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I 

' i 

i 



CONDENSED LIST OP MOST USED DATA 



Hrst Aid in Case of Accident 4^0 



SURVEY DATA ! 



1 i 



Radii of Ctirves 3^ ! ; 

Tangents and Externals 1*^ Curve 349 ' 

Conversion Degree of Slope to % of Grade 297 I 

I 

ESTIMATE AND DESIGN DATA 

t 

Volumes 60' Cross Sections 51$ 1 

Volume of Excavation Side Hill Locations 286-296 

Required Depth of Maeadam on Different Soils 162 ' 

Table of Macadam Quantities 643 

Square Yards of Pavement per IW 543 

Weights of Cast Iron Pipe 668 

Weights of Corrugated Iron Pipe 569 

Weights of Vitrified Pipe 660 

Steel Bar Reinforcement 666 

Metal Mesh Reinforcement 666 

Thickness of Concrete Bridge Slabs 666 

Material Required per Cu. Td. Concrete 623 

General Tables and Formnlip 826-966 




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HANDBOOK FOR 
HIGHWAY ENGINEERS 



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PUDLISUCRS OF bOOKS FOR^ 

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American Machinist ^ xhe Contractor 
Engineering S Mining Journal ^ Po we r 
Metallurgical 6 Chemical Engineering 
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HANDBOOK 

FOR 

HIGHWAY ENGINEERS 

CONTAINING INFORMATION ORDINARILY USED 

IN THE DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION 

OF RURAL HIGHWAYS 



Part I. Principles of Design. 

Part !!• Practice of Design and Construction. 

Part III. Specifications. 

Part IV, General Tables. 

Appendix. Traffic Rules and Regulations. 



BY 

WILSON G. HARGER, C. E. 
EDMUND A. BONNEY 

SVPBBVISINO ENGIXBSB, N. T. STATB DBPABTMBNT Of HIOHWATB 



Thibd Edition 

Entirbly Rbvisbd, Enlargbd and Rbsbt 



McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY, Inc. 

239 WEST 39TH STREET. NEW YORK 



LONDON: HILL PUBLISHING CO., Ltd. 

6 A 8 BOUVERIE ST., E. C. 
1919 



Copyright, 1919, by the 
McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. 



Copyright, 1912, 1916, by the 
McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. 



THS MAPItS PXaSS TOXK PA 



m 29 1919 •S 



^^ y^i'Z^^'^ 



PREFACE TO THIRD EDITION 

The present revision was undertaken in response to the sugges- 
tions and requests of many users of the earlier editions. The 
practical value of the Handbook is increased by the addition of 
approximately 350 pages of new material covering mountain road 
location and design, camp equipment, medical notes, notes on pho- 
tography, the selected soil and gravel treatment of moderate traffic 
roads, and the more recent developments of hard surfaced types. 
There is no change in the general scheme of the publication, which 
is primarily a compact collection of reference data and time saving 
tables. For the benefit of men not entirely familiar with the road 
problem, the discussion of principles has been retained, and in some 
cases where it has been shown that certain arguments in the previ- 
ous editions have failed to make the impression warranted by their 
importance, the discussion has been amplified and illustrated by 
examples of construction and design. We wish particularly to 
emphatize gradeline design, which is not at present receiving the 
attention to which it is entitled, and also point out the practically 
universal lack of adequate maintenance. 

The costs given in the body of the text are for comparative pur- 
poses only and are based on labor at from $0,175 to $0.20 per hour 
and material costs of the period 191 2 to 1915. 

For the improvement 01 future editions we request your cooper- 
ation in the correction of typographical errors, and the addition 
of any omitted data generally useful in road work. 

Verv few highway engineers are satisfied with the road legislation 
or technical practice of today or believe that it can be applied as it 
stands to solve the highway problem in this country in the next 
fifty years, but the data that has been collected from experience 
serves as a basis for future improvement. There is every reason 
to be optimistic in regard to road development provided the prob- 
lem is approached with constructive imagination and encourage- 
ment is given to departure from methods whose main defense lies 
in^ecedent or habit. 

The work of revision for this edition is entirely that of W. G. 
Harger. 

W. G. H. 
E. A. B. 

Rochester, N. Y., January, 1919. 



PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION 

Since the publication of the first edition of this book four years 
ago, considerable progress has been made in the practice of road 
design and construction. To meet this advance, this handbook has 
been revised by bringing the material on top courses up-to-date, 
and by adding considerable data on tests, designs, costs, mainte- 
nance and specifications. Not only has much of the old material 
been revised, but new material, totaling approximately loo pages, 
has been added. The criticisms and suggestions of many who have 
used the book in the field and office have aided the authors in this 
revision. 

A more complete and systematic index has been prepared by Mr. 
Percy Waller. 

The general arrangement of the book remains untouched. 

W. G. H. 
E. A. B. 

Rochester, N.Y., May, 1916. 



PREFACE TO FIRST EDITION 

The purpose of this book is to collect, in a compact and conven- 
ient form, information ordinarily required in the field and office 
practice of road design and construction. 

The book is designed to meet the requirements of both experienced 
and inexperienced road men. The material on the relative impor- 
tance of the different parts of the design, and the possibilities of 
economy, without impairing the efficiency of the road, are primarily 
for the inexperienced engineer. The collection of cost data and the 
tables will be usefid to any one engaged in road work. 

As it is difficult to avoid clerical errors and mistakes in proof- 
reading in first editions, we shall appreciate the cooperation of read- 
ers in calling our attention to any errors. 

W. G. H. 
E. A. B. 
RocHESTES, N.Y., April, 1912. 



vu 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

Preface v 

Introduction AND General Analysis 1-9 

General i 

Engineering design 2-5 

Koneer roads 3 

High type roads 4 

Maintenance and renewals 5 

Road bonds 6 

General summary 6 

Value of engineering advice 8 

PART I. PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN 

Chapter I. Grades and Alignment 10-35 

Maximum Grades ia-26 

Effect of horse and automobile traffic on design ... 10 

Effect of grade on load 11 

Effect of length of grade on load 16 

Theoretical advantages of different grades ...... 22 

Practical selection of maximum grades ....... 22 

Effect of ruling grade on cost 24 

Intermediate Grades 26-28 

Controlling points ....." 26 

Flexibility 26 

"Rolling Profile" 26 

Effect of careful design on cost 26 

Effect of arbitrary limitations on cost 28 

Minimum Grades 28-29 

On hard surfaced roads 28 

On earth roads 29 

Level Grades 28 

Adverse Grades 29 

Proper and improper use 29 

Summary of Grades 29 

Alignment 33-35 

In well settled districts (ordinary topography) .... 33 

Sight distance and minimum radius . 33 

Mountain road conditions 33 

Minimum radius 34 

Effect of alignment on ^ade 34 

Effect of alignment on cost .^ 34 

Railroad £^»de crossing eliminations 35 

ix 



X TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

Chapter II. Sections 36-73 

High Type Roads (Inordinary Topography) 36-62 

Conditions that sections must fulfil 36 

Premises of design 36-41 

Safe slopes for driving 36 

Comfortable slope for driving 36 

Required slope for surface drainage 36 

Crowns 36 

Stable cut and fill slopes 36 and 40 

Widths of pavement 36 and 42 

Widths of roading between ditches 38 

Effect of grading width on cost 39 

Effect of pavement width on cost 42 

Examples of typical sections 43-62 

Banked curves 45 

Widening at curves 45 and 62 

Mountain Road Sections 63-73 

Requirements . 63 

One way crown on unprotected roads 63 

Effect of width on cost 63 

Minimum allowable widths 64 

Turnouts 65 

Typical Sections 66 

Side hill balanced section 66 

Through cut section 66 

Through fill section 66 

Turnpike 66 

Wall sections 66 

Intercepting ditches 66 

Examples of typical sections 68-73 

Chapter III. Drainage 74-127 

General Discussion 

Location of structures 74 

Spacing of relief culverts 74 

Design 74'"77 

Size of opening 75 

Live and dead loads 76 

Width of roadway 77 

T)rpe of structures 77 

Rates of rainfall 78 

Tables of runoff • • 79"82 

Examples of railroad practice in sizes of opening for 

small drainage areas 8b, 83 

Discharge capacity of small culverts 84 

Culverts 

Types 83 

Size of opening 85 



TABLE OF CONTENTS Xi 

Page 

Plugging of culverts by ice and snow 85 

Plugging of culverts by silt 85 

Side culverts. 86 

Village culverts 86 

Private drive pipes 87 

Relative cost 87 

Examples of current practice in culvert design . . . 89-97 

Small Span Bridges 89 

Safe load on foimdation soils 89 and 98 

Safe pile loads 98 

Scour '^ 98 

Rip rap 98 

Fords 99 

Examples of current practice 100-124 

Underdrains 

Porous tile 12$ 

Open throat 125 

Location and outlets 126 

Summary of the chapter 127 

Chapter IV. Earth, Sand-clay, and Gravel Roads 

Limitation of practical satisfactory use 1 28 

Earth Roads 130-131 

Rut roads 130 

Ordinary turnpike roads 130 

Approx. cost 131 

Examples of current practice in sections 131 

Sand-clay Roads 

Principle of construction 131 

Mixtures 131 

Examples of current practice 134 

Approx. cost 137 

Gravd Roads 

Requirements of construction 137 

Suitable gravels 138 

Sizing 138 

Loam content 138 

Manipulation of gravel 139 

Typioil specification 139 

Typical example of gravel sections 140-142 

Approx. cost 143 

Miscellaneous Special Cases 

Alaskan conditions 144 

Arid regions 146 



•xii TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

Chapter V. Gravel and Stone Foundation Courses. 147-162 

Bearing Power of Surface SoUs 147 

Concentrated Wheel Loads 148-150 

Regulation of loads 148 

Reasonable limits of load 148 

Ordinary present day loads 149-150 

Military ordinance 149 

Commercial trucks 150 

Farm wagons 150 

Thickness of Road Metal Required on Different Soils. 150-152 

Different Types of Foundation Courses 153-158 

Broken stone bottom course 153 

Screened gravel bottom course 154 

Pit run gravel bottom course 156 

Field stone sub-base 154 

Gravel sub-base 155 

^ Field stone sub-base bottom course 155 

Gravel sub-base bottom course 156 

Telford foundation course . 157 

Distribution of Stone in Foundations 158 

Single track roads (8 -12' wide) 158 

Double track roads (16-22' wide) 158 

Special Foundation Designs. 158 

Enconomical Foundation Design 161 

Conclusion 161 



Chapter VI. Macadam Top 'Courses and Rigid 
Pavements 163-191 

Relative merits of macadam and rigid pavements. . 163 

Classification of traffic 164 

Traffic census, value of in design 164 

Types of Pavement 165-186 

Waterbound macadam 165 

Treated with calcium chloride 166 

Oil or tar 167 

Glutrin • • • 167 

Bituminous macadams 169 

Penetration method 169 

Mixing method 171 

Topeka mix 171 

Natural rock asphalt 172 

Amiesite 172 

Sheet asphalt i73 

Brick pavement i73 

Stone block pavement I7S 

Asphalt block pavement 176 

Concrete pavements i77 



J»»« 



TABLE OF CONTENTS xiu 

Page 

Small cube surfaces 

Kleinpflaster i8z 

McClintock cube pavement 182 

Rocmac 184 

Conclusion of Chapter 

Classification of pavements as safe for high speed 

traffic 186 

Classification of pavements as safe on steep hills . . 186 

Recommendation of pavements for different locations 186 

Conmion causes of failure -. * * '^7 

Capitalized cost of di£Ferent pavements under dif- 
ferent traffic 190 

Chaptes VIL Maintenance 192-214 

Earth roads 192 

Sandy clay roads 197 

Gravel roads 197 

Macadam roads 199 

Rigid pavements 203 

General organization methods 205 

General costs 205 

Detail typical costs 212 

Chapter VIII. Minor Points 215-228 

Right-of-way width 215 

Clearing widths 215 

Guard-rail 216 

Wooden 216 

Concrete 216 

Steel cable 218 

Snow fences 218 

Bridge rail.' 219 

Retaining walls 220 

Toe walls 222 

Curbs 223 

Guide and danger signs 324 

Rip rap 225 

Dykes 225 

Cobble gutters 226 

Refacing old walls ^ 226 

Storm sewers on hills. 227 

Special drainage ditches 228 

Cattle guards ^ 228 

Chapter IX. Materials 229-265 

Top course. Macadam stone (tests and properties). . 229-239 

Screenings 239 



xiv TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

BoUom course. Macadam stone 240 

Fillers 240 

Brick 240 

Bituminous Binders 241-253 

Concrete Materials 253-265 

Cement 252 

Sand 25^ 

Stone 254 

Gravel 254 

Slag 254 

Water 262 

PART II 

Chapter X. Preliminary Investigations 266-322 

General Costs 266 

High Type Roads in Populous Districts 266-282 

Scope of investigation 266 

Field methods 267 

Sampling materials 260 

Estimates of cost 273 

Sample report . 274—282 

Pioneer Roads in Unsettled Districts. 282-320 

Scope of investigation 282 

Equipment 282 

Field methods 282 

Estimates of cost 283 

Tabular Compilation 0} Useful Information in Con- 
nection with Investigations of this Character . . 285-308 

Excavation amounts 285-206 

Grades expressed in degrees 297 

Right-of-way acreages 297 

Unit prices 297 

Masonry quantities 299 

Rule for computing ft. B.M. in logs 300 

Steel in bridges 301 

Magnetic declination 300-308 

Sample preliminary report 309-320 

Reconnaissance Surveys 321-322 

Methods. 321 

v/OSt ^21 

Chapter XI. The Survey 323-422 

High Type Roads (Improvement of Existing Roads) . . 323-384 

Center line 323 

Levels and cross sections 325 

Drainage 327 

Topography 328 

Traffic reports 329 

Foundation soils 330 



TABLE OF CONTENTS XV 

Page 

Location and character of materials 331 

Right of way 333 

Stadia reduction tables 335 

Diversion lines 343 

Adjustment of instruments 343 

Curve tables and formulae 345 

Examples of curve problems 376 

Pioneer Roads (New Locsitlons) 384-422 

Cost and organization 384 

Equipment 385 

Base line 387 

Levels and cross sections 388 

Drainage 392 

Topography 392 

Materials 394 

Survey report 394 

Meridian Determination] 

By polaris 394 

By direct solar 402 

Stadia work . . ^ 416 

Chapter XII. Photography^ Camp Equipment and 
Notes on Camp Medicine. 

Photography 423-435 

Equipment 424 

Time and aperture 425-430 

Effect of use of tripod 426 

Motion of object 426 

Altitude 427 

Latitude 427 

Season of the year 427 

Light and phase 428 

Time chart 429 

Exposure record 430 

Developing 431 

Printing 433 

Camp Equipment 436-444 

List of articles 

Tableware 436 

Cooking utensils 436 

Hardware 437 

Tents and miscellaneous 438 

Sketches of handy equipment 439 

Camp Medicine and First Aid for Accidents ASSSoi 

Personal hygiene 445 

Clothing 445 

Bedding 445 

Diet 445 



xvi TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Pagb 

Baths 445 

Care of mouth and teeth 445 

Care of feet 446 

Fly and mosquito dopes 447 

Insect bites and stings 447 

Cures for vermin pests 447 

Medical and surgical supplies 449 

List of remedies and their use ]452 

Common Sickness (Symptoms and Treatment) .... 455 

Stomach and Bowels 

Constipation 455 

Colic i 455 

Diarrhea 455 

Dysentery 455 

Fevers 

Typhoid fever 456 

Malarial fever 456 

Throat and Lungs 

Sore throat 457 

Influenza 457 

Pneumonia 458 

Miscellaneous 

Headache 458 

Simstroke 458 

Poison ivy 458 

Rheumatism 459 

Gonorrhea 460 

Nephritis 460 

Piles 460 

Accidents 

Minor Accidents 

Bruises 461 

Sprains 461 

Foreign matter in eyes, ears, nose or throat . . . 462 

Serious Accidents 

Snake bites 464 

Bad cuts • • • ; 464 

Bums and frost bite 471 

Wounds 472 

Drowning and electric shock 476 

Poisons 481 

Fractures and dislocations. 483 

Chapter XIIL Office Practice 502-584 

For the Improvement of Existing Roads (High Types) . . 503-567 

Mapping the Preliminary Survey 
Scales 503 



TABLE OF CONTENTS XVil 

Mapping (cofUinued) Page 

Plotting center line S04 

Table of sight distances 504 

Plotting topography 505 

Bench level computations 505 

Cross-section level computations 505 

Plotting cross-sections 506 

Plotting profile 506 

The Design 

Maximum grades different pavements 507 

Shrinkage of earthwork 507 

Templets 509 

Economical grade line design 509 

Vertical curves 

Formulae Sli 

Sight distance 513 

Radii for plotting 513 

Planimeter work 514 

Methods 514 

Accuracy 514 

Substitute method 514 

Computation of earthwork (tables) Si 5-537 

OverWul 539 

Mass diagram 539 

Sample final design report 544 

Grade crossing elimination data 547 

Grade crossing alignment restrictions 549 

Right of way computations 549 

Summary of economical design 552 

Tables of quantities (stone, macadam, oil, sq. yards 

of pavement, etc.) S4o~554 

Tables of dimensions and sizes (pipe, mesh, steel, 

etc.) 555-560 

Tables of strength of materials (I-beams, concrete 

slabs, wooden beams and long columns) .... 561-567 
{b) Office Practice for Pioneer Road Design 

General methods (graphic or analytic) 567 

Drafting room instructions 568 

Drafting room supplies 568 

Detail design instructions 569-584 

Reasonable speed of design 569 

Reasonable cost of design 570 

Detail manipulation (organization and methods). 570 

Progress report 57^ 

Sample estimate forms 581 

Chapter XIV. Cost Data and Estimates 585-661 

Macadam Roads 585~^3 

Earth excavation 585 

Rock excavation 5^6 



xviii TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

Unloading broken stone 586 

Hauling 588 

Loading fence stone 590 

Spreading crushed stone 590 

Placing boulder stone 591 

Ratio of loose to consolidated depths 591 

Amounts of filler and binder 591 

Loading filler sand and spreading 591 

Spreading filler and binder 592 

Rolling 592 

Crushing 593-599 

Cost of 593-599 

Proportions of different sizes in output 594-599 

Sledging boulders for crusher 597 

Dustless screenings 599 

Stone fill, bottom course 599 

Sub- base, bottom course 600 

Applying bituminous binder 600 

Kentucky rock asphalt 602 

Puddling waterbound roads 602 

Pavements (Miscellaneous) 

McClintock cube surfacing 603 

Amiesite 604 

Topeka mix 607 

Hassam concrete pavement 607 

Mixed concrete pavement 608-621 

Asphalt block pavement 610 

Concrete Ctdvert Work 621-625 

Miscellatteous^ 

Guard rail 

Wooden 625 

Concrete 626 

Cobble gutter 626 

Vitrified pipe 626 

Organization j 

Speed of work 627 

Plant and payroll 627-631 

Forms for Estimate 

Sample estimate macadam construction 632-640 

Unit Prices Minor Items 640 

Sample average haul forms of estimate 641 

Brick Pavements on Country Roads 647-653 

Excavation 647 

Concrete base 648 

Preparing cushion 649 

Laying brick 649 

Grouting brick 649 



TABLE OF CONTENTS xix 

Page 

Expansion joints 640 

Edging 648 

Unloading brick 650 

Hauling brick 650 

Form of estimate 651 

Sample estimate 651 

Maintenance and Repair 653-661 

Cold oiling 653 

Hot oiling 655 

Calcium chloride .... - 655 

Recapping 655 

• Scarii)ring and reshaping 658 

Patrol maintenance 660 

Automobile maintenance truck 660 

Distribution of maintenance charges (actual cost one 

year) 661 

Chapter XV. Notes on Construction (Inspection) 662-697 

Staking out 662 

Rough grading 664 

Fine grading 666 

Sub-base 667 

Bottom stone 669 

Top courses (macadams) 670 

Hassam concrete pavement 672 

Mixed concrete pavement 673 

Sheet asphalt pavement 677 

Brick roads 679 

Pipe culverts 683 

Concrete culverts 685 

PART in 

Specifications 698-824 

Discussion of requirements 698 

General Outline of Clauses (U. S. Ofl&ce of Public 

Roads) 699-709 

Examples of Current Practice (Roads and Pavements) 

General clauses (U. S. Forest Road Specifications) . 710-717 
Materials 

Portland cement (New York State Specifications). 717 

Water for concrete (New York State Specifications) 718 

Concrete sand (New York State Specifications). . 718 

Grout sand (New York State Specifications) ... 719 

Cushion sand (New York State Specifications)^. . 719 
Coarse aggregate for concrete (New York State 

Specifications) 719 

Stone and gravel for pavements (New York State 

Specifications) 720 



XX TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Page 

Bituminous materials (New York State Specifi- 
cations) 721 

Brick (New York State Specifications) 730 

Stone block (New York State Specifications) . . . 735 

Asphalt block (New York State Specifications) . . 787 

Wood block (New York State Specifications) . . . 790 

Cast iron pipe (New York State Specifications) . 736 

Reinforcement (New York State Specifications) 736 

Cast iron (New York State Specifications) .... 736 

Wrought iron (New York State Specifications) . . 736 

Steel (New York State Specifications) 737 

Vitrified pipe (New York State Specifications) . . f 37 

Concrete pipe (U. S. Forest Road Specifications) . . 738 

Corrugated pipe (U. S. Forest Road Specifications) 739 

Porous tile (N. Y. State) . 740 

Timber (Washington State Specifications) .... 740 

Piles 740 and 804 

Construction Methods 

Pipe culverts (U. S. Forest Road Specifications) . . 737 
Log culverts and Bridges (U. S. Forest Road 

Specifications) 740 

Clearing and grubbing (State of Washington 

Specifications) 742 

Excavation (New York State Specifications) ... 743 
Overhaul (New York State Specifications) .... 745 
Tiles and underdrains (New York State Specifi- 
cations) 745 

Leaching basins (New York State Specifications) . 746 
Catch basins (New York State Specifications) . . 747 
Cast-iron pipe culverts (New York State Specifi- 
cations) 747 

Stone fill (New York State Specifications) .... 748 

Piles (New York State Specincations) 748 

Timber and lumber (New York State Specifications) 748 

Riprap (New York State Specifications) 749 

Concrete masonry (New York State Specifications) 749 
Stone masonry (New York State Specifications) . 752 
Stone curbing (New York State Specifications) . . 753 
Concrete curbing (New York State Specifications) 754 
Concrete edging (New York State Specifications) . 754 
Cobble gutters (New York State Specifications) . 754 
Concrete gutters (New York State Specifications) . 755 
Brick gutters (New York State Specifications) . 755 
Concrete reinforcement (New York State Speci- 
fications) 755 

Guard rail (New York State Specifications) ... 75^ 

Guide signs (New York State Specifications) ... 757 

Sign posts (New York State Specifications) . . • . 75^ 

Loose stone (New York State Specifications) ... 758 



TABLE OF CONTENTS xxi 

Page 
Sub-base courses (New York State Specifications) . 759 

Telford (New York State Specifications) 759 

Bottom course (Gravel and macadam) (New York 

State Specifications) 760 

Bottom courses (concrete base) (New York State 

Specifications) . 761 

Earth road construction (Iowa Specifications) . . 763 

Gravel road construction (Iowa specifications) . . 766 

Chert roads (Alabama Specifications) 771 

Gravel roads (Alabama Specifications) 772 

Sand clay roads (Alabama Specifications) .... 773 

Waterbound Macadam pavement (New York 

State Specifications) 774 

Scarif3dng and reshaping (New York State Speci- 
fications) 776 

Bituminous surface treatments (New York State 

Specifications) 777 

Bituminous macadams (New York State Speci- 
fications) 778 

Bitulithic pavement (New York State Specifications) 782 

Amiesite pavement (New York State Specifications) 783 

Hassam concrete pavement (New York State 

Specifications) 784 

Mixed concrete pavement (New York State 

Specifications) 785 

Glutrm 786 

Wood block pavement (New York State Speci- 
fications) 787 

Asphalt block pavement (New York State Speci- 
fications) 790 

Brick pavement (sand cushion) (New York State 

Specifications) 791 

Brick pavement (cement sand cushion) (Dunn Wire 

Cut Lug Specifications) 794 

Stone block pavement (City of Rochester Specifi- 
cations) 799 

Highway Bridge Specifications (State of Iowa) 

Giving materials and manipulation 800-824 

Widths of bridges 807 

Standard loadings 805-806 

Standard stresses 807-808 

Floorings, etc •. • • • ^Sy 821 

PART IV 

General Tables and FormtdiB. 
Table No. 

68. Conversion of units of measure 825 

69. Conversion inches to decimals of a foot y \ y \ 826 



xxii TABLE OF CONTENTS 

Pagb 

70. Areas and volumes 828 

71. Squares, cubes, square roots, cube roots circum- 
ferences and circular areas i to 520 . . . . . . . 830 

72. Trigonometric functions and formulae 843 

73. Table of natural tangents and cotangents . . . 845 

Table of natural sines and cosines 857 

Table of natural secants and cosecants 868 

74. Table of logarithms of numbers 880 

75. Table of logarithmic sines, cosines, tangents and 
cotangents 905 

76. Weights of materials 950 

77. Strength of materials 951 

78. Flexure formulae of beams 952 

79. Centers of gravity 954 

80. Moments of inertia 955 

Appendix A 

Traffic Rides and Regulations f Stale of Ohio 957 

Traffic Rules and Regulations^ State of New York . . . 968 

Index 971 



HANDBOOK 

FOR 

HIGHWAY ENGINEERS 



INTRODUCTION AND GENERAL ANALYSIS 

The highway question can not be treated as a local issue, as with 
limited funds it is often impossible to make improvements that 
are necessary to pioneer development, or that are suitable for 
modern long distance traffic. The national importance of the 
problem is recognized by the steady growth of State and Federal 
aid, which has already done much to improve engineering control 
and to increase financial resources. In many localities, however, 
it is still impossible to obtain enough money for proper design, 
and for these cases any solution is more or less unsatisfactory from 
an engineering standpoint. 

Road design ranges from the low type earth roads of sparsely 
settled districts to the hard surfaced pavements of densely popu- 
lated sections. For these extreme conditions the issues are clear 
cut; the first requires the greatest possible mileage with limited 
funds, and the last the most suitable design regardless of first cost. 
Intermediate cases are handled by merging the requirements pre- 
sented by the extremes. A reasonable design for any case depends 
on the needs and resources of the local community, considered in 
connection with the importance of the improvement to the general 
transportation scheme of the country and the aid that will be 
granted on account of its general importance. 

High type pavements should never be designed unless the 
community is able to provide its share of the construction cost by 
either direct appropriation, or short term, or serial bonds based on 
the probable life of the pavement, and in addition, to raise by 
some form of vehicle tax or direct appropriation its part of an 
annual maintenance and renewal fund of from $500 to $1000 per 
mile. States similar to New York, with an assessed valuation 
averaging $240,000 per square mile and a population averaging 
210 per square mile have demonstrated their willingness and 
ability to raise any amount required for the construction of the 
most suitable types of road, considering traffic conditions and 
economy of maintenance, but even these states have not yet made 
adequate provision for maintenance and renewal . States similar 



2 INTRODUCTION AND GENERAL ANALYSIS 

to Wyoming, with an assessed valuation of $2000 per square mile, 
and a population of 2 per square mile, can not handle road con- 
struction in a conclusive way. They must adopt the method of 
progressive improvement. This represents the pioneer condition 
where the road question is most vital. Highways are a necessity 
to their development, and are considered primiarily as a means 
of communication, not as pleasure routes, nor their improvement 
as a refinement to reduce the cost of transportation to a minimum. 
The people are willing to provide all the money they can afford, 
but expect some form of construction which wiU complete a line 
of communication to the point desired; a pack trail will do, a 
wagon trail is better, and an ordinary earth road, will generally be 
accepted without question. 

The same engineering principles apply to both conditions but 
the emphasis is different. Where the funds are practically un- 
limited, the problem is comparatively easy and is stncUy technical. 
Where the funds are limited to inadequate amounts, the solution 
is more difficult; the engineer must decide where technical require- 
ments should be retained and where ignored; he must plan the 
work so that whatever is done will become, if possible, a useful 
part of any future improvement, but above all a line of communica- 
tion must be opened. In the design of high type roads the engineer- 
ing emphasis is placed on safety, ease and economy of travel and 
maintenance. On pioneer roads the emphasis is placed on the 
selection of the best natural economic and engineering location 
and the greatest mileage for the funds. 

We have therefore arranged the discussion of design practice from 
standpoints required for each case, and have indicated in the 
chapters on Grade, Alignment, Sections, etc., the road value of 
different limiting engineering requirements with their effect on 
construction cost. 

ENGINEERING DESIGN 

Functions of Grades, Alignments, etc. — A well-proportioned 
design considers the relative value and the object of the different 
engineering elements of the problem. In this connection we may 
say that grades, alignment and section are the most permanent and 
fundamental features of construction. The ruling grade largely 
controls the loads that can be hauled; section, grade and alignment 
combined determine the convenience of the road and the economy 
of earthwork, while alignment and section affect the safety and are 
also important factors in the appearance of the highway. For 
these reasons these three points must be ranked as equal and first 
in importance. 

The next elements to be considered are drainage, foundation 
and top course, which keep the section firm and intact under traffic 
and weather action. Washouts are prevented and the bearing 
power of the soil is increased by surface and sub-surface drainage; 
the heavy concentrated wheel loads of vehicles are spread over 
a safe area of the sub-grade bv the foundation course; the top 
course provides a surface that will withstand the abrasive action of 



ENGINEERING DESIGN 3 

wheels and horses' shoes, that gives a good footing and offers slight 
rolling resistance. At the present time the problem of the top course 
is troublesome, on account of the conflicting demands of horse and 
automobile traffic. There is so much discussion of this one fea- 
ture that it is easy to give it too much weight and there is a tendency 
to economize on the more permanent elements of <:onstruction 
in order to get a higher grade top. In the writer's opinion this is a 
mistake. The different top courses will be discussed in detail, but 
no definite conclusions can be drawn, as this part of the design is 
subject to constant change and improvement. 



The Application of the Order of Importance of the Elements of 

Design to General Cases 

Pioneer Roads. — Considering the policy of progressive improve- 
ment, limited funds should be eicpended as far as possible for 
essentials which will eventually become integral parts of the 
complete and finished design. The engineering requirements 
are usted below in their order of importance. 

First, — SekcHon of the best general route. 

{a) Best location for the development of the territory. 
« Vb) Longest open season, 
(c) Least rise and fall. 
{d) Length and cost. 

Second, — Selection of the most natural engineering location follow- 
ing the desired general route, 

(a) Reasonable grades. 

(&) Exposure. Avoid north exposure and areas of deep 
snow. 

(jc) Character of excavation. Avoid rock, slides, etc. 

(ji) Drainage problems. Avoid flood areas, stream cross- 
ings, etc. 

{e) Avoid artificial restrictions such as section line locations, 
etc. 

Third, — Detail requirements of design, 

(a) Reasonable maximum grade. 

(Jb) Economical intermediate grades. 

Ic) Safe and economical alignment. 

{d) Width of roadway safe for traffic. 

{e) Width of roadway convenient for traffic. 

If) Sufficient culverts and bridges to protect the roadway. 

\g) Permanent construction of these culverts and bridges. 

(A) Sufficient width of clearing for sun to reach road. 

(») Safety provisions. Protection for traffic at dangerous 

places, 
(y) Provision of liberal width, of right-of-way considering 

future widenings and development. 



4 INTRODUCTION AND GENERAL ANALYSIS 

Fourth. — Improvement of the road surface. 
(a) By selective soil treatment. 
{h) By gravel, chert, caliche, etc. 
(c) By hard surfaced pavements. 

The following typical cases illustrate the usual problems that 
occur, and indicate their general solutions. 

Where no road exists and the funds are entirely too small for 
good construction, a sufficiently cheap design is used to complete 
the entire length. Under these conditions the only requirement 
that must be met is the proper selection of general route, although 
it is probable that for flie greater part of the distance the final 
engineering location can be followed. Considerable work of this 
kind has been done in New Mexico under the direction of State 
Engineer James A. French, and the solutions are ingenious. Satis- 
factory wagon and automobile trails have been constructed under 
favorable conditions for as low as $5.00 per mile (see page 1^0), 
while in difficult locations advantage has been taken of all possible 
expiedients to keep the cost down. 

Where a poor but usable road exists between the terminal points, 
or for a portion of the distance, either the imcompleted or worst 
sections of the route are first considered. Under such circum- 
stances the funds are generally sufficient to p)ermit a moderately 
good engineering design, which must provide for the proper final 
grade and drainage scheme on the improved sections, although 
the drainage structures may be cheap and temporary and the road- 
way narrow. 

Where a fair road has been previously built over the entire route, 
no improvement should be attempted unless it provides for the 
best engineering design of grades, alignment, section and permanent 
drainage structures. 

Where a first-class natural soil road is in use, the next step in 
progressive improvement requires either selected soil, gravel or 
hard surfaced construction of the traveled way. 

Order of Work Pioneer Road Desi|^. — The methods employed 
for the field and office work are described in Chapters X, XI and 
XIII. Engineering of this nature forms the most interesting 
class of highway work, and is handled in three stages. 

A preliminary investigation is made to determine the general 
route, the best engineering location and the approximate cost of 
construction. It forms the basis for the general scheme of financing 
and design. It is the most important feature of new road location, 
and if well done insures the completion of a reasonable program 
of construction with the funds at hand. It also prevents wasteful 
expenditure on ill considered or unsuitable location surveys and 
plans. The detail location survey based on the preliminary 
conclusions is next made to secure the data for the final office 
design, which carries out in detail the recommendations of the first 
report and completes the work prelimina^ to construction. 

Relative Order of Importance of Design Detail for Hard Surfaced 
Roads. — High type pavements in populous districts are necessary 



MAINTENANCE AND RENEWAL 5 

to meet heavy traffic requirements. They reduce the cost of 
hauling and increase the ease and safety of fight and heavy traffic. 
The parts of the design are more or less important in proportion 
to their necessity for the fulfillment of these purposes, and may be 
ranked as follows: 

1. Grades. 

2. Alignment. 

3. Sections. 

4. Drainage. 

5. Foundations. 

6. Top courses. 

7. Minor details. 

It can be seen by comparison that the details of hard surfaced 
road design have the same order of importance as for low type 
roads. The order of engineering procedure is also the same. Tne 
character of the information for the preliminary investigation is 
different, but the object is identical; namely, to provide a basis for 
appropriations and reasonable design. The preliminary data deals 
largely with probable traffic, available local materials and the 
most suitable and economical pavement type. The location sur- 
vey provides the essential data for design, using somewhat better 
methods than for mountain conditions, and the office work is more 
detailed and complete. The methods are described in Chapters 
X, XI and XIII. 

The application of the order of importance of design elements 
for hard surfaced pavement work can be shown by three cases: 
Under the most favorable conditions outlined in the introduction, 
the improvement is considered final and its design is based on an 
effort to obtain the most useful, and in the end the most econom- 
ical form of construction regardless of first cost. In this case all the 
engineering requirements may be fulfilled. 

fii many communities, however, the funds are only sufficient to 
build a moderately good pavement, which will have to be bettered 
by reconstruction in a few years, to meet the demands of the traffic. 
An improvement of this kind should be permanently and com- 
pletely designed for proper grades, alignment, section, drainage and 
safety provisions, and the balance of the money spent on the best 
type of hard surface that can be afforded. 

The third case is reconstruction, which usually confines the 
problem to considerations of the most suitable type of re-surfacing, 
utilizing previous work to the best advantage. 

Maintenance and Renewal. — In presenting construction design 
for the approval of a community the cost of maintenance and the 
renewal of its temporary features should be fully explained in order 
that the cost of such work may be provided for. The amount re- 
quired for adequate maintenance is rarely appreciated and the 
comparatively short life of any road surface is not a^ matter of 
general knowledge. Maintenance costs are discussed in Chapter 
VIII and the following Table No. i supplemented by Tables 
No. 21 and 22, Chapter VI, page 190, give a rough idea of the cost 
and length of life of the temporary features of typical hard pave- 



INTRODUCTION AND GENERAL ANAI.YSIS 



ment types. Table No. i is based on 200 mttes of 16 ft. width 
macadam and brick in Western New York. A Tvell-designed earth 
road can be considered as 90% permanent. 

Table i 



Brick 



Cost 
per 
mile 



% Total 
Cost 



Bit. Mac. 



Cost 
per 
mile 



% Total 
Cost 



Water Mac. 



Cost 
per 
mile 



% Total 
Cott 



•Excavation 

•Drainage Structures. . 

•Foundations and sub- 
base 

. Surfacing 

.Edging 

. Minor points 

•Total Permanent fea- 
tures 

** Temporary fea- 
tures 

. Probable life *' 



} 



|3300 
700 

6300 

14700 

500 

9200 

15200 



9.0 
2.8 

25.9 

60.1 

2.2 

37-7 
62.3 



10 to 25 years 



1 1 900 
700 

3300 

5900 

500 

5900 

6400 



IS. 9 
5-3 

27 .0 

47.5 

4.3 

48.2 
51.8 



6 to 12 years 



$1900 
700 

3300 

4000 

500 

5900 

4SOO 



18.3 
6.7 

31.7 
38. S 

4.8 

56.7 
43-3 



5 to 10 years, 



Road Bonds. — Extensive road programs are usually financed by 
long term bonds, fifty-year bonds being very generally used. 
This practice has been justly criticized, as large amounts of money 
will be required for construction renewals before the original 
bonds expire, except in the case of dirt roads. Serial or short 
term bonds, based on the probable life of the pavement, are more 
rational. « 

General Summary. — ^The general analysis may be summarized 
as follows: 

The details of economic highway design are everywhere a local 
problem depending on the available materials, climatic conditions 
and traffic requirements. We know of no one who has had enough 
personal experience in the design, construction and maintenance of 
the various types under different sectional requirements to pose 
as an exi)ert over any extended part of the country except on very 
general lines. 

The chief factors which govern the cost of a highway system 
are legislative and finance programs which should provide the nec- 
essary money at the proper time; an engineering design which at 
all times should strive to use local materials to advantage, and a. 
construction staff to insist on good workmanship. (The costs 
given below are based on labor and material costs prevailing from 
1912 to 1916.) 

I. The financing of many State systems of highways has never 
been well worked out for either construction or maintenance; 
what applies to them we believe is true of a large percentage of 
cases. A reasonable finance program depends on compliance with 
the following facts: The permanent features of a highway im- 



GENERAL SUMMARY 7 

provement are the grading, drainage and foundation. The sur- 
facing is temporary even for the so-called * * permanent " types. The 
rigid pavements such as brick, asphalt, concrete, etc. need resur- 
facing in from ten to twenty years; the macadam in from five to 
twelve years. The ordinary maintenance for the rigid types will 
run about $150 per mile per year with a resurfacing chaige of 
$10,000 to $15,000 per mile at intervals of about 15 years. The 
ordinary maintenance on macadams is about $500 per mile per year 
with a resurfacing charge of $4000 to $6000 at intervals of seven to 
ten years. 'The ordinary maintenance of earth and sand clay roads 
runs from $30 to $150 per mile per year. The ordinary main- 
tenance of gravel roads from $100 to $500 per mile per year. The 
yearly cost of maintenance and renewals amounts to from $50 
to $500 per mile for earth, sand-clay and gravel roads and from 
$700 to $1000 per mile for macadams and rigid pavements. Pro- 
vision for the necessary amounts is rarely made which results in a 
gradual deterioration of the roads and will finally occasion an un- 
necessarily large expenditure to put the systems back in good 
condition. Proper provision should be made for maintenance and 
renewal or a large future waste is certain to occur. A foresighted 
policy in this particular would save the community more than 
any economies of the design. 

2. The engineering design rests on the consideration of con- 
struction, maintenance and renewal costs. In discussing this 
problem most of the current literature and highwav speakers empha- 
size and confine economies to the selection of pavement type. 
This is a natural result of the exploitation of various materials and 
patent processes. As a matter of fact our experience indicates 
that for 75 to 80% of the roads the final cost is not greatly affected 
by the selection of type except as it governs the use of local materials. 

In general the high and low priced pavements cost about the 
same, considering interest on first cost, maintenance and renewals. 
What is saved on first cost is spent on maintenance. The real 
engineering economies are limited to a careful grading and safe 
foundation design utilizing local materials, and to a selection of 
the cheapest first cost type of pavement of the general class re- 
quired by the traffic; that is a rigid type for very heavy traffic and 
for all ordinary roads any t5rpe which will utiUze local materials 
to their best advantage. On from 75 to 80% of the mileage of most 
State systems, any standard type of construction which ^1 satisfy 
the traffic and which is the cheapest in first cost will generally be 
the cheapest in the end. 

3. The inspection of construction has a marked effect on final 
cost and on public work there is a great variation in the care and 
knowledge of the inspectors. Well built macadams are much 
cheaper in the end than poorly constructed brick or concrete. 
The problem of improving inspection is a difficult one and the 
results appear to be spasmodic. If good inspection is not reason- 
ably certain, the more nearly "fool proof" macadams are the most 
economical form of construction. 



8 INTRODUCnON AND GENERAL ANALYSIS 

Value and Cost of Engineermg Advice. — Sound financial and 
construction programs must be based on technical data and judg- 
ment. As a rule engineering advice is solicited and followed for 
the minor details of design and construction but is too often ignored 
or dispensed with in deciding on the general plan of action. This 
has resulted in patchwork systems; in poor legislative programs 
for maintenance and sometimes in a complete set back for high- 
way improvements for a number of years. 

The details of grade, alignment, section and drainage are usually 
solved on engineering principles except that in sdkne localities 
the influence of patented culvert propoganda overcomes sub- 
stantial design. The selection of pavement type however is often 
determined by popular vote or by the choice of non-technical boards. 
It is an unfortunate fact that very often communities, officials and 
engineers are susceptible to a continuous well planned advertising 
campaign and to the more or less proper and improper methods of 
approach of material salesmen, patented pavement promoters and 
influencial citizens. Current engineering literature is full of 
inspired articles and the rosy hued optimism is to use a slang phrase 
"pure bunk." Each well established pavement has certam ad- 
vantages which are desirable under different conditions but the 
proper selection is a difficult matter which can be handled by an ex- 
penenced engineer with better chances of success than if left to ^e 
limited knowledge of the community influenced by the sHver ton- 
gued persuasiveness of the man with something to sell. 

What, however, is more important is the preliminary layout of a 
comprehensive scheme of complete future improvement and the 
designing of each separate construction job as a part of the whole 
scheme rather than as a problem by itself. Hardljr less necessary is 
the inauguration of a foresighted plan for obtainmg enough yearly 
upkeep funds to prevent the partial or total loss of such improve- 
ments. This requires thorough preliminary study and the expendi- 
ture of considerable money for which there is apparently no imme- 
diate return, but so many ill considered, disappointing programs 
have resulted from the lack of this work that we can not over- 
emphasize its importance. 

At the present time road expenditures in the United States 
amount to approximately $300,000,000 per year and it can be 
said without undue criticism that the problem is entitled to more 
intelligent planning than it is now receiving. It is well worth the 
best engineering talent and sufficient initial expenditure to assure 
a workable scheme. Careless or inadequate investigation, survey 
and design are worse than useless and tend to discredit the value of 
engineering in connection with highway improvements. There is 
no doubt that any amount of money that may be required for 
thorough planning is justified by the resultant saving in construc- 
tion cost and by the increased usefulness of the improvement but 
there is also no doubt that much of the money spent for inadequate 
engineering is absolutely wasted. This fact is recognized by the 
State and Government Departments which are conducting an 
educational campaign to raise the standard of highway work. 



VALUE OF ENGINEERING ADVICE 9 

Satisfactory preliminary engineering costs from $100 to $300 per 
mile and amounts to about the same whether the proposed road is 
to cost $1000 per mile or $30,000 per mile. This is regarded with 
suspicion by men accustomed to figuring the cost of engineering as 
2%, 4% or 6% of the construction cost but it should be borne in 
mind that it is more a mileage proposition than a percentage of 
construction proposition; that the cost is largely necessary for the 
location and grading design which is the same for low and high 
cost roads; that pioneer road location must consider the future 
development of the country and that the engineering cost in com- 
parison with the amount of money which will immediately be 
spent on construction is of no importance whatever provided a 
proper location is made. Many of the older well settled com- 
munities are now suffering from originally poor road locations and 
it is hoped by all concerned that these mistakes will not be repeated 
in the construction of the new roads in the West. 
. Highway engineering in this country is still in the infant stage 
but growing lustily. It represents the systematic element of the 
road movement. The road improvement programs as expressed 
by current legislation are not logical nor could they reasonably be 
expected to be efl&cient as they represent a compromise between 
the conflicting ideas of earnest and flippant folks and profiteers. 
They contain a large element of humor and camouflage and a 
dash of efficiency. It is undoubtedly desirable to increase the 
percentage of efficiency somewhat but too much of that quality 
is not pleasing as popularly expressed by an unknown genius, 

"Who is it takes the joy from life and makes existence Hell. 

Who'll fire a real good looking one because she can not spell, ^ 
Who'll substitute a dictaphone for a coral tinted ear 
The penny chasing, dollar wasting efficiency engineer." 

However, the fact remains that tax-payers desire to have their 
money spent with care and as there is rarely much difficulty in 
inaugurating a road program up to the limit of the financial ability 
of the community it seems well worth while to get the best results 
that are possible. 



PART I 

PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN 

Order of Discussion.— The detail discussion of design will be 
taken up in the following chapters in their order of importance 
indicated on page 5 as follows: 

Grades and Alignment 

Sections. 

Drainage 

Foundations. 

Top Courses. 

M&or Points. 

CHAPTER I 
GRADES AND ALIGNMENT 

The subject of "Grades" may be treated under sub-headings 
of "Maximum," "Minimum," "intermediate" and "Adverse." 

MAXIMUM OR RULING GRADES 

The following considerations govern the design of ruling grades : 

1. The relative importance of horse and automobile traffic. 

2. The difficulty of ascent and the ease and safety of descent. 

3. The effect of length of grade on maximum load. 

4. The theoretical advantage of certain grades. 

5. The ruling grades in ordinary use and practical considerations 
governing their selection. 

6. The effect of ruling grade on cost. 

I. Relative Importance of Horse and Automobile Traffic in 
the Selection of Grade. — ^The remarkable development of me- 
chanical transportation on rural highways entitles this class ol 
traffic to every consideration within reason, but at the present time 
and for a long future period may reasons indicate that horse traffic 
will govern the selection of grade in most cases. This conclu- 
sion is based on the greater adaptability of team hauling to adverse 
conditions; on the probability that as long as stock is used for or; 
dinary farm work it will be utilized to some extent for hauling 
even under conditions favorable for trucks; and on the fact thai 
grades suitable for horses afford no hardship to mechanical out^ 
fits. All of the trucks and tractors in use have sufficient power td 
haul their loads on firm surfaced roads up any grade that would 
be selected for horse traffic and while a reduction in grade belo^ 
these rates would reduce operating costs slightly, this consideration 
would hardly warrant any large expenditure at tnis ti me. The t heo-| 
retical discussion is therefore devdoped on the basis of horse traffic. 

10 



ASCENT AND DESCENT 1 1 

2, Difficulty of Ascent and Safety of Descent — ^The factors 
controlling ease and safety of ascent and descent have different 
values for different surfaces, but as most of the roads will in time 
be hard surfaced and as all parts of the design should fit into the 
^final improvement, this part of the grade argument is made 
'primarily for hard surfaced conditions. 
jj|i European observers claim that on a stone road 5% is the maxi- 
J mum grade that can be descended safely by a trotting team with- 
out brakes and that 12% is the maximum that can be safely de- 
scended with brakes. By the use of the sliding shoe or locked 
wheels freighters in the Rockies descend 20% grades without 
much difficulty on ordinary natural soil roads. Swe descent with 
brakes need not be considered except in rare cases as it would 
result in a grade far beyond ordinary practice. Safe and easy 
descent without breaks is more important for light rigs than for 
• heavy hauling but as this class of traffic has been practically elimi- 
. nated by cheap automobiles it need not be given much weight. 
Descent, therefore, plays only a minor part in grade selection. 

The writer knows of no careful records of actufd maximum 

loads that can be hauled up different hard surfaced grades by an 

jijf ordinary team; it is probaoly better to discuss this point theo- 

, " retically as any experiments would be affected by too many vari- 

. able local conditions to be worth much as a basis of comparison. 

, As a check on the theoretical discussion records of loads on ex- 

i treme mountain grades are given on page 16 which show that for 

jg all practical purposes, Table No. 7 of theoretical loads is fairly 

close and is on tne safe side. 



ccnl 



A summary of Prof. I. O. Baker's discussion of maximum team 
! loads is given below, and through his courtesy we are enabled to 
( include a collection of tables taken from his work, ''Roads and 
'^ Pavements." 

Various trials have determined that the normal tractive power 

of a horse traveling three miles per hour for ten hours a day is 

j4 approximately one- tenth of its weight; that when hauling up a 

gjM steep grade it can ^xert one-fourth of its weight for a short time; 

Jl that for a continuous exertion of one-fourth, the grade should not 

jjjjl be over 1200 feet long and if over that, resting places should be 

■^ provided every 600 to 800 feet; that in starting and for a distance 

^u> of 50 to 100 feet, one-half of its weight can be used; and that the 

,^ net tractive power ordinarily exerted by a horse on a grade equals 

of? (J^ 1^ weight) — (the effort required to lift itself) or approximately 

jjj (0.25 W) — (WX % of grade expressed in hundredths) i.e. (0.25 TT— 

y^ 0.04 W) for a 4% grade. This undoubtedly gives a reasonable 

,^(i basis for ordinary hauling conditions but from data obtained by the 

author in connection with freight hauling in mountain regions it 

is evident that a good draft horse will exert more than 0.25 W 

on moderately short sharp pitches of a long climb if allowed to 

rest at intervals of 200' to 300'. The evidence indicates that a 

value of 0.35 W is about right for such conditions. 

Table 2 shows the effective power developed by an ordinary 
team of 1200 pound horses with moderate exertion and Table 2 A 



12 



GRADES AND ALIGNMENT 



the power of a first class team of 1600 pound horses exerting their 
full strength. 

Table 2. — Ordinary Stock Moderate Exertion 



Grade 



Theoretical Net 
Tractive Eflfort 



Tractive Effort 
in Pounds 



W = weight of team, 
2400 lb 

P = per cent, of 
grade in hun- 
dredths 



Level 


2i 


% 


4 


% 


5 


% 


6 


% 


7 


% 


8 


% 


9 


% 


10 


% 



o.io W 
0.25 W- 
0.25 IT- 
0.25 W- 
0.25 IT- 
0.25 W- 
0.25 IT- 
0.25 IT- 
0.25 W- 





240 


PW 


540 


PW 


504 


PW 


480 


PW 


456 


PW 


432 


PW 


408 


PW 


384 


PW 


360 



Table 2 a. — Draft Stock Full Power 



Grade 



Theoretical Net 
Tractive Effort 



Tractive Effort 
in Pounds 



W = weight of team, 
3200 lb 

P — per cent, of 
grade in hun- 
dredths 



5% 


6% 


7% 


8% 


10% 


12% 


14% 


16% 


18% 


20% 


22% 



0.35 w 
0.35 w- 
0.35 w- 
0.35 w- 
0.35 w- 
0.3s w- 
0.35 w- 
0.35 w- 
0.3s w- 
0.3s w- 
0.3s w- 



-PW 
-PW 
-PW 
-PW 
-PW 
-PW 
-PW 
-PW 
-PW 
PW 
PW 



960 

928 
896 

864 
800 

736 

672 

608 

544 

480 

416 



This power is used in overcoming axle friction, gravity resistance 
and rolling resistance. 

The axle friction is small amounting to three or four pounds p>er 
ton for American farm wagons. 

Grade resistance (gravity) equals (load X per cent, of grade 
expressed in hundredths) and expressed in pounds per ton of load 
equals (2000 X P). 

The rolling resistance varies for different surfaces and for each 
surface depends on the diameter of wheel, width of tire, speed of 
travel and the presence or absence of springs on the wagon. The 
best diameter of wheels, best width of tires and the use of springs 
as they affect the ease of hauling for both farm and road use are 
problems for the wagon manufacturers. 



TRACTIVE RESISTANCE 13 

Mono a French engineer concluded, from a series ot careful 
experimeats that the harder the surface of the road the less effect 
widti of tire had on rolling resistance. We are arguing from the 
standpoint of comparatively hard surfacing and are dealing with 
small differences In wheel diameter and can disregard these fac- 
tors. As a matter of interest Tables 3, 4 and s are included to 
show the results of experiments on different soils and roads. 

The question of wide tires aSects road design chieQy in connection 
with the distribution of load over a safe area and will be taken up 
under "Foundations." 



ss 


"S-SU" 


DiinKlen of the Front ft Resr Wheels respectively 


3'HS-ft 
j'-io* 


j'-6-ft 


•■a? 


k;? 


V-6* 


i(- 


*' 


.? 


-5 


..- 




.1? 


3- 


16s 


>i8 


i 


!^ -"OSS'".. 


i 


16S 

1; 


iSJ 


1)6 
83 


80 
46 


J83 



1 Puni^ilet by Studcbaka Bmtliei) Muiuitctmlng Compsny, tSgi, 

Table 4. — Emtct or Size 01 Wheels on Tractive 
Resistance' Pounds psk ton 



iS- 


Description d( Roid Surf »ce 


Uenn Diunstei o( 1 
Fiont & Reu Wbeels 


so- 


3&' 


36- 


1 
i 


Uuadun. ilightly worn, fsii conUdoD 


i: 




Is's 




Timotby S blue gats sod, diy grass ait .'.'.'.'.'. 
" " " " wet ft spongy 


XS" 


148 







1 ExpefiinentB ^ Ml- T, I, Mftirs al 



be Missouri AgticvUural Experiment Station. 



GRADES AND ALIGNMENT 



•sjKijirggisj 



»2| 



-"■? ' a 



^11^ 



-■s 



S^kJ u m u i^ 



1=11'= 



11= = = 



. , , I. = 1= J= = i 

H p! M fa 



TRACTIVE RESISTANCE 



15 



Table 6 gives the average rolling resistance in pounds per ton of 
load on different pavements for the ordinary farm wagon driven 
at ordinary speeds. 

Table 6* 



£ind of Pavement 


Rolling Resntancein Lbs. 
per Too of Load 


Asohalt 


30 to 70 
IS to 40 
S© to 100 
S© to 200 
S© to 100 
2© to 10© 
30 to so 
30 to 8© 
30 to so 


Brick 


Cobble Stones 

Earth Roads 


Gravel Roads 


Macadam Roads 

Planfc 


Stone Block 


Wood Block 





1 Baker's "Roads and Pavements/' 

For a comparative estimate we will take a value of forty pounds 
per ton of load, including axle friction, on Macadams and Rigid 
Pavements and one hundred pounds per ton for earth roads in fair 
shape. The resistance to the effective tractive power of the team 
per ton of load is therefore 40 + (2000 X P) on hard surfaced roads, 
and loo + (2©©o X P) for earth roads, and the maximum load 
expressed in tons for any grade equals 



( 



Effective tractive power of team for thai grade \ 
Resistance per ton of load for that grade / 



Using the tractive powers of the ordinary team shown in Table 
2, the following table is constructed. It is chiefly useful for a 
comparison of the effect of grade on load but all evidence indicates 
that the loads given correspond closely to practice. Table 7A 
shows loads for extreme team exertion as compiled in Table 2 A. 
The loads given include weight of wagon. 

Table 7 



Grade 




Effective 

Tractive 

Effort 



240 lbs. 

S40 ;; 
S04 " 
480 « 

4S6 '* 

43a " 
408 « 

384 " 
36S" 



Improved Rqaob 



Resistance in 

lbs. per Ton 

of Load 



40 lbs. 
90 

120 " 
140 " 
160 " 
180 « 
200 " 
220 " 
240 " 



Maximum 

Load in 

Tons 



6.0 


tons 


6.0 


<( 


4.2 


« 


3-4 




2.0 


it 


2.4 


u 


2.0 


l( 


1-7 


(1 


i.S 


(t 



Ea&th Roads 



Resistance 



100 lbs. 
150 " 
180 " 
200 " 

'220 " 
240 " 
260 " 
280 " 

300 *' 



Max. Load 



2.4 tons 



i 



3 
2.8 

2.4 
2.1 
1.8 
Z.6 

1.4 
1.2 



u 
*$ 
u 
*t 
u 
*t 
u 
it 



i6 



GRADES AND ALIGNMENT 



Table 7A. — Draft Stock Extreme Exertion 







Hard Surfaced Roads 


Earth Roads | 




Effective 
Tractive 










Grade 


Resistance 


Maximum 


Resistance 


Maximum 1 




Effort 


in lbs. per 


Load in 


in lbs. per 


Load in 






Ton 


Tons 


Ton 


Tons 


5% 


960 lbs. 


140 lbs. 


6 . 8 tons 


200 lbs. 


4 . 8 tons 


6% 


928 " 


160 " 


5.8 " 


220 * 




4.2 " 


7% 


896 ** 


180 " 


SO '• 


240 ' 




3.7 " 


8% 


864 " 


200 ** 


4.3 " 


260 ' 




3.3 •• 


10% 


800 " 


240 ** 


3.3 " 


300 * 




2.7 •• 


12% 


736 ** 


280 •• 


3.0 " 


340 * 




2.2 " 


14% 
16% 


672 *• 




• ••••• 


380 ' 




1.6 •• 


608 '• 




• •••■• 


420 ' 




1.4 •• 


i8% 


544 " 




• >••■■ 


460 • 




1.2 •• 


20% 


480 " 




■ ■••■• 


500 ' 




i.o •• 


22% 


416 ** 







540 *' 


0.8 •• 



3. Effect of Length of Grade on Maximum Load. — In moun- 
tain road design where a long ruling grade is used it is often eco- 
nomical to introduce short stretches of steeper grade to avoid 
extremely expensive construction. In order to determine the maxi- 
mum short grade (not exceeding 300 feet in length) that can be 
used in connection with a long ruUng grade without reducing the 
team load we have compiled Table 7B for a 2400 pound team. 

Table 7B. — Equivalent Long and Short Grades for Hard 

Surfaced Conditions 



Long Ruling Grades 

Tractive Effort 0.2514^ 

2400-LB. Team 


1 
Short Maximum Grades 
Tractive Effort 0.3s W^ 
2400-1.B. Team 


1 

Grade 


Maximum Load 


Grade 


Maximum Load 


5% 
6% 

7% 
8% 


3.4 tons 

2.9 " 
2.4 " 
2.0 " 


t 

7% 

9% 

10% 

•12% 


3 . 7 tons 

2.8 *' 

2.5 " 
2.0 " 


* 12 % is the practical limit (on account of safe descent) on any road of 
tufficient importance to be considered from an engineering standpoint.^ 



This principle can also be applied to a long cut and fill grade 
reduction with a very material saving in cost but if used the steeper 
rate should not be over 250 to joo feet long and should be at the 
bottom of the hill. 

Records of Team Loads 



We are indebted to Mr. H. G. McPheters and F. F. Roberts 
for the following data on team freighting in the Rocky Mountain 



TEAM LOADS 1 7 

region. It is practical data obtained from personal experience 
and strengthens the force of the theoretical discussion. The 
loads given are net and do not include wagon weights. They 
represent usual freighting loads wjiich are practical maxima. 

HBBBR FRUITLAND ROAD, STATE OF UTAH 

Daniels Canyon Section 

Earth road in fair shape. 

Long 8% grades. 

Short 15% grades. 

Net load for four horse team 3500 lb. (during summer). 

GALBNA SUMICIT ROAD» STATE OF IDAHO 

Natural soil road in fair shape. 

Maximum grade (Salmon River side) 20%. 

Maximum grade (Wood River side) 17%, 

Load for one team 1800 lb. (during summer). 

Load for two team 4000 lb. (during summer). 

Load for three teams (six horses and two wagons loaded 5000 
lb. on lead wagon and 4000 lb. on trail taking one wagon at a trip 
up the mountain). 

TRAIL CREEK SUMMIT ROAD, STATE OF IDAHO 

Natural soil road (fair condition during summer). 

Maximum grade 22%. 

Load one team 1200 lb. 

Load two team 2500 lb. 

When freighting by teams was the principle mode of transporta- 
tion, there were used on this road several outfits of twenty-four 
mules hooked to four wagons loaded about as follows: Lead 
14,000 lb.; lead swing 10,000 lb.; swing 8000 lb. and trail 4000 lb. 
Two men handled the whole outfit which was certainly a man's job. 

ROCKY BAR ATLANTA ROAD OVER BALD MOUNTAIN 

Natural soil. 

Maximum grade 16%. 

Load for one team 2000 lb. 

Load for two teams 4000 lb. 

A large amount of freight is carried over this road by auto 
trucks at the present time. 

Record of Truck Perf onnance. — We are indebted to the Pierce 
Arrow Motor Car Company for the following charts which show 
the ability of their trucks to pull on different kinds of road surfaces 
and different grades when running on direct drive. This data con- 
firms the previous statement that modem trucks have sufficient 
power to easily handle their full loads on anv grade that would be 
selected for horse traffic on improved roads. 
2 



GRADES AND ALIGNMENT 




TRUCK LOADS 19 



OPTIONAL GEARING ON FIVE-TON MODEL 

The first option is our standu*d gearing and will be supplied on all orders 
unless otherwise specified. This gearing should be used where the truck is 
to traverse good hard roads at all times, and where the grades do not ex- 
ceed 10%. 

The second option gives great pulling power on the low speeds, and the 
standard speed of 14 miles per hour on high gear. This gearing should be 
used onlv where the truck has to pull through a very short portion of poor 
road ana the great majority of the running is done on direct drive. This 
option is popular with contractors, etc. 

The third option is especially suited for districts where by nature of roads 
or traffic conditions a high speed is undesirable, or in hill;^ country, where the 
road surfaces are good. This gearing is standard eqtupment on the long 
wheel base model. 

The fourth option should only be used where the road surfaces are ex- 
ceedingly poor, and the c6untry very hilly. We do not advise using this 
gearing except in extreme cases. 



GRADES AND ALIGNMENT 




%™0'*i "I ItwipwD 



TRUCK LOADS 21 



OPTIONAL GEARING ON FIVE TON MODEL 

The first option is our standard gearing and will be supplied on all orders 
unless otherwise specified. This gearing should be used where the truck is 
to traverse good hard roads at all times, and where the grades do not ex- 
ceed io%. 

The second option gives great pulling power on the low speeds, and the 
standard speed of 14 miles per hour on high gear. This gearing should be 
used on^ where the truck has to pull through a very short portion of poor 
road and the great majority of the running is done on direct drive. This 
option is popular with contractors, etc. 

The third option is especially suited for districts where by nature of roads 
or traffic conditions a high speed is undesirable, or in hilly country where 
the road surfaces are good. This gearing is standard equipment on the long 
wheel bate model. 

The fourth option should only be used where the road surfaces are ex- 
ceedingly poor, and the country very hilly. We do not advise using this 
gearing except in extreme cases. 



/ 



22 GRADES AND ALIGNMENT 

a 

4. The The<Mretical Advantage of Certain Grades.— From Tables 
7, 7 A, 7B and the previous discussion we can pick out the grades 
that theoretically fulfill certain traffic requirements. 

I. On hard surfaced roads the same load that can be drawn up a 
2H% grade by reasonable extra exertion of a team, can be hauled 
on a level with ease. This makes a perfectly balanced design from 
the standpoint of team hauling. The theoretical load is six tons. 
For earth roads 5 % fulfills this same condition with a theoretical 
team load of 2.4 tons. 

II. 5% is the maximum grade that fulfills the requirement of 
safe descent at a trot without brakes. This is of little importance 
under modem traffic conditions. 

III. The same load that can be hauled up a 7 % hard surfaced 
grade can be drawn on a level dirt road in fair condition; a 7 % grade 
therefore does not reduce the load of a team which must travel 
over an earth road for part of the distance. The theoretical load 
is 2.4 tons. 

IV. The use of short maximum grades of greater rate than the 
long ruling grades does not reduce the maximum load provided they 
are proportioned as follows for hard pavements and do not exceed 
250 feet to 300 feet in length. 



Long s% Short 7% 

Vo 
7% " 10% 



" 6% " 9% 

it ..or it 



" 8% " 12% 



V. 12% is the practical limit of grade for even unimportant 
roads on account of safe team descent with heavy loads. 

As a matter of fact the selection of grade depends more on the 
requirements of the traffic and the topography of the country than 
on these theoretical advantages. 

5. Ruling Grades in Ordinary use and the Practical Considera- 
tions Governing their Selection. — Various grades on country roads 
have been under observation for so many years that it is safer to be 
guided by present practice which is the result of such observation 
than to trust too much to a theoretical discussion. The adoption 
of the ruling grades shown in Table 8 has depended partly on the 
ease of maintenance as well as traffic considerations. The maxi- 
mum grade on which different kinds of top courses can be safely 
used dther on account of foothold for horses or the maintenance 
of the surface properly comes under a discussion of such courses 
and will be fully covered in Chapter VI. 

In regard to the matter of safe team footing, it is possible to 
select some type of pavement which will satisfy this condition 
for any grade used but a change in surfacing to meet this require- 
ment is often omitted on account of expense and more often omitted 
by careless design. Most of the rigid pavement types give satisfac- 
tory footing up to 5% which is the practical limit without special 
design. Bituminous macadams can, by variations in manii)ulation, 
be made suitable for grades up to 8%. Plain macadams give good 



RULING GRADES 



23 



footing for any grade but are expensive to maintain over 5%. 
From the standpoint of footing 5% has a distinct advantage on 
main roads where rigid types are desirable, and 7% or 8% is a 
reasonable limit on side roads where some form of macadam or 
gravel will probably be used. 

Table 8. — Ruling Grades in Foreign Countries 



Location 



Mountainous 
Districts 



Hilly 
Districts 



Level 
Districts 



Prussia 

Hanover 

Baden 

Brunswick 

Holyrod Road in England . 



5 % 
4 % 
8 % 

sH% 

6 % 



4 % 
3H% 
6 % 
4 % 

sHVo 



2H7o 

5 % 
3 % 



Military Highway 
over the Alps Italian side . . . 4^^ % Swiss side 6 % 



Location 



National 
Roads 



Departmental 
Roads 



Subordinate 
Roads 



France 



3% 



4% 



6% 



Ruling Grades in the United States 



SUte 


Main Roads 


Side Roads 


Unusual Cases 


New York 


5% 
5% 
5% 
S% 
6% 
5&6% 

5% 
6% 


7&8% 
7% 

6&7% 
S% 


11% 
9% 

9% 


Massachusetts 

Connecticut. 

New Jersey 

Michigan 

Missouri 

Washington 

Illinois 


United States National Forest Roads (Mountainous districts) 
First Class Roads Long Grades 5 % Short Grades 7 % 
Second ** " " " 7% " " 10% 
Third " " ** " 10% " " 12% 
State of Colorado (Main Mountain Roads) 6 % 



From the standpoint of accommodating ordinary farm team loads 
7% is the logiibal ruling rate. This is based on a load of 5000 pounds 
fox farm hauling which includes wagon weight. The records of 



24 GRADES AND ALIGNMENT 

-produce dealers in the Eastern States show that the ordinary wagon 
weighs about 1350 pounds and that 3500 pounds is a large net load. 
This load of 2.4 tons corresponds with the maximum theoretical 
load for 7% hard surfaced grade. Team loads of six tons would 
be very unusual which means that the ideal teaming grade of 2 J^% 
need not be considered except in level country where it can be 
obtained without much extra cost. 

From the standpoint of maintenance the cost of upkeep of 
ditches, shoulders and earth or gravel surfacing increases rapidly 
on grades above 5%. 

From the standpoint of construction cost 5% to 7% can gen- 
erally be built without excessive expenditure even in hilly country. 

Practical considerations therefore indicate that for level country 
a 2j^% maximum is desirable but does not justify large expendi- 
tures and that any grade up to 5% will probably be satisfactory; 
that in hilly or mountainous regions on the main roads, a long 
ruling 5% grade is the most satisfactory rate and warrants con- 
siderable expenditure but that 6% or 7% are reasonable if the funds 
are limited; that short stretches of steep maximum grades are allow- 
able to reduce cost provided the element of safe footing is provided 
and the rate is properly proportioned and that on side roads 7% 
is generally satisfactory. 

Grades as high as 1 1 % have been constructed on State improved 
roads in New York and as high as 9% in New Jersey and Illinois 
but the general opinion of the Departments under which these 
grades were built is that they would not again use such a high rate 
except in villages where any material charge in street elevation 
would damage valuable properties. Outside of corporations it is 
bad practice to use long grades of greater rate than y% for if any 
road is of sufficient importance to warrant engineering plans for 
the future it is certainly of sufficient importance to warrant a 
reduction in grade to a reasonable rate. 

In any case the design should be consistent. Take for example 
a road between two shipping points. It is first necessary to deter- 
mine the portion tributary to each terminal and then the practical 
grades on all the hills on each portion in order to decide what 
consistent ruling grade can be adopted without excessive cost 
(see example, page 329). There is no object in reducing a hill 
from 7% to 5% with a large expenditure if nearer the terminal 
there is a grade that cannot be reduced below 7%. It should be 
borne in mind, however, that the nearer you approach the shipping 
or market point, the more traffic the road will have, and if the 
hills are naturally flatter the ruling grade should be reduced. 
The direction of heavy traffic on each hill should be determined 
and considered. 

Effect of Ruling Grade on Cost. — Money spent on the reduction 
of ruling grade is. never wasted although it is not good policy 
to spend large sums to reduce below 5% in hilly country or 2j^% 
in level country. The effect on cost of the selection of a 5% in 
place of a 6% or a 6% in place of a 7% depends largely on the 
method of construction that niust be used. Where locations are 



COST OF GRADES 



25 



fixed by well established right-of-ways and permanent structures 
and the cost of new right-of-way is very high grades are generally 
reduced by cut and fiU. Under these conditions the eflFect of the 
selection of rate is very marked and no general relation can be 
established as each case is a law unto itself. To show the fluc- 
tuating amounts of excavation per mile for different improvements 
based on different rates of ruling grade where cut and ml was used, 
Table 9, page 30, has been compiled. 

Unfortunately many of the roads in the older states were not 
laid out on natural engineering locations and grade improvements 




Pig. I. — Balanced sidehill section. « 

are expensive either on account of excessive cut and j5ll or the high 
cost of new right-of-way on a better location. In mountain road 
or ordinary locations m newly settled districts the question of 
right-of-way rarely handicaps the design and easy grades are 
obtained at moderate cost by natural locations which avoid steep 
adverse grades by going around a hill or develop moderate grades 
on a long climb by a longer distance. In climbing on a sidehill 
location the road section is generally what is known as a balanced 
section, that is, the cut just makes the fill by side displacement. 
The amount of excavation per mile is not affected by the rate 
of grade but usually the length of road is affected. 



B Elevation 60O0 ' 




EkvaHonSOOO' I T" 

< -3 Milts. - -""-^ [* 




— doth Un9i 6.0 Miles- 



\ 



Fig. 2. 

Generalizing we can say that the effect of grade reduction on 
cost is not as marked as for cut and fill methods and that roughly 
the relation of cost to grade depends on the length which is often 
inversely proportional to the rate; that is, where cut and fill is 
used a 5% grade might easily cost three or four times as much 
as a 6% grade but where sidehill location is possible a 5% would 
rarely cost more than % as much as a 6 % . This is of course affected 
by all sorts of local conditions and may not apply at all but is 
true by and large and serves to illustrate the relation of rate to 



26 GRADES AND ALIGNMENT 

cost. To illustrate: If the difference in elevation between A 
and B is looo feet a 6% grade would require approximately $yi 
miles of length and a 5% grade 4 niiles to make the ascent. If 
the direct dbtance between A and B is less than 3 H niiles the lengths 
of the two lines will be approximately as given. If the distance 
from A to B is more than 4 miles there would be little difference 
in the length as it would merely mean that the 5% started to climb 
sooner than the 6%. Under most conditions the cost would be 
more affected by the character of the excavation on the different 
locations and by the number of switchbacks required for the smaller 
rate. The difference in cost due to the difference in rate of ruling 
grade in mountain location does not often warrant the adoption of 
excessive grades. 

No criticism of wasteful expenditure on ruling grade can be made 
in regard to most of the plans as now designed but in manv instances 
the profile feature of intermediate grades is not intelligently handled. 

Intermediate Grades. — ^Intermediate grades include all rates 
between >the ruling and minimum grades for the particular job in 
question. They afford the greatest chance for reasonable economy 
of earthwork of any part of the grading design and usually receive 
the least attention. From the standpoint of traffic they have 
no road value; their proper use however controls the convenience 
and suitability of the road to abutting property and controlling 
conditions. In laying a profile grade the controlling points must 
first be considered; these are high water levels of flood areas, eleva- 
tions of existing bridges, railroad crossings, all points where deep 
cuts or high fills would damage the approaches to valuable propertv; 
connections with other highwa}^, portions of the road previously 
improved and in villages the elevation that will permit future widen- 
ing and curbing that will fit the case. 

Current practice handles most of these controlling features 
intelligently with the exception of grades through villages which 
are almost without exception too high for future widening and curb 
finish. Designers are cautioned to use city street methods and to 
make the elevation the same as if a full width curbed pavement 
was being designed. 

Effect of Intermediate Grades on Cost. — All of these controlling 
points must be satisfied but they usually affect only a small per- 
centage <rf the length of any improvement and on the greater portion 
of the road the most economical elevation and any intermediate 
rate of grade can be used. A grade so established that the cut 
in every cross-section would just make the fill at that point would 
result in the least possible excavation and the cheapest kind of 
grading methods. This condition can never be realized but the 
nearer it is approximated the nearer we get to the most economical 
grading design. Where intermediate grades are applicable there 
is no restriction on any combination of rates as they have no effect 
on traffic loads and by an intelligent selection the ideal solution 
can be closely approximated. The cheapest and most satisfactory 
profile can be obtained by the use of the "roUing grade;" by this 
IS meant a, profile made up of a combination of simple, compoundi 



ROLLING GRADES 



27 



or reverse vertical curves, connected by tangent grades only when 
the tangent grade is the most economical or is necessary to prevent 
a series of short humps and hollows. Long straight grades are 
not required a mistake easily made by engineers trained in railroad 
work. Short grades are not objectionable and reverse vertical 
curves ride easily if well built. The rolling grade is also more 
pleasing in appearance than a straight proiile if not carried to 
extremes. It appears that there is too much tendency to cut the 
top of each knoll and fill each hollow for it is certainly a waste of 
money to reduce a natural 4% grade to a 3.5% or a 3.5% natural 
grade to a 3% if the ruling grade is 5%. 

We can not overestimate the importance of this principle as the 
plans of about 2000 miles of road constructed in the last ten years 
which the writer has looked over in this connection show a needless 
expenditure of at least a million dollars for grading which had no 



^/Undulatfng Oracle, PnperUst Saws ttcavati'on and ts 

at the Same Vme an easy 
Tfi'ding Profile. 




StaM) 



^ "■ * r " — ^''^^ 



'faciei *• 'nfiecesi aryAm vntofBccavcrfii 



16 



rn 



19 



20 



. Hump ofthis Kind must be 
Disregarded 




lUustrating Proper Use of 
Straight and Undulating Grades. 

Pig. 3. 



practical value whatever. This element of poor design in current 
practice is probably due to the fact that the savings are not spec- 
tacular at any one place but if the principle is consistently used the 
total result is spectacular. 

It is also undoubtedly true that the previous railroad training of 
most road engineers and college instructors has had a detrimental 
effect on intermediate profile design. The author has personally 
applied the "rolling grade" principle on construction work for the 
last seven years and found that the saving averaged about $500 
per mile. An intelligent grade line design will also often change 
the method of grading as well as reduce the yardage. To illustrate 
we will cite the Heber Fruitland Road in Utah. The original 
design used long straight railroad grades which required wagon 
haul; the redesign used a foiling grade which not only reduced the 
amount of excavation by about 30% but also practically eliminated 
wagon haul for most of the work and made it possible to handle 



28 GRADES AND ALIGNMENT 

the dirt with slip scrapers and road machine blade scrapers. This 
reduced the cost per cubic yard about 25%. The quantity re- 
duction plus the unit cost reductions amounted to approximately 

50%. 
The Effect of Arbitrary Profile Limitations on Cost — A common 

grade line limitation calls for. tangent grades drawn to intersection 

with simple vertical curves easing off the apex and insists on 100' 

of tangent grade between the ends of these vertical curves. This 

sounds scientific but has no practical value and is cited to illustrate 

the danger of ^11 considered limitations. A specification of this 

kind often increases the grading bv from 500 to looo cu. yd. per 

mile an example of which is given below. 

• 

PITTSFORD— N. HENRIETTA ROAD IN NEW YORK STATE 

Length 2.67 Miles 

Original Design Revised Design 

Maximum Grade 5 %. Maximum Grade 5 %. 

Profile. — Straight grades with Profile. — Rolling grade. 

100' of tangent between 

vertical curves. 

Original amount excavation Revised amount 9300 cu. yd. 

11,450 cu. yd. 

(A saving of 800 yd. per mile.) 

In conclusion we may say fhat the matter of intermediate 
grades needs more care than it is at present receiving. 



MINIMUM GRADES 

Hard Surfaced Pavements. — Most road books claim that level 
grades should not be used because of the liability of water standing 
in ruts and that a certain minimum grade should be adopted that 
will insure their longitudinal drainage. Baker states in his " Roads 
and Pavements" that for macadam roads English engineers use 
a minimum grade of 1.5%, French engineers 0.8% and that Ameri- 
can practice favors 0.5%. Let us see what this means. 

For a 1.5% grade the fall would be H inch per foot 
For a 0.8% grade the fall would be J-Zo inch per foot 
For a 0.5% grade the fall would be He inch per foot 

The flattest crown that is ordinarily used even on bituminous 
macadam is %" per foot or twice as much as the greatest longitudi- 
nal fall in the above list. For long ruts the longitudinal grade is of 
course eflFective but the patrol s)rstem of maintenance is supposed 
to prevent their formation and for short small depressions the crown 
slope must furnish the drainage. There seems to be no reason 



ADVERSE GRADES 29 

why level grades should not be used on hard surfaced roads; on 
such stretches the crown can be increased slightly to insure trans- 
verse drainage and the ditches given a minimum longitudinal 
fall of 0.2' to 0.5' per 100 ft. depending on the soil to insure the 
longitudinal drainage of the surface water. 

Earth Roads. — On earth or gravel roads attention should be 
given to minimum grades as for these types they have some value 
but not enough to warrant much expenditure, 
i It is advisable to use a 0.4% to 0.5% grade where much snow or 
rain occurs but in the arid regions no minimum restriction should 
be specified. 

ADVERSE GRADES 

Adverse grades are defined as grades contrary to the general 
rise and fall of the road between terminals or controlling points. 
Xt is important to avoid them on mountain road locations where the 
prime object is to gain elevation. They are not a drawback in 
ordinary rolling topography. This is so self-evident that it hardly 
seems necessary to state it. There is no serious objection to short 
adverse grades even on a long climb if by their use the alignment 
can be bettered and excavation saved in crossing a small gully; 
the main objection is to long adverse grades introducing consider- 
able additional rise and fall which could be avoided by a better 
engineering location. This point is generally considered in the 
selection of the general route and is covered by the comparison of 
routes in the preliminary investigation. 

Grades, Summary. — The discussion of grades may be summa- 
rized as follows: 

The road value of ruling grades can not be overestimated. 
Any expenditure on this feature is justified so long as it is consistent. 
The use of properly proportioned short maximum grades in con- 
nection with long rulmg grades is the greatest source of justifiable 
economy. 

Minimum center line grades have no road value on hard surfaced 
roads and oiily a slight value on earth roads. Minimum ditch 
grades are important. 

The traflic value of intermediate grades is negligible but their 
importance in economical design is large. The greatest faults of 
present practice are the needless reduction of light natural grades 
and the use of long straight railroad rates. 

Steep grades must be modified for sharp alignment which is 
discussed in the following text. 



30 



GRADES AND ALIGNMENT 



Table 9 

Part i. — Compiled from the 1908 and 1909 Reports of the 

New Jersey Highway Commission. 



Name of Road 



May's Landing .... 

Rivervale 

Westwood 

Franklin Turnpike. . . 

Summit 

Lamberton 

Westfield ..r 

Blue Anchor 

Malaga 

Whitehouse , 

English Creek 

Paterson Plank Rosul 

YeslerWay 

Camden , 

Evesham 

Schellenger's LaiuUng 

Goshen , 

Tuckahoe , 

Hopewell 



Length 

in 
Miles 



X4.0 
S.o 
i.a 
1.6 

1.Q 

3.9 
3.1 
2.3 
5-7 
6.S 
6.7 
2.3 
2.7 

2.4 
2.4 
2.1 
2.6 

4.3 
2.0 



Maximum 

Original 

Grade 



4.2 



Max. 

Improved 

Grade 



Excavation in 
cu. yds. per Mile 



3,2 30 
4,680 
a,soo 
8,200 

5,300 

^S40 
6,soo 
3,300 
1,700 
4,100 
3,000 
(Emb.) 50,000 
S,7oo 

S,300 

3,Soo 
S.000 
4,Soo 
8,zoo 
3.800 



Table 9 

Part 2. — Compiled from the Records of the New York 

State Highway Commission. 

Plans for 19 1 1 



Name of Road 



Pittsford — North Henriette 

Indian Falls — Corfu 

Pembroke — East Pembroke 

Livonia — Ontario County Line 

Livonia — LakeviUe 

Avon — Lima 

Sea Breeze — Nine Mile Point ./.'.i 

Bliss — Smith's Comers 

Wales Center — Wales ...........'. 

Scottsville — Muinf ord 

Ridge — Rochester — Sea Breere .. 

Medina — Alabama 

Pavilion — Batavia '....'. 

Parma Comers — Spencerport — 
North ChiU .VT.......... 



Character 
of Country 



RolUng 

Pat 

Hilly 

HiUy 

Hilly 

Hilly 

Hilly 
Rolling 

Hilly 

RolUng 

50% FHit 

50% HiUy 

Rolling 

Hilly 

Flat 



Maximum 

Improved 

Grade 



6.0% 



Width of 
Section 

between 
Ditches 



24 
32 

32' 
26' 
26' 
28' 
32' 
32; & 

28^-33' 

33'-30' 
33' 



Esccin 

cu. yds. 

permL 



3500 
3800 
3600 
S500 
4SOO 
3300 
6600 
3400 
S700 
3400 
^So 

3800 
3950 

3330 



EXCAVATION 



31 



Table 9. Continued 
Compiled from the Recow)S~of the New York State 

Highway Commission. 

Plans for 1910 



Name of Road 



Lake Part 2 & Sweden 4th Sect. 

Warsaw — Pavilion 

East Henrietta — Rochester . . . 

Olean — Hinsdale 

Leroy — Caledonia (1.5 miles) . 
Shawnee — Cambria 

Roberts Road 

Sanborn — Pekm 

Oak Orchard, Part 2 

Levant — Poland Center 

Dansville — Mt. Morris, H . . . 
Castile Center — Perry Center . 
Lake Shore — Lackawanna City 

Eighteen Mile Creek 

Albion Street — Hollcy 

Pembroke — East Pembroke . . 



Character 

of 
Country 



Flat 
ti 

Rolling 
Flat 

RolUng 
60% Fkt 
40% HiUy 

Rollmg 

Flat 

Rolling 

Hilly 

« 

Flat 
ti 

HiUy 
Rolling 



Maximum 

Improved 

Grade 



Width of 
Section 

between 
Ditches 



32' 

28'-32' 

32-40' 

28'-32' 

32' 
32' 

30-32' 

28'-^2' 

^< 

30' 

28^-32' 

32' 



Ezc. in 
Cu.Yds. 
per mi. 



2560 
3900 
2300 
4000 
1950 

3150 
3230 

2800 

2300 
4000 
6200 
2820 
2120 
6100 
3440 
3800 



Table 9. Continued 

Compiled from the Records or the New York State Highway 

Commission. 

Plans for 1908 and 1909 (Selected Roads) 



Name of Road 



Character of 
Coimtry 



Hamburg — SpringviUe Sect. I' 

« •« H TJ 

Collios — Mortons Comers . . . 

Clarence Center 

Orchard Park — Griffin's Mills 

County Line 

Geneseo — Avon 

Geneseo — Mt. Morris 

Alden — Town Line 

Pittsford — Mendon 

Pittsford — Despatch 

Qover Street Section I 

« " " II 

Rich's Dugway 

Left FcHk — German Church . 
Goodrich Road 

Hamburg — North Collins . . . 

lAwton — Gowanda 

Chm 

Brooks Avenue 

Xyell Avenue 

Banutid*s Crossing 



Rolling 
HiUy 



It 



Max. 

Improved 

Grade 



Width of 
Section 
between 
Ditches 



Flat 
Hilly 
Flat 

Hilly 

(( 

Flat 

Hilly 
« 

i< 

Rolling 
Hilly 
Rolling 
60% Flat 
40% Rolling 



Rolling 

Flat 
i( 

« 



6.05 
7.05 
7.05 

8.0* 
S.o< 

S'Z\ 
6.0* 
6.0^ 
6.0^ 



I 



.05 
45* 
7.3* 
6.2^ 
S.oj 
6.0^ 
9.o« 

7.5* 
5.05 
4.6* 
a.2« 

4.4^ 



30 

3° 

a8' 
a8' 

32; 
3a' 

22*-28' 

24 
28' 

20*-a8' 
28' 

26'-32' 

22-32' 

^a; 

28' 

24-30' 

26'-3o' 
22' 



Excin 
cu. yds. 
per mi. 



ip20 
3100 
3256 
2200 
2000 
2x00 
2200 
3460 
Z960 
30C0 
3600 

2SSO 

3000 
5000 
2000 

3100 

4200 
S300 
2800 
2240 
2400 
2174 



n 



2>^ 



GRADES AND ALIGNMENT 



. Table 9. CanUnued 

Compiled from the Records op the New York State Highway 

Commission. 

Plans from 1898 to 1907. (Selected Roads) 



Name of Road 



East Avenue 

Pittsford 

Fairport 

Ridge Road 

Buffalo Road 

White's Corners Plank Road 

Orchard Park 

Transit, Sections I & II . . . . 

Hudson Avenue Road 

West Henrietta ^ 

Scottsville, Section I , 

" II 

Monroe Avenue 



Character 
of Country 


Max. 

Iinproved 

Grade 


Rolling 


5.0% 


<( 


5.0% 


K 


55% 




3-3% 


Flat 


2.0% 


<( 


3-5% 




3-9% 


(1 


4.6% 


Rolling 


3.1% 


Flat 






4.0% 


RoUing 


5.0% 


FUt 


4-S% 



Width of 
Section 
between 
Ditches 



22' 

a' 

20-22' 



26' 



22-25' 
22' 
20' 
22' 
22' 
22' 
22' 
22' 

22'-24' 



Ezc. in 
cu. yds. 
per mi. 



8160 
5840 
0580 
2150 
1700 
4600 
4200 
2100 
7100 
3400 
2000 

3IOO 
1850 



Table 9 

Part 3. — Compiled from the Reports of the Massachusetts 

State Highway Commission. 1896 



Name of Road 



Andover 

Brewster 

Dalton 

Gloucester 

Granby 

Great Barrington 

Hadley 

Munson 

Norfolk 

North Hampton 

Pittsfield 

Tisbury 

Westport 

Wrentham 

Walpole 

Duxoury 

Fairhaven 

Fitchburg 

Goshen^ 

Marion 

Mattapoisett 

Lee 

Leicester 



Length in 
Miles 



0.6 
x.o 

IS 

1.6 

0.63 

i.o 

1.49 

O.Q3 

X.2 
0.56 

X.o 

1.93 
3.0 

X.62 
I.6I 
I. OS 

1.4s 
0.97 
X.9I 
X.48 
X.I6 

IS 
2.0 



Maximum 

Improved 

Grade 



4.9 ^ 

336* 

6.0 

so 

2.7 

2.6 

4.0 

2.95^ 

S.3 

1.25* 

4.2s; 
4.40* 

1.7 
4.0 
6.0 
3.8 

o 

.0 
SO 
SO 

4.25j 
5.16} 
S-o % 



t 



Width of 
Section 
between 
Ditches 



24 
21 

30 
21 
21 
2 1 '-24' 
21' 
21' 

2X' 
26' 
21' 
21' 

24' 

21 

21' 

21' 

21' 

21' 

21' 

21' 

21' 



Exc. in cu. 
yds. per mi. 



6000 
2607 
X920 
3200 
5300 
2300 
8930 
3000 
33SO 
4300 
4700 
7S40 

ISOO 

3700 
5600 
3800 
Z200 
4SOO 

9700 
1500 
z8zo 
3SOO 
3800 



SIGHT DISTANCE 33 



ALIGNMENT 

High Type Pavements. — Alignment on this class of improvement 
is generally pretty well determined by existing rights-of-way. 
Changes are made for extremely unsafe conditions but otherwise 
this feature received comparatively little attention and has small 
affect on cost. 

Sharp curves on steep grades or at the foot of such grades are 
not safe; good practice calls for a minimum radius of 300 to 400 
feet for these cases. Right angle turns even on level stretches are 
inconvenient and often dangerous. New York State has adopted 
a radius of 200 feet as a minimum, wherever possible, acquiring 
new right-of-way when necessary, and it is very evident that the 
increased comfort has pleased the traveling public. 

On comparatively straight stretches the position of the center 
line should be shifted to keep on the old roadbed as much as possible 
and yet give a pleasing appearance; this is done to utilize the hard 
foundation of the present traveled way for the sub-grade of the pro- 
posed metaling. 

Si^t Distances. — In designing a sidehill road, in rough country, 
the alignment and width of shoulder often depends i!lpon what we 
may call "a safe sight distance," this means that the driver of a 
machine, traveling at ordinary touring speed of 20 to 30 miles per 
hour, must be able to see far enough ahead to turn out and pass 
an approaching car without the application of brakes. In attempt- 
ing to reach a conclusion as to what is a "safe sight distance" 
we have written to automobile clubs throughout the country and 
find that, in the main, they agree on from 200 to 300 feet for speeds 
of 20 to 25 miles per hour. 

Mr. George C. Diehl, Chairman of the G6od Roads Board, 
A. A. A. and County Engineer of Erie County, N. Y., gave us the 
following information for emergency stops and passing without 
slowing up: 

"The tests that we have conducted show that a car going at the rate of 
20 miles per hour can be stopped at 40 feet and one going at 40 miles per hour 
can be stopped at 140 feet with the emergency brake. For passing a rig 
going in an opposite direction this distance womd not be necessary." 

Mr. Diehl's figures are considerably less than the distances 
given in the other answers. A minimum sight distance of 250 to 
300 feet in the practice of Division No. 5, New York State Depart- 
ment of Highways. 

In the chapter on " Office Practice," tables are given showing 
the "sight distance" for different curves in "cuts." 

Mountain Roads. — On mountain roads, alignment is given 
careful consideration as it has a marked effect on cost and safety. 
From eastern road standpoints very few of the mountain roads 
of the west can be considered safe for traffic. Extreme safety 
is prohibitive in cost and it is out of the question to attempt to 
fulfil the sight distance requirement cited above. Much can be 
done by widening sections at sharp curves and the so-called 
dayUghting of curves shown in Figure No. 4 but a great deal must 



34 GRADES AND ALIGNMENT 

be left to the care of the driver. The main advantage of the 
method shown in Figure 4 is that even if the driver hugs the wrong 
side of the road he can see ahead. 

In alignment design the radii are made as large as possible to 
fit the mountain side without excessive grading. On steep slopes 
the grade contour must be followed closely. There is no hesita- 
tion in using radii as sharp as 80' at the head of gullejrs where the 
driver can see across the curve or a radius of 100' on outside, curves 
where the sight distance depends on the radius. Even these 
limits are impractical in very rough country where radii of 40' 
are considered reasonable. All outside curves with a sigh^ distance 
of less than 100' should be posted with danger signs. 




.Bench cufoufofSldpe .1 

4^ I 

. Banked One Way Crown^.^ 



Fig. 4. — "Daylighting** a curve. 



Effect of Alignment on Grade. — On sharp curves it is desirable 
for the driver to^ve first-class control on the score of safety. 
An extremely sharp curve with a large central angle also reduces 
the hauling capacity of a six horse team by from 20 to 40%. Con- 
sidering both safety and team hauling it is therefore desirable to 
reduce ruling grades on sharp curves. These considerations 
have no practical value on mountain roads for curves having 
radii greater than 100' but on sharper curves good practice recog- 
nizes this principle. Ordinary design uses radii of from 40' to 
80' on difficulty switchback turns. For a 40' radius the grade 
should^notXexceed,3%.and for_an_8o' radius 4% is a reasonable 
maximums. 

Effect of Alignment on Cost-7-The arbitrary limitation of mini- 
mum radius has a large effect on cost. The following example 
will illustrate this point. These revisions were made by C. H. 
Chilvers on the Rabbitt Ears Pass Road in Colorado to show the 
effect jof alignment on excavation. 

^The office method of plotting a gopd cheap alignment are de- 
scribed in detail in Chapter XIII. 

Conclusion. — ^Alignment is important and worth careful study 
on new locations but becomes a minor feature where existing 
rights-of-way must be utilized. 



GRADE CROSSINGS 



35 



Rabbit Ears Road, State of Colorado, Side Hill Section 



Original Design 


First Revision 


Second Revision 


Length 8.79 miles 
Width of roadway 16' 
Maximum grade 8 % 
Grades flattened on 

switchback turns 
Minimum radius 100' 
Pirst-dass alignment 

throughout 

Total amount of ezc. 

91,000 cu. yd. 
First-class design but 

needlessly expensive 


Length 8.81 miles 

Width 16' 

Maximum grade 8 % 

No grade compensation 
on curves 

Minimum ra(Uus 100' 

First-class alignment but 
more curving eliminat- 
ing many expensive 
tangents 

Amount of exc. 65.000 
cu. yd. 

First-class design shows 
effect of careful intelli- 
gent alignment engi- 
neering 


Length 8.94 miles 
Width 16' 

Maximum grade 8.5 % 
No compensation on 

curves. 
Minimum radius 40' 
Poor crooked alignment 

carried to extremes 

Amount of exc. 38,000 
cu. yd. 

Illustrates extreme effect 
of alignment on cost 

From an engineering 
point of view there 
was no justification for 
this design for the to- 
pography in question 



Note.-— On one switchback turn on this road a 100' radius required 
5000 cu. yd. exc and a /a/ radius 500 cu. yd. or one-tenth as much. Short 
radii are justified in isolated cases but their continuous use to save small 
amounts is poor practice. 

RAILWAY GRADE CROSSING ELIMINATIONS 

Grade crossings are being eliminated as rapidly as possible as 
they are a source of danger. The overhead clearance and width 
of roadway in subways are given in Chapter XIII. Where a grade 
crossing is necessary the alignment should be straight and if it is 
necessary to approach the track on a grade this grade should not 
exceed 5 % and the portion of the road for at least 50' and prefer- 
ably 100' on both sides of the tracks should be practically level 
to permit the perfect control of a jig as it approaches the crossing. 
Anyone owning an automobile is familiar with the dangerous 
element of driving where precautions of this kind are not observed. 
The best examples of current restrictions in regard to grade and 
alignment at railway crossings are given in Chapter XIII. 



CHAPTER II 

SECTIONS 

The date will be presented by discussion and examples of current 
practice for both High type roads in ordinary topography and for 
mountain conditions. 

High Type Road Sections. (Ordinary conditions) 

Discussion. — (Development of Standard Section.) Sections 
may be considered from the standpoints of safety, convenience and 
economy. 

For safety a rig should be able to travel on any part of the road 
from ditch to ditch without overturning; for convenience the width 
ordinarily used by traflSc must have sufficient pitch to drain the 
surface to the ditches but not enough to give an uncomfortable 
tilt to a vehicle; for economy the section must be flexible in order 
to conform to local conditions. 

The first questions are naturally: What is a safe driving slope? 
What is a comfortable driving slope? What pitch is required to 
drain different surfaces? What are stable slopes for cut and fill 
back of the ditch line? What is the commonly used width, and 
what the maximum width of the traveled way? 

All of these points except the last two have been pretty well 
determined, and, while some engineers disagree with current 
practice the writer believes from his experience and a study of 
various State sections that the following premises can be safely 
adopted: 

That 3" to i' or 4 to I is the maximum safe driving slope. 

That i" to i' is the maximum agreeable driving slope. 

That y to i' is the minimum slope at which an earth shoulder will shed 
water without too much maintenance. 

That H" to i' or H" to i' is a satisfactory crown for a single track water- 
bound macadam and that yi" \s^ satisfactory crown for a double track 
waterbound macadam. 

That H" or W* to i' is a satisfactory crown for waterbound macadam 
having tar or asphalt flush coats or for bituminous macadams or mineral 
bitumen, double track roads. 

That \i" or W to i' is a satisfactory crown for brick, asphalt, concrete 
or any other rigid type of pavement used on country roads. 

That stable cut and fill back slopes depend on the material and climate 
and range from M : i to 4 : i as will be discussed later. 

The width of roadway carryiug the greater portion of the travel 
and the maximum width when rigs turn out to pass are not so wdl 
established; these two points determine the most economical width 
of hard pavement and the niinimum convenient driving width no 
part of which should have a transverse slope of more than i" to i'. 



ROAD WIDTHS 



37 



Probably the most systematic record of these widths can be 
found in the reports of the Massachusetts Highway Commission 
during the years 1896 to 1900 and while the data does not exactly 
apply to present traffic conditions it indicates the general relation 
between widths of heavy and light use. Table 10 gives the results 
on a few roads showing the form used and the variation from year 
to year; the footnote for Table 10 gives a summary of the observa- 
tions on 160 roads for the years 1896 to 1899 inclusive; this brief 
was prepared by J. Y. McClintock, County Engineer, Monroe 
County, New York, and gives a better idea of the conditions than 
would be conveyed by printing the original table in full. 

Table 10. Showing Widths of Traveled Way 



Town or City 



Athol 

Barre 

Bedford 

Chicopee 

Dalton 

Fitchburg (W.) 
Huntington .. 

Lincoln 

Marshfidd . . . 
North Adams 

Orange 

Taunton 



County 



Worcester . 
Worcester . 
Middlesex . 
Hampden . 
Berkshire . 
Worcester . 
Hampshire. 
Middlesex . 
Pljrmouth. . 
Berkshire . 
Franklin .. 
Bristol .... 



'SB 



20 

IS 



Maximum Width of 
Traveled Way 



Z896 



16' 



20' 

% 

14 

I0'-I2' 
16' 
20' 



X897 



16' 

12' 
20' 

ao' 
xi' 
12' 

16' 
20' 



1898 



20' 

ao' 
21' 
18' 
11' 

II 

20' 

is' 



X899 



18' 

20' 

i6'-2i1 

x8' 

12' 

12' 

is'-ao' 

20' 

18' 



Width of Commonly 
Traveled Way 



X896 



I0'-I2' 



20' 
10' 

8' 
8'-io' 
io'-i2' 
10-15 



S 



12' 

i' 

12' 
16' 
10' 

8' 

I 

10' 



14' 



10' 

12' 
18' 

10' 



1899 



14' 

8' 

I2'-l8' 

u' 

8' 
xo' 

IS' 

7-ia 



Width of traveled way on 160 roads in Massachusetts, measured during 
the years 1896, 1897, 1898, and 1899, and printed in the report of the 
Massachusetts Highway Commission for 1900. 

The width of stone on these roads is given fis 15' wide on 130, 12' wide 
on 3, and 10' wide on 2.. It should be remembered that the stone is put 
on very much thicker in the middle than at the edges. 

The maximum width of traveled way as measured was as follows: 
9 ft. wide on 2 roads 18 ft. wide on 23 roads 



10 
II 
12 
13 
14 
IS 
16 

17 



n 
< t 






6 

2 

28 

8 

23 

30 

8 

I 



19 

20 
21 
22 
24 
25 
26 

33 



It 



«4 



It 
I I 



It 
It 



II 
14 



I 

10 
10 

I 

2 

4 
I 

I 



The width of commonly traveled way as measured was as follows: 
7 ft. wide on 12 roads 14 ft. wide on 8 roads 



8 

9 
10 
II 
12 
13 



17 
25 
32 
10 
30 
3 



IS 
16 
18 
20 
22 

25 



13 

2 

4 

2 
I 
I 



14 
II 
I I 



Crown has a marked effect on width of heavy travel. A heavy 
crown such as % to i' or i" to i' tends to concentrate the travel in 




38 SECTIONS 

the center and is a detriment on a heavy travel road. With crowns 
of J^ " or less per foot there is no tendency to concentrate. For single 
track pavements where the traffic naturally stays in the middle a 
heavier crown is desirable as being easier to maintain; on double 
track roads }^" or less should be used for both the convenience of 
traffic and the distribution of wear. 

The author has measured a number of the New York State im- 
proved roads and found that the width of heavy travel checked 
the Massachusetts results but that the maximum widths were more 
averaging from 1 8 to 21 ft.; this probably can be explained by the 
increase in automobile traffic since 1900 which because of its higher 
speed requires more room in passing. 

Briefly stated the widths subjected to hard wear on unimportant 
roads ranged from 8' to 10'; on well traveled roads 10' to 14' and 
in unusual cases 14' to 16'. The maximum widths varied from 12' 
to 14' on side roads to 17' to 18' on the main thoroughfares and 
as mentioned above have increased to 18' to 21' in the last few years. 
From this data it seems that the best practice at present requires 

^^#!!:!!!3 — r 

... 22' ^^..— «— — ^>» 

Fig. 5. 

a driving width of about 22' with a variable width of strong metal- 
ling determined by thie traffic requirements and ranging from 10' 
to 20'. 

We have now practically developed a standard for the 22' of 
driving width; the metalling that is to carry the heavy traffic has 
a specified crown for each variety and from the edge of the metalling 
to the limits of the 22' the earth shoulder must have a slope of i' 
to i' or possibly 5^" to i'. The flexibility of the section depends on 
the portion outside of this 22'. The function of the extra width is 
to keep the longitudinal drainage of surface water beyond the 
portion used for driving. To do this we are limited to a minimum 
slope of 1" to i' to insure transverse drainage and a maximum of 
3" to I ' on the score of safety. It is by the good judgment of the 
designer in using various slopes between these limits and various 
widths and depths of ditches, combined with the possibilities of 
different grades that the economies in earthwork are effected and 
at the same time the design is made appropriate to the local 
conditions. 

The author's experience has indicated that an open ditch does not 
have much effect on ground water; that its part in the design is to 
drain the surface water, thus preventing seepage into the roadbed 
with a resulting softening of the surface; and consequently whenever 
ground water is encountered under drains should be used. Deep 
ditches are not only useless but dangerous and the best practice calls 
for the least deptn that will handle the surface water. Frequent 



GRADING WIDTHS 39 

culverts are desirable to rid the ditches of excess water. It should 
be remembered that road ditches are to protect the road and not 
to furnish farm drainage and that deep farm ditches should be kept 
away from the road section. The following section is therefore 
suitable where there is no probability of much surface water; it 
is the writer's idea of the minimum width section which will be 
satisfactory, and where it can be adopted will give the most eco- 
nomical grading design for light cuts and fills. 



joc*- 



ThepnticatSrade ^\ Crow n 




k 24 -2e ->1 

Pig. 6. 



Effect of Grading Width on Cost— The width of grading from 
ditch to ditch has a distinct effect on cost but no general relation 
can be established for the ordinary road improvement where an 
old road forms the basis for the new grading. Two examples are 
given to show the value of reasonable reduction in sectional widths. 

z. INDIAN FALLS— CORFU ROAD IN NEW YORK STATE 

Original Design Revised Design 

Length 1.85 miles 

NO CHANGE IN PROFILE 

No Change in Ratio of Cut to Fill 

Width of Macadam 14' Width of Macadam 14' 

*' " Section 30' " " Section 24' 

Depth of Ditch 18" Depth of Ditch 14" 

Original estimated Revised estimated 
excavation 7500 cu. yd. excavation 5200 cu. yd. 

This change is section alone resulted in a saving of 2300 cu. yd. 
excavation or at the rate of 1240 cu. yd. per mile, or in money 
about $600.00 per mile. 

3. PITT8FORI>— NORTH HENRIETTA ROAD IN NEW YORK STATE 

Length 2.67 miles 
Original Design Revised Design 

Width of Section 30' Width of Section 24' 

Depth of Ditch 18" Depth of Ditch i2"-i4" 

Ratio of cut to fill 1.35% Ratio of cut to fill r.25% 

Maximum Grade 5.0% Maximum Grade 5.0% 

Profile — Designed with straight Profile — Rolling grades and 

instead of rolling mdes and reverse vertical curves used. 

tangents of 100 between 

vertical curves. 

Original estimated excavation Revised estimated excavation 

11,450 cu. yd. 6620 cu. yd. 



40 



SECTIONS 



A saving of 4820 cu. yd; 1800 cu. yd. per mile, or, in money, 
approximately $900.00 per mile. 

The revised design on this road is a good example of what can be 
saved by the use of a section that fits the conditions, a rolling grade, 
and a ratio of cut to fill that we have found from experience to be 
sufficient. 

Stable Cut and Fill Slopes Back of Ditch Line.— Economy of 
design and maintenance is affected by the selection of reasonably 
stable slopes. For the class of grading usually encountered on 
roads discussed in this portion of the chapter their effect on con- 
struction cost is not great and they do not generally receive much 
attention but for Mountain Roads cut and fill slopes are an impor- 
tant consideration in the design and their effect on cost are worth 
considering. 

Table 25, page 285, shows the effect in detail of various 
cut and fill slopes on yardage of the ordinary sidehill mountain 
road sections. To illustrate the point we will quote one typical 
case for say an ordinary double track section (8-14) Table 25. 



Natural Ground 

Surface Cross 

Slope 


M . 

Approximate Yardage per Mile 


Cut slope iM :i 
FilliM:i 


Cut lyi.i 

Fill iH'.i 


Cut 1:1 
PiU iH:i 


s 
•s 


1,100 CU. yd. 
2,200 " " 
4,000 '' " 
7,900 '' '' 


950 CU. yd. 

2,000 " *' 

3.600 " " 

7.000 '' " 

12.100 " " 


900 CU. yd. 

1,900 " ** 

3.300 " ** 

6.100 " " 

10,200 ** " 

19.600 " '* 



Occasional slides can not be avoided, but continual slipping 
shows poor design and makes both the maintenance costly and 
travel dangerous. 

Stable slopes vary for different materials and for the same mate- 
rial under different climatic conditions. A combination of mois- 
ture and frost requires the flattest slopes for ordinary soils. On 
account of the great variety of circumstances affecting the design 
no. hard and fast rules can be laid down but the following table, 
based on Railroad and Highway practice, indicates the slopes that 
are generally used. In this table and throughout the text slopes 
are referred to as iH^ i» etc., meaning i}4 horizontal to i vertical. 
In some of the State Standard illustrations however slopes are 
shown as i on ij^ meaning i vertical on iK horizontal. It is 
unfortunate that an engineering requirement is expressed by two 
different methods in such a conflicting order and care must be taken 
to understand which expression is used. 



GRADING SLOPES 



41 



Vi 

H 

O 

1^ 

C/3 



Q 
< 
H 



9 

H 
CO 



M 
M 

H 



o 



o 
o 

o 

u 



•J 
O 



o 

•c 
< 



u 



a 

•I 2 

o 
O 



•c 



3 
O 



4J 

a 



S 



3 

o 



M M 
• • • • 


M 

• • 


• • 


M 

• • 


• • 


• • 


M 

■ • 


H 

• • 




;s 


:ij 


i?: 




X 


:st 




«N Tf 


M 


M 


t-4 


H 


H 


M 


M 


H M 


M M 


H 


M H 


M 


H 


H 


H 



• • * • 



• • • • 



\p« V* Njl* 

1-N i-K «\ 

M -^ MM M M 



Njjt \N \jf 

e»j\ »-K »-K 



M M 
• • • • 

M «N 


M 

• • 

M 


M 

• • 

M 


M M 
• • • • 

M fO 


M 

• • 

M 


M 

• • 

M 


M 

• • 

M 


M 

« • 

M 


M M 
• • • • 

M M 


M M 
• • • • 

M M 


M 

• • 

M 


M 

t • 

M 


M 

• « 

M 


M 

• • 


M 

• • 


M 

• • 


M M 
• • • • 

M <N 


M 

• • 

M 


M 

• • 

M 


M M 
M Tf 


M 

• • 

M 


M 

• • 

M 


• • 
M 


M 

• • 

M 


M M 
• • • • 

M C« 


M 

• • 

H 


M 

• ■ 

M 


M M 
• • • • 

M « 


M 

• • 

M 


H 

• ■ 

M 


H 

• • 


M 

• • 

:5? 



J! 



a> 



o h3 







ei 

d 

o 



o 

d 

• M 

M 

o 

eS 

Xi 

.a 

d 

<U 
tn 

4j ClJ 

2^ 



u 
o 
u 

bO 

0) 



g 



.9 .-2 

X o 

P C/3 



42 SECTIONS 

Discussion of Pavement Widths and Effect on Cost. — Table 
12 shows the approximate cost of different types of hard pave- 
ments per mUe per foot of width. These costs and all other com- 
parative costs in the book are based on labor and material prices 
similar to those prevailing in 1912 to 191 4. Labor approximately 
$0.20 per hour. Cement approximately $1.25 per bbl. net, etc. 
The table is intended to illustrate only the comparative effect of 
width on cost. 

Table 12 



Pavement 


Cost per Foot 
Width per Mile 


Brick 


$1200 

HOC 

950 

750 
650 


Asphalt 

Concrete 

Bituminous Macadam 


Waterbound Macadam 





The difference of even a foot in width makes a large difference 
in cost where it is applied to a State system and the question of 
the most suitable width is open to argument. There are two sets 
in general use 10', 12', 15' and 18'; and 12', 14', 16' and 20'. The 
first seems the most logical using the 10' and 12' widths with special 
shoulder treatment on feeder roads (Class III); the 15' width with 
stone or gravel shoulders for macadam construction on secondary 
roads (Class 11) and the 18' width for rigid pavements on the Class 
I Traffic roads. (For Classification of Traffic, see page 164.) 

There are two ways of approaching the problem. The first 
is to build the strong metaling just wide enough to comfortable 
take the heavy traffic and if the natural shoulder material is not 
suitable treat the shoulders to a width of from 16' to 22' with gravel, 
crusher run or 23^" stone filled and rolled or if desired puddled 
or tarred making them suitable and wide enough for the turn out 
traffic. Referring to the widths actually used by hard traffic 
previously discussed this method results in the 12' and 15' widths. 
The second way is to make the full depth of metaling just wide 
enough to allow traffic to pass by careiul driving not giving the 
shoulders any special treatment. This method results in the 14' 
width on unimportant roads. The 16' width is harder to justify 
as on the main roads it is wider than necessary for heavy travel 
and too narrow for automobile "turn out traffic." Where rigid 
pavements are needed 18' is the minimum width recommended as 
dangerous ruts develop along the edges where the 15' or 16' width 
is used and even with careful maintenance this condition can not 
be avoided under heavy truck traffic. 

While shoulder treatment is desirable on the main traveled 
roads its importance on side roads should not be overestimated. 
A record of a trip from Albany to Binghampton, New York, showed 



TYPICAL SECTIONS 



43 



that rigs were passed on an average once every 4 miles outside of 
villages. From this it would seem that for secondary roads of this 
character shoulder treatment is not worth while even for the 12' 
width unless particularly bad soil conditions are encountered. 
Where the 10 width is used solid turnouts should be provided 
at frequent intervals to allow heavily loaded vehicles to pass. 

In the writer's opinion 10' or 12' should be used in preference 
to 14' on side roads where the shoulder material is good or where 
gravel is cheap or local crushed stone is used in construction making 
it possible to obtain a cheap crusher run and that 14' should be 
used where the shoulder material is poor and where gravel or imported 
stone is costly. On the main roads a 15' macadam is as satisfactory 
as the 16' width and is cheaper under all conditions as the 16' width 
does not overcome the necessity for a good shoulder. Where rigid 
pavements are required 18' is the minimum width that wiU give 
satisfaction on double track roads. 

Examples of t3rpical stone distribution and grading widths 
are given below and plates showing current practice in different 
psLTts of the United States follow. 

Examples of Typical Sections. — The following sketches show a 
number of variations in grading shapes and stone widths and 
distribution for bituminous macadams which are applicable to 
special conditions. 



ripT 



.hi emvei'ifiorpJStoneFinsdani 
^1 RoffedfbutncftnMkdorkoTwd, 



■;^;^<*N^NN*>J*««Vxvx>.>Nxx 






I 



Pig. 7. — Bituminous macadam. 




&izry9f, ifZor 03 Stone 



About3'd§tfi^h9S€ 






Shoulder treatment. 





.'[^rt Shoulders 



H /4-/6' -H 

No shoulder treatment. 



Figures 7, 7A and 7B show the stone distribution with and with- 
out shoulder treatment for secondary and main roads. 

Figure 8 shows a good typical grading section for ordinary 
conditions on a main road. 

Figure 9 shows a typical grading section where a small amount 



.44 



SECTIONS 



of water is e^qpected. If for any reason it is not practicable to 
cut into the hill beyond a certain depth and more dirt is needed for 
fill iJban is given by the 26' section at this depth the shoulders can 
be widened, provided the tops of the slopes keep within the right- 
of-way. It is always best to use as shallow a ditch as possible as 
it simplifies the construction and maintenance of entrances to 
the abutting properties. 




k- - 



I9\ -->| 



22- 



J I 



Pig. 8. — Bituminous macadam. 



t 



^ J^ 



* I k- — ,22—, ->l I I 



^'•^•Any mcifii whkitk^s the Top ofSi^/m/chfiiiMWr-^ 

Fig. 9. 




ncretw^ .^ Wooden ji 

GueirdRBii/ j;§ Ouardfhit-^^ 




lO'-ZO'- 

\ j<. 25 — ^ •>! 

Pig, 10. 



!^^ 







Fig. II. 

Figure 10 gives a section showing the variations in £dl. A slope 
of i" to i' beyond the 22' width is used on shallow fills. An 
embankment slope of 4 to i is used for ordinary fills up to 7' depth; 
beyond a 7' depth it is cheaper to erect and maintain guard rafl 
using a I ^ to I embankment slope. The cost of guard rail is taken 
up under Minor Points. 

The section shown in Figure 11 is used for unusually heavy cuts 
to keep the excavation as low as possible. If used on a sharp 



TYPICAL SECTIONS 



45 



curve it should be widened, "banked" and "Daylighted** as in- 
dicated in Figures 12 and 4 to increase safety of traffic. 

Figure 12 shows a section well suited for sharp curves. The 
slope of 5i" to I ' is not objectionable for slow traffic on macadam 
and makes easier riding for rapidly moving vehicles; it also decreases 
maintenance cost on macadam construction on sharp curves. The 
macadam should be widened on the inside of the curve as shown in 




••••• 3'6''*r~ " /i''"*^""**""**! 

Fig. 12. — Banked section in excavation. 




Figure 12 A. The superelevation on the curve is obtained by 
gradually raising the outside edge; the center line elevation and 
inner edge remain normal. The full superelevation is carried 
around the entire length of the curve from rC to PT and reduced 
to the nonnal crown at about 150 feet away from the curve ends. 
Variation in superelevation for curves of different radii is a useless 
refinement ana good practice rarely adopts superelevation for 






v%/' rtoL 



Crown 9 Vtof' 



•^yyz/y>>X/>v/»»i' ^/yy^^^y^y^,.,i 



k-.~- 






Pig. 13. 



radii greater than 800'. The maximum superelevation is generally 
used for all curves of 500' radii or less and is considered to be limited 
to i" per i' for macadams and ^" per foot for rigid pavements. 
The author prefers Jii" to i' and J^" to i' for these types. 

Figure 13 is a satisfactory village section and by the use of a 
variable width will fit conditions on most streets. 

The preceding discussion attempts to cover only the main points 
for every road presents local conditions peculiar to itself that re- 



46 



SECTIONS 



quire special solutions. However, if the Engineer keeps these 
points in mind he will make an economical and appropriate design. 



Si 



St 



':;1S — s.o'''"if^- ~- /^(7'-^ 



j<— y^ Qi : — ,^ /75' •- '^-M 

Fig. 14. — Bituminous macadam tracks on side. 






B' Exparm'on Joint 



Curbing i^Ctass 



^^ -y Xi ■ ■ >^ ^ 1 I I T^- ■ ■ , 1 r\ i | i »t 1^ I I I I > ■>*■ ■ ■ ■ ■^ L\ 
^'^^^l^Z'Ji^Chs5CorK.BaJr^yC<mXf9uiShr&anH/ndTie iZ^'B(£ 

< 

Village street, brick pavement. Tracks in center, **T"-rail special 

grooved brick. 




.'nainCurb /. ^ f i 
Bn'ck \Cmwn^lx>l. 



j ! ^ J I I I I H 1 1 I I I 1 1 1^ = 



Base 






Fig. 15. — Village section. Combined brick and macadam section 
in front of stores, where horses will be hitched close to the curb. 
Prevents pawing up the macadam. 

PLATES 

The following plates show current practice in standard hard 
surfaced road sections and serve to strengthen the points brought 
out in the discussion although they may not comply with all the 
desirable requirements. 



Plate i.- 
Plate 2.- 
Plate 3.- 
Plate 4.- 
Plate S.- 
Plate 6.- 
Plate 7.- 
Plate S.- 
Plate Q.- 
Plate 10. 



—New York. 

—California. 

-Massachusetts. 

—Maine. 

—Wyoming. 

—Washington. 

—New Jersey. 

— W. Virginia. 

—Iowa. 

— ^Pennsylvania. 



TYPICAL SECTIONS 47 

Plate i. — New York State 1915 Standards. 

Cement Concrete 

"WtfS **----• '"24''0* h 32*-6''""^ ♦to! - 

ySy \ I CroWp k'perfty^ ^'Clev.df Theoretfcat Q rac/e | ^fl 

lofl^^^'^^^^^ * \'^*^^^onom Coarse if Requ/red I ^^^'J^^Z^ 

^^ N— -/-^'"^(T* dr/^'-C?*- H "^^ 

>^ Trqnsv0rse expems/onjo/nfj. tobeproyfcfec/ every JO ft, jfta//be 
composed of a creosotta, yeffowpfneor tar paper sfr/p^'fMcA, 
conformfncf to the cross sect/0/7 of roacfway. each strip may 
\ be composed of h¥Opieces.ofequanen^th, butt Jointed and 
fastened Jogetfter with approved sp/ice piece of Na 26 /ran. 

A 

^-» Woterboond^ Macodam # 

Crown A per Ft\. JtTev.ofTheoreticai Crade I i 

_ _» -bo ttom Course ifRequi/ trw \ ^-^IP 

e • 






Woiterbound Steep Grades 

'24''0'toJ2'-o' ~ >|(?|*.-. 

Elevation of Theoretico$rad^\ 



^•»l i« l*/i») 



\5ub 'bottom Course if Required j 
l< M-oWiS'-O-' >i 

c 






Contracted Section 



K--^-^*-*i 




tier, of Theo/{etica/ Cn,ade_^ ^ 

^ ' — X 

XL 



-Not tess than l4'-o''' -> 





'*W* 






I ^S'Z^^tTjT^ 



Bituminous Mocadom 



1/ >t« 



' ^^ 



i4-0'to 32-0 



*|/^|*-. 




j J</^ 'bottom Course if Required | 
k i4''0 or iS^'O"- ♦! 



^?6 
^<^ 



Plate t. — (Ponlinutd) 
—la'-o'hai'-if- 




•n X'Iforil rfplattl iab-base. iHsmmli 6 
(bottvncaurst taiKivt l/it samtlhulrntii . 
ftnttrandedsts ••/'trt Jut taie or Wfaraia 



I \k * sphoif 




TYPICAL SECTIONS 



49 







•» J J8d ,,^ iii(koi3 




1 




fl 




lo 


V 


M 










« 


» 








*Sfe 




B 








V 




1- 
1 


H 


w 




H 


M 


H 




(A 


"fl 




5n 


5.. 


V 




wppoqS 


v> 







00 






•5 J i«I\ J nM0J3 ~j 








■« 


«- 


» 


* 








a 

a 
1 


£ 


a 


H 


M 


H 


H 






H 

H 


a 


is- 




to 


^ 










^. 


1^ 


^ 






1 


Si 

H 


J 


•0 
H 


»o 


M 


.^"N 


fl 


5r, 




5h. 

10 


WJ 


1 




wpinoqs 


1 


d 





• 

00 






1 J i8d «! o^wD 






1 

• 

H 








V 


^ 


lo 


^ 


I 




< 


2: 


w 


H 


M 


«< 


fl 




V 




lo 


(I4 


.§ 

f 


•t? 


















■k 


% 


« 


» 


« 




X 







#■1 


ikn 


%< 


Hw 


HN 






^4 




a 


«o 


V> 


««» 


Ok 




"3 


1 


6! 




M 


H 


M 


H 




,Q 


^ 














^ 


^ 


M 


fl 


%> 




•k 






Mii|«OHS 




d 

« 


• 


00 




< 


•1Jja<i,,liiM<M3 1 




1 


fi! 


ja 


M 


H 


M 


So 










V, 


10 


^ 




1 


jl 


a 






10 


1^ 




"S 


S 


s 


«• 


M 


M 


H 


H 




^ 


H 








Si* 


10 




»Pinoqs 


• 






• 

00 






b >^v V 

% - b o 2. 




so 



SECTIONS 



Plate 2. — California Standards. 



Cufl'/S/ope. 



/* 



f^ Sheet Asphal-h or AsphaH-ic Concrete 
^'Concrete Base 



rii: HJ'»;-ai'^'^'iflc-ij«stt iAar.j»tf J*t»^{m>IJ«J^IAJ««^ 



Slope 



K 



■->f 



zk- 

Type A 

Ig Asphaltic Concrete. 



Cutlf'IShp^ 



Fill '^ I 
Slop€ 




m " *3 



e^Oi I Macadam 



fin ^' I Slope 




Cat l{- 1 Slope-., 



4'Concrete Base x # 'Bitumi nixed Cushion 



"TtJF ^" 



Al+ernate Section 
Type D. 



Cotl-IStof^ 
CtJ*yiSlope 




Slope 



Surfaced with Local Mate n'al. 




f'llli'f 
Slope. 



type E. 



Cut hi Slope 




\ M(icadamSur face^^2' Fill If 'I 

Shpe 



mots: 




'^4'6ravelBase 



The Thickness at Pavewent shown 

isfhe Minimum fif so ordered bijthe — p 

HighvMy Engineer itis increased. ' B P* •" 



L 



TYPICAL SECTIONS 



SI 



Plate 3. — Massachusetts Standards. 




46ionsperfOO 
Local '4-1 HI- m 




Local' 34 * • » • 







/ Trap: SStomperlOO ft. I 

local'' 50 n » t, m 







"''iocah'39 



n n n 



{New5ton9No.Z} 

XNeyA^9Ho.1^ 

If - /S'O"- >i 

(Original Width of Macadam) 



5^tion for Resurfocing 




Local-' S8 H n m » 
R>r Vi 11096 Stre«V» 




1 



Local' 50 » n » m 
For Vi 11090 Streets. 



52 



SECTIONS 



Plate 3. — {Continued) 
one foot from Edfo ofEmbcmkmont feral/ HMht. 




Large Stone atdottom^maU 
SfoneancfOmve/at up. 



f^'Halve together over fbsis 



i'O^' -4*1^^^^' -.--4*— 8'0' i\ 



I 






\m7. 



u 



I 



I 
I 



J 



'i':. Viol- g'.. A' 
9Z:". ^tr'^" . 



-*- /S'O' 




i --a 



Condition No. i. — See note below. 

Trap Rock — ^Lower course. No. i stone, 24 tons; screenings for binder, 
tons. Upper course. No. 2 stone, 16 tons. 

Local Stoned-Lower course. No. i stone, 22 tons; screenings for binder, 
tons. Upper course. No. 2 stone, 14 tons. 

Condition No. 2. — See note below. 

Trap Rock— Lower course. No. i stone, 24 tons 
stone, 16 tons; screenings for binder, 7 tons. 

Local Stone — ^Lower course. No. i stone, 22 tons, 
stone, 14 tons; screenings for binder, 7 tons. 

Total tonnage per 100': Trap, 47*. Local, 43. 

NoTR. — For both penetration metnoda— -grouting or the modified Gladwell 
method — there shotud be two applications of asphaltic oil, each f^ gaL per 
sq. yd. There may be also a third application of ^1 gal. per so. yd. for 
surface finish. For surface treatment there should oe one application of 
H SbX. of oil per sq. yd. or two applications of ^ gal. each per sq. yd« on the 
finished surface of the roadway. 



Upper course. No 2 
Upper course. No. 2 





-•••»•••■ fff 



r 



Condition No. i. 

Trap Rock — ^Lower course, No. i stone, 19 tons; screenings for binder, 
tons. Upper course. No. 2 stone, 17 tons. 

Local stone — ^Lower course, No. i stone, 17 tons; screenings for binder, 
tons. Upper course, No. 2 stone, 15 tons. 

Total tonnage per 100^: Trap, 39; Local, 3$. 

Condition No. 2. 

Trap Rock — Lower course, No. i stone, 19 tons, 
stone, 17 tons; screenings for binder, 6 tons. 

Local Stone — ^Lower course. No. z stone, 17 tons, 
stone, 15 tons; screenings for binder, 6 tons. 

Total tonnage i>er 100': Trap, 42; Local, 38. 

Note.— Condition No. i: Bituminous Treatment — Penetration — ^lower 
course bound with stone screenings or sand. 

Condition No. 2: Bituminous Treatment — Surface Spraying— screenings 
of sand binder in upper course. 



Upper course. No. 
Upper course. No. 



TYPICAL SECTIONS 
Plate 4. — Maine. Standard Sections. 




54 



SECTIONS 



Plate. 4. — (Continued) 



^> 



k- — -^e — 



7i' ,ff 



^\ 






♦ 



FinishedSraek 



•I .1 



-> <-3'6 -> 



2* / 



f5fi«r..ii*'.5^ i*^'- vi^lVjVCAW. ^^U^^Yi^uX.JfeJtea-is.-'/.;^ 



:z 









->^ 



6"^' I Concrete 

Narrow Section fo 
8't*anclarol Section . be used when Ontii 



Harrow Stction to 
>e used when Ordered 




6rovel Daae , ^rea 5 j[5q.Ff-. 
[-./^' 

2'Cvshton 




=»-•••=•.= ;»iv\=»=.»rff ■=•:#;•:- 



Stone Base, Area iS^&q.R-. 
Side Under Drain ^ Area 7^ Sq. F4-. 

*«.-4— /5' > 





&+*one V Drain, 



Area ip.&Sq.Ff. 
1— le* > 







eravelVorain Area 17.05 
SqPt. 



TYPICAL SECTIONS 



SS 



Plate 5. — ^Wyoming Sections. 



C.L 



I . ..r^i^nW '^'^"^""^RJ^'^iSii'nf^ 



— — > 







HisefoCro^ 



U-~~— 7-^-->K -7-g'— /VT-H 






Secrion B 



Station 



difuUfhicPtiYemem 
SituIith'C Pavemenf. 






K— ■• ^/^/r/? — ►< /Ofo/3 

RistfoCrtTMn J'l. 



L. 



+0 S+Q+ion. 




S+a+ioh 



el Track 
to 9+a+ion . 



<- — 



— /2-Q- 



€''fo9\ 



.jljK- .7p:^t — 

I III I ' ' I I JIM II II I f I 



Station • testation, 
k- : '40'to!Z' >!<• '—lOfoi?'-- — 



I Rist to Crown I'foK 



<^01 



station 



Earth . 
to Station. 



— ^>- 





• 

U 10' , — ^ 10- — 



" .' 



I Rise fo Crown / '/. 




Segtion F 



Variable 



©fSt 



Earth (Machine W6rk> 



ion 



to Station 



■W" 



56 • SECTIONS 

Plate 6. — State of Washington Typical Sections. 



iiito 



1 






% 



,l-^.-^ 



•X //' 

J Crown fi/' 




Ear+h Section 



.>|^ /2' 




5/op^ on Macadam 



ffo/ 



••- C.Lis2''abovt 
©ravel Sec+ion prade, 
(One Co uree} 



/5 > 



<-3^-^3 -■>{<■ 7 - — ->)<■ 7' -4'-«?->P?'"* 

///>7. 







T^Course 3'Edgi 
and S'Cenftr. 



Slope on Macadam j I^J'^f'"^^., 

s'fQf' / IS 2'above Profile 



( 6i 



Grade. 



•Crave! Sec+ion 
(Two Course) 



^*- Based'Ed^eand 
S'CenHr. 



f 



TYPICAL SECTIONS 



57- 



Plate 6. — {Continued) 






Cu. Ft of Concrete per L in. Ft of 
Road waif 16 'Wide - 5. 3098. 



c^ 



^ 



IS* — ^* 10' 



,/W?J<.-.. 



5' ><-. 



\Paventen1- ,L.'f.'_lt^._j 



..J- — i^^ 



n>iaMt««:>S^^riri^>S^3HSKaW0CCf»2^ 



/'// 



SxC'Wocd Curb 
to refna'm in 
f^ace. 



i i 



«♦' 



I*'' 



^52 



r, 



'6rade^ 



r 



Avf/7e6n7^tf' •'J?^ l'2-3 Concrete \pi-Qfi ley 

— .— - "^"^(Inside Edge on 

I© Foo+ Roadway. Curves wHft 

Superelevation^ 
I 



../-^' 



^/'|<-r->|^7^->K- : 9' 



r 






<- -.9' >U ^'. 

Piavement ^ , a'^jt , 



u4^;<^>^^«(0^llLVtn»Vj Ji«aefGS«EKa(M»tC»t)SS^«dSMZ . 



.^4*l>j 



/'/?- 



Sxe'wood Curb 
to remain in 
place. 



Si' 



3Z 



',1 'i.^-jJL 



>y % 



Grade 



^/V-£//7^ 6rade ^, l'2'3Concrefe. j^^'^^ 

Cu.Ft'<^"concref9 perUn'Fh ofRoady^^^^f'^3^'''' 



%. 



id' Wide '9.663. 

I© F00+ R Q a d way 



<-.— ^ 



/5' >< /f 



Pavement 






^•^'i Tf'fei^T^Tg^ 



SuperelevaHon 
— I- — >| 



.10' 





I . / 

3x6' Wood Curb 
to remainjn 
place. 



^« t' 2' 3 Concrete J 






Cu. Ft of Concrete per Lin. Ft. of Profile 9rade 
Roadway 20' Wide* IIJS39. (Inside Edge on 

Curves with 
Superelevation.) 
20 F00+ Roadway. 



TYPICAL SECTIONS 
Plate 7. — (Continued) 



59 



i 



-*- — 'AUlfoads ahom hene ore 20 CJoC ofOfhhes:-- ^; 




I ElwofTheortf/^lQrode. 
Type I Plain. 

u ^ J «-— >L*1 

Concrete eafS/des, ifrtCenfer. S, / 1>. 



4 -v>>l> 



.■^'■m-.^.u.^^^^^m^i'^s^'iS^siShs^^i^sks^^^ 



KS 



I 



•4 



HinforcinqMefat. 
Type 21 Reinforced . ■*^' ""* 



Concrete ^af Side^piatCenifr. "* 




A 



Slopel perFoof. T7]. 
Types Plain. "^' "^ 



<— i--->< 



5' ->i<-.-j'-„><.- 




Sutgrode s Flat except oHShoulders. 

Type 4 Plain. 



-H/'H- 



Plate 8.— New Jersey Standard Section, 




"ThhSecthmitHmAnofaCinile drawn ihnQ^ih$him 

Owm^WKttrboand Macadam Vfofl - • 
n n dHvminou$ t$ ^'tfK 



6o 



SECTIONS 



Plate 9. — Iowa Typical Sections. 



xfAS> 






^^Kk$uridC9 



I 




a 



*|z'k/-^ -2h— -A7'-/">t<-~;K?-— >t<- -6'- '^V-9'"\ 
^'6rwfdr ^XoncrehBase K ^- —- »» 

Ha If Fi 1 1 Section Ha If Cut Section 

MONOMTHIC BRICK-TVPE ONE 
__^^ __ , fSand-cemtnf Bed , 



4'$r/ck -i.--j==: SurfiK$cf/!bacfmn/3Z^'- - -i 



>\' 



Tm^^ 



-^ 



v^J 






Hatf Fill Section. Half Cut Section 

DITUMINUS FILLED BRICK-TYPE TWa 

j iiiiiih^li II III' ijii')' yii III II li i|'iiiiiiii( "i ^j 



k'^. 



.6^5 



\\ 



.V. 




»:-> 



U-^'-.>U — A?'- — *k — /(?'■ — *K"5--»1?' 

' ' L... "'-24'- *\ 

Ha tf Fill Section " Half Cut Section ^ ,^ 









U-^ 



-32'' 



U^'-A 






...._.t ^Xi ^2'- 1 .,111 ^'EdgeofPemfmrff- 



♦ — 27^r...^.— 20^]?-— >f<-- 20^^-"^i<-;?0 



MBarsf°io be placed in Plan View of RavmgShowinJ3 Reinforcing 
Cen-hrof Secfion. Tw6 course concrete-type three . [NAMiOAS typeYim 



Surfaced /ioadmjy?2''y^ a.» 



drove I -fo be Laid 
down in Two 
Equal , 
Courses. Yt' 




in'ThVhhir^lB 



'fV-c .^ 



♦JZ'U — -//'■ — 4* -//' — J 

TWO COURSE 6RAVEL-TYPE 
FOUR 




ThisSed-ionfobe 
usedbefmen 
ShH-ionsdd-^S 



8*Gra)f9l 



6Ff:6ra>f9l f* Surfaced Roadway 3?' ->(..^ f'*'» 

Shoulder shown ,\gi' M — Paving20'- -1 p ' * ASf gi" 

OntypeslAd . Mt^^* ■ ■iiM.j,y^yii^i,aMiJuT|| | ij i y,| ii ^j|^| i| |Y ^,i7rfTr^^ 



iT t'*^ 



Loiddowt , 
in Two* 



/. ilu T ^\ oOravei h .^^^-.-J ^ 

Zoungs^^Type^) ^^ p,.,, s^^.+ion. Half Cut Section 

, ONE COURSE CONCRETE-TYPE V 
{Hem forcing same as -for Two Course) 



TYPICAL SECTIONS 



6l 



Plate io. — State of Pennsylvania Typical Sections. 







6>l 
<- 5- — > 



— L..45.' >!<., — s'-'-i 



tkadtrCurkng Bi+uminoos Sp«cif ica+ion Cla»s"X fkadwCur^ 






Sfo^'i 



xtfui i«itfjtt .u.»ikr:,t*(ii*-aftu;.ijj,^ 



^optH'i 



e 



-7^ 



BZontrete h'j'9 



'X* 



7^- 






-..5'..>..»|4 l.../g'. 

I Bi'fuminous Specif icorfion Claes ^C^, 



-S^'-M 



fhcfnjsf 




4-...^ — -4c——: — $'. .y< g'. 



Reirrforced 



<- 



^26^^^- 



Plains 



One Couree Cemen* Concrc+ie. 



k /'*'^^*nSS^''*'*t:... 




Rein-forcing 

Two Cours4 
,5'Bivhtn Sftme 



, Plain. 

Two Course Pod+land Ccmen+ Concrete. 

il-'Macadhm 
f JS'Telford 




Broken stone Base. Telford Base. 



Woter Bound Mocodam. 
S'BnkenSfont 1 .a'HoGadam 

j /fiMloCrtnmi'i^r / rTtffyrd 



•%»r/i?/' 




-5' ->K-~ B'- ,., ^ 

Broken &tone Base. Telfora Boae. 
2sl 

Bituminouft MocadcinT RBnetncif ion 
Method . 



SECTIONS 

Plate io.—{CotUmued) 















/'CamitinlBaf 







DfeBR 




VWtSBomnqCh to MM CwH 
for eot Tiai FiiiTlfcr CiwmSjJ 











■*fert K on 






^-^«p"- 










;Sta «*5sJ- V 


























-^.■s'^ 






_f,d 


-;;_ 











MOUNTAIN ROADS 63 

Mountain Road Sections. 

Disctsasiofi. — The desirable requirements for mountain road 
sections are the same as for the roads previously discussed but on 
steep sidehill work the width of grading used for ordinary topog- 
raphy ^would be prohibitive in cost. As most of these roads are 
natural soil roads the crown«is the only element of the section not 
covered in the previous discussion. For the gravel or stony 
material usually encountered Ji" to i' is generally satisfactory. 
For sand or heavy soils i" to i' is better practice. The old idea 
that crown should be increased on steep grades has been abandoned 
for while that expedient undoubtedly helped the drainage it caused 
more inconvenience to traffic than it was worth. In many cases 
present practice decreases the crown on steep grades to give better 
vehicle control. Crowns on mountain roads i^re also affected 
by the absence of guard rail or other safety provisions. The ordi- 
nary S3anmetrical crown is used where wall or guard rail protects 




Symme+riCQ.I Crown 

with ©uard Ron , ^'''\ On« Wby crown No 

OuQrel Rail. 

Fig. 16. 

the dangerous outside slope but on many roads so much rail would 
be needed that it is prohibitive in cost and where it can not be used 
the road is tipped one way in a continuous slant toward the hiU 
80 that if a machine skids it will slide in against the cut dope. 
This kind of a section is not as comfortable to ride as the ordinary 
crown but if the surface is at all greasy the element of increased 
safety outweighs ariy minor inconvenience of side tilt. 

The width of section has more effect on cost than any other part 
of the design. On a new side hill location the relation of width to 
cost can be roughly established. It will of course vary for different 
side slopes of the hill and different cut slopes of the excavation but 
the relation will be approximately as follows, for balanced sections 
(Table 25, page 285). 

Assumed 25° sidehill slope i : i slope in cut 

I K • I slope in fill 

(S- 8) 10' width (ditch to outside of shoulder) 4.300 cu. yd. per mile. 
(S-io) 12' •• " •• " " " 6^100 •• " " •• 
(S-14) 16' •• 10,200 *• 



(S-i^) 18' ' " 12.800 

(S-I8) 30' *• " *: V •• «• 15,409 



64 



SECTIONS 



We may say that in general a 20' width requires about sM 
times as much excavation as a 10' width. The relative cost .of 
different widths is also affected by the amount of rock ezca^ration 
which is generally much greater for the wider widths. This 
depends on the depth of soil overi3ang the rock. This element 
affects the cost so much that in certain cases it has been found 
cheaper to buUd two separate singte track roads for short dis- 
tances rather than one double track highway. 




Pig. 17. 




CASE NO. I. 



All 



"in Solid" 




CA&E 2. 
ftjrtCu-h- Part Fill. 



Mountain roads are classed roughly as double track or single 
track, meaning the same as for railroad work, a double line of 
traffic or a single line with turnouts to allow passing. As each 
foot of extra width is costly it is important to determine the mini- 
mum width of grading that will serve the purpose for these two 
classifications. 

Minimum Width Sidehill Section.— If the roadbed is benched 
out of solid rock a narrower width will serve as the entire width is 



\ 



SIDE HILL SECTIONS 



6S 



firm and stable. If the section is a balanced section part in cut 
and part in fill it must be wider as embankments on steep slopes 
are liable to settle, slide or washout and it is not safe to drive as 
closely to the edge as in the first case. The amount of the road " in 
solid" is therefore the prime requisite and '' — ^ft. in solid " is often 
used as the specification for contract road jobs where engineering 
design is not used. Present practice favors a minimum single track, 
total grading width of lo' in rock or where the outer embankment is 
sustained by a retaining wall and a total width of 1 2' for the ordinary 
balanced section in earth. Balanced sections are generally used up 
to 30° side slopes and beyond that toe walls or retaining walls are 
necessanr for earth sections. For a 30'' side slope a total grading 
width of 12' results in approx. 7' to 8' in solid cut. A double track 




Ivh — 7-->k — 5/. 
* Ski.659*22 

et. 5344.5 

Double Track Road 




QuatdRait 



euanlfhff 



. •*-■//- — >, 

I 5/9.659*22 I 
O.S34<5 

Single Track Rood 



Fig. 18. 



section requires a minimum total grading width of 14' in rock or wall 
sections and 16' in balanced earth section which gives approx. 10' 
in solid. These same limiting widths apply to turnout sections 
on single track roads. Where guard rail is used i ft. should be added 
to these widths. 

TURNOUTS 

On single track roads turnouts are constructed at sufficiently 
frequent intervids so that drivers can see between them and there 
wHl be no danger of meeting at impassable spots. This generally 
requires fiom 5 to 10 to the mile. The minimum satisfactory length 
of turnout is about 60 ft. and the grade should be as easy as possible 
at these points. 



uuL 



66 SECTIONS 

Fill Sections. — Through fill sections must be constructed wider 
than sidehill sections as the sides are bound to slough off under 
weather action and all the elements of wear tend to decrease the 
width; 14' is considered the minimum width for a single track 
road and 20' the minimum for a double track. A synunetrical 
crown is advisable on fills even on curves. Where guard rail is 
used increase these widths 2'. These sections occur on only a small 
per cent, of the length of mountain roads. 

Throiigh Cut Sections. — These sections are rare in occurrence; 
the minimum width, ditch to ditch, for single track roads can be 
considered as 12' and for double track 18'. The use of minimum 
widths for either through cut or fill sections on mountain roads 
has small effect on cost and for that reason more liberality in their 
widths is allowable. 

Turnpike Sections. — Where the natural ground cross slope is less 
than 5 tumpiking is the usual construction and the difference 
in cost of a single or double track is so small that it is not worth 
considering. For this class of section a minimum of 22' between 
ditches will apply to any road and a width of 24' is generally used. 

Selection of Section. — Plate No. 11 illustrates typical mountain 
road sections. 

The turnpike section is used up to side slopes of s** for continuous 
balanced work. 

The sidehill sections are used above 5° for continuous balanced 
work. The one way crown is used on all single track sidehill sec- 
tions where guard rail is lacking. The one way crown is used on 
unprotected double track roads where the side slope is greater 
than 15**. The symmetrical crown is used on protected double 
track roads and on unprotected sections where the side slope is less 
than 15°. 

Through cut and fill sections are used where required by the 
profile. 

Superelevation is used on curves in cut but rarely on high 
through hills. The ditch on the upper side of a superelevated 
through cut section can be omitted if the cut i& short. 

Cut and fill slopes depend on the natural material and climate 
and were discussed on page 40. There is too much tendency 
to use steep slopes to save on construction cost although excessively 
flat slopes are not necessary or advised it being cheaper to take care 
of minor slides by maintenance. (For effect of cut slopes see Table 
25, page 285.) 

Wall Sections. — These sections are used where the natural hill 
slope is practically as steep or steeper than the stable embankment 
slope. Toe or retaining walls are necessary for earth embankments 
where the natural slopes exceeds approx. 30** and for rock fills where 
the natural slope exceeds approx. 40**. Wall details are described in 
Chapters VIII and X. Surcharged breast walls are to be avoided 
if possible. 

Intercepting Ditches. — Where considerable water runs down the 
uphill slope intercepting ditches are used to protect the cut slope 
and relieve the road ditch of excess water. These ditches discharge 



INTERCEPTING DITCHES 



67 



to the nearest cross culvert and are an important part of the 
design. 




Irrftrcepf/na 
Di-Mt 



Bench Sections. — Bench sections are used in rock ledge work. 
(See Sections S-io, Plate 11, and Table No. 25, page 294.) 

Stunmaiy of Sections. — The entire problem of sections may be 
summed up as the determination of the minimum widths of 
grading and hard surface that will serve traffic and drainage require- 
ments. As a general rule current practice handles this part of* the 
design well with the exception of ditches which are often needlessly 
deep and dangerous and generally fail to regulate ground water 
which is the only excuse for their use. The use of road ditches for 
farm drainage is poor policy. Any system of special farm drainage 
should be separated from the road design except in the matter of 
culvert elevation. 



68 



SECTIONS 



Plate h. — Mountain Roads. 



Tijpical Supcr-Elovcrf-cd Sections on Curvea. 

/V«ver ust a Supmn E/everHd Section where the Inside 
of the Curve is on a Dangerous Down ward Slope. 
Use Super- e/evat/ons oniyon Curves having a Radius 
Lessfhan BOO-H: Use the same Super- Elevation on dOOfh 
\ Radius Curves as on 100' Radius Curves. 
The Center Line Elevation and Portion of the Section 
on the Inside of the Curve remains Normal^ the fhrtion 
of the Section on the Outside of the Curve is changed 
as indicated below. 



Y 



,CL. 



Elevation^ 



Ang Width 



1 



C.L- Crown Uniform Slope ih' 



CL Profile 
Prade^i f ^^^ 




Typical Super^Eleva+ion 
In Fill. 



CI. 



K- 



\AnuWidth 
1— ->tf% 




I 



Prpfife erode-M 
^ '^Standard Depth 



Typical Super-Elevation 
In Cut. 



f 



TURNPIKE SECTIONS 



Plate ii. — {Continued) 



69 



Tt^pical Turnpike Section© 
Designated T-dection. 



r 



;— -^ •v->|4— — — — 



"12 > 




Crown El€vafion 



<-r--5 -* 



CJ..Profii e Orac/e 



Section T-ie 
Crown^'t9f' 




Crown 
EtevaHotf 



te 9rad9 



Section T-16 
Crownjtor 




Crown Etwvaf ion i 7^* 



Sjection T-20 
Crown^'to l' 



NoH* 



VNtfrt Side Shpta lie hetwee/t SDea.ancfiSOeo 
I use o Combination of 5 and ^ Sections, usin^ 
\^ 5 Sections in the Cut Side and i F Sections 
^onfften/iSider 



*Note: 
Use Turnpilie Sections on Slopes up to 5Deq. 



70 



SECTIONS 



Plate ii. — (Conlinued) 



Tijpical Through FiUSeo+ion* 
De&ignoteol F Sec+ion». 

Mof9» till Slopes l-'i FfockFf Its. 

Is*/ Orel/nary Earth, 
li'i Spec/cr/ Cases. 

utilise n^sfe fxcavaf/or? fry Flaifemng 
Slopes in Fills . 



, le 1 J 



CL.ofCrovi^n 
Blevafion , .,, 
— i 1^ 



cX Pro-file Gradei 







Crown El2vaflon 
I " 

^£ i.7? 



"20'" > 



^ile Grade 





C.L of Crown 

£l€vafion 

> 9 



SIDE HILL SECTIONS 



71 



Plate ii. — (Continued) 



Ti^pical Side Hill Sec+ions 
Notts Designcr^d S Sec+ion&< 

(Use these Sechi'ons on t^ where Side Slope 
is greater thanlSDeg. 
On Side Slopes betvfeen SDeg and iSDeg. use 
Tf/o-Wag Crown, except in Section S-W. 

Frequent Turnotrfwidenings must he 
used with this Section. 
Section $-8 is the Mini mum in Rock. 
Section SriO is the Minimum in Earth, 



C,L of Crown 
elevation. 




'oiUe6rade 
J6^ 



Section S- 16 
One-Way Crown^"tdl' 
fHhereverShort ffadius Curves are necessarg around a Spur anditis 
impossible to see ahead well, use this Section. 



72 



SECTIONS 



Plate h. — {Continued) 



^V Disinfegrafed Rock. 
/:/ Boulders artdEaH-h. 
k't Large Sandstone Slabs 
^ andEarfh. 



Typical Throu9h Cu+ Sec+ionft. 
Oesi3 noted C 6«ctione. 

Hote » 'Cu+ Slopes^ • / in Rock 

'? ' ' oH Ordinary Earfh 
/J'/ 6pccial Soils 



t ' / OneSfeep Side Hills ffhtre the Use 
of 1^*1 would make unreasonable 



Long Slope. 




CL.ofCroiv 
Elevafion^ - 



CLProfile 
w erod e i^ 



Section C- 10 . 
Crown ^"+01' 




CL 
Crown 



C.L 
Profile G/txfe 



Seo+ion C-12. 
Crown J"tol' 



«£-»^— • 



CLon 

Crown 
Eleva+ionZ 



14* >Ud 



\A 



¥\ 



[14* 5' 



CLPrPfile 
K.erade 



Seo+ion C-14. 
CrownJ'+ol* 




L 
-file erode 



Sec+ion C"i0. 
. Cro^mJ^-tol* 




C.L. of Crow. 
Elevaf/on 



Profile 
Qrade 



Section C-15 
Crown 3."+or 



WALL SECTIONS 

PiATE II. — {Continvtd) 



Typical Wall Seo+ion- 
DoublB Traak Road. 
Minimum Wid+h. 



Seo-t-ion Vi-iZ. 




CHAPTER m 

DRAINAGE 

(i) General Discussion. (2) Culverts. (3) Small 
Bridges and Fords. (4) Underdrains. 

General Discussion. — There are three classes of drainage prob- 
lems in road work; cross drainage; longitudinal drainage and sub- 
surface drainage. Cross drainage includes culverts, bridges and 
in rare cases fords. Longitudinal drainage includes surface ditches, 
ditch protections and in unusual cases storm sewers on long hills; 
and sub-surface structures for collecting ground water cover blind 
and open throat porous drains. 

This chapter deals with the smaller structures only. For the 
theory and practice of reinforced concrete, masonry or steel long 
span bridges the reader is referred to the standard works on those 
subjects. The conditions for transverse drainage to the ditches 
were given in Chapter II and minimum ditch grades were referred 
to on page 29. Ditch protection on steep grades, storm sewers, 
and the flow of water in ditches will be covered in Chapter VIII. 

Any complete drainage scheme protects the road from wash and 
seepage, which requires culverts or bridges at all points where there 
is a natural cross drainage of accumulated water such as streams, 
swales, established drainage or irrigation ditches, etc.; at all sags 
in the road profile and on long grades at frequent intervals to re- 
lieve the road ditches- of excess water and prevent washouts. 
The spacing between these ditch relief culverts on sidehill locations 
depends on the grade, soil, ditch lining and width of section. A 
narrow 10' mountain road requires more relief than a 20' road in 
the same location as even a small washout will put the narrow 
road out of commission while a moderately bad ditch scour will 
not stop traffic in the second case. No set rules on spacing can 
be given but current practice favors ditch relief culverts on 8% 
grades at intervals not exceeding 300 feet and on 5% grades not 
exceeding 500 feet unless cobble gutter or concrete ditch lining is 
used when the distance can be materially increased. On long cut 
and fill hills drop inlets into storm sewers are sometimes necessary. 

Design. — Culvert and Bridge design considers the size of opening 
required for the maximum flow, the strength necessary to carry 
traffic or to hold deep fills; the width of roadway and the type 
of structure most suitable to the requirements of topography, 
foundations and available funds. If the funds are limited t)ie 
cheaper types may be used but all necessary structures must be 
built not only to protect the road but to establish a reasonaUe 

74 



WATERWAY 75 

drainage scheme which as the country develops is recognized and 
becomes fixed by usage; it is very difficult to change surface drain* 
age in well settled districts without annojdng and expensive 
lawsuits. 

Size of Opening. — The size of opening is usually determined by 
noting the size of the old structure or, if none exists, the size of 
other structures over the same stream and by inquiries of neighbor- 
ing residents or the road commissioner as to how the existing 
structure has handled the water in the past. As a general rule the 
size of opening or span should not be reduced below that of the 
present structure but in the case of steel bridges that have been 
sold to town boards by enterprising bridge companies it is often 
found that the span is needlessly long. The evidence of existing 
structures is the most reliable basis of design but the conclusions 
should be checked theoretiadly and for small drainage areas in 
villages and all drainage areas affecting new locations in sparsely 
settled districts either the phjrsical evidence of high water or some 
maximum run off formula must be used. Run off formulae are 
based on the rate of rainfall, area of the watershed, topography 
and soil. The rate of rainfall varies for different geographical 
locations and the length of the storm. Reliable information for 
any locality can be obtained from the weather bureau. Short 
storms develop the greatest intensity and produce the largest 
runoff for small watersheds. The rates reached jy these storms 
should be considered in designing ditch relief culverts or cross 
culverts with small drainage areas. A liberal basis for these 
cases is the 5 or 10 minute duration rate of Table 13, page 78. 
Table 14, page 79, illustrates the method. Most culvert design 
is based on a 24 hour precipitation as illustrated in Table 16, 
page 82, and applies to watersheds of say 0.5 sq. mi. and up. 
Streams requiring structures of over 10' span generally produce 
physical evidence of highwater which can be safely used. 

Table 15, page 80, gives the size of opening used by the Santa 
Fe Railroad; Table 17, page 83, gives the size of opening for small 
culverts used by the New York Central. Table 18, page 83, gives 
the size of culvert used by the Iowa Highway Comnussion. These 
tables serve to illustrate the application of this principle of design. 

Weather bureau records show maximum 24 hour precipitations 
of 7.66 inches at Portland, Oregon, 5.12 inches at Los Angeles, 
California, 2.06 inches at £1 Paso, Texas, 7.03 inches at Kansas 
City, Afissouri, 9.40 inches at New York City and 8.57 inches at 
Savannidi, Georgia. These rates are rarely used for runoff com- 
putations as they represent extreme cases of rare occurrence. 
Good practice uses a 24 hour rate of from 4 to 6 inches. Openings 
based on these rates where the culvert will handle the water with- 
out quite running full will take care of unusual cases by the forced 
discharge due to the formation of a shallow pond on the up stream 
side of the road. Table No. 19, page 84, gives the normal discharge 
of small culverts laid at different rates of grade. To illustrate the 
use of tables 13 to 19 three examples will be given. Suppose water 
from 2 sq. mi. of flat farming country in the North Atlantic 



76 DRAINAGE 

States is to pass through a culvert having a natural slope of 0.5' 
to the hundred. 

Table 16 is figured for a a!' rainfall in 24 hours which is reasonable 
for this section. This table shows a runoff of 334 second ft. for 
fiat farm land. For a slope of 0.5 ft. per 100 taUe 19 shows that a 
S' X s' culvert will carry the water. . 

Suppose we have steep rocky ground of say 200 acres or J^ 
sq. mile in Oklahoma and a culvert slope of 2' per 100. The 
best data is the Santa Fe table No. 15 which gives an opening of 
51 sq. ft. at 10 ft. per second or a run off of 510 second feet. 
Table 19 shows that a 5' X 4' culvert on a 2% grade will carry 
this but that the velocity is high and the culvert must have a solid 
bottom and riprap protection at both ends. Where pipes or solid 
bottom culverts are used high velocity is not objectionable but 
where the bridge type is used a sufficiently large opening to keep 
the velocity down to 10 ft. per second or less is advisable. 

Suppose a ditch relief culvert drains 2 acres in the cloudburst 
region and can be. laid on a slope of 3 ft. in a hundred. Use last 
column Table 14 which gives 12 second feet which from Table 
19 gives a 16" pipe. 

Strength. — Dead loads are readily determined but reasonable 
live loads are a matter of judgment. Many of the states limit a 
vehicle load to 15 tons on improved roads without special permission 
but loads in excess of this occur now and then. The old cidverts 
and bridges on our roads are practically without exception too 
light for modem traffic. Permanent culverts should be designed 
to carry the dead load plus a 20 ton vehicle load with 25% impact. 
Standard culverts shown in Plate No. 15, page 92^ seem needlessly 
strong but small concrete culverts are generally backfilled and used 
during construction before they develop their full strength and 
practical considerations require the excess material. A design 
load of a 20 ton vehicle with 30% impact is desirable for small 
permanent solid floor bridges of 10' to 50' span and this loading 
is often used for even timber bridges in States similar to Wyoming 
where oil development, etc., requires the movement of heavy ma- 
chinery, although usually where timber is used a 10 ton live load 
with 50% impact is considered good practice and for mountain 
roads 6 tons will usually be acceptable. For long span solid 
floor steel or masonry structures a live load of 150 pounds per 
square foot plus a 20 ton vehicle with 30% impact is first class 
modern practice. This value is higher than generally used. 

These loadings are safe for military purposes as the following 
statement of Major General W. M. Black, Chief of Engineers 
191 7 will show. 

"Our existing ordinance liable to accompany a field army will have its 
heaviest representative in a 12-incfa howitzer weighing about 37.000 lb., 
18,600 lb. of which are on the front wheels. The base or distance between 
the front and rear axles is 18 ft.; width of track 7 ft. 4 in. width of tire 8 
inches; width of tire shoes 12 inches. This howitzer is drawn by a 75 H. P. 
caterpillar tractor weighing 25,000 lb. Comparison with the largest present 
day commercial truclra shows that a road or bridge substantial enough for 
such will suffice for the ordinance load." 



TYPE OF STRUCTURES 77 

• 

Table No. 51, page 561, gives the safe load for steel I-beams. 

Table No. 52, page 563, gives the safe load for timber beams. 

Table No. 53, page 564, gives the safe load for concrete slabs. 

Table No. 53 A, page 565, gives the effect of depth of fill on con- 
crete slabs. 

Table No. 54, page 566, gives the safe load for concrete beams. 

Table No. 55, page 567, gives the safe load for timber columns. 

'^dth of Bridges. — Culverts are made long enough to accommo- 
date the normal road section. There is nothing more unsightly or 
dangerous than the narrowing of the normal section at a culvert. 
First-class design widens the section at culvert locations and even 
with minimum head room uses an out-to-out dimension of not less 
than 30 feet. This same rule applies to short span permanent 
bridges up to about 25' span which on high type road improvements 
should have a clear- width of 22' between parapets. Above 25' 
spans the roadway width depends largely on the location of the 
structure and probable traffic but for most main roads a 20' clear 
roadway is satisfactory for permanent structures and a 16' roadway 
for temporary timber structures. Plates No. 20 to No. 30, page 100 
to 124, illustrate current practice. 

Type of Structure. — For small drainage areas some form of pipe 
culvert is generally used which will be discussed in more detail 
under Culverts. 

From 2' to 5' spans the box culvert t)rpe is popular. 

From 5' to 20' spans the slab or stringer form of construction is 
reasonable except under deep fills where the semicircular arch is 
better practice; from 20' to 50' spans Pony Truss or Parapet girder 
types are available for most conditions or arches where the founda- 
tion is suitable. Pony Trusses are desirable up to about 80' 
span and beyond ^lat the through Truss type. 

The following list illustrates the practice of the Iowa Highway 
Commission. 

1 . Box culverts and slab bridges 2' to 20' span. Not economical over 20' 
span. 

2. Reinforced concrete arches 8' to 100' span. Foundation must be 
excellent. 

3. Pony truss steel bridges with solid concrete floor 30' to 80' spans. 

4. Reinforced concrete girders 20' to 50' span. Very economical but 
require careful design and construction. Not economical over so' span. 

In the matter of type the author desires to emphasize the desira- 
bility of simple design particularly for small structures. Mass 
concrete for sides and bottoms is preferable to thin reinforced 
sections (see New York Standards, page 92). It may not be as 
scientific or theoretically as cheap but better results are obtained 
with the usual inspectors. Road commissioners often do not under- 
stand the object of the reinforcement and either leave it out alto- 
gether or get it in the wrong place. For large structures where a 
competent inspector can be employed this objection does not hold 
but even for such structure mass conci:ete for abutments, retaining 
wall, etc., is to be preferred. 



78 



DRAINAGE 



Tabix No. 13. — Rates op Rainfall. Short Storms 

Short storms of the greatest intensity occur as cloud-bursts 
in the mountain and and regions between the Sierras and the 
foothills of the Rockies. The intensities of these storms are not 
well recorded but partial records indicate as high a fall as 11 
inches in one hour. For these regions culverts for small drainage 
areas should be made at least twice as large as for eastern or 
southern conditions. (See last column, table No. 14.) 

Maximum intensity of Rainfall for different periods taken from 
the U. S. Weather Bureau Records. Intensity at rate of inches 
per hour. 



Location 



5 Minute 
Duration 



10 Minute 
Duration 



One Hour 
Duration 



Atlanta, Georgia. . . 

Boston, Mass 

Chicago, 111 

Cleveland, Ohio.. . 

Denver, Colo 

Detroit, Mich 

Duluth, Minn 

Galveston, Tex 

Jacksonville, Fla.. 
Milwaukee, Wis. . . 
Memphis, Tenn... 
New Orleans, La. . 

Norfolk, Va 

Omaha, Neb 

Philaddphia, Penn 

Savanah, Geo 

St. Louis, Mo 

Washington, D. C. 







5 Sm. 


5-5 in. 


6.7 in. 


5 . in. 


6.6 in. 


5-9 m. 


5 . 6 in. 


3-7 m. 


3 . 6 in. 


3-3 m. 


7.2m. 


6.0m. 


3.6 in. 


2.4m. 


6.5 in. 


5.6 in. 


7.4 m. 


7.1 m. 


7.8 in. 


4.2m. 


6 . 6 in. 


4.8 in. 


8.2 in. 


4.9 m. 


5 . 8 in. 


55 in. 


6 . in. 


4.^ in. 


5.4 m. 


4.0 m. 


6 . 6 in. 


6.0 in. 


4 . 8 in. 


3.8 in. 


7.5 in. 


5 . 1 m. 



i-S in- 

1.7 in. 

1.6 in. 

1.1 in. 

1.2 in. 
2.2 in. 
1.4 in. 
2 . 6 in. 

2 . 2 in. 

1.3 in- 
1.9 in. 

2.2 in. 

1 . 6 in. 

1 . 6 in. 

IS in. 

2.2 in. 

2 . 3 in. 

1.8 in. 



RUNOFF 



79 



Table 14. — Maximum Runoff. Small Watersheds 
Burkle-Ziegler, Sewer Formula 



Cubic feet per 
second per acre 
reaching culvert. 



f Av. cu. ft. rainfall] 4/Av. 
-» CX {.per second per acre } X \/ 

1 ^._.__^__..r__.r-t, , \ _ 



1 duriuK heaviest fall, j 



slope of ground in 
feet per 1000 



No. of acres drained 



C B 0.75 for paved streets and built up business blocks. 
C «= 0,62s for ordinary city streets. 
C = 0.30 for villages with' lawns and macadam streets. 
Assumed C « 0.25 for farming country. Notb. — This value is high from 

the standpoint of sewer design but culverts are short and 

might better be liberal in size. 

One inch of rainfall per hour equals i cu. ft. per second per acre. 
Discharge in Cubic Pbbt pbr Second 



Area 

in 
Acres 



Rate of Rainfall 4" per Hour 



Pall s' in 1000 



C"0.30 



C"0.2S 



Pall 20' in 1000 



C-»o.30 



Pall 50' in 1000 



C""0.2S C — 0.30 



C-0.2S 



** Assumed 
Runoff Steep 
Stony Moun- 
tain Slopes 



Rainfall 8" 
per Hour 



X 

3 
3 
4 
5 

6 

7 
8 

9 
10 

30 
30 
40 
SO 
60 

70 

80 

90 

100 

200 

300 
400 

.SOD 
600 
640 



1.8 


IS 


2.S 


2.1 


3.1 


2.7 


3.0 


as 


4.2 


3 5 


54 


4 5 


4.1 


3.4 


5-7 


4.8 


7.2 


6.0 


SO 


4.2 


7.2 


6.0 


90 


7.S 


6.0 


SO 


8.S 


7.1 


10.7 


8.9 


6.8 


57 


9.7 


8.1 


12.2 


10.3 


l-^ 


6.4 


10.9 


9.1 


13.7 


12.6 


8.S 


7.1 


12.0 


10. 


IS. I 


9.3 


7.8 


13.2 


II. 


16. s 


13.8 


10. I 


8.4 


14-3 


11.9 


18.0 


IS.O 


16.9 


14. 1 


24.0 


20.0 


30.2 


25.2 


23.0 


19-2 


32. s 


27.1 


40.7 


33.9 


28. s 


23.8 


40.3 


33.6 


SO. 9 


42.4 


33.6 


28.0 


47.7 


39.8 


60.0 


SO.o 


38.6 


32.2 


54.6 


4S.S 


68.7 


57. 3 


43.3 


36.1 


61.4 


SI .2 


77-3 


64.4 


48.0 


40.0 


67.9 


S6.6 


85.2 


71.0 


52.4 


43.7 


73.9 


61.6 


93.1 


77.6 


56.7 


47.3 


80.2 


66.8 


100.8 


84.0 


9S.4 


79. S 


134.6 


112. 2 


169.7 


141. 4 


129. 


107.7 


182.9 


IS2.4 


229.7 


191. 4 


160.0 


133 6 


227.0 


189.2 


285.6 


238.0 


190.0 


158.0 


268.0 


223. S 


336.6 


280. s 


216.0 


180.0 


307.0 


256.0 


387.0 


322.8 


230.0 


♦192.0 


323.0 


269.0 


406.3 


338.6 



6 
12 
18 

28 

33 

38 
42 
46 
SO 

90 
120 
ISO 
180 
200 

22s 
250 

275 
300 

550 

750 

880 

980 

1,050 

1, 100 



♦ 300 second feet by Table 16. 
** Based on Santa Pe Table 15. 



So 



DRAINAGE 





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82 



DRAINAGE 



Table i6. — Maximum Runoff, Dickens Formula 
D = C\/M' Runoff expressed in second feet. 



The following tabulation is for a 24 hour precipitation of 4" 


rain and for topography similar to the farming sections of the 


Eastern Atlantic States. For 6" in 24 hours correct the quanti- 


ties in proportion to C as follows. 




4"Kainfall 


6" Rainfall 


Flat Country Flat C = 200 


Country C = 300 


Rolling Country C = 250 Rolling Country C = 325 


Hilly Country C = 300 Hilly Country C = 350 


For steep stony watersheds and a 6' 


'' rainfall use the Oklahoma 


Column of Table 15. 




Area in Square Mfles 


Flat Conntiy 
C aoo 


Rolling Coimtiy 
C 250 


Hilly Country 
C 300 


0.1=64 acres 


36 


45 


54 


0.2 


60 


75 


90 


0.3 


81 


lOI 


121 


04 


100 


125 


150 


0.S 


119 


149 


180 


0.6 


136 


170 


204 


0.7 


153 


191 


229 


0.8 


169 


211 


253 


0.9 


i8s 


231 


277 


1.0 


200 


250 


300 


2.0 


334 


417 


501 


3.0 


456 


570 


684 


4.0 


564 


705 


846 


S.O 


668 


835 


1002 


6.0 


764 


955 


1 146 


7.0 


860 


1075 


1290 


8.0 


950 


1188 


Z426 


9.0 


1038 


1297 


1556 


10.0 


1122 


1402 


1682 


20.0 


1890 


2362 


2834 


30.0 


2560 


3200 


3840 


40.6 


3180 


3975 


4770 


50-0 


3760 


4700 


5640 


60.0 


4310 


5400 


6480 


70.0 


4840 


6050 


7260 


80.0 


5360 


6700 


8040 


90.0 


5840 


7300 


8760 


100.0 


6320 


7900 


9480 



or areas under o.i square mile, see Table 14. 



CULVERTS 83 

Table 17. — ^New York Central and Hudson River R. R. 
Culverts for Small Drainage Areas. 



steep, Rocky. 
— Ground. 
Acres 


Flat Cultivation, 

Long Valley. 

Acres 


Size. Diameter 
in Inches 


Equivalent Capacity. 
Pipes 


5 


10 


10' 




10 


20 


12" 




20 


40 


16" 




25 


50 


18' 


two 16" pipes 


30 


60 


20" 


two 16' pipes 


45 


90 


24' 


two 18" pipes 


70 


140 


30' 


two 24' pipes 


no 


220 


36' 


two 30 ' pipes 


150 


300 


42' 


two 30" pipes 


180 


360 


48' 


two 36' pipes 


280 


560 


60" 




Note. — To be used only in the absence of more reliable infor- 


mation, particularly existing culverts over the same stream. 



TifflLE 18. Culvert Design. Iowa State Highway 

Commission^ 



Size of Culvert 
Opening 


Maximum Acres 


Minimum Acres 


2'X 2' 

4;x 4; 

6'X 6' 

8'X 8' 

10' X 10' 


70 

376 

1300 

2700 

5000 


28 

140 

520 

1120 

2000 



CULVERTS 

Engineers do not differ much in the design of these structures. 

For high type roads they should be permanent; should be large 
enough to taJ^e the flood flow; should if possible be self-cleaning; 
must admit of being cleaned easily and as previously stated must be 
long enough to accommodate the normal width of road section. 

For low type roads the requirements are the same except that 
temporary or semi-permanent culverts may be used if the funds 
are limited. The different kinds are as follows: 

Concrete or masonry culverts Permanent 

Cast iron pipe culverts " 

Double strength vitrified clay pipe Semi-permanent 

Ordinary concrete pipe culverts " " 

Corrugated metal pipe culverts " " 

Dry rubber masonry culverts " " 

Timber and log culverts Temporary 



84 



DRAINAGE 



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OBSTRUCTIONS TO CULVERTS 8$ 

Cast iron pipe or concrete box culverts are generally used on 
high class improvements. Corrugated metal, concrete or vitrified 
pipe and dry masonry on low class improvements and timber or 
log culverts in mountain road work. 

For moderate sized drainage areas the culvert opening is pro- 
portioned to the runoff but for small areas the size is determmed 
by the convenience of cleaning rather than by the discharge capacity. 
Where sufficient fall can be obtained to make the culvert self- 
cleaning, a 12" pipe is feasible under shallow fills but where the flow 
is sluggish, nothing less than a 16" or 18" pipe will serve satisfacto- 
rily. Long culverts under deep fills should never be smaller than 
2' wide and 3' high to permit cleaning by hand if necessary. 

The self-cleansing velocity of flow for sand and earth particles 
is about one foot p>er second; for coarse gravel about three feet 
per second (Ogden's Sewer Design, page 134). A pipe laid on a 
slope that gives a velocity of five feet per second when flowing one 
quarter full should keep clean. This requires a fall of approx. two 
feet per hundred for a 1 2" pipe and is the minimum grade at which 
the 12" size should be used. 

It is our opinion that a culvert should have the same slope as the 
stream bed. If given a greater slope the outlet end tends to clog 
and if a lesser the inlet end will plug. It is unusual for culverts to 
fill badly except when placed at the foot of a steep hillside where 
the stream velocity is naturally reduced. At such points an extra 
large structure should be designed with the idea of providing suffi- 
cient waterway even after the contraction caused by this settlement 
has occurred. Such a culvert should be cleaned after each freshet. 
The use of paved dips in the roadway at such points in place of 
culverts is not advised as they are dangerous and cause accidents 
unless very gradual. A man not familiar with the road often 
loses control of his car. Ditch relief culverts on grades should be 
laid at an angle of about 45^ with the center line in order not to 
retard the water at the inlet end. 

More trouble is experienced from culverts becoming filled with 
ice due to alternate freezing and thawing weather. This is par- 
ticularly true of small culverts draining springs. Culverts as 
large as 2 X 2 have frozen solid in this manner and if 
this condition is anticipated the size should be regu- 
lated accordingly or trouble will be experienced dur- 
ing the spring break up. The following ingenious 
expedient has been successfully used on roads where 
the culverts fill with ice and snow during the winter. 
A small pipe is suspended inside of the normal cul- Fig. 19. 
vert. In the fall this small pipe is plugged and in the 
spring just as the snow begins to melt the plugs are removed and 
tne first water flowing through the small pipe melts the ice and snow 
rapidly for the entire length of the culvert so that it is generally 
completely free to handle the main spring runoff. 

Where pipe culverts are laid on steep slopes special buttresses 
well imbedded in the hard slope should be provided to prevent 




86 



DRAINAGE 



crawl or slip. Well built head walls should hold up to say 12^ 
slope and beyond that extra anchors should be provided. 




Fig. 20. 

In designing culverts under side roads, the length must be great 
enough to provide an easy turn for traflftc; many times a saving 



Mala Road 



Macadam 



SkkCukinDHthLine *- 
dideCylvertSet I 



Backon^idtfhad 




Fig. 21. 

in length can be made by placing the culvert a short distance down 
the side road as shown in Figure 21. 



Skhtm/k 



Sidemiffi 




Fig. 22. 

Figure No. 22 shows a form of culvert often used in village 
streets where deep ditches at the culvert site would be objectionable. 

While vitrified pipe or concrete pipe are not recommended for 
cross culverts in high-class improvements they are the most suitable 



RELATIVE COST 



87 



construction for ditch drainage under driveways etc., the wooden 
boxes built by some departments are not economical which is 
shown in the following estimate of relative cost of small unimportant 
culverts given by A. R. Hirsch in Wisconsin Road Pamphlet No. 4. 



Kind 


Size of 
Opening 


Length 


First Cost and 

Maintenance iot 

100 Yean 


3' Hemlock box 

Concrete box 


15 in. sq. 
15 in. sq. 
18 in. 
18 in. 
18 in. 
18 in. 
18 in. 


20 
20' 

28' 

26' 


$252.00 
40.00 
3S-00 
41.00 
42.00 
166.00 
196.00 


Concrete oioe 


Single strength V. T. P. . 
Double stroigth V. T. P. . 
Cast-iron Dine 


Corrugated steel 



Relative Cost of Culverts. — The relative cost depends largely on 
the location, material available and length of haul. Hie foUowing 
costs are approximately correct for the northeastern states during 
the years 1912-1914. 

Table 21 gives comparative costs for permanent culverts and 
shows that cast iron is generally not economical over 18" in diam- 
eter. Pipe is to be preferred where the headroom is small. 

The foUowing list shows the approximate cost per ft. of vitrified 
and corrugated metal pipe culverts. 





12" 


IS" 


18" 


24" 


36" 


48" 


^trifled pipe culverts 
Corrugated metal cul- 
verts. 


$0.60 
1.25 


$0.90 
ISO 


$1.10 
.1.80 


$2.00 
2.75 


$3.75 
4.00 


$6.50 



Corrugated metal is to be preferred to vitrified tile if the head- 
room is small as it is not as likely to fail imder heavy loads. 
Small log culverts cost approx. as follows: 



Size of Opening 
12" X 18" 
12" X 24" 
14" X 36" 

- 24" X 36" 



Approx. Cost per Foot 

$1.30 
1.40 

1.60 

1.70 



The difference in cost between corrugated metal and log culverts 
is not enough to warrant the use of small lot structures except in 
unusual cases. 



DRAINAGE 



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SMALL SPAN BRIDGES 



89 



Plates 12, 13 and 14 show standard pipe culverts. 

Plate 15 shows first-class simple massive box culvert design. 
This is as satisfactory a type as there is in use. 

Plates 16 and 17 show good examples of semicircular and circular 
culvert practice. 

Plate 18 shows the combined, masonry and concrete type which 
is suitable where stone is plentiful and concrete costly. 

Plate 19 shows log culverts used on mountain roads. 

The shape of opening for small concrete culverts should permit 
the use of collapsible forms. 



Plate 12. — Cast Iron Pipe Culvert. New York State 

Standard. 



Plan. 




I ^ 2, Hot Less than. 



^€i;jM-LessHtan.' e; Hot Lsss than'. 

Longitudinal Secft'on. 





SMALL SPAN BRIDGES 

The area of opening, width, live loading and economical type 
were discussed in the first oC the chapter. Most ordinary soils 
afford satisfactory foundations for small span bridges but piles 
must be used for muck or quicksand and are advisable if much 
scour is anticipated which can not be prevented by rip rap protec- 
tion. Pile foundations are required for all large structures where 
rock foundations* are not available and are desirable for any con- 
crete structure over 30' span. 

The safe foundation load on various soils recommended by the 
"New York Building Code" and "Baker's Foundations" are as 
follows: 

New York Building Code 

Soft clay I ton per square foot 

Ordinary sand and clay in layers, wet and 

springy 2 tons " " " 

Loam, day or fine sand, firm and dry. . . 3 " " " " 
Dry firm coarse sand, stiff gravel or hard 

clav 4 " " " " 

(Continued on page 98-) 



METAL CULVERTS 



...not Ittaflian 






Longi+udinal Seetio 



^ 




L_'l--J 






\f 


iwfMfNiant. 




V T 




^ 




H 


[D 


/ 






"""t^noi- f*M fttan 





End Elevation. 
TABLE OF PROPERTIES. 



Jlomrt- 


5.og. 


Copadty^L. 


Concrete 
Cu.Yiils. 














236 














0.02C 



















































B xC 


E 




sT^ 


^ 


' 










"*wy,tfti»C 



LongHndintit Setti on . Cn>u itction. 



CONCRETE CULVERTS 



93 



Plate i6. — ^Massachusetts Standard for Concrete Arch 

Culverts. 

15 




--R 



ao64cu.yd%p 
One End O.Mcu.yd». p«rfr. 







utti 







One End I.l4ci».yds. 
15 - 




a0C9cu.yd», 
perftv 



l»»l 




One End V,39cu.yd&. 




aii4cu.yd». 
per*; 



l««M 




One End li6l cu.yds. 
l< ^,j. -^ ^ 



0.123 cu.yd». 
per4V. 





One End IJSIcu.yde. 



K' 36 --H 



O.Y8cu.ydft. 
peril; 








Pr'' 



pt 


— [== 


=5 




^^s 


^ 










^^^g; 


^ 


[^ 




[^ 





Dtptti 




KoMnn 
Cu.YMa 


Conctch 


[i>ini 














































































~px-'^^r: 


JL 




X^f 





















T^BLE OF.QUAKTITIEBVkA'cULVERT 



LOG CULVERTS 




98 DRAINAGE 

Baker's Foundations 

Rock (poor) 5 tons per square foot 

" (solid & first quality) 25 " " " " 

Dry clay 4 " " " " 

Medium dry clay 2 ; " " " " 

Soft clay I ton " " " 

Cemented gravel 8 tons 

Compact sand 4 " " 

Clean dry sand 2 " " 

Quick sand and alluvial soil 3^ ton '' 



tc U It 

(t It 

It tf 

it It 



Where piles are used for types of construction where slight 
settlement is not objectionable a loading of from 10 to 15 tons for a 
sound well driven pile is conservative practice. 

The safe load for a timber pile driven with a gravity hammer can 
be figured from the following simple formula. (Iowa Bridge 
Specifications.) 

Safe load in lb. = — ; — 

5 -h I 

W = weight of hammer in lb. 
H = fall in feet 

5 = average penetration in inches per blow for the 
last three blows. 

Scour. — Scour is produced in different soils at approximately 
the following stream velocities. 

Sand 2 to 3 ft. per second 

Loam 2to3K" " " 

Firm gravel 5 to 6 " " " 

Riprap protection reduces scour. According to Trautwine a 
velocity of 8 miles per hour or 12' per second will not derange 
quarry rubber stones exceeding }4 cu. ft. deposited around piers 
or abutments. If the natural stream velocity is not over 10 ft. 
per second the span is usually regulated so that the velocity under 
the bridge during freshets will not exceed 10' per second. If the 
natural stream velocity of flow at the bridge site is not known it 
can be approximated roughly for small streams by the formula. 

Where V = Velocity of flow in feet per second 

C = Constant assumed value 60 

-, _-. , ,. ,. Cross sectional area of flow 

R = Hydraulic radius ... ^, , : — : 

Wetted perimeter 

S = Slope of stream 

Example, — To approximate the freshet velocity of the stream 
shown having a fall of i.o' per 100' or 53 feet per mile. 



FORDS 



99 






V = cVrs 

C = 60 

25 

I 
S — — ^ = o.oi 
10 

r = 60 •V^4 X 0.01 = 60 \^o.o4 = 60 X 0.2 = 12 ft. per secoDcL 

Where much ice occurs piers in small streams should be avoided. 
They can be used to advantage to reduce cost however if there is 
no danger of ice or debris jams particularly if the flow is sluggish 
and in the latter case for wide shallow streams the trestle design is 
economical. 

Paved Fords. — For wide shallow arroyos of the arid regions 
of the west paved fords are in general use. These channels 
only carry water during sudden severe storms and it would be 
practically prohibitive in cost to provide large enough structures 




»^^ Harking fbsts. 



Fig. 2Z' — Paved ford. 



to carry the sudden large infrequent flows. The road across an 
arroyo is kept slightly below the natural elevation of the wash and 
is paved with concrete, cobblestone or timber (see sketch). The 
alignment is straight and the location of the pavement is shown 
during flood by 4 marking posts 2 at each end which also indicate 
the depth of water so that it can be used even if covered with water 
unless tJbe depth is too great for safety which can be determined 
by the gauges on the range posts. As the concrete is below the bot- 
tom of the stream no scour occurs and generally a thin layer of 
sand is deposited on the concrete which can be easily cleaned off 
with a road machine. 



lliliii 



lUUU 



TIMBER BRIDGES 



! 

i< 

1 


1 
1 

s 

f 

s 


22 
>? 

22 

1 

ad 
23 

i 

bid 
ss 
^d 

u'd 

aa 

Md 

8 




X X XX 

X x^xx 

riil 


~2 g -S'S 

HI 


mm 








b&bb^^ 








X XX XX 


x=xx°xx 




xxxxxx 
xxxxxx 

■riiiii 


|x XX XX 


s s4 •= 


■i ss ^-J 
US 


■mm 


1? % ^^ 

Viii 




X X XX 

nil 


xxxxxx 

Wm 


ILlk 


X X XX 

nil 


X X XX 

; ;•£ 

nii 












:^ ^ : 












1 


ill 


i if 


i if 


1 1 1 



DRAINAGE 







"'S'llfll 












TIMBER BRIIX>ES 






tuiiu 



■iirrnr 



xxxxxxx 

rniiir 



9 M4 





lo6 






DRAINAGE 












f 6« 

3 

ng 

1 


1 

1 
1 


33 


X X 

rr 


'r'l 


I'l 


xxxxxx 
xxxxxx 

mill 




a 


5 «; 

m 


X XXX 


X XXX 


xxxxxx 
xxxxxx 

mill 


s^ 




2 2S^ 

liril 


X XXX X XXX xxxxxx 
'S^Vs'* S^Vp* 5=VVi5.i. 
x^xxx x=xxx xxxxxx 

1 rri^ mytiui 


I 


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33 

Hd 

11 


■f 4 s*- 


X XXf 
X XX 


!8' 
! 1 


xxxxxx 
xxxxxx 

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S3 


X XX 
X XX 


\ 25 

X XX 
X XX 

III 


X XX 

i II 


xxxxxx 
!>■.«.■.•« 

xxxxxx 

mill 




1 


1 


1 


» 




1 


J 




1 


Hi 



TIMBER BRIDGES 




DRAINAGE 




PILE TEESTLKS 




1 10 



DRAINAGE 



Plate 24. — (CotUinued) 

Dimensions and Quantities por Superstructure 

Capacity is-Ton Truck 



Panel 




Intermediate Panel 










• 




Length 


Size 

of 

Joists 


Joists 


Floor 
Railing 
Details 


Total 
Lumber 


Bolts. 

Washers, 

Spikes. 

Nails 


Feet 


Inches 


Ft. B. M. 


Ft. B. M. 


Ft. B. M. 


Pounds 


10 


6X12 


590 


800 


1390 


80 




4X14 
6X12 


460 


840 


1300 




II 


650 


870 


1520 


90 




4X14 
6X12 


500 


920 


1420 




12 


700 


940 


1640 


90 




4X16 
8X12 


620 


990 


1610 






lOIO 


1020 


2030 




13 


6X14 


880 


1020 


1900 


90 




4X16 


670 


1070 


1740 






8X12 


1080 


1090 


2170 




14 


6X14 


950 


1090 


2040 
i860 


90 




4X16 


720 


1 140 




15 


8X12 


iiso 


1 1 70 


2320 


100 




6X14 


1010 


1170 


2180 




16 


10X12 


1530 


1240 


2770 






6X14 


1070 


1240 


2310 


100 




6X16 


1230 


1240 


2470 




17 


10X12 


1620 


1340 


2960 






8X14 
6X16 


iSio 


1340 


2850 


1 20 




1300 


1340 


2640 




18 


10X12 


1710 


1410 


3120 






8X14 
6X16 


1600 


1410 


3010 


130 




1370 


1410 


2780 




19 


10X12 


1800 


1490 


3290 






8X14 


1680 


1490 


3170 


130 




6X16 


1440 


1490 


2930 




20 


8X14 


1760 


1560 • 


3320 


130 




8X16 


2020 


1560 


3580 




21 


10X14 
8X16 


2310 


1640 


3950 


140 




2110 


1640 


3750 




22 


10X14 
8X16 


2410 


1710 


4120 


ISO 




2210 


1710 


3920 





PILE TRESTLES 



III 



Plate 24. — (Continued) 
Capacity io-Ton Truck 



Panel 


Size 




Intermediate Panel 










V^ M A 


Length 


of 
Joists 


Joists 


Floor 
Railing 
Details 


Total 
Lumber 


Bolts. 

Washers. 

Spikes. 

Nails 


Feet 


Inches 


Ft. B. M. 


Ft. B.- M. 


Ft. B. M. 


Pounds 


10 


4X12 


400 


$40 


1040 


70 




3X14 


3SO 


680 


1030 




II 


4X12 


. 430 


700 


1130 


80 




22^4 


380 


740 
700 


1120 ■ 




12 


6Xia 


700 


1460 


80 




3X14 


410 


800 


1210 




X3 


6X12 


760 


810 


1S70 


80 




4X14 
6X12 


S90 


860 


1450 




14 


810 


870 


1680 






4X14 
4X16 
6X12 


630 


910 


IS40 


90 




720 


910 


1630 




IS 


860 


930 


1790 






^5'} 


670 


970 


1640 


90 




4X16 
6X12 


770 


970 


1740 




Id 


920 


990 


1910 






^5^1 


1070 


990 


2060 


xoo 




4x16 
6X12 


820 


1030 


1850 




17 


970 


1070 


2040 






6X14 


1130 


1070 


2200 


no 




i^^^ 


870 


mo 


1980 




18 


8X12 


1370 


1130 


2500 






^X'l 


1200 


1130 


2330 


120 




4X16 


910 


II 70 


2080 




19 


8X12 


1440 
1260 


1180 


2620 






6X14 
4X16 
8x12 


1180 


2440 


120 




960 


1220 


2180 




20 


15 10 


1240 


27 SO 






6X14 
6X16 


1320 


1240 


2560 


120 




I5IO 


1240 


27 SO 




21 


loX 12 


1980 


1300 


3280 






6X14 
6X16 


1390 


1300 


2690 


130 




1580 


1300 


2880 




22 


loX 12 


2070 


1360 


3430 






8X14 
6X16 


1930 


1360 


3290 


130 




1660 


1360 


3020 




23 


loX 12 


2160 


1420 


3S8o 






8X14 
6Xi6 


2020 


1420 


3440 


130 




1730 


1420 


31SO 




24 


10X12 


2250 


1470 


3720 






8X14 
6X16 


2100 


1470 


35 70 


130 




1800 


1470 


3270 


^ • 


25 


loX 14 


2730 


1560 


4290 






8X14 
6X16 


2180 


1560 


3740 


X50 




1870 


1560 


3430 




26 


10X14 
8X16 


2840 


1610 


4450 


160 




2600 


1610 


4210 




27 


10 X 14 
8X16 


2940 


1670 


4610 


160 




2690 


1670 


4360 




28 


10X14 
8X16 


3OSO 


1730 


4780 


160 




2780 


1730 


4510 




29 


10X14 


3ISO 


1790 


4940 


160 




8X16 


2880 


1790 


4670 





Washers to be ogee type cast iron ^" and H" bolts, and cut wrought iron 
or iteel pUte washers for H" bolte. 



112 



DRAINAGE 



Plate 2/^,—{CofUinued) 
Dimensions and Quantities — Substructure 



Grade to 
Ground 


Sway Bracing — Intermediate Bent 


Sets 


Length 


Lumber 


Bolts 


Feet 


No. Reqd. 


Feet 


Ft. B. M. 


Pounds 


IO-I2 

12-15 
15-18 
18-23 
23-26 
One cap io"Xi2 


I 
I 

I 
2 

"Xi7'-0" 


18 
20 
22 
18 & 20 
20 


90 
100 
no 
190 
200 
170 


35 
35 
35 
60 
60 
10 



Grade to Ground 


Bulkhead— End Bent 


Lumber 


Spikes 


Feet 


Ft. B. M. 


Pounds 


4 
5 

6 

7 
8 


270 
360 
460 
550 
640 


5 

5 

10 

10 

10 



FRAMED TRESTLES 



^ _ FlooriitgS'Eile' 




&<** EI«vil+<on. 



bi»^ It. jF-ft, ^ "*^' -I "^ '^ 




/-r| bcfdiaft^ » »* 



eerrtaSonclS. Bairts 3end4 

jwing Road'Wiy-fnrSingla Showing RoodM3ufo.-Doubto 

TSiek Crooning 1™=!. Cnjoelnq 



CONCRETE TRESTLES 



1 


1 


1 


Hill: 


Bill 






































^ 


« 


■* "" 


? 


"li 


'l 


R^sssg^Hig 


•. 




f 


^:;^^^S6S63S 








^^^^^^ 


i 








1 


s 


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- 


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3 




tS'SS'S 




h 


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um 




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ssssi « ^ 




s 


SSSKSS 


n r s 


M 




ddoed 


iiit 


ii 






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n 




^^^£i^ 


StUi 










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Ip 
III 



ila 



DRAINAGE 
Plate 27. 




! 




End.E'evatioh. 

General Dimensions Semi-Cihcdlar Arch Cttivehts 



■^ 


Thu^aaa 


I Spridsids 


Thid.n« 


oIRini 


Hdghlol 


HBunch 
























Coomte 




6 


z'-6' 


2'-6' 


10* 




l'-9' 


a'-o' 


8 


j'-6' 


2'-6' 








a'-6' 




S'-^'' 


3'^' 






3'-o' 


3'-o' 




<■* 


3-^ 


14- 




3-6 






3-9; 


3-9; 


"5' 


>5 


4-0' 










16' 










4'-6' 


4'-6' 


18' 




S'-o' 


s'-6' 


_ȣ.. 


. 5'-o' 


S'-o' 


18' 


18' 


5'-6' 


6'-o' 



SLAB BRIDGES 

Plate 38. — New York State Slab Bridges. 

Note 




Elavcrtion. Sett on onCtnttrLine hjckof ■butmmt into 




Dimensions of slabs on page 118. 



ii8 



DRAINAGE 
Plate 28. — {Continued) 



Span 


ThkknesBof 
Slab* 


Net Area 

of 

Rods 


Spacing 
C-C 


Length ' 
Dowds 


5 


8' 


0.25sq/' 


4i' 


• 12' 


6 


9" 


« 


4' 


« 


7 


10' 


o.39sq." 


Si- 


<« 


a 


' 10' 


<i 


Si' 


« 


9 


11' 


(( 


s' 


« 


10, 


12" 


(( 


4i' 


« 


II 


12" 


o.56sq." 


6i' 


(i 


12 


13' 


(i 


6' 


18' 


13 


13' 


11 


Si' 


i< 


14 


14' 


« 


si' 


(( 


IS 


14' 


u 


s' 


<l 


16 . 


15' 


it 


4i' 


li 


17 


15' 


tt 


4i' 


<l 


18 


16' 


<( 


4*' 


•< 


19 


17' 


(( 


4i' 


« 


20 


18' 


o.77sq." 


Si' 


(i 


21 


18' 


»' 


si' 


(* 


22 


•19' 


u 


s' 


»4' 


23 


19' 


it 


s' 


it 


24 


20' 


u 


4t' 


« 


25 


21*' 


Loosq." 


si' 


II 



For Spans s' to 19' W - 18' For Clear Height 10' or less 
" " 5' to 19' W - 24' " " " 11' to is' 
" " 20' to 25' W - 24' " " " 15' or less 

For Qear Height 7' or less E - 3'- o*' 

" 8' to 10' E - 4'- o*' 

" « " above 10' E - 5'- o* 

* Note. — The thickness of slab given is for shallow fills. For 
the effect of deep fills see Table 53A, page 565. 



STRINGER BRIDGES 
Flats 29. — New York State I beam Bridges 

iaandid Ittnil Embiddtd in 
btanctiUfMCIini) 




^ th ofOiharf 

y* JF ^^Dis^TTiefiv'nCufs.roOifriiaesfUmr- 

/ j^ ^rptfsvfr&nQLtoQof^itanlFoiIanilMfai- 

-' ^ W^i/redonaUnearV/ghtAngm iDCLofRBad- 

^na'^kefrffimeDiitmceb^-A^hT^ 

^alT^sfl-Beanii., ,'—'■ — "»— "■w-J-"* 

n' lofnt/le'^efAbef^erjp 

A and Br Defleitiim of wings h ii^rta. 

P' Length inAbstment MeasBffdahng fbieof ^ 

&kew Colvtrr. 



I20 



DRAINAGE 



.8 



c3 



H 

< 



ireH8<Jjd '^I'^n 



NO 00 O «< ^>0 00 O « ^'O 00 Q « 5»P OQ O « '♦'O 00 O « * 






O « ^«O00 O « 'to 00 Q « 5*0.00. O « 'to 00 O « '*^oQ 



63i(ids spnno j 



^'O 00 O « ^^O 00 Q « !t^OQ. « ^>0 00 Q « >♦« 00 O 
e» « « coe*>t0«oco^'t^'t ^iow> w> w>iovovO*0'0 t^ 






^1 






O. (OO 0» «* u^oQ H ^ t« Q MiO Ot et V)e0 h <^ »•. Q m)vO A <« 
tocoeOto^^'Tiov) MO O O >0 <« <« C^OO 00 00 & Ok Ok Ot O 










)00j Sz 






10OJJ3J 



lOM c« M^v)H cototooo Moo^Q 900 00 00 00 00 M \e o 

00 0» O M « (O '^ w>\0 t-oOO o> O M « to «oo t-.00 o> o « «o ^ 

MHMMMMMMMHC«CI«VC<CICICIC«etC<)tO(OtO 

■' I I " 

lo t» Ot O M '^O 00Oh«ou»&H(O ^fo 00 O M '<<^^0 r«. 0> M 
M H M « « « « « t^t*it*imti'^^^^^ViViu^\r>^n «J0O 

6666666666666666666666666 

«>tOQ »0 «O00 00 00 O oO'OOimQmmM'O* «2C0 M vO O O «J 00 

1« O O O MOO^M t«.IOH00 Ok»OW>M t* "^ O t^ «0 «0 M 00 'T 

• •••••••••••■•• ••••••••J« 

«t «0 iO<0 C<» t^oo 0>0«OMH(«f0^v) u^\0 >» r>'00 Ot O O m 

M.HMWHMMMMMMMMWWCt 

00 0» O H et «o ■* ««<0 r».oo 0> m « to "*• »o«o l>»00*© 6 m « «*> 

^ H'MMMMMMHHMCte4e«C«C<CIC<Vie4C<)(OV0<O 






8 



8ioO>oOioOv>toOt'>0^oOv)0 



lo O V) 



ioO^O*'>0>oOioOv>toO 
« c« « « »o«0«o«*5'*^^^''>«'> ^'i'O <0 <0 O *» t^ ** r»i 



I 



ft 
00 



CO 






M 0»nO 't « w>0 *00 
OO (^00 0>«0'^0 



HV)toM00O0MM<^0 l>«00 O^O^O 
«*5*«>0 I^OM fOV>d«««00 M ^I^M 

c«c«c«c««)<0«0(OV)V) loo t^oO 0> Ok Ok O 



»«s 






-25 



(X 



JO 'MA 



«0 lo^ lo t» Ok «>. 

HMMHMMeiO 



«o t-oo 
«0«0 Ok' 



O §0 Q 
<0>0 Ok o 



O <t ^tOOO O 10I 

lOQk (O t>> H tOOV_ 
O M M M kO t«> r«00 
H H H M H 






H H H H 









Sapwlg 












•Si 



Sptn, an Culverts 



M M M M « « e« « M CO«OtO«0«0't'*'^'*'*«t^«0«0»OW> 

00 9 O w « «0 ■* w>kO 1^00 Ok M « to "♦ '/>\o t*oO Ok O H w CO 

HHMHMMHHMHC«e4C<C«C«C«e4e<CICO<0(OtO 

»• ^' O v' ^' ^' J J v' ^' v' k' v' J ^' K* K* V* J v' ^' k' 

CI «OtO*t «0« I0<0(0(0(4 to«o«o«o«ow « «oto»o»o 
«0 t<»t^00 OkOkOkO O M M c« et M lo V) v)mv>v) moooooooo 

* w>vO <0 t^oO OkOkQwwWfO^'* «o<o o t<«eo-eo Ok O h lO 
M 0>0 (O O >» ^ H OkkO «00 t<«^M00 vm OkO (O O 00 «0 M 

• •••••■••••••••■••••••••• 

«t "<(■ lOVO <^ f^OO OkOkOHMMfO^^ v>«0 vo r>'00 Ok Ok O h 

MMMHMHHHHMMMHMCICt 

O <0 «0 OkO **i OkO m OkvO M OkO <« OkV>MOOV)«00«OMog 
v« O Ok r«kO to (O M M OkOO t» lo ^ (O H O Ok txO w> CO M H Qk 

■ ••••••••*******«*«»t«**« 

V)kO O *«00 Ok O M M «« lo rf V}>0 t<«00 OkOkO h M co^tov) 

HMMMHHHHHHHHCIVICIMC1MM 

Q >0 «0 A>0 (O OkO «* ^tnci OkV)M00kO e«00V)HQQv)HQQ 

00 t* *^*0 kOvO lCIO«0^5f^cO«0«0« M M W W MO O OOk 

v)kO c<»00 Ok O M et CO ^ vvo t^oO Ok O m m co '^ v>kO ««00 00 

HMHHHMMMMMVICieie«C«C«C«<«C<C« 

«0 l«00 9 O H M CO ^ V)kO l<»00 Ok O M (i CO ^ V)kO r«oo A o 

M MHHHHHHHMCIMMnMMMMMKf*) 



m 

I 



a 

i 

8. 

e 
(3 



■s 

I 



STRINGER BRIDGES 



121 



o 

M 
I 



o 

I 

< 

CO 

o 

lO 

H 










m,. 



X JI KWg f^ 



M t* ^ «0 too 
• •••«• 

H H H CI M M 



0>O 



V « • 1 • •« • • 

«o «o ^ ^ ^ «n »ONO NO 



9^90003 



00 
o 



|4 M M M cJ «eO«0«0^^»0 »OSO 



•000 to t* H ^O M 




sSmji^v 



NO 



<^1OVO00 

• • • • 

O «o M 00 

H M t( C« 



M %0 «0 ^vO «*5 «n O «OvO 



«o^^ «^00 O 



^ to |>» M 

« "^O Ok 

M H H M 



s.inqye 



«< O <*»*0 « M w> ^nO *0 «000 «*»00 ^ 

OvvO ^ O^tn^^rt «O00 00 0« Q H CO toQO 
M »0 ^ •* lOVO **00 O^ O « «o ^ »oo 



M H 



sis 



saq^r 



vi 



«<OQf 
1000 



O^ VO <0 t«> On O 

• ••■•• 

M 00 



10 ^ t<« H 00 O CO 



<^ M On «0 ^00 «0 O 00 O^ O 
« eo «0 »OnO «^ On m w <♦ «^ 



8,^nqv t 



9i VO ^>0 M M moo O ><^ O H H CO « 



^On«OM90 tOMNONO 

CI CI CO ^^ »ONO «>-oo 



IOnO no 
0«-0 M 

M M 



t>.00 O 

« «o »o 

H M M 



"8 



3| 
I* 



s 



t- Q «OnO On M no On M »000 « 

nO ^moO w?<O0 *^»0CI ONf* 

• i • • ,_**> * • • * _* _* * 

•O 10 t>.00 



O 

M 



^ 10 (» On O 

■ c« 



moo 

'*nO 



M 



H 
O 



M NO CI NO 
m O NO H 

• • • * 

co»OnO00 



CI t^ « 00 cOQQ 

t^ « 00 <0 »o ^ 

• •••*• 

0> M CI ^ 10 **«• 

M H M H M 



MOO ^ ON^ 

H 10 M NO CI 

On O « CO «0 
M CI CI CI CI 



0* 

< 






XjIHM(V|^ 



M '♦no 



H H H 



to »OVO 

qtw to 

CI CI « 



ooq %oO 



*7 
iocO"^ 



»« M NO M NO 

• ••*•- 

^ 10 »OnO no 




a' 



9\9X3mQ 



rt t-OO rOOO nO rt" 
On m cOnO 00 tr« ^ 



t^ »o 
CO ^* 



O H H W M CI 



O 

■ • - • ■ 

CI CO CO «0 



> Q «0 c^ ' 
?9 1"<? 



ION© 

H to 

^ <4- tOlO LO 




SftXI^t 



ioon^(>>ci h m «omO ^ t^^o 

NO O NO « O O* On ^00 ^ »-" O rt ~, ■• 
M M CI CO CO ^ NO t»» On M CO u^ t* O 

'^ M " ~ 



mn 



M M 



CI 



«*inqv» 



too»ocoio«oiot^« 

00 

CI 



CI to 10 co*^ «o 



*0*>^ci O ^-^ 

CO ''f ^ tONO t>-00 ~ 



^ ^ lONO t>. » 

ON O M w CO ^ m 






fiSOT^t 



s^jnqv « 



tOClOO ^^^M tO'^^CI 

• ••«••«*•»• 

W> On «0 On to CO CI lOOO CI 00 
M M <N CO ^ IOnO 00 



On** « to 

• • • i 

, to -^vO On 
On M CO to r<» 
H M H >t 



to «0 O O ^ tOOO 

•^ 00 «O0 
CO"^ ^ toNO 



C«tOO O MQOt>>0 



s^^s 



CI H 

t^oo 



M M H 

On O w 

M M 



H CI ^ 
CI CO ^ 

M H H 



»l 

i 




S 



t^ O tONO 0> CI NO 
\0 to O «>. 10 CI 



00 

• * • • • 

CO to t^ On O 



CI 



On CI tooO 
On*«« ^ M 
• • • • • 
^ to «s. On M 
M M M H C« 



CI tOOO M 

OnNO to H 
• • • • 

rJ-NOOO 

CI CI «« 



CI 

c« 



CO vo 



CO NO 

CO O 



On « NO 
t^ to Ci 



On CI tooO 
On t^ ^ w 



to to t>» On O C« 



^ to (>> On M 
H H M H CI 



d tooO »-• 

OnnO to H 

• • « « 

-^NOOO 
CI W CI 



CI 
CI 



^i0ui|n<]Y 
joiqSpH 



K 



\0 «^oO On O H CI 



CO ^ tONO tx-OO On O 
hmi-ihmmmCi 



122 



DRAINAQE 



«0=t> M NO 

^ONWNO0•*«^• «ooo '^ o **- «*> 

MH e< C4 eOfO^^W) honO t*» t^OO 



^•flTT-I^S 



mil 



6 



JMonjn 






8 






9)aJ3Q03 




aSujMt' 



00 



H M c* «0"*»ONO00 ON M eo»ooo M 

M H H M CI 



s,;nqv» 



U>V)00 »o to « loio f*So0'O O 000 

O^OOJOO OQ t> Q w i^OnV>0 r>'«oe« 
*♦ it »ONO t^ciO O « to •*»0 00 On>* «0 

HHHMHMHMC^ 




sSoiALt 



V9t«%iO(OC4 O MOOOO hnOnOPO W H 

»0 On -^ O *»4V> -^00 M ^-eO H M ^ On 
M w ^ CO ^ »o *^oo O « ^nO 00 



O 



M M M 



s,^nqve 



qy>(00 O '^ Y> 0^ eo t^ O O^O O 

to 
«o 



O 00 tvN© v>toto^«o ^Ov<o o»o 
^ '^ tovo *^oo O »-« t<o-r»ot^oo o 

HHMHMM^C* 













:^ 



« eO ''too 

• •• • * 

-^vOoO 



CO »o t>» O w 

«>.00 On M « 

• ••••• 

O <^ "^nO o> h 

H M H M H C<i 



3: 



'(J-NOOO O « 

10 rl- 10 t^OO 

rO »o t^ On w t*i 
.'«i w w w «o f^ 



NO H NO M NO M >0 

• •••••• 

CO tONO 00 Ok H CI 



MNOHtNO MNO HnC 



^ 10 *»« O^ o 

H M H- M Ci 



M 



to ** 

01 M 



o 

»o 

H 
I 

o 
O 

CO 

I 

< 

i 

(A 

»0 

CO 






Xznosvji^ 



v> to ^vb'O' m ^ c^ On *>.oo o ^ »-• o 

«OnO OncssO 0»cOD ^0»'«-0 »0M «^ 

• ••*«%.«• ••# •• •4 

CO ^ ^ '^^ v>nO no t^ t^ 



M M H M' M C4 



aiM9«<0 



CO On t^ N.60 CCOO ONCOON*^t^O ^ 
CO «O00 M "^00 ^00 CO t^ «^ t^ «O00 

HHHMC4C40ICOCO^^V> tON<P nCJ 



8^ 




sSnjAVt 



00 CO O 00 t^ On ^ 1000 to CO « ,tN. ^ CC 

nO M r^ CO IM'.O H 1>.C< ONt^t^Ov^M 
H W CI to ■^ tONO 00 OVM CO tOOO M 

H H H M M 



s,»nqv t 




sftqAl^ 



•0«N0 *^0 Onco« «*• ^NO O to O O 

• ••••••••••••ft ^ 

COO*^V)TC» « 0*0 « "**^0 ^CQ 
CO ^ ^ tONO t>»00 On M CI CO ^NO t^OO 



NOOO "V 

• • • 

tOOO -^ 



CI 

O NO 
Ct CI 



0**^«>.CO^^OnM MiOtO 

• •••••••••* 

Hf COOO M VO W M M COOQ 

(O ^ to r>»oo O c>i ^no 00 

H M M M M 



s,viqv » 



O 00 to CO r^NO 

• ••••• 

t». C« OnnO CO w 
«i CO CO ^ toNO 



0»^000<^0nO0 

• ••••••«• 

O »OnO ^*C0 On c< -^00 
t^OO On O •-• CI ^ to^ 



; 

■ : g 




a 



=f 



NO Onm 
»OnO 00 

^<>od o' 



«0 »0 t>. O « ^nO 00 
O^ O w CO ^ toNO tN. 



8n 



O M 

• ••*•■•••• 

tot>.ONM cotor^ONM ^ 

MHHCIC«CICICICOCO 



imcDinqv 
JO )q8iaH 



R 



"*O^'*O*^0n'*0n^0n^On'*On^ 

• •••••••••••#•( 

CO ^nO «*• On O <^ CO tONO 00 0> H c* ^ 

HHHMHHMCICICi 



NO «*»C0 On O M « CO ^ mo «>-00 On 



S 



STRINGER: BMDGES 



J«5 



. 


Plaje 29.— <C*fi/wii««0 




i 


Table No, 6 


. -dumber X-£eamft 
For Concrete Coven only 


P-Lcngth of Abtttmenti 

• 


Length of Culv6it 


Spadag . . 

^ 7 • 
















a'-d* 


a'-9» 


a'-o* 


IS* Skew 


30* Skew 


4»'Skew 

1 


l8 


5' 


5 


4 


18.64 


2a 79 


^5-46 


19 


5 


5 


5 


19.67 


21.94 


26.97 , 


20 


6 


5 " 


. .5.. . 


iO.71 


«309 


^8.28 ! 


21 


6 


6 


5- - 


21. .74 


24.25 


•29.70 


2? 


6 


6 


•5 


^2.78 


2540 


-31. II 


23 


' 7 


6 


6- 


23.81 


26.66 


32.53 


24 


7 


6 


6 


24.85 


27.71 


33'94 


25 


7 


7- 


6.. 


25.88 . 


28.87 


35.36 


26 


8 


8 


1. 


26.92 


30.02 


36.77 


27 


8 


8 


7. 


27.95 


31.18 


38.18 


28 


9 


8 


7 


28.99 


32.33 


3960 


29 


9 


: 8 - 


.- 8 


30.02 


33-49 


41.01 


30 


9 


. 9 


8 


3106 


34.64 


42.43 


31 


10 


9 


9 


32.09 


35.80 


43.84 


32 


10 


9 


9 


33.13 


36.95 


45.26 


33 


II 


10 


9 


34.16 

• 


38.10 


46.67 

_ 1 



*• 



Application of Tables 

' Quantities for a 30* Skew Concrete Culvert, concrete top, lengtli 
30 feet, opening 13 teet high and 12 feet wide. From Table i, ai 
opening 12.12 ft. wide 30° Skew is a 14-ft. span requiring (see 30-ft. 
length, Table 6) 9 1-Beams spaced a'-9' c. to c. (9 X 400) *- 3600 IbsL 
I-Beams: 218 lbs. Bai»; 400 -f (5X16) « 480 sq. ft, Ex*p'd Metalj 
978 -4- (s X 30) ■• 11.28 cu. vds. 2d class Concrete 32 fin* ft. Pipfe 
Rail. An opening 13 ft. high will require Abutments, 16 ft* hig^ 
(13' 4; 2' in ground + 10' I-Beam « 15'- 10'). Froim Table 4, 
Abutments** 118.0 cu. yds., Wiijga™ 102.9 cu. yds, (5 X4.79 *» 23.9K 
ai. yds. 5 ft. extra length ol Tfulvert) 118.0 -f 102.9 H- 23.95 "f 
2144.85 Ol. yds. 3d Qass Concrete. j 

For Spans of more than i 7 feet, use Masonry Tables for Coni* 
Crete Abutments and Wiiigs. > 



DKAINAGE 







tifKa/wSlatiShirtIM 






De^gn used by Monroe County, New York Sute. 



UNDERDRAINS 1 25 

Underdrainage 

The purpose of under drains on hard surfaced roads is to intercept 
the ground water before it reaches and softens the sub-grade. On 
a sidehill road the drain is usually placed under the ditch on the 
uphill side (see Figure No. 24, position No. i) where the greatest 




^ jkr^irectidn 
_ Lt- cfSetpage 
POs/tionNo.i 



depth can be obtained with the least excavation and where the 
water is caught as it flows out of the hill. 

Some engineers place the drain in position No. 2 (Figure 24) 
but this requires more excavation for &e same depth and for side 



m -SI 




Open Throat. 
PoiftionNo.2 vPoiMonNoJ Po5ttionNo.Z 

Fig. 25. 

seepage is not as effective. The usual depth for drains is three 
feet below the surface. 

Where the road is on a descending grade, the water will flow out 
of the hill directly under the stone and the drain is placed as in 

No.46tone\ 

No. ZStoneorOfL . .. 

farmTilei Joints KI?""^ — Y^rOpenThroaf 
Wmppeci/nBuHap'"^'* "10^ 

Fig. 26. 

Figure 25, position i, or two drains are built in position No. 2. 

Position I is the usual practice, being cheaper and more effective. 

The argument for the two side drains is, that in case the throat 

becomes clogged, a side drain can be taken up without disturbing 




126 



DRAINAGE 



the macadam. This rarely occurs in a center drain, as it is better 
protected than those in position 2 and in case the center drain does 
dog, side drdns can be constructed at any time. 

ITiere are two kinds of drain in general use: 

No. 1 is built entirely of stone with an open throat roughly 
laid as shown; it is satisfactory in a water-beanng strata of gravely 



, 




loam or clan, but does not work so well in quicksand, which b 
liable to M it up. It is generally cheaper, however, than No. i. 
No. 1 is built of porous farm tile or vitrified tile of a suitable 
size (usually 3" to 6") with open joints, wrapped with a double 
or triple layer of burlap; the pipe is surrounded and covered with 
dean gravd or ^" crudied stone to a depth of 6", the remaining 
depth of the trendi bdng filled with large stone. If this drain hu 
a good fall and the outlet is kept free, it will rarely clog erven in 
bad quicksand. 



SUMMARY 127 

The author has successfully used the following method to pre- 
vent the outlet from clogging; after being brought out from under 
the macadam, the drain is continued under and across the ditch 
line, then keeping outside the ditch line, and using a slightly smaller 
gradient than that of the open ditch, the tile is continued down the 
hill until it reaches a point eight or nine indies above the ditch 
grade. Here it is turned into the open ditch through a small 
concrete head-wall and what little material it tends to deposit is 
washed down the ditch by the surface water (see Figure- 27). 

Summary of Chapter. — The present bridge situation demands 
attention as even in the richer states it is lagging behind the im- 
provement of the roads. The separation of Bridge and Highway 
funds and the lack of central control often results in the ridiculous 
situation of a modem road limited in use by antiquated bridges. 

Road pavements can be strengthened from year to year by 
additions in thickness and the construction of better surfaces on 
top of existing improvements but structures must be rebuilt entire 
to increase their strength and for this reason more foresight in re- 
gard to future traffic must be exercised in their design. ^ A liberal 
allowance for increased loads is desirable. Liberality in size of 
waterway for culverts is also good policy as it adds only slightly to 
the cost and materially decreases the difficulties of maintenance. 

The design of drainage must be complete and reasonable and if 
the existing scheme is not feasible it should be changed regardless 
of law-suits as whenever an improvement is made it is always 
cheaper to correct mistakes at that time than it will be at a later 
date as every year's use fix the channels more firmlv. 

The selection of t3rpe offers the greatest chance for reasonable 
economy in culvert and bridge design. 



CHAPTER IV 

LOW TYPE EARTH, SAND-CLAY AND GRAVEL ROADS 

These t3rpes of construction are the initial steps in final road 
improvement and serve to gradually pull traffic "out of the mud." 
They are the only types that can be reasonably built in unsettled 
communities or scattered agricultural districts without outside 
aid and if properly located, graded and drained are well worth 
very careful engineering attention. They constitute such a large 
percentage of Uie mileage of road work that they are probably of 
more economic importance than the higher t3rpe macadams and 
rigid pavements. 

They however are only makeshifts under adverse weather con- 
ditions (5 months in the year) as conipared with the more substan- 
tial forms and must be regarded as such. They require continuous 
maintenance but not the same degree of perfection in maintenance 
as better roads nor anjrthing like as much money in yearly upkeep 
as traffic is light and no one expects or demands that roads of this 
kind be kept in perfect condition. 

The gravel road will serve in a fairly satisfactory way up to about 
250 moderately light rigs per day. 

The following table taken from Agg's Construction of Roads 
AND Pavements gives an idea of the traffic capacity of gravel and 
macadam roads. 

This shows approximately the practical limit of these roads 
and indicates that earth, sand clay, or gravel are reasonable for a 
large mileage. 



\ 



128 



TRAFFIC LIMITS 



129 



Average Daily Traffic Limits in Massachusetts 

Table showing results of observations of traffic on different types of road 
surfaces in Massachusetts. Standard road, 15 ft. in width; gravel or water- 
bound macadam, 5 or 6 in. in thickness, with adequate drainage and proper 
foundation, with 3 ft. gravel shoulder on each side. 



Type of Surface 


Light 

Teams, 

Carriages, 

Wagons 


Heavy 

Teams, 

One-horse 


Heavy 
Teams, 
two or 
more 
Horses 


Automobiles 


A good gravel road will wear 
reasonably well and be 
economical with 


• 

SO-7S 


25-30 


10-15 


SO to 7S 




Needs to be oiled with 


.50-75 


25-30 


10-15 


Over 75 


Oiled gravel, fairlv good, 
heavy cold oil, H gal. to 
the sq. yd. applied annually 
with 


7S-I00 


30-50 


20 


500 to 700 or 
more 




Waterbound macadam will 
stand with 


175-200 


175-aoo 


60-80 


Not over 50 
at high speed 




Cold oil or tar will prove 
serviceable on such macad- 
am with 


175-200 


175-200 


■ 60-80 


50-500 




Macadam will then stand, 
but the stone wears, of 
course, with . . . . r 


175-200 


175-200 


60-80 


500 or more 




*Waterbound macadam with 
hot asphaltic oil blanket 
will be economical with 


100-150 


50-75 


25-30 


1500 and 

more with 

fewer teams 


And stand at least 








50 trucks 










But will crumble and per- 
haps fail with over 

(On narrow tires, ice, farm 
and wood teams, etc.) 


150 


IS 


30 




Waterbound macadam with 

tar (H gal. to the sq. yd.) 
will stand with 


100-150 


SP-7S 


25-30 


1500 or more 


(But requires to be recoated 
annually with H gal. of tar 
per sq. yd.) 



It is assumed that all road surfaces are kept constantly patched, that be- 
fore applying tntumen the road surface is cleaned and patched, and the 
bttuxnen covered mth pea stone and sand or gnravel and kept covered so that 
»t never picks up. 

Author's Note. — One coat i)enetration bituminous macadam will 
«and any number of light autos and more steel tire or truck traffic than 
"hown above, because it takes the wear more directly and has no blanket 
coat which crumblcMl under such traffic. 



^3^ 



SAND-CLAY AND GRAVEL ROADS 



EARTH ROADS 

Rut Roads. — ^The simplest form of road is the so-called rut road 
used in the arid regions of New Mexico and the southwest. They 
are constructed by clearing the right-of-way of brush and then 
cutting two shallow parallel ruts in the surface vegetation or soil 
crust by means of two cutting irons gaged to fit the ordinary 
wagon track. A wagon trail of this kind can be constructed for 
from I5.00 to I15.00 per mile; can be used by autos with fair com- 
fort at speeds up to 15 miles an hour 'and on the flat mesas of this 



^^f^s^ 



Rut road.^ 

district are more lasting and satisfactory than the ordinary turn- 
piked section as so little rain falls that an elevated flU grade does 
not consolidate and is worse than useless for traffic On these 
rut roads any rain storms that occur wash the coarser particles of 
the son into the ruts and gradually an armored track is formed below 
the general elevation of the mesa. No drainage structures are 
necessary where construction of this kind is adopted. 



IZ5 



Cutting rig for rut road. 



Earth Roads. — ^The same principles of grade, section and drainage 
apply to this class of road as to the hi^er types except that the 
surface ditches are generally made slightly deeper and more care 
is taken with the underdrainage; this is necessary as the earth 
road becomes more easily saturated with water than types which 
are sealed over on the surface. If the natural soil is good road ma- 
terial such as gravel, disintegrated rock, hardpanor sandy loam 
this type of construction carefully graded, drained and shaped 
by blader finish and maintained by dragging makes a satisfactory 
road for light traffic. Their cost depends on the amount of grading 
required and the methods that can oe used. The cost of drainage 
culverts, incidentals^ etc., will vary but will run about S600 per mile 
for good work. 

Simple blade machine tumpiking, where the dirt from the ditches 



SAND-CLAY ROADS I3I 

makes the center fill cost (in districts similar to Wyoming in 1914*- 
191 5) about $150 per mile. The same work at present (1918) 
is bid off for aboiit I200 per mile. A fair relative price for first- 
class work of this kind including drainage and incidentals can be 
placed at $600 to $800 per mile. 

In rolling country requiring grade reductions by cut and fill and 
wagon haul a fair relative price including drainage and incidentals 
is approximately I1500 to $3000, where no rock is encountered. 

In mountain road work where the excavation runs anywhere 
from 1000 cu. yd. to 30,000 cu. yd. per mile with a large percentage 
of rock the cost will run anywhere from $1000 per mUe to $25,000 
per mUe. A fair average for such conditions is I3000 to $6000 per 
mile. 

As previously stated it is entirely a matter of required grading. 
The approximate cost of different classes of grading are taken up 
in more detail in Chapter X on "Preliminary Investigations." 

Current practice in earth road sections is shown in the following 
plates. 

Mountain Roads, Plate No 11, page 68 

Wyoming Standards " " S, " ^55 

Iowa Standards " " 31, " 132 

Pennsylvania Standards, " •" 32, " 132 

Current practice in grading and finishing are given in typical 
specifications, page 139. 

Earth road maintenance is discussed in Chapter VII. 

Where the soil is not a good road material the surface is improved 
by artificial mixtures of selected soil or by surfacing with gravel, 
chert, disintegrated granite, slag, shell cinders, etc., in fact any local 
material that gives body to &e surface and prevents softening. 

Sand-Clay Treatments 

Where the natural soil is clay the resisting power of the surface 
during wet weather can be increased by the addition of sand. 
Where the natural soil is deep sand the surface can be made firm and 
resilient by the addition of clay. The so-called sand-clay treatment 
s^s to provide a surface layer of mixed sand and clay about 10" 
to 12" deep (see Plate No 33, Alabama Standards) in which the 
sand forms the body and the clay just fills the voids in the sand and 
acts as a binder. It can be readily seem that different materials will 
require different proportioning of the sand and clay; the onlj'^ sure 
way to get the best results is by experiment on the road during 
construction but to give an idea of the approximate proportioning 
the following list of recommended mixes is taken from the Good 
Roads Year Book of the American Highway Association, 191 7. 

Sand-Clay Roads 

The grains of which sand is composed are usually bard and tough and 
able to resist abrasion if held secur^y in place. In an asphalt pavement 
tney are held by the asphalt and a wearing surface of great resistance to 



132 



SAND-CLAY AND GRAVEL ROADS 



Plate 31. — Iowa Typical Section Earth Roads. 




T7777777777 



''""fff^mrTTTrmrr, 



,// 'to. >L y/jta > 




—f 



Fill 






ATVd 



*■— «i— ^ yp' Jr*- 7g* >|< — 6- 



lO'fo 



BoHvm of Pifckes' 
fcrb9 Rounded, 




Cof. 



TW* &/«/n 



TS^*{' 



Hi'nimurrft'e* 



Plate 32. — Pennsylvania Standard Earth and Gravel 

Roads. 



% 



^^ ^gffmnTmnrmrmrnrmmpnTmTTTmTnTTm^^ 



'^i<^ Ordinary Soil. 
<-2Vk /3 — — ">K /5- >> 



Rise to CrovYn£it 








.Rise to Crown li'l 




^'^V 



^ 



QraYtlnof-hwctedri'nDia. 
Ristfo Crow n^":!' 4'^jr avel / or 10% of Clai^ and Free from 

allLumpSi 



<- '-^"^ 



<— 



.-0'-y-> 



<-5->U-*-->K f- -/ff-—- <---)t<— 7'- — > 



■3(?--A- 



.45;. 



#^^ 



6rr.vel Roddwau. XltandankdraYttioPtissB^ 



/• 




RisefoCrpwrt in: . ^r,€n,rzivmed byaj^nten^ 



I 



Sandy Loam . 






SAND-CLAY ROADS 133 

abrasion results. In a sand-clay road they are bound together by clay in a 
less firm manner but one giving excellent results on well drained roads carry- 
ing light traffic.^ The aim of the builder of such a road is to employ just 
enough of the stickiest clay at his command to fill the pores of the sand and 
to mix these materials together so thoroughly that there are neither lumi>8 
of clay nor pockets of loose sand left in the surfacing. This gives the maxi- 
mum amount of hard sand to carry the traffic and the minimum amount of 
clay to bind it. More sand makes a less durable road and more clay makes 
one which becomes soft more rapidly when wet. 

There is a great difference in the value of different clays for such work. 
Some' of them become dough-like when mixed with a certain amount of water 
and can be molded into objects which retain their shape after drying. If 
these molded objects are immersed in water they will retain their form for a 
long time. These varieties are called "plastic clays" and the most plastic 
are called "ball clays." There are other varieties which fall to pieces more 
or less quickly when wet, as quicklime does, and they are therefore called 
"slaking clays." They are more easily mixed with sand than the plastic 
days but they have much less binding power and a road built with them is less 
durable when dry and more easily rutted when wet. The amount of clay 
to be used can be determined by a simple field test described as follows by 
Andrew P. Anderson: 

From typical samples of each of the available clays, test mixtures, varying 
by one-half part, are made with the sand so that each clay is represented by 
a set of mixtures ranging by successive steps from one part sand and three 
parts clay to four parts sand and one part clay. These are worked up with 
water into a putty-like mass and from each mix two equals quantities are 
taken and rolled between the palms of the hands into reasonably true spheres, 
labeled and placed in the sun to dry. When thoroughly baked, a set of 
spheres representing any one clay is placed in a flat pan or dish and enough 
water poured gently into the pan to cover them, care being taken not to 
pour the water directiy on the samples. Some samples will begin to disinte- 
fi^ate immediately. , Those breaking down most slowly contain most nearly 
the proper proportion of sand ana clay for the particular materials. The 
relative^ binding power of the various clays may then be determined by 
comparing the hardness and resistance to abrasion of the various dry 
samples having the correct proportion of sand and clay, as determined 
by the water tests. 

In February, 1917. representatives of 21 state highway departments and 
of the U. S. Office of Public Roads recommended the following mixtures for 
hara, medium and soft classes of sand-clay roads. 

Bard Class. — Clay, 9 to 15 %; silt, S to 15 %; total sand, 65 to 80%; sand 
retained on a 60-mesh sieve, 45 to 60%. 

Mtdium Class, — Clay, 15 to 25 %; silt, 10 to 20%; total sand, 60 to 70%; 
sand retained on a 60-mesh sieve, 30 to 45 %. 

Soft Class. — Clay, 10 to 25 %; silt, 10 to 20%; total sand, 55 to 80%; sand 
retained on a 60-mesh sieve, 15 to 30%. 

By clay is meant material separated by subsidence through water and 
possessing plastic or adhesive properties; it is generally below 0.0 1 mm. in 
oiameter. By silt is meant the fine material otner than clay which passes a 
?oo-mesh sieve and is generally from 0.07 to o.oi mm. in diameter. ^ By sand 
u meant the hard material which passes a lo-mesh sieve and is retained on a 
2oo.mesh sieve, and is generally from 1.85 to 0.07 mm. in diameter. 

The larger part of the following explanation of the construction of 
sand-clay roads was prepared by W. S. Keller, State engineer of 
Alabama, where many miles of sand-clay roads have been built 
and are giving good satisfaction. 

Every fanner who lives in a section of country where both sand and clav 
sre prevalent, is more than likely traveling over a section of natural sand- 
clay road but is ignorant of the fact. He can call to mind some particular 
spot on the road he travels though it may not be more than 100 feet in 
length, that is always good and rarely requires the attention of the road 
^?ds. Good drainage will be noticed at this place and if he takes the trouble 
J^ investigate, he will find that a good mixture of sand and clay forms the 
wewing surface. If this 100 feet of road is always good then the entire 
'^^ can be made like it provided man will take advantage of the lesson 



SAND-CLAY AND GRAVEL ROADS 




SAND-CLAY ROADS 




13^ 



SAND-CLAY AND GRAVEL ROADS 



tatight by nature and grade the road so that the drainage will be good and 
surface the balance of the road with the same material. If it is not ptossible 
to find this ready mixed surfacing material convenient to the read it may 
be possible to find the two ingredients in close proximity. In case the road 
after grading shows an excess of sand, clay should be added, or in case clay 

f)redominat^ sand should be added to produce good results. There are 
our general ways in which sand-clay roads may be built. 

1. Ready mixed sand and clay placed on clay, sand or ordinary foundation. 

2. Sand and clay placed on soil foundation and mixed. 

3. Clay hauled on a sand foundation and mixed with the sand. 

4. Sand hauled on a clay foundation and mixed with the clay. 
Taking up the various methods in order. 

1. A natural mixture of sand and clay can often be found where the two 
materials are found separate. The most important i>oint is to know the 
natural mixture when seen. The very best guide to this is to find a natural 
piece of good road. A sample from the best of this good section will, by 
comparison, indicate what is reauired, close to the road to be surfaced. This 
natural mixture of sand and clay can be noticed where red clay and sand 
crop out, usually well up in the hills, having ditches and cuts the appearance 
of red sandstone. A good stratum of well miked sand and clay will stand 
perpendicular in cuts and ditches, resisting erosion almost as well as sand- 
stone. A test of the best natural sand-clay mixtures will show the sand 
forms about 70 % of the whole. The test is very simple. Take an ordinary- 
medicine glass, measures 2 ounces of the mixture into the glass and wasn 
out the clay. Dry the remaining sand and measure again on the medicine 
glass. The loss will be the amount of clay originally contained in the mass. 

Before placing any sand-clay on the road, the road should be graded to 
the desired width. The surface of the graded road should be flat or slightly 
convex. The sand>clay should be put on from 8 to 12 inches in thickne^, 
depending on the character of the sub-grade or foundation. With a hard 
clay for foundation, 8 inches of sand-clay will suffice. If the sub-grade is 
sand it is well to put on as much as 12 inches of the surfacing material. 
After a few hundred feet of surfacing material has been placed, a grading^ 
machine should be run over it to smooth and crown the road surface before 
the top becomes hard and resists the cutting of the blade. It is a good plan 
to turn the blade of the machine so as to tnm the edges of the suriace part, 
discharging the excess sand and clay onto the- earth shoulders. After one 
round trip with the blade turned out, the remaining dress work with the 
machine would be with the blade turned in, with the exception of one trip 
down the center of road with the blade at right angles to the axis of the road 
for the purpose of distributing any excess of material left in the center. 

After the machine work, it is well to follow with a drag, which smooths 
any rough places left by the machine and leaves the road with a smooth, 
even surface. A sand-clay road, unlike other roads, can not be finished in a 
short space of time. It can be left in an apparently finished condition with 
a hard smooth surface, but it will be found on close examination that the 
hard surface is in teality only a crust, below which there are several inches 
of loose material. After the first hard rain the crust softens, the road be- 
comes bad and the work appears to be a failure. This, however, is just 
what is needed to make it eventually good. After the surface has dried 
until the mass is in a plastic state, it should be dragged until the surface is 
once more smooth, with proper crown, and should be kept this way by drag- 
ging at least once a day until the sun has baked it hard and fi'rm. Tne mis- 
take of keeping traffic off during this process of resetting should not be made. 
The continuous tamping of the wheels of wagons and hoofs of horses is just 
what is needed to compact the sand-clay into a homogeneous mass. The 
ordinary roller is not very effective in this work, but corrugated rollers have 
given excellent results. One type which is widely used has 18 cast iron 
wheels weighing 300 pounds each, which compress the bottom of the mixture 
first. As the material becomes more and more compact the wheels ride 
higher and higher and finally the surface is so hard that the roller does not 
sink into it at all. A drag is an indispensable machine in the construction 
of any kind of sand-day road. 

2. Sand and clay placed on a soil foundation and mixed. This is neces- 
saiy where the old road has neither a sand nor clay foundation and it is 
impossible to find the two ingredients ready mixed, but possible to get both 
in separate state near at hand. The clay ^ould first be placed on the road 
to a depth of 4 inches and the required width. It is not wise to place more 



GRAVEL ROADS 137 

than 8 few hundred lineftl feet of clay before the sand is hauled, as the clay 
rapidly hardens and makes the mixing process difficult. After, say, 400 
feet of clay have been placed, the clay should be broken by means of a plow 
and harrow, if it has become hard, and sand to a depth of inches placed on 
it. This should be plowed and harrowed in thoroughly. This is best done 
immediately following a rain, as the two can be more satisfactorily 'mixed. 
The traffic aids the mixing and should be encouraged on the road. After 
the mass appears to be well mixed, the road shoula be properly shaped, as 
previously explained. The road should be given watchful attention and 
should sand or mud holes appear,' a second plowing and mixing should be 
given it. 

3. Clay hauled on a sand foundation and mixed with the saifd. The 
mixing process is similar to that described under second head. It is only 
necessary to add that as the foundation is sa&d, a little more clay will be 
necessary than where the foundation is of clay or soil. 

4. Sand hauled on a clay foundation and mixed with clay. The clay 
foundation should be plowed to a depth of 4 inches and harrowed with a 
disk or tooth harrow until the lumps are thoroughly broken or pulverized. 
Sand should then be added to a depth of 6 inches and mixed as before 
described. 

Sand and clay can be mixed best when wet, but as most road construction 
is done in the summer months, it is necessary to do most of the mixing dry 
and keep the road in shapte after the first two or three rains, while the pass- 
ing wagons and vehicles give the road a final wet mixing. A sand-clay road 
is the cheapest road to maintain, for the reason that it can be repaired with 
its own material. With a drag or grading machine ruts can be filled with 
material scraped from the edges, whereas on gravel or macadam roads, this 
is.not possible. The repairing of these roads can be done almost exclusively 
with the drag, only enough hand work being required to keep the gutters 
open and the growth of weeds cut on the shoulders. Holes are repaired by 
adding more sand-clay, and when many of them appear fresh sand-clay 
ihould be spread over the surface of the road. If the road gets into reallv 
bad condition, the roadbed should be plowed up, reshaped and fresh sand- 
clay added. This is unnecessarv where the road is maintained properly and 
the travel is not too heavy for the type of construction. 

The maintenance of sand-clay is discussed in Chapter VII. 
Specifications for sand-clay are covered in Part III. 

Sand-clay roads can not be considered as finished until traffic has 
used them for a year or two and all the small areas showing improper 
mix have been remedied by maintenance. 

The cost of surfacing with sand-clay varies as any form of con- 
struction with labor, length of haul, cost of materials, etc., but 
generally adds from 15c. to 35c. per square yard to the cost of an 
earth road. A fair comparative figure would add $1000 to $2000 
per mile for a 16' width of sand-clay to the cost of an ordinary dirt 
road in the same location. 

Sand-clay construction is not advised if good road gravel or other 
coarse local materials are aviulable. 

GRAVEL ROADS 

A coarse well graded gravel is the most satisfactory material for 
a cheap road. It gi/es body to the traveled track, binds well, 
rides easily and with a consolidated depth of 8" to 20" holds all 
ordinary loads after it is well consolidated. For wheel pressures 
and depths of metaling see Chapter V, page 152. 

At the present time 50% of the mileage of surfaced roads in the 
U. S. are gravel roads. 

They are however hard to consolidate quickly and need carefully 
continuous attention to prevent the formation of ruts, holes, or 



138 SAND-CLAY AND GRAVEL ROADS 

humps. Gravel roads can not be built by merely dumping loose 
gravel on the road and then hoping that traffic will put it in shape. 
A large mileage has been built on this principle and the residts 
are s&meful. A successful gravel road requires careful selection 
of the gravel, carefid spreading, earful consolidation and constarU 
maintenance. The best practice is shown in typical specifications 
Part III but the essential features will be summarized at this 
point. 

Size of Gravel 

Gravels suitable for road work are widely distributed over the 
country. They occur in bank deposits and in stream beds. The 
prime requisite of a gravel for foundation courses is that it contains 
a large percentage of coarse pebbles to give body and distribute 
the wheel loads. The prime requisite for a surfacing gravel is hard- 
ness of the stone and well graded coarse and fine particles which 
will take the wear evenly and bond well. Pit run gravel varies 
' greatly as to size and composition even in a single pit and for this 
reason no definite limits can be well set for the proportion of 
sizing. In general it can be said that for foundation courses any 
coarse gravel, which when screened through a K" mesh contains 
less material passing the screen than retained on it, can be success- 
fully manipulated without screening to remove the excess sand. 
In some localities this limit is not feasible on account of excessive 
fine material and the limit of 'fine material passing a }^" mesh is 
placed at 60% but in reality a gravel of this fineness does not produce 
satisfactory results and a road on which it is used becomes more 
nearly a sand-clay construction than a gravel type. For a top 
course the large stone above i J^" in size should be screened out and 
if pit run is used the sand passing the J^" mesh should not exceed 
40% of the volume. The most satisfactory top is a screened gravel 
but this adds materially to the cost. Where screened gravel is 
used H" to 3" is satisfactory size for the bottom course and J^" 
to i^" for the top course. 

The following specification has been recommended by the com- 
mittee on Materials of the American Society of Civil Engineers. 

Two mixtures of gravel, sand and clay shall be used, hereinafter desig- 
nated in these spedncations as No. i product (for top course) and No. 2 
product (for middle and bottom courses). 

No. I product shall consist of a mixture of sravel, sand and day, with the 

Proportions of the various sizes as follows: All to pass a i^^" screen and to 
ave at least 60 and not more than 75% retained on a K inch screen; 
at least 25 and not more than 75 % of the total coarse aggrcRate (material 
over yi inch in size) to be retained on a ^^ inch screen; at least 65 and not 
more than 85 % of the total fine aggregate (material under K inch in size) 
to be retained on a 20o-mesh sieve. 

No. 2 product shall consist of a mixture of gravel, sand and clay, with the 
proportions of the various sizes as follows: All to pass a 2H inch screen and 
to have at least 60 and not more than 75 % of the total coarse aggregate to be 
retained on a i inch screen, at least 65 and not more than 85 % 01 the total 
fine aggregate to be retained on a 2po-mesh sieve. 

Bonding Properties. — Clean gravel will not bond well. A small 
percentage of clay, loam or lime dust is desirable and necessary. This 



I GRAVEL ROADS 139 

per cent. tiuiKes from 10% to 30%. For bottom course, pit run 
1 gravel which contains over 30% of clay or loam should not be 
used; from 10% tq 15% gives the best results. For top course 
10% is about the maximum clay or loam allowable. Many sD- 
aSed cementitious gravels of lime rock contain or produce under 
traffic a first-class rock dust binder of the highest grade. Clay 
or loam can be added to a clean gravel by mixing at the jnt or by 
pladng a t^'" layer of such material over the gravel as spread on 
Ihe road ajid mixing it with the course during consolidation. 

Spresdine. — Gravel must be uniformly spread; there are two 
general methods; the trench spread (Plate No. 34) and the feather 
edge spread (Plates 35 and 36). The feather edge spread is probably 
I Die better method. In either case the depth should be uniform 
and the surface properly crowned. Grave! should not be dumped 
in piles; it should be spread along in windrows and the spreading 
bushed by shoveling, raking or by road machine blade scrapers. 
If [nt run gravel is used the course should be harrowed to distribute 
the sizes uniformly. The ratio of compacted to loose depth is 
approximately r.2 or 1.35. That is a loose depth of S" will compact 
Id about 6)^". If screened gravel is used the filler should be 
»dded before the course is rolled. 

Constriidation.— Consolidation is the hardest feature of irit 
niQ gravel construction. Detail methods are described under 
giavd foundations. Chapter V, page 156. A combination of traffic 
and roller consolidation while the gravel is moist gives the best and 
quickest consolidation although traffic alone will put it down 
Wnly is raven time and the shape is kept intact by constant drag- 
Bug with a hone or road machine. The following Minnesota 
Specification shows the methods employed where a road roller is 
not used. 

HmRBSOTA 8PBCIFICATIOII8 
I OmyoUac 

.IHicriplion.- 

UitenBL — All malenals shall be rf a quality appioved hy the engineer 
and shall be the best obtainable trom the specified pit or quarry. MateriolB 

ivailnhle nultonZ ajnts.?nll"" sa of sandTsudi eiceM shaU behanSed ai " 
jrade — The cross 1 1 f the »ub-grade e 



idud ■■ ■■ - ■-' "" .--^^-"^.^l 



^IW.,..,...., _ _„ 

the same contract, the sub^Erade I 



''■ HjII k n) it dreaseil to the specified troas-se' 

j_ 1 1 undntatiooa. a> part ot the gtaveling cont 

JI^WKtion ^ yS Bub^grade shall ba performed as part of the gradinK' 
•°a no additional charge ml! be allowed therefor under the graveling. 

iMdinc and Hanlinf— Loading from pita shall be performed in su 
banner and by such methods that a uniform (rade of materials wi 
■'''■vend upon the road Stoiw exceeding the Biies specified, shall nt 



i4cy 



SAND-CLAY AND GRAVEL ROADS 



Plate 34. — Iowa Typical Gravel Roads. 



n*iof9' 



lO'foff 




ShoutdtrOrain. 

^•quirts 24S0Cff,Yds. oferavglptrMile. 
ttalf Section in Fill. Half Section )n Cgf. 

d^ASS^A" OOUDLE TRACK 0RAVEL ROAD. 



MaximummZ^'' 



CLAS&">rSlN©LE TRACk 6RAVEL ROAD. 

■><— -6'— H 




/tieqi/irts fMS Cm Yds. oferOvttptrMlfe. 
HaK Section in Oil . HoK Section In Cut. 



. (Minimum'/^* 




±IO'to 
gxzaBznfsizazBz^ar — 



.«-♦ 




Iftqa/res 380 Cu. Yda. of ^rOvtl per Hilt. 

Ho»f Sect-ion in Fill HoK Section in Cvt. 

CLASSES'* 10 FT. 6RAVEL ROAD. 

Tht Pafrol Suaftm -for Matnfenanc* t'9 rrcomntenefeef -for all 9rav%l Roads. 
Hfffg 7)>« Class'e^tetion /» approvtd onltf wIHj the undersfandingHtatasuHxiU€ 
ftitrot SyaHm for MaitrNnanc^ willbt adopted. Wider CroM-^eetions 
Mingtheaame Thickne99 ofGntireJ wllUfe approved on of^icatlont 



GRAVEL ROADS 



5 K I il 



14^ 



SAND-CLAY AND GRAVEL ROADS 



Plate 36. — Minnesota Gravel Road Section. 



!Svb-gredt aliaptdM tftovm 
Jttsfbgfore placing 
F/nf Course. ■ 
■ \* 



dravel Surfac 
/2- 



■for Liqh+ TrcrfflQi 




.SLtoy 



Oept-hlttCourM.QOO' 
OcpfhZQ^rM 0.00* 



ODO* 0.»' 0.21' 0.23' 025* 0.23' 0.21* 0.«' 0.00* ODO* 

0.00' aotf Olio' a»5' ws' 0.15* 0.10 000 cotf aoo' 

QOtf 016' 031' 0J»' aW 036 0.31' 0.15 ttOO' 0.00' 



550Cafd.perHi. 
250 » » » *» 
000** f* ** f 



&ravel durfoci 
-/2' 



7:,„iif^\rjvritjntviir.^ftUB9efu. w*wm.-7mw 



•for Medium. Tperffjc. 




DepHil^CourMftOO' 

9«pHiZ9^CourM0.00' 
Total Depth 0.00 



400 n t» n i» 
1200** •• «• ft 



ai7' 0.2(' 0.2Sr 0.29' 052* 0.29 025* Q.il' Clf * aOO' 800CaYd.perKi 
aoo' 009' 0.15' 0.18* 0.1&' 0.18 0.\^ QfH' OtOO' 0.00'^ 
ai7* 030* 0.40' 0.4f 0.80* 0.47 0-40 030' ttlf OOO' 

Sfandord 6ravel Surfacing Sec+ion. 
mt ___.^< ~ yz'--"— - 

.IJ.L i i^iUJlp .LLAu..aii.^WWi.(tU.i. Ai. Jj u. 




llfCwra* OJOC Q.ir 
^^i«e 0.00^ Coo' 

iotaiDfepHi0.od an* 



020* 023* 0.27' 0.30' 030* 030* QXT il73>[ 020, 0I7_ 
010* 0.17' 0.20' 0.20 020 0.20' a2D' 0.17 010* 0.00 
aatf 040' 047 0.50' 0.50' 0.50'. 0.4V 0.40' 0J30' ai7' 



OOO'tOOOCdfiLpvMi 
0.00^ 600 w " « •• 

aoo' 1600 •••••* " 



InCxeovcrtion 



General Grading Section 



■IB 






C.L. 



^2' 




\ 0.2' ^Fwished Line 




mencovol'lon 



U-<#/n//T.">j*2'->j<— 

lilt J^H-'^^Qradeio Cross-section Shown tHfHeavi^Lmei 
I aau or other good Bearing Material being 
HOT£{ placed in Tbp to Cover poorer Soil.-Bladed 
J and Planed Finishing to produce Crernn indicated 
\by Dotted line, 

erodi nQ Section m Sand I" F mbankmenf 

a- -^ e- ^^^. 




tnOeep Sound! ng». 



.1 



©rod I n9 Section in Swam p In Firnn Swamp. 



!«• — Bmihr 
'2^ipiit. I ISmui^ 



^ ..ff' >i 




7 ^ ' " tllT^' 4-&5^^^^^ 1 



rWwt 



■fl?^ct 




GRAVEL ROADS 143 

loaded. No earth, sod or any foreign or vegetable matter, nor an excess 
of sand or clay, will be allowed in the gravel, and care must be taken that 
stripi>ing8 be not mixed with the ^avel. Any loads taken to the work 
containing such objectionable materials will be rejected. 

Dumping and S|iireadinf; First Course. — The first course material shall be 
dex>osited in a umform ndge on the center line of the road and shall be 
spread immediately upon the sub-grade to a uniform section. This work 
snail be started at a point on the road nearest the pit or loading place and 
shall proceed therefrom until the extreme haul in that direction is reached. 

Shaping and Compacting. — The surfacing material shall be shaped, while 
being compacted under travel by the use of a blade grader, tooth harrow, 
planer or other suitable means. Ruts formed by the hauling or by travel 
shall be dragged full at least once each day and more frequently if necessary, 
to prevent cutting through the surfacing material into the sub-grade. Holes, 
waves and undulations, which develop and are not filled by dragging shall 
be filled by adding more material according to the direction of the engineer. 
The shaping of the material shall be performed according to the direction 
of the engineer and shall be continued until the material is well compacted, 
free from ruts, waves and undulations and is made to conform to the cross- 
section indicated on the standard above mentioned. 

If the material is not sufficiently compacted by the above, methods within 
twenty days after placing, the engineer shall direct the character, amount 
and method of applying the binding material necessary to produce a com- 
pacted surface, and the contractor shall provide the necessary labor and 
equipment to perform such additional work at the unit prices submitted 
for the application of the rejgular surfacing material. The County shall 
furnish tms binding material in the same manner as provided for the regular 
first and second course material. 

Second Course. — When the first course is compacted and shaped as speci- 
fied, to the satisfaction of the engineer, he shall authorize the application 
of the second course materials. It shall then be applied, shaped and com- 
pacted by the' methods specified for the first course. The work of shaping 
and compacting shall be continued until the material is well comi)acted 
with the surface free from ruts, waves and undulations and conforming to 
the specified cross-section. 

Maintenance. — Maintenance is discussed in Chapter VII. 

Oiling. — OUing with a light cold asphaltic oil or cold tar is re- 
sorted to under a moderately heavy automobile traffic. No 
gravel road should be oiled till at least a year old so that it is com- 
pletely consolidated and firmly bound. The surface must be 
well deaned of excess fine dust and the oil applied in two or three 
successive light coats of approx. }i gallon per square yard at inter- 
vals of two or three months. It takes more than one application to 
give even moderately good results as the clay and loam in the road 
tends to prevent the formation of a good bond between the oil 
and gravel but if persistent treatment is adopted this method in- 
creases the power of gravel roads to withstand touring car traffic 
but of course does not increase their structural strength or make 
them suitable for heavy unit freight hauling. 

Cost — Pit run gravel varies in cost from sec. to $1.50 per con- 
solidated cubic yard in place. Screened gravel from $1.00 to 
$2.00 per consolidated cubic yard. 

Gravel surfacing adds approximately $1000 to $3000 per mile 
to the cost of an earth road m the same location and a fair compara- 
tive price for this type including drainage and incidentals ranges 
from $2000 to $5000 per mile. 

Odier Coarse Materials. — The same principles apply to the 
use of any available local material such as slag, chert, caliche, 
disintegrated granite, cinders, shell, etc., each one of which can be 
used to advantage in special localities. 



144 SAND-CLAY AND GRAVEL ROADS 

Miscellatieous Special Cases. — Alaskan Climatic and soil re- 
quirements afford special problems; the foUowing quotation from 
Engineering and Contracting of March 6, 1918, indicates an inter- 
esting condition as described in the report of the Ala'skan Highway 
Commission. 

*'The most unusual and troublesome feature encountered in construction 
is the permanently frozen ground which covers a large portion of the entire 
interior, and whidi is protected from thawing during the summer by a thick 
layer of moss, turf, or decayed vegetable matter. The character of this 
frozen material varies largely in different sections of the territory, and even 
in the same section. It may be gravel, clay, silt, peat, or clear ice, or a com- 
bination of two or more of these elements. 

When gravel is encountered the problem presents no special difficulties; 
the moss or turf is stripped off, and the road graded in the usual manner. 
When the material is clay, experience has shown that the same procedure 
can usually be followed, but the grading is a slow and rather expensive 
process. After the protective covering of vegetable matter is removed, it 
IS necessary to allow the soil to thaw and dry out somewhat before it can be 
worked, and unless a considerable period is allowed to elapse between the 
stripping and the grading, it will be found that the thawing has not extended 
to ' sufficient depth to permit of completing the grading in one operation. 
When the necessity for the road is not pressing, an appreciable saving can 
be effected by striping the road bed and digging drainage ditches during 
one season, completing the construction the next year. 

In those locahties, however, where the frozen material is silt or peat, the 
stripping of the roadbed quickly results in the formation of a quagmire 
through which a man or horse, even without a load, can pass only with the 
greatest difficulty. Such soil has sufficient bearing value only as long as it 
remains frozen, which makes it desirable that the moss or turf over-lying 
it be kept intact. This layer of vegetable matter is not of itself able to 
sustain traffic, necessitating the addition of a protective covering — usuallv 
pole or brush corduroy when timber is available. Fortunately the growth 
of scrub spruce timber which covers a large part of interior Alaska, except 
the Seward Peninsula, affords excellent material for this cordurov. 

Where the trees are large enough pole corduroy is constructed oy grubbing 
all stumps and roots from the roadbed, leveling it, and laying perpendicu- 
larly to the axis of the road a single layer of poles from which the largest 
and stiffest branches have been trimmed. Ditches are then dug at a dis- 
tance of 3 to 5 ft. from the ends of the poles, and the material therefrom, 
after rejecting the top layer of vegetable matter, is placed on the corduroy 
for the double purpose 01 protecting it from wear and affording a smoother 
roadway. If the soil in the ditches is entirely unsuitable for this covering, 
other material, preferably gravel, is hauled on from the nearest available 
source. 

Where the spruce timber is of very small size, or where only small willows 
are available, as on the Seward Peninsula, brush corduroy is used. The 
method of construction is similar to that described above, except that the 
sii^le layer of poles is replaced by mattress of untrimmed brush containing 
sufficient material to give a thickness of at least 6 inches when compressed. 

When corduroy has been properly protected, its life in most parts of 
Alaska is quite long. Poles taken out of the road after xo years of service 
have been found to be in excellent condition. 

The 3 to s ft. berm which rs left between the ends of the corduroy and 
the ditches is very necessary to protect the corduroy from undermining, as 
the ditches, under the action of sun and rain, slough and cut rapidly. Ordi- 
narily, as the frozen soil thaws and cuts away the moss of the berm gradually 
assumes a gentle slope to the bottom of the ditch, effectually protecting the 
corduroy, but where the cutting is severe, it often becomes necessanr to 
revet the insides of the ditches with moss or turf. Frequent outlets from 
the ditches must be provided, and when the amount of water reaching the 
ditch on the upper side of the road is large it is advisable to construct an 
additional ditch parallel to the road and about 50 ft. away, with sufficient 
outlets to culverts of ample size. 

Along the Pacific coast of Alaska no frozen ground is encountered, but 
the mountainous character of the country, the excessive rainfall, and the 
difficulties of clearing, have made the work, as a rule, even more expensive 



ALASKAN ROADS 14S 

than in the interior. Unless the soil encountered in this region is gravel, 
it will not stand up under traffic during the heavy and continuous rains, 
and some protective covering is required. Fortunately gravel is usually 
found at no great distance; otherwise cordurojr or plank roads are constructed. 

Tlie numerous swift streams of glacial origin found in the. Pacific coast 
section and throughout the Alaskan range in the interior have been the source 
of much trouble and expense. Flowing through gravel beds varying in 
width with the volume of water carried up to 2 miles or more, they rarely 
have any fixed channels. It is by no means uncommon for one of these 
streams to abandon an old channel and establish itself in a new one }^ mile 
away almost over night. When warm weather causes rapid melting of 
snow and ice in the glaciers, these streams become raging torrents of enor- 
mous destructive force, and roads paralleling them are in constant danger 
of being washed away. Numerous methods of bank protection to prevent 
damage from this cause have been tried, of which the following has proved 
to be the cheapest and most effective: A layer of loose brush of sufficient 
length to give the requisite protection is placed on the threatened bank, per- 
pendicular to the current and weighted below the center with stone enveloped 
m gsdvanized-wire netting, the whole being anchored in place by wires ex- 
tending to "dead-men." For emergency work when the water is too high 
to permit of placing the wire netting and rock, the brush is made into fas- 
cines inclosing sacks of earth, which are then placed against the threatened 
bank and wired to it and to each other. This form of protection is easily 
and quickly constructed and has repeatedly demonstrated its effectiveness. 

As now constructed, the width of wagon roads varies with the formation 
of the ground and the amount of traffic expected, but as a general rule roads 
graded by other means than the road ^^rader are given a minimum width of 
20 ft. between ditches, and those on which the road grader is used a minimum 
width of 34 ft. On steep sidehills and where rock work is involved, the 
width is reduced to 10 or 12 ft. The standard width of clearing is 30 ft. 
but this is increased to 60 ft. where necessary in order to secure the beneficial 
action of wind and sun on the roadbed. 

Sled roads for winter traffic only are cleared for a width of 16 ft., with all 
stumps, hummocks and similar obstacles removed for a width of 8 ft. ^ They 
are constructed where the amount of traffic is not great enough to justify 
a wagon road, where the cost of building a wagon road would be prohibitive, 
or where the communities along the route are amply served by water trans- 
portation during the open season, as is the case with the Fairbanks-Port 
Gibbon sled road. If it seems probable that future development may de- 
mand or justify a wagon road, the location is made as for a wagon road, in 
order that work done on the sled road may be of use when the improvement 
is made. 

Trails designed for travel by dog team in winter or by pack train in sum- 
mer are given a width of 8 ft., with all stumps and underbrush cutoff as 
dose to the ground as possible. 

In the past, the work of constructing and gradually improving the roads 
has been so generally intermingled with maintenance operations that a sys- 
tematic plan for maintenance has not been put into effect, nor would such 
a plan have been feasible in view of the uncompleted state of the roads. • At 
the present time, however, the condition of parts of the more important 
roads, notably the Valdes-Pairbanks Road, is such as to make practicable 
their maintenance by dragging. As Alaska has only a very small agricul- 
tural population, the method adopted in many states of contracting with 
farmers adjacent to the road for the necessary dragging can not be used, 
but it is intended to place on completed sections small maintenance crews 
consisting, as a rule, of two men each, supplied with .a team, wagon, drag, 
and the necessary small tools. Two such crews have been employed on 
the Valdez-Pairbanks Road during the present summer, with very satis- 
factory results. On several of the gravel-surfaced roads in southeastern 
Alaska the patrol system of maintenance has been used in connection with 
more extensive repairs. The results show the method to be very effective 
for roads of this character. 

The average costs per mile, including construction and maintenance of 
sU roads and trails constructed by the board since its organization in 1905 
arc as follows: Wagon road, 13,419; sled road, $379;. trail, $113.. .A division 
of these amounts to show the exact cost of construction proper is impossible, 
but a careful analysis of the available data indicates that the following unit 
costs of construction, including bridges, may be accepted as approximately 



146 



SAND-CLAY AND GRAVEL ROADS 



correct: Wagon roads, 12,475 per mile; sled roads, $300 per niile; trails, 
I6s per mile. The average costs of maintenance during the past season 
were as follows: Wagon roads, $250 per mile; sled roads, I14 per mile: 
trails, 18 per mile." 

Arid Regions. — In the arid regions fills must be avoided. Ordinary 
earth roads are constructed below the general elevation of the 
ground as follows: 



HoH-ural Ground Surface ■ 




which keeps them moist longer; shallow ditches are used for the 
same reason. In many cases a hardpan formation underlies the 
sand surface and in these conditions the sand surface is scraped off 
and the road built on the underlying strata. 

Where fills must be used they should be made during the rainy 
season and the addition of clay to a sandy soil helps consolidate 
the traveled way. Readers are referred to the reports of the 



s. ^Surface of Sand 

■•, -rXii^N •■'.•.•. !■■■•.:•>•• ■ •y-T! . /Tt : >• :, ?.•;-•■:• •/'••/•, V'^ 



-mmmmm 



^ridtr lying ff arc/pan. 



State En^neers of New Mexico and Arizona for further data on 
the special treatment of roads under these conditions. 

Summary of Chapter. — Roads of the type discussed in this 
chapter form the groundwork of future high-class pavements and 
represent the greater percentage of mileage of roads m this country. 
The^ are entitled to more engineering supervision than they have 
received in the past. 



CHAPTER V 

GRAVEL AND STONE FOUm^ATION COURSES FOR HARD 

SURFACED PAVEMENTS 

Concrete foundations are considered under "Rigid Pavements" 
in Chapter VI. 

The real foundation of a road is the earth sub-grade; generally, 
however, the term foundation is used in speaking of the lower 
course of stone, gravel, etc., used to help distribute the concentrated 
wheel loads. A discussion can be developed under the following 
heads. 

1. The bearing power of different soils. 

2. The concentrated wheel loads on improved roads. 

3. The distributing action of foundation courses and the depth 
required for different soils, 

4. The different kinds of foundation courses. 

5. The distribution of the stone in the foundations. 

6. Special cases. 

I. Bearing Power of Soils 

^ The sub-grade develops its greatest bearing power when dry. In 
ihe following discussion we assume^ that the soils are protected by a 
well designed drainage system. 

Mr. W. E. McClintock, Mem. Amer. Soc. C. E. Chairman of the 
Massachusetts Highway Commission, published in the 1901 report 
of the Commission a valuable statement of the results of Uieir inves- 
tigations on the bearing power of soils and the distribution of wheel 
loads by the macadam. 

"The Commission has estimated that non-porous scaIs, drained of ground 
water, at their worst will support a load of about 4 lb. per square inch; and 
having in mind these figures the thickness of broken stone has been adjusted 
to the traffic. 

"On a road built of fragments of broken stone the downward pressure 
takes a line at an angle of 45 degrees from the horizontal and is distributed 
over an area equal to the square of twice the depth of the broken stone. 
If the division of the load in pounds at any one point by the square of twice 
the depth of the stone in inches gives a quotient of four or less, then will the 
road foundation be safe at all seasons of the year. On sand or gravel the 
pressure can be safely put at twenty pounds per square inch. 

"Acting on this theory the thickness of the stone varies from four inches 
to sixteen inches, the lesser thickness being placed over good gravel or sand, 
the greater over heavy clay, and varying thicknesses on other soils. In 
cases where the surfacing of broken stone exceeds six inches in thickness, 
the excess in the base may be broken stone, stony gravel or ledge stone; the 
material used for the excess depending entirely upon the cost, either being 
equally effective." 

147 



148 GRAVEL AND STONE FOUNDATIONS 

It wiU be noted that the values of the safe bearing power of soils 
are well under those used for building foundations. The depths 
however are not enough for modem traffic as will be discussed later. 
For purposes of convenient reference traffic is classified on page 164 
and will be referred to as Classes I, II, III and IV. 

2. Concentrated Wheel Loads 

There should be some limit placed by law to the maximum 
load per lineal inch of tire for vehicle using improved roads. The 
roads can then be designed for this load with no danger of failure 
from unreasonable pressures. Road work is handicapped in this 
country by the lack of wide tire statutes and the regulation of 
traction engines using* sharp lugs on the wheels. At present it is 
necessary to assume a loadmg that will probably not be exceeded 
by the unregulated traffic. Many engineers favor a law limiting 
the load on improved roads to 700 to 800 lb., to the lineal inch of 
tire width, which is a reasonable limit; with a six inch thread this 
would mean a load of nine tons for a four wheel wagon provided the 
load was uniformly distributed. This is beyond the limits of team 
hauling. 

Most of the mechanical trucks in present use have tires wide 
enough to reduce the pressure below this limit. Near some of the 
large cities, however, mechanical trucking has increased to propor- 
tions that amount to a regular freight line and excessive loads are 
carried; the load and speed for such trucks must be regulated, for 
no road can stand abuse of this character. In special metropolitan 
districts where truck freighting is desirable to relieve rail congestion 
or where it is economical by means of its direct loading and delivery, 
specially designed toll roads, which are self supporting financially, 
could be built to handle much heavier loading, but for free public 
use roads, maintained by the community, a gross vehical load of 12 
tons is a reasonable limit. 

The following regulations governing the control of motor trucks 
and traction-engines were prepared by the New York State High- 
way Commissioner to go into effect in 1914. 

Regulations for State and County Highways Adopted 
BY the Commissioner of Highways of the State of 

New York 

Sbction I. — No traction-engine, road-engine, hauling-engine, trailer, 
steam-roller, automobile truck, motor or other power vehicle shall be 
operated upon or over the state or countjr highways, the face of the wheels 
of which vehicle are fitted with flanges, ribs, clamps, cleats, lugs or spikes. 
This regulation applies to all rings or flanges upon guiding or steering wheels 
of any such vehicle. In case 01 traction-en^nes or hauling-engines which 
are equipped or provided with flanges, ribs, clamps, cleats, rings or lugs, 
such vehicle shall be permitted to pass over said highways provided the 
cleats are fastened upon all the wheels of such vehicles, and are not less than 
2>^ in. wide and not more than i>^ in. high, and so placed that not less than 
two cleats on each wheel shall touch the ground at all times, and the weight 
shall be the same on all parts of said cleats. 



MILITARY LOADS 1 49 

Section a.-*-No traction-engine, trailer, steam-roller, automobile truck, 
motor or other power vehicle shall be operated upon or over the state or 
county highways; nor shall any object be moved over or upon any such 
highways upon wheels, rollers or otherwise, in excess of a total weight of 
14 tons, including the vehicle, object or contrivance and load, without first 
obtaining the permission of the State Commission of Highways as here- 
inafter provided. No weight in es^oess of 8 tons shall be carried on any one 
axle of any such vehicle. 

Sbction 3.— -The tire of each wheel of a traction-engine, road-engine, 
hauling-engine, trailer, steam-roller, automobile truck, motor or other power 
vehicle (except traction-engines, road-engines, and hauling-engines) shall 
be smooth, and the weight of such vehicle, including load, shall not exceed 
800 lb. upon an inch in width of the tire, wheel, roller or other object, and 
any weight in excess of 800 lb. upon an inch of tire is prohibited unless 
permission is obtained from the State Commissioner of Highways as here- 
inafter provided. 

Section 4. — No motor or other power vehicle operated upon any state 
or county highway shall be of a greater width than 90 in., except traction- 
engines which may have a width of x 10 in. 

Section 5. — No traction-engine, road-engine, hauling-engine, trailer, 
steam-roller, automobile truck, motor or other power vehicle, carrying a 
weight in excess of a tons, including the vehicle, shall be operated upon any 
state or county hignway at a speed greater than 15 mi. per hour; and no 
such vehicle carrying a weight in excess of 6 tons, including the vehicle 
shall be operated upon any such highway at a speed greater than 6 mi. 
per hour when such vehicle is equipped with iron or steel tires, nor, a speed 
greater than 12 mi. per hour when the vehicle is equipped with tires of nard 
rubber or other similar substance. 

Section 6. — The State Commissioner of Highways, upon proper applica- 
tion in writing, may grant permission for the moving of heavy vehicles, 
loads, objects, or structures in excess of a total weight of 14 tons over state 
and county highways, upon proper application in writing being made there- 
for, and under such restrictions as the Commissioner may prescribe. 

Section 7. — The owner, driver, operator or mover of any vehicle over 
any state or county highway shall be responsible for all damages which 
said highway 'may sustain as a result of a violation of any of the provisions 
oi' the foregoing Rules and Regulations, and the amount thereof may be 
recovered in an action of tort bv the State Commissioner of Highways or 
by any County Superintendent of Highways of any county or by any Town 
Supenntendent of Highways of any town in which said violation occurs. 

I. Section 8.— These regulations take eflfect October 20, 1913. 

"Section 24 of Chapter 25 of the Consolidated Laws entitled 'The High- 
way Law ' provided that any disobedience of any of the foregoing rules and 
regulations shall be punishable by a fine of not less than |io and not more 
than 1 1 00 to be prosecuted by the Town, County or District Superintendent, 
and paid to the County Treasurer to the credit of the fund for the mainte- 
nance of such highways in the town where such fine is collected." 

Under these regulations properly enforced any of the ordinary 
foundation courses can be successfully used provided the depth is 
varied to meet the soil condition. 

Military Loads.— Major General W. M. Black, Chief of 
Engineers, gives the following information on the loads military 
roads must be expected to carry. % 

"Our existing ordinance liable to accompany a field army will have its 
heaviest representative in a 12-in. howitzer weighing about 27,000 lb., 
18,600 lb. of which are on the front wheels. The base or distance between 
the front and rear axles is 18 ft.; width of track 7 ft. 4 in.; width of tire, 8 in.; 
width of tire shoes, 12 in. This howitzer is to be drawn by a 75 h.p. cater- 
pillar tractor weighing 25,000 lb. Comparison with the largest present-day 
commerical trucks shows that a road substantial enough for such will suffice 
for the ordinance load, so that in this particular, as well as in a strategic way, 
roads suitable for commercial purposes will meet the military requirements." 

Secretary of War Baker gives the following requirements for 
military roads: 



I50 GRAVEL AND STONE FOUNDATIONS 

" The followiflg requifsments as .to construction within the areas mentioned 
are recommended: (i) Road to have a smooth, hard surface of broken stone 
or a pavement not less than 20 ft. in width and capable of supporting the 
loads hereinafter specified for bridges; (a) grades not to exceed 5 per cent., 
except for short distances (less than 50 yd.) where they shall not exceed 
10 per cent.; (3) bridges to be of iron or masonry and of type to support 
loads of a 6 in. howitzer (3000 lb. on front wheels and 6500 lb. on rear wheels, 
distance between axles 12 ft., width of wheel track 5 ft.^ or a 3 ton truck 
loaded (6000 lb. on front wheels. 8000 lb. on rear wheels, distance between 
axles about 10 ft., width between wheels, center to center, about 5 ft.). In 
hilly country, where road foundations are necessarily hardpan or rock, the 
importance of artificial surfacing is less important than the completion of ja 
well drained roadbed ioininfl[ the roads in the adjacent valleys; and it is 
therefore recommended, that m such cases the completion of an unsurfaced 
graded road be completed before the requirement as to artificial surface is 
enforced." 

Commercial Loads. — Records of produce dealers show that heavily 
loaded farm wagons weigh about 5000 lb. of which about 0.6 is on 
the rear axle. The rear wheels carry approx. 1500 lb. on 3 to 3 J^" 
tires and allowing for 25% impact exert a pressure of approx. 
600 lb. per linear inch of tire. Large modem trucks^ loaded weigh 
about 10 tons and carry approximately three-fourths of the weight on 
the rear axle. Each rear wheel is generally equipped with two six 
inch rubber tires and exert a pressure of approximately 700 lb. per 
linear inch. The author believes that a road designed for a 5 ton 
load on a 12" tire or at the rate of ^00 lb. per linear inch shoidd be 
. safe. • 

Note. — ^The length of wheel bearing on a well constructed mac- 
adam road is about i". 

The use of this loading and the application of the rules for dis 
tribution of pressure given by Mr. McClintock in the preceding 
quotation results for "Main Roads'' (Class II and Class IIA 
trafl5c, see page 164) subjected to heavy frost action in northern 
climates, in a total consolidated depth, including top course, of 
9" on fine gravel or coarse sand and 22" on wet heavy clay or fine 
loam of which more than 30% passes a No. 100 sieve. For feeder 
roads (Class III trafi&c) in northern states and for Gass II traffic 
in climates free from frost these depths can be safely reduced to 
5" to 7" on gravel and 15" to 20" on clay. 

The thickness to be used in the intermediate cases must depend 
on the judgment of the engineer. The following examples are 
intended only as a guide for the more common cases for roads on 
which the traffic makes a macadam design reasonable. The 
amount for special cases often depends on trial. 

Coarse saud and gravel require from 5" to 9". New York State 
uses 7" as a minimum. Massachusetts uses the following section 
on good gravel (Fig. 28). 

Wherever the stone is less than 6" it shoidd be laid in one course 
and classified as top stone. 

* Pierce Arrow 5 ton trucks have the following specifications (1918). 
Maximum body width, ^* Weight of chassis, 7800 lb. 

Wheel base, 14' to 17' Body, 2500 lb. 

Gage, 69" Net load, 10,000 lb. 

Two (>" tires on each rear wheel. T3% ^^ ^^^ ^^^ ^° ^^^^^ wheels. 

Total weight of truck loaded, ao.ooo lb 



DEPTH OF MACADAM 



151 




often having once settled rarely give trouble witn 9' 

Heavy day requires at least 15" in cut; if the soil is springy or 

especially poor 18" to 24" is advisable. 
For shallow fills see Figure 29. 
In shallow or ''pancake" fills, clay or fine sandy loam shoidd 

never be used where the natural surface at this point is of a better 



2%^^ 



I 

Fig. 28. 



variety, as they are almost certain to become saturated with water 
and will either squeeze or heave out of shape; long shallow fills are 
to be avoided, wluch is considered in laying the grade line, but where 
unavoidable, the best available material should be obtained and the 
original surface well broken up to' form a bond with the new fill. 
Where clay is used it should be treated as in cut. For clay fills 
of intermediate depth (i to 2 ft.) a stone depth of 10'' to 12' is 
satisfactory. 

(HftSurfiofce , , 




Fig. 29. 

To illustrate the different stone depths that may be used in a 
short distance an extract follows from the construction report on 
foundations for " Clover Street Sec. i " a road near Rochester, 
New York. This was built in 1907-1908 and has held satisfactorily 
imder farm trafl&c (Class III). 

Clover Street Road, Section z 

The normal depth of stone on this road was 7" — 3" top, 4" 
bottom. 



Station to Station 


Character of Sub-grade 


Total Depth 
of Stone 


180 183 + 25 


Cut in sand and gravel 


6" 


183 + 2$ 186 + 25 


Clay fill 


8" 


186 + 25 187 


Light Clay cut 


11" 


187 190 


Sand, gravel and day 


7" 


190 191 


Ordinary Clay cut 


12" 


191 193 


Clay loam fill 


7" 


193 200 


Sand and gravel 


6" 



GRAVEL AND STONE FOUNDATIONS 



I I 



■S 5 
-g H 



il 



1 
If* 



111 

all 



111 



FOUNDATION COURSES 153 

Pteparation of Sub-grade 

It is evident from the pressures to which a road is subjected that 
the sub-grade must be well consolidated before placing the founda- 
tion stone. This is usually effected by rolling with a 10 or 15 ton 
steam roUer, exerting a pressure of 350 to 500 pounds per linear 
inch or wheel width, and is continued until' the grade is firm and 
compact. 

The difficulties of consolidation in different soils and the methods 
of overcoming them will be included in Chapter XV. 

KmDS OF FOUNDATION COURSES 

The foundation courses in ordinary use are as follows: 

1. Crushed stone. , 

2. Screened gravel. 

3. Field stone sub-base. 

4. Pit gravel sub-base. 

5. Field stone sub-base bottom course. 

6. Pit gravel sub-base bottom course. 

7. Quarry stone base or Telford. 

I. Broken Stone Bottom Coarse. — This style of construction 
is the one in most general use. Where local stone is abundant 
and well distributed, such a course will cost^ from $2.00 to $2.50 
per cubic yard rolled in place; where imported stone is necessary , 
the cost depends largely upon the freight rate and the length of 
haul and may run as high as $5.00. Bottom of this kind is generally 
used where the total depth of stone metaling does not exceed 6 
to 8" after rolling. Beyond these depths it is often cheaper to 
substitute sub-base or sub-base bottom course for a part or the 
whole of the broken stone course. 

The method of construction by the New York State Highway 
Commission is shown in the following extract from their 191 1. 
specifications: 

Stone Macadam Bottom Course 

"After the sub-erade has been ptepared and has been accepted by the 
engineer, a layer ox broken stone of the approved size and quality for bottom 
course shall be spread evenly over it to such a depth that it shall have, wheii 
roued, the required thickness. The depth of the loose stone shaU be gaged 
by laying upon the sub-grade cubical blocks of wood of the proper stse and 
spreading the stone evenly to conform to them." 

The roller shall be run along the edge of the stone backward and forward 
^veral times on each side before rolling the center. Before putting on the 
oiler the course shall be rolled until the stone does not creep or weave ahead 
ot the roller. In no case shall the screenings or sand for filler be dumped in 
°^ upon the crushed stone, but they shall be spread uniformly over the 
larface from wagons or from piles that have been placed on the shoulders. 
It shall then be swept in with rattan or steel brooms and rolled dry. * This 
PJo<*88 shall be continued until no more will go in dry, when the surface 
■i^u, if required by the engineer, be sprinkled to more effectually fill the 

' All costs are for comparative purposes and are based on 1913-1914 
oonditions. 



154 GRAVEL AND STONE FOUNDATIONS 

voids. No filler shall be left on the surface, and the bottom course stone 
shall be swept clean before covering with top course. Only such teaming as 
is necessary for distributing the materials will be allowed on the bottom, 
course. Any irregularities or depressions, the result of settlement, rolling or 
teaming, if slight, shall be made good with broken stone of the same size used 
in the bottom course, otherwise the stone shall be removed and the sub-grade 
regmded and rolled. Such removal and restoring of the surface shall be made 
at the Expense of the contractor. Screenings shall not be used in leveling up 
irr^rulanties or depressions. " 

Massachusetts used no filler; otherwise their construction is 
substantially the same as New York. 

Where imported stone is specified or the local stone is suitable 
for both top and bottom courses, the size used for bottom course 
is known commercially as "No. 4 stone" and ranges from 2^^" 
to $%" in its greatest dimension; the smaller size is used for the 
top course, for concrete and for filler; where the local material is 
only fit for bottom, the course is made up of stone ranging from i" 
to 3%" in order to use up the total output of the crusher. The 
stone smaller than 1" is used for filler, on the shoulders, and some- 
times for the cheaper grades of concrete. In specif3dng the sized 
stone for a particular job, economy is considered. Stone sized 
from i" to 3Ji" is perfectly satisfactory. The only reason for 
limiting the usual size from 2^" to 3Ji" is that it leaves the i" 
to 2^" stone for the top course; a uniform grade is important for 
the top and the size mentioned gives a smooth finish. 

The ratio of loose depth to rolled depth is given on page 591. 

Where filler is not used in the construction of the bottom course 
more binder is required for the top; it is our opinion that the use 
of filler is the better construction but it must be of good quality. 

The clause concerning teaming in the quoted specifications is 
8 dead letter; teaming helps to consolidate the bottom provided 
it is distributed over the full width and care is taken in watching the 
course to prevent loss of shape when the traffic is first turned on or 
after a long continued rainfall. 

2. Screened Gravel Bottom Course, — Screened gravel i" to 3 J^" 
in size is used in place of crushed stone; the course is constructed m 
the same manner as described above, except that a filler containing 
some clay Or clay loam is preferable to a coarse sand, and it is 
often necessary to wet the course in order to consolidate it satis- 
factorily. It is also necessary to apply the filler before the course is 
rolled. 

A gravel bottom should be made somewhat thicker than a 
crushed stone bottom as the fragments do not interlock as firmly 
as crushed stone. 

The choice between a screened gravel or crushed stone bottom 
depends entirely on the relative cost. Under favorable conditions 
a screened gravel bottom course will cost from $1.30 to $2.00 per 
cubic yard, rolled in place. A course pit run gravel is preferable to 
a screened gravel bottom. 

3. Field Stone Sub-base.^-Field stone sub-base is constructed, 
as shown in the cut, of field boulders roughly placed and filled with 
gravel, waste No 2 stone or stone chips; no attempt is made to 



SUB-BASE COURSES 



^SS 



finish tlie top of the course exactly to line and grade, as any small 
inequalities can be filled with bottom stone. The depth varies 
from 5'' to 20" depending on the soil encoimtered and the size of 
the available field stone. In designing a bottom course of this kind, 
care must be taken to have accurate data as to the average size of 
stone available. If the demands of a foundation were fully sat- 
isfied by a s" sub-base course, it might still be more economical to 
use a 7" course if the stone averaged seven inches, because the 
extra work of sorting and sledging to a 5'' size would result in a 
higher cost per square yard than for a 7'' depth. 

The amount of stone and filler required per cubic yard in place 
is given on page 591. 




^Syt'dase 



i''iG. 30. 

Under favorable conditions this sub-base can be constructed 
for $1.00 to $1.50 per cubic yard. 

4. Pit Gravel or Creek Gravel Sub-base. — Stony gravel is a sat- 
isfactory material for sub-base; it can be readily constructed for 
any depth from 2 '^ to 24 '^ if required, and where a pit ot creek bar 
is near, the cost of such a course' should run from $0.80 to $1.25 
per cubic yard. 

The ratio of loose to consolidated gravel for such a course is given 
on page 591. 

5. Field Stone Sub-base Bottom Course. — Sub-base bottom 
course is essentially the same construction as sub-base, except that, 
as the top course is placed directly upon it, the stone must be more 
carefully assorted as to size, more carefully placed as to line and 
grade, and a better grade of filler must be used. 

Crushed stone (cruder run) or coarse gravel make a satisfactory 
filler. 




'Baie Bcihun Cowse 



Fig. 31. 



The course can be of any depth from 5" up, depending, as for 
sub-base, on the soil and average size of stone; it is practically 
impossible to make a large stone bottom of this kind conform 
exactly to line and grade; a variation of i" either above or below 
Snde is usually allowed and the inequalities taken out with the 
top stone; this requires that the top course must be at least 3" 
deep after rolling. 



156 GRAVEL AND STONE FOUNDATIONS 

Sub-base bottom is especially applicable for long stretches of 
road requiring a depth of 9" to 20 ; it usually costs from $1.30 
to $1.70 per cubic yard in place where fence stone is available^ 
and by its use the item of higher priced bottom stone is reduced. 
However, on a hard foundation it is generally better to use 4" 
to s" of ordinary broken stone bottom course instead of the sub- 
base bottom course even if more expensive, because the small 
stone construction is more uniform in its resistance to heavy loads 
and the top course will wear more evenly and longer. 

An extract from the 191 5 New York State Specifications is given 
below: ' 

Sub-base Bottom Course 

When field or quarry stone is used for constructing the founda- 
tion course it shall be of a hard, sound and durable quality, accep- 
table to the engineer; the stone shall be placed by hand so as to 
bring them in as close contact as possible. When quarry stones 
are used they shall be placed on edge. The depth of the stone shsdl 
in no case be greater than the depth specified for the course, the 
width shall not be greater than the depth, nor more than 6 inches, 
and the length shall not be greater uian one and one-half times 
the depth, nor more than 12 inches. The distribution of the 
stone shall be of a uniformity satisfactory to the engineer. The 
long dimension shall sAvrays be placed crosswise the road. After 
laying, this course shall be thoroughly rolled with an approved 
roller weighing not less than 10 'tons, and shall then be filled with 
stone or coarse gravel as directed and again rolled until the stones 
are bound together and thoroughly compacted; but no gravel 
shall be used for filling except under written permission of the 
engineer. All holes or depressions found in rolling shall be filled 
with material of the same quality and the surface shall be reroUed 
until it conforms to the lines and grades shown on the plans. When 
field stone is used approved tailings may be used for filling. In 
all cases a sufiicient amount of fine materiid shall be used to fill 
all voids. In limited areas where the use of a roller is impracticable 
heavy tampers may be used to consolidate the material. . 

6. Pit Grayel Bottom or Sub-base Bottom. — A stony gravel 
containing not over 15% of loam makes a satisfactory course; the 
depths vary from 4" to 18"; pit or creek gravel even when unusually 
coarse has from 40 to 60% of fine material; a suitable gravel for 
pit run bottom should not contain more fine material passing a }4,^' 
screen than coarse material retained on a 3^" screen. If there is a 
large excess of fine the gravel should be screened and remixed at the 
bin in proper proportions. 

^ The great difficulty in this construction is to get proper consolida- 
tion without too much delay. It is advisable to lay a course of 
this kind at least two weeks ahead of the top stone in order to give 
traffic and rains a chance to help consolidate the course. The 
addition of 10% of loam to clean gravel will quicken the consolida- 
tion. This can be done either at the pit by leaving a thin layer 



TELFORD BASE 157 

of loam when stripping which runs down with the gravel in loading 
or by placing from J^ to 1" of loam on top of the gravel as spread 
on the road; the author has succeeded in getting rapid consolida- 
tion by snatching loaded teams over the loose course with the road 
roller; the roller continually smooths out the gravel and eases the 
haul for the teams; the horses' hoofs and wagon wheels punch into 
the gravel and pack it down rapidly.^ Sprinkling helps. A gravel 
bottom consolidates unevenly and it is always necessary to reshape 
it somewhat after consolidation; about $0.05 per cubic yard should 
be allowed for this reshaping of crown and elimination of humps 
and hollows. A properly consolidated gravel bottom will permit 
a 4 ton load on ^\i" tires passing over it without making a wheel 
mark over J^" deep; this is a simple available construction test. 
We have gone into some detail covering this construction as it is 
the most economical type of bottom in a large number of cases but 
is not generally favored because it is harder to consolidate than the 
other t3rpes of bottom. With a 3" or preferably a 4" macadam top 
it has proved perfectly satisfactory on all but the heaviest traffic 
roads. 

The cost of a gravel bottom ranges from $0.80 to $1.50 per cubic 
yard in place provided the hauls are short. 

The depths of gravel is gaged by blocks or lines and the ratio 
of loose to rolled depth is approx. 1.2 (see page 591). 

7. Telford Base. — Telford base is rapidly going out of use in the 
United States because of the difficulty of maintaining a top course 
laid upon it. It seems to be too rigid and is more expensive than 
sub-base or sub-base bottom course, costing about $1.80 to $2.00 
per qubic yard under favorable conditions. 

A good description of a telford construction is given by Mr. 
William Pierson Judson in "Roads and Pavements." The fol- 
lowing quotation is an extract from his book. 

"On this sub-grade are then placed by hand the stones forming; the telford 
foundation, which may vary in size as shown below; each stone must be set 
vertically upon its broadest edge, lengthwise across the road and forming 
courses and breaking joints with the next course, so as to form a close and 
firm pavement. The stones are then bound b^ inserting and driving stones 
of proper size and shape to wedge the stones in their proper position. All 
projecting points are then broken with a sledge or hammer so that no pro- 
jections wall be within four inches of the finished grade line. 

"The telford foundation is then rolled with a steam roller of ten or more 
tons weight, until all stones are firmly bedded and none move under the 
roller. All depressions are then filled with stone chips not larger than two 
and one-half inches, and the whole left true and even and four inches below 
the line of finished grade and cross-section. 

"A good workman will average about twenty minutes in setting a square 
yard of this telford foundation, which may be formed of any kind of quarried 
rock which is most available. 

"The practice in 1901 in the states named is here shown." 



iS8 



GRAVEL AND STONE FOUNDATIONS 



Table 21 a. — Sizes of Stone for Telford Foundation, in Inches 



State 



Depth as 
Set on 
Edge 



Max. Min. 



Width as 
Set 



Max. Min. 



Length 

Set Across 

Road 



Max. Min. 



Remarks 



New Jersey 
Mass 



Conn 



New York 



8 


8 


4 




10 




6 


S 


10 


4 


IS 


6 


8 


8 


10 


6 


18 


8 


8 


6 


10 


4 


IS 


6 



Alternate end 
stones double 
length. 

Two inches gravel 
rolled on sub^ 
grade as base. 

Macadam covering 
formed in one 
layer. 

Used only on im- 
stable ground as 
foundation for 
macadam. 



Distribution of Stone in Foundations. — In the discussion of sec- 
tions, Table 10, page 37, shows that most of the traffic normally 
keeps to the middle 10' to 12'. It would therefore appear logical 
to make the central portion of the road thicker than the sides. 
This applies without doubt to roads of moderate traffic where the 
teams generally travel in the center of the macadam and only oc- 




casionally turn out to pass but for heavy traffic double track roads 
this idea is wrong. On such roads the greatest wear and heaviest 
wheel load occur about i ft. from the edge of the hard pavement and 
many of these roads develop the shape shown m the above 
sketch. It therefore seems advisable to keep the full depth of 
metaling for the full width on Class I and Class II traffic roads. 

For Class III traffic the varying thickness indicated in Figures 
32 and 33 is applicable. 

Figure 32 is an example of such a foundation course for ordinary 
soils as used by the New York State Highway Commission in igio. 

Figure 33 is an example of an economical sub-base, for a light 
traffic road as used by the Illinois Highway Commission in 1910. 

Special Cases. — ^Long stretdiesof comparatively level ledge rock, 
muck and vegetable loam may be placed under this head. 

Where a road is on the surface of ledge rock for any distance, the 
usual cross-section of part cut and part fiU can not be us^ because of 



SPECIAL CASES 159 

the high cost of shallow rock excavation for ditches; the grade 
should be lifted to make the normal section fill and the best available 
material (not clay) used in its construction. Where conditions of 
this kind prevail, dirt is usually hard to obtain and often a stone 
fill is cheaper and also more satisfactory. 

The construction shown (Fig. 34) was used for a stretch of two and 
one-half miles on theLeroy-Calendonia State Highway in New York, 
where ledge rock was encountered as described. 




Fig. 32. 

The price for the stone fill was $1.23 per cubic yard in place 
constructed as shown; the road was built in 1910 and has given sat- 
isfaction; the minimum thickness of top for such a fill is 3" as it is im- 
possible to construct it exactly to line and grade; it was found that 
by allowing a variation of i" either above or below the grade eleva- 
tion, the fill could be readily constructed, and these small inequali- 
ties were taken out with the top stone. A top course having such 
a variable thickness should be paid for by weight and not by volume 
in place (see page 586, "Cost Data"). 



i»!| 







^S 



"% 







Fig. 33. 

Peat, Muck, Vegetable Loam, or Silt. — Where the material is 
semifluid the only solution is a pile and grillage foundation. 

Swamps, as ordinarily encountered, can be treated successfully 
by using a corduroy or mattress foundation covered with a deep 
fill of gravel or large stone. In some cases where the muck is com- 
paratively stiff, a gravel or boulder fill alone will give a satisfactory 
foundation. 

Where swamps are crossed by improved roads, the location 
usually follows the old road which has often been corduroyed in 
the past; in such cases the old foundation should not be disturbed; 
a sufficient additional depth of stone can be added to keep the 
shape of the section intact. 



i6o 



GRAVEL AND STONE FOUNDATIONS 



As an example, the Scottsville-Mumford New York State im- 
provement crossed a looo ft. stretch of muck on the old road loca- 
tion; it was found that the original cedar corduroy was in good 
shape; an i8" depth of large boulders was placed on the old founda- 



Screened ^raveior 
B/vkenStorte- 



^•^(J- 




I Z''Bitumin<m\ Top 



wr-nrtrnm A *W " »' 






^ 6rave/.Bfvf(en -W^ Ledge '^0cfc^ 
, Stone, Fence or / ^ 

Quarry Stone Fill. / 



y^Cn/sherflUrtabmfe^ 

/> Best Available 

Material, not 
— *aaf 



•Method "A' 



'Method "B . 



Fill can be made of fence stone, gravel, quarry spalls, stone 
chips, or run of crusher stone over %!' in size. 

Method A . — Boulders up to 2 cu. ft. can be used, placing the 
largest in the bottom of the fill; the top layer must be fairly uni- 
form and not over 8" in size and must be roughly placed by hand 
to reduce the voids as much as possible, provided this layer of 
large stone is within 4" of the bottom of the top course. The top 
8" to be filled with stone chips or gravel and a cushion of at least 
2" of screened gravel, stone chips op crusher run of broken stone 
over y^' in size to be placed on top to bring the fill to the correct 
grade and crown for tiie top course. 

Method B. — Same matenals and manipulation as Method A, 
except that provided the top of the boulder fill is more than 4" 
from the bottom of the top course the top layer of the boulder fill 
need not be placed by hand (see sketch, Method B). 



Pig. 34. 

tion and surfaced with 6'' of broken stone macadam. This stretch 
of road has kept its shape and has not settled, it affords a good 
example of the statement made on page 150 that in many special 
cases the depth of the stone is determined by trial; the boulders 




BlacA Muck 



Fig. 35. 



were put on in successive layers of 6" each ufttil there was no 
material movement under the roller and then surfaced with the 
broken stone macadam. 



ECONOMICAL DESIGN l6l 

Under a heavy load the whole roadbed will vibrate for loo ft., 
but the shape remains intact. 

Economical Foundation Design Macadam Roads. — The econom- 
ical design of foundation courses may be summarized as follows: 
For nioderate traffic use pit run coarse local gravel if available 
varying the depths to suit the soil. If gravel is not available use 
a macadam bottom for ordinary soils and field stone sub-base or 
sub-base bottom for bad foundations. The economy in the design 
of macadam roads is greatly increased by utilizing local material, 
preferably uncrushed, to its fullest extent. We wish to emphasize 
this point (see design report, page 274). If the supply of local 
material is limited it should be used for as much of the road as 
possible and advantage should be taken of the different local 
supplies by changing the design to allow their use with short hauls. 
Uniform designs which disregard limited amounts of local 
materials often raise the cost from $500 to $1000 per mile. 

Conclusions. — In the design of a road, the amount of material 
required for the foundation courses can only be approximated. 
This is the only item in the preliminary estimate that can not be 
figured within definite limits. It can be closely estimated if 
careful data on the soils is obtained from local people and from the 
preliminary survey (see page 330) but a certain leeway must be 
given the constructing engineer so that he may vary the estimated 
depths to meet the construction conditions and build a consistent 
road. It will be noted that the depths recommended in this 
chapter are greater than those shown in most of the state sections 
throughout the book. This increase in depth is based on the 
observed action of traffic on the older macadam roads, which unless 
recapped with from 3" to 6" of additional stone are failing under 
heavy modern traffic. A macadam foundation is more suitable 
in northern climates for nine-tenths of the roads than a rigid pave- 
ment because it is flexible under frost action and with sufficient 
depth will hold the heaviest loads, but present practice in macadam 
design and maintenance is lagging behind the traffic requirements 
m the matter of depth while rigid pavement strength is well abreast 
of the times. The author has been amused at the recent compari- 
sons of the effect of Army truck traffic across New York State on 
rigid and macadam roads. A considerable mileage of old thin 
macadam roads failed in spots but where a reasonable depth of 
niacadam prevailed no foundation failures occurred. A blare of 
trumpets hailed the failure of the old cheap inadequately main- 
tained macadams and great stress was laid on the fact that the 
rigid types held. This is mentioned to illustrate a phase of the 
present campaign for rigid types which the author considers 
wiwarrahted and dangerous from the standpoint of reasonable 
I «>ad design as it tends to discredit macadam construction. While 
we do not .advocate macadam on Class I roads their use on Classes 
n, III and IV should be encouraged. (For traffic classification, 
seepage 164.) 

. Macadam foundation failures are due to insufficient depth, 
insufficient consolidation during construction and poor grade 

L 



1 62 GRAVEL AND STONE FOUNDATIONS 

filler. The matter of filler is very important; coarse sand, pea 
gravel; or stone screenings are preferable and earth or loam that 
softens when wet shoidd never be auowed. Filler should be a separate 
item separately paid for. 

Macadam failures are due to the same cause as concrete failures 
of brick failures or any other failure — ignorance and carelessness. 



CHAPTER VI 

liACADAM TOP COURSES AICD RIGID PAVEMENTS 

The scientific selection of the most suitable pavement for 'a 
given road is the hardest problem of Highway Engineering. This 
selection is often simplified by local prejudice, commercial interest 
or clever propaganda but purely as a matter of academic interest 
we will discuss the matter from the standpoint of the millemium. 

A reasonable decision depends on the requirements of the location, 
traffic, first cost, maintenance and renewal. Where the road is 
located in a village the elements of appearance, cleanliness, etc., 
have an important bearing. Where, it is strictly a rural road looks 
have small effect and first cost usually governs. A large volume 
of extremely heavy load traffic makes a rigid type desirable and safe 
footing for team traffic limits the use of many pavements on steep 
grades. The relative economy of different pavements is theoretic- 
ally expressed by the sum of the first cost and the capitalized cost 
of maintenance and renewal. The first can be readily estimated 
but the cost of maintenance and renewal can not be ^gured with 
any degree of accuracy for single special cases and even on large 
systems it can only be approximated on account of the uncertainty 
of future labor and material costs and the inadequate and spas- 
modic legislative finance programs for the upkeep of highways. 

As stated in the introduction we believe that after the large 
decision has been made as to whether a rigid or flexible t}^e is 
advisable, that the selection of special styles of construction within 
these classes has very little effect on the final cost of maintenance 
and renewal and that the problem can be confined to which of the 
types will utilize local materials to the best advantage and will be 
the cheapest in first cost, except as modified by footing on grades 
or appearance in villages and city streets which only applies to a 
limited mileage. The decision as to general type depends on the 
kind and volume of traffic. On any iroad the amount and class of 
traffic will fluctuate and roads that are designed for light travel 
will often fail under temporary heavy traffic which for some reason 
is diverted from its normal course. The first improved roads in 
any locality will for a time carry more than their share of the travel 
which is naturally reduced by the subsequent construction of 
adjacent improvements or may be increased by the linking up 
of isolated improvements into a continuous route of improved 
roads between large centers of population. It can be readily seen 

163 



1 64 MACADAM TOP COURSES 

that it is difficult to judge the amount of traffic a road will handle 
and that a short time traffic estimate is valueless as a basis for a 
definite conclusion. The design of the top course is usually based 
on a comparison of the action of different kinds of previously 
built roads that serve districts similar to that under consideration 
and this can be better determined by a study of the locality than by 
a localized traffic census. Roads on which high t3rpe macadams 
or rigid pavements are suitable may be divided into four general 
traffic classes. 

Class I, — Main trunk roads between large cities along natural 
transportation routes which accommodate through truck freight 
traffic. Main radial roads from 5 to 20 miles out of cities of say 
50,000 and upward and in the business section of villages which 
carry the concentrated farm and truck traffic of a large area and 
are subjected to- continuous heavy load travel. 

Class II, — Main through automobile pleasure routes at greater 
distances from the cities which have a large touring car traffic and 
medium heavy farm traffic and some heavy trucking. 

Class III, — Secondary or feeder roads and cross roads having a 
medium heavy farm traffic and light auto travel. 

Class IV. — Pleasure or scenic roads that carry a large number of 
pleasure autos but light street tire traffic. 

Class I roads are better served by rigid pavements. Classes II, 
III and IV by flexible types. 

Rigid pavements |are economical on perhaps 10% of the mile- 
age of improved roads that will be undertaken in the U. S. 
during this decade. They are destroyed by the action of the 
elements more than by traffic. They crack due to the settlement 
of new fills and frost heave; they shatter due to changes in tem- 
perature; they are harsh for horse traffic; they are comparatively 
difficult to repair and are prohibitive in first cost except for rich com- 
munities. They however handle heavy auto trucking more sat- 
isfactorily than macadam construction. They need comparatively 
little surface maintenance and for this reason traffic is inconven- 
ienced less than on macadams; they last aionger period without re- 
construction than macadams and traffic is therefore interrupted 
less; they bridge over small areas of weakness in the sub-grade, 
culvert, backfills, etc., better than macadams. There is no question 
but that they are desirable on Class I traffic roads. Under Class 
II traffic however from an economic point of view their selection 
is doubtful if macadam materials are available. Where they are 
used it is merely a tacit admission that the road authorities can not 
handle macadam maintenance and adopt the rigid type to tide 
over their terms of office. The flexible macadam type complies 
better with the usual conditions. It is generally cheaper in first 
cost, is not seriously damaged by settlement of new grading or 
frost heave; can be easily repaired; can be gradually strengthened by 
the addition of stone to meet practically any loading and when 
necessary can be recapped with a higher grade surface which rids it 
of the continuous maintenance drawback. Macadam surfaces 



WATERBOUND MACADAM 165 

however require continuous maintenance and more frequent re- 
construction and are the victims of a poor maintenance S3rstem. 
This last is the real reason for most of the dissatisfaction with 
macadam roads and results in the harsh verdict of the doggerel. 

•• Who builds a road for fifty years that disappears in two, 
Then changes his identity so no one's left to sue. 
Who covers all the traveled way with a filthy oily smear. 
The bump providing rough on riding Highway Engineer." 

This chapter describes the advantages and disadvantages of 
the various types. The preceding discussion and Table 22, page 
190, indicate in a general way their economic limitations. The 
costs given are relative only and apply to New York conditions 
during 1910 to 191 4, Labor $0,175 to $0.20 per hour. Teams 
I4.50 to $5.00 per day and cement approx. $1.20 net. Most of 
the cost data given in Chapter XIV is for the same period. Main- 
tenance methods are discussed in Chapter VII. 



WATERBOUND MACADAM 

Waterbound macadam is constructed of crushed fragments of 
suitable rock filled with rock dust and sprinkled and rolled until 
firm and hard. The cost varies from about $3.50 per cubic yard 
where local materials are available to $6.00 where the stone is 
imported and the haul is long. A fair average price for roads in 
Western New York would be $4.30 per cubic yard or $0.35 per 
square yard for a 3" consolidated dei)th. 

Depth of Course. — As the top stone is relatively more expensive 
than the bottom course a good design calls for the least thickness 
of top which can be successfully constructed and maintained. 

In 1 90 1 the thickness used for top-course macadam in Massa- 
chusetts, New York, Connecticut, and New Jersey was 2", and 
the size of the top course stone fragments ranged from )^" to i J^" 
in Massachusetts to i" to 2" in New York. Experience demon- 
strated that with a course as thin as 2", the larger stone fragments 
tended to "kick out" under traffic and that the top wore out by 
raveling rather than by the abrasive action of the teaming. For 
this reason the best practice at i>resent calls for a 3" depth of finished 
top course, using stone ranging in size from i J^" to 2^4"; this depth 
makes it possible for the large stone fragments to interlock more 
firmly than in a 2" course. Where a pit run gravel bottom course 
is used a 4'' depth of top is desirable on Class II roads. 

Crowns. — The crowns used on plain macadam range from J^" to 
i', to Ji" to i'. Mr. Charles Mills, Chief Engineer of the Massa- 
chusetts Highway Commission reports the following loss of crown 
on State roads in Massachusetts and concludes that an original 
crown of ^" to i' is advisable on single track roads and M" to i' 
on double track roads. New York practice favors %" to i', on 
10' to 14' width of metaling and J^" to i' on 16' to 20' pavement 
widths. 



1 66 MACADAM TOP COURSES 

Table 21B. — ^Tests Made in Decembes, 1901 



Date of Ori^nal 
Construction 


Number of 
Teste 


Original Crown 
(Inches per Foot) 


Present Crown 
(Inches per Foot) 


1895 
1896 

1897 

. 1898 

1899 


7 

9 
12 

7 
2 


0.694 

0.583 
0.645 

0.625 

0.688 


• 0^500 

0.514 
0.500 
0.500 
0.625 



From the Massachusetts Highway Report for 1901. 

Maximum Grades. — Waterbound macadam gives a good footing 
for horses on the steepest grades that are ever constructed; the limit 
of grade for this construction is determined by the cost of mainte- 
nance; on steep grades macadam washes badly and the cost of 
maintenance is high. Good practice limits its use to grades of 
5% or under, although it has been used and maintained success- 
fully on grades as high as 12%. 

Advantages and Disadvantages. — ^Waterbound macadam does 
not require particularly rigid inspection during construction and 
can be built under almost any weather conditions except freezing. 
By its method of construction the voids between the large stone 
fragments are completely filled with solid material and there is no 
tendency to squeeze or creep as in some of the asphaltic macadams. 
If carefully built it maintains its longitudinal and transverse shape 
and is an easy riding road for both team and motor traffic. 

Plain waterbound roads generally loosen up during the spring 
thaw and if subjected to much traffic at this time are liable to ravel. 
This trouble is not experienced with the bituminous macadams. 
Under heavy automobile traffic a plain waterbound macadam is 
not satisfactory as the machines remove the fine dust particles 
between the larger stones, leaving a rough surface which *' kicks 
out" under team traffic. For this reason waterbound roads which 
are receiving much motor traffic are generally being treated with 
some kind of a dust layer or a bituminous protecting coat, that will 
better resist the wear of automobile travel. 

Waterbound Roads Treated with Dust Layers or Ptotected by 
Flush Coats. — If waterbound macadam is kept moist by sprinkling 
with water, rapid disintegration under light machine traffic, 
traveling at memum speeds is prevented. For light traffic, city or 
village streets, this is feasible, but the cost of sprinkling long 
stretches of country roads is prohibitive, and where the speed is 
high, as usually occurs on the main improved country roads, 
sprinkling alone will not satisfactorily protect a plain .macadam. 

The application of calcium chloride ' to a road surface keeps the 
dust down for a longer period than sprinkling with water, as this salt 

^We are indebted to Mr. Frank Bristow, Superintendent of Repairs. 
New York State Department of Highways, for much of the data on calcium, 
chloride, glutrin and cold oiling. 



OILING 167 

has the property of absorbing moisture from the atmosphere and 
condensmg it on the road surface; on side roads two applications 
a season have kept the surface in good condition. The salt is 
applied with an ordinary agricultural drill, using about i^ pounds 
per square yard for the first application and less for the succeeding 
applications. In Western New York the cost of the first applica- 
tion 12' wide has been approximately $100 per mile. Complaints 
have been made that the application of too much calcium chloride 
has caused soreness to horses' feet, but using the quantities given 
above, no trouble has been experienced, to the writer's knowledge. 

The application of calcium chloride does not build up the road 
or form a wearing cushion that protects the stone; it merely prevents 
the fine surface dust from being blown away or removed by the 
machines. 

Glutrin. — Glutrin is a trade name for the liquid which is run out 
of sulphide tanks in the manufacture of pulp; it is distilled and the 
acids neutralized. It resembles molasses in color and consistency, 
is soluble in water, and is applied by sprinkling the surface of the 
road with one part glutrin dissolved in one or more parts of water, 
using from 0.3 to 0.5 gallons of the glutrin mixture per square 
yard treated. The road surface need not be swept if the dust is 
not more than }^" deep. It hardens the surface to a certain extent, 
and, apparently, prevents raveling if applied twice during a season 
on roads receiving a moderately heavy traffic. According to 
Hubbard an addition of 5% to 15% of semiasphaltic oil to the 
glutrin prolongs its efficiency, but such an addition tends to produce 
an oily mud in continued wet weather; glutrin alone does not produce 
this objectionable condition. Glutrin has been laid in New York 
State under an agreement with the Robeson Process Company of 
Ausable Forks, at a cost of $0.04}^ to $0.06)^ per square yard 
of surface actually treated. 

Cold Oiling. — Macadam surfaces treated with light refined tar or 
asphaltic oil give a nearly ideal surface after the slippery, sticky 
condition has disappeared. 

The road to be treated is swept clean of dust and the oil is applied 
by pressure sprinklers, using from o.i to 0.3 gallons per square 
yard. The surface may be dry or slightly moist when the oil is 
applied. It is then covered with a good quality of pea gravel, 
stone or slag screenings or a sharp, coarse sand. In Western New 
York the cost has ranged from $0.02 to $0.04 per square yard, 
including sweeping, materials (oil and cover) and the labor of 
placing. 

To derive a season's benefit from the application of light oil 
or tar, the surface of the macadam must by thoroughly impregnated 
with the bitumen. Some of the lighter oils will evaporate. The 
cover will absorb some more. To get the greatest degree of satura- 
tion of road surface therefore, with a resultant freedom from dust 
and disintegration, the cover should be the smallest amount of stone 
that will smooth out or eradicate that "toothy" or mosaic" effect 
of small shallow voids between the firmly locked top stone (see 
page ao2). 



i68 MACADAM TOP COURSES 

On medium traffic roads (Class II) one application a season 
is sufficient and on light traffic roads (Class III) one application 
will sometimes last for two seasons. 

Hot Tar and Asphalttc Residuum Flush Coats. — Bituminous 
flush coats are applied by sweeping the macadam carefully to 
remove all surface dirt as well as the stone or sand filler to a depth 
of about J^" below the top of the larger stone fragments. On 
this rough, clean, dry surface a heavy refined tar or a bituminous 
residuum of the binder grade is spread hot, using from 0.2 to 0.8 
gallons per square yard. The binder is applied at temperatures 
ranging from 250*^ to 4oo*^F., and is spread either by hand sprinkling 
pots or is sprayed on by specially devised pressure . sprinklers. 
It is then covered with a layer of clean No. 2 stone ( J^'O or dustless 
screenings and thoroughly rolled. A well constructed surface of 
this kind resembles asphalt. It protects the macadam from ravel- 
ing, is waterproof, forms a surface which takes the wear of the traffic 
from the large stone fragments, and gives a pleasing appearance. 
However, it cannot be laid in wet or cold weather; like asphalt, 
it is slippery and will not give satisfactory footing for horses on 
grades over 4%, and, unless laid evenly, will develop short, sharp 
waves or humps, which are very disagreeable for fast-moving 
automobile traffic. Some engineers advance the argument that by 
successive applications of such a flush coat a road can be maintained 
indefinitely without recapping, but as far as the writer has been able 
to observe, the roads become so humpy from continued treatment 
of this kind that recapping will be necessary to even up the surface 
on the score of comfort alone. 

The use of hot tar application on a concrete road will be discussed 
on page 178. For use on an existing macadam road as repair, 
the authors believe that there is just one condition where a hot 
application should be specified'; where an old road has begun to 
disintegrate unexpectedly, has passed the stage where cold oiling 
would rejuvenate it and funds are not available in the current year 
for resurfacing, then the hot oil or tar treatment may be used as a 
stop-gap to save it from complete disintegration for another year. 

The cost of flush coats exclusive of covering ranges from $0.12 
to $0.16 per gallon, or about $0.09 per square yard. If applied to a 
macadam road during construction the cost of the plain macadam 
is increased approximately $0.10 per square yard, making $0.45 

Cer square yard a fair comparative figure for flush coat and water- 
ound macadam construction. 

The crown ordinarily used on flush coat roads is J^" to i'. 
All bituminous binders have the following practical disadvantages 
whether applied as surface coats or as oinders in bituminous 
macadams. The composition of residuum products is so complex 
and so easily varied that, to get uniform results, each shipment 
must be sampled and analyzed to insure certain required properties. 
In heating, care must be taken not to char the binder, as this 
destroys its life and efltectiveness. They can not be applied in wet 
or cold weather, which reduces the length of the construction 
season, and unless evenly spread a rough, humpy road results. 



BITUMINOUS MACADAM 169 

Bitcimlnoias Macadam. — Bituminous macadams are constructed 
in two ways, by the penetration method and by the mixing method. 

Pmietratioii Method. — Most of the bituminous roads in New York 
State have been built by this method. 

ITie larger stone fragments, ranging in size from i" to 2" to 2)^", 
depending on the depth of the course, are spread and rolled; a 
heavy grade of rehned tar, residuum bituminous material, or 
fluxed natural asphalt, is then poured hot, either by hand or 
machines (see footnote) into the voids of the stone so that the 
stone fragments are covered with a thin coat of bituminous material; 
No. 2 stone, or dustless screenings are spread over the surface and 
broomed and roUed until the voids are filled; if a flush coat is to be 
used the excess filler is broomed off and the surface applied in the 
same manner as described for plain macadam. Where the flush 
coat is not applied, a wearing coat of dean screenings is spread over 
the surface. 

The amount of bituminous material used as binder varies from 
1.25 gallons to 1.75 gallons per square yard, depending on the depth 
of the course. The amount used for flush coats ranges from 0.2 
to 0.5 gallons per square yard. 

The cost of oneH:oat 2" bituminous top, using 1.25 gallons per 
square yard, will range from $0.35 to $0.45 and a 3" one-coat 
top, using 1.75 gallons per square yard from $0.50 to $0.60 a square 
yard. The flush coat using 0.4 gallons per square yard will add 
about $0.06 to the above costs. For the purpose of comparison 
with the macadam a fair set of prices is 

2" Bituminous top, one coat of bitumen $0 . 40 per sq. yd. 

2" " " flush coat 0.4s " " " 

3" " " one coat of bitumen 0.55 " " " 

3" " " flush coat '.... 0.60 " " " 

Depth of Top Courses for Bituminous Macadams. — In 1910 
New York State adopted a depth of 2 ' using 1.25 gallons as binder 
and 0.5 gallon as flush coat per square yard. 

In 19 n a 3" depth was used with 1.25 gallons per square yard 
as binder >and 0.4 gallon as flush coat. 

In 191 5 a 3" depth was used with 1.75 gallons as binder and 0.5 
gallon as flu^ coat. 

A 2" bituminous top will not fail by raveling, the defect men- 
tioned for a 2" waterbound macadam course, but it has certain 
constructional difficulties. To construct a 2" course no stone should 
be over 2" in its largest dimension. Because of the tendency to 

The author has had better success with hand pouring for the first coat 
than with machine work. For flush coats, however, a pressure machine is 
absolutely necessary. If bitumen is poured by hand it must be poured 
across the road (never along the road) as this method of work largely elimi- 
nates humps formed by overlap. It is much easier to control the hand spread 
than the machine spread as to amounts and the stone spread is not disturbed 
or rutted up during the pouring. While the machine spread is uniform 
this is in itself a drawback on the first coat as the rough stone sizing is never 
uniform and a hand spread can be varied to conform to the non-uniformity 
of the stone sizing. 



I70 MACADAM TOP COURSES 

crack under concentrated wheel loads, none of the stone forming 
the main body of the course should Be less than one inch in size. 
These limits of size are so narrow that difficulty has been experienced 
in procuring sufficient stone for top when crushing local material, 
and even when the stone is obtained from a commercial plant 
the same difficulty is often encountered. Also in spreading such 
a depth with stone ranging in size from i" to 2", there will be places 
where the metaling is only one stone deep and the fragments do 
not fit as closely together nor have the same chance to interlock 
as in a deeper course. The spaces between these stones are filled 
with No. 2 (Ji") size, which wears more rapidly under traffic 
than the larger pieces and the road tends to b€K:ome rougher than 
would occur if the iH" stone fitted dloser together.* This last 
' argument does not apply to flush coat roads. 

The argument is often made that a 3" top will last one and one- 
half times as long as a ^" top because it has one and one-half times 
as much material, but the life of a top course rarely depends on its 
total thickness, as it will become so badly out of shape before the 
general elevation has worn down an inch that it will need 
recapping. 

In attempting to meet these difficulties, 2]^' and 3" courses have 
been built; as far as the author has been able to judge, the 2)^" 
depth remedies the defects, and can be used where imported com- 
mercial crushed stone is available, but where the stone is crushed 
locally a 3" depth is better with a slightly greater range in top stone 
size. 

When pouring bitumen in the penetration method, a pocket of 
fine stone, dirt, etc., will sometimes hold the binder near the top 
in too great quantities; during hot weather the bitumen swells and, 
as the voids are full in {hese spots, it rises to the surface and forms a 
hump or wave. This trouble is not so frequent on either 2 J^" 
or 3 courses as on the 2" depth. 

The writer's present opinion is that whDe a 2H" depth, using 
about 1.4 gallons bitumen per ^uare yard in one coat, will give 
satisfaction that a 3'' depth using 1.7 gallons in one pour is better 
practice on a macadam bottom. On a pit run gravel bottom 
3H" with 1.8 gallons of bitumen is desirable. Where bituminous 
macadam is used to resurface an old worn out concrete road on 
steep grades 3" to 3H" is Uie best depth. 

Crowns. — ^The crowns used on bituminous macadams range 
from J4" to I ' to Ji" to i'; K" to i' is generally used and is ap- 
parently satisfactory. 

Footing. — A single coat road affords good footing on any grade 
that will be adopted as suitable for heavy hauling; such a top 
course will not wash, which makes it easy to maintain on hills. 

Advantages and Disadvantages. — Bituminous macadam without 
a flush coat provides good footing for horses; it will not ravel, is 
easy to repair for small depressions and ruts, is comparatively 
dustless and keeps its longitudinal and transverse shape well, 
making a comfortable riding road for fast travel. On the other 
hand, it will probably wear more rapidly than the flush coat 



TOPEKA MIX 171 

construction as the traffic comes directly on the stone; it is subject 
to the practical disadvantages of construction of all roads where 
bituminous materials are used; it is not waterproof when first 
constructed; this last defect, however, is remedied by the traffic 
which grinds up the surface wearing coat and forces it into the 
voids. As a matter of fact, the combined action of traffic and 
weather puddles the road, and after about six weeks' use we can 
say that the road' has a bituminous bond and a water-puddle 
finish. 

Flush coat bituminous macadams are more dustless than the 
single coat, are more nearly waterproof when first built, look 
smoother at first, and will probably cost less to maintain. How- 
ever, they do not give as good a footing as the single cost and are 
liable to develop waves and humps disagreeable to fast traffic. 

If a flush coat is used there seems to be no advantages in a bitu- 
minous binder, as the flush coat alone prevents raveling, and, if 
such is the case, the binder used throughout the depth of the 
course is a waste of money; a waterbound bituminous flush coat 
course might better be used. In choosing between a flush coat 
construction or a single coat bituminous macadam, the author 
believes that a single cost bituminous macadam is the better 
design; although it will probably cost more to maintain, the in- 
creased safety and comfort to the traveling public is worth the expen- 
diture. Unusual care in construction is required (see Chapter XV). 

Gravel Bituminous Top. — A gravel bituminous bound top is 
rarely satisfactory as it lacks the interlocking action of broken 
stone which increases the stability of construction. The use of 
this type is not advised. 

Mixuig Method — Open Mix. Type I, — ^The stone and bitumen 
are mixed hot in specially designed machine mixers. The mixture 
is then spread in the same way as sheet asphalt. A flush coat can be 
used if desired. The 1915 New York State specifications call for 
No. 2 stone (5^" to iJi"}; when finished thickness is to be 2" or 
less and a mixture of No. 2 and No. 3 stone (ij^" to 2Ji"); when 
finished top course is greater than 2", the stone to be proportioned 
as directed by the engineer. Approximately 18 gallons of bitu- 
minous material to each cubic yard of loose stone, i 

In this "open" mix, it is unavoidable that pockets of mixed top 
material will be placed which have a greater percentage of voids 
than the.average. Whether or not a seal coat is used, these pockets 
will wear more rapidly than the surrounding pavement. In a simi- 
lar manner, variations in the size of the stone will cause uneven 
wear. Both conditions tend to produce a humpy pavement after 
some use, but generally a smoother riding road is produced than is 
attained with carelessly built penetration roads. 

Mixing Method— "Tight Mix" or "Topeka." Type H— The 
stone, sand and bitumen are mixed hot in specially designed ma- 
chine mixers. The mixture is then spread in the same way as sheet 
asphalt. The thickness varies according to the foundation. It 
is generally a consolidated depth of 2" on a concrete foundation 
and 2 J^" on a firm macadam foundation. The various sizes of the 



172 MACADAM TOP COURSES 

•mineral aggregate and the percentages of each are specified within 
certain limits varying slightly to meet gradations peculiar to the 
material available (see specifications, page 781). 

Because of the fine aggregate used in work of this type, there is 
- not sufficient stability to withstand a mixed traffic and the surface 
ultimately forms in disagreeable waves. 

Attempts have been made to prevent this waving by using a 
high penetration asphaltic cement which will permit the pavement 
to iron itself out. However, if a heavy slow-moving traffic be 
carried on this type of road, the surface will rut. 

Apparently, the best results in mixed bituminous macadam have 
been secured when the coarse aggregate was used — stone between 
three-quarter inch and one and one-half inches in size, which were 
filled with a matrix of fine material of sand and bituminous mate- 
rial. Such pavements have sufficient "body" to materially de- 
crease the "creeping" under use and take a more even wear than 
the open mixed type. Where used to recap an old concrete or 
macadam road an open binder coat is desirable to even up the old 
surface and allow a uniform depth of suHace mix. 

The prices for this type of top course run from 

Type I, $0,615 ^ $1,105 ;< J 

Type II, «a6o *° jTiJ ^' ^""" ^"'^ 

Natural Rock Asphalts. — Sandstones and limestones containing 
a certain percentage of bitumen are known as rock asphalts. The 
most common source of supply for the Eastern States is Kentucky, 
and the product is known as " Kentucky Rock Asphalt." It is a 
sandstone containing about f% to 10% of maltha. It is pulverized 
at the mine and is shipped and applied cold in the following manner: 
2" to 2K" of stone, ranging in size from J^" to iK"> are spread and 
rolled slightly. The rock asphalt is run through a shredding ma- 
chine and spread over the stone, using approximately 40 lb. per 
square yard. The whole mass is the thoroughly rolled, preferably 
with a 6- or 8-ton tandem roller; 40 lb. per square 3rard of pure rock 
asphalt is then spread as a wearing coat and well rolled; the rolling 
is continued intermittently for a number of days after the traffic is 
turned on the road. The cost of such a course has been about $0. 70 
per square yard in Western New York. 

The crown ordinarily used is J^" to 1'. 

Advantages and Disadvantages. — ^The road is {^easing in appear- 
ance, is not as slippery as sheet asphalt, and will not ravel under 
motor traffic. However, it is hard to construct in cold weather, 
is not uniform, and will ravel in spots. It has defects in common 
with sheet asphalt of showing wear by developing short humps and 
hollows disagreeable to fast traffic. The steepest grade on which 
it can be used advantageously is about 5%, as it becomes slippery 
in cold weather, and in warm weather it sometimes softens enough 
to make hard pulling for heavy loads. 

Axniesite. — ^Amiesite, a patented material made of crushed stone 
coated with asphaltic cement, has been used on many miles of 



BRICK PAVEMENT 173 

road with good results. It is shipped cold in a friable and granu- 
lated state, spread on either macadam or concrete base and well 
rolled. Amiesite screenings are then spread and rolled, forming 
the surface. This construction costs about $1.00 per square yard, 
3" thick. It resembles asphalt in appearance and has the advan- 
tages and disadvantages of all roads of this class. It is particularly 
adapted for small jobs where it would not pay to set up an asphalt 
plant or where suitable asphalt materials are not locally available. 

For further information, see Chapter on ''Cost Data and 
Specifications. " 

Other Surfaces of a Bituminous Nature. — There are any number 
of patented pavements that can be classed under this head to 
which we can not give space. 

Sheet Asphalt and Warren Brothers' Bitulithic are used in 
unusual cases, but constitute such a small percentage of the mileage 
that for information concerning them we refer the readers to books 
by Richardson, Hubbard, Tillotson, etc. We include some notes 
on inspection of construction, page 677. 

BRICK PAVEMENT 

The ordinary brick pavement construction is probably familiar 
to most readers. On a concrete foundation 5'' to 7" in thickness 
a sand cushion var3ring in depth from i" to 2" is spread and the 

Caving brick are laid on this sand bed so as to break joints; the 
rick are well rolled and the joint&are filled with sand, cement grout 
or paving pitch. Longitudinal expansion joints of bituminous 
material are provided next to the curb or edging; transverse 
expansion joints spaced 30' to 50' apart are used by some designers. 
The latest practice tends to make the cushion as thin as possible 
i" to I H"> acting merely as an evener of the concrete surface. It 
is also rare to find any material but cement grout used for filler 
though this tendency is not necessarily an improvement. The 
use of transverse expansion joints is being relegated to the back- 
ground but this also is open to argument. Premolded asphaltic 
strips form the best kind of expansion joints where they are needed. 
In the last few years the former theory that the i J^" sand cushion 
prevented crushing of the brick and gave the amount of resiliency 
necessary to a pavement of this type has been disputed and ap- 
parently successfully so, by the increased use of the cement sand 
cushion. Upon the finished concrete base a bed of dry cement 
and sand uniformly mixed in the proportion of one part cement to 
four parts sand is spread not over i" deep. This cushion is shaped 
by striking with a template and finished by rollmg with a hand 
roller weighing about 300 lb. and restruck or luted. After the brick 
are laid theron, culled and rolled, the pavement is thoroughly 
sprinkled to set up the cement sand bed. The use of this kind of 
bed undoubtedly overcomes the loosening of bricks near cracks or 
expansion joints and prevents shifting of the sand cushion which 
sometimes occurred with pure sand and resulted in depressed 
areas. It is possible that the use of this kind of a cushion in con- 



\ 



174 RIGID PAVEMENTS 

junction with bituminous joint filler will help to overcome the 
serious fault of surface cracks which develop under frost action. 

In 191 5 several experimental brick pavements were constructed 
where the mortar cushion and brick were laid upon concrete which 
was still plastic. The concrete foundation was shaped by a tem- 
plate and the brick laid, inspected and rolled before the cpment had 
taken its initial set. This is immediately followed by grouting. 
It is too eariy to say whether or not this so-called " monolithic " 
construction will be successful. The ejq>ense' and difficulty of 
manipulation are increased and it is doubtful if any material advan- 
tages are attained. 

Brick pavement construction is essentially rigid, intended to 
withstand heavy traffic. The cost, including foundation and sur- 
facing, ranges from about $1.60 to $3.00 per square yard, the 
average price in Western New York being about $2.00. 

Brick pavements on heavy traffic roads have been extensively 
used in Ohio and New York. Macadam foundations for brick 
surfacing have not proved satisfactory in the Northern States, 
as the surface is too rigid and cracks under the heaving action of 

I .| yifPttth Expamhrt Joint 

f^V Crownytol!^ ^ — , — 1— r-Jb- /-, ^ 




-- , A/ofe ' Transverse Expans/cn Joints Spaced 

h{0*L 30 to SOU: rna^bsysBM-. 

Fig. 36. — Brick pavement, flush edging. 

the frost. Even on a concrete foundation longitudinal cracks often 
develop from this same action. It is more difficult to prevent this 
on country roads than in cities where the sewers keep the earth 
sub-grade comparatively dry, and the necessity for a centfer drain 
under the concrete base is being recognized by many designers. 
Some engineers believe that the i to i cement grout in general 
use is too strong, and that if a weaker grout or a sand filler were 
adopted in its place the heaving frost action would merely separate 
the bricks slightly instead of breaking them and that as the road 
settled they would fall back into close contact. This is an attempt 
to make a theoretically rigid construction flexible and seems to be 
striving to adapt the construction to conditions for which it is 
not fitted. 

Longitudinal Cracks. — These cracks have been carefully studied, 
as they seem to be the most discouraging feature of brick pave- 
ment construction on country roads. 

Mr. Wm. C. Perkins, Chief Engineer of the Dunn Wire Cut 
Lug Brick Company, states from a careful examination of^ a large 
mileage of brick roads built under his supervision, that longitudinal 
cracks have always occurred within 2' or 3' of the center of the 
road; that the cracks extend down through the concrete base and 
that less difficulty is experienced in preventing them as the crown of 
the pavement is reduced. From these observations he has been 



STONE BLOCK PAVEMENT 175 

led to experiment with a concrete base having a perfectly flat 
bottom, as shown in Figurq 36 A, crowning the road by making the 
concrete thicker in the middle than on the edges. The claim is 
made that this style of construction is helping to prevent such 
cracks. 

Transverse Expansion Joints. — The use of transverse expansion 
joints has not been successful locally. Difficulty has been expe- 
rienced with the- brick loosening at these joints, and whenever a 
temperature heave has occurred it has appeared at the joint. 
Then: use has been abandoned for rural roads in Western New 
York. This does not occur with a cement sand bed but excessive 
wear does occur at such a joint. 

,SandCushtofi ,Uncihii^Mif 



■ ^ 1 .i. f^T4V. f 



Pig. 36A. 
CROWNS 

The crowns in use on brick pavements range from J4" to 1 
to %'* to i'. For the methods of figuring ordinates for para- 
bolic crowns see page 551. ^ - 
. Brick pavement does not give a good foothold for horses on grades 
above 5% unless some special form of brick is used. For steep 
grades, on heavy traffic roads, it is better practice to use some form 
of stone block. 

Stone block pavement, including concrete foundation, costs 
from $2.70 to $3.30 per square yard. It is suitable for the steepest 
grades that are constructed and is the most durable pavement that 
can be used. 

yP/fch BxponihnJofnf- 

Concrete M^^^^^^^^^^^^^S^^^ ^^"^ 

tifii Note i If Fitch FiihrisuseclbehfeenStoneBhck, 

1^'^'* no6peefai£kpamtoni^nth/reetM. 

Pig. 37. — Stone block pavement, flush edging. 

Where stone blocks are used on hills it is better practice to use 
second quality blocks; these blocks are identical with the first 
quality blocks as to material but are not dressed as cairefully and 
cost about fifty cents per square yard less; their rougher surfaces 
and wider joints afford better iooting. For the difference in size 
and joints see specifications, Medina Block, page 736. 

The first cost of brick pavement for country roads restricts its 
use to roads where it can be conclusively proved that macadam will 
not be suitable. It is a reasonable design for Class I traffic in 
villages. 



RIGID PAVEMENTS 



ASPHALT BLOCK 

The asphalt block pavement laid in New York has been very 
satUfaetory. The proportion of ingredients is about 70% crushed 
rock, usually trap, which has passed a H" nngi about 20% limestone 
dust to act as filler and approiimately jo% of asphaltic cement, 
molded under a pressure of 1 tons per square inch of block having 
a 2" depth. Tl^s produces a dense asphalt much superior to the 
ordinary sheet. 

The asphalt used is Trinidad. This is refined and fluxed so that 
the resulting A. C. may be varied as to adhesiveness, penetration, 
etc., to meet varying conditions peculiar to different localities. 



( 


-^fi 


,^,^, 









..^mS^m^ 



Sect c 
Pio 3a 



^«»'*13k. 



The penetration is made high enough to give a certain amount of 
pliancy to the block, to avoid crumbling at the edges and to make 

lining steel anchors, laid across the road, 
sted anv movement of the 
i placed at more frequent 
intervals on curves. Block pavements have been laid using a 
longitudinal row of these anchor blocks in place of edging. The 
results appear satisfactory. 

After the base is prepared a mixture of i to 4 Portland cement 
mortar ie ^iread 3^ m. thick. This mortar bed is carefully screened 
and the block laid thereon, joints being broken at least 4 in. 

An interesting comparison with brick occurs in the "pinning in" 
at curbs. Instead of bats being broken by hand, a large mechanical 
shear is used. Each fractional block is measured and cut to fit 



CONCRETE PAVEMENTS 



177 



Asphalt Block Data 



Highway No. 


County 


Mile- 
age 


Bottom Top 
per Sq. Yd. per Sq. Yd. 


Per Mile 


5357 


Westchester 


0.95 


$0.61 $1 


49 


♦26,593 


5375 


(( 


1-34 


Old Mac I 


.69 


18,114 


5388 


Rockland 


2.16 


1 


70 


^27,025 








0.59 I 


70 


^32,525 


"53 


Niagara 


0.97 


0.60 I 


37 


^31,800 


5482 


Westchester 


1. 16 


0.66 I 


50 


29,270 


1167 


(( 


1.28 


0.61 I 


38 


24,245 


. 1053 


n 


1-45 


Old Mac I 


60 


21,205 


5528 


Warren 


0.61 


0.59 I 


60 


35,990 


5356 


Westchester 


0.53 


Old Mac I 


63 


*26,96o 


5361 


i< 


0.68 


0.61 I 


44 


^23,512 


5362 


It 


0.25 


0.67 I 


37 


25,569 


5364-A 


it 


0.31 


0.47 I 


47 


23,166 


5373 


it 


2.85 


0.58 I 


52 










Av. 0.599 Av. : 


t.533 





> Cost £rotn preliminary estimate. 
All costs not marked with * from bid prices. 

After being laid, the pavement is given a light coat of sharp sand 
which is broomed into the joints. Traffic is permitted in four or 
five days. 

Advantages. — The pavement shows a smooth, uniform surface, 
dustless and practically noiseless. Its life has yet to be determined. 
Pavements that have been down ten or fifteen years are still in 
good shape* Within a reasonable freight radius from the point 
of manufacture, it can be laid for approximately the cost of bnck. 

Disadvantages. — A mist or light rain faiakes the pavement very 
slippery. It should not be used on grades over 4%. 



CONCHETE PAVEBAENTS 

Introductory 

Inasmuch as there is some difference of opinion as to the value 
of this type each author has written his interpretation of the avail- 
able facts. 

Concrete Pavements 

By W. G. Harger 

Many miles of these roads have been constructed in the last 

few years. 

The construction has varied from poor i to 6 pit run gravel 
concrete to first-class 1:1^:3 stone concrete 6" to 9" thick. 



1 78 RIGID PAVEMENTS 

There is enough data to conclude that cheap concrete is a failure. 
An effort was made to protect the surface of such a mix with a thin 
bituminous surface coat of asphaltic oils or tars. These coats have 
not been successful as they peel off and produce an unsightly, 
rough riding and a high maintenance cost road. 

The type of concrete road now being built and which has many 
enthusiastic supporters is a first-class i : i H : 3 stone or screened 
gravel concrete which takes the traffic directly on its surface. The 
concrete is carefully manipulated (see specifications, page 785). 
The ordinary section used is shown in Figure 39. Expansion joints 
of premolded asphalt or patented steel plates with tarred paper filler 
are provided at intervals of approximately 30 ft.* The cost of 
this pavemdht has been from $1.10 to $1.80 per square yard. 
They have the advantages and disadvantages of aU rigid types of 
construction. They should not be used on grades over 5%. 

Pavements of this class have been built on roads having light, 
medium and heavy traffic and are advocated by Cement Manu- 
facturers as an economical road under all classes of traffic. The 
author believes that while this type has its place that a great mileage 
is being constructed which from an engineering viewpoint is not 
justified. The roads have not been down long enough to obtain 



77f/f////M////m/////m/MM^. 



K '^19' 

Fig. 39. 

reliable data as to their length of life before resurfacing. Con- 
sidering in a general way, however, what we know of the material 
and the action of the weather and traffic on rigid types of pave- 
ment, an allowance of 10 to 15 years would appear liberal. When 
they arrive at the point when they need resurfacing a large expense 
is involved. It has been (Remonstrated that cheap thin bitummous 
coats have not been successful; it is not possible to successfully 
resurface with a thin layer of concrete which means that probably 
asphaltic concrete, asphalt block, brick or some other form of 
block or cube pavement will be used at a cost of from $9,000 to 
$16,000 per mile. The fact that resurfacing when it occurs re- 
quires such a large expenditure eliminates this type from use on any 
but the more important roads which constitute a small percentage 
of the mileage of any large system. 

With the data at hand the indications are that this type is a good 
design for Class I roads outside of villages and possibly for the 
heavier Class II roads under special conditions. 

Under Class I traffic an average depth of 8" of concrete is recom- 
mended and a minimum width of 18' on account of the difficulty 
of Moulder maintenance (see Plate 9, page 60). 

1 The author personally believes that better results will be obtained by 
eliminating these joints altogether. The artificial joints are sources of 
weakness m that they tend to localize the wear. Apparently less wear 
occurs at a natural crack and it is certain that a smoother riding road is 
obtained. 



CONCRETE ROADS /7^ 

If used on Class II roads a depth of ^" will probably be sufficient 
but no reduction in width is allowable. The fact that more width 
is desiraole for all rigid pavements than for macadams on Class II 
traffic is an added reason for the use of macadams under these 
conditions (see Chapter on "Sections," page 42). 

Under climatic conditions free from frost an average depth of 6" 
is sufficient and under ideal soil conditions 4" to 5" have been 
built (see "California Standards," page 50). 

First-class concrete is showing up better than anticipated under 
Class I traffic but the desirable depths, widths and necessary 
refinements of construction to insure success are increasing the cost 
per square yard and eliminate it as a competition for macadam 
on Classes II and III roads where macadam materials ftre available. 

CONCRETE BirUMINOnS ROADS 

By E. a. Bonney 

Some four or five years ^go, a tremendous wave of publicity 
swept concrete roads into the limelight. The construction at that 
time consisted of a second-class concrete base with a skin coat from 
K" to Ji" in depth, composed of screenings, mixed with hot oil 
or tar, and sometimes a combination of the two. The base was 
laid without joints and gravel or any kind of stone was used for 
aggregate. 

Under this type at least a dozen patented pavements were 
developed practically none of which have to any degree borne out 
the extravagant claims made at that time. 

The bituminous skin coat has not been satisfactory. It is 
subject to all the disadvantages of other bituminous macadams and 
with few exceptions has not adhered to the concrete for any length 
of time. 

There is a road known as the Bedford-Goldens Bridge State 
Highway in Westchester County, on which 2.67 miles of concrete 
base has been laid when the original contract was canceled. The 
unfinished portion was covered with an experimental skin-coat 
treatment which today (1916) is as sound and intact as when laid. 
Work was finished in the early summer of 1915. The road was 
subjected to the enormous automobile traffic peculiar to West- 
chester County all season. A brief description follows: 

The concrete was cleaned, all dust, dirt or caked material re- 
moved. It was then coated with a cold application of low carbon 
tar, very light grade, almost a creosote. This was spread about 
Ho gallon per square yard and allowed to dry for two hours. About 
one- third of a gallon per square yard of Bit. Mat. " T " low carbon 
was then applied hot and covered with approximately 37 lb. binder 
of No. 2 stone per squaire yard. A second coat of J^ gallon per 
square yard was then applied and covered with about 32 lb. per 
square yard of No. ^ stone (screenings). 

This treatment so far looks extremely well and has not broken 
away from the concrete. It is still too early to classify as a success. 



l8o RIGID PAVEMENTS 

The c5ost of the top course only was lyKc per square yard. 
Base cost 68c. making total of 85c. 

CONCRETE PAVEMENTS 

By E. a. Bonney 
I : I J^ : 3 Mix 

* 

Concrete pavements are showing as each season passes by, that 
they are worthy of much more consideration than nas been given 
them up to the present time. For roads subjected to heavily 
loaded and slow moving vehicular traffic or for roads so located or 
traveled that any type of macadam road would be subjected to 
costly maintenance, the concrete pavement has come to stay. 
The wear seems to be inappreciable and because of the flat crown, 
traffic is spread over the entire width of metal. 

Great care must be exercised in the selection of aggregates. 
Many sands that are considered good enough for ordinary concrete 
work will not give satisfactory results in concrete pavement. 
Stone or gravel should be limited to those showing a high coef- 
ficient of wear. 

Considerable attention should be paid to the percentage of voids 
in the sand and stone. Experiments should be made to determine 
approximately the mixture giving the lowest percentage of voids. 
The authors do not believe in the blind adoption of a specified 
mix. It is often essential that the mix be varied to correspond 
to the gradation of available sand and voids in coarse aggregate. 

Several containers of uniform volume and a pair of scales are all 
the apparatus necessary to show whether or not the specified mix 
is the best mixture for the aggregates available. 

The approximate percentage of voids, may be found by water. 
By makmg up several concrete cubes or cylinders of the same 
volume, beginning with the specified mix and varying the others as 
indicated by the percentage of voids, the heaviest product will 
indicate the proper mixture. 

Any data given herewith is based upon a one-course road. The 
authors are not personally, familiar with two-course roads. 

Btdletin No. 249 of the Office of Public Roads, U. S. Department 
of Agriculture, cites the advantages and disadvantages of concrete 
highways as follows: 

"Advantages. — r. As far as can be judged, they are durable under ordinary 
suburban and rural traffic conditions. While it is true that there are no very 
old concrete' jMivements in existence, the present condition of many of those 
which have undergone several years' service would seem to warrant the 
above statement. 

"3. They present asmooth, even surface, which offers very little resistance 
to traffic. In the past the surface of concrete pavements have sometimes 
been roughened in order to insure a good foothold for horses. This practice 
has now been abandoned, except on very steep grades, because it tends 
greatly to accelerate deterioration of the pavement, and because the smooth 
surface has been found to afford a fairly satisfactory foothold under all 
ordinary conditions. 

"3. They produce practically no dust and may be easily cleaned. 



CONCRETE ROADS 



i8i 



"4. They can be maintained at compamtively »nall cost until renewals 
become necessary. 

"5. They may be made to serve as an' excellent base for some other 
t3rpe of surface when resurfacixig becomes desirable. 
6. They present a pleasing appearance." 

"The Disadvantages. — i. They are somewhat notsy under horse traffic. 

*' 2. There is no method of constructing necessary joints in the pavements 

which will entirely i>revent excessive wear in their vicinity. Furthermore. 

joints do not altogether eliminate cracking and wherever a erack develops 

^ must be given frequent attention in order to prevent rapid deterioration 

of the pavement. 

**3« They can not be readily and effectively repaired as many other types of 
pavements." 

This summation of concrete roads in general seems eminently 
fair. We believe, however, that to the disadvantages should be 
added the inevitable rut which appears between the edge of the 
concrete and the earth shoulder. These ruts are dangerous to 
fast-moving traffic and require constant maintenance for their 
elimination unless the. shoulders are armored with crushed stone 
or gravel for 2 ft. or more from the concrete. 

The question of reinforcement and joints are still the subjects 
of much discussion among engineers. 

The item of reinforcement largely increases the cost of the roads 
and it is yet too early to say that the added expense is justified. 

Fremolded Asphalt 
Joint as liaid 




The joint problem affords an unlimited field for a variance of 
opinions. Few engineers are satisfied with any of the exbting 
armored joints, patented or otherwise. ' 

The author believes that experience to date has divided the 
problem of joints into two fields: i.e., on roads under continued 

Premolded Asphalt 
/ Joint as it becomoB 
under Traffic 




maintenance a' bituminous joint will prove satisfactorv and is 
renewable at small cost; on roads which receive spasmodic main- 
tenance or none at all, some sort of steel joint should be used.' 

On New York State work where maintenance is continuous 
the most satisfactory joint to date is of premolded asphalt, which 
is SQ placed that it projects from %" to H" above the surface of 
the concrete; as shown above (A), 

A combination of hot weather and traffic spreads the asphalt 
out, leaving a bituminous mat over the joint. 



i82 RIGID PAVEMENTS 

For concrete roads not under maintenance, the better joints 
are being made of soft steel tempered to the same relative hardness 
as the concrete. A hard steel joint simply transfers the point 
of wear from the joint-edge proper to the concrete back of the joint. 

The proper length of concrete slabs between joints is another 
subject of speculation. Many roads are now being built with 
varying distances between joints in an endeavor to determine how 
few can be used with success. ' -~ 

The average cost of this type in New York State for 6" depth of 
pavement is $1,121 per square yard of pavement only. Total 
average cost for mile of completed highway, including excavation, 
drainage structures and pavement, is $15,320 (191 6). 

Small Stone Block Surfacing, — In Germany, Hungary, Austria, 
and England a surfacing made of granite blocks, ranging in size 
from 2j^" to 4", has been used successfully. This pavement is 
known as Kleinpflaster in Germany, and as "Durax" armoring in 
England. The stone cubes must be cut with considerable accuracy 
in order to give a smooth and durable surface. 

The blocks are laid on a thin sand cushion of about %" depth, 
on either a macadam or concrete foundation; they are thoroughly 
rammed to give a firm bearing and the joints tilled either with 
clean sand flushed in, or a bituminous filler. The joints do not 
exceed ]4!' in width. The courses of cubes are laid either diagon- 
ally to the direction of the traffic or in concentric rings. 

Where the stone is broken by hand the cost is high and it would 
be impossible to consider its use for rural roads in this country. 
A machine^ has, however, been developed in Europe for breaking 
these cubes which is claimed to produce a satisfactory product 
at a reasonable rate. It is a belt-driven friction, drop-hammer 
having a stone chisel mounted on the anvil; the hammer iiead is 
shaped like a stone-cutter's sledge. The power needed for each 
machine is about i}4, h.p. 

About 400 of these machines are in operation, and a plant in 
Sweden is turning out 700,000 square yards of pavement per year 
with 62 machines. 

Provided the pavement can be laid for $1.00 to $1.25 per square 
yard, it seems a type that must be seriously considered. A price 
as low as this, however, would necessitate the use of convict labor 
in the manufacture of the cubes. 

McCLINTOCK CUBE PAVEMENTS 

By W. G. Harger 

This is a patented pavement devised by J. Y. McClintock, 
County Engineer of Monroe County, N. Y. It is very similar 
to "Kleinpflaster'' except that under his patent artificial cubes 
as well as stone cubes are proposed. It appears to be a very promis- 
ing type. 

. ^ A detailed description of this machiae is given in Engineering News, 
March 27, 1912. 



McCLINTOCK CUBES 1 83 

The construction is essentially as shown in Figure 40 and consists 
of a top course of 2^" cubes placed on a thin sand cushion sup- 
ported by either a macadam or concrete base. The cubes have 
Deen made of concrete, vitrified paving brick material and stone 
as in Continental p/actice. 

They are loaded, hauled and dumped like broken stone; laid 
in close contact by means of a pallet and rake 128 at a time on a 
sand cushion J^ to }4," thick, no care being taken to break joints. 
They are then rolled to bring to an even and firm bearing; the, 
joints are filled with a sandy loam and the surface treated with a 
light c^oat of light road oil or cold tar if the foundation is macadam. 
The joints are grouted if the foundation is concrete. Temporary 
shoulders of 2" plank are put down during the laying of the cubes 
after which they s^re removed and replaced with broken stone or 
gravel as shown in Figure 40. 

The experience of the past six years has shown that this form of 
construction using a sand-tarred joint is flexible under frost action 
which makes it suitable as a surfacing on a macadam base. It 
keeps its shape under traffic and shows no tendency to ravel or 
break down at the edges and can be successfully held with 
a macadam or gravel shoulder without the formation of a rut 

^ r >.,,■■■■■■■ ■ ■fip.**!rf.y. . Li^'^'vp/- 



r. 



^^-,K\\\Z^)'y'>"y//Z//////Am^/-^^^^^^ 



I 



'^ Macadam /btfrtdaiion 



Fig. 40. 

along the edge which is a difficulty always encountered where a 
rigid edging is designed. It gives a satisfactory surface in both wet 
and dry weather and can be laid late in the season. The cubes 
require comparatively little inspection and can be successfully 
used as a patch in maintenance with simple manipulation. They 
reduce the tonnage and freight cost where imported materials are 
required. Concrete cubes have not served satisfactorily, failing 
in spots, but this is to be expected as it is not a reliable material 
for a road surfacing of this nature (that is for such small units). 
Vitrified shale cubes with wide sand joints laid on a macadam 
base have shown ability to stand medium traffic. Vitrified shale 
cubes with dose tarred joints laid on a thick macadam base serve 
very satisfactorily under moderately heavy traffic, and the indica- 
tions are that these cubes laid on a concrete foundation and grouted 
will meet all but the heaviest traffic satisfactorily. 

Consider briefly the present tendencies in highway construction. 
There are two distinct types: the flexible form represented by the 
macadams and the rigid t3^es, such as brick, asphalt, stone block, 
etc., having concrete foundations. Each has a distinct field and 
their relative economy depends largely on the traffic. 



1 84 TOP COURSES 

It is sufficient for this discussion to note that macadams are 
suitable for light and medium traffic (Classes 11 and HE); that they 
are able to withstand climatic changes better than the rigid pave- 
ments and that with a moderate yearly e:q)enditure they can be 
kept in good condition when used under thd volume of traffic 
stipidated. 

They fail dther under high velocity traffic or heavy hauling; 
the first being a surface failure and the second a foundation failure 
for most of the roads in this locality but a surface failure for some ■ 
which have a thick well consolidated base. That is, if some 
better flexible surface can be used on a first-lass macadam founda- 
tion, this type of road will be able to handle a heavier volume of 
traffic than at present with a moderate maintenance charge. The 
indications are that the brick cubes with sand-oiled joints will 
serve this purpose. 

The rigid roads develop defects due to temperature changes; 
frost heaye and the settlement of fills. Subsequent movement 
is localized along these lines and eventually expensive repair and 
reconstruction is necessary. Under heavy traffic, however, the 
cost is less than for the macadam type and the inconvenience of 
continual repairs is avoided. 

The first cost of brick and asphalt block which are generally con- 
sidered the best of the rigid types is so high that designers often 
hesitate to use them where t£ey are actually needed. If it were 
possible to reduce the cost and yet obtain practically the same class 
of improvement a larger mileage could be used to advantage. 

The indications are that the brick cubes on a concrete foundation 
will serve this purpose at a cost of about $0.40 per square yard 
less than the present paving brick. 

Highway designers do not hesitate to use macadam for the light 
traffic roads or expensive rigid constructions for the extremely 
heavy traffic; the great mileage that lies on the verge of either form 
of construction offers the real difficulty. It is for this class of 
road that the cubes are particularly adapted by reducing the cost 
of brick and increasing the efficiency of macadam. This applies 
also to the resurfacing of concrete and macadam roads. 

The author believes that provided this type fulfils its present 
indications that it will meet a recognized need m highway construc- 
tion and for this reason has given more space than perhaps is 
justified to a method which has not been tested out by a large 
mileage of construction. 

A reasonable cost of the brick 2" cube surfacing is approximately 
$0.95 per square yard in Western New York. This form of road 
material is adaptabfe to manufacture by convict labor. 

Rocmac. — Rocmac is another patented pavement which deserves 
mention, as the roads which the author has seen built by this 
method compare favorably with other types of construction. The 
claim is made that, under favorable conditions, it will cost only 
fifteen cents per square yard more than plain macadam. The only 
available example of cost details given below is hardly a fair sample 
of what can be done. 



ROCMAC 



i8S 



We quote an extract from the 1910 report of the New York 
State Highway Commission: 

"Bxperiniental pavement according to the Rocmac S3rstem as laid over 
the westerljT portion of Buffalo Road» Section No. 2, County Highway No. 
83, located in the Town of Gates, County of Monroe, New York. 

"The Rocmac system differs from ordinary macadam construction in 
that the aggregate of crushed stone is cemented together by a matrix com- 
posed of limestone dust (as rich as possible in carbonate of lime) mixed with 
a solution of silicate of soda and sugar, the silicate of soda combining with 
the carbonate of lime, an unstable compound, forming silicate of lime, which 
is a very stable compound. 

"The materials used in this experiment were Leroy limestone flour for 
the matrix, being the entire crusher product which would pass a screen of 
M in. mesh, and Akron limestone No. 3 size with some No. 4 size mixed for 
the aggregate. The No. 3 size being retained on a screen of i^ in. mesh 
and passing a screen of 2 in. mesh, the No. 4 size being retained on a screen 
of 2 in. mesh and passing a screen of 3H in. mesh. 

, "The delivery point for material shipped by rail being Coldwater Sta- 
tion, a dead haul of one mile to the beginning of the work. 

"The supervision given this work consisted of occasional inspections by 
the divisions superintendent of repairs and the inspector in charge of this 
section, neither of whom could devote much time to this particular work 
vrithout interfering with other duties. Had the work been constantly 
directed by a competent foreman more progress would have been made 
and the cost probably would have been decreased. 

"The method pursued during the laying of this surface was to scarify by 
hand the original foundation course, removing all loose material by brooming, 
upon this prepared foundation so spread the matrix composed of limestone 
dust and solution, to an average depth of about 2 inches, upon this sj^read 
the crushed limestone aggr^ate to such a depth as would give fimshed 
rolled thickness averaging about ^^ inches when properly crowned, then roll- 
ing same until thoroughly consohdated and continuing rolling and sprinkling 
with water by hand until the matrix which flushed to the surface in the 
form of grout has nearly disappeared, when the i>avement is covered with a 
light coat of screenings and considered complete. 

"Tlie total length of this resurfacing extending from Station 237 to 
Station 275-76 is 3876 lineal feet, aggregating an area of 6890 square yai«ds 
surface upon which was used 1004 tons of No. 3 and No. 4 crushed lime- 
stone, 520 tons of limestone flour and 4050 gallons of silicate of soda solution. 

"Deducting from total expenditure materials not used and expense of 
labor trimming shoulders and ditching would leave total cost of this re- 
surfacing, including all material and labor necessary to form pavement 
complete in place I6400.82 or $0.9288 per square yard. 

"This expense is itemized as follows: 



Item 



Total 



Per Square 
Yard 



Cost of stone f .o.b. cars delivery point 

Cost oi Rocmac solution , 

Cost of teams hauling s^one, solution, water and 

coal '. 

Freight and duty on solution. 

Roller and coal 

Labor ^ 

Tools, tanks, blacksmith, oil and wood , 

Total 



I2026.59 
617.28 

1408.79 
408.61 
547.38 

I 341 .64 
50.63 



I 6400 . 82 



$0.2941 
0.0896 

0.2044 
0.0593 
0.0794 
0.1947 
0.0074 



I0.9288 



"The average price paid per ton for all stone f.o.b. cars at delivery point 
is li.25^; price paid per hour for labor $0.22; for teams $Ok56H per nour; 
roller rent |xo per day. 

" During the progress of this resurfacing traffic was not intefered with at 
all, all traffic being permitted to go over the work in whatever stage of 
progress. This is an advantage worthy of consideration. 



1 86 TOP COURSES 

•'The finished surface after five months' traffic has the appearance of a 
well-constructed macadam road, being hard, smooth, well bound, and clean, 
no disc9loration being apparent except immediately after a rain, when it 
shows light brown in spots, due to the solution, which being soluble in 
water comes to the surface. 

" No ravel developed during continued dry weather when freshly laid 
and under traffic; road is relatively dustless: this, however, depends upon 
the percentage of silica in the stone used. Tne theory being that whenever 
the pavement becomes wet the solution is brought to the surface, resulting 
in absorbing and hardening down any fine material which had been pro- 
duced by the abrasion of tires. 

"It can be laid in all excepting freezing weather, and while smooth yet 
it is sufficiently rough to afford good footing for horses and rubber tires. 
There is nothing entering into the construction to soften under high tem- 
perature and nothing to form mud in wet weather. It is claimed to be 
self-healing, due to continual chemical reactions taking place whenever the 
road becomes wet." 

Conclusion. — In this chapter the authors have attempted to show 
the approximate cost of the different styles of construction in 
general use or such experimental tops which they have seen which 
promise well. The costs given are relative only, to be used in the 
comparison of the various constructions and are based on roads 
in New York during the period of 191 2 to 1915. 

The data may be summarized as follows, showing the desirable 
requirements, location and approximate first cost of the different 
constructions. The comparative yearly costs including main- 
tenance and renewal- are shown in Table 22 compiled from 
maintenance data. The type selection shown in Table 21 C does 
not consider the requirements of steep grades. 

On steep grades stone block is the best solution, hillside brick 
second, penetration one coat pour bituminous macadam third, 
and waterbound macadam fourth. The last two become slippery 
if maintained by surface oiling and it has been necessary in some 
cases to build a specially wide shoulder treated with gravel or 
stone for horse traffic. 

Classification for Safety of Traffic 

The sheet asphalts, topeka mix and similar constructions are 
dangerous for high speed traffic even on fairly level grades during 
sleet storms or light rains and are not recommended for roads 
outside of villages. 

Bituminous macadams, concrete, brick, stone block, waterbound 
macadams and small stone or brick cubes can be ranked as safe 
surfaces for high speed traffic. 

Recommended Types. — Bituminous macadams are recom- 
mended for Class II and IV,traffic and resident village streets. 

Waterbound macadam for Class III traffic. 

Concrete for Class I outside of villages. 

Brick for Village business streets. 

Stone block for hills on Class I traffic. 

Asphalt block for extremely heavy Class I traffic. 

Sheet Asphalt, Topeka^ etc., are to be avoided where traffic 
travels at nigh speed. Its most suitable location is a resident 
village or city street. 



FAILURE OF PAVEMENTS 187 

FAILURES 

The common causes of failure of different pavements due to 
structural defects are as foUows. The details of inspection are 
taken up in Chapter XV. 

Stone Block. — Failures rare; will stand lots of abuse in 
construction. 

Asphalt Block. — Failures rare. When they occur due to poor 
block. 

Waterbound Maca4a2n. — Failures rare. When they occur are 
generaUy due to poor rock, small sized stone in top courses, and 
insufficient rolling or puddling. 

Penetration Bituminous Macadam. — Failures not uncommon 
due to the use of too much soft binder; unequal application and 
overheating of Binder. The asphalt companies advocate the use 
of too much bitumen. 

Concrete. — Failures not uncommon due to inferior materials 
particularly dirty sand and to poor manipulation, weak mix, 
and too much water content. 

Brick. — Failures not uncommon due to poor brick and careless 
grouting. 

Sheet Asphalt and Topeka Mix. — Failures not uncommon due to 
overheating and poor mix. 



TOP COURSES 



mi' 

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-I sills 

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liis 






ill? 



u 



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it 



COST OF PAVEMENTS 



189 






888 

10 10 10 



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YEARLY COSTS 



191 



To afford a comparison of high and low type roads the following 
data is inserted at this point for Earth, Gravel, and Sand Clay 
roads. 



Type 


Approx. 
Cost per 

mile 


T 4^ 

Interest on 
First Cost 


Approx. 
Yearly 
Mainte- 
nance and 
Renewal 


Total 

Yearly Cost 

Per mile 


Earth 

Sand Clay. . . . 
Gravel 


$2000 
3000 
4000 


$ 80 

120 
160 


7S 

240 


$130 
200 
400 



CHAPTER Vn 

MAINTENANCE 

Maintenance "will be divided into two classes: the care of low 
type (earth, sand-clay and gravel) roads and the more costly 
attention required to keep the higher type macadams and rigid 
pavements in good condition. Maintenance is a relative term and 
the costs given in reports mean very little unless each man person- 
ally understands the conditions under which the work was done 
and the degree of perfection in maintenance attained. 

The authors have had no personal experience in earth or sand- 
clay maintenance work; the data pertaining to these types is 
compiled data and while the explanation of methods are clear and 
definite the general costs must be accepted merely as approximate. 
The data on maintenance of high type roads is based on our personal 
experience and while this may limit its general application some- 




\ tK^K24' Long. Timber 



^ 

> 



Pig. 41. 

what it is more definite in the matter of costs and more valuable 
than the ordinary State Reports which often are difficult to in- 
terpret correctly, due to indemiite bookkeeping and to the transferral 
of charges between various funds. 

Low Type Roads. — ^The maintenance of these roads consists 
in keeping the grass and weeds cut, the ditches clean, culverts 
clear, overhanging trees trimmed and the surface of the traveled 
way scrapped and dragged. One shaping with a blade road machine 
in the spnng generally is all the heavy work required the rest of the 
work being done with road drags, hones; planers, etc., at frequent 
intervals during the balance of the year. On sand-clay and gravel 
roads surfacing material is added to fill holes and ruts or better the 
wearing surface. 

192 



EARTH ROADS 



19s 



There f 

lets short strips of road not over 4 miles in length to fanners -long 
the road and the patrol system which is taken care of by a steady 
patrol gang which handles from 10 to zo miles. The contract 
system is eipiained in the quotation from the 1517 Year Book of 
the American Highway Association, page 196. The patrol system 
is referred to throughout the chapter In various quotations. 

Earth Roads. — Road machine olade scrappers are familiar to all 
readers. The road hones, planers, etc., are not so welt known and 
their construction is shown in Figures No. 41-41D. Steel drags 
iean now be obtained. Their use in earth or gravel road maintenance 
is explained in the following quotation from the United States 
Forest Rdad Manual. 








raad matiaaement. llie snullei 
as they are being included n the a 
number of tboae for penodica] rej 
Eideraticm andagain ita conaidera 
possible for it ia the ncvcr-cndin^ 

derive from anything constructed 



MAINTBITAHCB 

t mportant tem □£ work to be eons dered i 
id bud^t alon^ de the un m te< 



the hiaher the type of cc 






■.e of su 



and moreover 
: mnre marked 



" However, it ia moat gratifying to find that the old ideas of taxpayer nnd 
user are rapidly disappearing, making way for the installation of practical 
aystem for the cfScient retenticn of tile better roads — as they are now being 
constracted. Gradually are we beginning to learn that the stability and 
usdulneas of a road ia not forever establiJied. even when the best ot lurnr- 

itrictly up to the standard and with ample drainaee provided— but that 

maintenance. Besides eliminating the difGculties and diacomforta of travel, 



194 MAINTENANCE ^ 

which seems only a benefit to the traveler, but is in reality an economical 
benefit to, everyone, directly or indirectly — ^maintenance will do away with 
all the worries to the management and effectively prevent so much of this 
misapplied criticism to construction features. Pinallv the results of main- 
tenance encourage more road-building, whereas its lack discourages it. 

"There is no type of road that can be considered permanent, and an 
earth road or one bedded in the natural material, which is wholly as im- 
portant as the higher grade roads, or even more so — ^is the cheapest to main- 
tain in its original condition. The complete maintenance of an earth road 
means simply the retention of the drainage facilities that were provided 
in a completed and properly constructed piece of road work. Furthermore 
the experience of and the attention i^ven to the road in constant main- 
tenance will show where ample drainage was not sufficiently provided; 
and again showing its importance, constant maintenance secures this 
necessary drainage with the least costs and at the propei; time — ^before 
serious damage is done and heavy repair costs result. The time to begin 
the maintenance is immediately after the road is constructed, and its degree 
of efficiency will depend on what in the way of money or assistance is con- 
stantly provided or made available to meet sudden contingencies. The 
work must be done at the right time and in the right way to get the best 
results. 

"Ample drainage begins with taking the water off the road and continues 
with taking it along the road and away from the road. Constant main- 
tenance by dragging secures this primary step in the drainage system, and 
also a hard and smooth surface for travel. The dragging preserves the 
crown, which is kept in the traveled way for no other purpose than to shed 
water. It then follows that this water will be taken away from the road 
through the further efforts of constant maintenance in keeping the ditches 
and culverts open. 

"To proi>erly and economically maintain a certain road or set of roads 
an organization for doing the work should be effected. On a country or 
mountain road a patrol consisting of two teams and two men for one part 
and one team and one man for the other part of the season should be able 
to care for 15 to 20 miles. It will be found though that a newly constructed 
road' will require heavier maintenance for the first year or two, thus re- 
ducing the number of miles for this patrol. One or more such outfits could 
be api>lied to a longer road or a larger system and kept under the same 
supervision. These patrols keep the ditches clean and the culverts oi>en. 
haul surfacing materials, i.e., clay onto sandy portions and sand or gravel 
onto clay, keep the right-of-way open to sun and wind: and are on hand to 
drag the road after each rain. Two teams are provided only in cases where 
there is no extra help available along the road to assist in the dragging, 
otherwise one team would be sufficient. However, if the teams are govern- 
ment-owned, two teams should be had, as the added costs for the extra 
team are small and will in most cases prove cheaper. than hiring. The two 
teams can be used on one drag or two depending on the ruling grades in 
the road. 

"In early spring when the winter snows are going off, the supervision 
and such extra assistance as is necessary should be made available early 
to see that the snow water is being cared for — that it is running down 
the ditches and into the culverts, and not down the wheel tracks and over the 
banks of the road. Later he should have a small gang of men making 
the necessary repairs that might occur while the frost is coming out of the 
ground and from wash and water-breaks. A light grader should be at 
hand especially on sidehill roads to clean the ditches m material broken off 
or rolled down the banks and to restore badly depleted crowns, after which 
the drag can be used for the remainder of the season to preserve this perfected 
condition. 

"A good foreman for this should be a man who as well as to take a hand 
in the work, should be able to plan the work and keep in touch with the 
maintenance needs and move his men economically to the first necessary 
pieces of repairs. 

" Dragging is the cheapest and most effective method of maintaining roads 
constructed of earth, top soil, sand-clay or gravel. The drag is a very simple 
and inexpensive implement and when used properly gives surprising results. 

"Properly used and at the right time the road drag performs four distinct 
offices, (i) By moving at an angle to the traveled way it tends to produce 
or preserve a crowned cross-section; (2) if used when the material of the 



DRAGGING 195 

surface is not comimct and hard, it tends to reduce ruts and other irregu- 
larities in the road by moving jnaterial from points which are relatively 
high to those which are relatively low; (3) when used after a rain it acceler- 
ates the drying out of the road Dy spreading out puddles of water and thus 
increasing the surfaces exposed to evaporation; (4) if the surface material 
is in a slightly plastic state, draggixig smears over and partially seals the 
so-called pores wnich naturally occur in earthy material, and thus makes the 
road surface more or less impervious to water. 

"If used'improperly or at the wrong time, the drag may do actual injury 
to a road. Dragging a very dry road, for example, serves to increase the 
quantity of dust and may do additional damage bv destroying the seal 
produced during previous draggings.^ If, on the other hand, the road is 
very wet and muddy, the irregularities in the surface are likely to be in- 
creased rather than diminished. The common defect in road dragging is 
to regard the road drag as a road-building tool, and to expect one or two 
trips to put the road in shape for the season. 

Notes on Maintenance 

"z. In filling bad ruts and mud-holes, it is best to use the same material 
that the roadbed is composed of, otherwise an uneven surface will result, 
oftentimes, of course, the roadbed of clay can be improved by scattering 
sand or gravel over it more or less evenly, or if of sand by the same use of 
clay, but not by filling the ruts with these applications. PilUng with rock 
will effectively close a mud-hole but the next season will find two more 
mud-holes, one on either side of this hard place formed by filling the first. 

"3. On sidehill roads, after light snows have fallen during the season, 
the inside ditches should be opened of the snow immediately in order that 
the water from the melting snow will run down the ditches instead of the 
wheel tracks. This is especially necessary where steep grades occur to 
prevent heavy ji^ash and loss of crown in the traveled way, and water break- 
ing over the outside bank. The snows, usually, being light, this can be 
done by drawing the drag down the ditch with a large skew angle or better 
with a small ditch-cleaner, the A-drag or go-devil. 

"3. In a grazing country very often it occurs that salting grounds have 
been used near or along the roads. These should be removed for cattle 
climbing up and down the banks and walking along the ditches can cause 
considerable unnecessary damage to the road. During the season of cattle 
or sheep drives the men on maintenance should see to it, that the herds or 
bands, if they have to use the road, use the traveled way and not the banks 
and do as little damage as possible. If serious damage is done they can make 
immediate reports, if owners are obligated to repair such damages on public 
roads. 

"4. Outer bank slopes of earth that are continually eroding, should be 
protected by sowing to grass, or any other plant that will mat and not be 
obiectionable to occupants of lands along the road. 

5. Keep the ends of the culverts free from drifting weeds and d6bris 
and clean the catch-basins of silt and other deposits. 

**6. Remember that the chief repairs should be looked after in the spring 
when the soil, being moist and easily worked, will compact readily under 
the drag and traffic. There is little tise in attempting to do much in July 
and August to the roadbed proper, for the soil is so dry that it is difficult 
to shape properly anctmost of that moved will blow away in the first wind. 

Notes on Dragging 

"x. Use the drag often and if the very best results do not come at first 
trial, do not ciuit. First-class results can be attained. 

"a. Dragging is always done after rains, melting snows, or thaws, just 
after the srround has lost its stickiness, when the material will slide easily 
along the face of the drag and pack well; but not when it becomes dry in 
any one place. Different road surfaces and varying conditions will demand 
different times of application, the knowledge di which will come through 
faithful and persistent use and observation. 

"3. It requires a careful and skilful operator to get good and quick 
results, one who knows or can learn how to hitch to it, and where and how 
to ride it. Hitch so that the drag will travel at an angle of 45° with the 



196 



MAINTENANCE 



center line of the road, and do not try to cut too much material at one 
operation. The amount moved depends wholly upon the length of hitch 
and position of driver. A long hitch will move more earth than a short 
one. When a hard spot must be cut, the driver throws all his weight on 
the front blade; when a low place must be filled he moves back. These 
operations on patented steel drags are facilitated by changing the angle of 
the blades from a vertical. Step quickly to the opposite end of the drag 
from which you wish to deposit material into low spots. 

"4. Drive the team at a walk and ride the entire distance. • The drag 
should begin at the ditch line and proceed toward the center or crown. 
If the crown becomes too great, reverse the skew angle of the drag. Do not 
try to drag too wide a section at one operation. 

*'S- Do not try to drag too long a section. So much depends on the 
time the drag is used, that there is danger of dragging the road too wet at 
one end and too dry at the other. Learn to select those sections which 
drv before others and drag them first. 

'6. Drag the road during or directly after one of the light snow falls 
just before it freezes up for the first time, as it will be in better condition to 
go through the winter and better able to shed water during the spring thaw. 

"7. Very little imV>rovement will be noticed after the first trial, and many 
trips will have to be made the first year after construction. The second year, 
less dragging will be required and the road ought to improve continually." 

The following quotation from the 191 7 Good Roads Year Book 
shows the Kentucky methods and approximate cost of 
maintenance. 

" Maintenance by dragging is most successful when well oraanized. The 
results obtained by ^ood management in Hopkins County, Kentucky, are 
frequently cited as indications of this, and for this reason the following 
account of the work there is quoted from a report by the Ktetucky depart- 
ment of highways. 

"In 19 1 2 a county engineer was appointed. The county roads were 

?ieasured under his supervision and 2 mile sections designated, and in 
anuanf, 1913. drags were started on about 100 miles of the county roads. 
*his original contract was only for dragging the roads, which work was to 
be done four times between January ist and April ist, at a cost of 1 10 to 
|i2 per mile. As the sections dragged were not continuous, the citizens 
at once appreciated the difference between the maintained road and that 
which was not maintained. Consequently the next contract, which called 
for dragging and ^so for cleaning the ditches for six months, until November, 
1913, resulted in contracts for 150 miles of road and at a reduced cost. In 
November, 1913, a contract substantially like that now in use was adopted 
and the time of the contract was for one year, or until November, 191 4. 
Over 200 miles were maintained this year at an average cost of I28 per 
year per mile. For the year from November, 1914, to November, 191 S. 
the benefit of the maintained roads was so well understood by the citizens 
that 560 miles were under contract at an average cost of $24.35 per mile 
per year. 

"In November, 191S. a two-year contract was entered into, wtuch the 
county may revoke for non-performance of the obligation at the end of the 
first year. About 520 miles are now under contract, at prices ranging 
from |i2 to I40 per mile per year, the average being I22.10. It is expected 
this mileage will soon be increased.^ Originally a contractor was allowed 
to have charge of 8 miles, but now he is not allowed to contract for more than 
4 miles of road. Under the 191 5 contracts the contractor must trim the 
branches which overhang and interfere with travel bn the roadway; keep 
the roadway between ditches free from shrubbery and weeds; keep Che 
ditches clean, free from obstructions, and at all times capable of canying 
the water. *He shall by June ist each year grade the roads with dump 
scraper, grader, drag and ditcher, or in any way he may see fit, so that 
the center of the roadway shall be crowned so that the water will flow from 
the center of the road to the side ditches, and at no place will the water stand 
on the road or run down the road. The road shaJl be dragged from ditch 
to ditch at each dragging, when the road is wet, but not sticky.' 

" A record of the number of draggings is kept by the county engineer on 
cards which, before mailing by the contractor, are countersigned by the 



GRAVEL ROADS 197 

rural route carrier or a reliable citizen. The contractor also hauls material 
and constructs all culverts and bridges of 10 ft. span or under, and keeps 
the approaches to and the floors and abutments of all bridges and culverts 
on his road in good traveling condition. An analysis of these contracts 
shows that where the contract has been faithfully executed there is a decrease 
each year in the cost per mile, mainly because the farmer contractor has 
learned from experience that -continuous maintenance makes a lower cost 
of time and labor each succeeding year." 

Cost. — The cost of earth road maintenance ranges from $20 
to $200 per mile per year. A fair average is approximately $50 
per mile per year for ordinary farming county and $100 per mile 
per year for mountain roads. 

Sand-clay Roads. — The methods and character of work are the 
same for the sand-clay maintenance as for ordinary earth roads. 
The cost is generally less. The following quotation from the 
Alabama State Highway Report indicates the usual procedure. 

Sand-clay Roads 

"No cheap road can be maintained as easily and at as small an annual 
cost as a well constructed sand-clay road. It responds readily to a road 
machine and the surfacing material is usually very convenient. Like all 
others though it is neglected untU extensivie and expensive repairs become 
necessary. If a sand-clay road which has been intelligently constructed 
is kept dragged at reasonable frequent intervals, say three times a month 
during December, January, February, March and April, and during rainy 
periods in the other . months, it will ^ve excellent service and serve all 
practical purposes. If too much sand is in the surfacing material the road 
will tend to ravel or disintegrate and it becomes necessary to add a small 
amount of clay to the sandy section. A thorough harrowing should thffn 
be given the surface, after which the road should be thoroughly machined 
or dragged until the proper cross-section is obtained. Likewise, too much 
clay may develop in wet weather and the addition of sand becomes necessary. 
Sand can be incorporated in like manner as the clay. In very wet weather, 
traffic will incorporate the sand fairlsr well and it frequently becomes neo- 
essary to add sand to prevent slipping, when artificial n3ixing would be 
difficult." 

Gravel Roads. — Gravel roads require patrol maintenance for 
good results. The road should be shaped with a road machine 
blade grader in the spring while soft and plastic and kept in shape 
by dragging* Gravel must be added continuously to fiU holes and 
ruts. Shoulder, ditch and culvert routine cleaning is the same as for 
any maintenance. 

The following quotation is from Instructions to Patrolmen in 
New Hampshire which is famous for its gravel rpads. 

"Each patrolman mu^ supply a horse and dump cart, shovel, pick, hoe, 
rake, ston&-hook« axe, iron bar, iron chain and tamp. Special tools are 
furnished by the State Highway Department. 

"One dra^ng in the spring is worth two in the summer. It is better 
to drag a mile of road several times and get it in good condition, than to 
drag 2 or 3 miles and not finish any part of it. Pon't drag a soft section 
when it is so wet that the first vehicle to pass will rut it all up. First fill 
the holes and ruts with new material and tnen drag as the Surface dries out. 
Bvery. patrolman should have material dumped in small piles along the 
side of his section so that on a rainy day he can at once fill all holes and ruts 
in which water is collecting. 

"When the weather is unsuitable for dragging, as during a dry spell, 
all patrolmen should cart on all the new materiel i>os8ible in order to fill 
all ruts and holea and resurface worn sections. Carting is very essential 



198 



MAINTENANCE 



durinff dry periods and should never be neglected. Whenever a patrolman 
is in doubt as to what to do next the general rule is to cart new material, 
for all roads are wearing out under travel and it is necessary that the surface 
be continually renewed to take the place of the old material that is thrown 
out as mud or blown away as dust. 

"Save all the sods, leaves, rubbish, stones and reftue that vou clean off 
your road and dump this waste material in places where the bank is steep 
so that by flattening the side slope there will be no need of a guard-rail, 
or dump the material back of a present guard-rail so that later this guard- 
rail can be removed." 

The necessity for patrol maintenance is shown by the following 
extract from the Iowa Specifications. 

Maintenance of Gravel Roads 

"County engineers' and supervisors' attention is called to the fact that 
both Class A and Class B gravel roads require constant and sjrstematit 
maintenance at all times. Special attention should be given such roads for 
the first year following their construction. During this period the ^avel 
is sure to become rutted, wavy, and scattered if it is not maintained m the 
most careful manner. 

"Hauling gravel and dumping it on the road does not produce a gravel 
road. The most important part of the construction work lies in the attention 
which the road received while the gravel is bein^ compacted. A road newly 
surfaced with gravel is nothing but a possibility. The success or failure 
of such a possibility depends very largely on the attention which it receives 
during its first year. The frequent use of a planer or blade grader will 
prevent the formation of ruts and waves. This work should be done while 
the gravel is wet, as better results will be secured. 

"The scattered ^avel should be brought back on the surfacing and the 
earth shoulders built up to hold this material in place. Additional gravel 
should be added to replace that worn away and to fill any depressions due 
to settlement. 

"The Commission strongly urges that the patrol system of maintenance 
be adopted for all gravel roads. The patrolman should spend all his time 
on the road. It is only by such a system that definite responsibility can 
be fixed. Patrol maintenance should extend not only over the first year 
after the gravel surface is placed, but also throughout the succeeding years. 
It should extend to the side ditches, earth shoulders, culverts, and all oth^r 
parts of the road as well as to the gravel surfacing. 

"While the patrol system of maintenance is urged for all gravel roads, it is 
absolutely necessary for Class B jcravel roads. These spedfications have 
been prepared with that idea in mind. 

"The Commission will approve the construction of Class B gravel roads 
on the county system only on condition that an adequate patrol mainte- 
nance will be established promptly after svtch xoad is placed in service." 

Iowa Highway Commission. 

Cost— We are indebted to Mr. F. R. White, Road Engineer of 
the Iowa Highway Commission for the following information 
in regard to the construction and maintenance cost of about 400 
miles of Class B gravel roads (see Plate No. 39, page 140). These 
roads were constructed at a cost slightly above $1 000 per niile. The 
cost of maintenance depends very largely on the volume of trafiBc 
and the location of gravel. However, where there is an average 
of 200 to 300 vehicles per day and the gravel can be obtained within 
3 miles of the road tne yearly cost of maintenance is about $150 
per mile. 

In New York State where the roads are oiled to care for a some- 
what larger volume of traffic 200 miles of high-^lass gravel roads 
cost approximately $550 per mile per year to maintain. 



MACADAM ROADS 1 99 

A fair average maintenance cost per mile per year for double 
track gravel roads is probably from $200 to $300 under fairly 
heavy travel. 

HIGH TYPE ROAD MAINTENANCE 

In the development of any system of highways the methods and 
cost of maintenance become increasingly important. The rapid 
growth of mofor traffic in the last few years has changed both 
methods and cost making it necessary to give new figures which are 
reliable for present traffic conditions. We have therefore confined 
ourselves in the discussion to recent costs with which we are familiar 
in order that in stating general conclusions proper allowance is 
made for unusual conditions not shown in the reports of various 
State Highway Departments. 

The discussion will be based on the general maintenance costs 
and methods employed on 6coo miles of New York State improved 
Highwa}^ of all types for the years 19 15 and 191 7 and detail costs 
on 600 miles of roads in Western New York for a term of years. 

We are indebted to Mr. Frank Bristow for the following discus- 
sion of general maintenance methods and summarized costs. It 
should be borne in mind that the discussion and costs apply to 
territory subjected to severe winters. 

MAINTENANCE OF MACADAM AND RIGID PAVEMENT 

HIGHWAYS 

By Frank W. Bristow 

N. Y. S. Dept. of Highways, Division on Maintenance 

Maintenance comprises keeping the paved roadway surface in as 
nearly perfect condition as possible, keeping the earth shoulders 
smooth and safe for traffic; the drainage system free from obstruc- 
tions; all structures in good repair; removing obstacles to vision as 
brush or overhanging branches; and cutting tall weeds and grass. 

If the work of maintaining improved roadways is consistently 
performed through successive years it is certain that the efficient 
life of such roads will be lengthened. Maintenance should CQm- 
mence when construction leaves off, because in order to effectively 
and economically maintain improved roads it is necessary that the 
roadway be in a good state of repair at the time the maintenance 
work begins, and should the pavement be so worn as to be structur- 
ally weak it is not economy to postpone resurfacing. 

Maintenance work, including surface treatment with bituminous 
material and cover, should be distinguished from extensive repairs 
involving replacing of wearing course or reconstruction. 

Maintenance of Macadam Roads 

It is especially desirable that all surface treatments be completed 
as early m the season as possible; say by mid-summer to permit 



200 MAINTENANCE 

9 

traffic to enjoy the greatest benefit from such treatment, the season 
of heaviest motor traffic being from the middle of July to the middle 
of September. So far as practicable the correction of surface 
defects such as ruts and depressions should precede the surface 
treatments. . 

While the elimination of dust on macadam roads is desirable 
as adding to the comfort of the traveling public, it is necessary 
from the maintenance point of view, inasmuch as dust means 
deterioration of the road which if permitted to continue results in a 
raveled condition and the macadam will disintegrate. Surface 
treatment with oil or tar also tends to seal or waterproof the pave- 
ment. Horse-drawn steel-tired traffic tends to destroy an oiled 
surface mat, while rubber-tired motor traffic is beneficial. 

It is good practice not to oil macadam roads upon which horse- 
drawn traffic greatly predominates or new waterbound macadam 
which has not been under traffic at least two months, or extremely 
shady roads. 

The usual foundation defects which develop in gravel and 
macadam surfaces are ruts, due to a soft condition in the earth ■ 
sub^grade, depressions due to settlement of fills which commonly 
develop at locations where new culverts were constructed and 
frost boils. 

Shallow ruts and surface depressions are corrected by being filled 
in with crushed stone of as large size as the depth of depressions 
will permit, the same being well tamped into place, and more lasting 
results are obtained if a proper grade of bituminous material is used 
to firmly bind the new stone; light asphaltic oils and tars have been 
used for this purpose with unsatisfactory results, in that patches 
niade by this method do not endure, the experience being that the 
material forming the patch is pushed ahead by traffic leaving the 
original depression exaggerated by the bunch of new patching 
material at the end. Heavier binder grade material has been used; 
a patch by this method is durable but does not wear away as 
rapidly as the adjacent surface resulting in a high spot in time. 
To date our experience is that an asphaltic emulsion for cold patching 
is most satisfactory, being nearly fool proof and requiring no equip- 
ment but a broom and shovel. This material is not recommended 
for use with stone of greater size than will pass a one and a quarter 
inch ring. In using this material th^ depression to be repaired 
should be swept clean, so as to be free from mud or loose material, 
and tamped full of a mixture oi the emulsion and broken stone. 
Such a patch will require an hour or two to set. The proportions 
of the mixture required are, where the stone used are uniform in 
size, about three-quarters of a gallon per cubic foot of stone; where 
the stone are graded about a gallon per cubic foot. This mixture 
may be made in moderate quantities as stock for use is required. 
Ruts in gravel surfaces may be eliminated by the use of a hone 
early in the seaspn. Deep ru^ indicate necessity of 'either sub- 
drainage or reinforcement of the foundation; an inspection should 
determine whidi is the prq^er remedy. On side hUl roads frequently 
a deep drain in the upper side ditch to intercept the ground water 



OILING 20I 

will be effective; where reinforcement is decided as necessary, 
usually sub-base construction about eight feet in width will be 
sufficient. Field stone, quarry spalls, broken Etone, slag or gravel 
are proper materials for such reinforcement. 

Frost Doils so-called are caused by wet spots in the earth founda- 
tion freezing and heaving; later when the frost leaves and the 
foundation soil is soft the thin macadam crust tends to break through 
under loaded wheels. These spots which usually occur where 
the road construction is in a cut, should be excavated, and drained 
if practicable; any wet clayey soil or silt removed and replaced by 
gravelly material, field stone, quarry spalls or other good material; 
the macadam is then replaced. 

Ravel is the term applied to describe the condition where the 
fragments of broken stone become loosened from the body of the 
road, due to the binding agent failing to perform its function. 
Bare, toothy or a pitted condition of surface are the varjring degrees 
of a slightly rough surface due to the interstices between the frag- 
ments of stone not being filled flush with the binding material or when 
the wearing surface has innumerable extremely &ght depressions. 
Dust, which is self-explanatory. 

The remedy for raveled, pitted or dusty condition is a surface 
treatment of bituminous material and cover. 

These treatments are generally made using a grade of asphaltic 
residuum oil or a refined tar product which can be applied cold, or 
which requires very little heating, and better and more uniform 
results are obtained where a pressure distributor is used. If a 
pressure machine is used not less than twenty pounds pressure 
should be required. 

Asphaltic base oils, or tar products having a bituminous content 
of from 40 to 60 per cent, may be applied by gravity sprinkler, 
but 60 to 75 per cent, asphaltic oils or' tars containii^ 60 to 70 per 
cent, of pitcn are preferably applied by pressure. Uniformity 
in application is . important. 

As to the relative merits of asphaltic residuum oils, cut back 
asphalts, high carbon, or low carbon tars there is a diversity of 
opinion (see also page 210). Relative cost and durability will 
naturally be the considerations GontroUinjg the selection. The 
material which is the cheaper at one.delivery point may not be at 
some ofier. As to the durability it is doubtful if there is any ad- 
vantage as between the asphalt and tar products. When applied, 
the tar material appears to take a set faster than the asphalt, which 
is a decided advantage, but more criticism is made as to slipperiness 
of the tarred surfaces during freezing weather. It is thought that 
the tars have the greater adhesive quality, but that the exposed 
surface due to evaporation of volatile constituents becomes crumbly 
or dead in a shorter time thati. a similar grade of asphalt. 

R^arding rate of application per unit area, this will vary with 
the porosity of the surface to be treated; for the cold, or light hot 
application ranging between one-sixth and one-third gallon per 
square yard. Experience is that from one-fifth to one-quarter gal- 
lon will produce good results on the average surface. 



202 MAINTENANCE 

Preliminary to the applying of the bituminous material the 
surface to be treated shoiud be swept clean if necessary, to free it 
from all loose and organic matter; after this has been done the 
application can proceed regardless of whether the surface is wet 
or dry, providing there are no pools of standing water on the surface, 
a slightly damp surface apparently gives better penetration than 
an absolutely ory surface, the object sought being to get the mate- 
rial into the texture of the road. The surface treatment should be 
confined to one side or half width of the road at a time, leaving 
the other side available for traffic. Some little time should be 
allowed for proper penetration, but within one hour after the 
application it should be lightly covered with suitable material. 
Traffic can now use this side and the treatment continued on the 
opposite side. 

The materials recommended for cover are crushed stone or slag 
which will pass a }^m, mesh and are free from dust; ore tailings, 
fine screened gravel or coarse sharp sand. The toughness of the 
mineral aggregate used for oiling cover is an element in the dura- 
bility of the mat formed by the treatment. Relative cost will 
determine the selection of material to be used for cover. The quan- 
tity of cover necessary will vanr with the rate of application of the 
bituminous material and with ue porosity of the surface treated. 

Where the rate of application of oil is from one-fifth to one-<iuarter 
gallon per square yard the range of cover may be stated as being 
between 35 and 70 cu. yd. per mile of road 16 ft. wide, and gen- 
erally 40 to 50 cu. yd. will be ample. 

This cover should be uniformly applied either by hand or by 
mechanical spreader; however, only sufficient to cover the oil lightly 
should be applied at one time. It will require two or three separate 
spreadings from time to time as the surface becomes ^iny and 
sticky to produce a perfect mat. Any excess unused material 
delivered for cover snould finally be gathered up and stored in 
neat piles back of the ditch line where possible. Tnese treatments 
do not require rolling, although rolling tends to turn any coarse, 
sharp fragments of cover-material onto their broader sides, reducing 
danger of tire cuts to a minimum. 

Thick mats^ formed of binder and ^-inch stones while durable 
are not generally satisfactory; they are expensive, costing from 
.$1000 to $2000 per mile and frequently become rough under traffic, 
although they do serve at times to cany a road along for a few yeais 
which would otherwise be a resurfacing matter. This treatment 
also is used to restore a crown to a road worn flat. 

On gravel and new waterbound macadam and upon roads where 
there is little motor traffic, maintenance by calcium chloride is 
effective. Where this treatment is used the applications may be 
of the granulated crystals applied by hand or by a mechanical 
spreader, at the rate of i lb. to i J^ lb. j)er square yard; preliminary 
sweeping is not necessary unless there is excessive dust say 3^-in. 
depth or more upon the surface proposed to be treated. Should 

1 The authors wish to effiphasiee the danger of using thick mats for 
ordinary maintenance. 



RIGID PAVEMENTS 203 

this treatment be made immediately preceding a rain, a consid- 
erable quantity of material would be lost. Two or three treat- 
ments as above should suffice for the average season, and the width 
treated may be confined to the width of Uie traveled way. This 
treatment lias cost in New York State about $150 a mile a year. 
Surfaces whidi have previously been oiled are not recommended for 
calcium chloride treatment. 

In cases where continued surface treatments of bituminous 
material through successive years has built up an excessive depth 
of mat, which has a tendency to be unstable and rut, it is suggested 
that such mat be removed and spread upon the shoulders, which 
will cost from $50 to $150 a mile, and that surface treatments be 
again made upon the macadam itself. Should it be found that the 
macadam has become uneven, as to crown and grade, or is badly 
worn or has numerous holes, it is suggested that the road be scari- 
fied and thoroughly dragged with a heavy spike-tooth harrow, after 
which an agricultural weeder should be repeatedly hauled over Uxe 
road, the object sought being to work all of the finer particles to 
the bottom of the scarified course, leaving fairly clean coarse stone 
at the surface; this should be shaped up by hand or scraper and 
rolled to develop any irregularities in the surface which should be 
corrected by the addition of new crushed stone. Any pockets 
of fine material should be removed and replaced by new top course 
stone, the weeder should again be used to loosen the stone, which 
will then be ready for the first application of binder, which may be 
at the rate of three-quarters of a gallon per square yard, application 
being made by a pressure distributor, the surface then to be covered 
with a layer of ^-in. broken stone and thoroughly rolled. During 
the rollini^, additional ^-in. stone shall be applied and broomed 
about until the voids in the top cour^ are weU filled; all loose stone 
shall then be swept from the surface and a sealing cost of one-half 
gallon of binder per square yard shall be applied and immediately 
covered with a layer of H-iu. stone and again rolled; surface will 
then be ready for traffic. This treatment is probably better 
adapted to waterbound macadam than to the penetration bitumi- 
nous tjrpe; however, if found necessary to break up and reshape 
penetration macadam, it is suggested that the latter loosening by 
the weeder qe omitted and a spread, one stone thick, of 2-in. broken 
stone be applied and the first application of binder be increased to 
one gallon or one and a (quarter gallons. This method is not ap- 
plicabe to an extended mileage as it is generally better to resur- 
face Iwhen a road reaches this stage. 

Concrete Roads with Thin Bituminous Surfaces.— ;The second- 
class concrete with thin bituminous wearing surface is a difficult 
type to maintain; the bituminous surface under traffic patches off, 
and as the concrete is usually not strong enough to resist abrasion, 
holes develop in the concrete; patching results in a rough riding 
surface and probably the best way to secure a smooth riding road 
is to resurface, using a 2-in. bituminous mixing type to^. 

Asphalt, Topeka Mix, Amiesite, Etc. — ^The holes which develop 
in the bituminous mixing method type wearing surfaces should be 



204 MAINTENANCE 

repaired as follows: Excavate the old material at the defective 
spot the entire depth of course, so that the edges will present 
clean, vertical surfaces, these surfaces and the exposed foundaition 
to be swabbed or painted with hot asphaltic cement or paving 
pitch, the hole then to be filled, with a mixture similar to that used 
m original construction, whenever practicable, using sufficient 
quantity so that after consolidation by rolling (or tamping in case 
the extent of repairs is limited) the surface of the new patch will 
be flush with the adjacent pavement. In case there is no local 
mixing plant available, or the limited extent of repairs do not jus- 
tify expense of treatment as above, holes may be riepaired with 
the mixture of crushed stone and cold patch asphaltic emulsion, as 
outlined for macadam surfaces. 

Concrete Pavements. — ^The cracks which develop in concrete 
pavements may be the result of either frost action, settlement of 
foundation or contraction, and are properly treated by being 
poured with hot paving pitch or asphalt binder. If spots disinte- 
grate, the defective material shoula be removed and replaced by 
new concrete. 

Biick Pavements. — Block pavements of brick, stone, asphalt, etc., 
properly constructed should not require repairing for a considerable 
term of .years; cracks which develop should be grouted with hot 
paving pitch or asphalt binder; areas which settle, thereby breaking 
the bond of the grouted joints resulting in crushing or cobbling 
the blocks, should be taken up, the sand cushion reformed, all sound 
blocks cleaned and relaid, being turned over where necessary, any 
broken blocks to be replaced by new whole ones, joints then to be 
grouted with Portland cement grout preferably, if the original 
pavement was so constructed, otherwise the joints may be poured 
with hot paving pitchv It should be noted that repairs with fresh 
cement grout require to be protectied by barricaaes for a period 
of about a week, so that such repairs should be confined to one side 
of the pavement in long stretches, leaving the other side available 
for traffic; where the repairs are limited in extent and barricades are 
especially undesirable, the patch may be covered with two inches 
of earth and further protected by planking during the time required 
for the grout to set. Where joints are poured with paving pitch, 
traffic need be diverted only during the tmae of actually making the 
repair; this is a decided advantage. 

Observation demonstrates that horse traffic on steep grades leave 
the pavement and seek the earth shoulder, so that so far as prac-' 
ticable these shoulders should be improved by widening, and by 
graveling or covering with broken stone to avoid excessive rutting, 
also that on sharp curves the tendency of motor vehicles is to cut 
close to the inner edge, making it weU for this reason to stone or 
gravel the shoulders at these points. 

Along the edges of the rigid t3rpes of pavement, block and con- 
crete especially, traffic usually develops a deep rut which if neg- 
lected becomes dangerous, to rapidly moving traffic; this rut should 
be kept filled with gravel or broken stone. Excess material when 
removed from the shoulders should be so disposed of as to widoi 
embankments and flatten slopes. 



MAINTENANCE- COSTS 205 

General Organization Methods. — There are three general plans 
for performing the work of general maintenance, the patrol system, 
the repair gang and by contract. The nature of the work renders it 
difficult to estimate in terms of labor and material with precision, 
so that except in the case of surface treatments, repair by contract 
is not advised. By the patrol system the roads patrolled are under 
constant supervision and the responsibility for neglect is fiixed. 
The repair gang may be used to supplement the patrol S3rstem when 
it is desired to expedite extensive small repairs, and also to perform 
all necessary repairs upon any roads not patrolled. A patrolman 
living in the vicmity of his work, equipped with a single horse, one- 
yard wagon and small tools, costing $3.00 a day, can make all minor 
repairs on a section of between 5 and 7 miles of macadam. The 
repair gang should be equipped with a small motor truck, say of 
one and a half tons capacity, to be used in transporting the men and 
tools within a radius of about 25 miles from their headquarters 
base; this truck can also assist by hauling some material required 
in the work. 

It is concluded that a combination of the patrol and repair gang 
systems is an improvement over the adoption of either plan of or- 
ganization exclusively, also that tiie success of either plan depends 
entirely upon the experience, good judgment and ability of the man 
in direct charge and control of this work. As nearly all of the 
hauling in connection with maintenance work is over hard-surfaced 
roads, motor equipment for delivering stone, oil, etc., would natu- 
raUy be considered. The writers* opinion is that for short hauls 
teams are economical, also that the motor tractor and trailers sys- 
tem of equipment are more efficient than the complete single unit 
system. 

Summarized Costs for the Season of 1915 New York State. — 
In order that the following figures may be more easily understood, 
it is well to outline the development of the use of the different types 
of pavement. 

From 1898 when State highway improvement began until 1909 
to which time 1787 miles had been constructed, practically the 
entire mileage consisted of waterbound macadam. Up to ^is 
time there had been no systeniatic maintenance, which resulted 
in a large mileage of road requiring more than ordinary expenditure 
to bring it up to standard. 

Beginning in 1909, penetration bituminous macadam was gener- 
ally used on the main roads with brick near cities and villages. 
About 191 2 the department tried out concrete roads with thin 
bituminous oil tops. This type proved unsatisfactory in that the 
bituminous siu^ace peeled in spots and the concrete used was not 
sufficiently strong to stand the traffic directly. The high cost of 
maintenance can be seen from the following table. The type has 
not been used since 191 4. The department is now designing 
first-class concrete roads where roads of that class are economical. 
In the following tabulation of maintenance and renewal costs, 
therefore, the average per mile represents approximately a fair 
sample of both yeany maintenance and renewal for waterbound 



MAINTENANCE 



■||l3'as 


, 1 1 




|ai;SM 




jwssa- 






s 


















r» 


^■"'"■""" 


•s 


III 






III 






SS'5,'SJS? 


K 








Ja9 








S.S^%S£ S 


r 




















1 


si£iess 


ff 












« 


ill 


"'5-5" ■"" ■" 


8 


I-S2 






If- 


«»^««*. 




























:S ; 




1 








111 


1 







MAINTENANCE COSTS 



207 



macadam, gravel and concrete bituminous and represents only 
ordinary yearly maintenance for bituminous macadam, concrete 
pavements, brick and other high-class rigid pavements; none of 
these latter classes have been down long enou^ to y^t require 
renewal, which makes their cost as shown much less than will ulti- 
mately be required. 

Of the mileage shown in the preceding table, the following table 
shows the amount* of resurfacing. 

Table Showing Resurfacing Costs 1915 ^ 



Tjrpe of Road Resurfaced 



No. 
Miles 



Total Cost 



Cost 
per mile 



Gravel 

Waterbound Macadam 

Penetration Bituminous. . . 
Concrete Bituminous top . . 
Block Pavements 

Totals 



12.88 

176.29 

43 72 

24.85 

0.36 

258.10 



$ 77,686.27 

997,776.66 

243,760.22 

160,321.37 

4,003.40 



11,483,547.92 



$ 6,000 

6,000 

6,000 

6,400 

12,000 



^ The t3rpe of resurfacing is not necessarily the same type as the original 
road as shown in column No. x. 



Supplementary Explanation of Mr. Bristow's General Costs and 

Discussion 

The authors wish to call attention to two points in the general 
cost tabulation. The average cost of maintenance and renewal 
for 191 5 is given as $750 per Imle for the total system. Thk system 
includes approximately 1000 miles of road recently built on which 
there is practically no charge except minor repair aggregating not 
over $200 per mile per year. For a completed system of this char* 
acter all of which is under normal maintenance and renewal, the 
average cost per mile would be approximately $900 per mile, as is 
evident by excluding the thousand miles from the tabulation of 
total cost. 

In the resurfacing table it is evident from the cost per mile that 
better grades of top courses were generally placed on the water- 
bound and gravel roads than originally constructed; this means that 
in some cases the original design was not proper for the class of 
traffic the road served. 

The most evident faults of the usual maintenance are in delaying 
the work till late in the season and in careless mending of ruts and 
depressions before the application of surface treatments. It is 
well to emphasize the necessity of using a coarse grade of stone 
preferably iH" to 2K" size in mending noticeable depressions. 
ITie hole should be dug out, the edges squared up, the depression 



2o8 MAINTENANCE 

£Ued, bound. with heavy binder and screened and rolled. Ctu'etesa- 
ness in this regard baB resulted in a large amount of justifiable com- 
plaint. The following quotation from the igi; report of Mr. 
Fred Sarr, ad Deputy Highway Commisaoner of New York 
State is very reliable and up to date data as the bookkeeping on 
..-k;^k ;«■ :^ u^^^j ;.. *c ^ high order- 

of L liiise milaftflo 









"The COM of maintenaace. repair and reconstn 
u been ■esnaaUd and cturgeil aaainst the rosde 
rovement, (oUowing theplan of the last two yea 

nent of the Ne™YorVSt°»te anToMnty hfahwa] 



the reaultB ac 

miEage and wide distribution should 
of accuracy the aversfie cost of m&inte 
typed. In the Kcond yroup are the 
nulea and too much weight should no 



X oS the particiUar type. 



Type of Improved Surface 


Miles of 
Type 


Mlint'™n« 
Type 


Indu^nli*ii. 
eonstmction 


penetration method, ftfi- 


'.793 .77 

.64.34 


t,l=.oo 
970.00 

1,127-00 
918.00 

.3SJ-OD 


S04.00 
1,154.00 

1,443-00 


Waterbound macadam. , . 

Brick pavements 

Concrete: 


Second Oass 

Gravel 

Bituminous macadam, 
penetration method, tar 





"An expenditure cd t34,3!>3 nhidi « 

dition sections cA impniyed hiohways 
and floods, has not been distributed to 
volved. in that the type of construcli 
ardinary expense. 



n had no beanng upon this eitn- 



MAINTENANCE COSTS 



Second Group 



Type o( Improved Surface 


Miles <X 
Type 


EictuEive of 
to Diffetfnt 


Total Eipendi- 
tures per Mile 

Induing Re- 


Block pavenieBts: 
Asphalt, concrete base. . . 
Asphalt macadam base . 


I J. 55 
2.53 

2.93 

0.33 

58.5 = 

3-73 
4-33 
33-74 
12,64 

13-3^ 

3 58 
13-153 

11.47 

4-80 
14.39 
17-SS 

1.39 


$340.00 
163.00 

30.00 

76-00 

619.00 

32.00 
1,131.00 








Stone , 

Brick cubes, macadam 




Concretes 




MixingMdhod: 
Amtesite, concrete base. . 
Amiesite, macadam bitae 
Topeka, concrete base. . . 
Topeka, macadam base . . 
Open mixed, concrete 








393 -oo 




Open mixed, macadam 


log. 00 

2l6.00 

1,380.00 

738.00 

174-00 
1,079.00 

3,884'.1^ 




Bitulithic, concrete base 
Henderson, macadam 




•9,8.1.00 


Sheet asphalt, concrete 


Gravel mixed, grave 




Penetration Method: 
Asphalt binder, concrete 

Kentucky rock asphalt 










Total all types 




6,639.11 


•643-00 


•767.00 






2IO 



MAINTENANCE 



Type 


Average of the Past Three Years 
Experience 


Averap;e Mileage 
Maintained 


Average Expendi- 
ture per Mile-year 


Bituminous'penetration method 

Waterbound macadam 

Gravel 

Brick pavement 

First Class concrete 


2,6S9 

2,408 

178 

280 

164 

253 


$464 . 00 
976.00 
824.00 
196.00 
124.00 

1,082.00 


Second Class concrete 

All types 


6,099 


678.00 



General 

"Efficient maintenance of macadam pavements, particularly of the water 
bound ^ype, of which there are 2535 miles in the &tate system -of improved 
highways, necessitates frequent surface treatments with bituminous mate- 
rials or constant patching of the holes that rapidly develop under the present 
day motor vehicle traffic. 

'Frequent surface treatments are objectionable not only from a traffic 
standpoint, but frdm the fact that such treatments tend to build up an un- 
stable mat of bituminous material and mineral aggregate on the surface of 
the pavement that is displaced by the fast moving motor vehicle traffic, and 
develops a rough and uneven sunace. 

"It has, accordingly, been the policy of this Bureau to restrict the us^of 
surface treatments and wear the surface mat down as this is possible before 
giving another general surface treatment. 

"This method, while tending to provide a smoother surface, requires 
constant patching during the latter stages of the wearing down process. 

" Much time and thought have been given to the study of the results -ob- 
tained by various methods of manipulation and materials used in patching 
macadam surfaces. 

"In making these patches to pavements carrying any considerable amount 
of motor vehicle traffic, it is necessary to bind the mineral aggregate with 
some form of bituminous material. 

"Light asphaltic oils and refined tar products, similar to those used for 
surface treatments, have been used extensively for light, thin patches, paint- 
ing the area to be patched with the bituminous material and covering with 
stone chips or sand. 

"Heavy binders that require heating have been used in the same manner. 

"The most satisfactory results have been obtained, where the required 
patch must be one-half inch or more in depth, bv mixing the mineral aggre- 
gate with a heavy asphalt cr tar binder, cut back with hght voltaic oils to a 
consistency that will mix readily with the mineral aggregate when cold, also 
with an emulsified asphalt binder used in the same manner. 

" The bituminous material and stone aggregate, being mixed either by hand 
or in a small concrete mixer, permits of a proper proportioning of the mate- 
rials which has been demonstrated to be about 6 % in weight of solid bitumen 
or mineral aggregate used, or about one gallon of the cut bacjc or emulsion 
per cubic foot of crushed stone. 

"With asphalt cut back the best results have been obtained bv using a 
material made from an asphalt binder, having a penetration of about i6s, 
cut back with about 33 % in weight of naphtha. 

"With tar cut back the best results have been obtained with a material 
made from a refined tar binder having a melting point of about 70*^0., cut 
back with about 40 % in weight of tar oils, of whica at least 60 % shall distil 
up to 23S**C. 



MAINTENANCE MATERIALS 21 1 



<« 



'A vei7 satisfactory material for patching fmrposes is an emulsified 
asphalt containing ^bout 65% of asphalt binder having a penetration of 
about 165. 

"This material may be diluted with water if desired, and may be mixed 
with wet mineral aggregate when found in that condition. It readil]r sepa- 
rates from the emtusified state when combined with crushed stone in the 
so-called open mix. 

"The resultant adhesive qualified of an emulsified asphalt appear to be 
better than can be obtained by the same asphalt in any other form. 

"The only tangible reason advanced for this result is that the water in 
the emulsion may carry the binder into the pores of the material or pavement 
to which it is applied. 

* ' The patch made with emulsified asphalt hardens to a condition of stabil- 
ity much quicker than one made with cold oils or tars or cut back binder 
that we have used, and is, for this reason, preferable to those materials for 
patching work on heavy traffic highways. 

.- "Very good results have been obtained with the cut back tar cold patch 
material, particularly on medium to light traffic highways, where. the patch- 
ing material is not thrown about by traffic to any great extent. 

"In order to obtain efficient results in patching with a tar binder, it is 
necessanr to make a so-called cld^ mix, by using a graded mineral aggre- 
gate having a minimum amount of voids, which, however, will not permit 
the volatile oils to. evaporate as fast and the patch to become stable as 
quickly as may be obtained with asphalt emulsion when used in the open 
mix. It is, accordingly preferable when using tar, to mix same with the 
mineral aggregate and leave in shallow piles for about two days before apply- 
ing to the road surface. 

"The necessity for using the close mix with tar binders, is due to the 
fact that tar products are more' susceptible to the heat and cold than asphalts. 

"In other words, if starting with the two materials of the same consistency 
at 6o°P. and the temperature is raised to that of a pavement on a hot sum- 
mer day, say I30°P., the tar is much more fluid than the asphalt and tends 
to flow away from the open mineral aggregate, and the open patch will show 
a tendency to ravel. Again when the temperature is reduced to that of a 
pavement on a winter day, the tar becomes much more brittle than the 
asphalts and again the open patch with tar binder is more liable to ravel out 
than one made with asphalt binder. 

''A comparison of the result obtained with the two materiitls each of 
which contains a quantity of the semi-volatile oils sufficient to permit them 
to be applied to the surface of the pavement at 60**?. as a surface treatment, 
demonstrates that the tar, by reason of its greater fluidity on a hot summer 
day, will penetrate the old pavement to a greater extent than the asphalts, 
and thereby serves more as a binder to the old pavement. It is tor this 
reason that cold tars are generally used as the first and second treatment of 
a waterbpund macadam pavement, subsequent treatments of heavy as- 
phaltic oils carrying about 65% of solid bitumen, will give more efficient 
and letsting results if used conservatively, that is, if the successive treatments 
do not follow eadh other too closely. 

"When successive treatments are given every year as a dust layer or to 
obviate the necessity for patching, cold tar is preferable in that it does not 
build up a mat on the sunace of the pavement to the extent obtained with 
asphaltic oils. 

Providing a mat is built up with successive tar treatments, the same will 
generally lie flat and not shove under traffic, and develop a wavy and corru- 
gated surface as is often obtained with too frequent surface treatments with 
asphaltic oils. , 

This resulting difference is due to the aforesaid difference in consistency 
at summer temperatures of the pavements. 

"The tar being so fluid at summer temperature, it appears to retain a 
smooth surface by the effect of gravity, while the asphalt simply, softens 
sufficiently to Tpenmt the surface mat to be displaced oy traffic, which dis- 
placement increased from day to day and oiten necessitates the^ entire 
removal of the old mat. 

"Another fsictor to be considered in deciding upon the material to be used 
for the surface treatment is the condition of the old pavement. 

' ' Where the old macadam is composed largely of small parti<4es of crushed 
rock and dust, and is in a more or less loosened condition, and is subject 
to displacement by traffic, a light asphaltic oil is pfef^rable to cold tar for 



212 MAINTENANCE 

surface t]'eatment& The asphaltic oil tfeatment develops into a mat or 
carpet over the macadam which remains more or less -plastic, even at low 
temperatures, and displacement of the macadam under traffic does not result 
in the shattering and the ultimate destruction of the mat to the extent ob- 
tained under similar conditions with tar treatments. 

" Also for the same reason, asphaltic oils give the best results on pavements 
where steel shod traffic predominates. 

"The best results obtained with tar treatments are where the old macadam 
pavement is clean or free from dust and where the pavement is firm and 
sound, and the stone fragments do not displace under traffic, and where 
motor vdhicle traffic predominates, also where a minimum amount of cover 
material is used in conjunction with bituminous material. 

" Macadam pavements surface treated with tar are, however, much more 
slippery for horse traffic in cold weather than those treated with asphaltic 
oils. 

"In my report of a year ago, I discussed to some length the subject of 
the extensive breaking through of many of the pavements during the spring 
months. 

"Referring to such report it will be noted that the total area actually 
broken during the spring of 1916 was equivalent to 83 miles oi pavements 
16 feet wide, and that the broken areas wfre distributed over many projects 
aggregating to a total of 1939 miles, of which an average of 4.2% was 
broken throiigh. 

"During the season of 19x6, about 75% of the total broken areas were 
substantially repaired, and about 338 miles of the weaker pavements were 
resurfaced. 

"The spring of 1917 appeared to be a repetition of the previous year as 
to the amount of broken pavements. 

" The result of a survey to determine the extent of the broken pavements 
when tabulated indicates that the total broken areas were, however, but 
60 % of the total of the previous year. 

"The total length of the various projects involved aggregating 2090 miles 
about 9% larger than those reported in the previous year. Of this total 
length the eqmvalent of about d.8 miles of pavement 16 feet wide was broken 
up or about 3H % of the total length involved." 

Snow RemovaL — On main roads between large cities snow 
removal in winter has become part of the regular program. In 
many districts automobile trucking relieves rail congestion and is 
needed even more in winter than in summer. The Maintenance 
Departments are in a position to handle this work with their 
organized forces and equipment which are idle at this time of 
year and the necessary expense is certainly worth while to make the 
main roads passable for trucks the year round. 

Typical MainteniGUice Costs of Different Types. — ^From a detailed 
study of 600 miles of road in Western New York with which we 
are personally familiar, the following typical costs are derived. 

It is assumed that the type used is suitable for the class of traffic 
served as indicated on page 164. 

The maintenance system is a combination of patrol, gang work 
and contract. A one man patrol with horse and wagon is used 
to keep the shoulders in shai>e, the ditches and culverts clean and 
small holes in the pavement repaired. Gang work with proper 
machinery under State control to paint guard rail and make more 
extensive surface repairs and contract work for oiling and surfacing. 
Detail oiling costs are given under cost data (page 653). This 
system is not highly efficient, as the executive heads are changed 
at short intervals for partisan reasons; the department is a con- 
venient means of dispensing minor patronage and the maintenance 
money is rarely available early enough in the spring to be used to 



DETAIL COSTS 213 

advantage, but it represents about as good a method as can be 
expected in doing public work on a large scale and as such is of more 
practical value as a guide of costs than figures based on maximum 
eflSciency. 

Patrol Work Macadam Roads. 

Regular patrol labor $70 per mile per year 

Extra labor 40 

Maintenance material 45 " " 

Guard rail, incidentals, etc 20 " ** 



a li II u 
a u 



u n n i< 



Total per mile per year $i 75* 

Say $200 for waterbound roads 

Say $150 for bituminous penetration roads. 

Patrol Work Rigid Pavements. 

Regular patrol labor $30 per mile per year 

Extra labor 15 " " " " 

Shoulder material, etc 30 " " " " 

Guard rail, incidentals, etc 20 " " " " 

Total per mile per year $95 

Say $ioo 

15' Waterbound Macadam, Class n and IV Traffic. 

Life of top course 4 to 1 2 years. Say 7 years Class II and 9 
years Class IV. 

Class n Traffic 

Yearly patrol including materiab for minor repairs and painting 

guard rail at $200 per mile per year $1400 . 00 

Calcium chloride, ist and 8th years @ $125 per mile 

per year 250 . 00 

Cold oiling, 2d year 200 .00 

" 3d " 200.00 

" 5th " 250.00 

Hot oiling 6th " rooo . 00 

Cold oiling 7th " 250 . 00 

Resurfacing ?nth waterbound macadam 8th year 4000.00 

Eight year total. 4 $7S5o.oo 

Cost maintenance and renewal per mOe per year 9^.00 

Cost, of ordinary maintenance per mile per year. 450- 00 

Class IV Traffic 

IQ yearstotal ^pprox., ..,...* ?3poo . oo 

Cost of maintenance and ^;enewal, per i^ile. per year 8bo . 00 . 

Cost of ordinary maintenance — ............. ... . . . 400.00 



\ 



J 



214 MAINTENANCE 

15' Penetration Bituminous Macadam Class n and IV Traffic. 
Life of top course 6 to 1 2 years. Say 10 year average. 

Yearly patrol @ $150 per mile per year $1^500. 00 

Cold oil 3d year , 200 . 00 

" " Sth " 250.00 

" "7th " 300.00 

Hot " 9th '* 1,000. oo> 

Cold " loth " 250.00 

Resurfacing nth year with bituminous macadam 6,000.00 

II year total $9,500.00 

Cost maintenance and renewal per mile per year 900.00 

Cost ordinary maintenance 350. 00 

18' Cement Concrete Pavement Class I and IL 

Class I Traffic (12 year life). 

Yearly patrol and incidentals @ $150 $1,800.00 

Resurfacing the 13th year with either asphalt, brick, 
clay cubes or rebuilding with concrete @ $10,000 to 
$16,000 per mile , 14,000.00 

13 year total $15,800.00 

Cost maintenance and renewal per mile per year 1,220.00 

Cost ordinary maintenance 150.00 

Class n Traffic (15 year period). 

Yearly patrol and incidentals $ 1,500.00 

Resurfacing — 13,000. 00 

16 year total 14,500. 00 

Cost of maintenance and renewal per mile per year $ 900 . 00 

Cost of ordinary maintenance 100.00 

18' Brick Pavement Class I Traffic 

Probable life 15 years based on reports from 80 cities. 

Range of life 10 to 25 years. 

Yearly patrol and incidentals $ 2,250.00 

Replacing brick surface 18,000. 00 

16 year total $20,250.00 

Cost of maintenance and renewal per year $ 1,250.00 

Cost ordinary maintenance 150. 00 

Maintenance Conclusion. — The indications are that the yearly 
cost of maintenance and renewal of a well designed high-class 
road system will run about $900 per mile per year. The e£fect 
of bad design is evident from resurfacing costs, for if waterbound 
macadam is built on a Class I traffic roaid.the life is easily halved, 
increasing the maintenance and renewal cost to $1500 per mile 
per year and causing continual iaconvenience to the traveling 
public by repairs and reconstruction. 

Probabfy the most feasible method of reducing maintenance 
cost wHl be the utilizing piiison labor to manufacture and in a limited 
way apply the maintenance materials. 



CHAPTER VIII 



MINOR POINTS 

Under this heading are included right-of-wav widths, guard rail, 
bridge rail, snow fences, retaining waUs, toe walls, curbs, guide and 
danger signs, cobble gutters; rip rap, catch basins, grates, dykes, 
storm sewers; flow of water in (fitches and cattle guajfds, 

Rigbt-of-way Widths. — Many of the older communities are 
handicapped in road improvement by narrow right-of-ways which 
require widening at a large expense and considerable legal difficulty. 
"Where right-of-way is acquired for new locations future develop- 
ment should be considered. The width acquired must be sufficient 
to include all cut and fill slopes. Where these considerations do 
not increase the normal width the following normal widths are 
recommended: 

Mountainous regions (cheiap land) loo ft. 

Farming coimtry (moderately cheap land) 80 ft. 

Thickly settled districts (expensive land)\ 60 ft. 

Clearing Widths. — Clearing of trees, brushy etc., depends on 
height and thickness of growth; the object of clearing is first to 



1,1 



•—4c- 



'H>' 




ITopcmel Bofhm No^f alt other ftinsMalh $ Shanes- BQhu^fw Rod. 
LoQustfb9h9 /eewf- QiamtHr alimf§el is 'findms. 
AUCorn9rancl£ncl Fosfs grt'tBinchts inleasfDiametB'randdraoed 
OS shoffn abov$. 

Pig. 42.— ^Right-of-way fence. 

remove growth within the slope lines, second to provide a clear 
view and third to clear sufficient width to allow the sun to reach 
the road and dry it out and melt snow. This last depends a good 
deal on the direction in which the road is running ana the altitude 
and geographical location. It is entirely a matter of judgment 
but should De. liberal in the forest distncts and ranges from 30 
ft. for low scrub growth to 150 ft. in adverse location and thick 

215 



•2i6 



MINOR POINTS 



high growth. In high altitudes the roads are at their best closed 
in winter and if careful location and liberal clearing will increase 
the length of open season it is well worth while as in effect it increases 
the usefulness of the road by 15% to 25%. 

Guard' Rail 

Wooden Guard RaiL — The construction generally used is shown 
in the following sketch. 

7/7/5 ^n every lOQff:(appmxJmfti SfacHftxriir: 




All Jfaik to be Ffaned oniSidei 



y6% 



if*$ s'o'---'-——A 

r-J i^ RailsandF^sts glinted \A 
uJ^ SCoatiWhiteLsadamiOit lJ 



e'Steelor W't iron Pipe -. 



v^ < 






I 
r-t 

u 








:^^/aSf/a/) 



:5H 




Fig. 43. 

The posts are cedar, white oak^ or chestnut, and the rails are 
hemlock, yellow pine, or white pine. Such guard rail costs from 
25c.. to 40C. per foot, about 5c. per foot per year for maintenance, 
and needs renewal every 8 to 10 years; the capitalized cost at 
4% is approximately $1.25 as figured by the New York State 
Highway Commission, and on this basis they have decided that 
it is cheaper to use a fill slope of i On 4 up to ft seven foot depth 
eliminating the guard rail than it is to use a i on 1 3^ fill slope with 
guard rail. 

The wooden guard rail as built acts as a warning only. If a 
machine or rig becomes unmanageable and hits the rail, it generally 
breaks or the posts tear out, allowing the vehicle to turn turtle on 
the fill slope. So manv accidents" of this kind occur that there is a 
demand for a rail that actually gives protection as well as 
a warning. 

Concrete Guafd Rail, — ^Because of this demand and the high 
cost of maintenance and renewal of the common \fb6den rail, 
concrete guard rail is being adopted. The Simplest and best 



GUARD RAIL 



design of this kind that the author has s< 







Pig. 44. — Concrete gaard rail. 

The rail was invented by J. Y. McClintoct, County Engineer 
of Monroe County, N. Y, It is neat in appearance, durable and 
strong, and is specially adapted for a combination bridge' and ap- 
proach rail. The old design of an iron bridge rail connected with 
a wooden road rail has been an eyesore. 

The actual cost of manufacture and setting was from 50 to 
60c. per foot. The contract price for such rail would, probably, 
run from 80c. to Si.oo, depending upon the length of the haul, 
freight rate, and difficulty of digging post holes but even at the 
high figure it is cheaper in the end than wooden rail and is a 



2i8 MINOR POINTS 

sate construction. The anchor and rod shown on the sketch is 
used on curves or even on straight stretches where new fill ia en- 
countered, to prevent the posts being torn out by impact from tuna- 
way machines. 




I? 



[_ PafiiobtnUatllia 



^t6vta Arto o//ba hbtpotT 



Pig. 45. — Cable K"ard rail. 



The rwl proper has a web and bar reinforcement; it is designed 
to stand a 6 ton horizontal load at the center of the paneL The 
rails and posts are molded separately and dlowed to set for, at 




least, a month; they are then put together in much the same manner 
as the wooden rail. The rounded top of the post makes it possible 
to erect on any grade. 



GUARD RAIL 



219 



A considerable mileage of this rail has been erecfted in New York 
and New Jersey and has prevented many serious accidents. It has 
been hit by autos, tar kettles, rollers, traction engines and rigs and 
in no case has the .vehicle gone over the bank — which is the general 
cause of fatal accidents. The rails and posts will break when hit 
by a heavy machine, but the reinforcement merely bends (does 
not snap) and continues to exert enough resistance to hold the ma- 
chine on the roadway. 

Guard rail has two distinct purposes; first as merely a warning, 
at culverts, curves, low embankments, etc., where the danger is not 
great and second, as an actual protection in dangerous places. 





End B^^afion. 



Pig. 47. — Showing raised parapet on skew bridge extended over 

straight parapet retaining wall. 

Concrete guard rail is not advocated where warning alone is 
sufficient. 

Wire Cable Guard Fence. — Figure 45 illustrates this construction. 

Snow Fences. — Sketch No. 46 shows a typical snow fence used 
to prevent drifting in bad locations. 

itedge Rail and Raised Parapets. — Bridge rail for small span 
bridges is of two types, iron pipe rail (see Figure 43) or solid raised 
parapets (see Figure 47). The solid parapet is to be preferred. 

Retaining Walls. — In unusual cases retaining walls are needed 
in road construction. Plain or reinforced concrete walls are gener- 
ally used, the selection depending upon the relative cost. The plain 
concrete wall is considered the best type for heights up to 12 ft.; 
the reinforced cantilever form from 12 to 18 ft. and al)ove'i8 ft. 
the buttressed design. We give, page 220, examples and rules for 
the plain and reinforced cantilever t3rpes only, as the necessity for 
walls higher than 18 ft. is very rare. For the design of buttressed 
walls the reader is referred to the standard works of reinforced 
concrete. 

Retaining walls are usually built in monolithic sections of 20' 
to 25' in length; expansion joints are provided between these sec- 
tions. The expansion joints may consist of simply a plane of weak- 
ness between tne sections produced by allowing one section to set 



222 MINOR POINTS 

before buildiiig the adjacent wall, or it may be a key joint U shown 
in Fignie 49A and the plane of separation may be nude more pro- 
nounced by coating the concrete with a thin layer of asphaltum 




Key e>pdn^on Joint. 

Fig. 49A. 

Toe Wills. — Toe walls are nothing more than low retuning 
walls or very substantial curbs. They are used in cuts on the out- 
side of the gutteis to prevent unstable side slopes from filling the 
gutten or heaving them out of shape by sliding pressure. Figure 



CURBS 



223 



50 pves a section of Eden Volley Hill near Buffalo, N. Y. where a 
clay quicksand cut was successfully protected in thb manner. 

CulbB. — Curbs are constructed of stone and of concrete.. 

Stone Curbs.— The cuts given show the methods o£ setting) 
the size of curbstones for first-class wort range from 16" to aa" 
in depth, 5" to 6" in thickness and 3' to s' in length. For small 
villages, curbstone of 4" width set in the simplest manner shown. 




Fig. so. — Shomng 



is satisfactory. The stones most used are granites, bluestones of 
New York State, and- the tougher sandstones sudi as Medina, 
Berea, Kettle River, etc.' The prices range widely, depending on 
the locality of the work. Mr. William Pierson Judson, in his 
" Roads and Pavements," pves the following range of costs: 




SimplBt Form oF Concnl* Girl). 
[ jhbwing oba hrm «f EipantlgnMnt 
nhtn Briikait LoU LmgrliKllnrili 
inbullH-.)^ ' 

Fig. si. 



straight curba Ml, cost about is followa: with 30% to si 
eurves; ar«nite, $0.50 to (0.90, unusual case $1.35 per loot. 

Uitter and OiEord blueBti>iie. 10.40 to to.So, unusual caw 1 

Medina uid Barea UDdstone, to.3S to fo.go. 

Concrete usually coatafiom to.40 to (0,50 with Jo.jj added f 
gutter, though CMmbined gutter and curb have been built tor 

Simple cnncrets curb (naureNo. si) hu been built during it 
puta ot Western New York aC & coiC of (0.30 to t«>4'i per (t»t 



a combined 
I ID diffarent 



s3H 

curb of the sii 



MINOR POINTS 

in b« buitt for \ta than to.711 per Coot, it aeerm good 
mRh the busineas acctiooB of small vilU^es. For the 
wnere the cost of stose curbing is high, a concrete 

not expected. 




^'^"'" <22m HUDSON ALBANY lOiiP ll 

< ^^ NA55AU f ^^^^:^^,^^ 

1 C H No IZ I ^Z 

I5HNO 37 | ,„^^..J.g^ 




f-fCam'ogtBc/t 
^i-UpsttThimdalhrNathintlaa. 
Pig. sa. 

Guide ^gos and Danger Signs. — A good sign must be easy to 
read, pleasing in appearance and permanent. The drawing (Fimre 
ja) snows one of the designs in use; the posts are of galvanized 
iron and cost about $5.00 in place; the bacl^round for Uie alumi- 
num is a j^anued metal; the signs cost approximately $0.15 per 



COBBLE GUTTERS 



225 



letter including the board. Danger signs should be used only where 
no doubt exists as to their necessity, as their indiscriminate use 
decreases their effectiveness. 

Riprap and Dykes. — Well constructed riprap protects stream 
banks and bridge approaches from stream wash except in unusual 
cases where a solid masonry or concrete protection is required. 



^iS!^^ 




^ Qfshfon 



( Sand-Cushfon notfUetwirett/n SemOvSoil 
Stz9afStvneS-9r) ^ 

Cobble Gulter. 




Third Qass Gtmcrete 
Ditch Lining. 




t'fuludi 
icncmtcrSmidfminckitioni 6i9ut9tf 

wSandJoinb. 
Brick 6u#er. 




..3'(??— d 



Na4 Crushed Stont 
Ditch PioletHon* 



Fig. 53. 



The sizes of stone suitable for riprap are usually specified at a 
minimum of ' K cubic foot and 50% or more of the material to be 
over 2 cubic feet. 

Where the road is located in bottom land and is covered with 
backwater in the Spring, it can be protected by riprap paving 
on both sides or a dyke and riprap paving on one side as shown 
in Figures No. 55 ^nd No, 56. 



226 



MINOR POINTS 



Cobble Gutters, Brick Gutters, Ditch Linings, Etc. 

Cobble gutters are used to protect the ditches from wash on 
steep grades and at entrances to -intersecting roads where there is 
not sufficient headroom for a culvert* 

Also at the entrances to private property where the grade line 
of the ditch might be badly cut by vehicles. 





- ^ 

flood Wafer No vation . / <f^ J? 

_j^y 

Pig. 54- 

The usual cost of such construction ranges from $0.40 to $1.00 
per square yard. 

Where cobblestones are not available, ordinary building brick 
may be used or No. 4 crushed stone as shown on page 225. 

Coarse Oravtl Fnhrred, 

Fig. 55. — Method of protection where road can be built above 

flood level. 

Grates. — Cost of cast-iron grates about $0,065 per pound. 
Cost of wrought-iron grates about $0.08 per pound. 
Repointing Masonry and Refacing Old walls. — Old masonry 
structures can often be used complete or in part by repointing the 

,' Layer of Dead Water ( Prevents Wsah) 
- Elevatton ofFiood Wafer ^^ 

Oood Material ^^^^^-^ 
Coarse Bravel or Stone Rll 

Pig. ^6.^ — Method of protection where road cannot be raised above 

flood level. 

joints; they should be cleaned out thoroughly with a chisel and 
filled flush with a i to i Portland cement mortar. 

The author does not believe in facing up old masonry abut- 
ments if it can be avoided; however, if it seems advisable, because 
of shortage of funds, the old joints should be well cleaned out and 



STORM SEWERS 



237 



book dowels used as showa in cut No. 5S. One dowel every 6 sq. 
ft. is good practice. 

The concrete facing should be at least is in, thick, have a good 
footing course and be reinforced to prevent settlement and tem- 
perature cracks. 

Stoim Seweis on Hills.— For the convenience of de^gners the 
approximate flow capacity of ordinary sized pipies on different 
grades are given below in Table 23. 




Table No. 13.' — Apphoxwate Flow Capaqtv in Cubic Fi:et 
' Per Second 

Value of W - 0.013 







I Flow of 




Siltd PJIK 




Grade 














„„ 


IS" 


.... 1 .0.. 


34" 


36" 


OS% 


2.4 


4,4 


7-5 


95 


16.0 


4a. 
































^: 






































IS 




10 




,11 




































4 






."i 


',1 








27 




40 








■i 




7 


■( 


14 








10 




■;■ 




117 












"i 




7fl 








S6 












X 


X 


Id 






















" 


9 


s 


17 


° 




° 


38 


° 


"s 


° 


173 


° 



I Computed troiA diagram Ogdeo'i Sewer Design. 



MINOR POINTS 

__ . >itchea. — Multiply area of flow by v 

Velocity can be roughly approiimated by the formula 

V = cv^ 

V = velocity in feet per second ' 

C = eonstaot = 60 tor ordinary cases 

„ , , ,. ,. cross-sectional area of flow 

R = hydraulic radius — 



wetted perimeter in lin. ft. 




of Grating. 

Cattle guard driveway. 

Csttle Guards.—In western territory ranch owners will often 
grant road right-of-ways for a nominal sum but stipulate that the 
right-of-way shall not be fenced as it would cut off part of their 
range from water. The boundaries of these ranges are generally 
fenced and where the road passes this fence a gate must be used to 
prevent straying of cattle; it is more or less of a nuisance for every 
user of the road to open and close the gate and generally a gap is 
left in the fence across which a shallow pit 2' to 3' deep is dug and 
this is covered with a slat grating whi^ cattle will not walk but 
which can be driven over by automobiles. 



CHAPTER IX 

MATERIALS 

The selection of materials is an important part of the design. 
Most municipal and State Departments have well equipped labora- 
tories for testing stone, gravels, brick, bitumens, cements, etc. The 
object of these tests is to determine the physical and chemical prop- 
erties that have a particular bearing on the action of the materisos 
under construction conditions. While these conditions are not 
attained they are approximated and by a comparison of the labora- 
tory results with the actual performance of the different materials in 
practice a relation can be established that is useful as a basis for 
judgment: 

We are greatly indebted in this edition to Mr. H. S. Mattimore 
and Mr. J. E. Myers who have rearranged and brought up to date 
much of the material on tests and their significance. 

This chapter gives a brief statement of the desirable qualities and 
the tests for: 

1. Top course, macadam stone. 

2. Screenings. 

3. Bottom course, macadam stone. 

4. Bottom course and sub-base fillers. 

5. Brick. 

6. Bituminous binders. 

7. Concrete materials. 

I. STONE FOR THE SURFACINO OF MACADAM ROADS 

Stone for use in the surfacing of a macadam road should be hard 
and tough to withstand the abrasive action of team traffic and the 
vibratory action of high-speed motor vehicles and should not 
contain any minerals that are likely to disintegrate rapidly under 
influence of weather conditions. 

To determine the relative hardness, toughness and power to resist 
abrasive and impact action of traffic, stones are subjected to the 
following tests: 

1. Abrasion. 

2. Hardness. 

3. Toughness. 

4. Specific gravity. 

5. Absorption. 

6. Fracture. 

7. Geological classification. 

229 



23© 



MATERIALS 



Abrasion Tesi^ — ^The machine shall consist of one or more hollow 
iron cylinders; closed at one end and furnished with a tightly fitting 
iron cover at the other; the cylinders to be 20 cm. in diameter and 
34 cm. in depth, inside. These cylinders are to be mounted on a 
shaft at an angle of 30 deg. with the axis of rotation of the shaft. 

At least 30 lb. of coarsely broken stone shall be available for a test. 
The rock to be tested shaU be broken in pieces as nearly uniform in 
size as possible, and as nearly 50 pieces as possible shall constitute 
a test sample. The total weight of rock in a test shall be within 
10 g. of 5 kg. 

All test pieces shall be washed and thoroughly dried before weigh- 
ing. Ten thousand revolutions, at the rate of between 3© and ss 
per minute, shall constitute a test. . Only the percentage of mate- 
rials worn off which will. pass through a 0.16 cm. (J^g in.) mesh 
sieve shall be considered in determining the amount of wear. This 
may be expressed either as the percentage of the 5 kg. used in the 
test, or the French coefficient, which is in more general use, may be 

given; that is, coefficient of wear = 20 X — = ^ — , where w is the 

WW 

weight in grams of the detritus under 0.16 cm. (He ^Q-) i^ size per 
kilogram of rock used. 

Conversion Table % of Wear to French Coefficient 



F. .Coef . 


% of Wear 


F. Coef. 


% of Wear 


20 

133 
10 


2 
3 

4 


8 

6.7 

57 


S 
6 

7 




Hardness. — Hardness is determined by a Dorry machine. A 
stone cylinder 25 cm. in diameter, obtained by a diamond core drill 
from the material to be tested, is weighed and placed in the machine 
so that one end rests on a horizontal cast-iron grinding disk with a 
pressure of 25 grams per sq. cm. The disk is revolved 1000 times 
auring which standard crushed quartz sand about ij^ mm. in 
diameter is automatically fed to it. The cylinder is then removed 
and weighed and the coefficient of hardness obtained by the formula 
20— H the loss in weight, expressed in grams. In order to get 

^ American Society of Testing Materials. 



ROCK TESTS 23 1 

reliable results two cylinders are generally used, each one being 
reversed end for end during the test. 

Test for Toneless.' — i. Test pieces may be either cylinders or 
cubes, 25 mm. in diameter and 25 mm. in height, cut perpendicular 
to the cleavage of the rock. Cylinders are recommended as they 
are cheaper and more easily made. 

2. The testing machine shall consist of an anvil of 50 kg. weight, 
placed on a concrete foundation. The hammer shall be of 2 kg. 
weight, and dropped upon an intervening plunger of i kg. weight, 
which rests on the test piece. The lower or bear-surface of 
this plunger shall be of spherical shape having a radius of i cm. 
This plunger shall be made of hardened steel, and pressed firmly 
upon the test piece by suitable springs. The test piec^ shall be 
adjusted, so that the center of its upper surface is tangent to the 
spherical end of the plunger. 

3. The test shall consist of a i cm. fall of the hammer for the first 
blow, and an increased fall of i cm. for each succeeding blow until 
failure of the test piece occurs. The number of blows necessary to 
destroy the test piece is used to represent the toughness, or the centi- 
meter-grams of energy applied may be used. 

Determination of the Apparent Specific Gravity of Rock.^ — 

The apparent specific gravity of rock shall be determined by the 

followmg method: First, a sample weighing between 39 and 31 g. 

and approximately ciibical in shape shall be dried in a closed oven 

for I hour at a temperature of no degrees C. (230 degrees F. ) and 

then cooled in a desiccator for i hour; second, the sample shall be 

rapidly weighed in air; third, trial weighings in air and m water of 

another sample <A approximately the same size shall be made in 

order to determine the approximate loss in weight on immersion; 

fourth, after the balances shall have been set at the calculated 

weight, the first sample shall be weighed as quickly as practicable 

in distilled water having a temperature of 25 degrees C. (77 degrees 

F.); fifth, the apparent specific gravity of the sample shall be 

calculated by the following formula: 

W 
Apparent. specific gravity = ^ ™- in which W = the wefght 

in grams of the sample in air and Wi ^ the weight in grams of the 
sample in water just after inmiersion. 

Fmally, the apparent specific gravity of the rock shall be the 
average of three aeterminations, made on three different samples 
according to the method above described. 

Determination of the Absorption of Water per Cubic Foot of Rock.' 
— The absorption of water per cubic foot of rock shall be determined 
by the following method: First, a sample weighing between 29 and 
31 g. and approximately cubical in shape shall be dried in a closed 
oven for i hour at a temperature of no degrees C. (230 degrees F.) 
and then cooled in a desiccator for i hour; second, the sample shall' 
be rapidly weighed in air; third, trial weighings in air and m water 

* American Society of Testing Materials. 

> American Society of Testing Materials. 

> American Society of Testing Materials. 



232 MATERIALS 

of another sample of approximately the same size shall be made 
in order to determine the approximate loss in weight on immer- 
sion; fourth, after the balances shall have been set at the calculated 
weight, the first sample shall be weighed as quickly as possible in 
distilled water having a temperature of 25 degrees C. (77 degrees 
F.); fifth, allow the sample to remain 48 hours in distilled water 
maintained as nearly as practicable at 25 degrees C. (77 degrees F.) 
at the termination of which time bring the water to exactlv this 
temperature and weigh the sample while inunersed in it; sixtn, the 
number of pounds of water absorbed per cubic foot of the sample 
shall be calculated by the following formula: 

j^*2 — Wi 
Pounds of water absorbed per cubic foot == tf? — ^r — X 62.24 in 

which W B the weight in giamsof sample in air, Wi » the weight 
in grams of sample in water just after inunersion, W2 ^ the weight 
in grams of sample in water after 48 hours' inunersion, and 62.24 == 
the weight in pounds of a cubic foot of distilled water having a tem^ 
perature of 25 degrees C. (77 degrees F.). 

Finally, the absorption of water per cubic foot of the rock, in 
pounds, shall be the average of three determinations made on three 
different samples according to the method above described. 

lecture. — Stone suitable for road work should crush in cubical 
^apeS rather than in thin, flat pieces and preferably with rough, 
jagged fracture that it may interlock firml]^ under action of the 
roller. 

Geologi€al Classification. — ^The geological classification is 
determined from an examination with a microscope or powerful 
hand glass, and a consideration of its origin. Great refinements 
are avoided as the general classification is all that is necessary 
to the highway engineer after the ph3rsical qualities are ascertained 
by test. 

Cost of TestSd — ^The cost of collecting and testing stone as given 
in the 1009 Report of the New York State Department of High- 
ways is 18.55 per sample. 

The following tables show tests on the more common rock : 



ROCK PROPERTIES 



27 



Table. 2sa, Taken from Bulletin No. 31, United Stati 

Office of Public Roads 



Rode varieties 



Granite 

Biotite-granite . . . . 
Homblende-granite 

Augite-syenite 

Diorite 

Augite-diorite 

Gabbro 

Peridotite 



Rhyolite 

Andedte 

Fresh basalt .. 
Altered basalt . 
Fresh diabase . 
Altered diabase 



Limestone 

Dolomite . . •. 

Sandstone 

Feldspathic sandstone 
Calcareous sandstone 
Chert 



Granitei-gneiss . • . . 
Hornblende-gneiss 
Biotite-gneiss . . . . 

Mica-sc^t 

Biotite-schist 

Chlorite-schist . . . 
Hornblende-schist 
AmphiboUte 






diatc ••••••••. 

Quartzite 

Feldspathic quartzite 
Pyroxene quartzite . 

Eclogite .•.. 

Epodosite 



• 








Per cent 


Tough- 


Hard- 


Cementing 


wear 


ness 


nen 


value 


3-5 


IS 


18.1 


20 


4-4 


10 


16.8 


17 


3.6 


21 


18.3 


30 


2.6 


10 


18.4 


24 


2.9 


21 


18.1 


41 


2.8 


19 


17.7 


5S 


2.8 


16 


17.9 


29 


4.0 


12 


15.2 


28 

• 


3-7 


20 * 


17.8 


48 


.4.7 


II 


13.7 


189 


3-3 


23 • 


17.1 


III 


53 


17 


15.6 


239 


2.0 


30 


Z8.2 


49 


2.5 


24 


I7.S 


156 


5.6 


10 


12.7 


60 


5-7 


10 


14.8 


42 


6.9 


26 


17.4 


90 


3-3 


17 


^S'3 


119 


7.4 


n 


8.3 


60 


10.8 


IS 


194 


27 


3.8 


12 


17.7 


26 


3-7 


10 


17.1 


30 


3-2 


19 


17.5 


41 


44 


10 


17.8 


30 


4.0 


•— 


— 


16 


4.2 


— 


— 


24 


3.7 


21 


16.5 


53 


2.9 


zo 


19.0 


29 


4.7 


12 


"S 


102 


2.9 


19 


18.4 


17 


3.2 


17 


18.3 


21 


2.3 


27 


18.6 


17 


2.4 


31 


17.4 


21 


3^ 


16 


16.0 


47 



Specific 
gravity 



2.6s 
2.64 
2.76 
2.80 
2.90 
2.98 
300 
3-40 

2.60 
2.50 
2.90 

2.7s 
3-00 

2.9s 

2.70 
2.70 

2.55 
2.70 

2.66 

2.50 

2.68 
3.02 
2.76 
2.80 

a. 70 
2.90 

300 
3.00 

2.80 
2.70 
2.70 
3.00 

3.30. 
3.03 



•NOTK.— To convert % of wear to French coefiEicient, see Table on page 2; 



Fboh Annual I 



1 Weight 

' lbs. pa K 
, cu. iT It 



h- Wnditcd 



UODKM... 

Hontfomci 






Uwh... 
OncltU.. 

St.L.wiB 



Calcauodb Sahdbtoke 



e ... 175 0.41 

7 ... 173 0.67 

! ::■ 1 Ss 

8 ... 17* 0.31 
6 ■*■ lit t^^ 













































;ji 










sfe... . ; 




i,M 


0I 


iU 


^i 




















173 


0-S9 


10.1 


ij.i 





::| i 1 



I s'H; I ^ 



•A SI 



i 




;8i 


s;i 


».J 


"•' 


M.3 






































S.l 




'Si 


i 






0:38 


9.6 


11-9 


ti 


3= 






0.1J 


B-7 

it 


17.J 


't^ 


37 




171 


OJB 


»-i 


16.0 





ROCK PROPERTIES 



23 s 



From Annual Report N. Y. State Highway Comm. 1914 



County 



Number 
of com- 
plete 
tests 



Number 

of 
partial 

tests 
(no core 

piece) 



Weight, 
lbs. per 
cu. It. 



Water 

ab- 
sorbed, 
lbs. per 
cu. ft. 



French 

coeflS- 

cient of 

abrasion 



Hard- 
ness 



Tough- 
ness 



Weighted 
vsdue 



Albany 

Cayuga 

Clmton ..... 
Columbia . . . 

Erie 

Fulton 

Genesee. . . . 

Greene 

Herkimer. . . 
Tefiferson... . 

Lewis 

Madison. . . . 

Monroe 

Montgomery 

Nia^ra 

Oneida 

Onondaga . . . 

Ontario 

Otsego 

Rensselaer. . 

Saratoga 

Schoharie . . . 

Seneca 

Ulster 

Warren 

Washington . 



13 
34 
14 

12 

9 

6 

6 

II 

17 

los 

26 

16 

4 
12 
II 
31 

25 

II 
7 
4 
5 

29 

7 
12 

S 
S 



Dutchess I 4 [ 



Columbia . . . 

Dutchess 

Rensselaer. . 
Wasldngton. 



Limestone 



7 


168 


0.60 


7.9 


6 


170 


0.49 


8.8 


2 


170 


0.28 


8.2 


• « • 


170 


0.28 


9.1 


3 


^fz 


O.S7 


8.x 


I 


x68 


0.21 


7.7 


3 


169 


0.26 


8.0 


• • • 


169 


0.36 


II. I 


9 


169 


0.26 


8.7 


44 


169 


0.28 


7.6 


20 


169 


0.32 


6.9 


I 


169 


0.23 


8.4 


• • • 


168 


0.27 


8.x 


2 


169 


0.24 


8.S 


I 


168 


0.84 


7-1 


19 


169 


0.29 


7.8 


I 


170 


0.38 


8.9 


• • • 


169 


0.39 


10.2 


2 


169 


0.32 


8.Z 


I 


171 


0.2 z 


7.S 


• • • 


170 


0.24 


8.7 


2 


169 


0.34 


8.1 


3 


169 


0.21 


9.4 


3 


170 


0.25 


8.1 


• • • 


170 


0.24 


8.9 


3 


169 


0.34 


7-9 



X4.3 
14.9 

I4.X 

15-3 
x6.6 

15.5 
iS.o 
16.4 
14.8 
15.1 
14. 1 

14.7 
14.1 

153 
12.8 

13.8 
15.7 
159 
14.1 
15.0 
13.7 
14.9 
15.3 
15.6 

15.7 
IS-S 



6.4 

7.8 
5-3 

6.S 
8.2 
8.9 
8.2 
6.4 
6.2 
7-7 
7-4 
8.0 

6.S 

6.6 

8.4 

10.2 

6.3 

5.3 
7.0 

6.7 
7.9 
7.4 
7.4 
6.9 



Marble 
I 178 I 0.30 

QUARTZITE 



16 


• • • 


168 


0.28 


x6.s 


18.3 


17.1 


8 


2 


x66 


0.36 


13.S 


18.8 


II. 8 


xo 


• • • 


166 


0.49 


13. 1 


18.7 


X4.8 


r2 


■ • • 


167 


0.40 


14.6 


x8.9 


16.3 



Sandstone 



Allegany 


8 




Broome 


II 


, 


Cayuga 


4 




Chenango. . . 


IS 




Clinton 


14 


, 


Delaware . . . 


S3 




Erie 


8 




Franklin 


5 




Greene 


6 




Herkimer . . . 


4 




Jefferson 

Livingston . . 


8 
4 




Madison 


S 




Niagara 


7 




OrlMns 


8 




Otsego 


21 




Saratoga 


5 . 


• 



xs6 

i6s 
167 
164 
163 
167 
XS9 
157 
169 
160 
IS6 
160 
163 
158 

iSS 
162 
163 



2.10 
1.29 
X.I6 
x.s8 
0.71 

1.4s 
2.10 
X.06 
0.62 
2.50 
X.46 
3.02 

2.1S 
1.78 
2.18 

I.7S 
0.36 



8.4 
7.8 
7.8 
8.7 

XI.7 
7.0 
6.3 
9.7 
8.6 

10.9 

8!8 
9.9 
9.0 

X1.8 
8.4 

10.7 



13.4 
12.9 
12.1 
II. 2 
18.S 

X2.7 

S.I 
17.9 
MS 
16.4 
16.2 

9.6 

13.9 
16.4 

14.4 
11.9 
18.0 



9.1 
lo.s 
lo.s 
10.4 

II.O 

8.S 
7.8 

7.1 

8.X 

10.7 

6.3 
8.8 
8.6 
8.2 
8.x 
9.6 



59 
64 
S8 

67 
66 
60 
62 

7S 
64 
59 
55 
62 
60 
64 
53 
SS 
67 
73 
59 

61 
67 
63 
66 
62 



I 7.3 I X4.2 I 6.0 I 56 



103 

§° 
89 

98 



61 
60 
S8 
59 
83 
55 
37 
7a 

63 
76 
64 

54 
66 
68 
72 

59 

77 



236 



MATERIALS 



From Annual Report N. Y. State Highway Comm. 19 14. — Cont. 



County 


Number 
of com- 
plete 


Number 

of 

partial 

tests 


Weight, 

lbs. per 

cu. ft 


Water 

ab- 
sorbed, 
lbs. per 


French 
coeffi- 
cient of 


Hard- 
ness 


Tough- 
ness 


Weighted 
value 




tests 


(no core 


abrasion 












piece) 




cu. lu 














Sandstone. — Continued 








Schoharie . . . 


6 


3 


i6s 


I.3I 


9.4 


IS.2 


X1.7 


70 


Schuyler. . . . 


4 




163 


3.14 
0.86 


8.Z 


11.6 


10.6 


58 


Seneca 


5 




i6s 


II.O 


13.9 


15.8 


77 


Steuben 


33 


3 


IS7 


3.79 


8.3 


9-3 


xo.o 


54 


St. Lawrence 


16 




159 


0.79 


xo.o 


X7.8 


7.3 


11 


Sullivan .... 


30 


4 


164 


1.30 


6.S 


14.9 


8.3 


Ulster 


8 




166 


0.64 


8.0 


14.3 


8.1 


6x 


Wyoming. .. 


7 




IS9 


a.S4 


6.0 


S.I 


7.9 


36 








Sandy Grit 










Albany 


5 




167 


0.7S 


7-5 


13.3 


7.a 


56 


Columbia . . . 


13 




168 


0.33 


10.7 


159 


X1.7 


76 


Dutchess 


10 




168 


O.S7 


8.1 


l6.3 


X1.5 


68 


Greene 


13 




169 


0.48 


7.1 


IS.6 


H 


62 


Montgomery 


4 




166 


1.39 


lO.Z 


II-3 


XX.8 


6S 


Rensselaer. . 


10 




169 


0.44 


9.1 


iS-9 


9.4 


69 


Saratoga. . . . 


5 




168 


0.99 


X1.8 


X5.3 


X1.9 


78 


Schenectady 


4 




i6s 


X.IO 


9.3 


X4.6 


95 


66 


Ulster 


7 




169 


O.S9 


7-5 


X3.8 


X0.3 


60 








Syenite 










Essex 


7 




184 


0.53 


7-7 


17.I 


6.7 


64 


Franklin.^... 


4 




171 


0.4S 


lO.I 


18.3 


8.0 


II 


Herkimer . . . 


13 




174 


0.16 


12.S 


x8.o 


XX.6 


Jefferson. . . . 


7 




176 


0.34 


X3.4 


18. X 


U'S 








Trap 










Rockland . . . 


13 1 


• • * 


183 1 O.30 


X3.3 


1 17.6 I 


1.64 1 


01 



Table 2366 


• 


Geological Classification 


Class 


Type 


Family 


I Igneous 


1 


I Intrusive 
(plutonic) 


■ 


a Granite 
b Syenite 
c Diorite 
d Gabbro 
e Peiidotite 






3 Extrusive 
(volcanic) 

1 


i 


[ a Rhyolite 
b Trachyte 
c Andesite 
d Basalt and diabase 






X Calcareous 


j a Limestone 
\ b Dolomite 


II Sndimentary 


i 


3 Siliceous 


f a Shale 

b Sandstone 
I c Chert (flint) 






X Foliated 


f a Gneiss 
b Schist 
I c Amphibolite 


III Metamorphic 


1 




r a Slate 






a Nonfoliated 


< 


b Quartzite 
c Edogite 
dUMe 



^ Bulletin No. 3x, United States Department of Public RoBds. 



IGNEOUS ROCKS 237 

The following quotation from bulletin No. 31 O. P. R. & R. E. 
describes the characteristics of the three groups: 

Igneous Rocks. — "All rocks of the igneous class are presumed to 
have solidified from a molten state, either upon reaching the earth's 
surface or at varying depths beneath it. The physical conditions, 
such as heat and pressure, under which the molten rock magma 
consolidated, as well as its chemical composition and the presence 
of included vapors, are the chief features influencing the structure. 
Thus, we find the deep-seated, plut6nic rocks coarsely cr3rstalline 
with mineral constituents well defined, as in case of granite rocks, 
indicating a single, prolonged period of development, whereas the 
members of the extrusive or volcanic types, solidifying more rap- 
idly at the surface, are either fine-grained or frequently glassy 
and vesicular, or show a porphjnritic structure. This structure is 
produced by the development of large crystals in a more or less 
dense and fine-grained ground mass, and is caused generally by a 
recurrence of mineral growth during the effusive period of magmatic 
consolidation. 

"In the arrangement of the rock families from a mineralogical 
standpoint it will be noted that the plutonic rock types, granite, 
syenite, and diorite, are represented by their equivalent extrusive 
varieties, rhyolite and andesite, and that diabase has been included, 
somewhat arbitrarily, with basalt, as a volcanic representative of 
gabbro. These latter rocks are of special interest, owing to their 
wide distribution and general use in road construction. They occur 
in the forms of dykes, intruded sheets, or volcanic flows, and vary 
in structure from glassy-porph)rritic (typical basalt) to wholly crys- 
talline and even granular (diabase). Their desirable qualities for 
road-building are caused to a large extent by a peculiar interlocking 
of the mineral components (ophitic structure), yielding a very tough 
and resistant material well qualified to sustain the wear of traffic. 

"Igneous rocks vary in color from the light gray, pink, and brown 
of the acid granites, syenites, and their volcanic equivalents (rhyo- 
Ute, andesite, etc.) to the dark steel-gray or black of the basic gab- 
bro, p^idotite, diabase, and basalt. The darker varieties are 
commonly called trap. This term is in very general use and is 
derived from irappa, Swedish for stair, because rocks of this kind 
on cooling frequently break into large tabular masses, as may be 
seen in the exposures of diabase on the west shore of the Hudson 
River from Jersey City to Haverstraw. 

Sedimentaiy Rocks. — "The sedimentary rocks as a class repre- 
sent the consolidated products of former rock disintegration, as in 
the case of sandstone, conglomerate, shale, etc., or they have been 
formed from an accumulation of organic remains chiefly of a cal- 
careous nature, as is true of limestone and dolomite. These frag- 
mental or clastic materials have been transported by water and 
deposited mechanically in layers on the sea or lake bottoms, pro- 
ducing a very characteristic bedded or stratified structure in many 
of the resulting rocks. 

"In the case of certain oolitic and travertine limestones, hydrated 
iron oxides, siliceous deposits, such as geyserite, opal, flint, chert, 



238 MATERIALS 

etc., the materials have been formed chiefly by chemical precipita- 
tion and show generally a concentric or colloidal structure. ^ Oolitic 
and pisolitic limestones consist of rounded pealike grains of calcic car- 
bonate held together by a calcareous cement. Travertine is the 
so-called *on)rx marble* of Mexico and Arizona. It is a compact 
rock, concentric in structure and formed by the precipitation of car- 
bonate of lime from the waters of springs and streams. 

"Loose or unconsolidated rock debris of a prevailing siliceous 
nature comprise the sands, gravels, finer silts, and days (laterite, 
adobe, loess, etc.). Shell sands and marls, on the other hand, are 
mainly calcareous, and are formed by an accumulation of the marine 
shells and of lime-secreting animals. Closely associated with the 
latter deposits in point of origin are the beds of diatomaceous or 
infusorial earth composed almost entirely of the siliceous casts of 
diatoms, a low order of seaweed or algae. 

"This unconsolidated material may pass by imperceptible grada- 
tions into representative rock types through simple processes of in- 
duration. Thus clay becomes shale, and that in turn slate, without 
necessarily changing the chemical or mineralogical composition of 
the original substance. 

" Such terms as flagstone, freestone, brownstone, bluestone, gray- 
stone, etc., are generally given to sandstones of various colors and 
composition, while puddingstone, conglomerate, breccia, etc., apply 
to consolidated gravels and coarse feldspathic sands. 

"The calcareous rocks are of many colors, according to the 
amount and character of the impurities present. 

Metamorphic Rocks. — " Rocks of this class are such as have been 
produced by prolonged action of physical and chemical forces 
(heat, pressure, moisture, etc.) on both ■ sedimentary and igneous 
rocks alike. The foliated types (gneiss, schist, etc.) represent an 
advanced stage of metamorphism on a large scale (regional meta- 
morphism), and the peculiar schistose or foliated structure is due 
to the more or less parallel arrangement of their mineral components. 
The non-foliated types (quartzite, marble, slate, etc.) have resulted 
from the alteration of sedimentary rocks without materially affect- 
ing the structure and chemical composition of the original material. 

" Rocks formed by contact metamorphism and hydration, such as 
hornfels, pyroxene marble, serpentine, serp>entineous limestone, etc., 
are of great interest from a petrographical standpoint, but are rarely 
of importance as road materials. 

"The color of metamorphic rocks varies between gniy and white 
of the purer marbles and quartzites to dark gray and green of the 
gneisses, schists, and amphibolites. The green varieties are com- 
monly known as greenstones, or greenstone schists." 

Interpretation of Tests. — It has been found impractical to specify 
definite qualities of stone for use in macadam highways. Economy 
and practical engineering demand that all fivailable sources be con- 
sidered. Tests are made to determine the relative qualities of 
stone from these different sources and the results used as a guide 
for selection. 

. 1 G. P. Merriirs "Rocka, Rock Weathering, and Soils," 1897. PP. 104-114. 



ROAD VAI.UE OF ROCKS 239 

In the work of the New York State Highway Commission all tests 
are tabulated geographically, using a county as a unit. Table No. 
236 is compiled from the records of this department. It will be 
noted that comparisons are made in different classifications only, 
as it is considered that conclusions should not be drawn from 
a comparison of tests procured from materials having different 
origins and composed of different minerals. 

For the purpose of ready comparison, there has been introduced 
a figure known as the "weighted value.'* (See last colunm Table 
2$b.) This is computed by giving relative weights of three to 
the French coefficient, two to the hardness, one to the toughness 
values and adding the three together. These relative weights were 
determined from a consideration of the amount of material used in 
the different tests and the personal equation in running them. 

By consulting these tables the available rocks of different classi- 
fications in various sections throughout New York State can be 
determined readily, and as new tests are completed they are com- 
pared with good average material from that section. 

Conclusions. — Trap (diabase), granite, gneiss, quartzite, sand- 
stone and limestone are the most common rocks and when found 
in a good state of preservation make good surfacing materials. 

As generally found, trap is uniform in hardness and toughness, 
making an excellent material for use in top course. 

Granite and gneiss, where they occur with hornblende replacing 
a large percentage of the quartz, make an excellent surfacing stone. 

Quartzites when found in good state of preservation are hard and 
tough. They should not be confused with crystalline quartz which 
is hard but brittie. 

Sandstones are extremely variable and only the better varieties 
should be used. 

Limestones range from the fine grained dense products which are 
hard and tough to the coarse grained soft products which are not 
suitable for surfacing. 

Screenings. — ^^Screenings act as a filler and binder for waterbound 
inacadam and as a partial filler for bituminous macadam. For use 
in waterbound construction the main mineral constituent is the most 
essential feature to be considered as this must be a material that 
will from a binder and "puddle" readily when subjected to the 
action of a road roller and water. 

Limestone screenings have proved the most efficient as a binder in 
waterbound construction, although trap and some otiier igneous 
rocks can be bound with their own dust by repeated puddling. 
Screenings consisting mainly of quartz have never been used suc- 
cessfully in waterbound construction except by the addition of some 
limestone screenings. The use of a percentage of clay or loam as a 
binder is not advisable except where the cost of limestone screenings 
would be prohibitive. 

Laboratory methods for testing the cementing power of rock 
powders are available but the results obtained are erratic and unde- 
pendable. 

In plain waterbound roads it is often necessary to mix some lime- 



240 MATERIALS 

stone screenings, fine sandy loam, or even a small percentage of 
clay loam with trap, granite, sandstone, quartzite, or gneiss screen- 
ings to get a good bond and prevent raveling in dry weather. 

3. BOTTOM COURS£ MACADAM STON£ 

As the bottom stone simply spreads the wheel loads transmitted 
through the top course and is not directly subjected to the traffic 
action, almost any stone that breaks into cubical irregular shapes 
that will not air or water slake and that is hard enough to stand the 
action of the roller during construction will be satisfactory. 

Any of the materials listed above in Table 24 except shale and 
slate can be used, provided that they are not rotten from long ex- 
posure in the air. The different available varieties are usually tested 
m the same manner as for top stone in order to pick the best. Acid 
blast furnace crushed slag makes an excellent bottom course but 
s not uniform enough for top course. 

4. FILLERS 

Fillers are used in the bottom course to fill the voids between the 
crushed stone and to prevent rocking or sidewise movement of the 
larger pieces. 

They should be easy to manipulate in placing, should not soften 
when wet, or draw water up from the subgrade by capillary action. 

The materials most used are 

Coarse sandy loam 

Coarse sand 

Gravel with large excess of fine material 

Stone screenings 

The fitness of the material can be determined by inspection and 
by wetting a handful; if it gets sticky or works into a soft mud it 
should not be used. 

S. VITRIFIED BRICK 

Bricks must withstand the same destructive^agenciesjas described 
for top stone. They must be uniform in size, tough, hard, dense, 
evenly burned, and, on account of their peculiar shape, must have a 
high resistance against rupture. These properties are tested by the 
standard methods adopted by the Amencan Brick Manufacturers' 
Association, as described in the New York State specifications on 
page 730. 

It should be understood that bricks suitable for paving are manu- 
factured in a different way and of different materials than ordinary 
building bricks. 

'^The materials for molding any paving brick must be of a 
peculiar character which will not melt and flow when exposed to an 
mtense heat for a number of days but will gradually fuse and form 
vitreous combinations throughout whUe still retaining its form. 

''The resulting brick must be a uniform block of dense texture in 



BITUMENS 241 

which the original stratification and granulation of the clay has 
been wholly lost by fusion which has stopped just short of melting 
the day and forming glass. 

''The clay while fusing must shrink equally throughout, thus 
causing the brick to be without laminations or of any eicterior 
vitrified crust difiEering from the interior."^ 

The great majority of paving brick are made in Ohio, Illinois, 
Indiana, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, and New York. They are 
classed as shale or fire-clay brick. 

6. BITUMINOUS BINDERS 

The subject of bitumens is an intricate one and the reader is re- 
ferred to tne works of Clifford Richardson, Prevost Hubbard, and 
others, for detailed information, as a book of this character can give 
only an outline. 

There are a number of dust preventives and road binders on the 
market which depend for their effectiveness on a bituminous binding 
base. The term bitumen is applied to a great many substances. 
Hubbard arbitrarily defines bitumens as "consisting of a mixture of 
native or pyrogenetic hydrocarbons and their derivatives, whidi 
may be gaseous, liquid, a viscous liquid, or solid, but if solid melting 
more or less readily upon the application of heat, and soluble in 
chloroform, carbon bisulphide, and similar solvents."* . 

The bitumens may be classified as native and artificial. The 
native bituminous materials, that are. used in road work, are the 
asphaltic and semi-asphaltic oils (dust layers), Malthas (the binding 
base of Rock Asphalts), Trinidad, Bermudez California, and Cuba 
asphalts, Gilsonite, and Grahamite (which, however, are too brittle 
in their natural state and require fluxing with a suitable residual oil 
before they can be used as binders). The natural asphalts are 
refined to remove water and any objectionable amount of impurities 
by heating until the gases are driven off, skimming the vegetable 
matter which rises to the surface, and removing the mineral constitu- 
ents which fall to the bottom. 

The artificial bituminous materials are derived by the destructive 
distillation of coal, or by fractional distillation of crude coal tars, 
or the native petroleum oils. They comprise the crude coal and 
water gas tars, the refined tars, tne residual oils and semi-solid 
binders derived from the petroleum oils. They vary greatly in 
consistency and binding power. 

The following material is briefed from Bulletin No. 34, United 
States Office of Public Roads: The light oils and tars have a rela- 
tive small percentage of bituminous base and are effective only so 
long as it retains its binding power; the more permanent binders 
contain a larger percentage of bitumen; these are the heavy oils and 
semi-solids. 

Artificial Bitumens 

Crude Tars. — Coke ovens and gas plants produce most of the 
coal tars in use. These tars contain various complex combinations 

> Judson's "Roads and Pavements," paRe 87. 

< " Dust Preventives and Road Binders.'! John Wiley 4c Sons. 



242 



MATERIALS 



of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen and small amounts of nitrogen and 
sulphur. They vary in composition according to the material from 
which they are made and the temperature at which they are distilled.' 
The percentage of free carbon ranges from 5 per cent, to 35 per cent, 
and the bitumen from 60 per cent, to 95 per cent., depending on the 
temperature of manufacture. Tars produced at high temperatures 
contain free carbon in excess which weakens their binding power; 
they, also, contain a large amount of anthracine and naphthalene, 
two useless materials from the standpoint of road work. Tars 
produced at low temperatures are to be preferred. Coke tar is low 
temperature tar; gas tar is high temperature tar. 

Refined Tars. — ^Much of the road tar is refined tar — ^that is, it 
has been subjected to fractional distillation to remove the valuable 
volatile compounds. The residuum from this process is a thick 
viscous material known as coal-tar pitch, and if the crude tar from 
which it is obtained was produced at a low temperature it is nearly 

f>ure bitumen; the dead oils obtained from the distillation are of 
ittle value and are often run back into the pitch, which makes it 
liquid when cold. The following table gives the approximate com- 
position of water-gas tar, crude coal tar, and refined tar. 



Table ■2^c. Specific Gravity ani> Composition op Tar 

Products 

Table from Bulletin No. 34* United States Office of Public Roads 



Kind of Tar 


Spedfic 
Gravity 


Ammo- 
niacal 
Water 


Total 
Light Oib 
to 170* C. 


Total 

Dead Oils 

170* 270* C. 


Residue 

(by 

Difference) 


Water-gas tar . . . 
Crude coal tar . . 
Refined coal tar . 


1. 041 
1. 210 
I.177 


% 

2.4 
2.0 

0.0 


% 

021.6 

diT.2 
612.8 


% 
652.0 

«26.0 


% 
C24.0 

/S4.8 



a Distillate mostly liquid. 
b Distillate all liquid. 
c Pitch very brittle. 
d Distillate mostly solid. 



e Dbtillate one-half solid. 
/ Pitch hard and brittle. 
g Distillate one-third solid. 



Table 2^d gives a more up-to-date analysis of the coal tars on the 

market. 

The tests and detailed requirements for light, medium, and heavy 
bitumens are given in specifications, page 721. 

K the tar is used as a temporary dust-layer only, it should be a 
low-temperature, dehydrated tar, liquid when cold. If used as a 
more permanent binder and applied hot, it should have a larger 
percentage of pitch, should contain no water, and be free from an 
excessive amount of free carbon. If used as a mastic in butuminous 
macadam, it should contain a high percentage of pitch and be free 
from the defects mentioned. 



BITUMENS 



243 



Natural Bitumens and Artificial Residual Oils and Semi-solids. — 

Mineral oils can be classed as paraffin petroleums, mixed paraffin 
and asphaltic petroleums, and asphaltic petroleums. The relative 
value of oils as a source of supply for road materials depends on 
their percentage of asphaltic residue. The eastern oils found in 
New York, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, etc., are paraffin petro- 
leums; the western oils vary from light to heavy asphaltic petro- 
leums, and the southern oils have a naixed paraffin and asphaltic 
base. 

The crude petroleum is refined by fractional distillation to obtain 
its valuable products, such as kerosene, etc. The character of the 
residue depends, as for the tars, on the crude material and the method 
of manufacture; the operation known as "cracking," which is used 
to increase the yield of the inflammable oils, produces an excess of 
free carbon. 

The paraffin petroleum residuums are soft and greasy and are not 
suitable for road work; they contain a large amount of the paraffin 
hydrocarbons and paraffin scale (crude paraffin). 

The California petroleum residuums resemble asphalt, and if care- 
fully distilled without cracking should contain little or no free carbon. 
They are suited to road work. 

The Texas, or semi-asphaltic petroleums contain some paraffin 
hydrocarbons and about i per cent, of paraffin scale. Residuums 
from these oils, if containing a relatively small amount of paraffin, 
can be successfully used. 

The tests and required properties of residuum bituminous binders 
used on the New York State roads in 1914 are given in specifications, 
page 721. 

The following tables give a general idea of the relative character- 
istics of the crude petroleums and petroleum residuums. 



Results op Tests of Crude Petroleum 
Tables from Bulletin No. 34 United States Office of Public Roads 



KindK of Oil 


Specific 
Gravity 


Flash Point 


fsfS 


Volatility at 
160'* C. 
7 Hours 


Volatility at 
205* C. 
7 Hours 


1 


Pennsylvania, paraffin 

Texas, semi-asphaltic .... 
California, aspnaltic 


aSoi 
.004 
.939 


(a) 

26 

1 


% 
47.3 
20.0 


% 
58.0 
27.0 


68.0 

49.0 

042.7 


J' 
632.0 

C5X.O 
«S7«3 











a Ordinary temperature 
6 Soft 



c Quick flow e Soft maltha; sticky 

d Volatilily at 200*, 7 hours. 



{Continued on page 248) 



244 



MATERIALS 



Table 23^. Circular No. 97, U. S. Office of Public Roads 

Analysis of crude coke-oven tars produced in the United States and Canada- 



Serial 
No. 



Sxa6 
5X33 

5X34 

S137 

5iax 

5x35 

5xa8 
5200 

S189 
5x60 
S074 
508X 

SOQS 

5083 
5159 

5x07 
5086 

S078 
5087 

S109 

5132 
5188 

5404 
5108 

SI27 

5089 



General Informatioa 



Company and location 



Type of 
Oven 



Solvay Process Co., Syracuse, N.Y Semet-Solvay 

Semet-Solvay Co., Pennsylvania Steel 

Co., Steelton, Pa 

Semet-Solvay Co. National Tube Co., 

Benwood, W.Va. 
Semet-Solvay Co., Milwaukee Coke & 

Gas Co., Milwaukee, Wis 

Semet-Solvay Co. Pennsylvania Steel 

Co., Lebanon, Pa 

By-Products Coke Corporation, South 

Chicago, 111 

Semet-Solvay Co., Detroit, Mich 

Semet-Solvay Co., Empire Coke Co., 

Geneva, N.Y 

Semet-Solvav Co., Dunbar Furnace Co., 

Dunbar, Pa 

Semet-Solvay Co., Central Iron & Coal 

Co., Tuscaloosa, Ala 



(Philadelphia Suburban Gas & Electric 
( Co., Chester, Pa. 



Semet-Solvay Co., Ensl^, Ala. 

The N. E. Gas & Coke Co., Everett.Mass. 

{Lackawanna Steel Co., Lackawanna Iron 
& Steel Co., Lebanon^ Pa 

Dominion Tar & Chemical Co., Sydney, 
Nova Scotia 



Hamilton Otto Coke Co., HamSton, Ohk>. 
Carnegie Steel Co., South Sharon, Pa.. . 
Maryland Steel Co., Sparrows Point, Md 
Citizens' Gas Co., Indianapolis, Ind 



Maximum 
temperature 

of firing 

retorts 



} 



Otto Hoffman 

f •••• •••••• 



it 



I Pittsburg Gas & Coke Co., The United 
I Coke & Gas Co., Glassport, Pa 



United Otto 



Zenith Furnace Co., Duluth, Minn. 
Illinois Steel Co., JoUet, lU 



I Illinois Steel Co., Indiana Steel Co., 
( Gary, Ind 



Camden Coke Co., Camden, N.J. 



Cambria Steel Co., Johnstown, Pa. 






.Koppers 



Lackawanna Steel Co., Buffalo, N.Y. . 



Otto Hoff. 
man 

United 
Otto 

Otto Hoff- 
man 

United 
Otto 

United 
Otto 

Rothbwg I 



X650-X450"* C. 

I050-X450* C. 

IOSO-I4SO* C. 

I0S0-I450* C. 

io5a-i4SO* C. 

1050- 1450* C. 
IOSO-I4SO* C. 

I05O-X450* C. 

I05O-I450* C. 

i35o" C. 
1050* C. 

I3S0'C. 

1 ixoo* C. 
( xooo* C. 
t<x8ooT.) 

(») 
ixxx'C. 

(2000*F.) 

i666'C. 
, (3000* F.) 

^ X333' C. 

,(340oF.) 

li33a"C. 

\ (3300 F.) 

{ ^^ 

ixa33-xa77*C. 
220O-23OO*F. 
I444* C. 
(26oo^F.) 

ixoo* C. 

( xooo* C. 

(i8oo* F.) 
x22a*C. 
(aaoo* F.) 
xixx'C. 

(3O0O»F.) 

xxxx'C. 

(3000*F.) 

looo'C. 
(x8oo- F.) 
' looo* C. 
(x8oo' F.) J 



BITUMENS 



2^ 



Table i^d. Continued 



Answers to Questraos 


Examination 














Per 


temperature 

to which coal 

is brought 


Specific gravity 
of crude tar 


Per cent of 
free carbon 
in tar 


Spedfic 
gravity 

of tar. 

25" C. 


Per 

cent 

of free 

carbon 


Per 

cent 

of 

ash 


cent 
solubli 
inCSs 
includ 


950-1150* C. 


1. 12-1. 21 


3-1 a 


1.19s 


7.76 


0.1 3 


92.13 


950-1150" C. 


I. 12-1. 21 


3-ia 


1.206 


8.77 


.07 


91. x6 


950-1 1 50" C. 


I. 12-1. 21 


3-12 


1.176 


7.14 


.04 


93.83 


950-1150* C. 


1. 12-1. 31 


3-12 


1.168 


6.X0 


.05 


93.8s 


950-1150* C. 


1. 12-1. 21 


3-1 a 


1.173 


4.71 


.06 


9S.a3 


950-1150* C. 


1. 12-1. 21 


3-1 a 


1.19X 


7.49 


.03 


93.48 


950-1150* C. 


1. 13-1. 21 


3-1 a 


1.169 


6.56 


.11 


93.33 


950-1150* C. 


1. 12-1. 21 


3-1 a 


I.IS9 


6.07 


.08 


93.8s 


950-1150" C. 


1. 12-1. 21 


3-1 a 


x.x8x 


8.8s 


.03 


91.13 


1150* C. 


r '• '^ 


5.7a 


X.IS9 


5.05 


.oa 


94-93 


iooo*C. 


1 1.16 
(20" C.) 


— 


1.14X 


$-96 


.05 


9599 


1150* C. 


1.17 
I (IS* C.) 


8 


I.X7S 


6.90 


.06 


93.04 


»120O*C. 


1.17 


8-10 


X.160 


13-94 


.00 


86.06 


iooo"C. > 
(i8oo* F.) } 


1.10 


16-24 


1.214 


14.05 


•13 


85.83 


.?i 


1.170 


10-15 • 


1.143 


xo.8x 


•OS 


89.14 


iiii*C. 

(2000*F.) 


1.14 


•16.0 


i.x6o 


8.37 


.06 


91.57 


I444*C. 

(2600* F.) 


1.2 


7. 09-10.64 


1.191 


7.89 


.03 


93.08 


1222* C. 

(2200* F.) 


• 1. 19 


•8-10 


1.179 


8.49 


.03 


91.48 


1222* C. 
(2200*F.) 


I. 14-1. IS 
(so* F.) 


4-S 


1.133 


5.31 


.07 


94.7a 


(«) 


1.307 
lo" C. 


16.59 


1. 176 


10.53 


.04 


89.43 


(») 


(») 


P) 


119s 


X3.l8 


.OS 


87.77 


1388* c 
(3500* F.) 


j 1. 16-1. 30 


12-15 


1.171 


3.89 


.06 


96.0s 


(880-950" 

\ c. 


* 1.174 
1.169 


} 4-3S 


1. 169 


a.73 


.04 


97-83 


833' C. 


^ 












(iSoo*F.) 
io55*C. 


I. 20-r. 30 
» (I.331) 


7-9 
• (7.3) 


} 1.182 


11.30 


.06 


88.64 


(I900*F.) 














>iiii*C. 














(2000" F.) 
»iiii*C. 


1.13 


«1S 


1. 311 


13.40 


.16 


87^4 


(3000*F.) 














iooo*C. 


■ 












(i8oo* F.) 
looo'C. 


1. 16 


16-24 


X.3XO 


16.80 


.00 


83.flC 


(i8oo* F.) 


, 













i 



246 



MATERIALS 



Table 2^(1. Continued 



Serial 

No. 



5x26 
5"3 

S124 

S137 

5xai 

SI2S 

5x38 
5200 

,5x89 
5x60 

.5074 

5081 
5095 

S083 

5x59 

S107 
5086 
S078 
S087 
S109 

5X32 
5x88 
5404 

5x08 

SX37 

5089 



Company and Location 



Solvay Process Co., Syracuse, N.Y. . . 
Semet-Solvay Co., Pennsylvania Steel 

Co.; Steelton, Pa. 

SemetrSolvay Co., National Tube Co., 

Benwood, W.Va 

Semet-Solvay Co., Milwaukee Coke & 

Gas Co., Milwaukee, Wis 

Semet-Solvay Co., Pennsylvania Steel 

Co., Lebanon, Pa 

By-products Coke Corporation, South 

Chicago, 111 , 

Semet-Solvay Co., Detroit, Mich 

Semet-Solvay Co., Empire Coke Co., 

Geneva, N.Y 

Semet-Solvay Co., Dunbar Furnace Co., 

Dunbar, Pa 

Semet-Solvay Co., Central Iron & Coal 

Co., Tuscaloosa, Ala. 

Philadelphia Suburban Gas & Electric 

Co., Chester, Pa 

Semet-Solvay Co., Ensley, Ala 

The -New England Gas & Coke Co 

Everett, Mass 

Lackawanna Steel Co., Lackawanna 

Iron & Steel Co., Lebanon, Pa 

Dominion Tar & Chemical Co., Sydney, 

Nova Scotia 

Hamilton Otto Coke Co., Hamilton, O.. . 
Carnegie Steel Co., South Sharon, Pa.. . . 
Maryland Steel Co., Sparrows Point, Md. 

Citizens' Gas Co., Indianapolis, Ind 

Pittsburff Gas & Coke Co., The United 

Coke a Gas Co., Glassport, Pa 

Zenith Furnace Co., Duluth, Minn 

Illinois Steel Co., JoUet, 111 

Illinois Steel Co., Indiana Steel Co., 

Gary, Ind 

Camden Coke Co., Camden, N.J 

Cambria Steel Co,, Johnstown, Pa 

Lackawanna Steel Co., Buffalo, N.Y. . . . 



Examinatimi, Public Roiids 



Distillation results 



Water 






x.o 
x.o 

X.I 

X.8 
.6 

0) 
6.9 

4.0 

3.0 

3.2 

2.3 
3-3 

2.2 

5.4 

3.2 

3.4 
X.O 

X.6 

1.2 
X.X 
3.6 
X.9 
35 
2.2 
xo.x 
2.7 



.0.55) 



0.8 

.8 
1.0 
IS 

•5 

Q) 
5.9 

3.4 

1-7 
3.8 

2.0 
2.8 

2.0 

4-4 

2.8 

3.0 
x.o 

X.3 

X.X 

X.o 

30 

x.6 
3.0 
x.9 

8.3 
2.2 



Light oils up 
to ixo* C. 






•0.3 

.4 
1.9 

1.4 

1.6 

.4 

>2.8 
3.6 

1.7 
2.4 



2.3 

•1.4 



2.9 

•1.4 

[x.9 

3X 
•1.6 

x.3 

X.X 
X.X 

X.7 
•1.7 

•Ji 

•3.1 






0.3 

.3 

i-S 

1.2 

x.3 

.3 
3.3 

2.x 
1.4 
1.9 

1-3 

I.O 

2.3 

X.4 

IS 
2.5 

X.2 



•9 

.9 
1.3 

x.2 
X.O 
X.4 

2.3 

•3 



References to Table 23 <f 



1 Approximately. 

* No information. 

* Varies with coal. Coal with 28 per 
cent of volatile matter used. 

«WithH«0. 
» At present. 

* Variable. 
'Trace. 



•Trace of solids. 
• Distillate, solid. 
i<> Distillate, one-fourth solid, 
u Dbtillate, niue-tentbs solid. 
» Distillate, three-fourths solid. 
Distillate, eight-ninths solid, 
u Distillate, one-balf solid. 



BITUMENS 



247 



Table 2^d. Continued 



References to Table 23 d 







Tlzamiiutinn, Oflfice of Public Koads 




1 


Distillation results 


Middle oils, 
iio"*-i70 C. 


Heavy oils, 
i7o*-27o C. 


Heavy oils. 
27o*-3iS" C. 


Pitch 


Serial 
No. 




^1 


^•3 


^1 








^1 
^1 


0.8 


0.7 


**I3.I 


"S 


» 8.2 


7.3 


" 76.6 - 


79.x 


5ia6 


• 2.0 


X.7 


' 14.0 


Z2.3 


* 7.9 


6.9 


"74-7 


•77.6 


S123 


.7 


.6 


14.9 


X3.a 


« XI.9 


X0.6 


»69.S 


73.x 


Sxa4 


.8 


.6 


" 21.I 


18.9 


«« s.s 


4.9 


"69.4 


72.S 


S137 


.8 


.6 


" 17.S 


15.5 


"9.4 


8.4 


"70.X 


73.7 


5zax 


» .4 


.9 
.3 


"23.6 
"14.6 


20.7 
i3«o 


• 9.8 

• 6.9 


8.9 
5-7 


"65.1 
«68.4 


68.9 
72.0 


Sias 
5x28 


.6 


5 


" 17.6 


IS-S 


» 1 1.4 


X0.4 


»63.8 


67.7 


5200 


.3 


.a 


*■ 20.0 


17.8 


n 6.S 


57 


»69.6 


73.x 


S189 


.3 


.3 


18.6 


16.3 


"7.5 


6.8 


" 68.0 


7X.S 


5160 


Z.3 

.a 


.8 
.a 


22.8 
» 16.S 


19. S 

X4.X 


" 13.6 
" 9.3 


ia.5 
8.2 


57.8 
•'69.3 


62.0 
73.a 


5074 
5081 


.6 


S 


335 


20.4 


« 15.6 


X4.4 


" SS-2 


597 


5095 


• .1 


.1 


11 13.0 


xa9 


« 9-4 


8.x 


"70.7 


74.6 


S083 


.6 

.7 
• .6 


•4 


27. a 

27.9 

M12.1 


24.2 
24.4 
xo.a 


" 7.3 
» 3.8 
»xi.o 


6.7 
3-S 
9.7 


"S9.8 
"61.1 

"73-7 


63.S 
64.9 

77.S 


SIS9 
S107 
S086 


.6 


.4 


Mi7.a 


iSX 


« 9.6 


8.S 


"69.7 


73-2 


S078 


1.4 

.5 

•4 

• .a 

! ^ 

•a.a 


1-3 
.4 
.3 
.a 

.3 
5 
.a 

1.7 


239 

"26.9 

"18.x 

•20.0 

• 20.6 

"20.S 

'7.1 

•1X.7 


"1 
a3.6 

1 5-9 
z8.o 
X8.5 
x8.a 
6.x 
9.9 


" 11.6 
" 6.9 

"12.5 

"13.4 

• 7.x 
" 8.5 
2 7.4 


X0.4 
6.3 

ZI.X 
X2.0 

6.S 

7-5 

6.9 

xo.a 


»6o.8 
»63.S 
"63.7 
«6a.8 
«67.i 
•66.4 
"72.0 


64.7 
67.6 
67.8 
66.3 
70. a 
70.x 
74.8 
7S.O 


S087 
S109 

5X23 
5X88 

S4O4 
5X08 

S"7 
S089 



H Distillate, two-thirds solid. 
>• Distillate, four-fifths solid. 
>' Dfetillate, seven-eighths solid. 
» Distillate, one-ninth- solid. 
1* Distillate, one-third solid. 
* Distillate, one-sixth solid. 
■ Distillate, one-fifth solid. 



tt Distillate, two-fifths solid. 
" Distillate, one-seventh solid. 
*« Distillate, three-fifths solid. 

* Pitch, soft and sticky. 

* Pitch, very soft and sticky. 
» Pitch, hard and brittle. 

* Pitch, plastic. 



248 



MATERIALS 



Results op Petroleum Residuum 



Kinds of Oil 


Specific 
Gravity 


Flash Point 

••c. 


Volatility at 

200* C. 

7 Hours 


(4 


SoUd 
Paraffin 


Fixed 
Carbon 


Pennsylvania, paraffin 

Texas, semi-asphaltic 

California, asphaltic 


0.920 

•974 
X.006 


186 
214 
191 


% 
17-3 


% 
085.8 
093.8 
082.7 


% 
zi.o 

1.7 
. 0.0 


% 
3.0 
3-S 
6.0 

• 



o Soft. 



Tests of Bitumens and Their Significance. — Bitumens for use 
as the cementing material in road construction may, according 
to their source and characteristics, be divided into the two general 
classes of asphalts and tars. 

The asphalts suitable for use as the cementing agent in road con- 
struction are produced either by reducing asphaltic base petroleum 
to a suitable consistency by the distillation process or by softening 
the so-called solid asphalts to a suitable consistency by the addition 
of flux produced by the partial distillation of petroleum. 

The different grades, relative to consistency, of road oils are 
usually produced by the partial reduction of asphaltic base 
petroleum. 

By the destructive distillation of bituminous coals or the "crack- 
ing" of petroleum oils during the carburetting process in the manu- 
facture of water gas, crude tars are produced. These crude tars are 
refined or reduced by distillation to a suitable consistency for use 
in road construction. 

Bitumens are used in road construction for the purpose of water- 
proofing the surface and adding to the mechanical bond of the min- 
eral aggregate by cementing together the finer particles of mineral 
matter, thus preventing their displacement under the action of 
traffic and retaining them in the road surface where they fill the 
interstices between the larger stone and bind them together. 

The desirable characteristics of bituminous material for road 
building purposes are, first. Adhesiveness, second, Non-Susceptibilily 
to changes in temperature, and third. Stability or "life.'* The chief 
object of bituminous material specifications is to make imperative 
these desirable qualities of the material. 

In connection with testing bituminous materials the thought 
should be kept in mind that the laboratory results obtained in the 
different tests are largely for comparative purposes. By this means 
new or but little used materials may be compared with materials 
which have proven satisfactory under service tests. Also laboratory 
results furnish an accurate means to specify the exact characteristics 
of the material desired for any given purpose. 

Adhesiveness. — The adhesiveness of the material is provided for 
in specifications by suitable requirements of ductility and toughness. 



TESTS OF BITUMENS 249 

The ductility and toughness tests are made for the purpose of 
determining the adhesive and binding qualities of the material under 
different conditions of temperature. The ductility test is made by 
determining the distance a briquette of the material, having a stand- 
ard cross-section (i sq. cm.) will draw out before breaking. Since 
temperature effects the results, a standard temperature of 77 degrees 
Fahrenheit, has been adopted generally for making this test. Expe- 
rience teaches that the greater the distance that a briquette of the 
material will stretch out before breaking the more sticky and adhesive 
the material. This test may be performed in a rough manner by 
pulling out a small roll of the material between the fingers. 
Material which will not pull out to a long thread before breaking is 
usually spoken of as "short." Such materials are not adhesive or 
sticky and it is extremely difficult to bind a road with them, even 
under the most favorable circumstances. 

As stated, the ductility test is usually made at a temperature of 77 
degrees Fahrenheit and thus measures the adhesiveness of the mate- 
rial at a rather high temperature. To obtain an indication of the 
diaracter of the material at a low temperature the Toughness test is 
made at a temperature of 32 degrees Fahrenheit. This test is per- 
formed by dropping a weight of 2 kilograms on a cylinder of the 
material i^ incnes in diameter by i^ inches in height. The first 
height of the drop is usually from a distance of 5 cm. and is gradu- 
ally increased until rupture of the cylinder occurs. A rough field 
test for toughness may be performed by noting whether a piece 
of tibe material will fracture under a sharp blow. If the temperature 
of the material is about 32 degrees Fsmrenheit, the results will be 
more indicative of the character of the material. 

Bitumens which are brittle or which give a low toughness result, 
lose their binding value in cold weather and roads constructed by 
their use are apt to ravel and break up under traffic. 

Bitumens which give good ductility and toughness results under 
the methods outlined, will give satisfactory results as the cementing 
medium when used in road construction provided the other con- 
struction details have been properly foUowed out. 

In connection with the stickiness and adhesiveness of bitumens 
the fact should always be kept in mind that their purpose in road 
construction as cementing medium, is most effective when used with 
a hard, clean, dry mineral aggregate. As the departure from these 
qualities of the mineral aggregate increased so also are increased the 
difficulties of getting a satisfactory road suriace* firmly bound 
together. 

Susc^tibility to Chaxiges in Temperature. — The susceptibility 
to changes in temperature is shown by the relative hardness as 
indicated by the penetration tests at different temperatures, as 
32 degrees Fahrenheit, 77 degrees Fahrenheit and 115 degrees 
Fahrenheit. 

The consistency of asphalts is referred to as the "penetration." 
The penetration test is made by measuring the distance in hundredths 
of a centimeter Uiat a standard needle under a stated load, applied 



250 MATERIAI.S 

for a stated time, will penetrate into it vertically. These variable 
factors are usually as follows : 

^ Needle — R. J. Roberts* Parabola "Sharps" No. 2. 

at 32** F. 200 gram weight, i minute, 
at 77** F. 100 gram weight, 5 seconds, 
at 115** F. 50 gram weight, 5 seconds. 

The material which is the most susceptible to changes in tempera- 
ture will show the greatest variation in penetration under varying 
conditions of temperature. Roads constructed by the use of mate- 
rials which are extremely susceptible to changes in temperature be- 
come soft in warm weather, mark easily, have a tendency to rut and 
become wavy. In cold weather this material becomes very hard 
and slippery and is apt to be brittle and become chipped from the 
road surface. 

In addition to the general qualities of bitumens which are shown 
by penetration tests, this test is used in specifications to define 
within narrow limits the consistency of the material. The consist- 
ency limits placed in specifications are governed by the climate and 
the type of construction to be followed, also the general size of the 
mineral aggregate to be used. When the penetration method of 
construction is followed it is necessary to use a relatively soft asphalt 
in order that it may be incorporated in the road surface. In the 
miidng types of construction a harder asphalt may be incorporated 
with the mineral aggregate. The use of a hard asphalt together 
with a graded mineral aggregate gives a dense wearing surface that 
does not readily become wavy under traffic. 

The information obtained by the penetration test is not readily 
checked in the field without the aid of laboratory apparatus, but as 
a general rule bitumens which are suitable for binders are plastic 
when "worked" in the hands. 

StabiHty.— When the term "StabiUty" or "Life" is used in ref- 
erence to bitumens it refers to the quality of the material by which 
it retains its characteristics, usually as defined by the specifications, 
over a long period of time. The laboratory tests wJtiich indicate 
this property are the evaporation test, the ratio of the penetration 
after evaporation to the original penetration, and the flash point 

The heating or evaporation test, is made by placing 50 grams of 
the material in a flat bottomed dish 2%6 inches in diameter by ij^ 
inches in deptl^ •This is placed in an oven maintained at a specified 
temperature, usually 325 degrees Fahrenheit for a period of 5 hours. 

This test may be considered as an accelerated test on the material. 
In a binder, the percentage lost by weight together with the result- 
ing hardening as shown by the relative penetration, t.e., the ratio of 
the original penetration to the penetration after evaporation, are 
indicative of the "life" of the material. The less the evaporation 
loss and the less the hardening as shown by the relative penetration 
the greater will be the "life" of the material. 

In an oil used for surface application the evaporation test shows 
the presence and quantity of light oils. This is indicative of the 
time required for the oil to "set up" after application to the road 



TESTS OF BITUMENS 251 

surface; the evaporation from the large surface area of the oil as 
applied to the road being roughly comparable with evaporation 
from the smallest surface area of the oil exposed at the higher tem- 
perature at which the test is made. 

The open flash test is made by heating at the rate of about 10 
degrees Fahrenheit per minute, a small quantity of the material, 
approximately 40 grams in a dish of approximately the same size as 
the dish used for the penetration tests, 2^6 inches in diameter by 
i|^ inches in depth. A small flame from a capillary tube is passed 
over the surface of the oil at each increase of 5 degrees in tem- 
perature. 

A slight ^'puff*' or explosion indicates the flash point has been 
reached. The presence of light oils or distillates is indicated by a 
low flash point. The flash point together with the evaporation 
results give an indication as to the methods and materials used in 
the manufacture of the bitumen which is being tested. 

Unless "cut-back" materials are being tested, in which an exceed- 
ingly light distillate as naphtha or benzole has been used as the 
"cut-back" agent, considerable "smoke" will be given off from the 
sample before the flash point is reached. This feature should be 
kept in mind when material is being heated for application in the 
field. Material should never be heated in the field to a point when 
it smokes profusely, for at such a temperature the material is being 
"burned" or hardened to such an extent that it loses its adhesive- 
ness and becomes brittle when cold, thus failing to become a binding 
or cementing agent which binds the mineral aggregate of the road 
together. 

The same "burning" effect on the material is produced by 
keeping it at a temperature below the "smoking point" for a 
long period (several hours) as would be produced at a higher 
temperature for a shorter period of time. This important feature 
should always be kept in mind when heating material for applica- 
tion in the field. 

Such tests as those for water, specific gravity, purity, paraffine, 
etc. are usually placed in specifications in addition to the tests which 
govern adhesiveness, non-susceptibility and stability for the purpose 
of identification of materials used, methods of manufacture, degree 
of refinement and care used in refining. 

The presence of water in bituminous materials causes frothing 
when heated to a temperature of about 212 degrees Fahrenheit. In 
addition to the difficulty experienced in heating material containing 
water, due to the frothing, an even application or distribution to the 
road of such material is extremely difficult, due to the presence of 
the froth which is apt to be applied rather than the liquid bitumen. 

Tests for specific gravity, purity, paraffine, etc. require laboratory 
apparatus to get results which indicate qualities of the material. 
The information obtained by these tests can not be obtained by field 
tests. 

If we assume that a suitable bitumen has been specified and ob- 
tained for construction work in which a bitumen is to serve as the 



2 $2 MATERIALS 

X 

cementing material, the results obtained, relative to the bitumen, 
will depend upon: 

1. Not over-heating (by high temperature or long time) the 
bitumen. 

2. The use of hard, clean, dry stone. 

3. Grading of the mineral aggregate to reduce the voids and obtain 
greater density. 

4. Thorough and uniform incorporation of the bitumen with the 
mineral aggregate. 

5. Maximum consolidation, by rolling when laid. 

When bituminous materials which may be applied cold are to be 
applied to a road surface, that surface ^ould nrst be put in good 
condition. Surface application treatment is for the purpose of 
preserving a road which is in good condition and not repairing an un- 
even road. We do not repair a house by painting it; rather we 
repair the house and then paint it, in order that it may remain in 
goNxi condition. An attempt to biiild up a road wearing surface by 
the use of bitumens which may be appied cold usually results in a 
surface which is easily marked, ruts alnd pushes into waves. 

Cement. — There are five different classes of cement, Portland, 
Natural, Pozzolan, Iron Ore, and Magnesia cements. Of these 
the Portland or Natural is usualy spiecified. 

Portland cement is the term lappled to the finely pulverized 
product resulting from the calcination to incipient fusion of an in- 
timate mixture of properly proportioned argillaceous and calcareous 
materials, and to which no addition greater than 3per cent, has been 
made subsequent to calcination. (Amer. Soc. Testing Materials 
1 91 5— page 353.) 

Natural cement is the term applied to the finely pulverized prod- 
uct resulting from the calcination of an argillaceous limestone at a 
temperature only sufficient to drive off the carbonic acid ^s. 
(Amer. Soc. Testing Materials 191 5~p. 352.) 

Portland cements are usually heavier, stronger, slower setting, 
and more uniform than the natural cements and are generally us^ 
for road structures, such as culverts, retaining walls, etc. Portland 
cement is practically the only cement used to any extent in the 
United States at the present time. The few manufacturers of 
natural cement who were retaining a hold on the market some few 
years back when the production of Portland cement was expensive, 
are finding it difficult to compete with this latter product at its 
present price and quality. 

The following is the standard specification for Portland cement 
as adopted by the American Society of Civil Engineers and the 
American Society for Testing Materials: 

First: Specific gravity. The specific gravity of cement shall not be less 
than 3. 10. Should the test of cement as received fall below this requirement, 
a second test may be niade upon a sample ignited at a low red heat. The loss 
in weight of the ignited cement shall not exceed 4 per cent. 

Second: Fineness. It shall leave by weight a residue of not more than 
8 per cent, on the number 100, and not more than 25 per cent, on the number 
200 sieve. 

Third : Time of Setting. It shall not develop initial set in less than thirty 
minutes; and must develop hard set in not less than one hour, nor more than 
ten hours. 



CONCRETE MATERIALS 253 

Fourth: Tensile Strencth. The minimum requirements for tensile 
strength for briquettes one square inch in cross section shall be as follows 
and the cement shall show no retrogression in strength within the periods 
specified: 

Agb Neat Csment Strbngth 

24 hours in moist air 175 lbs. 

7 days (i day in moist air, 6 days in water) 500 " 
28 " (I •* " " " 27 " •* •* ) 600 ** 

Onb Part Ceicbkt — Thrbb Parts Standard Ottawa Sand 

7 days (x day in moist air, 6 days in water) 300 lbs. 
28 •' (I '' 27 ** " " ) 275 " 

Fifth : Constancy of Volume. Pats of neat cement about three inches in 
diameter, one-half inch thick at the center, and tapering to a thin edge, shall 
be kept in moist air for a period of twenty-four hours. 

(o) A pat is then kept m air at normal temperature and observed at in- 
tervals for at least 28 days. 

(fr) Another pat is kept in water maintained as near 70 degrees P. as 
practicable, and observed at intervals for at least 28 dajs. 

(<:) A third pat is exposed in any convenient way m an atmosphere of 
steam, above boiling water, in a loosely closed vessel for five hours. 

These pats, to satisfactorily pass the requirements, shall remain firm and 
hard, and show no signs of distortion, checking, cracking or disintegrating. 

Sixth : Chemical Composition. The cement shall not contain more than 
1.75 oer cent, of anhydrous sulphuric add (SOi), nor more than 4 per cent, 
of magnesia (MgO). 

The methods used in testing cement are standardized in detail 
and can be obtained in the *' Year Book'' of 19 13, published by the 
American Society for Testing Materials or Committee report on 
"Uniform Tests of Cement'* of the American Society of Civil 
Engineers 191 2. 

COKCRBTE MATERIALS 

Fine Aggregate. — Fine aggregate for use in concrete should con- 
sist of sand free from any deleterious matter. Any sand which 
shows a coating on the grains should not be used until satisfactorily 
cleansed by washing. 

The following tests are made on sand to determine its suitability 
for use in different classes of concrete: 

I St. Gradation. 

2nd. Percentage of voids. 

3rd. Percentage of loam or silt. 

4th. Compressive or tensile strength in cement mortar. 

In order to secure suitable qualities, minimum requirements 
determined Trom the above tests should be definitely specified. 

The following specifications are now being used by Highway 
Departments in several of the States: 

Sand for use in Portland cement concrete roads shall be of the 
following gradation: 100 per cent, shall pass a yH' screen, not more 
than 20 per cent, shall pass a No. 50 sieve and not more than 6 per 
cent, shall pass a No. 100 sieve. Sand may be rejected for this class 
if it contains more than 5 per cent, of loam and sUt. Mortar in the 
proportion of one part of cement to three parts of the sand, shall 
develop a compressive or tensile strength at least equal to the 
strength of a similar mortar of the same age, composed of the 
same cement and standard Ottawa sand. 



254 MATERIALS 

Sand for use in foundations, culverts, retaining walls, etc. shall 
not contain more than 8 per cent, of loani and silt. Mortar in the 
proportion of one part of cement to three parts of the sand, when 
tested shall develop a compressive or tensile strength of at least 80 
per cent, of the strength of a similar mortar of the same age> com- 
posed of the same cement and standard Ottawa sand. 

Screenings if substituted wholly or in part for the above sand, 
should meet the following requirements: 

They shall be free from dust coating or other dirt. 100 per cent, 
shall pass a K" screen and not more than 6 per cent, shall pass a No. 
100 sieve. Mortar in the proportions of three parts of the screen- 
ings or mixed screenings and sand, with one part of cement shall 
develop a strength equal to a sand for which it is to be substituted. 

The best and safest way in the selection of a concrete sand is to 
have a fair representative sample from the deposit listed. After this 
is found to meet the requirements, it is necessary to have constant 
and careful field inspections and tests made as the deposit is worked. 

The use of screenings is not advisable on any concrete work, 
except where a good grade of sand is not available. When used the 
product must be constantly inspected and tested as it is likely to 
vary to a considerable degree. Screenings from the softer lime- 
stones should hot be used as the fine material is apt to ^^ball" in 
the mixer. 

Sand used for grout in brick and stone block pavement must be 
fine enough to ensure it getting between the joints of the block, but 
an excessively fine sand should be avoided as it weakens the grout. 
Some states and many municipalities require the grout sand to pass 
a No. 20 sieve and not more uian 30 per cent, pass a No. 100 sieve. 
Such sand should not contain more than 5 per cent, of loam and silt. 

Coarse Aggregate. — Coarse aggregate for use in structural 
concrete should be of hard durable stone gravel or blast furnace 
slag (see table of tests) free from coating of any kind. For use in 
concrete pavement, stone and gravel should be hard, tough and 
absolutely clean. For use in culverts, retaining walls, etc. stone, 
gravel or slag should be of sound, unweathered material, clean and 
free from coating. It should not contain more than 10 per cent, of 
soft stone or shale. Gravel containing a large. percentage of thin 
flat stone should not be used. 

For reinforced concrete the size of the stone is usually J^" to 
i" in order to facilitate the compacting of the concrete between the 
reinforcing bars or mesh. For plain concrete a mixed size is used 
ranging from J^" to 3K"; a scientifically graded stone reduces the 
amount of mortar required, but the structures in road work are so 
small that it does not pay to attempt to reduce the voids in this 
manner and the size that is available is used, var3dng the propor- 
tions of mortar to get a dense product. For extensive concrete 
pavement of the first class graded sizes are feasible. 

The use of slag in concrete is still a debatable matter but if 
proven to be reasonable will add materially to the source of concrete 
materials. The latest available tests by the Pittsburgh laboratory 
with an up to date discussion is quoted as follows: 



TESTS OF BLAST-FURNACE SLAG 255 

TESTS OF BLAST-FURNACE SLAG AS COARSE 
AGGREGATE IN CONCRETE 

"[In order to secure definite authoritative data on the use of blast- 
furnace slag in concrete, a number of leading interests, which either produce 
or market slag, made a co-operative arrangement with the Pittsburgh Test- 
ing Laboratory of Pittsburgh to conduct a series of experiments and tests 
that wotild extend ultimately over a period of five years. 

"The reports of these tests will be of more than ordinary value, as the 
care involved in the preparation and testing of the specimens made the tests 
more expensive than would ordinarily be undertaken by a commercial labo- 
ratory* and the results are such as can be obtained oiUy by having a very 
carefuUy oi^anized research department. 

"Recognizing that these tests are of the utmost value to engineers in ac- 
quainting them with the performance of blast-furnace slag in concrete work, 
the Manufacturers Record jmblishes herewith extracts from the report com- 
piled by the Pittsburgh Testing Laboratory. — Editor Manufacturers Record. ] 

" The purpose of this series of tests was to furnish information relative to 
the use of concrete materials, as follows: 

"(i) A comparison of the crushing strengths of air-cooled blast-furnace 
slag, crushed stone and gravel when used as the coarse aggregate in concrete, 
tests to be made at the end of 14, 30, 60 and 180 days, i year, 2 years, 3 years, 
4 years and s years. 

" (2) To determine the granulometric analysis of the material as received, 
together with other physi^ characteristics. 

" (3) Determination of the corrosive tendency of sulphur in slag. 

" (4) Effect of sulphur and other elements on the durability of concrete 
up to the age of five years. 

"(^) Relative strength and durability of concrete made of high magnesia, 
low lime slag and low magnesia high lime slag. 

*' The materials used as the coarse aggregates in these tests were secured 
from the following localities: 

P. T. L. Mark 
Slag: Cleveland Macadam Co., Cleveland, Ohio (from 
A. S. & W. Co., Central Fur., Cleveland, Ohio) 87410 



Slag: Duquesne Slag Products Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. (from 

C. S< Co., Duquesne, Pa., slag bank) 

Slag: Carnegie Steel Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. (from Ohio 



Works, Youngstown, Ohio) 87430 

Slag: Northwestern Iron Co., Mayrille, Wis 87440 

Slag: Standard Slag Co., Youngstown, Ohio (from S. F. Co., 

Sharpsyille. Pa.) '. 87450 

Slag: Cleveland Macadam Co., Cleveland, Ohio (from C. F. 

(5o., Cleveland, Ohio) 87470 

Slag: Birmingham Slag Co., Birihingham, Ala. (from T. C. 

& L Ry. Co., Ensley, Ala 87480 

Slag: Duquesne Slfig Products Co., Pittsburgh, Pa. (from 

E. S. Co., Pottstown, Pa.) 87520 

Slag: The Prance Slag Co., Toledo, Ohio (from T. F. Co., 

Toledo, Ohio) 87530 

Gravel: Allegheny River, from Pittsburgh, Pa 87460 

Trap Rock: from Birdsboro, Pa 87490 

Gravel: from Akron, Ohio 87500 

Crushed granite: from Stockbridge, Ga 87510 

Limestone: from Gates City, Ala 87540 

Dolomitic limestone: Kelly Island, from Cleveland, Ohio... 87550 

It did not seem practicable to screen the fine aggregate and recombine 
to conform to Fuller's curve, or to use a combination of two or more sands 
which would make theoretically the best fine aggregate. The material 
selected was reasonably well graded, and the same sand was used throughout 
the series of tests, the whole amount being secured at one time from the back 
channel of the Ohio River, at Neville Island. ,, , . „r ,, ^i_. 

"The cement used was Alpha Portland, from Manheim, W. Va. Tins 
brand was selected by lot, being drawn from a list of several standard brands 
of Portland cement. All cement was purchased at the same time and sam- 



2S6 



MATERIALS 



pled and tested before the prei^aration of concrete test specimens was begun. 
The results of these tests are included in the report. 

"As the various aggregates were received, they were screened through 
sieves consisting of iron plates with circular holes of the following diameters: 
iK inches, i inch, ^inch, H inch and ^ inch. 

The portions retained on each of the above sieves were stored separately 
and labeled, to be later recombined to make the coarse aggregate used in 
the tests. 

"In accordance with the specifications, the coarse aggregate was recom- 
bined to conform to Puller's curve. Since the portion en Puller's curve 
representing coarse aggregate is a straight line, and since the curve is re- 
ferred to ordinates, of which the vertical ordinate is divided into equal parts, 
showing percentages by weight, and the abscissa is divided into equal parts, 
representing the diameter of the particles in inches, it follows that coarse 
aggregates, when so recombined, will consist of equal percentages of the four 
U) gradings, which increase in size uniformly from yi inch to i^ inches. 
All aggrei|[ates, therefore, were recombined by weijKhing equal quantities of the 
four gradmgs and shoveling them together, turning them until thdir appear- 
ance showed them to be thoroughly mixed. 

"In order to accurately proportion the concrete, the weight per cubic foot 
of all materials was detemuned. Since there is no generally accepted method 
for determining the weight per cubic foot of concrete materials, one was used 
which had been found m the past to give consistent results. A cubic foot 
measure was filled loosely with either sand or the recombined aggregate, 
after which the measure was dropped lo times on a felt pad one inch thick 
from a height of three inches. The measure was again filled and smoothed 
off with a straight edge and weighed. The average of lo determinations 
was taken as the weight per cubic foot of the matenal used. The variation 
of the individual determinations was usually within five-tenths of i per 
cent, and seldom over i per cent. The weight per cubic foot was frequently 
redetermined, to take into account any drying out of the material.^ The 
weight of the cement per cubic foot was taken at lOO poimds, this being in 
accordance with the generally acceipted figures for cement. 

"Void determinations were made on the various aggregates after recom- 
bining. Bach coarse aggregate was thoroughly wet, drained and a cubic 
foot measure filled and weighed, as given in the method for determining the 
weight per cubic foot. Water was then slowly added until the measure 
was level full. From the increase in weight the percentage of voids was 
computed. 

"it was not possible to combine the sand and cement with the slag, gravel 
and crushed stone, respectively, to strictly conform to Puller's curve and 
still have tests which would be comparable with each other on the basis of 
equ^ proportions of cement. It was, therefore, necessary to determine the 
leanest mixture which would produce a dense concrete when using the coarse 
aggregate having the highest percentage of voids, and then using this mixture 
for a^l materials. ^ By this method the same quantity of cement was used 
to make ea6h specimen, and the test data shows a comparison of the diffexent 
aggTM^ates under the same conditions. 

"The proportions for the mortar were determined by making trial mortars 
of various proportions of cement and sand and selecting the mixture giving 
the maximum density as shown by increase in volume of the resulting mortar. 
After numerous tests, the proportions of x part cement and 2 parts sand 
were found to most nearly fulfill the tests for maximum density of tiie 
mortar. 

"The coarse aggregates used for these tests varied in weight per cubic 
foot from 64 to 104.5 pounds, and the percentages of voids from a minimum 
of 31.85 to 49.3 per cent. Since the percentage of voids in one case was 49. 
to obtain tne maximum density, using this aggregate, the mixture should 
be almost exactly two parts of mortar and four of coarse aggregate; this pro- 
portion would give some excess mortar in all of the other cases. 

"The ifact that a 1-3-4 mixture is one which is very commonly used— «nd 
a large amount of data may be found for comparison— was an additional 
reason for using it in these tests. ^ 

" These proportions by volume having been selected, the equivalent weight 
each of the materials for these proportions was determined, and throughout 
the series of tests all materials were weighed, and greater accuracy in propor- 
tioning thus obtained. The mixture, however, is by volume, the method of 
weighing being used only to insure more accurate proportions. 



TESTS OF BLAST-FURNACE SLAG 



257 



**A qtumtity of material sufficient to make 
ten (10) cylinders was mixed at one time, the 
sand b^ng spread in a flat pile and the cement 
placed over this. The two materials were 
turned b]^ two men until the color appeared 
to be uiuform, [three or four turnings being 
required. The coarse aggregate was then 
shoveled on this material and the whole 
turned dry three times. During the fourth 
turn a weighed amount of water was added 
from a sprinkling can and three (3^ additional 
turnings given the mixture. During the last 
three turnings small quantities of water were 
added as needed until a 'quaking consistency* 
was obtained. In all mixtures an attempt 
was made to secure the same consistency, 
regardless of the amount of water used. For 
this reason, it was not possible to use a me- 
chanical mixer, as the quantity of water is 
very important, and in mechamcal mixing the 
material may be made too wet and the whole 
batch spoiled for laboratory purposes. It is 
noteworthy that care must be used to obtain 
the correct consistency, and that the addition 
of I pound of water to a lo-specimen mixture 
would give a consistency too wet, usually de- 
scribed as 'mushy,' and the results of the tests 
would be unsatisfactory. 

"The specimens were made in steel molds 8 
inches in diameter by 16 inches high. The 
concrete was poured into these molds in layers 
A inches thick, and each layer tamped thirty 
(30) times with a H-inch round rod. After 
the second and fourth layers the sides were 
spaded with a large trowel. These cylinders 
were finally finished at the top by spading 
with a small trowel to form a smooth upper 
rim, and a piece of plate-glass placed on top 
to form a smooth surface. Since the concrete 
would settle slightly after a few hours, it was 
necessary to cap the top of the specimen with 
plaster-of-Paris and cement and again place 
the! plate-glass on the cap to make a smooth 
surface. } 

"The specimens were kept in the molds for 
forty-eight (48) hours and then stored in damp 
sand for thirty-five (35) days. At the end of 
this time all specimens were removed and 
stored in air. Four (4) short pieces of rein- 
forcing steel were embedded in each of two 
(2) cyUnders from every batch. 

"These pieces were 3i 6, 9 and 12 inches 
long, and were cut from H inch twisted rein- 
forcing bars furnished by the Carnegie Steel 
Co., Duquesne heat No. 99439, having the 
following chemical analysis: 

Carbon 20 .0 per cent. 

Manganese 45 -o percent. 

Phosphorus o .018 per cent. 

Sulphur o . 046 per cent. 

" These specimens will be examined at the 
end of the five-year period to determine the 
corrosive action of the aggregates. 

" (i) It will be noted that one-half of the 
tests of the slag concrete were made using 
slag produced by the quick-cooling process, in 



< 
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25.8 



MATERIAI.S 



Table 24. — Results of Physical Tests 



Name of Material 
Used 



• 


to 




11 


• to 




•— ( 


»~i 


Im o) 




a'g 


■!-> »i 


d 4) 


ight 
Mat 


rCe 

Mat 


^"0 


4> ^ 



Per Cent. Passing 
Sieve as Received 



14 Day Tests 



iH 



?i 



M >^ 



u 

•d 

O 

c 
o 

a 



Weight 

of 
Cylinder 
lb. oz. 



ti.S 

■|J CO 
e ft 

o.S 



ii C to 

h» I1 (H 

5 4J © 

<Jco ft 



Slag 

Cleveland 

Macadam Co., 

Central Furnace, 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Slag 

Duquesne Slag 

Products Co. 

Duquesne, Pa. 

^lag 

Carnegie Steel Co., 

Youngstown, Ohio 

Slag 

Northwestern Iron 

Co., Mayville, Wis. 

Slag 

Standard Slag Co., 

Sharpsville, Pa. 

Oravel 

Allegheny River, 

Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Cleveland 

Macadam Co., 

Cleveland Furnace 

Cleveland, Ohio 

Slag 

Birmingham Slag 

Co., Ensley, Ala. 

Trap Rock 

BirdsDoro, Pa. 

Gravel 
Akron, Ohio 

Crushed Granite 
Stockbridge, Ga. 

Slag 
Duquesne Slag 
Products Co., 
Pottstown, Pa. 

Slag 

Prance Slag Co., 

East Toledo. Ohio 

Limestone 
Gates City, Ala. 

Dolomitic 

Limestone 

Kelly's Island, 

Cleveland, Ohio 



66.5 


49.2 


99.35 


78.S 


42.74 


96.70 


79-3 


43.IS 


97.10 


64.S 


45.87 


86.10 


7S.O 


41.53 


92.40 


104.5 


31.85 


80.2S 


64.0 


46.77 


lOO.O 


83.8 


42.00 


98.40 


98.7 


41.93 


96.80 


95-0 


35.9 


99.40 


90.0 


42.34 


97.40 


73.7s 


4355 


98.62 


81.7s 


42.S 


90.9 


94.87 


40.33 


1 00.0 


94.11 


38.71 


lOO.O 



83.70 



83.70 



84.10 



65.20 



69.10 



68.38 



88.50 



48.20 



61.40 



16.10 



32.80 



41.30 11.50 



37.30 19.00 



40.30 



50.68 



57.20 



17.80 



30.21 



14.50 



82.8048.7015.70 



87.1062.80 21.10 



88.2060.30,25.20 



84.30.53.50,25.00 



90.2070.0236.09 



64.90 



98.90 



96.0 



39.SO 



83.30 



47.00 



29.00 



43.40 



IX.5O 





9 


62 


8 


1897 


2.40118 


62 


10 


1998 




29 


63 


3 


1928 


■ 


9 


65 


10 


2212 


3.S0 


18 


65 


13 


2318 




28 


65 


8 


1946 




9 


65 


4 


2346 


3.50 


18 


64 


10 


2128 




27 


65 


4 


1928 




2 


62 


12 


2238 


1.60 


12 


62 


12 


2141 




22 


63 


4 


2238 




2 


65 


14 


2477 


3.50 


12 


65 


3 


2380 




28 


64 


14 


2594 




2 


69 


2 


2045 


9.4s 


12 


68 


13 


2093 




22 


68 


II 


2000 




2 


62 


4 


2387 


4.10 


12 


62 


4 


2237 




22 


61 


II 


2146 




2 


66 


13 


2043 


2.90 


10 


66 


00 


2160 




21 


66 


10 


2126 




2 


72 


8 


2109 


2.00 


12 


73 


I 


20S3 




22 


72 


3 


2026 




2 


68 


00 


1793 


3.26 


12 


68 


7 


1800 




22 


67 


10 


1792 




II 


69 


00 


1980 


S.oo 


21 


68 


00 


2178 




22 


69 


8 


2208 




I 


63 


00 


2151 


3.60,12 


64 


00 


2167 




22 


63 


00 


2244 




2 


65 


13 


1918 


20.0012 


66 


14 


1856 


21 


6(>, 


10 


2051 




I 


69 


8 


1670 


6.00 


6 


69 


8 


1750 




7 


71 





1720 




4 


69 


II 


1830 


3.20 


13 


69 


7 


1814 




23 


69 





1769 



I94I 

2159 

2134 
2206 

2484 
2046 

2257 

2109 
2063 
1 795 
2122 
2187 

1942 
1 7 13 
1804 



NoTB.'^— Above tests carry Pittsburgh Testing Laboratory numbers in consecutive 
87500, 87S10, 87520, 87530, 87540, 87550. 
Compression tests made using 8'' X 16" cylinders, 1-2-4 Mix — Alpha cement 



TESTS OF BLAST-FURNACE SLAG 



259 



OF Slag, Stone, and Gravel Used in Concrete 



30 Day Tests 



o 

a 
o 

u 



Weight 

Cylinder 
lb. oz. 



O.S 



^^ 

> ^ \A 

<(/i ft 



60 Day Tbsts 



180 Day Tests 



C 

O 

a 
o 



Weight 

Cylinder 
lb. 02. 



ft . 

Is. 

k 

o.S 






tH C (0 
«> ?* L. 

> '-' ii 



a> 

a 

o 

d 
o 

;^ 



Weight 

of 
Cylinder 
lb. 



oz. 



U3 

li 
I? 

0.2 



ID 

33 

28 



10 
17 
27 
10 

17 
28 

3 
13 
23 

3 
13 
27 

3 
13 
23 

I 
II 
21 

I 
II 
20 

I 
II 
21 

I 
II 
21 

I 
12 
22 

2 
II 
21 

I 
II 
22 

3 
ID 

23 

I 
12 
24 



63 
63 
62 



66 

64 
6S 
6S 
64 
64 
63 
62 

63 
6S 
65 
65 
68 
68 
68 

62 
61 
62 

66 
66 
67 

72 

73 
72 
66 
67 
67 
69 
68 

69 
64 
63 
63 

66 

65 
66 

69 
69 
69 

69 
69 
69 



3 
10 

14 



00 

4 

I 

8 

00 

10 

00 

13 

4 
00 
00 
00 
13 

9 
IS 

2 

8 
5 

9 
00 

2 

6 
5 
9 

13 
9 
8 

00 

4 
8 

2 

6 

00 

7 
4 
4 
9 
8 
8 

6 

14 
00 



2461 
2770 
2343 



242s 
29«3 
2562 
2642 
2568 
2761 
2640 
2630 
2688 
3127 
2999 
3100 
2608 

2514 
2409 

2810 

3057 
2666 

2660 
2800 
2796 

24S4 
2330 

2374 
2040 
2040 

2153 
2230 

2334 
2313 
2738 
2600 
2613 

2527 
2402 
2680 

198s 
1950 
2030 

2269 
2442 
2375 



2525 

2657 
2657 
2653 
3075 
2510 

2844 

2752 

2386 

2078 
2292 
2650 

2536 
1988 

2360 



8 


63 


00 


2815 




13 


62 


15 


'2966 


2930 


26 


62 


13 


3008 




4 


65 


6 


3143 




13 


65 


6 


3402 
2810 


3117 


22 


65 


4 




7 


66 


4 


3625 




12 


63 


10 


3220 


3306 


22 


65 


12 


3074 




5 


62 


5 


3523 




21 


63 


00 


3363 


3403 


28 


62 


II 


3320 




10 


65 


II 


3359 




18 


65 


00 


3468 


336s 


21 


ti 


13 


3268. 




6 


13 


3427 




21 


69 


2 


3170 


3295 


27 


68 


13 


3289 




3 


61 


10 


3167 




14 


62 


I 


3126 


3288 


24 


61 


2 


3068 




8 


tt 


00 


3270 




17 


9 


3354 


3289 


25 


66 


S 


3244 




9 


72 


6 


341 1 




IS 


72 


12 


3416 


3360 


20 


72 


8 


3256 




8 


67 


12 


2756 




16 


68 


2 


2378 


2554 


28 


67 


14 


2527 




3 


69 


2 


3112 




16 


69 


00 


2760 


3043 


19 


69 


8 


3258 




5 


63 


8 


3245 




14 


63 


00 


3244 


3289 


24 


63 


8 


3378 




7 


66 


3 


3251 




16 


66 


5 


2864 


3103 


20 


66 


4 


3195 




2 


69 


6 


3149 




IS 


68 


13 


3014 


3082 


22 


69 


00 


3072 




2 


70 


00 


3503 




17 


69 


12 


3846 


3604 


22 


70 


12 


3462 


» 



7 
16 

25 

2 
16 
20 

I 

4 
6 
I 
5 
9 
7 
9 
19 



13 
16 

3 

4 



3 
6 

7 
3 

4 
16 

8 
17 
23 
27 

4 

3 

3 
9 

13 

i 



3 
19 
27 



62 
62 
63 



64 
65 

65 
65 
65 
62 
62 
63 

54 
65 

64 
68 

68 
69 

61 
61 
61 

66 
66 
66 

72 
72 
72 
68 
68 
68 
69 
69 
69 
63 
63 
63 

66 
66 

65 
70 

69 
68 

70 
70 
69 



10 

5 
o 



12 
10 

5 
10 
00 

5 
15 

8 

o 
II 

3 
II 

14 
9 

I 

15 

14 

9 

2 
9 
7 

15 
12 

14 
3 
9 
o 
6 
o 
5 
S 
6 
o 

4 
15 
6 
o 
6 
12 

o 
o 





3740 
3958 
3560 



4280 

4464 

4200 
3880 
4130 
4452 
4146 
4268 
4512 
4906 

4678 
4824 

4200 

3816 
3892 

4588 

4422 
4172 

4432 
4460 
4460 

4814 
4738 
4906 
3636 
3840 

3404 
4190 
4016 
4248 
4210 
4203 
4140 

4130 
4333 
4030 
3936 
4636 
3814 

4640 
5011 
4520 



be 

d 

nj 

s Vi v« 
r +» « 



3753 

4315 
4154 
4309 
4803 
3969 

4394 

445 1 

4819 
3627 

4151 
4184 

4164 
4127 

4724 



order as follows: 87410, 87420, 87430, 87440, 87450. 87460, 87470, 87480, 87490, 
■Alected br lot. Ohio River sand. Large aggregates as shown above. ^^^ 



Si" 
"Is 



MATERIALS 






II a 
5f I 



^1 i\ \i i^ ii M -o »p 

sf 11 .sl I? still Is Isjl 

|0'>|n°|J-|z=^|s"|S"'|3'~|iS"^S 



5 I i 



TESTS OF BLAST-FURNACE SLAG 



1 


i 1 ^ 


3 
3 


i 




III 




533 


III 


,,„ 


:,„..;-, 


: = = 




ESS 


stsssstss 


°S?^ 


ss« 


... 


ooj^os^v!' 


-- 


=M 





s 



262 MATERIAI.S 

pits, in which the slag is shipped within a few days from the time it comes 
from the furnace, and the remainder from slag which had been seasoned in 
banks for a period of six months in some cases and as much as 15 years in 
one case. 

" (3) The lengrth of time during which this series of tests has been con- 
ducted does not warrant the drawing of any definite conclusions, but the 
general uniformity of the results of the crushing tests of the concrete should 
be observed. 

*' (3) Slags coming from furnaces many hundred miles apart, varjdng 
quite widely in chemical analyses, and also vaiying considerably in the 
weight i)er cubic foot, do not vary in strength m proportion to either the 
weight or percentage of any chemical constituent. 

Since the following tests were published the one-year test 
has been completed, and in reporting on these the Httsburgh 
Testing Laboratory states:* 

*'In most cases the specimens show a considerable increase in strength 
over those tested at the age of 180 days, but in some cases the increase is 
very slight. Discussion of these tests will be withheld until the end of the 
two or three-year tests, but the discussion of results furnished with the 180- 
day tests still holds true for these tests. In some instances, as will be noted, 
an exceptionally high compressive strength has been developed at the age 
of one year. 

Water. — ^The following quotation from the Concrete Highway 
Magazine of May, 191 8, by Duff A. Abrams shows the effect of 
excessive water on the strength of concrete. It should be borne in 
mind that this represents the laboratory point of view but shows 
very forcibly that excess water is injurious. 

** It is commonly stated that concrete is composed of a mixture 
of cement, sand and pebbles or crushed stones. This conception 
of concrete overlooks one essential element of the mixture; namely, 
water. An exact statement of the ingredients of concrete would be: 
Cement, aggregate, and water. The last-named material has not 
yet received proper consideration in tests of concrete or in specifica- 
tions for concrete work. 

** Early users of concrete centered their entire attention on the 
quality of the cement, and practically disregarded the characteristics 
of the other ingredients. During the past dozen years some atten- 
tion has been given to the importance of the aggregate, but it 
is only recently that we have learned that the water also requires* 
consideration. 

"A great deal has been said and written recently concerning the 
effect of water on the strength and other properties of concrete, 
but the full significance of this ingredient of concrete has not 
heretofore been pointed out. A discussion which appeared in the 
April, 191 7, issue of the Concrete Highway Magazine gave 
a brief review of results of some of the experimental work carried out 
along this line at the Structural Materials Research Laboratory, 
Lewis Institute, Chicago The relation between the water content 
and the compressive strength of the concrete for a wide range of con- 
sistencies was there pointed out ancl emphasis was placed on the 
injurious effect of too much water. 

** Tests made in studies of the effect of size and grading of ag- 
gregates have shown that the only reason that concrete of higher 
strength and durability can be produced from well-graded aggregate 



n 



WATER 



263. 



as compared with a poorly graded aggregate is that the former can 
be mixed with less water. If this is not done no advantage is gained 
from using a coarse, well graded aggregate. The following dis- 
cussion shows that a similar conclusion can now be stated with 
reference to a rich concrete mix as compared with a lean one. 

** While the injurious effects of too much water in concrete are 
apparent, tests made in this laboratory show that the truly funda- 
mental rdle played by water in concrete mixtures has been entirely 
overlooked in previous discussions of this subject. The relation 
referred to above is brought out by a series of compression tests 
of about 1600 6 by 12-in. concrete cylinders made up as follows: 



Mix 




Range of Sizes of 




Consistency 


Cement- Aggregate 


Aggregates 


I- 9 
I- 5 

I- 3 
I- 2 

I- I 
Neat 


► 


■ 


f 0-14-mesh sieve 1 
0- 4-mesh sieve 
O-I ^-inch 
O-I j2-inch 
0-2 -inch 


» 


r 7 different con- 
1 sistenciesfor 
1 each mix and 
[ aggregate 



IC 



The mixes used covered a wide range, as did also the grading 
of aggregate and consistency. The aggregates consisted of two 
sizes of sand and mixtures of sand and pebbles graded to the sizes 
shown. The mix is expressed in terms of volumes of dry cement 
and aggregate, regardless of grading; i,e., a i : 5 mix is made up 
of I cu. ft. cement (i sack) and 5 cu. ft. of aggregate as used, 
whether a sand or a coarse concrete mixture. 

" This series gives valuable information on the effect of changing 
the quantity of cement, the size of the aggregate and the quantity 
of water. The effect of many different combinations of these 
variables can be studied. One set of relations gives the effect 
of amount of cement using aggregates of different size and grading; 
another set of relations gives the effect of different quantities of 
water, varying both mix and size of aggregate, etc. In all respects 
these tests bear out the indications of both earlier and later series. 
These tests are of interest in that they reveal for the first time the 
true relation between the strength and the proportions of the con- 
stituent materials in concrete. 

** The figure shows the relation between the compressive strength 
and the water content for the 28-day tests. The water content 
of the concrete has been expressed as a ratio of the volume 
of cement, considering that the cement weighs 94 lb. per cu. ft. 
Distinguishing marks are used for each mix, but no distinction 
is made between aggregates of different size or different consistencies. 

** When the compressive strength is platted against the water in 



264 



MATERIALS 



this way, a smooth curve is obtained, due to the overlapping 
of the points for different mixes. Values from dry concretes have 
been omitted. If these were used we should obtain a series of 
curves dropping downward and to the left from the curve shown. 
It is seen at once that the size and grading of the aggregate and 
the quantity of cement are no longer of any importance except 
in so far as these factors influence the quantity of water required 



MOO 




0.50 



1.00 1.50 too 2.50 3.00 3.50 
Wa+er-Ra-hio to Volume of CemcrH- 



40O 



to produce a workable mix. This gives us an entirely new con- 
ception of the function of the constituent materials entering into a 
concrete mix and is the most basic principle which has been dis- 
covered in our studies of concrete. 

The equation of the curve is of the form, 



<« 



S = 



B' 



(i) 



where S is the compressive strength of concrete and x is the ratio 
of the volume of water to the volume of cement in the batch. A 
and B are constants whose values depend on the quality of the 
cement used, the age of the concrete, curing conditions, etc. 

** This equation expresses the law of strength of concrete so far as 
the proportions of materials are concemea. It is seen that for 
given concrete materials the strength depends on only one factor — 
the ratio of water to cement. Equations which have been pro- 
posed for this purpose contain terms which take into accoimt such 
factors as quantity of cement, proportions of fine and coarse 
Siggregsite, voids in aggregate, etc., but they have uniformly omitted 
the only item which is of any importance; that is, the water. 

" For the conditions of these tests, equation (i) becomes, 



„ _ 14,000 



(*) 



WATER 265 

** The relation given above holds so long as the concrete is not too 
dry for maximum strength and the aggregate not too coarse for 
a given quantity of cement; in other words, so long as we have a 
workable mix. 

** Other tests made in this laboratory have shown that the charac- 
ter of the aggregate makes little difference so long as it is clean and 
not structurally deficient. The absorption of the aggregate must 
be taken into account if comparison is being made of different 
aggregates. 

In certain instances a 1-9 mix is as strong as a x-2 mix, depending 
only on the water content. The strength of the concrete responds 
to changes in water, regardless of the reason for these changes. 

"It should not be concluded that these tests indicate that lean 
mixes can be substituted for richer ones without limit. We are 
always limited by the necessity of using sufficient water to secure 
a workable mix. So in the case of the grading of aggregates. The 
workability of the mix will in[all cases dictate the minimum Quantity 
of water that can be used. The importance of the workability 
factor in concrete is therefore brought out in its true relation. 

''The reason a rich mix gives higher strength than a lean one is 
that a workable concrete can be produced by a quantity of water 
which gives a lower ratio of water to cement. If an excess of water 
is used we are simply wasting cement. Rich mixes and coarse, well- 
graded aggregates, are as necessary as ever, but we now know just 
how these factors affect the strength of the concrete. 

" Practical use may be made of the curve in estimating the rela- 
tive strength of concretes in which the water content is different for 
any reason. For example, a concrete mixed with 7.5 gallons of 
water (i cu. ft.) to one sack of cement (allowance being made for 
absorption of aggregate) gave a strength in this series of 2000 lb. 
per sq. in. (x = i.oo). For x=so.8o (6 gal. of water per sack of 
cement) we have 3000 lb. per sq. in.; for x=o.75 {5.6 gal.) 3300 
lb. per sq. in. Concrete in a 1-4 mix (same as the usual 1-2-3 ^^ 
witn a coarse sand) should be mixed with sH to 6 gal. of water per 
sack of cement. 

" The importance of any method of mixing, handling, placing and 
finishing concrete which will enable the work to be done with a mini- 
mum of water is at once apparent. It now seems that practically 
all faulty concrete work can be traced to the use of too much water. 

** Laboratory research performs its true function when it uncovers 
basic principles which have not been revealed by experience in 
construction, or observation of completed work." 



PART II 

PRACTICE OF SURVEY, DESIGN AND 

CONSTRUCTION 

CHAPTER X 

PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATIONS 

As stated in the introduction the object of all preliminary in- 
vestigation, either of new locations in unsettled districts or of 
high type pavement improvements in populous sections, is to se- 
cure data on which a reasonable program of work can be based. 
Work of this kind should be done ocJy by experienced highway 
engineers as reliable results depend largely on the judgment of 
engineer which must be based on actual design and construction 
experience under conditions similar to those investigated. As a 
rule this portion of the engineering program is carelessly done due to 
hesitation in spending money before a project is assured but this 
policy is short sighted as there is no part of the work which is more 
important. 

The cost of first*class investigations of this kind range trom 
$3.00 to $40.00 per mile. A cost of $5.00 to $10.00 per mile is a 
fair average for long mountain road projects similar in character 
to the work being done by the U. S. Office of Public Roads in iJic 
west and a cost of $5.00 to $15.00 per mile for high type road re- 
ports in the eastern states. Reconnaissance surveys in heavily 
timbered regions may cost as high as $40.00 per mile. 

HIGH TYPE ROAD INVESTIGATIONS IN WELL- 
SETTLED DISTRICTS 

The improvement generally consists of betterments to an existing 
road the location of which is fixed by existing rights-of-way. The 
choice of which road to improve is made by local boards or the 
State Highway Commissioner so that when the problem reaches the 
field engineer his work is confined to a definite engineering report 
on a definite road. 

The field work and report deal with the following main features. 

1. Probable Traffic. — This forms the basis of decision as to general 
type (rigid or flexible) and the width of pavement (single or double 
track). 

2. Local Materials, — This forms the basjs for decision as to the 
most economical type of pavement of the general class required. 

3. Cost Estimate, — This forms the basis of appropriations for 
survey, design, and construction and indicates the mileage that 
can be completed with the funds at hand. 

266 



FIELD METHODS 267 

Field Woik. — In any district the volume of traffic is entirely 
a matter of judgment* A traffic census can be taken but is of little 
value as the improvement of a road changes the amount and class 
of travel. The most reliable basis for decision is a study of the map 
of the locality and inquires of local residents to determine the 
probable routes of travel for farm traffic to markets or shipping 
points, for long distance truck traffic, and the location of summer re- 
sorts in relation to the improvement, etc. These considerations 
applied in a comparative way to previously built roads of different 
types serving districts of practically the same general character 
form the only reasonable basis for the selection of general type and 
width. See Chapter VI for traffic classification and the principles 
of general selection of type. See sample preliminary report 
page 274 for an example of this part of the work. See page 329 
for traffic notes. 

Local Materials (Field Work). — ^The investigation for local 
material is very important. Careless work in this particular 
results in sp>ecifying impracticable or needlessly expensive sources 
of supply for materials and often in the selection of an .unreasonable 
type of construction. A careless estimate of the quantity of avail- 
able local material also causes trouble during construction by a 
shortage in supply. 

It is important not only to determine the amount of local material 
but also its character as for example a local gravel may be suitable 
for a first-class bottom for macadam construction but not suitable 
for a concrete pavement, or it may be suitable for a concrete paving 
base but not for a concrete road taking the traffic directly. A 
local hard sandstone may be suitable when bound with bitumen and 
would not act well if waterbound with its own screenings, etc. 
The necessary properties of stones, gravels, sands, etc., are given in 
the Chapter on Materials, and in Specifications. 

Any preliminary report should cover the sources of supply and 
approx. cost at pit or switch of the following materials: 



Gravels. — Suitable for. 



Stone, Slag, Etc — Suitable for 



Bottom courses. 

Top courses. 

Structural concrete. 

First-class concrete pavement. 

Concrete paving base. 

Sub-base filler. 

Sub-base. 

Bottom course. 

Waterbound macadam top. 

Bituminous macadam pave- 
ment. 

First-class concrete pave- 
ment. 

Concrete paving base. 

Structural concrete. 



I'KKLIMINARY INVESTIGATIONS 



id. — Suitable for. . 



Bottom course filler. 
Cushion sand. 
Structural concrete sand. 
First-dass coDCTete paving 

Fine and coarse sand for 

sheet asphalt. 
Bitumens. 
Tare. 

Paving brick. 
Stone block. 
Asphalt block. 
Wood block. 
Stone or brick cubes. 
Location and quality. 




DnhMulina Points for f^cei^iL— Ptovide^l U. S. geological maps 
are obtainable, the position o{ sidings may be marked on the 
sheets. The notes for each siding show its car capacity: whethei 
or not an elevator plant can be erected, and if hand unloading is 
necessary whether teams can approach from one side or two. 
They should also show any coal trestle that can be utilized in un< 



SAMPLING MATERIALS 269 

loading and the location and probable cost of any new sidings 
that will materially reduce the length of the haul. Canal or river 
unloading points are shown in the same manner. 

Sand, Gfav«l and Filler MateriaL — The position of sand and 
gravel pits and filler material are noted with their cost at the pit; 
if no local material is available the cost, f .o.b. at the nearest sicung 
is given. Samples are taken and tests made. 

Stone Supply. — Provided imported stone is to be used the work 
is simplified to determining the rate, f.o.b. to the various sidings 
for the product of the nearest commercial stone-crushing plant 
that produces a proper grade of stone. 

In case local stone is available the location of the quarries or 
outcrops is shown; the amount of stripping, if any, and the cost 
of quarry rights. If the estimate will depend upon rock owned 
by a single person an option is obtained to prevent an exorbitant 
raise in price. 

In case of field or fence stone a careful estimate is made of the 
number of yards of boulder stone available, the owners' names, 
what they will charge for it, the position of the fences or piles 
relative to the road, or side roads, and if the fences are not abutting 
on a road or lane the length of haul through fields to the nearest 
road or lane. As fences are usually a mixture of different kinds 
of rock, the engineer estimates the percentage of granite, limestone, 
sandstone, etc., and the percentage that will have to be blasted 
or sledged in order to be crushed by an ordinary portable crusher. 
The amount of field stone required per cubic yard of macadam 
is given in estimates, page 593. If there is a large excess of stone a 
caief ul estimate need not be made, only enough data being collected 
to determine the probable position of the crusher set-ups and the 
average haul to each set-up. If a sufiident supply is doubtful 
a close estimate is made as outlined above, and options obtained from 
the various owners. 

Samples of the different rocks are tested (see ''Materials"). 

Simple field tests can be made but if the department has a testing 
laboratory it is better to take samples and have a careful test made 
and recorded. As these tests are made the location of the sample 
and result of the tests are recorded on a large map of the district 
which in the course of a few years shows at a glance the different 
sources of supply of acceptable materials for the entire county 
or State and saves future duplication of work for reconstruction, 
maintenance and adjacent improvements. 

Hie method of sampling and the amounts of material required 
for a good test are quoted below from the New York State Instruc- 
tions for Sampling Jilaterials. 

SAMPUN6 

Samples of material will be taken by a duly authorized emplojree of the 
Department, in its place of occurrence or manufacture or delivery by 
carrier. These samples must be taken from different parts of the lot of 
material to be tested, so as to be fairly representative, and must be unmixed 
with foreign substances and placed in clean and safe receptacles; and they 
must conrorm in alt respects to the requirements given under the special 



270 PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATIONS 

headinjss. They must be carefully and securely packed, enclosing notifica- 
tion slip properly protected from wear and injury, and sent by express 
** collect to the *' Bureau of Tests, State Highway Commission, Albanyt 
N. Y.'! a postal card notice being mailed at the same time. Envelopes, 
scoops, cans, thermometers, etc., for use in taJkihg the samples, may be 
had from the Bureau of Finance and Audit at Albany. 

In the case of materials sampled at place of manufacture, check samples 
may be required; these are to be taken and treated the san;>e as ordinary 
samples, except that the packages must be marked "Check Samples," 
and the use of the material needed not be prohibited pending the results of 
the check tests. 

Sand and Gravel. — The character of the supply, whether from stream 
bed, bank, cruder bins, etc., is to be stated; also the use for which it is 
intended, whether for concrete foundations or other structures, binder 
for waterbound macadam, filler or wearing carpet or blotter for bituminous 
macadam, or for ag^egate in waterbound or bituminous macadam, etc. 

Material which will all pass through a H in. screen wiU be considered 
sand. Each sample of sand or screenings shall be % cu. ft. in volume; of 
gravel i}4 cu. ft. 

A small sample shall be taken from each test sample sent, and be kept 
on the contract as a measure of the quality of material. 

Each sampde is to be shipped in a tight box or in a clean, closely woven 
bag from which there will be no leakage; the usual identification slip is to 
be enclosed. ^ In numbering samples, sand and gravel are to be treated 
as one material, not as two. 

Notification of acceptance or rejection may be expected to arrive at the 
Division ofiice twentv days after the submission of the samples and data, 
providing the need of a retest does not cause delay. 

Cement. — One sample is to-be taken from at least every ten barrels or 
every forty bags, care being taken to properly distribute the sampling over 
the lot. £ach sample shall be not less than 27 cu. in. in volume or enough 
to fill a 3 in. cube. Whenever possible, samples should be forwarded m 
envelopes furnished by the Commission for that purpose* the ^ivelopes 
being filled to the line marked thereon. 

The individual samples are not to be numbered, but each group or lot 
of these samples representing a single boat load or car load is to be given a 
lot number, and these lot numbers are to run consecutively. Not more 
than one boat load or car load is to be represented by one lot number. 

Receipt of notification of acceptance or rejection of cement sampled at 
destination may be expected to arrive at the Division' Engineer*s office 
twelve days after the «ubmis»on of the samples and data. If cement is 
held for twenty-eight day tests the Division Engineer will be notified 
accordingly. 

• Concrete. — The concrete on each highway must be sampled for testing, 
the samples being taken at rand om from the batches used and being molded 
at the place and time of mixing. The work need not be delayed pending the 
results of the tests. 

Bach sample shall be a pair of 'cubes measuring 6 in. on the edge or of 
cylinders 8 in. in diameter and 16 in. long; the sample is to be made in such 
manner as to fairly represent the concrete going into the structure. ^ At 
least one sample is to be taken, and as many more as seem to be required 
by changes in the character of any ingredient or by any other consideration. 

In concrete pavement work (whether foundation or top course) one pair 
of cubes or cylinders should be sent for every 500 cubic yards. Not less 
than two pairs are to be sent, however small the pavement. 

The sample must remain in the mold two day^. then be buried in clean 
sand to age under the same conditions as the material in the structure. 
On the twenty-first day the samples shall be taken out and shipped. 

Each sample is to have its number painted on ea^ piece, and is to be 
shipped in a box, properly protected from breakage and surface chipping, 
accompanied by the usual included identification slip and the posted notifi- 
cation. ^ Especially must the class of concrete, the purpose for which it is 
used (kmd of structure and portion), and the date and time of day when 
sample was mixed, be stated. 

BitttminoQS Material. — When material is shipped in barrels one sample 
is to be taken for every twenty or twenty-five barrels, the sampling being 
properly distributed over the lot. 

When material is shipped in tank cars one sample is to be taken from 



SAMPLING MATERIALS 271 

every 3000 or 2500 gallons, the samples being taken from equally dis- 
tributed levels in the car. 

When mineral bitumen is 8hipx)ed in loose bulk, one sample is to be taken 
for every five or six tons, the samples being taken from different levels and 
different locations in the lot and never from the surface of the material. 

Bach sample shall be not less than 14 cu. in. in volume, which volume is 
slightly less than one-half pine or about the size of a one pound paint can. 

It should be remembered that the bituminous material wiU flow at summer 
temperature or thereabouts, and consequently great care ^ould be used in 
sealmg cans and doing up packages. Whenever possible, samples should 
be forwarded in the cans furnished by the Commission for the purpose. 

The individual samples are not to be numbered, but each group or lot 
representing a single boat load or car load is to be given a lot number, and 
these lot numbers are to run consecutively: not more than one boat load 
or car load of material is to be represented by one lot number. 

In order to check the weighing and marking of bituminous material 
shipped in barrels, one unopened barrel out of every car load of approxi- 
mately 65 barrels, or a proportionate number of barrels for each boat load, 
is to be selected at random and weighed. The gross weight found, and the 
gross weight marked on the barrel, are to be entered on the Monthly Bitu- 
minous Material Reports or the information naay be recorded elsewhere 
and submitted to the Bureau of Tests. Any noticeable difference between 
the gallonage marked on a barrel and the gallonage found therein, must be 
reported to the Headquarters office at Albany. 

The unit of measure ifor bituminous material is the gallon measured at 
the temperature of 6o*P. If the volume of material is measured when 
hot, allowance should be made for expansion according to the following 
table, which will apply approximately to all of the different classes of bitu- 
minous material at present used on the State highways: 

Increase in volume of various classes of bituminous material when heated 
from 6o°P. 

To 400°P. is approximately 12 per cent. 
To aso^P. is approximately 10 per cent. 
. To 300°?. is approximately 8 per cent. 
To 2S0°P. is approximately 6 per cent. 
To 20o**P. is approximately 4 per cent. 
To iso°P. is approximately 2 per cent. 

Stone. — Rotten or partially disintegrated stone, or weathered specimens 
from the surface of a quarry or ledge, are not to be submitted. 

Samples of quarry or ledge stone must be representative of the sound, 
fresh, interior stone of the ledge or quarry. Such samples mav be secured 
either by blasting or by brewing up with the sledge. If all material is 
of the same variety, texture, etc., one sample will suffice. If, however, 
there are different varieties, separate samples are to be taken of each and 
report made as to the extent, giving details as to location and position for use. 

All field stone, whether in walls, piles, or scattered over the ground, 
which might be used, must be examined and a representative sample taken. 
When two or more varieties of great difference in quality or texture are 
ol»erved to exist, separate samples are to be taken of each, and report made 
as to the percentage of each kind, the amount of small stone which might 
run through the crusher without action, and the percentage of disintegrated 
or badly weathered rock present. 

In taking samples from the output of crushers, fifteen pounds of crushed 
material not smaller than iK in. in size shall be taken, and also one piece 
at least 3 X 4 X 5 in. shall be procured from the source of supply. 

Each sample shall weigh not less than twenty-five pounds nor more than 
thirty-five pounds. If the entire sample submitted is a single piece of 
stone, it should be remembered that a piece about the size of a man's head 
will weigh twenty-five or thirty pounds. While not less than twenty-five 
pounds are absolutely necessary^ in each sample, care should be taken to 
see that the samples do not weigh over thirty-five pounds. One piece of 
each sample shall be at least 3X4X5 inches. 

Each sample is to be given a number running consecutively in each 
division. This number must contain both the Division number and the 
sample number; thus, sample No. 42 from Division No. i would be marked 
"i-d2." Paint or Higgins drawing ink may be used to mark directly 
on the sample, or a label or tag may be securely fastened thereto. . 



272 



PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATIONS 



Samples may be shipped in boxes, btirlap, strain bags, cement bags, etc. 
It is preferred that stone be shipped in a strong bag or in a double bag 
which may be formed by placing one bag inside of another. If shipping in 
a single bag which the sample only partially fills, the bag should be securely 
tied just above the sample and the remaining uxifilled part of the bag folded 
back so as to completely envelop the stone and the portion of bag contain- 
ing it; this folded back part should then be securely tied on the. other side 
of the sample; this makes a tying of the bag on two sides of the stone, 
and permits two thicknesses of the bag to completely surround the stone, 
and if securely tied is as satisfactory as a double bag. 

Receipt of notification of acceptance or rejection of stone may be expected 
to arrive at the Division Engineer's office twelve days after the submission 
of the samples and data, provided acceptance or rejection is not deferred 
awaiting a retest. 

The location o£ source of supply is to be expressed by an index number 
according to the system used m the Government Office at Washington, 
which is, that each quadrangle of the U. S. Geological Survey Sheet is 
divided into nine sections numbered from i to 9 inclusive, as shown in the 
following plan: 



1 


2 


3 


i 


S 


6 


T 


8 


9 



The north and' south sides of each section are then divided into 2 a spaces 
designated from A to V and the east and west sides into 32 spaces designated 
I to 32, so that the location of the stone may then be closely defined, as 
for example, Quadrangle Albany, Section 7, Letter J, Number 13, which 
when abbreviated would read "Albany-7-J-i3." 

Paving Brick. — ^A sufficient number of samples in every case is to be 
taken to insure the use of brick of proper quality, but it should also be borne 
in mind that the charges for transportation and testing of brick are high, 
and onl^ the smallest number of samples necessary for this purpose should 
be submitted. At least one sample is to be taken from every 200,000 brick 
or less. Each sample shall consist of 30 bricks. 

If in a shipment or several shipments of the same make and kind of brick 
there appear to be diflFerent classes of brick — such as brick of different de- 
grees of burning, for example — a full sample of each class is to be taken. 

Each brick selected for the sample is to be free from cracks or other 
defects which would prevent its passing inspection at the road, for the sample 
must represent bricks which will not be culled out. Especially is it for- 
bidden that any person financially interested in the manufacture or use of 
brick be present when samples are taken. 

Each sample (consisting of 30 bricks) shall receive a number, the numbers 
to run consecutively for each road. 

The sample shall be shipped in wooden boxes, not more than 10 or 12 
bricks bein^ put in one box on account of weight and strength of package. 

Notification of acceptance or rejection of brick sampled at destination 
may be expected to arrive at the Division Engineer's office nine days after 
submission of samples and data, providing the need of a retest does not 
cause delay. • 

Asphalt Block. — A sufficient number of samples in every case is to be 
taken to insure the use of block of proper quality, but it should also be borne 
in mind that transportation and testing costs are high, and only the smallest 



COST ESTIMATES . 273 

number of samples necessary should be submitted. At least one sample is 
to be taken from every 100,000 blocks or less. Each sample shall consist 
d 2 blocks. 

If in a shipment or several shipments of the same make and kind of block 
there appear to be different classes of block, a full sample of each class is 
to be taken. 

Each block selected for the sample is to be free from every defect that 
would prevent its passing inspection at the road, for the sample must 
represent blocks which will not be culled out. 

Each sample (consisting of 2 blocks) shall receive a number, the numbers 
to run consecutively for each road. 

The sample shall be shipped in a wooden box, with usual identification 
card and postal notice. 

Notification of acceptance or rejection of block sampled at destination 
may be expected to reach the Division Engineer's office fourteen days after 
submission of samples and data, providing the need of a retest does not 
cause delay. 

Acceptance 

Upon completion of the testing of any set of samples the Division Enp;i- 
neer is notified of the acceptance or rejection of the material, and transmits 
the statement to the engineer in chaige of the contract. 

Estimates of Cost — ^The length of the road can be obtained from 
maps (U. S. G. S. are convenient) or by autometer distances or 
pacing. Maps are generally available and serve as a convenient 
basis for notations. A field inspection by one man preferably 
on foot furnishes the necessary data on required drainage, founda- 
tion soils, approximate amount of excavation, condition of existing 
bridges and all special features. 

Minor drainage features can generally be lumped and assumed 
to run about $700 per mile. (For more detailed cost, estimate each 
culvert separately. See chapter on " Drainage. ") Special bridges 
must be figured in detail. (See chapter on ** Drainage for 'Standard 
Design," etc.) 

The amount of excavation per mile for ordinary rolling f opog- 
raphy is entirely a matter of judgment which can only |be 
developed by personal experience in similar work. For special 
long hills requiring a cut and fill reduction a rough profile can be 
run with an Abney level. However the item of excavation on 
macadam roads rarely exceeds 20% of total cost and considerable 
error in estimating the yardage will not greatly effect the value of 
the estimate. 

The character of the natural road soil has an important bearing 
on the depths of macadam and must be carefully recorded. This 
can best l^ done by giving the character of the soil; noting whether 
the improved road will probably be in cut or fill at the points 
recorded and specifying the recommended depths of macadam. 
The depths of macadam for different classes and traffic and dif- 
ferent soils were indicated in Chapter V, page 152. Sample notes 
on foundation soils are shown on page 330. 

Methods of computing pavement costs are given in Chapter XIV. 

The sample preliminary report following illustrates the method 
to be followed for high tjrpe roads. A report of this character 
will rarely differ from the fcialcost of construction by more than 
15%. While photographs increase the value of these reports 



274 . PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATIONS 

they are not as essential as for new locations. Notes on photography 
are given in Chapter XII. 

prelhhnart de^gn report, new construction 

December lo, 1914. 
Division Engineer 
Dept. of Highways, 
Dear Sir: 

In accordance with your request on Nov. 25th, find 
enclosed report on a reasonable cost for the Town Line-Manitou 
State-County Highway. 

General Report and Estimate, Town line-Manitou State-County 

Highway 

With a proper use of local materials a satisfactory 
road can be built at a cost of $94,000 or approx. $11,000 per mile 
including Engineering and Contingencies. An expenditure of 
$1 2,000 per mile would not however be excessive. 

The Braddocks Bay crossing is the expensive feature 
of this road; it raises the cost of the entire road about $1000 per 
mile. 

Design No. i is recommended (see page 280). 

A detail report follows. 

Signed, 

Designing Engineer. 

DETAIL REPORT AND ESTIMATE, TOWN LINE-MANITOU STATE- 
COUNTY HIGHWAY 

Length. — Eight and fifty>one hundredths miles from the Ridf^e Road to 
Manitou Beach. 

Foundation Soii. — Heavy soil, not particularly good foundation Sta. 
o to 133; sandy soil balance of distance except across Braddocks Bay. 
A 9 in. thickness of some form of macadam is advisable Sta. o to 133; 7 in. 
or 8 in. the balance of the distance should be satisfactory except across 
Braddocks Bay where it is safe to figure on 12 in. to 15 in. Ot stone. 

Grade. — The present surface can be followed closely. The excavation 
should not exceed 2800 cu. yd. per mile except across Braddocks Bay; a 
rough estimate of borrow excavation for this fill is 15,000 cubic yards. 

Alignment. — Good; no right-of-way required except possible at Sta. 350 
near the schoolhouse at the turn to Manitou. 

Traffic and Section. — There is a heavy volume of automobile pleasure 
traffic and a light volume of heavy hauling traffic on this road. 

The large amount of pleasure travel reqtdres from 16 ft. to 18 ft. of stone 
surface; tne heavy hauling does not require over 12 ft. to 14 ft. full depth 
metaling. We recommend a graded section 26 ft. to 28 ft. wide between 
ditches in cut with a 12 ft. width of full depth metal with 6 ft._ of extra 
width of local crusher run on the shoulders Sta. to 133; a 14 ft. width with 
4 ft. of stone on shoulders Sta. 133 to 260; a width of 12 ft. of full depth 
metal with 6 ft. of stone on shoulders the balance of the distance except 
across Braddocks Bay where the entire width of metaling 16 ft. should have 
the full depth. * 

This road carries so much high speed traffic that it requires some form 
of bituminous macadam or if Waterbound is selected, it uiuuld be treated 
with calcium chloride immediately and have a surface coat of bitumen 
applied early in the next year. 



SAMPLE REPORT 275 

Railroad Crossings. — Sta. 293 R. W. & O. Ry. crossing; no gates or flag- 
man. In the summer time the crossing should have a flagman as tne 
orchards cut off the view. The crossing is not particularly dangerous, but 
dtuing the season of the year the traffic on this road is entitled to better 
protection at this point. 

The approach grade from the south should be made easier. 

Drainage. — No special features; approximate cost I3500 exclusive of 
bridges above 5ft. span to be built by the towns. 

Dangerous Places. — The Braddocks Bay crossing is a dangerous one 
as the ml is high and the swamp is full of semi-fluid muck from 6 ft. to 12 ft. 
deep; a first-class concrete guard rail protection should be provided. 

ICatdrials 

Filler Sand. — In abundance alon^ road and from roadbed excavation. 

GraveL — The only good gravel is lake gravel; this can be obtained up 
to approximately 6000 cu. yd. i}4 miles north of Sta. 350 and 3000 cu. yd. 
H inUe west of Sta. 450. Probably this can be used to advantase (screened 
or selected beach run) as bottom course Sta. 350 to 450 or as filler for sub- 
base bottom and on the shoulders. 

Stone. — Fifteen thousand cubic yards of fence stone are available within 
a mile and a half of the road Sta. o to 133. 

There is practical||/ no local stone Sta. 133 to 350. Pour thousand cubic 
yards of fence stone are available within i}4 roiles of Sta. 350. 

This material runs about ao% granite fit for top and the balance soft 
sandstone fit for bottom either as a sub-base bottom or crushed stone bottom. 

There is sufficient stone at the south end of the road to bttild a sub-base 
bottom with crushed stone filler; a local granite top with crushed stone on 
the shoulders from Sta. to 133 and a local crushed stone bottom 5 in. 
thick Sta. 133 to about Sta. 300. 

There is sufficient stone at the north end to build about i^ miles of 
crushed stone bottom with stone on shoulders or iH miles of sub-base 
bottom with crushed stone filler and crushed stone on shoulders. I do 
not think there is enough granite to make it worth while to try and use a 
local top on any part of the north end. 

It is probably better to use an imported top from Sta. 133 to 450 and 
imported bottom Sta. 200 to 380. (See detail Stone Statement and (im- 
putations following.) 

Crusher Set op at Sta. 100. — Fifteen thousand cubic yards field stone 
available within 3 miles maximum haul. Average haul lyi miles. 

Assume for safety that only 11,000 cu. yd. are available with an average 
haul to crusher of i mile. 

Of this 11,000 cu. yd. field stone. 

3000 cu. yd. used for sub-base bottom average haul H niile. 
,000 c„. yd. used for crushed stone mier I ^^ f^^t^^r K^mile. 

700 cu. yd. used for crushed stone shoulders haul t^m«h« H m.l^.^^ 
«oo cu. yd. used for top course { ^^^ f^STljSfsher ti'tnile. 

7200 CU. yd. field stone used for local macadam, from Sta. o to 133, leaving 
3800 cu. yd. available for crushed bottom and shoulder stone for road north 
of Sta. 133- 

Three thousand eight hundred cubic yards will produce approximately 3000 
cu. yd. of crushed bottom loose measure or about 2300 cu. yd. of rolled 
measure. This will build 10,600 lin. ft. of 5 in. bottom i^ ft. wide. We 
can therefore safely specify local bottom to Sta. 200 which will leave enough 
shoulder stone to use as far north as Sta. 300 if necessary. 

Crusher Set up at Sta>. 350. — Four thousand cubic yards available within 
iH miles say average haul i mile. 

Assume for safety that 3000 cu. yd. only are available, average haul i 
mile. This will produce about 2400 cu. yd. crushed bottom stone loose 
measure or approximately 1800 cu. yd. rolled measure. One thousand eight 
hundred cubic yards will build approximately 90 Sta. of 12 ft. bottom 5 
in. deep whidi makes it safe to specify a local bottom using crushed stone 
and lake gravel as far south as Sta. aSo with either gravel or crusher run 
the entire length of road on the shoulders. 

Imported bottom should be used Sta. 200 to 280. 



276 



PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATIONS 



Imported Stone. — One dollar and twenty-five cents per ton f.o.b. switch. 
Switoi can be built at Sta. 233 for I300 to I400. 

Water. — Can be obtained at all seasons at intervals from i mile to iH 
miles all along the road. 

Cost of Different Types 

Grubbing and clearing $ 300 . 00 

23.000 cu. yd. roadbed excavation @ I0.50 11,500.00 

15.000 cu. yd. brow exc. across Braddocks Bay @ I0.45 ' 6,750.00 

800 cu. yd. sub-base @ |i . 25 1,000 .00 

4,000 lin. ft. concrete G. R. across Braddocks Bay @ |i .00.. . . 4,000.00 

Drainage of system 3,500 .00 

Minor points @ 400 per mile 3i400 . 00 

Engineering and contingencies 8,000 . 00 

Total cost of items other than metaling $38,450 .00 

Schedule of Unit Prices 

Imported waterbound top Sta. 133 to 450 $5 .00 per cu. yd. rolled 

Imported bit. mac. top Sta. 133 to 450 7 .30 per cu. yd. roUed 

iLocal granite bit. mac. top Sta. o to 133 6.00 per cu. yd. rolled 

^Imported limestone water mac. Sta. o to 133 5 . 50 per cu. yd. rolled 

Sub-base bottom crushed stone filler to 133 i .50 per cu. yd. rolled 

Local crushed bottom Sta. 133 to 200 2#so per cu. yd. rolled 

Imported mac. bottom Sta. 200 to 280 3 .20 per cu. yd. rolled 

Local crushed bottom Sta. 280 to 3S0 2 .30 per cu. yd. rolled 

Lake gravel bottom Sta. 350 to 450 i .90 per cu. yd. rolled 

Crushed stone or gravel on shoulders i . 50 per cu. 5jd. loose 

Tarvia B . 08 per gal. in place 

Table of Comparative Cost 



Type 



Approx. Cost Including 
Bng. and Contingencies 



Cost per 
Mile 



Total Cost 



Design No. i (for details see Cost Estimate 

Sheet) 

Design No. 2 (for details see Cost Estimate 

Sheet) 

Design No. 3 (for details see Cost Estimate 

Sheet) 

Design No. 4 (for details see Cost Estimate 

Sheet) 



$11,000 
11,300 
12,000 
12,500 



$ 93,500 
96,200 

102,200 
106,000 



J 



Computation of Unit Prices 

Overhead approximately 30c. per cubic yard of bottom and top stone* 
No overhead estimated on other items. 

Sub-base Botiom Course Crushed Stone Filler Sta. o to 133 

(^ost of stone in fences $0 . 10 

Loading 0.15 

Hauling J4 mile 0.12 

Placing and sledging o . 20 

Rolling o . OS 

Crushed stone filler. (See Filler) 0.35 cu. yd o .40 

I1.02 

20 % profit . 20 

Overnead . 30 



Estimate $1.52 

Say |i . 50 

1 There is no difference in cost Sta. to 133 between a local granite bit. mac 
top and an imported limestone waterbound top when treated with Tarvia B, 



SAMPLE REPORT 277 

Crushed Stonb Filler (Crusher Run) 

Per Cu. Yd. 

Cost of stone in fences lo . lo 

Loading 0.15 

Haul to crusher i mile o . 35 

Crushing 0. 10 

Cost in bins lo. 70 

Loading to wagons o.oi 

Haul to road ^ mile 0.22 

Spreading and brooming o . 20 

I1.13 
0.35 cu. yd. per yard of sub-base = |o . 40 

Local Crushed Stone Bottom Sta. 133 to 200 

Cost in bins $0 . 70 

Loading to wagons o.oi 

Hauling to road iK miles o . 40 

Spreading o . 06 

Rolling . 05 

li .22 
Consolidation 0.3 0.37 

liS9 
Filler . 20 

I1.79 

20 % profit o . 36 

Overhead o . 30 

Say I2 . so , I2 . 45 

Stone on shoulders Si .50 per cu. yd. loose. 

Local Granite Bit. Mac. Top Sta. o to 133 

Stone in fences lo . 10 

Loading 0.15 

Blasting and sledging 0.15 

Hauling to crusher 0.35 

Crushing 0.15 

y. lo . 90 in bins 

Loading to wagons o.oi 

Hauling to road ^ mile 0,22 

Spreading o . 06 

Rolling . 08 

I1.27 
Consolidation o . 38 

I1.65 

Screenings No. 2 and Bit 3.10 

Profit o .90 

Overhead 0.30 

Estimate IS -95 

Say 16.00 

No, 2 Screenings and Bitumen. Note: There should be enough local 
screenings for about ^ of the top course. Use imported for the balance. 

Cost o .45 cu. yd. screenings and No. 2 at bin |o .40 

Hauling fi mile o . 10 

Spreading 0.12 

Manipulation 21 gal. bitumen @ iHc .32 

Cost 21 gal. bitumen on road @ &Hc i . 82 

I2.74 



278 PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATIONS 

Imported Screenings and No. 2 

Cost o .45 cu. yd. f.o.b. switch @ |i . 25 per ton |o . 70 

Unloading . 05 

Hauling 3 miles o. 90 

Spreading 0.12 

Manipulation 21 gal. bitumen @ iHc 0.32 

Cost 2 1 gal. bitumen on road @ 83^c i . 80 

I3.89 
Average price I3 • 10 

Imported Limestone Waterbound Mac. Sta. o to 133 

Materials: 

4400 lb. of stone @ Ix .25 per ton I2 . 75 

6 % profit o . IS 

I2.90 
Labor: 

Unloading lo . 10 

Hauling 3 miles @ |o . 25 o . 75 

Spreading . 08 

Rolling and puddling o . 10 

I1.03 
Consolidation 0.3 0.31 

I1.34 

Screenings . SS 

20 % profit o . 38 

Overhead o . 30 

Materials 2 . 90 

Estimate Is -47 

Screenings: 

Unloading |o . 05 

Hauling 3 miles o .40 

Spreadmg and brooming . 10 

loss 

Imported Limestone Waterbound Mac. Sta. 133 to 450 

Materials I2 . 90 

Labor: 

Unloading o . 10 

Hauling 90 sta. iH miles 9 . SS 

Spreadmg 0.08 

Rolling and puddling o . 10 

I0.83 
Consolidation . 25 

I1.08 

Screenings o . 45 

20 % profit . 30 

Overhead o . 30 

Materials 2 . 90 

Estimate Is • 03 

Say Is-oo 

Screenings: 

Unloading lo . 05 

Hauling iH miles 0.30 

Spreading and brooming o . 10 

I0.45 



SAMPLE REPORT 279 

Imported Limestone Bituminous Macadam Sta. 133 to 450 

Materials: 

4200 lb. @ I1.2S f.o.b. per ton I2 .6a 

6 % profit CIS 

13.77 
Labor: 

Unloading |o . 10 

Haulinpf o. SS 

Spreading o. 08 

Rolling o . 08 

I0.81 
Consolidation 0.3 o . 24 

I1.05 

Screenings and bitumen I2 . 52 

20 % profit o . 70 

Overhead o. 30 

Materials 2 . 77 

Estimate 17-34 



Screenings No. 2 and Bitumen 

Unloading lo.os 

Hauling 0.25 

Spreading; and brooming 0.12 

21 gal. bitumen A. @ 8^^c i . 78 

Manipulation of bitumen o .32 

I2.52 



Imported Limestone Bottom Sta. 200 to 280 

Materials: 

3200 lb. stone @ I1.25 per ton $2 .00 

profit o . lo 

Total materials I2 . 10 

Labor: 

Unloading |o . 10 

Hauling average distance, 20 sta 0.15 

Spreading 0.06 

Rolling o .OS 

I0.36 
Consolidation 0.3 o.ii 

I0.47 
Filler o . 20 

I0.67 

20 % profit 0.13 

Overhead o . 30 

Materials 2 . 10 

I3-3Q 



28o PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATIONS 

Local Stone Mac. Bottom Sta. 280 to 350 

Stone in fences So . 10 

Sledging o . 05 

Loading 0.15 

Hauling to crusher i mile 0.3s 

Crushing 0.12 

Cost in bins $0.77 

Loading to wagons .01 

Haul to road 0.7 mile o . 22 

.Spreading o . 06 

Rolling o . OS 

li.ii 
Consolidation 0.3 o . 33 

I1.44 
Filler. o . 20 

Si. 64 

20 % profit o . 33 

Overhead . 30 

Say I2.30 S2.27 

Lakb Gravel Bottom Sta. 350 to 450 

Assume H material from Manitou Beach. 

Assume ^ material from beach iH miles north of Sta. 350. 

Selected Beach Run of Gravel 

Cost on beach |o. 10 

Loading o . is 

Hauling average 2 miles o . 70 

Spreading o . os 

Rolling o . 04 

Loam and flushing o . os 

I109 
Consolidation 0.2 t) . 22 



Say 1 1. 90 

Design No. i. 
Sec. No. I 



I1.31 

20 % profit o. 26 

Overhead o . 30 

I1.87 
Approximate Cost Estimates 



12' wide 6" sub-base 3" bit. mac, local top 6' of stone on 
shoulders. Treated with Tarvia B or No. 4 road oil. Sta. 

. o to 1.33. 

[ 14' wide s" local mac. bot. 3" waterbound imported lime- 
Sec. No. 2 ' stone top. Treated with Tarvia B. 4' stone on shoulders. 

, Sta. 133 to 200. 
c^ VT [14' wide s" imported bottom; same top as from Sta. 133 to 

oec. iNo. 3 s 200 Sta. 200 to 260. 4' stone on shoulders. 
Q /, Mrt A / ^2' wide s" imported bottom 3" water imported top Tarvia B. 
oec. XNO. 4 j 5/ of stone on shoulders. Sta. 260 to 280. 
Q-/» Mrt e 3 '^' yride s" local mac. bottom 3" water imported top Tarvia 
oec. XNO. 5 1 B. 6' stone on shoulders. Sta. 280 to 310. 
« XTft /i / '^' "^de 9" sub-base bottom 3" water mac. top Tarvia B. 
oec. iNo. o < j^Q gi^jjg ^^ shoulders. Sta. 310 to 335- 

<u« xta «» / ^^' ^^® S" local mac. bottom 3" water mac. top Tarvia B. 

Dec. iNo. 7 \ 5/ of stone on shoulders. Sta. 335 to 350. 

c Mo 8 / ^''' wide s" lake gravel bottom 3" water mac. top Tarvia B. 

oec. iNo. o ^ ^f of gravel or stone on shoulders. Sta. 350 to 450. 



SAMPLE REPORT 281 

ApfffoximaU 
Sec. z. Sta, o to I33 Amouni 

3000 cu. yd. 6" sub-base bottom @ I1.50 I4500.00 

1500 cu. yd. 3" bit. mac. (local) top ® S6.00 9000.00 

730 cu. yd. stone on shoulders (loose) @ I1.50 1 100 .00 

3500 gal. Tarvia B on stone shoulders @ I0.08 280.00 

Sec. 2. Sta. 133 to 200 

14.50 cu. yd. 5" local mac. bottom @ I2.50 I3625 .00 

870 cu. yd. 3" imported waterbound top @ I5.00 4350.00 

270 cu. yd. stone on shoulder @ I1.50 405 .00 

5400 gal. Tarvia B @ I0.08 430 . 00 

Sec. 3. Sta. 200 to 260 

1300 cu. yd. 5" imported bottom @ I3.20 I4150.00 

780 cu. yd. 3" imported water mac. top @ $s.oo 3900.00 

240 cu. yd. stone on shoulders @ I1.50 360 .00 

4800 gal. Tarvia B @ I0.08 385 . 00 

Sec. 4. Sta. 260 to 280 

370 cu. yd. 5" imported bottom @ I3.20 I1185 .00 

230 cu. yd. 3" imported water mac. top @ $5.00 1150.00 

no cu. yd. stone on shoulders @ I1.50 165 .60 

1600 gal. Tarvia B @ I0.08 130.00 

Sec. 5. Sta. 280 to 310 

560 cu. yd. 5" local bottom @ I2.30 I1290.00 

340 cu. yd. 3'' water mac. top @ I5.00 1700 .00 

170 cu. yd. stone on shoulders @ I1.50 255 .00 

2400 gal. Tarvia B @ I0.08 190.00 

Sec. 6. Sta. 310 to 335 

1 130 cu. yd. 9" sub-base bottom (^ li.?5 I1980.00 

380 cu. yd. 3" water mac. top @ Is.oo ? 1900.00 

1800 gaL Tarvia B @ I0.08 145 .00 

Sec. 7. Sta. 335 to 35© 

280 cu. yd. 5" local bottom @ I2.30 $ 645 .00 

170 cu. yd. 3" water mac. top @ I5.00 850 . 00 

80 cu. yd. stone on shoulders @ li.so 120 .00 

1200 gal. Tarvia B @ |o.08 95 -oo 

Sec. 8, Sta. 350 to 450 

1900 cu. yd. 5'' lake gravel bottom ^ |i .90 l3,6oo.oo 

1150** ** 3" water mac. top @ f 5. 00 5.750. 00 

550 " *' -gravel on shoulders @ Si . 50 825 .00 

8000 gal. Tarvia B. @ I0.08 640.00 

Totals I55.100 . 00 

Items other than metal 38.4SO .00 

Total estimates S93.S50 .00 

Design No. 2. Same widths and foundation construction as Design No. i 
except that a 2H" imi)orted limestone bituminous macadam is substituted 
for tne 3" waterbound top treated with Tarvia B. 

0>st of 3" water mac. top Design No. i I19.600 .00 

0>st of Tarvia B. on mac. top Design No. i 1,500 .00 

Total 121,100.00 

Cost of 2j^" bit. mac. top 23,800 .00 

Increased cost Design No. 2 over No. i $ 2,700 .00 

Design No. 3. 16' road entire distance local bottom Sta. o to 200 and 
280 to 450 and imported bottom Sta. 200 to 280 with 3'' imported water- 
bound macadam treated with 0.4 gal. Tarvia B. or 0.25 gal. No. 4 Road Oil. 

9.300 cu. yd. local bottom s'^^thick <^ $2 . 25 $20,700.00 

1.970 ** imported bottom 5" thick @ I3. 20 — 6,300.00 

6,700 ** " imported top 3" thick @ $5 . 10 34,200 .00 

33,000 gal. Tarvia B. @ I0.08 2,560 .00 

163,760.00 
Items other than metaling ^ 38,450 . 00 

|lO2,2I0.00 



282 PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATIONS 

Design No. 4. Substitute a 2H" bit. mac. top for the 3" waterbound 
top of Design No. 3. This increases the cost approx. 14,000. 

Signed, 

Designing Engineer. 

PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATIONS FOR ROADS IN UN- 
SETTLED DISTRICTS 

Reports of this nature can not be figured as accurately as for 
high t3rpe roads but if carefully done should not vary over 25% from 
the final construction cost. The cost of preliminary investigations 
depends very largely on the character of the country, the methods 
employed, and the travel necessary to get to the work and will 
range from $2 to $40 per mile. A fair average! cost for work*^ similar 
to that done by the U. S. Office of Public Roads in the mountainous 
districts of the west is $$ per mile for ordinary cases and $30 per 
mile for a plane table sketch survey in difficult country. 

Ordinary Preliminary Investigations. — ^The improvement to be 
investigated generally consists of a combination of betterments of 
existing roads with a large percentage of relocation of the old road 
or the new location of a highway where no road of any kind traverses 
the territory. The length of these projects range from 5 miles 
to 150 miles. The engineer generally receives orders to report on 
the best general route and approximate cost of a road between 
definite terminals which requires more general investigation than 
called for in the preliminary reports on high type roads previously 
discussed. 

The field work is usually made by one or two men on foot or 
horseback. All possible different routes are examined. As a rule 
this general examination eliminates all but one or two possibilities 
which are examined with care; sufficient notes, photographs, etc., 
being taken to make a reasonably close estimate of cost. 

The selection of general route is based on a comparison of the 
following factors for the different routes. 

1 . Best location for the development of the country. 

2. Longest open season for use. 

3. Least rise and fall.^ 

4. Feasible ruling grades. 

5. Length and cost. 

The following engineering equipment will cover all requirements 
for obtaining the general data and the detailed information required 
for a reasonably close cost estimate. 

2 Aneroid barometers 2j^"or 3" dial in leather carrying cases. 

Tested for range of altitude needed. 
I Abney level reading to degrees and per cent. 
I Pocket compass 2" floating card dial or, if desired, 
I Prismatic compass (card dial preferred). 
I 4A Kodak with folding tripod. 
Note books, existing maps, etc. 
In rolling topography it makes no difference in which direction 
the line is traced but where elevation is developed on a ruling grade 
the work should be done from the highest point down hill. 



FIELD METHODS 283 

Where anecoid elevations must be depended on consklerable care 
must be exercised. K one aneroid can oe left at a stationary point 
and its fluctuations read at intervals during the day very accurate 
results can be obtained when the field aneroid is corrected for the 
fluctuations but this is not feasible for work of this kind as a rule 
and aneroid elevations are to say the least uncertain. Where used 
two instruments should be carried; when reading they should be 
held horizontal and the crystal rapped sharply with the finger nail 
to free the needle if caught which often happens. Any important 
elevations should be determined at least twice and a return trip 
made to the original datum point to check the instrument. 

The general rise and fall can be determined by the aneroids. 

The approximate location of the road for different ruling grades 
can be traced with the Abney level. 

A rough traverse can be run with the pocket comp>ass or pris- 
matic compass. 

Distances can be obtained by pacing (pedometer or hand counter) 
by timing if on horseback; by scaling from reliable maps or by auto- 
meter if on aai existing road. 

Cross-sections are determined by the Abney level and are taken 
and recording at sufficient intervals to show the general slope of 
the sidehill. ; 

Classification of excavation and the cut slopes at which excava- 
tion will stand depends on the judgment of the engineer but must 
be S3^tematlcally .recorded. 

Drainage should be carefully estimated particularly the larger 
structures as this item forms a large percentage of the cost of low 
type roads. ; 

Clearing and grubbing is recorded by section. 

Each engineer has his own ideas about notes and it makes little 
difference how the data is recorded so long as it is clearly and 
definitely set down in such a way that anyone can retrace the route 
and reestimate the cost without additional field work. 

The main faults of reports and notes are that they are not suffi- 
ciently clear on facts; they generally run strong on generalities 
and judgment and are not worth the paper they are written on if 
the author h not available to explain in detail. 

A well arranged report should either summarize the conclusions 
at the beginning and explain in detail later or be indexed so that 
the conclusions can be readily located. A preliminary estimate 
should be rounded out to even figures as amounts figured to single 
yards or costs figured to odd figures of less amount than 10% of 
the total coit are merely ridiculous and show that the estimator 
has lost tracK of the relative accuracy of his work. 

The follo^*dng form of notes serve in a satisfactory way when 
supplemented by photographs, sketches and text descriptions. 

Detail su^estions on photography are given in Chapter XII. 

Table 25 and 26, pages 286 and 296, serve to give a tough ap- 
proximation of the amount of excavation required. 

Drainage costs can be estimated on the standard structures 
required by the State or Government for whom the work is being 



PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATIONS 


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EXCAVATION QUANTITIES 285 

done or can be approximated by reference to the various standard 
structures and costs shown in Chapter III and Table 28, page 298. 
Various miscellaneous information convenient for preliminary 
estimates are given on page 297. A rough approximation of 
magnetic declination can be determined from the isogonic charts, 
pages 302 to 308. 

Explanation of Table 25 

Note. — Quantities determined graphically using one way crown 
for single track roads on all cross slopes; the 2 way crown for 
double track roads on cross slopes of 5 , 10^ and 15° and the one 
way crown on cross slopes above 15**. 

U for any reason it is desired to use a two way crown on single 
track roads for cross -slopes below 15** reduce the quantities shown 
in the table by about 25%. For the use of a two way crown above 
15^ cross slope, special computations wiU have to be made. 

To illustrate the use of this table we will figure the approximate 
excavation for the notes shown in Figure 60, page 284. 

From Sta. o to 5 the natural side or cross slope of the ground is 
given as 5®. In this case a turnpike section can be used say T-12. 
Turn to page 286 and under section T-12 for a 5** cross slope we 
find the excavation given as 33 cu. yd. per 100' or 165 cu. yd. for 
500 ft. We will increase this 20% accordmg to judgment for profile 
inequalities which gives us 200 cu. yd. earth excavation from Sta. 
o to 5. 

From station 5 to 10 we have a 15° cross slope. Suppose we are 
figuring an estimate for a minimum width single track road S-io 
look on page 287 and for a cross slope of 15° and a cut slope of 
I : I the table gives 46 cu. yd. per 100 ft. or 230 cu. yd. for 500 ft. 
Increase this by say 20% for inequalities in profile which gives us 
276 cu. yd. Estimate the percentage of this classed as rock say 
10% and we have 250 cu. yd. for common exc. and 26 cu. yd. of solid 
rock. 

In a similar way estimate Sta. 10 to Sta. 20. 

From Sta. 20 to Sta. 25 the notes record a ground cross slope 
of 35^. This calls for a retaining wall section, see page 293, section 
W-8 for a 35** cross slope. The table gives the following quantities 
for 100'. 

55 cu. yd. of wall masonry. 
100 cu. yd. of excavation. 

Multiply this by 5 for 500 feet, add a percentage for inequalities 
of profile and estimate per cent, of solid rock. 

From Sta. 25 to Sta. 30 the notes show a rock ledge with a face 
slope of 50^. This calls for a section benched out of the solid 
ledge. Sec page 294, use Section S-8 the minimum single track 
section for a cross slope of 50° which gives 350 cu. yd. Rock ex- 
cavation per 100' or 1750 cu. yd. for 500 feet. 

If turnout sections for passing rigs are desired figure the excess 
quantities by referring to the parts of the table dealing with the 
double track widths. 



PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATIONS 



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j|| III II 


,001 Bd -pi -nQ 


:55JS2 w 


»dolBTna 




adoisino 


:5wi; :i!iw irij 


aUMMd-pA-no 


HI nil; 


,ooi Bd -pjL -"3 


SS^^S^S: 


"loiStlM 


aiws^iss: 


kJois »i>o 


:Hx:Hxi : 


3,.W ^ "PA -"O 


nmi\ 


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=58 5S! ; ; 


"JOES UW 


■crix^ '•■ : 


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flffif 


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S§« 5S 


: ■'■■: 


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i^xiS ; : 


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iill 




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ixii 




a 


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ill i« 

lis «■( 

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mm 


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mflt 




1 i^2 


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EXCAVATION AMOUNTS 



1 


1 
■1 

5 51 

III 

til 
5=8J ■ 

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i 

i 

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1 

1 
s 

1 

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1 -; 


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25%KSKlg 


9 S 




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f St 


B 


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1^' 


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:;?3£25 p : 


t 


a 


Ktoigiud 


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1 




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HIIMM 


^ ^ 


1 

1 
s 


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=3s HI ; i 


1 s 


•dois ilM 


jxieiixffx : i 


1 ti 


adois mo 


i^asass i: 


1 M 


1 


ann 1*1 "PA "3 


^^m\\ 


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=SS ^S£ : ; 


11^ 


a 


»doiSii!4 


S^XRT : : 




1 


sdojg »no 
ai!W«d-pA'i.o 




1 il 


miliii 


n? 




/lO. led -PA '"O 


"nS ss ; ; : 


^^» 


»dois ll!d 


X^TX : : : 


I-? 


1 


adoisiiD 


iiii? iJS : : : 


ll 


1 


•nW I'd -PA -no 


nil 




\ 


MI Bd -PA -no 


SwS 




='5i- 


sdoisiM 


x«ix 




f5^lf 


i 


9dois ina 


xiTX 




fiji 


I 






fi 


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PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION 



<» 


t i;ts 






^, 


1' rsi' 


rfv 


*^!|i| 


a 




9 


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3 

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1 

B 
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1 

3 

t 

1 

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1 


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III HI II 


,001 J9C1 -pji -no 


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115 
I IS 

lb 

I sis; 
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EXCAVATION AMOUNTS 



291 



00 

M 
I 

o 

H 

U 

H 

C/} 

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CO 
CO 

O 
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& 
o 

to 
55 

O 

M 

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a 

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^001 jad 'pj^^ -113 



^o\s im 



adois %n^ 



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ado|s tJHQ 



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0000 000 00 

fOOoo t^oo ro «o w» 

M M c^ 



000 CI 



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rfxn 

t^ ft 



r^F^F^ F^F^F^ ^^F»S 



000 
fOO o 



000 
000 

00 00 t- 



o 
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M 

ft 



1^ M o 00 U100 10 

« 'too Ct 00 t^ Vi 

M M f1 rt 



li^i^i^ r<>i,»^r4\ Fi^S 






000 000 

o li-)© 000 

to On O O 00 Oi 

M et 10 Ov ft ft 



ft NO ^ O ft IT 

f*)>00* t* •^po 

M ft Tj- 



• • •• •• 



• • •• • • 






«W\WS.W\ •ffs.CTs*^ 



000 COO 

000 000 

t* ft «t 00 ^00 

M r0«O Oi«o Oi 

M N 



ft O ft ui ft ro 

rO^ O 00 O^nO 

M M ft lO 



• • • • • • 






000 00 

»o o o 00 

t^ Tj-OO M Tt 

M ro>0 *■* Ov 



fO rfO O >o 

M ft ro 



■N^VftNfi* V«Vt 



I ff • • • • 



^K^^^^ ^c^^^ 



000 O 

100 o o 

t* 10 ft t* 

M fOO ft 



f*) t- v> O 

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• • • t •• 



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•••••• » • 



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000 000 00 
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MM ft ft ro PO 't 



P •« O 

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rto giS« 

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0.8 



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<tj dH 0) et 



^ 



3g2 PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION 





a ■ 


i ' 


* 'i 


■ 


J • 


a •. 








nnim 


Mil nil iiiiiiiii 






1 








- 








I 






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k\ 


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nil 


nil 


nil 


nil 


III 


III 











QUANTITIES 



293 



Table 25. — ^Approximate Quantities Wall Section Minimum 
Single Track Road Section W-8 
Double " " " W-12 




— H2)-4-3or la-M 



l.S or 2.0 




TYPICAL SECTIONS 
30*» & 35* Slopes 

Ditch Excavation Makes 
Pill Back of Wall 



'0.5 Hi 



TYPICAL SECTIONS 
40 & 45 Cross Slopes 
Borrow Pill Required 



Note. — Rough rubble masonry walls to have outside face batter of 3'' to 
i' and a bottom width of H the height. The foundation to be carried to 
a firm strata. 



Natural 

Ground 

Cross 

Slope 


Approxibiate Quantities per 100' of Road for W-8 SscnoN 


Wall 
Masonry 


Ditch 
Excavation 
Used in Pill 


Borrow 

Excavation 

for Balance 

of Pill 


Wall 

Excavation 

Waste 


Total 
Excavation 


•30* 
45* 


46 cu. yd. 

55 '* •• 
100 ** " 

135 " •• 


55 c^i- yd. 
80 " •• 
30 •• •• 
45 •• •• 


None 
None 
90 cu. yd. 
100 •• •• 


IS cu. yd. 
20 *• •• 

35 '* ** 
45 •* " 


70 cu. yd. 
100 •' " 

155 " " 
200 " " 



Table for Minimum Double Track Section W-12 



Natural 

Ground 

Cross 

Slope 


Approximate Quantities per 100' 


Wall 
Masonry 


Ditch 
Excavation 
Used in Pill 


Borrow 
Excavation 
for Balance 

of Pill 


Wall 

Excavation 

Waste 


Total 
Excavation 


1 

•30» 

K 

45* 


6s cu. yd. 

90 " •' 
180 " •• 
250 " " 


100 cu. yd. 

140 " " 
30 " *• 
45 •• " 


None 

None 
300 cu. yd. 
250 •* •* 


IS cu. yd. 
20 •• •* 

45 " •• 
80 *• •• 


IIS cu. yd. 
160 " " 

275 •• " 
375 •* " 



Note. — Above 45** ground slope use Rock Bench Sections, except in un- 
usual cases. 

* Retaining wall section on 30** cross slope is not usually economical. 



294 



PRELIMINARY INVESTTOATTON 

Table 25. — ^Table of Approximate Quantities Road 

Benched out of Rock 




TYPICAL BENCH 
SECTION 



Using S-8, S-io, S-12, S-14, S-16 



Natural 

Slope of 

Pace of 

Rock 

Ledge 


Cut 
Slope 


Approximate Excavation in Cu. Yd. per loo' for 
Different Sections 


•S-8 


1 
S-io ••S-12 

1 


S-14 


S-16 


SO** 

60° 

yo"* 

80** 


Vertical 

Half 
Tunnel 


350 cu yd 
600 " *• 
560 " •• 
460 " " 


500 cu yd 
850 •• *' 
800 " " 
SSO •• •' 


660 cu yd 
1.200 " ** 
1,050 '• •' 

680 " " 


870 cu yd 
1.550 " *• 
1,400 " " 


1,100 cu yd 
2,000 •• •• 
1,800 *• •* 



• Minimum width single track in rock. 
•• Minimum width double track in rock. 



Table 26. — Approximate Amounts of Embankment and Ex- 
cavation FOR Different Center Line Cuts and Fills 
Ground Surface Assumed Level 

(See page 295.) 
Ground Surface Xjerel 

1^ 

b 




|«<— TT— 12 to 22— >j 
' -W^U to 2i'-^ 



T 



Ground Surtaoe. Level 



RXCAVATIOK 



29s 





1 


Cut 

Slope 

i: I 


M M « 


00 M loe* 
t*pooo ^0 


• 

« MOO PO 't 
C« lOOO POOO 

>0 too© M 

M M 


WOO POO M 
M v>0 *^ 

1000 no M 
M M P« « PO 

i 




4* Q,.. 


M to V> 1000 
^00 fOOO fO 

M M n 


OkV)M|o^ OO^OOOlo 

M M M 


1 

00 moo (* 
topo wo to 
ton to r« 00 
M n n POPO 


CO 


3 



1 




M 00 fOOO 

M M ei 


<0 »A»O00 PO 
>00 v>00 
« <np0^t 


00 0)0^<O 
too MO f* 
100 00 &M 

M 


PO ^ ^ PO n 
no POPOO 
TftoM to 0^ 
M M rt n n 


H 

P 



-g.- 
5|^ 


00 -*© 
f^oo r» to.« 

M M e« 


eioo *n*no 

lo«100 ^« 


toQtM C« 

M M 


0^ toloPO PO 

00 n roo 
•H i^ r^ 

M « « PO PO 

t 
1 


1 

(X, 

8 

M 


1 


»> •• 


^000 «p» 

w M M 


r» r» CO CO '<!■ 


tot^o 00 
pott-o PO 
too to 60 

M 


1 

•to »oo ■* 

POO M M 

POO ^00 

M M n n n 




M M f« 


(1 ion (1 

100 lOM to 


000 ao n 
POOO tn t% 
tooo n 

M M 


fooo M» 
noo lo 
to lo 
M n n POPO 





M 
1 


»* ft •• 


fOt'.'tw 


«1 PO>P « 0^ 

M WJO» 'too 


OlO M M « 

00 Ot M POO 


n 1000 no 

M M M n n 


< 




M U) M H C) 

fO-O ^00 

M M H 


000 M>0>«0 

« toe* t»po 


»oO MOO 

w>00 rOCO ^ 

100 00 0«M 

M 


1 
M OsOvO t- 

H MOO 
10 Ok POOO 't 

M M n n PO 

1 

1 


i 


V 

M 

1 


air; 


n w>ao M ii» 

M M 


OktotoflO e» 
00 no v> 

M N « f«j<n 


3?ioOoo 
^w)0 tooo 


1 

noo POOO 1 
lo lotoro •-« 

M t loM 10 

M M M n (<« i 


04 

• 


CO H 


H M 


ioo>P looo 
w>o»^a 

« M r» p*5f*> 


M 1000 t 
M fO toM to 

i/>0 loOvO 


1 

i 

« i«M ro 
M M loro to 
x^oo n fo c^ 

M M (H PI PO 

i 


M 
II 




«*>00 to^^ 

H M 


t*H tolOlO 

M M M n ro 


P CI « 0»^ 

5 o\a6M 

^TfloOOO 


tooo 000 

t^ to 

fOO PO 
M M M n n 


CO M 


■*0 OsmO 


00 eiO MO 

M « « f^rO 


toroM 
000 M too 
^w>toOO 

M 


PO •-• POO M 

PO M PO M 
PO toMO M 

M M n n PO 







1 


w>0 WO v> 


<oo «oo 


00000 


00000 




M M (« Ct 


rOPO ^'<t-w» 


»ooo ao 

M 


n tooo 

M •-« M M n 



296 



PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION 



o 

H 

% 

M 

g 
H 

8 

M 



1 


^ 


lOOiOMt^ roOt^^c« t^TfWMi-i wiOOro^ 
M M N w fO rr 't w>0 t«-0»Mr«>io 0\^Osw)«-i 


1 


^ 

0iH 


«Oto4^o>0 «OO^ro« fotr*©'*" r»0'*PO 
^0^^O«O MOO^MOO rOOtOw)^ OCO'TOO 
MtiM fOfO'TWJWJ t^oO « ^ 00 fOOO ^ ■ 

MMM MCtfiro^ 


>0 

1 


4> 


.•a "-I 


'«fO»^Ov^ 00 MOO MOfOMO Moooomfl 
MMM coro^'t'/* r-oo « ^ 00Mr«roO^ 

MMM Mddroro 


CI 

1 


^ 


c«t^w)w)ao ^^^0*0 0*«t«.roO 00 moO « 

"•too rooo ro OiVif*t*rt 00 ^OoO t« »*ro«<Oio 

M M « c«ro^^w) Oooo^ro t«ctr«Moo 

MMM MCinrof*} 


1 




O'ifaoOOk rOMOCloO t^OooarO rOO^^Ot^ 

MM« Mco^^io OoOO^Mro t^MOWt* 

MM M n M rofO 




CI 

1 


1^ 
g^ 


OOO^OO MOOIOIOO VJOOOO^ Okt^r«(«3«3 

roaOMtxt t^f^oo^M ^OkTtMOk oOMOfOO 

M M « evroro^v) «Ot*OvM« m«0 m t^ 

MM M n n CO ro 


■ M 

1 


g^ 


t«-»oooto MiooOkQ e«^o*foOk 'tf-iot^t^Ok 

fOt^MOM >0 mO M 0^ MOmoOV) 'Tt^^^CI 
M M w e«<*)«*5^'t Ot^OsOM >OOV)00 

MM M n n ro<*> 


00 

M 

t 


.-1 •• 

g^ 


lOMCiOM OnioMn oooOtOn (*)oo O u» 

«ot*Mioo M>oi«Mr* fooo u^ « (<< 00 w> 

MM« Mroro^^ \0 t*oo e« »OOtO»o 

MM M M n ror*) 


H 

B 


g^ 


OOkOOn OlOOOro ooe«ov)W) lOMOkfOM 

roO ^0> rooO^OviA t«M«OMoo v) t« e« rooo 

MMM (iciroro^ lot^ooOM w)Ok^O«^ 

MM M M M n ro 


M 
1 


ft 
g" 


Mi/>MMfo oo^iootw) «or«octoo MO«Qk<or« 

rOO ^00 c« »« M t« ro looo r*>00 ^ m m O <5 
MMM Mf^rot*)^ »00 00 0> M 10 0* rooo ^ 

M M M C« M m 


M 
1 


•S ** 

3 M 


OkMio^ro OfOOCiO t^MOOsM Ot^OOrO 

nOOkror* mOmOm rOND O^m OOMOrO 

MM ei CI CO ro ^ wj'O 00 Ok M ^00 «*>oo ro 

M M M c« M ro 


V 

M 
1 




t*l*00^ 1000 USOO MV)00^ «10Mf<J» 

ciu)OtC«o OioOv'tOk Mfot^Mf* e«MW>row) 
MM t% n t% rot*i io»o t* Ok ^00 « r» « 

M M M M M ro 


Center 

Line 

PUl - H 

in Peet 


iOOV)Ov> Ov>OV)0 00000 00000 
OMMC«M rorO^^iO 'O t^oo Ok O d ^<> oo O 

M M M M M r% 



UNIT PRICES 



297 



Miscellaneous Information of Value in Making Preliminary 

Investigations and Estimates 

Conversion Per Cent, of Grade to Degrees of Vertical 

Angle 

(For use in tracing grade with transit or Abney Level) 
Per cent. Degrees 

I o»3S' 

2 I 09' 

3 1:43; 

4 a*' 18' 

5 2°S2; 

6 3 26' 

7 4°oo' 

8 • <35; 

9 S^<^ 

10 5>3 

11 6*»i7' 

12 6*^51' 

13 7^24' 

14 7^58' 



Table 27. — Table of Acres Per Station of 100 Feet and 
Per Mile for Different Widths of Clearing 

OR Right-of-way 





Acreage 


Width of Strip 












Per 100' 


Per Mile 


30 ft 


. 069 acres 


3 . 636 acres 


40" 


0.092 *' 


4.849 " 


SO" 


o.iis " 


6.061. ** 


60" 


0.138 " 


7 273 " 


70" 


0.161 " 


8.485 " 


80" 


0.184 " 


9.697 " 


90" 


0.207 " 


10.909 ** 


100" 


0.230 " 


12. 121 ** 



Range in Unit Estimate Prices 

Clearing and Grubbing. 

Sagebrush $ 10 to $ 50 per mile 

Light clearing $ 20 " $ 60 per acre 

Medium clearing $ 60 " $150 " " 

Heavy clearing $150 " $300 " ** 



298 



PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION 



(( <( 



C( tl 



It it 



it 



tt 



tl 



t( 



it 



Excavation. 

Common. 

Machine turnpiking $0. 15 to $0. 25 per cu. yd. 

Wheel scrapper and machine 

finish $0.25 

Wagon haul and machine 

finish $0.40 

Side hill plow, scrapper and 

machine $o- 35 

Disintegrated Rock or Dry Hard Clay. 
Considerable hand work or 

shooting $0. 75 

Solid Rock. 

Blasting open cut, per cu. yd. $0 . 80 ** $2 . 00 

Tunnel work $4 . 00 " $5 . 00 

Retaining Walls. 

Rough dry rubber masonry $1 . 00 " $3 . 00 

Mortar rubber $4 . 00 " $8 . 00 

Concrete $6 . 00 " $20. 00 

Timber and Lumber $30. 00 '* $80. 00 

Carpenter Work. 

Simple structures $5 .00 " $10.00 

Truss framing, etc $10.00 " $20.00 " 



(( 



tt 



tt 



it 



$035 
$0.60 

$0.75 
$1.00 



tt 


tt 


tt 


tt 


tt 


It 


tt 


tt 


It 


tt 


tt 


It 


tt 


It 


It 


tl 


tt 


It 


tl 


M ft. B.M. 



It 



n 



Table 28. — Approximate Cost Per Foot or Length Small 

Drainage Structures 



Size of Opening 



Kind of Structures 



Vitrified 
Pipe 



Corru- 
gated 
Metal 
Pipe 



Cast Iron 
Pipe 



• • 



Concrete 
Boxes 



Log 
Culverts 



12' 

15' 
18' 

24' 
36' 
48' 



or 16 



ff 



X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 
X 



$0.60 
0.90 
1. 10 
2.00 

3-75 



$1 



I 

I 
2 

4 
6 



25 
SO 
80 

75 
00 

50 



$2 
2 

3 
5 



00 
90 
40 

SO 



3.75 
4.80 

5 40 
6.00 

6.75 
8.00 

8.70 



$1.50 
1.70 



2 
2 

3 



30 
80 



00 
3-60 
4.00 



* Based on $50 per ton in place. 
**Ba5ed on $10 per cubic yard in place. 



SMALL BRIDGES 



299 



Culvert Data. — ^Local conditions must be considered in prices of 
materials, haul, etc., for a close estimate. 

Table 50, page 559, g^ves weights of corrugated pipe. 

Table 49, page 558, gives weights of cast iron pipe. 

Quantities of concrete can be figured from standard designs 
given in Chapter III. 

Timber in superstructures can be figured from standard designs 
in Chapter III. 

The summarized data shown in Table 28 will however act as a 
rough guide. 

Amounts of masonry in two abutments and four wings for 
various heights of abutment for small span timber bridge super- 
structures with 16' Roadway. 

H = height from bottom of foundation to bridge seat. 





Cubic Yards 


H in Feet 




Concrete 


Masonry 


6 


24 cu. yd. 


29 cu. yd. 


7 


32 " " 


38" " 


8 


40 " " 


49 " " 


9 


52 " " 


60 " " 


10 


62 " " 


74 " " 


12 


90 " " 


los 


14 


'33 " * 


153 " " 


16 


180 " " 


200 


18 


230 " " 


260 " " 








20 


295 " " 


325 " " 



Compiled from Plate 29, page 119. 

Approximate amount of timber in small span stringer bridge su- 
perstructures having 16' roadway and figured to carry a 20 ton 
load. 

(Figured from Plate 21, page 104) 



Clear Span Peet B. M. 

1 


Pounds Hardware 


6 ft. 
8 " 
10 " 

14" 
18 " 


1000 
1400 
1700 
2500 
3300 


70 pounds 

90 " 
no " 
130 " 
ISO " 



Note. — For timber spans 30' to 50', see Plates 22 and 23, 
pages 107 to 108. 
Pile abutments can be figured from Plate 21, page 104. 



300 PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION 

Net Volume of Logs in Board Measure. — A convenient approxi- 
mate rule for computing the net number of feet board measure of 
sawed timbers in logs is as follows: 

Diameter in inches X radius in inches _ Feet (board measure) 

1 2 per foot of log. 

Eocample. 

Suppose you have a log lo' long 12" in diameter. 

— = number of feet B. M. per foot of log. 



12 
12 X 6 



12 



« 6 ft. B. M. per ft. X lo' = 60 ft. B. M. 



Steel Bridges. — The following diagrams taken from various 
sources will serve as a basis for rough estimates on longer span 
steel highway bridges. They are figured for a live load of 100 lb. 
per square foot and presumably for a plank floor. They are of much 
lighter construction than called for on heavy traffic roads where 
solid floors and a heavier loading are gaining favor. 

Magnetic DecHnation. — The following isogonic charts give the 
approximate magnetic declination for States east and west of the 
Mississippi for January i, 1915. The yearly change is given. 
These charts will give a value close enough for preliminary investi- 
gation purposes. For meridian determination for location surveys, 
see Chapter XI. "Polaris" and "Solar Meridians." 



Explanation of Plates 37 and 38 (Taken from U. S. Coast 

and Geodetic Chart) 

The solid lines on these charts are lines of equal magnetic de- 
clination. 

The dot and dash lines are lines of equal yearly rate of change in 
the magnetic declination. 

The charts show the magnetic declination for Jan. i, 1915. 

Lines marked East Declination mean that the north end of the 
magnetic needle points east of true north. 

Lines marked West Declination mean that the north end of the 
needle p>oints west of true north. 

For localities east of the line of no annual change the north end 
of the magnetic needle is moving west. For localities west of this 
line it is moving east at the rate shown by the lines of annual 
change. The location of the line of no annual change is shown on 
Plates 38 and 37G. 



STEFX BRIDGES 



301 



I 



16000 



% 16000 

I^HOOO 
S c 

g 1 12000 

"Lb 

g^JIOOOO 
i I 8000 
^ g 6000 

4- 

£ 

I 



4000 

2000 





"- " "- ■" 




/H^ 


'^V 


^ 1 


1*'v?^ 


y2h^ 




^^^ 




^ 1$, > Mfer^/?^ Of Site! in Bridges, 


3 p(^^ ^ exclusive erf Joists and 


j,^ ** fence, Warren, RiYefed 


%, "^^ Low Truss, Half Hip,Tee 


^ ^ ■" C^are/s, Live Load 16001b. 


per /in. ff' of dridqep 


Roadwag IrO. 


..:..,, Ii III MM 1 



30 



40 50 60 70 

Span of Bridge m Feel". 



80 





/ 


r- 


^-.^ 


y^^ 


■A^^^ 


r't'V '-' 


WRoad^'Sidetfalks ^,o'4\ ^ y'^ 


-«;« 2,5-^ ",) -^l:^.^^^ 


-«'- ^'^ /!Va '^^^ 


/^fbntfgs;-;^ 


1 ^^^12^^ 


/ y ~^^^ 1 


• 'tt^^ ^^ 


"^' 


ss^ 





I I I I I 1 I 1 I I ' ' I I I I M ■ ' ■ ' ■ ■ 
40 50 GO 70 60 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 

' Panel© 



85P00 
SOjOOO 
75P00 0) 
70,000 "E 
65,000 o 
60,000 '^- 
55,000 &) 
50,000 ^ 
45J0OO ^ 
40,000 o 
35,000 i 
30.000 .?^ 
25,000 ^ 

20,000 - 
15,000 -H 

10,000*" 

5,000 



302 



PRIiXIMINARY INVESTIGATION 



Plate 37A. 



"^s^^ 




MAGNETIC DECLINATION 



303 



Plate 37B. 




z. 



304 



PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION 
Plates 37 C and D. 







y sy y / / vs 




MAGNETIC DECXINATION 



305 



Plates 37 E and F. 





^mtm 



3o6 



PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION 



Plate 37G. 




Plate 37 H. 




MAGNETIC DECLINATION 307 

Plate 37I. 



^® v^(c#^-^,^v_/ " 


^j-^3v^^'^p.-— 3::5 


7^^'''''~''^'^^^>^^^^^^''\ — ~p^'r:^ 




4-^^^Jci^^7___. 


^^ J\£^'y^r--^^'^'''"~-^»'~r' 


^jry—^/'^s i i Jv 


^P^^^ 


^^^^"^^^ 


^ n 


%^^ru iT''^^ 








•, (J (\\^ „ -.^ 


-' e^>. /Si 




s. >r ^ f X. c» s 


C^ < 


^^"■""-^-^o f fe 


Pn. /^ /~N 


TT^^CO i5 


F^ 


K^ 







3o8 PREtlMtNARV INVESTIGATION 




SAMPLE REPORT 309 

The following sample report shows a form in oidioaiy use for 
Preliminary Investigations which covers the information required. 

REPORT ON PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION OF THE 

RED GAP-BIG BEAR RANCH HIGHWAY IN 

PATERSON AND GRANT COUNTIES, 

STATE OF , 1919 

State Commissioner of Highways, 
Dear Sir: 

Compljdng with your request of May loth, a preliminary investi- 
gation of the proposed Red Gap-Big Bear Ranch Highway was 
made June ist to June loth. 

There is only one feasible route via Clear River Ranch, Coal 
Basin, Stray horse Divide, See Creek and Blackwater river a 
total distance of 30 miles. This route is free from ^now seven 
months in the year. A double track road from Red Gap to Coal 
Basin and a single track road with turnouts and permanent drainage 
structures for the remaining distance will cost approximately 
$175,000. 

In case the entire project can not be undertaken by one appro- 
priation, I recommend the following order of construction of the 
various sections shown on the accompanying map (page 317). 

First in importance G 4, G 5, 

Second " '* G 7, 

Third " '* G 6, 

Fourth " " G 2, G 3, 

Fifth " " Gi, Pi, P2, 

Sixth " '* P3, P4, 

Seventh" " P 5, 

The report in detail follows. 

Signed, 
Field Engineer. 
Table of Contents 

Page 

1. Introduction 310 

2. Length in Counties and Benefits 310 

3. Methods of Investigation 310 

4. Present Condition Roads and Trails 310 

5. General Topography 311 

6. Proposed Genend Route 312 

7. Controlling Points 313 

8. Description between Controlling Points 313 

9. Recommendations and General Costs 315 

10. Detail Estimate 315 

(a) Classification of Material. 315 

(b) Unit Prices Used 316 

(c) Division into Sections . 316 

(d) Estimate by Sections 316 

11. Maps and Photographs — 

The field notes on which this report is based can be found in 
Field Book No. 153 Preliminary Investigation file. 



3IO PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION 

I. Introduction 

It is proposed to build a new road over Stray Horse Divide con- 
necting the valleys of the Clear and Blackwater Rivers and to 
improve Uie location, grade and width of the existing roads in 
tJiese valleys. The highway will extend from Red Gap in Paterson 
County to Big Bear Ranch in Grant County a distance of approxi- 
mately 30 miles. It will open up a valuable farming section on 
the upper Blackwater River and will afford more direct communi- 
cation between these two counties. 

2. Length in Counties and Benefits 

Paterson County. — Red Gap to Stray Horse Divide 8 miles. 

Grant County. — Big Bear Ranch to Stray Horse Divide 22 
miles. 

Paterson County will be benefited by a better and quicker con- 
nection with communities to the south and by the large amount of 
tourist travel which will undoubtedly use this road. 

Grant County will gain a more direct route to an isolated por- 
tion of its territory and will help the development of a promising 
farming section on the upper Blackwater River. 

While none of this road lies in Socorro County, this county will 
be more directly benefited than Paterson County as the natural 
outlet for trade and produce up the Blackwater lies toward 
Lochiel. 

3. Methods of Investigation 

Field Work. — The entire line was covered twice on foot June 
ist to loth, noting the controlling points (aneroid elevations) the 
general classification of materials, the sidehill slopes and reason- 
.able ruling grades. 

OfEice Work. — The ofl5ce estimate is based on paced distances 
checked by Forest Service maps and maps of tne Clear River 
Railroad. 

The excavation per running foot on sidehill work is based on 
cross slopes taken with an Abney level at frequent intervals and is 
figured on the principle of balanced sidehill sections adding dif- 
ferent percentages for inequalities in profile. 

The classification of excavation is made roughly from notes on 
the general character of the formations. 

The drainage is approximated for the smaller structures. The 
larger bridges are noted in more detail. 

Estimates have been prepared for various widths of roadway. 

4. Present Condition of Roads and Trails 

Paterson County (Red Gap to Stray Horse Divide). — ^Thcre 
is a fair wagon road from Red Gap to Clear River Ranch about 
2 miles south; a solid but poor wagon road from this point to Coal 
Basin; a fair road from Coal Basin to Stray Horse Station and a well 



SAMPLE REPORT 311 

marked but steep trail from this point to the top of Stray Horse 
Divide. 

Grant County (Stray Horse Divide to Big Bear Ranch) .—There 
is an easy trail from Stray Horse Divide to Blackwater River ap- 
proximately 8 miles; a very poor wagon road down Blackwater 
River from See Creek to Adams Ranch approximately 9 miles. 
The road between these points crosses the nver eight or ten times 
by fords and can not be used at all if the water is much above low 
stage. Under the best conditions a good team can not haul over 
I ton. 

From Adams Ranch to Big Bear Ranch (about 5 miles) the road 
is poor and dangerous in many places. It is so steep that one and a 
half tons is about the maximum load for an exceptionally good 
team under the best conditions. 

While this project ends at Big Bear Ranch it should be noted 
that if the road from this point to Lochiel in Socorro County, the 
nearest railroad point, is not improved the value of this project will 
be practically lost. The present road to Lochiel is dangerous, 
limits a team load to about i K tons and will be an expensive road 
to improve. I estimate roughly that $40,000 will be required to 
put it into reasonably good shape. 

5. General Topography 

• 

Paterson County (Red Gap to Stray Horse Divide) (See photo- 
graphs No. I to No. 10). — From Red Gap south for about 2 J^ miles 
ihe topography is abrupt. Red sandstone and conglomerate 
cliffs and dykes hold the road location closely to the Clear River. 
From this point to about one-half mile south of Coal Basin occa- 
sional cliffs occur but a careful location will avoid them and it will 
be possible to gain some elevation along the sides of the valley. 
From the point to Stray Horse Divide and for a couple of miles 
south of the pass there are no cliffs and while the slopes are steep 
averaging 25 to 40** the location can be placed at any desired eleva- 
tion. This strip of country is fortunately favorable to location. 

Grant County (See photos No. 11 to 30). — From Stray Horse 
divide to Thompson's Ranch the formation is favorable for location 
on any desired grade. Few rock outcrops occur. The slopes aver- 
age 20** to 25°. 

From Thompson's Ranch down See Creek is an ideal road loca- 
tion. No solid rock, very little loose rock, easy water grade. The 
side slopes average 10° for one-half the distance and 20° for the 
balance of the way. 

From the junction of See Creek and Blackwater River down the 
east side of the Valley to Buck Creek the location is easy on a side- 
hill averaging 25° side slope. There are no rock outcrops and very 
little loose rock. An easy grade can be obtained. 

From Buck Creek to Spring Creek along the sidehill on the east 
side of Blackwater River the following conditions prevail. Average 
sidehill slope 30°; one-half mile of rock ledge slope of face approx. 
60®. Expensive work can not well be avoided out. an easy grade 
can be ootained. 



312 PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION 

From Sptiag Creek to Adams' Ranch the formation on the east 

side of the valley is favorable for location at some distance away 
from the River. A ruling grade of s % can be obtained at the worse 
places and ordinarily the grade is light. Benches and sjdehill 
slopes are easy averaging 15 for J^ the distance and 30° for the 
remainder. 

From Adams' Ranch to Big Bear Ranch the best location lies 
on the west side of the valley. Difficult country is encountered, 
heavy scrub oak brush, many large boulders and considerable solid 
rock. The River changes its channel frequently and any permanent 
road location must be placed beyond its reach Decessitating ex- 
pensive work. 

The natural soil from Big Bear Ranch to Adams' Ranch is very 
slippery when wet. To get a good safe road Creek Gravel should be 
used as surfacing. Unless the roadbed is sloped toward the hill 
(one way crown) any of this location will be dangerous in wet 
weather. This same condition appdies in a less marked degree all 
the way up Blackwater River to See Creek. 

6. Proposed General Route 




rise and fall to the first crossing of the Qear River about i % miles 
south of Red Gap. From this point to the mouth of the Canyon 
ffbout }i mile the location is open to argument. The existing road 
crossed the river twice (see sketch above). Both of these bridges 
were wrecked by the flood of 191S and temporarily the travel is 
using the railroad track between these points. 

With the permission of the railroad, it would be possible to widen 
out the cut on the west side of the track and tunnel or half tunnel 



SAMPLE REPORT 313 

for about 500 feet uotmd the rock bluff point, eUminating the two 
bridges and two railroad crossings. On the other hand the road 
would be very close to the track for H mile and would in my opin- 
ion be more dangerous for horse traffic than the old location re- 
quiring two bridges. The bridge location is recommended. 

From the mouth of the gorge the road will follow approximately 
the location of the present highway to the top of canyon hill and 
thence on a new location along the west side of the Clear River Valley 
to Stray Horse Divide, 

Gnnt County. — Beginning at the County line at Stray Horse 
divide a new location will follow down the north side of See Creek 
to a point about 2^ miles southwest of Thompson's Ranch and 
thence along the south and east side of See Creek and Blackwater 
River to Adams' Ranch. At Adams' Ranch the road will cross to the 
west side of the vaUey and remains on this side to Big Bear Ranch 
the end of the proposed improvement varying somewhat from the 
location of the present road to better short sharp grades and to 
avoid Creek flood areas. 

7. Controlling Points (Aneroid Elevations) 

Patenon Comity. 

Stray Horse Divide 9200 

Bench between Cliffs at Coal Basin 8200 

Top of Canyon Hill 8100 

Bottom of Canyon Hill 7930 

Red Gap 7800 

Grant County. 

Stray Horse Divide 9200 

Thompson's Ranch. 7900 

2 J^ miles S. W. of Thompson's 7500 

(See Creek Crossing.) 
Bench between Cliffs between 

Buck and Spring Creek 7150 

Adams Ranch 6780 

Big Bear Ranch 6600 

8. Description of Location Problems Between Controlling Points 

Paterson County 

Stray Horse Divide to Coal Basin. — The difference in elevation 
of these two points is approximately 1000 feet. The direct dis- 
tance is about ifi miles. In order to get a good ^rade and come 
somewhere near Coal Basin, which is probably desirable, it will be 
necessary to run south from Stray Horse Divide and then turn 
north. In this way any required ruling grade can be obtained and 
the length of road will depend entirely on the grade selected. The 
switchlxu^k can be made without too great cost by a careful loca- 
tion. I recommend a 5 % grade with a length of 4 miles. The road 
in general will follow the contours. Two pronounced galleys are 



314 PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION 

crossed which can be bridged or filled as determined on the location 
survey. 

By the use of a 6% to 7% grade it is possible to run direct from 
Stray Horse Divide to the top of Canyon Hill. This solution should 
be carefully investigated but does not appeal to me to be as good as 
the 5% location as the topography is not as favorable for location 
and while it is shorter the lighter grade is to be preferred and the 
extra length of road south of the divide will be utilized in the future 
as a part of the road to Stone Quarry. 

Coal Basin to Top of Canyon. Hill.— Approximate length i Ji 
miles. Along contour of steep sidehill for approx. % mile and then 
along bench cut up by small swales and knol&. No special features. 
Grade any convenient to fit topography. No grade problem on 
this section. Excavation largely earth and loose rock. One 20' 
span bridge required. 

Top of Canyon Hill to Bottom of Canyon Hill at Mouth of Gorge. — 
Approximate length 0.6 mile. Along side of Canyon following 
present highway closely. Largely a question of equalizing grade 
by cut and fill. From Aneroid elevations and Abney level, I judge 
that a 6% grade can be obtained. Certainly a 7% can be built. 
This section of the road will be expensive and will govern the ruling 
grade from Red Gap to Stray Horse Divide. The excavation 
will be approximately 50% solid rock. One 20' span bridge will 
will be required. 

Moutli of Gorge (at Bottom of Hill) to Red Gap. — ^Approximate 
length 2 miles. From mouth of gorge Ji mile south to wagon 
road on the west side of the river the location is the most expensive 
of the entire project. This strip will require either two Tbridges 
or heavy rock work as previously discussed. The bridges are 
recommended. From this point to Red Gap there are no difiicult 
problems as the road will follow in general the present location and 
can be cheaply built. Another bridge at Red Gap will better the 
location and increase the convenience of the road. 

Grant County 

Stray Horse Divide to Thompson's Ranch. — The difference 
in elevation is approximately 1300 feet. It is desirable to get down 
to a natural bench at Thompson's ranch. The length of road 
between these points will depend on the ruling grade selected. 
As it is a long climb I reconmiend 5% with a length of 5 miles 
which can be obtained with one switchback turn. The country 
is favorable for location. Excavation is largely earth and some 
loose rock. 

Thompson's Ranch to See Creek Crossing. — Approximate length 
2 3^ miles. Ideal road location on bench. Easy grade. Excava- 
tion practically all earth. Plow and machine scrapper work. 
No grade problem. One 20' span bridge required. 

See Creek Crossing to Buck Creek. — Easy sidehill location except 
for 3^ mile of rock ledge near Buck Creek. The location should 
keep upon the sidehill to avoid abrupt river banks and slides 
due to freshet scour. 



SAMPLE REPORT 315 

Buck Creek to Adams' Randi. — Easy sidehill and bench location. 
No difficulty in obtaining grades less than the maxinrnm. Ex- 
cavation earth and loose rodk. 

Adams' Ranch to Big Bear Ranch. — Location problem one of 
protecting road from River floods, also avoiding ledge and large 
boulder rock work. No hard grade problem. Excavation 50% 
loose rock, boulders and solid ledge. 

9. General Recammendatioiis and Costs 

The cost of construction under present conditions is un<iertain. 
The prices used in the following detail estimates should be carefully 
noted in considering the possibility of cheapening the work by the 
use of convict labor. The costs used are for contract work and may 
vary greatly in a short time. 

I recommend for this project a double track sidehill section 
(S-14') from Big Bear Ranch to Coal Creek; a single track sidehill 
section (S-io) with turnouts from Coal Creek up to Blackwater 
River, See Creek over the Divide and down to the top of Canyon 
hill in Paterson County. A double track road from this point to 
Red Gap. Permanent culverts and bridges. Ruling grades of short 
7% and long 5%. Alignment limited as a rule to a minimum 
curvature of 100' radius with a few 40' radii at exceptionally bad 
places. 

The cost of this type of road is estimated at approximately 
$175,000 divided as follows: 

Gearing and excavation $108,000 

Permanent culverts 20,000 

Permanent bridges over 10' span 35>ooo 

Engineering 12,000 

Total $1 75,000 

K it is not possible to construct the entire project by one ap- 
propriation it would be well worth while to build from Big Bear 
Ranch to See Creek at once to open up the new farming section 
on the Upper Blackwater. The cost of this portion of the road 
would be about $70,000. 

For details and various combinations of design see the following 
estimates by sections. 

10. Detail Estimates 

Classification of Materials. — The classification of excavation can 
not be accurately made; it is based on the following assumptions. 

Where the road is located on a bench near the bottom of a slope 
which appears to be slide or wash formation and no rock outcrops 
are visible the excavation is classed as 99% common and i % rock. 

Where the location is on a steep main mountain slope of 25° 
to 35° covered with loose rock but no solid rock outcrops are visible 
the assumption has been that solid rock will be encountered 6 
feet back of the slope surface. 



3l6 PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION 

Where occasional outcrops occur rock is assumed 4 feet back 
of the surface. 

Any extended rock ledge has been noted. 

Unit Prices 
Clearing 

Sage brudi $ 30 per mile 

Light brush and trees $ 30 " acre 

Medium brush and trees $100 



(( t( 



(( it tf 
II tt 

<C H (t 



Excavation 

Solid rock $1 .00 to $1 . 50 per cu. yd. 

Tunnel rock 4.00 " " 

Common Exc. 

Turnpike in earth 0.18 

Sidehill plow and scrapper o. 30 to o. 40 " 

Wagon haul and scrapper 0.40 

Concrete $12.00 '* " " 

18" corrugated pipe 2 . 00 "• foot 

Rough rubber retaining wall 2 . 00 " cu. yd. 

Dillon into Sections. — For the purpose of estimating the road 
is divided into the following sections. 

Paterson CouNxy 

Sec. P-i Stray Horse Divide to Coal Basin 4.0 miles 

Sec. P-2 Coal Basin to top of Canyon HiU 1.8 " 

♦Sec. P-3 Canyon Hill 0.6 " 

*Sec. P-4 Canyon Hill to Clear River Ranch o. 25 " 

*Sec. P-s Clear River Ranch to Red Gap i . 75 



IC 



<t 



Total Paterson Co 8.40 

Grant County 

Sec. G-i Stray Horse to Thompson's Ranch 5 .0 miles 

Sec. G-2 Thompson's Ranch to See Creek Crossing. ... 2.5 

Sec. G-3 See Creek Crossing to Blackwater River i . o 

*Sec. G-4 See Creek and Blackwater to Buck Creek 2.5 

*Sec. Gr-5 Buck to Spring Creek 2.0 

*Sec. G-6 Spring Creek to Adams' Ranch 4.5 

*Sec. G-7 Adams' Ranch to Big Bear Ranch 4.3 



Total 21.8 



(( 



NoTE.~See map for location of these sections. The sections 
marked with a * have a poor wagon road at present which however 
can be used. Sections having no star require new construction 
to permit wagon traffic. 
Estimate <» Sections. Section P-i. — (Length 4.0 miles.) 
Clearing. — Six acres per mile for 3 miles « 18 acres @ $100 ^ 
$1800. 



SAMPLE REPORT 



317 



DnJaa£& — Say 10 culverts piei mile fen 4 miles @ $700 per 

mile = $2 800. 

Ezcavatioii (or Double Tnck Road. — Sidehill slope averages 37°. 
Eicavation per mile for balanced secdon S = 14 equals approxi- 
mately 13,000 cu. yd. tor a 1:1 cut slope which is considered 







^Big tear Ranch 




1 


\ ^6-7 










,0- 




a*on« 


" 1 


&«:;**lw-jjW 


Quarry 


« 


0* eL 
» 8p 




\ 
.^1 


t 


\ 


\^^o. 


t^ 


i4^ 


5^\Y 






T/ 




ji \ 


L 




-/ 




River ,.* "ft 


-.-,.F-« 




Rancli 1 


F-B 




Redeap W 


y 





safe for this material. Add a; % for inequalities of profile giving 
i6,3oocu. yd. per mile or 55,000 cu. yd. for 4 miles. Itisestimated 
that 20% of Uiis or 11,000 cu. yd. are rock eicavation and the 
baknce 44,000 cu, yd. i 



3i8 PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION 

44,000 cu. yd. common @ $0.40 $17,600 

11,000 " " rock @ 1.20 13,200 

Total excavation $30,800 

Excavation for Single Track Road S-io. 

Exc. per mile balanced section. . . 7,400 cu. yd. 
Add for profile 25% 1,850 " " 

9,200 " " 

Assume 10% rock 900 " " per mile 

Assume conmion exc 8,300 ** " " " 

Cost of Excavation for 4 miles. 

3,600 cu. yd. rock @ $1 . 50 $5,400 

33,000" " conmion ©$0.33 ii,ooo 

Add for turnouts 5 to the mile 

500 cu. yd. rock @ $1 . 20 600 

1,500 " " common @ $0.40 600 

Total $17,600 

Summaiy of Cost Section P^i. 

Double Track Road Single Track Road 

Clearing $ 1,800 Clearing $ 1,800 

Drainage 2,800 Drainage 2,800 

Excavation 30,800 Excavation 17,600 

$3S»4oo $22,200 

Contingencies, 
wall, etc. ..... 2,600 Contingencies 1,800 

$38,000 $24,000. 

Equals $9500 per mile Equals $6000 per mile 

Estimate Section P-2. — (Length 1.8 miles.) 
o . 8 miles similar to section P-i 
1 .0 miles average side slop>e 15° « 

Estimate of the easy mile (side slope 15**) 

Clearing 6 acres @ $50. . T $300.00 

Drainage (ordinary) 500 . 00 

20' span bridge 800 . 00 

Excavation (see S-14) 3300 cu. yd. per mile 

Add for profile 25 % 800" 



It tt It 



4100 " " " " 

Rock excavation 100'' " @ 1.50 $150.00 

Common excavation 4,000 " " "0.30 1200.00 

$2950.00 
Contingencies 150.00 

Total $3100.00 



SAMPLE REPORT 319 

Summaxy P-i. 

Double Track ^^^ SmoLE and 

Part Double 
0.8 miles similar to P-i 
@ $9500 per mile = $7,600 

@ $6000 per mUe =e $4800.00 

i.o miles as per 
estimate above.. . . 3,100 3100.00 

$10,700 $7900.00 

Say 1 1,000 Say. . . 8000 . 00 

Estimate Section P-3. — (Length 0.6 miles.) Double track road 
based on hand level profile. 

Clearing 3 acres @ lioo $ 300.00 

3000 cu. yd. common @ $0.40 1200.00 

3000" " rock© $1.25 3750.00 

Ordinary drainage 500 .00 

1 20' span bridge 800 . 00 

$6550.00 
Contingencies 150 .00 

Total $6700.00 

Estimate Section P-4. — (Length o . 25 miles.) 

Estimate Wo. i. — Based on location requiring two bridges over the 
Clear River. 

Clearing $ 20 . 00 

1000 cu. yd. common exc. ® $0.40 400.00 

200 " " rock @ $1.50 300.00 

400 " " rip-rap @ $1.00 400.00 

2 (80' span sohd floor steel truss bridges) 16,000. 00 

I (20' span concrete bridge) 800.00 

$17,920.00 
Say 18,000 . 00 

Estimate No. 2. — Based on half tunnel west of track. 

Clearing $30.00 

5000 cu. yd. of conmion exc. @ $0.40 2,000.00 

4500 " " rock tunnel work @ $4.00 18,000.00 

Stone wall between track and road 900 . 00 

$20,930.00 

Say $21,000.00 

Estimate Section P-5. — (Length i . 75 miles.) Double track road. 
Approximately same cost per mile as Section P-2 on the easy mile. 

1.75 miles @ $3100 per mile $ 5,425.00 

Posdble bridge at Rip Gap 8,000.00 

$13,425.00 
Say $14,000.00 



320 



PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION 



Summary of Costs, Paterson County 



Section 
P-i 

P-2 

iP-4 
^P-5 



Engineering 



Double Track 


Single 


Track Road 




WITH Turnouts 


$38,000 




$24,000 


$11,000 




8,000 


7,000 






18,000 






14,000 






$88,000 




4,000 







Total appropriation $92,000 

Estimated total cost for double track road Sec. P-3, P-4 and P-5 
and single track road to the divide Sec. P-i, and P-2 is $75,000. 

Estimated cost of cheap single track road connecting present 
road to the divide Sec. P-i and P-2, with temporary drainage 
structures and 6% ruling grade instead of 5% $25,000, 

Cost Estimate, Grant County 

In a similar manner detail estimates are made for the sections 
in Grant County as sunmiarized below. These estimates can be 
found in computation file F-32. They are not included in this re- 
port as they are bulky. 

Summary of Costs, Grant County 



Section 


Double Track 


Single Track (S-io) 


(S-14) 


With Turnouts (S-14) 


G-I 


$ 32,000 


$ 22,000 


G-2 


33,000 


3,000 


S-3 


5,000 


3,000 


G-4 


10,000 


7,000 


G-5 


20,000 


12,000 


G-6 


26,000 


20,000 


G-7 


36,000 


25,000 




$132,300 


$ 92,000 


Engineering. . . . 
Appropriation. . 


7,700 
$140,000 


8,000 


$100,000 



Total Summary of Recommended Construction 

Paterson County $ 75,000 

Grant County 100,000 

Total $175,000 

1 Sections have usable wagon road at present. 



SAMPLE REPORT 321 

RECONNAISSANCE SURVEYS 

The methods described for ordinary investigations can be used 
for most cases but for heavily wooded country or extremely difficult 
and rough topography a more careful survey is desirable. 

Methods. — For open barren country the transit stadia method is 
preferred by the author using magnetic bearings, stadia distance, 
vertical angle profile and cross slopes and ordinary note book 
sketches and recording. The map is plotted up on a scale 1000 ft. 
to the inch and the profile 100' to the inch. Ijie line is marked in 
the field by tall stakes or lathes with a strip of cloth attached. 

Work of this kind can be done by two men with very simple 
equipment. In remote regions a third man to move and care 
for camp equipment is required (see Chapter XII). 

Engineering Equipment 

Light mountain transit with stadia and verticle circle. 

Light stadia rod, 8' to 10' long. 

Camera. 

Note books, maps, etc. 

100' steel tape. 

2 aneroid barometers. 

For heavily wooded country the U. S. Geological methods are the 
cheapest and most satisfactory using a light 15" sketch plane table 
and tripod oriented with a magnetic needle; 6" gun sight alidade; 
500' linen tape coated with paraffin for distance. Aneroid inter- 
mediate elevations checked by flying lines of spirit levels or stadia 
levels along trails. 

The main advantage of this method is that it requires no cutting 
as direction is obtained by sighting by ear to a yell or whistle. 
It a^o gives a complete contour map of all the territory that the 
road can possibly traverse and makes it possible to lay out a better 
final location than any amount of scouting where the engineer 
depends on his memory and sense of direction for his final location. 
The projected line is then followed with a rough plane table traverse, 
slopes, etc., taken and the estimate made. 

Work of this kind can be done by two men with very simple 
equipment for a cost ranging from $10 to $30 per square mile 
mapped. A convenient scale to work on is 2000' to the inch and a 
contour interval ranging from 10' to 50'. 

A third man to move and care for camp is desirable. 

Engineering Equipment 

15" Plane table with tripod. 

500' Linen tape. 

6" Gun sight alidade in leather case. 

100 Steel tape. 

Plane table map paper. 



$21 PRELIMINARY INVESTIGATION 

1 Aneroid barometers 

Light mountain transit with stadia (for flying levels). 
Sudia ri>d. 
Conclusion. — It should be borne in mind that if engineering 
is to be of value it must be thorough and that new locations will 
often fix toads foi generations. 




^jsftoWn in Daifed Lines. 

(Artas nofKin>rab/t ■for ^^ 
Location Hafehtd thus iff 



Fig, 6i. — Sample plane table map. 

There should be so hesitation in spending what ever is needed 
even if it seems all out of propwition to the cost of the actoal con- 
struction work to be perEormed within a year or so. Government 
Erograma carry out this principle and they are often criticised for 
^h engineering cost but it is well worth while looking to the future. 
The engineering program must be complete or it might just 
as well be discarded entirely. 



CHAPTER XI 

THE SURVEY 

The chapter on survey will be handled under two main divisions: 
(a) Improvement of existing roads. 
lb) Location of new roads. 

(a) FOR THB IMPROYBMBNT OF EXISTING ROADS 

As the survey furnishes the information for the design, it must 
be carefully made in regard to the essential features. These are 
alignment, levels and cross-sections, drainage, iiiformation con- 
cerning foundation soils, available stone supply, available sand, 
gravel, filler, etc.; direction and amount of traffic, railroad un- 
loading points, the location of possible new sidings, and such 
topography along the road as will have a bearing on the design. 
The survey should be made not more than a year before construc- 
tion starts and during the open season, as a snowfall of any depth 
makes the work unreliable and only fit for a rough estimate. 
When contracts based on winter surveys are awarded it is alwa}^ 
necessary to take new cross-sections to insure a fair estimate of 
the excavation. 

A party of five men is a well-balanced force for surveys of this 
character. 

Force EquiptnetU Stationery 

Engineer Transit Reports 

Instrument man Level Pencils 

Three helpers 2 100' steel tapes Notebook 

3 50' metallic tapes U. S. G. S. map. 
3 pickets 

2 level rods Stakes 

Pocket compass For preliminary survey 

Hatchet 1 10 stakes per mile 

Sledge For construction 

Axe • 220 stakes per mile 
Keel 

The Center Line. — The placing of the center-line hubs (transit 
points) requires good judgment and should be done by the chief of 
the party. In locating them he considers the principles of align- 
ment discussed in Chapter I. The hubs are placed at tangent 
intersections and sometimes at the P. C.'s and P. T.'s of curves 
and are referenced to at least three permanent points that will not 
be disturbed during construction. (See sample page of notes. 
Fig. 62.) 

The deflection angles at the tangent intersections are usually 
read to the nearest minute, taking a double angle to avoid mis- 

323 



324 



THE SURVEY 



takes; the magnetic bearing of each course is recorded. For all 
deflection angles over 4° it is good practice to figure and run in 
on the ground the desired curve. Curves with central angles 
of less than 4° can be run in with the eyie during construction. 

The center line is marked at intervals of either fifty or one 
hundred feet (see cross-section, page 325) in any convenient 
manner; the alignment of these points should be correct to within 
0.2 and the distance along the line to within o.i per 100 feet of the 
length; any attempt to get more accurate stationing is a waste of 
time. The chaining may be done on the surface of the ground 
up to a grade of 5 % with no objectionable error; beyond that slope, 
however, the tape should be leveled and plumbed. ^ Steel tapes 
should be used for chaining the center line and referencing the hubs 



^.l Sfa.9-f'26.4 






P.L Sfa. Oi-OO 






urzo 



^ijt' 




/S%a/r 



Si 



Tekqmphfhh 



'^^4 



^^ 



.4' 



JZ''MaphTne 



y< 



^-.< 



^/SlO^k 



Pig. 62. — Alignment notes. 

A convenient method of marking the actual center line sta- 
tions is to use a nail and piece of flannel; red flannel for the 100' 
stations and white flannel for the intermediate 50' stations, if 
needed. Where the soU is sandy, or muddy, and these nails would 
be kicked out or covered, a line of stakes can be set outside of the 
traveled way on a specific offset from the center line. However, 
if an offset line is used the chaining of all curves should be done 
on the center line to insure a correct center line distance and the 
stakes placed radially on the desired offset. Railroad spikes 
make good permanent transit points and are easily placed. 

At tiie same time that the line is run it is just as well to paint 
the 100' station numbers on any convenient place where they 
can be readily seen, as stations marked in this manner make it 
much easier to sketch in the topography than if marked in chalk 
on stakes, ^so, if the stations are permanently marked it is 



LEVELS 



325 



easier for the construction engineer to pick up the transit points 
at some future time. 

A party of five men will run from two to four miles of center 
line a day» the speed depending upon the number of curves and 
length of tangents, if the hubs have been previously placed and 
referenced. H the hubs are placed at the same time the line is 
run, the work is greatly delayed. 

Two men can place and reference the transit points at the 
tangent intersections at the rate of from four to ten miles per 
day. 





B.S. 

-♦- 

i.XI 

^■•An 


FJ5. 
■ ft.in 


H.I. 


Elev. ^ 


C ^ 

Spite in 15' g<i», wigw^ rf Sf Brfo 

-O 


. 


ha.ia- 


-rmr- 


4IA.n 

• 


[ mtmm- 


TbriuraaiBHih.hir^Ttet,lffftfi*«ia*M 






Pig. 63. — Bench level notes. 

Levels and Cross-Sections. — Bench levels are run in the usual 
manner; the levels will be sufficiently accurate if the rod is read 
to tiie nearest o.oi'; for such work any good level and a self-read- 
ing rod graduated to hundredths are satisfactory. Benches are 
established at intervals of 1000-1500 feet; they must be substantial, 
well marked, and so situated as not to be disturbed during construc- 
tion. A small railroad spike in the root of a tree, a large boulder, 
or the water table of a building make good benches. 

The bench levels may be referred to some local datum in general 
use or to the U. S. levels, or the datum can be assumed. In run- 
ning bench levels it is better to use each bench as a turning point, 
as side-shot benches may be wrong even if the line of levels is 
correct. 

Cross-sections are taken at either 100' or 50' intervals, at all 
culverts, possible new culvert sites, and any intermediate breaks 
not shown by the normal interval. Enough sections are taken 
to show the constantly changing shape of the road. 

TTie distance of the shots from the center line of the road is read 
to the nearest 1,0' where the ground has no abrupt change of slope 



326 



THE SURVEY 



and to the nearest 0.5' where there is a well-defined abrupt change. 
The elevations are read to the nearest o.i'. The sections should 
extend from fence line to fence line, or in villages from sidewalk 
to sidewalk, and the position of the pole lines, tree lines, curbs, 
etc., noted. Engineers differ as to whether the sections should be 
taken at a normal interval of 50' or 100'. 

Table 29 gives the difference in the computed quantity of earth- 
work using 50' and 100' sections with intermediate sections at well- 
defined breaks in the grade. 

Table 29 





Length 


Charac- 


Excava- 


Excava- 


Appro- 
ximate 
Differ- 
ence 


Percent 


Name of Road 


Figured 


ter of 


tion so' 


tion xoo' 


of Differ- 








Road 


Section 


Section 


ence 










Cu. Ft. 


Cu.Ft. 


Cu.Ft. 




ScotUville 
















Mtunford ... 


X 


mile 


flat 


61,444 


6x,99S 


550 


+ A% 


Scottsville 
















Mumford . . . 
Leroy 

Caledonia 

•Leroy 
Caledonia 


I 


u 


hilly 


1x1,109 


xxi,7oo 


600 


+ J% 


X 


ft 


rolling 


57,840 


6o,s6o 


2700 


+ 4i% 


i 


u 


flat 


77.841 


78,659 


800 


+ 1 % 


Clarence 
















Center 


X 


u 


rolling 


73,727 


73,048 


700 


-I % 


Clarence 
















Center 


I 


1* 


flat 


38,037 


39,415 


X400 


+ 3A% 


Lockport 










• 






Tonawanda ... 


X 


II 


flat 


59,096 


59,470 


400 


+ A% 


•East Henrietta 
















Rochester 


I 


«l 


rolling 


37,275 


36,075 


xaoo 


-3J% 



The following tabulation shows the variation for shorter sections 
of the starred roads. 



Name - Station 

of and to 
road Station 



Leroy 

Caledonia, 80- 90 . 

" 90-100 . 

" loo-iio .' 

" iia-120 . 

Total and averages 

East Henrietta 

Rochester, 0-19 . 

" 32-49 . 

" 49-^ . 

Total and averages 



Quantities 
by so' Sec- 
tions 



Cu. Ft. 

I9»ISI 

21,915 

21,555 
15,220 

77»84i 

14,625 
11,950 
10,700 

37,275 



Quantities 
by 100' 
Sections 


Approx- 
imate 
Difference 


Cu.Ft. 


Cu.Ft 


19*525 


400 


23,415 
20,689 


1500 
900 


15,030 
78.659 


200 
800 


14,300 


300 


",575 


350 


10,200 
36,075 


500 
1200 



Per cent of 
Diffierenoe 



+ a % 

+ 7 % 

-4 % 

+ 1 %• 

-a % 

-3 % 

-S % 
-3i% 



CROSS SECTIONS 



327 



The question of quantities is not the only factor in determining 
the interval. Where it is important to fit the local conditions, 
as in a village, or to utilize an old hard foundation, the designer 
is helped by 50' sections. 

In taking cross-sections the work becomes mechanical, and un- 
less the engineer in charge is unusually alert to all the inter- 
mediate changes better results will be obtained by the use of 
the shorter interval. For these reasons the author believes that 
a 50' interval is advisable except on long uniform stretches of 
road. 

A part^ of three men will run from 4000 to 7000 feet of 50' 
cross-sections per day; a party of four men from 5000 to 9000 feet, 
depending on the country. 



Sttt. 



&.M.«3 



lOtQO 



lOtSO 



TRtes 

Rock on 
UtOO 



as. 



SA! 



I.ZZ 



F.S. 



ZJO 



H.I. 



515/. 7J 



330JdB 



"V 



El€V. 



ezejo. 



92d£S 



Leff ^ 

i ^ 

K >. K W>^ 

§ § !S $^ 
SO S3 eo S2 ^ 



40 14 IZ S i 



«! K *i ^ K Nl 

N JvS Si IS a» «^ 
Q> 0) Ok 0) 0> 0) 

ss SO sSAseo 



Right 



sf 2^ ^ IS '^ 

Ok (n Q» (i> o» 
S4 SSS9S3 SS 



S 9 II 19 M 



\ 

Ok 



N 



Sf 



i( c£ <$ 
Ok 0^ Ok 01 

ss 70 70 76 6J9. 



26 20 14 /I S iS II It 20 ZS 



A| N S M t^ «• 

^| <V| N «4 «M ^ 

'i o> o> oi. Ok o> 

SZ S7 9J SSSSSS 



30 90 IS 9 S i 



<> N ^ ^ 

^» «<■ N tt 

S! Si £» « 

Ok Ok Ok Ok 

SO 93 S9 0.0 

10 14 IS SO 



Pig. 64. — Cross-section notes. 



DRAINAGB 

The drainage notes show the position and size of all the exist- 
ing culverts; the area of the watersheds draining to them and a 
recommendation of the size culvert to be built; the location, drain- 
age area, and size of desirable new culverts; the necessity for out- 
let ditches and their length, if required; the elevation of flood 
water near streams, and the condition of the abutments and super- 
structure of long-span bridges. The cross-section levels are sup- 
plemented to show these points fully. Where the U. S. geological 
maps are available the areas of watersheds can be easily determined; 



328 



THE SURVEY 



where no such maps have been made the drainage areas can be 
easily mapped with a small 15" plane table oriented with a magnetic 
needle; the distances can be paced and the divides determined with 
a hand level. One inch to 2000 feet is a convenient scale. 

The drainage scheme should be carefully worked out by the 
Chief of Party, as the possibilities of friction with local people 
are greater on this part of the design than any other. In the 
chapter on Drainage this fact was mentioned and designers were 
cautioned not to use new culverts unless necessary. 



Drainage 
Old Structures 



V" 



l^aOSSSZ^B^eEjSISTK. 



fia(i.Qin(iitian 



TT 



S-ta9A-tOO Prat^n*- rnntLntts 



CulvtTtauiit b\ 



Town in mil 2'x2*x30'j^ries 



IMr*»r .SafjA4irr*nn'/y 



JO- 



Cita^^StSO- 4 ^tOQ P h^L 



BaeJtwrHtfr rovorn Prf^ttrrt Rand 
t.S'inSpn'naef\bar. noCjirrani: 

Raise "Road 2,S'anet make Fi'llaf 

Ronldttr Atoruf or C^raval 



F>ia Eti-hlO P r^KarH- 2A'V.Tf?does 



nni- Carry WriMr In Fr»KhaiS 



Notes 
New Structures 



iiaJ&kJtS, 



Hpnin/r^ Araa 40 Atr»s 



Hilly tvrm Land, tVopeaanivx, 



/iirr.^'hnn Np Mty^rAiiJ^;^ 



madMtL 



£l 



5ta t:SflO nrainaqaArma.SOOA. 
'\ Rolling farm LSnd. 



O ROlliH' 






ZJui 



Pig. 65. 



TOPOGRAPHY 



The topography notes show the;, features of the^ adjacent terri- 
tory that might affect the design. These include the location 
of buildings, drives, intersecting roads, streams, railroads, poles, 
trees, sidewalks, crosswalks, and property lines. The names 
of property owners are recorded. 

A simple method of locating these points is to refer them di- 
rectly to the previously run center line by right-angle offsets; 
such notes are easily taken and quickly plotted. 

In taking the topography the plus stationing along the center 
line and the offset distances to all points inside of the road fences 
should be measured by tape to the nearest foot; the distances 



TRAFFIC REPORT 



329 



to and the dimensions of buildings, etc«, outside of tliese limits, 
can be paced or estimated; the bearings of the property lines 
can be read near enough with a pocket compass, except for right- 
of-way surveys which are described on page 333. 

The instruments needed for work of this kind are a pocket 
compass reading to 2°, steel picket, and metallic tape. 

Two experienced men will take from two miles to four miles 
of topography a day except in villages, where from one-half to a 
mile IS average speed. 

Direction ana amount of traffic is determined by inspection and 
inquiry of the residents along the road. 

To illustrate the information required, an extract from the sur- 
vey report of the Fairport Nine Mile Point Road is given below: 



fSO 



SfaJZ 



fSO 



SfaJI 



tSO 



V Sfa.10 




Fig. 66. 



Fairport Nine Mile Point Road Traffic Report 

Heavy Hauling. — The direction of heavy hauling on this road 
is approximately as follows: 

1. Station No. 195 to station o toward Fairport. 

2. " " 19s " " 400 " Webster. 

3. " " 580 " " 400 " 

This divides the road into three sections for the determination 
of the ruling grades. 

The ruling grades for section i will be determined by the hills 
at station 10 and station 48 and probably will be limited to 5 per 
cent. 

The ruling grade for section 2 will be determined by the knolls 
at stations 267, 285, and 300, 



330 



THE SURVEY 



The ruling grade for section 3 will be determined by the hills 
at stations 445 and 494. 

The team traffic is medium heavy station 90 to station o; light, 
station 270 to 90; medium, station 270 to 375; heavy, station 
375 to 386; very heavy, equivalent to city street, station 386 
to 408; medium heavy, station 408 to 450, and light, station 450 
to 580. Macadam construction will not be suitable stations 
386 to 408. 

The automobile pleasure traffic will be largely through traffic 
and probably fairly heavy. 

foundation: soils 

The notes on soils show the character, width, and depth of 
the existing surfacing material and the kind of underlying mate- 



Soil Notes ^ Foundation Recommendation* j 


OiQ.^ SlVI. 


Surface Mat 


Subsurface 







30 


Sand&Omvel 


5and9t6rav9l 


Total Thickness Macadam '7* 


30 


3/ 


Ctay&Omvef 


C/ay/'down 


n n n ff' '■ 


3/ 


36 


Clay 


Cfoy 


» f* n i5' 


36 


40 


6twd8''dtep 


WetOay 


Undtrdrain on fff Stone 227 deep 


40 


4/ 


» 4" n 


Clay Loam 


Fill at ftiii Point w 9" n 






























• 






























• 
















































































V 










^ .__ 



Pig. 67. 



rial.. This feature of the survey is important, as it governs the 
thickness of the bottom course, and, to a certain extent, the posi- 
tion of the grade line where an existing solid foundation can be 
utilized and the thickness of the improved road reduced to a 
minimum. 

Even with a careful soil examination it is impossible to make 
the design of the foundation definite, as mentioned on page i6i, 
but the quantity of the material that will be needed can be esti- 
mated very closely. 



LOCATION OF MATERIALS 



331 



The sub-soil can be readily examined by driving a iH" or i" 
steel bar to the required depth, which is usually not over 4.0' 
to 5.0' even in cuts, removing the bar and replacing with a ^" 
gas pipe, which is driven a few inches and witndrawn* The core 
will give a fair idea of the material to be encountered. 

Where rock is encountered the elevation of the outcrop is shown, 
and if the rock underlies the road for any distance within two 
or three feet of the surface this depth is determmed by driving bars. 
Sample notes below: 



Station 


Left 


Center Line 


Right 


62 

• 

63 


3-5' 
30 

i.S' 

25 


00 

1.2' 
00 


0.5' 
20 

1.0' 
22 



The note ^^^means that 20' to the left of the proposed center line 
20 •• . v* 

of the improvement, the' rock is 3.5' below the present surface; 
from these notes the rock can be readily plottea on the cross- 
sections. Its character can be determined from adjacent out- 
crops, or from test pits, if required. 

LOCATION Ain> CHARACTER OF MATERIALS 

The selection of materials and the estimate of the construction 
cost depend on a knowledge of the available materi^^ and their 
location relative to the road. 

Provided this data has not been well ^thered on the Prelimi- 
nary investigation work it should be obtained at this stage. The 
methods were described in Chapter on Preliminary Investigation 
but will be repeated at this point for convenience. 

Unloading Points for Freight — ^jProvided U. S. geological maps 
are obtainable, the position of sidings may be marked on the 
sheets. The notes for each siding show its car capacity; whether 
or not an elevator unloading plant can be erected, and if hand 
unloading is necessary whether teams can approach from one 
side or two. They should also show any coal trestles that can 
be utilized in unloading, and the location and probable cost of 
any new sidings that w2l materially reduce the length of the haul. 
Canal or river unloading points are shown in the same manner. 

Sandy Gravel, and Filler MateriaL — The position of sand and 
gravel pits and filler material are noted with their cost at the 
pit; if no local material is available the cost f.o.b. at the nearest 
siding is given. 

Stone Supply. — Provided imported stone is to be used the work 
is simplified to determining the rate f.o.b. to the various sidings 



332 



THE SURVEY 



for the product of the nearest commercial stone-crushing plant 
that produces a proper grade of stone. 

In case Ipcal stone is available the location of the quarries 
or outcrops is shown; the amount of stripjnng, if any, and the 
cost of quarry rights. If the estimate will depend upon rock 
owned by a single person an option is obtained to prevent an 
exorbitant raise in price. 

In the case of field or fence stone a careful estimate is made of 
the number of yards of boulder stone available, the owners' 
names, what they wiU charge for it, the position of the fences or 
piles relative to the road, or side roads, and if the fences are not 
abutting on a road or lane the length of haul through fields to 



Stone Est. 



Geo. harber lOOOcut. viafs. FencM 






9r<iltagta 



muMibmakwsteei 



g. ratri^k Doniin zsoo cuyos. samS 



ntirtw* 



J. ff/fre P'Oo/tnc// SOOcu.vefs 



f';«r-;i-?7r7nT/7.77»7?,'T7i»?.*TOTT 



b€ Blasfed 



^. Gld Litnmitonc Oueirrv SO fc 



iU-]U%,'KlhJ9m.%-t:n.;.M^-^Jki3.1-i, 




Fig. 68. 



the nearest road or lane. As fences are usually a mixture of 
different kinds of rock, the engineer estimates the percentage of 
granite, limestone, sandstone, etc., and the percentage that will 
have to be blasted or sledged in order to be crushed by an ordi- 
nary portable crusher. The amount of field stone required 
per cubic yard of macadam is given in estimates, page 593. If 
there is a large excess of stone a careful estimate need not be 
made, only enough data being collected to determine the probable 
position of the crusher set-ups and the average haul to each set- 
up. If a sufficient supply is doubtful a close estimate is made as 
outlined above and options obtained from the various owners. 
Samples of the different rocks are tested. (See materials.) 



RIGHT OF WAY SURVEYS 333 

« 

Preliminary surveys of the above description should be made 
at a speed of from two to four miles per week at a cost of from 
$35 to ^70 per mile, allowing $6 per day for the engineer; ^3.50 
for the instrument man; ^2 per man for three laborers; ^i per 
day board per man and $4 per day for livery. 

Right-of-way and diversion line surveys are often needed but 
are usually not made at this time; if the designer believes that 
additional land must be acquired or that a diversion line is necessary, 
he indicates the information desired and the surveys are made. 

RIGHT-OF-WAY SURVEYS 

These surveys are used not only to show the amount of land 
to be acquired but, also, the damage to property from altering 
the shape of a field, cutting a farm in two, changing the position 
of a house or bam relative to the road, etc. 

The acreage to be taken is shown by an ordinary land survey 
in which the road lines, property lines, comers, etc., are located 
in relation to the proposed center line of the improvement, and 
their lengths and bearings carefully determined. It is often 
difficult to locate the road boundaries, as* town records are care- 
lessly kept and there is a general tendency to encroach on the 
road. As the amount paid for new right-of-way is rarely settled 
on an acreage basis, it is customary to take the existing fence 
lines as the road line unless it is very evident that the fence has 
been moved. This produces better feeling on the part of the 
property owner and does not affect the price paid. The lines 
Detween adjoining properties are usually well defined. 

In cases where an orchard is damaged the position and size of 
the trees are noted; where a field or farm is cut the whole field 
is shown, with the shape and acreage of the pieces remaining after 
the land actually appropriated has been taken out. 

As b usually done in all land surve)^, the parcel to be bought 
is traversed and the survey figured for closure error to insure 
the description against mistakes. 

The standard form of map and description of the N. Y. State 
Department is shown in the following illustration: 



THE SURVEY 




3 'MM mf' 
s--f|lllJ-iffi/ 

a - a 5 "S !■ nSi; 3 a S o o-Sb „ 
_g!2 S-E „^-S a ^ ca| §E "^ O 



I ail 






' sirfll; 



Table 3°-* Horizontal Distances and Elevations »«oii 
Stadia Readings 


o" 


■• 


3° 


3° 


„..„. 


K 


s. 


K. 


me. 

Elev. 


Hor. 

Dfat. 


^-: 


DM. 


s. 


4 

6 

8 

14 

I6 

i8 

aa 

S::;::: 

aS 

30 

3» 

40 

43 

44 

46 

48 

so 

52 

S4 


100.00 

100.00 

100.00 
100.00 

lOIMlO 

99-99 
99-99 
99-99 

99-99 
99-99 
99-99 

99-99 
99-99 

99-99 
99-98 
99.98 
99.98 
99-98 

99-98 
99-98 
99-97 
99-97 
99-97 


0.17 
0.23 
0.39 

0.3s 
0.41 

o-*7 

O.S2 

0.58 

0.64 

0.70 
0.76 
aSi 

0.87 

0-93 

0.99 
I. OS 

xli6 

1.2& 

1.40 
I-4S 

i.St 

■1 

1.69 

1.74 


99-97 
99-97 
99-97 
99.96 
99-96 
99.96 

99.96 

99-95 
99-95 
99-95 
99-95 

99-94 
9994 
99-94 
99-93 
99-93 

99-93 

99-93 
99-9" 
99.93 
99.9a 

99.91 
99.91 
99.90 
99.90 
99.90 

99.89 
99.89 

^^ 


1-74 
1.80 
1.86 

::P 

3.04 
1.09 

3:27 

3-33 

3.38 

3.44 

3.50 

a.56 

3.63 

1.67 
3.73 

It 

3.91 

2-97 
3-0:1 
3-08 
3.14 

3-30 

3.36 

3-3' 

3-37 
3-43 
3-49 


99.88 
99.87 

99.87 
99-87 
99.86 
99.86 

99.85 
99.85 
99.84 

99.84 
99-83 

99-83 
99-83 
99.83 
99.81 
99.81 

99-80 
99.80 
99.79 
99-79 
99.78 

99.78 
99.77 
99.77 
99.76 
99.76 

99-75 
99-74 
99-74 
99.73 
99-73 


3.49 

3-SS 
3.60 
3.66 
3.7a 
3-78 

3.84 
3.90 

3.9s 
4,01 
4.07 

Si 

4.34 
4.30 
4-36 

443 
4-48 
4-53 
4-59 
4-65 

4-71 

tt 
4.88 
4.94 

4-99 

5-oS 
5.11 
5.17 

5-33 


99-73 

99.71 
99.71 
99.71 

S:S 

99-68 
99.67 
99.66 

99.66 

99.65 
99-64 
99-63 
99-63 

99.63 

99.63 
99-61 
99.60 

99-59 

99-59 
99-58 
99-57 
9956 
99-56 

99-55 
99-54 
9953 
99-5* 
99-5' 


534 
S.40 
S.46 
5-Sa 

'1 

S.69 

5.86 

S.98 
6.04 
6j)9 

6.1s 
6.ai 
6.37 
6.33 

6.38 

6-44 

6.61 

6.67 

Ul 

6.84 

6.90 

6.96 


c = 0.7s 


0-7S 


0.01 


0-7S 


0.03 


0.7s 


0.03 


0.7S 


0.0s 


C=1.0* 


..00 


O.OI 


1.00 


0-03 


1.00 


0.04 


1. 00 


0.06 


c- i.is 


I.3S 


0.0. 


1-15 


0.03 


I.3S 


0.0s 


I.3S 


0.08 



' From " Theorr ind Pnitm of Surveyiia/' by Prol. J. B. JohnwD, New Yoit: 

{Klin Wiky li Sou. Wc ui anibM to UM tU* fcirm Uuougli the coiutmy of Fnf. 



336 



THE SURVEY 



4° 


i ' 


6" 


7" 1 


Hiauta 


a 


Mff. 
Hev. 


Hot. 

Diw. 


Elev. 


DiEtl 


K: 


^ 


S; 


4 

6 

g 

14 

i6 

:8 

i::;::: 

iS 

3° 

32 

34 

36 

38 

40 

44 

46 

48 

SO 

SI 

S4 

S6 


99-S» 
99-5r 
99SO 
99-49 
99-48 
99-47 

99-46 
99-46 
99-4S 
99-44 
M-43 

99.41 

99-41 
99.40 
99-39 
99-38 

99-38 
99-37 
99-36 
99-35 
99-34 

99-33 

99-3* 
99-3X 

99-30 
99-29 

99-38 
99.57 
99.26 
99-25 
99.14 


6.96 
7.02 
J-o? 
7.13 
7.19 
7-25 

7-39 
7-36 
7.42 
7-48 
7-S3 

It 

Ul 
7.8. 

,.8S 
7-54 
7-99 
8^5 
3.11 

8.17 

8.22 
8.28 

It 
if. 

8.S7 

IS 


99.24 
99-33 
99.23 
99.21 
99.20 
99.19 

99.18 
99.17 
99.16 
99-iS 
99.14 

99-13 

99-10 
99.09 
99.08 

99.07 
99-o6 
99-oS 
99-04 
99-03 

99.01 

98I97 

98.96 
98-94 
98-93 
98.9a 
98.91 


8.63 
8.74 
8.te 
8.8s 
8.91 
8.97 

t^ 
9.14 
9.20 
9-35 

9-31 
9-37 
9-43 
9.48 
9-54 

9-65 
9.71 
9-77 
9-83 

9-88 
9-94 

10.0s 

10^38 
1D.34 
10.40 


98.9. 

98.90 
98.88 
98.87 
98.86 
98.85 

98.83 
98,82 
98.81 
98.80 
98.78 

98.74 
98-73 
98.72 

98.71 
98.69 
98.68 
98.67 
98.6s 

98.64 
98.63 

98^6^ 
98.58 

98-57 
98.56 
98.54 
98.53 
98.51 


10.40 

10-45 
10.51 

10.57 
10.62 
10.68 

10.74 

il 

ii!oS 
11.13 
11.19 

"■" 

11.30 
11-36 
11.41 

11-53 

ill 

Tl!76 
11.81 

H.87 

:;:?! 

t2XJ4 


98.51 

98.50 
98.48 
98.47 
98.46 
98-44 

9843 
98.4. 
98-to 
98.39 
98.37 

98.36 
98.34 
98-33 
98.31 
98.39 

98.28 
98.37 
98-25 
98-34 
98.22 

98.20 
98.19 
98.17 
98.16 
98.14 

98.13 
98.11 
98.10 
98x>S 
98.06 


I3.1S 
12.36 

1-41 

"43 
13-49 

\i& 

12.66 
12.72 

il 

13.94 

13-00 
13-os 
13.H 
13-17 
13-33 

13-28 
13-33 
13-39 
t3-4S 
13.50 

"? 

13.67 
13.73 
13-7S 


C-0.7S. 


0.7s 


0.06 


0-7S 


0/37 


0-7S 


0.08 


0.74 


0.10 


c — I.OO. 


1.00 


0.0S 


0.99 


O.C9 


0.99 


0.11 


0-99 


0.13 


C - l.as- 


i-*S 


0.10 


T.24 


0.1 ■ 


1.24 


0.14 


1.24 


0.16 



36 
40 
43 

44 
46 
48 



8.73 9S, 



18,51 9S-71 ao-n 

18.57 95-75 "«-i8 

i8.6a 95.71 2o.»3 

iJt.ftR nein fin.jS 



0.7S 



338 

Table 30. 



THE SURVEY 

Horizontal Distances and Elevations from 
Stadia Readings. — Continued 



12* 



Minutes 



O 

2 

4 

6 

8 

10 

12 

14 

16 

18 

20 

22 

24 

26 

28 

30 

32 

34 

36 

38 

40 

42 

44 

46 

48 

SO 

52 

54 

56 

S8 

60 

c == 0.75. 

c = 1.00. 

c = 1.25. 



Hor. 
Dist. 



95.68 

95.65 

95.63 
95.61 

95.58 
95.56 

95.53 
95.51 
95.49 
95.46 

95.44 

95.41 
95.39 
95.36 
95.34 
95.32 

95.29 
95.27 
95.24 
95.22 

95.19 

95.17 

95.14 
95.12 

95.09 
95.07 

95.04 
95.02 

94.99 
94.97 
94.94 

0.73 
0.98 
1.22 



Difif. 
Elev. 



20.34 
20.39 
20.44 
20.50 

20.55 
20.60 

20.66 
20.71 
20.76 
20.81 
20.87 

20.92 
20.97 
21.03 
21.08 
21.13 

21.18 
21.24 
21.29 

21.34 
21.39 

21.45 
21.50 

21.55 
2X.60 
21.66 

21.71 
21.76 
21.81 
21.87 
21.92 

0.16 

0.22 
0.27 



13' 



Hor. 
Dist. 



94.94 
94.91 

94.89 
94.86 

94.84 
94.81 

94.79 
94.76 

94.73 
94.71 

94.68 

94.66 

94.63 
94.60 

94.58 

94.55 

94.52 
94.50 
94.47 
94.44 
94.42 

94.39 

94.36 

94.34 

94.31 
94.28 

94.26 

94.23 
94.20 

94.17 
94.15 

0.73 
0.97 

1. 21 



Diff. 
Elev. 



21.92 
21.97 
22.02 
22.08 
22.13 
22.18 

22.23 
22.28 
22.34 
22.39 
2244 

2249 
22.54 

22.60 
22.65 
22.70 

22.75 

22.80 

22.85 

22.91 
22.96 

23.01 
23.06 
23.H 
23.16 

23.22 

23.27 
23.32 

23.37 
2342 

23.47 

0.17 

0.23 
0.29 



14^ 



Hor. 
Dist 



94.15 
94.12 

94.09 
94.07 
94.04 
94.01 

93.98 
93.95 
93.93 
93.90 
93.87 

93.84 
93.81 

93.79 
93.76 

93.73 

93.70 
93.67 
93.65 
93.62 

93.59 

93.56 
93.53 
93.50 
93.47 
93.45 

93.42 
93.39 
93.36 

93.33 
93.30 

0.73 

0.97 
I.2I 



Difif. 
Elev. 



23.47 
23.52 
23.58 
23.63 
23.68 

23.73 

23.78 

23.83 
23.88 

23.93 
23.99 

24.04 
24.09 
24.14 
24.19 
24.24 

24.29 
24.34 
24.39 
2444 
24.49 

24.SS 
24.60 

24.65 

24.70 

24.75 

24.80 
24.85 
24.90 

24.95 
25.00 

0.19 

0.25 

0.31 



15^ 



Hor. 
Dist. 



93.30 
93.27 
93.24 
93.21 

93.18 
93.16 

93.13 
93.10 

93.07 

93.04 
93.01 

92.98 

92.95 
92.92 

92.89 

92.86 

92.83 
92.80 
92.77 
92.74 
92.71 

92.68 
92.65 
92.62 

92.59 
92.56 

92.53 

9249 
92.46 

92.43 
92.40 

0.72 

0.96 

1.20 



Diff. 
Elev. 



25.00 

25.05 
25.10 

25.15 
25.20 
25.25 

25.30 
25.3s 
25.40 

25.45 
25.50 

2555 
25.60 

25.65 
25.70 

25.75 

25.80 

25.85 
25.90 

25.95 
26.00 

26.05 
26.10 
26.15 
26.20 
26.25 

26.30 

26.35 
2640 

26.45 
26.50 

0.20 
0.27 

0.34 



STADIA 



339 



Table 30. 



Horizontal Distances and Elevations froic 
Stadia Readings. — Continued 



16* 



Minutes 

o 

2 

4 

6 

8 

10 

12 

14 

16 

18 

20 .... . 

22 

24 

26 

28 

30 

32 

34 

36 

38 

40 

42 

44 

46 

48 

50 

52 

54 

S6..... 

58 

60 

c * 0.7s 

C sa 1.00. 

c — 1*25. 



Hor. 
DisL 

92.40 

92.37 

92.34 
92.31 

92.28 
92.25 

92.22 
92.19 

92.15 
92.12 

92.09 

92.06 
92.03 
92.00 
91.97 

91-93 

91.90 

91.87 
91.84 
91.81 

91-77 

91.74 
91.71 
91.68 
91.65 
91.61 

91.58 

91.55 
91-52 
91.48 

91-45 
0.72 

0.96 

1.20 



Diff. 
Elev. 



26.50 

26.55 
26.59 

26.64 

26.69 

26.74 

26.79 
26.84 
26.89 
26.94 
26.99 

27.04 
27.09 

27-13 
27.18 

27.23 

27.28 

27-33 
27.38 

27-43 
27.48 

27.52 

27-57 
27.62 

27.67 

27.72 

27.77 
27.81 

27.86 

27.91 

27.96 

0.21 
0.28 
0.35 



If 



Hor. 
DiaL 



91-45 
91.42 

91.39 

91-35 
91.32 

91.29 

91.26 
9X.22 
91.19 
91.16 
91.12 

91.09 
91.06 
91.02 

90.99 
90.96 

90.92 
90.89 
90.86 
90.82 

90.79 

90.76 
90.72 
90.69 
90.66 
90.62 

90.59 
90-55 
90.52 
90.48 

90.45 
0.72 

0-95 
1. 19 



Biff. 
Elev. 



27.96 
28.01 
28.06 
28.10 
28.15 
28.20 

28.25 
28.30 

28.34 
28.39 
2844 

28.49 
28.54 
28.58 
28.63 
28.68 

28.73 

28.77 
28.82 

28.87 

28.92 

28.96 
29.01 
29.06 
29.11 
29.15 

29.20 
29.25 
29.30 
29-34 
29-39 

0.23 
0.30 
0.38 



i8« 



Hor. 
DisL 



90.45 
90.42 

90.38 

90.35 
90.31 
90.28 

90.24 
90.21 
90.18 

90.14 
90.11 

90.07 
90.04 
90.00 
89.97 
89-93 

89.90 
89.86 
89.83 
89.79 
89.76 

89.72 
89.69 
89.65 
89.61 
89-58 

89-54 
89.51 

89-47 
89.44 

89.40 
0.71 

0.95 
I.19 



Diff. 

Elev. 



29-39 

29.44 
29.48 

29.53 

29.58 

29.62 

29.67 
29.72 
29.76 
29.81 
29.86 

29.90 

29-95 
30.00 

30.04 
30.09 

30.14 
30.19 
30.23 

30.28 
30.32 

30.37 
30.41 
30.46 
30.51 
30.55 

30.60 

30.65 
30.69 

30.74 
30.78 

0.24 
0.32 
0.40 



19' 



Hor. 
Diftt. 



89.40 
89.36 

89.33 
89.29 

89.26 

89.22 

89.18 

89.15 
89.11 

89.08 

89.04 

89.00 
88.96 

88.93 
88.89 
88.86 

88.82 
88.78 

88.75 
88.71 

88.67 

88.64 
88.60 
88.56 

88.53 
88.49 

88.45 
88.41 
88.38 

88.34 
88.30 

0.71 

0.94 
1.18 



Diff. 
Elev. 



30.78 
30.83 
30.87 
30.92 
30.97 
31.01 



.06 
.10 

.15 
.19 

-24 

.28 

-33 

-38 
.42 

.47 

-51 
.56 
.60 

•6s 

.69 

.74 
.78 

-83 

-87 

.92 



31.96 
32.01 
32.0s 
32.09 

32.14 
0.25 

0.33 
0.42 



340 



THE SURVEY 



Table 30. Horizontal Distances and Elevations from 

Stadia Readings. — Continued 



20° 


2I«» 


22° 


23° 


Minutes. 


Hor. 
Dist. 


D£flf. 
Elev. 


Hor. 
Dist 


Diff. 
Elev. 


Hor. 
Dist. 


Diflfa 

Elev. 


Hor. 
Dist 


Diflf. 
Elev. 




2 

4 

6 

8 

10 

12 

14 

16 

18 

20 

22 

24 

26 

28 

30 

32 

34 

36 

38 

40 

42 

44 

46 

48 

50 

S2 

54 

56 

S8 

60 


88.30 
88.26 
88.23 
88.19 
88.15 
88.x I 

88.08 

88.04 
88.00 
87.96 

87.93 

87.89 
87.85 

87.81 
87.77 
87.74 

87.70 
87.66 

87.62 

87.58 
87.54 

87.51 
87.47 

87.43 

87-39 

87-35 

87.31 

87.27 
87.24 

87.20 
87.16 


32.14 
32.18 
32.23 
32.27 
32.32 
32.36 

32.41 
32.45 
32.49 
32.54 
32.58 

32.63 
32.67 

32.72 
32.76 
32.80 

32.85 
32.89 
32.93 
32.98 
33-02 

33.07 
33." 
33.15 
33.20 

33-24 

33-28 

33-33 
33-37 
3341 
3346 


87.16 
87.12 
87.08 
87.04 
87.00 
86.96 

86.92 
86.88 
86.84 
86.80 

86.77 

86.73 
86.69 

86.65 

86.61 

86.57 

86.53 
86.49 

86.45 
86.41 

86.37 

86.33 
86.29 

86.25 

86.21 

86.17 

86.13 
86.09 
86.05 
86.01 

85.97 


3346 
33.50 
33.54 
33.59 
33.63 
33-67 

33-72 
33-76 
33-80 
33-84 
33-89 

33-93 
33.97 
34.01 

34.06 
34.10 

34.14 
34.18 

34.23 
34.27 
34.31 

34.35 
3440 

34.44 
3448 
34.52 

34.57 
34.61 
34.65 
34.69 
34.73 


85.97 
85-93 
85.89 

85.85 
85.80 

85-76 

85.72 
85.68 

85.64 
85.60 

85.56 

85.52 
8548 

85.44 
85.40 

85.36 

85.31 

85.27 

85.23 
85.19 

85.15 

85.11 

85.07 
85.02 

84.98 
84.94 

84.90 
84.86 
84.82 

84.77 
84.73 


34.73 
34.77 
34-82 
34-86 
34-90 
34.94 

34.98 
35.02 

35.07 
35." 
35.15 

35.19 
35.23 
35.27 
35.31 
35.36 

35.40 
3544 
35.48 
35.52 
35.56 

35.60 

35.64 
35.68 
35.72 
35.76 

35.80 
35.85 
35.89 
35-93 
35.97 


84.73 
84.69 

84.65 
84.61 

84.57 
84.52 

84.48 

84.44 
84.40 

84.35 
84.31 

84.27 

84.23 
84.18 

84.14 

84.10 

84.06 
84.01 
83.97 
83.93 
83.89 

83.84 
83.80 

83.76 
83.72 
83.67 

83.63 
83.59 
83.54 
83.50 
8346 


35-97 
36.01 

36.05 

36.09 

36.13 

36.17 

36.21 

36.25 
36.29 

36.33 
36.37 

36.41 

36.45 
36.49 
36.53 
36.57 

36.61 
36.65 
36.69 

36.73 
36.77 

36.80 
36.84 
36.88 
36.92 
36.96 

37.00 

37.04 
37.08 

37.12 

37.16 


c = 0.75. 


0.70 


0.26 


0.70 


0.27 


0.69 


0.29 


0.69 


0.30 


c = 1.00. 


0.94 


0.35 


0.93 


0.37 


0.92 


0.38 


0.92 


0.40 


c = 1.25. 


I.I7 


044 


1. 16 


0.46 


I.15 


0.48 


I.15 


0.50 



.4- 


23° 


26° 


27" 1 


Vbatta 


Or. 
Diat 


Efcv. 


Hbr. 
Dim. 


S-. 


Dlit. 


mff 


Hor. 

KM. 


Elev'. 


i:::::: 

8 

S:::::: 

i8 

26 ! ! ! . . . 

28 

30 

32 

S:::::: 

40 

42 

44 

46 

48 

SO 

Sa 

60 


B3^ 
83-ti 

83.37 

liii 

83.>o 

Sf 

S3-07 

83.02 

82.p8 

82.i 
S2.80 

82.76 

alii 
82.63 
8J.58 

82.54 
82-w 
8245 
8241 
82.36 

82.32 

82.27 
82.23 
Si.iS 

82.14 


3J.16 
37.20 
37.^3 
37-^7 
37-3' 
37.3s 

37-39 
3743 
37-47 
37-Si 
37-54 

37-58 
37.6. 
37-66 
37-70 
37-74 

37-77 
37.81 
37-85 
37-89 
37-93 

37-96 

38.11 

3B.IS 
38.19 
38-23 
38.26 
38.30 


S3. 14 
82.09 
82^5 

81.96 
81.92 

81.87 
81.83 
8,.;8 
81.74 
81.69 

81-65 
81.60 
81-56 
81.51 
8M7 

S142 
81.38 

81.24 

81.19 
81.15 
81.10 
81-06 
81.01 

80.97 

80.92 
80.87 

So!78 


38-30 
38-34 
38-38 
38-41 
38.4s 
38-49 

38-S3 

$t 

38.64 
38.67 

38-71 
38.7s 

38.86 

38.89 
38.93 
3S.97 
39-00 
39.04 

39.08 
39-11 
39.15 
39.18 
39.22 

39.J6 
3929 

S:S 

3940 


80.78 
So. 74 
80.69 
80.65 

80.55 

80.51 
3046 
80.41 
80.37 
80.32 

80-28 
80.23 
80.18 
80.14 
80.09 

S0.04 
80,00 
79.9s 
79.90 
79.86 

79.8. 
79.76 
79.72 
79-67 
79.6i 

79-S8 

S3 

79-44 
79-39 


39-40 
39-44 
3947 
39-51 
39-54 
39-58 

39.6, 
39-65 
39-69 
39-72 
39-76 

39-79 

lt& 

39-90 
39-93 

39-97 
40.00 
40.04 

t'l 

40.14 

40.18 
40.21 
40.24 
40.28 

40.31 
40.35 
40-38 
4043 
4045 


79-39 
79-34 
79-30 
79.25 
79.20 
79-15 

79.11 

79-06 

78.92 

78.87 
78.82 
78.77 

llii 
mi 

78.54 
78.49 
7844 

78.39 
78.34 
78.30 

1^2 

78-15 
78-10 
78.06 
78.01 
77-96 


40-4S 
4049 
40.52 
40-SS 
40-59 
40.62 

40.66 

40.69 
40.72 
40.76 
40-79 

40.82 
40.86 
40.89 
40.92 
40-96 

40.99 

4I.02 

41.06 
41.09 
41.12 

41,19 

41^26 
41.39 

41,33 

41-35 
41.39 
41-43 
41-45 


c - 0.7S- 


0.68 


0.31 


0.68 


0.32 


0.67 


0.33 


0.66 


0.35 


C - I.W. 


0.91 


0.41 


0.90 


043 


0-89 


_o4S 


0.89 


0.46 


c = 1.25. 


I.I4 


0.52 


1.13 


0.54 


■■" 


0.56 


1.11 


0,58 



342 
Table 30. 



THE SURVEY 

Horizontal Distances and Elevations from 
Stadia Readings.— Co»<:/«(^6<i 



Minutes 



o 

2 

4 

6 

8 

10 

12 

14 

16 

18 

20 

22 

24 

26 

28 

30 

32 

34 

36 

38 

40 

42 

44 

46 

48 

SO 

52 

54 

S6 

58 

60 

c = 0.75. 

c = i.oo. 
c « 1.25 



28' 



Hor. 
Dist. 



77.96 

77.91 

77.86 

77.81 

77.77 
77.72 

77.67 
77.62 

77.57 
77.52 
77.48 

77.42 
77.38 

77-33 
77.28 

77.23 

77.18 

77.13 
77.09 

77.04 

76.99 

76.94 
76.89 
76.84 
76.79 
76.74 

76.69 
76.64 

76.59 
76.55 
76.50 

0.66 
0.88 
1. 10 



Diff. 
Elev. 



41.45 
41.48 

41.52 

41.55 
41.58 

41.61 

41.65 
41.68 
41.71 
41.74 

41.77 

41.81 
41.84 
41.87 
41.90 

41.93 

41.97 
42.00 
42.03 
42.06 
42.09 

42.12 
42.15 
42.19 
42.22 
42.25 

42.28 
42.31 

42.34 

42.37 
42.40 

0.36 

0.48 

0.60 



29^ 



Hor. 
Dist. 



76.50 

76.45 
76.40 

76.35 
76.30 
76.25 

76.20 

76.15 
76.10 

76.05 

76.00 

75.95 
75.90 

75.85 
75.80 

75-75 

75.70 

75.65 
75.60 

75.55 
75.50 

75.45 
75.40 

75-35 
75.30 
75-25 

75.20 

75.15 
75.10 

75.05 
75.00 

0.65 

0.87 

1.09 



Diff. 
Elev. 



42.40 

42.43 
42.46 

42.49 

42.53 
42.56 

42.59 
42.62 

42.65 
42.68 

42.71 

42.74 

42.77 
42.80 

42.83 
42.86 

42.89 
42.92 

42.95 
42.98 

43.01 

43-04 

43.07 
43.10 

43.13 
43.16 

43.18 
43.21 

43.24 
43.27 
43.30 

0.37 

0.49 

0.62 



30* 



Hor. 
Dist. 



75.00 

74.95 
74.90 

74.85 
74.80 

74.7s 

74.70 

74.65 
74.60 

74-55 
74^9 

74.44 
74-39 
74-34 
74.29 
74.24 

74.19 
74.14 

74.09 
74.04 
73-99 

73-93 
73.88 

73.83 
73.78 

73-73 

73.68 

73-63 
73.58 
73.52 
73.47 

0.65 

0.86 
Z.08 



Diff. 

Elev. 



43.30 

43-33 
43.36 

43-39 
43-42 

43-45 

43.47 
43.50 

43.53 
43-56 

43.59 

43.62 

43.65 
43.67 
43-70 
43-73 

43.76 

43.79 
43.82 

43-84 
43.87 

43-90 

43-93 

43-95 

43.9* 
44.01 

44.04 

44.07 

44-09 
44.12 

44-15 
0.38 

0.51 
0.64 



ADJUSTMENT OF INSTRUMENTS 343 

Diversian Line Svaveys. — ^Where there is no doubt as to the 
grade to be adopted, or the alignment to be used, the location 
is made directly in the field and the center line is run and the 
cross-sections taken in the same manner as for a preliminary survey. 
If, however, the country is badly cut up and it is difficult to make 
a field location direct, a transit stadia survey is made covering the 
territory that will include all the possible locations and from the 
resulting contour map the different locations are projected and 
approximate estimates figured. The adopted line is then run in 
the field, cross-sections taken in the usual manner and an accurate 
estimate made. This method is used so seldom that the author 
does not feel justified in giving much space to the theory of stadia 
measurements or the methods of stadia surveys (see page 416). If 
the reader is not familiar with this class of work he is referred to the 
standard works on surveying. 

A convenient scale for a contour map for the projection work 
mentioned above is i" «= 20' with a contour interval of i' to 5', 
depending on the country. Table 30 is useful for reducing stadia 
notes. For a small number of shots this table and a slide rule will 
answer the purpose; for any extended amount of work a stadia 
reduction diagram or Noble & Casgrain's tables are recommended. 

If the stadia work is well done very satisfactory projections 
can be made. 

ADJUSTMENT OF INSTRUMEIVTS 

Wye LeveL — To Make the Line of CoUimation Parallel to the 
Telescope Rings, — ^Level the instrument roughly. Loosen the Y 
clamps so the telescope can turn freely in them; clamp the hori- 
zontal motion and by means of the leveling screws and tangent 
motion bring the intersection of the cross hairs on some well de- 
fined point. Then, without lifting from the Ys, turn the tele- 
scope over 180* watching to see if the cross wires remain on the 
point during the operation; if they do the adjustment is correct; 
if they do not, correct J^ the apparent error for both vertical and 
horizontal wires by means of the cross hair ring, adjusting screws, 
and repeat until the wires remain on the pomt for a complete 
revolution. 

To Make the Longitudinal Axis of the Level Bubble Parallel to the 
Plane of the Line of CoUimation. — ^Level the machine over either pair 
of leveling screws; unclamp the Ys; rotate the telescope in the Ys 
until the bubble tube is on one side of the bar. If the bubble re- 
mains in the center the adjustment is correct. If it runs from the 
center bring it to its correct position by means of the sidewise ad- 
justing screw at one end of the bubble case. 

To Make the Bubble Parallel to the Rings and Line of ColUmation. — 
Level the machine; imclamp the Ys; lift the telescope carefully 
from the Ys and reverse end for end; if the bubble runs to the center 
after the telescope has been reversed the adjustment is correct; 
if not, correct }4 the error by means of the adjusting nuts on the 



344 THE SURVEY 

bubble case and K the error with the leveling screws and repeat 
the test until the bubble remains in the center. 

To Adjust the Ys so the Level Bubble Will Be at Right Angles to 
the Axis of the Instrument, — ^Level the machine approximatdy over 
both sets of screws; level carefully over one set; rotate on the 
spindle i8o°; if the bubble remains in the center the adjustment 
is correct; if not, correct J^ the error by means of the adjusting 
nuts on the Ys and }4 by the leveling screws. Repeat until the 
bubble remains in the center when reversed over either pair of 
leveling screws. 

To Test the Horizontal Wire, — Be sure that the pin in the Y clamp 
is in the notch of the telescope ring to keep the telescope from 
rotating; level the machine and compare the horizontal wire 
with any level line; if the wire is not level loosen the cross wire 
ring and turn to the correct position. Adjust again for collimation 
and the level adjustments are complete. 

Dumpy Level. — To Make the Bubble Perpendicular to the Axis 
of the Instrument. — ^Level the machine roughly over both sets of 
leveling screws and carefully over one set; rotate on the pinion i8o°; 
if the bubble stays in the center the adjustment is correct; if not, 
correct }4 the error by means of the bubble adjusting nut and J^ by 
the leveling screws, and repeat until correct. 

To Make the Horizontal Line of Collimation Parallel to the Level 
Bubble, — ^Level the machine; drive a stake about 150' or 200' 
from the instrument and set the level rod target by the horizontal 
wire; rotate the instrument 180° and set another stake at the same 
distance from the machine as the first one* drive it until a rod 
reading taken on it is the same as the readmg on the first stake. 
These stakes will then be level even though the machine is out of 
adjustment. Then set the level up near one of the stakes; level 
carefully and take rod readings on both; if these readings are the 
same the level is in adjustment; if not, correct the position of 
the horizontal wire by means of the cross wire ring screws until the 
readings on both stakes are the same. 

Test the horizontal wire on a level line in the same manner as for 
the Y level. 

Transit. — Plate Levels. — ^Level the machine with each plate level 
bubble parallel to one set of leveling screws; rotate on the spindle 
180°; if the bubbles remain in the center the adjustment is correct; 
if not, correct ^4 the error with the bubble adjusting screws and 
J^ with the leveling screws. Repeat until correct. 

Line of Collimaiion, Ordinary Distances, — ^Level the machine; 
clamp the horizontal motion; with the slow motion screw, set the 
vertical cross wire on some well-defined point 500 or 600 feet away; 
transit the telescope and set a mark the same distance in the op- 
posite direction; then rotate the machine on the spindle, set on 
the first mark and transit the telescope; if the vertical wire strikes 
the second point the adjustment is correct; if not, correct Ji the 
error by means of cross wire ring adjusting screws and repeat 
until correct. 



CURVE FORMULAE 345 

To Make the Standards the Same Height, — ^Level the machine 
carefully; set the vertical wire on some well defined point as 
high as can be seen; bring the telescope down and set a point; 
rotate the machine 180^; transit the telescope set on the low point 
and raise the telescope; if the wire bisects the original high point 
the adjustment is correct; if not, correct ^ the error by means 
of the standard adjusting screw. 

Test the vertical wire by means of a plumb line to see that it 
is vertical; if not, loosen the cross hair ring and turn to the correct 
position; test again for coUimation. 

If the transit is to be used as a level make the level bubble 
parallel to the horizontal wire by the two-peg method in the same 
manner as described for the Dumpy level. 

EXPLANATION OF CURVE TABLES AND DEVELOPMENT 

OF CURVE FORMULJE 

Curves for roadwork need not be as carefully worked out as 
in railroad surveying. Except for long curves the external is 
usually measured and the curve run in by the eye, 
and for this reason many of the tables given in the 
railway field manuals are omitted and those used are 
tabulated in a different form. 

Tc^le 31, Radii oj Curves. — The curve radii are 
computed on a basis of 5730 feet ad the radius of a 
one-degree curve and are inversely proportional to 
the degree of curvature: they are tsmulated to the 
nearest o.i'. The usual columns showing logarithm 
of radius, tangent offset and middle ordinate are re- 
placed by the deflection angle per foot of arc, per 
25' of arc, and per 50' of arc, which saves consider- 
able time in the computation of deflections. These 
values are tabulated only for even degree, twenty- 
minute, thirty-minute, and forty-minute curves, as 
there is always sufl&cient leeway both in the external 
and tangent to select a suitable curve from this list. 

Table 32, Functions of i** Curve, — Column i gives 
the central angle A for every 10 minutes from 0° to 4® every 
minute 4** to 100®, and every 10 minutes 100° to 120°. 

Column 2 gives the same central angle as in column i expressed 
. in decimab of a degree. This simplifies figuring the curve length. 

Columns 3 and 4 give the tangent and external for the central 
angles of column i to the nearest o.i'. By the use of the chord 
lengths recommended at the top of each page of this table no 
correction need be made for tangent length or external distance 
of any desired curve, figured by dividing the value given in the 
table by the degree of curvature required. 

The error that is introduced by the use of these chords is less 
than 0.1' per 100', which is the allowable limit of error in chainmg 
center line. 




346 



THE SURVEY 



For the convenience of readers not familiar with the theory of 
curves and the computation of curve notes, the following brief dem- 
onstration is made: 



ItADn OF CURVES AND DEGREE OF CURVATURE 

A one-degree curve b defined as a curve having such a radius that 
loo feet of arc will subtend a one-degree central angle. 

There are 3 60** of central angle for a complete circle. The circum- 
ference of a circle is expressed by the formula 2t R, Therefore the 
radius of a one-degree curve is determined by the formulae 



2VR 

R 



360 X 100 
36,000 _ 36,000 

2T ~ 2(3.14159) 



= 5729.6 feet 



(i) 



Table 31. Radii and Deflections 
Figured on a basis of R = 5730' for a i** curve. 



D^reeof 
Curve 


Radius of 
Curve 


Deflectioii 

per foot of 

Arc 


Deflection per 
as' of Arc 


Deflection per 50' 
of Arc 




Feet 


Minutes 


Des. 


Minutes 


Deg. 


Minutes 


30 . . 

40 . . 
o« 50' . . 
I** 00' . . 

1 20 . . 

i«3o'.. 
1° 40' . . 

2* 00' . . 
2« 20' . . 

2*»3o'.. 

2«4o'.. 
3' 00'.. 


11,460.0 
8.595-0 
6,876.0 
5»730.o 
4,297.5 

3,820.0 
3»438.o 
2,865.0 

2,455.7 
2,292.0 

2,148.8 
1,910.0 


00.15 

00.2 

00.25 

00.3 

00.4 

00.45 

00.5 

00.6 

00.7 

00.75 

00.8 
00.9 


— 


— 


OOOOO ooooo 00 


07.S 
lo.o 

I2.S 
15.0 
20.0 

22.5 
25.0 
30.0 

3S.O 
37.S 

40.0 
45.0 



RADII AND DEFLECTIONS 



347 



Table 31. — Continued 



Degree of 


Radius of 


Deflection 
per foot of 

Arc 


Deflectioa per 


Deflection per 501^ 


Curve 


Curve 


25' of Arc 


of Arc 


* 


Feet 


Minutes 


Deg. 


Minutes 


Deg. 


Minutes 


3! ='°! • • 


1,719.0 


01 .0 


^__ 







50.0 


3: 3° • • 


1,637.1 


01.05 


— 


— 





52.5 


3° 40' . . 


1,562.7 


01. Z 


~~' 


"~" 





55.0 


4" 00' . . 


1,432.5 


01.2 


— 


— 




00.0 


4 20 . . 


1,322.3 


01.3 


— — 






05.0 


< 3<»; • • 


1,273.3 


oi.35 


— 






07.5 


< -^ • • 


1,227.9 


01.4 








10.0 


S" 00' . . 


1,146.0 


01.5 




— - 




15.0 




1,041.8 


01.65 




— 




22.5 


6^ 00' . . 


955.0 


01.8 




— 




30.0 


^!3°! • 


881.5 


01.95 








37.5 


7^00 . 


818.6 


02.1 


— 






45.0 


. 7 30 .. 


764.0 


02.25 








52.5 


8** 00' . . 


716.3 


02.4 






2 


00.0 


^!3o;.. 


674.1 


02.55 




— 


2 


07.5 


9!«> •. 


636.6 


02.7 






2 


15.0 


<3o - 


603.2 


02.85 


— 




2 


22.5 


10** 00' . . 


573.0 


03.0 




■ 


2 


30.0 


10° 30' . . 


545.7 


03.15 


— 




2 


37.5 


11** 00' . . 


520.9 


033 






2 


45.0 


II** 30' . . 


498.3 


03.45 




— 


2 


52.5 


12** 00' . . 


477.5 


03.6 




— — 


3 


00.0 


12° 30' . . 


458.4 


03.75 






3 


07.5 


< «^: • • 


440.8 


03-9 


— 




3 


15.0 


K 30 . . 


424.4 


04.05 






3 


22.5 


14 00' . . 


409.3 


04.2 




—— 


3 


30.0 


K 3°.' • • 


395.2 


04.35 




» , 


3 


37.5 


15° 00' . . 


382.0 


04.5 


•"■ 




3 


45.0 


K 30; . . 


4 

. 369.6 


04.65 




— 


3 


52.5 


.16° 00' . . 


358.1 


04.8 


2 


00.0 


4 


00.0 


16° 30' . . 

0^ M 


347.3 


04.95 


2 


03.8 


4 


07.5 


if 00' . . 


337.0 


05.1 . 


2 


07.5 


4 


15.0 


17^ 30' . . 


327.4 


05.25 


2 


II. 2 


4 


22.5 


18° 00' . . 


318.3 


05.4 


2 


15.0 


4 


30.0 


18° 30' . . 


309.7 


05.55 


2 18.7 


4 


37-5 



348 



THE SURVEY 



Table 31. — CorUinued 



Degree of 


Radius of 


Deflection 

per ft. of 

Arc 


Deflection per 
25' of Arc 


Deflection per 


Curve 


Curve 






so' of Arc 


Minutes 


Degree 


Minutes 


19** 00' 


301.6 


05.7 


2 


22.5 




K 3^: 


293.8 


05.85 


2 


26.2 




20 00 


286.S 


06.0 


2 


30.0 




20*^ 30' 


279-5 


06.15 


2 


33-7 




2I*»00' 


272.9 


06.30 


2 


37.5 




21** 30' 


266.S 


06.45 


2 


41.2 




22® 00' 


260.5 


06.6 


2 


45.0 




22° 30' 


254.7 


06.75 


2 


48.7 




<~; 


249.1 


06.9 


2 


52.5 




23** 30' 


243.8 


07.05 


2 


56.2 




24*^00' 


238.8 


07.2 


3 


00.0 




K 3°' 


2339 


07.35 


3 


03.7 


« 


25^*00' 


229.2 


07-5 


3 


07.5 




26** 00' 


220.4 


07.8 


3 


15.0 




27** 00' 


212.2 


08.1 


3 


22.5 




28^*00' 


204.6 


08.4 


3 


30.0 




20° 00' 


197.6 


08.7 


3 


37-5 




30 00 


191.0 


09.0 


3 


45.0 


Deflection per 
lo'of Arc 


31^00' 
32° 00' 


184.8 


09.3 


3 


52.5 




1 79. 1 


09.6 


4 


00.0 


1° 


36 


33 00 


173.6 


09.9 






1° 


3^ 


34^*00' 


168.5 


10.2 







1° 


42' 


35** 00' 


163.7 


10.5 




— 


1° 


45' 


36*^00' 


159.2 


10.8 




—^ 


1° 


48' 


37** 00' 


1549 


II. I 


— 





1° 


5^; 


38** 00 


150.8 


II.4 


— 





1° 


5< 


39° 00 


146.9 


II.7 


— 




1° 


57 


40 00 


143-2 


12.0 


— 




2° 


00' 


<~^ 


136.4 


12.6 







2° 


06' 


44*»oo; 


130.2 


13-2 







2° 


12' 


46^00' 


124.6 


13.8 


— 





2° 


18' 


48° 00' 


1 19.4 


14.4 


— 


— 


2° 


»4' 


SO^'oo' 


1 14.6 


15.0 


— - 


•"^~' 


2° 


30' 


52^00' 


1 10. 2 


15.6 


— 


— 


2° 


36; 


54" 00' 


106. 1 


16.2 


— 





2° 


**. 


S6°oo' 


102.3 


16.8 


^~. 


~"~ 


a* 


48' 



CURVE FORMULAE 



349 



For all practical purposes the value of 5730 can be used. 

In the same manner a two-degree curve is one having such a 
radius that 100 feet of arc will subtend two degrees of central 
angle, and its radius is 

2TC R ^ - — X 100 
2 

p — 18^000 

2ir 

or J^ of the radius of a one-degree curve. 
The radius of a three-degree curve will be H of 57 30, . 
The radius of a four-degree curve will be ^^ of 5730. 
The formula for the radius of any degree of curve is therefore 



J? - 5730 
The degree of curvature for any specified radius is therefore 



(2) 




(3) 

In general the degree of curvature is expressed by the central 
angle subtended by 100 feet of arc, and the radius for that degree 
of curve is found by dividing 5730 feet, the radius of a one-degree 
curve, by the degree of curve desired expressed in degrees and 
decimals of a degree. That is, if the radius of a 3** 30' curve is 
wanted, divide 5730 by 3.5, which equals 1637.1'. The radii given 
in Table 31 are computed in this manner. 

Length of Curve. — For a 5® curve a central angle of 5** subtends 
100' of arc; a central angle of 10**, 200' of arc; a central angle of 
12** 30', 250' of arc. That «, for a specified central angle the 
length of any specified curve equals that central angle expressed 
in degrees and decimals of a degree divided by the degree of curve 
expressed in degrees and decimals multiplied by loo-^i.e., the length 

of a 10** is' curve for a central angle of 20® 45' = — ' — X 100' = 

202.4' and is expressed by the formula (continued on page 376) 

Table 32. Functions of a One-Degree Curve Figured on 
A Basis op R=S7$o' and Tabulated to Tenths of Feet 

Use 100' chords up to 8* Curves Use 35' chords up to 33* Curves 

Use 50' chords up to 16* Curves Use 10' chords above 32** Curves 



a 


o" 


l' 


a 


1- 


3" 


1 


1 


Ext. 


Tan. 


Ezt. 


Tan. 


Ext. 


Tan. 


Ext. 


Tan. 





0.0 


0.0 


a3 


50.0 . 


0.9 


lOO.O 


2.0 


1 50. 1 





10 


0.0 


8.3 


0.3 


58.3 


Z.O 


10S.4 


3.3 


158.4 


10 


30 


0.0 


16.7 


0.4 


66.7 


Z.3 


116.7 


3.4 


X66.8 


30 


30 


0.1 


3S.O 


0.S 


7S.O 


1.4 


125.0 


2.7 


175.1 


30 


40 


0.1 


33.3 


0.6 


833 


1.6 


133.4 


3.9 


183.4 


40 


P 


0.3 


41.7 


0.7 


91.7 


X.8 


141-7 


3.2 


191.7 


P 


60 


0.8 


50.0 


0.9 


100.0 


8.0 


ZSO.Z 


3.5 


300.Z 


60 



352 



THE SURVEY 



Use loo' Chords up to 8** Curves Use as' Chords up to 33* Carves 
IJse 50' Chords up to 16** Curves Use zo' Chords above 32" Curves 



s 

.a 

o 

X 
3 
3 

4 

5 
6 

7 
8 



10 
iz 

Z2 
13 
14 

IS 
z6 

17 
z8 

19 
20 

2Z 
22 
23 
24 

as 

26 

27 
28 

29 

30 
31 
32 

33 
34 

35 
36 
37 
38 
39 

40 

41 
42 
43 
44 

4S 
46 
47 
48 
49 

50 
51 
52 
53 
54 

56 
57 
5» 
59 



»9 



0000 

0167 

0333 
0500 

,0667 

0833 
zooo 
ZI67 

1333 
1500 

Z667 

1833 

2000 
2167 

2333 

3500 
2667 

2833 

3000 

3167 

3333 
3500 
3667 

3833 
4000 

4167 
4333 
4SOO 
4667 
•4833 
Sooo 
S167 
5333 
SSoo 
5667 

5833 
6000 
6167 

6333 
6500 

6667 

6833 
70CO 

7167 
7333 

7SOO 
7667 

7833 
8000 

8z67 

8333 
8500 
8667 

8833 
9000 

9Z67 

9333 
9SOO 

9667 

9833 



za* 



Ext. 



31-6 
317 
31-7 
31.8 
3Z.9 

32.0 
32.Z 
32.2 

32.3 
324 

32.S 
32.5 
32.6 

32.7 
32.8 

32.9 
33.0 

33-1 
33.2 

33.3 

33.4 
33-4 
33-5 
33.6 
33.7 

33-8 

33-9 
34-0 

34.1 
34.2 

34-3 
34.4 
34-5 
34-5 
34-6 

34.7 
34.8 

34.9 
350 

3S.I 

35-2 
35-3 
35-4 
35-5 
35-6 

35.7 
35-8 
35-8 
35-9 
36.0 

36.x 
36.2 
36.3 
36.4 
36.5 

36.6 

36.7 
36.8 

36.9 
37.0 



Tan. 



602.2 
603. z 
603.9 
604.7 
605.6 

606.4 

607.3 
608.1 
609.0 
609.8 

6x0.7 
6xx.s 
6x2.4 
6x3.2 
6x4.0 

6x4.9 

6x5-7 
616.6 

617.4 
6x8.3 

6x9.1 
6x9.9 
620.8 
62X.6 
622.S 

623.3 
624.2 
625.0 

625.9 
626.7 

627.6 
628.4 
629.2 
630.x 
630.9 

63X.8 
632.6 
633-5 
634-3 
635.1 

636.0 
636.8 
637.7 
638.5 
639-4 

640.2 
641.X 
641.9 
642.7 
643.6 

644.4 

645-3 
646.x 

647.0 

647.8 

648.6 
649-5 
650.3 
65X.2 
652.0 



13^ 



Ext. 



37.x 
37.2 
37-3 
37.4 
37.5 

37.6 
37-7 
37.7 
37.8 
37-9 

38.0 
38.x 
38.2 
38.3 
38.4 

38.5 
38.6 

38.7 
38.8 

38.9 

39.0 
39-x 
39.2 
39.3 
39.4 

39-5 
39.6 
39.7 
39.8 
39.9 

40.0 
40.x 
40.2 

40.3 
40.4 

40.5 
40.6 
40.7 
40.8 
40.9 

41.0 
4X.X 
4X.2 

41.3 
4X.4 

41-5 
4X.6 

41-7 
4X.8 

41.9 

42.0 
42.x 
42.2 

42.3 
42.4 

42.5 
42.6 

42.7 
42.8 

42.9 



Tan. 



652.9 
653.7 
654.6 
655.4 
656.3 

657.1 
6579 
658.8 
659.6 
660.5 

66X.3 
662.2 
663.0 
663.8 
664.7 

665.5 
666.4 
667.2 
668.x 
668.9 

669.8 
670.6 

671.4 
672.3 

673.1 

674.0 
674.8 

675-7 
676.5 
677.4 

678.2 
679.0 

6799 
680.7 

68X.6 

682.4 

683.3 
684.x 
685-0 
685.8 

686.6 

687.5 
688.3 
689.2 
690.0 

690.9 
69X.7 
692.S 

693-4 
694.2 

695.1 
695-9 
696.8 
697.6 
698.5 

699.3 
700.x 
70X.0 
70X.8 
702.7 



14" 



Ext. 



43.0 
43.1 
43.2 
43.3 



43.4 



43.5 
43.7 
43.8 
43.9 
44-0 

44.1 
44-2 
44.3 
44-4 
44.S 

44.6 
44-7 
44-8 

44-9 
45.0 

45.1 
45.2 
45-3 
45-4 
45.5 

45.6 
45.8 

45-9 
46.0 
46.x 

46.2 
46-3 
46-4 
46.5 
46.6 

46.7 
46.8 

46.9 
47.0 

47.2 

47.3 
47-4 
47-5 
47.6 
47.7 

47.8 

47-9 
48.0 
48.x 
48.2 

48.3 
48.S 
48.6 

48-7 
48.8 

48-9 
49.0 

49.1 
49.2 

49-3 



Tan. 



03.5 
04.4 
05.2 
06.1 
06.9 

07.8 
08.6 

09.5 
X0.3 

11.3 
1 3.0 

X2.9 

13.7 

14.6 

15.4 
16.3 
17.1 

x8.o 
x8.8 
X9.6 

20.5 
2X.3 
22.2 
23.x 
23.9 

24.7 
25.6 
26.5 

27.3 
28.x 

29.0 
29.8 
30.7 
3X.5 
324 

33-2 
34.0 
34.9 
35-7 
36.6 

37.4 
38-3 
39-1 
40.0 
40.8 

41.7 
42.5 
43-4 
44-2 
45.1 

45.9 
46.7 
47.6 

48.4 
49.3 

SO.i 
Sx.o 
S1.8 
52.7 
53.5 



15' 



Ext. 



49.4 
49-6 

49-7 
49.8 
49.9 

50.0 
50.1 
50.2 
50.3 
50.S 

S0.6 

50.7 
S0.8 
50.9 
SIjo 

51.Z 

5X.2 

51.3 
51s 

Sz-6 

SI.7 
51.8 

S1.9 
j2.o 

52.1 

523 

52.4 
52.5 
52.6 

52.7 
S2.8 
52.9 
53-1 
S3-2 
53.3 

53-4 
53-5 
S3.6 
53.7 
S3.9 

S4.0 
54.1 
54.2 
54.3 
54-4 

54.6 
54-7 
54-8 
54-9 
SS-o 

SSI 
55-3 
55-4 
55.5 
SS.6 

55.7 
55.8 
56.0 
56.x 

$6.2 



Tan. 



754.4 
755.2 
756.Z 
756.9 
757-7 

758.6 

759.4 
760.3 
761.1 
763.0 

762.8 
763.7 
764.5 
765.4 
766.2 

767.1 

767.9 
768.8 
769.6 
770.5 

771-3 
772.2 

773.0 

773.9 

774.7 

775.6 
776.4 
777.3 
778.1 

778.9 

779.8 
780.6 

781.5 
782.3 
783.3 

784.0 
784.9 
785.7 
786.6 

787.4 

788.3 
789.1 
790.0 
790.8 
791.7 

792.S 
793.4 
794.2 
795.1 
795.9 

796.8 
797.6 
798.5 
799.3 
800.3 

801.0 
801.9 
803.7 
803.6 
804.4 



M 

a_ 

o 

I 

3 

3 
4 

5 
6 

7 
8 

9 
10 

XX 
X3 

13 

14 

IS 
x6 

17 
18 

19 
30 

31 
33 
23 

24 



25 
26 

2 
2 
39 



I 



30 

31 

32 

33 
34 

35 
36 
37 
38 
39 

40 
41 
42 
43 
44 

45 

46 

48 
49 

50 
51 

52 
53 
54 

55 

56 
5« 









r ui> 


iV^llV^. 


LNO wr 


KJIMCj 


-X^JtiVjrJ 


\.CjCj ^^ 


UXVV J!- 




^ 


Use lOo' Chords up to 8** Curves Use as' Chords ud to aa* Curves 




Use sc 


•' Chorda 


up to x6* Curves Use 10' Chords above 32* Curves 




1 


.0000 


la'' 


17* 


x8" 


19* 


1 




.9 
o 


Ext. 


Tan. 


Ext. 


Tan. 


Ext. 


Tan. 


Ext. 


Tan. 


1 




56.3 


805.3 


63.6 


856.4 


71.4 


907.5 


79.7 


958.9 






I 


.0167 


56.4 


806.2 


63.8 


557-2 


7X.6 


908.4 


79-8 


959.7 






2 


.0333 


56.S 


807.0 


63.9 


8s8.x 


71.7 


909.2 


79-9 


960.6 






3 


.0500 


56.7 


807.8 


64.0 


858.0 
859-0 


7X.8 


9x0.x 


80.x 


96X.4 






4 


.0667 


56.8 


808.6 


64.3 


72.0 


910.9 


80.3 


962.3 






5 


.0833 


56.9 


809.5 


64-3 


860.6 


72.x 


9XX.8 


80.4 


963.2 


5 




6 


.xooo 


S7.0 


810.4 


64.4 


86X.5 


72.2 


9x2.7 


80.5 


964.0 


6 




7 


.XI67 


57.x 


811. 3 


64.5 


862.3 


72.4 


913.5 


80.7 


964.9 


I 




8 


.1333 


57.3 


812.1 


^H 


863.2 


72.5 


914.4 


80.8 


9657 




9 


.1500 


574 


812.9 


64.8 


864.0 


72.6 


915.3 


80.9 


966.6 


9 




ID 


.X667 


57-5 


813.8 


64.9 


864.9 


72.8 


9x6.x 


8x.i 


967.4 


xo 




IX 


.1833 


57.6 


8x4.6 


65.0 


865.7 


72.9 


9x6.9 


81.2 


968.3 


XX 




12 


.2000 


57.7 


?^|S 


65.2 


866.6 


73.0 


9x7.8 


8X.4 


969.2 


X3 




13 


.2167 


57.9 


816.3 


65.3 


867^1 


73.2 


9x8.6 


8X.5 


970.0 


13 




14 


.2333 


58.0 


817.2 


65.4 


868.3 


73.3 


919.5 


8X.7 


970.9 


14 




IS 


.3500 


58.1 


8x8.0 


65.6 


869.x 


73.4 
73.6 


920.3 


8x.8 


971.7 


15 




x6 


.2667 


58.2 


8x8.9 


65.7 


870.0 


92X.3 


81.9 


972.6 


16 




H 


•2833 


58.3 


8x9.7 


65.8 


870.8 


73-7 


922.0 


82.x 


973.4 


\l 




i8 


.3000 


11:1 


820.6 


65.9 


87X.7 


73-9 


922.9 


82.2 


974.3 




19 


.3167 


82X.4 


66.x 


872.5 


74.0 


983.8 


824 


975.1 


19 




so 


.3333 


58.7 


822.3 


66.2 


873.4 


74.1 


924.6 


82.5 


976.0 


30 




ax 


.3500 


58.8 


823.x 


66.3 


874.2 


74.3 


925.5 


82.7 


976.9 


2X 




22 


.3667 


58.9 


824.0 


66.4 


875.1 


74.4 


926.3 


82.8 


977.7 


23 




a3 


.3833 


59-1 


824.8 


66.6 


875.9 


74.5 


927.2 
928.1 


82.9 


978.6 


23 




84 


w^OOO 


59-a 


825.7 


66.7 


876.8 


74.7 


83.x 


9794 


24 




*l 


.4167 


59-3 


826.5 


66.8 


877.6 


74.8 


928.9 


83.2 


980.3 


25 




36 


.4333 


59-4 
59.0 


I'l^ 


67.0 


878.5 


74.9 


929.8 


834 


98X.2 


26 




*2 


.4500 


828.2 


67.x 


879.3 


75.1 


930.6 


83.5 


982.0 


37 




38 


.4667 


59.7 


829.1 


67.2 


880.2 


75.2 


931.5 


83.7 


982.9 


38 




39 


^33 


59.8 


829.9 


67.3 


88x/> 


75.4 


933.3 


83.8 


983.7 


89 




30 


.5000 


59.9 


830.8 


67.5 


881.9 


75.5 


933-2 


84.0 


984.6 


30 




31 


.5x67 


60.0 


83X.6 


67.6 


882.7 


75.6 


934-0 


84.x 


9854 


31 




32 


.5333 


60.2 


832.S 


67.7 


883.6 


75.8 


934.9 


84.3 


986.3 


3a 




33 


.5500 


60.3 


833.3 


67.9 


884.5 


75.9 


935-7 


f^ 


987.8 


33 




34 


.5667 


60.4 


834.3 


68.0 


885.3 


76.x 


936.6 


988.0 


34 




3S 


.5833 


60.5 


835.1 


68.x 


886.2 


76.3 


937.5 
938.3 


84.7 


988.9 


II 




36 


.6000 


60.7 


835.9 


68.2 


887.0 


76.3 


84.8 


989.7 




37 


.6x67 


60.8 


836.8 


68.4 


887.9 


76.5 


939-8 


85.0 


990.6 


37 




3« 


.6333 


60.9 


837.6 


68.5 


888.7 


76.6 


940.0 


85.x 


991.5 


38 




39 


.6500 


6x.o 


838.S 


68.6 


889.6 


76.7 


940.9 


85.3 


992.3 


39 




40 


.6667 


6x.x 


839.3 


68.8 


8904 


76.9 


941.7 


in 


993-2 


4Q 




41 


.6833 


61.3 


840.2 


68.9 


891.3 


77.0 


942.6 


994.0 


41 




42 


.7000 


6X.4 


841.0 


69.0 


892.2 


77.1 


943.S 


85.7 


994.9« 


44 




43 


.7x67 


6x.5 


84X.9 


69.2 


893.0 


77.3 


944.3 


85.9 


995.8 


4J 




44 


'7333 


61.6 


843.7 


69.3 


893.9 


774 


945.3 


86.0 


996.6 


44 




45 


.7500 


6x.8 


843.6 


69.4 
69.6 


8947 


77.6 


946.0 


86.2 


997.5 


:i 




46 


.7667 


61.9 


844.4 


895.6 


77.7 


946.9 


86.3 


998.3 




47 


.7833 


62.0 


845.3 


69.7 


896.4 


77.8 


948.6 


86.5 


999-8 


S 




48 


.8000 


62.x 


846.x 


69.8 


897.3 


78.0 


86.6 


X000.0 




49 


^167 


62.3 


847.0 


70.0 


898.1 


78.x 


9494 


86.8 


XOOO.9 


4« 




SO 


.8333 


62.4 


847.8 


70.1 


899.0 


78.3 


950.3 


86.9 


XOOX.8 


5« 




51 


.8500 


62.5 


848.7 


70.2 


899.8 


78.4 


951.1 


87.x 


X002.6 


51 




52 


.8667 


62.6 


849.S 


70.4 


900.7 


78.5 


952.0 


87.2 


X003.5 


54 




53 


.8833 


62.8 


850.4 


70.5 


901.S 


\u 


952.9 


874 


X004.3 


5j 




54 


.9000 


63.9 


85X.2 


70.6 


902.4 


953.7 


87.5 


XO05.3 


U 




55 


.9167 


63.0 


852.x 


70.8 


903.3 


79.0 


954.6 


87.7 


1006.0 


^ 




56 


•9333 


63.x 


llli 


70-9 


904.x 


79-1 


9554 


il'^ 


X006.9 


9« 




IS 


•9SOO 


63.3 


71.0 


905.0 


79.8 


956.3 


88.0 


m 


S 




.9667 


$3*4 


854.7 


71.8 


905.8 


794 


PS7.3 
958.0 


88.x 




90 


'^$S 


63.S 


855-5 


71.3 


906.7 


79-5 


88.2 


X009.5 


9i 



354 



THE SURVEY 





Use 50' Chords 


up to x6 


•Curves 


Use xo' Chords above 32* 






8 


■^1 


30" 


21* 


22^ 


23* 


1 


J 


II 


Ext. 


Tan. 


Ext. 


Tan. 


Ext. 


Tan. 


Ext. 


Tan. 


j2 




o 


X)000 


88.4 


X010.4 


97.6 


1062.0 


X07.2 


XXX3.8 


1x74 
XX7.0 


X165.8 


X 


x>i67 


88.5 


XOX1.2 


97.7 


1062.8 


107.4 


XXX4.6 


XX66.6 


X 


a 


.0333 


88.7 


1012.1 


97.9 


1063.7 


X07.6 


1115.5 


117.7 


1x67.5 


a 


X 


.0500 


88.8 


1012.9 


98.x 


1064.5 


107.7 


XXX6.4 


117.9 


X 168.3 


3 


4 


.0667 


89.0 


X013.8 


98.2 


1065.4 


107.9 


1117.3 


118.x 


1169.3 


4 


5 


.0833 


89.x 


XOX4.6 


98.4 


X066.3 


X0S.0 


XX18.X 


X18.3 


1 170.x 


5 


6 


.1000 


89.3 


10x5.5 


98.5 


1067.3 


X08.2 


XI 19.0 


XX8.4 


XX7X.O 


6 


7 


.X167 


89.4 


XOX6.3 


98.7 


1068.0 


108.4 

108.6 


XI 19.8 


1x8.6 


XX7X.8 


7 


8 


.X333 


89.6 


X017.2 


98.8 


X068.9 


XI 20.7 


1x8.8 


1172.7 


8 


9 


.X500 


89.7 


XOX8.1 


99.0 


X069.7 


108.7 


XX3X.5 


XX8.9 


1173.S 


9 


xo 


.1667 


89.9 


X019.0 


99.2 


1070.6 


X08.9 


IX23w( 


XI9.X 


1174.4 


XO 


XX 


.1833 


90.0 


10x9.8 


99.3 


1071.5 


X09.0 


XX 23.3 


119.3 


1175.3 


XX 


la 


.3000 


90.3 


X020.7 


99.5 


1072.4 


109.3 


XI 24.2 


119.5 


1x76.3 


13 


13 


.3x67 


90.3 


X02X.5 


99.6 


X073.2 


109.4 

X09.6 


XX 35.0 


119.7 
XX9.8 


XX77.0 


13 


M 


.2333 


90.5 


X022.4 


99.8 


1074.X 


1125.9 


1X77-9 


14 


*5 


.3500 


90.6 


1023.2 


99.9 


1074.9 


109.7 


1x26.7 


X30.0 


XX78.8 


H 


x6 


.2667 


90.8 


I024.I 


xoo.x 


X07S.8 


X09.9 


XX27.6 


X20.2 


1179.7 


x6 


n 


.2833 


90.9 


X024.9 


100.2 


X076.6 


Xiao 


XX28.5 


X20.4 


1x80.5 


X7 


x8 


.3000 


9X.X 


X025.8 
XO20.7 


100.4 


1077.5 


XX0.3 


XX 29.4 


X20.5 


XX8X.4 


x8 


19 


.3x67 


9X.2 


100.5 


1078.4 


XX0.4 


1x30.2 


X30.7 


ix83.a 


19 


ao 


.3333 


9iw* 


1027.6 


X00.7 


1079.3 


1x0.6 


1x31.1 


X30.9 


X 183.1 


30 


2X 


•3SOO 


91.6 


X028.4 


100.9 


X080.1 


X10.7 


1131.9 


X3X^ 


X 184.0 


3X 


23 


.3667 


91.7 


1029.3 


XOX.I 


xoSx.o 


X10.9 


XI33.8 


X3X.3 


XX84.9 


33 


33 


.3833 


91-9 


X030.I 


XOX.3 


X081.8 


XXX.O 


1133.7 


X3X.4 


1185.7 


23 


24 


.4000 


93X> 


XO3X.0 


XOX.4 


X083.7 


IXX.3 


1x34.6 


Z3X.6 


1x86.6 


24 


*l 


^167 


93.3 


I03X.8 


10X.5 


X083.5 


XXX.4 
XXX.6 


1135.4 


X3I.7 


"§2-5 


25 


36 


^333 


92.3 


X032.7 


XOI.7 


X084.4 


1 136.3 


X2X.9 


1x88.4 


36 


a? 


.4500 


93.S 


1033.5 


XOX.8 


1085.3 


XXX.7 


1137.1 


X22.X 


X 189.3 


27 


28 


.4667 


92.6 


1034.4 


X03.0 


X086.2 


XX1.9 


XX38.0 


X22.3 


XX90.X 


38 


39 


.4833 


92.8 


X035.2 


X03.X 


X087.0 


XX2.I 


1x38.8 


X22.4 


XX90.9 


29 


30 


.5000 


92.9 


I036.I 


X03.3 


X087.9 


ixa.3 


1139.7 


X33.6 


XX9X.8 


30 


3Z 


.5167 


93.1 


X037.0 


X03.5 


X088.7 


XX3.4 
XX 3.0 


X 140.6 


132.8 


XX93.7 


31 


33 


.5333 


93.2 


1037.9 


X03.7 


X089.6 


1141.5 


X33.O 


XX93.6 


32 


33 


•SSOO 


93.4 


X038.7 


102.8 


X090.4 


XX3.7 


X 142.3 


X23.3 


1194.4 


33 


34 


.5667 


93*5 


X039.6 


X03.0 


1091.3 


XX3.9 


1143.2 


123.3 


11953 


34 


H 


.5833 


93.7 


X040.4 


X03.I 


X092.2 


XI3.1 


1x44.0 


I23.S 


1x96.3 


35 


36 


.6000 


93.9 


XQ4I.3 


103.3 


1093.1 


113.3 


1144.9 


123.7 


1197.1 


36 


^ 


.6167 


94.0 


X042.X 


103.4 


1093.9 


113.4 
XX3.6 


XX45.8 


123.9 


1x97.9 


37 


38 


.6333 


94.2 


X043.0 


X03.6 


X094.8 


X 146.7 


134.1 


XX98.8 


38 


39 


.6500 


94-3 


1043.9 


X03.8 


X095.6 


113-7 


1147.S 


124.3 


XX99.6 


39 


40 


.6667 


94-5 


XQ44.8 


X04.0 


1096.5 


113.9 


1x48.4 


124.4 

X34.6 


i3oa5 


40 


41 


.6833 


94.6 


X04S.6 


X04.X 


1097.4 


X14.X 


XX49.3 


xaox.4 


41 


42 


.7000 


94.8 


X046.S 


104.3 


1098.3 


114.3 


XX 50.x 


X34.8 


X 303.3 


42 


43 


.7167 


94.9 


1047.3 


104.4 

XQ4.6 


1099.1 


114.4 
X14.6 


XX5I.0 


124.9 


X 303.x 


43 


44 


•7333 


9S.I 


X048.2 


XX00.0 


1151.9 


X35.X 


X 304.0 


44 


45 


.7500 


952 


X049.0 


104.7 


XX00.8 


1x4.8 


1x52.7 


125.3 


xao4.9 


4S 


46 


.7667 


954 
95.0 


X049.9 


X04.9 


XXOX.7 


X15.0 


XI 53.6 


125.S 


X30S.8 


46 


^2 


.7833 


I05a8 


X05.X 


XX02.5 


X15.2 


1154.5 


125.7 


X 306.7 


47* 


48 


.8000 


95-7 


1051.7 


10S.3 


XX03.4 


115.3 


1155.4 


135.8 


1207.5 


48 


49 


.8x67 


95.9 


1052.5 


105.4 


XX04.3 


115.5 


1x56.3 


X36.0 


1208.3 


49 


SO 


.8333 


96.0 


1053.4 


105.6 


X 105.2 


115.7 


1157.1 


X36.3 


1209.3 


SO 


SI 


.8500 


96.2 


1054.2 


105.7 


XX06.0 


XX5.8 


1157.9 
xx58i 


136.^ 
136.0 


X3XO.X 


51 


Sa 


.8667 


96.3 


1055.1 


105.9 


XX06.9 


xx6.o 


X3XX.O 


52 


S3 


.8833 


96.S 


1055.9 


X06.X 


XX07.8 


X16.X 


1159.7 


X36.7 


X3XX.8 


53 


54 


.QOOO 


96.7 


X056.8 


X06.3 


XX08.6 


X16.3 


XX60.6 


Z36.9 


X3X3.7 


54 


^ 


.9X67 


96.8 


1057.7 


X06.4 

X06.6 


XX09.4 


XX6.5 


xx6x.4 


X37.I 


xax3.6 


55 


56 


.9333 


97.0 


X058.6 


XXX0.3 


1x6.7 


XX63.3 


127.3 


1214-5 


56 


52 


.9500 


97-1 


1059.4 


X06.7 


XXXX.3 


xx6.8 


X163.X 


127.5 


laxM 
xax6.a 


57 


?8 


.9667 


97.3 


X060.3 


X06.9 


xxxa.x 


X17.0 


XX64.0 


X37.6 


58 


9 •9833 1 


97*4 


io6x.x 


X07.0 


xiia.9 


X17.3 


I164.9 


137.8 


iax7.i 


59 



Use loo' Chords up to 8" Curves Use 7$'. Chords up to 32* Carves 
Use 50' Chords up to x6^ Curves Use 10' Chords above 33* Curves 



00 



1 




Dec. of 
Degree 


24' 


25' 


26' 


27* 


1 


Ext. 


Tan. 


Ezt. 


Tan. 


Est. 


Tan. 


Est. 


Tan. 




•OOOO 


I38X> 


1318.0 


139.1 


1270.3 


X50.7 


1323.9 


162.8 


1375.6 





I 


.0167 


128.3 


1318.8 


139.3 


1371.1 


150.9 


1323.7 


i63x> 


1376.5 


1 


3 


.0333 


128^ 


1319.7 


X39-S 


1372.0 


151.1 


1324.6 


163.3 


1377.4 


2 


3 


.0500 


X28.S 


1330.5 


139.7 


1373.9 
1373.8 


151.3 


1325.S 


163.5 


1378.3 


3 


4 


A3667 


X38.7 


1331.4 


139.9 


151.5 


1326.4 


163.7 


1379.2 


4 


5 


.0833 


X38.9 


1333.3 


140.1 


1374.6 


151.7 


1327.3 


163.9 


X380.0 


5 


6 


.1000 


1 29.1 


1223.2 


140.3 


1275.5 


15X.9 


1328.1 


164.1 


'380-9 


6 


7 


.1167 


X29.3 


1234.0 


140.4 
140.6 


1276.4 


X52.1 


13290 


164.3 


1381.8 


7 


8 


.1333 


X29.S 


1224.9 
1225.8 


1277.3 


XS2.3 


1329.9 


164.5 


1383.7 


8 


9 


.1500 


139.7 


140.8 


1278.2 


X52.5 


X330.7 


164.7 


1383.6 


9 


10 


.1667 


X39.8 


1336.7 


141.0 


1279.1 


X52.7 


1331.6 


164.9 


1384.5 


10 


II 


.1833 


130.0 


1337.S 


141.3 


1279.9 


152.9 


1332.5 


165.1 


1385-3 


11 


13 


.2000 


130.3 


1328.4 


141.4 
141.6 


1380.8 


1S3.I 


X3334 


165.3 


1386.3 


12 


13 


.2167 


130.4 
130.0 


1229.3 


1281.6 


153.3 


1334.3 


165.S 


'^Sz' 


X3 


14 


.2333 


1330.3 


14X.8 


1383.5 


153.5 


1335.2 


165.7 


1388.0 


X4 


IS 


.3500 


130.7 


1331.0 


142.0 


1283.4 


153.7 


1336.0 


l6|.9 


1388.9 


^\ 


16 


.2667 


130.9 


1231.9 


143.3 


1284.3 


153-9 


1336.9 


166.1 


1389.8 


x6 


X7 


.2833 


131.1 


1232.7 


142.3 


1285.2 


154-1 


X337.8 
X338.7 


166.3 


1390.6 


'2 


18 


.3000 


X3I.3 


1233.6 


X42.5 


1286.1 


154-3 


166.5 


139X.5 


18 


19 


.3167 


I3X.S 


1234-5 


142.7 


1286.9 


X54.5 


X339.5 


166.7 


X3924 


19 


20 


•3333 


131.7 


123S4 


142.9 


1287.8 


154.7 


1340-i 


• 167 jO 


1393.3 


20 


21 


.3500 


131-9 


1236.2 


X43-1 


1288.7 


154.9 


X34X.3 


167.2 


1394.x 


31 


22 


.3667 


133.0 


1237.1 


143-3 


1289.6 


XS5-X 


1342.2 


167.4 


1395.0 


33 


23 


^833 


133.3 


1238.0 


143.5 


1290.4 


X55-3 


X343.0 


167.6 


13959 


23 


24 


.4000 


132.4 


1238.9 


143.7 


1291.3 


155.5 


X343.9 


167.8 


1396.8 


24 


11 


.4x67 


133.6 


1239-7 


143.9 


1393.3 


155-7 


X344.8 


168.0 


1397.7 


!l 


-4333 


132.8 


1240.6 


144-1 


1293.1 


155-9 


X345.7 


168.3 


1398.6 


36 


27 


.4500 


133.0 


1241.S 


X44-3 


1293.9 


156.1 


X346.5 


i68^ 
168.6 


1399.4 


37 


28 


w|667 


I33-X 


1242.4 


144-5 


1294.8 


156.3 


X3474 


1400.3 


38 


29 


.4833 


X33.3 


1243-2 


X44-7 


1295-7 


156.5 


1348.3 


X68.9 


1401.3 


39 


30 


.5000 


133.5 


1244-X 


144-9 


1296.6 


156.7 


1349.2 


169.1 


1403.1 


30 


31 


.5167 


133.7 


1244.9 
1245.8 


X4S.1 


1297-4 


156.9 


1350.1 


169.3 


1403.0 


3X 


32 


•5333 


133.9 


145-3 


1298.3 


157.x 


1351.0 


169.5 


1403.9 


32 


33 


.5500 


134.0 


1346.7 


X4S.S 


1299.2 


157.3 


X3SI.8 


169.7 


1404.7 


33 


34 


.5667 


X34.2 


1247.6 


145-6 


1300.1 


157.5 


1352.7 


169.9 


1405.6 


34 


3S 


.5833 


X34-4 
134.0 


I248wi 


145-8 


1300.9 


157.7 


1353.6 


170.1 


1406.S 


35 


36 


.6000 


X 249-3 


146.0 


1301.8 


157.9 


1354-5 


170.3 


1407.4 


36 


^2 


.6167 


134*9 


1250.3 


146.3 


1302.7 


158.1 


1355-3 


170.5 


1408.3 


^l 


38 


.6333 


X35.0 


I25I.X 


Iti 


1303.6 


158.3 


1356.2 


170.8 


1409.2 


38 


39 


.6500 


135-2 


1251-9 


1304-4 


158.5 


1357.1 


171.0 


1410.0 


3« 


40 


.6667 


X35.4 
X3S.0 


1253.8 


146.8 


130S-3 


X58.7 


1358.0 


171.3 


1410.9 


4C 


41 


.6833 


1253-7 


147-0 


1306.2 


158.9 


1358.9 


17X.4 


141 1. 8 


41 


43 


.7000 


X3S.7 


1254.6 


147-2 


1307-I 


X59.X 


1359.8 


171.6 


1412.7 


4a 


43 


.7167 


X35.9 


12SS-4 


X47.4 
147-0 


1307-9 


159.3 


1360.6 


171-8 


1413-6 


4J 


44 


.7333 


136.1 


1256.3 


1308.8 


159.5 


1361.S 


173.0 


1414-5 


44 


45 


.7500 


136.3 


1257-2 


147-8 


1309.7 


159.7 


1362^4 


173.3 


1415-4 


4' 


46 


.7667 


136.S 


1258.1 


148.0 


1310.6 


160.0 


1363.3 


172.5 


1416.3 


4< 


47 


.7833 
.8000 


136.7 


X 258.9 


148.3 


X3"S 


160.2 


1364.2 


172.7 


14x7-1 


^\ 


48 


136.9 


X 2 59-8 


148.A 
148.6 


1312.4 


160.4 
160.0 


1365.1 


173.9 


1418.0 


4J 


49 


.8167 


X37.X 


1260.7 


1313.2 


1365.9 


X73.1 


1418.9 


4( 


SO 


.8333 


137.2 


1261.5 


148.8 


1314.x 


160.8 


1366.8 


173-3 


1419-8 


5< 


51 


.8500 


137.4 
137.0 


1262.4 


149.0 


13x5.0 


161.0 


1367.7 


X73-5 


1420.7 


5: 


52 


.8667 


1263.3 


149-2 


X3X5.9 


161.3 


1368.6 


X73-7 


1421.6 


5: 


S3 


.8833 


137.8 


1 264.1 


149-4 


13x6.7 


161.4 
161.0 


1369.5 


X73-9 


1422.4 


5; 


54 


.9000 


138.0 


1265.0 


149-S 


1317-6 


1370-4 


174.X 


1423-3 


5- 


55 


•9x67 


138.3 


1265.9 


149-7 


1318.5 


161.8 


i37x.a 


174-4 
174-0 


1424.2 


5 


56 


•9333 


I38'o 


1266.8 


149-9 


1319.4 


162.0 


X372.X 


1425.1 


5' 


•^ 

U 


.9500 


1367.6 


150.1 


1320.3 


162.2 


X373-0 


174.8 


1426.0 


S 


.9667 


138.7 


1368.5 


150.3 


1321.1 


162.4 


1373.9 


175-0 


1426.9 


9 


S9 


.9833 


138.9 


1369.4 


150.5 


1322.0 


162.6 


1374.7 


175.2 


1427.7 


J 



3S6 



THE SURVEY 



Use zoo' Chords up to 8* Curves 
Use 50' Chords up to 16** Curves 



Use as' Chords up to 3a* Curves 
Use zo ' Chords above 3 a* Curves 



1 

1 




Dec. of 
Degree 


1 38" 


39' 


30- 


31- 


1 


Ext. 


Tan. 


Ext. 


Tan. 


Ext 


Tan. 


Ext. 


Tan. 


.0000 


175.4 


Z4a8.6 


188.5 


Z48Z.9 


302.Z 


1535.3 


8x6.3 


X589JO 





z 


.0Z67 


175.6 


1429.5 


Z88.7 


1483.8 


202.3 


1536.3 


2x6.5 


1589.9 


X 


a 


^333 


X7S.8 


1430.4 


Z89.0 


1483.7 


202.6 


1537.1 


8x6.8 


1590.8 


3 


3 


x>5oo 


176.0 


143X.3 


Z89.2 


1484.5 


202.8 


Z538.0 


8x7.0 


1591.7 


3 


4 


^67 


176.3 


X432.3 


189.4 


1485.4 


203.1 


1538.9 


8x7.8 


Z598.6 


4 


S 


.0833 


176.5 


1433.1 


Z89.6 


1486.3 


203.3 


1539.8 


317w| 


X593^5 


5 


6 


.zooo 


176.7 


X434.0 


z8g.9 


^^il'^ 


303.5 


1540.7 


8X7.7 


I594w| 


6 


7 


.ZZ67 


176.9 


1434.8 


190.X 


1488.Z 


203.7 


154X.6 


8X7.9 


X595.3 


7 


8 


.1333 


X77.X 


X435.7 


190.3 


Z489.0 


204.0 


1543.5 


8X8.2 


1596.2 


8 


9 


.Z500 


177.3 


X436.6 


190.S 


1489.9 


8O4.2 


1543.4 


8I8.4 


lS97^x 


9 


zo 


^667 


X77.6 


X437.5 


190.8 


1490.8 


204-5 


1M4.3 


818.7 


X598.0 


zo 


zz 


.1833 


Z77.8 
Z78.0 


X438.4 


Z9Z.O 


1491.7 


204.7 


1545.3 


8X8.9 


1598.9 


XX 


za 


.3000 


1439.3 


191.3 


1492.6 


204.9 


1546.0 


8X9.2 


1599.8 


X3 


13 


.3z67 


Z78.3 


1440.3 


191.5 


1493.4 


205.1 


1546.0 
1547.8 


219.4 
8X9.6 


X600.7 


X3 


M 


•3333 


X78.4 


1441.x 


191.7 


1494.3 


305.4 


X60X.6 


14 


*l 


.3500 


X78.6 


1441.9 


19X.9 


1495.3 


305.6 


XS48.7 


8X9.8 


X602.5 


15 


z6 


.3667 


178.9 


X443.8 


193.Z 


Z496.Z 


305.9 


1549.6 


820.I 


X603.4 


x6 


H 


.2833 


X79.X 


1443.7 


192.3 


1497.0 


206.Z 


1550.5 


820.3 


X604.3 


17 


z8 


.3000 


X79.3 


1444.6 


193.5 


1497.9 


206.3 


1551-4 


820.6 


X605.2 


x8 


19 


•3167 


X79S 


1445.5 


192.7 


1498.8 


306.5 


1552.3 


820.8 


1606.x 


19 


30 


.3333 


X79.7 


1446.4 


193.0 


1499.7 


ao6.8 


1553.3 


88I.I 


X607.0 


20 


az 


^500 


Z79.9 


1447.3 


193.2 


1500.6 


207.0 


1554.1 


32X.3 
82X.0 


X607.9 


2Z 


aa 


^667 


Z80.3 


1448.3 


193.5 


150Z.5 


207.3 


1555.0 


X608.8 


22 


23 


^833 


z8owi 
I8a6 


1449.0 


193-7 


1502.3 


207.5 


1555.9 


22X.8 


X609.7 


23 


34 


.4000 


1449.9 


193.9 


1503.3 


307.7 


1556.8 


822.Z 


x6zo.6 


24 


*l 


•A167 


Z80.8 


1450.8 


194.1 


1504.1 


207.9 


1557.7 


222.3 
222.6 


z6zz.5 


25 


26 


•4333 


z8z.o 


1451.7 


194.4 
Z94-6 


1505.0 


208.3 


1558.6 


Z612.4 


36 


H 


.4500 


z8z.3 


Z452.6 


1505.9 


308.4 


1559.5 


322.8 


Z6Z3.3 


II 


a8 


w^667 


z8z.s 


1453.5 


194.8 


1506.8 


308.7 


X560.4 


223.0 


z6z4.2 


89 


•4833 


18Z.7 


1454.3 


X9S.O 


1507.7 


308.9 


1561.3 


333.3 


z6z5.z 


39 


30 


.5000 


18Z.9 


1455.3 


X95.3 


1508.6 


209.Z 


Z563.3 


333.5 


z6x6.o 


30 


3X 


.5167 


X82.Z 


1456.Z 


195.5 


1509-5 


209.3 
209.6 


I563.X 


333.7 


x6i6.o 
x6i7.8 
X618.7 


31 


3a 


•5333 


z8a.3 


1457.0 


195-7 


z 5 10.4 


X 564.0 


324.0 


32 


33 


•SSoo 


Z83.5 


1457.9 


195-9 


Z5iz.a 


209.8 


1564.9 


324.3 


33 


34 


.5667 


X83.8 


1458.8 


196.3 


Z5Z3.Z 


2ZO.Z 


1565.7 


834-5 


16x9.6 


34 


35 


•5833 


Z83.0 


1459.7 


196.4 


Z5Z3.0 


310.3 


1566.6 


334.7 


Z620.5 


35 


36 


.6000 


Z83.3 


1460.6 


196.7 


ZS13.9 
z 5 14.8 


210.5 


1567.5 


88^.0 


z6ax.4 


36 


H 


.6167 


?4i 


X46Z.4 


Z96.9 


210.7 


1568.4 


335.3 


X633.3 


37 


38 


.6333 


Z463.3 


197-1 


1515-7 


3ZZ.O 


1569-3 


825.5 


X633.3 


38 


39 


^500 


Z83.8 


1463.2 


197.3 


Z5Z6.6 


311.3 


Z570.8 


335.7 


X634.Z 


39 


40 


.6667 


184.1 


Z464.Z 


197.6 


IS17.5 
15Z8.4 


311.5 


1571.1 


226.0 


X635.0 


40 


41 


.6833 


Z84.3 


Z465.0 


197-8 


3IZ.7 


1572.0 


226.8 


*$'§S 


41 


42 


.7000 


184.S 


1465.9 


Z98.0 


1519-3 


2X3.0 


1572.9 


326.5 


X636.8 


42 


43 


.7167 


184.7 


X466.8 


Z98.3 


1520.Z 


3X3.2 


1573.8 


336.7 


X627.7 


43 


44 


.7333 


Z85.0 


1467.7 


198.S 


Z53Z.O 


8X3.4 


1574.7 


337.0 


X638.6 


44 


Jl 


•7500 


Z85.3 


1468.6 


198.7 


152Z.0 

1533.8 


3X3.6 


1575.6 


337.3 


X639.5 


^1 


.7667 


JUi 


1469.S 


Z98.9 


312.9 


1576.5 


337.5 


X630.S 


46 


H 


.7833 


1470.3 


X99.X 


1523-7 


213.X 


1577.4 


227.7 


1631.4 


*2 


48 


^000 


Z8S.9 


1471.2 


199.4 
199.6 


Z524.6 


313.4 
3x3.6 


1578.3 


338.0 


1633.3 


48 


49 


^z67 


Z86.1 


1472.1 


1525.5 


1579.3 


838.2 


1633.3 


49 


SO 


.8333 


186.3 


1473.0 


X99.8 


1526.4 


8X3.9 


I580.X 


228.4 


1634.x 


50 


SI 


^500 


X86.5 
z86.8 


1473-9 


aoo.o 


1527-3 


2X4.Z 


Z58X.O 


228.6 


x63Sx> 


5X 


52 


.8667 


Z474-8 


300.3 


Z538.3 


214-4 
214.6 


X58X.9 
1583.8 


328.9 


^535.9 


53 


53 


.8833 


i87X> 


1475-7 


300.S 
300.S 


1529-1 


829.1 


X636.8 


53 


54 


.9000 


Z87.3 


Z476.6 


ZS30.0 


3x4.8 


1583.7 


339.4 


1637.7 


54 


55 


.9167 


187.4 
Z87.6 


X47H 
1478.3 


30Z.0 


1530.9 


315.0 


1584.6 


839.6 


X638.6 


55 


S6 


•9333 


3oz.a 


1531.7 


8X5.3 


1585.5 


839.9 


X639.S 


56 


li 


.9500 


Z87.8 


1479-2 


30X.4 


Z533.6 


3x5.5 
8X5.8 


1586.3 


330.1 


X640.4 


U 


^67 


Z88.X 


Z480.X 


201.7 


Z533.5 


*587.2 


830.4 


164X.3 


59 .9833 


Z88.3 


Z481.0 


301.9 


1534-4 


ax6.o 


XS88.Z 


330.6 1648.8 1 


SQ 



FUNCTIONS OF CWt-ljKiikEl-] CURVE 

Uae loo' Chords up to 8* Curves Use as' Chords up to $a* Curves 
Use 50' Chords up to 16° Curves Use xo' Chords above 33* Curves 



1?7 



1 




Dec. of 
Degree 


32- 


33 • 


34* 


35* 


1 




Ext. 


Tan. 


Ext 


Tan. 


Ext 


Tan. 


Ext 


Tan. 


•COCO 


230.9 


1643.1 


346.x 


J^l 


36x.8 


J751.8 


878.X 


1806.7 


I 


^167 


23X.X 


1644.0 


246.3 


262.0 


1752.7 


278.4 
378.6 


1807.6 


I 


3 


•0333 


23x4 
231.6 


1644.9 


246.6 


X699.1 


262.3 


17537 


X808.5 


a 


3 


.osoo 


X64S.8 


346.8 


X 700.0 


263.6 


1754.6 


378.9 


18094 


3 


4 


.0667 


331.9 


1646.7 


347.1 


1700.9 


363.9 


1755.5 


379.3 


18x0.3 


4 


5 


^33 


232.1 


1647.6 
1648.S 


3474 


1 701 .8 


863.x 


17564 


279.4 


x8xx.8 


5 


6 


.xooo 


332.4 


247.7 


1702.7 


263.4 


17573 


279.7 


X8X2.3 


6 


7 


.1x67 


232.6 


1649.4 


347.9 


X703.6 


363.7 


1758.3 


a8o.o 


18x3.1 


7 


8 


•1333 


332.9 


16SO.3 


248.2 


X704.5 


264.0 


1759.1 


880.3 


18x40 


8 


9 


.1500 


2331 


i6si.a 


3484 


1705.4 


264.3 


X 760.0 


380.6 


18x4.9 


9 


10 


.1667 


233-4 
233-6 


x6s2.i 


348.7 


X 766.4 


264.5 


176X.O 


a8a8 


18x5.8 
18x6.7 


xo 


II 


.1833 


i6s3.o 


348.9 


1707.3 


264.7 


lltH 


38X.1 


XI 


12 


.2000 


333-9 


1653.9 


249.2 


1708.2 


365.0 


88x4 


18x7.7 

x8x8.6 


X3 


13 


.2167 


234.x 


x6S4.8 


349-4 


1709.1 


365-3 


1763.7 


881.6 


13 


14 


.2333 


2344 


1655.7 


249.7 


x7xao 


365.6 


1764.6 


881.9 


1819.S 


14 


'1 


.3S0O 


334.6 


i6s6.6 


249.9 


1710.9 


365.9 


1765.5 


383.8 


18304 


IS 


16 


.2667 


234.9 


x6s7.S 


3S0.3 


X7XI.8 


366.x 


17664 


883.5 


X83X.3 


16 


17 


.2833 


235.1 


x6s8.4 


250.S 


17x2.7 


366.4 


1767.3 


383.7 


x8a3.3 


17 


18 


..3000 


235-4 
235.0 


1659.3 


350.8 


1713.6 


366.7 


1768.3 


383.0 


1823.2 


18 


19 


.3167 


1660.2 


8SX.O 


1714.5 


366.9 


1769.2 


383.3 


X824.X 


19 


30 


•3333 


235.9 


i66x.x 


25X.3 


1715-5 


367.3 


1770.1 


883.6 


1825.0 


20 


21 


.3500 


236.1 


X662.0 


251.5 


17164 


267.4 


X77I.O 


283-9 


X825.9 
1826.8 


21 


33 


.3667 


236.4 
236.6 


X662.9 


3SI.8 


1717.3 


867.7 


1771.9 


884.8 


23 


23 


.3833 


1663.8 


3S3.0 


17x8.2 


268.0 


X772.8 


8844 


X827.7 


23 


24 


^000 


336.9 


1664.7 


252.3 


1719.1 


368.3 


1773.7 


884.7 


1828.7 


24 


as 


.4167 


237.x 


1665.6 


3S3.6 


1730.0 


368.6 


1774.6 


385.0 


1829.6 


25 


26 


.4333 


237.4 
237.0 


1666.S 


252.9 


X720.9 


368.8 


1775-6 


885.3 


X830.5 


26 


11 


.4500 


1667.4 


2531 


1721.8 


369.1 


1776.5 


385.6 


X83X.4 


27 


^667 


237.9 


1668.3 


253-4 
253.0 


1722.7 


369.6 


17774 


285.9 


1832.3 


28 


39 


.4833 


238.x 


1669.2 


1723.6 


1778.3 


386.1 


X833.2 


29 


30 


.5000 


238.4 


X670.X 


253-9 


1724.6 


369.9 


1779.2 


386.4 


1834.2 


30 


St 


.S167 


238-7 


167X.0 


2S4.X 


1725.5 


370.x 


1780.1 


386.7 


X835-X 


31 


32 


.5333 


239.0 


X67X.9 


254.4 


X726.4 


270.4 


1781.0 


387.0 


1836.0 


33 


33 


.5500 


239.2 


1672.8 


254.7 


1727.3 


370.7 


1781.9 


387.2 


1836.9 


33 


34 


.5667 


239.5 


1673.7 


255.0 


X728.2 


37X.0 


1783.9 


287.5 


X837.8 


34 


35 


.5833 


239.7 


1674.6 


255.2 


1729.X 


371.8 


1783.8 


887.8 


1838.7 


35 


36 


.6000 


240.0 


1675.5 


255-5 


1730.0 


271.S 


1784-7 


388.x 


18397 


36 


H 


.6167 


240.2 


1676.4 


255-7 


1730.9 


271-7 


1785.6 


388.4 


1840.6 


37 


38 


.6333 


240.5 


X677.4 


356.0 


173X.8 


373.0 


1786.5 


388.7 


1841.5 


38 


39 


.6soo 


340.7 


X678.3 


356.3 


1732.7 


373.3 


17874 


389.0 


1842.4 


39 


40 


.6667 


341.0 


X679.2 


356.5 


1733-6 


372.6 


17884 


389.3 


X8434 


40 


41 


.6833 


34X.3 


X680.X 


356.8 


1734-5 


272.9 


17893 


889-5 


1844-3 


41 


43 


.7000 


241.5 


x68x.o 


257.1 


1735-5 


273-1 


X790.3 


389.8 


1845.2 


42 


43 


.7167 


241.7 


168X.9 


257.3 


1736.4 


273.4 


1791.1 


890.x 


1846.1 


43 


44 


.7333 


343.0 


X683.8 


257.6 


1737.3 


273-7 


X793.0 


390.4 


1847.1 


44 


^1 


.7SOO 
.7667 


242.2 


1683.7 


257.8 


1738.2 


274-0 


1792.9 


390.6 


1848.0 


45 


46 


242.S 


1684.6 


3S8.X 


1739-1 


374-2 


1793.9 


390.9 


1848.9 
1849.8 


46 


^2 


.7833 


242.7 


*5§l-s 


258.3 


X 740.0 


274-S 


X 794.8 


391.3 


47 


48 


.8000 


243.0 


X686.4 


358.6 


1740.9 


374-8 


1795.7 


291.5 


1850.7 


48 


49 


.8x67 


243.2 


1687.3 


258.9 


1 741.8 


275.0 


1796.6 


391. 8 


X851.6 


49 


so 


.8333 


243.5 


1688.2 


359.3 


1742.7 


275.3 


1797.S 


392.0 


185 3.6 


50 


SI 


•212° 


243.8 


1689.1 


259.4 


1743.6 


375-6 


1798.4 


292.3 


1853.5 


51 


Sa 


.8667 


244.x 


1690.0 


2597 


1744.6 


275-9 
376.x 


1799-3 


293.6 


1854.4 


52 


53 


.8833 


244-3 


1690.9 


2599 


1745.5 


X800.3 


292.9 


1855-3 


53 


.54 


.9000 


244.6 


X69X.8 


360.3 


1746.4 


276.4 


X80X.3 


293.2 


1856.3 


54 


% 


.9167 


344.8 


1692.7 


360.5 


1747-3 


876.7 


1803.X 


293.4 


1857.2 


55 


•9333 


34S.I 


1693.7 


360.8 


X748.2 


377.0 


X803.0 


293.7 


I858.I 


56 


H 


.9500 


245-3 


X694.6 


361.0 


1749.1 


277.3 


X803.9 


294.0 


1859.0 


57 


.9667 


245-6 


1695-5 


261.3 


1750.0 


377-S 
277.8 


1804.8 


294.3 
394.6 


1859.9 


58 


S9 


.9833 


345.8 


X696.4 


36X.5 


1750.9 


1805.7 


1860.8 


59 



650 



inci o\ji\.\rjr 



Use loo' Chords up to 8** Curveg 
Use 50' Chords up to 16** Curves 



Use 35' Chords up to 32* Curves 
Use xo' Chords above 33* Curves 



s 


"StJ 


36* 


37- 


38- 


39- 


1 


1 




^1 




1 


1 











Ezt. 


Tan. 


Ezt. 


Tan. 


Ext. 


Tan. 


Ext. 


Tan. 


.0000 


294.9 


x86x.8 


312.3 


1917.3 


330.2 


1973.0 


348.7 


2029.1 


X 


.0167 


295.2 


X862.7 


312.S 


X918.2 


330.5 


1973.9 


349.0 


2030.0 


X 


2 


•0333 


295.4 


X863.6 


312.8 


X919.X 


330.8 


1974-9 


349.3 


303 x.o 


3 


3 


.0500 


295.7 


X864.5 


3131 


X920.0 


331.1 


1975.8 


349-6 


303X.9 


3 


4 


.0667 


396.0 


1865.5 


3x34 


X92X.0 


331.4 


1976.7 


349.9 


3032.9 


4 


5 


.0833 


296.3 


X866.4 


3x3.7 


X931.9 


331.7 


1977.6 


350.3 


2033.8 


5 


6 


.1000 


296.6 


X867.3 


314.0 


X922.8 


332.0 


X978.6 


350.6 


2034.7 


6 


7 


.1x67 


296.9 


X868.2 


314.3 


1923.7 


332.3 


1979.5 


350.9 


2035.6 


7 


8 


.1333 


297.2 


1869.2 


314.6 


1924.7 


332.6 


1980.5 


351.2 


2036.6 


8 


9 


.1500 


297.5 


X870.1 


314.9 


X925.6 


332.9 


X98X.4 


351.S 


2037.S 


9 


10 


.X667 


297.7 


X871.0 


315.2 


1926.5 


333.2 


X982.3 


351.8 


2038.5 


10 


II 


.1833 


298.0 


1871.9 


315.5 


1927.4 


333.5 


X983.2 


352.1 


2039.4 


XI 


13 


.2000 


298.3 


X872.9 


315.8 


X928.4 


333.8 


X984.2 


352.4 
352.8 


3040.4 


13 


13 


.2167 


298.6 


X873.8 


316.x 


1929.3 


334.2 


X98S.X 


2041.3 


13 


14 


.2333 


298.9 


X874.7 


3164 


X930.2 


334.5 


X986.1 


353.1 


2043.3 


14 


IS 


.2500 


299.2 


X875.6 


316.7 


1931.1 


334.8 


1987.0 


353.4 


3043.3 


IS 


x6 


.2667 


299.5 


X876.S 


317.0 


1932.X 


335.1 


1987.9 


353.7 


2044.1 


16 


17 


.2833 


299.7 


^577-4 


317.2 


19330 


335.4 


X988.8 


354.0 


2045.0 
2046.0 


17 


x8 


.3000 


300.0 


X878.4 


317.5 


1933.9 


335.7 


X989.8 


354.3 


18 


19 


.3x67 


300.3 


1879.3 


317.8 


1934.8 


336.0 


1990.7 


354.6 


3046.9 


19 


30 


•3333 


300.6 


X880.2 


318.X 


1935.8 


336.3 


1991.7 


354.9 


2047.9 
3048.8 


20 


3X 


.3500 


300.9 


x88x.i 


3x8.4 


1936.7 


336.6 


X992.6 


355.3 


21 


33 


.3667 


30X.2 


X883.X 


318.7 


1937.6 


336.9 


1993.6 


355.6 


2049.8 


23 


33 


.3833 


30X.5 


X883.0 


319.0 


1938.5 


337.2 


1994.5 


355.9 


2050.7 


23 


24 


.4000 


30X.8 


X883.9 


319.3 


1939.5 


337.S 


1995.4 


356.3 


2051.7 


24 


^1 


.4x67 


302.0 


X884.8 


3x9.6 


X940.4 


337.8 


1996.3 


356.6 


2052.6 


*§ 


36 


•4333 


302.3 


X885.8 


319.9 


1941.3 


338.x 


1997.3 


356.9 


2053.5 


26 


37 


•4500 


302.6 


X886.7 


320.2 


X942.2 


338.4 


X998.2 


357.2 


2054.4 


^1 


28 


^667 


302.9 


X887.6 


320.5 


1943.2 


338.7 


1999.2 


357.5 


2055.4 


28 


29 


.4833 


303.2 


X888.5 


320.8 


1944.1 


339.1 


2000.X 


357-8 


2056.3 


29 


30 


.5000 


303.5 


1889.5 


33X.X 


1945.0 


339.4 


200X.0 


358.1 


2057.3 


30 


31 


.5x67 


303.8 


X89O.4 : 


321.4 


1945.9 


339-7 


200X.9 


3S8-4 


2058.S 


31 


32 


•5333 


304.1 


189I.3 


32X.7 


X946.9 


340.0 


2002.9 


358.8 


2059.3 


3a 


33 


.5500 


304.3 


X892.2 


322.0 


1947.8 


340.3 


2003.8 


359.1 


3060.1 


33 


34 


.5667 


304.6 


1893.2 


322.3 


X948.8 


340.6 


2004.8 


359.4 


306X.X 


34 


35 


.5833 


304.9 


X894.X 


322.6 


1949.7 


340.9 


2005.7 


359.8 


2062.0 


35 


36 


.6000 


305.3 


X895.O 


322.9 


1950.6 


341.2 


2006.6 


360.x 


2063x3 


36 


37 


.6167 


305.5 


1895.9 


323.2 


1951.5 


341.5 


2007.S 


360.4 


2063.9 


37 


38 


.6333 


305.8 


X896.9 


323.5 


1952.5 


341.8 


2008.5 


360.7 


2064.8 


38 


39 


.6500 


306.x 


X897.8 


323.8 


1953.4 


342.x 


2009.4 


36X.0 


2065.7 


39 


40 


.6667 


306.4 


X898.7 


324.2 


1954.4 


342.4 


2010.4 


361.3 


2066.7 


40 


41 


.6833 


306.7 


X899.6 


324.5 


1955.3 


342.8 


201 X. 3 


361.6 


2067.6 


41 


42 


.7000 


307.0 


1900.6 


324.8 


1956.2 


343.1 


20x2.3 


362.0 


2068.6 


42 


43 


.7x67 


307.2 


I9OX.5 


325.1 


1957.1 


343.4 


2013.2 


362.3 


2069.5 


43 


44 


.7333 


307.5 


1902.4 


325.4 


X9S8.X 


343.7 


20x4.x 


362.6 


2070.5 


44 


4S 


.7500 


307.8 


1903.3 


325.7 


1959.0 


344.0 


2015.0 


363.0 


207X.4 


45 


46 


.7667 


308.x 


1904.3 


326.0 


X960.0 


344.3 


2016.0 


363.3 


2072.4 


46 


47 


.7833 


308.4 


X905.2 


326.3 


X 960.9 


344.6 


2016.9 


363.6 


2073.3 


47 


48 


.8000 


308.7 


X906.X 


326.6 


X96X.8 


344.9 


2017.9 


363.9 


2074.2 


48 


49 


.8x67 


309.0 


1907.0 


326.9 


X962.7 


345.3 


2018.8 


364.2 


2075.1 


49 


SO 


•8333 


309.3 


X 908.0 


327.2 


1963.7 


345-6 


20x9.7 


364.5 


2076.x 


50 


SI 


.8500 


309.6 


X908.9 


327.5 


X964.6 


345-9 


2020.0 


364.9 


2077.0 


51 


S2 


.8667 


309.9 


X909.8 


327.8 


1965.5 


346.2 


2021.6 


365.2 


2078.0 


52 


S3 


.8833 


310.2 


X9X0.7 


328.x 


X966.4 


346.S 
346.8 


2022.5 


365.S 


2078.9 


53 


54 


.9000 


310.S 


19". 7 


328.4 


1967.4 


2023.5 


365.8 


2079.9 


54 


55 


.9x67 


310.8 


X9X2.6 


328.7 


X968.3 


347.1 


2024.4 


366.2 


2080.8 


^1 


56 


•9333 


3x1.1 


1913.5 


329.0 


1969.3 


347.4 


2025.4 


35§l 


208X.8 


57 


.9500 


3x1.4 


1914-4 


329.3 


1970.2 


347-8 


2026.3 


366.8 


2082.7 


57 


58 


.9667 


311.7 


1915.4 


329.6 


1971.1 


348.x 


2027.2 


367.1 


2083.7 


58 


59 


.9833 


312.0 


19x6.3 


329.9 


X972.0 


348.4 


2028.1 


367.4 


2084.6 


59 



FUNcnuNii oi UI,I,U,I1H, Wm. 



T!F 



Vie so' Chords up i 



1 


il 


*o' 


*.• 


4-" 


43" 


i 

i 

i 

:i 
11 

ii 

s 
s 

40 

s 

3 
i 




Ejrt. 


Tan. 


EM, 


Tsiz. 


E.t. 


Tsn. 


£lt 


Tao. 




i 

I 

I 

■4 

3 

:! 

11 
« 

i 

i 
s 

i 
i 


.o66j 

.i»r 
.1833 

laid; 
■W3] 

:&" 

.J833 

4167 
1ST 

ii 

s 

-633J 

^JOO 

.683s 

s 

i; 

.M33 

.0.(i7 


3fifl.T 
JJO.J 

ill 

3)1.0 

37>.6 
3J'g 

is 
ill 
sa 
in 
ill 

i 

3«O.J 

|! 

lii 
SI:; 
S:! 

Ii! 


i 

.098^ 
lOM.J 

J..S-8 
J 1 19.1 

iS 


I-' 

ii 

Mo-V 

391.8 

JM.1 

SM-4 

395.4 

396I 
3W-5 

SSI 
J^ 

4".0 
^Ol.s 

*ol.s 

««.6 
4M.0 

S! 

il 

Si 
406.0 
406.3 

4o6,> 
40J.0 


3° 

1 1 40-9 
a 1 50.9 

"S:S 

>.6..4 

il 

1.69.9 

11B0.4 
Jl87.t 

Bi 


408.3 
409.0 

410:8 
Vd'.6 

4>3.9 
J14.6 

Si 

B 

il 

410.8 

411.3 
t"'.l 

Si 

Si 
416.4 
416^ 

i 


llclj 
1303.; 
3104.3 

'SI 

a 109.1 

l!^IO,6 

ill 

a2iS.3 

i-g 

53:1 

aJ39.3 

aa48:4 
iiS+i 


428,6 
431.1 

ii 

436,3 
436.7 

i;i 

438.S 
43S.9 

439:6 

Sil 

441,0 

SI 

441 -s 
441.8 

443.9 
444.2 

44S.O 
445.4 

B 

S3 
449.0 

4«M 
449.7 


"11.1 

ill 

3-! 

a2jo.6 

ia!6j 
aJJJI 

^^:^ 

2281.2 

•|! 

.283.0 

3: 

aaSois 

ai9i:8 
aa9i.8 
1193.8 

Si 
•3i 
2199.6 
2300.5 

aao4^ 

'Si 

1300.3 





O' 



xxxjju >D\ji\.\ t:j X 



Use xoo' Chords up to 8* Curves Use as* Chords up to 33* Curvet 
Use 50' Chords up to 16* Curves Use zo' Chords above 33* Curves 



1 

a 

s 




Dec. of 
Degree 


44* 


45- 


46V 


47- 


1 


Ext 


Tan. 


Ext. 


Tan. 


Ext. 


Tan. 


Ext. 


Tan. 




450.0 


2315.1 


472.1 


2373.4 


494.8 


3432.3 


S18.3 


2491.S 





I 


.0167 


450.4 


3316.0 


472.5 


2374.4 


495.2 


2433.2 


518.7 


3492.4 


I 


3 


.0333 


450.7 


3317.0 


472.9 


23754 


495.6 


2434.2 


S19.0 


3493.4 


2 


3 


.0500 


4511 


3318.0 


473.3 


3376.3 


496.0 


3435.1 


519.4 


2494.4 


3 


4 


x)667 


451-5 


3319.0 


473.6 


2377.3 


496.4 


3436.1 


S19.8 


2495.4 


4 


S 


^33 


45x9 


3319-9 


474.0 


2378.3 


496.7 


2437.1 


530.3 


3496.4 


5 


6 


.1000 


452.3 


3330.9 


474.4 


2379.3 


497.2 


3438.1 


530.6 


2497.4 


6 


7 


.1167 


452.6 


3331.8 


474.8 


3380.3 


497.6 


2439.1 


531.0 


2498.4 


7 


8 


.1333 


45.2.9 


3333.8 


475.1 


3381.3 


497.9 


3440.1 


521.4 


2499.4 


8 





.1500 


453.3 


3333.8 


475.5 


3383.2 


498.3 


3441.1 


531.8 


2500.4 


9 


ID 


.1667 


453.7 


3334.8 


475.9 


3383.3 


498.7 


3443.1 


533.3 


2501.4 


10 


II 


J833 


4S4-I 


2325-7 


476.3 


3384.3 


499.1 


2443.0 


533.6 


2502.4 


IX 


13 


.3000 


454-4 
454.8 


3336.7 


476.6 


3385.3 


499.5 


3444.0 


523.0 


2503.4 


Z2 


13 


.3167 


2327.7 


477.0 


3386.1 


499.9 


2445.0 


5234 


2504.4 


13 


14 


•2333 


455-1 


3338.7 


477.4 


3387.1 


500.3 


3446.0 


523.8 


2505.4 


14 


IS 


.3500 


455.5 


3339.6 


477.8 


3388.1 


500.7 


3447.0 


524.2 


2506.3 


'1 


16 


.3667 


455-9 


3330.6 


478.1 


3389.1 


sor.o 


2448.0 


524.6 


2507.3 


z6 


17 


.2833 


456.3 


3331.6 


478.5 


3390.0 


S01.4 


2449.0 


525.0 


2508.3 


H 


18 


.3000 


456.6 


3333.6 


478.9 


3391.0 


501.8 


2449.9 


525.4 


2509.3 


x8 


19 


.3167 


457.0 


2333.5 


479.3 


3393.0 


503.3 


3450.9 


525.8 


2510.3 


19 


30 


•3333 


457-3 


2334-5 


479-6 


2393.0 


S03.6 


3451.9 


536.3 


2511.3 


20 


31 


.3500 


457-7 


2335.4 


480.0 


2393.9 


503.0 


3452.9 


536.6 


2512.3 


21 


33 


.3667 


458.1 


3336.4 


^'i 


2394.9 


503.4 


2453.9 


537.0 


2513.3 


33 


33 


.3833 


^sfs 


2337.4 


480.8 


2395.9 


503.8 


2454.9 


527.4 


2514-3 


23 


24 


.4000 


458.8 


2338.4 


481.1 


2396.9 


504.1 


2455.9 


527.8 


2515.3 


24 


11 


.4167 


459.2 


2339.3 


481.5 


2397.8 


504.5 


3456.8 


5*§-! 


2516.3 


25 


^333 


459.5 


2340.3 


481.9 


3398.8 


S04.9 


2457.8 


538.6 


2517.3 
2518.3 


36 


U 


.4500 


459.9 


2341.3 


483.3 


2399.8 


S05.3 


3458.8 


529.0 


H 


.4667 


460.3 


2342.3 


483.6 


3400.8 


505.7 


2459-8 


529.4 


2519.3 


38 


39 


.4833 


460.7 


2343.2 


483.0 


340X.8 


506.1 


^460.8 


529.8 


2520.2 


29 


30 


.5000 


461.0 


2344.2 


483.4 


3403.8 


506.5 


3461.8 


530.2 


2521.2 


30 


3X 


.5167 


461.4 


2345-1 


483.8 


2403-7 


506.9 


3463.8 


S30.6 


2522.3 


31 


33 


•5333 


461.7 


3346.1 


484.2 


3404.7 


507.3 


3463.8 


531.0 


2523.2 


32 


33 


•5SOO 


463.1 


3347.1 


484.6 


2405.7 


5077 


3464.7 


S31.4 


2524.3 


33 


34 


.5667 


463.S 


3348.1 


484.9 


3406.7 


508.0 


3465.7 


531.8 


2525.2 


34 


35 


.5833 


463.9 


2349-0 


485.3 


3407.6 


5^i 


3466.7 


532.2 


2526.2 


35 


36 


.6000 


463.2 


3350.0 1 


485.7 


3408.6 


508.8 


2467.7 


532.6 


2527.2 
2538.2 


36 


37 


.6167 


463.6 


2351.0 


486.1 


3409.6 


509.3 


3468.7 


533.0 


32 


38 


.6333 


463.9 


3352.0 


486.S 


3410.6 


509.6 


2469.7 


533.4 


2529.2 


38 


39 


.6300 


464.3 


2352.9 


486.9 


34ZI.6 


510.0 


2470.7 


533.8 


2530.2 


39 


40 


.6667 


464.7 


2353.9 


^H 


3413.6 


S10.4 


3471.7 


534.2 


253X.2 


40 


41 


.6833 


465-0 


2354.9 


487.6 


2413.5 


510.8 


3473.6 


534.6 


2S3a.a 


41 


42 


.7000 


465.4 


2355.9 


^•° 


3414.5 


511.1 


2473.6 


535.0 


2533.2 


42 


43 


.7167 


465-8 


3356.8 


^•4 


2415.5 


511.5 


3474.6 


535.4 


2S34.a 


43 


44 


.7333 


466.3 


3357.8 


488.7 


3416.S 


511.9 


2475.6 


S3S.8 


253S.a 


44 


45 


.7500 


466.S 


3358.8 


489.1 


24*7.5 


512.3 


3476.6 


536.2 


2536.3 


J2 


46 


.7667 


466.9 


2359-8 


489.5 


2418.5 


512.7 


3477.6 
3478.6 


536.6 


2537.2 


47 


.7833 


467.3 


3360.7 


489.9 


2419.4 


513.1 


S37.0 


2538.2 


^2 


48 


.8000 


467.7 


3361.7 


490.3 


3420.4 


513.5 


2479.6 


537.4 


2539.2 


48 


49 


.8167 


468.0 


3363.7 


490.7 


8431.4 


S13.9 


348a6 


537.8 


2540.2 


4Q 


50 


.8333 


t^&i 


2363.7 


491.0 


3433.4 


514.3 


3481.6 


538.2 


254X.a 


50 


5X 


.8500 


3364.6 


491.4 
491.8 


3433.4 


514.7 


3483.5 


538.6 


2542.2 


SI 


5a 


.8667 


469.1 


3365.6 


2424.4 


S15.1 


2483.5 


S39.0 


2543*2 


52 


53 


.8833 


469.5 


3366.6 


492.3 


2425.3 


515.5 


3484.5 


539.4 
539.8 


2544.2 


Si 


54 


.9000 


469.9 


3367.6 


493.5 


2426.3 


515.9 


2485.S 


2545.2 


S4 


S5 


.9167 


470.3 
470.6 


2368.S 


492.9 


2427.3 


S16.3 


3486.S 


S40.2 


2546.2 


H 


56 


.9353 


2369.5 


493.3 


2428.3 


S16.7 


*487.S 


540.6 


2547.2 
2548.2 


57 


.9500 


471.0 


2370.5 


493.7 


3439.3 


S17.1 


3488.S 


541.0 


*2 


18 


-9667 


471.4 
471.8 


3371.5 


494.1 


3430.3 


517.S 


2489.5 


541.4 


2549.2 


S8 


9 


.9833 


2372.4 


494.5 


3431.2 


517.9 


2490.5 


S41.9 


2SSO.X 


59 



FUNCTIONS OF ONE-DEGREE/ CURVE 

Use loo' Chocds up to 8* Curves Use 25' Chords up to 3a* Curves 
Use 50' Chords up to z6* Curves Use zo' Chords above 3a* Curves 



36: 



1 




Dec. of 
Degree 


4«" 


49- 


SO- 


SX- 


1 


Ext 


Tan. 


£zt. 


Tan. 


Ext. 


Tan. 


Ext. 


Tan. 






542.3 


355X.Z 


567.0 


26ZZ.3 


592.4 


367Z.9 


6x8.5 


2733.0 





I 


.0167 


S42.7 


3553.Z 


567.4 


2612.3 


592.8 


3672.9 


618.9 


3734.x 


X 


3 


•0333 


543.1 


3553.1 


567.8 


2613.3 


593.2 


2673.9 


6x9.3 


373S.X 


2 


3 


.0500 


543-5 


3554.1 


568.3 


2614.3 


593.7 


36750 


6x9.8 


3736.x 


3 


4 


0667 


5439 


2555.1 


568.7 


2615.3 


594.x 


36760 


62a 2 


2737^x 


4 


5 


^33 


544.3 


2556.Z 


569.1 


2616.3 


594-5 


3677.0 
a678o 


620.7 


2738.2 


5 


6 


.zooo 


5447 


2557.x 


569.5 


2617.3 


594.9 


62X.X 


3739.2 


6 


7 


.Z167 


54S.X 


3S58.Z 


569.9 


2618.3 


5954 


3679.0 


62X.6 


374a2 


7 


8 


.Z333 


545.S 


2SS9.X 


570.3 
570.8 


2619.3 


595.8 


3680.0 


622.0 


274X.2 


8 


9 


.Z500 


546.0 


3560.Z 


2620.4 


596.2 


a68z.z 


622.5 


2742.3 


9 


zo 


.Z667 


fl^i 


356z.z 


57X.2 


262Z.4 


596.7 


3683.Z 


622.9 


2743.3 


xo 


zz 


.1833 


3563.Z 


57X.6 


2623.4 


597.x 


3683.x 


623.3 


2744.3 


ZX 


la 


.3000 


547.2 


3S63.Z 


572.0 


3633.4 


597.5 


S684.X 


623.7 


2745.3 


Z2 


13 


.3167 


547.6 


3564.Z 


572.4 
572.8 


3634.4 


598.0 


3685.1 


624.2 


2746.4 


X3 


14 


.2333 


S4«.o 


2565.Z 


8635.4 


598.4 


3686.Z 


624.6 


2747.4 


X4 


15 


.3500 


t&i 


3566.Z 


573.3 


3636m| 


598.9 


3687.8 


625.Z 


2748.4 


X5 


z6 


.3667 


3S67.Z 


573.7 


2637.4 


599.3 


3688.3 


625.5 


2749.4 


z6 


11 


.3833 


549.2 


2568.Z 


574.x 


2628.4 


599-7 


2689.2 


626.0 


2750.5 


17 


^000 


549-6 


3569.Z 


574.5 


3639.4 


600.1 


2690.2 


626.4 


275X.5 


z8 


19 


^167 


SSO.Z 


3570.Z 


574.9 


3630.4 


600.6 


269Z.3 


626.9 


2752.5 


X9 


30 


•3333 


550.5 


2571.Z 


575.3 
57S.8 


363Z.4 


60Z.0 


2692.3 


627.3 


2753.5 


80 


3Z 


.3500 


SS0.9 


2573.Z 


3632.5 


601.5 


2693.3 


627.8 


2754.6 


3Z 


33 


.3667 


55x3 


2573.X 


576.2 


2633.5 


601.9 


2694.3 


628.3 


2755-6 


33 


23 


.3833 


551.7 


2574Z 


576.6 


3634.5 


602.3 


2695.3 


628.7 


2756.7 


83 


84 


^000 


SS2.Z 


2S7S.I 


577.0 


2635.5 


602.7 


3696.3 


629.Z 


2757.7 


24 


25 


^167 


552.5 


3576.Z 


577.5 


2636.5 


603.2 


2697.4 


629.6 


2758.7 


25 


36 


•4333 


552.9 


2577.1 


577.9 


2637.5 


603.6 


2698.4 


630.0 


2759.7 


36 


27 


.4500 


553-3 


2578.Z 


578.3 


2638.5 


604.1 


2699.4 


630.5 


2760.8 


27 


28 


.4667 


SS3.7 


2S79.Z 


578.7 


2639.5 


604.5 


2700.4 


630.9 


276X.8 


38 


39 


.4833 


5542 


2580.Z 


579.2 


2640.5 


604.9 


270X.4 


631.4 


2762.8 


89 


30 


.5000 


554.6 


358Z.Z 


579.6 


364Z.5 


^H 


2702.4 


631.8 


2763.8 


30 


31 


.5167 


SSS-o 


3582.Z 


580.0 


3643.5 


605.8 


2703.S 


632.3 


2764.9 


3X 


32 


•5333 


5554 


3S83.Z 


580.4 


3644.6 


606.2 


2704.5 


632.7 


2765.9 


32 


33 


.5500 


55S-8 


3584.Z 


580.9 


606.6 


2705.5 


633.2 


2766.9 


33 


34 


.5667 


556.2 


258S.X 


58x3 


3645.6 


607.0 


2706.5 


633.6 


2767.9 


34 


35 


.5833 


556.6 


3586.3 


58X.7 


3646.6 


607.5 


2707.6 


634-1 


2769.0 


35 


36 


.6000 


557.0 


3587.2 


582.r 


3647.6 


607.9 


2708.6 


634.5 


27700 


36 


37 


.6167 


557.4 
557.8 


2588.3 


583.6 


3648.6 


608.4 
608.8 


2709.6 


634.9 


277X.0 


37 


38 


.6333 


3589.3 


583.0 


3649.6 


27x0.6 


635.3 


2772.0 


38 


39 


.6500 


558.3 


3590.3 


583.4 


3650.6 


609-3 


27XX.6 


635-8 


2773.x 


39 


40 


.6667 


558.7 


259Z.2 


583.8 


365Z.6 


609-7 


2712.6 


636.2 


2774.x 


40 


41 


.6833 


559.x 


3592.2 


584.3 


8653.7 


610.Z 


27x3.7 


636.7 


2775.2 


4X 


42 


.7000 


5595 


2593.2 


584.7 


2653.7 


610.5 


27x4.7 


637.x 


8776.2 


42 


43 


.7167 


559.9 


2594.2 


58S.X 


2654.7 


61Z.0 


27x5.7 


637.5 


2777-2 


43 


44 


.7333 


560.3 


2595.2 


585-5 


2655.7 


61 1. 4 


27x6.7 


638.0 


2778.2 


44 


♦1 


.7500 


560.8 


3596.3 


586.0 


2656.7 


6x1.9 


27x7.8 


638.5 


2779.3 


♦1 


46 


.7667 


561.3 


2597-2 


586!l 


2657.7 


612.3 


27x8.8 


638.9 


2780.3 


46 


*2 


.7833 


56Z.6 


3598.3 


2658.7 


612.8 


27x9.8 


639-4 


278X.3 


*l 


48 


.8000 


563.0 


2599.2 


587.2 


2660.8 


613.2 


2720.8 


639.8 


2782.3 


48 


49 


^z67 


562.4 


2600.3 


587.7 


613-7 


272X.8 


640.3 


2783.4 


49 


SO 


.8333 


563.8 


260Z.3 


588.Z 


2661.8 


614.x 


2722.8 


640.7 


2784.4 


50 


SI 


.8500 


563-3 


3602.3 


588.5 


2662.8 


614.S 


2723.9 


64X.2 


2785.4 


St 


52 


.8667 


563.7 


2603.3 


588^) 


2663.8 


6x4.9 


2724.9 


64X.6 


2786.4 


52 


S3 


.8833 


564-X 


3604.3 


589.4 


2664.8 


6x5.4 


2725.9 


642.x 


2787.5 


S3 


54 


.9000 


564.5 


3605.3 


589.8 


2665.8 


6x5.8 


2726.9 


642.S 


2788.5 


54 


u 


.9167 


564.9 


3606.3 


590.2 


3666.8 


6x6.3 


2728.0 


643.0 


3789.6 


1 


•9333 


565.3 
S65.« 


2607.3 


590.6 


2667.8 


6x6.7 


2729.0 


643.4 


3790.6 


*2 


.9500 


3608.3 


59X.X 


2668.9 


6x7.2 


2730.0 


643.9 


279X.6 


^ 


S8 


.9667 


566.3 


2609^ 


59X.5 


2669.9 


5^2-^ 


2731.0 


644.3 


2793.6 


a 


59 


•9933 


566.6 


3610.3 


592-0 


2670.9 


6z8.x 


2732.0 


644-8 


2793-7 


J 



362 



THE SURVEY 



Use xoo' Chocds up to 8° Curves Use 25' Chords up to 3a" Curves 
Use 50' Chords up to 16** Curves Use zo' Chords above 33* Curves 



1 


"^8 


Sa' 


53* 


54* 


55- 


1 





il 


Ext. 


Tan. 


Ext 


Tan. 


Ext 


Tan. 


Ext. 


Tan. 







645^a 


2794.7 


672.7 


2856.9 


700.9 


2919.5 


729.9 


3983.8 


z 


X)i67 


645.7 


3795.8 


673.2 


2857.9 


70X.4 


2930.6 


7304 


2983.9 


Z 


3 


.0333 


646.1 


2796.8 


673.7 


2858.9 


70X.9 


293 X. 6 


730.9 


2984.9 


3 


3 


.0500 


646.6 


2797.8 


674.2 


2860.0 


7024 


2933.7 


73 M 


3986.0 


3 


4 


x)667 


647.0 


2798.8 


674.6 


286X.0 


703.8 


2923.8 


731.9 


3987.x 


4 


1 


.0833 


647^5 


3799.9 


675.x 


2862.x 


703.3 
703.8 


2924.9 


7334 


3988.3 


5 


.zooo 


647.9 


2800.9 


675.5 


2863.x 


2925.9 


7329 


3989.3 


6 


2 


.Z167 


648-* 


2802.0 


676.0 


2864.2 


704.3 
704.8 


2927.0 


733.4 


2990.3 


7 


.1333 


648.9 


2803.0 


676.4 


3865.2 


2928.0 


733.8 


2991.3 


8 


9 


.Z500 


649.4 


2804.0 


676.9 


38^.3 


705.3 


2929.Z 


734.3 


29924 


9 


10 


.Z667 


649^ 


2805.0 


677.4 


2867.3 


705.7 


293ai 


734.8 


29934 


xo 


zz 


.1833 


650.3 


2806.Z 


677.9 


2868.4 


706.3 


293Z.2 


735.3 
735.8 


2994.5 


XX 


la 


.2000 


650.7 


2807.x 


678.3 


2869.4 


706.7 


2932.2 


3995.5 


X2 


13 


.2x67 


65Z.3 


2808.2 


678.8 


2870.5 


707.2 


2933.3 


V^i 


2996.6 


13 


14 


.3333 


65Z.6 


2809.2 


679.2 


2871.5 


707.7 


2934.3 


2997.7 


14 


IS 


.2500 


6s2.z 


28x0.2 


679.7 


2872.5 


708.2 


2935.4 


737.3 
737.8 


2998.8 


11 


z6 


.2667 


652.5 


281X.2 


680.2 


2873.5 


708.6 


2936.4 


2999.8 


X7 


.2833 


653.0 


2812.3 


680.7 


2874.6 


709.x 


2937.5 


738.3 


3000.9 


\l 


z8 


^000 


653.4 


2813.3 


681.1 


2875.6 


709.6 


2938.S 


738.7 


300Z.9 


19 


^167 


653.9 


2814.4 


68Z.6 


3876.7 


7xaz 


2939.6 


739.3 


3003.0 


19 


so 


•3333 


654.3 


2815.4 


682.0 


tli 


710.S 


2940.6 


739.7 


3004.0 


20 


2Z 


•3SOO 


654.8 


28x6.4 


682.5 


71X.0 


2941.7 


740.3 


3005.1 


2Z 


22 


.3667 


655.2 


2817.4 


683.0 


2879.8 


711.5 


2942.7 


740.7 


3006.2 


33 


33 


.3833 


655.7 


2818.S 


683.5 


2880.9 


713.0 


2943.8 


741.2 


3007.3 


23 


U 


wfOOO 


656.3 


2819.5 


683.9 


2881.9 


712.5 


2944.8 


74X.7 


3008.3 


24 


35 


•4x67 


656.7 


2820.6 


6844 


3883.0 


713.0 


2945.9 


742.8 


30094 


35 


26 


•4333 


6S7.Z 


282X.6 


684.9 


3884.0 


713.4 


2946.9 


742.7 


30x0.4 


36 


27 


.4500 


657.6 


2822.6 


Ss-* 


2885.x 


713.9 


2948.0 


743-2 


301 x.s 


37 


38 


.4667 


658.0 


2823.6 


Si-* 


2886.x 


714.4 


2949.0 


743-7 


30x2.5 


28 


29 


.4833 


658.5 


2824.7 


686.3 


2887.x 


714.9 


395az 


744-3 


30x3.6 


39 


30 


.5000 


658.9 


'i^H 


686.7 


2888.x 


7x5.3 
715.8 
716.3 


295X.Z 


744.7 


30Z4.7 
3015.8 


30 


31 


.5167 


6594 


2836.8 


687.2 


2889.2 


2952.2 


745.2 


3X 


32 


•5333 


659.8 


2827.8 


687.7 


2890.2 


2953.2 


7457 


3016.8 


32 


33 


.5500 


660.3 


2828.8 


688.2 


289X.3 


7x6.8 


2954.3 


746.2 


3017-9 


33 


34 


•5667 


660.7 


2839.8 


688.6 


3892.3 


717.3 


2955.3 


746.7 


30x8.9 


34 


35 


.5833 


661.2 


2830.9 


689.Z 


28934 


717.8 


2956.4 


747.2 


3020.0 


35 


36 


.6000 


66x6 


2831.9 


689.6 


3894.4 


718.2 


2957.5 


747.7 
748.2 


303X.Z 


36 


37 


.6167 


662.x 


2833.0 


690. z 


2895.5 


718.7 


2958.6 


3022.Z 


37 


38 


.6333 


662.5 


2834.0 


690.5 


2896.S 


719.3 


2959.6 


748.7 


3023.2 


38 


39 


.6500 


663.0 


2835.x 


69X.0 


2897.6 


719.7 


3960.7 


749-a 


3024.3 


39 


40 


.6667 


663.S 


2836.Z 


691.5 


2898.6 


720.2 


396X.7 


749.7 


3025.3 


40 


41 


.6833 


664.0 


2837.3 


692.0 


2899.7 


730.7 


2962.8 


750.3 


3026.4 


4X 


42 


.7000 


664.4 


2838.2 


693.4 


2900.7 


731.Z 


2963.8 


750.7 


3027.5 


42 


43 


.7167 


664.9 


3839.3 


693.9 


290X.8 


73X.6 


2964.9 


751.3 


3028.6 


43 


44 


.7333 


665.3 


2840.2 


693.4 


2902.8 


722.Z 


2965.9 


751.7 


3029.6 


44 


45 


.7500 


665.8 


2841.3 


693.9 


2903.9 


723.6 


2967.0 


752.2 


3030.7 


45 


46 


.7667 


666.2 


2842.3 


694.8 


2904.9 


723.x 


2968.0 


752.6 


3031.7 

3032.8 


46 


47 


.7833 


666.7 


3843.4 


2906.0 


723.6 


2969.1 


753-1 


47 


48 


.8000 


667.3 


2844.4 


695sJ 
695.8 


2907.0 


724.x 


2970.X 


753.6 


3033.8 


48 


49 


.8167 


667.7 


2845.5 


2908.x 


724.6 


297Z.3 


754.x 


3035.0 


49 


SO 


.8333 


668.Z 


2846.5 


696.3 


2909.x 


725.0 


3973.3 


754-6 


3036.0 


50 


SI 


.8500 


668.6 


2847.5 


696.7 


2910.2 


725.5 


29733 


755-1 


3037.1 


5X 


59 


.8667 


669.0 


2848.5 


697.x 


291 1.2 


726.0 


2974.4 


755-6 
756.1 


3038.Z 


53 


53 


.8833 


669.5 


2849.6 


697.6 


2912.3 


726.5 


2975-5 


3039.2 


53 


54 


.9000 


669.9 


2850.6 


698.Z 


2913.3 


727.0 


2976.5 


756.6 


3040.2 


54 


Sf 


.9x67 


6704 


2851.7 


698.6 


29x44 


727.S 
728.0 


3977.6 
3978.6 


757-x 


3041.3 


55 


56 


•9333 


670.9 


2852.7 


699.0 


29x5.4 


757^6 
755-1 


30424 


56 


57 


•9500 


VAi 


2853.8 


699.S 


2916.5 


728.S 


2979.7 


3043.5 


II 


58 


.9667 


2854.8 


700.0 


2917.5 


729.0 


^♦•2 


758.6 


3044.S 


59 


•9833 


672.3 


2855.9 


700.5 


29x8.5 


729.5 


398Z.8 


759.x 3045.6 1 


SO 



FUNCTIONS OF ONE-DEGREE CURVE 

Use loo' Chords up to 8" Curves Use as' Chords up to 32* Curves 
Use 50' Chords up to 16* Curves Use xo' Chords above 33* Curves 



36; 



1 

49 


'Sg 


56' 


57'* 


58* 


59* 


s 


§ 


H ff 










9 


' 














fl 





qS 


Ext 


Tan. 


Ext 


Tan. 


Ext 


Tan. 


Ext 


Tan. 


s_ 


.0000 


759.6 


3046.6 


790.2 


3ZIX.I 


831.4 


3176.1 


853.5 


324X.9 





X 


.0167 


760. X 


3047.7 


790.7 


31x2.3 


82X.9 


3x77.2 


854.0 


3243.0 


x 


3 


.0333 


760.6 


3048.8 


791.2 


3113.3 


822.5 


3178.3 


854.6 


3244.x 


a 


5 


.0500 


76x.x 


3049-9 


791.7 


3114.4 


823.0 


3x79.4 


855.x 


3245.2 


3 


4 


.0667 


761.6 


3050.9 


792.2 


3115.4 


833.5 


3x80.5 


855.7 


3346.3 


4 


5 


.0833 


762.2 


3052.0 


792.8 


31 16.5 


834.1 


3181.6 


856.2 


3247-4 


5 


6 


.1000 


762.7 


3053.1 


793.3 


3117.6 


824.6 


3x82.7 


856.8 


3248.5 


6 


7 


.1167 


763.2 


3054.2 


793.8 


3x18.7 


825.2 


3x83.8 


857.3 


3249.6 


7 


8 


.1333 


763-7 


3055.2 


794.3 


3119.7 


5^1-7 


3x84.9 
3186.0 


§Sf-9 


3250.7 


8 


9 


.1500 


764.2 


3056.3 


794.8 


3x20.8 


826.3 


858.5 


3251.8 


9 


10 


.1667 


764.7 


3057.4 
3058.5 


795.3 


3131.9 


826.7 


3x87.1 


859.0 


3252.9 


xo 


II 


.1833 


765.2 


795.8 
796.3 


3123.0 


827.3 


3x88.2 


859.5 


3254.0 


11 


13 


.2000 


765.7 


3059.5 


3124.1 


827.8 


3x89.2 


860.0 


3255.x 


12 


13 


.2167 


766.2 


3060.6 


796.9 


3x25.3 


828.4 


3x90.3 


860.6 


3256.2 


13 


14 


.3333 


766.7 


3061.6 


797.4 


3136.3 


838.9 


319X.4 


861.1 


3257.3 


X4 


15 


.3500 


767.2 


3063.7 


797.9 


3127.3 


839.4 


3x92.5 


861.7 


3258-4 


X5 


16 


.2667 


767.7 


3063.8 


798.4 


3x28.4 


829.9 


3x93.6 


862.2 


3259.5 


x6 


17 


.2833 


768.3 


3064.9 


798.9 


3x29.5 


830.5 


3x94.7 


862.8 


3260.6 


X7 


18 


.3000 


768.7 


3065.9 


799.4 


3x30.6 


83X.0 


3x95.8 


$53.3 


3261.7 


x8 


19 


^167 


769.3 


3067.0 


799.9 


3x31.7 


83X.5 


3x96.9 


86^.8 


3263.8 


X9 


20 


.3333 


769.7 


3068.x 


800.5 


3x32.7 


833.1 


3x98.0 


864.4 


3263.9 


20 


31 


.3500 


770.3 


3069.3 


80X.0 


3x33.8 


832.5 


3199.X 


864.9 


3265.0 


21 


33 


.3667 


770.8 


3070.3 


80X.5 


3134.9 


833.1 


3200.2 


§5l-s 


3366.x 


22 


33 


.3833 


771.3 


3071.3 


802.0 


3136.0 


833.6 


320X.3 


866.0 


3367.3 
3368.3 


23 


24 


.4000 


771.8 


3072.4 


802.S 


3137.0 


834.2 


32024 


866.6 


24 


*l 


^167 


772.3 


3073.5 


803.1 


3x38.1 


834.7 


3203.5 


867.1 


32694 


^i 


36 


•4333 


772.8 


3074.S 


803.6 


3139.2 


835.3 


3204.5 


?5z-' 


3270.5 


26 


37 


ASOO 


773.3 


3075.6 


804.2 


3x40.3 


835.8 
836.3 


3205.6 


868.3 


327X.6 


'I 


38 


.4667 


773.8 


3076.6 


804.7 


3X4X.4 


3206.7 


868.8 


3272.7 


28 


39 


wt833 


774.3 


3077.7 


805.2 


3142.5 


836.8 


3307.8 


869.3 


3273.8 


29 


30 


.5000 


774.8 


3078.8 


805.7 


3143.5 


837.4 


3208.9 


869.9 


3274.9 


30 


31 


.5167 


775-3 


3079.9 


806.3 


3X44-6 


837.8 


32x0.0 


870.5 


3276.0 


3X 


32 


■5333 


775.8 


3080.9 


806.8 


3145.7 
3x46.8 


838.4 


321X.X 


871.0 


3277.1 


32 


33 


•SSOO 


776.3 
776.8 


3082.0 


807.3 


838.9 


3212.2 


871.6 


3278.2 


33 


34 


.5667 


3083.1 


807.8 


3x47.9 


839.5 


32x3.3 


872.1 


3279-4 


34 


35 


.5833 


777.3 
777.8 


3084.2 


808.3 


3x49.0 


840.0 


32x4.4 


872.7 


3280.S 


35 


36 


.6000 


3085.2 


808.8 


3150.0 


840.6 


32x5.5 


?73.2 


3281.6 


36 


37 


.6167 


778.4 


3086.3 


809.4 


3x51.x 


84X.1 


3216.6 


873.8 


3282.7 


37 


38 


.6333 


778.9 


3087.4 


809.9 


3x52.3 


84X.6 


IIM 


874.3 


3283.8 


38 


39 


.6500 


779.4 


3088.5 


810.4 


3x53.3 


843.1 


874.9 


3284.9 


39 


40 


.6667 


779.9 


3089.6 


8x0.9 


3x54.4 


842.7 


3219.9 


875.4 


3286.0 


40 


41 


.6833 


780.4 


3090.7 


811.5 


3155.5 


843.x 


322X.0 


876.0 


3287.x 


4X 


42 


.7000 


780.9 


3091.7 


812.0 


3x56.6 


843.8 


3222.x 


876.5 


3288.2 


42 


43 


.7167 


781.4 


3092.8 


812.5 3157.7 


844.2 


3223.2 


877.0 


3289.3 


43 


44 


.7333 


781.9 


3093.9 


813.0 


3x58.7 


84^.9 


3224.3 


877.6 


3290.5 


44 


45 


.7500 


782.S 


3095.0 


8113.6 


3x59.8 


845.5 


3225.4 


878.1 


329X.6 


^1 


46 


.7667 


783.0 


3096.0 


814.1 


3160.9 


846.0 


3226.5 


878.7 


3292.7 


46 


% 


.7833 


783.S 


3097.x 


8x4.6 


3x62.0 


846.5 


3227.6 


879.2 


3293-8 


H 


.8000 


784.0 


3098.2 


815.1 


3163 X 


847-0 


3228.7 


879.8 


3294-9 


48 


49 


.8167 


784.5 


3099.3 


815.7 


3x64.3 


847.6 


3229.8 


880.3 


3296.0 


49 


50 


3333 


785.0 


3100.3 


8x6.2 


3x65.3 


848.1 


3230.9 


??*-9 


3297.x 


50 


SI 


•?I5® 


785.5 


310X.4 


816.7 


3x66.4 


848.7 


3232.0 


881.5 


3298.2 


51 


52 


.8667 


786.0 


3102.S 
3x03.6 


817.2 


3167.4 


849.2 


3233.x 


882.0 


3299.3 


52 


53 


.8833 


786.6 


817.8 


3168.S 


849.8 


3234.2 


882.6 


3300.4 


53 


54 


.9000 


787.1 


3104.6 


8x8.3 


3x69.6 


850.3 


3235.3 


883.1 


330X.5 


54 


55 


.9x67 


787.6 


3x05.7 


8x8.8 


3x70.7 


850.9 


3236.4 


883.7 


3302.6 


H 


56 


•9333 


788.1 


3x06.8 


819.3 


3171.8 


85X.4 


3237.5 


884.2 


3303.8 


56 


57 


.9500 


788.6 


3107.9 


8x9.9 


3172.9 


852.0 


3238.6 


884.8 


3304.9 
3306.0 


^l 


S8 .9667 


789.1 


3x08.9 


820.4 


3x74.0 


852.5 


3239.7 


885.3 


S8 


59 ^33 


789.7 


31 10.0 


820.9 


3x751 


853.0 


3240.8 


885.9 


3307.x 


59 



THE SURVEY 





E:;? 


'Cl»Kbiipto8*Ciir« 
Cbotda up to 16° Cums 


S:sastts-?ss 




1 


II 


50" 


6,- [ 6a- 


6.- 


s 

1 


£lL 


TUL 


Eit 


Tan. 


Elt. 


TuL 


Ert- 


Tin. 


l 

s 
i 

s 


^167 

3!? 

iisoo 
.1667 
■>S3J 

i 

-316V 
x 

■4167 
-4333 

i 

:!«? 

.6167 
.6333 

.6667 

■ml 

■.X 
■]^ 
.8167 
.B333 

.9000 

^,167 

p 


i 

a* 
Zi 

a9..s 

900.5 

901.0 

901.7 

904.4 
964.9 

906.1 
SS6.6 

908.8 

i-i 

916.8 

018.0 
eis.6 


3308.. 
3309.3 

3313-8 

IH 

|3 

M36.. 

ae 

3J30-4 
3J4I-S 

JJ46.1 

Ifd 

33SJ-8 

11 

3361.8 

33Si-fl 

3369.6 
3371* 


91^ 
S'3'6 

gi 

S; 
SI 

918.7 

9>9.3 

959-9 

931-6 

93 '.B 

Si 

i 

9*0-4 

1 

943^ 
944-4 

94S.S 

g:; 
SI 

9S1J 

953^0 
9S3-6 


3380.8 
338'.9 
3383-1 

'^l 
33M.. 

m 

3390-9 

33W-J 

|K 

34<'l-> 
3404-4 

11^7 
3407-8 
3408-0 

3414-6 

3418-0 

34>9-» 

ii 

34>6xi 

sli 

3430-t 
3431 ■« 

3433-* 
34J4J> 
3436.1 

343S!4 

3440.7 


954.8 

Si 

9SB.9 

SSI 

960.7 

& 

963.6 

& 
& 

966.6 

s- 

968^, 
969.S 

97».S 

974.8 

976.6 
977:8 
9T8-t 

ii 

S..6 

986.7 
987.3 

Si 

989.7 


3448.6 
3451-0 

Lfl 
3460.0 

34«7-9 

3469.0 

J47I-3 

Si 

j48a-7 
34S3.9 
34||-o 

34St4 

SS:I 

349^7 
3404-3 

i 

ii 


990-9 

996-3 

996.9 

^i 
998-7 

1004-7 

toos-s 
roi4-S 

ill 

Si 

.■..8.7 

3:! 


1:3 

3SI+-B 

Si 

3Saa.8 
3J14-0 

35.8-6 

353 a -0 

1 

JS38.9 

3140.0 

El 

IS; 

3S49-a 

3SSI-6 

3SS1-7 

lb 

356j.» 

3564-3 

l&i 

JS67-7 
3568.9 
3S70-O 

-*S73.S 
3S74-6 

ill 

3IJ9-3 


1 

I 

;1 

i 

18 

>9 
30 

1 

40 

u 

s 

i 



FUNCTIONS OF ONE-DEGREE CURVE 



3»S 





Use zoo' Chords up to 8 


"Curves 


Use 


25' Chords UP to 


«3" Curves 




Use so' Chords upto x6* Curves Use zo' Chords above 33* Curves 





*8S 

^1 


64' 


65'. 


66" 


67- 


5 


Ext 


Tan. 


Ext. 


Tan. 


Ext 


Tan 


Ext 


Tan. 


.0000 


Z026.7 


3580.4 


Z064.0 


3651.6 


XZ02.2 


3721.Z 


1Z41.5 


3792.6 





I 


^oz67 


1027.3 


3581.6 


Z064.6 


XZ02.9 


3723.3 


ZZ43.2 


3793.8* 


z 


3 


.^333 


Z037.9 


3582.8 


1065.2 


3652.8 


ZX03.5 


3723.4 
3724.6 


z 142.8 


3795.0 


3 


3 


wosoo 


Z028.6 


3583.9 


1065.9 


3654.0 


X104.2 


1143.5 


3796.2 


3 


4 


mUj 


Z02g.2 


3585.x 


Z066.5 


3655.1 


ZZ04.8 


3725.8 


ZZ44.X 


3797.4 


4 


J 


^33 


Z039.8 


3586.3 


Z067.X 


3656.3 


ZZ05.5 


3727.0 


ZZ44.8 


3798.6 


5 


6 


.zooo 


Z030.4 


l^i 


Z067.7 


3658!6 


XX06.X 


3728.2 


1145-4 


3700.8 


6 


7 


.ZZ67 


Z03Z.Z 


Z068.4 


XX06.8 


3729.4 
3730.6 


ZX46.1 


38OX.O 


I 


8 


.1333 


Z03Z.7 


3589.7 


Z069.0 


3659.8 


XX07.4 


XX46.7 


3802.2 


9 


.Z500 


1032.3 


3590.9 


X069.6 


366Z.0 


ZZ08.Z 


3731.7 


1147.4 


3803.4 


9 


10 


.1667 


Z032.9 


3592.1 


Z070.2 


3662.2 


1x08.7 


3732.9 


ZZ48.Z 


3804.6 


zo 


ZI 


.X833 


X033-S 


3593.3 


Z070.9 


3663.4 


11094 


3734.1 


ZZ48.8 


3805.8 


zz 


12 


.3000 


X034.I 


3594.4 


1071.5 


3664.5 


XXX0.0 


3735.3 


1149.4 


3807.0 


Z2 


13 


.2x67 


Z034JJ 


3595.5 


X072.X 


3665.7 


XZZ0.7 


3736.5 


XZ50.Z 


3808.2 


13 


14 


.2333 


ZQ3Sw| 


3596.7 


X072.7 


3666.9 


ZZZZ4 


3737.7 


xi5a7 


3809.4 


14 


« 


.3300 


Z036.0 


3597.9 


1073.4 


3668.0 


ZZZ2.0 


3738.9 


1151.4 


38Z0.6 


15 


z6 


.2667 


X036J5 


3599.x 


Z074.0 


3669.2 


ZXZ2.6 


3740.1 


ZX52.0 


38XZ.8 


z6 


'2 


.2833 


X037.3 


3600.3 


Z074.6 


367Z.6 


XIX3.3 


374X.3 


1152.7 


38x3.0 


17 


18 


.3000 


1037.9 


3602^ 


1075.2 


1113.9 


3742.4 


1153.3 


38x4.2 


z8 


19 


^167 


Z038.5 


1075.9 


3672.8 


IZZ4.6 


3743.6 


ZZ54-0 


38x54 


19 


90 


^33 


Z039.Z 


3603.7 


Z076.6 


3673.9 


III 5.2 


3744.8 
3746.0 


1154.7 


38x6.6 


20 


31 


.3500 


X039.7 


X077.2 


3675.0 


11x5.9 


1155.4 


3817.8 


2Z 


22 


.3667 


Z040.J 


1077^8 


3676.2 


IX 16.5 


3747.2 


ZZ56.0 


38x9.0 


22 


23 


^833 


X04X.0 


3607.2 


Z078.S 


36783 


ZIX7.2 


3748.4 
3749.6 


1156.7 


3820.2 


23 


24 


«4000 


Z04Z.6 


3608.4 


Z079.1 


IXI7.8 


11574 


382Z.4 


24 


11 


w|x67 


Z042.2 


3609.5 


Z079.8 


3679.7 
3680.9 


ZZZ8.5 


3750.7 


I158.1 


3833.6 


25 


•4333 


Z042.8 


36x0.7 


X080.4 


IXI9.I 


3751.9 


1158.7 


3823.8 


26 


'2 


.4S0O 


1043.S 


36XZ.9 


Z08Z.Z 


3682.X 


IXX9.8 


3753.x 


1159.4 


3825.0 


27 


38 


-♦667 


X044.1 


36x3.0 


X08I.7 


3683.3 


XX20.4 


3754.3 


zz6o.z 


3826.2 


28 


2Q 


.4833 


Z044.7 


3614.1 


zo82^ 


3684.5 


ZZ2Z.Z 


3755.5 


ZZ60.8 


38274 


29 


30 


.5000 


ia»s.3 


3615.3 


Z083.0 


3685.6 


XX3X.7 


3756.7 


zz6z.4 


3828.6 


30 


3X 


.5x67 


X04S.9 


3616.5 


Z083.6 


3686.8 


XX 33.3 


3757.9 


ZZ62.1 


3829.8 


31 


32 


.5333 


X046.S 


3617.7 


X084.2 


3688.0 


1 1 33.0 


3759.1 


ZX62.8 


383Z.O 


32 


33 


•SSOO 


Z047.2 


36x8.9 


X084.9 


3689.2 


1123.7 


376a3 


ZZ63.S 


3832.2 


33 


34 


.5667 


Z047.8 


3620.0 


1085.5 


3690.4 


1124.3 


3761.5 


ZZ64.1 


3833.4 


34 


*l 


•OOOO 


Z048.4 


362Z.Z 


Z086.2 


3691.6 


I z 25.0 


3762.7 


z 164.8 


3834.6 


35 


36 


Z049.0 


3622.3 


Z086.8 


3692.7 


ZZ35.6 


3763.9 


1165.5 


3835.9 


36 


H 


.6x67 


1049.7 


3623.5 


1087.S 


3693.9 


ZX26.3 


3765.1 


1x66.2 


3837.Z 


37 


38 


.6333 


Z050.3 


3624.7 


I088.X 


3695.1 


ZZ26.9. 


3766.3 


XX66.8 


3838.3 


38 


39 


^500 


zosag 


3635.8 


IQ88.8 


3696.2 


ZZ27.6 


3767.5 


1167.5 


3839.5 


39 


40 


.6667 


Z0SZ.S 


3637.0 


X089.4 


309b3 


ZZ28.3 


3768.7 


zz68.a 


3840.7 


40 


41 


.6833 


Z053.Z 


3638.2 


1090.0 


z 1 39.0 


3769.9 


ZZ68.9 


3841.9 


41 


4a 


.7000 


ZOS2.7 


3629.4 


X090.6 


3699.8 


ZX39.6 


3771.0 


ZZ69.5 


3843.1 


42 


43 


.7x67 


1053.4 


3630.5 


1091.3 


370X.0 


1 130.3 


3772.2 


ZZ70.2 


3844.3 


43 


44 


•7333 


1054.0 


3631.7 


1091^ 


3702.2 


XZ30.9 


3773.4 


ZZ70.9 


38455 


44 


ji 


.7500 


ZOS4-6 


3632.8 


Z092.6 


37034 


XX3I.6 


3774.6 


ZZ7X.6 


3846.7 


ti 


.7667 


1055.2 


3634.0 


1093.2 


3704.5 


ZI33.3 


3775.8 


ZZ72.2 


3847.9 


*^ 


.7833 


1055.9 


3635.2 


1093.9 


3705.7 


1132.9 


3777.0 


ZZ72.9 


3849-1 


47 


.8000 


Z056.5 


3636.4 


1094.5 


3706.9 


1133.5 


3778.2 


1x73.6 


38504 


48 


49 


.8Z67 


1057.x 


3637.5 


1095.2 


3708.Z 


1x34.2 


3779.4 


X174.3 


3851.6 


49 


50 


3S33 


1057.7 
I058w|. 


3638.7 


Z095.8 


37094 


X134.9 


3780.6 


1174.9 


3852.8 


50 


SI 


.8300 
i667 


3639.9 


Z096.4 


37io.| 
3711.6 


ZZ35.6 


378X.8 


1175.6 


3854.0 


51 


52 


to59.o 


3641.Z 


Z097.0 


ZZ36.2 


3783.0 


ZZ76.3 


3855.2 


52 


S3 


.8833 


Z059.6 
ZOO0.9 


3642.3 


1097.7 


3712.8 


ZX36.9 


3784.2 


ZZ77.0 


3856.4 
3857.6 


53 


S4 


.9000 


3643.4 


X098.3 


37x4.0 


1137.5 


3785.4 


ZZ77.6 


54 


*l 


.9x67 


Z060.9 


3644.6 


Z099.0 


371S.X 


ZZ38.9 


3786:6 


X178.3 


3858.8 


55 


S6 


.9333 


Z06Z.5 


3645.7 


Z099.6 


3716.3 


ZZ38.8 


3787-8 


Z]k79.o 


3860.0 


56 


U 


X 


Z069.Z 


3646.9 


ZZ00.3 


3717.5 


1x39.5 


3789.0 


1179.7 


386X.2 


52 


Z063.7 


3648.x 


ZZ00.9 


3718.7 


ZZ40.Z 


3790.2 


ZZ80.3 


3862.S 


S8 


59 


•9833 


1063^ 


9649-9 


ZZOZ.6 


3719.9 


zz4a8 


379Xw| 


zz8z.o 


3863.7 


39 



300 



THK bUKVEY 



Use xoo' Chords up to 8** Curves Use 25' Chords up to 33* Curves 
Use so' Chords i^) to z6** Curves Use zo' Chords above 3a* Curves 



1 


^g 


68* 


69* 


70« 


71' 


1 





^1 


Ext. 


Tan. 


Ext. 


Tan. 


Ext 


Tan. 


Ext. 


Tan. 


r 




.0000 


Z18Z.6 


3864.9 


z 2 23.9 


3938.Z 


z 365.0 


40Z3.I 


1308.4 


4087.1 


I 


^167 


1183.3 


3866.Z 


1333.6 


3939.4 


z 365.7 


40Z3.4 


Z309.2 


4088.4 


1 


2 


.0333 


X183.0 


^l^ 


z 2 24.3 


3940.6 


z 366.4 


40Z4.6 


1309.9 


4089.7. 


3 


3 


.0500 


X 183.7 


3868.5 


X225.0 


3941.8 


Z367.3 


40ZS.9 


Z3Z0.6 


4091.0 


3 


4 


.0667 


ZZ84.4 


3869.7 


z 335.7 


3943.0 


Z367.9 


4017.1 


X31X.3 


4093.3 


4 


5 


.0833 


ZZ85.X 


3870.9 


z 336.4 


3944.2 


Z368.6 


40Z8.4 


1312.1 


4093.5 


5 


6 


.xooo 


1x85.7 


3872.2 


Z337.X 


39455 


z 269.3 


40x9.6 


Z312.8 


4094.7 


6 


7 


.XI67 


X 186.4 


3873.4 


Z227.8 


3946.7 


Z270.X 


4020.8 


1313.S 


4096.0 


7 


8 


.1333 


XI87.X 


3874.6 


Z228.5 


3947.9 


z 270.8 


4022.Z 


1314-2 


4097.2 


8 


9 


.Z500 


XZ87.8 


3875.8 


X 339.3 


3949-2 


127I.S 


4023.4 


Z3i5*o 


4098.5 


9 


10 


.Z667 


ZX88.5 


3877.0 


z 339.9 


3950.4 


Z373.3 


4024.6 


131S.7 


4099.8 


xo 


IZ 


.1833 


X189.3 


3878.2 


1230.6 


3951.6 


z 373.9 


4025.8 


X3X6.S 


4101.1 


XI 


Z3 


.3000 


XX89.8 


3879.S 


1231.3 


3952.9 


z 273.6 


4027.Z 


X3X7.2 


4103.3 


13 


13 


.2x67 


"90s 


3880.7 


z 232.0 


3954.1 


1274.4 


4028.4 


X317.9 


4103.6 


13 


14 


.2333 


XZ91.3 


388Z.9 


z 232.7 


3955.3 


1275.1 


4039.6 


13x8.6 


4104.8 


14 


\i 


.3500 


ZZ9X.9 


3883.Z 


1233.4 


3956.6 


1275.8 


4030.8 


1319.4 


4106.1 


IS 


.3667 


XX92.6 


3884.3 


1234.1 


3957.8 


z 276.5 


4033.Z 


X320.Z 


4107.3 


z6 


17 


.2833 


X 193.3 


3885.6 


z 234.8 


39S9»o 


1277.3 


4033.4 


Z320.S 


4108.6 


17 


z8 


.3000 


I 193-9 


3886.8 


1235.5 


3960.2 


Z 2 78.0 


4034.6 


X32X.5 


4Z09.8 


z8 


19 


.3167 


1 194.6 


3888.0 


z 236.3 


3961.5 


Z278.7- 


4035.9 


Z333.3 


4111.X 


X9 


20 


•3333 


"95-3 


3889.3 


z 336.9 


3962.7 


1279-4 


4037.1 


Z333.0 


4118.4 


30 


3Z 


•3500 


X 196.0 


3890.4 


z 33 7.6 


3964.0 


Z280.Z 


4038.4 
4039.6 


X323.7 


4113.7 


3t 


32 


.3667 


X 196.7 


3891.6 


z 338.3 


3965.2 


z 280.8 


X324.4 


4114.9 
4xx6.a 


39 


S3 


.3833 


1x97.4 


3892.9 


z 339.0 


3966.4 


Z281.6 


4040.9 


Z325.2 


23 


24 


.4000 


1x98.0 


3894.1 


1239.7 


39676 


z 382.3 


4043.Z 


1325.9 


4117^1 


S4 


*l 


.4167 


1 198.7 


3895.3 


z 340.4 


3968.9 


z 383.0 


4043.4 
4044.6 


1326.7 


4118.7 


'd 


36 


•4333 


X 199.4 


3896.5 


Z34Z.Z 


3970.X 


z 383.7 


1327.4 


4119.9 


*Z 


•4SOO 


X300.Z 


^M'"^ 


Z34Z.8 


3971.3 


Z384.5 


4045.9 


Z338.2 


4131.3 


% 


38 


.4667 


X300.8 


3898.9 


1242.5 


3972.5 


Z285.2 


4047.1 


z 338.9 


4122.4 


ag 


.4833 


Z30I.5 


3900.2 


1243.2 


3973.8 


z 385.9 


4048.4 


1329.7 


4X23.7 


29 


30 


.5000 


Z303.Z 


3901.4 


1243.9 


397S.O 


Z386.6 


4049.6 


1330.4 


4X25.0 


30 


31 


•S167 


ZS03.8 


3902.6 


z 244.6 


3976.3 


Z287.3 


4050.9 


Z33Z.Z 


4X26.3 


3X 


32 


.5333 


X303.S 


3903.8 


1245.3 


3977.S 


z 288.0 


4052.1 


Z33X.8 


4I27.S 


32 


33 


•S500 


z 304.3 


3905.0 


z 246.0 


3978.8 


z 388.8 


4053*4 


Z332.6 


4X38.7 


33 


34 


.5667 


X304.9 


3906.3 


z 246.7 


3980.0 


1289.S 


4054.6 


X333-3 


4130X> 


34 


3S 


.5833 


z 305.6 


3907.5 


z 347.4 


3981.2 


z 390.3 


4055.9 


X334-I 


413X.S 


35 


36 


.6000 


z 306.3 


3908.7 


Z348.Z 


3982.4 


z 290.9 


4057.1 


X334.8 


4x32.6 


36 


37 


.6167 


z 206.9 


3909.9 


z 248.8 


3983.7 


Z29Z.7 


4058.4 


1335.6 


4x33.9 


37 


38 


.6333 


1207.6 


39ZZ.3 


1249.5 


3984.9 


1292.4 


4059.6 


Z336.3 


4x35.1 


38 


39 


.6500 


z 308.3 


3912.4 


z 250.3 


3986.Z 


z 293.1 


4o6a9 


X337.I 


4x36.4 


39 


40 


.6667 


X 309.0 


3913.6 


z 350.9 


3987.4 


z 293.8 


4063.x 


i337Ji 


4137.7 


40 


41 


.6833 


z 209.7 


3914.9 


X35Z.6 


3988.7 


z 294.6 


4064.0 


Z338.5 


4x39.0 


4X 


42 


.7000 


Z2Z0.3 


391 6. z 


1252.3 


3989.9 


1295.3 


Z339.2 


4i40.a 


42 


43 


.7167 


Z2ZZ.O 


3917.3 


1253.0 


3991.1 


z 296.0 


4065.9 


Z340.0 


414X.5 


43 


44 


.7333 


Z2ZZ.7 


3918.5 


1253.7 


3992.3 


z 296.7 


4067.1 


1340.7 


4x42.7 


44 


45 


•7SOO 


Z2Z2.4 


3919.8 


1254.4 


3993.6 


1297.S 


4068.4 


1341.S 


4«44^ 


^ 


46 


.7667 


Z2I3.Z 


392 z.o 


12551 


3994.8 


X 298.3 


4069.6 


1342.3 


4146.6 


47 


•7833 


Z2X3.8 


3922.2 


1255.8 


3996.0 


1 398.9 


4076.9 


1343.0 


47 


48 


.8000 


1 214.5 


3923.4 


z 256.5 


3997.3 


X 299.6 


4073.Z 


1343.7 


4147.8 


4S 


49 


.8x67 


Z3Z5.3 


3924.7 


Z2S7.2 


3998.6 


X300.4 


4073^ 


1344.S 


4x49.x 


49 


SO 


^333 


I2Z5.9 


3925.9 


1257.9 


3999-8 


Z30Z.Z 


4074.6 


1345.2 


4x50.4 


SO 


SI 


.8500 


z 3x6.6 


2927. z 


z 258.6 


400Z.0 


Z30X.9 


4075.9 


Z346.0 


4XSX.7 


51 


52 


.8667 


12x7.3 


3928.3 


Z259.3 


4002.2 


Z303.6 


4077.1 


1346.7 


4152.9 


52 


S3 


.8833 


Z3X8.0 


3929.6 


z 360.0 


4003.4 


1303.3 


4078.4 
4079.6 


1347.5 


4x54.2 


53 


54 


.9000 


Z3I8.7 


3930.8 


z 260.7 


4004.7 


1304.0 


X348.a 


4x55.4 


54 


II 


.9167 


Z3Z9.4 


3932.0 


Z26Z.4 


4006.0 


Z304.8 


40S0.9 


1349.0 


4x56.7 


U 


•9333 


Z320.Z 


3933.2 


Z363.Z 


4007.3 


1305.S 


4083.Z 


1349.7 


4x58.0 


52 


9SOO 


X330.8 


3934.4 


z 363.8 


4008.5 


Z306.3 


&t 


1350.5 


4X59^ 
4x6ij 


a 


58 


.9667 


Z32Z.5 


39357 


z 363.5 


4009.7 


Z306.9 


1351.2 


80 .9833 1 


Z333.3 


3936.9 


1364.3 


40x0.9 


X307.7 


4085.9 


Z352.0 


so 



FUNCTIONS OF ONE-DEGREE CURVE 



367 



\ 





Use 100' Chords up to S 


•'Curves 


1 Use 


2s' Chords up to 32* Curves 




Use so' Chords up to 16" Curves Use 10' Chords above 3a* Curves 


1 




72'' 


73- 


74* 


75' 


1 


d 


c ^ 














■ 


g 





pa 


ExL 


Tan. 


Ext. 


Tan. 


Ext. 


Tan^ 


Ext 


Tan. 


i 


•OOOO 


1352.7 


4163.1 


X398.1 


4240.0 


1444.7 


43x7.8 


1492.5 


4396.7 





I 


.0167 


1353.5 


4164.4 


X398.9 


4241.3 


1445-5 


43x9.2 


1493.3 


4398.1 


I 


2 


•0333 


1354.2 


4x65.6 


1399.6 


4242.6 


1446.2 


4320.S 


1494-1 


4399.4 


2 


3 


.0500 


1355.0 


4x66.9 


1400.4 


4243-9 


1447.0 


4321.8 


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5< 



368 



THE SURVEY 



Use zoo' Chords up to 8** Curves 
Use 50' Chords up to 16" Curves 



Use 25' Chords up to 32^ Curves 
Use IV Chords above 32** Curves 



1 




Dec. of 
Degree 


76* 


77' 


78' 


79' 


1 




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Ext 


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Z748.Z 


4803.8 


52 


^7 


Z590.0 


455S.X 


164X-3 


4637.3 
4638.7 


Z694.2 


4720.6 


4805.3 


58 





•9833 


Z590.9 


4556.5 


1642.3 


1695.1 


4733.0 


1749.x 


4806.6 


50 


w 


^^^^^^^•^F 



ruJNunuxNa ur uJNri-i./JCiUJx.ii/r< \^uj^vrj 





Use 100' Chords 


lUDtoS 


"Curves 


Use 


2s' Chords up to 


32* Curves 


Use 5c/ Chords up' to 16* Curves Use lo' Chords above 3a' Curves 


1 




^1 


So-^ 


81" 


82- 


83' 


Ext. 


Tan. 


Ext 


Tan. 


Ext. 


Tan. 


Ext 


Tan. 


.0000 


1750.0 


4808.0 


1805.5 


4893.9 


1862.3 


4981.0 


1920.6 


50694 


I 


.0167 


1750.9 


4809.5 


1806.4 


4895.4 


1863.3 


4982.5 


1921.6 


5070.9 


2 


.0333 


1751-8 


4810.9 


1807.3 


4896.8 


1864.2 


4983.9 


1922.6 


50734 


3 


.0500 


1752-8 


4812.3 


1808.3 


4898.3 


1865.2 


4985.4 


1923.6 


5073.9 


4 


x>667 


1753-7 


4813.7 


1809.2. 


4899.7 


1866.1 


4986.8 


1924.6 


50754 


5 


.0833 


1754.6 


4815.3 
4816.6 


1810.2 


4901.3 


^§!2-' 


4989i 


1925.6 


5076.9 


6 


.zooo 


1755.5 


1811.1 


4902.6 


1868.1 


1926.5 


50784 


7 


.ZI67 


1756.5 


4818.0 


l8Z2.I 


4904.0 


1869.1. 


4991.3 


1927.S 


5079.9 


8 


•1333 


1757-4 


4819.4 


18 13.0 


4905.4 


i87ao 


4993.7 


1928.5 


5081.4 


9 


.1500 


1758.3 


4820.9 


1814.0 


4906.9 


1871.0 


4994.3 


1929.S 


5082.9 


10 


.1667 


1759.3 


4832.3 


1814.9 


4908.3 


1871.9 


4995.7 


1930.5 


50844 


II 


.1833 


1760.1 


4823.7 


1815.9 


4909.8 


1872.9 


4997.8 


1931.S 


S085.9 


12 


.2000 


1761.0 


4825.1 


I8I6.8 


4911.2 


1873.9 


4998.6 


1933.4 


'^i 


13 


.2167 


1762.0 


4826.6 


1817.7 


4913.7 


1874-9 


5000.1 


19334 


14 


^333 


1762.9 


4828.0 


1818.6 


4914.1 


1875.8 


5001.5 


1934.4 


S090.3 


IS 


.2500 


1763.8 


4829.4 
4830.8 


I8I9.6 


4915.5 


1876.8 


5003.0 


1935.4 


5091.8 


16 


.2667 


1764.7 


1820.5 


4917-0 


1877.7 
1878.7 


S004.5 


1936.4 


5093.3 


17 


.2833 


1765-7 


4833.3 


I82I.5 


4918.5 


5006.0 


1937.4 


5094.8 


18 


.3000 


1766.6 


4833-7 


1822.4 


4919.9 


1879-7 


5007.4 


1938.4 


5096.3 


19 


^167 


1767.S 


4835.1 


1823.3 


4931.4 


1880.7 


5008.9 


1939.4 


5097.8 


30 


•3333 


1768.4 


4836.5 


I82/1.2 


4922.8 


1881.6 


5010.3 
5011.8 


1940.4 


S099.3 


21 


^Soo 


1769-3 


4838.0 


1825.2 


4934.3 


1882.6 


1941.4 


5100.8 


22 


,3667 


I77a2 


4839.4 


I826.I 


4925.7 


1883.5 


S013.3 


1942.4 


5102.3 


23 


•3833 


1771.3 


4840.8 


1827.1 


4927.2 


1884.5 


501A.8 
5016.2 


1943.4 


5103.8 


34 


.4000 


1773.1 


4842.2 


1828.0 


4928.6 


1885.5 


1944^ 


5105.2 


35 


•4x67 


1773.0 


4843.7 


1829.0 


4930.1 


1886.5 


5017.7 


I94si 


5106.7 


26 


.4333 


1773.9 


4845.1 


1829.9 


4931.5 


1887-+ 


5019.2 


1946.4 


5108.2 


37' 


^500 


1774-9 


4846.5 


1830.9 


4933.0 


1888.4 


5020.7 


1947.4 


5109.7 


28 


.4667 


1775.8 


48479 


1831.8 


4934.4 


1889.3 


5022.1 


19484 


5111.2 


29 


.4833 


1776.7 


4849^4 


1832.8 


4935.8 


1890.3 


5023.6 


1949.4 


5113.7 


30 


.5000 


1777.6 


4850.8 


1833.7 


4937.3 


1891.3 


5025.0 


1950.4 


5114.3 


31 


.5167 


1778.5 


4852.3 


1834.7 


4938.7 


1892.3 


5026.5 


1951-1 


5115.7 


33 


•5333 


I779~* 


4853.7 


1835.6 


4940.3 


1893.2 


5028.0 


1953.4 


5117.3 
5118.7 


33 


.5500 


1780.4 


4855.1 


1836.6 


4941-7 


1894.2 


5029.5 


1953.4 


34 


.5667 


1781.3 


4856.5 


1837.5 


4943.1 


1895.1 


5031.6 


1954.4 


5i2a2 


35 


.5833 


1782.2 


4858x> 


1838.5 


4944.6 


1896.1 


5033.5 


1955.4 


5121.7 


36 


.6000 


1783.1 


4859-4 


1839.4 


4946.0 


1897.1 


5033.9 


1956.4 


5123.3 


37 


.6167 


1784.1 


4860.9 


1840.4 


4947.5 


1898.1 


5035.4 


1957.4 


5134.7 


38 


•6333 


I785x> 


4862.3 


1841.3 


4948.9 


1899.0 


5036.9 


1958.4 


5126.2 


39 


.6500 


1785.9 


4863.7 


1843.3 


4950UJ 


1900.0 


5038.4 


19594 


5137.7 


40 


.6667 


1786.8 


4865.1 


1843.3 


49SI.8 


1901.0 


5039.8 


1960.4 


5139.3 


41 


.6833 


1787.7 


4866.6 


1844.2 


4953-3 


1902.0 


5041.3 
5042.8 


1961.4 


5130.7 


43 


.7000 


1788.6 


4868.0 


Z845.I 


4954-7 


1902.9 


1962.4 


5132.3 


43 


.7167 


1789.6 


4869.5 


1846.1 


4956.2 


1903.9 


5044-3 
5045.8 


1963.4 


5133.7 


44 


.7333 


1790.5 


4870.9 


1847.0 


4957.6 


1904.9 


1964.4 


5135.2 


45 


.7500 


1791.5 


4873.4 


1848.0 


4959.1 


1905.9 


5047.3 


1965.4 


S136.7 


46 


.7667 


1793.4 


4873.8 


1848.9 


4960.6 


1906.9 


5048.7 


1966.4 


5138.3 


47 


.7833 


1793-4 


4875.2 


1849.9 


4962.1 


1907.9 


5050.2 


1967.4 


5139-7 


48 


.8000 


1794.3 


4876.6 


1850.8 


4963.S 


1908.8 


5051.7 


19684 


5141.2 


49 


.8167 


1795-3 


4878.1 


1851.8 


4965.0 


1909.8 


5053.3 


19694 


5143.8 


SO 


•8333 


1796.3 


4879.S 


1853.7 


4966.4 


1910.8 


5054.6 


1970.4 


5144.3 
5145.8 


51 


.8500 


1797.I 


4880.9 


1853.7 


4967-9 


19x1.8 


5056.1 


1971.4 


S3 


.8667 


1798.0 


4882.4 


1854.6 


4969.3 


191 2.8 


5057.6 


1972.4 


s^^M 


53 


.8833 


1799.0 


4883.9 


1855.6 


4970.8 


19138 


5059.1 


1973.4 


5148.8 


54 


.9000 


1709-9 


4885.3 


1856.5 


4972.3 


1914.7 


5060.6 


1974:4 


5150.3 


55 


.9167 


1800.9 


4886.7 


1857.5 


4973.7 


1915.7 


5062.1 


1975.4 


51SI-8 


56 


•9333 


1801.8 


4888.1 


1858.4 


4975.1 


1916.7 


5063.5 


1976.4 


5153.3 


57 


.9500 


1802.8 


4889.6 


1859-4 


4976.6 


1917.7 


5065.0 


1977.4 


5154-8 


58 


.9667 


1803.7 


4891.0 


1860.3 


4978.0 


1918.7 


S066.5 


19784 


5156.3 


59 


.9833 


1804.6 


4893.S 


I86I.3 


4979-5 


1919.7 


5068.0 


1979.4 1 S1S7.» 



370 



THE SURVEY 



Use loo' Chords up to 8* Curves Use 35' Chords up to 3s* Curves 
Use 50' Chords up to 16** Curves Use iv Chords above 32** Curves 



1 




Dec. of 
Degree 


84* 


85' 


86" 


87*' 


6 

1 




Ext. 


Tan. 


Ext. 


Tan. 


Ext. 


Tan. 


ExL 


Tan. 


.cooo 


1980.S 


5159.3 


804X.8 


5250.6 


3x04.8 


5343-3 


2x69.5 


5437.5 


I 


.0167 


198X.S 


5x60.8 


2042.9 


5252.x 


3x05.9 


5344.9 


3x70.6 


5439.x 


z 


3 


.0333 


1982.S 


5163.3 


2043.9 


5253.6 


3x06.9 


5346.4 


3X7X.6 


5440.7 


3 


3 


.0500 


19835 


5 163.8 


2045.0 


5255.2 


3X08.0 


5348.0 


3x73.7 


5442.3 


3 


^4 


.0667 


1984^5 


S165.3 


2046.0 


5256.7 


3I09.X 


5349^5 


3x73.8 


5443.9 


4 


5 


.0833 

.1000 


1985-6 


5166.9 


2047.0 


5258.3 


3XXO.I 


5351^1 


2x74.9 


5445-5 


1 


6 


X986.6 


5x68.4 


2048.0 


5259-8 


3IIX.3 


5352.7 


3x76.0 


5447-1 


6 


7 


.XI67 


X987.6 


S169.9 


2049.1 


5261.4 


3XX3.3 


5354.3 


2x77.1 


5448.7 


1 


8 


.X333 


1988.6 


S171.4 


2050.x 


5262.9 


2XX3.4 


5355-8 


2x78.2 


5450.3 


8 


9 


.1500 


X989.6 


Si72^9 


2051.3 


5264.5 


3II4.S 


5357^4 


2179.3 


5451.9 


9 


10 


.X667 


1990.6 


5174^4 


3053.3 


5366.0 


2115-5 


5358.9 


2x80.4 


5453-4 


xo 


XX 


.1833 


1991-7 


5175-9 


3053.3 


5267.5 


: 2XX6.6 


5360.5 


218X.5 


545S.O 


zx 


12 


.2000 


1992.7 


5177-S 


3054.3 


5269.0 


2x17.6 


5362.0 


2182.5 


5456.6 


Z3 


13 


.2x67 


1993-7 


5 179.0 


3055.3 


5270.6 


2XX8.7 


5363.6 


2183.6 


5458.3 


13 


14 


.2333 


1994.7 


S180.5 


3056.3 


5273.1 


3XX9.8 


5365.2 


3x84.7 


5459.8 


14 


^S 


.3500 


1995-7 


5183.0 


2057.4 


5273.7 


3X30.9 


5366.8 


3x85.8 


5461.4 


15 


16 


.3667 


1996.7 


5183.S 


3058.4 


5275.2 


3X2X.9 


5368.3 


3x86.9 


5463.0 


x6 


17 


.2833 


1997.8 


5x85.0 


! 2059.5 


5376.8 


2123.0 


5369.9 


3x88.0 


5464.6 


'2 


x8 


.3000 


1998.8 


5x86.6 


1 3060.5 


5278.3 


2x24.x 


5371.4 


3x89.x 


5466.3 


x8 


X9 


.3167 


1999-8 


5x88.0 


3061.6 


5279.9 


2x25.3 


S373.0 


3190.2 


5467.8 


19 


20 


•3333 


2000.8 


5189.6 


3063.6 


5281.4 


3x36.3 


5374.6 
5376.2 


3x91.3 


5469.4 


30 


21 


.3500 


300I.8 


S191.0 


3063.7 


5283.9 


3x27.3 


3x93.4 


5471.0 


3X 


22 


.3667 


2002.8 


5193.6 


2064.7 


5284.4 


2x28.3 


5377.7 


2x93.5 


5473.5 


33 


23 


.3833 


2003.9 


5194.0 


2065.8 


5386.0 


2129.4 


5379.3 


3x94.6 


5474-1 


,*3 


24 


.4000 


2004.9 


5195-6 


3066.8 


5287.5 


2x30.5 


5380.8 


2x95.7 


5475.7 


24 


25 


.4167 


3005.9 


5197^2 


3067.9 


5289.1 


2I3X.6 


5383.4 


3196.8 


5477.3 


*l 


26 


•4333 


3006-9 


s 198.7 


3068.9 


5290.6 


2x32.6 


5383^9 


2x97.9 


5478.9 


36 


37 


.4500 


2007.9 


5200.2 


2070.0 


5293.3 


2x33.7 


5385^5 


3x99.0 


5480.S 


li 


28 


.4667 


2008.9 


520X.7 


307 x.o 


5293.7 


2134.8 


5352-^ 


3300.X 


5483.1 


29 


.4833 


20x0.0 


5303.3 


3073.1 


5295.2 


2X359 


5388.7 


330Z.3 


5483.7 


29 


30 


.5000 


30XX.0 


5204.7 


30731 


5296.7 


2136.9 


5390.2 


3303.3 


5485.3 


30 


31 


.5167 


3013.0 


5206.3 


3074.3 


5298.3 


2x38.0 


5391.8 


3303.4 


54f6.9 


31 


3a 


•5333 


3013.0 


5207.8 


3075.3 


5299.8 


2x39.0 


53934 


3304.5 


5488.5 


32 


33 


•5500 


3014.0 


5209.3 


2076.3 


5301.4 


2x40.1 


539S.O 


3305.6 


5490.1 


33 


34 


.5667 


3015.0 


53X0.8 


2077.3 


S303.9 


2I4I.2 


5396.5 


3306.8 


5491.7 


34 


35 


.5833 


3016.0 


5213.4 


3078.4 


5304.5 


2x42.3 


5398.1 


3307.9 


5493.3 


35 


36 


.6000 


3017.0 


5213.9 


2079.4 


5306.1 


2x43.3 


5399.7 


3309.0 


5494.9 


36 


37 


.6167 


30x8.0 


5215.4 


3080.5 


5307^7 


2x44.4 


5401.3 


33XO.X 


5496.S 


H 


38 


•6333 


30x9.x 


5316.9 


2081. s 


5309.3 


2x45.5 


5402.8 


33XX.3 


5498.x 


38 


39 


.6500 


3030.X 


53x8.4 


3083.6 


5310.8 


2x46.6 


5404^4 


33X3.3 


5499.7 


39 


40 


.6667 


303X.2 


5330.0 


3083.7 


5312.3 


2x47.7 


5406.0 


33x3.4 


SS01.3 


40 


41 


.6833 


2022.2 


532X.6 


2084.8 


5313.9 


2148.8 


5407.6 


22X4.5 


5503.9 


41 


42 


.7000 


2023.2 


5233.1 


2085.8 


5315.4 


2x49.8 


5409.1 


33X5.6 


5504.5 


42 


43 


.7167 


2024.3 


5224.6 


2086.9 


5317.0 


2150.9 


5410.7 


3316.7 


5506.1 


43 


44 


.7333 


3035.3 


5226.1 


2087.9 


5318.5 


2152.0 


5412.3 


33X7.8 


5507.7 


44 


45 


•7500 


2026.4 


5227.7 


2089.0 


5320.1 


2153.1 


5413^9 


33X8.9 


5509.3 


^1 


46 


.7667 


2027.4 


5229.2 


2090.0 


532X.6 


2154.2 


5415^4 


3330.0 


5510.9 


46 


47 


.7833 


2038.4 


5230.7 


209X.1 


5323.2 


2155.3 


5417.0 


333X.3 


5513.5 


*2 


48 


.8000 


2029.4 


5232.2 


2092.x 


5324.7 


2x56.4 


5418.6 


3333.3 


5514.1 


48 


49 


.8167 


2O3O.S 


5233.8 


2093.3 


5326.3 


2x57.5 


5420.3 


3333.4 


5515.7 


40 


50 


.8333 


203I.S 


5235^3 


3094.2 


5327.8 


2x58.6 


5421.8 


3234.5 


SS17.3 


50 


51 


.8500 


2032.6 


5236.8 


2095.3 


5329.4 


2159^7 


5423.4 


33356 


5518.9 


51 


Sa 


.8667 


2033.6 


5238.3 


2096.3 


5330.9 


2160.7 


5424-9 


3226.7 


5520.S 


5« 


53 


.8833 


2034.6 


5239.9 


2097.4 


533 2.5 


2I6X.8 


5426.5 


2227.9 


5533.1 


53 


54 


.9000 


2035.6 


5241.4 


2098.4 


S334.0 


2x62.9 


5428.1 


2238.9 


5523.7 


54 


55 


.9167 


2036.7 


5243.0 


2099-5 


5335.6 


2x64.0 


5429.7 


3330.0 


5525-3 


SS 


56 


•9333 


2037.7 


5244-s 


2x00.6 


5337-1 


2I6S.X 


5431.2 


3231. 1 


5526.9 


s« 


57 


.9500 


2038.7 


5246.0 


2101.7 


5338.7 


2X66.2 


5432.8 


2232.2 


5528.5 


52 


8 


.9667 


2039.8 


5247.S 


2x02.7 


5340.2 


2x67.3 


5434.4 


2233-3 


5530.Z 


58 


) 


.9833 


2040.8 


5249.1 


2x03.8 


5341.8 


2x68.4 


5436-0 


3334.5 


5531.7 


50 



FUNCTIONS OF ONE-DEGREE CURVE 

Use xoo' Chords up to 8" Curves Use 25' Chords up to 33" Curves 
Use 50' Chords up to 16** Curves Use xo' Chords above 33" Curves 



nutes 




88' 


89' 


90- 


91* 















QQ 


Ext. 


Tan. 


Ext. 


Tan. 


Ext. Tan. 


Ext. 


Tax 


.0000 


3335.6 


5533-3 


3303.6 


5630.8 


2373.4 


S730.0 


2445.1 


5830 


I 


.0167 


3336.7 


5S3S.O 


3304.7 


5632.5 


2374.6 


5731.7 


3446.3 


5832 


2 


.0333 


3337.8 


5536.6 


3305.6 


5634.1 


4375.8 


5733.3 


2447.5 


5834 


3 


.0500 


3338.9 


5538.3 


3307.3 


5635.8 


3377.0 


S7350 


3448.8 


5836 


4 


.0667 


3340.x 


5539.8 


3308.1 


5637.4 


3378.3 


5736.7 


3450.0 


5837 


$ 


•0833 


3341.3 


5541.5 


2309-4 


5639-1 


2379.4 


5738.4 


2451.2 


5839 


6 


.1000 


3343.3 


SS43.I 


33x0.5 


5640.7 


3380.5 


5740.0 


2452.4 
2453.6 


5841 


7 


.1167 


2343.5 


5544.7 


3311.6 


5643.4 


3381.7 


5741-7 


5842 


8 


•1333 


3344.6 


5546.3 


33x3.8 


5644-0 


3383.9 


5743-4 


3454.8 


5844 


9 


.1500 


3345.7 


5547>9 


3314.0 


5645.7 


3384.x 


5745-1 


3456.0 


5846 


10 


.1667 


3346.8 


5549.5 


3315-1 


5647.3 


2385.3 


5746.7 


3457.2 


5847 


IX 


.1833 


3348.0 


SS5I.2 


3316.3 


5649.0 


3386.4 


5748.4 


2458.5 


5849 


12 


.3000 


3349.1 


S5S2.8 


3317.4 


5650.6 


2387.6 


5750.0 


2459.7 


5851 


13 


.3x67 


3350.3 


5554.4 
5SS6.0 


33x8.6 


5652.3 


33^.8 


5751-7 


3460.9 


5853 


14 


.2333 


a35x.3 


3319.7 


5653.9 


339ao 


5753-4 


3463.x 


5854 


15 


.3500 


3353.5 


55574 


3330.9 


5655.5 


3391.3 


5755.1 


2463.3 


sfsj 


16 


.3667 


3353.6 


5559-2 


9333.0 


5657.1 


2392.4 


5756.7 


3464.5 
3465.8 


5858 


17 


•2833 


3354.7 


5560.9 


3333.3 


5658.8 


2393.5 


5758.4 


5859 


18 


.3000 


2255.8 


5563.5 


2324.3 


5660.4 


2394-7 


5760.1 


3467.0 


5861. 


19 


.3167 


3357.0 


5564.1 


2335.6 


5663.x 


2395.9 


5761.8 


3468.3 


5863. 


20 


^333 


3358.1 


5565.7 


3336.7 < 


5663.7 


3397.1 


5763.4 


2469-4 


5f$t 


31 


•3500 


2359-3 


5567.3 


3337.9 


5665.4 


2398.3 


5765.1 


3470.6 


5866. 


33 


.3667 


3360.4 


5568.9 


3339.0 


5667.0 


2399.5 


5766.8 


3471.9 


5868. 


23 


.3833 


336X.5 


5570.6 


3330.1 


S668.7 


3400.7 


5768.5 


2473.1 


5870. 


24 


.4000 


3363.7 


5572.3 


2331.3 


5670.3 


340X.9 


5770.1 


2474.3 


5871. 


25 


^167 


3363.8 


5573.8 


2332.5 


5673.0 


3403.1 


5771.8 


2475.5 


5873. 


36 


-♦333 


3364.9 


5575.4 


2333-7 


5673.6 


2404.3 


5773.5 


3476.7 


S!7S. 


37 


-4SOO 


3366.0 


5577.0 


2334-8 


5675.3 


2405.5 


5775.2 


3478.0 


5876. 


38 


^667 


3367.3 


5578.6 
5580.3 


3336.0 


5676.9 


3406.6 


5776.9 


2479.2 


5?2®- 


29 


^33 


3368.4 


2337.1 


5678.6 


3407.8 


5778.6 


3480.4 


5880. 


30 


.5000 


3369.5 


558X.9 


2338-3 


5680.3 


3409.0 


5780.3 


348X.6 


5883. 


31 


.5167 


3370.6 


5583-5 


2339-5 


568X.9 


3410.3 


5781.9 


3483.9 


5883. 


32 


•5333 


3371.7 


5585.1 


2340.7 


5683.5 


3411.4 
3413.6 


5783.6 


3484.x 


5885. 


33 


•SSoo 


3373.8 


5586.8 


2341.9 


5685.3 


5785.3 


2485.3 


5887. 


34 


.5667 


3373.9 


5588w^ 


2343.0 


5686.8 


3413.8 


5787.0 


3486.5 


5888. 


35 


.5833 


3375.x 


5S90.X 


2344.1 


5688.5 


34x5.0 


5788.7 


3487.8 


5890. 


36 


.6000 


3276.3 


5591-7 


2345-3 


5690.3 


3416.3 


5790.3 


3489.0 


5892. 


37 


.6x67 


2277.3 


55933 


2346.5 


5691.9 


3417.4 


5792.0 


2490.3 


5894 


38 


.6333 


2278.5 


5594-9 


2347.7 


5693.5 


34x8.6 


5793.7 


2491.5 


5895 


39 


.6500 


2279.7 


5596.6 


2348.9 


5695-2 


3419.8 


5795-* 


3493.7 


5897 


40 


.6667 


3380.8 


5598.3 


3350.0 


^5696.8 


343X.0 


5707-; 


2493.9 


5899. 


41 


.6833 


328X.9 


5599-8 


3351.3 


5698.5 


3433.3 


5798.8 


2495.2 


5900. 


42 


.7000 


3383.0 


560X.4 


2352.3 


5700.1 


24234 
3434.6 


58oo«| 


3496.4 


5903. 


'43 


.7x67 


3284.x 


5603.x 


2353.5 


5701.8 


5803.x 


3497.7 


5904. 


44 


.7333 


2285.3 


5604.7 


2354.7 


5703.4 


3435.8 


5803.8 


3498.9 


5906. 


.45 


.7500 


3386.5 


5606.4 


2355.8 


5705.1 


3437.0 


5805.5 


3500.x 


5907 


46 


.7667 


3387.6 


5608.0 


2357.0 


5706.8 


3438.3 


5807.3 


350X.3 


5909 


47 


.7833 


3388.7 


560^.6 


2358.1 


5708.5 


3439-1 


5808.9 


3503.6 


5911 


48 


.8000 


3389.9 


56XX.3 


2359.3 


5710.1 


3430.6 


5810.6 


3503.8 


5912. 


49 


.8x67 


339X.I 


56x3.9 


3360.5 


5711-8 


343X.8 


58x3.3 


3505.1 


5914 


SO 


.8333 


3393.3 


5616.3 


3361.7 


5713.4 


2433.0 


5814.0 


3506.3 


5916. 


51 


•5§5® 


2293-3 


3363.9 


57IS.X 


2434.2 


5815.7 


2507-5 


5918 


52 


.8667 


3394.4 


56x7.8 


3364.0 


5716.7 


2435.4 


5817.3 


3508.7 


5919^ 


53 


^33 


3395.6 


5619.4 


336S.X 


5718.4 


3436.6 


58x9.0 


3510.0 


5921 


54 


.9000 


3396.7 


563 x.o 


3366.3 


5730.0 


2437.9 


5830.7 


351X.3 


5923 


55 


.9x67 


3397.9 


5623.7 


2367.5 


5721.7 


2439.x 


5833.4 


35x3.5 


59«S 


56 


.9333 


3399.0 


5634.3 


3368.7 


5723.4 


2440-3 


5§*4.i 


2513.7 


592f 


57 


.9500 


3300.3 


5635.9 


3369.9 


5725.1 


3441.5 


5835.8 


2515-0 


592S 


S8 


.9667 


330X.3 


5637.5 


3371.0 


5726.7 


3442.7 


5837.5 


35x6.3 


5930 


59 


.9833 


3303.4 


5639.3 


3373.2 


5728.4 


2443.9 


5839.3 


3517.5 


S9$^ 



37^ 



THE SURVEY 



Use loo' Oiords up to 8* Curves 
Use 50' Chords up to 16** Curves 



Use as' Chords up to 3a* Curves 
Use xo' Chords above 32" Curves 








92' 


93" 


94- 


95' 


1 




Ext. 


Tan. 


Ext. 


Tan. 


Ext. 


Tan. 


Ext 


Tan. 


.0000 


2518.7 


5933.6 


2594-2 


6038.3 


367X.8 


6x44.7 


2751.5 


6353.3 


z 


.0167 


2520.0 


5935.3 


2595.5 


6040.0 


2673.x 


6146.5 


2752.9 


6255.1 


z 


a 


.0333 


2521.3 


5937.0 


3596.8 


604X.7 


2674.4 


6148.3 


2754.2 


6256.9 


2 


3 


.0500 


2522.4 


5938.8 


2598.x 


6043.5 


2675.7 


61 50.x 


2755.6 


6258.7 


3 


4 


.0667 


2523.6 


5940.S 


2599.3 


6045.3 


2677.0 


6x51.9 


2756.9 


6260.5 


4 


S 


.0833 


25249 


5942.3 


2600.6 


6047.0 


3678.4 


6x53.7 


2758.3 


6262.4 


1 


6 


.1000 


2526.1 


5944.0 


360X.9 


6048.7 


2679.7 


6155.4 


2759.6 


6264.2 


7 


.1167 


2527.4 
2528.6 


5945-7 


2603.2 


6050.5 


268X.0 


6157.3 


2761.0 


6266.0 


7 


8 


.1333 


5947-* 


3604.4 


6052.2 


2682.3 


6159.0 


2762.3 


6267.8 


8 


9 


.1500 


2529.9 


5949.2 


3605.7 


6054.0 


2683.6 


6x60.8 


2763.7 


6269.7 


9 


10 


.1667 


2531.1 


5950.9 


3607.0 


6055.8 


2684.9 


6x63.6 


3765.0 


6271.5 


xo 


II 


.1833 


2532.4 
2533-0 


5952.7 


2608.3 


6057-S 


2686.3 


6164.4 


3766.4 


6273.4 


XX 


12 


.2000 


5954-4 
5950.1 


2609.6 


6059.3 


2687.6 


6166.2 


2767.7 


6275.2 


X3 


13 


.2167 


25349 


26x0.9 


606X.X 


2688.9 


6x68.0 


2769.x 


6277.0 


13 


14 


.2333 


2536.1 


5957.8 


36X3.Z 


6062.8 


269a2 


6x69.8 


3770wt 


6278.8 


u 


IS 


.2500 


2537-4 


5959.6 


36x3w| 


6064.6 


3691.5 


6x71.6 


277X.8 


6280.7 


IS 


16 


.2667 


2538.6 


5961.3 


26x4.7 


6066.4 


2692.8 


6x73.4 


2773.1 


6282.5 


x6 


17 


■2833 


2539-9 


5963.1 


26x6.0 


6068.2 


2694.2 


6x75.2 


2774.S 


6284.4 


17 


x8 


.3000 


2541.1 


5964.8 
5966,5 


26x7.3 


6069.9 


2695.6 


6177.0 


2775.8 


6286.2 


x8 


19 


.3167 


2542.4 


36x8.6 


607X.7 


2696.9 


6x78.8 


3777.2 


6288.0 


19 


30 


•3333 


2543.6 


5968.3 


26x9.8 


6073.4 


2698.x 


6x80.6 


2778.5 


6289.8 


30 


31 


.3500 


2544.9 


5970.0 


262X.X 


6075.2 


2699.S 


6x82.4 


2779.9 


629X.7 


3X 


33 


.3667 


2546.1 


5971.7 


2622.4 


6077.0 


2700.8 


6x84.2 


278X.3 


6293.5 


23 


33 


.3833 


irM 


5973.S 


2623.7 


6078.8 


2702.x 


6186.0 


2782.6 


6295.4 


23 


24 


.4000 


5975.2 


2625.0 


6080.5 


2703.4 


6x87.8 


2784.0 


6397.3 


24 


*l 


•4167 


2549.9 


5977.0 


2636.3 


6082.3 


2704.8 


6x89.7 


2785.4 


6399.x 


*l 


26 


.4333 


2551.2 


5978.7 


2627.6 


6084.1 


2706.x 


6x91.5 


2786.7 


6300.9 


36 


H 


.4500 


2552.5 


5980.5 


2628.9 


6085.9 


2707.4 


6193.3 


2788.x 


6303.7 


^l 


28 


.4667 


2SS3.7 


5983.3 


2630.2 


6087.6 


2708.7 


6195.1 


2789.4 
2790.8 


6304.6 


38 


39 


^833 


2555.0 


5983.9 


363X.S 


6o89w| 


27x0.1 


6196.9 


6306.4 


29 


30 


.5000 


2556.2 


5985.6 


3632.7 


609X.3 


2711.4 


6198.7 


2792.x 


6308.3. 


30 


31 


.5167 


2557.5 
2558-7 


5987.4 


2634.0 


6093.0 


27x2.7 


6200.5 


2793.5 


63 x0.x 


31 


32 


•5333 


5989.1 


2635.3 


6094.7 


27x4.0 


6202.3 


2794.9 


63XX.9 


32. 


33 


•SSOO 


2560.0 


5990.9 


2636.6 


6096.5 


2715.4 


6204.x 


2796.3 


63x3.8 


33 


34 


.5667 


3561.3 


5992.6 


2637.9 


6098.3 


27x6.7 


6205.9 


2797.6 


63x5.6 


34 


35 


.5833 


2562.5 


5994.4 


3639.3 


6x00.1 


27x8.0 


6207.7 


2799.0 


6317.S 


35 


36 


.6000 


2563.8 


5996.1 


3640.5 


6101.8 


2719-3 


6209.5 


2800.3 


6319-3 


36 


37 


.6167 


2565.1 


5997.9 


364X.8 


6x03.6 


2720.7 


62XX.4 


280X.7 


632X.2 


32 


38 


.6333 


3566.3 


5999.6 


2643.1 


6105.4 


2722.0 


62x3.2 


2803.x 


6323.0 


38 


39 


.6500 


3567.6 


600Z.4 


2644.4 


6x07.3 


2723.4 


62x5.0 


3804.5 


6334.9 


39 


40 


.6667 


3568.8 


6003.1 


2645.7 


6x09.0 


2724.7 


6216.8 


3805.8 


6336.7 


40 


41 


.6833 


2570.1 


6004.9 


2647.0 


6xxo.8 


2726.0 


62x8.6 


2807.2 


6328.6 


41 


42 


.7000 


2571.3 


6006.6 


2648.3 
2649.6 


6xx2.5 


2727.3 


6220.4 


2808.6 


6330.4 


42 


43 


.7167 


3573.6 


6008 w( 


61x4.3 


2728.7 


6222.3 


28x0.0 


6332.3 


43 


44 


.7333 


2573.9 


60ZO.X 


265a9 


6xx6.x 


2730.0 


6334.1 


28XX.3 


6334.1 


44 


*l 


■7500 


2575.2 


60II.9 


2653.3 


61x7.9 


2731.4 


6335.9 


2813.7 


6336.0 


^ 


46 


.7667 


2576wt 


60x3.6 


3653.5 


61x9.7 


2732.7 


6227.7 


28 x4.x 


6337.8 


46 


*2 


.7833 


2577.7 


6015.4 


3654.8 


6x31.5 


2734-1 


6239.5 


28x5.5 


6339.7 


^l 


48 


.8000 


2578.9 
3580.3 


60x7.1 
60x8.9 


3656.x 


6x33.2 


2735-4 


633 X. 3 


28x6.8 


634X.5 


48 


49 


.8167 


2657-t 


6x35.0 


2736.7 


6233.3 


38x8.3 


6343 w^ 


49 


SO 


.8333 


3581.5 


6030.6 


3658.7 


6x36.8 


2738.0 


6335.0 


38x9.6 


6345.2 


50 


51 


.8500 


3583.8 


6033.4 


3660.0 


6x38.6 


2739.4 


6236.8 


282X.0 


6347.1 


51 


52 


.8667 


3584.0 


6034.x 


3661.3 


6x30w| 


2740.7 


6238.6 


2823.3 


6349.0 


52 


53 


.8833 


'S?|-3 


6035.9 


3663.6 


6x33.3 


2742.1 


6240.5 


3823.7 


6350.9 


53 


54 


.9000 


3586.6 


6037.6 


3663.9 


6x33.9 


2743.4 


6243.3 


3835.x 


6359.7 


54 


55 


,9167 


2587.9 


6039.4 


3665.3 


6x35.7 


2744.8 


6344.3 
6346.0 


3836.5 
3837.8 


X 


55 


i;6 


.9333 


3589.1 


603 X.X 


3666.6 


6x37-5 


3746.1 


56 


V 


.9500 


2590.4 


6033.9 


3667.9 


6x39.3 


2747.S 


6347.8 


3839.3 


635^3 


59 


1 


.9667 
.9835 


2591.7 
2593.0 


6034.6 
6036.4 


3669.3 
2670.5 


6X4X.1 
6x43.0 


S748.8 
3750.3 


6249.6 
6251.4 


383a6 
3833.0 


6s6ax 
6363.0 



FUNCTIONS OF ONE-DEGREE CURVE 



Use xoo' Chords up to 8** Curves Use 25' Chords up to 3a* Curves 
Use so' Chords up to i6' Curves Use 10' Chords aSove 3a** Curves 



1 




Dec. of 
Degree 


96- 


97- 


98- 


99' 


Ext. 


Tan. 


Ext. 


Tan. 


Ext. 


Tan. 


Ext 


Tai 


.0000 


2833^ 
2834.8 


6363.8 


2917.5 


6476.6 


3004.0 


6591.6 


3092^ 


670< 


I 


.0x67 


6365.7 


29x8.9 


6478.5 


3005.5 


6593.6 


3094.4 


67x1 


2 


^333 


2836.1 


6367.5 


2920.3 
2931.8 


6480.4 


3006.9 


6595.5 


3095.9 


67XJ 


3 


.0500 


2837.5 


6369.4 


6482.3 


3008.4 
3009.8 


6597.5 


3097.4 


67Xi 


4 


.0667 


2838.9 


6371.3 


2923.3 


6484.3 


6599.4 


3098.9 


67x( 


S 


.0833 


2840.3 


6373.2 


2924.6 


6486.1 


3011.3 


6601.3 


3ioowi 


671^ 


6 


.xooo 


2841^ 


6375.0 


2926.0 


6488.0 


30x2.8 


6603.2 


3101.9 


67 2( 


7 


.1167 


2843.1 


6376.9 


2927.5 


6489.9 


3014.3 


6605.2 


3103-^ 


6722 


8 


.1333 


2844.5 


6378.7 


2928.9 


6491.8 


30x5.7 


6607.1 


3x04.9 


67 2i 


9 


.1500 


2845.9 


638a6 


2930.3 


6493.7 


3017.2 


6609.Z 


3106.4 


672( 


zo 


.1667 


2847.2 


6382.S 


2931.7 


6495.6 


30x8.6 


66xix> 


3107.9 


6722 


XI 


.1833 


2848.6 


lltl 


2933.3 


6497.5 


3020.Z 


66x3.0 


3109.5 


673< 


12 


.2000 


2850.0 


2934.6 
2936.x 


6499.4 


3021.6 


66x4.9 


31XI.0 


6731 


13 


.2167 


lllli 


6388.1 


6501.3 


3023.1 


66x6.9 


3112.5 


673^ 


14 


.2333 


6389.9 


2937-5 


6503.2 


3024.S 


66x8.8 


3114^0 


673< 


IS 


.2500 


2854.3 


639Z.8 


2938.9 


6505.3 


3026.0 


6620.8 


3115.5 


673J 


16 


.2667 


2855.6 


6393.7 


2940.3 


6507.1 


3027.5 


6623.7 


3117.0 
3118.S 


674< 


17 


.2833 


2857.0 


6395.6 


2941.8 


6509.0 


3029.0 


6624.7 


674J 


x8 


.3000 


2858.4 


6397.4 


2943.2 


65x0.9 


3030.4 


6626.6 


3Z30.0 


674i 


19 


.3167 


2859.8 


6399.3 


2944,7 


6512.8 


303X.9 


6628.6 


3121.5 


674( 


ao 


.3333 


2861.3 


6401.3 


2946.x. 


6514.7 


3033.3 


663a5 


3I23.I 


674^ 


31 


.3500 


2862.6 


6403.1 


2947.5 


65x6.6 


303A.8 
3036.3 


6632.S 


3124.6 


67S< 


23 


-3667 


2864.0 


6404.9 


2948.9 


65x8.5 


i^ 


3I26.Z 


67SS 


23 


.3833 


^!5l"* 


6406.8 


2950.4 
2951.8 


6520.4 


3037.8 


3127.6 


675^ 


24 


^.ooo 


2866.7 


6408.7 


6522.3 


3039.3 


6638.3 


3129.x 


675< 


^1 


.4167 


2868.1 


6410.6 


2953.3 


6524.3 
6526.2 


3040.8 


6640.3 


3130.7 


67Si 


36 


.4333 


2869.5 


6412.4 


2954.7 


3042.2 


6642.2 


3132.3 


676( 


*2 


j^Soo 


2870.9 


6416.2 


2956.2 


6528.x 


3043-7 


6644.3 


3133-7 


676J 


28 


.4667 


2872.3 


2957.6 


6530.0 


3045.2 


6646.Z 


3x35-2 


676i 


29 


^33 


2873.7 


64I8.I 


2959*0 


6531.9 


3046.7 


6648.Z 


3136.7 


676< 


30 


.5000 


2875.1 


6419.9 


2960.4 


6533.8 


3048.1 


6650.0 


3138.3 


676I 


3X 


.5167 


2876.5 


6421.8 


296X.9 


6535.8 


3049.6 


6653.0 


3139-8 


677< 


32 


.5333 


2877.9 


6423.7 


2963.3 


'6537.7 


3051.1 


6653.9 


3^41.3 


677i 


33 


.5500 


2879.4 
2880.8 


6425.6 


2964.8 
3966.2 


6539.6 


3052.6 


6655.9 


3142.9 


677^ 


34 


.5667 


6427.5 


6541.5 


3054.1 


6657.8 


3x44.4 


677< 


35 


.5833 


2883.3 


6429^1 


2967.7 


6543.4 


3055.6 


6659.8 


3x45.9 


677^ 


36 


.0000 


2883.6 


6431.2 


2969.x 


6545.3 


3057.0 


6661.7 


3147.4 


6-jBc 


^l 


.6167 


2885.0 


6433.1 


3970.6 


6547.3 


3058.5 


6663.7 


3149.0 


678J 


38 


•$333 


2886.4 


6435.0 


2972.0 


6549.2 


3060.0 


6665.7 


3I50.S 


678, 


39 


.0500 


2887.8 


6436.9 


2973.5 


6551.1 


3061.5 


6667.7 


31^3.0 


678< 


40 


.6667 


2889.3 


6438.8 


2974.9 


6553.0 


3063.0 


6669.6 


3x53.5 


678^ 


41 


.6833 


2890.6 


6440.7 


2976.4 


6555.0 


3064.5 


667X.6 


3155.1 


679<: 


42 


.7000 


2892.0 


6442.5 


2977.8 


6556.9 


3066.0 


6673.5 


3156.6 


679J 


43 


.7167 


2893.4 


6444^ 


2979.3 


6558.8 


3067.5 
3068.9 


6675.5 


3x58.3 


679^ 


44 


.7333 


2894.8 


6446.3 


2980.7 


6560.7 


6677.4 


3x59.7 


679< 


45 


.7500 


2896.3 


6448.2 


2982.3 


6562.7 


3070.4 


6679.4 


3I6I.2 


679« 


46 


.7667 


2897.7 


6450.x 


2983.6 


6564.6 


3071.9 


5SS'-* 


3x63.7 


68o( 


*2 


.7833 


2899.1 


6452.0 


2986.5 


6566.5 


3073.4 


6683-* 


3164.3 


680: 


48 


.8000 


2900.5 


6453.9 


6568.4 


3074.9 
3076.4 


6685.3 


3x65.8 


68oi 


49 


.8167 


290Z.9 


6455.8 


2988.0 


6570-* 


6687.3 


3x67.4 


68o< 


so 


.8333 


2903.3 


6457.6 


2989-* 


6572.3 


3077.9 


6689.2 


3x68.9 


6Soi 


51 


.8500 


2904.7 
2906.1 


6459.5 


2990.9 


6570.2 


3079.4 


669X.3 


3x70.5 


68x< 


52 


.8667 


646X.4 


2992.3 


3080.9 


6693.2 


3172.0 


68xs 


53 


.8833 


2907.6 


6463.3 


2993.8 


6578.1 
6580.0 


3082^1 


6695.3 


3x73-6 


68xi 


54 


.9000 


2909.0 


6465.2 


2995.2 


3083.9 


6697.1 


3x75.1 


68x( 


55 


.9167 


29x0.4 
29x1.8 


6467.1 


3996.7 


6582.0 


30854 
3086.9 


6699.1 


3x76.6 


68i{ 


56 


.9333 


6469.0 


2998.1 


6583.9 


670X.X 


3x78.1 


683< 


57 


.9500 


2913.3 


6470.9 


2999.6 


6585.8 


3088.4 


6703.3 


3x79.7 


682^ 


58 


.9667 


29x4.7 
3916.Z 


6472.8 


3001. 1 


6587.7 


3089.9 


6705.2 


3x81.3 


682^ 


59 


•9833 


6474.7 


3002.6 


6589.7 


309Z.4 J 6707.1 


3x83.8 


683< 



A XAA^ O V XVV XZj X 



Jwt zoo' Chords up to 8* Curves Use 25' Chords up to 32" Curves 
Jae so' Chords up to 16" Curves Use 10' Chords above 32" Curves 



Dec. of 
Degree 


xoo 


Minutes 




Ext. 


Tan. 


.0000 


3184.3 


6828.8 


.0167 


3185.9 


6830.8 


X 




.0333 


3x87^ 


6832.8 


2 




.0500 


3x89.0 


68348 


3 




.0667 


3x90.5 


6836.8 


4 




.0833 


3192.1 


6838.9 


S 




.zooo 


3193.6 


6840.9 


6 




.ZI67 


3195.2 


6842.9 


7 




.1333 


3196.7 


6844.9 


8 




.1500 


3198.3 


6847.0 


9 




.1667 


3199.8 


6849.0 


xo 




.1833 


3201.4 


68SX.0 


IX 




.3000 


3202.9 


68530 


12 




.2167 


3204.5 


6855.1 


13 




.2333 


3206.0 


6857.1 


14 




.2500 


3207.6 


6859.1 


15 




.2667 


3209.1 


686X.1 


x6 




.2833 


32x0.7 


6863.2 


17 




.3000 


3312.2 


6865.2 


x8 




.3167 


32x3.8 


6867.2 


19 




.3333 


32x5.4 


6869.2 


20 




•3500 


3217.0 


6871.3 


21 




.3667 


32x8.5 


6873.3 


22 




.3833 


3220.x 


6875.4 


23 




^000 


322X.6 


6877.4 


24 




.4x67 


3223.3 


6879.4 


25 




•4333 


3224.7 


688X.4 


26 




.4500 


3226.3 


^3.5 


27 


• 


.4667 


3227.9 


6885.5 


28 




4833 


3229.5 


6887.6 


29 




5000 


323X.0 


6889.6 


30 




S167 


3232.6 


6891.7 


31 


• 


5333 


3234.1 


6893.7 


32 




SSoo 


3235.7 


6895.7 


33 


. 


5667 


3237.3 


6897-8 


34 




5833 


3238.9 


6899.8 


35 




6000 


3240.4 


690X.8 


36 




S167 


3242.0 


6903.9 


37 




5333 


3243.5 


6905.9 


38 


. 


S500 


3245.1 


6908.0 


39 




>667 


3246.7 


69x0.0 


40 




i833 


3248.3 


69x2.x 


41 




rooo 


3249.8 


691^. X 
6916.2 


42 




'X67 


3251.4 


43 




'333 


3253.0 


6918.2 


44 


« 


SOO 


3254.6 

3256.2 


6920.3 


45 




667 


6922.3 


46 


r 


833 


3257.8 


6924.4 


^l 




000 


3259.3 


6926.4 


48 




«67 


3260.9 


6938.5 


49 




333 


3262.5 


6930.5 


50 




^ 


3264.x 


6932.6 


51 




3265.7 


6934.6 
6936.7 


52 




B33 


Ifdi 


S3 




000 


6938.7 


54 1 1 


l«7 


3270.4 


6940.8 


11 




933 


3S72.0 


6942.8 




fs; 


3273.6 
3275.2 


6946.9 


11 




t33 


3276.8 


6949.0 


59 





FUNCTIONS OF ONE-t)EGREE CURVE 



37S 



Use loo' Chords up to 8* Curv«s Use 25' Giords up to 3a* Curves 
Use 50' Chords up to i6' Curves Use 10' Chords above 32* Curves 



1 


lOl" 


I02» 


103- 


104" 


105- 


Minutes 


Ext. 


Tan. 


Ext. 


Tan. 


Ext. 


Tan. 


Ext. 


Tan. 


Ext. 


Tan. 





3278.3 


6951.0 


337S.I 


7076.0 


3474.6 


7203.6 


3577.1 


73341 


3682.6 


7467.5 


10 


3294-3 


6971.7 


3391.5 


7097.1 


3491.5 


7225.1 


3594-4 


7356.1 


3700.4 


7490.C 


xo 


30 


3310.3 


6992.4 


3407.9 


7118.2 


3508.4 


7246.8 


361 1.9 


7378.2 


37x8.4 


7512.6 


20 


30 


3326.4 


70x3.2 


3434.5 


7x39.4 


3525.5 


7268.S 


3629.4 


74oa4 


3736.5 


7535.3 


30 


40 


3342.S 


7034.0 


3441.x 


7160.7 


3542.6 


7290.3 


3647.1 


7422.7 


3754-6 


7558.1 


40 


P 


3358.8 


7055.0 


3457.8 


7x83.1 


3559.8 


73x2.1 


3664.8 


7445.0 
7467.5 


3772.9 


7581.0 


SO 


60 


3375-1 


7076.0 


3474.6 7203.6 


3577.1 


7334-1 


3682.6 


3791.2 


7604.0 


60 


.a 


io6- 


lo?" 


xo8» 


X09* 


no" 




Ext. 


Tan. 


Ext. 


Tan. 


Ext. 


Tan. 


Ext. 


Tan. 


Ext. 


Tan. 





3791.2 


7604.0 


3903X 


7743.7 


4018.5 


7886.7 


4x374 


8033.2 


4260.0 


8183.3 
8208.7 





10 


3809.6 


7627.0 


3922.1 


7767.3 


4038.0 


79x0.8 


4x57.5 


8057.9 


4280.8 


xo 


30 


3838.1 


7650.2 


3941.2 
3900.4 


7791.0 


4057.7 


7935.1 


4177.8 


8082.8 


4301.7 


8234.2 


20 


30 


3846.7 


7673^4 


7814.7 


4077.5 


7959-S 


4198.2 


8107.8 


4322.7 


8259.8 


30 


40 


3865.4 


7696.7 


3979.6 


7838.6 


4097.3 


7983.9 


4218.7 


8x32.8 


4343.8 


8285.5 


40 


50 


3884.3 


7720.x 


39990 


7863.6 


14x17.3 


8008.5 


42393 


8x58.0 


4365.1 


831 Z.3 


50 


60 


3903.1 


7743.7 


4018.5 


7886.7 


4x374 


8033.2 


4260.0 


8183.3 


4386.4 


8337.2 


60 


S 




HI* 


1I2* 


113- 


XI4' 


lis- 


1 

.a 



Ext. 


Tan. 


Extl 


Tan. 


Ext. 


Tan. 


Ext. 


Tan. 


Ext. 


Tan. 


4386.4 


8337.2 


4516.9 


8495.1 


4651.6 


8657.1 


4790.7 


8823.4 


49344 


8994.3 


zo 


4407.9 


8363.2 


4539.1 


8531.8 


4674.5 


8684.5 


48144 


88sT.fi 


4958.9 


9023.2 


10 


30 


4429.5 


8389.4 


4561.3 


8548.6 


4697. 5 


8712.0 


4838.1 8879.9 


4983.4 


9052.3 


20 


30 


44SI.3 


84x5.6 


4583.7 


8575.6 


4730.6 


8739.7 


4862.08908.3 
4885.0I 8936.8 


S008.1 


9081.S 


30 


40 


4473.0 


8442.0 


k6o6.3 


8603.6 


4743.9 


8767.5 


5032.9 


9x10.6 


40 


so 


4494.9 
4516.9 


8468.5 


4638.9 


8639.8 


4767.2 


87954 


49x0.2 8965.5 


S057.9 


9140.3 


50 


60 


8495.x 


4651.6 


8657.1 


4790.7 


8833.4 


4934.4.8994.3 


5083.0 


9x69.9 


60 


1 




Il6« 


1I7' 


ii8* 


• 1x9* 

« 


120* 

1 


.1 




Ext. 


Tan. 


Ext 


Tan. 


Ext. 


Tan. 


Ext. 


Tan. 


Ext. 


Tan. 

1 


S083.0 


9x69.9 


5336.6 


9350.5 


5395-4 


9536.3 


5559-7 


9727.6 


5730.0 


9,924.6 


10 


5108.3 


9199.7I 
9329.6 


5362.6 


9381. 1 


542 2.4 


9567.8 


SS87.7 


9760.0 


5758.9 


9,958.1 


10 


20 


5 133.6 


5388.9 


941 i.g 


5449.5 


95995 


5615.8 


9792.6 


5788.0 


9,990.6 


20 


30 


5159.1 


9259.6 


5315-3 


9443.8 


5476.8 


963 X. 3 


5644.1 


98254 


5817.3 


10,025.6 


30 


40 


5x84.8 


9289.8 


5341.8 


9473.8 


5504.3 


9663.2 


5672.6 


9858.3 


5846.8 


10,059.7 


40 


so 


52x0.6 


9320.1 


$368.5 


9505.0 


S532.0 


9695.3 


S70I.2 


98914 


5876.4 


10,093.7 


50 


60 


5336.6 


9350.5 


5395.4 


9536.3 


5559.7 


9727.6 


S730.0 


9924.6 


5906.1 


10,127.7 


60 



376 THE SURVEY 

, ^^ A Central angle 

i = loo X 7; = f; 7 ^ — X 100. 

D Degree of curvature 

For the convenience of the field engineer column i, Table 32, 
gives the central angle (A) in degrees and minutes (as read by 
the transit); column 2 gives the same angle expressed in degrees 
and decimals for figuring curve lengths. 

Tangent Length and Externals, — Sketch No. 71 shows a general 
curve problem. The deflection angle between the tangents at 
the point of intersection (P. I.) = the central angle of the curve that 
will fit these tangents; it is referred to as A. 

The tangent distances equal the distance from the P. C. (be- 
ginning of curve) to the P. /. or P. /. to P. T, (end of curve) and is 
expressed by the formula 

T — Radius X tangent of — (4) 

2 

Gttenfcr/\ 
^C. \f>J. 




CtnterofCurvtj 
Pig. 71. 

Therefore, for a given central angle A, the tangent length is di- 
rectly proportional to the radius. If the tangent lengths of a i* 
curve for different A's are tabulated, the tangent length for any 
desired degree of curve equals tangent length for i curve for 
the specified A divided by the degree of the desired curve ex- 
pressed in degrees and decimals of a degree. 

Expressed as a formula this reads: 

_ . i. t . J Tangent i® curve for specified A , , 
Tangent for desired curve = ^ *- (5) 

and reversing the formula we can determine the desired degree 
of curve for a specified tangent length by the formula 

— Tangent 1° curve for specified A - . 

Specified tangent length desired 

The external is the distance from the P. /. to the curve arc on 
the line between the P. /. and the center of the curve. It is deter- 
mined by the formula: 



Ext. =* -r — Radius = Radius/ 



Cosine^ 1 Cosine^ ' <'> 

2 \ 2 



■) 



CURVE FORMULAE 



377 



and is directly proportional to the radius in the same manner as 
the tangent length; therefore, the external of any desired curve 
for a spedfi^ed A equals the external of a i^ curve for that A divided 
by the degree of curvature. 



Wntof TangencY 




langgnt^ 



An^m^CentmfMgkA 



^C0ntwroFCurve 

Pig. 72, 




— 4 Curve, 
The Distances alonq fheArt 
between(h-Z)(2-firpU)€fc an 
each too. 



Pig. 73. 

Expressed as a formula this reads: 

„' , r J . , Ext. I® curve for specified A 
External for desired curve = ■ .^ ^ 



(8) 



378 THE SURVEY 

and reversing, as for tangents, the desired degree of curvature is 
obtained that gives a specified external distance, by the formula, 

_ Ext. 1° curve for specified A . . 

Specified Ext. distance desired 

Methods of Running Curves. — Curves are run in the field by 
tangent (^sets, middle ordinates or deflection angles. Deflec- 
tion angles is the simplest method and is almost universally used. 
It is based on the principle that the angle S between the tangent 
and arc chord, one end of which is at the point of tangency, is 
equal to J^ the central angle subtended by that chord. Sup- 
pose the angle A is 4® and the arc length ST ~ 100 feet. This 
curve would then be a 4° curve. From the previous definitions 
locate the point T (Fig. 72) by turning the deflection angle S = 
2° from the tangent and measuring 100 feet of arc in such a position 
that the end of the arc would be on the line of the chord 5r. It 
is impossible to conveniently measure the arc distance and for 
all practical purposes a chord length of 100' will answer for a 
4® curve (see discussion, page 379). 

Suppose we wish to locate the points 2, 3, 4, $, and 6 on the 
4® curve from point i or the P.C. of a curve (Fig. 73). 

Set the transit at the P.C; if we turn a deflection — = 2** from 

2 

the tangent xy the line of sight will pass through the point 2; 

7? 
if we turn — = 4° the line of sight will pass through point 3; 6°, 

point 4, etc.; it only remains to measure to these points to locate 
them definitely. This can be done in two ways, by measuring 
the distances 1-2, 1-3, 1-4, 1-5, etc., or by measuring 1-2, 2-3, 
3-4, 4-5, etc. 

In the first case the difference between the length of arc and 
the chord length becomes so great that, unless a correction is 
made, the points are not exactly located; that is, the length of 
arc between points i, 2, 3, 4, Sf ^> — 5^ while the chord length 
1-6 = 497.5'; also, it takes longer to measure the distances 1-2, 
1-3, 1-4, 1-5, 1-6, etc., than it would 1-2, 2-3, 3-4, 4-5, etc. 

In the second method we can use chords of 100' from 1-2, 2-3, 
etc., with no appreciable error, as the distance measured by chords 
ii 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, = 49994'. 

Therefore, the method usually adopted is to turn the deflection 

MM 

angle — and measure the chord 1-2, which locates the point 2; 

then turn the deflection angle — and measure the chord distance 

2 

2-3, locating point 3, -etc. 

The fact has been mentioned that the use of the chord distance 
as equal to the arc introduces an error but that this error is of 
no importance for a 4® curve: As the degree of curvature in- 
creases, the difference between an arc length of 100' and the chord 



SIMPLE CURVE PROBLEM 379 

length becomes^reater, and it is necessary to determine the limit of 
curvature that will allow the use of 100' chords in locating curve 
points. On page 324 the statement is made that center line chain- 
ing should be correct to within o.i' per 100' of length, which allows 
a difference in arc and chord of o.i. This occurs when the degree 
of curvature reaches 9** per 100'. The difference can then be 
reduced by the simple expedient of using 50' chords, which re- 
duces the error for this degree of curvature from o.io' per 100' 
of length using 100' chords to 0.02' using 50' chords; 50 chords 
can be used up to 18** curves and beyond that point 25' chords. 

It is better not to use the full limit of allowable error, and a good 
working rule is 100' chords up to 8® curves, 50' chords up to 16® 
curves, 25' chords to 32° and beyond that 10' chords. 

For any given curve the deflection, angle and central angle 
are directly proportional to the length of the arc, and if the de- 
flection angle for 100' arc of 10® curve equals 5° the deflection 

5 ^00' 
angle for one foot of arc of 10® curve equals -^— — - — — 3 minutes. 

100 100 

An example of a typical simple curve problem can now be given: 
JL- ;k Tan,L€ngth ^.El'SiaMHU B 




Pig. 74. 

To determine the degree of curvature desired from a fixed external 

distance 

At station 23 -f- 42.6 we have a deflection angle of 25® 10' be- 
tween tangents AB and J5'C; suppose upon examining the ground 
it is decided that to fit the old roadbed and give good alignment 
the curve should be located somewhere between 13.5' and 14.5' 
to the right of the transit point at station 23 + 42.6. Proceed 
as follows: from table 32 pick out the external for a i^ curve for 
A = 25® 10', this equals 141. o'. 

The problem is to determine the degree of curvature that will 
give an external of between 13.5' and 14.5'. Use formula (9). 

_, Ext. 1® curve for 25® 10' 141 .0' „ 

D = -, — > — 10.44 curve. 

I3-S 135^ 



_, Ext. 1° curve for 25® 10' 141.0' 

IJ =! = = 9.72 

14-5 14.5 



® curve. 



38o THE SURVEY 

To fit the conditions some curve must be selected between a 
10.44** and a 9.72°. A 10** curve would be naturally selected as 
being the simplest to figure. 

To determine the required degree of curvature for a fixed tangent 

length 

Take the same problem as above except there must be a tangent 
length of between 127' and 129'. Use formula (6). 

-, Tangent i® curve for 25* 10' 1 279.1' « 

D = — = — ~— = 10.07 curve. 

127' 127' ' 

-. Tangent i® curve ior 25° 10' 1 279.1' o 

D = -. = — '-—- = 9.91 curve. 

129' 129 

Table 32 gives tangent for 25® 10' = 12 79.1'. 

These limiting values would result in the selection of a 10^ 
curve. The degree of the desired curve is usually selected in one 
of these two wa)rs; ordinarily it is determined by the external 
distance. 



BC'Sta.iii'M^T M'Sfa.23t42.6 B 



D' 10''R^S73.0 
r « IZ73L - 251.7 
P.C.^Sta.2ZH4n 
P.T.^Sfxx.ZAi-eM 



s^' ^sy^,. 




Pig. 75. 

Simple Curve Problem. Case z. — ^To compute the notes for a 
10° curve for a deflection angle of 25® 10' between tangents at 
station 23 -j- 42.6. 

Central angle = 25** 10'. 

Table 32 gives the tangent i** curve for 25° 10' — 12 79.1. 

rr^ ^ O I279.I 

Tangent 10 curve =« — ^-^— = 127.91. 

10 

The station of the F,C, then equals station 23 + 42.6 P./. 

minus 127.9' — station 22 + 14.7. 

The length of curve = t; = o X 100' - 251.7 feet. 

x/ 10 

The station of the FJT, (Tangent point, or end of the curve) 
as measured around the arc is then station (22 + 14.7 F,C.) + 
251.7' = station 24 + 66.4. 

The rule for running curves requires the use of 50' chords for 



SIMPLE CURVE PROBLEM 381 

a 10° curve. We must, therefore, figure the deflections for the 
even stations and the 50' stations as follows: 

Station 22-1-50, 23 -h 00, 23 -h 50, 24 + 00, 24 -h So» *nd 
to check the curve station 24 4- 66.4. 

For a 10® curve, Table 31. 

The deflection for 100' of arc = 5® 

II u u ^q/ ti u ^ 2° 30' 

" " « i' « " ss o** 03' 

. The distance from the P.C station 22 -f 14.7 to station 22 -h 
50 is 35.3'; the deflection per foot = 0° 03', for 35.3' = 35.3 X 
o® 03' = 105.9 minutes =* i** 46'. 

The distance P.C to station 23 -f- 00 equals 85.3', or 50' farther 
than for station 22 -f- 50; the deflection per 50 of arc equals 
2° 30'; therefore, the deflection for station 2^ -h 00 equals the 
deflections for station 22 -h 50 (i" 46') plus 2® 30 , the deflection for 
50' of arc or 4** 16'; in a like manner the deflection for station 23 + 
50 is 6® 46'; for 24 -\- 00, 9** 16'; for 24 4- 50, 11® 46'; the distance 
from station 24 -f 5© to the F,T, station 24 + 66.4 is 16.4'; 
the deflection for 16.4' ec|uals 16.4 X b" 03' = 49.2'; the deflection 
.for station 244-66.4 is, therefore (i i** 46' + 49') = 1 2** 35'; 
if the deflection notes have been properly figured this last deflection 
to the P.T, should always be yi the central angle of the curve; 
in this case J^ of 25® 10', which equals 1 2® 35', checking the notes. 

To run the curve. Set up the transit at the P./.; sight along 
the tangent (5.^.), measure off the distance i27.9"(tangent length) 
along this Ime and set the P,C, exactly on the line. In a Hke 
manner set the P,T. on the forward tangent (J3'.C.) 127.9' from 
the P./« Then set up the transit on the P.C. and .with the vernier 
at 0° 00' sight on the P./., using the lower plate motion. Loosen 
the upper motion and deflect 1^46'; measure along this line 35.3^ 
which locates station 22 -f- 50 on the curve arc; then loosen the 
upper motion and set the vernier to read 4* 16'; measure 50' from 
the just located station 22 4- 50f so that the forward end of the 
tape is in line with the transit deflection of 4^ 16'; this locates 
station 23 -f 00 on the curve arc. In a like manner deflect 6^ 
46' and measure forward 50' from station 23 4- 00 to station 23 4- 
50, etc., until the fP.T. is reached. If the curve has been correctly 
run the last deflection of 12® 35' will strike the previously located 
P,T, and the distance from station 24 4- S© to this P.T, will be 
16.4'; if the distance checks within 0.2' it is sufficiently dose. 

The above problem and method of laying out a curve is the 
simplest form encountered; in it we assume that the P./., P.T. 
and all intermediate points on the curve are visible from the P.C, 
and that the PJ. is accessible. 

In nine cases out of ten this method is applicable to road curves, 
but where the P./. occurs outside of the road fences it sometimes 
is located in a stream, pond, building, etc., and cannot be occupied. 
This is known as the problem of the inaccessible P.J. More 
often it is impossible to 4see the P.T., or some intermediate point 
on the curve from the P.C*^ which necessitates intermediate 



3&2 THE SURVEY 

transit points on the curve. The problem of inaccessible P,C.s 
or P.T.S is so rare it will not be illustrated. 

Problem of the Inaccessible P. I. Case 2.-^The point H (P,L) 
can not be occupied. Locate any two convenient points, j and t 
on the tangents A.B. and B\C, and measure the distance ^^ equals, 
say, 1 10.5'. 

Set the transit at ; and measure the angle between the line 
A.S. produced and st, say, 5° 10'; in a similar manner measure the 
angle at t between si produced and the forward tangent /C, say, 
20® 00'. The total deflection then between the fangent AsB and 
B'tC or the central angle of the curve to be run is the sum of these 
two deflections, angles (5® 10') + (20° 00') = 25** 10'. 

Assuming a 10® curve is desired we must locate the P,C. from 
the point j and the P,T, from the point /. 

A JRC [5'Sfa.B2^SJ.Z Hj J*r. inauessibh © 



Pig. 76. 

In the preceding simple cufve problem the tangent length of 
a 10® curve with a central angle of 25** 10' was figured to be 127.9': 
it, therefore, remains to compute the distance sH which subtracted 
from 127.9' ^U give ^^c distance from s along the tangent sA to 
the P.C, of the curve. In a similar manner compute tH, which 
subtracted from 127.9' gives the distance along the forward tangent 
iC to the P.T, of the curve. 

Knowing the station of the point s as measured along the tangent 
A,B, the station of the P,C, is determined; then ^ure the de- 
flections in the usual manner and run the curve. 

For the values given the computations are as follows: 

To determine sH and Ht, Use the law of sines (see Trigono- 
metric formulae, page 843). 
sH :st: sin 20® 00' : sin 25** 10' 

__ si sin 20** 00' 1 10.5 X a.34202 ^. . , 

SJti = — ; s i ~ 00.07 

sm 25 10' 0.42525 

si sin 5® 10' 1 10.5 X 0.09005 , 

Ml =* — 5 7- «= ' — = 23.4 

sm 25 10 0.42525 

Therefore, the distance from s to the PjC, is 127.9' — 88.9' =* 
39.0'. 
The distance from / to the P.T, is 127.9 ~* 23.4 » 104. <. 
Having these distances the P.C, and P,T, are located* As- 



CURVE PROBLEMS 383 

sume that station of s was measured along the tangent AB and 
found to be station 22 + 53.7. 
The station of the P.C, then equals 22 + 14.7 
" " " " P.I. " " 23 4- 42.6 

u uapT^ « " 24 + 664, using the length of 
curve figured in Case i. 

The deflections are figured and the curve run as in Case i, 
assuming that all the curve points are visible from the P.C. 

Case 3. — Where the P.T, or iniermediate points on the curve 
are not visible from the P.C. 

(a) Where an intermediaie sei^p is required. Use the same 
curve as in Case i. 

The deflections for the different curve points were figured as 
follows : 

Deflections. — Instrument at P.C, foresight on P.I. 

P.C* Station 22 + 14.7 Deflection p** 00' 

22 + 50 " 1° 46 

23 + 00 " 4° 16' 

23 + so " 6° 46' . 
.24 + 00 " 9° 16' 

24 + 50 " II® 46' 

'24 + 66.4 ** 12** 35' 







FT 24^-66.4- 



Fig. 77. 



Set up the instrument at the P.C. and locate the points 22 + 50, 
^3 + 00 and 23 + 50; suppose 24 + 00 is not visible, set up at 
station 23 + 50, set the vernier at o® 00' and back sight on the 
P.C; transit the telescope and finish the curve, using the same 
deflections as figured for the instrument set up at the P.C; that is, 
turn the deflection of 9® 16' for station 24 + 00, 11° 46' for 24 + 
50, and 12® 3 s' for the P.T. In general it can be said that when- 
ever the P.C is used as a backsight from the intermediate set-up, 
set the vernier at 0° 00' when sighting on the P.C; transit the 
telescope and use original notes for the balance of the curve. 

(b) Where two or more intermediate set-ups are required. 

For the first set-up, say, at 23 + 50, proceed as above and set 
station 24 + 00; suppose 24 + 50 is not visible from station 
2j + 50; set up at station 24 + 00 and with the vernier reading 
6 46' back sight on station 23 + 50; transit the telescope, set the 
vernier to read 11** 46' for station 24 + 50J and proceed, using 
the same deflections as originally figured. In general, where 
the P.C is not visible from the intermediate set-up, set the 
vernier to read the deflection figured for the point used as a 
backsight; transit the telescope and proceed with the curve, 



384 THE SURVEY 

usiiig~^the notes originally figured. That is, if tlie instrument 
is set up at station 24 + 00 and 22 + 50 used as a backsight, 
the vernier is set at i** 46', and using the lower motion the wire 
is set on station 22 + 50; then transiting the telescope the curve 
is run by setting the vernier at 11® 46' for station 24 + 50, etc. 

If station 23 + 00 is used as a backsight, set the vernier at 
4** 16' when sighting the machine; then transit and procec^l as 
above. 

These three cases cover any ordinary road curve problems. 

(b) NEW LOCATION SURVEYS 

GeneraL — ^The details of survey work depend entirely on the 
character of the improvement and range from simple alignment 
determination on Mesa Wagon trails to the complete surveys 
required for difficult mountain locations which are to be constructed 
by contract on unit price bids. The following data are for complete 
first-class surveys. The same methods are used for more incom- 
plete survejrs but parts of the procedure can often be omitted if the 
work is to be done by force account or convict labor. 

Organization and Equipment — Eight to ten men parties are a 
convenient and efficient force. 

Locating engineer 

Transitman 

Levelman 

3 Chainmen, rodmen, etc. 

1 to 3 Axemen. 
Cook 

If drafting is to be done in the field add a draftsman and computer 
to the party^ but this is not advised as field drafting is rarely 
satisfactory. 

Organization. (First stage of work . ) 

Locating engineer { ^JiKn."""^ ■"" '^""''' 

Transitman 1 

2 Chainmen I Running base line. 

Necessary axemen r • • *^**" "*e •'««*' ""^• 

I Stakeman 

T^,roir«o« 1 Running bench levels and check 

xvwAuxa J ^^j.j^ ^^g ^p ^ ^^^^^ jj^^ party. 

' Organization. (Second stage of work.) 

Locating Engineer \ Drainage areas. Classification 

I Assistant / of materials and topography. 

T^Su } Cross^tions. 

"f^^U } C«»s.-tion,. 



SURVEY ORGANIZATIONS 



38s 



Extra men moving camp, odd jobs, etc. 

The first stage of the work varies in speed from H °uie to 3 miles 
per day depending on the character of the comity. Three-fourths 
mile per day is a fair average for ordinary mountain work. 

The second stage should make a speed of from i mile to 2 miles per 
day. A fair average is about i J^ miles per day. 

Allowing for unavoidable loss of time, moving camp, etc., 10 
miles a month for an eight man party is a fair average when they are 
doing first class work. 

Cost of Survey. — The cost of first class complete mountain road 
location surve)^ runs from $75 to $150 per^mile exclusive of rail- 
road transportation to the job, allowing $150 per month for the 
locating engineer, $120 per month for transitman; $100 per month 
for leveler and $70 to $90 for laborers, etc. Meals are furnished 
free to the men at an average cost of $0.75 per man per day ex- 
clusive of labor or about $1.00 to $1.30 per day including cooks 
salary. 

The average speed for a party of 8 men is approximately 10 miles 
per month of completed survey, at an- average cost of $100 to $120 
per mile exclusive of railroad transportation. In easy flat country 
this speed can be easily doubled and the cost halved. 



Depreciation on Engineering Equipment per Mile of Survey 
Assumed 50 miles of survey per season 



Quan- 
tity 



Item 







« 

Annual 




Approx. 
Life, 


Deprecia- 


Value 


tion 




Years 


and 
Repairs 



Rental 

Charge 

per Mile 

Survey 



I 
I 
I 
2 
3 
4 



2 

3 
6 

I 

4 

2 

I 
I 



Transit (mountain) tripod . 

Level (dumpy or Y) 

Locke level 

Abney levels @ 1 16.50 .... 

lOO' chains @ I13.00 

Range poles (8' wooden) 

@ la.as 

Level rods, ^ Philadelphia 

13' extension 

Chain repair kits 

Metallic tape boxes, I3.45 . 

Metallic fillers 

Set sounding bars (i J4"-i" 

and fi" tool steel) 

Plumb bobs 

Pocket compasses 

Kodak 3-A i 

Engineer's trunk 



Totals $650 .00 



I300 . 00 

150.00 

7.00 

33 00 

36.00 

9.00 

30.00 

20.00 

7.00 

6.00 

10.00 

4.00 

4.00 

24.00 

10.00 



JO 

10 
3 
5 
2 



I 

5 
I 
I 

10 

2 
3 

4 

I 



I40 . 00 

25 00 

2.50 

6.00 

18.00 

5.00 

30.00 
4.00 
7.00 
6.00 

1 .00 
2.00 
1.50 
6.00 
10.00 



$164.00 



I3.30 
<Sayl3.oo) 



* Marking crayon. 

• Use a crayon having a large amount of oil as it will last longer. "Stay- • 
On-All " is a good brand. 



386 THE SURVEY 

Camp Draftliig Equipment (if desired). — Camp equipment is 

listed in Ciiapter XII. 

Methods.— -The chief of party should precede the men to the 
worlc and go over the entire tine as outlined in the preliminary 
investigation report picking out his camp sites and mailing all 
necessary arrangements for transportation of camp equipment 
and supplies. He should also mark the base line location for two 
or three miles so that when the party arrives there will be no delay 
in making carap and starting the line work. * 

First Stage of Survey.— 
(o) Tracing the location. 
(b) Running base line, 
(c). Running bench levels and base line profile. 

(a) LocBtine Line. — This work is done by the locating engineer 
who considers all the principles of grade, alignment, etc., discussed 
in Part I. In high altitudes he pays particular attention to avoid- 
ing bad snow conditions which in general means avoiding north 
exposure as much as possible. Very often he can be helpied in this 
part of the problem by making a snow map the spring preceding 



lEBEND. 

ArtaafSmiwApnJlil 

^ Ana of Snow May li^ I 

■^ArtaafSnawJuntl'' I 




NuTc— T1-L-. map 'ihoiib Ihit jt la advisable to keep on the 
north side of Buck Creek and the west side of Wind River from 
the standpoint of avoiding snow. It also shows that the Pass was 
open by June ist. 



BASE LINE 387 

the survey. This is done by sketching in the areas where snow lies at 
different dates, say April ist, May ist, Jube ist. When furnished 
with a map of this kind he avoids the areas of late snow where 
possible. Lacking a definite investigation for snow conditions 
the best available local data should be obtained from hunters, etc. 

The different trial lines are traced with an Abney level in open 
country and a combination of Abney level and aneroid in timbered 
country. The line that he decides to adopt is marked at sufl&ciently 
close intervals either by blazing trees or tall stakes with flags on them 
so that the base line party, will have no difficulty in following 
the correct location. This work must be kept far enough ahead 
of the base line party so that there is no danger of the work of 
the main party becoming worthless by the line getting into«a loca- 
tion which has to be abandoned and relocated. 

When working on a ruling grade the line should be traced down 
hill from the highest point on the route. When working on a rul- 
ing grade the line in the field should always be traced at a less rate 
of grade than the maximum allowed. That is if the maximum 
grade is set at 7% the locator should trace his line on a 6}^ or 6% 
grade in order to give the designer a little leeway for economical 
variations from the field grade and yet keep within the maximum 
rate. When working on portions of the route requiring less than 
the ruling grade it makes no difference in which direction the line is 
traced so long as the base line is run in one direction with con- 
tinuous stationing. 

(b) Base Line. — ^The base line follows the marked route of the 
location. It is a chained, transit line marked on the ground by 
stakes at least every 100 feet well driven and marked with crayon 
(Stay on All) with the station or plus of each stake. Stakes are 
placed at each point on the line where a profile shot or cross-section 
will be required and should be well made and well driven so that 
they will remain in place at least three years. The transit points 
(angle points) are marked with well driven hubs with tack center- 
ing; every third or fourth transit point should be permanently 
^ and carefully referenced by both azimuth and distance (see 
sample notes). The angles in the line are determined by transit 
readings and the bearings of the courses are recorded by azimuth 
using true north as the zero azimuth. The use of true north as the 
reference line in these surveys is desirable on account of permitting 
a check on the accuracy of the transit work at any time; on account 
of retracing a lost line and on account of right-of-way descriptions 
in localities laid out on the U. S. Land system. The methods of 
determining true meridian by polaris and solar observations are 
explained j pages 395 to 415. In fairly flat or rolling topography 
the base line should follow the center line of the proposed improve- 
ment exactly and all curves at tangent intersections should be run 
in the field. It has been found from experience that for the topo- 
graphic conditions mentioned that the field men can pick the best 
location in easy country and also that where the center line is actu- 
ally run and staked that it simplifies the work of cross-sectioning, 
the*office design and the staking for construction. 



388 



THE SURVEY 



center line which will be economica] in design and that under 
these conditions it is a waste of time and money to run in curves. 
Under these conditions the base line is run as a series of tangents 
keeping as close to the probable center line as possible and using 
short tangents in going around any natural featuies that will re- 
quire a sharp curve in the finished road. Later when tlie cross- 
sections are taken they must be extended far enough from the Ibe 
to allow the designer to shift the center line from the base Une as 



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far as he desires as well as varying hia vertical grade from the field 
grade. This requires considerable extra work in cross-sectioning 
as will be taken up later but is well worth while, as in difficult 
country a paper location is always more economical to construct 
than a field location. 

Bench Levels. — Ordinary engineers ^irit level work reading 
turning points to nearest o.oi of a foot. Benches figured to nearest 
O.OI ft. m elevation (see sample notes. Figure 3i). 

Permanent benches should be establish^ at least every W mile 
and preferably at ^ mile intervals. The datum for ue levels 
should be referred to IT. S. Geological Survey datum if poedble 
or lacking this reference a datum can be assumed but in any case 
the method of arriving at the elevation of the initial bench matfc 
(CofUimttA page jgo) 



TANGENT OFFSET METHOD 



Staking Curves by Tangent Offset 










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"q 50 100 150 200 250 

Distance in feet measured along tire curve from tlie P.C.orP.T. 

B^G. 8i. 

enough points so that the line of the tangent can be readily lo- 
cated by eye. From tbe newly located P. I. turn off the desired 
deflection atigle. Determine the degree of curve necessary to 
fit the conditions from tie eitemal and tangent length and take 
from table the tangent and length of curve, and record the station 
of the P.C. and P.T. Make the curve correction for difference in 
length of the sum of the tangents and distance on the curve at 
the P.I., and start measurements along next tangent, leaving 
temporary markers up to the P.T. of the curve. To lay out 
curve, start at the station or plus station near the P.C. and 
measure along the curve, using standard chord lengths, and 
using the offsets from tangent as read from chart, which increases 
as the distance from the P.C. or P.T. increases. 

To be useful a chart of this kind should be drawn to a lareer 
scale than we can reproduce in a handbook of this size and tbis 

actual use. In the same manner a chart can be prepared for short 
radii curves from 40' radius to 150' radius that is very useful in 
mountain road location. 



390 



THE SURVEY 



should be tully explained in the notes. The computations of level 
notes should be made in the field and checked each night. 

F^ffle Levels. — These levels also act as a check on the bench 
levels and therefore require an independent line preferably run in 
the opposite direction. The turns are read to the nearest o.oi 
foot and the profile ground elevations of the base line to the nearest 
o.i foot. In case there is no radical difference in the two lines of 
leveb (Bench and Profile) the profile levels are corrected to agree 
with the bench levels at each bench and carried ahead on the bench 
elevations. This is done so that there will be no cumulative differ- 
ence in the levels. An error of o.i foot in running between benches 



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is allowable (see Plgure 8i for sample profile level notes). Level 
computations should be figured and cnecked each night and a pendl 
profile plotted for the convenience of the locator. 
Second Stage of Woric 

(a) Cross-sections. 

(i) Topography. 

{c) Drainage. 

id) Classification of materials. 

(«) Field drafting. 
(a) Cross-sections. — Cross-sections are the most important 
part of the detail work on survey. The tendency ia to slight this 

Krt of the wort as it is tedious and uninteresting. The author 
S seen so murh trnnhl ... ^ . . . . 

inadequate 



CROSS-SECTIONINC. 391 

importance of taking wide enough sections particularly wjiere a 
paper location b contemplated. 

In level country where center lioe is exactly run 30 feet each 
side of the center line is enough. 

In hilly country on side slopes averaging »s° where the center line 
is exactly located 60 feet each side of the line ia enough. 

Where the center line Is not exactly located the en^neer must 
use his judgment but as a rule it is not safe to use less than too 
feet each side of the iine. 

For switchback turns or where a large variation from the survey 
base line is probable a careful stadia survey is desirable. 




Pig. 82. 

In fiat country cross-sections are taken with the en^neers level, 
rod and metallic tape in a similar way to the methods described 
in the first of this chapter foe high class improvements. 

In rough country they are generally taken witi a hand level, 
rod and tape and each section is referred to the profile ground 
elevation of the base line (see sample notes. Figure 83). The abso- 
lute elevation of each point is figured from the base line ground 
elevation. This is important as while it entails more field com- 
putation they can be done at night, and by the use of the ab- 
solute elevations the office and design work is made simpler, 
cheaper and more accurate. Experience has demonstrated that 
the method of absolute elevations for cross-sections is much superior 
and cheaper in the end than relative elevations. 



392 



THE SURVEY 



Crosft'^ectitMis are takeo at all bleaks in the profile and in uniform 
topography at least every loo feet and preferably at shorter 
intervals. 

Sfiecial cross-sections are taken for all drainage crossings and 
show the skew angle of the proposed structure {see Figure 83). 

Cross-section notes should be computed and checked each night. 

(i) Topograpl^.— Taken in the same manner as previously 
described (see sample notes, Figure 84). 

(c) Dramoge.-^Field drainage notes on new locations must be 
detailed and specific as the recommendations determine the office 
design absolutely; there is no possibility oE the designer checking 
the conduaons. 




Such notes should be made pers lly by th h f pa ty d 
should indicate exactly where h w th ul t bridges 

placed and the size of opening f th tru t H se th 

principles discussed in the chapt dram g d d t mm 

the size of waterway either from th phy cal d fhighwt 

or from the area of the drainag b A as be ru t by 

paced, hand compass traverses d t roim g th divid Imes with 
a hand level or can be plotted di tly m th fi Id mall 9 

or is" plane table. 

The type of structure as log, corrugated pipe, concrete box, etc., 
should be stipulated for each structure, as the field maD is the only 
one who can decide on the best type, considering the local materials 
that are available. 



SAMPLE NOTES 



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394 THE SURVEY 

{d) Classification of Material. — The classification of material 
has a marked effect on office design and should be handled by the 
chief. The expenditure of considerable time and money is justified • 
in determining the sub-surface conditions within the probable 
limits of proposed excavation where there is reason to believe that 
solid rock will be encountered. This is done by bar soundings and 
test pits. Where the soil contains a large percentage of boulders 
bar soundings are of little value. As a rule it is impracticable to 
determine more than a general classification for the largest part of 
the distance unless rock outcrops show on the surface. 

(e) Field Drafting. — The field drafting should be confined to 
special problems desired by the chief and should only be done 
where there is doubt as to whether sufficient field data has been 
obtained for the office design. 

Complete design in the field is costly and is rarely as satisfactory 
as office design. Camp is no place for careful design. 

Location Survey Reports. — A report should be worked up as the 
survey progresses. The object of this part of the record is to make 
it possible for a man not personally familiar with the ground to 
make a reasonable design. It should include all information of a 
general or special nature not shown in the survey notes such as: 

1. A description of the general topography. 

2. A description of alfemate locations and the reasons in detail 
for the selection of the route surveyed. 

3. A statement of the portions of the line where the survey 
alignment should be rigidly adhered to and an undulating ^rade 
used. 

4. A statement of the portions of the line where the alignment 
can be shifted to fit a grade contour and a ruling grade adhered to. 

5. The portions of the line where both line and grade can be 
varied in the final design. 

6. Snow conditions and how bad exposure is avoided or why 
it can not be avoided. 

7. Special designs to fit unusual conditions. 

8. Special designs utilizing supplies of nearby local materials. 

9. Photographs to illustrate special features or to give a general 
idea of conditions. 

Determination of True North. — The simplest m^od of deter- 
mining the true meridian is by observation on Polaris at elongation. 
For all practical purposes fairly close results can be obtained by 
observation on Polaris or the Sun at any time. The following 
tables and explanation of simple methods are quoted or briefed 
from the Manual of the United States Geodetic Survey on Mag- 
netism and the determination of the true meridian, and the Metro 
Manual of the Bausch & Lomb Optical Co. 

Meridian by Polaris at Elongation.^For all practical road 
survey purposes a determination of the meridian to the nearest 
minute of angle is sufficiently dose. For one-half hour before 
elongation to a half hour after elongation the azimuth of Polaris 
does not vary over 30 seconds of angle which gives plenty of time 
for check determinations and the element of exact standard time 
is of little importance. 



POLARIS MERIDIAN 395 

The following instructions for determining meridian a\ elongation 
by transit observation and by plumb line and peep sight are quoted 
from the U. S. Geodetic Manual. 



SIMPLB METHODS FOR DETERMINING THE TRUE 
MERIDIAN BY OBSERVATIONS ON POLARIS' 

(U. S. Geodetic Manual) 

• 

I. To Determine the True Meridian by Observation on 
P0X.ARIS AT Elongation with a Surveyor's Transit 

(Be sure transit is in good adjustment) 

" I. Set a stone, or drive a wooden plug, firmly in the ground 
and upon the top thereof make a small distinct mark. 

" i. About thirty minutes before the time of the eastern or western 
elongation of Polaris, as giv-en by the tables of elongation, No. 33, 
set up the transit firmly, with its vertical axis exactly over the 
m^irk, and carefully level the instrument. 

"3. Illuminate the cross hairs by the light from a bulPs-eye 
lantern or other "sotttce, the rays being directed into the object 
end of the telescope by an assistant. Great care should be taken 
to see that the Hne of collimation describes a truly vertical plane. 

"4. Place the vertical hair upon the star, which, if it has not 
rM^he<(i.,its elongation, will move to the right for eastern and to the 
left for western elongation. 

"5. As the star moves toward elongation, keep it continually 
covered ,by the vertical hair by means of the tangent screw of the 
vernier plate, until a point is reached where it will appear to remain 
on the hair for some time and then leave it in a direction contrary 
to its former motion, thus indicating the point of elongation. 

" 6. At the instant the star appears to thread the vertical hair, 
depress the telescope to a horizontal position; about 100 yards 
north of the place of observation drive a wooden plug, upon which 
by a strongly. illuminated pencil or other slender object, exactly 
coincident witt the vertical hair, mark a point in the line of sight 
thus determined; then quickly revolve the yernier plate 180°, 
again place the vertical hair uppn the star, and, as before, mark 
a point in the new direction; then the middle point between the two 
marks, with the point under the instrument, will define on the 
ground the trace of the vertical plane through Polaris at its eastern 
or western elongation, as the case may be. 

" 7. By daylight lay off to the east or west, as the case may re- 
quire, the proper ;azimuth. taken from the Table 34; the instrument 
will then denne the true meridiauy which may be permanently 
marked by monuments for future reference." 

-^. • ...... V .,..•:■ 

iln ,the prep,aTation of this article use has been made of the United States 
Land Cnfice MAnuat of Instructions, Washiiigton, 1896. 



396 



THE SURVEY 



Table 33.~Local Mean (Astronomical) Time of the Culmi- 
nations AND Elongations 07 Polaris in the Year 191 5 

(Computed for latitude 40" north and longitude 90* or 6* west of 

Greenwich) 



Date 



191S 



East 
Elongation 



Hr. 



Min. 



Upper Cul- 
mination 



Ht. 



Min. 



West 
Elongation 



Hr. 



Min. 



Lower Cul- 
mination 



Hr. 



Min. 



January i . . ^ . 

January 15. .. 
February i . . , 
February 15. 

March i 

March 15. • •• 
April I 

April IS 

May I 

May 15 

June 1 

June 15 

July I 

July IS 

August I 

Aupist IS- • • 
September i . 
September is 
(October i 

October IS-. • 
November 1. 
November 15 
December i . . 
December is- 



23 

32 
21 
20 

19 

18 

17 
16 

IS 

14 
13 

12 

12 
10 

9 
8 

7 
6 

6 

4 
3 
2 

a 



51.7 



52.5 
45-3 
SO. I 

S4» 
59-6 

52.7 

S7.7 
S4-8 
S9-9 
S3 -3 
S^S 
SS9 
01. 1 

S4S 

S9.8 

53.2 

S8 3 

SS'S 

00 

53 

S8 

S5 

00 



5 

4 
3 

2 
I 
O 



23 
22 

21 
20 

19 
18 

17 
16 

15 
14 
13 
12 

II 
10 

9 
8 

7 



46.9 

51.6 

445 
49-2 
54.0 

si.s 
HA 



52.9 

SCO 

55. 1 

48.5 
S3. 7 
51. 1 



56 
49 
55 
48 
53 
5d 



3 

7 
o 

4 
5 
7 



SS.8 

48.9 
53.8 
50 8 
55.6 



12 

II 
10 

9 

8 

I 

5 
4 
3 

2 
I 
O 



23 
22 
21 
20 

19 
18 

17 
16 

IS 
14 
13 



42.1 

46.8 

39.7 

44.4 
49.2 

54-0 
47.1 
52. o 

49.2 

54-2 
47.6 
52.8 

0.3 



A 



51.5 

44*9 
50.2 

43.6 

48.7 

45.9 

51.0 

44.1 
40. o 
46.0 
50.8 



18 

17 
16 

IS 
14 
13 

13 

II 

10 

9 

8 

I 

S 

4 

3 

2. 

I 

O 



23 
33 
21 
20 
19 



44.9 
49.6 
42.5 
47.2 
52.0 
56.8 
49.9 

.<4.8 
52.0 
57. o 
SO. 4 
55.6 
53.0 

S8.3 
SI. 7 
S6.9 
SO. 3 

55-4 



i 



3. 



k 



53. 
46.9 

SI. 8 
48.8 
53.6 



A, To refer the above tabular quaniUies to years other than 191 5. 



For year 19 10 add 

/add 

^92° (add 

1921 add 

1922 add 

1923 add 

rn.. / add 
'9^4 1 add 
1925 add 
19^6 add 
1927 add 



2 . 5 minutes 

4.0 up to March i 

o. I on and after March i 

1.6 

4-5 

5 . 9 up to March i 

2 . o on and after March i 

3-3 
4.6 

5 9 

V . 2 up to March i 

3 . 3 on and after March i 



B. To refer to any calender day other than the first and fifteenth 
of each month subtract the quantities below from the tabular quanHty 
for the preceding date. 



396 



THE SURVEY 



Table 33.— Local Mean (Astronomical) Time of the Culmi- 
nations AND Elongations or Polaris in the Year 191 5 

(Computed for latitude 40* north and longitude 00* or 6* west of 

Greenwich) 



1 



Date 



191S 



East 
Elongation 



Hr. 



Min. 



Upper Cul- 
mination 



Hr. 



Min. 



West 
Elongation 



Hr. 



Min. 



Lower Cul- 
mination 



Hr. 



Min. 



January x 

January 15. .. 
February i . . , 
February 15. 

March i 

March 15. • •• 
April I 

April IS 

May I 

May 15 

June I 

June IS 

July I 

July IS 

August I 

August IS- ■ . 
September i. 
September is 
October i 

October is... 
November i . 
November is 
December i . . 
December is< 






„.^ 


6 
5 


46.9 
51.6 


13 
II 


43.x 
46.8 


16 
'I 


23 


53.5 


a2 


4S.3 


4 


44-5 


10 


39.7 


16 


21 


SO. I 


3 


49. a 


9 


44-4 


15 


30 


S4» 


2 


54. 


8 


49. a 


14 


19 


59. 6 


I 


7 


54 


13 


18 
17 


S2.7 
-S7.7 





JS^9 


6 
5 


47.1 
53.0 


13 
IX 


33 


S2.9 


16 


S4.8 


23 


50.0 


4 


49. a 


10 


IS 


S9.9 


31 


55.1 


3 


54. a 


9 


M 


53 3 


30 


4«S 


3 . 


47.6 


8 


13 


58. S 


19 


S3. 7 


I 


53.8 


7 


la 

■ 
12 


55.9 
OX. I 


18 
17 


51. 1 
56.3 





50^ 


6 
5 


23 


51.5 


10 


54-5 


16 


49.7 


33 


44.9 


4 


9 


59. » 


IS 


55 


31 


50.3 


3 


8 


53 3 


14 


48.4 


30 


43 6 


3 


7 


S8 3 


13 


S3 -5 


19 


48.7 


I 


6 
6 


S5S 
00.6 


13 
II 


5^7 
55.8 


X8 
17 


45. 9 
5X.0 





33 


4 


53.7 


10 


48.9 


16 


441 


33 


3 


58.6 


9 


53.8 


15 


49.0 


31 


2 


55. 6 


8 


SO. 8 


14 


46.0 


30 


a 


00.4 


7 


55.6 


13 


50.8 


19 



44.9 
49.6 
43. s 
47 a 
53.0 
56.8 
49-9 
.•!4-8 
53.0 
57-0 
SO. 4 
55. o 
53.0 

58.3 
SI. 7 
S6.9 
50.3 

55.4 
53. 



f 



53. 

46.9 

51.8 

48.8 

53.6 



■A, To refer the above tabular quantities to years other than 1915. 



For year 19 19 add 

/add 

^9^° (add 

1921 add 

1922 add 

1923 add 
/ add 

'^^nadd 
1925 add 
I9i6 add 
1927 add 



2 . 5 minutes 

4 . o up to March i 

o. I on and after March i 

1.6 

4.5 

5 . 9 up to March i 

2 .0 on and after March i 



3 
6 



1923 { ^^^ 



add 



3 
4 

5 9 

7 . 2 up to March i 

3 . 3 on and after March i 



B, To refer to any calender day other than the first and fifteenth 
of each month subtract the quantities below from the tabular quanHty 

for the PRECEDING DATE. 



398 



THE SURVEY 



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400 



THE SURVEY 



Table No. 34 was computed with the mean declination of 
Polaris for each year. A more accurate result will be had bv 
applying to the tabular values the following correction, which 
depend on the difference of the mean and the apparent place of the 
star. The deduced azimuth will, in general, be correct within o'.3. 



For Middle of 


Correction 


For Middle of 


Correction 


January 

February 

March 

April 

Ma}^ 

June 


-0.5 
-0.4 
-0.3 
0.0 
+0.1 
+0.2 


July... 

August 

September 

October 

November 

December 


/ 

-I-0.2 
+0.1 
—O.I 

-0.4 
-0.6 
-0.8 



n. — To Determine the Trite Meridian by Observation on 
Polaris at Elongation with a Plumb Line and Peep Sight 

" I. Attach the plumb line to a support situated as far above the 
ground as practicable, such as the limb of a tree, a piece of board 
nailed or otherwise fastened to a telegraph pole, a house, bam, or 
other building affording a clear view in a north and south direction. 

" The plumb bob may consist of any weighty material, such as a 
brick, or a piece of iron or stone, weighing 4 to 5 pounds, which 
will hold the plumb line straight and vertical fully as wdl as one of 
turned and finished metal. 

" Strongly illuminate the plumb line just below its support by a 
lamp or candle, care being taken to obscure the source of light 
from the view of the observer by an opac^^ue screen. 

" For a peep sight, cut a slot about one-sixteenth of an inch wide 
in a thin piece of board, or nail two strips of tin, with straight 
edges, to a square block of wood, so arranged that they will stand 
vertical when the block is placed flat on its base upon a smooth 
horizontal rest, which will be placed at a convenient height south 
of the plumb line and firmly secured in an east and west direction, 
in such a position that when viewed through the peep sight Polaris 
will appear about a foot below the support of the plumb line. 

" The position may be determined by trial the night preceding 
that set for the observation. 

" About thirty minutes before the time of dongation, as given in 
the tables of elongation, bring the peep sight into the same line 
of sight with the plumb line and Polaris. 

" To reach elongation the star will move off the plumb line to the 
east for eastern elongation, or to the west for western elongation; 
therefore by moving the peep sight in the proper direction, east 
or west, as the case may be, keep the star on the plumb line until 
it appears to remain stationary, thus indicating that it has reached 
its point of dongatiouc 



POLARIS MERIDIAN 40I 

" The peep sight will now be secured in place by a damp or weight, 
and all further operations will be deferred until the next morning. 

** By daylight place a slender rod at a distance of 200 or 300 
feet from the peep sight and exactly in range with it and the 
plumb line; carefully measure this distance. 

"iTake from the Table 34 the azimuth o£ Polaris corresponding 
to the latitude of the station and year of observation; find the 
natural tangent of said azimuth and multiply it by the distance 
from the peep sight to the rod; the product will express the distance 
to be laid off from the rod exactly at right angles to the direction 
already determined (to the west for eastern elongation or to the 
east for western elongation) to a point which with the peep sight 
will define the direction of the true tHeridian with a fair degree 

oi accuracy," 

• 

To Deteiucine the True Meridian by Means of an Obser- 
vation OP Polaris at Any Hour when the Star is Visible, 
THE Correct Local Mean Time Being Known^ 

'^ This method requires a knowledge of the local mean time within 
one or two minutes, as in the extreme case when Polaris is at 
culmination its azimuth changes 1' (arc) in 2}^ minutes (time). 
The Standard time can usually be obtained at a telegraph office 
from the signals which are sent out from observatories. From this 
the local mean time may be derived by subtracting four minutes of 
time for every degree of longitude west of the Standard meridian 
or adding four minutes for every degree east of the Standard me- 
ridiaui The local mean time may be obtained also by observa- 
tions of the sum, one method being explained later. 

* * The following table, 35, is intended to be used in connection with 
the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac. The surveyor 
should read carefully the chapter in that publication in which 
the formation and use of the Ephemeris are explained, especially 
the portion defining the different kinds of time. 

''•The following example explains the use of the table and the 
derivation of the hour angle of Polaris:" 

Position, latitude ad*' 20' N., longitude 80** of.s or s* 20"» 30* W. of 

Greenwich. 

h. m. s. 
Time of observation, July 10, 1908, standard (75th mer.) 

mean time 8 52 40 p. m. 

Reduction to local time (s** 01' west of 7Sth mer.) — 20 30 

Local mean time 8 32 10 

Reduction to sidereal time (Table III, Amer. Bphem.) . . -f 01 24 

Sidereal time mean noon, Greenwich* July 10, 1902. ... 7 12 02 
Correction for longitude 5* so* 30* (Table III, Amer* 

Ephem.) + 00 53 

Local sidereal time 15 46 29 

Apparent right ascension of Polaris, July xOt 1908 i 26 05 

Hour angle before upper culmination 9 39 36 

* </, Appendix No. 10, Coast and Geodetic Survey Report for 1895. 



402 THE SURVEY 

o t 

Declination for which Table 35 applies 88 51 

Apparent declination, July 10, 1908 88 48.7 

Decrease in declination — 2.3 

Azimuth from Table 35 (interpolated) ... 48 39 
Correctionfor2'.3 decrease in declination. + i 37 

Computed azimuth 50 16 East of north. 

'* It is to be remembered that Polaris is east of the meridian for 
twelve hours before, and west of the meridian for twelve hours 
after, upper culmination. 

"Without the American Ephemeris the table' may be conveniently 
used for obtaining the true meridian, in connection with Table 33 
giving the approximate mean times of culminations of Polaris, 
and the additional knowledge of the fact that the mean declination 
of Polaris is 88^ 51'.! in 1915 and increasing at the rate of about 
o'.3 per year. Without the use of the Ephemeris the computation 
would be as follows: 

h. m. s. 
Time of observation, July zo, 1908 standard (75th mer.) 

mean time 8 52 40 p. m. 

Reduction to local mean time — 20 30 

Local mean time 8 32 10 

Local mean time of upper culmination of Polaris (Table 

33 and A) 18 10 12 

Mean time of observation before upper culmination 9 38 02 
Reduction to sidereal time -j- 01 35 

Hour angle before upper culmination 9 39 37 

o t 

Declination for which Table 35 applies ... 88 s i . o 
Mean declination, 1908 88 490 

Decrease in declination — 3.0 

Azimuth from Table 3S o 48 40 

Correction for 2'.o decrease in declination . + i 34 

Computed azimuth 50 04 East of north. 

Tables are generally given in books on surveying for reducing 
mean solar to sidereal time, but for this computation it is near 
enough to consider the correction 10* an hour, as the stars gain 
very nearly four minutes on the Sun each day."^ 

Solar Meridian by Direct Observation with an Ordinary Transit. — 
Where the method of Polaris at elongation is not used, Direct 
Solar Observation is the most convenient method of meridian 
determination as while it involves more computation and introduces 
more chances of error the work can be done during daylight hours 
and the accuracy that can be attained (within 01' of arc) with 
the usual facilities is close enough for all practical purposes of 
ordinary surveys. 

1 The sidereal correction always increases the hour angle. 



SOLAR MERIDIAN 403 

There are a number of different forms of the fundamental 
formulae governing the determination; the following form has 
found considerable favor: 

j^ ^ 5in[5-(9o^- alt.)lsin [^-(qo^- lat.)] 
-^ sin S sin \S - (90° - dec.) ] 

' In the formula A is the angle of the sun from the true north 
measured to the right in the morning and to the left in the afternoon. 

5 is one-half the sum of (90° — the observed altitude of the sun 
corrected for refraction) plus (90** — the latitude of the point of 
observation) plus (90° — the declination of the sun at the time 
of observation). 

Note. — Notice carefully the sign of the declination. A south 
declination is a — declination wmch would make the expression 
(90** — ( — south declination)) «= 90® + south declination. 

A solar ephemeris from which the sun's declination is found 
is necessary for the computations. All instrument makers publish 
small pocket editions each year which can be obtained from them 
for ten cents. 

An ordinary well regulated watch set for standard time at 
the nearest telegraph office serves for the time determination on 
which the sun's declination depends and any good transit with 
vertical circle can be used for observing the horizontal angle and 
altitude of the sun but observers are cautioned that it must be 
in good adjustment and the observer must work with reasonable 
care. 

If standard time is not available mean local time can be determined 
by observation as explained later on page 413. 

The latitude of the point of observation can generally be deter- 
mined closely enough from U. S. Geological Survey Maps or 
Land Office Maps and if these are not avaiUble can be determined 
by observation as explained on page 413. 

Longitude for standard time correction can be taken from any 
good map. If these are not available determine local mean time 
by observation. 

'Considering all the different sources of error, time, latitude and 
observed altitude the best time of day to make the observation 
is between 9.00 and 10.00 A. M. and between 2.00 and 3.00 P. M. 

{CotUinued page 412.) 



404 



THE SURVEY 



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POLARIS MERIDIAN 



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Before or 
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POLARIS MERIDIAN 



411 



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412 



THE SURVEY 



The following table gives the correction for observed altitude 
due to atmospheric refraction. This correction is always minus 
as the sun always appears to be higher than it actually is. 

A Table of Mean Refractions Due to Altitude 

Bar. 30 in., Ther. 5o°F. 



App. 

Alt. 


Ref. 


^• 


Ref. 


App. 

Alt. 


Ref. 


is?.- 


Ref. 


1: 


8' n" 

7' 20" 
6' 30" 

s' 49" 


12" 

»< 
16° 

18" 


5' 16" 

3' 47" 
3' 19" 
2' S6" 


20^ 
< 

40° 


2' 37" 
2' 03" 
i' 40" 
i' 22" 
I' 09" 


5°: 
60^ 

80° 
90- 


0' 48'^ 
0' 33" 
0' 21" 
0' 10" 
0' 0" 



[" 



A Table of SEia-DiAiCETEKs of the Sun 

Jan. I, i6'i8" Apr. i, i6'o2" July i, is'46" Oct. i, i6'oi' 
Feb. I, i6'i6" May i, is's4" Aug. i, is'48" Nov. i, i6'o9' 
Mar. I, i6'io" June i, i5'48" Sept. i, is'S3" Dec. i, i6'is' 

Effect of Eirars In Latitude and Declination on Meridian 
Determination. — It is well to bear in mind the effect of wrong 
latitude, or time (which affects the declination), on your meridian 
computations. 

The following table prepared by Professor J. B. Johnson of Wash- 
ington University, St. Louis, Mo., reprinted in the Metro Manual of 
the Bausch & Lomb Optical Co. shows the effect of error in lati- 
tude and dedination for different latitudes and different hours in the 
day. 

Errors in Azdcuth (by Solar Observation) for i Minute 
Errors in Declination and Latitude. 



Hour 


For I Min. Enor in 
Declination 


For X Min. Brror in 
Latitude 


Lat. 
30° 


Lat. 
400 


Lat. 
S0« 


Lat. 
600 


Lat. 
300 


Lat. 
40'* 


Lat. 
so- 


Lat. 

ao" 


11.30 A. M. \ 

12.30 P. M. 1 

11.00 A. M. \ 

1. 00 P. M. / 

10.00 A. M. \ 

2.0a P. M. / 

9.00 A. M. \ 

3.00 P. M. 

8.00 A. M. \ 

4.00 P. M. / 

7.00 A. M. \ 

S . 00 P. M. / 

6.00 A. M. \ 

6.00 P. M. / 


Min. 
8.85 

4.46 

2.31 

1.63 

1.33 

1.20 

I. IS 


Min. 
10.00 

S.04 

2.61 

1. 8s 

1. 51 

I.3S 

1. 31 


Min. 
11.92 

6.01 

3. IX 

2.20 

I. So 

1. 61 

1.56 


Min. 
14.07 

7.68 

4.00 

2.83 

2.31 

2.07 

2.00 


Min. 
8.87 

4.31 
2.00 

1. 15 
0.67 
0.31 
0.00 


Min. 
9.93 

4.87 

2.26 
X.3I 
0.7s 
0.3s 

0.00 


Min. 
IX. 82 

5.81 

2.69 
1.56 
0.90 
0.42 
0.00 


Min. 
13.56 

6.37 
3.46 
2.00 
1. 15 

O.S4 
0.00 



SOLAR MERIDIAN 413 

Stated simply this means that if the observations are taken 
between 9 and 10 o'clock as recommended that for the most 
unfavorable conditions of fast changing declination an error of 
time of 15 minutes will result in an error of 01' of arc on the 
meridian computations. 

It is well to check the latitude by observation unless your loca- 
tion is well fixed on a very reliable map. A simple method of lati- 
tude determination is quoted from the Metro Manual of the Bausch 
& Lomb Optical Co. 

LATITUDE DETERMINATIONS 

** Latitude may be variously determined by observing the transit 
of a star^ by a mean altitude of polaris or by a direct observation on 
the altitude of the sun at apparent noon. 

^ Owing to the earth's annual motion in its orbit, the sun changes 
his position along the ecliptic with respect to the stars at a not al* 
together uniform rate; so that some solar days are either longer or 
Sorter than others. 

** For the reason that a chroncuneter could not conveniently be 
made to change its speed to suit this solar phenomenon, there has 
been established a uniform system of time called ''mean solar time." 
The difference between mean noon, when the sun should be on the 
meridian, and apparent noon when the sun actually is on the 
meridian, is called the "Equation of Time." 
The tabular corrections will be found in the 
Ephemeris Tables. 

'*Thus, in early November the sun has passed 
the meridian more than 16 min. before mean noon. 
It is alwajrs well to begin latitude observations 
some 20 min. before local noon, although there 
will be seasons of the ^ear when the sun will not 
attain its greatest altitude until after local noon.' 

'* Standard time will also qualify the argument, but this should 
be studied out by reference to the map on page 396. In Western 
.Texas, for instance, observations need not begin until nearly i 
o'clock standard time; whereas in Erie, Pa., they should begin 
shortly after 11. 

" Procedure. — Follow up the lower limb of the sun, and when 
the maximum altitude is found add the sun's semi-diameter, as 
given on page 412, to the reading on the vertical circle; subtract 
correction for atmospheric refraction, as figured by interpolation 
from the table, page 412, and coirect this result by the sun's de- 
clination: adding }f south and subtracting if north. The final re- 
sult is the co-latitude or the polar distance (90° — latitude).'* 

To find the latitude subtract the co-latitude from 90**, *.«., latitude 
= 90° — co-latitude. 

lime. — ^In case telegraphic standard time is not available de- 
termine the meridian by polaris at elongation and then the mean lo- 
cal time can be obtained by the transit of polaris across the meridian 
by referring to Table 33, page 396 or by the apparent sun time 




414 THE SURVEY 

when it crosses the Meridian at noon connected to Mean time as 
given in the Ephemeris referred to on page 403 which can be ob- 
tained from any instrument maker. 

SOLAR MERIDIAN BY DIRECT OBSERVATION, PRO- 
CEDURE AND EXAMPLE OF COMPUTATION 

Procedure. — ^An ordinary transit with H vertical circle in good 
adjustment will give satisfactory results although it is convenient 
to have a machine with a full vertical circle and a masked pris- 
matic eyepiece for direct observation. 

When using an ordinary transit remove the cap from the eyepiece 
and then by focusing the eyepiece and objective lenses cprrectly 
a sharp well-defined image of both cross wires and sun can be 
projected onto a piece of white paper held a few inches back of 
the eyepiece. The vertical and horizontal angles to the sUn can 
then be read by bringing the image of the sun tangent to the image 
of the vertical and horizontal wires simultaneously and the time 
recorded. Two, four or six observations are made as rapidly as 
possible with the image of the sun alternately in opposite quad- 
rants and the average time, average vertical angle and average hori- 
zontal angle used in the computations. 



C 



U 






ObMrvo+idn No.U No.2., HoA, Ho.4. 

Example, — Solar meridian observations at Lima, Ohio, Jan. 18, 
1918. 
Average time of 4 observations, 2.42 P. M. Central Standard 
time. 

Average horizontal angle (mark to sun) 132° 22' 00" 

Average vertical angle to sun 16° 37' 00" 

Longitude of Lima 84° 07' 00" 

Latitude of Lima 40* 45' qo 



// 



Observed altitude of sun 16* 37' 00" 

Refraction correction — 3' 00" 

Corrected altitude i 16® 34' 00" 

Latitude 4?° 4S' 00" 

Declination at time of observation S, 26® 34' 30" 

Declination Computation. — Observed standard time (central ooth 
meridian) 2.42 P. M. Lima is 5** 33' east of the 90th merioian. 
To get the correct local mean time add to the recorded time 4 
minutes for each degree of longitude east of the 90th meridian or 
4 X 5.9" = 23.6 minutes. (Sav 24 minutes.) 

Correct local mean time of observation 3.06 P, M. 



SOLAR MERIDIAN 415 

Take from the Ephemeris the sun's decluuition at Greenwich 
mean noon of Jan. iS, 191 8 » S. 20^ 38.9'. 

Lima is 84° 07' west of Greenwich or its mean local time is 5 
hours and 36 minutes earlier. That is the local mean time of 
Lima it Greenwich mean noon is 6.24 A. M. and the sun's declina- 
tion for 6.24 A. M. Lima local mean time is S. 20° 38.9'. 

The declination is decreasing at the rate of 30" per hour. The 
time of observation 3.06 P. M. local mean time is 8 hours and 
43 minutes later than 6.24 A. M. and the declination for the time of 
observation is therefore: 

Declination at 6.24 A. M. Lima = S. 20*^ 38.9' 

8.7 hours X 0.5' (30" hourly change) = — 4.3^ 

Declination at time of observation » S. 20** 34.6' 

= S. 20° 34' 36" 
Say = S. 20® 34' 30'' 

It should be remembered that a south declination is a minus 
declination. Be careful of your signs in the following formula: 
Applying the formula 

^ _ sm [S - (90^ - alt.)] sin [S - (90^ - lat.)] 
. ran ;>^A - ^.^ ^ ^^ ^^ _ ^^o __ ^^^^j 

^ ^ (90" - i6-> 34O + (90" - 40" 45O + (90^ - ( - 20° 3V 30")) 

2 

S - 73° ^6' + 49° X5' + 110' 34' 30" . „,, ^^, ^^,r 

2 

5 - (90** - alt.) = 43^*11' 45" 
S - (90° - lat.) = 67** 22' 45" 
5 ^ (90° - dec.) = 6° 03' is" 

log sin 43" "' 45" = 98353697 

log sin 67° 22' 4s" = 9 965 2348 

colog sin (180** - 116° 37' 45") 63° 22' is" « 0.048 6988 

colog sin 6° 03' is" « 0.976 8768 

log tan* J^i4 = 2 20.826 1 801 

log tan }4A = 0.413 0900 

HA = 68° 52' 45" 

A = 137° 45' 30" 

As the observation was in the afternoon the angle between the 
sun and true north is 137** 45' 30" to the west of north. The 
azimuth from the instrument to the sun is therefore 360° — 

137° 45' 30" = 222° 14' 30". 

The true azimuth from the instrument to the mark is therefore 
222* 14' 30" - 132** 22' « 89° 52' 30". 

To mark the true meridian on the ground turn off an angle 
of 89® 52' 30" to the left from the feference mark used in the 
observation. 



4i6 



THE SURVEY 



The Ross Meridiograph* — If much meridian work is being done 
it will fpay to obtain tiie Ross Meridiograph ^ which graphically 
solves the solar meridian to the nearest minute. It is quick and 

simple to use and eliminates the one 
drawback of the direct observation 
namely, the extended' computations. 

STADIA MEASUREMENTS 

An expert instrumentman with a 
first-class transit can get more accu- 
rate results in rough country provid- 
ing the atmospheric conditions are 
steady by the use of the stadia method 
of measurement than by the ordinary 
chaining of the average survey gang. 
The author has for a number of years 
worked under a restriction of a closure 
of less than 5.0 feet to the mile which 
is better than can be attained by ordi- 
circular nary chainmen in hard topography, 
plumbing level for stadia The method is quick and reliable and 
rods. is to be preferred in open country. 

Chaining is to be preferred in heavy 
cutting or where curves must be run m. 

For an ordinary tangent preliminary survey the stadia method 
is very satisfactory. To get good results however, the observer 
should be expert. The ordinary garden variety of instrumentmen 
can not use stadia successfully; he should check his main line by 
both back and foresight readings. He must keep his instrument 




^ Xircalar 
Sr Level 

Section A'A 



Elevation 
Sketch of 




i ^////m//m)mm/ww/m//^^^^^ 



in first-class shap>e and must use a rod with a fairly broad face 
with clear distinctive markings; this rod must be held steady and 
vertical which can be accomplished by the use of a small universal 
circular level attached to the rod, and steadiness can be secured 
%y a short hand rod (about 4' long) that the rodman uses as a 
shifting brace. 

The transit must be steady, must have a first-class lense and 
must be equipped with fixed stadia wires. Adjustable stadia 



STADIA MEASUREMENTS 417 

wires are worthless if good work is required. Distances between 
hubs should as a rule not exceed 500 to 600 feet for close line meas- 
urements but side slots can be taken up to 1500 feet. 

The essential elements of the theory of stadia measurement are 
briefly .as follows: 

The measurement depends on the optical angle of the stadia 
wires. This angle is governed by the distance apart of the stadia 
wires. The rod intervals A and A' subtended between the 
stadia wires are directly proportional to the distances h and V 
from the apex of the optical angle. The apex of this optical angle 
is always a certain fixed distance in front of the instrument and is 
different for different makes of transit. Call this distance C which 
can be determined as later explained by test or is generally noted 
in instructions furnished by the instrument maker. The actual 
rod interval as read by the observer is therefore proportional to 
the distance from a point ahead of the instrument and not from the 
center of the transit. For close work this distance C must be 
known and also the rod interval per 100 feet of distance beyond the 
apex of the optical angle. The rod interval per 100' of distance 

* 

I 

\ — 'j'Uwl Line of 

a* ^Sj^ht.^ 



is desirably i.o' but unless unusual care is exercised in setting the 
•vires it is rarely exactly this value. To determine the actual 
value of this interval proceed as follows: 

Case I. — ^Where the value of C is known. 

(Note.— -C generally ranges between 0.75' and 1.25'.) 

Pick out a level line about 800 to 1000' long. Drive a transit 
hub; place a foresight picket. Measure from the transit hub 
toward the foresight the distance C which we will assume in this 
case to be 1.35' and drive a hub. This hub represents on the ground 
the apex of the optical angle. From this hub measure carefully 
with a steel chain 100' and set a hub on line with the foresight and 
continue to set points at intervals of exactly 100 feet until you have 
a test line 800 to 1000 feet long. 

Now level the telescope and read the rod intervals when the 
rod is held on each of the stakes and record this interval to the 
nearest fraction of a foot that you are sure you can actually see. 
As the length of sight increases it becomes less and less possible 
to determine exactly the interval and when you are not certain 
of the reading to a o.oi' stop attempting to lengthen the sight and 
you have practically^ determined the safe length of sight for actual 
line work that the instrument is capable of handling. To deter- 
mine the rod interval record your readings and take the average 
value. Assume your rod intervals to be as follows: 



4i8 



THE SURVEY 



a^ 0.997 feet 



a' 



a' 
a* 
a' 



1-995 
2.99 

3.99 

4.98s 

5-97 

6.95 
8.02 



(( 
n 

ii 



I 
2 

3 

4 

5 
6 

7 
8 



0.997 

0-997S 
0.9967 

0.997s 

0.997 

0.995 
0.993 
1.002 



This indicates that beyond 500' the readings become uncertain 

and that about 600' is the limit of practical line sight for close 

work. Good stadia work requires that the instrumentman is 

perfectly honest with himself and recognizes his limitation when 

It is reached. The rod interval per 100' is therefore 0.997 in this 

case and every foot on the rod when the line of sight is level means 

I 000 

an actual distance from the apex of the optical angle of — = 

^ *^ 0.997 

100.3 feet. 

To get the actual distance then for a level line of sight rod reading 
of 2.45 feet multiply 2.45 X 1Q0.3 = 245.73 feet. 

Say 245.7 feet from the apex of the optical angle and the distance 
from the center of the instrument will be 245.7 feet plus the constant 
C (1.25) equals 246.95 feet from the center of the instrument. 

The effect of the inclined line of sight will be discussed later. 




K '-KH? • — >k -^ 



^ 



Case 2. — Where the constant C is not known. ^ To determine 
the constant C and the rod interval per 100' of distance beyond 
the apex of the optical angle. 

Measure a base line 800 to 1000' long as previously stated 
placing hubs every 100'. 

Set the transit up over the first hub and with a level line of ?i^ht 
read the stadia wire rod interval at each of the stakes on the line 
which are at actually measured known distances from the center 
of the instrument of 100', 200', 300', etc. 

The problem is to determine two unknown quantities, C the 
constant and X (the rod interval per 100 feet of distance beyond 

the apex of the optical angle). According to Case i, -^ — •' « 



STADIA MEASUREMENTS 419 

the actual distance beyond the apex represented by a rod interval 
of one foot. Therefore we can determine the constant C from two 
equations using the actual rod intervals a^ and a^ at the stakes 
which are 100' and 200' from the center of the instrument thus. 

1. 00' 
100' — C = observed rod interval a* X -^r~ 



2oo'^C= " " " fl»X^ 



Suppose the rod interval a* = 0.9845 

" a* = 1.981S 



(( tt i( 



^ ft i-oo 

1 00.0 — C = 0.9845 — y- 
200.0 — C == I.98I5 -yT* 

call (-—- J the symbol F. 

loo.o — C = 0.9845 F Equation i, 
200.0 — C = 1.9815F " 2. 

loo.o = 0.997 F Subtract Equation 

I from 2. 
„ 100.00 

'* 0.997 
F = 100.3 ^6ct. 

That is, a one foot rod interval equals 100.3' of distance beyond 
the apex of the optical angle. 
To determine C substitute this value of F in Equation i. 

loo.o — C «= 0.9845 X 100.3 
— C « — 100 -f- 98.75 
C = 100 — 98.75 
C = 1,25 feet. 

Apply this principle to three or four sets of readings and take the 
mean values. 

You. now have the basic constants of the instruments for close 
work. 

Effect of Iiidined Sight on Stadia Readings. — The previous 
discussion is based on a level line of sight. It should be borne in 
mind that the stadia distance as previously discussed refers to the 
distance along the line of sight when the rod is perpendicular to 
the line of sight. 

In case the line of sight is inclined the rod reading must be 
corrected to a true rod reading perpendicular to the inclined 



420 



THE SURVEY 



line of sight and the distance along the inclined line of sight must 
be corrected to the true horizontal distance. 

Rod interval X cos A (angle of inclination) » corrected rod 
interval. 

(Corrected rod interval in feet X actual distance value per foot 
as determined by test X cos angle A) + (the constant C X cos 
angle A) =^ corrected horizontal distance. 



ComcHd 



\ Horijoniht 
Pisrance, 



CorrtcHd ^ * ♦« 
Hon'xonfai r/ | 



Correctic/ Rodlirhrvat 
Nrp9ntiic,ular fo 
.Lln0 ofSfaht. 

1 AcHfalRodJntfrval. 




'odh9idV9rtfcalli^. 



All standard stadia reduction tables and diagrams simUar to 
Table 30, page 335, are based on (100 feet of distance for 1,0 
of rod interval) plus the constant of the instrument. 

If much stadia work is to be done all instrument makers will 
set fixed stadia wires guaranteed to measure 100' distance per i.o 
of rod interval for the distance from the apex of the optical angle 
and such wires are generally sufficiently close to this standard 
so that for all practical survey work on which stadia methods are 
desirable no correction for rod interval need be applied. 

The following example of reduction of stadia reading for careful 
line work will show the method. 



HtighfofJnshrutmrH- 
obov€Hub5i3' 




Jtub&evatton 



%^ f /# wf />/7 ^ fbp ^^A9 



Case I. — Where the stadia wires are guaranteed to read 100' 
distance per foot of rod interval and the constant C = 1.25 feet. 

Procedare. — Measure the height of the center of the telescope 
axis at the standards above the top of the transit hub; this lis called 
the Height of instrument. Assume this for example to be 5.3 feet. 

To get the vertical angle to the next hub sight on the rod with 
the middle horizontal wire set on 5.3 feet on the rod held on the 
foresight hub and read the vertical angle say + 10° 13'; level 
the telescope by the large telescope bubble and record the index 
error say 4- 0° 01': the correct vertical angle is then + 10** 12'. 

To get the rod interval reading corresponding to the vertical 



STADIA MEASUREMENTS 421 

■ 

angle of +10° 12' sight on the rod with the middle horizontal 
wire on 5.3': then shift the vertical line of sight so that the lower 
stadia wire is exactly on one of the main rod divisions and read 
the rod interval between the two stadia wires. Say in this case 
3.37 feet or 337 feet distance. Look in Table 30, page 337, 
which gives for a vertical angle of 10° 1 2' the correct horizontal and 
vertical distance per 100' of stadia reading as horizontal distance 
96.86'; vertical difference in elevation 1 7.43'. The total horizontal 
distance for the stadia reading of 337 feet is therefore (337 X 
96.86 = 326.42) + (constant C X cos 10° 12') given at bottom 
of page in table as 1.23) = 327.65 total horizontal distance. 

The Vertical difference in elevation is (337 X 17.43' = 58.74') 
+ ((constant C X sin 10^12') given at bottom of page in Table 
30 as 0.22) = 58.96' total difference in elevation. The elevation 
of the new hub ife therefore 5230.3 + 58.96 == 5289.26. 

Cas6 2. — Where a stadia interval must be corrected for poor 
wire interval. 

Suppose the instrument used measures 100.3' for each foot on 
the rod and the rod reading for a vertical angle of 10" 12' is 3.36 feet. 
The correct stadia distance is found by multipl3dng 3.36 feet X 
100.3 = 337 feet in distance. Then proceed as in Case i. 

Stadia Rods. — Stadia rods can be divided in innumerable 
ways and it makes little difference what symbols are used so long 
as they are clear and distinct. The principle of bisection for the 
smallest readings is a good system. The face of the rods should be 
wider than the ordinary level rod; a width of 2}^ to 3" is about 
right. They should have a very brilliant white background and 
jet black face markings with large numbers for the even feet marks 
the tenths should not be numbered. 

The practice of special graduations to fit the wire interval of 
the instrument is not desirable particularly in rough country where 
rods are often broken. 

A standard i.o ft. division is safer, as any standard rod can then 
be used. 

The following system of face markings has been used by the 
author and is given merely as an example in case the reader has no 
preference of his own. 

The rods should be as light as possible with a back brace to 
prevent warping and provide hand holes and a length of 10' is 
ample for all practical purposes. 



4IO 



THE SURVEY 



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CHAPTER XII 

PHOTOGRAPHY, CAMP EQUIPMENT AND NOTES ON 

CAMP MEDICINE 

Editor's Note. — Photographs are often as important as survey notes 
particularly on reconnaissance work and the failure of a negative is compar- 
able to the loss of field notes. The following data has been inserted to help 
the inexperienced photographer reduce his percentage of failures. A green- 
hand is ]H|zaled chiefly by diaphram opemag and time of exposure and does 
not understand the effect of latitude, altitude, time of year, light, etc., on 
the problem. ' The following simple notes have been prepared by a man who 
has- taken Engineering Photographs all over the world and should be helpful. 
TheriB are a' number of very excellent exposure charts and mechanical sensi- 
tised paper exposure meters on the market which consider all these points 
in xnort detail than we can give in a book of this character. 

NOTES ON PHOTOGRAPHY 

GeneraL — ^The following discussion of the subject of photog- 
raphy iii connection with engineering operations has been prepared 
with the idea of giving to the engineer the foundations and princi- 
ples upon which he may make exposures in the field under most 
all conditions, and secure fairly uniform results. The engineer is, 
in the day's work, retjuired to make exposures under some very ad- 
verse conditions, and it is not rare that the exposure most needed 
or the most important point along the line of survey or construction 
is reached when weather and light conditions are at their worst. 
In many cases the results are failures, poor, or only fair. This fact, 
under the ordinary procedure of having the film developed after the 
point has befen passed, or the survey completed, is discovered weeks 
or months afterward, and a return to tne point would either be 
expetJsiVe— so much so as to make it prohibitive — or impossible on 
account of adverse weather conditions. 

Views on preliminary surveys are of more importance and should 
receive corresponding attention. Views on construction and lo- 
cation are important, but the opportunities for making successful 
exposures on location and construction are many. This is due to 
the fact that the engineer is located longer at one camp on location 
than on preliminary, while on construction he is constantly on the 
job. 

It is urged that all ^ork be done in the field at the time of making 
the exposures on preliminary investigations or reconnaissance 
surveys in order that failures may be discovered and additional 
exposures made which will supply the omissions, and assure a 
continuity of views. By so doing the finished view may then and 
there be properly identified and notations made as to its value in 

423 



SI 

tlea 

iUt 



424 PHOTOGRAPHY 

connection with the surveyed line, and the subsequent report and bjec 

estimate, as explained on page 283. With this end in view the fol- m 

lowing equipment is suggested. Sb 

Equipment 

1. Camera with good stout leather case and tripod. 

2. Tank developing outfit complete. 

3. Films, chemicals, and paper sufficient of photograph length |tsu 
of the line. 

This outfit has been used for a number of years by men Who have |si( 
had a wide experience, and it has been found to be a convenient 
and complete camp kit to properly care for the picture end of a 
survey. 

Roughly the films should be estimated at three exposures to 
the mile of line. 

Camera. — The best sized camera, that is, the one which produces 
the largest picture in proportion to the bulk of outfit and cost of 
operation, is the 4 Ji X 6>^ film camera — Eastman 4A. Cameras 
having smaller dimensions produce views so small as to be of little 
value from an engineering standpoint, whOe the outfit* necessary 
to carry on development is practically the same in size and weight 
as that required for the camera above mentioned. Enlargements 
may be made, but this is an additional expense and delay. What 
is recyiiired is speed and accuracy. 

This sized mm when properly masked will give a picture 4}^" 
X6%" exclusive of legend. If the roll is cut so as to leave the un- 
exposed portions between the exposures, on the bottom of vertical 
views, or the left hand end of horizontal views, space is left for 
filing number and legend. This information is put on the face of - 
the film with india ink as soon as it is dry and b a clear but concise 
statement of (a) station from which the view was taken, (5) direc- 
tion of the camera, (c) general description of features shown, 
or purpose for which taken, and {d) index number by which the 
same may be identified. This information is obtained from the 
exposure record which is made and kept at the time of the exposure, 
and regarding which description is given on page 430. 

Autographic backed cameras are in use but are not specially 
desirable unless the films are to hfi developed by some other person 
at a latter date. The writing that may be done while specific, is 
generally so large as to take up all the space between the exposures 
which should be devoted to more detail. If used it is better to 
merely record the roll and exposure number as R 23-2 and depend 
on the exposure record for detail data. 

Lens. — The camera should be equipped with a standard lens of 
known value. In the matter of lenses nothing empirical may be 
said. Generally, however, the regular B. & L. f 16 rectilinear lens 
gives excellent results. As speed is not essential the higher priced 
rapid lenses are not necessary, and the investment of money is 
such a refinement which the work in hand does not call for, is a 
luxury to sav the least. Given a well made and flawless lens, an 
equally good picture may be secured, provided the proper time is 
given, as with the more expensive lens. As there are no moving 



COMPOSITION 425 

Ki objects in the class oC views that the engineer will photograph, 

^ exposures may be properly timed. 

St&utter. — ^The shutter should be of the ordinary variety, operated 
or snapped with a bulb or cable. For rough handling the bulb 
release is considered the best. There are a number of standard 
shutters on the market, anyone of which gives entirely satisfactoiv 
results. Improvements are being continually made, and it is aa- 
visable to purchase the most durable pattern on the market. There 

e is less liability of making errors with the shutter that sets and re- 

t leases automatically with a bulb or cable. Those that have to be 
set by hand ofttimes produce no exposure, the photographer for- 
getting to set the shutter. 

Diaphram. — ^Most all cameras are now equipped with the 
iris diaphram, and this attachment is the best with wnich to control 
the stop. 

The stop IS the technical term for regulating the size of opening 
in the diaphram. There are two systems of indicating the dif- 
ferent stops. The " Universal Standard" (U. S.) and "f " for focal 
speed of kns. The following list shows the usual stops for both 
systems that are equal to each other. 

U. S. 1.2 2.0 2.5 4 8 16 32 64 

f 4.5 5.6 6.3 8 II 16 22 32 

Ordinary kodak stops 123 

Stop U. S. 1.2 gives the largest opening. 

" 64 " " smallest " . 

Manipulation. — The most important factors that enter into 
making an exposure are: 

1. Composition. 

2. Distance. 

3. Aperture. 

4. Time. 

5. Strength and direction of light. 

6. Phases of views. 

7. Recording all operations in the exposure record. 

Taking up these operations in their order: 

Composition. — A photo should not be looked upon as a miscel- 
laneous lot of black and white spots on a piece of paper. In order 
that the photo should properly show the information required, 
it should m most instances be taken from some station along the 
line of work, or from some point which has be^i definitely located 
without the line of work. The most desirable position from which 
to niake the exposure is one from which proifessional as well as 
artistic points may be seen. The selection of such a point is made 
after carefully studying the composition of the view as seen in 
the finder. If a view is required along the survey line, select if 
possible, that station where the light will come from behmd or 
from the side. Carefully study the composition. 

If on a survey line, along a stream bank, on the edge of a mesa. 



426 PHOTOGRAPHY 

at the shore of a lake or bay, bring the important features into 
the middle of the finder. No picture should be taken that does 
not contain some life, as only professionals can make a good picture 
of still life. Picket a rodman with a level rod or stadia board of 
known length on a station 50 or loo feet away on line— K)r more 
particularly at the point it is intended to feature. This not only 
gives life to the view, but provides a medium by which distances 
in the view may be estimated. Have, if possible, one*-third of 
your view composed of sky. Balance your picture. Guard against 
having the center view obstructed by a 6 foot tree 15 feet from 
the camera, while the feature you are trying to photograph is 100 
feet away. Such a composition blurs the foreground, ' reduces 
the field of view, and in general spoils what might have befeh a 
successful photo. 

Hold or set the camera level. If it is necessary to obtam' some 
feature that is below or above the outline as shown in the finder, 
manipulate the shifting front of the camera. Never tip the camera 
up or down, for to do so will produce distorted photos on account 
of the vanishing point lying outside of the horizontal plane. 

Distance. — Ascertain the distance from the camera to the object 
to be photographed. Do this with reasonable care as too many 
poor negatives result from carelessness in estimating distances. 
Set the indicator at the proper point on the scale of distance. 
The nearer the subject is to the camera, the more care should be 
exercised in ascertaining the distance. For universal focus use 
stop U. S. 16, 32 or 64 and set focusing indicator-at 25 to 30 feet. 

Aperture and Time.— The aperture (stop) and time of exposure 
are the governing points in making an exposure. 

For a given condition a number of different combinations of 
aperture and time will give satisfactory results. The larger 
the aperture the shorter the time. The smaller the aperature 
the better the detail of the picture becomes. In general it is 
desirable to use a fairly small aperture to get detail and as long 
a time as conditions permit. 

The correct combination of aperture and time is affected 
by the use of a tripod, movement of objects,>speed of plate or films 
used, altitude, latitude, season of the year, intensity of light 
and composition of the picture. This sounds comiplicated and is 
for the best results but fortunately considerable venation from the 
best timing will still produce a fairly good negative for all piactical 
purposes. 

Efifeot of Use of Tripod.--It is advisable to use a tripod for all 
engineering photography as it' prevents blurring by movemmts 
of the camera during exposures and makes it possible to use a 
small aperture, with the necessary time of exposure, to get '^good 
detail. If the. camera is held in the hands the time of exposure 
should be H 5 of a second or less and the aperture will have to be 
made large enough to allow this speed. 

Effect of Motion of Objects. — ^As a rule moving objects need 
not be photographed but if necessary the following speeds of ex- 
posure will stop motion. 



EFFECT OF ALTITUDE 427 

}^5 of a second will stop wind in foliage. 

J^o of a second will stop pedestrians and slow moving rigs. 

^00 oi a second distant trains. 

/^ootoHoooofa second near trains, automobiles, etc. 

The aperture must be regulated to allow these speeds. 

That is, time governs aperture where motion is encountered. 
Under most conditions, however, where a tripod is used aperture 
governs time and a small aperture is desirable in order to obtain 
detail. For most landscape engineering survey work a U. S. stop 
16, 32, or 64 is used and the time is varied to correspond with the 
stop selected. 

Bright sun use stop U. S. 64 or U. S. 32. 

Fair light use stop U. S. 32 or U. S. 16. 

Moderate Hght use stop U. S. 16 or U. S. 8. 

An aperture of U. S. 8 will give moderately good detail. 

^[>eed of Plate or Film. — Different makes have different speeds 
iMit there is no great variation in the speed of the ordinary roll 
films or speed pack films and the following exposure chart is based 
on the commercial film in ordinary use. 

Effect of Altitude. — Altitude has a marked effect on time of 
exposure. Exposure charts are worked out for sea level. 

Wilson topographic surveying quotes Mr. E. DeviUe as stating 
that altitude has practically no effect on timing when the sun is 
near the zenith in the middle of' the day but that as the sun ap- 
proaches the horizon the effect becomes evident. He gives the 
following relative time of exposure at sea level and 10,000 feet 
altitude. 



Altitude of Sun 


Relative Time of Exposure 


At 10,000 ft. Altitude 


At Sea Level 




I second 
I " 
I " 

I " . 


I second 

2 

3M " 



The rule generally used for ordinary engineering photography 
is to cut the time of exposure in half when you are working at an 
elevation of 5000 to 10,000 feet. 

Effect of Latitude. — Exposures at the equator require the shortest 
timing. 

As the latitude increased, the time of exposure increases. 

For example conditions requiring Ji 5 of a second at the equator 
requires ?i of a second in Alaska. 

Effect of Season of the Year. — The summer months require less 
exposure than the winter months. 



428 PHOTOGRAPHY 

For example conditions requiring an exposure of Ho o^ a second 
in sununer will require J^ of a second in winter, except that it must 
be remembered that snow on the ground changes the classification 
of "phase" discussed below. 

The chart on page 429 is prepared for sea level at average con- 
ditions of latitude and season in the United States and the effect 
of latitude and season can be disregarded for all practical purposes 
except for extreme cases as they have a relatively small effect 
for this territory as compared to light intensity and phase of the 
picture. 

The extreme variation from the chart will be approximately as 
follows; for winter months along the Canadian boundary, double 
the time of exposure given in the chart. For southern Florida 
in midsummer use ^ the time given in the chart. 

When it is borne in mind that this variation in relative exposure 
does not ruin a negative it can be seen that unless these extreme 
conditions of combined location and season prevail that the chart 
time without correction should give reasonably good results. 
Altitude should however be considered. 

EFFECT OF LIGHT AND PHASE 

Light Values. — ^Judgment and experience are essential if good» 
average negatives are to be secured. However, the following 
discussion of light values of different lights and phases of views 
may be of use. ^ There are five distinct conditions of light that are 
generally taken into consideration when calculating for an exposure. 

{A) Bright Sunlight, — ^When the sun is shining brightly in a 
cloucUess sky. 

(B) Light Clauds. — ^When a thin film of white clouds partially 
obscures the sun, but fairly well defined shadows are discernible. 

(C) Diffused Light, — ^An even light but no shadows. 

(D) DuU. — Sky covered with dull clouds with no sunlight 
penetrating. 

(E) Very Dull. — Sky overcast with very dark clouds. Gloomy. 
Phases of Views. — For the purpose of classifying views or sub- 
jects in a view — ^the five following phases are given: 

1. Landscapes. — This view contains distant landscapes, sea- 
scapes, snowclad hills, or broad expanses of river scenenr. Such 
views reflect a large percentage of actinic light, and snould be 
short timed or stopped down accordingly. 

2. Light Foreground.-^This view contains open fields and woods, 
flocks of live stock, buildings, and small expanses of water. 

3. Strong Foreground. — TWs view contains a large percentage 
of foliage, buildmgs close enough to make strong and distinct 
outlines, fences, figures, animals, well defined roadways, rock 
cliffs, or well defined hill slopes not over 400 feet from the camera, 
urban scenes where the sky line is serrated with buildmgs, or 
full views of concrete structures. 

4. Very Heavy Foreground. — This view contains close-ups of 
the following: landscapes having dark green foliage and shadows, 



TIME OF EXPOSURE 



429 



bridges aad other structures with he&yy shadows, and rock cliffs 
which are generally located in canyons where considerable direct 
light is shut out. 

5. Shaded Foregfound. — Under this caption comes, ravines, 
wooded hillsides, standing timber, under trees, and small dark 
box canyons where sun light b shut out by shadows.; 





1 








1 


/ 


n 














/ 














/ 
















/ 




H 

1=./, 

"/i 




































^y 






/ 


— 






•/ 
















>/ 


/ 










^ 




/ 












/ 


/ 








^ 




/^ 


/ 








^/ 


/&j 




/ 






A* 


vIj 




/ 






/ 




/ 








/.^ 




/ 
































































1 


1 


KU 




















































1 


■j 


^ 


1 


5 
^ 


t 

' 2 













.s 












J 






■S^^wS 




««-, 


ir' 


f 


llll 


S : ; ! 
■a : : : 


. 


1 . . 


i 


' 


f- 


i: 




H ' 






' 





CaaticO. — Great care must be exerdaed in making exposures for 
views under conditions for No. 5. Give plenty of time, and should 
doubt exist double the time taken from the diart and make another 



exposure. 
Bearing 



in mind the five conditions of light "A" t 



430 



PHOTOGRAPHY 



the five Phases of Views i ts>-^ enter the chart with the view as an 
argument. Along this line a number of combinations for time 
and stop may be had which will give satisfactory negatives. If 
detail is required, select a small stop, and from this get the time 
for Bright Sunlight "A." Should light conditions be other 
than "A" multiply the time obtained by the proper factor given 
below the chart. 

For Example, — Condition of light: Diffused "C." Phase of 
View: Strong Foreground No. 3. Suppose you desire to use 
stop U. S. 8, the time for bright sunlight is given as J^ second. 
Multiply this time by 2 the factor for diffused light getting Ji 
second as the exposure required. 

Note. — There are a number of meters now published which go 
into detail as to time, aperture, conditions of light and phases of 
view all of which give excellent results. These may be purchased 
from most any photo supply depot. 

Exposure Record. — In order that the photographer may have 
something upon which to check up his failures, identify each view 
in connection with the project in hand, and properly reference them 
in the files, an exposure record should be used and each exposure 
carefully recorded. This record may take any number of forms, 
but from experience the following is suggested, which has been 
filled out to show how it is intended the columns should be used. 



Roll No. 36. 



Exposure Made by Bill Jones 



Sept.- 



No. of 
Film 


Job 


Date 


Hour 


Light 


Stop 

4( r »» 


Time 


Subject. Descriptive 
Notes 


I 


Rabbit 
Ears 


^i 


9.00 


A 


16 
II 

22 
II 

8 
22 


Ko 


Sta. 1007+40. Looking 
Az. 170 deg. along tang. 
Rodman on Sta. 1006. 


2 


Rabbit 
Ears 


H 


10.00 


B 


>i 


Old timber br. at Sta. 
1026. Camera 60' to 
right of 1019-50 look- 
ing Az. 130 deg. (out of 
focus). 


3 


Rabbit 
Ears 


H 


10.30 


B 


H 


Sta. 1025 looking Az. 90 
deg., showing proposed 
Xing of river. Solid 
rock in extreme left of 
view. 


4 


Rabbit 
Ears 


H 


4.00 A 


Ho 


Sta. 1 09 1 looking Az. 
270 deg., showing Ama- 
zon Pass, Hopland and 
Big River Valley. 


S 


Tyeras 
Canyon 


H 


10.00 


C 


I sec. 


Sta. 1 1 07-45 looking Az. 1 
210 deg. Dense tim- 
ber along tangent. 


6 


Tyeras 
Canyon 


H 


3.00 


D 


iH 


Sta. 1 136 looking Az. 
336 deg. along tangent 
showing houses on nght- 
of-way. Close up view. 
Rodman on Sta. II37* 



431 



DON'TS 



Don't expect good results from snapshots taken before 9.00 
A. M. or after 5.00 P. M. even with sun shining brightly. 

Don't try to make snapshots under trees or in a shadow. Make 
a time exposure resting the camera on a firm base, or better still, 
use a tripod. Get the proper time from the chart. * 

Don't hold the camera in your hand when making exposures 
over' K5 of a -second. 

Don't attempt to make snapshots indoors. 

Never face the camera at the sun unless necessary and then be 
sure to shade your lens from direct rays of the sun. 

Always use small stops if detail is desired. 

Don't give time exposures to distant landscapes. The farther 
away the subject the less time is required. 

Buy only fresh films which will exactly fit your camera, and ob- 
serve the date on same beyond which no guarantee of value is given. 

Always turn the key bringing a new unexposed film into correct 
position after having made an exposure. 

After having exposed a roll take it from the camera, and before 
putting in a new roll, examine the lens, try shutter, and blow out 
any particles of dust that might have worked into the bellows. 

If after having made an exposure, the least doubt arises as to 
whether it was an overexposure, underexposure or double exposure, 
calculate for a stop and time, and proceed to make an exposure 
that will be satisfactory. This advise is of particular value to 
engineers, as it is not infrequent that the picture most needed is the 
one failure on the roll. The second exposure costs but ten cents. 
To secure it after the camp or work has been abandoned may 
cost a hundred dollars. 

Developing. — Fairly good prints may be secured from average 
negatives, but the best prints are obtained from good negatives. 
To obtain good negatives the exposure must be reasonably correct, 
and development must be done with fresh and pure chemicals in 
quantities called for in the respective formulae recommended by 
the makers of the plates or films used. 

The simplest, most convenient, and most certain method of 
development that has been worked out for films, is what is generally 
known as tank development. 

The equipment necessary to properly handle films of the size 
suggested in the beginning of this article is as follows: 

I E. C. Eastman tank No. 5E7 complete. 

15X7 Gutta-percha tray. 

I 32 oz. Measuring glass. 

I Stirring rod. 

I Thermometer. 

I or more pairs of film clips. 

1 Dripping pan enameled, about 9" X 12". 

The chemicals required for one roll of films are : 

I Tank developing powder for 5 X 7 tank. 

4 oz. of hypo with acidifier. 

Plenty of clear pure water having a temperature of 65° F. 






432 PHOTOGRAPHY 

As no dark room is required the development may be carried 
on at any time, and the process is as follows: 

Dissolve the developing powder as per directions, using the 
developing tank, testing Uie same with the thermometer so that 
the solution when ready shall have temperature of 65^F. Set tlus 
aside. 

Thorougfily rinse the measuring glass, and in i6 fluid ounces 
of water, di^lve the 4 ounces of hypo and addifier. Pour this 
solution, know as fixer, into the 5X7 tray. Thoroughly rinse 
the measuring and glass stirring rod. 

Prepare the films as directed in instructions accompanying the 
developing tank outfit, and wind it onto the opaque curtain. 

This operation takes place in the light proof box. 

Remove the spool containing the curtain and film, and place it 
in the tank containing developing solution, firmly fastening the top 
on the tank. Turn the tank end for end two or three times, holding 
it vertically for five or ten seconds each time, so as to expel all 
air from between the folds of the curtain, and insure complete 
contact between the developing solution and the film. At the 
moment of immersion, record the time, and permit development 
to go on for the specified time given for the temperature of the 
solution. If using Eastman Tank Developing Powder, and solution 
is 65''F., the time of development should be 20 minutes. 
Invert the tank every 5 or 7 minutes so that even development 
may be obtained. 

Development having been completed, fill the dripping pan with 
fresh water, take the spool from the tank, and working rapidly, 
unroll the apron or curtain until the end of the film is visible. 
Firmly clamp a film clip, to this end of the film. Now lift the end 
of the film by this clip, unrolling it from the curtain until the other 
end of the film is free, and damp another clip on this end. Rinse 
the film in the dripping pan of fresh water, running it through three 
or four times. Change to fixing bath, and run film through rapidly ' 
three or four times, making sure that the entire surface of the film 
is flooded with the solution, thus insuring that development is 
completely arrested. 

Continue washing in the fixer until the film is dear. This will 
take from 7 to 10 minutes. Rinse in clear, cool, running water 
for one-half hour, or in 20 changes of water allowing the fikn to 
remain three to five minutes in each change After rinsing, . 
suspend the film from a wire or hook, so that the same will hang 
free and permit it to dry. Do not touch the surface until perfectly 
diy. If the film has a tendency to curl during drying, leave it 
alone. The weight of the dip at the lower end will be sufl&cient 
to correct this. 

When perfectly dry, trim the ends so as to leave as much un- 
exposed nlm as there is between the exposures. Before cutting 
the film, place it on a table, back up, and under vertical views, 
or to the left of horizontal views, inscribe the information contained 
in the 8th column of the exposure record, together with the index 



FAILURES 433 

or filing number, using india ink. ^ Place the index or filing number 
in a convenient space usually the'^upper left hand comer. 

Cut the filn\^ taking particular care that in so doing the legend 
and the view to which it applies, are together.^ Do not use scissors 
to cut the film, as this unless cleverljr done, is apt to produce an 
irregular edge which is difficult to fit mto the mask. Use straight 
edge and sharp pointed knife, or better still a trimmer, the latter 
costing about I1.75. 

All operations to this point having been correctly performed, 
films will be uniform, have a neat and workmanlike appearance, 
and bear complete information as to date, subject, station from 
where taken, and index number. The film so labeled will be special, 
specific, and sufficient; special because it applies to a certain project, 
specific because it pertains to a particular point of feature of the 
project, and sufficient because it gives complete information. 

CAUSES OF FAILUBES 

Not Sharp, i. Objects moving or moving too fast. 

2. Out of focus. 

3. Camera being moved during exposure. 
Under Time, i. Use of too small stop. 

2. Light too weak. 

3. Exposures too short. 
No Exposure, i. Failure to set shutter. 

2. Failure to release shutter. 

3. Something in front of lens. 

Double Exposure, i. Failing to wind up film after making 

exposure. 
Fogged. I. Camera leaks light. 

2. Carelessness in loading or unloading. 

3. Taking pictures against sun. 
Over Timed. i. Stop too large. 

2. Too much time given. 

Printing. — Equipment additional to that required for film 
developing: 

I Printing frame 5X7. 

I Gutta-percha tray 5X7. 

I Orange light. 

I Dish pan from camp kitchen. 

Developing powders. (One tube of M-Q develops 18 

prints of the size herein mentioned.) 
4 oz. H3rpo with acidifier. 
4 oz. Bottle potassium bromide, 10% solution. 
Quantity of 5 X 7 developing out paper, Azo preferred. 

ProGedure. — Prepare the developer by dissolving the contents 
of the tube as per direction thereon, and pour the solution into one 
tray, not the one used for fixing bath. In order that no doubt 



436 CAMP EQUIPMENT 

CAMP EQUIPMENT 

We would not have thcltemerity to recommend camp iequip- 
ment any more than we would dare advise a woman on cooking 
utensils. It is a delicate subject on which most campers have 
tiieir own pet notions. The following lists are more in the nature 
of reminders than anything else and are based on outfits in ordinary 
use on mountain road surveys in the west where equipment can 
be moved by wagon. 

Outfit for an 8 or. lo Man Party on Locatioa Surveys 

Table Ware 

White enamelware dishes unless otherwise noted. 

Item Appioz. Value 

la Cups, 3H" diameter la . oo 

la Saucers^ 6" ** i . 8o 

3 Salt shakers (large) aluminum o.6o 

1 ** shaker (small) " o . lo 

la Table forks (retinned) i . So 

24 Tea spoons ** o .60 

a Meat platters, 16" i .00 

3 Pepper shakers (small) aluminum o .60 

z ^* shaker (large) " 6 .60 

la Plates, 9" 2 • So 

13 Table knives (retinned) z . 80 

la •• 8];>oons ** o . so 

a Water pitchers 1.50 

2 Syrup " 1 .50 

12 Soup bowls, 5" a . so 

la Sauce dishes, s" i • 80 

a Sugar bowls, 6" i . SO 

Total value tableware $aa .40 

Say $25.00 

Cooking Utensils 

Item Approximate Value 

I Butcher knife 10" $1 . 00 

a ** knives 8" i . 00 

I •• knife 18" (steel) i.oo 

1 Bread board o . so 

2 Bastins spoons, 14" (retinned) o . ao 

• 2 Berlin kettles, 10 quart (aluminum) 3 • 00 

3 " " 6 " " 4.00 

I '• " s " " 100 

I " •♦ 4 *' " 1.00 

3 Bowls, 10" diameter earthenware i . So 

4 Buckets, 10 quart galvanized iron i . SO 

I 0>ffee boiler, iH gallon, gray enamel o .70 

I ** *' 3 quart (aluminum) 10 .00 

a Carving forks, wire (3 prong) o .30 

I Cake turner (retinned, perforated) . 10 

3 Can openers o . 50 

I (^llander, 9" (aluminum) i . 80 

I Dishpan, 17 quart (retinned) o . 75 

I •• ,14 " " 0.60 

3 Dippers, i pint " o . so 

I Dnp pan. 9"X 11" " o. 25 

I " '* io"Xia" " 0.25 

I " •• ii"Xi6" " o.as 

la Dish towels 2 .00 

1 Egg beater (family size) 0.15 

2 Prying pans, 13" diameter steel .65 



EQUIPMENT 437 

I Prying pan I iH" diameter steel 0.35 

1 Flour sieve (tin) 2 quart o . ao 

2 Funnels (large) o . 40 

2 " (small) o.io 

I Grater o. 10 

I Jar for bread yeast, 3 gallon . . . . : o. 75 

I Iron griddle, 20" X 12'' cast iron a . SO 

I Meat saw i . 80 

I " chopper o. so 

I ** grinder i . 50 

I " cleaver, 8" i . 50 

I Milk pan, 6 quart (retinned) o . 5« 

3 Paring knives 0.40 

13 Pie tins 2.2s 

z Quart cup (retinned) . 30 

I Rolling pm. aV' X lo^" o. 15 

I Stove pot 2 . 10 

z Skimmer (aluminum) o . as 

a Soup^ ladles, 3" diameter 0.40 

3 Serving pans, la" diameter white enamel 1.7s 

4 •* *' 7" I.7S 

X Tte pot, X gallon white enamel 0.60 

I Cook stove, 6 hole range, 18" X 18" X xa" oven, 

top a6" X 31" (30" high), weight approx. aso lb. as. 00 

Total cooking utensils $77 . 7S 

Say 180 . 00 

Hardware^ 

Item Approx* 

Value 

4 Axes, 3H lb S6 . 00 

i ** iH lb. with sheath (hand) S • 00 

Axe handles a . 00 

a Brush hooks or machetes. 3 . 00 

1 Cold chisel, small, 6" o . 10 

X Carborundum stone i . ao 

z Claw hammer, standard. x6 os o. 80 

4 C^mp beaters with s jmnts nestible pipe (Sibley) 16 . 00 

a Files, mill bastard, 8^' o . so 

I Hasp ^ 0. SO 

5 Oil lanterns iK"-i?i" "wick Stalif 5. 00 

3 Gasoline lanterns, Qtucklite" 17 . 00 

a Picks, railroad a . so 

a Pick handles i .60 

I Pliers, 7" lineman's i . xo 

5 Piece nestible stove pipe for cooking stove z . os 

z Screw driver, 18" o. 40 

3 Sheath blocks C. I., W or H" rope 3 -oo 

a Shovels, sharp ];>ointed, long handles a . so 

I Saw, 4', one man in case 3 . ao 

a Sledges, 8 lb a .so 

. 6 * handlea. a . 40 

I Saw, a6", 7 point, No. 7 Diston z .80 

4 Stove pipe protectors, asbestos' 9 • 00 

x Tool grinder. No. 6 American — 

6 Boxes tacks, carpet, 8 oz o. so 

Nails, 8d and aod i .00 

3 Balls twine . so 

a Tubs, 34" diameter galvanized iron a . so 

z Whetstone o. 10 

X Washboard brass, loH" X nK" 0.60 

4 Washbasins, enameled ware i . 00 

xoo' Wire baling o.as 

I Wedge, sphtting. No. 5 Truckee z . 10 

I Wrench, monkey. 8" i .00 

I96.70 
Say tioo . 00 



438 CAMP EQUIPMENT 

Tents, Tables and Miscellaneous 

Item Approx. 

Value 

2 Tents, 14' X 16' I180.00 

3 *• 10' X 12' 110.00 

I Tent, 7' X 9' 20 .00 

I Kitchen table (see Figure 87, page 442) 15. 00 

I Canvas mess table (see Figure 88, page 443) 25 . 00 

3 Equipment chests (see Figure 86, page 440) 40 . 00 

I Mess box with padlock 5 • 00 

1 Lantern box (see page 440) 5 • 00 

2 Lunch baskets 3 . 80 

6 Canvas chairs 6 . 00 

4 ** saddle bags 16 . 00 

4 '• note book shoulder bags 6 , 00 

2 *• water bag^, 2H gal 2 . so 

3 Canteens, 2 qt. with webbing and strap S • 00 

100' H" rope 1 .00 

48 Clothes pins o . 20 

1 Alarm clock 2 . 50 

2 Scrub brushes, i>^" X 4" . 25 

I2S' H" rope 4 00 

5 Yards oil cloth, white i . 40 

2 Brooms i . 60 

I Spring balance, so lb o . 40 

I Sail maker's palm with needles, twine and wax .... i . 65 
I Shoemaker's outfit containing semi-steel, stand, 

2 lasts and pegging awl 2 . 00 

12 Hand towels 2 . so 

I Medicine chest with remedies 30 . 00 

I486. 80 
Say $Soo . 00 



Depreciation on Camp Equipment 

Table ware $ 25 . 00 

Hardware 100 . 00 

Cooking utensils 80. 00 

Tents, etc 495 . 00 



Total * $700.00 

Allowing for ordinary wear, accident, loss, etc., this equipment is 
probably good for three years. Allowing 50 miles of survey per 
season for each party which is a fair average, the equipment is 
good for 150 miles of survey or at the rate of $4.50 per mile which 
is a reasonably close charge for the use of camp equipment on survey 
work of this character. 



TENT LAYOUT 



439 



MATERIAL LIST. 

hl4xie'Tenf 
4-/2^'x'f> Cenier Poles. 
d'S^'x ?> Side Poles . 
1^2^x3" f Shtkes 
^M'lS'xZ" 4» Pegs. 




Pig. 85. — ^Layout diagram. 



440 



CAMP EQUIPMENT 




Fron+ View: 



3-$'nefal Strap Itnges 







^C<f ui pmerrt- Box 



i 



9'Ttkfal strap Hingts an^ach Box 

Frorrt- Vievc 

L afi* 




£nol Viewt 

OV Timber to b9 Fir^t 
6md€ Mafive Pfn^. 
An%faiirfstob€S€t 
9^fh2g Cowttvsunb 




y| IB. S-^^Ji 



Each Box -to reee/ve 
One Printing Coal" 
mtd OneCoatof 
YtMmish. 



End View. 



Lani-ern Box. 



Pkin with Top Removed . 



*^ 



Fig. 86. 



TENT HEATER 




OnSli—tlli Ht' lip mod, ' 
i-attelllnOnt Piter. 



442 



CAMP 



.^; 






1 ,o! 



»^i: _ _ _ -i^ _ f^lJl 




.t-. 



S*4fe View. 




Detail II0.3. 
Pig. 87. — Folding kitchen camp table. 



MESS TABLE 



443 



k5> -^2 




Imps fo^ Stcunlif Serewedon Ont 
Sick on I u. 



'^ WV^- 9 







Hiiytsio^Steini^ 
^ Scrtwtd. 



Side View. 



Horeea 



SuDtfuil^ 
Ko.1. .^fffSa% 

End View. 



f oc^ 5lrip fo b9 rivfttd" 
I ..' ass/town. ^, 



I -r 



j 



fl| 




Strips to b€ of Oak. 
fxrx3'on4'Centers. 



Uh Z^ ot. White Canvas 



/y-fi-:^: 



"• " / • >■ 



f \^ C All Edges of Canvas tobt turned under 

I Hnch and Sewed. 
ftffTB \ 2- Z' Leather Straps 60 inches iM^ii^ 







Plan of Toble. ^^ 



\ Buckles toi>e oifached to Under $ide of ^ 

V Canvas to ^ind Top when ffolled, » _ 

s' J.L V 




(Morijonhrl/y 
for Seat. /■ ^/ 

Widthoflron f 

Pin Holes to be Lined I (2 £xtra Holts iobt made 't 'Jr^ 

ttjthf'6as Pipe ^l on one End onltj to allow 

[for Shrinkage in Canvas,^ 

Detail No.2, P«*9UKo.l 

Pig. 88. — Portable mess tables. 




444 



CAMP EQUIPMENT 



Survey Party 
Ration — (one man one day) 



Article 



Unit 



Quantity 



Fresh meat. . . . 

Cured meat 

Lard 

Flour 

Corn meal 

Baking powder. 

Sugar 

Coffee 

Tea 



Butter 

Dried fruit 

Rice, beans or hominy. 

Potatoes 

Salt 



Flav. extracts 

Spices 

Milk, condensed 

Canned fruits 

Vegetables (fresh or canned) 

Syrup 

Pickles. 

Eggs 

Breakfast foods 

•Miscellaneous cost 



pounds 
(( 

(( 

(I 

(( 

i( 

(( 

(( 

(( 

n 

tt 

IC 

(( 
II 

ounces 

(( 

cans 

(( 

pounds 

n 

nos. 
pounds 



0.70 
0.30 
0.14 
0.70 
0.05 
0.02 

0.35 
0.05 
,01 

14 
10 

.10 
00 
04 
03 
05 
40 

18 
0.50 
0.06 
0.03 

2H 
0.08 

2}ic. 



o, 
o. 
o, 
o. 
I. 
o. 
o. 
o. 
o. 
o. 



* Miscellaneous includes, crackers, yeast, chile powder, soda, salad, oil. 



catsup, chocolate, llemons, soap,^sai)olio, candles,^ matches, oil and wood. 
'.nallo 

for one can. 



An allowance of 2 He per ration sfaomd easily 8ui>ply these items. 
Note. — Fresh muk may be substituted for condensed at 



a rate of i quart 



Cost of Ration. — ^The cost of feeding one man per day including 
cook's salary based on 5000 man day rations in 1918 on Western 
Mountain iJocation Surveys averaged ti.30. 

Preliminary Investigation Outfit 

Where one man is traveling alone on foot and will be out of 
touch with habitation for a day or so at a time a simple outfit 
carried in a knapsack or pack basket will serve very sati^actorily. 

I Waterproof canvas sleeping bag $15 . 00 

I Light oelt axe, i . 00 

I Small fry pan o. 25 

I Cup with long handle for heating water o. 25 

Knife, fork and spoon o. 50 

Matches in bottle or waterproof case o.io 

Small emergency food supply 2 . 00 

Personal supplies 

Canteen in arid regions 

This whole pack will not weigh over 30 lb. and can be easily 
ifried. 



PERSONAL HYGIENE 445 

NOTES ON PERSONAL HYOIBNS AND CAMP MBDICINB 

General Note. — Anyone responsible for a party of men in the field should 
make a careful study of this subject. Miscellaneous Publication No. 17 
of the United States Health Service on the "Prevention of Disease and 
Care of the Sick" can be obtained by anyone free of charge and covers in a 
very thorough manner the points that we can only touch on in a book of 
this character. MucH of the data following is quoted or briefed from this 
source supplemented by the author's personal ezi)erienoe. The material on 
First Aid m quoted verbatim from Bulletin No. 17 of the U. S. PubUc Health 
Service by courtesy of that department. 

Personal Hygiene. — Camp life is at its best a dirtv proposition and 
every care should be taken to retain as far as possible the ordmary regular 
and cleanly personal habits. Proper clothing should be worn, excess in 
eating or drinking should be avoided, the bowels should be kept regralar. the 
body clean and the teeth and feet well cared for. Many a novice in camp- 
ing goes without the ordinary personal toilet articles either because he 
thinks that under the circumstances they are not in good form or because 
he forgets them, but it should be remembered that for anyone accustomed 
to their use, the lack of a tooth brush often causes sore mouth or gums; 
the lack of toilet paper often causes piles and that a razor adds wonderfully 
to the enjoyment 01 the Sunday in camp. 

Clottilng. — In high altitudes heavv woolen underwear should be worn 
even if the middaj temperature is high as the rapid cooling at night is 
injurious unless this precaution is taken. Mountain fever is often brought 
on by overheating and chilling caused by the rapid cooling at night. If 
the work involves wetting by fording cold streams or intense rain, woolen 
clothing is essential. Under these conditions if the air tem];>erature is low 
the woolen clothes should be worn until dried at a fire and never removed 
while^ wet. If the air temperature is high particularly in the tropics wet 
clothing should be removed immediately and dried. 

In the tropics silk or silk wool light underwear next to the sldn adds to 
the comfort. Flannel about the abdomen must be worn at all times. 

The army campaign hat of the heavy felt sombrero ty];>e is very com- 
fortable for all ordinary work. The close fitting canvass fur lined caps for 
cold weather and the pith helmet for tropical conditions. The more intense 
the sun the heavier the head covering should be. 

In intense light, colored glasses with side flaps fitting closely to the temples 
add greatly to the comfort and prevent eye troubles such as snow blind- 
ness, etc. 

Where much walking is done heavy cotton socks are desirable in warm 
weather and heavy woolen socks in cold weather. Socks should be free 
from holes or lumpy dams and should be frequently changed. 

Rubber boots should not be used. 

Leather shoes with heavy extension soles are the most satisfactory even 
in snow or water. Four buclde arctics mav be worn over them in snow. 
For intense cold German felt socks and felt boots are desirable. 

For ordinary summer conditions kaki trousers and a light flannel shirt 
is a satisfactory outside rig. For cold weather a tight woven canvas trouser 
worn over a warm woolen trouser keeps the wind out and the heat in and a 
sheep lined or blanket lined leather or moleskin pea jacket makes a suitable 
body covering. In rain an oilskin slicker is better than a rubber coat. 

In steep wooded side hill work in a rattlesnake county stiff canvas leggins, 
tis^t woven canvas trousers and leather gauntlet gloves are desirable. 

Bedding. — The most satisfactory portable camp bed is the waterproof 
canvas sleeping bag lined with woolen blankets. In this connection it 
should be noted that if it is possible to do so avoid sleeping on wet ground. 

Diet — Stick to your normal diet but avoid overeating or drinking. In 
extremely hot weather avoid heavy meats. On a long tramp in hot weather 
do not drink water freely.^ More endurance results from controlling your 
thirst. Do not use alcoholic liquors except for medicinal purposes. 

Be very careful of the drinking water; impure drinking water causes 
typhoid fever, d]rsentery and malarial complaints. Boiling is the surest 
method of treating doubtful water. Muddy water should be filtered. 

A bath should be taken once a day but prolonged immersion particularly 
in cold water is injurious and lowers the vitality. Soaking the feet in cold 
water tends to toughen them. 

Care of Mouth and Teelli. — Before going on a camping trip get a dentist 
to put your teeth in perfect condition. There is nothing more annoying 



446 



CAMP MEDICINE 



than a bad toothache under conditions where expert treatment is not 
available. If toothache develops accompanied by swelling locate the cavity 
and break into it allowing the gases to escape. If the toothache is a sharp 
shooting pain with no swelling it is probably an exposed nerve. Pack the 
cavity with cotton saturated with clove oil, laudanum or chloroform. If 
toothache develops without an apparent cavity the application of heat to 
the seat of the pain will often cause relief. 

The teeth should be brushed at least twice a day using a good tooth 
powder or castile soap. 

An unclean condition of the mouth renders a person more liable to attacks 
of influenza, bronchitis and pneumonia. 

Care of the Feet.i — i. A good marching shoe should be large enough in all 
directions, but not too large. If the foot moves in the shoe it is liable to 
chafe and blister. A common defect in shoes is that they are too tight over 
the instep and too loose across the ball of the foot. If the leather forward 
of the instep is too slack, wrinkles will form. Folds of leather and rough 
inner seams should be avoided. ^ The inner edge of the shoe should be almost 
straight, the sole thick and wide, projecting beyond the upper leather. 
The heel should be low and broad, and the toe of the shoe should be of such 
a length that there will be no pressure on the ends of the toes or toenails. 

2. The toenails should be cut straight across, a little behind the end of 
the toe, and should not be rounded. Any tendency to ingro\i^ng should 
receive treatment at once. 

3. Corns and callosities are due to pressure and friction from unhygienic 
shoes. When between the toes they are soft; on other parts they are dry 
and hard. They often render men unfit for duty. 

Treatment. — (a) Remove the cause by wearing hygienic shoes. Soak 
the feet well in hot water, thoroughly disinfecting them with bichloride 
(i part bichloride of mercury to 2000 parts water) or other disinfectant 
and then pare the corn or callus down with a sharp knife without wounding 
the skin. The hands of the person and the knife should be sterilized before 
the operation is performed. Fragments of glass and sandpaper should 
not be used on corns. Persons should be cautioned about the care and 
treatment of corns as a slight wound of the foot ma^ lead to lockjaw or 
blood poisoning. Soft corns should be treated by applying a dusting powder 
like anstol on cotton or gauze between the toes. 

(6) Apply the following collodion paint with a camel's-hair brush, night 
and morning, for several days, then soak the feet in hot water, and the corn 
will come away painlessly: 

Acid salicylic i dram 

Extract cannabis indicae 10 grains . 

CoUodii I ounce 

M. C. Corn paint. 

4. Blisters. — Save the skin; drain at the lowest point with a clean needle* 
Protect with adhesive plaster. ^ 

5. Excessive and Foul Perspiration. — Excessive perspiration often leads 
to foot soreness, blisters, fissures, and corns and may be offensive. 

(a) Mild cases will be relieved by dusting into the shoe and onto the foot 
the following "foot powder." 

Acid salicylic 3 parts 

Pulverized amyli 10 parts 

Talci • 87 parts 

This foot powder may be used with benefit before a march, especially 
in case of sore or tender feet. •; 

(b) Severe cases will be relieved bv soaking the feet, after a preliminary 
scrub with soap and water, in a solution of permanganate of potassium. 
The stain should be left on the feet. The solution should be gradually in* 
creased from i per cent, to 6 -per cent, and the treatment continued nightly 
for three weeks. The foot powder should be used during the day. 

(c) Another method of treatment is to sprinkle a few drops of formalin 
into the shoe each morning. ■ - , 

6. The feet should be well greased with tallow or neat's foot oil before a 

i Quoted from the Landing Force and Small Arms Instructions <^ the 
U. S. Navy. 




VERMIN 447 

march; or the inside of the stockinjss should be covered with a stiff lather 
of common yellow soap well rubbed xn, or the foot powder may be freely used, 

7. Should the stockings cause pain, the pressure is sometimes relieved 
by shifting them to the other foot or by turning them inside out. Within 
two> hours after reaching camp the feet should be wiped off with a wet 
cloth, clean stockings put on, and those which are removed washed for the 
following day, if possible. 

8. Men unaccustomed to marching may toughen their feet by soaking 
them in strong, tepid, alum water (a teaspoonful to a pint.) 

Fly and Mosquito Dopes. — During certain seasons field work is made very 
annoying in thickly wooded county oy flies and mosquitoes and unless some 
relief is obtained a man taking notes gets nervous and makes mistakes. 

Small flies such as punkies and mosquitoes will not bite if the face and 
hands are covered with oil of citronella or a mixture of H wood tar oil and 
yi sweet oil. The^ citronella evaporates rapidly and has to be renewed at 
short intervals but it does not stain a notebook: and has a rather pleasing odor. 

The tar oil is more lasting and is more effective but is rather of a dirty 
looking mess although the odor is not unpleasant. It will stain a notebook 
or plam table sheet and can not well be used on the hands of a man doing 
this class of work. 

Insect Bites and Stings. — Spider bites and bee stings can be relieved by 
moistened baking soda applied on the bite or Hartshorn and water half 
and half. Ice cold water will reduce the swelling after the pain has been 
relieved. 

Vermin and Insect Pests. — Accidents will happen in the best regulated 
families and the author has often frantically hunted for a cure for these 
evils that are encountered in logging camps and picked up in all sorts of ways. 

Fleas. — A house may be rid of fleas by sprinkling flaked naphthalene on 
the floors and leaving the rooms closed for a numoer of hours. Kerosene 
will kill them. Chloroform is useful in killing fleas on the body as it can 
be i>oured through the clothing directly on the spot where the flea is located. 

Lice. — There are three kinds of lice, head lice, body lice and crab lice. 

The following data on vermin is quoted from the Health Service Bulletin 
No. 17. 

*• Every effort should be made to free the body from lice and their eggs if 
one should be so unfortunate as to become infested with these insects. 
The head louse is destroyed by washing the hair with a mixture of equal 
parts of kerosene and vinegar, care being taken that it does not run down 
over the face or neck. The vinegar dissolves the sticky substance which 
binds the nits to the hair, and the kerosene kills the lice. Gasoline is as 
effective as kerosene, but it should not be used as its inflammability is much 
greater than kerosene. The danger of burning a patient in case either of 
these preparations is employed should be borne in mind, and the patient 
shouldTbe outdoors at the time of application and remain outside until the 
hair becomes dry. Several applications at intervals of two or three days 
are required, as the nits, or eggs, are hard to kill. These may sometimes be 
combed from the hair with a fine-toothed comb. The body louse. Uves in 
the clothing, so this should be. boiled or baked. If this is impossible the 
clothing, and especially the seams, should be ironed with a hot iron. An 
efficient method is to soak the clothing in gasoline, or the vapor of gasoline 
may be forced through them. Another less expensive method is to put the 
clothes for half an hour in a soapy solution to which 2 per cent, of tri- 
chlorethylene has been added. A good application. to the body is a solution 
made by mixing i part of gasoline with 3 parts of vaseline. This prepara- 
tion is noninflammable under . working conditions.^ An ointment made by 
mixing 5 parts of naphthalene with 95 parts vaseline is also useful for this 
purpose. Pubic lice, commonly known as "crabs," are destroyed by the 
application of white precipitate, or mercurial ointment. 

" Lenz found that he could eradicate lice from prisoners at Pucheim (near 
Munchen) by means of finely powdered naphthalene. A handful of this 
material is put into the patient s clothing, introduced through the opening 
at the neck. He is made to sleep at night with all his clothes on. The body 
heat causes the naphthalene to evaporate, the vapor killing not only the 
lice but also most of the eggs. This treatment should be repeated every 
four days for a period of twelve days. 

•' In the British Army a powder composed of naphthalene (96 parts) , 
creosote (2 parts), and iodoform (2 parts) is used. About two-thirds of 
I ounce is required for each man. Two tablespoonfuls of an ointment made 



448 



CAMP MEDICINE 



of crude mineral oil (9 parts), soft soap (5 parts), and water (i part) is 
rubbed into the interior seams of the clothing. Articles of underclothing 
are treated by dipping and wrin^ng them out in a solution of i per cent, 
each of naphthalene and sulphur m benzene or gasoline. 

" Itch Mite. — The itch mite is a small parasite which burrows into' the 
skin and produces a disease known as the itch or scabies. , The irritation 
produced by the mite causes scratching, which results in excoriations, 
papules, and postules at places where the mite has entered. 

*' Preyention. — A person with the itch should be careful not to shake hands 
with other persons. He should use separate towels and sleep in a bed by 
himself. He should, as far as possible, keep away from other people, par- 
ticularly children, as they are especially susceptible to the disease. 

" Treatment. — The patient should take a hot bath, using plenty of soap, 
and an ointment composed of powdered sulphur (a teaspoonfuls) and 
vaseline (8^ tablespoonfuls) should then be well rubbed into the skin. The 
treatment is continued for three nights, and on the morning of the fourth day 
the patient takes a bath and puts on clean clothing. If there is burning of 
the skin, a little zinc ointment may be rubbed in. The underwear and 
bed clothing should be boiled and the outerclothing ironed or baked. The 
treatment should be repeated after an interval of three or four days if 
itching is still present. Another method of treatment is to rub the body 
with powdered sulphur every night for a week after taking a bath and also 
sprinkle it between the bed sheets at night, and on the underwear during 
the day. The sheets and underwear should be changed each day. 

*• Ticks. — Ticks are believed to feed upon blood alone. ^ They attach 
themselves to the skin of man and animals and partly burrow into it. They 
hold on tenaciously. If carelesslypulled off, the head may be torn £rom the 
body and remain in the skin. Tne eggs of ticks are deposited upon the 
ground. The larvae are six-legged creatures which catch hold of any animal 
within their reach. After becoming engorged with blood the larva drops 
off and changes to the third or nymph stage. The nymph, after obtainixxjg 
more blood and shedding its skin, changes to the adult insect. The tick is 
instrumental in spreadixig Rocky Mountain spotted fever throughout some 
parts of the country. It should be removed from the skin by means of 
hartshorn, kerosene, turpentine, or carbolized vaseline, which prevent the 
head remaining in the skin. Persons traveling through woods or other 
places in a tick-infested country should stop and search their bodies every 
two or three hours and remove any ticks that may have attached them- 
selves thereto. 

" Bedbugs. — The presence of bedbugs in dwellings is indicative of want 
of care and cleanliness as to bed, bedclothes, etc., and means should be 
taken to exterminate them when they appear. A liberal api)lication of 
kerosene oil to the places infested is prooably the b«it means of lolling them. 
There are preparations of gasoline or naphtha sold which leave no stain 
when sprayed on painted or papered walls. Badly infested rooms may be 
freed from bedbugs by fumigating with sulphur, using 2 pounds of sulphur 
to every thousand feet. 

" Roaches. — Roaches are believed to be responsible for the conveirance of 
tuberculosis, diphtheria, tjrphoid fever, tonsillitis, and possibly some other 
disease. Thejr spread these diseases by carrying the organisms on their 
feet and in their intestinal canals and disseminating them over food supplies, 
boolra. and other articles in daily use. Theyare especially abundant m the 
galleys of vessels and in damp kitchens. They appear at night after the 
fights have been turned off and overrun everytning in the room. Roaches 
can be quickly, cheaply, and completely exterminated from ships and 
houses by the use of sodium fluorid. This should be spread with a rubber 
powder blower on the floors near the walls and on shelves in closets. The 
powder does not suffocate the insects, but sticks to their feet. They clean 
it off with their mouths, some of it being swallowed and causing the death 
of the insect. As sodium fluorid is poisonous to man in doses of a table- 
spoonful or more care should be taken not to spread it over articles that 
are to be eaten." 



SUPPLIES 



449 



List of Medical and Surgical Supplies for Medicine Chests 
Medical Supplies (U..iS. Health Bulletin, No. 17) . 



For Vessels 



For Homes 

and 
Factories 



Item 



I pound 
I pint 

3 ounces 
H pint 

100 
I yard 

4 ounces 
100 



100 
}4 pound 
I pound 
100 
100 
100 . 



TOO 

H pint 
I pmt 
I pint 
100 


xoo 
A ounces 
H pint 
>i pint 

100 


100 

I pint 
100 


100 

I pint 
100 


I ounce 
I pint 
I ounce 


H ounce 
}i pint 
I ounce 


2 pounds 
H pint 
4 ounces 
I pound 
z pint 
z pint 
zoo 


1 pound 
4 ounces 

2 ounces 
H pound 

I pint 
M pint 
100 


4 ounces 
I pint 


2 ounces 
H pint 


H pound 
2 ounces 


4 ounces 
2 ounces 


H pound 
I ounce 
I pint 

H pint 


A ounces 
H ounce 

I pint 
H pint 


H pint 

100 
z pint 
I pint 

100 


4 ounces 
100 

I pint 
H pint 
100 


100 


100 



1 pound 
H pint 

2 ounces 
4 ounces 

100 

I yard 
4 ounces 

TOO 



100 

A ounces 
^ pound 
100 
100 
100 



Absorbent cotton. 

Alcohol. 

Argyrol; 10 per cent, solution. 

Aromatic spirit of ammonia. 

Aspirin, 5-grain tablets. 

Belladonna plaster (i year). 

Bicarbonate of soda (baking soda). 

POISON. Bichloride of mercury. Anti- 

septic tablets of 7*3 grains each. One 

tablet to a pint of Vater makes solution i 

I)art of bichloride to 1000 of water. 
Bismuth subnitrate, 5-grain tablets. 
Borax. 

Boric acid (boracic acid) powdered. 
Bromide of potash, s-gram tablets. 
Brown mixture lozenges. 
Calomel and soda tablets, each Ho g^ftin of 

calomel and Ho grain of bicarbonate of 
'soda; amber-colored bottle (i year). 
Calomel and soda tablets, each H grain of 

calomel and i grain of bicarbonate of 

soda; amber colored bottle (i year). 
POISON. Camphor and opium pills. 
Camphorated oil. 

POISON. Carbolic acid, liquid, pure. 
Castor oil. 

Chlorate of potash, 5-G[rain tablets. 
Compound cathartic pills, vegetable. 
POISON. Compound solution of cresol. 
Copaiba, 5-minim capsules. 
POISON. Creosote, beechwood. 
Dobell's solution. 
Ear drops, formula: Carbolic acid, i fluid 

dram; glycerin, 7 fluiddrams; well mixed. 
Epsom salt. 

Essence Jamaica ginger. 
Essence of peppermint. 
Flaxseed meal (linseed meal). 
POISON. Formalin (i year). 
Glycerin. 

Iodide of potash, 5-grain tablets. 
POISON. Laudanum (i year). 
POISON. Lead and opium wash. Shake 

well before using. 
Magnesia, calcined, heavy. 
Menthol solution; Menthol, 3 grains liquid, 

petrolatum, i ounce. 
Mustard. 

POISON. Oil cloves. 
Olive oil (sweet oil). 
POISON. Oil of wintergreen (methyl 

salicylate). 

POISON. Paregoric. 
Permanganate of potash, 5-grain tablets. 
Peroxide of hydrogen solution (i year). 
POISON. Picric acid, }i per cent, solution. 
Quinine sulphate, 5-grain tablets. 
Salicylate ox soda, 5-grain tablets.'^ 



450 



CAMP MEDICINE 



Meimcai. Svftubs — jComtimmei) 



PorV. 



For Homes 

and 

Factories 



Item 



lOO 

H Vint 
I quart 

lOO 
JOO 

H pint 

H pound 

I pint 

Hpint 

H pint 

H pmt 

I pint 

I pound 

I pound 



lOO 

4 ounces 
I pint 
lOO 

lOO 

J 4 ounces 

4 ounces 

H pint 

4 ounces 

4 ounces 

A ounces 

H pint 

H pound 

I pound 



Salol. 5-erain tablets. 



S-grsLi 
of ipc 



Ssrrup ol ipecac. 

Soap liniment. 

POISON. Stryclmine sulphate. H«-Srain 

tablets. 
POISON. Sun cholera mixture, 15-minim 

tablets. 
Sweet spirit of niter, dark colored bottle 

(i year). 
Tannic acid. 
Tincture of green soap. 
POISON. Tincture of iodine (i year). 
Tincture of iron. 
Tincture of myrrh. 
Turpentine. 

Unguentine (for bums, scalds, etc.). 
Vaseline. 



These medicines will remain serviceable until used if kept in glass-stoppered 
bottles, with the exception of those marked "i year" which should be re- 
newed after that interval. The containers of all articles marked " i year" 
should be plainly marked with the date on which such articles are received. 

For bulky articles not over a pint of each need be kept in the medicine 
chest. 

Special bottles with a rough surface must be used for poisonous medicines. 
These bottles must be plainly marked POISON. 

Gauze and bandages should be in paraffin-paper packages, sealed after 
sterilization. 

Catheters and other rubber goods should be in sealed paraffin packages or 
envelopes, slightly dusted with sterile talcum on the inside of the package. 

Scissors and instruments, if not in cases, may be coated with paraffin, 
which will come off when dipped in hot water. 

Articles marked "i year" should be discarded after that interval and 
new ones obtained. The containers of all articles marked *'i year" should 
be plainly marked with the date on which siich articles are received. 



SUPPLIES 



45 



Surgical Supplies. Etc. 



For Vessels 



For Homes 

and 
Factories 



Item 



2 

3 dozen 

I 

I dozen 

I dozen 
4 

I dozen 
6 



I 
6 
I 
I 

I 



I 
6 
lo yards 

lo yards 
I 

6 
I 

2 

2 dozen 

I 

I 
6 



I 

3 
2 
I 
I 

4 pieces 



4 sheets 



I dozen 

I 

I dozen 

I dozen 



I dozen 
6 



I 

3 

I 

I 
z 



I 
6 
S yards 

S yards 

I 

6 

I 

2 

2 dozen 

I 

I 
3 



I 
2 

2 
I 
I 

2 pieces 



2 sheets 



Adhesive plaster, lo-yard reel, i inch wide. 

Applicators, small, wooden. 

Atomizers. DeVilbiss. . 

Bandages, 2 inch by 3 yard (H dozen gauze 

and H dozen muslin). 
Bandages, 2 inch by 5 yard, (M dozen gauze 

and H dozen muslin). 
Bandages, plaster of Paris, 3-inch. Each 

contained in an air and moisture proof 

container. 

Bandages (4 inch by 5 yard muslin). 
Bandages, trian^lar (Esmarch's bandage), 

with figures printed on them showing the 

various ways they can be used. 
Bistoury. 

Camel's-hair brushes. 
Catheter, rubber. No. 20 F (1 year). 
Corkscrew. 
Forceps, artery (hemostatic forceps). This 

can be used to grasp a bleeding vessel until 

it can be tied, or until the doctor arrives. 

A catch holds the grip of the forceps. 

Sterilize by boiling. 
Forceps, dressing or dissecting. Will be 

found convenient in cleaning up a wound 

and applying dressing; also in removing 

splinters, etc. Sterilize by boiling. 
Fountain syringe, 2 quart (i year). 
Urethral syringes, glass. 
Gauze, picric acid. Good dressing for 

wounds and scalds. 
Gauze, plain, sterile. 
Hot water bottle, rubber, 2 quart (i year). 

Metal bottle preferred. 
Medicine droppers. 
Medicine glass. 
Nail brushes. 
Safety pins, large. 
Scissors, dressing, surgeon's, for cutting 

gauze and bandages. Sterilize by boiling, 
Shears, for cutting cotton and muslin, etc. 
Splints, wooden. Straight and angulai 

splints made of this board, as described in 

chapter on "Fractures." 
Spool of silk ligature, medium size. 
Surgical needles, in glass-stoppered bottles. 
Thermometer, clinical, Fahrenheit. 
Tooth forceps, incisor. 
Tooth forceps, molar. 
Wire gauze, made of heavv mesh malleable 

wire. When well padded can be wrapped 

around a fracture lor temporary dressing. 
Yucca palm (a thin fiber Doard). Can be 

wrapped around a fracture for temporary 

dressing. 



452 CAMP MEDICINE 

UST OF REMEDIES MENTIONED AND THEIR USES 

(U. S. Health Bulletin No. 17) 

Doses.— -Voless otherwise stated, the doses mentioned in this book are 
intended for adults. To determine the dose for children, add 12 to the age 
of the child and divide the age of the child by this sum. This fraction 
will represent the size of dose compared with that for an adult. For example, 

a child 6 years old will require r-^^ — «■ -^ or one-third of the adult dose. 

Caution. — Preparations containing opium, such as laudanum, paregoric, 
camphor and opium pills,. Sun Cholera Mixture tablets, etc., should not be 
used except where absolutely necessary, as their continued use is liable to 
produce the drug habit. 

Alcohol. — Externally is useful as a mild antiseptic wash^ for wounds. 
As a liniment, pure- or diluted with from i to 3 parts of water, is cooling and 
stimulating. 

AigjTol, — Useful, in 10 to 20 per cent, solutions, as drops for sore eyes, 
also as injection for gonorrhea. 

Aromatic Spirit of Ammonia. — Useful in hysteria, faintness, headache, 
flatulent colic, nervous debility, and as a stimulant in shock. Dose: H to 
I teaspoonful in water every half hour until three doses are taken. 

Aspirin (s-grain tablets). — Useful in rheumatism, neuralgia, and head- 
ache. Dose: i to 2 tablets with hot water or tea every three hours. 

Belladonna Plaster. — Useful in coughs, colds, rheumatism in joints and 
arms, lumbago, and pains in small of back. Should be worn only long 
enough to have the desired effect. If the throat becomes dry or the pupils 
dilated, indicating belladonna poisoning, the plaster should be removed. 

Bicarbonate of Soda (baking soda). — Internally useful in sour stomach 
and heartburn. Dose: H to i teaspoonful in half tumbler of water. Repeat 
in half an hour if necessary. 

Bichloride of Mercury Tablets (poison, 7.3 grains each). — One tablet 
dissolved in from 2 to 5 i>ints of water makes a powerftil and efficient solu- 
tion for washing and dressing wounds, sores, and boils. Do not use internally. 

Bismutii Subnitrate (5-grain tablets).-:— Useful in dysentery, diarrhea, and 
heartburn. Dose: 2 to 4 tablets every three hours. (Crush before taking.) 

Borax. — Useful in sore mouth. One tablespoonful dissolved in a pint of 
water and used as a mouth wash several times a day. 

Boric Acid (boracic acid). — One-half teaspoonful may be dissolved in a 
glass of water and used as a lotion for the eye or ears. 

Bromide of Potash (5-grain tablets). — Useful in neurasthenia, con- 
vulsions, and delirium tremens. Dose: 3 to 5 tablets, dissolved in water, 
three times a day. 

Brown-mixture Lozenges. — Useful in bronchitis, coughs, and colds. 
Dose: i lozenge allowed to dissolve slowly in mouth, to be rei)eated as 
required. 

Camphor and Opium Pills (poison). — Useful in relieving pain in diarrhea 
and dysentery. Dose: i pill every three hours until 4 are taken. 

Calomel (Ko-srain tablets). — ^Useful in constipation and dysentery. 
Dose for aduUs and children: Take 2 tablets every 15 minutes until 20 
tablets are taken. When from 4 to 6 hours have elapsed a Seidlitz powder 
or a dose of Rochelle or Epsom salt should be taken. The dose of the 
Seidlitz powder or salt should be proportionate to the age of the patient. 

Camphorated Oil (for* external use only). — In sprains, bruises, neu- 
ralgia, rheumatism, and pains and swellings o