distilling purposes. Although so little 
rye is exported, a considerable quantity of rye meal is taken 
to Europe. 

See comparative analysis, on page 336, (uwder Buck- 

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P^RT ^7'1T. 

, The introduced clovfera, vetches and other vines of modem agriculture 
have already been fully considered^ botanlcally and economically. 

The connection of this famUy of phoenogamous plants with the econ- 
omy of agricultural nations, is coeval with the culture of the cereals. 
Besides the frequent mention made of them in the remotest periods of 
Biblical literature, we also know from Papyrus rolls and stone engrav- 
ings of ancient Egypt, several facts relating to them. Lentils, (Ervum 
Lens,) has been there a favorite dish with the people, and remained so to 
the present day. " On Sculptures servants are represented carrying bas- 
kets filled with Indigo, being either tribute or precious merchandise, 
which came from India. Carobs, or St. John's bread, fumiBhed an im- 
portant food supply, not only in Eg3rpt, but also in Syria and Palestine. 
The name Carat is derived from the Carob seeds, serving a standard 
weight, equal to about 20 grains of wheat, one grain of which was the 
smallest standard weight then in use for weighing gold and precious 
stones. Carobs are the fruit of a tree, (Ceratonia Siliqua,) much re- 
sembling pur honey locust. 

Beans (Faba vulgaris) and the Chick pea (Cicer Arietinum) were large- 
ly consumed by the lower classes. It is doubtful whether the avoidance 
of Beans, practiced by the priest?, and so strictly forbidden by Pythag- 
oras to his disciples, applies to the leguminous species or the seeds of 
Nelumbium speciosum, the Water Lily, which then grew abundantly 

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in the waters of the Nile. Nor could the Egyptian do- without his hom- 
iny, using Lupines, (Lupinus Thermis) soeked in salt wat«r, like we 
do Indian corn. 

The honey of Hymettus, famous for its flavor, owes its fame in 
part to the rich fields of clover, that abounded in the pastures of ancient 
Hellas and brought from there to Italy, it found gradually its way 
across the Alps. Following the train of civilization it has long since 
departed from the parched shores of Sal amis and the depaui>erated 
fields of Argos, once the feeder of horses 

All the cultivated species are indigenous to the Mediterranean region. 
The Peanut, however, (ArachU hypogcBo), as palatable to our taste, 
10 its herbage to cattle, is a denizen of two continents, for it is indigen- 
ous on the Senegal and in the West India islands. In the warmer 
climates, under favorable circumstances for ripening, like in India, this 
nut is very rich in a fine oil which is used there like olive oil, and is 
said to be even superior. It keeps a long time without becoming ran- 
cid. In its more Northern range it produces less oil. An occasion to 
say more about this, curious plant will cccur in the botanical descriptioB 
of the Leguminosae. 

A related genus, the Voandzeia aubterranea, or Bambarra ground 
nut, of similar habits and like value with the former, is not known in 
the United States, a native of the Western coast of Africa, and its cul- 
tivation is confined to tropical countries. 

Very little knowledge of useful legumiuous plants has descended it) 
us from the native Indian. The scarcity of bread-giving cereals on one 
hand and the absence on the Northern continent of those larger animal? 
which are fit for domestication, have rescinded his disposition to cling 
to a homestead as tiller of the soil ; nor could he follow his flocks as a 
wandeiing and peaceable nomade. The abundance of nutritious her- 
baceous food favoring the multiplication and variation of the less fero- 
cious herbivores, enabled man to gain ascendency and to initiate the mo«it 
primitive government over submissive, social animals. For these rea- 
sons have the Mediterranean regions and Central Asia become the birth- 
place of civilization, while the North American continent continued to 
be the hunting domam of the roving Indian. The mild and benign 
manner of the sheperd and herdsman to notice the wants of the flocks, 
to distinguish the kinds of food which they would prefer, and to lead 

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tliem in regions of plenty, has no parallel in the atrocious character of 
the Indian, whose only interference with the state of nature consisted 
in setting fire to woods and prairies, to promote the growth of herbace- 
ous plants and thin the undergrowth to facilitate the chase. The deli- 
cious fruits of the warmer regions of the Eastern continent are not met 
with here, or represented by less palatable Icinds and this defect may 
liave produced the unrefined taste of the Indian. Capable of satiating 
his hunger with a mixture of clay and gum, like the Ottomaks of the 
Amazon or with tuckahoe, a species of ligneous fungus, resortexl to in 
times of dearths by the Cherokees and other nations, he remained content- 
ed with the natural and unimproved offerings of bis native land, and 
attempted to cultivate but few kinds of those — Indian com beans and 
tobacco. These Indian beans are several species of phaseolus, growing 
spontaneously in all portions of the country. Prairie and forest sup- 
plied him with several other leguminous plants. 

The Screw bean, {Strombocarpus pubesoena,) the dry and ripe 
fruit of which is considered a delicious nutriment by the Indians, grows 
along the Colorado river of Arizona, an<l the Utahs use it by mak- 
ing bread from the meal of the seeds. All kinds of animals are fond 
of the pods, and fatten rapidly upon them. Of no less importance are 
the fruits of the Mesquite (Algarobia glandulosa). The pods being 
7-9 inches long, are not only nutritious, but also very agreeable, from 
the combination of a sweet and acid taste, and are a preventive of thirst. 
The Pommede prairie is the esculent root of the Proralea esc^lentOy 
growmg m the Northwestern territory, Iowa, Kansas and Nebraska. It 
in generally the size of a hen^s egg, of regular ovoid shape, and the corti- 
cal part or skin separates as readily as in a turnip. It has a sweet and 
turnip-like taste. The Indians of these regions like it very much, and 
use it extensively in the ripe state. Sliced and dried they store it for 
winter use. 

A rare species of this genus, the Psoralea aubacauliSf grows abund- 
antly upon the rocky hills and wastes around Nashville. Its short flow- 
er-stem terminates a few inches below the surface in a good sized tu- 
berous root, firmly imbedded between the densely packed gravel and 
rocks This tuber is soft and pleasantly sweet, although growing on 
the poorest ground, and retains those qualities to an advanced flowering 

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sta^e. This root has been probably never before observed, and shonld 
be tried under cnltivation 

Farmers know very well that wild and uncultivated lands, mountains 
and river banks produce a variety of pea-vines which are especially 
sought after by stock, roaming through the thickets. It has also been 
very generally noticed, that with the clearing of the land, the multiplicd- 
tion of cattle, and the spread of the root- destroying hog, the former 
abundance of this kind of fgrage, that formerly held out in many re- 
gions during the whole winter, has gradually grown less. Why this 
large increase of the herbiverous domestic animals exerts such ' a dele- 
terious influence upon their number and thins the rank of their species 
woefully, in locations much exposed to their invasions, is readil * 
understood from an observation of their growth and structure. 

Shrubby and arborescent species, worthy of consideration in the pres- 
ent sense, occur only in the lower South and Southeast and all our val- 
uable kinds are herbaceous plants. Some being closely appressed to 
the soil, others cijeep over it in wide-spread tangles, some are partly de- 
cumbent, few strictly erect, many are trailing and climbmg. Succulent 
herbs with a large surface from the development of numerous branches 
and copious foliage, they dislike exposure to the wind and prefer shel- 
tered situations in forest and thicket ; only the creeping varieties like 
full exposure on the open prairie. Stout stemmed and smooth Bi^tisias 
make an exception. 

The wiry and stringy rootlets of grasses are securely protected 
against the tread of heavy animals by an elastic cushion of tuft or eod, 
but the single and scattered growing pea vines and their congeners 
possess neither this benefit nor their slender form and elastic structure, 
and are under a still greater disadvantage from their cumbersome strac- 
ture, entangling the feet of the animals, and suffering more from 
tramping and crushing than browsing. Grasses generally live longer as 
the herbaceous leguminoss and grass seeds frequently escape destruction 
by digestion but not so the latter. 

The economical value of these herbs depends as much on their abun- 
ance as upon nutritious qualities, and it is evident that we ought to pre- 
vent their decrease, or even extinction, by trying their cultivation, in 
collecting thehr seeds and sowing them either separately or in mixture in 

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well prepared land. Otherwise those weeds which everywhere follow 
in the footsteps of the settler, will soon take their place, multiplying 
with a prodigeous rapidity. The Canada and Common thistle, Amar- 
anths, Door-weeds, Knot-grass, Rag and May weeds and Thorn apples 
threaten to become the victors in the battle for existence. 

List of leg irainous plants known to grow spontaneously in Tennessee : 

Crotalaria aagittalis, L, Rattlebox, annual July, September. 
Lupi7iu8 perennis, L. Lupine, perennial. April, May. 
Melilotua alba. Lam. Sweet clover. Perennial. May, June. 
Trifolium pratensCy L Red clover. Perennial. May. 
Trifolium arvense, L. Rabbit-foot clover. Annual. May. 
Trifolium reflexum, L Buffalo clover. Biennial. May. 
Trifolium repena, L. White clover. Perennial. May. 
Trifolium, Garolinianum, Michx. Carolina clover. Perennial. 
Medicago lupulina, L. Black Medic. Annual. May. 
Paoralea m^elilotoidea, L. Paoralea, perennial. June. 
Pai>r il6x aubao%'di8f Torr & Gray. Perennial. April. 
Petaloatemon folioaua, Gray. Leafy prairie clover. Perennial. 
May, June. 

Petaloatem^m decumbena^ Gray. Low prairie clover. Perennial. 
May, June. 

Petaloatemon corymboaua, Michx. Silky prairie clover. Perennial. 
June, July 

Amorpha fruticoBa, L. Lead plant. June 
Pobinia paeudacacia, L. Common locust. May. 
Pobinia viacoact, Vent. Clammy locust, shrub. May 
Robinia hiapiday L. Rose acacea. Shrub. May. 

Wiataria fruteaoena, O. C. Wistaria climbing shrub. May. 

Tephroaia apicata, Torr & Gray. June, July. 

Aatragalua Tenneaaienaia, Gray. Tennessee milk vetch. Peren- 
nial. April. 

Aatragalua Canadenaia, L. Canada milk vetch. Perennial June. 

Vicia m»crantha, Nutt. Small flowered vetch. Biennial. March. 

ViCix Carolina, Walt. Carolina vetch. Biennial. April. 

Vicia Americana,^ Gray. American vetch Perennial. April. 

Styloaanthea elatior, Swartz. Pencil flower. Perennial. June, 

Lespedeza repena, Torr & Gray. Creeping bush clover. Peren- 
nial. June, September. 

Leapedeza violacea, Pers. Bush clover. Perennial. June, August 

Leapedeza Stuvei, Nutt Downy bush clover. Perennial. August. 

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Lcapedeza hiria^ Ell. Hairy bush clover. Perennial. August, 

Lespedeza capitatn, Michx. Round headed bush clover. Peren- 
nial. August September. 

De»modiuni pmicifloruni^ Null. Pew-flowered tick-trefoil. Pe- 
rennial. July, September. 

Desinodiuni acuminatum^ D. C. Pointed tick-trefoil. Perennial. 
.July, SeptembtT. 

Desniodium nudlflorurn D. C. Crowded-leaved tick -trefoil. Pe- 
rennial. July. September. 

Desmodium cuspidatuTn, Torr & Gray. Sharp pointed tick-trefoil. 
July, September. 

Desmodium rotundifolium, D. C. Round leaved tick-trefoil. F'e- 
rennial. July, September. 

Desmodiutn Canadense, D. (J. Canadian tick-trefoil. Perennial. 
.July, August. 

Desmodium Dillenii, Darl. Dillens tick-trefoil. PerenniaL Sep- 
tember, October. 

Desmodium paniculatum>, D. C. Smooth tick-trefoil. Perennial. 

Desmodiuin strictum^ D. C. Stiff tick-trefoil. 

Apios iubcrosay Moanch. Ground nut. Perennial July, October. 

Phaaeolus perenniSj Walt. Perennial. Kidney bean. July, Oc- 

PhaseoluH diversifolius^ Pers. Creeping kidney bean. Biennal. 

Phaseolus hclvoluSy L. Long-stalked kidney bean. Annual. June, 

Clitoria Mariana, L. Maryland butter fly pea. Perennial. June, 

Amphicarpcea monoica, Nutt. Hog-nut pea. Perennial. July, 

Oalactia mollis, Michx. Milk pea. Perennial. July, August. 

Oalactia glabella, Michx. Small milk pea. Perennial. Tune, 

Baptisia tinctoria, R Brown. Wild Indigo. Perennial. Junt. 

Baptisia alba, R. Brown. White flowered white indigo. Peren- 
nial July, August. 

Baptisia leucantha, Torr & Gray. Smooth wild indigo. Peren- 
nial. July, August. 

Baptisia australis, R. Brown Blue-flowered wild indigo. Peren- 
nial. July. 

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Thermopaia molliSy R. Brown. Soft-leayed Thermopsis. Peren- 
nial. Jnne, July. 

CladraatU iinctoriOy Raf. Yellow wood. Tree, May. 

CercU Canadensis, L. Red-bud. Small tree. Miax;h. 

Cassia Mdrilandica, L. American senna. Annual. July. 

Cassia obtusifolia, wild senna. AnnuaL July. 

Cassia Chamcecrista, L. Partridge pea. Annual. July, August. 

Cassia nictitans^ L. Sensitive plant AnnuaL July, August. 

Oleditschia triacanthos, L. Honey-locust, tree. 

Gleditschia monospermay Walt Swamp honey-locust, small tree. 

Oymnocladus Canadensis, Lam. Kentucky Coffee tree. May. 

Acacia Julibrissim. Acacia, tree. May. 

Demanthus braohylobus, R. Brown. American Mimosa Peren- 
nial June, July. 

Schrankia uncinata^ Wild. Sensitive bria^. Perennial. June, 

Schrankia angustata, Torr & Gray. Narrow leaved sensitive brier. 
Perennial July. 

Continued botanical research will unquestionably add a good many 
more species to this list. 

Digitized by 


418 LEouMUirous plants. 



The botaDical wealth of this State, so far as we can presently form 
an opinion, is likely to be greater than that of the Atlantic States, 
notwithstanding the absence of the littoral flora. A thorough search 
over the northwestern portions of the State, along the upper course 
of the HoUton and French Broad rivers, would almost necessarily bring 
forth the whole array of forms peculiar to Western Virginia, Penn- 
sylvania and Eastern Kentucky, and the high summits of the Unaka 
Mountains, extending over 200 miles in length, are crowned with those 
alpine beauties, memorials of the glacial period whose aspect and pos- 
session is so enchanting to the botanist. 

The depressed limestone area of Middle Tennessee is a well defined 
region in strikingly peculiar effect of landscape, from the conformation 
of surface and character of vegetation. Between undulating productive 
lands stretch, rugged cliffs, not cultivable glades, where the cavern- 
ous and much fissured rocks lies either bare, or meagerly soil -covered. 
The cedar, with its wide-spreading roots and time-demanding growth, is 
here at home, and largely in excess of all other timber growth. Pines 
are not found in those regions known as the cedar barrens, which har- 
bor a number of very rare plants 

The western part of the State again, is botai^cally nearly an unex. 
plored region. As it differs geologically and geographically from the 
rest of the State, so may also a difference in its flora be looked for. 
Foremost exposed to the prevailing western cuqjents of the winds, 
fleeting seeds and germs, wafted over the great plains, arrive there in 
greatest abundance, and, should even conditions of soil and climate not 
favor their permanent establishment, they will readily be again replen- 
ished. The mighty Mississippi annually overflowing hundreds of 
square miles, deposits innumerable seeds, whose germs had been fertil- 
ized in the distant regions of the far West. 

The LeguminossB are a na^^nd order of the dicotyledenous plants. 
Herbs, shrubs or trees, with papilionaceous, or sometimes regular 
flowers 10 (rarely 5, and sometimes many) monadelphous, diadelphoos, 
or rarely disthict stamens, and a single, simple, free pistil becoming a 

Digitized by 



le^ime in fniit. Seeds mostly without albumen. Leaves tXternate, 
with stipules, usually compound. One of the sepals inferior, (i. e. 
next the bract,) one of the petals superior (i. e. next the axis of the in- 
rtorcscence). This order is a large one, being composed of about 560 
genera and 7,000 species. It contains a great many useful plants, sup- 
plying not only food, but timber, fibres, gums, dyes, and various eco- 
nomical substances. Among the few poisonous plants in their ranks 
may be mentioned: Two ornamental plants: Coronilla varia and 
Cytisus Laburnum of Europe. Gompholobium uncinatum of Australia, 
and Physostygma veneuosum,* the ordeal bean of Calabar. Of our 
species the Baptisiae are suspicious. The territory between the Missis- 
sippi and the Atlantic enumerates 55 genera with about 200 species. 

The order is divided in three sub-orders, the first sub-division repre- 
senting it principally in the temperate regions, the two other belong to 
warmer climates and tropics nearly exclusively. 

Sub-order 1. Papilionacc®. Proper pulse family. Calyx of five 
sepajs, more or less united, often unequally so. Corolla perigynous 
(inserted into the base of the calyx) of five irregular petals (or very 
rarely fewer) imbricated in the bud, more or less distinctly papiliona- 
ceous i. e. with the upper odd petal, called the vexillum or standard, 
larger than the others, and enclosing them in the bud, usually turned 
backward or spreading ; the two lateral ones, called the wings, oblique 
and exterior to the lower petals, which last are convenient, and com- 
monly more or less coherent by their anterior edges, forming a body 
named the carina or keel, from its resemblance to the keel or prow of a 
boat, and which usually encloses the stamens and pistil. Stamens ten, 
rarely five, inserted with the corolla, monadelphous, diadelphous, 
(mostly with stamen united in one set in a tube, which is cleft on the 
upper side, that is next the standard, and the tenth or upper one sepa- 
rate), or occasionally distinct. Ovary, one -celled, sometimes two- 
celled by an intrusion of one of the sutures, or transversely two many 
celled by cross division into joints; style simple, ovules amphitropous, 
rarely anatropous. Cotyledons large, thick or thickish; radicle in- 
curved. Leaves simple or simply compound, the earliest ones in- 
mination usually opposite, the rest alternate. Leafiets always quite 
entire. Flowers perfect, solitary or axillary, in spikes, racemes, or 

IiXJPINUS FERENinS, L— (Comman mid Lupine.) 

A genus largely scattered over the West with over 50 species. Our 
species is blue flowered in a large receme with a palmately 5-15 leaved 
foliage. Not frequent. (Palmately means like the leaves of the 
buckeye). Eatable. Flowers April and May. Alleghany Mountains. 

Digitized by 




Flowers in racemes, commonly yellow, stem erect, branching. Leave? 
oblong laneolate, stipules united and decurrent on the stem, legume? 
much inflated. Plant hairy. Valuable, g owing abundantly in the 
State in sandy soil. June and September. — Good. 

MELILOTUS AIiBAy Lam.— ( WhiU MdUote, not indigenous. 
Cultivated as forage. 

TBIFOLIUM FBATENSE, L*— (i^cd clover at ready described.) 

TBIFOLIUM ABVENSE, It-iBahbUJool d(mr.) 
Annual, silky, erect, heads cylindrical. No use. 

TBIFOUUM BfiFLEXUM, 1,— (Buffalo clover.) 

Biennial; stems ascending, downy; leaflets obovate, oblong finely 
toothed. Stipules thin, ovate; pods 3-5, seeded. Valuable. Round 

TBIFOLIUM BEFENS, L-C Whiu clover.) 
Universally known. 

TBIFOLIUM CABOLINIAKUM, Miohx-l Cbro/ma clover. 
Small, procumbent, corolla purplish. Does not afford much forage. 

MEDICAGO LUFUUNA, lM-{Blaek Medick.) 

Stem procumbent. Heads of flowers roundish, J inch diameter, palt 
yellow. Abundant in dry pastures. Sheep feed on it. It Is introduced 
from Europe and an annual. May and August. 


Calyx 5, a cleft, persistent, the lower lobe longest. Pod strongly 
wrinkled; leaves pinnately 3-folialate ^tem erect, 2-3 feet high. Peren- 
niaL Very good for all stock. Common. 


Nearly stemless; leaves palmate, 7-folialate Root with a tuber. 
Flowers purple, in May. Cattle feed on it. Nashville, rare. 

FBTALOSTBMON FOLIOSUS, Gra7.-(Lea/y Prairie Qoter). 
Perennial Flowers in a spike, roee-eolored Stem erect, smooth ; 

Digitized by 



leaves pinnate, with very numerous small leaflets ; whole plant glandu- 
lar dotted. Cedar barrens. June — August. Very valuable plant. 


Perennial. Decumbent. Leaflets very thin, narrowly linear, corolla 
rose-purple, with the former. 


Leaflets 7-9, lanceolate or linear-oblong; corolla white Cumber- 
land Mountains. July — August 


Stems clustered, erect, very leafy. Leaflets 8-7 filiform ; teeth of 
the calyx setaceous, plumose ; vexillum oblong. June — August. Dry 
cedar barrens. All Petalostemons are excellent herbage. ^ 

AMOBPHA FBUTICOSA, K-CLead PhrU, or Fake Indigo), 

Shrubs with odd pinnate leaves; flowers purple, A tall-growing 
shrub. Confined to creek and river banks. 

BOBINIA PSEUDO- ACACIA, Ii.-( Cbmrmm Locust), 
BOBIIHA VISCOSA, Vent ^{Clammy Locust), 
BOBINIA niSPIDIA, I...-(i2o«e Acacia), 

Arc generally known. Planted in avenues — the two latter in gardens 
for their gorgeous blossoms. 


Woody twiner, climbing high, with minute stipules, and dense recemes 
of large and showy lilac-purple flo w ers. Often cultivated for ornament. 


Calyx about equally 5-cleft. Standard roundish usually silky out- 
side turned back, scarcely longer than the coherent wings and keel. 
Silky, villous. Leaflets 7-29 linear, oblonir. FloAvers showy. Roots 
long, slender and very tough. Perennial. Worthless. 


Similar to the foregoing, but the spikes loose, long, peduncled and 
few flowered Perennial. Not- worth much. 


Digitized by ^ 



Calyx 5-toothed, corolla long and narrow ; standard narrow, equaling 
or exceeding the wings and blont keel ; its sides reflexed or spreading. 
Pale yellow. Pod short and very thick, appressed to the rocky soil in 
which it grows. May. Cedar barrens. Very valuable. 


Tall, pubescent; leaflets 21-31. oblong, obtuse, stipules ovate, clasp- 
ing; peduncles as long as the leaves, closely many -flowered. Flowert 
{ inch long, pale yellow. Nashville. Rocks and cliffs of Cumberland 
river. Good forage plant 

VICIA MICBANTHA, Nntt..-(6WiW Fl(ywered FefcA). 

Calyi tubular, 5-cleft, style filifonn, hairy at the apex. Smooth, 
leaflets 4-6 linear, obtuse ; peduncles 1 2 flowered. Flowers minute, 
pale blue ; legume sabre shaped, 4-10 seeded. Thickets. Common. 
April. Good. 

VICIA CABOLINIANA, Walt—COiro/tna Vetch), 

Leaflets 8-24 oblong, obtuse, scarcely mucronate peduncles loosely 
flowered : calyx teeth very short. With the preceding. May. Very 


Leaflets 10-14 elliptical or ovate, oblong very obtuse many veined: 
peduncles 4-8-flowered. Flowers purplish, 8 lines long, showy. The 
Vicias are climbing, tendril bearing, and all equally valuable. The last 
deserves to be cultivated. 

STYLOSANTHES ELATIOB, SwaPtz.--(P<5»ct7 Flower). 

Yellow flowering, low ; perennial; branched from the base with wiry 
stems, pinnately 8-foliolate leaves, the small orange yellow flowers in 
few flowered clusters. June — October. Cattle feed upon it. 

LESPEDEZA BEFENS, Torr & Gpay,-(Oee;Mn<7 Bmh aover). 

Calyx 5-cleft ; the lobes nearly equal, slender, stamens diadelphons. 
Pods of a shigle, one-seeded joint, oval or roundish, flat, reticulated ; 

Digitized by 



leaves pinnatelj 3 folidlate, smooth; prostrate, spreading, very slender. 
Dry, gravelv localities. June — September. 

LESPEDEZA VIOLAOEA, Fera — {Parple Bush Qover). 

Stems upright or Spreading, branched ; --leaflets varying from oval ob- 
long to linear, whitish, downy beneath with close-pressed pubescence ; 
peduncles or clusters few flowered; pods ovate July — September. 
Copses. Common, 

LESPEDEZA STUVEI, Nutt.-CDotonj/ Bush Glover). 

Stems upright, spreading, bushy, downy ; leaflets oval or roundish, 
longer than the petiole, sDky or white wooly beneath, clusters many 
flowered. With the foregoing. July — ^August. 

LESPEDEZA HIBTA, ElL-(Hatrt/ Bush Cl&ver.) 

Flowers in a cylindrical rather loose spike ; corolla whitish with a 
purple spot on the standard ; leaflets roundish or oval, hairy. Plant up- 
right, wand-like, 2-4 feet high. Dry hills and barrens. July. 

LESPEDEZA OAPITATA, TKicYnLM^^nd-headed Bush Clover), 

Similar to the foregoing, but the leaflets elliptical or oblong, thickish, 
reticulated and mostly smooth above, silky beneath, spikes or heads 
dense, nearly globular. With the former, July — August. 

The four last described Lespedeazs are exceedingly valuable pasture 
plants. Lespedeza striata, the Japan clover, already described, is now 
quite common in many countries, but the American indigenous species 
would prove equally as valuable. 

DBSMODIUM, D. 0.-.(aM5 FaU). 

Calyx more or less 2 -lipped. Standard obovate; wings adherent to 
the straight and usually truncate keel, by means of a little transverse 
appendage on each side of the latter. Stamens diadelphous 9 and 1, 
or monadelphous. Pod flat, deeply lobed on the lower margin, sepa- 
rating into few or many flat reticulated joints, (mostly roughened with 
minute hooked hairs, by which they adhere to the fleece of animals 
or to the clothing). Perennial herbs with pinnately 3-foliolate (rarely 
1-folioate) leaves, stipellate. 

This is a large genus with 28 species in the Atlantic part of the West- 
ern States^ and most species are very common and abundant 

Digitized by 




• Leaflets rhombic-ovate, bluntish, pale beneath ; raceme few flowered, 
terminal. Woods, common. June — September. 

DSSMODIUH AOXnaKATUH, D. CMShar^ jxnnied Tkk-Tre 
Leavea all crowded at the smnmit of the stem, from which arises the 
elongated naked raceme or panicle; leaflets round, ovate, taper-pointed, 
green both sides. Woods, common. 

DESMODIUM NTJDIFLOBUM, D. C.-( While-fowered TieJ>I^ 


Leaves all crowded at the summit of sterile stems ; leaflets broadly 
ovate, bluntish, whitish beneath; raceme elongated on an ascending 
mostly leafless stalk or scape from the root, 2 feet long. Woods, com- 
mon. August — September. 

DESMODIUM OXTSFIDATUM, Torr <fe Qnj.^^(Ow^idjaU Tick- 
Yerj smooth except the panicle ; stem straight ; leaflets lanceolate, 
ovate and taper-pointed, green both sides ; longer than the petiole 3-5 
inches long, joints of the pod rhomboid, oblong, smoothish. Common. 
June — September 


Soft, hairy all over, truly prostrate ; leaflets orbicular, or the odd one 
slightly rhomboid ; pods almost equally sinuate on both edges, 8-5 joint- 
ed ; the joints rhomboid-oval. Common. June— September. 

DESMODIUM CANADENSE, D. C. (Canadian Tick Trefoil), 

Stem hairy ; (8-6 feet high). Leaflets oblong, lanceolate or ovate, 
lanceolate, obtuse, with numerous straight veins, much longer than the 
petiole, (li-8 inches long); flowers showy, larger than in any other 
species, 1-3 to 1-2 inch long. East Tennesseee August, S^tember. 

DESMODIUM DILLENH, Dsrl~(i>a2en« Tick Trefoil), 

Stem pubescent; leaflets oblong, or oblojig-ovate, commonly bluntish, 
pale beneath softly and finely pubescent. Open woodlands; common. 
July, September. 

DESMODIUM FANIOULATUM, D. 0.-(Sbioo^ 2^ Trtfoil.) 
Nearly smooth throughout; stem slender, tall; leaflets oblong-lanceo- 

Digitized by 



late, or narrowly lanceolate, tapering to a blunt point, thin, 8-5 inches 
long; racemes much panicled; June, September; common. 

DBSMODIUM STRICTUM, D. C."{Sdff Tick Trefml), 

Stem very straight and slender, simple, 2-3 feet high, the upper part 
and narrow panicle rough, glandular, leaflets linear, blunt, strongly re- 
ticulated thickish, very smooth, 1-2 inches long, \ inch wide; joints of 
the pod 1-3 semi-obovate or very gibbous, only two lines long. Cedar 

The main bulk of the pea-vine food found in the forest and unculti- 
vated regions, consists of the various species of this genus, several of 
which would certainly do well in cultivation. Amongst those, D. pau- 
ciflorum, and D. nudiflorum, cuspidatum and Ganadense are best 

AFIOS TUBEBOSA,M(Bnoh-( Ground nut.) 

A twining and climbing vine; flowers in crowded oval racemes, fra- 
grant, of a dull purple, mixed with green; legume 8-6 inches long, 8-10 
seeded; plant with some milky juice. August, September. The root 
bears tubers which are farinaceous and eatable. Hogs know how to find 
them. The plant ought to be tried under cultivation, as the size and 
^ quality of the tuber would perhaps become gradually improved. 

PHASEOLUS FEBENNIS» Walt— ( Wild Kidney Bec^n). 

Calyx 5-toothed, or 5-cleft, the two upper teeth higher united; keel 
of the corolla with the included stamens and style spirally coiled or 
curved into a ring; stamens diadelphous; climbing higher from a peren- 
nial root; leaflets roundish, ovate, short panicled; pods droopiilg, 
strongly cured, 4-5 seeded; flowers purple, handsome. Copses, common; 
valuable. July, September. 

Annual; stem prostrate, spreading, rough, hairy; leaflet^ ovate; 8- 
lobed, or angled towards the base, or some of them oblong, ovate and 
entire ; peduncles at length, twice the length of the leaves. Corolla 
greenish white, tinged with purple. Prairies and cedar glades; summer. 

PHASEOLUS HELVOLUS, L.— (£on^ StaOced Kidney Bean). 

Perennial, hairy; stem diffuse, slender; leaflets ovate or oblong, en- 
tire or obscurely angled. Peduncles 3-6 times the length of the leaves 
Flowers as large as in the former, and similar. One single plant makes 
a great quantity of herbage. It could perhaps be gathered with some 
profit and used from the native state. Good for all stock. 

Digitized by 



CLITORIA MABLA.NA, Ij~^(Butterfly pea). 

A low, ascending or twining plant, with pinnately, 3 folialate leaves, 
and very large, pale blue flowers, July. Eatable, but too scattering. 

CENTBOSEMA VIBGINIANUM, Benth-- ('Spurred Buttefjip 

Corolla much like in the foregoing, but the spreading standard with a 
spur shaped projection on the back near the base; pod long and linear, 
many seeded, thickened at the edges A twining perennial, with 3 fol- 
iolate stipulate leaves, and large, showy flowers. Corolla 7 inches long, 
violet. Common. Forage plant. Flowers all summer. 


Flowers of two kinds; those of the racemes from the upper branches 
perfect, but seldom ripening fruit; those near the base and on creeping 
branches with the corolla none or rudimentary, and few free stamens, 
but fruitful, calyx about equally 4 (rarely 5) toothed; bractleta none, 
or minute; keel and wing petals similar, almost straight, the standard 
partly folded round them. Stamens diadelphouft; style beardless; pods 
of the upper flowers when formed somewhat scymetar-shaped, 3-4 seed- 
ed ; of the lower ones commonly subterranean, obovate or pear shaped, • 
fleshy: ripening usually but one large seed. A low and slender peren- 
nial, the twining stems clothed with brownish hairs; leaves pinnately 
3-foliolate; leaflets rhombic, ovate, stipulate. Flowers small, in clus- 
ters, or compound racemes, purplish. The subterranean pods are hairy 
and greedily eaten by hogs. The herbage makes very good food. The 
fruit burrowing habit of this species is very similar to that of the Afri- 
can pea nut. It abounds round Nashville, and requires rich soil in the 
woods. Flowers all summer. 

QALACTLA. MOLLIS, B. Brown-(Aft^ Pea). 

Low, prostrate and twining perennial; leaflet 3, stipulate, oval, soft, 
downy and hairy beneath; flowers in interrupted or somewhat knotty 
racemes, purplish, pods very downy; flowers in summer. 

GALACTLA GLABELLA, 'Miohx."(Smootk Milk Pea). 

Stems nearly smooth, prostrate; leaflets elliptical or ovate, oblong, 
sometimes slightly hairy beneath; racemes short, 4-8 flowered; pod» 
somewhat hairy; flowers large, rose-purple. They are what their name 
indicates, excellent food for milk cows. Abundant in the State. 

BAPTISLA. TINCTOBLA., B. Brown.-( TFtW Indigo). 
Calyx 4-5 toothed. Standard not longer than the wings, its sides re- 

Digitized by 



flexed, keel petals nearly separate, and, like the wings, straight, stamens 
10, distinct, pod stalked in the persistent calyx, roundish or oblong, in- 
flated, pointed, many seeded, smooth, 2-3 feet high, rather glaucons; 
corolla yellow, ^ inch long. Flowers in July and August. 


Smooth; 1-3 feet liigh slender and the branches wide spreading; very 
similar to the foregoing, but pod long-stalked, and standard of the cor- 
olla very short Flowers white. 

BAPTISIA ALBA, B. Brown— ( WhUe BapHda). 

Similar to the former; flowers white, pods linear, oblong, short stalk- 
ed. The branches of the pyramidal growing plant slender and widely 
spreading. May. 

BAPTISIA AUSTBAIiIS, R. Browil-(^/ue, False Indigo). 

Is of similar habit, but taller and stouter; 4-5 feet high; raceme elon- 
gated, 1-2 fqet long; flowers one inch long, indigo blue; often cultivated 
ill gardens. (Bridgeport). Flowers in summer. The Baptisias are gen- 
erally not touched by any stock. In drying they turn black. 

THEBMOPSIS MOLLIS, Curtes-i Doumy Leafed Thermopm). 

Genus like Baptisia, but with a long, narrow fiat pod; plant 1-2 feet 
high; minutely soft, downy; leaflets wedge obovate, varying to oblong; 
raceme reclining flowers golden yellow, pod long and linear. This is a 
rare plant in this State, and found yet but in one locality, on Judge Lee's 
place, top of llarpeth ridge. For several years in succession the cattle 
had eaten it down in a measure that I could obtain but two good speci- 
mens It flowers in .lune. 


Attains considerable size in the Harpeth hills by Nashville. One tree 
measured 10 feet round about 4 feet above the ground. Its hight, how- 
ever, was only about thirty feet. Other specimens attain more hight 
by less thickness. Flowers similar to the locust. Well enough known 
in this region. 


The red bud needs no description. It ought to be used as an orna- 
mental tree. 

Its pods are eaten by stock, and young trees are frequently kept 
down in a stunted condition from the biting and browsing of stock. 

Digitized by 




With less and simple thorns, and small, oval, one seeded, and pulpless 
l>ods, is a small tree, growing in the Mississippi bottoms, never seen by 
me in the Middle and Eastern parts of the State. 


Leaves 8 feet long, with several large, partial leafstalks, bearing 7-13 
ovate, stalked leaflets, pod 6-10 inches long, 2 inches broad, the seed 
over ^ inch across. ( his ie one of the noblest forest trees, timber val- 
uable. It onght to be planted in parks, and at road sides. 

CASSIA MABILANDICA, Jj^-iAmeriean Senna.) 

Perennial herb with simple pinnate leaver, showy; yellow flowers in 
axillary raceme, the upper ones panicled. * Leaflets 6-^ pairs, lanceolate 
oblong obtuse; petiole with a globe-shaped gland near the base; pods 
linear, slightly curved. Leaves used as a substitute for the officinal 

CASSIA OBTUSIFOLIA, !.-( Wild Senna). 

Annual; leaflets 3 or rarely 2 pairs, obovate, obtuse, with an elonga- 
ted gland between those of the lower pairs or lowest pair, pods slender, 
6 inches long, curved. Common on river banks and in waste places. No 
use. Not touched by stock. 


Leaflets small, 10-15 pairs, Imear, oblong, oblique at the base, flowers 
large, on slender petioles, anthers 10, elongated, unequal; 4 of them 
\ ellow, the others purple, style slender. Sandy fields, common. Some- 
times eaten by cattle. 

CASSIA NICTITANS, L~( Wild SenMve Plant). 

Like the former sensitive to the touch, especially so in hot ^ • ather. 
Leaflets 10-20 pairs oblong, linear, flowers small, on very short pedi- 
cels, anthers 5, nearly equal with the former. Of no utility. 



Is a fine ornamental tree of the 3Iimosa family, the third Suborder 
of the Leguminosse, (Cercis, Cassia, Gymnocladus, Gleditschia, belong 
to the second suborder, or CaesalpsineaB). The Mimosae have regular 
flowers, coroUa valvate in aestivation, stamens often very numerous. 
Leaves twice pinnate. A large tree of this kind of about 30 feet high 
and nearly 1 foot in diameter, demonstrating sufficiently its adapta- 

Digitized by 



bility to the climate, did exist formerly corner Vauxhall aiid Broad 
streets, Nashville, and has recently very injudiciously been cut down. 
Native of Palestine. It makes a very ornamental tree. 


This and the next two belong to the Mimosas or sensitive plants. It 
is also sensitive to the touch; soon folding its 2-pinnate foliage; nearly 
glabrous, erect, 1-4 feet high, light green; partial petioles 6-15 pairs, 
leaflets 20-30 pairs; stamens 5. Pods oblong, siclcel- shaped, about (me 
inch long, forming a globular cluster. Frequently met with in dry ce- 
dar barrens. They are much liked by horses and other stock. In cul- 
tivation, with a proper management of planting and working ,it would 
produce an immense quantity of food. 


SCHBANEIIA ANGUSTATA, Torr & aray.-(5en«i<tve Briar.) 

j» rr» two small creeping briars, very sensitive, with small gloubular 
heads of rose colored delicate flowers. Both occur on siliceous soil and 
are visited by sheep and cattle, notwithstanding the! prickly stems and 
|)eticle8. Growing all summer. 

Digitized by 




PEANUT GOOBER PEA, GBOXmD VEA.—Arachi^ hypogtat. 

The principal characters of the genus are the unmensely long tube of 
the calyx, whose limb is two-lipped; the corolla papilionaceous aod 

yellow, and eight stamens 
united in one parcel. The 
ovary is very small, and is 
plared at the bottom of the 
very long calyx tube; it 
contains two ovules, and is 
terminated by a very long 
style, thickened at its ex- 
tremity, and covered with 
hairs at the place where it 
comes in contact with the 
stamens. After the fall of 
the flower, the ovary, which 
is very small, is gradually 
raised upon a stalk, which, 
in time, attains at length 
^ two to three Inches, and in 
I its' growth curves down- 
wards, so that a length of 
j the small ovary at its ex- 
[ tremity is thrust into the 
•ground. Wlien this happens, the ovary begins to enlarge and ripens 
into a pale yellowish, wrinkled, slightly curved pod, often contracted 
in the middle and containing two seeds. Should the ovary, by some 
accident, not be enabled to thrust its pods into the ground, it withers 
and does not attain perfection. 

The Peanut is supposed to be indigenous to Africa, and 
within the last few years has become of great comraercial 
importance. Large quantities are grown on the western 
oast of Africa and in South America. It is also cultivated 

Digitized by 


PEANUTS. . 431 

in Virginia, North Carolina, Georgia, Alabama and Ten- 
nessee, Virginia taking the lead in its production. 

The principal peanut growing counties in Tennessee are 
Perry, Hickman, Humphreys, Dickson and Lewis. Two 
varieties are known in Tennessee, the red and the white. 
The red grows with an erect stem and is more easily culti- 
vated, the largest portion of the work being done with the 
plow. The white peanut grows flat on the ground, spread- 
ing out and forming the rigid, deflexed stalk to which the 
forming pod is attached in the ground. The white is the 
most prolific, is later in coming to maturity thai; the red, 
but brings usually a better price in market. The red ma- 
tures better because earlier, and yields fewer imperfect ones 
called " puffs " or '^pops." 

An argillaceous soil, filled with light pebbles, so as to 
make it loose and prevent baking, is the best for peanuts. 
The brighter the pebbles and clay the better the peanuts, 
the color of the soil affecting the color of the peanut and 
their markst value. Uplands, with an original growth of 
hickory and white oak, with a light clay, are greatly prefer- 
red for this reason to the black soils of the bottoms. While 
the latter may yield a greater quantity of nuts per acre, 
they are not so marketable, and are classed among the lower 

The land is usually preparred in April, after the danger 
of frost is past. It is seldom subsoiled, but well harrowed, 
so as to pulverize it thoroughly. For white peanuts it is 
then checked off in rows two and a half or three feet apart, 
and two kernels, after being carefully hulled by hand, are 
dropped, like corn, at the intersection of the furrows, and 
covered with a hoe an inch and a half or two inches deep. 
It is often difficult to obtain a good stand. Should the 
land become compacted, after planting, by a hard rain, a har- 
row should be run over it, when sufficiently dry, to break 
the obstructing crust so that the plumule, which is very deli- 
cate and tender, can push its way to the surface. The brown 

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millipede^ out-worms and moles are all great enemies to the 
peanut when first planted. Should the plumule fisiil to 
make its appearance aft^r ten days of favorable weather, 
re-planting should begin. 

Red peanuts are usually planted in ridges like cotton. 
The se^s are dropped along in the furrow which is 
opened on top the ridge, from eight to twelve inches apart, 
and covered by a board, like cotton seed, some two inches 
deep. About two and a half bushels in the hull are re- 
quired to plant an acre. Very fertile lands are not suited 
to this crop, for the reason that too much vine is objection- 
able, as the peanuts continue to form without maturing. 
For this reason very few fertilizers are used in making the 

The after culture of the peannt is very simple. Keep 
down the weeds and stir the ground often with a harrow, 
and finally with double shovels, so as to leave a loose sur- 
face. The soil is usually thrown up to the red peanuts, but 
level culture is demanded for the white. The crop is usu- 
ally "laid by" about the first of August, the bunches of 
grass escaping the plow being carefully cut out and the 
the ground left light and loose. A dry spring is very 
much to be desired in the cultivation of this crop. After 
the spikelets begin to push down into the soil, frequent 
showers are indispensable to a large yield. 

The crop of white peanuts is harvested by running a fur- * 
row on each side of the row with a bull-tongue plow or a 
pea-digger, so as to dislocate the roots. Care must be 
taken not to detach the nuts from the vine in running the 
side furrow. Aft^er the plow has been run on each side of 
the row, (and it is sometimes necessary to run twice on a 
side), then lift the vines gently with the hand, carefully 
shaking the dirt ofiT, and lay them on the ground. Let 
them remain in this way, if the sun is shining, from six to 
eight hours. The vines will wilt like clover, when they 
may be brought together and stacked. 

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The stacks are made around a pole planted in the ground 
and rising some eight feet above the sur&ce. A platform 
made of old rails is laid down upon logs around thi 
pole, so as to protect the nuts and vines from the mould 
and dampness of the ground. In stacking, the nuts should 
be put on the inside next to the stack-pole, but not so close 
but that air can circulate freely from the bottom to the top 
of the stack. To make the stack entirely secure^ it should 
have a capping of hay or corn fodder. Put up in this 
manner the nuts will keep securely all the winter should it 
be desired. 

The red nuts are more easily harvested than the white, 
as they have but few root and the nuts adhere closely about 
the stem. In loose land they may be pulled up without 
running a furrow on each side of the row, though to do 
this will make the work much easier. 

Usually the nuts are allowed to stand in the stacks aboufr 
four weeks, and are then picked off by hand, the white al- 
ways, the red sometimes being threshed off by taking up 
bundles and beating against a rail or the side of a box. 
This latter plan greatly injures the peanuts. Five im 
six bushels of red peanuts can be picked off the vines in 
a day by a nimble fingered hand, but the picking of three 
to four bushels of the white is considered a good days work. 
Women and children are said to be much more expert in 
picking off the peanuts than men. The price paid for pick- 
ing is about ten cents per bushel. After this they ought to 
be screened in a cylinder so as to separate them from 
. the dust and leaves, and also for the purpose of brightening 
the hulls by abrasion against one other. After sunning 
they are put in sacks containing four to five bushels. 

The weight of a bushel of peanuts in Tennessee, is 28 
pounds ; in Georgia 26 ; in North Carolina and Virginia 
22 pounds. The Tennessee peanuts are larger iktok those 
of Georgia, and smaller than those of North Carolina and 
Virginia. Of those raised in Tennessee fully three-fourtlis 


zed*by Google 

434 liEauMiNous piIants. 

are ot the red variety. The usual yield per acre is from 
thirty to fifty basheU^ though as high as 100 bushels 
are sometimes made. The white peanuts will make from 
len to twenty bushels per acre more than the red, but not 
being so easily cultivated or gathered, they are considered 
less valuable. 

The analysis of the peanut, according to Antisell, busk 
aad nut, shows it to contain in 100 parts : 

Water, 2,60 

Albuminoids, fibre and starch, 79.26 

Oil, V 16.00 

Ash, ^...^ 2.0O 

Loss, 14 

The seed alone contains in 100 parts : 

Moisture, •••«. 2.51 

Albuminoids and farina, 79.71 

Ash, 1.77 

Oil, 16.00 

The husk contains about one-sixteenth of the whole 
weight of the peanut. The ash consists of soluble phos- 
phates of soda and ammonia with a small amount of com- 
mon salt. Super-phosphate of lime ought to be a good 
manure for them. 

The seeds of some varieties are said to contain from 4<X 
to 60 per cent of oil resembling oUve oil and used for simi- 
lar purposes. A large amount of the oil is used in the 
manu&cture of soap^ Peanuts are also used in making con- . 
fectioneries, and are eaten like almendf- and other nuts. 
The haulm or vine, when carefully harvested before it has 
been injured by frost, is ccmsidered an excellent food for 
cattle and sheep. Horses are also exceedingly fond of it, 
but the large lunount of dirt which necessarily adheres to 
it is apt to produce a disagreeable cough in horses. Hie 
red peanut makes better hay because it grows erect, and is 

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therefore freer from dirt. About one ton is usually saved per 
acre, though ppon strong land, where the vines grow very 
luxuriantly, two tons or more have been saved from a single 
acre. Many practical fitrmers prefer it to cloven hay. Like 
clover hay it must be handled carefully, or the leaves fall 
off, leaving nothing but the stems, which are nearly worth- 
less. When fed to milch cows it is said to produce a 
copious flo^ of rich, creamy milk. Ewes in lambing time 
can have no better feed given them than well cured peanut 
vines. Their flow of milk is increased and its quality en- 

The best of farmers, however, scatter the hay over the 
land intended to be planted in peanuts, and it proves to be 
an excellent fertilizer. The peanut, like all oily products 
#f the soil, is a very exhaustive crop, and if the hay is not 
returned to the soil the land will not yield more tbtin two 
good crops in succession. The best plan is to rotate the 
peanut crop with the wheat crop, and use some of the super- 
phosphates. They are good fertilizers for both crops. 

The estimated production of this crop in Tennessee, as 
made by Gennett & Co., the largest dealers in the State, for 
the five years ending 1877, is as follows : 

1873, 600,000 bushels 

1874, 150.000 " 

1875, 200,000 " 

1876, 450,000 " 

1877, 200,000 " 

It is a singular fact that, notwithstanding the importance 
and value of this crop, no report of it has ever been made 
in the United States census. 

The best markets are Nashville, Cincinnati, Pittsburgh 
and New Orleans, which usually take the whole Tennessee 
crop. About 105,000 bushels were handled in Nashville in 
1877. The quality of the Tennessee peanuts is considered 
not equal to those of Virginia, bat better than those of 

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G^rgia and other States. Carelessness in handling only 
makes them inferior to the Virginia crop. 

Marketable peanuts are free from puffs^dirt and trashy and 
have a bright hull^ and should be put in four bushel bur- 
laps, well filled, but without crushing the hulls. 

I am indebted mainly to W. O. Britt, Britt's Landing, 
and to W. K. Jackson, Box Station, for the facts embraced 
in this paper on peanuts. Both gentlemen ha^e had ex- 
tensive experience in their growth and sale. 

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PEAS. 437 


PEA— (Ptsuin Salivwn ). 

Smooth and glancous, with large leafy stipules, commonly two pain 
of leaflets, branching tendrils, and peduncles bearing two or more large 
flowers ; corolla white, bluish, purple or partly- colored; pods rather 
fleshy. — Gh*ap. 

The pea is a native of southern Europe, and its cultiva- 
tion extend^ into every State. The varieties are very great, 
and while some are cultivated extensively for table use other 
kinds are raised for stock and for manurial purposes. Our 
garden pea was cultivated by the Greeks and Romans. Peas 
were found in the ancient Swiss lake dwelling. They were 
introduced into England in the time of Henry VIII, and 
is there still a standard crop. They are sown or drilled in 
and are sometimes even sown with oats, the two being har- 
vested and fed together. Sheep and hogs are very fond of 
them, and especially are the vines prized as a sheep fodder. 
Analysis shows that peas-contain : Ash, 2.6; albuminoids or 
flesh formers, 22.4; carbo-hydrates or heaters, 52.3, crude 
fibre, 9.2; fat, 2.5; water, 14.3. The composition shows 
them to be very nutritious, and animals fatten rapidly when 
fed with them liberally. The pea haulm when dry gives 
by analysis : Water, 14.3; ash, 4.; albuminoids, 6.5; carbc- 
hydrates, 35.2 ; crud« fibre, 40; fat, 2. This shows the 
haulm to be three times as valuable for feeding purposes as 
wheat straw, and a little more valuable as a feed than bar- 
ley straw mixed with clover, and one third better than com- 
mon fodder. 

The cow or field pea of the Southern States is more like 

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A bean than a pea, and is supposed to be a species of dolicho9 
belonging to the pulse family whose species is undetermin- 
ed. Be this as it may, its value as a farm crop has long been 
known. The ease with which it is cultivated and its great 
value as a forage plant and as a fertilizer have given it a 
prominent place in southern agriculture. It belongs to the 
leguminous or pulse family, and is known as a pea, and for 
that reason it will be treated of under that head. 

The letter below, from the Hon. H. M. Polk, of Harde- 
man county, is so thorough and exhaustive that nothing 
more need be said on the subject, only remarking that no 
soil in this State is so poor that it will not grow peas. 

Bolivar, Hasdbman County, Tenh., July 2, 1878. 
Commissioner J, B, Killebreio: 

I will not stop to deinoDBtate what is manifest to all that the South, 
from her sparse population, her wide-spread plantations, her adaptation 
to, and her predilection for the cultivation of certain of our great 
Southern staples, is not at this time and may never be in a condition to 
keep up her arable lands by animal manures alone, and that her only 
alternative is in green crops turned under for renovating and increasing 
the productive capacity of her soil. 

In estimating the relative manurial values of green crops to bring up 
the productive capacitv of our soils, we measure by the amount of crop 
produced in the shortest time, the elements upon which these crops feed, 
their capacity for returning plant food to the earth, and especially by 
their leaving more or less of those elements in the soil which are ne- 
cessary to the production of the succeeding crop Nor do we omit to 
estimate their several capacities for sending their roots deeply into the 
soil, thereby bringing up and depositing near the surface the aliment fot 
plants which would otherwise remidn below the reach of the roots of 
many of our most valuable cereals. For the accomplishment of these 
purposes no vegetable equals the southern field pea and red clover. In 
them we find the answer to that momentous question, how, and through 
what means can we, in the shortest space of time, bring our lands up to 
their highest productive capacities to meet our own and the varied wants 
of society. When we reflect that all progress, civilization, refinement, 
culture, prosperity and happiness of society hang suspended upon th* 
•cale which measures out the feeding capacity of the earth, we begin to 
appreciate those vegetable p: eductions promotive of this desired end. 
The trefoils and legumes then begin to loom up in their grand possibili- 
ties; and the clover and the field pea assume an importance not dream- 

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PEAB. 489 

ed of before. Without them, on the one hand we must descend to 
meager haryests, perishing stock, fast approaching sterility, hard timti 
and general discontent On the other, by their powerful aid we ascend 
up to plentiful harvests, fat stock with the multiplied advantages result- 
ing therefrom, good living, money in the purse, prosperity and content- 
ment. Can the pea and clover accomplish all this ? Worked in proper 
rotation with other crops they most assuredly can. In the heathen, but 
appreciative past, when gratitude was manifested by the erection of 
temples, and by solemn worship to those deities from whom temporal 
blessings were thought to flow, the pea and clover of the present day 
have been entwined with the wheat and fruit— crowning the brow of 
beneficent Ceres. Now, these mainsprings of successful agriculture in 
our favored land are but half appreciated, and are thrust aside by the 
impatient tiller of the soil for some other crop supposed to bring in 
more immediate money profits; but which in its continued drafts upon 
the fertility of the soil, must end in the bankruptcy, as well as the ruin 
of Its possessor. 

In a previous letter to you I stated some of the advantages which the 
ield pea possessed even over its great fellow laborer, red clover, as a 

1st. The pea will thrive upon land too poor to grow clover. 

2d. That it will produce a heavy and rich crop to be returned to the 
•oil in a shorter period than any vegetable fertilizer known. 

3d. That two crops can be pro<iuced on the same ground in one year, 
whereas it requires two years for clover to give a hay crop, and good 
aftermath for turning under. In this time four crops of peas can be 

4th. That the pea feeds but lightly upon, and hence leaves largely in 
the soil, those particular elements necetsary to a succeeding grain crop, 
and the pea lay, in its decay, puts back largely into the soil those very 
elements required for a vigorous growth of the cereals. 

5th. There is no crop which is its equal for leaving the soil In the 
very best condition for a succeeding wheat crop. 

6th. It Is the only crop raised In the South so rapid In Its growth and 
perfection as to be made an Intervening manurlal crop between grain 
cut in the spring, and grain sowed in the fall, upon the same ground. 
And this alone makes the pea invaluable to Southern agriculture. 

7th. In our particular latitude it flourishes equally with clover : and 
with two such renovators of the soil (aside from their value as food 
•rops), no portion of the earth is equally blessed. North of us the pea 
does not succeed ; south, the clover fails. 

Sth. Its adaptability to other crops, producing in the space betweea 

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oar com rows both a proyision and a fertilizing crop, with podtiye 
Benefit to the growing com. 

9th. The aid it giyes in producing cheap beef, pork, mDk and batter. 
Withoat the pea pork could not be produced cheaplj, where it costs so 
much to make com. 

lOth. A doubled capacity for wintering stock, and with this, a doablj 
enlarged manure heap. 

lltb The large plantations of the South can only be restored by 
green crops turned under, united to a judicious system of rotation looking 
to feeding the soil. This must be aided by all the manure manufactured 
on the plantation. 

12tli. The large addition made to humus, upon which the tilth, as 
well as capacity of the soil for retaining moisture so greatly depends. 

As for the cultivation of the pea, one can scarcely go amiss. When 
two crops are intended for renovating, break the land, sow broadcast 
and harrow in. Or drill in rows three feet apart, and plow out when a 
few inches high. When pods begin to ripen, if the crop is intended for 
manurial purposes, plow under with large two horse plow, with a well 
sharpened rolling coulter attached, or with chain passing from double 
tree to beam of the plow to hold the vines down for facilitating cover- 
ing. A roller passed over the vines before plowing under will assist the 
operation* Caustic lime should be sown upon the vines before plowing 
under to promote decay, and neutralize the large amount of vegetable 
acid covered into the soil. Select the pea which mns least. The vines 
are easiest covered into the soil. They are the black bunch pea, and the 
sptckle or whippoorwill pea. 

When planted in com as a food crop, the bunch pea ripens soonest ; 
but the Carolina cow pea, the clay pea, or the black stock pea are 
preferable as they do not readily rot from wet weather, and will re- 
main sound most of the winter. For early feeding of stock, plant 
whipporwill pea by itself in separate enclosure from com, where stock 
can be turned upon whenever desired. 

Peas are often sowed upon the stuble after small grain is harvested. 
Flush up the ground, and sow either broadcast, or drill in furrow open- 
ed with shovel plow, covering with scooter furrow on each side. 
Block off or run over lightly with harrow and board atta<!hed. Again 
they are drilled in every fourth furrow, when taming over the stubble, 
the succeeding furrow covering the peas. When either of these last 
modes of planting is adopted, the peas, should receive one good plowing 
out when they are from four to six inches high. 

When planted in com (the com should have been drilled in rows flye 
feet apart), they should be stepdropped in a furrow equally distant from 
each com row, and covered with scooter, with harrow or with block. 

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PEAS. • 441 

This should be last of May or hi the first ten days of June. The only 
work they receive when planted m com, is a shovel jot sweep furrow 
run around them when the com is being *%id by/' unless there )S much 
grass, when it becomes necessary to give them a light hoeing. The 
crop might be said to be made almost without work when planted with 
com ; in fact it is often so made by those planters who sow peas broad- 
cast in their com^ and cover them with the last plowing given the 

There is much diversity of opinion as to the proper treatment of the 
vines in curing them for winter hay. And as much has been written 
upon the subject, the writer feels some diffidence in giving his own 
views. Buffice it to say, the great end to be attained is to cure the vines 
to the extent only of getting rid of a part of the succulent moisture in 
the vine, without burning up the leaves, ^''hen exposed to too much 
heat, the leaves fall very readily from the stems, and are lost. 

When put up too green and too compactly, they heat, and when fer- 
mentation of the juices in the vine and unripe pods occurs, the hay is 
seriously damaged, if not completely spoiled. Mildewed hay of any 
kind is but poor food for stock, and when eaten is only taken from 
necessity to ward off starvation. Some planters house their pea hay in 
open sheds, or loosely in bams, with ndls so fixed as to prevent Cf>m- 
pactino;. Others stack in the open air around poles, having limbs from 
two to four feet long, to keep the mass of vices open to the air, and' 
cover the top with grass. 

There is diversity of opinion as to the proper manner of curing and 
preserving this hay, but there is none as to the value of this rich food 
for all stock, and especially for the milch cow In increasing the quantity 
and quality of her milk. 

In attempting to renovate our soils by the aid of vegetable fertilizers, 
we should not confine ourselves to one, but should utilize all which are 
suitable to our soil and climate. The writer has some sixty or stventy 
acres in clover, and in much of this grasses are sown. Orchard grass 
and herds grass thrive well with us, whilst blue grass and timothy finds 
a congenial home in the lime lands of Middle Tennessee. In no part of 
the State does clover grow better, if so well as in West Tennessee. 

In considering the great advantages of the field pea to the agricultu- 
ral interests of our people, I do not wish to be understood as disparag- 
mg othsr vegetable renovators of the soil. The field pea certamly 
possesses many advantages, such as its adaptability to almost any soil, 
and to many crops grown with it at the same time, and with positive 
benefit to the crop grown with it on the same ground. £ach row of 
com should be fianked by a row of peas. Every spot of ground in the 
field too poor for com can and will produce peas. There is nothing 

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better to be sowed ki old plowed up broomsedge fields, and there, 
whilst the land is being fertilized, one of the best provision crops for 
stock, and the best of hay for milk cows in winter, is produced. An4 
a still further advantage possessed by this valuable legume is its un- 
equaled capacity for, and its unapproachable merit as an intervening 
crop, (being both a renovating and a food crop), between small grsiii 
or root crop in the spring and a grain crop in the falL Do you ask 
more of any vegetable^ renovator? It is more valuable than the 
English turnip crop, and this crop, by those enlightened and eminently 
practical farmers, is estimated annually at miUions of pounds sterling. 
It is doubtful if England could tide it over the next two years if de- 
prived of her turnip crop. It is the foundation of her stock and ma- 
nure production. In contrasting the Southern field pea with the Eng- 
lish turnip crop we begin ^ preceive its immense value to southern 
agriculture, and realize that too often, in reaching after the so-called 
money crops, we have neglected the best fertilizers, (as well as food 
crop), ever given to the agricultural world. 

In considering the present impoverished condition of the lands of 
the South, we are forced to confess it is the work of tillage — of 
iDJudicious, ruinous tillage. Where husbandry predominates over tillage 
there is but little leaking out of the elements of fertility in a soil, and there 
is no estimating how long they will remain to supply the fo(id necessary 
to vigorous plant growth. The grasses, including clover and peas, are 
the grand elements for preserving and augmenting these elements in the 
soil. Hence we see all countries where husbandry prevails grow rich in 
soil, particularly if the tilled portion of the land is under a judicious 
system of rotation. Now, tillage, or the simple cultivation of land, puts 
nothing of any value in it, but is, of itself, a necessary m^ evil because of 
exposing the soil to a scorching sun, often reducing it to a mass of lifeless 
clods, and exposing it to an exhausting leaching process, which takes out 
its very life blood. The cleaner and longer continued the culture, the more 
the injury to the land from the destruction of its humus, and from the 
greatest of all destructives, leaching* The injury is augmented as the land 
is rolling and broken. Hence cotton and tobacco (the first of which is 
not an exhauster of land, per se) have brought ruin to the best acres of the 
South, whilst small grain and the grasses have husbanded and increased 
the natural fertility of the lands of our Northern neighbors. Lands in 
which these two great staples are grown should be level landSf and in the 
case of tobacco should receive, (outside the aid of rotation), a generous 
manuring. But if I have given the true reason for the rapid decline of 
the productive capacity of the soil of the South as contrasted with that of 
the Northern States, let me take you one step further and show you that 
in the rich region of country lying northwest of the Ohio river, we find a 
very great difierence in the material prosperity of the farmers there. A 

Digitized by 


PEAS. 443 

portion of them are proeperous, whilst others are experiencing all the 
evils resulting from the comprehensive term hard times. It is not diffi- 
cult to learn the cause. The grain maker, whose whole energies have 
been devoted to extracting the fertility of his soil f9r many consecutive 
yearp, in magnificent harvests, finds his crops growing lesm and less each 
year« while the stock-raiser is prosperous, having grown rich while making 
his land rich. 

Time haa here demonstrated a great truth which agriculturists should 
not ignore. Let our Fouthern farmers profit by its inevitable teaching. 
Let us determine to improve our destructive farming ; give our lands a 
chance to grow better instead of depreciating yearly; build up the waste 
places; infuse new life into our southern land, beautiful still in her decline, 
and endeared the. more as we see her slowly sinking under the drain 
mercilessly kept open by her own children, in the veins through which 
her priceless life-blood flows. 

Since writing the above, I have accidentally found an old document 
upon "Southern Agricultural Exhaustion, and its Remedy," from the 
able pen of the late Judge Buffin, of Virginia. Although this article was 
not written specially upon the merits of the field pea as a renovator of 
worn lands, yet it shows its great value to the agriculture of the South 
so much more forcibly than anything I can say in advocating its claims 
that I take the liberty of quoting the following paragraphs entire, and 
with them will close my letter, already too long : 

"At the risk of uttering what may be deemed trite or superfluous to 
many, I beg leave to state concisely the fundamental laws, as I conceive 
them to be, of supply and exhaustion of fertilizing matters to soils and 
aliment to plants. 

All vegetable growth is supported, for a small part, by the alimentary 
principks in the soil, (or by what we understand as its fertility,) and 
partly, and for much the larger portion, by matters supplied, either 
directly or ^indirectly, from the atmosphere. More than nine-tenths, 
usually, of the substance of every plant is composed of the same 
four elements, three of which — oxygen, nitrogen and carbon — com* 
pose the whole atmopphere ; the fourth — hydrogen — is one of the constitu- 
ent partfl of^ water; and, also, as a part of the dissolved water, hydrogen is 
always present in the atmosphere, and in a great quantity. Thus, all 
these principal elements of plants are superabundant, and always sur- 
rounding every growing plant; and from the atmosphere (or throng^ 
the water in the soil) very much the larger portion of these joint supplies 
is furnished to plants; and so it is of each particular element, except ni- 
trogen, much the smallest ingredient, and yet the richest and most im- 
portant of all organic manuring substances, and of all plant<4. This, for 
the greater part, if not for all of its small share in plants, it seems, is not 
generally derived, even partially, from the air, though so abundant 
therein, but from the soil, or from organic manures given to the soil. 

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But, though bountiful nature has offered these chief alimentary princi- 
ples and ingredients of vegetable growth in as inexhaustible profusion as 
the atmosphere itself which they compose, Btill, their availability and 
beneficial use for plants are limited in some measure to man's labors and 
oare to secure their benefits. Thus, for illustration, suppose the natural 
supplies of food for plants furnished by the atmosphere to be three-fourths 
of all received, and that one-fourth only of the growth of any crop is de- 
rived from the soil and its fertility, still, a strict proportion between the 
amount of supplies from these two different sources does not the less exist. 
If the cultivator's land at one time, from its natural or acquired fertility,' 
affords to the growing crop alimentary principles of value to be designated 
as five, tliere will be added thereto other alimentary parts, equal to fifteen 
in value, from the atmosphere. The crop will be made up of, and will 
contain, the whole twenty parts, of which five only were derived from 
and served to reduce by so much, the fertility of the soil. These propor- 
tions are stated merely for illustration, and, of course, are inaccurate; but . 
the theory or principle is correct, and the law of fertilization and exhaus- 
tion thence deduced is as certainly sound. Then, upon thene premises, 
there is taken from the land, for the support of the crop, but one-fourth 
of the aliment derived from all sources for that purpose. And, if no 
other causes of destruction of fertility were in operation, one green or 
manurinj< crop (wholly given to the land, and wholly used as manure) 
would supply to the field as much of alimentary or fertilizing mattei as 
would be drawn thence by three other crops removed for consumption «»r 
sale. But in practice there are usually at work important agencies for 
destruction of fertility, besides the mere supply of aliment to growing 
crops. Such agencies are the washing off of soluble parts, and even the 
soil itself, by heavy rains ; the hastening of the decomposition and waste 
of organic matter, by frequent tillage processes and changes of exposure ; 
and ploughing or other working of land when too wet, either from rain or 
want of drainage. Also, a cover of weeds left to rot on the surface, or 
any crop ploughed under, green or dry, as manure, is subject to more or 
less waste of its alimentary principles in the course of the ensuing decom- 
position. Therefore, it is nearer the facts that two years' crops or cul- 
ture, for market or removal, would require one year's growth of some 
manuring crop to replace, and to maintain undiminished or increusing 
the productive power of the field. The poorest, and also the cheapest, of 
such manuring crops will be the natural or "volunteer" growth of weeds on 
lands left cultivated, and not grazed; and the best of .ill will be furnished 
in the whole product of a broadcast sown and entire crop of your own 
most fertilizing and valuable field peas. 

Thus, of each manuring crop, (as of all others,) or of the fertilizing 
matter thus given to the land, the cultivator has contributed but five parts 
from the land, or its previous manuring, and the atmosphere has supplied 
fifteen parts. If, then, tlie cultivator, by still more increasing his own 

Digitized by 


, PEAS. 446 

contiibntions, will giye ten parts of alimentary matter to the land and 
crop, there will be added thereto from the atmosphere in the same three- 
fold proportion, or thirty parts, and the whole new prodnctive power will 
be equal to forty. And if the^oil is fitted by its natural constitution, or 
the artificial change induced by calcareons or other applications, to fix 
and retain this double supply of organic matter, the land will not only be 
made, but will remain of as much increased fertility, under the subsequent 
like course of receiving one year's product for manure for every two other 
crops removed. But, on the other hand, if more exhausting culture had 
been allowed, instead of either increased or maintained production, or if 
the crops take away more organic matter than nature's three-fold contri- 
butions will replace, then a downward progress must begin, snd will pro- 
ceed* whether slowly or quickly, to extreme poverty of the land, its profit- 
less cultivation, and final abandonment. In this, the more usual case, the 
cultivator's contributions of aliment (obtained from the soil) are redeoed 
from the former value, designated as five, first to four, and next succes- 
sively to three, two, and finally leas than one; and nature keeps equal 
pace in reducing her proportional supplies from fifteen first to twelve, and 
so on to nine and six, and less than three parts. So the strongest induce- 
ment is ofiered to enrich, rather than exhaust the soil ; for whatever amount 
of fertility the cultivator shall bestow, or whatever abstraction from a 
previous rate of supply he shall make, either the gain or the loss will be 
tripled in the account of supplies from the atmosphere famished or with- 
held by nature. 

In another and more practical point of view, the loss incurred by ez- 
haustiog may be plainly exhibited. According to my views, soils supposed 
to be properly constituted as to mineral ingredients do not demand, for th« 
maintainig and increasing of their rate of production, more than the rest- 
ing, or the growth of two years in every five, mainly to be left on the land 
as manure. 

These are the proportions of the five-field rotation, now extensively used 
on the most improving pa^^ts of Virginia. And one of these two years the 
field is grazed, so that parts of its growth of grass are consumed, instead 
of all remaining on the field for manure. To meet the same demands* 
the more Southern planter might leave his field to be covered by its 
growth of weeds (or natural grasses) one year, (and also to be grazed,) 
and a broadcast crop of pea-vines to be ploughed under in another, for 
every three crops of grain and cotton. But the ready answer to this, (and 
I have heard it many times,) is, ^' What I lose two crops in every five 
years?. I cannot afibrd to lose even one." It may be that the planter is 
so diligent and careful in collecting materials for prepared manure that 
he can extend a thin and poor application, and in the drills only, over 
nearly half his cotton field ; and perhaps he persuades himself that this 
application will obviate the neoessitj for rest and manuring crops to the 

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The result will not fulfill his expectation. Bat even if it coald, the 
manuring thus given directly by the labor of the planter is more cottlj' 
than if he would allow time and opportunity for nature to help to manure 
for him ; whether alone, or still better if aided by preparing for and sow- 
ing the native pea, to the production of which your climate ia so emi- 
nently favorable. All the accumulations of leaves raked from the poor 
pine forest, with the slight additional value which may be derived from 
the otherwise f>rofitle8s maintenance of poor cattle, will supply leas of 
food to plauiB, and at greater cost, than would be furnished by an un^ 
mixed growth of peas, all left to serve aa manure. 

The native or Southern pea, (as it ought to be called,) of such general 
and extensive culture in this and other Southern States, is the moat vain- 
able for manuring crops, and also offers peculiar and great advantages as 
ft A>tation crop. The seeds (in common with other peas and beans) are 
more nutritious, as food for man and beast, than any of the cereal grains. 
The other parts of the plant furnish the best and most palatable provender 
for beasts. They may be so well made in your climate, as a secondazy 
growth under com, that it is never allowed to be a primary crop, or te 
have entire possession of the land. It will grow well broadcast, and 
either in that way, or still better if tilled ; and is of an admirable and 
cleansing growth. It is even better than clover aa a preparing and ma- 
nuring crop for wheat. In one or other of the various modes in which 
the pea-crop may be produced, it may be made to suit well in a rotation 
with any other crops. Though for a long time I had believed in someVkf 
Ihe great advantages of the pea-crop, and had even commenced its col- 
ture as a manuring crop, and on a large scale, it was not until I after- 
wards saw the culture, growth, and uses in South Oarolina, that I learned 
to estimate its value properly, and perhaps more fully than is done by 
any who, in this State, avail Uiemaelves so largely of some of its benefits. 
Since, I have made this crop a most important member of my rota- 
tion, its culture, as a manuring crop, has now become general in my 
neighborhood, and is rapidly extending to more distant places. If all the 
advantages offered by this crop were fully appreciated and availed o^ the 
possession of this plant in your otim;^te would be one of the greatest agri- 
cultural blessings of this and the more Southern States. For my individ- 
ual share of this benefit, stinted aa it is by our colder climate, I estimate 
it as adding, at least, one thousand bushels of wheat annually to my 

Loan add nothing to what is said above. 

I am, Colonel, very respectfully yottra, etc, 

H. M. POLK. 

fioliver, Hardeman county, Tennessee. 

Digitized by 



Digitized by 


Digitized by 




































Names of Correspondents. 

G^eo. T. Allman 

A. Kerr 

A. W. Hawkins 

Tyree Rodes 

B. D. Hicks 

J. A. Campbell 

E. O. Nattmrst 

Col. p. L Douglass. 

W. T. Garrett 

O. P.Butler 

T. O.Harris 

W. H. Caldwell.... 

J. A. Turley 

Tom Crutchfleld 

W. P, Gant 


R. P. Fickle 

J. Nat Lyle 

W..G. Shields 

R. F. C. Smith 

L. P. McMuny 

W. F. Lenoir 

Jno. M Meek . . . . . 

Ephraim link 

E. T. Salmon 

J. T. Allman 

Thos. W. Jones 

W. H. Killebrew. . . . 

P. A. Mitchell 

Jno. T. Mcaellan... 

0. A. Hunt 

Jno. F. Haioser . 


Post Offices. 


White Bluff 


Wales StaUon 



Tracy City 



Fountain Head 


Rives Station 

Cog Hill 



Wayne Furnace... 







Strawberry Plains. 



Erin /, 


St. Bethlehem 



Hants Station 



































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Names of Ck)rreepondeBts. 

Jno. F. Baxter 

T. B. Abernathy 

Mark 8. CockrlU 

L. F. Lelper 

8ainl. McKamsey 

Thos. G. Moseley 

J.C. Marley 

H. C. AndersoB 

E. F. Sharp 

Jno. T. Brown 

H. B, Clay 

J. K. P.Wallace 

0. W. L-Mole 

J. F. Young 

B. G. Seawell 

J. R Richmond, M.D.... 

Michael Hoover 

H. H. Norman 

Robt. P. Rhea 

SamL Smith 

R. B. Hurt 

Campbell Brown. 

B. F. Tillman 

James T. Pope 

A. G. McDougal 

H. Skeeggs 

A. B. Cummings 

Jno. P. Jopling 

Daniel Haynes 

Robt C. Nail 

W. H. Ndson 

J. Alley 

W. P. Smallwood 

J. M. Noblett 

T. J. Gregory 

B. F. Co^rill 

D. B. Hankins 

J.M. Graham 

C. A. McDaniel 

J.T. Trapp 

Thos. S. Myers 

Dayid M. Scott 

J. A. Green 


Jos. R. Mosby 

R. F. McDonald 

M. G. Gholston 

Richard Hughes 

James M. flead 

L. Howard Bell 

H. B. Greenwood 

Post Office. 




Witts Foundry 


Bell Bucl^e 



Ten Mile Stand 

Obion Station 




Double Bridges 


Baird's Mills 






Spring Hill 


Stephens^ Chapel.... 







White Haven 

Wahiut Valley 



La Fayette 



Pine- wood 








Smith'sX Roads .... 


Johnson City 

Gallatin j. 

Howard Springs .... 





















































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Named of Correspondents. 

Post Offices. 



J. B. Fancher 

rancher's Mills 

Black Wolf 



Joshua Good 



Hamilton fiord 

New Canton 

Shady Hill 



L M. Stublefield 

W. C Trice 



Henderson Station. . . 



Brby Boyd 



Joshua Davis 




Louis Willianw 

Ne wbem 



John J. Boon 



J. E. Washmgton 

li. CJooper 

Cedar Hill 



Coal Field 





J. 8. Lindsay 



H. H. MaUock 



Thos. W. Roane 

H. H. Ingersoll 







Elijah Dority 

Baker's Gap 




H. M. Polk 



Wm- WilliftTTift 




David McCroskey 

Jftm^n Tiftmon 





W. G. Ewin 

Hurricane Mills 

Linden. . . . : 



T. W. Edwards 



R A. Salsbury 




J. C. Murphy 



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What grasses are found most abundant in your ranges or 
highway pastures? If a variety, give the month in which 
each flourishes ? (Sedge grass, broom sedge and old field 
sedge are only names for the andropogons — a true grass, 
not a sedge). 

1 Nimble will, crab grsBs, broom grass, and a sprinkle of blue grass. 

2 The natural grasses; crab grass makes a good hay; wild pea vine. 
8 Great rarietjr; cannot answer definitely. 

4 Blue grass in fall, winter and spring; fox tail and crab grass in 


5 Can't name any except nimble will a late grass. 

% Blue grass is found everywhere it has a chance to grow. 

7 Peas and some varieties of blue g^ass. 

8 Nimble will and sedge grass, spring, wire grass and many wild 


9 Sedge grass burnt off early, abundant in June. 

10 Swamp grass in winter, the rye barren grass are the most prevalent. 

11 Blue grass and white clover all the year. 

12 Blue grass on high and nimble will on low; some cane and pea vine. 
IS Sedge grass and blue grass are taking hold in some places. 

14 Sedge grass and white clover, as also a small yellow clover plant. 

15 We have no ranges or highway pastures. 

16 The range here is excellent, with a great deal of wild grasses the 


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17 Blue grass and sedge the most common; grows early and late; sedge 

too common and oaght to be killed out. 

18 Not much of any; blue grass is inclined to grow spontaneously. 

19 Blue grass flourishes best in early spring, summer and autumn. 

20 Nimble will, summer, blue grass and white spring clover. 

21 Nimlble will most abundant and most nutritious in the fall when the 

seed ripens. 

22 Sedge. 

23 A variety of wild grasses, sonie blue grass. 

24 Blue grass, crab grass, sedge grass. 

25 Nene of any value. 

26 The out growing grasses are most flourishing in May, June and July. 

27 Nimble will is the best, puts up in the spring and lasts through the 


28 Along highways blue grass is common, nimble will in creek bottoms. 

29 Mountain grass, one variety, know no name for it. 

30 Blue grass most abundant, flourishes all the year except wheu the 

ground is frozen 

31 Something like the sedge; there are two or three kinds. 

32 Cann<>t tell the names. 

33 Nimble will in May. 

34 Blue grass grows both along the highways and creek bottoms; whit« 

clover next. 

35 White clover and blue grass, white clover, first July; blue grass all 

the year except July and August. 

36 Very little grass grows outside of enclosures. 

37 Sedge grass has been, but is rather giving way to red clover, which 

lasts from May to October. 

38 Bine grass, almost universally. 

39 Nimble will, pea vine and swamp grass, that puts up early. 

40 Nimble wiirand other coarse, useless grasses only good when young 

and tender. 

41 Our wild grasses grow from April to October. 

42 Nimble will, a very fine grass, nutrititious till frost. 

43 Our ranges have a tough wire grass and pea vine, also broom sedge. 

44 Our ranges are principally under brush, huckleberry and wild grasses. 

45 Blue grass in spring, and nimble will in smnmer 

46 What is known here as yard or goose grass, nimble will on rich land. 

47 Blue grass spring and fall. 

48 Blue grass, white clover, nimble will and a tough grass that grows 

finely in the cedars 

49 Barren grass, which affords an abundance grass from April to 15th 

of July. 

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50 Blue gijisfi is becoming thick on onr highways. 

51 Sedge grass in April and May, if burnt early; blue grass. 

52 Crab grass in Jane and July, sedge grass July and August 

^58 Nimble will is a fine summer and early fall, grows on rich bottom . 

54 Much the same as above. 
55 'Sedge grass, and what is called here, Japanese clover. 

56 We have a variety of grasses on our mountains which flourish well 

all summer. 

57 Nhnble will, sedge grass and barren^ grass. 

58 No grasses unless cultivated. 

59 But little range on onr highways, 90 per cent, of the land enclosed. 

60 All kinds there beine good grasses on the ranges throughout the year. 

61 Grasses abundant on the mountains in May and June. 

^ 62 Quite a variety, blue grass in April and May, nimble will in August 
and September. 

63 No grasses of any value are found unenclosed except in limited areaF. 

64 Sedge grass flourishes all summer. 

65 Nimble will grows along the creeks in summer and fall; do not know 

the names of the other. 

66 Blue grass. 

67 Sedge grass. 

68 Blue grass; all enclosed, orchard in early spring, blue grass in the fall . 

69 Blue grass; this grass has taken the place of all others. 

70 Am not acquainted with the names; barren grasses in summer; beg- 

gar lice fall. 

71 Nimble will, crab grass on lime soils, sedge on the ridge or barrens. 

72 Crab grass, nimble will; blue grass flourishes in May. 

73 Broom sedge, mountain sedge, rowine, nimble will in the coves of 

the mountains. 

74 There are various wild grasses, but know no particular names. 

75 Sedge grass, beggar lice; sedge fine from April to July. 

76 Broom sedge from April till frost. 

77 We have a variety of grasses which I-cannot rame; blue grass and 

white clover are among them. 
8 I do not know any name except mountain grass which is most abun- 
dant from April 15, to frost 

79 Blue grass in some parts of the county, in other sections a grass re- 

sembling prairie grass. 

80 Sedge grass 

81 Blue grass has possession of the most of our highways; white 

clover in the spring and summer. 

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82 About a dozen different kinds; cannot giye their botanical names. 

83 Old field sedge; no native grass; cattle on the highwajrs feed upon 

leaves and buds. 

84 IMfferent kinds of sedge, principallj broom sedge, flourishes in June. 

85 Pea vine in September and October. 
85 Chiefly blue grass. 

87 Sedge grass, barren grass and a few other wild grasses. 

88 Sedge, and what we call nimble will; sedge best in early spring. 

89 Sedge grass from April to October. 

90 Blue grass from April to June; red top the same 

91 A coarse grass known as barren grass. 

92 It is very difficult to answer this, as the wild grasses have no estab- 

lished names. 

93 Broom sedge, June and July. 

94 A grass much resembling sedge, with a broader blade, flourishes all 

the season. 

95 Sedge grass best in spring and early summer; we have u kind of 

Savannah grass, that is very early. 

96 Sedge. 

97 Goose or yard grass from March to July, nimble will, a superior 

grass, very much like blue grass, lasts from April to frost. 

98 Sedge grass, March to June; wild blue grass; perennial. 

99 The mountains bordering our counties adjoining N. C. & Va. af- 

ford flue grazing; the bald places producing blue grass and white 
clover, and many kinds of valuable wild grasses, exceedingly nu- 
tritious, and flourishing aU summer. 

100 Grab grass from May to November, broom sedge and a variety un- 

known to me. Within the last few years blue grass has begun 
to make its appearance, and lespedeza stritata (worthless,) is cov- 
ering the unworked commons. 

101 White clover and blue grass in early spring; crab grass and nimble 

will in summer. 

102 Sedge grass, both in enclosed and timbered land is the prevailing 


103 Wire grass and sedge, these are invincible and answer for general 


104 A weed grass, the name of which I do not Imow. 

105 I am not familiar with the names of grasses, depends much on the 


106 Sedge grass, blue grass, white clover are coming up through the 


107 Clover and herds grass, or brown sedge burnt off in early spring. 

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What grasses are sown for pastures, and which do you 
consider the best for that purpose? 

1 Blue, orchard, and other grasees. Blue grass first, orchard second. 

2 Very few pastures sowed. Those that are, generally mixed grasses. 

3 Red-top, clover and orchard grass. White clover grows sponta- 


4 Orchard grass, blue grass, herds grass and clover. Blue grass best. 

5 Blue grass, orchard and herds grass. Blue grass best 

^ Blue grass, orchard and herds. Timothy and clover best. 

7 Clover and herds grass. 

8 Orchard for timbered land. Herds on marshy lands. Timothy on 

rich up lands. 

9 Blue and orchard grass. Blue in the western part of the country, 

10 Blue grass and red-top, orchard grass. 

11 Clover, blue and orchard. Blue the best. All should be sown to- 


12 Clover is mostly used. I consider blue grass the best the season 

18 Red-top, orchard and blue grass. The last two the best 

14 Clover, orchard, timothy, herds. Clover and orchard best, 

15 Orchard, blue and clover Orchard for open fields and wood land. 

16 Clover. Clover the best. 

17 Clover and blue grass. ^ Cock's foot on uplands, Randall and red-top 

on wet lands. 

18 For high land, timothy and clover, mixed. For bottoms, herds 

and clover. 

19 Blue grass and orchard. The latter the best Also red-top and 


20 Blue grass, orchard, red-top and clover. 

21 Clover, red-top and orchard. Each good in its season. 

22 Clover, herds, blue and timothy. Orchard is coming into use, and 

as far as tried, is thought best of aD. 

23 Orchard, clover and timothy. For permanent pasture, orchard the 


24 Clover most. Lately, orchard grass is receiving much attention, it 

and late meadow oat grass mixed are superior to any others. 

25 Blue grass and orchard grass. 

26 Timothy and herds grass considered the best 

27 Timothy, herds grass, clover, millets, com f odder« sheaf oats and 

and com I prefer timothy for roughness. 

28 Clover, herds and orchard grasses Clover and orchard best for 


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29 Orchard, herds grass and clover. Orchard grass best. 

80 Blue, herds and orchard grasses, clover. Blue j^rass much the 

best, though orchard does well on lands partly timbered. 
31 Red-top, clover, orchard. Clover mostly sown for orchards. 
82 Red clover, orchard and red-top. Nos. 2 and 8 best. 
38 Blue grass and orchard. 

84 Clover, blue grass, herds grass and orchard. The best in the order 


85 Blue grass, clover and orchard. Blue grass for winter, clover and 

orchard for summer 

86 Red clover, orchard and timothy mixed 

37 Clover, red-top and millet. Clover best for three months. Red- 
top preferable for the whole season. 

88 Blue grass, orchard. Herds grass for permanent pastures. 

89 Herds grass, clover, timothy. Herds grass and clover best 

40 Clover, herds and orchard grass. 

41 Herds grass, orchard and timothy. All good. 

42 Red clover, timothy, herds, blue grass. Clover and orchard best. 

43 Orchard, Randall, blue grass, timothy, clover, herds grass. The 

first three the best. 

44 Clover. 

46 Clover, blue, orchard Think clover and orchard the best. 

46 Orchard, herds, tknothy and clover. I like a mixture of all the 

above. Alone, clover makes more feed while it lasts. 

47 Blue and orchard grass and clover. 

48 Blue and orchard the best. Herds makes a fine clover. 

49 Clover and herds grass. I consider clover the best. 

50 Clover, blue grass and some orchard. A liberal quantity of each, 

best for pastures. 

51 Timothy, clover, orchard, Randall, blue and red-top perhaps the 


52 We have three grasses that we use for pasture, clover, timothy and 

blue grass. Orchard is being introduced. 

53 Orchard and red-top combined, is generally preferred. I prefer 

clover and timothy. 

54 Clover, blue, orchanl and red-top. Could not do without either. 

Blue grass probably the best. 

55 Clover, orchard, blue grass and red-top. A mixture of all these I 

think best for pastures. 

56 Clover, timothy, red-top, blue grass, orchard. Clover makes the 


57 Clover and orchard grass. 

58 Red-top, clover, orchard, and ever-green grasses. 

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69 Orchard grass and dog foot are preferable for grating purposes. 

60 Herds and orchard grasses and red- top. 

61 Clover, thnothy, orchard and blue grass. All good for pasture. 

62 Clover, orchard and blue grass. Three or more mixed 

68 Orchard, red-top for whiter. Rye, oats, crab-grass grazed in sum- 

64 Clovel- and orchard grass thought to be best. 

65 Red clover, orchard and herds grasses. 

66 Blue and orchard. 

67 In the southern portion of the county blue grass, and upon the 

thinner soil, herds grass and sedge grass. 

68 Orchard, blue and red-top grasses, on low lands, especially where 


69 Blue grass, orchard, clover and red-top. Best, blue grass; second, 

orchard; third, clover. 

70 Red clover, white clover, orchard and blue grass. I prefer a mix- 

ture of alL 

71 Blue grass and orchard for permanent pastures, and clover for 


72 Blue, herds and orchard grasses. Blue the best for pasture. 

73 Herds grass and clover, also blue and orchard. The first two best 

for use. 

74 Herds grase. 

75 Clover herds. Blue and orchard grasses are very good. 

76 Orchard, clover and red-top. Orchard has no equal for pasture. 

77 None except to a limited extent. Clover and red-top mixed docs 

well, orchard better. 

78 Timothy, herds grass, clover, orchard and blue grass. The best is 

a mixture of the three first. 

79 Clover, red-top and orchard. Orchard grass the best 

80 Timothy and herds grass. The former is regarded best. 

81 Blue grass, orchard and dover. Blue grass best. 

82 Same as above, (red-top, timothy, clover) 
88 Clover, red-top and orchard. 

84 Clover, herds grass. Occasionally orchard. 

85 All kinds of grass, except millet, Hungarian and clover. 

86 Timothy, orchard, Randall and herds grass mixture of alL 

87 Herds grass, orchard and clover. Clover and orchard best. 

88 Herds grass, orchard and timothy. Best, herds grass; second, or- 


89 Red-top, clover, orchard grass. Orchard the best 

90 Blue grass or orchard and clover. 

91 Red clover, herds grass, orchard, blue grass. Beat, clover, mixed 

with red-top or orchard. 

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' 92 Orchard and blue grass. 

93 Blue grass, orchard, clover and red-top. Orchard the best pasture. 

94 Clover and red-top are all that is used in this county. Clover the 

best, if it would last. 

95 All the common grasses are used for grazing. Clover and orchard 


96 Clover, red-top, orchard grass. Orchard best. 

97 Herds grass, clover, timothy. The last two mixed with orchard. 

For permanence, herds, timothy, orchard. 

98 Blue grass, orchard and herds grass. 

99 Blue grass, red-top and red clover. All considered good. Blue 

grass best. 

100 I consider the only way to have a good and permanent meadow or 

pasture, is to sow a mixture of grasses the more the better, and 
a good sod will scarcely be formed under 10 or 16 years. 

101 Blue and orchard grass and clover. 

102 Orchard and herds grass. 
108 Blue grass. 

104 Orchard, timothy and herds. Orchard makes the best pasture. 

105 Herds grass and orchard. The latter preferable. 

106 Millet and Hungarian, blue grass and red-top. 

107 Clover. Have just commenced with orchard, but believe it to be 


Please mention what character of soils these grasses flour- 
ish best upon ? 

1 Blue grass on lime-stone soil, orchard on all our lands. 

2 On creek alluvial bottoms, and red clay subsoil, uplands. 

8 Loamy uplands or bottoms. 

4 All the above grasses flourish best on creek bottom lands. Herds 

on wet land. 

5 Blue grass requires lime-stone soil. Orchard shade. Herds any- 


7 Millet and herds grass do well on best of mountain land. 

9 Herds grass, clay soil. Orchard does well on the same. 

10 Red-top on swampy land. Blue grass on rich loamy land. 

11 Lime-stone land for blue grass: clover and orchard grass adapted 

for all soils. 

12 On high lands Poplar and hickory growth for clover and blue 

grass; low lands for red-top and timothy. 

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13 Orchard and blue grass for shaded lands. Red-top for damp, cold 


14 The above grasses grow well on both bottom and uplands. 

15 Clover on any of our soils. Millet and herds require a better soil 

than clover. 

16 Red-top and Randall, wet or damp land. Clover, blue grass, dog- 

foot and timothy uplands and well drained land. 

17 Black slate or lime-stone. Almost all the land of this county will 

IS Limestone and the best character of clay soils. 
19 Red-top on wet lands. Blue grass, clover and timothy on llme> 


21 Clay loam. 

22 Timothy and herds grass on flat, wet lands; other kinds, clay and 

alluvial soils 

23 Bottom for timothy and red-top. Limestone land for orchard and 


24 On compact clay soil. Mulatto, if not too low and porous. 

25 Blue grass on limestone. Orchard on poplar land. 

26 Good upland, but I think bottom land is better. 

27 Timothy does best on rich uplands. Herds on bottom or flat land. 

28 On any having red clay subsoil. 

29 Orchard and clover on dry alluvial soil. Herds on low tight soiL 
80 They do well on any soil not worn out though best on hill side. 

31 Red- top does best on low swamp land. The others require better 


32 A porous sandy soil mixed with lime and underlaid with clay. 

33 [iimestone and poplar land. 

34 Clover, blue grass and orchard on all lime soils. Herds on most 

bottom lands. 

35 Limestone soil with red clay subsoiL 

36 Rich clay soils. Timothy and herds grass do best on level land 

along water courses. 

37 Clover does well on any good soil. Red-top does best on bottom 


38 On any of our limestone soils not too much worn out. 

39 Low lands are best for herds grass and timothy; uplands for jnillet 

and corn. 

40 Rich bottom loam, but clover succeeds well on high land with good 


41 Herds grass on low, clover on high, timothy on both. 

42 Clover and orchard best on biacH loam. Herds on bottom lands. 

43 The limit of this space will not admit. 

Digitized by 



44 Any kind not too much exhausted. 

45 Blue grass is best on north land, and orchard on south land. 

46 We have no soil in our county that they do not do well upon, unless 

too poor or too wet. 

47 Blue grass and clover do best on rich Ihnestone soil. Orchard grass 

will flourish on any soil. 

48 Clover, orchard, blue and herds grasses on upland ; timothy on flat 

or creek land. 

49 A low wet soil suits herds grass, but it will flourish, on any kind of 


50 A good upland with clay subsoil. Blue grass loves plenty of lime 

in the soil 

51 Randall and red-top on wet moist land. 

92 Tight clay soil. The land that gets the muddiest in the winter ip 
the best. 

53 Our best uplands. Redrtop will do well on lands subject to over- 


54 Our rolling limestone lands seem best. 

65 What we term second bottoms, Just above the overflow, best for 
herds grass. 

56 Clay land and black stiff limestone. Red- top does well on low 

sandy soil 

57 For clover, good upland, well manured. For orchard, rich light 

soil, well cleaned. 

58 Low or wet lands. If high lands, clay or limestone lands, best. 

59 What we call dark mulatto uplands and creek bottoms. 

60 Damp day soil for herds; clover grows well on any except sandy 


61 Clover on black lime land. Timothy on gray alluvial soil. 

62 Clover and blue grass on clay. Orchard on a mixed loam. 

63 Orchard on our uplands, partially shaded. Marshy land for red. 


64 Clay soil impregnated with lime. 

65 Clay or stiff land. 

66 Black land. 

67 Blue grass and herds are best upon rich soil. Large grass best up- 

on poor soil. 

68 Limestone with clay understrata for the three named above. 

69 Bottom lands with the greatest quantity of lime in it. 

70 Rich uplands or second bottoms. 

71 Blue grass does best on stiff lime soils. Orchard on loose shaded 


72 Black low lands, but grows well on most lands in the county. 

73 Limestone land for timothy and blue grass. Herds grows ansrwhere. 

Digitized by 


462 . APPENDIX. 

74 Herds grass grows well on rather wet lands, but will grow on up- 


75 Yellow dark uplands and bottom lands ; grows fine on our uplands. 

76 On all limestone soils of the valley. 

77 Most of the soil of this county is aUnvial, resting on a. good clay 

subsoil, and is well adapted to all the grasses. 

78 Upon limcBtone land that is very close and gets hard. 

79 Timothy does best on rich creek and river bottoms, intermixed 

with but little sand. 

80 They grow well on all uplands. 

81 Limestone with a good clay foundation. 

82 Sandy loam. Clay loam. The first for clover only. 

83 Red-top on low marshy; clover on tight clay subsoil, mulatto loana. 

84 Herds grass on sand; clover on red clay lands ; orchard on com 


85 Low river bottom for millet, Hungarian and clover. 

86 All alluvials not too sandy, and limestone clays. 

87 Clay lands that are not much wom.^ 

88 Herds grass on low damp. Orchard on tight loanx. 

89 Well drained rich clay lands. 

90 On limestone or low land, when the soil is good 

91 All of our soils are clay loam on which all the above grasses do welL 

92 Dark soils witli yellow clay subsoils, and rather moist. 

93 The three first flourish on our lands generally, but red-top is the 

best for thin or worn land. 

94 Clover on clay and mulatto land. Red-top on black sandy land 

95 Limestone soil is best for timothy and clover. Herds grass does 

well on lighter soil and sandstone. 

96 Red-top will grow anywhere. Orchard best on rich toil Clover 

almost anywhere by using plaster. 

97 AUuvial and moist. Herds does well on old, worn, clay hill sides, if 

started by fertilizers 

98 Tight close soils ; especially clay bottoms. 

99 Limestone soils and all clay soils that are rich. None of our sand- 

stone ridges or soils are good for grasses. 

100 In West Tennessee they flourish on lands with good clay founda- 

tions ; do badly on porous sandy soils 

101 Rich loam with clay underneath. 

102 Orchard grass best on mulatto land. Herds on low damp land. 
108 They do veiy well on lunestone, but better on alluvial soils. 

104 Timothy and herds gffctss do best on low wet lands. Orchard does 

well anywhere. 

105 Our best upland soils for orchard, and good bottom lands for herds. 

Digitized by 



106 Seem to grow well upon most any soil. 

107 A whitish clay, thin knob lands, that is, rongh and slaty or close 


What kinds of haj or feed, other than grasses, are used 
daring the ploughing season, and which do you consider 
the best? 

1 Mostly com blades. Some feed oats. No better feed tor horses. 

2 Fodder and com, with clover and timothy for a change. Hay and 

oats best fodder. 
8 Ck)m fodder, com, red-top and millet 'hay. 

4 Com fodder, clover, herds grass and timothy. Com fodder best 

5 Com fodder and timothy, or herds grass. Timothy and herds grass 


6 Grain and hay. A change of oats, wheat-bran best with plenty of 


7 Thnothy hay. 

8 Com fodder and oats, timothy and red-top hay. Hay and oats 


9 I consider well-cured fodder the best food for horses in warm 


10 Oats and corn fodder. Clover hay is the best food for all purposes. 

11 Such hay as may be on hand. Nothing better than com and clover 


12 Com shucks and oat straw cut up and mixed with meal, is good. 

Oats the best. 
18 All the different kinds of hay, com and oats. None better than 
clover and orchard grags mixed. 

14 Millet and other hay with fodder and oats. Red-top and timothy 

with fodder, best. 

15 Oats and fodder are both used, but oats are the best. 

16 Fodder. I prefer good clover and herds gra«s hay. 

17 Mixed feed. Cut oats, hay and millet with some com. Food not 

too much varied, best for health. 

18 Com fodder, wheat straw. 

19 Com, oats, blade fodder. Consider oats chopped, best. 

20 Com fodder, oats, Hungarian and Gterman millet 

21 Com blade fodder is principally used, and generally considered 


22 All .ordinary kinds of hay, com and oats. ^ Oats and clover hay 


Digitized by 



28 Clover and timothy is best. Com fodder, shucks, straw and ebeaf 

24 Com fodder, millet, sheaf oats and meal together, too often com 


25 CloTer, oats and fodder. 

26 Com and com fodder mostly used in the ploughing season. 

27 Timothy, herds grass, clover, millet, com fodder, sheaf oats. 

28 Oats and fodder, millet, oats, best. Fodder from com next in 


29 Clover, herds grass, timothy, orchard. Clover and timothy. 

80 Com, clover, oats and ship-stuff. Com and oats best 

81 Clover and millet, some red-top. Com fodder. 
32 Timothy, red-top and millet Nos. 1 and 2 best 
38 Oats and fodder. 

84 Soiling with red clover and rye. Clover best. 

85 Clover, timothy and millet and com fodder while on hard work. 
SQ Chopped feed, mixed with lye or com meal, with plenty of hay. 
37 Com fodder. 

88 Very rare to find any one using anything but hay except a little 


89 Fodder and oats. Consider oats best. 

40 Clover hay, millet and Hungarian, herds grass. The first and last 


41 Hay made of all the grasses, with com fodder. Timothy best 

42 Timothy, clover, millet. Timothy considered best. 

48 Timothy, herds grass and clover hay and fodder. Timothy and 
<dover ar6 the best. 

44 Com fodder. 

45 Com fodder and oats. I think timothy the best for anything. 

46 Com, oats, and occasionally bran and com mixed 

47 Oats and com fodder, with com. Fodder considered best. 

48 Fodder, oats, German millet and Hungarian grass. Oats and 

Hungarian decidedly best 

49 Com fodder and oats. I consider com and oats best. 

50 Clover hay, German millet, some timothy and herds grass and 


51 Cut oats with wheat bran, com, mixed feed best. 

52 Chopped feed, straw or oats cut up with meal or bran, 
58 Principally fodder. 

54 Timothy, clover, German millet, Hungarian, red-top. I think 

clover best. 
65 Com fodder. I think that hay made from timothy and herds 

grass decidedly preferable. 

Digitized by 



56 OatB and fodder are used aside from the grasses, and are^ by some, 

considered the best feed. 

57 Ck>m and fodder. Fodder regarded better than haj. 

58 Millet, Bulgarian and clover. 

59 Oats, com and millet. Principally oats and com, with hay. 

60 8hea( oats, maize fodder. Either of which is good. 

61 Thnothy and clover I consider beet. Oats, rye and wheat chop. 

62 Ck>m fodder and sheaf oats— cat oats. 

68 Oats in sheaf, pulled fodder, out com fodder and stalks. 

64 Com fodder. German millet is need considerably. 

65 Com fodder. ^ 

66 Hungarian and timothy. 

67 Oats, fodder and com. Com and oats considered best 

68 Oats first cat in straw, fodder, Hangarian. Oats best by all means. 

69 Oats and com fodder. Also, timothy, orchard grass, clover, red- 

top. Oats best, second, clover. 

70 Leaving out clover, we prefer com, oats and com fodder. 

71 Millet and Hungarian and clover. Clover best, Hangarian second. 

72 Com fodder and clover hay. 

78 Com fodder is the equal of any feed, and much used in ploughing 

74 Fodder and oats. 

75 Clover, millet, oats. We use various other kinds. 

76 Clover, orchard grass, red-top, timothy, millet. The four first are 

all very good. 

77 Com fodder is our chief reliance. Rye in its green state, is con- 

venient and profitable. 

78 Timothy, herds grass and clover, fodder and millet Thnothy best. 

79 Com fodder and shucks. 

80 Clover, oats and millet Oats regarded as best. 

81 Com, oats, fodder, pea-vine Com with fodder, or oats alone. 

82 Red-top hay, natural meadow hay, straw, millet, sheaf eats. I 

like red-top hay with com. 
88 Timothy, clover hay, some fodder. Timothy does not slobber or 

84 Herds grass, and other hays and com fodder best Herds at night, 

fodder, morning. 

85 Com, oats, fodder and rye. 

86 MUlet, fodder, sometimes shucks or straw. 

87 Herds grass, fodder and millet 

88 Herds grass, millet, clover and fodder. Herds grass and dover. 

89 Fodder, shucks, straw and hay. Timothy hay the best 

90 Clover hay. Some are using millet 

91 Oats and com fodder. Oats preferred. 


Digitized by 



92 Oats and com fodder, commonly used. Oato cut np with the straw 

is best. 

93 Oats and com fodder. Oats is the best food next to haj. 

94 Clover and blade fodder. Clover is reckoned the best^ bat red- 

top is as good. 

95 Com fodder and sheaf oats. Oats best 

96 Com fodder. Nothing better than good hay. 

97 Com fodder, almost universally, shucks, oats, com fodder. 

98 Clover, millet, com and oats. Clover the best forage. 

99 Timothy, clover and red-top are considered best. Some grain is 

necessary to keep st6ck in good order. 

100 Com blades or fodder are almost universally used. Clover hay 

and herds grass are also used 

101 Fodder, oats in the«heaf, lye in sheaf and cut. 

102 Herds grass, cut com^ com fodder, wheat straw cut and mixed 

with rye and ground com. 
108 Clover principally, 

104 Clover hay, herds grass hay, pea-nut vine hay for cows and sheep. 

105 Fodder and com husks. The former, when properly cured, the 


106 Mostly blades from the com. 

107 Com fodder and shucks. 

What kind of hay are sheep and cattle fed upon in 

1 Clover, Hungarian and millet. Many, but little or none, of either. 

2 Generally a little millet, but mostly on shucks and nubbins of com. 
8 Red top, mUlet and clover. 

4 Herds grass, thnothy, clover and millet 

5 Sheep fed but little — clover, tunothy, herds grass, millet and hay. 

6 Some feed clover (the best)^ others wheat straw, shucks and fod- 

der, the next thing to nothing. 

7 Herds grass and clover. 

8 Cotton seed and shucks, and rarely that. 

9 German millet for cattle, herds grass for sheep. 

10 Clover and red-top. 

11 Cattle on straw and com stalks, somethnes hay and conu Sheep 

rarely fed at all. 

12 Clover, timothy and millet Millet considered by good farmers 

poor feed. 
18 Wheat straw and all kinds of hay. 

Digitized by 



14 Red top and timothy, Sheep relish the rag-weed well sayed and 


15 Timothy and red-top and cloyer hay, stalk fodder. 

16 Clover and millet. 

17 Sheep mostly fed on fodder. Sometimes on hay. Many run in 

the woods and on the commons. 

18 Com fodder, generally. 

19 Cloyer and timothy, and largely on fodder. 

20 Promiscuously. 

21 All the different kinds of hay grasses. 

22 Mostly wheat straw for cattle. Sheep make their liying where 
they can. 

2S Fodder stalks, straw, clover and timothy. 

24 When not given com fodder, clover preferred for cattle. Sheep: 

other hay or sheaf oats. 

25 All kinds, especially timothy. 

26 Clover and timothy in winter. 

27 Shucks and cotton sec^jcL 

28 Clover and timothy. 

29 Cattle fed mostly on shucks. Sheep, herds grass and fodder. 

30 Millet and clover, shucks, fodder, wheat and rye straw. 

31 All kinds. Wheat straw and chaff fed largely to sheep. 

32 Clover, red-top and millet. 

38 Clover and timothy and some pea hay for sheep, shucks and cotton 
seed for cattle. 

34 Clover hay and com fodder. Com fodder cheapest 

35 Com fodder and clover. 

36 Clover and other hays, straw and shucks. 

37 Com fodder, red top. 

38 Little hay fed to cattle, sheep eat no hay except there is some snow 

on the ground. 

39 Shucks, cotton seed and wheat straw. 

40 Clover hay, herds grass and Gterman millet. 

41 All the different kinds of hay, fodder and straw. 

42 Timothy, clover, herds grass, fodder and straw of different kinds. 

44 Wheat straw and com husks. 

45 Sheep are mostly fed on com blades, cattle on shucks. 

46 Hungarian and German millet and occasionally clover 

47 Cattle mostly on cut com stalks, beef cattle and milch cows on 

millet and timothy. 

48 Clover, timothy and com shucks, which are feed to cattle. ^ 

49 Herds grass and clover and German millet, which yields quite a 

large crop 

Digitized by 



50 Olorer hay, Qennan millet and wheat straw. 

51 Timothy, doyer, fodder, straw; sheep do well on blue grass pasture 

52 Cattle are fed on cut com and shucks, timothy hay. Sheep, fodder 


53 Clover and timothy, recently the German millet is being sown, but 

I do not like it 

54 All mentioned, timothy, dorer, millet, red top. 

55 Principally com fodder and shucks, as hay is not grown extensirely 

enough to fed all stock. . 

56 Millety clover and herds grass^ 

57 The above (millet, Hungarian and clover) are principally sown for 
• winter feed acd are the best. 

58 Clover and com fodder are considered the best. 

59 Almost every kind, pea vines, wild grasses, com husks, etc. 

60 Timothy, clover. The most of them are graced when there is no 


61 Very little of any kind. 

62 Clover, pea vines, cut com stalks, buf most persons do not feed 

them anything. 
68 Mostly on red top and millet. 

64 Clover, herds grass, shucks and wheat straw. 

65 Those mentioned above (Hungarian and timothy). 

66 Clover and millet 

67 Any of the kind mentioned, clover preferable for sheep and cattle, 

timothy for horses. 

68 Clover, but a great many feed on com stalks and fodder. 

69 Not fed much at all, shucks, millet, wheat and rye straw^ some- 

times clover and oats. 

70 Cattle are fed on wheat straw, millet and clover, hay and blue 

grass. Sheep are kept on blue grass. In cold weather com or 

71 Clover, Qerman millet, Hungarian and herds grass. 

72 Com fodder is the equal of any feed, and much used in plow time. 
78 Herds grass, clover and millet, but quite a number feed straw of 

wheat and com shucks to cattle, oats to sheep. 

74 Clover and herds grass. 

75 PrincipaUy upon clover, herds grass and timothy. 

76 Shucks and straw, generally. 

77 I regret to say none. We give them cotton seed ' ad libitum, and 

the run of com stalk fields, some graze on wheat. 

78 Cattle are fed on com shucks, straw and cut cor a stalks, sheep 

graze on the grasses, wheat and oats. 

79 Com fodder,^huckB and millet. 

Digitized by 



80 Herds, clover and timothy. 

61 Glover is used more than any other, cut fodder. 

82 Common meadow hay, red top. 

83 Cattle mostly on shucks and straw. Sheep, fodder and fine hay, 

such HS red top. 

84 As a general rule nothing, but perhaps a little com to the poorest. 

85 All kinds generally. 

S6 Clover, timothy, herds grass, fodder, chopped straw with com meal 

87 Herds grass, clover and fodder, com shucks for cattle. 

88 Clover and millet. 

89 Wheat stiHw andchaflf. 

90 Red top mostly, sometimes timothy. 

91 Clover, wheat straw, and meadow hay generally. 

92 Com fodder and shucks generally Other hay to some extent 

93 Not much of any kind. 

94 Millet, red top, clover and blade fodder. 

95 All kinds of grass above mentioned. 

96 Clover and red top, but mostly on wheat straw. 

97 Herds grass timothy cofu fodder, clean hay and shucks, but little 

of either fed to sheep. 

98 All kinds. 

99 Timothy, clover and red top are the kinds generally used. 

100 Clover, herds grass, pea fodder, com fodder, crab grass. They are 

fortunate to get any of these more frequently they live on wind 
and moonshine and die in March. 

101 Clover, timothy, Hungarian and millet. 

102 Cattle mostly on wheat straw and phucks. Sheep on fodder and 


103 Clover generally. 

104 Generally on pea nut and clover hay. 

105 On whatever kind we have on hand. 

106 Very little of any kind. Com and shucks and corn fodder. 

107 I think fodder the best of anything. 

Are highway or enclosed pastures most used in sum- 

1 Enclosed pastures by best farmers. 

2 Entirely highway or wood pastures. No enclosed pastures. There 

is sufficient forage in the woods. 

3 Highways mostly, though many have enclosed pastures. 

4 Enclosed pastures. 

5 Mostly enclosed. 

6 Highway generally. Some farmerg have enclosed pastures. 

Digitized by 



7 On the mountain, the **highway," 100 miles wide. 

8 Highway almost exelosively. 

9 Highway to a great extent. 

10 Highway mostly used in the central part of the county; enclosed in 

the West. 

11 Enclosed pastures. 

12 A few years since highways were used, now enclosed are con- 

sidered most profitable and best. 

13 Highways, but our best farmers use enclosed pastures most. 

14 By the masses, the highways. . 

15 Enclosed pastures; in my county all the lands are under fence. 

16 Highways. 

17 Much woods and commons. Not many fenced pastures. 

18 Enclosed at present. This is a very thickly settled county. 

19 By good farmers enclosed pastures, but mr.:iy cattle run at large. 

20 Enclosed pastures. 

31 Formerly the highway was most used, but latterly enclosed pas- 
tures are coming into use. 

22 Enclosed pastures, excepting in the most broken sections. 

23 Both are used. The greater number turn on the highways. 

24 Enclosed, but much stock range out, especially along the moun- 


25 Enclosed. 

26 Both. Highways most. 

27 Highway. But few farmers keep up all their stock. 

28 Enclosed pastures prevail. 

29 Highway. 

30 Highways mostly, though some farmers have fine pastures. 

31 Enclosed mostly used here. Stock ajet along very well in some 


32 Highway or wild pastures through the timber. 

33 Enclosed. 

34 Enclosed except on the table-ltods bordering on Lawrence county. 

35 Stock farmers invariably enclose. General farmers use the high- 


36 Enclosed pastures in the more fertile sections. In the hilly coun- 

try they use the woods. 

37 Enclosed. 

38 Enclosed pastures entirely, except a few renters. 

39 Hii^hway or woodland. 

40 Those who pay no attention to the grasses depend entirely upon 

the highways, but I consider them worthless for profit only in 
June and July. 

Digitized by 



41 Enclosed 

42 Enclosed pastures for summer. Forests too dense to grow grasses. 

43 Enclosed pastures. 
4i Enclosed. 

45 Enclosed pasture 

46 Highway in the proportion of about seven to three. 

47 Enclosed i)asture8. 

48 Enclosed, though there are fine highway pastures in this county. 

49 Highway. 

50 Enclosed. Highway only used by tenants. 

51 Enclosed. 

52 Enclosed. 

53 Highway. 

54 Enclosed. This is a grazing county. 

55 Highway, at least five to one. « 

56 Highway mostly used, some enclosed pastures 

57 Highway. 

58 Enclosed are entirely used. 

59 Enclosed pastures. 

60 Stock run upon ranges or pastures at all times. 

61 Enclosed in my neighborhood. 

62 Highway. 
68 Highway. 

64 Enclosed, though considerable stock run at large. 

65 Enclosed pastures most used. 

66 Enclosed. 

67 Highway, except in the blue grass portion of the county. 

68 Enclosed. Highways are relics of half civilization and indicate 


69 Enclosed pastures. 

70 Highways. 

71 Enclosed principally, except on the ridge. 

72 Enclosed mostly, but highway pastures in some portions of the 

78 Enclosed by good stock raisers, but many use the commons only. 

74 Highways. 

75 Highways. 

76 Our mountain ranges are principally used. 

77 EUghways for the most part. 

78 Highway or mountain region for cattle and sheep. 

79 On south highway, north enclosed 
SO Enclosed pastures generally. 

81 Enclosed. But little highway pastures m this neighborhoods 

Digitized by 



82 Highways. 

88 Bnolosed. Our poor people let their stock nm at lai|;e. 

84 I sappoee equally divided. The interest in enclosed pMtnrci is 


85 Both are Ttry generally use^ 

86 Enclosed. No good farmer would think of taming his stock out 
i7 Highways mostly. Enclosed by our best farmers. 

88 Both. Cattle and sheep run on highways. 

89 Highway. 

90 Cloyer and blue grass. 

91 Enclosed, principally. 

92 Cromparatively few persons confine their stock in summer. 

93 Highways, except when a good chance offers to nm stock on other 

people's enclosures. 

94 Highways nearly Altogether. 

95 Highway. 

96 Highway. 

97 Highways almost entirely. 

98 Enclosed pastures. 

99 Enclosed pastures are generally used. 

100 When you speak of [highway pastures I suppose you mean the 

bleak hills worn out by cotton. I am sorry to say here is where 
our cows get the wrinkles on their horns — ^marks of years of suf ~ 

101 Enclosed. 

103 Highway or timbered land south of Cleyeland, 

103 Mostly highways. 

104 Usually highways, or the range, as it is called here. 

105 Mostly highways. 

106 Highways 

107 Snxall herds on enclosed pastures. Large herds are summered on 

the mountains. 

Please mention the kinds of grasses, or forage plants, 
grown for hay in your county, and which are regarded as 

1 Timothy, clover, herds grass. Preference given in the order named. 

2 Clover and timothy with com blades and goober pea hay, but 

mostly (German millet. 

3 Clover and red top, German millet; red top best. 

4 Timothy, herds grass, clover, millet; clover the best. 

5 Red clover, herds grass, timothy. 

Digitized by 



6 Cloyer, timothy, herds grass. German millet best. Timothy for 

7. Millet and herds grass. 

8. Timothy, herds grass, clover, millet. Timothy and clover liked 

9 Clover, herds grass, timothy, German mHlet, Hungarian grass. 

10 Clover, herds grass, red top. 

11 Timothy, clover, mUlet, Hungarian; clover and timothy best. 

12 Clover, timothy, red top. 

13 Red top, timothy and orchard grass Red top for wet lands, timo- 

thy for dry. 

14 Clover, timothy, herds grass, millet; clover and timothy preferred 

by some ; herds grass by others. 

15 Timothy and red top; clover for meadows; timothy considered best. 

16 Millet, herds grass and clover, herds grass preferred. 

17 Clover, timothy and dog foot and Randall grass and the different 

millets, blue grass. 

18 Timothy, herds grass and clover. 

19 Timothy and red clover are considered the best; red top is also 


20 Clover, red top, timothy. , 

21 Red clover timothy, herds grass and millet ; clover and timothy 


22 Clover, herds grass, orchard grass, Oerman millet, timothy ; in the 

order named. 

23 Red clover, timothy, red top, orchard grass; red top and timothy. 

24 Timothy, clover often mixed; herds grass on low land; timothy 

and clover mixed, the best hay. 

25 ]^t in the order mentioned ; clover, timothy, herds grass, German 


26 Clover and timothy hay is the best used in our county. 

27 Red clover, timothy, herds grass, Hungarian and (German millet. 

28 Clover, timothy, oats, millet; clover, timothy and orchard grass the 

best hay. 

29 Clover, herds grass, orchard grass and millet: clover for home use, 

herds grass for shipment. 
30* Millet, timothy, red top and red clover; the best ones, clover and 

red top. 
31 Clover, red top, timothy, orchard, millet, and peas make good hay; 

clover best. 
82 Blue grass, red top, orchard, clover, timothy and millet Nos. 8, 4 

and 5 best 
88 Clover, timothy, herds grass, Hungarian and millet 

Digitized by 



34 Clover, herds grass, timothy and the millets, Missouri and German. 

35 Clover, timothy, red top and millets, orchard; clover, red top and 

timothy mixed the best 
86 Timothy herds grass, clover, orchard grass ; timothy and herd^ 

grass the best. 
37 Clover, red top, millet. 
88 Clover, herds grass, timothy, orchard grass, millet ; in the order 


39 Herds gr^ss, timothy, clover, peas, millet ; herds grass considered 


40 Herds grass,^ clover, timothy, millet, Hungarian ; herds grass and 

clover last. 

41 Timothy, herds grass, clover, millet; the first three the best. 

42 Red clover, timothy, herds grass and millet; timothy and clover best 
48 Timothy, clover, herds grass; clover the best; timothy next. 

44 Red top, timothy and clover, the latter makes the best hay. 

45 Timothy, red top, clover and the different millets; timothy and 

clover the best 

46 Gkrman and Hungarian mUIets, herds grass, timothy and cloyer. 

47 Clover, timothy, herds grass, German and Hungarian millets; timo 

thy and clover the best. 

48 Clover, red top, orchard and timothy; the first and last the best. 

49 Clover, herds grass and timothy. I regard clover as being the best 

50 German millet and Hungarian grass, herds grass, timothy and 

clover. The last two combined the best. 

51 Timothy best; clover next 

52 Clover, timothy and blue grass. 

53 Clover, timothy and herds grass; orchard grass is becoming quite a 

favorite, especially for pasture. Clover and timothy combined 
the best. 

54 Clover, timothy, herds grass, and to a small extent orchard grass. 

55 German millet, clover, timothy, red top; timothy aod red top mix- 

ed are the best. 

56 Clover, timothy, red top and the millets; timothy best for hay ; all 

do well. 

57 Timothy, herds grass, clover and German millet 

58 Red clover, timothy and herds grass. 

59 Timothy, clover, red top, millet; Ist, 2nd and 4th preferred. 

60 Herds grass, timothy, clover, millet; herds grass best. 

61 Blue grass, timothy, clover, orchard grass; the three latter best for 


62 Clover, timothy, Hungarian and German millet, red top; clover and 

timothy best. 

Digitized by 



63 Timothy, clover, pea vines, crab grass large, coarse swamp grass 

called wild millet; best in the order written. 

64 Clover, red top, timothy, orchard grass; red top and clover best 

65 Red clover, herds grass, timothy. 

66 Hungarian, timothy, herds grass, millet. 

67 Hungarian, tknothy, German millet, Missouri millet and clover ; 

clover best. 

68 Timothy, red top, clover, regard clover and timothy the best. 

69 Best, 1st, timothy; 2nd, clover, 3d, orchard grass; 4th, red top; 

last and least, Tennessee and Missouri millet. 

70 Clover, red top, Missouri and German millet and com fodder. 

71 German and Missouri millet, Hungarian and clover; clover best, 

Hungarian next. 

72 Herds grass, timothy, clover, German millet, Hungarian. 

73 Herds, clover, timothy, orchard, blue grass and the various miUets. 

74 Herds grass and clover. 
76 Herds grass and timothy. 

76 Clover, red top, timothy, orchard and millet. Best in order named- 

77 Clover, red top, German millet, crab grass and the pea. Clover and 

red top considered best. 

78 Timothy, herds grass, clover; orchard and blue grass the best. 

79 Mostly the millet family; timothy and herds grass to a limited extent. 

80 Timothy and herds grass. The first regarded the l>e8t. 

81 Timotfcy red top, orchard and clover. Blue grass best for perma- 

nent pastures. 

82 Red top, timothy, clover; value in the order written. 

83 Clover and timothy; timothy hay is best; clover yields most. 

84 Herds gra.s9, millet, timothy, clover. 

85 Millet, Hungarian, red top, timothy and clover. 

86 Clover, timothy, herds grass millet, com fodder. 

87 Clover, herds grass, millet; clover the best. 

88 German millet, herds grass, timothy; clover and fodder best. 

89 Millet, herds grass, timothy, clover; timothy best for hay. 

90 Red top and timothy best for hay. 

91 Timothy, clover, red top, millet, crab grass, Indian com. Best, 

timothy, clover, com fodder. 

92 Red top, blue grass, orchard, two or three kinds of millet, Hunga- 

rian; red top most reliable. 

93 Timothy, clover, red top, German millet, Hungarian grass. 

94 Clover, millet, red top ; clover wont last on our land; millet kills 

the land; red top very nearly a natural growth. 

95 Timothy, orchard grass, red clover, herds grass; millet, timothy 

and clover best. 

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96 Clover, timothy, red top, timothy beet where it can be grown. 

97 Clover, herds grass; thnothy, German millet preferred to Tennessee 

and Hmigarian. 

98 Clover, timothy, herds grass, orchard and blue grasses, millet. 

99 Clover, timothy, red top and some millet; timothy considered best. 

100 Clover, herds, orchard grasses, timothv, each grown and cut with 

clover, clover best; timothy dies out second year. 

101 Timothy, herds and orchard grass, Hungarian and millet. 

102 Herds grass, cut com and com fodder, some German millet. 

103 Timothy and herds grass; blue grass is preferable to either. 

104 Timothy, herds, orchard and clover German millet. 

105 German millet and herds grass. The latter much the best. 

106 Som« clover, blue grass and red top. 

107 Herds grass and clover. Am experimenting with timothy. 



The vast field of study which thiB heading indicates is by far too exten- 
sive to be treated of in a paper like thi?, except in a cursory manner. 
I, therefore, shall not attempt to go into detail only to the extent of enu- 
merating some of ihe more generally known varieties, and instituting a 
comparison of their relative merits as adapted to and intimately con- 
nected with the successful development of th tt great industry to wmch 
our present organization relates. 

The Belgian proverb, "No grass no cattle, no cattle no manure, no ma- 
nure no crops," is not quite complete ; it should continue, no crops no 
money, no money no mtelligence, no intelligence no people — for all peo- 
ple, of whatever nation or clime, possessing no intelligence, that occupy 
soil where the grasses will flourish, must eventually give way before that 
resistless march of high civilization that marks its path with the beautiful 
verdure of blooming fields. 

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Upon the adoption or rejection of this proverb depends the prosperity 
and success or downfall and decay of the important interests of our beau- 
tiful State. 

The fact that so hmall a portion of the arable laiids of our State are de- 
▼oted to the cultivation of the grasses, is a lamentable one; especially po, 
as grass is the most important factor in the production of all flesh, which 
constitutes about thirty per cent, of the human food of the entire world. 
Again, the importance of grass becomes a more potent factor in solving 
the great problem that is now awakening the l)est minds in existence, viz., 
the preservation of the soil, the foundation of all prosperity, either indi- 
Tidual, State or national. 

The estimated value of ihe grass crop of the United States, for pasturage 
and hay together, U about $1,000,000,000, at the present time. Of this 
amouot Tennessee is entitled to at least one-thinieih, or thirty-three 
millions. Deprive us of this amount of property, and iraue the decree 
that there should never be another acre within the limits of our State 
devoted to the cultivation of grass, and wtiere would we be in ten years 
from to-day? — occupying a howling wilderness of burned, scarred, gullied, 
worthless soil; living in huts in squallid ignorance and poverty, the de*^ 
pised of all this great sisterhood of States. 

When we realise the great importance that the cultivation of the grasses 
bears to the successful prosecution of all the branches of rural husbandry, 
it becomes a cause of sincere regret that the intelligence ot our agricultu- 
ral classes has so seriously neglected to place this important element where 
it properly belonnn*, and enable it to stand first in value in all future re- 
ports of the statistics of our State. 

I will now proceed to name some of the grasses, together with their 
characteristics, that are the most extensively adapted to and grown in 

First on the list, in consequence of its being more extensively cultivated 
and generally known, is bine grass, {poa pratami,) This grass was intro- 
duced into this country by the early settlers of Virginia and the Carolinas, 
and has since been so extensively propagated from the lakes to the gulf as 
to deserve the title of ihe grass of America. To describe its S{H:cific char- 
acters is not pertinent to this occasion, and could only interest the student 
of botany. This is an early grass that will flourish almost nny where 
when properly treated and cared for. It, of course, varies in size and 
somewhat in appearance, according to soil and latitude of the location. 
Many persons regard it as the moi>t valuable of all our grasses. This title 
to first honor depends, in my opinion, upon the character of soil and cli- 
mate where grown, being a grass that spreads mainly by its creeping root**, 
and flourishes most luxuriantly upon a porous lime-stone soil where the 
underlying strata it a tenacious clay. It requires moisture to be always 
within reach of the roots to keep it green, this being the character of most 
of the soil in Kentucky, where it constitutes twenty-five per cent, of the 

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entire wealth of many of the richest counties in that State. It is a grsas 
relished by all cattle. I mean by this term all our domestic animals. It 
has, in that State and elsewhere, been used as hay, by cutting when in 
bloom, but I cannot recommend it as a hay grass, being too short and too 
light after being dried. In our climate it will endure the frosts of winter 
perhaps better than any other grass. It will not withstand our severe 
droughtfi, and consequently should not be grazed closely after Jane, in 
order that it may accumulate sufficient growth to shade the roots during 
the hot months of July and August, during which time, if dry, it makes 
comparatively little growth unless an unusual amount of moisture is 
in the soil. To realize the full value of this grass as a pasture grass, it 
should never have its roots exposed to a broiling sun during summer, 
letting the fall growth remain untouched until about the first of Novem- 
ber, and then it may be grazed until the following June without injury. 
Upon a good sward, thus treated, all kindd of stock may be wintered 
with comparatively little cost. 

The preparation of the soil for seeding to blue grass is quite simple. 
If cleared land, plow well in fall and winter, in order that the freezes may 
comminute the eoil tboroughly; harrow in February, row one and a half 
bushels clean seed per acre, and follow the harrow with a light brush, as 
the seed will not germinate if covered deep — by experience not over one 
inch deep. If woodland, clean the soil of leaves or trash, either by 
raking or burning, then sow and brush in. The first year the young grass 
should not be grazed at all, as it requires two or even three years to become 
well set and does not arrive at perfection until the sward is older than that. 
The soil should not be allowed to become too loose, which may be pre- 
vented by the tramping of stock in dry weather; nor should too much 
growth be allowed year after year, as it will become greatly injured by 
self-mulching. The proper time to pasture, after seeding, is after the seed 
ripens in June, the second year ; care should be taken never to graze this 
too closely at any one cime. The nutritive value of blue grass, according 
to some eminent chemists, is not equal to that of timothy, clover or 
orchard grass, either in flesh-forming principles or fatty matter. Among 
the eminent names whose analysis asserts this fact, I would mention 
Professor Horsford, formerly of Cambridge, Professors Way and Bous- 
ingault. Yet these gentlemen may not have had specimens of this grass 
in its greatest luxuriance; for all have acknowledged ii here superior to 
that in its native country. Notwithstanding these experiments, its many 
good qualities recommend its general adoption, and whoever has lime- 
stone land has blue grass land; whoever has blue grass land has the basis 
of agricultural prosperity; and that man, if he has not the highest type of 
domestic animals, has no one to blame but himself. 

I will next name orchard grass, {daetylu glomeraia,) This plant is also 
a perennial, and in my estimation second to none. It is so well described 
by that eminent botanist and secretary to the Massachusetts Agricultural 

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Societj, Chas. L. Fliot, in hb treaties on grasses and forage planta, that I 
adopt his text in giving a description and its characteristics. He sajs : 

'' This is one of the most valaable and widely known of all the pasture 
grasses. It is common to every country in Europe, to the north of Africa, 
and to Asia as well as to America." 

It was introdaced into England from America, and forms one of the 
most common grasses of English natural pastures, on rich, deep, moist 
soilf). Its rapidity of growth, the luxuriance of its aftermath, and its 
power of enduring the cropping of cattle, commend it highly to the far- 
mers' care, especially' as a pasture grass. As it blossoms earlier than 
timothy, and about the time of red clover, it makes an admirable mixture 
with that plant to cut in blossom and cure for hay. As a pasture grass it 
will bear feeding closer than blue grass, as it grows much more rapidly; 
and close grazing has much influence in preventing it from forming into 
tussocks. All kinds of stock eat it greedily when green. It is one of the 
most abiding grasses we have; it will grow well in either sunshine or 
shade; five or six days of growth will famish a good bite for cattle; it will 
resist drouth when blue grass or timothy will parch and dry up; it will 
produce more pasturage than any other grass with which I am acquainted. 
Indeed, if I had my preference of all pastures for grazing slock, especially 
for preparing sheep or cattle for market, I would by all odds prefer an 
equal mixture of orchard grass and red clover. The preparation for seed- 
ing is about the same as blue grass, and may be sown any time during 
early spring, or even winter, many preferring to sow during snow, as it 
enables any one to make a more regular distribution of the seed; by all 
means avoid a windy day, as the seed are very light and will blow into 
bunches under the lightest breeze. This grass, like blue grass, should not 
be pastured the first year, but any time after a year- old it may be pas. 
tured longer and closer than blue grasp; but to derive its full value should 
not be pastured very close during the hot months. Orchard grass does 
not stand frost quite so well as blue grass, but has so many superior quali- 
ties as to deserve general commendation, and especially that of flourishing 
upon a greater varieties of soils and in more difi*erent climates than almost 
any other variety of grass. I would recommend it to the cotton States 
with the full assurance that it, when fully introduced, will prove one of 
their greatest boons. 

Next in importance to Tennessee is red clover, (trifolittm prcUente,) In- 
deed it is hard to separate or distinguish between the relative values of 
the three above named grasses. Although red clover is not, properly 
speaking, a natural grass, it is so closely allied in value and general 
adoption, wherever successful agriculture prevails, to the natural grasses, 
that it deserves a place among them in general cultivation. Indeed I can 
scarcely imagine how successful agriculture can be conducted without it. 
The renovation of the older States and worn-out lands can scarcely be ac- 
complished without its agency. The successful rotation of crops depends 

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almost whoU J upon this osefal forage plant. It ib said bj agricultor^ 
writers that the introdnction of clover into England created an entire 
reyolntion in her agricaltare, and when we consider the important part 
it plays in oar own coantry, we can with difficulty imagine how our an- 
cestors could farm without it. It is Tery properly regarded as one of our 
greatest fertilisers, and certainly by far the cheapest. It loosens the soil 
and admits the air, sends down its long roots to a great depth, thereby 
fixing the gasses necessary to enrich the earth, and when these roots decay 
they form humus, that most important element in the production of food, 
to the growing plants. Its luxuriant foliage and rapid growth also aid 
greatly in smothering out weeds and other noxious plants. As a hay plant 
it is unexcelled when properly cured and housed, its nutritive qualities 
exceeding that of most other plants, especially in its nitrogenous or flesh- 
forming principle, and therefore -is the best hay for young and growing 
stock. As a graaing plant for rapid fattening, it is superior to either blue 
grass or orchard grass, if caution is exercised as to the time and manner 
of grazing. Nothing is more oonduciye to the rapid growth and thrift of 
young animals than a rich and luxuriant growth of clover when in bloom 
in the spring of the year. The risk of over-feeding by cattle is easily 
avoided if turned on after the dew is ofi*, and not fed entirely upon it dur- 
ing rainy weather. 

So great a factor do I regard this valuable forage plant in producing a 
general improvement in the agriculture of our State that, were I a king, I 
would issue an edict that no man should be allowed to cultivate the soil 
who would not, at least once in every five years, sow clover upon the land 
he cultivates. The manner of seeding is simple and sure. Plow 
thoroughly and deep in the fall, in order that the frosts of winter may 
pulverize well* If your land is seeded to wheat, nothing else is necessary 
in February or March following, but to carefully distribute about one 
gallon of seed per acre over the ground. If you wish to seed after oats in 
spring, or with other grasses, be careful to work the ground to a fine tilth 
before sowing, which should be done early enough to give the younic 
plants a start before the sun gets too hot in summer. Clover may be pas- 
tured lightly in the fall, after sowing, without iiyury, but is not very nu- 
tritious until at least a year old or older. I would here give my mode of 
curing, which has proved with me quite successful, were it not seemingly 
invidious, as any man worthy to be called a farmer can, by a little experi- 
ence, quickly learn to make good, sweet clover ; yet there is quite a diver- 
uty of opinion upon this subject. I will simply add that the very large 
per centum of water renders it quite liable to heat, and from which cause 
it easily becomes damaged. No clover hay can be kept sweet and fra- 
grant until the juices are sufficiently dried at least to become candied. 

The next upon the list in relation to its value and importance is timo- 
thy, {phUum prfUanae.) I shall not class this grass among the gracing 
grasMB, as I regard its merits in this respect so very far interior to any 

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one of the before mentioned three. Its very high rank as a meadow 
graae, alone, entitles it to a position among the most commendable grasses 
for Tennessee production. According tf> Boussingaalt, Liebig, Waj and 
others, when cut in full bloom, or a little later, and properlj cared, it 
possesses more flesh-forming, fat-forming, heat-producing properties than 
almost any other grass. Its yield per acre, when welf set and properly 
treated, is a great point in its favor, also the ease of curing and the slight 
loss from handling are strong points in its favor. This, added to its gen- 
eral populai'ity, makes it a desirabla grass for general introduction where- 
ever the soil is adapted to its growth. It delights in a peaty, loamy soil 
of medium tenacity, and is not suited to light, sandy or gravelly soils. 
The generally adopted mode of seeding has materially changed within 
the last decade, when the generally adopted pliA was to sow upon small 
grain, whea^ oats, rye or barley, in the spring of the year. The failure of 
late years to (;ei a calch in this way, has introduced the now most gener- 
ally adopted plan to thoroughly prepare the land in summer and seed in 
early fall, by sowing about one-fourth bushel seed alone, and following 
with harrow, roller or brush. I prefer harrowing in, after harrowing the 
ground over thoroughly afier plowing, and then rolling the young grass in 
spring after freezes, to press back the crown into the ground. I think a 
young timothy meadow should never be cut the first year, unless from an 
exceedingly wet spring and summer there is a luxuriant growth, and then 
the mower should be run sufficiently high to leave quite an aftermath be- 
hind the machine. Timothy, being of slow growth, if cut too closely the 
hot sun of July and August certainly injures the roots unless protected 
especially the firsi year. The only pasturage that can be derived from a 
timothy meadow is in the late fall, and then only at the risk of lessening 
the succeeding crop. I think the yield of hay per acre of a timothy 
meadow can always be increased by combining it with clover, herds grass 
or orchard grass, but they will lessen the market value of the hay. The 
lands of Tennessee well adapted to the growth of timothy are not very ex- 

Red-top or herds grass, {agrosti* vtUgcuris), until late years, numbered 
among the meadow grasses only, and limited in its cultivation to such 
localities as were too wet for the successful growth of any of the foregoing. 
It was supposed by most persons to succeed only <»n low, marshy, 
flat lands. Recently, however, it is becoming a great favorite and more 
generally adopted. It is now being sown upon quite a variety of soils in 
diflferent parts of the State, and I have recently ascertained that it is be- 
coming a spontaneous growth along many of the mountain ranges of 
East Tennessee. My experience with it is comparatively limited, and I 
will not venture to give any very decided opinions about it either as a 
pasture grass or hay plant. It is highly recommended by such authori- 
ties as Flint, and other prominent agricultural writers of the country. . My 
own opinion, from a limited experience, is that it is a very valuable ad- 

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jnnct to oar meadows in thoroughly covering the ground and thus shad- 
ing the ground, thereby enriching the soil by preserving its humidity dar- 
ing the summer. 

I have thus enumerated the m<n« generally known and important 
grasses grown in Tennessee, and will now close with a short notice of a 
few others generally known as forage plants, that have played an impor- 
tant part in the production of animal food, and which hardly belong to 
the grass family. The millet family, (mtlivm,) although they have here- 
tofore been useful as a hay-producer in the rotation of crops, being annu- 
als, and producing large yields per acre, a more general oilightenment 
and familiarity with agricultural science has numbered their days, and' 
now only grown in cases where dire necessity compels a complete covering 
•f the ground in order to sill out some noxious pest, or where the land is 
•wned by a man that is **' non compos mentis.'' This family comprise 
Hungarian grass, Cterman or Misaouri millet, the (Ad Southern or Ejgypt- 
ian millet, Dhouracom, broom com orssrghum sacharatum and Chinese 
sugar cane, all of which are great exhausters of soil, by far greater than the 
profits, poesees but little merit as forage plants, and the cultivation of 
which should be universally condemned by all good agriculturists froB 
the mountains in the east to the waters in the west 


Richland stock farm, Feb. 19, 1878.. 


Bhxlbtvillb, Triinbbsbb, Bbdpobd ComstTYy January 15, 1878. 

J. B, KiUebreWf Commissioner, 

Deab Sm— I have thoogjit that a description of the grasses grown in 
this cmmty (Bedford), and the huge number of acres that are peculiariy 
adapted to their growth, would interest you. Soon after this became a 
county, blue grass was sown on one of the knolls of this ooun^, and 
■bout that time it was found growing on a hill called Bald Knob 
(because it has no timber on it), near Wartrace depot, and on another 
Bear Bellbuckle depot. On a farm then owned by Thos. A. Peacock, 
Bsq., and now by the estate of the late Ohancellor Steele, and a little 
later on the {dace occupied by our Agricultural Society, as a fair ground, 
Mue grass was sown. From these points blue grass has spread veiy 
rapidly, and much has been sown in different parts of the county. 

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At this time our pasture lands are green and' bright, with a large 
number of stock grazing contentedly on them^ in many instances fat and 
flieek as if it were May. Our fanners prize this grass very much, and I 
feel confident when it has been kept for a winter pasture that it (with 
the aid of some straw, com husks, or hay for their stock when 
the snow lies deep on the ground), can graze about as many cattle or 
lUeep in the winter as in the summer time ; this has been done by 
Robert L. Rankin on his farm near Bellbuckle depot and by several 
others. There is scarcely an acre of our land that is not ^'glady" that 
will not produce blue grass, and fully one half of our land will produce 
this grass equal to any lands on this continent when it is properly cared 

In addition to blue grass for pasturage we have learned that herds 
grass (red top) makes a most excellent pasture, in fact it stands the hot 
sun and drought of our summers better than either blue grass or orchard 
grass; it affords abundant grazing late in the fall and early winter and 
very early In the spring, and all kinds of stock love to graze it In 
addition to these two, many have been tiying orchard grass for grazing 
purposes f. all like it and say that it is a very early grass and stands our 
mild winters well, and having a much larger and longer leaf than blue 
grass yields a very laro^e amount of grazing. Some say it is earlier than 
blue grass, and many persons who have tried both grasses give it the 
preference, for in addition to its excellent grazing qualities it makes a 
first class hay, and when red clover is sovni with it many persons regard 
it as the best meadow a fanner could have. 

The writer once owned a pasture of 15 acres on slightly undulating 
land, well set with blue grass, orchard grass and herds grass, that for 
fifteen years was one of the best pastures he ever saw, and there was 
no season of the year that cattle and sheep could not find good grazing 
there, and in the spring, summer and fall months it appeared to be 
almost inexhaustable. 

This county is one of the very best in the State for meadows mixed 
with timothy and herds grass. We have frequently seen in our mea- 
dows, timothy 4} and 5 ft high, growing by the side of herds grass at 
least 8 ft high and sometimes high^, striding very thick upon the 
ground and producmg at least two tons of excellent hay to the acre, and 
this on land, never top-dressed with any fertilizer, the only manure ever 
placed upon them was done by the stock as they grazed hi fatt 
and winter. A large amount of the acreage of this county makes 
the very best meadows, and there are lands where blue grass grows most 
luxuriantly; but we have from 75,000 to 100,000 acres of land that if 
very level, known as the 'Tlat Woods,** on which meadows of the first 
quality abound. 

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Our farmers are tnrnhig their attention each year more and more to 
grazing and meadows, and find that hay is the most rcmimerative crop 
that can be grown by them for the labor and exi>ense required to pro 
duce it. The grazing after the hay is removed from the meadows com- 
pensates the owner for the expense in harvesting his crop. 

In addition to these grasses, red clover is grown more or less by almof^t 
every farmer in the country, the most of which is kept for grazing; but 
many of our farmers save it for hay, which is easily cured and the 
yield per acre is very large. Those who grow clover for hay, as a rule 
prefer it for cattle, sheep, horses and mules, to any other. White 
clover is a spontaneous growth in this county, and shows itself in fields 
not cultivated and in pasture land. It is good grazing for cattle and 
sheep at any time, and for horses and mules until the seed ripens. 

Long before the war we found that grasses and clover paid a better 
per cent than cotton, and its cultivation was almost entirely abandoned. 
The result was a large increase was seen in the number of cattle, sheep, 
horses, mules and hogs on our farms, and instead of our lands being ex- 
hausted by the cultivation of 'cotton, their productiveness has been pre- 
served, and to a large extent it has been increased; ^and will continue to 
do so as long as our present system of rotation in crops is preserved. 

This is one of the largest hog raising counties m the State, and this is 
attributable to the abundance of red clover grown, for from the 10th of 
April until Mate in the fall it affords excellent pasture for hogs, and 
many sell their bogs from these pastures for early fall shipping, after 
being fed but short time with com. Our most successful hog raisers rely 
upon their clover for grazmg their hogs, and com, which they grow in 
great abundance, to fatten them. It is a matter of constant surprise to 
those who do not understand the capacity of this county to produce 
grasses, clover and com when they see, as we have done constantly 
through the past year, carload after carload of hogs driven to our town 
for shipment, where our packers, Barrett & Landis, could have found 
the fourteen or fifteen thousand hogs which they have packed during 
the past season, averaging over 260 lbs., and at the same time that the 
county should be more than supplied with pork for this year's consump- 
tion. These facts are to be attributed to the great care our farmers give 
to theb* clover fields, and the com producing capacity of our lands, 
and we find that clover grows more luxuriantly as we increase the fer- 
tility of our soil by the growth of clover and other grassee. Saplin 
clover does well here, and we have seen it grow over 6 feet long, but the 
red clover is preferred for all purposes except to turn under as green 

Two gentlemen this winter have informed me that they have each a 
field of clover upon which there is an excellent stand and growing 

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finely, which were bowd over ten years ago and that one crop of com 
and two of wheat have been grown on these fields since they were 

I might multiply instances of this kind, but I deem it unnecessary to 
you who have seen in the past so much of this county and know its 
adaptability to the growth of grasses and all the cereals. Coupled 
with these advantages, we have a large amount of pure running water 
upon the surface of our lands, so it is not a matter of surprise that we 
should ship such large numbers of stock of every kind, and that we 
sliould claim this as one of the best stock-growing counties in the State. 
Our people are freer from debt than those of any county of our 
acquaintance, and the fact that lands where blue and orchard grasses 
grow have, in more than one instance, sold from $50 to $55 per acre, in 
payments, almost equal to cash, without scarcely a dwelling on them 
above a cabin, but having good bams, speaks well for our prosperity. 

As farmers, wc have learned to feel that grass is our sheet anchor 
and with it we will continue to sail on to greater prosperity each year. 

I have already made this letter too long, and will cease to write more 
for the present, hoping to see you with us soon, I remain your friend, 



Cedar Hill, Tsnkessbb, June 21st, 1878. 

./ B, Killebrew, Commissioner of Agriculture: 

Dear Sir — Your letter was received some time since asking me to give 
you a few items on the grasses and their adaptability to the soil of Rob- 
ertson county, and, although I entertain your doubts about the value of 
what I can say on the subject, still will try to give you the result of my 
observation and short experience. 

Owing to the nature of our soil, blue grass is not so spontaneous* or lux- 
uriant in its growth as in the counties lying in the Central Limestone 
Basin of Tennessee, nevertheless, it flourishes in this county, and wherever 
the timber has been removed and the seed sown on the virgin soil, this 
i^rass grows with great vigor. The leave* of our white oak timber are so 
abundant and decay so slowly that they will smother out all the graase 

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unless the trees are nearly all cat down ; but under the black walnut blue 
grass is invariably found, and always so luxuriant as to lead to the convie- 
tion that there is some strong affinity between them. 

Owing to the red clay and the layers of chert underlying our soil which 
enables it to withstand dry, hot weather without parching, bluQ. grass is 
more reliable in u season of drought, and much less frequenlly killed dar- 
ing summer in Robertson than in Davidson and the contiguous counties- 
It is also a noticeable fact that in oar old fields, which from one cause er 
another, have been abandoned and suffered to go for several years without 
cultivation, blue grass springs up spontaneously, and if the black berry 
briers and the broomjBedge, our greatest pests, are homed off a few timeo 
to give the grass a fair opportunity to take root and to spread, it sooa 
forms a fine, rich pasture, fresh and green all the year round. Our red 
clay sub-soil is a great element of resuscitation, and when exposed to the 
disintegrating effects of thawing and freezing it soon begins to form a new 
soil on the galded spots so common on the hill sides of the coimtry, and 
if a little brush—cedar is the best — or straw or litter which will catch and 
hold the particles of loose clay be thrown on these thin spots, and then blue 
grass seed be freely sown among the brush, we can soon transform our fed- 
ffuted old fields and reproachful looking worn out spots into excellent 
pasture land. I have seen this so fully and sufficiently tried as to thor- 
oughly establish its success. Herds grass or red top will accomplish the 
same purpose, and will perhaps grow even more rapidly, though it will 
not afford so much grazing. The blue grass seems to flourish equally well 
on hills and bottom lands, but as^ unfortunately com and tobae«* 
almost exclusively occupy the attention of our farmers, we have in the 
county but a limited number of acres, which, beautiful in their perennial 
green coat of this king of grasses, delight the eye wearied with the sight 
•f endless cultivation. 

Orchard grass grows well, and is especially fine for pasture, ranking in 
this particular both for winter and summer grazing, next to blue grass, 
and in many places is pronounced superior to it. It thrives on either 
high or low lands, but, of course, grows best on the richest soil, and if mix- 
ed about half and half with clover, will make excellent hay. U sown by 
itself, the heads being laige, one, by using a hand stripper, can easily save 
his own seed and multiply his pastures indefinitely. It grows in tussocks, 
and if not sown thick enough at first, as is very apt to be the case, by al- 
lowing it to go to seed and to fall down, it very rapidly thidcens itself to 
almost a perfect sward. It may be sown either in the early fall or early 
spring. March I regard the best month, and the ground should be thor- 
oughly prepared. 

Herds grass is more extensively cultivated in Robertson than any other 
grass, and this fact would naturally lead to the belief that on our soil it 
is best suited for general purposes, both of pasture and of meadow. While 
it does not afford the grazing of blue grass it makes a fair fall and winter 

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pasture, and will yield a satisfactory crop of hay. It grows well on all 
the varieties of land and soil, and where the soil is thin and mixed Vith 
that whitish clay found in the poorer parts of the oounty, I think it is the 
only grass which will give a paying crop of hay. I have no hesitancy in 
pronouncing it pre-eminently the grass for tkin^ wet or clayey lands. 

Timothy, with many of our farmers, is the crop most relied upon for 
hay, and on good land it is a highly remunerative crop. As but little hay 
is sold, and that never weighed, I cannot estimate the yield of this graos 
per acre. A meadow under ordinary circumstances will not last longer 
than four years, by that time it is generally ruined by broom sedge. Our 
timothy meadows make good sheep pastures from November till April 
without sustaining any estimable damage. A smooth soil, loam and clay, 
and high lands are better suited for timothy than the siliceous and gravel- 
ly soils, and the stronger the land the better the meadow will be. Timothy 
should be sown here, unless the fall is very dry, in September, so as to al- 
low it to become well rooted before the freezes come, and it should be cov- 
ered with a roller. It is best to sow it by itself, in which case it will yield 
a fair crop of hay the next summer. It is more frequently, however, 
town with wheat. This practice is unwise as only a small crop of wheat 
can be made, and that at the expense and injury of the meadow, which is 
expected to last several years. Timothy sown in the spring does not d* 
well, as it cannot get sufficient root to stand the heat of snmmer. 

Clover is more generally used for pasture than any other grass. Its 
popularity is due to the fact that it can be seeded at a small cost per acre, 
and that it affords good summer grazing, and if not used in this way, is a 
most valuable crop to turn under. Though, like blue grass, it does not 
flourish here as in the Limestone Bajsin, still clover grows luxuriantly in 
Robertson county. On fresh land which has been cultivated for a few 
years in tobacco and then sown in wheat and clover, I have seen clover 
that could not be surpassed any where. It is frequently cut for hay, and 
for hogs IS the best pasture we can have, putting them in fine condition to 
fatten. It grows on all of our lands ; is fine to renovate tired and worn 
soil. But for hay should be sown on rich land whether hill or bottom. 
It is sown in the spring on the small grains, but it is best to sow it with 
©ate, for thereby it gets the advantage of a good, loose seed bed, thoroughly 
prepared at the time of sowing. When a good stand of clover is once ob- 
tained, and the seeds have been allowed to ripen and to fall on tiie ground, 
it rarely becomes necessary to sow again. I know personally of hundreds 
•f acres on which there is a splendid stand of clover, where there has not 
been a seed sown for over twenty years. During this time the fields allud- 
ed to have been cultivated every second or third year in com or tobacco 
followed by the cereals, and as regularly as these crops have been taken 
•ff so they have been followed by a fine growth |of clover. The theory 
prevails here that by cultivation the root of the clover is killed, but that 
quantities of seed which lie deep in the ground for years without sprout- 

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488 , APPENDIX. 

ing or rotting are brought to the surface by that same cultivation, and 
they geraunate and grow with the crop of wheat or oats. Owing to this 
fact clover possesses a value and property peculiar to itself, and at once 
become the cheapest grass we have. 

I have now given you as concisely as I could the perennial grasses 
thrown in this country, the uses and adaptability of each to the various 
kinds of soil» and nothing remains but to add that fortunately the raising 
•f annuals, such as millet and Hungarian grass for hay has been almost 
entirefy abandoned, both on account of their inferiority as feed and the 
cost and labor of saving the crop. For the latter reason coupled with the 
fact that it has suffered terrible ravages from mst during the past few 
years, the oat crop has also greatly diminished. I hail with delight as 
fore^^hadowing greater prosperity and better cultivation with less labor* 
the Reeding of meadows and the sowing of the perennial instead of the 
annual grasses. In this respect this county is far behind many others, 
and while I readily concede that for quickness and spontaneity ef 
of growth many lands in the State are better suited for the pasture and 
meadow grasses than ours ; still when we consider our eminent superiority 
in a season of drought, or even in the ordinary heat of summer, I feel 
that old Robertson can fairly hold her own in the sisterhood of counties 
With great respect I am your obedient servant, 



The grass family (Graminace) is extensive, and by far the most valu- 
able to man. Indian com or maize {zea maya) is the largest of all 
grasses. It stands foremost in value as food for man and beast, and if 
properly cultivated, is the surest crop the farmer can raise. No cereal 
is grown with less difficulty, nor is there one that pays so well An ex- 
amination of the structure of the stalk in ear shows that it is composed 
of ten divisions, roots, stalk, sheathes, husks, stalks of ears, leaves, 
tilk, tassel, cob and grain. The roots are divided into three classes, the 
main or primary, the secondary and the brace or aeriaL The first of 
these disappear very soon after the secondary roots begin to perform 
their office, and the brace roots show themselves soon after the stalk 

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begins to joint. Like many other plants, com is an inside grower, (en- 
dogenous,) consisting at first, of whorls or circles of leaves one within 
the other, over lapping each other on either hand until the entire stalk 
is grown. It is interesting to notice right here the difference between 
the grasses. Some are hollow while others have a pith. The leaves 
are the lungs of the plant. Their very important office is to take on or 
absorb carbonic acid gas from the atmosphere. Having received this 
the plant appropriates the carbon to its own use and at the same time 
throws off oxygen. This operation goes on only in the day time, the 
sun's light and heat being the great resolving agent. The sheathes do 
the same thing, and also serve as a protection and band to the tender 
shoot. The husk at first envelopes the cob and silks, afterwards the 
grain. It feeds both cob and corn with elements obtained from the at- 
mosphere. The cob is the axis on which the kernels are regularly set 
It is the direct feeder after the embryo grain is formed and fecundated 
by the pollen through the silk. The tassel (staminate) contains the 
male, and the silk (pistillate) the female part of the plant. The pollen 
from the tassel falls upon and fertilizes the silk and the silk the grain. 
If from weakness or other causes the silk fails to come out of the husk 
to be impregnated by the pollen the com fails to appear or develop on 
the cob ; hence the vacant rows so frequently seen on the cob. 

A further examination of the stalk shows an ear, or the commence- 
ment of kn ear on every joint that has a groove. Generally about two- 
thirds have it, and in every one is seen an embryo ear undeveloped. 
The question arises right here, why this incomplete development ? I 
have contended for several years that every such organization would de- 
velop on every grooved joint were proper attention given to selecting 
and sowing seed, to proper culture and proper plant-food. 

Like all other cereals, com has so deteriorated by bad treatment that 
it has not health enough to mature even one good ear to the stalk. With 
ordinary treatment all other grasses develop their heads or ears to some 
extent, and why should not com do the same ? For several years I 
have been giving com and wheat some attention. I find com suscepti- 
ble of much greater improvement than most farmers are willing to admit. 
It is not in the province of this article to give the results of experi- 
ments. I will, however, give one to prove that there is much room for 
improvement of com. Several years ago I commenced selecting my 
seed com in thefleld, taking only those stalks that ripened earliest and 
that had not less than two good ears. These were cut up as soon as the 
liusk was brown and the ear well glazed, 'and shocked in the field to 
cure. After standing a month or more the top ears only were saved 
for seed. 

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Great care should be taken in selecting not only those stalks that 
have the greatest number of ears, but those that look most like com — 
nice, trim, uniform, vigorous and healthy. Large over-grown stalks 
are too gross and too sterile — they cannot be made prolific. The resolt 
of this method of saving seed, together with proper culture, has in- 
creased my yield on the same six acres, in six years, from 20 to 75 
bushels per acre. 

Before treating of the soil, I will give an account of the actual loss 
most farmers sustain in **pullfaig fodder," "cutting tops," and letting 
their com dry up in the field before it is gathered. Fodder-pulling in- 
jures the grain nearly 18 per cent, cutting tops 9 per cent., and by letting 
the whole crop dry up in the field, it loses 20 per cent, of its owm 
weight. So you see by this slip-shod way of treating the best and 
surest crop we have we lose nearly 50 per cent, of it all. How shall 
we save it then? you ask. In a very simple way. When fodder- 
pulling time comes and the ears are well glazed, instead of taking th« 
blades off, cut the stalks up close to the ground, and shock immedi- 
ately in bunches the wind cannot twist or blow down. In this way the 
fodder is all saved, and the stalk too. The hubk is much better and 
the com loses nothing, but makes much better food, much better feed, 
much better seed and much more money. **But," you say, "it will 
shrivel and become loose on the cob." Not a bit of it! All the sub- 
stance of the stalk at the time of cutting is absorbed by the ear, and it 
is matured in the same way that wheat is when cut in the dough state. 
This method insures the full weight, and saves the 20 per cent, lost by 
the old plan. 

Another item. The stalk fodder and husk cured in this way arc 
worth at least $S per ton to any farmer; whereas, if left to die in the 
field, they will not amount from a hundred acres to a day^s wages. 

Any soil can be made to produce com, provided it is not too wet 
Hoils differ so materially even on the same farm, that the farmer, 
to produce good crops, has to make them a real study. Once knowing 
them, and what they need and demand, he veiy easily increases tb« 
yield. For com, land should be plowed, turning the sod only as deep 
as the grass roots extend, at the same time subsoiled with a heafy 
subsoiler and a strong team. The best fertilizer a farmer of limited 
means can use for his com crop, can be made behind his cows. Straw, 
chaff, leaves, muck, surface soil, bamyard scrapings, refuse of every 
description, well tempered with the droppings and manure water of tht 
. cow stalls make as good compost as the farmer needs. His compost 
heap must be kept under cover, and should be turned over at least onc< 
a month. The straw, chaff and leaves should never be thrown upon 
the heap until the cattle have well wet them. 

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In concluBion, I must urge upon my brother farmers the importance 
of putting in less land and preparing it better. With good seed, one acre 
well cultivated will yield 50 bushels, which gives infinitely more satis- 
faction and is done with much less labor and expense than the skim- 
ming over of ten acres with the same result. Almost any of our up- 
land soils can be made to produce 50 bushels by a little scientific culturt . 
and saving of seed. 


Agricultural SMtion, Mouse Creek, East Tennessee. 

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492 80RGHUM. 

The following article on Sorghum was, by accideni, left oiU 
oj its proper place, which should have been under cereals. 


CHINESE SUGAB OOBIS— {Sorghum nigrum.) 

Has an erect stem, six to twelve feet high, smooth ; leaves linear, 
flexons, curving, bonding at the ends. Flowers in a panicle at the top, 
turning as it ripens from a green to a purplish color. 

In 1854, some insignifi- 
cant packages of seeds were 
sent from the, then, patent 
office, bearing this inscrip- 
tion : 

{Sorgho Sucre,) 

(Good for fodder, green or dry, 
and for making sugar. ") 

Who could have foreseen, 
from these few characters, 
that a plant was then being 
added to this country more 
important than any since th^ 
discovery of America and 
the discovery, to Europeans, 
of Indian corn? 

In the midst of the great 
success of the New World 
in agricultural products, the 

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Old World sent this boon to her offspring as a token of 
good will ; and, in introducing it into notice, the agent, 
Dr. J. Browne, has done more real, solid good, than all 
the great conquerors of the nations. If th^ Agricultural 
Bureau of the United States had never done aught else, 
this one thing would more than have compensated for all 
the expense it has been to the Government. It has 
added the one thing needful to the farmer, it has made him 
independent and enabled him to raise his own supply of 
syrup, if not of sugar. 

But see how modest, '^ Good for fodder, green or dry, 
and for making sugar." And thus this humble package 
went to the country, seeking some one to make it famous. 
Many, very many, threw it aside altogether. Some planted 
it, and gave it untried to their stock. The stock soon told 
its value as a forage, and some few squeezed a tumblerful of 
its juice and tested it with the saccharo meter. They found 
about 16 or 17 per cent, of sugar. Some tasted it,^and it 
tasted sweet. Two made a gill or two of syrup, and, not 
knowing How, did not report much success, but promised to 
try it next year. All concurred in one thing, it was a great 
accession to the forage crop of America. And yet this 
plant was destined at a very early day to supply the poor 
of the South with the great and almost the only luxury of a 
long, tedious and bloody war. 

But the reports, meagre as they were, satisfied the De- 
partment: it was all that it had been represented. So the 
successful experiments were published and more peed was^ 
procured and broadly distributed over the land. The 
second year, a furor began. It jumped at once into popular 
fevor and established itself, not only as a magnificent 
forage crop, but also as a syrup cane. Within a year or two 
sugar has been made from it of good quality, and during a 
recent visit to the Agricultural Department at Washington, 
I saw specimens of sugar manufactured from a new variety 
as excellent in flavor and color as the best New Orleans 

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sugar. I distributed some of the seeds of this new variety, 
and I confidently predict that Tennessee will, in ten years, 
make sugar enough for her own consumption at a cost less 
than five cents per pound. 


In the fall of 1853, Dr. Jay Browne was sent by the 
Department of Agriculture to Europe, to gather seeds for 
distribution from the office. He saw a small patch of sor- 
ghum at Verrieres, near Paris, and being struck with its 
resemblance to corn thought it would be an accession to our 
forage crops, and possibly might be used as a sugar plant. 

• Four years before, M. de Montigny had sent the seed 
from the North of China to the Greographical Society of 
Paris, in a package of many different kinds of seeds. 
They were planter.!, and but one single sorghum seed germ- 
inated. The product of this plant was distributed, and the 
next year, so great was the demand, a gardener of Paris 
sold his entire crop to Vilmoriu, Audrieux & Co., of Paris, 
for a franc a seed. Through them it was senf over th# 
whole of Europe and America, for it was on their form 
Mr. Browne saw it growing. 

In 1860, Mr. Leonard Wray, of the East Indies, a 
practical sugar planter, on a visit to Kaffir-land, found the 
imphee, another species of sugar eane^ growing around th« 
huts of the natives, which they cultivated for its chewing 
qualities. On examination, he discovered its rich saocha- 
,rine character, and was satisfied of its value. He there- 
fore brought it with him to England and had it planted 
there, as well as in France and Belgium.. He memorialized 
the French minister of war, and also Mr. Buchanan, who 
was minister in England at that time He afterwards 
cultivated it in the West Indies, Brazil, the Mauritius, 
Australia, Turkey, Egypt and in this country. 

The Kaffirs cultivated sixteen varieties, that difiered is 
the amount of saccharine principle, as -well as in the time 

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required to mature. In 1856, Mr. Wray exhibited sugar, 
molasses, alcohol, plants and seeds of the imphee at the 
Paris Exposition, and not only obtained a silver medal, 
but a grant of twenty-five hundred acres of land in Algiers 
was made him by the French government, that he might 
prosecute his researches. During this same year. Orange 
Judd, of New York, distributed 25,000 packages of seed 
to his subscribers, speeding them throughout the country. 
In 1857, Mr. Wray brought to the United States the seeds 
of several varieties of Imphee. So then, when Mr. Browne 
obtained the seeds ft was really in its initial state of cultiva- 
tion in France. It had been grown in China from time 
immemorial. But with the exclusiveness of that people, 
its very existence had been jealously guarded from the 

The same, or a similar plant, had been cultivated in 
Europe at different periods during the dark ages, but the 
want of intercourse, and the oppressive feudal system of 
that day had repressed any advancement in science and arts, 
as well as in agriculture. 

The elder Pliny, in the first century, describes a plant 
under the name of milium quod ex India in Italiuminvecium 
nigro colors, (a millet of dark color brought from India to 
Italy). Millium means thousands, and refers to the number 
of seeds on a plant. Fuchius describes, in 1542, a plant 
cultivated in Belgium, called Sorghi. In 1552, Fragus 
^ys, in a work on botany, a Panioum Plinii was cultivated 
in Germany, and accurately describes this plant. In 1591, 
Gosner names this samejplant Sorghum. In Italy, in 1595^ 
in his commentaries on Dioscorides, Matthioli calls it, 
Indicum Milium, or Indian millet. Gerard, an English 
writer, in 1697, describes this and other varieties of Sor- 
ghum, as Dhouro corn. Broom corn and Chocolate corn. 

Thus it is seen, that this plant, however new to us, was 
cultivated in England, Belgium and^ Italy, in the 16th 
century, and that it was known to Pliny in the 1st century. 

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Its uses were described as so various, that it is supposed all 
the varieties of Sorghum were confounded by these differ- 
ent authors. It was recommended as fodder for stock, food 
for poultry and hogs, and for a syrup ; while the Italians 
called it melica from its resemblance to honey. It was 
described as having seeds, various in color, from rufous to 
black, from white to yellow and red, and they were said to 
make an excellent bread. The bread had a pinkish tinge, 
being colored by the husks, which could not be entirely 
separated from the seed. Through the caravans of the 
Syrian desert, Sorghum was carried fr6m Asia to Africa, 
and there, under the changes of climate, soil and moisture, 
new varieties originated, and we have the Imphee canes. 

Linneeus calls it Holcus Saccharatum, and the Dhouro 
corn he calls Holcus Sorghum. But Persoon, and others 
since, have separated the two, and applied to the sugar cane 
the general name Sorghum, and its specific name Nigrum, 
from the color of its seeds. These 'plants are all called 
Sorghum in the East Indies. 


There are many varieties of cane, and, while the descrip- 
tion at the head of the article will give the generic charac- 
ters, it will not the specifit differences of the various kinds. 
But it is not necessary to give the botanic description of 
each variety. 

Ist Race — Eusorghum. 

True Chinese Sugar Cane, (already described). 

2nd Race — Imphee. 

1. Proecocia, (early Sorgo). 2. Ooui-se-a-na, (Otahei- 
tan). 3. White Imphee, (Nee-a-ga-na). 4. Black Imphee, 
Nigerrima). 5. Red Imphee, (Cerasina, cherry red) Shla- 
goo-va. 6. Liberia, (Liberian). 

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eoRGHUH. 497 

In Tennessee, the nomanclature is shortened by all being 
called '' red," or '' black/^ and ''Chinese/' or ''African." - 

Sorghum, submitted to a pressure of ten tons, will yield 
about 60 per cent, of juice, leaving 40 per cent, of woody 
fibre, gum, juices, etc. Of this 60 per cent., about 10 per 
cent, is sugar, both cane and grape, or, if not 'reduced to 
sugar, it will make about 25 per oenf, of syrup, or 15 per 
cent, of the expressed juice. 

However, in fact, this amount varies very much, accord- 
ing to the soil on which it is raised. On rich bottom land, 
where the cane grows to be very tall and large, there is 
more water and less sugar in the juice, while on poor, 
sandy, dry land the proportion is much greater. In some 
specimens of syrup, when boiled down thick and allowed 
to stand, crystals of sugar will form all through it. These 
crystals are in the form of a modified rhombic prism. But 
in the generality of specimens, from the presence of an acid, 
the cane sugar is converted into glucose and no manipula- 
tion is «mfficient to cause it to crystallize. A few years ago, 
at one of the expositions held in the city of NashvilU, a jar 
of this sugar was on exhibition, and there is a fair specimen 
now in the cabinet of this Bureau, and, as before stated, 
some excellent specimens at Washington. Should an early 
and cheap means be devised to secure rapid crystallization 
the result will be to bring down the price of sugar. Mo- 
lasses, which sold at one dollar per gallon, was brought, by 
the introduction of sorghum syrup, down to twenty-five and 
thirty cents. There is so little difterence between this grape 
and cane sugar, that it is to be hoped some process may yet 
be invented by which the syrup can be crystalized at will. 
The constituents are the same, only having one equivalent 
more of hydrogen and oxygen than carbon. It is undoubt- 
edly due to the presence of some acid, as cane sugar can be 
converted into glucose, by the addition of acids, or by pass- 
ing a stream of air through the boiling syrup. In this in* 
ventive age the mind of man has only to be turned to this 
subject and it will be done. 32 

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498 60BGHUK. 

The Imphee cane, as a rule, produces more crystals in 
the syrup than the Chinese, consequently the latter is more 
universally cultivated, being better suited to making syrup. 
Besides, the African or Imphee cane grows much taller and 
is easily blown down by high winds, making a tangled 
mass in the field, very difficult to harvests 


Sorghum will grow and thrive, like Dbouro, on the poor- 
est soils. When the earth is parched up by drought it 
maintains its fresh, green color, and continues to grow. 
However, it will thrive better on rich land, and, though the 
juice may have more water, it will make fiir m^e syrup. 
The roots of sorghum penetrate the soil farther than any 
other cereal, and consequently deep plowing is absolutely re- 
quisite for a full crop. Not only should the plow^ but the 
subsoiler should also be applied. On good land it grows to 
a hight of 15 to 18 feet, on poor, badly [-prepared land, it 
stops at five or six feet. Because it wUl grow on poorer 
land than other plants is no evidence that poor land is bet- 
ter for it. Therefore let the land be in good heat and the 
increased quantity of syrup will well repay the labor. On 
gravelly or sandy subsoils, the roots will go four or five feet 
deep, and on this kind of landt if rich, it will make &r 
more syrup and of a better quality. 

It should be planted in drills three feet apart, and in four 
or five days the young tender stalks will come up, looking 
very much like grass. But it will soon begin to grow rap- 
idly, and outstrip grass or weeds. When three or four 
inches high, it should be chopped and thinned out, and but 
little more work need be done to it. Two plowings are all 
it should receive, as the roots penetrate the ground so thick- 
ly the plant would receive more injury than benefit if plow- 
ed after it is three or four feet high. Besides, by that time 
the ground is so shaded by lateral branches and suckers the 
weeds will effect no material injury. 

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Much difference of opinion existed at first, and still ex- 
ists, as to the best time of cutting. Some assert when the 
seeds are in the milky state, others when they are fully ma- 
tured, is the most favorable time. A slight degree of frost 
does not injure it, and this opinion has caused the loss of 
many a crop, for, with our usual procrastination, this belief 
is allowed to influence many to let it stand until a severe 
frost comes, when the cane is rendered worthless. When- 
ever it freezes, fermentation ensues, and it will not make 
syrup at all, or if it does it is black and has a disagreeable 
odor. But repeated experiments have demonstrated the 
fact that early cut cane makes the best and cleanest molasses. 
Still if the farmer has a large crop, he will have an oppor- 
tunity of testing it in all stages, for it will take a long time 
to express the juice of a large crop and boil it down. 

When the seeds are in the milky state, let the stripping 
and boiling begin. It is not our purpose to go into a 
lengthy detail of syrup making, it being rather our province 
to treat of sorghum as a cattle food, than otherwise, and we 
will only give a general description. Besides, since the in- 
vention of cane mills and evaporators, there is hardly a 
man in the State who is not thoroughly conversant with the 
proceas. One thing every one should bear in mind and that 
is, do not be too particular to press every particle of juice 
from the stalk. The first pressure well applied will get, 
generally speaking, all the saccharine principles, the second 
pressure only sending out gums, cellulose and some color- 
ing matters. The syrup would be clearer and sweeter if the 
outer rind ef the stalk could be stripped off and only the 
pith submitted to pressure. Let the j[uice be strained in a 
blanket, and boiled as rapidly as possible in a shallow pan. 
This is all that is requisite. Some use the continuous^ 
some the interrupted pans. The former are becoming more 
generally used, that is, pans that receive the raw juice at 
one side and discharge the molasses at the other. Some- 
times it happens that the syrup when boiled to a sufficient 

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consistency does crystallize without any known cause. When 
it is discovered to do so, the farmer might take advantage 
of this accident and very easily make his own sugar. And 
to test its capacity to form crystals a small quantity at va- 
rious times of evaporating might be boiled to a point lower 
and thicker than for syrup and set aside to stand two^ three 
or four days. If crystals are thrown down in the vessel 
there is then reason to believe more of it will do so. He 
can, therefore, should he desire to make his own sugar, boil 
it to the proper consistency, or until the steam comes up 
through the syrup with a burst, and set it off in tubs to 
granulate. Sometimes, however, this does nut take place for 
a few weeks, or even months. In order to expedite the 
process, it should be kept in a close, warm room, heated up 
to, at least, 90 degrees. This can be easily done by having 
the tubs or barrels of syrup in a room made tight, and heat- 
ed by a stove. With but little replenishing of wood the 
stove may be kept hot continuously. When the granula- 
tion has taken place fully let the whole mass, molasses and 
all, be put into stout cloth bags and hung up to drain. Or 
it can be put into conical tin moulds, shaped like a sugar 
loaf, with an opening at the bottom covered by a wire sieve 
such as is used for straining milk. The bags, however, are 
cheaper and equally as effective. Here let it remain for a 
suiScient number of days, to allow all the molasses to pass 
off. It can then be taken down and mixed with a very 
small quantity of water and redrained, and this application 
of water can be repeated until the sugar becomes as white as 
desired. The wat^r can then be reduced by evaporation, to 
to the desired consistency of molasses. Ther^ are many 
other processes, and machines for making sugar, that have 
been invented, for sale, but they all resolve themselves into 
the above at last, which process belongs to any one who 
wishes to use it. 

In the manufacture of the Southern Cane sugar, lime 
water, (white wash) is used to clarify it. At first this was 

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used in sorghum, but it was soon found that it blackened 
the syrup so much that no after treatment would restore 
its clear color. Besides, it gave it a very disagreeable al- 
kaline taste. Afterwards the white of eggs was used, 
which did very well, but further manufacture brought out the 
discovery that it contained so much gum it would coagulate 
and clarify itself better without the addition of anything 
with it. Skimming easily removes all impurities that 
arises upon the surface. 

The amount of syrup procured from an acre of ground is 
as various as are the methods of cultivation and characters 
of the soil. From forty to two hundred gallons may be 
considered the range, and when it is considered that a cul- 
tivator can take his choice between the two quantities, it 
may seem that there is cause for emulation. 

But it is rather as a forage crop that this plant properly 
belongs in this treatise. Its uses are almost as various as 
Indian corn itself. As has been already stated, it is greed- 
ily eaten in all stages by stock of every kind. The seeds 
are abundant, and one acre of good corn will make 
from forty to sixty bushels of seed. These can be cut 
from the corn and stored for use, taking care to spread the 
heads until they dry, when they make good food for 
cattle, horses, sheep, hogs and poultry. When ground 
into JBour they make good bread. Both the seeds and the 
expressed juice have been extensively used in distillation, 
large quantities of alcohol and sorghum brandy being an- 
nually made from them. During the war it formed almost 
the only resource of the South for whiskey, all grains being 
in too much demand for distillers to use them. 

But probably it possesses more good qualities as a green 
soiling plant than any other one. Let it be sown either 
broadcast or thickly drilled with a seed drill very early in 
the spring, with about one bushel of seed to the acre, and 
there is no end to its feeding capacity. It will yield from 
20 to 30 tons of green fodder to the acre, that, when dry. 

Digitized by 



Will make three or four tons of the sweetest and best of hay, 
and stock will eat np the last vestige of it. The proper 
time for cutting is when the heads begin to flower, when it 
can be cut and bundled as corn fodder, or left spread on the 
ground, if the weather is good, for several days, and it will dry 
enough to store but not in too large a bulk. Its stems are ^^o 
succulent that it will not cure quickly, the juices in it, how- 
ever, will sugar directly, and then it will keep as well as 
timothy. It possesses fattening qualities in an eminent 
degree, and nothing like it was ever used for improving a 
drove of mules. But if the farmer has a drove of mules or 
herd of cattle or milch cows, it can be fed to them from the 
the time it is two feet high, and they will eat it with 
avidity. By the time a field is gone over, it will be ready 
to cut again, as the root freely throws up new suckers, and 
will continue to do so until stopped by the frost. Thus, as 
many as three crops can be cut before it is destroyed by the 
cold. Or, if it is not wanted as green forage, it can be 
cut at blossoming, at least twice, without resowing. And 
the second crop will be as good as the first. A mule raiser 
in Williamson county has several large racks, and as soon 
as the hay is in condition to cut, he draws a load to each 
rack daily, and the mules are allowed to go to it ad libUumy so 
the farmer has only to give them grain to complete the 
process of fattening- 

With the introduction of sorghum into Tennessee agri- 
culture, it does seem that the last desideratum of the former 
is supplied. With a climate the most salubrious and equa- 
ble, a soil the most various and comprehensive, it sends 
into the market, annually, grain and hay of every descrip- 
tion. Her cattle and sheep are sent in large numbers into 
Northern cities, while her mules and horses supply the 
teams of the South. Fruits and vegetables anticipate the 
gardens of the North, and now she is able to draw a plant 
from Africa or Asia to supply her people with an ample 
quantity of home-made syrups and sugars. 

Digitized by 


SOBGHUH. ^503 

In 1870 the total produotion of sorgnm molasses in the 
United States was 16,050,08* gallons against 6,749,123 
gallons in 186a 


Indiana produced in 1870 2,026,213 

Ohio f' " 2,028,427 

Illinois " " 1,960,478 

Kentucky «* " 1,740,468 

Missouri " " 1,780,171 

Tennessee " " 1,264^701 

Iowa " " 1,218,686 

Digitized by 


Digitized by 



Agricultural sygt em of England 6 
** " France.. 6 

*' " Tennessee 

deprecated 7 

Alfalfa 146^ 

American Senna 428! 

Appendix 449 

Acacia JulibriBsim 428 

Achilia millifolium 33 

Agrostis Alba 207 

" like Panic grass 219 

" canina 70, 236 

" perennis 74, 237 

« scabra 70, 237 

" elolonifera 33, 70 

" vulgaris 33,70, 84 

Aira flexuosa 74 

Aira ceaspitoda 73, 225 

" flexuosa 72, 197 

Algnrobia gland ulosa 413 

Alopecurus 29, 39, 70, 164 

Amor^ha Fruticosa 421 

Amphicarptea Monoica 426 

Analysis of AntbyilisVulnerarla 34 
" Antbyllis Culneraria 35 

" Aftermath 36 

" Average of all the 

grasses 36 

Analysis of blue grass 36, 178 

*' Barley heading out 34, 35 

Barley 34, 314 

** Barley grass 36 

** Buckwheat 334 

" Beans 336 

" Beers 822 

Clover, red 34, 35, 36, 37, 
127, 129, 208 
-^ ** Clover leaves, stalks 

and flowers 130 

" Clover and grass hay 

compared 134 

" Clover Alsike 36, 144 

" Clover, white...36, 36, 37, 
70, 208 


Analysis of Clover, yellow 36 

" Clover, incarnate ... 36, 37 
75, 146 
" Clover, red, before 

blossom 37 

" Clover, red, full blos- 
som 37 

" Clover, white, full 

bloef^om 37 

" Clover, Swedish 34, 35, 36 
** Clover, Swedish, ear- 
ly blossom 37 

" Crested dogs tail 36 

'* Cereals, green, light.. 34 
" Cei'eals, green, heavy 34 

Cereals 314,335 

** Com, yellow Penn ... 356 
" Com, Northern and 

Southern 367 

'* Cora stalks, shucks 

and fodder 367 

*' Corn before and after 

ensilage 386 

" Corn, green fodder 

and clover 339 

" Cora, white gourd 

seedMd 356 

" Cow manure 299 

" Dead ripe hay 34, 36 

" English rye grass 36 

" Esparsette 34, 37 

" Field spurry 36, 37 

" Green vetches 34, 35 

" Green pea in flower... 34 
" Green rape, young ... 34 
^' Grass before blossom 37 
•* Grass after blossom... 37 

" Harter Schwingel 36 

" Hay 145 

" Hay, dead ripe 34 

" Hungarian millet..35, 37 
" Hungarian millet, gr'n 34 
" Hungarian millet in 

blossom 37 

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AnaljsiB of Italian rye grasB.... 36 
Lucerne 34, 35, 36, 37, 148 

" Meadow graaa 35, 36 

** Meadow oat grass, 

tall 197 

'* Meadow rough stalk 36 

** Mearlow fox tnii 56 

" Meadow, rough 86 

" Meadow fox tail 36 

** rough 36 

Meadow hav.. 34, 36, 36 

** Maize, late 37 

'• Maize, earlv 37 

.*/ Manures 302 

Oats 34, 35, 36, 37,405, 406 

'* Oat grass, yellow 36 

" Orchard gra« 36 

*' other sweet grasses 34, 35 
Pea8...35, 36, 37, 335, 437 

" Pea*, green 35 

" Peanuts 434 

" Quaking grass 36 

Rye 35,37, 335 

Rye flour 335 

•* Ryegrass 34,35, 86 

" Rape 35 

" -Serradella 36 

" Spear grass or blue 

grass 36 

'^ Sorghum saochara- 

turn 37 

" Sorghum vulgare 37 

" Soft broom grass 36 

" Sweet scented vernal 36, 200 
" Timothy ...34, 35, 36, 76 

" Wheat, winter 34 

" Winter Rye 34 

" Wild spear gra88..36, 162 

" Wood ashes 298 

** Velvet grass 36 

" Velvet lawn grass 195 

'• Vetches 34,35,36, 37 

" Young gras8....34, 35, 37 

Andropogon 74, 216. 217 

Anthoxanthum ordoratum 29, 30, 
39, 179 

ApiosTubuosa 425 

Arachis hypogsea 412 

Aristida 70, 232 

Anmdinaria 72, 190, 226 

Arrhenatherum avenaoeum..29, 73, 


Astragalus 422 

Autumnal Panic., 219 

Avena 29,63,72, 109 

Bambarra ground nut 412 

Baptiflia 426, 427 

Barley 312 

Barley grass 196 

Barn yard grass 107, 221 

Bean, kidney 425 

Beans 411, 418 

Beard grass 217 

Bedford County, grasses in 482 

Bedford, Duke of, experiments 

by 26, 288 

Bengal grass ... 107 

Bermuda grass 156 

Bitter Panic , 219 

Black oat grass. 156, 232 

Blount spiked Melica 231 

Blount, A. E., Essay on Com... 488 

Blue False Indigo 427 

Blue grass 162, 255 

Blue Foxtail 218 

Boehmerianivea....* 202 

Bottte Brush grass 223 

Bouteloua Curdpendnla 70, 152, 160 

« Lagaeca 233 

Brachyelytum aristatum 70 

Bristly Foxtail 218 

Briza 29, 30, 31, 71, 183 

Broom grass 227 ' 

Bromus ciliatos 74, 228 

" eiectus „ 29,30, 31 

" Kalmii 72,152,227 

** mollis .29, 30, 31, 72, 227 

" pratensis 72 

** racemoBUs „...72, 227 

« secalinus 72,95,227 

Broom com^ »...» 322 

Bruckner, amaysis by 302, 303 

Buckwheat 330 

Buffalo clover 420 

" grass, 151 

Bush clover 422 

Butterfly pea 426 

Canada milk vetch 422 

Cane. 190 

Cane grass. 226 

Carobs or Caret 411 

Carolina vetch 422 

CanaiT grass 206 

Canadian Lyme grass 224 

Cassia 428 

Cereals 3lO 

Digitized by 




Centroeema -^26 

Ceratonia siliqua 411 

CercJs 427 

Cheat or Chess 227 

Chinese sugar corn 492 

Chick pea.. 411 

Cicer aristinum 411 

Cichoreum intybus - 33 

Cinna arundinacea 70, 236 

Cinoeurus crista tiis.... 29, 30, 31, 33 

Ciliated Broom grata. 228 

Cladraaiis tiuctoria„..« -.... 427 

Clitoria Mariana 426 

Clover ....115, 143, 144. 207, 422 

Cluster spiked Muhlenberger... 264 

Coaco grass ....^ 16 

Cockrill, B F., Essay by 480 

Coffee tree ..« 428 

Coldwell, J. H. on grains.^ 482 

Common Manna grass 265 

Common Keed gras.^..^ 188 

Correspondents, names of 449 

Cotion V8. hay 18 

Couch grass 192, 226 

C^abgras^ 101, 231, 199 

Creeping Meadow grasp 182 

Creeping Bush clover 422 

Creeted dogtail 266 

Crimson clover 144 

Cut grass 227 

Dactylis glomerata 30, 31, 33, 39, 

71, 89 
Dactyloctemium jEgypticum.... 108 

Danthonia spicata 73, 225 

Danthouia compres^a 74 

Darnell 101 

Desmanthus Brachylobus 429 

Desmodium 423, 424 

Delicate spear grass 230 

Dhoura corn 336 

Diarrhena Americana 71, 231 

Dogtail grass « 256 

Egyptian grass « «..~ 108 

English farmer, long leases by. 18 
English productions compared.. 18 

English ryegrass 98 

Evergreen grass 186 

Everlasting bent grass 237 

Elusine Indica 231 


Elymus Virgmicus 72, 152, 224 

Elymus Canadensis 72, 152, 224 

Elymus striatus 72, 224 

Elymus mollis , 72 

Erago^tis reptans 71, 182 

'* pouioides 71, 182 

'* megastachya 71, 230 

pilosa 71, 182 

** Furchii 71 

" tenuis 71, 230 

capiliaris 71,230 

" peciinacea 71,183 

Erianthus alopecuriodes 74 

*' brevibarbis 74 

Ervum Lens 411 

Eatonia 230 

Eatonia Pennsylvauica 71, 230 


Faber Vulgaris 411 

False Indigo 421 

Festuca duriuacula 29, 30 31, 33 

" elaiior 33, 72, 152, 188, 227 

" myurus 228 

" nutans 152, 228 

" ovina 38, 72,184, 228 

" pratensis loliacea: 33 

*' pratensis 186 

** tenella 184 

Fibrous rooted wheat 227 

Finger shaped paspalum 223 

Flint, Chas. L. on grasses 28 

France and England, agricult- 
ural systems compared 6 

Floating paspalum grass 223 

Fiy catch grass -.. 238 

Fiorin bent grass 207 

Functions of grass ..- 6 

Galtinger, contribution by 214 

Gamma grass 107, 217 

Gleditschia 428 

Glyceria 71, 231, 232 

Grasses, artificial 11 

** by whom improved 26 

analysis of« 34, 35, 36, 37 
" desirable qualities of.. 38 

** life liistoryof 49 

list of - 70 

'* how to tell 66 

" indigenous 151 

" meadow 76 

** nutritive value of 2^ 

Digitized by 





Grasses pasture 161 

>, " wild 214 

'* cultivated in England 161 

*' seeds, weight of 33 

" soils adapted to each... 70 

Green fox tail 218 

Ground nut 425 

Gymnocladus Canadensis 428 

Gymnopogon breri folium.... 70, 232 

Gymnostichum hystrix 72, 223 

Gynerium argenteum.. 201 


Halpense Ill 

Hai-ding, Gen 80 

Fnnsom, Timothy 76 

Honey locust 427 

Hay, total production in United 

States, 1870 6 

Hay, swale 14 

" herds gra.s8 or red top 75, 212 

'* hair grass 166 

" hairy musquit..... 160 

" hidden tljwered panic... 220 
" hairv, 8len»ler [> t^p tlum 223 

" hard' fescue 228, 265 

" horse shoe grarts .t.. 233 

" huiry bush clover 423 

" hog pea nut 426 

Hordium, zeocriion 313 

" hexastichum 312 

pratenRe....2'^', 30,35, 226 

« pu«llum 76. 196 

" diatichum 72, 312 

*' vuJgare... 72, 812 

Holcus lanatU8....29, 30, 31, 33, 194 
*' mollis 33 


Imphee 496 

Importance of grasses 6 

Inoian drop seed gra^H 234 

Indian reed 236 

Italian rye gra-'s. 91), 225 

Indian corn ► 340 

" history of. 341 

** varieties o 1 347 

" experimenis with 

seeds 349, 360 

Indian c«rn. Northern'. 366, 367 

Southern 366, 357 

" comparij^ons of yel- 
low aid white.. 358 

Indi-iin corn, cultivation of 369 


Indian com. Prof. DaniePs ex- 
peiiments 369, 370 

Indian com, cost of raising..370, 471 

Indian corn, implements for 
raising 374 

Indian corn, uses of. 276 

" eiperimenta with 
by H.S.Clay..... 379 

Indian corn, experiments with 
by Prof. Moses 379 

Indian corn, as a hay and for- 
age crop 381 

Indian crop, analysis of, before 
and after ensilage 386 

Indian corn, statistics of 387 

" table of export 388, 389 
^' tables of the values 
of exported 390, 361, 392, 392 

Indian com, tables of the values 
of, raided in Tennessee 394 

Indian corn, tables of average 
prices of. in New York city«. 395 

Jackson, Gena. W. H 83 

Japan clover or king grass 209 

Joint grass 223 

Lands 18 

" difference iu value of 21 

" value of before the war... 18 

" value of in Eumpe 19 

" value of in Kentucky and 

Missouri 19 

Laws and Gilbert, experiments, 27 


Lawson 267 

Leersia 70,237, 238 

Leguminous, Tennessee 415, 416, 417 

Lentils 411 

Leptochloa mucronata 71, 161 

Lespedeza 209,422, 423 

List of true grasses 73 

Locust 421 

Lolium,..29, 30, 31, 33, 72, 98, 99 


Lucerne 145, 266 

Lupine 412, 419 

Lotus SS 

Manures 27, 46, 47, 290 

Digitized by 





Marbury,P. H 87 

Meadows, management of 40, 239 

** time and manner of 

sowing , 269 

MeadowH, cutting, curing and 

storing 269,274, 277, 283 

Meadows, troublesome pinnt*... 286 

Medicago 33, 145, 420 

MilitotUB Alba 420 

Mesquile bean 413 

* grans 233 

Mexican Muhlenbei|;ia 155, 224 

Millet 103, 255 

Milk Pea 426 

Melica mutica 71, 231 

Millium : 33, 73 

Morgan, Sam'l D., letter from.... 202 

Muhlenbergia,..70, 74, 155, 156, 233 



Nimble Will 155, 234 

Nodding Fepcne grass 228 

Number of varieties of grass.... 10 

Oats, description of. 396 

" namet< of different varieties 397 

" winter 400 

" time of sowing 401 

" manner of cutting 403 

Old Wilch grass 220 

Onobrvchissativa 33, 148 

Orchard ^raps 89,212, 255 

Orjza sativ» 406 

Pale manna grass 231 


Pampas gras-? 201 

Panicuin 214 

*• Germanicum 39 78 

" cnisgalH 74, 197, 221 

sangulnale ...71, 73,101 199 

tiliforme 73, 219 

" glabrum 73, 218 

" agrostoides 73,219 

*' anceps...' 73 

" proliferum 73 

" antumnale 73 

•* amarum 73 

" virgatum 73 

•* capillare 220 

" latifoliura 220 


Panicum clandestinura 220 

" miliaceum 73, 108^ 

•* pauciflorum 73, 219 

dichotomum 73, 221 

" virffatum 221 

Italica .^. 103 

Paspalum laeve 73, 1/2, 222 

*• distichuum |3, 223 

" digitaria ^3, 223 

'* racemulocum 152 

" undutalum 162 

" ciliatifolium 152, 220 

" fluitans 252 

Petalostemen foliosus 420 

" decumbeus 421 

" candidus 421 

" corymbosus 421 

Perenniiil Rve graas 255 

" clover 255 

Pencil flowfr 422 

Pendl*-ton, E. M 209 

Peanuts 412, 420, 436 

Pennsylvania Eatonia 230 

Pea 437 

Pea, milk 426 

Phalaris canariensis 73, 206 

Phaseolus perennis 426 

" divernifolius 425 

" helvotus 425 

Phalaris arundinacea 33, 204 

Phleum pratenRe..30, 33, 39, 60, 70 


Pragmites communis 72, 188 

Poa 229 

*' annua 30,31,39, 71, 161 

" pratensi8...30, 31, 33, 39, 62, 71 


Poa nemoralis 33,71,94, 162 

'* compressa 39, 94, 152, 163 

*' alsodes 229 

" sylvestris 229 

*^ debilis 229 

" serotina 152 

*' flexuGsa 152 

*' brevifolia 152 

Pommede prairie 413 

Poverty grass 232 

Prairie grass 156 

Prolific panic 199 

Purple Dunch clover 423 

Pungent eragrostis 230 

Pisum sativum 437 

Polygonum fagopyrum 380 

Proralea esculenta 413 

" subaculis 413, 420 

" melilotoides 240 



Digitized by 




' PAGE. 

Pungent eragrostifl 220 

Polymorphous panic 221 

Profiferous panic 220 

Polk, Hon. M. T., remarks bj.. 209 
Polk, H. M., letter from 438 


Quaking grass IBS- 

Questions and Answers 452 


KavenekH. W 211 

Rice, description of 406 

" method of culture 407 

Robinia pseudo acacia 421 

" vipcosa 421 

'* hispidia 421 

Robertson County, grasses in... 486 

Rye, description of 408 

" time of sowing 409 

" product in Uuited States... 410 

" " inTennegsee ,.. 410 


fclecale cereale 72, 408 

Schraukia uncinata 429 

** angustata 429 

Selecting of seeds for meadows.. 247 

Setaria verticillata 74, 218 

" glauca 74, 218 

" viridis 74, 218 

" Italica 74 

" Germanica .' 107 

Sinclair, Geo. exjierimenis bv 

26, 195 

Sinclair and Way, what they 

accomplished 27 

Sorghum, nigrum 492 

Sorghum nutans 74 

" vulgare 74 

" saccharatum 74, 322 

Sporobulus junceus 70 

** serotinus 70 

" indicus 152, 234 

Slipa aveoacea... 70, 136, 232 

Strombocarpus pubescens 413 

Stylosanthes elatior 422 

Stockbridge, Prof. Levi 129 

Sour grapses 14 

Sailji 29 

Tables, Prof. Way 26, 29 

Prof. Wolff 34, 35 

" Wolff and Knop 36, 37 

*' of glasses 66,67, 68 

•* list of true graraes 70, 

Tables, of seeds ior pasture 190 

" of number ot plants to 
foot 251 

Tables, of depth that seeds will 
germinate 255 

Tables of seeds to be sown to- 
gether 267, 158, 259, 260, 261 

^.262, 26S 

Tables of comparative value of 
grasses «..288, 289 

Tables of composition of wood 
ashes 29^ 

Table of ingredients of ma- 
nures 308- 

Table of element'* of plant food.. 309 
" of value of buckW^eat 
hay .,... 335 

Table of nutriment in corn 357 

** of yellow and white com 
compared « 358 

Table of the method of cultiva- 
ting corn 364 

Table of preparation of soil 366 

" of plant food removed..... 309, 

" of export of com 388, 389 

** of value of com export- 
ed 390, 391, 392, 393 

Table of value of crops in Ten- 
nessee. ^ 394 

Table of Average price of grain 
in New York 395 

Tennessee, position of as a bor- 
der State 8 

Tennessee, as a grazing State.... 8 

Tennessee, conversion from a 
cotton to a grazing State 9 

Tennessee, a ^rass region 7 

" milk vetch 422 

Tick foil 424 

** trefoil 424 

Trifolium praten8e....30, 33^ 39, 115 

Trifolium repens 30, 33, 39; 72 

72, 207, 420 

Trifolium arvense 430 

" reflexum 430 

Trifolium carolinianum 420 

Trifolium hybridum 142 

" erectum « 144 

Digitized by 





Trifolinm incarnatmn....... 144 

Trifolium pratense perenne. 3g 

Tricuspis aeslerioidea 71, 88 

Trisetum flavescens 33 

Triticum repens 72, 292, 226 

" caninum 72, 226 

Tripsacnm dact7loide8...74, 107, 217 

Tricuspis sesleroides 235 

Tephrosia Yirginiana 421 

" spicata 421 

Thermopais Mollis 427 


Uniola gracilis 74, 226 

" iatifolia , 72 

Upright chess » 227 


Vicia Americana 149 

" Micrantha 422 

** Americana 149, 422 

Virginia Lyme grass 224 

Voandeza subterrania^ 412 

Voelcker, Proi, article on clo- 
ver 138 


Wallace, J. K. P., letter from.. 135 
Washington, J. E., on grasses... 485 

Wolff and Knop „ 195/ 

W«lff, Prof., tables by 34 

Wobnrn, experimentrt «.. 26 

Yard grass 
Yellow oat 
Yellow W( 

Value of lands before the war.. 18 
Value of grass in agricoltare... 6 \ 

Varialsle panic grass 220 j 

Vetch tares 149 | 

Velvet lawn grass 194: 

" analysis of 195! 

Vilfa vagina flora „ 70, 236 ! Zea mays.. 


Zizania amiatica 237 

milliacea 237 


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